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Lour of the \ 



Chinsegut Hill 

University of Florida Libraries 


Mr. Geuald Bihks 

Montreal, Canada 

Mr. James 11. Post 

New York City 

Mr. S. W. Woodward 

Washington, D. C. 

Sir FREnKiiicK Smith 

Capetown. So. Africa 

Mr. James (J. Cannon 

New Yoik City 


Mr. Clyde U. Joy 

Keokuk, Iowa 

Sir Charles Goode 

Adelaide, Australia 

Mr. I-'rep. IC. Tasker 

New York City 

Mr. James M. Si'eers 

New York City 








3 1262 08645 478 1 

Mr. Smith, Mr. Robins and their as- 
sociates made a tour of the world in re- 
sponse to invitations from Christian lead- 
ers in other nations who felt the need of 
the help of message and method of the 
Men and Religion Forward Movement. 

The following letters were sent back 
by Mr. Smith, and feeling that others 
interested in the campaign will profit 
by reading them, I have had them printed 
for a limited circulation among the 
friends of the Department. 

James G. Cannon, 



Mn. FiiEi). B. Smith 
New York Citv 

Mr. Raymoxi) Robins 
Chicago, 111. 

Mr. James E. Lathrop 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Secret or If 

Mr. Harry X. Holmes 

Johannesburg, So. Africa 

Orc/aiihin;/ Secretary 

Mr. I'aii. J. Gii.iiERT .Mr. Cohxei.i. ]\I. 

.Mu. P. H. .M ETC A IF Mr. Edward W. Peck 


Relating to the IVorld Tour of the "Men and Religion 
Forward Movement " Team. 


En route to San Francisco, January 15, 1913. 

My dear Mr. Cannon : We are now on our way, and 
are nearly to what may be called the " jumping-off 
place," so far as the actual beginning of our tour is 
concerned. In a few hours we will be in San Francisco, 
and day after to-morrow will set sail for the " far East." 

Every man of the team is in fine fettle. I have 
worked with these same fellows now for two years in 
almost unbroken campaigns, but certainly never saw 
them when they were rendering a grander service than 
during these days since we left you in New York. Rob- 
ins, Peck, Gilbert, INIetcalf, Keeler and Lathrop — every 
man is practically at his best. 

I am so glad we have been granted these two weeks 
of special campaign across our own dear country before 
starting with this message to the distant lands. I be- 
lieve there has been a peculiar providence in our contact 
with the Christian workers in Pittsburgh, St. Louis, 
Wichita, Denver, and then a whole group of towns in 
Oregon, including Portland, Eugene, Forest Grove, Cor- 


vallis, Albany, and Salem, and now wc arc soon to have 
that privilege in San Francisco and Oakland. It has all 
been splendid, and will help us in the long heavy weeks 
to come. Perhaps of all of these experiences, no one 
memory will stand out so long and powerfully with us, as 
a constant inspiration, as the dinner in New York on the 
night of January 3d. There is only one regret about 
it, and that is that your illness prevented you from being 
present. It seemed as though there was a wheel off the 
wagon. I am sure we are going to see some days that 
are pretty heavy, and some days when we will be tempted, 
perhaps, to give up the struggle, but the memory of that 
dinner, and the confidence expressed by our own closest 
and most intimate friends will remain a compelling force 
and power with us to the end of the journey. 

There have been lessons we have learned during the 
tour across the country which I believe are just the ones 
we ought to have to give us liberty and confidence in car- 
rying this message around the world. 

First. — The comfort of modern methods of mission- 
ary xcork. 

In line with a special course of daily Bible reading 
which I myself am following, I have been reading 
" Paul's Missionary Journeys " and some of his letters, 
and have forty times over said to myself that I believe 
God had directed that I should be reading of this first 
missionary's experiences just as we were starting on this 
long pull. Of course, we are going to see some anxieties ; 
we are going to meet some hardships ; we are having to 
make some sacrifices. If any one thinks there is any 
special fun in bidding your own home, family, and friends 
" good bye " to go out upon a campaign of this kind 
around the world for seven months, they ought to try it 
once. If the only motives are those of sentimental desire 


to travel, they will never go but once. I believe every 
man in the party has had to use his full capacity of 
nerve to say " good bye " and go. The easy thing, the 
happy thing, the delightful thing would be to stay right 
at home. 

Raymond Robins, in one of his speeches upon experi- 
ences in Alaska, uses this very intense statement. He 
says that there were more than twenty thousand who 
went over the pass into the Yukon, but that after all, it 
was a very small number who really got any gold. Not 
because there was no gold there, but because they were 
not willing to dig. He says " nobody got any gold up 
there except those who were willing to work for it." 
That same law is in Christian work as well as in gold 
mining, or in banking, or in any form of commercial 
enterprise. I have a thousand times in my life wished I 
could do my duty to the Kingdom of God and remain at 
No. 20 Ridgeview Avenue, White Plains, all the time, 
but God orders it differently, and just now we would be 
tempted, perhaps, to magnify our sacrifice, but a little 
renewing of acquaintance with Paul and his experiences 
have taken that all out of me. 

In the first place, I guess Paul never had an invitation 
to any city he ever visited. When he went, he had to 
thrust himself in. He never had an advance Secretary 
ahead of him to organize the field, and not one committee 
appointed to meet him at the train. His was an unwel- 
come ministry. Ours is in strange contrast. We have 
our Organizing Secretary, Harry Holmes, on ahead of 
us, getting the committees ready, and he promises us 
an enthusiastic reception committee upon our arrival in 
every city. We are beckoned on by cables and most 
wonderful, loving letters, telling us how much our serv- 
ices are desired. 

In the second place, when Paul traveled, he did not 


have any Pullman or dining cars. There were no state 
rooms or shower baths. He seemed to think himself 
most happy when some kindly door of protection would 
open for him that he might have rest during his mis- 
sionary work, but always expected to continue his craft 
and earn money enough to pay for the eggs and bacon. 
He was more familiar with rioting mobs, prison cells 
and cruel stripes upon his back than with the modern 
twentieth-century means of travel and service. 

In the third place, Paul did not have any Lathrop 
with his typewriter along to take care of the letters. 
It is true he had John Mark for a while, and Silas the 
singer, and Barnabas, and I guess Dr. Luke occasion- 
ally, but I don't think any of them ever helped him very 
much with his correspondence. Notwithstanding the 
limited means of his literary work, I am a little afraid 
that some things he wrote down during that time will 
last even longer than our feeble efforts. We will be 
pretty lucky if anything we write lasts until we get 
home. Paul's have lasted nearly two thousand years. 

The fact is, we Christian workers of every kind and 
name, at home and abroad, ought to thank God every 
day for the more favorable circumstances under which 
we labor. 

Second. — Latest contact with the results of the Men 
and Religion Forzcard Movement. 

For our profit and cheer, God seems to have planned 
that in the last two weeks at home, we should see and 
feel something of what a splendid general impression is 
left by the INIen and Religion Forward JNIovement right 
straight across the land. The most essential thing in 
promoting Christian work is a confidence which does not 
have any element of doubt in it that the thing is right. 
The evidence that has been accumulating with us clear 


across the country in every one of these cities has been 
so tremendous that every man in our party is ready to 
fight for the extension of the ideals, plans and methods of 
the Men and Religion Movement. I cannot help pro- 
foundly pitying the fellow who is sitting around specu- 
lating as to whether or not it is all right. The blessing 
of God has been on the Men and Religion Forward Move- 
ment, not in every respect in the way we expected, but 
when it is all summed up it is beyond our greatest hope. 

Third. — A uinning Church. 

The day spent in St. Louis, and the privilege of 
speaking both morning and evening for our enthusiastic 
fellow-worker. Rev. William J. Williamson, D.D., pas- 
tor of the Third Baptist Church in St. Louis, gave 
us an index of what a real, winning church ought to 
be. Also a definite illustration that the church does 
not need to keep moving out to find a place to live. 
The day in St. Louis, from the standpoint of weather, 
could hardly have been worse. There was a rain and 
sleet which made the streets a glare of ice, just the 
kind of a day when half-hearted Christians stay at 
home. In the face of that kind of weather, every seat 
was filled at the morning service, and a considerable 
number of people stood up all through. At night prac- 
tically the same thing was duplicated. Ten years ago 
Dr. Williamson became pastor of that church. Then 
they had eight hundred members ; now they have twen- 
ty-seven hundred. And the striking thing about it is 
that while under his great ministry, that church has 
grown steadily and constantly, others in the same dis- 
trict have faded away, given up the struggle and gone. 
We could not but think of this when on that very day 
we saw a great sign marked " For Sale " in front of 
a near-by church. 


It was peculiarly interesting for us to study the 
method by which this great growth has taken place in 
the Tiiird Baptist Church. 

In the first place, it was worthy of special note that 
the church undertakes every kind of good service in 
behalf of the people. It is also worthy of special note 
that they put tremendous emphasis upon the Sunday 
School. Of course, from the standpoint of iNIcn and 
Religion Forward Movement specialists, we were pecul- 
iarly interested in knowing that they have a large 
men's and boys' department thoroughly organized and 
right up to the minute in its program of work, but be- 
hind every other element of strength, there stands this 
significant fact, — at every preaching service, both morn- 
ing and evening. Dr. Williamson extends an invitation 
for those who wish to confess Christ to do so. In other 
words, while the church is not indifferent to forms of 
service that must be rendered in social life and relations, 
it is intensely evangelistic. I wish all the little chaps 
who are saying that the evangelistic method must not be 
pressed because it will drive people away, could spend 
about a month in that church and see how utterly de- 
ceived they are. The evidence from New York harbor 
to the Golden Gate proves that where men are brave 
enough and have religion enough left to press the evan- 
gelistic emphasis, crowds are in attendance. We are 
thanking God for this great church in St. Louis that it 
may help us as we emphasize this principle around the 

Fourth. — Wichito, Kansas, 

I am now convinced that a tour around the world, to 
be intelligent and forceful upon the problem of Chris- 
tian work for men and boys, would be a failure in its 
highest possibilities if Wichita, Kansas, were not in- 


eluded in the itinerary. I am certainly thankful to God 
that we had this contact, for we are able to carry the 
message, that where the forces are properly organized, 
absolutely wonderful things can be accomplished. 

Wichita is great in a good many ways, but especially 
so for three reasons. In the first place, it is great be- 
cause they have organized there the most wonderful cam- 
paign of evangelism that I have ever seen carried out. 
One year ago last fall, the famous " Billy " Sunday held 
a series of meetings there which practically doubled the 
church membership of the town, and almost immediately 
following that we went there with the Men and Religion 
campaign which emphasized the necessity of organizing 
these men for definite work. 

Evangelistic bands were organized, and they have 
visited, in one year, seventy-five of the surrounding 
smaller towns and communities. The evangelistic results 
have been simply marvelous, and the whole country 
there remains under the powerful influence of a great 
soul-winning program. 

In the second place, Wichita is great because Mr. 
A. A. Hyde, that wonderfully modest Christian busi- 
ness man and philanthropist, lives there. I have 
always known he was great, but I learned it better 
in the day I spent there than ever before. Every man, 
woman and child in the town seems to love the man. 
You might expect him, and I think it would be par- 
donable, to be a bit dogmatic about what ought to be 
done in Christian work. Any man who gives such sums 
of money as does he to extend the Kingdom of Jesus 
Christ might be justified in a little more assertion of 
his own views concerning the how of things. Quite the 
reverse is true. He is apparently the most humble 
student of the whole lot. And the grandest part of it 
all is that under his leadership, this moderate-sized 


town bids fair to have a whole school of prosperous 
laymen who will use their money in an unusual way 
for Christian work. Some other men are coming up 
there who are going to be worthy associates of Mr. 

Mr. Hyde is a great power any way you take him, 
and I wish a lot of men who are storing away money 
which they themselves can never use, and which can 
never do their families any good, and which in some 
cases will curse their children, could catch the vision 
that this big-souled man has, of what money is really 

In the third place, Wichita is great because it has 
no saloons. It is true that you can find liquor in the 
back alleys, I suppose, and an old toper, who is willing 
to go down in the basement or sneak around in some 
back room, can get it, but not an open bar — not a single 
place where the stuff is flaunted in your face. Of course, 
the brewers, the distillers, the bums and the thugs will 
declare it does not have any effect. It is always amus- 
ing to see the type of men who will tell you that the 
prohibitory law does not change the situation at all. 
Here is the fact by the latest Government report. The 
amount of liquor consumed in the state of Kansas 
amounts to 48 cents per capita, per year ; while for 
the whole United States it amounts to a little more than 
$20 per capita, per year. Illiteracy is down to less than 
2^ of the population. Thirty-eight poor farms in thirty- 
eight different counties have no inmates at all, and for 
the whole state, there is only one pauper to every three 
thousand of the population. Sixty county jails have 
not had a single prisoner for a year, and twelve others 
have had no prisoners for eleven months. In the rural 
districts, grand juries ai'e almost unknown. About 
the only crime left is around some of the larger cen- 


ters where the law is more or less disregarded. Kan- 
sas has more wealth per capita than any other state 
in the union save one, viz. : Maine, and that has been 
for a long time prohibitory territory. Yesterday we 
were in Albany, Oregon, where they have had no sa- 
loons for many years, have not had a prisoner in the 
jail for so long they don't know when they have had 
one ; have a little poor farm which was provided way 
back in the days when they did have saloons, and they 
are now planning to sell it, for they have no use for it. 
I cannot help wondering how long this great peo- 
ple of ours will permit themselves to be fooled by the 
whiskey gang. There are votes enough of good peo- 
ple who are against this thing if they could ever once 
get rallied and made a move in unison to sweep it from 
the face of the earth. As we start around the world, 
I am glad we have this latest evidence upon the ques- 
tion of the legalized whiskey business. 

Fifth. — The country as a whole. 

I wish all the men you meet down there on a certain 
little narrow street which has become very famous, who 
sometimes get agitated about a " panic " would just 
take one quiet unhurried ride across the country and 
look at the untold and utterly unmeasured possibilities 
in temporal resources. They would be ashamed ever to 
mention " panic " again ; 8,000,000,000 bushels of corn 
is now cribbed ready for the market; 13,000,000,000 
bushels of wheat is moving toward the markets and the 
mills. I think we ourselves have seen cattle enough to 
feed the whole world for the next quarter of a cen- 
tury to say nothing about the hogs, and out here in 
this great northwest, sheep — if we could not get anything 
else except lamb kidney stew, we would not get hungry 
for the next ten years, and wool enough to clothe us 


indefinitely, to say nothing about the minerals unseen 
and almost unmeasured that are yet to be taken out of 
the mountains — really, it is a joke t« talk about a panic 
in such a country as this. 

A few stock gamblers and manipulators may have rea- 
son for anxiety, but every legitimate business has only 
one future to it, and that is one of progress. 

We need not worry about the size of our bank de- 
posits, our dividends, our stocks and our bonds. Just 
one thing the men of this great land of ours need, and 
that is more religion, more of the Bible, more of Jesus 
Christ, more of the Church, and we can face the future 
without fear. 

Of course, we are all conscious in our party that we 
are going away from home, and that we have some long 
weeks ahead of us. We are going to try to l)e faithful 
to those who are sending us out, and to those wiio are 
sustaining us, but we know the days will, after all, pass 
rapidly, and the home-coming will be a great joy. 

As you have opportunity, won't you express to all 
our Committeemen and contributing friends our very 
deep appreciation of that generous co-operation which 
makes possible this campaign, and be assured that by 
every power within us, and by the grace of God, we 
will let no opportunity pass of rendering the highest 
possible service for the Kingdom of God to the ends of 
the earth. I know perfectly well that sucli an oppor- 
tunity as we are now facing cannot come again in our 
lives. That which we do we must do now. Pray for us 
that we may be faithful. 

Yours very sincerely, 

Fred. B. Smith. 



En route to Honolulu, January 22, 1913. 

My dear Mr. Cannon : We are nearing the Hawaiian 
Islands. A few hours more and we will be on land, and 
I want to have just a little message ready to start back 
to you at once. 

If you ask us to-day, Wednesday, about our voyage, 
every man in the party will respond with a chipper air 
of confidence and pleasure, for we are now all well, and 
the prospect of landing to-morrow in Honolulu makes 
us happy in the anticipation of the great campaign 
which is planned for us there. But if you had asked 
us how we enjoyed sea travel about last Saturday, 
there would have been a sad wail for your answer. 
We left San Francisco brave in the feeling that no 
flutter of the peaceful, calm, friendly blue Pacific 
Ocean could disturb us. Our good ship, the China, 
passed through Golden Gate at about three o'clock 
Friday afternoon, but only two of our party of seven 
could appear for dinner that night. We struck a rough 
sea at once, and it proceeded to do its traditional work. 

Sea-sickness is a dehghtful joke for those on land 
when reciting their sea experiences, but you cannot per- 
suade any man that there is the least semblance of 
humor in it when the ship begins turning summer-saults 
and he knows he must pay the inevitable penalty. From 
luncheon on Friday, at one o'clock, our next unanimous 
roll-call was on Sunday night for dinner. There is a 
deal of poetry and sentiment about the placid Pacific, 
with her calm breezes and gentle ripples, but the fact is, 
when she gets mad, she is mad clear to the bottom, and 
the results are just the same as those on the Atlantic 


under similar conditions. It does not do much good 
to quote lines about the " quiet blue " of the Pacific 
when a poor sea-sick passenger is losing all of the meals 
he may have eaten since a year ago last Thanksgiving. 
Just to sum it up, the truth is, we got well tlirashed 
out during our first forty-eight hours. However, it is 
all over now, and like the old colored man who loved to 
have somebody kick him in the shins because it felt so 
good when it quit hurting, we rather boast of our ex- 
perience because the joy of quiet has been the greater 
since we got our " sea legs " under us. 

Crossing the Pacific Ocean has some things in it that 
are exactly the same as crossing the Atlantic, or any 
other ocean. The sea is the sea, everywhere and any- 
where, but it docs seem to me that I have had more 
thoughts about its significance and about its weird hfe 
upon this voyage than any of the others which I can 
remember. I sometimes wonder, after all, whether God 
meant us to go spinning back and forth in these human- 
made machines of travel. The sea is so big and vast 
that nobody can understand it. You try to think it 
through in all of its mystery, and after a while you get 
tired and give it up. It is so restful at times, and so 
calm, that you wish you might always be out upon it, 
and then in a little while it gets so mad that you believe 
it to be your fiercest enemy and hope and pray never to 
see it again. Out here, as we move into the tropical 
zone and sit at the bow on moonlight nights, while the 
spray rushes back from the prow of the ship and a thou- 
sand ripples glisten with delight, it seems so full of music 
that you want always to be near enough to hear it. And 
then again, that long sort of distant moan has such a 
sad refrain that it seems as though the sorrows of the 
universe are wrapped up in its bosom, and you want to 
be free from it forever. 


I am not surprised that the peroration of the Bible in 
its Heaven scene should declare that " the sea is no 
more." There are thousands upon thousands of the 
people of the world who would not want to go to Heaven 
if they had to live constantly in the memory of the sea 
and had to battle with its elements for all eternity as 
they have had to do in time. Personally, I am a sure 
enough lover of the sea, but I believe I would rather 
sit somewhere on terra firma and watch it rather than 
undertake to conquer it in travel. Before we can get 
back, we have about twenty-seven thousand miles to 
travel over these waves, and as I write now, it seems to 
me the best thing the sea can do for us is to bear us 
safely home. 

One of the things which has made our voyage unique 
is the presence of a fine lot of missionaries on board. 
Some of them are going out for the first time, and 
others are going back after furlough. Most striking 
among the lot is the grand old Bishop Harris, of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church for Japan and Korea. 
These Christian workers form a strange and glorious 
contrast to the average tourist. I guess every ship has 
its gamblers, drunkards, blackguards, and all-around 
sports on board. I have traveled a good deal, but do 
not remember ever getting on any ship without finding 
that same group of brawlers. There is no place on 
earth, it seems to me, so sure to reveal what is really in 
a man as upon a long sea journey. He lets the beast 
out if it is in him. There is a kind of feeling that you 
are out of the world, and that what is done on a ship 
does not count. I talked with one young man who has 
been drinking and gambling, who assured me that these 
were not the permanent habits of his life, and that he 
would not think of such a thing on shore. The Atlantic 
Ocean always reveals this type, but I have an impression 


that these crowds going to the far East take a little 
more hberty along tiiis line than an^'where else. Cer- 
tainly we have that crowd at its worst. The crew of 
the siiip, with the exception of the officers, is made up 
entirely of Chinamen, and they gamble riotously. We 
have seen as many as seven Chinamen with their tables 
and dice right out iji full view on the open deck of the 
ship phiying '* chuck-a-luck." They gamble with just 
the same zest and enthusiasm with which tliey eat rice 
with chop sticks. These coolies of the crew, however, 
are not more vulgar in their open gambling than a 
gang of young-blood Americans who are passengers. 

I wonder if you ever thought of this : the loud- 
mouthed American can make more display of his im- 
morality, I firmly believe, than any other man on this 
footstool. When the American drinks whiskey, he drinks 
it like a hog. AViien he gambles, he gambles like a 
glutton, and when he swears, he stands out alone. There 
is no other breathing human being who can so blas- 
pheme all the names that are sacred to religion as the 
American. We have a kind of refrain in our blood 
which, when it gets wicked and vicious, is explosive. If 
you want to see this type, you need to observe him with 
liis thumbs in his vest en rmite for the far East to dis- 
play his marvelous talents. Thank God, these great- 
souled missionaries tell the other side of our American 
life, and notwithstanding the first type, I am perfectly 
willing to have the country judged by the average found 
on this very ship. Among these missionaries are young 
women, cultured, refined, and of first ability, leaving all 
they hold dear of human ties to go out to serve Christ 
in trying to penetrate the non-Christian realm with the 
Gospel of Jesus Christ. Here again is a young man 
and a girl wife and baby, breaking home ties, starting 
for the first time, with their faces turned toward four 


Bishop Harris, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, on Steamer 
China, returning after furlough, just completing fifty 
years' service in Japan 

hundred million souls in China to do their part in try- 
ing to evangelize them. Another brainy man and his 
wife, he from Berlin and she from one of the finest 
families in Canada, the holders of sufficient wealth to 
make them independent for life, are returning from 
furlough. He came out first sixteen years ago. Dur- 
ing that time he has been home twice, and now, with 
the enthusiasm of a young man going to his first work, 
he returns to his mission two thousand miles in the in- 
terior of China because he believes that God calls him 
there. He has seen riots, revolutions, Boxer wars, mar- 
tyrs' deaths, but none of these deter him. 

Then, perhaps, towering grandest of them all, is 
the great old Bishop to whom I have already re- 
ferred. His hair is white as snow, and his face beams 
like that of a young schoolboy. The foreign mission- 
ary pessimist ought to have to sit at his side at the din- 
ing table for an ocean voyage. He would be beaten 
into pulp by the records of the Gospel triumph which 
this man has witnessed. He has been almost fifty years 
in Japan, and knows the whole story of Christianity's 
challenge and triumph for that people. To hear him 
tell the story of what he found in Japan fifty years ago 
and what exists there now is a miracle. It could not 
be accounted for by any possible rational logic. He 
does not place first emphasis upon the hundreds of thou- 
sands of actual communicants of the Christian Church 
in Japan, although they have them, but he places first 
emphasis upon the social, political, domestic reforma- 
tion which has been wrought. In other words, Japan 
is becoming Christian far. more rapidly than is indi- 
cated by the mere increase of communicants in the 
Church. This great prophet does not entertain one 
shadow of doubt of the final issue. Japan and Korea 


are to l)c C'liristijin. lie believes that witli all the power 
of his being. 

These people are paying a tremendous price for fol- 
lowing their convictions. The cost is more severe prob- 
ably than those of us who remain at home can ever es- 
timate. But no one needs to pity them. I have been 
thanking God for the privilege of traveling on this 
ship that I might thus have the opportunity of personal 
relationship and acquaintance with them when they are 
away from home and are actually facing the long strain 
of years of service. Positively, they are the most buoy- 
ant, happy lot on the whole ship. They feel the sense 
of the high honor and dignity of being called of God 
to this service. As I have thought of their life and 
watched them, I have come to the conclusion that the 
people to be pitied are those who call themselves Chris- 
tian, but have never known the richer joy of real sac- 
rifice. The more I study the Gospel, the more I am 
persuaded that there is no genuine Christianity, either 
individual, church or national, without the element of 
sacrifice entering into it. These missionary folks know 
what that means. 

I am sure, as I get farther on, I will have more to 
say about our obligations to the missionaries, and what 
a delightfully happy privilege it ought to be for the 
home Church to sustain them. But just now, I want 
to say to you, dear friend, and I wish you would say 
it to everybody you can for us, that we ought to sustain 
these, our representatives of the Foreign Missionary 
Boards, not only because of their bravery, not only be- 
cause they are going to the greatest moral need of the 
woi'ld, but also because they are a good corrective in 
the far East, of that impression that the Americans are 
all for greed and graft. Contrasting the whiskey drink- 
ing, gambling crowd of our ship, living for what they 


can enjoy for an hour's sensuous pleasure, with these 
folks who have seen the vision of winning the world for 
Christ, makes me realize anew what a grand thing it is 
to be a Christian. Therefore, what a glorious cam- 
paign it is in which we are engaged. If we can be used 
of God in the way of our travel to lead many men to 
know this true life, it will be worth all of our sacrifice. 

Another fact which has marked our voyage across 
as unique has been the death of one of our passengers. 
This is not the first time in my life that I have been 
on a ship where it was necessary to have a burial at sea, 
but it was the first time that I have witnessed funeral 
exercises on a ship. I have always had an impression 
that it would be a sort of depressing and heart-rending 
scene, but really, the service we had this morning, and 
the burial, I think, made a profound Christian impi'es- 
sion upon evei-ybody. The young man who died was a 
Japanese by the name of Shirai Nawokachi. He had 
been suffering with mitral stenosis for some time, and 
was returning home. I think, in our terms, it is prac- 
tically the same as inflammatory rheumatism. It be- 
came necessary, of course, to have the funeral at once. 
The ship stopped, and Bishop Harris conducted the 
exercises, assisted by a native Japanese minister. Our 
quartet sang, and then a company of missionaries and 
Japanese sang one of their hymns. The young man was 
a Christian and of a Christian family, and there was 
the manifest hope of the Christian through it all. Yet 
there was that eternal lesson that there is no escape on 
land or sea from the sentence of death. 

I wish I could drop down to-morrow to the Fourth 
National Bank, go up to the dining room where we have 
sat so many times and talked over problems of Christian 
work at length, and just have a little chat with you, 
but that privilege will not be mine for a good many 


weeks. Let inc tell 3'ou this niucli : I do not believe there 
has ever been a day in my life when I faced opportuni- 
ties with a keener desire to do my best than now. 

The past five years have been a period of such intense 
and constant ti'avcl with me that I am wondering if 
there may not be an added Providence in this time away 
from the scenes of our own task for a while, not only 
for what we may be able to do in interpreting this 
larger method and message, and in winning men to the 
Christian life in the distant lands which we are to visit, 
but also that we may get a new perspective of the real 
issues of our own dear country. This much I know 
already : It will be a terrible calamity and sin if we fail 
to win our North American land to its highest possibili- 
ties in the Christian hope. It will be a sin because we 
have the men there who are ready to back up by their 
personal counsel, effort and money, the biggest pro- 
gram that anybody can dream out. When I think of 
how the generous-hearted Christian business men of that 
land have and are sustaining every type of vigorous 
Christian propaganda, I am prepared to say that there 
will be an awful sin resting upon somebody in the Judg- 
ment if the victory is not won. It will be a calamity if 
it is not done, because just as sure as anything of which 
we may know the world cannot be evangelized without 
the inspiring co-operation and illustration of the North 
American triumph. We are not very far on this world 
tour yet, but we have studied the problems enough from 
New York to Honolulu to be conscious of the fact that 
what takes place religiously in North America becomes 
immediately of world information and interest. 

I believe God is leading us in this campaign around 
the world. I have not a shadow of a doubt concerning 
that fact this morning, but I also believe that by these 


experiences God means to deepen, quicken and intensify 
our own message at home when we get back. 

Robins, Peck, Gilbert, Keeler, Metcalf, Lathrop and 
myself send back to you and all the others there the 
deepest love of which we are capable. We do not for- 
get to pray for you any day as we are sure you do not 
forget us. 

By the way, as I think of our program for each day, 
probably most delightful for us is our own little church 
service. We have a Bible Study class of our own. The 
quartet sings, and we have what might be called chapel 
exercises every day. We pile in on the trunks and the 
bunks in one state-room at ten o'clock each morning. 

Yours with two hands to the end of the journey. 

Fred. B. Smith. 



En route Honolulu to Yokohama, February 3, 1913. 

INIy dear jNIr. Caxxox : Well, wc arc out on the big blue 
deep a^ain, and this time we arc to have a long stretch. 
It is 3,400 miles from Honolulu to Yokohama, and by 
the rather moderate speed of our ship, the Manchuria, 
it will take us at least ten days to make the trip. But 
we are happy in having this long time upon a perfectly 
wonderful ship. The Atlantic Ocean does not furnish 
anything better for comfort than this grand Manchuria. 
She is as steady as an old clock even in some pretty 
rough sea which we have encountered, and she is handled 
perfectly by Captain Andrew Dixon, our skipper, who is 
one of the best. He is running the ship and not enter- 
taining the ladies in the drawing-room or the sports 
in the smoking-room. I always get restless at sea when 
I find the Captain playing the part of the gay Beau 
Brummel. The story of the Titanic might have been 
different if the ship had been rightly handled on that 
sad night. We have a man who stubbornly sticks to his 
post of duty, and it gives us all confidence. 

Remembering our movements for the past month, we 
are surely the exemplars of Finnegan's idea of life as 
being one constant round of " off agin, on agin, gone 

The week at Honolulu passed so quickly that now it 
seems almost like a dream. We can scarcely realize 
that we have been there and are through with our first 
big campaign, and are sailing away for Japan. While 
it is true that the time spent there seems very short 
(for the days went so quickly), yet it does not strike us 


that the time since leaving New York can possibly be 
but one month. Just four weeks ago, we were at that 
never-to-be-forgotten dinner at the Hotel Astor. It 
seems like three months, for since that time we have 
traveled 8,000 miles. Robins has spoken 57 times, 
I have spoken 54 times, the Quartet has par- 
ticipated in 70 meetings and they have sung 201 
times. We have held a total of 88 meetings and 
conferences, with a total attendance of 20,766. 
These figures are very accurate, for Peck is our statis- 
tician, and he is so cruelly and persistently accurate 
that I think he could tell, if we gave him a little time, 
exactly the number of biscuits every man in the party 
has eaten. You can get at least some little idea from 
these figures that we have been putting in the full quota 
of work when we have been on land. 

I have spent a good many years in the itinerant type 
of Christian work, but certainly was never more com- 
pletely fascinated by any situation than by that in Hon- 
olulu. Of course, we had a unique interest in our visit 
to the Hawaiian Islands because they are a part of our 
own country, our newest territory. We felt that we had 
a special right and privilege there. The United States 
may well be proud of these islands and their people. 
They will do us good and not evil, and a hundred years 
hence the great Republic may discover that this new ter- 
ritory has made a big contribution to the nation's high- 
est moral good. 

Honolulu is great in agricultural products. Of 
course, we always think first of sugar plantations when 
we consider the commercial side of the Hawaiian Islands. 
This is now, and doubtless always will be, the big inter- 
est. They shipped $40,000,000 worth of sugar out of 
the islands in 1912. That is big enough to make even 
Wall Street sit up and give some special attention. I 

visited one of the great plantations and saw them on 
one side of the valley cutting cane where the stalks were 
as big as ten-year-old trees, and saw the steam railroads 
running right out into the fields, pulling long trains of 
flat cars heavily loaded with the cane up to the mills. 
Then I followed it into the mill, saw it dumped into the 
great crushers, then on through to the other end, where 
it came out the most beautiful granulated sugar ever 
put upon the market, and one grade of very highly re- 
fined crystal sugar, all of which is shipped to Paris for 
the French confectioners' use. 

On the other side of the valley I saw the immense 
great steam plows turning the soil upside down to a 
depth of three feet. They made the old-time plow that 
I used to follow look like a Coney Island toy sand shovel. 

The whole sugar operation is colossal, and it is only 
in its infancy. Up to the present time just the easiest 
valleys are under cultivation. With the rapid increase 
of facilities for irrigation and with larger investment of 
money, the coming years will see this industry multiplied 
many times over. 

But great as is the sugar business, it is by no means 
the only resource. The higher fields, which, until re- 
cently, have been considered as having little or no value, 
are now being planted in pineapple orchards, and this 
product promises to run a close second to sugar before 
many years. 

Fruit of practically every description grows in abun- 
dance, and is of luscious quality. The only really 
" measly " thing we saw there was the cattle. They 
surely have the worst in the world, at least I sincerely 
hope there are none worse. No one could quite explain 
this to me, but I guess there is something about the 
climate that good big short-horns and the like do not 
take to. That the islands have great commercial pos- 


sibilities is evidenced by the fact that they have prac- 
tically no poverty such as we see in other countries. 

Honolulu is great in scenery and climate. It is 
about the only place I have ever visited where they 
can truthfully boast that it does not make much dif- 
ference what time of the year you come, so far as the 
weather is concerned. There are no great extremes 
of heat or cold. This fact makes the climate almost 
perfect, and it also produces a most magnificent growth 
of foliage, especially in ferns, palms and cocoanut trees. 
I think I have seen something of tropical possibilities, 
but my present judgment is that Honolulu leads the 
world. The most magnificent growths in southern Cal- 
ifornia cannot approach those seen everywhere in Hono- 
lulu. One is simply lost in wonder at the sight of the 
gardens with the trees and flowers which surround the 

Honolulu is great in Christian history. I think that 
if I wanted to take an honest skeptic concerning the 
Christian faith to some spot where I could illustrate at 
close range the results of Christianity, I would take 
him to Honolulu. Any man who is willing to accept 
evidence can convince himself beyond any possible ques- 
tion as to the transforming, uplifting, compelling power 
of the Gospel of Jesus Christ by the evidence of what 
has taken place here in a few brief years. Go back a 
hundred years into the history of these Hawaiian peo- 
ple, and it reeks with horror. The well-authenticated 
practices of the natives of a century ago are too fright- 
ful for thought. In all the contact I have had with 
missionaries of India, Ceylon, Burma and Africa, I have 
heard nothing so awful as some of the incidents of the 
old heathen state upon the Hawaiian Islands. The ter- 
ror of their sins of human sacrifice which are written 
is the mildest part of the story. A hundred years ago 


no woman was permitted to eat food cooked in the same 
oven as that for her husband. If any one of a man's 
hundred wives dared even to step into his eating room 
at any time, whether he was there or not, the penalty 
was quick and sure death. A hundred years ago there 
was no law known but the law of might. 

In 1820 the first permanent Christian missionaries 
landed on the shores of the Hawaiian Islands. They 
were from old New England. They had religion and 
knew it. They preached, founded schools, translated 
the Bible, nursed the sick, buried the dead, and did all 
those more spiritual things every missionary is expected 
to do. They also farmed, taught the trades, launched 
the sugar industry, and, along with everything else, 
how they coidd iight when that seemed a necessary thing 
for the Kingdom of God ! They fought the savages 
within the islands, and the whaling pirates from with- 
out. The early history is sad enough in the record of 
the conduct of white whaling fishermen from California, 
Mexico and England. Those early missionaries used 
their bullets and their fists freely with this crowd. They 
laid the foundations for a wonderful Christian civiliza- 
tion. All there is of the Hawaiian Islands and of Hono- 
lulu, the beautiful capital, which to-day is worth boast- 
ing about, is due to the beneficent service of these early 
missionaries. There is no such thing as Hawaiian his- 
tory apart from the record of these Christian pioneers. 
They are the warp and woof of what is found there now. 
We were made conscious of the permanent power of 
their work in the presence of great schools and churches. 
Of schools for wliite students only, Cahu or Punchou 
College is the most marked. It was founded by the old 
missionary, Bingham, who gave the land and the first 
money. It was originally intended as a school for the 
children of the missionaries. It has steadily grown 


until in educational, social and religious influence it is 
the Oxford of the islands. It now has seven hundred 
students, and sends annually about fifteen graduates 
to eastern universities, such as Yale, Harvard and 

The second, which is for Hawaiians only, the Kame- 
hameha School, has over five hundred students. We had 
the great privilege of conducting meetings in both of 
these institutions. Each was of marked and unique in- 
terest, but probably all of our men will remember until 
they die the marvelous singing of the students at Kame- 
hameha School. They sang " Urbs Beata," " Jerusa- 
lem the Golden," and " Aloha Oe," the latter composed 
by Queen Liliuokalani. As I sat on the platform, I 
could not restrain the tears. There is no use in trying 
to describe their singing; it must be heard to be appre- 
ciated. It is perfectly safe to say that these two insti- 
tutions will furnish all of the great leaders in the fu- 
ture Hawaiian government and commercial life. Both 
of them are the direct, definite results of the work of 
the missionaries. 

Among the many churches there, two stand out as 
perhaps the most striking indications of missionary 
permanence. One is the Central Union Church, which 
has Congregational affiliations, and the one where the 
older missionaries all belong. It has a membership oif 
1,100. In addition to a local annual budget of 
$17,000, this church spends $41,000 annually through 
the Hawaiian Board for missionary eifort throughout 
the islands. I doubt whether we have very many single 
churches anywhere in the United States whose mission- 
ary gifts would exceed that of the Central Union Church 
of Honolulu. The other, the Kawaiahoa Church, the 
grand old bulwark of the Hawaiian Islands, has a mem- 
bership of 1,050 people. This is the Old South Church 


of the Boston type. It is their Faneuil Hall, their Lib- 
erty Bell, their Westminster Abbey. Here some of the 
later kings were crowned, and here it was that the 
Christian king, Kamehameha the Fourth, when being 
crowned, used the expression, " The life of the land is 
preserved by righteousness." That expression has be- 
come the watchword of the whole people. It was in this 
old church that the Declaration of Independence was 
read in 1890, when they declared Queen Liliuokalani to 
be their monarch no longer. I had the joy of going 
to this church on Sunday morning. Among the most 
interesting incidents was to find there one of the old 
residents, a Mr. Jones, a man who came to Honolulu 
from Boston fifty-five years ago. When he landed on the 
islands he had a few coins of such small denomination 
that he could not spend them. They had no value. They 
were pennies and three-cent pieces, and he now has all the 
coins he had when he landed with the exception of one. 
He has prospered ; he is now a wealthy philanthropist 
and is seventy-six years old, but he has been teaching 
continuously a Bible class in this church since 1867. It 
was my privilege to see him with that class, and to snap 
my camera upon them. 

Many other churches are growing strong, and are 
giving evidence of how the Christian life was planted by 
these first messengers. The Episcopalians have a great 
catliedral there. The Methodists have strong churches, 
and the Disciples of Christ have recently begun to work. 

Another evidence of this abiding power is the mag- 
nificent Young Men's Christian Association building, 
costing $247,000, all subscribed and paid for by Hono- 
lulu men. They have no debts, and their bills are 
paid monthly. They have sixteen hundred members, 
and ten choice men on the staff of employed secretaries. 
It is the equal of any Association in any city of that 


size I have ever visited, if indeed it does not excel any- 
thing in any city of that size. 

An additional evidence that these men planted a virile 
truth came to us in the closer study and knowledge of 
the incidents which led to the revolution, the establish- 
ment of a republic, and later to annexation. The most 
intense element in this is the fact that the principle which 
brought the revolution was not a desire for greater 
commercial gain, but was one essentially moral, Chris- 
tian and spiritual. The men who led in that insurrec- 
tion faced the possibility not only of commercial wreck 
and the loss of their property, but they took their 
very lives in their hands, for had the movement failed 
their heads would not have been worth ten cents apiece. 
They knew all this, and yet, for the sake of the King- 
dom of God which they held dearer than life, they made 
their daring challenge, and they won out. Time servers, 
commercial slaves and playhouse toys do not launch 
reforms of that kind. 

Perhaps, however, the supreme evidence that these 
missionaries had and lived a real Christ life is to be 
found in the fact that the leading Christian workers 
now in the islands are their sons and grandsons. We 
heard much about the second and third generations. 
This is the method of describing the families of mis- 
sionaries up to date. The third generation is now 
pretty largely upon the stage of action. Some of them 
are missionaries, some are teachers, some are business 
men. Some are the wealthiest and most benevolent giv- 
ers of money upon the islands. Practically every great 
benevolence has come with the name of a missionary 
attached to it. The money given by one of the second 
or third generation is often given in memory of the 
old folks. It is true there are some sad instances where 
sons and grandsons have drifted away, but they are 


comparatively few. Everything you touch in Hono- 
lulu that is worth while is filled with the influence of 
those warring, vigorous missionaries who went out un- 
der the American Board from 1820 to 1835. Other 
churches have followed and are doing a grand work, but 
those first great saints laid the foundations, and no man 
can tear them up. 

As I came into contact with that tremendous vigor, 
I could but wonder whether New England's present 
Christianity can send out another band who can render 
such service as did these. Frankly, I am afraid they 
cannot. If these men and women had started for that 
buffeting of six, seven and eight months from New Bed- 
ford around Cape Horn on old sailing ships to the 
heathen scenes of those islands, most of them facing the 
probability of never seeing their native shores again, 
with a big interrogation point in their theology touch- 
ing the Bible as God's Word, Jesus Christ as the Son 
of God, and conversion as a supernatural work, they 
would have skipped for home with " nervous prostra- 
tion," the cloak for many modern defeats, by the first 
returning ship. As I witnessed these marvelous results, 
I thanked God they had a real religion. 

Honolulu is great in its strategic Christian possibili- 
iics. I was prepared for some things we were there to 
meet, but I was utterly unprepared to realize that we 
were going to stand on that small spot of ground and 
sound out the message of our Movement almost to the 
uttermost parts of the earth. I do not believe that there 
is another city in all the world which can influence so 
large a radius of the unevangelized parts of the world 
as can Honolulu. The addresses which Robins and I 
gave were in part or in full printed every day, not only 
in English, but in Japanese, Chinese and Portuguese. 

The shores of the Pacific Ocean are to form a very 


large part of the forum for Christianizing the unpos- 
sessed parts of the world, and everybody who goes to the 
Pacific Ocean very much will some time go to Honolulu. 
I was amazed at this part of the situation, for it had 
not occurred to me until I reached there and had begun 
our work. Those missionaries who started out of Bos- 
ton or New Bedford harbors in the little old sailing 
ships to beat their way around Cape Horn through six 
months of peril and suffering, to find their opportunity 
of planting the Gospel upon the Sandwich Isles, little 
realized, I think, what a gateway they were evangeliz- 
ing. The years have passed, and the seed they planted 
there so faithfully, and baptized with their blood in a 
good many instances, is now the ripened illustration 
for those who still sit in darkness looking for the light. 
I would be very happy if I thought we were in any little 
way doing a work that would live as long as the work 
done by those godly men and women. 

As I am dictating to Lathrop this message to you, 
the quartet is in the next room practicing some of the 
Hawaiian songs. I hope we will be able to bring back 
to you some of that intense spirit and that beautiful 
life with which we there came into contact. 

We were up every morning at about six o'clock, and 
I do not think there was a night while we were there that 
we got to bed before twelve or one o'clock, and most of 
the time was spent in meetings and conferences. I can- 
not begin to describe them to you, and I will not attempt 
to tell you much about results. I am sure some of the 
tidings will reach you through other channels, but I 
can say this without being misunderstood. In our 
closing meeting, such men as Bishop Restarick, of the 
Protestant Episcopal Church, Dr. Scudder, the great 
leader of Central Union Church, the Rev. Mr. Peters, 
pastor of the Disciples of Christ Church, and Rev. Mr. 


Smith, of the Methodist Episcopal Church, Pros. A. 
F. Griffiths, of Oalui College, Mr. Paul Super, Gen- 
eral Secretary of the Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation, and Mr. Frank C. Athcrton, Chairman of the 
Executive Committee, grandson of a missionary and 
one of the wealthiest young men of the islands, said 
such words of approval and commendation about our 
work as I believe we have never listened to in any 
one city. We parted with those brethren, feeling that 
in no uncertain or unmistakable way God had been 
witnessing through us. There were, of course, many 
delightful incidents in connection with our days there, 
which I cannot and dare not try to put in a letter to 
you, for you would be wearied in attempting to read 
it, but one is of such unique interest that I cannot omit 
it, for to us just ordinary United States folks, where, 
of course, we have no hesitancy in walking up to the 
Chief Executive of the nation, and, with delightful fa- 
miliarity, put our hand on his shoulder and say, " Hello, 
Bill ! " or " Hello, Teddy ! " it means a good deal to 
be given the privilege of meeting some of the royalty. 
Therefore you can understand with what delight we 
availed ourselves of the opportunity of a brief call upon 
the famous Ex-Queen Liliuokalani. Through her pri- 
vate secretary an interview was arranged and was 
greatly enjoyed. Of course, she is an old lady, but 
she received us with most beautiful and gracious cour- 
tesy, talked freely of the United States and her friends 
reaching all the way to Boston, had the quartet sing 
for her, and was evidently deeply moved by their music. 
She herself is the author of the most delightful Ha- 
waiian hymn, " Aloha Oe," which, in our terminology, 
would be about equivalent to " God be with you 'till 
we meet again." 

There was no time when we were so conscious of being 


in the presence of the " old order " as we were while 
visiting here in the palace, for we were surrounded by 
pictures of the old kings, and she herself sat like a 
queen, surrounded by the emblems of her royalty. You 
need not be surprised if j^ou find a kind of hitherto 
unknown dignity about us when we get back, for we 
are sure enough moving among the " upper ten." 

As I close this message, I want again to tell you of 
how intensely and wonderfully we are all working to- 
gether. Every man in the party would be quick to 
jump to the relief of any other man if he felt that the 
work was breaking down at any point. We have many 
delightful friends, of course, whom we are meeting all 
the way along, but I am sure every man of the seven 
would say that the happiest time in all the day is when 
we meet just by ourselves each morning for our little 
Bible study and chapel service. 

We are moving on, constantly putting more miles 
between us and those we love best in the world, but we 
are continuing in the faith that God is directing and' 
that we are to be His messengers in a very true sense. 

With continued and ever-increasing love and good 
wishes to you and to all those who are standing with 
us, I am. 

Yours very sincerely, 

Fred. B. Smith. 



£n route Honolulu to Yokoliania, Japan, Feb- 
ruary 8, 1913. 

Dear jNIr. Cannon : A few hours more and we will be 
off for our work in Japan. I will send you a brief 
note, although the ten days from Honolulu have been 
broken only by the typical ship scenes, and therefore 
do not contain much of special interest to write about. 
Counting the time from San Francisco, we have seen 
only one little ship in sixteen daj^s of sailing, just sea, 
sea, sea! I cannot even report a unique incident on the 
ship. I wish I could make one voyage somewhere, some 
time, that would be different. As I think over all the 
years and all the voyages they seem exactly alike. 

William Hodge, in the " Man from Home," says that 
there are just as many different kinds of people in 
Kokomo, Indiana, as there are in the world. That is 
true of a ship. There are 5,000,000 people in New 
York City, but I am sure we have as many kinds on this 
boat among our three hundred passengers as you will 
find there among the entire 5,000,000. We have the 
gay " la-de-da " boy, so dapper and cunning, sure that 
he is the center of the universe. We have the " fluffy- 
ruffles " girl, so stunning that she marvels that the world 
existed at all before she arrived. We have the literary 
man who walks the deck in a poem of precision, hair 
long, eyes deep sunken, a far-away stare. We have 
the dashing theatrical group, who have forgotten that 
this is not a stage. They keep " acting " all the while. 
We have the brazen-faced, cigarette-doped, whiskey- 


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saturated gambler. He has no respect for days, places 
or people. We have the grand, substantial business 
men and women, those who carry the hope of the world 
in their demeanor. We have the great Bishop, the au- 
gust Father, the Evangelist and the missionary. Hu- 
manity at its best and worst is brought into review on 
a long sea pilgrimage. 

We have had " sports " galore. The " bottle race," 
the " potato race," " threading the needle," the " tug " 
of war," and the " pillow fight." These are as customary 
ship events as is black coffee at a well-ordered dinner. 

We have a lecture upon " The Poets." Shame on 
the man who first invented lectures upon poetry ! That 
disease follows us even at sea. We have a " dance." 
That is the night when the baggage room is stormed 
and the ladies, who vowed on shore that " they were not 
going to fuss with dressing on the ship," go down deep 
for the swellest thing possible. The old grouch who 
wouldn't speak to anybody the first three days 
comes out with full dress on this evening, and is a regu- 
lar chatter-box, a perfect ladies' man. Last night was 
the time for this great event with us, and a dear old 
Methodist preacher on board appealed to me to help 
him stop the " scandalous thing." He said that these 
people were going to hell before our eyes, and that we 
ought to protest. Still the dance went on. 

We have a " concert." Great rulers of darkness, is 
there any punishment sufficient for the fiend incarnate 
who first devised the " ship's concert " ? That is the 
night when people who cannot sing on the key sing on 
your nerves. It is the hour when the fellow who can- 
not recite for sour apples recites by the yard. It is 
the night when the fellow who can't talk is sure to make 
some " remarks." I am persuaded that sinking at sea 
is a terrible experience, but I am also sure that that 


alone is the one thing to be dreaded more than the 
famous ship concert. 

We have a " pool on the run." This is where the old 
ringer skins the lamb out of his pin money. I wonder 
if the day will ever come when law will reach the sea 
and stop gambling. Men will come from cities, states 
and nations where gambling is prohibited, but the hour 
they put foot on an ocean liner they gamble with no 
law to interfere. It is a pity the sea does not belong 
to somebody. 

We have " C'hurcli " at sea. Thank God for this 
grand reminder of home, family, duty and destiny. I 
know the Christian services on the ocean have never 
meant so much to me as this time, for we are daily 
pushing our way farther from the spot where of all 
tlie earth we most long to be. Last Sunday the great 
Bishop Fallows preached in the morning, and our team 
conducted the evening meeting. I believe the people 
all enjoyed these services. The quartet sang, "Re- 
member Now Thy Creator," as one of their selections, 
and afterwards, on deck, the " la-de-da " boy brushed 
up to me, and, wishing to be complimentary, spoke 
of Robins' and my addresses appreciatively, and then 
said, " That was a charming selection by the quar- 
tet. I say, sir, was that one of Kipling's poems.''" 
I could have jiujitsued him. After all, that is about 
on a par with a good deal of deck talk. Two men 
yesterday debated at length whether a ship was kept 
afloat by the strength of the salt in the sea, or by 
its speed. They said that river boats floated because 
they were made of wood, but that a steel ship would 
sink in the Hudson River! And so, amid this round 
of life, we arc plowing our way to the great far East. 

If we can claim any distinction for our voyage, it 
might be in the presence of the Fallows party made 


up of the Bishop, Mrs. E. H. Fallows, Mr. S. Fal- 
lows, Miss A. R. Fallows, Mr. and Mrs. D. Fox, 
Mr. Albert Stevens Crockett, Mr. Chessman Kitt- 
redge, Mr. and Mrs. Leo H. Wise, and Captain and 
Mrs. C. B. Humphrey. Mr. S. Fallows is a son of 
Bishop Fallows, of Chicago. The old Bishop is along 
as chaplain. They are going out to investigate the 
commercial future of the Philippine Islands. There 
are all sorts of rumors about what great enterprises 
they are going to launch if they find the conditions 
favorable. We have found them a grand lot of high- 
minded people, and they have made the long days less 

Of course, our Men and Religion party of seven has 
furnished the opportunity for a deal of speculation 
also. One man asked me if we were being sent out 
by the Morgan interests to get a report upon the 
religious status of the Philippine Islands, and to de- 
cide what kind of a church would best be adapted to 
those people. So you can see we are still having our 
troubles with Wall Street! 

But if we are to claim any unique factor, it must 
be that when we reached the 180th meridian, we 
dropped out a Sunday ! We reached that famous line 
at six o'clock Saturday night, and so Sunday had to 
go. We went to bed Saturday night, slept about ten 
hours and woke up Monday morning. That is speed 
enough to keep the Wright Brothers and Marconi 
busy for some time. However, the Captain and the 
generous-hearted passengers decided that Monday 
should be observed as Sunday, and, therefore, in spirit 
we lost Monday instead. I wish you could hear all the 
wise speculations about this loss of a day. It is funny, 
and as mentally racking, as the old " 13-14-15 puz- 
zle." " Do the folks at home actually get the best of 


us one day ? " " Do they get that much more sleep, 
or when do we lose? " " Do we turn our watches ahead 
thirty minutes now instead of back as we did before?" 
" Will we be a day ahead or behind when we get all the 
way around? " One man, the most profound, thought 
he gave a solution by saying, " Why don't they cut 
out one day everywhere at the same time ? " Then 
everybody will be even." Personally, I give it up, and 
as I feel to-day I shall not stop off at Fire Island to 
debate about the calendar when I get that close to 

These long stretches of travel and time are severe 
strains, and onl>' a sense of doing God's work could 
keep us patient. I have met some men who are going 
to the Philippines for dollars only, and are leaving 
their families behind. One man says he does not ex- 
pect to see his family for three years. I think if it 
made the difference between their being hungry or 
being fed, I might go, but certainly not just to put 
some money in the bank. 

When you get this, we will be pulling hard in Hong- 
kong. It will be our most difficult city. Remember us 
there. We do not forget you and the co-operating 
friends for one day. 

Very best greetings, 

Fred. B. Smith. 


On Steamer Cliihugo Maru of the Nippon Yusen Kaisha 
Steamship Co., Japan to China, February 21, 1913. 

My dear Mr. Cannon : Having finished our cam- 
paign in Japan, we are now catching our breath and 
getting a httle rest of forty-eight hours as we cross the 
China Sea before beginning work in Shanghai. I send 
back to you a greeting, and a little message concerning 
the progress of the Kingdom in this far-away land. I 
do not know that I ever found it more difficult to write 
any intelligent or adequate statement concerning any 
piece of work in which I have been engaged. There have 
been running through my mind so many things about 
which I would like to write to you, and yet there is such 
a confusion in it all that I do not know whether I can 
state anything so that you can clearly understand it. 
The fact is, I believe if I would stop over here for a 
while without undertaking to learn the language, it 
would not be very long before I would go raving mad 
trying to make myself understood. You try to pene- 
trate this life with an ordinary idea, and you have had 
a crowd of Japanese standing around listening and say- 
ing " Yes ! yes ! yes ! " to everything you say. Present- 
ly you discover that they have not understood one jot 
or tittle of it all, that you have wasted your energy for 
nothing, and after a while you feel as though you would 
just like to jump up and down. We have been through 
so many of these experiences that I do not know whether 
I can dictate an intelligent letter, and I am not quite 
sure but that Lathrop's pen has gotten so fogged with 
the Japanese dialect that even that may refuse to work. 


For such a brief time as we have had, it would be dar- 
ing for me to say much about the country or the people. 
While we have been here, they have had one of their 
greatest national holidays, the one known as " Empire 
Day," to commemorate the founding of the Japanese 
Empire about twenty-three hundred 3^ears before Christ, 
and therefore a whirlwind world tourist needs to go 
pretty cautiously about giving out cock-sure ideas. 
Yet, I thinlc there is something very beautiful about the 
unrestrained first impressions of any new country. I 
have often wished that I could be thrilled again by Lon- 
don as I was the first time I saw it. Those first throbs 
are grand experiences in any new country. This has 
been especially true in Japan. I think the first impres- 
sion is that everything seems to be upside down and 
inside out. Everything at first seems to be reversed ; 
the signs read up and down instead of horizontally ; the 
people walk to the left instead of to the right; they 
wear white for mourning instead of black; at funerals 
they laugh instead of weep ; the " back yards " are in 
front of the house instead of in the rear. Then to top 
it all off, their " zitas," wooden shoes, rattle like a 
regiment of cavalry coming down the road. Altogether 
it just seems a general confusion. And yet, when you 
have waited a little while, it is the old, old story — they 
are busy about the same things that evcrybodj^ else is 
busy about. It is the problem of bread, life and God. 

I presume, however, of the moi-e striking things we 
will always remember that we were here during one of 
the great political upheavals. I have no doubt that the 
New York papers, especially one I know of, had some 
very lurid coloring concerning the riots in Tokyo on 
the 11th. But we were there, and were in the Imperial 
Hotel, where the crowds did throw some stones through 
the front windows, but, after all, it was like a Sunday- 


school vpicnic compared with getting a street car at the 
Brooklyn Bridge about five o'clock any night, and I 
would rather take my chances any time in a Tokyo riot 
than to be on Broadway on New Year's or election 
night. We saw a little of it. We saw the crowds and 
we knew the place was disturbed. While upon the sur- 
face it was not violent, down deep the very foundations 
of the empire were being moved. Nobody says out 
loud that it is finally directed at the Imperial throne, 
but around in quiet corners, there is a whispered mur- 
mur and an asking whether or not the same thing may 
not be happening in Japan which has happened in 
China. Prince Katsura, the Prime Minister, and the 
entire Cabinet resigned because they were not liberal 
enough in democratic principles to satisfy the great 
mass of the people. All that is lacking in Japan now 
seems to be a Sun Yat Sen to literally sweep them 
through to a full republican form of government. 

I think if I were with you now and were trying to 
tell you some of the outstanding impressions, perhaps 
the first I would name would be the awful apparent 
struggle to live. As I remember India, I think possibly 
it is equal to Japan in this respect, but certainly India's 
struggle is not more severe than is that of the Japanese. 
Nearly fifty millions of people crowded upon these little 
islands present a food problem that is simply over- 
whelming. If we ever farm the United States as closely 
and carefully as they are farming Japan, we can take 
care of a billion people. It is perfectly amazing to see 
little plots, four feet square, that have been banked up 
and made into wheat and rice fields. Every possible 
spot of ground which can yield a vegetable or cereal 
is made to work. This, of course, involves a fierce 
labor problem. 

Apparently, the cheapest labor in Japan is that of 

women. Wc luive seen them doing every kind of heavy 
task, wliich in our country would only be undertaken by 
modem steam and electrical appliances. Just the other 
day I saw about thirty women around an immense pile 
driver pulling the hammer up by hand to drive the piles 
where a new bridge was being constructed. 

The next cheapest labor here evidently is that of men. 
One of the most frequent sights is that of a man hitched 
up to a load positively big enough for the best horse 
in New York State. The more astonishing thing is 
that he makes it go. He does not kick, balk or falter. 
We have heartrending conditions among working peo- 
ple, but we have nothing which approaches the situation 
here. Robins has investigated with care this question, 
and finds that children get from four to eight cents per 
day, women get twelve to eighteen cents and men twenty- 
five to thirty-five cents. There are no labor laws regu- 
lating hours, ages, compensation or conditions, although 
tlicy are now being agitated. Of course, the wages paid 
must be considered in relation to the cost of living, which 
is low, but not enough to give one full meal a day upon 
this basis. This is one of the problems of the Church, 
for a missionary may preach his head off to a starving 
people to no avail. Great changes, however, are going 
to be brought about rapidly, for the best men of the 
nation are keen for improvement. 

Then, of course, I would seem not to have been prop- 
erly impressed by Japan if I failed to make mention of 
" Fuji." We were particularly fortunate in coming 
into the harbor of Yokohama to have the morning clear, 
bright and sunshiny, and Fuji, the great mountain, was 
in view at her best. I do not wonder that the people 
rave over it. It mounts up there high above the small 
buildings and rather miniature people, miniature trains, 
miniature everything, grand enough to challenge the 


attention of the whole world, twelve thousand feet of 
eternal pure white snow. I am sure there is not a more 
beautiful sight anywhere on earth than this great moun- 
tain, and it is not at all strange that they should include 
it in their objects of worship. 

But of all the things in Japan, that which is con- 
stantly brought to your attention, everywhere and every 
day, is the delightful and wonderful courtesy of the 
people. I venture the assertion that it is not equalled 
anywhere in the world. To us rather untutored 
westerners, it is quite amusing to see them bow and then 
bow again and yet again. I have watched people com- 
ing into meetings bowing and bowing to each other 
until I thought I would have to go outside and have a 
good laugh. Every Japanese speaker, when he rises, 
before he begins his address, makes a low bow. I think 
there have been twenty-five times when I have seen a 
speaker make this introductory bow that I have bowed 
my head, supposing prayer was to be offered, and then, 
after keeping my head down for a while, I would find 
out it was only the courtesy of the speaker in thus 
presenting himself to the audience. I assure you that 
this supreme courtesy is no formal characteristic. It 
is not affected, it is not put on, it is real and genuine, 
and I wish we westerners could learn some of it. It 
would do us good. 

While, of course, we are not out here to study the 
commercial or economic problems, yet we are everywhere 
face to face with the reconstruction which is going on. 
Modern business methods are rapidly possessing the 
land. Great factories are being built for producing 
woolen, silk, linen and steel goods, and very soon the 
old order of the famous hand work by the Japanese 
women in the home will disappear. Their banks are 
modern ; their rural delivery of mails and parcel-post 


system make ours look a century old and out of date. 
They are tlie most thirsty people in the world for educa- 
tion. Any school or college, at morning, noon or night, 
will be crowded. You not infrequently see jinrikisha 
boys sitting over a charcoal fire reading books, papers 
and magazines. 

During the year 1912, they exported $6,000,000 
worth of tea, $7,000,000 worth of rice and $67,000,000 
worth of silk. I could not learn the amount of the ship 
building and steel manufacturing industries, but they, 
too, are large. The change is swift, and you may be 
sure that in all the reckonings of the future, com- 
mercially, socially and politically, as well as religiously, 
Japan must be given a large place in consideration. 

In this reconstruction I venture to say that the great- 
est thing that is happening is the new birth in the realm 
of religion. Of all these nations that are now spoken 
of as non-Christian, I feel no hesitancy in saying that 
Japan presents the most unique situation. There is no 
state or national religion. While Buddhism leads 
numerically, it does not lead in influence, for the great 
men of Japan — great politically, commercially and 
socially, are not Buddhists. They say freely that 
Buddhism cannot be Japan's religion, and now, by an 
official act, every religion is placed upon a par. There 
is to be no preference shown. Not only this, but the 
most remarkable thing in this country happened in De- 
cember when the national ^Minister of Education called 
together some picked representatives of Buddhism, 
Shintoism and Christianity, and said to them that what 
Japan was standing most in need of at the present time 
was a new moral awakening, and that he felt sure this 
could only be brought about by a vitalization of religion. 
He then called upon the representatives of each of these 
faiths to put up a more vigorous program. This pre- 

sents a most overwhelming opportunity for the Christian 
forces to show what they can do. Buddhism is evidently 
seeing the handwriting on the wall, and I believe that 
Buddhists are rallying themselves for their last tre- 
mendous fight, so far as Japan is concerned. 

Contact with this faith is not altogether new to me. 
I have known a little of it before, but never until the past 
few days have I seen Buddhist priests out on the streets 
preaching. Old missionaries tell us that they have not 
seen the like of it in fifty years. I, myself, have recent- 
ly seen a dozen of these meetings. In other words, the 
Buddhists are so aroused over the trend of things that 
they have sent out a clarion call for their priests to go 
out on the streets and begin to evangelize, and they are 
at it hard. There is no minimizing the fact that there 
is an awful fight on here. Buddhism will contend for 
every inch of the ground. Shintoism is not so vigorous, 
and the wisest men say that it will rapidly disappear. 

Over against this stands the wonderfully inspiring 
triumph of Christianity. I wish some of our half- 
hearted Christian people who go at their religion as 
though it were an irksome task could get a look at the 
ripened fruit of Christianity as it stands out here in 
bold relief against these non-Christian influences. It is 
simply magnificent ! 

It is true that there are only about two hundred thou- 
sand Protestant church members in the Empire, but 
when you think that this has been brought about, start- 
ing from nothing about fifty years ago, it is nothing less 
than a miracle. The first Protestant Christian convert 
in Japan was baptized in Yokohama in 1864. The 
supreme evidence of the growth of the Gospel of Jesus 
Christ is found not in the work of the foreign mission,- 
aries who are here, unspeakably grand as that is, but 
in the independent churches which are springing up all 


over the country. I took a picture the otlier day of a 
very beautiful Congregational church with a high spire 
reaching above everything around it, with a cross on 
top, the church facing the grounds of the Emperor's 
palace, and the park where only a few years ago, they 
were hunting the Christians down and assassinating 
them at sight. 

I cannot begin to attempt to name the great Japanese 
preachers we have met out here, but many of the men 
with whom we have come into contact would be accept- 
able ministers for our strongest churches at home or 
anywhere. They are princely men. I think I can un- 
derstand now what INIott meant when he said at the 
close of his recent journey that he believed Christianity 
was so thoroughly established in Japan that if we should 
let it die out in North America, these Japanese would 
cross the seas and re-evangelize us. I believe that thor- 
oughly. I am sure I have met Japanese Christian 
leaders out here who would not hesitate to lay down 
their lives if necessary to evangelize any part of the 

The other night in Yokoliama, I received in one room 
the evidence of this romance of Christian power and 
growth. I stood talking to the grand old Dr. Loomis, 
missionary of the American Board, who came out here 
something like fifty years ago. When he arrived, there 
were known to be just twelve professing Japanese Chris- 
tians throughout the whole Empire. While he stood 
talking with me, he turaed and pointed across the room 
at a fine type of Japanese minister, and said, " Some 
years ago I baptized that young man as one of my con- 
verts, and he is now the pastor of an entirely independ- 
ent, self-supporting church of 1,126 members." 

Then along by the side of the growth of these inde- 
pendent Japanese churches, there comes the work of 


Rev. C. Nakayaraa, thirty-eight years Methodist minister 
in Japan 

the great Christian schools and colleges. We have 
visited so many of them that I could not attempt to tell 
you about them all, but two have made the greatest 
impression upon me. One is the Methodist Episcopal 
School Aoyama at Tokyo, of which Dr. Agata is Presi- 
dent. They have nine hundred students. It was just 
like a good old time Methodist Church when I had the 
privilege of speaking to them. The other school, and 
the one which I suppose has most influenced the Empire, 
is the famous Doshisha at Kyoto, founded by that mar- 
velous Christian Neesima, who, without any doubt, 
burned up his life prematurely in working for its wel- 
fare, and over which Dr. Horada now presides as Presi- 
dent. They have over a thousand boys, and I think it 
is fair to say that it is a pretty difficult thing for any 
boy to go through a four or five years' course under 
that influence and not come out a Christian. These, 
however, are only types of many more where we had 
the privilege of holding meetings. 

Then there are hospitals and libraries and settlements. 
The fact is, these mighty missionaries are not forgetting 
anything that can possibly help to exemplify Jesus 

Another token of victory is the splendid work of the 
Young Men's Christian Associations. There has never 
been a day in my life when I was gladder to be a Young 
Men's Christian Association secretary than in Japan. 
I have visited nations and countries where you were 
made to feel a bit ashamed to be classified as an Associa- 
tion secretary, but you can hold your head up high in 
Japan with that title. Their work, of course, is not 
perfect, and it never will be, but I will say that I have 
never seen such a volume of high grade work being done 
under such handicaps as I have witnessed in these Young 
Men's Christian Associations in Japan. They are led 


and largely influenced first of all by the statesmanlike 
spirit of the National Secretary, Galen M. Fisher. He 
would not thank nic for any fulsome praise, but I de- 
clare to you, I caiuiot help saying that he is about one 
of the biggest men in our whole Brotherhood, at home 
or abroad. And associated with him in various capaci- 
ties are Andrews, Jorgenson, Phelps, Wilbur, Gleason, 
Hibbard, Trucman and Davis, while there is coming to 
the front the Japanese leadership under such powerful 
men as Niwa, Komatsu, Yamamoto, Kurahara, Omura, 
Tsunashima and Takabatake. 

We have splendid buildings at Tokyo, Kyoto, Naga- 
saki and Kobe. There are a dozen other cities which 
ought to have buildings, but the two most marked needs 
are at Yokohama, a city of 450,000 people, and where 
they arc now doing work in some terribly crowded and 
ineflicient rented quarters, and at Osaka, the Pittsburgh 
of Japan, with a million and a quarter of inhabitants. 
Osaka lias shops, factories and mills of every descrip- 
tion, while the Association has an old building put up 
twenty-five years ago, thoroughly worn and out of date, 
and 3'ct the other night in that building we had over 
six hundred men in the gospel meeting, and at the very 
same hour there were over four hundred young men in 
educational classes. They were crowded in like sardines 
in a closely packed box. 

/ shall come home ready to look square in the eye 
every man who has ever spent a dollar in any form of 
Christian rcork in Japan and tell him that he has gotten* 
his full money's xcorth, and that he is an honored man. 

I must say at least a word about our own work. 
We have visited and worked in Yokohama, Tokyo, 
Kyoto, Osaka, Kobe and Nagasaki. If anybody had 
said to me before we started that we could make 
such an impression in Japan as I am told we have 


made, I could not have believed it. It has been be- 
yond our greatest faith. We have had three types of 
meetings. The one that has been given the most prom- 
inence has been the series of conferences of church offi- 
cers, pastors and missionaries. These in every city have 
run to about one hundred and seventy-five in attendance, 
and in all except one place, we have had a fair, un- 
hurried opportunity to discuss the whole method of the 
Men and Religion Movement with these people. We 
saw the Men and Religion program fit, as though it was 
made from Heaven, some of the situations in our own 
country, but I am perfectly sure it never seemed to fit 
in any situation more powerfully than out here. They 
have flocked around us with words of appreciation. So 
urgent has become the need of giving all the Christian 
forces of Japan this message of the Men and Religion 
Movement that we are having printed a pamphlet in 
Japanese upon the Movement, including all of the 
charts we used at home and some special recommenda- 
tions based upon our conferences with pastors and mis- 
sionary leaders. This will spread the Men and Religion 
Movement all over Japan. The younger pastors, es- 
pecially, have snapped at it. There have been three 
things in our presentation which seem to be of peculiar 
help to these earnest Christian workers. First, we have 
urged upon every Young Men's Christian Association 
and every Church to carry on this type of work them- 
selves by organizing the lay forces. This has been a 
rather new note, especially in the churches. Second, 
the undreamed-of way in which Robins' message has been 
received. I think the big-hearted fellow himself was 
doubting a little as to whether he could make his type of 
message adaptable in this country, but I believe honestly 
and sincerely that its unique place is even more signifi- 
cant here in Japan than it was at home. They have 


every problem we have, including boys' work, the vice 
question, labor problems and welfare movements. They 
are all here. Robins has been sought by municipal 
officers, mayors, college presidents and politicians. 
They will long remember this Social Service message and 
messenger. The third is the quartet. Of course, we 
knew they would help tremendously, not only with their 
music, but by their valiant service in personal work, shop 
and factory meetings, but there was a vastly more 
significant element with which we had not reckoned. 
The Japanese churches are having a struggle to 
adapt and develop the right kind of gospel music. 
They are in some places organizing men's choruses. 
There are a few male quartets, doing some singing, 
but it is rather in its preparatory stage, and all along 
the line the missionaries have spoken in loudest praise 
of the influence of the quartet, not only for their im- 
mediate spiritual message, but because they are going 
to set the standard for a lot of work of that kind. I 
am satisfied that there will be a great awakening in the 
question of gospel music following the work of the 

In addition to these conferences with Christian 
workers, we have had large opportunities with non- 
Christians, especially in the Universities. It has been 
our unique privilege to hold meetings without any limita- 
tions or restrictions whatever in every great University 
in the country. This reached its climax in an invitation 
to have Robins speak in the Imperial University at 
Kyoto, this being the first time in the history of that 
institution when an invitation had been extended to a 
professional Christian speaker. He was invited there 
vvithout any strings attached to him whatever, and he 
gave them just the same kind of a message that he has 
been giving everywhere. One of the professors, a 


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Shinto, who presided at the meeting, was gracious 
enough to send a note down to me that evening at the 
hotel, thanking me for the privilege of having had Mr. 
Robins at the University. 

Again and again we have held meetings in the largest 
auditorium available, and have been unable to get into 
it all the men who came. I spoke in the Association at 
Tokyo on the second night there, with the men packed 
in everywhere, and standing outside at the windows. 

At Kyoto we had a riot. The hall will seat about 
twelve hundred comfortably. They admitted sixteen 
hundred and fifty, then the crowd outside who could not 
get in nearly tore down the front of the building de- 
manding admission. They had to keep somebody at 
the front door during the whole evening, explaining 
that the hall was full and that they could not admit 
any more. 

Thus you can see that God has opened for us a very 
wide door of service even in the little time we were in 

Possibly you will get a little view of the spirit of 
appreciation manifested by our Association fellows in 
the following extract taken from a card which just 
came to us from Gleason, General Secretary of the 
Young Men's Christian Association at Osaka : 

" Dear Smith, Robins, Gilbert, Metcalf, Keeler, Peck, 
Lathrop and various trunks, typewriter, cameras, 
charts, etc., etc. A few words would fail to tell you 
how much we have appreciated your brief visit. But 
there is no doubt that it is hearty. Come again as soon 
as you can. You are a fine lot, roses without thorns, 
peaches without stones, and genuine good fellows. 
Your spirit of no criticism and honest desire to serve 


has left only pleasant memories behind you. Our 
prayers go with you." 

I shall not try to tell you very much about the 
special events. The fact is, we have not permitted 
ourselves to go sight-seeing very much, but we have 
sandwiched in visits to some of the most interesting 
places. We have seen some of the great temples at 
Kamakura and the wonderful " Shiba " at Tokyo, and 
then it is just temples, temples, temples everywhere. 
Paul Gilbert said yesterday that he hoped he never 
would have to look at another temple as long as he 
lived. You can catch something of the power of this 
when I tell you there are ten thousand Buddhist priests 
in Kyoto alone, and about as many Buddhist temples. 

There has been one very amusing feature all along 
the way in the presence of a few women in every meet- 
ing. Of course our meetings are supposed to be for 
men and boys only, but these Christian women rebel 
against that exclusive idea, and when the secretaries re- 
monstrate with them, they say their " inheritance " in 
Christianity is a right to go to the meetings. They 
have for so long endured the oppression of Buddhism 
and Shintoism that they now propose to exercise their 
gospel liberty, and " Men Only " signs at religious meet- 
ings do not affect them at all. Really, it is a beautiful 
thing, even if they have disconcerted some of our nicely 
laid plans. Nothing grander can be said for Christian- 
ity than the contrast between the women of non-Chris- 
tian lands and those dominated b}' the Gospel, so we 
gladly surrendered. 

We have enjoyed being entertained at some of the 
famous Japanese dinners. You ought to see me double 
up on the floor in front of a charcoal fire and cook 
sukiyaki. It is a great combination. I would give 


forty dollars to see you try it. Positively all you get 
for implements is a couple of chop sticks. If you can- 
not get some rice and chopped vegetables and meat on 
those two sticks, you starve, that is all. I thought that 
some of the hosts would come to our rescue, but they 
do not help you a bit. And yet these are little social 
events never to be forgotten, and we would have been 
sorry enough had we missed them. We had one of 
them in a student hostel at Tokyo where about forty 
of us sat on the floor in one little room.* We had 
fifteen of the charcoal fires going, and a chafing dish 
on each. We had another at Osaka with about the 
same number, and there had a company of pastors 
and missionaries who gave us the story of the Christian 
conquest of Osaka in a way that I suppose we never 
would liave gotten it at all had we not been at that 

We had the peculiar privilege and honor of being in- 
vited to go through the Emperor's palace at Kyoto. 
Our American Ambassador Anderson very kindly got 
us the permit. 

Then what shall I say about jinrikishas.'' Upon my 
soul, I have climbed into one of those jinrikishas so many 
times and started out for a two or three mile run, with 
a boy pulling me who was about one-third my size, when 
I have been ashamed of myself, yet that is about the 
only means of transportation. There is no such thing 
as a hack or carriage to be had. The larger cities have 
street cars going upon certain principal thoroughfares, 
but usually it is a jinrikisha or you do not go, and 
how those little Japanese can pull and run ! I can- 
not understand it. They run all the time. There 
is no such thing as stopping to walk until they have 
reached the end of the journey. The penalty for 
my size is usually to pay excess fare. I do not be- 


Hcve there is a jinrikisha boy in all Japan (and there 
are about a million of tlieni) who cannot speak enough 
English to say " Very heavy man." They may not 
be able to say anything else, but they all have that 

Perhaps the outstanding memory will be the little fare- 
well tea and reception which was tendered us in Tokyo 
the last afternoon we were there. Our men felt that it 
was a most significant and wonderful gathering. The 
following gentlemen met us and spent about two hours 
in an informal conference, speech-making, and tea : Hon. 
S. Ebara, President of the Tokyo Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association and a member of the House of Peers, 
Mayor Baron Sakatani, Prof. Dr. Anazaki, Professor 
of History and Philosophy of Religion in the Imperial 
University, Baron N. Kikkawa, graduate of Harvard 
and a member of the House of Peers, Dr. F. Uzawa, 
M.P., Barrister, Counsel in Korean Conspiracy Trial, 
Baron N. Konda, graduate of Amherst and Dean of 
Higher Commercial School, Dr. H. Fuknoka, graduate 
of Yale University and Professor of International Law, 
Imperial University, Prof. T. Suguira, Ph.D., Professor 
of St. Paul's University, Rev. K. Tsunashima, graduate 
of Yale Seminary and Pastor of a Congregational 
Church, Dr. T. Namae, graduate of Wesleyan, Char- 
ity Expert, Department of Interior, Mr. S. Otsuka, 
Director, Club Work, South Manchuria Railway, Mr. 
A. Hayashi, IManagcr, Imperial Hotel, and ]\Ir. K. Yam- 
amoto. General Secretary of the Tokj-o Young Men's 
Christian Association. Mayor Baron Sakatani in Ijis 
remarks said : " We owe a good deal to you westerners. 
You have helped us in many of our ideals of government 
and commerce. But along with the incoming of bene- 
ficial western ideas, there has been the penalty of the 
breakdown of the old order of religion, and we have 


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lost what restraining power it had. Now the west ought 
to be willing to do a great deal for us in helping to 
establish some form of religion which will take the place 
of that which we have lost." He then paid a most 
cordial tribute to all missionaries and Christian workers, 
but with peculiar commendation for the work of the 
Young Men's Christian Association. He is not a Chris- 
tian, and spoke not from the standpoint of a man who 
was convinced of the truth of Christianity, but rather 
from the standpoint of one of their great leaders in 
public and political life who sees the need of some 
form of moral energy to take hold of this country in the 
hour of its awful need. 

Most of our contact, of course, had been in the great 
crowded cities, and, were peculiarly glad to be able to 
get an afternoon last week in what is known as the 
" Mustard Seed Mission " at Hachiman, at some dis- 
tance from the railroad. The missionary in charge is 
William M. Vories. He came out here seven years ago 
and asked that he be sent back to some interior place 
where he could begin a work right from the foundation. 
It is almost beyond belief to see what that man has 
accomplished during that time. He is an architect by 
profession, and like the famous Apostle Paul, he de- 
sired to earn his own way, so that he is self-supporting. 
He has built a hospital, a good Young Men's Christian 
Association building, a splendid school, and has bought 
and established an experimental farm three miles out in 
the country so that he can help the Japanese farmers 
in better methods. Altogether he has literally trans- 
formed the life, not of only the village but of the whole 
community round about. 

I am sure you can understand that there is a good 
deal of tenderness out here as we meet those homesick, 
hard-worked missionaries. This has been especially 


true in the singing of the quartet. When they hear 
some of the old hymns they used to sing and have not 
heard for a long time, we get a little view into the 
depths of their hearts, and see how hungry many of 
them are for home. God pity the Christian at home 
who is failing to share in their battle. 

Yesterday, as we were en route to Nagasaki, Dr. J. H. 
Pettee, a representative of the American Board, was 
at the train to meet us at Okayama, where we made a 
little stop. He had with him four or five missionaries, 
and about twenty of his associate workers, Bible women, 
evangelists and village preachers. Some of them had 
traveled long distances just for the privilege of getting 
a look at us for that stopover of ten minutes. 

I must not fail to tell you about our achievement yes- 
terday in getting away from Nagasaki. As a part of 
the penalty of trying to penetrate this life with our 
ordinary English language, instead of being checked 
from Kobe to Nagasaki, my two trunks were checked in 
the opposite direction and were sent to Osaka, with the 
result that when I arrived in Nagasaki ready to sail for 
China, I had about two collars, one shirt and a hand- 
kerchief. We started the telegraph wires working as 
hard as we could, but by the closest possible connections, 
my trunks would not arrive at Nagasaki until 6:10, and 
the boat, the ChiJiugo Maru of the Nippon Yusen 
Kaisha Line, was scheduled to sail at 4 o'clock in the 
afternoon. I put on my best smile and called upon the 
gallant Captain K. Sato and asked him if it would be 
possible for him to hold the boat two hours. I was 
told before going by the officers of the Company in 
Nagasaki, and by the editor of the paper, an English- 
man who has been out here manj"^ years, that it would 
be absolutely useless to make the request, for it had not 
been done in the history of the Company, and that the 


boat always started exactly on the minute, just as the 
railroad trains. After an interview in which I conveyed 
to the Captain the nature of our work, and how much 
I needed my trunks, he said he would hold the boat 
until 6:30. We were all in ^reat glee over it. We 
finished our work, then I went to the railroad station, 
only to learn that by a later development the trunks 
could not arrive until 7:58. I thought then, of course, 
that it was all up witii me, and that we would have to go 
on without my trunks, and it looked as though we could 
not get them before reaching ^Manila, possibly not until 
we arrived in Australia. Under this pressure, I went 
back to the ship, found all of our fellows standing with 
the Captain anxiously awaiting the news, and we were a 
rather depressed lot when I told them that the trunks 
could not arrive until 8 o'clock. Then, in the gentlest 
voice of which I am capable, I asked the Captain if he 
could hold the boat until 8 :30, which would mean four 
hours and a half wait. He asked me if I had some impor- 
tant papers in my trunks. I thought a man was justified 
in saying he had. even though the most critical thing 
involved was a clean shirt, and so I assured him that 
there were important documents in both trunks. Then, 
with that marvelous Japanese courtesy, he quietly said 
that he would wait until 8 :30. It created a commotion 
of course. I am satisfied that, way down deep in this 
man's heart, the real reason was that either he himself 
is almost persuaded to be a Christian or else that he has 
a son who has been in some of our Young Men's Chris- 
tian Associations, or that some of his family are Chris- 
tians. I am hoping yet to get the secret from him. 
Surely it was some touch of that kind in his life, for 
it has never been done before, we were told that it could 
not be done, and for any ordinary commercial proposi- 
tion it would not have been done. Anyway, we prac- 


tlcod our true Americanism and held up one of the 
Imperial Government's steamers for four and a half 
hours while we hunted up some lost trunks, 

I do not know whether I have written you that our 
party has been increased by one. Coming out from 
Honolulu, we were delighted to find that Mr. Alexander 
Hyde, son of our mighty friend Mr. A. A. Hyde of 
Wichita, was a passenger on the same boat. He was 
coming out on business, and inasmuch as he has to go 
half way around the world and cannot reach home in 
any case until June, we urged him to accompany us, and 
he has decided to do so. He is a royal fellow, and we 
are going to enjoy his company very much. 

I need not tell you that sometimes we ourselves get 
mighty homesick. Of course our task is not to be put 
in the same list with that of these folks who come out to 
stay, but, after all, ours has its difficulties. We are con- 
stantly thinking of home, and are ever and again re- 
minded of our duties there, yet, amid it all, as the weeks 
pass, I think we know more fully every day that God is 
leading us and that He prompted the undertaking. I 
think I would be willing to give five years out of my 
life if that were the only way by which I could have 
delivered this message in Japan. I am as sure as I am 
of life that this sounding out of the message of the Men 
and Religion Movement is going to go down in history 
to the glory of God and of the Church, not only at 
home, but around the woi'ld. 

I am afraid I have written you so much that you 
will wear^^ in reading, but I cannot help the desire to 
write to somebody, for I want some of these impressions 
to be so recorded that they may possibly live for a long 
time to come. 

Yours very sincerely, 

Fred. B. Smith. 

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lyieut.-Col. Yaniamuro of the Japanese Sah.itioii Army 


On Steamer Derffi'nic/cr, Hoiitfkong to Manila, P. I., 
March 5, 1913. 

Di:ak Mr. C'axxox: Whatever purpose Got! had in 
our being in China for a httle while, is fulfilled, or at 
least we have closed the active personal part in it for 
the present, and now we arc out on the big sea again 
en route to Manila. Thinking over these days and of 
you and of home, I have felt almost as though I would 
not write a single word about China. We have only 
seen the port cities, and that does not give any adequate 
idea of such a vast country. Then, too, we have just 
been knocked endways by what we have seen. 

If I write you of present convictions, I may be in 
peril of giving a wrong idea, for there is another side 
to everything, and it seems impossible to try to inter- 
pret our experiences without injustice to somebody. I 
think I wrote you in something of the same refrain 
about Japan, but the situation is vastly more compli- 
cated here. However, there are a few convictions I am 
prepared to record anywhere, for I am sure they are 
founded on facts. 

Perhaps the comment which has broken most fre- 
quently and involuntarily from our lips has been " Poor 
China!" Here are at 'least 400,000,000 people, and 
they seem so helpless as viewed from their contact with 
the powerful great North American and European 
nations. This is most marked at Shanghai and Hong- 
kong. At each there is a European settlement that is 
as modern as London, Paris, Berlin, New York or 
Chicago, with massive buildings, wide streets, boule- 


vards, parks and gardens. Then in five minutes' ride 
in jinrikishas you are in the " old city," where you 
would not think human beings could exist. Streets 
too narrow for two people to walk abreast ; cats, 
dogs, pigs, chickens, men, women and children all hud- 
dled in the same rooms. There is, of course, an element 
of the better class who live in affluent circumstances, 
but they are only a drop in the great sea of the millions. 
Christianity has a problem of housing and helping 
people to know how to live, as well as of teaching the 
Bible, if China is to be redeemed. 

Then there seems so much to be done to get really 
started here. There are no labor laws of any kind. 
We have seen little seven-year-old girls working in mills 
fourteen hours without a stop for a bite to eat. They 
must eat with one hand while they keep the spindle 
going with the other, and the whole for the princely 
sum of ten cents per day. We saw old women and 
young girls carrying thirty-eight bricks, at nine pounds 
per brick (three hundred and forty-two pounds), up a 
mountain two thousand feet high, to build a mansion. 
Every brick and board in it is being transported up 
there by that labor at about fifteen cents per day. We 
have severe labor problems in America, but if anywhere 
in the United States there was such a scene as I wit- 
nessed at Hongkong, the nation would be in an uproar 
in twenty-four hours. There is no adequate educational 
law. The women of all except the higher caste prac- 
tically cannot read or write at all. The contrast in 
these respects between Japan and China is very great. 
The Japanese have labor laws, compulsory education, 
interest laws and much very progressive legislation. 
China has it all to do. 

Then, again, China is terribly in the grip of the 
white man. There are fourteen different " settlements " 


A l\ jiical Cliiiiese coolir fisluriiuiii 

in Shanghai, each one of thcni governed by some Euro- 
pean or American power. Of course, among these men 
there are some grand men, true, honest and sincere ; but 
the rank and file of them are out here to exploit the 
Chinese, squeeze the blood out of them and get back 
home with the spoils. That may seem harsh, but it is 
a fact. They hate the missionaries and Sun Yat Sen, 
Yuan Shi Kia, Wu-Ting-Fang, Wong Ching Hui, Ivan 
Chen and all the rest of the Republicans, because they 
are disturbing their game. One very prominent official 
in Hongkong has openly declared that he does not want 
to see anything done for the " damn Chinamen." They 
are having to fight their way up against great odds. 

I am persuaded of this : If I were to be a missionary 
in any non-Christian land I would want to get clear 
away from the influence of the white man. That is a 
terrible thing to say, yet I am forced to believe it, 
not only by personal observation, but by the unbroken 
testimony of the missionaries we have met. Added to 
these problems is the financial crisis of the government. 
Here is a nation of unlimited resources. No engineer 
has been found great enough to give any estimate of 
the iron ore of the interior mountains. It is so vast 
that it cannot be computed. Baron Van Richthofen, 
who was sent out by the German government to investi- 
gate the coal deposits, says that there is enough coal in 
China to supply the whole world for two thousand years. 
Their agricultural asset is also inestimable. Yet they 
seem unable thus far to get their products marketed 
to advantage, and therefore the burden of debt threatens 
almost the very life of the nation. 

However, I must not give you too somber a view, for 
notwithstanding these distressing facts, great China is 
arousing herself, and no power can stop her. They 
have mighty men ; we have met some of them. They 


have seen a great light and arc determined that the 
present order shall be changed. Tlie revolution is a 
marvel in itself. Other nations for a far less issue shed 
rivers of blood. Our own dear land purchased the 
liberty of four million slaves at an awful cost. Just 
now we are reading the story of the brutality and un- 
warranted murder and assassination of the Mexican 
rebellion and that in a land that the religious maps 
mark as Christian. The Chinese have carried 
through the most unprecedented reformation with but 
very little bloodshed. A nation was born almost in a 
day out here, and despite the jingoist, the demagogues 
and the white politicians, the best thinking people here 
have no doubt that it has come to stay. 

Then upon every hand we heard the story of the 
break-down of the old orders of religion. I myselt 
took a picture of the old temple in Kowloon where the 
idols are tumbling down and pigs had taken the place 
for a convenient pen. While this is going on, Christian- 
ity is blossoming in a thousand ways. Vastly more 
than in church buildings and members only. Hoi^pitals, 
libraries, schools, colleges, universities, medical dispen- 
saries, model prisons, homes for the blind, the deformed, 
the insane . and other unfortunates, are springing up 
everywhere. INIany of these are now under municipal 
supervision, though they freely say that Christianity 
brought the ideal. 

Here, as in Japan, I have been most interested to 
learn how far the independent, self-supporting Chinese 
Church has been developed, and that is the deepest 
cause for courage and thanksgiving. Churches of three 
hundred, four hundred, six hundred, eight hundred and 
one thousand members are not infrequent, where there 
has never been a dollar of direct missionary money in- 
vested. They are rising to their opportunities and 

Mr. C. S. I.iaiifr, of Hoiifrkoiig, t'ditor of tlu- first C'liristian 
daily i)a|)»T in China 

have a moral detcrinination that cannot easily be 
thwarted. This is evidenced not only by the rapidity 
of the revolution and the establishment of a republican 
form of government, but in the wiping out of the opium 
traffic, which is one of the marvels of the twentieth cen- 
tury. We of the west have but a poor conception of 
what was involved. Not only was there the deep- 
seated habit of the people, but the financial loss was 
terrific. The best authorities place the lowest estimate 
at .'^144,2!^5,()()0 loss in the three 3'ears necessary to 
readjust the land to other crops, to say nothing of the 
great connnercial firms that were wiped out of existence 
in a day. They anticipated the critic who said " pro- 
hibition wouldn't prohibit," and they made the violation 
of the law punishable by death. Needless to say, it 
prohibits. While investigating this, I could not help 
being ashamed of my own country on the whiskey ques- 
tion. We are nursing in our bosom a worse devil than 
opium, and are dealing out maudlin bosh about the 
property interests involved, and the fear that the law 
cannot be enforced, and a lot more cheap talk too 
ridiculous for a country that produced Abraham I^in- 
coln. The Chinese have answered that kind of stuff. 

They have also to their credit the open educational 
policy which came with one sweep. Ten years ago no 
man could think of holding any public office except he 
be a member of the " Literati," a graduate of the old 
form of Government examination. To-day it is as open 
as Canada or the United States. 

There must also be observed the cutting off of the 
" pig tails " almost in a single day. This may not be in 
the same class, but it does carry the same general lesson. 
The long cue was regarded as the insignia of the old 
order of politics and religion, and when they started, 
they finished the job. There are only a few left in 


central or soutliern C'liina. I was taking a photograph 
one day of the seven hundred students in the day edu- 
cational school of the Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion of Shanghai. A boy with a pig tail tried to slip 
into the group. You ought to have seen them go after 
him. They chased him clear over a stone wall into an- 
other street. Because of our distance from China we 
have but a poor idea of what is happening there in these 
lines. It is wonderful, and is an earnest of what may 
be expected in the years to come. 

No wonder greedy commercial men are suspicious 
of the missionaries, for on every hand it is freely com- 
mented that these " fancy notions " are the result of the 
teaching of the principles of the Gospel by the mission- 
aries. These results, plus growing churches, missions 
and Young Men's Christian Associations, answer abso- 
lutely the query about the final triumph of the Christian 
faith in great stirring China. Remembering, too, that 
^Morrison began his missionary work in 180T, and 
worked until 1814 before he baptized his first convert. 

You are expecting me to tell something of our ow^n 
work, and I must hasten or I will have wearied you be- 
fore I get to it. The message and method here again 
seemed to fit as though it had been prepared especially 
for China. I wish you men who are so vitally back of 
us could hear some of the comments of these mission- 
aries and Christian workers. American Consul-General 
Wilder of Shanghai, in bidding me goodbye, said that 
he felt it to be the greatest mission of that character 
which he had witnessed during his stay of ten years 
in the Orient. Perhaps the following letter from Rev. 
Edward Evans of the China Christian Literatui'e So- 
ciety will give you a little idea of how our work is being 


" Shanghai, China, February 22, 1913. 
Dkar Bkothkk Smith: My lioart is full of thanks- 
giving after that meeting this I'.M. You have made 
an impression here in these days beyond my most san- 
guine hopes. There has been the clear note of healthy 
utterance throughout, with the so evident endorsement 
of the Holy Spirit. God i)less you. I pray that you 
will be led to come liere again, for you have a work to 
do in this place. I feel sure of it, and shall ask the 
Lord to keep it on your heart. 

Yours in His service, 

(Rev.) Edward Evans." 

Totaling our whole work since leaving, we have held 
158 different meetings with a complete attendance of 
.'57,1 ()1. Robins has spoken 87 times and I have spoken 
88 times. The quartet has sung 84.5 times and attended 
125 meetings. 

Out of the nudtitude of impressions and thoughts 
that have been filling our minds during these days, 
there are three, I think, which take the supreme place. 

First. — The responsibility of the people of Christian 
lands to extend the Gospel to these less privileged of 
the Orient is not simply n sentimental thing. It is with 
us as an irresistible, unchangeable law. We cannot es- 
cape from it if we would. " Bear ye one another's 
burdens and so fulfil the law of Christ " will have to 
be cut out of our Bibles or else we must stand by this 
missionary program until it is finished. This is not 
only a Biblical injunction, but we westerners have been 
marvelously successful in exporting all of our vices, and 
ought to be equally diligent in extending our virtues. 
For instance, tlie open saloon with its nnisic and attend- 
ant attractions was never known in China until western 
civilization came over here and established it. I am 


told by the best authorities that chicanery in business, 
graft and the like were unknown elements in their life 
until our up-to-date western men appeared upon the 
scene. And there are other things I might name which 
are far worse. If we had no missionaries here they 
would utterly misunderstand us, and I am afraid we 
would be put down as being more heathen than any 
people on earth. Therefore not only from the Christian 
standpoint, but from the standpoint of a moral cor- 
rective, we are committed to transplanting the Christian 
gospel to this non-Christian land. And oh, how gladly 
we ought to give ourselves to it ! I thank God for the 
privilege of being over here for what we have been able 
to do, but even more than that, I am grateful for this 
little touch because it may give me a new power in 
testifying at home for the whole Foreign Missionary 

Second. — The evangelization of North America is 
essential to world success. Just as intensely as I be- 
lieve in our duty to the Orient, equally so do I believe 
that the evangelization of the world will never be accom- 
plished without the evangelization of North America. 
I would say nothing but kindest words of appreciation 
for the Christian Englishmen, Scotchmen and Germans 
I have met in Japan and China, but after all, I do not 
believe that they have quite that breadth of vision con- 
cerning the indispensable place of Christianity in the 
lives of these people that has been vouchsafed to the 
men of Canada and the United States. We of the 
North American continent are millionaires by the grace 
of God, not only in resources of money, but in capacity 
to give it away in freedom from caste and in wise method 
of attack. We ought not to boast of our leadership, 
but with great humility to proceed to see to it that the 
Christian standards at home are exalted as they never 

have been before. I have already expressed myself 
concerning the unfavorable influence of certain types of 
white men out in this needy region. The first night we 
were in Shanghai, we had the privilege of meeting with 
all of the Young Men's Christian Association secretaries 
and their families in their weekly conference and prayer 
meeting. The remarkable thing to me was that the 
burden of their anxiety and of their prayers that night 
was more largely centered upon the European and 
American men than upon the question of the conversion 
of the Chinese. That is, the winning of the Chinese 
now is comparatively an easy proposition, but when 
these missionaries met on that night, I thought there was 
some irony in the fact that they were lifting all their 
hearts in prayer that God would somehow overrule 
the distressing influences of Europeans and Americans. 
It is simply terrific to think that. these nations which we 
call Christian should be sending out to the port cities 
of this nation of 400,000,000 people, in the hour when 
it is so ready to accept Christianity, some representa- 
tives of such low morals that the missionaries who are 
sent out primarily to work for the natives have to invest 
a good deal of their power in undoing the unfavorable 
eff"ect of the non-Christians of their own lands. 

I would not have you think that from the missionary 
standpoint the battle is over, or is even past its desper- 
ate stages. The strength of the Church in the great 
centers is only equalled by the weakness of it in some 
of the interior regions. We traveled with a Methodist 
missionary printer who is running a printing establish- 
ment on the border of Tibet, and he told us of there 
being 16,000,000 Tibctians without a single missionary 
of the Gospel among them. Only a few have ever 
penetrated that region, and every one who has gone in 
was martyred. And yet the striking part of it is that 


there, on tlie border of that land of 16,000,000 people 
in absolute moral darkness and destitution, there are 
missionaries learning that language, waiting for a 
chance to get in. What a pictui-e that is of the power- 
ful urgency which the Gospel implants in the human 
heart! These missionaries who are thus waiting know 
what has been the fate of those who have gone before. 
Notwithstanding that, they are ready to be the next to 
carry the Gospel of Jesus Christ into that forbidden 

/ hope the time will come when our United States 
Government will not think of sending a man out to any 
form of official responsibility unless he is known to 
he a clean-cut, straight-out Christian man. 

Third. — I am more thoroughly convinced than ever 
before that our religion is one of supernatural origin. 
A man may be a kind of a fake Christian at home, 
where there are plenty of churches and plent}' of 
Christian restraints surrounding him, but he won't 
fake very long when you put him out in a life of this 
kind. It tells the story quickly. If his relation to 
Christ is real, he abides ; if not, he soon drops by the 
way. It is nothing short of an undertaking that verges 
on insanity to come out here and expect to see conditions 
in China and Japan redeemed by anything less than 
supernatural power. It is most interesting to talk to 
men and see the contrast. The unconverted and worldly 
man sums up his whole idea by saying " Damn the 
Chinamen I " or " Damn the Japanese ! " He sees no 
change taking place, and he dares hope for nothing bet- 
ter in the future. But these mighty warriors of God 
who have no doubt that they themselves have experienced 
a supernatural transformation, believe that that Divine 
influence which has worked wonders of grace in their 
lives, can be effective here, and they have no more sense 


than simply to proccod to apply tlio Gospel all the time, 
carrying with them, by the eye of faith, the picture 
of a rcdoemetl Orient. I do not believe I have ever 
seen a day when I had no faith in the truth of the 
Gospel of Jesus Christ, but T know I can testify now 
that it is deeper, more thoroui^hly fixed and more un- 
chan^eal)le than ever. 

All along the line, mixed in with our work, there is 
constantly an element of tremendous humor and spice 
which helps very nmch in carrying the burden of the 
work. Nine times out of ten, when we are dealing with 
the ordinary Chinaman, he gets everything we undertake 
to tell him mixed up and turned around, and finally 
docs just what you do not anticipate. While in Shang- 
hai, Alexander Hyde, who is traveling witii us, decided 
late one night, to go up to Nanking. He went back to 
the hotel while we were at a meeting, wrote me a note 
explainin£^ that he wouhl go there and would get back 
the next afternoon. Then he gave it to the " boy " and 
told him to either put it in my room or pin it on my 
door. He went away feeling that I would know just 
where he was. Fortunately, one of the clerks of the 
hotel told me he had gone, but I did not receive the 
note. When Mr. Hyde got back the next afternoon, 
he found the letter he had written to me in his own 
room, lying on the bed. He asked the boy why he 
did not give the letter to me anrl received the quiet 
answer " ^Nle no find pin yet." He was perfectly honest. 
He fully intended to deliver the letter, and was " dili- 
gently " looking for a pin, but the idea that a question 
of three or four days in the time of delivery made any 
difference, never dawned upon him. 

Then we have had great sport trying to get some 
suitable pictures. We have gotten a few, but it is al- 
most impossible to get the really typical scenes. This 


again is in contrast with Japan. There they would 
walk up with delight to be photographed. Here the 
lower classes are positively frightened out of their lives 
at the thought of having photographs taken. Women 
will grab their children and run. Men will hide their 
faces and do anything to keep away from the camera. 

In Hongkong, one of the common means of transpor- 
tation is to be carried on the shoulders of two coolies 
in a big wicker chair known as a sedan chair. This is 
not unique or a luxury. It is just as common as riding 
in a taxicab in New York City. We have tried by 
every kind of method to get a picture of one of our 
party in one of these chairs, and finally after repeated 
devices, we thought we had solved the problem. Robins, 
Lathrop and others were to stand on the side of the street 
with their camera and I was to hire a chair and ride past 
them while they snapped it. In some way these coolie 
boys got hold of the fact and they refused to take me. 
Then two policemen came up and they commanded them 
to go, for the law is that if you ask them to carry 
you they must do so. The policemen told me to get 
in and the}^ would make the boys carry me. I did, and 
the boys got under and tried to lift it but fell flat on 
the ground and said that they could not possibly carry 
me for I was " too heavy man." We worked for days 
trying to get that kind of a picture, and with five or six 
cameras in the party we came away defeated. 

Among the ordinary incidental impressions is that of 
the delightful dress of the Chinese women. It seems 
to me that the men make themselves cumbersome and un- 
comfortable. They wear long, heavy gowns which must 
be burdensome, but of all the places I have ever visited, 
it seems to me that the dress of the women in China is 
the most sensible and unique. They wear some kind of 
a silk kimona or mandrin, which comes about to the 


knees, then loose, silk pantaloons, and now most of them 
have full-sized, comfortable slippers. Better than all 
else, they wear just a little simple cap in place of the 
vulgar, good-for-nothing, unscriptural, unsanitary, 
crazy headgear of our American women. I would be 
willing to raise a fund of a million dollars, and I am 
sure I could get it, if I could get as reasonable a method 
of dress for the women of the white nations as have 
these Chinese women. It is sanitary, it is modest and 
apparently comfortable, while our women indulge in 
the most unsanitary, immodest combination, and appear 
to be inflicting self-torture equal to any footbinding 
the Chinese ever knew. 

Another one of those impressions that does not ex- 
actly classify itself anywhere, and yet one with which 
we are all of us equalh' concerned, is the folly of the 
attempt on the part of our various denominations to 
transplant their denominational distinctions into China, 
and indeed into the whole Orient for that matter. I had 
interviews with six of the greatest Chinese leaders of 
Christian activities. None of them wished to have their 
names quoted, for they did not want to seem to be out 
of harmony with their own denominations. Every man 
in the lot said that this is one of the most serious prob- 
lems in the way of the progress of the Church. The 
whole system is so utterly meaningless to them that for 
the most part they are confused, and the stronger and 
educated ones are disgusted. I do not know that we 
can blame any one in particular for this, for it is only 
the result of a highly intensified denominationalism in 
the home countries, but it is positively a calamity. It 
would seem as though we ought to have progressed far 
enough to understand the real spirit of the Gospel 
sufficiently to call together the Protestant church forces 
and in some way to simplify the method of procedure 


for the future. There is no more sense m having all 
the denominations hammering away out here, trying to 
propagate themselves, than there would be for the 
Fourth National Bank to have four different presidents 
speaking four different languages. Not only is it con- 
fusing and disturbing to the minds of both the Japanese 
and the Chinese, but the cruel waste of money in the 
administration is absurd. 

Before closing this letter, I want once more to speak 
of the tremendous power and unique significance of the 
Associations out here. One of the greatest laymen in 
China, a man who has repeatedly represented his nation 
at foreign posts, and has figured very conspicuously in 
the revolution and in the organization of the republic, 
told me that he felt as though the Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association must have been ordained from Heaven 
just to fit into the situation of the Chinese young men. 
Take just one Association, which I am told is only 
typical of many others, that at Shanghai. They have 
1,900 members in the Association, with TOO men enrolled 
in day educational classes, and over 500 in systematic 
Bible study. Not a month passes but that they send 
young men to the churches for Christian baptism. 

We of the North American Associations ma}'^ well 
be thankful to God for the men who have been set 
apart to represent us. I have heard nothing but words 
of deepest appreciation for their work. We were sorry 
to miss great Brockman at Shanghai. He was com- 
pelled to go on north with IVIott before we reached there, 
but from one end of the land to the other his name is 
the synonym for unselfish and efficient service. I do 
not think I am doing any injustice to any other men iij 
Christian callings in China to say that he easily takes 
rank as the greatest man in the nation, so far as mis- 
sionary statesmanship is involved. 


If there is any time in our work when we do not have 
a meeting to go to, we are never at a loss for something 
to do, for when everything else fails, we are compelled 
to go out and buy some clothes to try to keep in har- 
mony with the now style at each place we visit, or else 
to go out and get our " money changed." When we 
started, I thought we had the orthodox outfit. Each 
man was carrying two business suits, one cutaway, one 
frock coat and one full dress outfit. But, dear me, that 
won't get anywhere in the Orient. When we got to 
Japan, we had to get a certain kind of a slipper or 
else we could not get into half the places we wanted to 
visit. I lost ten pounds getting up and down, taking off 
my shoes and putting on those slippers. Then there 
has been some new angle to about every new city that 
had to be met, until I am now up to eleven full suits 
of clothes and six extra pairs of trousers. I expect 
to start a clothing store on Third Avenue when I get 
back, and I will put some of those famous clothiers who 
come from near the ancient Sea of Galilee clear out of 
business. Along with this, money changing is a fright. 
In some places in China you have to carry foui'teen 
different kinds of money, for every time you cross a 
street, you are in a new " settlement " and that involves a 
different currency. You can start with ten dollars in 
the morning, thinking that you are going to make a 
small purchase, and begin to change your money to try 
to get in harmony with each settlement, and then decide 
you are going to try another place, so change your 
money again and you can come back to the hotel about 
" tiffin " time witliout a cent and without having made 
a single purchase. You simply lose the whole business 
with exchangers' fees. I have made one solemn resolu- 
tion. When I get home I am going to put on an old 
flannel shirt and a pair of blue overalls, sit down on the 


front porch, stick my feet over the railing, and sit 
there for one full afternoon without changing my money 
or my clothes. 

In a few hours we will be landing in Manila. We 
have already received the advance program for our 
work there, and are assured of a typical eight-day cam- 
paign. They have a committee of seventy men organ- 
ized, and are going to have everything that we had in 
any of our best campaigns at home last year. I can 
hardly express to you our sense of gratitude to Almighty 
God to-day. From the night we left New York City 
until this present hour, every campaign we have held, 
with one exception, has been up to a high point of 
power and efficiency. We were somewhat disappointed 
in Hongkong. I do not think they ever quite under- 
stood what we were trying to accomplish. With that 
one exception, the work has been perfectly grand. God 
has opened the door wide for us, and we are trying to 
be faithful. 

With warmest love and increasing appreciation of 
the privilege we have in taking this message around the 
world, I am, 

Yours as always, 

Fred. B. Smith. 



En route on Stcunicr Kumano Maru, Manila to Bris- 
bane, Australia, March 18, 1913. 

Dear Mr, Canxox : Once again we are out on the 
big blue sea and are having one of our longest pulls — 
thirteen days between ^Manila and Brisbane, Australia. 
I am dictating this message just as we are about to 
cross the equator. Of course, we are all more or less 
nervous about it, and although this is the fifth time I 
have been across, yet one never becomes entirely immune 
from anxiety, for, as you understand, we have to find 
one of those open places to pass through, and if the 
ship, through any inadvertent error on the part of the 
Captain, should miss one of these gateways, it may be 
very serious. We liave been consoled all day long, how- 
ever, by Peck, the optimistic member of our party, who 
says he has been told that the government has widened 
these equatorial passages and that we will probably get 
through with a good deal of comfort and safety. One 
cheerful passenger tells us that it is recorded in history 
that not infrequently ships have broken right in two in 
the middle by the severe strain in going over the line, 
and therefore you can sympathize with our fears. 
Then, of course, we have all the time to cherish the 
tliouglit that wlien we once get over the equator, we have 
to get back or eternally stay, and much as we are all in 
love with the Southern Cross, I have the impression that 
every man in tlic party is confitlently contemplating a 
return to tiie Ignited States. Therefore, discomforting 
as the thought may be, we have to think of crossing 
the equator twice. 


In the messages wlilch I am sending back to you, I 
tliink you liave already discovered that there is some 
difficulty in attempting to write a report that is fair to 
all the people in the countries we are visiting, but I de- 
clare to you that I do not know how to tell you what 
is in my heai't concerning Manila. One impulse is to 
write a letter of scathing denunciation of the old order 
there, and of some of the flimsy present-day methods, 
but I know that would be entirely unfair to all the facts, 
and so I am bewildered and am sure I will write inade- 

Perhaps no one. morning of the whole trip will live 
longer with us than that one when Robins and I were 
up at about three o'clock to get the first sight of the 
famous Philippine Islands. We have worked in beauti- 
ful Honolulu and have not forgotten those days of great 
privilege. We have worked under the little round red 
and white Japanese flag and have fallen in love with 
its people. We have seen something of China, and have 
been tremendously stirred by its need in its great port 
cities, but from the standpoint of American interests, 
we were most anxious to see and begin our work in 

As the gray dawn broke over the hills and mountains, 
and our good ship the Derfflinger slipped quietly into 
the harbor, we renewed in memory that eventful May 
1, 1898, when Dewey went in there with the fleet, and 
so triumphantly sunk the Spanish ships, put up the 
stars and stripes, and thus changed the history of the 
Orient. I am satisfied that the full significance of that 
May morning will not be understood for a hundred 
years to come. Dewey was the human instrument, and 
the sinking of the Maine under the shadow of INIoro 
Castle in Havana harbor, was a part of the way of 
bringing it about, but I never believed more thoroughly 


in my life that God led in any event than I now believe 
that His matchless wisdom was guiding those ships in 
Manila harbor that morning. It was not for national 
glory or American expansion, but for the sake of human 
liberty. Just as surely as Abraham Lincoln was needed 
for the four million people in slavery in our southern 
states, just so surely was there needed some power to be 
raised up for the delivery of seven millions of people 
who were in the vicious, tyrannical grip of an un- 
scrupulous system. As we neared the breakwater and 
the docks, I do not believe I ever saw the stars and 
stripes when they waved more gloriously. 

Words will utterly fail me, I am sure, to fully ex- 
press the cordiality of our reception. We were met by 
the members of the local committee, led by our big two- 
hundred-pound Young Men's Christian Association sec- 
retary. Toner. Very soon after we were on shore, we 
were hustled away to the City Hall, where the jNIayor, 
Hon. Felix M. Roxas, with the members of the City 
Council were waiting to give us our official welcome. 
After we had been properly and most graciously re- 
ceived, they sent us on an automobile ride through the 
city to visit the places of greatest interest. We were 
also informed that we were to spend one day at Baguio, 
the mountain capital, to which the Government officials 
move, bag and baggage, during the hot season of the 
year, and that Governor-General Forbes had declared a 
half holiday in order that all of the Government officials 
might be able to attend the meetings. 

As though these tokens were not sufficient, we were 
informed that President Horace L. Higgins of the Ma- 
nila Railroad Company, had granted us a special train 
free of expense to take us up to Baguio and return. I 
must a little later say something especially about the 


day in Baguio, but this much reference to it as a part of 
our v.elconie. 

That night at the Manihi Hotel, which, by the way, 
is fine enough to grace any city in the world, we were 
met by two hundred and thirty-four of the most repre- 
sentative men of every form of life, at the opening 
banquet of the campaign. Thus you can see how 
favorable was our entrance into this American territor;y 
of the far East. 

We found it somewhat difficult after the first excite- 
ment of the reception, to get our minds down to the real 
issue of our Men and Religion campaign, and we also 
found it difficult to centralize the thought of the com- 
munity upon it, for we were anxious to study the ques- 
tion of the Philippine Islands, and those resident there 
were anxious to know what were our impressions, and 
to learn whether we had any inside information about 
the future attitude of the American Government towards 
the islands. 

Before we were granted the privilege of reading letters 
from home, we were handed the ]\Ianila morning paper 
dated March 5th, which had in it the list of President 
Wilson's new Cabinet. The air was charged with un- 
certainty, anxiety and expectation, for many of these 
men have staked everything upon the permanent 
progress of the Philippine Islands, and to them at least, 
this progress is only secure by the continuance of the 
American administration. 

I have known something of the problem of coloniza- 
tion, having had the privilege of visiting a good many 
of the British, Dutch and German colonies, and I was 
exceedingly anxious to know how our Americans were 
going to appear at the end of fifteen years of such 
experience, twelve thousand miles away from home. 


From the evidence we were able to secure, in ninety per 
cent of the illustrations, I was proud of them. 

As accurately as we could get the story, when the 
American troops went into Manila, they found it in a 
horrible state physically, unfit for human beings to 
live in, in all except a small section, carefully guarded 
for Spanish officers and friars. This is no dream. I 
talked with many Filipinos and Spaniards who have lived 
there during all the years, and their descriptions were 
fierce. As you entered the old Walled City, it was sur- 
rounded by what was called the moat, filled with stag- 
nant water, with old flirty caribou wallowing in it. The 
streets were heaped up with accumulated filth. No 
sewers, no electric lights, no decent water, and only one 
abandoned, unkept park. The years have transformed 
it into a place of beauty. The streets in all except one 
small portion, are cleaner than most of the streets in 
cities of the same size in the United States. The moat 
has been filled in and to-day it is a vast plot of ground 
covered with beautiful green grass. In the afternoons 
literally thousands of men and boys are playing base- 
ball, volley ball and tennis in the location of the old 
foul, stagnant pools. The Luneta, the park at the 
water front, bids fair to become one of the beauty spots 
of the world. A modern system of sewerage has been 
installed, and an electric-light system reached into every 
corner of the city. While many of the old native 
quarters still remain with the rude bamboo cabins, yet 
they are clean and pure. 

I will not undertake to describe some of the moral 
conditions, for they were indescribable. To-day there 
is not a gambling house in Manila — NOT ONE. The 
police are on the track of them as hot as anything I 
ever saw. To me, one of the most striking things is the 
fact that here in a city of nearly three hundred thousand 


population, they have only twenty licensed saloons. If 
some of the clubs and hotels Avould eliminate the drunk- 
enness which they tolerate, drunkenness would be reduced 
to a very small amount. Is it not enough to break 
your heart to note this fact — low-down, brawling drunk- 
enness, not only in Manila, but in Hongkong, Shanghai, 
New York, London and Philadelphia, is coming to be 
found vastly more in the stylish club and hotel than in 
the old-time groggery ? This was most manifest to us in 
Manila. Street drunkenness is very seldom seen there. 

The social vice, Avhile not under that control which 
it ought to be and will be, is reduced almost to the mini- 
mum. No immoral street characters are seen. 

On the afternoon we were taken about to see the city, 
we witnessed the exhibition by about the most perfect 
Fire Department system which I have seen in operation. 
All unknown to the firemen. Assistant Chief Samuelson, 
who was with us, stopped at one of the fire boxes, 
turned in an alarm and had the department respond. 
They ran three blocks with their electric engine, at- 
tached the hose, and had two streams of water in the air 
in less than a minute and a half. We visited the general 
hospital, which has been built during the last five years. 
I think the Trustees of Hahnemann could well afford 
to send out some of their specialists to examine that 
hospital, for I do not believe New York City has any- 
thing more perfect. It is a marvel for completeness. 
They have three hundred and fifty nurses and forty 
doctors. When our representatives went into the 
islands, they found a people sick, diseased and dying, 
and but little being done in a scientific way to remedy 
the conditions. The annual deaths from smallpox were 
over five thousand only ten years ago. To-day they 
are less than six hundred. Some of those other plagues 
and epidemics which formerly swept the islands and 


carried off thousands in a few days, are absolutely un- 
known now. 

We visited Bilibid prison, went through it, and had 
the same impression concerning its modern supervision. 
The stories of tlie old prison life arc enough to cliill 
your blood, and to make you feel as though the Spanish- 
American war did not last long enough. 

So far as public schools were concerned, when Dewey's 
fleet went into Manila Harbor, there was practically 
no such a thing known in the whole realm of the islands. 
To-day, from one end of the countr}^ to the other, there 
are springing up public schools, under the remarkable 
leadership of Commissioner White, and his assistant. 
Professor McGec, which will rank favorably with those 
of any land under the sun. 

I spoke in the Normal School in Manila to a thousand 
young Filipinos who are being trained there, and who 
will go out as the real makers of the new civilization 
of the Philippine Islands. I also spoke in the School 
of Commerce, where five hundred young men are being 
trained in the modem methods of commerce and busi- 
ness. They also have in Manila a Trades School with 
over five hundred boys, which unfortunately we did not 
have time to visit. There are a thousand American 
school teachers in the Islands, and they are the leaders 
of eight thousand native instructors, all of whom have 
been developed during the past fifteen years. 

I would not have given you a fair statement of Ma- 
nila if I failed to mention beautiful Fort McKinley. I 
have visited, I think, most of our largest garrisons 
throughout the whole republic, but certainly there is 
not one that excels in beauty and order Fort McKinley. 
We found 1,600 men there under the superb leadership 
of Col. William J. Nicholson. In the fort is a Young 
Men's Christian Association with nearly a thousand 


members, and a building which looks about the size 
of the Young Men's Christian Association building on 
Twenty-third Street. It is the largest Army Young 
Men's Christian Association in the world. The moral 
regulations concerning the soldiers stationed there are 
the most perfect I have ever known. As an illustration, 
any soldier found walking the streets anywhere with 
a Filipino woman is placed in the guard-house for six 
days and fined ten dollars. The same penalty is im- 
posed upon any soldier found in a dance hall. Other 
regulations are quite as binding, with the result that 
those attendant physical results wiiich follow drunken- 
ness and the like, are reduced to the minimum. Out of 
the 1,600 men there, only forty-nine were on the hospital 
list. I have been told many times that soldiers would 
rebel against regulations of this kind. Instead of that, 
they would cheer to the echo when you referred to the 
binding moral obligations which were being imposed 
upon them. 

This much is positively sure. The American Govern- 
ment has proven beyond any possible doubt its capacity 
for worthy colonization. I wish other great nations 
which are engaged in a system of colonization vastly 
greater than ours, would send their representatives to 
Manila and see what is being done there. Observe 
the spirit that characterizes it, and the type of men in 
Government service. The contrast here with conditions 
in some other cities we have visited, is simply enormous. 
I do not mean by this that in every case the men who 
have held public office under our Government in the 
Philippine Islands have been worthy men. There are 
a few of them who have been a disgrace to themselves, 
to the people and the flag they represent, but they 
are in the minority. It is not my purpose to attempt 
to write you a symposium of the results of American 


invasion of the far East. Volumes would be necessary 
to do that, but I do want to testify that they have 
" made good," and ought to be honored and not abused. 
I only wish that all of our home people could actually 
see what has been wrought there in a few years. 

I am thoroughly convinced, however, that we were 
led of God to go there just at this time, with the 
Men and Religion message, because, without any ques- 
tion, the place where there, is greatest tension, the most 
critical need, and in some respects the greatest unrest, 
is in the realm of Christian life. Christian work and the 
Church. It is freely commented upon every hand, both 
by those who are warm advocates of the Church and 
the Christian organizations, and also by those who are 
not only indifferent, but antagonistic to the Church that 
religious work has not developed in an3'thing like the 
degree exemplified in other enterprises. 

I have said a good deal about the developments along 
physical, educational and moral lines. If you can go 
back to the genesis of it all, you will find the influence 
of Christianity, but the sad part is that the men who 
are promoting these elements of real Christian enter- 
prise do not admit that they have any relation to the 
Church, and in many cases seem anxious to declare an 
absolute independence from all such connections. We 
met and heard one man who takes high rank among the 
men Avho have rendered noble service in behalf of the 
interior peoples. He took particular pains to empha- 
size his non-religious attitude, but at the same time, 
gave a graphic account of his Christian ancestry in 
New England. His motives, his ideals and his moral 
energy were imparted to him by an intense church life, 
but he seems to feel it entirely foreign to wliat he is 
now doing in public service. He is only typical of 


many sti'ong men we met. Therefore the Men and Re- 
ligion Movement came at a critical and needy time. 

We had a marvelous ten days' work, in view of all 
the conditions surrounding us. We held meetings of 
every kind and description that we ever held anywhere, 
plus a very unique opportunity^ at Fort McKinley, 
where I had the privilege of speaking three nights to 
about six hundred soldiers each night. 

I do not know whether you will be interested in the 
complete figures, but they are very interesting to us. 
While in Manila, we held forty meetings with a total 
attendance of 13,772 people. Mr. Robins and I each 
spoke twenty-three times. 

The above, added to what I gave you in my last let- 
ter, makes a total of 198 different meetings held, with 
a total attendance of 51,933 people. The quartet 
has sung 413 times. Robins has spoken 118 times and 
I have spoken 119 times. 

I must tell you a little more about Baguio. It is 
situated in the Benguet mountains, 150 miles to the 
north of Manila, in a place of unexcelled beauty. 
To this place the Government moves its operations for 
about three or four months of the most heated season 
of the year. They were also anxious to have the Govern- 
ment officials come into contact with our message that, 
as I have already indicated, they arranged for a special 
train to carry us up by night, thus economizing the 
day for work, and a half holiday for all employees. 
If Tammany Hall had been in the saddle, I am afraid 
it would have been different. We had there 228 men 
at luncheon, and in the afternoon, in the open amphi- 
theater, with the great General J. Franklin Bell acting 
as host, we had 494 people. You can readily see that 
these audiences were very influential, for we had Govern- 


nicnt officials iind men of tiic very higiiest rank in mili- 
tary power. 

The afternoon meeting was held in wiiat I am sure is 
the most beautiful open amphitheater in all the world, 
so far as I have knowledge. It has been built by Gen- 
eral Bell, not for his own pleasure, but for the people 
to enjoy for all the years, in musical, patriotic, educa- 
tional and religious assemblages. This was the first 
public gathering in it, and took the form of a dedication. 
It is a place of indescribable beauty. It must be seen 
to be realized. Robins and I each spoke, and in that 
vast place, you could hear literally to the last seat, 
so perfect are the acoustic properties. The whole meet- 
ing was most impressive, but reached a climax, when at 
the close. General Bell beckoned to the officers at the 
rear to send the Igorots down to him. They came to 
the front and stood in a line with their scant dress, 
while the old General stood by their side and addressed 
the people, telling of their faithfulness as workmen, 
for they were the men who really built the place. There 
were a good many tear-dimmed eyes as the people wit- 
nessed that grand man's unwillingness to have those 
poor natives who had worked so hard, forgotten in 
that opening meeting. Kvery man in our party left 
there that night, feeling that since leaving New York, 
no one single day had reached so far in influence as 
that one. 

Had there been no meetings to be held, it would have 
been a wonderful trip just for the ride. The railroad 
runs a line witliin seventeen miles of the mountain. 
From there, " Camp One," we took automobiles up 
steep roads and over narrow gorges. Probably the 
ride from Boidder to Estes I*ark in the Rocky Moun- 
tains is equal to it, but that is the only one I know 
which is to be compared with it. We climbed 5,000 


feet, and passed around great gorges and precipices 
where it would almost take your breath away to think 
of running an automobile. You can get a little im- 
pression of the condition of the country when I note 
that in returning, the railroad would not pick us up 
at " Camp One," where they left us in the moniing, 
but made us take automobiles fifty miles farther down 
the line. We made this, starting from Baguio at 
8:40 in the evening. You have done some mountain 
climbing in automobiles during your day, but even with 
your generalship and Thomas' sense, I do not believe 
you would tackle that ride. 

So far as results are concerned, I do not care to 
attempt very much in the way of statistical tabulation, 
but there are some things that are worthy of peculiar 
comment. In evangelistic results, I would not dare tell 
you the number of young men who professed to accept 
Christ and who manifested a renewed interest in the 
Christian life. The definite evangelistic results were 
tremendous both at Fort McKinley and in the city of 
Manila. The churches have united in a larger federated 
effort. Without any doubt the strongest Christian 
business man in the city, and one who had not interested 
himself very much in this kind of work, has given 
pledge to leadership in the conservation work. Perhaps 
in the follow-up work, the two places where there will 
be the largest permanent results, will be in a better 
campaign for boys, for not much has been done in 
this line, and in an intensified definite Christian Social 
Service propaganda. 

There are a thousand things I would like to say to 
you about the Philippine Islands — their future and 
our relation to them, but time, space and your patience 
will not permit of too much. But there are a few im- 


cr; J_ 

> = 

prcssioiis that 1 would not feel 1 had been just to my- 
self, to the party nor to you if I did not express. 

First. — The PhiUppinc Islands are to have a great 
future. They have resources that are simply unlimited. 
No man can estimate them. We know now something 
of the conunercial value in hemp, rice, cocoa fibre, to- 
bacco, sugar cane and minerals, but not one of them 
has as yet been touched in its possibilities. Take just 
one illustration. By most accurate surveys, there are 
68,000,000 acres of immediately tillable land— 68,- 
000,000 acres that could be put under cultivation to- 
morrow if there were workmen ready for the task. Of 
the 68.000,000, less than 8,000,000 acres are now under 
cultivation. In acreage, the Philippine Islands will far 
exceed the Hawaiian Islands. I do not know in what 
proportion, but it is very great. In fertility and favor- 
able clinr.ite, they are fully equal to the Hawaiian group. 
It has not as yet entered into the mind of man what 
the rice, sugar, com, cocoa fibre and mineral resources 
may some day become. Three days' sail to the west, 
three days' to the northwest and seven days to the 
north, places the Philippine Islands within the reach 
of nearly 800,000,000 people, one-half of whom are 
poorly fed. And here, 60,000,000 acres of rich ground 
are lying waste. 

Does it not appeal to you as a great piece of work 
in the nanie of God and for humanity, to have these 
resources released that the hungry may be fed and 
the naked clothed.'' 

Second. — The American Government is essential to 
this development. I am not a politician, as you know, 
but I am at such a point of intensity upon this question 
that if I thought our Government was going to be so 
positively absurd as to stop now its beneficent work in 
the Philippine Islands, I would start home to-day and 


campaign the country to create a sentiment against 
that idea. You can go into Manila and meet a few 
of those very choice cultured Filipinos, spend a day or 
two at banquets and functions and possibly go out 
with the idea that they are ready for complete inde- 
pendent self-government. But we had a pretty good 
opportunity to get a fair estimate of the whole situation. 
I went on a ride of a hundred and twenty miles into 
the country in an automobile and passed through small 
villages all along the way from Manila to San Pablo. 
About twenty of them. No man could dream of any- 
thing more foolish than to think of turning over to 
complete self-government that district, which is one of 
the best in the whole Islands. Add to that the fact 
that they have 400,000 wild men in the north, and about 
500,000 more in the south, absolutely wild, " head 
hunters," who would be moving on Manila inside of 
thirty days if they heard that the American soldiers 
had withdrawn, and it makes your blood tingle to think 
that anybody would propose to leave that situation now. 
I am persuaded that not only would the great work 
of education and uplift stop if our influence were re- 
moved, but I am also persuaded that it would go back 
to a state worse than it was before the Spanish-Ameri- 
can war. God knows the Spanish administration was 
bad enough, but that would not compare with the hor- 
rors of that people if left entirely to themselves at this 
period. And the saddest part of it all is that without 
any doubt, those who are most deserving would be 
those to suffer most. I can assure you, my dear friend, 
that this is not simply the echo of the views expressed 
by the Americans resident there, nor of a few office 
holders who might be suspected of an ulterior motive, 
but it is the pronounced view of some of the finest type 
of Filipinos whom we met. I talked with one native who 


is a man of fine training, splendid business ability and 
a thorough Filipino patriot. He gave it as his un- 
qualified judgment that such an action on the part of 
the American government would be disastrous to the 
whole future of his country. We have as a fellow 
passenger on tlie ship en route to Australia, Rt. Rev. 
Gilbert White, one of the Australian bishops of the 
Church of England, who has been in the Philippine 
Islands for a month on a tour with Bishop Brent, visit- 
ing the interior places. He, of course, is an entirely 
disinterested man, but he is just as strong in his state- 
ment of the necessity for the American administration 
remaining in the Philippine Islands as am I. I cannot 
quite express to you how deeply we all feel upon this 
question, for after our contact with that people, and 
with the issues involved, we feel that for our Govern- 
ment to withdraw would be one of the saddest pages in 
American history, and that inside of ten years, when 
some power would certainly have to go back there to 
carry out what has so well begun, we would be the 
laughing stock of the powers of the world for our folly 
and neglect. 

I do not protend to be a scientific man in matters of 
government, but I think I know a little of what is in- 
volved, and I have been trying, while writing you, to 
think of some plausible reason for such an action. Of 
course, it would sound very beautiful to say that after 
these years, we had withdrawn and given that people 
their liberty, but instead of liberty, just as sure as 
God lives, it would mean slavery, servitude and defeat 
for tens of thousands of people who are now on their 
way to a better life. 

I am fully aware of the fact that there are some 
grave dangers to be avoided. When the clever com- 
mercial American gets a full realization of the many 


possibilities in the Philippine Islands, his greed for 
gain will have to be restrained or he will go over there 
with commercial trickery and combinations which will 
wring the very juice out of the country at the cost of 
its people. This peril must be guarded against, and 
it will take a strong hand. There is also the hungry, 
unscrupulous politician to be reckoned with. He will 
have to be watched, lest public office degenerate into 
a bargain counter for paying off political debts. It 
is to be a country of such marvelous beauty in scenery 
that the adventurer and the man of low morals will 
have to be guarded against, and ought to be notified 
that he is not wanted there. Already our representa- 
tives are serving that notice in no unmistakable. manner. 
But our nation is big enough to render an unselfish 
service there, and to give the whole world an illustration 
of what can be accomplished by the best blood of 
our best people. China, with 400,000,000 people, is 
just across the little narrow stream of water, asking 
for a guide to better days. Japan is unfolding, but 
is poorly prepared for all that is ahead of her. It 
seems to me that the stars and stripes ought to remain 
at this place which seems to have been given to us so 
providentially, and at the doorway of these other na- 
tions, to render a hitherto unknown, unselfish service. 
I could plead for a continuance of the American ad- 
ministration, not for gain in commerce, not for a mili- 
tary base from which to whip the world sometime, not 
to boast of more acres and dominion, but in the name 
of God and humanity, to give a clearer illustration than 
history has yet recorded of a strong power giving its 
life to redeem a weaker people, and to lift them up. 
I cannot conceive of any reason why fullest autonomy 
cannot be granted to the Filipino people, and yet have 
it done under the protection of our own country. The 


Filipino people need us. Their best blood responds to 
that fact, and I wonder if it may not be that we, as a 
nation, need the Filipinos. As certainly as I believe 
God was guiding in that hour when Dewey sailed into 
Manila Harbor with liis fleet, just so surely do I believe 
that there is yet a duty to be performed in His name, 
and to withdraw would, in my judgment, mean the 
setting of the clock back upon the whole Orient by 
scores of years. 

Third. — The supreme need of the Philip pine Islands 
is for a stronger demonstration of a pure Christianity. 
In what I am about to say, I would not want you to 
get the impression that the forces of Christianity are 
not strong in many respects, for they are. Bishop 
Brent, of the Protestant Episcopal Church is there, and 
he alone is a tower of strength. The various mission- 
ary boards which are represented have some able men. 
Bible societies have done a wonderful work in disseminat- 
ing the scriptures in the various native languages. The 
Young Men's Christian Association in the city of Manila 
is a tremendous power in the community. I would not 
seem to be unnn'ndful of the faithful, self-sacrificing 
service rendered by these Christian workers, but as 
compared with the population, and as compared with 
the issues, the whole force combined is inadequate to the 
situation. They would say this even more freely than 
would I. I have no fear whatever in sa^nng that, with- 
out any exception, I believe this presents the most criti- 
cal situation we have faced, so far as definite spiritual 
Christian work is concerned. 

In the first place, here is the terrible task of present- 
ing Christianity in a country, which on the map is 
already marked as " Christian." When we were in 
Japan and China, the issue was well defined. We had 
there to make a presentation which would convince men 


that Christianity was better than Buddhism, Moham- 
medanism or Shintoism, and while we always faced a 
stubborn resistance, there was never any doubt about 
the result. And there was no embarrassment in press- 
ing the claim. But when you get to Manila, it is a 
new situation entirely. Here it is a question of proving 
that one type of Christianity is better than another, 
and also the embarrassment of making use of any illus- 
tration or arguments which would seem to be " omnibus " 
in their character as applied to the Roman Catholic 
Church, for we are all the time reminded of those great, 
noble souls of the Roman Catholic Church with whom 
we are so well acquainted in the home country. But 
the degenerate form of Roman Catholicism which was 
developed in the Philippine Islands is in many ways 
worse to deal with than Buddhism or Shintoism. I do 
not mean that they did not do anything. They did some 
things, but the record of Friar domination will stand 
as one of the blackest pages in human history. If you 
want to stir up a riot, all you have to do, almost any- 
where in the Philippine Islands, is to mention the Friars. 
Of course we know that they were not Christians in the 
time sense of the word. They took the Divinest thing 
on earth and made havoc for their own sensual desires. 
But in the face of this terrible history, Protestant Chris- 
tianity has now to make its way. 

In the second place, of all the cities I have ever visited, 
I think I have never come into contact with such cpn- 
fusing ideas as to what it means to be a Christian. 
Some Americans have gone out there who professed 
to be church men at home, and have so compromised 
themselves that it is very difficult to discover any differ- 
ence between them and men of no religious profession. 
Some of these nearly had a fit because I dared to refer 
fo whiskey, and even feigned to look with great sur- 


prise that whiskey drinking should be listed as one of 
the things not to be tolerated by professing Chris- 
tians. I cannot tell how many times I was taken out 
in a comer by confidential advisers who wanted to per- 
suade me that Manila was " peculiar," and that a 
Christian man could do things there that he would not 
think of doing in New York City, Washington, Phila- 
delphia, Boston or Chicago. Not all of the professing 
Christian men, i)v any means, have surrendered to this 
view. There are men who hold the standards just as 
high and pure and good and true as the day they left 
San Francisco. But there are enough of the other type 
to have complicated the whole church question, and to 
make it exceedingly difficult to persuade non-Christian 
men that there is any power or necessity in the Chris- 
tian life for them. 

In the third place, Protestant Christianity is very 
much weakened by unnecessary divisions. I do not find 
it easy to deal calmly with this element of the situation. 
Instead of one, or at most two strong churches in the 
city of Manila, we found four, every one of them strug- 
gling for life, poorly supported and not able to make a 
real impression upon the entire community. I would 
not censure those earnest men who have been sent out 
there, and I would not censure overmuch the men at home 
whom they represent, for all of it is the expression of 
a very noble and worthy desire. But the result is de- 
plorable. Now they are trying to consolidate, but the 
problem is very difficult, in view of the fact that all 
of the machinery of the four different denominations is 
now in operation. Notwithstanding the noble sentiment 
which prompted the various Missionary Societies in 1898 
to send their representatives thither, I refuse to believe 
that a God of wisdom, by His spirit, prompted that 
method of procedure. Had the forces at home been 


sufficiently united, tliere could have been one demon- 
stration of real spiritual power. Let the past, how- 
ever, be what it is ; it does seem to me that such a blun- 
der ought to be averted in the future. Not only in 
Manila, but all along the way, I have been thinking of 
what a wonderful service ought to be rendered to the 
cause of the Kingdom of Jesus Christ throughout the 
whole earth if the Federal Council of Churches in 
America can be brought to its full place of power. Had 
it been sufficiently active in 1898, it might have been 
the agency to have led in a wiser propaganda through- 
out the Philippine Islands. 

In the fourth place, the country is filled with that 
type of men of whom I have already written, who back 
in the States, got their vision of life, service and good 
morals from their vital church contact, and who are 
now in the Philippine Islands rendering most splendid 
humanitarian service, and yet, who are not onh^ indif- 
ferent to but decry the Church. Some of them, of 
course, are embarrassed by the complicated situations 
which obtain with reference to the Roman Catholic 
Church. Some of them, perhaps, have become discour- 
aged with the inadequate efforts being made by the pres- 
ent church forces, but whatever the cause, they stand 
as a very serious handicap to definite Christian work. 
Very naturally men point to them and to their noble 
service and say that if men live such lives and i*ender 
such service without relation to the Church, why should 
we younger men think seriously of this question.'' In 
view of the fact that you and I know that this kind of 
service will not be abiding, and also that the sons and 
grandsons of tliese very men will not render that kind 
of service if the definite Christian motive is eliminated, 
I believe that there is no spot in the world which pre- 


sents a greater opportunity for vital Christian effort 
than in our own Philippine Islands. 

I do not feel discouraged about it for I am sure the 
program of the pure gospel of Jesus Christ and the 
open Bible is going to win, but it is a big job. It is 
worthy of big men and of loyal, generous support on 
the part of the home people. 

I feel as though I would not be fair to all the incidents 
of our visit and work in the Philippine Islands if I failed 
to speak once more of the splendid influence and co-oper- 
ation of the E. H. Fallows party. They preceded us 
by nearly a month. Bishop Fallows, in an interview, 
had commended our work most heartily, and Mr. E. H. 
Fallows had said such kind things to the business men 
wjiom he met that they wore ready to welcome us. Dur- 
ing the campaign in Manila, I tliink there were a good 
many men who felt that we were putting the pressure 
on rather vigorously, but the earnest approval of the 
Fallows party helped us to hold our position securely. 
Mr. Fallows' conduct and business methods were those 
of so splendid a Christian type that I am a little in 
doubt as to who preached the biggest sermon — the 
" Men and Religion team," or the " Fallows party." 
One thing is sure, the two worked together admirably. 

As I close this letter, and we begin to get our minds 
fixed upon our work in Australia, I want to tell you 
how deeply every man in the party is feeling the sense 
of gratitude to God. We have traveled nearly 18,000 
miles. We have been in every type of climate, on every 
kind of a ship, on every kind of a sea, in every kind of 
a hotel, which, it seems to me, anybody could find, and 
we have all been in perfect health. As I have already 
said, Ave have held one hundred and ninety-eight meet- 
ings, and during all the time not one man of the whole 
group has been incapacitated for service. Vaccination 


made us a little weary and languid for a few days, but 
no serious thing has befallen any one of us. Therefore 
we are moving steadily forward and praying for yet a 
greater measure of grace. 

As you have opportunity, say a word of greeting 
to every one of the dear friends at home. I go over 
them in my mind many times, and there is not a day 
passes but that, as we meet in our little daily Bible 
study together, we offer prayer that those behind us 
may be kept constantly in the love and power of God. 
Yours very sincerely, 

Fred. B. Smith. 



On White Star Liner Persic, Australia to South Africa, 
May 1, 1913. 

My dear Mr. Cannon: Once more we have closed 
our charts, diagrams, discussions, books and mouths, 
for a few days, and are at sea, resting and thinking it 
all over. The rapid cannonading of the great cities of 
Australia is over, at least for the present, and now we 
are actually out upon the Indian Ocean, plowing our 
way toward South Africa. 

According to all the signs, we are booked for some 
new experiences too. We are " at sea " in more ways 
than ever before. 

First of all, the waters over which we are traveling 
are entirely new to us. Out of all my wanderings, I 
have not hitherto taken this course from Australia to 
South Africa, and while the ocean is the ocean, yet 
there does seem a little new interest in the thought of 
crossing this unknown part of the great deep. It is 
about 5,000 miles from Albany, West Australia, to 
Durban in Natal, and this will take me farther from 
land than I have ever been before. 

Then we are a little bit " at sea," because we are 
on a new type of ship. Thus far we have traveled upon 
ocean palaces, particularly the great Manchuria, the 
ship upon which we sailed from the Hawaiian Islands 
to Japan, and the Nippon Yusen Kaisha steamer, Kji- 
mano Maru, upon whicli we spent two weeks in getting 
to Australia. Both of them were about perfect for 
comfort. But now we are on the White Star Line 
steamer Persic, a one-class boat carrying three hundred 


and ninety passengers, packed almost to suffocation, 
and we are having a touch of the real " simple life." 
I think you would smile to see some of our conveniences. 
Our party has a table on top of a hatchway down in 
the main dining saloon. The place is so crowded that 
they have had to put a special table there for us. We 
will not see a napkin for sixteen days, not even a paper 
one. No hors d'ceuvre, caviar, French dressings, or 
other dainties which are usually concocted to stimulate 
the appetite. But we are getting plenty of corned 
beef, cabbage and potatoes. And better than all else, 
we are getting plenty of fellowship with real folks. 
The people are sturdy, genuine, common people, and 
we are enjoying them. 

We are also " at sea " somewhat concerning just the 
real, permanent net results of our Australian cam- 
paign. There we really came into contact with some 
new conditions, and about everything in our program 
had to be revamped to fit the unique elements of their 
church life. We have been holding some conferences 
on the ship to try to find out " where we are at." Aus- 
tralia presents some elements which are absolutely pe- 
culiar to its own life, and we were not there very long 
before we discovered that fact. 

However, before I get too deeply into these ques- 
tions, I must first say that there is no place on earth 
where a Christian worker from North America will re- 
ceive such a cordial welcome and hearing as in Aus- 
tralia. It is a joy to work with those earnest men, 
for I find they have more in common with us than any 
other living people. This is a new nation and is not 
rigidly set in its ways. It is open-minded and ready to 
revise where revision promises better returns. Its peo- 
ple are not everlastingly bound to traditions of a thou- 
sand years which they feel must not be altered, as is so 


mucli the case in the older parts of the world. Then 
they have an unbounded enthusiasm which becomes con- 
tagious when you have been there a few days. And 
grander than all else, they have not reached the place 
where they are too proud to manifest their enthusiasm. 
Sometimes we thought it would run away with us, but 
it was so genuine and hearty that it was a constant 
inspiration. Then, too, they are the sons of a big vast 
territory. Australia has 2,974,.581 square miles of 
area. They are compelled to think and travel in great 
distances. This gives them mental discipline in big 
thinking, and it results in big men every way. 

I wish you could have been with us in some of our 
" welcome " receptions. Governors, Prime Ministers, 
Lord Mayors and big politicians were in most cases 
the hosts. In the two greatest cities — Sydney and Mel- 
bourne — the Lord Mayor gave the opening reception 
and properly greeted us and commended our work. In 
Sydney, the Lord Mayor, Rt. Hon. A. A. C. Cocks, 
M.L.A., was the chairman of the whole Men and Re- 
ligion Forward Movement committee, and upon sev- 
eral occasions, before the largest audiences, put the 
Christian life as the supreme issue of every man's char- 
acter as strongly as any of us could do. It was a moral 
tonic to hear the great big powerful men entreat the 
young men in a vast audience in the town hall to stand 
loyally l)y the Christian life. Christian work, the Church 
and religion. Then in Collingwood, one of the suburbs 
of IMelbourne, at the close of a public meeting which I 
held in the town hall, the INIayor sent for me to come to 
the Council Chamber, where they were giving a ban- 
quet to the inconu'ng Superintendent of Police. He 
said they had the banquet arranged before they knew 
of our meeting, and therefore could not attend, but 
he was very anxious that the members of the Council 


fhould hear me explain something of the Men and 
Religion Forward Movement, and had for that pur- 
pose invited me to their meeting. In his remarks, he 
called attention to the fact that the strongest drink 
in sight was ginger ale, and said they had not had 
anything stronger at any of their public functions for 
five years. This must not be taken as typical of all 
the public life, nor of the Australian life in general, 
for they are fearfully in the grip of " whiskey and 
soda," but it does show the trend of thought among 
many of their most prominent men. Of this I am cer- 
tain — the Australians can beat the world in cordial- 
ity of welcome. It helps tremendously those who are 
doing the kind of work we are, at a time when we were 
so far away from home, and in a sense felt the limi- 
tations of being strangers in a strange land. 

I believe every man in our entire party was at high 
tension all the time in Australia, undertaking to com- 
prehend the many angles of life which were so intensely 
interesting and yet so perplexing. Remembering that 
the territory is almost as large as that of the United 
States, we were, of course, first attracted to the prob- 
lem of their material resources. Notwithstanding their 
vast acreage, they have a little less than 5,000,000 
population, of which over 1,000,000 are resident in 
Melbourne and Sydney, about equally divided between 
the two cities. Yet, with this limited population, 
their 1911 output of cattle and sheep amounted to 
$286,000,000. Of agricultural products, such as 
wheat, barley, corn and rice, $236,000,000. Of min- 
erals, $122,500,000. This last, of course, is pretty 
largely in the gold regions of the great west. Manu- 
facturing is only in its infancy and yet, during that 
year, they turned out $483,000,000 "worth of manu- 
factured articles. This you will at once see is a tre- 


inendous voluiiic, and I have not been able to mention 
the long hst of smaller industries which were frequently 
quoted. As illustration, we made a stop at Thursday- 
Island, at the extreme north, where they take out 
$10,000,000 worth of pearls annually. Fruit is not 
listed. No one seems to have data upon that ques- 
tion alone, although there are no finer grapes, pears, 
peaches, apricots or apples in existence than those 
grown in Australia. Summing it all up, I doubt if 
there is another country in the world where there is 
so much produced by such a small number of people. 
Everything that can be grown anywhere in the earth 
can be grown in Australia. 

When the doors are opened a little and the popu- 
lation increases in some relative proportion to the ex- 
tent of the country, a new standard of world prices 
may be necessary to take care of the output of this 
Anglo-Saxon nation luider the Southern Cross. 

In all of these figures and future possibilities, we 
have practically to reckon with New Zealand and Tas- 
mania as a part, although our travel did not take us 
to either, and their products are not included in this 

Added to all of these natural resources of the soil, 
there is a climate which is wellnigh perfect. The 

north is tropical, and, of course, hot, but, swept by 
the sea breezes of an immense water front, it is not 
excessively so. The entire southern coast is a garden 
of beauty with ideal living conditions. From Sydney, 
straight around to Perth, a distance of over four thou- 
sand miles, it is difficult to tliiiik of a climate more 

From the standpoint of our Men and Religion tour, 
we were most interested in the legislation upon welfare 
topics. Here we found that from the law-making end 


about everything that could be dreamed of for the good 
of the people had been done. Robins was simply over- 
whelmed with the magnitude of their legislation upon 
these questions. They have an eight-hour day uni- 
versal labor law. It applies to everybody from the 
cashier of a bank to the domestic servant. At Mel- 
bourne, in the Parliament Gardens, there is a beauti- 
ful shaft with " 8 — 8 — 8 " on the top, typifying eight 
hours labor, eight hours sleep and eight hours recrea- 
tion. It is the first and only one of its kind in the 
world. Here they have a great annual festival and 
parade when they march around this monument in 
honor of Australian labor laws. They have a minimum 
wage law with permanent boards to determine what a 
living wage is in every vocation in the nation. It is 
against the law to work for less than a living compen- 
sation, as well as for the employer to pay less. They 
have an old-age pension act, providing for the care in 
old age of all who have served faithfully in any ca- 
pacity. They have stringent laws concerning the op- 
eration of dangerous machinery without adequate pro- 
tection for the workmen. They have elaborate laws 
for the protection of health in all shops, mills, stores 
and mines. As illustration, every mine, mill and shop 
must be well lighted, sprinkled and kept free from dust 
and infection. They have laws making Wednesday and 
Saturday afternoon half-holidays, when all stores close 
at one o'clock, and at six o'clock on all other days, 
with one exception, when they may keep open until ten 
o'clock. This exception is usually Saturday night. 
They have the strongest compulsory educational laws 
ever passed anywhere. No boy nor girl can be excused 
from school before fourteen years of age, except for 
pronounced illness. Of course, this carries the no-child 
labor law with it. Their statutes covering sanitation 


aiul housing are sucli that there is not what we would 
call a tenement in the wliole commonwealth. Then they 
have reached the climax in an immigration act, which 
practically excludes immigrants. No yellow, brown, 
or black man can get in at all, and white men must not 
come in without a good supply of money and nmst 
also be able to write forty words in any European 
language the Immigration officer chooses to name. 
This means that the officer can look the applicant over, 
and if he does not appear to be up to the standard, he 
will name a language he cannot write, and the appli- 
cant is thus excluded and deported back to his start- 
ing place. It is a prohibitory law by another name. 
The slogan, " A white Australia," might also be made 
" Australia for the Australians." It is wondcrfvd to 
go through these cities day after day, crowded as they 
are, and not see a black-skinned man anywhere, and 
hear but one language spoken — English, 

Of course, there is a strong feeling against this rigid 
legislation restricting immigration, and now the coun- 
try is torn from one end to the other over an agitation 
to modify it, for they are in great need of more people. 
It is also true that there are many who feel the whole 
question of laws has been carried to the extreme. Per- 
haps that is true in some cases. It is very amusing 
to follow some of the ramifications of these laws. For 
instance if a banquet is served and you are in a hurry 
and want to have the speeches immediately following 
the dinner, you cannot do it, for the Waiters' Union 
makes it arbitrary that all the dishes shall be cleared 
away before the speakijig begins. I was told that at a 
banquet given in honor of a visit of the Prime Min- 
ister of Victoria to Sydney some months ago, they 
were unal)le to have any speaking at all, because the 
time consiuned in clearing the tables carried them clear 


up to the hour when the Prime Minister had to hurry 
away to catch his train. I asked a telephone man if 
t}>ey manufactured their own glass insulators, and he 
said " No, the law won't let a man take a breath deep 
enough in Australia to blow glass." 

The multitude of laws upon the labor question and 
government ownership of railroads, telephone systems, 
street cars, water supply and telegraph, open an im- 
mense avenue for some abuses, and there are great dan- 
gers. That no one can doubt. Individual ownership 
and adventure are not put at such a premium as with 
us in the United States and Canada. We found a 
strong current of criticisms concerning the attitude of 
many of their young men to just drift along and take 
it easy, for a living is almost guaranteed by the gov- 
ernment. There is no real competition in the sense 
that word implies with North American business men. 
They would not quite admit this, for some of the men 
in trade think they have competition, but my observa- 
tion led me to believe that they do not know what the 
word means. No other evidence is necessary than to 
observe the great warehouses and office buildings closed 
from one o'clock to two o'clock each day, while every- 
body quietly goes to lunch. Would that not be an 
amusing proposition in Wall Street? There is some 
fear upon the part of capitalists lest they will not be 
protected in future investments. The laws have given 
the political socialist and agitator a fertile soil in which 
to exploit his government-destroying theories, and I 
am fully persuaded that this has something to do with 
the lack of growth in population, and especially with 
the slow enlargement of manufacturing. There are 
certainly serious difficulties, but I believe they are only 
passing and temporary. At first, as we met men, talked 
over these questions and read the papers, I felt be- 


wildered in trying to see through it, and do not now 
pretend to have more than a superficial knowledge, but 
I am convinced that the laws, for the most part, are 
good and will live, and that other nations will follow 
in adopting them. 

There is not another land on earth with so little 
poverty in it. That district of destitution which is in 
every city of all other nations I have ever visited, is 
not to be found in either Brisbane, Melbourne, Sydney 
or Adelaide, and remember, two of these cities have 
600,000 population each. There is not another nation 
where every man, woman and child has such a good 
chance tor a decent, comfortable life as in Australia. 
Those who fail and go down cannot blame society for 
their woes. They are self-imposed penalties. Mr. 
Robins, who is an expert and a scientific student of 
these questions, says that there is no other place 
where wages are so uniformly good, living conditions 
so favorable, prices so moderate as in Australia. From 
the material standpoint, they have reached a very high 

The striking thing is that while these men have been 
engaged in passing the most arbitrary industrial laws, 
they have permitted in many cases the loosest ones to 
exist upon the great moral questions. The public bars 
are loosely run. Men, women and children patronize 
them freely. Apparently the bar-maid is no small part 
of the attraction for many men. Gambling is permit- 
ted at race tracks and cricket matches. They need a 
Governor Hughes with some real convictions on the 
gambling question to start a crusade to bring them up 
to date. The laws against the social evil are so vague 
and technical that they practically cannot be enforced. 
Upon this question, in two of the cities we discovered 
what is absolutely the most ridiculous and absurd leg- 


islation ever known among professedly Christian peo- 
ple. These legislators, while intensely moved concern- 
ing the physical and economic welfare of the people, 
seem to have had their minds fixed on the money ques- 
tion, while morals were pretty well forgotten and over- 

I have written rather fully upon these topics, for 
the Men and Religion message ran right into them at 
once and made a unique setting for our type of work. 
Probably there is no place where we have worked or 
ever will work where the significance of the Men and 
Religion message was so great as for Australia, and 
this for several reasons. 

First. — A people may pass laws until doom's day, 
or until the dreamer has dreamed his last dream, and 
they alone will not make people good, righteous nor 
happy. There is no other such final evidence upon this 
point as that given in Australia. From the standpoint 
of legal benefits, they have nothing more to ask. Here 
young men receive the maximum pay for the minimum 
amount of work. They are given more time for recre- 
ation and the pursuit of elements of personal improve- 
ment than was ever granted to any other people. 
Then, as though a goodly Providence would put the 
final seal upon it, this test is being made in a climate 
perfectly adapted to the fulfillment of the heart's 
fondest desire. Yet, in the face of all this, young men 
are going to hell by the route of whiskey, gambling 
and impurity just as they do everywhere. 

The last word has been spoken in answering the 
question whether improvement in conditions of life alone 
will produce good morals. Even the most intense critic 
of the Church and Religion has to admit that laws and 
high ideals do not of themselves produce good charac- 
ter. Only God, the Bible, Jesus Christ and the Church 


can solve the moral question. This is so terribly mani- 
fest, and the developments in some cases are so dis- 
tressinif and so discouraging, that a cry is going up 
throughout the whole connnonwealth for a new vitaliza- 
tion of the moral forces. Therefore we arrived at a 
strategic time, when the greatest men of every walk 
were ready to listen to what we had to say. It made it 
possible for us to declare the indispensable place of 
Christianity in the life of any people, and to have the 
illustration right at their own door every hour. 

Secoxd. — The message concerning the place of the 
Church as a force in social life never had such a ring to 
it as in Australia. I have already written quite fully of 
the wonderful progress of welfare legislation. It has no 
equal, but the sad part of it all is that this has been 
wrought almost entirely apart from Christian organi- 
zations, and, in a sense we had never witnessed before, 
has been accomplished in opposition to the influence of 
the Church. We are all agreed that in Australia, in a 
larger sense than in any other place we have ever 
worked, " Labor " and the " Church " seem estranged. 
To speak of one man as a " Labor man " and another 
as a " Liberal " is almost synonymous with saying that 
one is an anti-church and the other a church man. 
The greatest men among the Christian forces, both 
ministers and laymen, said that they believed our mes- 
sage would be wonderfully blessed of God in helping 
the Church to see its responsibility for social work, and 
equally in helping the labor men to recognize the need 
of a vital spiritual message in their work. As you will 
at once recognize, this in a certain degree has been one 
of the unique elements of the Men and Religion For- 
ward Movement all the way along, but it was vastly 
more so here than in any other place of which we have 
knowledge. The Rev. Frederick C. Spurr, pastor of 


the Collins Street Baptist Church in Melbourne, and 
possibly the most unique figure in the church life of 
the commonwealth, one night in prayer, with an in- 
tensity that we cannot soon forget, thanked God for 
the wedding ceremony of Evangelism and the Social 
Service message which the Men and Religion Movement 
was performing. If we ever had any lingering doubt 
about these two messages being the complement the one 
of the other, it was eradicated by the campaign in Aus- 
tralia. We were happy in presenting a method by which 
the two could be amalgamated. The remaining serious 
([uesbion is whether the breach between the Church and 
tlie labor world has become too wide for remedy. 

Third. — The emphasis upon the need and power 
of organizing the local men for permanent evangelis- 
tic work was most timely. Australia has been the scene 
of an immense amount of mass evangelistic effort in 
the past ten years. I can speak freely for I have par- 
ticipated in it myself and must, therefore, share in any 
word that seems criticism. Australia has been visited 
by about everybody in sight upon the evangelistic ques- 
tion. There have been some tremendous efforts in great 
evangelistic campaigns. Just now, the criticism upon 
this type of work is more terrific there than in any 
place I have ever visited, and, of course, as is always 
the case, some extreme things are being said, for with- 
out doubt great good has followed these campaigns. 
And yet, after making every allowance, the permanent 
results have been fearfully meager and not at all in 
harmony with the advertisements. It is a parody 
on such big evangelistic campaigns if the saloons, 
brothels, gambling dens and dishonest public life, and 
class distinctions have not been disturbed in the least. 
This criticism is being freely and publicly made by their 
strongest Christian leaders. The message of the Men 


and Religion Movement, emphasizing as it has all the 
time that the final work of evangelism is a local respon- 
sibility, and must be done by those who abide, was most 
needed, for in every city we visited we found the Chris- 
tian forces stunned in a sense, and wondering what to 
do next. Following our meetings, we heard of liter- 
ally hundreds of churches where they were calling meet- 
ings of their own men to organize for permanent work. 
In five of the greatest cities, before we left, they had 
called delegate meetings to organize Inter-Church 
Federations for the continuance of those portions of 
the message common to the whole community. I thank 
God for the spirit that was developed and was so 
manifest of deep determination upon the part of min- 
isters and laymen in eveiy one of the cities, to go at 
the job themselves rather than to wait for another cy- 
clone to blow in from somewhere. 

Fourth. — The privilege of helping to strengthen 
the position of the Young Mens Christian Association 
was one of the gladdest tasks. Of course, we were there 
representing various organizations upon exactly the 
same basis as in the work in the United States, commit- 
tees being appointed from all the brotherhoods and all 
the churches as well as from the Associations. There- 
fore we could not deal exclusively with the Young Men's 
Christian Association problem. But I was anxious to 
compare the Associations of 1913 with those of 1905, 
when I was there before. The progress has been sim- 
ply splendid. The total membership has almost doubled ; 
the total property value has increased SS^; the secre- 
tarial staff has doubled ; the relation between the As- 
sociation and the Church has immensely improved ; a 
larger and better scope of work is being done. All 
along the way I found splendid returns from the vis- 
its of Dr. Warner, INIessrs. Morse, Mott, Budge and 


Pierce. These men, eacli in turn, have left a contri- 
bution that is real and abiding. Their greatest pres- 
ent need is for a permanent national secretary who 
will stay with the work for at least the next ten years. 
I do not know of any position in the Young Men's 
Christian Association anywhere in the world where a 
man is more needed than the right man of God's choos- 
ing for this great task. We had in every city some 
special Young Men's Christian Association functions 
where I was permitted to meet the Association men in 
special conference. These events reached their high- 
est point of interest at Melbourne, the headquarters 
of the national committee, and I found the whole spirit 
of things there to be one of expectation concerning 
the securing of a national, organizing, supervising 

I think I have given you in some of the previous 
letters a summary of our work, but I am now glad to 
say that we have had the privilege of presenting the 
Men and Religion program to 92,651 men and boys 
in conferences and meetings since leaving home, and to 
40,718 men and boys in the commonwealth of Australia 
at 113 meetings and conferences. It is interesting to 
note that I have spoken 177 times since leaving home, 
and that Mr. Robins has spoken just the same number 
of times. 

Notwithstanding the breaks in sea travel, and the 
time thus lost in actual meetings, it looks as though I 
myself would have the privilege of presenting the 
claims of the gospel to more young men in total during 
this year than in any previous year of my life. For all 
of these privileges, for the constant care that is fol- 
lowing us, and for the sympathetic messages coming 
from home, we thank God. 

Notwithstanding an immense amount of hard work, 





there is plenty of spice in it all the time, and we are 
never permitted to grow dull. You cannot work in Aus- 
tralia without plenty of animation. One of the little 
incidents which the fellows of the team will not soon 
forget occurred in Brisbane, where three or four of 
the men were in a book store, when a woman, who was 
a little the worse for liquor, walked up to Alexander 
Hyde and said to him : " You are Mr. Robins, aren't 
you.f* " He wanted to get rid of her and half turned 
away, saying that he was not. Then she said, " Well, 
I know that Fred. Smith. He cannot fool me. He is 
not an American, he is a Jew from the north of Ire- 
land. He got his education in America. I know all 
about it." So you see, at last I am discovered, and 
will have to give up talking about my New England 
blue blood. 

Then, too. there is plenty of interest in the ques- 
tion of railway travel. To us one of the most amus- 
ing things is the necessity of changing cars every time 
you cross a state line. I believe only two of all the 
states have the same railroad gauge. There is the 
5'3" gauge, the 4'8% the 3'6", the 2'6" and the %' 
gauge. You just get nicely started and settled down 
when they come in and announce that you have to 
change cars. When you ask what has happened, they 
tell you that you are going " over the line," which 
means that you arc going into another state. Of course, 
they tell you this is going to be modified, and I guess 
it will be, but they told me that eight years ago and 
there has been no change yet. 

We got another delightful little shock the other day 
as we were getting onto the ship at Albany. I over- 
heard some ladies saying that they understood that 
there were " some very distinguished Americans " who 
had just come on board. When you read this, please 


emphasize the " distinguished." Another lady inquired 
about them, and the first said that she did not know 
just wlio they were, but she knew that they were " dis- 
tinguished gentlemen," and then the second one re- 
plied, "Won't it be lovely to hear them talk?" We 
have felt all the way along that we were absolutely 
assured of good audiences in Australia, for, apparently, 
our accent is so amusing that when there is an even 
chance for a crowd of men to go to an ordinary enter- 
tainment or come to hear us speak, we win, for it is 
more entertaining than anything they can get for three 

I had another rather hot shot one day on the ship, 
when a man, talking with me on the question of smok- 
ing, commented upon the fact that it seemed rather 
strange to him that none of our party were " smok- 
ers," further stating, " About all of you chew." I 
looked at him in amazement and said, " What do you 
mean.f* There is not one in the party who ever did 
such a dirty trick." His reply was, " Why, really, I 
thought you all chewed tobacco, I have seen you chew- 
ing so much." Then I thought a little inore carefully 
and discovered that the whole Men and Religion team 
had exposed themselves to the suspicion of being to- 
bacco chewers because an ardent friend in Adelaide, 
who evidently wanted to engraft himself in our affec- 
tions forever, in an unguarded moment had presented 
the party with a goodly supply of spearmint chewing 
gum, and, American style, we have been going up and 
down the deck chewing our cud, and the Australian 
could only interpret that kind of motion to another 
method of handling nicotine. At the same time I have 
been reading John Foster Fraser's book upon " The 
Panama Canal," and in it he comments upon the Ameri- 
can " gum-chewing habit " on the Canal. It may be 


a little more excusable than tobacco, Ijut 1 have made 
up my miiul not to look at another piece of gum as 
long as I live. 

I am not so sure, though, but that we could pretty 
nearly counter on the gum-chewing proposition, for 
positively there is nothing more amusing in a world 
tour than to see that kind of spell which comes over 
a Britisher at about five minutes to four o'clock every 
afternoon. From five minutes before four o'clock imtil 
fifteen minutes l)efore five, I challenge any man living 
to talk to any Britisher upon any subject under the 
high heaven except " tea." Yesterday I sat in my room 
and laughed as much as I would at Barnum's circus 
to hear them outside the port holes chattering like the 
annual meeting of a ladies' aid society — men, women 
and children, all discussing tea. From early morning 
until late at night, the whole day's program is outlined 
with reference to not interfering with tea. Sports stop 
for tea. Those who are seasick, with marvelous magic, 
get out of their bunks and partake of tea. I think the 
Union Jack would cease to wave, and the British lion 
would go down to ignominious and eternal defeat if 
tea should fail this people. 

The unkindest cut of all came to us, however, just 
as we were leaving West Australia. A newspaper re- 
porter came to me and said that it was reported over 
the west that we were a band of " Mormon Evan- 
gelists," who were out to establish the ]Mormon Church 
in Australia. I hastened to disabuse his mind. Then, 
when we got on ship, we were shocked to learn that 
the same word had been passed on to the passengers. 
I am supposed to be a nephew of the great Joseph 
Smith. Isn't it awful.'' Eight men, and not one woman 
in the party, and then to be accused of Mormonism 1 
This is part of the penalty of being famous. 

11 J} 

I Avould not feel as though I had really written you 
about our Australian trip unless I told you about our 
three days' rest at Albany. This is a little town on the 
west coast where we had to wait to catch our ship for 
South Africa. We broke up into pairs and triplets, 
and went fishing, mountain climbing and anything we 
wanted to do for reci'eation. Robins and I got two 
riding horses, rolled up our blankets, took a few crack- 
ers and sardines and started right back into the " bush." 
The bush is Australia's term for describing the interior 
country. It is practically covered with an undergrowth 
and big gum trees, and their name for it is " the bush." 
The first night we rode out about fifteen miles into a 
district that seemed so wild that you would doubt 
whether white men had ever been there before, rode by 
moonlight until about nine o'clock, then we went up on 
the side of a mountain, hitched our horses, lay down on 
the ground and slept the sleep of the just. It was per- 
fectly glorious. The night was cloudless, the moon was 
shining and the bright stars seemed literally to fill the 
sky, with the great Southern Cross in the center of it 
all. It was rather cold, for it is winter there now. 
We built a big camp fire, and I don't think I have put 
in a finer night in ten years. The next day we rode 
on, crossing the King and Kalgan rivers, circled 
around the mountains, sometimes following a trail and 
sometimes riding by the direction of the sun. The sec- 
ond night we saw what we thought was an approaching 
storm, and hunted for a " settlement " which, in our 
terms, would be a farm house, and put up for the night. 
We were out three days, scaring up wild kangaroo 
and playing at being real Australian " bush men." 
Every man we met (there were only a few of them) 
we stopped and visited with concerning the country, its 
future and its prospects. Perhaps we learned more 


about real Australian country' life in those three da^-^s 
than we could know by all the rest of our time there. 
I have spoken of some of the difficulties of the coun- 
try. Thc3' are terribly wrought up by the unrest and 
conflict between capital and labor. They are more or 
less in distress concerning their climate. The amount 
of rainfall is always an uncertain quantity. But I be- 
lieve their most serious j)roblem is the development of 
a real, genuine, undivided patriotism. I do not mean 
by this to hint that they are not in love with their coun- 
try, but it seems secondary with everybody. They all 
lalk about " going home," meaning back to the British 
Isles. I referred to the night we stayed at a " settle- 
ment." The man's name was Wilfred Warthwyke. He 
has been out there twenty-five years ; came when twenty- 
two years of age: has two fine farms, one of 100 acres 
and another of 1,000 acres. His wife was born in Aus- 
tralia, and has never been away from it. But they are 
selling out to " go home." On the ship, yesterday, I 
fell into conversation with two young men, both of them 
of Australian birth. I inquired where they were going, 
and they said they were " going home," en route to 
England. We have a minister on board, the Rev. Vic- 
tor Bell, pastor of a very influential church in Sydney. 
He and his wife are making their first voyage away 
from Australia, but in conversation with IMr. Bell he 
was rejoicing in the fact that he was " going home." 
I talked with the pastor of one of the largest churches 
in the whole commonwealth, with a membership of over 
1,500. He has been in Australia for nearly fifteen 
years. He now feels that when he has completed the 
fifteenth vcar, he is entitled to " go home." There is 
that kind of transitory feeling, as though Australia 
were a probationary place, and the great goal is to " go 
home." I contrasted this with Canadian life. There 


Is no such feeling in Canada. I do not believe that Aus- 
tralia will ever develop as it ought until there is a larger 
consciousness that it is the real, permanent, happy 
home of the people. 

I must not utterly weary you. There are about forty 
things more about which I would like to write you, but 
must not do so for fear this epistle will appear too 

Always and every day we are thanking God for our 
privilege, and for the wonderful care which Is taking 
us on the long journey without any illness or accident, 
and best of all, for continued good news from home. 

Yours as ever, 

Fred. B. Smith. 



En route Capetown, South Africa, to London, Eng- 
land, June 24, 1913. 

My dear Frikxd : Again, after a terrific campaign 
of six weeks in South Africa, we find ourselves out on 
the big water, having just sent a cable to White Plains 
which read "Homeward Bound." I pity the man who 
stays at home all the time and never knows the joy of 
sending such a cable after nearly seven months away 
from home. I can hardly believe that we are nearing 
the end, and are now making our last long sea voyage. 

I have this morning been looking over the pages of 
the copies of the letters I have written you, and remem- 
bering the volume I have sent, I almost pity you when 
I think that I am again writing to you, this time to try 
to interpret what is in our hearts concerning great, 
wonderful, sunny South Africa. As my memory sweeps 
me b< over the incidents from that wonderful night 
in the Hotel Astor in New York City, up to this present 
hour, there has been only one place where we could say 
that our reception had not been hearty and cordial, and 
only one place where we have an}' very serious misgiv- 
ings al)out the results. We are deeply and profoundly 
grateful to God for His good hand, so markedly mani- 
fest in every city and in every place, but, like that fa- 
mous wedding feast, we are prepared to say that in 
His good providence, the best was reserved until the 

When I visited South Africa five years ago it got 
hold of my affections and Interest in a way that no other 


country save my own had ever done. I could hardly tell 
why, but I am greatly interested now to note that it 
has had the same effect upon all of us this time. I 
believe evei'y man in the pai*ty if he was to say this 
morning which of all the places visited he would most 
like to revisit would without delay say South Africa. 
Tliis is not to be interpreted as in any way belittling our 
interest in other places, or suggesting any indifference 
to the issues of the Kingdom in other nations where 
we have shared a little in Christian work, but there is 
an undefinable something about South Africa that stirs 
one through and through. 

Perhaps this may be in part the sentiment that is 
aroused within us because of the fact that it seems to 
be a land of the most perplexing problems. I believe 
that there are more cross currents to deal with in South 
Africa than in any other place of which I have knowl- 
edge. First, you start out immediately with the Eng- 
lish versus the Dutch situation. From the very begin- 
ning until the finish in nearly every meeting we held, 
some prayers would be offered in English and some in 
Dutch. The public schools are conducted in two lan- 
guages. The debates in Parliament are in the two lan- 
guages. Practically all of the signs and advertise- 
ments on the streets, over the shop windows, on the 
railway trains are in two languages. And there is a 
sharp, keen competition going on. The leaders of each 
group are watching the other with critical eye to see 
that by no means shall one language become the ex- 
clusive one. This is not to be understood as indicating 
any excessive bitterness, though there is some, but for 
the most part the two races of white people are mov- 
ing together in sympathetic and fraternal relations. 
But there is no disguising the fact that the language 
question is a buiMiing issue in South Africa, and they 


are all wondering what the future has in store for them 
in this matter. 

Perhaps this unusual interest is aroused in a spe- 
cial way with Americans because there is so much talk 
of the things which have happened " since the war." 
It is wonderful to think that only a little over ten years 
ago the whole northern half of that country, which is 
now being brought together so happily into one union, 
was being baptized in war, and that 33,000 brave Brit- 
ishers and Dutchmen had given of their blood in de- 
fense of what they thought to be right. It is not 
strange that some feel restless concerning the slow 
progress of reconstruction in some particulars, but to 
us familiar with the transition days after our Civil 
War it seems nothing short of a miracle that they have 
accomplished so much in these few years. The most 
striking of it all is that while the British flag waves 
from the Zambesi to the Cape of Good Hope, unques- 
tioned by all, and I think practically representing a 
patriotic British people, yet the country is essentially 
governed by Dutchmen. Possibly the one item, apart 
from our meetings, that I shall always remember with 
greatest pride and a little American conceit, was the 
luncheon given to us in the Parliament House by Gen- 
eral Botha, the Prime ^Minister of the Union. There 
also sat at the table General J. C. Smuts, INIinister of 
Finance; Hon. J. W. Sauer, Minister of Native Af- 
fairs, and the Hon. F. INIalan, Minister of Education. 
These, without any doubt the four most powerful men in 
the Government, arc all Dutchmen. It is natural that 
some of the old-time residents from the British Isles 
should be wondering what the war was all about, and 
perhaps expressing themselves as rather dissatisfied 
with the general tendency toward the supremacy of 
the Dutch, l)ut that is only a passing incident in an 


almost unequalled program of building a new united 
nation from those discordant parts. I am sure, 
however, that all of this has a unique interest for Amer- 
icans, for we have seen our country pass through ex- 
actly this complicated situation to a very happy solu- 

Perhaps our unusual interest, however, may be more 
certainly influenced by the tremendous question which 
is there involved concerning the complications of the 
relations between the v/hite men and the natives. There 
is no doubt that South Africa has a real difficulty to 
overcome in the co-ordination of the Dutch and the 
English, but that is only insignificant as contrasted 
with this other question of white versus black. In 
South Africa there is a white population of about 
1,250,000. In the same territory there is a popula- 
tion of 10,000,000 blacks, but now they are no longer 
to confine themselves to the issues of South Africa 
alone, for the opening of the " Cape to Cairo route " 
is going to give them quickly the problem of Africa 
as a continent, and this means 200,000,000 blacks as 
contrasted with 2,000,000 white people. In Australia 
the aborigine has passed away in the presence of civ- 
ilization. For some mysterious reason he could not live 
under its restraints. The same is true of the red man 
of North America. He has faded away in the presence 
of the white men's modern houses, railways, steamships 
and cities, but this is not to be the record in Africa. 
There is abundant evidence now that the black man will 
not only live in South Africa, but that he will thrive 
and multiply even more rapidly under domesticated life 
than in his native kraal. This seems to demand that 
a permanent method of living and working together 
shall be developed. Of course we felt that we had some 
little intelligence from the experiences of our American 


life with tlie negroes, and jet our deductions could not 
bo accepted as final, for with us the proportion stands 
at one black man to every ten white men, while in 
South Africa there is but one white man to every 
twenty black men. This question, which is so acute in 
South Africa, is rapidly becoming a world issue. The 
white man is going everywhere, and the morning after 
he arrives he expects to take charge of everything in 
sight, and does. The final answer to the white man's 
supremacy is one of the biggest problems of the world 
in the next few generations. A few pale faces are rul- 
ing India. A few of the same color are in charge of 
Egypt. A i{i\\ more are holding the reins in the Ha- 
waiian and the Philippine Islands. Another little group 
is doing the same thing for South Africa. Approx- 
imately 600,000,000 " natives " of these various soils 
are taking orders from about 2,500,000 whites, while 
a few thousand more generous Anglo-Saxons and Teu- 
tons sit on the periphery of China with its 400,000,000, 
kindly " advising " them, and 40,000,000 Japanese are 
wondering when their tuni will come. What the last 
chapter is to be may make the wisest men pause. Will 
the white race finally prevail and the darker ones die 
out entirely.'* Will the races intermingle until a common 
new race emerges? Will the darker skins, so much 
greater in numerical power, awake some day and take 
charge of the whole earth, and reverse the order by 
making the white man get up and build the early fires 
for a few years.? Will there arise a prophet big enough 
to call a World Conference to establish universal 
methods of segregation.'' Will the races gradually 
learn how to dwell together in equity.'' These are some 
of the questions which cannot be permanently evaded, 
but are rapidly to demand answer. Just now it is 
White's move, and his measure is to be taken in what 


he does. It is very easy for the idealist to stand off at 
long range and give positive statements concerning the 
solution of these questions, but it is a tremendous and 
almost overwhelming problem. 

Perhaps our unique interest in South Africa may 
be accounted for partly by the sharp contest going on 
throughout all of that country as to whether it shall be 
a nation controlled and governed practically for the ex- 
tension of their three greatest industries — gold, dia- 
monds and ostrich feathers — or whether there shall be 
taken into account the greater possibility of the agri- 
cultural realm. Here, again, we found two strong cur- 
rents, the one insisting that it was the purpose and plan 
of the Creator that the country should be agricultural 
and pastoral, the other saying that it was essentially a 
country of the special interests named. It is to be ex- 
pected that the special privileges will claim a good deal, 
for at present they are on top. Johannesburg is turn- 
ing out $155,000,000 worth of gold every year, and the 
best engineers say that it will take at least a hundred 
years more to mine what is now known to exist, and that 
the undiscovered fields present a bewildering possibility 
in gold. In the diamond mines they are producing 
$30,000,000 worth annually, and the only question with 
them is that of the market. In the realm of feathers. 
South Africa boasts of about 7,000,000 ostriches, 
every one of them of plume-producing age, good for ap- 
proximately $50 per head annually, and the average age 
of the birds is twenty-five years. A little mathematics 
reveals the fact that the ostrich is a " clever bird." It 
is no wonder therefore that these three interests feel 
pretty " uppish " concerning their prestige in South 
Africa. Of course we were constantly reminded of the 
fact that all of these are in operation because the luxuri- 
ous American is bound to have his fastidious nature sat- 


Ilfiuhnan," Zulu, Kraal 

isfied. Scveiity-fivo per cent of all the diamonds go to 
America, also ninety per cent of all the best feathers 
and considerably more than half the gold. If the 
women of the I'^nited States should have a spell of 
twenty years of good hard horse sense, at least the 
feather and the diamond business would be bankrupt. 
These big nianij)ulators are just sitting down there in 
South Africa pouring out diamonds and feathers and 
cooing over the crazy American women. Notwith- 
standing all of this, however. South Africa's greatest 
future is in agriculture, and everywhere I went I was 
amazed to see the marvelous dcvclopmnt. Cattle, sheep, 
maize, mealies and wheat will be telling their story 
after the others will have been forgotten. 

Perhaps we may find a partial key to our great inter- 
est in South Africa in its wonderfully unique scenery, 
its marvelous climate and its high sunny skies. I do 
not believe that there is any other place where it seems 
as though the sky were so high and the horizon so wide 
as out upon that great rand of Johannesburg. It is 
the only place in the world where it did not seem to me 
as though the sky came down to the earth at all. It 
just seems as though there is no end to it. Then there 
are the Victoria Falls, the most wonderful on earth. 
The great stretches of veldt, dotted here and there by 
the Kaffir kraals, somehow lay hold upon me in a way 
that I cannot explain. Every time I saw one of them 
I wanted to go to it. I never had a better time than 
when I could get away for a while and drove out among 

Capetown, with its wonderful Table Mountain, the 
Twelve Apostles, and the Lion's Head, towering up over 
it in majestic grandeur; Durban, with its bathing 
beach, esplanade, botanical gardens and wonderful 
clubs; Pretoria the beautiful, nestling in among the 


liills like a painted picture, with its massive Government 
building, large enough to put our Capitol inside and 
never know it was there — all of these form one constant 
round of interest. 

Of all the sea voyages I have known, the most beau- 
tiful is from the Philippine Islands to Australia, but 
next comes the one to South Africa. I marvel that the 
globe trotters have not fallen into the South African 
habit more than they have. There is beauty enough in 
South Africa to make it fascinating to a high degree. 

But I think when we have given due recognition to 
all of these items, the one thing that to me at least 
commands the deepest love, greatest admiration and 
fondest hope is the colossal moral and religious problem. 
Here upon this soil I believe there is to be fought out 
the last great issue of Christianizing the world. We 
witnessed some distressing and almost bewildering 
scenes and problems in Japan. I can never forget 
them. We only touched the fringe of China, but we 
were there long enough to feel its throb and know 
something of its meaning. I have not forgotten India, 
with its hungry three hundred millions of people, but 
in every one of these there is a sense in which all the 
time you see education, culture and some advanced civ- 
ilization. In South Africa you are immediately facing 
the unfathomed depths of heathendom. We were privi- 
leged to spend one day at Amanzimtoti. There we 
saw four hundred students in that lovely school being 
taught not only the truths of Christianity, but being 
taught also to do everything that is helpful for life. 
Then you could go out five miles and find people so 
wild and heathen that you would think they had never 
seen a white man or heard of a book or knew that there 
was such a thing as the Church in all the world. 

I had the privilege of spending two days at Love- 



(laic, which is the great high place of missionary en- 
deavor under the United Free Church of Scotland. 
Here they have over a thousand students, and I saw 
them teaching those boys and girls everything from 
gardening, horticulture, carpentering, blacksniithing, 
plumbing, making shoes and harness and wagons clear 
up to the highest mathematics and literature. Lovedale 
was founded by the great missionary James Stewart in 
1839, and is now presided over by the Rev. James 
Henderson. From this great center, where this wonder- 
ful work has been going on for all of these years, pro- 
ducing the most splendid type of Christian young men 
and women, I drove out five miles and was in the center 
of a heathendom wild enough, vicious enough and sad 
enough' to break your heart. I have never seen any 
place in the world where heathendom and Christianity 
are brought into such close contrast. 

I cannot begin to tell you all the missions I visited, 
but I will add that I was proud of our American repre- 
sentatives, among whom some of the most powerful are 
Bunker, McCord and Foss, of Durban ; LcRoy, of 
Amanzintoti ; Taylor, of Maritzburg, and Bridgman, 
of the Transvaal. This missionar}'^ situation is itself 
enough to make South Africa a country of commanding 
interest to anyone who believes that the whole world 
ought to have the gospel of Jesus Christ. But this 
is not the only factor of intense interest in the religious 
condition of South Africa. The whole church question 
is passing through a transition. The most remarkable 
thing ill it is the newer spirit looking toward federa- 
tion. In our own work I was much impressed with two 
wings of the Church with which I did not have much 
intimate relation when I was there before, but they were 
conspicuous by their co-operation. I refer to the 
Dutch Reformed Church and the Church of England. 


From the time we touched at Durban until the final 
meeting in Capetown, which was held in the new Cathe- 
dral, and presided over by the Venerable Dean C. W. 
Barnett-Clarke, we had the heartiest support not only 
from the laity and the rectors of the Church of Eng- 
land, but from the Archbishop, the Bishops and the 
Archdeacons who all co-operated with us with a cordial- 
ity that can never be forgotten, and this same thing 
was true of the Dutch Reformed Church. One of the 
outstanding results in South Africa, I am sure, is going 
to be an enlarged federated activity that will bring to- 
gether all branches of the Church. 

Then, too, in this religious problem, we faced anew 
the question of the Young Men's Christian Association 
and its work. I heard a good deal about what is being 
spoken of as the " American invasion " and its results. 
For the last few years there has been a rather insistent 
American emphasis there in the Association work. This 
was occasioned by the visit of Dr. Mott some years ago 
organizing the Student Movement. He left INIr. Owen 
Bull, a strong Traveling Secretary, who is still there 
doing grand work among the schools, colleges and 
universities. Then, following my first visit, we sent out 
six or seven men. Of these there still remain in the 
country Frank Howe, General Secretary at East Lon- 
don, and E. D. Ranck, General Secretary at Johannes- 
burg, both doing magnificent work. The most marked 
of the men who have been in their secretarial ranks is 
our own International Secretary of the Army and Navy 
Department, Mr. John S. Tichenor. Everywhere we 
went I found he had left a fine impression. The only 
regret was that he did not remain as the national leader, 
and good words are said of the other men who have re- 
turned. They all did good work, but could have multi- 
plied their influence by longer service. We have been 


llfisiit/i ;m(l Zulu iiit('r])r('ters l)()tli used at one time 

most liappy in this campaign in assisting in the raising 
of funds necessary to carry on a national work, and 
our Harry X. Ilohiies, who has been the advance guard 
and Orgjinizing Secretary of the Men and Religion 
World Tour, bade us good-bye at Capetown, and re- 
mains there to conserve the work of the Men and Re- 
ligion Campaign, and to take the national secretary- 
ship of the Young Men's Christian Associations of 
South Africa. 

The most significant advance of the past five years 
has been in Johannesburg, where they have built a fine 
building and are pushing forward a great work. I 
am persuaded, however, that the deepest Interest is 
in the men we met and their brave efforts for the 
Kingdom of God. Stronger and grander than build- 
ings is the coming into the life of the Associations 
of some very strong new blood among laymen. I could 
mention many if time would permit, but the most 
marked is Mr. H. Wallace Soutter, President of the 
Chamber of Commerce in Johannesburg, and also 
Chairman of the National Council of the Young Men's 
Christian Associations for the Union. He is simply 
marvelous in his leadership in that work. He has been 
going from city to city as a paid Secretary would go 
and dealing with them with scientific ability upon their 
local problems. I have said of him several times that 
I have thought of him as a sort of combined James 
G. Cannon and Alfred E. Marling. 

I do not dare to weary you with too much detail, 
hut we are simply filled with enthusiasm about our 
South African Camf)aign. So far as the national vis- 
its are concerned. South Africa stands first in attend- 
ance and lunnbcr of meetings, although Melbourne, 
.\ustralia, outstripped any other one city. Taking our 
whole tour thus far, we liave held 487 meetings and 


conferences, with a total attendance of 158,281 men 
and boys, and by the time we reach New York we will 
have traveled 4'2,308 miles. I have been rather inter- 
ested to know that notwithstanding our long time be- 
tween points in travel, I will have personally addressed 
more men in this year than in any year in my life. 
I have been going at about 100,000 or a little more 
each year. This year will reach far beyond that. 

I never felt less in my life like boasting of things 
done than I do to-day, but I am tremendously humble 
in the presence of the testimonies we have heard con- 
cerning the influence of our visit in South Africa. A 
great company of men followed us down to the ship, 
and I can say truthfully that never in all my life have 
I listened to such words of commendation as I heard 
there the last day as we were preparing to leave. God 
has seen fit to use us and we are praying for grace 
enough to give Him the praise. 

Every hour now reduces the distance between us and 
home, and we are finding it difficult to be patient. 

Very, very best love, 

Fred. B. Smith. 



Nearinej London en route from Capetown, South 
Africa, July 4, 1913. 

Dear Mr. Cannon : This is the glorious 4th of 
July, and we are celebrating on the sea, although 
there is rather a sombre note in the proceedings for 
me at least. I am not sure whether I ought to weep 
or sing, shout or wail. I am compelled to relate an 
unlooked-for incident in our world tour. Wc have 
just held one " conference " w'hich was not on the 
schedule. This unexpected one promises to do more 
to make me famous than any one of the whole cam- 
paign. In long sea voyages one of the things which 
help to keep up the spirits of the passengers is the 
breaks in the vo^^age by " port of entry calls." From 
Capetown to Southampton the mail steamers of the 
Union Castle Steamship Company have one such call 
at Funchal on the coast of the Madeira Islands, a 
Portuguese possession. We looked forward to that 
day for a week. 

Well, it at last arrived. It is now over and we are 
sailing on, a wiser company, and life can never be 
the same again. I at least am a changed man. You 
may take my picture out of the Chamber of Com- 
merce, where it now hangs, and put it into the Hall of 
Fame. I am not sure in just which gallery it ought 
to appear, but it certainly should go there somewhere. 
I have been an inmate of a Portuguese prison, the 
subject of a conspiracy, the hero of a dramatic inves- 
tigation, the central figure of a romantic escape. 

My name may go down in the galaxy with Napo- 


Icon Konaparte upon St. Helena, or Captain Drey- 
fus upon Devil Island, the difference being that, poor 
as their accommodations were, they had some provi- 
sion. I had neither food, water nor a bed. Had the 
issues of my incarceration been a little different I 
might be listed with John Bunyan or the Apostle Paul, 
but even their " light afflictions " can hardly match 
my troubles. Perhaps when you have gotten the full 
setting you may be led to reserve a space for my por- 
trait in the " Carrie Nation " ward or with the Lon- 
don Suffragettes. Some may be confused in the final 
decision between Darius Green, Cook the Explorer, 
Jack Johnson or myself. However, that is a detail — 
the fact is, I have been made famous in one single day. 
Let me tell you about it. 

The incident really begins the night before we 
reached Madeira. We had the regulation " concert " 
and " presentation of prizes " for deck sports. Of 
the latter, I may modestly suggest that I received 
two prizes for having won the two most difficult ath- 
letic events. In the concert a comic theatrical per- 
former sang a song which went as follows : 


In the village they always thought I was so quiet, 

But lately they've had a big sell. 
With my daredevil ways I've been causing a riot. 

Since I came out of my shell. 
It's the wild blood I've got in my veins I suppose. 
Why, to-day I've been out and bought this suit of 
^ Chorus 

I'm setting the village on fire, 
I'm setting the village on fire, 

Getting tlic family name into disgrace, 

Into disgrace, through going the pace. 
To-day I spent threepence on wine, 

And then had a hike out on hire. 
And I jumped off a car before it had stopped. 

Oh, I'm setting the village on fire. 
I'm one of the boys, I'm one of the nibs, 

I'm a jolly good fellow! 
I'm one of the lads, I'm one of the nuts, 

Setting the village on fire. 

I saw it was making a weird impression upon some 
of the less serious of the men, and fearing there might 
be some danger that they would try to demonstrate 
the song at Funchal the next day, I decided that I 
ought to accompany them on shore to restrain any 
superabundance of enthusiasm. 

We went to the hotel for breakfast, and all went 
well. Our conduct was above possible reproach. Then 
we started down into the old city, riding in bullock 
sleds dragged over cobble-stone streets at the speed 
of 2| nautical miles per hour (Special emphasis 
should be given to " nautical.") The others of the 
party insisted upon singing the song they had heard 
the night .before: "We Are Setting the Village on 
Fire." It seemed an innocent amusement, so I did not 
forbid them, and thus we rode triumphantly through 
the " esplanade." 

Down in the heart of the great " metropolis " we 
came to a kind of fort or garrison, where a Portu- 
guese sentry stood on guard. He looked like the last 
page of the explorer Cook's diary — sort of incom- 
plete. The " boys " wanted his 'photo, and to make 
a striking illustration of the new world vs. the old, 
or of the Twentieth Century vs. the Sixteenth, or of 

. 131 

a roast beef diet vs. cigarettes and wine, they over- 
persuaded me to go up to him and " present arms " 
with my cane, which I did — thoroughly innocent, and in 
a perfectly kind and gentlemanly manner, as you know I 
would do. 

The change was something awful! I was arrested, 
and in five minutes found myself before the Commis- 
sioner of Police. Then the vexed question arose as to 
what I was charged with. One of the Court proposed 
it should be for " exceeding the speed limit " in the 
bullock sled. After deliberation, that was dismissed. 
Another proposed that I be charged with blocking the 
streets and delaying traffic. Some of the main thor- 
oughfares are 2 feet 8 inches in width, and I trem- 
bled for the result of a trial for this offense, for I still 
weigh 235 pounds, and if I went through any street 
I was of necessity guilty on this indictment. Fear- 
ing too much notoriety, however, this also was with- 
drawn. Several other possibilities were proposed, but 
finally it was decided that I was to be tried for " in- 
sulting the Portuguese Army." As soon as I heard this 
I knew I was safe, for no matter what the evidence 
was, I would be exonerated. It was an impossible 
charge. During the excitement some of my friends 
hastened back to the ship to request Captain Becher to 
hold the ship till I could " get out," which he con- 
sented to do if my liberty could be secured within an 
hour or two. 

Others went for the American Consul, Mr. John 
Correia, who arrived promptly and took charge of my 
case. It was soon discovered that mine was no ordi- 
nary affair for the common police court. I had to 
deal with the Presidential Chair of Portugal. Of 
course as soon as they got me they knew they had 
a prize, and wanted to give me every possible dis- 


Interviewing a Portuguese sentry 

tinction, ami so passed my case up to the liighcst pos- 
sible authority. I ought also to say that to strengthen 
the dignity of the case one of my friends, a Britisher, 
went for the Britisli Consul, who had heart disease, 
and could only come as he was able to find shaded walks 
to pass through, and therefore did not arrive in time 
to share in the festivities. 

Well, after long debates about jurisprudence, jur- 
isdiction, local venue, misdemeanors, felonies, high 
crimes and treasons, by the faithful good offices of 
the American Consul I was declared a free man. IVIind 
you, not a guilty culprit punished and set free- — not 
that. They officially gave me back my character, 
which had been temporarily taken away from me, and 
I walked out free! My dear Mr.- Cannon, you Wall 
Street men can sympathize with my feelings. You 
know what it is to be in doubt about your standing, 
and then by a small margin to get your freedom. 
Well, that's how I felt. I went back to the ship, and 
I must say that there were some rather sarcastic things 
said by some about the leader of the Men and Re- 
ligious Movement getting into jail at the finish. I con- 
soled myself, however, by answering that Peter, Paul, 
John and James had similarly suffered. Others were 
unkind enough to remind me that I had been the ship's 
preacher on the Sunday night before, and had highly 
conunended good conduct as the best policy, but I 
only replied to these unnecessary comments that a man 
to be a good preacher needs to have sympathy with 
the unfortunate, and that I was getting valuable ex- 

Thus the incident closed, but there is a solemn les- 
son in it which I want to pass on to you, for I feel 
you need its warning, and through you have it passed 


on to many other men who are in peril at the same 

Really, what think you is the secret of this fall? 
You and all my other friends will refuse to believe 
that I was deliberately bad. My record dispels such 
a thought. I was reared by a good father and mother. 
I went to Sunday-school regularly, and learned the 
golden text. I joined the Church and the Young 
Men's Christian Association early in life. I sang in 
the choir (once). I have an Irish wife with whom 
I have lived twenty-seven years. No stronger testi- 
monial of my character can be asked for than that. 
I have been a Secretary of the International Commit- 
tee of tlie Young Men's Christian Association for 
years, and in the Religious Work Department of which 
3^ou are Chairman. It is impossible to give more 
weighty evidence of strong moral qualities than this. 
The whole tale is told by the old, old story, " bad com- 
pany " — that's it. I fell in with the wa-ong crowd, 
and they were my undoing. They led me astray. 

Let me give you the full setting: In the party 
there was a Mr. William Campbell, a strict Scotch 
Presbyterian elder, a Director of the Young Men's 
Christian Association of Johannesburg, and a member 
of the National Council of the Young Men's Chris- 
tian Associations of South Africa. He was without 
doubt the worst influence of the whole lot, for we ex- 
pected better of him. There was a Mr. William Cuth- 
bert, an Irish Presbyterian elder, one of the old fa- 
mous Covenanters, who sing only Psalms. That is the 
reason he insisted upon singing " We Are Setting the 
Village on Fire." There was a young man, a strict 
Quaker, from Brooklyn, by the name of F. C. Whitney. 
He is one of the kind who thinks it wrong to laugh. 
There was a very pious Wesleyan, an Englishman, 


by tlie name of Lynn lienwood. He is an ardent fol- 
lower of John Wesley. Then there was our own C. M. 
Keeler of the quartet, the son of a Methodist min- 
ister and a zealous advocate of all missionary under- 
takings. Also Paul J. Gilbert, the tenor singer and 
theologian, the watchdog of personal conduct, and P. 
Harlow Metcalf, the Oberlin graduate of the strictest 
sect. Also James E. Lathrop, the private secretary of 
a religious worker. He is soon to marry a minister's 
daughter. Then, to crown it all, there was Mr. Alex- 
ander Hyde from Wichita, Kan., the " prohibition " 
State. He is known as the stickler for law and order. 
He i)oasts of never having been arrested, although he 
also tells of unusual intimacy with the Ciiief of Police of 
his home town. Raymond Robins was not at the imme- 
diate scene, having remained behind on the ship, but 
nevertheless he was a factor in the general atmosphere in 
which I was moving. He has been the most violent 
participant in the Progressive Reform party, advo- 
cate of law enforcement, but has himself been arrested 
so many times that he has given up the count. Ed- 
w^ard W. Peck also stayed behind. I think he antici- 
pated some kind of trouble, financial or otherwise. He, 
too, shares in the unsavory influence which dominated 
me. He is a typical Puritan. In his boyhood, when 
a teacher once displeased him, he made up a gang of 
hoodlums who took the poor chap out into tiie corn- 
field and tarred and feathered him. Therefore, when 
this incident is fully known, charge it to bad com- 
pany. When you look over the list of persons with 
whom I was associated, tlie wonder is not at what ac- 
tually happened, but that it was not worse. 

Anyway, we got back to the ship and are sailing 
on. As a fitting finish to the day in sport, which we 
begun by singing " We Are Setting the Village on Fire," 


the crowd came to my room late that night and sang- 
to the tune " In the Sweet Fields of Eden " the following- 
which Alexander Hyde had written : 


Dare am res' fo' de unwary, 
When yo' visit old Madery, 
If yo' monkey wid de sentry, 
Dare am arres' fo' yo' ! 

Don yo' go asho' wid Fred. B., 
If yo' really 'spects to sightsee, 
Fo' he's gwine to 'suit de Army, 
And dare'll be arres' for yo' ! 

Does yo' really think yo' otter. 
Make yo'self out as a Mater, 
De servin' Star and Gater 
Caus' dey 'rested yo' ! 

Dey let yo' go at roll call, 
And yo' make us b'l've dat dat's all, 
But dere's anudder tale in Funchal 
'Bout dat arres' of yo' ! 

Now we's gwine to take yo' word, sir. 
But it ain't just wat we hurd, sir, 
As to 'zakly wat occur'd, sir. 
When dey 'rested 3^0' ! 

Now a-let dis be a warnin', 
'Gainst dis regulation scornin'. 
Or some day we'll be in moumin', 
Caus' dey 'rested yo' ! 

I liavc known for weeks that there would be great 
joy in getting back to the " hind of the free," but it 
has a new significance now. 

Sincerely appreciating my liberty to write you, I am, 
Very cordially yours, 

Fred. B. Smith, 
An American Subject. 



Four Days on the Continent of Europe and the World's 
Sunday-school Convention. London, England, 
July 12, 1913. 

Dear Mr. Cannon: Little by little we are cutting 
down both the space and time which yet separate us 
from the happy consummation of the campaign. 

A world tour would hardly be complete without in- 
cluding historic Continental Europe. I therefore set 
aside four days that I might give this part of the uni- 
verse unhurried attention. In the conscious remem- 
brance of the criticism passed upon " globe trotters," 
and especially those from America, that they go too 
hurriedly over the route, and do not, therefore, have 
time to really catch the full sentiment of the historic 
spots, I decided to avoid this criticism and take time 
enough for an exhaustive study of this portion of the 
world, and set aside four full days to that part of Eu- 
rope which lies to the north and east of the English 
Channel. Peculiar attention was given to Germany, 
France, Switzerland, Holland and Belgium. I am sure 
you will appreciate what a liberal education this was, 
for it involved an exhaustive study and understanding 
of the life and work of such statesmen as Bismarck, 
Napoleon, Louis the XlVth and Leopold. I found that 
a complete understanding of these made it necessary 
also to include Cromwell and Wellington in my inves- 
tigation. It also involved a new study of Church his- 
tory, with special attention to Martin Luther, Zwingli, 
John Calvin, John Huss and John Knox. 



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I ain sure some Americans will feel that there was a 
touch of extravagance in f^iving so nmcli time to this. 
I met one who was trying to cover it i\\\ in one after- 
noon. He admitted, however, that he was a i)it hur- 
ried, but thought he would succeed. Hut for me, I 
am glad I took ample time, and can henceforth feel that 
sense of confidence which rests in knowiiicr all phases 
of a sui)ject. 

Seriously, my main oljjective was the World's Sun- 
day-school Convention at Zurich, Switzerland, in the 
foothills of the Alps. Certainly no one event can stand 
out more deliohtfully than the privilege of seeing and 
sharing in this great world gathering. I am fully con- 
vinced that it will mark a mighty advance in Sunday- 
school work everywhere. It was worth going a long 
way for, and was great any way you approach it. 

It was great in the first place because of the city 
in which it was held. Zurich is the ideal spot for a 
World Sunday-school gathering. Here, just a night's 
ride from Rome, Protestantism had its birth, and to- 
day stands, after more than four hundred years of 
testing, ready to be judged by the law — " By their 
fruits ye shall know them." Luther, Zwingli and Cal- 
vin did not labor, pray and suffer for naught. Zuricli 
in every way is a worthy illustration of the power of 
religious liberty. It has beautiful churches filled with 
people. IJut I know cities where there are beautiful 
dnu'ches filled with people, while the mass of the folks 
outside are in filth, dirt, s(]ualor, vice and unspeakable 
destitution. Not so in Zurich. The city is clean, well 
built, well governed and prosperous. The people are 
})rosperous, happy, and, as a rule, morally good. If 
what any given doctrine produces in the lives of pco- 
})Ie is an index of its worth, those founders of the 
Zurich faith had the right thing. 


The Convention was great In the second place be- 
cause of the world optimistic view of Bible Study 
which it afforded. It was no place for a pessimist. 
The air was charged with hope. It would have been 
great fun to have taken one of the real downright 
muck-scraping journalists, who insist that everything 
is going bad — religion dying out, the Church failing, 
and most men going to the dogs — into that Conven- 
tion, and held him under that fire for twenty-four 
hours. He would have been either dead or converted. 

There were delegates there from at least 46 differ- 
ent nations. They reported an enrollment of 28,000,- 
000 students. They brought the message that the 
Bible, the prophesied " obsolete " book, is being sold 
at the rate of 11,000,000 copies per year in 540 dif- 
ferent languages. The biggest sale of Scripture in 
the history of Christianity, according to the two great- 
est Bible Societies, was in 1912. The announcement 
was made that the " Adult Department " alone was in- 
creasing in enrollment at the rate of 2,000 per week. 
The Convention revealed the fact that the Bible is still 
the most popular book in the world. 

It was a great Convention, in the third place, be- 
cause of the tremendous emphasis upon specialized work 
for men and boys. There have been those among the 
leaders of the Sunday-school work who have contended 
for a co-educational basis. For the first time in the 
history of the World's Convention topics dealing with 
men and boys only were introduced. Our own W. C. 
Pearce, W. A. Brown and John L. Alexander were 
pleaders for this topic. In all the world tour I have 
not met greater enthusiasm than when I spoke there 
urging the Sunday-school to make room for a men's 
and boys' special organization to carry out the ]Men 
and Religion })rogram. The great F. B. Meyer, in his 


PVedk. B. -MtytT, London, at Zuricli, watcliing Sinuliiy-school 

openinf^ address, pleaded for Social Service as a part 
of tiie Christian program, and in a most delightful 
personal conversation with me said we ought to be urg- 
ing our Christian men to get into politics and public 
affairs. Our beloved Floyd Tomkins, who preached 
the Convention sermon, in the same manner pleaded 
earnestly with tiie men of the Sunday-school to par- 
ticipate in the social awakening of modern times. I 
came away feeling that the most marked note of the 
whole session was the new accent upon masculine work. 
The Convention was great, in the fourth place, be- 
cause of the American enthusiasm. If I may be per- 
mitted modestly to say it, the " North American " 
badges seemed to outnumber any other by two to one. 
We have a good many things to make us humble, and 
sometimes to make us ashamed, in contact with some 
types of Americans who travel abroad and swagger 
and swear, but North American stock was above par 
at Zurich. I have not the full report of the Creden- 
tial Committee, but, notwithstanding the distance and 
cost of travel, I am persuaded that more than lialf the 
delegates were from North America. The Treasurer 
reported that he had issued 47 " Life Memberships " 
during the past three years. A life member is one 
who subscribes $1,000 or over in any given year. Of 
the 47, I was interested to observe that 39 of them 
came from our side of the sea. Then, too, our Amer- 
ican side bulks big because the General Secretaryship 
of the World's Sunday-school Association is held joint- 
ly by Rev. Carey Bonner, of England, and the big- 
Kouled, generous-hearted ^Marion Lawrance, of Chi- 
cago. He will offset the unwholesome influence of a 
hundred cheap American buccaneers who go brawling 
around Europe. The Nortli American was a very con- 
spicuous part of the whole Convention. 


For these and many other reasons, it was a mighty 
Convention, and one that will advance the Kingdom 
of Jesus Christ to the ends of the earth. There were 
many most interesting features, the variegated colors 
of the delegates, the peculiar dress — all sorts, kinds 
and descriptions were there. The language question, 
however, was most vital. All the reports and addresses 
were submitted in three languages — French, German 
and English. But when you got down in the lobby of 
the great hall there seemed to be a hundred going on 
at the same time. It reminded me of the remark of 
the old stewardess on the ship coming up from South 
Africa, who came up to me after she learned who I 
was, and congratulated me upon the work I was en- 
gaged in, and then said : " Do you know about the Con- 
gregationals .'' I joined them last winter out at Wim- 
bledon. But I am not sure whether I like it or not. 
It seems to me the preacher out there at the Congre- 
gational don't know where he is going. He seems 
to know a lot of things he don't know, but I never 
}ieard him tell about any he does know for sure." 
Then, with a good amount of English assurance, she 
said: "I think our preacher is just building the tower 
of Babylon." Well, Zurich seemed sometimes like the 
first morning after that famous tower went over. 

This is sure — the Sunday-school is a great institu- 
tion. It has been a great power, is now, and is yet 
to be a greater one. I did my first Christian work 
in a little country Sunday-school out in Dakota, and I 
have never been accused of indifference to it, but I be- 
lieve in it now more than ever before. 

Just closing the long appeal for a bigger, better 
work for men and boys all the way around the world, 
I thank God for having given me this view of the world- 


wide Sunday-school awakening. It gives great hope 
for the future. 

Once more I bid you good-bye, although I hope to 
l)e under '* Old Glorv " myself when you are reading 
this. ■ . 

Yours as always and everywhere, 

Fred. B. Smith. 



England and Homeward Bound, July 17, 1913. 

My dear Mr. Cannon: The writing of reports and 
home letters, cabling, watching for " the mail," and 
counting days, are about over. If nothing unforeseen 
happens, in twenty-four hours more I will be standing 
on the old sod and under the grandest flag that ever 

Our return to the British Isles, coming in midsum- 
mer, made it impossible to do very much in the way of 
constructive Men and Religion work. As in New York, 
everybody seems to be away from London on a vacation 
during July and August. We were there long enough, 
however, to feel a little of the throb of the dominant re- 
ligious note, and to know that the same powerful tides 
are running there which we have found in other nations. 
We found the pulpit and the religious press discussing 
the question of how to interest and hold men and boys 
in the Church. 

On Sunday, July 6th, I had the privilege of speak- 
ing in the famous Wliitfield Tabernacle, where the fight- 
ing parson, theologian, parliamentarian and statesman. 
Rev. Silvester Home, M.P., is pastor. Raymond Rob- 
ins also spoke in the same church in the afternoon at 
the wonderful men's gathering, which has been running 
for nearly ten years, always with an immense audience. 
Silvester Home is the embodiment of the essential Men 
and Religion message, and, of course, gave us a grand 
reception. At night, I spoke at the old Christ Church, 
made world-wide in influence by the ministry of Rev. 


Frederick B. Mcjer, and where our own Kev. Len 
Broughton is now pastor. We had worked witli him in 
Atlanta, and he knew the whole message and result. No 
argument was needed to convince liim of the value of 
the Men and Religion campaign. He had tasted it be- 
fore and gave us a never-to-be-forgotten greeting of 
cordiality to his great church and people. Indeed, he 
is a wiiole Men and Religion Movement in himself. We 
found him doing in Christ Church the same splendid 
work of organization which he carried out with such 
marked skill in Atlanta. With a good deal of certainty 
he said that his church was going to have a forward 
movement in men's work, no matter what the rest of 
England might do. 

In the afternoon of the same Sunday, I had the joy 
of speaking to a magnificent audience in the central 
Young Men's Christian Association building, where our 
mighty friend of many years, John James Virgo, bet- 
ter known as " Jack," presides as General Secretary. I 
do not think the Association anywhere can boast of 
much better work than is now being carried out here. 
July is not the best month to see it in action, but the 
whole comment about it is one of cordial approval. 
There is a good educational work, a splendid physical 
department, great social activities. They have one 
of the best billiard rooms in any Young Men's Chris- 
tian Association building in the world. There were 
those who prophesied that the 'buses would stop run- 
ning if ever the London Association put in billiards. 
But they are there and still the world moves right on. 
I do not believe that there is another such meeting in 
the entire Brotherhood as the " Social Tea " following 
the Sunday afternoon men's meeting. Two hundred 
young men sat down at the tables the Sunday we Avere 
there, and at the roll call of nations from which 


they came it seemed as though the ends of the earth 
responded. The organization may well be proud of the 
work now being carried on by the original Association. 

I liad frequent conferences at the national headquar- 
ters, No. 13 Russell Square. Here, too, they are mak- 
ing fine progress, and are adding some very strong men 
to the staff. The central topic here is the anticipated 
special united forward moA^ement in which Mr. Basil 
Hewer, the Secretary for Religious Work of the Na- 
tional Council, is to lead. It is practically the Men and 
Religion Movement, but they have decided to call it the 
" Christian Manhood Campaign." 

In all of these meetings and interviews the Forward 
INIovement in men's work was the theme. There are 
unique difficulties in such an effort in the British Isles, 
but I venture the prophecy that if it is carried out 
earnestly, it will make the most profound impression 
there of any place in the whole world. Their religious 
conditions are just ripe for it, and when the Britisher 
sees the real significance of this type of masculine Chris- 
tian emphasis, he will, as usual, do it well. 

At the close of these months, and almost within sight 
of the dear old United States, I am going over the ex- 
periences and trying to summarize my impressions. It 
is not an easy task, for we have been through so many, 
many varied scenes. Some, however, stand out above 
all the others : 

The marvel of the perfection of ocean travel is not 
the least. Although it may not have any immediate 
bearing upon our work, it is nevertheless one of the 
very impressive facts. We have put in over eighty 
days on the sea, traveling upon thirteen different ships 
m all kinds of seas and climates and among all kinds 
of people. There has been not one jar or accident all 
the way. The modern skipper sails through wind, raiii, 


snow and fog up to the exact spot at the exact hour. 
We have not been an hour late anywhere. Ocean trans- 
portation is more rehable, I beheve, than are the rail- 
ways upon land. We are closing this part of our wan- 
derings upon the Mauretania, the queen of all the ships 
afloat. She is just one great city. We get up in the 
morning, read the daily paper, answer correspondence, 
send a few telegrams and then have luncheon. In the 
afternoon the ladies don their walking or street gowns, 
the gents their neatest business suits and all promenade. 
Fifth Avenue is not finer than " B" deck of the Maure- 
tania on a fine afternoon. At night, dinner at about 
eight, music in the drawing-room and the day is over. 
If anyone on this voyage had not looked out, they 
would not have known we were at sea at all. All the 
way from Liverpool, not a motion more than one would 
get on the Hudson River. Wouldn't Lief Erickson, 
Christopher Columbus and Sir Walter Raleigh like to 
be Captains now? 

The world-wide influence of the Men and Religion 
Movement has amazed me. I do not say this merely 
as related to the nations and cities we have visited, but 
in a large sense based upon the messages coming from 
so many other quarters of the world. Hawaii, Japan, 
China, the Philippine Islands, Australia, South Africa 
and England are deeply stirred, but I am even more 
impressed by the impression made in other places. I 
have already written of how deeply the World's Sun- 
day-school Convention was aroused over the need of 
this type of work. I have never in my life had a more 
pressing invitation than one which comes from Hol- 
land for a campaign of this kind. I was surrounded 
at Zurich by the delegation from Sweden, determined 
that I should go straight to Sw'eden with them to launch 
a campaign. The last hour in London brought a stir- 


ring appeal from Belfast for a series of such confer- 
ences and meetings. I do not write this in a sense of 
conceit, but I hope more in humility than otherwise, for 
I believe God Himself has been guiding these develop- 
ments, and this appeal is being made in just the exact 
period when He ordained it should be. If I were back 
in that " state room " of the Hotel Manhattan, May 
18, 1911, and knew in advance all the anxious days 
and nights, all the hard work and all the heart aches 
that would be involved in carrying out the program, 
I would go straight forward. It has been used of God 
permanently to change some things in organized Chris- 
tianity. I believe in " Movements " more than ever. I 
am grateful to God that Moody led out in that great 
evangelistic movement. I am glad for the Laymen's 
Missionary Movement. I am thankful for the Men 
and Religion Forward Movement. I am rejoiced to 
hear of the United Missionary Movement. I am happy 
in the anticipation of the Movements yet to be bom. 
Anything but a calm! 

The loyalty, love and devotion of the members of the 
team uill live forever with me as one of the outstand- 
ing impressions. I would not be true to myself in this 
last letter to you if I failed to speak of my associates 
in these hard months of work. There have been breaks 
in travel, but the pressure has been indescribable at 
times. I am built for a good deal of hardship, and am 
always in danger of going too fast. You may know 
that it has been pretty earnest when I sum up the 
whole tour by telling you that we have held 476 differ- 
ent meetings and conferences, have addressed 147,181 
men and boys in eight different Nations, and have trav- 
eled 43,308 miles. During it all, every man in the 
party has been true, and ready to do his utmost. At 
the close, instead of being ready to separate, I believe 


they would rather be together than with any other sim- 
ilar group of men on earth. I cannot go over them one 
by one, but I do want to testify to tlieir tremendous 
work throughout the whole year. 

The necessity of evangelizing otir own North America 
is upon my heart more than anything else to-day. Of all 
impressions, this is the most dominant one. I am thpr- 
oughly convinced that we of Canada and the United 
States have an obligation to the religious world every- 
where. I am persuaded that this does not apply simply 
to our general Foreign Missionary responsibility, but 
has an equal bearing upon the welfare and progress of 
the Kingdom of God in lands called Christian and non- 
Christian, and I think we would be untrue to the vision 
which has been vouchsafed if we did not from time to 
time make our contribution to the extension and devel- 
opment of the Christian forces throughout the world. 
Our commerce is going everywhere. I have not foimd 
a place in all our wanderings where I did not see Ameri- 
can farm machinery, kerosene oil, soaps, perfumery, 
pickles, razors, cough-drops, boots, shoes, sewing ma- 
chines, automobiles, mcntholatum, bicycles, wind-mills, 
wagons, chewing-gum, flour, oatmeal, canned fruits and 
meats. By the law of honorable return, any nation which 
is drawing so much, both in people and financial gain 
from the remotest corners of the earth, ought to expect 
to share in the great moral battles of the world. Of 
this principle I am firmly convinced. But I am even 
more convinced of the fact that notwithstanding these 
distant responsibilities, our primary, fundamental and 
immediate necessity is to see that the work of moral 
preserv^ation. Christian energizing and evangelizing are 
carried out in our own North America. This is forced 
home upon me for so many reasons that I would not 
dare attempt to write you all of them. 


I am sure it is true because we are here working out 
■ the illustration, it seems to me, of the final method in 
religious work which must be applied to all people 
everywhere. I have been repeatedly made to tremble 
as I have realized how continuously the American 
method in religious work is finding its way into all the 
nations of the world. It has been rather amusing, in 
some places, to hear them speak of the danger of the 
American methods, and not infrequently even argue 
against them, and then turn quietly around and adopt 
them. We are bearing a grave responsibility in that 
from the standpoint of the extension of the Kingdom 
of Jesus Christ, leaders of every nation of which I 
have knowledge are anxiously awaiting our develop- 

I am sure that there is also a great responsibility to 
evangelize our own country, because notwithstanding 
all the arguments concerning the needier places of the 
world, we have to bow our heads in humility as we face 
a good many bad situations in our own home land. I 
do not think I found any kind of sin anywhere but that 
in some form it exists in New York, Chicago, Toronto, 
Montreal, San Francisco and all the rest. I remember 
hearing an old theological professor in a Young Men's 
Christian Association Convention some years ago say 
that he believed every man in the world ought to have 
a fair show for his salvation. It sounded very com- 
monplace at first, but it has been with me ever since as 
a powerful statement. It is upon this principle that 
the Foreign Missionary appeal becomes irresistible, and 
every real Christian has to accept his part in that re- 
sponsibility, but it is equally true that the young men 
of our own country ought to have a fair show for their 
salvation, and that a good many of them are not having 


it. No lessening of force at home can be thought of 
or tolerated so long as present conditions obtain. 

I feel the sense of this home responsibility as I never 
felt it before, for we have in our land, as perhaps in 
no other in the world, the available resources to do the 
work. Somewhere I have either written or said that I 
believe that there are ten dollars of money ready for 
every dollar of need if the Christian business men of the 
United States and Canada can be assured that their 
money is going to be economically and efficiently ad- 
ministered. If we cannot win this contest in the United 
States and Canada, it cannot be won anywhere. I be- 
lieve that the Kingdom of God is going to be estab- 
lished, and that the ushering in of this day with us is 
a sort of advance movement in the interests of the whole 
world. I .am coming home to give myself to this task 
of the religious life of the young men of our own North 
American continent as I have never done before. 

As I think about what it will mean to step on those 
shores to-morrow, I cannot help a sense of great 
pity for the men of our land who are whining about 
" conditions." The man who cannot make a reasonable 
success of life in the United States or Canada would 
be a wretched failure anywhere you put him, and the 
religious organization which does not do a great work 
there ought to surrender its charter and go out of 
business. I am afraid I will be found preaching the 
doctrine of North America patriotism a good deal dur- 
ing these coming months. To-day I feel as though I 
wanted to get oflT this ship, and get down on my back 
and roll over on the ground of our own soil. 

For all the journeying mercies that have surrounded 
us, for all the unparalleled blessings which have at- 
tended our labors and for the good providence of God 
which brings us back safely, we render unspeakable 


.^Lf^nqr 7 

thanksgiving, but in this oratorio oi gxc.^. othing 

else at this moment impresses me so profoundly as the 
sense of home, with my own family, the circle of Chris- 
tian men with whom I work, and my native soil. I shall 
sing, as I have not hitherto sung. Dr. Barbour's favor- 
ite hymn : 

O beautiful for spacious skies, 

For amber waves of grain, 
For purple mountain majesties. 

Above the fruited plain ! 
America ! America ! 
God shed His grace on thee. 

And crown thy good with brotherhood 
From sea to shining sea ! 

O beautiful for pilgrim feet 

Whose stern, impassioned stress 

A thoroughfare for freedom beat 
Across the wilderness ! 
America ! America ! 

God mend thine every flaw. 

Confirm thy soul in self-control. 

Thy liberty in law ! 

O beautiful for heroes proved 

In liberating strife. 
Who more than self their country loved, 

And mercy more than life ! 
America! America! 
May God thy gold refine. 

Till all success be nobleness, 
And every gain divine ! 




O beautiful for patriot dream 

That sees beyond the years 
Thine ahibaster cities gleam 

Undinnned by human tears ! 
America ! America ! 
God shed His grace on thee 

And crown thy good with brotherhood 
From sea to shining sea ! 

Yours with everything I have for the 

Kingdom of God, 
Feed. B. Smith. 

153 "SlL.^ 



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