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[pp. l»-88» 1433-2267.] 



TFUh two Map9 ofihe IMleet DUtrkU. 


NEW YORK Digitized by ^^OOglL 

Originally published in 1889 by Asher & Co. 

First Greenwood Reprinting, 1968 

Library of Congress. Catalogue Card Number: 68-30998 


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p. 20, 1. 20, read or t\ 

,f dt. par. 1, read vba'ut dat. 
p. 37, 1. 19 from bottom, under Do., for *Blaiidford read *Cranbome. 
p. 45, par. 6, last word, read 8Bk8)iiB. 
p. 47, note 6, first line, read the (d). 
p. 57, line 3 from bottom. No. 904, read Ydjijar. 
p. 68, line 3, read 923*. 
p. 65, par. 0, 1. 8, for Potter read Trotter. 

„ par. 10, 1. 3, read bnt (win'ikvn). 
p. 66, 1. 1 and 2, for Potter, read Trotter. 
p. 80, East Dorset cwl., 1. 2, read Cranbome, and 1. 5 dele and. 
p. 85, joke on (st|) last line, read iid)v)a'd. 
p. 94, 1. 10, read — L (mujii). 
p. 109, 1. 6, read Miss M. A. Firth. 

.p. 111. Author itise, Np, add tDaventry, fFarthinghoe, fHelmdon, fLong 
Buckley, fSilyerstone, ''Slapton, fSyersham, fTowcester, fWatford, 
tWeedon, fWood Burcote, fWoodford. 
p. 113, paragraph B, line 1, read a nonagenarian widow about 94 ; line M, read 

Malvern Wells. 
p. 114, 1. 30, read Clatsadok, Wa. (5 w.Warwick). 
p. 129, 1. 15 from bottom, read may have possibly. 
p. 131, 1. 4, read Pasingworth. 

„ 1. 6, read ''Shadoxhurst. 
p. 133, dt. par. 3, read v)dv Baq. 
p. 136, last line but one, read Bey. J. W. Rumny. 
p. 140, No. 422, read <Tomited.' 
p. 157, 1. 9, read Mr. SheUy's 
p. 162, No. 646, read ba)'yi». 
p. 163, 1. 2, read mBB'k)*n. 

p. 175, Area, 1. 2, after Br., add outlying parts of Wo. 
p. 183, 1. 2 from bottom, read dra'ttudtd. 
p. 186, No. 702, rMKiuth. 

p. 194, line B, read Chackmore, and line T, read Tyrringham. 
p. 199, line S, read n-by-w. 
p. 201, /or 125 oni, read 194 oni. 
p. 217, 1. 23, read H. F. Tollemache. 
p. 222, L 31, rMuf degradation, 
p. 225,1. 6, read^un, 

p. 235, 1. 3, read Henley-on-Thames in Ox, and 1. 4, read Penn, Bu, (3 e-by-n. 
High Wycombe), 

Z.S. ProB. Part Y. h 

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p. 248, note, col. 2, lines 1 and 2, read pldts, m^^d. 

p. 249, 1. 10, read 10 s. 

p. 253, note, col. 2, 1. 1, read of which li. has {u^) and Nf. (»J. 

p. 256, 1. 4, read — Pt. ; notee, col. 2, 1. 1, read was also. 

p. 278, 1. 1, rwkfs.Nf. 

p. 279, 1. 3, read Tuddenham. 

p. 316. £<mndarie$f 1. 5, read Featherbed ; 1. 7, read Mam Tor, and 

Authoritiee, Ch, 1. 2, read Tintwistle ; La, 1. 2, r^Mf Eoyton. 
p. 332, under Leyland.for 1887 rmuf 1877. 
p. 345, under Chorley^ read 10 nw.Bolton. 
p. 347, No. 222, add at end, or from old Fr. hure, head of a man or an animal, 

especially a shaggy boar* s head, 
p. 352, 1. 11 from bottom, and Authorities, La, 1. 2, read Ooosnargh. 
p. 354, col. 2, 1. 9 from bottom, rtfa<^.dl«r)B. 
pp. 360, 361, 362, and 363, read Lezayre. 
p. 362, notes to Lezayre dt., par. 1, read or (Bba'tit). 
p. 363, 1. 3 from bottom, read — P pBrtknt. 

p. 375, 1. 10 from bottom, 13. vii, read noon, corrected on p. 405, notes, par. 13. 
p. 387, 1. 12, last word, read Bradley. 

p. 409, 1. Authoritiet, St., 1. 2, after Longport insert tLongion. 
p. 421, West and South Cheshire cwl., 1. 1, dele Churton. 
p. 425, 1. 8 from bottom, read Db. 
p. 485, 1. 4, add „ under t\ and in lines 12 and 13 from bottom, that is, in 

Nos. 4 and 5, transpose a and the „ above it, 
p. 436, par. 15, Nos. 1 and 3, read ta! iid, fs!u\, 
p. 442, No. 39, read kja'kon. 
p. 443, par. I-, 1. 1, read — B gji. 
p. 445, 1. B, for 8 e. read 6 e. 
p. 447, last line, read r^ra. 
p. 449, 1. 2, for 71, read 76. 
p. 472, 1. 8, after Coalbrookdale for St. read Sh. 
p. 524, No. 831, fMMf final (t). 
p. 529, 1. 2, insert J. qfter Bey. 
p. 567, 1. 4 from bottom, read Tan. 
p. 572, 1. 4, rviMf ttsid\ 
p. 606, 1. 7 from bottom to No. 49, add — . 
p. 607, in par. xl, 1. 7, second No. 0, add — 
p. 718, under XT: for snsb read sneb. 
p. 738, note 46, last number, read 168. 
p. 747, line 1, read 12 sw. 

p. 748, in title, and 1. 1 of poem, for Gbbt read Gray. 
p. 755, 1. 5 from bottom, read Ke. 
p. 824, last line but one of small print, read of I, T, 

In the Consonantal Index there are a few eyident displacements, and the 
following misprints, read under G- 13 gnagan, under SC- 220 scsBphirSe, under 
-T- cetd, under -W 371 stre&w. Omit 90 bl&wan under -D- 

There are possibly many other slight errors which hare escaped observation. 
For the comparative correctness of a text of such great complexi^ as the present, 
I am much indebted to the vigilance of the printer's reader, Mr. Wood, 
who also read the four preceding Parts, and, in many districts, the scrupulous 
care of Mr. T. Hallam. 

A. J. E. 

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Ebbata, Ty Ti. 
CoNTBNTS, yii to xvi. 
NoncB, xrii to xx. 

PBSUMnrA&T MATTBR, l*-88*. 

I. Note on the Relation of thie Treatioe to preceding Chaptere, 2*. 
II. Key to the Maps of the Bnglieh and Lowland Dialect DittrietSf and List 
qfthe Ftineipal Abbreviations used, 3* to 6*. 
Introductory Bemarks 3*, AbbiOTiations of positional words, and 
two-letter abbreyiations of the Names of Counties 4*, list of 
Divisions, Districts, and Varieties 4* and 6*. Other abbreyiations 
frequent in use 6*. 
in. Comparative Specimen (cs.) in receiyed orthography 7*. 
IV. IHaleet Test (dt.) in receiyed orthography 8*, notes^ on every word 8* 

to 16». 
V. ClasHJied Word List (cwl.) 16*. I. Weesex and Norse 16* to 22*. II. 
English 22*. III. Bomance 23* and 24*. Notes on Constructions 
ana Intonation appended to the original word list 25*. Index to the 
English words in the cwl. referring each its number 26* — 29*. 
CouBonantal Index to the Wessex and Norse Division of the cwl. 
30*, 31*. 
VI. Alphabetical County List 32* to 67*. Introd. 32*. England 32* to 
63*. Isle of Man 63*. Wales 63* to 64*. Scotland 64* to 67*. 
Ireland 67*. 
VII. Alphabetical Informants List, and Index of all the Ifames mentioned in 
this Treatise 67* to 76*. 
VIII. Table of DialeHalFdiaeotype7S^ to SS: 

Tbxt, 1-836. 

Intbodvgtioh, 1-9. 

Problem of this treatise 1 . Me^od of solution 1-4. Chief Helpers, Principal, 
Staff and Students of Whitelands Training College, C. C. Bobinson, J. G. 
Ooodchild, Thomas Hallam, Prince L.-L. Bonaparte, 4-6. Palaeotype, 6. 
Geographical IHstricts in place of Dialects, 6-8. Plan of the Work, 8-9. 

2%e Celtic Border, 9-16. 
Ancient, about a.d. 677, according to J. B. Green, 9. His location of the 
Saxon settlements, 11. After Treaty of Wedmore, a.d. 878, p. 11. 
Hii location of the Ealdormanriee, 12. — Modem, at the present day 
through Ireland, England and Wales, and Scotland, 12-16. 

The Ten Transverse Lines, 16-22. 

1. The n. sum, 16. 6. The s. hoose, 19. 

2. The 8. s69m. 16. 7. The n. tee, 20. 

3. The reverted ur, 17. 8. The s. sum, 21. 

4. The s. teeth, 18. 9. The n. sUdm, 21. 
6. The n. theeth, 18. 10. The L. line 21. 

The Boman Wall, 22. 

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I. The Southe£N Ditision of Ekolish Dialbgt Disibicts, 23-187.. 

iNTKODUcnoir, 23. 
D 1, 2, 3=CS. or Celtic Southern, 24-36. 

D l=w.CS.-we8t Celtic Southern, 25-31. 

Introd. 25. Yallanoer's Tola Zong^ 26. Casteale Cndde's Lamentation, 
28-29. Forth and Bargj cwl. 30. 

D 2x=m.CS.-mid Celtic Southern, 31-35. 

Introd. 31. Two Interlinear Pm. dt. 32 ; Swansea Example, 33 ; Pm. 
cwl. 34. 

D 3— e.CSseastem Celtic Southern, 35-36. 
Introd. 35. Gowerland cwl. 35. CollinB's Gower words, 35-36. 

D 4 and 5-iMS.-The Mid Southern, 36-110. 

D 4 -W.MS.— western Mid Southern, 37-91. 

Introd. 37-38. Table of initial and final f or v, « or t, «A or fA, 38-41. 
The reyerted (r) and (t, d, n, l), 41-42. Vowels and grammatical con- 
atmction and Varieties, 43. 
Var. i. Middle or Typical Form in Wl. 44-60. 

Phase I. Christian Malford os. 44. Phrases *and sentences, 

48 ; cwl. 49. 
Phase n. Chippenham, Akerman's "The Hornet and the 

Bittle," 51-54, cwl. 54-58. 
Phase ni. Tilshead, 58, anecdote and dt. 58, cwl. 59. 
Var. li. Northern or 01. Form, 60-68. Three Interlinear cs. for Vale 
of Gloucester, Tetbnry, and Forest of Dean, 60-65. Forest of 
Dean and Aylburton sentences [for Potter read Trotter], 66. 
Gloucester Town pron. 64, note. Gloncester cwl. 66. 
Var. iii. The North Western or e.He. Form, 68-75. Boss, 68. Three 
Interlinear cs. from Ledbury, Much Cowame, and Eggleton, 
69-73. Miss Piper's EggleUm speciment, 74. 
Var. iv. The South Eastern or Do. Form, 75-84. Hanford dt. 76. 
Two Interlinear cs. from Cranbome and Winterbome Came, 
76-80. £ast Do. cwl. 80-83. Western Do. cwl. 83. 
Var. T. The Land of Utch (pronoun for i), 84-86. Joke on Utch, 85. 

Montacute dt. 85, cwl. 86. • 
Var. Ti. The South Western or Sm. Form, 87-91. The Axe-Tarty 
district, 87, and cwl. 88. Wedmore sentences, 89. Worle 
cwl. 90. 

D 5-ie.MS.— eastern Mid Southern, 91-110. 
Introduction, 91-92. 

Var. i. Ox. Form, 92-94. Witney dt. 92. w.Ox. cwl. from Duck- 
lington, Leafield, Witney, 93. 

Var. ii. The Be. Form, 94-96. Steyenton dt. 94. Hampstead Norris, 
part of cs. 95. Wantage cwl. 96. 

Var. iii. Ha. and Wi. Form, 96-108. West Stratton, East Stratton, and 
Bumingham*8 words, 96. Southampton to Winchester cs., 
97. ^doTer, 98-107, with two pronunciations of a farmer^s 
letter in Punch, 100. CoUoquiat sentences, 104, and cwl., 
104. Isle of Wight, with cwl., 107. 

Var. iy. Sr. and Ss. Form, 108, with owl., 109. 

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D 6, 7, S-BS. or border of South as against Midland and East, 110. 

D 6-n.BS. -northern Border Southern, 111-121. 
Introd. 111. 

Var. i. Wo. Porm, with Worcester dt. and Hanlrary dt. 112. 8. Wo. 

owl. from Abberler, Bewdler, Bengeworth, Bnckland, Drdt- 

wkh, Eldflnfleld, SalewET, Worceetor, etc. 118. 
Var. ii. 8.Wa. Form, OkTerdon dt 114. a.Wa. cwl. from Butler's 

Karston, Eineton, PUlerton Priors, Stratford-on-ATon, and 

Tysoe, 115. 
Var. iii. Bandiry Form, with cs. 116. Bhenington dt. 117. Banbury 

cwl. 118. 
Var. It. sw.Np. Form from Ashbj Bt. Legers, Badbj, Byfleld, Towoester, 

Wjfcfoid cwl. 120. ' ^^ 

D 7-m.BS.-mid Border Southern, 121-128. 

Introd. 121. Handboroogh a. cs. 123 ; b. dt. 124 ; e. Phrases, 125 ; d. 
cwL, 127. 

D 8 —B.BS.* southern Border Southern, 128-130. 

Introd. 128. Information from WargraTo, Hnrley, Hurst, 129, and from 
Chobham, Ghertsej, Leatherhead, Croydon, 130. 

D 9-ES.ȣa8t Southern, 130-145. 
Introd. 130. 

Tar. L East Sussex Form, 132. Two East Sussex Interlinear dt. from 
Markly and Selmeston, 133. East Sussex cwl. from Cuckfleld, 
Eastbourne, Leasam, Markly, and Pane's Glossary, 134. 

Var. ii. North Kent Form, 136. Introd. 136. Fayersham cs. 187. 
FaTersham Phrases, 139. FaTersham cwl. 139. 

Var. iii. East Kent Form, Introd. 141. Wingham dt. 142. Folkestone 
Fishermen, Introd. 142, dt. 143. East Kent owl. from 
Folkestone, Margate, Thanet, Wingham, 144. 

D 10, 11, 12 -WS. or West Southern Group, 146. 

D 10-n.WS. -northern West Southern, 145-155. 

Introd. 145-147. West Somerset cs. 148. Examples lord Piopham, 151. 
IIU lk9il mi tU Ctg^ \b%. ^f^^^ JFMhm-womm Married, 168. West 
Somerset cwl. 153-166. Phonetic Version of Buth, chap. L 698, No. 6. 

D ll-8.WS.-southem West Southern, 156-170. 
Introd. 156. 

Tar. L North Deron, 167« Iddesleigh cs. and notes, 157-169. North 
MoHon dt. and Phrases, 160. North Deron cwl. from 
Iddesleigh and North Mdton, 161. 
Var. ii. South Deron, 162. Dartmoor cs. 162. South*West Deron cwl. 

164. DoTonport dt. 166. Millbrook, Co. IH4Mlogue, 167. 
Var. iii. Camelford, Co. dt. 168. Cardj'nham, Co. dt. 169. St. Colomb 
Major dt. 169. 

D 12-w.WS.-westem West Southern, 171-174. 

Introd. 171. Macazion, Juekf Tm%»$, 172. West Cornish cwl. 173. Sdlly 
Isles, 174. 

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II. The Westebn Ditision of Ekgush Dialect Distbicis, 

Introd. 175. 

D 13=8W.-South Western, 175-180. 
Introd. 175. Lower Bache Farm dt. 176. Doeklow apeeimm, m . Mr. Stead*8 
w.He. and e.Br. notes, 178. Ed. 179. Mo. 179. n.He. cwl. from Lower 
Bache Farm, Docklow, Hereford, Leominster, and Ludlow, Sh. 180. 

D 14=irW. -North Western, 181-187. 

Introd. 181. lUastrations, Palverbach, Miss Jackson's Bettif Andretoi, 
183-184. Ev€^8 Scork, 184. m.Sh. cwl. rearranged from TH.'s account 
of Sh. pron. in Miss Jackson's Word Book, 184. 

III. The Eastern Dinsioir of English Dialect Distbicts, 

Introd. 188. 

D 15-WE.=We8t Eastern, 189-195. 
Introd. 189. AjleBhwcy Dialogue, 190. Chackmoredt. 191. s.Bn. Ajlesbury 
and Wendover cwl. 192. n.Bu. Buckingham, Ghackmore [misprinted 
Clackmore], Hanslope, and Tyrringham [misprinted Tyrinham] cwl. 194. 

D 16=ME.=Mid Eastern, 195-225. 
Introd. 195. 

Var. i. Hertfordshire, 197. Ware cs. 197. se.Ht. cwl. from Ware, 

Hertford, and Stapleford, 199. Ardeley or Yardley dt. 200. 

ArdeleyWood End cwl. 201. Welwrn dt. 202. Hitchin dt. 

203. Harpenden cwl. 203. Hatfield cwl. 203. 
Yar. ii. Bedfordshire, 204. Introd. 204. Batchelor's Bd. rules and 

sentences, 204-206. Ridgmont dt. 206. Mid Bd. cs. 206. 

Mr. Wyatt's sentences, 208. Bd. cwl. from Batchelor, 

Dunstable, Ridgmont, and Bedford, 209. 
Var. iii. Huntingdonshire, 211. Introd. 211. Ot. Stukeley dt. and cwl. 

211. Sawtry and Hohne notes, 212. 
Yar. iv. Mid Northamptonshire, 213. Introd. 213. East Haddon cs. 

213, and phrases, 214. East Haddon cwl. 215. Hannington 

dt. 216. Harrington dt. 217, and cwl. 217. Lower Beneield 

dt. 218. Mid Np. cwl. from Islip, Northampton, and 

Yelvertoft neighbourhoods, 219. 
Yar. T. Essex, 221. Introd. 221. Ot. Dunmow abridged os. 222. 

Maldon dt. 223. Essex cwl. from Taiious unnamed places, 224. 

D 17 =8E.= South Eastern, 225-248. 
Introd. 225. 

1. Bey. A. J. D. D'Orsey on London Town Speech, 226. 

2. Walker (1792-1807) and Smart (1836) on London Speech, 227. 

3. Errors in London Speech in 1817, 227. 

4. Dickens's London Speech, 1837, 228. 
6. Thackeray's London Footman's Speech, 1845-6, 229. 

6. Tuer's Cockney Almanac, 229. 

7. Baumann's Londonisms, 230. 

8. TH.'s London Observations, 231. 

9. JOG.'s East London Pronunciation, 233. 
10. Rural Speech from Bu. Ht. Mi. 234-236. 

Australasian South Eastern, 236-248. Introd. 236. Mr. McBumey's 
article in the LytUlUm Timet, New Zealand, 237. Mr. McBumey's Table 
of Austrabsian Pronunciation, 239-248. 

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D 18-NE.«North Eastern, ao-called in opposition to D 17-SE, 

Introd. 248. 

Yar. i. Ifid Cb. dt. 249. Sawston, Cb., dt. 250. Wood Ditton, Cb., 

dt. 260. March dt. 251. Wisbech cwl. 252. 
Yar. li. Korth-eaatem Northamptonshire cwl. from Peterborough, 
Ailesworth, Castor, Eye, Peakirk, Bookingham, Stamford, 
li. ; Wakerley, Werrington, Wryde, Cb. 254. 
Yar. iii. Butland. Cottesmore dt. 255. Oakham dt. 256. Butland 
cwl. from Cottesmore^ Oakham, and Stretton, 256-259. 

D 19-EE.-£ast Eastern, 259-289. 
Introd. 259. 

Yar. L nw.Nf. Form, 262-263. nw.Nf. cwl. from King's Lynn, 
Swaffham, and Honotanton neighbourhoods, 262. Narborough 
dt. 263. 

Yar. iL ne.Nf. Form, 263-272. Stanhoe dt. 264. Stanhoe cwl. 
264-268. Notes from BeT. P. Hoste, with Words and 
Phrases noted, 268-269. Examination of Forby's pron. 269. 
Notes and sentences by TH. 272. North Walsham dt. 272. 

Yar. iii. 8.Nf. Form, 273-279. Mattishall, Kimberley, and East Dere- 
ham cs. 273-275. Kirkbv-Bedon owl. 275. Examples from 
neighbourhood of Norwich, I. from Dr. Lomb; il. from 
Mrs. Luscombe ; III. FarmtrU Dialoffue, from anonymous 
passenger ; lY. from Bey. T. Buminsiham ; Y. from AJE. ; 
YI. from TH., m. and s. Norfolk [misprinted Norwich], 
276-278. Gt. Yarmouth dt. 278. s.Nf. cwl. from Buxton, 
Diss, East Dereham, North Tuddenham, Norwich, Thetford, 
Wymondham, 279. 

Yar. iy. e.Sf. Form, 279-287. Framlinffham, Woodbridge, and Stow- 
market cs. 279-281. Southwold cwl. and sentences, 281-285. 
Orford dt. 285. e.Sf. cwl. from Moor's 8^folk Words, 286. 

Yar. y. w.Sf. Form, 287-289. Pakenham cs. 287. Differences of 
w. and e. 8f . 288. 

IY. Thb Kidlakd DiYisioir of Ekoiish Dialect Districts, 

Introd. 290-296. Boundaries, 290. Area, 290. Sections, 290. Districts 
and Oromis, 290. Character, 290-296. Yoweh Forms, 290-293. («, »), u^, 
290. (ofli), 292. (/i, a% a'u), 293. Consonant Forms, 293-295. (r), 293. 
(h), 295. Constructional Forms Uhe, -en, I am], 295-296. Peculiar 
words [Am, ihoo], 296. Negatiye Character, 296. 

D 20ssBM.=Boider Midland, 296-315. 
Introd., Boundaries, Area, Character, 296-298. 

Yar. i. South li. Form, 298-302. Friskney sentences, 298. Billing- 
borou^ examples, 299. South li. cwl. 299-302. 

Yar. H. Hid li. Form, 302-310. Lord Tennyson's poems, yy. examina- 
tion, 302-306. Northern Fanner Old St^de, 303. Northern 
Farmer New Style, 304. Halton Holegate dt. 306. Test 
sentences, 307. Fragments of Spilsby Talk, from Mrs. 
Douglas Arden's note book, 308. Mid lA, owl. 309. 

Yar. iiL North li. Form, 310-315. Introd. 310. Treatment of ou in 
Mr. Peacock's Glossary, fint edition, 311. n.Ii. dt. 312. 
Winterton os. 312. jlU. cwl. 313. 

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D21-6.NM.-80uthem Nortli Midland, 815-^29. 

Introd. 816-317. TH.'s peculiarities of notation, 316. Three Interlinear cs. 
for Stalybridffe, 61o8sop, and Chapel-en-le-Friih 317-321. Chapel- 
en-le-Fnth dt. 822. se.La. and nw.Db. owl. from Rochdale, Oldham 
(iK'tfdvm) Patricroft, Hope Woodlands, Edale, Peak Forest, and Stalybridge, 
822. Chapel-en-le-Fritii cwl. 323-329. Principal Variants for Combs 
Valley, 329. 

D 22=w.NM.=we8tem North Midland, 329-351. 

Introd. 829-331. Four Interlinear cs. for Var. i. Skelmersdale ; Var. ii. 
Westhoughton ; Var. iii. Leyland, and Var. t. Burnley, 832-339 ; Var. It. 
Two Interlinear dt. for Blackburn and Hoddlesden, 339 ; Var. tI. Old Cohie 
Valley, recent changes, 340, dt. 341. 

Var. i. Ormsldrk and neighbourhood owl. 342. 

Var. ii. Bolton and Wigan cwl. 843. 

Var. iii. Chorley and Leyland cwl. 345. 

Var. It. Blackburn cwl. 346-360. 

Var. T. Burnley cwl. 360. 

D 23=n.NM.=northem North Midland, 351-363. 

Var. i. The Fylde, 862. Introd. 862. Two cs. in parallel colunms 

for Poulton and Goosnargh, 364. Poulton Phrases, 367. 

Wyersdale dt. 368. The Fy^de cwl. 368-360. 
Var. ii. The Isle of Man, Introd. 860. Three Interlinear dt. for 

Lezayre, Peel, and RuiBhen, 861. Isle of Man cwl. 363. 

D 24-e.NM.»eastem Nortli Midland, 364-408. 

Introd. 864-366. Eight Interlinear cs. from Huddersfield (notes 878), Halifax 
(notes 384), Eeighley^otes 386), Bradford (notes 890), Leeds (notes 896), 
Dewsbnry (notes 404), Aotherham (notes 404), Sheffield, 867-377. 
Var. i. Huddersfield and neighbourhood, 877-382. Introd. 877. Notes 

to Huddersfield cs. 878. Maisden dt. 379. Upper Cumber- 
worth dt. 380. Huddersfield and neighbourhooa cwl. 380. 
Var. ii. Halifax and neighbourhood, 382-384. Introd. 382. Halifax 

cwl. from Crabtree, 383. EUand dt. 384. Notes to Halifax 

cs. 384. 
Var. iii. Eeighley, 384-888. Introd. 384. Extracts from cs. by TH. 

and CCB. compared, 386. Notes to cs. 886. Keighley 

cwl. 387. 
Var. IT. Bradford, 888-894. Introd. 888. Windhill dt. 389. Calyerler 

dt. 390. Notes to Bradford cs. 390. Bradford and Windhill 

owl. 391. 
Var. T. Leeds and its neighbourhood, 394-402. Introd. 394. Comparison 

of Bradford and Leeds, 896. Leeds refined form, 896. Notes 

to Leeds cs. 396. Leeds and neighbourhood cwl. 397-400. 

Notes to Leeds cwl. 400. Wakefield owl. 401. Wakefield 

printer's orthography, 403. 
Var. n. Dewsbury, 402. Barnsler dt. 408. Notes to Dewsbury cs. 404. 
Var. Tii. Botherham and surroundmg Tillages, 404. Notes to Biotherham 

cs. 404 
Var. yiii. Sheffield and neighbourhood, 406. 
Var. ix. Doncaster, 406. Doncaster cwl. 406-408. 

D 25-w.MM.-weBtem Mid Midland, 408-424. 

Introd. 408. Four Interlinear dt. from Bickley, Sandbach, Leek, and Combs, 
411. Notes to these dt. 412. Four Interlinear cs. and wi& yariants in 
a fifth, from Tarporley, Middlewich, Shrigley, Goyt (Tenants), and Burslero, 
418-420. Notes to these cs. 420. West and South Cheshire cwl. 421. 
North Staffordshire cwl. 422. South Cheshire or Bickley, cwl. 422-424. 
Phonetic Version of Buth, chap, i., p. 698, No. 4. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


D 26-e.MM. -eastern Hid Midland, 424-447. 

Inkod. 424. Eid^t Interlinear Derbyshire cs. from 1 Bradwell, 2 Taddington, 
8 ABbford, 4 winsier, 6 and 6 ABhbonme (two), 7 Brampton, 8 Bepton, 
426-438. Seyen Interlinear Berbphire and Met StaffordBhire dt. from 
1 Eddngton, 2 Barlborongb, 3 Boleoyer, 4 South Wingfleld, 6 West 
Hallam, 6 Brailsford, 7 Flash, St., 438^41. Farther Examples, all 
obsenred by TH. from 1. Middleton-by-Wirksworth, 2. Wirksworth, 3. 
Idridgehay, 4. Flash, 6. Alstonefidd, 6. Hartington, 7. Bolsorer, 441-442. 

Yar. i. Northern Sooth Peak cwl. 442. 

Yar. ii. Weston Derbyshire and East Staffordshire cwl. 444. 

Yar. iii. Eastern Derbyshire cwl. 445. 

Yar. iy. Southern Derbyshire cwl. 446. 

D 27-EM.->Ea8t Midland, 447-451. 

Introd. 447. Nottinghamshire dt 448. Other Ezamnles dictated to TH. at 
Bingham and Mansfield, 449. Fragments of two Bingham cs. 449. Kt. 
cwl. 460. 

D 28 -w.SM.- western South Midland, 451-459. 

Introd. 461. Poor Interlinear dt. from 1. Elleemere, 2. Whixall, 3. Hanmer, 
4. Famdon, 462-464. 
Yar. i. North Shropshire cid. 466. 
Yar. ii. Detached Flint cwl. 466. 
Yar. iii. Sooth Cheshire cwl. 467. 
Yar. iy. Welsh Flint and Denbigh cwl. 468. 

D 29«e.SM.-easteni South Midland, 459-498. 

Introd. 469-463. Forms of negatiyes, 461. Table of yarieties, 462. Fiye 

Interlinear cs. from 1. Cannock Chase, 2. Dodley, 3. Atiierstone. 4. 

Waltham, 6. Enderby yariants, 463-471. Eight Interlinear dt. from 

1. Edgmond, Sh., 2. Ecdeshall, St., 3. Borton-on-Trent, St., 4. Lichfield, 

St., 6. Wellington, Sh., 6. Coalbrookdale, Sh., 7. Darlaston, St., 8. 

Bdgraye,. Le., 471-476. Additional Dlostrations from Market Drayton, 

Sh., Edgmond, Sh., Ecdeshall, St., Haoghton, St., Boiton-on-Trent, St., 

Barton-ondsr-Needwood, St., Darlaston, St., Walsdl, St., 476-478. 

Yar. Ut. North-east Shropshire and North-west Staffordshire cwL 478. 

—Yar. i^. West Mid Shropshire cwl. 480.— Yar. ic. East Mid 

Staffoiddiire cwl. 482. 

Yar. ii«. Mid East and Sooth East Shropshire owl. 483.— Yar. ii6. 

Sooth Staffordshire cwl. 484.— Yar. iir. North Worcestershire 

owl. 486* 

Yar. ilia. East Warwickshire cwL 487.— Yar. mb. West Warwickshire 

owl. 488. 
Yar. iyff. Leicester cwl. 489-493. 

y • The Nobxhsbv Drnsioir of Ekoubh Dulbci Disibicts, 

D S0«EN.-Ea8t Northern, 495-537. 

Introd. 496. Yariations described, 497. Market Wei^ton and Marshland 
eontrasted, 497. Ten Interlinear cs. from 1. Mid To., 2. Sooth Ainsty, 
3. North Mid To., 4. New Malton, 6. Lower Nidderdale, 6. Washbom 
Btyer, 7. Sooth Cleyelaad, 8. North-East Coast, 9. Market Weighton, 
10. Holderness. Introd. 499-602. Text, 602-613. Notes, 613-619. 
Foot Interiinear dt. from 1. Danby, 2. Skelton, 8. Whitby, 4. The^ Moors, 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


with Dotes, 619-521. Three Interlinear dt. for Sonth-Eaet Yorkshire, yis. 

1 East Holdemees, 2 Sntton, 3 Goole, 622. 
Tar. i. Mid Yorkshire cwl. 623-626. 

Var. ii. North-East Yorkshire cwl. 627-628. 

Yar. iiitf. Market Weighton cwl. 629-632. 

Yar. inb. Holdemees and Yar. It. Snaith cwl. 632-637. 

D Sl-WN.-West Northern, 637-687. 
Introd. 637. The Edenside Speech-sounds, 639-643. Yarietiee, 643. 

Yar. L Crayen, etc. 644-649. Introd. 644. Comparison of CCR. 

and JGG.'s Torsions, 644-647. Chaucer's *' Strothir," 647. 

Three Interlinear dt. for 1. Hurst, 2. Giggleswick, and 3. 

Skipton, 648. 
Yar. ii. Lon8<&le. Introd. to and at hefore infinitiTe, 649. Peacock's 

and Stockdale's Song of Solomon, chap. ii. Interlinear, 

660-663. Bronghton-in-Fnmess dt. and Phrases, 653. 

The transition from (u^ to (u), 664. 
Yar. iii. Westmorland s. of the Waterabed, 665. 
Yar. iT. Edenside, 666. 
Yar. T. West Ciunherland, 666. 
Yar. Ti. South Durham, 666. 
Twenty-Two Interlinear cs.; from D 30, 1 Mid Yorkshire ; from D 31, Yar. i. 

2 Muker, Yo. ; 3 Hawes, Yo. ; from Yar. ii. 4 Cartmel, La. ; 6 Comston, 
La. ; from Yar. iii. 6 Casterton, We. ; 7 Bent, Yo. ; 8 Sedbere, Yo. ; 

9 Kendal, We. ; 10 Long Sleddale, We. ; 11 Orton, We. ; from Var. iy. 
12 Kirkhy Stephen, We.; 13 Crosby Rayensworth, We.; 14 Temple 
Sowerby, We. ; 16 Milbum, We. ; 16 Lengwathby, Cu. ; 17 Ellonby, 
Cu. ; from Yar. y. 18 Keswick, Cu. ; 19 Clirton, Cu. ; 20 Abbey Holme, 
Cu. ; from D 32, Yar. i. 21 Cariisle, Cu. ; 22 Knareedale, Nb. Introd. 
667-663. Text, 663-694. Notes, 696>602. Traditional Names of Places 
in Edenside, 602-607. Seward's Dialogue tor Burton-in-Lonsdale, Yo., 
Introd. 608. Text, 608-616. Notes, 616. Weardale and Teesdale, namely, 
Stanhope dt. and yariants, 617-619. 

Yar. L Form a. North Crayen cwl. from Burton-in-Lonsdale, Chapel- 
le-Dale, Horton-in-Upper-Ribblesdale^with Muker for com- 
parison, 619 to 623.— Form 5. North-west Horn of Yo. 624. 

Yar. iia. North La. owl. Lonsdale south of the Sands, 626. 

Yar. iib, Fumess and Cartmel, Lonsdale north of the Sands, 627-629. 

Yar. iii. Dent and Howgill cwL 630-633. 

Yar. iy. Edenside cwl. 633. 

Yar. y. West Cumberland cwl. 634. 

Yar. yi. Weardale and Teesdale cwl. 634-637. 

D 82-KNr.-l^orth Northern, 637-680. 

Introd. 637. Yarieties, 640. The Burr, 641 to 644. Three Interlinear cs. 
for 1 South Shields, 2 Newcastle-on-Tyne, and 3 Berwick-upon-Tweed, 
646 to 662. Twenty-Two Interlinear at. ; for Yar. ii. 1 Edmondbyers ; 
2 Lanchester; 3 Aimfield Plain; 4 Bishop Middleham; 6 Kelloe; 6 
Sunderland; for Yar. iii. 7 and 8 Hexham (two) ; 9 Haltwhistle; for Yar. iy. 

10 Stamfordham; 11 Whalton; 12 Newcastle; 13 North Shields; for 
Yar. y. 14 Rothbury; 15 Snitter; 16 Harbottie; 17 Warkworth; 18 
Ahiwick ; 19 Whittingham ; 20 and 21 Embleton (two) ; for Yar. yi. 22 
Wooler, 663 to 669. The Notes to No. 17, Warkworth, include JV#rf White, 
a yam, 666. 

Yar. i. Brampton, Cu., cwl. 669-672. 

Yar. ii. South Shields, Bu., owl. 672-674. 

Yar. iii. and iy. contrasted in s.Nb. owl. 674-677. 

Yar. y. Warkworth Nb. cwl. 678-680. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


YI. The LowLAino Dinsioir op Engush Dialect Distbicis, beino 


Inkod. 681-709. Eight Interlinear cs. for 1 Bewcastle, On. ; 2 Hawick, Rx. ; 
3 Edinburgli, Ed. ; 4 Stranraer, Wg. ; 6 Arbroath, Fo. ; 6 Keith, Ba. ; 
7 Wick, de. ; 8 Dnnroasnees^ Sd., 682-697. Fiye Interlinear Tendona of 
Bath, chap, i., for 1 TeTiotdale ; 2 Ayr ; 8 Buchan ; 4 s. Cheshire ; 
6 w.Somenet, 698-709. 

D 38 »SL.-" South Lowland » Dr. Murray's Southern Ccuntieiy 

Introd. 709. Phonetics, 710-712. Unaccented syllables, 712. Bewcastle 
cs. 682, 684. Hawick cs. 682, 684. TeTiotdale Bnth, chap. i. 698. 
Melyille Bell's Teriotdale sentences, 714. Dr. Murray's arrangement of 
the Scotch Hundredth Psahn, 716. Hawick owl. 716-721. liddesdale 
Head cwl. 721-723. 

D 34=e.ML.=:easteni Mid LowlandzzDr. Murray's Lothian and 
Fife, 728-728. 

Introd. 723. Melyille Bell's Lothian sentences, 724 ; his Fife sentences, 725 ; 
and Lothian and Fife numerals, 726. Chunside dt. 726. Hid Lothian 
cwl. 726. 

D 35=w.ML.=westem Mid Lowland=:Dr. Murray's Clydesdale, 

Inferod. 728. Melyille Bell's Clydesdale sentences, 780. Kyle, Ay., dt. 731. 
Tarn o' ShanteTf edited from photolithographed focsimile of MS., 

phonetically transcribed and annotated, 731-741. 
Western Mid Lowland cwl. 742-746. Loch'winnoch notes, 747. 

D 36= s.ML.= southern Mid Lowland=:Dr. Murray's OaUoway 
and Carriek, 747-761. 

Introd. 747. Phonetic transcription of Boms's J)unean Ore^f 748. Southern 
Mid Lowland cwl. 749. 

D 37=n.ML.=northem Mid Lowland=:Dr. Murray's Sighland 
Border, 751-765. 

Introd. 761. North- West Fifeshire dt. 762. Neighbourhood of Perth dt. 
763 ; ditto cwl. including words from Enga, 763. 

D 38y 39, 40'-NL.-*north Lowland-* Dr. Murray's North Eaetem 

Group, 765. 
D 88 — S.NL. — southern North Lowland = Dr. Murray's Angue, 

Introd. 756. Arbroath cs. 684. Two Interlinear dt. from 1 Dundee, and 
2 Glenfarguhar, 768. Dundee Miscellaneous Notes and Phrases, 769. 
Notes to Glenf^xtpihar dt. 769 ; ditto to Dundee dt. 760. Glenfarquhar 
cwl. 760-763. 

D 89 — m.NX. — mid North Lowland — Dr. Murray's Moray and 
Aberdeen, 768-785. 
Introd. 763. Peculiar use of (61, k\ s'i), 766. 

Pronundataon in Crom6r, 766-768. On (in), 767. Croro&r Examples 
by Mr. Innes, 1. The Mteting, 769 ; 2. TuU-titU, 770 ; 3. The 
Fight, nz. Notes to 2 and 3, 776. 
Melyille Bell's sentences, 777. Bey. W. Oregor's Notes and Phrases, 
777. Mid North LowlaiidcwL 779-786. 

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D 40 —n.NL.— northern North Lowland— Dr. Murray's Caithness^ 

Introd. 786. Wick cs. 688, No. 7. Wick cwl. 787. 

D 41 and 42 =IL.= Insular Lowland, 788-790. 
Introd. 788. Bepresentation of (th, dh), 789. 

D 41=s.IL.=soutliem Insular Lowland, 790-814. 

Introd. 790. Mr. Dennison's Pabtt Toral's Teavblltb pal. and trana- 
lated, 791-798; annotated, 798-802. John Gelpin traniBlated into the 
oldest existing form of Orkney by Mr. Dennison, 802-809 ; annotated, 810. 
Orkney cwl. 812-814. 

D 42 =n.IL.= northern Insular Lowland, 814-820. 

Introd. 814. Parable of thb P&odioal Son translated by Mr. Lanrenson, 
816. Pa&ablb of thb Sowbr translated by Dr. L. lidmondstone, 817. 
Shetland cwl. 818-820. 

A Pew Ebsdi/ts, 821-835. 

Local yarietiea of speech, 821. Dialect as here understood, 822. Probable 
yalne of West Saxon or Wessex letters, 823. Treatment of short vowels, 
823. Examination of the words tabulated in Part I. 291, with supposed 
long { pron. as (ii), 826. Double treatment of long Towels by shortening 
and fracturing, 826. Ws. diphthongs, 829 ; consonants, 830. The letter 
B, 830. Imtial S, F, TH, CN, 832. Dialect groups, 834. Peculiar 
constructioDs, 834. Peculiar words, 835. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


After fourteen years' delay I am at last able to produce Part Y . 
of my Early JShu/tuh PronmciaUoH^ containing the relation of the 
present to the past pronunciation of our language as exhibited 
m ** The Existing Phonology of the English Dialects.'^ A glance 
at the Table of Contents, the Alphabetical County List, p. 82*, 
and the Alphabetical List of Informants, p. 67*, will I trust 
sufficiently explain the cause of the delay. The work I found 
myseli inrolved in was &r greater than I had contemplated, 
and the difficulty of obtaining intelligible information on which 
reliance could be placed &r exceeded my anticipations. The list 
of Liformants will shew how large a number of persons came 
forward to help me. It will also £ew that I am more especially 
indebted to a very few of these, whom I have mentioned on 
pp. 4 and 5, and &r the foremost among them as regards the 
number of places from which information was obtained (over 500}^ 
accuracy of report in the system of notation here adopted, trust- 
worthiness of detail and length of time during which he worked, 
was Mr. Thomas HaUam, of Manchester. Without his un- 
flagging diligence, and his many excursions to gain phonetic 
knowledge during nearly twenty years, the account I have been 
able to give of the Midland Division and its adjacent regions 
would have been very deficient, instead of presenting remarkable 
fullness of detail. Next in order, and though tax ix^^erior in the 
number of places, in no respect inferior in ttie importance of his 
contributiQns, and in correctness of detail obtained by extra- 
ordinary diligence, was Mx, J. G. Goodchild, whose work in 
D 31, comprising Cumberland, Westmorland, and North-west of 
Yorkshire, leaves scarcely anything to be desired in minute ac- 
curacy and repeated careful verification. 

I have enaeavoured in the lists of ll45 places from which, 
and 811 persons from whom, I obtained information and assist- 
ance, to specify every case, but I cannot hope to have been 
perfectly succenful. To every one, however, named and un- 
named, and especially to the natives themselves, from whom the 
information was ultmiately obtained, but whose names are onlj 
occasionally mentioned, I tender my grateful thanks. To them is 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



due the value of the present yolume as an authentic document, 
for future philologists to consult. 

Finally I have sincerely to thank the three Societies — ^the 
Philological Society, the Early English Text Society, and the 
Chaucer Society — and in connection with them Dr. F. J . Fumiyall, 
the indefatigable Honorary Secretary of the first and Director 
of the other two, and of other literary societies, who is so well 
known by his labours in Early English, for enabling me to print 
and publish these researches. The extent and the consequent 
expense of my work have greatly exceeded my anticipations. I 
have in every instance studied brevity and compression, and I 
believe the results could not have been legibly prmted in smaller 
space, while it seemed important in the interests of philology 
generally, and En^ish philology in particular, to secure the in- 
formation obtained, which is becoming rapidly irreplaceable. It 
might perhaps have been possible witii a few years more work 
to reduce the bulk of this volume, but considering that I was 
75 on 14 June, 1889, 1 did not think it safe to delay. If however 
health and strength allow, there will be a brief Part YI. containing 
a summary of the whole work, a consideration of the observations 
of other scholars, and an index of such matters as have not been 
otherwise indexed. 

In conclusion, I add some dates concerning my IkMrfy Engl%»h 
Pranuneiation, of which the present investigation forms a part, 
as I wish to preserve them m connection with an undertaldng 
that has occupied me for so many years. 

1848, June, first attempt at writiiig 
dialectal pronunciatioii from dicta- 
tion, being Duncan Ora^t p. 748. 

1869, Feb. 14, on this (Yalentine'sJ 
day I discoTered in the British ' 
Musenm Salesbmys <* Dictionary 
in En^lyfhe and Welfh — ^where- 
Tnto IS prefixed a little treatyfe 
of the englyfhe pronmidacion of 
the letters,'^ 1647, which was the 
origin of my paper in 1867, and 
hence of the whole of my work 
on £arfy EnolUh Fnmuneiaiion 
(£. £. P.) and the presoit inquiry 
into dialectal phomuogy. Seelll. 

1866, Dec. Paper on ** Palaeotjrpe, 
or the representation of Spoken 
Sounds for philological purposes 
by means of the Ancient Types," 
to the Philological Society (Ph. 
S.). This was the alphabet 
which made my E. E. P. and 
inyestigations of Dialectal Pho- 
nology possible, as no new types 
were required. 

1867, Feb. Paper to Ph. S. on the 

Pronunciation of English in the 
XVI th century, the foundation of 
my E. E. P.— Oct. Began the 
MS. of E. E. P. 

1868, Aug. First dialectal information 
for tnis book written from dictation 
at Norwich, pp. 276-7. 

1869, Feb. Publication of E. E. P., 
Part I. For dialectal collections, 
see I. 277 and 291. — Auf. 
Publication of E. E. P., Part II. 

1870, April. Paper on Glossic to the 
Ph. S., prin£Mi entirely in Olossio 
in the Transactions, with Key to 
UniTersal Glossic. This is the 
Alphabet in my EnglUh DialeeU 
— their Sotmdt and ffotmSf for 
the English Dialect Society, and 
it' has been used in many of that 
Society's publications. 

1871, Feb. Publication of E. E. P., 
Fart III., with a ybtiet starting 
my systematic enqmry into the 
Pronunciation of Engtish Dia- 
lects, and siring a table of 
«< presumed Yarienes of English 
pronunciation.*' In a reprint of 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



this, widely oirenkted, oontalniiiff 
a Kej to Oloflsic, and callea 
^'Yamties of Eng^h Primim- 
datioii," I nimstad the fonna- 
tion of an EmaMk DiMlsct SoeUt^. 
which has Bnoaequentlj done good 

1872, April and May. Papen on 
Diphthongs to the Ph. S.^inoor- 
ponted in £. £. P., Part IT. 

1878. Feb. Paper on Accent and 
Emphasis to the Ph. 6., incor- 
porated in E. £. P., Part lY.— 
May, Pi^ier on Final £ to the 
Ph. 8., to form part of £. E. P., 
Part YI.— Sept. First edition 
of the ComparatiTe Specimen (cs.), 
p. 7*, need for ooUecong informa- 
tion on dialectal pronunciation. 
Of this I hare printed below 104 

1874, Jan. Paper on Phrsical Theory 
of Aspiration to the Ph. S., incor- 
porated in £. £. P., Part lY.— 
March. P^per on Yowel Changes 
in English Dialects to the Ph. S. 
—Dec. Publication of E. £. P., 

1876, March. Paper on the classifica- 
tion of the English Dialects to 
the Ph. 8. — June, second edition 
of cs. 

1876, March. Leotore on Dialects to 
the London Instttotion, when 
my first lam Dialectal Map was 
dnwn and shewn, leading a 
blank from the Wash to Sussex. 
— July to Sept. Going oyer tiie 
whole of Prince L.-L. Bona- 
parte's Dialect library, and 
making extracts for this work. — 
Dec« The London Institution 
Lecture repeated at Norwood. 
These lectures were most im- 
portant preliminary work for the 

1877. Mar. Paper on Dialectal Phono- 
logy to the Ph. S.— Oct. Issue 
of my original Word-lists (wl.) 
sujigested by the last paper. Of 
this I haye printed below 112 re- 
arrangements as a cwl. or classified 
word list.— Not. and Dec. Ob- 
taining dialectal information at 
Whitelands Training CoU^. 

1879, Jan. Two lectures on Dialects 
at Newcastle-on-Tyne, with the 
large map reconstituted and gaps 
filled in, whence I sot much 
information for N. my. — Feb. 
of my Dialect Test. Of 

this I haye printed below 116 
translations. — April and May. 
Two reports to the Ph. &• on 
the state of my inyestigations. 
1880. Oct. Lecture on ** ]£dish Dia- 
lects—their Sounds and Homes,*' 
to Working Men's College. 

1880, Dec. Paper on Dialects of South 
of England to Ph. S. 

1881, June. Obtaining siroplementary 
dtilectal information from White- 
lands Training College. 

1882, April. Paper on the Dialects of 
Midland and Eastern Counties 
to the Ph. S.— May. Paper on 
the ** Delimitation of English and 
Welsh" (that is, the present 
Celtic Border, p. 12) to the Cym- 
rodorion Society. 

1888, March. Paper on the Dialects 
of the Northern Counties to the 
Ph. S.— May. Bepeat Lecture on 
«En|dish Dialects— their Sounds 
and Homes," to the CcOleffe for 
Men and Women.— Noy. Paper 
on the Dialects of the Lowlands 
of Scotland (Mainland) to the 
Ph. 8. 

1884, April. Paper on the Dialects 
of \he Lowlands of Scotland 
(Insular) and of the Isle of Man 
to ^ 111. S. 

1885, May. A Beport to the Ph. S. 
on the Dialectal Work I had done 
since 19 Noy. 1883. 

1886, May. First (published) Beport 
on Dialectal Work to the Ph. S. 

1887, May. Second (published) Beport 
on Dialectal Work to the Ph. S. 
— ^Noy. First proofs of this Part 
Y. receiyed, the first draft haying 
been completed. 

1888, May. Short report to the Ph. 
S. on the state of the work. 

1889, May. Final report to the Ph. 
S. announcing the practical com- 
pletion of Part Y. atpress.— June. 
Last prod of Part Y. receiyed. 

To account for some of the delays 
and saps I may mention that in 1874, 
April, I wrote my treatise on AMra 
iamt\fUd with Otometiy, and in June, 
my treatise on the QtumtiUtiUte Fro- 
numeiaiion of Xa^tn, and that in 1876, 
June, I published the first edition of 
my translation of Helmholts on the 
BmuiOoM of Tom ; in 1876 my tract 
on the Engluh^ JHonyoian andSoUenie 
Pronuneiations of Grook, and in 1881 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


two papen on the OompmtoHm of 
ZcparitXmt for the "Btxytl Sode^ 
(Proceedings, toI. 31, pp. 881-113) ; 
in 1880, Mar., my lalKmoiiB Mutorf 
9f Mmieal Pitch for the Sodetj of 
Arts; in 1886, April, my accoont of 
the Mmieal SeaUs of Fanou» IfaHom, 
also for the Sode^ of Arts, and in 
July the second edition of my trans- 
lation of Helmholti, all works re* 

quiring madh peiMraiioii and often 
lengthy inTcstigaticMis. and hence 
greatly interfering witn other work. 
1 had also fiye Presidential Addresses 
to prepare for the Ph. 8. and deliyer 
in 1873, 1873, 1874, 1881, and 1882, 
each of them occupying mneh time, 
and three of them inTolring cooiider* 
ahle c<Mrrespondenoe. 

Alkxavdee J. Ellis, 

25, Abotll Boab, Kutbinoton, Lokdok, W, 
16 JuH0, 1889. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


I. Thx Belatiok of this Tbbatisb to Fbeoeding Chattebs. 
n. Ekt to the Haps, and List op the fbivcipal Abbbbyia- 


lY. DiALBoi Test (dt.) abd Notxb. 

V. Classified Wobd List (cwl.). With Index. 

YI. Alphabetical County List. 

YII. Alphabetical Infobmants List, and Index to all the 
Nabxs of Fbbsons kentioned in this Tbeatise. 

Yin. Table of Dialectal Palaeottpe. 

1.1. FiM. Pwt T. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Eablt Ewolxsh PBOWVNaATioN, Part Y, Cbtpter XI. oontmned. f 8. Ths 
ExUtiMg Fhonotogy of Engluh DiaUcU, 

The above givei the true relation of the present inyestigation, forming Part Y. 
of my * Early EngUah Pronunciation,' to the four preceding parts. 

In 1874, when the portion of Chapter XI. f 2, Natural EnglUh Pronimciatioti, 
contained in Part lY. pp. 1243-1432, was printed, it was intended to include in it 
the present } 3. But my subsequent labours hare resulted in such a development 
of the whole subject that what was originally meant to be merely a brief illus- 
tration, occupying only 30 pages of manuscript in the original draft of my Early 
English Pronunciation, made in 1867, before any part was printed, has become 
a substantiTe and unexpectedly complete treatise, which must therefore bear a 
separate title. 

This again has conditioned many changes. In Part lY. f 2, No. 3, p. 1248, 
I gave a sketch of the proposed arrangement of } 2, which in 1874 had already 
much increased in extent and character from the jejune table of contents of 
Chapter XI. prefixed to Part I. This whole arrangement, and hence also the 
allusions to Prince L.-L. Bonaparte's versions of the Song of Solomon, p. 1246 «, 
and p. 1374 a, must be considered as cancelled. The versions of the Song of 
Solomon published by the Prince, and written by the best authorities he could 
procure, were admirable when made, as opening out the whole question of 
English Dialects in a comparative form ; but when I endeavoured to utiliM them 
for the present investigation, I found it impossible to determine the pronunciation 
from the orthography with any approach to the necessary accuracy, and hence I 
have been reluctantly compelled to pass them by altogether. 

The Dialectal Alphabet, } 2, No. 3, Part lY. pp. 1262-1266, was also 
premature. This section is prac^cally superseded 1) by the new table of 
Dialectal Palaeotype, that is, the modiOcation of palaeotype which the experience 
of dialectal work has shewn to be necessary, with little or no reference to foreign 
languages, which will be given at the end of this preliminary matter, and 2) by 
the table of Approximative Glossic prefixed to my abridgment of this treatise, 
made for the English Dialect Society, and caUed Bnglith DuUeeti^—tK$ir Soundt 
and Homes; in which Glossic is used as an approximate representation of 
dialectal sounds sufilcient for readers, who, not having made a study of phonetics, 
are contented with general conceptions, instead of the scientific accuracy aimed at 
in palaeotype. 

Even the section on Yowel Fractures and Junctures, Part lY., pp. 1307-1317, 
although mostly sound, requires slight modification after my subsequent far wider 
experience, as will appear in detail hereafter. 

Hence I erect Part Y. into an independimt treatise, under its own separate 
title, '* ExiSTUfo Phonoloot op English Dialbcts.*' 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



The Maps themselves are loose, and kept in pockets in the coyer, 
for greater ease of reference. 

The Bommnro ldtbs of the Districts are drawn in red over 
Philip & Son's convenient little maps, bnt oq account of the 
smallnesB of the scales (that of England being about 57 miles to 
the inch, and that of Scotland about 42 miles to the inch), the 
boundaries could be only roughly laid down. They had been, 
however, all previously traced out on maps of 4 miles to the inch, 
and will her^fter be indicated in words as accurately as the infor- 
mation hitherto obtained allows. 

The CoiTVTBT ooKsiDBRSD Ues east and south of the Gbltio 
BoBDBR marked CB, commencing in Ireland, and passing through 
Wales and Scotland. 

The six principal Divisions, Southern, Western, Eastern, Mid- 
land, Northern and Lowland, are bounded by thick lines, and, 
being sufficiently indicated by these positional names, are, to 
prevent overloading the maps, not further marked. 

The forty-two Districts, in each of which a sensible similarity 
of pronunciation prevails, are bounded by continuous lines, 
numbered with bold figures, in the order in which they will be 
treated, and are named positionally in the following list. 

Yabistibs, or parts of Districts separately considered, are not 
entered on the map, but are numbered with small Roman 
numerals, named and roughly located on the next two pages. 

The Chabagtbbs, principally phonetic, by which Districts and 
Varieties are distinguished, are fuUj detailed and illustrated in the 
following pages. 

The Tbit Tbavsvkbsb Likbs, passing from sea to sea, and limiting 
certain dialectal usages, are represented on the map by broken 
lines, which, when the Transverse Lines coincide during any part 
of their length with the boundaries of Divisions or Districts, 
are expressed by small cross-lines. The Transverse Lines are 
numbered with small figures in (), and when two or more of them 
are partially coincident with one another, all the corresponding 
numbers are annexed as (1. 2), (4. 5), (8. 9. 10). 

The names of these ten lines are as follows : 

the Dorth turn, (6) the soaih hoote, 

the soath soom. (7) the north tee, 

3) the reverted «r. (8) the south turn, 

[i) the soath teeth. (9) the north tijum, 

;6) the north theeth. (10) the south Lowland. 

The meaning of these names is fully explained in a special 
section below. 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 





By b* Bordor* 
D District 
DW. Diyision. 

E, e. East-em. 
I Insular. 

L Lowland (Scotch). 
M, m. Mid, Midland. 

N, n. North-era. 
8, B. Sonth-em. 
W, w. weet-era. 


Ah. Aberdeenshire. 

Ar. ArgyU. 

Ay. Ayr. 

Ba. Banff. 

Bd. Bedford. 

Be. Berks. 

Br. Brecknock. 

Bt Bute. 

Bo. Bucks. 

Bw. Berwickshire. 

Cb. Cambridge. 

Oc. Clackmannan. 

Cd. Cardigan. 

Ch. Cheshire. 

Co. Corawall. 

Cr. Cromarty. 

Cs. Caithness. 

Cn. Cumberland. 

Db. Derby. 

Df. Dumfries. 

Dm. Dumbarton. 

Dn. Denbigh. 

Do. Dorset. 

Du. Durham. 

D?. Devon. 

Ed. Edinburghshire. 

£1. Elgin. 

ER. :£ist Riding of To. 

Es. Essex. 

Pi. Fife. 

Fl. Flint. 

Fo. Forfar. 

Gl. Gloucester. 

Gm. Glamor^. 

Ha. Hampshire. 

Hd. Hadoingtonshire. 

He. Herefora. 

Ht. Hertford. 

Hu. Huntingdon. 

Kb. Kircudbright. 

Ec. Kincardine. 

Ke. Kent. 

Kr. Kinross. 

La. Lancashire. 

Le. Leicester. 

Li. Lincoln. 

Lk. Lanark. 

LI. Linlithgow. 

Ma. Isle of Man. 

M^. Montgomery. 

Ml. Middlesex. 

Mo. Monmouth. 

My. Moray. 

Ka. Nairn. 

Nb. Northumberland. 

Nf . Norfolk. 

Np. Northampton. 

NR. North Riding of To. 

Nt. Nottingham. 

Or. Orkney Isles. 

Ox. Oxford. 

Pb. Peebles. 

Pm. Pembroke. 

Pr. Perth. 

Rd. Radnor. 

Rf . Renfrew. 

Rt. Ruthwd. 

Rx. Roxburghshire. 

Sc. Scilly Isles. 

Sd. Sheuand Islee. 

Se. Selkirk. 

Sf. Suffolk. 

Sg. Stirling. 

Sh. Shrop&ire. 

Sm. Somerset. 

Sr. Surrey. 

Ss. Sussex. 

St. Stafford. 

Wa. Warwick. 

We. Westmorland. 

Wg. Wigtonshire. 

Wi. Isle of Wight 

Wl. WUtshire. 

Wo. Worcester. 

Wx. Wexford. 

WR. WestRidingof To. 

To. Yorkshire. 

List op Ditisiovb, Dtstricts akd Yabisiies, with theis Names. 

I. 8. Div. 
D 1 to 12. 
D 1. W.C8. 

That is, 8 on C fromid, 
shewn on thf) map hj the 
CB pointing to 1 in margin, 
repreMnting the posiuon 
of the 86. of Wz. in Ire- 
land, opposite Aberyatwith 
Cd. Dialect in eziatenoe 
ft eentory ago, but now 

D 2. m.CS. 

In aw. Pm. 

D3. e.CS. 

In aw. Om. 

D4. W.MS. 
V i. Wl. 
ii. 01. 
iii. e.He. 
iv. Do 

T. Utchland. 
Merriott, Montacute, and 
about a dosen Tillages 
between the railwaja w. 
of Teovil Sm., where the 
peraonal pronoun I la called 

Ti. n. and e. Sm. 

D 6. e.MS. 

V i. Ox. 
ii. Be. 

iii. Ha. and Wi. 
iy. s.Sr. and w.Ss. 

D 6. n.BS. 

V i.Wo. 
ii s.Wa. 
iii. Banbury, 
iy. sw.Np. 

D 7. m.B8. 
In m. and a, 02. 

D 8. 8.BS. 
Containing a. Ixmdon and 
auburba in Be. 8r. and 

D 9. E8. 

V i. cSs. 
ii. n.Ee. 

iii. e.Ke. 
D 10. n.WS. 
In w.8m. and ne.Dy. 

Dll. 8.WS. 

V i n.Dy. 
ii s.Dy. 
iii. e.Co. 

D 12. W.W8. 
In w.Go, and 80., modem, 
Taried, not dialeota proper. 

II. W. Div. 
D 13 and 14. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



D 18. 8W. 

Im Mo. B«. Rd. ndiJOi. 

D 14. NW. 

In m. and M.tth. 

III. E. Div. 
D 16 to 19. 

D16. WE. 

In m. and n.Ba. 

D 16. ME. 

V LHt, 
n. Bd. 
iii. Hu. 
iy. m.Np. 

T. Efc 

D 17. 8E. 

Contointag n. London and 
cnborbt In Btt. Mi. and Ea. 

1) 18. NE. 

V i. Cb. 

ii ii6.Np. 
iii. Rt. 
D 19. EE. 

V Lnw.Nf. 
ii. ne.Nf. 
iii. t.Nf. 
iT. e.Sf. 
T. w.Sf. 

IV. M. Div. 
D 20 to 29. 

D 20. BM. 

The whole oo. of LL 

V i. §.li. 
ii. m,IA, 
iiL iLLi. 

1)21. 8.NM. 

V i w.La. 

ii nw andn. Peak of 
D 22. w.NM. 
y L Omuldrk. 

iL BoltonandWigan. 

iii. CborleT&Leyland. 

iy. BlackonriL 

T. Burnley. 

Ti. Old Colne Valley. 
D 23. 11.NM. 

V i.TbeFyldeinm.La. 

D 24. e.NM. 


V i. Hoddenfield. 
ii. Halifax. 

iii Keiffbler. 
IT. Bnaford. 
T. Leeds. 

Ti. Dewsbnry. 
Tii'. Roiherbam. 
Tiii Sheffield, 
iz. Doncaster. 
D25. w.MM. 

V ie.Cb. 
ii m.Cb. 
iii w.Ch. 
iy. n.St. 

D 26. e.MM. 

V i§.PeakofDb. 

iii. e.Db. 

iy. i.Db. 

D 27. EAC. 

The whole 00. of NU 

D 28. w.SM. 

V inw.Sb. 

ii. detached or Eng* 

iii. w.Cb. 

iy. Dn. and ae. of 
main or Welch FL 
D 29. e.SM. 
b, wm.St 
e, em. St. 
iia. me. and B.Sh. 


#. n.Wo. 
iiia. e.Wa. 

b, w.Wa. 
iy. Le. 

V. N. Div. 
D 30 to 32. 

D 30. EN. 

V ia, m.Yo. 

b, York Ainsty. 
e. Northallerton. 
d. New Malton. 
0, Pateley Bridge. 
^, WaabbamRiyer. 
iia. a.Cleyeland. 
b. ne. Coast and 
iiia. Market Weigh- 
b, Holdemeas. 
iy. Goole & Marsh- 
D31. WN. 

In WB. Cu. and We. 
V i. n. Crayen and nw. 
Mining Dis- 
tricts of To. 
iio. s.Lonsdale. 

ii^. n.Lonsdale. 

iii s.We 

iy. Edenside. 
i.t. baain of Riyer Edan In 
Cn. and We. 

y. W.Cu. 

yi. s.Du. 
D32. NN. 
V i n.Cu. 

ii. n.Da. 

iii. Hexham or sw. 

iy. Coalfields or se. 

y. m.Nb. 

yi n.Nb. 

VI. L. Div. 

Chiefly after Dr. Mnrraj, 
whoM namea of diatrleta 
are giren in Italiea. 
D 83 to 42. 
D33. SL. 

Southirn Countiii, 
With a different a. boun- 

V i English. 
In n.Cn. and nw.Nb. 

ii. Scotch. 
In e.Df., 8e. and Rx. 

D 34. e.ML. 
Lothian and Fife, 
LI. and Pb. 

D 35. W.ML. 


In Ar. n.Aj. Bt. a. and a. 

D 36. 8.ML. 

OaUoway and Carriek, 

In 8.A7. w.Df. Kb. Wg. 

D 37. n.ML. 
Highland Border, 
In nw.Fi. w.Fo. w.Sg. 

D 38. B.NL. 
In e.Fo. and m. and a.Ko. 

D 39. m.NL. 
Moray and Aberdeen, 
In Ah. Ba. a.Cr. El. n JCc. 

D 40. n.NL. 
In ne.OB. 

The following were not 

treated by Dr. Murray. 
D41. 8.IL. 

The Orkneys. 
D 42. n.lL. 

The Shetlands. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

prbluohakt mattbr. 


Othbh Abbbbtiations in Fbbqubnt Ubb. 

tbi. ablative. 

ace. accented, accosatiTe. 

adj. adjective. 

adv. adverb. 

AJ£. A. J. Ellis, the author. 

ans. answers. 

aq. answers to questions. 

art. article. 

b. border, (preceding a date) bom. 

CCR. Mr. C. Clongh Kobinson. 

OS. comparative spedmen-s. 

CO. coontr. 

cwl. classified word list. 

d. (preceding a date) died. 

D. Dutch. 

dat. dative. 

def. art. definite article. 

dia. dialect-s-al. 

diet. dictate-d, dictation. 

diff. differ-ent-ence. 

diph. diphthoDg-s-aL 

dp. dialectal pronunciation. 

ds. dialectal speech, or speaker-s. 

DSS. Dr. J. A. H. Murray's Dialects 

of the South of Scotland, 

dt. dialect test-s. 

££P. Early English Pronunciation, 

ex. example-s. 

freq. frequent ly. 

gen. generally, genitive. 

^1. ^lossic, or written in glossio. 

imp. imperfect, 

imp. t. imperfect tense, 

imper. imperative, 

ind. inoefinite. 

indie indicative, 

inf. infinitive, 

io. informant's orthography. 
JAHM. Dr. James A. H. Murray. 

JGG. Mr. J. G. Goodchild. 

LLB. H.I.H. Prince Louis-Lucien 


Iw. list of words Tas distinguished 

from the wl. and owl.). 

N. old Norse, 

nom. nominative, 

nwl. numbered word list, that is 

with sounds expressed by the 

numbers sent with the wl. 

obs. observe-d, observation-s. 

occ. occasinnal-ly. 

orig. original, 

orth. orthography, 

pal. palaeotype-d. 

par. paragraph, 

po. post card, with an answer to 

the question it contained, 

pf. perfeok 

pf . t. perfect 1 

pi. plural. 

pp. past or passive participle. 

pre. preposition. 

pro. pronoun. 

pron. pronounoe-d, prommeiation-s. 

prp. present participle. 

prt. present tense. 

pt. past tense. 

pwL partial wl., one in which less 

than half the words had 

their pron. assigned, 
reo. received, 
ro. received orthography, or that 

commonly used, 
zp. received pronunciation, or that 

of pronouncing dictionaries 

ana educated people, 
rs. received speech, with the 

grammar as well as pron. 

that educated people speak, 
sb. substantive, 

s^. singular, 

sun. similarly. 

so. some land of systematie or- 

sp. speech, 

spec. specimen-s 
TH. Mr. Thomas Hallam. 
unaco. unaccented. 
V. version's, or translation-s of cs. 

or dt into dialectal speech 

or pron. 
vb. Terb-s, verbaL 

vn. verbal noun, 

w. viv& voce, 

wd. word-s. 
wl. word list, as issued in Oct. 

Ws. Wessex, and West Saxon, 

both the country and lan- 

faage, literary Anglo- 
axon of the Southern type, 
wn. words noted from speakers, 
chiefly by TH. in his 
travelling note books, 
y. (following a number) years, 

as lOy. =ten years ac- 
quaints with the dialed 

To shew where places not on the 
Maps of the Dialect District are to be 
found, they are referred to places on 
those maps, thus : 

4 nw. Lancaster s 4 miles measured m 
a northwesterly direction from Lan- 
caster, and so in other oaaea. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


referred to in the following pagee a» cs. 

This was constructed in Sep. 1873 bj JAHM. and AJE., for the purpose of 
obtaining dia. renderings of familiar words in yarious connections and some cha- 
racterirtic constmctions. A second edition was prepared in June 1876. It has 
been broken up into 15 short numbered paragraphs, and a title (0.), for convenience 
of rapid reference. The present copy in ro. will serve as a key to the numerous 
Tersions and extracts which follow. The paragraphs cited are always numbered 
to correspond with this copy. 

(0.) Why John has no Doxtbts. 

(1.) Well, neighbour, you and he may both laugh at this news 
of mine. Who cares ? That is neither here nor there. 

(2.) Few men die because they are laughed at, we know, don't 
we ? What should make them ? It is not very likely, is it ? 

(3.) Howsoever these are the facts of the case, so just hold your 
noise, friend, and be quiet till I have done. Hearken ! 

(4.) / am certain I heard them say — some of those folks who 
went through the whole thing from the first themselves, — that did 
I, safe enough, — 

(5.) that the youngest son himself, a great boy of nine, knew 
his father's voice at once, though it was so queer and squeaking, 
and I would trust him to speak the truth any day, aye, I would, 

(6.) And the old woman herself will tell any of you that laugh 
now, and tell you straight off, too, without much bother, if you 
will only ask her, oh ! won't she ? — 

(7.) leastways she told it me when I asked her, two or three 
times over, did she, and she ought not to be wrong on such a point 
as this, what do you think ? 

(8.) Well as I was saying, she would tell you, how, where and 
when she found the drunken beast that she calls her husband. 

(9.) She swore she saw him with her own eyes, lying stretched 
at full length, on the ground, in his good Sunday coat, close by 
the door of the house, down at the comer of yon lane. 

(10.) He was whining away, says she, for all the world like a 
sick cMld, or a little girl in a fret. 

(11.) And that happened, as she and her daughter-in-law came 
through the back yaitl from hanging out the wet clothes to dry on 
a washing day, 

(12.) while the kettle was hoiling for tea, one fine bright 
summer afternoon, only a week ago come next Thursday. 

(18.) And, do you know?, I never learned any more than this 
of that business up to to-day, as sure as my name is John Shepherd, 
and I don't want to either, there now ! 

(14.) And so I am going home to sup. Oood night, and don't 
be 80 quick to crow over a body again, when he talks of this that 
or t'other. 

(15.) It 18 a weak fool that prates without reason. And that is 
my last word. Good b'ye. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



referred to in the following pagei oi dt. 

This was coiutnicted in Feb. 1879, in order to hare a short specimen which 
contained an example of almost all the Ws. eateries in the luUowing cwl. 
No v., in which au the words occur separately. Here eyery word is nnmoered, 
and to each are added long notes, especially addressed to persons not much 
acquainted with phonetics, shewing the specuil points to which attention should 
he paid, and how to give the information required. These notes are here 
retained as forming a succinct and unsystematic conspectus of the principal 
varieties of English dialectal pron. In printing the rersions, the numMrioe of 
the words has been abandoned, but the whole has been broken up into 7 short 
paragraphs to facilitate comparison. It is here printed in ro. to serre as an 
interpretation of all the t. that follow. 

(1.) So^ I» say,' mates.* you* see* now' that* I(») am* right *• 
about" that" little" girl" coming** from" the" school" yonder.*' 

(2.) She" is" going « down« the(") road** there" through** 
the(") red" gate »• on* the(") left" hand" side" of»' tlieC") 

(3.) Sure'* enough, •• the(") child'' has* gone* straight** 
up" to** the(") door" of (») the(") wrong** house,** 

(4.) where** she (*) will*' chance** to(**) find** that(") 
drunken** deaf" shrivelled" fellow** of(») the (") name** of(») 

We** all*' know** him** very** well." 
Won't** the(") old** chap** soon** teach** her*' not** 
to(**) do** it'* again,'* poor'* thing!'* 

(7.) Look!'* Isn't'* it('*) true?'* 


\* The number of the wd. in the following cwl. is put at the end of each 
note, preceded by — . 

1. 8o. Note whether $ or z. Note all occur in older books, but at present 
whether o has a j^anishing HH after it only uteh, utrhp^ haye been recorded at 
as in London. Mark the various frac- Merriott and Montacute, near Crew- 
ture sounds, frequently used in the kerne, S. SomerBet:»hire. — 462. 
north, as m, ^y, or oo, followed by « 3. fay. Note whether « or t . Ob- 
in Chin«.— 1, 73. §enre whether do is inserted, m Zo I do 

2. I. Attempt in a note to indicate »ty, this is general when $ becomes s ; 
the first element of this diphthong, the and then obwrre the Towel in do, which 
second is almost always fS, The first is generally unemphatic as a in Chin«. 
may be the sound of the iialie letters Note whether op has or has not a 
in father, pass, p^t, pH, nut, cut, pull, vanishing i^if after it as in London, 
cull, pop, or some foreign sound. Re- Note whether it is pronounced with « 
ference to any named European Ian- in father, followed by ^^, that is, as the 
guage will be intelligible. Or this English-Greek m, German oi, French 
pronoun may not be aaiphthong at all, at, or English a.v««=yes. Mark if the 
out the simple rowel m father, fall, ay be very broad like # in there. Mark 
foUr. These distinctions are all cha- if say is sounded like tee, or almost like 
racteristic. Also note if ie, iteh, itchy, $for without a trill, or almost like the 
uteh, utchy, *eh (as *eh um, Uh ^ould, first syllable of S0r'ah also without a 
*eh UUrzJ am, I would I wiU), ite, o$, trill.— 261. 

uif hare ever been heard for I, They 4. mates. Use mMte$, mmkos, mar- 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




mooording to the district, but select tlie 
wend most familiarly used in a good 
sense as companion or fellow- worker. 
In maU9 or m^ikM mark the long a, 
which may have all the varieties of try 
in «ay, noted in No. 3, which see. Soet 
and 6o*» offer no difficulty, but in 
butiies or ehums mark (by an accent, 
as «, to be explained) whether the sound 
is between n in but and m in put^ so 
tiiat but nearly rhymes to foot. This 
is tiie l^ncasbire li, see No. 16. in 
ko^Mf the diphthong requires attention, 
it may have its usual sound, or rhyme 
to pu» (in which case it must be treated 
as / in No. 2), or be made up of oo 
and ^^.-737. 

6. yon. Note whether V^* ff^* or 
*e is used. If yow, whether it rhymes 
to too^ toe, or now. Tou is here plural, 
note whetiier it is also commonly used 
for the singular, or whether thou is 
commoner ^and if so, whether thre is 
used as the nominative), or whether 
ihou is used to some classes and ifou to 
others. Usaffe differs much .—436. 

6. iM. Note whether $ or r. Ob- 
aerve wuether d" is inserted, as pou do 
Mst^ which is generally the case when s 
is used ; see No. 3. Note whether ## 
has quite a uniform sound or whether 
it seems to begin with i in »it and tlien 
to glide up to tfr. Note if it is sounded 
like Mry, with or without a vanishing 
fS, The form of #A .' very closely 
united to #'^, is common. Mark whether 
it is followed by t3 as in smt without a 
trilL— 428. 

7. BOW. A word of very numerous 
forms. The ow may be a simple vowel, 
•s in to«, ttfT, t«tr, or may even be as 
in fiMr, fitf*«r, without the trill. It is 
commonly a diphthong in which the 
last siiund is m/ and the flnt the vowel 
in father, pass, pat, pH, pate, ntit, cvr, 
pot, toll, or Slime foreign sound. The 
aecond element may also be ^^, while 
the first is a in father. The second 
element may even be French t/, and 
then the firnt may be m in CMr, or broad 
French e^^ German d nearly. The ow 
is also very often a triphthong, a short 
sound of F or i or ^l Ming prefixed, as 
miow, neow, naifttr. — 643. 

8. that. Observe that the word is 
nnemnhatic and must be pronounced 
aooordingly, the emnhatic form No. 12 
is reckoned as a different word. The 
imemphatic vowel is generally like a in 
China, or « in pock#t, or a in principal, 

ocean, or t in rt. Note whether the th 
is entirely omitted. Also whether it is 
replaced oy d. — 177. 

9. am. Use am, ii, are, or be, ac- 
cording to the habit of the district, 
always selecting an uneducated person, 
such as an old native man or woman, 
because all young people have been 
taught to use am. If aw or if is used, 
it generally reduces to -m. -s, beine 
run on in the same word with /, which 
may have all the sounds of No. 2 ; but 
in case -m is used, / is very often pro- 
nounced as a in fall or o in folly. Note 
particularly the districts where / are 
occurs, and observe where it is used 
emphatically, as ** I ar^ to wait,** or in 
answers, as ** Are you to do it F Yes I 
are.** Note whether the r is pro- 
nounced, or whether the whole word is 
not like a in f^'r. When unemphado, 
as rre, note whether the whole sound 
does not rhyme to Jlie without a trill. 
Especially note the use of be, and 
whether A^ ^ is also used. Note 
whether the several forms are all oc- 
casionally used in the district, and if so 
which is the most frequent Note 
whether ice am, you am, are ever used, 
as we'm, you*m, especially when fol- 
lowed by to as **you'm to go home." 
Note the use of the negative forms I 
aint^ I baint, beeHttt, etc., it baint, it 
aittt,* taint, tent, tyent, chent,eic. Note 
whether tee u, you i», thfy it, are used. 
All these forms are highly character- 
istic.— 391. 

10. right. First mark the r, 
whether it is trilled with the tip of the 
tongue as in Scotch or Italian, or 
whether the tip of the tongue is merely 
raised without being trilled as fre- 
quently in London and Spain. Note 
if the effect is produced by a rattle of 
the uvula at the back of the mouth as 
in Paris, or else by the same accompa- 
nied by a considerable closure of the 
lips as in Northumberland. Note also 
if the effect is produced by tumine the 
tongue up so as almost to point down 
the throat as in Dorsetshire, or by re- 
tracting the toneue very much as in 
Oxfordshire, botn sounds being very 
harsh and but slightly if at all trilled. 
Then as to t>A, note whether yh is pro- 
nounced as a guttural, as in Scotch, 
and if so whether the guttural is the 
German eh in ieh or that in SLch, or the 
last with the lips much closed, and if 
the t is then as in nick or n^ok. If 
the yh is not pronounced, note if the i 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




has any one of the sonnds of / No. 2, 
or of the vowels in tes No. 6, as any 
such sound may occur. — 459. 

11. about. Note the a unaccented, 
whether it is like a in China, idea, or 
whether it is distinctly the short of a 
in father, as in Italian. Note that the 
ou may have any of the sounds of ow in 
now No. 7, and when it sounds like oo, 
note whether the Towel is long or 
short, or of middle length.— 660. 

12. that. The word is here em- 
phatic. See No. 8. Note whether 
the a is as in London cat or pass, or 
a in father, or the same short or of 
middle lengfth. Note whether th has 
its usual sound, or is / (often the case 
after the / of about) or <^ or is omitted 
altogether.— 177. 

13. little. Note whether tordis 
used, or the tt omitted altogether as 
We. It tt IB omitted, note tne sound 
of I either as one of the diphthongal 
forms of No. 2, or as at in father. Note, 
when tt is sounded aa t or d, whether t 
is as in sktttle, or as m in needle, or as 
a in father.— 682. 

14. girl. The word girl is com- 
mon, hut in some districts is replaced 
by wfneh^ iass, maid^ mauthevy or is 
not so frequently used as any one of 
these words. Note which wora is most 
common and use it, but give also the 
pronunciation of the other words, if 
used. For girlj note whether the r is 
trilled or is pronounced as in one of 
the ways named in riyht No. 10; if 
not, note whether it rhyme to sal or 
8^11, or crrrl, p^arl; and if the r is the 
Dorsetshire r (see No 10) , note whether 
it rhyme to ht/r<//r, with inserted d. 
For iceneh note if it rhymes to Aimchy 
pmcA, hxHtieh (with a in eat). For 
MM note if it rhymes to gat or pau. 
For maid note especially if it has the 
sound of a in father followed by ^^, very 
distinctly, or any other sound of ay in 
No. 3. For fnauiher, note if th is 
sounded as in rathery or omitted alto- 
gether.— 758. 

16. coming. For first syllable, 
note if it rhymes to hunty or loom or 
loawy or is the short sound of the two 
last, or something between these two 
short sounds, nearly u in puUy but 
thicker (Lancashire u). For the second 
syllable (and all participles in -t^^) 
note whether ng has its received sound 
of ng, or whether another g seems to be 
added, or whether it sounds as the 
words ink or in ; if it ends in » (as ia 

usual J, note whether the t is like i in 
ifiy 9 in wooUm. in motion, f^ In 
the phrase **They were dansin^ and 
such dansiM^ I never saw,** note 
whether the two ing* would be pro- 
nounced alike ; they .are sometimes 
different, and that is very characteristic 

16. firom. For/ note if it is ever 
or ^nerally v, or th as in Mrow. If 
th IS used, note whether -om rhymes to 
a very broad a sound like French ^, 
German a, or almost a in cat. . If / 
remains, note whether -rom be not 
pronounced as the last vowel described, 
or whether the word sounds like/^ in 
stuf/y, or like /r*, fay. If /becomes 
Vy note if the r does not become the 
Dorset r described in No. 10. If /r, 
vr remain in any form, note whether 
-ofrt (as the word is unemphatic) rhymes 
to the last syllable of bottom. Kote 
also its emphatic form, and whether in 
either form m is not often omitted as 

17. the. The definite article is 
very characteristic. Note whether th 
remains as usual, or becomes dy or is 
omitted altogether. In each case note 
the sound of < like a in China, or y in 
pithy, or 0$ in prith«« ; and note 
especially if the latter vowels are used 

ben th is omitted. Note i 

[ote particularly 

whether the vowel is omiti 
and then whether th keeps its^ usual 
sound before a following vowel as in 
th'orm for the aiwi, or becomes th' in 
th'in (as it is convenient to write the 
acute sound), forming a hiss, before 
consonants, as th'^matiy in one word. 
In these latter oases note whether the 
th or th' is not assimilated to <2 or I 
after a word ending in </ or /, causing a 
euspettsion of the t or <f, by the tongue 
remaining a sensible time against the 
palate, which may be conveniently 
written d^ OT fySm at t door. Note 
also particularly whether the does not 
always become a suspended ^ when it 
is possible, as when it follows another 
word, as from^t sehooiy or, when this 
is not possible, whether it becomes just 
perceptible by a dull kind of minute 
thud, due to trying to speak without 
moving the tongue from the palate, as 
t^ tfian^ I* aet (not tats) ^the tits. This 
is the regular form in Cumberland, 
Westmorland, Durham and Yorkshire. 
See examples in the Test aiterfrtm 16, 
dotrn 23. through 26, on 29, 0/ 33, 
before child 37, after ts 42, before old 

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63. The proper marking of the definite 
article ib important— 231. 

18. aehool. Note whether the 
initial letters are always sounded as tk, 
or sometimes as <A. Note whether the 
Towel is as nsoal do, or becomes poo, or 
French u,or e§ followed by a in China, 
or M or y followed by u in dull, or by 
French eu. Note whether the asnal 
po is beg:an with the month open, 
girinff the effect of a high a in Cnina 
preceding the oo; this sound may be 
conyeuiently written 66 as tk66l, Kote 
whether oo does not receive one of the 
sounds of Ota in now No. 7, like the 
word seowL Note also whether the 
ooi does not become ioetl or tcVi, so 
that the word sounds like tquoal or 

19. yonder. Note if this word is 
erer used as yonder, thonder (with th 
in thm), or htder. If not, use out 
ihero, and treat out as in abnut No. II, 
and there as No. 25. Also if the school 
fonder is not used, employ yon tehool, 
and then notice whether yon is pro- 
nounced with y or M in then^ or acute 
th' in th'in, as th'on (see No. 17). The 
form fnder should be especially noted, 
if ever heard in the district, even oc- 
casionally.— 394. 

20. she. The feminine personal 
pronoun is very important. It usually 
nas sh preserved, with ee when em- 
phatic, as in eheet (with one of the 
sounds of M in eoe No. 6, or ay in tay 
No. 3), but when unemphatic becomes 
§hy in sluf Ay, or ehtia m iuehtift, and 
the vowel is hvquently entirely omitted 
in rapid speech, so that only the eh of 
hneh f remains. But the forms shoo, 
•0, oWf uh, generally written shoo, hoo, 
hoio, her, are also used. For shoo note 
whether it ever sounds like shoe, shoh, 
ehuh. For hoo note whether A is ever 
heard unless the word is very emphatic, 
and whether the oo is not the 66 ex- 
plained in No. 18. For how or ow 
note which of the sounds of ow in now 
No. 7 is used. For he*- or better uh 
(the u in etir without any trill of an r 
after it), note whether it is ever pro- 
nounced with an r after it, even b^ore 
a vowel, as uh U, not uh rU, with 
emphatic tM, Note also if him iz or 
wwe U are ever said. Note also when 
the form shs is used, whether sh ever 
changes to sA or « in diviiion (French 

J), wnen the word is emphatic.— 412. 

21. is. First qote the use of the 
forms is, be, mre, see No. 9. Next see 

whether in unemphatic forms the t or 
a are not omitted, as she's, sheWe, 
Give the emphatic forms also. — 482. 

22. going. First note whether a- 
is commonly inserted, as she*s a-going, 
where this a- is pronounced as in 
a-boHt No. 11. Note whether th 
form go or gang or gan is used. Fc 
go note the o, whether it rhymes to toe 
or too or hay, and for the second 

r" ible -my, not only see No. Id, but 
rve if the two syllables go-iitg do 
not coalesce, sounding like g prefixed 
to wine (with any sound in No. 2), or 
team (with any sound in No. 3), or 
win, very short.— 67. 

23. down. This may have any of 
the sounds of ow in now No. 7, or ou 
in about No. II. It is a very cha- 
racteristic word, especially when ow 
has the sound of a in father or a in cat 
len^hened, followed or not by short lii 
or snort ^, or a in China.— 658. 

24. road. For the r consult right 
No. 10. The oa may be pronounced 
with a short uo after it, as it is often 
in London, and then the oo may be 
lengthened and the oh shortened till 
the word sounds like rUh-ood or nearly 
rowd, and then the ow may receive any 
of the sounds of ow in noto No. 7. 
These are London forms. It is more 
common to add a short & or a in China 
as roh'ud^ and then the oh is sometimes 
broadened to French o in homme or to 
awe in awed Mrawud, But also very 
commonly the oh falls into oo followed 
by this <2, as rooud. And the sound is 
still more complicated by inserting a w 
as rwooOd. ^ote what form is used, 
and whether simple rohd raud rahd or 
short r6d are employed, and sometimes 
one of the forms of a in mates No. 4. 
The word is very variable and cha- 
racteristic. — 104. 

25. there. First for th, nofe if it 
has its usual sound, or if it falls into d, 
and occasiunally into t after a word 
ending in t. Then as to r final, observe 
whether it is trilled strongly as in 
Scotland or weakly as mostly in Eng- 
land. Also whether it is not trilled at 
all, and then whether it is a mere 
vowel as often in London, or a raised 
stiff tongue, or a Dorset or Nor- 
thumberland untrilled r, see No. 10. 
The vowel varies much. It often be- 
comes a very thin ay, almost an ee, 
rhyming nearly to itear or seer. Some- 
times it rhymes to tar. With the 
Northumberland r it may become H, 

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and with the Dorset r it may become 
uh in eur,- 223. 

26. throiMrh. First for thr, note 
whether tr is used with a trilled r, and 
next whether dr is used with a reverted 
or retracted r, as explained in No. 10. 
Also observe if /r is used, generally 
with e in there. Next note whether 
the gh is a guttural, or is replaced by/. 
Then note the vowel whether simple 
as 00 in iooy oe in toe or u in eut^ or 
Lancashire « (No. 16), or diphthongal 
having one of the sounds of ou; in 
No. 7.-634. 

27. red. Note the r as in No. 10. 
Note the vowel, which may be usual, 
or as reed spoken long or short, or i-m/, 
or like mid or ri«f-dy. Particularly 
note whether the vowel is transposed 
and an aspirate prefixed, like herd with 
the Dorsetshire r, No. 26. Or if the 
aspirate is prefixed to the same r with- 
out transposition as hred. — 362. 

28. gate. Note all the changes of 
vowel as in watee No. 4. The word is 
generally very characteristic. It may 
also be yate, pat or y«/.— 346. 

29. on. This does not vary much, 
but note the vowel when usual or like 
French o in homme, or like the short 
of one in bone, or like ^n, with the « of 
father shortened.— 643 

30. left. Observe whether t is 
pronounced. Note whether the vowel 
IS tf in pet, or a in pat, or t in pit. 

31. hand. First note whether the 
aspirate is used, and make a note as to 
the habits of the district in usine or 
not using the initial aspirate both at 
right and wrong times. Next note 
the d, sometimes /, and often omitted. 
Lastly see if the vowel is a in eat^ a in 
father at full length or shortened, aw 
in aun, or o in on. —43. 

32. side. The Ion? t may have 
any of the sounds of No. 2. Note 
especially whether it is a in father, or 
a diphthong consisting of nA in cur, 
followed bv short ^^.—492. 

33. of. Note whether / is pre- 
served ; it is usually v, but is not un- 
frequently entirely omitted, especially 
before the^ so that of the becomes a-thit, 
or even simply iilh, or uth' with acute 
th' (No. 17). Often the word is a 
short oA, as oh th& or uh ^^.—626. 

34 . way. Note whether the to ever 
becomes v. Observe the same possible 
varieties of ay as for say No. 3. The 
sound of ay in eay is however often 

difiPerent from that of ay in loay in the 
same district.— 262. 

36. sure. Note whether e remains 
or becomes eh. Note the r as for 
there No. 26. Observe the vowd, 
whether as oo in poor, you in your, etc 
in ewer, French m, or French eu, or 
whether it becomes one of the oio 
diphthongs as in noto No. 7. — 969. 

86. enough. Note also the form 
enow, and say whether in this district 
enouffh is used with singular and enow 
with plural nouns, as bread enough, 
applet enow, or whether one form is 
always used, and if so which. For 
enow note tiie different forms of now 
No. 7, and also the use of enew, or the 
French u or French eu. For enough, 
first note Whether the ruttural remains 
or is changed into/. If gh is German 
or Scotch eh in loeh, observe the vowel, 
whether simple as w in cut, o in cot, or 
the same preceded by y; or whether 
ew in noer, or distinct ee followed by 
indistinct o in oo^, or the French u or 
eu. For / observe whether the vowel 
is M in snuff, ew in ewet, or French u 
or eu, or ee followed by a in China, or 
y followed by tt in dull, or by French eu. 

87. child. Note whether oAt7<f or 
bairn is ever used when speaking of a 
c^l merely. If not, use m the trans- 
lation some of the words in No. 14, 
but if child is used in the district in 
any sense, observe its pronunciation. 
First note the eh, whether as in oAeese, 
or oAaise, that is eh, the last is very 
characteristic. Next observe whether 
d is omitted. Then see if the vowel is 
diphthitngal, having one of the forms 
of No. 2, or simple, as in chilled, or 
sht#ld. In all cases note the form of 
the plural, ehilder, ehildem, ehouldem^ 
children or ehillem, with the pro- 
nunciation of ch and vowel as before. 
If only bairn is used, note the sound of 
air as in th^-^ No. 26.-466. 

38. hat. This is in the unemphatic 
form, and hence probably omits ha, 
sounding simplv as -z hung on to the 
preceding wora. Note however also 
the emphatic form, and whether h is 
pronounced (see hand No. 31), and if 
e is ever e or always s. Then note the 
value of the vowel, as a in mazzard, 
u in bwzsard, t in lizard, e in f^z. 
Also note particularly whether it is 
customary in the district to say the 
child have, and if so note the h and 
vowel of have especially. Please con- 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




jugate as in the district : I have, thou 
Aattf he Aivt, im, you^ thty, hnve^ and 
the same negative!?. — 169. 

39. gone. Notice especially whether 
a- is inserted, as tht child ha$ a-gone^ 
as this is very characteristic. If so, 
note whether this a is pronounced as 
« in China. For gone note the vowel 
as o in on, or aw in aton^ or as in tn, 
pen, h^n (short), or with y prefixed to 
these vowels, or as very short t in in 
followed hy very short n in China. Or 
again with a in father or the sumc very 
short. Also observe if the habit of the 
district is to use hat go^ed^ hos weut, 
hat httn and gone, or bten simply with- 
out either h^e or gone. — 121. 

40. atraight First observe whether 
the guttural gh is heard as Scotch or 
German eh in loeh. Next as to the 
initial ttr, observe the r as in right 
No. 11, but especially whether the / is 
pronounced thickly by bringing the tip 
of the tongue quite against the teeth 
as for th, forming the dental i^ which 
may be written tt:r, a pronunciation 
hignly characteristic in words beginning 
with #/r, or /r, or ending with -ter as 
war'r*-, hutt'er, and if this is usual in 
the district, it should be noted care- 
fully. Note also whether t' passes 
quite into acute /A' No. 17, as 
tth'taight^ vath'er, buth'er, or whether 
in the last two words it is not 
altogether omitted as tcah-er, bu-er. 
Then for the vowel in tfraight, note 
the forms of a in matrt No. 4. or ay in 
tay No. 3, and especially the diphthongal 
form of a in father followed by short 1^. 

41. up The Towel may be as 
usual or somewhat thicker, out note 
the Lancashire u (see No. 15). which is 
highly characteristic. Note also French 
eu. 4gp It is particularly necessary to 
distinguish u in duti from u in fuil, or 
from I^tncashire it (No. 15). Dialect 
writers, following the usual ortho- 
graphy, use u for all three sounds. 
Great confusion thus arises. It is 
believed that u in dull is never found 
within the district bounded on the 
south by a line from the N. of Shrop- 
shire to the S. of Lincolnshire, and on 
the north by a line from Silloth in 
Cumberland to Hartlepool in Durham, 
but information is much wanted for 
the districts adjacent to these boun- 
daries. The distinction has strong 
dialectal significance.— 632. 

42. to. Note if a/ is ever used for 

to before the infinitive, see No. 67. 
Note the vowel, as oo in too, oe in toe, 
ew in iew, French m or eu, all especially 
when emphatic, or in to and fro, where 
are you going to ; and the unemphatio 
form of a in China. Observe also how 
it coalesces with the following the, 

43. door. Note the r as in there 
No. 25. Note the oof* as in oar, as in 
drai^#«', or as in nor, or as mower, poor, 
or the same shortened, or as ewer, or 
as in duter, cur, or French %Ar or sasur, 
or vrith the Lancashire 66, No. 18, or 
as our.— 606. 

44. wrong. First as to wr-, note 
if the w is omitted (as is generally the 
case) or is pronounced as wii with the 
a in China, or as a v as vrang. Next 
as to ftg, note if another g is added on 
to the end as ngg, or whether the word 
ends in nk. The vowel is very cha- 
racteristic, note the usual o in wrong, 
or the short of a in father, or a in cat, 
or u in ruxi^, or Lancashire short u 
(No. 15). This word with the next is 
sufllcient to determine whether the 
district is to the N. or S. of a line 
passing from Cockermouth in Lanca- 
shire to the mouth of the U umber in 
Yorkshire —64. 

45. honie. First notice the aspirate, 
whether it is used, No. 31. Particu- 
larly notice the vowel in all the forms 
of ou in about No. 1 1, and ow in now 
No. 7. I'his and home are the most 
characteristic words we have. How is 
home pronounced P See sounds of Nos. 
22, 39, 58. 62.— 663. 

46. where. Note the trA especially, 
and say whether the A is ever pro- 
nounced before or after the u^, as it is 
very desirable to determine the limits 
of the pronunciation of wh proper. 
Next notice whether when A is not 
pronounced, w ever falls into v, as is 
often asserted to be the caise. Lastly 
note where wh becomes/. For the r 
see theie No. 25. For the vowel, de- 
termine whether it is in air, ear, iar, 
nor, drairfr.— 224. 

47. will. Being nnemphatic this 
will probably be run on to the pre- 
ceding word as simple -/, thus theUl, 
But also note which of the emphatic 
forms as wU or «m/, and perhap wtil 
or wool, or even vol, is used in the 
district. —469. 

48. ehance. Very possibly this 
word may not he used in such a phrase 
in the district. Use the word employed, 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




has anj one of the sounds of / No. 2, 
or of the vowels in «m No. 6, as any 
such sound may occur. — 459. 

11. about. Note the a unaccented, 
whether it is like a in China, idea, or 
whether it is distinctly the short of a 
in father, as in Italian. Note that the 
ou mav have any of the sounds of ow in 
now iio. 7, and when it sounds like oo, 
note whether the vowel is long or 
short, or of middle length.— 650. 

12. that. The word is here em- 
phatic. See No. 8. Note whether 
the a is as in London cat or pass, or 
a in father, or the same short or of 
middle length. Note whether th has 
its usual sound, or is < (often the case 
after the / of oboui) or <4 or is omitted 
altogether.— 177. 

la. little. Note whether / orif is 
used, or the tt omitted altogether as 
We, If U is omitted, note tne sound 
of I either as one of the diphthongal 
forms of No. 2, or as ^ in father. Note, 
when tt is sounded as / or </, whether i 
is as in sktttle, or as m in nredle, or as 
a in father.— 682. 

14. girl. The word ffirl is com- 
mon, hut in some districts is replaced 
by tcenchf lass^ maid^ mouther, or is 
not 80 frequently used as any one of 
these words. Note which wora is most 
common and use it, but give also the 
pronunciation of the other words, if 
used. For pirl, note whether the r is 
trilled or is pronounced as in one of 
the ways named in ripht No. 10; if 
not, note whether it rhyme to sal or 
8^11, or Cffrl, p^orl; and if the r is the 
Dorsetshire r (see No 1(») , note whether 
it rhyme to hurdie, with inserted d. 
For ueneh note if it rhymes to drtneh, 
pincA, hrinrh (with a in eaf). For 
loMs note if it rhymes to pat or past. 
For matd note especially if it has the 
sound of a in father followed by ^^, very 
distinctly, or any other sound of ay in 
No. 3. For ntauther, note if th is 
sounded as in rather, or omitted alto- 
gether.— 758. 

15. coming. For first syllable, 
note if it rhymes to hum, or loom or 
\oam, or is the short sound of the two 
last, or something between these two 
short sounds, nearly u in pull, but 
thicker (Lancashire it). For the second 
syllable (and all participles in -tug) 
note whether ny has its received sound 
of ng. or whether another g seems to be 
added, or whether it sounds as the 
words ink or in ; if it ends in n (as ia 

il], note whether the t is like i in 
Iff, e in woollm. o in motion, f^ In 
the phrase **They were dansin^ and 
such danstM^ I never saw," note 
whether the two inge would be pro- 
nounced alike ; they .are sometimes 
different, and that is very characteristic 

16. firom. For/ note if it is ever 
or ^nerally i;, or th as in Mrow. If 
th IS used, note whether -om rhymes to 
a very broad a sound hke French ^, 
German a, or almost a in cat. . If / 
remains, note whether -rom be not 
pronounced as the last vowel described, 
or whether the word sounds like/y in 
stuf/]/, or like fee, fay. If / becomes 
V, note if the r does not become the 
Dorset r described in No. 10. If fr, 
vr remain iu onj form, note whether 
•ofM (as the word is unemphatic) rhymes 
to the last syllable of bottom, rfote 
also its emphatic form, and whether in 
either form m is not often omitted aa 

17. the. The definite article is 
very characteristic. Note whether th 
remains as usual, or becomes d, or is 
omitted altogether. In each case note 
the sound of < like a in China, or y in 
pithy, or M in prith^ ; and note 
especially if the latter vowels are used 
when th is omitted. Note particularly 
whether the vowel is omitted altogether, 
and then whether th keeps its usual 
sound before a following vowel as in 
th'orm for the at-m, or becomes th' in 
th'in (as it is convenient to write the 
acute sound), forming a hiss, before 
consonants, as th'-man, in one word. 
In these latter cases note whether the 
th or th' is not assimilated to d or t 
after a word ending ind or t, causing a 
euepetition of the t or d, by the tongue 
remaining a sensible time against the 
palate, which may be conveniently 
written d^ or f,B» at t door. Note 
also particularly whether the does not 
always become a suspended ^ when it 
is possible, as when it follows another 
word, as from-C uhoot, or, when this 
is not possible, whether it becomes just 
perceptible by a dull kind of minute 
thud, due to trying to speak without 
moving the tongue from the palate, as 
t^ many f* a$t (not tats) ^the net. This 
is the regular form in Cumberland, 
Westmorland, Durham and Yorkshire. 
See examples in the Test after /rr>iM 16, 
doitn 23, through 26, on 29, '/ 33, 
before child 37, after /• 42, before old 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




63. The proper marking of the definite 
article is important.— 231. 

18. sehooL Note whether the 
initial letters are always soonded as *kj 
or sometimes as <A. Note whether the 
Towel is as nsoal do^ or becomes poo, or 
French v, or m followed by « in China, 
or M or |f followed by u in dull^ or by 
French nt. Note whether the usnal 
po is beg:nn with the mouth open, 
giTinff the effect of a high a in China 
preceding the 00; this sound mar be 
conreniently written 66 as $k66l. Note 
whether 00 does not receive one of the 
sounds of 010 in now No. 7, like the 
word teowL Note also whether the 
ooi does not become wetl or tri//, so 
that the word sounds like tqueal or 
squiil,'' 660, 

19. yondar. Note if this word is 
erer used as yonder^ thtmder (with th 
in then), or Xnder. If not, use out 
thirt, and treat out as in abnut No. 11, 
and thero as No. 25. Also if th$ tehool 
fonder is not used, employ yon tehool, 
and then notice whether yon is pro- 
nounced with y or M in then^ or acute 
th' in th'vD, as th'on (see No. 17). The 
form fnder should be especially noted, 
if ever heard in the district, even oc- 
casionally.— 394. 

20. She. The feminine personal 
pronoun is very important. It usually 
nas th preserred, with m when em- 
phatic, as in thott (with one of the 
sounds of M in toe No. 6, or a.v in tay 
No. 3), bnt when unemphatic becomes 
thy in sluf Ay, or ehtia m fu^Am, and 
the Towel is hvquently entirely omitted 
in rapid speech, so that only the th of 
hutk ! remains. But the forms thoo, 
00, ow, uh, generally written thoo, hoo, 
hoie, her, are also used. For thoo note 
whether it ever sounds like thoe, thoh, 
thuh. For hoo note whether h is ever 
heard unless the word is Tery emphatic, 
and whether the 00 is not the 66 ex- 
plained in No. 18. For how or ow 
note which of the sounds of ow in now 
No. 7 is used. For her or better uh 
(the u in eitr without any trill of an r 
after it), note whether it is ever pro- 
nounced with an r after it, eyen before 
a Towel, 9M uh U, not uh rlt, with 
emphatic is. Note also if h^m ix or 
mee U are erer said. Note also when 
the form tht is used, whether th ever 
changes to sA or « in division (French 

j), wben the word is emphatic. — 412. 

21. is. First qote the use of the 
forms itf be, mre, see No. 9. Next sea 

whether in unemphatic forms the t or 
a are not omitted, as the*t, the*re. 
Give the emphatic forms also. — 482. 

22. going. First note whether a- 
is commonly inserted, as the*t a-yomg, 
where this a- is pronounced as in 
a-bout No. 11. Note whether th 
form go qt gang or gun is used. Fc 
go note the 0, whether it rhymes to toe 
or too or hay, and for the second 

r" ible "ing, not only see No. 15, but 
rre if the two syllables go-ing do 
not coalesce, sounding like g prefixed 
to wint (with any sound in No. 2), or 
team (with any sound in No. 3), or 
whi, Terr short.— 67. 

23. down. This may haye any of 
the sounds of otr in now No. 7, or ou 
in about No. 11. It is a yery cha- 
racteristic word, especially when ow 
has the sound of a in father or a in cat 
lengthened, followed or not by short fi 
or snort Ho, or a in China. — 658. 

24. road. For the r consult right 
No. 10. The oa may be pronounced 
with a short ijo after it, as it is often 
in Loudon, and then the 00 may be 
lengthened and the oA shortened till 
the word sounds like r^jh-dod or nearly 
rowd^ and then the ow may receiye any 
of the sounds of ow in noto No. 7. 
These are London forms. It is more 
common to add a short fi or a in China 
as rofi'ud, and then the oh is sometimes 
broadened to French in homme or to 
awe in awed as rawUd. But also yery 
commonly the oh falls into 00 followed 
by this <2, as rooud. And the sound is 
still more complicated by inserting a w 
as rwooiid. ^ote what form is used, 
and whether simple rohd raud rahd or 
short rijd are employed, and sometimes 
one of the forms of a in matet No. 4. 
The word is yery yariable and cha- 
racteristic. — 104. 

25. there. First for th, note if it 
has its usual sound, or if it falls into d, 
and occasionally into t after a word 
ending in t. Then as to r final, obsenre 
whether it is trilled strongly as in 
Scotland or weakly as mostly in Eng- 
land. Also whether it is not trilled at 
all, and then whether it is a mere 
yowel as often in London, or a raised 
stiff tongue, or a Dorset or Nor- 
thumberland un trilled r, see No. 10. 
The yowel varies much. It often be- 
comes a yery thin ay, almost an ee, 
rhyminjg^ nearly to wear or teer. Some- 
times it rhymes to tar. With the 
Northumberland r it may become S, 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




and with the Dorset r it may become 
uh in eur.- 223. 

26. throiifh. First for thr, note 
whether tr is used with a trilled r, and 
next whether dr is used with a reverted 
or retracted r, as explained in No. 10. 
Also observe if /r is used, generally 
with # in there. Next note whether 
the gh is a guttural, or is replaced by/. 
Then note the vowel whether simple 
as 00 in too^ oe in toe or u in eut^ or 
Lancashire « (No. 16), or diphthongal 
having one of the sounds of ou; in 
No. 7.-634. 

27. red. Note the r as in No. 10. 
Note the vowel, which may be usual, 
or as reed spoken long or short, or ruf, 
or like raid or ri«f-dy. Particularly 
note whether the vowel is transposed 
and an aspirate prefixed, like herd with 
the Dorsetshire r, No. 25. Or if the 
aspirate is prefixed to the same r with- 
out transposition as hred. — 352. 

28. i^te. Note all the changes of 
vowel as in watte No. 4. The word is 
generally very characteristic. It may 
also be yate^ pat or ye^~346. 

29. on. This does not vary much, 
but note the vowel when usual or like 
French o in homtne^ or like the short 
of one in hom^ or like on, with the « of 
father shortened.— 543 

30. left. Observe whether t is 
pronounced. Note whether the vowel 
IS tf in pet, or a in pat, or t in pit. 

31. hand. First note whether the 
aspirate is used, and make a note as to 
the habits of the district in usine or 
not using" the initial aspirate both at 
right and wrong times. Next note 
the d^ sometimes ^ and often omitted. 
Lastly see if the vowel is n in c^t, a in 
father at full length or shortened, aw 
in airn, or o in on. — 43. 

32. side. The long t may have 
any of the sounds of No. 2. Note 
especially whether it is a in father, or 
a diphthong consisting of nA in cur, 
followed by short ?/.— 492. 

33. OL Note whether f is pre- 
served ; it is usually v, but is not un- 
frequently entirely omitted, especially 
before the^ so that of the becomes A-M<2, 
or even simply jiM, or Hth* with acute 
th' (No. 17). Often the word is a 
short oA, as uh th& or oh ^^.—525. 

34 . way. Note whether the w ever 
becomes v. Observe the same possible 
varieties of ay as for tau No. 3. The 
sound of ay in tay is however often 

difiPerent from that of ay in way in the 
same district.— 262. 

35. anre. Note whether « remains 
or becomes sA. Note the r as for 
there No. 25. Observe the vowel, 
whether as oo in poor, you in your, ew 
in ewer, French u, or French eu, or 
whether it becomes one of the ow 
diphthongs as in now No. 7. — 969. 

86. enough. Note also the form 
enow, and say whether in this district 
enough is used with singular and enow 
with plural nouns, as bread enough, 
applet enow, or whether one form is 
always used, and if so which. For 
enow note the different forms of now 
No. 7, and also the use of enew, or the 
French u or French eu. For enough, 
first note Hrhether the guttural remains 
or is changed into/. If gh is German 
or Scotch eh in loeh, observe the vowel, 
whether simple as « in cut, o in cot, or 
the same preceded by y; or whether 
ew in nrer, or distinct ee followed by 
indistinct o in cot, or the French u or 
eu. For / observe whether the vowel 
is M in snuff, ew in m^er, or French u 
or eti, or ee followed by a in China, or 
y followed by tt in dull, or by French eu, 

87. child. Note whether tfAt» or 
bairn is ever used when speaking of a 
mil merely. If not, use in the trans- 
lation some of the words in No. 14, 
but if child is used in the district in 
any sense, observe its pronunciation. 
First note the eh, whether as in eheeae, 
or tfAaise, that is »h, the last is very 
characteristio. Next observe whether 
d is omitted. Then see if the vowel is 
diphthi>ngal, having one of the forms 
of No. 2, or simple, as in chiUed, or 
sht>ld. In all cases note the form of 
the plural, ehilder, childem, cKoHldem^ 
children or ehillsm, with the pro- 
nimciation of ch and vowel as before. 
If only bairn is used, note the sound of 
air as in thri-^ No. 25.-466. 

38. has. This is in the unemphatic 
form, and hence probably omits ha, 
sounding simply as -t hung on to the 
preceding worn. Note however also 
the emphatic form, and whether h is 
pronounced (see hand No. 31), and if 
« is ever « or always z. Then note the 
value of the vowel, as a in mazzaid, 
u in buzzard, t in Itzard, « in fez. 
Also note particularly whether it is 
customary in the district to say the 
child have, and if so note the A and 
vowel of have especially. Please con- 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




jugate as in the district : I havif thou 
Aait, he htiMf we, you, they, have, and 
the same negatively. — 159. 

39. gone. Notice especially whether 
a- is inserted, as the child hat a-gone, 
as this is very characteristic. If so, 
note whether this a is pronounced as 
a in Chin/I. For gone note the vowel 
as in on, or aw in awn, or as in tn, 
p#n, h^n (short), or with y prefixed to 
these vowels, or as very short t in in 
followed by very short a in China. Or 
again with a in father or the sHme very 
short. Also observe if the habit of the 
district is to use hae go-ed^ hue went, 
hat been and gone, or been simply with- 
out either has or gone. — 121. 

40. straight First observe whether 
the guttural gh is heard as Scotch or 
German eh in loch. Next as to the 
initial etr, observe the r as in right 
No. 11, but especially whether the t is 
pronounced thickly by bringing the tip 
of the tongue quite against the teeth 
as for ih, forming the dental t, which 
mav be written ti:r, a pronunciation 
highly characteristic in words beginning 
with etr, or tr, or ending with -^' as 
■WAt'er, hvLt/'er, and if this is usual in 
the district, it should be noted care- 
fully. Note also whether t* passes 
quite into acute th* No. 17, as 
eth'raight, wath'er, buth'er, or whether 
in the last two words it is not 
altogether omitted as wah^er, bu-er. 
Then for the vowel in etraight, note 
the forms of a in mates No. 4, or ay in 
eay No. 3, and especially the diphthongal 
form of a in father followed by short ^^. 

41. np The vowel may be as 
usual or somewhat thicker, out note 
the Lancashire li (see No. 15), which is 
highly characteristic. Note also French 
eu. ^^ It is particularly necessary to 
distinguish u in dull from u in full, or 
from ijincashire ti (No. 16). Dialect 
writers, following the usual ortho- 
graphy, use u lor all three sounds. 
Great confusion thus arises. It is 
believed that u in dull is never found 
within the district bounded on the 
south by a line from the N. of Shrop- 
shire to the S. of Lincolnshire, and on 
the north by a line from Silloth in 
Cumberland to Hartlepool in Durham, 
but information is much wanted for 
the districts adjacent to these boun- 
daries. The distinction has strong 
dialectal significance.— 632. 

42. to. Note if a< is ever used for 

to before the infinitive, tee No. 67. 
Note the vowel, as oo in too, oe in ioe, 
ew in tew, French u or eu, all especially 
when emphatic, or in to and/ro, where 
are you going to ; and the unemphatio 
form of a in China. Observe also how 
it coalesces with the following the, 

43. door. Note the r as in there 
No. 25. Note the oof- as in oar^ as in 
drawer, or as in nor, or as mower, ^oor, 
or the same shortened, or as ewer, or 
as in deer, cur, or French BAr or scBur, 
or with the Lancashire 66, No. 18, or 
as ou'.— 606. 

44. wrong. First as to wr-, note 
if the w is omitted (as is generally the 
case) or is pronounced as wa with the 
a in China, or as a r as vrang. Next 
as to ttg, note if another g is added on 
to the end as ngg, or whether the word 
ends in nk. The vowel is very cha- 
racteristic, note the usual o in wrong, 
or the short of a in father, or a in cat, 
or u in rung, or Lancashire short u 
(No. 15). This word with the next is 
sufficient to determine whether the 
district is to the N. or S. of a line 
passing from Cockermouth in Lanca- 
shire to the mouth of the Dumber in 
Yorkshire — 64. 

45. houfo. First notice the aspirate, 
whether it is used, No. 31. Particu- 
larly notice the vowel in all the forms 
of ou in about No. 11, and ow in n^tw 
No. 7. This and home are the most 
characteristic words we have. How is 
home pronounced ? See sounds of Nos. 
22, 39, 68, 62.-663. 

46. where. Note the trA especially, 
and say whether the h is ever pro- 
nounced before or after the w, as it is 
very desirable to determine the limits 
of the pronunciation of wh proper. 
Next notice whether when h is not 
pronounced, w ever falls into v, as is 
often asserted to be the Lastly 
note where wh becomes/. For the r 
see there No. 25. For the vowel, de- 
termine whether it is in air, ear, tar, 
nor, drawer. — 224. 

47. will. Being unemphatic this 
will probably be run on to the pre- 
ceding word as simple -/, thus »he*ll. 
But also note which of the emphatic 
forms as wtl or uiify and perhaps wol 
or wool, or even ool, is used m the 
district. —469. 

48. chance. Very possibly this 
word may not be used m such a phrase 
in the district. Use the word employed, 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




as hap or happsn or mebby (may be) for 
ehanc$ to. The h and a in the first 
two words treat as in hand No. 31. 
But the word chance is sure to be used 
in some sense, so please to note its 
sound, and especiaUv if eA is as in 
f Aeese or r^aise. The -ance may be 
variously pronounced, as a in father 
long or short, a in dass long or short, 
a in cat long or snort, all these six 
sounds being heard from educated 
people. But a may also be as in all, 
or have one of the sounds of long f, 
No. 2.— 841. 

49. find. First as to the final d, 
often omitted, see haud No. 3 1 . Notice 
whether the word is like Jimd, with 
one of the sounds of long t. No. 2, or 
hVtJinned; it may be also like /anif 
or futidy fan or ftm, with a as in hand 
No. 31, or ti as in up No. 41, or with 
in fond. — 477. 

6U. dzunkexi. Notice the form 
druckeny much used in Scotland. Notice 
whether dr^ is pronounced with the 
tongue against the teeth as for M, thus 
tfV, see straight No. 40 for a similar 
t'r. Notice also whether this is com- 
mon in the termination -rfVr as rid'er 
bladd'evy and whether it passes into tk 
as blather in this district. These are 
very characteristic pronunciations. As 
to the vowel, observe whether it is m 
in sunk, or the Lancashire m, Nos. 16 
and 41. In some districts, where every 
one is in the habit of drinking, the 
word drunken is objected to. Then 
use the common word, but as / have 
drunk must be used, also give the 
sound of rfrMwAr.— 804, 613. 

61. deaf. Note the vowel as usual 
or rhymmg to reef etiffy or fractured 
as ee or ay followed by the a in China. 

62. fhrivelled. This may not be 
a common word, and may be unknown 
to the informant in the dialect, although 
it is sure to be known in other connec- 
tions. In this case witenedy weazeny 
tcithtredy or dried up may be used. 
But if thriveiled cannot be given, take 
any word beginning with «Ar- as 
thrammedy ihredy threumounCy shriek, 
shrikcy shrilly shrimpy shrinky shroudy 
shruby shrugy and state whether «Ar- 
or «r- is used in speech. It is par* 
ticularly desirable to know how far the 
sound of tr- extends. For the r see 
right No. 10.— 760 

63. fellow. Note whether / or r. 
For the last syllable note whether the 

word ends in a distinct oh or rhymes to 
sellety with the r merely a vowel, see 
there No. 26, or whether it is like the 
Egyptian fellah,- 297. 

64. name. The vowel may have 
any of the forms of a in mates No. 4, 
or gate No. 28. The word is also often 
like neeuM, neeUm, nyem, or even mm, 

66. Thomai. Use whatever name 
is commonest in the district. If Thomas 
is kept, note whether M- is ever dif- 
ferent from t. For the first syllable 
note whether the vowel is that in pot, 
hum, or the Lancashire u Nos. 16 and 
41. For the second whether it is 
ever difiterent from us in omnibM. 

66. We. This vowel may have all 
the sounds of ee in see No. 6, and the 
sound like very short London way 
should be especially notc4. Note if uv 
is ever used for us in the district, as 
after we (John Gilpin), laughed at we, 
give it we. Note also if la is used for 
wey as us saw shsy us told he, for we saw 
hgTy or we told him, — 293. 

67. aU. Note if the // is omitted. 
Note the vowel as in fall or father, or 
ay followed by a in China, or whether 
the word sounds like yell, — 336. 

68. know. As this is plural, ws 
being the nominative, note whether it 
has the plural in -r#t as t <v known y or 
in 'S as we knows, and explain which 
is used in the district, or if we know is 
commonest. Similarly note you and 
they htowy knows, or kno%en. Wis 
known is sometimes used for we hnvs 
known, or we knew. This must not be 
confused with ws knowny meaning we 
know. But it is beet to note whether 
it is used. For the initial Am- note 
whether k is ever sounded as k, or ever 
indicated by usin^ ^n h or t or d, 
instead of k, or is entirely omitted. 
Then note the vowel, whether as in 
owe, awcy f/ither, fate, or o followed by 
short ijoy or the awe, ahy ay, followed by 
short a in China. Note whether do is 
inserted between we and know SAwe do 
knowy and if so, how do is pronounced, 
see end of notes on say No. 3, and see 
No. 6. The use of we doh know for 
we don*t knoWy should be noted, but 
not confused with we do know. Note 
also whether the word know is super- 
seded by keny and the sound of the 
vowel in ken. In this case take some 
other word beginning with kn^ as 
kntfs, knuckle, and ascertain whether 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




k if entirelj omitted or pitmoimced, or 
indicated by A or < or tL—92. 

59. him. Note particularly whether 
the form #n or «w or simple *n is used, 
%B ic§ do know *fi. If him is used, 
note if A is ever heard, I) when the 
word is nnemphatic, 2) when emphatic. 
Note the vowel, whether im, utt, mm. 
Note if tee know Am, or mv know9 'm, 
could mean indifferently we know him, 
and we know them.^ilO. 

60. ▼ery. Note particularly whether 
the V changes into w. If possible, 
ascertain whether it is a perfect w, or 
rather a v spoken without allowing the 
underlipto touch the upper teeth. The 
r between the two Towels also requires 
attention. Note if it is entirely omitted 
as v«-y, ra-y, or ouXj represented by 
raising the stiffened point of the tongue 
towaras the roof of the mouth without 
touching it, or slightly advancinj^ the 
uvula ; ooth forms occur, and it is de- 
sirable to know how far they extend. 
If the r is trilled, note which of the 
r's in riffht No. 10 is used. The first 
Towel . may be as in sherry, or Harry, 
or father, ai)d the second may be as in 
sherry or Chimi.— 886. 

61. well. Note whether the w 
becomes v. Note the rowel whether 
as in t^ll, or wh^l rather shorter, or 
whether a short a in China or y in 
■berry is inserted after either of these. 
—266, not 244. 

62. won't. Note if o is pronounced 
as in don't, himt, awe, taint, or o in 
don't followed by a in China, or oo 
followed by a in China, ot ee wo fol- 
lowed. Note also if the forms winna, 
winnad (before a vowel), %ounna, wonna^ 
winnui, are emploTed. Note if it is 
entirely omitted, tnus *on*t or 'oo/t'/. 
Note also the rarious forms of don*t, 
which includes those of on't in wonU 
and also diw'nt, etc. — 641. 

68. old. Note whether both / and 
d are pronounced or either I at d 
omitted. Vowel as in oir^d, hole, got, 
nwe, father, ee followed by a in China. 
Or whether o has not one of the sounds 
of now No. 7.-326. 

64. ehap. This word is pretty sure 
to be used, but, if not, use man, Ob- 
senre whether M is as in eAeese or 
«Aaise, and whether the vowel is as in 
tat, in father or the same shortened, or 
in get.— 364. 

65. . aoon. Observe whether < or s, 
or even eh. Observe the vowel especially, 
which may be ae, yoo, French u or eu, 

or ee followed by vu, or by a in China, 
or M in dull or French eii.— 664 

66. teach. Observe vowel as in 
rMch, or a»/ch. If, as is very com- 
monly the case, learn would be used in 
this sense, mark the vowel as in urn or 
dam or ay followed by short o, and 
note the r (No. 26). If teach is not 
used in this sense, teacher will certainly 
be known, and its pronunciation should 
be given.— 183. 

67. her. Observe whether h is 
pronounced, and what is the nature of 
the r, see there No. 26. See also the 
her for the No. 20, and note whether 
ehe is not used in its place as wonU he 
teach ehe. Observe if the usual sound 
of her in teach her or learn her is the 
same as «r in teacher or lear^ter^ and 
note if it is a in China, or how it 
differs from it.— 447. 

68. not. Note vowel as in pot, 
pat, put, or nut, and whether the t is 
sometimes d. — 110, ii. 

69. do. Note vowel as in too, toe, 
new or French u, or ee followed bj 
French m. Observe whether div is 
used before it, as dip it, or whether do 
and it are not contracted into one word 
as dit or did. Note whether to before 
the infinitive do is sometimes al, pro- 
nounced at, especially in such phrases 
as / am the man that woe able to or at 
do it, eomething at eat, go at eee him, 
and write the pronunciation of these 
phrases. This use of a^ is highly 
characteristic. —586 . 

70. it. Observe whether, when 
not run on. io do (No. 69), it be- 
comes et, ut, hit, het, hid. Also state 
whether ite is ever used, as in over 
ite or it eyee, or over the eyee of 'mm. 

71. again. Note the last vowel as 
in gain, or hen, in, or ee followed by a 
in China. — 144. 

72. poor. Note r as in there No. 
26, and vowel as usual or as in oar, or 
like French u or eM.— 866. 

73. thing. Note whether acute th* 
in th'in, see No. 17, or flat th in then, 
or / simply is used. Note the vowel 
as in in or h^n. Note ng as pure, or 
with an extra g added, as ytAr or as n. 
If the simple n is not used in thing 
alone, note whether it is not used in 
nothing^ eomething, and write pronunci- 
ation of these words. — 480. 

74. look. Note the vowel as in 
90on, No. 65, or else as long oo in looee, 
or long oh, or short u in fuil or u in 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


dull. Note also such phrases as loo* 76. true. Observe (r as in ttraight 

thee for look thou, - 608. No. 40. The vowel may be 00 or 

76. isn't. Note whether any of the pou or ee followed by ou or French 

forms beantf ainty ar^nU^ izMtf iznad, m, or some variety of these sounds. 

ifmut, etc., is used. — 482. — 436. 


referred to in the following paget as cwl. 

Finding that the cs. did not contain sufficient examples of some categories, and 
that the few examples of rather important cases were often ingeniously evaded by 
my informants, I constructed a ** List of Words of which the pron. is wanted,*' 
and issued large numbers of it to clergymen in different villages where informa- 
tion was wanted. The greater number of these were not returned, but sufficient 
reached me to be of much service. This old word list is referred to as wl. and 
should be distinguished from the present cwl. It was stated to be a selection 
from the word lists in Dr. Sweet's History of Britith Sounds, and was arranged 
in his order, which, however, was found inconvenient for reference in practice. 
It was printed widely on 7 quarto pages, leaving space for informants to write in 
the pron. Half of the 8tb page was occupied with questions on idioms and in- 
tonation. These are reproduced at the end of the cwl. as shewing the chief points 
beyond pron. on which it was attempted to gather information. 

The following cwl. then contains all the woi-ds in the wl., cs. and dt. and a 
very few others. Those marked * did not occur in the original wl. Those 
iharked f were in the cs., and those marked X in the dt. The words are numbered 
throughout for ease of reference. 

Many other words were given to me by kind informants, most of which 
will be introduced hereafter. But on making out a complete list for my own 
use, it became so unwieldy that it appeared hetter to confine the cwl. within 
the above limits. As much difficulty will undoubtedly be felt by many readers, 
(judj^ing by the difficulty I have myself experienced,) in assigning any given word 
to it^ cluss, an index is added containing the English words in the usual alpha- 
betical order of dictionaries, with the number of the wd. in the cwl. annexea. 

All the old wl. and all the local Iw. which 1 have used will be reduced to this 
order. The pron. is throughout given in pal. and, when the words considered 
occur in this list, their numbers are prefixed as sufficient explanation. When 
thev do not, they are placed in the position they would have occupied, if they 
haa occurred in' the cwl. , and — is prefixed to shew that they have no number, 
and then the ordinary spelling is annexed in [], in which also any explanation or 
observation is inclosed. 

The order and classification, which differ considerably from those in the 
original wl., are arranged on the following principle. The lists are divided into 
three sections, headed i. Wessbx and Norsb, ii. English, hi. Romancb. 
The words in each list are grouped in classes dependent on the vowel of the 
original language in what corresponds to the accented syllable in received English. 
The words m each class are arranged in order of the letters which foUow that 
vowel. Only when all these letters are the same in two or more words are the 
preceding letters taken into account, and then the order is reckoned from the 
vowel backwards. Strictlv alphabetical order is followed for these letten, for 
which purpose )>, ^ will eacn be taken as the two letters, t, h, 

I. Wessex kvn Norse, Nos. 1 to 712. 

This section contains only such words as can be referred with considerable 
certainty to prototypes existing in Wessex literature, (that is, books in the 
language of King Alfred, as distinguished from the Northymbrian forms,^ or in 
Norse as represented by Icelandic. To the latter a small capital n is subjoined. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




When no such prototypes are known, or when there is difference of opinion 
respecting the etymology, even when the dass of words is clear, tiie words are 
pla!oed in Section u., JmroLiSH. 

The Wessex or Norse words are placed first in Boman letters, and the arrange- 
ment is h J the vowels they contain, which are placed in eapUais at the head of each 
daas, long towcIb heing aistinffoiahed hy a following aonte accent. As the change 
which takes nlace in the rowel depends frequently upon its occurrence in an open 
or doeed syllable, as presently defined, these are oistinguished thus : A- open 
short A ; A: closed short A ; A- open long A ; A: closed long A. The vowel, by a 
mechanical rule which is suMcienuy, but not absolutely correct, is said to be in an 
op^n syllable, 1) when it is final, and 2) when it is followed by a single consonant 
which is itself followed by a vowel, and to be in a doted syllable, 3^ when it has 
one or more consonants after it at the end of a word, and 4) when it has two or 
more consonants between it and a following vowel in the middle of a word. 
In the Wessex words the orthography of Prof. Skeat in his Etymological 
Dictionary is usually followed, but when his differs from £ttmiiller*s (except in 
that anthor*s peculiarities) the latter is sometimes preferred. I disclaim all 
responsibility lor the orthography, which I could not verify by documents. 
Conjectaral forms are exdnded. Mence I have not, with Dr. Sweet, distinguished 
two forms of M\ £, 0. 

The Wessex and Norse forms, placed first, are printed in Roman letters, fol- 
lowed by a comma; the corresponding English is in italics. But some little 
words as a, th$, to, I h$ we, was, had are occasionally prefixed, and thou sub- 
joined, in Roman letters, to shew the part of speech or part of the verb, and only 
when these are insufficient is the part of speech subjoined in Roman letters. 
Verbs are generally cited by their infinitive moods, but occasionally other parts 
are introduced eitner in their proper order, or placed in Q after tne infinitires. 
Such parts are sufficiently shewn by these prefixes, which of course do not form 
part of the translation. Sometimes the English word is still so ambiguous that 
a synonym or explanation has to be prefixed or subjoined, also in Roman type. 

1 swa, to thus * t 

2 gOTiaca, a make com- 

8 bacan, to bake 
4 tacan, to take 
6 macian, to make\ 

6 gemacod, was made 

7 sacu, the eake 

8 hafa, have thouf 

9 behafa, behave thou 

10 haga, a haw 

11 maga, the maw 

12 saga sagn, a tnw 

13 fl^iagan, to yrtaw 

14 dragan, to draw 
16 agi N, awe 

16 dagian, to dawn 

17 lagu, the lawf 

18 kaka n, a eake 

19 tain, a tale told 

20 lama, lame 

21 nama, a name fX 

22 tama, tame 

23 same, saifM similarly 

24 scamu, ehame 

26 manar, of the mane of 
an animal, gen. of 
mon N 

26 wanian, to wane 

27 cnapa, a knave 

28 hara, a hare 

29 aron, we or they ar^X 

30 cam, a eare*, see 320 

31 L late, ii.lsete, tote adv. 

32 baiSian, to bathe* 

33 hra'Sor, rather 

34 latost, laetf 
36 awel, an awl 

36 >awian, to thaw 

37 dawn, a elaw 

38 also, ae*f 

39 cwam, he eamef 

40 camb, a eomb 

41 ^ancian, to thank 

42 and, and*f 

43 hand, a handX 

44 land, the land 

45 wand, a want mole, 

animal*, see 114, 

46 candel, a candle 

47 wandrian, to wander 

48 sang, he tana 

49 hangan, to hany *t 
60 tan^ the tonyt 

61 mann, a man 

62 wann, a wan 

63 canna, a can 

64 wanta ir, to want f 
66 ascan, athet of a fire 

66 wascan, to wath f 

67 assa, an att 

A: or 0: 

68 i. fram ii. from, /romft 

69 i. lamb ii. lomb, lamb 

60 L lang ii. long, lonp 

61 on i. gemang ii. ge- 

mong, among 

62 L Strang ii. strong, 


63 L ge>rang ii. ge>rong, 


64 i. wrang ii. wrong, 

wrong \X 

65 L sang ii song, a tong 

66 i. >wang ii. >wong, a 


67 ic g&, I go 

68 mMiomore in number* 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 




69 nk, no nerer, m6 122 


70 t&,a to# 

•71 Wfc,l9M 

72 hw&, who interroga- 


73 8wfc, $0 like asf^ 

74 tw&, (wof 

76 str&cian, to f^o^# 

76 t&de, a toad 

77 hlkford, a lord 

78 6gan, to ou;e*=io own 

79 &gen, his 01m t 

80 hllig dfeg, a holiday 

81 i. Une ii. lone, a lane t 

82 &ne8, onee *f 

83 m&nian, to moan 

84 m&ra, more in sixe 
86 s&re, tore sorely 

86 kte.oatt 

87 e\kiSBB,elothetf 

88 cl&'Sian, to «/0M# 

89 hkiSir n, ^/At 

90 bl&wan,tod/(9U7aswind 

91 mfcwan, to mow 

92 cn&wan, to hnowfX 

93 SD&wan, to tnow 

94 cr&wan, to erow f 
Qo )>r&wan, to throw 
is 8&wan, to toio seed 

97 s&wel, the toul 

98 cnliwen, has known 

99 >r&wen, has thrown 

100 sfcwen, has sown seed 


101 &o an oaib 

102 6c8ian, toMA;t 

103 &c86de, he atked^f 

104 rftd, a roadX 
106 r&d, he rodo 

106 br6d, broad 

107 hlkf, a loaf 

108 d6g, <foM^A 

109 l&g, A>ii^ 

110 i.n&htn&nht,iMw^A/, 

ii. n&t, notfX 

111 6hte, he ow^A/ 1 

112 hftl, Aa^ 

113 h6l, tt^Ao^t 

114 m6l, moiW a body 

mark, not the 
animal, see 46, 769 
116 hian, a homef 

116 hwrkm, whom, interna 

gative only 

117 611, ai one* 

118 b&n, bone 

119 g&n, tofo*X 

120 6gftn, a^f i.e. past 


121 geg&n, has pone 

122 n6n,i. ffOM#,iLft0adj. 

123 n&n )>ing, nothing 

124 st&n, Ketone 
126 6nlice, ^n/y t 

126 &r, an oar 

127 h6s, AoarM 

128 >fc8, rAoM 

129 gfcst, a ffhoet 

130 Mt, a Amt^ 

131 g&t, a ffoat 

132 b&t, hot 

133 wr&t, I un-ote 

134 &«, an oaM 
136 cl&«, a 0/OM 

136 fcwi$er=lihw8B'5er, i. 

either^ ii. or, see 
213 as'gSer 

137 nliir5er«=n4hw»'Ser, 

i. neither, ii. «or*t, 
see 214 niegtSer 


138 fieder, a fat her f 

139 drsege (in dnege-net), 

a draf/ 

140 hsegel, the hail 

141 niBgel, a nail 

142 snu^^, a enail 

143 t»gel, a tati 

144 ongsgen, ff^amft 
146 slsegen, is tlain 

146 maBgen,fMaifi strength 

147 brsegen, the brain 

148 fsger, fair adj. [not 

/air sb., Fr. foire, 
after 921, from 
Lat. feria, after 

149 blsse, a blate 

160 leesest, leattf 

161 Iffitan, to let or hinder 

162 wster, toater 

163 s8Bterd»g, Satwday 

164 baec, theboek^f 
166 ytBCy the thateh 

166 gl8Pd,y/a<i« 

167 nrsfn, a raven 

168 8Dfter, after 

169 haB«5, he Afl» • t 

160 8Bg, an ey^ 

161 dseg, a dayf 

162 t6 dsDg, to-day • f 

163 leg, he lay 

164 meg, hoMtfyt 
166 ssegde, he eaid 

166 msBgden, a maid 

167 del, a dale 

168 telg, to//bi9 

169 hwenne, toAtfit t 

170 herfest, harvest 

171 berlic^r^ 

172 gssrs, ^roM 

173 wes, he was f 

174 aesc, an ash tree 
176 fsBst, fast, firm 

176 et, aff 

177 >et,rA«<»tt 

178 gnet, ynat 

179 hwet, irAa/f 

180 be«, ^aM 

181 pieV, ajEwM 

182 se', the Ma 

183 te'can, to teaeh f 

184 le'dan, to lead 
186 re'dan, to read 

186 bre'do, breadth 

187 le'fan, to /mp^ 

188 hne'gan, to neiyh 

189 we'gan, to weiyh 

190 ce'fi^, a key 

191 he'lan, to A^a/ 

192 me'nan, to mean 

193 cle'ne, clean 

194 e'nig, aiiy*t 

195 me'nig, many 

196 we'ron, we were 

197 ce'se, a cheese 

198 le'tan, to /f< allow, 

see 288. 

199 ble'tan, to bleat 

200 hwe'te, M^Afa^ 

201 he''Sen, the heathen 

202 he'ta, heat 

203 spre'c speech 

204 de'd, deed 
206 ]>re*d, thread 

206 re'dd, he r#«<f 

207 ne'dl« a needle 

208 e'fre, ever^f 

209 ne'fre, ww^r^f 

210 cle'g, clay 

211 gre't. ^r^ 

212 hweg, whey 

213 e'gSer « ehweder, 

#t/A^, see 136 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




214 ne'gfSer, «#•/*«• •f, 

see 137 nki^et 
216 Whtb, be taught 

216 d»l, a dS^a/ portion 

217 sic, 0aeh 

218 sc»'p, a thsep 

2 19 ile'p, a sUep 

220 ics phii^e, a fA^p- 

221 fs'r/rarsb. 

222 hs r, the hair 

223 bar, <A^r*tt 

224 hwm*rhw9i, wh^nfX 

225 flttM»^A 

226 mm'stmott 

227 w«%if#<t 

228 swsB't, notat 

229 br»^, &r»ffM, pro- 

perly b odour 

230 i»%fMt, mdj, 


231 be, lA#*tt 

232 orecan, to ^rMifc 

233 sprecan, to sptak f 

234 cnedan, to kn$ad 

235 wefan, to tM0«# 

236 fefer, a/#Mr 

237 blegan, a cbil-^i^MM 

238 hege, a A^# 

239 leffel^ a Mil 

240 gelegen, has /atn 

241 regen, rain 

242 twegcni, ^iMtfi 

243 pl^:iaii, to play 

244 wela, «m//, aignmen- 

tatiye adT.*t, aee 

245 melnmelOyiMM/ floor* 

246 cwene cwln, L ^m##» 

iL quean 

247 wenian, to wean 

248 mere, a martf 

249 werian, to wear 

250 swerian, to ttoear 

251 mete, meat 

252 cetel,aA«/<iWt 

253 netele, a neitU 

254 lflf5er, /iMf A#r 

255 irer5er,ai0«<^iheep 


256 ttreecsLn^iotlreleh^f 

257 ecg, an edp$ 

258 secg, ted^e 

259 wecg, iMdj^tf 

260 leogan, to laff 

261 tecgan, to fay f { 

262 weg, a way f 1 
268 on weg, away*f 

264 eglan, to ail 

265 Btrebt, ttraight f t 

Tsee 923, to wbicb 
oia. forms seem to 
be related! 

266 wel, ire//, adv. in a 

good manner * %, 
see 244. 

267 geldan, to yield 

268 eldest, tf/<i^^ 

269 self, eel/* f 

270 belg, 1. beilotpe, ii. 


271 tellan, to tell^f 

272 elm, an elm 

273 men, tnm f 

274 bene, a bench 

275 stenc, a tteneh 

276 bencan, to think f 

277 drencan, to dteneh 

278 wencle, a weneh 

279 wended, be «vm/ * f 

280 endlafon, eleven 

281 leng^, length 

282 strrag^, ttrtngth 

283 merg, f»Mrry 

284 )>er8can, to MreM 


285 cerse, erees vegetable 

286 berwe, a harrow 

287 besm, a bee<m broom 

for sweeping 

288 lettan Ise'tan lltan, to 

let permit, see 198. 


289 ff«, ye 

290 h^, Aft 

291 >6, /Am 

292 m^, m# f 

293 wtf, KM t 

294 f;gdan, to feed 

295 br^ded, was br^ 

296 geldan, to believe 

297 f(§lagiN,a/0//ouT*t 

298 f^lan, to feel 

299 gr6ne, green 

300 c^pan, to Avep 

301 gen^ran, to hear 

302 gem^tan, to meet 

303 sw^te, tioeet 

304 b^tel, a ^//# mallet, 

see 499 


305 i. b^b ii. be&b, high 

306 b^blSe, height 

307 i. n^b ii. ne&b, nigh 
SOS n6d, need sb. 

309 sp^, jf/M^ sb. 

310 b^l, a heel 

311 t^n, tm 

312 b^r, here 

318 b^rcnian toAear^n.f 
See 695 byrcnian 

314 geb^rde, be heard 

315 f(§t, /m< 

316 n^xt, next 


317 fleaffan, to^y 

318 bIeanen,bas/ai^Atf<f*t 

319 geapian, to gape 

320 cearian, to earefy see 

30 cam 


321 geseab, be eawf 

322 hleabhan, to laugh 

323 feabt,bas/oMyA/ 
824 eabta, eight 

325 wealcan, to tra/Ar, 

properly to full 

326 eald, oldfX 

327 beald, bofd 

328 ceald, eold 

329 fealdan, to/o» 

330 bealdan,to Ao/</t 

331 sealde, he eold 

332 tealde, be told^- 

333 oealf, a ealf 

334 bealf, htilf 

335 eaU, oZ/ft 

336 feallan, to fall 

337 weall, a wall 

338 ceallian,toM//*t 

339 eam, I am * 

340 geard geord, i. a comi 

yard f 11, a ttieh 
311 mearb, tnarrow^X 

342 earm, an arm 

343 wearm, warm 

344 bearn, *a»rw • J 

345 dearr, I dare 

346 geat a^a/0,door-way, 

not road agata n 


347 be&fod, tbe head 

348 e&ge, the eye t 

349 fekwa,/*wt 


350 de&d, dead 

351 le&d, lead metal 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




352 reftd, redt 

353 bre&d, bread 

354 Bce&f, th$af 

355 de&f, dioft 

356 le&f, leaf 

357 >e&h, thought 

358 ne6h, fiiah. See 307 

ii. n6h 

359 neCihgebiiff, migh* 


360 te&m, a team 

361 be&n, ad^an 

362 sle&n, to ftoy 
368 ceAp, cheap 

364 cefrpman, ^Aop * % 

365 ne&r, fiMr, compara- 

tire of 358 ne&h, 

366 grektf great f 

367 bre&t, Mr«a< 

368 iekH, death 

369 sle&w, elouf 

370 hrefcw, rau^ 

371 Btre&w Btreaw 8tre6w 

ttrea stred, etraw 


372 ei N, ffv# t 

373 >eiN, M#yt 

374 nei n, fuiy 

375 reisa n, to rfftM 

376 beita v, to ^t< 


377 Bteik n, a «^aifc 

378 yeikr n, iiwaib 

379 heill w, Aar/ 

380 >eimN, them^f 

381 syeinn n, a ncain 

382 >eirra n, ^A#tr 


383 seofan, eeven 

384 heofon, heaven 

385 beneo'San, beneath 

386 eowe, a etcf 

387 i. neowe, ii. niwe, 



388 meolc, miik 

389 geoica, yolk of eggs 

390 sceolde, thouldf 

391 eom, I am • f J 

392 geoiid,.von»t 

393 begeondan, 5fyofuf 

394 geonder, ponder * J 

395 ^ng, yoti^ • 

396 1. weorc ii. were, 

ufork, sb. See 694 
wyrcan, yb. 

397 sweord, a eword 

398 steorfan, to eiarver^ 

be cold 

399 beorht, bright f 

400 eorneet, eamett 

401 geomian, to yearn 

402 leoniiaii, to learn f 

403 feorr, /ar 

404 Bteorra, a etar 

405 heofS, the hearth 

406 eorSe, the earth 

407 feorSlin^, a farthing 

408 cneow, he knew f 


409 be6, a 5m 

410 he6,Aoo,8heLa«tt 

411 ]>re6 fem. and neat., 

Jnrt mas., MrMf 

413 de6foI, the d^7 

414 fle6ga, a/y 

415 le6gan, to /t>, fib 

416 de6re, dear adj. and 


417 ce6wan, to ehew 

418 bre6wan, to brew 

419 e6wer, your • t 

420 fe6wer,/Mfr 

421 fe6wertig,/or<y 


422 se6c,tu;ifcill«t 

423 be6h, thigh 

424 hre6h,roH^A,see654* 

425 ledht, light 

426 fedhtan, to^A< 

427 be6n, to 5« f 

428 se6n, to M#t 

429 fe6nd, a Jlend 

430 fre6nd, a friend 

431 be6r, 5Mr 

432 {e6tfSh, fourth 

433 bre6et, breatt 

434 be6t, he beat 

435 e6w, you f J 

436 tre6w, true % 

437 tre6w1$, truth 


438 deyja m, toifi#t 


439 trejstair, to/riM^t 


440 i. wicu wice ii. wuoe, 

a weekf 

441 sife, sieve 

442 ifij^, ivy 

443 fr^puUeg, Friday 

444 sti^l, a f^f/lf 

445 higian, to hie 

446 nigon, fttfi^t 

447 hire, A4W»t 

448 >iBe, thetef 

449 g[itan, to ytf< obtain 

450 tiwesdffig, Tuesday 

451 siwian, to eew 

452 ic, Jt J 

453 cwic, ^wrifc^f 

454 wicoe, witeh 

455 licgan« to lie down t 

456 gif, if t 

457 miht, the might 

458 niht, the night f 

459 riht, r^Al % 

460 wiht, a ire^A' 

461 gelihtan, to aiight 

462 gesih^, the tight 

463 tUN, <i7/»t 

464 hwilc, which 

465 i. swilc, ii. swylo, 


466 did. aMt/<ltt 

467 wUde, u^Ttf 

468 cildni, children 

469 willan,tou?t7/«t 

470 him, Aim «t 

471 timber, ftm^ 

472 scrincan, to shrink 

473 blind, blind, adj. 

474 rind, the rind 

475 wind, the wind 

476 bindan, to bind 

477 findan,to^itift 

478 gnndan, to grind 

479 windan, to wind 

480 bing, a thing* ft 

481 finger, a finger 

482 is, M»tt 

483 his, his^i 

484 >is,Mt«t 

485 >istel, a thistle 

486 gist, yeast 

487 gistrandsBg, yM^^dlay 

488 git, yet 

489 hit, tl • t 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




490 bi, £y near t 

491 Bican, to si^h 

492 Bide, a«tii9«t 

493 diifan, to driv§ 

494 ttma,<i«Mt 

496 hirinan* to iohin$ * f 

496 fren, inm 

497 arisan, to arm 

498 writan, to tpriU 

499 bftel,adM^^mBeot* 

see 304 


600 gelic» /tjfc#t 

601 irtd^wuk 

602 fif,/M 

603 lif, lif$ 

604 cnif, a ifciit/# 
606 itii, a «<rf/# 

606 wifman, a woman f 

607 wifmen, women 

608 mil, a miio 

609 hwfl, itAi^ 

610 min, mtfff# my^f 

611 iTin, iow$ 

612 spir, a «;n># steeple 

613 wfr, a toiro 

614 Is, id 
616 wis, wiu 

616 wiflddm, trtMisiii 

617 iw, a yew 

618 bodig, a botfy^f 

619 ofer, o»ir*t 

620 boga, a bow weapon 

621 foU, a foot hone 

622 open,fl»pM 

623 hopian, to hope 

624 worold, tiie world 

626 of, I of •ft^u, off 

626 cobhettan, to eouffh 

627 bobte, be doi^A/ 

628 bobte, be thought 

629 Drobte, be brought 

630 WTobte, be wrought 

631 debtor, a daughter f 

632 col, a ami/ 

633 dol, duli 

634 bol, a hole 
636 folc./oa;«f 

636 gold,^0^ 

637 molde, moiili earth 

638 wolde, would 

639 bolla, a bowl cup 

640 boUegen, hollg 

641 wol nfet, won't ft 

642 bolt, bolt 

643 on, o#i*tt 

644 bonne, L than ii. 

646 boppan, to Aop 

646 for,/or»t 

647 bora, a board 

648 ford, a/<»r<i 

649 hord, a Aoar<f treasure 

660 word, a wordf 

661 storm, a etortn 

662 com, com 

663 bom, Aom 

664 kross ir, a eroee 

666 sc6, a ehoe 

666 t6, to t 

657 t6, toof 

658 I6cian, to lookX 

659 m6dor, mother 

660 Bc61a, a eehool^f 

661 bl6ma, a 5/(>om flower 

662 m6na, the moon 

663 m6nand»g, Jfofiifoy 

664 86na, eoonX 

665 n66a, noee 
566 6)>er, o^A«r 

667 l»8Bt6>er, fother^f 

668 br6'5or, brother ^ 

669 b6c, a 5ooA 

670 t6c, he took 

671 g6d, goodf 

672 bl6d, the 52oMf 

673 fl6d, ^ flood 

674 br6d, brood 
676 st6d, be j/ocm/ 

676 wddneedffig, Wednet^ 


677 b6g, a bough 
578 pl^ N, tLplough 

679 gen6g, #noi^Att 

680 t6h, tow^A 

681 86bte, be eought 

682 c5l, eoo/ 

683 t6l, tool 

684 Bt6l, etool 

686 br6m, 5fnoom, the 
plant, not 287 

686 d6n, to dbf 

687 ged6n, donef 

688 n6n, noon 

689 spdn K, a tpoon 

690 fl6r, the^r 

691 m6r, a moor 

692 8w6r, be euH>ref 

693 m6ste, he muet 

694 b6t, 5oo< 
696 m,foot 

696 r6t, roo^ 

697 s6t. eoot 

698 s6i$, MoM 

699 6bufan, above 

600 Info, love sb. 

601 fogol, a/oti^/ 

602 sugo, a tow pig 

603 cuman, to cotne fl 

604 Bumor, the fif mm#r*t 
606 sunu,a eonf 

606 dnni, the doorf 

607 butere, ^u/^ 

608 ncglig w, t^/y 

609 fiflI,/«//t 

610 wull, wool 

611 biilluca,a buUoek 

612 sum, «om#t 

613 drunoen.basifrtfnJtt{, 

see 804 

614 band, a hound 

616 pnnd, a /TOMfM? weight 

616 grand, the ground f 

617 gesnnd, toimif in 


618 wnnd, a wound 

619 fnnden, -wsBfoundf 

620 granden, was ground 

621 wnnden, was wound 

622 under, iifME^ 

623 fundon, they/otifi/f*t 

624 grundon,tbey^OM>t«^* 

625 tnnge, the tongue 

626 hunger, hunger 

627 Sunnandffig, Sun- 


628 nunne, a nun 

629 sunne, the tifff 

630 wunnen, was won 

631 JmnnresdsBg, Thurt' 


632 upp, up \X 

633 cuppa, eup 

634 >urh. MroM^Aft 

635 wuro weord, uwr/A 

636 fui^or, /nrrA^r 

637 tuso, a tueh 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




638 hjucavt to busk mtk» 


639 dust, dust 


640 c6, a cow 

641 hfi, Aowf 

642 >(i, thou 

643 nd, ftowtt 

644 Btican, to tuck 

645 dtifa, a dove 

646 biigan, to do«^, bend 

647 iile, an ou^/ 

648 (^re, our 

649 ^iteand, thoutand 
660 libtltan, a^o«<*} 

651 witSiitan, without* -^ 

652 c6i$e, roM/^^ 

653 baton, ^sbeiit 


664 Bcriid, a throud 
654* i. rdib, ii. rOg, iii. 
rfiw, rouoh, see 424 
656 f<il,/oti/durt7 
656 r6m, room 

667 br6n, brown 

668 d<in, iJlM^tJ 

669 hin, a ^oim any in- 


660 bfir, a bowir^TOom. 

661 sc6r, a $how9r 

662 dfl, tM 

663 h6s, Aot/Mft 

664 16s, a lomo 
666 m<i8, a mou$$ 

666 hCiBb6nda, AtM6aiM?t 

667 tiyoutf 

668 pr6t, f^roM^ 

669 anc6'D, uncouth 

670 b^*}; N, 6ooM 

671 m^^mouth 

672 i(i«, fOM/A 


673 myoel, much f 

674 dyde, he^M^t 
676 drygan, to dry f 

676 Irge, a lie {abehood 

677 dryge, dry adj.* 

678 dyne, a din 

679 cyrice, a church 

680 bysig, buey f 

681 bysigo, bueineee • f 

682 lytel,/i«^tt 

683 mycg, a midge 

684 biycg, a bridge 
686 hiycg, a ridge 

686 bycgan, to buy 

687 flyht, a/i>A< 

688 byldan, to build 

689 ynce, an inch 

690 geoynd, a kind 

691 mynd, the miiMf 

692 gyngert, youngeet^f 

693 Bynn, a tin 

694 wyrcan wyroean, to 

work Tb. See 896 
weoro, sb. 

695 hyrcnian,toAtfari^t. 

'Bee 313 h^rcnian, 
and 710 hy'rcnian 

696 ffebyrd gebeord, 6trM 

697 bebyigan, to bury 

698 mynfS, mirth 

699 wyrnta, a wright 

700 wyraa, worse 

701 tm^Jlret 

702 wy«, with • t 
708 pytt» a pit 
704 tyzen, a nixon 

706 Bcy' w, the eky 

706 hw/, foAy f 

707 J»re6ty'ne, thirteen 

708 ahy^nan, to hire 


709 fy*!, a Jlre 

710 hy'rcnian,toAMr^t. 

See 813 h^nian, 
and 696 hyrcnian 

711 ly's, lice 

712 my 8, mice 

n. English, Kos. 713 to 808. 

This section contains words of which the precise prototype in Wessex or Norse 
is unknown ; words of disputed origin ; words deriyed from foreign sources, except 
Bomance ; words formed within the language itself, of which tl^ origin can only 
be coniecturally, or cannot eyen be probabnr, assigned ; slang or familiar words, 
etc. For want of a better plan, these haye been arranged according to the yowel 
(or if seyeral, the first yowel) they contain in the accented syllable, following the 
receiyed orthography. Then the rest of the arrangement is alphabetical as in 
Section I. Tne differences of long and short, open or dosea, are of course 
unnoted, as the original form is unknown. The headings of classes are in Roman 
capitals as before, out are distinguished from the last oy a following period (.), 
and the absence of the hyphen (-) and colon (:} marking open and close. 


713 bad 

714 lad 
716 pad 

716 addle, i. adj. and ii. 


717 9^ jade 

718 trade 

719 & tadpole 

720 a fag 

721 to fag 

722 ti drain 

723 a dairy 

724 bald 

725 a eale 

726 to talk • t 

727 Jam preserye 

728 tham 

729 a frame 

730 a canter 

731 wanton 

732 happen* \ 

733 to tcare 
784 to dam 
735 emash 
786 a few • t 

737 timatet 

738 to prate ^ 

739 ffiaM/A#r girl 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




740 a ufaP4 

741 A mags 

742 Ub^ 


748 to $ crtMm 

744 ihemmtUs 
746 to 0h4mt 

746 to brtatks 

747 to tmUmvour 

748 LjUd^idiLwi/Mffsd 

749 /e/**t 

760 to^iy 

761 part 

762 /¥<, peoTiah fit^f 

I. a»i T. 

768 to tiekU 
764 a pif animal 
766 tLjUbtrt nut 

766 a f ArtMp 

767 <my 

768 a^r/t{. 

769 ^^ suited 
760 »hri94lkd*i 

761 a fo«if 

762 oakum 
768 /MM 
764 to eoddU 
766 /oAn^t 

766 maiderid bewildorod 

767 a noituf 

768 Mifcf 

769 a mots animal*, same 

as 46, not 114 

770 Thomas^ 1 
in fond 

772 9kbonftr$ 

773 a donk$y 

774 9, pony 
lib 9, booby 

776 goodbjfo^ 

777 iAop 

778 ttjfbrd 

779 0r/« remnants 

780 iojoBtU 

781 a^/A^rf 

782 9^ pother 

783 poultry 

784 to6<mMM 
786 to ^MM^tf 

786 to if(Mi«# 

787 iotouH 

788 to./bM« 

789 a row noise 

790 a^0tm 

791 a^» 

792 af^ud^^/li 

793 a hug 

794 a>^ 
796 9^ shrug 

796 Wi»#* 

797 tquniking^^ 

798 ^ii*#r»t 

799 «^ of head 

800 oeuU of boat 

801 rum liquor 

802 rum queer 

803 to jump 

804 drunken adj. aceu«- 

tomed to getdrunk*, 
see 613. 
806 fMrib 

806 >«f 

807 puit 

808 toi?N< 

m. BoMiNCB, Nos. 809 to 971. 

This section comprises words taken from the French, Latin or anr language 
derived from the Latin. Properly speaking the arrangement should have beoi 
by the Anglo-Norman forms of words, that is, those used in England by speakers 
of Norman-French. Failing this, the old French forms should have been 
adopted. But in both cases msuperable difficulties presented themselyes. The 
li^ Mr. H. Nicol endeavoured to arrange the words by their English sounds in 
the XTith century, but this would have had to be conjectured in many words. 
Hence I have adopted the modem French forms in almost all oases ; for the few 
old French forms which I could not avoid, I am indebted to Prol Skeat*s 
Etymologiesl Dictionary, and disclaim the responsibility for them. Latin, and 
in one case, Spanish, forms have also been given. The arrangement is by the 
Towels as in ^e former sections, the Romance word coming first, is followed b^ 
(••) if modem, and (...) if old French, ( — ) if Latin, and (-) Span, if 
Spanish. The class hradings are in capitals followed by ( •• ). No diitinction of 
long and short, open and closed, could oe made with any certainty, and hence no 
aoch distinction has been attempted. 

809 habOe*ff^# 

810 face-a/oM 

811 place^apAMtf 

812 lacet-a/a«# 

813 bacon ••^tfMM 

814 ma^on •• a fwMOfi 
816 iMcik-'Ueti\ 

816 fadeadj*to/Mi^ 

817 radis-'f'MltfA 

818 ii^'^ago 

819 raffe**r«i^# 

820 gai-^oy* 

821 ^kl^' delay 

822 mai**Jlfay 

823 baie •• bay of the sea 

824 chaiere... a professor's 

and hence any chair 
826 gtdi ,.wai/ 

826 aigle"an#ff^te 

827 aigre*<ra^tfr 

828 9ifpi'*ague 

82J) gam " gam 

830 train ••/ram 

831 destraindre<*to 


882 maire*-aifuiyor 

833 paire* 

834 chaiie 
836 raison 

836 saison 

837 laisse* 


• a ehaiee 
•• reason f 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



838 traitor -to trtai 

839 balle •• i. a baU ii. A 


840 cbambre>*a ekamb€r 

841 chance •• a ehanet X 

842 planche**aptoi}ifc 

843 Dranche»a branch 
814 tranch6e •* a tnneh 
846 widen " ancimt 

846 chandelier ••MandZ^ 

847 danger "dlafi^^ 

848 changer •• to ehanp$ 

849 Stranger •• a t^raf}^#r 

850 danse*-a(f(ifM# 

851 tante-*an<iti9t< 

852 napperon**an apron 

853 bargaigner»to bar* 


854 baril -a 3arr#/ 

855 carotte •• a Mrti0< 

856 yait"Apan 

857 cas-aMMf 

858 hru "brac$ 

859 cha88er»toMaj#himt 

860 ^kte-'paitt 

861 t&ter-to/M<# 

862 ULut'-tafef 

863 chauffer •• to rA<r/« 

864 kcAXiBe"becaiiuf 

865 tBLUte "fauit 

866 pauTre '-po^r^ 

E •• 

867 th^.-^tfa 

868 geai.*a>y 

869 yeaa-vM/ 

870 beaat5 •• 6#aN/y 

871 agr6er-<ryrM 

872 ohef ..«Aw/ 
878 effrai ... a /rap 

874 reine ... a reim of a 

875 feinte*.a/««N< 

876 deintie ... a damip 

877 heir . heir 

878 c^l5ri-M^ 

879 femelle-/#M<il# 

880 exemple ... Mramp/^ 

881 Ben8**«#M## 

882 pens^ •• MfMy 

883 dent de Uon-tAwN^- 


884 apprenti"<rp/>rMi<M# 

885 Terai ... very • t J 

886 hhre-fiiar 

887 clerg^-tfi^fr^y 

888 certain ••0tfi7atMt 

889 cesser •• to cMMi 

890 bdte-5«Mft 

891 Ute-'ftast 

892 neyea. " nephew 

893 flenr-j^u^^ingarden 

894 d4oe?oir-i2^<v# 

895 receYoir**re0Mp« 

896 beyre . bever la- 

bourer's drinking 

I.. andY- 

897 d61ice-a^i^A^ 

898 nice ... nie$ 

899 mbce -'nieee 

900 prior ••prffy 

901 nn-'Jlne 

902 mine**a mine 

903 diner •• L to dine, ii. a 


904 yiolette •• a violet 

905 riote ... a riot 

906 yipere-a vtp^r 

907 tns- Spanish trioe 

908 aYiB-«<iru^ 

909 brise**^rMM 

910 gtte-joiet 

911 citeme*<m^#ni 

912 nz"tHce 

926 spoiler ... to i^poi/ 

927 tronc •• a trunk 

928 once ••anowMM weight 

929 conoombre •• eueumber 

930 longe»a loin 

931 iongleur •• a yM^^2fr 

932 ii mout " amount 

933 front -yroMl 

934 honi6'» bounty 

935 contr6e*>0o«ii^ry 

936 fonts -baptismal/^n^ 

937 CQ({"tLcoek 

938 comi^re»«orfifrt 

939 clos-0^oM i. adj. ii. 

adT.fiii. sb. 

940 cotte-0oa/t 

941 iou'/ool 

942 bouoher •• ^0A#r 

943 toucher* 'to touch 

944 allouer •• to allow 

945 Youer**to9oi9 

946 mouiller •• to moil 

947 bouillir-to^7 

948 boule •• a bowl ball 

949 moule**a mould or 

form, not 537 

950 souper*>«iip;?tfrt 

951 couple ••Mwp/tf 

952 course "i. coareCf ii. 

953 cousin ••Mtittfi 

954 ooussin-0iMAio»i 

955 doute-cfoM^^t 

956 couTrir •• to coper 

957 employer •• to fnip/oy 

958 froyer- to /ray 

959 oonvoyer-to i. cdH' 

vcfff ii eonvoif 

918 coche...a«MMA 

914 brochexa^roo^A 

915 6toffe-f/N/ 960 

916 ognon-offtoM 961 

917 roffue •• ro^t## 962 

918 iome "feeble, adj. 963 

919 oig[»t< 964 

920 point -potfi^t 965 

921 accointer»toff0giMtii< 966 

922 boisseaU'^^MtA^ 967 

923 etioit..f^rat<,see265 968 
923* moite-mouf 969 

924 choiL" choice 970 

925 loii" voice f 971 

mue •• mewe stables 
quietus — quiet f 
fruit ".^w< 
suite ••«•«•< 
huitre •• oi^eter f % 

J'uste "jutt • t 
late ••/!</# 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




Notes ok Ck>N8T£ucnov8 aub iNTOKAnoK, appended to the 


[Thi informant was r$qu$$Ud to underlino ih$ grammo H eal form which is 
common in hit district ; ditrsgarding pronunciation.] 

I am. ihoa ftm. lie am. we am. yon am. they am. — I are. thou art. 
he are. we are. you are. they are. we ar*ii. tou ar'n. they ar*n. [The three 
last were intended lor the West Midland yerhal plural in en, hnt were generally 
confused hy informants with amU.]—l he. thou Dist. he he. we he. tou he. 
they he. we hin. you hin. they hin. [The three last referred to tne Sh. 

flural bin for arc, hut were ji^erally confused with been used for have been,] — 
is. tiiou is. he is. we is. jrou is. they is. — I was. thou was. he was. 
we was. you was. they was. — iwere. thouwert. he were, we were, you 
were, they were, we wer'n. you wer'n. they wer'n.— we ha*n. you ha'n. 
they ha'n. [The six last referred to the West Midland Terhal plural in -en, hut 
were generallT misunderstood.] — ^him is. him he.^they goes, we goes. — he 
does, he dotn. he do. he walketh. he live there. — thou (underline if used 
generally, and distinguish hy underlining whether it is used to children, hushand 
and wite, serrants, friends, lovers). — I do walk. 1 have a- walked. I he or 
am a-going.— she was washing on a washtitff day f underline the two -ingt if 
distinguished] — thease thick (a this, that, of shaped tnings). this that Coi shape- 
less things).— dat man dere (sthat man there).— t' man. th' man. e man. — 
theirselres. theirseUs. theirsens. —I doh {for I don't). I will {for I shall), 
he shall {for he will). I would {for I should), he should (for he would). — to 
can, to could {as he won't can do it, he didnH used to could), he didn't ought. — 
at eat [meaning the Danishism in parts of D 31, for to eat], to home. 

Tit to characterise the nature of the singsong of the speech, underlining as 
may oe, rough, smooth, thick, thin, indistinct, dear, hesitating, glib, whining, 
drawling, jerking, up and down in pitch, rising in pitch at end, sinking at end, 

Qvre any singular pronunciations of words not mentioned; and any information 
respecting your dialect that you will have the kindness to imparl 

Index to the English Woeds in the cwl. eefebring each 
TO ITS Number. 

able 809 
about 660 
above 699 
acquaint 921 
addle 710 
advice 90S 
after 168 
again 144 
age SIS 
ago 120 
agree 871 
ague 828 
alight 461 
all 336 

aUow 944 

at 176 

am 891 

aunt 861 

among 61 

away 268 

amount 932 

awe 16 

ancient 846 

awl 36 

and 42 

aye 872 

any 194 

apprentice 884 


apron 862 

are 29 

back 164 

arise 497 

bacon 813 

arm 342 

bad 713 

as 38 

bairn 344 

ash 174 

bait 376 

ashes 66 

bake 3 

ask 102 

bald 724 

asked 103 

bale 839, i. 

ass 67 

baU 839, a 

bamin 863 
barJeT 171 
barrel 864 
bath 180 
bathe 32 
bay 823 
be 427 
bean 361 
beast 890 
beat, pt. 434 
beauty 870 
because 864 
bee 409 
beer 431 

beetle, mallet 304 
beetle, insect 499 
heg 760 
behave 9 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




beliere 296 
bellows 270, i. 
belly 270, ii. 
bench 274 
beneath 386 
besom 287 
bever 896 
beyond 393 
bind 476 
birth 696 
blaze 149 
bleat 199 
blind 473 
blood 672 
bloom 661 
blow, as wind 90 
blue 796 
board 647 
boat 130 
body 618 
boil 947 
bold 327 
bolt 642 
bone 118 
bonfire 772 
booby 776 
book 669 
boot 694 
booth 670 
both 89 
bother 781 
bough 677 
bought 527 
bounce 784 
bounty 934 
bow, weapon 620 
bow, bend 646 
bower 660 
bowl, cup 639 
bowl, ball 948 
boy 791 
brace 868 
brain 147 
brand) 843 
bread 363 
breadth 186 
break 232 
breast 433 
breath 229 
breathe 746 
bred 296 
breeze 909 
brew 418 
bridge 684 
bright 399 
bnmd 106 
brooch 914 
brood 674 
broom, plant 686 
brother 668 

brought 629 
brown 667 
build 688 
bullock 611 
bury 697 
bushel 922 
business 681 
busk 638 
busy 680 
butcher 942 
but 663 
butter 607 
buy 686 
by 490 

cake 18 
calf 333 
call 338 
came 39 
can, sb. 63 
candle 46 
canter 730 
care, sb. 30 
care, vb. 320 
carrot 866 
case 867 
cease 889 
celery 878 
certain 888 
chafe 863 
chair 824 
chaise 834 
chamber 840 
chance 841 
chandler 846 
change 848 
chap 364 
chase 869 
cheap 363 
cheat 746 
cheese 197 
chew 4 1 7 
chief 872 
child 466 
children 468 
choice 924 
church 079 
cistern 911 
clay 210 
clean 193 
clergy 887 
close 939 
cloth 136 
clothe 88 
clothes 87 
coach 918 
coal 632 
coarse 962, L 
coat 940 
cock 937 

coddle 764 
coke 768 
cold 828 
comb 40 
come 603 
conrey 969, i. 
oouToy 969, iL 
cool 682 
corn 662 
comer 938 
cou^h 626 
could 662 
country 986 
oouple 961 
course, 962, ii. 
cousin 963 
coyer 966 
cow 640 
cress 286 
cross, sb. 664 
crow 94 
cucumber 929 
cup 638 
curds 806 
cushion 964 

dainty 876 
dairy 723 
dale 167 
dance 860 
dandelion 883 
danger 847 
dare 346 
dam 734 
daughter 631 
dawn 16 
day 161 
dead 360 
deaf 366 
deal 216 
dear 416 
death 368 
deceive 894 
deed 204 
delay 821 
delight 897 
deyU 413 
did 674 
die, vb. 438 
din 678 
dine 903, i. 
dinner 903, iL 
distrain 831 
do 686 
done 687 
donkey 773 
door 606 
doubt 966 
dough 108 

douse 786 
do?e 645 
down 668 
drain 722 
draw 14 
dray 139 
drive 493 
drunk 613 
dmnken 804 
dry, adj. 677 
dry, vb. 676 
dull, 633 
dust 639 


each 317 
eager 827 
eagle 826 
earnest 400 
earth 406 
edge 267 
em 160 
either 136, L 218 
eldest, 268 
eleven 280 
elm 272 
employ 967 
enaeavonr 747 
enough 679 
ever 208 
ewe 886 
example 880 
eye 348 

face 810 

facts 816 

fade 816 



fair, adj. 148 


far 403 

farthing 407 

fast 176 

fat 230 

father 138 

fault 866 

fear, sb. 221 

feast 891 

feeble 918 

feed 294 

feel 298 

feet 316 

feUow 297 

female 879 

fever 236 

few 849 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




fiend 429 
find 477 
fine 901 
finger 481 
fire 709 
first 701 
fit 759 
fiye 502 


fied^ 748, L 
fiesh 226 
flight 687 
flood 673 
floor 690 
float 788 
flower 89S 
flnte 971 
fly, sb. 414 
foal 621 
fold 329 
folk 636 
fond 771 
font 936 
fool 941 
foot 696 
for 646 
ford 548 
forty 421 
fonght 323 
fold 655 
found, pt. 623 
found, pp. 619 
foor 420 
fourth 432 
fowl 601 
frame 729 
fray, vb. 968 
fray, sb. 873 
fret 762 
friar 886 
Friday 443 
friend 430 
from 68 
front 933 
fruit 966 
fall 609 
further 636 
fuss 806 

gain 829 
gape 319 
gate 346 
gay 820 
get 449 
ghott 129 
girl 768 
glad 166 

gnat 178 
gnaw 13 
go, prt. 67 
go, inf. 119 
goat 131 
gold 636 
gone 121 
good 571 
goodbye 776 
gown 790 
grass 172 
great 366 
green 299 
grey 211 
grind 478 
ground, pi 624 
ground, pp. 620 
ground, so. 616 
gruel 961 


hail, sb. 140 
hail, vb. 379 . 
hair 222 
hale 112 
half 334 
hand 43 
hang 49 
happen 732 
harrow 286 
harrest 170 
has 169 
have, imper. 8 
haw, sb. 10 
he 290 
head 347 
heal 191 
hear 301 
heard 314 
hearken 313, 696, 

hearth 405 
heat 202 
heathen 201 
hearen 384 
hedge 238 
height 306 
heir 877 
her 447 
here 312 
hie, Tb. 446 
high 306 
him 470 
hire 708 
his 483 
hoaid 549 
hoarse 127 
hold, Tb. 330 
hole 634 

holiday 80 
holly 640 
home 116 
hoonshe 410 
hop, yb. 546 
hope 523 
horn 563 
hot 132 
hound 614 
house 663 
how 641 
hug, 793 
hunger 626 
husband 666 

ice 514 
if 466 
inch 689 
iron 496 
is 482 
it 489 
iry 442 

jade 717 
Jam 727 
jay 868 
John 766 
joist 910 
jostle 780 
jug 794 
juggler 931 
jump 803 
just 970 

keep 300 
kettle 252 
key 190 
kind, 690 
knaye 27 
knead 234 
knew, pt. 408 
knife 5u4 
know 92 
known, pp. 98 

lace 812 
lad 714 
lain, pp. 240 
lamb 69 
lame 20 
lane 81 

lass 736 
last 34 
late 31 
laugh 322 
laughed 318 
law 17 
lay, inf. 260 
lay, pt. 163 
lazy 742 
lead, metal 361 
lead, yb. 184 
leaf 356 
learn 402 
leash 837 
least 150 
leather 254 
leave, yb. 187 
left 749 
length 281 
let, permit 198,288 
let, hinder 151 
lice 711 
lie, sb. 676 
lie, yb. fib 416 
lie, yb. be recum- 
bent 456 
life 503 
Hght 425 
like 500 
Uttle 682 
load 761 
loaf 107 
loin 930 
long 60 
look 558 
lord 77 
lounge 786 
louse 664 
love, sb. 600 
low 109 


made, pp. 6 
maid, sb. 166 
main 146 
make, yb. 6 
make, sb. 2 
man 61 
mane 25 
many 195 
mare 248 
marrow 341 
mason 814 
mate 737 

mauther=girl 739 
maw 11 
may, vb. 164 
may, sb. 822 
mayor 832 
maze 741 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




me 292 
meal 246 
mean, vb. 193 
measles 744 
meat 261 
meet, yb. 802 
men 273 
merry 283 
mews 962 
mice 712 
mient 467 
mile 608 
milk 388 
mind 691 
mine, pro. 610 
mine, sb. 902 
mirth 698 
moan, yb. 83 
moe B more, in 

number, 68 
moidered 766 
moil 946 
moist 923* 
mole, animal 769 
mole, mark 114 
Monday 663 
moon 662 
moor 691 

more,in quantity 84 
most 226 
mother 669 
mould, form 949 
mould, earth 637 
mouse 666 
mouth 671 
mow 91 
much 673 
must, vb. 693 
my, pro. 610 


nail 141 
name 21 
nay 374 
near 366 
need, sb. 308 
needle 207 
neigh 188 
neighbour 369 
neither 137, i. 214 
nephew 892 
nettle, sb. 263 
never 209 
new 387 
next 316 
nice 898 
niece 899 
nigh 307, 368 
night 468 

nine 446 
no, ady. 69 
no, adj. 122, ii. 
noise 767 
none 122, i. 
noon 688 
nor 137, ii. 
nose 666 
not 110, iL 
nothing 123 
nought 110, i. 
now 643 
nun 628 

oak 101 

oakum 762 

oar 126 

oath 134 

oats 86 

of 626, L 

off 626, ii. 

oil 966 

ointment 919 

old 326 

on 648 

onoe 82 

one 117 

onion 916 

only 126 

open 622 

or 136, ii. 


other 666 

ought, pt. Ill 

ounce, weight 928 

our 648 

out 667 

oyer 619 

owe 78 

owl 647 

own, adj 79 

oyster 968 

pad 716 
pair 833 
pansy 882 
part 866 
paste 860 
path 181 
pert 761 
pig, animal 764 
pit 703 
place 811 
plank 842 
play, yb. 243 
plough 678 
point 920 

pony 774 
poor 866 
pother 782 
poultry 783 
pound, sb. 616 
prate 738 
pray 900 
proud 668 
puss 807 
put, yb. 808 

quay 960 
quean 246, ii. 
queen 246, i. 
queer 798 
quick 463 
quiet 963 


radish 817 
rage 819 
rain 241 
raise, y. 376 
rather 33 
raven 167 
raw 370 
read, inf. 186 
read, pt. 206 
reason 836 
receive 896 
red 362 

rein, for horses 874 
rice 912 
ridge 686 
right 469 
rind 474 
riot 906 
road 104 
roam, vb. 763 
rode, pt. 106 
rogue 917 
room 666 
root 696 
rough 424, 664* 
row, noise 789 
rum, adj. 802 
rum, sb. 801 


safe 862 
said, pt. 166 
sail, sb. 239 
sake 7 
sale 726 
same 23 
sang, pt 48 
Saturday 168 
saw, sb. 12 

saw, pt. 821 
say, yb. 261 
scare 733 
school 660 
scream 743 
scull, of head 799 
scull, of boat 800 
sea 182 
season 836 
sedge 268 
see, yb. 428 
self 269 
sense 881 
seven 383 
sew 461 
sham 728 
shame 24 
she 412 
sheaf 364 
sheep 218 
shepnerd 220 
shoe 665 
shop 777 
should 390 
shower 661 
shrimp 766 
shrink 472 
shrivelled 760 
shroud 664 
shrug 796 
sick 422 
side 492 
sieve 441 
sigh 491 
sight, 462 
sin 693 
tkj 705 
slain, pp. 146 
slay, int. 362 
sleep, sb. 219 
slow 369 
smash 736 
snaQ 142 
snow, vb. 93 
soslike as 73 
so=thus 1 
sold, pt. 331 
some 612 
son 606 
song 66 
soon 664 
soot 697 
sooth 698 
sore, adv. 86 
sought, pi 681 
soul, 97 

sound, adj. 617 
souse, vb. 787 
south 672 
sow, as seed 96 
sow, sb. 602 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




•own 100 
speak 233 
speech 203 
speed 309 
spire 612 
spoil 926 
spoon 589 
squabble 792 
squeaking 797 
star 404 
starve 398 
steak 377 
stench 275 
stile 444 
stone 124 
stood 576 
stool 684 
storm 561 
straight 265 
strait 923 
stranger 849 
straw 371 
strength 282 
stroke 75 
strong 62 
staff 915 
sneh 465 
snck 644 
suet 964 
suit 967 
summer 604 
sun 629 
Sunday 627 
supper 950 
sure 969 
swain 381 
swear 250 
sweat 228 
sweet 303 
sword 397 
swore 592 

tadpole 719 
take 4 
tale 19 
talk 726 
tallow 168 
tame 22 
♦- -^ • . . 
taught 215 
tea 867 
teach 188 
team 360 
ten 311 
than 544, 1 
thank 41 
that 177 

thatch 155 
thaw 36 
the 231 
thee 291 
their 382 
them 380 
then 544, ii. 
there 223 
these 448 
they 373 
thigh 423 
thing 480 
think 276 
thirteen 707 
this 484 
thistle 485 
Thomas 770 
thong 66 
those 128 
thou 642 
though 357 
thought 628 
thousand 649 
thread 205 
threat 367 
three 411 
thresh 284 
throng 63 
through 634 
throw, Tb. 95 
thrown, pp. 99 
Thursday 631 
tickle 753 
timber 471 
time 494 
tiny 757 
to 566 
toad 76 
to-day 162 
toe 70 
told 332 
tongs 50 
tongue 625 
too 567 
took 570 
tool 583 
f other 567 
touch 948 
tough 580 
town 659 
trade 718 
train 830 
treat 838 
trench, sb. 844 
tiioe 907 
true 436 
trunk 92. 
trust 439 
truth 437 
Tuesday 450 

tusk 637 
twain 242 
two 74 


uncouth 669 
unfledged 748, U. 
up 632 
us 662 


Teal 869 
Tery 886 
Tiolet 904 
rixen 704 
Toice 925 
TOW 945 


waif 825 

walk 326 


wan 62 

wander 47 

wane 26 

wantfSb. amole 45 

want, Tb. 54 

wanton 731 

warm 343 

was 173 

wash 56 

water 153 

wave 740 

way 262 

we 293 

weak 378 

wean 247 

wear 249 

weave 235 

wedge 259 

Wednesday 576 

week 440 

weigh 189 

weight 460 

well, argumenta- 
tive, 244 

well, in good state, 

wench 278 

went 279 

were 196 

wet 227 

wether 255 

what 179 

wheat 200 

when 169 

where 224 

whey 212 

which 464 
while 609 
whine 495 
who, in questions, 

whole 113 
whom , in questions, 

why 706 
wide 501 
wife 505 
wild 467 
will, vb. 469 
wind, sb. 476 
wind, vb. 479 
wine 511 
wire 513 
wisdom 516 
wise 616 
witch 454 
with 702 
without 651 
woe 71 
woman 506 
women 507 
won, pp. 630 
won't 641 
wool 610 
word 650 
work, sb. 396 
work, vb. 694 
world 624 
worse 700 
worth 635 
would 538 
wound, sb. 618 
wonnd, pp. 621 
Wright 699 
write, Tb. 498 
wrong 64 
wrote, pt. 138 
wrought, pt 5G0. 


yard, inclosure, 

840, i. 
yard, stick, 340, ii. 
ye 289 
yearn 401 
yeast 486 
yesterday 487 
yet 488 
yew 617 
yield 267 
yolk 389 
yon 392 
yonder 394 
you 436 
young 395 
youngest 692 
your 419 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



Classified Woed List. 

The precedm^ index will generaUy, but not alwam snffioe to refer to the 
numbers which in any future cwl. point out a dialectal alteration, if any, of the 
initial consonant or consonantal combinations, but not so for medial or final 
combinations. Hence the following index has been constructed to shew a few 
of the initial, and most of the medial and final combinations which may be re- 
quired for study. Only the most interesting cases are cited. 

Only Wb. and Norse consonants are given, and the words are cited only in the 
original spelling. 

The Capital Initials mark the consonants selected, and hyphens are used thus 
C- initial, -C- medial, -C final, in this order. 

C- 190 o«'ge. 197 cas'se. 285 oerse. 300 cepan. 466 cild. 468 dldru. 
679 cyrice. 690 gecynd. -C- 2 gemaca. 3 baoan. 4 tacan. 6 madan. 
6 gemacod. 7 sacu. 183 te'can. 232 brecan. 233 sprecan. 440 wicu wice 
wuce. 491 sican. 568 I6cian. 673 mycel. 679 cyrice. -C 101 &c. 154 
b«ec. 155 >8BC. 452 ic. 453 owic. 500 gelic. 569 b6c. 570 t6c. -CC- 
256 streccan. 454 wioce. C£- [meaning C before, and hence affected by 
a following £] 320 cearian. 328 ceald. 333 cealf. 363 ce&p. 364 oefrpman. 
-CG- 260 lecgan. 261 secgan. 465 licgan. 686 bycgan. -CO 257 ecg. 
268 secg. 259 wecg. 683 mycg. 684 brycg. 685 hrycg. CN- 27 onapa. 
92 cn&wan. 234 cnedan. 408 cneow. 504 cnif. -CS- 102 fiicsian. 103 
&cs6de. GW- 39 cwam. 246 cwene cw6n. 

-D- 76 t(ide. 138 feder. 385 beneo'San. 518 bodig. 559 m6dor. -D- 
32 balSian. 33 hra^or. 87 cUfSas. 88 claiSian. 90 bl&wan. 136 &w5er. 
137 n&wSer. 201 hss'tSen. 264 le^er. 255 we^er. 568 br6t$or. 652 c6'5e. 
669 uncd-S. 670 bu^ n. 671 m6«. 672 s(i«. -D 134 &«. 135 cl&«. 
180 bs1$. 181 p8e«. 229 br8B'«. 368 de&«. 598 s6«. 702 wyS. -DN- 
576 w6dnesdieg. DR- 613 drunoen. DW- 633 dol dwol dwal. 

F- 297 f^lagi v. 298 f^km. -F- 8 hafa. 9 behafa. 187 Ise'fan. 235 
wefan. 236 fefer. 296 gel^fan. 347 he&fod. 383 seofan. 384 heofon. 
413 de6fol. 441 sife. 442 ifig. 493 drifan. 519 ofer. 699 fcbu6in. 600 
lufu. 645 dOfa. -F 466 g&. 502 fif. 503 Hi. 504 cnif. 505 wif. 
506 wlfman. 507 wlfmen. 525 of. -FR- 208 fie'fre. 209 ne'fre. 

0- 267 geldan. 289 g6. 486 gist. 487 gistrandseg. 488 git. -G- 10 
haga. 11 maga. 12 sagasagu. 12 gnagan. 14 dragan. 16 agi n. 16 
dagian. 17 lagu. 78 6gan. 79 &gen. 139 drsege. 140 hsegeL 141 nsBgel. 
142 suflBgel. 143 tsegel. 144 ongsegen. 146 slasgen. 146 msgen. 147 
brtegen. 148 fseger. 188 hns'gan. 189 wse'gan. 190 Cffi'ge. 237 blegan. 
238 h^. 239 s^el. 240 gelegen. 241 regen. 242 twegen. 243 plegian. 
317 flea^. 348 e&ge. 414 fle^. 416 le6gan. 443 fri^^idffig. 444 stigd. 
445 higian. 446 nigon. 520 b<^. 540 hollegen. 601 fugcu. 602 sugu. 
646 bCigan. 675 drygan. 676 lyee. 677 drrge. -G 80 h&lig dsBg. 108 
dkg. 109 I&g. 160 eg. 161 dseg. 163 Isff. 164 masg. 165 ssegde. 
166 msgden. 194 se'nig. 196 me'nig. 210 clas^. 211 grse^. 212 hwse'g. 
213 ffi'gSer. 214 nse'gVer. 262 weg. 263 on weg. 264 e^an. 577 b6g. 
578 pl6g N. 579 gen6g. G£- [meaning G before and hence affected by a 
following E] 319 geapian. 340 geard geord. 346 geat. 389 geolca. 392 
geond. 393 begeondan. 394 geonder. 395 geong. GN- 13 gnagan. 178 
gnffit. GR- 366 gre&t. 

H- 489 hit. -H- 318 hleahen. -H 305 h^ he&h. 306 h^h-8e. 307 
n6h ne&h. 321 geeeah. 357 >e&h. 868 ne&h. 423 >e6h. 424 hre6h. 680 
t6h. -HH- 322 hleahhan. 526 cohhettan. -HD 462 gesih^. HL- 77 
hl&ford. 107 hl&f. 318 hleahen. 322 hleahhan. HN- 188 hnie'gan. HR- 
157 hrsefn. 370 hre&w. 424 hre6h. 686 hrycg. -HT- 111 ahte. 215 
tffi'hte. 324 eahta. 426 fedhtan. 461 gelihtan. 527 bohte. 528 >ohte. 
529 brohte. 630 wrohte. 531 dohtor. 681 s6hte. -HT UOn&ht nki. 265 
streht. 323 feaht. 425 le6ht. 467 miht. 458 niht. 459 riht. 460 wiht. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


687 flylit. HW- 72 hw&. 116 hw&m. 169 hwsnne. 179 hwset. 200 
bwae'te. 224 hwe'r hwar. 464 hwUo. 496 hwinan. 609 hwfl. 706 hw/. 

-K- 18 kaka n. -K 378 reikr h. 

-L- 19 talu. -LO- 325 wealcan. 889 geoloa. -LC 217 elo. 888 meolc. 
464 hwilc. 466 swilc. 686 folc. -LD- 829 fealdan. 830 healdan. 831 
lealde. 882 tealde. 467 wilde. 637 molde. 638 wolde. -LD 326 eald. 
327 bedd. 328 omld. 624 woruld. 636 gold. -LDR- 468 dldru. -LF 
269 self. 333 oealf. 334 healf. -LG 168 tolg. 270 belg. -LM 272 elm. 
-LN- 641 wol D&t. -LT 642 bolt. 

-M- 20 lama. 21 nama. 22 tama. 23 same. 24 scamn. -MB- 471 
timbar. -MB 69 lamb lomb. 

-N- 26 maaar, 26 wanian. -NC- 41 Randan. 276 )>encan. 277 drencan. 
278 weiide. 472 scrincan. -NC 274 bene. 276 stenc. -ND- 46 candel. 
476 bindan. 477 findan. 478 grindan. 479 windan. 619 fimden. 620 
gronden. 621 wnnden. 622 imder. 628 fundon. 624 gnmdon. -ND 42 
and. 43 hand. 44 land. 46 wand. 429 fe6nd. 430 {re6nd. 473 blind. 
474 rind. 476 wind. 614 bond. 616 pond. 616 gnmd. 617 geeund. 
618 wnnd. 690 gecynd. 691 mynd. -NDL- 280 endlnfon. -NDR- 47 
wandrian. -NO- 49 hangan. 60 tange. 481 finger. 626 tunge. 626 
faimgor. 692 gyngest. -NG 48 and 66 sang. 60 lang. 61 on gemang. 
62 Strang. 63 gej^rang. 64 wrang. 66 >wang. -N0|> 281 len^. 282 
otrengiS. -NNR- 631 >nnnreed8^. -NT- 64 wanta n. 

-R- 248 mere. 249 werian. 260 swerian. 301 geb6ran. 606 dnm. -R 
312 h6r. 366 ne6r. -RC 396 weoro were. -RON- 313 banian. -RF- 
170 hasrfest. 398 steorfan. -RD- 314 geb6rde. -RD 647 bord. 648 ford. 
649 bord. 660 word. -RD- ^06 eorSe. 432 fe6rSa. 636 far6or. -RD 405 
heorS. 407 feodOing. 635 wur5 weord. -RG 283 merg. 341 mearh. 697 
bebrmn. -RGD 698 mjTgfS, -RD 696 gebrrd gebeord. -RH 634 >nrb. 
-RHT- 699 wyrbta. -RHT 399 beorbt. -RM342eann. 343 wearm. 561 
stonn. -RN- 400 eomest. 401 geomian. 403 leomian. -RN 844 beam. 
652 com. 653 bom. *-RS- 285 cerse. 700 wyrsa. -RS 172 gsrs. -RSC- 
284 >encan. -RST- 701 fyrsta. -RW- 286 herwe. 

S- 412 se6. 422 Be6c. -S- 149 blsese. 150 lassest. 376 reisa w. 497 
arisan. 565 n6sa. 617 gesond. 649 b^sand. 680 bysig. 681 bysigu. 
-S 127 b&B. 128 >6s. 173 wsbs. 482 is. 483 his. 484 >is. 614 Is. 
616 wis. 516 wisd6m. 662 tis. 663 h&s. 664 16s. .665 m6s. 711 ly's. 
712 my^s. -SB- 666 hfisbdnda. SC- 24 scamn. 218 scse'p. 220 scA'phirde. 
364 8oe6f. 390 sceolde. 665 so6. 660 Bc61a. 661 8c6r. 706 scy' n. -SO- 
66 ascan. 638 bnsca n. -SC 174 aesc. 226 fls'sc. 637 tusc. SCR- 472 
serincan. 664 scr6d. -SM 287 beem. SP- 309 sp^d. 612 spir. SPR- 
203 sprc'e. 233 sprecan. ST- 377 steik n. -ST- 693 m66te. -ST 34 
latest. 129 fffist. 176 fsest. 226 mae'st. 433 bredst. 639 dust. -STEL 
486 >i8tel. STR- 76 str&cian. 282 strengS. 371 stre&w. SY- 381 sveinn. 
8W- 1 swa. 73 swti. 228 sw®'t. 397 sweord. 465 swilc. 692 sw6r. 

-T- 31 late laete. 84 latest. 151 Istan. 86 fcte. 198 Ise'tan. 199 
Ue'tan. 200 bwse'te. 202 hse'ta. 251 mete. 252 cetele. 253 netele. 
302 geni6tan. 303 sw6te. 304 b^tel. -TER- 152 wster. 163 sieterdicg. 
607 bnteze. p- 36 >awian. 223 >flB'r. 231 >e. 291 >6. 357 be&h. 373 
>ei N. 382 >eirra w. 423 >e6h. 480 >ing. 484 >is. 485 ]>i8tel. 544 

{onne. 631 hunnresda^. 634 >iirh. 642 b6. 649 J^iisand. -p- 566 6>6r. 
R- 205 frae'd. 367 >re§it. 411 >i:^. pW- 66 >wang. TW- 74 twfc. 
V- 378 veikr n. 

-W- 35 awel. 36 >awian. 37 clawu. 90 bl&wan. 91 m&wan. 92 
cnfcwan. 93 sn&wan. 94 crfiwan. 95 br&wan. 96 s&wan. 97 s&wel. 98 
cn&wen. 99 >r&wen. 100 s&wen. 349 le&wa. 386 eowe. 387 neowe niwe. 
-W- 417 ce6wan. 418 bre6wan. 419 e6wer. 420 fe6wer. 421 fe6wertig. 
460 tiwesdseg. 451 siwian. -W 369 sle&w. 370 hre&w. 370 stre&w streaw 
8tre6w streu stre&. 408 cneow. 435e6w. 436 tre6w. 517 iw. WR- 
64 wrang. 133 wiit. 498 wrltan. WU- [that is, W affected by a following 
U] 610 wnll. 618 wnnd. 
-XT 316 next. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 





The counties of England, lale of Man, Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, are 
taken in this order. 

The counties in each country are taken in the alphabetical order of its full 
name (not of the two letter abbreviation, as on p. 4*), each headed by its number 
in the countries (supposing that all the counties were enumerated, which is not the 
case in Wales, Scotland, and Ireland, because all do not speak English), toffether 
with its two letter abbreviation and full name, and a statement of the numoer of 
places from which information was obtained, and of the disfaricts over which it is 

Within each county are ran^ all the names of places from which information 
has been received, in alphabetical order, preceded dy the number of the dirtrict 
in which it is contained, and by the inituu letter, or letter and number, by which 
it is referred to in the following Alphabetical Informants List, YII. An asterisk * 
shews that the information received is given, or at least spoken of in the work 
itself. It will be seen that a very large number of places named are not further 
spoken of. It must not, however, be supposed that the information received was 
therefore valueless. Far from it. It was often incomplete, and often difficult to 
interpret, but it always helped to bridge over the spaces left between places from 
which more complete or more easily interpretable information was given, and 
without this I should have had the greatest difficulty in assigning the Doundaries 
of mv districts. 

After the name, its local pron. is occ. given, and if , as is most frequently the 
case, the place is not on the small maps of the dialect districts annexed, the 
distance and direction from a place actually on the map is added in ( ). When 
the place is on the maps, its name suffices, for a whole county on this small scale 
is easily looked over. The places, or their position (for they are often so in- 
significant as not to be marked on many maps), can thua readily be found on any 
county map. 

Afterwards follows a description of the nature of the information, employing 
the abbreviations explained on p. 6*. If several pieces of information nave 
reached me from the same place, they are often numbered as (1), (2), etc., but 
these numbers are generally omitted if the informant is the same. 

At the end of each piece of information, when referred to in the book, is added 
the number of the page on which the information is given or spoken of, preceded 
by the letter p. in case another number comes just bdore, but not otherwise. 

When the information is given in the book, the indications of its origin are 
here abbreviated as much as possible, the pa^ where it is cited furnishing the rest. 

In YII. I give a list of informants refemnf to the county in this list, or to the 
place by means of the numbered initials. Many of these obligine informants 
nave passed away since they so kindly assisted me. Others have changed their 
address, and I have no means of discovering them. But to each and iQl I ^ve 
my most hearty thanks for the trouble they nave taken, often great, and the tmie 
they have spent, often very long, in helping me to render this account of English 
local pronunciation as complete as it now appears, a result perfectly impossible 
without a great cooperation. 

1. Bd.«BedfoidBliire, 16 places, all in D 16. 

16. A.AmpthiU{:iBmUl){7Bsw.Bed' 
ford) and 4 or 5 m. round, wl. io. by 
Mr. J. Brown, Dunstable Road, 21 y. 
who says *'the old-fashioned native 
dialect is comparatively rare." 

*ld. B. Bedford and neighbourhood 
and the county generalfy, (1) T. 

Batchelor*8 book 204, (2) cs. and 
phrases from Mr. J. Wvatt, 206 to 
209, cwl. 209, (3) cwL from Mr. 
Bowland Hill 209. 

*16. D. JHmttabie (6 w.Luton), wn. 
by TH., 209. 

16. B. £dworih (13 86.BedfQrd), dt. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




io. with notes and wd. from Mrs. 
Butt4>nshaw of the rectory. 

16. F. FUtuick (:fl«tik) (9 s-by-w. 
Bedford) wl. io. by Rev. T. W. D. 
Brooks, sic, 

16. o. Giytford (7 e.Bedford) wn. by 

16. Hi. Harrold (8 nw.Bedfonl) dt. 
io. notes and Iw. by KeT. J. Steel. 

16. h2. Hatley Cockayne (rkaktn 
:setli) (12 e.Bedford) full wl. io. by the 
Bev. £. Brickwell, rect. 

16. M. MeUhboume (10 n.Bedford) 
dt. io. by Mrs. F. H. Bolingbroke, of 
the Ticarage. 

*16. &. Ridgmont (10 ssw.Bedford), 

dt. pal. by AJE. from diet, of Miss 
Susan WTieck, of Whitelands, 206. 

16. 8l. Sandy (8 e.Bedford), wn. by 

16. 82. ^AarwftrooAr (7 nnw. Bedford), 
wn. by TH. 

16. Tl. Thurleigh (rthurla'i) (6 
n.Bedford), wl. and dt. io. by Rev. B. 
Trapp, vie. 

16 t2. Tilbrook (12 nne.Bedford), 
wn by TH. 

16. t3. Toddington (itAA-cntwi) (6 
ene.Leighton Buzzard) wl. and dt. io. 
by Major Cooper Cooper, T. Manor. 

16. u. Upper Dean (11 n.Bedford) 
wn. by TH. 

2. Be. =■ Berkshire, 14 places in D 5 and 8. 

5. B. Bueklebury (6 ne.Newbury) 
dt. io. by Rev. W. M. Wallis, Rose- 
lands, for Be. between Thames and 
Kennet rivers. 

•6. c. ChoUey (12 e. Wantage) dt. 
io. with letter from Mr. W. Brewer, 
national schoolmaster, at Wallingford 
adjoining, obtained through Mrs. 
Parker, Oxford, 96. 

•5. D. Denehworth (:dent|irth) (3 
nnw.Wanta^) wl. and Iw. io. by Rev. 
C. H. Tomlinson, vie. 10 y., 96. 

5. B. Eaet Hendred (4 e. Wantage) 
letter and wds. io. by Yen. Arcbd. 
Pott, Clifton Hampden, Ox. (3 eee. 
Abingdon, Be.). 

*5. Hi. Hampetead Ncrrit (7 nne. 
Newbury) cs. io. by Mr. W. B. Banting, 
LLB. and AJE., 95. 

*8. h2. Hurley (9 nne.Reading) dt. 
io. by Mrs. Oodfrey, 129. 

*8. h3. Hunt (5 e.Reading) dt. io. 
by Rev. A. A. Cameron, for the 
Loddon river valley, 129. 

6. K. KintbttryLViit^Ti) (6 W.New- 
bury) from Rev. W. Campbell, vie. 

6. si. Stanford-in-the- Vale (5 nnw. 
Wantage) dt. io. from Mr. W. Cleverley, 
and dt. io. from Mim Collins, both 
through Mrs. Parker, of Oxford. 

♦6. 82. Steventon (6 ne. Wantage) 
and neighbourhood dt. ^loesic by Mrs. 
Parker, of Oxford, from irfr. B. 
Leonard, 94. 

6. 83. Streatley Qstriitli) f9 nw. 
Reading) wl. io. by Rev. John Slatter, 
vie. 16 y. 

♦6. wl. Wantage Iw. io. from Mr. 
E. C. Davey, F.G.S., 96. 

•8. w2. Wargrave (6 ne.Reading) 
Iw. aq. w. by Mr. T. F. Maitland, 129. 

8. w3. Windsor wn. by TH. 

3. Ba.aBuckinghainahire, 19 places in D 15 and 17. 

•16. A. Ayletburyinee'jlzhmi) (1) wl. 
io. but partly pal. by A/E. from diet. 
of Mr. J. Kersely Fowler, 192 ; (2) 
specimen pal. by AJE. from diet, of 
Mr. R. R. Fowler, 190; (3) wn. by 
AJE. from labourer, 1881, 192 ; wn. 
by TH. 192. 

15. Bl. 3ii., probably the part near 
b. of Bd., pal. w. by AJE. from Mr. 
J. Wyatt (see Bedford, Bd.). 

•16. b2. iuekinghamvru, byTH., 194. 

♦16. cl. Chaekmore (1 wnw. Buck- 
ingham) dt. noted by TH., 191 ; wn. 
by TH. 194 (where it is misprinted 

17. c2. Chalpey (name omitted on 
p. 189) (1 n.Eton), letter to LLB. from 
Mr. A. Henry Atkins, 1876. 

I.I. Fron. Part Y. 

17. c3. Cheddington (7 ene.Ayles- 
bury) notes by LLB. 

16. B. £dlesborough (:Bd|bBni) (10 
ene. Aylesbury) wl. io. by Rev. G. 
Birch, vie. 12 y. 

16. o. (?r«a/ JTim^i^ (6 8. Aylesbury) 
Iw. io. picked up on the Chiltems by 
Rev. £. K. Clay, vie, communicated 
by Mr. J. K. Fowler (see Aylesbury). 

17. Hi. Hambleden (4 w.Great 
Marlow) Iw. by Rev. W. H. Ridley, 
rec. 60 y. 

♦16. h2. iran«/<>p0(lOnne.Bucking- 
ham) wl. pal. bv AJE. from diet, of 
Miss Cox, of Whitelands, native, 194 
(see Wendover). 

17. L. Langley (3 e.Eton), letter in 
1876 to LLB. from Rev. W. D. Scoones. 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 




]5. Ml. Marth Gibbon (7 mw, Buck- 
inghaml), letter on the pron. of the 
school there by a man of 90, by Mr. 
G. Parker, Oxford. 

15. m2. Manwarth (6 e. Aylesbury) 
letter hx)m Rer. F. W, Ragg, yic. (see 
Wingham, Ke.). 

17. p. Penn (3 e.High Wycombe), 
letter from Rot. J. Grainger, vie, 

15. si. Stowe (3 nnw. Buckingham) 
note by TH. 

15. 82. Swanboume (8 se.Buckin^- 
ham) Iw. by Rey. M. D. Maiden, vie. 
10 y. 


•15. T. T^rringham with FiJgrav4 
(13 ne.Bockin^ham] [misprinted Ty- 
rinham, p. 194] wl. lo. and letters from 
Rev. J. Tanrer, rect., 194. 

•15. wl. TTmm^^mvt (5 sse. Aylesbury) 
1) wl. pal. by AJE. from diet, of 
iiiss Beeby, of Whitelands, native of 
Northampton, but since 8 years old 
living at Aylesbury and Buckingham, 
192: (2) wn. in 1884 bv TH. from 
labourers of 82 and 63 ana others, 192. 

15. w2. Wimlow (:wtnsloo) (6 se. 
Buckingham} with (s^, heard by TH., 
who was tola by a fellow traveller that 
the dialect was *' very broad.*' 

4. Cb.— Cambridgeshirey 15 places, all in D 18. 

•18. cl. Com^Tk^r* wn. by TH. 

•18. c2. Cambridge$hire generally, 
(1) dt. pal. 1879 by AJE. from diet, 
of Mr. J. Perkins, M.A., Downing 
Coll., 249; (2) notes by Rev. Prof. 
W. W. Skeat. 

•18. c3. Chatteris (9 nw.Hy) wn. 
hj TH. 253<r, and note from Rev. 
Sidney A. Smith, vie. 

18. B. JEly wn. by TH. 

18. H. Haddenham (6 sw.Ely) note 
by Rev. J. M. Freeman. 

•18. M. March (12 nw.Ely) dt. io. 
and aq. by Rev. J. Wastie Green, rect., 
251, and wn. by TH. 

18. p. Pampitford (ipaanzo) (6 sse. 
Cambri4ge) reported by TH. from 
Prof. Skeat. 

•18. si. SawttoH (5 sse.Cambridge) 
dt. pal. from diet, by TH., 250. 

18. 82. Sh$lfard (4 S.Cambridge) 
wn. by TH. 

18. 83. Soham (5 se. Ely), note 
from Rev. J. Cyprian Rust. 

18. wl. Whittletford (6 s-by-e. 
Cambridge) wn. by TH. 

18. w2. Willingham (8 nnw.Cam- 
bridge) wn. by TH. 

•18. w3. Wisbech (rwtsbttj) dt. and 
wl. io. with letters, 252, by Mr. 
Herbert J. Little, Coldham Hall, 252 ; 
and wn. by TH. 253. 

•18. w4. JFoodDitton (3 sse.New- 
market) dt. and wl. with sentences pal. 
by AJ£. in 1879 from diet, of Miss 
Walker, of the vicarage, 251. 

•18. w5. Wryde (9 ene.Peterbro' 
Np.), a farming district 2 e.Thomey 
village, and in Thomev parish, wn. by 
TH., 254. 

5. Ch.-Chesliire, 32 places in D 21, 25, 28. 

25. Al. AUrineham (8 wsw.Stock- 
port) (1) wl. and dt. io. by Mr. J. C. 
Clough, then Principal of the A^- 
cultural College, Aspatria, Carlisle, 
native ; (2) notes from JGG. and TH. 

•25. a2. Ahanly (:AA-y*nl») (7 ne. 
Chester) wn. by TH. 421. 

•25. a3. ^M/ofi (7 ene. Chester) wn. 
byTH., 421. 

25. a4. Audlem (:AAlimi) (6 s.Nant- 
wich) wn. by TH. 

•25. b1. BeestoH (9 se.Chester) wn. 
byTH. 421. 

•25. b2. Biekley (5 nnw. Whit- 
church, Sh.) (1) dt. pal. by AJE. from 
dictation of Mr. T. Darlington, native 
of Buriand (6 ne.Bickley), author of 
Folk'speech of South Cheshire^ and wl. 
in gl., 411, 422 ; (2) version of Ruth, 
chap, i., 698, No. 4. 

25. b3. BowdoH (16 ene.Runoom) 
wn. by TH. 

•25. b4. BroxUm (9 sse.Chester) 
wn. by TH., 421. 

25. b5. Buerton (6 s-by-e.Nant- 
wich) wn. by TH. 

•28. cl. Churton (6 S.Chester) wn. 
by TH. 457 (wrongly referred to D 25 
on p. 421). 

25. c2. CongleUm (11 ene.Crewe) 
wn. by TH. 

•28. B. Eceleston (:Bklt8t«n) (2 s. 
Chester) wn. by TH.. 457. 

•28. p. Famdon {itkm) (7 s.Chester) 
dt. in BO. by Mr. £. French, native, 
and wn. by TH. 452, 467. 

•26. o. Great Keston (10 nw. 
Chester) wn. by TH., 421. 

•25. Hi. Hatton Heath (4 se. 
Chester) wn. by TH., 421. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




*25. h2. ffeUhy (8 ne.Cliester) wn. 
by TH. 421. 

25. K. KnuUford (16 ese.Rimcom) 
wn. by TH. 

25. L. Lymm (11 ene.Rimcom) wn. 
by TH. 

26. Ml. Mdlpa$ (13 sse.Cbester) Iw. 
by Mr. T. Darlington, and wn. by 

25. m2. Marbury (7 aw.Nantwich) 
wn. by TH. 

«25. MS. Middletpieh (7 n.Giewe) 
C8. pal. by TH. from diet., 413. 

25. m4. Mobherly (9 wnw.Macclee- 
field) dt. io. by Mr. Robert Holland, 
of Norton Hill, Halton (2 eBe.Runcom) 
to represent m.Ch., but really repre- 
senting e.Cb. 

25. m5. Mouldsworth (6 ene. 
Chester) wn. by TH. 

•25. Nl. Nantivieh wn. by TH. 

25. ir2. Northendm (4 w.Stock- 
port) phrases noted by TH. 

25. n3. Norihwieh (lln.Crewe) 
wn. by TH. 

•26. p. Fott Shrigley (4 nne. 
Macclesfield) cs. jmI. by TH. in 1874 
from diet, of a natiye, 413. 

•25. si. Sandbach (4 ne.Crewe) dt. 
pal. by TH. from diet, of a native, 
411 ; TH. also noted the forms of 
negative eanna eonner in Manehe$ter 
City Newt, 26 March, 1881. 

•28. 82. Shoeklaeh (14 w-by-s. 
Nantwich) wn. by TH. 467. 

•21. s3. ^to/y^TMfytf, situate half in 
La. and half in Ch., formerly all or 
nearly all the town was in La.-, which 
see, 317. 

21. 84. Stoekport wn. by TH. 

•25. T. Tarporley (9 ese.Chester) 
cs. pal. by TH. from diet, of a native of 
Burland (3 wnw.Nantwich and 7 sse. 
Tarporley), 413, 421. 

•26. w. JTaverton (4 se.Chester) 
wn. by TH., 421. 

6. Co.sComwall, 19 places in D 11 and 12. 

•11. cl. (7ai»itf{/br«f (14 w.Launces- 
ton) dt. pal. by AJE. from diet, of 
Miss Ada Hill, of Whitelands, 168. 

•1 1 . c2. Cdrdy'nham (4 ene.Bodmin) 
dt. by T. H. Cross, 169. 

12. o. Owmnap (3 ese.Redruth) (1) 
dt. io. by Rev. Saltren Rogers, vie. ; 
(2) wn. by TH. 

11. Ll. Landrak$ {% ese.Liskeard), 
let. from vie. unnamea. 

11. l2. Lanivet (3 sw.Bodmin) dt. 
io. by the late Mr. T. Q. Couch, 
author of the Glossary of Polperro (9 

11. l3. Lanreath (7 sw-Iiskeard) 
wl. io. by Rev. R. Buller, rect. 

•12. Ml. Manuion (3 e.Penzance), 
specimen pal. by AJE. from diet, of 
Mr. W. / . Rawlings, Downes, Hayle 
(6 ne.Penzanoe), 172. 

•11. m2. ift/;^rooAr (22 sse.Launoes- 
ton) spec. pal. by AJE. from diet, of 
Mr. J.B.RundeU, 167. 

11. p1. Padttow dt. io. by Hon. 
Mrs. Prideaux Bmne, Prideaux Place. 

12. p2. Penzance cs. pal. by AJE. 
from diet, of Mr. W. Koye and then 

from Mr. W. Rawlings (see above Ml), 
but not used, 171. 

11. p3. Poundstoek (12 nnw.Laun- 
ceston) dt. io. by Rev. P. D. Dayman, 

11. 8l. 8t. Blazey (3 ne.St. Austell) 
wl. and dt. io. by Miss A. B. Peniston, 
of the vicarage, 6 y. 

•11. 62. 8t. Columb Major (10 
wsw. Bodmin) and 10 m. round by Mr. 
T. Rogers, 169. 

11. 83. .5^. G^oran** (6 S.St. AusteU) 
also written Oorran, Oiram, dt. io. by 
Rev. C. R. Sowell, vie. 

11. s4. St. Ive (4 ne.Liskeard) dt. 
io. by Ven. Archd. Hobhouse, rect. 

12. 86. i^^. Juet (7 W.Penzance) dt. 
io. by Rev. H. 8. Fagan, vie. 

11. 86. i^^ Stephen* t (1 n.Launces- 
ton) dt. io. and aq. by Rev. E. S. T. 

12. 87. St.Stithian's{iBae.'Rediuih) 
dt. by Mr. W. Martin, Penhalvar East, 
ohtmshwarden of St. Stithian^s. 

11. T. Ttntagel (13 n.Bodmin) dt. 
io. by the Rev. Prebendary Kinsman, 

7. Ca.» Cumberland, 15 places in D 31, 32, and 33. 

•31. A. Abbey Molms or Holme 
Cultram (12 nne.Maryport) cs. pal. by 
AJE. from diet, of Rev. T. EUwoo^ 
662, 663, cwl. 634. 

•33. Bl. BeweaetU (16 ne.Carlisle) 
to Longtoum (8 n.Carlisle) pal. by 
JGG. from a native, 682, 684, 693. 

31. b2. Borrowdale (7 s.Eeswick) 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




wl. and dt. io. by ReY. Percy C. 
Walker, vie. 

*32. b3. Brampton (9 ene. Carlisle) 
cwl. pal. by JGG. from diet. 669. 

♦32. cl. Carlisle (1) cs. pal. by 
JGG. from diet, of Mrs. Atkinson, j 
562, 663, 602 ; (2) aq. from Messrs. 
Coward, Harlmess, Payne, Murray, 
and Dickinson abont the s. b. of D 32. 

♦31. c2. Clifton (2 e. Workington) 
cs. pal. by AJE. from diet, of Mr. 
J. N, Hetherington, 662, 663. 

♦32. D. Dalston (4 ssw.Carlisle) cs. 
pal. November, 1873, by AJE. from a 
native maid servant, but not used, 662^. 

♦31. B. ElUmby (6 nw.Penrith) cs. 
pal. by JGG. 662, 663, 600. 

31. H. HaU (:jal) (14 asw.Cocker- 
moutb) wl. from J^v. W. Sidney 
Pratten, vie. 

Holme Cultram, see Abbey Holme 

♦31. K. Keeufiek cs. pal. by JGG. 
from diet, of Mr. W. Postleuwaite, 
562, 663, 600. 

♦31. Ll. Xaw^traMfty (:WqBnb») (4 
ne.Penritb) pal. 1876-7 by JGG. from 
diet, of Miss Powley, 661, 663, 600. 

♦33. l2. Longtoum {% n.CarHsle) 
cs. io. by Rev. R. D. Hope, native, 
vie. of Old Button (4 n.Kendal), We. 
See under Bewcaetle, 682, 693. 

31. p. Penrithy notes on m.Cu. and 
a translation of A. Craig Gibson Joe 
and the Jolly Jist^ pal. January, 1873, 
by AJE. from diet, of Mr. William 
Atkinson, an excellent authority, but 
this early work sadly wants revision, 
and as I have not been able to recover 
Mr. A.*s address, I have been obliged 
to pass it over. 

31. £. Ravenglase fl3 w.Coniston, 
La.^ notes by Rev. H. Bell, vie, which 
enaoled me to complete the s. hoou 
line 6 through s.Cb. 

31. 8. South Cumberland, corre- 
spondence with Rev. E. H. Knowles, 
of St. Bees, Cu., and his friends con- 
cerning the use of at and to, 

31. w. Workington^ cs. io. and wl. 
io. with many letters from Mr. W. 
Dickinson, author of the Cu. Glossary. 
As I was unable to have an interview 
with Mr. D., I have been obliged to 
pass over this work. 

8. Db. = Derby, 67 places in D 21, 25, 26. 

*26. a1. Alvaeton (:AA*vvstim) (3 
ese. Derby) wn. by TH. 446. 

♦26. a2. Aehboum (10 sw.Matlock 
Bath) two cs. pal. by TH. from diet. 

426, 427. 

♦26. A3. Aihford (8 ese.Buxton) 
with Bidcewell (2 se.Ashford) cs. pal. 
by TH. from diet. 427. 

♦26. a4. ^«Aom-(688W.Che8terfield) 
wn. by TH. 427, 446. 

♦26. Bl. Ban^ord (12 ne.Buxton) 
wn. by TH. 442. 

♦26. b2. ^ar/*oro«^A (7 J ene. Ches- 
terfield) dt. pal. from diet, by TH. 

♦26. b3. Belper wn. by TH. 446. 

♦26. b4. Boleover (:b«'ttz«r) (6 
e.Chesterfield) wn. and dt. pal. by TH. 
from diet, of a native, 438, 442, 446. 

♦26. b6. Bradwell (rbrad-c) (9 
ne.Buxton) cs. pal. by TH. from diet, 
of natives, 427, and wn. 442. 

*26. b6. ^raiir/b^<'(7nw.Derby)dt. 
pal. by TH. from a native, 438. 

♦26. b7. Brampton (3 w. Chester- 
field) (1) wn. by TH., (2) cs. io. by 
Rev. J. M. Mello, rect., with observa- 
tions on the same by TH., and (3) cs. 
pal. by TH. from diet, of natives, 

427, ^^ - 

. by 1, 
, No. 7 

26. b8. Brampton Moor, near 
Brampton, wn. by TH. 

♦26. cl. Castleton (10 ne.Buxton) 
wn. byTH. 442. 

♦21. c2. Chapel ' en 'le- Frith (6 
n.Buxton), (1) the Son^ of Solomon 
complete in his own original so. trans- 
latea by TH., and Chaps, i. and ii. in 
pal. ana gl. compared with Taddington, 
which see ; (2) cs. from personal Imow- 
ledge by TH. with variants for places 
in the neighbourhood, and notes on 
the use of thou and (kh), 317, and dt. 
322; (3) Parable of the Prodigal Son ; 
(4) complete cwl. from personal know- 
leage with the minute distinctions 
which TH. prefers, 323 to 329. 

♦26. c3. Chellatton (4 sse.Derby) 
wn. by TH. 446. 

♦26. c4. Cheeterjield wn. by TH. 

♦26. c6. Codnor (6 ene.Belper) 
Iw. io. by Rev. H. Middleton, vie 

♦26. c6. Codnor Park (6 ene.Belper) 
wn. by TH. 446. 

♦26. c7. Com6« FoZfoy rSnw.Buxton) 
notes by TH., see Chapel-en-le-Frith, 
and di from penonal knowledge, 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




26. c8. Crich (4 n.Belper) notes by 

♦26. c9. Cron^ord (1 s.Matlock 
Bath) wn. by TH. 444. 

26. Dl. Derby ^ wn. by TH. and 
also by AJE. 

•26. d2. Doe HiU Station (7 s.Ches- 
terfield) wn. by TH. probably belong 
to Codnor Park, Ilkestone, etc. 446. 

♦26. d3. Dore (8 nw. Chesterfield) 
wn. by TH. 427. 

♦26. D4. DronJUld (6 nnw.Chester- 
field) wn. by TH. 446. 

♦26. d6. DronJUld Woodhoute (6 nw. 
Cheeterfield) wn. by TH. 427. 

♦26. bI. Eekington (6 nne.Chester- 
field) dt. pal. by TH. from a native, 

♦21. b2. EdaU (7 se.Gloesop) wn. by 
TH. 317, 322. 

♦26. b3. Eyam (10 ene.Buxton) wn. 
by TH. 442. 

♦26. f1. Femilee, near Combs 
Valley, wn. by TH. 411. 

26. f2. Foolow (9 ene.Buxton, 1 
6. Eyam) wn. by TH. 

♦21. ol. Glostop cs. pal. by TH. 
from a man bom 3 miles off, 317. 

♦26. o2. &oy^,i)a/^o/ (3 nw.Buxton) 
C8. pal. from personal knowledge by 
TH., whose father resided there from 
TH.*s childhood, 321, in the notes to 
Chapel-en-le- Frith, and 414. 

26. o3. Great Hueklow (8 one. 
Bnxton) wn. by TH. 

♦26. Hi. HartingUmViOimvrMBX' 
lock Bath) joke pal. by TH. 441. 

♦26. h2. HatKereage (12 ne.Buxton) 
and 3 or 4 miles round, wn. by TH. 

♦26. h3. Heanor (6 ese.Belper) wn. 
by TH., and dt. in gl. by Mrs. Parker, 
of Oxford, from diet. 446. 

♦26. h4. Hiyham (7 s. Chesterfield) 
wn. by TH. 446. 

♦26. h6. iro/m«;/E#&f (6nw.Chester- 
field) wn. by TH. 427. 

♦21. h6. Hope Woodlands (10 se. 
Glo88op) wn. by TH. 317, 322, and in 
note to Chapel-en-le- Frith, 321. 

♦26. il. Idridgehay (4 wnw.Belper, 
and 4 s.Wirksworth, to which regipn it 
belongs) wn. by TH. 441, 444. 

♦26. i2. Ilkeston (8 se.Belper) wn. 
by TH. 446. 

26. L. Little Hueklow (7 ene. 
Buxton) wn. by TH. 

♦26. Ml. Matloek Bath, wn. by 
TH. 444. 

♦26. ii2. Middleton-by- Wirksworth 
(2 8w. Matlock Bath), a mining Tillage, 
said to speak more broadly than at 
Wirksworth, wn. by TH. 441, 444. 

26. m3. Middleton-by-Youlgrave (7 
nw.Matlock Bath) wn. by TH. 

♦26. m4. Mil/ord (2 s.Belper) wn. 
by TH. 446. 

♦26. m6. Morton (8 nne.Belper) wn. 
by TH. 446. 

♦26. N. JVbr<(m(7 nnw.Chesterfield) 
Iw. io. by Rev. H. H. Pearson, vie. 

♦26. o. O^^rampton (3 W.Chester- 
field) wn. by TH. 427. 

♦21. p. Peak Forest (6 ne.Buxton) 
wn*. by TH. 322. 

♦26. Q. Quamdon (3 nnw. Derby) 
wn. by TH. 446. 

♦26. Rl. Repton (6 sw.Derby) (1) 
Iw. io. by the curate, name not 
mentioned, and TH.'s observations on 
them; (2) cs. pal. by TH. from diet, 
of a native, 427 ; (3) wn. by TH. 446. 

♦26. e2. MipUy (3 ne.Belper) wn. 
by TH. 446. 

26. 8l. Sandiaere (:sBn-d|ikB) (8 e. 
Derby) wn. bv TH. 

♦26. s2. South Wtng/ield (6 nne. 
Belper) dt. 438, and wn. both by TH. 

♦26. 83. Stenson (4 ssw. Derby) wn. 
by TH. 446. 

♦26. b4. Stretton (6 s.Chesterfield) 
wn. by TH. 446. 

♦26. b6. Sutton (3 eee.Chesterfield) 
wn. by TH. 446. 

♦26. Tl. Taddington (6 ese.Buxton) 
(1) Song of Solomon, chaps, i. and ii. 
in gl. and pal. by TH. ; (2) cs. pal. 
by TH. and corrected by a native, 
426, 427. 

♦26. t2. Tideswell (:tidzB) (6 ene. 
Buxton) wn. by TH. 442. 

26. t3. Twyford (6 ssw. Derby) wn. 
by TH. 

♦26. u. Unstone (4 nnw.Chester- 
field) wn. by TH. 446. 

♦26. wl. West Hallam (6 ne.Derhy) 
dt. by TH. from diet. 438, 439. 

♦26. w2. Whittington (2 n.Chester- 
field) wn. by TH. 446. 

♦26. w3. Winster (3 nw.Matlock 
Bath) cs. pal. by TH. and corrected 
by natives, 427, also wn. by TH. 

♦26. w4. Wirksworth (rwasB) (3 
ssw.Matlock Bath) Iw. io. with notes 
by Dr. Spencer T. Hall, and wn. by 
TH. 441, 444. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




9. Dv.rrDovonshire, 21 places in D 4, 10, 11. 

4. A. AxmintUr (8 se.Honiton) C8. 
io. by the late Mr. G. P. R. Pulman, 
not vised because I had no yt. 

11. bI. Bamttaple^ C8. io. by Mr. 
W. F. Rock, native, pal. in 1873 by 
AJE. from diet, of Mr. D. H. HarriB, 

11. b2. Bighury (12 sw.Totneee) 
phr. noted, 1876, in gl. by Mr. J. B. 

11 b3. ^Mmfi^to»(10a6e Barnstaple) 
characteristic web. and phr. io. by Mrs. 
Davis, of the vicarage, native. 

*11. cl. ChaUacombe (9 ne.Barn- 
staple) wds. and phr. obtained from 
Anne Ridge, native, cook to Rev. J. 
P. Faunthorpe, see notes to Iddesleigh, 

11. c2. ColyiomJJ se.Honiton) dt. 
io. by Mr. W. H. H. Rogers. 

Dartmoor f see Flj/mouth, 

*1I. D. Devonport dt. pal. from 
Messrs. J. Tenney and J. B. Rundell, 

11. B. JExeter (1) wl. gl. by Mr. N. 
W. Wyer, coUected 1873-7 ; (2) dt. 
io. with aq. by Mr. R. Dymond, F.S.A. 

11. H. MarherUm (2 sw.Totness) 
wn. by AJE. 1 and 2 Sept. 1869, 
written in the eloesotype of tne period 
and pal. 23 July, 1878. This was my 
first attempt to write English peasant 
speech from hearing. I staved with 
Mr. J. Paige, Little Ingleboume, 
Harberton, and listened whue he con- 
versed with his labourers, and then 
wrote down the sounds on my return 
to the house. I was not very success- 
ful, and the notes made have therefore 
not been used. 

•1 1 . il . IddetUigh (:td|lt) (ISs.Bam- 
staple) (1) wl. io. written by Rev. J. P. 
Faunthoipe, Principal of Whitelands 

10. Do. B Dorsetshire, 

4. b1. B\nghanC$ MekombeCl sw. 
Blandford, near Melcombe Horsey) 
nwl. and dt. io. by Rev. Canon Bing- 

4. b2. Blaekmore, Vale of (11 sw. 
Shaftesbuiy) wl. io. with notes and 
letters by Rev. John Smith, Kington 
Magna, rect. 

4. b3. BradpoU f:bBffifpool, :biuef 1) 
(1 ne. Bridport) wl. io. and notes by 
Rev. Canon Broadley, vie. 

4. b4. Bridport, wl. by Mr. T. A. 
Colfox, native, Westmead, Bridport. 

Training Coll. from the diet, of his 
housemfljd ; (2) cs. pal. by AJE. from 
the dictation of the same housemaid, 
Mary Anstey, native, who had not been 
many months from Dv. 157. 

11. i2. /nttou' (5 w-by-s. Barnstaple), 
from Rev. W. F. Dashwood Lang, 

11. Ml. Modbwry and 6 m. round 
(10 sw.Totness) dt io. by Miss Green, 
of the Vicarage. 

10. m2. Morebath (8 n.Tiverton) 
nwL and dt. io. by Rev. S. H. Berkeley. 

♦11. Nl. North MoltoH (12 e-by-s. 
Barnstaple), (1) wl. io. by Mr. R. H. 
S. Spioer, B.Sc., of that place, (2) by 
Mr. J. Abbot Jarman, paL by AJ£. in 
1877, dt. 160, cwl. 161. 

11. n2. North Fetherwin (14 nw. 
Tavistock) dt, io. by Rev. T. B. 

11. p1. Parraeon^ (11 nne.Bam- 
sta^e) nwl. taken from n.Dv. servants 
by Miss Wakefield, of the Rectory. 

♦11. p2. Plymouth (1) cs. gl. for 
Dartmoor, (2) Iw. gl., (3) wl. gl. (4) 
dt. gl., (5) numerous printed papers 
and much correspondence from 1868 
onwards, all five from Mr. John Shelley, 
native of Norfolk, but long resident 
in Plymouth, 163 to 166. 

11. si. St. Maryehureh (2 n. 
Torquay) dt. by Rev. G. H. White, 
with words and phrases by Miss Miles. 

11. 82. Stoke (I nw. Plymouth) nwl. 
by Rev. H. G. Wilcocks, Stoke 

11. wl. JFarkleiffhJfi sse. Barn- 
staple) wl. io. by Mrs. W. Thorold, of 
the Rectory, 30 y. 

11. w2. WerringUm (12 nw.Tavi- 
stock) dt. io. by Rev. R. W. Margesson, 

14 places, all in D 4. 

*4. 0. Cranbome (12 ene. Blandford, 
and wroni^ly referred to Blandford on 
p. 37) cs. ^ Mr. Clarke, Gen. Michel, 
and Mrs. Cflay-Kerr-Seymour, 75-84. 

*4. Bl. Ikut Lulworth (:ldxRth) 
(12 ese. Dorchester, on Purbeck hiUs) 
wl. io. by Rev. Walter Kendall, vie. 80. 

4. b2. Bast Morden (7 sse.Bland- 
ford) wl. io. by Rev. T. Pearce, vie. 

*4. H. Hartford (^ nw.Blandford) dt. 

Sil. by AJE. from diet, of Mrs. Clay- 
err-Seymour, see 75, dt. 76, cwl. 80. 
4. si. i$A^&oni«(16wnw.Bhuidford) 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




dt. io. with notes and letters by Bey. 
O. W. Tancock, school. 

4. 82. Sturmintier ManhaU jfi se. 
Blandford) phrases by Mr. C. Aegan 
Paul, formerly curate there. 

4. 83. Swmage (7 s.Poole) note by 
Mr. Paige, artist. 

4. wl. WaldiUh (1 e.Bridport) notes 
by Mr. W. G. Stone, lOy. 

*4. 'w2. Whitehurch Canonieorum 
(6 wnw. Bridport) (1) transcripts of 
letters and articles in Palman*s Jreeklp 
Ifew$, Crewkeme, written in glossio 

with flreat care by Mr. N. W. Wyer, 
from oictation of John Taylor, a small 
freeholder, but doubts having arisen of 
the trustworthiness of Taylor*s Dorset 

{pronunciation, they haye been re- 
uctantly cancelled; (2) wn. by the 
same, 83. 

*4. w3. WinUrhourtte Came (2 sse. 
Dorchester), by Bev. W. Barnes, the 
Dorset poet (see p. 75), cs. in so. with 
numerous letters of explnnation, from 
which it was pid. by AJ£. 76 ; list of 
Do. words with initial (f) or (v), 88. 

11. Du. =:Darliam, 31 places in D 31 and 32. 

•32. Al. An^/kld Plain (8 nw. 
Durham), dt. from Rev. Dr. Blythe 
Hurst, yic. See CoUierley, 653. 

31. a2. Aydife (5 n.Darling:ton) 
pc. from anonymous yicar. 

•31. Bl. Biihop Auckland (20 
wsw.Hartlepool) (1) pc. and letter from 
Bey. B. Long ; (2) dt. by Mr. J. Wyld, 
master of the workhouse, 617. 

•31. b2. Bishop Middleham (8 
Bse.Du.) (1| pc. and letter from Bey. 
G. A. Cartlege, yicar, who introduced 
me to dialect speakers, 653. 

•31. b3. JSishopton (5 nw. Stockton) 
pc. by Bey. C. H. Ford, yic. 644. 

•32. cl. Cliekeminn (spelling un- 
known) (10 W.Durham, in Lancnester 
nar.j dt. pal. by AJE. from Mr. Bobson, 
tMuliff , introduced by Canon Greenwell, 
653, No. 2. 

•32. c2. Cb//i^i^(ll nw.Durham, 
oontaininf Dipton and Pontop) dt. io. 
by Mr. HWh Leslie, see a1, 653. 

32. D. LalUm-U'Lale (6 s.Sunder- 
land) pc. from Bey. T. T. Allen, yic. 

•31. Bl. J^ft^^0» (9 e.Durham) dt. 
io. by Miss £. P. Harrison, of the 
rectory, 617. 

•32. b2. Edmundbyer$ (17 wnw. 
Durham) dt. io. with notes by Bey. 
W. Feaihentonehaugh (-ha^f), rect. 

31. o. Chreatham (:griit8m) (6 ne. 
Stockton), pc. from Bey. J. MacGartie, 

Hart^ see Eatingion, 

31. h1. Hartl^ool^ pc. from Bey. 
£. B. Ormsley, rect. 

•31. h2. Heathery CUugh (:klfuf) 
(27 W.Durham) dt. io. by Mr. Dalton, 
schoolmaster, 617. 

•32. K. Kelioe (6 se.Durham) (1) 
pc. from Bey. W. S. Kay, yic, (2) dt. 
pal. by AJE. from B. Heightley, 653. 

•32. Ll. XoiusAm^ (7 nw.Durham) 

wl. io. by Bey. J. Dingle, yic, and 
see cl, 6o3. 

•31. l2. Lower Teeedale.ueBx Stock- 
ton, cs. pal. by AJE. in 1876 from 
Mrs. Alfred Hunt, 617. 

•31. Ml. MiddUton-in-TeeedaU (30 
wnw. Stockton) on the Teeb (1) wl. io. 
by Bey. J. Milner, yic, 634, and 
notes by JOG. 

31. m2. Monk Healedon (5 nw. 
Hartlepool) pc. from Bey. B. Taylor, 

31. R. Byhope (3 s. Sunderland) pc 
from Bey. W. Wilson, yic 

31. el. St, Andrew Auckland (1 
s.Bishop Auckland, see b1) pc. from 
Bey. B. Long, yic 

•31. 82. St. John's Weardale (24 
wsw. Durham) wl. pal. by JGG. 634 

31. 83. Seaham (4 s.Sunderland) pc 
from Bey. W. A. Scott, vie 

31. 84. Sedgejield (10 sse.Durham) 
pc. from Bey. J. P. Eden, rect. 

32. 85. Shincliffe (2 sse.Durham) 
pc. from Bey. G. F. Bulman, rect. 

•32. 86. South Shields from Bey. 
G. Y. Potts, wl. in gl. 672, and cs. 
in el. pal. by AJE. from diet, of Mr., 
T. Fyke, natiye, 645. 

•31. 87. i9tofiA<^ (18 wsw.Durham) 

(1) pc. from Bey. C. Glayton, yic, 
and letter from Bey. G. Goebey, curate ; 

(2) dt. io. with notes by Mr. W. M. 
Egglestone, 617 to 619. 

•32. 88. Sunderland (1) dt. io. by 
Mr. E. Gapper Bobson, Esplanade; 
(2) full wl. by late Mr. Tom Taylor, 
native; f3) letter from Mr. W. Brockie 
with local song of * * Spottee * * and notes ; 
(4) dt. pal. by AJE. from Mr. Taylor 
Fotts, 17, Derwent Street, Bishop 
Wearmouth, 653. 

31. t1. Trimdon (8 se.Durham) pc. 
from Bey. B. Simpson, curate-in- 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




32. t2. Tyneaide, 6 or 8 miles each 
way, dt. io. and MS. glossary of 
Tyneside words by Kev. Bh-the Hurst, 
Tic. of Collierly, see a1 ana c2. 

31. wl. Witton-le-Wear (10 sw. 

12.. Es.= Essex, 25 

16. b1 . B^ fA: NotUy ^9 nne.Chelms- 
ford) aq. from Bev. T. Owen, rect. 

♦16. b2. J?rfl4/J^W (9 ene.Colchester) 
dt. io. by ReY. L. G. Hayne, rect. 

•16. b3. Braintree (rbraintrt) (10 
nne.Cbelmsford) wn. by TH. 221. 

16. b4. Brentwood (:bdmt;wd) (7 
ne. Romford) and 4 m. round, wl. io. 
by Mr. Arthur H. Brown. 

*16. b5. Brightlingtea (8 se.Col- 
chester) dt. and notes by Rev. Arthur 
Pertwee, vie, to iUustrate Tendring 
hundred, 221. 

16. c. Chelmsford (:t|Enizf«d) pron. 
of name obs. from a native by TH. 

16. Bl. Ehenham (ISnw.Chelmsford) 
wl. by Roy. J. Whateley, vie. 15 y. 

•16. b2. EaseXy Yarious places, wn. 
by TH. 224. 

16. ol. Great Chesterford (3 nw. 
Saffron Walden) wn. by TH. 

16. o2. (?r^a< CAmA«// (7 w.Saffron 
Walden) wl. io. by Mrs. Saraita Kent, 
wife of a principal farmer, obtained 
through Roy. S. S. Lewis, Corpus 
Chrisn College, Cambridge. 

16. o3. Great Clacion (13 se.Col- 
chester) dt. io. by Mr. G. Woodfall, 
certificated teacher. 

♦16. o4. Great Dunmotv (9 nnw. 
Chelmsford) cs. pal. bv AJE. in 1873 
from diet, of Mr. J. J^. Cullin^ord, 
native, 222, and phr. pal. from diet, of 
Mr. Roderick (see Ware, Ht.), together 
withwn. byTH. 221. 

Durham) pc. from Rev. J. F. Hodgson, 

31. w2. WoUingham (12 wsw. 
Durham) aq. from Rev. R. H. Gray, 

places, all in D 16. 

♦16. o5. Great Boston (Ssse.Saffron 
Walden) wn. TH. 221. 

16. o6. (?r^a^ ^/»»t^a4nw.Maldon) 
aq. from Rev. T. W. Elvington, vie. 

♦16. o7. Great Shalford (16 nnw. 
Maldon) aq. from Rev. H. B. Philip, 
Yic, and wn. by TH. 221. 

16. H. ifmAiim (6 s. Saffron Walden) 
wn. by TH. 

16. I. Ingatettone (10 ne.Romford) 
Iw. from Mr. N. W. Wyer. 

♦16. M. Maldm, dt. pal. by AJE. 
from Miss Wing, of Whitelanda, 
formerly pupil teacher there, 223. 

16. N. Newport (4 ssw. Saffron 
Walden) wn. by TH. 

♦16. p1. Poff/^Aam (5 ne.Southend) 
dt. io. by Mr. J. F. T. Wiseman, the 
Chase, 221. 

♦16. p2. Bayfield (13 nnw.Maldon) 
dt. io. and aq. by Rev. E. J. Hill, 
rect., with wn. by TH. 221. 

♦16. &. Bayne (12 nw.Maldon) aq. 
from (anonymous) rect., 221. 

♦16. 8l. Southend, Iw. by LLB. and 
Mr. Ph. Benton, Wakeringflall, 221 -2. 

♦16. 82. Stanway (3 w. Colchester) 
dt. io. by Rev. £. H. Crate, Rose 
Cottage, 221. 

13. GL=Gloucester, 

6. Al. Ashehureh (3 ne.Tewkesbury) 
wl. by Rev. H. S. Warleigh, rect. 
lOy., and wn. by TH. 

♦4. a2. AylburUm (4 wnw. Berkeley) 
phr. from Miss Trotter, and cwl., 66 ; 
see Coleford Gl. (name misprinted 
Potter on 66). 

4. Bl. Berkeley y Vale of^ cs. io. 
from Mr. J. H. Cooke, of that place, 
25 y., obtained by Mr. Bellows for 

4. b2. Birdlip (:baBlt*p) (7 ese. 
Gloucester) wn. by TH. 

4. b3. Bishop's Cleve (3 n.Chelten- 
ham) wn. by TH. 

♦16. b3. Stebhing (Bran End), (11 
n.Chelmsford) wn. by TH. 221. 

16. T. 7i^axtA;(16nnw.Chelmsford) 
Iw. compiled by Rev. Prof. Skeat, 
Cambridge, from the pron. of his cook, 
native, and pal. by AJE. from Prof. 
S.*s reading. 

26 places in D 4 and 6. 

4. b4. Bisley {Z e. Stroud) wl. io. 
from Rev. T. Keble, vie. 

4. b6. Bristol wn. by TH. 

4. b6. Broektporth (4 eee. Gloucester) 
wn. by TH. 

♦6. b7. Buehland (11 ene.Tewkes- 
burv) wn. by TH. from native railway 
porter, who resided there till 26, p. 1 13. 

4. cl. Cheltenham (:tiBltn«m) wn. 
by TH. 

♦4. c2. Cirencester (isisitBE) wl. by 
Miss Martin, of Whitelands, pal. yy. 
by AJE. ^^, and wn. by TH. 

♦4. c3. Coleford (9 nw.Berkeley), 
representing the Forest of Dean, from 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




' Mr. R. D. Trotter (misprinted as 
Potter on 66), cs. 60, phr. 66, cwl. 66. 

4. c4. CwwD/(wi^*rfflfe (8 se. Chelten- 
ham) dt. io. by Her. H. Morgan, vie, 
assisted by Rev. W. H. Stanton, rect. 
of Hazleton (9 ese. Cheltenham) and 
Rural Dean, representing the Cotswold 
hills Gl. 

4. Dean, Forest of. See Coleford, 

•6. E. J?*rtii^/wi(18ne.Cheltenham) 
wn. byTH. 113. 

4. F. Fairford (23 ese.Glouceeter) 
wn. by TH. 

♦4. o. OUmcetUr Vale and Tmtm, 
VT. from Mr. J. Jones, cs. 60, cwl. 66. 
Toum, wn. by TH. 

4. Hi. Highnam (2 wnw.Gloncester) 
wn. by TH. 

4. h2. Hueeleeote (3 e.Gloncester) 
wn. by TH. 

6. Kl. J>m^foii(6ene.Tewke8bury), 

on spike of Gl. projecting into Wo., 
worcM noted by Rev. J. I. Mercier, 
3 months. 

4. k2. King'* Wood (4 ene.Bristol), 
representing the collierv region of 
Kmg*s Chase or King*8 Wood, cs. io. 
by Samuel Griffith. 

6. L. Long Manton m Martton Sicca 
(21 ne.Cheltenham) note by TH. 

4. M. Maisey Hampton (6 eee, Ciren- 
cester) wn. by TH. 

*6. 8. Shenington (5 wnw.Banbnry), 
locally in Ox., (1) Iw. from diet, oy 
TH. 118, (2) dt/pal. by AJE. from 
Miss Harris, of Whiteknds, 117, 118. 

*4. Tl. TV^^Mry (8 sse.Stroud), from 
Miss Frampton, cs. 60, cwl. 66, wn. 

6. t2. Tewkesbury, wn. by TH. 

♦4. w. JThitcomb or JTttcomb (5 SfW. 
Cheltenham) wn. by TH. 66. 

14. Ha. B Hampshire^ with Wi.«lsle of Wight, 13 places in 
D 4 and 5. 


♦6. A. Andover (1) Iw. io. by 
£. S. Bewly, see Stowmarket, Sf . ; 
2) specimens taken down by Prof, 
^hroer, 98 to 107. 

4. B. Broughton (10 wnw. Win- 
chester) wl. by Rev. S. Lee, rect. 

*4. cl. Christchureh notes in letter 
from Lady Wolf to LLB., see also 
If Old below, 76. 

6. c2. CorhampUm (10 se. Win- 
chester) Iw. from Rey. H. R. Fleming, 

•5. B. Ea$t Stratum (8 nne.Win- 
ehester) dt. io. by Rev. 8. £. Lyon, 
Tic. 96. 

♦4. I. ^ford (1 w.Chiistchurch) wl. 
io. by Mr. W. W. Farr, representing 
the port, of Ha. w. of the Avon, 75. 

5. n1. Northwood (inaBthtid) (2 s. 
Cowes, Wi.) wl. and dt. io. by Rev. 
C. £. Seaman. 

4. n2. Nursling (:nx8lin) (12 sw. 

Winchester) wl. by ReT.H.C.HawtreT. 

4. a. Ringwood (7 n.Christchnrch) 

15. He. B Herefordshire, 
13. A. Almeley (:a'm«lii) (8 8-by-e. 

Presteign, Rd. and Ha.) from the 

(mmamed) vie. who said Eardisley 

(2 8W.Almeley) is called (srslii). 
13. d1. Dinmore (7 n-by-w.Here- 

ford) wn. by TH. 
*13. d2. i>(M;A;A>t<7(6e8e.Leomin8ter) 

cs. and other specimens in so. by Mr. 

R. Woodhonse. Newhampton, 30 y. 

obtained by LLB. 177. 

by AJE. from diet, of a carter in 
service of Messrs. Moore and Moore, 
native, 15 y. away. 

*6. 8l. ShorweU (:8haB*L, :8hoa*L) 
(6 ssw.Newport, Wi.) wl. io. from 
Mr. James Titmouse, schoolmaster, 
14 y. continuously, through Rev. B. 
Broughton, vie. 107. 

*5. 82. Southampton to Winehester^ 
80 called on p. 97, see below Win- 
chester to Southampton, so called on 

91, cs. from diet, of Bir. Perdval 

\?h, 97. 

♦6. wl. West Stratum (7. ne. Win- 
chester^ dt. io. from the late Dr. A. C. 
BumeU, native, 96. 

6. w2. Wight, IsU of, generally, 

(1) wds. by Rev. R. N. Durrani, 
Arreton Vic. (2 se.Newport, Wl.); 

(2) wds. and letter from llr. C. Roach 
Smith, F.S.A., of Stroud, author of the 
Isle of Wight Glossary. 

*5. w3. Winchester to Southampton, 
see above 82. 

17 places in D 4 and 13. 

*4. B. EggUton (8 ne.Hereford) 08. 
and spec, both in a peculiarly keyed 
orthography by Miss Anna M. Ford 
Piper, oDtuned in 1875 by LLB. 69 
to 75. 

M3. H. jEn^ff^onf and its neighbour- 
hood, (U cs. in so. by Mr. James 
Davies, stliciCoi.*<tf tllat t^Un<l>bOiiaed 
by LLB.:; (t& «:.ift*lh^.t8<7:pU)ftio- 
typy of Enis li^hlnM {fMVbxtVf. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




pp. 1183-1186] by Mr. Joseph Jones, 
Dookseller, transliterated into pal. by 
AJE., obtained in 1875 by LLB. 
I was not able to use either yenion ; 
(3) wn. TH. 180. 

n. Ll. Ledbury (12 e.Hereford) oe. 
bv Rev. C. Y. Potts and Mr. J. C. 
Gfregg, 69-73. 

13. l2. X^ii/uHinfifM (Unnw.Leo- 
minster) wn. by TH. 

*13. Ld. Liomimter wn. b. TH. 180. 

*13. l4. Lowtr Baeh$ Farm (3 
ene.Leominster) (1) Iw. in io. and aq. 
by Mr. G. Burgifls, natiye, fanner, 
obtained through LLB. ; (2) wn. and 
dt. pal. by TH. from diet, of Messrs. 
T. and J. Burgiss, brothers of Mr. 
6. Borgiss, 176, 180. 

13. l6. Lueton (:lsk*n) (5 nw.Leo- 
minster) note by Rer. A. C. Auohmaty, 
Lueton House, 4 y. 

*4. M. MttehO)iD<im${^iiB Hereford) 
cs. in 1847 phonotypy written in 1847 

by Mr. J. Jones (see Hereford abore) 
from diet, of Mr. Herbert Ballard, 
10 y., pal. by AJ£., obtained by LLB., 
see also Eggleton, given at p. 69 ; (2) 
wn. by TH. from Mrs. S. Griffiths, 
native, b. 1816, given on p. 73, notes 

♦4. B. Moi$ (1) letter from W. H. 
Green to LLB. 68 ; (2) wn. by TH. 

13. 8l. StoekUm (2 iie.Le<»nin8ter) 
wn. by TH. 

4. 82. Stoke £dith (6 e-by-n. 
Hereford) wn. by TH. 

4. u. Upton Biehop (4 ne.Ross) dt. 
by Mr. Havcffgal. 

13. wl. Waeion (7 e.Leominster) 
wn. by TH. 

13. w2. Weobley H sw. Leominster) 
cs. io. written by a rarmer, communi- 
cated to LLB. by Rev. C. J. Robinson, 
of Norton Canon (10 nw.Hereford), 
and by him referred to Weobley. 

16. Ht. "Hertfordshire, 32 places in D 15, 16, and 17. 

16. Al. Anetey (14 ene.Hitohin) 
from Rev. T. T. Sale, rect. 

•16. a2. Ardeley or Yardley (8 
e-by-s.Hitohin) dt. io. with aq. by Rev. 
C. Malet, then curate, and wn. from 
several old natives by TH. 200, 201. 

15. Bl. Berkhampetead (10 w.St. 
Albans) notes obtained by LLB. 

16. b2. Bishop' i Stortford (istA'fml) 
(11 ne.Hertford) pron. of name ob- 
tained by TH. 

16. b3. ^osriMOor (7 wsw.St. Albans) 
note from Rev. A. C. Richings sent 
to LLB. 

16. b4. Brauahing {^}nMiiD) pron. 
of name obtained by TH. 

•16. b5. Buntinaford (:binifet) (10 
ime.Hertford) wn. by TH. 201. 

•17. b6. Buehey (2 se.Watford) 
from Rev. W. Falconer, rect., 235. 

16. r. Fumeaux Pelham (11 nne. 
Hertford) phr. by Rev. W. wigram, 
vie, wiw notes by Mr. Ro£rick, 

16. ol. GiUUm (6 e.Ware) notes 
from Rev. J. L. HaUward, rect. 

16. q2. Great Gaddetden (7 wnw. 
8t. Albans) notes by LLB. 

16. q3. Great Mormead (13 e. 
Hitchin) dt. io. from Rev. J. 8. F. 
Chamberhun, vie, representing the 
" WUds of Herts." 

16.* A JSaM4wi;*(7: ne.Hertford) 
wn.*Dy«l7l*«* « • • • • • 

Albans) dt. io. from Mr. T. Wilson, 
Rivers Lodge, 203. 

•16. h3. Hatfield (6 wsw.Hertford) 
wn. by TH. 203. 

16. h4. Henul Hempetead (5 w.St. 
Albans) note by LLB. 

•16. h5. Hertford wn. by TH. 

•16. h6. Hertford Heath (2 se. 
Hertford) wn. by TH. 

•16. h7. HUehin dt. by Mr. C. W. 
Wilshere, the Frythe, Welwyn, paL 
from indications by AJE. 203. 

17. K. KingU Langley (6 sw.St. 
Albans) note by LLB. 

15. Ll. Little Gaddeeden (10 nw. 
St. Albans) note obtained by LLB. 

15. l2. Long Marston (16 wnw.St. 
Albans) note obtained by LLB. 

•17. B. Biekmemi%eorth (8 sw. 
Watford) note sent to LLB. by Mr. 
W. H. Brown, national school master, 
and note by LLB. 235. 

•16. 8l. 8t. Albans, wds. from Mr. 
R. R. Lloyd, 8y., 235. 

16. 82. Sandridge (3 ne.St. Albans) 
dt. notes, and Iw. all in io. by Rev. J. 
Griffith, of that place. 

16. 83. 8a%pbridgeworth, called 
(:s»p*8«rd) by old people (10 e-by-n. 

Hertford) (1) wl. and dt. io., and notes 
by Mrs. John Barnard, Spring Hall, 
12 y., and (2) note by TH. from Prof. 
Skeai, who give (:saaps«). 
•16. 84. ^j^/onf (8 nnw.Hertfoid) 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




(I) dt. io. bj Bey. D. Bardajr, reot., 
and (2) wn. by TH. 199. 

15. T. Tring (14 wnw.St. Albans), 
note obtained by LLB. 

*16. vrl. /Toiv C8. and Iw. pal. in 
1876 from diet, of Mr. J. W. Boderick, 
197 to 200, wn. by TH. 199. 

16. w2. Watford, note by LLB. 
•16. w3. Wtlwyn (1) wl. pal. by 

AJE. from diet, of Miss Foxlee, of 
Whitelands, not usable, 197 ; (2) dt. 
io. with notes and phr. by Mr. C. W. 
Wilsbere, of the Fiythe, 202. 

16. w4. Weitan (5 e.Hitchin) wl. 
io. by Rot. A. C. Roberts, yic., as- 
sisted by Mr. M. R. Fryor, Manor 
House, native. 

17. Ha. « Huntingdonshire, 21 places, all in D 16. 

16. A. AUwJbury (4 nnw. Hunting- 
don) Iw. io. by Rer. R. Conway, yic, 
assisted by Bir. G. Johnston, of 
Broughton (5 ne. Huntingdon). 

16. ol. Oodmanehett^r (1 se.Hun- 
tingdon) wn. by TH. 

16. o2. OrMt Catworth (9 w.UmL' 
tingdon), from Rot. £. C. Pnrley, 

16. o3. Chr$at Oidding (10 nw. 
Huntingdon) wn. by TH. 

16. o4. Great FaxtonU ssw.Hun- 
tingdon), from Rev. H. I. Nicholson, 
of that plaoe. 

*16. o5. OrMt StukiUy (2 nnw. 
Hontinffdon), (1) wl. and dt. io. by 
Miss Mary £. Ebden, then of the 
fiearage, with numerous notes pal. by 
AJE. 211 ; (2) wn. in 1881 by TH. 
from W. Johnson, b. about 1803, 
&nn labourer, and James Valentine, 
b. 1806, to whom TH. was introduced 
by Miss Ebden, 211. 

16. Hi. HamerUm (8 nw.Hunting- 
don), from Rer. D. 6. Thomas, rect. 

16. h2. MUUm {A Be.Huntingdou), 
from Rot. T. Carrol, Tic. 

*16. h3. Holme (10 nnw.Hunting- 
don), (1) wl. io. from Rey. W. A. 
Campbell, rect., representing the 
drained fen about Whittelsea Mere ; 
(2) wn. by TH. 212. 

16. h4. HoughUm (:h6ift'n, :hoot*n) 

(3 e.Huntingdon), from Rey. £. A. 
Feck, rect. over 60 y. 

16. h5. Stmtinadon, wn. in 1881 

16. k1. KeyeUm (12 wnw.Hunting- 
don), from Rev. J. F. Goodman, rect. 

16. k2. JTimdo/ton (9 wsw.Hunting- 
don) wn. by TH. 

16. I*. Little StukeUy {ZtmyrJlvai' 
tingdon) wn. by TH. 

16. o. 0^^/ffl/oM(l S.Peterborough, 
Np.) wn. by TH. 

16. p. FidUy (7 ne.Huntingdon) 
wl. io. by Rey. R. w. Close, 2y., as- 
sisted by Mr. W. Mason, Somersham, 
(which see) representing e.Hu. 

16. 8l. St, Ives (5 e.Huntingdon) 
wn. 1873 and 1882 by TH. 

*16. 82. Sawtrv (9 nnw.Hunting- 
don), (1) dt. io. o;^ Miss Ebden. of 
Great otukeley, (wmch see) from diet, 
of a maid servant, 212 ; (2) wn. by 
TH. in 1881 from J. Harlock,b. 1800, 
to whom he was introduced by Miss 
Ebden, 212. 

16. b3. Somersham (8 ene.Hunting- 
don) dt. io. by Mr. W. Mason (see 
Fidley, which it adioins). 

16. 84. Staneley (8 wsw. Huntingdon) 
wn. by TH. 

16. b5. Stilton (12 nnw.Hunting- 
don), (1) dt. io. from Rev. Thomas 
Hatton, rect., (2) wn. by TH. 

18. Ke.-Kent, 16 places, all in D 9. 

•9. cl. Charma (6 nw.Ashford) dt. 
from Miss Croocher, of Whitelamds, 

9. c2. Chathamy a wd. from Mr. 6. 
Price, see Montacute, Sm. 

9. D. Denton (7 nw.Dover) from 
Bev. C. J. Hussey, rect. 

•9. pl. Faverskam (8 wnw.Canter- 
bury) cs. written by Rev. H. Berin, 
pal. by AJE. in 1873 from diet. 
of Mr. H. Knatchbull-Hueessen, of 
Provender, with phrases and Iw. 137 
to 141. 

*9. p2. Folkestone Fiskermen, dt. 
gloedc by Mr. R. Stead, master of the 
Grammar School, Folkestone, 143. 

9. K. Kent county generally, wn. 
by TH. 

*9. Ml. Maidstone note by AJE. 
from Mr. Streatfield, native. Bank- 
house, 131, L 13. 

•9. m2. Margate Iw. by Mr. Basil 
Hodgee, 20 v., 141. 

*9. B. Molvenden (12 sw.Ashford) 
Iw. anddt. io. from Rev. J. W. Rumny, 
vie. misprinted Ramsay on p. 136. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




*9. si. Skadf^kwrtit, Bi?pelkd 
SMadsJkttrMtf on p. 131, L 6 3 sbw. 
Ashiord, B«t. C. T. Roiie, 

vl. and notes pal. br AXE. from dktl 
of Mis Peckhun, o^ WhiteUoids, 141, 

^. s3. SJUemet*, nv. point (rf Ue of 
^^"W* ''<'** ^ ^*» Lowman, natire 
of Ba., who bad be«n all orer it, 137. 

9. »4. 5fr«^ '1 w.Roebert«r^ note 
by Miss Caiiand, of Wbit^Unds. ' 

•9. M. .v«iy 6 nne. Chat ham, be- 
tween Thame* and Medvar Iw. and 
dt. io. with aq. by Ect. A. JB. Harris. 
136. ^ 

•9. s6. SiottrwwtftA o nw. Sandwich) 
notes by Rer. K. Drake, rect., 141. 

♦9. w. JTimfk^m 6 e.Canterbarr^ 
dt. io. by Rer. F. W. Ragg, for the 
Highlands of Kent, 142. 

19. La.«T«anca«hire, 61 places in D 21, 22, 23, and 31. 


23. Al. Abieyttrnd (7 ae.Dnicaster) 

AtitoH ■ m u ftT 'Lyne, see SUlybrid^. 

•22. Bl. BUtklmm \\) wn. and dt. 

*. by TH., cwi. 346, dt. 339 ; (2) 
io. by Mr. T. Finding in cwl. 146, 
this list comprised also words from 
sereral other places mentioned bdow, 
Terr Taloable ai first, bat siqwiseded 
by TH.'s work afterwarcb. 

23. b2. Blackpool {\bMvm,Vm^Um) 
from H. Fisher, Maft.D. 

•22. b3. Bolt<m (1) wl. by Mr. Ch. 
BoChwell, M.R.C.S., 40y. to dO y. 343 ; 
(2) wn. by TH. ; (3) hr. io. by Mr. T. 
yielding, seenl. 

•31. b4. BrotiffkUm - in - FumetM 
(:brs'i^'n t lU'Twa) (8 ssw.Coniston) 
wn. and dt pal. from diet, by TH., 
dt and phr. 663, ewl. 627. 

•22. b6. 3wfwiiy(l)c8. pal. 1876-6 
from a natire by TH. 332; (2) cwl. by 
Mr. T. Healey, of the Science and Art 
Deportment, with wn. by TH., form- 
ing a cwl. 360. 

21. b6. 3iffy, Miss ffuington's cs. 
fsee Lerland) reul to me in 1873 by 
Rer. lur. Langston, sometinie curate 
of Bmy, but I was nnable to make use 
of it. 

•31. cl. C4trk^%m^Cartmel {5 e-hj-^, 
riTerBton), wn. in 1881 by TH. es- 
pecially from Betty Bntler, b. 1797, 
near Grasmere, bat her speech was too 
mixed to be tmstworthy, cwl. 627. 

•31. c2. CaUm (4 ene. Lancaster) 
wn. by TH. riyen in id. 626. 

•22. c3. dEor/0y (10 nw.BoHon) wn. 
by TH. 346. 

22. c4. CUtheroe Iw. io. by Mr. T. 
Fielding, seenl. 

•22. c6. Cliviffer VaUey (2 sse. 
Bomley) wn. TH. 360. 

•31. c6. (^MsiwAom (6 s-by-w.Lon- 
caster) wn. by TH. 626. 

•22. c7. Coln$ r0^(6mie.Baniley) 

from Mr. Hartler Stnttard, throng 
Mr. John Shelly, 340, 341. 

•31. c8. C<mi*Um (1 cs, orieinally 
written io. br Mr. Rf^ger Bowness, 
b. 1804, with aq. and expIanatioiM 
from Rer. T. Ellwood, of Tottct (2 
ssw.Coniston^ afterwards pal. from 
Miss Bell, natiTe, 658, 563, 597 ; (2) 
wl. io. by Rer. T. EUwood, pal. by 
AJE. from diet, d Miss Bell ; (3) wiu 
by TH., the last two, 627. 

31. D. iMlton (5 sw.Ulrerston) wL 
io. by Rer. John Atkinson, Rydal, 
Ambleside, occasioning, on account of 
some anomalies, a long correspondenoe, 
and Rer. T. £Uwood*s obtidning a 
partial wl. from Mr. T. Butler, solici- 
tor, natire, who had known the place 
intimately for 46 years, and who de- 
dded against the anomalies. 

22. B. EarU$to%cn (8 sw.Winn) wn. 
byTH. ^ ' 

21. Fl. Ft^»%corth (4 ne.Manches. 
ter|, phrs. noted from * hen Brierley* 
in his public readings, by TH. 

•22. f2. FmrringUm (3 8,PK8ton) 
wn. by TH. 346. ' 

•23. f3. Fylde tlUtrict, see 352 for 
full account; note from Mr. T. Cum« 
berland, Harbum, St (3 sw. Binning, 
ham, Wa.), not uised. 

23. Ql.Gariianf (jgjwstin) (lOnnw. 
Preston], note by TuTattached to next. 

•23. o2. Gootnargh (rg^uznvr) (6 
nne.Preston), (1) cs. pal. by TH. 6om 
diet, of Mr. £. Airk, natire, 364 ; (2) 
wn. by TH. 369. ' 

22. Hi. SatUwdl (2 wnw3dton) 
wn. by TH. ' 

•22. h2. ffatlimffdtn (788W.BumleT) 
wn. by TH. 346. ^' 

•31. h3. Heyikum (riismn) (4w-by-8. 
Lancaster) wl. by Rct. C. Twenlow 
Royds, rect 12 y., cwl. 626. 

22. h4. Higham (3 nw.Bumley) Iw. 
io. from Mr. T. Fielding, see b1.' 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




«31. h6. ffiffh Nibthwaiie (7 n. 
UlTerston) wn. by TH. 627. 

Siffhgr JFaltoH, see JFalton-le-daU, 
wl, below. 

•22. h6. HoddUtden (4 ase.Black- 
born) dt. pal. 1879 by TU. from diet, 
of natiye, 339, and wn. 346. 

•31. h7. Hornby (8 ne. Lancaster) 
wn. by TH. 626. 

•23. K. jnr*Aflifi(8w-by-ii.Pre8ton) 
wn. by TH. 369. 

•31. Ll. LtmeoiUr, wn. by TH. 

22. l2. Leigh (9 ene.St. Helens). 
Bey. J. H. Stanning, curate in charge 
in 1873 said the gh was pron. as a 
guttural ; nlaces of the same name were 
m 1875 called (:U'tth) in Ch., and (:l&i) 
also written Lye in Ke. 

•22. l3. Legland (5 s.Preeton) cs. 
paL 1877 from Miss ffarington, with 
remarks by three other natiyes, 332, 
337, and wn. by TH. 345. 

•31. l4. Lower Holkor in Cartmel 
(5 e. UlTerston) cs. paL 1877 by TH. 
from diet. 558, 563, 696^. 

21. Ml. Manehe$ter (1) wl. io. by 
Mrs. Unnffius Banks, acquainted witn 
the dialect from childhooa ; (2) note by 
JGG. ; (3) nwl. io. by Bey. J. Cf. 
CasartdU, M.A., St. Bede's, Man- 
Chester CoUeee, for the enyirons. 

22. m2. Mellor (2 nw.Blackbum) cs. 
ud. 1876 by AJE. from diet, of Mrs. 
Coulter, natiye, but lon^ absent, and 
I felt that my appreciation was inac- 
curate, hence I haye not used it. 

21. m3. Moiion (4 ne. Manchester) 
nwl. by Bir. O. Milner. 

•31. Kl. Newton 'in 'Cartmel (7 
ene.Ulyerston) note by Mr. J. Stock- 
dale, writer of the translation of SS. 
chap. ii. for Lonsdale n. of the Sands, 
reproduced on p. 550. 

•31. if2. Newton 'le- WiUowa or 
Newton'in'Maker/Md(i e.St. Helens) 
wn. by TH. 342. 

•21. ol. OldhMn (1) Iw. from Mr. 
T. Fielding, see b1 ; (2) wn. by TH. 

•22. o2. Ormekirk (7 se.Southport) 
wn. by TH. 342. 

•21. pl. P((i/n«^ (4 W.Manchester) 
wn. by TH. 322. 

•22. p2. Penworth4im (:pBn*«rdirai) 
(1 sw.Preston) wn. 1877 by TH. 
from Mr. Kirk, see Oooenarffh, of 
which he was a natiye, though he had 
resided 60 years in Penwortham. 

•23. p3. FouUon-U'Fylde (13 nw. 
Preston^ cs. first by Mr. Bellows sent 
to LLB., not used, and second pal. 
1876 by TH. with phrases, 354, 

•22. p4. Preeeot (3 wsw.St. Helens) 
wn. byTH 342. 

23. p6. Preston, wn. by TH. 

31. Q. Quemtnoor (3 ne. Lancaster) 
wn. by TH. 

21. Rl. J^oyton (2 nnw.Oldham) wn. 
by TH. ^ 

•21. b2. RoehdeUe and neighbour- 
hood, wn. by TH. 322. 

22. 8l. Sabden (5 nw. Burnley) Iw. 
from Mr. T. Fielding, see b1. 

•22. 82. Samlesbury (:sam-zbm)(4 
ene.Preston) wL io. by Mr. w. 
Harrison, F.S.A., Samlesbury Hall, 
representing the parishes of Blackburn, 
Preston, and Whalley, 346. 

•22. 83. Skelmersdale (iskinn'firsdtl) 
(7 nnw.St. Helens) cs. pal. 1878 by 
TH. from natiyes, 332 ; wn. by TH. 

31. 84. Skerton (1 nw.Laneaster) 
wn. by TH. 

•21. s5. Stalgbridae (1 e.Ajshton), 
half in La. and half in Ch. (which 
see b3) cs. pal. 1876 by TH. from Mr. 
J. Marsland, 317. 

•31. TJ. UhereUm (:ti8"n) (1) cs. io. 
by Mr. Pearson, natiye, ootained by 
Rey. T. EUwood, but I was not able 
to interpret it satisfactorily; (2) wn. 
by TH. 627. 

•22. wl. Walton-le-dale, or Higher 
Walton (2 se.Preston) wn. by TH. 

•22. w2. Warrington wn. by TH. 

•22. w3. Westhoughton (:a'«t'n} (5 
wsw. Bolton), this represents the Bolton 
neis^bourhood, cs. pal. 1876 with wn. 
byTH. 332, 343. 

•22. w4. Whalleg (3 s-by-w. 
Clitheroe) Iw. io. by Mr. T. Fielding, 
see Bl, and Mr. W. Harrison, 346. 

•22. w5. ^f^a«(:wigin) and neigh- 
bourhood, (1) wn. by TH. 343; (2) 
wl. io. from Wigan to Ashton in 
Makerfleld (4 s. Wigan), by Sir J. A. 
Picton, F.8.A., Sandy Knowe, Wayer- 
tee (3 ese. Liverpool) 50 y., during 
which the dialect has much changed. 

•22. w6. Wortthom (2 e. Burnley) 
wn. by TH. 350. 

•23. w7. Wgertdale (6 sse.Lancaster) 
dt. and wn. by TH. 358, 359. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




20. Le.= Leicester, 19 places in D 29. 

29. A. Anttif (3 nw. Leicester) wn. 
by TH. 

29. Bl. BarUttone (10 w-by-n. 
Leicester) wn. by TH. 

29. b2. Banvell (rbarel) (2 ne. 
Hinckley) wds. by ReY. R. Titley, 

♦29. b3. Belgrave (1 n. Leicester) 
nwl. and dt. by Miss Charlotte Ellis, 
who has liTed near Leicester all her 
life, 472, 489. 

*29. b4. Birttmll (3 n.Leicester) 
wds. ^m Miss Allen, 489. 

29. b5. Blabff (5 s-by-w.Leicester) 
wn. by TH. 

♦29. c. Cotteshach (rko-tesbah) (10 
se.Hinckley) wl. by Rev. J. S. Watson, 
rect. 489. 

♦29. B. Enderhy (4 sw. Leicester) 
variants by Miss E. Hirst, of White- 
lands, from the Waltham cs. 464, and 
wn byTH. 

♦29. o. OlenJUld (3 wnw. Leicester) 
wn. by TH. 489. 

29. H. Early (14 ne. Lough- 
borough) wds. by Rev. M. 0. Norman, 

29. I. nitton-on'the-mu (8 ese. 
Leicester) wn. by TH. 

♦29. l1 . Leice$ttr (1) cs. in el. with 
aq. by the late Mr. Geo. Findley, not 
used, see 464 ; (2) wn. by TH. from 

Mr. Findley, 489 ; (3) letter from Mr. 
W. Napier Reeve, F.8.A., 36 y., sayinsr 
he could not see in my wl. any word 
**of which the pron. in Leicester is 
different from rec. pron., I am," he 
added^ *'an Essex man. I have been 
in this town 35 vears. I have been 
often struck with tne few provincialisms 
among the people of this county com- 
pared with those of Essex** ; (4) for 
town and neighbourhood a few notes 
from J. H. Clmmberlain, Small Heath, 
Birmingham, having been 20 years 
there and 40 in Leicester. 

♦29. l2. Loughborough wn. in 
1878-9 by TH. 489. 

♦29. Ml. Market Harhorough (14 
se.Leioester) wn. by TH. 489. 

29. u2. J/oKit^ &>rrf/ (6 n.Leicester) 
wn. by. TH. 

29. N. Nortnanton (3 sse.Ashby-de- 
la-Zouche) from Miss Green of the 

♦29. 8. Sytton (5 nne. Leicester) full 
wl. pal. by AJE. from Miss M. A. 
Adcock, teacher at Whitelands, 489. 

29. T. Thurcatton (4 nnw.Leicester) 
wn. by TH. 

♦29. w. Waltham (16 ene. Lough- 
borough, in the horn of Le.) cs. pal. 
by AJE. from Miss H. Bell, of White- 
lands, see also b above, 464. 

21. Li. = Lincolnshire, 55 places in D 18 and 20. 

20. a1. AiMthorpe (6 nnw.Lincoln), 
aq. by Rev. T. W. Bury, rect. 

20. a2. Alford (10 se.Louth), 
note by Mrs. WiLiams, see 82 below. 

20. A3. Axholme, I»U of (4 to 18 
n.Gainsborough) Iw. io. by Mr. Stand- 
ring, of Woriang Men*s College. 

20. Bl. Barnol<ibg-U'Beck{\hkJcaxhTL) 
omitting Is Seek (4 sw. Great Grimsby), 
full wl. and dt. io. by Rev. Morgan G. 
Watkins, M.A. 

♦20. b2. Barrowhy (2 w. Grantham) 
wn. by TH. from a native then living 
at Newark, Nt. 299. 

20. b3. -B*<?^'w^Aflm (II nnw. Gran- 
tham) aq. from the (anoujrmous) 

♦20. b4. BilUnghorough (13 e.Gran- 
tham, and 6 m. round), full wl. cor- 
rected w. by AJE. from Mr. T. 
Blasson, surgeon, b. 1833, native and 
constant resident, 299. 

20. b6. ^/y^ow (3 nne. Gainsborough), 
aq. from Rev. J. S. Cockshall, vie. 

20. b6. Braeehridge (2 S.Lincoln) 
aq. from Rev. C. C. Ellison, vie. 

♦20. b7. Brxgg or Qlanford Briog 
(17 w.Great Grimsby) (1) wl. pal. by 
AJE. from diet, of Mr. E. Peacock, 
F.S.A., Bottesford Manor, author of 
the Manley and Corringham Giossary^ 
b. 1833, with a dt. pal. by AJE. from 
the wl. 312, 313 ; (2) wn. by TH., see 

20. b8. BrockUiby (8 wnw.Great 
Grimsby), note by Mrs. Williams, see 82. 

20. cl. CaiMtoriAl wsw.Gt. Grimsby) 
note by Mrs. Williams, see 82. 

20. c2. Coningaby (:kMi-ntn*sbi) (10 
wnw.Boston) wl. and dt. io. by Rev. 
Canon Wright, rect. 

20. c3. Crotcle (14 n-by-w.Gains- 
borough) aq. from Rev. F. W. White. 

♦20. B. Epworth (8 nnw. Gains- 
borough) cs. pal. by AJE.,- described, 
and why rejected, on p. 312, see w2. 

20. f1 . Faldingworth (10 ne. Lincoln) 
aq. by Rev. W. S. Mackean, pro. rect. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




20. 72. FiUingham (9 se.Gains- 
borongh) note from Key. J. Jenkins, 

•20. f3. /Vwibi^y (3 fW-by-8. Wain- 
fleet) nwl. with rules and ex. io. by 
ReT. H. J. Cheales, vie. 298. 

20. t4. Fuhtow (7 n.Louth) Iw. by 
Rev. Alex. Johnson, yic. 

20. ol. OaiH$borouffhf aq. by Rev. 
W. J. Williams, vie. 

20. g2. Olanford Brigg, see Brigg. 

20. o3. Chanth^m (:gra*ntham) cs. 
io. by Mr. Cockman, national school- 
master, read to AJ£. by Miss Cockman, 
of Whitelands, but as both were London- 
ers and she was uncertain on some points 
I was obliged to pass it by. 

20. o4. Great Coatet (2 w. Great 
Grimsby) note by Mrs, Williams, see 82. 

20. o5. Cheat Orimtby note by Mrs. 
Williams, see 82. 

*20. Hi. Haltm Holegate (6 nw. 
Wainfleet) dt. and many specimens and 
notes pal. in April, 1^1, from diet, 
of Bfrs. Douglas Ardem, 306 to 309. 

20. h2. Haxey((a nnw. Gainsborough) 
aq. from Rev. J. Johnston, vie 

20. h3. J7>a/tw^ (3 w.Great Grimsby) 
note by Mrs. Williams, see 82. 

20. h4. Horbling (13 e.Grantham) 
wl. by Mr. H. Smith, representing 
"the parts of Kesteven" m sw.Ii. 

20. h5. Homcaitle (17 e.Lincoln) 
note by Mrs. Williams, see b2. 

20. Kl. Jr«% (6 w.Great Grimsby) 
note by Mrs. Williams, see 82. 

20. k2. KiUingholme (Snw.Great 
Grimsby) note by Mrs. Williams, 
see 82. 

20. x3. Kingerhg (16 e.Gains- 
borough) phr. from Rev. W . A. Cottee, 

20. Ll . Lactby (3 sw. Great Grimsby) 
note by Mrs. WilUams, see Scartho. 

•20. l2. Lincoln^ see Spilsby for 
wn. by TH. 309. 

♦20. l3. Louth (1) Tennyson's 
Northern Farmer New Style rendered 
in gl. by Mr. T. Wemyss Bogg, 
surgeon, Uien of that place, see 
Somerby below, and p. 297 ; (2) wn. 
by TH., see Spilsby, 309 ; (3) wl. by 
Mr. W. R. Emeris ; (4) note by Mrs. 
Williams, see 82. 

20. Kl. North Hykeham (t&tkBm) 
(4 ssw.Lincoln) wl. by Rev. F. T. 
Cusins (:ki(izinz), 9 y. 

20. n2. North KeUey (14 wsw. 
Great Grimsby) note from Rev. W. J. 
Chambers, vie. 

20. si. Saxhy (10 nne.LincoIn) aq. 
from Rev. C. W. Markham, rect. 

20. 82. Seartho (2 s. Great Grimsby) 
wL and dt. io. by Mrs. Williams, of 
the rectory. In relation to the s. 
hoo9e line 5, Mrs. Williams informed 
me that (uus) was said at Killing- 
holme, TJlceby, Thornton, but (a'us) 
at Brocklesby, Keelby, Great Coates, 
Stallingborough, Heaung^ Louth, Al- 
ford, Spilsby, Homcastle, Caistor, 
Great Grimsby, Laoeby, Scartho, 
Waltham, which see in tms Ust, thus 
completing line 6. 

•20. 83. Seotter (8 ne. Gainsborough) 
wl. corrected w. by AJE., written 
by Rev. J. P. Faunthorpe, native and 
resident till 15, Principal of White - 
lands Training College, to whom I 
am indebted tor the great assistance 
rendered by its teachers and students, 

20. 84. Scunthorpe (15 nne.Gains- 
borough, in parish of Frodingham) full 
wl. by Mr. Bernard Dawson, C.E. 
Mr. Peacock (see Brig^), who lives 
3 s.Frodinfham, says it is full of 
miners, and that he should not trust 
any one's pron. unless he knew his 
birth. Hence I have thought Mr. 
Peacock's wl. p. 313, safer. 

20. 65. Skellingthorpe (4 W.Lincoln) 
aq. from Rev. E. P. Armstrong, vie. 

♦20. 86. SUfoford (16 w.Boston) wn. 
by TH. 309. 

20. 87. Snitterby (11 ene. Gains- 
borough) note from Rev. R. E. 
Warner, rect. 

♦20. 88. Somerby (22 e-by-n.Lincoln) 
representing the dialect from Hom- 
castle (17 e.Lincoln) to Spilsby (27 e. 
Lincoln), here I received great assist- 
ance on 23 March, 1881, from Lord 
(then Mr.) Tennyson, detailed 302 to 
306, who introduced me to Mrs. 
Douglas Arden, see h1. 

♦20. 89. SpiUby (8 ne. Wainfleet) 
(1) wn. by TH. from Rev. W. 
Jackson, 309; (2) note from Mrs. 
Williams, see 82. 

20. 8lO. Sprinathorpe (4 e.Gains- 
borou^h) note iiom Rev. E. L. 
Blenkmsopp, rect. 

20. 8ll. Stallingborough (4 nw. 
Great Grimsby) note by Mrs. Williams, 

♦18. 8l2. Stamford wn. by TH. 
from a man of 60, and again from 
a Rutland man who may not be trust- 
worthy, 254. 

20. Tl. Thoresway (10 sw.Great 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




Grimsby) aq. from Rey. G. Maule, 

20. t2. Thornton (12 nw.Great 
Grimsby) note from Mrs. Williams, 
see 82. 

20. ul. Ulceby (10 nw. Great 
Grimsby) note trom Mrs. Williams, 
see 82. 

20. u2. Usselby (18 e-by-n.Gains- 
borongh) aq. from Bey. A. Bower, yic. 

20. wl. Wtdtham (4 s-by-w.Great 
Grimsby) note from Mrs. Williams, 
see 82. 

♦20. w2. WinterUm (22 wnw. Great 
Grimsby) os. pal. 1874 from diet, of 
Rey. J. J. Fowler, of Hatfield Hall, 
Durbam, curate of Winterton in 1870 ; 
and tbis yersion was also read to me 
by a maid seryant from Epwortb, 
whicb see, 312. 

22. Mi. -Middlesex, 7 places in D 17. 

•17. A. Ashford (7 sw.Brentford) 
note by Rey. F. B. Dickinson, 235. 

♦17. B. Brondey (5 e.Cbaring Cross, 
London), representing e.London, wl. 
by JGG. 233. 

•17. B. EnJieU {6 e.Bamet), (1) 
note by Mr. Josepb Whitaker, F.S.A., 
White Lodge, 16y., (2) note by Mr. J. 
H. Meyers, editor of ki\field Ohurver^ 
(3) wn. io. from the chief mason, by 
LLB., 235. 

•17. Hi. J?ii«uv//(2nnw.Brentford) 
note h-om Miss £. Coleridge, of the 
rectory, 235. 

♦17. h2. Marmondnoorth (7 w. 
Brentford) Iw. from Mr. Lake, school- 

♦17. L. XofM^ofi wn. in yarions parts 
of the metropolitan area at yery yarions 
times, byTH. 231. 

♦17. 8. /SwM Jfy«M(3nnw.Bamet) 
notes from Rey. P. F. Hamond, ric. 

♦17. w. JFi?fe«fe» (6 nne. Brentford) 
letter from Rey. J. Crane Wharton, 
yic. to LLB., and note from LLB. in 
Meyer's £tyield Ohaerver, 28 Sep. 
1876, p. 236. 

23. Mc-Monmouthsliire, 3 places in D 13. 

13. cl. Caerleon or Llangattoek (2 
ne.Newport) aq. by Rey. H. Powell 
Edwards, yic. 

•13. c2. Chepstow Iw. io. with long 
note, through Dr. J. Yeats, 179. 

♦13. L. Llanover (12 w-by-s. Mon- 
month) cs. read to me by Lady Llanoyer 

in the presence of LLB., and yariants 
snggested by LLB. from his own ob- 
seryations and commnnications by Mr. 
Meredith, 179. 

13. p. Fontypool (8 nnw.Newport) 
aq. by Rey. J. C. Llewellin, yic. 

24. Nf.=Norfolk, 61 places in D 19. 

County f see Nortpieh, 

•19. A. AshiU (rashBl) (12 n.Thet- 
ford) notes by TH. 262. 

19. Bl. JBinham (4 se.Wells-next- 
Sea) wn. by TH. 

19. b2. JBraneoBter (7 w.Wells- 
next-Sea) wn. by TH. 

♦19. b3. Bumham (:baantm) West- 
gate (4 sw. Wells-next- Sea) wL io. by 
Mr. C. H. Eyerard, Eton Coll., 28 y., 
p. 264. 

•19. b4. Buxton (9 n.Norwich) wn. 
by TH., who here had the misfortune 
to lose his note book containing the 
details of the pron. of numerous places 
yisited in 1883, p. 278. 

19. c. Congham (ikoqgsm) (6 ene. 
£ing*s Lyiu4 ^^^- ^7 ^^- ^^non 
Kersley, LL.D., rect. 

19. Dl. Diae (16 e-by-s.Thetford) 

wn. by TH. in 1881, with example, 
278, from a farm-labourer, natiye. 

19. d2. Ditehtngham (12 sse. 
Norwich) wl. and phr. from Key. W. 
Skudamore, rect., assisted by Rey. H. 
Frere, natiye of s.Nf. 

♦19. d3. Boumham Market (10 s. 
King's Lynn) wn. by TH. 262. 

•19. B. East Bereham (15 w-by-n. 
Norwich) (1) cs. io. with aq. by Mr. 
G. A. Carthew, of Millfield in 1873; 
(2) wn. by TH. 273. 

19. F. Fakenham (8 s. Wells-next- 
Sea) wn. by TH. 

19. ol. d'oyiTMNi (2 e.King's Lynn) 
wn. by TH. 

♦19. o2. Great Bunham (14 eee. 
King's Lynn) wn. by TH. 262. 

•19. o3. Great Yarmouth (uaamtOi) 
nwl. and dt. io. by Rey. J. J. Rayen, 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




D.D., then of the school house, with 
notes made ty. from him by AJ£. in 
1879, this represents s.Nf. and nw.Sf. 
gen. 278. 

19. Hi. ffardinaham (18 w-by-s. 
NcMTwich) wn. by TH. 

*19. h2. ffMcham (:iUvm) (12 nne. 
King's Lynn) wn. by TH. 262. 

19. h3. HnwUm (9 s.Wells-next- 
Bea) wn. by TH. 

19. h4. Hmuby (6 n.Great Tar- 
mouth) wl. io. by Ber. H. W. Harden, 

*19. h5. Hohm-mzt-Sea (13 w. 
Wells-next-Sea) wn. by TH. 262. 

*19. h6. HuH8tant<m St. Edmunds, 
close to Old Hunstanton (12 nne.King*8 
Lynn), wn. by TH. 262. 

19. I. Ingham (14 se.GTomer) wl. 
by Eev. G. Sharley. 

♦19. xl. Kimberle^ (10 wsw.Nor- 
wich) cs. pel. in 1873 trom diet, of 
G. Ashby, natire, but absent 83 years, 
and then gardener to LLB. 273. 

♦19. k2. Xing's Lynn, wn. by 
TH. 262. 

♦19. k3. Kirby Bedon (3 se.Nor- 
wkh) Iw. pal.*in 1868 by AJ£. from 
diet, of liiss Cecilia M. Day, of the 
Ticarage, his first attemnt at writing 
dialect from diet, with auditions from 
her sister, Mrs. Luscombe, and Mr. 
Keith, 275 ; cs. io. with aq. by the 

♦19. Ml. Marham (8 se. King's 
Lynn) wn. by TH. from J. W. LitUe, 
gardener, 45, then at TVisbech, Cb. 262. 

♦19. m2. MattithaU (:m8Bts'l) (11 
wnw. Nor?rich} cs. pal. by AJ£. from 
Miss Buckle, of Whitelands, 273. 

♦19. m3. MiddleUm (3 se.King's 
Lynn) wn. by TH. 261, 262. 

♦19. Nl. Narborough (9 se.Kinff's 
Lynn) wn. by TH. 262, and dt. 
pal. by TH. from diet, of a labourer, 
aged 70, p. 263. 

19. k2. North Elmham (13 sse. 
Wells-next-Sea) wn. by TH. 

♦19. ir3. North Tuddenham (11 nw. 
Norwich) wn. by TH. 279. 

♦19. ir4. North WaUham (:wAls«m) 
(13 mie.Norwich) wl. and dt. io. by 
Mr. Baker, J.P. 272. 

♦19. nS. NortDieh (1) wn. by TH. 
from a native living in bb., also 279 ; 
(2) slaneet cries pal. by AJ£. in 1867, p. 
277 ; (3) wl. io. by Be?. G. P. Buck ; 

(A) yarious ex. pal. from diet, by AJE. 
irom Dr. Lomb, 276, Mrs. Luscombe, 
277, Anonymous passenger, 277, and 
from letter of Ber. T. Buraingham, 277. 

♦19. ol. Old Etmtttmton (13 nne. 
Lynn) wn. by TH. 262. 

19. o2. Cmngton (lOTtqtmi) (12 nne. 
Thetford) wl. io. representing 3 n. and 
3 ne. of Watton (11 ne.Thetford) by 
Bev. C. J. Eyans, rect. 12 y., native 
of Norwich. 

19. B. Rinaitead (13 w-by-s.Wells- 
next-Sea) wl. io. by Mr. Everard 

♦19. si. Snettisham (rsnstmnn) (10 
nne.King's Lynn) wn. by TH. 262. 

♦19. 82. Stanhoi (:stain«) (8 sw. 
WellB-next-Sea) full wl. pal. in 1877 
by AJE., dt. pal. by AJE. 1879, both 
from diet, of Kev. Pnilip Hoste, native, 
50 y., in 1877, but then rect. of 
Farnham (10 wsw.Guildfcnrd, St.), 
with many notes and illustrations given 
me in two long visits, with an exami- 
nation of Forby, 264 to 272 ; (2) wn. 
by TH. 272. 

19. s3. Stoke Ferry (13 sse.King's 
Lynn) wn. by TH. 

19. 84. Stow (9 SBW.King's Lynn) 
wn. by TH. 

♦19. 85. Swoffham (13 se.King's 
Lynn) wn. by TH. 262. 

♦19. t1. TerringUm St, Clements 
(4 W.King's Lynn) wn. by TH. 262. 

♦197t2. 2%#//brrf wn. by TH. 279. 

19. t3. TivetshaU (itttsol) (17 ene. 
Thetford) name noted bv TH. 

19. t4. ISatington (12 n.Norwich) 
wl. io. by Bev. J. Gostle. 

19. wl. WalHngham (:wA*lziqgiam) 
(3 s.Wells-next-Sea) name notM by 

♦19. w2. Warham (2 se.Wells- 
next-Sea) wl. io. by Bev. 0. T. Digby, 

19. w3. Watton (11 nne.Thetford) 
wn. by TH. 

19. w4. WeUa-next'Sea, wn. by 

♦19. w5. WiggenhdU St, German's 
(4 ssw.King's Lynn) wn. by TH. 262. 

19. w6. Witton (9 se.Cromer) notes 
by Bev. F. Procter, vie. 

♦19. w7. Wolferton (6 nne.King's 
Lynn) wn. by TH. 262. 

♦19. w8. Wymondham (:wind«n) 
(9 sw.Norwich) wn. by TH. 278. 

S.E. Prom Part V. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




25. Np. »Nortliamptoii8liiTe, 52 places in D 6, 16, 18. 

♦18. Al. Aileitporth (6 w.Peter- 
borough) in Castor parish, wn. by TH. 
from a labourer b. 1808, p. 264. 

♦6. a2. Ashbff 8t, Lexers (3 n. 
Dayentry) wn. by TH. from a native 
shepherd b. 1846, and another b. 1806, 
p. 120. 

*6. b1. JBadby (2| ssw.Dayentry) 
wn. by TH. from persons b. 1807, and 
about 1831, p. 120. 

16. b2. JBlitworth (4 ssw.Northamp- 
ton) note by TH. 

♦16. b3. Brixworth (6 n.Northamp- 
ton) wn. by TH. 219. 

♦6. b4. Bufield (8 nne.Banbury) (1) 
from Rev. F. H. Cureenyen, rect. 4 or 
6 y. ; (2) wn. by TH. especially from 
a native farm waggoner, b. 1803, p. 120. 

♦18. cl. CSwtor (4 J W.Peterborough) 
wn. by TH. 254. 

♦16. c2. Clay Coton (6 w.Naseby) 
wn. by TH. 219. 

♦6. d1. Baventry (12 w-by-n. 
Northampton) wn. by TH. 120. 

16. d2. Benton (6 ese.Northampton) 
wn. by TH. 

16. d3. Buaton (2 W.Northampton) 
from Bev. Peake Banton. 

♦16. Bl. £astKaddon{7nw.^OTtYi' 
ampton) cs. wds. and phr. pal. by A JE. 
in 1873 from diet, of O. S. Hadley, 
railway porter, 213 to 216. 

♦18. b2. Eye (3 ne.Peterborough) 
wn. by TH. from a carpenter, b. 1822, 
and a widow, a cottager, b. 1829, 
p. 264. 

6. F. Fartkinffhoe (:f2irdhtn;oo) (6 
e-by-s.Banbury) wn. by TH. 

♦16. o. Great Houghton (:H'Mt"n) 
(3 ese.Northampton) wn. by TH. 219. 

16. Hi. Haekleten (6 scmrthamp- 
ton) wn. by TH. 

♦16. h2. iraw«ifi^^on(6nw.'Welling- 
borough) wl. dt. io. with Iw. and aq. 
by Miss Downes, of the rectory, 216. 

♦16. h3. Hardingftone (2 sse.Nor- 
thampton) wn. by TH. 219. 

16. h4. Hargrove (9 ene.Welling- 
borough) dt. and notes from Rev. K. 
S. Baker, rect. 

♦16. h5. HarrinaUm {\9xivM) (5 
W.Kettering) wl. and dt. lo. by Hon. 
and Rev. H. F. Tollemache, rect., and 
Miss Tollemache, 217. 

♦6. h6. Helmdon (9 e-by-n.Ban- 
bury) wn. by TH., who says tne dialect 
is similar to that of Towoeeter (which 
see), 120. 

1 6. il . Irehetter, formerly (laa'tjtstu) , 

now (:99*h»8t«) (2 se. Wellingborough) 
wn. by TH. 

*16. i2. IsHp (lA'^tsltp) (8e.Ketter- 
ing) wn. by TH. 219. 

6. l1. iong Buckley {6 ne.DaYeatrj) 
wn. by TH. 

♦16. l2. Lower Benefield (ihwiihld) 
(14 nnw.Wellingborough) wl. and dt. 
io. by Rev. £. M. Moore, rect., and 
Mr. C. H. Wykes, schoolmaster, and 
the dt. afterwards ^. by TH. from 
the dictation of Mr. Wykes and various 
wn. from the same, 218, 219. 

♦16. l3. Lowiek (7 ene.Kettering) 
wn. by TH. 219. 

♦16. Nl. Xether Heyford (6 w-by-s. 
Northampton) wn. by TH. 219. 

♦16. ir2. Northampton (1) wn. by 
TH., and (2) notes from Miss Eva 
Chapman, of Whitelands, who knew 
the town speech only, 219. 

♦16. o. Oundle (12 ne.Kettering) (1) 
notes from Mr. J. Cunnington, Tansor 
Lodge, and Mr. H. St. John Reade, 
school house, (2) wn. by TH. 219. 

♦18. pl. P<fa*ir*(6n.Peterborough) 
wn. by TH. 264. 

♦18. p2. Pip^^oroM^A notes of town 
pron. from Miss E. Furness, of White- 
lands, and wn. by TH. 264. 

♦18. R. Bockingham (8 n. Kettering) 
wn. by TH. from a native, b. 1814, 
and otners, 264. 

♦16. 8l. Sihhertoft (3 n-by-w. 
Naseby) wn. by TH. 219. 

6. 82. Silverstone (12 ssw.North- 
ampton) wn. by TH. 

6. 83. Slapton (11 sw. Northampton) 
dt. io. by Rev. Philip Lockton, rect. 

♦16. 84. Stanion (6 nne.Kettering) 
wn. by TH. 219. 

*16. 85. ^M^^oroM^A (7 ene.Ketter- 
ing) wn. by TH. 219. 

♦6. 86. Syertham (11 e.Banbury) 
wn. by TH. 120. 

18. Tl. Thomhaugh^ w-by-n.Peter- 
borough) dt. io. from Rev. J. Jenkyns, 

♦16. t2. Thraptton (8 e.Kettering) 
wn. byTH. 219. 

♦6. t3. Towoetter (8 ssw.North- 
ampton) wn. by TH. 120. 

18. T7. Ufford (7 nw. Peterborough) 
note by Rev. T. Paley, rect. 

♦18. wl. Wakerley (14 w. Peter- 
borough) wn. by TH. from a farm 
labourer, b. 1806, p. 254. 

♦6. w2. Watford (6 nne.Daventry) TH. 120. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




♦6. w3. 
wn. by TH. 

♦16. w4. 
wn. by TH. 

•16. wl 
TH. 219. 

♦18. w6. 
borough) wn 

16. w7. 

We4don (4 scDayentry) 

We^ord (12 mie.DftTentry) , 
WelUngborottgh wn. bj 

WerrifuUm (3 nnw.Peter- 
. by TH. 264. 
TFest Maddon (7 ne. 

Daventry) from Bey. G. L. W. 
Fauquier, yic. 

6. w8. ^oo£;^»r<!0<#(108BW.North- 
ampton) wn. by TH. 

♦6. w9. ?roo£(^orrf (7 ssw.Dayentry) 
wn. by TH. 120. 

♦16. T. TelvertoftJitK'lvM.) (8 nne. 
Daventry) wn. by TH. in 1886 from a 
farm wanner, b. 1812, p. 219. 

26. Nb.aNorthumberlandy 25 places in D 32. 

32. Al. AeklingUm (:tf0*kltntmi) (7 
sse.Alnwick) notes from Mr. Middleton 
H. Dayid, Hauxley Cottage. 

♦32. a2. Alnwick {\\ dt. io. from 
Ber. James Blythe; m dt. io. from 
Mr. B. Middlemas, soLr., 664, 666, 
668 ; (3) Alnwick Towels, by Mr. G. 
Thompson, 668. 

82. A3. Aneroft (a^nkraift) (4 s. 
Berwick-upon-Tweed) wl. io. and aq. 
from Ber. J. Henderson, 30 y. 

♦32. b1. JBaekworih (6 ne. Newcastle) 
wl. by Mr. G. B. Foster, see Fitments 
speech, 674. 

♦32. b2. Btrwieh^upon-TiD^td^ cs. 
pal. by AJE., from Mr. G. M. Gunn, 
646, 662. 

♦32. b3. JBirtUy (9 nnw.Hexham, 
spelled Birkley in the parish registers) 
wl. io. with notes by Ber. G. Bome 
Hall, 674. 

32. D. DoddingUm (13 s.Berwick- 
mnm-Tweed) wl. and aq. from Mr. 
J. F. Bea, 17 y. 

♦32. B. EmbleUm (6 ne. Alnwick) 
(1) dt. io. for the agricultural popula- 
tion by Bey. M. Greighton, yic. ; (2) 
di, io. for the fishing population up to 
Bamborough (14 n.iUnwick) by Bey. 
C. £. Green), both on 666, 666, 668. 

♦32. p. Falttone (19 nw.Hexham), 
note in 1878 by JGG. 644. 

♦32. Hi. HaUwh\iile(Uyt.llexhKSXi) 
dt. io. with aq. by Bey. W. Howchin, 
664, 666, 664, No. 9. 

♦32. h2. ir<ir^^f/;9(17w8W.Alnwick) 
dt. io. and notes by Dr. F. T. Bichard- 
son, 664, 666, 664, No. 16. 

♦32. h3. Hexham dt. pd. in 1879 
by AJE. from Messrs. J. Wright and 
Dobson, 664, 666, 663, Nos. 7 and 8. 

♦32. K. Jr»iar0»i(i^(17sw.Hexham) 
es. pal. 1876 by JGG. from diet, of 
Mr. Jacob Bell, 663, 602, No. 22. 

32. M. Morpeth wn. by AJE. 

♦32. k1. NewcoitU'On'TynecA.'pX. 
1879 by AJE. from writing of Mr. 
W. H. Dawson, and reading of Mr. 
T. Mitcheson, and Mr. T. Barkas, and 

conyersations with J. Brpon and B. 
Toung, miners, and Mrs. Ferschl, 646, 
660, and dt. pal. 1879 by AJE. from 
Mr. W. Lyall, 664, 666, No. 12. 

♦32. n2. North Shield* dt. pal. 
1879, by AJE. from Mr. J. S. Eding- 
ton, Symes Walk, 664, 666, No. 13. 

♦32. B. Rothbury (11 sw.Alnwick) 
{I) cs. io. with aq. from Bey. Dr. 
Amger, rect., written in 1873 from 
old men of 86 and 72, but it could 
not be properly interpreted eyen yy. 
(2) dt. io. by Mr. C. H. Cadogan, 
Brenchbum Priory. Morpeth; (3) wn 
February, 1879, oy AjE. from J 
Bamsey, procured by Dr. Ainger, 678 \ 
(4) dt. pal. by AJE. from Mr. A. 
Scott, 654, No. 14. 

♦32. si. Snitter (12 wsw. Alnwick) 
pal. by AJE. from Mr. T. AUen, 
of Whittingham, 664, No. 16, serving 
also for w3. 

♦32. 82. Stan^ordham (:stainort«n) 

il2 nw.NewcasUe) dt. io. by Bey. 
. F. Bigge, yic. 664, No. 10. 

♦32. T. Tyne to Wanebeek Biverty 
that is, the coal-fields, for the Pit- 
men's speech by Bey. Hui^h Taylor, 
of Humshaugh (:htanz*ha>f), 40 y., 
reyised by Bey. J. Taylor and Mr. 
W. B. Forster, see b1, p. 674. 

♦82. wl. Warkworth (6 se.Aln- 
wick) dt. and wl. both pal. by AJE. 
from Mr. T. D. Bidley, 664, No. 17 ; 
Ned White, a yam, pal. by AJE. from 
the same, 666 ; cwl. 678. 

♦32. w2. Whalton (6 sw.Moipeth) 
dt. io. by Bey. J. Walker, rect., from 
notes by Mr. B. Bewick, 664, No. 11. 

♦32. w3. JFhittingham (f w.Ahi- 
wick) (1) note by Bey. B. W. Good- 
enough, yic. ; (2) dt. io. by Mr. W. 
Dixon, 666, No. 19, see also si. 

^2. w4. Woodhom (6 ene.Morpeth) 
notes by Bey. E. N. Mangin, ric. 

♦32. w6. WooUr {\) dt. io. by Mr. 
M. T. CuUey, 666, No. 22 ; (2) dt. 
pal. by AJE. from Mr. T. Kirkup, 
666, No. 22, and 669, No. 22. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




27. Nt—Nottingliainshire, 25 places, all in D 27. 

27. b1. Buckingham (2 wnw.Oains- 
borough, li.) aq. from Ber. D. 
Hooke, Tic. 

*27. b2. ^iM^Aom (7 e.Nottingbam) 

(1) Iw. by Mrs. Miles of tbe Rectory ; 

(2) part of a cs. pal. in 1873 by AJjS. 
from the diet, of Mr. Francis Miles, 
son of the rect. 449 ; (8) part of a cs. 
pal. in 1879 by TH. from a natire, 
449 ; (4) wn. by TH. 460. 

27. b3. Blifth (6 nne. Worksop) aq. 
from Bey. Ch. Gray, yic. 

*27, b4. Bulweil (4 nnw.Notting- 
hain) dt. pal. from a retir^ labourer 
by TH. 448. 

♦27. Bl. JBatt Bitfird (7 ene. Work- 
sop) (1) dt. pal. by TH. from the lock- 
keq)er at the Chesterfield Canal, 76, 
who had been there 44 years, and his 
father 66, p. 449 ; (2) wn. by TH. ; 

(3) a note from Ber. A. J. Ebsworth, 

27. b2. Battwood (8 nw.Notting- 
ham) wn. by TH. 

27. F. JntmingU^ (7 ese.Doncaster, 
To.) wl. and aq. from Bot. 6. H. 
WoodhoQse, rect. 

27. o. ChringUy (5 wnw.Oains- 
borongh, li.) aq. from BeT. 6. H. 
Scott, Tic. 

27. X. Kirkby-tn-Ai^/Md (4 sw. 
Mansfield) wn. by TH. 

27. L. I>axton (10 nnw.Newark) wl. 
by Bey. H. A. Martin, 19 y. 

♦27. Ml. Jf<M«>»dt. and wn. pal. 
1879 by TH. 448. 

*27. m2. Maru/Md Woodh<m9$ (2 n. 

Mansfield) dt. paL by TH. from a 
natiTO, 448. 

27. m8. MatUrmg (9 ne. Worksop) 
wds. by Ber. J. M. Lewes. 

27. m4. Mitmm (9 nw. Gains- 
borough, li.) aq. from BeT. I. N. 
Baldwm, Tic. 

27. m6. MUUrton (6 nnw.Gains- 
borough, L.) aq. from Ber. G. Swift, 

♦27. Nl. Niwwk dt. pal. by TH. 
from a butcher, natiTe of Caunton (6 
nw.Newark), 449, and wn. by TH. 

27. k2. North Carlton (4 n. Work- 
sop) aq. from Bot. J. Fozley, rect. 

27. n3. North WheaiUy (12 nne. 
Worksop) from Ber. T. C. B. 
Chamberlain, Tic. 

♦27. n4. Nottingham dt. pal. by 
TH. from a natiTe ci Widmerspodl 
(7 sse.Nottingham), and wn. by TH. 

27. Bl. Baid\f$ (4 e.Nottingfaam) 
full wl. io. by BeT. J. CuUen,'Tic. 4 y. 

27. b2. i&»i^tofitf(9s.Nottuigham} 
wl. by BeT. G. Pope. 

♦27. 8l. SoiUhweU (6 w.Newark} 
wn. by TH. 460. 

27. 82. Sutton (7 ne. Worksop) aq. 
from BeT. J. Fanner, Tic. 

27. wl. WaUilty (8 se.Worksop) 
Iw. by BeT. B. Focklington, Tic. 

♦27. w2. Wbrkoop dt. pal. 1879 bT 
TH. from the porter at the canal whari, 
66, a natiTe of Blyth, see b3, which he 
left at 9, and wn. from the same, 

28. Ox.»OzfordBhire, 22 places in D 5, 6, and 7. 

6. A. Alvtteot (:sl8h«t) (6 sw. 
Witney) wl. by Bot. F. C. Mistfshall, 
rect. 2 y., assisted by an unnamed lady 
who had been there all her life. 

♦6. Bl. Banhwry (1) cs. by Mr. T. 
Beesley, 116; (2) Iw. by his uncle, 118; 
(3) wn. by TH. 118 ; (4) dt. io. by Mrs. 
I*. Bradshaw, jun., Wykham Mills. 
All ^1, 2, 4) refer to about 6 m. round 
Banourr, encroaching on Ox., Bu., 
Wa., which belong to D 7. 

♦7. b2. Blackthorn (11 ne.Oxford) 
wd. pal. by TH. from diet, ot Mrs. 
Angelina Parker, 122, 127. 

6. cl. Charllmry (rtjAAlberi) (12 
nw.Oxford) from Bot. C. F. West, Tic. 

6. c2. Chattleton^A^ sw.Banbmy 
dt. io. from Miss Whitmore Jones, 
ChasUeton House. 

♦6. D. DuekUngton (.ddL'lt'n) fl s. 
Witney) wl. and dt. both io. from 
BeT. W. D. Macray, rect. pal. tt. by 
TH., who noted other words frtxn 
J. Brain, then 81, sinoe deoeaaed, 

7. >. Bntham or Bymham {logDBwa) 
(6 nw.Oxford) specimens from diet, in 
glossic from Bot. W. W. Skeat, sent 
me in MS. but afterwards printed in 
Mrs. Parker's Oxford Glossary, and 
wn. by TH. 

♦7. 71. I^r^eland (4 ene.^tney) 
wn. by TH. 127. 

♦7. 72. Fring/ord (:frtqkfBBi>) (16 
nne.Oxford) wl. and dt. io. with aq. 
by BeT. C. Coker, 123. 

♦7. o. Orogi (2 nw.Henley-on- 
Thames) wl. and dt. both io. by Ber. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




N. Pmder, rect. 17 y., representiiig 
10 m. round, 122. 

•7. Hi. jEr«kflk>foi^A (7 nw. Oxford) 
Of. and dt. rioflsic with many letters 
and explanraona by Mrs. Angelina 
Parto, author of the Oxford Glossary, 
with wn. by TH. from Mrs. Parker, 

^. h2. SstUf^'OH'ThameB (22 se. 
Oxford) from Ticar, 236, where it is 
wrongly attributed to Bu, 

n. h3. MoUm (5 e.Oxford) Iw. 
gloasic by Mrs. A. Parker, 127. 

♦7. 1. Islip (6 n-by-e. Oxford) dt. io. 
by Mr. J. W. P. Walker, obtained by 
Mrs. Parker and wn. by TH. 127. 

*5. Ll. UaJMd (4 nw. Witney) wn. 
from old natiyes by TH. 93. 

6. l2. Lew (3 sw. Witney) wds. pal. 
by TH. from diet, of Mrs. A. Parker. 

6. M. Milton (8 nw. Witney) wn. 
from a working man by TH. 

7. o. 0^/orrfa^y, 
H. Allnutt, procured by Mrs. A. Parker, 
with notes by TH. 

*7. si. Sonning (i ssw.Henley-on- 
Thames) dt. io. by Miss Slade, scnool- 
mistress, obtained by Mrs. A. Parker, 

7. 82. SUme^ld (5 nne. Witney) 
note by TH. 

7. T. T%ddingUm (8 e.Oxford) note 
by TH. 

•5. w. Witm^, dt. by Mrs. A. 
Parker and TH. with wn. from natives 
by TH. 92, 93. 

29. Ra.« Rutland, 5 places in D 18. 

^18. c. Cott$9mor$ (i nne. Oakham) 
wl. and dt. pal. by AJE. from diet, of 
Mr. T. E. Cattell, natire, to whom I 
was introduced by Mist Kemm (see 
Oakham), 265, 266. 

18. B. Empingktm (6 e.Oakham) 
from Ber. LoTick Cooper, rect. 

*18. o. Oakham huukvm) town, 
full wl. io. partly pal. by AJ^. from 
diet, of Miss Kemm, natire, a teacher 

at Whitelands Training College, 
Chelsea, 266. 

*18. 8. Stream (7 ne.Oakham) wl. 
and dt. both io. from Rot. Edward 
Bradley (*' Cnthbert Bede '*) rect. 

18. u. Uppingham dt. and notes 
from Mr. H. Chandler, West Bank. 

18. w. WhitweU (4 e.Oakham) Iw. 
io. from Bar. J. Breeohen, rect. 

30. Sli.« Shropshire, 39 places in D Id, 14, 25, 28, 29. 

14. b1. Baeehwreh (7 nw.Shrews- 
bory) wn. by TH. 

29. b2. iolat Magna (6 n. Welling- 
ton) wn. by TH. 

14. b3. Bridgenorth, notes by TH. 

•14. cl. Church Tulperbaeh (7 sw. 
8hrew8bm7) (1) cs. in ri. by Miss G. 
Jackson, autnor of the Shropshire 
Wordbook ; (2) specimen pal. by AJE. 
from her diet. ; (3) Iw. with nron. pal. 
from her diet. ; (4) wds. taken from 
TH.'s account of tne pron. prefixed to 
her Wocdbook, and rensed by her, with 
examples, 183 to 187. 

14. c2. Clee HiUe (7 ne.Lndlow) 
wn. by TH. with note on the yerbal 
plural in -M. 

18. c3. Chm (22 ssw.S hr ewsb nr y ) 

«29. o4. CW6nN>iti2a2f (4 S.Welling- 
ton) dt. Vjr Bey. F. W. Kagg, native, 

14. c6. Corve Dale, from Wenlock 
Edge to Ludlow, wn. by TH. 

14. c6. Craven Arme (7 nw.Ludlow) 
wn. by TH. 

29. c7. CrudgitMton (4 n-by-w. 
Wellington) wn. TH. 

•29. Bl. J^mofMf (6ne.WeUington, 
1} W.Newport) dt. pal. by TH. from 
a natiye, and wn. 471, 476, 478. 

♦28. b2. JBlletmereJJ ne.Oswestry) 
wn. and dt. pal. by TH. from a native 
b. 1809, p. 462, 466. 

14. F. Ford (6 w. Shrewsbury) nwl. 
from Miss Hawkins, Dinthill. 

28. Hi. jEraMima;(4n-by-e.Shrews- 
bury) wn. by TH. 

•29. h2. Modnet Ciodnii) (10 nnw. 
Wellington) wn. by TH. 478. 

•28. hB. Eordley (13 nnw.Shrews- 
bury) wl. io. by Key. J. W. Moore, 
rect. 466. 

•29. I. Ironbridge, wn. by TH. 

14. Ll. Llanymyneeh (16 wnw.S.) 
aq. on CB. by Bey. N. E. Price, rect. 

14. l2. LongviUe (11 w.Bridge- 
north) wn. by TH. 

•28. l3. LoppingUm (rbpttwi) (10 n. 
Shrewsbury) wl. by Bey. J. W. Davis, 
M.A., 26y. p. 466. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




♦13. l4. Ludlow wn. by. TH. 180. 

♦29. Ml. Jfa^tfA^(5B8e.Welliiigtoii) 
wn. by TH. 483. 

♦29. m2. MarketDraffton{:6iiVn) (17 
ne.Shrewsbury) wn. by TH. 476, 478. 

14. m3. kueh Wenloeh (10 se. 
SbrewBbury) wn. by TH. in 1880. 

♦29. nI. JVi?irpor/ (8 ne.Wellington) 
(1) full wl. io. by Mrs. Bnme, Ix)yn- 
ton Hall, Edgmond, whose danghter 
assisted Miss Jackson in her Sh. 
Wordbook, and (2) wn. by TH. 478. 

25. n2. NorUm-in-HaleM (20 ne. 
Shrewsbury) wn. by TH. 

14.0. 0«u'M^fy(:hadiO!itrt) according 
to Rev. W. Wafcham Mow, of Whit- 
tington, Sh. ; wn. by TH. 

26. Fl. TipegaU (6 ne.Market 
Drayton, see. m2, just on ne. horn of 
Sh.) wn. by TH. 

28. p2. iV«t(l3n-by-e.Shrew8biiry) 
wl. by Yen. Archdeacon Allen, yic, 
14 y. 

♦29. 8l. Shifnal (7 ese. Wellington) 
wn. by TH. 483. 

14. 82. Shrewsbury wn. by TH. 

♦28 V. Upton Magna (4 e.Shrews- 
bury) wn. by TH. 465. 

♦29. wl. WemngUm(\WBi'itmi)ym, 
and dt. pal. by TH. from a working 
man, 472, and wn. 483. 

♦28. w2. Wehh Frankton (3 sw. 
Ellesmere) wn. by TH. 455. 

♦28. w3. Wem (10 n-by-e. Shrews- 
bury) wn. by TH. 466. 

28. w4. ^AitoAt#fY;A(18nne. Shrews- 
bury) wn. byTH. 

14. w5. 1rhittinaton(2 ne.Osweetry) 
full wl. by Rey. W. Walsham How, 

*28.w6. FA»«iff(13n.Shrew8bury) 
dt. io. with explanations from Rey. J. 
Erans, Tic, a yery old resident, but 
a Welshman, not a natiye, 452. 

♦28. Y. Torton (7 n.Shrewsbury) 
wn. by TH. 466. 

31. Sm.BSoinerBet8liire, 26 places in D 4 and 10. 

♦3. A. Axe- Tariff district by the late 
Mr. G. P. R. Pulman, s.Sm. 87-89. 

4. Bl. Bath, cs. gl. by Mr. 0. 
Galbraith, written on the spot by a 
louj^ resident, but when I, who nad 
resided in Bath two years, attempted 
to pal. it, I was so often brought to 
a standstill, that I was only able to use 
it as a Iw. 

10. b2. JBifhopU Mull (1 w-by-8. 
Taunton) cs. pal. byAJE. from diet, of 
Rey. Wadham Williams, author of a 
glossary, but as he was a native of 
e.Sm. I haye preferred Mr. Elworthy's 
yersion, see Wellington. 

3. b3. JBurtle Turf Mow (8 ne. 
Bridffewater to centre of Burtle Heath 
on we riyer Brue) wds. and phr. by 
Miss Westmacott, sent through Mr. 
F. H. Dickinson, of King*8 Weston, 
Somerton (4 ene.Langport). 

♦4. cl. CattU Gary (jkBTt) (10 se. 
Wells) wl. io. by Mr. Ross, resident 
above 80 y. 89. 

4. c2. Chard (12 sse.Taunton) wl. by 
the late Rev. Henry Thompson, yic. 

4. c3. CA«/«)y (:t|Bdii) (2 e.Bridge- 
water) from Mr. u. Winter, resident 

♦4. c4. Comhe Down (:kuum) (2 s. 
Bath) wl. by Mr. C. Daubeny, The 
Brow, 89. 

4. c6. CompUm Dando (6 w.Bath] 
note by Rey. C. M. Christie, 4 months 

4. c6. Crewkeme (11 s-by-e.Lanff- 
port) dt. io. with notes by the late Mr. 
G. P. R. Pulman (d. 1880), author of 
"Rustic Sketches." 

4. c7. Croicomhe (3 e.WeUs) wl. io. 
by Mr. James Roesiter. 
. 4. B. Eaut Harptree (12 sw.Bath), 
from Rey. C. H. Nutt, 26 y. 

4. u. High Ham (3 n.Langport) 
from Rey. C. D. Grossman, 2^ y. 

♦4. L. Langport (:la'mptaiT) words 
collected in 1877 from a native servant 
by Mrs. Dawes, then of Newton House, 
Surbiton, 89. 

♦4. Ml. Jf(WT«)<(9s-by-e.Langport) 
cs. and wl. by Mr. G. P. R. PiUman, 
87, 88. 

10. m2. Milverton (6 w.Taunton) 
cs. io. by Mr. H. Randolph, surgeon, 
resident 42 y., procured for me by Dr. 
Prior (see Corsham, Wl.) . I have found 
it quite impossible to determine the 
pron. from this writing. 

♦4. m3. Montaeut0{:mMnikia){Sme. 
Langport) pal. in 1880 by AJE. from 
Messrs. G. Mitchell and S. Price, 

4. n1. NaiUea (ins'izi) (16 w-by-n. 
Bath) from Rev. J. Johnson, rect. 3J y. 

4. n2. North Wootton (2 se.Wells) 
from Rev. Owen B. Tyler, vie. 30 y* 

4. si. Sutton Mallet (4 e.Bridge- 
water) wds. by Rev. A. Tarranton, 
representing 7 e.Bridgewater, obtained 
by Miss Westmacott, and sent through 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




Mr. F. H. Dickinson, see Bnrtle Turf 

4. 82. Sufontwiek (:8wanzwik), the 
spelline Swainswick is a literary reyival 
(2 ne.Bath), note by Bey. John Earle, 
rect. 20 y. 

10. T. Taunton cs. io. hj Mr. 
Cecil Smith. I hare found it im- 
poeaible to determine the pron. from 
the spelling. 

♦4. wl. Wedmore (7 wnw. Wells) 
phr. procured from a friend by Mr. 
C. A. Homfray, Manor House, o9. 

♦10. w2. »^«//tiv^o«(6w8w.Taunton) 
(1) pal. by AJE. in 1874, 1875, and 
1886, from diet, of F. T. Elworthy, 
cs. 148; (2) specimens 161 to 163, 

cwl. 163; (3) from Mr. E.'s West 
Somerset Grammar, yersion of Ruth, 
chap. i. 698, No. 6. 

nsMt Somerset f see Wellington, 
4. w3. Wincanton (16 se. Wells) 
pal. by JGG. from diet, of Mr. Roberts, 
natiye, who had known the dialect 
30 y., but was tiien liying at New- 
biggin, Cu. On account of Mr. R.*s 
long residence in the North, this care- 
fully pal. wl. was found untrustworthy, 
and could not be used. 

•4. w4. ^(wfo (2 ne.Weston-super- 
Mare) nwl. with long explanatory letter 
from Rey. W. F. Rose, vie, referring 
to the whole of nw.Sm. 90. 

32. St-StafPordshire, 51 places in D 25, 26, 29. 

♦26. Al. AUtoneJleld (:A>rsffld) (9 
e.Leek) including Narrowdale (2 n. 
Alstonefield) wn. by TH. 441, 444. 

26. a2. Alton (:deft*n) (10 sse.Leek) 
wn. by TH. 

26. A3. Audley (-.■'idlt) (6 nw. 
Stoke-upon-Trent) wl. io. and aq. from 
Mr. G. Till, 11 y., but notwithstanding 
exphuiations I was too uncertain of the 
meaning of his symbols to use it. 

♦29. 3l. Barton-under-yifedwood {6 
sw.Burton-on-Trent) Iw. by the late 
Mrs. Willoughby Wood, of HoUyhurst, 
482, and pron. of a carol, 477. 

26. b2. Betlev (6 wnw.Newcastle- 
under-Lyme) wl. and dt. io. from 
Miss £. ToUet, from obsenration made, 

26. b3. JBidd^h^hid'l) (9 n.Stoke) 
wds. from Rey. F. Elmes. 

26. b4. Blpthe Mar$h (7 se.New- 
castle-under-Lyme) wn. by TH. 

29. b6. Bradley (4 ssw.Stafford) 
wl. and phrases lo. by Rey. R. L. 
Lowe, yic. 

♦26. b6. Burslem (3 n.Stoke) cs. 
pftl. by TH. from diet, of one native, 
and corrections by another, and wn. 
414, 422. 

♦29. b7. Burton-on^ Trent dt. ^al. 
by TH. from diet, of a native, 471, 
and wn. and exa. 477, cwl. 482. 

♦29. cl. CJannoek Chase {e, of Cannock 
Town c2, and w. of Lichfield) cs. pal. 
by TH. from diet, of a native, 463, 
and wn. 480. 

♦29. C2. Cannock Town (9 sse. Staf- 
ford) wn. on a market day by TH. 480. 

26. c3. Cheadle (:tpidU) (9 ese. 
Stoke) wl. by Rev. R. Watt, rect., 
and wn. by TH. 

♦29. c4. CodsaU (6 nw. Wolver- 
hampton) just on b. of Sh., wl. by 
Mr. £. YUes, of CodsaU Wood, 484, 
and dt. pal. by TH. from a man of 69. 

♦29. Dl. Darlaston (3 wsw. Walsall) 
dt. pal. by TH. from diet, of a native, 
472, and also the anecdote of the Wake 
Beef pal. by TH. 478,andwn. 461, 484. 

26. D 2. Denston (12 sse.Leek) wn. 

♦29. Bl. Eeeleshall (7 nw.Stafford) 
vra. and dt. pal. by TH. 471, 476, 478. 

29. b2. Envitle (10 ssw. Wolver- 
hampton) wl. by Mr. E. Bennett, of 
the ochoolhouse, which is close by the 
b. of Sh. Wa. and St. 

♦26. Fl. /•te»A (7 nne.Leek) dt. pal. 
by TH. from a native, 438, additional 
ex. 441, and wn. 444. 

♦26. p2. Froghall (9 e.Stoke) wn. 
by TH. 422. 

♦29. Hi. Hanbury (6 nw.Burton- 
on-Trent) wn. and part of a dt. pal. 
by TH. 482. 

♦29. h2. Haughton (4 sw. Stafford) 
wn. by TH. in 1882 from Powell, b. 
1798, and his wife, the latter a native, 
and says there is no difference between 
the speech of Bradley and that of 
Haugnton, 477, 480. 

♦29. h3. Hopwas (rop'Bz) (2 wnw. 
Tamworth) wn. by TH. 482. 

♦26. Ll. Leek, dt. and wn. by TH. 
411, 422. 

♦25. l2. Leek FHth (4 n.Leek) wn. 
by TH. 422. 

29. l3. X^A (1 1 se.Stoke) TH. 

♦29. l4. Lichfield, wn. and dt. by 
TH. from a native, 472, 482. 

♦26. l6. Longport (2 n.Newcastle- 
under-Lyme) wn. by TH. 422. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




25. l6. lAngUm (3 se.Stoke) wn. 
by TH. 

25. M. Modeled (4 wsw.Newcastle- 
under-Lyme) wn. by TH. 

29. N. Ntwborouah (7 w-by-n. 
Burton-on-Trent) nwl. by Bey. J. P. 
Wright, Tic. 8 months. 

25. o. Oakamoor (12 e.Newcastle- 
under-Lyme) wn. by TH. 

*26. R. RocMter (15 eee.Stoke) wn. 
by TH. 422, 444. 

25. 81. SheUon (I n.Stoke) fuU wl. 
by Dr. J. B. Davis, F.R.S., F.S.A., 
materially assisted by Mr. Levi Stan way, 
Registry St., Stoke, and wn. by TH. 

29. 82. Stafford, wn. by TH. 

25. 83. ^to^0-t<pm-2Wfi^ and neigh- 
bouring Tillages, wn. by TH. 

26. 84. Stoke Gutter Farm, abont 
5 ne.Leek, on the way from Leek to 
Flash and past the Kioaches, wn. by 
TH. shewing the diyision between 
D 25 and D 26. 

29. 85. SUme (:stann) (7 s.Stoke) 
wn. by TH. 

29. 86. StretUm (8 ssw.Stafford) wl. 
and dt. io. by Rey. J. W. Napier, yic. 

♦29. Tl. ra}fit<H>r<A,wn.byTH.482. 

«25. t2. IWMteff (4nnw.8toke) wn. 
by TH. 422. 

*29. t3. Tutbury (4 nw.Bnrton-on- 
Trent) wn. by TH. 482. 

29. ul. Upper (or Over) Arley 
(13 sw.Dodley, Wo.) note by Rey. 
C. J. Wilding, yic, who said there 
was only one St. man resident there. 

29. u2. mtoxeter (12 ne.Stafford) 
wn. by TH. 

♦29. wl. Wai9aU wn. by TH. 461, 
478, 484. 

♦29. w2. Wedneehury (3 sw. Walsall) 
wn. by TH. 461, 484. 

♦29. w8. Weet JBromtcieh (5 saw. 
Walsall) wn. by TH. 461, 484. 

♦29. w4. mUenhaU (3 e.Wdyer- 
hampton) wn. by TH. 461, 484. 

25. w5. Wolitantom (.nnstttm) (1 
nne.Newcastle-under-LynuB) nwl. by 
Mr. W. Field, Brighton Road School, 

♦29. w6. WoherhamptoH, wn. by 
TH. 461, 484. 

♦29. w7. JFootUm (U 8BW.£ocle- 
shall) wn. by TH. 478. 

♦29. T. rM^(6nne.Lichfield}wn. 
by TH. from a native, 482. 

88. Sf.«STifPolk, 12 places in D 19. 

19. b1. S&jfton (13 e-by-n.Ipewich) 
note from Rey. G. C. Hoste, rect. 

19. b2. BradweU (:braed'l) J7 nnw. 
Lowestoft) note by Rey. J. Walker, 
rect., '* 13 years resident, but does not 
profess acquaintance with the dialect.*' 

♦19. F. Ftamlingkam (13 nne. 
Ipswich) GS. pal. in 1880 by AJE. 
from diet, of Mr. J. B. Grant, native 
of Kettieborough, 279. 

♦19. ol. Sreat Bealinge (4 ne. 
Ipswich) wn. by TH. 281. 

19. o2. Great Finborough (.ftnbrv) 
(10 se.B^ St. Edmunds) full wl. io. 
by Rev. W. V. Kitching, 16y. 

19. H. SemingtUme (6 n. Ipswich) 
Iw. by Rev. T. Brown, rect. 54 y., 
who says: <<what between railroads 
and education the Sf. dialect is fast 
dying out." 

♦19. o. Orford (:AAftid) (4 sw. 
Aldborough) including Sudboume (1 n. 
Orford] and neighbourhood, dt. pal. by 
AJE. from diet, of Mr. C. Davis, 285. 

♦19. p. Fakenham (5 ene.Bury St. 
Edmunds), pal. in 1873 and 1886 by 
AJE. from diet, of Rev. 0. W. Jones, 
vie. native, 287. 

♦19. 8l. Southwold (11 ssw.Lowes- 
toft), full wl. from diet, of Miss C. M. 
MaUett, teacher at Whitelands, native, 

19. 82. Stoumarket (18 ese.Bury St. 
Edmunds) Iw. partiy in gl. by Mr. £. 
S. Bewley, 15 y. 

19. u. Ufford (10 ne.Ipswich) wl. 
io. by Mr. F. C. Brooke, 60 y. 

19. T. TaxUy (20 ene.Bury St. 
Edmunds) notes in 1873 from Rev. 
H. SeweU, vie. 

34. Sr.-Surrey, 13 places in D 6, 8. 

♦5. cl. Charlwood, called (:tiol«d} 
by old people, (6 asw.Rei^te) wl. and 
ex. io. by Key. T. Bummgham, then 
rect., more than 50 y., 109. 

♦8. c2. Cherteey m w.Croydon) 
from Rev. R. Marshall Martin, 8 v., 

♦8 c3. Chobkam (8 nnw.Gufldford) 
note by Rev. J. J. Jewan, vie, more 
than 50 y., 130. 

♦8. c4. Croydon wl. by Mr. W. 
Taylor Malleson, Duppas Hill, 11 y., 

5. Bl. Fhtead (:«lsted) (7 sw. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




Gmldfoid) from Ber. I. R. Charles- 
worth, rect. 

6. b2. BufhuTit (8 86. Guildford) 
notes hy Rey. J. Mount Barlow, rect. 

6. ol. GotUUmmg (4 sw.Guildford) 
note from Mr. J. W. Shupe, Charter- 

5. o2. C'iNiftofitf (9 Bse.Croydon) wl. 
hy Rer. G. T. Hoare. 

6. H. Ea$kmer$ (12 sw. Guildford) 
note hy Mr. T. J. Mis. 

*8. L. Ltrntherhsad (7 nw.Rdgate) 
note in a letter from Mr. Alfred W . T. 
Martel to LLB. 130. 

*5. 0. Ockley (8 sw.Reigate) wl. 
pal. hy AJE. from diet, of Miss Jane 
Sayers, of Whitelands, and of Miss 
M. A. Firth, 109 (where the name is 
misprinted * Forth'), and Iw. and notes 
from Rev. T. P. du Sautoy, Oxford, 
rect., 12 y. 

♦6. 8. Stoke (1 n.Guildford) wl. 
pal. hy AJE. from diet, of Miss Jane 
Slyfleld, of Whitelands, 109. 

♦6. w. Weald of Surrey s. of 
Reigate ; the Weald extends into Kent 
and Sussex, nwl. and dt. io. hy Dr. 
Clair Jas. Grece, Redhill, Reigate, 109. 

35. Ss.« Sussex, 19 places in D 5, 8. 

9. A. Aekhumham (:eshh«R«m) (10 
nne.Easthoume) note m>m Rer. J. R. 
Munn, Tie. 50 y. 

9. Bl. ^a/</^(6nnw.Hastings),wn. 

6. b2. Bolneif (:ho0nt1 (12 n-hy-w. 
Brighton) Iw. and notes oy Mr. Alfred 

9. b3. Brighton, wn. hy TH. 

6. cl. Qm^toH (8 nw. Chichester) 
note from Rey. Harry Peckham, 26 y. 

•8. c2. Cuc^field A se.HorBham) (I) 
wl. jpal. hy AJE. m>m diet, of Miss 
A. Sayers, of WhiteUnds, 134; (2) 
wd. hy Archd. Fearon, natiye. 

6. b1. Eartham (ismthvm) (5 ne. 
Chichester) note hy Rey. £. Kelly, 

*9. b2. Eaethoume, wl. pal. hyAJE. 
from diet, of Miss Francis, of White- 
lands, 134. 

9. b3. Etehingham (18 ne.East- 
houme) note hy Rey. W. H. Eley, rect. 

5. K. Kirdford (:kaafti*<^ a nearly 
extinct pron. (10 w-hy-s. Horsham), 
wl. hy Miss Cole, of the rectory. 

9. l1. Leasam or Leeeham (8 ne. 
Hastings) wl. from Miss Bessie Curteis. 

9. l2. Letoesy name noted hy TH. 

•9. M. Markly (8 wnw.Battle) dt. 
with aq. and notes hy Miss Anne M. 
Darhy, 133. 

9. p. Faeinguforth (:p8BS*nweth), 
wrongly spelled on p. 131, 1. 4, hut 
righthr 1. 14 (14 nnw.Easthoume and 
4 e.Uckfield), notes from Mr. Louis 
Huth, Pasingworth Hawkhuist. 

*9. 8. Selmeeton (8 nw.Easthoume) 
dt. io. hy Rey. W. D. Parish, author 
of the Sussex Glossary, 133. 

6. T. Twineham (10 nnw.Brighton) 
from Rey. W. Molyneux, rect. 

9. wl. Weald of Sussex (n.Bnghton) 
Iw. from Mr. Somers Clarke, jun., 
Belgraye Mansions, Grosyenor Gardens, 
S.W., 30y. 

6. w2. West Witterina (6 sw. 
Chichester) from Rey. W. D. Under- 
wood, yic. 

♦6. w3. Wisborouffh Oreen (8 wsw. 
Horsham) Iw. from Bey. W. A. Bartlett, 
yic. 109. 

36. Wa.« Warwickshire, 23 places in D 6, 29. 

^9. Al . ^/2m^ &a<# (4 w.Coyentry) 
wn. hy TH. 487. 

•29. a2. AthersUme (12 n.Coyentry) 
cs. pal. hy AJE. from diet, of Mr. K. 
8. Knight, 14 y., 464, and wn. hy 
TH. 487. 

6. b1. ^Mr20y (4 nnw.Stratford-on- 
Ayon^ wn. hy TH. shewing southern 

•29. b2. Bedworth (6 nne.Coyentry) 
wn. hy TH. 487. 

•29. b3. Birmingham^ often (:hrom'- 
«d|!mi, hrM^- hra-) full wl. hy Mr. 
Samuel Timmins, 488. 

•29. b4. Brandon (6 ese.Coyentry) 

wn. hy TH. from a natiye then at 
Leamington, 487. 

•29. b5. BulkingUm (6 ne.Coyentry) 
wn. hy TH. in 1880 from a native and 
his mother, in whose lifetime the pron. 
had changed, 487. 

•6. b6. Butler's Marston (^msaB^n) 
and 6 miles round (10 s-hy-e. Warwick) 
wl. io. hy Rey. E. Miller, 116. 

•6. cl. Claverdon (5 w.Warwick) 
wn. and dt. hy TH. from a natiye, 1 14. 

•29. c2. Coventry refined town 
speech, wn. hy TH. 487. 

•29. c3. Curdworth (ikerdBth) (7 
ne.Birmingham) wl. and dt. io. hy 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




Mr. J. Montafae Dormer, Danton 
Hall, Minwortb (:m«nBth), 28 y. 

*29. E. Elmdon (7 ese.Binningham) 
wl. by Mr. F. J. Mylins, of the rectory, 

♦6. k1. Kineton (rkj intra) by work- 
ing men, Mcdint*n) by the middle class 
(9 s-by-e. Warwick) wn. by TH. from 
a native, 115. 

6. k2. KnowU (10 nw. Warwick) 
wl. io. by Rev. J. Howe, vie. 40 y. 

*29. L. Leamington (2 e.Warwick) 
wn. by TH. from a native, 488. 

♦29. N. NuneaUm (9 nne.Coventry) 
wn. by TH. 487. 

♦6. pl. PilUrUm Priort (7J se. 
Stratford-on-Avon), now united with 
Pillerton Hersee to form one parish, 
wn. by TH. from a native labourer, b. 
1819, 115. 

*29. p2. FoUtworth (14 n-by-w. 
Coventry) wn. by TH. in 1879 from 

elderly resident natives and habitual 
dialect speakers, 487. 

29. si. ^/^/^ (2 ene. Birmingham), 
a mere suburb, wn. by TH. from 
people in the street. 

29. 82. Sherborne (3 ssw.Warwick) 
wl. io. by Rev. W. Grice, shewing 
practically rec. pron. 

♦6. 83. Stratford-on-Avon (1) cs in 
BO. by Mr. O. H. Tomline, school- 
master, made for LLB. who passed it 
on to AJ£., who did not succeed in 
palaeotyping it; (2) wn. by TH. in 
1880, 115. 

♦6. T. I^8oe (11 se. Stratford-on- 
Avon) (1) wl. by Mrs. Francis, of the 
vicarage, completed from diet, by TH. ; 
^2) wn. by TH. in 1886 principally 
from a man b. 1802, and his wife b. 
1809, p. 115. 

*29. w. JTarwick wn. by TH., the 
general effect on the ear being quite 
Midland, 488. 

37. We.— Westmoreland, 10 places, all in D 31. 

31. A. Appleby cs. io. with aq. by 
Rev. C. Holme, native of Orton (9 
ssw Appleby), several years in Mr. 
Richardson s school at Appleby, repre- 
senting m.We. This careful work, 
over which Mr. Holme and I spent 
much time iu 1873, has been entirely 
superseded by JGG.'s work. 

♦31. cl. Casterton (10 se.Kendal, 
and 2 ne.Eirkby Lonsdale) cs. pal. 
1875 by J60. from a native, 558, 
563, 597^*, No. 6. 

•31. c2. Crosby Ravensttorth {6 aw. 
Appleby) pal. 1875 by JOG. from 
dictation of Mr. J. Dover, 560, 563, 
599^, No. 13, 633. 

♦31. Kl. Ketidal (1) cs. pal. by 
JGG. from diet, of Mr. Joseph Brown, 
559, 563, No. 9 ; (2J wl. in glossic by 
Mr. J. Brown himself. 

♦31. k2. Kirkby Stephen (9 sse. 
Appleby) pal. 1876 by JGG. from diet. 

of Mr. Joseph Steel, 560, 663, 599, 
633, No. 12. 

♦31. L. Zone Sleddale (6 n.Eendal) 
cs. pal. 1875 by JGG. from diet, of 
Rev. T. Clarke, 559, 563. 

♦31. M. Milbum (5 nnw. Appleby) 
cs. and wl. pal. by JGG. while residing 
there two years with the assistance of 
natives, 561, 563, 599, 633. 

♦31. o. Orton (11 ne.Kendal) (I) cs. 
pal. by JGG. from diet, of J. Dover, 
560, 563 ; (2) wl. io. by Rev. C. Holme, 
superseded like a. by tne work of JGG. 

31. 8. Shap (9 wsw. Appleby) note 
by JGG. that Mr. Hindson, of Kirkby 
Lonsdale, b. 1800, remembcnred hearing 
(kh, ku^h) in use near this place in 

♦31. T. Temple Sowerby (6 nnw. 
Appleby) cs. pal. by JGG., and finally 
revised 1877 from diet, of Mrs. Atkinson, 
of Winderwath, 561, 563, 699, 633. 

38. Wl." Wiltshire, 18 places, all in D 4. 

4. A. Aldboume (:aabvBN) (8 se. 
Swindon) wl. io. from Mr. T. H. 
Chandler, jun., who spent the greater 
part of his youth there. 

4. cl. Calne (6 n.Devizes) (1) nwl. 
Rev. G. H. Wayte, Bonehill, Tam- 
worth, 30 y. ; {2) nwl. Rev. W. 
Wayte, 80 y., his orother. 

♦4. c2. Chippenham (8 nnw.Devizes) 

from JGG., Hornet and Beetle^ 51, 
cwl. 54. 

♦4. o3. Christian Matford (10 nnw. 
Devizes) pal. by AJ£. from diet, of 
Rev. Arthur Law, cs. 44; phrases, 48; 
cwl. 49. 

4. c4. Corsham (7 n.Trowbridge) 
from Dr. R. C. A. Prior, Hdse 
House, Taunton, cs. pal. from diet, by 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




AJE. Dr. Prior inirodnced AJE. to 
Rev. A. Law, whose C8., p. 44, 
superseded this one. 

4. c5. Cor$leif (8 ssw. Trowbridge) 
from Mrs. O. M. E. Campbell, Corsley 
House, 50 y., wl. io. and notes. 

4. D. Damerham (:dflBm*«RBm) (9 s. 
Waton) wl. io. by Rer. W. Owen, 
Tic., assisted by his schoolmaster, a 

4. B. Ea$t XnoyU (13 w.Wilton) 
wl. from Rot. R. N. Milford, rect, 
12 y. 

4. K. Kmnbls (4 sw. Cirencester, Gl.) 
wn. by TH. 

4. M. MaddingUm f:m»d*nton 
maaBnt'n) (7 n. Wilton) wl. io. from 
Ber. Canon Bennett^ yic. of Shrewton 
(1 n.Maddington). 

4. o. OrekeaUm fros'n) 8t. Gettrgt 
no sse. Devises) wl. io. from Rev. 
Gorges Paulin Lowther, rect., from 
70 y. to 80 y., then 86. 

4. P. Pi$rUm (6 nw.Swindon) (1) wl. 
io. for 4 m. round by Major Purton, 
Purton House ; (2) wn. by TH. 

4. si. Salisbury (3 w-by-s. Wilton) 
to Warminster (16 nw. Wilton) (I) wl. 
io. 1877 by Mr. T. H. Chandler, 
Rowde ; (2) dt. 1879 written from his 
diet, by ms son. 

4. 82. Seend (4 w.Derises) wl. io. 
by Rey. A. B. Thynne, vie. 

4. 83. Soptc&rtk (:zflap'Bth) (18 n. 
Trowbridge) wl. io. for 4 m. west 
and 10 m. east of Swindon, by Rev. 
Joseph Buckley, rect. 

H, T. Ttlshead (8 sse.Devizee) from 
Miss L. H. Johnson, Hoektying and 
dt. 68, cwl. 69. 

4. w. Wilton wl. and dt. by Mr. 
Edward Slow, coachbuilder, ana con- 
stant resident. 

4. T. Tateshwry (:J8etsb«ri) (7,nne. 
Devizes) wl. io. from Rev. A. C. 
Smith, rect., 60 y. 

39. Wo. = Worcestershire, 26 places in D 6, 13, 29. 

*6. A. AhberUy (8 ssw.Kidder- 
minster) wn. by TH. 113. 

*8. b1. JBinysworth (a suburb of 
Evesham on the opposite side of the 
Avon) wn. by TH. 113. 

•6. b2. Bewdley(:hi9!ttdli)Zsw.'Kid' 
derminster) wn. in 1880-1-2 by TH. 
especially from a nonaffenarian, about 
94, full of vivacity, reading and sewing 
without spectacles, when young a maker 
and seller of ling brooms, 113. 

6. b3. Birfs Morton (6 s.Gieat 
Malvern) wn. from a native by TH. 

•29. c. Cradley (rkr^dlt) (9 ne. 
Kidderminstor) wn. from native hop- 
pickers by TH. 486. 

♦6. Dl. JDroitwieh (6 ne-by-n. 
Worcester) wn. by TH. 113. 

^9. d2. Dudley (on an island of 
Wo. locally in St.) os. by Mr. R. Woof, 
procured y LLB. 463, 464. 

6. D3. DmUeu (6 ssw. Kidderminster, 
between Abberley and Stourport) wn. 

13. Bl. Eastham (10 sw.Kidder- 
ndnster) wL and dt. lo. by Rev. H. 
Browne, rect., see Tenbury. 

•6. b2. Eldersfield ^ s. Great 
Malvern) wn. in 1880 by TH. from a 
native b. 1801, left at 18 and resided 
since in m. Wo. 113. 

6. 13. JSvesMsm, dt. and wn. by TH. 
from a market gardener. 

*6. Gl. Great Mahem, wn. by TH. 

♦6. o2. Great Witley (9 sw. 
Kiddermin8ter)wn. by TH. 113. 

•29. Hi. Maaley (6 ene.Xidder- 
minster) wn. by TH. 486. 

♦6. h2. Banbury (6 wsw.Redditch) 
dt. and wn. pal. bvAJE. from diet, of 
Miss Turner, of Whitelands, native, 
112, 113. 

6. hS. . Hartlebury (3 sse.Kidder- 
roinster) dt. with aq. from the Misses 
Haviland, of the rectory, and wn. by 

6. K. Kidderminster, wn. by TH. 
from natives. 

*6. M. Malvern Wells and Link, wn. 
by TH. see Gt. Malvern, 113. 

*6. si. Saleway (8 sw.Redditch) 
wn. by TH. in 1880 from a native, 

«29. 82. Selly Oak (14 ene. Kidder- 
minster) wl. pal. by AJE. from diet, 
of Miss Sadler, of Whitelands, a 
native, and wn. by TH. in the neigh- 
bourhood, 486. 

•29. 83. Stourbridge (6 ne Kidder- 
minster) wn. by TH. wno found the 
speech quite Mid. 486. 

6. 84. SUmrport (4 ssw.Kidder- 
minster) wn. by TH. who said the 
speech nad '* the southern ring.'* 

13. T. Tenbury (.-tsmbm) (16 wsw. 
Kiddenninster) dt. io. by Miss Sweet 
(now Mrs. Chamberlai^, author of 
<*A Glossary of West Worcestershire 
Words with Gloasio Notes by TH.,*' 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




apd wn. bj TH. in 1880 from Mifls 
Sweet and others. [This was acci- 
dentally omitted in giving the account 
of D 13.] 

6. V. l^tonSnodhury{6e,WoTceBieit) 
note per Eev. J. Wright, vie. 

♦6. w. TTorcester {\)dt.iMl.}}yTR. 
112; (2) wn. byTH. 113. 

40. Yo. -Yorkshire, 93 places in D 24, 30, 31. 


24. A. Armitage Bridff0 (i^emnUd}) 
{% B.Huddersfield) nwL by Mr. Thomas 
Brooke, 46 y. 

24. b1. ^offt^oroti^A (6 w Doncaster) 
pc. from Rev. Wilmot W. Ware, rect. 

«24. b2. Barmley dt pal. 1887 by 
TH. from diet, of a native, 403. 

24. b3. Birkeruhaw (7 sw. Leeds) 
wn. by TH. 

*31. b4. Black Burton or Burtm- 
iH'Lonsdaief To. (32 nw.Keighley) on 
b. of La., on the Oreta, Sewara*s Dm- 
lo?ae translated by Mr. J. Powley, and 
p^ by JGO. 608 to 616, also cwl. 619. 

*24. b6. Bradford (1) cs. written in 
by CCR. 367, notes 390 ; (2) words 

im Preston's Poems, 391 ; (3) wn. by 

24. b6. ^rotA^ton(3nne.Ponte6ract) 
pc. from Rev. G. Haslam, vie. 

*30. b7. Burton Constable (7 ssw. 
Hornsea) wn. by TH. incidBntally 
mentioned on the middle of p. 601. 

Burton'in'Lontdaley see Black Bur^ 

*24. cl. Cdhcrley (6 wnw.Leeds) 
dt. pal. 1887 by TH. from a native, 

24. c2. Camptall (6 nnw.Doncaster) 
pc. from Rev. Edwin Castle, vie. 

*31. c3. CautUy^ a hamlet in the 
township of Sedberg (41 nw.Keighley), 
on b. of We., (1) cs. pal. 1876 by 
JOG., used as variants to the cs. for 
Sedberg, notes No. 8, p. 669, 698 ; (2) 
portion of a wl. pal. by JGG. from 
the diet, of Mr. Law, then 60, a 
regular old dalesman, in whose house 
JUG. lived some weeks, left incomplete. 

«31. c4. ChapcUU'daU (29 nw. 
Keighley) wl. pal. by JGG. 619. 

31. c6. Clapham (16 n.Clitheroe, 
LaJ, extracts from a cs. pal. 1887 by 
TH. from W. Metcalfe, native. 

Daerty see Lower Nidderdale, p. 600. 

«30. Dl. Danby-in-Cletfcland (16 
se.Middlesborough) wl. and dt. both 
io. by Rev. J. C. Atkinson, author of 
the Cleveland Glossary, dt. 619, 621, 
cwl 627. 

♦31. d2. Dent town (27 n-by-w. 
Clitheroe, La., 12 ese. Kendal, We.) 
cs. and wl. pal. 1876 by JGG. from a 
native, cs. 668, 663, 698, cwl. 630. 

♦24. d3. Dewabury (6 w.Wakefield) 
(1) cs. written in gl. by CCR. with 
notes, 367, 404; (2) cs. io. by Mr. 
M. ^dg[way, 37 y., sent to LLB., who 
communicated it to AJ£., with CCR.'s- 
notes on his orthography. 

♦24. d4. Doncatter, wl. pal. by 
AJE. 1877 and 1882 from Dr. John 
Sykes, who kindly came to town twice 
for the purpose, 406. 

30. d6. Drax (6 nw.Goole) 2 pc. 
from Rev. S. H. Hooper, vie. 

30. Bl. JEast HadtUeeey (11 wnw. 
Goole) pc. and letter from Rev. J. N. 
Worfold, rect. 

♦24. b2. EaetEardwiek (28.Ponte- 
fract) pc. from Rev. G. £el, vie. ; 
alluded to, AObd. 

♦30. b3. Eaet ffoldemcss, se.Yo. 
dt. pal. by AJE. from diet, of Mr. 
Stead, 622. 

♦24. b4. £lland (8 sse.Halifax) dt. 
pal. 1887 by TH. from a native, 384. 

♦31. ol. OiggUewick {\ w.Settle, 
19 n.Bumley, La.) dt. pal 1887 by 
TH. from diet, of a native, 648. 

«24. o2. Oolcar (2 w.Huddersfield), 
see 377<;. 

♦30. o3. Ooole and Marshland dt. 
pal. by AJE. from diet, of the late 
Rev. Dr. W. H. Thompson, 622. 

30. Hi. jETeK^ibiMa (6 W.Scarborough) 
wl. io. from Rev. Thomas Cheese. 

♦24. h2. Mali/ax (1) cs. written in 

fl. by CCR. 367; notes 384; (2} 
^arable of the Prodigal Son translated 
by CCR. in Part. IV. pp. 1400 to 
1406 ; (3) wn. by TH. ; (4) cwl. from 
J. Crabtree, 383. 

30. h3. Batfield {fi\ ne.Doncaster) 
pc. and letter from Rev. G. Haydon, 

MaweSf see Upper WensleydaU^ u6, 

24. h4. Eaworth (3 sw.Keighley) 
wn. by TH. 

♦30. h6. ^oUItfmtfM district, forming 
se.Yo. from Hull to Spumhead, ana 
n. to Bridlington: (1) cs. pal. by AJE. 
from Rev. Henry Ward, 601, 602, 618, 
who also save me a version of Launce 
atid Speedy not used. The assistance 
of Rev. H. Ward was obtained by the 
late Rev. J. R. Green, the historian ; 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




(2) dt. for East Holderneas, see aboTe 
b3 ; (3) cwl. made from wl. furnished 
br Messrs. B. Stead, F. Boss, and 
T. Holdemess, the three authors of the 
Holdemess Oloasary, 632 ; (4) TH.*8 
▼iaits to eTHmine (thr- dnr-) and 
absence of article, 601. 

*24. h6. Moltn/lrth (6 s.Hndders- 
field) nwl. bj Mr. A. Beardsell, 40 y., 

*30. h7. ffomma, TH.'s examina- 
tion of (thr- dhr-), 601b, e, 

*Zl. h8. fforUm-in-HibbletdaU (19 
n-bj-e.Clitheroe, La., 21 ene.Lan- 
caster, between Ingleborongh and 
Penjghent Hills) wl. pal. by J6G. 
from a natire, 619. 

*31. h9. MowfiU(B ene. Kendal, We.) 
wl. paL 1876 by JOG. from Mf. Best, 
a natiTe, who called on AJ£. also, 630. 

*24. HlO. Eudd$r8ji$ld (:M,d«zfild, 
:tidh«zftl) (1) cs. written in gl. by COB. 
367, 878 ; (2) wL by Messrs. Dowse 
& Tcmilinson, and Miss Mercy Hibbard, 

♦30. Hll. EuU (IJ wn. by TH. 
50U, c; (2) wL io. by Ber. Canon 
Simmons, Dalton Holme (:dAAt*n 
:oom, :m1). 

*31. Hl2. Hurti (8 w.Bichmond) 
di paL by TH. from diet of a natiye, 

81. I. mUy (6 nne.EeighleT) wL 
pal. by JOG. from dictation of Mrs. 
Best, not used. 

♦24. K. KHghUy (:kiikjhl», :kiithlt) 
m cs. written in gl. byCCB 367 ; notes 
886 ; (2) fragments <rf a cs. pal. in 1887 
from a natnre by TH. 886; (8) wl. 
paL by JOG. from Mrs. Foster, 387 ; 
(4) wL io. by Mr. Septimns Brifff, for 
town of Keighley ana np the iSSbj of 
the Aire as to as Bradley f6 nnw. 
Keighley), misprinted Bradford, 887. 

•31. Ll. Laithkirh (20 nw.Bich- 
mond) cs. and wL io. oy Bey. W. 
Bobinson Bell, yio., inteipreted by a 
cwl. by JOG. paL from dici, this 
Implies to the nw. horn of To. 624. 

^. l2. Le0dt (1) cs. written in gL 
by CCB. with notes, 367 ; notes, 396 ; 
(2) refined town form, 396 ; (8) fall 
wL written in gloasio, 897. 

*80. l3. Livm (6 wBw.Hornsea) 
wn. by TH. described p. 601 h, c, 

♦30. l4. X^^Ammm, see Lcwtr 
irUUUrdaU, 600. 

♦30. l6. Low^ NldderddUf contain- 
ing Lofthooses (16 nw. Harrogate), 
Bamsgill (14 nw.H.), Pateley Bridge 
(11 nw.H.}, Gieeobow Hill(10 nw.H.), 

Dacre (8 nw.H.), cs. written in gL by 
CCB. 600, 602, 616. 

♦24. Ml. Mannxngham, suburb of 
Bradford, wn. by TH. shewing use of 
(nJ 365, which Dr. Wright thinks to 
be a mistake, 389. 

♦30. m2. Market WeigkUm (:wiit'n) 
(9 w.Beyerley) (1) cs. lo. by Mr. J. 
Kirkpatrick, who also gaye specimens ; 

(2) another cs. by Mr. H. Doye ; (3) 
glossic transcription by CCB. ; (4) cs. 
and wl. pal. 1877 by AJ£. from read- 
ing of Bey. J. Jackson Wray, C8..601, 
602, 617 ; spec. 497, 498 ; cwl. 529. 

♦24. m3. Mar9dm{7 sw.Huddersfield) 
(1) nwl. by the curate (unnamech, as- 
sisted by Mr. B. Bunford, School 
Terrace ; (2) printed specimen sent by 
Mr. Adshead, then of Pendleton, La. ; 

(3) dt. and wn. by TH. 379, 380. 
Marshland, see (}oole at o3. 

♦31. m4. MtddUamoor (14 w-by-n. 
Bipon) cs. written in gl. by CCB., a por- 
tion giyen nnder Upper Nidderdale, 544. 

♦30. m5. Mid Yorkshire, district 
defined, 499, cs. written in gl. by 
CCB. 502, 613 (repeated 557, 563), 
and full wl. also written in gl. by 
CCB. 523. 

♦30. m6. Moors, The, meaning 
Whitby, Malton, Pickering (7 n-by-e. 
Malton), or the east part of Nor^ 
Bidinff, dt io. by Bey. J. Thornton, 
yic. of Aston Abbot, Aylesbury, 519. 

Muker, see Upper Swaledaie, u5, 

♦30. n1. 2few Malton cs. written in 
el. by CCB. considered a subdistrict of 
his Mid To., see aboye m5, 499 last 
line, 500, 502, 516. 

North Craven, see aboye. Burton' 
in-Zonedale, b4 ; Chapel-le^dale, o4 ; 
HorUm^in-Ribblesdale, h8. 

♦30. n2. North East Coast, district 
defined, p. 500, No. 8, cs. written in gl. 
by CCB. 502, 517. 

♦30. n3. North Mid Yorkshire, 
district defined, 499, No. 3, cs. written 
in gl. by CCB. 502, notes 515 ; this is 
for the ordinary rural speech; CCB. 
gaye also a cs. in refined rural form. 

31. n4. North (^Richmond, refined 
phase, cs. written in ^1. by CCB., 
i^parently as a reminiscence of the 
pron. of an indiridual mentioned in 
CCB.'s Leeds Glossary, p. ziii ; being 
a refined form, it is onutted here, as 
was the refined form in ir3 aboye. 
The peasant speech of which this was 
a rennement was probably the same 
as that of Laithkirk aboye, l1. It is 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




made remarkable by tbe frequent use 
of (9) as (99t net td bi req by sa'ikvn 
a peent ez dhis) ou^bt not to be wrong 
of=on sucb a pomt as tbis, (loa-in 
8 t^'tit ot weel Hqtb etap* e)t* firea'tmd 
tlooa bty)t^ uos daer «▼ tz gee^ua seonde 
koot dae'tm at kaanar a Jan laan) lying 
stretcbed at wbole lengtb atop of tbe 
ground close by tbe bouse door in bis 
good Sunday coat at comer of yon 

*24. o. 0$$et (4 w.Wakefield) wn. 
by TH 366. 

Pauley Bridge^ see Lower Nidder- 

30. p. JR0<?*/iii^<o>i(12e-by-s.York) 
(1) wl. io. by Miss Lucy Singleton, 
Ureat GiTendjde House; (2) full wl. 
io. by Dr. T. Wilson, more tban 60 y. 

RamtgiUi see Lower NidderdaUy l5 

*31. r1. Richmond wl. io. by Mr. 
George Bell, noticed p. 644a. 

30. r2. Ripon to Thirak (taking 
parts of CCR.^s Mid and North Mid 
Yo., aboTe m5 and -irS), wl. io. by 
Mrs. Uoyd, Haselcroft, Bipley (7 s. 

24. &3. Ripponden (5 sw.Halifaz) 
wn. by TH. from two snepberds. 

24. B.4. Rouingion (4 se.Doncaster) 
pc. from Bev. J. W. Scarlett, rect. 

^4. r5. Rotherham, cs. written in 
gl. by CCB. 367, 404. 

24. &6. Roundhay (3 ne.Leeds^ nwl. 
by Mr. F. M. Lupton, 27 y. frombirtb. 

♦24. 8l. Saddteworth wl. io. by Mr. 
6. H. Adsbead, 380. 

♦31. 82. Sedberg (31 w.Bicbmond) 
cs. pal. 1876 by JOG. from diet. 669, 
663, 698. 

30. 83. S^% (10 nw.Goole) pe. 
from Bev. F. W. Harper, vie. 

♦24. 84. Sheffield (1) cs. so. by Prof. 
Parkes, procured tbroagb JAHM. and 
friends, 367, 406 ; (2) notes on vowels, 

30. 86. 8ke//ling (4 se.Patrington, 
near Spurn Head) wl. io. from Kev. 
H. Maister, vie, all bis life. 

♦30. 86. Skelton-in-Cleveland (16 
wnw. Wbitby) dt. io. witb long notes 
by Mr. I. Wilkinson, read to me by 
Mr. J. W, Langstaff, of Stangbow 
(3 sse.Skelton), 619, 621. 

♦31. 87. Skipton (8 nw.Eeigbley) 
(1) cs. written in gl. by CCB. extracts, 
644 ; (2) dt. pal. 1887 by TH. 648. 

*24. s8. Slaithwaite{4 sw.Hudders- 
field), see 377, var. i. 

♦30. b9. Snaith (6 w-by-s.Goole) (1) 

wl. io. by Bev. J. W. Norman, 633 ; (2) 
pc. from Bev. C. £. Stores, vie. 

♦30. slO. South Aituty, denned i99 
No. 2, 08. written in gl. by Mr. B. Stead 
and pal. by AJE. 499, 602, 614 No. 2. 

♦30. 8ll. South Cleveland district 
defined 600, cs. written in gl. by CCB. 
600, 602, 616 No. 7, tbe n.Cleveland 
bas been spoiled dialectally by tbe iron 

24. 8l2. South Owram(\iae,'aaHBJ.) 
wn. by TH. bas only (») as noted, 366. 

♦30. 8l3. ^fton (3nne.Hull) 
by Mr. £. Frencb, tben of tbe lead 
works, 167 Cburcb St., Hull, see Cb. 7. 

♦30. 8l4. Swine (6 nne.Hull) wn. 
by TH. from a native of Hull, wbo 
bad resided 20 or 30 years at Swine, 
alluded to, 601 6, e, 

24. Tl. Thornton (6 n. Halifax) wn. 

24. t2. Tiekhill (7 s.Doncaster) pc. 
from Bev. Cbarlee Bury, vie. 

♦31. ul. Upper Craven with Upper 
Nidderdale, cs. written in gl. by CCB. 
extracts given, 644. 

♦24. u2. Upper Cumberworth (6 
sse.Huddersfield) dt. and wn. pal. 1881 
by TH. from diet. 880. 

♦31. u3. Upper Mining Dale*, i.e. 
Swaledale and Arkengartbdale, cs. 
mitten in gl. by CCB. extracts given, 

♦31. it4. Upper Nidderdale, cs. 
written in gl. by CCB. extracts given, 

♦31. u6. Upper Swaledale OT Muker 
(16 w-by-s.Bicbmond) cs. pal. 1876 
by JGG. from many natives 667 (wbere 
it is called Upper Swaledale), 663, 
696 (wbere it is called Muker) , extracts 
644, and cwl. also by JGG. 619 ; JGG. 
likewise gave a trs^islation of Launce 
and Speed, wbieb was transcribed into 
bis own gl. by CCB. and re-rendered 
by JGG. 1878, but as tbe example is a 
bad one it is not given. 

♦31. u6. Upper Weneleydale or 
Havoea (20 wsw.Bicbmond) cs. pal. 
1876 by JGG. from a native, 667, 663, 
696, all No. S under Sawet. 

30. wl. Waghen or Waume (4 se. 
Beverley) wl. io. by Bev. G. Wilkin- 
son, 36 y. 

♦24. w2. JFakeJleld wn. by TH. 
incorporated witb a cwl. deduced from 
Mr. W. S. Banks's printed List </ 
Words, 401. 

♦30. w3. Wdahhum River region, 
lying between the Wbarfe and tbe 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




Kidd, remarkable for use of (th) for 
def. art., cs. written in gl. by CCB. 
600, 602, 616, all No. 6. 

•30. w4. Whitbv (1) dt. and wl. 
both io. by the late Mr. F. K. Robin- 
son, dni^ist, author of the Whitby 
Glouary, dt. 619, 621, cwl. 627 ; (2) 
dt. io. for this included in the Moors, 
by Rev. J. Thornton, 619, 621rf'. 

•24. w6. WindhiU (3 n.Bradford) 

dt. pal. by AJE. from Dr. J. Wright, 
native, 389. 

York Aintiyf see South Aimty above 


30. T. York City refined speech, 
used by tradespeople and best class of 
inhabitants of rural market towns ; cs. 
gl. by CCK. and Mr. Stead, but 
omitted as not being genuine dialect, 
see remarks on Leeds refined form, 396. 

41. Ma.«l8le of Man, 3 places, all in I) 23, Yar. ii. 

•23. xl. Kirk ChHtt Lezayre {2 
w. Ramsey) dt. pal. by TH. from diet, 
of a native, and wn. 361, 363, 

♦23. k2. Kirk ChrUt Buthen (4 w. 
Castletown) dt. pal. by TH. from diet, 
of natives, 361, 363. 

23. x3. Kirk Patrick (2 s.Peel) 
wn. by TH. from diet, of Mrs. E. 
Qorphey, b. 1866, native, wife of in- 
formant for Kirk Christ Lezayre. 

♦23. p. Peel dt. and wn. in 1881 by 
TH. from natives, 361, 363. 


36 places in D 2, 3, 13, 14, 28, or in no district. 

Observe "aqCB." means "Answers to Questions respecting the Celtic Border." 
means, not considered in this book, because the peasants do not habitually 
converse in English. 

43. Bb.kB&bconshibb. 
4 places in D 13. 

13. b1. Brecon f aqCB. from Rev. 
D. Griffith, vie. 

•13. b2. Breconehire, eastern or 
English-speaking part, with w.He. wl. 
by Mr. R. Stea^ see Folkestone, Ke. 

13. b8. BuiUh (13n.Brecon) aqCB. 
from Rev. A. J. Coore, vie. 

13. c. Crickhowel (12 ese.Breoon) 
aqCB. from Rev. B. Somerset, rect. 

46. Cm.sCabmabthbk. 
1 place in no district. 
0. c. Carmarthen cs. and wl. of 
Welsh-English of 1830 by the late 
Mr. W. Spurrell, author of a Welsh- 
English Qrammar and Dictionary. 


4 places, 3 in D 28, 1 in no district. 

28. c. Chirk (9 ssw. Wrexham) 
aqCB. from Rev. T. H. Simpson, vie. 

•28. H. Holt (6 ne. Wrexham) aoCB. 
from Rev. H. Wray, vie, note from 
Mr. E. French (see Sutton, To.), and 
wn. by TH. 468. 

0. B. Ruabon (6 sw. Wrexham) 
aqCB. from Rev. M. Edwards, vie. 

*28. w. Wrexham aqCB. by Rev. 
D. Howell, vie, and wn. by TH. 468. 

48. Fl.«= Flint. 
8 places, 6 in D 28, 3 in no district. 

•28. b1. ^tf//»f^/tf (6 sw. Bangor, de- 
tached) wn. by TH. from a native, 466. 

•28. b2. BretUm (3 sw.Chester, 
main) wn. by TH. 468. 

0. p. Flinty aqCB. from Rev. E. 
Jenkins, vie. 

•28. Hi. Eanfiur (6 wsw.Bangor, 
detached) wn. 466, and dt. pal. byTH. 
from a native, 462, and dt. io. by Mr. T. 
Bateman, of Arowry, a hamlet m Han- 
mer, and letter from Rev. M. H. Lee. 

•28. h2. Hawarden (6 ese. Flint, 
main), aqCB. from Rev. S. Gladstone, 
rect., dt. io. from Mr. Spencer, school- 
master, and wn. by TH. 468. 

28. h3. Eope (6 se.Mold, main) 
aqCB. by Rev. J. Riowlands, vie. 

0. M. Mold^ S.Flint) aqCB. by 
Rev. Rowland Ellis, vie. 

0. K. Northop (3 S.Flint, main) 
aqCB. by Rev. T. Williams, vie. 

49. Gm.sGlamo&oanshirb. 
3 places, 1 in D 3, 2 in no district. 

•3. o. Oowerlandf dt. io. and note 
from Rev. J. D. Davies, 13d, 36. 

0. L. Llantriseant (10 nw. Cardiff) 
aqCB. from Rev. J. Powell Jones, vie. 

0. M. Merthyr Tydvil^ aqCB. from 
Bev. John Griffith, rect. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




61. Ho. bHontoombktbhibx. 
9 places, all in D 14. 

14. b1. J^rritfu; (3 nw.Monteomery) 
a^CB. from Bey. Joseph Baines, 

14. b2. BuHington (2 ne. Welshpool) 
aqCB. from Ber. J. Lewis, vie, and 
note from Bey. D. Phillips Lewis. 

14. F. Forden (3 n.Mont^mery) 
aqCB. from Bey. J. E. Vise, vie. 

14. o. GuiUJield (2 n. Welshpool) 
aqCB. and note from Bey. D. Phillips 
Lewis, vie. 

14. K. Kerry {2 ese.Newtown) aqCB. 
from Bey. W. Morgan, yic. 

14. L. Llandrinio (8 nne. Welshpool) 
aqCB. from Bev. £. B. Smith, rect. 

*14. M. Montgomery^ aqCB. and 
letter containing much information on 
the CB. from Bev. F. W. Parker, 
rect. 146, 1830. 

14. 8. Snead (6 se.Hontgomery) 
aqCB. from Bev. Q. 0. Pardee, 

14. w. TTftfApoo/, aqCB. from Bev. 
J. S. Hill, vie. 


4 places all in D 2. 
*2. &. Rhdt andDaugJeddgMundreds, 
the two sw. peninsnlas of Pm. (1) Bev. 
J. Tombs, rect. of Barton (3 n. Pem- 
broke) sent me a dt. 32, printed lecture 
and notes; (2) Mr. F. T. Elworthy 
sent notes, 34 ; (3][ notes from Mr. £. 
L. Jones, master oi Brooklands School, 
Sale, Manchester, native of Tenby, 34 ; 
(4) dt. from diet, by Mr. W. Spurrell, 
32, with specimens of Narberth Speech, 
34 ; {5) notes from Yen. Archdeacon 
Edmonaes, of Warren, 34. 


3 places in D 13. 

♦13. B. Boughrood (18 sw.Presteufn, 
at the extreme s. of the county) aqCB. 
from Ven. H. de Winton, Arch, ol 
Brecon and vie. 179. 

13. L. Llanddewi Tetradenng (11 
wsw. Knighton) aqCB. from Bev. L. 
A. Smith, vie. 

13. N. Nnc Radnor (7 sw.Presteign) 
aqCB. from Bev. J. Gillam, rect. 


39 places in D 33 to D 42. 


3 places in D 39. 

♦39. A. Ab. generally (1) numerals 
from Mr. Melville Bell's Vitible Speech, 
726 ; (2) sentences from the same, 777. 

♦39. B. Buehan district, fl) Buth, 
chap. i. pal. by Dr. JAHM. from diet. 
698, No. 3 ; (2) nwl. by Dr. Findlater, 
779 ; (3) words selected from J. Alex- 
ander's Johnny Oibb of Outhetneuh, 

*39. c. Cromdr district, MS. phonetic 
account by the late Mr. Samuel Innes, 
died about 1866, given me by Mr. T. 
H. Bidge in 1872, partly read to me 
in 1883 by Jane Morrison, native of 
Tarland, m Cromlir, servant of Sir 
Peter Lumsden, and fresh from Tar- 
land, who knew Mr. Innes by name ; 
(1) his account of the pron. 766 to 
768; (2) his examples. The Meeting^ 
769; TuU-tide, 770; The Fighty 773; 
Notes, 775. 

56. At. •> Atbshi&b. 
6 places in D 85 and 36. 
♦35. A. Ayr, Buth, ohap. i. pal. by 

Dr. Murray in his DSS. p. 240, with 
cwl. from It, 698 No. 2, 742. 

♦36. c. CoyUon (6 ese.Ayr) (1) cwl. 
io. representing the district ot Kyle, 
742 ; (2) dt. 10. with notes pal. by 
AJ£. 731, both by Bev. Neil living- 
stone. Free Church, Manse. Tms 
might be put to x2. 

*85. xl. KUmamoekf phonetic trans- 
cription of Bums's Tarn o' Shanter 
by Messrs. Thomas Lang (then of 
^ilmamoch), CarstairB Douglas, B. 
Giffen, and others, pal. with notes by 
AJE. 731-741. This might be put 

♦35 and 36. x2. JTyfe, (1) W. 
Simson's words (printed) 742; (2) a 
word from Miss U. Q. Hamilton. 

♦36. M. New Oitmnoek Ci6 eBe.AjT.)f 
Bums's son^ of J)une«m Gray, written 
1847 by me in my extended phonotypic 
alphabet of that year, from the diet, of 
John Lowe, and pal. from the original, 

♦35. o. OehiUree (loo'Wliri) (11 e. 
Ayr) nwl. by Mr. D. Patrick, 1877, 
then in Edinburgh, but knowing the 
dialect « all his iSe," 28 y., 742. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




67. BA.=BANPF8Hnil. 

1 place in D 39. 
»39. K. Kfith, by Rer. Walter 
Gregor, native, see 683, No. 6. (1) cs. 
written io. and pal. by Dr. Mniray, 
684, 695; (2) cwl. pal. from Mr. 
Gregorys dictation by AJE. 779 to 
78o ; (3) notes and phrases dictated at 
the same time as (2), 777 to 779. 

68. Bw.bBbbwickbhibb. 
1 pkoe in D 34. 
*34. c. Chimside (9 wnw.Berwick- 
npon-Tweed) by Rev. George Wilson, 
Free Church, Glenluce (16 w.Wigton, 
dt. and nwl. in io. pal. by AJE. from 
indications, both 726. 

60. Cs.s Caithness. 
1 place in D 40. 
*40. w. TFick (1) cs. pal. 1874 by 
AJE. from diet, of Mr. A. Meiklejohn 
and Revs. J. Sinclair and R. Macbeth, 
583, No. 7. 684, 696 ; (2) wd. from 
Hiss C. G. Hamilton. 

64. Dp.sDuicnLiissHiBB. 
1 place in D 36. 
*36. T. T^nroH (14 nw.Dnmfries) 
notes and Iw. in 1868 by Bfr. James 
Shaw, 749. 

66. Ed. sEdinbv&ohshibji or Mid 


1 place in D 34. 
*34. B. Edinburgh (1) cs. pal. by 
JAHM. from diet, of Mrs. Ch. Murray, 
native, 683, No. 3, 684, 696,.726rf; 
(2) Lothian sentences from Mr. Mel- 
imB BeU's Viiible Speech, 724; ^3) 
numerals from the same, 726; (4) 
CenM Scottish from Dr. Murray's 
DSS., pp. 144 to 149, may belonfl[ to 
D 34, 36, 36, or any part of Mid 
Lowland, as the wordis are not dis- 
tinguished, 727. 

67. Fi.=FiFiaHiRB. 
2 places in D 34 and D 37. 

•34. J. Fifeahire generaUy, (1) sen- 
tences from Mr. Melville Bell's Vitihle 
Speech, 725; (2) numerals from the 
same, 726. 

*37. K. Nevcburgh'On^Tay (8 wnw. 
Cnpar) dt. io. with notes by Rev. Dr. 
Alex. Laing, 762. 

B.E. Pron. Part ▼. 


3 places in D 38. 

*38. A. Arbroath cs. written in io. 
by Mr. W. J. Anderson, pal. by Dr. 
J. A. H. Murray, 683, No. 6, 684, 

*38. B. Brechin nwl. by Mr. J. 
Guthrie, Royal Bank of Scotland, 26 y., 

*38. D. Dundee (1) dt. pal. 1881 by 
AJE. from diet, oi Miss ^e^;^, then 
of Whitelands, 758, with notes and 
phrases from the same, 759 ; (2) notes 
by Mr. G. Clarke of the West End 
Academy, 760. 

69. Hd. sHaddimotonbhibb or East 


1 place in D 34. 

*34. L. Linton (6 ne.Haddington) cs. 

io. by Mr. J. Teenan, really, gen. D 34, 

almost identical with 684, No. 3, 



1 place in D 88. . 
»38. o. Gle^farquhar (11 w-by-s. 
Stonehaven) £rom Mr. J. Koes, M.A., 
Rector of tiie High School, Arbroath, 
Fo., native, (1) notes, 766; (2) dt. 
so. 758; (3) nwl. with aq. and long 
explanations, 760. 


1 place in D 36. 
*86. K. Kirkpairiek-Durham (:kil- 
pee-trik) (6 n.Castle Douglas) nwl. by 
6ev. W. A. Stark, 6 y., 749. 


1 place in D 36. 
*35. o. Olataow and Clydesdale 
generally, (1) Clydesdale sentences from 
Mr. MelnUe Bell's ViHble Speech, 
730, 742; (2) wl. io. by Mr. John 
Alexander, tiien of Glasgow (:gle8kB), 
60 y., 742. 

77a. Ob.«Orknbt. 
forming one county with Shetland, 
here separated as 77^, and placed 
after Se, » Selkirk, because they 
have been placed in separate dis- 
tricts; 1 place in D 41. 
*4l. 8. Sanda, northern isles, the 
residence of Mr. W. Traill Dennison, 
who in 1880 published his Orcadian 
Sketch Book, out of which has been 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 





taken Paety ToroTs TraveUye, with 
the pron. corrected by himself tv. in 
Aug. 1884, p. 791 to 802, and he also 
wrote and dictated to me tt. his trans- 
lation of John Gilpin into older Orkney 
speech, June, 1888, p. 802 to 811. 

78. Pb. tsPBBBLBSHI&B. 

1 place in D 34. 
*34. p. Peebles co. generally, 
numerals from Mr. MelTille Belrs 
VieibU Spewhy 726. 

79. P&.s=Pbbth8hibb. 
1 place in D 37. 

•37. p. Perth, or neighbourhood, 
1) dt. pal. by AJE. from diet, of 
'isses Miles, PoUar and Eidd of 
Whitelands in 1881 ; (2) words from 
Enga pron. by the same, both 763. 

80. Bf.bRsnfkbwshibb. 
1 place in D 35. 
*35. L. Loehwinnoeh (:lokh'en!akh) 
(12 sw. Renfrew, misprinted 6 sw. on 
p. 747) words and phrases contrasted 
with Ochiltree, Ay. by Mr. Dand 
Patrick, 747. 


5 places in D 33. 
*33. H. Hawick (l)pron. abstracted 
from Dr. Murray's DSS. 710 to 713 ; 

(2) cs. written in pal. by Dr. J. A. H. 
Murray, natiye, 682 No. 2, 684, 694 ; 

(3) Ruth, Chap. i. pal. by Dr. JAHM. 
from his DSS. p. 241, Teviotdale 698, 
No. 1 ; (4) Teviotdale sentences from 
Mr. MelTiUe Bell*s Vitible Speech, 714 ; 
(5) numerals from the same, 726 ; (6) 
scotch Hundredth Psalm, from Dr. 
JAHM.'s DSS. 716 ; (7) South Low- 
land cwl. from DSS. increased by 
communications from Dr. JAHM. 716 
to 721 ; as all of these are based on 
Dr. Murray's authority, they are aU 
classed under his natiye place. 

*33. L. LiddetdaUHead^nesxThoTM' 
shop (12 8-by-e.Hawick), cwl. pal. by 
JGG. from Mr. Jackson, 76y., 721. 

33. B. Roxburgh Toum (17 nnw. 
Hawick) cwl. pal. by JGG. from diet, 
of Mr. D. Ross, then of Milbum, but 
26 y. from birth ; not intended for publi- 
cation and not printed. 

33. T. Teviotdale Head (8 se.Hawick) 
cwl. pal. by JGG. from Mr. Linton, 
Lewisbum, Plashetts (24 nw.Hexham, 
Nb.), 20y., not intended for publication 
and not printed. 

33. T. Tetholm (.-jaath'm) (8 se. 
Kelso, 1 m. from the Nb. b. on the 
road to Wooler, a great gypsy settle- 
ment) from diet, of Mr. T. Kirknp, 
M. A., natiye of Wooler, 16y., for 4 
of which he was a pupil teacher in 
Yetholm, (1) a wl. partly corrected in 
pal. by AjE. from nis dictation ; (2) 
at. pal. by the same from the same ; 
neither used, see p. 656 d. 

83. Sb. «= Sblxibkshirb. 
»83. Selkirk fsffilkrik, rsaelkrit) wl. 
pal. by JGG. from diet, of Mr. J. 
Mitchell, of Howgill Castle, Milbum, 
We., natiye, but 26 y. absent from 
Scotland ; not printed. 

77*. Sd. eSHBTLAND. 

4 places in D 42*; this forms one county 
with 77a Orkney, which see after 
74 Lk. 

*42. D. Dvnrosenesiy southernmost 
point of mainland 8d. (1) cs. written 
m io. by Mr. Dayid Cogle, fisherman, 
native of Cuningsboroueh, and pal. 
by AJE. from the diet, of Miss A. B. 
Malcolmson, of Lerwick, 683 No. 8, 
684, 696 ; (2) in print '« Shetland 
Fireside Tales by G.S.E." (Mr. G. 
Stewart, of Emnburgh, native of 
Dunrossness), given me by Mr. Cogle, 

42. L. Lerwick, {\) Parable of the 
Prodigal Son in Sa. speech, written 
in io. by Mr. Arthur Laurenson, of 
Lerwick, and pal. by me from diet, of 
Miss Anna B. Malcolmson, 816; {2) 
nwl. by Mr. A. L. of whidi tne 
principal words were pal. by me from . 
the diet, of Miss A. 6. M. 818. 

42. 8. Shetland generally, {I) MS. 
Glossary of words collected oy Mr. 
A. Grant, and sent to Prince L.-L. 
Bonaparte, who lent it to me ; (2) '* A 
Shetland Letter " communicatea to me 
in MS. by Prince LLB., and translated 
by Mr. A. Laurenson, but as it has 
not been read tb me, I have not used 
it ; part of it is printed in the 'Zetland 
Directory and Guide,* 1860. 

*42. u. Un»t (\) MS. Glossary of 
words collected by Dr. L. Edmondstone 
with the pronunciation of several 
marked by Walker's symbols, belonging 
to Prince L.-L. Bonaparte, who lent 
it to me ; (2) in print ' The Parable of 
the Sower,' Matth. xiii. 3-9, trans- 
lated in 1868 by Dr. LE. for Prince 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

VI., VII.] 



LLB., and commimicated by him with 
Annotations to the Philological Society 
of London, 20 June, 1878, p. 817. 

86. "Wo. eWlOTOWNSHIBB. 

2 places in D 36. 

*86. o. Oknluet (glBnlyyisWlS w. 
Wigton) nwl. by Bey. George Wilson, 

Free Church, Glenluce, who went over 
every word with his deacon, James 
McCulloch, 68, native, whose father 
kept up the dialect well, 749. 

*36. B. Stranraer (26 w-bv-n. 
Wigton) cs. pal. by AJB. from oict. 
of Messrs. W. Boyd, M. Armstrong, 
and R. Caddow, 683, No. 4, 684, 
695, 749. 


117. Wx.=Wbxpobd. 00. 

1 phice in D 1. 
. 7. Forth and Barffy baronies. 

letter from £. Hore, and from printed 
matter by Bev. William Barnes, pp. 


This consists of two distinct parts given for convenience in one alphabetical 
arrangement. The first is a reverse index to the Alphabetical County List VI., 
enabling the reader to refer back from the informant's name to his contribution. 
The name in roman letters is followed by the usual two-letter abbreviation of 
the name of the county in italics with if, IT, ^, / prefixed if it belongs to the 
Isle of Man, Wales, Scotland, or Ireland. This refers at once to the Alpha- 
betical Counties List, YI., which is arranged first in countries, and then in 
counties. Then follows the initial, numbers if necessary, which refers to that 
given under the name of the county in YI., and immediately points out the place, 
whence the information was derived, and whence all the necessary particulars 
can be found. When more than one counter is referred to, a — is interposed. 

The second part contains those names wmch are not introduced in Yl. because 
they could not be conveniently referred to a specified place in a county. These 
for distinction are printed in italics with generally an indication of the matter 
for which any name is cited, and the pafe where it will be found. When the 
name also belongs to the first part, only the indication is printed in italics. 

The names of all persons or books mentioned in my treatise from which I 
have directly derived information are thus given — errors excepted. The names 
of those from whom my informants derived their knowledge, though occasionally 
given in ^e text, are generally not inserted in this list, although there are a few 
exceptions, as no rule could be conveniently observed in inserting or omitting them. 

The names of some of the books used are also given, and it may be assumed 
that I have consulted every important book on dialects that has appeared (p. 5d), 
although not specially named. These I did not consider it necessary to specify. 
See the Biblicfiraphy published by the English Dialect Society and its own 
publications. The peculiar character of this treatise consists in unprinted and 
hitherto uncoUected sources of information on which it is founded, and it is to 
those from whom I procured it that this Alphabetical List mainly relates. 

Adcock, Miss M. A. Le, 

Adshead, Q. H. To. ii3. 


AfrieoUCt waU^ 22. 
Ainger, Bev. Dr. Nb. r. 
Alton, W. General View 

of Agriculture in the 

Co, of Ayr, 729a. 
AkemuM*8 * Hornet and 

BeetU,' pal. 61 to 64. 
Alexander, J. SLk. o. — 

and tee Oibb, SAb. s. 
Alfred King, 2. 
Alien, Yen. Archd. 8h. 


Allen, Orant, * Are ice 
Englishmen f* 9 note. 

Allen, Miss. Le. *b4. 

Allen, T. Nb, •el. 

Allen, Bev. T. T. Du. d. 

Allnutt, W. H. Ox. o. 

Auchmaty, Bev. A. C. 
He. l6. 

Anderson, W. J. SFo, a. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




Anonymous, Tic. Co, l1. 

— vie. Du. a2. — 
rector. ^Et. b. — Tic. 
He. A. — Tic. Li. b3. 

— senrant. X». •£. 

— passenger. Nf, *n5. 

— vie. Ux. h2. — 
curate. To, m3. 

Anstey, Mary. Lv, •il. 
Arden, Mrs. Jjouglas. Li, 

Hi. s8. 
Amoldy jr., his pron. of 

*fate,' 33ft. 
Armstrong, Bev. £. P. 

Li. 86. 
Armstrong, M. 8Wg, s. 
Ashby, O. Nf. Kl. 
Atkinson, Mrs. Cu. cl. — 

JTtf. T. — kir a99i$Umee 

for Edennde namety 

666d, 6030. 
Atkins, A. H. Bu. c2. 
Atkinson, W. Ou, p. — 

Aff aaittance for JBdeH' 

tide namety 60Zc, 
Atkinson, Rev. J. La, d. 
Atkinson, Rev. J. 0. To, 



Bainbridge, J. Cu, m, — 
hi$ assistancf for Eden^ 
tide Namet, 603<;. 

Raines, Rev. J. ITJfy. b1 . 

Bairdy H, ^Nathan Hogg^ 
166<f, \b%e, Ib^d, 

Baker, R. 8. Nf, n4. 

Baker, Rev.R.S.JV>.H4. 

Ballard, H. Se, *m. 

Baldwin, Rev. I. N. m, 

Bamford, R. mFo. ii3. 

Banks, Mrs. L. La, Ml. 

Banks, W. 8. To. ♦w2. 

Banting, W. B. 2?^. ♦hI. 

Banton, Rev. P. Np, d8. 

Barclay, Rev. D. iT^. s4. 

Barkas, T. P. Nh. •hI. 

Barlow, Rev. J. M. 8r, b2. 

Barnard, Mrs. J. Hi, b3. 

Barnes, Rev. W. Do, 
^Z.^IWm, w, printed 
26, 26, 30— Ofi/,4>,«irf 
#, tin 8. 38io41. 

BarUett, Rev. W. A. 89. 

Batchelory T. l?d: •b. 
Ofuj Aif < Orthoepieal 
Analytit; 204-209 <«« 

Bateman, T. WFl, h1. 

Baumanny H, hit London^ 
itmty 230. 

Beardsell, A. To, *h6. 

Beeby, Miss. Bu, •wl. 

Bee8ley,T. jnn. Ox. •b1. 

Beesley, sen. Oj;. *b1. 

Begge, Miss. 8E0, d. 

Beie,J)r,<m*VyW,^ 132. 

Bell, A. M. 8Ab, a.— 
5^. B.— 5^. p.— 
8Lk, Q,—8Pb, p.— 
5J?j:. h.— Aff * Vitihle 
8peeeh^ ttntenett, 714, 
724, 726, 730, 777, and 
Numeralty 726. — revitet 
Buehan vertion ofRuthy 

BeU, G. To, ♦b1. 

Bell, Miss H. Le, w. 

Bell, Rev. H. Cu, b. 

Bell, Jacob, J^. x. 

Bell, Miss M. A. Xa. «c8. 

Bell, Rev. W.R. To. ♦lI. 

Bellows, J. Ql. Bl.— 
X«. p3. 

Bennett, Rev. Canon, Wl, 


Bennett, E. 8t, b2. 

Benton, Mr. Ph. JSi. •si. 

Berin, Rev. H. Ke. p1. 

Berkeley, Rev. S. H. 1)9. 

Bewick, R. JVft. •w2. 

Best, — To, h9. 

Best, Mrs. To, i. 

Bewly, £. 8. Ha. A.— 
i^. s2. 

Bigge, Rev. J. F. m. *02. 

Bingham, Rev. Canon, 
Do, Bl. 

Birch, Rev. G. J^k. b. 

Birkeif W, hit help for 
Edentide namety 609d, 

Blasson, T. Li, *mi, 

Blenkinsopp, Rev. E. L. 
Li. slO. 

Blythe, Rev. J. M, a2. 

Bogg, T. W. Li, HZ. 

Bolingbroke, Mrs. F. H. 
Bd. M. 

Bonaparte, Prince L.-L., 
hit help, 6,^01, 4- 
(ii), 64. — on JVft. burr, 
648a, 644a.— J}#. *h1. 
Bu. c2, o3, L. — Et. 
Ul. — Gl. Bl.— .Ho. 
•ol.— .H#. •d2 •b H 
♦l4 M B yr2,—Ht, bI 
b3 o2 h4 X l1 l2 *b 
T w2.— Xa. p8.--lfi. 

♦b w.— JTo. ♦l.— A)r. 

Kl.— 5r. l.— ITa. 83. 

— TFo. ♦d2.— Fo. d3. 

—5^. 8 u. 
Bower, Rev. A. Li, u2. 
Bowness, R. La. c8. 
Boyd, W. 5IFV. 8. 
Bradley, Rev. E. Bu. a. 
Bradsliaw, Mrs. jun. Ox. 

Brain, J. Ox, •©. 
Brandrethy E, L. obtaint 

Jane Morriton^t help, 

Unggy 8. To. K. 
Breechen, Rev. J. JZw. w. 
Brewer, W. J*, ^c. 
Brickwell,Rev. £. Bd. h2. 
Broadley, Rev. Canon, Do, 

Brookie, W. Du. 88. 
Brooke, F. C. ^, u. 
Brooke, T. To. a. 
Brooks, Rev. T. W. D. 

iUL p. 
Bronghton, Rev. R. Ha, 


Brown, Rev. A^ H. Et, 

Brown, J. Bd, a. 
Brown, Jo. JTe. xl. 
Brown, Rev. T. ^. h. 
Brown, W. H. Ht, b. 
Browne, Rev.H. TTo, b1. 
Bmne, Mrs. Piideanx. 

Co. pl. 
< i^r«< y I^wytogion,* on 

the Flemingt in Pm. 24. 
BiH^Rev. G.P. i^.Kd. 
Buckle, Miss. Nf, htl. 
Buckley, Rev. Jo. IT/. 88. 
Bnller, Rev. R. Co, l8. 
Bulman, Rev. G. P. Du, 


Borgiss, G., with T. and 

J. He, Hi. 
Bume, Mrs. ^A. k1. 
Bomeil, Dr. A. C. Ha, 

Bumingbam, Rev. T. Nf, 

in6, — 8r, ol.— Jo. 

example about 1828, p. 

96<f.— OM Br. and St., 

Burnt, B,, Tamo* Shanter, 

pal, 732. — Duncan 

Ora^ypdl. 748. 
Burton, Sir F., on 'dem 

the' inKe. 132. 
Bury, Ret. T.W. Li. a1. 
Bury, Rev. Ch. To. "ra. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




BnUer, Betty, Lm, ol. 
Bntlar, T. JU. d. 
Butyr^ Ihbioi, r$eitM 

Forth tp^tek, 28. 
Bntteoihaw, Hon. Bd. m 

Caddow, B. 8W^. s. 
Cadogsn, C. H. Nb. b. 
Galkad, Mim. J&. 84. 
Camflnm, Ber. A. A. J^. 

Campbell, Mn. O. M. £. 

JTL c5. 
GampbeIl,BeT.^. J}#. k. 
Ca^bell, Ber. W. A. 

CmMMl, Ld. h%9 •Zif0 

rfJmd^^ Smk,* 64. 
Omr, W., m tK$Nb, hmr, 

faik$r qfjfn. Htnehl, 

Curd, Ber. T. JIu, h2. 
Ctrtbew, G. A. J^. •■. 
Ctftlege, Ber. G. A. Du, 

CtMrtem, Ber. J. C. U. 


Castie.BeT. E. To. o2. 
Catteli,T.£. JZw. c. 
Chamberiaiii, J. H. Le. 


Chamberlain, Ber. J. 8. F. 

Chamberlain, Mn. ^rm- 

erljMifle Sweet) JFo, t. 

Chamberlun, BeT« T. B. 

m. m8. 

Chambers, Ber. W. I. 

14, n2. 
Chandler, H. Su, v. 
Chandler, T. H., jim. 

Wl. A, 
Chandler, T. H., sen. 

Wl. el. 
Chajoman, lOae E. ITp. 

Chaiknrorth, Ber. J. B. 

A^. Bl. 
Chmifitr, ki$ 'StTQthir,* 

Cheales, Ber. H. J. Zi. 

Cheese, Ber. F. To. h1. 
Christie, Ber. C. M. Sm. 

Claike, A. T. 0. Jh. *o. 
Claike, 0« Silt. D* 
Clarke, 8. St. wl. 
Clarke, Ber. T. JTe. l. 
CZsrib, Mr$., kor (I'ipnm) 

at efmpwrod %D%th her 

genetit i^ Sattim (a'ti, 

Clay, Ber. E. K. J^w. o. 
CUj-Ker-Seymonr, Mrs. 

Clayton, Ber. C. Dm. s?. 
Clererley, W. 1?#. si. 
Cloee,BeT.B.W. Hu, p. 
Clongh, J. C. C%. Al. 
Cockman, Mr. and Miss. 

Li, o8. 
Cockshall, Ber. J. 8. Li, 

Coffle, B. 88d. d. 
Coker, Ber. C. Or. •y2. 
Cole, Miss. 8t, k. 
Coleridge, Mim E. Mi. 


CoUint, B$p. J. 3ff. 
Collins, Miss. J^. si. 
Colfoz, T. A. Do, b4. 
Conway, BeT. B. Su, a, 
Cooke, J. H. GL b1. 
Cooper, Major C. i^<;. t8. 
Cooper, Ber. L. £u, b. 
Coore, Ber. A. J. WBr, 

Coptf Sir W. jr., hit 'ffa. 

Olottar^f* 09. 
Corphey, Mrs. E. Ma, 

Cosbey, Ber. C. Du. s7. 
Cottee, Ber. W, A. Xi. 

Couch, T. Q. Cb. l2. 
Coulter, Mrs. Xa. ii2. 
Coward, Messrs. CW. ol. 
Cox. Miss. Bu. h2. 
Crabtree, J. To, h2. 
Crate, Ber. E. H. Bt, 

Creighton, Ber. M. m. 

Cross, T. H. Oo. ^02. 
Crossman, Ber. C. D. 

Sm. H. 
Croucher. Min. Ke, •ol. 
Cullen, Ber. J. J\^. b1. 
Culley, N. T. m, •wfi. 
CuUinglord, J. If . A. 

Cumberland, T. La, rZ. 
Cunnington, J. Ifp, o. 
CurgenTsn, Ber. T. H. 

J?p. b4. 
Curtais, Miss Bessie. St, 


Oattf Eon. and Btv. B, 
C, Aw dtttruetion ^f 

diaUet at BTatley 
Coekaunty Bd,, 209. 
Cusins, Ber.F.T. Li, k1. 

Dalton. Du, *h2. 
Darby, Miss A. M. St, 

•m. — htr dtteription of 

(B), 181. 
Darlington, T. Ch, *b2 

Ml. — hit Fofktpeoeh of 

South Ch, 698. 
Daubeny, C. Sm, •o4. 
Daunt, Ber. E. 8. T. 

Co, 86. 
Dayey, E. C. Bo, •wl. 
Daiid, M. H. Jfb, a1. 
DaTies, J, Ho, h. 
DsTles, Ber. J. D. WGm. 

DaTis, C. Sf, •©. 
DsTis, Ber. J. B. St, si. 
DaTis, J. W. Sh, •lS. 
Davis, Mrs. Dv, b8. 
Dawes, Mrs. Sm, l. 
Dawson, Bernard. Li, s4. 
Dawson, W. H. Nb, •»!. 
Day, Miss CM. J^. x3. 
Dayman, Bey. P. D. Co, 

Dennison, W. T. SOr, s. 
DeWinton,Arch. WBd, b. 
Digby, Ber. C. T. Nf 

DiektM^t London Spteeh, 

Dickinson, Ber. F. B. 

Mi, •a. 
Dickinson, F. H. Sm, 

b8. si. 
Dickinson, W. CW. ol w. 
Diekton J, B,, on tht Nb, 

burr, 642. 
Dingle, BeT. J. Du, •lI. 
Dixon, W. Nb, •wS. 
Dobson,— . Nb, •h3. 
Dormer, J. M. Wa, •cS. 
D^Ortoy on London trrort 

^tpmhy 226. 
Douglas, Carstairs. SAy, 

Dots, H. To. m2. 
DoTor, J. Wo. c2, o. — 

Ait attittanotfor Bden" 

tidt naatot, 603. 
Downes,Miss. Np, •h2. 
Dowse, J. P. To. ♦hIO. 
Drake, BeT. B. Kt. *b6. 
Drmy, Bov, W, on tho 

ditutt of Manx, 860. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




Dunn, EeT. J. W. m. 

Durrani, Bey. B. N. Ha, 

Dymond, B. Dv. b. 


Earle, Bev. J. 8m. 82. 
Ebden, Miss M. £. Hu, 

o6, •82. 
Ebsworth, BeT. J. Ifi, 


Eden, Bey. J. P. Dm. 84. 
Edington,J.S. M, ♦n2. 
Edmondes, Yen. Archd. 

TFFm. R. 
Edmondstone, Dr. L. 

SSd. u. 
Edwards, Rev. H. P. Mo, 

Edwards, Bey. M. WDn, 


Eel, Bey. Q. To. b2. 
Egglestone, W. M. i>ti. 

♦sT.— *Aw i?««y Porf- 

A;t»M * for WeardaUf 

Bu. 617. 
EIey,BeT.W.H. St. b3. 
Ellis, A.J. CW. D.— Dft. 

d1. — Dr. H. — Li. B. 

— JVjT. •h6.— JV3. M. 
Ellis, Miss C. J>. b3. 
Ellis, T. J. Sr. H. 
Ellis, Bey. Bo. WFl. m. 
Ellison, Bey. C. 0. Li. 

Ellwood, Bey. T. 20.— on 

' at ' oiM^ ' fo * forming 

th€ injinitiv0t 660. — Cu. 

•a.— Z«. •c8 D u. 
Elmes, Bey. F. St. b3. 
Elvington, Bey. T. W. 

£«. o6. 
Elworthy, F. T. Sm. b2 

•w2.— ITi^w. B.— 0*1 

/, V amd #, f ifit^to/ in 

^. 38 to 41.— i^MMi 

o/i^M^ tfA^^. i., 698. 
Emeris, W. B. Li. l3. 
*£nffa,* author of 753. 
Eyans, Bey. C. J. Nf. o2. 
Evans, Bev. J. Sh. w6. 
£vanMj Dr. A, B.^ on -mi, 

£vans, Dr. S., on vtrht 

in -Ml, 463. 
Evana, Miu, kir ' MoUy 

and Miehardf* 34. 
EveiBid, C. H. Iff. •bS. 

Fagan, Bev. H. S. Co. 85. 
Falconer, Bev. W. ir<. 

Farmer, Bev. J. Nt. 82. 
Farr, W. W. Ma. ^i. 
ffarington. La. b6 *l3. 
Fauqnier, Bev. Q. L. W. 

JVp. w7. 
Fannthorpe, Bev. J. P., 

Principal of WhiUland$ 

Training CoUege^ who, 

with th€it%tdent9jgr9atly 

help$me, 4. — Dv. il. — 

Li. 83. 
Fearon, Ven. Archd. St. 

Featherstonehaugh, Bev. 

W. Dm. U2. 
Ferschl, Mrs. m. •»!, 

JM Ctorr. 
Field, W. St. w6. 
Fielding, T. Xa. *b1 b3 

c4 h4 ol 8l w4. 
Findlater, Dr. SAb. b. 
Findley. Le. l1. 
Firth, Miss M. A. Sr. o. 
Fisher, Dr. H. La. b2 
Fleming, Bev. H. B. ffa. 

Fhrtnoe of Woreettir on 

FUmingt in Fm. 24. 
Forbg, Eev. It., examina- 

tion ofhii pron. of JSast 

Anglia unth Bev. Ph. 

Ho9U, 269 to 272. 
Ford, Bev. C. H. Du. 

♦b3. — on tht Nb. burr, 

Foster, G. B. m. •bI. 

Foster, Mrs. To. k. 
Fowler, Bev. J. J. Li. w2. 
Fowler, J. K. Bu. a o. 
Fowler, B. B. Bu. •a. 
Foxlee, Miss. m. w3. 
Foxley, Bev. J. JV7. n2. 
Frampton, Miss. 01. t1. 
Francis, Miss. S$. b2. 
Francis, Mrs. Wa. t. 
Freeman, Bev. J. M. 

Cb. H. 
French, E. €fh. ^r.-^To. 

*Bld.—TrDn. H. 
Frere, Bev. H. Nf. d2. 
Froude on Australian 

Speech, 237. 
Fnmess, Miss E. Np. 

Fgnmore on v, w. l4Za. 

Galbraith, C. Sm. b1. 

Oeraldue CambrenHs on 
Flemings in i^n. 24. 

Gibb, Johnny, J. Alex- 
ander, author of, SAb. 


Gibton, A. C. C^. p. 

Giffen, B. SAg. xl.— 
revised Dr. Murray^s 
Ay. Buth, 698, and 
AJE.U «* Tarn o* 
Shanier;' 732. 

Gill, Alex, old Li. Speech, 

Gillam,Bey.J. WBd. v. 

Gladstone, Bev. S. WFl. 

Godfrey, Mrs. Be. ♦h2. 

Goodchild, J. G. a chief 
helper, 4. — Line 7, p. 
20d.—Line%, p. 2U.— 
Line 10, p. 22a. — on 
{u^ t) 29W, 294ft.— 
his paper on * Tradi^ 
tional names qf Places in 
Edenside,' 539, 602.— 
observes * stone dyke * n. 
and s. nf Kirk Oswald, 
666.— -on the M. burr, 
643.— a. Al. — CW. 
•b1, •b3, •cl, •b, 
•k, •lI.— Dk. •82. 
— J«. •b.— JVft. •f, 
•k.— fifm. yrd.— IFe. 
•cl, •c2, •kI, •k2, 

•l, •!!, •O, 8, •t. — 

JFl. •c2.— To. ^84, 

•c3, ^04, ^02, •h8, 

•h9, I, •», ♦lI, ♦82, 

•ij5, •u6. — SBx. L, B, 

T. — SSe. 8. 
OoodchUd, L. on the Nb. 

burr, 643a. 
Goodman, Bev. J. P. Hu. 

Goodenough, Bev. B. W. 

Nb. wZ. 
Goetle, Bev. J. Nf. t4. 
Graham, Mrs., for Eden^ 

side names, 603c. 
Grainger, Bev. J. Bu. •p. 
Granige*s use o/(th), 19a. 
Grant, A. SSd. b. 
Grant, J. B. Sf r. 
Gray, Bev. Ch. Nt. b3. 
Gray, Bev. B. H. Du. 

Grece, Dr. C. J. Sr. w. 
Green, Rev. C.E. Nb. •b. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




Groen, Ber. J, B. Yo, 
h5 — hit CtUic hofnier 
and loeatitm of AnglO' 
SuxoH iribett 8 to 1:^— 
hi9^ Making of England^ 


Gregg, J. C. Ef. ♦lI. 

Green, Miss. 2>r. Ml. 

Green, Min. X#. k. 

Gieen, W. H. He, R. 

Gie«n,BeT.J.W. Cb. »m. 

Greenwell, Ber. Canon. 
Dm. cl. 

Gr^for, Ber. Walter. 
8Ba, X — hieBat^thire 
Olottary, 683, ifo, 6. 

Grice, Ber. W. Wa, 82. 

Griffith, Ber. D. WBr, 


Griffith, Ber. J. EL 82. 
Griffith, Bey. J. IT^m. m. 
Griffith, B.D. WBr, bI. 
Griffith, 8. &/. x2. 
Griffiths, Mrs. 8. iTtf. *m. 
Gnnn, G. M. Nb, •b2.— 

on tMe Nb, burr, 643. 
Ch^ta on EngUtk eoronaie, 

Gnthrie, J. 8Fo. b. 

Hadlej, G. 8. Np, •bI. 

Eadrian*s wall, 22. 

Eale, Judge, called (vl) in 
Oloueeeter, 64^. 

Hall, Ber. G. Borne. Nb, 
♦b3.— Of! the Nb, (obJ, 

HaU, Dr. 8. T. Db, w4. 

Hallam, T., a chief helper. 
4. — Linee 1 and 2, pp. 
16, 17.— Of! M, and i. 
<r,' 1824;, \90b,--epeeidl 
work in Be,, 221.— 
(«J, 291 tf. — Oft r^^/ 
plural in ^en in the 
in s,To, 366.— Oft Mid- 
land negaiivet with 
omitted * not,' 46U, 
470^. — on the pretumed 
(thr-, dhr-) in Holdsr- 
nete, 501. — Bd. •!) o 8l 
b2 t2 v,'-Be, w3.— 
Bw. •a»b2»c181»w1 
vr2,—Cb, cl *o3 B •m p 
•el 82 wl w2 *w8 *w6. 
—Ch, Al •a2 •aS a4 
•p •© •hI •Ka K L Ml 

m2 •mS m6 •kI n2 n3 


—Co, o,—Db. •aI •a2 
Dl •d2 ♦dS ^04 •d5 
♦o2 o3 ♦hI ♦h2 'hS 
*h4 ♦h6 »h6 »i1 *i2 L 
•m1 •m2 m3 •m4 •ub 

•0*P«Q»Bl«B2 8l»82 

*83 ♦84 »85 *Tl *t2 t8 

•u •wl ♦w2 *w3 •w4. 
— j:i. •b3co1*o4*o6 
♦o7 H H •p2 •88.— G"/. 
Al ^82 b3 b6 b6 ^87 cl 
t2 •w.— -HIp. d1 •h l2 
— .K. *a2b2b4*b6h1 
•h3*h6»h6 83*84 •wl. 
ITm. ol o3 •o6 •h3 h5 
k2 L o 8l ^82 84 s5.—Ke, 
M^.'-La, a1^b1b3^b4 
•b5 •cl ^02 ^03 •cS 
Hi •h2 •h6 •h6 •h7 
•x •lI ♦l3 •l4 •n2 
•ol ^02 •pl p2 •p3 
•p4 p6 o b1 •b2 ^83 
•w5 •we •w7.— X<r. A 
Bl b6 B •& I •lI •l2 
•mI m2 t.— Xi . ^82 b7 
M%, *i.,—Nf, •a Bl 
♦o2 Hi •h2 h3 ♦hS 
•h6 •x2 •mI •m3 •kI 
83 84 •sS •tI •t2 t3 
wl w3 w4 •wS ♦w7 
•w8.— JV>>. •aI •a2 
•b1 b2 ♦b3 ^84 •cl 
•c2 d1 d2 ^82 p •© Hi 
•h3*h6 i1^i2l1 •l2 
•l3 •nI •n2 •© 'pl 
•p2 •» •al 82 •84 •aS 
•86 •t2 *t3 •wl •w2 
•w3 *w4 *w6 *w6 w8 
•w9»T.— iVi. •b2»b4 
»Bl b2 X •Ml »m2 •nI 
♦n4*81*w2.— 0:r. •bI 

l2 M O 82 T*W.— 5A. Bl 

b2 b3 •cl c2 c3 c6 c6 


•w8 w4 ♦¥.— 5/. *Al 

a2 b4 *b6 ^87 •cl ^02 
c3 c4 •dI d2 »b1 •pl 
l3 •l4 •lS l6 m o •» 8l 
82 83 84 85 ^Tl •t2 *t3 
u2 •wl •w2 •w3 •w4 
»w6 ^.—8f •ol.— 
St, Bl b3 l2.— Fii. 
•a1 •a2 Bl ^82 ^84 
•86 •cl *c2 •xl •l 

•n •Pl •p2 81 ^83 *T 
•W.— »^/. K v.— Wo, 

•a •bI ^82 b3 •c •dI 
d3 ^82 b3 •ol ^02 Hi 
h3k^m^81^82^83 84t 
•w.— Fo. ^82 83 86^87 
•cl c6 ^84 •ol h2 h4 
•l3 •mI •m3 •o b3 ^84 
—Ma, •»! •k2 x3 •p. 
— WDn, *nyr,—WFl. 
•bI ^82 •hI •h2. 

Hallward, Bev. J. L. Et. 

Hamilton, Miss C. G. 
SAg, x2. 

Hamond,BeT. P. F. Mi. s. 

Harden, Bey. H. W. Nf, 

Harkness, Cu. cl. 

Harper, Ber. F. W. To, 


Harris, Bey. A. E. Ke. 


Harris, D. H. Dv. b1. 
Harris, Miss. 01. •a. 
Harrison, Miss E. P. Du, 

Harrison, "W. La, ^82, 

Haslam, Bey. G. To, 86. 
Hatton, Bey. T. Eu, 85. 
Hayergal, — . Ee, v, 
Hayiland, Miss. Wo. h3. 
Hawkins, Miss. 8h, p. 
Hawtrey,Bey.H.C. Ea, 

Haydon,Bey.G. To, h3. 
Hayne, Bey. L. G. £$, 

Healey, T. La, •bS. 
Heightley, B. Du, •». 
Henderson, Bey. J. Nb, 

Hetherington, J. N. Cu, 

Hihbard,MiBe Mercy. To, 

Eigden, R, on Flemingt 

inPm. 2id. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




HiU, Mifls A. Co. •ol. 
Hm,Rev.E.J. £s. •p2. 
HiU, Key. J. S. FJfy. w. 
HiU, R. Bd. •b. 
Hindson, — . We. 8. 
Hint, Miss £. Z#. b. 
Hoare, Eey. G. T. Sr. 

Hobhouae, Yen. Axch. 

Co. 84. 
Hodffe, Bep. W. JJ., Aif 

h. ofw.Co. 166*. 
Hodges, B. Ke. *ii2 
Hodgson, Re?. J. F. Dm. 

Holderness, T. To. ♦h5. 
HoUand, R. Ch. Mi. 
Holme, Rer. C. We. a o. 
Homfray, G. A. Sm. wl. 
Hooke, Key. D. JVif. bI. 
Hooper, Rey. S. H. Yo. 

Hope, Rey. R. D. Cit. 

HorefJS.f on Forth and 

Bargjf pron. 26, 26. 
Hoate, Rev. Ph. JVjT. •82. 
Hoste, Rey. G. G. Sif.Bl. 
How, Rey. W. 5A. o w6. 
Howe, Rey. J. Wa. x2. 
Howchin, Rey. W. Nb. 


HoweU, Rey. D. WDn. w. 
Hunt, Mrs. A. JDu. *l2. 
Hurst, Rey. Or. BIythe. 

Bu. •k\ t2. 
Huaeey, Rey. G. J. X^?. D. 
Huth, A. 8: b2. 
Huth, L. /St. p. 

Innes, S. 8Ah. o. 

Jackson, Miss G. 8h. *ol . 


Jackson, — . 8Rx. l. 
Jarman, J. Abbot. Dv. 


Jenkins, Rey. E. WFl. p. 
Jenkins, Rey. J. Li. p2. 
Jenkyns,Rey. J.JV^?. xl. 
Jenner^ JT., eiUUiont re^ 

epecting the Flemings 

in Fm. 24c. 
Jewan, Rey.J.J. 8r. c3. 
Johnson, Rey. A. Xi. p4. 
Johnson, Rey. J. Sm. n1. 
Johnson, Miss L. H. F^/. 

Johnston, Rey. J. Xt. h2. 
Johnston, G. Hu. a. 
Jonee,Rey.C.W. i^. *p. 
Jones, £. L. WFm. b. 
Jones, J. 01. o. 
Jones, Joseph. Me. h, 


Jonee,Rey.J.P. WOm. l. 
Jones, Miss Whitmore. 
Ox. c2. 

Kay, Rey. W. S. 2)«. x. 
Keble, Rey. T. Oi. b4. 
Keith, Mr. Nf. x3. 
KeUy, Rey. £. Be. b1. 
Kenun, Miss. Bu. o. 
KendaU, Rey. W. Do. 

Kent, Mrs. Saraita. Be. 

KerBley,Rey.Ganon. J^.o. 
Kidd,Mias. 8Fr. p. 
Kinsman, Rey. Preb. Co. 


Kirk, £. Za. o2, p 2. 
JTirAv, Bev.Dr. B.yOnthe 

Nb. burr, 6440. 
Kirkpatrick, J. To. *m2. 
Kirkup, T. JVft. "we.— 

-SJZjt. t. 
Kitching, Rey. W. V. 

^. o2. 
Kitton, Rey. £. Nf. b. 
KnatchbnU-Hugessen, H. 

Ke. •Pl. 
Knight, R. S. Wa. •a2. 
Knowles, Rey. £. H. 

Cu. 8. 

Zaekington'e 1817 Zofiibfi 

.Errors nfBpeeeh, 227. 

Laing, Rey. Dr. A. iS^. 


Lake, — . Mi. h2. 

Lang, Thomas. 8 Ay. xl. 

Lang, Rey. W. F. Dash- 
wood. Dv. i2. 

LangBtaff, J. W. To. 86. 

Langston, — . La. b6. 

Latham, Dr. B. O., 
on Folkingham 8peeehy 

Lanrenson, A. 88d. l. 8. 

Law, Rey. A. on^fv^ez,^ 
initial, 38 to 41.—^/. 

Law, — . To. c8. 

Lee, Rey. S. Ma. b. 
Lee, Rey. M. H. WFl. 


Xm» mi <A# JV6. ^rr, 

Leigh, P. Ha. »82»w3. 
Lecmard, B. J^tf. *82. 
LesUe, H. Du. •c2. 
Lewes, Rey. J. M. J^^ 

Lewis, Rey. S. S. Be. o2. 
Lewis, Rey. D.Ph. WMg. 

b2 o. 
Lewis, Rey. J. WMg. b2. 
Linton, — . 8Bx. t. 
littie, H. J. Cb. ♦W3. 
Littie,J. W. Nf. •nl. 
liyingstone, Rey. NeU, 

8Ag. c. 
Llanover, Lady, Mo. ♦l. 
LleweUin, Rey. J. G. Mo. 

Lloyd, R. R. St. »8l. 
Lloyd, Mrs. To. b2. 
Lockton, Rey. Ph. Np. 

Lomb, Dr. Nf. *h6. 
Long, Rey. R. Du. b1, 


Loye, J. 8 Ay. v. 
Lowe, Rey. R.L. 8t. b6. 
Lower, M. A. lOSrf. 
Lowman, Miss. Ke. 88. 
Lowther, Rey. G. P. IT/. 

Lumeden, 8ir F.,for Jane 

Morrieon, 764i?. 
Lnpton, F. M. To. k6. 
Luscombe, Mrs. Nf. *k3. 

LyaU, W. Nb. *n1. 
Lyon, Rey. S.E. Ea. *b. 

Macbeth, Rey. R., eoUeete 
speakers for Wick and 
Btrmnraer, 683, No. 7. 
50f. w. 

MaeBumey on AustrU' 
lian speech, 237-248. 

MacGartie,Rey.J. Du. o. 

MacKean, Rey. W. S. Li. 

Macray, Key. W. D. Or. 

Maister, Rey. H. To. 86. 
Maitland, T. F. Be. *w2. 
Malcolmson, Miss A. B. 

reads Shetland to me, 

^S^d.^SSd. L. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




Haldon, Ret. H. D. iTtf. 


Malet, Rer. C. EL a2. 
Malleson, W. T. 8r, c4. 
MaUett, Min C. M. ^. 


Mangin, Be?. E. N. M, 

MargesBon, Rev. R. W. 

JDv, w2. 
Markham, Rev. C. W. 

X«. si. 
Hanhall, Rer F. 0. Ox. 


Manland, J. La, *85. 
Martel, A. W. F. 5r. l. 
Martm^Rer.H.A. Nt. l. 
Martin, Rot. R. M. Sr, c2. 
Martin, Miss. Gl. *c2. 
Martin, W. Co, sT. 
Mason, W. JETu. p b3. 
Manle, Rot. Q. Li, t1. 
MeamMj Ja%,^ on th$ Nb, 

burr, 643a. 
Meiklejohn, A. SCt, w. 
MeUo, Rer. J. M. Db, 

Merder, Rer. J. I. Gl. 

Meredith, — . Mo. l. 
MerivaUf hi$ b. of wCo. 

Metcalfe, W. To. o5. 
Meyers, J. H. Mi. b. 
Miehtl, Dan, on '/f , # s ' 

initial, 38 to 41.— Aa« 

MO 'de' for 'th$' in 

K$. U\d. 
Michel, Gen. Do. *c. 
MiddleUm, Rev. H. Db. 

Kiddlemas, R. Nb. *a2. 
Miles, F. m. *b2. 
Miles, Miss. Dv. si. 
Miles, Miss. SPr. p. 
Miles, Mrs. Nt. *b2. 
Milf<»d,Rey.R.N. Wl. 


Miller, Rer. £. JTa. *b6. 
Mihier, G. La. ii3. 
Milner.Rev.J. Du. *m1. 
MitcheU, G. ^. *ii3. 
Mitchell, J. SSe. s. 
Mitcheeon, T. M. *n1. 
MolynenXjRer.W. 8t. t. 
Jfoor, .5., <5if/oMr Word$; 

ewl.from, 286. 
Moore, Rer. E. M. Np. 

Moore, Rer. J. W. iSA. 

Moore and Moore, Messrs. 

Ha. B. 
Morgan, ReT. H. Gl. c4. 
Morgan, Rev. W. WMg. 


Morrison, Jane. ^^6. o. 

Mottatty P., <m M# Nb. 
burr, 642<i. 

Mulgravo, Ld., in Forth 
and Bargy, 26e. 

Munn, Rey. J. R. St. a. 

Murray, Dr. J. A. H., 
helps %pith my cs. Id, — 
draws Celtic border in 
Scotland, Sc, 14. ~ 
names of his helpers 
for CB., I4c.— partly 
anticipates Line 7, p. 20. 
— his b. of England and 
Scotland not Line 10, 
p. 21 . — on the Nb. burr, 
643.— Aw D88. 681.— 
his Scotch Hundredth 
Fsalm, pal. 716.— Cu. 
cl.— To. 84. --SAb. 
B.-SAy. h.—SEd. B. 
SFo. A.—SBX. H. 

Murray, Bfrs. Ch. S.Ed. 


Mylins, F. J. Wa. *i. 

Napier, Rev. J. W. St. 


Nicholson, Rey. H. J. 

Eu. o4. 
Norman, Rey. M. 0. Le. 


Norwood, Bey. J. W. To. 

Noye, W. Co. •p2. 
Nirtt, Bey. C. H. Sm. b. 

Ormsley, Rey. £. R. Du. 


Owen, Rey. T. Es. b1. 
Owen, Rey. W. JFl. d. 

Paige, — . Do, s3. 
Paige, J. Dv. h. 
Paley, Rey. F. Np. v. 
Pardee, Rey. G. 0. 

WMg. s. 
Parish, Rev. W. D. 5#. s. 

Parmon uvular r, 6423. 
Parker, Mrs. A. Be. o 

si s2.— D*. h3.— Ojt. 

b2 b h1 h3 I l2 o w. 
Parker, Rev. F. W. 

ITJfy. •m. 
Paricer, G. Bu. Ml. 
Parkes, Prof. To. 84. 
Patrick, D. SAy. c— 

iSjy. L. 
Paul, C. Kegan. Do. 82. 
Payne, — . Cu. ol. 
Peacock, E. Li. *b7 84. 
Feacock, M. B., So9^ of 

Solomon, Chap. ii. in 

Lonsdale s. nfthe Sands, 

Pearce, Rey. T. Do. b2. 
Pearson, — . La. u. 
Pearson, Rev. H. H. 

Db. K. 
Peck, Rey. E. A. Eu. 

Peckham, Rey. H. Ss. 

Peckham, Miss. Xe. 82. 
Peniston, Miss A. B. Co. 


Perkins, J. Cb. •c2. 
Pertwee, Rey. A. Es. 

Philip, Rey. H. B. Es. 

Fhilip and Son^s maps, 7. 
Ficton, Sir J, A,, on Forth 

and Bargy, 27. — La, 

Pinder, Rey. N. Ox, *o. 
Piper, Miss A. M.F. ir#. 

Fitnten' spit talk, 650</. 
Pocklington, Rey. R. Nt. 

Pollar, Miss. vSPr. p. 
FooU, J., 26, 29. 
Pope, Rey. G. Nt. b2. 
Poetlethwaite, W. CW. k. 
Pott, Ven. Arch. Be. b. 
*Fotter,* a misprint for 

* Trotter* on p. 66, lines 

1 amf 2. 
Potts, Rey. C. T. Ee. 

^\.—Du. »86. 
Potts, Taylor. Du. *88. 
Powell,—. St. h2. 
Powley, Miss Mary. Cu. 

l1. — A#r assistance for 

Edenside names, 603. 
Powley, J. To. b4. 
Pratten, Rey. W. S. CW. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




Preeton, R., hi$ Bradford 
poenuy Z9ld, — Am rtf- 
mark* on dialectal ortho- 
graphy, 388</. 

Price, S. Ke, o2.— 8m, 

Price, Rev. N. E. 8h. l1. 

Prior, Dr. R. C. A. 8m, 
u2,^Wl, c4. 

Procter, Rey. F. Jff, w6. 

Froetor on the Nb, burr, 

Pryor, M. R. St. w4. 

Pidman, G. P. R. Dv, 
A,Sm, A c6 •m1. 

Parley, Rev. £. G. Bu, 

Puiion, Major. Wl, p. 

Pyke, T. £u, •86. 


Ragg, ReT. F. W. 3u. 

u2.—Xe. w.—8h, c4. 
Randolph, H. 8m, m2. 
Raven, Rot. Dr. J. J. 

jyy. ♦o3. 
Rawlings, W. J. Co, 

♦m1 p2. — hi$ b, of w. 

Co, 166ft. 
Rea, J. F. Nb, d. 
Reade, H. St. John. Np, 

Reere, W. N. 2>. l1. 
Riehardton, Br, F, 22.— 

JVTft. *h2. 
Richings, Rev. A. C. Ht, 

Ridge, Anne. Dv, •cl. 
Ridge, T. H. SAb. c. 
Ridgway, M. To. d3. 
Ridley, Rev. W. H. Bu, 


Ridley, T.D. Nb, »wl. 

Roberts, Rev. A. C. Bt, 

Roberts, 8m, w3. 

Robinson, C. Clougb, a 
chief helper y 4 ft, — on 
(th) /or * they' 19,— on 
(«) f« eYo, Z^bb,—on 
10. dialectal ortho- 
ffraphj/y iOZ,—To, *b6 
»d3 »h2 HlO *K *l2 
*l6 ii2 *m4 »m6 *n1 
•n2 *n3 n4 *b5 *87 
*8ll »ul *u3 »u4 v6 

Robinson, Rev. C. J. Be. 

Kobinaon, F. K. To. •w4. 

JtofttiMon, /., hit aseiet- 

aneefor Edeneide names, 

Robson. J)u, »cl. 
Bobeon, J, Ph, on theNb, 

burr, 642«. 
Robeon, E. C. Du. sS. 
Rock, W. F. Dv. Bl. 
Roderick, J. W. Bt, p 

Rogers, Rev. S. Cb. o. 
Rogers, T. Co, *82. 
Rogers, W. H. H. Dv, 

Rolf, Rev. C.T. Jr#. *8l. 
Boseoe, Mrs,, for Manx, 

Rose, Rev. W. F. 8m, 

Roes, — . 8m, •cl. 
Ross, D. 6*J2f . B. 
Ross, F. To, ♦h6. 
Ross, J. 8Kc, o. 
Rossiter, J. 8m. c7. 
Rothwell, Ch. La, •bS. 
Rowlands, Rev. J. WFl. 

Royds, Rev. C. T. La. 

Rumny, Rev. J. W. JT*. 

Rvndell, J. B. Co. *u2. 

-^Dv. b2, d. 
Rnst, Rev. J. C. Cb. 83. 
Bussell, very Bev, C, W., 

on Flemings in Fm. 24. 


Sadler, Miss. Wo, •82. 
8ala, O.A.,on Australian 

8peech, 237. 
Sale, Rev. T. T. Bt. a1. 
Sayers, Miss A. 8s. ^02. 
Sayers, Miss J. 8r. o. 
Scarlett, Rev. W. To. r4. 
Scoonee, Rev. W. D. 

Bu. L. 
Scott, A. Nb. •b. 
Scott, Rev. G. H. Nt. o. 
Scott, Rev. W. A. J>u. 


Seaman, Rev. C. £. Ba. 


8eward, Wm., his dialogue 
for Burton-in- Lonsdale, 

Sewell, Rev. H. Sf. t. 
Septimius 8everus's wall, 

Shariey, Rev. G. Nf. i. 

Sharpe, J.W. 8r. ol. 
Shaw, James. 8Lf. t. 
Shelly, J. Dv. ♦p2.— X«. 

Shroer, Prof. Ba. *a. 
Simmons, Rev. Canon. 

Yo. Hll. 
Simpson, Rev. R. Bu. 


Simpson, Rev. T. H. 

IFBn. c. 
Simson, W., pron, of 

Kyle, Ay. 729, 742.— 

SAy. k2. 
Sinclair, Rev. J. 8Cs. w. 
Singleton, Miss L. To. p. 
Skeat, Rev. W. W. Cb. 

c2 p.— ^. T.—Bt. 83. 

—Ox. b. 
Skndamore, Rev. W. 3/. 

Slade, Miss. Oaf. »8l. 
Slatter, Rev. J. Be. 83. 
Slow, E. JFl. w. 
Slyfield, Miss J. 8r. 8. 
^mar^ on London errors 

of speech, 227. 
Smith, Rev. A. C. JFl. t. 
Smith, Cecil. Sm. t. 
Smith, C. R. Ba. w2. 
Smith, Rev. E. B. TTifj^. 


Smith, H. Xt. h4. 
Smith, Rev. J. Bo. b2. 
Smith, Rev. L. A. WBd. 


Smith, Rev. S. A. Cb, c3. 
Smith, Sir T. on Li,speech, 

Smith, jr,C, obtains Bun- 

rossness es, 683. 
Smith, W, B, and Son's 

maps, 7, 
Somerset, Rev.B. WBr. c. 
Sowell, Rev. C. R. Co. 83. 

— his ft. ofwCo. 166. 
Spencer. TFFl. h2. 
Spicer, R. H. S. Bv. v\. 
Spurrell,W. WCm. c— 

JF.Pm. B. 
Standrinf , — . Li. a8. 
Staftforifs maps, 7. 
Stanning, Rev. J. H. La. 

Stan way, L. ^<. al. 
Stark, Rev. W. A. SKb. 


Stead, R. J>. p2.— Fo. 
•b3 *u6 •slO T.— 
WBr. *b2. — Oft (•#) in 
To. 366. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




Steel, Rer. J. Bd, hI. 
Steel, Jo. W; k2. 
Stewart, Q,, 'Shetland 

Firetide Tales,* 814. 
Stockdale, J. La, vl. 
Stockdale, /., S<mg of 

Solomon chap, it. in 

Zontdale n. ^ the 

Sonde, 660, 
Stone, W. G. J)o. wl. 
Stores, Rey. C. £. To. 89. 
Streatfield, — . Ke. *ul. 
Stattard, H. La. *c7. 
Stceet, Dr, H, 2.— Aif 

*£omk,* 99ft. 
Sweet, Miss (now Mrs. 

Chamberlain). JFo. t. 
Swift, Rot. G. JV7. m5. 
Sunnbume, A., on the 

Nb. burr, 642«. 
Sykee, Dr. J. To. *d4, 

Tancock, Rot. 0. W. 

Do. si. 
Tarrer, Rey.'J. 3u, •r, 
Taunton, Rot. T. B. Dv. 

Taylor, Rer. Hugh. JVft. 

Taylor, J. Dr. w2. 
Taylor, Rev. R. Du. u2. 
Taylor, Tom. Du. sS. 
Teenan, J. SBd, b. 
Tenney. Dv. •©. 
Tennyson, Lord. Xi. s8. 
Thaekeray'i, W.M.London 

Footnum'i Speech, 229. 
Thomas, Rev. D. G. Eu. 


Thompson, G. Nb. •a2. 

— Alnwick Votoele, 668. 
Thompson, Rev. H. iSm. 

Thompson, Rer. Dr. W. 

H. To. o3. 
Thornton, Rer. J. To. uB. 
Thorold, Mrs. W. Dv. 

Thynne, Rer. A. B. Wl. 


TiU, G. St. A3. 
Timmins, S. ^0. b3. 
litley. Rot. R. le, b2. 
Titmouse, J. Ha. si. 
ToUemache, Hon. and Rey. 

H. F. and Miss. Up. 

ToUet, Miss £. St. b2. 
Tombs, Rev. J. WI\n. b. 

Tomline G. H. Wa. 83. 
Tomlinson, Rev. C. H. 

Be. •d. 
Tomlinson, G. W. To. 

Trapp, Rev. B. Bd. t1. 
TregeUae on Comieh in- 

tonation, 171. 
Trotter, Mias (nusprinted 

Potter on p. 66). 01. 

Trotter, R. D. (misprinted 

Potter on p. 66). 01. 

lSter*8 * Cockney Ahnanao,* 

Turner, Miss. Wo. h2. 
Tyler, Rev. 0. B. Sm. 


Underwood, Rev. W. D. 
St. w2. 

VaUancey, Dr., 26 to 27. 
Viles, E. St. »c4. 
Vise, Rev. J. £. WMg. f. 

Wakefield, Miss. Dv. pi. 
Walker on London error* 

of Speech, 227. 
Walker, Rev. J. Nb. 

Walker, Rev. J. ^. b2. 
Walker, J. W. P. Ox. i. 
Walker, Miss. CJ. *w4. 
Walker, Rev. Percy C. 

Cu. b2. 
Walli8,Rev.W.M. 1?^. b. 
WaXeh. 25d. 

Ward, Rev. H. To. *k6. 
Ware, Rev. W. W. To. 


Warleigh, Rev. H. S. 6^/. 


Warner, Rev. R. B. Li. 


Watkins, Rev. M. G. Li. 


Watson, Rev. J. 8. Le. c. 
Watt, Rev. R. St. c3. 
Wayte, Rev. G. H. Wl. 

Wayte, Rev. W. Wl. cl. 
Weber, Sam, hit *we,' 


West, Rev. C. F. Ox. cl. 

Westmaoott, Miss. Sm. 
b3 81. 

Wharton, Rev. J. C. JH. 

Whateley, Rev. J. Et. b. 

Wheok,MissS. Bd. *b. 

Whitelandt Training Col- 
lege, great attittanee 
from the Principal, Bev. 
/. P. Faunthorpe, 4 
Kemm, Mallett and 
Martin,aikd2S Studentt, 
Mitrnt Beebg, Begge, U, 
Bell, Buckle, Calland, 
Chapman, Cockman, Cox, 
Crmteher, Firth, Foxlee, 
Franoit,Fumett, Harrit, 
Sill, Hirtt, Kidd, Loiv- 
man, Milet, Beckham, 
Foliar, Sadler, A. 
Sayert, J. Sayert, Sly- 
field. Turner, Wheck, 
and Wing, tee then 

Whitaker, Jo. Mi. b. 

White, Rev. F. W. Li. 

White, Rev. G. H. Dv. 


White, Ned, a yam, 666. 
Wimm, Rev. W. St. r. 
Wilcocks, Rev. H. 8. 

Dv. 82. 
Wilding, Rev. J. St. ul. 
William of Malmetbury 

on Fleming t in Fm. 24. 
Williams, Rev. T. WFL 


Williams, Mrs. Li. a2 

b8 cl o4 o5 h3 h5 k1 

x2 Ll l3 82 89 811 t2 

ul wl. 
Williams, Rev. Wadham. 

Sm b2 
Williams, ' Rev. W. J. 

Li. ol. 
Wilkinson, Rev. G. To. 

Wilkinson, I. To. 86. 
Wilshere, C. W. St. h7 

Wilson, Rev. G. SBw. 

c.—SWg. o. 
Wilson, T. St. ♦h2. 
Wilson, T. D. To. p. 
Wilson, Rev. W. Du. b. 
Wing, Miss. Et. *m. 
Winter, G. Sm. c3. 
Wiseman, J.F.T. Ft. •?!. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



[vn., Yin. 

Wolf. Lady. Ha, •cl. 
Wood, Mrs. Willoughby, 

8L *Bl. 

Woodfall, G. Et, o3. 
Woodhonse, Boy. G. H. 

m, p. 

Woodhonse, R. He, ♦d2. 
Woof, R. »^o. »d2. 
Worfold, Rev. J. N. To. 


Wray, Rer. H. WDn, 

Wray, Rer. J. Jackson. 

To. ii2. 
Wright, Rev. Canon. Li, 

Wright, J. Nb, ♦h3. 
Wright, Rev. J. Wo, 


Wright, Dr. J. To. Ml 
*w6.— «» (w) in i^otiM 
To. 366(;. 

Wright, Rev. J. P. -5^ 


Wyatt, J. Bd. »B— -»«. 


Wyer, N. W. Do. ♦wS. 

—Dv, B.— ^. I. 
Wykes, C. H. Np. l2. 
Wyld,J. Lu. *Bl. 

Tarranton, Rev. A. 8m, 


Yeats, Dr. J. JTo. •c2. 


The palaeotype laid down in Part I. pp. 1 to 12, even when extended as in 
Part Iv. pp. xii to xiv, proved insufficient for the differentiation of the 
minnte shades of sound heard in dialectal speech. Hence it be^une necessary 
to construct an entirely new table. 

All sounds are represented bv '*old letters,*' whence the name palaeotype 
woAoioi rlvoij but in order to obtain signs enough these ancient types embrace 
1) direct small or ** lower case" roman as (e), *i) the same ** turned" as (e), 
3) the direct italic and small capital (e b), and 4) their inversions (9 s), and 
sometimes even black letter as (r a) A few '* digraphs" are slso admitted, 
especially with (h), as (th sh), a hyphen preceding the (h) when it is not initiid, 
but has to have its usual sense. 'Modifiers' are extensively employed as in 
^e*, 0], uS u^ A, kj, tj t|), etc. These alter the value of the preoedm^ letter 
in a definite direction, and are explained hereafter separately, and also in con- 
junction with the modified letters. All these letters, digraphs, and modified 
forms are then arranged in alphabetical order by the ordinary larse capital letters 
which are not otherwise phonetically employed. The letter A, for example, 
refers to all modifications of the type a and its diphthongal combinations as 
(a, a*, a|, a,, aR— ah, aA, a'i, a'u, a'y, — a, ah, — a, a*,— b, b6u). 

No attempt is here made to give any nhonetic theory, for which see much of 
Part lY., and also my article on Spbboh Sounds in the £neyclop^ia Britanniea, 
1888, vol. 22, pp. 381-390, which uses palaeotype, and my Speech in Song 
(Novello), or Pronunciation for Sincere (Curwen), both of whicn use glossic. 
iiut as a matter of convenience I prefix the table of Mr. Melville Bell*s vowel 
system reduced to pal. and numbered. 

Mb. Mblvillb Bbll*8 Vmble Speech Towel Table. 
n narrow, w wide, nr narrow round, wr wide round. 



ToKorB Back. 


ToNOUB Front. 

High ..... 
Mid _ 
IX)W „... 

n w nr wr 
1<8 2b 3u 4ii 
6b 6a To 80 
9(E IO0 llA 12o 

n to nf iPr 
13t I4y 16u 16tih 
17 a 18ah 19 oh 20 oh 
21 eh 22a> 23ah 24oh 

n w nr wr 
26i 26i 27i 28 y 
29« 30e 3U 32 ce 
33b 34 n 36ph 36 sh 

These will be spoken of as Bell's No. 1, 2, 3, etc., though the numbers are 
mine, and merely annexed for convenience of reference, and to shew in the briefest 
Boanner the position <tf the tongue and lips asBigned by Mr. Bell. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


Quantity. — (I) Vowels. Six grades of length are recognised. Very short as 
Ok 9), ordinanly short as (a 9), medial length, lying between short and lone, 
as (^ 9'), long as (aa 99), drawled as (aa 99'), extremely long as (aaa 999). 
Ordinarily only two lengths are written, short and long, as (a aa). To indicate 
a succession of two shorts of the same kind introduce the break as (a;a). TH. 
has always recognised the medial length as (it), and in all his numerous con- 
tributions to tms book medial vowem abound, greatly to the exclusion of lon^ 
(p. 316). Hence to him, and those who agree with him, the lon^ vowel (aa) 
represents a much longer sound than it does to me. In s.Lowlana the vowels 
are generally medial, and when lengthened are vary long, thus thief thieves are 
(thif thiivz), which might be written (thiif thiiivz), out for convenience are 
usually written (thif, thiivz]. Similarly in Italian and Spanish, the vowels 
are ordinarily of medial length, and may be emphatically shortened or lengthened 
according to the feeling of the moment, without disturbing signification. 

(2) Consonants. — Some consonants, as (s, f, z, v), can l^ continued indefinitely, 
and in point of fact are generally lengthened in the pause. As a rule this is 
not noticed in writing. But TH. constantly marks it, see p. 316, and all the 
examples in D 21, D 26, (pp. 317-329, 426-447). See also Dr. Sweet's 
observations, IV. 1145. In this case, if the final consonant is voiced, as (htz), 
the buzz is often not continued very long, but is followed by an indefinitely long 
hiss, thus (hizs*) as (hiz*) would be uncomfortable to the speaker. If the fin^ 
consonant be a mute, it cannot be len^hened, but is only suspended, that is, the 
organs of speech are retained in their positions, and a silence ensues until the 
position is ordinarily released on flatus, or another vowel, thus (stop*) properly 
means a silence after (p), but would ordinarily imply the release on natus as 
(st9p*p')> Sometimes, however, even when final the mute is neither suspended 
nor audibly released, and would then be marked thus (stop!). Between two vowels 
the mute is thus usually split up, thus stopping is pron. as (stopiq), with no pause 
between the end of the first or De^:iiming of the second s]^llable, really (stoptptq), 


(optshat). In all these cases, except in special phonetic discussions, I avoid the 
use of the mark of suspension. But the suspended (t*) for the is always marked, 
p. 317*. 

In the following list only the short vowels and the short consonants are given 
as headings, but examples to both short and long vowels are often annexed. 

Diphthongs. — Two or more different vowels written in juxtaposition are to bo 
pronounced in separate syllables, as (k^^os) chaos, but they are usually separated 
in some way, as (k^;9s, k^-os). When however tbey glide on to one another, 
one of them bears an acute accent, as (&t), and the two form a * diphthong,' 
and simiUrly three vowels form a triphtnong, as (eku). The combination in 
each case consists of a single syllable. The vowel bearing the acute accent 
has then the principal stress. Occasionally each element may have equal stress, 
and then two acute accents are used, as fi§L), distinct from (i;a, Sa, i&), but even 
in this case there is felt to be only one syllable. When the vowel with the stress 
is long, the acute is placed on the first of the two representative letters, as (&ai), 
and wiien it is medial, the medial grave accent fuses with the diphthongal acute 
accent into a circumflex, thus (&U) becomes (^t), which type wul be constantly 
found in TH.'s contributions below. As English printers have usually only 
(k ^ i 6 d d i t 6 &) with acute accents, the acute accent for other vowels is 
placed after the vowel, as (o'i, oe'i), and the grave is printed after it separately, 
as (a'i, A'^t). It is sometimes convenient to indicate the class of a diphthong 
without completely analysing it. Thus we may not kno\« whether (s'i, &i, at) 
were the diphthong really uttered, but may be sure that it was something like 
one of them, then (a'i) is used, the acute accent being separated, and the second 
element indefinite. Similarly (a'u, o'i, i'u, a'jr, a'B, e'«, i'u, i'©, o'«, u'b) are 
employed for unanalysed dipnthongs, the (') being separate from (a, e, i, o, u) ; 
but this meaning of the separate acute accent is confined to the case when it 
follows (a^ e, i, o, u). Hence (&i, a'i) must be strictly distinguished, the first 
diphthong being thoroughly analysed and definite, the second entirely unanalysed 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 




tnd indefimte, but fonning a claas ; (e't) howerer is alao an analysed form, the 
accent being separate through a typomphical necessity. As a role only nn- 
analysed diphthongs are given in the following list, though the principal analysed 
forms will be found in their proper places. 

The length of the first element ol a diphthong is generally very material. It 
is usually short, as (&t), but occasionally len^ened, as (At, &at), generally with 
an appreciable difference in pron. or meaning. But the length of the second 
element does not alter the character of the diphthong, any more than the length 
of the final consonant alters the value of the syllable. TH., however, generally 
marked the quantity of the second element as medial when he observed it to be 
lengthened, as (ki). I have usually not retained this lengthening, considering it 
quite inessential, and arbitrary, bemg in fact constantly admissime in the paose, 
without any intention to alter the sound, see p. 316. 

Elocutionary alterations and intonation are mostly left unmarked, but an 
inverted period before a word indicates emphasis corresponding to the usual 
italics; thus, he told me, he told me, became (h« toold *mii, *hii toold m«). In 
monosyllables emphasis ^erally concUtions some alteration of sound. 

\* The long phonetic discussion on received pron. in Part IV. pp. 1090 to 
1167 will be regularly cited, and pp. 1265 to 1367 should also be consulted. 

When the numbers of pages r^erred to are above 1000 they are in Part lY., 
when under 1000 they are in this volume, — ^unless the number of the part is 
specially added. The italic letters a, b, c, d annexed here and elsewhere indicate 
that the passage referred to is in the first, second, third, or fourth quarter of the 
page ; and if the page is in double columns, unaccented letters refer to the first, 
ana accented to the second column. The reader will find it convenient to mark 
the quarters of pa^es on a separate piece of papor cut the length of the printed 
matter, excluding the head-line, and after foloiiur in half, and then again m half, 
and lettering it, apply it to the book ; it will be found to save much time in 
finding a passage m para so crowded with matter as those of this book. 

The mode I have adopted, and found to work well in writing is as follows : 
The small roman letters are written as usual. The small italic letters are onoe 
underlined as usual. The small capitals, instead of being doubly underlined aa 
usual, are written as ordinary letters with an acute accent l>elow, as p=B, 
except when they have tails, and then a stroke is written above as / ysj t. 
Black letters are doubly dotted below. The turned letters are thus represented 

Turned acencfjr 1l mvcb 
Printed «oesajrj {i kao) 
Written s p e fSJrfft^'^V^ 

A. (a a* El a, a^ a^ — ah aA a'i a'u 
a'y — a ah— a a* — « buu). 

(a) Bell's No. 6 short (s^ ^ Oerman 
monn, and perhaps in Cmglish chaff, 
loss, ask, both, d^mce, 1148 ; medial 
(k) common in Midland that; long 
(aa) in ah, fotiier, mamma, port (the 
r not sounded), 639r. 

(aM a higher form of (a) approaching 
(se). This is generally used in place 
of (ah) as more suggestiTe, but it 
has not the certain position of the 
latter, 69da. 

(ai) between (a, a), used especially 
by JGG., see 689<r, generally con- 
fused with (a), but JGG. considers 
that it differs in quality from the 
short of a in father. 

(^a) or (a) with an advanced tongue, 
' 1147e, between (a, le), and not j 

materially different in effect from 
(ah, at), 60lb. 

(a J semi-nasal form of (a),inild nasality, 
often heard in Amencan long i, as / 
Jind (&,« f& tnd). 

(sr) the simultaneous pron. of (a) and 

(ah) Bell*s No. 18, not materially dif- 
ferent in sound from (a^, a), used 
principally for an affected thumees, 
1148<'. Sweet makes it the sound 
in tfve, bett^, but the last is not 
usual in educated speech. 

(sa) a conventional form for French 
chant, but (a^ is altered in quality 
by the altered position of the uvula 
in nasalisation, eee (a) p. 86* below, 

(a'i) unanalysed diphthong used where 
the first element has not been de- 
termined; when analysed it may take 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




the forms in (6i, &«, k\ ■'•', le't, 
9^i, n't, a>'if di)^ and the fint element 
IB aometimee leng:thened, 1 100, col. 2. 
It may even be nasalised as (& t]. 
Fiye forms are heard in D 38, 
767^, dj see also D 26, rar. iv. 
p. 410. 

(a'n) unanalysed diphthong, nsed where 
the second element approaches (n) 
and the first elem^it nsm not been 
determined ; it may take the forms 
in (&n, &f«, k^Uf Wtf, 9fUf e'n, n'u, 
eo'u, 6u, dUf a!u, o'm), 1163, col. 2. 

(a'y) nnanalysed diphthong where the 
second element approaches (y) or 
French u. The ust elementmay 
▼ary, as in (a'i, a'u). We find (dy), 

(a) Bell's No. 10 between (a, a), 
lll&r, n62if. 

(tfh) Bell's No. 23, is to him the Irish 
str, and first element of the Irish /, 
and the oral element of French m ; 
Sweet giTes no example. 

(a) BeU's No. 11, all, bowl, an (a) 
approaching to (o), 1116 ool. 1, 1122 
col. 1, and 6Z9d. 

(a^) or (a) with a raised tongue, not 
milike (o), 363a, b, 

(«) Bell's No. 2, as a in parental, 
China, the commonest form of un- 
accented indistinct Towel, frequently 
serring as the second element of a 
diphthong, 1122&', 640<;. Bell's 
examples are dung^n, motion, con- 
sotoKs, abandon, cupboard, aTotr- 
diqKnse, honoMr, bellouv, sb. Sweet 
eiyes no example, but uses Bell's 
No. 17, my fa), in this sense finally. 

(vtiu) a form of (uu) heard perhaps m 
the north, 63H No. 640. 

JE. (aB sell). 

(IB) Bell's No. 84, the rec. English 
short Towel in htk, which approaches 
closely to (■) ; and is generally re- 
placed by (aS a, a) in dialects ; long 
in the local pron. of Bath (:bflBCth). 

(eh) Bell's No. 36, which he hears in 
the first element of Cockney out and 
L. /'U ; and Sweet in open German 
Ootter. I can giye no example. 

B. (b b. bh). 

(b) bee bej Aow, g^#fb, btibe ba*y, a 

l(p), 1113. 
(b^ a kind of defectiye (m) said to 

exist in We. 1113J, 660, No. 13. 
(bh) Qennan ir, Hungarian v, modem 

Greek /3, (y) uttered without touching 
the upper teeth with the lower lip, 
1101 to 1103. 

C. (o, oh, o't). 

(o) Bell's No. 12, common English 
short in a closed syllable, hop hob 
hot hod hock hog, unused in most of 
Europe, where it is replaced by (o) ; 
yery like (a), which is also peculiarly 
English, but yerging towards (o), 
1116, 640<;. The symbol (o) is used 
because the small cap. (o), which 
would naturally haye oeen used, is 
too like the lower case (o). 

(oh) Bell's No. 24, which Bell conceiyes 
as Cockney ask and Irish not. 
Sweet giyes no example. AJE. does 
not know the sound. 

(o't) educated form of boy toy joy, 
occasionally (a'«, aa'i), 1117^. 

D. (d ^d d,— dj dh dh, dw—i> 

DJ Dh). 

(d) in do rod plodding plea^fing, the 
tip of the tongue at a sensible 
distance behind the fl^ums, English 
'coronal' (d), yoicea form of (t), 
1096, 1118. 

(^d) French and general continental d 
with the tip of the tongue advanced 
to the gums, alyeolar d, 1095, heard 
in some English dialects, but almost 
only before f, r°), which then become 
(.r, .rj, 642*. 

(dj retracted (d), the tip of the tongue 
Drought as far bacK as possible 
without reversion, so that its ed^^e 
(not underside) touches the palate, 
and the tongue forms a spoon-shaped 
hollow at the back part, a mild form 
of reversion, 41rf. 

(d|^ contraction for (,d^zh, dzh) or 
(djzhi), hefodinjudffey 1164o', 542, 
usually analysed as (dzh), as it was 
in the three first Parts ot E.E.P. 

(dh) the tongue brought fully against 
tne teeth in English, the th in Mey 
breaM*, tvMing, 1098a, 1122a'. 

(dh,) the (dh) with the tongue some- 
what retracted, Spanish d in U&drid, 

(dw) labialised (d), an attempt to utter 
(d) and (w) simultaneously, 1116, col. 
2, frequent English dwell, generally 
confused with fdw). 

(d) reverted {d), that is, (d) spoken with 
the und^rsiae of the tongue against 
the pakte, 1096, 1096, 42, see (dj. 

(dj) a(i>2h) or reverted (d;), 41. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




(Dh) the under part of the tip of the 
tongue brought against the teeth, 
theoretically asemned to exiat in D 4, 

see 41. 

E. (e e* ei e® — 6« 6e9 eii 6# eA 
6uu ^u — e e^ e^ — w" M ee^j 
i^&i P%^ — E El — E* e'u — 9 9^ 
ob— ^ 0^ 9i ph — a v} a^ — a't 
a'o a'w). 

(e) Bell's No. 30, as I hear it from 
educated southern Englishmen in bH, 
btfd, p«i, 11 06, col. 1, 639rf, generally 
replaced by (b) proyincially. Bell 
considers that it is used only in un- 
accented syllables, and that (b) is 
the sound in accented syllables. 
Sweet agrees with me. llie long 
form (ee) as in fair, core, ^ftir, but 
only before r in received English, 
sounding (f#eB, k6e«, p6eB). 

(e*) the tongue of (e) being raised, 
hence approaching closely to (e), 
1107, col. 2 

(cj) the tongue of (e) being lowered, 
approaching closely to (b), hardly 
distin^^hable from (b^) , 1 1 07« col . 2 . 

{e°) an indistinct form of (e) approach- 
ing («), but reminding the nearer of 
(e), 721ft, e, 

(6b) common provincial titictnre, differ- 
ing only in length from the next. 

{^) real sound of air without the trill, 
(ev) is also common provincially, 
see (e). 

(6ii) the (e) very short and the (ii) 
long, 638^, 696ft', considered by the 
natives as (ii) pandlel to (/|i). 

(6i) common diphthongising form of 

(ca) French vi», see (a), p. 86*. 

(6uu) the (e) very short and the (uu) 
long, 638, 1. 3 from bottom, a 
suMtitute for (uu), see also 666r, 
parallel to (eii). 

(6m) a mincing form of (a'u) common 
in D 9, p. 137<f, and London. 

(*) Bell's No. 29, when lengthened, is 
the sound in name without any 
vanish, Fr. iSe long, -^ short, 1107. 
Murray considers it opener than Fr. 
iie, 710, No. 4. The long sound 
must be distinguished from (ee'j) 
with the vanish. 

(^) the ton^e of {e) raised, and hence 
approaching closely to (i), 1107, 
683ft, 766r, and scarcely distinguish- 
able from (ij), 696ft. 

(tfj) the tongue of (e) lowered, ap- 
proaching closely to (e), 1107, 683ft, 

(mb) a low form of (ee) or (ee) tending 
towards (b), usually written (eei), 
682, last line. 

(iei) more distinctly ending with (t) 
than London («f'j), 1108<r, 1109. 

{ee*j) the London (educated) long {ee) 
with the * vanish,' the diphthong 
ending in an indefinite approach to 
(«), wnich is not of constant value, 
nil, col. 1. 

(^^a,) this diphthong is here usually 
written (/,ai), 642a. 

(^W) a dipnthong scarcely distinguish- 
able from (i,i), which is nere generally 
written, 6i\c. 

(e) BeU's No. 33, the Fr. b^ short, 
Italian open «, common short 
English e in closed accented syllables 
in provincial, and as some nold in 
rec. sp., see (e) above, and 1106«. 

(B)), a still deeper form than (b), but 
not yet quite (se), 1108«, 711, No. 6. 

(b^) a variation of (b) in the direction 
of {e) for which (*i), or lowered (<f), 
is used, 683ft, No. 3, 1. 

(b'm) a very common form of (a'u) 
heard in D 10 and D 19, pp. 146a, 
277ft, 278<?, 279rf, 287rf. 

(o) Bell's No. 17, the fine u of an 
educated Londoner in closed accented 
syllables as c«t up, replaced pro- 
vincially by (a), 1094, col. 2. Bell 
conceives it to be French qu^, which 
I take as (p). Sweet has German 
Oabtf, which I conceive as (b). 
Murray cannot distinguish op^ 
unstressed (e, e), 683a. I do not 
really distinguish unstressed (b, e). 

(9*) an (e) raised towards (i), 146ft. 

(oh) Bell's No. 21, he puts down as 
"provincial snr," and Sweet simply 
as str ; I do not know it as different 
from (a). 

{ij Bell's No. 81, Fr. eu in p^ as 
distinct from eu in p^wple, which 
is (oe) ; it does not seem to occur 
precisely in English, but only in 
some variant written (P|), 146^, 
641a. Bell conceives h) as Fr. ime, 
which I take as (y) ana Sweet as (i). 

(*M a higher form of (*), 711, No. 12, 
721ft, e. 

(pj) a deeper variant of (*), but not 
quite {(b), 146«, 641 under (pp), 

(ph) Bell's No. 36, which he gives to 
French b^ore (but this seems rather 
(oe) to me), and Sweet to Swedish for. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




(■) Bell's No. 5, the ordinair deep 
proTincial form of the natural vowd 
in accented cloee syllables, as cut, 
bud, 1094, col. 2, bnt BeU and 
Sweet consider it to be the received 
form, which I take as (e). 

(sM a higher form of (■)» suppoeed to 
betheScotch, 711, No. 8. 

(ir) the simultaneous pron. of (■) and 
(K), 42. 

(a'tl a yery common profindal form of 
tne diphthong (a't). 

(s'o) a diphthong b^;iiming with open 
lips for (a), closing gradually to the 
position for (o), 73^. par. 9. 

(i m) one of the commonest provincial 
forms of (a'u), not very distinguish- 
able from (6ii). 

F. (f fh ,). 

(f) a hiss with the lower lip against 
the upper teeth, sometimes replaced 
by (ph), in which the teeth are not 
touched, 1099^. 

(fh) lips and teeth as for (f), back of 
tongue as for (u), Bell*s theoretical 
form of NL./used for wh, 758a. 

Q) a modifier used in (t| d|) = (t,8h, 
d^xh), to indicate an approach to (tj 

di), and also somewhat laxly in 
(1^ gi) to represent the Sanscrit 
ei^lodent form of (t| d|), supposed 

to occur in English, 1119<;, d, 

G. (g gj— gh gj gjh grh— gir 
girh g). 

(g) as in ptiff, gig, fa^^ing, 1113, 1 154a. 

(g|) the sonant form of fd|) existing 
in Sanscrit, and by Godwin re- 
cognised in English, 1119, col. 1. 

(gh) guttural buzz, the back of the 
tongue coming close to the soft 
palate, as in (German Ta^e; not 

(gj) an attempt to pronounce (g) and 
(i) simultaneously, palatalised (g), 
at one time very common in received 
sp., now almost disused, except in 
the word girl (gjeel). 

(gjh) palatal buzz, German kdni^, 
distinct from (gh), often confused 
with (j), but not an English sound, 
and not even used in L. where (kjh) 
is common. 

(grh), the uvula is flapped during the 
pron. of (gh), Ar. i, often heard in 
Holland, but repumated by better 
speakers, very like the No. burr, 
■ee (r). 

X.I. Proa. P«rt ▼. 

(gtr) an attemnt to pron. (g) and (u) 
simultaneously, labialised (g) heard 
in^tfano, 1115, col. 1. 

(gu;h) labialised guttural buzz, tongue 
for (gh) and lips for (u), German 
Bu^e, not an English sound, though 
(ktrh) occurs in L. 

(o) retnu;ted (g), that is with the 
contact between the back of the 
tongue and soft palate as near the 
throat as possible ; as JGG. considers 
that (k), the mute form of (o), is used 
in D 4, n. 62. v. 23, 24, 25, and 
p. 57, No. 773, he should have 
admitted (o) in p. 51, v. 4 (bse'OBNer) 
bayonet; but the use of (k, o) in 
English seems very (questionable ; (k) 
is common in Arabic j, but (o) is 

H. (h 'h Oi H Hh Hih). 

(h), (1) when not initial and not pre- 
ceaed by a hyphen or turned period, 
as in (thin, dn«, shii, vtzh«n) etc., 
Min, th%y the, virion, is a modifier, 
so that it must be considered as 
forming part of the same letter as the 
preceding sign; (2) when initial or 
preceded by a hyphen or turned 
period, as (hii, pat'ha'us, mis-hse-p) 
Ae, potAouse, misAap, it is a new 
letter representing the unanalysed 
aspirate of which (h Hh H|h) are 
analjTsed forms, 11304'. 

('h) voice, is contracted to (*) when 
sufficientiy unambiguous, and then 
represents any obscure, indefinite, 
and short voice sound, 1128^'. 

(<h) flatus, audible but unvoiced breath, 
11284', contracted to (*) when 
following another letter, as (tap') 

(h) jerked utterance of following vowel 
or flatus, lldO^' ; before a vowel the 
singer's aspirate, or entirely voiced 
In£an aspirate, 1134, 11381^. 

(Hh) contraction for (H*h) or jerked 
flatus, not necessarily prominent, the 
usual theoretical aspirate, 6424, c. 

(Hih) a smartly jerlced emission of 
flatus or strong aspirate, llZOc^. 

I. (iti'i 

r »* « ' 

-H lyr 

—iiii ixe^ iii— tji— i). 

(i) BeU's No. 25, the long (ii) is com- 
mon on the continent, and is supposed 
to occur in fat, tea, mtfHing, but 
here is frequently simply {ii) ; the 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




short (i) in closed accented syllables 
is not recognised as English, and is 
replaced by (t) ; eTen in open short 
syllables (i) is rare, 1098</, 640. It 
oocnis howcTer in L. 710e. 

(T) Tery short sound of (i), the Tocal 
form of (j), 6Zb'f par. 3, diph- 
thongising with the following Towel, 
regular Welsh form. 

(i'a^ unanalysed form of a common 
malectal mphthong, yarjing as (t.&i, 
ta, fB, it«), the last being the rec. 
sound of ear when the r is, as usual, 
not trilled, 1099^. 

(t) BeU*s No. 26, in : tt, bib, pin, silly, 
the regular sound of English short i, 
640, but TH. uses U) when it occurs 
in open unaccentea syllables, con- 
sidenng the tongue to be somewhat 
retracted, 31 6<; ; Bell makes no such 
distinction ; Sweet considers pity to 
have (ij. 

{*) a siflni used by TH. explained Zl6c 
not distinguished by me from un- 
stressed open (i), which see. 

(i^) a high form of (i), which I cannot 
distingmsh from (i). 

(V) SL. dose form of (ib), 710, i 
No. 3. 

(«i) inchoant diphthong, (i) commenced 
too deep as \i) and gradually raised 
to (i^ during speech, 293 ; this is the 
Mioland form and seems to be what 
Sweet writes y, which he analyses as 
(»•') for received English. 

(iy,| a diphthong arising from begin- 
ning (y,) with the mouth too open, 
heard in D 19, p. 261a. 

(ij) a lowered form of (i) lying between 
(if 0)f which Sweet hears in pity 
and IS common dialectally. 

(ii^) L. close («b) as written on 6S2d, 
No. 3, usually written (•']. 

(t'.&i) a peculiar northern iracture, in 
which both elements are distinct, 

(t>°) JGG.'s form of (V), 72U, e. 

(«ii) here the first element is deeper 
than (i) and approaches («), so that 
JOG. often wrote (e*i*), which see, 
6i\e; it differs from («i) in being 
nearer Ui), 

(•j,| doubly lowered (i), representing 
the sounds generally wntten i in 
Ab. which sound to me among (i, 
e, 9, a, b), fully discussed in 767, 
see also 696d ana 766<f. 

(i) Bell's No. 27, which he asdgns to 
German wber and Sweet to French 
iMie, both of which I take to be 


J. a 'i— ^ ^^^r). 

(j) a modifier, indicating that the 
preceding consonant is palatalised, 
or that an attempt is made to 
p rono un ce (i) simultaneonriy with it, 
as in (ki, g^, Ij, ni), 1116. Sweet 
calls this palatalisation "front 
modification,*^ because he terms (i) 

Cj] indefinite palatalised voice, heard 
m the * vanish' of (ee^j) for long a 
in the pause, I 111, Sweet writes H 
and amuyses (^i). 

(j) the true consonantal sound in ye 
yield yet yacht, German j\ the true 
consonantal form of OQ, 1149</, 642^. 

(jh) the palatal hiss oi (j) heard, at 
least occ., in Aew Aue //ughes Auffe 
i/ume, but often replaced by simple 
(j), not unlike (gjh, kjh), 1149, 
col. 2. 

(f ) the Midland gentle r described in 
29Zd and 294, not materially different 
from (r^, r^ and other imperfect, 
because unfiapped or untrilleo, forms 
of (r), see unoer R. 

K. (k kj kh kj kjh kw kwh s). 

(k) common guttural mute in etke, 
satkf yieking ; there is a habit some- 
times of jerking out the following 
vowel as (knom) come, heard in 
Ireland and G^ennany, il40d, and 
some insist on slight fiatus inter- 
vening as (k|hdm), which regularly 
occurs in the pause as (s8ek|h) = (ssk*) 
sack, neither practice is generally 
heard from educated speakers. 

(k^) explodent form of (t|) as con- 
ceivea by Mr. Godwin and found in 
India, 11190. 

(kh) the German eh in a<;A, still heard 
in Lowland Scotch and occ. in 
Northern English. 

(kj) palatalised (k), or an attempt to 
pronounce (k) and (i) simultaneously, 

(kjh) palatalised hiss, an attempt to 
pronounce (kh) and (i) simultane- 
ously; German irA, recAt, heard in 
Lowland, 642^, 711<f, not to be 
confounded with (jh) or with (sh, 

(ktr) labialised (k) or an attempt to 
pronounce (k) and (u) simultaneously, 
usual gu in quality, quantity, egMdise, 
^Mestion, 1103, col. 2, 1116. 

(ktirh) an attempt to pronounce (kh) and 
(u) simultaneously, final in German 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




mitk, boM, and initial in Lowland 
Scotch, written as initial^, 1116^'. 

(k) retracted (k), see (o), p. Bl*. 

L. (1 '1 ,1— Ih, Ihh, Ij— / /h— 
1— L-^). 

(I) common En^h fow, fie, ow^ ais^, 
dwetfing, I \i6g, 5i2e, the tip of the 
toogoe rating on the hara palate 
some way from the gams, coronal (1), 
and the sides of the tongue slightly 

(*1) syllafiic (1), the Toioe being sus- 
tained daring position, this notation 
is adopted as dearer than Bell's (11) 
ormyeqaiTalent(r). Compare (ltt*l, 
litU, litf). "t- V » 

(.1) ahreolar Q), the tip of the tongue 
resting on the gums, common conti- 
nental/, 5^, 

Gh) flatedfl), that is, with flatus sub- 
stituted for voice, generated in some 
dialects, and supposed by Bell to 
occur regularly before (p t k). as 
(helhp) or (hellhp, mellht, millhk) 
help, melt, milk, 642d, 

(Ihh) unilateral Oh), the breath being 
ejected from tne right side of ^e 
tongue only, as in Welsh UtJl. 

(Ij) palatalised I, an attempt to pro- 
nounce (1) and (i) at the same time. 
Italian ^/ may be generated in 
English million as (mil-lj-j«n), 

(I) the Polish guttuimlised barred /. 

{Ih) the flated (/). 

(l) the gradual glottid, the e<kes of 
the glottis being open when be^- 
ning to speak and gradually olosmg, 

(l) rsTerted /, the under part of the 
tongue being turned to the palate 
generated bT action of preceding 
(&), 42dy ana sometimes used inde- 
peii^ently, 143^. 

(i) glottal r peculiar to Danish, but 
held to have been heard in the 
Cockney speech by Donders, 1099«^. 

M. (m 'm mh jc). 

(m) an orinasal resonance of Toice 
while the month is in the position 
for rp), 1148, colt 2; the tongue 
should obstruct the carity of the 
mouth as little as possible, or (n, q) 
may be generateo, for which the 
opcodnff of the lips is not necessary. 

('m) syllabic (m) in schisM chasMi 

(s«2*m kses'm) ; this symbol preferred 
as more distinct than Bell's (mm) or 
my rm*), 1148<r and llO&t 

(mh) flatus passed through the nose 
while the mouth is in the position 
for (p), thou^t bf Bell to occur 
before mutes, but not heard by me, 
1141a, 1148<^. 

(k) turned small capital m, a lip trill 
with compressed lips, a defectiTe 
utterance of (r) usiudly taken for 
(w), 665, line 1, formerly written 
(m) or turned m. 

N. (n 'n ^n — ^nh nj — v). 

(n) orinasal resonance of Toioe while 
the mouth is in the position for (t), 
as in fio, own, manlier, 1096, the 
mouth is generally open, but it ia 
not necessary that it should be so, 

(*n) i^Uabio (n) so written in prefer- 
ence to Bell's (nn) and my (n') for 

. lengthened (n), in op#n, sanken 
(oop'n, saqk'n), llOSd, 

(,n) tne alveolar continental n with the 
tip of the tongue quite on the gams, 

(nh^ flatus through the nose and in 
tne mouth in the position for (t) ; 
this was once used initially for An- 
throughout England, and is still so 
used occ. in Cu. 642^. 

(nj) palatalised (n), an attempt to pro- 
nounce (n) ana (i) at the same time, 
Italian and French ^it, Spanish £L, 
Portugoese nh ; may be generated 
in Ei^lish (en-nj-jvn) onion, 1161, 
col. 2, see (qj). 

(n) reverted (n), the mouth being in 
the position tor (t) during the ori- 
nasal resonance, generatea by a pre- 
ceding (b) in D 4 and D 1 1, see 42. 

0. (o Ou— oh 6o« OA ow — Ou 
0^ — oh 00^ to), 

(o) Bell's No. 8 Italian open (o), dif- 
ferent from, but often confased with 
(a), and common in our dialects, 

(oq) may indicate an endeavour to pro- 
nounce (o) with the lip aperture of a 
fu), see 1116^', and may occur in 
aialects ; it might also be written 
{ow) on Sweet's principle of * over- 

(oh) Bell's No. 20, conceived by Sweet 
as French homme, which I hear as 
(o), conceived by Bell as American 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




stone, which I hear as (o), and Low- 
land note, which I also hear as (o). 
Bell considers it to he unaccented o 
in history, yiotory, which seems to 
me pedantic. 

(6oir) a compound dialectal fracture, 
the rec. pron. of oar, with vocalised 
r, now usually called (aa'«), and 
formerly quite {6om), lOOOo*. 

(oa) conventicmal sign for Fr. o», 
see (a). 

{ow) see (Ou) ahore, and (lo), p. 86*. 

(o) Beirs No. 7, as long in otce, no, g[o 
without the * vanish, see (oo'to), it 
is not found short in accented closed 
syllahles in English, it resemhles 
the Italian close o, and may certainly 
he used for it, 1162, 640. 

(ou) the tongue as for (o) with the lip 
rounding as for u, 6S2d, No, 2, 

fnerally written («,). 
an (o) with a raised tongue and 
rather more closed lips, ana hence 
closely resemhline (m), so that (t<|) 
is generally wriUen in diphthongs, 
641cf, 6836, No. 8, 1. 

(oh) Bell's No. 19, conceived by him 
as Fr. homme, see (oh^ and when 
nasalised as (ohl), Frencn on. Sweet 
fives no example. 

{oaw) or (oo) with the vanish, that is, 
with a tendency as it is lengthened 
towards (u, m), 1162, col. 1, con- 
ceived as (Son) and often written 
(om) which to me altogether perverts 
the sound. Sweet writes ou and 
analyses (6oto)«(60u). 

CE. (oB OGi — (BA a C^VL — 9D <E 

((c) Beirs No. 32, intermediate to (o, 
e^, Fr. fu in Yeut p^le, Oerman 
BQort in bocke, distinct from {$) or 
eu in peuy and German long o in 
Qoethe ; thought to occur in English, 
64 U, but this is doubtful. 

(o?,) a variant of {(b) greatly resembling 
(uj, and similarly used as a trans- 
ition from (m) to (a) in Nb. 688<?, 
see also 72lc. 

(osa) the Fr. orinasal <^» ^^t the 
analysis cannot be properly made on 
account of the modification of the 
oral cavity by releasing the uvula ; 
to an Euglisnman it sounds rather 
as (aA^, thkt is, (■) with Fr. nasality. 

(or) Bell s No. 1, the sound heard on 
opening the mouth wide while pro- 
nouncing (u), 292o. 

(«'u) results from commencing (u) with 

too wide an opening of the lips, see 
292o. TH. writes (Jkja) for this sound. 
(a>) Bell's No. 22, in first eni third, 
when r is entarely lost, not materially 
different frcmi (ee), but with a 
aomewhat more movincial effect, 
1166, most noticeable in diphthongs, 
{so'i, qo'm) the forms of (a% a't^ in 
4, p. 66a, (ao'Vi) tha form of (a'u) 


inD 11, n. 166^2, l68o. 

(as) Bell's No. 9, which he hears in 
L. up, and Sweet in Cockney park ; 
I once imagined it was the D 4 
sound in first, which I afterwards 
wrote (f Bjrt) and now write (fntst), 
42o. I do not know the sound. 
I take the L. «p to be (ap), see the 
words on 718 under U:. 

(a>) a form of (a) with the sound of 
(aa^ running through it, continually 
spelled awoj diabct writers, 43r, 
under 0'. 

p. (p— ph). 

(p) as in pope, stopping; it may be 
initially (pn, px, p{h) and finally in 
the pause (p*) with, or (pi) without, 
a recoil, see 1111, col. 2. 

(ph) the flated form of (bh), the breath 
as it is usually emitted for cooling hot 
liquids, used for (f) in Hungarian, 
axid posaiblyBmod. Gr. ^. 

Q- (q— qj qj)- 

(q) nasal resonance of vmoe in the 

position of the tongue for (k) which 

excludes oral resonance, 1128o ; 

the lips are usually open, but this 

is not necessary, as ml resonance 

is entirely prevented, 
(qj) the probable Sanscrit form which is 

confused generally with (nj), 1124i^ 

corresponding to (l9,aj). 
(qj) palatalised (q) is by some oon- 

ceived as the V»roper t'rettch pron. 

of ^ which r take to be (nj) as it 

certainly is in Italian. 


rn rh — 

r*^ .r*^ r. 


'Bo— Rh— t-^). 
(r) a sharp- beat produced by allowing 
emitted voice to flap the tip of the 
toiunie, and this is the true 'trill' 
as neard in Italy, in Scotland, in 
Wales, and in 8h.; the strength 
and length of the beat vary muoh, 
but when there is no beat, there is 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




9 substitute, as (rj, now common. 
Enumerated kinds, 294. Simple (r) 
is constantly written for any kind, 
and the particular kind is often 
specified in a note, but is not always 
Imown ; but real (r) is the exception 
in English. 

(.r) strongly flapped L.- Scotch (r). 

(,r) the tip of the tong^ue advanced 
quite to the gums, during the flap, 
used after (^t) in dialects. 

(r J with retracted instead of reverted 
tip of the tongue, which approaches 
the hard palate ; the touffuehowerer 
retains the spoon-shaped hollownese 
of (b) towards the throat, 4ld; (b) 
has usually been printed instead oif 


(r^ the Northern buzzed r, described 
642, last line but one. 

(.1^ the same as (r^, but with the tip 
of the tonffue advanced towards the 
ffums, usea after (^t) in Northern 

(rj the buzzed r of the East of 
England, the tip of the tongue 
almost in the (d) position, but not 
touching the palate, a mere im- 
perfect (d) ; a de^mdation of (&, kJ, 
at times very difficult to distmguish 
from(B), 1098^ \S9c, 222a. 

(^J advaniDed alveolar (rj used after 
(,t) in dialects. 

(rh) flated (r), flatus instead of voice 
being useid to produce the trill; it 
prolMibly does not occur in English. 

(^h) flated (.r). 
(rhjr " ' 

,1 flated {r) a milder form of (ah), 
which is usually written, 42. 

(r) uvular r, the beat or interruption 
of sound being produced by the 
flapping of the uvula, which is 
brought to lie over the top surface 
of the tongue ; it is possible to make 
this trill very hard, and even metallic 
as in Paris, 6426; its usual effect is 
Uke (gh). 

(r^} the uvular rise, a stiffened uvula 
which does not flap as in (r), 642^. 

{nc) the {r) labialised, by bringing the 
bps nearly into the position for (o), 
the full Nb. burTf of which there 
may be several kinds, 64 1</. 

(a) reverted (r), the under surface of 
the tip of the tongue turned to the 
hard palate, and the flap indistinct 
and lees sharp than for (r); some 
deny that it is ever trilled, 236, 41, 
apparently combined with vowels 
(■, a, a|, etc. 426. 

(bj untrilled (b), this form is chiefly 

recognised by natives who consider 
that (b) is never trilled, because the 
effect of the trill is so different from 
that in (r), 236, 53a. 

('Bo) the syllabic (b^) for which (sb) is 
usually written, 42. 

(Bh) flated (b), the common initial r in 
D 4, p. 42a. 

(r) Irish r written ( r) on 123247. 

(j) permissive (r), that is, where r is 
written, either («) or (Br) may be 
pron., but the first is more usual, 
1099^ 1153a, 189r. 

S. (s ^8 8h shj ^sh srh sh). 

(s) common « in «ee, 0ea«e, missing, 
1 104^, a pure hiss, with no voice. 

(^s) the tongue for (s) is advanced close 
to the gum in making the hiss in 
cat«, 1105a, line 3; LLB. hears 
this, and not (^t^s) in the Italian s. 

(sh) 'concave swish,' hiss with the 
tongue retnu;ted and hollowed, in 
«Ae, leash, WifAine, 1117 to 1121. 

(shj^ * convex swish,^ the upper surface 
ot the tongue is convex to the palate ; 
this seems to be the High German 
s in it, ap initial, where * concave ' 
(sh) with a hollow upper surface of 
the tongue is not admissible ; (tj) 
may be taken as (tjshj) as well as 

(^sh) an advanced (sh), which maj be 
heard in cateh (kse^t^sh), wntten 
(kset|), where LLU. hears only (^sh), 
1117 to 1121. 

(srh) voiceless Polish rr, ton^e in the 
position for (sh) and the tip slightly 
trilled, 295a, line 4. 

(«h) 'reverted swish,' made with re- 
verted tongue, that is, (sh) as affected 
by a preceding (b}, 41^. 

T. (t tf ^t t — tj th th, tj t«?— T 

— T} Th). 

(t) as in tough/, ta/tin^, with the 
tendency in some speakers to (tH, 
t[, t|h) when initial, 1095, and (t*) 
final in the pause, 1111, col. 2. 

(t*) suspended (i) xaed for the definite 
article in the North, 186, 206, 
especially considered, 3176. 

(,t) alveolar t, with the tip of the 
tonane against the ^ms, used before 
r, then pron. (^r), in many English 
dialects, 5426, see (,d). 

(tJ retracted (t), see (dj, Aid, 

{i}) as in ^Aeese, CAteh, hateAinff, a 
contraction lor (,t,sh, t^sh) or (tjshj), 
see (d|), 11546^ 54*26. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



(th) dental hiss, as in thia breaM piM 

no^Aing, the tongoe fully against (not 

between) the teeth, 1097<r. 
(thj alTeolar hiss, the tonffue on the 

ginn, Spamah s, ecaroely dutingnish- 

able from (th). 
(tj) palatalised (t), an attempt to ntter 

(t, i) at the same time, 1116. 
{iw) lahialised (t) as in Itnne, an 

attempt to utter (t, a) at the same 

time, 1116. 
(t) reyerted t, with the under snrfaoe 

of the tonfi:iie against the palate, 42«. 
On) reverted (tj) formed of (T«h), 4\d. 
(Th) an attempt to say (th) with the 

nnder surface of the tongue against 

the teeth, 4U. 

TJ. (u d — u n* «' — Mq «q fi^u — 

llh ^U «| M|' {^ii ^Mid 

AjU— u). 

(u) Bell's No. 8 ; when, long as (uu) in 
too food pool; it does not occur short 
in an accented dosed syllable in 
Enj^h, but often occurs snort in an 
open unaccented syllable as infl«ence 
to-day to-night, I091d, 6i0d; found 
medial in L. (bdk) book, see (to). 

(fi) yery short diphthongising initial 
(u) used where (w) is now employed, 
1103, 643^ under (w). 

(m) Bell's No. 4, the common short oo 
in an accented syllable, full good, 
distinctly difierent from (u), 1114o', 
where read (nj) for (u^, 

(t»') the form in which 7ui) is usually 
written, 711, No. 10. 

a highmr form of («) almost (u), 
63, par. 8, 664o. 

(if J peculiar Midland transition sound 
from (e) to (u), described, 29 lo, and 
compare, 292a, 366, 664. 

(^M J toe sound of (m J with the tongue 
move adyanoed. 

(>oU> TH.'s sign for my (oi'u), 292o, 
used on 827, under O'. 

(irh) Bell's No. 16, which he asrigns 
to unaccented -tire and American 
do, but Sweet to yaltio. 

(An) Midland inchoant diphthong com- 
mencing with (u) and passinff on to 
(u), prooablT Sweet's, utr, which he 
analyses as (tftiMo), that is («) passing 
into an 'oyenrounded' (t»), see (^;u). 

(if]) alowfonnof(if), scarcely distmot 
xrom (o>) the high form of (o), which 
see, 29lo, 8896, 640ff. For a long time 
I confounded this with (if J under 
one sign and henbe,some eirorB in 


Part IV., thus (mJ on p. 1107<f, 

11140^, should be (w,). 
(Ml') a peculiar fracture heard in D 33, 

so written on 6S2d, but written (ii*) 

on 711, No. 10. 
(^>i) a Northern fracture similar to 

(«>,), 642a. 
(^lO) JOO.'s form of (»'), 721o. 
{4iVLJ Northern inchoant diphthong 

commencing with (mj), almost (o^), 

and ending with (u), 494o, 641(f, 

(u) Bell's No. 16, Bell and Sweet both 

consider it to be Swedish if ; it may 

be conceiyed as (y) with more flayour 

of (u) in it. 

V. (VA). 

(y) the yoiced form of (f), a buzz, with 
the lower lip firmly placed against 
the teeth, the despair of Germans 
who use (bh), 1101. col. 2.1 

(▲) written like Oreek t|, the sign of 
French nasality; the four French 
nasals in ofi vin mm on are conyen- 
tionally represented by (sa ca coa 
oa), but the relaxation of the uyida 
necessary for nasalisation preyents 
any exact reference of oral to ori- 
nasal yowels. 1123, col. 2. 

W, (w wh wr° iff ^w «?])• 

(w) a peculiarly English bussed con- 
sonant with nearij closed lips, wluch 
are compressed in the middle but 
inflated on each side by the emitted 
yoice, the back of the tongue raised 
as for (u) ; the side inflMions dis- 
tinguish (w) from (bh), and the busi 
from (&). 1091 to 1094 ; used for (y) 
in some dialects. 1326, 143a. 

(wh) flated (w), ttiat is, with unyoioed 
breath through the same position, 
which makes next to no hiss, only 
a blow, see the long discussion, 1126 
to 1146, 643«. 

(wi^ initial wr still heard amoof old 
people in the North, 643o, the ddest 
form was perhaps (no) or labialiBed(r) . 

(it) mark en labialisation, that is, of 
dosing the Ups more or less during 
the s<yBnd, or ndding the positioi|^ 
the p r e rious letter, as in (kio, gio, 
tw, dio), that is, an attempt to pro- 
nounce (w) at the same nme with 
(k g, t a) re^Mctiyely ; it may also 
be used with yowels to indicate 
greater labialisation, or more than 
tne normal closure of the Hps, ihus 
(o«o)«i(oq), which see. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




(*«r) the indeflnite voioe soimd fh) 
labialised, which therefore ap- 
proaches to (u) and forms the 
'ranish' of (oo), see {oo'u;), and 
1162, ool. 1. 

(irj) palatalised labialisation, or an at- 
tempt to pronoonce (a, i) or (7) with 
the preceding letter, as (nu^ji) or 
(nyi), French nuit, 1115a'. 

Y. (yyi— yyi— t). 

(j) Bell's No. 28, the sound of French 
M, German ti, which are perhaps not 
quite the same, lyingintermediate 
between (i) and (u). The presumed 
transitional sound from (u) to (7) is 
(ce'u). Perhaps pure (7) does not 
occur in our dialect. 

(7t) a modification of Fr. m in a di- 
rection not _predsel7 ascertained, 
admitted in D 10, p. 146, D 11, 
p. lo6d, and D 19, p. 261a. 

(y) Beirs No. 14, said b7 Melville 
Bell to be heard in the last S7llable 
of houstft and -shtre, a peculiar sound 
used in 6406, and stated to lie be- 
tween (t, «), compare (in) ; it is 
commonly transcribed (t|) by me, see 
766<; and ISle. 

(jf,) a variant of (y), the value not 

frecisel7 ascertained, 660a. 
Bell's No. 13, Russian u (/err) 
according to Bell, and Welsh u 
according to Sweet. 

Z. (z ^z — ^zh zh zbj zrh — «h). 

(z) the buzz of (s) produced by laying 
on the voice in the (s) position, as in 
cany hit whienng; often preceded 
when initial by an (s) in Qerman as 
(szii) sie, and followed by an (s) in 
the pause in English as (htzs) nij, 
1122«' 11044f. 

(^) the voiced form of (^), which see, 
according to LLB. the voiced Italian 
s genenmy taken as (^d^z). 

(zh) the buzz of M, initial in Fr. /b 
(zhp), in English occurs only between 
two vowels as in divijion, measure, 
and where it has been recently 
developed except in S. dialects, 400, 

(^h) advanced (zh), this may be 
the second element of (d|) usually 
assumed to be (dzh), 1 IHV. 

(zhj) voiced (shj), convex touffued (zh), 
tms also may be the second element 

(zrh) voiced Polish rs, the tongue as 
for (zh) and the tip trilled, 296a. 

(ch) reverted (zh) with the under 
surfoce of the tip of the tongue 
against the palate, occurs in (d|= 
juh), He. 

Numerals (* i u 8 * * Z). 

(') with a higher tongue, or appxe- 

dated as a higher sound, 1107. 
(1) with a lower tongue, or appreciated 

as a deeper sounc^ 1107, often used 

as a mere diacritic. 
Gi) doubly lowered, see (t'n) p. 82*. 
(g) is used for the Arabic ^ or bleat 

which it greatly resembles in shAfe ; 

it is produced in the glottis, and may 

be considered as an exaggerated 

catch or (;). 
(«) rounding bv palatal arches, as in 

a parrot's (p*t<*s) puss, lll4tF, 
(^) with pursed and protruded lips, 

168<T, ZZ2d. 
{l) unUateral palatal click used to start 

a horse with in England, usually 

spelled ePek ; there are several other 

clicks represented by turned numerals, 

or by aid of t below, 726, No. 17. 

Points (, 


( ' ) preceding a vowel, the dear glottid, 

( ; ) the check glottid or Arabic hamza, 
rejs:ularly used when a word begins 
with a vowd in German, not usual 
in EngUsh, 1130, 726<f, 7Z0d, used 
instead of musical accent in Damsh. 

(!) indicates the absence of glide or 
recoil after a mute, see p. 77* on 
length of consonants. 

(:) after a vowd or svllable, denotes 
secondary stress; oefore a word 
indicates that it would begin with a 
capital letter in reodved spelling. 

(.) period, before any letter, indicates 
that it reodves a peculiarly vigorous 
utterance ; it is only used in phonetic 
discusdons as (.r) Lowland r. 

( * ) after a vowd or syllable, denotes 
primary stress, and before a word 
emphasis, as (tv prize*nt « pre*z'nt) 
or (te prtzen*t « prez*'nt) to present 
a present. 

( ' ) after or before another consonant, 
• Ch), that is, voice in its dmplest 
form independent of the podtion of 
the organs; in former Parts much 
used where («) is now written by 

rference, see ('1, 'm, 'n). 
after another consonant e^h), 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




flatus in its simplest form, recoil 
after motes, as (nop'), not usually 
written but left to be inferred. 
{^) sUght nasality, not so marked as 
m French, often found with (a) as 

Mark* of intonation rarely used, 

i,.) low level tone, Chinese low (pHtq). 
" ) hi^h level tone, Ch. high (pniq). 
.* ) rising tone, Ch. high (shaq^. 
*.) falling tone, Ch. high (kHoece, 
kniu, kni). 

.*) rising from low level tone, Ch. 
low (shaq). 

..) falling tp low level tone, Ch. low 

.*) fall and rise, used in Norwegian 
and Swedish. » 

'.) rise and fall, Ch. (fu-kjen shaq). 
* ] sto^ voice suddenly at high pitch, 
Ch. high (shut*, zhii-, njipf). 
. ) stop voice suddenly at low pitch, 
Ch. low (shut. ihit. njip!.). See end 
of last entry. 

As a rule intonation is not marked, 
but it may be roughly indicated bj the 
above signs, which may immediately 
follow the vowel, or be printed in a 
line over the words. Or the ordinary 
level of speech being represented by 
6, and four deffrees of lower pitch by 
12 3 4, and four degrees of higher 
pitch by 6 7 8 9, without the assump- 
tion of any definite intervals, a line 
of figures over the words would nve 
a tolerable notion of intonation. But 
there are obvious difficulties, first in 
hearing the intonation naturally from 
native dialect speakers, and next in 
appreciating it when heard, and hence 
ii is not attempted in this treatlBe. 
See Mr. Melville Bell's ViHbl^ Spe$eh, 
p. 82, and his FrineipU$ of £loeution, 
6th ed. (Werner, New York). For 
the attempts of Steele and Merkd, 
see mypaper on Accent and Emphaeiey 
in the Irans. of the Philological Society 
for 1873-4, pp. 129-136. 

Accents (' 


(') marking the short glide and the 
stress sylmble in ordinary diphthongs, 
p. 77*. 

'') marking the slur or long glide 
of the Italian diphthongs as (i"o, 
mis^i) written with ^^, an incon- 
venient sign, on 11316. 

,) after a letter only, mark of retrac- 
tion of the tongue from the lips 
towards the throat, see (r^, thj. 

^ ) over or after a vowel marks medial 
length as (ik, 9^), after a continuous 
consonant marks lengthening as (s'), 
after an explodent marks suspension 
of the organs of speech for a sensible 
time, as (f) for the definite article, 
3176; see also p. 77*. 

J before a letter only, mark of 
advanced tongue, see (,t, ^r), the 
tongue in this case coming close to 
the gums, 1 120, col. 2. 

„) before a letter only, very advanced 
tongue quite up to the teeth, 1120, 
col. 2. 

lit) ^P ^' tongue between teeth, but 
not protouded, written (t) on 11206. 

Signs ( ) ; L t + U)- 

) ) ' divider * marks the end of a word 
and the beginning of the next, when 
the two words run on together as 
one; it is a guide to the eye in 

; ) * br^ik,* shewing that there is no 
glide between the letters between 
which it occurs, 1131, see both } ; 
used on 149, line 1. 

1^) preceding a letter indicates that 
that letter is very faintly uttered, 
see Part II. p. 419 note. 

X) following a consonant, as (t{)s 
English tuty or (^h) independently, 
11286', indicates a click made by 
smacking the interior parts of the 
mouth in the air ahready there with- 
out either inspiration or expiration. 

+) glide of any sort, ^ from a wide 
to a narrow, ^ from a narrow to a 
wide, opening of the mouth, 1130<f . 

\) with inspired breath, 11280^, (';) 
inspired flatus, and Of, ir^hf) in- 
spired flatus through toe lip position 
for (f) varied in the second case by 
raising the tonfifue for (rj, the lazy 
negative of Dundee school-boys, 
(j) trilled, when transcribing Bell's 
orthography, who writes the equiva- 
lent of {tji for (r). 


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The object of this treatise is to determine with considerable 
accuracy the different forms now, or within the last hundred years, 
assumed by the descendants of the same original word in passing 
through the mouths of uneducated people, speaking an inherited 
language, in all parts of Great Britain where English is the 
ordinary medium of communication between peasant and peasant. 
This limitation excludes those parts of Wales and Scotland where 
Celtic is habitually spoken by the natives. Ireland has also been 
excluded, except in the south-east of Co. Wexford — an old English 
colony — because it has otherwise a comparatively recently imported 
speech. The exact limits are marked on the Map by the CB or 
Celtic border, and traced in words below. Of course the oldest 
form of English existent within these limits was itself imported 
from North Germany, modified by Old Norse and subsequently 
Old Norman, which was a form of Old French modified by Old 
Norse. And equally of course the immigrants aboriginally spoke 
differently, so that there was not really one original form for any 
word within the whole limits thus described. 

To solve this problem perfectly every word used by native 
peasants in every part of the country should have its pron.* observed 
and written phonetically. But this was obviously impossible. 
Hence a selection of typical words had to be made. Before in- 
vestigating it was naturally impossible to make a proper selection, 
but without some sort of selection no investigation could have been 
commenced. At first I tried any collections of words I could 
obtain. Then finding how vague, defective and redundant these 
were, with the help of Dr. J. A. H. Murray, author of DS8. and 
editor of the new English Dictionary, I constructed in 1873 a 
Comparative Specimen (referred to as cs. and given in the Pre- 
liminary Matter No. III.), containing at least many typical words 
and constructions, run into sentences. This then I endeavoured to 
get " translated " into the idiom and pronunciation of the place. 

^ See list of abbreyiatioiis in frequent use, pp. 4* and 6*. 
B.B. Pron. Part ▼. [ 1433 ] 92 

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Constantly complaints came to me from correspondents in different 
parts of the country that ** our people don't speak so." Of course 
they did not. That was inevitahle, and indeed intentional. But 
the intention was also to have the idiom corrected, at the same 
time that the pron. was assigned, and this was seldom attempted. 
Kotice of my attempt was given in the Atherueum and Academy, 
and numerous ladies and gentlemen who were familiar with 
dialectal speech gave me their assistance. But there was great 
difficulty in expressing their meaning through lack of phonetic 
knowledge. Fortunately many were able to give vivd rocs readings, 
and most kindly laboured hard to make me understand the sounds, 
while I wrote them in palaeotype. Their names and work are 
recorded in the Alphabetical County list in the Preliminary 
Matter ^o. VI. In other cases I endeavoured by written questions 
to obtain a clue to the sounds. But this was heavy and laborious, 
and the result was not satisfactory on the whole, although the 
versions of my cs. thus obtained were the nucleus of my work. 

Finding that the words. I wanted particularly were often in- 
geniously avoided in the translations given, and that the idiom 
presented great difficulties, in Sep. 1877 I got out Word Lists 
(referred to as wl.), following the order and etymology in Dr. 
Sweet's History of British Sounds. This step indicated a further 
advance in the conception of the problem. The Wessex, or literary 
Saxon form of King Alfred's time, was now, where possible, 
adopted as the language of comparison, even for those Midland and 
Northern regions, where different forms of Low German were 
originally spoken. In some instances of course this comparison 
could not be made, and the word had to be referred to a Norse or 
French form, or classed as of unknown origin. "We had now a 
standard of comparison. The problem then assumed this form, 
given the Wessex rowels (or consonants, but the vowels were most 
important) of certain words, to find their dialectal equivalents in 
different parts of the country, and this is the form under which its 
solution is attempted in this treatise. The order aud classification 
used by Dr. Sweet, proving inconvenient for rapid reference, I 
subsequently modified this list, and it finally assumed the form of 
the Classified Word List (referred to as cwl. as distinct from the 
preceding wl.) given in the Preliminary Matter No. V. 

With this wl. I gave a list of the principal sounds to be 
observed, with their glossic representation and a number attached. 
I regret to say that these proved useless and confusing. I could 
seldom rely upon the figures given. Some unfortunate ^nisprints, 
arising from extending the list of sounds, increased the perplexity 
of many correspondents, and the result was that where I was 
unable to obtain viv& voce or palaeotypio information, I had the 
same difficulty as before in interpreting the informants' orthography 
(here referred to as io.), and occasionally the still greater difficulty 
arising from the wrong use of numbers. Still I managed to obtain 
a very considerable amount of local information from all parts of 
the country by means of these wl., over which many of my 


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informants gave themselves an immense amount of trouble, for 
which I cannot be sufficiently grateful. About 1700 of these lists 
were sent out, chiefly to the clergy in those parts of the country 
from which information was most needed, aud of these about 500 
were returned with some though often very little information. 

In 1879 I tried the use of a much shorter specimen called the 
Dialect Test (referred to henceforth as dt.), containing only 76 
indeptn'l"»t words, which exemplified all the principal classes, or 
rather would have done so if my informants had not constantly 
avoided or changed some of the important words. This dt. with 
the words numbered and the original notes designed to draw my 
informants* attention to the points of the investigation and to 
record the pron. to a considerable extent without having to acquire 
the use of a systematic orthography, is given in the Preliminary 
Matter No. IV., and has been of much service. 

These three modes of obtaining information were necessarily 
addressed to educated people who did not speak dialect naturally, 
and hence had only more or less observed what was said, ^d 
imitated it as well as they could. They all spoke '* received 
speech" (abbreviated to rs.) in ** received pronunciation" (abbrevi- 
ated to rp.), and endeavoured more or less successfully to impart 
their impressions of dialectal pron. (abbreviated to dp.) by means of 
** received orthography" (abbreviated to ro.). Here were many 
possible sources of error. 1 ) The sounds may have been wrongly 
appreciated. 2) The sounds may have been wrongly imitated. 
8) The rp. adopted by my informants may have been different 
from my own, for there is no such thing as a uniform educated 
pron. of English, and rp. or rs. is a variable quantity differing from 
individual to individual, although all its varieties are ** received," 
understood and mainly unnoticed. 4) There are many dialectal 
sounds which are not recognised at all in rs. and which hence 
required more than ro. to represent, so that my informants fre- 
quently used combinations of letters which are not in ro., and 
these they generally did not attempt to explain or frankly declared 
to be inexplicable. 5) There was my own conjectural interpre- 
tation of my informants' orthography, which was at first very 
venturesome and unsatisfactory to myself. The hours, days, and 
sometimes months and years which I have spent over endeavouring 
to avoid these sources of error would be in themselves sufficient to 
account for the delay in completing this treatise. 

But why not go to the peasantry at once ? Why not learn from 
word of mouth, so that the errors would be limited to the writer's 
own appreciation? Where possible, this mode of obtaining in- 
formation has been followed. But I have myself been able to do 
so in very few cases. There are many difficulties in the way. 
First the peasantry throughout the country have usually two 
different pron., one which they use to one another, and this is that 
which is required ; the other which they use to the educated, and 
this which is their own conception of rp., though often remarkably 
different from it, is absolutely worthless for the present purpose. 

[ 1435 ] 

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If I, having no kind of dialectal speech, were to go among the 
peasantry, they would of course use their ** refined" speech to me. 
I have therefore not attempted it. But I have occasionally heen 
ahle successfully to ohtain information from domestic servants, 
from railway porters, and principally, through the kind cooperation 
of the Principal, from the students at Whitelands Training College 
in Chelsea. These last were young women generally ahout twenty 
years old, fresh from the country, who, though they now spoke 
rs. very well, had been from earliest childhood accustomed to the 
speech of their own districts, or had learned that of other districts 
by long teaching of natural dialect speakers in national schools. 
To the interest taken by the Rev. J. P. Faunthorpe, the Principal, 
in my work, the help from the teachers themselves, and the willing 
assistance of the students, I am indebted for information which has 
cleared up many difficulties and helped me to fill up many gaps. 

But my chief aid in this way has come from three important 
sources. 1) Mr. C. Clough Robinson (henceforth referred to as 
CCR.), author of a Leeds Glossary, and subsequently of the Mid 
Yorkshire Glossary (the latter published by the English Dialect 
Society), a natural dialect speaker, acquired my glossic in personal 
interviews with me, and was of the utmost assistance in phonetically 
rendering the pron. of South and Mid Yo. 

2) Mr. J. G. Goodchild (henceforth referred to as JGG.) a 
Londoner, who had been many years employed on the Government 
Geological Survey, and had thus been constantly in the society of 
dialect speakers, having acquired a knowledge of my palaeotype 
(verified by many personal interviews between us), was able to 
furnish me with wonderful phonographs, so to speak, of the pron. 
in Cu. We. and nw. Yo., which he had again and again verified by 
the speakers themselves. 

3) Mr. Thomas Hallam (henceforth referred to as TH.), a native 
of n. Db., a natural dialect speaker, for many years a book-keeper in 
the Canal Department of the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire 
Railway Offices at Manchester, having acquired the use of my palaeo- 
type in great perfection, as verified by many personal interviews 
between us, has rendered me the most important services in the 
Midland Counties, La. Ch. Db. St. in especial, and in various other 
counties of England, as will be seen in the lists Xos. VI. and VI I. 
given in the Preliminary Matter. His position in connection with 
the Railway Offices gave him facilities for travelling over these 
regions, and as he has been helping me for fully twenty years, 
there has been time for collecting and imparting great stores of 
information. His method of proceeding was this. On arriving at a 
station he would inquire where he could find old and if possible 
illiterate peasants, whom he would " interview," gaining their con- 
fidence, and then noting their peculiarities of pron. in his note books 
(now more than Ixx. in number, a goodly Septuagint), using palaeo- 
type, which he wrote most accurately. In the same books he entered 
all passing pron. which he heard, forming the ** words noted " 
(abbreviated to wn.), which are so frequently referred to hereafter, 

[ 1436 ] 

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reduced to the form of my cwl. Also, making acqaaintance with 
native dialect speakers, he obtained numerous cs. and dt, most of 
which are given below, and thus enabled me to illustrate dialectal 
pron. in a most unexpectedly accurate manner over about 22 
counties ; for the exact enumeration see the Alphabetical County 
List, and Informants' List in the Preliminary Matter, Nos. Vl. 
and VIL 

A large number of the names there recorded recall to me long 
correspondence or lengthy personal interviews, and I beg to return 
to all my informants grateful thanks for their help, which has 
made my work possible. 

Finally I wish to record my obligations to H.I.H. Prince Louis- 
Lucien Bonaparte (henceforth referr^ to as LLB.), who, though he 
was able only on one occasion to take down a portion of a cs. in 
pal. himself, yet procured me many versions of the cs. from others, 
and a large amount of incidental dialectal information. To him I 
owe especially my first conceptions of a classification of the English 
Dialects, and he has been throughout a warm sympathiser and a 
ready helper. Possessing a large collection of English dialect 
books, consisting of various specimens, besides those versions of the 
Song of Solomon made for himself, and all the best glossaries, with 
many of his own notes in travelling, he allowed me to examine 
them all, and abstract what was needed, so that I was made 
thoroughly acquainted with all that had been done before, and saw 
how necessary it was to treat of the pron. separately. 

To clothe all these sources of information in a proper garment, 
which would admit of accurate comparison, a sufficiently copious 
phonetic alphabet was necessary. The palaeotype used in Parts I. 
to IV. of EEP. was of course adopted. But the direct investiga- 
tion of living speech has rendered numerous additions or modifi- 
cations necessary. Hence I have considered it advisable to prefix 
to this treatise a new table of Dialectal Palaeotype (in the Pre- 
liminary Matter No. YIIL), containing all the signs employed in 
this treatise in an order which can be readily referred to, so that 
no reader can have any difficulty in ascertaining the value of any 
symbol he meets with. Great peculiarities will generally be 
specially explained where they occur, and in the Table of Dialectal 
Palaeotype (which for that purpose has been printed last) references 
will be given to these explanations. The use of pal. of course re- 
quires much careful study to understand it thoroughly and read it 
easily, but I must assume that this work will be used by readers 
who are prepared to study. There is no help for it. If the sounds 
were merely uttered to them without being fixed by signs, they 
would forget or confuse them immediately. I do not add a general 
treatise on phonetics. Much can be gathered from the discussions 
in Part IV. of EEP., and a condensed account of the theory of 
phonetics, with a long list of my palaeotype symbols, drawn up by 
myself, will be found in the ^cyclopaedia Britannica^ vol. 22, or 
part 86, pp. 381^390, published 1887. 

There is so much difficulty in limiting the conception of a 

[ U87 ] 

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dialect, so as to distinguish it from a language, that I hare thought 
it best not to attempt distributing the English language into pre- 
cisely defined dialects, but to take the range of country where 
English is acknowledged to be spoken by peasants to one another 
in some one or other of its forms, and then to divide it into districts 
where the form of speech can be tolerably well defined. Hence 
the first thing is to lay down the limits assumed for English as 
against Celtic. This is a division of 'entirely unrelated languages, 
differing in sound, vocabulary, graT^mar and history. But this is 
the only case in which all these iour points will have to be con- 
sidered. This is a treatise on the existing phonology of the 
English dialects, meaning simply peasant speech. Hence, when 
the area of English is once determined, the geographical divisions 
must depend mainly, if not always, entirely on pron., with the 
least possible admixture of considerations founded on vocabulary 
and grammar (indicated in the note appended to the cwl. in 
Preliminary Matter No. V. p. 25*), and none at all on history. 

The first broad points in the phonology of English which struck 
me were the treatment of Wessex TJ and IT' (capital letters will 
always be used, as in the headings of the cwl. in the Preliminary 
Matter No. V.), of the letter R, and of the definite article. To my 
surprise I found that the lines separating these different treatments 
could be traced completely across the country from sea to sea, and 
hence I obtained Ten Transverse Lines, which form the first 
broad phonetic distribution of English speech. I had hoped indeed 
that they would form the basis of the ultimate districts. But I 
gradually found that this was not the case, so &r as the treatment 
of TJ, TJ' was concerned, for reasons which will be best explained 
hereafter ; but in other respects the tr nsverse lines do really Umit 
divisions and districts. 

Then by tabulating and comparing, especially by means of the 
cwl., I obtained Six Divisions, with sufficiently distinct differences 
and characters, to which I give the geographical names of Southern, 
Western, Eastern, Midland, Northern, and Lowland, the last being 
almost entirely in Scotland. The characters by which these are 
distinguished will be given in detail he/(^(ter. 

Then commenced the more difficult task of separating these 
Divisions into such Districts as had a considerable claim to be 
considered uniform in the pron. they used, and were sufficiently 
distinct from their neighbours. The difficulty was to make these 
districts wide enough, by resolutely refusing to be led away l)y 
small differences. Properly speaking thore is no uniformity. Not 
only will a practised ear tell the village in a district from which a 
speaker hails, but a more accurate examination will shew that 
families in the same village do not speak exactly alike, nay, that 
the individual members of the same family will have generally 
some differentiating peculiarity. My information, however, seldom 
went into such fine details, although that obtained from Messrs. 
Ooodchild and Hallam often reaches the stage of individualism. 
My first attempts almost always erred in making the districts too 

[ 1438 ] 

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small, but finally I left rerj few Bmall districts, because, among 
otber reasons, of the difficulty in determining their boundaries with 
the information at my command, and contented myself with mostly 
large districts, in which I recognised Varieties only roughly 
located, and not always accurately or completely characterised. 

The result of this has been to divide the whole country into 42 
numbered districts, of which 21 contain 89 Tarieties. In eight of 
these varieties I have even distinguished 19 sub varieties. Thus 
stated, the distribution appears rather complex, but the complexity 
will disappear on examination. The whole of these 10 Transverse 
Lines, 6 Divisions, and 42 districts, with the Celtic Border, are 
clearly shewn in tiie little maps of England and Scotland, drawn 
from my instructions by Messrs. George Philip and Son, and given 
with this treatise, and the Key to these maps in the Preliminary 
Matter No. II. indicates the position of the varieties and sub- 
varieties. In the subsequent pages each District and Variety will 
be considered in the order of their numbers, and their numbers will 
be placed at the head of the pages. Hence the reader, after 
having consulted the map which gives him the number of the 
district, and the key which shews the number of the Variety, can 
immediately turn to the page containing the information. 

In the course of tracing the boundaries, or of giving the infor- 
mation, I shall have frequently to refer to places whose names are 
not on the maps here given, and indeed are often difficult to find 
on any but the large maps of the Ordnance Survey. But it is 
necessary that the reader should have a good conception of their 
situation on the little maps which have the districts marked on 
them. This is effected thus. Take the village of Harrold referred 
to as " Harrold, Bd. (8 nw.Bedford)," that is, Harrold (not on the 
map) is in Bedfordshire, 8 miles to the north-west of the town of 
Bedford (which is on the map). Any series of county maps will 
then enable the reader either to find the name or the exact locality. 
I have found G. Philip and Son's penny county maps of England 
and Scotland very useful, but they are not on a uniform scale. 
W. H. Smith and Co.'b maps (on the uniform scale of 4 miles to 
the inch) will enable the reader to follow all the boundaries of 
districts here given. Stanford's Hallway map of three miles to 
the inch, and the Ordnance maps, may be further referred to if 
necessary, but Philip's and Smith's are the most convenient, as I 
have found by extensive use. 

This geographical distribution, which was not possible until 
information had been obtained from all parts of the country, and 
the limitation of the investigation to phonology now existing 
either in absolute use of living people or in their memories, form 
the two distinctive characters of tlus treatise. It was necessary 
for this purpose to localise information, and hence to reject almost 
all printed books, which generally refer to very vaguely defined 
or, more accurately speaking, undefined areas. This localisation, 
except when I could secure the assistance of my three chief 
informants, was very difficult to procure. Ko doubt many local 

[ 1439 ] 

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readers will object to some of my lines of demarcation, or to the 
sounds themselTCS attributed to certain classes of words. This is 
really inevitable. I have not swept the country, and most of my 
brooms so far as I went were not of perfect construction. I can 
only say that I hare done my best, ana at my advanced age, after 
twenty years' work on the subject, the main point was to secure 
what had been gained, and leave corrections to future workers. 

The present plan of this enlarged treatise, as distinguished from 
that in Chap. XL § 2, No. 3, which has been cancelled, is as follows. 

At the commencement is placed a quantity of Preliminary 
Matter, paged with a star, as 1*, 2*, etc., to which the reader 
will have constantly to refer. 

The contents already sufficiently indicated consist chiefly of the 
means for procuring information, uie geographical representation of 
the dialectal districts by maps, with their key, the lists of my 
informants, and the table of Dialectal Palaeotype. 

In the work itself, after this Introduction, I proceed direct to 
the Cbltio Bo&dxb, which I give in two forms : first, as the late 
Mr. Green conceived it to be in a-d. 580, after the Low Germans 
had been in England about ISO years, with his supposed distri- 
bution of the different tribes; second, as results horn inquiries 
made by myself in Wales, and Dr. J. A. H. Murray in Scotland. 
Ireland I consider for present purposes as entirely Celtic, with 
the exception of the little peninsula containing the baronies of 
Forth and Bargy in Co. Wexford. This Celtic Border, which is 
boldly drawn on the maps, will be immediately very carefully 
described in words, so that it can be readily followed on any maps 
of Great Britain. It limits to the west and north the country 
considered in these pages. 

After this follows an account of the Tbf TBAKSVisRflB Lutes, with 
a verbal description of the route taken by each, shewing the belts 
of different pronunciation into which they divide the country. 

Then I consider the 8. div., giving its boundaries and general 
character, followed by the districts or D. 1 to 12 which it contains. 

Each <Ustrict is treated thus. 

It is first numbered and then named. The exact Bouvdabt, as 
well as it can be ascertained, is next given, followed by the Abba. 
it occupies, expressed in terms of counties or parts of counties. 
Then come the Attthobitibs or list of places from which information 
has been received, with a rough indication of its nature. These 
names refer to the Alphabetical Countr lists in the Preliminary 
Matter No. YL, which contain detailed information. Then is 
given the general character of the whole district and an account of 
each variety. Finally come the Illustbatjoits, consisting generally 
of cs., dt. and cwl., but occasionally others, where fortune favoured 
me. The main scientific interest, however, centres in the cs., dt 
and cwl., because the different pron. of the same words are thus so 
easily compared. Occasionally I give many cs. or dt. belonging to 
one district, and even to d^erent districts, in an interlinear form, 
which furnishes a remarkably easy method of comparison. 


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The other divisions and districts are treated in the same way 

Although this has a very complete and systematic appearance, I 
do not disguise from myself the real incompleteness of the whole 
exposition and the great desirability of using it merely as a nucleus 
round which the results of other investigations may be groupiBd. 

Finally there will be a Section on Results, shewing how modern 
dialectal phonology is related to the ancient Wessex form in par- 
ticular. This section especially shews the bearing of the present 
investigation on my complete work. It will necessarily involve 
the philological question of the alteration of pronunciation in the 
descent of various languages from one source, for the divisions of 
English pronunciation are in fact only the illustrations on a small 
scale which can be observed in actual process of growth, of the 
changes which in a large scale have been going on within dif- 
ferent families of languages throughout the world. 

The Celtic Border. 

This is considered under two aspects, ancient and modem. The 
Ancient is that which divided the immigrant Low Qermans from 
the resident Celts after the first period of conquest had subsided 
and settlement proper began. The Modem is that now existent. 

Ancient — About a d. 408 the last Roman forces were withdrawn 
from Oreat Britain, and probably in the same year the Low German 
invaders, who will here be collectively termed Saxons, though 
they consisted of many different tribes, began to appear. They are 
however generally credited with having first landed in a.d. 449. . 
These different tribes were constantly fighting with the Celts, but 
after the battle of Deorhatn (a village near Bath, Sm., overlooking 
the valley of the R. Sevem, a.d. 577), when half the country had 
been conquered, there was more settlement than conquest, and the 
different invading tribes rather contended with each other for 
supremacy, than fought against the ''Brut" or Celts. At this 
time Mr. J. R. Green {Making of ^gland^ p. 203) apportions the 
country roughly between Saxons and Celts as fbUows, by a line 
running nearly n. to s. from the Firth of Forth to the English 
Channel. The details of this line are mainly conjectural, and in 
default of precise information, Mr. Green follows co. b. in a great . 
measure. But as the division corresponds to an existing contrast 
of dialects — on the e. side older Saxon with subsequent Danish 
influence, on the w. side later Saxon with Celtic influence — it is 
convenient to describe it, in such a way that it can easily be followed 
on the maps. This opportunity is also used for localising the 
various invading tribes to the e. according to Mr. Green, ^ and of 
giving two groupings of a much later date. 

^ Mr. Green considers that the British in an article headed <* Ate we English- 
were entirely exterminated or driven to men?*' (Fortnightly Review ^ 1880, 
the w., so tnat the population to the e. vol. 28, new series, pp. 472-487), sa^s 
was purely Saxon, lir. Grant Allen, (p. 486), " A small body of Teutonic 


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This ancient Celtic border which, to prevent confusion, is not 
laid down in the maps, begins on the Firth of Forth on the w. b. 
of Ed., and passes w. of Pb. and Ex. to w. of Nb. and Da. Along 
8. of Da. Mr. Green places the s. b. of the Berenietam that ex- 
tended on the e. side n. to the Firth of Forth. On the w. side 
were Strathcljde in Scotland and the Cambrians in England. 

The old Celtic border then continaes first w. of n.Yo., and then 
throagh Yo. to the e. of the great forest of Elmete, which extended 
down to Sherwood in Nt. and Db. It then tarns w. and n., and 
afterwards s. again, in order to run on the n. and w. side of Db., 
and then to the w. of St., till it had to go suddenly e. in order to 
skirt the great forest of Aiden in Wa.^ Having done so, it resumes 
its n. to s. direction, passing throagh Wo. until it strikes the K. 

immigrants descended some time aboat 
V th century and onward, to the Eastern 
shore of Sonth Britain. They occupied 
the whole coast from the Forth to the 
Isle of Wight, and spread over the 
country westward, as far as the central 
diyidin^ ridge. Though not <{uite free 
froma&iixturewith theaboriffmet, eyen 
in this limited tract* they still remained 
relatiyely pure in their strongholds, and 
they afterwards receiyedafresn Teutonic 
reinforcement by the Danish invasion. 
Westward of the central line they con- 
quered and assimilated the aborigines 
npon whom they imposed their language 
and laws, but whom they did not ex- 
terminate. In the extreme west and 
in Ireland, the Celts long retained their 
language and nationali^ undisturbed. 
During the middle ages the English 
people formed by far the most powerful 
Dody in the island, and even now they 
have imposed upon all of it their name 
and language. But since the rise of the 
industrial system the Celts haje woe- 
fully recovered the numerical superiority. 
They have crowded into the townk and 
seaports, so that at thepresent day only 
the rural districts of Eastern England 
can claim to be thoroughly Teutonic. 
The urban population contuts for the 
most part of a mixed race. Moreover, 
since intermarriage is now so very 
freouent, it seems probable that almost 
all English families, except those of the 
stationary agricultural class in the East, 
have some small proportion of Celtic 
blood. In the upper classes, where 
numerous intermarriages are universal, 
this proportion is doubUess cTerywhere 
very ^reat. Out of Britain the Celts 
have it all their ovm way.'* And again 
(p. 487) : " We may snm up the result 
here indicated* in a single sentence : 

though the British nation of the present 
day IS whoUy Teutonic in firm^ it is 
laigely and even preponderantly Celtic 
in mattsr,** It seemed proper to give* 
these results; but they do not affect 
this investigation. On the e. people 
do not speak a language shewing Celtic 
influence in either nammar or pron. 
On the w. pron., but not grammar, 
betrays Celtic influence. Tms is not 
an etiinologic treatise. Difference or 
similarity of languaffe are no guarantees 
of difference or simuarity of race. 

^ Eotalind. Well, this is the forest 
of Arden. Touehttont. Ay, now am 
I in Arden ; the more fool I : when I 
was at home I was. in a better place ; 
but travellers must be content — At 
y<m lik$ it^ Act 2, So. 4, speeches 
6 and 7. Lord Byron, speaking of the 
soldiers at Waterloo, says: '*And 
Ardennes waves above them her green 
leaves. Dewy with nature's tear drops, 
as they pass," Childe SaroUj Canto lii. 
St. 27, and the commentator in Moore's 
ed. 1833, Tol. 8, p. 144, says: **The 
wood of Soignies is supposed to be a 
remnant of the forest of Ardennes, 
famous in Boiardo's Orlando, and im- 
mortal in Shakspere's At y<m Hk» it." 
Probably many schoolboys have thought 
the same, as 1 did fifty years ago abo. 
But Arden, joined as a parisn with 
Temple* Grafton, is only 6 w. Stratford- 
on-ATon, Wa., and Uenley-in- Arden 
only 7 nnw. Stratford, and I certainly 
agree with Sharpe's Gaietteer that 
this Arden ** probably is the true 
orinnal of Shakspere's Forest of 
Araen." It was a forest he was 
thoroughly well acauainted with, and 
geography was a trifle to him. Besides, 
where dia '* the Duke " ot At y<m Uk$ 
it abide P 

[ H4« ] 

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SeTem near Gloucester. It reappears on s. of Gl. opposite the end 
of the Forest of Dean, and going e. to avoid the great Forest of 
Selwood, passed on southwards through w.Wl. and e.Do. to the sea 
near Portland. 

The Saxon settlements on the e. of this b. were according to Mr. 
Green as follows : 

Btrtnteiant io 8 Scotland, Nb. and Dn. with capital Bamborongh( 1 2 ne. Wooler) , Nb. 

Dtiriant in To. with capital York. The large manh at the junction of the 
Onse with the Humber, and the great forest of Elmete to the w., were uninhabited. 

Linditwaran in LI , except the great marshes near the Wash. The n. of Li. is 
still known as ** the parts of Lindsey." 

Snoiinm, a tribe of Angles settled on the edge of Sherwood, Nt, and extended 
to the yalley of the B. Soar (say to LouKhborough, Le.) 

Pec$€tttan or Peak-setUers, a tribe of West Angles, inhabited Db. and were 
separated both from Yo. and Nt. by Sherwood and Elmete forests. 

Wut Angles, excepting those last mentioned, settled in St. 

O^woif or marsh-dwellers, settled w. of the Wash. 

South AngUi were in s.Np. 

Eatt AngUi were in Nf. and Sf. 

Middle AngUa were in Le. 

Jlwieeat, a West Saxon tribe, settled in 01. along the B. Seyern. 

Wileatan, also a West Saxon tribe, were in Wl. 

Oewiuas, another West Saxon tribe, settled in the Isle of Wi. and Ha. 

Middle Saxona occupied Mi. 

£ti»t 8axon$ were in £s. and Ht. 

South Saxona in Ss. 

Jutea, who are recognised by Mr. Green, although their existence is doubtful, 
are placed in Ee. The Weald of Ke. and Ss. co. was occupied by the great forest 
of Andreda, which seoarated the Kentmen from the South Saxons. 

At a later period tne Berenicians and Deirians were united as Northymbrians, 
and one of their kings, Ethelfrith, wrested Ch. and S.T41. from the Celts, by the 
Tictory of Chester a.d. 613. For lack of information Mr. Green leaves these 
countries under Northymbria, for 62 years (from 613 to 675), till the revolt of 
Wulfhere king of the Mercians (that is. dwellers on the Marc, or border, of Wales 
answering to our Midlanders) brought them under Midland influence, which their 
language still shews most strongly, having nothing Northymbrian in it. 

In Mr. Green's posthumous work, The Conquest of England, 1883, 
p. 112, there is a rough sketch, entirely unrevised, of the state of 
England at the treaty of Wedmore (7 w. Wells, Sm.) between 
King Alfred and Guthrum the Dane, i^er the battle of Edington 
(7 sw.Wells) in 878. The Danes then withdrew from 8m. and 
the sketch-map gives the following divisions : 

1. Bemicia extends on the e. from the Forth to s. of Du. , 

2. Danish Northumbria covers Lonsdale s. of the Sands m.La. and all Yo. 

8. Daniah Mereia takes in Db. Nt. Li. Bu. Np. forming the districts of the 
Five Boroughs, Derby, Leicester, Lincoln, Stamfonl in s.w.Li. and Nottingham. 

4. Kmgdom of Outhrum comprises Nf., Sf , Es., Bii., Ht., Bu., Bd., Cb., Hu., 
in hci all my E.div. 

6. JSngliah Mereia takes all the co. w. of the Danish Mereia and e. of Wales, j 
•8 far s. as the Avon and Thames, and hence includes Gl. 1 

6. Xingdom of Kent occupies all my D 9bES. 

7. Weamx occupies all my D 4 and 6, with the exception of Gl. 

8. Weet Welah is my D 10 and 11. 

The second, third, and fourth of these divisions constitute the Danelaw or portion 
of England then ruled by the Danes. 

Finally Mr. Green left another unfinished sketch of a map of the 

[ 1448 ] 

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''great ealdormanries " or lord-lieutenancies (Conquest of England, 
p. 316) which were created from 956 to 988. This map, then, forms 
a later grouping which must necessarily have had an effect on the 
dialects and which is therefore reproduced. 

1. Northumbrian Eaidorm comprising the former Bemicia and Danish North- 

2. Cumbria containing Cn. 

3. Wtit'Moringa Zand contaioing We. 

4. The Ealdonnanry of Mereia from the Ribble La. e. of the SeTem throagh 
Ch., St., Sh., Wa., Wo., He., and Gl. to the Thames. 

6. The Five Borottghe (as above explained) replace Danish Mereia. 

6. The Ealdormanry of Eaet Anglia comprises Kf., Sf., Cb., Hu., Bd., Ht. 

7. The Baldormanry of Betex comprises £s.. Mi., Ox. 

8. The Ealdarmanry of the JBattem Provineet comprises Ee., Sr., Ss. 

9. The Ealdormanry of the Central Frovineee contams WL, Ha., and Isle of WL 

10. The Ealdormanry of the Weetem Frovineee contains Sm., Dv., Co. 

11. The Ealdormanry of Mereia contains s.La., Ch., St., Sh., Wa., Wo., He., 
and Gl. 

These original settlements of the tribes and the various settlements 
that followed, to which have to be added those resulting from the 
Danish and Gorman conquests, sufficiently account for the existence 
of great diversities of local speech, and at the same time point to the 
gradual formation of the divisions S, W, E, M, N here adopted from 
an actual examination of existing local habits of speech. But it is 
no part of the work of this book to check the above statements in 
any way. Whatever their errors may be, they were made con- 
scientiously to illustrate the best general conception that Mr. Green 
could form, with the aid of the imperfect materials he possessed. 

Modem, — ^The modem Celtic Border in Great Britain, drawn on 
the map and marked CB., divides those who speak English from 
those who speak Celtic. But it has here been extended to Ireland 
so as to include the old colony of Forth and Bargy, which, like sw. 
Pm. and Gowerland in Wides, was an English settlement from 
which the Celts were excluded. 

The modem CB. therefore begins in Co. Wx., Ireland, and then 
on the map passes by sea to Pm., Wales, and then bysea to Gm., 
Wales, then again hy sea to Mo., whence through Wales to Fl. 
Afterwards it passes by sea w. of Ma., but east of t^e Isle of Arran, 
to Bute in Scotland, which country it traverses in a ne. direction to 
Cr., whence it passes again by sea to ne. of Cs., and by sea to the 
w. of the Or. and Sd. This gives the general run of the line which 
will now be particularised. The Welsh line was determined by 
AJE., the Scotch by JAHM. 

An English-speaking place is one in which the uneducated, or 
only elementarily educated people speak with each other habitually 
in English. The line through Wales, with the exception of the out- 
lying districts in Pm. and Gm., about which there is no trouhle, 
was drawn from the answers of clergymen of the parishes along or 
near the supposed route in answer to the following questions : 

<* 1. Is Welsh or English genendhr spoken by the peasantry about [the place 
addressed] to one another P 2. If Welsn, where is the nearest English-speaking 

[ "** ] 

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place to the eastP 3. If English, does it resemhle in pronunciation the 
English of [the neighbouring English co.] P Or is it simply book-English P '* 
To which for s.Wales I added, " 4. If mixed, how often have you Welsh serrices 
or sermons P" 

The complete answers which I received are given in my paper 
^'On the Delimitation of the English and Welsh Languages," 
originally puhlished in T Cymmrodor^ vol. v. pp. 173-208, and 
reprinted in the Trannactiom of the Philological Society for 1882-3-4, 
Part II. App. II. The names of the clergymen who so kindly 
assisted me will he found in the Alphabetic County List under the 
Welsh counties considered. Other particulars will be given when 
treating of D 13 and 14. Here I simply give the line as accurately 
as I was able to draw it, beginning with the detached districts, 
including the Irish portion. 

Inland, -^The line which separated English from Irish in the xii th and sub- 
sequent centuries, till, in the xviii th, it was merged into the Cromwellian English 
spoken in the surrounding district where Irish had became disused, begins on the 
B. coast of Wx., Ireland, at the head of Bannow Bay (13 sw. Wexford), and passes 
nearly in a straight line to Wexford, following the holders of the baronies (or co. 
divisions, corresponding to English hundreds) of Bargy in the w. and Forth in 
the e. This line cuts off a peninsula at the se. angle of Ireland. It then passes 
by sea across St. George*s Cnannel. 

2. South fTaleSf. Fm, — The CB. cuts off the two sw. peninsulas of Pm., con- 
taining the hundreds of Bhds and Daugleddy (rhoos, d&Ygledh*T), Pm. I take 
the line assigned by my informant. Rev. J. Tombs, rector of Burton (3 n. Pembroke), 
as the probable boundanr of the original or very early Saxon colony. It begins at 
Newgate Bridge (6 eee. St. Davids), the ne. comer of St. Bride*s Bay, and proceeds 
in ne. direction to Ambleston (7 nne.Haverford West, and H ne.Trefgam), and then 
turns se. to pass by Lawhaden and Narbertii (9 e.Hayerford West) going in nearly 
a straight tine just e. of Ludchurch (10 ese. Hayerford West), to fall into 
Carmarthen Bay near Amroth (am*roth), 5 ne.Tenby, at the se. extremity of the 
CO. Mr. Tombs says that he thinks no line can now oe drawn between Anglicised 
Welsh and the border of the early colonists, though it was perhaps possible 100 years 
ago. It will be observed that this line cuts off two peninsulas separated by 
Milford Haven and the B. Cleddau (kledh-&Y). The CB. then proceeds by 
sea to 

3. Th^ Peninsula of Oowerland^ in sw.Gm. My informant. Rev. J. D. Davies, 
of Llanmadoc Rectory (14 w. Swansea), says that the following 17 parishes have 
spoken English for centuries (I merely give the distances from Swansea, direction 
fromw. tosw.): l,Cheriton 13; 2, Llanmadoc 14; 3, Llangenydd 16; 4, Rhos-sili 
16i; 5, Llandewi 14; 6«Knel8ton 13; 7, Keynoldston 12; 8, PortEynon 13; 9, 
Penrice 11 ; 10, Oxwich 11 ; 11, Nicholaston 10; 12, Penmaen 9; 13, Lower 
Llanrhidiau 1 1 (Upper Llanrhidiau 8 does not speak English) ; 14, Ilston 7 ; 
15, Penard 7 ; 16, Bishopston 6 ; and 17, Oystermouth 4. These parishes all lie 
on the peninsula and their inland boundary is therefore part of the modem 
CB. It starts from the mouth of a streamlet which runs into the Burry River 
estuary in Carmarthen Bay, 2 s.Penclawdd (penkl&u'dh^ railway-station, which is 
8 wnw. Swansea. The boundary runs up Uiis streamlet over Welsh Moor and 
Pen^wem Moor nearly in a straight ese. curection to Myer's Green, 1 s. Mumbles 
Station (3 sw. Swansea) on Swansea Bay. The CB. again passes by sea through 
the Bristol Channel to the estuary of the Usk, Mo. 

4. Here the Welsh and English part of the CB. hegins. 

Mo. Start from the confluence of the Ebbw (nb-u) and Usk, about 2 s. Newport 
on the Bristol Channel. Keep on the e. bank of the Ebbw, w of Newport, e. of 
Risca (6 n W.Newport), and w. of Pontypool, (10 sw.Tredegar), to the junction 
of the greater and lesser Ebbw, or Ebbwy-fawr, and Ebbwy-lach (sbuY v&ur, 

[ "*5 ] 

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eb*uT Takh), and take the e. bank of the lesser Ebbw, leaTing Mo. near Brynmawr 
(brxnm&nr) Br., meaning a 'big hill.* 

Br, Proceed nearlj n. to iast w. of Llangattock and Crickhowelle Welsh 
Crughywd (krrff-ha'a'el). Then go e. of Tretower, on the high ground to the 
e. of tne River Bryn, turning slightly to nw. np to Talearth (12 sw.Builth), and 
then probably still on the hi^n ground on the w. of the Wye pass e. of Gwendwr 
(fftt'Endu'r) and Llangynog ^hangc nog), but w. of Builth (bT*alhht) to the Wye 
about 3 ne. of Builth. 

£d. Cross the Wye and proceed nearly directly n. through Rd., which is almost 
entirely English, just e. of the railway, leaying Rhayader-Gwy and St. Harmon*s 
(both about 18 w. Knighton) on the w. 

Mff, Continue to go nearly n., learing Llanidloes (lhhanid*16es) (1 1 sw.Newtown), 
on w., but Mochtre and Penstrowel (8 and 6 w. and sw. Newtown) on e. Then 
go slightly ne. by Manafon (8 nw. Montgomery), and Castell Caer Einion U wsw. 
Welshpool), w. of Ouilsfield, 2 n. Welshpool, and e. of Llansantffraid nhhan- 
Bantfr&i*d) (8 n. Welshpool), but w. of Llandysilio (Ibhandasi'lio) (7 n. Welshpool), 
turning n. to enter Sh. 

8h. The line seems to pass directly n. to Llanymyneoh (Ibhanamsnikh) (6 
8. Oswestry), and thence to Oswestry, and on to just w. of Chirk (5 n. Oswestry). 

Dn. The line then makes a eentle sweep to the e. and passes e. of Ruabon 
(rhiuab'on) to Wrexham, through which it passes and deflects to the ne., but turns 
more n. as it enters Fl. 

Fl. The line passes nearly n. through Fl., leaving Hope (8 se.Flint), on the e., 
and both Mold (o s.Flint), andNorthop (3 s. Flint), on the w., reaching the R. Dee, 
at 2 se.Flint, halfway between Flint and Connah*s Quay. 

The line again passes through the sea w. of I. of Man and e. 
of the I. of Arran to Bt., and the Gaelic and English b. commences. 

Scotland, — ^The line now trayerses Scotland, dividing the existing 
Gaelic speakers and existing Lowland speakers, that is, speakers of 
English in Scotland. This was determined by Dr. Murray for his 
work on ''The Dialect of the Southern Counties of Scotland" 
(pp. 231-6), with the assistance of the gentlemen named below.^ 
This line gives '*the outside limits of the Gaelic, that is, every 
district is included in which Gaelic is still spoken by any natives, 
regardless of the fact that English may be spoken by the majority 
of the people.*' The following account of this Scotch portion of 
the CB. was revised by Dr. Murray. The line is traced from s. to n. 

Bt. Alter passing through the sea from Fl., w. of I. of Man, and e. of Arran 
and Cantire, the CB. commences on land in Bt. and trayerses ike middle of the 
I. of Bt. and the adjacent channel. 

* Rey. Wm. Roes, of ChapelhUl Taylor, of Crathle, 9 ene.Braemar, 

Manse, Rothesay, Bt., but a natiye Ab.), for Ab. 

of Cs., for Cs., and co. n. of Moray Rev. Neil McBride, of Olenisla, 17 
Firth and islands and coast of the nw. Forfar, Fo., for nw. Fo. and ad- 
Clyde, jacent parts of Ab. and Pr. 

Key. Colin Mackenzie, of Ardclach Rey. Samuel Cameron, of Logierait 

(8 se. Nairn, Na.) , and Rey. John Wbvte, (6 n . Dunkeld), Pr. . Rey . Dr. Macdonald, 

Moyness(I2Be.Inyemess, In.), forNa. of Comrie (20 w.Perfh), Rey. Hugh 

and £1. McDiarmid, of Callander, Pr., for tne 

Rey. Walter Gregor, of Pitsligo adjoining part of Pr. 

(:ptt8lii*go), 6 wsw.Fraserburgh, Ab., Key. w. Mackintosh* of Buchanan 

and James Skinner, Esq., factor to (23 wsw. Stirling, for w. Sg.). 

the Duke of Richmond, for £1. Rey. Duncan Campbell, of liUsa 

and Ba. (12 nnw. Dumbarton, Dm.), on w. coast 

Rey. Robt. Neil, of Glengaim, 11 of Loch Lomond, for the dist. between 

ncBraemar, Ab. (through Key. Dr. Loch Lomond and Loch Long. 


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Ar. The CB. then oontinaes in a ne. direction by the se. coast of Ar., jnst w. of 
Dunoon (9 see Inverary), skirting the Firth of Clyde to Loch Long, through the 
middle of which it passes. 

Dm, The CB. turns e. and enters Dm. iust n. of Gorton (17 nw.Dnmbarton), 
and passes e. through Glen Douglas to tne w. shore of Loch Lomond at a point 
9 nnw. Dumbarton, where it crosses Loch Lomond. 

8g, The CB. enters Sg. just n. of the Rowardennan Inn (19 n.Dumbarton and 
22 W.Stirling), and crosses Sg. in an ene. direction. 

jPt. The CB. passes se. of the Troesachs to Aberfoyl (7 sw.Callander), and 
thence to Callander, whence it passes through Glen Artney to Comrie (14 ne. 
Callander), and crossing Glen Almond, goes just s. of Amulrie (9 nne.Crieff), after 
which it toUows Strath Braan throug;h Birnam Wood to Dunkeld. The line then 
passes in anne. direction oyer Mt. Blair, where the b. of Ab. intersects the b. of Fo« 

Ab, Entering Ab. by Mt. Blair the CB. goes in a n. direction to meet the Dee 
about 4 e.Braemar, ana follows the Dee to 2 e.Crathie and Balmoral, and then 
suddenly turns xmw. to go to Strathdon, also called InTemochtie (7 n.Crathie), when 
it turns a little nw. 

Ba, The CB. enters Ba. about 6 ne.Tomantoul and skirts the R. Liyet on the 
w. to b. of El. 

El. The CB. crosses the Spey nearly at right angles (2 s.Inyerayen), Ba., which 
is 12 nne.Tomantoul, and passes through £)L in a wnw. direction crossing the 
Knock of Brae Moray (15 sw.Rothes, El.), and proceeding nw. to Na. 

Na, The CB., continuing its nw. dir., crosses the Findnom R. at right angles, 
and goes on to Ardclach (8ss6.Naim),andreaches the Moray Firth about 3 w.Naim. 

Cr. The CB. crossing the Moray Firth cuts off the extreme ne. of Cr. containing 
the town of Oomarty, and then the line again takes the sea past the e. coast of 
Ross and Sutherland and part of Cs. 

C9. The CB. reappears on land at Clyth Ness, Cs., 10 ssw.Wick. It proceeds 
in an undulating line to the n. of Harj^soale (15 wnw.Wick), and through Uallkirk 
(16 nw.Wick) to the Riyer Forss, which it follows to the sea 5 w.Thurso. 

The line then takes to the sea a^^, leaying the Or. and SL groups to the e., 
and after passing them, ceases to exist. 

Ths Ten T&anstebsb Lines. 

These are marked by broken lines on the map, except when they 
coincide with any border marked by a continuous line on the map, 
and then the broken parts are drawn through this line and at right 
angles to it in order to shew the coincidence of the two lines. Most 
of the Transverse Lines during part or all of their course so coincide 
with other boundaries. They are numbered on the map by numbers 
in ( ), corresponding to those used in this description. 

IiDrB 1. — ^The n. sum line or northern limit of the pron. of the 
word sorne^ Ws. sum, as (sam) or (sxm) in s. England. The pron. 
(ssm) reappears n. of Une 8. 

Proceed from n., follow the CB. to Chirk on b. of 8h., which enter between 
Ellesmere t^iiim, that is, which says (sum) (7 ne. Oswestry), and Oswestry «wm» that is, 
which says (sem) or (sam^. Thence it passes se. running w. of Hordley s^n^ (6 ene. 
Oswestry) ande. of Whittington«iim (2 ne. Oswestry}, s. of Wem«^/n (1 3c>0swestry) 
and Torton iSom (2 sw.Wem) and just w. of Hadnall »Sdm (4 nne.Shrewsbury), 

OS. between Shrowsbury turn and Upton Magna iuvm (4 e.Shrowsbury) to 
Byem at Atcham. Then it follows the Seyem to the b. of the co. 
Wo, On entering "Wo. pass just e. of Bewdley (3 wsw. Kidderminster), mixed 
Mm and tum but chiefly «S^ and Dunley (5 sew. Kidderminster) mixed, and 
proceed in a se. direction to 

Wa, Stratford-on-Ayon. Continuing se. to pass just n. of Kineton (8 ese.Strai- 
ford) mixed, much, soom, through Fenny Compton (probably) to the b. of the co. 

[ l"7 ] 

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Np, Enter Np. just n. of Byfield (16 wsw. Northampton) mixed^ and turn n. to 
CQincide with Line 3 for a little way pasdne e. of Weedon (8 w.NorUiampton) 
^Sdm^ and e. of Daventry tSim and going through Long Buckley to Watford 
(18 W.Wellingborough) «^m to w. of East Haddon (14 w. Wellingborough) 9%tm, 
Then quitting Line 3, turn ene. passing by Brixworth (6 n. Northampton) and 
Hannington (5 nw.Wellingborougn) bow mixtd^ when turn ne. and go between 
Islip (8 e. Kettering) mixed and Tnrapston (9 e. Kettering) mixed to the b. of the 
CO. about 2 s.Heraington (11 sw. Peterborough) probably «iiim. 

Hu. Enter Uu. just n. of Great Gidding (10 nw.Huntingdon) eum and go just 
s.of Sawtry(9 nnw.Huntin^on) edSm. Then, crossing the Great Northern Railway, 
probably turn ne., passing just n. of Ramsey (9 nne. Huntingdon) and enter 

Cb, rass just n. of Chatteris (10 nw. Ely) mixed and turning ne. go e. of March 
and w. of Wisbech mixed to the edge of the co., and then proceed by nw. b. of Nf • 
to the sea. 

For the line as far as Sawtry I am almost entirely indebted to 
TH., wlio with great pains took a phonetic survey of this part 
of the country. The rest of the route to March and Wisbech and 
nw.Nf. I owe to other informants, checked, howerer, by TH., as 
shewn in the next Line 2. 

The use of (e, a) fori! is of course a modernism and an encroach- 
ment, hence we may expect to find that it is not a sufficient mark 
of a difference of district, because all other characters may remain 
and the modern (a) may have only partially prevailed. Also inter- 
mediate forms may prevail arising from the encroachment being still 
incomplete. It will be found that both anticipations are fulfilled. 

Like 2. — The s. 966m line or southern limit of the pronunciation 
of the word 9(nne as 966m (sum) in England ; for the n. limit see 
Line 9. 

Sh, As far as the se. b. of Sh. lines 1 and 2 coincide. 

Wo, Directly that the n. turn line enters Wo. there is a mixed district s. of it, 
where »i6m is more or less freouently heard, and the intermediate 99m (som) is 
also found. It occupies the wnole of s.Wo., Gl , and eyen n.Wl. Proceed 
direct s. from Bewdley. w. of Stourport, to the Malvern Hills, and continue by 
Redhill or Redmarley d*Abitot to the s. b. of Wo. 

01. Enter about S wsw. Tewkesbury, pass more or lees to the w. in order to 
leaye Newent (8 nw.Gloucester) to the e., and go s. to Dursley (14 ssw.Gloucester) . 

WL Take a sweep s. of Tetbury (16 s.-by-e. Gloucester) and proceed e. and ne., 
going s. of Malmesbury (14 w. Swindon) and Purton (4 nw. Swmdon). 

Ox. Thence go ne. through a comer of Be. to Witney (10 wnw.Oxford) and 
Bicester (11 nne. Oxford). 

Bu. Thence pass through Buckingham and w. of Stony Stratford (7 ne. 
Buckingham) to b. of Np. 

Np, Going mostly just w. of the border, sweep just s. of Thrapston, and join 
the n. turn line again at the b. of Hu. 

Hu, and Cb, Torough Hu. to past Sawtry (9 nnw. Huntingdon) the s. eHm 
coincides again with the n. eum line, and both pass between Great Gidding 
(10 nw.Huntingdon) »um and Sawtry eiSm, But then the s. eiSm line runs 
eastwards, s. of Ramsey (9 nne. Huntingdon). 

Cb, It enters s. of Cnatteris (9 nw. Ely) and runs ne. to b. of co. 

Nf. The line enters Nf. just s. of the new Bedford Kiyers, at the s. of the 
Bedford Level, about 24 s.King's Lynn, and pursues rather a winding course 
through w. Nf., s. of Downham (10 s.Eing*s Lynn) and Swaffham (13 se.King^s 
Lynn), and e. of East Dereham (23 ese Eing*s Lynn), where it turns n. for about 
6 m., and then, after running s. of Fakenham (8 s. Wells -on- Sea), turns nw., and 
falls into the sea between Hunstanton (13 nne.King*B Lynn) and Brancaster. 

[ 1448^] 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


For this line I am wholly indebted to the "phonetic survey " of 
the adjacent parts made by TH., who has visited expressly 
numerous villages along the route here laid down (30 places in 
Norfolk only), and has himself heard the not unfrequent use of 
sddm aud similar words between the n. sum and s. sdd/n lines, and, 
especially in Nf., has observed the use of the intermediate som. It 
would be probably quite impossible to determine the line more 

Here we have examples of the incomplete assertion of (a, a). It 
will be observed that Line 2 runs in general much further south 
than line 1. It is only to the n. of Hne 1 that the old state of 
things remains, and to the s. of line 2 that the new state has fully 
asserted itself. The intermediate country between Lines 1 and 2 
is mixed, with one or the other form of U fully asserted, or 
transitional^ a new form, as (som), which indicates the influence of 
(a, 3.) upon (u) being heard. What it is particularly necessary to 
guard against is the supposition that (a, a) is the *' correct" form 
because ** received" ; it is only a modem form. Even in rp. the (a) 
has not fully asserted itself, full (ft<l) is itself an example ; and we 
find in the (w) regions an apparently perverse habit to say Tfal). 
The pron. of full, and of similar wor^, is merely a mark oi the 
conflict, which has been left standing. 

LnrE 3. — The Reverted ur (r) line or n. limit of the pron. of r as 
(r) or (r^) in England. Sporadically and through natural defects of 
pron., reverted ur (r) may be heard still more northerly, and even to 
the w. in D 13. But it ceases to be the regular pron. at this limit, 
and even in D 9 the ur (r^) frequently sinks into the common received 
vocal er (r^) ; while in I) 6, 7, the tongue is often merely retracted 
(rj or even Midland (r), instead of reverted (r). It is probable that 
originally the line really commenced at the mouth of Bannow Bay 
in Ireland, proceeding along CB. to Wexford, and then to Pm. and 
Gm. But in none of these places can reverted ur (r) now be traced 
with certainty. Hence the line must be taken to begin in England. 
The map however by the serrated line shews that the reverted ur line 
is supposed to have begun in Wexford. 

OL Start in England from the month of the W^e on the Severn R. and proceed 
n. by the w. h. of GL till yon meet the b. of He. just e. of Monmouth. 

M0. Then run in a nne. direction so as to leave Ross, Ledbury (13 e. Hereford), 
and Mnch Cowame (8 ne. Hereford), oil the e. At Much Cowame turn more to 
ne., leaving on the w. Stoke Lacy (9 ne. Hereford), Pencombe (10 nne.Heref.)and 
Bromyard (13 ne.Heref.), which are in D 13, and then turning still more to the 
e. pass near Whitboume (7 w.-by-n.Worcester) to the b. of the co. 

fFo, Afterwards proceed more n. to Bewdley, then turn e. and pass n. of 
Kidderminster and s. of Stourbridge, Hagley, Cradley and Selly Oak (3 s. Bir- 
mingham), and probably n. of King*8 Norton to the border of 

fTo. Where turn se. and pass n. of Packwood, going e. of Henley-in-Arden and 
Clavexdon, but s. of Warwick and s. of Southam to the b. of 

Ap. opposite Braunston (13 wnw.Northampton), and pursue that b. to the n. 
as far as Watling St. by Crick. Then go se. joining the n. sum line 1 between 
Watford and East U addon, but leaving it at the angle se. of Weedon and passing 

S.B. Pron. Part Y. [ 1449 ] 93 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

18 THB TEN TAAK8VXR8B IJKB8. \Lam S, 4, 4. 

just s. of Bliiworth to the b. of the oo. hj HariwelL Pnmie this b. to tiio s. 
and w. till just e. of Braekler (17 Bw.Northtmprton) it retebev tiie b. of 

Ox. The line is now so ill Known or indistinet that I haTe been obliged to 
Msome the b. of Ox. as its limit to the Thames at Henlej, whenoe it follows the 
w. and 8. banks of the Thames to tbe sea. Of ooaite tiirough (be metropolitan 
area this line is a mere fiction and shews only what it onoe mm^ hare been. In 
the part adjoining the Thames the xererted ur (&) sinks to the Tooal r (rj. 

The great diffionltj of obtaining information renders much of the 
oourse of this line rather doubtf^. Throngh Wa. and Np. it has 
been taken as coinciding with the b. of B 6| which at any rate 
cannot be far wrong. 

LiNB 4. — ^The s. teeth line, or s. limit of the nse for the definite 
article of a siftpended (f), commonly written f in dialect books, or 
of the hiss (th)a8 heiod at the end of teeth. It is possible l^at 
cases of tee (t") occur sporadically just s. of this line by assimilation, 
as they more frequently oocur between lines 4 and 6, but in 
D 24=e.NM. ^ Tt) is the rule. The word teeth is chosen because 
it contains both (t) and (th). 

Oh. line 4 begins on the Dee, abont 2 sw.Chester, and passes inst within the 
s. b. of Ch., e. of Famdon (7 s.Chester} and w. of Malpas (12 ese.Cheeter}, 
reaching the co. b. at Wirswall (2 n. Whitchnrch, Sh.) ; it pnrsoes the b. for a few 
miles, but at Burley Dam, 1 s.Combermere Abbey, it passes e. ronnd to the n. of 
Attdlem, then goes s., traTersinff the ne. horn of 

Sh. jnst w. of Norton in Hales, and turning se. at 12 ene. Stone, enters 

St.f through which it passes to the e. to Stone, and then sweeps round to 
Bocester (14 ene. Stoke), on the w. b. of Db., along which it runs to the ae. 

Db. Just 8. of Repton (8 sse.Derby) the Ime cuts across the tail of Db., which 
projects between St. and Le., ana then runs again along the s. b. of Db. 
to Nt 

yi. and To. The line seems to pursue the w., s.,and then the e. b. of Nt. to its 
n. eztremit?, after which it pursues the b. of To. and Li to tiie^Humbw, and 
then runs along the s. b. of i o. to the sea. In Nt (dh«) is the rule, yet not only 
do (t\ th) occur, though not frequency, but there is a frequent assimilation, 
probably of (th) to (s) before (s). See D 27. 

Lnne 5. — The n. theeth fdhiith) line, or n. limit of the use of the 
(dho, dhi) and the hiss (th) in conjunction with suspended te (t") as 
the def. uiicle, till the returns to the north of line 7. 

Ma. The line begins at n. of the Isle of Man and proceeds by sea to 

La. which it enters at Coc k e r ha m 6 s. Lancaster, and passes in an ese. dir. just 

n. of Over Wyersdale (6 se. Lancaster) and then follows the b. of La. to about 

9 nncBumley. 

To. It then enters To. and runs e. apparentlT to about Burley (8 n. Bradford), 

where it joins the s. heoge line 6 (to be described presently), and follows that line 

to the w. b. of li. Then it runs along the w. b. of Li. to Uie Humber, following 

line 4 already described. 

The whole line from the b. of La. and across to Burley is 
necessarily rery uncertain. But it seems to pass between Skipton 
on the n. and Keighley on the s., a distance of 8 m., which this 
line bisects, and hence it is probably not far wrong. 

This line is here assumed to be the n. limit proper of the use of 

[ 1450 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


the hiss (th) for the definite article. But n. of this line CCE. says 
that in former years he has traced this form (th) through the whole of 
Craven in rare occasional use, which has not influenced any printed 
account of the dialect. He has also heard of the (th) as being in 
use east of Skipton, Yo., straggling nearly to Harrogate, although 
B. of this line it is quite unknown, and he thinks that it exists 
also a little w. of Eipon. This (th) is by far the most heard 
about Washboum River (D 30, 10 cs., No. 6, intro.) between 
Skipton and Harrogate. In all these places except the last, the 
usage is so slight that it has not crept into print, but in the last 
it has been printed in a newspaper contribution by Mr. Granige, of 
Harrogate, a local historian. 

LiKB 6. — The 8. hoose line, or s. limit of the pron. of the word 
house as hoose (huus), which is also the n. limit of the pron. of 
houie as any variety of (ha'us), of which those in the M. div. are 
numerous and singular. 

Ma, The line begini on the west at sea at the n. of I. of Man, in which the 
English nses house, 

dm. On the mainland, the line begins at the month of the Esk R. by Ravenglass 
(17 sse.WhitehaTen), and proceeds s. of that river on the watershed up to the 
Wit Nose Fell, on the b. of Cn. and We. So close is the division here, that, 
as I am informed, at Qosforth (6 nnw. Bayenglass) they say coo (kuu) and at 
Bootle (5 sse. Ravenglass) they say eow (k6u). But the real (Qosforth pron., as 
we find mostly to the n. of it, may oe (iiia). 

L». The line then follows the Brathay R. on the n. b. of La. to the head of 
Windermere, and desoendi down its w. shore to Newby Bridge (7 ne.UIverston), 
at its extreme s. It then sweeps ronnd, in a way whicn has not been accurately, 
traced, but is certainly some distance n. of Cartmell (6 e. Ulverston) kou»e and 
crosses the Winster R., which forms the e. b. of La., probably opposite Wither- 
alack (7 ssw.Eendal). 

We, The line probably panes just s. of Witherslack, n. of Milnthorpe 
(6 s.EendaI) Aoosf, and n. of Kirkby Lonsdale (10 se.Kendal) houte^ going in a 
ne. direction and crossi^ the Lnne R. about Midoleton (8 ese. Kendal). 

To, The line enters lo. just s. of Sedberg (8 cEendal) hooee^ and n. of Dent, 
(13 escKendal and 4 sse.Sedberg) home, which is a very close and sharp div. The 
line then runs through Oarsdale along the Clough R. to the w. b. of the North 
Riding of To., which it probably pursues to the Wharfe R. The line probably 
pursues the Wbarfe R. to Bnrley (7 ne.Eeighley), and then passes just s. of that 
river, s. of Otley (9 nw.Leeds) hooee^ and n. of Leeds and Harewood (6 n.Leeds) 
house (h&us), ana then bending se., passes e. of Aberfurd (9 ene. Leeds) 
house (baas), and passes w. of Selby hoose. Then taking a more s. direction it 
passes w. of Snaitn (6 s. Selby) hoose. After this it seems to go nearly s., and 
passes e of Doncaster and Rossington (6 se. Doncaster), both house^ una turning 
at once to the e. passes probably along the b. of Nt. to the b. of Li. at the s. of 
the I. of Axholme in the nw. of Li, between the Old Don and the Trent Rivers, in 
which both hoose and house (huns h6us) are heard. 

Li, The line probably enters Li. about 3 n. Gainsborough, where the b. of Li. 
tarns suddenly to the s. The passage from about Selby, To., un to this point hss 
been difficult to trace, but the information is yery precise tnrough Li. The 
line goinj^ e. passes n. of Blyton (4 ne. Gainsborough) /mum, and s. of Scotter 
^7 ne.Gamsborouffh^ hoose, and then passes s of Redboume (11 ne. Gainsborough) 
hoose, and n. of Waddingham (11 ene (Gainsborough) house, the last two being 
adjoining purishes. Then it turns suddenly ne. and passes to the n of North 
Kelsey (16 ene. Gainsborough) house, and to the s. ofHowsham (16 ne. Gains- 
borough) hoose, the last two being also adjoining parishes. Moreover, the North 

[ U61 ] 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


Eelsey folk look down on the Howsbam folk for saying a eoo (kan) for a cow 
(k6u), and probably conyersely. After this the line prooeeds in a ne. direction 
8. of UJceby (10 nw.Great Grimsby), and s. of Killingbolme (9 nw.Great Grimsby), 
both hoose ; bat n. of Brocklesby (8 wnw. Great Grimsby) and of Stallingborough, 
(5 wnw. Great Grimsby), both Aomm, to the sea, 6 nw. Great Grimsby. 

I am indebted for the Li. information to a large number of persons, especially 
clergymen, whose livings were in the neighbourhood. It is remarkable how little 
aware those who Uto only a yery few miles off this line are of this great diffisrenoe 
of pronunciation. Most Li. people hardly belieTe that in any part of IJ. hoose is 
now said, while Mr. Peacock of Brigg, author of the Mamey and Corringham 
Glossary, did not seem to know that any other pron. but hoau was current in Li. 
And in the neighbourhood of the n. of Nt. I naye several times been altogether 
peinplexed by being told that hoou was said, when subsequent visits to the place by 
TH. shewea that this was not the case. 

Of coarse (buns) is the older form, and all the forms of (ha'ns) 
are very modem. Hence the treatment of IT' is not sufficient to 
mark dialects. The transitional form between (au, a'u) is (tciu), 
which will be discussed in D 31. 

Line 7. — The n. tee line, or northern limit of the use of suspended 
(f) or <', which may be conveniently called tee, for the def. art. 

Cu, The line commences on the w. in Morecambe Bay, Solway Frith, at 
13 W.Carlisle, passes just s. of Kirk Bampton (7 w.Carlisle), then turns in a s. 
dir. as far as about 2 s. of Sebergham (9 ssw. Carlisle), after which it turns ne. 
and passes e. of Sonthwaite (7 sse. Carlisle) and CoathiU (5 sw. Carlisle) to just s. 
of Fort, where it reaches the Eden R. by Homsby, up which it proceeds in a se. 
direction to Kirk Oswald, 14 se.Carlisle, and immediately turns nne., forming an 
acute angle with its former course, passes over Croglin Fell, when it again bends 
through sw.Nb.,and passing s. of Alston (20 ese. Carlisle), it re-enters Cu., where, 
after going s. for a little way, it turns e. at Rother Fell (4 s. Alston) to the b. of Nb. 

J)u. The line enters Du by the heights on the n. side of Weardale,and passing 
n. of Stanhope (18 wsw. Durham) and Walsingham (over Skaylock Hill), runs 
probably to the se. yet n. of Witton le Wear and Bishop Auckland to Merrinrton 
(6 S.Durham), and then sweeps to the e. and afterwards ne. past Bishop Middleham 
(7 sse.Durham) and Trimdon (8 se.Durham), but n. of Sedgefield (lOsse.Durham), 
passing alongthe Skem R. to the railway, when it turns suddenly n. and passes w. 
of Hart and E^ington (9 nnw. Hartlepool), and w. of Seaham (6 sae.Sunderland), 
to fall into the sea about Ryhope (3 sse.Sunderland). 

For the commencement of this line through Cu. to Sebergham 
I am indebted to the Rev. T. EUwood, for the part from Sebergham 
to s. of Alston I am indebted to the observations made by JGG., 
and for the part which passes through Du. to the answers kindly 
given by many clergymen along the route, and a visit made by 
myself to one of them at Bishop Middleham. Dr. Murray had 
first drawn attention to the importance of this line as the separation 
of the Danified from the non-Danified N. (DSS. p. 86 note); but he 
commenced it at Allonby, avoiding the sinuosities by Kirk Oswald, 
and lost it at Stanhope (18 w-by-s.Durham). It was to try and recover 
the lost line that I sent out a series of questions to the clergymen 
of the neighbourhood. But it should be observed that the custom 
of speech is very mixed at Wigton and Silloth (10 sw. and 18 
wsw. Carlisle, Cu.) and that neighbourhood, although prevailingly 
(f). So it is also about Dalston and Wreay (:riB) s. of Carlisle, but 

[ 1462 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

Lmt 8, 9, 10.] THE TEN TRANSVBRSB LINES. 21 

there (dh«) prevails. But from Fort and Kirk Oswald onwards the 
line is sharper. 

Line 8. — The s. turn line in n. England or the s. limit of the pron. 
of tome as any variety of (s9m, sxm), on traveUing from Scotland 
into England. 

Oit, The line benns on the w. by the Solwaj Firth, probably at the mouth of 
the Esk (6 nw.Carusle), and proceeds in a ne. direction oyer Beacon Hill (14 
ne.Carli^) and s. of B^wcastle (16 nne. Carlisle) to the w. b. of Nb. 

Ni. The line then turns suddenlys. and passes w. of Haltwhistle ( 14 w.Hexham), 
and e. of Enaresdale, Nb. (17 sw.Hexham). 

Ou. The line re-enters Cn. iust w. of Alstone (20 ese. Carlisle), and then striking 
the n. te$ line 7» coincides with it throughout the rest of Cu. and throughout Du. 

For the Cu. part of this line I am indebted to JGG., the remainder 
results from many communications, together with some personal 

Line 9. — The n. sddm line, or the n. limit of the pron. of some as 
any variety of (sum) or even mixed with varieties of (som) on 
proceeding from the M. co. to Scotland. 

Cu. Through Cu. this line coincides witii Line 8. 

Ifb, But on reachine Nb. it sweeps in a direction at first e. and at last n. round the 
base of the slopes of me Cheriot Hills, passing 4 w. of Bellingham (:bel'md|Bm) 
(13 nnw. Hexham), 4 w. of Otterbam on the Rede B. (18 nnw. Hexham), and 2 w. of 
Harbottle (which is 17 wsw. Alnwick), and goes n. to the Cheviot Hill itself 
(8 sw.Wooler) on the w. b. of Nb., at the source of the rivers Coquet and Till. 
Then it proceeds in a ne. direction 2 s. of Wooler to fall into the sea about Barn- 
borough (12 n. Alnwick), the ancient Bebbanburg, the former capital of the 
Saxon Kingdom of Bernicia. 

Line 10. — ^The L. line is the Hmit between L. Scotch and N. 
English speech, and is not precisely coincident with the political 
boundary of England and Scotland. 

Cu. Through Cn. the line coincides with the two prerious lines 8 and 9. 

Nb, As far as the Cheviot HiU the line coincides with line 9. But after 

auitting the Cheviot it proceeds in a nw. direction along the w. border of Nb. to 
tie Tweed, down which it runs in a ne. dir. till it reaches Wateadder Water, the 
w. b. of the Liberties of Berwick-upon-Tweed, and 2 n Berwick. 

Bw. I'OC^dlv in the Scotch co. of Bw., but politically an independent territory, 
Berwick-on-Tweed and its Liberties, extending 2 to 4 miles into Bw., are 
linguistically part of England, and the L. line passes round the w. and n. of them 
to the sea about Marshal Meadows, 3 nnw.Berwick-upon-Tweed. 

It will he observed that this line of the separation of L. and N. 
En. does not coincide with the line given by Dr. Murray (D. of 
S. S. p. 25 note, and map). His L. line proceeds n. from Gretna, 
Df., to the w. of Langholme, Df., crossing the Esk R. to meet the 
Scotch range of the Cheviots, along which it continues to the ene. 
into Ex. as far as Peel Fell, Nb., and then runs in an ese. direction 
to the Eede E., just west of Otterbum (18 nnw.Hezham), where 
it intersects my line 10, which it then pursues for the rest of the 
way. This throws a portion of Df. and Ex. known as Canobie and 
Liddesdale linguistically into England. He says that the dialect 
spoken in this region ''is still quite distinct from that of the rest of 

[ 1463 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


Df. and Ex., and is rather that of Ca. than L. Scotch." This will 
he considered hereafter. At any rate it does not agree with the 
information I have receiyed from other quarters. Taking the Nh. 
slopes of the Cheviots, which would thus he included in Eagland, I 
am told that it is chiefly traversed by Scotch, that is L., shepherds. 
Indeed, JGG. — ^who was for a long time quartered in this very 
region, with a companion, both on Geological Survey duty, and for 
lack of houses had to sleep in a caravan, where his rest was often 
disturbed at night by the cattle creeping under and using the floor 
as a back scraper — says that it was diflicult to meet any but a 
Scotchman there. The whole parish of Falstone, on the North 
Tyne (20 nw.Hexham), which lies in the middle of this district, 
with its 57,000 acres of moorland, had in 1841 only 560 inhabitants 
spread all over it. And Plashetts, 4 miles further to the nw., on 
the North Tyne, together with Felstone, mustered only 222 in- 
habitants in that year. Dr. Frank Richardson, a physician, living 
in 1879 at Harbottle (17 wsw. Alnwick), at the foot of the Qieviots 
(certainly of that part which Dr. Murray also admits to be L.), 
writes: **I think you will not be wrong in considering that the 
Scotch occupy the entire hill country in these parts. The Cheviots 
are entirely inhabited by Scotch families, who rarely descend into 
the low countries." The Cu. portion which I include in L. 
has many more inhabitants than the Nb. portion. Bewcastle, 
6 nne.Carlisle, may have 2000, and Longtown, 8 n.Carlisle, may 
have 1200 inhabitants. But, as we shall see, their speech has all 
the characters of L., and does not even resemble that of Carlislci 
much less any district s. of the n. tee line 7. 

The Roman Wall. — In connection with these lines 8, 9, 10, the 
position of Hadrian's or the Picts* Wall is noteworthy as pointing 
to a separation of races before the advent of the Saxons. This wall 
was built by Agricola a.d. 79 to 85, and repaired by Hadrian 
A.D. 121, and Septimius Severus a.d. 208. The following are the 
places through which it runs from w. to e., with their distances 
and directions from C. = Carlisle, H.» Hexham, and N.^ Newcastle. 

Cu. It commences w. at Bowness* 12 wnw.C, and goes through Dramboigh, 
9 wnw. C, and Beaumont, 4 nw.C. It then turns se. by Orinsdale, 2 nw.C., 
bending on the s. of the Eden R., sweeping just n. of C. and eoingin a ne. 
direction by Stanwix (1 n.C), crossing the Esk, to 'Wallby (4 ne.C.), Wallhead 
(6 nne.C), Old Wall (6 ne.C), Newtown (8 ne.C), Walton (9 ne.C.), Banks 
(Hi ne.C), and Upper Denton (14 ne.C), when it enters Nb. 

m. It enters near Thirlwall (17 w.Heihara), passes by Wall Town (16 w.H.), 
Bumhead (12i w.H.), where it turns slightly ne., by Carrow (7 nw.H.), whence it 
passes near Carrowbroueh and deflects ^ghtly to se., crossing the North Tyne at 
Citumum, between Walwick (5 nnw H.) and Brunton (4 n-by-w.H.), and goes by 
Halton Shields (6 ene.H.) and Harlowhill (8 ene.H), after which it runs nearly 
ese. towards Newcastle, by Heddon on the Wall (7 wnw.N.) into N. itself, through 
which it passes and runs to Wallsend, 4 ene.N., where, as the name implies, it 

The course through Cu. is only slightly to the s. of lines 8, 9, 10. 
But in Nh. it does not correspond to any dialectal division. 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 




Ireland. The n. b. commences at sea in Bannow Bay, and coin- 
cides with the Celtic Border, p. 13, and thence to the sea by 
Wexford, and then by the sea to Wales. 

Wales, The n. b. coincides with the CB. through Pm., and Gm., 
and thence passing by sea again enters England. 

England, The line passes by the reverted ur line 3, from the 
Bristol Channel across England to the south bank of the Thames, 
and n. of Ke. and Sheppy to the sea. 

Area, All of England and its islands s. of this boundary, except 
the Channel Islands, where Norman French is still spoken. 

Character. The one ancient character which runs more or less 
persistently through the modem S. div. is the reverted (R)or retracted 
(r^), the parent of the point-rise or untrilled (r^) or vocal (b), which 
still permeates received speech. In north Germany it is replaced 
by the laryngal (t) and the uvular (r). But I believe that the reverted 
(r) is the true ancient form. The peculiar hollowness and roughness 
of effect, which once heard is easily recognised, is due to the hollow 
formed by turning the tip of the tongue up and back so as to point 
down the throat, and oppose the under (instead of the upper) surface 
of the tip to the hard palate. This (r) may or may not be trilled. 
The trilled form has not been generally recognised, but is quite pos- 
sible. But the untrilled form (k^), for which here for convenience 
(r) alone will be generally written, is most characteristic, and seems 
to blend in a singular manner with the preceding vowel, altering 
its quality and rendering it difficult to be recognised, almost to the 
same extent as in nasalisation. The long rough untrilled voice 
form here written (xr) for greater intelligibility is probably nothing 
but the prolonged voiced consonant itself (*Rq ). Naturally when 
(t, d, 1, n) follow (r), they are also reverted, as (hrt jird, brnd, gaRL) 
hurt, heard, earned, girl, for the alteration of the position of the 
tongue would otherwise be extremely inconvenient. I feel that 
reverted (t, d, r, l, n) are the regular old Ws. forms whence have 
descended our peculiar English "coronal" (t, d, r, 1, n) as dis- 
tinguished from the continental "dental" or rather "alveolar" 
(^t, ^d, r, J, n). The Indians always represent our sounds by their 
"cerebrals" (««prd Part IV. p. 1096, col. 1). It is evident that 
the English sounds are merely imperfect utterances of the reverted. 
This reversion of (r) prevails still over the whole S. div. but the 
older main characters, as shewn in D. 4, all of which were probably 
characteristic of the whole division, fade out gradually to the e. of 
D. 4, and become complicated with other characters to the w. 
The reader is referred then to D. 4 for an account of the full 
characteristics of S. div. 

[ 1456 ] 

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24 THE CELTIC SOUTHERN. [D 1, 2, 3. 

D 1, 2, 3 = CS. or Celtic Southern, 

That 18, the Southern forms of English on Celtic territory, con- 
stituting a group hy themselyes. They occupy the portions of 
Ireland and Wales to the s. of the CB. 

During the xnth century parties of Englishmen migrated 
evidently from Ws. regions, hut under Norman guidance, and took 
possession of three peninsulas previously occupied hy Celts, 1) the 
extreme se. of Wx. in Ireland, 2) the extreme sw. of Pm., 3) 
Gowerland in Gm. Tradition says that, at least in Pm., they were 
accompanied or reinforced hy Flemings who had heen driven out 
of the Low Countries hy floods.^ The people of Wx. helieve that 
of the little hand of 140 knights and 800 infantry, who came there 
with Stronghow in 1164, the infantry were recruited from the 
Flemings in Pm. and Gm.' But in the xn th century the dis- 
tinction between Flemish and Ws. must have been slight, and the 
Ws. element must have predominated, for Higden in the xivth 
century finds the people speaking *' good enough Saxon." At the 
present day Wx. presents no peculiarity, although a century ago, 
it was truly S. English. But Pm. and Gm. still possess remnants of 
the old forms. It is notorious that emigrants preserve the traditions 
of the old speech longer than the old country. In this case each 
settlement was surrounded by speakers of an unintelligible language. 
Hence the settlers scattered over a small extent of country were 
necessarily in constant communication, undiverted by other habits 
of speech. Consequently they preserved the old language with 
only natural changes. I regard these districts then as presenting 
remnants of a very old dialectal form, and hence place them first. 
But, as will be presently seen, they are now so worn away that 
their relation to S. cannot be properly felt unless D 4 be studied first. 

1 1. William of Malmesbnry, 1095- indebted to Herbert Jenner, Esq., 

1143, '* Gesta reffum angloruiD," ed. F.S. A., of the British Museum. 

T. Duffus Hardy, Hist. Soc. ed. 1840. 3. Qeraldus Cambrensis, b. 1147, ia 

Lib. iv. J 311, p. 493, a.d. 1091, Pm., *Itinerarium Cambriae,' lib. i. 

*' Flandritis in patria illorum [i.e. of ch. xi. de Haverfordia et Ros : *' gens 

the Welsh] collocatis." Lib. r. { 401, hseo orijnnem a Flandria ducens.*' 

p. 628, ** Flandrenses omnea Anglise 4. * firut y Tywysogiun ' (under year 

accolas eo traduiit'* 1105, translation sent by Mr. Jenner). 

2. Banulph Higden M. 1367), ''De ''that nation seized the whole cantred 

rebus Britannicis et Hibemicis, ed. [P ^an/r^chundredl of Rhos ... and 

Th. Gale, Oxford, 1691, p. 210, 1. was derived from Fflandrys." 

'* Flandrenses ... ad occidentalem 5. * Annates Camhria [under date 

Wallise partem apud Hauerford sunt 1107, Florence of Worcester makes it 

translata Flandrenses, . . dimissa 11 1 IJ, *' Flandrenses ad Ros Tenerunt" 

jam barbaria, Saxonice satis prolo- * The Very Rev. C.W.Russell, D.D., 

quuntur,** or as Trensa translates, Pf^p^ read at the Dublin meeting of the 

** speketh Saxonlych ynow.** Bntish Association, 1857. Dr. R. does 

For the three next citations I am not gire his authorities. 

[ 1466 ] 

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D l = w.CS= western Celtic Southern. 

Boundary. The CB. in Ireland and the sea on the se.Wx. 

Area. The baronies of Bargy on the w. and Forth on the e. in 
the se. comer of Wx., Ireland. 

Sources of Information. Ail that is known of the dial, as it once 
existed is contained in ** A Glossary with some Pieces of Verse of 
the Old Dialect of the English Colony in the baronies of Forth and 
Bargy, County of Wexford, Ireland, formerly collected by Jacob 
Poole, of Growtown, Taghmon [9 w. Wexford in the adjoiping 
barony], County of Wexford, and now edited, with some Intro- 
ductory Observations, Additions from various sources, and Notes 
by William Barnes, B,D.f author of a Grammar of the Dorsetshire 
Dialect," London, J. Eussell Smith, 1867, pp. 139. With which com- 
pare the older paper of Sir J. A. Picton, F,8.A,, "Baronies of Forth 
and Bargey, County of Wexford, Ireland : an Inquiry into the Origin 
and Philological Kelations of the Antique Dialect formerly spoken 
in this district ; read before the Literary and Philosophical Society 
of Liverpool, 1866." This gives much additional information, but the 
subject is not looked at phonetically. Though the dialect is ancient, 
we meet with it in a modem form, affected by Celtic influences. 
The orthography is modem, and the words were written from dicta- 
tion evidently by persons unaccustomed to a systematic representation 
of sound, and like all such, not thinking it necessary, or not being able 
to explain the orthography they used. Hence many inconsistencies 
and probably double uses. Dr. Yallancey published his paper, 
reprinted by Mr. Barnes, in Mem. Irish Acad. 27 Dec, 1788. Mr. 
Poole, whose glossary is the foundation of Mr. Bames's book, col- 
lected his words in 1823-4. Mr. Edmund Hore, author of the 
Forth and Bargy address to Lord Mulgrave in 1860, was of this 
century, and kindly wrote a letter to a friend of his for me on 
5th Oct., 1873, shewing by numerous examples that the old pron. 
had died out. "The Barony Forth dialect," says he, "was dying 
fast at the close of last century. It was in extremis by 1825, and 
in the present year, 1873, I am confident that there are not half a 
dozen young persons of and under 25 years, who understand a 
sentence of it. I have scarcely met one who did not laugh, and admit 
his ignorance of it. I was bom in 1801, and my schoolmates never 
used a word of it between each other, except when in want of one 
to convey their meaning. They learned it, however, as children . 
do, from their seniors, spoke it, with a mixture, to them, and hence 
it became more weakly by degrees, and would have expired in a 
shorter time, only that it was the language of the illiterate alone." 
I felt therefore that it was useless searching further among the 
people. I was unable to hear Mr. Kore read, and he was apparently 
unable to make his pronunciation clear by writing, saying to his' 
correspondent Mr. Walsh, "I have not sufficient confidence in 
myself to finish the task " of writing the pron. of a Iw. which I had 
sent himi " and therefore leave you to do the Glossic." This was 

[ 1467 ] 

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tantalising, for he adds: "A stranger, or more correctly a person 
who ha9 not heard the dialect from ^e lips of an old Forthian, has 
only such knowledge of its pronunciation as Modems have of the 
ancient pronunciation of the Dead Languages. A stranger reading it 
after the manner of English is as near the true sounds as he would be 
in reading French with the English sounds. The letter A had tn- 
variaUy the sound of ^ in the English word fathsr^ To this he 
added in the preface to the Address (Barnes, p. 11 3 ), ' ' Double ee sounds 
like tf in mtf ; and in most words of two syllables the long accent is 
placed on the last," and also directed the reader to speak slowly. 

Under these drcamstances we hare to divine the pron. from the habits of 
different persons in writing dialects, of which I have had a great and unsatisfactory 
eiperience, and I have by no means felt certainty in phonetically rendering the 
isolated words and short extracts which follow. Thus a, e^ t, o, m are assumed as 
(a, e, i, 0, u), not distinguishing (e, s) or (o, o, o). But this is uncertain, as 
persons constantly write w for (», o), as we do in dull, bull, without any indication 
of the change. In Pm., however, it seems certain that (u) is still occasionally 
heard. For digraphs I take ee, oo, aw « (ii, uu, aa). I am not so sure of au ; it 
may have been used of (&b) or (^b). As for ie, it seems to have been sometimes 
(&i) and sometimes (ii). But aa, oa, ea are the greatest stumbling-blocks. 
Most dialect writers use them for (^b, 6o«, lie) or some such forms. Here, hpw- 
ever, I have generally taken (aa, oo, ee) as the sounds, not distinguishing (oo, oo) 
or (ee, ee) even when long, as all is utterly conjecturaL There may lutve been 
two diphthongs (aol, a'i), out they are hopelessly confused by the writer, yet ay, 
at, aay, aai, were almost certainly (&i, &ai), but for safety I use unanalysed (a'i). 
As to ow, I use unanalysed (a'u) as a general expression, though I think (eo'u, o'u, 
h'u) at least likely. But ou often qmte puzzles me. It may be (6b, e, u, u, &u). 
For the consonants I assume r to be (r), because the dialect is Southern, and dr 
is used for tkr, but it may have become fully (r) under Celtic influence, centuries 
ago. The M, dk seem to be occasionally (th, dh), but also (tHf, dn^ or (th, lib), 
and dh final was perhaps (dtni). Lh, rh were possibly (1h, rh], but may have 
been (lh, Kb), as these sounds seem still to occur in S. The postaspirates are 
probably all Celtic in origin, being frequent all over Ireland. The / when 
replacing (wh) may have oeen a strong (wh) misheard, hut as (f) occurs in 
Aberdeenshire, prooably under Celtic influence, it must be accepted ; fh may be 
simply an exaggerated or postaspirated /. The gh I attribute to the scribal 
habits of the writer. I cannot think (kh) occurred even 100 years ago. Mr. 
Barnes unfortunately frequently ** regelated'* the spelling of nis authorities — 
Vallancey's certainly, for I have compared the original, and Poole's probably — so 
that we have not oy any means the words as those who heard them tried to 
represent them, which greatly increases my difficulty, as I have to conjecture 
what is meant by Mr. Barnes's conjecture as to the meaning of the original 
spelling. But assuming these values of the letters, we And on going tiiroueh 
Mr. Poole's Vocabulary as printed and enlarged by Mr. Barnes, as decidedly 
characteristic : initial ar for thr implying (dk) or reverted (r) ; initial s, v, zh, 
for «, /, »h, and ieh (it|) for the pronoun /; (a'i) in tail, main, brain, rain, 
twain, eight, they, (ii) for long I , Y', which is very old. All these (except 
the last) also characterise D 4, so that the S. character of D 1 is established. The 
particulars are put in the form of a cwl. below, p. 30. 


1. Extract from Yallancey's A Tola 2iong (1) (o Joo'la zoq) 
Fade toil thee (2)— fartoo zo hachee (3) ? 
Well, gosp, c'huU he zeid (4) ; mot thee fartoo, an fade (5) 
Ha deight ouz var gabble (6), tell ee zin go t' glade (7) ? 
Ch'ara a stouk, an a donel ; (8) wonUl leigh out ee dey (9) 
Th' valler w' speen here (10), th' lass ee chourch-hey (11). 

[ 14M ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




Conjectural pranuneuUion. 

fadt did dhi — fafituu* zo a,tpi' ? 
wel, gosp, tjBl bi zaid ; mot dhi faBtu ? «n fadt ? 
ha diit uz vaB gab'l, tel i zin goo tv gladt. 
t|am a Bto'Bk on b duu'nel ; wobI lii 3ut i ddi ; 
dhB yal'BB wb spiin hiiB, dh' las i t^anti hai. 

JVansUUion and Commentary, — (1). 
An old iong. Old, commonly loses its 
d, and becomes (ool). Then a fractnral 
(j) is prefixed, forming (/ool), which 
form occors in the BrideU Portion 
(Barnes, p. 102, 1. 2). The additional 
a making (/oo*l«), is perhaps solely due 
to the following t, before which the / 
was lengthened by the speaker, and then 
the (v) was inserted by the literariser. 

(2). What aiUtheef I consider the 
original fade teil^ to be an error for 
fadt eil, the reporter, Dr. Yallancey, 
1788, haying been misled by the running 
on of a < after fad to tne following 
yowel. The fad for what, may be also 
a mistake of the transcriber. Although 
(f ) for (wh) occurs in Aberdeenshire, it 
la yery likely that Dr. Yallancey may 
have misheara (wh) as (f ) . The rest of 
the stanza contains many un-English 
words, and is omitted with the exception 
of the last words. 

(3). Whereto (i.t, wherefore) «o0^m^ 
The far too is eyidently where 'to on the 
analogy of fadt for what. Jigee out 
of sorts, "ill-tempered." Sir JAP. 
suggests Old French hach^e, which 
Bo(|uefort translates "peine, fatigue, 
penitence,'* supposing that Old French 
formed part of the language of the 
original settlers, adducing core heart 
fr. ooeur, benieone blessings, metniee 
wiyes and families fr. mesnie, pouttee 
power fr. poste [Fpost^is "un grand 
seigneur, un honune puissant"], mire 
wonder fr. mirer, avamt arriyed ft, 
ayenir [?] . Whence haehee really comet 
is unknown, and I am far from sug- 
gesting that it is the same word as ogee, 
which translates it so well. 

(4). W$ll, gosaip, it thall be said, I 
take tft here to represent (al). 

(6). But thy wherefore and what. 
Mot is translated by but in Dr. Y.'s 
glossary, but he translates this passage 
as "you ask what ails me and for what.'* 

(6). Have dight (or prepared) u» for 
gabble, I doubt whether gh was a 
guttural in Dr. Y.*s time. The pro- 
nunciation of ouz (as Dr. Y. writes, Af r. 
Barnes has otM^) is conjectural. Obsenre 
for with southern v- in var, 

(J), til the eun go to valley. The tin 
is tnorough Deyonshire. Qlade is trans- 
lated valley by Mr. Hore in the address 
to Lord Mulgraye, Icel. gla^r^ bright 
shining. You see the sun set through 
an opening only. 

(8). lamattockandafool. Cham= 
ieh-am, is a regular old Southern form. 
Stouk I suppose to hare been meant 
for ttO'uekf that is (8t6Bk), a stock or 
blockhead, and donel is unknown. Sir 
JAP. suggests Irish dona, a poor un- 
fortunate fellow. Dr. Y. translates 
dunee, and Sir JAP. a simpleton . 

(9). Will lie (i.e. idle) out the day. 
The pronunciation of wouUl is quite 
doubtful. I take it for tro/, that is, will. 
Sir JAP. considers it w*oul we will. 
Leigh is translated " idle »* by Dr. Y. 
Mr. B. compares "to lake" or play, 
ags. l&can, but this would hardly giye 
anything written leigh. Dr. Y. trans- 
lates **ime." Poolers glossary has leeigh 
to laugh, with which it maybe relatal 
The use of ee for " the * * is regular. l)ey 
giyes the Southern pronunciation (da'i). 

(10). The latiger we spend here, Valler 
may haye been an error iotvuller = fuller. 
Dr. Y. translates ** more, longer in 
time." Sir JAP. suggests va/w«. Speen 
for "spend" is like een for "end." 

(11). The less in ehureh^hay. Bay 
aninclosure,with regular pronunciation. 
Sir JAP. says, "The meaning of this 
is, I suppose, that the churchyard on 
Sundays and holida3rs being the great 
mart for gossip, the time in telling the 
story now would be so much sayeid at 
the Sunday meeting." 

The rest of the text is so difficult, and 
eyidently corrupt, that it is passed oyer. 

r 1460 1 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




2. Casteale Cudde's Lamentation 
for loss o* his Cuck at yas 
ee-took be a vox. 

Becited by Tobias Butler, 1823. 



Ye nypor^ aul, come hark to mee» 

Faade ee-happen'd me lautest 

Gooude Vreedie, 
Hee cuck was liveen michty 

Dhicka die fan ich want to a 

Ho ro! mee cuck is ee-go {hi»), 
Neen chick^ hay hea ee-left 

To fho shall ich maake mee 


As ich waant draugh Bloomere's 

Ich zide [a] vethers o* mee cuck, 
Aar was nodhing ee-left mot a 

"Which maate mee hearth as coale 

as leed. 

'Cham afear'd ich mosth cress a 

And lea a pariesh o Xilmannan, 
Mee pigg^s, mee geearth^, nor 

nodhing threeye, 
Lickweese mee been deeth in aar 


Zimaan Haay is a wicked man, 
Hea pryet ich mought na ha 

chicke or hen, 
Ar aany noor dhing at woode 

comfoort mee. 
Fan ich aam in this miseree. 


Hizluck mye Ihygt on Tarn 

Hea zed mee cuck ylew in a aare. 

kastee-l Q) kndz (*) lament^^'shan 
foB los hiz ktfk, Bt wbz i- 
tak hi « yoks(*). 

(Barnes, pp. 102 to 106.) 


ji na'ipoBis (*)4aBl (•),kuum haaak 

tv mii, 
fMt i-hap'nd mi laatest guuvd 

yEiidii', (') 
mi ktik WBZ hVii'n miiti weI, 
dhik*B(^) da'i fan tt} want tu b 


hoo BOO ! mi kuk iz i-goo ! (he's) 
niin tjtkiz hoy hee(*) i-lsfb 

vaadhenles ('), 
tu foo (*) shBl 1^ m4k mi 
riDEes' ? (") 
az t1^w^ntDEa'u(") :bluumee*Ees 

i1^ zid(") [i] yedh'9Bz(') b mi 

&E (") WBZ nodh'fq (') i-lef mot 

whtt} mat mi haEti(^^) bz kool 

t^m ofii'Ed ft} mosti kses b 

:shanan* ("), 
Bn lee b pasi'sh b :k»lmanan* (^^) 
mi pt'g'ts, mi gfiBBXHits, noE 

nodh*^ C) DHBiiy ("), 
Itkwiiz roi biin diiUi in e*E 



:ziman* :ha'i iz b wik'ed man, 
hee pEa'i'et iti moBt nB ha t|ik 

OR hEn (*), 
BE ani nuuE (**) dhiq (') Bt wwd 

komfnu'Et mii, 
fan(") f'1^ am in dhts mizcEii*. 

mtzluk' ma'i lHiLit(") on :tom 

hee za'id mi kuJc yliu in b geBEC). 

[ 1460 1 

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Lhaung life to Misteare Eeed- 

forth an his vamilee, 
Lhaung mye thye live in pros- 

He zide hea'de help me udh o' 

To hint dhicke oursed vox yrom 

Bloomere's Ihoan. 

iHAAqliif tn rmistee'B :BeedfoBth 

«n iz vamilii* ('*\ 
iHAAq ma'i dha'i liiy in pros- 

peHitii' ; 
hee zaid hce-d help mi udn; b) 

tu htnt dhtk kdBsed voks vBom 

rbluumee'Bis iHoon ("). 


1. CaateaU^ Castle. The pronuncia- 
tion (kastee-l) is doubtful. It is im- 
possible to say that Mr. Poole would 
nave written consistently, or what 

fhonetic analogies would strike an 
rishman 60 years ago. The ea is 
now, and was then, generally (m) or 
fee) in Ireland. Mr. P., like other 
dialect writers, often uses it I think for 
(liv), but probably he used it in both 
senses, for few dialect writers are 
consistent. This is stated to be a nick- 

2. Patrick Codd ii giren as the 
man's real name. 

3. *Cock that was i-taken by a 

4. 'Neighbours,' the (p) occurs in 
other districts. 

6. As * aul * could hardly have been 
used for the ordinary pronunciation of 
* all,' I ha?e assumed it to be a-«/, 
which agrees with Southern usage. 

6. *wbat happened [to] me last 
Friday.' The rnyme requires (dii^ 
but (da'i) would have been expected ; 
see cwl. p. 30, No. 161. 

7. /A, dh in F. and B. writing 
genendly mean ftu^, dn^ or postaspi- 
rated ty d. But here and there (dh^ is. 
a dialectal change from (th). I think 
dh means to imply (dh), or at least its 
Celtic substitute (oh). 

8. Written miU^ where the last letter 
seems to have been misread for /, as 
many writers make // resemble le. In 
Poole's glossary mele, melt occur for 
JloWf am. Mr. Barnes inserted mile 
from this passage. 

9. That is (whoo) for whom. 

10. ** Make my redress," instead of 
"apply for" or "go for." Tobias 
Bufler, who recited this in 1823, maj 
have been in error. The verse is 
throughout so faulty that this was 
probaoly often the case. 

11. Interpreting au as (a'u), but this 

is quite uncertain, drottgh may have 
been written, and meant merely for 
(dbuu^, as I have had sent to me many 
times oy informants. 

12. Mide would be < said,* as given in 
the glossary, hence this must be an 
error for tede^uid, that is, saw. 

13. For (dhe'&), a regular Forth 

14. Here I suppose the -M indicated 
only a strong nnal flatus, which is 
wntten as (i). 

15. * There was nothing i-left but 
the head, which made my heart as c6ld 
as lead.' In cold the d is omitted as 
in jfola old. In this example the instead 
of (1) often becomes (b). 

16. ' I am afraid I must cross the 
Shannon.' I feel doubtful about the 
pron. of (kres) and (Shanan-^. 

17. 'And leave the ^arisn of Eil- 
mannan.' Kilmannan is a parish in 
Bargy (6 sw. Wexford). 

18. * My pigs, my goats, nor nothing 
thrive.' l*he insertion of r in geearthit 
for 'goats' may be right, for such inser- 
tions occur in w.Sm. But on the other 
hand it may be entirely due to the 
transcriber. In thretve, th must be an 
error for dor <f A, as the lAr- regularly 
becomes (d&-) or (dh&-). 

19. * Likewise my bees die in their 
hive.* Observe (litwii'z, hiiv), (biin) 
as a plural in n and (diith) as the Ws. 
verbal plural in -eth. 

20. * He prayed I might not have 
chick or hen or any other thing.' 
Observe (p&&i*et) ending in t. Compare 
maate for made in stanza 2. Observe 
(n6u«&) for another ^sometimes spelled 
anoor, and then anotXer for other, 

21. Fan of course represents (whan 

22. I have taken /A to be a post- 
aspirated / rather than the voiceless (Ih). 

23. ' He said my cock flew in the air.' 
Here ted is apparently an error for side^ 

[ "M ] 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


just as tide wu miBwritten before for of u in (adh), the effect of (dn) which 

ude, see note 12. The last two lines can only be shewn on the following 

of this stanza are missing in Barnes, vowel, and the sound of hoan^ which 

p. 102. I assume here to be (boon) and not 

24. The (T-) in this Latin word is (h6Bn)« just as in Ihaung I took an 

doubtful, see introduction to D 4. to = (AA). 

26. *Out of hand.' Here seyeral 26. ** To hunt this cursed fox from 

things are uncertain, the pronunciation Bloomer's land." 


Collected from the glossary and specimens in Mr. Barnes's book. The spelling 
there used is placed first in Italics, and then the conjectured pron. m pal. 
Observations are included in [ ]. The numbers refer to the cwl. on p. 16*. 

I. Wessex akd Nobsb. 

A- 4 taake Uik. 6 maake xohk. 6 maate mhdi. 14 dra Dnaa. 18 eaake \k\i, 
19 tools tU. 21 naanu nkm naam. — paam gaume g^ [game]. — glade gldui 

rie, valley]. [In all these words I feel that on, au may nave meant (&«, 69). ] 
40 khime kH[a'im. 43 hoan boon. 44 loan loon. 53 e^n koon. 67 eu es. 
A: or 0: 68 vram vnam. 61 among vma-o. A'- 67 goon g6im [going]. 
72 /ho fHioo. 73 zotoo ioezoo zuu see [the last form is anomalous]. 82 oane$ 
6B*nes. 86 oatet 6tits. 94 eroowe luiuu [P]. 95 drowe draugh droo. A': 

— laadg laadt [ladyl. 108 doaugk dhoaugh dough doo. 115 hime hyme ha'im. 
117 oan oon. 118 ianehsMa, 124 «Moafi stHfoon. , 

JE- — aake aak [ache]. 138 vather vaadhsR. 141 niel naTl. 141 tgel 
tal'L 144 agyne vgain. 146 mhffne mna'in [main, very]. 147 btyne bna'in 
[the If spelling in these last four words seems to indicate (a'i) with certainty!. 
162 waudher wjUIhbr. M\ 166 detch dstj. — hhloek bnlok [black]. 
\h^ glaud %\iA. 161 <ft« dS^y^faat/yda'ida'ili. 166 «t<i0, za'id. — tmoA/smaal 
[small]. 179 faade flidt. M'» — Uaehe leetj [physician from Stanyhurst 
1677, misprinted leech in glossary]. 187 laave lea U«v lee. 194 aang hii, 

— erroane eRoo*n [erranuj. 200 ithet wheet. JK: 211 grag grey gnaV. 

— meqle meel [a meal]. 217 eareh eeRT| [ever-each, every]. 218 theep zhiip. 
228 oar thoore aaB dhaaR. 224 far faR. 

E- 231 ^f i [and] a b [compare omitted consonant vntheTi 40]. 238 heg hg$ 
ha'i. 241 rhyne Rha'in. 242 twine twy twa'in tw&i. 245 mel$ mell meel [mei^, 
flour]. — ^tm^/ bntmel [bramble]. 2b\ maate mM, — iw/A^vedh«R [feather]. 
E: 260 loaye l&i. 262 wye wy$e wa'i wa'iz. 263 awy$ vwa'i. 266 wool 
wid. — dell del [delve]. 279 waant w^imt [P]. — epeen spiin [spend]. — teen 
ziin [to ftff'^]. — een iin [an end'\. £*- 296 beleave bvlee-v. 301 Mereen 
heireen hiiRii'n ha'iniin fhearin^, the second form is still heard in D 4, but it 
' ing out]. F: 306 Jteegh hii. 

EA: Z24 oyght ti'it, — av^A'^m a'itii*n. 326 j^o^yo/a jool /oo'Ib. 328 eo/# 

khoal kHTOol. 330 houle ha'ul [P]. 846 yeat jset JlBt [?]. EA'- 347 haade 
hhd. 348 een iin [eyes]. EA': 350 deed diid. 361 leed liid. 362 reed niid. 
363 breed bhiid. 358 neeghe nii. 369 nyporkt nalporis. — reem rhyme niim 

Bha'im [cream]. — ayenet vjenst. — Ihowee Ihaute lowte loos la'us [P loose]. 

— eeth erfe iitn iif FeMy]. 

EI- 373 Myfdha'i. 874 iMay na'i. EI: 379 Aoai/ ha'il. 380aam6em 
[(am, wn) P]. 

EO: 388 mulke malk [orP (m'Lk) see D 10]. — barrm baBm [barm = yeast]. 

— ^MrM heentHi Jheartj. 406 ^r^ Mr<f ecRT ecRD. EO'- 409 ji^fit biin 
[bees]. — Jleen fiiin [flies, Mr. Barnes says * fleas,' but that is impossible]. 
411 dhree dnnii. 412 thoo shun. EO': 436 drue dHRun [P (tHRau)]. 
EY- 438 dee dii. EY: 439 ihriet tHRist. 

I- 443 vreedie vRiidii* [see p. 29, note 61. I: 462 »cA tt| [and in compo- 
sition eha eham ehas ehood ehoote ehull=l have, am, was, would, wot, will]. 
466 lee lii [hence to idle, and then spelled leigh], — michty miiti. — deight 

[ 1462 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


diit 468 nte^ht nigfthi niit nalt. 460 waaight w&it 470 turn e*m [see 380]. 
476 wimui ufymtu wiind wa'in [P Vallancej giTes ictend only]. 480 dhing dhtq 
[(dHia)PJ. — Mhip zhip [ship]. — dhwrth dnaRTi [dirtj. T- 492 atid^ 
seed [taking #•' as a mistake for 9e\. 493 dhneve dHRiir. 494 d*em diim. — 
ptepeare piipee'R [piper]. 496 eeren iiaen. I': 602 VMVi tut. — hf/« ha'i 
[hay, ana also 238J. 610 my ma'i. — lem liin [linej. 616 veeter yiizvE [? 
(wii'stiB), otherwise this is the only case where ws?]. 
0- 618 buthse bodhet bothige batH[ii* bodiiii*. 0: 631 doughiere da'ntee'B. 

— eawl kAAl [P (kool) a eolt\, 662 coom knoRN. 663 hoorn huuiur. 0'- 
666 tAooit shaon i?/. 664 sooit zuun. 666 niae niz n&is m'z. 666 aitoor annua 
[another]. 0': 671 gooudt goouma g6uBd gdasnes. 672 blooed blAuBd. 
679 $0H0w iniu*. 697 Moot zunt. 

U- 699 aboo vbnu. 603 eooiM knum. 606 gin s»n [common in D 11]. 
606<M#rdHaB. U: 609 vallor [P misprint for pulier] yaloE, P twIhil 612 
stM Sim. 616 ^r#oiiM«g^Bea'un. 629 ftn sin. U'- 640 A^mit kea'o. 6AS oor 
noju 660 about abut vbea'ut [P]. 

U*: 668 dooum dea'un. 662 ouu oks ns P 663 heoute hea'os. 667 outh udh 
titiwiH, udho vdH^n [out of]. 671 meouth mea'uth. 

Y- — hsove hii? [hire]. — ree aii [rye]. 679 ehoureh tjaRtj [P tjiiai^]. 
Y: 684 burge boRdj. — h$U hel fP a hiu], 690 *#*«# kiin. 701 vur$t v9Rst. 
T- — >fc<0n kiin [kine, from Ws. cf plural of 240]. 706 $kee skii. 

— ikttne tiftt tH^iin [tine]. Y': — brude biiiid [bride]. 

n. English. 

A. — kaagU ka'il [kail]. E. — liar lecB [empty]. — «>tWiM ikgno 
•k&in [skein]. 0. — poul pa'nl [poll of the headj. — mot mot [but]. 
U. — unktt a'qket [onkid]. 


A- SIO /aaot fauot Ga. S12 laace ]hB, 813 6auM»ofi b^knun. ^ py1$ 
pa'il [... jNi«/!ey a pail]. — plaague pUig [plagui], 820 ^oay^ g&i. 827 aager 
lagsa. — ^yyt« gaa'in [grain]. 836 raaiton Ba'izoo'n. 

E .. 886 veree Teiiii'. — fegtr fa'i» [a /air]. 890 beatthii beestHits. 
I" and Y.. — />## pii [a mag-jw*]. 900 pry paa'i. — gimiU d|imlt 

O •• — faaight fytht fa'i fa'ith. — gexnt d|a'int [joint]. 926 wieo T&is. 
937 euck kuk. 947 b%U ba'il. 966 ArtMr ktYVB. U •• 960 kU ka'i. — wauiU 
wa'it [tt^i] 

D 2 = m.CS. = mid Celtic Southern. 

Boundary, The CB. in Pm. and the coast sw. of it. 
Area, The two peninsulas to the sw. of Pm., formerly known 
as " Little England heyond Wales." 

AuthoritiiM, See Alphabetical County List under Pm., Bhds and Daof leddy, 
information from Re?. J. Tombs, Mr. Elworthy, Mr. £. L. Jones, A&. W. 
Sporrell, and Archdeacon Edmondes. 

Character, The S. reverted Tr) according to Mr. Elworthy, who says the dial. 
is ** most like a book Torsion of w.Sm.," see D 10, and thinks he heard some (j|), 
though Rot. J. Tombs says there is nothing like it there. Mr. Tombs also thmks 
the r is "not materially different from the Welsh r,'* fully trilled (r), and that 
Pm. speech is yery different from a Sm. or n.Dy. Bui initial dr' accepted by 
Mr. Tombs in Mree, Mrough, Mrow, Mreaten, implies (dr-). The (a'i) for 

* * ' among old speakers, and 

f (dnli«z) as one of the 
them S. forms. The 

[ 1463 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


only words I baTe heard are 3 or 4 pron. by Mr. Elwortby. Henoe I gire the 
original roelline in the following cwl. The indications respecting the valne of 
short U have been most diverse. It will be seen by the at. furnished by Mr. 
Spurrell, from dictation of a Castle Martin man, that short U is invariably (w) or 
(u). Mr. E. L. Jones says it is ** never *' like the La. (m}), but ** always '' as « in 
rec. b»ck fa, h). As Zomday occurs in a subseouent specimen, I endearoured to 
clear up tne matter, without much success. Mr. Tombs gare (e, a) in Ioto, 
come, summer, son, butter, «gly, some, drunk, tinder, tongue, hunger, Sunday, 
n^m, sun, but allowed (u, u) in full, cup, dust. Archdeacon Edmondes, of 
Warren, close to Castle Martin, savs that a girl in his service speaks of ** carr'ing 
things oopf taking in looneh,** but ner parents come from Narberth. Under these 
circumstances it seems that (u) still exists, but is not general. It is of course a 
mark of antiquity, and for this reason I assume it in the older form of D 1. 
There is no trace of it in D 3. For D 4 see the s. tddm line 2, p. 16. Mr. Tombs 
or else Arch. Edmondes admits v for / in ^ir, ^rm, ykst, >^, /iddle, ybur, 
/bx,^/lail,/rom,ynrrow; (Tseqk) for spark is known to Mr. Thomas; and they 
admit « for « in <ay, jelf, «even, tick, «ix, soon, son, Sunday, and lastly that the/ 
and « remain in /ace, /ail, /all T.,/alse, j^, yat,/ault, friend, not yery regularly; 
and in sad, sand, saw, song, so, such, sweet, swallow, swine, still less regularly. 
As to ow, Mr. Tombs does not admit (6u), but Archd. Edmondes hears moo (k^u, 
ks'u, kse'u P) 

L Two Inteblinsab Fekbbokeshibe dt. 

T. written in io. by Ber. J. Tombs, Bector of Burton, Pm., and pal. conjectorally 

by AJE. 
8. wntten in a phonetic alphabet by Mr. Spurrell from tht diet, of Mr. and Mrs. 

Thomas, Castlemartin, Pm. 

(1) T. zoo 6i ziiy ba'iuiiz, jb zii nia'ti «z 6« bi B^tt vba'ut -dat 
S. zoo 6« ziLat, ba't'z, job zii n^u eez 6« W 'r^it seba'ut dhst 

T. Ifd'l m^id ksnntn TBom dh« [skaul] 

S. Ifd'l [liid'l] m^aid kMmfn [gumfii] TTom dhsB skuul [skuuld] 

T. a'ut dhees. 
S. 6at dheer. 

(2) T. sliii'jz a'^gwdm dia'tm dh« Bli6o«d dheeB, Didafu dh« Btd 
S. fihii^z 88 gwdam d^ioi dhse rdosd dheer, dhm dh» rid 

T. gee't ptm dh« Itft han z6id « dh« wiiz. 

S. gaat pon dhsB Itft hsend [hsen?] z^id o dhse wdat. 

(3) T. ehuuB «n6u dhB 1j6»l hBv B-gon snidtt [ap ts] dh« 
S. shuur eii6a dhsB ^lil[-d] hsev se gon Btraatt up tss dhsB 

T. duuB « dhv BAAq [ha'Ms] 
S. duur OT dhsB roq n^us 

(4) T. weeB (waaB) shi ul 16fkl» Um [dhat] DBaqktn diif (dtf) 
S. weer shii ul 16iklf fein dhaet drt<qk'n drf 

T. sBty'lt Mb bt dhB n^evm « :tom«8. 
S. skrtiqk fel» b^i dhaa n^e&m o :tom8B8. 

[ H«* ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




(6) T. [wi aaI] haax iin [tebT] wbI. 
8. wii <5ffil XLAJLX iin yeri wel. 

(6) T. [woont] dh« aaI [i^p sunn] lasir tnt not to duuH «gen, 
8. wimt dhi daol t^p sunn laam ar not tss duuH ege-n, 

T. pnnm dhtq! 
8. pnnr dhtq! 

(7) T. nukX] been't [it] tbIu? 
8. Innk beent *t triu? 

Natti to T. TenUm. Words in [ ] 
wfln not filled in by Mr. T. and are 
nmpoaed to be in (dialectal) ib. Mr. 
T. 8 spelling may be seen in the cwl. 

1. So toy. T\\B initial (i) is heard 
onlj from old peoole. — I h$ is more 
hettd in the n. ana / om in the s. of 
the dirtrict. — right. The pron. (6i) is 
adopted fr<Hn Mx. Jones, who says it is 
mosit like the Cooknej a in fate, which 
sovnded to the Tenby schoolchildren in 
Mr. Matthew Arnold's pron. like their 
own jir. aijight, — bop$ now about, I 
haye inter^eted Mr. T.*s ou, ow. $ow 
as (a'n, ia'n) nsinff the vnanalysed form. 
The triphthong aa'n) possibly occurred 
in D 1. We find (Au) in M. But 
Mr. Spurrell*8 yenion pdnts to its 
mnaning (^). — from, I adopt (n) 
eyarywhere on Mr. Elworthy's authoritj. 
Initial it is probably aspirated as in Mr. 
T.'s rAo-«tf. His dr for thr implies 
^b), and perhaps tr would be (tr^. 
But I leaye (r) in Mr. Spurrell^s 
phonetic writing. — that (dat) is yery 
peculiar. Its appearance and present 
gradual disappearance.may be compared 
with D 9. That th$ should not be 
BunilBrly alfocted is singular.— /t^^&, 

El^ is found elsewhere. — maidy going 
m (m&id, gw&in) is regular S. — 
(ysom) is regular S., bSthe other 
forms from, throm^ which Mr. T. has 
heard, seem to be foreignisms. 

4. ioh^ro. I considered Mr. T.*s 
written vA to be an accident for tr. 
He says, howeyer, that Ais " yery well 
and correctly used generally speaiing ; 
it is occasionally out raroly omitted 
where it should be heard ; but still 
seldomer inserted where it should not 
be ; these are, I think, faults of recent 

4. shrivelled, (shr-) seems to be a 
difficulty. In this word (sr-) is used, 
in others (shu-r-), see — shrub before 
643, and shrimp 756 in cwl. it^/rd 
p. 35. 

6, we all know him (wi All niAi 
iin). " We is sometimes heard as the 
objectiye case, and us as the nomina- 
tiye, but rarely; and this usage has 
grown up within the last twenty-fiye 
years [dated Mar. '79] by the adyent 
of Euffhsh nayyies into tne district to 
form uie railways ; many such haya 
married and settled here, and the 
natiyes haye partly followed their usa^ 
sometimes." The usage is common m 
Do. The form (uaaz) for the pi. is 
common S. (iin), which Mr. T. writes 
f An as in Qmian, is the regular S. 
en («n), from Ws. hine, the true aoc., 
for wnich the datiye him has been 
substituted in rs. 

6. thing (dhtq) is old. 

7. is not, I be \b heard more in 
the n., / am in the s. of the dirtrict. 

Example given at the Swansea meeting of the Cambrian 
Archaeological Society, 1861 : 

'' I'ze a gwaaing to zell zum yiah to buy ssum vlesh yor that 
blezzed day zoonday.'' 


This Mr. T. thinks "unmistakably Flenush." It is « unmistakably" S. But 
Tu, as thus written for / m, is the N. form, and is of course an error. There is a 
possibility that it stands for Mf 6# (iis bi). In a cutting from a Carmarthen news- 
paper I find rs regularly used for /, as *< I*s so [bmu^, the distinction (aa, oo) 

'E.'g. Proa. Fart T. 

[ 1466 ] 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 


18 heard with difficulty! I's tell, 1*8 cud, 1*8 haanH, 1*8 goin, I's did, 1*8 
isn^t, 1*8 does, 1*8 has, 1*8 propos, I's thinJcs, 1*8 has, 1*8 was,*' where /'« is 
simply an old S. (iis) =1, and only in "I's goin" is the yerb omitted. A man who 
left Narberth about 1864 told Mr. Spurrellhe had heard (^ thtqks) for I think. 
This is yerj doubtful. I cannot get any other confirmation of the use of such a 
form. Mr. E. Lloyd Jones, a Tenby man, neyer heard it. And oo in zoonday is 
also N. Perhaps, using (u) as in the dt. from Mr. Spurrell, we may read (iiz hi 
B)gw&fn tB zbI zum yish t« li^ii'i ztnn ylssh yvr dhat bmzed d&i zimda't). 

Pm. Classified Wobd Liar. 
Compiled from words furnished me from different quarters, distingmshed by initials. 
Ed. From Archdeacon Edmondes of Warren (4 sw.Pembroke), in answer to 

£1. From Mr. Elworthy after a yisit to Tenby, communicated yy. 
£y. From Miss Eyans's '* Molly and Richard" in Chambers's Journal, quoted as 

Pm. in Rey. J. Tombs's lecture. Her spelling is put fint in Italics and 

the pal. follows. 
J. From mi. E. Lloyd Jones, natiye of Tenby. 
N. Words from Narberth funiished by Mr. Spurrell of Carmarthen. 
T. From Rey. J. Tombs, rector of Burton (3 n. Pembroke). His own spelling is 

put first in Italics and the pal. follows. 
Th. Mr. and Mrs. Thomas of Castlemartin (5 wsw. Pembroke), obtained yy. by 

Mr. Spurrell and written in his phonetic alphabet here transliterated. 

I. Wessex ash Norse. 

A- 21 T. ntMme n^evm, Th. n^oem. A: 43 T. hatC han. A: or 0: 
68 T. worn rom throm from rom throm [but the speaker had Welsh blood]. 
64 T. rauna rAxq Th. roq. A*- 67 T. agwaayin^ vgw&tn. 73 T. zo zoo [{%) used 
only by older people]. 92 T. we kftaows wi iiaaz [see 98]. 98 £y. knawed 
nAAd [P nood]. A': 104 T. rho-ad rh6oBd [Mr. T. does not acknowledge (n) ], 
Th. Tdmd, 123 Ey. tunvthin uAAthtn. 

M' 138Ey./jy/A^feedhBB,T.yeedh«r. — Ey.tpai/fsp&id [spade]. 141 Ed. 
nkih 142Ed. sn&tL 143 Ed.t&il. T. o^rA^ «gen-. 146 Ed. m&in. 147 Ed. 
br&tn. 148 Ed. y&ir. 152 Th. weeter. M: 160 Ed. d&i. 161 £y. to 
daay. 162 Ed. t« d&t . 164 Ed. m&i. 166 Ed. m&td, T. maayd m&td N. m&id. 
177 T. dat dat [Mr. T. says, *<^ for th was a characteristic mark in 1860, fast 
dis^pearing "]. M- — El. JBth [heath, as well aa 406 hearth] jsfol 
[Heathfieldj. M': 224 T. whair wharr weeR war. 

£- 231 tha dhB. £: 261 zay z&i. Th. z&ai [used only by older people], 
Ey. 9aay b&i . 262 icaey w&t. 266 $trayet str&it. F- 297 T. feUah jftah 
fsl-v fla [?]. £A: 326 T. awU ool, &aul. 332 £y. tould idofiid? 336 
Th. 6oal. 346 T. ya-at g6e«t. EA'- — El. /BfcR [heifer]. £A': 

362 T. ridrid. 366 T. dee/ dif dni dif. — £y. yasy jee-zi [easy]. £0: 
892 [not used]. 394 [not usedl. 402 T. lame laiw [teach]. 406 £1. jnth 
[also used for heathy see under ^'-1. £0': 427 bain^t beent [be noty for it 
not^ 428 T, see zii [z used only oy old people]. 436 trew tiiu [rhymes to 

I- 447 hur ur YiVR ra. — - yu jts [yes]. I: 462 J. Th. 6i. 459 J. Th. 
riff' r^ii. 469 ool ul. 470 T. ihn in un [?]. 477 T.Jine' fa'in. 480 T. thiny 
dhiQ [** flat M as in then amon^ old people *n 484 £1. dhii^z [a distinct form of 
thiBj. I'- 492 T. zide z6id [2 used only by old people]. 

0- — N 8hMy*l [shovel]. 0: — T. ehurrub shwrab [shrub]. 643 T. 
*pan pro. 0'- 660 Th. skuul skuuld. 0': 678 Ev. pUuyh pliu. 579 
tniaf «n6u [sing, and pi.] 

U- 603 T. fMmmifi' kamtn, kiimin. 606 T. doore duoR, V: 613 Th. 
drwqk'n. — skmqk [skrunkl. 632 Th. «p. 633 Ed. kup. 634 T. dreotv 
DRi6u, Ey. throu thra'u, P DKau ; Th. dhru. U'- 643 T. neow nia'u, Th. n6u. 
XT: 668 T. deoum dia'un, Th. d^un. 663 Th. h^wa. 667 T. out a'ut ? 

Y- 682 liddle lid'l. Y': 709 Th. ya'ir. 

[ 1466 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


n. English. 

E. 749 T. lift lift. 

I. and T. 756. T. «Atfr-nm0 slivri'mp. 760 trivoUt srtyUt [often heard by 
Mr. Tombe, not known by Mr. Thomas]. 
0. 791 T. bomst$ b6tz ba'njiiz [P]. 

m. BoicAircB. 

A** 866 T. pootir pfiuvB. 

E •• — T. Ed. erawtur krAAtm [creature]. 

Q.. — Ev.yoMtn d|a'n;m [join]. 

D 3 = e.C8. = eastern Celtic Southern. 

Boundary. The 6in. CB. and the Bristol Channel. 
Area. The 17 En. speaking parishes of the peninsula of Oower- 
land, Gm., enumerated under Gm. CB. p. \Zo. 

Authoritie$. See Alphabetica] County List, Otn. Ooweriand. 

ChmraeUrt. Reyerted (b^ inferred from (dr&u) through, (z) initial in place of 
(«), fn) for him are all oistinctly S. The dialect seems to haye been greatly 
worn, as my informant, the Bey. J. D. Dayies, alters the spelling of but few 
words in the dt. and says that the others are in rs. No specimen has been 
printed. Not haying been able to find or obtain any complete specimen of the 
dialect, and Mr. Danes's dt. being yery defectiye, I merely add the words in the 
cwl. form. 


Containing the words supplied to me by Bey. J. D. Dayies, giying his spelling 
first, followed by the conjectural pron. in pal. 

I. Wessez and Nobsb. 

A'- 67 ^uwtfi ^een. [going]. 78 mo zoo. 

M' 144 agm BgS'U. 

E: 261 My z&i (possibly (z«f)]. E'- 291 JeUah i^n, EA: 326 atiitf AAld. 
EA': 365 def$ diif. £0: 392 [not used]. 394 [not used] EC: 427 
beatCt b^vnt [Is not]. 428 u zii. 

I- 447<v«n. I: 470 » 'n [after yerbe]. T- 492 cuit z6id [P]. 

U- 606 dour dm [probsibly, Mr. Dayies says, like the French 9(eur (scecer)]. 
U: 634 drough (dbs'u Y) [may be (dbuu)]. 

T- 682«nil. 

m. BoicAircE. 

A •. — graeieute graslu^f . 
E .. — prieiettie preshi^f. 

In the Philological Transactions for 1848-50, vol. 4, p. 222, is 
a list of 68 Gower words, given by Rev. J. Collins, with no 
explanations of spelling. Of these the following are common words. 
I do not trust myself to give the pronunciation. 

Brandii (brandrith), iron stand for pot or kettle. Cammet (cammed), crooked. 
Eddithy wheat stubble. Hay^ an inclosure attached to a dwelling. Mainy strong, 
fine (but here said of growing crops). Nommety noon -meat, luncheon. Plym^ 
plump, full. Peertf liyely, bnsk. Quappy to throb. Rathey early. Stremoute, 
rat. SftHid, handle of scythe. S<mgullt (songles), gleanings. 

r 1467 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

36 THE MID SOtJTHBRX. [D 3, 4, 5. 

The following are Southern or "Western : 

CkM4f entangled, Sm. Cloam^ earthenware, Co. Clit, stiff, stickr. Dreihsl, 
(drashel), a flau. Evil, a three-pronged fork. Fleet, exposed in dtaation, Sm. 
FloU (float), aftergrass, Dr. Foutt, tumbled. Frithinff, wattled fence, to frith 
a fence, Dv. Neeteltrip, small pig in a litter. Ovice (ovis), eares of house. Dr. 
Flanche, boarded floor, Do. rwrty, to turn sulky. Qu!at, to press down or 
flatten. Do. Shmo-y, to dear (of weather), the rerbal termination -y common. 
SmU, cheese, butter, etc., as eaten with bread. Slade, a yaUey, ground slopimr to 
the sea. 8ul (zul), a plough. Suant, regular, working smoothly, Dr. Toit, 
small straw seat. Dr., frisky, Co. Want, a mole [the ammal]. Trimble, (wine), 

Of the other words I am not so sure. 

Angletoueh, warm. Bwnbagaa, bittern. Chamel, place in roof for hanging 
bacon. Deal, litter of pigs. Dotted {? doted), gidd;^, of a sheep. Dome, dunp. 
Firmy, to clean out (-y is S.}. Flaairing, an eruption like erysipelas. Fraith, 
freespoken, talkatiye. Flathing, a dish made of curds, eggs, and milk. Oley, 
refuse straw after the *' reed ** has been taken out. Oloiee, sharp pang of pain. 
Heavgar, heavier (so also near^ger, fat'oer), Somrach, harness collar made of 
straw. Kittybage, gaiters. Lipe, mattea basket of a peculiar shape. Letts, a 
lout. Noppet, Nipperty, Urely, conyalescent. Myle, angle in the sea. R\f, a 
scythe shupener. Seggy, to lease (the -y is S.). Semmatt, a sieye made of skin 
for winnowing. Shoat, a small wheaten loaf. Stiprog, a mode of fastening a 
sheep's foreleg to its head by a band of straw or withy. Stuan, a brown earthen 
pitcher. Sump, any bulk that is carried, Sf . Slade, ground sloping to the sea. 
Tite (toit), to tumble oyer, N. Fotr, a weasel or stoat. Jring, a willow. 
Weeet, lonely, desolate. Waah-dieh, the titmouse. 

Hence, although vocabulary is a very uncertain test, the dialect 
has a clearly S. character, agreeing with the small evidences 
furnished by pron. 

D 4 and 6 together form the MS. = Mid Southern 


This was the principal seat of the Wessex tribe, and the 
strongly-marked peculiarities tend to shew that the people have 
preserved much, although they have altered much of the original 
pron., more marked on the w. side than on the e. Although no 
strict line can be drawn separating the two, yet the peculiarities 
die out so rapidly to 'the e. that I have thought it best to divide 
the group into two districts, by a rather arbitrary, nearly direct 
n. to s. line, which is the best I can draw. D 4 on the w. must be 
regarded as the typical form of 8. speech. It is not quite uniform, 
but nearly so. 

Boundaries. The n. and s. b. of D 4 and D 5, the w. b. of D 4 
and the e. b. of D 5. 

Area. All Wl., Do., and most of Gl., with n. and e.Sm. ; most 
of Be., all Ha. and "Wi., s.Sr. and w.Ss. ; with narrow slips of 
e.He. and w.Ox., and the extreme se. comer of Dv. 

Character, Phonetically, reverted (e) or retracted (r,), and (de-) 
for thr- ; (z, v) initial for (s, f) in Ws. words, but not in Romance 
words ; the use of (dt) for MQ and EG ; the broad (oo'i , qo'm) for 
I', U'. Grammaticdly, / he for lam; a becoming («) before past 
participle. All these are subject to slight variations. 

[ 1468 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


D 4 = W.MS. = western Mid Southern. 

Soundmriea, Do, Begin on the Enfflish Channel jnst w. of Aimonth (20 e- 
by-B. ExeterJ, on the Axe B. Proceea in a n. direction e. of Colyton (20 e-bj- 
n. Exeter), through Tarcombe (22 ne. Exeter). 

Sm, Enter Sm. a little w. of Buckland St. Mary (8 s. Taunton), and e. of 
Otterford (7 s. Taunton), and keeping e. of Wellinfi:ton (6 sw. Taunton), and w. 
of Thurlbeer (3 se. Taunton), proceed nearly to Taunton, then n. to just e. of 
Kingston (4 nnw. Taunton), when it deflects to nw. and follows the Quantock 
Hills to the Bristol Channel at East Quantock Head. 

Bristol Chamtel. Proceed along the coast of Sm. and Gl. to just opposite the 
mouth of tiie riyer Wye, 

01. Cross the Bristol Channel and follow the rererted ur line 3 to just 
opposite Monmouth. 

Se. Continue along the rererted ur line 3 in a nne. direction, w. of Boss, 
Stoke Edith (6 e-by-n. Hereford), and Much Cowam (9 ne. Hereford), but e. of 
Bromyard (10 ese. Leominster), and then passing w. of Whitboum (14 e. 
Leommster), enter 

Wo. Continue in nearly a straight line to Bewdley (3 se. Kidderminster^, 
where ^uit line 3 and return sudd^y s. along the Malyem Hills in a nearly 
direct Ime to the s. b. of Wo. by Staunton (7 wsw. Tewkesbury), then turning 
e. pass s. of Eldersfield (6 wsw. Tewkesburr), into 

GL Qo through Tewkesbury and proceea direct e. to Moreton-on-Marsh (19 e. 
Tewkesbury^, ai^ continuing e. to the w. b. of Ox. Then turn s. along the 
w. b. first oi Ox. and then of Be. as far as Hungerford (24 w-by-s. Beading), and 
then continue in a n. to s. line through 

Sa. Passing just w. of Andorer to Nursling, iust at the n. point of South- 
ampton Water, and then to the sea near Lymington (10 e. Chnstchurch], and 
turn w. along the coast to the starting-point by Axmouth. About Lymington 
and Christchurch there is no dialect. The line is intended to aroid the whole of 
Wi., which is all in D 5, but accidentally it appears on the map as if a small 
portion of Wi. belonged to D 4. The whole line from the w. b. of Ox. is yery 
uncertain for want of sufficient information, but it cannot be far wrong either way. 

Area. All WI. and Do., n. and e.Sm., most of Gl., the extreme 
se. of Dy., and small parts of w.Be., and w.Ha. 

AuthoritUa. See the Alphabetical County List, under the following names, 
where • means tv. per AJE., t per TH., J pier JGG., || in so., ® in io. 

Dv. **Axminster. 

Do. **Bingham*s Melcombe (or Melcombe Bingham), '^laokmore Yale, *Bland- 
ford, ^Bradpole, °Bri<^rt, **East Lulworth, °East Morden, •Hanford, °Sher- 
bome, ^'Starminster-Marshall, "Swanage, ^Walditch, || Whitchurch Canonicorum, 
I Winterboume Came. 

Gl. •Aylburton, ^Berkeley, tBirdlip, tBishojp's Cleye, **Bisley, tBristol, 
tBrockworth, f Cheltenham, •f Cirencester, •fioleford (= Forest of Dean), 
''Compton Abdale, tFairford, f Gloucester Town, •Gloucester Vale, fHighnam, 
tHucclecote, ^^King's Wood, tMaisey Hampton, tTetbury, f Whitcomb. 

jHa. °Broughton, °Christchurch, **Iford, "Nursling, •Ringwood. 

Se. HEggleton, •Ledbury, ||fMuch Cowam, '^f Boss, t Stoke Edith, ^Upton 

8m. II Bath, *»Burtle Turf Moor, '^Castle Cary, '^Chaidy *»Chedzoy, ''Combe 
Down, ^Compton Dando, |J Crewkeme, ''Croscombe, ^East Harptree, 'High Ham, 
•Langport, •Memott, •Montacute, •Nailsea, "North Wootton, •Sutton Mallet, 
•Swanswick, **Wedmore. t Wincanton, **Worle. 

W7. •Aldboume, '*Oalne, IChippenham, •Christian Malford, •Corsham, 
•Corsley, ^'Damerham, "East Kno^e, tKemble, "Maddington, **Orcheston St. 
George, ^'tPorton, ^^Salisbury to Warminster, **Seend, *»Sopworth, •Tilshead, 
•Wihon, ^'Yatesbury. 

[ 1469 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



[D 4, Introd. 

It will be neoeeBaiilj impoesible to ffire all the infonnatioii receiyed from bo 
many places. My best help has come mnn Christiaii Malford, Chippenham, and 
Tilshead, and as n. Wl. seems the most typical fonn of D 4 = w.MS., Isnall examine 
this part of the district at great length. The nse of these numerous sources of 
information is necessarily to shew the continued prevalence or the change of any 
form of speech. Indeea without this large body of evidence, it would hare been 
totally impossible to ma^ out the district even roughly with any degree of accuracy. 
Hence my investigation is greatly indebted to those who have furnished some clue 
to the prevalent speech soimds, even when it manifestly became impossible to give 
their communications at length. 


Consonants (f v, s z). The conspicuous feature ol D 4, whicli 
most strikes the visitor from any other part of England, is the use 
of (v, z) initial in place of (f, s). But undoubtedly for Ws. words 
(v, z) were the original forms, just as to this day (z) initial is the 
received form in Dutch where % is written, and High German 
where f is written in German. In both, however, the pron. when 
no vowel or voiced consonant precedes is (sz-), thus High German 
sie sehen is (szi z^-wi) they see. The (f, s) are later developments, 
and seem to have been introduced by the Normans, for as a general 
rule, to which even at this late period there are very few excep- 
tions, and those chiefly in words familiar to particular districts, 
" Ws. words have (v, z), and Eomance have (f, s)." This custom 
once prevailed over the whole s. of England from Ke. to Dv. It 
has edtogether disappeared in Ke. and Ss., and has almost dis- 
appeared in Ha. and Be. But it is rarely lost in D 4, and in D 10, 
12. In order to test the prevalence of the rule just given, I 
examined all the words in question in Dan Michel's AyenhiUy which 
is in Kentish of the xivth century, and the words in Mr. Elworthy's 
lists attached to his Dialect of West Somersetshire^ and then I sent 
lists of most of them to Bev. W. Barnes for Do., and Rev. A. Law 
for Wl., requesting them to mark the words for (f v, s z, sh zh, th 
dh), etc. The result is given in the following table, where the 
words in usual spelling are arranged in alphabetical order under 
appropriate headings, and against each word is written the sound 
of the letter used, /, v, «, s, etc., or vf m, when sometimes one 
letter and sometimes the other is heard, adding M for Dan Michel 
for Ke. in xivth century, D for Do., W for Wl., and 8. for w.Sm., 
in the order from e. to w. An * points out Fr. or Eomance words. 



•£ace/DS, «»W 

•facia/ 8 






fain adi./S 

•faint /S 

fair adj. /DWS,oM 



fall vb. V MDWS 


fallow V DWS 

•false/D8, «»M, i/W 


•family/ D8 

•famish /D 


far 9 MDWS 

fare/DW8, i>M 


•farmer /D8, vW 

•farrier/ DS 

[ 1470 ] 

farrow vWDS 

farther V 8 

Ibrthing v MDWS 

•fashion/ 8 

fast vb. adj. v M 

fast adj. aav. v 8 


fat (vat) sb. v M 

fat adj. /DW, v M, vfS 

•fate/ DWS 

fatiier/D, v MW, v/S 

fathom V 8 

•faucet/ 8 

•fault/DS, «»W 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D 4, Iktrod.] 





•fawmngv 8 

fear/D, r W, v/S 

fearless v 8 

•feart/MDS, r/W 

feather v MS 



fed IT M 




feel r MS 

feet r MS 

•feign Yb./8 


fell sb. V M 

fell (in sewing) if 8 

felloe V DS 

feUow/DS, i>MW 

•felon/ MS 


•female/ 8 

fennels S 


•ferment/ 8 

fern 9 8 

•ferret/DS, vW 


fenueir 8 


fester/D, vM, </S 

fetch r DWS 

fetters 9 M 

feUock 9 8 

•ferer/MDS, r/W 

few V MDWS 

fiddlevMDW, f/8 


field 9 MDWS 

fieldfare f 8 

fiend V M 

fifth vM 

fife/ 8 

•fig/DW, r/8 

fight9MW,/D, 1/8 


filmc 8 

filth/DS, 9M, f/W 

Sldfinch 9 8 
d 9 MDWS 
•fine/DS, i> W. 
•finger v MDWS 
firf 8 

fire p MDWS 

foot 9 MDWS 

firkin, vS 

for 9 MDWS 


•forage/ 8 

first vMDW, 9/8 

forbear 9 MS 

fishvMDW, 9/S 

forbid 9 MS 

fist 9 DWS 

force/DS, 9/W 

fit/ 8 

fordyDS, 9/W 

fitch (polecat)/ 8 
fiye 9 MDWS 

fore 9 8 
forehead 9 8 

fiag9 8 

•foreign/DS, 9 W 

fiagon, 9 8 

foigire 9 MS 

•flaa 9 DWS 
•flame/ 8 



forlorn v M 


flannel/ D, 9 W, 9/8 

•form (bench)/ 8 


forsake 9 MS 

flask/ 8 

forsooth 9 M 


forswear v M 

flatter 9/M 

forth 9 M 

flaw 9 8 

forth 9 DWS 

flax 9 8 

fortnight 9 8 

flayed 9 M 

•fortunate v 8 

flea 9 8 

fortune/ 8 

forty 9 MDW, 9/8 

•fleam/ 8 

fled 9 M 

forward 9 WS 

fledged 9 8 

found 9 MDWS 

fleece 9 DWS 

•phlegmatic /M 

•foundation/ 8 

flesh 9 MDWS 

•fountain/ 8 

flew 9 8 

four 9 MDWS 


f ourf oot 9 8 

fourth 9 M 

fowl 9 MDWS 

•flippant (eLi8tic)/S 

fox9MW,/D, 9/8 
•fracas/ 8 

flock 9 DWS 

•fraction/ 8 

•flog 9 8 
flood 9 MS 



floor 9 DWS 

frame/ 8 

flow 9 8 


•flower /MDW 

free 9 MDWS 

freedom 9 M 

•fluent (said of qmckl^r 
running water only) /8 

freehold 9 8 
freeze 9 8 

flush 9 8 

•frequent/ 8 

flute/ 8 

freeh/D, 9W8 

flutter 9 8 

fret/W, 9/8 
Friday 9 DWS 
•fried/ 8 

fly Tb., sb. 9 MDWS 
foal 9 DWS 

foam 9 8 

friend 9 MDWS 


fright 9 8 

f^d 9 DWS 

•fringe 9/8 

folk 9 MS 

fro' 9 8 

foUow 9 M 

•frock 9 S 


frog/D, 9W8 

•foolish/ M 

from 9 MDWS 

[ "71 ] 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 



[D 4, Ikteod. 


•front/ 8 
froth uDWS 
•fruit/ MS 


3, r/8 
•fuller Bb./ 8, «»M 
fumble/ D,oW,i/ 8 
•furbish rS 
furlong p 8 
furloi^ V 8 
furrow V DW8 
further V 8 
furze vDWS 
•fu«ty/DS, f W 
•physic /M 

F Final. 

(p means not pronounced.) 

•baiUff 8 
calf /DW, p 8 
half/DW, 17 8 
•handkerchief o 8 
herself 8 
himself 8 
leaf/DW, f 8 
life/DW, i; 8 
loaf/DW, r8 
•plamtif oS 
roof/DW, r8 
•heaf/DW, o 8 
turf (tsrv) 8 
wife/DW, f 8 

OH Final. 

cough/ 8 
dough (occ.)/8 
enough o 8 
plou^ 8 
uough ofS 
though/ 8 
through 8 
tough/ 8 
trough 8 

S Initial. 

(sbs, 8, before ^/m Hon 

except as below.) 
•sabbatii t D 
sack B DWS 
•sacrament «D 

sad M MWS, « D 
saddles DWS 
•safe « M, « W 
•sage « D « W8 
said s MDW8 

sailor « D, s W8 
•saint mM 
sale f DWS 
sallow e 8 
salt 9 MDW8 
sands DWS 
saps MS 
sals 8 

Saturday z MD W8 
•save $ M 
I saw s D8 
a saws S 
say s MDW 
scrape* D 
sea s D, s M 
•edges DWS 
see s MDWS 
seed sb. s MS 
seeks M 
seem s D, s WS 
•segments 8 
self s MDWS 
seU s MDWS 
sends M 
•sentence t M 
•sergeant «M 
•sermon sM 
•serrant « D 
•tessionss D 
set z MDWS 
settle sS 
seren s MDWS 
sew vb. z DWS 
sick z MDWS 
side s MDWS 
sieTC z DWS 
sifts DWS 
sigh « D» s WS 

S* ^ht s M 
ver z MDWS 
•simple « M 
sins M 

since « D, s WS 
sinews 8 
sing z MDWS 
•single « MD, s WS 
sinks DWS 
sip « D, s WS 
•orsD, sS 
sister « D, s MWS 
sits 8 
•sites 8 
six z MDWS 
•sire $ DWS 

[ 1472 3 

sketch s D, s 8 [(skit;) 

almost two syllaUes] 
skill «D 
sky s M 
sleeps M 
smalls M 
smell «M 
smith «M 
•sober «M 
son $ D 
Boons MW 
sooths M 
Bwrows M 
•sort #8 
souffht s M 
souths M 
•sorereign « W 
sow vb. s M 
sparrow $ M 
spring $ D 
strings D 
suck s M 
•suffer $ MD 
•sugar $h S 
sul (plough) s M 
summers MW 
Sunday s M 
•sup « M 
•supper s W 
•sure sA W, «A 8 
•sustains M 
swallow s M 
swears M 
sweat sMW 
sweeps M 
sweets M 
swine s M 
sword sM 

SH Initial. 
share (part) »h DW 
share (of a ^ough) zhzhS 
shaTo $h DW, ththS 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D 4, Imtbod.] 



sheaf »h D,KhW,th$h& 
shepherd th W 
shoot «A W 
should Mh W 
shred $h D, sA WS 
shrew gh S 
shriek «A D, U S 
shrimp «A D, cA S 
shrink «A D» sA S 
shriyel «A D, sA S 
shroud «A D, «A W 
shroye «A D, «A W 
shrub $h D, zh WS 
shrugs S 

TH Initial. 


thick ^A S as distingmshed 

from (dhtk) this 
thief MS 
thiuM S 
thing <iAW 
thirrtyi^A W 
thistle (^S 

though (dh&tO dh W, 

thr- dr W8, not M who 

has ^. 
th- dh S except in the 



sheath/ S 
cloth/ 8 

V LnnAL. 
•ralue/ 8 (fali) [common] 
•variety « if 
•real dh 8 (dhs'sl) [some- 

♦renialv M 
♦renom v M 
•yery dh 8 
•yestments v M 
•yetches JA 8 (dhatjes) 
•yicer M 
♦yictualfl / 8 (fst'lz) 



•yillage/8 (fa-l»d|) [com- 
•yillain v M 
•youch dh 8 (common) 

Y Final. 

(o means omitted.) 

aboye o 8 («buu') 
deaye (klii)/8 
curye ^ 8 

E'ye 8 
lyeo 8 



Ueye/o 8 

•senre (earn wages) o 8 

themselyes o 8 

yalye (yalb) d 8 

-iye 8 [ = (i, if) never (iy) 
conunon m: expensive 
abusive native laxative 
active destructive de- 

(b). The most important cliaracter of the S. dial., the reverted 
or retracted (b, r^), is, as has been mentioned, not confined to this 
district, but spreads more or less strongly over the whole 8. div. 
Its nature was explained suprk, p. 23, together with the way in 
which it affects a subsequent ^, rf, r, /, n, which were probably 
originally reverted. But I think, although I have not been able to 
venfy the conjecture, except by private tnal, that it also affects (sh, 
zh ; til, dh), converting them into («h, sh ; rh, nh). In this case («h, 
sh) would be spoken with the tongue quite turned back, a true 
" cerebral" (sh, zh), and in (rh, nh) the under part of the tongue 
tip would be brought against the teeth. The («h, sh) would occur 
in the diphthongs (tj, dj), or (wh, Dsh), in place of the ordinary 
(t^ dj). These forms would probably arise from the convenience 
of the tongue remaining in its reverted condition. The most 
doubtful are (rh, nh), because we do not find thr- initial, that is, 
(nha-), but the easier dr- (de-). The (tj, dj) are however almost 
necessary in such combinations as hurehard (haxipw)) for Kichard 
and orchard, and hurdle (bsBnjh), bridge. And in the same way it 
would be easier to say (axTh, waKnht) earth, worthy, than (scath, 
waiidh*), the last word usually omits the (e). In process of 
time, however, especially as the dialect advances eastwards, the 
actual reversion ceases, and the effect is pretty well produced 
by retracting the tongue, and arching its back so as to allow 
a hollow to exist behind the raised tip and the raised back of the 
tongue. Towards the w. and n. of the district there seems to my 
ear to be no such retractive tendency. JGG., however, regards re- 
traction as the typical formation. In the E. div. we shall find (truu, 
trsd) through, thread, which probably point to an original but 

[ 1473 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

42 THE MID SOXTTHBSN. [D i, Introd. 

now lost (xBhuu, tbIisd). This retraction accompanied with 
hollowing is further refined by omitting the hollowing, so that we 
have merely a raised tip of the tongue, producing the coronal 
English (t d r 1 n), etc., which are so distinct from i^e continental 
(t ^d r 1 ^n) that tiiey must evidently have had a different genesis. 
We shall meet with (^t) before ( r) in the M. and N. div. Now the 
English coronal form was the omy one acknowledged by Mr. Gupta 
(Part IV. 1096 b', llSTc') for Indian pronunciation of the Sanscrit 
cerebrals, so that the same refining system has gone on in both 
countries, but in our own dialects we have all the stages (b r^ r, t 
t^ t) now coexistent. This (n) is constantly flated when initial, and 
often transposed with an (h) prefixed, as (Jbasd^ haotir), red, nuii 
from (BhED, BhaN). 

Another very important character of this (b) is its amalgamation 
with a preceding vowel. In fact, it seems to give a new series of 
vowels (an a^ Ar), etc., and even (ii^ ee^ uu^). With regard to the 
first, it was a great difficulty with me how I was to represent such 
words as her, bum, and for sojne time I thought that they had 
merely vocal ('b^), thus (h^B^ b'BpU), but I latterly came to the 
conclusion that there was a preceding vowel followed by an amalga- 
mation of the vowel with a+Sjt (b). What that vowel really was, 
however, I found so difficult to determine, that I finally adopted 
different hypotheses as I heard different speakers. I have used 
Tar, OB, bb), and JGG. writes («b, bbb). But latterly I have 
fallen back on (sb) accented, and (vr^ unaccented, whether rightly 
or not I cannot quite make out. With this explanation, however, 
this sign will suffice, and it must be left to actual audition during 
a long period and with many speakers, for good phonetists to 
determine the best representative of the actual sound. I have not 
met with any instance in D 4 and 5 of the introduction of an (b) 
after a vowel which was not justified by the orthography, but in 
D 10 and 11 there seem to be some cases, there to be noted. 

With regard to the complete series of sounds (t n v b l), etc., it 
was only on the close of a second revision of his wl. taken from his 
stepmother, that JGG. (although he had been familiar with Wl. 
dialect from childhood) recognised that they invariably took the 
place in her pronunciation of the usual (t d n r 1), etc., just as 
these in English and in the pron. of continental languages by 
Englishmen invariably replace the continental (^t ^d ^n ^r J), etc. 
For myself I had not observed it, although it seems to me most 
probable. In JGG.'s Chippenham wl. and spec, therefore the 
complete substitution is made, but as in those specimens which I 
took down from native speakers, I only detected (b), and the other 
letters when juxtaposed, and therefore as it seemed to me assimi- 
lated, I have thought it best to retain what I wrote from their 
diet., although I have now, in the course of many years, oome to 
the conclusion that my former appreciation was probably erroneous 
and ought to be amended in this direction throughout. And the 
same is probably the case for my (di zh ij di), which in the S. 
div. shoidd prob. be («h idi 37 nj). The final (n) is frequently lost 

[ H74 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

I) 4, Inteod.] thb mid southbrn. 43 

after (l, w). The ending of the present participle, modem -««^, was 
ancient -mde, hence the (-bn, -»n) now heard, really arises from 
the omission of (n) after (n), and not from the use of (n) for (q). 

(h). In D 4 and 5, as well as in almost all our dialects, (h) is 
naturally omitted, but with no hiatus to indicate the speaker's 
knowledge that it is absent. My authorities difPer very much as 
to its presence. It seems decidedly used when (haB-) is employed 

The other consonants have no peculiarity. There is for example 
no use of (b n g) for (p t k), parallel to (v z) for (f s). 

Vowels. The following gives the principal characters of the 
vowels, for details see the various cwl. that follow. 

A- IB often represented by (ie), reduced to ffa in tt'), and finally to (tt' ii), as in 
name (nI em ifiam Nimn Ntt^m mim), or eke (^*8 ^ee)Ba (N^vm N^Bm veem) . The 
former preyailB orer the m. and n. part of the district, (ii) being especially prevalent 
in towns, e,ff, in Oloooester, and (e«) in rural districts. 

A: yaries from (as) to (aS ah), but hardly reaches (a). 

A' is normally (6a), whence ((i«, 6a^, but it varies. 

^O and EG are nonnally (&f) not {ki </i), but this falls locally into (se'i v^i bb), 

and sometimes into simple (te), and similarly for Fr. at. This (ki) sound is a very 
, f o '" '^ 

strong mark of the w. forms oif S., but it is not peculiar to D 4. 

r, in contrast to this clear (&»), has (x*!, a>'t) or (dt), which strangers hear as 
(o'^ and write oy. 

I generally hear as (o), but JGO. only hears it as (o| . The latter sound, being 
the modem received form, is always ^ven me by people of education. But it is, 
I think, a modernism or misap^redation. 

O' is properly (uu), but occasionally (a) and rarely (a>), a sound of (a) with (aa) 
ronning through it which I have heara only from Mr. Law in the words £Y : 
439 TRSM, 0' 567 taidhvR, 687 iida>*n, U 604 za>mvR, 627 za>ndt, T 673 ma>t|, 
17 804 DBa>qk'n, •• 950 ZH>pp'B, and in no other words. JGO. has, however, 
quite recently observed what I suppose is the same sound. 

U is resukrly (a), but ^ere is a trace of M. (w) as fiur s. as Purton (4 nw. 
Swindon, Wl.), see s. Mm line 2, p. 16. 

U' is regfularly (a'M, qd'k) not (&tt, du). 

In fframnuUieal eanstruction^ that which strikes a stranger most is 
/ he for / am, the prefix («) hefore the past participle, as (a'ijv 
adx'n) I)have a-done ; and the periphrastic form I do go for the 
simple IgOy together with the curious use of the nominative for the 
objective case, and sometimes the converse. Eemarkable survivals 
are first («n^ for hiney the true ace. of he^ for which the dative 
hdm is substituted in rec. sp. This (wi) is very widely spread in 
the S. div., and is also used where it is said in received speech, on 
account of the general use of he applied to inanimate objects ; and 
secondly, in a small district of Sm. hereafter described as the Land 
of Utchj the forms (at^ n^^pr) for the personal pronoun I, which in 
old writers is the usual mark of our S. dialects. But these are 
forms which cannot be more than alluded to. For vocabulary, see 
the printed Glossaries, which, however, must generally be used 
with great caution. 

VaruUes. Over such an extensive tract of country there must 
necessarily be many slight varieties, some of which are mentioned 
in the preceding table of vowels. But I have not been able to 
mark out any shEurply-defined varieties or subdistricts. I find it, 

[ H76 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


however, necessary to draw attention to six different varieties or 
forms, which, on account of the importance of this district, I 
proceed to illustrate at considerable length. 

y i. The Middle or Wl., tyi^ictl or standftrd fonn of D 4, of which three 
phaaes are given, Chnstian Malford, Chippenham, and Tilaheed, tJl 
nt)m TT. iniormation. 

y ii. The Northern or 01. form. 

y iii. The North-Westem or e. He. form. 

y iy. The Soath-Eastem or Do. form. 

y T. The land of Utch, or region of the continued old nae of (b^ k^') tm 
the first personal pronoun. 

y Ti. The South- Western or 8m. form. 

Vak. i. The Middle or Typical Form in Wl. 

Phase I. Christian Malford (11 nnw.Devizes), Wl. 

Bey. Arthur Law, son of the RectOT, whoee curate he became (he is now rector 
of Dauntse^, 4 nne. Christian Malfoxd), was bom there and liyed in constant 
communication with the peasantir, entering heartily into their mode of si>eech, 
which he acquired with remarkable accuracy and fluency. He wrote a yersion of 
my cs. in io. and kindly came to London on two occasions (in 1874 and 1878) on 
purpose to work it oyer with me yy. As this was the foundation of my knowledge 
of D 4, 1 add the whole ce. aa he rewrote it, with additions, to giye it more of l£e 
character of a Wl. peasant's speech. And as it departs so much from the original 
in the Preliminary Matter, No. III. p. 7*, I add a stayishly literal interlinear trans- 
lation. Some separate sentences written from his diet, are annexed with notes 

0. wx't :djon sb'bvz noB)B dsfut, 

why John has ne'er)a doubt. [The peasant would probably say,] 

z)dhii want d)n^ii wx't :d|on bii zi zaasr'N ba'iit dhak)9B 
dost)thou want to)knowwhy John be so certain about thick)e'er 

dh£q, whV dhsn s't)l t£l)i. 
thing, why then 1*11 teU)ye. 

1. wal, wot hi IsBfm pEEftn] «t Vt vim, dh« gasr ztliz ? aa ! 
well, what be (you) laughing at I for, tiie great sillies ? ah 

B)m«d) lae'af h^tfsdh on)i, »f)i ma'in ti#, «t)wat ^i d«)tEl)». 
ye)mote s may) laugh both of) ye, if)ye mind to, at) what I do)tell)ye. 

•a't d^)OTit kfiwr! t)Q«nt no odz t« a'l, n« naa*bBdt IbIs 
I do) n't care ! it)i8)nt no odds to I, nor nobody else 

9z)«^ndtfz on. 
a8)I)lmow8 of. 

2. t)wli)wit k»l)« toep bin [kwz] «)dB) Wvi aBt)OTi, s'i) 

it)will)not kill)a chap being [because] ye)do) laugh at)him, I) 

d«)lot)'n) ! t){)«nt k'ikU. 
do)allot)him, it)iB)not likely. 

[ 1476 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D 4, V i.] THE MID S0I7THERN. 45 

8. wat sV bf gw6iii t«)TEl)i, «(wey*sb, bi TRua)«z ey«b ^i 
what I be going to)teU)ye, however, be trae)a8 eyer I 

wvB. bdaBBND. dh«B [dh^BJ nafu ! zb djEz bs'id ku^a't'Bt, 
were bom. there now ! so just bide quiet, 

vn Ist -x't sp^eBk. 
and let I speak. 

4. weI, s't hs!vBBi>)vm z4i, v^wewb, vd. zam)« dMt TSBt 
wel, I heard) toem say, howerer, and Bome)of they very 

yaak tu, 9z)zid^ft yrBm^dliB vas dhtsBZEL-yz, di)hdi' ! 
folk too, aa)see'a)it from)the first theirselyes, igh-high ! 

•dhset^i'jdfd thu naf — 
that)I)<ud tnie enough — 

5. dh«t^dh«)jEqgtiBt zan ♦ZE-If, «JgaBt hwoi «)iia'fn, niud)iz 

that)the)yomig6Bt son his-self, a}great boy of)nine, knowed)his 

TEEdhfiBz ydois 9z)ziiuiid)BZ sybb i)ba'iBBD)Bn, dihiu 
father's Toice a8)80on)aa erer he)heard)him(ait), though 

[dha'w] t)w«B zb) kom-»kBl) la't'k. laa blE8)i, t)wBB)z 
it)were so) comical like. Lord ble88)ye, it)were)a8 

skweeki va bssB'^li bz) B*y'B)kBd)bf, bat 'ii n4tid)'n, 
squeak-y and bawl-y as) eTer)ooiild)be, but he knowed)him( nit), 

TOi ii)'l speek dhB TBuuth aaB)« d6e» (dd»), a'«)l waaRN)tn 
and he)*ll speak the truth e*er)a day, I*U) warrant)him 


6. VR dhV«l)d)wmOTi bbzeU, 'l)tBl Eni on)i, «z)8TEaB'ft 
and the)ola)woman herself will)tell any of)ye, a8)straight 

TOSBd Bz Eni dhEq, a'«Jl waaKin))«r, »f)*l 8Bk8)Br. 
forward as any thing, I)*U warrant)her, if[you]'ll aBk)her 

7. llBstwa'tz BB tEld •a'i WEn a'i SBkstjBE tuu)BE)DBii ta'tmz 

leastways hertelled I when I aBked)Qer two)or)three times 

aa'YBB, BB)diBd*, vn -zlm)d ndu, ii 2BB)wa. u'l, E't dB)lot^ 
oyer, her)did, and *she)would know, if e*er)one will, I do)allot} 

OT, wat dB)dhEqk)on)t, at? 
her, what do[jou]think)oQit, eh? 

8. weI, BzV*)wBB)B)zdr»ii [zae'rin], «B)D)tEl)i WBr)BB 
well, a8)I)were)a)8aying, her)would)tell)ye where)her 

Ta'fiii dh»k)BB DBaxiVn bbs ez)BB di)k8e8B'Bl BB^Ezbtm. 
found tbiB)ere drunken beast as)her do)call her)husband. 

C 1477 ] 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

46 THE MID oOUTHBRN. [D 4, V i. 

9. daDld)tf)flK d*d)'nt tiil a'* bz BB^ziid)^!! brzeU. "'dhflE) 
da8hed)if)her did)not tell I as her)8ee'd)him herself. <<*there) 

i)wscB," «B)zBd, "iBd ds'im i)wBB wn)iz bEs klaaz on, 
he) were,*' her)8aid, <*laid down he) were with)hiB best clothes on, 

«z ttpsf vz wm)^ k«d)biiy «)ktidynt wseg tzs'lf noo a'n. 
as tipsy as eTer)he coula)be, he)coula)not wag his-self no how. 

«)w^R^kla8 ap «gtii dhB du«B)«)dhB s'tis «t)d]ii)kaBireB 
he)were)clo6e np against the door)of)the house at)the)oomer 

B)dlli 1^^. 
oQthe lane. 

10. 'B)wBE)B)b8B8B-lni sn')«^skM78e8e*hn, blEs)!, vBE)8Bl)dhi 
he)were)a)bawling ana)a)8qaallingy bless)ye for)all)the 

waBL la'tk)B z»k Wil «E)B)k8Bt B^mi6u«tm." «nW) 
world like)a sick child or)a)cat ajmewing." ana)her) 

sekst tau)BR)Dsii on)«m, bb zsd, «z)waBD)«NT thbi tsb 
asked two)or)three of)them, her said, as)were)not yery &r 

aaf, vn '^dbee Elpt aV Yat)mx ^Bm," «Ei)zEd, '^vn dh^t bBaat) 
off, and ** tiiey helped I fetch)nim home," her)said, ** and they brought) 

vn 8el «dhBRT)«8kirf'nt yaiuntSR .'pa'tks vn," bb zEd, "wbe 
him all athwart)asquint fanner Pike's field," her said, ** where 

a'f dB)ba'fd, wi dhaB dhB)lfef)«n." 
I do)bide, and there they)Ieft)mm." 

11. sen dheet [dbsk] waB, d)nEE'B? vz zbii)vnW dset^BB Iee 
and that [thic] were, do[you]know P as she)and)ner daughter[in]law 

kamd m dbuu dbi baak ji^BD, waE)BB btn B)8Bqtn a'ut 
come'd in through the back yard, where)her [had] been a)hanging out 

dhi klaaz t« DBa't. 
the clothes to dry. 

12. Bn)«R)wanted t« btra'tl dhi kit'l v«b tee. "»t gtd a'* ael) 
and)her) wanted to boil the kettle for tea. ''it gire'd I all) 

«v)b xaBN,*' «B ZEd, "wi micd a'* ztrEt vmim's ael aavoB. 
of)a turn," her said, ''and made I sweat almost all oyer." 

:btl id^iLvnz dbvB, B)Bd)B djuu'btlas dhaat on)m, tbb)q 
Bill Jones there, he)had)a dubious thought of)him, for)he 

tEld a'» ez)i)zidW Bba'wt vaVB «klo'k m dh)aBt-«mABn, 
telled I as)he)Beed)him about four o'clock in the)aftemoon, 

[ 1478 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D 4, V i.] THB MID SOUTHSBN. 47 

«nM)wBB in4m voB'adtsh dhsn. «(d waakt p^BTi mdi zsb'm 
aiia)he)were main forwardish then. he)d walked pretty nigh seven 

ma!i*l «loq dhe Bhaad, OTi)i)waE)«z da'w8ti)sz evbr Eni 
mile along the road, and)he)wer6)a8 da8ty)a8 eyer any 

dhsq. a't nsvTm zid noo ziti dhEq *bv^«*k." laa blE8)i ! 
thing. I never see'd no such thing afore." Lord hle88)ye 

t)w'B)« wireik «gdv* ksnn nsks dhamzdt, tm^BVTa'm zsymvB, 
it)were)a week ago come next Thursday, ana)a)fine summer 

8et«Bn^«n tuu, t)wvB. 
afternoon too, it)were. 

18. an^tsl)! wat! a'i n£v«B WioBd noo m^«B)«)dhfQs){CB 
ana)tell)ye what! I never heard no more)of)thiB)here 

d^ob ttl t« d6ei. VD.)fB)d{i)mit kivR waB)« duu «b naa, 
job tall to-day ana)I)do)n't care whether)! do or no, 

aa-Jlak)i ! 

14. BnMli«B)a'» bi gt^oin ^«m t« bee)B bit « za)p-p*B, zi8)giid 
ana)there)I bi going home to have)a bit of supper, so)^od 

na'ft, Bn)du)fln)i bii sre kw?tk t« WvTjvtyB l^p vghn- 
night, and)do)not)ye be so quick to laugh)at)a chap again, 

WBn)«)d« tEl)i)B Eni dbsq. 
when)he)do tell)ye)of any thing. 

15. 9n)db8et)s eel a't got tB)z£L tu)t. gdd hsfu 
and)that)i8 all I [have] got to)8ay to)it, good b*ye. 

Kotea. The figures refer to the paragraphs of the above cs. 
\* Perhaps thoughout (t d t| d| n 1) thould have been (t d tj, dj, n l). 

2. Beinff (b«n) for heeaute la used by 7. She. Observe emphatic (*zhii) ; 

older people. compare (*zhii svz)*n) 'she ha8)hiin with 

4 and 13. Htardy this is the form («B)z)*got)*n) she's 'got him. — Know. 

used by older people, see D 1, cwl. 301, This has its regular form, but the final 

^'BpD) is the result of education. The (u) is dropped in (Vt du'n naa, *a't naa 

(h) IS heard only when the word is nx'tft «ba'u*t)ttj I donH know, I know 

emphatic, and is gentle even then. nought about it, and even the (a) is 

o. Bawly, cats are said to (bseaB «1) changedinpar.ll(d)nsB?)<fo(yoM)A:>Mm7. 

in n.Wl. 10. Athwart^ by itself, means across 

6. in (s'wljd)«m*mi) old woman the d a field at right angles to its sides, 

separates from the i\\ and is made part f«dh«RT mktrint) athwart asquint, is 

of the next word ; (a) is dropped in (bb oiagonally, from one comer straight to 

bi WBi, a'ttl) M# b$ very old. the next but one. 

[ 1479 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

48 THE MID S0X7THERK. [D4, Vi. 

Phrases and sentences originally heard from peasants, and dictated 
by Rev. A. Law. 

1. (ma!i hsd bi«t la'tk* DBs'tsh'lz ig)gw&m\ my head beat like 

flails a-going. 

2. (dtf)'nt)i i&uut ta'iiBBDz dh« ha'uz'n), don't ye shoot towards 

the houses. 
8. (tc hee)B btt on)t), to have a bit of )it. 

4. (i)w'K B)tj8Bmptn «t •a'i), he was chaffing at me. 

5. (i did DBxu iz hsd bsk vn kMk'ld), he did throw his head back 

and gargled. 

6. (blB8)iin ! tt)s « hafid mset'B tB ksnn apzs'idz wiysn), bless 

him ! it's a hard matter to come upsides [right way up] 
with him. 

7. (i)z nee-tli ka'wl), he's naturally cold. 

8. (« peen a'i hsed 9dhx*B*T dh« sm^z), a pain I had across the 


9. (a'i)l tEl)i ^u « wBz saaRn), I'll tell)ye how I was served. 

10. (i)z got t« vodfiB dh« bbs), he has to fodder the beasts [homed 


11. (dhfiB)z)« p8Bs'1)b Itt'l odztz), there's a parcel of little odds 

and ends. 

12. (*zhii heevz b vbb» gdd)Bn), she has a very good one. 

13. (go so'lid, a'tl mivk in;kWtree*8h'n), go quickly, I'll make 


14. (i)z vwM* b«d na'i'tBmz), he's very bad night-times. 

15. (<Ui8Bt)8 thv ma'm on)Bm), that's the mind [intention, bent of 

mind] of them. 

16. (vfi dhaat s't)shBd)B da'id fn)dhB na'tt), I thought I should 

have died in the night. 

17. (ha'wld^n ta'it), hold him ti^t. 

18. (wsn)«n) «na-dh'Bo, tuu)Bn)B t)a)dhvB), one and another, two 

and a t'other. 

19. (dA«n)98? wat)«d? ■'i, JEn)tt?) don't us -we? what 

should ? aye, is')n't it ? 

20. (s'i bi zaBttn zhauBB ; Vl)^i)Y vdsD-n), I am certain sure ; till 

I've done. 

21. (uB miiviR UBB dhl«s), no more than this. 

22. (t)hi)nt UB odz tB Jia'tf), it is not no odds to you, it is no 

business of yours. 

23. (ba't dhB zim on)t), by the seem [appearance] of it. 

24. (dh8ek)8 a'w a!i spEl fa'tv), that's how I spell five. 

[ 1480 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D 4, V i.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 49 

Christian Malfoed cwl. 

Containing the words from the preceding examples and some others given me by 
Mr. Law. Probably all the (t d tj d| sh n 1 r) should be (t d T| d^ «h n l s) 
See supr^ p. 23. 

I. Wessei and Norse. 

A- 1 zv. 6 mtBk. 6 m/vd. 8 tB hee [to haTel. 17 Ibb [the older sound 
was (laa), and Mr. Law himself, who used to oe called (laa], is now called (Iss)]. 
21 n/Bm. — fa'tB [fare]. 34 Ix'sst. A: — saniU [saddle]. 39 kamd 

[comeMI. — zsn [sand]. 49 aqtn [hanging]. 54 want. 56 w^ish. 

— IwBt [cat]. 

A: or 0: 68 vnmi [weak form]. 60 Blo-q [along]. 64 roq [generally, occ. 
(raq)]. A'- 67 giv6in [goingt. 69 naa noo no. 72 hiiuii [when standing 
alone, otherwise (uu)j. 73 zi zs [weak forms]. 74 tuu. 77 laa [for I^rd ! is 
an exclamation]. 79 a'fm. 81 l/«n. 84 mi«BR. 87 klaaz. 89 biiUBdh. 
92 n&u, [but (d)nsE) do you know?]. 94 kita'u. A': 102 seks aekst. 104 
Bhaad. 107 IM. — zhroov [shrove]. Ill aat. 113 HiiuBl [A half sounded]. 
115 um. 120 ngtn, 

M' 138 TBidhv. 144 vg/BU. 146 m&in. 148 f&iB [see 709 and 887]. 
160 1/Bst wa'iz [least wise], 163 zeet^Bdi. — wbb [whether]. — pBBti 
[pretty, tolerablyj. 'JS: 164 beek. — Bd [had, weak form]. — ztcd rsadl. 
158 ffitBB. 169 heevz. 161 d6ei [seldom (d&i)J. 162 tsd^i [to-day]. 166 zEd. 
166. m&id [a little girl, see 768J. 169 wB*n ['* not quite a dissyUable" and] 
WBn. 173 waB [were, was]. 174 a'ishBU TBii ["always with (bu) *']. 177 dhaet 
[also (dh»k)]. 179 wot wat. 

M' 187 1/Bf Reft, did leave]. — zili [silly]. 194 Bni. 196 wotbd)'nt 

[were not]. 198 ist. ^': 206 DBEd. 208 evbb, aeB)Bn [e*er a one], aaR)B 
e'er a]. 209 ub'vbb bob [never a1. 213 s'tdhsB. 214 nx'tdhBB. 220 
zhipBBD. 221 vt'B. 223 dhaB, dhrB. 224 whb. 226 vlash. 226 BmiiB's 
[almost]. 227 wB'Bt[** not quite a dissyllable**]. 228 z«?Bt. 230 vat. 
E- 231 dhidhBdh-. 233 sp6eBk. 236 v6bvbb. 239 z&tlBR [sailor]. 244 wal. 

— tElD rteU'd]. — zhiBB Tshearl. 261 meet. 262 kit*l. E: — vat 
vxt| [fetch]. 266 BTBBt|. 268 zb^- ^^^ iBdPlaid]. 261 z&i z&t'in zae'ttn 
fsayin] 263 bw&i-. 266 sroae'tt. — v^bI [field]. 269 zElf izalf BBZE-lf 
ohsBZE-lvz [self himself herself themselves]. 271 tBl. 272 BlmBU TBii [*' always 
with (bu) **J. — Mb [else]. — slpt [helped]. — zil [sell]. 278 WEntj [a 
marriageable nrl, see 768]. 281 lEqth. — vrssh [freshl. 284 DBEsh [see alter 
736]. — Bdhx'Bt [Bthwart, across from side to side, (Bdna'Bt, Bsktrtnt) athwart 
asquint, diagonally from one comer to the next but one]. — vE'stBB [fester]. 

— bBS [best]. E*- 289 i [weak]. 290 ii, b, * [(B)ad, *d) he had, weak 
form]. 297 velBB. 298 vfBld [felt]. 302 miti. £': 307 na't. 312 ien, 
313 haBk. 314 ha'iBD [older people]. — blBs [bless]. — ta'it [tight]. 
316 nmks. 

EA- — shiiv [shave]. — vsbIb voIb [fallow]. 320 kSiBB. EA: 322 

IsBf Iseftn iBEfin [laughmg]. 326 waaki [walked]. 326 a'ul-d. 328 ka'til. 
329 v6obI. 330 tB ha'uld [(b hoolt) subs.] 333 kie'Bf. 334 hac'Bf. 336 sel. 
336 v»'b1. 338 kffiffl'Bl. — zae't [salt! — sh/BB [share]. 340 ji&bd. 

— voBB [farrow]. EA'- — zhBEd [shread]. 347 hsd. 348 a'i-z. 349 
▼is'tf. EA': 364 zhhrf . 366 liBf . 367 dh&M dha'w. 369 na'ibBB. — Bg/sn 
[against]. 364 tjsep. 366 gaBt. 367 DBBt. 

£1- 372 &i. 373 dh&i £iee. £1: 378 w6eBk. EO- 383 zEb*m. 
387 nia'wz [news]. EO: 390 zhiid. — ztlv*B. — vaBmBB [farmer]. 

402 laBN . 403 vbb. 407 vaadin. — zistBB [sister J. 408 nkttd [made weak 
from (n&t<) know]. EO*- — vBii [free]. 411 DRii. 412 zhii. 414 vla'i. 

— shunt [shoot]. 420 va'wBB. 421 v&BBxi. EO*: 422 zik. 426 va'tt. 
427 bin [beings because]. 428 zid [8ee*d]. 430 vrbu. 434 b/ot. 436 jau 

inot used], 436 tbuu. — DBa'M [threw J. 437 TBUuth. EY- 438 da'i. 
2Y: 439 TBa)S. 
I- 440 wttBk. 441 zi*v. 443 vra'td^. 446 na'tn. — tn, Bn [him, old 

S.S. Pron. Part V. [ 1481 J 95 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



[D 4, Introd. 


•front/ 8 
frort V MDWS 
frt)th V DW8 

•fuller 8b. /S,vM 
fumble/D, vW, tfS 
•furbish v 8 
•furl V 8 
furlong V 8 
furlot^ V 8 
furrow f» DW8 
furthers 8 
furze 9 DW8 
•fuBty/DS, #W 
•physic / M 
•physician /M 

F Fdtai. 

(o means not pronounced.) 

calf /:DW, V 8 
half/DW, r8 
•handkercluef o 8 
herself 8 
himself 8 
leaf/DW, i>8 
life/DW, i> 8 
loaf/DW, i>8 
•plamtiffo 8 
roof/DW, * 8 
rfieaf/DW, V 8 
turf (tHr^8 
wife/Dw, i?8 

6H Fekal. 

cough/ 8 
dough (occ.)/8 
enough o 8 
plough 8 
slough o/8 
though/ 8 
through 8 
trough 8 

S Inttiax. 

(bbs, S, beforeA/mnoM 
except as below.) 

•sabbath t D 
sack z DW8 
•sacrament « D 

sad s MW8, § D 
saddle « DWS 
•safe « M, « W 
•sagne « D « W8 
said « MDW8 

sailor iJ>,s W8 
•saint mM 
sale z DW8 
sallows 8 
salt s MDW8 
saps MS 
sate 8 

Saturday z MDWS 
•sare « M 
I saw s DS 
asaw« 8 
say z MDW 
scrape s D 
sea • D, s M 
sedges DWS 
see z MDWS 
seed sb. z MS 
seem « D, s WS 
•segments 8 
self s MDWS 
sell z MDWS 
sends M 
•sentence § M 
•sergeant « M 
•sermon « M 
•servant « D 
•serve «MW 
•sessions a D 
sets MDWS 
sew vb. s DWS 
sick s MDWS 
side s MDWS 
siere s DWS 
sifts DWS 
sigh « D, s WS 
sight s M 
silver s MDWS 
•simple t M 
sins M 

since « D, s WS 
sinews 8 
sing s MDWS 
•single s MD, s WS 
sinks DWS 
sip « D, s WS 
•mr « D, s 8 
sister « D, s MW8 
sits 8 
•sites 8 
six s MDWS 
•sire t DWS 

[ 1472 3 

sketch « D, s 8 [(zki^) 

almost two syllables] 
skill « D 
slack «M 
slays M 
sleeps M 
small i M 
smell «M 
smith « M 
snail t M 
•sober « M 
son« D 
sooth sM 
sorrows M 
•sort* 8 
souffht s M 
sour sM 
souths M 
•sovereign t W 
BOW vb. s M 
sparrow t M 
spring* D 
string* D 
•subfle t M 
sucks M 
•suffer s MD 
•sugar f A 8 
sul (plouffh) s M 
•sum* MD 
summer sMW 
Sunday s M 
•sup «M 
•supper s W 
•sure zh W, th 8 
•sustain «M 
swallow s M 
swears M 
sweat sMW 
sweep sM 
sweets M 
swine sM 
sword s M 

SH Initial. 
share (part) zh DW 
share (of a plough) zhzhS 
shave sk D W , th th S 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D 4, Intbod.] 



sheaf th J>,MhW,zhthQ 
shear sh D, tA W, sA «A S 
shepherd zh W 
shoot «AW 
should sA W 
shred th D, sA WS 
shrew sA S 
shriek «A D, sA S 
shrimp «A D, cA S 
shrink «A D, sA S 
shriTel «A D, cA S 
shroud t A D, tA W 
shrove tA D, tA W 
shrub th D, cA WS 
shrugs S 

TH Initial. 

thatch V S 

thick M S as distingmshed 

from (dhik) this 
thioM S 
thing ^AW 
thirsty <MW 
thistle <fS 

though (dh6fi) dh W, 

thr- dr WS, not M who 

has >r. 
th- ifA S except in the 

aboYe cases 

TH Final. 
sheath/ S 
cloth/ 8 
tooth/ 8 

V iFTriAL. 

•value / 8 (f ali) [common] 

•variety© M 

•veal dh 8 (dhi'vl) [some- 

•venial vM 

•venom p M 

•very dh 8 

•vesnnents v M 

•vetches dh 8 (dha^) 

•vice V M 

•victuab / 8 (firt'lz) 


•village/ 8 (fi«-l»dj) [com- 
•villain v M 
•vouch dh 8 (common) 

V Final. 

(o means omitted.) 

above o 8 (sbuu*) 
cleave (klii)/ 8 
curve b 8 

S'veo 8 
ive 8 

heave/ 8 

leave/ 8 

lieve/o 8 

•serve (earn wages) o 8 

themselves o 8 

valve ryalb) b 8 

-ive 8 [ s= (i, if) never (iv) 
common in: expensive 
abusive native laxative 
active destructive de- 

(b). The most important character of the S. dial., the reverted 
or retracted (b, r^), is, as has heen mentioiied, not confined to this 
district, hut spreads more or less strongly over the whole S. div. 
Its nature was explained supii, p. 23, together with the way in 
which it affects a subsequent t, d, r, /, n, which were probably 
originally reverted. But I think, although I have not been able to 
venfy the conjecture, except by private trial, that it also affects (sh, 
zh ; til, dh), converting them into («h, «h ; xh, nh). In this case («h, 
%h) would be spoken with the tongue quite turned back, a true 
" cerebral" (sh, zh), and in (xh, nh) the under part of the tongue 
tip would be brought against the teeth. The («h, zhj would occur 
in the diphthongs (ij, nj), or (x«h, iwh), in place of the ordinary 
(tj, dj). These forms would probably arise from the convenience 
of the tongue remaining in its reverted condition. The most 
doubtful are (xh, nh), because we do not find thr- initial, that is, 
(nlrn-), but the easier dr- fna-). The (ij, ni) are however almost 
necessary in such combinations as hurenard (haBijtsBD) for Richard 
and orchard, and hwrdge (baBDjh), bridge. Ajid in the same way it 
would be easier to say (sBxh, waBnht^ earth, worthy, than (anth, 
waBdht), the last word usually omits the (b). In process of 
time, however, especially as the dialect advances eastwards, the 
actual reversion ceases, and the effect is pretty well produced 
by retracting the tongue, and arching its back so as to allow 
a hollow to exist behind the raised tip and the raised back of the 
tongue. Towards the w. and n. of the district there seems to my 
ear to be no such retractive tendency. JGG., however, regards re- 
traction as the typical formation. In the £. div. we shall find (truu, 
triid) tiuough, thread, which probably point to an original but 

[ H73 ] 

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42 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, Intbod. 

now lost (TBhno, tbIisd). This retraction accompanied with 
hollowing is further refined hy omitting the hollowing, so that we 
have merely a raised tip of the tongue, producing the coronal 
English (t d r 1 n), etc., which are so distinct from the continental 
(t ^d r 1 ^n) that they must evidently have had a different genesis. 
We shall meet with (^t) before ( r) in the M. and N. div. Now the 
English coronal form was the only one acknowledged by Mr. Gupta 
(Part rV. 1096 b', 1137 c') for Indian pronunciation of the Sanscrit 
cerebrals, so that the same refining system has gone on in both 
countries, but in our own dialects we have all the stages (b r^ r, t 
t, t) now coexistent. This (b) is constantly flated when initial, and 
often transposed with an (h) prefixed, as (hand, hxBir), red, run, 
from (BhBD, BhaN). 

Another ver^ important character of this (b) is its amalgamation 
with a precedmg vowel. In fact, it seems to give a new series of 
vowels (a A a^ A|5> ^^m ^^^ ^^^n (iin eeg, ua^). With regard to the 
first, it was a great difficulty with me how I was to represent such 
words as h^, bum, and for some time I thought that they had 
merely vocal ('Bq), thus (h's^ b^B^n), but I latterly came to the 
conclusion that there was a preceding vowel followed by an amalga- 
mation of the vowel with x+aa (bV What that vowel really was, 
however, I found so difficult to oetermine, that I finally adopted 
different hypotheses as I heard different speakers. I have used 
(ar, OB, bb), and JGG. writes («b, wbb). But latterly I have 
fallen back on (an) accented, and (m^ unaccented, whether rightly 
or not I cannot Qnite make out. With this explanation, however, 
this sign will suffice, and it must be left to actual audition during 
a long period and with many speakers, for good phonetists to 
determine the best representative of the actual sound. I have not 
met with any instance in D 4 and 5 of the introduction of an (b) 
after a vowel which was not justified by the orthography, but in 
D 10 and 11 there seem to be some cases, there to be noted. 

With regard to the complete series of sounds (t n ir b l), etc., it 
was only on the close of a second revision of his wl. taken from his 
stepmother, that JGG. (all^ough he had been familiar with Wl. 
dialect from childhood) recognised that they invariably took the 
place in her pronunciation of the usual (t d n r 1), etc., just as 
these in English and in the pron. of continental languages by 
Englishmen invariably replace the continental (^t ^d ^n ^r J), etc. 
For mvself I had not observed it, although it seems to me most 
probable. In JGG.'s Chippenham wl. and spec, therefore the 
complete substitution is made, but as in those specimens which I 
took down from native speakers, I only detected (b), and the other 
letters when juxtaposed, and therefore as it seemed to me assimi- 
lated, I have thought it best to retain what I wrote from their 
diet., although I have now, in the course of many years, oome to 
the conclusion that my former appreciation was probably erroneous 
and ought to be amended in this direction throughout. And the 
same is probably the case for my (sh zh i^ dj), which in the S. 
div. should prob. be («h idi i| nj). The final (n) is frequently lost 

[ 1474 ] 

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D 4, Intbod.] the mid southern. 43 

alter (l, n). The ending of the present participle, modem -ing^ was 
ancient -ande^ hence the (-vn, -iv) now heard, really arises from 
the omission of (n) after (n), and not from the use of (n) for (q). 

(h). In D 4 and 5, as well as in almost all our dicdects, (h) is 
naturally omitted, but with no hiatus to indicate the speaker's 
knowledge that it is absent. My authorities difPer very much as 
to its presence. It seems decidedly used when (ban-) is employed 
for (Bh-); 

Ijbe other consonants haye no peculiarity. There is for example 
no use of (b n g) for (p t k), parallel to (v z) for (f s). 

VoweU, The following gives the principal characters of the 
vowels, for details see the various cwl. that follow. 

A- 18 often represented by (ie), reduced to (fa fv it*), and finally to {ii^ ii), as in 
name (idem iflom Mlmn vii^m mim), or else (i^9 Hee)9A (N^vm N^Bm N^m). The 
former prevails oyer the m. and n. part of the district, (ii) being especially preyalent 
in towns, e.g, in Gloooester, and (e«) in rural districts. 

A: yaries from (s) to (aS ah), but hardly reaches (a). 

A' is normally (6a), whence (6v, tia), bnt it yaiies. 

JEG and EG are normally (&f) not (a'i di)^ but this falls locaUy into (ee't s't bb), 
and sometimes into simple («0), and similarly for Fr. at. This (&$) sound is a very 
strong mark of the w. forms of S., but it is not peculiar to D 4. 

r, in contrast to this dear (it), has (a'i, oo't) or (di), which strangers hear as 
(o'f) and write oy. 

I eeneraUy hear as (o), bnt JGG. only hears it as (o^ . The latter sound, being 
the modem received form, is always ^yen me by people of education. But it is, 
I think, a modernism or misapj^reciation. 

0' is properly (uu), but occasionally (s^ and rarely (»), a sound of (s) with (aa) 
ronning through it which I have heard only from Mr. Law in the words £T : 
439 TRIM, 0' 667 ta>dhvR, 687 «da>'n, U 604 za>m«R, 627 za)ndi, T 673 ma)t|, 
U 804 Dsa>qk*n, •• 960 za)pp'B, and in no other words. JGG. has, however, 
quite recently observed what I suppose is the same sound. 

U is regularly (a), but there is a trace of M. (m) as far s. as Purton (4 nw. 
Swindon, Wl.), see s. aSihn line 2, p. 16. 

XJ' is regularly (a'M, qo'm) not (&tf, du). 

In gramfnatiedl eonstruetum, that which strikes a stranger most is 
/ he for / am^ the prefix («) before the past participle, as (a'i;v 
ada'n) I)have a-done ; and the periphrastic form I do go for the 
simple Igo^ together with the curious use of the nominative for the 
objective case, and sometimes the converse. Eemarkable survivals 
are first («nj for hine, the true ace. of he, for which the dative 
him is substituted in rec. sp. This («n) is very widely spread in 
the S. div., and is also used where it is said in received speech, on 
account of the general use of he applied to inanimate objects ; and 
secondly, in a small district of Sm. hereafter described as the Land 
of Uteh, the forms (at^ st^') for the personal pronoun I, which in 
old writers is the usual mark of our S. dialects. But these are 
forms which cannot be more than alluded to. For vocabulary, see 
the printed Glossaries, which, however, must generally be used 
with great caution. 

Varietiet. Over such an extensive tract of country there must 
necessarily be many slight varieties, some of which are mentioned 
in the preceding table of vowels. But I have not been able to 
mark out any sharply-defined varieties or subdistricts. I find it, 

[ H76 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


however, necessary to draw attention to six different yarieties or 
forms, which, on account of the importance of this district, I 
proceed to illustrate at considerable length. 

y i. The Middle or Wl., typical or standard form of D 4, of which three 
phases are giyen, Chnstian Malf ord, Chippenham, and Tilshead, all 
nrom yt. inrormation. 

y ii. The Northern or Gl. form. 

y iii. The North-Westem or e. He. form. 

y iY. The Sonth-Eastem or Do. form. 

y Y. The land of Utch, or region of the continued old nae of (s^ ct^ii') for 
the first personal pronoun. 

y Yi. The South- Western or Sm. form. 

Vab. i. The Middle or Typical Form in Wl. 

Phase I. ChrUtian Malford (11 nnw.Devizes), Wl. 

BeY. Arthur Law, son of the Rector, whose curate he became (he is now rector 
of Dauntsey, 4 nne. Christian Malfoid), was bom there and lived in constant 
communication with the peasantnr, entering heartily into their mode of si)eech, 
which he acquired with remarkable accuracy and fluency. He wrote a Yersion of 
my cs. in io. and kindly came to London on two occasions (in 1874 and 1878) on 
purpose to work it oYer with me yy. As this was the foundation of my knowledge 
of I) 4, 1 add the whole cs. as he rewrote it, with additions, to give it more of the 
character of a Wl. peasant's speech. And as it departs so much from the original 
in the Preliminary Matter, No. III. p. 7*, I add a slaYishly literal interlinear trans- 
lation. Some separate sentenoes written from his diet, are annexed with notes 
and a cwl. 

0. wa'f :djon 8b'«vz noK)B da'ut. 

why John has ne*er)a doubt. [The peasant would probably say,] 

z)dhii want d)ndi« wa't :djon bii zi zaasr^N ba'tft dhak)«B 
do6t)thou want to)knowwhy John be so certain about thick)e*er 

dh£q, waV dhsn v!%)\ tEl)i. 
thing, why then Til tell)ye. 

1^ wal, wot bf leeftn [IsEfm] vt '^% ybb, dhti gaiBT zt hz ? aa ! 
well, what be (you) laughing at I for, the great sillies P ah 

«)m«d) lae'af b^fisdh on)i, ff)i ma'in tii, «t)wat i'* dB)tEl)f. 
ye)mote s may) laugh both of)ye, if)ye mind to, at) what I do)tell)ye. 

Vt d^)9nt kfivr! t)Qvnt no odz t9 Vt, nv naa'bBd» Ma 
I do)n't care ! it)is)nt no odds to X, nor nobody else 

«z)ii^n£i«z on. 
as)I)lmow8 of. 

2. t)wli)OTit kil)ti toep bin [kwz] «)dti) lee'rf aBt)«n, a'i) 
it)will)not kill)a chap being [because] ye)do) laugh at)him, I) 

dB)lot)'n) ! t){)wit k'ikU. 
do)allot)him, it)i8)not likely. 

[ 1476 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


8. wat aV hi gw6m tB)TEl)i, «(wev»b, bi tbuu)bz ev«r a:'* 
what I be going to)tell)ye, howeTer, be trae)a8 erer I 

W9R b^«Bm>. dhBR [dlit'B] nafu I zb dpz ba'td kt^i'Bt, 
were born. there now ! so just bide quiet, 

«n 1st Vf Bp^esk. 
and let I speak. 

4. weI, a'f ha'fBBDjmn z^, «;wetbr, «n zam)« dlid* TaK» 
wel, I heard) tnem say, howerer, and eome)of they very 

Taak tti, Bz^zid^it yrem^dliti txb dhQBZ£L*yz, di)hdi' I 
folk too, a8)8ee'a)it from)the first theirselTes, igh-high! 

•dh8Bt^i)dfd TBU naf — 
that)I)<ud tnie enough — 

5. dli«tJdhB)jEqgt8t zan tzE'lf, B^gaBt bwoi B)iia'tii, n^ttd)fz 

that)the)youngest son his-self, a)great boy ol)nine, knowed)hi8 

TEBdhvBz yiiois vz)zxiuiid)BZ etve i)lia'fBBD)«n, dh&ti 
father's Tdce as)soon)a8 ever he)heard)him(sit), though 

[dha'tt] t)wBE zb) kom'»k«l) la'tk. laa blEs)!, t^wT5E)z 
it)were so) comical like. Lord ble88)ye, it)were)as 

BkwMld «n beese'^U vz) E'v'E)kvd)bf, bat *ii nAiid)'n, 
aqueak-y and bawl-y as) eTer)could)be, but he knowed)him(Bit), 

«n ii)'l speek dbE iBuuth aaE)ti d6e» (diii), a't)! waaEN)tii 
and he)'ll speak the truth e*er)a day, Fll) warrant)him 


6. «n dliVwl)d)wmOTi «ezeH, 'l)tEl Eni on)!, Bz)8TBfleVt 
and the)ola)woman herself will)tell any of)ye, a8)Btraight 

TOB«d vz Eni dh£q, a'ljl waaBND)Br, •f)'l 8BkB)vr. 
forward as any thing, I)*U warrant)her, if[you]'ll ask)her 

7. Usstwa'tz BE tEld •a'i wsn a'i aekstjBE tuu)BB)DEii ta'tmz 

leastways hertelled I when I a8ked)Qer two)or)three times 

BA'yvR, «E)di^', «n *zlm)d niUy tf 8eE)ini u'l, e'i dv)lot) 
orer, her)did, and '8he)would know, if e*er)one will, I do)allot) 

wr, wat d«)dliEqk)on)t, a«? 
her, what do|jou]think)oQit, eh? 

8. weI, tizVV)wTOi)B)zdrm [z©'f*m], «E)D)tElM ^^81)^1 
well, as)I)were)a)8aying, her)woula)tell)ye where)her 

y^tm dhtk)«E DEaxik'n btos ez)BE di)k8e8B'«l OE^Ezlmn. 
found thi9)ere drunken beast as)her do)call her)husband. 

C 1«7 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

46 THE MID 60UTHERN. [D4, Vi. 

9. diBld)*f)«K d»d)'iit tEl a'» «z «K)ziid)wi ^bzbII. "'dhBE^ 
clashea)if)her did)not tell I as lier)8ee*d)hixn herself. "-there) 

i)waK," BB)zBd, "led da'ua i)wBB wii)iz bss klaaz on, 
he) were/' her)8aidy <*laid down he) were with)hi8 best clothes on, 

«z ttpst vz evbe)« kBd)bii, «)kiidViit W8Bg »zE'lf noo ac'i*. 
as tipsy as eTer)he could)be, he)could)not wag his-self no how. 

v)wi3B^kla8 sp vgi-n dhs du«E)v)dliti v!us vt)d}d)kassvR 
he)were)clo86 np against the door)of)the house at)the)coimer 

B)dhi 1^^. 
o^the lane. 

10. B)w«B)B)b8B8B'lfh «n')Bj8ktr8B8B*ltll, blES)i, TBE)8Bl)dhi 

he)were)a)bawling ana)a)sqnalling, ble88)ye for)all)the 

waBL la'»k)ti z»k tja'il BB)B)k8Bt «)mi6uBt»n." wiW) 
world like)a sick child or)a)cat a)mewing.*' ana) her) 

fiekst tuu)BE)DEii on)Bm, be zEd, «z)waED)Birr vaE« vas 
asked two)or)tnree of)them, her said, a8)w6re)not yery far 

aaf, Bn "dhee Elpt a» vatW ^wn," BE)zBd, "«n dhii bEaat) 
off, and '* they helped I fetch)Dim home/* her)Baidy ''and they brought) 

vn 8b1 BdhBET)BBkM?t*nt vaBin«E :pa:'»ks vt*!," be zEd, **wbe 
him all athwart)a8quint farmer Pike's field," her said, " where 

a't dB)ba'»d, vn dhaE dhflJlhrfW." 
I do)bide, and there they)left)him." 

11. sen dhset [dbEk] wse, d)nEE'«? vz zbii)Bn^aE d8et*BE Iee 
and that [thic] were, do[you]know ? as she)and)ner daughter[in]law 

kamd m deuu dhi baek jUbd, waE)BE btn B)8BqtiL sfut 
come'd in through the back yard, where)her [had] been a)hanging out 

dhi klaaz t« HBaft, 
the clothes to dry. 

12. OTi)BE)wanted t« btra'il dhi kit'l vbe tee. "rt g»d a'» 8el) 
and)her) wanted to boil the kettle for tea. "it giye'd I all) 

bt)b TaBN," BE ZEd, "Bn mbd a'» ztrEt Bm^B's eel aavBE. 
of)a turn," her said, "and made I sweat almost all oyer." 

:b*l idjABiiz dhBE, B)Bd)B djtiwbtlas dbaat on)m, vbe)b 
Bill Jones there, he)had)a dubious thought of)him, for)he 

tEld a't ez)i)zidW Bba'wt vaVE Bklo'k tn dh)8Bt*Brn^Bn, 
telled I a8)he)8eed)him about four o'clock in the)aftemoon, 

[ H78 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




«nM)wBB mdin voK'adish dhEn. «(d waakt pBH-w nsi't zEb'm 
ana)he)were main forwardish then. he)d walked pretty nigh seven 

ma't'l «lo*q dhe Bliaad, «n)i)waB)Bz dafustiyBz bwr sni 
mile along the road, and)he)were)fis dasty)a8 ever any 

dlpq. vfi nsTOK zid noo ziiz dihsq vv^q-r." laa blEs)i ! 
thing. I never see'd no such thing afore.'* Lord blee8)ye 

t)w'R)9 wirok «g&B* kzm iiEks dhaRzdt, vn^Vya'm zsomsB, 
it)were)a week ago oome next Thursday, and)a)fine summer 

set«sn^9n tuu, t)wBR. 
afternoon too, it)were. 

13. an^t£l)i wat! 
ana)tell)ye what! 

^ob t»l t« deei. 
job till to-day 

x'i hewr ha'i'BRd noo in^9R)9)dhb8)tcR 

I never heard no more)of)thi8)here 

vn.ya)d{i)vnt kfvR wm^s dua br naa, 

ana)I)do)n't care whether)! do or no. 

aa'^Isk)« ! 

14. «ii^dli«R)a'« bi gtroiii itvm t9 bee)e btt « zs)p*p'R, zi3)giid 
ana)there)I bi going home to have)a bit of supper, so)good 

na'tt, «n)du)Bn)i bii zn kwilL t« l8B'Bf)Bt)B l^p Bgfen* 
night, and)do)not)ye be so quick to laugh)at)a chap again, 

WEii)B)dQ tEl)i)v En» dhsq. 
when)he)do tell)ye)of any thing. 

16. 'Bn)db8et)s 8b1 a't got t«)zai tw)t. giid Wi. 
and)that)iB all I [have] got to)8ay to)it, good b'ye. 

Xote$. The figures refer to the paragraphs of the above cs. 
Perhaps thoughout (t d ^ d^ n 1) thould have been (t d t|, d|, n l). 

2. Beinff (btn) for bteaute is used by 
older people. 

4 and 13. Heard, this is the form 
used bv older people, see D 1, cwl. 301, 
^*BpD) is the result of education. The 
(h) IS heard only when the word is 
emphatic, and is gentle even then. 

6. Baxoly, cats are said to (bse® «1) 

6. in (s'tfljd)i«m*Bn) old woman the d 
separates from the (Ij and is made part 
of the next word ; (a) is dropped in (bb 
bi wnt, s'mI) she be very old. 

7. She, Observe emphatic (-zhii); 
compare ('zhii 8evz)*n) *she has}him with 
(yBJzJ 'goQ'n) she's 'got him. — Know. 
This nas its regular form, but the final 
(tf) is dropped in (Vt du'n naa, *a'f naa 
na'tft Bba'f«*t)it] I don't know, I know 
nought about it, and even the (a) is 
changed inpar. 11 (d)nBB?)<^(yoM)^fu>t^. 

10. Athwart, by itself, means across 
a field at right angles to its sides, 
fBdhBBT Bskirint) athwart asquint, is 
oiagonallv, from one comer straight to 
the next out one. 

[ 1*79 ] 

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[D if Iktbod. 

It will be neoeasarily impossible to ave all the information receiTed from so 
many places. My best help has come &om Christian Malford, Chippenham, and 
Tilsh^id, and as n. Wl. seems the most typical form of D 4 = w.MS., Isnall examine 
this part of the district at great length. The nse of these numerous sources of 
information is necessarily to shew the continued preyalence or the change of any 
form of speech. Indeed without this large body of eyidenoe, it would haye been 
totally impossible to ma]^ out the district eyen roughly with any degree of acciuracy. 
Hence my inyestigation is greatly indebted to those who haye furnished some clue 
to the preyalent speech sounds, eyen when it manifestly became impossible to giye 
their communicationB at length. 


Consonants (f t, s z). The conspicuous feature of D 4, which 
most strikes the visitor from any other part of England, is the use 
of (v, z) initial in place of (f, s). But undoubtedly for Ws. words 
(v, z) were the original forms, just as to this day (z) initial is the 
received form in Dutch where % is written, and High German 
where f is written in German. In both, however, the pron. when 
no vowel or voiced consonant precedes is (sz-), thus High German 
sie sehen is (szi zee-mi) they see. The (f, s) are later developments, 
md seem to have been introduced by the Normans, for as a general 
rule, to which even at this late period there are very few excep- 
tions, and those chiefly in words familiar to particular districts, 
" "Ws. words have (v, z), and Romance have (f, s)." This custom 
once prevailed over the whole s. of England from Ke. to Dv. It 
has idtogether disappeared in Ke. and Ss., and has almost dis* 
appeared in Ha. and Be. But it is rarely lost in D 4, and in D 10, 
12. In order to test the prevalence of the rule just given, I 
examined all the words in question in Dan MichePs Ayenhite, which 
is in Kentish of the xivth centuiy, and the words in Mr. Elworthy's 
lists attached to his Dialect of JTest Somersetshire^ and then I sent 
lists of most of them to Rev. W. Barnes for Do., and Bev. A. Law 
for Wl., requesting them to mark the words for (f v, s z, sh zh, th 
db), etc. The result is given in the following table, where the 
words in usual spelling are arranged in alphabetical order under 
appropriate headings, and against each word is written the sound 
of the letter used, /, c;, «, s, etc., or vfy %s, when sometimes one 
letter and sometimes the other is heard, adding M for Dan Michel 
for Ke. in nvth century, D for Do., W for Wl., and S. for w.Sm., 
in the order from e. to w. An * points out Fr. or Bomanoe words. 


•fable/ DS 


♦facia/ 8 


♦factory /DS 




fain adj. /S 

♦faint /S 

fair adj. /DWS, 



♦faith/ 8 

faU yb. V MDWS 


fallow V DWS 

♦false/DS, i>M, r/W 


♦family/ DS 

♦famish/ D 

fan t; MS 

far 9 MDWS 

fare/ DWS, t> M 


♦farmer/ DS, o W 

♦farrier /DS 

[ 1470 ] 

farrow v WDS 

farther v S 

farthing v MDWS 

♦fashion /S 

fast yb. adj. v M 

fast adj. aay. v S 


fat (yat) sb. v M 


♦fate/ DWS 

father/ D, i?MW,r/S 

fathom V S 

♦faucet/ S 

♦fanlt/DS, i>W 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

I> i, Introd.] 


•favour/ MS 


♦fawning « S 

fear/D, vW, v/S 

fearless v S 

♦feast/ MDS, vfW 

feather v MS 

♦feature/ 8 




♦feeble/ MDW8 


feel 9 MS 

feet fr MS 

♦feign vb./8 


fell sb. V M 

fell (in sewing) v 8 

felloe V DS 

fellow /DS, cMW 

♦felon/ MS 

felt cDW, v/S 

♦female/ S 

fennel v S 


♦ferment/ S 

fern v S 

♦ferret/ DS,i?W 


fenuef S 

♦fervent /M 

fester/D, * M, f/S 

fetch V DWS 

fetters 9 M 

feUock V S 

♦fever/MDS, ir/W 

few p MDWS 

fiddle frMDW, v/S 

fidget /S 

field p MDWS 

fieldfare 9 S 

fiend V M 



♦fig/DW, v/8 

fight rMW,/D, v/S 



fill V MDWS 

filmv S 

fllth/DS, vM,v/W 
fin vS 
goldfinch V S 
find V MDWS 
♦fine/DS, vW. 
♦finger v MDWS 

fire V MDWS 

firldn, vS 


first vMDW, r/S 

fish vMDW, v/S 

fist V DWS 


fitch (polecat) /S 

five V MDWS 



flagon, V S 

♦flail V DWS 

♦flame/ S 

flanffe V S 

flank vS 

flannel/D, v W, v/S 




flatter v/M 



flayed v M 


♦fleam/ S 


fledged vS 

fleece v DWS 

flesh V MDWS 
fling/ D, V W, v/S 
flint V MS 

♦flippant (elastic) /S 
flitch vS 
flock V DWS 
flood V MS 
floor V DWS 
flow V S 

♦flower /MDW 

♦fluent (said of ouicklT 
running water only) /S 
flush V 8 
flute/ 8 
flutter V 8 

fly vb., sb. V MDWS 
foal V DWS 
foam V 8 
f oe V M 
fold V DWS 
folk V MS 
follow V M 
♦foolish/ M 

[ 1*71 ] 

foot V MDWS 
for V MDWS 
♦forage/ 8 
forbear v MS 
forbid V MS 
force/DS, v/W 
ford V DS, v/W 
fore V 8 
forehead v 8 
♦foreign/DS, v W 
♦foreS/DS, vW 
forgive v MS 
♦fonre/D, vW, v/S 
fork V DWS 
forlorn v M 
♦form (bench)/ 8 
forsake v MS 
forsooth V M 
forswear v M 
forth V M 
forth V DWS 
fortnight v 8 
♦f ortimate v 8 
fortune/ 8 
forty V MDW, v/S 
forward v WS 
foul/D, vM 
found V MDWS 
♦foundation/ 8 
♦fountain/ 8 
four V MDWS 
f ourf oot V 8 
fourth V M 
fowl V MDWS 
foxvMW,/D, v/8 
♦fraction/ 8 
frame/ 8 

free v MDWS 
freedom V M 
freehold v 8 
freese V 8 
♦frequent/ 8 
freeh/D, V WS 
fret/W, v/S 
Friday v DWS 
friend v MDWS 
fright V 8 
♦fringe v/S 
frog/D, V WS 
frofick V 8 
from V MDW^S 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



[D 4, Inteod. 

•front/ 8 
frort V MDW8 
froth vDWS 


•fuller 8b. / 8, rM 
fumble/ D, I? W,tfS 
•funeral/ D 
•furbish v 8 
furlong* r 8 
furlough V 8 
furrow V DW8 
further r 8 
furze 9 DW8 
•fuBty/DS, 1^ W 
•physic /M 
•physician /M 


(o means not pronounced.) 

•baiHff o8 
calf /:DW, V 8 
half/DW, r8 
•handkercMef o 8 
herself 8 
himself 8 
leaf/DW, i>8 
life/DW, 1^ 8 
loaf/DW, f>8 
•plamtiil 8 
roof/DW, 9 8 
rfieaf/DW, i?8 
turf (terv) 8 
wife/DW, * 8 

6H Fekal. 

cough/ 8 
dough (occ.) / 8 
enough o 8 
plough 8 
slough o/8 
though/ 8 
through 8 
tough/ 8 
trough 8 

8 Inttiax. 

(sbs, S, before a /mnoM 
except as below.) 

•sabbath t D 
sack e DW8 
•sacrament s D 

sad fl MWS, § D 

saddle e DW8 

•safe « M, « W 

•sage » D a W8 

said « MDW8 


sailor 9D,m W8 

•saint M M 

sale 8 DW8 

sallows 8 

salt « MDW8 


Bap« MS 


Saturday g UDWB 

•sare « M 

I saw s DS 

a saws 8 


scrape « D 

sea • D, s M 

sedge «DW8 

see £ MDWS 

seed sb. < MS 


seem • D, s W8 

•segments 8 

self* MDW8 

sell f MDW8 


•sentence t M 

•sergeant «M 

•bermon« M 

•servant « D 


•sessions « D 

set « MDW8 


seren s MDWS 

sew vb. g DWS 

sick g MDWS 

side g MDWS 

sieve g DWS 

sifts DWS 

sigh « D, s WS 

sights M 

silver s MDWS 

•simple t M 

sins M 

since « D, s WS 

sinews 8 

sing s MDWS 

•single f MD, s WS 

sinks DWS 

sip s D, s WS 

•ur « D, s 8 

sister « D, s MWS 

sits 8 

•sites 8 

six s MDWS 

•sire i DWS 

[ 1472 3 

sketch « D, s 8 Rzki^) 

almost two syllablias] 
skill s D 
slack «M 
slays M 
sleeps M 
small i M 
smell s M 
smith s M 
snows M 
sobs M 
•sobers M 
some s DMW 
sons D 
sooths M 
sorrow s M 
•sort #8 
souffht s M 
souls M 
sours M 
souths M 
•sovereign s W 
sow vb. s M 
sparrow s M 
springs D 
•subfle s M 
sucks M 
•suffer s MD 
•sugar sA 8 
sul (plough) s M 
summers MW 
suns MD 
Sunday s M 
•sup s M 
•supper s W 
•sure sA W, sA 8 
•sustain sM 
swallow s M 
swears M 
sweat sMW 
sweep sM 
sweet sM 
swine s M 
sword s M 

SH Initial. 
share (part) sA DW 
share (of a ^ongh) sA sA 8 
shave sA D W , sA s A S 
shesA W 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D i, Intbod.] 



sheaf th J>,MhWf£h9h& 
shear sh B,thW,»hihS 
shepherd zh W 
shoot «AW 
should sAW 
shred tA D, sA WS 
shrew sA S 
shriek <A D, sA S 
shrimp «A D, cA S 
shrink <A D, sA S 
shriyel «A D, sA S 
shroud «A D, sA W 
shroTe thJ),thW 
shrub tA D, sA WS 
shrugs S 

TH Initzal. 

thatch i>S 

thick M S as distrngmshed 

from (dhik) this 
thief MS 
thioM S 
thing <MW 
thirrtyrfA W 
thistle <fS 

though (dh6fi) dh W, 

thr- dr WS, not M who 

has ^. 
th- <M S except in the 

above cases 

TH Fdtal. 

sheath/ S 


•value / S (fali) [common] 

•variety© if 

•veal dh 8 (dhi'vl) [some- 

•venial v M 

•venom v H 


•vestments v M 

•vetches dh S (dha^) 

•vice V M 

•victuals / S (fnt'lz) 


•village/ S (fu'lidj) [com- 
•villain v M 
•vouch dh S (common) 

V Final. 

(o means omitted.) 

above o S (tibuu*) 
cleave (klBf)/S 
curve b 8 

S'veo 8 
tveo 8 

heave/ 8 

leave/ 8 

lieve/o 8 

•serve (earn wages) o 8 

themselves o 8 

valve (valb) 6 8 

-ive 8 [ s= ^i, if) never (iv) 
common in: expensive 
abusive native laxative 
active destructive de- 

(e). The most important cliaracter of the S. dial., the reverted 
or retracted (s, r^), is, as has been mentioned, not confined to this 
district, but spreads more or less strongly over the whole S. div. 
Its nature was explained supii, p. 23, together with the way in 
which it afPects a subsequent t, dj r, /, n, which were probably 
originally reverted. But I think, although I have not been able to 
venfy the conjecture, except by private trial, that it also affects (sh, 
zh ; til, dh), converting them into («h, sh ; xh, nh). In tius case («h, 
«h) would be spoken with the tongue quite turned back, a true 
" cerebral" (sh, zh), and in (xh, nh) the under part of the tongue 
tip would be brought against the teeth. The («h, «h^ would occur 
in the diphthongs (xj, nj), or (x«h, D«h), in place of the ordinary 
(tj, dj). These forms would probably arise from the convenience 
of the tongue remaining in its reverted condition. The most 
doubtful are (xh, nh), because we do not find thr- initial, that is, 
(nliE-), but the easier dr- (de-). The (ij, dj) are however almost 
necessary in such combinations as hurchard (haBipED) for Richard 
and orchard, and hurdle (baEDjh), bridge. Ajid in the same way it 
would be easier to say (asxh, wafinht) earth, worthy, than (asth, 
wzEdhf ), the last word usually omits the (e). In process of 
time, however, especially as the dialect advances eastwards, the 
actual reversion ceases, and the effect is pretty well produced 
by retracting the tongue, and arching its back so as to allow 
a hollow to exist behind the raised tip and the raised back of the 
tongue. Towards the w. and n. of the district there seems to my 
ear to be no such retractive tendency. JGG., however, regards re- 
traction as the typical formation. In the E. div. we shall find (truu, 
tnsd) through, thread, which probably point to an original but 

[ 1473 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

42 THE MID S0X7THBBN. [D 4, Iktbod. 

now lost (TBhno, tbIisd). This retraction accompanied with 
hollowing is farther refined by omitting the hollowing, so that we 
have merely a raised tip of the tongue, producing the coronal 
English (t d r 1 n), etc., which are so distinct from the continental 
(t ^d r 1 ^n) that they must evidently have had a different genesis. 
We shall meet with (^t) before ( r) in the M. and N. div. Now the 
English coronal form was the only one acknowledged by Mr. Gupta 
(Part rV. 1096 b', 1187 c') for Indian pronunciation of the Sanscrit 
cerebrals, so that the same refining system has gone on in both 
countries, but in our own dialects we have all the stages (b r^ r, t 
t^ t) now coexistent. This (b) is constantly flated when initial, and 
often transposed with an (h) prefixed, as (haBd| Iuebn), red, run, 
from (bIied, BhaN). 

Another veiy important character of this (b) is its amalgamation 
with a precedmg vowel. In fact, it seems to give a new series of 
vowels (a A a^ Ak), etc., and even (ii^ eeg, rm^). With regard to the 
first, it was a great difficulty with me how I was to represent such 
words as h^, bum, and for some time I thought that they had 
merely vocal ('Bq), thus (h'B^ b^B^n), but I latterly came to the 
conclusion that l^ere was a preceding vowel followed by an amalga- 
mation of the vowel with a+Ss (^)- What that vowel really was, 
however, I found so difficult to oetermine, that I finally adopted 
different hypotheses as I heard different speakers. I have used 
far, OB, «b), and JGG. writes (»b, bbb). But latterly I have 
udlen back on (an) accented, and (m^ unaccented, whether rightly 
or not I cannot Quite make out. With this explanation, however, 
this sign will suffice, and it must be left to actual audition during 
a long period and with many speakers, for good phonetists to 
determine the best representative of the actual sound. I have not 
met with any instance in D 4 and 5 of the introduction of an (b) 
after a vowel which was not justified by the orthography, but in 
D 10 and 1 1 there seem to be some cases, there to be noted. 

With regard to the complete series of sounds (t n k b l), etc., it 
was only on the close of a second revision of his wl. taken from his 
stepmother, that JGG. (although he had been familiar with Wl. 
dialect from childhood) recognised that they invariably took the 
place in her pronunciation of the usual (t d n r 1), etc., just as 
these in English and in the pron. of continental languages by 
Englishmen invariably replace the continental (^t ^d ji ^r J), etc. 
For myself I had not observed it, although it seems to me most 
probable. In JGG.'s Chippenham wl. and spec, therefore the 
complete substitution is made, but as in those specimens which I 
took down from native speakers, I only detected (b), and the other 
letters when juxtaposed, and therefore as it seemed to me assimi- 
lated, I have thought it best to retain what I wrote from their 
diet., although I have now, in the course of many years, oome to 
the conclusion that my former appreciation was probably erroneous 
and ought to be amended in this direction throughout. And the 
same is probably the case for my (sh zh ii di), which in the S. 
div. should prob. be («h idi i| nj). The final (d) is frequently lost 

[ 1474 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D 4, Intbod.] the mid southern. 43 

after (l, n). The ending of the present participle, modem -in^, was 
ancient -ande, hence the (-vn, -im) now heard, reaUy arises from 
the omission of (d) after (n), and not from the use of (s) for (q). 

(h). In D 4 and 5, as well as in almost all our dialects, (h) is 
naturally omitted, hut with no hiatus to indicate the specter's 
knowledge that it is ahsent. My authorities difPer very much as 
to its presence. It seems decidedly used when (han-) is employed 
for (Bh-).* 

lie other consonants have no peculiarity. There is for example 
no use of (b n g) for (p t k), parallel to (v z^ for (f s). 

VoweU, The following gives the principal characters of the 
vowels, for details see the various cwl. that follow. 

A- 18 often represented by (fe), rednced to ffa iv it*), and finally to (tt* ii), as in 
name (idem Mlom Mlmn vit^m mim), or else (^e Hee)9B (N^mn vivm N^m) . The 
former prevails over the m. and n. part of the district, (ii) being especially prevalent 
in towns, e,g, in Gloucester, and (6b^ in rural diBtriots. 

A: varies from (sb) to (a\ ah), but hardly reaches (a). 

A' is normally (6a), whence (6v, tia), but it varies. 

^6 and EG are normallv (&«) not (ki di\ but this falls locaUy into (se't s't bb), 
and sometimes into simple (ee), and similarly for Fr. at. This (&i) sound is a very 
strong mark of the w. forms of S., but it is not peculiar to D 4. 

r, in contrast to this clear (it), has (s't, oo'i) or (di)^ which strangers hear as 
(o'i) and write oy. 

I eeneraUy hear as (o) , but JGG. only hears it as (o^ . The latter sound, being 
the modem received form, is always ^ven me by people of education. But it is, 
I tiiink, a modernism or misap^reciation. 

0' is properly (uu), but occasionally (s] and rarely (a>), a sound of (s) with (aa) 
running through it which I have heard only from Mr. Law in the words £T : 
439 TBss, 0' 667 ta>dhvR, 587 «da>-n, U 604 za)mtiB, 627 za)ndi, T 673 ma>t^ 
U 804 Dsa>qk'n, •• 960 za)pp'a, and in no other words. JGG. has, however, 
quite recently observed what I suppose is the same sound. 

U is reff^urly (a), but there is a trace of M. (u) as far s. as Furton (4 nw. 
Swindon, Wl.), see s. aSihn line 2, p. 16. 

XJ' is regularly (s^m, a>'f«) not (fct«, du). 

In gramnustiedl eonstruetum, that which strikes a stranger most is 
/ he for / am, the prefix («) before the past participle, as (a'i;v 
ada'n) I)have a-done ; and the periphrastic form I do go for the 
simple I go, together with the curious use of the nominative for the 
objective case, and sometimes the converse. Eemarkahle survivals 
are first (vn^ for hine, the true ace. of he, for which the dative 
him is substituted in rec. sp. This («n) is very widely spread in 
the S. div., and is also used where it is said in received speech, on 
account of the general use of he applied to inanimate objects ; and 
secondly, in a small district of Sm. hereafter described as the Land 
of Uteh, the forms (atg:, Et^') for the personal pronoun I, which in 
old writers is the usual mark of our S. dialects. But these are 
forms which cannot be more than alluded to. For vocabulary, see 
the printed Glossaries, which, however, must generally be used 
with great caution. 

Varietiee, Over such an extensive tract of country there must 
necessarily be many slight varieties, some of which are mentioned 
in the preceding table of vowels. But I have not been able to 
mark out any sharply-defined varieties or subdistricts. I find it, 

[ 1*76 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


however, necessary to draw attention to six different yarieties or 
forms, which, on account of the importance of this district, I 
proceed to illustrate at considerable length. 

y i. The Middle or Wl., typ^l or standard form of D 4, of which three 
phases are given, Chnstian Malford, Chippenham, and TUshead, all 
from YT. infirmation. 

V ii. The Northern or 01. form. 

y iii. The North-Western or e. He. form. 

y iy. The South-Eastem or Do. form. 

y Y. The land of XJtch, or region of the continued old use of (s^ ct^ii') for 
the first personal pronoun. 

y Ti. The South-Westem or Sm. form. 

Vak. i. The Middle or Typical Form in Wl. 

Phase I. ChrUUan Malfard (11 nnw.Devizes), Wl. 

Bey. Arthur Law, son of the Rector, whose cwate he became (he is now rector 
of Dauntsey, 4 nne. Christian Malfoid), was bom there and liyed in constant 
communication with the peasantnr, entering heartily into their mode of speech, 
which he acquired with remarkable accuracy and fluency. He wrote a yerdon of 
my cs. in io. and kindly came to London on two occasions (in 1874 and 1878) on 
purpose to work it oyer with me yy. As this was the foundation of my knowledge 
of I) 4, 1 add the whole cs. as he rewrote it, with additions, to giye it more of the 
character of a Wl. peasant's speech. And as it departs so much from the original 
in the Preliminary Matter, No. III. p. 7*, I add a slayishly literal interlinear trans- 
lation. Some separate sentences written fnmi his diet, are annexed with notes 
and a cwl. 

0. wa'f :d^on ee'vvz noB)« da'ut. 

why John has ne'er)a doubt. [The peasant would probably say,] 

z)dhii want d)ndi« wa't :djon bii zi zaaBr'N ba^ut dhak)«s 
do6t)thou want to)knowwhy J(^ be so certain about thick)e*er 

dh£q, waV dhsn a'«)l tEl)i. 
thing, why then I'll tell)ye. 

1. wal, wot hi leeftn [lEEfm] Bt '^i v«b, dhti gaET zthz ? aa ! 
weU, what be (you) laughing at I for, the great sillies P ah 

B)m«d) lae'af bAfisdh on)i, ff)i ma'm tii, «t)wat a't dB)tEl)f. 
ye)mote s may) laugh both of)ye, if)ye mind to, at)what I do)teU)ye. 

is!% dtt)Bnt kfivr! t)()Bnt no odz t« Vt, nB naa'bvdt IbIs 
I do)n't care ! it)is)nt no odds to X, nor nobody else 

Bz)B^n£tiz on. 
as)I)Knows of. 

2. i)w(x)mt kil)B toep bin [k^^z] B)d«) leB'rf aBt)Bn, a'i) 

it) will) not kill)a chap being [because] ye)do) laugh aQhim, I) 

dB)lot)'n) ! t)()Bnt k'ikU. 
do)allot)him, it)i8)not likely. 

[ 1476 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

B 4, T i.] THE MID SOUTHEBN. 45 

8. wat aV hi gwdin t«)TEl)i, b(wevbb, bi truu)«z etbb I't 
what I be going to)tell)ye, howeyer, be trae)a8 ever I 

WBB b£a«Bin>. dhvR [dht's] na'u ! zv d|Bz bs'td ku^rvt, 
were bom. there now! so just bide quiet, 

VR \st 'nH gp^evk. 
and let I speak. 

4. weI, a't ha^toBS^OTi zdi, b;wbvbe, wi zam)« dhfit yhb* 
wel, I heard) tnem say, however, and Bome)of they very 

raak ttf, «z^zid)ft yrem^dliB ysa dhvBZEL'YZ, di)bdi* ! 
folk too, as)8ee'd)it from)the first theirselyes, igh-high! 

•dbaet^Mtd tbu naf — 
that)I)<ud tme enough — 

5. dbvt^db«)jEqgitst zan fZB'lf, v^gHEt bu^oi v)iia'tii, ndud)iz 

that)the)younge6t son his-self, a)great boy of)nine, knowed)hi8 

TEEdbvEz viiois Bz)zuund)oz evi3e i)ba'rBED)Bn, dbdt« 
father*s Toice as)soon)a8 ever he)heard)him(ait), though 

[dba'w] t)w«E tb) kom-fk«l) la'ik. laa blE8)i, t)w«E)z 
it)were so) comical like. Lord ble6s)ye, it)were)a8 

sktTMki «n bseffi'vli bz) BVE)k«d)bi, bat 'ii ii&tid)'ii, 
squeak-y and bawl-y as) eTer)oould)be, but he knowed)him(Bit), 

tm ii)'l speek dbB XEUutb aafi)B d6e« (di»), a'i)! waaBN)m 
and he)*U speak the truth e*er)a day, 1*11) warrant)him 


6. «n dbVul)d)wiiiOTi bezeH, 'l)tBl Eni on)!, Bz)8TE8B'tt 
and tne)ola)woman herself will)tell any of)ye, asjstraight 

TOE«d «z Eni dbEq, a'*)l waaBND)OT, tf)'l 8Bk8)Br. 
forward as any thing, I)*U warrant)her, if[you]'ll ask)her 

7. Itestwa'fz BE tEld •a'i weh a'i aekstjwi tuu)«E)DEii ta'tmz 

leastways her tolled I when I a8ked)her two)or)three times 

aa'VBB, «E)diBd% tm 'zbii)d niu^ ii 8eB)«n u'l, e'i d«)lot) 
orer, her)did, and *she)would know, if e*er)one wiU, I do)allot) 

vr, wat d«)dhsqk)onH, a»? 
her, what do[jrou]think)oi)it, eh? 

8. weI, BzVf )wBE)«)zdrm [zse'rm], BE)D)tBl^i wBr)BB 
well, as)I)were)a)8aying, her)woula)tell)ye where) her 

Ta'im dbf k)«B SBaxik'n btos ez)«B di)k8e8e'«l BE)Ezbtni. 
found this)ere dnuuLen beast as)her do)call her) husband. 

[ 1«7 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

46 THE MID 60UTHEKN. [D 4, V i. 

9. d8eld)tf)BB d»d)'nt tEl a'* «z VR)ziid)vD. bezeH. "'dh^Bj 
da8hea)if)her did)iiot tell I as her)8ee*d)hiin herself. '< 'there) 

i)w5[K," BE)zBd, "lEd ds'im i)w«B wuSiz bEs klaaz on, 
he)were/' herjsaid, <4aid down he) were withjhis best clothes on, 

«z tips* Bz ev«b)« kBd)bii, B)kfidynt waeg fZE'lf noo a'n. 
as tipsy as eTer)he coula)be, he)coula)not wag his-self no how. 

v)wi3B)klas ap vgtii db« du«B)B)dbB ^us 9t)dlii)kaBirBB 
he)were)cloee up against the door)of)the house at)the)comer 

«)dlii Ifvn. 
oQthe lane. 

10. B)wBE)B)b8e8B'lni m)v)Bkw2BSQ'lin, blEs)!, rBB)8Bl)dlii 
he)were)a)bawling ana)a)8qualling, bles8)ye for)aU)the 

waBL la'*k)B z*k te'il «E)B)k8et «^midn«t*ii." wiW) 
world like)a sick child or)a)cat a}mewing.*' ana)her) 

fiekst tuu)BB)DBii on)OTn, «b zEd, «z)waBD)B5T vaB» vaB 
asked two)or)three of)them, her said, aB)were)not very far 

aal, vn '^dbee Elpt aV votW ^Bm," 9B)zEd, '^im dhdt bBaat) 
off, and ** they helped I fetch) aim home," her)said, ** and they brought) 

vn ael BdbBBT)«8kM^''nt vaBmBB rpa'iks vt*!," bb zBd, "wbb 
him all athwart)asquint farmer Pike's field," her said, << where 

a'* dB)ba'»d, vn dbaB dbB)lhf)Bn." 
I do)bide, and there they)left)him." 

11. sen dbset [dbEk] was, d)nEE'v? vz zbii)«iiW deet'OB Iee 
and that [thic] were, do[you]know P as she)and)ner daughter[in]law 

kamd m seuu dbi bsek jI^bd, waB)vB bin Q)8eqm ^ut 
come*d in through the back yard, where)h6r [had] been a)hanging out 

dhi klaaz t« "DBafi. 
the clothes to dry. 

12. «n)OTi)wanted tB btra'tl dbi ktt'l tbb tee. "»t g»d a't ael) 
an(l)her) wanted to boil the kettle for tea. '^it giye*d I all) 

«v)b TaBN," BB ZEd, "Bn mbd a'* ztrEt wnA^-s ael aaroB. 
of)a turn," her said, "and made I sweat almost all orer." 

:b«l idjiitmz db^B, «)«d)B djwtt'btloB dbaat on)tn, t«b)« 
Bill Jones there, he)had)a dubious thought of)him, for)he 

tEld a'* ez)i)zid)tm Bba'wt vaVB Bklo'k *n db)8et"BmABn, 
telled I as}he)8ee*d)him about four o'clock in the)aftemoon, 

[ H78 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


onM)TrBB m&in TOB'adtsli dhsn. v(d waakt p«BT«' nafi zEb'm 
aiid)he)were main forwardiah then. he)d walked pretty nigh seven 

ma'*'l Blo-q dhe Bhaad, Bn)i)waK)BZ da'usdysz bv«r Eni 
mile along the road, and)he)were)a8 du8ty}as ever any 

dhsq. I't nsTBB zid noo zit^ dhsq «vAb-h." laa blEs)! ! 
thing. I neyer seeM no such thing afore.*' Lord ble68)ye 

t)w'B)B wirek vg^Q* ksm n£ks dhscazdi, vn^)'^!!! za)m'BR 
it)were)a week ago come next Thursday, ana)a)fine sununer 

{etBsn^tm tuu, t)w«B. 
afternoon too, it} were. 

13. aii)t£l)i wat! a'i ubwr ha'iBBd noo in^«B)«)dliSB8)2CR 
and)tell)ye what! I never heard no more)of)thiB)here 

^ob ttl tts deei. vn')B)d^)Bnt kfvB wxb)« duu vb naa, 
job till to-day and)I)do)n*t care whether)! do or no, 

aa'Jlak)* ! 

14. «n^dhBB)2['» bi gt^om {t^am tB bee)« bit « zap'p's, zt?)giid 
ana) there) I bi going home to haTe)a bit of supper, so)^M}d 

nac'it, «n)da)«ii)i bii zb 'ktvt'k tv l8B'tif)Bt)« tisep sghsn* 
night, and)do)not)ye be so quick to laugh)at)a chap again, 

WEii)B)d« tEl)i)B snt dbsq. 
when)he)do tell)ye)of any thing. 

15. vn)dh8et)8 sel s't got tt3)z^ tu)t, gild hsfi, 
and)that)i8 all I [have] got to)8ay to)it, good b*ye. 

Notes, The figures refer to the paragraphs of the above cs. 
%* Perhaps thoughout (t d tj d| n 1) thould have been (t d t;, dj, n l). 

2. Beinff (bin) for because is used by 7. She, Observe emphatic (*zhii) ; 

older people. compare ( 'zhii sbvz) ' n) 'she ha8)hiin with 

4 and 13. Heard, this is the form (iBR)zVgot)*n) she's *got him. — Know. 

used bv older people, see D 1, owl. 301, This nas its regular form, but the final 

rii'R^) is the result of education. The {u) is dropped in (Vi du'n naa, *H'i naa 

(h) IS heard only when the word is na'wt iiba'w*t)tt) I don't know, I know 

emphatic, and is gentie even then. nought about it, and even the (a) is 

5. JBatply, cats are said to (bsese vi) changedinpar. 11 (d)xiSE?)do{ifou)know. 
in n.Wl. 10. Athwart, by itself, means across 

6. in (a'Mljd)iim*vn) old woman the d a field at right aneles to its sides, 
separates from the fl) and is made part (tsdhtsRT vsktrint) athwart asquint, is 
of the next word ; (a) is dropped in («b oiagonallv, from one comer straight to 
bi VB&t, s'mI) she be very old, the next out one. 

[ 1479 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

48 THE MID S0X7THBRN. [D4, Ti. 

Phrases and sentences originally heard from peasants, and dictated 
by Bey. A. Law. 

1. (ma'i hsd hM, la'tk* DBs'ish'lz ^)gw&in\ my head beat like 

flails a-going. 

2. (dt«)'nt)i dbuut ta'fiBBDz dh« hac'uz'n), don't ye shoot towards 

the houses. 
8. (tts hee)B btt on)t), to have a bit of )it. 

4. (i)w'B «)1i8Dmptn it 'a'i), he was chaffing at me. 

5. (i dtd DBscu %z hEd bsek tm kwk'ld), he did throw his head back 

and gargled. 

6. (bl£s)tm ! ft)8 o hasd mset'B tB ksm aq)za'tdz w»)«n), bless 

him ! it's a hard matter to come upsides [right way up] 
with him. 

7. (i)z nee'tH ka'til), he's naturally cold. 

8. (« peen x'i hsed «dhx*B'T dhv smBz), a pain I had across the 


9. (a'i)l tEl)i ^u « WBZ saaBD), I'll tell'jye how I was served. 

10. (i)z got tv TodBB dhv bbs), he has to fodder the beasts [homed 


11. (dhBB)z)B psBs'l)^ lit'l odztz), there's a parcel of little odds 

and ends. 

12. ('zhii hsBYz v TBBt gi^d)Bn), she has a very good one. 

13. (go so'ltd, x'fl mlBk injkWtree'sh'n), go quickly, I'll make 


14. (i)z TBBf baed na'i'tmnz), he's very bad night-times. 

15. (<Ui8et)8 th« ma'm on)Bm), that's the mind [intention, bent of 

mind] of them. 

16. (x'i dhaat s'Oshvd^s da'td tn)dhB ni'it), I thought I should 

have died in the night. 

17. (ha'uld>n ta'it), hold him tight. 

18. (wxn)Bn) wM'dh'BQ, tuu)«n)B t)a)dh«B), one and another, two 

and a t'other. 

19. (dAOTi)a8? wat)wi? a'i, JEn)ft?) don't us -we? what 

should ? aye, is*)n't it ? 

20. (a'i bi zastm zhauvB ; t'lXO*^ Bda)'n), I am certain sure ; till 

I've done. 

21. (n« m^BB n«B dhlBs), no more than this. 

22. (t)hi)nt no odz te rix'u), it is not no odds to you, it is no 

business of yours. 

23. (bo'* dhB zim on)t), by the seem [appearance] of it. 

24. (dh»k)s ^u a't spBl fa'tv), that's how I spell five. 

[ 1480 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D 4, V i.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 49 

Cheisiiak Malfobd cwl. 

Containing the words from the preceding examples and some others given me by 
Mr. Law. Probably all the (t d tj d| sh n 1 r) should be (t d T| dj «h n l b) 
See supr^ p. 23. 

I. Wessex and Norse. 

A- 1 ZB. 6 mtvk. 6 mn>d. 8 U hee [to hare]. 17 Ibb [the older sound 
was (laa), and Mr. Law himself, who used to be caUed (laa), is now called (Ibb)]. 
21 n/BTO. — fa'tR [fare]. 34 iBwt. A: — saed'i [saddle]. 39 kamd 

[come*d1. — zten [siuid]. 49 aqin [hanging]. 54 want. 56 w^ish. 

— k»t [cat]. 

A: or 0: 58 vrmn [weak form], 60 Blo*q [along]. 64 roq fgeneraUy, occ. 
(raq)]. A'- 67 sw6in [going]. 69 naa noo no. 72 himn [when standing 
alone, otherwise (uu)J. 73 zi zb [weak forms]. 74 tuu. 77 laa [for Lord ! is 
an exclamation]. 79 s'lm. 81 I/bu. 84 m^BR. 87 klaaz. 89 b6uBdh. 
92 nfiu, [but (d)nBB) do you know?]. 94 kua'u. A': 102 seks sBkst. 104 
Rhaad. 107 liiBf. — zhrooy [shroTe]. Ill aat. 113 h(iud1 [A half sounded]. 

115 KBm. 120 BgMB. 

M' 138 YBBdhB. 144 Bg/BU. 146 m&in. 148 f&»R [see 709 and 887]. 
160 liBst wh'iz [least wise]. 153 zffit^ndi. — wbr [whether]. — pBRti 
[pretty, tolerablyj. 'JE: 154 baek. — Bd [had, weak Torm]. — zaed [s&d]. 
158 letBR. 159 hsTZ. 161 d6ei [seldom (d&»)J. 162 tsd^ei [to-dayl. 165 ZBd. 
166. m&id [a little girl, see 758J. 169 wB*n [*' not quite a dissyllable** and] 
wm. 173 w«R [were, was]. 174 a'tshBU TRii ["always with (bu)*']. 177 dhset 
[also (dhaek)]. 179 wot wat. 

JE'- 187 1/Bf Reft, did leaye]. — zili [silly]. 194 Eni. 196 wotrdj'nt 

[were not]. 198 iBt. M*: 205 DRsd. 208 evbr, 8eR)Bn [e*er a one], aaB)B 
e*6r a]. 209 ub'vbr noR [neyer a]. 213 s'idhBR. 214 nx'tdhBR. 220 
zhspBRD. 221 y»*R. 223 dhsR, dhrR. 224 whr. 225 vlssh. 226 BmiiB's 
[ahnost]. 227 wa'Bt ["not quite a dissyllable**]. 228 ZM^Bt. 230 vaet. 
£- 231 dhidhBdh-. 233 4^eBk. 236 y^yBR. 239 z&tlBR [sailor]. 244 wsl. 

— tBlD rtell*d]. — zhiBR [Bhearl. 261 meet. 252 kit*l. E: — yat 
yBtj [fetch]. 256 BTREtj. 258 ZBd|. 260 Isd [laid]. 261 z&i z&rtn zae'rtn 
r«yin] 263 vwki-, 266 sTRae'it. — yiBl [field]. 269 zslf izalf BRZB-lf 
dhBRZB'lyz [self himself herself themselyes]. 271 tBl. 272 BlmBu TRii [" always 
with (bu) **]. — JBls [else]. — slpt [helped]. — zil [sell]. 278 wBntj [a 
marriageable girl, see 758]. 281 Isqth. — yrash [freshl. 284 DRBsh [see after 
735]. — Bdha'Rt [Bthwart, across from side to side, (Bdna-Rt, Bsktrtnt) athwart 
asquint, diagonally from one comer to the next but one]. — yB'stBR [fester]. 

— bBs [best]. F- 289 i [weak]. 290 u, b, * [Wad, 'd) he had, weak 
form]. 297 yelBR. 298 yfBld [felt]. 302 mivi. £ : 307 na't. 312 /cr. 
313 haRk. 314 ha'iRD [older people]. — blBs [bless]. — ta'it [tight]. 
316 UBks. 

EA- — shiiy fshayel. — yaelB yolB [fallow]. 320 kiisR. EA: 322 

IsBBf Iffif in iBBfln [laughmg]. 325 waakl [walked]. 326 a'ul-d. 328 kx'wl. 
329 y6oBl. 330 tB ha'uld [(b hoolt) subs.l 333 k^V. 334 hffi^Bf. 335 eel. 
336 vk'bI. 338 kaeaB'Bl. — zaB*t [salt]. — sh/BR [share]. 340 ji&rd. 

— yoRB [farrow]. EA'- — zhRBd [shread]. 347 hBd. 348 a'i-z. 349 
yia'u. EA': 354 zhiBf . 356 Ihst. 357 dh&M dha'ti. 359 na'tbBR. — Bg/BU 
[against]. 364 tjiep. 366 gSRt. 367 drbI. 

£1- 372 ki. 373 dh&i £iee. EI: 378 w6eBk. EO- 383 zEb*m. 
387 nia'MZ [news]. EO: 390 zhwd. — z»1v*r. — yaRmBR [farmer], 

402 laRN. 403 yBR. 407 yandin. — ztstBR [sister^. 408 nkttd [made weak 
from (n&M) know]. EO'- — vRii [free]. 411 DRii. 412 zhii. 414 vla't. 

— shuut [shoot]. 420 ya'tiBR. 421 vkBR-ri. £0*: 422 ztk. 426 ya'tt. 
427 btn [beings because]. 428 zid rsee*d1. 430 vrbu. 434 b/ot. 435 jau 
[not used]. 436 truu. — DRa't* [threw]. 437 TRUuth. EY- 438 da'i. 
£Y: 439 trsm. 

I- 440 wiiBk. 441 zi'y. 443 yra'id^. 446 na'in. — in, Bn [him, old 

I.B. Pron. Part V. [ 1481 ] 95 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

50 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, V i. 

ace. fonn]. — stnB [sinew]. 447 BR. — 6bz 
bit]. 449 got [p.p. of get]. — TidU [fiddle]. 
453 k<rik. 46o la in [IjingJ. — zift [sift]. 

466 tja'il. 469 w'l [w-iU. for (wol)]. 47 
481 TBqgBR. — ZEqk [sink]. 483 tz. 4 

M [since]. — ztks [six]. r- — bafid ^ j. _._ 

I rgive*d=gave]. 494 ta'tm. 495 wx'tn. I': 500 la'tk. 502 \'a'iv. 

Ltf. 505 w&if [generally my (misBs) or (Ku\)d)umvn)']. 506 MniBn. 508 

[yes]. 448 dhiBZ. — bit [a 
451 zku. I: 452 iti. 

^ ^ ^458 na'it. 463 til. 465 zitj 

sitj. 466 tja'il. 469 w'IlwtII, for (wol)]. 477 va'in. 480 dhsq. — zsq 
[sing]. 481 VEqgBR. — ZEqk [sinkl. 483 iz. 484 dh/BS dbis. — vtHh [fishl. 
— zans [since]. — ziks [six]. 1'- — ba'id [bide]. 491 za'i. 492 za'ia. 

— g»dr ' *' " ^ '" ' " "" ' "" " ■ 

503 l&if 

maVl. 509 waVl. 

0- 519 aavBR. 521 va'uBl. — BTiiBR [afore]. — YORBd [forward] 
TORBdish [getting forward, tipsy]. — bAARND [bom]. 524 wsrl. — DRoot 
rthroat]. — vRatb [froth]. — vlok [flock]. — odz [oddsl. 0: 525 aaf 
Toff]. — TRog [frog]. — zhrab [shrub]. 528 dhaat. 529 bRaat. 531 dncTBR. 
535 vaak. 538 wBd. 541 t)wu*nt[it wonH]. 543 on. 544 dhsn. 546 vbr 
▼a*R. — Tank [fork]. 548 vaRD. 550 waRD. — vrAs [frost]. — vanth 
[forth]. — voks[fox]. O'- 556 d' tB. 557 tun. 558 aa-)lak)i [ah ! look 
ye! exclamation]. 564 zunnd. 567 taxlhBR. — ta'uRDz [towards]. 0:571 
gud. — Raf [roof]. 579 naf. 586 a'i dB, a'i du)*nt. 587 Bda)*n. 588 
SDTBRnihni. 590 t1u*r. 592 zwerd. 595 Tat. 

U- — «d [wood, not (hwd)]. 601 va'tml. 603 kam. 604 za>mBR. 605 
zan. 606 d^BR. U: 609 txl. 612 zam. 616 gRa'tm. 619 Ta'tmd. 

627 za>ndt. 631 dhaRzdt. — tbrb [furrow]. 634 druu. '— dhBRsti 
[thirsty], 639 da'wstt [dusty]. IT- 641 a'u, a't«BmdBv*R, avsBmEVBR, 

b;wb*vbr. 643 na'u. 650 orut Bba'tit. 651 wi-acft. 652 Ired [weak form]. 
653 bat. U': 654 zhra'ttd. 658 da'tm. 663 a'us, ha'us [pi. (ha'uzBn)J. 

666 az^BU. 667 a'wt. 

T- 673 ma>ti [greatly resembled (moti)]. 674 did dtvd [the latter emphatic]. 
675 DRa't. 681 Diznis [seldom used]. T: — Til [to fill]. 691 ma'in. 
692 joqgist. — vaz [furze]. 701 vas. 702 wi, wii. Y'- 706 wa*!. 
Y : — vilt [filth]. 709 th^b. — t1^ [fleece]. — yist [fist]. 

n. English. 

A. — w8Bg rto wag]. 725 zfBl. 726 taak. — tIbbu'I [flannel]. 732 
ffip*m. — DRa^ishU [thresher, flail]. — boBse'Bli [bawly, a crying child is 

E. — ztm [seem]. 751 p/BRT. 752 fns'Bt. — mi&titin [mewing]. 

I andY. — :bil [BiU]. — kil [kiU]. — Bskwint [crosswise, ('* 

yIeo [fling]. — tipsi [tipsy]. — zap [sip]. 758 Rf Rc^^ [* long untrilled 
(Rq) followed by a trilled (r) and reverted (l) much used for a servant. See 166 
and 278]. 

0. — Bklo-k [o'clock]. — djobfjob]. 765 :djon. 767 na'tz. — rdifeBUz 
[Jones]. 776 gad ba'i. 781 bodhBR [usual word (kredU)]. — lot [allot]. 
791 btr6i. 

U. 797 sku^^ki [squalling]. 798 ktraR [modem (ktdBR)]. — vamb*l [fumble]. 
804 DRa>qk*n. 

m. Romance. 

A- — zaek [sack]. 810 vfBS. 815 faeks. — vl&i'l [flail]. — zeed| 
[sage]. — f&il [fail). 835 Reez*n. — waaRND [warrant]. 857 kiBs. 

— msBtBR [matter]. 862 ziBf. — faeaet [fate]. 864 kwz. 865 vawet. — vae^Bls 

E •• 867 tee. — peen [pain]. 885 vbr*. — fee'r [a fair, market, see 148]. 

— vorIbr [farrier]. 888 zaaRtin. — saan [serve]. 890 bnw [pi. (b/Bstiz) 
ooc. him]. 891 vi'st. 893 vla'tfBR. — pl»*tik8 [apoplexy]. — vsg [fig]. 
901 va'in. — zaqg*l [single]. — z&iz [size]. 

•. 918 f^Bb'l. 920 ptr6int. 925 vtr6i8. — komik'l [comical]. — vAbs. 
[force]. 938 kaRUBR. — va'Rin [foreign]. — voRBst [forest]. — v&BRd| 
vwBRdj [forge]. 939 klas, klast [occ.l. 940 k^Bt. 941 v6ub1. 947 btt^'il. 
950 zsppBR. — taRnJtum]. 955 wut, 

U- — djKM-biles [dubious]. 963 ktrs't*Bt. 969 zha'uBR. — vaRBt. 
970 dpz. — vasti [fusty]. 

[ 1482 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D 4, V i.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 51 

Phase II. Chippenham^ 9 nnw. Devizes. 

As JGG.*8 stepmother (now an elderly lady, who had brought him up) was 
a native of Chippenham, and though long resident in London, kept up her luiow- 
ledge of the dialect (which she did not use in speech) by risits, and by seeing 
many Wl. people, I requested JGG. to ask her to repeat one of those stories 
with which she used to amuse the children, while he noted it down in pal. As 
she was good enough to consent, the attempt was repeated on many occasions 
during the last few years, and the following fable by Akerman is the result, after 
many corrections. The difficulties in palaeotyping any individual's speech are 
very great ; and of course such minute accuracy as JGG. attempted is liable to 
the perpetuation of individualisms. Still it is very instructive to compare the 
result with the specimen by Mr. Law, just given, as the two places are only four 
miles apart and Doth must represent a Wl. pron. I must draw attention to the 
constant reversion or retraction as JGG. considers it of the (t d n l r «h) series 
and of (k) and the conversion of (tj, djl into (tj, dj). I am anxious to express 
my obligations to Mrs. Goodchild for suomitting to such a fatiguing trial and for 
venturing to dictate a complete Vl. The original spelling fn>m the preface to 
Halliwell*8 Dictionary is added interlinearly. 

dlia aaRoNOT an dha bfV'D8L\ 

The Hornet and the BitUe. 

dha aaB^Kar zAt iN)a oLa TRii, — 
a hamet zet in)a hollar tree, — 

B pBopBBQ spdyrfBL 166^91) waB^ ii ; 

a proper spiteful twoad was he ; 2 

dn)a meBBLt'i zaq liciyL ii ihd zer 
and)a merrily zung while ^ did set 

iz errs^q «z ^haaa^p bz)b bsB'gBKex : 

his stinge as shearp as)a bagganet. 4 

** 00 uu za vciyn wi \xs}'u€i} az dj ! 
oh ! who so vine and bowld as I ! 

" dj b^ant ^firaRQ© a iiops, naR^ vi/fy ! " 
I years not bee, nor wapse, nor vly 6 

« biDaL^ ap dhak TRii Dtb KLt'm, 
a bittle up thuck tree did clim, 

«K sKaaRgNTaLt nth lw'k ar ii ; 

and scamvully did look at him. 8 

zeD ii, "zaRo aaRoWar, un gtiD dhii 
zays he, ** Zur hamet, who giv thee 

B R^TT TB zer in dhik dh^R^ TRii ? 

a right to zet in thuck there tree? 10 

vaRj, SBflBL dhii zeqz za iriisbaK vrfyN, 
vor ael you zengs zo nation vine, 

ay TCL dhii t)«z a a'ws b mrfyw." 

I tell *e 'tis a house o' mine.*' 12 

[ 1483 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

52 THE MID 80UTHEKN. [D 4, V i. 

dhi aaB^nats kon^Hons viiLD)^ Tdf jimzli 
the haniet*8 conscience velt a twinge, 

bar oRoa'tN ba^'wLD lii tz Loq stE^q 

but grawin* bowld wi his long Btinge, H 

ze'd ii : " p9ze*«he)Nz dlia bE^sr laa' 
zays he: ''possession's the best lauw ; 

zoo IwsKq dhii «liaBT)*irr par & bxee ; 

zo here th' sha'snH put a cla&w ! 16 

bi oat Qy Lii8v dha tru ta dj ! 
be off, and leave the tree to me ! 

dha maKsaN)z gti^D «naf wn^ dhii ! " 

the mixen*8 good enough for thee!" 18 

Djts dhen, b Ka'wK*L', papaesm bay, 
just then, a yuckel, passin* by, 

waz seksT hi dbE^m dba kEEz tq Tndj ; 

was axed by them the cause to try ; 20 

" EE ! EE ! cfy zii a'tt t)iz ! " ze'd ii, 
"ha! ha! I see how 'tis!** zays he, 

** dbi)aL mfV*k v yiimos inaN«b vbBq djV^ 

"they'll make a Vamous nunch yor me!** 22 

fz b»L waz ^haaR^p, tz sramiK LficRQ, 

his bill was shearp, his stomach lear [empty], 

zoo ap « sKsepT dbB KseDL^N p^bBq ! 

zo up a snapped the caddlin pair. 24 


seaBL^ juu 9z bii to Laa tmn^yw d, 
ael you as be to laaw inclined, 

dbVas LtT*L BTdRf bw?Ro in mdyTx" ; 

this leetle stwory bear in mind ; 26 

xk^Q ti TO Laa* juu se'jmz tb g6^9 
Tor if to laaw you aims to gwo, 

juu)l vdyN^D dh8B'*)L' sbsbIuoz zaaRQ)n zoo ; 

you'll rind they'll alius zar'e zo; 28 

juu)l' miix db« viV^t b dhiiz fiBR^ tuu, 
you* 11 meet the rate o these here two, 

dho)L* Tti^K dbi k6obt bn KaaR^xas tuu. 

they'll take your cwoat and carcass too ! 30 

[ 1484 ] 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 

D 4, V i.] 



Notes to the above. 

0. The references are to the number 
of the line. In this transcnpt an 
endeavour has been made to follow 
JGG.'s notation of the last of his 
many transcripts. In the foUoAving 
cwl. as there explained, some compro- 
mises have been made. The letters 
(t D L N R *h) have been ased for 
typographical convenience in place of 
(t^ d, 1, n, r, shj, which woidd represent 
JGG.^s opinion of their formation as 
retracted rather than reverted, but we 
are quite at one respecting the sound. 
Also throughout this example I have 
used (rJ in place of {r) to show ab- 
sence of trill. I am, however, by no 
means clear that there is no trill, 
though the effect of the reverted trill 
(r^) is quite different from that of the 
tip trill (r;.), on accoimt of the dullness 
and indistinctness of the beats. In the 
cwl., and also in recording the pron. of 
other districts, I have used (r) ex- 
clusively for this r, whether reverted 
or retracted, whether trilled or un- 
trilled, because the sound itself is 
certain, and these four differences are 
theoretical. In my own pron. I feel 
that (r) is both reverted and trilled, as 
the form (r) properly implies. 

0. hornet (aaRj,N9T), which I should 

? refer writing (aRNOTj. The (aa) says 
GG. ''is not quite pure (aa), there 
is more or less (a*) character about it, 
it is certainly modified before (rJ by 
an upturned tongue. The (rJ is an r 
with the tongue tiuned tip upwards, to 
the highest part of the palate, so as to 
present a teaspoonbowl-like form to- 
wards the larynx and is not trilled 
wherever I have heard it.'* JGG. 
has been constantly in the habit of 
speaking to Wl. people. The reverted 
or retracted character of (t d n l) as 
well as (r) on all occasions has been 
introduced here as well as in the cwl. 
as explained to me by him verbally. 
The aspirate (h) says JGG. "seems 
to be rather permissive than obligatory, 
except of course where the word is em- 
phatic, but I have never noticed any of 
the Wl. people inserting an aspirate in 
its wrong place, as Londoners do ; and 
I have been familiar with Wl. talk for 
the last 26 years.** 

and the (an dha), " (a, b) in unaccented 

S'llables may be simply (a) throughout. 
y (a) I mean my own pron. of the 
vowels in the words, 8<nne one's husband 

son or brother comes rimning in at 
once.*'— JGG. 

beetle (bit'DdL*) : this is a common 
Loudon mispronunciation, if (d, 1) be 
substituted for fD, l). In Mrs. G.*s 
first and second dictation, and as JGG. 
remembered her repeating these lines 
when he was a chila, she said (biT*L'), 
and all ray other Wl. authorities give 
(bit'l) both for the mallet and the insect. 

2. spiteful. The long i was origin- 
ally written (d>) in the c\d., and sounded 
to me rather (a'ij or (oo'i). But JGG. 
says the first element is "Scotch or 
German long {aa) gliding into a rounded 
(i) almost (y), lips as for (o),** that is, 
properly (oVo) ; (ay) is here retained, 
[)ccause in JGG.'s very last hearing of 
the dictation, this still seemed to nim 
the nearest sound, and he has also in 
correcting the proof introduced it into 
the cwl. See D 5, Andover. 

3. whiU. JGG. did not find a fully 
consonantal (w) or (j), but felt that they 
were really vowels, as in Welsh, and 
hence they are here written (u, t). 

6. Mrs. G. had (ay beaut vfiiaR^D a 
bii UBRp Mops, ubRq vlo'yj, as Mr. Aker- 
man's *'I vears not bee" was not 
dialectal . But on the line thus becoming 
two syllables too long, the words bee nw 
have been omitted. 

8. look. Thepron.(Lu^K) was obtained 
specially . * * Tliis ( m ' ) is neither f u) nor 
(«), but an intermediate vowel,** it 
bears the same relation to (w)as (»*) to 
(0, see (gM*D) 1. 18. These differences 
are hard to catch in isolation, but make 
themselves generally felt in conversa- 
tion. In the proof JGG. introduced 
(k) generally. 

11. all (ffiflBL', ebI'). JGG. says, 
" I cannot quite make out what this 
vowel is ; it is not quite the same as 
the Cu. and We. sound, but seems 
more like (a?®). I think it quite likely 
that I should xorxte it (aj®) at one time, 
and ^ee) at another. But I think the 
last IS the nearest equivalent I know, 
unless we use (be®), which would ex- 
press my idea of it.** This would be 
(ee) inclining to (seae), and might be 
written (eb,). 

14. bold. In this word (ba»MLD) 
we meet (a*) a higher form of fa). 
JGG. considers it the same sound as 
the s. Scotch (a) as pron. by Dr. 
Murray. It is a shade of sound which 
I cannot distinguish. See D 5, Andover. 

sting^ will not rhyme with txjoindge 
as Mr. Akerman implies by the spelling 

[ 1485 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




atinffe. Mr. A. rhymes lines 7 and 8 
Aim elitHt but Mrs. G. restoring the 
dialect has (ii, KLtm) ; 1. 15 and 16, 
Mr. A. has laaw^ klaaw, and Mrs. G. 
(Laa^ kleb) . The older sounds I heard 
from Mr. Law were (laa, klaa), the 
modem (Ieb IcIeb). Lmes 17 and 18 
Mr. A. has ntfy the4f, Mrs. G. says 
dialectally (c/y, dhii), and similarly 
lines 21 and 22. Lines 23 and 24 Mr. 
A. has foflr, pair, which Mrs. G. reads 
fLiiBR^, pBBRo)* Lines 25 and 26 Mr. 
A. has inclined, mind, Mrs. G. leaves 
out the last (d). Lines 27 and 28, Mr. 
A. has ffwo, 20, Mrs. G. reads (go'a, zoo). 
This shews how dangerous it is to write 
dialect in rhyme. Mr. Akerman's 
stories hare usually been considered 
first-rate dialect. I found dialectal 
construction freouently so violated in 
them that whole passages might be 
read off perfectly in rs., and I could 
not use them at all, for present pur- 
poses, especially as shades of sound 
were not distinguished. 

16. here (sbbbJ ; for the (t) in place 

of (j) see note 1. 3 tvhile. For («b) 
JGG. says, *• as in the * ^orly bird de- 
sires the «irly worm,* but tne tongue 
is raised more, I should say it is more 
arched y As I write the vowel in the 
above words in rs. (aa), generally 
avoiding (b), except in weak syllables, 
this might be (ao*), but from the de- 
scription it is possibly a new vowel. 
— ahalt not, probably,* though the form 
(aha&r'nt) is very singular, but Aker- 
man*s aha* eh* t is quite unintelligible. 

19. yuckel, a Wl. name for a wood- 
pecker. Mrs. G. seems to have con- 
tused it with yokel a bumpkin. 

22. munch, with retracted or re- 
verted (n) and the corresponding («h), 
not (maNTj). The word t»M»rA= lunch, 
or noon -food, seems to have been con- 
fused with the more familiar munch, 
which, however, is properly a verb. — 
lear is used for empty, hungry, in many 

28. serve you 80, the v is regularly 
omitted. The word (saR) is also com- 
monly used for to earn. 

Chippenham cwl. 

From a complete wl., with the words from the Hornet, marked H, in the spelling 
there used, the whole taken down with scrupulous accuracy by JGG. from his 
stepmother^s pronxmciation, a work of great labour extending over many days or 
ratner years, ioT the list was entirely gone over and retranscribed many times, and 
finally all doubtful points were re-examined. On the treatment of (t d n l r) 
see note to title of Hornet and Beetle. Here and elsewhere in future (r) and 
not (rJ is written for typographical reasons. See also the same note for (aa) 
or (aa*) and likewise for the use of (a). Also for writing the diphthongal long i aa 
(dfj, see note to 1. 2 in the Horttet. The vowel (ii) varied in speech as (it") 
which is used in the Hornet, but I have here used (ii) only for convenience. Also 
(ij, e^) occur, but are nearly identical, and were used by JGG. according as the 
sound seemed to incline to (•) or {e). The series (i »H i, e^ e) is practicailv con- 
tinuous from (i) to {e). On (b, ao, a)*) see note to 1. 16 of Hornet and Beetle, and 
on (ii, t) note to 1. 3. 


A- 1 zoo. 8 biiK [the rural form for all these (ii) is {i^Q*) nearly (fo)]. 
4 TiiK, H Tti'K. 5 miiK, H mii'K. 6 miiD. 7 ziix. 9 biiiiv. 10 aa*. 12 
ZEE zaa. 14 dree. 17 Laa, H Laa*. 18 Kiis k/9K [see 3j. 19 t/oV [even 
accent, almost dissyllabic]. 20 liim L<^'9'm [see 3]. 21 idim M/o'm. 22 Tiim. 
23 siim. 24 shiim sh^'a'm. — msENDzh. 27 n«,v. 28 bb'r. 29 [(bii) 
been used]. 30 k/,br. 31 Liir. 32 biidh. 33 [(zmnb) sooner, used]. 34 
LseaesT. 35 aa. 36 dhoa [(mi,L*T) melt, generally used J. 37 klaa and H. 

A: 39 KBm. 40 Kiiam [not quite (kwara)]. 41 thsqK [(dhEqK) means 
think"]. 42 bn. 43 sbn^d. 44 lopn^. 45 iiaNT. 46 KSBNDaL*. 47 [(str^^i) 
stray, used]. 48 zoq\ 50 ToqziiZ. 51 msBN. 53 kscN. 54 uont. 55 
^/UbiiZ. 56 iia«h. 57 bes. 

A: or 0: 58 VRom. 59 Laem. 60 Loq and H. 61 9maq\ 62 sTRoq\ 
64 Roq. 66 zoq\ 66 dhoq". A'- 67 di gia, H go'a. 69 voo. 70 tm'9. 72 uu. 
73 zoo and H. 74 tuu and H. 75 srna'k. 76 T«aD, H tcJo*9d. 77 Laa^RO. 

[ 1486 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D 4, V i.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 55 

78 a'wN\ 79 [same as 78]. 80 oLiiDii. 81 LiiN\ 82 nssB. 83 m{t9v\ 
84 niMo'K. 8d zuB'a. 86 wzts. 87 Khoaz. 88 m KLoodh. 89 buadh. 90 
bLo^. 91 maa. 92 Noa. 93 snaa. 94 kiuia. 95 DRoa. 96 zoa. 97 ss'ml. 
98 ii saaOf dy did Noa, ns'mn. 99 droon. 100 zoon. 

A: 101 a/7K, ^TKaa'aN tru. 102 sbks. 103 ssKst and H. 104 r/kid. 
106 RrttfD. 106 baaaD [not (fl«)]. 107 loot. 108 Dart. 109 Loa. 110 NaeT. 
113 uaL [l is very vocal]. 114 ma'wL. 115 uam. 116 uu. 118 ho^dv. 
119 T9 gild. 121 gaaa. 122 noon. 123 Nadbiq. 124 sTi/a'N. 125 aNL»|. 
126 [(RiTa)B'R) rower, used]. 127 was. 128 dh/az. 129 gaasT. 130 bia'T. 
131 gid'T. 132 DT. 133 RflflT. 134 uath. 135 KLrtrtth. 

M' 138 fiidbs^R fsBdhB^R. 139 dr^^. 140 eeol x'isV. 141 nee'bl. 
142 8nbe'9L. 143 TBE'aL. 144 ag^^'aN. 146 mae'/N. 147 bRae'iN. 148 
fffi'ie'R. 149 bLii^z. 150 LiasT. 152 tiaaTB^R. 153 zaE)DB'RDt|. 

M: 154 baek. 155 dba?T«h. 166 OLacD. 157 Riiv'n. 158 e^rrtn. 160 
« eg. 161 DU. 162 T8 Dii. 163 [(i^d) laid used]. 164 mie. 165 zcd. 
166 mai'iD [almost ^m&^iD) with (i) not (»). 168 tiela. 169 iien. — H tiopg 
[wasp]. 170 aa'RVtiST. 171 baaRL*,. 172 grees. 173 uoaz, ii ttwan. 174 
»'i«b. 175 TEBST. 176 aex. 177 dhaer. 178 Naer. 179 wot. "180 bEEHh. 
181 pEE'th. 

M' 182 zii'. 183 [(tb Laa^RN) used]. 184 tB li'aD. 185 rii'd. 186 
bRipth. 187 Lt^ay, H Lijav. 188 nbb. 189 wbb. 190 kbb. 191 iiaL'. 
192 m/aN. 193 Kii'aN. 194 aBNtp 196 maBNt). 196 {jbbr. 197 T«hiiz. 
198 TBLCT. 199 [(tb bEB)=baa, used]. 200 wiit. 201 iidhBN. 202 iix. 

JE': 203 [(TEEk) =talk, used]. 205 drbd. 206 ii rii'd. 207 niDaL'. 
208evBR. 209 NevBR. 210 klee. 211 oree. 212 ueb. 213 [(aaRN) =e*er 
a one, used]. 216 [(ii TiiwhT) =he teacbed, used]. 216 DiiBL. 217 /a'T«h on 
vm, BBR B uaN. 218 b «b»p. 219 siiip. 220 «hepBRD. 221 viiBR. 222 bbr. 
223 dhBBR. 224 wbbr. 225 TLB«b. 226 mo'asT. 227 tier. 228'zuet. 
229 bREEth. 230 faeV. 

E- 231 [(dhtK, dbsK) used]. 232 baiix. 233 spiiK. 234 n/bd. 236 tHiBY, 
tiiiv. 236 viivBR. 237 T»h/BL-bLffi'»N. 238 EEDzh. 239 zEB'aL. 240 lbbd. 
241 Rffi'iN. 243 DLBE. 244 u^l. 245 m/^BL. 246 kuiiN. 247 tiiBN. 
248 mBBR. — H dbbRq [to bear]. 249 C^bbr. 250 zubbr. 251 miiT. 262 
Ki.TaL\ 263 NBTaL\ 254 IsdhBR. 

£: 266 [(tB DREB a'wT) = to draw out, used]. 257 Bixeh. 269 CitDsh. 
260 L®ae. 261 zeb. 262 ubb. 263 bjiibb, e;uBB. 266 STRse'tT. 266 ubl\ 

— vi'aL^D £field]. 267 [(xa gi in) used]. 268 a'uL'Dis. 269 ZEii. 270, 
i. bi'LasiiZ, u. hme. 271 tbl\ 272 BLm. 273 meN [not (mBN)]. 274 bt,N«h. 
276 sTBqK. 276 dbBqx. 277 DR»iN»h. 278 uBN«h. 279 Gb'nt. 280 Leb'm\ 
281 iBqth LCNtb. 282 STRBqth. 283 maRi,, H meRBLti [merrily]. 284 
DR^Bth. 286 kRiisez. 286 aaa. 287 biizam. 288 lbt. — H zer [set]. 

— H bB'sT [best]. 

E'- 289 li [heard as (ii^)]. 290 ii [heard as (iiM] and H. 291 dhii. 292 
Udy) used], 293 tiii. 294 viiD. 296 bRi,D. 296 bf,Lf,-9V. 298 vi'aL\ 
299 ORii^N. 300 xijap Ktp. 301 /bbr. 302 miir and H. 303 ztiiiT. 304 
[(mahLor) used]. 

E': 305 ay. 306 ayth. 307 [(KLaos) used]. 309 spiid [(Riix) =rate more 
usual]. 310 iaL\ 311 ton*. 312 /bbr, H ibbr^ iIbr^. 313 aafik'n. 314 
i. Ibbrd. 316 viiT. 316 Neks. 

EA- 317 [(tb SKIN) used). 318 LBsfr. 319 gEEp. 320 k/bbr. 

EA: 321 ziiD. 322. LBBf. 323 ii va'tir. 324 ae't'T. 326 a'ML\ 327 
ba'wL^D, H ba' i<L*D. 328 Ka'^L^D. 329 vh'ml^d. 330 aWj^D. 331 zawLYo. 
332 ta'tn.\D. 333 kbbv. 334 BBf. 336 eel\ H sbsbl. 336 veel . 337 
&MhL\ 338 KfleaBL\ — ©celaaz [always]. 339 [ay bit) ased]. 340 Taa'uD. 
341 maRd. 342 aa^Rm. 343 tiaa'Rm. — H «haaRj> [sharp]. 345 dbbr. 
346 g^argiiT. 

EA'- 347 eD. 348 dy, 349 TT,a. 

EA': 350 dbbd. 351 liiD. 352 riiD. 353 bRBED. 354 th/av. 355 Dtf. 
366 L/av. 367 dh<M dhoo. 369 NiibBR. 360 T/am. 361 bf'am. 362 zleb. 
363 T«hiap. 364 T«hffip. 365 nibbr. 366 gBBRT. 367 dret. 368 D^th. 
369 BLoa. 370 rbb. 371 strbb. 

[ 1487 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

56 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, V i. 

EI- 372 BE. 373 dhBE. 374 [{noo) used]. 376 T3 Rayz. 376 baB'iT. 

EI: 377 sTiiK. 378 uiix. 380 dhEE Bm. 382 dhse'tBR. 

EO- 383 zeVm. 384 eVn. 386 [(bilaa-)= below, used]. 386 ia'«. 
387 nTuu. 

EO: 388 mToL^K. 389 ?aaK. 390 shuD «haD. 391 [(dy bii) used]. 393 
bi;HB'N'D. 394 laeN^DBR. 395 taq\ 396 ttvBRK. 397 zubord. 398 sTaaRV. 
399 bRfl'yT. 400 BnRNta. 402 laaRN. 403 vbbr. 404 sxaaR. 405 wRth- 
ST^an, Esf-, eef-sTu9n [always with ttone]. 406 BBRth. 407 TaaRD^N. 408 
[(ii Naao) used]. 

EO'- 409 bii. 410 [(ahii) used]. 411 DRii. — H TRii [tree]. 412 «hii. 
413 DiiVaL*. 414 VL<fy, Hvla'y. 416 Lrfy. 416 dIbbb. 417 T«baa. 418 bRUU. 
419 Kbbr. 420 va'uBR. 421 faaRTi. 

EO': 422 zik. 423 dhdy-b<J9n. 424 Raf. 426 Lrfyr. 426 vdyr. 427 tb 
bii. 428 TB zii and H. 430 vrend. 431 Mbbr. 432 YH'«BRTh. 433 bResT. 
434 i b'dT. 436 Km. 436 truu. 437 TRUutb. 

EY- 438 day. EY: 439 trsds. 

I- 440 iiik. 441 ziv'. 442 dyvi. 443 TBdj'Dii. 444 sTr/ysL*. 446 vdis, 

— H biL [bird's bill]. 447 bbr. 448 dh/az. 449 ger. 450 whuuzDii. 461 
zaa [confused with 76 to sow]. 

I: 462 rfy H ay. 453 kmi'k [(veest) fast, used]. 454 tiiwh. 465 Laiae 
[confused with to lay]. 456 af. 467 mo'yr. 458 nrfyr. 459 R^fyr H Royr. 
460 tiee'i'T. 462 zdyr. 463 tol'. 464 tiiT«b. 466 zar^b. ' 466 T«hrfyaL|^D. 
467 iirfyaLLD. 468 whiL^DBRN.' 470 [(ii) he usedl. — H klim [climb]. 471 
timbBR. 472 «bR<'*qk. 473 bLayN\ 474 r^ . 475 movn*. 476 brfyN\ 
477 voyNYD and H. 478 OR<fyN\D. 479 tia'yN^D. 480 (UiEq\ — H zaq 
fsung]. — H stB^ [sting]. 481 TEqgBR. 482 »z. 483 iz. 484 dhts, 
dh/az. 486 dhisaL'. 486 lasr. 487 »8Tbrd»x. 488 it. 489 it [only (t) as an 
enclitic]. — H zer zax [sit, sat]. 

I- 490 bdy. 491 zdy. 492 zrfyD. 493 DBi/yv. 494 Trfvm. 496 fWyN\ 
496 oyBRN*. 498 Rrfyr. 499 biT'L* [originally, then as in] H DirDaL\ 

V: 500 La'yk. 601 ttoyi). 602 vdyv. 503 liyf [but (Loyv) alive]. 604 Nrfyf . 
606 tiarf. 606 wmaN. 607 tiiraeN. 608 mdyaL'. 609 Uo'yaL' H QdyL\ 610 
mrfyn* H mayN. 611 fidyN*. 512 spe/yBR. 613 udyvR. 514 o'ys. 616 iidyz 
[wiseacre (u^SyziikBR)]. 616 utzDam. 517 Tuu. 

0- 618 BaDti. 619 cybr. 620 haa. 621 va'wL\ 622 aop'm. 623 aap, 

624 tiBBRD9L\ 

0: 625 fltff and H [for of!. 526 kaai. 626 boor. 628 dha«T. 629 
bRooT. 531 DeexBR. 632 kaai, 533 dbl* [a variant of (a) in direction of (o, o) 
or (ff), ?my (so)]. 534 aaV. 536 voaK. 636 ga'wLh). 537 ma'«L\ 538 wd. 

— H OLB [hollow]. 639 fa'ML\ 640 ol*i,. 641 uont. 642 ba'wLV. 643 on. 
644 dheN. 646 0p, ap. 546 vaBR. 547 buBRD. 549 ubrd. 660 ubbrd. 
651 staaRm. 662 kaaRN. — H sKaaR^NVBLt [scornfully]. 663 aanN. 664 


0'- 666 shuu. 556 tb. 667 tuu and H. 658 lm^k and H. 669 madhBR. 
660 8K(iuaL\ 561 bLutmi. 562 muN'. 663 maNDti. 664 ZU|^. 566 Noaz. 

— ORaa'iN [growing]. 667 Ta)dhBR. 568 bRadhBR. 

0': 669 h^iK- 670 TdjK. 671 gh^D H gii^D [(u^, «*) are practically 
identical]. 672 bLaD. 673 vlbd. 674 [(a aeTJ»h) a hatch, used]. 576 stmd. 
676 MaBNZDt,. 577 ba'«. 678 pLa'«. 679 i^nsi [(ij) hardly audible] H Bnaf. 
680 Taf. 683 TiaL\ 684 btuqV. 686 dmm\ 687 dhjn. 588 nuu,n. 589 
spuUiN. 690 vl<Jbbr. ^ 592 zubbr. 593 masT. 694 bujT. 695 vi»iT. 696 
Qmaa'R) used]. 697 zu,t. 

If- 599 boov. 600 Lav. 601 va'oL. 602 za'u. 603 kam. 604 za>mBR. 
606 aaN. 606 diJbr. 607 baxBR. 

U: 608 agri,. 609 vaL. 610 iieiaL^ [there seems to be a distinct separation 
of{\i6)]. 611 bwLaK. 612 zam. 613 DRaqk. 614 a'MN\ 616 pa'wn'. 616 
gRa'wN . 617 za'uNLD. 618 uwn\ 619 va'MN\ 620 gna'uN'. 621 ila'MN\ 
622 aNDBR. 623 ve'«n\d. 624 gRawN'. 626 Taq\ 626 aqgBR. 627 zaNDJ,. 
628 NaN\ 629 zaN\ 630 uaN\ 631 dhozdi, dhBBRZDii. 632 ap and H. 
633 Kap. 634 duoo. 636 tlath. 636 vbbrdbr. 637 tbsk. 639 Da't^sT. 

U'- 640 Kz'u. 641 a'tf. 642 dha'M. 643 nh'm. 645 doov. 646 ba'w. 

[ 1488 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D 4, V i.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 57 

647 a'ML\ 648 a'fiBR. 649 dhaVz'n'. 660 ba'wr. 651 uidha'tiT. 652 xud. 
653 baT. 

U': 654 zhua'MD. 666 Rii^m. 667 bRa'wN*. 658 da'wN*. 659 Ta'MN*. 
660 ba'tniK [arbour]. 661 xha'wBB. 662 as. 663 a'ws and H. 664 Laws. 
666 ma'ws. 666 a>zb9N. 667 a'wT. 668 paaMD. 671 ma'«th. 672 za'ath. 

Y- 673 ina)T«h. 674 did. 675 DRoy. 676 jMj. 677 DRdy. 679 T*hBBRT«h. 
680 bizi,. 681 bizijnes. 682 LixaL', H lit'l'. 

Y; 684 bRtDzh. 685 RiDzb. 686 boy. 687 VLrfyr. 688 zawh. 689 
b/aL'D. 690 ktt'yN. 691 mci)'NLD H maj-N. 692 iBqta. 693 z»in. 696 
btniRth. 697 bcRi,. 698 moBRth. 699 RajT. — H aaR^ax [hornet]. 700 
uas. 701 vasT. 702 ui. 703 piT. 704 viK«h*N. 

Y- 705 sxdj, 706 urfy. 707 dhBBRTiiN. 708 tm oyBR. 

Y': 709 vatBR. 711 Lays. 712 mays. 

n. English. 

A. 713 b6BD. 714 LSBD. 716 pcBD. 716 sdl^d Eg, — H ksDLtn 
[caddling, quarrellmg]. 718 trud. 722 drs'in. 723 dse'tRt. 724 bffiSDL'D. 
725 mdL\ 726 Tsetek. 727 Dzhsem. 728 «h(em. 729 frttm. — H sNsep 
[snapped]. 732 8Bp*N\ 734 i>aa>RN. 735 smflBwh. 736 less. 737 miix. 
738 pRiix. 740 uiv' iiiiv\ 741 miiz. 742 liiztj. 

£. 743 SKRiim. — H lUbb^ [lear=emptyj. 744 miizaL^z. 746 x«hidx. 
746 bRiidh. 748 fLeDzho. 749 Lefx, xo Lta'y. 750 bseg. 761 p/»RX. — H 
e'tm [to aim]. 762 trox. 

I. and Y. 753 xtxaL*. 764 peg. 766 TtLbBRX. 756 xhRtimp. — xutNDzh 

[twinge], 767 trfynij. 768 giBL^. 769 \ii, 760 «hiT9L\ — H msKsax 
miien, dungheap]. 

0. 761 LtiaD. 762 a-xem. 763 [{Baay\ rove, used]. 766 iDrhoN. 767 
NB'izv 768 KoaK. 770 rxomBs. 771 von d. 772 boNv^^R. 773 donki'i. 
774 poNi,.- 776 b«»bi,. 776 gwD buoy. 777 »h«p. 778 bvm'-brd. 779 
[(liavtnz) leavings, used]. 781 bodbBR. 783 pa'taTRti. 784 ba'wNs. 786 
Da'Ms. 787 za'«z. 790 ga'MR. 791 biiay. 

U. 792 8kiiabwL\ — H Ya'MK*L [yuckel, woodpecker]. 793 ag. 794 Dzbag. 
796 «hRag. 796 hVuK 797 [(sKUAL'in) usedj. 798 kuvbr. 799 8KBl\ 801 
Ram. 802 Ram. 803 Dzhamp. — inaN«h [muncb]. 804 DRa>q^K fas (-qk) 
often occurs]. 806 kRadz [bu ubb]. 806 vas. 807 pi<iB. 808 pex, U pax. 


A- 809 iibdL\ 810 flis. 811 pliis. 812 Liis. 813 biixN. 814 miisV. 
816 fiio. 817 RaeDMh. 818 iiDzh. 819 RiiDzh. 820 gSB. 821 T>iUe. 822 
mee nuesB. 824 x^hae'tBR. 826 iiBsf. 826 iig9L. 829 gse'tN. 830 XRSB'tN. 
• — H baegBNex [bayonet]. 832 mae'|^BR. 833 pBBR and H. 834 ^hae'tz, «hf *z. 
836 Riiz*n\ 836 ziiz*n\ 838 xrux. — mi'aL [male]. 840 x^hsembBR. 

— H viimas [famous]. 841 x«hEBns. 842 plse'qk. 843 hReessh, 844 XReN«h. 
846 i6q«hBNX. 846 xinBENBR. 847 DseNDzhBr. 848 xahse'/NDzh. 849 sxRaBNDzh. 
850 DEENS. 861 ENX. 852 eb'Pbrn. — H KaaR^Kas [carcass]. 863 baaRO/N. 
864 baRdL\ 866 KORax. 856 pBBRX. 857 Kiis. 858 bRiis. 869 x«hiis. 

— H pflDsestn [passing]. — H riVr [fate]. 860 piisx. 861 xiisx. — H 
NiixhaN [damnation]. 862 siif. 863 x«b8e'f. 864 biksBz. — H kEEz [cause]. 
866 VMX. 866 p«BR. 

E • 867 xii. 868 DzhEB. 869 vi>dL\ 870 btuxti. 871 agRii. 872 
xjh/af. 874 Rae'tN. 876 fse'tNx. 876 va'tHTii. 877 bbr. 878 sseLORti. 
879 ii'meeC. 880 egZ8emp*r. — H xan^hans [conscience]. 881 zeNs. 882 
[(Lav9LrfyD9L^) used]. 883 daBNDiLatON. 884 opReNxis. 885 vbri.. 886 vRdyBR. 
887 kLBRDzhBmsn. 888 zaaRX*N\ — H pBze*«h9N [possession]. — H zaaR^ 
[sieve]. 890 biasx. 891 f/asx. 892 Mevt. 893 fLawBR. 894 dtzii'v. 896 

I., and Y" 897 dti/fyx. 898 Ndys. 899 Niis. 900 pRBB. 901 rdjiff 
H vrfyif. — iNBLflfyND [inclined]. 902 mdyN. 903 DdyN\ 904 voyLax. 906 
Riyax. 906 voypBR. 908 BDva'yz. 909 baiiz. — H spdyxfBL [spiteful]. 
910 DfhsB'tt. 911 zisTBRN. 912 Roys. 

[ 1489 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

68 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, V i. 

0** 913 Koorah. 914 bR00T«h. 915 sraf. 916 djyiv. 917 naae. 918 
YiibaL\ 919 ae'tXTmBNT. 920 pcfynt. 921 BkiJae'iNT. — H sraRi [story]. 
922 bu,«haL\ 923 nu/yst. 924 Tahdys. 926 voys. 926 #pfioyBL\ — rramtk 
fstomach]. 927 TRaqK. 928 NawNs. 929 KUKimnu. 930 hdiv. 933 fitaNT. 
936 KSNTB^. 936 fa'KNT. — H paapva [proper], 938 kaaRXBR. 939 Kvaas. 
940 KttOT H Kooar. 941 yu^l\ 942 J)UiT«hvK. 943 rawh. 944 vhn'uK 
946 va'u'. 947 biWyaL'. 948 haW 960 sspBR. 961 Kap9L\ 962 kvsrs. 
963 kaz*N\ 964 Vushe^N. 966 oa'tiT. 966 kawR. 968 fHEE. 969 kBiivEE. 
961 ORiiiidL\ 963 Kik/yar. 964 ahuor. 966 le'taL'. 966 {ku}t, 967 shu^T, 
968 ffi'isTBR. 969 «ha'tiBR. 970 Dshas H D:;htiB. 971 tl«iT. 

Phase III. IHlshead, 8 sse. Devizes, in the centre of Wl. 

Theodulf 8 hide, TydulTiside, TiduLdde, Tyleside, Tilshead, called (:ta-]0«d), 
as I was informed by the then Vicar^s daughter, Miss Louisa H. Johnson, who was 
bom and had resided there above forty years. She kindly wrote a wl. and dt. 
and on 6 Oct. 1879 called on me to work them over vivu voce. She also gave 

me the example of Hocktying or Hoektide. The custom about 1860 was that on 
Tuesday after Easter, the young men tied the ancles of any young 
}y could catch about ; and on the following Wednesday the sirls re- 
turned the compliment. The following was the explanation given by old people, 

which I wrote from Miss J.*8 diet. Probably every (t d n 1 r) should be (t d l n r), 
but I leave the transcription as I wrote it. 

1. The Peasants' account of the origin of hoek-tying or hoctide in 
the village of Tilshead. 

wans dhBB wise «ed fook az ud ktp on 9 kamin ii'B, «n b robtn 
once there were red folk as would keep on a-coming here, and a-robbing 

dh):tqlt8h fook, «n Bt last dhdi ap Bn 8et)OTn, Bn ta'id)sm ap 
the English folk, and at last they up and at ^em, and tied them up 

te puBsttz Bn kat dhoE DBots. 
to posts and cut their throats. 

2. Tilshead dt. pal. by AJE. from diet, of Miss Johnson. 

(1.) zoo a'i dw zee, mfBts, dhii dB zii na'u, dhBt a'i hi ra'it Bba'ut 
dh»k liit'L mdid kamtn vrom dhB skuuBL JonDBE. 

(2.) shii)z Bgwdin da'un dhB rooBd dhee's, deuu dh' bed gfBt on 
dhB lift hsend za'id B)dhB wdi. 

(3.) shuuE Bnaf dhB tjx'ild hsev BW£*nt sTE&it ap tB dhB duBE 
B)dhB roq ha'us. 

(4.) weeE 8hf)Bl mE)bi va'ind dhtk DEaqVn dtf shnV'ld fslB B)dh9 
n{Bm Bv :toomBS. 

(5.) wi)d 8B8b1 naa)n veei weI. 

(6.) wa)nt dh)aald t^p znun laEN shi not tB dau)t BgEn, puuE 
dhEq ! 

(7.) loks, [i)laa-k)i] b(iB)nt Bt teuu ? 

[ 1490 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


Pal. in 1879 by AJE. from the diet, of Miss Johnson. 

I. Wessex Aia> NOBSE. 

A- 3 bitik. 4 tivk. 6 mivk. *h mivd. 7 sivk. 12 zu. 13 naa. 14 
DBaa. 17 laa. 18 klBk. 20 Uvm. 21 nivm. 22 tirai. 23 Bimn. 24 shivm. 
36 dhaa. 37 tliese. A: 40 k^nam. 41 dhsqk. 45 want. 55 eshez. 
56 waa*Bh. A: or 0: 58 Trom. 61 mnaDq. A'- 67 guu. 76 ttiuvd. 
81 iStm. 83 m&nvn. 84 m6avB^. 85 sauvu^. 86 wats. 87 klaaz. 89 
b6nidh. 92 naa. 93 snaa. 95 droo. A': 104 it^uvd. 115 h(iu«m. 
118 b^mn. 122 n6oiin. 124 8t6nvn. 125 oni. 127 h^uBits. 128 [(dham) 
naedl. 129 g6ni»t. 131 g6uvt. 

JE' 139 DRiii. 140 h^. 141 n&iL. 142 sn&iL. 143 t&iL. 144 «gsn. 
145. d&in. 146 m&in. 147 bs&in. 148 f&iu. — smet [emmet more used 
than antl. M: 155 dhsetj. 158 aetX* 160 eeg. 163 Ui. 164 [(mid) 
pi. (mid^n) nsed.] 165 zsd. 166 m&id. 174. fash. 175 TSBst. M- 183 
teeif. 189 w6i. 190 kss [in East Lavington (4 B.Devizes) (k6i), possibly (kat)]. 
192 mSvn. 193 klivn. 197 tuiz. 202 hxt. JE': 205 DRnd. 207 nid^L. 
213 iidhvR. 218 shtp. 225 fl^h. 226 m^UBst. 

£- 236 fEETBR. 237 tjtlblain. 241 u&in. 242 tw&in. 243 plM. 252 
kit*L. 253 nst*L. £: 261 zbb. 262 wfti. 265 STR&it. 270 bsldstz. 
284 DRfiish. — bast [to burst]. 286 haRB. 287 btzem. F- 294 viid. 
298 Tii*Id [(yaa*LDtD), felt, as that something is hot]. £': 306 ha'it. 307 
na'i. 314 hii*RD, jIi'rd. 315 viit. £A: 321 [(zid) see*d, used]. 322 

Isaef. 323 f&ut. 324 6it. 326 aald. 327 b6uBLD. 328 k(iuBLD. 329 
t6ubld. 330 hauBLD. 331 s6ubld. 332 tdnBLD. 333 k»ffif. 334 ha>(ef. 
335 msel. 336 Tsesl. 342 jaaRm. 346 gfBt. £A'- 349 rid. £A': 352 
VRD. 355 dtf. 359 n&ibBR. 362 slfri. 370 Raese. 371 strssb. £I- 373 
dh&i. 376 b&it. £1: 379 h&iL. 381 sw&in. 382 dh&in. £0: — 
yaaRmBR. 403 tbr. 407 yrrd^n. £0'- 411 DRii. 413 dtvBl. 420 t&ubr. 
421 y&UHTf. £0': 423 dha'i. 426 Tait. 430 viRND. 

I- 447 hBRN [hers, in Urchfont (4 se.Devizes) (shiiz*n) is used]. 448 dhii*z. 
I: 460 w&it. 466 tjaild. 468 tytldBHU. 481 TtqgBR. 484 dhii*z. 485 
dhis'L. 486 [(baaRm) used]. I'- 499 Wt'l [seep. 53, col. 2]. V: 506 
imiBn. 507 wtmBU. 

0- 522 oop'm. 523 hoop. 524 wrrd'l. 0: — troo [trough]. 528 
dhaat. 531 dffiaetX- 532 kAAl. 536 gfiuBLD. 537 RdBRT) dirt, used]. 539 
bool. 545 hop. — yaRk [fork, '^the mouth must be elongated as for a grin**]. 
547 biinBRO. 548 v(iubro. 549 hi!iUBRD. 552 kaHN. 553 haRN. 554 
knaas. 0'- 565 n6uBZ. 566 adhBR. 0': 577 ban. 578 pla'u. 579 
vno'f [(sna'u) not heard]. 580 ta'u. 582 ktliUBL. 583 tAuBL. 584 stduBL. 
689 Bp6nBn. 590 AAubr. 592 sAubr. 597 ZMt. 

U- 601 Ta'uBL. 602 za'u. 606 duu'r. U: 609 t«l, t6uBL. 610 uu'l. 
U: ' 618 uund. 619 ya'und. 634 DRa'u. 635 wath. 636 vaHDBR. U'- 
641 ha'u [approaching to (h6u)]. 642 [(dhii) used]. U': 663 ha'us [pi. 
(ha'uz*n)]. 665 ma'us. 

Y- 682 liit'l. Y: — wast [worst]. 701 vasx. Y- 707 dh'Rxiin. 
709 ▼a'iR. 

n. English. 

A. 722 DKfun. 723 deeni. 742 iSBZt. 

E. 743 skieem. 744 m««*lz. 745 tiiit. 748 [(flash) used]. 750 b©g. 

I. and Y. 754 psg. 756 shRtmp [= lollipop]. 758 gaR*L [rather a foreign 
word, used for a sweeUieart]. 

0. 761 I6uad. 767 na'iz. 769 [(want) used]. 773 doqki. 774 puuni. 
778 BTtiUBRD. 781 bodhBR. 783 pauLTRi. 790 ga'und. — DRa'und [pp. 
(dRa' undid), drown, drowned]. 

U. 795 shnag. 801 Ram. 802 nam. 805 kaRDz. — kaR*Lz [curls]. 
806 fas. 808 pat. 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 

60 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, V i, ii. 

m. Romance. 

A.. 809 j8eb»L. 810 fiw. 811 ^\eez [pi. (pleez'n)]. 812 Ubs. 813 
biBk*n. 817 HEdtsh. 822. m&i. 824 t|&i«R. 827 [(fEs) fierce, usedl. 829 
gkin. 830 TK&in. 836 8<;fz*n. 840 t|amb*R,. 841 tjaens. 843 DRsentj. 
845 SBnshBiit. 847 dsendjOT. 848 t|8?nd}. 849 8TRfiend|BR. 850 dsens. 851 
snt. 852 jsepBRN. 855 kaaBdt. 856 psEBt. 860 p^M. 861 Urat. 862 
Bisf. 864 koz. 865 fvsfet. 866 puuK. 

E-. 867 W. 869 yUbl. 874 u&in. 875 f&int. 876 d&intt. 877 &iR. 
878 88b1br». 879 ieemtA. 887 [(peeaps'n) parson used]. — ffeiw [market]. 
890 [pi. (bllBsttz)]. 891 TlBst. 892 n£vt. 893 yIz'ubr. 894 disee-T, 
895 nisee-Y, 

I" ondY" 900 pR&i. — fss [fierce; see No. 827]. 901 Ts'ln. 904 
va'ilit. 910 djist [pi. djistiz]. 

•• 914 bRuat|. 916 s'lnra. 919 a'intmBnt. 920 pa'int. 921 aektr&int. 
922 bwfhel. 923 mx'ist. 924 tjals. 926 sptiutL. 929 kx'uk«mb*R. 930 
lain. 936 vdnt. 938 kaRRBR. 939 [(kRoft) croft, used for a dose]. 940 
kuu*t. 941 fauBL. 942 b»t|eR. 943 tat|. 947 bx'iL. 948 ba'oL. 950 
sapiiR. 951 kap*L. 954 kushBn. 955 da'ut. 956 kivvR. 

U-. 961 grfiUBl. 964 znuit. 965 a'il. 968 a'ist'R. 969 shuu^R. 
970 d|»8t. 

Yah. ii. The Nobthebn oe Gl. Foem. 

These dtteelineae cs. marked V, T, D. 

Y marks the cs. for VaU and Town of Gloucetter. It was first written in bis 
own orthography by John Jones, Esq., who had known the dialect for 50 years, and 
was afterwards corrected in pal. from his diet, by AJE. He gave U = (a) uniformly, 
but TH. in travelling over the district found the M. (m, u^ with sometimes (o) 
and of course (o, a), not only in Tewkesbury, Ashchurch (8 n.Cheltenham^, 
and Buckland (12 ene.Tewkesbury), which I place in D 6 1= w.BS, but also frequently 
in Gloucester, Cheltenham, Bisnop's Cleve (3 n. Cheltenham), Brockworth and 
Birdlip (6 se.-by-s. Gloucester), and even in Cirencester, Fairford (8 e.Ciren- 
cester; and Tetbury, so that it would appear that the whole of east Gloucester 
were in the mixea region. Indeed TU. heard (u^) as far s. as Piui^n Wl. 
flO sse. Cirencester). It is evident that a mixture of (a,. a, o, m, mJ for U 
cioes not interfere with the dialect, which is strongly marked. The oldest form 
necessarily had some variety of (u), and hence (m, u^ must in this region rather 
be considered as survivals, than as M. encroachments, see 8uprd p. 17. Of 
course (a, a) are recent developments, that is, begun and developed within 
500 years. For (u^ see the introduction to the Midland division. 

T marks the Tetoury cs. It was written in io. by Miss Frampton, daughter 
of the then vicar, and was pal. by AJE. from answers to a very long series of 

Questions which she kindly answered. There is, however, always room for some 
oubt where there has not been personal audition. As regards U, Miss Frampton, 
like Mr. Jones, apparently used (a, a), but TH. was informed in September 1885 
by two stonecutters from Tetbury that {u^) generally and a few (o) were the 
sounds there used. The (o) is one of the transitional forms, see Lme 2, p. 17. 
D marks the Forest of Dean or Coleford cs. It was written from the dictation 
of Raymond D. Trotter, Esq., native of Newnham (10 sw.Gloucester), who kindly 
spent many hours with me over it in 1873 in company with his sister, who gave 
pnrases from Aylburton on the s. of the Forest. Mr. Trotter visited me again 
about it in 1878. This, and Mr. Law*s from Christian Malford are the two best 
w. examples of D 4 which I have personally heard. 

0. Y Vale of Gloucester, woo'i :djoii b got nuu' dao'uts. 
T Tetbury. wsdV :djon B)nB dao'uts. 

D Forest of Dean, wao'i idjuk doo)'nt deo^ut. 

[ 1492 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D 4, V ii.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 61 

1. y weI, natbBK, jtiu wi ii bib buu'th laf «t dhw 

T wal, natbBB, dhii vn ii mdt boo*th Isef vt dhia iVe 

D eo'i zdi natbBE, jtiu bii tm mczi bu'th oii)i gEin bz msctj bz 

y niiiuz « mso'm. huu kii'sz? dhat's nao'idhcE jaE iibe 
T niuuz « miiao'tii uu dB ktVE ? dhaet }yee)jit jiVe iibe 
D dliii)st lao'tk vi dhts)j«*'E- bz a)'i)v bm b telBn oii)jb, uu dBst 

y dhooE. 
T dha^. 
D dhtqk Bd kt^E v'e dhat ? t)tV)'iit noo odz ! 

2. y ytau Took dB dao'f, bikoz dhB bi laft)Bt, 
T dhaE bi prBsbas viu ez deo'tz koz bz qo'u dhB bi laB8Bft)Bt, 
D dhBE biVnt mam' bz dB dao'i Ve dhdi bii'Bn mdid gi*m on 

y wii dB ndu, duu)'iit)88 ? wot zbtid mdk [mii'k] Bm ? t)ii)'iit 
T wii dB ndu, dtra)iit)98? wot shwd miik Bm? t;ee)nt 

D beo't dhB leo'iks b dhii, wii dB noou dhdt, doo)'iit 98 ? wot 

y vEEi lao'tkl* bii it? 

T Wtklt? 

D zhttd mee*k)Bii, mBn? t)iV)'iit Eee'ZBDBb'l nae^tt, tz tt? 

3. y Qo'uwa'TBE, dhee bi dhB vakts bv dhB ktV'8, zoo djtst 
T uusBjEVBE, dhiiz bi dhB vaBkt8 zb 

D SB JTIU d^t oold jiuu^E^ djAA, Bn hso'tsht b bit wi;8o'tit b 

y hao'u'ld JBE ndiz, mB vESiid, bu bi kw^eo't-Bt tBl qo'i)v 
T a)'ttld JBE d|AA, Bn k«p kM?ao'i-Bt t«l Qo't)v 

D mtslES'tBu B mii, til Qo'i)v tEld)jB. nao'w ju aaEk'n b bit 

y B)dan. aaBk)i. 

T dam. 

D Bn beo'id kw^eo'i'Bt, til eo'i b dan. 

4. y Qo'i be zaEtm 'zhuu'E, bz qo'i iVed Bm zii — zam b 
T a)'i)m zaEtin ao'i jii'ED Bm zai — zam b 
D qo'i bi zaaEt*n zhuu'E, bz eo'i)v jii'ED Bm zdi — zam b 

y dhsm Took bz wEnt deso'u dhB wal (wi'l) dhiq TEBm dhB 

T dhee Taak bz WEnt deuu dhB wul dhsq TEBm dhB 

D dhdi dhBE Took bz wEnt deso'k dhB ool on't dhBEZE'lTz 

y Tast dhBEZE'lTZ, -dhat oo'i did zhwM'r Bnaf I 
T Tast dhBBZE-lz, — 'dhaet b did zhttw'E -nso'u ! 
D TEBm dhB Tast, — •dhcJt)s tbe zhttw'E bz oo'i did ! 

5. y BZ dhB jaqgist zan izzE-lf, b gaoET biio'i b nao'in, ndwd 
T dhB jaqgBst zan bzze-H, b gaoET buao'i b nao'm, nood 
D BZ dhB jaqgest zan izzE'lf, b gudna'bBTBbiioi b nao'in, nooud 

[ 1493 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

62 THB MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, V ii. 

y «z yaadliBBz vdts vt wans, dhiu t)waz 

T iz yaBffidhBRz vdts, dhoo t)wa)B 

D iz TiVdhQSz taq «z zuiin az « oop'nd iz mao^Mth dhoo t)w«z 

Y BB ktra>B VR BkweekiiLf vn a)'t)d TBast *ii tv sp^k dho 
T ZB kudi^B tm skudi'ki lao'ik, «ii 'ii-d tsl dhs 
D zst^ V ku^eoB sku^eektm veoVs, tm so i)d bak *ii tv speek dhv 

V TBuutb ont dee^ a'«, 'dhat t «d, Awa'VBB. 
T TBuuth 'dhaet « ud. 

D TBu'th om ddt, d$ -dhdt a)» ild ! 

6. Y 9n dhv eo't^ld umvii VBZE'lf b1 tEl snt on)! «z iz a lafiin neo'u, 
T vn. dh« ao'fild umBn bbze'I u\ tsL sni ov)i dhaet laef iia)'M, 
D 9n dh)aa'ld unrsn BEzs'lf «d tid aoB)B wan an)i bz »z a giuulBn 

y Bdhso'tft mat| bodhBB, tuu, if jb)1 

T Bn tEl^i sleep aaI wtdhaa'iit muu'B Bduu*, if)i ul 
D Bn tsl)i Ba>'tt aaI, tuu, wi)8o'ut m£t^ tmdBBmBnt, if dhii)lt 

y oonli Eks BB, wa)nt b noo'idhBB ? 
T oom* aeks shi— oo' ! want sht? 
D oom sks)BB, di *dhdt vr iid. 

7. y l*«rt wdtz [Ent)a)'M] bb tdwld it ta »'♦ wxn qdV Ekst bb, 
T ItVst wiiz BB t£lt 'so't wEn ooV aekst shi, 
D lii'st watz bb t£ld it 'so't wen so't Ekst bb, 

y tuu BB DBii ta>'imz oovbb, b did, Bn bb AAt)'nt ts bi 
T duu BB DBii tao'tmz bb d»d, 'sob d»d)'nt AAt)B bi 

D duu BB DBii ta>'imz bb moo'B, ii dhdt bb did, Bn-edB AAt)'nt tB bi 

y Boq on zatj b puso'int bz dhts — ^wAAt dB juu dht'qk [dhEqk] ? 
T Baq on 'sttj lao'tk, wot d)jB dhsqk noo'i* ? 

D noo wdtz ao'tft on zal^ a pa>'tnt bz dhik, Wift)st *dhii dhiqk ? 

8. y wal, BZ ao'» wbz v)zAi'm eoB)^ tEl)i ao'w waoB bu weu qob 
T wal, BZ ao't wbb B^zdrrn, 8hii)d t£l)i oo^u wan bu waoB bb 
D BZ a>'» WBZ Bjzdt'Bn 'aB)ud tEl)i eo'w waB Bn wan bb 

y TQo'tmd dhB DBsqk'n b«^ bz qdb dB kAAl a>B azlnm. 
T f a)'tmd dhB DBaqk'n biiBst shii dB kaeael bb azbBn. 
D yao'und dhB DBaqk'n b»'st bz 'b^ kaa'ld bb mee'stBB. 

9. y QOB ZW80BD [zOO'b] BZ SO'u BZ BB Zld BU W» BB iuD. ^/tZy 

T Bhi swaaB shi ziid i'm widh bb eo'tm eo'iz, 


y B)la)'t'in zDBEt^ Bt yal lEnth on dhB gBao'und, m iz gtid 
T B)la)'ttn Qo'ut aeael Bloq tn iz birst 

D leo't'Bn aaI Bt iz lEqkth Blaq dhB gBso'tmd, wt iz best 


Digitized by CjOOQIC 

D 4, V ii.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 63 

y zandi ku^ klooz tv dh« doo'B « dhis eo'tis dao'im «t dhv 
T zandi koo't Bnoo'r dh^ dMtt'E « dhB so'tts dao'tm na)'« dh« 
D zandi-gt^din kwat on, dpsst boo't dliB duu^B b dh« eo'tiSy 

V kaBIlBE B JONDBRq l^m. 

T kaaBiiQR [ko'm] b Jon liin. 

D dao'im dhao'E ba>'t dh« koBn«l b jokdbez lee'n. 

10. V B WBZ B)wa)'mm bwaV, Br zez, vbr aaI dhB wqoeld lao'tk 
T ii WBR B)wa)'inm Bwd«, i wqor, fen aeael dhB waDEU) lao'tk 
D B WBZ B)8o'«lBn Bw«f» dhaoB, VBK aaI dhB waoHLD Iso'tk 

V B ztk i^ao'ild, be b Itt'l gjaoEL (wEntj) in b vBEt. 
T B ztk tjao'tld be b Itt'l ma»d aeael bv b vEEt. 
D B dog koi^ in b trcip, be b ztk t^so'tld m b vEEt. 

11. y Bn dhat ap'nd bz *goe Bn be daaTBE in laa, kam 
T Bn dhts JBE sep'nd bz *goe Bn shiiz daaTBE-lAA, kEm 
D Bn dhot waoB d^Bst bz *aoB be be diAtBE-LAA, kam 

y DESo'u dhB bak jaED vEBm aqm ao'ut dhB w£t klooz tB 
T DEUU dhB baek jaaED vBBm b seqm oo'trt dhB wEt kloo*z tB 
D DESo'tf dhB jiaED tebie b oqBn oo'iit dhB wst kloo'z tB 

y DEao't, on B woshm dee, 
T DE8o'», on B waeshm dii. 
D i)B8o'«\ on B washBn [wEshBn] deft. 

12. y wQo'tl dhB kEtBl WBZ B b6tltn vbe tee^ wan Too'in bEoo'tt 

T BgEn dhB ktt'l bao'tld vbe tee, wan fao'tn aatBE^nuun 

D wEn dhB ktt'l wbz b beo'tlBn vbe tee, won veitBtsh bfieo'tt 

y zsmBE aatBEnuun oonli b wtl: Bguu'B kam nskst dhaoEzdi. 
T B zamBE B wt'k Bgon kam dha>Ezdi. 

D zamBE aatBEnuun, b wt'k kam nskst dhaoEzdi. 

13. y BE dB ju ndw ? eo't nevBE jii'ED noo muu'B neoE dhts b dhat 
T BE B t£l)i wot, B ntVBE jii^ED tsl EB mt<t«*B on)t 

D Bn dBst noou, ao't uevbe laoBin) noo muu'n ebb dhts b dhot 

y dhaoE btznes ap tB tBd^^, bz zhuu'B)z mao't nt'^mz rnf«n)z] 
T ap tB nao'u, bz dbuu bz mao't niimjz 

D dhBB d|ob BZ zht^u'E bz mao't ndtm)z 

y :d|on izhxpBBD, be ao't dt<a)nt want tu nao'tdhBE, dhaoE eqo'u 
T :d|on :zh£pBET, be ao't da)nB waent tB nao'tdhBE, zoodhaoB! 
D :d|on :zh^)BED, be ao't doo)'nt w<mt tB n6ou niidhBE. 

14. y BE zoo eoV bi B^gwdtn wam tB zapBE, gtid 
T zoo Qo't')m B)gwdtn wam tB zapBB, gtid 

D Bn zoo ao't bi B)gwdtn jam tB a)mi b btt b zamt't tB jat, 

[ 1496 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



[D 4, V ii. 

Y TLOo'tt, vn du^)iit bi zb iLwik tB loULu ooybr « bodi vgf'n, 
T iiao'»t, tsn du^smt)i bii zb km\ ts k&iu oo^r v bodi «gtn, 
D n3)'tt)t)jB, Bn doo'nt bii zoo zhanp oovbb « t|ap, 

Y w£n b)z B)tAAkiii B dhis dhat bb t)adhBB 
T WEn i dB taeaek « dhtk b dhaek. 

D wan B tAAks b dhis Br dhdt. 

15. Y tt)8 B w^k vuul Bz pr^^ vdh&/vt 

T Bn dhEn weI Ib it. 
D B m<m ja)nt noo bEtBB iibb b yuuI bz dB tiAk wt)oe'ut 

Y r^^zBii . Bn dhat)8 maol last wsoBd. gudbiisot. 

T gud biiao'«)tB)i. 

D noo zEns, b dlidt)s mso't loost waad. zoo gud bao'i t)jB. 

Notes to F, Yale and Town of Gloucester. 

Mr. Jones coDsideiB his cs. to be a 
fair specimen of the dial, spoken about 
Gloucester in the Vale. In the toun 
the use of z- for «- is not so frequent, 
and (th) generally remains as in rs. 
But in the town the sound of (ii) con- 
tinually replaces that of {ee) even 
among educated people. Mr. Allows 
auotes from Lord Campbell's Life of 
Judge Hale, p. 230, to the effect that 
the judge's name was in Gloucester 
called eel (iil), and that Mr. Bloxham, 
Clerk of the Peace, bom near Alderly 
(7 se. Berkeley), near the Judge's 
native place, m summoning the Jury 
in Court, called out (idiivtd :iil, by dhe 
siim pliis, biikvR), for David Hale, of 
the same place, b^er, and Mr. Bellows 
recollects a farmer telling him that he 
heard Mr. Bloxham say: ** Answer to 
your (niim) name, and (siiv) sare ^our 
fine." In a paper called a specmien 
of the Vulgar Speech of the Town of 
Gloucester, reprmted by Prince L.-L. 
Bonaparte from the Transactions of the 
Cotswold Field Naturalists' Club for the 
year 1851, many such words occur. 
But they are by no means confined to 
the neignbourhood of Gloucester town. 
They will be found in Miss Frampton's 
Tetbury Specimen, and she gave me 
other instances. The foUowing list 
contains all those in the aboye paper 
(unmarked), and those giyen by Mr. 
Jones (marked J), and Miss Frampton 

(marked F). The words are arranged 
in the usual classes and in ordinary 
spelling, the letter pronounced (ii) being 

A- baker, drake, take, F taken, make, 
mode, cradle, F tale, lame, 
J F name [and (n&im) F], 
J some, gome, F mane [are, 
fare, as in rec. sp. ware (waoE)], 
bathe, rather. 

A'- lone. 

AE- blaze, hazle. 

A£: waken, day, F today [exceptional 
and not constant]. 

AE'- F stairs. 

£A- shake, shape. 

A. tradesmen, ¥ trade, James, prates, 
potatoes [(tiitBBz)], waye, qua- 
yering, gaze. 

A •• table, face and F, preface, place, 
bacon, poring, case, plate, sepa- 
rate, obseryation, narration, 
state, paste. 

As regards the series A-, A., A>* 
this reduction to (ii) is merely a yariety 
of (lis, 1b, i') common in other parts of 
D 4, itself a reduction of (ia), which 
came naturally from (a-), but (^, ee) 
are also found more in Do. and Sm. 
The intermediate form is (^'o), which is 
giyen by JGG. as the rural form about 
Chippenham Wl., where (ii, ii^) are the 
town forms. 

[ 1496 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D 4, V ii.] 



Notes to i>, Forest of Dean. 

0. tchtfy doubts, I have throafhout 
represented the first element of the 
diphthongs (a'i, a'n) hy (ao) in this 
district. I am not quite satisfied. It 
may be (id). I long hesitated between 
(ah, (e) and simple (a), which in Do. I 
adopted ; all my hesitation arose from 
stuay of sounds heard from Mr. Potter, 
Mr. Law and Mrs. Clay- Ker- Seymour. 
The first element is often medial or long, 
but as I did not mark it at the time I 
leave the vowel short. 

1. «ay, distinctly (zat), varying in 
direction of (za'i), not approaching (zee). 

— neighbour^ the (a'i) effect was very 
strong in this word. — tfum dost^ the 
(st) is a contraction hereabouts. — this 
here^ the (j) is prefixed to (i*R) in this 
phrase only. — it is not, (t)u)*nt) 
^taifCty is very common in this mstrict, 
varies as (tjBnt), (it btt^nt) also used. 

2. their being made game of, (dhdt) 
for they not* a common pron. in other 
districts but not unknown, they again 
is for their ; (nu/id) made is similar to 
{ndim) name^ par. 13, but (mi'd) is also 
used like the following (gt*m) ^ame. 

— reasonable, the use of (b) imtially 
was thoroughly settled with Mr. Trotter, 
who repudiated (r). — is it, (bii-vt) 
is not used. 

3. molesting of me, or (msdlBU wi 
mii) meddling with me. 

4. heard, (ju'rd), the effect of (u) 
on following or preceding (t, d, 1, vS 
converting them into (t, d, l, vS 
was carerally ascertained. — through 
(DRa)'t<\ the (r) before a vowel being 
distinctly trilled, see par. 2, reasonable, 
(tha-) could not be pronounced, and 
hence (tr-) or (dr-) became necessary. 

— Jirst (vast), the (r) is quite lost m 
this word, and in (bast, was, wast) 
burst, worse, worst; can this arise from 
the retention of (s) instead of retracting 
or reverting it? Thus (vaRsr, vaRs^T) 
would be ouite possible, and this (s, s,) 
would be distinct from (s), either would 
lead to {s\i\ as in Sanscrit. But if this 
ever existed, it has disappeared. 

5. a good knob of a boy. — fathers^ 

the first syllable varies as (vi*, ve', 
vie'). — / would back 'he, the use of 
'he is conditioned by emphasis, other- 
wise (ao'i)d bak)Bn) with the S. hine. 

6. woman, emph. (HhtnuBu). — e'er 
a one, any one. — guling, the glos- 
saries give this as a He. word for 
sneering. — wonderment, {f thou wilt 
only ask her. 

7. leastways, the use of (</•) in place 
of (a)'t) shows that the speaker con- 
sidered the termination to be ways and 
not uHse. — she told, when (br) is 
used for her = she, the (r) is distinct, 
when for her (as usually written) = he, 
the (r) is lost, (« tsld, br Tsld) he told, 
she told, are thus kept distinct with- 
out emphasis, two or three times or 
more, m Aylburton (4 sse.Coleford, 
61.) they use («ne*nt) anent in place 
of *or more,' meaning 'nearly, close 
i^n,' but see anent in Murray's Dic- 
tionary. — what dost, see (dhiijst) *thou 
dost,' par. 1. 

8. drunken scarcely used, (fad'ld) 
'fuddled' sometimes heard, but if a 
man is not very drunk they sav, (tm 
B btn B avBu b dr^p) *he's been navinff 
a drop,' and if he's very drunk indeed, 
(«m B g3t)Bt on)Bn tB rod 'its) * he has got 
it on him to-rights,' but * drunk ' itself 
is almost a taoooed word. — beast, also 

9. lying, they lie, and hens lay, (dhdi 
dv la)'t, Bn Enz dB \di) bring out the 
two diphthongs very clearly. — coat, 
Qlw^ on) 'coat on,' since the word 
runs on to (an) but in the pause it is 
(ktro't) in thafs mu coat dndt)s ma>'f 
kuro't). — yonders, the phrase is used, 
but the grammar is not clear. 

10. howling, in the Forest of Dean, 
little babies even howl, and never whine^ 
(but win'ikBn) is heard at Aylburton. 

11. clothes, Mr. Trotter thought he 
used (kloo'z), but on hearing the differ- 
ence, acknowledged (tloo'z). 

13. name, see nuide, par 2. 

14. and so I he a-going home to 
havejme a bit of somewhat to eat. The 
(a)mi) was nearly (se^mi). 

E.S. Pron. Part ▼. 

[ 1497 ] 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 

66 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, V ii. 

Phrases from Forest of Dean from diet, of Mr. Potter and Aylburton 
from diet, of Mbs Potter. 

1. («z aand bz Hhso'rtsRN)) as hard as iron [the first aspirate 

omitted as usual, the second introduced for emphasis]. 

2. (b bit Bv B mdid)y a bit of a maid [one growing up to woman- 

hood, a (gaal is a maidservant of about fifteen, a (wEush) is 
a grown woman in a good sense]. 

3. (gaR)Bwa« wi-jb), get away with you, said to a dog [this con- 

yersion of (t) into (r) is very common with ffet before a 
vowel in numerous districts]. 

4. (a)z bin bu JEt mi on dhB jaa), Forest ; (iiz bin B)jat'in mi 

on dhB jad), Aylburton ; he's been and hit [been a-hitting] 
me on the head. 

5. (so'tt guu, nip-BB), how go (how are you), little fellow. 

6. (uu'z'n aowz'n bii')Bm), whose houses be them « are they. 

Compare Sh. 

7. (baBd-dab'in), bird-dubbing, walking down in two companies 

on each side of a hedge and pelting at the birds, which fear 
to leave the hedge on either side. 

8. (im)z B propBK Roqk)'n), he's a proper rank-one (?), he's a 

regular deep one. 

9. (Qo'»)m gwdin tB aa)mi B)rso'id), I'm going to have me a ride 
[—to get a lift in a waggon]. 

l«k)i), wilt thou, look-you. 

bist "dhii B dhao'u'an), whom art thou a-thou-ing [in a 

?uarrel. Forest]. Tao'i beent a gwrf^in tB bii dhiid ba'i dhao'u) 
am)not a going to be thee'd by thou [Aylburton]. 

12. (b pool-ton ban-Bts), a-pelting walnuts. 

13. (b woo)'nt aask'n an-ta mii), he won't hearken to me, won't 

do what I tell him. 

14. (kip dham vits sttl), keep those feet still [that is, don't stamp, 

said at a public reading]. 

15. (HEft)'n), heave him or it, (nsft) weight or heavy load, both 

Forest and Aylburton. 

10. ru)t, 

11. (-uu 

Glouceoteb cwl. 

V Vale of Gloucester as in cs. 
T Tetbiiry as in cs. with some extras. 

C Cirencester from wl. given me ty. by Miss Martin of Whitelands. 
D Forest of Dean as in cs. 
A Aylburton as in specimens. 
W Whitcomb (5 ese. Gloucester], wn. by TH. 
Unmarked words belong to the four nrst-named places and also possibly to A. 

I. Wessex and Norse. 

A- 4 C tlBk. 5 C miBk. 17 V laa, TD Ua. 18 kl«k. 12 V niwn 
neera, T niim, D n&im, C niem. 22 C tiBm. 24 C shimn. 28 C ha)R. 
34 V last, D \aa»i, T la>st. A: 39 VXD [(kam) come, used]. 46 C ants. 
46 [(I6tt) light, always used]. 64 V want, T w^nt, D wont. 66 V wosh wash, 

r 1498 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D 4, V ii.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 67 

T w»8h, C [(bak'n) a small waah]. A: or 0; 58 VT TBtnn. 60 bUi-q. 
64 V Koq, T Bag. A'- 67 VtD Bgw&tn [a-going], D ©'n gun [how do 

r=do]. 73 VT zoo, D zoo. 75 TD duu, V tuu. 76 C tfisd. 79 V &jm, 
ao'im, D ootm. 81 Y Wn, D 16e«n, T liin. 82 wshb. 84 VTD mtiutni. 
86 C (iirts. 87 Y Uooz, TD U6ovz. 89 Y btiuvth, D bvvth, T b6o«th. 
92 VT niu, D n6oii. 94 VT \aJbM. 97 sot'kI. A': 102 YD aks, T aeka. 
104 W rood. 113 V w«l wAd, T wid, D -oobI. 115 VTC wrai, D jam. 
118 C btitm. 120 V «gira*«, T vgan. 122 V ntim. 124 staumi. 125 
oonli. 129 C gdwsst. 130 C bCivt. 

-ffi- 138 y vaadhBB, T VBBflB— , D vi'—, ve'— , Tte'— -, C fssBdhvR. 143 
tfrtl. 144 V vgira, T Bgtn. 150 Y Wst, T liimt, D liist. 152 C waareB. 
jEi 161 V dAf, T dii, D di^t. 162 Y tvd^, T te dii. 163 16i. 166 T n^ 
D matd. 168 C taeaelmi. 169 VTD wan. 170 C feieyst. 172 C gnuBaes. 
174 C Msh. 177 V dhat, D dWt, [T (dhak) used). 179 Y wAxt, T wot, 
D wot. 181 C psaeth. M- 182 C see. 183 C Wtj. 190 kee. 193 
kl«m. 194 VT mi, YD ont. 197 tiiz. 199 C bl<^. 200 weet. 201 C 
wdb'n. jE': — stdz [seeds]. 207 nid'l. 210 kl6i. 214 VTD nao'idbirR. 
215 C taat. 218 C ship. 220 YD zhxphBRD, T —r. 223 DC dha)B dbvB. 
224 VTD WQOB. 227 VTD wEt. 

E- 233 Y epeek, D speek. — «t [eat]. 252 Y kBtl, TDC kit'l. 
E; 256 Y ZDBBfat, T sraifat. 261 VT zii, D zdi. 262 VTD wft». 265 
W stridt. 276 YD dhiok, Vx dhsqk. 278 wBnsh [always used for rirl in a 
good sense]. 281 V Isnth, DT Isqkth. 284 DBBsh. 287 C b«z*m (Common 
word for all kinds of brooms], — T b«i*st, D bnst [best]. E': 313 DT 
aank'n. 314 V ti^BD, TD jit'BD. 315 D vits, C fit. 

EA- 320 VTD kiiiiB. EA: 322 V laf, T Iffif. 323 fao'wt. 326 VT 
o'Mld, D ioBld, W 6Mld &Mld. 330 V ha>'tild, so'tdd. 332 V tiwld, T tslt, D 
tBld. 333 C ksefef. 335 T »»!, DV aaI. 338 Y kAAl, T beeel, D kaaU. 
— aaBD [bard]. 343 C waaBm. 346 D glvt, W gjst. EA'- 347 D jsd, 
C «d. 348 VTD ao'iz, C 6i. 349 Y vtiiu. EA': 364 C sh«f . 365 C diBf . 
356 C Wf. 357 dh&M dhoo. 359 T n&ibvB, D n^tbiiB. 361 bom. 366 VT 
gaoBT. 370 C Baa. 371 C sraaa. 

EI: 377 C stink. 378 T wewk. EO- 386 C Ja)'f#. EO: 390 V zb«d, 
T shMd. 394 V jomdvb, D jondvbz. 398 fC (klsBm) used]. 399 YD bBa>'it. 
402 D laoBN, T laaBK. EO'- 411 VTdC DBii. 412 [(sob) her, used in 
nom., (shii) in ace.] 420 C vao'uB. 421 C faBti. 421 vo*Bth. EO': 422 
W zik. 425 C 16it. 436 [C (dhii) always used, even to superiors, pe^iaps 
from large quaker communityj. 437 VT nuuth, D TBmth. £T- 438 VTD 
dao'i. EY: 439 V TBist. 

I- 440 C week. 441 ziv. 446 € n6in. 447 Y a>B [T (shiiz) she*s, used]. 
I: 452 VTD ao'i, C 6i [evidently an error of my informant]. 455 VTD laol, 
C 16i. 459 C B6it [? Ba'ft]. 466 sEti. 467 VTOC tjao'ild, W tja'il. 480 V 
dhiq, T dhBO. 484 YD dhis [T (dhik) used]. 487 JistBBdi. — nt [hit]. 
r- 495 VT w®'in [D («>'fil) howl, used]. 496 nhaoiBN. V: 506 VTDC 
MUtm. 510 Y mao'in, T mWin [and generally (a)'i)]. 

0- 519 T BBVTO. 524 VTD wadbld. 0: 531 daamm. 538 VTD iid. 
546 v'b. — [C (paaq) prong used for fork]. 547 buu'BD. 550 T wqobo. 
551 C staBm. 552 C kaBN. 0'- 559 C madhBB. 564 zuun. 0': 571 
Y gwd. 577 C boo. 578 C ploo. 579 VT wiaf . 686 Y diomt, T da)nB, D 
doo'nt [don't]. 687 'VTD dan. 592 V zwaoBD zoo'b [both used], T swaaB, D 
zwooB. 596 C fat. 

U- 601 fool. 602 zdyu. 603 W Bkamin. 604 VTD ztoibb. 605 VTD 
xan. 606 TD duutsR, V doo'B, W diiBB. U: 608 C [(onuBBi) ordinary, used}. 
610 CmI.- 612 VTDzam. 615 C poond. 616 VDT raao'and. 619 YD 
va>'t#*nd, T fao'tmd. 627 VTD zsndi. 631 dhaoBzdi. 632 VT ap. 633 C ktm. 
634 YD DBa>'u, T dbuu, W thruu. U'- 643 D nae'^u, W na u. U': 668 
VTD deo'im, C doon. 659 C toon. 663 VTD a)'MS [pi. (a)'«z*n) C]. 665 C 
moos. 666 VT azban [(mee'stBB) used D]. 

Y- 673 T matj. 676 VTD DBao'i. 676 C 16i. 682 VT l»t*l. Y: 690 
C k6ind. 691 C m6ind. 701 VTD vast. Y- 705 C sk6i. 706 VTD wa)'i. 
T: 709 C f6iB. 712 C miis. 

[ 1499 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

68 THE HID SOUTHERN, [D 4, Y ii, iii, 

n. English. 

A. 726 VD tAAk, T t®8Bk. 732 V ap'n, T aep'o. 738 T pRiit. 

E. 748 C flisht. 749 W lift. 752 VXD tkbI. 

I. and T. 754 C pseg [heard from the old man who called hacon (b&ik*n)]. 
758 V gjaoRL, W gjsRL. 

0. 761 [(baDRD^n) always lued C]. 765 ;dpn. 767 T n&iz. 781 T bodhw, 
791 V biio'i, T bua)'i, D bCi6». tJ. 804 V DRaqk'n. 

U. 804 V DRspk'n. 


A •• 813 C b&tk*n [heard from an old man]. 814 meesnaR. — C [(bskit) 
bucket always used for pait], 824 tjii*R. 835 Reez*n. 857 T kiis. 862 T 
siif. 864 kdz. 

E- 867 VCt^, TD tee. 878 soIbri. 887 [(paeflBs'n) parson, used C]. 
888 YTD zantin. 890 YC \)eetX, T biimt, D bf*st. 892 C nsTt. 

I .. a^u; Y .. 901 Y Yao'in, T fai'in. 904 v6ilet. 

0-. 916 C&inwiz. 920 YT puoeint, D paotnt. 925 YT t«u8., 929 
koo'kvmbvR. 938 YT kaRnsR, D kdRRBl. 939 Y VUxyt [T («na)'t) anigh, used]. 
940 YD ku?at, T kooH. 941 YDT yuul. 947 Y b6tl, TD bae'il. 950 YT 
sspaR. 955 YTD dao'vts. 

XJ.. 964 C stiUBt. 969 YTD zhtiuBR. 

Yab. iii. The Nobth-Westebn ob East He. Fobm. 

As we shall see, all He. is afPected by the 1^8. dial., but the 
little slip which runs up from Gl. into He. is so strongly MS. that, 
although there seems to be a little falling off as we go on, I have 
found it necessary to place it in D 4. The w. b. of this slip is the 
w. b. of the S div. The e. b. is formed by the barrier of the 
Malvern Hills. The first considerable place we meet is Boss on 
the Wye. About this dialect a correspondent signing himself W. 
H. Green, who said he was a native of Boss, but whom we have 
been unable to identify, sent a letter in his own spelling to Prince 
L.-L. Bonaparte, from which, in conjunction with notes fix)m Upton 
Bishop, and a very few words given to .TH. by Mr. Joseph Jones, 
bookseller, Hereford, the following inferences are drawn : 


EoB8 Pronunciation. 

is used for (s) in to «ee, «ome, raid ray, «ow (pig). 

is used for (f) in/rom/ind/olk/riend/anner/or/orty/orget o/*ended (P). 
[ii«} is used in late, plagued, place master, translate quakers, implying the regular 
MS. change m A- words, but (ssd) is found in davey a local words 
I&i) is used in say way straight n^'ghbour. 
a'o) apparently is used in Imow and (uA't) in boy. 
[n) is heard in put. 

idhtk, dhak) are used, 
bist) thou art, (srn tm) she, he ; (dhii) thou, (vt, wst) wilt, would'st, I be^ they 
bfeu'i^ I did want. 
All these are strong marks of D 4. 

Going further n., TH. got from Stoke Edith, (gr&tn ffttvR ddi 16«*t,n) grain, 
fair, day, day, laying and " I told ahe.*^ But in this latitude at Ledbiuy, ana 

' Eggleton, {' 

[ 1500 ] 

further n. at Much Cowame and Eggleton, there are very distinct marks of the 
same dialect in the following examples. 

Digitized by 


D4, Viii.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 69 

Three Interlinear He. cs. 
FROM Ledbury, Much Cowarne, and Egoleton. 

L marks the cs. specimen for Ledbury (12 e. Hereford) written by Rev. C. 
Y. Potts, and the late Mr. Gregg, solicitor, both of Ledbury, and pal. by AJ£. 
from the diet, of Mr. Gregg. 

C marks the specimen for Much Cowarne (9 ne.Hereford) written in phonotypy 
(see Part IV. 1183 c) by Mr. Joseph Jones, bookseller, of Broad Street, Herefora, 
irom the diet, of Mr. Herbert Ballard, Leighton Court, Bromyard, and pal. by AJ£. 
As the diphthongs were unanalyzed in phonotypy, I have adopted the forms (a'i, 
o'm) heara by TH. when visiting Much Cowarne in 1881. Possibly Mr. Gregg's, 
which I heard as (ao^i, ao'i/), were meant for the same. 

E marks the Eggleton (8 ne.Hereford), practically the same as the Much 
Cowarne, written by Miss Anna M. Ford Piper, of Blackway, Eggleton, for 
Prince L.-L. Bonaparte (who passed it over to AJE.), with an ingenious and 
exhaustive rhyming key to the pron., supplemented by long notes from Miss Mary 
E. Piper and her brother, who considered that the true He. speech began about 
Stoke Lacy, Pencombe, and Bromyard (9 ne. 10 nne. 13 ne.Hereford), slightly 
to the w. of Much Cowarne and Eggleton. From the key and the notes and TH.'s 
Much Cowarne words, the cs. has been pal. by AJE. The difference between 
Ledbury and Eggleton these informants considered to consist chiefly in the greater 
"guttiiality" of Much Cowarne, adding that horse is (ans) at Ledbury, but (oe) 
in Cowarne. 

The substantial phonetic agreement of all three renderings obtained from such 
widely different sources (notwithstanding some evident diuectal slips which are 
inevitable when writers have not themselves spoken the dialect naturally in their 
youth) shows that the correct pron. must have been fairly reached. 

Miss Piper added some further specimens which are given below with a trans- 
lation interlined. 

0. L Ledbury. woo'/ :djAAn •ez noo doa'ttts 
C Much Cowarne, wo'* :d|a'k a'nt noo da'wts 

E Eggleton, wa'i :d^AAii o)nB got noo m»sgrv«iz 

1. L wal, naibBR, juu Bn «m mki boo'th la^f vt dhi8 iVr ntuuz 
C weI, naibvR, juu «ii tm mat booth on)jB laaf Bt dh»8 iVr ntuuz 
E wtftfl, naibBR, bwotb on dhB vook ma» lof Bt dh»k ntuuz 

L B mao'tn. uu kjaRz ? dha't)8 neo't'dhBR iVr ubr dhaR. 

C Bz o'rdB tEl JB. huu dB keeR ? dhot)8 niidhBR jhr ubr dhecR 

E BZ o'l B got. uu keeBRz ? dhot jont jiIbr ubr dhiiBR 

2. L vIa'w mEn dao'* kAAz dha)R la^ft Bt, 
C fjo'w f M^aks dB da't kos dihee dB gEt la*ft Bt, 
E dhiiBR jant bat vta't< menkja'tiid bz da'iz koz dhai bi loft Bt, 

L wi nA'ttz, doo'nt as ? wAAt sh'd meek Bm ? tlant ver« 
C wii dB nku dan bs? wot 8h«d mfak Bm? it jEnt ver* 
E wii ua'wz, dwant)e8 ? wot 8hfid miBk Bm ? «t bjant ver» 

L leo'tkli, iz tt ? 
C la'tkli, biitt? 
E la'ikli, bii«t? 

[ 1601 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

70 THB MID SOUTHBRX. [D 4, V iii. 

3. L AABomE'YVB dhiiz bii dhi faks «)dhB kees, zoo djast A'fid roR 
C 'lii8t)diz dliiiz)jBr bEnt noo Id'iz, zoo juu dpcst a'wld jbb 
E s'usBmB'VBB tt WBZ atBB dhtk wdt, boo d^ast d'ud dh« 

L ndiz, )ni bi kwao'iet t»l oo't « dan. Itik t^B nao'tf! 
C Ba'tf, a'ttld bwA'i, vn ran a'tsht til e't « dan. aaBk)t! 
E ndtz, mon, vn ba'tsht ttl 9't bi dan. AAsk'n! 

4. L Qo't bi zaBtm a>'t ii'sd vm zii — ^zam « dbsm vooks oz 
C 9'« bi shuuB a't jeBd tm edi — sam o dbsm t^ps az 
E 9'« bi shuuBB «z 9't hiiBBD «m zai — zam « dhi» vook «z 

L wEnt DBOD'tf dhB wal dhiq vBam dh^ yaBst dh«BZB*lYZ — dba^t 
C ndttd aaI Bba'wt *t vBom dh« vEst, dfd a'« shuuala'r. 

E WEnt DBa'u dh« wbI dhtq yB9ni dh« vast dhfBBZE'lvz — dhot 

L a>'« d»d zeef tmaf . 


E 9'» d«d Bdtf'f «naf. 

6. L dhot dhv jaqest zan tzzE'lf, « greet bwA't « nao'tn, nA'fid 
C ez dh« Iftlest bwA't izse*!, b jaq)Bn o nao'in jbb a'uld, nai^d 
E dhot dh« Jaqest bwA't tzze*lf, « ga^M bwA'» « na'm, nA'fid 

L iz Yee*db«Ez y^i's vt wanst, dhoo it wbz zoo ktrtVvB tm 
C iz fladhBEz taH's Bt wanst, a1 ramt im 

E bimz y^MlhBsz vdts Bt wanst dhoo b wbz boo ki^^^B Bn 

L sktriiki, Bn ao't)d xaast 'tm tB spiik dhB TBuutb Eni 
C skwdikifa'td, Bn tm «d)nB tEl noo la'iz ta noobodi, 
E sku^fBktn, Bn a'i ud TBast 'tm tB spiiBk dhB TBtith ant 

L ddt, dt, »')-td. 
C noo B «d)'nt. 

E dai, dt, a't *iid. 

6. L Bn dhB Aid tonBn bbze'U ul tsl £nt on m bz la^fs noD'ti, 
C Bn dhB a'wld innBn BBse-l u\ tsl Eni o ju tjaps ez iz [wot)8] 
E dhB a't^ld innBn BBze'lf ul t£L snt on dhB bz bfs na'u, 

L Bn tsl Jn sTBdit of, tun, Bdhao'ttt matj bodhBB, tV ju)1 
C Bgrt'ntn, widho'tft noo fas nAB bodhBB, tf Juu 

E Bn t£l dhB STBdit of, tuu, udha't^'t mat^ boothBr, tf dhii)dst 

L oont a'sk bb want bb? 

C ooni aksBZ br, dt, br ul 

E onlt a'ks br want br, mdt bi ? 

7. L liistwdiz B toold tt 'mii wEn a>'t a'kst br, tuu br dbU 
C liist jdtz BR dtd t£l)mi wEn a't akst br tuu ar dhaii 
£ lEstwdiz BR t£ld tt maa wEn a't akst br, tuu ar nidi 

[ 1602 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D4, Yiii.] THB MID SOUTHERN. 71 

L toVmz ooTBE, BR didj vn 'wr HAtynt ts bt rAAq on dha^t 
C ta'imz d'fiYvr, on *aR ds niu «z weI bz moost, 

£ ta'tmz 97BR, d»d RR, tm 'ZR ad)*nt AAt in bi raq in dhik 

L poo'mt, WAAt d)n dht qk ? 
C wot d)jR thiqk ? 

E jiiRR kfitss, wot dost dhii dh»qk ? 

8. L weI, rz a>V wrz Rzdrin, '8hii)d tEl)ji, a>'tf wrr Rn wsn 
C weI, vz a't wRz Rzdrtn, sr ud tEl)jR, q'u 

£ w^^l, Rz a'» wBz Rzdi'tn, aR ud tEl)dhR, a'w wfiRR Rn wsn 

L RR fsnd dhR DRaqk'n bii'st rr kAAlz rr xzbRn. 
C RR fa'tmd dhR DRaqkon bfast rz rr dR kAAl azban. 
E RR Ysmd dhR DBaqkRn bjsst rr kAAlz rr mon. 

9. L RR zooR RZ RR zih «in adh rr a'on eoVz Rlao'iin 
C RR d»d sweeR rz rr d»d sii lin wtd rr a'tm e'lz, Rla'rin 
E RR BdavR RZ RR sii tm tith rr d'tm d'tz Mr 

L znREtjt a't val lEnth on dhR grA'ond m iz zznde 
C vt ftfl lanth on dhR gra'tmd in iz sand* 

E sTRal^ a'tft Rt val Isnth on dhR jaaRth m dhot dhCiRR gud 

L ]Ltaoo\ klAAs bt dhR oo'tis doo'R dao'tm Rt dhR kAARn'l 
C goo* in koot, kloos RgE'n dhR dooR ov iz e'tis rz dR stand 
E zandikuuRt r iz'n, klos Rgs'n dhR duuRr r dhR e'us, da'tm 

L R dha't lee'n. 

C Rt dhR koRRRl ov dhat dheeR 1^^. 

£ Rt dhR kaaRnil r jandRR lain. 

10. L R WRZ Rwao'inin Rwdi, zEz-aR, yrr aaI dhR waRld lao'tk r 
C im WRR Rwa'inin Rwdi*, rr dR sdi, var aaI dhR wzttld lo'ik r 
£ R WRZ Rja'fi'lin rw^*, skz aR, faR aaI dhR uuRRld la'i'k r 

L zik jaq)Rn ar r lit'l wEnsh in r vREt. 

C jaq)Rn az iz bad, ar r lit'l wEnt^ r a'tilin. 

£ sik jaq)Rn ar r liVl WEnt| rz wrz frEt^et. 

11. L Rn dha^t a'p'nd rz 'aR Rn)RR dAAtBR Iaa kam 
C Rn dhat dheeR dtd ap'n rz rr Rn)ttR dAAtRRinlAA did kam 
E Rn dhot WRZ djast rz rr Rn)RR dAAtBR Iaa kam 

L DRao'tf dhR ba'k jaad VRRm a^qin ao'ut dhB wEt klooz 
C dRd'u dhR gjafidiq aatBr aq'in a'ut dhB klwaz 

E DRd'tf dhR bok jaard wCIrt ad bin r a-qin a'ift dhR wseaet klooz 

L tB DRao'i on b wBshin ddi, 
C on dhs lo'inz on b woshth ddi, 
£ tB DRa'i on R wEshin dii. 

[ 1603 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

72 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, V iii. 

12. L wao'il dhB kEt'l wbz Bbaorlin vbr tii wan vao'in bKaoVt 
C WEn dliB kEt'l WBZ Bba'ilin fsB tii, wan fa'm 

E dhtt waMd dh« kit'l wbz Bbo'tlin fon tii, wan fa'm bRo'it 

L zamvE aatBRnuun oont is wtk vguu* kam nskst thazd^. 
C zamtJRZ aatBRnuun a'tmli is wik Qgs'u* kam nEkst thaazdi. 
E zamBB atBRnuim anli b wik «guu' kam nEt dhaazdi. 

13. L Bn d)ji jia}u ! a>'i nEVTSR laRnd noo moo'R nvE dliis 
C tin duu JB ndtt ? o't nEVDB iind noo mooR 

E Bn dast dhB nA'ii, bz a't nEVBE laRND ant muuBR nBR dhi k 

L B dha^t btznis ap ts dhts dai, bz zhuu'R bz mii 

C on)t ap tB dbts iiR daf, bz shuuR bz ma^* 

E B dhat dhfiBE hiz'iiis tH tBdat, bz sbuuBR bz mo'i 

L nee'm)z :djAAn ishEpBRd, Bn so'i doo)'nt wont tu nao'idhBR, 
C n^fm)z :d^ak zshepBt Bn a'l da)na wont tu niidbBR, 
E nfiBm bi id^^An ishepBRt, Bn 9'% da)nB wont tB nsdhBR, 

L dhaR nao'u ! 

C ZB -dliEt bi dhB End on)t. 

E dhiiBR na'ii. 

14. L Bn zoo qo'Or Bgwee'n warn tB sapBR gud nao'it, Bn 
C Bn zoo 9'i bi is^in warn tB av zam zap'BR gud na'tt, Bn 
E Bn 800 e'tbi gwii'in warn tB zapeR gad na'tt Bn 

L doo'nt bi zo vaast tB Ilra^u oovbr b bodi agja-n, wan 

C da)nB bi zb anko'mBn ku^tk tB kok o'mvbr b felsR Bge'n, wEn 
E da)nB dhs bi' so ku'tk te kuA^u oybr b bodt Bge'n, wEn 

L B tAAks B dhis dha't b tadhBR. 

C tm dB tAAk ov dhts jbt ar dhat dheeR. 

E B tAAks B dhtk dhot ar tadhBR. 

15. L it)8 B puu'R A'tif bz pree'ts Bdhao'wt Riiz'n. Bn dha*t)s 
C tm bii [fz] b haas bz bii IiaaIi's b djabBitn Rabtsh. dhot)s dhB 
E tt)8 B dAAndBRf'q o't/f bz preeBts udho'u't zEns. Bn dhot 

L m9o'i laast waRd, gud bao'i. 

€ best ntuuz o't b got fBR ja, a'wld bwA't ! na'ti e'i mBn t^A ma'» 

E bii ma'i lAAst uubud, gtid hii, 


C danrek, ar o'» 8ha)nt av noo sapBR — uk it ! 

Notes to Z, the Ledbury cs. 

1. n/'tyA^r, not used in this way in latedly (dhrao'u) is used, but here he 

the dialect. said (araD'w) not revertinff (d r), a mere 

4. through, Mr. 6. said that iso- accident, few gentlemen learn to revert 

[ 1504 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D 4, V Hi.] 



(b) before a yowel. Ab to the th, Mr. 
Gregg gave, throi^h (dhra)'«#), throw 
(thTA'u), thistle (diz\ thin (dhin), thief 
(thtf), thick = that (dhtk), which 
indicated an inconflistent usage. — safe 
(zeef) meaning sure, but a (zee'f) for 
meat; the word ought to begin with 
(«) theoretically. 

6. aye I tcouldf I becomes (t) under 
such circumstances, the pron. ▼ar3ring 
with the construction. 

6. wonU A^, her is used for she, and 
the (b) is felt distinctly, as (want a) 
would stroit*^ he. 

9. oum (a'on) has a glide from the 
open to the rounded lips, (a) to (o). 
--ar<nmd, at first I wrote (a'a^) con- 
sidering the glide to be merely in the 
rounding, as in the last case, out sub- 
sequently (a'o] seemed to express it 
better, tne position of the tongue being 

also changed. Similarly growth was 
called (gRA'oth), nearly (gRA'Mth). — 
that latte, (ion) is found in the dialect 
and might naye been used here. 

12. aftemooHf Mr. Potts says evening 
would be used, Mr. Gregg just the 

13. shepherd as a name has (sh), as 
an occupation ^zh). 

14. I are^ this is rare, I be \s com- 
mon, he are^ he be wee never used, Mr. 
G. said that **beia invariably med by 
uneducated people with each of the 
persona] pronouns both in the sing, and 
pi.,** this is probably too wide an as- 
sertion. In this case {3)'i bii Bg^ee*n) 
would be more usual, the (a-) is pre- 
fixed onl]^ to the present, not to the 
past participle. Ihou is not found, 
out thee bitt, thee umst are constantly 

^otes to C, or the Much Cowame cs. 

15. Se is an ass as be always Jabber- 
ing rubbish. ThaVs the best news I 
have got for you^ old boy. Now I must 
take my danniok or I shanU have no 
supper. Mock it ! The word danniok 
was not explained, it may mean gaiters 
for which dannack is used in Nf . 

Mr. Hallam obtained in 1881 from 
Mrs. Sarah GrifiSths in almshouses at 
Hereford, b. 1816 at Much Cowame, 
where she lived till 7 and afterwards 
from 10 to 20, the following words, 
which are very ifair D 4. 

A- 21 n^. A: or 0: 64 r6q\ 
A'- 67 o'i hi gw&in w6m [I am going 
home]. A': 106 bsAAd. M- 138 
fMdh«B. JE: 161 da'*!, mtdU det. 
-Sr- 200 wif. M- 218 shtp\ 
223 dh^BK, 224 wIub. £- 233 

spiik. E: 261 saW, 262 wSi, — 

fild [field], 279 wEut. E- 2901,299 
gRiin, 314 srd. EA: 322 bf\ 
324 k'ii\ 326 awld. EA'- 347 Ja'd. 
EA': 360 dfa'd [approaching (diad)1. 
EI- 373 dh&»t. EO': — a'i sid im [I 
saw him]. I: 462 o't, 468 naif, 469 
o'i C»)na fl won't]. I'- 494 ta^tm. 
0: 531 dAAtaii, 638 (id, — krop [crop], 

662 kA'an. 0'- 565 shun, 669 madhaR, 
562 muun. 0': 687 da'n. U- 603 
aka-mtn [a coming], 606sd'n, 606d6BR, 

663 bat'. U': 663 a' ws'. U. —mad' 
[mud]. A" — pli'tntsh [plainish], 
841 tjA'ns, 861 neant [aunt], — 
gjand'n. E- 892 niviu. I- 899 nis\ 
•• — bif [beef], — naqkM [uncle]. 
TH. considers that unaccented (i ) should 
be written (ij here and elsewhere. 

JVo^ to JS, or the Eggleton cs. 

Min Piper seemed to have no rule 
for (s, z ; f , v) initial and said they 
were used ''indiscriminately.*' She 
wrote with (s) rick, «wore, «ee [ =«iwl, 
jwite [blow], «pittal [= spade], #will, 
«o, «ure, «afe, and witn (z), «ay, «ome, 
i9unday, tumer, «ense ; and sometimes 
with (s) and sometimes with (z) «eed 
and ceed, to sow and to sough, rider 
and rider, lummut and rummat. Again 
ahe wrote with (f) /rom, /ar, /rechet- 
like, /or, /ine, /irther, /ot [ = f etchedl, 
and with v /ew, /ather, voice, /ouna, 
/nil, /allow, /ield, retches, /ill, /eet, 
rictual, /our. Misa Mary Piper found 

these usages correct. If they were, 
they shewed that at this distance from 
the centre the instincts of the dialect 
were no longer felt. 

In the same way in construction Miss 
Piper used hiins for his, which seems 
a late development, and Miss Mary 
Piper said was rare. Again Aim had 
nearly superseded un for the ace. hine. 
Although in the examples, /, he are 
never t^ed for the ace. emphatic. Miss 
Piper considered it common. Miss M. 
Piper, also said that think, thing had 
(dh) and sure, sheep had (zh). 

[ 1605 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

74 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, V iii. 

Miss Piper's extra specimens for Eggleton, with her translation 

1. meesitBR, bii o'i « gwiiin tB ore dhs p(iBS BnHnt 
master, am I a going to hanx>w the piece (of land) opposite to 

dha voIb v«ld? 
the fallow field? 

2. a't ko)nB tfi^k dham dhfiBR osez DRo'ti dhat dhfivB jat. 

I cannot take those horses through that gate. 

3. dhiiBE bjant ztd-val^ez waai [wia'w] tB za!u dhB v«ld Bnant 
there are-not seed retches enough to sow the field opposite 

dhB pbk Bn if be wbz aaI DROsht bz bii in dhB 

the plock (small field) and if they were all threshed that are in the 

bABn, -laRd! 9'« da)na dhtqk bz dhdt)d t*1 b wiskBt val 
bam, Lord ! I do)not think that they- would fill a basket full 

BnEf [Bna'w] ts jap «m ap fafidBK nBE dhB bBtm. 
enough to heap it up further than the brim. 

4. BZ it WBZ Bgwdrtn da'tm dhB Idin, e't sii dhB bwd« at dhB 
as I was agoing down the lane, I saw the boy at the 

gafBRz op'lz «th dhB bRod-ak, Bn, Wi gom ! ii did 

gaffer's [master's] apples with the broad-hook, and, by gom ! I did 

gfv him B swa'it «th dhB sp/tBl Ba'tt on iz' jad. 
give him a blow with the spade right on his head. 

5. dh(iBE tm waz bI^* Bmoq dhB dad-dak Bn malak dpst bz if 

there he was a-lying among the dead-wood and dirt just as if 

B WBZ djad. 
he were dead. 

6. B WBZ bdd, noo vfiBR, b wor)nt jab'l tB jat, Bn o'« tdd Bn B7 
he was bad, no fear, he wa8)not able to eat, and I tdd him that 

tf f m ttd gu Bn swtl tmz vfiBs tn dhB brak bz b k«d go 
if he would go and swill his face in the brook that he could go 

atBR dhB stiiBRZ Bn fODBB Bm. 
after the steers and feed them. 

7. 800 B got on tmz tun vtt Bn o'* pat nn tn dhB kfiBRT, Bn 
so he got on his two feet and I put him in the cart, and 

gEn tm B ksk tB BttTc in dhB so'tdBr [zo'mIbr] kRg, soo bz b 
gave him « keck to stick in the cider keg, so that he 

[ 1506 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D 4, V iii, iY.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 76 

kitd gti z^mvit tB DBiqk atBB iz vitBl. 
could get something to drink after his food [yictoal]. 

8. me't umvD. Hbvld wba'wt it, dhs watld Br wbz sa'rm dhB mtlk, 
my wife heard about it, the while she was straining the milk, 

Bn, ba't gosh ! sbi did gu on ; kr)z aaIiz f Reiptla'tk. 
and, by gosh ! she did scold ; she)8 always cross. 

9. e'l mnt dru uavsnYook Bn^nt dhEm dhiiBR a'Kz'n b juurn; 

I met three women [woman folk] opposite those [there] houses of yours ; 

dh^ WBZ B-magtn Bn BmfiBkm muuBB n^i'z iibb ya'tiBB tmdBRT 
they were a chattering and making more noise than four hundred 

manka'md t<d. 

men [man's kind] would. 

10. :toRLz WBZ Bla*q, Bn be aaI tsBJSd) intu dhot dhfiBE ya'uld 
Charles was along, and they all turned into that [there] fold-yard 

B fz'n, Bn Diov dhB ship mtu dhB huzi uth. e'tiBRX. 
of his, and drove the sheep into the shed with ours. 

Vae. iv. The SouTH-EAsrEEN oe Do. Fobm. 

Proceeding b. wards from Wl. we come to Do. The dialect is 
essentially the same, but at the e. end the (t, z) are less used for 
(f, s), a matter of education. The (ai) varies much as (ee'i) and 
occasionally even (ii). The A- is rather (cb, ee') than (fB, i') and 
falls into {ee) rather than (ii). The first example, a dt., was kindly 
given me w. by Mrs. Clay-Ker-Seymour, to whom the dialect was 
very familiar, and represents the pronunciation of her own district, 
Hanford (4. nw.Blandford). The same lady had also assisted Eev. 
E. A. Dayman of Shillingstone (5 nw.Blandford) to fill up a wl., 
which she subsequently went over with me w., see p. 80. 

A C8. was obtained from Mr. Clarke, native of Cranbome (12 
ene.Blandford), and was pal. by me from diet, of Major-General 
Michel, being subsequently corrected in a few points by corre- 
spondence with Mr. Clarke, who was Master of the Schools at 
JUngwood, Ha. (19 wsw. Winchester), the dialect of which place he 
found to be the same as his own. This was confirmed by a few 
words I obtained w. from a carter, native of the place, and from 
a wl. furnished by Mr. W. W. Farr from the comparatively dialect- 
less district about Christchurch (20 sw. Southampton), and other 
indications, so that this strip of Ha. is reckoned dialectally as e. Do. 

Finally the late Eev. W. Barnes, Winterbome Came, well known 
through his Do. poems, took great pains with a cs., which he wrote 
in a systematic orthography (see p. 80), and kindly explained by' 
correspondence where any oimculty occurred. He also filled up a 

[ 1607 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

76 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, V ir. 

vrl, for mc, which is given on p. 80, embracing also the most 
important words in the Cranbome, Hanford, Shillingstone, and East 
Lul worth (12 se.Dorchester). The Cranbome and Winterbome 
Came cs. are given interlinearly for more easy comparison. 

Hanford, Do. 
dt. pal. by AJE. from diet, of Mrs. Clay-Ker-Seymour. 

1 . zoo ao'i dB zEi/t, mi la?dz, xnu dB zii na'ow dhaet ao't bi Bhao'i t 

hafout dhtk dheea ItVl miid kom'Bn from dhB skuu'l ap 

2. shii bi go'n da'oim dhB fihood dbuu dhB RhEd giiBt on dhB Ihtft 

hsend zso'td bv dhB wat. 

3. shuu'R Bnaf" dhB t|9o'«LD hBv B)go'n sTRnilit sp tu dhB dooBR 

BV dhB Rhaq ha'oMS. 

4. weoR shi mid tpans tB vaoVnd dhtk dhecR DRHaqk'Bn dnf 

shRHaemd wau) tjoep bao'» nee'm bv :Bhtt^d. 

5. wii dB aal ndou Bn taRb'l weI. 

6. imt dhB wau) tjaep suun laan shi not tB duu Bt Bgt'n-, puu'u 

Bzdoul ! 

7. l«k)i dheeR ! td)'nd-«t trhuu ? 

XoUt to Kaiiford dt, 

1. Say^ not (z&i). The words in incorrect. Left^ the Toiceless (Ih) was 
^G wl. 139 to 148, 160 to 166, EG distinct and insisted on. 
237 to 243, 257 to 264, EI 372 to 3. Going, the sound was rather nn- 
382, and EY 438, 439, are very certain; I HTote both (go' n) and (gA*n). 
variously treated in this form of the 3. 5<rai7and 4. I^i-ww/wijtheaspira- 
dialect ; see these numbers in the fol- tion of (r) was apparently shewn by 
lowing cwl. But in thus pronouncing jerking out the following vowel, other- 
disconnected words some errors may wise Mrs. CKS. seemed to say 
have crept in. if(?to« not used ; (m^zan) (TKhaqken). 

is a common address even to an old man. 4. Shrammed^ properly starved with 

JVbtr, the diphthong sounded between cold. 

(a'M) and [ou) and I think the effect 6. Know, the (oo) was long and dis- 

was produced by commencing the first tinct and almost (ooj, the (m) was a 

element without rounding, producing full (u) ; the effect {oou\ was therefore 

a'o) and then running on to (m), giving different from the usually (oo'tr) where 

a'o«), at least I thus imitated it to (u) is not completely reached. 7W-- 

Itfrs. CKS.'s satisfaction. ribly, i.e. very ; common in all South- 

2. Road, the (r), not (r), at the be- em dialects, 
ginning of a svllable, was aspirated; 11. SotU, the word begins with (s) 

when I used (rh) it was recognised as on to which the voice b gradually led. 

Two Interlinfar East Dorset cs. (see p. 75). 

0. C Cranhome. wa'i rdjoon got noo da'uts. 
W Winter borne Came, whoo'i :djon Hb nuu da'ttts. 

1. C wkI, nEEbBR, JTiu Bn ii mid buuBth laa'f Bt dhfiBZ niuuz 
W weI, ndibBR, juu Bn hii m»d buBth la*f Bt whot ©'t 

r 1608 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D4, Vir.] THE MID 80UTHKRX. 77 

C B ma'in. uu dB kfBR ? dha't)8 nd^dhBr t*& hb 

W dB tEl)i. BQ whot if ja* duu ? dlia*t)B nao'idhBii hfBR iibh 

C dhea. 
W dhfBR. 

2. C viuu mEn dB dsH^ biko's dhe bi laa^ft Bt, wii dB noo, 
W viuu Took dB dao'i b bi'Bii laa*ft a*t, wi dB noo, 

C do)'nt as? wot shiuBld ni(Bk)Bm? t)td)*n vERt la'ikli, 
W doo)'iit wi ? whot shBd mfek)Bm ? t)id)'n vERi lao'ikli, 

C »z it? 
W iz It? 

3. C uuzui'TBR dhfBZ bi dhB fa^ks B)dhB)ki'8. zuu djist 
W a>'ttSBmE-vBR t)iz djist bz oo'i sIibI tBl)i. zuu djist 

C whoold dha'i taq, mfBt, bu bi ktra'i-Bt til a'i)v B)dan. 
"W hoold JBR nd^iz, gud ma^n, bu be kCia'i-Bt til a)'i)v B)dan. 

C Hhaa»Rk)i! 

4. C si'i bi saRt'n Go'i jiBRD)Bm zdi, zam b dh^^ Yooks dhxst 
W a)l)ni sa'RtBu a)'i hfBRd)Bn ziV, zam b dkBm rook dhBt 

C wEut DRuu dhB will dhiq vRom dhB vast dhBRZE'lvz, dha^t 
W zid dhB huBl a)t vRBm dhB vast tB laa^st. dha^t 

C a'i did, 8(Bf Bua'f. 
W Qo'i did, sfef Bnaf . 

5. C dhBt dhB jaqBst zan izzE'lf, b gaRX biioi b na'iii, iio<Ki hiz 
W dhBt dhB jaqgBst zan hizzElf, b gaoRX biia'i b na)'in, nood hiz 

C f EEdhBRz vois Bt uuns, dhoo it waR za kM^EBR bu skt^^CBkin, 
W faa'dhBRz vd'is Bt uuns, dhoo t)wa)R zb ku^^R bu skiiiiki, 

C Bn a'i)d TRast)'n tB spick dhB TRUuth sni ddi. dai, 
"W Bn aD'i)d tfBk hiz waoRD ini dii. -dha't 

C a'i ttd! 
W eo'i ud ! 

6. C Bn dhB woold tmiBn hcRZE-lf il tsl Eni)Bv)i dhBt dB laa^f 
W Bn dhB xioold umBn hBRZE'lf ul tEl ini)B)i dhB sfcm, dhoo 

C na'fi, Bn tEl)i sTREE'it oof, tuu, wi;a'u*t 

W Juu dB laa'f nao'u, bu tEl)i oo'uTRao'it, tuu, va'st 

C matj bodhBR if juu)l ooni a*ks hBR, oo wo)'nt br ? 

"W Bna-f. if tuu)l oonli a*ks br, aa*, eo'i -bliiv shi 'ul? 

[ 1609 J 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

78 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, V ir. 

7. C li'stwEi/iz shi tuitld it mii, wEn a 'i a'kst)BR, tuu nu DRii 
W Bt liBst shi tuBld 'mil, whEn sH a'k6t)tJB, tuu bb dbu 

C ta'tmz oovBE, shi d«i, vn -shii dtd)'n aa'bI t« hi raq on 
W tao'imz aavbr, shi did, tin -shii AAt)n tB bi matj oo'ut 

C Bit} B puof'nt BZ dhts, wot)BZ -dhii dhiqk ? 

"W BpBn Bitj B piiao'int bz -dha't, whot dB -juu dhtqk ? 

8. C weI bz a'i wbz B)zd^rin Bhii)d tEl)i, a'u waR Bn 
W weI bz Qo'i WBR B)zfrBn, 8hii)d tEl)i hao'u Bn wh^^R, bu 

C WEn shi va'und dhB DRaqk'n bft?s shi dB kaal hBR 

W whin shi voo'un dhB DRaqk'q bfBst bz shi dB kaa'l hBR 

C azbBn. 
W hazbBU. 

9. C shi zoo'r shi zid)'n wt br oon a'iz B)lEE-m sxREtjt 
W shi zuBR dhBt shi zid)'n wi br oon ao'iz B)lao'i'Bn B)sTRa'4t 

C Bt vul lEqkth on dhB gRa'un, m hiz brss zand> 

W OD'ut Bt vul la*qth BpBn dhB gRSo'un, m hiz bEst zandi 

C kuuBt, kluBS, bii dhB duBR B)dhB a'us, da'un Bt dhB kAKUBR 
W kuBt, kluBS bii dhB duBR B)dhB hao'us, dao'un Bt dhB kaRUBR 

C B)dhB h'Bn JONDBR. 

W B)join)BK h'Bn. 

10. C hii WBR wa'inin BWEE'i, zes shii, vbr aaI dhB waRL 
W dh{BR hi WBR, shi zEd, b whimpBRBn, vbr aaI dhB waoRL 

C la'ik B zik tja'ild br)b, lit'l mEE'id B)vREt'n. 
W loo'ik Bn a'ilBU t^ao'il, br)b frEtvul ItVl maid. 

11. C aal -dha^t wbr when shii Bn hBR daatBr-m-laa 

W Bu dha^t ha^p*md bz shii bu hBR dAATBR-tn-lAA wvr 

C kam DRuu dhB ba^k j^brd vrom aqBn a'ut dhB wEt 
W B)kamBn druu dhB ba'k la^RD vRBm ha'qBn ao'ut b dhB wEt 

C kldoBz tB DRa'i. on b wEEshBn dEEf, 
"W klooz tB DRao'i BpBn dhBR woshBU diV. 

12. C wa'il dhB kid'l wbr bo'iltn fBR tiV uun bRa'it 
W whao'il dhB kiVl wbr B)buao'ilBn vBr tiV uun fao'in bROo'it 

C zamBR aatBRnuun, ooni b wiik Bguu kam nsks dhaRzdi. 
W zamBR a^ftBRnuun, oonli b wik Bguu kam UEks dhaRzdt. 

13. C Bn dast dhi noo? a'i ne\'BR Wrnt Eni moo'r dhBn dhts b 
W Bn d)i noo ? dha*t)s aa4)z iVbr oo'i hiBRD b 

[ 1610 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D 4, V iv.] 



C dhaH dpi) ap te todEEH qz 81iuubr)z maH nfom iz 

W dha^t d^ob ybbiii vast tB laa*st, bz TBua)z mao'i nfem »2 

C :dpn ishtpBRD, vn. a'i do')nt wAnt tB 

W :dpn rshEpBRD, Bn oo'i doo)nt want tB hfBB ihi muBr 0)t 

C nadhBr. dheeR nau. 
W nadliBR. dhfer naD'u. 

14. C Bn zuu a'i bi v)gw%Hmi wuBm [huBm] tB zapar. gud 
W Bn zuu a)'i)m B)guuBn huBm tB sapBR. gud 

C na'it Bn do')nt)i bi zuu ktriTc tB kRoo oovbb b bodi BgfBu 
W noo'it BU doo)nt)i bi sb REdi tB ksjoo aavbb b bodi BgfBU 

C WEU hii dB taa'k b dhts, dha't or t)adhBR' 

W if hii dB sptVk b wa)Bn b dh»B, dha^t Br t)adhBB. 

15. C t)tz B week fuuBl dhBt tja^ts Bdha'ut reez^n. 

W t)i;5 B nim dhBt dB tAAk Bdhaa'ut mi gBao'unz vaB)T. 

C Bn dhaH)8 ma'i laeoBst waBD. gwd bua'i. 
W B dha*t)s aaI oo'i ha*v tB zii, gwd buao'i. 

^otee to Wj or Winterbome Came. 

1. at what I do tel ye, or, (a)'i)m 
ii)gQU*«n t« tBl)i) ; h aspirated in ichat. 
TEis Tariant occutb in another copy 
which Mr. Barnes sent to Prince L.-L. 
Bonaparte. These TariantB will he 
marked LLB. in future. 

2. very (oovbr) LLB. 

3. U is Just as I shall tel ye, (dhiz tz 
d|i8t ha>'n t)wa)R) LLB. yood man, 
(ma>'i gud baaI) LLB. hark ye, (haak'n 
t« what a)'i dB zii) hearken to what I 
do say, LLB. 

4. certain, or (shnu-BB). say, Mr. 
Barnes says Do.(zit), not (z&i). Gen. 
Michel eaye (zEB'i) which Mr. Clarke 
corrected to (z^). safe (sivf) LLB. 

6. ^r«»^, or rather (ha*RD). father* s, 
or (ieedhma). squ»atky, or (skuiik'n- 
lao'ik). lunmld take his word for it, 

Jx>'i)a TRZst hii rsr spttkBn dhB TBUuth) 
would trust he for speakiog the 
truth, LLB. 

6. lauffh, (gltin zuu) sneer so, LLB. 
Mr. B. says he did not catch the mean- 
ing of the original, fast enough, 
(wtdhaD^M't tni shtli sha^li) without any 
shilly shally. Oen. Micnel said that 
bother was used in the country. Ah, 
I believe she willf ('dha't shi wxl) that 
she will, LLB. 

7. at least (tniha)'n*) LLB. told me, 
** (ttivld) is nearer than ttisld,'' says 
Mr. B. (t6«ld it aa'nt ts -©i) told it 
out to me, LLB. She oughtnU to be 
much out, (kaa^)nt hi mat| a)'ut) can't 
be much out, LLB., or (TERi naq) very 
wron;?, not (nhaq), which is the rung of 
a ladder, upon such a point as that, 
(in 8t1^ a dhio vz dhts), LLB. JFhat do 
you think f (d) Jv dhiqk shi ka^n P) LLB. 

8. as (dhvt), LLB. 

9. swore, (veo'ud) vowed, LLB. 
stretched out (sTna4t ea'Mt) straight 
out, LLB. cloee by the door, (Ra)'it 
ffp agivn dhe dtivn) right up against 
the door, LLB. Of yonder lane ^)dhB 
Hbu ao'ut joudbr) LLB. 

10. world, (waonel), LLB. ailing, 
(ztk) LLB. fretful (fRBtvul) with (f) 
not fv), or (b litU m&»id B)fRBt*n) a little 
maia a-fretting. 

11. daughter, or (d«ptBR). were a- 
eotning, (ksm) LLB. 

12. that*s all that ever I heard of 
that iob from first to last, (ao'i nevBR 
hiBra tni m6BR b dhiBZ d^ob, dhBU what 
a)'i)v Bt6Bld) I never heard any more of 
this job than what Vve a-told you, LLB. 
true as (shuu' r Bz) , LLB . / don^ t want 
to hear any more of it neither, there 

[ 15H ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

80 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, V ir. 

now^ (ao'i doo)nt want tuhloK tni mdvR 15. ninni/, soft poll, LL6. that do 

nndliBU, zuu dhiuu noo'u) I don't want talk tcithont any gt-ounda for ity or {ds 

to hear any more neither, so there now. lEt hiz taq Rhan jsyoo^h htz utt) do let 

14. if he do apeak, (whtn hi do taa^k) his tongue run afore his wit. 
when he do talk, LLB. 

KiST Dorset cwl. combined from several sources. 

C Mr. Clarke's Cranboume (12 ene.Blandford), pal. by AJE. from diet, of 

Major-Gen. Michel. 
H Hanfoixl, from Mrs. Clay-Ker-Seyraour, from diet., rather refined. 
L East Lul worth, (12 se. Dorchester) from Rev. Walter Kendall. 
W Winterbome Came (2 sse. Dorchester) from Rev. AV. Barnes, his wl., cs. and 

Shonetic part of his Grammar, translating his systematic orthography of 
gures thus : 

long short 

1. sh^p pity (ii i). 5. It. a long It. a short (aa^ a^). 

2. Dorset <• ship (jii), this (it) has hardly 6. auc dot (aa, o). 

been given me by any others. 7. rope ImII (oo, a). 

3. mate bet {ec e). 8. rood It. « short (uu w). 

4. Fr. \e long Fr. \e short (aD «). 

Diphthongs 4. 1. (oo'i), 5. 1. (ii), 6. 1. (o'i), 4. 8. (a'u), 1. 4. (i«, Sb). I never 
had the advantage of hearing Mr. Barnes read. 
Note. — The pron. is said to be smooth, clear, and up and down in pitch. 

I. Wessex and Norse. 
When C is placed only after sounds, Mr. Barnes agrees with Mr. Clarke. When 
C is plac^ before sounds, it gives Mr. Clarke's pr. only. 

A- 3 WL blek, H b^Bk. 4 L tiek, H t^k. 6 W mlek, C mSBk, 
H mdcBk. 6 W mled, H mdeod. 7 H 8^»e«k. 10 L aa. 16 H daa»n. 17 W 
Iaa, CL laa. 18 W kiek. 19 WL tisl, H t4il. 20 L llem, H lee'm. 21 
nfem, C nimn, H neevm. 22 H t^emn. 23 H scesm. 24 II shcevm. 25 W 
m&in. 34 W lest, la^st, laa»8t, C laeajst, H Is'est. 36 H thoo. 37 L klaa, 
H tlaa. 

A: — W ka»g [keg]. — W nha^m [a rami. 39 C kam. 41 W tha»qk. 
43 H haend. 45 L wa'nt. 48 W za>q. 50 W toqz. 52 W won. 54 W 
wont, C WAnt. 55 H ees. 56 W wosh, C wsBsh, H wooshi. 57 W a^s, H a&ajs. 

A: or 0: 58 W vRvm, C vRom, H frwn. 64 C raq, H Rhaq, Rhoq. 

A'- 67 W B)guu-Bn, C «)gtra'in [going]. 69 L nuu. 70 L tuu. 72 LC 
nu. 73 zuu H and C, H zoo. 74 tuu. 76 W tfted, H t6Bd. 77 HL laRD. 
79 oon C. 81 W lira, C li'n, H Ifctn. 82 uuns. 84 W m6BR, C m6oBa, H 
m6QR. 85 W zticR. 86 W (icts, L woots, H wots, w(iBts, WBts [different 
appreciations J. 87 W klooz, C klooBZ. 89 W bQBth, C b6u8th. 92 W noo 
and C, H nooM [with {oo) and {u) distinct, not a vanish]. 94 kroo C. 97 H 
BZ(^otil [the word begins with (s) on to which the voice is led]. 

A': 101 W iiook, 6ek, L wook, H 6Bk. 102 W a'ks, H aa^sk. 104 W 
Rood, H Rhood[(rh) was recognised as wrong]. 106 bRood. 108 W doo. 109 
W loo. 110 n not. Ill W AAt, C AA't. H aat. 113 W h6Bl, C wwl. 115 
W hfiBm, C wu'm, hu'm. 117 WC uun [Mr. B. also writes woone']. 118 W 
bfianand L, H bo'n. 119 H go'n, gA'n. 120 W Bguu, C Bgw»#. 122 nuu, 
C noo [no], nQen [none]. 124 L stfiBU, H 8t6'n. 125 W oonli, C ooni. 126 
W oor. 127 W hooBS. 128 H [(dhik, dhr*-) used]. 129 H gost. — W IfiBth 
[loth]. — W Rhoo [a row or rank]. 137 WC nadhBR. 

M' 138 W faa'dhBR, f^rtihBR, LC fBEdhBR. 139 W drfeW, H dreb'i. 
140 WL h&'iBL, H hfeil. 141 W nfii»tBL, H n&il. 142 W sn^MsL. 143 W 
tfe>iBL, H t&il. 144 WH Bgiwn, C Bgt'n. 145 sl&'in and H. 146 mk'in and H. 
147 bR&>in and H. 148 fsBR. 149 H bl&tz. 150 W liBst, L and C liBst. 
— W silt [a seat]. 

[ 1512 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


M: 154 WC Wk. 158 W eciviK. 160 W a^g, H seg. 161 W dii, C dfii. 
CH dEB'i, L d&t, dte. 163 W lit, H \ki. 164 EC [(mtd) more used], H rafei. 
165 WH zEd. 166 WL mk'id, C mEE'id, H mkid. 169 W whin whEO, EC 
WBH, E whan. — W whiq [a wing]. — ha'ps [hasp]. — wa'ps [wasp]. 
171 AV beeRla)i. 175 W va'st. — W lint [late]. 177 E dhtet [(dhik) also 
used, Mr. Barnes says, for shaped objects]. 179 W whot, C wot. 180 E b^ewth. 

-S:'- 182 W sii, L Bee. 183 L tM|. 185 W niid, E nhiid. 191 W hiil, 
B hUri. 192 L meen, E mibn. 193 W kliBU, L Uem. — IIbu. 194 W tni, 
C mi. 195 W mini. 199 W bliit. 200 W whiit, L w«rt. 201 W hiidh'n, 
L wdh'n. 202 L het, B hEt. 

JE': 203 L spMj, E spliotj. — W mind [mead]. 205 W DRid. 206 E 
KhBd. 208 W ivBR. 209 C nevBR. 210 W klii, B klfiii. 211 W gRii. 
212 W whii. 213 WE fiiUdhBR. 214 W naD'idhcR, C n&idhcR. 216 E taat. 
216 E diiBl. 217 W iitj, L eeij. — W gliim [ffleam]. 220 W shBiWRD, C 
BhipBRD. 221 E fee^R. 223 W dhiBR, C dheR, E dhee'r. 224 W wh«BB, C 
WHR, E wee>. 225 L vlesh. — W sTRiit [street]. 227 WC WEt. 

E- 232 E bR^k. — W bRiiti [breach]. 233 spiik, C spiek, E sp^k. 236 
B fiivBR. 237 W blfc'in. 239 W 84'iBL. E akil. 240 W l&'in. 241 W 
Rh&in, L R&in, B Rh^rin. 243 WL pl&>i, B pMu. — W stiil [to steal]. 245 
W miil. 247 W wiin. 248 W mSBR, E m«'R. 249 B w«'r. 250 E 8w<?^r. 
251 W miit, E m/Bt. — W iit [to eat]. 252 W kit'l kit'l, C ktd'l, B kit'l. 

E: — W hiiY [heave]. 256 W 8TRa>tjt, C sTREtit [stretched]. 260 E Ifei. 
261 W zii, C zki zBE'i. — W trfei [a tray]. — W la'g [leg]. 26^ W w&»i, C 
WEEi, B wii wEEi. 263CWBWEB1. 264Wfc'il. 265 W sTRk'it, C STREE'it, 
E sTRHfeit [(rh) after (st) replacing (nh)]. 266 E wbI. 269 W dhBRZElvz 
[dhemselvesj. 270 E i. bnlds, ii. ba;li. 271 W tsl. 272 W ELBm. — W 
helBm [the helm]. 273 W min. 276 E stinsh. 276 W dhiqk. 277 E 
DRinsh. 281 W la'qth, C iBqkth, E leeqkth. 282 E sTRieqkth. 284 LH DRash. 

— W bast [to burst J. — W zEt [to set], W sst [a set]. — W bEst, biBs [best], 
E'- 293 W wii. 294 E spud. 296 W bUiv, E biliiy. 298 W fii'L. 300 

BL kip. 302 B mliBt. 303 E swUBt. F: — bRiitj [breech]. 305 E 

hao'i. 307 B na)'i. 308 E niit. 309 BW spiid. 310 B hu»L. 311 W 
tsn. 312 W hiBR, C ibr, E hiiBR. 314 W Mbrd, C jIbrd, E hsRD. 315 B 
fiiBt. 316 W nEks. 

EA- 317 W fl&'i, E m. — SbI [ale]. 320 C Wbr. 

EA: 322 W 1<-^, la«f, C laa»f. 324 W &'it, B kit, 325 B waak. 326 
fioold, LC woold, B wald. 327 W hHiOold. 328 W kuoold. E koold. 329 W 
vuoold, vfiueld. 330 W hoold, C whoold. 332 CW tfiBld. 333 L kEBf, E 
kaaf. 334 W h^, L hEsf, E haaf. 336 WC aaI, E aal. 336 W yaaI [the 
fall of the year is (fAxl)], E faal. 337 B waal. 338 W kaa 1, C kaal. 340 W 
Ya^RD, C ja*RD. 342 W SBRm, E jaoRm. 343 LB waaRm. — viBRN [fern]. 

— iBRN [earn]. 346 W glBt, LB gliBt gee't. 

EA'- 347 W hid hEd. 348 W ao'iz, C a'iz. — W biBt [to beat]. 349 
WC v.uu. EA': 361 W lid. 362 W Rid, E Rhad. 353 W bREd. 356 
W dif, L diif, B dE'f . 367 W dhoo. 369 W n&ibBR, LC uBEbBR. — W siim 
[a s^m]. — W sTRiim [streaml._ 361 WL bSBU. 364 B tjaep. 366 W uSbr. 

~" H B * 

— W niit [neat, cattle]. 366 W ga)RT, EC gaRT. 370 E: Raa>. 371 W 
meet B sTRaa^ 

EI- 372 W fe«t, C ftai, B ee'i. 373 L dhW, E dhEB'i. 374 n&'i, B nsB't. 
376 Rh«?z. 376 bfcWt, E b&it. EI: 377 E stee'k. 378 W wiik, C week, 
B wh«k. 379 W hk»il. 381 W swk'in, E ayreen. 

£0- 383 WzBy*nzEb*n. £0: 388 B m*Lk [as nearly as I could 

appreciate, same as D 10]. 390 C shifiBld. 394 WCE jdndbr. 402 W Ubrn, 
(J Ia»RN, E laRN. 406 W haaRth. 

£0'- 409 Ebu. 41lWEDRii. 412 WE shu [emphatic]. 413 W div'l. 
416 B diiBR. 420 W vsd'ubr, B foo^R. 421 E faRti. EO': 424 E Rhaf. 

— W witl [a wheel]. 427 E bi. 428 WE zii. 430 W fRind, B fRiind. 
431 B biiBR. 433 W bRist. 436 W truu, E trhuu. 

EY- 438 W dao'i, C da'i, E d&i. EY: 439 TRast. 

I- 440 W wik, C wiik. 444 W stao'tBL, E stao'il. 446 W nao'in and B, 
C na in. — W bu [him, ace.]. 448 E [(dhiBziBR, dhiiz'm) used]. 

B.E. Pron. Part V. [ 1613 ] 97 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

82 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 4, V ir. 

I: 462 W and H ao'i, C ■'i. 465 H lao't . 468 W nsD'tt, C nalt. 469 H 
]iha>'tt. 460 w&Ut, H woD'tt. 466 L sit;. 466 tjgo'il, C tpfild, H t|a>'tLD. 
467 H wao'ivLD. 468 H tjtldvRn. 469 ul [in the Vale of Blackmore {wu\ wxL 
wyl)]. — WL Bhim [a rim]. 471 H timlmB. 474 H Bha>'fnd. 476 H 
wWd. 477 H TSD'trad, H Ta>'fnd. 480 C dhiq. — - W nhtq [a ring]. 481 
H Ytq^. 484 C dhUtw, H [(dhta-ia) used]. — W Imipe [crisp]. — W 
ciks [Sx]. 

I'- 490 H bsD't. 491 H soD't. 492 H xso'td. 493 L DReer, H dbho'it. 
494 WH tGo'im, C ts'tm. 496 H ao'trair. 497 W vnhao'iz. 499 L btt*l. 

I': 600 W lao'tkli, C k'ikli. 601 H wsa'id. 602 WL rao'lr, H fao'iv. 603 
H la>'tf. 604 H nao'tf . 606 H wa>'ff. 606 WL mnvn, H umm, 607 H 
wtmtn-Ydk. — W h&i. 608 H mao'tl. 609 WH whao'il, C wm'il. 610 C 
ma'in. 611 H wa)'tn. 612 H 8pa)'iBB. 613 H wqd'ivb. 616 H wao'tz. 

0- 619 W AAVTO, C ocuvR. 620 H Wou [see 643]. — W booRD [bored]. 
624 W waoRL, C whrl, H wsrld, [(whbd'l) not known]. — W DR<wt 
[throat]. 0: — W gospel [goepelj. 626 C wf. 626 H kaaf. 631 W 
dAATBR, EC daatBR. 634 W hooi. 636 W vook. 636 WH gwLD. 637 W 
mOoold. — W boom [a holm island]. — W bolBR [hollowl. 641 C wo)*nt, 
H imt. 646 WC vro. — oRtjBd [orchard]. 647 buooRD, H b^BRD. 648 H 
foBRD. 650 CE WHRO. 651 WH staaRm. 552 WH kaaRN. 563 WH 
haaRn. 554 H kRa^s. 

0'. 568 H iMk, WjBk. 659 WH mii,«dhTO. 660 W skuu'l. 661 [L 
(blunth) iisedl H blt»ivm. 562 H mii|«n. 564 H sunn. 567 W t)adhvR C. 

: 669 W bi#k, H b«,Bk. 670 W t«k, H twjBk. 571 W giid. 572 W 
blad. 675 H st»,Bd. 576 W whtnizdi. 579 WH imxf. 586 WH dou 
[(d<»)*nt, C doVnt) don't]. 687 W B)dm. 688 WC nuun, H nii,im. 589 H 
spiJivn. 590 H fl»iBR. 591 H mw,«R. 592 W sAbr, C zooV. 594 H bt«i«t. 
696 H fi»,Bt. 696 W Rhuut. 

U- 601 W TSD nl. 603 W «)ksmtni [a-coming], H komvn. 604 W zsmra. 
605 W zan. 606 CW d6«R, H d6oQR. U: 609 C ymI, fuul. 610 H nnl. 
612 W zam. 614 H Hhao'wnd. 616 W gRa>'un, C gRa'nn. 619 W Ya)'un, C 
YHund. — W Rboq [rung of a ladder]. 625 C taq. 627 WC zandi. 629 W 
Ban, H zan. 630 W won, H wbon. — W hantsmBn. 631 WC dhaRzdi. 632 
H ap. 633 H kap. — W yotrz [firs]. 634 WHC druu. 639 WL da'ust. 

U - 641 ha)'i#, C a'n, [and] ao'usBmB'YBR, C uuzu)i'VBR [howsoever]. 642 
[not used generaUy, except to children or when wrangling]. 643 na>'w, C na'n, H 
na'ou [the diphthong seemed to be made into a triphthong by beginning with the 
mouth open and the tongue in the position for (o) and closing up to (w^, this is 
what (a'oM) implies ; and so in all other cases ; this triphthong was heard only 
from Mrs. Clay- Ker- Seymour]. 646 H ba'oM. 647 H a<^l. 648 H [(a'oMRM) 
used]. 650 H ba'ovt. XT': 656 W fao'ul, H fa'owl [see 643]. 656 Rhuum 
and H. 658 W da>'un, C da'un, H da'(wn[see 643]. 663 W ha>'us, C a'us, 
H ha'oMs [see 643]. 665 H maows. 666 W hazban, C azban. 667 W a>'ut. 
671 H ma'oMth. 672 H sa'otith. 

Y- 673 W matj. 674 W did. 676 W dr®!. H DRHao't. C DRa'i. 676 H 
loot. 679 W tjBti, H tata. 680 H bazi. 682 WH lit'l, C Ut'l. T: 684 
H bRHf i^. 685 W Rac^, H Rhiid;. 686 H ba)'t. 687 H fla>'tt. 688 W st^. 
693 H ssn. 696 WH banth. 698 WH msRth. 699 W Rha>'it. 700 uus, 
H was. — Yaz Yaz'n [furze]. 701 WL Yast. 704 W Yiks'n [female fox]. 
T- 705WHska)l. 706 WH whao'i, C wa'i. 707 WthaRtiin. 708HhaD'i'R. 
Y': 709HfQDVR. 71lWHla)'is. 712 H mro'is. 

n. English. 

A. 714 H IflBd. 718 W TRied. — W bi'iBl [bail or backet]. — R&'il [a 
rail]. — dr&'ibI [the drail or iron for hitching on the horses to a plough]. — 
:k&4n [Cain]. 725 zSbI. 726 tAAk, C taak. — H shRham. 732 W hay md. 
— W haaRL, haaRD'l, ha^RBl [to hurl, entangle]. — W kla^ps [clast]. 
737 C miBt, H [not used, replaced by (mi zan) eYen When addressing an old 
man]. — W dye [jaw]. 

E. — W kriik [to creak]. — W tiil [a teal]. 744 H msBz'li. 746 W 
i^, — w pift [peat]. 746 W bRiidh. 747 H ind#jYiR. 748 flidjd. 

[ 1514 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D4, YiT.] THE MID 80UTHBRK. 83 

— W AATia whriwn [oTerwhelm]. 749 H Ihtft. 760 WL Wg, H b«g. 

— WL pa^g [peg]. 752 frBtvul [fretful], C B)YBit'n [a frottmg]. 

I. and Y. — W iBhitpBd [Richard]. — W tmro'iul [a simle]. 768 H 
g«RL. — W t«a)BD»l, tiitBvl [twirl]. 

0. 761 L Ifiid, H Ithd, 766 W .dpn, C rdioon. 767 WL niMs, H nao'ti. 
776 W gNd b&a>'i, C gifd bftx'i. 778 W aT6uLD. 781 C bodhnt. 791 W 
bilo'i, C bfi6i, H b6». 

U. 797 W skuiiki, C sku^l'kin. 798 W kltlfiB, C kun'R. 799 L [(porf) 
used]. 801 and 802 Rhim. 804 DRxqk'q, C DBsqk'n, H DBHvqkim. — W 
kaoRL, ka)RD% kxR«l [curl]. — W pa>RL, pord'l, poRVL [purl]. 808 H p«t. 


A .. 810 W fies, H faa^B. 811 W pUes, H plaa^s [pi. (plaaVn) not beard]. 
814 W mSee'n. — W Wiial RmuI in law]. — W nkHiSi, [a mail or bag], 
— W p&Ul [pail]. — W Tl&«tl [flaU]. 819 H Rhaa>d|. 820 W gkH, 821 
W dil&t. 822 W mki. 823 W b&t. — W p&'t [pay]. 824 W tjee'R. 826 
W fig*!. 827 W tigBR. — W TB&Ul [to tril]. — W Rbum. 829 g&»in. 

830 H TR&in. — W kHvn [ur]. 832 W m&i;«R. 833 H p6eni. 836 
W Rif«»n, H Rb«CT'n. 836 W stiz'n, H siii'n. 837 W litsh. 838 W 
TRtft. — W pivl [pale]. 841 H toaas. 847 H deendpnr. 849 H sTReendfVR. 

— W Idvn [cane]. 860 L d^^ns, H daans. 861 H aant. — pfvpvR [paper]. 

— W djkHiti [gaol]. 862 H eepBRN. — W giBRD'N [garden]. — W 
i|i«Rm [charm]. — W kivRD [card]. 867 L kirn, H kaa>B. 868 H braa^B. 
869 H t|aa>8. 862 W sfef, C ai'f. 864 C bikoe. 866 H faaUt. 866 H ptiuvR. 

— W 8t&if [stay]. 

E" 867 wC Uu 868 WH djkH, 869 W Ytil, H yUbI. — W siil 
[to seal]. 874 W Rh&'tn, H Rh«m. — WpliUnt [paint]. 876 H ffctnt. 

— W mil [peal of bellfl]. 881 ssns. 886 W Tsni. 886 H frao't'R. 887 
H klandji. * — H imsh'l [terrible, extremely]. — vrs [verse]. 888 W saiRum, 
aiRt'n. 889 stts. 890 W bimt, C bi^s [H pi. bivstwtz]. 891 H tVst. 
894 WH dtsitT. 896 WH rmmt. 896 bityvR. 

l-.andY" 899 W nits. 900 H miki, — W ntni [ninny]. 904 HW 
To'fltit. 906 RhsD't'tit. ~ W a>'f] [isle]. 909 W bRiti. 910 H djao'tst. 
912 H Rha>'t8. 

0.. 917 H Rhoog. 920 W pfta>'int, pft6tnt. 922 H boshvl. 924 W 
^its, H t|a>'t8. 926 W ▼&!», H yao'ts. 926 W 8piia)'il, H 8p4tl. 929 W 
ko'ubnnvR. 930 H Ix'tn. — W ffioos [force]. 938 WCH kannBR. 939 
W kl6m, C klu's. 940 W k6tit, wtfAtkvt [waistcoat], C kun*t, H kt>,tit. 941 
C fun'l. 942 W batom. 947 bfiao'il, C bo'il, H b&tl. — W tiia)'il ^ toU]. 
960 W sxpBR C. 966 W da'uts C. — W kRSUst [crust]. — W RR'ut 
[rut, route]. 967 H emplfri. 969 W kvnv&'t . 

U .. 961 H gauul. — W w&^tt [wait]. 963 H kwoo'ttrt. 966 H (Ul. 
968 W o'tstvR. 969 HC shuu*R. 970 d^ist. 

Westeen Do. 

A few words from Whitchurch Canonicomm, noted by N. W. Wyer, Esq., 
originally written in Gloesic. With the exception of (kuut) cut, the woras 
are unimportant, but they serre to continue the Dorset dialect up to the 
Axe-Yar^ form, p. 87. 


A- 6 maktn [making]. 14 DRaad [drawedsdrew]. 17 I&m. A'- 67 
g^. A': 110 not. 122 noon. 124 st^oim. 
JE' 142 mkih snnl, mfel. — pTMtt [pretty]. M: 166 mftatd. 

— hapstz [hasps]. 173 waazs. jE': 209 narvwn [nerer a one]. 
214 nedhoR. 

E- 243 pUU. 261 mM. E: 269 mizel. £A: 324 ■'it. 826 woold, 
wol, wool. 338 kaal. 346 gjet, gieet, gjsEt. £A'- 847 hid. £A': 
369 nMbvR, n^ibsR. 363 shiip [oheapj. 371 sTRaa. £0: — shaRT [short]. 
£0'- 411 DBii. 

[ 1616 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


I- — in [hine, him ace. also for hit (&» kBn put tn iin) I can put it in]. 

— bliirt [bit]. I: 467 wiild. — iin [in]. -^ Ytniid [mouldyj. I- 
490 b&imb&i [by and bye]. 494 t&iBmz. -^ shiin [shine]. — sa'tvz 
[scythes]. r: 502 va iv. — haa, h&i, h», haagh, h&at [hay]. 

0- — smoowk [smoke]. 619 oybb, ay^R. 0: taep [top]. 661 staaBm. 

— raaRntn [morning]. 

U- 606 doR*. U: — wnnwrfwl [wonderful]. 631 YBBzdf^. 632 (sp ap. 
634 DRuu. 
Y: — hiil [hill]. — thlira [thin]. 

H. English. 

I. ondY. 758 gBRL. 

0. — stakia [stocking]. — kaRk [cork]. 

U. — kuut [cut]. 

m. Romance. 

A-. — aekta'i-y. — fl&il fflail]. — plaag [plague]. 820 gee [bright]. 
822 mkiv. — p&ai [pay]. 845 anshint. 

E-- 885 vani. — tenvVl [terrible]. — saaRvtn [senring]. 
I" andY- 900 t« prfctji. 
•• — mooy [moye]. 

Vab. v. The Land op Utch foe I, Sm. 

The Elizabethan English writers, when they want to indicate 
a S. peasant, continually use ich, c)i4nn ^ich. am, <;At7/=ich will, 
chitd—ich would (see supra, Part I. p. 293 3, c). It is also found 
in D 1, p. 30rf. For the existence of this form of the personal 
pronoun I, search was made in Sm., and at last it was found as 
(atj atjii*) in a very small district, which I have therefore called 
*the Land of Utch.* Through Prince L.-L. Bonaparte and the 
late Mr. Pulman, I found that utch was certainly used in Montacute 
(:ma*ntMu), (4 w-by-n. Yeovil, Sm.), and I was fortunate enough 
to be directed to Mr. George Mitchell, then a vestryman of 
Kensington, marble and stone mason, of 166, Brompton Road, S.W., 
with " manufactories in Belgium, France, Italy, and Walton Street, 
Brompton, estab. 1851," but a native of Montacute, and imable to 
read or write till he was 23 years old, together with Mr. Stephen 
Price, son of a dissenting minister and schoolmaster at Yeovil, Sm., 
where he was bom, but who had lived at Montacute from 10 years 
old, and had acted formerly as Mr. Mitchell's secretary. On 17 
Aug. 1880, both of them came to my house and gave me the 
following information. The Land of Utch occupied the angular 
space between the two railways which have their vertex at Yeovil, 
Sm., on the b. of Do. The following villages were named as using 
utchy proceeding from Yeovil to the w., all distances measured from 
Yeovil Station. East Coker 2 ssw.. East Chinnock 3 sw.. Mid 
and West Chinnock 5 wsw., Merriott 7 wsw., Chisselborough 5 
w-by-s., Montacute 4 w-by-n., Martock 6 nw., Norton 5 w.. South 
Petherton 7 w-by-n., and possibly Kingsbury 8 nw. In the same 
region (as) is also employed, which Mr. Price thought to be a 
corruption of (3t|) ; (iis) was not known except as meaning t/es. 

[ 1616 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D 4, y y.] THB MID SOUTHERN. 85 

There was no knowledge of tee (a'l s ?) mentioned by Jennings in his 
Glossary as " common." The ice in Shakspere's King Lear 4, 6, 
240 tee try, one of Edgar's Kentish speeches, is probably I shaU, for 
which it is not an nnoommon abbreviation. 

Mr. Price gave me the following joke on (at|) which passes 
current in the district. In the Montacute dt. however neither he 
nor Mr. Mitchell used (atj) at all. Another version of this ioke 
was given by Miss Ham, a native of Sm., in a letter (dated Clifton, 
30 Jan. 1825) addressed to Jennings, who prints it in his 
glossary ; this I interline in her orthography. 

brBd)n i^iiz, atj)Bv)«)a-d 
bread imd cneese, 'c* have a had 

*n)wot 9tj)ad, atjW)B)eet 
that 'c* had, 'c* have a eat 

'n muuK Btj)«-d, if ati) Bd)B)B-d 
more 'ch wouM, 'c had it 

Mr. Price's version seems more trustworthy and is certainly more 
intelligible. Observe the S. past part. (B;ad, B;eet)=a-had, a-eaten. 
Prince L.-L. Bonaparte heard (at^) from a man of 94 at Cannington 
(3 nw.Bridgewater, Sm.). 

Montacute, Sm., dt. 
Pal. by AJ£. from diet, of MeearB. Mitchell and Price. 

1. zuu a't dB)zee, man, dhii do)zii na'tf dhist a't bi Ba'it vba'tit 
dhik lfd*l mEE'td Bko-mtn VRom dhtk)dhecR skuul. 

2. aB)z B)gwEE'm da'tm dho Bhood dhees druu dhB Rhad gJEt 
on dhB Isf an za'td b dhB wa». 

3. shuu'a Bua'f dhB tjiil hav Bgo'u sTEEE'tt ap tB dhB dooBE b 
dhB Boq ha'tts, 

4. wsBB aB)l ma)bi va'md dh»k DHaqktn dsf skEamd tuu'd b»)dhB 
nEEm B :tom9S. 

5. as dB aal no9)n vebI weI. 

6. uu)nt dhB woold i^p zuim teet^ shii not ts duu it Bgii'n, 
puu'K dhiq ! 

7. lok)i ! •d)'n it teuu ? 


1. J (s't)aiialy8iB adopted with hesita- (iih) initial in all cases of r. — that^ 

tion. I seemed often to hear (a>'i) and it Barnes's distinctions of (dhisz, dhtk). 

may hare been (ao't). — My (z&i) also srveint'e^fthis, that, ''personal/ 'that is, 

used. — mate$ (mBB'tts) according to for things havinjg^ a definite shape, and 

Price, scarcely used, (sooz) hwrdly (dhis, &at) "impersonal," for other 

known, (tjane) common. — mw. Price things (Dorset Grammar, p.21), was 

said (nis'M, air tm), but Mitchell would recognised, although never thoiight of 

not hear of it; the diphthong was often before. — maidy (msE'td, mseae'id) both 

Sao'if) to my hearing, and may hare been said at times, but (m&'id) was not 

d'm). — right, a strong tendency to admitted; no distinction m meaning 

[ ifi" ] 

Digitized by VjOOQIC 


recognised between maid and ffirl drunken^ there was a difference of 

(gsBL), which was (wsnt^), not an in- opinion, as to f n, in, 'q) in the last 

suiting term. — come nltimately sounded syllable. — deafy ^dtf ) not used, M. pre- 

(kom), but I thought Hcam) was meant, f erred (s au) « iivRin t&und) a hard of 

— thick there f (jend &, jaeND'R) also hearing toad, but P. said (b fsltm «i it 

used, but more Do. ano « iivBtn| a fellow as is hard of 

2. her' if always (an) before (z), but hearing, would be more regular .- 

(shii bi) used. — road^ the (nh) distinct, (nsBmyfor (neem) was emphatic, (ni«mi 

but a difference of opinion about (oo, was not admitted. — 7!^o»MM = (:tom«si 

ioB, 6u«), fnhtiuBd) seems to me most at Montacute, but (itamas) at Bradfora 

correct, ana Price said it would be used (3 wsw.Taunton, Sm.) in D 10. 
by the old people. — <A^«, to say (dhan) 6. wonU^ (want) also used. — oid 

would be "bad.** — red^ (ha&o) not chap (woold tbIbr) also used, with {y) 

admitted.— ^afe, (gjst) distinct, (glitit, after (d) but (fslvR) with (f) is the 

gist) not admitted. — £^/, (lif) also used. common form. — teaehy this word is 

— left hand (Isft hand) also said, the used, and not (Irrn) as I expected; 

Towel (a) throughout varied as (ah, a^, in Sunday schools (t«rtpR) is always 

but did not reach (as) ; it was generally used. 

my (a). Notes on other words, dictated by the 

3. child, rtpil) always used by old same : (8)noo, s)liaR) doest thou know ? 

people, (tfx'ild) '*not so natural.*' — doest thou hear P Alphabet, (sese bii 

fsTRSMp'it BTK&it) also used. — doofy En oo pii Idti aan bs tii ji(i vii dab*L-JU 

(d6u«R) not used m Montacute. — wrong sks wa'i zad ae'mpas'sii). Names of 

(rsq) has been used. places ] Montacute (:maniki(i), Tintin- 

4. majfbe, chance is not used. — null (6 se.Langport, Sm.) (:ti*qo). 

Montacute, Sm., cwl. 
From diet, of Mr. George Mitchell, native, and Mr. Stephen Price, as above. 

I. Wessez ajtd Norse. 

A- 8 hav. 21 nBsm [not (niimi)]. A: 43 an. 61 man. A: or 0: 68 
TRom. 64 Roq. A'- 73 zuu. 76 tuu*d. 84 muuR. 94 noo. A': 104 
Rhood, Rh6oBd, Rh6u«d [(uhuu'd) from older people]. 110 nat. 119 vgwBB'tn 
«gwon Bgo-n, [a-ffoing, gone]. 

iB- 144 Bgii n. JE: 166 mBB'tdm»8e'td[not (m&id)]. 177 dhvt [weak 
form]. 179 W3t. M'- 183 1^. 197Uiia. M': 223 dheen. 224 w8Bh. 

E- 231 dh« [weak form]. — «ieet [have eaten]. £: 261 zee, zfti. 
262 w«d. 266 sTREs'tt. 266 wbI. 

EA: 326 woold. 336 aal. 346 gJBt. £A': 362 nhsd. 363 bRsd. 
366 dsf [not (dtf), but (aRD « ii*Rtn) hard of hearing is used]. 364 tjap. 

EO'. 412 shii. EO': 427 bi. 428 zii. 436 truu. 

I- — BU 'n [him, ace. form]. 447 an [her, for she]. I: 462 a'i ao'i, 

w^, 0tpi\ 469 Ra'it Rhx'it. 467 tdil. 477 va'ind. 480 dhiq. 482 id)'n 
[is*nt]. 484 (dhi«z) [this, for a shaped object]. T- 490 bt [weak]. 492 za'td. 

0: 626 B [weak form]. 638 ud. 641 uu)nt want. 643 on. 0'- 666 tv 
[weak form]. 668 bks)i [lookest thee P]. 660 skuul. 664 zuun. 0': 679 
vnaf. 686 dun. 

U- 603 «ko*m«n [a-coming]. 606 doovR. IT: 632 sp. 634 druu. 

U'- 642 [(dhii) used}. 643 na'M nao'w na)'«, nta'u. 660 «ba'«t. U': 668 
dz'im, dla'im [see 643]. 662 as. 663 ha^ws. 

Y- 682 lid*L. 

n. English. 

E. 749 lif Inf laft. l.andY. — dh»k (that, for a shaped object). 

770 tomoe [(itannes) at Bradford in D 10]. U. 804 DRaqktn, — k*n. 


A- 866 puuB. £•• 886 vsni. U- 969 shuu*s. 

[ 1618 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D4, V^i.] THB MID 80UTHEBX. 87 

Vak. ri. The South Western ob Sm. Form. 

The late Mr. G. P. E. Polman made a certain small portion of 
Sm., Dv., and Do., his own dialect ground. He called it the Axe- 
Yarty district in his "Rustic Sketches'* (3rd edi 1871) and his 
" Book of the Axe," because it is watered by the rivers Axe and 
Yarty, the latter flowing from n. to s. and joining the former about 
Axminster, Dy. 

It forms a little subdistrict, which is not rerj clearly defined, except on the w. 
Beginning at the month of the Axe, it follows the w. b. of D 4 through Dt. to 
Bnckland St. Mary, Sm. (7 sse.Taunton), and then tnms e. to the n. of Teovil, 
passing which it turns suddenly s. between Teovil and Sherborne (5 e.Teovil), 
in Do. and passes sw. between Mosterton (8 n-by-e.Bridport) and Beaminster 
(6 n.Bridport) to the sea just s. of Chammouth (6 w.Bndport). This district 
was constantly perambulated by Mr. Pulman, who lived at Crewkeme, Sm., for 
fishing and archaeological purposes, and thus he learned to gire great weight to 
a few peculiarities which do not seem to have the importance he attributed to 
them. Thus he distinguishes the district from the rest of Do. by its not having 
(uun, lasg leeg, uup) one, leg, up, which he spells oon^, lag or laig^ and oop, of 
which Barnes gives Ha^g, uun), but (uaj^ has not been found in any part of Do., 
the nearest approacn to it being Mr. Wyer*s (kuut) cut (p. 84, 1. 13). Mr. P. 
seems, from his communications to me, to have heara the word specially from an 
ostler at Henstridge, Sm. (11 ene.Teovil) ; and this may have been in saying 
(kdp) come up to horses, as I heard a farm labourer say in Bu. In going 
through the list of "chief peculiaritieB** of the district in Rustic SketckeM, 

Lxxxiii, I find they represent general Sm. and have been localised in this 
rict apparently because Mr. P. was familiar with it and wished to confine his 
information to the places to which he knew it appUed. As I give specimens of 
this general dialect, I omit Mr. P. *s list of peculiarities. 

Mr. Pulman was kind enough to give me a cs. and dt. for the 
Axe-Yarty district and cs. professedly for Merriott in the Land of 
TJtch, Var. v., which was onjy 3 m. from his residence at Crewkeme 
(19 sse.Bridgwater). This Merriott cs. was full of utchy whereas 
the dt. given me from Montacute (p. 85) had none. All three 
were written in the orthography adopted in his Muatic Sketches, and 
unfortunately Mr. Pulman died (3rd Feb. 18 80), before I was able 
to go over these versions with him. In this case I think it better 
to omit all three than merely to give my own conjectures. But 
Mr. P. had previously written me a wl. for Merriott which I 
had the advantage of correcting from his diet. (Nov. 1877), 
and this follows. Singularly enough it contains no (atj) at all. 
Moreover Mr. P. said that in Merriott the final (r) became a mere 
vowel, while at Crewkeme it was distinct. In dictating, however, 
he pron. a genuine (b), as I also heard from Montacute. He also 
said that the intonation at Merriott was almost unintelligible beyond 
the parish itself. There was nothing of this in his dictation. 
Hence I attribute his wl. to the whole of his district, and thence 
practicaUj to the whole of Sm., from which he gave no lines of 

[ loli* ] 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

88 THE MID 80UTHKRN. [D 4, V Ti. 

Axe-Yaett cwl. 

Representiiig e.Sm. generally, pal. by AJ£. from diet, of G. P. R. Pulman, author 
of Sustie Sketches. 

I. "Wbssex and Norse. 

A- 3 beek. 4 tsk. 6 msk. 6 meed. 8 Iust. 12 zaa^ 13 ubaK 14 
DHaa*. 17 Iaa^ 18 ksk. 20 lii«m. 21 niiimi. 22 tii«m. 23 8l|Bm. 24 
shEm. 33 [(zundBK) sooner, used]. 34 las. 37 klaa*. A: 39 [(kam) bsed]. 
40 kwOTi. 41 (tha'qk). 43 an. 46 ka»n*l. 48 [(ziqd) used]. 64 wont, 
do ^tfshez rCrewkeme (ashez)]. 66 weesh. 67 aU. A: or 0: 63 DRoq. 66 
zoq. 66 dhoq. 

A'- 67 gruu. 70 tuu. 72 un. 73 zoo. 74 tun. 76 8TE«?k. 76 tooM. 
77 laRD. 80 o'lodee. 81 li,Bn. 84 muuH. 86 wzts. 87 tlooz. 89 bun'th. 
91 moo. 96 DEoo. 96 zoo. A': 101 wsk. 102 aks. 107 Ioot. Ill AAft. 
113 wmI. 116 warn. 118 b<^n. 122 ntJora. 123 uaart. 124 eUovn. 126 
oni. 126 wan. 127 h6uBRs. 130 b6oBt. 134 wath. 136 klaa^th. 

^. 138 yk^dhmi [sometimes with f ]. 140 h&>il. 141 n&'il. 142 8n& il. 
143 t&'il. 144 BgEn. 146 m&a>ind. 148 fa^BK. 160 leest. 162 waai>«r. 
153 za>T8ndi. — paRti [pretty]. -E: 166 dha»ti. — sttdi [steady]. 168 
a>*DBH. 160 tg. 161 dee. 163 l&t. 164 [(mid) used]. 166 zsd. 166 m&a4d. 
168 t&»laR. 169 wBn. 170 haav/s. 172 gRa's. 173 wiz, waz [strong]. 181 
paHh. M'- 182 see. 183 ieeij. 186 tLted, 187 Isf. 189 wat. 192 mem. 
193 kWn. 194 sni. 196 mini. 196 ween. 199 bleek. 200 w<fH. 202 JBt. 
JE': — miad [mead, meadow]. 206 DRsd. 207 nilLD. 213 edhvR. 216 
[(teetit) used]. — jbI [eel]. 217 <s<?ti. 218 ship. 219 sleep. 221 fliBR. 
223 dheeR. 224 weeR. 226 mxAst. 228 zwst. 230 faH. 

£. 233 sp^^k. 239 skHh 241 riMu. 243 pl6i. 260 zween. 262 kid'L. 
263 niVi.. £: 260 zkH [rhymes 262]. 262 wkH. 266 sTRS^'it. 270 
bslis [bellows]. 273 nuvii. 280 IsVn. 281 liqkth. 282 sTRiqkth. — 
gaRN [grin]. 283 mani. 284 Daa^sh. 286 kRiis. F- 296 bliiv. 300 

kip. 301 haR. 303 swit [not (t)]. £': 306 ha'ith. 311 tMi. 312 ban. 
314 jaRD. 316 vit [not (»)]. 316 nBks. 

EA- 319 gajeBD. EA: 321 [(zid) used]. 322 laf. 324 eei. 326 waeaek. 
326 wal. 328 k6uBLD. 300 hool. 331 zwoold. 332 twald. 333 ksBaey. 
336 ffisl [sometimes]. 336 tooI. 337 wol. 343 wesnm. 346 gst. 

EA'- 347 h^. 349 vifi. . EA'; 361 lid. 362 brd. 355 dif. 368 
na'tst. 361 bmi. 366 ganx. 367 Duet. 370 Raa^ 371 sraaa^ 

EI- 372 beH. 373 ee. 376 R&iz. 376 b6it. £1: 377 sUek. 378 w«jk. 

EG- 383 zeVu. £0: 388 m'Lk. 390 shuud. 393 biJB*nd. 402 Urn. 
403 vaR. 406 ^'th [rhymee 696 and 698]. 407 Tand'n. 498 [(nood) used]. 

EO'- 411 DRii. 413 dtv'l. 414 vla'i. 417 t^AA. 420 va-MR. 421 vaRti. 
EO': 426 l&it [instead of (la'it) this exceptional pronunciation prevails for 3 or 
4 miles from Crewkeme (19 sse.Britlge water). It is properly Do.] 428 zei. 
430 fannd. 433 baist. 434 buH. 

EY- 438 da'i. £Y: 439 tanst. 

I- 440 wik. 441 ziiiV. 442 ii|Tt. 443 TRa'idi. 449 git. 461 eoo. 
1: 452 a't. 460 wait. 466 zitj. 466 tjii,ld. 467 wtt,ld. 474 Ra'in. 
477 va'in. 478 gaa'in. 481 YtqgBR. — haRN [run]. 484 dhi*z. — haRsh 
[a rushj. 486 miis'l. 487 yjssdee. 488 it. 

r- [is generally (a'i)]. 496 a'in. 499 bix'L. I': is generally (a't). 602 
va'iT. 604 na'iv. 606 wa'ir. 606 amnn. 607 wimtn. — l&in [Ime, Crew- 
keme exceptional pr., otherwise (la'in)]. 613 wa'in. 

0- 621 Tool. 622 oop. 624 waRD*L. 0: 631 daajniR. 638 uud. 
— aatjit [orchard]. 647 duurd. 649 waRD. 661 staRm. 652 kaKN. 653 
haRN. 0'- 659 mAAdhvu. 664 zuun. 666 uaaz. 0': 692 [zweeRD) 
used]. 693 mas. 

U- 601 va'Ml. 602 za'w. 605 sin. U: 609 tuu*l. 610 uu*l. 611 
balik. 612 zam. 615 pa'un. 619 ya'wn. 620 ena'tm. 621 [(winded) used]. 
629 sin [see 605]. 630 [(wind) used]. 631 dhazdi. 634 druu. 636 vaRDHR. 

U'- 640 ka'u. 646 ba'ai. 652 kuud. U': 670 buu. 

[ 1620 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D 4, y Ti.] THB MID SOUTHSRN. 89 

Y- 674 dtd dud. 675 DBs'a. 682 Itd'L. Y: 684 bsRd;. 685 SBdi. 

690 kx'tn. 691 ma'm. 696 bs'th [I think I heard (bBtRth)]. 698 mB'th 

[rhymee 696]. 700 whs. 701 fast. — dxBsh [a thrush]. Y- 707 
dhaBTiin. T: 709 th'Ib [but see 772]. 

n. Ekgush. 

A. 725 s«mb1. £. 744 mAn'lx. 745 t|Mt. 747 indiyvB. 751 dibbt. 
I. oik^ Y. — :aBtjit [Richard]. 756 vtlbed. 

0. 761 li#'d. 772 banfa'ia [but see 709]. 773 Daqki. 778 bvuubd. 779 
BBTs. 790 ga'und. 791 bu;6i. 
U. — kaBD*L2 [curls]. 808 pat. 


A- 809 jeb*l. 818 efled|. 822 mssi. 824 t|aB. 827 eegsB. 828 
Mgi. 836 Beez*n. 836 seez'n. 838 Tseet. 840 ^imBB. 842 pla'nt| [a 
flooring, not a single plank]. 846 a^nshvnt. 847 da*n(^R. 848 t^a^ndi. 849 
BTBa*nd|BB. 852 sp'sn. 863 baugtn. 855 kaRT. — skas [scarce]. 856 
peeRT. 862 seasf. 864 kAAz. 865 fAAt. 

£•• 867 t«^. 868<hflM9'i. 869 r^a. 874 r&a«n. 878 sielvBi. 879 fMBMl. 
883 dendila'i-rat. 888 saat'n. 890 bMst bivst [s. and pi. alike]. 891 fMst. 
892 navi. 894 dBS^^. 896 BBS^fT. 

J' ondY" — 904 la'i-ant [Uon]. 910 dia'ist. 

O- Q16a'inJBn. 920 pu^dint. 923* mtrdirti. 926 sptrdil. 929 kia^ukaniBB. 
938 1: BB. 940 ktruuH. 942 buutran. 948 ttt|. 946 mic^il. 947 hio(aL. 
950 ^|»«B. 952 kuus [coarse]. 954 aashin. 

U- 967 suut. 969 si6BB. 970 d^tst. 

Eor the remainder of e.Sm. (excluding D 10), JQG. made a com- 
plete wl., from the diet, of a native of Wincanton (13 ne. Yeovil), 
who, however, had resided long in Cu. After many trials and 
much correspondence, I relectantly found his memory of the dialect 
not sufficiently accurate to be accepted in its details. The other 
contributions I have received were in io., but they are quite sufficient 
to shew that at Langport, Castle Carey (16 ene.Langport) and 
"Wedmore (7 w-by-n. Wells), the pronunciation differs insensibly from 
the Axe-Yartv ; while at Combe Down (2 s.Bath) it seems indis- 
tinguishable irom. Wl. The following examples from Wedmore 
shew the nature of the dialect in the m. of e.Sm. 

Wedmobb, Sm. (18 ssw.Bristol). 

Specimens sent by Mr. C. A. Homfray, Manor House, and pal. rather 
conjecturally by AJE. 

1. (mfesTBK, a'» bfwit B-gwain dkuu dhB mak.) master, I be-not 

a-going through the muck. 

2. (ta'tn dhB duBR, ut ?) shut the door, wilt ? 

3. (duus)Bn dhi uaa dhtk dhsB hos?) dost-not thou know that 

there horse ? 

4. (cas)Bn ha'tR ?) canst-not hear. 

5. (dhB lam)z B-va'tR.) the chimney's on fire [I only knew lum as 

a N. or L. word]. 

6. (dhB gsesekomi tuBU bv b hos b gselt'd sr'i, :gtfd)naa.) this frolic- 

some toad of a horse has frightened me, God-knows. [I do 
not know the word * gaacomey ' so spelled, see No. 18. J 

[. 1521 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

90 THE MID SOUTHERy. [D 4, V ▼!. 

7. (gii •a't dhB sla'ts.) give me the fire-pan [or fire-shovel]. 

8. (dh« bsektkrtt^Bz on dh« klaevt-tsek.) the tobacco jar is on 

the mantel-piece. [The last word is given as elavel-taek in 

9. (hsest (Uii Itikt m dh? krok tB zii «f dh? teetiz bi dan ?) hast 

thou looked in the pot to see if the potatoes be done ? 

10. (v^tfdhQR ji«)nt kam wh6«m »t.) father is)not come home yet. 

ri doubt (wh)]. 

11. (baL»Bno-n.) by and bye. 

12. (dhii)z nAA dhaet s)k'»k.) thou) dost know that, (it) is like 


13. (t)waB dh» ziSTBB, t)wsBd)Qn :z8el.) it)were thy sister, it)were) 

not Sail. 

14. {'a!i)l zii ii Bh8Bd)«n duu vt ; ut)«n ?) I'll see if (thou) shalt)not 

do it ; wilt)not ? 

15. (iiz, a't ul, maeaB-bi.) yes, I will, may-be. 

16. (waV duu8)«n dof dh» kUAdz vn m£nd dhik lirap ?) why 

dost)not do£P (take off) thy clothes and mend this tear. 

17. (Iaa ! W8et Q lampcs!) law! what a stumble [or noise of 

falling, also (lambBR)]. 

18. (gtt ap, ji DRaBaekom* AAld gaeaektmi.] get up you stupid old 

froUcker [to a horse, but the words *dracomey, gacome ' are 

19. (duu)tmt i taeaek on zoOy zoob,) don't ye take on [trouble your- 

selves] so, companions. 

WoRLE (iwaR'L, :waED'L), 16 W.Bath, cwl. 

Written by Rev. "W. F. Roee, vicar in io. and sabseouently pal. by AJE., serves 
to show how the dialect is preserved to the Bristol Channel. 

I. Wessex and Norse. 

A- 3. blBk. 6 ml«k. 6 mi«d. 8 eey. 14 onaa. — stag [stackl. 21 
nlBm. 22 ti«m. 23 slvm, Be^m. 24 shlvm. 25 mion. 28 iisn. 32 oivdh. 
33 KA^«R. A: 43 han. 44 Ian. A'- 77 laRD. 81 lira. 84 m(i«K. 
93 tB sno0;i. 95 dboo. A': 101 wok. 104 hjM. 128 dhoBZ. 130 boot. 

M' — jsk [ache]. — ledhBR [ladder]. — bltedhBB [bladder]. 144 
Bglvn. 146 m^fn. 149 bliBz. 150 Ubs. 152 waadbt. — paRxi [pretty]. 
M: 155 dhst}. 166 miBd [probably confused with #uu^1. 170 hfienest. 172 
gRaeaes. 181 paeaeth. M- — hanoi [ready]. 187 hi. 192 mSBn. 193 
kliBn. 200 wiBt. JE': — bliit [bleak]. 207 mid'l. — «1 [eel]. 218 
ship. 224 wIbr. 

£- — liit [leak]. 248 mlBR. 252 kit*l. £: 261 zee. 284 DRSBsh. 
F- 298 viil. 301 hs'tR. £A: 326 oo\. 327 bool. 333 keet. 334 heei. 
835 seael. 336 vseael. 342 JSHm. 343 waRm. 346 gM. £A'- 347 hiid. 
£A': 355 diif. 363 tjip. 366 gHRT. £1: 378 wiBk. £0- 383 ZEv'n. 
385 bins'th. £0: — smsRT [smart]. 407 vaRO*N. £0'- 411 DRii. 
£0': 423 dhx'i. 428 zu. 

I: 477 va'in. — bBha'i-n [behind]. 485 dis'l. I'- — STRik [strike]. 
I': 502 va'iv. 

0: 534 hAAl. 547 b&BRD. 551 staRm. 552 kaRN. 553 haRN. 554 
kfiaas. 0'- 564 znunder [sooner]. 0': 579 ins'Q*. 

U- 605 zan. U: 610 ul. 612 zam. 629 zsn. 631 dhszdi. 634 
DRUU. 635 wxth. 

r 1522 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D 4, y Ti. D 6.] THB MID 80UTHBBN. 91 

T- — piil [piUow]. 682 ltd*!. T: 685 Bliad|. 686 bsBdj. 691 
mi'in. 700 WS8. 701 fist. 

n. English. 

A. 718 tri«d. 741 mivz. E. — itm [seeml. 0. — aoog [soak]. 
— Ubt [a loft]. — poog [poke]. U. — k&iid [cud, compare a quid of 
tobacco]. 806 utaDi. 

m. BOMANCB. ^ 

A>* 811 pliw. — imkai [fageot]. 833 pSva. — msnd«a [manner]. 
852 JMpvRN. — kaa [carry]. — -Koaa [qnarrr]. £•• 888 saat*n. — 
saa [serre]. 890 blw. l" andY- — huiTVB [rirer]. 0- 938 
kaairvB. U •• — stid [study]. 

D 5 = e.M3. = eastern Mid Southern. 

Bfmndariea, Beginmng at the w. b. of Ox. just opposite Moreton-on-Mareh 
(19 e.Tewkesbury) and go along the w. b. of Ox. uui then of Be. as far as 
Hungerford (24 w.-by-s. Reading) and then continue in a n. to s. line through 
Ha. passing just w. of Andover, to Nursling at the n. point of Southampton 
Water and then to the sea by Lymin^^ton (10 cGhristchurcn). Cross the Sdent 
to the nw. comer of Wi. (and not just e. of it as appears on the map). Run 
along the coast of Wi. to the ne. comer of it. Then again cross the sea to 
Selsey Bill, s.Ss. and continue along the s. coast of Ss. to the mouth of the 
R. Adur. Then sweep ne. through m.Ss., e. of Bolney (8 se.Horsham) and w. 
of Cuckfleld (9 ese.Horsham) through East Orinstead (15 ene.Horsham). Then 
pass through the extreme se. comer of Sr. and procided in a ne. direction to 
Knockholt (14 s. Woolwich), which is a conjectural point from which no in- 
formation has been obtained. Dialect speaking now ceases on i^proachinff D 8 
in the Metropolitan Area, but we may sweep sw. w. and nw. through n.Sr. keep- 
ing probably s. of Croydon and Leathernead (12 ne.Guildford), n. of StoVe 
(1 n.Guildfdra), w. of Sandhurst (10 se.Readin^) to Reading. Then proceed 
alonff the w. b. of Ox. to the projection of Be. mto Ox., which cut off, passing 
8. of Cumnor (3 wsw.Oxford) ana n. of Appleton (5 sw.Oxford). Then enter 
Ox. and pass w. of Ensham (4 nw. Oxford) and of Handborough (6 nw. Oxford) 
and then go nearly n. to the e. of Gharlbury and Chipping Norton (12 nw. and 
17 nnw. Oxford) to a point just e. of Moreton-on-Marsh, the starting-point, to 
which proceed. 

Much of this line is rery uncertain for at least a few miles on each side of it. 
The diTision between Be. and Ox. is altofi;ether uncertain. The sweep through 
n.Sr. may be considered almost conjectural, so great was the difficulty of obtain- 
ing any satisfactory eyidenoe of natire dialect. The population is shifting and 
selilom native. But Stoke (1 n. Guildford) was well marked. The e. b. through 
Ke. presented insuperable oifficulties, but the line between the mouth of the 
Adur and East Gnnstead is tolerably clearly defined. If in the most uncertain 
puis the line be taken 5 to at most 10 miles wide, it may be accepted as a Tery 
fair boundary. 

Area, Most of Ha. and all Wi., much of Be., s.Sr. and w.Ss., 
and a small portion of w.Ox. 

Authoritiet, See the Alphabetical Coun^ list foi; the following places where 
prefixed marks show • tv. jir AJE., t per TH., J in so., ® in io. 

Be. ^Bucklebury, "^holsey, ''Coleshill, "Denchworth, ""East Hendred, IHamp- 
steadNorris, ''Kintbury, ""Shefford, || Stanford in the Yale, gSterenton, ""Streatley, 

Ha, f Andorer, ""Corhampton, ^'East Stratton, ""West Stratton, ^Winchester to 

Kt, No information. 

Ox. ''Alyescot, ''Charlbury, ''Chastleton, fDucklington, fLeafield, fLew, 
tMilton, 5 ytWitney. 

[ 1523 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


8r, *t7hariwood, ^'Elstoad, ^'Ewlmnt, <t}odaliiiliig, ^'Godstoiie, ^^Haaleoiere, 
^Xeaiherhead, ♦*»Ockley, •Stoke, *Weald of Sr. 

Sf. ^Bolney, *»Comptoii, ^'Ertham, "Kirdford, rTwineham, *^eft Wittering, 
**Wisboroiigh Green. 

Wt, *?(orthwood, ^^horwell, ''whole Isle. 

The district is not so well represented as the last. The greater 
nomber of notes are meagre and imperfect. There were only three 
w., from Winchester Ha., Ockley and Stoke Sr., a pal. transcription 
of part of a cs. by Prince L.-L. Bonaparte from Hampstead Norris, 
Be., a pal. specimen and cwl. from Andover by Prof. Arnold 
Schroer, a few notes by TH. in Ox., and some in Glossic by Mrs. 
Parker in Be. and Ox. But these are sufficient to understand the 
notes of the other informants. 

Character. The (e) remains generally quite distinct, the (z,v) 
for (s, f ) initial die out eastward, the (ai) for ^G, EG is uncertain, 
/ he remains, but the a- before the past participle becomes lost. It 
will be most convenient to consider four varieties or forms, V i. w.Ox., 
Vii. Be., Viii. Ha. and Wi., and Viv. s.Sr. and w.Ss. There is no 
special information from the very small portion of Ke. involved, the 
dial, of which, being so near to the metropolitan area, is probably 
veiT slightly marked indeed, but does not shew the characteristics 
of D 9. These different varieties cannot be distinctly defined by 
any clear characters, but still there is some amount of local 

Vab. i. Ox. FoEM. 
WmrET, dt. 

Originally written in gl. by Mrs. Angelina Parker, then pal. by TH. from her 
diet, and finally correctwi by TH. from information obtained by him at Witney 
Sept. 1884. As the pronunciation of this district is thought very strange at 
Ouord, great pains have been taken to represent it correctly. See the following 
cwl. embracing words from Witney, Ducknngton, and Leafield, another primitive 
place, all of which were well examined by TH. This form of D 6 shews the 
transition from D 4 very clearly. The reverted (r) was distinctl]^ noticed by 
TH. after a vowel, but "before a vowel he seems not to have felt its difference 
from common English fr, rj, and he also did not notice its assimilating effect on 
adjacent (t d n 1), which is mevitable when (r) is used. But he noted bow much 
more marked the reversion was in w. than in m. and s.Ox. I have therefore re- 
tained his notation. There is a great peculiarity in this district. As far s. as 
Witnev there is a plentiful sprinklin;^ of (m^, o) in place of (a), but at Ducklington 
(:dHk*It«n) only 1 s. Witney, this entirely ceases, (a) alone bein^ heard. In other 
respects the dialect at Ducklington is iaentical with that at Witney. This shews 
that the incursion of (w.) into the n. part of S. should not be considered to affect 
the dialect district. (See also D 4, Var. ii., GI. Form, p. 60. The symbol (uj, 
a variety of («), is especially considered in the introduction to the M. oiv.) 

1. 8<3 [saw] a'» s&i, m^fts, jb stz na'w bz o'i hi ra'tt ishafut dhat 
dhsB ItVl gjafil [gjal'] Bkam»n fram dhB skuu'l jandtsB. 

2. 7Lr)z Bg:wa-m [jBgwe'in] da'im dhts rood [raud] dhBR' [dhsR ] 
thruu dhB rfid gJEt [gJEtJ B)dhB [an)dhB] lift and sam B)dhB 

[ 1524 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D 6, y i.] THE MID SOUTHBRN. 93 

3. shikBfi vnuj dhs i^fl)z gAAii sta*d»t u^p tB)dhB diktm B)dh« 

4. WBB xu)l mwsst la'tklf fi'fnd dhat dhBr' dmoqk''n dxf ' srtTBld 
IiIb B)dhB nMm b :tomB8. 

6. wi aaI nooz [nduz] 1 vet* [? vart] wbI. 

6. wsnt dhB 6t<ld [auld] l^p' Btm l&Bn xb nat tB du)t Bgjs'n, 

pihiB th»q! 
7. kkl , 

JEnt ft tmu ? 

West Ox. cwl. 
From the foUowing sources : 

B. wn. by TH. from BCr. James Brain, natiye of DaoUington, aged 81. 

M. words fftT^ in io. by Rer. W. D. Macray, rector of Docldington, also cbieflj 

taken from Mr. Brain, and pal. rather conjectorally by AJ£. 
L. Leafield, wn. by TH. from natires of 87, 84, and 74 yean old. 
W. Witney, wn. by TH. 

I. Wesssx akd Nobse. 

A- 12 M saa. 14 M draa. 21 BLW UMn. 23 BL stfnn. 24 M shsm, 
shlMn. 33 L rndhw. 37 M thaa. A: 39 M [(km) used]. A: or 0: 
58 B frvm, W fram. 64 BL roq\ W ro'q. A'- 73 W s^ s&m. 81 L Wn 
[so all his life, 84 years old]. 84 L mClva. 85 M suua. 86 W wsts. 89 M 
bMh. 92 L nfthu. A': 104 B rood, W rood, rftud. 115 BL oom. 118 
W bwsn. 124 M st^vn, stsn. 130 M b^vt. 

M' 138 LW faadhvB. M: 154 B bak\ 155Mthsb. 158Laa*ttr- 
noun. 161 B dii, LW d^. 171 W bWt. — L kj&hnt. M'- 192 L mMi. 
197 L ^. 200 LW wATt. M: 223 L dhiva. 226 BW mwast, M 

£. 233 B sp^k, dht sp^ [they speaks], W speektn. 241 L rMi, W riUn. 

— B Itv'sin [leasing «r gleaning], Lleestn, lissin. 252 L kjttU. £: 261 
BW sat, L st*f, sai [new form (sdt)]. — L Ing [leg]. 262 WL wdi wft^'t, 
B wdi wdi. 265 L sin'tt [old form (strfdt)], W sir^i. 266 Wwb*1. — W 
fi*ld [field]. 276 W thtq*. 278 L wanix [used when young, now (gjenl)!. 
ir- 299 L griin. F: 314 L t«Bd. EA- 319 M givp. EA: 324 
L &ttiin, W &ttt. 326 BW 6Mld, W also &t<ld. 328 M k6Mld. 329 M 
f6idd. 335 W aaI. 346 W gist, L gist, M. givt. £A': 350 L diB*d. 
352 W rad. 355 W dnf . 359 nfci^B. — B b«'m [beam]. 361 W 
bian. 363 L ^xp. 364 W turn. 371 B straa, L strAA [old form (straa)]. 
£1- 373 L dh&i, W dh&U. £0- 383 W say'm. £0: 394 W jandva. 
895 W joq. 396 B waak. 402 W Utan. £0'- 420 W fdva. 421 W 
a^ati. £(y: 428 W si. £T- 438 L do'l. 

I- 440 B wik. 446 na'm. — W pMX [pease]. I: 452 W e'i. 458 
no'tt. 459 BW ra'tt. 465 sttti. 466 B IpL'tld. 468 B ^ildtaa. 477 
W fi'ind. 488 B Jtt. T- 492 W sa'td. 494 L ta'im. V: 500 B 

0- — L drikp [drop]. 524 B wvald. 0: 531 BL daa-tta, W 

dAAtta. 538 B ud, 543 BLW an\ — W kraps [crops]. 551 L stA*am. 

— B &s' [horse]. 0'- 559 W madhva. 560 W sVuul. 562 B mnun. 
564 B sun. 568 W bradhra. 0^: 578 L pla^'tf. 579 W muj. 586 L 
dwant [donH]. 

U- — L £d [wood]. 603 B kam, W aka*min. 604 W sM^maa. 605 B 
sa'n, L sti«^ W so'n. 606 BW ddva. U: 612 W sM^m, som. 613Ldnioqk. 
619 L fw^a. 629 B san* [compare 605], W au^, 632 LW mj>, op. 633 
kiij», kap. 634 W thnra. 636 L fardar. U'- 643 WB na'w. 650 L 
[between (vbe'^Mt) and r«b6Mt)]W«ba'ift. TT: 658 W da'im. 659Wta'tfn. 
663 BW I'm*. 667 L e'ift. 

Y- Wlit'l. 

[ 1525 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

94 THE MID S0I7THBRK. [D6,yi,ii. 

I. and T. 768 W gjaal, gjaT. 
f.lwondra)]. — W Wk, 791 L 
b]. — W d«k [a duck]. 794 

n. EKeusH. 

A. 737 W mM. E. 749 W lift. 
0. 761 M l<JBd. — L .-ItfJivn [new fonn (:] 

hwA\ W b6i. U. — W tw^b, tob [tub]." — Xv dak [a __ _. .._ 
W d|«og, d|og. 803 W diM^mp, d^omp. — W gen [a g:un]. 804 W drM^q^'n. 

m. Romance. 

A •• 828 M MgBB. — L plft*«n [plain, unadorned]. — W pian [please]. 

— W saaatin. 862 BW Mrf. E •• 867 W t^. 886 B vwt, W Tar», Tan. 
890 L bJBst [now (best)']. 891 L Qsst. •• — W pomp, pM»mp [pump]. 

— mWoUt [money]. 936 L kMoOntn. 938 BL kA'nnvn. — W tmpdhsaVl 
[impoedblej. 947 L bw6t'l. — W ko1«B [colour]. IJ.. 970 W d^ujst. 

Example$, — B (o'i si dh«^6Mld ^p* i'stard^), I saw the old chap yesterday. 
L (e'i bi agwji'in oom tv)B mi stf^ma). W (am\ am\ bfutifwl am' ! dham 
Bs)kknt iit it A't t« klam') [ham, ham, beautiful ham ! them as can't eat it ought 
to clam (stanre)]. 

Vab. ii. The Be. Foem. 

Although I have heen quite unable to obtain w. communications 
from Be., and the infonnation I have received leaves much to be 
desired, it is sufficient to shew the continuation of practically the 
same dial, as in w.Ox. throughout Be. 

Beginning in the n. I have a dial, test obtained by Mrs. Parker 
for Steventon (5 no Wantage), and I had others from Stanford in 
the Vale (5 nw.Wantage), which I could not sufficiently trust. 
The short list of words from Wantage, corroborated by those from 
Denchworth (3 n-by-w. Wantage), and Cholsey (11 e. Wantage), con- 
tinues the information through the n. of Be. From Hampstead 
Norris (11 se. Wantage) I have a considerable portion of the cs. 
written from diet, by Prince L.-L Bonaparte, from which the 
general character of the dial, can be safely inferred. It will suffice 
to give the Steventon, Wantage and Hampstead Korris specimens. 

a, Stbventok (5 ne. Wantage, Be.) dt. 

Written in gl. by Mrs. Parker from the diet, of Mr. Leonard, both of Ox., and 
pal. by AJE. Mrs. Parker has not marked the rererted, or, as she considers it, 
retracted (b), but I have supplied it to the same extent as before. 

1. Soo v!% sdt, AAl)8en)i, j« siz na't< x't bi raVt vba'tft dhset «b U't'l 
gjffil tsko mm fi9m dh« skuuld jaendtiB. 

2. shii)z QgwAA'in da'un dhB rAA«d dhas thruu dhv red g(Bt a 
dh? lift and sa'td b dhv waa'». 

3. shuuB Bnof dhB i^»ld bv gAAn strdit xp tB dhB duuB b dhB 
roq x'tis. 

4. war shii)l t^Muts tB hiUmdi dheet bb draqk'n def, sriVld felB b 
dhB neem b : tomes. 

6. wii aaI nAA'«z)n veB» wbI. 

6. want dh)AA'uld t|ap sun Ibbk bb nsBt tB duu)t Bgja*n, puuB thtq. 

7. lak! janttttruu? 

[ 1526 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


h. Hakpstsad Noreis, Be., part of cs. 

Written bj Prince L.-L. Bonaparte in his own letters from the dictation of 
W. B. Banting, Esq., hon. sec. oi the Newbury District Field Club, by whom it 
was approved when read out; translated into pal. by A.J.E. Most probably 
I shomd hare appreciated some sounds differently, as shewn by the notes, but I 
bare thought it right to retain the Prince's own spelling, translated into pal. It 
shews a stoong D 6 dialect. 

0. wv'f :dioii ffiz nnu diuts, 

1. wbI, naarbar, J99^ send liii m&at btro'ti'th laa'f set dh»8 njuuz 
OA mQ'in. hp' ki'is ? dheet iz iipdh"i nhfi iiaaj dhii. 

2. £ma men da't kos dhi&i bt laa'ft aet, wii rvavfUf d«)nt wii ? waat 
8hp*d meek am ? t-Bnt vee'ri l«'»klt, tz at ? 

8. dN'samde-vaj dhi's asj dhaaj vaeks 9 dhaaJ ki's, zoo djest 
Hho'iild jer na'iz, frend, sond bii kwtsVt ttl v'i aa dan. aai'kn ! 

4. s'f bii zei'tm b'» liPid am zaaf — ^zam ov dhem vok 9^ went thro^ 
dhaai uu*l dhiq vrom dhasj vast dhpjsel'z, — dhaet did b'» zi'f enaf . 

5. dheet dhaaj jaq'gest zan Msel'f, m grit bwv't a nB'tn, ntn/Md 
fz fee'dha^cz va'ts aet wvns, dikwafu et wsez zoo kwp^ send skwek-an, 
send b'» wad drast en t^^ speek dhasj druuth en*» ddat, aa, o't wBd. 

6. se'nd dhaaj v'ttl-d-om'sen Hfap^sel* w^l tel en» o-n-i dhaet laa'f 
ndu, send tel ii Btrdatt v^9% U\ wt )dtft' malg bodh'ts^, »f jp'1 p4i*lf 
seks rif 9^ ! wsent shii ? 

7. li'stwB'iz shii tB'ttld at mee, wen xli seksd pi, tp* aaj drii t^'unz 
oo'va^, d»d shii, send shii dtd'nt AAt tp^ bii raq on 8»k aai pa'tnt 
SBZ dh»s, waat dp^ ii dhiqk ? 

8. wbI sez xli wsez se z£a»'n, shii ad tel ii, bV^, wpi send wen 
shii TB'p^nd dhaaj draqk'n bi'st shii IlaaIz pi az'bsen. 

NqU» to Hamp9Uad Norrit. 

0. why^ the usual MS. diphthong, Mr. B. has whoo. — neither^ here again 
differently appreciated as (a't go't a'i (0) is doubtful, Mr. B. has nuther, 
a«i). Mr. Banting wrote M^Aoy, as 2. $houldy {9^) doubtful. 

usual.— Am, this is the strong form. — 3. <A«m, the final (s) probably an 

doubUy analogy would haye required error for (1). — tke^ this (dhaaj) is 

(dv'nts), see 8 (yv'^J. difficult to understand, Mr. B. writes 

1. neighbowr, the final (1) or glottal th^aH thae vackt ov th^ ke<u, which 
r, which is sometimes written (1) or (rj, is equally puzzling. — noises Mr. B. nait, 
followed by permissiye r, was eyidently 4. heard-who-thnmah, Mr. B.hurd' 
at that time the Prince's appreciation oo-throo, the (a) is doubtful. 

of (m), the only real r of this district. 6. trust, truth, Mr. B. writes dtrutt, 

— you, the appreciation (j#**) is very dtruth, which were probably his errors, 

doubtful. Mr. B. wrote yoM^A, perhaps (TRastTRUuth)mighthavebeenexpected. 

(ra!u). — ^A, Mr. Banting writes ^otTtfM 8. how'found by the appreciation 

perhaps (b6tdh) was intended. I do («'«') the ^phthong in these words is 

not attribute much importance to BCr. made to resemble the Dy. diphthong. 

Banting's approval of the Prince's Mr. B. writes simply ow. If the Prince 

reading, for as Mr. Banting was not heard him correctly, he must have had 

used to phonetic appreciation, and the a very peculiar pron. of (uu, 00, a'u) not 

Prince was a forei^er, Mr. Banting belonging to the district. The Prince 

would be easily satisfied with a rough was not able to finish writing the whole 

approximation to his own sounds. — who, cs. from dictation, 
toe appreciation (h^*) is very doubtful, 

[ 1627 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

96 THB MID SOUTHERN. [B 5, Y ii, iii. 

e, "Waktaoe, Be., cwl. 

Written by Mr. Davey io., nther conjecturally pftl. by AJE. The rererted Tr) 
not before a Yowel has Men supplied, as it was certainly pronounced. I had also 
a considerable number of words Irom the Vicar of DenchworUi (3 nnw. Wantage), 
which so far as they go confirm this list, and a dt. from the schoolmaster of 
Cholsey (12 e.Wantage^, which has a suspicious number of initial ^z) and other 
doubtful points, hence 1 can only use these as confirmations on the wnole. 

I. Wessex and Nobse. 

A'- 92 nku. A': 118 bfiwi. 

M' 148 f&tr. Ml 168 ^^ftBB aatva. — wops [wasp]. JE!i 208 sbr 
V- [e'er a, any]. 209 neea «- [ne*er a-l. 218 shtp. 223 dhsR. 

£: 261 z&t. 263 «w&i*. 265 stxCiT. — BthaKt [athwart]. F: 312 
JX&. £A: 324 kii bait. £A': 366 gaut gror. £0: — - «m [them]. 
— shaBt [short]. 407 fandhtq. 

I'. — gii [Jive]. I': — h&» [bar]. 0: 638 i#d. 662 kaan. — 
mannvn [morning]. 0': 686 duu)t [ao it], dun}n&M [don't know]. U: 
612 2am)«t [somewhat, something]. 

n. Ekoush. 

A. — B&tlz [rails]. — maRkvt [market]. 

m. Bomance. 

A- — pki [pay]. 890 bfvst. — puuBTini [porter]. 
Sentences : (d6imt^i) don*t you, (wet)s went tv gaaSnd ii fan?) what dost want 
to grind he (sit P) for ? (js)nt tt, bB)nt it) is not it, be not it, (ankid) dreadful. 

Vae. iii. Ha. aitd Wi. Fobks. 

The dialect at the north of Hampshire cannot differ mnch from 
that of Hampstead Norris, Be. The late Dr. Bumcll, a native, 
writing from West Stratton (7 ne.Winchester), says that the r final 
is fully reverted, that (z) for » initial is very rare, (v) for / he had 
heard in 535 (vooks) folks ; (h, wh) initial were used, 553 momingy 
87 clotheiy were (maKn»n, klaaz), and 304 beetle a mallet, was (bdit'l), 
which is singular, 394 yonder (jandBR). In grammar / he, he he^ 
we amy they am, are heaid, not / are. I lives not / do livey he livey 
toe lives. The dialect seemed already (1879) mnch altered, and so 
many inhabitants had been in service in London and elsewhere, or at 
sea and about, that Dr. B. doubted the value of what they told him. 
The man he had reckoned on as his principal authority was ill. 

From East Stratton, which is close by, I got (gwm, Bnuu*, g(Bt) 
going, enough, gate ; Dr. Bumell repudiated the last. 

Towards the s. of Ha. the great towns of Winchester, Southamp- 
ton, and Portsmouth have acted seriously on the dialect, which 
however crops up again in "Wi. 

The Rev. T. Bumingham, when Bector of Charlwood, Sr. (6 bsw. 
Beigate), a Hampshire man, said that in his younger days (b. 1808) 
the labourer alway put v for /, and s f or « ; a fallow would be 
a voller (volis ?), and gives the following examples of Ha. at that 
time (I preserve the spelling), ** I was a gwine (gwdtn) hoh-um 
(hiSomn) to git my kawfee, but set dotui under the hullumun 
(ha*lBmBn«»elm) tree to git out o' th' rah-in (riin). Terrable 
watchet (taBBb*l wallet) a gwine acrass that air veeyuld (vii«ld)." 

[ 1628 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D 6, V iii.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 97 

Here watchet is wetshod, wet for the feet. He notes waps tpapsm'^ 
wasp wasps, een amoast^even almost, on-emp^un-emjityy^ empty 
**on-emp that air payul," ^wr«= hungry, empty, =»Gennan leer^ but 
not derived from it, mid. Eng. laer. (See D 4, p. 52, H&met, 1. 23.) 

Southampton to WiNCHEsrEB. 

This C8. was written from the dictation of Mr. Percival Leigh, 22 March, 1876, 
who was born in Scotland in 1813, but was taken to Hampshire when a month old 
and had been there constantly since, so that he had known the dialect all his life. 
Mr. Leigh did not use (r), but pronounced in the usual received manner, initial 
(r), final as («). I have used final (b), because from other sources I know that 
it prevails in Hampshire. Mr. Leigh was also strict in not leaving out (h), but 
admitted that it was sometimes put in. Altogether it seems that this version 

fives rather a refined form of speech, with occasional outbursts of real dialect, 
owards Portsmouth Mr. Leigh considered the speech as finer still. 

0. wso't :dpn haaaant got noo dao'nts. 

1. wbI, n^»bvR, dhii vn him med buu'th laa*f at dhis hii'r niuz o 
ma>'in. huu kee*Rz ? dhaet eent nadhoR hii'R n«R dhee'R. 

2. fill tpeps doD'tz kAAz dhee bi laeaeft aet, wii nooz, duu'nt)as ? 
wot shttd mii'k «m ? Bt beent veR» lao'ikli, bii)T?t ? 

3. hao'tfsmndEV'BR dhiiz hii'R bii dho ra)Vts o dhv stoo'rii, zoo 
diEst dhii hoold dht nso'iz, vrend, «n bao'td ku^ao'rtit ttl 8o't)y «d?in. 
dliii Its'n to mii. 

4. 8o'f bii saaRt'n eo'f hii*Rd wn zee zsnn o dhKm fooks bz went 
dmu dhQ hool dhiq from dhB vast dhiSRZElvz — dhaet did a)'i zcef 
tmaf* — 

5. dhtst dh« jsqgost zan hissEl-f, v gaRt bdo'i o nao'in nood hiz 
vii'dhoRz vao'fs «t wans, thof twBz zoo kwee^R Bn skweck-Bn, Bnd 
a>'i tfd trast *hii tB speek dhB TRUuth Eni dai, iis, 'dhcet goV *t<d. 

6. Bn dh)ool;d)Mm'cn hBRZEl f 'l)tEl En'i on)i bz laDODfs nao'u, vn 
tEl)i strait oof, tuu, widhao'wt motj fas, if juu)l wanli aDa)8k br, 
00, want shi ? 

7. leestwdiz shi toold Bt 'mii, wEn oo'i eecest or, tuu br drii tao'i mz 
waavBR, did)8hi, bu shii didn't AAt ts bi roq on sttj b poo'mt bz 
dhis, wot dost 'dhii thiqk ? 

8. wbI bz eo'i WBZ b zdion -shii nd tel)i, hso'w, wee*R on weu shi 
veo'und dhi draqk-Bn bii'st shi kAAlz hBR hazbBnd. 

9. shi soor shi saa bu wi br oon ao'iz, B-ldion stratjt Bt fwl lEqkth 
on dhB grao'imd, in iz gud zan*di kwuu't kloos bi dhB duu'R o dhB 
hoo'tis, da)'un Bt dhB kaeaeauBR o dhB leen jseaendoR. 

10. aR WBZ skwin'tBU Bwdi, sez shii, fsR aaI dhB ward'l laoVk b 
zik ijeo'ild, br b litl gaRl vTEtBu. 

11. Bn dhaet haep*'nd bz shii bu hBR daeae'toR tn Iaa kam druu 
dhB baek kuu'rt frBm haeq'Bn eo't^t dhB wet klooz to draD'i on b 
wosh'Bu d&i. 

12. wQo'il dho kit'l woz Bbao'ilBn fsR tee wan bRaoVt zam'BR 
aeaetBRuuun wan-li b w^^k Bguu* kam uEks dhaRZ'dt. 

13. aend d^st 'dhii noo ? oo'i nevoR laaRnt noo muu'R nBR dhis 
hii'R B 'dhaet biz'nos ap tB tB-ddi, bz shuu'R bz mao'i nii'mz :(1jon 
:shep*BRd an soV duu'nt wAAut tB, eedbBr, zoo dhee'R ! 

14. Bn zoo 9)'i bi gwgo'i'an whoo'm tB zap'BR. gud noo'it, bu 

X.S. ProB. Part Y. [ 1529 ] 98 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



[D 6, V iii. 

duu'nt bii zo kwtck is kroo waavBR b i^p Bgtn, WEn b tAAks o dhis 
dhapt BE tiidhBu. 

15. Bt)s a week fuul bz sez muu'B nBR i niid. en dhcet-s moo't 
last wasd. gtid bao't. 


0. ham* t got no dottbts^ or simply hat 
no (« uool OT has not got (b nat gat). 
The vowel (o) wns Mr. Leigh's ordmary 
(a) and was not (o). 

1 . neighbour, Mr. L. gave both (nki-) 
and (uaoi-). — thee-him ; thee is used for 
both nom. and aco. ; him is nom. and 
(hii) emphatic, (un) regular unemphatic 
S. ace. 

2. ainU is most natural, but (beent) 
is also used.— /«'if with (f) not (v). — 
chaps, Mr. L. varied, apparently un- 
couseiously, from (a») to (a*) wherever 
tlie short sound occurs. — tchat, simple 
(w)no (wh). — Aam'/or(bii'nt). Theuse 
ol* be in the thiixl singular here and 
elsewhere is doubtful. 

3. rights of the storg, for facts of the 
case, which is not a dialectal expression. 
— thg (dhaa'i) emphatic, (dhi) unem- 
phatic— /r«?wrf, the (v) is doubtful. — 
adone, the itse of (w) before the past 
participle is more frequent than not, 
among the regular old-fashioned people. 

4. sag sometimes (za»). — through as 
dictated, but this change of thr- to rfr- 
iniplies that the real change is into (dr-) 
ana this is doubtful in Ha. — thitfg 
(dliiq) is only occasionally used for (thtq) 
—from is more naturally pronounced 
with (f). 

5. voice is not a regular term, perhaps 
(viis) would be said. — though (thaf) 
was so dictated, but the (th) is doubtful. 
The word was said to be not common 
but still used. — he, emphatic form of 
ace., (un) unemphatic. — ang (eu*), never 

(cen-t). — dag (d&t) is heard, but not so 
often as (dee). — ges (iis) is the regular 
form, but (yaas) is also used. 

6. old wotnan, the (d) of {oo\) is per- 
ceptibly made the beginning of the 
word («m-Bn), as common in S. — on-ge^ 
tell ge, sometimes (jc) is used in place 
of (-i), but this must be a modernism. — 
fuss is the common word, not bother. — 
onlg (oo-ni) is also used, but (wan-li) is 
more frequent. 

7 and 14. over (waavoR). 

8. saging, also pronounced (see'on) or 
(seen) .— /o»<«rf generally with (v), (f) 
sometimes among the younger. — bexut 
or (beest), plurd (bii'stiz). — husband 
or (az'bend, azbvn), not man. 

9. saw or else (sse®, zsese, aid, sin, 
sii) might be used. — a-laging, a general 
error for a-lging^ which would be 

10. ivorldj this pronunciation is not 
very common now. — girl or else (m&idj. 

11. law is generally (laesB), but in 
this connection may be (Iaa). 

12. iceek uncertain, Mr. Leigh at 
first wrote week (wiik), I expected (wik, 
wik), but both wicu and umce are found 
in Ws. 

13. Homers, or {jimtBrnn).^ shepherd ^ 
(ship) is used for sheep. 

14. a-going (ga)'tan) is probably an 
error for (ugwiran). — this, no (dhtk) 
is used in llampshire, but (dhtk'tm) is 
said in the plural. 

15. sags, the word prates is not 
used, (reez'n) is said. 

Andover, Ha., specimen and cwL s 

Prof Dr. M. M. Arnold Schrocr, from Vienna, of the University 
of Frcibur*?-im-Bixiisgau, Baden, Germany, who had studied pho- 
netics under Dr. Sweet, and had had much experience in observing, 
analysinj^, and criticising differences of speech in various parts of 
Germany, and speaks English with an excellent pronunciation, 
having spent the summer of 1887 near Andover, Ha., exercised him- 
self in writing Ha. speech from dictation. His two chief authorities 
were Mr. Benjamin Manning, of Appleshaw (4 wnw. Andover), 
between 40 and 50 years old, who had lived all his life in the 
county and been in constant communication with farm-labourers, 

[ 1530 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D6, Viii.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 99 

and Mr. Arcliard, a natiye of Ha., educated at Winchester, then 
national schoolmaster at Andover, and consequently in the constant 
habit of hearing dialect, to whom Prof. S. had been recommended 
by Canon Collier, the vicar, as the very man he wanted. Of these 
Prof. S. considered Mr. M. as his chief authority. The number of 
points, however, in which he differed from Mr. A. is considerable. 
Prof. Schroer selected as an example a letter originally published 
in Punch (vol. ix. p. 264, 1845) and reprinted in the Rev. Sir 
William H. Cope's Ha, Glossary^ p. xii. This was read to him 
by both Messrs. M. and A., and their pronunciation most carefully 
analysed in Dr. Sweet's revised Eomic spelling {Sound Notation^ 
Trans, of the Philological Society, 1880-1, pp. 177-235), with 
which Prof. S. is perfectly familiar. These versions, transliterated 
into pal. from the references to Mr. Melville Bell's notation and 
other indications given in the paper cited, are here annexed, with a 
translation. In the cwl. Mr. M. has been generally followed, and 
some words in his own orthography have been added. In a few 
cases Mr. A.'s pron. is specially noted. 

Prof. 8. considers that the Ha. dialect 
''is rapidly dying oat, and has been so for the last two generations. Even the 
oldest farm-labourers are so much accustomed to educated (London] pronunciation, 
that this certainly influences their natural speech. I attended/* he adds, **a 
honreet-home festiyal at Longstock House, Fullerton (4 s.Andoyer), and waited 
upon a poor blind old man of 80, who, owing to his blindness, could not always 
know that I was near him or within hearing. Still, though I spent almost the 
whole afternoon in his company, always listening and secretly taking notes, I did 
not find more than a very few peculiar pronunciations, eicept the general tendency 
of influencing vowels by the reverted r. 

There are several points which will strike the reader in the following spec. 
Prof. Schroer having oeen, as already stated, a phonetic pupil of Dr. Sweet, his 
appreciation of souiras, as referred to Mr. Melvule Bell's scheme, seems to differ 
in some respects from mine. He has been before all things anxious to make the 
most accurate transcription possible of the speech actually under consideration. 
Mr. M.*s own spelling in the cwl. will shew that the speaker evidently thought 
he was saying (u, ee), while Prof. S. heard only {yy, be). The (ao) which con- 
stantly occurs corresponds in unaccented syllables to my (b), from which, and also 
from (ah), which sometimes occurs, the audible difference is small, though the 
difference of the position of tongue and lips, which determines the symbol, is often 
considerable. Probably most of the words written with (yy'ao), I should have 
heard with (ib, i% ub). Those written with (oh), considered as Fr. o in homme 
and answering to short m, I should probably have heard as (o), but both Mr. M.'s 
(oh) and Mr. A.'s (u) in fpohnti, puntj), punch, in place of (a), are extremely 
strange to me. As regaras I' words havii^ (a'v), I may refer to JGG.'s use of 
the same symbol at Chippenham (supr& p. 51h which I then thought very remark- 
able. The symbol (so'oh), which is the pal. rendering of Dr. Sweet's sign for 
received Lonaon otc, is intended to imply that in Ha. Mr. M. used that sound, 
beginning with (a>) and ending with the rounded form of the same vowel, that is, 
not coming up to {u) or altering the position of the tongue at all, but merely 
partly closing the hps while saying (ao). I am accustom^ to analyse my own 
utterance of this sound as (&*u), and do not hear (so) at all ; in fact, when I first 
heard initial (a>) from Mr. Trotter (supr^ p. 60^, it had an extremely strange 
provincial effect to my ears. This (oo'ah) is, however, not universal. In count 
Doth M. and A. give (kwant), which I might have heard as (ki^But), a very 
singular form. Tms {ua, nua) is the common form of what I, perhaps, should 
have written (ub, <h), ttwB), as (biif<ak, stufiod) book, stood, which I should 
probably have heard and therefore written (btSBk, st^Bd). Some other usages 

[ 1631 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQ IC 

100 THR MID SOUTHERN. [D 6, V iii. 

also seem strange, as the dipbtbong in (nsB'a*z), noise, the advanced high (s) in 
(v^aa^'a), for, the accented use of (a)) in (pa)g2, :y'aDmzb*B, hawt, yaD'blj, pigs, 
flampshure, hast, able, the use of (oe) in (zoens), sense, the double form of 
(^as'a'l, ^&a-aU), oil, where d&a-a') seemed to be an advanced (aa) ending with 
a slight motion of the tongue into the position for (a*) ; the hyphen merely 
rteparates symbols, so as to form a kind of (a'i) diphthong. 

These observations of Prof. Scbroer are, I think, very valuable 
as shewing almost personal varieties of nw.Ha. pron. differing so 
widely as Mr. M.'s and Mr. A.*b, and analysed with the greatest 
minuteness and conscientiousness. I feel greatly indebted to him 
for his kindness in sending them, with long explanations, although 
it was extremely inconvenient for him to do so in time to appear 
in this place. 

Two Akdovek PRONUNCiAnoNS OP Hakpshibe Faemsr's Letter. 

Written in Dr. Sweet's Romic by Prof. Arnold Schroer and translated into pal. 
by AJE. All the (t, d, 1, n, r) both here and in the sentences and cwl. on 
p. 104 should be (t, d, l, n, r), and hence (tj, dj) should be (t^, dj, ^Tsh, 
uzh) as at Chippenham (p. 51], but as this was not known till the proof was 
corrected, I considered it safer to let them remain as they are with this 

M. From the dictation of Mr. Manning. 

A. From the dictation of Mr. Archard, when the same for any word as in M., only 

^,,) is written. 
T. Literal translation, not the original in Punch, 

1. M myst'E :pohntj, z'e, yf jah'B [joo'oh] p/y/ooz, z'e, dy by)90 
A „ ptmtj, „ yf j'b „ „ „ „ 

T Mr. Punch, sir, if you please, sir, I be a 

M r/eomzh'B v^aa^BmohB. 
A ,, v^aa^Bm'B. 

T Hampshire farmer. 

2. M dy rdyts tso jao'ah ka)z dy noo'ohz jao'oh {umt mifynd mdy 
A „ ,, tu iiia k^a^'az „ n^z jm wont ,, ,, 
T I write to you because I know you won't mind my 

M niiat by'aon go zgolao'sd a>n «'! a^ksk^tz byy^eod zboeloon 
A „ „ „ „ „ (5al [tt'l] ykskjwttz „ „ 

T not being a scholar[d] and will excuse bad spelling 

M Qon ee'1 dhEE'sot fdhyyaot]. 
A „ <E'al dhyy'aot. 

T and all that. 

3. M l^kson a>'ohva> dhoo pyy^sopoo taodh'r my/ooBkoot Maj 
A Ittkaon Aaveo „ „ t^odhao „ dy/aoj 
T Looking over the paper t'other market day 

M 8ot :wflmtjyat'r dy zyyjd [zyd] oo kdont eo dha) prtiyz 
A „ twynt^ystcD'B „ zyy „ „ „ „ „ 

T at Winchester I see'd a count of the prize 

[ 1632 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D 5, y iii.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 101 

M kyy'eot'l)zhjao'oh iiap yn '.Itmson [rlohngon], 
A „ zhita „ yn :lohna>n. 

T cattle show up in London. 

4. M dj wEs'eontyd ta> wku^ wEE'oot a> zood oob^ oo poogz ; 
A „ wiWtyd „ niia wiiai so zod oob^ a) pygz; 
T I wanted to know what he said about the pigs; 

M iiaz dhao wEE'aoz a>n wee's dho) Yiiam yra>m. 
A „ „ w^z „ wab'r „ kobm vrom. 

T whose they was and where they come from. 

5. M ay vso'absoiid ooz so'ob dbEE's w^aa^'fint a> zt'qg'l pa)g vKoom 
A ifyvQo'obiid „ „ „ ' „ „ „ ^g vKom 
T I fotmd as how there were*nt a single pig [hog] from 

M :y'a)mzb'B [uoomzb'R] maoq dbao laot. 
A ,, Qomaoq ,, li!!uft. 

T Hampshire among the lot. 

6. M jao'oh niiuaz dhEE'oot, <fy)d'B zeeV, qoz wao'l aoz ay 
A jiia niiaz dbyy'aot, ,, dyy'ao'H zy/aoj, eoz wcl „ „ 
T You knows that, I dare say, as well as I 

M din, aon vob'r l(fyk jao'ob becy zdond'ysbt yy'aot)oot 
A „ „ va)RRy „ iiia byj aozdonyzbd a)t)yt 
T do, and very like you be astonished at it 

M [jaDt)a>t] zobmeot. tao'l da* Qo'oh)a)t)a}z)z'R. 
A zobm't. tel yj ao'ohLouJ tyz)z'K. 

T somewhat. Tell you how it is, sir. 

7. M wd*y vao'ohks son :y'somzh*r bREE'eodz [bRyy'aodz] paogz ooz 
A wy vii^iks yn „ bRyyaodz pygz)a)z) 
T We folks in Hampshire breeds pigs as 

M paogz go'3bt)ao bd^y, aon d^ont ^ua vaotnaon aon aom liop 
A pygz uai)^ by, „ „ „ „ on „ „ 

T pigs ought) to be, and don*t go fattening on them up 

M ty'l dhao ky/aont WEE'aog. 
A tyl „ „ wy/aog. 

T till they can*t wag. 

8. M wd*y zaoz pao'ob'Bk ao'Dbt)tao Iiee'qov /y/aon aoz wao'l aoz 
A wy sez p^untk iiat tu „ ,, ,, wcl ,, 
T We says pork ought to hare lean as well as 

M vy/aot, aon wa* l^yks Aor by/aokn stry/aokyd. zy/aoni 
A „ „ wy „ „ „ stry/aoky. „ 

T fitt, and we likes our bacon streaky. Same 

[ 1633 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

102 THE MID 80UTHEKX. [D 5, V iii. 

M wy ky/eotl. 
T with catUe. 

9. M w^aa^'rjz) dha> zoens ^aa^'s fee'sozii go stohfaon oon kB^dgomn 
A wfl'Rjz „ „ „ B^aa^zn a stofn „ kRa)mn 

T Where*8 the Bouse or reason of stuffing and cramming 

M 90 bulyk ty'l yy by/oont yao'bl tao zyy jao'oht ? [out 
A GO hoks ty'l go „ yy'aobl „ ,, ^at 

T an ox [bullock] til he be not able to see out j^out 

M of his eyes, not used] 
A n yz ayz? 
T of his eyes]? 

10. M wEE^aot jaoz dhso jao'ohs so ee'1 dhsE'aot EE'eoB vyy'aot 
A wiuft iz „ juuz a (e<e'1 dhyy'aot y/aoB „ 

T What is the use of all that ere fat 

M [vEs'Got] dy wBE^gonts tao nao'oli? ^ jaoz dhoah'r eoz 
A „ w^^ts tu n^? „ tz „ ,, 

T I wants to know? Who is there as 

M jaot8)aot? 
A yy'eot8)yt? 
T eats it? 

11. M dhoo ^aa'a^ ky/aok, t'smaots, maoqg'lzfw'Rzlz) aon k/aobydj 
A „ ^da-a*l „ „ met)qg*lw'Bz'l eon kaobydj 
T The oilcake, tumips, mangelwurzel, and cabbage 

M a>z)a>z wEE'sostyd son nuEE'sokoon wyn bulyk a> [monster] 
A a)z)yz wyy^aostyd vn myi/aokaon wdon „ „ monst'r 
T as is wasted m malung one bullock a monster 

H ohd g&a tao kEs'aop dfid^y ^x^ vao'oh'B ydyn k/aotl yn 
A Md ji tu ,, dry „ yoo'b „ hoks'n yn 
T would go to keep three or four fine oxen [cattle] in 

M giuid kondysh'n. 

T good condition. 

12. M udjj z'b, dhcio-a^ med djy8t)aoz wao'l vGot)ohp 
A „ „ dh^a-a* mcfyt d|^ast)aoz wa'l vyy'eot „ 
T Why, sir, they might just)aB well fat up 

M zdaogz)aon y/aah'sz son BEE'aobolits, dy aon vEE'aoz'nz aon 
A ,, ,, EE'aoBz „ Baobohts, ,, ,, voez'nz ,, 
T stags and hares, and rabbits, aye and pheasants anil 

[ 1534 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D6, Viii.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 103 

M psE'goRdBa'diyz v^aa^B dha> mEE^ootaoB a))d]i£E'aot. 
A p<E(E'RdHyd}yz „ „ ma)t*B o dhyy'got. 
T partridges, for the matter of that. 

13. M tao'l aa* wEE'aot [taoz] rmy/sost'r -.pohntj, yf zda'd aD vlyqaon 
A tce'l yy uat, „ pwnt^ yf zded o ,, 

T Tell you what [it is], Master Punch, if stead of flinging 

M eowda-a* g^iiid pBavnd'B taD t*Bn ^aa^Bnd yoBcenoom'lz yfxAu 
A sowdy „ provaond*r tu ,, „ (DnaonKE'lz sontu 
T away good provender to turn homed animals into 

M :da>na>l daomb'Bts, dhda-a* w^z ta> gyy bry/aod eon maa^'yt 
A ,, :la)mb*Bts dhdy iut7. tu by/aoBt^a „ ,, myy^got 
T Daniel Lamberts they was to give [bestow] hread and meat 

M son t'Bmohts ta> :krystaonz son myy^ook zobm on)a)m 
A „ „ on ikrystyaonz „ „ ,, o)dhobm 

T and turnips on Christians, and make some of them 

M 80 byt VQot'B dhflen db«f/i-a* bd*y dh<ffl)a*d d^a mka 
A so lyt'l vyy'aot'B dh,daa)n dh^^y byy dh dyy)d duwa m^ua 
T a little fatter than they be, theyM do more 

M %iLai^ 60 praaVsba)s z(iyt, eon &f)m bao'ohn jso'^ob bd'y 
A gdtoid so prEE'gosboos zayt, ,, ,, baund J^un byy 
T good a precious sight, and I'm bound you be 

M dbao zyy'aom pynoon. 
A dhao „ aobyniaon. 
T of the same opinion. 

14. M cfy ba\ z*b, jao'ob'B bda^ydjaont z^aa^Bvnt :djdan igrao'ohts. 
A „ byy, „ jw'r byyc^aont ' „ „ igrottts. 

T I be, sir, your obedient servant, John Grouts. 

Notei to the above Letter, 

1. knowSf M. writes (ay ngo'ahz] and 9. bulhck, M. says ox is not used in 

says not (umiz) which is wnat A. gives ; Ha., but A. gives it. 

but M. says that 'to know' is (ta> II. ot/ (cECE'ylj) in owl. — making net 

ntia). (myy'aokoon) says M., as A. has, it is 

3. ^Artn^, an octogenarian at Reden- only the infinitive which is (mi/i/syk). 

ham (6 nw.Andover and 1 nw.Apple- M. says monster is not used, and Prof, 

shaw) agreed with A. here. S. put a Y against (niEB'aonst'R) as a 

6. found or (vao'ahnd). — M. says possible pron.— /o«r is (va3'ah*R), but 

**hog not used," that is in the sense of fourteen is (Vjaa*'Ktin). — cattie was 

a male pig ; but as a young and as yet oxen in the onpnal, but M. says the 

unshorn sheep, the word is common in word is not used, though A. has it. 

Ha., so that a Hampshire Hog means 13. tell you what^ according to M. 

a country simpleton. There is a should have had Uie appended. — a bitf 

• Hampshire-Hog Lane ' at Hammer- M. says not a little, which A. uses. — 

smith, London, W. bestow is not used says M., but it is 

6. r^ry, M. says the final y is fre- given by A. — you be [of to be omitted 

quently omitted. according to M.] /A^ same cpinUm. 

[ 1635 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

104 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 6, V ill. 

Written by Prof. Schroer from dictation of Mr. B. Manning. See p. 100. 

1. (dhsot hdyy waoz muiM dhsDii liEEf bruuiid), that hive was more 

than half brood. 

2. (t)yy')a)nt layk dhyy'aot), it [=the thing 8aid])i8)not like that, 

[—is not so]. 

3. (y yy'sont niitia gdtiad), it [referring to a rake] is-not no good. 

4. {yy^is dhyy hsost, dhyy)Bt stot^lst my mxEf^)), yes thou hast, thee 

hast stol'st my maw«heart. [The phrase is said to belong 
to a well-known anecdote, using stoPat for stolen.'] 

5. (gymy dhyk zee's), ut/tp^ ? dhyk)n), give me this saw^ which 

one? thi8)one. 

6. (dhyy'ao by/aost eo bEE'ood bdoe), thou be'st a bad boy. 

7. (dhyVaodst [dhyy'aoldst] nee'ao byy nitua giid)an), thee'dst 

[thoe'ldst] never be no good one. 

8. rtyz mdyn bE^eod, z'e), it)is main [=very] bad, sir. 

9. (<fy ^yy'a)nt ka)'ohnt)aom dhEE'so EE'a'l oomaoq), I can't count 

them there all among [mixed up together], 

10. (ucfy dituant litua girna hiiuam [w^uom]), why don't you go 


11. (diitumt mEE'ahk 8ytj)do UEE'a^z), don't make such a noise. 

12. (cfy ta'l dhy M<ft)yz, man !), I tell you what [it] is, man ! 

13. (w^aa^'E byy'aost [byst] dhyy gw<fwhin?), where be'st thee 

going? [In (gwrfwhi) "the first element low-back-wide, the 
second rather mid-mixed-wide, but certainly labialised by 
the {a). I [Schroer] make it (whi) lower, between (oh) and 
(tth), but more (y) than (oh). "J 

14. (wEE'oot byst gwdyn v^aa^'E?), what be'st thou going for? 

[=why are you going?] 

15. (udt)s dhyy wEi/aont ?), what)is [it that] thee want ? 

1 6. (mcfyn smyytjy, mrfyn smyy'Et) , main ( = very) dusty, main smart. 

17. {dy wynt. dy {i€mt gda itam taonifyt), I will)not. I won't go 

home to-night. 

18. (l^kyy yy'r ; y t^ald my t^codhao daay), look ye here ; he told 

me the other day. 

19. (yf dhyy wast gwrfuhjU tao loksf'sd, wyt^ wdy wwdst g^tia?), 

if thee wast going to Oxford, which way wouldst [thou] go ? 

20. (wytj wdy «dst 8ev)yt; A'ot o kiia'ld [kao'oha'ld]?), which way 

wouldst [thou] have it ; hot or cold ? 

21. (my/aot dhay mEE'aot), meet thy mate. 

Andovbk cwl. 
from the phonetic ohserrations of Prof. Arnold Schroer, chiefly on Mr. Manning 
and Mr. Archard, who are sometimes distinguished as M and A. Mr. Maiming 
also gave Prof. S. a list of man^ words in the cwl. in his own orthography, 
which I annex in Italics because it serves to shew his own appreciation oi his 
own sounds. I preserve even Mr. M.'s division of a word into two. See 
p. 100. 

I. Wessex and Noese. 

A- 1 ztia. 3 hj/y'aak.. i tt/j/dolk. 6 my/aok, msE'ahk. 6 myy'aKl. 8 
|_hEB'a)v. 9 byjyy'dDV. 11 mEs'o). 12 zeb'so. 14 dREs's), dR^ax'. 15 

[ 1636 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D 6, y iii.] THE MID 80UTHSRN. 105 

[(,n>aft«l, n'oofifl) awful]. 17 M Isi'a), A \,mK 18 ky/a>k. 19 ty^a)], 
Ufl, 20 ly/aom [more decided dialect], lBB'a)m Rem broad]. 21 nysf'dam, 
iixs'a>ni. 24 zhyy'Qom, sbyy'aom. 30 kWa>*R, kyy^B\ 33 Hyy'aodhao. 

A: 39 kv/aDm, koym, A;«mm [not much used. M.]. 40 kuuam. 41 dhaK)k. 
43 ihy/ond. 44 ly/snd. 45 wBB'a>Qt. 46 kyy'a>ndl. 47 wyy'aond'a. 48 
zyyaoq, zohq. 49 y/oK). 60 ta>qz [doubtful whether ever (tyy'a>qz)]. 61 man. 
65 M BB'aMbyz [never (y/ao-)], A yyaDshyz. 66 WBB'awh [very seldom 
(wy/aoBb)]. A: or 0: 68 VBasm, yRohm. 60 laoq. 64 bbb aoq. 

A'- 67 gt>Ma, gu. 69 niiua. 70 toKa, Tiiua, Uuua Y 72 iiim, hyy m, hjuua, 
73 ZttiM. 74 TittMy Uiiua. 76 tMMid. 77 l^aa**Bd. 78 oim. 79 uuon. 80 
orndoo's a>l*Bda). 82 wons, wwnans. 84 m»ua. 86 ziit<a>*R, zao'ahaDR. 86 
uuatBy [usually (wMits)]. 87 kl.aa^az, Ubb'sz. 89 btiuoth, bBB'a)th. 91ma>'3h. 
92 niiuay nao'ah. 96 zdua [but mostly (za>'9h, zcD'ahd, za>'3h;a)n} sow, sowed, 
sowing]. 97 zkm*1. 98 M ncss'od [knowed], A niiuaa [known]. 99 dna)'3hd. 
100 za) abd [but the (z) is gradually giving way to (s) ]. 

A': 101 iwiiuak. 102 a>ks, ox. 103 a>kst, BB'aokst, ^kst, axt, 104 nduad, 
106 b&Mwad. 113tiwa*l. 116 tiMom. 117 nuon. 118 bifwan. 122 i. UMWon, 
ii. nuua. 124 sttiMon. 127 l,hAA*RZ. 133 Ktiuat, 

JE' 138 (v)fyy'6odh*B. 140 BB'a>jl. 141 ubb'sojI. 142 subb'qojI. 143 
tBB'aMl. 144 a)gyy'a>n aDgBB'a>n. 146 moyn [rarely (my/sn, msB'yn)]. 147 
bRyy'aon. 148 vEB'oe^r. 149 blyy^ooz. 162 luita), woota) [** with voiceless d, 
* Stimmlose lenis,' the pron. (tiato)) apparently dialect, (wooto)) influenced by 
educated pron., heard both from old country people.*' AS.] 163 za)t'Rd&ay. 

JE: 164 byy'aik. 168 ah Ur. 169 BB'a)Z, a>z. 161 d&ay. 162 ttid&ay. 
163 l&ay. 164 mkay. 166 zed. 166 msB'aod. — wops [wasp]. iB'- 
184 iBB'aod, l€« ad. 187 Ibb'qov. 189 woy. 190 kdy. 194 Bs'tDni [occ., but 
oftener (any)]. 196 mEB'oDni, maany. 197 d|BB'a>z. 198 loet. 199 blBB'a>t. 
200 wBB'a)t. 202 BB'a>t. 

M'l 203 zbBB'oo^t}. 204 yndBB'a>M [indeed]. 206 dhused. 208 M <w'r, 
Aa)v*B. 209 M n^fv^R, A na)v*R. 210 kl&ay. 211 gR&ay. 212 wday. 213 
ifydh^R, BB'ahdh'R. 214 nt/ydh^R, nBB'ahdh*R. 216 twtmt. 216 dBB'a)4. 217 
BB'a>t|. 218 M zhyy'a)p, A zhBB'oop. 220 M zhyy'a>b*Rd, A zhBB'a>p'Rd, 
zhjQDp'nd [**the latter rather confirming the pronunciation of M.**]. 223 
dhahX dh,aHi*R. 224 u,zh^"r, A naeh'^r. 226 maiMBt. 227 woet. 228 

ZWOSt, ZWBB'a)t. 

£- 231 dhoB. 232 bRBB'aok. 233 8pyy'a>k, A spBB'a>k, [M makes (spBB'aok) 
he spoke]. 234 nsB'aod. 236 wsB'aov. 236 veb'sov^r. 238 EE'aKl|. 239 
z&a-aU. 241 r,aa-a n. 243 pl.aa-a^ 244 waa*l. 246 M kwBB'aon, A 
kw,aa-ain. 248 mBB'a)*R. 249 WBB'a>*R. 260 zwBB'a>*R. 261 M m&a^yt, 
A myy'a>t. 262 kytl. 

£: 266 zdRyy'a)tj, stRBB'a>t|. 267 BB'god|. 260 l^&a-a^ 261 z.&a-a^ 262 
w,&a-ai. 263 ow^&a-a^ WAA'a'. 266 zdREB'a>t, zdRAA'a't. 266 woa*!. 269 
zaa'lf. 271 taa'l, tyy'l. 272 ao*lm. 273 myy^aon. 274 byy'aontj. 276 
zdy/aontj, sTEE'a>nt|. 276 dhyqk. 279 WBB'a)nt. 286 ^Rdh^R. 288 Icct. 

£'- 289 jbb'oo and jy/a). 290 l^hyy. 291 dhyy. 292 msE'a) [not much 
used. M]. 293 M w&a'y, A wbb'ob, wy. 294 vBB'a)d, vead, 206 bylBB'a)v. 297 
va>rR. 298 vEB'aUj. 299 grEB'a)n. 300 kBE'a>p, k^eyp. 301 \}iy^'t. 302 
M myy'a)t, A mBE'a)t, m6eyt. 303 zwBs'ait, zw6eyt. £': 306 \n(iy, 306 
hoight. 307 Uiiy. 308 naid. 311 tin, 312 he ere. 314 i^hy/'Rd. — 
bla)8n [blessing]. 316 vedU. 

£A. 318 leeft. 320 kyy'a>*R. £A: 321 [(zyd} see*d, used]. 322 Udfe. 
324 ^yty [eighty]. 326 »Ma* Id, a>'ahld. 330 ihMMaUd, i^ha)'9hld. 332 tMiia*Id, 
Wahid. 333;taV- 334 hBBf. 336 bbVI bbT. 338 ksBVl. 339 [(byy) used]. 
340 jyy'a>*Rd, iyy'nd [orchard is (BB'a)'Rt|a)d, -a)t)]. 342 yarm. 343 wayarm. 
344 byyUd. 346 pee ate. KM- 347 he dde. 348 ay [pi. (EB'a'z)]. 349 
fya>a> ah. £A': deedde. 361 lid. 362 RBB'a)d. 363 bKyy'a>d. 356 dyf. 
357 dha)'ah. 359 nayb*R. 360 tee am. 261 bee an. 363 t|yy'a)p, tpB'a)p, 
tjep. 366 gryy'a>t. 368 d'ath. 371 etrdd. 

£1- 873 dhiy r**of course not ^uine instead of (hyy^ the old Southern 
form**]. £1: 380 dhoem, oem ['*m (cDm) perhaps the old genuine Southern 
form Anglo-Saxon heom^ Aim*']. 

[ 1637 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

106 THE MID SOUTHERN. [D 6, V iii. 

£0- ZSihebn, 386 you>. 387 iibb'm. EO: 388 m«'lk. 390 shobd, 
BhjMd. 392 ja>n. 394 ja)nd*&. 396 wtrnk, [(ww&ked) worked]. 399 biuiyt. 
402 l^aa**Bn. — 8myy*Bt [to amart]. 406 [**ueTer heard it used" M], 
EO'- 409 bay. 412 shy, hy. 419 jao'ah^R. 420 Ta)'9h*&. 421 T,sa>ty. 
EO': 422 lyk. 427 baa^'y [been (ba'n)]. 428 zaa»'y, zy. 430 vreend. 433 
breast. 435 js'ah. 436 d&ao'ah, duuu, £T- 438 day [and (dtiua ) ? 
died (doyd, daa»'yd)]. 

I- 440 M wdayk, A WBs'aok. 446 noim, 449 gyt [forget (f Rgyt)]. 
I: 452 dj. 455 lay. 458 ndyt, nyy'oot [the latter ''most decided dialect *M. 
459 Biiyt. 465 sytj. 466 tjy'ld, tjyy'ld. 469 [(rfy uu'l) I will]. 475 woind, 
484 dhyk [(dhyk'n) this one]. 485 ihe^uU, — sohns [since]. I'- 490 by. 
492 zdyd. 494 ta'ym. 496 ay*Bn. 498 iidyt. I': 500 kyk. 506 i,wiiman. 
507 VDvmlm, 

0- — smAA^ak, smtlwak [smoke]. 519 a>'3hYa>. 521 twffel, 522 oop'un, 
524 warld. 0: 527 bowt, 528 thowt. 529 browt. 531 dBEtao. 532 
kw/al, 534 hoo'al. 535 vao'ahk. 536 goo uld. 541 wynt, iiant. 550 tedrd. 
552 k,aa>*Bn. 553 i^h.aa^'iin. 0'- 555 thoo. 558 Itiak. 559 moother. 

562 tnoo'un. — month [month]. 564 zituan^ ztm. 565 nkuaz. 566 ohdh*R 
P*but usually (tohdhaoR, tiiadhsR, ta>'9hdhaDR) ; I heard an old farm-labourer, 
So years old, at Longstock (9 nw. Winchester), say (mrfy tohdh'Rz) =my others.** 
AS.] 568 baaadh'R. 

0^: buMak. 570 t^wak. 571 giwtfd. 572 bUwod. 574 bRiiMod. 575 
stiwod. 576 Wttuanzdoo, wohnzdo). 578 pUA, pla)'ah. 579 M tnao'oh, A nohf 

! which M doubts]. 580 ta>'3h. 583 tuu^il, 584 srvMaojl ["that is inverted 
t) almost like (til ; this sound is said to be frequent, though m does not admit 
it in (tm), two, where I heard it distinctly myself, though not always.** AS.] 
585 hBLkuam, 586 d^fM. 587 dohn. 593 mi»t, 595 voo'uL 

U- 599 ah'boone, 601 vowul. 602 zow^ plu. zowt. 603 kohm, kooam, 
604 «ohm*R. 605 zohn [see 629]. 606 dc'er, — f#Md [wood]. U: 609 
VM*1. 612 zohm. 613 dRohok. 615 pa>'3hnd. 616 gROd'ohaond. 623 Too'ohaond. 
625 too'uttff. 626 [not used, / b^a moin hungered, M]. 629 zohn [see 605]. 
632 ohp. 634 M dRao'ah, A druu, 639 dowtt 

XT'- 640 kow hu, pi. koufhoo't, 641 |^ha>'oh. 644 zohk, zt<k. 645 duuoY, 

— dhituam [thumb]. U': 658 da>'ohn. 663 i^haD'ahs. 

Y- 673 mohtj. 675 dRJy. 680 byzy. 682 lee'dl^, T: 684 breefadge, 
685 ru'dge. 688 zoh^. 692 johqgaost. 694 wwRk. 695 .aa^'Rkn, i hyy*Rk. 
700 uW«-, truM. 701 v,aa»*R8t. 702 wy. Y- 706 nay. Y': 709 
v^eTf voy'er, 

n. English. 

A. 713 bBB'sDd, b.aad. 714 iBs'sod. 732 — a>,py [happy]. 736 
Laas, Ibb'qds. 737 myy'a)t, mBE'aot. E. 745 tiBB'aH. 749 M lyft [''which 
I myself heard,** AS.], A iBB'aoft. I. and Y. 758 pB*l. 759 vyt. 760 
zhi^v*ld. 0. 761 loo'ud. 765 i^ittum. 766 [I beheve this word mpidered 
to be purely Irish, I never heard it in Ha., M.]. 767 n(E(Eyz, uBa'aU. 769 
moo'elf waant. 773 daqky. 774 ptiMont. 776 gttwod booy. 783 [pouUrg is 
not used or they would say powel try, M.I. 791 b<E(E'y, \>6oq. U. 796 
bWtt. 801 rum, 802 rohm. 804 drMqkn [compare 613]. 808 poht. 

in. Romance. 

A* 810 v/a99, 811 pyoM, 818 by/ookn. 818 sfaod;. 822 maay, 
moy. 826 BE'®g*l. 828 «gyy. — kwmpl^fiiynyn [complaining]. 833 pyy'a>*R. 

— pl&a>'yz [" (ply^aoz) is probably not genuine dialect^*]. 835 R,6a-a'zn. 836 
zy/a>zn. — myy^a>9t*R. 849 chaifnber, 841 t^y/aons. 847 dainger, doinger, 
849 zdRa)nd;*R. 850 dy^gans. 851 (E(E.nt. 852 BB'iaDp*Bn. 854 ba>a)*R*l. 
855 k(E(E*Roht8. 856 pBB'a)*Rt. 857 kyy'sDS. 862 zyy'aof. 864 k.aa^'eos, 
[shorter (kaos)]. 865 T(E(E*lt. 866 poo*R. 

E .. 867 tEB'a*. 869 YEE'a>jl. 874 ryy'aDU. 875 vEB'ant. 876 dBE'aonty. 
877 [not used, M.]. 885 y9eh*R, Ya)*Rt ["an old man of 80 in Bedenham (5 nw. 

[ 1638 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D5, Tiii.] THE MID SOUTHERN. 107 

Andover), apparently eager to avoid the dialectal change of (f ) to (t), said (feay),*' 
AS.]. 888 sartun [often it is zartun zure, M.]. 890 by/aost. 893 vloe'ob'r. 

I" andY- 897 dylrfyt. 898 nays. 900 pr,aa*'y. 901 vrfyn. 903 ddyn 
[notmlgar]. 904 yrfyloDt. 912 roys. 0- 913 kuntj. 916 zdohf. 916 
onjaon. 918 faj/bU. 920 ps'ynt. 922 bohshl, bMshl. 923 tnaist, mdn 
d^amp. 924 ehot/is$. 925 v^aa^'ys, vcsas'ys. 926 zb^aa^'yli, zb<£<E'yl- 929 
ka)'ahka>mVR. 930 Iscs'yn. 935 kobntrt. 939 Iditaa. 940 k6at. 941 voo'ul, 
942 bobti*K. 943 titch, 950 zobp'&. 951 kobpl. 952 koo'us. 

V" 965 <B(E'yjl. — pobnisb [punish]. 969 zhM'a. 970 djiast. 

Isle op Wight. 

The Isle of Wight may be regarded as part of Ha. dialectally as 
it is politically. Owing to its separation from the mainland, and 
the absence of commercial ports, it has not been so much exposed 
to the influence of great towns as the county generally. The 
MS. form of dial, is strongljr marked. The reverted f r) is well 
recognised when flnal. My information, independent of books, is 
derived from Rev. C. E. Seaman, the vicar of Northwood (2 s.Cowes), 
for the n. of the island, and Mr. Titmouse, schoolmaster of Shor- 
well (5 sw.Newport), for the s. The latter says that initial (z) is 
not frequent, but occurs in (zamst) somewhat, and there is a 
tendency that way in many other words, and also that the tendency 
is generally to use initial (v) for /, as (vsRloq, vog) furlong, fog. 
Mr. T. says that thr- does take the sound of <^- in a very pronounced 
manner, and points to dresher for thresher, but Mr. Seaman does not 
admit this, but introduces an auxiliary vowel, as (th'ru) through. 
The transposition of (r) has not been noticed. / he, w^m going, 
donH iM, Pve a walked, I do know, are general. Mr. T. (a native of 
Hu.) had been previously a schoolmaster for six years in n.Sm., 
and the Wi. speech struck him as bearing a very strong general 
resemblance to n.Sm. speech. Having some difficulty in inter- 
preting some of Mr. Seaman's spellings, I confine myself to giving 
those words which Mr. Titmouse has re-spelled. 

Shobwell (.-shoB'l), 5 sw.Newport, Wi. 

cwl. famished by Mr. Titmouse, 14 years schoolmaster, pal. conjecturally by 
AJE. The diphthong (ao't) may be (a't), but is not (&i). The MS. character 
is yery erident from tnis list. 

I. Wessex Am) Norse. 

A- 3 bi«k. 4 tSBk. 6 mivk. 7 sl«k. 8 bee. 12 saaI [part. (sAAltq) 
perhaps Tl)]. 14 drAAl. 19 ti«l. 20 li«m. 21 mimn. 24 shS«m. 31 livt. 
A: 41 tnsqk. A'- 70 tuu. 74 ty^ [written tuSy and Mr. Seaman said that 
it approached Dt. (yi), possibly (top'u)]. 86 whats. A': 102 aast [asked]. 
108 doo. 115 wh($«ra. 118 b<ivn. M- 138 y<»^«ii. M: 156 dha>1j. 
158 aatBB. 166 misd [the common word, but apparently confused with made]. 
172 graas. 179 wat. 181 paath. M- 182 see. 183 teet}. 190 kee. 
196 weea. M': 224 weeR. 

£. 232 briik. 236 ieemvL, 252 ktt*l. £: 265 str^H. 272 elmn. 
284 dra'sh. £A: 323 fa'wt. 342 jlBam. 343 waam. £A'- 349 [*<f 
more like v'*]. EA': 359 n<f<?bBR. EO- 386 joo. EO: 393 bijo-nt. 
399 bra)'tt. 407 fand'n. EO'- 411 drii. 420 [f as t]. 421 rautt. 
EO': 425 leo'it. 426 fa)'it. 

[ 1539 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


[D 6, V iii, iT. 

I- 449 git. I: 468 na>'tt. 459 ro'tt. 462 8a>'tt. 484 [(dhtk) used]. 
488 jst. T: 606 [my ufife (ma>'i mists, maD'i ool;d)fim«n)]. o06 urami, 
0- 521 f6«l. 524 wsK'ld. 0': 597 sat. 
U- 606 dooR [Mr. Seaman (dAA«R)]. 
Y: 700 was. 701 fast. ^ 

n. English. 

A. 737 miiBt. E. 750 ba^g. 0. 767 nao'iz. 772 bonBfao'iR. 773 


A-* 810 fin. 811 pllw. 824 t^BR. 851 naant. 852 #^Rn. 853 
baRgm. 854 baR*l. 866 poor. £•• 890 bfBst [pi. (bitntiz)]. 891 fivst. 
I*, and Y" 899 rms. 904 yaD'ilBt. 910 d;a>'ist. 0- 923 mao'ist. 926 
8pa>'il. 930 Win. 942 bxtiBR. 944 [I allows it will rains I think, admit, 
etc.]. 947 bao'il. IJ.. 965 a>'il. 968 a>'iet«K. 

Vae. iv. Se. aih) Ss. Form. 

The n. of Sr. will be treated under D 8. The s. of Sr. and w.Ss. 
yary but slightly from the Ha. var. iii. of D 5, but the dialect is 
manifestly dying out. The initial (z, v) have vanished. The (di) 
for AEG) EG, scarcely appear, having become (ee', e^, ee), as 
frequently even in D 4. The A- fractures remain generally. 
The r remains {a!i) or nearly so, but as we go eastward becomes 
more confounded with (a'i, o't). This last diphthong has been 
constantly given me from other districts, when subsequent viv& 
voce information has shewn it to be (a't, (1^) or even (4t). Here 
Bev. T. Bumingham, then Kector of Charlwood (6 ssw.Reigate), 
wrote aw-iy and hence I give his words with (a'»). In e.Ss. and in 
Ke. most informants give ot, but I have found (a't) in n.Ee. At 
the same time (a'») so often simulates (o't) that an unaccustomed 
ear would unhesitatingly give the latter. Mr. Bumingham finds 
s Sr. and n.Ss. more mincing than the s.Ss. He says : " It is 
difficult to give a notion of the close, mincing, squeezed-in pro- 
nunciation of the s.Sr. and n.Ss. : ^haaow much a paaaund is that 
raaound of beef ? ' as also to give the burr of the r^s" The aa is 
explained by hay, and the italicised words are closely (h6u, p^und, 
reund) common in London and n.Ke. ''A Sr. man would say 
*rebbit,' a s.Ss. man *rahbut/ e.g. *eve a' -got a rahbut in ees 
pawkut' (iijv «got « rabot in iiz pAAk«t). I speak of the pronun- 
ciation of 50 years ago. It still prevails among the old, but is 
polished ofP a good deal among the rising generation by * educa- 
tion.' " My information from w.Ss. is very meagre, but there 
can be no doubt that it continues Ha. speech with a still further 
falling off of the dialect in the direction of Ee. The separation 
between e. and w.Ss. depends on the use of (d) for (dh) in certain 
words. This is unknown even at Bolney (12 nnw.Lewes) in w.Ss., 
but has been heard from old people at Cuckfield (3 ne.Bolney). The 
commencement of the line at the mouth of the Adur is due to the 
late Mark Antony Lower. In these districts / be remains, but 

[ 1540 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D 6, V It.] the MID SOUTHERN. 109 

/ ixre is found in Ke. The cwl. on which I rely are those obtained 
Tiv& voce from students at Whitelands, and these I annex, in- 
cluding some other words. 

South Suebey and West Sussex cwl. 

Pal. by AXE. from diet, of Mias Jane Sajera, natiye of Ockley (8 sw.Reigate), 
wnere she had liyed all her life ; Miss M. A. Forth, not a natiye, but who 
had been always resident at Ockley and had spoken Sr. talk when a child ; 
and MIbs Alice Slyfield, native of Reading, who had liyed Tyears at Stoke 
(1 n.Guildford), all in Noy. 1877 students at Whitelands. The reverted (r) 
of Miss Sayers was perfect. The C, 6, W were pal. by AJE. from indications. 

C Charlwood (rtplwd) (6 ssw.Reigate) from Rey. T. Bumingham. 

O words from Dr. Grece's dt. for Weald of Sr. Since Dr. G. marked numerous 

words in his wl. as haying the yowels in rs., I have given some of them in ro. 

and in Italics. 

SStoke'Uf}"— k«l,bothOand8. 

W Wisborough, Ss. (8 sw.Horsham) from Rey. W. A. Bartlett. 

I. Wessex Aim NOBSE. 

A- 3 ftoArf [no (tftfM) vanish]. 6 nwA^rno fw'j) vanish]. 12 saafno euphonic 
(r)]. 13 C naa. 17 laa [no euphonic (r) J ana C. 20 16eBm. 21 nle«m and G. 
23 sdevm. 24 sh^emn and C. 33 raadhcR, refdhvR, 36 C thaa. 37 klaa. 
A: 41 C thsqk. 43 a^n [h always omitted], W hAAnd, G haand. 51 man, 
64 WAAnt. 

A : or : 68 frtm, 60 lonff' 61 imioq. 64 wrong, 

A'- 67 guu and C r(«gM?ee*n) a-going 0, not S]. 69 noou. 70 trfou. 73 
8<^. 1A two, 76 tooM. 77 ClaRd. 79 oo*n. 85 C 8<joiir. 86 wstsandC. 
87 tlooz [(tl, dl) for initial el- gl- general]. 92 ne^ou. A': 101 oo'k. 104 
njoed and G. 106 broo'd, C bRaad. 107 Wf. 108 d^ C doo. Ill oitght, 
115 oo'm and C, S oom. 122 nsn. 123 W uAAthsn. 124 stoo*n and C, 
stsn [as a weight]. 131 goost. 

M' 140 ee'I. 141 nee*l. 142 snee'l. 147 bree*n. 152 water. 153 
saMvRdee. Mi 155 thst} and W. 166 mee*d [(gsl) usual, quite London]. 
170 anvist [no change of (v) into (w)]. 171 barley, 172 gnaas andC. 174 eeA, 

M'- 182 9ea. 183 teach, 184 lead, 190 \ee, 193 clean, 194 xni. 197 
cheeee, 200 wiit. M': G AdhBR. 215 G taat. 218 ship and C. 219 C 
slip. 224 G w^evR. 226 C m6<nsA. 227 S w<rt. 

£. 233 $peak. 235 weave, 236 fever, 241 C r&tn. 246 i. queen, 250 
swlivR. 251 meat, W mM. 252 kid*l [common], C kit*l. 254 [C (ItdBR) old 
Sr.]. £: 261 say, 265 stra'tt, G strM. 272 xltnn. 278 [a term of de- 
preciation]. 280 leeb*n. 282 C strxnth. 284 thrssh and W. 

E*- 296 C bl»y. 299 green, E': 310 C hU«l. 312 C Ubr. 314 C 
hliiTRd. 315 fit. 316 nikst. 

£A- 319 gee*p. 320 k^evR. EA: 822 C laaf . 323 fs'tft and G and W. 
324 [tendency to (&it)]. 826 ood. 330 ood [same as 326]. 333 calf, 834 
ha^xpo h]. 340 Jiivrd. 343 waarm, C waaRm]. 346 gee*t and G. 

EA'- 347 Bd. 348 ki, 349 few and C. £A': 355 deaf, 357 though. 
358 S niist [nighest, heard in use]. 360 Ctlivm. 361 Cbiivn. 368 death ksA 
C. 371 etrawy C stnaa. 

EI- 873 they [no (d) for (dh) as in D 9]. EI: 377 »<«»*, C stu^. 378 

EG- 383 sxVn. 386 soo, 387 new, EG: 393 beyond, biJBnd. 
394 GjendvR. 397 soo'Rd, s(!iu«Rd. 399 bR&tt, S bR&Wt. 405 auth. 406 
eaHh. £0'- 412 she, 413 devil, 414 fly, 417 ijoo, 420 fcWu. 

EG': 423 thigh. 424 rM>f. 425 l&it. 426 f&it. 433 bniist. 435 you, 
436 S tBlu, tROO, G tRiu. 437 G tRiuth. 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 

110 THB MID AND BORDBB SOUTHERN. [D 5, ViT; D 6, 7, 8. 

EY- 438 d&i [once said (d^)]. 

I- 440 wik, S wiik. 442 C Vm . 444 st&tl. 446 n&in. 448 these, 
449 ^t. 450 Tuesday. I: 452 ki, k\ C Vt [often]. 457 C nu'tt. 458 
n&tt, S n&Ut. 459 R&tt, S b& tt [and so for f]. 465 sit;. 467 t|fct*ld 
and C. 469 tjtlBH, -«Kn. 472 SBiqk. 475 wind. 484 Mm. 487 Jistvad^. 
488 Jtt. 

I'- 494 ikim [C (Vf) for I']. I': — dik [ditch]. 503 l&if. 505 wWf. 
507 tonvn. 508 m&tl. 509 w&il. 

0- 521 /oa/, C f<^. 522 open. 524 wsRld. 0: 526 \uud. 527 
ftoi^A^ 528 thought. 529 brought. 530 wrought. 531 daughter, C daatvR. 
532 <wa/, C k6ovl. 533 did. 536 ^oM. 546 C f«inmd. 549 6iiBHd. 550 
waRd and C. 551 C stasm. 552 eomy C kaun. 553 horn, C haan. 

0'- 555 shoe. 559 mother. 562 mooM. 564 swn. 566 sdhBR. 0': 569 
book. 570 took. 573 Jlood. 575 tfto<Mf. 578 plB'ii. 579 enough [nerer heard 
(vnx'a)]. 580 tough. 586 <&. 587 done. 588 imkm. 589 «pooM. 592 soo&. 
594 [Mom always said eren for boots]. 596 rut, rat. 597 sat. 

U- 605 son. 606 dauQR and G. 607^^. V: 611 buUoek. 613 

drunk. 615 S tun pan [two pounds]. 618 wtm. 619 ftm. 620 grtm. 625 
tongue. 629 mii. 631 thaazdee. 632 up. 633 <»«p. 634 through. 636 

U'- 640 ka'u [all U' like this]. 641 C ha'ii [and all U' like this]. 649 
thB'uzund. 653 but. V: 656 rtnn. 662 us. 663 b'ks, C h^eus. 665 
ms'ws. 666 uzhmi [0 (gaqan) commonly used]. 671 ms'nth. 

Y- 676 ]ki. Y: 689 build. 691 C nu'ind. 700 was and C. 701 fast. 
Y': 711 l&ts. 712 m&ts. 

n. English. 

A. 722 dR^n. 737 WG m^evt. £. 743 C sks^rai. l.andY. 758 
G gsl. 0. 761 lnu*d, le^oed. 769 m^oul. 790 n'uu, ga'imd. 
V. 808 pat. 

m. KoifANCB. 

A.. 809 o^^. 810 fee*s. 811 pleeV SIS baeon. 6^0 chamber. 843 
baansh. 850 dins. 852 M>ron. 854 C baal. 861 tee*st. 

£•. 868 C d|&t. I., and Y- 899 niece. 906 C TA'tpva. 

0- 913 kauBt;. 916 tq'n. 919 a'intmimt. 920 pa'tnt. 926 spa'tl. 
929 ka'ukBmbBR. 930 C la'tn. 934 G ba'imtt. 938 C kaanaa. 940 koo*t 
and C. 947 bail. 948 ba'i#l. 

U.. 961 gRuul. 965 a'tl. 968 a'istva. 969 G ahinaa. 971 flint. 

D 6, 7, 8 = BS. or border of S. as against M. and E., 
forming the Border Southern Group. 

Boundary. This cannot be determined witli great accuracy, and 
wiU be given for each district separately. 

Area. Extreme n.Gl., most of Wo., sw. Wa., most of Ox., extr. 
se.Be., n.Sr., and extr. nw.Ee. This was an area of continual 
conflict and mixture of the S., W., M., and E. populations. 

CharacUr. A mutilated S, which is strongest in the w. and 
gradually fades towards the e. and s., becoming finally scarcely 
perceptible in D 8. 

[ 1542 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


D 6 = n.BS. = northern Border Southern. 

Boundary, Begin at Bewdley, Wo. (2 w-by-s. Kidderminster), 
and go along the reverted ur line 3 (see p. 17) through Wo., Wa., 
and Np. to the b. of Np., which pursue as far as its sw. angle (6 
sw.Banbury), and then cut across the projection of Ox. and proceed 
w. to Moreton-in-Marsh, Gl. (17 ne. Cheltenham). Then continue 
direct w. to the s. of Tewkesbury, GL, and of Eldersfield, Wo., and 
n. of Staunton along the n. b. of D 4. Here turn n. and pass over 
Bed Hill and the Malvern Hills and their n. continuation to the 
starting-point, Bewdley. Although this b. is laid down with much 
minuteness, it is often uncertain, and must be considered to be at 
least six miles broad. 

Area. The extreme n. of GL, most of Wo. and s. of Wa., the 
extreme n. of Ox. and sw. of Np. 

Authorities. See the following places in the Alphabetical County List, where * 
means w. per AJE., t per TH., \ in so., ° in io. 

01. °tAshchurch, tBuckland, fEbrington, tFairford, °Kemerton, ♦fShe- 
nington (locally in Ox.), fLong Marston, fTewkesbury. 

Np. tAshby St. Legers, fBadby, °tByfield. 

Ox. *^Banbury (part locally in Np.). 

Wa. °Butler*8 Marston, tClaveraon, fKineton, fKnowle, tPillerton Priors, 
tJStratford-on-ATon, ^fXysoe. 

Wo. fAbberley, fBengeworth, fBewdley, tBirt*s Morton, tDroitwich, fDunley, 
tEldersfield, fEvesham, tGreat Malvern, fGreat Witley, ♦Hanbury, °Hartle- 
bniT, fKiddenninster, fMalvem WeUs, fSaleway, fStoniport, °irpton Snodbury, 

Character. This complicated district, containing the transition 
from S. to M.y is naturally by no means well marked. Except at 
Eldersfield, the use of initial (z, v) for (s, f) seems lost ; the (e) is 
inclined to approach (r) when initial, at least all my informants so 
hear it, and Mr. Hallam generally writes (r) only, even when final ; 
and finds only traces of (r) in parts, which fail especially towards 
the e. / he remains, with her for she^ and /, she^ toe, as emphatic 
forms of the object. It is convenient to distinguish four geo- 
graphical varieties, though the differences between them are small. 
These are Var. i. s.Wo-, Var. ii. s.Wa., Var. iii. Banbury, Var. iv. 
sw.Np. The general character of all is A- (cb) as (necm) name. 
A'»(oo, wa) as (rood, wam, stwan), road, home, stone. JS:=(di, 
6i, ee)j as (dai, d^i, dee\ day. EG-=(ai, ei, ee), as (rain, rein. 
Teen), rain. EA'«»(iB, cb, §♦, ee), as (blBnz, be^nz, gr^tt, grM), 
beans, great. .0=(a) occ, as (drap, starm, kras), drop storm, cross. 
U=(a, Wq), as (kam, sw^m), come, some. tj'=(8'w, a'w, iu), as (a'w, 
na'w, ddim), how, now, down. The variations from these normal 
forms are so slight and probably individual that they cannot be 
formulated, but they must be collected from the following cwl. The 
whole district lies in the mixed sum, s66m or som region, and s66m 
prevails more and more as we approach the Midlands. 

Hlmtrationa. A cwl. derived from numerous places for each 
variety, dt. for Worcester, Hanbury, Claverdon, and Shenington ; 
08. for Banbury. 

[ 1643 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

112 TH£ BORDBB SOUTHERN. [D 6, Y i. 

Vab. i. Wo. Form. 


dt. pal. by TH. from diet, of Mr. W. Brown, native, about 42, who had gone to 
Wolverhampton 9 years preyioosly. 

1. di 8^1, tjaps, n)si di)m raW vWut dhat Itt'l wEiish kamtn 
fnsm dh« skuul. 

2. aB)z gu'tn da'tm dh« rood dhaB thruu dhv rsd gj6it on dli« 
left and so'id « dh« rood. 

3. luk dhaB ! aB)z gA n strs'tt M^p" tB dli« d(^B 9)d]i« roq a'tis". 

4. waB sb)! YErt Idtklt drop olt [sAoA^j « dhat cmld drtt^qk'n 
dsf n'qk'ld :tom. 

5. ju oal noo)Hn yEr» wbI. 

6. w())nt dhB did tjap siin tEl)vr not tB)kam vgjs'n, puv thiq ! 

7. Ink dhaB ! ^)nt it truu ? 

JVb^. enough shAvr «ni#of , eA t/icf tjdildf fellow 

ffllv, Momtf n«nn, shrivelled up art?* Id 
Words omitted : yonder jondtn*, ffirl i#„p, [with (srimpe, sra'ud] shrimps, 
gorl, 90 soo, now ne'u, way wdi, ture shroua. 

Haxbttbt (6 wsw.Redditch). 

dt. pal. by AJE. from diet, of Miss Turner, then a student at Whitelands 
Training College. 

1. 800 o'f B^t, me«ts, n eii na'n dhBt o'l bi ra'ret vWut -dhat 
Itt'l gjasl Bkamtn fram dhv 'skunl jandv. 

2. aB)z « gum do'tm dh« rooBd dhaB thri^uQ dhv rEd g^e«t on 
dh« Mt a'nd sa'id bv dhw wdt. 

3. shuOT vna'fi dh« t|o'tld)z gAn strdit ap tB dhB duBr by dhB 
raq e'tts, 

4. waB aB)l lo'tklt faVnd dliat ttpst dsf fslBB by dhB n^Bm b 

5. wi aaI nooz)im vet* waLB. 

6. want dhi a'uld t^a'p san t^^ bb not tB duu it Bgsn, piiuBB 
thtq ! 

7. lukB ! b6eBnt tt truuB. 

Principal Tariants in the dt. from Hartlebury (4 fl-by-e.Kidderminster), sent 
by the Misses Haviland, daughters of the then Rector : 

1. «o su, My siz, «M siiz, ^iW wsn^, where w^evr, chance to mBbt ap*n, 

school yonder sk6uil jondtif . 2. there Thomas :tomBS. 6. old 6Nd, soon sCiUBn. 

dh^evr, through thru, gate ^'st, way won't out, teach laaBM, again jamtm. 

w^. 3. enouah vnaf, iz bi, straight 7. is not, bi«nt, true truu. 
str6e«t, door i6ow[, wrong raq. 4. 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D 6, y i.] THE BORDER SOUTHERN. 113 

Made op from the following sources : 
A Abberley wn. by TH. (r-, -r), donbtful if one (mJ, no («-, t-, h-). 
B Bewdley wn. by TH. mostly from Mrs. Ashcroft, a centenarian, one («-), (wj . 

freonent, occ. yerbal pi. m m as (d«Ln-jB, wi tii^k*n, wi)n) do you, we took, 

we nave, with the He. form (udh ndhe'iit) of * with without.' 
Bg Bengeworth, a suburb of Eyesham, Wo., wn. by TH. 
Bu Buckland, 01. (11 ene.Tewkeabury), wn. by TH. 
D Droitwich wn. by TH. 
E Eldersfield, Wo. (9 s.Oreat Malyem), wn. by TH. from Mrs. Knowles, aged 

79, natire, (dh&u kiip'n) they keep, (kom wi •'• t« plAi) come with I to play, 

many (z-). 
Eb Ebrington, 01. (18 ne. Cheltenham), wn. by TH. 
O Great Witley, wn. by TH. 

H Hanbury, ▼▼. to AJ£., the dt. is not included in this cwl. 
M Gt. MalYem and Malvern Hills wn. by TH. 
P from * quaint words * by * a pobson,' that is a parton, in s.Wo. from Worcester 

on n. to Chacely on s. and Evesham on e. to Great Malvern on w., pal. as 

well as he could do it by AJE. 
S Saleway (7 sw.Redditch) wn. by TH., no («-, v-), but (r-, -e), (to)i, wi)«) 

her is, we has, (jant) ain*t. 
W Worcester wn. by TH,, no (?-, v-). 

\* For brevity, when several places are grouped, the medial length of vowels 
has not been distinguished from the short. 

I. Wessbx Ain) NOBSE. 

A- 4 BSBu Wk, H t^k, E t^k. 6 H m^k ki [make hay]. 20 AE ]6«m, 
8 l^Bm, BBu \eem, 21 ABSWBu n^^m, W n^md (jas well as (n^^m)! Eb niam. 
23 Beem, — P 9m«R [hammer], A ombtiB [compare inserted b in num Jer, tim^rj, 
B om«R. — P fecR Tto fare, a fare]. 33 D raadhvR. A: — P krob [a 
crab]. 61 P mxn, BW nu'n. A: or 0: 60 8D Iw^q. 64 D ni^q. 

A - 67 AD gwJltn, W ew6ln. 77 P lano. 81 E Uen, 92 AD n6M. 
A': 104 Bu rood. 1 16 PA W H wam, D wdm, Bu 00m, W om [also home, refined], 

— S tiloon [alone]. 117 AEM won, W wau. 118 P bwsn. 120 D iBrz «guu 
[years ago]. 122 Bu no'n, H nsn. 124 P stwan, AD stoon. 130 P bwst. 

M- 138 A fiadhBR, B fiEdhtnr, 8 f^^dhvR, D fiwlh«R. 141 B n&mz. 147 
H br&tn. — W sti^Rz [stairs]. 162 8 wij^r, D wivtBR. M: 161 PAD d&t, 
8 laU, W dlii, [in city] d6i, See, Bu d#*. — P op' 1 [apple]. — P koRt [cart]. 

JS'. 182 W sii. 192 P meen, JE!: 210 Pklki [clay]. 211 AS grSt, 
B gr^t. 213 H iidhBR. 218 PD ship. 223 Bu dh^R, BDS dhisR, Bu (&br. 
224 B wb'r, 8 wiBE, BuW whr. 

E- 233 BW sp^rk. 241 AB r&in. 243 ABE8H pl&i. — P been [to bear]. 
248 P mecR. 262 A kiBt*l. E: 260 ABBu l&i. 261 PABSDs&t, Bu s&M, 
AE idi, W s&t. 262 B wfii, W wdi, D wfit, [foundations] aaI gjin wfiU [all 
given way]. 263 ABESBu Bw&i, M bw^. 266 W str&it. E': 316 PH fit. 

EA- 320 P keen. £A: 324 BESHD &it [Mrs. A. said (at s^i &it ur 
ne'in)]. 326 BS dwd, EBu 6Nld. 328 B kdtid. 833 kxxf . 336 Bu oal, aaI. 
846 W gj6it [in the city] gj^ [in the country]. EA'- 347 SD jad, BuW 
id, Jid. eA': 360 fi ^B'd. 363 8 bra'd. — A kr&im [cream]. 860 8 
tiim. 361 P b^iz [beans]. 366 A gr<vt. 

EI- 872 B di, 373 ABS dh&i, ED dh&M, Bu dh&>i, D dhs'i, dhir. £1: 
878 Bw«vk. EO- 383 E ZBv'n. EO: 393 BuD jandBR. 396SjMoq. — 
P boRm [barm]. EC- 409 P \ien [bees]. 411 AB thrii, E drii. — H trii 
[tree]. EO^: 426 B f6it. 428 E zii, 8 sii. ET- 438 W dat, D dx'i. 

I- 446 E ne'in. — O jisTyes]. I: 452 A e'i, D a'i, W di, 468 W 
mlit'. 469 WD re'it. 469 W^ww^nt [won't], Bu fit [wilt]. — spil [to spiUl. 

— A ran [run], 8 m^n [H added "donkey boys say (rKJi)'*]. — P set [to sitj. 

— E ziks. I'- 490 O bo'i. 494 A to'im. 1': — BW to'idi [tidyj. 
602 £ vo'iv. 606 W umBU, H H'wljd)amBn, [a woman, old woman]. 610 W 
mai. — D la'in [line]. 

S.B. ProA. Part T. [ 1646 ] 99 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

114 THE BORDER SOUTHERN. [D 6, Y i, u. 

0- — S aliiioV'l. — D drap [drop]. 0: 626, ii. ^f. 631 D dAAtw. 

— D krap [crop]. 561 BuD st^Bin. 652 Bu kdiui, — BS a*8 [hone]. — 6S 
nuhntii [momi^. 664 M Bkr<2s [acroas]. — rpwo8t[po6tl. 0'- 666 W 
Bhm'u. 669 Gw madhra. 564 D sun, H sxn. 668 B brK^dhBR. 0': 673 
D Am d. 676 H stad. 679 D vnaf. 686 8 di#^ dhii [dost thou]. 687 AH 
dan, S dM^n. 688 H nan. 689 H span. 694 H [has no (bnuts) only (shuuz)]. 
696 PH fat. 596 H rat. 697 H sat. 

U- 601 ASB fa'i#l. 603 M Bkamtn [a-comingl H kam ap [come np]. 

— M tbM^dar. 606 8 buji, D sa'n, ABn sen, BD aon, D [between] sdn, att^, 
606 WD d^B, Eb. dftan. 607 B bf*ot«r. U: 612 8 siyn. 613 B dni^qk. 

— M M^dard [hundred]. — Bu Aqgrt [hungry]. 632 BW kj), M ap op. 
F- 643 O ne'i, D na^n. 660 E ab?Mt. U': 666 O rim. 668 ABESW 

dd'tm, Bu da'un. 663 8W q'us, D a'tis, a'tiz'n [pi.]. 667 D a'Mt. 

Y- D muM. 676 daa'i. 679 D tjantj. Y: — "- 
haKNot [hornet]. 

Y- D muj^, 676 daa'i. 679 D ^antj. Y: 691 ES ma'ind. — P 

n. Ekolish. 
— P wogtn rwai 
[muck]. 803 M [Between] d^%m]^, d^amp. — M kM^t. 808 Bu put, D ptit. 

— P wogtn [wagging]. 0. 767 A n&tz. 791 H btro't. U. — B mn^k 


A .. 811 D pl§TW. 820 P gii. — PD jwli [pay]. — G f&il [faH]. — Bu 
tfrtba. 830 Bu tr&tn. 833 A pi^. — P8 plm [please]. 847 D d&tnd|ar. 
861 W nAnt. 

E .. 867 P t#tf. — B prwtj [preach]. 878 P saelvrt. — P pors'n, B paasan. 

I.. andY" 898 Bu ne'ts. 900 P mki. — P sperit [epiritl. 910 P 
dio'ist. — B bif [beef]. — P dia'int [joint]. 923 P me'ist. — B nw^qkU. 
930 P le'in. — P kaRpe [corps]. — EG 8<irt [sort]. 940 P ktcat. 947 
A bw6il. 

U- 970 M d^est, D [between] d^ast, d^u^st. 

Vae. ii. s.'Wa. Form. 

CLAyERDOK, Wa. (5 e.WaTwick) dt. 

pal. by TH. from the dictation of 8. Job, farm-labourer, b. 1824, natiye. 

1. 9'i BE'i, ju tjaps, ju sii 9'i)m ra'tV nafu «ba'«t dhat Itt'l wcnsh 
k:amtn frvm s skuiil jondvr. 

2. ar)z Bgu'm da'im dhw rood [ly^wdl dhftjr thruu dh« red gjM 
on dh« lEft and sa'id [incliiting to (s^itd)] « dlits rood. 

3. Ittpk TB ! dh« tjff tld)z gAn strfi'tV WqP' te dli« roq a'ws' [diiw]. 

4. wiOT ar)l praps fe'tnd dhat dru^qk^n, dEf, tiitn en agid 
[haggard] IeIb [krEtttsr] «z dhe luuA :tam. 

5. wi aaI noo im VErt WE*1. 

6. ww^nt dhB owld t|ap mE'tk tjr noo bfitsr n«r gi dhlBr BgJEn, 
puOT thiq\ 

7. Iw^k JB ! jEnt it tro/u. 


Thifl has a yery neutral character. I pretty.'* I find, also (n^m, tAib*l), 

find among the wn. from the same per- name, table, old, and (n^m, t6tb'l) new. 

8onfjandOT)old,(j3ndBr)new,etc.,andas Compare following cwl. Job used 

the latter appears in the dt., it is possible (srtmps, sra'ud) shnmps, shroud, (shr-) 

that Job was sometimes "speaking being a difficulty. 

[ 1646 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


South Wabwickshirb cwl. 

B Butler's Marston (10 s.Warwick), pal. by AJE. from a nwl. sent by ReT. E. 
Miller, Vicar in 1877, helped oat in parts by K, below. Mr. M. considers that 
the speech extends for 6 m. round. This would include Kineton. Stratford 
is only 7 or 8 m. off. As reTerted (&) is heard both at Stratford and Banbury, 
I conclude it must exist here and hare introduced it. As exceptional pron. 
only were marked, the other pron. in the original wl. must be taken as 
practically in rs. In this case (mJ would occur only in the words so marked, 

K wn. at Kineton (9 s-by-e.Warwick) in 1880 by TH. from a native of 68, who 
had, however, resided many years at Warwick as keeper of the gate at the 
entrance to the common. Only principal words are nyen. TH. had not 
noted the reyerted (a), but as it was strong in StratfonC I haye introduced it. 
/ am used. The pron. seems to haye beien tainted by Warwick. Also from 
Mrs. Pheasey, liyed there 50 years from childhood. 

P Pillerton Priors (8 se.Stratford) wn. by TH., in 1886 from a natiye b. 1819. 

8 wn. at Stratford-on-Ayon in 1880 by TH. from an errand boy, natiye, and 0. 
Phipps, a labourer, 20, natiye, only absent 1} years. But both had so marked 
a town pron. that I giye yery few words. The errand boy had not eyen 
reyerted (b), but the labourer and the other people in the town had it 
strongly. The labourer used we am. The (wj was frequent. 

T Tysoe (11 se.Stratford) wn. by TH. in 1886, from natiyes b. 1802 and 1809. 

I. Wessex Aim NoRss. 

A- 3 BP b^Bk. 4 BPt^k, Ki^k, S t^k. 5 BPm^k, T mlsk. 6 BmM. 
7 B Bhk, 10 B haa. 12 B saa. 13 B naa. 14 B draa. 17 B hia. 18 T kivk. 
19 B iM. 20 BKPT l#vm, S l^m. 21 BP n^m, K ntem, n/em nr«m. — K 
am«R[ hammer]. 23 BPs^m. 24 Bsh^em, T shdimi. 26 B m^im. — spiia 
[to spare]. 31 B 1^. 35 T aaI. 36 B thaa. A: 39 B k^mn. 40Bkuum 
[P confused with eombe a hill]. 43 B knd. 44 B ]knd. 51 B m^. 57 B aas. 

A:orO: 59 B UUn. 60Tloq,liiq. 61 Twniiqkst. 64Proq,Troq. A'- 67 
B gnu, K vgdtn. 75 B struuk. 76 BT ta^d. 77 B lann. 81 B 1^. 84 
B mdm, 85 B s(ivR. 86 T tivts. 90 T bloo. 92 S n6M. 93 P snoo. 
A': 101 B6Bk. 102 T sks. 104 T rood. 110 Pnat. Ill B aat. 113 B 
hfiol, T wool. 115 B hfiwn, K dm, T w6m. 117 S wa'u, 1 wan. 118 T bwon. 
120 PT Bguu. 121 P gA'n. 122 T no'n. 123 B n«.thiqk. 124 K stoon, PT 
stwan. 135 B klath. 

M' 138 B fnidhim [or (^v)], SE faadhvB. 144 B vgtn. — S prw^tt 

M: 158PiftOT. 16lKPd«. 165 B aid. 169 wEn. 172 Bgraas. 174 
B &t6h r? (B'ish)]. iE'- 182 B s^i. 183 B t«rtj. 185 BT r<f«i. 187 P 
limr. 192 PT mira. 193 T kl^fu. 195 T msnt. 196 B wee*R. 200 K 
wut, TP wM. 202 B heet. JE'i 215 B taat (?). 216 B dial, T dji4. 
218 T ship*. 223 B dhiivR, KPT dhivr. 224 B wUvr. 226 B muust. 228 

E- 232 briik [but only yery partially]. 233 BBJT Bp«k. 237 ieevmL. 
241 K ni'^in, T nlin. 243 KT pW. 251 BT m«rt. 252 B ktt'l, T kJBt'l. 
253 B Bt*l. £: 260 K \ee. 261 KT eee. 262 PT wee, 263 KT «w«^. 

268 K Blditft. 270 B i. bslas. 272 B bItoi. 279 T went. 286 B ham. 

F- 294 T fiid. 299 KT griin. 300 PT kiip. 301 B jUbr, P iw. F: 
307 T mJt. 312 B Ubr. 314 K Svrd, T ai nd. 


iWt, : 

EA; 321 B saa. 322 T laf. 324 T feWt, B'it. 326 F old. 345 T dn'r. 
346 B gent gM. EA'- 347 B led, K M. EA': 350 B died. 360 P 
tiim. 361 K b«mz, P bSwi. 363 T [between] tjap tpp, KP tpp. 370 B 
Taa. £1: 378 week. 

EO- 383 T. sBy*m. 315 B bvnMh. 386 BT joo. EO: 388 T milk. 
393 B bijand. 394 SP jandsR. 395 PT Jt<„q. 397 B sCibrd. 402 BP 
KUiN, T IsLiBR, K b'RN. EC- 411 KT thrii, T thrti. — K trii. 420 B 


Digitized by LjOOQIC 

116 THE BORDER SOUTHERN. [D6, Yii^iii. 

foo;BB. 421 B fastf . EC: 423 T tbz'tt. 425 B latt. 426 B f^tt. 432 
fJoB&th. 433 T brsst. 434 B iMtft. 438 K d&it [marked as lying between 
(a', a)]. 

I- 443 8 fre'tdt. 446 T na'tn. I: 452 K at, P ■'t, T a't. 458 B ndit, 
K [the (a) marked as lying between (a, a)l» P nx'tt*, T [between] na'tt, nx'tt. 
469 Bill. 480Tthtq\ — KS rw^. 1'- 490 B bit. 492 K SH^id. 494 
E idim, T ta'tm. 496 K atvra. 498 B ratt. Ti 502 B faiT. 508 T la'tf . 
505 T wa'if. 506 KT nmra. — T « [bay]. 

0: 526 B koof. 527 B boot. 528 B tboot. 529 B broot. 531 B daatfSR, 
KP dAAtBB. 547 B b^BBD. 551 B staHin. 552 B kamc. 553 B haBN. — 
mliBntn [morning]. 554 P vkriis. 0'- 559 S modhsR, K mxdbBr. 562 T 
munn. 564 KP stin. 568 S brM^dhra. 0': 569 T bwk. 579 B mdu, T 
«nii,f, [plural] vna'ii. 581 B soot. 586 P dun. 587 KP d6n [marked as 
lying between (6, a*), another time merely (ds*n)], S dif^n. 588 TKP nnim. 
589 T spuun. 595 B fit. 597 B sat. 

IT- 601 K fa'Ml. 603 B kii^m, KP kam, PS kam. 604 K Bu^vr. — 
S thtf^dBR [thunder]. 605 K sdn [as in 587] stf^, TPS sji^n. 606 B d6oini. 
V: 610 T td. 612 SP auja. 632 BKT ii_p. 633 BK ki#^. 635 wath. 
636 B faBdBK. 639 T dM^et. U'- 640 T kja*!*, Pkja"i#. 641 K a'li &u, 
T 9'u ba'ii. 648 KT a'wr. 660 T Bba'ut (a'w). XT': 658 KT da'im. 659 
TSP te'im. 663 K a'tis, T [between] a'ns, im. 666 T N^Ebtni. 

T- 677 Tdra'f. 679 SUautj. T: 689 Bbild. 690 Bbftnd. 691 BHK 
m0tttd. 700 B was. 701 B fas. 705 B skoi. 706 B wdi. T: 709 B 
idijL, STfa'tBB. 711 B lilts. 712 B mats. 

n. English. 

A- 718 B tr^wl. E. 743 B skrim. 744 B mMZ*l2. 751 B p6«RT. 
0. 761 B l(iBd. 767 B nats. 778 B vf a«BD. 


A .. 809 B 6Bb*l. 810 B f^. 811 B pUm. 813 B WBk*n, T b^k'n. 
814 Bm^*n. 824 B i[eeR. 829 B g^n. 838 B pee&. — Kpliiz [please]. 
835 BT r€»z*n. 836 6T s^*n. 837 B Usb. 852 B eepBBN. 860 Tp^^st. 
861 T t^Bst. 862 B sM. 865 B iaat. 

E .. 867 BT tee. 869 B Ttffl. 888 T s^ttn. 889 B sms. 890 B heest. 
891 BfMst. 894 Bdis«v7. 895 B ris^^. l-andY" 898 B nats. 
910 B ^'tst. 

0** 916 T a'tuBU. 919 B a'tntmBnt [the distinctions (a't a't at) were not 
indicated with sufficient precision in 919, 920, 924, 925, 926, 947, but distinctions 
of a similar kind at least were intended, AJE.]. 920 pa'tnt. 924 B tja'ts. 
925 6 Tats. 926 B spa'tl. 938 B kaBUBB. 947 B ba'tl. 948 B ba'tfl. 952 
B k^iBBS. U .. 965 B dil. 969 S 8h(iBB. 

Tab. iii. Banbttbt Fosm. 

08. translated in 1875 by Thomas Beesley, Esq., J.P., F.C.S., natire and 
resident, and pal. by AJE. from his indications and from TH.*s wn. The Iw. 
which Mr. Beesley sent me was made 40 years preyiously by his uncle, and he 
had purposely abstained from consulting it, so that this is altogether an independent 
testimony. Mr. B. considers the dialect to extend for about 6 miles round Ban- 
bury, and names the following Tillages as using the same speech: in Ox., Copredy, 
Wardington, Adderbur^, Bloxham, Swalclm, Tadmarton, Sibford, Shutford, 
HorleT, and Homton ; in 01. (but locally in Ox.), Shenington ; in Np., Middle- 
ton CnencT and Kind's Sutton. Mr. B. does not mark the roTorted (r), but 
from TH. s obserTations I haTo introduced it. Mr. B.*8 letters shew that he 
used (a) for short U, but TH. heard nothing but (mJ at Banbury. 

0. we't :dpn aa)nt noo do'tits. 

1. wbI, iiEbtsB, jau 'en ii mts boo'th laaf vt dhis ii'B ntuuz 9 me'm, 
huu kii'EZ ? dliat)s needhBH ii'B n«B dhee'B. 

[ 1548 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D6, Viii.] THB BORDER S0T7THKRN. 117 

2. firm [Haa'u] took ds'tz, kaz dh« bii laaft vt ; has noozy 
do0'nt)as ? wat shud mf«k)am ? t/snt Yeni la'fklt, bt8)tt ? 

3. ba'usvmB'VQB dhiiz bii dbv faks « db« kfBS, boo djxst oold jbb 
bodbBB, frEnd, tm kiip kw^'ivt ttl a'f bi [a'tjv] dan. baaki ! 

4. e'f bi saBtin sbluu'B, «z a't ii'BD tm Bee — saDm b db^« fooks «z 
wEnt tbruu dbi wbxl tbtq bsc't dbBBse'lvz — 'dbat d't did sbYuu'B 

5. dbBt db« jaqest san btzsElf, 9 grEt bila'f b naVn, nood tz 
fCvdbBBz v6«s Bt wans, dboo it waB boo kwiiBB Bn sktr^'kin-ls'tk, 
Bn 9't)d trast bii tB sp^^k dbB truutb bant [bEnt, heeni'] dee^ dt, 
'dbat 9't btid. 

6. Bn dbB oold bumBn bbseII b1 tsl bant on)i bz laafs na'ti, 
Bn tEl)i str^ off, tuu, wt;8'f«t mat|, bodbBB tf ju ont bak8)BB — 
want)8bi [want;BB], dbatjs aaI. 

7. iMst wd't'z BB tEld tt, *mii web a't bakst bb, tuu bb tbrii 
ta'tmz oovBB sbi did, bb *aB bad)nt AAt tB bi roq in stt} b piid'tnt bz 
dbtis'n [dbat-eeBJ, wot dB xuu tbtqk ? 

8. weI, bz e't WBB BM^'tn — *aB)D tEl;jB, ba'u, weeB bb wen sbi 
ft^iud dbB diaqk'n bfBst sbi kAAlz bb azbBnd [man]. 

9. sbi swee'BD bb stn tm wt bb oor o'tz, lee- in stretit Bt M 
lEqktb on dbs gra'tmd tn tz gtid sand^ kuuBt, kloos ba't diiB duuBr 
B dbB ba'f^s, jdo'im Bt dbB kAABUBB b dbat ee'B l^ra. 

10. bii wer b wo'tntn Br sez, fsr aaI dbB waBLB la'tk b stk t^a'tld 
BE B Itt'l gal [lii*t*l wEntj] in b frEt [in bb tantremzl. 

11. Bn 'dbat ap'nd bz aB an bb daa'tBB tn laa, kam tbruu dbB 
bak JBBD from aqtn a'ut dbB wEt klooBz, 

12. wa't'l dbB kEt'l wbz b biia'i'ltn fsa tee^ wau fa'tn bra't't samBB 
aatBBnuun, oont b wt*k Bguu*, kam uEkst tbazdt. 

13. Bn, dJB noo? a't ueybb laairr noo moo*B. bbb dbtsBdbat btznes 
ap tB tBdtftf, BZ sb1uu*B)z ma't nfBm)z rdjon :sbEpBBD, Bn a't duu)nt 
wont tu n^^dbBB, dbii'B na m ! 

14. Bn BOO a't bi Bguutn {_gweenin] wbam tB sapBB. gtid na't't, Bn 
duunt bi sb ktc^t k tB kroo oo'ybb b bodt BgB*n, weu i tAAks b dbts 
dbat BB t)adbBB. 

15. tt)8 B wf^k fuul BZ prwts [tAAks] wt;a'u*t rwz'n. Bn dbat)s 
ma't last waBd. gud ba't. 

Sheiongton dt- 

6| w.Banbury, politically in Gl., locally in Ox., pal. in 1881 by AJE. from 
diet, of Miss Hams, native, then a student at Whitelands Training College, who 
knew of Wykes, the policeman, that furnished the Iw. to TH., mentioned on 
p. 118. Obsenre that nere (mJ was used for short U. 

1. 800 a't sce't, btt^tiz, jb s^' na'w dbBt a't bi ra'tt Bba'irt dba't Itt'l 
gaBl B-kt^^mtn from dbB skuul ja'ndBB. 

2. 8bii)z B-gu'in da'tm dbB ruu^d dbaa tbruu dbB rEd ge*t ou 
dbB Isft a^nd sa'td b dbB wae't. 

3. sbuuB Bna'tt dbB t|a'tld)z gon stroe'it ti^p tB dbB duu'B b dbB 

[ 1649 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

118 THE BORDER SOUTHERNi [D 6, Y iii. 

4. wi*R shii)'! a'p'n te fa'tnd dlia't dn/^qk'n drf izlvR « dha nfem 

5. wi aaI noo )b1i vet* weI. 

6. wuQ)nt dhB oo\ tp'p sun laaRK vt na^t ts dua)t vgEn, puu'E 

7. luk jii'R ! ee)nt it truu ? 


1. «o, neyer (zoo)^ no x for t or r for 3. ture enow^ they noTer use (tmif^f), 
/. — mate* not used. — I be more frequent does not know the distinction of mean- 
than / am. — rights not heard initial ing between erumgh and enow, 
(rh,Rh).—^ir/ the regular word, though 4. shrivelled not used, thej saj 
(wButj) is used. The (r) usual. Wykes (shrM^bs), so that (shr-) is used, 
rejected airl and only admitted wench, 5. know Atm, (bu) is used, especially 

2. sh^s agoing^ her* 8 not used, it is among the elder people. 

quite foreign to the dial. %oey you^ 6. old chapy old without d, but in 
they he^ in general use. — Miss H. never (ool^d)* mtm) old woman, the d is dis- 
hed I are. — hand^ h always omitted, joined nx>m / and run on to the follow* 
w used for wh, ing vowel. 

Banbitht wl. 
From the following sources : 

6 Banbuiy vocabulary by the late Mr. Beesley, uncle of the Mr. Beesley who 
wrote the cs. on p. 116. It is not quite ceitain that all the words belong to 
Banbury. There were many repetitions in the list, and sometimes the 
repeated words were not spelled in the same way the second time they occurred 
as they had been the first time. Of course the pron. assigned is greatly 
conjectural. From HB (below) I adopt (d'i, 9'«, m^, b). Words not in- 
serted are (cent, ent, jent, bient, eemn), aint, baint, e*er a one, (hiz'n, 
haan, twaaDBut), his, hers, it were not, 

HB Some of the wn. in Banbury by TH. in 1881 from natives. Some of these 
seem to be rather refined. 

S wn. by TH. in 1875 from Wykes, a London policeman, but native of Shen- 
ington, confirmed by Miss Harris, a native, in 1881, p. 117. 

ES words from the dt. on p. 117, diet, to AJE. in 1881 by Miss Harris, 
native of Shenington. Tnis village was admitted by Mr. T. Beesley, who 
wrote the cs. for Banbury given above, to be in the Banbury district. I do 
not give the words from the cs., considering his uncle*s Iw. sufficient. 

I. Wessex Ain) Norse. 

A- — S w^k [a wake or feast]. 21 HB n^im, ES nitnn. — B homtni 
Riammerl — B p»b*l [pebble]. A: — B rom Tram]. 43 B hanstaf 
[handsta# or handle of a flail, (swtq'l) the other end]. 45 B want. 51 S m^. 
56 8 woeh. A: or 0: 64 HB roq, ES roq. A'- 67 B gnu [igweeuin 
gw«Ti) going], HB gfiw ijgiifn, S gii?Bin. 74 S ta'u. 76 B tCi«d. 79 HB 
iStm. 81 S l^n. 84 HB miivR. 86 S (i«ts. A': 101 S M^ [Miss 
Harris (dak)]. 102 B aks aks. 104 ES rwi#M. — B drav [a drove]. 110 
Bnat. Ill S&t\ 113 B whal. 115 B wham, S wa'm, 6^vm [Miss Harris 
did not know the last form]. — B wops [wasp]. 118 B biran. 123 B 
nathiqk, HB UM^thtqk. 124 B sttran, HB st6tin, S statm. — B bft Roath]. 
M' 138 B fiaadh«R [spelled /«iA'<A^l, 8 ftadhim. — S JB'kan [acrej. — B 
ladhw [ladder]. — B bladh«R [bladder]. 144 B BgB-n. 149 B blizi bViz [is 
(bltzi}, one of the S. infinitives in -yPJ. 152 S wictim. M: — B st»dt 
steady]. — B «tom [stem of a tree]. 158 S aLRtim. 161 HB ddi. — B st«fl 
handlej. — B haps [hasp]. 172 8 graas. — S dlaas [glass], — HBS kjli'rt. 
cart]. — B rot [rat]. M'- 190 B k«r. 200 B wM, HB Wit. — B 
lEth [heath]. M'-. 205 B thnd. — B sid [seed]. 218 BS ship 223 
ES dhas. 224 B wiiR [where], noo'VR [no-wherej. — B strtt [street]. 

[ 1550 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


E- 233 S wpx'fktn [a-speaking]. 243 HB pl^. 246 S kfrun. — B M 
[eat]. 261 B m«H, 8 miBt, mM [Miss Harris says the last is more Yisuall. 
253 BEtn. £: — B fat fatj [fetch]. 261 HB s^', S see, £S sse't. 262 £S 
wie'f. 263 HBbw^. 265 £S stne'tt. — f)LD [field]. 272 S Eivm[Wjh», 
(slm) Miss Harris]. — B hoop hoopt [help, helped]. 278 S WBnt|. — B ind, 
ind [end]. — B nist [nest]. E'- — B utj [to eke]. 299 HB griin. 
E': 306 B hskth [this form is not found in other words, compare Havehek kmcth, 
supii Part II. p. 477, see below p. 127, No. 306]. 312 £S jusl, 814 B hii&D, 
HB iv&D. 

£A: — B tjAAf [chaff], tjaafin [chaffing]. — B tiAiJf [jowls]. 323 B 
fo'tft. — B tjook [chalk] . 326 £S ool. 334 haapm, haapvth [halfpenny, 
-worth], 8 aap*nf . — B Bm(iB*st [almost]. — B ▲aTw [always]. — 8 qIi^rd 
[hard]. 346 B j^st, ES ge*t. EA'- 347 B hadl«id [headlan^, ind, BH M. 
£A': 350 6 djidU [deadly, extremely]. 352 £8 rsd. 355 E8 dsf. — 8 
biBm [beam]. — B krem [cream]. — B aem [seam]. 360 8 tivm. 361 
8 biBn. 363 B t|Ep t|sp. — B Jsp, oapl |>eap, heaped]. 364 £8 tjaip. — 
8 iBB [year]. — B eeA [east]. 366 B grat. — B «zt [easy]. — B dfoo, 
dTAA>« [dew]. 370 B raa. 

EI- 373 HB dh6t. £0- 386 8 jou. EG: 394 8 jandea. — B ha&D 
[herd]. 397 B swa&o. 4M BE8 laRN. 404 B st&sC [' with a rough burring 
Bound']. 406Bj«th. EO'- 41lHBthrii. 413 B div'l. ED': — B 
liT [Uefj. 425 HB lift. 428 ES ae^. 436 £8 truu. £T- 438 HB da't. 

I- 440 B w$k. — B hiis [yes]. — B siuB [sinew]. 447 8 an. — B p«fz, 
8 ps'fx [pease]. 450 B tjuuzdi. I: 452 HB ai & AXunemphatic], £8 a't . — 
B bsBD, 8 ba&D [bird], btdtz [birdies]. 458 HB natt'. 459 HB ra'tt, ES 
nrt-t. 465 B sitj. — B filBr [thiller or shaft horse]. 469 B hiil [will, 
* rhyming wool *] hwt [wilt, * rhymii^ with pMt *], 8 uji, 470 ES bu [weat, old 
people =sAtn/|. 477 ES fo'tn. — HB ruji [run]. — B bashap [bishop] — 
B spet [spitj. I'- 492 HB sa'td, ES sarid. — gii gin gtz [give, gaTO or 
given, givesL giftBB [gift]. — B briif [rife, a remnant of (ii) in n (rifr), con- 
fused with brief and so preserved?] — HB thoRti. 1': 502 HB fa'iv. 
506 B umBU. — B hs'mBktn, HS'rtkBUD [haymaking, hayrickyard]. 508 8 

0- — B sha'wl [shovel]. — B rat'n [rotten]. 0: 529 8 brit\ 531 
8 daa^RtBR. 538 B hwd. 543 B an. 549 B wsrd. — B hos [horse]. 554 
B kras, 8 kraas. — B p(iB8tiz [poets]. — B moots [moths]. - 555 
HB sha'u. 557 8 ta'u. — B fodhBR fodder]. 559 8 madhBR [not with (uJl 
560 ES skuul. — B rwamz gumz [gums]. 564 8 sun*, £8 sun. 566 HB 
MadhBR. — B bb'«z [blows = blossoms J. 0': 571 8 gw^. — B had [hood, 
' I (bii dhB p£fz haded ?)]. — B rad [rod]. 579 HB vnuj, £8 Bua'u 
h/l. 587 HBS diijn. 588 HB na?'un, 8 nun. 595 B fat. 

[not with/]. 587 HBS dfi^n. 588 HB noj'un, 8 nun. 

U- 599 HB Bb«oV. — B hud [wood]. — B dre'wth [drought]. 603 8 
kamtn, ES ku^min. 605 HBS styi. 606 HB dSwsR, ES duu*R. U: 612 
HB sw^m. 619 B famd [? (iu jidjj. — B anfeen, ansantin [unfair, uncertain], 
anka-qg*ld inpo-sBb'l [untangled, impoesible]. 626 HB ujqgri [hungry]. 631 S 
thazdB. 632 HBES Wpp. 634 £8 thruu. 636 B fandBR. — B ra'wstf [ilisty]. 
XT'- 640 B kja'M. 8 kja'n. 641 B has*miEVBR h9'M8Bm;EVBR [however]. 643 
£8 na'w. 650 HB Bba'irt, ES Bba'trt. U': 658 S da'im. 663 HBES e'ws', 
8 aMz*n [houses]. 666 8 iczbBn. 

Y: 684 B bakdj. 685 B radj. 689 B bildtn bire'tldin. — B shilf [shelfT. 
— B faz [furze]. 701 B fast. Y- — B Bdramd [a-dreamt]. 707 HB 

n. English. 

A. 727Bd|am. — B tjaR [a chare]. 737 Bmiat. — B a-kaRD hokBRD, 
8 okBRD [awkward]. £. — B zod [letter zl. 751 B piiRT [as (aRluks 
m6BR piiRtBT UAR Br did) she looks perter=in better health, nor = than she 
did]. I and Y. 758 £8 gaRL. 0. 772 B boonfain. — B so'imd 
[swoon]. — B moRt [mort=many]. 791 8 hSi. U. — B da'«k [to 
duck]. — B padin [pudding]. — B tjuun [tune]. 804 £8 dm^qru. 

[ 1551 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

^20 THB BORDBB SOXJTHEBN. [D 6, Y iil^ if. 

806 B kiBDS. — B Bhst shitiBS [shut, shntten]. — £S bw^tf [JbMj, 


A.. --S tiBbl [table]. 811 B pUras, HB pl6is. 818 S bivk'n. — B 
ihieA [flail]. 824 B tpui. — B meet [pleaset. — B eezi. — B mxstoi 
[mister]. — B koor [quarry, (ss got ah« tttnxu from :ho&iftni hoom) we eoi the 
stones m>m Homton quarryj. — B maBTtlz [marbles]. — £S tlaas [class]. 
— B slat, S sltvt [slate]. — B saas [sauce]. 866 B Lud. 

£.. 867 BS ise, S ise^. — B fi^ [Tetoh]]. 878 B salm. — B imim 
[Tenom]. — B t^ [cherry]. 888 fi saRttn. — B sany [senre]. — B 
mtivB. 892 B nsYt. 

1 ondY" — B wedth [width]. 901 S Uin [Wykes, (fs'ta) Miss Harris]. 
910 B d^d'ts. 

0" 916 B e'tDJvn e'tnin. — B kire'tn [quoin sCoib]. — B ns'tnt 
[anoint, thrash]. — B d^e'tn [join}. 929 B kjVukvmbvR. 930 B la'tn. — 
B kja'wnt [to count]. — B kjVimtt [county]. — B ihoa'ts [Horace, * with a 
rough burnng sound']. ^ S t6tKt [toast]. 940 HB k6Nt. 947 B be'tl bwo'il, 
8 h6i\. — B re'tftTrut of a wheef]. 966 B kiTBB. U-- — B diuutt 
[duty]. — B trtYvnt [truant]. — B ^ulip [tulip]. — B ptlptt [pulpit]. 
970 B d|Brt. 


From the following sources : — 
A Ashby St. Legers (3 n.DaTentry). 
Ba. Baaby (2 ssw.Dayentry) including Dayentry and Woodford (6 ssw.D.]. Ex. 

rsh^t, vdhat'n, watVs %9k\T\ shan't, of that kind, what does he say ? (at duJL 

ohat kM'o'tt roq) I [haye] aone that quite wrong, (just to s^ ^nnxn tm nau 

ft)8 aa*msn) used to say a-men and now its ah-men. 
By. Byfleld (7 sw.D.). Ex. (in mi ssy'mti t<iu) in my 72nd year, (a* \ii)r» f bl)j« 

in priti gMd nlth P)how are you P are you in prettyeood health F 
T. Towcester (11 sse.D.) including Helmedon (7 sw.T.), Syersham (6 ssw.T.). 

A man of 60 says when he was a boy, say 1830, A was called {ee), 
W. Watford (4 nne.Da.) and Weedon v4 se.D.). A man of 60 who attended 

school at Whilton fS^sse. Watford) was taught to call A, £ (aa, m). One 

person examined at Watford had (& l) strong. 
All from wn. hj TH. from natiyes in 1881 and 1886. The yaiiants were probably 

due to indiyidual habits, and did not extend oyer districts. 

I. Wessex and Nobsb. 

A- 8 W b^ikt, A b^ek bs'ik [new], bakss [bakehouse old]. By bi«k. 4 A 
t^k, By tML. 6 A m^k, Ba m^k. 6 By mM. 18 W kjlik, By kjdk. 20 
Ba 16vm. 21 T n^m [yillages about Towcester say (nAnn)] ABa n^vm n^m 
[new]. 23 A s^m s^i «m, By s^sm. 31 By IHt. A: 89 Ba ka'm. 66 A 
WAsh. A: or 0: 60 A Iwq. 64 TBaBy roq, W m^q. 

A'- 67 TWBy guin g6«-in, ABa gdu, By gwSin. 69 Ba ndti. 74 T ta'u, 
W tSO. 76 ABal^ tfi«d. 81 A iB^in lAm. 82 W ifujas. 84 W mfisLB. 
86 A <Jvt8 6Mt8 [new] By wwts. 92 W ndw, A noo. 96 By throo. A': 104 
A rood rftttd [new] rfisd, By rood. — W [between] l^idi lA'idi [lady]. 1 16 AT 
dion, TABaBy dm, Ba dion [new], By oom. 117 T wo'n, A w6n. 120 By 
Bguu. 121 T gA'n. 123 T [between] nothiqk na^thiqk, W nwothiqk. 124 A 
stdn\ BaBy st(i«n, By stu^n. 126 W 6Mnli. 

JB- 188 TWBaBy faadhwr. — By ladhw padderl. 142Bysn^l. —By 
sM fa seat]. 162BywAAtHr. JE: 168 Wa^Bt»LB, A Artw, Balttw. 161 TW 
ddi, W dfii'i, A dn'i dii [the last eyidently an importation from Le.], Ba d^, By 
d^r. 172 Ba gM, JE'- 190 W kii. 197 ABa tniz. 200 TW wiit 
[villagers], w^t, ABa wiirt, By w^. JE': 216 A dil, By da'l. 218 Ba 

ship. 223 A dhtm* dhdvr, Ba dhtivr dh!«iB, By dhivr. 224 By wl«r. 

£. 233 T spiik [villages about (sp^ik)], WABy sp^rk. 241 W r&'in, A n'in, Ba 

[ 1662 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


r^, By r«f!i. 243 W pli^t pidt. 250 W swBs'Mnr. 251 Ba m^t. E: 260 
W Uim payers]. 261 A sB^i, BaBy see, 262 TW wet, W w&W, A wb"i, Ba 
w^, By wee. 263 W Bwdi, Ba aw». 278 W WBntj [an offensive term]. 280 
A IbtW. E'- 299 TBy griin, W griin. 300 ABa kiip. 302 By miit. 
F: 305 By 9'u 312 T Iwr, By Iwr. 314 W i^iid, TW and, By icrd. 

EA: 324 T kHi, ABa s'it. 326 T diMi 6m1, BaByW 6tild. 334 W ht. 
335 W aaI. 346 Ba gj^. EA'- 347 T n'd, WBy W. EA': 350 W 
dnM. 353 By brs'd. 360 ABy timn. 361 BaBy bi«n, Ba b^im. 363 ABa 
t|Ep. 366 TA gr^tt, By grtfrtgrst. £1- 373 W dh6i dhi. 

EG- 383 T SBv'n, ABaBy sBv'm. EG: 395 ByWA jw^q. 396 Ba wark. 
402 W Iwm, By ]hm. EG'- 411 T thrii, Ba thrii. — Ba trii [tree]. 420 
T fdv. By f($vr. EG': 425 A [between] la'tt I6«t, By le'it. 431 TBa blur. 
437 TBy tra'nth. EY- 438 T dd't, A Mi, By da** da't . EY: 439 
W tn#oii)mt rtnMt)me]. 

I- 440 W wtik. 444 A [between] sta'tl sto'tl. 446 T no'tn mrtn. I: 452 
TBa di, By a't. 458 TBy na'tt, W na'tt, A [between], ntftt n6«t, Ba [between] 
na'tt ntftt. 459 A [between] ra'tt r6it. By ra'it. 466 By tioTld. 469 Ba wll 
w«J[ [will]. — W rK^n [run]. — W daat. I'- — [long I Ba (a'i, «i). 
DaTentry (x't)]. 492 A [between] sa'td sa'id, Ba said. 494 TBy ta'tm, A 
[between] U'tm tatm, Ba [between] t^tm to'^tm. I': 500 TBy la'tk. 502 W 
[between] Mir fOtT, By fo'iT. 503 T la'tf. 

G: 527 Babat. 529 ABaBy brVt, By bnJwt. 531 ABaBydAAtw. 532 W 
kdf#l, A kao'wl. 543 By a»n. — By Vs [horse]. G'- 565 W shnu, By 
shaiu. 558 By Ink. 559 By madhOT. 560 A skuul. 562 A miiun, BaBy 
muun. 566 A ti^dhnr. 567 By iuj^m, 568 ABaBy brM^dhBr. G': 569 
BaBy buk. 571 A gud. 586 T do^'u, W ddwnt [don*t]. 587 W d6n, Ba 
dnjn. 588 A n«nn, Ba nuun. 594 W iMB'ut [occ.]. 

U- 603 TBy kam. 604 A su^m. 605 T 89*n [and between that and (sdn)] 
WABy SM^n, Ba [between] son* sanz. 606 T d($B| r du«Lr, ByW daor. U: 612 
WBy Buja. — T [between] tomb*l, tdmb'l[tumble]. 615 W pa'imd. 622 Ba 
u^dn. 629 By SM^n. 632 By ujp. 633 T kop\ WA ku^p, Ba kop Yuja. 636 
ABy fwdwr. 639 A dii^. U'- 640 Ba kja'wz. 641 A b'u, 643 TBy W 
na'^K. 648 T e'tniLr, W [between], B'liBm, e'UBm. 660 TWBy sbo'irt. U': 
668 TWBy da'im, W di3i'«n, A d&'im, Ba daun. 659 Ba Wtm. 661 A 
[between] sh&'iiBr sha'uBr. 663 TABy a't^s, Ba &uziiz a'Mztz, By a'MZ*n. 666 
Ba f#oZb«n. 667 T 9'uiy A [between] a'ut B«'t. 668 By pra'ud. 67 1 W mBB'irth. 

Y- 677 By dra^i. 679 Ba tjartj. 682 T litU. Y- 707 T thartii-n. 
Y': 712 By ma' IS. 

n. English. 

A. 726 ABa txAk. I. and Y. 758 T gjal, gJBi rl [refined]. G. 761 
By ia«d. 767 T n6tz. 791 By bdi. U. 803 A d^ujai^. 

m. Romance. 

A .. — W l^ibcr [labonr, (r) rather strong], 811 A pldiziz pl^z. 822 Ba 
ma, — Ba pB"t p«d. — W pldin [plamj. — A mu^gtvr [master, Mr.]. 
848 W tj6tndi. 849 T jn)m)ii str^ndjBr [vou are a stranger]. 851 TW int. 
— W plM [plate]. E •• 867 W tii tSi, A tii, By Ue. 886 By VEri. — Ba 
paa8*n [parson]. I- and Y- 898 W nx'is, By na'ts. 901 T Win fa'in. 

.. — bif'fbeef ]. — T w^qkU [uncle]. 933 A frw^nt. 940 By kCLet. 947 
By b6il. IT.. 963 By kwa'it. 970 A djw^. 

D. 7 = in.BS. = rai(i Border Southern. 

Boundary. Start from Little Rollwright, Ox. (19 nw.Oxford). 
Proceed to the e. to the sw. comer of Np. and continue by the b. of 
Np. to the b. of Ox., go se., 8. and n. by the b. of Ox. round to 
Iffley (2 8. Ox.). Then pass through Be. to the w. by Kennington, 

[ 1553 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


Wootton, and Appleton to the b. of Ox. Proceed n. by the b. of 
D 5 through Ox., e. of Witney, w. of Handborough, e. of Charlbury 
and Chipping Norton, to the starting-point. 

At the 8. part of the peninsula of Ox. the dialect, however, has 
become so worn out that no b. can be assigned with certainty, as 
the district abuts on the metropolitan area. 

Area, Most of Ox., with a small portion of Be., included in a 
bay of Ox. This is entirely a region of transition from S. to E. 
The dial, forms are uncertain, and become practically lost at the 
s. part. 

Authoritiei, See the Alphabetic County list under the following places, where 
• means tt. per AJE., f per TH., || in so., ** in io. 

Ox. tBlackthom, ||tEnsham, fFreeland, ''Fringford, ''Greys, (tHandborongh, 
IIHolton, ""tlslip, ''tOxford, ''Sonning, fStonesfield, fTiddington. 

Character. In contradistinction to D 6, D 7 is very homogeneous. 
Mrs. Parker (author of the Ox. Glossary and Supplement published 
by the Engliish Dialect Society) divides D 7 into three principal 
parts. The first two might be called the Handborough f 9 nnw* 
Oxford) and the Blackthorn (10 ne.Oxford) varieties, forming mid 
Ox., bounded on the n. by the n. b. of D 7, and on the s. approxi- 
matively by a line through Sandford (3 s-by-e.Oxford) and Thame 
(12 e.Oxford). With these two varieties die was personally well 
acquainted, being a native of Handborough. Mrs. Parker was 
kind enough to acquire the use of Glossic, in order to furnish me 
with information, and to allow TH. to "interview " her, by which 
means I was able to substantiate the accuracy of her phonetic 
spelling. TH. also visited Freeland (close to Handborough), and 
obtained supplementary illustration and confirmation. I give below 
the cs. and dt. and a number of sentences, evidently recollections 
of actual speeches heard by Mrs. Parker (sent me in MS., but 
subsequently printed in Glossic in the Supplement to Mrs. Parker's 
Ox. Glossary), several of which I add in pal. Mrs. P. considers 
that the chief difPerenoes between these varieties are that Hand- 
borough mya (bJEnt, gtr^^, wats, bjsnz, ku^at, dtrsnt) ben't, 
going, oats, beans, coat, don't, and Blackthorn has (bivnt, gu'tn, 
^Bts, blBUz, kuBt, d^But). Now these are only constantly inter- 
changeable forms of the same original for each pair. Ws. dte, 
oats, becomes regularly (udts), whence by putting the stress on the 
first element only (uwts), and by putting it on the second only 
(Oats, iiats, wats). And so for the other forms. Hence the 
difference is a trifling variety, often found, while there is a sub- 
stantial identity in this respect, and a real identity in others. The 
third or s.Ox. variety embraces all the s. peninsula of Ox. between 
Be. and Bu., with which Mrs. P. was personally unacquainted, but 
she procured me a dt. from Miss Slade, a schoolmistress at Sonning 
(4 sw.Henley-on-Thames), and I obtained another from Eev. N. 
Pinder, rector of Greys (or Rotherfield Grays, 2 w. Henley-on- 
Thames), neither of which I can fully interpret, but they are 
sufficient to shew that the speech is a mere variety, differing from 
the other two mainly in indicating a still further degradation, but 

[ 1664 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


still having an unmistakable S. character. Thus Miss Slade says 
that in 1880 there might be commonly heard (Bra'ut) without, 

SpiiBst puBsttz) post-s, (neer'n) ne'er a one, (aatvmunn) afternoon, 
aasts) asks, (dhiiz iir^, dhat eer^) these here, that there, (hant) 
haye not, (ship) sheep, (hos) horse, etc., of which the first three, 
at least, are distinctive S. forms, though the rest are familiar in 
the met^politan area. And in Miss Slade's dt. she uses (mevts, 
skuuld, jendvr, rdcd, glBt, street, miiwst, ne«m, want) mates, school, 
yonder, road, gate, straight, most, name, won't, which have the 
same character. Whether (r) is used I could not determine, but 
probably it has faded to (r^) or been entirely vocalised. The 
analysis of (a'i, a'u) could also not be determined. Mr. Finder 
wrote oy, but as writers of dialect constantly use oy for (it, di, 
a't), I am very sceptical when I see it. Even in Aylesbury, Bu. 
(see E div. D 15), where Mr. Fowler said (a»), I heard it once only 
from labourers. The whole e. side of Ox. and w. side of Bu. seem 
inextricably mixed up, and I have marked the e. b. of Ox. as the 
b. of the district and group, simply from inability to determine 
where any change takes place. Mr. Fowler, of Aylesbury, con- 
sidered the part of Ox. from Deddington (15 n.Oxford) to just e. of 
Charlton (7 nne.Oxford) to belong to Bu., but the pron. to change 
at Thame (12 e.Oxford), and the s. peninsula of Ox. to be quite 
different. It was only an impression, and he was unable to assign 
his reasons, but this would give Mrs. Parker's Blackthorn variety 
to Bu. and too much of a S. character to the s. peninsula. It is, 
however, provoking not to be able to draw a boundary with certainty 
between dialects so distinct in their development as the S. and E. 
But it certainly lies between a line on the w. connecting Blackthorn 
(10 ne.Oxford), Islip (4 n-by-e.Oxford), Holton (5 e.Oxford), and 
Henley-on-Thames, and a line on the e. connecting Buckingham, 
Aylesbury, and High Wycombe. From Aylesbury to Islip, the 
greatest width, is 18m. Rev. C. Coker, of Fringford (16 nne. 
Oxford), says that he does not consider the difference between Ox. 
and Bu. at that place sufficient to constitute a different dialect, 
and certainly the whole e. side of Ox. is much affected by Bu. 
There is no natural barrier between Ox. and Bu., and the Chiltem 
Hills pass through both. 

IllustratioM. A cs. and a dt, both from Mrs. Parker, a series of 
observed sentences written by the same, bringing out tiie southern 
character of the dialect very conspicuously, and finally a cwl. 
furnished by the same lady, with some words noted by TH. 

a. HAin)BORonoH cs. 

pal. by AJE. from Mn. Parker*8 systematic spelling, assisted by notes, and 
TH.*s oDsenrations. 

0. wo'i :djon aant got noo da'wts. 

1. weI, maa-stBR, dhii im ii med bwath tm i laaf «t dhis-JSR niuuz 
V ma'tn, uu kii'nz ? dha)s na rdhsR jsnt ubr dhaaa. 

[ 1556 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


2. t|Eiit niEii'i msn «z da'tz kAAz* dh« bi laaft vt, n nooz, 
dws[nt)a8, m«n ? waat shuud m^k)Bin ? t|snt yok la'tklt, tz tt ? 

d. awEV'QB dhts iz q'u t)wsz, boo dfBst oold dhii na'tz, tft ? 
maa'staii, vn bi kWrvt, tt 1 a't « dan. Its'vn* 

4. a't bii saaR'ton shuu'R a't jaED)vm see — earn « dh^ looks uz 
wEnt thBuu EY'ri mos'al aii)t f£9m dhd fast dhBHSE'lvz— dhat)i)dtd, 
seet «naf ' — 

5. dh«t dhB Itt'tslest bwA't tzsE'lf, « grEt bwA't « na'tn, nood iz 
faa'dbvRz ywaHs dhBREk'lt, dhoo t)waz sb kudi's Bn skudik'tn, Bn 
e't)d tBast 'ii tB sp^k dhB tRuuth [tRuuf] Eni dee, aa, *dhat)i 'tfd, 

6. Bn dhB ooljd)tim*Bn BBSE'lf til tsl Eni)Bn)i bz laa& na'ti, vn 
tBl)i 8TrM jud tuu, mBn, Bdha'ut* mai^ ta-duu, tf juu)l anlt ak8)BB, 
d|E8t want)BB ? 

7. Eni)a'ti be tEld *9't tt wEn a't ak8t)BR, ootbe Bn oo'va's Bgsn, 
BR 'dtd, Bn *aR dtd)'nt AAt tu be Roq Bn 8tt| b ptra'tnt bz dhts-JBB, 
waat dast -dhii thtqk ? 

8. weI, bz a't WBZ b s^-tn, *aR)d tBl)dhB, waaR, wEn, Bn o'u be 
fa'tnid dhat dhaas DRaqk''n btEst bz be kalz aR az'bBn. 

9. BR 8waa'Ri> BR 8>n i wi BR oon a'tz, l^^'tn spRaald ajI Bloq*, tn 
tz gttd 8an-dt ktrat, kloos ba't dhB a'tis duu'R, da'tm Bt dhB kAAR- 
nBR B dhat 1^^ jandBR. 

10. ii WBZ B wth'Bktn bwm* be 8Ez, mBn, fsr aaI dhB waRLD la'tlc 
a 8tk tja'tld [tjaTld], br b Itt'l gjal an dha gRtz-*l. 

1 1 . Bn 'dhat ap-'nd az 'aa Bn br :tamz wa't'f kam thruu dha bak 
jaaRd from aqtn a'tit dhB w£t klooz tB dra't, an b wash'n d$e, 

12. wa'il ^B kjft'l WBZ B btra'tltn foR tee^ wan fa'm sani sam'BR 
aaBtdRntm anli b wile Bgoo kam nakst thaRzdt [thaz'dtj. 

13. an, dtist noo? a't nEV'BR jaRD nB muu'E nBE dhts b dhat 
biz'nes ap tB tBd^, mBn, bz shuu'E bz ma't ne^mz :d|9n :sh£p'BED, 
Bn a't dwant waant tu niidhBE, sb dhaaR ! 

14. Bn na'u a't bi b gw^n oom tB aa ma't sap'BR. gtid na'tt, Bn 
dwant bi in 8tt| b gjal'Bpin aRi tB kok-kroo oovbr b badi BgJE'n, 
mBn, WEn b tA^ks b dhts dhat be t)adh*BE. 

15. t)tz B w^k fuul BZ pr^^ Bdha'ut ree'z'n. an dha)s ma't 
laast waED. gud dee. 


1. matter, all the r*8 not preceding nor did he obserre any aiwrimilating 

a Towel are marked (r), for, although effect on i, d, n, /« prodncinz (t, b, 

in Mrs. Parker's own pron. to TH. n, l). Like JGG. in D 4 at Chippen- 

they were nearly evanescent, their ex- ham, Mrs. Parker considered the (r) 

istence was clear close to Handborough. to be rather retracted than reverted, 

Before a vowel TH. observed no cases, and always untrilled, that is, (r^. 

h. Hakdbobouoh dt. 
pal. by AJE. from Mrs. Parker's Glossic. 

1. 800 a'l see, m^d^, jb siz na't* bz a't bi ra'tt Bba'wt- dhat dhaas 
Itt'l gjal akam'in fram dhB skuual jan-daa. 

2. aB-z Bgw^'n da'tm dhB rood dhaaa thruu dhB rsd gJEt b dhB 
lift aand sa'td b dhB rood. 

[ 1656 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


8. Bed VDst dhB i^'f'ld)z gAAn strM ap ts dhv duuoR b dhs Eoq 

4. was aB)L vaaa La'tk fa'tnd dhat dhii's draqk'n dsf snvuld 
fsl'v B dh« n^^m b :tain'aB. 

5. as aaI nooz 'ii yE|^Kt weI. 

6. want dih)ool t|ap sim laaBir as nat ts du)t BgJEn', pun's thtq. 

7. Jslak ! jsnt «t tmu ? 

1. mate is often boy (Wx't) in the stock, in this district. — there, (dhaait, 

singular, in calline out to several men dhaR, dhii*K) are all used, and similarly 

they would say (9 1 see jifiu), and not (waaa, whr, wii'n), for where.— <^ 

the usual (joo). — at and not that would child's gone, '« means it, has is not 

be used here, compare the mummers used in the dialect; they say, **is gone, 

rhyme, where (tt) means yet, and (jEd) is come, had went or a-went,'* this a- 

(b) is used after had^ but not after have. 

(hii'EkEm*9'i,w aant bin it, 3. &j^ onrfy^m^ b freauently used. 

'here come I that hasn't been yet, . *A f^*^*!^^; ^^ ('*^ ^^'^ 

,. . J i.^ti Ix Ml this part of the country.— /<?//ou>, 

^ m9 1 gHBt JBd TO .t- 1 w.t.) ^tij ^ ^ (^) „ jf^i^^j' ig-;^ ^ 

with my great head and my htUe wit. i^^^,^ further ndr4 and north-east. 
— be becomes in the negative (bjsnt, 6. we for us, and us for we, is the 

bsnt). — that, th is sometimes omitted rule. — he, («n) for Aim and t^ when im- 

from this word, as (at i wl)=that he emphatic. — l^m, but (tee-iyBK) with 

will. — little (lii-t*l) = very small. — yirl, distinct (r) . 

** my wench '* is a usual term of affec- 6. thing, (8am*et, nath-^n, nath-tn, 

tion, " wench,*' by itself would be nath-iqk), etc., are all heard for some' 

offensive. — yonder, yon is not used. thing ana nothing. 

2. her, the (r) is always felt ; (shii) 7. (lak, al'ak, dhal-ak, lak) as ex- 
is used only as an empbiatic objective clamations for look there ! but look is 
case. — agoing, (agw^m'tn) is also com- otherwise (luk). — is not, (snt) is more 
mon, especially at Combe and Wood- refined than (jsnt). 

e. Haitoborouoh Phrases. 

All these phrases and manv others were printed in Glossic in the Supplement to 
Mrs. Parker's Ox. Glossary after having been supplied to me in SlS. 

1. (o'l nEVBr wKnt nuutis Bna'tst)Tm), I never went no-where near 


2. (twad andBB b ars), toad under a harrow. 

3. (dhts biiB)z dasht, Bn as AAlas duu dash ii\ this beer's dashed 

[mixed with some of an inferior quality], and she always do 
dash it. 

4. (duu)i kam tn, bu aa b dtsh b t^ wi as), do ye come in, and 

have a dish of tea with us. 

5. (aaI q*% WiiAuts tz faaR duuz, bu faas duuz a't )1 aa, fcR aaI 'dhii 

Br Enihodi eIs), all I want is fair dealings, and fair dealings 
I'll have, for all thee or anybody else. 

6. (:p«dni :ttdBRD b bin Bn fEl Bpan :t^9t :adBmz, Bn i va'uz Bn 

diklaasz i)l pal)tin), Puddingy Woodward has been and 
fallen upon Teapot Adams, and he vows and declares he'll 
pull him. 

7. (if dhii bigt'nst sni b dha'» Egnv^Hm weez jas, 9'i)l kat dhB 

kbtfn B tuu in dhB mul'l), if thou beginnest any of thy 

[ 1667 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

126 THE BORDER 80X7THERN. [D 7. 

aggravatiiig ways here, I'll cut thee dean a-two in the 

8. (bitwiin juu wi e't «n dh« gjet pwast), between yon and I and 

the gate-post, i.e. between ourselves. 

9. (oti bez OTi bii), they say they are. 

10. (beQLt)'n ap aKter a't, til)i), push him up after I, will ye? 

11. (na dhsn, Waa, wo;s bin b duutn an, no't*?), now then, caw 

[foolj, what-hast been a doing of, now ? 

12. A. (dhii Ieu a't dho't no'if), thee lend I thy knife. 

B. (dhii ttt/nt gi;n e'i bak), thee wilt-not give-it I back. 

A. (a'«)l JEt fd'iBB vn flaaE im aaI dh« wanu) vt wan mo'ufPel, 
ff a't dwant), I'll eat fire and flare and all the world at one 
mouthful, if I don't [a usual boyish asseveration]. 

13. (dhis gr^\uid)z m stt| bad aBi, t|Ent noo juus ta boo WMt ntnt 

wats, aV thiqks a't shsl plant tMsRz), this ground [field] is 
in such bad heart [condition], 'taint [it isn't] no use to sow 
wheat nor oats, I thinks I shall plant potatoes. 

14. (ff dhi gi'ist m ool :dan'l ikjEziz Uoos, iz btd vl osid^ dh«), if 

thee goest in old Daniel Kearsey's close [field], his bull will 
horn [toss] thee. 

15. (dant stan dhaas « lo*p«ttn vba'tit, sEt vbo'ut duutn samBt), 

don't stand there a-lounging about, set about doing some- 

16. (mam vn dad), mother and father. 

17. maid-servant (tf a'f bJEnt nath'n bat « sanmit, a'* bjsnt 

ptra'tz'n), if I ben't nothing but a servant, I ben't poison 
[—an object of disgust], hoy (dhat dh© btst, pw^'tz'n tuu), 
that thou be'st, poison too. 

18. question^ is she a respectable woman? that is, one above the 

position of a labourer ; anstc&r {noo, sen, as Ent « n'spE'kteb'l 
tmiBU, n« muvs nvR a't bii, an azlnm waBks Bt dhB seem 
fsBm «z ma'tn duu), no, sir, she aint [iz'nt] a respectable 
woman, no more than I be, her husband woiks at l^e same 
farm as mine do [does]. 

19. (a'f hi 81 k toi sMtd wt dh« vent 'sa'ft « waBk, a'f aa)nt sEt 

. da'im dhis jbr blBs«d d^, vn ma't bak ^ks djsst f tt t« kam 
B)tuu), I be sick and sated with the very sight of work, I 
have-not sat down this here blessed day, and my back aches 
just fit [ready] to come a-two. 

20. (dhfs tee Ievz st% b naastt smak tn dhi ma'tith, t)tz wasBS ubs 

siint), this tea leaves such a nasty smack [taste] in the 
mouth, 'tb worser nor [worse than] senna. 

21. (dhts UA'tz tz Bua-f ts stant am'bodi, e'«)d bz Itv hi Bt :bEdlBm 

Bz bii jas), this noise is enough to stun [s. inf. in -y, but 
used with an object, which is unusual] anybody, I'd as lief 
be at Bedlam as be here. 

22. (ma't ool;d)t«'mBn)z iBgween ta'rtn ap •faB)mB), my old woman 's 

a-going tying up *for me [that is, making sheaves of com 
into stacks, observe emphasis in /or, if it had been ' for m«,' 
he would have said (fBE 'a'*)]. 

[ 1W8] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


23. (a't nooz i wEnt ra'tt, fsBB sez tB aV, b bez, 'Vt « Bin n ^«idj'l," 

Bn a'l BEz, " aav)i faadhBR ?" Bn b bez, "iis," br a'l bez, ** did 
B speek tu)i, faadhBR?" br b bez, "iis, ma't wEnti, b dwi, 
B bez, id^oo, e'f wAARts)! "), I kRow lie weRt right [that is, 
to heaveRJ, for he Bays to me, he says, ^'I have seeR aR 
aRgel," RRd I Bays, "have ye, father?" aRd he Bays, 
**yes," aRd I Bays, **did he speak to ye, father?" aRd he 
says, "yes, my weRch [term of eRdearmcRt], he did, he 
says, Joe, I waRt ye." 

24. (a't aaIbs thtqks bz rait ir bwks Bn pr^^m, Bn aaI sit^ thtqz 

Bz dhBm bi mEnt fBB dh^ bz kjaant wask), I always think 
as [that] writiRg books aRd preachiRg, aRd all such things 
as them [those], be meaRt for they as [those that] caR*t 
work [do maRual labour]. 

25. (1£r)s aa)t), let-us have-it. 

d, HAin>B0B0UOH cwl., Ox. 

7 nnw. Oxford, with Freeland, a hamlet of Ensham just s. of Handborough, Islip 
and Blackthorn. Words generally ^m Mrs. Parker, but occasiondly from 

B Blackthorn, wn. by TH. from Mrs. P. 

F Freeland, near Handborongh, wn. by TH. from Mrs. Waine, Mrs. P.'s 

G General in Ox., bom Mrs. P.'s lists. 

H Handborongh, from Mrs. Parker's lists, but by no means exhaustive. 
Ha Handborough as noted from Mrs. P.*s pron. by TH. ; almost every such 

word is here noted. 
Ho Holton, from Mrs. P.'s /i^lossic. 
I Islip, from Mrs. P.'s ^ossic. 

I. Wessex akd Nobse. 

A- 12 HHa saa. 13 HHa naa. 14 H draadfdrawede drawn, drew]. — 

S'sm [game]. 24 HHa shsm. — P pib'l [pebblejl — H staan [to starej. 30 
kJHR, kl«&. 33 G rsdhen. 36 H thaa. A: — rom [rami. 43 Ho ond. 
— Ha kja's'nt [canst-not]. 64 Ha wAxnt, F wAnt. A: or 0: 64 Ha rdo. 
A'- 67 Ho Bgii-tn, Ha Bgw^n, Bgwdtn, F vgw^-tn. 72 Ha uu. 76 H twnd. 
84 G m(iUB&. 86 G s(in«B. 86 Ho CLBts, HP wats, HaF wats. 89 H birath, 
bsth. 92 Ha noo. A': 113 H wal, al, Ha mI*. 115 I Owm, FHa oom. 
123 G nath'n. 124 F stwdn, Ho stan. 136 H klaath. 

M' 138 HI faadhvR. 148 Ha ^lk. — Ha st^^RZ [stairs]. JE: 161 
Ha I dsTi FHa dee, 179 F wot. JE'- — G r<»t|. 183 G ieftj. 187 
G Uer. 190 Ho Lw. 192 HHa mjsn. 200 Ha ws'^tt, F wetft. 202 Ho ieet, 
JS': — Ha mja^d [mead, Gl. — F sid [seed]. 214 naasn an innrne'er a one 
of theml. 223 Ha dh&^n, H dhan, dhaK, dhSsR, I dhivK. 224 IT wan, waR, 
wlau, Ha w^r. 

£- 233 Ha sp^k. — HaG ihn, tivRd, tiind [to tear, teared, tore]. 248 Ha 
mS^^R. — H IJBZtn, Ha Isztn [leasing = gleaning]. 252 Ha kjit'l. £: 261 
Ha 8^, s^i. 262 Ha WB"t. 26o Ha 8tr<!a?t. 278 F wauLtsh [perhaps (weni wh)]. 
280 G Isb'n. E'- 299 Ha griin. E': 306 HaG skth (see p. 119, No. 
306). 312 F iBR. 314 HaF jaLRd. 316 HaF fit'. 

£A- — H shsk, shak [shake, shook]. 319 Ha gjanp. 320 Ha kiar. 
£A: 321 F [(sin) = seen, for have seen, used]. 322 Ha laaf. 323 HaG 
fd'wt. — t|ook [chalk]. 333 Gkjaaf. — Ha 6ltBR [halter]. — shaRTshare]. 
846 P dBBR. 346 I gj6tt, F gjst, Ho girt, gj«?Bt. EA'- 347 Ha JE'd. 

[ 1669 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


EA': 350 H dJEd. 352 F rBd*. 364 G shef. 356 H brf, Ibvz. — Ha 
bJEin [beam]. — ItrBin rcream]. 361 HHaF bJEnz, Ho biraz. 363 
HnG tjEp. — G «Y»t [east]. 366 Ha grst. — H JBzi [easy]. 871 HHa 

£1: 378 HnFG w«fk. 382 Ha dhknn [thein, G]. 

EG- 383 G sEb'n. 384 G Bb*ii. 386 Ha too. EG: 394 HaF jandBLE. 
397 H suiiRD. 402 Ha lui im. 403 H fiR. EG'- — G fieeU flea]. 419 
Ha jaBiiin [voure]. EG': — Ha tit [held]. 427 Ho biBnt [be-notj. 434 
HHa bjEt. 437 Ha triif, trtith. 

EY- 438 Ha da't, da'i [marked as lying between them, the first is analogical]. 

I- 440 Ha wik'. 447 Ha hb, ainn [hers]. — FG p«« [pease]. I: 
452 Ho a*, a'l. — Ha kd [Ud], 466 Ha tpl'ld. 468 G tuldBRN. 469 H 
fit [wilt], F wjnit. 482 I E)nt [is-not], fl bJBnt, Ha bJB'nt [probably (blsnt) 
is near enoujjhl Ha jEnt, tjEnt. 483 fla iz n [stated to be general]. 487 H 
♦stBRdi. 488 ll it. — tit [teat]. — sens [since]. I'- — H gii, gin 
[give, given, gave]. — HF np [to reap], 

Q. — G rat* n [rotten]. G: 531 Ha daatBLR. 637 Hma'wldi [mouldy]. 
638 H /<d. 543 llaF an. 646 H fan, fan. 547 G buuuD. 549 H (iubud. 
654 G kras. G'- — ginn [gum of tooth]. 564Hasim'. 568 F bradhuR. 
G': — Ha brak [brook]. 586 Ho dClBnt [don't], Ha dwant, F dwant [modem 
(dant)], F d/i^s'nt, Ha dttsi [dost]. 687 Ha da'n. 590 H flCioR. 692 Ha 
swii B. 695 Ha fut', F fat'. — t«th, ttth [tooth, teeth]. 

\f. _ ud [wood]. 603 HaF kam. 606 EG daBR, Ha daBiR. U: — 
i#lf [wolf]. — G sha'KldBR [shoulder]. — andBRD [hundred]". 623 H fan. 

— tmdBU [wonder]. 626 Ha B)aqgri [a hungry]. 632 I ep'. — H milBRX 
[mourn]. — H thasti. XT'- 643 HaF na'ti, F n^w. 648 Ha a'uBi^Rn [ours]. 
XT': 667 F a'trt. 

Y- 675 Ha B)dra'i [a-dry, thirsty]. 676 B lig, ligstcR [a lie, a liar], Y: 

— shilf [shelf]. 694 F waRk. 700 G was. Y- 706 Ha wa"t. 

11. English. 

A. — kraal [crawl]. — H okBRD, akwid, Ha bIcbrd [awkward, stubborn]. 
E. — Ha sft [to heft, weigh in the hand, from to heave]. I. and Y. 756 1 

srtmps. 757 H tiini. 758 Ha gjal [sometimes (gjarl), Oxford (garl). 0. 
778 G BfuuRD. 791 Ha bwAA'i, F hwdi, U. I d|9mp. 


A" 810 I fiBs. 814 Ha m«BntBr. — G frw-l [flaUJ. 824 Ha tjiBr [G1. 
836 Ha Tcez^n. — H mastBB [master, Mr J. — Ho gjalro [gallop]. — Ha 
pant*ni* [pantryl — Ha Vrtj ||arch]. — G kjaaR [to carry J. — G kjaa-fBntBB 
[carpenter, Ha (kjaar-)]. 857 Ha kJBs. — slat [roofing slate]. 

E- 867 F t«?. — Ha dhBrskli. 872 H tjBf. — sanv, san [to serve]. 
— G Ha mizhBR [measure]. 891 H blEst, B ftEst. 896 HHo b«rvBR. 

G-- — Ha biif [beef]. 916 G o'iuBU. — pa'iz*n, pwViz'n [poison], 
925 Ha vwA^'is [mod. va is], — G kiiBRD [coroj. — Ha piiBRk [porkj. 
940 Ho kxlBt, Ha kwot, F kwat. — fuuRm [form]. 947 Ha bwe'ilin. 9o6 
Ha da'uts. — Ho mav [move]. 966 G kivBB. 

XJ.. — tribBut [truant]. 969 shCiBR. 

D 8 = s.BS = southern Border Southern. 

Boundaries. From Reading, Be., follow the n. b. of D 5 through 
Sr. to Knockholt, Ke., and continue ne. to Gravesend, Ke., then turn 
w, and follow the s. bank of the Thames back to Reading. 

Area, Extreme se.Be. ; ne.Sr., and extreme nw.Ke., embracing 
London s. of the Thames and the adjacent suburbs. 

[ 1560 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


Authoritie: See the Alphabetical County list under the following placed, 
where • means w._per AJE,, f per TH., ° in io. 
Be. ** Hurley, ** Hurst, °»WarCTave, fWindsor. 
Sr. 'Chertsey, ''Chobham, **Croydon, °Leatherhead. 
Ke, No information from this very small portion of nw.Ee. 

Characters, The composite nature of a very shifting population in 
this district renders the growth of any dialect proper impossihle. 
Still in country places and even in the suburbs of London there is 
a slight tang of S. speech even if it is limited to using / be. At the 
extreme w. of the district adjoining Ox. the S. character is almost 
strong. Thus at Wargrave, Be. (5 ne.Reading), T. F. Maitland, 
Esq., gave me w. the words : 

A- 4teok. 21 n^mn. A': 104 r6«d. M- 142 8nE'il. HStne'il. M: 161 
6/». E: 261 s^-A —fiild [field]. EA: 346 g^ot. EO: 394 indoR [this is an E 
form, for (janden)]. I: 466 tjam I' 492 8a'id. Y-682lut'l. A. 737 mdet. 
A: — kampliB'int. R is regularly (a). H generally omitted, and also wrongly 
inserted. Usages y I be, her be, I am, I are, we knows -un. 

From Hurley (9 ne Reading), and hence close to the former place, 
Mrs. Godfrey, marking the only * peculiarities ' (that is, differences 
from rs.) she could think of, in a dt. gave me : 

A- 21 n^Bm. EA. 346 giBt. EO: 394 BudsR [the (r) is assumed from the 
neighbouring "Wargrave, and the (s) confirms the former (i)]. O: 541 want. 
y- 603 vkamin. A. 737 mdets. I. 758 gsel. Usages, I be, houscn, Michael- 
mast, feller. 

From Hunt (4 e.Rcading) the late Rev. R. A. Cameron wrote 
(1879) with a dt. : 

** It is difficult to characterise the genuine dialect of the district. The popula- 
tion is very mixed and migratory. The chief characteristics as they struck me 
when coming 40 or 50 years as^o n'om Suffolk were (besides the perverse confusions 
about the aspirates, particularnr strong hereabouts), the addition of a short vowel 
sound to all long terminal syllables, as (meets, mist^Bk, kompl^ent) [these words 
were interpreted from Wargrave with (cb), but the last may have been (le'i). It 
was difficult to see whether Mr. Cameron wrote de or at. TH. heard (tr6tn, ^.tt) 
train, ei^ht, from unknown speakers at Windsor, but these were probably Ijonaon 
importations] ; the dropping of the initial tv as (iil, tnnun) wool, wonan, (b o'mM 
MmBn) an old woman ; a peculiar sound of the /, something like the French / 
mouillee as * feulld, chiuld for field, child, but this cannot well be expressed by 
.any combination of letters phonetically.'* Perhaps he meant merelj (b1) as (fiBld 
ha'tBld^, but the sound may have been possibly been (bl). There is no sound of 
A) in tne modem French / mouillee, and hence I have given his own spelling. 
He wrote long i as ot, which Wargrave shews to be (a'i). The following words 
are taken from the dt. : 

A- 21 n^mi. A: 43 send. A: or 0: 64 weq [probably an error]. A': 104 
r^vd. JE- 144 Bgi'n. E: 262 w^» [written teat, imcertain, might have been 
(w8B't)]. 265 streit. 266 wcl [doubtfiil]. EA: 326 a'wld. 346 geat. I: 452 
€1. 4o9 ra'it. 466 tra'ild. 469 u\ [possibly (b1)]. I'- 492 said. 0: 541 
oont. 0'- 560 skiul [v]. 564 sim. U- 603 Bkamin. 606 dQBii. Y- 682 HI 
pspmetimes,* very doubtful indeed whether used by natives, (la'il) is a N. form]. 
A. 737 m^Bts. I. 758 gaid [the (r) is assumed from Wargrave, (ra^id) written 
maid was said to be commoner]. The rest of the words in the dt. were said to be 
in rp. Usages, I says, I be, she's a goin, bain't, we knows-un, that' en. 

The above shews S. in a still moderately active form in Be., but 
it dies out very rapidly towards Sr., and in 8r. itself the borough 

I.E. Pron. Part V. [ 1561 ] 100 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


of Southwark and the outlying suburbs seem to have pretty well 
destroyed all trace of dialect. The following is all the information 
I could find. 

Chobham (8 n-b-w. Guildford) . An incumbent of 50 years could only give E. 751 
(piBr^^t), the (rj assumed, and the plural housen. Neither form is distinctive. 

Chertsey (11 nne. Guildford). The predecessor of the vicar, that gave me the 
information, had known the place 70 years, but knew "not one peculiarity in 

Leatherhead (12 ene. Guildford). Mr. Martel, in writing to Prince L.-L. 
Bonaparte, said : " It is hard to find distinct traces of provincialism of any sort, 
as the population is so continually changing,** but he gave the usage* I be, I 
knows, I saw-r-er, drawring, sometimes in for ittff in the participle, I see (not / 
Meen) for I saw, and I were, but in no other person. Of these, I beia distinctly S., 
draw-r-ing, etc., is E. Altogether mixed. 

Croydon. Mr. AV. Taylor Malleson, of Duppas Hill, tried hard to find pro- 
vincialisms in the Board Schools, but was not vei^ successful. These are the 
most he could discover, and I have not been able to interpret all satisfactory. 

A'- 90 to 97, he writes with «-ou>, which may bear different interpretations, as 
(6o, b'm, a'o), thus, 93 (sn6o, sue'm, sna'o), and I incUne to the second. EA- 319 
g(r<*»p, 346 gmt [which are not S.]. E: 260 t&», 261 eki [which I think are not 
really S. forms, as they seem at firat sight, but an exaggeration of the (1^^, seci) 
that may be heard in ne. London], 285 kriis [a common Londonism]. £': 306 
ha'ith [this is not dialectal, it is a mistaken analogy, and is even lieard from 
educated speakers]. EO': 436 trly, 437 triyth [these seem mistakes for (triu, 
triuth), which are not imcomraon ; the diphthong is East Anglian]. I: 472 
sOTtqk [this is an example of the non-pronunciation of (sh) before (r), and is not 
distinctive. It is also inconsistent with 654 ghreoud']. U- 601 sse'M, 602 fee'til 
[these were written ad-oWj fa-owl^ and were said to resemble (»-o'm), an unknown 
combination, but as many dialect writers use aow to indicate what has been found 
to be (oj'm), I so interpret ; the sound is, however, not S., but nearest (6m) of Ke., 
or the E. diphthong. In the same way the long f is said to be (ffi't)» ^ ^^ry 
common sound in Ixindon, but decidedly not S., imless occ. for the at, ay words 
which are not contemplated. This (a^'t) is stated to be a favourite sound in 
Croydon, which is called (:krse'id'n)]. Again, U': 654 »hreoud^ 658 deoun^ 668 
preoudf look as if meant for (shrla'Md, dia'un, priaud), * the e very slight,* which 
looks like a well-known M. triphthong. 0. 769 ma;il [this must be an accident, 
it is not known in any dialect]. 

The above only betray a very mixed set of speakers. But one observation is to 
a certain extent S., 608 a^li, 697 bEri, 773 doqki, 785 pooltri, 934 ba'wnti, 935 
kantri, with a clear final (i) not (i) or (ij). It is, however, not a certain criterion. 
Usages, ' I be agoing' is S., but ' I am,* I are/ also heard, are not so. Y and 
W are said to be properly distinguished. 

On the whole, therefore, it must bo right to characterise D 8 as 
a S. dialect almost entirely obliterated by town influences. It 
forms the 8. part of the metropolitan area, or that lying s. of the 

D 9 = ES.=East Southern. 

Boundaries, The w. b. is the e. b. of D 5 and D 8 from the mouth 
of the Adur in Ss. to Gravesend in Ke. The other borders are -the 
sea-coast round Ke. and e.Ss. 

Area. Almost the whole of Ke., with e.Ss. It was the supposed 
seat of the Jutes, but the modem speech is a deca3ring S. form, with 
the exception of a peculiarity of entirely modem growth, subsequent 
to A.D. 1340. 

[ 1662 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


Authorities. See the Alphabetical County List, under the following place:*, 
where • marks vy. per AJE., t per TH., || systematic spelling, ° in io. 

Si. **A8hbumham, fBattle, fBri^hton, '^♦Cfuckfield, •Eastbourne, "Etchingham , 
IILeasam, fLewes, **Marklye, ^'Possmgworth, ''Selmeston, °Weald of Sussex. 
. Ke. ♦Charing, 'Chatham, **Denton, •Faversham, || Folkestone (fishermen), 
♦Maidstone, **Margate, °Rol?enden, ^'Shadshiurst, •St. Nicholas, •Sheemess, 
•Strood, **Stoke, °Stourmouth, °Wingham. 

Character. The general character is that of w.Ss. and Ha., that 
is that of D 5, only still further decayed. Initial (z, v) seem 
never to be used for (s, f). The -^G and EG words have passed 
pretty well into (ee, ee) and in some cases (ii). The (r) remains ; 
I have heard it myself from Cuckfield and Eastbourne in Ss., at 
Tunbridge Wells and Maidstone in Ke., and have had it indis- 
putably recognised at Possingworth and Marklye (14 wnw. and 15 
n. Eastbourne), and in several places in Ke. But it has a tendency 
to degenerate into the ordinary English vocal r, a mere vowel (a, tj) 
or a buzz (r^), the form that it retains in London. Rev. Mr. 
Parish (Sussex Glossary) does not notice or apparently acknowledge 
it at all, using ar simply as a symbol for (aa). But Miss Darby, 
of Marklye, graphically and accurately writes, "The roll of the R is 
most peculiar, and I never heard anything like it anywhere. It 
can only be sounded by beginning the sound with the tongue 
straight," that is, in its usual direct position for the preceding 
vowel, " and suddenly curling it round so that the underpart of the 
tongue touches the roof of the mouth," that is, for the consonant 

The peculiar character which separates D 9 sharply from the 
adjoining D 5 and D 8 is the pronunciation of the initial th as (d) 
in thisy thaty the, there, <Aeir, <Aeirs, them, then, the9e, those, they. 
To these words would probably have been added than, thou, thee, 
thy, thine, ^Aough, thus, had they been used in the dialect, but they 
have not been heard ; than is always replaced by nor, thou etc. by you 
etc., though thus do not seem to be required at all. Rev. Mr. 
Parish (Glossary, p. 8) says "the th is invariably <?," this is not 
the case for the initial th of any other words, so far as I can learn. 
In the middle of words we have d in far^Aing and fur^Aer, but that 
is common to other dialects. Miss Darby thought she knew it in 
o^Aer, ei^Aer, nei^Aer, but was not able to verify her supposition 
when she tried. In Faversham, Ke., however, Mr. H. K.- 
Hugessen gives (wiadBR) another. Final th in with, smooth 
becomes d before a vowel, as (smuud it, wid ft) smooth it, with it, 
but not regularly, compare (^drn, vdeu't) within, without. Now 
here some might suppose we had the desired Jutish peculiarity, but 
alas! there is no trace of it in Dan Michel, who (see pp. 38-41) 
had plenty of initial (z, v), which have since his time entirely 
disappeared. In John Lewis's History and Antiquities as well 
Ecclesiastical as Civil of the Isle of Tenet [that is, Thanet, the ne. 
comer of Ke.], 2nd ed. 1736, he says (p. 35) that "the English 
spoken here is generally very good, only the natives in common 
with the other inhabitants of this part of Kent are used to 
pronounce the th as & d, the o as an a, as an for on [regular S.], 

[ 1663 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

132 THE KAST SOUTHERN. [D 9, V i. 

the I as ee^ as Deek for Dike [^rather (dik) like (ditj)], and to say 
who instead of how and how instead of who [the latter not met 
with]. As for example, How is dut man dere? for, Who is that 
wkwi there ?^* Yet in Thanet at the present day, as among the 
fishermen at Folkestone, I have not been able to discover a single 
instance of this use of d for initial th. But Sir F. Burton (of the 
National Gullery) informed me in July, 1887, that his housekeeper 
from the Isle of Thanet has an old uncle about 80, who always 
says "dat man dere," and knows other old people who do so. 
Hence Lewis is confirmed, and the disappearance is only recent. 
In Thanet the watering-places of Margate and Eamsgate might be 
credited with the restitution of th^ but this hardly applies to the 
fishermen of Folkestone. 

Another peculiarity has also developed itself, but is disappearing 
under the influence of education. It is not, however, confined to 
o.Ss. and Ke., but extends along the e. of England from Kc. through 
Es. and 8f. tx) Nf. inclusive, which form what may be called the 
Land of Wee. This is the replacement of (v) by (w), but not 
conversely. Sam Wellcr, who spelled his name "with a u?^," and 
Cockneys are especially credited with the interchange. I have 
never yet heard (v) used for (w) in good faith, though I have 
much wanted to do so, but (w) for (v) I have known all my life in 
Ke. Rev. W. Parish acknowledges it in e.Ss., but Miss Darby does 
not. Now the late well-known traveller Dr. Beke declared that 
the Cockneys and the Trast«verini in Rome pronounced German 
w (bh) in place of both (v) and (w), and that the Cockneys, with 
whose habits he was well acquainted, did not know when they 
were saying one or other, because in fact they said something that 
was neither, but sounded like (w) when (v) was expected, and (v) 
when (w). Now I am perfectly familiar with (v bh w u), the 
last being the unstressed vowel diphthongizing with a following 
vowel. I can readily and easily distinguish in my own and other 
]»er8on's speech vie French, wie German, wee English, ui in Italian 
Gwtdo, oui French = (vii, bhii, wii, iiii, ui). Yet I do not hear Dr. 
lieke*s (bh) from those who use (w) for (v). Mr. H. C. Coote also 
affirmed that he knew coachmen {cocchieri) in Rome to say (uEuto) 
for vento. That is possible, but requires investigation- I think, 
however, that they could not say (wEnto). The English (w) is 
a peculiar consonant which I do not find in the rest of Europe. 
The V and w habits of the fishermen of Folkestone will be especially 
referred to on p. 143. 

Although the dialect is tolerably uniform over the whole district, 
it will be convenient to separately consider Var. i. e.Ss., Var. ii. 
n.Ke., Var. iii. e.Ke. including the Folkestone fishermen. 

Var. i. East Sussex Foem. 

Miss Darby, who lives in a rery out-of-the-way place, Marklye, which used to 
be st^ren miles from a railway-station till 1880, says, " I feel qmte sure in a few 
years all these old tt^rms will be extinct. A railway has been opened for the last 
tow months within four miles of us [at Heathfield], and already the change is 

[ 1664 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D 9, V i.] THE EAST SOUTHERN. 133 

very great. We have two old men who have worked on the farm in our family 
for many years, one for forty years. He is of an old superior family, hut cannot 
read. He said yesterday [dated 15th Oct. 1885] that he was much put out at 
hearing people talk now, and he could not make out ' high words.' His wife, 
who is upwards of seventy and ahle to write, has much disp'usted him hy buying a 
dictionaiT to keep pace with the times. There are not a dozen people left in the 
parish who speak the real old dialect.'* Miss Darby's information is checked 
hrst by Rev. Mr. Parish, both of them having sent me versions of the dt., and 
secondly by the wl. w. given me by two students at Whitelands, p. 134. 

Two Intbkiineab East Sussex dt. 

M. by Miss Anna M. Darby, of Marklye (imankld't') (15 n.Eastboume), pal. 

by AJ£. from indications. 
S. by Rev. W. D. Parish of Selmeston (:stm8tni) (6 ese. Lewes), pal. conjectually 

from io., for which no indications were furnished either in Mrritingor in his 

glossary. Only those words which apparently differ from Miss Darby's 

are given. 

1. M Marklye, boo o% see, m^Bts, j« sii iie'u d«t)B bi Ba'i t vbE'td; 
8 Selmeston, miBts, jfu o't)iii [bi] bfi'ttt 

M dset-^BB liit'l gsel Bka'min fram daet-6BR skuBl E'ut JdndBR. 
S daet 1^4 ganl dts skuul [omit] JEndvB. 

2. M 8hii)z Bgu'Bn de'tm deet-^BB rtiBd doBr tbruu dB r£d geBt on 
S sliii)bi gt^m dB rdsd 

M t)adhBE soVd B)dB ruBd. 
S OB Isft haaud wee, 

3. M shuBB Bno-f dB tjo'ild bi gAAn ro'it «gtn dB duBB B)da Boq e'«s. 
S sbuBB)naf 'z- strait ap tB)dB 

4. M wfBB sbi)'! 8Bp tB foVn dset-^BB draqk dEth snvBld tjaep B)do 
8 w^BB i^aaiis f o'md daet drarqkBn IeIbb 

M n^Bm B :tom. 
8 nfBm itomos. 

5. M wi aaI nooz im vaBt w6b1 [waal]. 
8 aol him web» wel. 

6. M wuBnt dB (feld tjflep subii laan be nevBB tB duu Bt noo 
8 wsmt oo\ i^ sun tiii^ hBB not tt 

M moBT, puBB tbiq! 
8 Bgfn, pooB 

7. M lt«-k)i deBr ! bfBnt Bt truu ? 
8 [omit] tt 

Notet to M. 

1. /, at the bennninff of a sentence little y Miss D. was surprised at Mr. 

(o'l), and («) in the middle. — he^ used, P.'s (Itd'l), which she never heard. 

Mr. P. prefers 9XEi\ he he abo used. — Mr. P. says '* double t is always pro- 

[ 1666 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

134 THB EAST SOUTHKRN. [D 9, V i. 

noanced as d^ as liddle for little, etc.** 4. tUaff Miss D. says, " As regards 

Miss D. iiK^uires what becomes of bottle, this word, I consider it a most peculiar 

wa^de, which are in constant use. thing that it should be called death, 

2. the, her is used for she only im- and it is a rery common expression, 
mediately after a rerb, as (dtd)BU}, she *she is troubled with dcathnats,'* *' so 
U gooin, or she's a gooin, optional. — also Mr. P.*s Glossary. Halliwell 
way, w never becomes r. says it is a Suffolk pron. — Thomas, a 

3. enough, with o in cot. — straight^ common name, but always abbreviated, 
(street), but (ro'tt) is the word that 6. Miss Darby wrote \caal, which 
would be used here. — up, pr. (ap), but ought to mean (w^bI), but as Mr. II. 
here a^tfiB against, t.^. towards, would Knatchbull-Hugessen at Faversham 
be used. — house, the A is 'dropped said (waal), may have been meant for 
slightly, never put in the wrong place.' the latter. 

Notes to 8. 

1. mates, written meiits, similarly 4. rAa»«^, as this is written fA«a>i«f, 
par. 4, name (nivm), written neam, it ought to be (tj^Bus), which is un- 
Misses Darby, Francis and Sayers likely, but I have no guide but Cuckfield 
have all (n^Bm). 851 (a^nt), aunt. 

2. road, written road, but Mr. P. 
may have meant (r(i«d). 

East Sussex cwl. 

Those words in which only the ordinary spelling is given in Italics \ure supposed to 

be in rp. 
C Cuckfield, w. from Miss Sayers, native, student at Whitelands. 
£ Eastbourne, w. from Miss Francis, of London, 8 years at an Eastbourne 

school, student at Whitelands. 
FC Cuckfield, from Archdeacon Fearon, native. 
L Leasam, near Rye, from a numbered wl. by Miss B. C. Curtis. 
M Marklye, given by Miss Darby, in addition to her dt. 
P from kev. W. D. Parishes Dictionary of the Sussex Dialect, conjecturally pal. 

by AJ£. with the help of C and £ above. 

I. "Wessex akd Norse. 

A- 3 C£ b^k. 4 C£ tesk. 5 CE m^k. 6 CE m^Bd. 7 CE s^ak. 9 FC 
bihdBv. 12 CE saak [even without a following vowel]. 17 CE 1aa& [as 12]. 
18 [always called biscmt, even a large Christmas cake is called biscuit at E. and 
Brighton, not at C.]. 20 CE l^Bm. 21 CE n6Bm. 22 CE t^Bm. 23 CEs^sm. 
24 CE sh^Bm. 33 CE & FC reedhvR. 36 CE thxAR. A: 43 CE and, FC 
an. 44 FC Ian. 61 P maan. 66 L wash. A: or 0: 60 CE long. 61 C 
vmaq, £ Bmaq. 

A'- 67 P Bgw#tf*n [a going], a'l guuz [I go], CE & FC guu. 70 CE toe. 
72 CE uu. 73 CE so. 76 CE & FC t6Bd. 79 CE (Jbu. 80 FC hohdi. 82 
P wanst. 83 FC nubn. 84 CE m6B)n)dat [more than that]. 86 P wats. 87 
CE tlooz. 90 CE bloo. 91 CE ma'ti. 93 CE sus'u. A': 101 CE M. 
102 L ast [inf. and past tense]. 104 FC roBd. 106 FC rosd. 106 CE brood. 
108 P daf, CE doo. Ill C£ ought. 116 CE hoBm. 118 PCE & FC bJvn. 
120 P Bguu. 122 P UAAn, CE nan. 124 CE & FC st<^. 126 CE only. 

JE' 138 P fiBdhBK, CE f^BdhBR. — P laadBE [ladder]. 141 CE n^l. 
142 CE sn^Bl, L [often (snag) or (tmee) omitting (1)]. 143 CEt^d. 147 br^BU. 
— P amets [antsj. 149 CE bl^. 162 CE water. 163 CE sadBnd^. 

jE: 166 CE & FC thetj. — P aadBR [adder]. 168 FC aatBE. 161 PLM 
dii. 162 PtBdii. 166 meBd. — P wen; as [wain X)r waggon horse]. 168 P 
i)lB. — waps [wasp]. — haps [hasp]. 170 CE aRvist. 171 barley. 172 CE 
gwas [common j! "M'- 186 CE read. 188 P nakBK. 190 Ayy. 197 cheese. 
199 CE bleet. 200 CE wM. M: 203 CE speech. 207 CE niidB|,l [with 

[ 1666 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D;), Vi.] THE E^ SOUTHERN. 135 

an indistinct (1)]. 218 PCE ship. 223 CE dhlva [(d) not marked in this word]. 
224 CE w6br. 227 CE tcet. 

E- 231 P ds. 232 break. 233 tpeak. 234 knead. 235 toeave. 236 ffffer. 
239 CE sesl. 241 CE r^n» M rimi. 243 pl6«. 250 CE 86bu [swore]. 251 
C miit, E meet. 252 C£ kit'l. 253 CE nettle. £: 261 CE see. 262 CE 
w6eB. 264 CE ^I. 265 CE strM. — f tid [field! 272 elm CE [yolunteered 
that it was (ePm) in Es.]. ~ P hiin [a hen]. 281 CE Isnth. 282 CE strsnth. 
— mssh mash [marsh]. 284 CE thrssh. 286 L ha&RR [and so for all words 
having double rr^ as earriage (kaRRR), that is, very much lengt^hened (r)]. 

E'- 290 CE he. 292 CE me. 293 CE we. 294 CE/eed. 296 P o'i blar, 
E bdeey, bilEft^[believed]^£I believe,j)arenthetically]^_300 CE kip, kiip [keep, 

kept]. 301CEIBE. eT: 305 CEhki [?]. 307 CE nW [PI. 

309 CE speed. 312 CE j^br. 314 isd. 315 CE f tt. 316 CE nsks. 

EA- — P voIb [fallow]. 319 FC ge«p. EA: 323 CE fa'irt. 324 CE 
M. 328CEool. 330CEooU328. 333 CE kseief. 334 CE hsesf. 336 
CEfaU. 337 CE waU. 345 CE dare. 346 P givt, CE & FC g^Bt. 

EA'- 347 CE Bd. — haafoR hafsR [heifer]. 348 6t. 349 CE few. 
EA': 350 CE dead. 353 CE bread [but (brB)n)tpiz) bread and cheese]. 354 
CE eheaf. 355 P dsth, CE dsf. 356 CE le^f. 357 CE though. 359 C neebvR, 
£ni«b«R. 366 P gxRt. 368 CE death. 369 CE slow. 371 CE strAAR. 

EI- 372 CE [not used]. EI: 378 E week. 380 P dsm. 382 P deeRZ. 

£0- ZS5 CE beneath. 386 CE Joo. 387 CE nuu. EO: 388FCmelk. 
394 P jaq«R [? ol CE jandvR jandvR. 399 CE bi^t. 400 CE aRuest. 402 
CEkRn. 405CEaRth. 406 CE MrM. EO'- — CEjea. ill CE three. 
412CE«A«. ilZCE devil. 414 CE>^. 415 CE 16i. 417 PCE tja'u. 420 
PE fo'inm, C foBR. 421 P faRti. EO': 423 CE thigh. 424 P bnif. 425 
CE l&it. 426 f6ft. 435 CE you. 436 CE triu. 437 CE triuth. ET- 438 
CE die. 

I- 440 PCE wtk. 442 CE 6tyt. 444 CE sto'tl. 446 CE n6tn. — shiiR 
[shire]. 448 PCE diiz. 449 CE gtt. 450 CE tuuzd^. I: 452 CE 6t. 

457 m6tt. 458 n6ft. 459 CE r6tt. 462 CE s6tt. 465 CE & FC sit|. 466 
CE t^'ild m. 468 CE tjtld'n. — klim [climb]. 472 CE sriqk. 473 CE 
bla'in. 475 CE w6ind. 476 CE ba'in. 477 fa'in. 478 gra'in. 479CEw»'fn 
[compare 475]. 483 P hiiz [his, written he's]. 484 CE dts. 485 P sts'l [* the 
usual pronunciation of thistle,^ says Parish], CJB thts'l. 488 CE Jtt. — P spst 
[spit]. r- 490 CE b6». 493 CE dr6iT. 494 CE t6im. I': 502 CE 
foty. 503 CE 16ftf . 504 CE n6if . 505 CE w6tf . 506 CE umm [(m6i ool 
dfouBn) my old woman B(m6i mists). 511 w6in. 

0- 524CEwaRld. 0: 527 CE ^om^A^ 528 CE Mo«^A< [often (the'ut) 
L]. 529 CE brought. 531 CE daatBR. 532 CE eoal. 533 CE duU. 536 CE 

C". — krap [crop]. 552 P Iulru, CE kxRu. — maRnin [morning]. 554 P 
. — CE poostisiz [poets]. 0'- 555 CE [(buut) is always used, never 
(shun)]. 558 CE look. — fodhvR [fodder! . 562 CEmuun. 563 CE Monday. 
— V mnt [month]. 564 CE sihi [very short! 566 CE sdhuR [not (ad«R)! 
0': 569 CE book. 570 CE took. — rad [rod]. 577 CE ba'u. 578 CE 
pla'u. 579 CE imaf [(tob'm) not known]. 586 P drfwit fdon'tl. 588 CE niyn 
fin afternoon, this is Sf., it was difficult to appreciate]. 589 CEsplyn. 590 CE 
Mim 592 P suuR. 595 CE ftit. 596 CE rut. 597 CE sst. 

Vz QOO CE love. J^ CE bs'u. 605 CE son. 606 CE dtiVR. 607 CE 
bxtBR. U: 609 ClSfuU. 610 CE «1. 61lCE^/^A. 613 CE drsqk. 
614 P h^imd, CE s'tm. — P m6imd [mound]. 615 P p6imd. 616 CE graim. 
619 CE fs'tm. 620 CE gra'tm. 625 CE toq. 629 CE sun. 631 CE thaRzd^. 
632 CE up. 633 CE kxp. ~ vuur [a furrow]. 634 CE through. 635 CE 
wsth. 636 CE faRdvR. 639 CE dust. XT'- 640 CE kjsu [rather rounder, 
approaching (kia'u)]. 653 CE bit. U': 657 CE bn'un. 659 CE ts'tm. 
— ■ 666 ^~ * * 

665 CE ms'us. 666 CE azhvu [but (msstBR) is usual]. 671 CE ms'tith. 

Y- — P hiiv [hive], biiv [beehive]. 676 CE 16i. 679 CE tiot|. 682 P 
lidU. Y: 689 CE build. — P kri [kiln]. 690 CE k6in. 691 mWn. 
700 CE W9fl. — P bras'k [bristles]. 702 P Bdin [within]. 703 P pit. 
Y- 705CE8k6f. — P diiv [to dive J . Y': 711 CE liis, L Is'usii. 712 P 
laiis, CE & L mo'usiz. 

[ 1567 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

136 THE EAST SOUTHERN. [D 9, V i, ii. 

II. English. 

— P robot [rabbitl. 716 P aad*l [stupid], BdU [rotten]. 722 P driin, M 
dricn, CE drcun. 725 seel. — P klaps [clasp]. 737 P miet. 741 CE m^oz. 
E. — P llBR [lear, empty]. 752 P piiRt. I. and Y. 756 CE srinip. 758 
CE gal. O. 761 CE'luvd. 767 CE nkiz. 769 C m6«l, E maul. 772 CE 
b^nfa'iK. 773 CE djqki. 774 P poBui, CE pooni. 775 CE 6ooAy. 778 CE 
HfuBRd. 781 CE bother. 787 CE sb'ks. 790 CE gE'imd. U. — jaf'l 
[yuckel or wood-pecker]. — P kwid [a cow's cudj. 799 CE $cuil of head. 
800 CE 8cull of boat. 801 C£ rum. 805 CE curds. 808 P pat. 


A .. — P st^Bb'l [stable]. 811 CE pl^. 812 CE Urn. 813 CE b^Bkro. 

— P heel [flail]. 822 CE mee. 824 CE tjeeJBR. 826 CE ea^le. 827 CE 
eayer. 828 CE <ufi4€. — M griin [grain]. 830 CE train. — M stiimi [stain]. 
434 CE shee. 835 CE r^'n. 836 CE ste'n. 845 CE ancUnt. 847 CE 
di;end|«R. 848 CE change. 849 CE str^^ndiBR. 851 C a'nt. 852 C£ eepvRn. 

— pliBt [plate]. — P riBt [rate]. 862 CE a^iif. 863 CE tj6»f. 865 CE 
f AAt. 866 CE poor. 

E- 867 CE tee. 868 P d|A'i. 869 CE r«i/. — P spaatsk'lz [spectacles]. 

— fttjiz [ vetches 1. — M striond [strained]. — M pltm [painj. 876 CE 
d^Buti. 878 CE sa'lBrt. 879 CE femaU. — jaRb [herb]. 887 klaRdji. 
888 saRtin. — P saRv [serre]. 890 OE beest biistttz [beast beasts, obsenre 
the change of vowel]. 892 CE nephew. 894 CE deceive. 895 CE receive. 
I •• and Y" 899 CE niece. — vo'tlsnt [violent]. 904 P va'ilet, CE v6ilet. 
909 CE breeze. 910 CE dja'ts. 911 CE 

0- 913 k6Btj. 914 broBtj. 916 CE »tuf. 916 CE injvn. 91S fiebte, 
919 CE n&mtBd [anointed, beaten]. 920 CE p&tnt [a pint pron. in same way]. 
925 CE v&ts. 926 P spa'il, CE sp&il. 928 CE B'uns. 929 CE ks'ukambBr. 
930 CE lain. 935 CE country. 939 CE chae. 940 CE k^Bt. — faRm [a 
form to sit on]. 942 CE batiaR. 947 P ba'il, CE bfeil. 948 CE ba'wldiR 
ba'iflBR. 952 k(iBRS. 953 CE cousin. 954 CE cushion. 955 CE dB'ut. 959 
CE convey. U .. 963 CE kit^tBt. 966 CE kil. 968 CE fiiistBR. 

CE usages, I are, I* re, I be, he be, I were, he do, he didnH ought. InUmatum 

Vab. ii. North Kent Form. 

A student of Whitelands, Miss Croucher, a native, diet, to me a 
dt. for Charing (6 nw.Ashford), but with slight exceptions all 
reeollection of the dialect seemed to have left her. The (r) was 
quite cockney. It would, I think, be useless to give the test. 
The Rev. A. E. 0. Harris, of Stoke (7 nne.Chatham), also gave 
me observations on a dt. which shews that very little dialect exists 
in the Hundred of Loo between the Thames and the Medway, 
while a settlement of Irish there, about 1845, seems to have much 
influenced pron. H. stated also that very few people used the few 
< provincialisms ' he gave. After due consideration I omit these 
as not sufficient. Rev. C. W. Rolfe, of Shadoxhurst Rectory (4 
ssw.Ashford), marks (mevts, gsel, ktimtn, frsem, d«, jsendor, gu'in, 
roBd, de«r, g^Bt, street, duBr, w«l, fslvr, n(Bm, wEri, wuunt) for 
mates, girl, coming [very doubtful] from, the, yonder, going, road, 
there, gate, straight, door, will, fellow, name, very, won't, which 
are probably correct, but says nothing about (r). These indications 
are confirmed by Rev. J. W. Ramsay, of Rolvenden (12 sw.Ashfoyd), 
who, however, also omits to notice the (r). The Isle of Sheppey 

[ 1568 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D 9, V ii.] THB BAST SOUTHERN. 137 

has no dialect, as I learned from Miss Lowman, a student at 
Whitelands, who had travelled all over it and resided there some 
years. It is a mere soldiers' depot. Merely therefore glancing at 
these, I proceed to the best account of n.Ke. pron. I have been able 
to obtain. 

Mr. Herbert Knatchbull-Hugessen, of Provender, Faversham (8 
wnw.Canterbury), a well-known landed proprietor, who had learned 
the dialect well from his tenants, bailiff and farm-labourers, was kind 
enough in 1873 to spend many hours on several days in teaching me 
the pron. of a cs. written by Rev. Henry B. Berin, then of Biddenden 
(10 wsw.Ashford), to represent the Weald of Kent. This version 
Mr. Berin kindly supplemented by answering, as well as he could, 
more than 60 troublesome questions which I sent him, and finally 
introduced me to Mr. H. K.-ff, who was able to give me the pron. 
of his own neighbourhood, and thus convert the version into one 
for Faversham. This was at an early period of my investigations, 
and I was then unacquainted with the S. (k), and consequently 
confused the r with the London (r, r^, «). In 1880 Mr. H. K.-H., 
in answer to my inquiries, wrote: "On the whole I should say 
that the Kentish pronimciation of the r is distinct and has a burr," 
this identifies it with (k), which I have accordingly introduced 
regularly when not preceding a vowel. When the r precedes a 
vowel, minute examination is required to be sure of the existence 
of a true (e). I have therefore left the received r in those cases. 
And I have not assimilated the adjacent (t d n 1) to (r) as in D 4. 
After the cs. I give a few phrases which Mr. H. K.-H. dictated to 
me, and a cwl. containing wd. which he pronounced to me. With- 
out this kindly help from Mr. H. K.-H. and Bev. H. B. Berin, my 
account of Ke. would have been very imperfect. 

Faversham (8 wnw.Canterbury) cs. 
pal. by AJ£. from dictatioii of Herbert Knatchbull-Hugefisen, Esq. 

0. dts feR)z wa't :djon duwnt detit. 

1. waa, miBts, ju wn ii m« b6t?th loef aet dts ^br tjeet «v ma'i'n? 
uu sets Eni stiiBR hi dset ? d8et)s nedhBR iBR ubr deBR. 

2. dBR wnt [b^^nt] toRb'l xoxxai dsc'* keunt b bfV)en Iceieft aet, 
wi noo daet dm b lit*! duBnt-wi ? wa't shttd dee ? daet eeni [b^OTt] 
toRb'l lo'fklt, iz »t? 

3. daet)s ew t)iz ettjevBR, soo ju djest AAd jbr toq bu kiip wtst 
ttl a'l B d^n. 9Rki! 

4. a'i)BR saRtm shuBR a'l iBRd Bm s^», sam b dem deBR l^seps 
wot B bfh thru aaI on «t dvRsaa'vz from dB foRst onset, daet a'l 
saRt/nlt did, 

5. daet dB jaqgest bo't tzsaaf, b griit i^aep na'm jJbr oold, nood iz 
faadBRZ wd'iz dirEklt minit, doo tt woz so toRb'l ku^iBR, Bn nq» 
lo'tk, Bn ii)l taa)i dB .triuth d6id; ent romaensin eni ddi, i saRttnl/ 

[ 1669 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



[D 9, y u. 

6. vn d)ool umvn tsBsaa'f '1 taa ent een jt, dset Isesef n^u plamp 
AAf, deut noo trab'l, ef ju)1 oani aast)i}B, woont)shi ? 

7. liistweez ehi kEp aaI on tEl/n sen mii, wEn a'e aast)OT, shi did 
— vn shi aed'nt AAt tt? bii foR e«t beut dis (be djob, th/qk)8h haed ? 

8. waal nz a't wbz b tElin aen jI, 8hii)d taa)i ra't't aaI, eu shi kam 
Bpon dfs {be draqkf'n t^ap wot shiijz got mseBid tu. 

9. shi sw^BE shi k£^ a'l aen /m BEsaaf lee*»n aaI loq dB gretm m 
iz bEst ku^oBt, Udns Bg'm dB d^BE B)dB heus, Bt dB foEdBE iind b 
dst ^E r^Bd. 

10. ii WBZ k8eBt;tn on, sez shii, fBE aaI dB wald la'tk b sempBEi 
tja'tl, BE B liVl gael wot)s bin apsEt. 

1 1 . d/s Ibe hsept wa'i 1 d)tmiBn Bn be daa'tBEtnlaa kam treBstn 
krses dB baek jasd, weBE dec)d btn heeqm 6ut dB tloBZ tB dra't on 
woshtn dAi, 

12. wa'tl dB kEt'l WBZ Bbar't l»n Ibe tii, wan huut^ul samBE 
sesetBEnuim, want b wiik bsek kam thazdt. 

13. een, bBhoo'ld^i ! sfi uevbe iBEd tool noo moBE b dset ibe dpb, 
BZ shuBE BZ ma^t n(Bniz :d|8ek ishEpBEd, be, BnadBE tht'q, a't duBnt 
wont t« »t, deBE new ! 

14. n6u a'»)l nip aaI wooti tB sapaE. waa, gwd na'it, b BnadBE 
ta't'm, wtn b tjsep gtnz taak b dts, dset, be t)adhBEy duBnt)i bii in 
Bit J B tdEb'l Em BY B 9Et tB kseEi ds swat. 

15. tt)s B tdEb'l Btlf tjsep wot kiips aaI on tjODtBE/n Bb^td iiot a't 
kAAl rsendBm. aen new a^i shoe'nt see nB miiBE. gtfd na'it. 


2. terrible f the common intensive 
adj. or adv. — on account ofy the first and 
last words omitted. — din is withinj 
which first assumes the form («di*n), 
the (wdhtn) of He. 

3. whishty as *the wild waves whisht/ 
Temp. 1, 2, 378. 

6. direetljf minute^ immediately, 
common phrase in the district. — 
though it wot «o terrible queer^ and 
ring-y like^ and like a ring, attd 
he)U telt)ye the truths without any 
romancing any day, romancing; the 
people are fond of long romance words 
in this dialect. Ohserve Iskif dki), 
Mr. Harris also gave (s&t) tor Stoke, 
calling it Greek at. 

7. She hadnU ought [ought not] to 
be far out about this herejoby [do you)] 
think)the had. The first had without, 
the second with the aspirate. 

8. drunken (draqkin) is drunking, 
that is, playing the drunken man, not 
drunken itself. 

9. further end, certainly the (d) 

must have been assimilated to the two 

(k) as (f9RDBR). 

10. ampery, a common word in this 
district, as applied to cheese, mouldy, 
decayed ; to people, weak, bad, sickly. 
Lewis in his Tenet (Thanet) refers to 
Ags. arapre (not in Etmiiller^, which 
Boe worth cites from the Liber Medicin- 
alis of Baldus, and explains as * a 
crooked swelling vein, an herb, sweet 
marjoram, feverfew;* others conceive 
it may be the French empit-iy worsened. 

11. tracing across j tracking, walking, 
across, a phrase actually hea^. 

12. only, the word used may, how- 
ever, be ON#-y, which must blave the 
same meaning. 

13. behold ye ! a common phrase for 
* look there.' 

14. dont)ye be in such a terrible hem 
[devil] of a hurry to carry the sway 
fvictorjr], hem is clearly a euphemism 
for devil, deuce, devilish, damn, dam- 
nation, etc., i.e. exceedingly, it is very 
[or ' hem '] common in tUs dirtrict. 

[ 1670 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D 9, V ii.] THB EAST SOUTHEBN. 139 

Fayersham Phrases from diet, of H.K.-H., Esq. 

1. (^f shsel Tkoo dm b liVl, tf sft klip gwm), I shall know within 

a little [soon], if I keep going. 

2. (noo fARm vt aaI), no form at all, common expression, the 

meaning of which was unfortunately not noted. 

3. {ool rEn'ldz), old reynard, (poop), Guy Fawkes. 

4. (d)ool ant|mBn), the old huntsman. 
6. (gu 'aen, wtdj)! !), go 'on, will you ! 

6. (war wops prEdwitli), beware of wasp presently. 

7. (thrii jCbru aaf^Rz), three-year-old heifers. 

8. (tu draqk), to go about as a drunken man. 

9. (fdRUBl ]aftz)j infernal lies, the first unaccented syllable of a 

word is frequently omitted. 

10. Tsafm b dset, n^hon vt aaI), something of that, nothing at all. 

11. (wani wans), only once, (ta'tm bu BgE*n), time and again, many 


12. ((br stopBR), fox-earth stopper. 

13. (jt'stBRdee Bn tadhBRdee), yesterday and the other day, i,e. day 

before yesterday. 

14. (i emt noo keunt t)AAl), he isn't no account at all, ue. he is of 

no importance. 

15. (moost deutedli duubBRas), most (un-)doubtedly dubious. < 

16. (»z eed iz daet eed*l), his head is that j]so much] addled. 

17. (w9Rktn hs't griit), working by the piece. 

18. (w«k»t fBR weeket, trtk bu te'i), each = tit for tat. 

19. (d&BR ju mtBRapt saaf), don't you interfere with self. 

20. (diBR aRt Bla'fv, sit} b ti'ktn), dear heart alive, such a ticking. 

2 1 . (taetBr bu sksed'l), cross and mischievous. 

22. (tt)s tr^, a't tuk AAf), it's true I took off = went away. 

23. (n^u Bn dsn, neu bu t£n), now and then. 

24. (it)s pr/nt muun la'tt), it's print moon-Hght, i e. sufficient to 

read print in. 

Faversham cwl. 

pa], by AJE. from diet, of Herbert KnatchbuU-Hugessen, Esq., containing 
almost all the wd. in the cs. and also many others separately dictated. 

I. Wessex Ain> Norse. 

A- 4 t^k. 5 m^k mlvk. — kriBd'l [cradle]. — w^ok [wake]. 17 Iaa 
\aa, 19 tevl. 21 nlimi. 28 heBR. — war [beware of]. 34 Iffisrat. 

A: 39 [(kam) used]. 43 haen. 44 laen. 49 haeq. — ksecDnt [cannot]. 
64 wont. 66 «wh. 66 woeh. A: or 0: 68 from. 60 loq. 64 rooq. 

A'- 67 gu, gwin [going]. 72 uu. 73 aoo. 74 tw. 76 ttiwi. 82 wnns. 
84 m6i{& m(iBR. 89 Mrnth. 92 noo, nood [knowedsknew]. 94 kroo.' 
A': 102 aast [in infinitive also]. 104 rtiwi. 106 brAAd. — drar [I drove] j 
111 AAt. 113 d)6Bl [the whole]. 116 w6Bm. 117 wan. 118 hivn. 120 
vguu. 122 noon, noo. 123 nathtm. 124 stihm. 126 oont, wani. 129 guwt. 
130 hM hini, 137 nvR [unemphatic]. 

[ 1571 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


M' 138 faadvR. 140 eeM. 143 tM t!al. 144 vgrn. 147 br«ni. 148 
ikm. — Bmet [ant]. 149 blaxe. — hiiz*l [hazel]. 150 liistweez [leastwise], 
M'. 154 back. — nead'nt [had not], haed, ©d [had]. 158 aBaetBH. 161 dfei. 
164 mee. 166 meed. 169 wEn. — wope [wasp]. 171 baali. 172 gneaee. 
173 WD8. 176 ffit. 177 daet. 179 wot. 

M'- 187 leave, 182 wee. 190 key, 194 rat. 195 mBnt. JE': — 
sprEd [it spread]. 209 nEWR. 211 gree. 213 edhvR. 214 nedhsR. — 
miil [meal, food]. 218 ship. 220 shspBRd [the common word is (lukoR), the 
other scarcely ever heard]. 222 h^R. 223 desR. 224 w6br wIbr. 229 brsth. 

E- 232 brnk. 233 spiik. 234 knead. — tisd [tread]. 239 sIbI. 241 
riin. 243 plee [occ. (pl&t) in the pause]. 244 waa waal. 245 mlBl. — 
hiilm [bedclothes, i,e. covering]. 248 mare. 249 wIbr. — wiiz*l [weasel]. 
252 kst'l. 255 wBdhoR [never heard with a (d)]. £: — wsb [web]. 259 
wedae. 260 lee [as a hen eggs], lee*tn [laying for lying]. 261 sat, sbz [says]. 

— fil [field]. 269 saaf. 271 taa, taal, tElin [teU, telling]. 276 thiqk. — lind 
[end]. 281 Isnth. 282 strsnth. — nEstBnBstiz [nest nests]. — set [set]. — 

E'. 290 ii. 293 wi. 300 kiip, ksp [kept]. 301 Iqr. F: 305 hi^h. 
306 height. 312 tSR. 314 iBRd. 

£A- 320 k^BR. £A: 322 lae»f . 323 Uut. 325 walk. 326 oold. 328 
kuBld. 330 AAld. 331 sw6ald. 332 tiidld. 335 aaI. 337 tvall. 338 koal. 

— solt. — biBRd. 340 jaRd. 342 arm. 343 WARm. — Ibrr [to earn]. 
346 giBt geet [first most frequent]. EA'- 347 eed. — aafBRZ [heifers] . 
348 a'f. 349 few. EA': 350 deed. 355 deaf [not (dsth) as in e.Ss.J. 
356 leaf. 357 doo. 359 neebBRwud [neighbourhood]. — hiip [heap]. 364 
t|aep. — j/br [year]. 366 mit. 367 thrEt. 368 dEth. 

£l- 372 [aye is not used, Dut is replaced by yes]. 373 dee. £1: 378 wiik. 
380 dem, dBRsaa*vz [theirs themselves]. 

£0- 386 300. 387 nuu. £0: 390 shud. — doRk [darlc]. 397 s^Rd. 
399 f9Rm [farm]. 402 loRn. 403 foR. 406 Ibr stopBR [fox earth-stopper]. 
407 faRd'n. £0'- — flii [flea]. — nii [knee]. — frii [free]. 411 thru. 
412 shi. 416 dlBR. — tj^^^z [choose]. EO': 422 (sik) [usual word for 
unwell, not used for vomited, which is called (brxAt ap)]. 430 n-tn [when used, 
rarely]. 433 breast 435 JU. 436 tr^^. 437 triuth. EY- 431 da't. 
£Y: 439 trast. 

I- 440 wiik. 446 na'in. 449 git. I: 453 ktrik. 456 ef. 457 ua'it. 
459 ra'tt. 463 til. 465 sitj. 466 tja'tl. 482 iz. 483 izsaaf [his = himself]. 
484 dis. 485 thistle. 487 JtstBRdee. — gra'ist [grist]. 488 got [got, paJrt 
tense]. 489 it. T- 494 ta'im. 495 wa'tn. I': — diik [ditch, dyke]. 
500 la'ik lo'ikli [likely]. 506 tflUBn. 609 wa'il. 610 ma'in. 

0- 619 oovBR. 522 ap^n. — suubr [snore]. 524 wald. 0: 525 aaI 
[off]. 531 daatBRinlaa. 532 k6Bl. 541 woout. — ktt'olt [colt]. 643 on, 
onset [onset, beginning], sen [for of as well as on]. 650 WdRd. 651 stARm. 652 
kARn. — mARuin [morning].^ 654 krces. 0'- 559 madBR. 562 muun. 
664 Sim. 666 BnaOBR [another]. 667 t)adhBR. 0': 571 g«d. — ruuf 
[roofl. 679 Bna'M. 684 stfiBl. 586 duud^But [donH]. 587 dan. 688 nunn. 
690 fl(/BR. 692 swwBR. 697 sat. 

U- 604 samBR. 606 son. 606 d(iBR. U: 610 u\. 612 sam, safin 
[something]. — tamb*l [tumble]. 613 draqkin [drunking, acting the drunken 
man]. 616 gr^im. 618 w6imd [n. and p.p.] z^imdz [God's wounds]. 625 toq. 
627 sandi. 629 stm. — antjmBn [huntsman]. 631 thazdi. 634 thru. 636 
faudBR. U'- 641 6ii, ^w;evBR [however]. 643 n^. 650 h^ut. V: 663 
h6u8. 666 azbBn. 667 ^ut. 

Y- 674 did [emphatic]. 675 dra'i. 681 bizinis [in three syllables], 682 
lit'l. Y: 692 jaqeest. 694 waRkin [working]. 696 oRk. 701 feast. 702 
din [within], deut [without], Y- 706 wa'i, Y': 712 mils. 

n. English, 

A. 716 eed'l. 718 tr^«d. — t|©t [chat]. 737 miBt. 741 maze. — 
swfei [swayj. 742 liBzi. E. 751 p^Rt [recovered from sickness]. 

I. and 1. — wip [whip]. 758 gsel. — wist [whisht, quiet], 0. 761 

[ 1672 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D 9, V ii, iii.] THE EAST SOUTHERN. 141 

l»Bd. — djob [job]. 767 ndaiz, 774 pu^ani. 776 gudba't. — sp^Rt 
^sportl. — hzTBR [technical word in hopping, shaking up the measure to make 
it look larger]. 721 bo'i. U. 796 bl^. 798 ku^iBR. — 9Ri [hurry], 

— rMsht [to rush, like 105 (aast), the past tense made an infinitive]. 


A" 810 f^Bs. —tr^ [trace, track]. 812 tB 16b8 [to lace, beat, drub]. 

— kBtit [catched, for caught]. — p^sl piBl [pail]. — pee [pay]. 824 t^eBR. 

— f^Bl [fail]. — tjiin, tjeen [chain]. — eBR [air]. 833 peBR. 835 niz'n. 

— peal [palel. 843 brseaent} [not used]. — meend|BR. 849 streBud^eR 
fcommon wora]. 851 sessnt. — mantpnt [merchant]. — msBRt [marry]. 
857 k^ [often used]. — poeses [pass]. 862 s^. 

£•• 867 tii. — riil[real]. — krttBR [creature]. 870 bMvtifMl. 874 riinz 

[reins]. — skiim [scheme, very common]. — plsntt [plenty]. — WEutBRSBm 
venturesome]. 885 weri [not much used, supplanted by (teRb'l) terrible]. 

— anb [herb]. — klank [clerk]. — taRb*l [terrible]. — msesiful [merciful]. 

— kBUsaRn [concern]. — fanm [firm]. 888 saRttn. — rEZBlut [courageous]. 

— disBbtl [dishabille, used commonly for any confusion or litter]. 890 biist. 
891 feast, l- and Y- 910 djTtstiz [joists]. 

•• 919 z'intmBnt. — d^'tn [loinJT 925 wo'is. — k6tmt [account]. 
930 la'in. — 8t(iBR [store]. 938 kAARnBR. 939 Uobs. — roBst [roast J. 
940 ktr6Bt. 941 fuul fwlish [foolish]. — traVl [trouble]. 942 batjBR. 947 
ba'fl. 950 sapBR. 955 dewt. U- 965 a'il. 969 shCiBR. — hoRt 
[hurt]. 970 diest. 

Usages f eeni b^nt. (hi) falls much into (1b), thou never used. 

Vab. iii. East Kent Fohm. 

The Isle of Thanet has had its dialect nearly obliterated. Mr. 
Basil Hodges, of Vincent, Margate, to whom I was recommended 
as likely to know, said that d for th was unknown, though he had 
heard it from an old man who came from another part of the 
county. But (miis) mice shewed a remnant of dialect as well as 
icealf wiold, ile^ bile, I adopt his spelling, for veal, violet, oil, boil. 
Miss Peckhfun, a student of Whitelands, who had been at a school 
at St. Kicholas, Margate, did not know d for thy or to for r, nor 
recognise (k), and found the h omitted only by old people and not 
so often wrongly inserted. Her r followed London use, even to its 
euphonic insertion. But she used (o'») for long f, except in (liis, 
miis) for lice, mice. U' gave (ew), and 0' had (iu) in (spfun, aattmCun, 
bfuts) spoon, afternoon, boots, to which (tiu) two was assimilated, 
being confused with (too). Such words as I could get from her 
are in the e.Ke. cwl. Eev. R. Drake of Stourmouth Rectory, just 
w. of the river which bounds the Isle of Thanet, says he has never 
met with so little dialect. He admits w for v and finds it so general 
that *' children taught to speak correctly are laughed at by their 
elders." Though he had been 38 years in the locality, the only 
dialectal words he could remember were (diik) for dyke, and (waeps) 
for wasp. He had not heard fare half a dozen times, and never / he. 
He notices afn^== isn't, and leasee gleajif and the common use of 
terrible =^ very, Mr. Toomer sent me a Iw. for e.Ke. and Thanet, 
which are inserted in the e.Ke. cwl. p. 144. We may pretty well 
omit ne.Ke. from dialectal regions, though there is still just enough 
left to shew that it once resembled the rest of Ke. 

[ 1673 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

142 THE EAST SOUTHERN. [D 9, V iii. 

The next region of e.Ke. consists of the Highlands east of Canter- 
bury, of which the following dt. gives a good idea. The words are 
added to the e.Ke. cwl. p. 144. 

"WmoHAM dt. 

6 e. Canterbury, representiDfi; the Highlands of e.Ke., Adisham (6 se.Canterbiur), 
Nonington (7 seXantX Chittenden (8 se.C), Womenswold (7 se.-by-s.Cf.), 
Sibertswold (9 se.C), Goodneeton (7 e.-b7-8.C.),and Kearsney (3 nw.DoTer) 
by Rev. F. W. Rogg, who when it was written was vicar of Katling with 
Wingham, and became subsequently vicar of Marsworth, Tring, pal. by AJ£. 
from indications and answers to questions. 

1. %6ou bi sdi, meBts, j6u sii neu dnt di aaR Bott beut dffit lid'l 
[Itlh] gSBl kam«n from dB skuBl JEndcB. 

2. shii)z g(5o*m detm dB r&^ devB, thru dv rEd g^ot on dv Isft 
8Bnd sotd «v d« w&i. 

8. shuBR naf dv gsel «z go'^n stratt ap tv d« doBB by da roq h6tis. 

4. wiBB shi b1 bi 16»k to foi'nd dset dreaqk^n dsf srivBld fslv 
Bv dB neBm bt :tomBS. 

5. wi aal ndou tm webi wbI. 

6. wdBnt dB oo\ t|8ep s{un laBn bb not \ku deti it Bgin, puBB thiq ! 

7. lMk)i tVn It tr(u? 


1. /, <* somewhat resembling (a't) 6. to do^ written tSd^ tPNiS, which 

and differing from (&t))'* ^^^ points to might have been meant for (tlu dm), as 

(6i) or {^i). I have selected (6t) I eot Uu> from Denton ^7 nw. Dover), 

because of toe Faversham {oi'i), — are^ and hence within the distnct, from Rev. 

** the r is full, a good burr, ana has its C. J. Hussey, who says, ** In the hymns 

usual effect on the a,'* this points to the Uw for to stiikes my ear, I nave 

the (k|, lost in Thanet but retained in noticed it more in singing than in speak - 

these highlands. I are, rhyming to pi?-** But Mr. Ragg says, **TheMd 

Jire (6ttm, f6t9R), is the regular form, / is like a very short ou in yo», abowt, 

am is sometimes used, / be very seldom hor/se,*' and that is explained to be the 

if ever. — **liddie almost U*l with a ^ and u' in the Welsh BHtuv, and hence 

rough breathing before the /," which I (M or (e'u). But I believe the sound 

interpret (lid*l, lilh), though the latter aegfenerates into some variety of (y, p), 

is very strange, still I have /ii!f/t^ given see Faversham, and may nave been 

me by others.— yofkilfr, '* I am not quite originally merely (a'u), which is apt to 

sure of vends, whether the r is sounded generate all these sounds, 
at all, but the i has the modification 
which the r would give it as nearly as 


The Folkestone fishermen are credited with a dialect of their own. 
So far as pron. is concerned, that is not the case. Mr. R Stead, to 
whom I am otherwise much indebted, being master of the Folkestone 
Grammar School in 1880, I asked his assistance. The will of the 
founder of the school provides for the instruction of sons of poor 
fishermen, and there are generally six or eight boys there from the 
houses of genuine working fishermen ; and these boys are said to 
speak the dialect as well as their fathers. By observations on 
these boys Mr. Stead wrote me the following dt. in Glossic, and 

[ 1674 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D 9, V iii.] THB EAST SOUTHERN. 143 

supplemented it by several observations. Mr. Eynmore says : 
" The fishermen of Folkestone, I understand, are persistent in the 
transposition of v for tr, and are called old Vills. They talk quick 
about vat for what, voU, vant, valk, etc , etc.*' Mr. Stead says : 
'* I can't hear that anybody knows the fishermen by the name of 
' old Yills.' I have to-day been listening to the pronunciation of 
two or three new fisherboys we have, and I can't hear anything 
but was, we, were, wat=what, etc." But in P.S. he adds, ** I 
have just had communication with a man well acquainted with the 
town. He tells me that ' Folkestone fishermen are almost uni- 
versally credited with the use of v for w?,' but he thinks they don't 
' do it so often as is made out.' Nevertheless, he says vou will no 
doubt * now and then hear riting (« whiting), Fellard (— Wellard, 
a local tobacconist), etc.' Hence, while v for to may occasionally 
occur, it must be rare at least at present, and must be considered 
still to want satisfactory proof. On the other hand, w for v is the 
rule, or, as Mr. Stead says, " very largely if not universally used 
by the fisherfolk m Folkestone, as in w^essel, Notrember, Westa (= 
Vesta, name of a fishing-boat), tralue, etc." 

On the other hand, d for th does not seem to be heard among 
them, but the reverted (k) was distinctly recognised, although it is not 
unfrequently omitted to his ears. Not having heard these speakers 
myself, I do not venture to write (r) initial or to assimilate (t d n) 
to (b) as (t D n). But I feel tolerably sure that all are used, 
especially as (l) is particularly recognised. Mr. Stead says he never 
heard the final reverted (l) so decidedly as among these speakers. 
" Thus, Bill is (bto), or often (be^L), help=(eLp), etc." He finds, 
also, the long 0' and its cognates have developed not merely into 
(lu), but (yy), or an approximation to it, and writes (jy, skyyl, 
thryy, shyyBB, ty, syyn, dyy, lyk, tryy), for you, school, through, 
sure, to, soon, do, look, true. Most probably the (yy) is not fully 
reached, and, as remarked under Faversham, the real sound may be 
((s'u). The long V he finds most like (6«), as at Wingham, and 
the long XT' is (ew). 

written in Glossic by E. Stead, Esq., pal. by AJE. 

1. b6ou 6i sat, md^tts, jy sii n^ dhtst 6t)m rott vibeut dhet Itt'L 
gjaEL, komin from dhB skyyL jandBB. 

2. shii)z gdou'tn d6tm dhs rdoud dhero thryy dhB red giHt an 
dhB left end sotd ov dhv weU*. 

3. shy/BB eno"f dhB tjoiLD [tjoou)] bz gAJ^a strait op ty dhB 
ddouvR ov dhB raq [raq] eus. 

4. weiB shi wibl l^aans ty foind [shi'L preps kam Bkraa's] dhet 
droqkBn def skmi l^ep ov dhB na*«m ov :t^Bs [:tamBs]. 

5. wi AAL ndou »m weu** weBL. 

6. wootmt dhB oold t^ep syyn tiii^ be nat ty dyy it Bgain, puuB 

7. lyk! iz'ntfttryy? 

[ 1676 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

144 THE EAST SOUTHERN. [D9, Viii. 


2. <A^<?, as well as tfA^tf, /air, ^ar«, 4. $he*ll perhapi come aerou, is 

ivear^ have the ^phthong (^v), as prohably the phi^ that would be 
(dh6iB, weiB, feic, pei», w6»b). used. 

The following cwl. collects the e.Ke. words. The S. dial, has 
here decayed, as much as possible, and has received strictly E. 
elements, which entirely extinguish the S. as we proceed n. The 
ES. group is therefore a transition between S. and E., but different 
from D 7. 

East Kent cwl. 

F Folkestone fishermen's dialect, from Mr. Stead, p. 142. 

N St. Nicholas, Margate, from Miss Peckham, p. 141. 

T Iw. sent by Mr. Toomer for in and about Isle of Thanct, known by him to haTO 
been used in e.Ko. Although a young man in 1871, he had noticed many 
changes in his time. Conj. pal. by AJE. from io. He apparently uses r as 
in London ar or wr = (aa aa aa), for he writes dora [dxAg] for doff. 

W Windham, the words from Rev. F. W. Ragg's e.Ke. Highlands, p. 142. 

Rec. spelling and italics denote rec. pron. 

I. Wessex and Norse. 

A- 4* N tee [very long, approaching (t^)]. 12 N saab fwith euphonic r 
before a vowel]. 20 N fe^m. 21 W n^Bm, F n&'tm. 23 N s^wn. 24 N 
shmn. 29 W aaR «r. 33 N reedhs [occl. 36 N thaw [with inserted 
euphonic r]. A: 42 end. 43 W aend. 66 T ishez. A: or 0: 68 WF 
from. 64 W roq, F raq raq. A'- 67 W gdo'in, N [rec. pr.], F goou'tn. 
69 N no. 73 WF b6ou, N so. 74 N tin. 76 N t6Bd. 84 N mdro 
[more than]. 86 N 6Bte. 92 F noou. 94 W n6ou. A': 101 N oak. 104 
r6Bd, F Tooud. 110 W not, F nat. 121 W go'ra, F gAAU. 

M' 140 N [140-147 rec. pron.]. 142 T snEg. 144 W sgt-n, FBg&rn. 163 
N SEtBdt. — T ^tdi [prettyj. M: — T weeps wops fwasp]. 174 T ish. 

177 W dBt [unemphatic], dact [emphatic]. JE'- 183 F tiiti. 190 N key. 
JE': 218 T ship. 223 W decR, F dheiB, N there. 224 W wIbr, T w^b. 

E- 231 W dB [wcBk]. 233 N speak. 236 N weave. 236 N fever. 261 
N twat. 262 N kit'l. E: 261 WF sfii. 262 WF w&t [in pause {wii)]. 
266 WF str&it. 266 W weI, F w^l. 272 T BlBm. 278 « [never heard]. 
— T iinz [ends]. — T mEsh [marsh]. E'- 293 F wi. 297 W fslB. 
E': 314 N iBBd. 

EA- 319 If ffape. EA: 323 "S fought. 324 1^ eight. 326 Wool, N 
ood, F oold. 330 T 6wt\, N ood. 336 W aal, F aal. 346 T g^Bt, N gate, 
F gk'it. EA': 362 WF rsd. 366 WF dsf. 364 W tjaep, F tjep. 371 T 
straa. EI: 378 N weak. 

EO: 388 T mElk: 394 W jandBR [P final (r) absent], F jandBR. 402 W 
aRu. EO'- 412 WF shii. — T klaivB [cleaver]. 413 N dtv'l. EO': 428 
WF sii. 435 W jdi#, F jv. 436 W triu, F tryy. EY- 438 N die. 

I- 442 N o'ivi. 446 N no'in. — T shiiBZ [shires, applied to the Midland 
counties]. I: 462 T 6t [see note to dt.], F 6t. 469 WF r6it, N ro'tt. 462 
N so'it. 466 N sitj. 466 F tioiLD tjaaLD. 469 wIbl. 477 WF f6tnd, N 
fo'ind. 479 N wo'in. 480 WF thtq. I'- 490 N bo'i. 492 WF »6td. 

1': — T duk da'ik [ditch]. 600 W 16ik. 607 N wmBU [old people]. 

0- 622 N ap'n. 0: 626 F ov. 641 W woBut, F w6oMnt. 643 W on. 
T faak [forkj. — T os [horse]. 654 Bkraa's [across]. — T poBst pi^Bstez 

oflt posts]. 0'- 666 W tcM, F ty. 658 W Iwk, F lyk. 660 W skfiBl, 

' skyyL. 664 W siun, F syyn. 0': 679 W naf, F Bnof. 686 W d6«, F 
dyy. 689 N splun. 694 N bluts. 697 TN sat. 


[ 1676 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


U- 603 W kamin, F komin. 606 W d6i», F d6ou9R, TJ: 632 W ap, 
F op. 634 W thru, F thryy. U'- 640 N k6f#. 643 WF n^M. 660 WF 
heut. V: 658 WF d^«n. 663 W h^ua, F 6us. 

Y- 682 W lid'l lilh, F l»t'L. Y: 700 T was wass [worser], N was. 
701 TNfast. Y': 711 N liis. 712 N miis. 

n. Enoush. 

A. 722 T driin. — preps [perhaps]. 737 T mMa, F mkUta, E. 749 
WF lEft. I. and Y. 758 W gsel, F giaRL. 760 W srivBld. 0. 770 
W :tomTO, F itamva itamBS. U. 804 W draaqkBn, F droqkBn. 808 T pat. 

in. Romance. 

A.. 841 Ftiaans. — T kaa [carry, or (k&c) ?]. 864 T kaz. 866 W 
paBR, F p(iUB, N p6oB. E- 867 if tea. 885 TWFwBri. — T toob'l 
[terrible]. •• 916 T iqBn. — T f »dj [foree]. V- 965 T o'lt. 969 
W shCieR, F shyy'BR, T siuBla'i- [surely]. — T haat [hurt], 

T usoffe^y he didn't (hadnH shouldnH) ought, Miss for Mrs. — ^N usa^e, I are. 

D 10, 11, 12 form the W8. or west Southern Group. 

Boundaries. The e. b. is the w. b. of MS. and the other boundaries 
are formed by the Eristol and English Channels. 

Area, The w. portion of Sm., all but the extreme sw. of Dv., all Co. 
and the Scilly Isles. This represents comparatively recent, and in 
w.Co. very recent, overrunning of a Celtic language (Cornish or 
West Welsh) by English. In D 12, w.Co. and Scilly, a true 
dialect has apparently never been formed. 

Character, Besides the general S. character with the (k) very 
strongly developed in the e. but gradually weakening on going w. 
(till in D 12 the received r is perhaps quite established), there is 
also the striking change of 0' into (yyi), closely resembling Fr. (y), 
which sharply limits this group towards the e. 

D 10 = n.W8. = northern West Southern. 

Boundary. Taken from Mr. Elworthy^s informatioii. The n. b. is the n. coAst 
of Sm., w. of e.Quantockshead (14 nnw.Taunton). The w. and s. b. begins at 
Comtisbury (14 ene.llfracombe Dt. and 2 e.Linton Dv.), and proceeds nearly s. 
along an affluent of the liynn R., to Exe Head Hill, Sm., where the affluent rises 
(14 ese.llfracombej. Then passing the head of the Barle R. proceeds to Span 
Head on the b. ot Sm. (14 se.Ilfracombe), then se. to North Molton Ridge (14 
e. Barnstaple), and still se. over Molland Down, Anstey*s Barrow and Anstey's 
Hill (all on the watershed at the b. of Sm.), and then turning s. along the high 

¥ round to just s. of Tiverton (where it crosses the Exe), of Collumpton (6 ese. 
iverton, and of Keutisbeare (7 ese. Tiverton), and then turning ne. to join the w. 
b. of D 4 about Otterford (7 s.Taunton), after which the e. b. is identical with 
the w. b. of D 4 from n. to the sea. 

Area. The w. of Sm. with a small portion of ne.Dv. 
Authorities. See County List under the following names, where * means w. 
per AJE., || systematic, " m io. 

Sm. •Bishop's Hull, °Milverton, Taunton, ♦Wellington. 
Dv. ||*Morebath. 

B.B. Pron. Part Y. [ 1577 ] 101 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


CharacterB. k^{^). A: (©, a^. A'-, A': (Ab, cfe). AEG. (d»). 
M' (ee) and variouB. EG (&t). E (e). EL (al). I: often (9M. 
Vii'i), O'(yy„..0. U(a,A). XJ'(E'w). 

Of these the most important are the diphthongs for I', XT'. They 
are both quite different from those of D 4. Mr. Elworthy originally 
appeared to me to make two forms {i\ q'%) for I', but on the last 
examination I did not find the separation certain, and the question 
was which of the two I should adopt. With some hesitation 
I selected (dH"), which is transitional to (d*), the Dv. form. This 
was, however, kept distinct from (at), in which the first element 
was decidedly longer and lower than in (dH). The (e'w) form of 
XJ' was very marked, but did not fall into (»'«) as in Nf. It is 
quite distinct from the Dv. (ao'yi), so that it forms another mark of 
separation between D 10 and D 11. 

The vowels (e^ yyi, p^i) sharply distinguish the dialect from D 4. 
They are very difficult even to appreciate. The (9*) may be 
considered as (a) raised towards (i), or (i) degraded towards (9). 
Strangers may be content with considering it as (i). Before (1) it 
seems to be absorbed by the murmur, so that (mo^lk, S9^1k) differ 
little from (m'lk, s*lk). Dr. Murray (Elworthy, Gram. West Sm. 
p. 113) considers the last to be the exact sound. When I so pro- 
nounced the words, Mr. E. said I was wrong. Neither was the 
word (malk). I had imagined that perhaps (m'lk) might be right, 
but Mr. E. says he uses (J) with the tip of the tongue thoroughly 
against the teeth. I must consider that the correct analysis of this 
vowel sound has not been reached. It is strangely idBFected by 
adjacent consonants. In listening in 1885 to the list of 30 words in 
Mr. Elworthy's Dialect of West Sm., p. 58, which I had drawn up 
in 1875, I found the same separation into three parts, resembling 
(•*, 9, u), in all of which Mr. Elworthy and natives reckon only one 
vowel, except in milk, 8tlk, where they seem to recognise no vowel 
at all besides the vowel L The sound occurs chiefly for EO, I. 

The vowels (yyi yi, p^i 0i) are quite as difficult to utter, but 
easier to recognise. They are usually both called ** French u," 
but they decidedly reminded me of (y, 0) or Fr. pu, peUy from which, 
however, they were clearly distinct, and apparently * lowered.* To 
say (tyyi b^^its) two boots, is a most difficult problem to a stranger, 
and one he is not very likely to solve. 

Judging from JGG.'s experience at Chippenham, Wl., p. 51, I 
anticipated finding the whole series (t n n l e «h sdi i^ nj) in this 
region also. So far as Mr. Elworthy' s pronunciation is concerned, 
this was not the case, as (b) was clear, even when initial, but the 
other sounds seem to occur only when adjacent to (r), as (zedj) 
ridge. When there was merely the separation of two words, as 
(br doM) she did, the (r) does not seem to affect the following 
letter. When (d) comes before (r), the most natural thing is to say 
(dr-) ; but Mr. E. says he feels the tip of the tongue slide along the 
palate from the (d) to the (r) position. On going through the 
points touched by the palate for (r t d n 1) in his pronunciation, 
(r) was fully reverted and the under part of the tip touched the 

[ 1678 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


highest part of the palate, for (t, d) the contact lay hetween that 
and the gums, hut nearer to the former, for (n) the contact was on 
the gums, and for (1) on the teeth. This makes the series (b, t d, 
^n, 1). Now Mr. E.'s pronunciation seems to he perfect, and he is 
Waily a native, hut it is difficult to helieve that the peasant himself 
makes these elaborate distinctions. The sounds uttered hy Mr. £. 
appeared to me to he the same as I produced hy using reverted 
(r, t d, n, l). In particular with (l) I could not in the least 
produce his effects, hut with (l) I seemed to reach them. I have 
thought it prudent, however, to retain (t d, n 1) with their usual 
coronal values, except when they were acknowledged to become 
(t n K l) on account of the adjacency of (b). It must be remembered 
that the distinction (t t, d d; is very slight, and the generation of 
the peculiar English (t, d) as distinct from the foreign ( t d) was 
probably entirely due to converting reverted (b) into retracted (r^), 
a confusion even now going on. But the existence of alveolar (n) 
and purely dental ( 1) seems an entire anomaly in England, let 
it was not new at Mr. Elworthy's last interview with me on 4 Nov. 
1885, for I find the same thing noted from him on 22 Nov. 1880, 
thus m filth (foUth) the (1) and (th) were noted as having precisely 
the same position. Another peculiarity of Mr. E.'s pronunciation 
was the word potatoes^ which Mr. E. considered he pronounced 
(tsra'Bdiz), whereas Dr. Murray, Mr. Sweet, and mysefl heard an 
(r) in place of (d), to my ears the word was (te«riz). As to /, Dr. 
Murray (in Mr. E.'s Gram, of W. Sm., p. 112) says, "/is also often 
guttural^ and this is the apparent peculiarity of" such words as 
bull, puU, full, school, wool, tool, stool, and written (l»,l, ppil, 
v^il, slwil, pj, t^|l, st^il), etc. On asking Dr. M. in 1885 what 
he had meant by "guttural /," properly (/), he was unable to 
remember, and thought that possibly guttural should have been 
retracted^ which is more likely. 

In 1875 I had drawn up the lists of vowels with examples in Mr. 
Elworthy's Dial, of W. Sm. from his dictation. Not to be swayed 
by these, I extracted a large number of them, and made them into 
the following cwl., and then Mr. E. was kind enough to pronounce 
every word to me afresh. My impressions were slightly different, 
but almost the same. This list which follows gives the full 
characteristics of the dial, to the best of my powers of observation. 
The sounds (yi 9i o*) were distinctly recognised, as different from 
{j9 a), although I failed in imitating and cannot analyse them. 
The (t d n 1) are left as in rs., because, as already stated, I cannot 
either adopt Mr. E.'s distinctions, or make them always reverted. 
This is followed by the cs. and some examples from the grammar, 
while the translation of the first chap, of Ruth will be given with the 
L. and Ch. versions in the Introduction to L., as it was especially 
written for this contrast. All of these were revised from diet, in Nov. 
1885. Mr. Elworthy's papers already cited have been supplemented 
by his elaborate Glossary^ pp. 924, full of interesting matter. His 
power of imitating peasant speech is most remarkable. His kindness 
and patience in giving me information are gratefully acknowledged. 

[ 1679 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


West Somerset cs. 

pal. by AJE. from diet, of F. T. Elworthy, Esq., Foxdown, Wellington, Sm., 
revised from diet. 27 Oct. and 4 Not. 1885, with a Blavishly literal inter- 
linear translation. 

0. e'w t)eez iii)8 idjaen aa)n BgAA'flt noo dE'wtiiiz Wik. 
how it)i8 even)a8 John ha8)not got no doubtings like. 

1. wal, faaRmBR :aETpt, dH*tal)e aat t)eez. ryji vn ii, buBdh o)i, 
wel, farmer Richard, I tell) thee what it)is. You and he, both of )ye, 

mid laafi bE*wt dhiBzh)j«R stdavn « ma^in. yyi d^ kiBR vbr dhaH ? 
may laugh-y about this)here story of mine, who does care for that? 

t)Ed)'ii no Adz nadhBE wAn wee ncE t)adhBR. 
it)i8]not no odds neither one way nor that)other. 

2. dhaR td)'n vaRi mani m^m dhvt dt? d6}i rBRk^-z dh^ bi wlaa'ft o, 
there i8)not very many men that do die for-cause they be laughed of, 

wii dyi noo dha^t doo)n) is? wAAt a^z) br vaR tB m^k)OTn dyyi)Bt ? 
we do know that do)not us ? what is) there for to make) them do it ? 

t)Ed)'n vERi Wik a*z a^t ? 
it)i8)not very like, is it? 

3. E'wsamda^viSR dha^8h)jar)z dhB daps o)dhB kics, zoo dhii djts 
howsoever this)here)is the daps [turns] of )the case, so thee just 

gta^p dhii Rat*l, (k\ fal^R, Bn bd^d st(«l g«n d*i)v Bfa^ntsh. 
stop thy rattle, old fellow, and abide still against I) have finished. 

iiE*w aRk, W84)i? 
Now hark, will)thee P 

4. d*i bi saaRtm sh^BR d4 jaRD) Bm zee — zam « dh^^ dhaR voks 
I be certain sure I heard)them say — some of they there folks 

wAt w^^t Re'ft voBR dRyji tt aa'bI vRBm dhi vaRi fas dh«R)oon 
what went right fore through it all, from the very first their)own 

zalz, dha*t d*t dsd, saaf ana-f, 
selves, that I did, safe enough. 

5. t/u dha^t dhi Jaqg:i8 zo^n a*za-l, b gaRT bOoi B)nd*m jfBR ool, 
how that the youngest son bis-self, a great boy of )nine year old, 

jiood dhB vA'fs B dhB faadhBR o)Bn tBRaekli vbr aa'bI t)wBZ sb 
knowed the voice of the father ot)him directly, for all it) was so 

kwivu Bn skirt'ki Wtk, Bn 6}i)d waarn -ii vaR tB speek tRyyi 
queer and squeaky like, and I) would warrant *he for to speak true 

o*ni dec B)dhB wtk, iis, Bn 'dha^t 6}i wa*d. 
any day of) the week, yes, and that I would. 

[ 1680 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


6. Bn dli)ool;d)amtm BBzal, sib b1 tal a^ni o)i dhaH bii «laaf in nE*«, 
and the)old) woman herself, her will tell any of)ye that be a-laughing now, 

iis, wa. tal)i BEVt Bn in, ©dhE'ut noo hodnR&SBshxm, n)if i)'l ani 
yes, and tell)ye right on end, without no botheration, and)if ye)will only 

aks (?)bk, 00 ai, 0(?)n)«r? dha*t)8 aa'tjI. 
ask of )her, oh, aye, wo)nH)her P thatjis all. 

7. BE t(H)l mi o^Bt 9*mWw, hAn dt ak8t)o)BK, tyji tje dBii td*i*mz 
her told me oi)it any) now, when I a8ked)of )her, two or three times 

dvBE, BE dEd, Bn 'aE dBd)'ii AAt vbe tB bi E'ttt pan djo^tj b dhtq 
over, her did, and *her did) not ought for to be out upon such a thiug 

BZ dh{Bzh)ja[E, wAAt)8 dhii dhtqk o)vt ? 
as this)here, what)dost thee think of)itF 

8. wal, in)8 d'i wbz Btalin o)i, aE)d l8Dt)i noo e^u vn 
well, eyen)a8 I was a-telling of )thee, her)would let)thee know how ami 

w^BE Bn w^<m BE vE*wn dhtki daaqkin t^Bd wAAt be dy, 
where and when her found that dnmken toad what her do 

kAAl [kJAAl] BE meBn. 

call her man [husband]. 

9. BE ztrcBED BE zidVn wee be oon dUz Blaid aaHsI BstEatjt ifut 
her sweared her seeM)him with her own eyes laid all stretched out 

tyi Bz vpil Isqkth pBn tap B)dliB gTE'tmd wee)d^z gp^id zo^ndi 
to his full length upon top of)the ground with)hi8 good Sunday 

kiiBt on, djo^s Ap Bgi n o)dhB d^BE o)dhB e'uz, diftm dhau 
coat on, just up against the door of)the house, down there 

tB)dlie kAAndBE o dhiki dh^BE l^n. 
to)the comer of that there lane. 

10. dhaE B WAAZ Bwd^tnin Bwee, be zes, dje^s dhB vaEi 6eBm)zs 
there he was a-whining away, her says, just the very same)as 

tluAf B WBZ B tifBl Bt^ikt bag'Bd, BE B lid'l maid azA'Bt Ap 
though he was a child tooked bad, or a little maid set up 

in B JEt. 
in a heat. 

11. Bn dha^t dbaE apt dhB yeeI seBm Wim)z aE be be daaETBELAA 
and that there happed the very same time)as her and her daughter-in-law 

WBZ BkAmin in dayyi dhB bak k&auT [ki^BSx] aadBE dhf<?)d 
was a-coming in through the back court after they)had 

Bbin B;8eqin dhB wEt klrJBZ veE tB dEE'wi, pan a wAAEsbin dee. 
been a-hanging the wet clothes for to dry-y, upon a washing-day. 

[ 1581 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


12. B&em Wim dhtj ka^t'l wt?z b biiotlin pan dko vd^'uE vbe tee, 
some time the kettle was a boiling upon the fire for tea, 

WAn fa^in bn^^ft zamBS aaDHRNMiii on* n wtk vgAU kAm 
one fine bright summer afternoon only a week ago come 

nEks dhazdi. 
next Thursday. 

13. Bn, da^z dhi noo? iH ne^vBE laaRN, WAn diaes'I biit mdoBE)N 
and, dost thee know ? I never learned one morsel bit more)than 

dli«sh)jaK kBnsa-snin dha*t dh^BE ba*zni8 taU 9*z in<feBNin, zoo 
this) here concerning that there business till this morning, so 

8hunR)z md4 neBTn)z :dja>n rsho'pBR, bii wAt)s m^BE, iH d6o)mi 
8ure)as my name)is John Shepherd, and what*s more, I do)not 

WAnt tyi nadhBB, dheBH de^m! 
want to neither, there now ! 

14. BE zoo B.H bii gu^^n dBm vbe tB ee'B mi sapBE rt)ae)mi)sapBE]. 
and so I be going home for to have my supper [to)have)my)supperJ. 

g^id nd'it)i, BE doo)n)i bii zo kM?tk, mdH'n, vbe tB 1lb6o dvBH 
good night)to)thee, and do)not)thee be so quick, mind, for to crow over 

a^ni bAdi BgfBn, hAn Eni hkdi de tAAki o dhiBz be dhtki be 
any body again, when any body do talk-y of this or that or 

tkdhBE dhtq. 
tnat) other thing. 

15. e€ mas bi b aav^il Mbe vbe tB pE^ti BdbE^w t E^'im be E^^z'n. 
he must be a half -fool fellow for to prate-y without rhyme or reason. 

Bn dhtsh)jar)z ma't las waED. g;^id bud*i)t)i. 
and this)here)is my last word, good bye)to)thee. 

The three specimens which follow are borrowed from Mr. El- 
worthy's Grammar of the Dialect of West Somersetshire, 1877, pp. 
96 and 99, where they are presented in glossic. They have been 
pal. by AJE. and, as before stated, revised with Mr. E. In the 
translation letters and words in Italics are either supplementary or 
explanatory, and the translation itself as before is slavishly literal. 

[ 1682 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 





A genniiie yam taken down by Mr. Elworthy from a peasant's 


:1a4rd ipAApvm. 

1. d}i sp^BZ Jyi)v BJSBD bfi'tid 
dhB gaKT ook'n tiui Ap tB :walitBn 
:paRk :pjd, WAt dh^ JyyiZ tb zee 
:la.*brd ipAApBm wbz Bka'nd^ED 

2. weI, ddo)Bn i zii, Ap dh^R, 
jyi nooy ZBR, dhBR)z b gasT dip 
bA'dBm g9^|Z dE'ttn zb dip)s 
dhB tduBR, mkin stiBB Wik 
in)s ma^d zee, 8eBm)z dliB 
zi^id gw«^ Ap dv*E :walitBn :fBL, 
Bn dhiBzb)jaR ook^v tnii, ii waz 
B taH'ab'l gaET xnii sbdoBB nEf, i 
WAZ, Bn i gp2(5BD in dbB za*fd o bn, 
BN dhtki pleBs ez BkAAL cwaUskBm 

3. jyi md'in dhB puBR ool 
:tAm laalwe^, dcJo)Bn i, zbr ? 
dhat)8 dhB ool :tAm :aalw^fz 
faa'dhBB, jb noo, zBr, alp DRo<Mi)Bu, 
Bn ween dh^ DK(>od)Bn, nrf i 
dBd)'n taKN neet tap)'m t&iBl — 
iis 8h(5«.B&, Bn dhB eed o bn 
WBZ rM dE'tm BndBr, Bn dheBR 
i ba*«i. 

4. Bn dh^^ waz aaI o)'m bIibrd 
VBR TB g^i BniBs)'n, Bn d\\ee 
zBd e'u in)8 B WBZ Bkand^'Rd 
noo'bAdi k*id)Bn na*vBR dRag)Bn 
j^ut ; Bn dheBR i baH'd. 

5. Bn tB laas, d*f w^^t Ap, 
kaz dh^ zRd dhB A'8ez)Bd shoouR 
tB bi BkfBld, v^ee teen AAks'n, 
BN dU' itjt Bm Ap tji Bn, Bn dhB 
baliks p^ild)an i/wt, Bn DR3g)Bn 
intB dhB ceqin kloz. 

6. Bn a*t na^vBR zid n6oBBT 
Bn dhw WBZ aaI o)Bm BWA'/tin 
Bn Bbikin in)8 d*» sha^d Bba**n 
k(Bld, Bn kAAlin o mi b f/iBl vBr 
tB g^i, bBd a^f na^vBR zid ndoBRT, 
nit-noobAdi t)AAl. 

Lord Popham. 

1. I suppose you've a-heard obout 
the great oaken tree up to Wellington 
Park /Food, wAat they U8erf to say 
Lord Popham was a-conjured 

2. Well, don'^ ye see, up there, 
you know, sir, there's a great deep 
bottom =r«r«n^ goes down so deep)aa 
the tower, main steer =«<«y> bke, 
even)as one may say, the samejas the 
side going up over Wellington if ill, 
an<f this) A ere oaken tree, he was 
a terrible great tree sure raough, he 
was, an// he growed in the side of Aim 
= the ravine^ and this place is a-calleJ 
Wilscombe bottom. 

3. You mmd-^remetnher the poor 
— deceased old Tom Alway, don'< ye, 
sirP that's the old Tom Alway*s 
father, you know, sir, he help<></ 
to throw -fell Aim = the tree, anrf 
wAen they throwed-Aim, ant^-if Ae 
did'n/ turn right top-on - tail =A^a</ 
over heels — yes sure, anrf the Aead of 
Aim was right down under, and there 
Ae hided= remained. 

4. And they was all of-them a- 
feared for to go a-nighe«<-Aim, anrf 
they said Aow e'en-as Ae was a- 
conjured nobody could' n/ never drag- 
Aim out ; Aud tnere Ae hided. 

6. And to sat las/, I went up, 
^ause they said the Aorscs)Mo«/d 
Biu-e to be a-killed, wi/A ten oxen, 
and I Aitched them up to Aim = the 
tree, and the bullocks pulled-Aim out, 
and dragged- Aim into the Aauging 

6. Anrf I never seed = saw noughRt, 
and they was all of- them a- waiting 
an</a-looking even as I should a-been 
a-killed, and calling o/me a fool for 
to go, but I never seed —saw noughKt, 
nw-yet nobody-at-all. 

[ 1683 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



7. Tin jji n6<mz :wal-it'n :paBk 
•e'uz, ddonn i, zbr ? a^i md^in h^n 
iU Jyyiz te liv dhas, ApBm dhB 
gjaRct, dliuR WBZ B pleBS dheBE 
dhoo la*ik n oov'm la^ik. 

8. Bn aU* zid zBm b^jks w^^ 
w^din in)Bm in Bn, Bn dh^^ zEd 
dhat WBz :1a bed :pAA*pBmz b^iks 
Bn dhee zEd e'w b meBn w^mt 
Ap Bn ZAAt BstRaU'd pBn dhB HPi?if 
wee B ba4*b*l, in)8 'ii m9'd)*n 
kaaE)'n bw^^*. 

9. iis ! Bn t)eez b laR-Bb*! ool 
e'm-z)be, bBd iH na^vBR dEd)n zii 
noobAdi dheBE noo wa'8)'n mizal, 
in)s mo*d zee. 

10. E'ttSBma'vBE dH")v bjs'ed 
Bm zee e'm dhB Baa'EVBn tjAp wbz 
gween vbe tb Iset E'wt dho ak-ni 
aadBR)z meB8tBR)d Bkamd Am 
vEBm maRkBt, Bn dhBE wbz b meBn 
BsUid in dha giBt w^, Bn i kpd)'n 

11. Bn hAn dhee t^ik)Bn tB 
dyy/in nseks mA'BEnin, vbe kAAZ 
i aBd)Bn Bpat E'wt dhB aas, 
d6o)TBn i zii z'e? b zEd, 8)ii, 
e'w b kp,d)Bn pat)Bn E'wt, kaz 
dhBE WBZ B mesn Bst^id Reet in dhB 
giBt wee, in)s i k*id)*n oo*p'm)Bn, 
Bn dhee AA'vis jyjiZ ta zee tfu dh« 
AA-vi8 kBnsa^dBED dh4t dh^E wbz 
:1a'bed :pAA*pBm. 


7. Anrf you knows Wellin^:ton Park 
Aouse, don*^ ^e, sir? I mmd tcheu. 
1 vaed to five there, up)on the 
garret, there was a place there 
then like a oven like. 

8. And I seed some books wiM 
reading in-Mrm in Aim = the ovetty amf 
they said that was Lord Popham^s 
booKs, and they said Aow a man went 
up and sat a-stride wpon the roof 
with a bible, e'en-os he — the devil 
might* nt carry- Aim = the roof away. 

9. Yes ! and tt-is a terrible oh^ 
house-nr, but I never did^nt see 
nobody there no worse-ZA^n myse//*, 
e*en-« one might say. 

10. Howsomever I've a-heard 
them, say, Aow the servant chap was 
going for to let out the Aackneys 
hack^horse^ after-Ais master-Aod a- 
come<i Aome from market, and there 
was a man a-stood = standing in the 
gateway, and Ae could'nt open-Aim = 
the gate. 

11. Anrf trhen they took- Aim to 
doing = took him to task nex/-moming 
for cause Ae Aad'n^ a-put out the Aorse, 
don't ye see, sir? Ae said, sau/-Ae, 
Aow Ae could'n^ put-Aim b^A^ horse 
out, becauae there was a man a-stood 
Si standing right in the gate way as 
Ae could'n^ open him- (he gate^ 
and they a/ways use^f to say Aow they 
a/ways considered that there was 
Lord Popham. 

The following was taken down by Mr. Elworthy from the dictation 
of the carpenter himself. 

Dh)ool Mbe Bn dhB kAAfin. The oW fellow =<fei?»/ and the coffin. 

1. Did you know th« old Nan 
Scott, sir? Ahamt every body was 
a-feard o/ Aer, ^fcause they knowed 
Aow Aer=«A« could overlook them^ 
cast an evil eye on them and-\t her 

2. Well, I made the coffin for Aer, 
and so true-os I be Aere, tt-was just 
a-come = t^ had almost happened it 
was a mere chance we Aad'nt all of us 
a-been a-killed. 

3. /t-was so fine a day)«s ever you 
seedsMiu', and the sun-Aod a-been 

1. dfid jyi noo dh)ool insen cskot, 


BfiBRD an, kBz dh^ nood e'u 
HE kad ()vBbik)Bm nif be wo'd. 

2. wal, iH m6Bd dhe kAAfin 
var)bu, Bn BB tRyyj)z k^i bi JaR, 
t)wBz djo^st BkAm wi aed'n aaI o 
m Bbo'n ukiBld. 

3. t-WBz 8B fdin B dee)z 8*vbe 
jyi zid, Bn dhB zo*n)'d Bbo*n 

[ 1684 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


vshrmin bo bRd'it)8 a^n-idhiq, bAn a-shming so bright)<i8 anything, trhen 

dio»s iii)8 wi vrnz gw/fm in tn dha J^^ e'enW we was going in to the 

tpHl,du«H,dhnHk.^ ^n^htfe^'t".^^^ 

V \ret'nm f o^t tu teuR Ap dhu ykbi ^j^ B^demphatic with tte same the 

stounz, 'ten vee dhB sexna dhv thunder burst out like a cannon. 
tliandtJR bast E'tit la^ik « kienvn. 

4. wal, bAN wi kAm to pat 4. \Vell,trhenwecome=ra;mftoput 

UR in dbw kitiv nif db)(H>l metjn Aer in the cave =»««/<, mirf) if thf-oW 

WAd'n tJtaRXD Beet REi/n. i'i noo ™an=*^'; hushand Jon^ «;kj dead 

.,«,.„ «««xi.*„i 4.\»^\:« was'nt a -turned right rou;i</. I know 

II WAZ, VBR aU alp pat)»n)m. ^^ ^^^ j^, j ^ei^ put)Mm)in. 

0,001 wi ncxHl WAt t)wAZ «d e Oh! weknowedwAatit)wasAad 

Wiy,d ut. Wl nood vaRi wal a-dowD it. We knowed very wel 

db)ool falaR)D i?bo*n db^oR lAAq th^ old fellowB-Aad=M<? devil had 

vree Bn. tRyi)z jy. bi staenin a-been there along with him. It' sat 

dbeur * ^ / ^ true-os you be standing there ! 

Tbe reason tbat a respectable wasber- woman gave tbo " parson " 
for baying married a disreputable bnsband. 

doo)n i zii, zbr, d*i*)d BgA't sb Don't ye see, sir, I'd a-got so 

mati WA'BR^biN, Bn d»i wbz BfiiBS much washing anrf I was a.fc^erf 

♦« „l^ •,+ .,« «« :* Ai.' ^A\i^ «\ i^A to senrf it Aome, an<^ if I Aad nt a-Aad 

tB z^ Bt Am Bn if ihmd) n B)^Bd ^ j ^^^ ^;^ y^^^ ^ d^^^ 

•11, aU mas b booBt a daqk. 

West Somerset owl. 

Made up from the lists in Mr. F. T. Elworthy's Dialect of West Somerset, which 
haa been made by him and AJE. jointly in 1875, revised so far as these 
especial words are concerned and pal. from diet, of Mr. Elworthy in 1886 
by AJE. 

I. Wbssbx akd Norse. 

A- 3 b^Bk. 5 m^k, msk. 6 m6vd. 8 aav, c'b [see Mr. E.'s W. Sm. 
Orammar, p. 571. 12 zaa. 18 klvk. 19 t^l. 20 l^cm. 22 t6Bm. 23 s^vm. 
24 shlvm. 32 oMh [intrans.], baadh [trans.]. 36 iiaaI [an-awl, n from the 
art.] 36 dhAA [intrans.], AAndhAA [trans.]. 37 Waa. A: 41 dhacqk. 

43 len, 6sn [empn.] 44 Isen. 46 kien'l. 49 sq, Bse*qd, va*qd [to hang, 
hanged, hung]. 56 wAAiuhi [intrans.]. 

A: or 0: 58 viLAm. 69 Vk^m, — ^^^m [womb]. 60 Uq. 61 mneq Qmncqnt. 
64 TBAq, TB»q. 65 zxq. 66 dhACj. A*- 67 g?i, gireen [going]. 69 uaa 
noo. 74 tyy. 76 tfiBd toBd. 77 Ia'brd. — voo [foe]. 81 lean. — w^p, 
itnp [sweep]. 84 miiBR m<h)R. 85 zubr. 86 WEts wa^ts. 87 klo'uz kloz. 
89 biTBdh b^.dh. 90 bUA. 92 n6oB [(snoo) dost know ?]. 93 snooi, znoo. 95 
ditoo. — ooBBT [aught], nt^BT [naught]. A': 102 a'ks. 104 nhirBd. 
105 RhAd. 109 Iaa. Ill AAf [+t before vowels], AAt. 113 wol. 115 Vm. 
117 WAU wsn w^iU unn [^acc. to circumstances]. 118 buBU. 120 BgA-n. 124 
gUnm Btivu. etoo, 126 am [emph. j'Auli) singular]. — nhtiBp, nhop [rope]. 126 
6bk. 127 ^. 129 gMBS [4t before a vowel] gost. 130 buBt boBt. 131 goat. 
132 A't. — Khyyi [row of hay]. 136 ak [or]. 

^- 138 faadhBA. 140 hitBl. 141 ndtBl. 143 t&tBl. 146 matn [ady.T= 
▼cry]. 147 bnllin. 148 f^BK. — jamBt [emmet, ant]. 149 bl^z. — seet 
[a seat]. 153 z»dB&Di. JEi 154 ba'k. 155 dha'tj. 158 aadBR aatBR 

[ 1585 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

154 . THE WECT SOUTHERN. [D 10. 

[occ. (aBdvR)]. 160 eeg. 161 dee. 166 nulid. — slth [health]. 169 hAn 
[but (wfrti) emph.]. 170 aRBs. 174 aa«h. — YVttedh [to wreathe], yaxth [a 
wreath]. JE'- — Reeti [to reach]. — leetj [leech]. 184 leed. 185 sheea. 
187 lEf l»f [both inf.l, Jlmf [leftj. 189 wa'i. 190 kee. 192 meen. 193 
kllun [adj.], kleen [adv.]. 194 e'ni. 200 weet. — JBth [heath]. 202 JEt 
jtt JdH. 203 speetj. — miod [mead], mtds [meadow]. 206 dated. 207 
m»l. 208 9*TOT. 210 klat. 213 adhsK. 214 nsdhnr. 217 eet|. 218 ship. 
219 sleep zllop. 223 dh6oB. 225 Tlaaxh. 226 tsulas [(mow minis) almoetj. 
— vrajsT [to wrestle]. 227 waH. 228 ztt?Et. 229 baaith. 

E- 233 speek. 235 weey. 236 feevBR. 238 sdj. 239 satBl. 241 vMin. 
243 plai. 244 wal. — we'lB [willow]. 248 meBR. 260 ztr^R. — eet 
[eatl. 261 meet. 262 kaH'l. 263 naU'l. — VBdhBR vojdhBR [feather]. 255 
waedhBR. — baedBR [better], E: 266 8tRa*t}. 267 »di. — heed fbed]. 
262 wee. 264 &tBl. 266 stR^tt. 266 wal. — tIbI [field!. 269 zal. — 
tM^iv [twelve]. 271 tal. 272 alBm. 273 meen [but (mfeBii) man]. 278 
WAntj. — in [end]. 280 leeb^m. — eeu [henl. — peen [a writing pen, 
(p&'in) a cattle pen]. — dRffish*!, dBaks'l [threshold]. 286 kRJs [pi. (kRistez)]. 
286 aRB. — baes [best]. E'- 290 i [emph.J — stk zik [seek]. 296 

bsRD. 296 bleev. 297 falBR. 300 kip [colloquially (kip)]. 301 jsr. 
F: 306 fxH. 306 &itth. 309 spid. 312 jsr. — ^z [geesej. 316 nsks. 

£A- — shiBp [to sha^]. 319 giBp rap ^jap. £A: 324 kit. 333 kaav 

kjaav. 324 aav aaf [(lirm;&f) haS and haSf]. 335 kel a'bI. 336 vaal vaaI. 
337 waal waaI. 338 kjal. — AAvis [always]. — Mbrd [beard]. — aRD 
[hard]. 343 waRm. 345 d^R. 346 glBt. EA'- 347 eed. 348 kH. 

349 vyyi. EA': 360 deed. 351 la^d. 362 Rhe'd, hrd, HRDnis [redness]. 
363 breed baRD. 364 shlf shiv. 366 div. 366 liv. 367 thAAf, aaI. — kReem 
[cream]. 361 biBn. 363 ^p. — Ip [a heap]. — jhr [year]. 366 gsRT. 
367 dRflet. 368 daeth. 370 RhAA. 371 stRoo. EI- 376 bAtt. EI: 
378 week. EO- 383 zseb'm. 386 joo. 387 nvTi. £0: 388 maUk. 
— saMk [silk]. 389 jtik. 390 sh^jd [emph.] sha'd [unemph.]. 392 Ja'n. 
393 bija^n. 397 zubrd. — faRmBR. 402 hiRN. 403 vaR. 406 jsth. 
406 aeth. — za^stBR [sister]. — faRD^N vaRD^N. EO'- — lyyi [lee, 
shelter]. — dRi. — vli [to fly]. 415 l&H. kRop [to creep]. — vrIz [to 
freeze]. 419 J(>br [emph.]. 420 v6ubr [(f&UBR) emph.]. 421 faRii. EO': 
422 zik. — Rhld [a reed]. 423 dhkH, 425 leet. 426 feet. 498 zl. 430 
fReen. — dip [deep]. 436 jyy,. EY- 438 dfe4. EY: 439 tRe»s. 

I- 440 wik. 441 zlv. — liv [to live]. 443 VR&^idi. 446 neen. — iis 
ees [emph.], jss [fine but common]. 448 dhees. 449 ga't. 460 ty^|Zdi. 

I: — dhaRD [third]. 456 if nif. 458 neet. 460 WA'it. 462 aeri [large 
number] zeet [vision]. 466 dieHi dje^s dje'sh. 466 tiiBl. 469 waU [willj, 
wa't [wilt thoul. — shin [shin]. 472 shniqk zhRiqk. 473 bleen blk*in. 

476 win. 476 Win. 477 vk'in. 479 w&Wn. 480 dhiq. — skin [skin]. 

— sha'p [ship]. — ann [to run]. 482 td*n a'd*n [is not, common], sa'n [is 
not, emph.] 483 a*z [(iz) emph.] — fish vish [fish]. 488 it. — vrit rit [a 
writ], za'nz [since]. — spaH [to spit]. I'- 490 Wi. 493 dnmr. 

— shin [to shine]. 496 fi'iBR [subs.] fe'iBRN [adj.] 498 vR&'it. 499 bit'l. 
T: _ ditj [ditch], dik [dvke]. 600 fc'ik. 602 veev vfe'iv. 603 Wi>iv. 504 
neev ukHv. — sta'f [stift']. 606 w&^v. 606 amBU. 507 wa'min. — ki 
[hay]. 608 m&^i«ld. 609 w&'iol. — wit [white adj.], w& it [pigment subs.l. 

0- — smook [smoke]. 623 hop. 624 waRD*L. 0: — VRAg [a frog J. 
626 oof [off]. 626 kAAf. 627 bdvt. 628 dhAA'Bt. 629 bRaat. 631 daRtBR. 
632 kool kAAl. 633 dEl. 535 voks. 636 guBl gool. 644 *n [than], dheen 
[emph. in that case], dhoo [at that time]. — sh6BR [ashore J. 646 var. 

— vARk [a fork]. 647 bvBRD. 648 v6brd. 649 w6brd [but in composition 
as * to hoard apples,' that is, to store up, (waiu))]. 650 waRD. — virBth [forth]. 

— mARnin [morning]. — aas [horse]. 664 kuAAS. — pAAs [gate post]. 

— piBst [letter post]. — mc^ [mote]. 0'- 656 shyyj. 666 tyy, [emph.j. 

667 tyvi [in adoition], tB [even when emph. meaning to an excessive degree]. 

668 b,k. 660 sk^J. 661 bUy^m. 662 m^,n. 663 mandi. 664 ZMyU [but 
(zaiudBR, Zd,ndi8t) sooner, soonest]. 0': 669 b^^k. 670 t^^k ''(Bt9,kt) taken]. 
676 st^^id. 676 weenzdi. — nhar Rhyyf [roof]. — Wu, 678 pli'u [in com- 

[ 1686 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


position as plough -horse (pIb'n)aas), bnt the common word for plough is (zttvl)]. 

— ak [hough]. 683 t^,l. 684 st^il. 686 dyji- 589 spj^iU. — gM^z 
[goose]. — baztnn [bosom]. 693 mas. 695 v^^jt. 696 r»|t. 697 sat. 

U- 699 «hwf. — wjdtwood], 601 Tk^wl. 602 z&»m. 603 kxm [emph.] 

— kRuum fcrumb]. 607 bad«R. U: 608 agli. — zM [Ws. sulh, a 
plough, see 678J. 610 *;i. — p*il [to pull]. 611 baltk. 612 sAfin [some- 
thing]. 614 B'tm. 616 pB'tmd. 616 gKB'tmd. 617 zB'un. 619 qvb'u'u. 

— andvaD [hundred]. 627 zandi. 631 dhazdi. 632 Ap. 634 dayyi. — 
thasti [thirsty]. 635 wsth [(wEthlis) worthless]. 636 vandeK. 639 d&'tfst;&iwz 
fdusthouse, chaffhouse, but only in this sense, dust is otherwise called (po'litra)]. 
U'- 640 ks'M. 641 b'm [however is (wa'vroi)]. 647 b'ubI. 648 feinm. 
649 dh&'tizmr. 660 bs'tft [but (bs'ud) before a vowel]. 662 k^id. 663 bad 
[before a vowel]. U': 654 snRB'wd. 656 f&'tml. 666 Khp^.m. — dham 
[thumb]. 667 bRB'tm. 668 dB'un. 663 b'mz [(b'wz'1) household]. 666 mkUiz. 
666 azbtm. 667 B'ut. 668 pRE'vd. 670 b^idh. 671 m&<udh. 672 zB'wdh. 

Y- 674 dBd dy.d. 676 l&»i. 681 be'znis. 682 lid'l [but (nttM) is 
commonly said to children]. — eev*l [evil]. T: 686 aRD|. 689 biol 
[(bolt) built]. — vAli [follow]. 690 k&'in [+d before a vowel]. 691 miiin 
[ + d before a vowel]. 692 jaq^. 697 baRi. 699 vrk^tt. — ARnot [hornet]. 
^00 WBS [used also for worst before a consonant, +t before a vowell. 701 las 
[ + t before a vowel]. 703 pa't. Y- 706 w&W. — dReem [to dream]. 

— deev [to dive]. — Idt [a kite, (vazkit) furze-kite or falcon], Y': — 
fa»lth [filth]. 709 vfe'iim. — vliz [fleece]. 

II. English. 

A. 713 b6«d. 718 tr^ed. 738 pR^. — t^Bdi [potato, heard by AJE. 
and others as (t^BRi), p. 1471. E. — walth [wealth]. 760 bd'ig. I. 
andY, 764 peeg. 76o shRa'mp zhRo'mp. — W8'pwwp[whip]. 768 gaRD*L. 
0. — dAAg [dogl. 791 bM6i. U. — kuid feud]. 796 bl>7i. — 

Antyi [unto]. 806 KRidz [this form always used]. — kordH [curl]. 


A.. 810 fdBs. 811 pl^Bs. — tR^BS rtrace]. 812 I^bs. 813 b^k'n. 
820 ffki. 822 mdi. — iid [aid v. and s.J — Bpftrd [paid]. 827 eegBR. 

— faiBl [to fail]. 830 tRain. — sdint [saint]. 833 p§BR. 836 Reez*n. 
836 seez*n. 841 tia-ns. 845 fenshBUt. 847 OfiendjaR. 848 i^nd}. 849 
stRSBnd^BR. 860 da'ns, 852 apBRN. — kaR [to care]. — kaf*mdBR 
[carpenter]. — saansi [saucy]. 862 saaf [adj.] s^Bf [sb. a meat safe]. 
E •• 867 tee. — spaRtik'lz [spectacles]. — dhaHiez [vetches]. 874 Rhain. 
876 dAtnti. 878 sslBRi. — meen [amend, mend]. 881 seens. — anb 
[herb] — maesi [mercy]. — f^BR [a fair]. 888 saRtin. — saR [to serve, 
deserve, earn]. — neet [neat]. 890 bSBs [pi. biBstBz)]. 891 fees flBs [pi. 
(fiBstBz)]. 893 fl&UBK [flour =meal is (vl8i«Br)J. 894 Reesee-v. 

I., and Y" — s&'idBR. 901 fi'tn. — p&Unt [a pint]. — v&WlBut 

[violent]. 904 vfe'ilBnt [violet]. — zbr [sir]. — spaRit [spirit]. 910 djk'is 
both in sing, and pi.] 

0-. 920 pfTA'inl. — d^A'tnt [of a man], djft'int fof meat]. — sttiBR 
st<JBR [story]. 924 tjA'is. 926 va'is. 926 spw^'il. 929 ks'ttkBrnBR. — re'mu 
[rouno]. — fiBs [force, and + 1 before a vowel forced]. — s^hirt. 939 kl6Bs. 
947 btTA'iBl. 960 SApBR. — tfcwBr [tower]. — p^P^sh [push]. — bAd'l 

[a bottle] — mav [move]. 959 kBVA'B*. tJ- — diWj [due]. — dy^k 
duke]. 960 kee, — fuu*Bnt [fluent, said of a river only]. — dje^dj I judge]. 

— WA'it [wait]. — Ry,*in fruin]. 966 a'»b1. 969 shrfBR. — duuRub'l 

[durable]. — muuztk [music]. 970 djas [ + t before a vowel]. — fa'wsti 

[ 1687 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


D 11 = s.WS. = southern West Southern. 

Boundary. On the n. the n. coast of Co. and Dy. to the b. of D 10, which 
fonns the n. and e. b. till it joins the w. b. of D 4. The rest of the e. b. is 
the s. part of the w. b. of D 4= down to Axmouth. The s. b. is the s. coast of 
Dv. and Co. There was mnch difficulty in determining the w. b., concemii^ 
which I collected several opinions, and finally follow the information of Rev. W. 
H. Hodge, which I believe to be most accurate. Begin at the Black Rock in the 
middle of the entrance to Falmouth Harbour, and go through tlie centre of the 
water-way to Truro. Then proceed by land e. of Kenwyn (1 unw.Truro) and 
w. of St. Erme (4 nne. Truro), e. of St. Allen (4 n.Truro) and w. of Newlyn 
f8 n.Truro), and also west of Cubert (9 nnw.Tmro), but e. of PeiTan Zabulo 
(8 nnw.Truro) to the sea in Ligger or Perran Bay. This border was determined 
by noting the change of speecn. Mr. Rawlings, speaking only from general 
impressions, said the b. was probably a straight line from St. Anthony, on the 
e. nom of Falmouth Harbour to «St. Agnes HobuI (9 nnw.Truro). This line, 
beginning practically at the same point as the other, and ending only 5 m. to the 
sw., must be considered as practi(»l]y identical with it. Mr. Sowell, who wrote 
the Comish-EngUsh version of the Simg of Solomon for Prince L.-L. Bonaparte, 
inclines to a line from St. Austell to Padstow. According to Mr. Hodge, Mr. 
Herman Merivale in his *^ Historical Studies *' lays down the border between Celt 
and Saxon, no doubt at a much earlier date, from Down Deny (8 sse.Liskeard^ 
to St. Germans f7 se.Liskeard), thence to St. Ive (4 ne.Iiskeard), South Hill 
(7 nne. Liskeard), North Hill (7 n.Liskeard), Altamun Vl wsw.Launceston), Minster 
('13 wnw.Launceston), and to the sea by Forrabury (14 nnw.Launceston). This 
line is just a few miles w. of the e. b. of Co. itself. 

Area, Most of Dv. and e.Co. The w. b. of D 11 is properly the 
w. limit of dialect in England. 

Authoritiet. See County List under the following names, where * means w. 
per AJE., t per TH., y systematic, ** in io. 

Co. ♦Camelford, °Cardy'nham, °Landrake, •Lanivet, "^Lanreath, 'H Millbrook, 
** Padstow, "Poundstock, *St. Blazey, °St. Columb Major, °St. Goran*s, °St. Ive, 
*St. Stephens, **Tintagel. 

Dv. ♦Barnstaple, ||Bigbury, **Burrington, •Challacombe, *Colyton, ♦|| Devon- 
port, °||Exeter, ♦Harberton, ♦Iddesleigh, ''Instow, ^Modbury, ♦'^North Molton, 
*NorthPetherwin, *»Parracomb, yPlymouth, ^'Stoke, *St.Mar}church, °Warkleigh, 
•Werrington, f General. 

Characters, The character of the pronunciation is essentially tlie 
same as that of D 10, with a few distinguishing particulars. 

^G, EG are rarely if ever fa'i). They become regularly (ee, 
ee), with more or less of an (f) lollowing. 

r is regularly (at), that is, the (ao't) of D 4 after passing through 
(&H) mixed with (o't) of D 10, now assumes the regular German 
(ai) sound. It was a matter of course, then, that the (at, aat ) for 
^G, EG should also be changed. XT', which was mainly (b'u) in 
D 10, becomes (oo'yi*) ^ "^©11 as I can analyse it, see the note on 
doubt y p. 158 below. Prince L.-L. Bonaparte heard it as Fi'ench om 
in cceur, followed by French u, that is (oe'y), which it certainly 
resembles. How far does this extend? It is certainly in n.Dv. 
Mr. Baird (Nathan Hogg) acknowledges it in e.Dv., Mr. Shelley 
(Plymouth^ in s.Dv. In Co. I have not been able to trace it, with 
certainty, further than Millbrook, just on the e. b. of Co., not even 
in the w. specimen from Camelford. But I suspect that it really 

[ 1688 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


pervades Co. as well as Dy. The diphthong is not nnlike the 
Dutch ui in hut's, or the French cti in wiL 

I have thrown the whole of this large district together because 
my information is necessarily very deficient upon such delicate 
points as those last mentioned, and the great features seem to be 
the same. There is said to be considerable difference between 
n.Dv. and s.Dv., and between e.Dv. and w.Dv., but this difference 
probably concerns the vocabulary and grammar more than the 
pronunciation. Mr. Shelley's Dartmoor cs. shews, however, con- 
siderable difference from the Iddesleigh cs. Hence it will be 
convenient to consider as Var. i. n.Dv,, and as Var. ii. s Dv. 
including Co., to Mr. Merivale's line, for both. Then Var. iii. will 
be e.Co., which may be associated with St. Columb Major, extending 
from Mr. Mcri vale's line to Mr. Hodge's by Truro, that forms the 
boundary of D 11. The w.Co. region D 12 is entirely different. 

Vab. i. NoETH Devow. 

I naturally rely on my viva voce from Mr. J. Abbot Jarman, a 
native of North Molton (11 e.-by-s.Bamstaple), which is close to the 
b. of D 10, and from Rev. J. P. Faunthorpe's servant from Iddesleigh 
(15 s.Bamstaple), which comes to nearly the s. b. of n.Dv. They 
were both taken some years ago. North Molton in Oct. 1877, and 
Mar. 1879, and Iddesleigh in Nov. 1877. I begin with the last, 
because having been taken from an uneducated native almost fresh 
from the place and studied closely, it is probably more correct. 

iDDESLEieH cs. 

pal. by AJE. from dictation of a natiye, Mary Anstey, housemaid to Rev. J. P. 
raunthorpe. For conTenience (ao'yi^) has the ^ omitted, see first note. 

0. wdi :d}£ek*i heeth nu dao'yit Bbso'yit it. 

1. WEL :diAABd| jyi me boodh laaf «t dhis nyyiZ 9v mdin, if i wiiL, 
yyi k^^Bth tBB dheet ? dh8et)s nadhvE jCIbr n«R dhevB. 

2. vyyi men ddi kooz dhe)m laaft ©t, as uaa, dc^t)os ? ot shBd 
m6Bk)'m ? T)iiD)'N veri Idildi, iz)Bt ? 

3. ao'yiEVBE dhfs iz dho TEyyith o)t, zo djEs oold dhi UA'iz, 
:djAAEdj, 9n bi ktrdiBt vor div dyin)i?t. aask ! 

4. di hi zaEten di jUvkd am zee tt — zam o dheez voks yi went 
DEyyi dhB ool o)t dhBEz^'Lvz — dhaet ii did s^v tmaf . 

5. dhBt dhB jsq'ges zo^v izsehf a gaET b6» b ndin, nAAd)z faadhBRz 
TA'is Bt wflens, dhoo t)waBz bo kw?eeE bu skM?eekin, bu di)d TEa's)n 
t'e speek dhB XRyyith mni dEE'i, is, di wed. 

6. Bn dh-ool wimiBn bezel wBd tjx)i dhB z^Bm, aeni a i dhBt bi 
laaftn nao'y,, Bn tEL)i Edit of, taoy/.* wtdhao'yit- eent fas Bbce'yit 
Bt, ef Jyyi)L onh* aeks be, oo'u, waant-BE ? 

7. fen'i;a)'yiBEtool 'mii, wen di eekst be, tyyi be deU tdimz ovbe, 
did)n)be ? Bn aE AA't'n tB bi Eaq, on d^ b thtq bz dhaet, wat dyi 
i dh«qk ? 

8. WEL BZ di WBZ zee'in 'zr wBd tEL)i, OD'yi be vao'yjud Bn, w^n 

[ 1589 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



[D 11, Vi. 

«H vao'yind nn, vn w6eoR vu vao'yind Bn, — dh© DBaqk'n pEg «» 
kaalth br maen. 

^. «R sweeuRD BR zid)Bn wee br on diz, \irin sTREt^ ao'yi^ ^° ^^ 
gRao'yin wee tz bsst kdt on, kloos tB dhB duBR, dao'yii^ *t^ ^^ 
kAARND'R dhB leBn. 

10. i waz meektn sp dja*s b nA'tz Idik b t^l kR^rm Bn teedjas. 

11. Bn dhaDt aep^ND dz aR Bn br daa'tBR lee kam DRyy, dhB bsek 
kdoBRTLedj fRBm ceqin oo'yit dhB wet TLoodhz on dho weesh'tn dee, 

12. wdilst dho tecktiL wbz botLin vbr tee, wan vam zamBR 
RRtBRnyyin*, on'lt b wi^'k guu kom nEks dhazde. 

13. Bn dyyi)i nAA ? di nEv'R jhrd nAARt mdoBR Bbao'yit it bivoo'R 
tsdce*, zhdoBRz di hi kaald :d^k :zh«pBRD, Bn di doont wont taoy/.* 
adh'R, dhaR noo'yi ! 

14. Bn zoo di bi gwee'tn dm tB aeaB b bit b sapBR. gtid neeBRT Bn 
do(nmt)i bi sb ku^'k tB kRaa oybr aen'ibodi Bg^Bn, wEn i speeks b ween 
dhEq Br dhB tadhBR. 

15. "styyipjd fELBR tELin ap this oold staf, as dooBnt want to 
jiiBR)T." dhis iz dhe loBOBst a'l shBL zee Bbao'yit it. gt«i bdi. 


0. doubt. The last element of the 
diphthong in this word is precisely the 
same as for (tyyi) = two. The li^ are 
pouted, the upper lip is especially pro- 
jected, but there was very little closure 
of the lips, not nearly as much as 
when I pronounce (tyy)=Fr. tue, in 
fact the comers of the mouth are 
hardly brought together at all, so that 
an acute angle is left, but the upper 
lip was very much pouted, giving (yfl. 
Both lips are projected, but the upper 
lip far tne most. For the first element 
in (a)'yi^) the lips are wide open, and 
then they suddenly dart forward to 
form the (y,*). This action is very 
curious to study on the native lip. 
The openness ot the lips for the fint 
element excludes (ce^ for the first 
element, as Prince L.-L. Bona^mrte 
appreciates saying (preface to H . Baird's 
St. Matthew) y that " the sound is best 
defined as the French * oeu * in * coeur,* 
(cc) followed by m, the Scottish * oo ' in 
*moon,* that is, the French *u' (j) 
with a slight tendency towards the 
' eu * in ' pen * {a) in the same language.** 
The speaker rejected foe'y,) when pro- 
nounced to her. What the precise 
vowel in the first element may be I 
was not able to determine, but it did 
not seem to be either (9) or (a), and I 
was not satisfied with (b). For the 
word too the sudden rise in pitch on 
the second element was most remark- 
able, ^toD-yi*'.*), tbe stress also falling 
upon it, which quite distinguished the 

diphthongs, as in (:d^k gtd tz tryi 
maaiLV*lz t« tyyi bul/., on :iom rtv niz 
t^i, tao-y/, tBtyyi, to-y/) *Jack gave 
his two marbles to two boys [with 
distinct (0) and distinct (i), thus (h6iz) 
not (bA'iz)], and Tom gave his two, 
too, to two, too. This change of stress 
from (a>'yi'.) with if anything a falling 
pitch on the last element, to (ao-yj'.*) 
with e rising pitch, and without per- 
ceptible gliae of the first element on 
to the second, distinguished the two 
sounds so completely, that it was 
difficult to discover that they were 
made up of the same elements. I had 
them pronounced to me frequently 
during two visits, and the distinctions 
were steadily maintained, though the 
speaker was quite unaware of any 

1 . neighbour. This word is not used 
as a term of address. Mr. Faunthorpe 
(who had first written the version from 
his servant*s dictation, in his own 
spelling, which I altered to palaeotype 
from mctation) had written *Jarge,' 
meaning (:d|aaRdj), and though the 
speaker inmsted on (:d;AABd|), the other 
seems more correct. — will. Mr. F. 
wrote *wiil,' I heard (wiiL, w9*l). I 
carefully studied the sounds of mil/e and 
thtirtelvM^ and concluded that there 
was a true (l), and that the preceding 
vowel was greatly affected by it. But 
(mi,Lk) seemed oest, and not ^m'Lk) 
without a vowel, nor (me^Lk), out of 
course (i^, 9*) have considerable re- 

[ 1690 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

Dll, Vi.] 



semblances. — eareth. The traiisition 
(Rth) is easy, as the tonzue when uncurl- 
ing slides down directly to the teeth, 
but (thR-) or (dha-) is mfficult, because 
the tongue has to be curved back 
during tne transition, unless we begin 
with the under part instead of the 
upper part, of the tip of the tongue 
against the teeth making ^rh, i>n). 
This leads at once to the substitution 
of (t, d) for (th, dh) as ^truu DRyiVi). 
—for. I have constantly written (br) 
in these weak words, though I seemea 
to hear only (b), but this I attributed to 
the fointness and shortness of the sound. 

2. they am, for they are, contracted 
to (dhem), and the (e) used for (b) 
because the sound is weak. — what, 
(ot) or (waet). — •/)»«) »o^ I seemed to 
hear every consonant reverted, and the 
(ij) position was consequently not 
properly formed, destroying its precise 
character. — very, Mr. I?.wrote*viirry,' 
but I seemed to hear (b) modified by 
(r). I did not hear (vErt) with the 
usual trilled (r). But in this case I 
consider the (r) to be trilled, and there 
is no difficulty in so speaking. 

4. safe enough, (ana'f) not (anyy,) ; 
they make no distinction between (ansil, 
anyyi), and use the first generally. 

6. trmC)h%m. Mr. F. had written 
both tru9 and /m, and I at first appre- 
ciated (TRes). This shews the difiiculty 
of the vowel (o^) to an outsider. — day, 
(dBB'i, snEB'il, tEs'il), almost (deess'i) 
etc., and clearly one of the transitional 
forms from (d&i) to (^e). Fair, a 
market, is ^feea) ; the fire is (v6iR). 
The long I' naving become (&i) in place 
of (au'i) , it was to be expected that the 
£6, iB6, should pass from (&i) to (ee) 
or some intermediate form. These 
changes shew the ori&^nal diversity of 
the sounds, which obuged both to be 
modified, if one was. — yesy I would, 
I did not feel certain of the vowel in 
(wed]. Mr. F. wrote wed and wud^ 
coula it have been (wa'd) ? 

6. woman. Mr. F.*s cook, from 
Challacombe, said (am*im). Mr. Baird 
always writes humman = (ham'an). — 
tell ye. This is how the word sounded 
to me, Mr. Baird always writes tul, 
like Mr. Elworthy's (tal) in D 10 (p. 
148, par. 1). This reverted (l) produces 
strange effects. — too. See too in note 
on d^ty par. 0. 

7. did not her. —such, just is pro- 
nounced in the same way. Mr. F. 
wrote jiitf ji9f Jet, 

8. piff, for beatt (beest) is too noble a 
word, cattle is always used in place of 
the plural of beast. — calleth. Similarly 
(br waaketh). A wife says fwEU mi 
main kamth om)=when my husband 
comes home. — man. This word is 
regularly used for husband. 

9. The omitted word length = (lB<^kth) 
as usual. The plural of the omittea 
word house is (aD'j,sez) not (a)'y,z*n). — 
corner. Observe laserted (d) . They say 
(tjimblikAARNDBR) = chimney comer ; 
(kaRD^LZ aaI ovbr br f<d)= curls all 
over her head. 

10 ehildy applied to either sex, but 
(mBB'id) is the regular word, see note 
on day, par. 5. The question, is it a 
boy or a girl, becomes (061 br mBB'id) ; 
wench is not wed. — tedious is used 
especially of fretful children that weary 
the mother by crying, when the (tjil)z 
TCRtVl). To be sick i& to be (bad), 
full (a) not (se). 

11. daughter-in-law. (daa-terlxA) 
is commoner, but son^s wife (za'nz 
w{uv) is most common. — ivet, Nearly 
(wjexj, very broad. — clothes. Clearly 
initial (tl-) is easier and more natural 
than initial (kL-). The (dh) is used 
at Iddesleigh, but not at Challacombe. 
— washing day. The speaker had 
never heard the phrase ** Quarter 
Sessions** for wasmng day, as given 
by Mr. Rock from Barnstaple, and Mr. 
Pnlman from Axminster. 

U. tea-kettle. The two hist syllables 
pronounced very shortly indeed, with 
no secondary accent like in capital. — 
boiling. Without prefixed a-, they 
say (woz b6f-Lfn, it o6i-Lth). 

13. stircy shepperd. Having neglected 
to note the sounds of the wonu sttre, 
shcpherdy I follow the usages of Mr. 

14. Good nighty a parting ^oo<f nighty 
but when the night is spoken of it is 
called (n&it). Observe that (r) was 
distinctly heard in (u^obrt) . — again, (^) 
is very short. 

16. Stupid fellow y telling up this old 
stuff; us don*t want to hear-it. This 
was inserted by Mr. F. as a remark of 
one of the persons spoken to. He also 
proposed: (wat 9 gaRT fi/y|l dhi aaRt). 
The sound of (fii'y,l) is like the Norfolk 
(t]^), or the Lancashire (fl?'u), a mere lip 
gude, as I seemed to hear it. — thiSy the 
speaker recognised the distinction of 
Mr. Barnes's Dorset '* shaped thicky** 
in (dhiki a)'yis) and *' shapeless that" 
in (dhset wAt^R, dhet gRaoj^nd). 

[ 1691 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


NoKTH MoLTON (12 ese.Bamstaple) dt. 

pal. by AJE. from the diet, of J. Abbot Jarman, Esq., New College, Southsea, 
native. The (*) means ** with projected lips." 

1. zoo di zee, meets, jy, zii naoyi' di bi ndtt Bba>'yi*t dha^t dhoB 
b't'l m^^fd ksmin vBBm dha^t dh«B skiyyil oovob. dhaB. 

2. aB)z gw^n da)yi*n dli« Bood dhaB, dByi dli« sbd git [jet] on 
dhB lift a*n ziid, 

3. zhu'B md dht? t|il)z gon stra^'t ap tB dhti dyy^tiB « dhn Ba'q 

4. weeB pra^ps Bhi)l va^ind dlia*t dli«B dhtn dBaqk'n tja^p :tom98 
yyi)z aaBD -o iftsBm. 

5. wi 4*1 noo)n [nooz)«n] vEBt weI. 

6. wont dhB dasl tja^p zyin laaBN aB not t« dyyi it BgEn, puuR dhiq ! 

7. l«k ! beent it tkjji ? 

1. So would not be nsed ; mate$ long f generally is rendered as (&W), as 
would rather be lads, chaps, — I and in D 10, but it may be (&»). 

North Molton phrases, pal. by AJE. from the dictation of J. 
Abbot Jarman, Esq. 

The (*) means ** with projected lipe." 

1. (go vn a^k8)«n), go and ask him. 

2. Cwi bi go'in), we are going. 

3. (DBoo Bt in dLhi a'shez dhaB), throw it in the ashes there. 

4. (tsB za'q DBii bb vao'yi^B zaqz), he (or she) sang three or four songs. 

5. ri£n)z B a^n), lend-us a hand. 

6. ?la*n)z pEit* gyid), land is pretty good. 

7. (i wa)'yi*n Bn Bao'yi^n tz a*n DBii bb vqdVi'b tdimz), he wonnd 

him=iY round his hand three or four times. 

8. (dhe DBaad dhB vil waB dhB wsts waz), they drawed the field 

where the oats was. 

9. (oni won b dhem '1 dyy,), any one of them will do. 

10. TdhB baaB'li mao'jr*), the barley mow. 

1 1 . (oo'yi* oold iz bb ?), how old is he ? 

12. (p^iz dha^t ? B skolBBD), who's that ? a scholar. 

13. (dhB boi rd4t8 b gyid rao'yi*nd a'nd), the boy writes a good 

round hand. 

14. (aV)i got Kni nyyi bryimz, mts'iz ? &U)y got b vyiyi, obao'viH* 

DBii BB va)'yi*B), have you any new brooms, Mistress ? I've 
got a few, about three or four. 

15. (gtt dhi ap dhaB m dhtk dhBB adj, bu ptlL mi dhik dhBB stick, 

wilt ?), get thee up there in that there hedge, and pick me 
that there stick, wilt thou ? 

[ 1692 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


16. (kam tn, tpl, dyi)i, vrx Baki dao'yi'n «n JEt jbbzeI), come in, 

child, do ye, and sit down and heat= warm yourself. 

17. (aloo, dhEn, 3ryi)z ii?), HuUoh, then, who's he? 

18. (a4 bii, dhaoyj* bkt b vyyj, ii)z, wii)m, Jyyi)m en dhee)m 

gd-m), I be, thou art a fool, he's, we're, you're and they're 

NoBTH Devon cwl. 

I words from the cs. from Iddesleigh. 

M words from Mr. Jarman^s wl. from North Molton. 

I. Wessbx and Noese. 

A- 3 M beek. 4 M teek. 6 I m^sk, M meek meekiik 7 M zeek. 8 t« 8e<D 
[to have]. 12 M zaa. 13 M naa. 14 M dnaa. 17 I lee, M laa. 20 M Uem. 
21 M neem. 23 I z^sm, M zeem. 24 sheem. 33 M reedhsR. A: 43 M 
a»n. 46 M ka^nU. 48 M za^q. 42 I seq. 64 I wsnt. 55 M a^sh. 66 I 
w»8h. A: or 0: 60 M loq. 64 I Eao. 

A'- I gwee-in [gomg]. 72 I yy,, M », [probably (yy,)]. 73 I zo. 74 I tyy„ 
M Uf^, 76 M BtrAAk. 76 M tood. 79 I 6ii, M aaii. 81 I l^vn. 82 I wsens. 
84 I m6o9R. 85 M zooa. 86 M wsts. 87 I TLoodhz, M tlooz. 89 I boodh. 
92 I nAA. 94 I kiuia. 96 M draa. 97 M zaaI. A': 101 M ook. 102 I 
seks, M a^ks. 104 M &AAd. 106 M RAAd. 106 M bsAAd. 107 M loof. 108 
MdAA. 109M1AA. HOIhaart. lUlAAt. 113 1 ool. 115 1 6m, M 
om. 117 I wm. 118 M boon. 120 I guu. 123 [(nAAt) used]. 126 I Aiilt, 
M ant. 130 M boot. 131 M goot. 133 M rot. 136 IM adhva. 137 I 
nsdhBR, nvB. 

jE' 138 I faadhBR, M TaadhvR. 140 M iHl 141 M nUih 142 M zneeih 
144 Ivg^im, M Bgin. 162 M waatvR. M: 164 I baek. 166 M dha^ti. 168 
I aRt«R. 161 I dBB'i, M dM. 163 M Uei. 164 M mm. 166 M mieii, 169 
I WBn. 170 aaRait. 172 M g'aa. 181 M paHh. JEf- 182 N zee, 183 M 
tM|. 187 MWt. 190Mk/n. 191 M«fl. 193 M kLvn. 194 I amt, M snt. 
196 M mimi. 197 M tnz. 200 M wM. 202 M JEt. M': 203 M sp^fb. 
206 M DREd. 207 M nid'l. 209 I revbr. 217 M eetj. 218 M shiip. 219 M 
8l^. 220 I zhipvRD. 223 I dh^vR. 226 M vlah. 227 I wst. 228 M zwst. 
— M JEth [heath]. 229 M brsdh. 230 M ra't. 

£- 232 M bR^k. 233 I speek, M sp^k. 236 M weev, 236 M ieeivK, 
237 M t|ibUnz. 238 M a'di. 241 M r^n. 243 M ^Uei, 247 M ween, 261 
M mM. 262 IM ktt'l, teekU'l [tea-kettle]. 263 M nid'l. E: 266 I 
STRetj. 267 M a^dj. 268 M za<di. 269 M wa^di. 261 I zee, M ziei, 262 
wiei, 266 M str^t. 271 I tsl. 276 IM dhiqk. 281 M lEqkth. 284 M 
DRa'sh. 287 M bszvm [generally (br^nn)]. £ - 297 I fiLVR. 298 M tO. 
299 M gRiin. 301 M Uvr. 302 M mit. F: 306 M fiit. 312 I ^br, M 
JRR. 314 I ^VRD, IM JXRD. 316 M Tit. 316 I nsks. 

EA- 319 M gaaip. 320 I VievR, EA: 322 IM laaf. 323 M vAAt. 
324 M kit, 326 M waaUk. 326 I ool, M oold. 327 M boold. 330 I oold. 332 
I tool, M toold. 333 M kjaa^f. 336 M yaaU. 337 M waa4. 338 I kaal. 343 
M waaiRm. 346 M git jst [the last more frequent]. EA'- 347 M sd. 348 I 
ki, 349 I vyyi, M ^, EA': 360 M dEd. 362 M sird. 363 M brad. 
364 M shMf. 366 M dEf. 366 M Uef. 367 IM dhoo. 360 M tiim. 361 M 
heen, 363 M tpp. 366 I gxRT, M ptM, 367 M DREt. 370 M ree. 371 
M strAA. El- 372 M ki ki [(is zGniir), nerer (ki) simply]. 373 M dheei. 
EI: 377 M steek. 378 M week. 

EO- M Ev*n. 386 M jaa. . 387 I nyy„ M ma', EO: 388 M mBLk [so 
it sounded to me]. 389 M jook. 397 M boord. 398 M staRv. 402 M IsRif . 
403 M TaaR. 404 M staaR. 405 M JEth. 406 M SRth. 407 M vaRd'n. 
EC- 411IMDRii. 414Mvlfei. 417 M tiAA. 420 M va'wR. 421 M vaRti. 
EO': 423 M dh&i. 426 M l&tt. 426 M!^f&tt. 428 M zu. 430 M VRsn. 

S.E. Pron. Part ▼. [ 1693 ] 102 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

162 THE WEST SOUTHERN. [D 11, V i, ii. 

434 M b«rt. 436 I jy„ M w'. 436 M trw'. 437 I TByy,th, M TRw'th. 
EY- 438 IM dk». EY: 439 IM xiw's. 

I- 440 IM wik. 441 M zees, 442 M &iTi. 446 IM n&in. 448 IM dheez. 
449 M gtt. I: 458 M ndtt, I d^rt [in the phrase, good-night, only]. 
459 IM R&it. 460 M w<?<rt. 466 IM tjil. 468 M tj»DR»n. 476 M win. 477 
M T&tn. 478 M gr&tn. 479 M w&tn. 480 I thtq dhsq. 481 M viqgBR. 
482 I ♦z)Bt P [is it], T)i,D)'N [it)is)not]. 486 M dRiz'l. 488 M Jtt. I'- 494 
IM t&tm. 499 M bid'l. I': 600 IM l&tk. 606 I wummi, M oo\ dmnra. 
607 M wimtq. 609 I w&ilst. 610 I m&tn. 

0- 619 I ovBR. 620 M bAA. 621 M vool. 622 M op'n. 0: 626, ii. 
I of. 626 M IcAAf. 631 I daatvR. 633 M dal. 634 M aaI. 636 I vok. 
636 M goold. 638 I wed. 639 M boo'yiBl. 641 I waant [emph.]. 642 M 
boolt. 648 M W«Rd. 662 M kARN. 664 M kr^. 0'- 666 M %\a9 shyji. 
656 I tgo/j.- 667 I tOT/i.- 569 M modhBR. 662 M miVin. 664 M zyin. 
0': 669 M buk. 670 M t«k. 671 I gwd. 672 M blxd. 673 M flad. 
674 M bry,d. 676 M styjd. 677 M bso'vi^ 678 M pla)y,». 679 IM Braf. 
683 Mtyil. 686 I dy,. 687 I dyjU. 688 I nyyiU. 689 M spyiR. 690 M 
vIo'br. 694 M by.t. 695 M vvit. 696 M Ry^t. 697 M syjt. 

U- 601 M fao yi*l. 602 M zaD'y^*. 604 I zotibr. 605 I za^n, M zan. 
606 I dfiBR, M doBR. U: 609 M vul. 610 M wwl. 611 M bsilBk. 612 M 
zam. 613 M DRaqk. 616 I gRa)'y,n. 619 I vaD'y^nd. 626 M toq. 629 M 
zan. 631 I dhazde. 632 IM ap. 633 M kap. 634 I DRyyi, M drp. 626 M 
wBth. 639 Mdist. U'- 641 IMao'y.. 643 IM nao'ji. 646 M b«B'y,». 
647 M a)'yi»l. 660 I Bbaoyit. 661 I widhaD'yit. 662 M k«d. U': 668 
IM da)'y,»n. 659 M ta)'y,*n. 663 M aD'yi'^a. 664 M lao'yi^s. 667 IM ©'yjt. 

Y- 680 M bizt. 682 M ltt*l. Y: 684 M baRDj. 686 M Rid|. 688 
M szytj. 691 M m&in[(miin) was given as n.Dy. by Mr. Shelly, see p. 166]. 
Y- 706 IM w&i. r; 711 M loe'yi^ZBZ. 712 M m&ts [(miis) was given 
by Mr. Shelly, see sw.Dy. p. 166], 

n. English. 

A. 732l®p'nd. E. 744 M m^'lz. 760 M ba^g. I. a»kfY. 764 

IM pBg. 758 M ga'l [little used, (tpl)]. 0. 761 M lood. 767 IM nA'is. 
773 M daqk. 790 M gao'yi*n. 791 I b6i. U. 797 I skw^ekin. 798 I 

keteer. 804 I DRaqVn. 806 I fas, M vas. 807 M pyjS. 808 M pat. 

ni. Romance. 

A-- — teedjds [tedious]. 824 M tjiin. 830 M trMu. 836 M B«a*n. 
836 M s«ra'n. 840 M tpmBR. 862 I s^Bf. 864 I kooz. 866 M TAAlt. 

E- 867 Itee, M tA?. 878 M saUBRi. 886 I teri. 888 I zxRten, M 
zaRTin. 890 M bewt [pi. (b^s)]. 894 M d««?v. 896 M Rfs^^. 

I. awrf Y.. — kR&t [cry]. 901 IM v&in. 904 M vo'ilet. O- 916 
M iqinz. 922 M b»«hBl. 923* M mo'ist. 926 I va'is. 929 M k®'yi»kBmBR. 
933 M frant. 938 I kAARNDBR. 939 I kloos. 940 I kot. 941 M vyjl. 947 
Ib6il. 960l8apBR. 966 I daoyit. U- 963 k«4»-Bt. 966 M dU 969 
I zh<^BR, M zhy,BR. 870 I d|Bs, M d|»st. 971 M vly^t. 

Vab. ii. South Devon cs. 

Dartmoor, north of a line from Plymouth to Eingsbridge (17 eee.Plymouth), 
pal. by AJE. from the glossic of Mr. John Shelly, 8, Woodaide, Plymouth, 
a resident for thirty years, who has especially occupied himself with the glossary 
of the dialect, but is a native of Norfolk. Full explanatory notes have been 
given of every point of difficidty, and Mr. S.*s indications are strictly followed. 

0. waa'i :d|an hez noo doe'yts. 

1. weI, soos, jy «ii ii mB booth griz'l Bt dlii8)jB va9Z b maa'm. 
hpp moa'tnz dkEt ? dhEt-s n^^dliB ja nB dhiitiR. 

[ 1694 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

Dll, Vii.] THB WBST SOUTHERN. 163 

2. f09 Yook da'f bikyy-z dhEE)m laaft oet, es haa dhfit ; doont)e8 ? 
waet 8h«d mEE'k)n ? t)Ez)n zb lda«kh*, ez et ? 

3. ^h«mAABR dh^z-JB bu dhB fseks B-dhB kEEs, so d^t's hool js 
baal, 8008, Bn bi kw^aa'rBt tel a't-v B-din. lwk)jjB. 

4. 9'f Bm zhuBB [zImJbr] a'l jaRd)n zee — zam b dhEE vook Bt 
WEnt dhiv^ dha hool dhEq vram dha vaoRst dhBZElvz — dhat dfil 
e'l, zhuuBnaf. 

5. Bt dht? jEq-gest ztn htzsalf*, o gaoRt bA'« bv no'm, nAAd az 
vaa'dhBz voa'ts tB woens, dhof et 'wez zb kweeBU Bn skM?ee*km, Bn 
9'»)d tr*8t 'hii tB speek dhB tiv^th sen-* dee, is 'fEE, a'l w/d. 

6. an dh)ool hwm'an Bsalf* al tEl 8en*« av jyy, at stan griz'lin 
dhiiBE, Bn tEl)i straait Af tyy, adhoe'yt mitj bodh-BR, if jb)1 on** 
8Bk8)B ty, AA, waant-BR ? 

7. ^tfdhBmAABR hBR toold et 'mii waen a'» 8ek8t)B, tyy b dhrtf<? 
taa'tmz, aa'vbr, hBR d£d, Bn *ha)E AAft not ta bii rosq on zit} b 
dhEq)z dhfs, wcet dyy)i z»m ? 

8. weI, ez 'a't wez Bz^^'tn, 'hooR wtd tKl)i hoe'y, wiiBE, Bn waesen 
B foe'yn dhB drak'n b^^st, b kaalth b mEE'csto. 

9. hB zwAABR B zAA)n w* BR AAn oo'»z, laa't'm spw^d Bbraa'd 
on dhB Mh, in ez goed ztwdi kooBt, hoom ta duu* a dha hoe'yz, 
dce'yn ta dha kAAn'dBR b dhiek-it Wn. 

10. a wez kivpzlm, hB z^^, fBu £ial dhB waaRl l^kHtBtjiil dhet)s 
baed, ar a v«n*ed gaoRl. 

11. Bn dhat wez, ez hB k^«n thruu dha bcB'klet widh b 
daatBB)n)laa, vrBm hEq-in oe'yt dhB WEt klooz tB draa'» on b 
WEsh'tn deey 

12. wa'tl dhB kEt'^l wez baa'tlin is tee, wain vaa'in bruBt zim'BR 
aa-tBn^pn, on-i b WEEk Bgoo, kam nEks dhaoRz-di. 

13. Bn dyy)i nAA? a'l neva laaRnd aen-t mAA)n dhis b dhaik-t 
btznts hoom to dhes maanm, zb zhuuB)z md'i neem)z :d|aan :zhep*Bd 
Bn a'l doont waeeent ty, n^^-dha — gwnoe'y. 

14. an zoo a'i)ni gdam om tB zap'BR. igceoed niiBt, Bn doont )i 
bii ZB kwEk tB krAA aa'vb mm agen, w»n a tElth b dhts Bn dhat 
Bn dh)adhBR. 

15. t)ez a too-tlin vyyl, at tslth Bdhoe'yt m<fm-m. Bn dhEt)8 
ma'i IdaBs wad. :goed ba'i ta))i. 


0. why. Mr. S. has given various vowels Mr. S. takes as common; finally 
analyses of this diphthong (a't, ea't, ki, when fully pronounced he acknowledges 
frai). I follow the one chosen in any (r), hut the words arc often much 
paiticalar case. He found a variety in clipped, and then he hears the same 
actual use, but is inclined most to (&'i). effect as in London, a simple (n), but 
See also the followinjg Devonport and it is probably (br) or (b) with the 
Millbrook. — doubts. This diphthong is ton^ie turned up, the difference is very 
also variously indicated, but Mr. S. slight, and Mr. S.*s (b) is here left. 
generally gives (oe'y), following Prince 2. news, AVhen final and emphatic 
L.-L. Bonaparte, and finds a rounding the sound seems to become (y) and (^), 
of the lips in the first element. between which Mr. S. hesitates ; (y^) 

1. »oce. Rarely used in S. Dv., recalls both. Mr. S. being a Nf. man, 
supposed to be a iNf. Dv. word ; it is finds the sound less clear in Dv. than 
plural. — -grizzle or grin; the r before in Nf., and thinks (p) or something 

[ 1696 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

164 THE WEST SOUTHERN. [D 11, V ii. 

between {9) and (7) more common. — nuuter (husband). Obserre the nse of 

because they am for they are. The form the form calleth in eth ; common in Dy. 

rbikyy-z) seems rather to be 6y course, 9. lifin^ spread abroad on the earth. 

lor (BV kyys) is used for of course. — Aow*= close or fully up to. — comer 

3. either -more, that is, however. — ofthaekey (that, yonder) lane. 

bawl or noise.— look. Mr. S. also 10. crewsling = complaining, the 

writes (loek). word is not in the glossaries.— -^«m^s 

4. through. The (dr-) initial seems unwell, sick would mean vomiting. — 
almost lost here, but (dryy) occurs at pinnied, mouldy as applied to cheese ; 
times, also (dreks'l) thieshold. cross or peevish, as applied to children. 

6. though y the (f) is common. — yes 13. good now (last word). Mr. S. 
faith I would. says that he never actually heard 

7. three. This is said to be the this phrase in the neighbourhood of 
ordinary form. Mr. S. has, however, Plymouth, but that it is common in 
heard (drii) once or twiee. — ought. N. and E. Devon. 

Compare though in par. 5. — what do 14. night, no (r) in s.Dv., but see 

you seem ^ think, a common Dv. word. p. 159, note to par. 14. — to crow over 

8. drunken. Observe the northern any one (min) is a common word, 
form (drak'n). — her (she) calleth her 15. totting, dottering^. 

SouTH-WEarr Devon cwl. 

written in Glossic by Mr. J. Shelly, and pal. from that and other indications 

by AJE. 

I. Wessex and Norse. 

A- 3 b^Bk. 4 t^k. 5 m^k. 6 m^ed. 7 s^k. 19 t<^l. 20 l^mn. 21 
nf6«m. 22 t^m. 23 tkma,. 24 zh^vm. 26 meen. 32 baath [as the rec. subst.]. 
33 radhBA. 34 las. 

A: 41 dhaeqk. 43 hsBU. 44 Isen. 46 kan*l. 61 msen. 64 waant. 65 
Bshez. 66 wBsn. A: or 0: 58 vrim vrom. 69 iBsm. 60 loq. 62 straq. 
64 raq. 66 zoq. 

A'- 69 nu. 72 99. 73 zoo [emph., (zb) unemph.]. 74 t^ tyy [emphatic]. 
76 twdBd. 78 aa. 79 aau. 81 leBU. 84 m(iBR mdB&. 87 klooz. 92 uaa. 
94 krAA. 96 dhrAA. 

A': 102 Eks, BBks. 104 rtiBd r6Bd. 106 rAxd. 110 nat. Ill AAft. 116 
hom [h generally sounded]. 117 wau [e.Dv. wsen]. 121 gaan. 122 uaau. 
123 UAthin. 124 ston. 125 ont. 127 boos, boos. 129 goo'wst. 130 boot. 
133 rAAt. — roov [a row or rank]. 

M' 138 vaadhBR. 140 \iee\. 144 BgE-n. 160 l«fflt. 162 waHsR. M: 
160 eeg. 166 zed. 166 m^Bd. 169 wen ween. 173 wbz. 176 fas faz. 179 
waH. M' 182 zee. 183 iecty 184 l^d. 186 teedi. 190 Vee. 192 
m^tfn. 193 Meen. 194 eni. 196 mem. 199 \i\eei. 200 w«H. 202 Jet. 
JE!: 203 spertj. 213 ^tfdhBR [only in eithermore= however]. 216 toot. 216 
diee\. 217 M|. 218 zhtp, zhep. 219 zU^p. 223 dhlBR. 224 wIbr. 226 

E- 232 briik. 233 sp^k. 238 8Bd|. 241 teen. — bnm*l [bramble]. 
248 mliBR. — eft [eat]. 251 meet. E: 267 8pd|. 261 zee. — b^sd 
[a bed]. — twelv [iwelvel. 272 el'm. 280 leb'n. 281 Iwqkth. 284 
OTRsh. E'- 290 hii [empn., gen. (b) unemph.]. 292 mii. 293 ws [emph. 
fos)]. 300 Veep. 301 jsr. 302 niAft. 303 zwe^t. £': 306 di. 306 eft, 
eot. 311 tsn [usually half a score]. 312 jsr. 314 j^Rd. 316 niiBst. 

EA: 322 la^f . 324 kiX s'tt. 325 woak. 328 koald. 336 aal. 336 voal. 
337 waal. 343 waRm. 346 giBt. EA': 347 h^. 348 ki b'L 349 v^. 
EA': 360 deed. 362 ORd. 365 diif diiv. — tai [verb], tiki [subs, in bed-tie, 
the local name for feather-bed]. 361 bffn. 363 tjeep. 371 strsBstraa. 

EI- 373 dhff. EI: 378 week. EO- 383 zeeVn zeb'n. 386 bin^eth, 
bineedh. 387 n^. EO: 338 mtlk. 390 shid. 402 laRU. 406 ^eBth. 
407vaRd*n. £0'- 411 dhree. 412 shii [emph. obj. (br teld -shii tB duet)]. 

[ 1696 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

Dll, Vii.] THK WEST SOUTHERN. 165 

414 Tl&t, YlB't. 417 tfB'u. 420 yaavr. EO': 425 Wit [rarely (liivt)]. 
430 Trind. 434 bM. 436 j^ [gen., iinemph. (i) meaxiiiig y^ P]. £Y- 438 
ddai [very much drawled]. £Y: 439 trist. 

I- 440 we#k. 446 ndin [drawled]. — pea p««z*n [pea peafll. 449 git. 
I: 452 a'i, &t. 455 ]ki Is't. 458 no^it [rarely (niivt) as m e.Dv. J. 459 ro'tt 
[correct, but (ast^ straightl. 460 w<v*jt. 462 za'tt. 465 siif z«t|. 466 tj[i«l. 
— gild [a guild]. 473 bid'in bl&ind. 475 wind. 476 bwaind, fooo.] bo'ind. 
477 Win. 479 w&ind. 485 dsBsh*!. 488 Jit. — zeks [occ. ziks]. — het 
[hit]. I'- 490 hki bi'i. 491 aa'if. 493 dra^. 499 biVl. I': 500 
lo'ik [rarely (l^k)]. 502 T&iv. 503 la'iv. 505 wo'iv [rarely used]. 506 

0- 522 AAp^n. 523 hAAp. — baRn [bom]. 524 ws&d*l. 0: 528 
tboft [subdt.] thoft [vb.]. 531 dootsR [rarely (dofteR)]. 534 hAAl. 538 wid, 
id. 552 kaiin. 554 kraas. 0'- 555 sh^. 560 sW. 562 m^n Jjperham 
more iren. (mTyn)]. 664 zyn [yery short, or (zin)]. 666 nxAZ. fx: 569 

gen. (myyn)]. 664 zyn [very short, or (zin)]. 6W 
570 t^k. 671 g^. 572 h\A. 575 stod. 576 

b^k. 570 t^k. 671 g^. 572 bU. 575 stod. 576 WBUzdi. 582 k^l. 
584 stMii, 585 brym bnwm [more gen. (yy)]. 586 dyy, d^. 587 din. 588 
BJtn. 589 sp^m. 590 [(plflenshin) that is, planning, is used for floor]. — bozvm 
[bosom]. 594 bH. 595 y#t. 

U- 699 tibyy*. 606 d6<f9R, U: 608 ngli. 616 poe'yn. 618 woe'ynd. 
619 voe'yn. 620 grce'vu. 629 zin. 636 Tddhvn. U'- 640 koe'y. 641 oe'y. 
643 noe'y. — plim [plum]. 662 kid, kyd. 653 bit. U': 656 rmn, 
659 toB'yn. 663 hoe'ys. 

T- 674 dad. 677 drdi. T: 684 baadi. 685 SBdi. 686 hdi. 689 
bild. — kiinli [kindly]. 691 m&in [(miind) in e. and n.Dv.]. T'- 706 
wao'i [occ. (wd9)J. 712 [(miis) at Totness and in n.Dv.]. 

n. English. 

A. 718 trMd tr6vd. 737 mhi. I and T. 754 peg. U. — pud'n 
[pudding]. ^- bish [bush]. 

m. EoMAircB. 

A •• 815 faks. 842 plaensh. 852 Mpmi. — mantprnt [merchant]. 864 
b6aBl. 864 bikM*z. £•• 867 t^r. — zauY [serve]. l-andY'910 
d|99'i8t. 0- — reb [rob]. 916 i-qira. — djkHn [join]. 922 bish'l. 
938 kAAudisR. — zant [sort]. 941 vyyl. 952, i. kyys, ii. Ems fhence probably 
(bike's) by course, in or of course, used for because, see 864J. 956 IdvuR. 
U- 960 lue, — d|td| [judge]. — pupit [pulpit]. 969 zhchiK. 970 
d|ist dies. 


B is not omitted after m, except in (brim^l) bramble, and when final. 

Ch remains except occasionally in rkist) chest. 

D remains after n, but is omitted after oi in {oo\ kool) old cold, it is inserted 
in fkAAndvn) comer, dd does not become (dh) when medial as in ladder. 

F initiaJ is often (▼). 

H is seldom dropped, according to Mr. Shelly, but sometimes prefixed in emphatic 
words, and replaced by (j) in (jet, jsefBn, JsefBl, joe'yl) heat, heifer, handful, 

L is never dropped, and -Im final becomes often two syllables as (elvm f ilam) 
elm film especially in e.Dy. 

N becomes / in (ii'vlin jii'vlin) evening. 

£ is (r) only when dwelled upon, Mr. Shelly not feeling sure that it is really 
pronounced, he says he heard 200 children singing ** send her victorious, 
nappy and glorious '* and could detect no r at all. If seems probable that he 
had not separated (a, s, «) simpl]^, from these sounds as mooified by turning 
up the tongue, which alters tneir character. I have consequently, as the 
result of much correspondence, introduced (r) freijuently in the preceding list 
and C8. although in his first writing he omitted it. As I was a considerable 

[ 1597 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

166 THE WEST SOUTHERN. [D 11, V ii. 

time myself before I could recognise this verj peculiar modification, I can 
well appreciate his difficulty. My own impression is that it is always reverted 
or retracted, even before rowels, and when preceding t, d, », I reverts or retracts 
these also. But these cases I have left unmarked. The following cases, 
where Mr. S. marks the absence of r, may therefore be marked, as m otiier 
S. cases, as having a transposed r, (ksBzmBS gs&t gaats eepBBn a&t| bzBd 

I houses bottles peas. 
t) whistle, castle, thistle, 
wrestle, often ; act, fact. 

Th, there is *' a general tendency to substitute (dh) for (th), as (dhtq) for (thiq)." 
V is lost in (eii) give, and becomes (b) in (zeb'n) seven, it never becomes (w). 
W is omitted before r and in (hMd, hMmBu) wood woman ; would is (wtd) ; wh is 

always (w). 

My especial thanks are due to Mr. Shelly for the great assistance which he has 
^ven me and the work he has done for me in sw.Dv., from 1868 to 1886, con- 
tinually attending to every point of difficulty which arose. It will be perceived 
that he is maiiUy corrol>orated from Devonport and Millbrook, the differences 
being simply those of appreciation, and that the real differences in n. and s., e. and 
w.Dv. and e.Co. are not sufficient to form districts for, but are mere varieties of 
BubstantiaUy the same dialect. 

Dbvonpobt by Plymouth dt. 

Town pron., pal. by AJE. from the diet, of Mr. John Tenney, Chancery Audit 
Office, native, compared with that of Mr. J. B. Bundell, native, see Millbrook. 

1. 800^ ce'i 8^e», msEts, jfji* stV noo'yi*, dhBt se'i hi r^a'it «bao'yi*t 
dha't lit*l meetd kamin fr^t?m dhs skiiBl [skyyi*!] ov«b dh^BB. 

2. 8hii)z [arjz] gdeen dQo'yi*n dh« r,oa**d [t^6 *wi] dheBr^ thr^yyi* 
dhB r^td g:EEt on atm lift a*nd BflB^id uv dhB weet. 

3. shoo* "Br, naf dhB tjU)z gAAn str^e'it op tyi* dhB d(w**Br^ bv dhB 
r,oq 0B'yi*8. 

4. w^BT^ pr,a*p8 8hii)l [ar^)lj fse'ind dha*t dr^aqkm diif dr^aeVd 
op IkIb kAAld rtomas. 

6. wi [as] n6z)'n vet/ we^'l. 

6. wo)nt dh» oo**l t}a*p syi^n teetj)Br, not tyi* dyyi* it BgSEn, 
poo**Br^ thtq. 

7. lyyi»k ! EE)nt Bt tr.yyi'^ ? 


Observe that {o^^tjf) mean (o\ yj character in Mr. R.'s. — now. This 

with prelected lips. The letters o, p, q diphthong was precisely the same as at 

are callea (oo**, jpii, Imrj*), but coal is Iddesleigh, both for Mr. T. and Mr. 

called (lud). Mr. T. himself noted K., though perhaps less forcible in the 

that in so you it was necessary to s. than m the n. — right. The r in 

project the Ups considerably to bring Mr. T.'s pron. was treated very much 

out the sound. like the London r as I at first appre- 

1. /. The analysis of long f is not ciated. But after attentively examin- 

perfect. I write as I seemed to ing Mr. K.*s, I concluded that his was 

observe. Mr. T.*s varied between (©'i) retracted (rj and not reverted (a), and 

and (a'i). Mr. Bundell seemed gencr- tliis agreea with Mr. R.*s own appre- 

ally to use the latter. Perhaps both elation, see Millbrook. As both Messrs. 

meant (&*i) at all times. — you. This T. and K. were natives of Devonport, 

seemed to be diphthongal in Mr. I concluded that Mr. T.*s had oeen 

T.'s speech. I did not observe tliis more reduced to the London level. — 

[ 1598 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D 11, Vii.] 



iehooi, I appreciated (skCiBl), and Mr. 
T. wrote skooul. But Mr. K. decidedly 
had (slnryil), which would be the 
regular form. 

2. $h€ is and her is are quite inter- 
changeable. Mr. T. wrote shee-z, and 
Mr. R. ur-z.—through. Both Mr. T. 
and Mr. R. gare (thr^) and not (dr^-) 
in this word. Rev. H. 8. Wilcoclu of 
Stoke, which adjoins Beyonport, gave 
dr^j which is certainly the purer form, 
though Mr. T. said he had heard 
(thr-) five miles ftway in the country. 

3. enough, Mr. T. had never heard 

enow. —child, Mr. T. says (tpil) is 
used for either sex. 

4. dried up^ because shrivelled is not 
used, but (shrj is used, as (shrimps, 
shr,Hb). — calUd. This word would oe 
used, ffam« s=(nBBm). 

6. ehap is not often used, (ma%) is 
more common ; a woman will speak of 
her husband as (maB't tja^p") ; the man 
generally speaks of his wife f^ (m»\\ 

as (msB^ 
«), buf ((w*^l^d)amBn) may also be 
heard. — thingt with (th-) in town and 
(dh-) in countoy. 


2 sw.Plymouth, on the other side of the Hamoaze. Specimen written in 

flossic by Mr. J. B. Rundell, of the Science and Art Department, South 
[ensington, who lived there as a boy from 4 to 10, and Ims had frequent 
opportunities of refreshing his memory. Pal. by AJE. from w. instruction in 
1885. The specimen is supposed to be a dialogue between two persons A and B, 
and is constructed so as to bring in the principal peculiarities. The pron. is 
thorough s.Dv., and Mr. Rundell states that having had occasion to visit 
Padstow in Co., he was surprised to find the speech practically the same. 

1 A. gyid mar^tn tyi)i, neelrar,. jyOm op brev;Bii)ar^f dliis 
mar^ntn. w^bf, bii Bgween tyi zo zyin ? 

2 B. AA ! gjid margin tji Jyyi, ma'* diw^ ! wa'i, Jji zii var^imw^ 
:obzez t|iil)z Btjik b»d w*dh dhB meez*lz, Bn 9't)m gween dao'jin 
tao'yin tji doktw^ ^'jiS tji vEtj)'n varj'n. 

3 A. AA ! ar,)z Bgot dhB mecz'lz Ev)Br, ? [aeth Br,), arjz Ijikt 
kryj wisht var, dhis var^tna'it paest. Br^ modnBr^ to'ul mi Br, kyid'n 
git Br, tyi eet nothm Bn bf, waz bz week)8)B raebni. 

4 B. »s, q'% zid var^mBr, :abz htzsBlf tstBRde, 8bz eV wez in dhB 
viil dr^ee'tn tHr;mBts, Bn)i)zBd i thoft i mas keel «n dhB daktBr,. oz 
o't WBZ Bkomin op dhB leen djw na)'yi e'l mEt)'n BgE-n, Bn i eekst 
mi tyi go vArJ'n tyi wonst. 

5 A. jyi)d bEtBr, mEk eest dh'n. shtl e't zii)i b8't)m)bo't in dhB 
cevnm aet dhB trdltwrqk? Bn wii)l bv b pe'tnt bv sweeps tBgtdhBr,. 


1. good. The sound was decidedly a 
deeper (y), approaching {9), in some 
cases almost (»), — morning^ the (n) was 
decidedly retracted and not reverted, it 
was very faintly marked, not nearly 
so strong as at Iddesleigh. — neighbour^ 
the (ee) did not seem to approach (««), 
and there was no suspicion of a following 
(*j).— -yoM^m, you am, the regular con- 
versational form. — t(p, this form (o^, 
Ap, AAp) seems to run through tlus 
group, I) 10 and 11, and indeed occurs 
also m D 4. 

2. my, this (a't) was the nearest 
approach I could make to this diphthong, 
which was certainly not (ftt), and not 
even (fe'i), before mutes, but became so 
before sonants, as white ^ wide (wa'tt, 
w&td^ . — down town house j at first hearing 
this oiphthong sounded to me as (o'm) and 
it was not tul after close examination 
and continual repetition that I was con- 
vinced the sound was (odVi*). See the 
remarks on Iddesleign (p. 158) ; the 
action of the mouth was identical with 
that there described, wide open for the 

[ 1699 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



[D ll,Vii, iii. 

fint element, with the lips closed nearly 
and projected for the second. — house 
with final (s) not (z), to doctor's house 
to fetch him for him. 

3. her^ used either for he or she. Mr. 
B. did not know of the distinction («, 
vk) hsy she. — wisht^ whished, poorly, 
haggard. — toldy here I think the diph- 

thong was {9*u) or (tfii), it was certainly 
not ^'yi). — rohtHy the bird. 

4. <irau^fi^, i.e. pulling up, ^MTMtjw. — 
thought y the form (thaft) with (f ) is Tery 
common. — tit onecy the sound seemed 
more like (wonst) than anything else. 

5. ^ ofM^ ^tf, ^MUiu^itXsmaU public- 
house or beershop. 

Vak. iii. e.Co. 

Camelfobd (14 w.Laukceston) dt. 

pal. by AJ£. from dictation of Miss Ada Hill, natire, student at 
Whitelands, June, 1881. 

1. zoo &i zee^ m6«ts, ju zii m^'u dhtit ii bi xkii isbe'tit dhat Itt'I 
gSRL kamm from dhekt sku^l. 

2. aB)z 9 gu'tn da'tm dh« r6«d dhsB thniu dhv rsd g^ on dh« 
Isft han 8d»d q dh« wee. 

3. shooB Bnoou dh« i^d)z g&n street ap te dhv doBB v dh« roq 

4. wubxb)! bi 14tk to f&ind dhekt diaqk'n diif wtz'nd fslQ v dhv 
n^Bm « :tom98. 

5. SB AAL no0)«n vBrt weI. 

6. want dliQ ool t^ap zun teetj [lasN] an not te du)it vgtii [«g^], 
puoB dhtq ! 

7. l«k ez)'nt [Kl)'nt] »t trwi* ? 


1. ma(M, (ssni), not (ztm), is com- 
monly used in place of ' mate,* even to 
old people. — nowy I wrote (9'i#) from 
dicti^on, but do not feel at all certain, 
because of my initial mistake for Mill- 
brook (p. 167 note on doum)^ that it 
was not (ao'yi^), here and at St. Colomb 
Major notwithstanding the different 
anaiysiB. — / be^ so gei^rally, Miss H. 
never heard Vs (see Cardynham) nor 
/ arcy but she knew we^m you^m for 
we arCf you are, — ^tr/, Miss H. had 
heard (gniD*l), (meed) maid, is common 
enouffh for a younf girl under twelve, 
(t|iila) is only used for children before 
they can speax properly, and she did not 
know of its exclusive confinement to 
girls. She, however, uses it generally 

The two following dt. are given with much hesitation, but they 
are the best I could obtain, and the writers had taken so much 
trouble that I thought it best to insert them. 

in par. 3. — that, (dhekt) a very common 
word. — school, not (8kyy,l), there was 
a tendency towards (u) shewn by (u^). 
I got schule sheur from Padstow. 

2. through, Miss H. was confident 
that it did not become ^druu n^J^t 
although (DRii) takes the place of (thni), 
see also Millbrook. I got drew from 

3. enough, ''(«na*f) is also heard, 
not (toH)." 

4. wizened, shrivelled not known, 
but (shr-) initial is used. 

6. chap is properly a young fellow 
who works in the quarries, called also a 
** quarry nipper.*' — thing, think, both 
have imtial (oh). 

[ 1600 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D 11, V iii.] 



Caedt^nhaic (3i ene.Bodmin). 

dt. from a verj careful translation in io. with long aq. by Mr. Thoe. H. Cross, 
national schoolmaster, not a native, but much of my interpretation remains 
conjectural. The pronunciation was obtained by Mr. Cross from an old 
labourer whose family had been 150 years in the parish. 

1. zoo vfi zee, boiz, j^ji zii iie'ii, vt a't)m rait b^ dh»k» let'l 
meed kamtm frsm dhe skuiil JindoE. 

2. sai)z vgdm dE'un dhikt rovd dh{«E thru dhe rad gfvt vn dhe 
lift been sdid «y dhe wee. 

3. shoOT tmrf dhv t|il vz gA'tm strM op te door w dhe raq b'us. 

4. wf«E eE wil t^na te vend dhtkt droqken dif wizend felBE by 
dhe nivm w :tsnn«8. 

5. VLB ool nooz VR wvri wel. 

6. w^^t dhtki 6tfld sinf b^ud. teet| shi nat tv d^yi)et gen, puuE 

7. lak 8» ! Ed)'n)ft truu ? 


1. $0, 9ay, The initial (s) was 
written in these two words only, not 
in §oon and tide. This may haye been 
an oy^rsight. — hoys, written bo'Oifs, 
which, judging from other spellings, 
may mean (boiz), but (b6iz) seemed 
the more prooable sound. — yoM written 
ya-ew ana explained '* a as in hater, u 
as French «, ya-M quickly." — notr, ex- 
plained *'same sound a, Ofc^ as in cow, 
pronounced ouickly, the a yenr distinct." 
— that, the abridged form (ti), said to be 
" yery common." — / am written <n um 
with the yariant /'«, which is also stated 
to be *<yery common, more so than <n 
um:* In 1865 TH. heard (di)z)a*d) I 
haye had, from a miner from Gwennap 
(3 se.Redruth), but that is in D 12. I 
conjecture that ot, which was used in 
riffkt tide, meant (a'i). — wehool written 
tkole, altogether doubtful. — yonder, Mr. 
C. says he neyer heard yinder till he 
came here, but has often noticed it. 

8. ** ehsel is the term for girV* 

4. Jind, the form vefid was unex- 
pected. — drunken written dro-un-ken 
and said to be so pronounced, which 
is so unlikely that I haye not yentured 
to giye it. Mr. C. may haye meant 
that was substituted for ti, as in 
the next note, see also (op) written 
op for up, 

5. all, *' there is a remarkable 
presence of the letter o which giyes 
the word the sound of (h)ole," but he 
writes o-all, so his dro^un-ken may 
indicate a vubstitution. — very, Mr. C. 
has neyer heard (w) for (y) in anj 
other word, *'ana in this case it is 
only in slight use," it is probably 
an error. 

6. MMiiy, commonly used as an address, 
but said to haye been obtained from a 
labourer in this phrase. 

The r I haye left unmarked before a 
yowel, from pure uncertainty. 

St. CoLuiCB Majob (11 wsw.Bodmin) 

and about ten miles round ; dt. written by Mr. T. Bogers of the St. Wenn 
National School, Bodmin, with the help of the members of the Beading 
Boom, in which each portion of the dt. was discussed. The original io. 
was difficult to understand, and although Mr. B. kindly furnished yery full 
explanations, I cannot be quite sure that I haye always interpreted them 
xi^tiy in the following pal. translation. 

1. SI zoo 6i Bizee, komrw'dz, d)i sLzii nodo dhwt di)m rdtt hodot 
dhtki itVl me^ kamtn frBm dh« sk^ouiil JAAndvr. 

2. 8hii)z geen. dodon dhv rood dhfiBE dniu dhv rEd geet on dhv 
lift haen B|^z^id ov dh« wee. 

[ 1601 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




3. B(^ziuB naf dh« f^d)z gon strdit Kp ts diks duvR oy dks raeq 

4. wivBB, Bh)»l i^eens te vdin dhtkt dsaqkin dfisf skruuad Mb oy 
dhv neeBm ov itomvs. 

5. wi aal nA tm wEl)B)fatn. 

6. wsent dh)ool l^p 8[^zuun t^ vb iiEt te dau)9t vgEn, puuvR 

7. Ittk! Edynt)et triu ! 


1. «o «ay Mtf. These were said to 
begin with (s) followed by a faint 
sound of (z), in that case they would 
form the transitional sound from (z) to 
fs). — / right. The phonographic sign 
lor (&•) was given, but the actmd 
analysis of the diphthong is conjectural. 
^eomradca^ witn the accent on the 
second syllable, the usual word for 
' mates.*— now about^ etc. The diph- 
thong, written nHSvo^ was exploinea as 
<*o in not or innorate, but rather 
short, ow as sparrou^.*' This gives the 
transcription (nooo). For bout^ down^ 
AouM,Mr. R. used these spellings, and 
said of house '* om as in sparrou^, with 
the prolonged slightly.^ It seems 
to me that the analysis is certainly 
wronff, and that (a'w), heard from 
Cameiford, is more correct. But the 
explanation was so explicit I felt bound 
to adopt it.— i'm "is used in such 
sentences as * I'm ^n iA town,' / be 
in answering questions, as: 'are you 
one ? e«s I be,' not * I am.* ''^ right. 
*^ The r is trilled in many cases, droo 
for instance. A big boy in school once 
said to me, * how many dree hapences 
in dreppens,* with a trill on each r, 
the pomt of the tongue touching the 
^ums of the front teeth of the upper 
jaw and then vibrating. But when r 
occurs at the end of a word, it is not 
trilled, as far as I am aware, but the 

tongue is withdrawn back to the throat 
in pronouncing it. In droo there is a 
trill, in drunken not, the tip of the 
tongue touching the teeth [for d ?] and 
then withdrawing. In etriie and trew 
there is a slight trill in the first word, 
and a strong one in the aecond.—etrite. 
The front part of the tongue touches 
the roof of the mouth in front ; the tip, 
the top of the gums in the lower jaw, 
and the ton^e is drawn backwards, 
and the tip lifted upwards at the same 

2. trew. The tongue (tip) touches 
the |^:uins in front in the upper jaw, 
and is then quickly withdrawn back to 
the throat past its normal position in 
the mouth.^' This would generally 
indicate (r,, b) with occasionaJ (r, ^r). 
Under these circumstances I have re- 
tained (r^ before a vowel, but used (r) 
final.— yrom or (vrwn, f i vrwn) .— school. 
This was written «A^d2, and explained 
to be 0, as in not^ but ver^ short, 
followed by 0, as in hoot.* This I have 
endeavoured to render by fsk^atiul), 
but I think that this is probably wrong. 
Perhaps he meant (ska;'uul), a gene- 
rating sound of (skyy,l), but everything 
is uncertain. I gBuerally got sehule, 
ekewl in io. firom Co. 

3. enough^ * the /strongly accented.' 
6. her^ ^she \B but rarely used fw 


Although these examples of e.Co. leave mucli to be desired, they 
evidently shew a dying out of Dv. forms, and the characteristic (r, 
yi) are more or less implied. 

[ 1602 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 

D 12.] THB WB8T SOUTHERN. 171 

D 12 = w. WS. = western West Southern. 

Boundary. On the e. the w. b. of D 11 from Ealmouth Harbour 
to Pirran Bay (p. 156) b. are made up of the bw. coast of Co. 

Area, The w. of Co., to the w. of Truro, together with the 
Scilly Islands (24 wsw. Land's End). 

AuthorititM. See County List under the following names, where * means ty. 
per AJE., t per TH., ** in lo. 

Co, ^fOwennap, *Marazion, * Penzance, °St. Just, ®St. Stithians. 

Character. None can be given. The mode of speech is said to 
Tary much from place to place, not more than ten or twelve miles 
apart, and most of the WS. characters seem to have disappeared. 
Down to 200 years ago some Cornish was still -spoken in these 
regions. How the change to English came about, I do not know, 
but it was clearly not imported from the e., because we find 
scarcely a vestige of Dv. phraseology or pronunciation. The 
miners, who abound, are a mixed race. Many words of Cornish 
origin remain. The phrases used are picturesque, and the spelling 
which the dialect-writers of west Cornish have adopted is also 
rather picturesque than phonetic. It would be necessary to study 
the pronunciation of each neighbourhood on the spot from the 
mouths of natives, and for such a haphazard speech as appears to 
prevail, this would be hardly worth while. At the same time, any 
tolerably complete view would demand too much space. 

Tregellas, as quoted by Mr. T. Q. Couch ("East Cornish Words"), 
remarks on the peculiar sing-song of the West Cornwall speakers, 
and its lessening and alteration in character on proceeding east- 
ward, through Trevednack (? Towednack, 2 sw. St. Ives), St. Ives (7 
Bsw. Penzance), Hayle (4 se.St. Ives), and Camborne (4 wsw. Red- 
ruth), and says that, ** e. of Camborne, even at Eedruth, the 
natural accent has died away, nor is it again heard from the more 
guttural speakers of Bedruth, Gwennap (3 se. B.), and St. Agnes 
(6 n-by-e.R.). But . . . the miner of Perranzabuloe (7 nnw. Truro) 
expresses himself uniformly in a full note higher than his adjoining 
parish of St. Agnes, and no sooner have you passed Cranstock (8 
wsw. St. Columb Major) and Cubert (2 s.Cr.), and entered into St. 
ColomVs," than you begin to hear Tz-) for (s-), in first to a small 
and then to a large extent. This agrees precisely with Mr. 
Hodge's b. of e. and w. Cornwall passing between Cranstock and 
Cubert, and here adopted (p. 166). 

Mr. William Noye kindly wrote me a version of the cs. for 
Penzance, and I took it down from his dictation in 1873. In 1876 
I went over it with Mr. Bawlings, of Hayle, who was exceedingly 
well acquainted with the speech of his neighbourhood. He differed 
from Mr. Koye in a great number of particulars, and foimd the cs. 
so ill adapted for exhibiting the west Cornish peculiarities, that he 
re-wrote a portion of it, which I pal. from his diet, in Feb. 1876. 
It seems, therefore, advisable to limit any examples to this par- 
ticular specimen, which, as will be seen, is founded on the cs. He 
locates his yam in Marazion (3 e.Penzance), and entitles it 

[ 1603 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 





1. :d|8ek'i :t«zaiz sEd: oo\ 'hii 
leeaef ! hi dtd*'nt Isesef wen q rand 
vwee* l&Bst krez*m9B frem thv 
giiz-d^ensBz, vn ssd tu an :m8el*i 
iptilgreen, dhvt hii)d slid v pis'kt. 
*hii Bd'nt wath v snaf ! 

2. sid)'n, dtd'shi ? draqk it 
spooz? krdi'mtu? zeek'li Id^'n ! ! 
niu, 6i)l tsl'i :d|^«mz, &i nsv'o 
ldik)'n — AA-lez krdid m dh« 
roq pl^^I 

3. &i w«z ddirn tu imidhitsn 
m»t''n l^vst sandtf, «n aqk'l :tom 
:TE8'nt priit|t vbaiit dhv p^iis 
:8Bm8ertt«n — ^wi hsBd v klab fiist 
dhc dee vtoo\ «n •Bam)«v)Bz iit 
«naf • fe djEn-t'lmen — wi dh« 
woz'nt a drdi &i en dhv mit'n, 
SBpt *hiiz. 

4. 800 di Bsd tu* Bn : **hau8Br)'i 
800 ankBnsaa*nd ?" 

5. vn SBZ hii: *':d|8ek*i, « do'nt 
bmsaa-n *mii, kAAz &. do'nt hV m 
jo' pser'ish. 6i oo*nli st^ afte 
dhv klab fiist, kAAz &i w«z a U'tl 

6. 8BZ tc 8ii-«n ob)'m, hi wud'n 
kam mtB *m^ hdus «n not bi 
siid ! 6n' :meeTi tdold mi oo-nlt 
:man*de iib'min,hii'*rm obaut dho 
tsen'tnsmz « ktkt sp ddun to 
:1^a1^ :tdiui ; 

7. " ez**nt hsesef « maen," sez 
8hii, **hii-l gaz'l aaI dhB ltk« hi 
kvn hft^ tsn skr^, vn o d« p^ 
noo'bvdt. sam d« s^tf hi sd'nt 
paattk'lB «baut t^'ktn whot sd'nt 
ez oon. dhv klooz « heed on o 
nBy*9 -peed dha psekmeen fA.. on di 
wttd'nt," 8EZ shii, "tras'n »n 
iuT eel l^Mm'bB b&i isself. 

8. "di bliiv »f hii-d noth-m 
iit'm A dit'qk'in, hii-d t^k « lamp 
« shttg'Q int 9 dhe n(«rtz k«^. 
ii neT*9 siid e fBl'o IdikVn f9\T 
iit'tn, 8Ept ditqk'm, 6i bhiv hii-z 
laik « kloom'sn kast, hii-z hol'v 
ddun tB htz tooz." 

1. John Tresise said: Oh! he 
Uugh ! he didn't langh when he ran 
away last Christmas ntnn the Kuise- 
dancers, and said to annt Molly 
Pol^rain, that he*d seen a piskey. 
He isn't worth a snuff ! 

2. Saw-him, did-sheP dmnk, I 
suppose? Crying too P Exactly 1^- 
him! Now, I'U tell)yoa, James,.! 
never liked)lum— always cried in ihe 
wrong place ! 

3. I was down at Mithian meet* 
in^, last Sunday, and uncle Tom 
Vincent preached about the poor 
Samaritan — we had a cluh feast 
the day before, and tome of us ate 
enough for gentlemen ->and there 
wasn"t a dry eye in the meeting, 
except he's. 

4. So I said to-him : " How are* 
you so unconcerned P" 

5. And says he : <* Jacky, he doesn't 
concern me^ because I don't live in 
your parish. I only stayed after 
the club-feast, hecause I was a little 
fuddled with beer." 

6. As to seeing of)him, he wouldn't 
come into my house and not be 
seen ! Our Mary told me only 
Monday evening, hearing about tho 
tantrums he lacked up down to 
Church Town ; 

7. *' Isn't half a man," saTs 
she, "he'll guzzle all the liquor ne 
can hitch and scrape, and he do pay 
nobody. Some ao say he isn't 
particular about taking what isn't 
his own. The clothes ne had on he 
never paid the packman for. And I 
wouldn't," says she, "tmst-him in 
our hall chamber by himself. 

8. **l believe if he'd nothing 
eating or drinking, he'd take a lump 
of sugar out of the canary's cage. 
I never saw a fellow like-him for 
eating, except drinking, I believe he's 
like an earthenware cat, he's hollow 
down to his toes." 

[ 1604 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 



1. guite daneer$. Christmas mom- and the trill of r, and h^r is used for 
mers, dancers in fancy guise.~at<ii^ he, a southern importation. Of course 
This '* aunt ** is said to haye been the the joke is a very ancient one, Cornwall- 
usual mark of respect for the Virgin ised for the occasion. 
Mary. It reminds one of the American 6. Church 7W», the name always 
negro Uncle and A.}mt.-~piskeif, meta- given to the place where the church is. 
thesis for (pik'si) ptxy or fairy, as 7. pttekmany the pedlar who carries 
(waeps) for waspy etc^tnuf^ namely, round a pack of cloth for sale. — hall- 
a candle-snuff, the most worthless chamber, the chief room of the house is 
thing he could think of. so called, however small it may be. — 

3. Mithian is a small curacy 6 nnw. himself , but written '* A^rself.'* See 
Truro. — meeting^ that is, a Non- her for he in par. 6. 
eonformist chapel or preaching house. 8. ifhe^d nothing, etc., that is, if he 
— unelCf a title of respect, see aunt, was not engaged in eating or drinking 
par. l.^pooTt a little confusion be- someiMng,^ earthenware, (kloom) is 
tween the *'good** Samaritan and the a common Cornish word for earthen- 
unfortunate man he relieved. — he's ware. A common red earthen pitcher 
apparently for hie, but it may have with two handles is called (b kloom 
been only (biz) for (htz) ; the common bMS'«), where the ^w) is |>eculiar, per- 
'isaen is not used here. haps a («, ' 

5. Se, the (v) is her, less the aspirate it like an \ 

hisaen is not used here. haps a (mJ, and I occasionally heard 

As this was a w. specimen of pronunciation, I have extracted 
some of the principal words, and I have also taken those given by 
Miss Courtney in the introduction to her "West Cornwall Glossary." 
But I am quite unable from both, and also from looking over many 
books of West Cornish tales and rhymes, to make out any satis- 
factory characteristics. There appear, however, to be some traces 
of D 11 from e.Co. and Dv., as 1) the metathesis of s and consonant 
in (ptskt, klceps, hseps) pixy, clasp, hasp ; 2) the use of (*n) for 
ace. him, it; 3) (tjil) for a girl ; 4) the neutral infinitive in (-i) as 
(digi, hseki, peenti, WAAki) to dig, hack, paint, walk. Miss 
Courtney also adduces the use of (bii, beent, ii hi, bii-i ?) for am, 
is-not, I am, are you ? ; but they do not seem to occur in the 
literature, and the disuse of he was one of the marks by which Mr. 
Hodge was enabled to draw the line between e. and w.Co. 

West Coshish cwl. 

Unmarked generally or marked R, words from Mr. Rawlings^s example. 
C words for the Land*s End and adjacent districts from introduction to Miss 
Courtney's Glossary, conjecturally palaeotyped. 

I. Wesskx and Nobse. 

A- 8 C haeaBV. 30 C kin. 34 l^twt. A: or 0: 61 C wno-q. 64 roq. 
A'- 92 C UAA. A': 123 nothtn. -5:- 141 C n^cl. 143 C t^el. 
^: — C hieps [hasp]. JE'- 182 C see. 193 C kl«Ti. M: — 
iihmin [evening]. 249 C wIb [according to Westlake]. — iit [eat]. 251 C 
mM. E: 263 «wee. fr- 290 hii [strong], b [weak]. 296 C bleev. 

302 C mit, R mi-t'n [meeting]. E': 314 hiBd. EA: 322 \scsit. 334 
haesBf & C. 338 C VsmsL EA'- 348 C ki. — An [ear]. EA': 366 C 
geet. EO; — j»1b [yellow]. 406 C«ath[ Westlake, also (Icrth)]. EY: 439 
tras)'n [trust him]. I: 466 C t|il. 482 Ed)'nt [b*nt]. — trips [crisp]. 

[ 1605 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 


I': 500 l&ik. 0: 626 ob)'m [of him]. 633 C diiL 641 C WMtt. 646 

fA. 0'- — C gTAA [grow]. 0': — C huiik [hook]. — C huud [hood]. 

U- 603 C Inium. U: 636 nvth. U- 641 hau. U': 668 d&tm. 

Y-' — kiit [a kite]. 

n. English. 

A. — nlBTt [canary]. — C klfiepa [clafipl. E. — C biit fpeat]. — C 
ekiin [skeinl. I. and Y. — piekt [pixyj. — BhsTB [sbiverj. TJ. — 
fwdUd [fuddled]. 804 draqk. — pMzT [to puzde]. 

m. Romance. 

A" 811 pl«8. — pd* [pay]' — C msBiBstv [master]. — C eiijvl | 

possibly (eenjvl)]. 849 C strronjv [poseibly (streenjv)]. 860 d6«n8. 861 an. 

— tikwU [square]. 866 piluv. E- 867 C tee. — C seehnt [secret], — 

— siin [a seine, net]. — rvleev [relieve]. — brMm [bream, fish]. — 
ankunsaa-nd funconcemedl. 891 fiist. 896 C risee-v. l-andY*- — rsvB 
TriTor]. 0- — Ckalwn [column]. 933 C frant. U- — shugar 
[sugar]. — giiz [guise]. 

The Scilly Isles. 

Miss Courtney in her West Coimisli Glossary makes the 
Scillonian dialect different from that of Co., instancing tread tree 
for * thread, three,' (o'l) for (a'i) in (po'int o'»lz) pint, isles, and 
conversely (pamt bdtl) for point, boil. She also draws a distinction 
between the speech of St. Mary's island containing the capital 
Hugh Town and the speech of the " Off-oislanders," as she 
writes them, who inhabit the smaller isles. This w^ in 1880. 
Rev. W. S. Lach-Szyrma, vicar of Newlyn St. Peter, Penzance, 
kindly wrote to Mr. Dorrien Smith (proprietor, and familiarly 
known as "the King of Scilly"), who, in reply, dated Tresco Abbey, 
Isles of Scilly, 7 Aug. 1883, says, "I know of no place in the 
British Isles where the Queen's Ehiglish is less massacred by the 
lower classes than it is in these islands. There is no dialect or any 
peculiarities of speech worth mentioning, and I can find no recoid 
of any having been spoken." Mr. Lach-Szyrma says compulsory 
education has prevailed for forty years and stamped out dialect, 
and that the people are mostly Cornish, some are said to be 
descended from the Cavaliers of Charles II. who settled there, and 
others from sailors from all parts (Scillonia once was a pirate 
station). The population is quite hybrid in all points, in appear- 
ance, physique, ideas, and language ; a sort of gathering from 
the coast population generally, but with a strong Comu-British 
element. Under these circumstances no dialectal value can be 
attached to any pronunciations there heard. I am indebted to Miss 
Toulmin Smith for the means of obtaining the above information. 

[ 1606 ] 

Digitized by LjOOQIC 




Boundaries. The w. b. is the CB (p. 9) from the Bristol 
Channel to the point where the n. sum line 1 breaks from it. The 
n. and part of the e. b. are the n. sum line 1 (p. 15), from the 
point of its deflection from the CB to the point where the reverted 
ur line 3 (p. 17) joins the n. sum line 1 on the w. The rest of 
the e. b. is formed by the reverted ur line 3, from its w. junction 
with the n. sum line 1 to