Skip to main content

Full text of "The fables of Æsop, selected, told anew and their history traced"

See other formats









1^9 MIS 

















x \ 

. (J B 

' /' f, 








~fabtes of/Esop 








Joseph Jacobs 





<§> NEW YORK. 
All rights reserved 

; (^ o^lH-^C o 

. /^* 

' pr 



1 o 




T is difficult to say what are and what are 
not the Fables of iEsop. Almost all the 
fables that have appeared in the Western 
world have been sheltered at one time or 
another under the shadow of that name. I 
could at any rate enumerate at least seven 
hundred which have appeared in English 
in various books entitled JEsop's Fables. 
L'Estrange's collection alone contains over 
five hundred. In the struggle for existence 
among all these a certain number stand out 
as being the most effective and the most 
familiar. I have attempted to bring most of 
these into the following pages. 


There is no fixed text even for the nucleus 
collection contained in this book. iEsop 
himself is so shadowy a figure that we might 
almost be forgiven if we held, with regard to 
him, the heresy of Mistress Elizabeth Prig. 
What we call his fables can in most cases be 
traced back to the fables of other people, 
notably of Phasdrus and Babrius. It is usual 
to regard the Greek Prose Collections, passing 
under the name of iEsop, as having greater 
claims to the eponymous title ; but modern 
research has shown that these are but medieval 
prosings of Babrius's verse. I have therefore 
felt at liberty to retell the fables in such 
a way as would interest children, and have 
adopted from the various versions that which 
seemed most suitable in each case, telling the 
fable anew in my own way. 

Much has been learnt during the present 
century about the history of the various 
apologues that walk abroad under the name 
of " iEsop." I have attempted to bring these 


various lines of research together in the some- 
what elaborate introductory volume which I 
wrote to accompany my edition- of Caxton's 
Msofi, published by Mr. Nutt in his 
Bibltotheque de Car abas. I have placed in 
front of the present version of the " Fables," 
by kind permission of Mr. Nutt, the short 
abstract of my researches in which I there 
summed up the results of that volume. I must 
accompany it, here as there, by a warning to 
the reader, that for a large proportion of the 
results thus reached I am myself responsible ; 
but I am happy to say that many of them 
have been accepted by the experts in America, 
France, and Germany, who have done me 
the honour to consider my researches. Here, 
in England, there does not seem to be much 
interest in this class of work, and English 
scholars, for the most part, are content to 
remain in ignorance of the methods and 
results of literary history. 

I have attached to the " Fables ' in the 


obscurity of small print at the end a series of 

notes, summing up what is known as to the 

provenance of each fable. Here, again, I have 

tried to put in shorter and more readable 

form the results of my researches in the 

volume to which I have already referred. 

For more detailed information I must refer 

to the forty closely-printed pages (vol. i. pp. 

225-268) which contain the bibliography of 

the Fables. 


A Short History of the ^sopic Fable 

List of Fables 

^Esop's Fables 

Notes .... 

Index of Fables . 





Note. — The Illustrations are reproduced by Messrs. Waterlow and Sons' 

photo-engraving process. 




OST nations develop the Beast-Tale as part of their 
folk-lore, some go further and apply it to satiric pur- 
poses, and a few nations afford isolated examples of 
the shaping of the Beast-Tale to teach some moral truth by- 
means of the Fable properly so called. 1 But only two peoples 
independently made this a general practice. Both in Greece 2 
and in India we find in the earliest literature such casual 
and frequent mention of Fables as seems to imply a body 
of Folk -Fables current among the people. And in both 
countries special circumstances raised the Fable from folk- 
lore into literature. In Greece, during the epoch of the 
Tyrants, when free speech was dangerous, the Fable was 
largely used for political purposes. The inventor of this 
application or the most prominent user of it was one iEsop, 
a slave at Samos whose name has ever since been connected 
with the Fable. All that we know about him is contained 

1 E.g. Jotham's Fable, Judges lx., and that of Menenius Agrippa in Livy, 
seem to be quite independent of either Greek or Indian influence. But one 
fable does not make Fable. 

2 Onlv about twenty fables, however, are known in Greece before 
Phaedrus, 30 a.d. See my Caxton*s JEsop, vol. i. pp. 26-29, for a complete 



in a few lines of Herodotus : that he flourished 550 B.C.; 
was killed in accordance with a Delphian oracle ; and that 
wergild was claimed for him by the grandson of his master, 
Iadmon. When free speech was established in the Greek 
democracies, the custom of using Fables in harangues was 
continued and encouraged by the rhetoricians, while the 
mirth-producing qualities of the Fable caused it to be 
regarded as fit subject of after-dinner conversation along 
with other jests of a broader kind (" Milesian," " Sybaritic "). 
This habit of regarding the Fable as a form of the Jest 
intensified the tendency to connect it with a well-known 
name as in the case of our Joe Miller. About 300 B.C. 
Demetrius Phalereus, whilom tyrant of Athens and founder 
of the Alexandria Library, collected together all the Fables 
he could find under the title of Assemblies of Msopic Tales 
(Aoywi/ Alo-wireLQiv (rvvaywyai). This collection, running 
probably to some 200 Fables, after being interpolated and 
edited by the Alexandrine grammarians, was turned into 
neat Latin iambics by Phaedrus, a Greek freedman of 
Augustus in the early years of the Christian era. As the 
modern iEsop is mainly derived from Phaedrus, the answer 
to the question " Who wrote JEsop ? " is simple : " Deme- 
trius of Phaleron." x 

In India the great ethical reformer, Sakyamuni, the 
Buddha, initiated (or adopted from the Brahmins) the habit of 
using the Beast-Tale for moral purposes, or, in other words, 
transformed it into the Fable proper. A collection of these 
seems to have existed previously and independently, in which 

1 For this statement and what follows a reference to the Pedigree of the 
Fables on p. 196 will be found useful. 


the Fables were associated with the name of a mythical 
sage, Kasyapa. These were appropriated by the early 
Buddhists by the simple expedient of making Kasyapa the 
immediately preceding incarnation of the Buddha. A 
number of his itihdsas or Tales were included in the sacred 
Buddhistic work containing the Jatakas or previous-births 
of the Buddha, in some of which the Bodisat (or future 
Buddha) appears as one of the Dramatis Personam of the 
Fables ; the Crane, e.g., in our Wolf 'and Crane being one of 
the incarnations of the Buddha. So, too, the Lamb of our 
Wolf and Lamb was once Buddha ; it was therefore easy 
for him — so the Buddhists thought — to remember and tell 
these Fables as incidents of his former careers. It is obvious 
that the whole idea of a Fable as an anecdote about a man 
masquerading in the form of a beast could most easily arise 
and gain currency where the theory of transmigration was 
vividly credited. 

The Fables of Kasyapa, or rather the moral verses (gathas) 
which served as a memoria technlca to them, were probably 
carried over to Ceylon in 241 B.C. along with the Jatakas. 
About 300 years later (say 50 a.d.) some 100 of these were 
brought by a Cingalese embassy to Alexandria, where they 
were translated under the title of c< Libyan Fables" (Aoyot 
AvfiiKoi), which had been earlier applied to similar stories that 
had percolated to Hellas from India ; they were attributed to 
" Kybises." This collection seems to have introduced the 
habit of summing up the teaching of a Fable in the Moral, 
corresponding to the gatha of the Jatakas. About the end 
of the first century a.d. the Libyan Fables of " Kybises ' 
became known to the Rabbinic school at Jabne, founded by 


R. Jochanan ben Saccai, and a number of the Fables trans- 
lated into Aramaic which are still extant in the Talmud and 

In the Roman world the two collections of Demetrius and 
" Kybises " were brought together by Nicostratus, a rhetor 
attached to the court of Marcus Aurelius. In the earlier 
part of the next century (c. 230 a.d.) this corpus of the 
ancient fable, iEsopic and Libyan, amounting in all to some 
300 members, was done into Greek verse with Latin 
accentuation (choliambics) by Valerius Babrius, tutor to 
the young son of Alexander Severus. Still later, towards 
the end of the fourth century, forty-two of these, mainly 
of the Libyan section, were translated into Latin verse 
by one Avian, with whom the ancient history of the 
Fable ends. 

In the Middle Ages it was naturally the Latin Phaedrus 
that represented the iEsopic Fable to the learned world, but 
Phaedrus in a fuller form than has descended to us in verse. 
A selection of some eighty fables was turned into indifferent 
prose in the ninth century, probably at the Schools of 
Charles the Great. This was attributed to a fictitious 
Romulus. Another prose collection by Ademar of Cha- 
bannes was made before 1030, and still preserves some of the 
lines of the lost F'ables of Phaedrus. The Fables became 
especially popular among the Normans. A number of them 
occur on the Bayeux Tapestry, and in the twelfth century 
England, the head of the Angevin empire, became the home 
of the Fable, all the important adaptations and versions of 
i^sop being made in this country. One of these done 
into Latin verse by Walter the Englishman became the 


standard iEsop of medieval Christendom. The same history 
applies in large measure to the Fables of Avian, which were 
done into prose, transferred back into Latin verse, and sent 
forth through Europe from England. 

Meanwhile Babrius had been suffering the same fate as 
Phaedrus. His scazons were turned into poor Greek prose, 
and selections of them pass to this day as the original Fables 
of iEsop. Some fifty of these were selected, and with the 
addition of a dozen Oriental fables, were attributed to an 
imaginary Persian sage, Syntipas ; this collection was trans- 
lated into Syriac, and thence into Arabic, where they passed 
under the name of the legendary Loqman (probably a doublet 
of Balaam). A still larger collection of the Greek prose 
versions got into Arabic, where it was enriched by some 60 
fables from the Arabic Bidpai and other sources, but still 
passed under the name of iEsop. This collection, containing 
164 fables, was brought to England after the Third Crusade 
of Richard I., and translated into Latin by an Englishman 
named Alfred, with the aid of an Oxford Jew named 
Berachyah ha-Nakdan (" Benedictus le Puncteur v in the 
English Records), who, on his own account, translated a 
number of the fables into Hebrew rhymed prose, under the 
Talmudic title Mishle Shu c alim (Fox Fables). 1 Part of 
Alfred's iEsop was translated into English alliterative verse, 
and this again was translated about 1200 into French by 
Marie de France, who attributed the new fables to King 
Alfred. After her no important addition was made to the 
medieval iEsop." 

1 I have given specimens of his Fables in my Jews of Angevin England, 
pp. 165-173, 278-281. 


With the invention of printing the European book of 
j^sop was compiled about 1480 by Heinrich Stainhowel, 
who put together the Romulus with selections from Avian, 
some of the Greek prose versions of Babrius from Ranuzio's 
translation, and a few from Alfred's iEsop. To these he 
added the legendary life of iEsop and a selection of somewhat 
loose tales from Petrus Alphonsi and Poggio Bracciolini, 
corresponding to the Milesian and Sybaritic tales which 
were associated with the Fable in antiquity. Stainhowel 
translated all this into German, and within twenty years his 
collection had been turned into French, English (by 
Caxton, in 1484), Italian, Dutch, and Spanish. Additions 
were made to it by Brandt and Waldis in Germany, by 
L'Estrange in England, and by La Fontaine in France ; 
these were chiefly from the larger Greek collections published 
after Stainhowel's day, and, in the case of La Fontaine, from 
Bidpai and other Oriental sources. But these additions have 
rarely taken hold, and the JEsop of modern Europe is in 
large measure Stainhowel's, even to the present day. The 
first three quarters of the present collection are Stainhowel 
mainly in Stainhowel's order. Selections from it passed into 
spelling and reading books, and made the Fables part of 
modern European folk-lore. 1 

We may conclude this history of iEsop with a similar 

1 An episode in the history of the modern y£sop deserves record, if only to 
illustrate the law that yEsop always begins his career as a political weapon in a 
new home. When a selection of the Fables were translated into Chinese in 1840 
they became favourite reading with the officials, till a high dignitary said, "This 
is clearly directed against «i," and ordered -<^Esop to be included in the Chinese 
Index Expurgatcrius (R. Morris, Cent. Rc*v. xxxix. p. 731). 


account of the progress of ^Esopic investigation. First came 
collection ; the Greek iEsop was brought together by 
Neveletus in 1610, the Latin by Nilant in 1709. The 
main truth about the former was laid down by the master- 
hand of Bentley during a skirmish in the Battle of the 
Books ; the equally great critic Lessing began to unravel the 
many knotty points connected with the medieval Latin 
iEsop. His investigations have been carried on and com- 
pleted by three Frenchmen in the present century, Robert, 
Du Meril, and Hervieux ; while three Germans, Crusius, 
Benfey, and Mall, have thrown much needed light on 
Babrius, on the Oriental ^sop, and on Marie de France. 
Lastly, I have myself brought together these various lines of 
inquirv, and by adding a few threads of my own, have been 
able to weave them all for the first time into a consistent 
pattern. 1 

So much for the past of the Fable. Has it a future as a 
mode of literary expression ? Scarcely ; its method is at 
once too simple and too roundabout. Too roundabout ; for 
the truths we have to tell we prefer to speak out directly and 
not by way of allegory. And the truths the Fable has to 
teach are too simple to correspond to the facts of our complex 
civilisation ; its rude graffiti of human nature cannot repro- 
duce the subtle gradations of modern life. But as we all 
pass through in our lives the various stages of ancestral 
culture, there comes a time when these rough sketches of life 
have their appeal to us as they had for our forefathers. The 

1 The Fables of JEsop, as first printed by William Caxton in 1484, r.civ again 
edited and induced by Joseph Jacobs (London, 1889), 2 vols., the first containing a 
History of the .^Esopic Fable. 


allegory gives us a pleasing and not too strenuous stimulation 
of the intellectual powers ; the lesson is not too complicated 
for childlike minds. Indeed, in their grotesque grace, in 
their quaint humour, in their trust in the simpler virtues, in 
their insight into the cruder vices, in their innocence of the 
fact of sex, ./Esop's Fables are as little children. They are 
as little children, and for that reason they will for ever find 
a home in the heaven of little children's souls. 





1. The Cock and the Pearl 

2. The Wolf and the Lamb 

3. The Dog and the Shadow 

4. The Lion's Share 

5. The Wolf and the Crane 

6. The Man and the Serpent 

7. The Town Mouse and the Country 

8. The Fox and the Crow 

9. The Sick Lion 

10. The Ass and the Lap-Dog 

11. The Lion and the Mouse 

12. The Swallow and the other Birds 

13. The Frogs desiring a King 

14. The Mountains in Labour 

15. The Hares and the Frogs 

16. The Wolf and the Kid 

17. The Woodman and the Serpent 

18. The Bald Man and the Fly . 

19. The Fox and the Stork 

20. The Fox and the Mask 








J 5 
l 9 











21. The Jay and the Peacock 

22. The Frog and the Ox . 

23. Androcles 

24. The Bat, the Birds, and the Beasts 

25. The Hart and the Hunter 

26. The Serpent and the File 

27. The Man and the Wood 

28. The Dog and the Wolf 

29. The Belly and the Members 

30. The Hart in the Ox-Stall 

31. The Fox and the Grapes 

32. The Peacock and Juno 

33. The Horse, Hunter, and Stag 

34. The Fox and the Lion 

35. The Lion and the Statue 

36. The Ant and the Grasshopper 

37. The Tree and the Reed 

38. The Fox and the Cat 

39. The Wolf in Sheep's Clothing 

40. The Dog in the Manger 

41. The Man and the Wooden God 

42. The Fisher . 

43. The Shepherd's Boy 

44. The Young Thief and his Mother 

45. The Man and his Two Wives 

46. The Nurse and the Wolf 

47. The Tortoise and the Birds . 

48. The Two Crabs 

49. The Ass in the Lion's Skin . 

50. The Two Fellows and the Bear 

51. The Two Pots 


• 57 

. 60 

. 62 

. 65 

• ' 67 

. 68 

. 70 

. 72 

• 74 

. 76 

. 79 


. 83 

, 85 

. 86 


 9 1 



. 98 






1 1 1 
























The Four Oxen and the Lion 

The Fisher and the Little Fish 

Avaricious and Envious 

The Crow and the Pitcher . 

The Man and the Satvr 

The Goose with the Golden Eggs 

The Labourer and the Nightingale 

The Fox, the Cock, and the Dog 

The Wind and the Sun 

Hercules and the Waggoner . 

The Miser and his Gold 

The Man, the Boy, and the Donkey 

The Fox and the Mosquitoes 

The Fox without a Tail 

The One-Eyed Doe . 

Belling the Cat 

The Hare and the Tortoise . 

The Old Man and Death 

The Hare with Many Friends 

The Lion in Love 

The Bundle of Sticks 

The Lion, the Fox, and the Beasts 

The Ass's Brains 

The Eagle and the Arrow 

The Cat-Maiden 

The Milkmaid and her Pail . 

The Horse and the Ass 

The Trumpeter taken Prisoner 

The Buffoon and the Countrvman 

The Old Woman and the Wine-Jar 

The Fox and the Goat 




2 + 


2 9 





5 2 
5 + 














A COCK was once strutting up and 
down the farmyard among the hens 
when suddenly he espied something 
shining amid the straw. " Ho ! 
ho ! " quoth he, " that's for me/ 5 and soon 
rooted it out from beneath the straw. What 
did it turn out to be but a Pearl that by 
some chance had been lost in the yard ? 
" You may be a treasure,'' quoth Master 
Cock, " to men that prize you, but for me I 
would rather have a single barley-corn than a 
peck of pearls. 

precious tljfnntf are for tljoge tljat can prfje 



Copyright 1894 by Macmillan & Co. 

u Ho ! ho ! " quoth he, " that's for me." 


NCE upon a time a Wolf was lap- 
ping at a spring on a hillside, 
when, looking up, what should he 
see but a Lamb just beginning 
to drink a little lower down. " There's my 
supper," thought he, " if only I can find some 
excuse to seize it.' Then he called out to the 
Lamb, " How dare you muddle the water from 
which I am drinking ? " 

" Nay, master, nay," said Lambikin ; " if 
the water be muddy up there, I cannot be the 
cause of it, for it runs down from you to me. 


"Well, then," said the Wolf, "why did 
you call me bad names this time last year ? 

" That cannot be," said the Lamb ; ci I am 
only six months old." 

(C I don't care," snarled the Wolf; £C if it was 
not you, it was your father ; 3 and with that he 
rushed upon the poor little Lamb and — 

Warra warra warra warra warra — 

ate her all up. But before she died she gasped 
out — 

"jang txtu&z toill gcrtoe a tyrant." 

Copyright 1894 by Macmtil&H &■ Co. 

The Dod ^> the Shadow. 

^)I T happened that a Dog had got a piece of 
(Q meat and was carrying it home in his 
Jj mouth to eat it in peace. Now on his 
way home he had to cross a plank lying 
across a running brook. As he crossed, 
he looked down and saw his own shadow 
reflected in the water beneath. Thinking it 
was another dog with another piece of meat, 
he made up his mind to have that also. So he 
made a snap at the shadow in the water, but 
as he opened his mouth the piece of meat fell 
out, dropped into the water and was never seen 

2Setoare lest pott lose tlje Substance bp 
paspintr at tlje sljatioVo* 

[ The lion's share 



1 1 < S pHE Lion went once a-hunting along 
WiWi with the Fox, the Jackal, and the 
(^ g~j^ Wolf. They hunted and they 

hunted till at last they surprised a Stag, 
and soon took its life. Then came the 
question how the spoil should be divided. 
<c Quarter me this Stag," roared the Lion ; so 
the other animals skinned it and cut it into 
four parts. Then the Lion took his stand in 
front of the carcass and pronounced judgment : 
" The first quarter is for me in my capacity as 
King of Beasts; the second is mine as arbiter; 
another share comes to me for my part in the 
chase ; and as for the fourth quarter, well, as for 


that, I should like to see which of you will dare 
to lay a paw upon it.' 

c£ Humph," grumbled the Fox as he walked 
away with his tail between his legs ; but he 
spoke in a low growl — 

"Sou map srtjavc tljc labours of tljc great, but pott 
toill not 0ljace tlje gpoiL" 

^ WOLF had been gorging on an animal 

he had killed, when suddenly a small 
bone in the meat stuck in his throat 
and he could not swallow it. He 
soon felt terrible pain in his throat, and ran up 
and down groaning and groaning and seeking 
for something to relieve the pain. He tried to 
induce every one he met to remove the bone. 
"I would give anything," said he, "if you 
would take it out." At last the Crane agreed 
to try, and told the Wolf to lie on his side and 
open his jaws as wide as he could. Then the 
Crane put its long neck down the WolPs 
throat, and with its beak loosened the bone, 
till at last it got it out. 

"Will you kindly give me the reward you 
promised ? " said the Crane. 



The Wolf grinned and showed his teeth and 
said : " Be content. You have put your head 
inside a Wolf's mouth and taken it out again 
in safety ; that ought to be reward enough for 

(Beatitude atto pceD p not togcrljcr* 

Copyright 1894 by Macmillan &• Co. 


• »*••• 3X X' 

•g — ~ TJ 1. 

•  wy\J /• 

•a ^»^ .X * 
•Xw. ^f'» 


•• • X jft ' • • • 

• u mm *^^*S 

• 1 if t# 

• 1 11 Mmk 
 m ^^^^^mW*m 

• % ^ j 

^^- *•■ ^ ■ir'^' - * ••*^T* * * ^^mW* \\ m ^^mmmmmr» • •*• %^^^^^^^-*» »T 2^ 

• * J^mm^L* ,* * ^ 

^_ *•■ 1.1 I  

• ! ! v/^x* • • 

Tift© Maam aimdl 

■••X ^. • • 

f " •:«*SZVy» : .*. ; >s*Z^ J:v Viv ^^v*. •.••Vta— .^•«v» 

• • •'•X. x* • 

f **% [IB II ■* 

1 I '■ ^"' # '/  ' 

V \ur ^r * • 

COUNTRYMAN'S son by acci- 
dent trod upon a Serpent's tail, 
which turned and bit him so that 
he died. The father in a rage 
got his axe, and pursuing the Serpent, cut 
off part of its tail. So the Serpent in re- 
venge began stinging several of the Farmer's 
cattle and caused him severe loss. Well, the 
Farmer thought it best to make it up with the 
Serpent, and brought food and honey to the 
mouth of its lair, and said to it : " Let's for- 
get and forgive ; perhaps you were right to 
punish my son, and take vengeance on my 
cattle, but surely I was right in trying to 



revenge him ; now that we are both satisfied 
why should not we be friends again ? " 

" No, no/' said the Serpent ; " take away 
your gifts ; you can never forget the death of 
your son, nor I the loss of my tail." 

injuries mag fce forjften, but not forgotten* 

HThe Town Mouse 

the Country Mouse 

OW you must know that a Town 
Mouse once upon a time went on 
a visit to his cousin in the country. 
He was rough and ready, this cousin, but he 
loved his town friend and made him heartily 
welcome. Beans and bacon, cheese and bread, 
were all he had to offer, but he offered them 
freely. The Town Mouse rather turned up his 


long nose at this country fare, and said : "I cannot 
understand, Cousin, how you can put up with 
such poor food as this, but of course you cannot 
expect anything better in the country ; come 
you with me and I will show you how to live. 
When you have been in town a week you will 
wonder how you could ever have stood a country 
life.' No sooner said than done : the two mice 
set off for the town and arrived at the Town 
Mouse's residence late at night. cc You will 
want some refreshment after our long journey/' 
said the polite Town Mouse, and took his friend 
into the grand dining-room. There they 
found the remains of a fine feast, and soon the 
two mice were eating up jellies and cakes and 
all that was nice. Suddenly they heard growl- 
ing and barking. " What is that ? " said the 
Country Mouse. " It is only the dogs of the 
house," answered the other. "Only!" said the 
Country Mouse. Ci I do not like that music at 



mv dinner." Tust at that moment the door 
flew open, in came two huge mastiffs, and the 
two mice had to scamper down and fun off. 
" Good-bye, Cousin," said the Country Mouse. 
u What ! going so soon ? " said the other. 
" Yes," he replied ; 

"Bettec fceang anD bacon in peace tljan cafceg 

a no ale in fearV' 

Copyright 1894 by Macmillait &• Co. 


FOX once saw a Crow fly off with a 

piece of cheese in its beak and settle 
on a branch of a tree. " That's for me, as 
I am a Fox,' : said Master Renard, and he 
walked up to the foot of the tree. " Good-day, 
Mistress Crow,' : he cried. " How well you 
are looking to-day : how glossy your feathers ; 
how bright your eye. I feel sure your voice 
must surpass that of other birds, just as your 
figure does ; let me hear but one song from 
you that I may greet you as the Queen of 

Birds.'' The 
her head and 
her best, but 
she opened her 
piece of cheese 
ground, only to ^ 

Crow lifted up 
began to caw 
the moment 
mouth the 
fell to the 
be snapped up 



by Master Fox. "That will do," said he. 
" That was all I wanted. In exchange for 
your cheese I will give you a piece of advice 
for the future — 

2Do not trugt flatterer^" 

Copyright 1894 by Macmillan & Co. 

LION had come to the end of 
his days and lay sick unto death at 
the mouth of his cave, gasping for 
breath. The animals, his subjects, 
came round him and drew nearer as he grew 
more and more helpless. When they saw 
him on the point of death they thought to 
themselves : tc Now is the time to pay off" 
old grudges.' So the Boar came up and 
drove at him with his tusks ; then a Bull 
gored him with his horns ; still the Lion 
lay helpless before them : so the Ass, feeling 
quite safe from danger, came up, and turning 
his tail to the old Lion kicked up his heels 
into his face. "This is a double death," 
growled the Lion. 


3DnIy cotoartitf fntftilt bjymg Upaftft;*" 




FARMER one day came to the 
stables to see to his beasts of 
burden : among them was his 
favourite Ass, that was always 
well fed and often carried his master. With 
the Farmer came his Lapdog, who danced 
about and licked his hand and frisked about 
as happy as could be. The Farmer felt in his 
pocket, gave the Lapdog some dainty food, 
and sat down while he gave his orders to his 
servants. The Lapdog jumped into his 
master's lap, and lay there blinking while 
the Farmer stroked his ears. The Ass, seeing 
this, broke loose from his halter and com- 
menced prancing about in imitation of the 
Lapdog. The Farmer could not hold his 



sides with laughter, so the Ass went up to 
him, and putting his feet upon the Farmer's 
shoulder attempted to climb into his lap. 
The Farmer's servants rushed up with sticks 
and pitchforks and soon taught the ass that 

Clumtfp jesting 10 no jofce* 

Once when a Lion was 
asleep a little Mouse began 
running up and down upon 
him ; this soon wakened 
the Lion, who placed his 
huge paw upon him, and opened his big jaws 



to swallow him. cc Pardon, O King," cried 
the little Mouse ; ct forgive me this time, I 
shall never forget it : who knows but what 
I may be able to do you a turn some of these 
days ? " The Lion was so tickled at the idea 
of the Mouse being able to help him, that he 
lifted up his paw and let him go. Some time 
after the Lion was caught in a trap, and the 
hunters, who desired to carry him alive to the 
King, tied him to a tree while they went in 
search of a waggon to carry him on. Just 
then the little Mouse happened to pass by, 
and seeing the sad plight in which the Lion 
was, went up to him and soon gnawed away 
the ropes that bound the King of the Beasts. 
u Was I not right? " said the little Mouse. 





T happened that a Countryman 
was sowing some hemp seeds in 
a field where a Swallow and some 
other birds were hopping about 
their food. " Beware of that 
man, quoth the Swallow. " Why, what is he 
doing ? " said the others. u That is hemp seed 
he is sowing ; be careful to pick up every one 
of the seeds, or else you will repent it." The 
birds paid no heed to the Swallow's words, 
and by and by the hemp grew up and was 
made into cord, and of the cords nets were 
made, and many a bird that had despised the 



Swallow's advice was caught in nets made out 
of that very hemp. " What did I tell you ? " 
said the Swallow. 

"3Degtroy tljc jsecti of etril, or it tofll groto 

up to pout ruitn" 


The, F-rPGS 

Frogs were living as happy as 
could be in a marshy swamp 
that just suited them ; they 
went splashing about caring 
for nobody and nobody troub- 
ling with them. But some 
of them thought that this was not right, 
that they should have a king and a proper 
constitution, so they determined to send 
up a petition to Jove to give them what 
they wanted. " Mighty Jove/ 5 they cried, 
u send unto us a king that will rule over us 
and keep us in order.' Jove laughed at their 
croaking, and threw down into the swamp a 
huge Log, which came down — kerplash — into 
the swamp. The Frogs were frightened out 
of their lives by the commotion made in their 
midst, and all rushed to the bank to look at 
the horrible monster ; but after a time, seeing 


tESOP'S fables 

that it did not move, one or two of the boldest 
of them ventured out towards the Log, and 
even dared to touch it ; still it did not move. 
Then the greatest hero of the Frogs jumped 
upon the Log and commenced dancing up 
and down upon it, thereupon all the Frogs 
came and did the same ; and for some time 
the Frogs went about their business every day 
without taking the slightest notice of their 
new King Log lying in their midst. But 
this did not suit them, so they sent another 
petition to Jove, and said to him : " We want 
a real king ; one that will really rule over 
us." Now this made Jove 
angry, so he sent among them 
a big Stork that soon set 
to work gobbling them all 
up. Then the Frogs repented 
when too late. 

Better no rule 
tljan cruel rule* 




ONE day the Countrymen noticed 
that the Mountains were in labour ; 
smoke came out of their summits, 
the earth was quaking at their 
feet, trees were crashing, and huge rocks were 
tumbling. They felt sure that something 
horrible was going to happen. They all 
gathered together in one place to see what 
terrible thing this would be. They waited 



and they waited, but nothing came. At last 
there was a still more violent earthquake, and 
a huge gap appeared in the side of the Moun- 
tains. They all fell down upon their knees 
and waited. At last, and at last, a teeny, tiny 
mouse poked its little head and bristles out 
of the gap and came running down towards 
them ; and ever after they used to say : 

"^ttclj outcry, little outcome*" 


The Hares were so 
persecuted by the other 
beasts, they did not 
know where to go. As 
soon as they saw a 
single animal 



off they used to run. One day they saw 
a troop of wild Horses stampeding about, 
and in quite a panic all the Hares scuttled off 
to a lake hard by, determined to drown them- 
selves rather than live in such a continual 
state of fear. But just as they got near the 
bank of the lake, a troop of Frogs, frightened 
in their turn by the approach of the Hares, 
scuttled off, and jumped into the water. 
" Truly," said one of the Hares, " things are 
not so bad as they seem : 

^Ijere 10 altoapg gome one Voorge off 
tljan pourgelf." 

' 71 

KID was perched up on the 
of a house, and looking down saw 
a Wolf passing under him. Im- 
mediately he began to revile and 
attack his enemy. <c Murderer and thief," he 
cried, " what do you here near honest folks' 
houses ? How dare you make an appearance 
where your vile deeds are known ? " 

" Curse away, my young friend/' said the 

"3|t i0 eagg to lie fcrafce from a gafe bfgtance*" 


4 1 

" It is easy to be brave from a safe distance." 

Copyright 1S94 by Macmillan &■ Co. 




ONE wintry day a Woodman was 
tramping home from his work when 
he saw something black lying on 
the snow. When he came closer, he saw 
it was a Serpent to all appearance dead. 
But he took it up and put it in his bosom to 
warm while he hurried home. As soon as he 



got indoors he put the Serpent down on the 
hearth before the fire. The children watched 
it and saw it slowly come to life again. Then 
one of them stooped down to stroke it, but the 
Serpent raised its head and put out its fangs and 
was about to sting the child to death. So the 
Woodman seized his axe, and with one stroke 
cut the Serpent in two. cc Ah,' : said he, 

" iPo Beatitude from tlje toictictu" 

I H 


There was once a Bald 
Man who sat down 
after work on a hot 
summer's day. A Fly 
came up and kept 
buzzing about his bald 
pate, and stinging him from 
time to time. The Man aimed 
a blow at his little enemy, but — whack — 
his palm came on his head instead ; again 
the Fly tormented him, but this time the 
Man was wiser and said : 

"Sou toill only injure pottrgelf if pott ta&e 
notice of Despicable enemies" 




fasUs* 'jr \V\ 

Copyright 1894 Sy Macmillan &• Co. 

Copyright 1894 by MacmiUan & Co. 


T one time the Fox and the Stork were 
on visiting terms and seemed very 
good friends. So the Fox invited the Stork 

to dinner, and for a joke 
put nothing before her but 
some soup in a very shallow 
dish. This the Fox could 
easily lap up, but the Stork 
could only wet the end of 
her long bill in it, and left 
the meal as hungry as when 
she began. " I am sorry, " 
said the Fox, cc the soup is 
not to your liking." 



" Pray do not apologise,'' said the Stork. 
" I hope you will return this visit, and come 
and dine with me soon. ,: So a day was 
appointed when the Fox should visit the 
Stork ; but when they were seated at table all 
that was for their dinner was contained in 
a very long-necked jar with a narrow 
mouth, in which the Fox 
could not insert his snout, 
so all he could manage to 
do was to lick the outside 
of the jar. 

- I will not apologise for 
the dinner " said the Stork : 

Xlbe ]fo£ 
anb tbe /Ifcasfc 

//, FOX had by some means got 
into the store-room of a theatre. 
Suddenly he observed a face glaring 
^py down on him, and began to be 
very frightened ; but looking more closely 
he found it was only a Mask, such as actors 
use to put over their face. " Ah,' : said the 
Fox, " you look very fine ; it is a pity you 
have not got any brains." 

flDutgiDe Sljoto is a poor substitute foe 

inner toortlj* 



" It is a pity you have not got any brains." 

Copyright 1894 by Macm'Uan &• Co. 

A Jay venturing into a yard where Peacocks 
used to walk, found there a number of feathers 
which had fallen from the Peacocks when 
they were moulting. He tied them all to 
his tail and strutted down towards the Pea- 
cocks. When he came near them they soon 
discovered the cheat, and striding up to him 
pecked at him and plucked away his borrowed 
plumes. So the Jay could do no better than 
go back to the other Jays, who had watched 
his behaviour from a distance ; but they were 
equally annoyed with him, and told him 

"3|t ig not onlg fine featljertf tljat make fine bftfyk" 

J4 FATHER," said a little Frog to the 
big one sitting by the side of a 
fL pool, ce I have seen such a terrible 
V monster ! It was as big as a 
mountain, with horns on its head, and a long 
tail, and it had hoofs divided in two." 

"Tush, child, tush," said the old Frog, "that 
was only Farmer White's Ox. It isn't so big 
either ; he may be a little bit taller than I, but I 
could easily make myself quite as broad ; just 
you see." So he blew himself out, and blew 
himself out, and blew himself out. " Was he 
as big as that ? " asked he. 

" Oh, much bigger than that," said the 
young Frog. 

Again the old one blew himself out, and 
asked the young one if the Ox was as big as 



" Bigger, f atner > bigger," was the reply. 

So the Frog took a deep breath, and blew 
and blew and blew, and swelled and swelled 
and swelled. And then he said : " I'm sure 

the Ox is not as big as " But at this 

moment he burst. 

feclfsconceit map leaD to geltaiegmtctiotu 


SLAVE named Androcles once 
escaped from his master and fled 
to the forest. As he was wander- 
ing about there he came upon a 
Lion lying down moaning and groaning. At 
first he turned to flee, but finding that the 
Lion did not pursue him, he turned back and 
went up to him. As he came near, the Lion 
put out his paw, which was all swollen and 
bleeding, and Androcles found that a huo-e 
thorn had got into it, and was causing all the 
pain. He pulled out the thorn and bound up 
the paw of the Lion, who was soon able to rise 
and lick the hand of Androcles like a dog. 
Then the Lion took Androcles to his cave, 
and every day used to bring him meat from 
which to live. But shortly afterwards both 
Androcles and the Lion were captured, and 
the slave was sentenced to be thrown to the 



Lion, after the latter had been kept without 
food for several days. The Emperor and all 
his Court came to see the spectacle, and 
Androcles was led out into the middle of the 
arena. Soon the Lion was let loose from his 
den, and rushed bounding and roaring towards 
his victim. But as soon as he came near to 
Androcles he recognised his friend, and fawned 
upon him, and licked his hands like a friendly 
dog. The Emperor, surprised at this, sum- 
moned Androcles to him, who told him the 
whole story. Whereupon the slave was 
pardoned and freed, and the Lion let loose 
to his native forest. 

(0ratitu&e is tlje 8i$n of noble tfoulg* 

the^Blrds <§> the leasts. 

A GREAT conflict was about to 
come off between the Birds and 
the Beasts. When the two armies 
were collected together the Bat 
hesitated which to join. The Birds that 
passed his perch said : C£ Come with us " ; but 
he said: cc I am a Beast.' Later on, some 
Beasts who were passing underneath him 
looked up and said: " Come with us"; but 
he said : " I am a Bird." Luckily at the 
last moment peace was made, and no battle 
took place, so the Bat came to the Birds and 
wished to join in the rejoicings, but they all 
turned against him and he had to fly away. 



He then went to the Beasts, but had soon to 
beat a retreat, or else they would have torn 
him to pieces. Ci Ah," said the Bat, " I see 

l£c rtjat 10 neither one tfjing nor tlje 
otljer Ijag no friends" 



Hart and the Hunter. 

HE Hart was once drinking from 
a pool and admiring the noble 
figure he made there. " Ah,' : said 
he, " where can you see such noble 
horns as these, with such antlers ! I wish I 
had legs more worthy to bear such a noble 
crown ; it is a pity they are so slim and 
slight." At that moment a Hunter approached 
and sent an arrow whistling after him. Away 
bounded the Hart, and soon, by the aid of his 
nimble legs, was nearly out of sight of the 
Hunter ; but not noticing where he was 
going, he passed under some trees with 
branches growing low down in which his 
antlers were caught, so that the Hunter had 
time to come up. " Alas ! alas ! : cried the 
Hart : 

"JLflie often tiegptee tofjat i$ mogt useful 

to txti." 


" \'li 

The Serpent & the File. 

A Serpent in the course of its wanderings 
came into an armourer's shop. As he glided 
over the floor he felt his skin pricked by a 
file lying there. In a rage he turned round 
upon it and tried to dart his fangs into it ; 
but he could do no harm to heavy iron and 
had soon to give over his wrath. 

31 1: i0 tt0elc00 attacking; tlje mgengi&le* 


MAN came into a Wood one day 
with an axe in his hand, and 
begged all the Trees to give him a 
small branch which he wanted for 
a particular purpose. The Trees were good- 
natured and gave him one of their branches. 
What did the Man do but fix it into the axe- 
head, and soon set to work cutting down tree 


6 9 

after tree. Then the Trees saw how foolish 
they had been in giving their enemy the 
means of destroying themselves. 

\\t <»)©0ij  mh 

GAUNT Wolf was almost dead 
with hunger when he happened 
\ W T] to meet a House-dog who was 

Is- ==J passing by. u Ah, Cousin, " said 

the Dog, " I knew how it would be ; your 
irregular life will soon be the ruin of you. 
Why do you not work steadily as I do, and 
get your food regularly given to you ? " 

" I would have no objection, " said the 
Wolf, " if I could only get a place." 

" I will easily arrange that for you," said 
the Dog ; " come with me to my master and 
you shall share my work." 

So the Wolf and the Dog went towards the 
town together. On the way there the Wolf 
noticed that the hair on a certain part of the 
Dog's neck was very much worn away, so he 
asked him how that had come about. 


" Oh, it is nothing/' said the Dog. " That 
is only the place where the collar is put on at 
night to keep me chained up ; it chafes a bit, 
but one soon gets used to it." 

" Is that all ? " said the Wolf. Ci Then good- 
bye to you, Master Dog. 


Better tftartie free tljatt lie a fat 0laW 

wHe Bf1\y 

& the Members 

NE fine day it occurred 
to the Members of the 
Body that they were doing 
all the work and the Belly 
was having all the food. So 
they held a meeting, and 
after a long discussion, decided 
to strike work till the Belly consented 
to take its proper share of the work. So for a 
day or two the Hands refused to take the food, 
the Mouth refused to receive it, and the Teeth 
had no work to do. But after a day or two the 
Members began to find that they themselves 
were not in a very active condition : the Hands 
could hardly move, and the Mouth was all 
parched and dry, while the Legs were unable 

tESOP'S fables 


to support the rest. So thus they found that 
even the Belly in its dull quiet way was doing 
necessary work for the Body, and that all must 
work together or the Body will go to pieces. 

HART hotly pursued by 
the hounds fled for refuge 
into an ox-stall, and buried 
itself in a truss of hay, leaving 
nothing to be seen but the tips 
of his horns. Soon after the 
Hunters came up and asked 
if any one had seen the Hart. 
The stable boys, who had been 
resting after their dinner, looked 



round, but could see nothing, and the Hunters 
went away. Shortly afterwards the master 
came in, and, looking round, saw that some- 
thing unusual had taken place. He pointed 
to the truss of hay and said : " What are 
those two curious things sticking out of the 
hay ? " And when the stable boys came to 
look they discovered the Hart, and soon made 
an end of him. He thus learnt that 

iPotljmn; cgcapetf tlje magter'g cje. 




NE hot summer's day a Fox was 
strolling through an orchard till 
he came to a bunch of Grapes 
just ripening on a vine which 
had been trained over a lofty 
branch. "Just the thing to 
quench my thirst," quoth he. 
Drawing back a few paces, he 
took a run and a jump, and just 
missed the bunch. Turning 
round again with a One, Two, 


'■■> a 

~ 'i 






Three, he jumped up, but with no greater 
success. Again and again he tried after the 
tempting morsel, but at last had to give it up, 
and walked away with his nose in the air, 
saying : " I am sure they are sour.' : 

31 1 i& casg to Dcs»pi0c Xoljat pott cannot pt* 

@r Jano: 

PEACOCK once placed a petition 
before Juno desiring to have the 
voice of a nightingale in addition 
to his other attractions ; but Juno 
refused his request. When he persisted, and 
pointed out that he was her favourite bird, she 
said : 

"Be content tottlj jour lot ^ one cannot be fit#t 

in efcergtljing;*" 





QUARREL had arisen between the 
Horse and the Stag, so the Horse 
came to a Hunter to ask his help 
to take revenge on the Stag. The 
Hunter agreed, but said : " If you desire to 
conquer the Stag, you must permit me to place 
this piece of iron between your jaws, so that I 
may guide you with these reins, and allow this 
saddle to be placed upon your back so that I 
may keep steady upon you as we follow after 
the enemy." The Horse agreed to the condi- 
tions, and the Hunter soon saddled and bridled 
him. Then with the aid of the Hunter the 
Horse soon overcame the Stag, and said to the 
Hunter : " Now, get off, and remove those 
things from my mouth and back." 



u Not so fast, friend," said the Hunter. " I 
have now got you under bit and spur, and prefer 
to keep you as you are at present.' 3 

3|f pott allots men to u$c pott for pour otott 
purposes, rljep toill use pott for rljcirtf* 


WHEN first the Fox saw the Lion he 
was terribly frightened, and ran away 
and hid himself in the wood. Next time 
however he came near the King of Beasts 
he stopped at a safe distance and watched 
him pass by. The third time they came 
near one another the Fox went straight up 
to the Lion and passed the time of day with 
him, asking him how his family were, and 
when he should have the pleasure of seeing 
him again ; then turning his tail, he parted 
from the Lion without much ceremony 

familiarity breetig contempt, 

MAN and a Lion were discussing the 
relative strength of men and lions in 
general. The Man contended that 
he and his fellows were stronger than 
lions by reason of their greater intelligence. 
" Come now with me," he cried, " and I will 
soon prove that I am right." So he took him 
into the public gardens and showed him a statue 
of Hercules overcoming the Lion and tearing 
his mouth in two. 

" That is all very well," said the Lion, "but 
proves nothing, for it was a man who made the 

Wit can cagtlg represent tljmgg a£ toe totelj 

tljem to tie. 

The r 7JT>i r r 


tjj a field one summer's day a Grasshopper 
was hopping about, chirping and 
singing to its heart's content. An 
Ant passed by, bearing along with 
w** great toil an ear of corn he was 
taking to the nest. 

"Why not come and chat with me," said 
the Grasshopper, " instead of toiling and moil- 
ing in that way ? " 

" I am helping to lay up food for the 
winter," said the Ant, " and recommend you 
to do the same." 

" Why bother about winter ? said the 
Grasshopper ; " we have got plenty of food at 
present.' But the Ant went on its way and 



continued its toil. When the winter came the 
Grasshopper had no food, and found itself dying 
of hunger, while it saw the ants distributing 
every day corn and grain from the stores they 
had collected in the summer. Then the Grass- 
hopper knew 

3|t is bc0t to prepare foe tlje tiagg of nece&sitp. 


ELL, little one/' said a Tree to a 
Reed that was growing at its foot, 
" why do you not plant your feet 
deeply in the ground, and raise 
your head boldly in the air as I do ? " 

" I am contented with my lot/ 3 said the 
Reed. " I may not be so grand, but I think I 
am safer." 

" Safe ! " sneered the Tree. " Who shall 
pluck me up by the roots or bow my head 
to the ground ? " But it soon had to repent 
of its boasting, for a hurricane arose which 



tore it up from its roots, and cast it a useless 
log on the ground, while the little Reed, 
bending to the force of the wind, soon stood 
upright again when the storm had passed over. 

£Dtiscutitp often brings* tfafcrp. 

Copyright 1894 by Macmillan &• Co. 

FOX was boasting to a Cat of its 
clever devices for escaping its 
enemies. " I have a whole bag 
of tricks," he said, "which con- 
tains a hundred ways of escaping my enemies.' 
" I have only one," said the Cat ; " but I 
can generally manage with that/ Just at 
that moment they heard the cry of a pack of 
hounds coming towards them, and the Cat 
immediately scampered up a tree and hid 
herself in the boughs. " This is my plan," 
said the Cat. " What are you going to do ? : 
The Fox thought first of one way, then of 
another, and while he was debating the hounds 
came nearer and nearer, and at last the Fox 
in his confusion was caught up by the hounds 

9 2 


and soon killed by the huntsmen, 
who had been looking on, said : 

Miss Puss, 

" Better one gate toap tljan a Ijtmtireti on 
toljiclj j>ou cannot reckon*" 

*» jegfiSra&,\ * 

% v 


IN © 



WOLF found great difficulty in 
getting at the sheep owing to the 
vigilance of the shepherd and his 
dogs. But one day it found the 
skin of a sheep that had been flayed and 
thrown aside, so it put it on over its own 
pelt and strolled down among the sheep. 
The Lamb that belonged to the sheep, whose 


skin the Wolf was wearing, began to follow 
the Wolf in the Sheep's clothing ; so, leading 
the Lamb a little apart, he soon made a meal 
off her, and for some time he succeeded in 
deceiving the sheep, and enjoying hearty 

Appearances are tieceptitje. 

Copyright 1894 by MacmUlan &• Co. 

gr^ DOG looking out for its afternoon 
nap jumped into the Manger of 
an Ox and lay there cosily upon 
the straw. But soon the Ox, 
returning from its afternoon work, came up to 
the Manger and wanted to eat some of the 
straw. The Dog in a rage, being awakened 
from its slumber, stood up and barked at the 
Ox, and whenever it came near attempted to 
bite it. At last the Ox had to give up the 
hope of getting at the straw, and went away 


:c &ij, people often pu&ge otljens toljat ttjey 
cannot enjoy tljemgeltiecu" 




N the old days men used to worship stocks 
and stones and idols, and prayed to 



them to give them luck. It happened that 
a Man had often prayed to a wooden idol 
he had received from his father, but his luck 
never seemed to change. He prayed and he 
prayed, but still he remained as unlucky as 
ever. One day in the greatest rage he went 
to the Wooden God, and with one blow 
swept it down from its pedestal. The idol 

broke in two, and what did he see ? An 
immense number of coins flying all over 
the place. 

FISHER once took his bagpipes to 
the bank of a river, and played 
upon them with the hope of 
making the fish rise ; but never a 
one put his nose out of the water. So he cast 
his net into the river and soon drew it forth 
filled with fish. Then he took his bagpipes 
again, and, as he played, the fish leapt up in 
the net. " Ah, you dance now when I play," 
said he. 

" Yes," said an old Fish : 

"clxltljcn pott are in a man'g potocr pott mtuft Do 

a# Ije lu'D0 pott." 

(Tie 5hepherds_Bqy. 

■'HERE was once a young Shepherd 
Boy who tended his sheep at the 
foot of a mountain near a dark 
forest. It was rather lonely for 
him all day, so he thought upon a plan by 
which he could get a little company and some 
excitement. He rushed down towards the 
village calling out "Wolf, Wolf/' and the 
villagers came out to meet him, and some of 
them stopped with him for a considerable 
time. This pleased the boy so much that a 
few days afterwards he tried the same trick, 
and again the villagers came to his help. But 
shortly after this a Wolf actually did come out 
from the forest, and began to worry the sheep, 
and the boy of course cried out " Wolf, 



Wolf," still louder than before. But this 
time the villagers, who had been fooled twice 
before, thought the boy was again deceiving 
them, and nobody stirred to come to his help. 
So the Wolf made a good meal off the boy's 
flock, and when the boy complained, the wise 
man of the village said : 

"# liar toill not be belfetjcn, efoen toljen 
Ijc gpeate? tljc trutj*" 





e. ' j,u , M, ' i;»w ; ywwu' ' ,,,; »»)»n << ) ".N"ui" : • "» • mag • .. ' . '"" '■"  ' 


A YOUNG man had been caught in a 
daring act of theft and had been con- 
demned to be executed for it. He expressed 
his desire to see his Mother, and to speak with 
her before he was led to execution, and of 
course this was granted. When his Mother 
came to him he said : u I want to whisper to 
you, ,: and when she brought her ear near him, 
he nearly bit it off. All the bystanders were 
horrified, and asked him what he could mean 
by such brutal and inhuman conduct. " It 
is to punish her, ,: he said. u When I was 
young I began with stealing little things, and 
brought them home to Mother. Instead of 
rebuking and punishing me, she laughed and 
said : 'It will not be noticed.' It is because 
of her that I am here to-day." 

" He is right, woman,' 1 said the Priest ; 
" the Lord hath said : 

" ^ratn up a cljilti in tlje toap Ije gtfjottit) go • ant) 
toljcn Ije t'0 olti Ije toill not Depart tljercfronu" 







rwo w^ives 


■7N the old days, when men were allowed 
to have many wives, a middle-aged 
Man had one wife that was old and 
one that was young ; each loved him 
251 very much, and desired to see him 
like herself. Now the Man's hair was turning 
grey, which the young Wife did not like, as it 
made him look too old for her husband. So 
every night she used to comb his hair and 
pick out the white ones. But the elder Wife 
saw her husband growing grey with great 
pleasure, for she did not like to be mistaken 
for his mother. So every morning she used 
to arrange his hair and pick out as many of 



the black ones as she could. The consequence 
was the Man soon found himself entirely bald. 

gielti to all ana pott toill 00011 Ijatic nottjmg; 

to jfeltu 


E quiet now," said an old Nurse to 
a child sitting on her lap. " If 
you make that noise again I will 
throw you to the Wolf." 
Now it chanced that a Wolf was passing 
close under the window as this was said. So he 
crouched down by the side of the house and 
waited. "I am in good luck to-day," thought 
he. " It is sure to cry soon, and a daintier 
morsel I haven't had for many a long day." So 
he waited, and he waited, and he waited, till at 
last the child began to cry, and the Wolf came 
forward before the window, and looked up to 
the Nurse, wagging his tail. But all the Nurse 
did was to shut down the window and call for 
help, and the dogs of the house came rushing 
out. "Ah," said the Wolf as he galloped away, 

"(Entm\z& pcomi£e0 toere matie to lie broken*" 

Copyright 1894 by Mac»iilla)t & Co. 

TORTOISE desired to change its 
place of residence, so he asked 
an Eagle to carry him to his new 
home, promising her a rich reward 
for her trouble. The Eagle agreed, and seiz- 
ing the Tortoise by the shell with her talons, 
soared aloft. On their way they met a Crow, 
who said to the Eagle : " Tortoise is good eat- 
ing." " The shell is too hard," said the Eagle 
in reply. " The rocks will soon crack the 
shell," was the Crow's answer ; and the Eagle, 

I 12 


taking the hint, let fall the Tortoise on a sharp 
rock, and the two birds made. a hearty meal 
off the Tortoise. 

jfletiec tfoar aloft on an encmp'0 pinions 

he ZIv/o 

made a 

the ZTortoise. 

fine day two Crabs came out from 
their home to take a stroll on the 
sand. " Child," said the mother, 
" you are walking very ungrace- 
fully. You should accustom yourself to 
walking straight forward without twisting 
from side to side." 

" Pray, mother," said the young one, " do 
but set the example yourself, and I will follow 

(trample 10 tlje liegt precept. 

The Afs 

in the 

Lions Skin. 


N Ass once found a Lion's skin which 
the hunters had left out in the sun 
to dry. He put it on and went 
towards his native village. All fled 
at his approach, both men and animals, and he 
was a proud Ass that day. In his delight he 
lifted up his voice and brayed, but then every 
one knew him, and his owner came up and 
gave him a sound cudgelling for the fright he 
had caused. And shortly afterwards a Fox 
came up to him and said : cc Ah, I knew you 
by your voice." 

fine clotijeg map Dilutee, iutt gill? toortig toill 

tiiaclo0e a fooU 

" I • knew • you  by • your • voice I" 

Two Fellows '^3V 
and the Dear. 

^WO Fellows were travelling together 
djyvjLj through a wood, when a Bear 

/^&C\\ rusnec ^ out u P on them. One of 
J the travellers happened to be in 
front, and he seized hold of the branch of a 
tree, and hid himself among the leaves. The 
other, seeing no help for it, threw himself flat 
down upon the ground, with his face in the 
dust. The Bear, coming up to him, put his 
muzzle close to his ear, and sniffed and sniffed. 
But at last with a growl he shook his head 
and slouched off, for bears will not touch dead 
meat. Then the fellow in the tree came down 



to his comrade, and, laughing, said : " What 
was it that Master Bruin whispered to you ? ' 
" He told me," said the other, 

"Metier trugt a fn'enti toljo tie0ert0 pott 

at a ptnclj*" 

WO Pots had been 
left on the bank of 
a river, one of brass, 
and one of earthenware. 
When the tide rose they 
both floated off down the 
stream. Now the earthen- 
ware pot tried its best to 





keep aloof from the brass one, which cried 
out : " Fear nothing, friend, I will not 
strike you." 

" But I may come in contact with you," 
said the other, " if I come too close ; and 
whether I hit you, or you hit me, I shall suffer 
for it." 

^Ije strong; anU tlje toeafc cannot keep company 



LION used to prowl about a field 
in which Four Oxen used to dwell. 
Many a time he tried to attack 
them ; but whenever he came near 
they turned their tails to one another, so that 
whichever way he approached them he was 
met by the horns of one of them. At last, 
however, they fell a-quarrelling among them- 
selves, and each went off to pasture alone in a 
separate corner of the field. Then the Lion 
attacked them one by one and soon made an 
end of all four. 

(United toe gtanti, dtfu&efc toe falL 

"7 T happened that a fisher, after fishing 
Ul all day, caught only a little fish. 

— " Pray, let me go, master," said the 

Fish. " I am much too small for your 

eating just now. If you put me back into the 

river I shall soon grow, then you can make a 

fine meal off me." 

" Nay, nay, my little Fish," said the Fisher, 
" I have you now. I may not catch you 

# little ttjiito; in Ijanti ig toortlj more tljan a 
great tljtnir in prospect. 

and Envious 




WO neighbours came before Jupiter 
and prayed him to grant their 
hearts' desire. Now the one was 
full of avarice, and the other eaten 
envy. So to punish them both, 
Jupiter granted that each might have what- 
ever he wished for himself, but only on 
condition that his neighbour had twice as 
much. The Avaricious man prayed to have 
a room full of gold. No sooner said than 
done ; but all his joy was turned to grief when 
he found that his neighbour had two rooms 
full of the precious metal. Then came the 
turn of the Envious man, who could not bear 
to think that his neighbour had any joy at all. 
So he prayed that he might have one of his 
own eyes put out, by which means his com- 
panion would become totally blind. 

(Llice0 are tljeic oton ptmigrtjment 

Copyright 1894 by Macmillan &• Co. 



r_^—^ * n i " * j T^^^ 

CROW, half-dead with thirst, came 
upon a Pitcher which had once 
been full of water ; but when the 
Crow put its beak into the mouth 
of the Pitcher he found that only very little 
water was left in it, and that he could not 
reach far enough down to get at it. He tried, 
and he tried, but at last had to give up in 
despair. Then a thought came, to him, and 
he took a pebble and dropped it into the 
Pitcher. Then he took another pebble and 
dropped it into the Pitcher. Then he took 
another pebble and dropped that into the 
Pitcher. Then he took another pebble and 
dropped that into the Pitcher. Then he took 
another pebble and dropped that into the 
Pitcher. Then he took another pebble and 




dropped that into the Pitcher. At last, at 
last, he saw the water mount up near him ; 
and after casting in a few more pebbles he 
was able to quench his thirst and save his life. 

little bp little tioeg tije tricfu 


MAN had lost his way in a wood 
one bitter winter's night. As he 
was roaming about, a Satyr came 
up to him, and finding that he had 
lost his way, promised to give him a lodging 
for the night, and guide him out of the forest 
in the morning. As he went along to the 
Satyr's cell, the Man raised both his hands 
to his mouth and kept on blowing at them. 
" What do you do that for ? " said the Satyr. 

" My hands are numb with the cold," said 
the Man, " and my breath warms them." 

After this they arrived at the Satyr's home, 
and soon the Satyr put a smoking dish of 
porridge before him. But when the Man 
raised his spoon to his mouth he began blowing 
upon it. " And what do you do that for ? ' 
said the Satyr. 

, 132 


" The porridge is too hot, and my breath 
will cool it." 

" Out you go," said the Satyr. " I will 
have nought to do with a man who can blow 
hot and cold with the same breath." 

Copyright 1894 by Macmillan &■ Co. 

NE day a countryman going to the 
nest of his Goose found there an 
egg all yellow and glittering. 



When he took it up it was as heavy as 
lead and he was going to throw it away, 
because he thought a trick had been played 
upon him. But he took it home on second 
thoughts, and soon found to his delight that 
it was an egg of pure gold. Every morn- 
ing the same thing occurred, and he soon 
became rich by selling his eggs. As he 
grew rich he grew greedy ; and thinking to 
get at once all the gold the Goose could give, 
he killed it and opened it only to find, 
— nothing. 

(Bvtzt} oft o'erreacljeg itself. 

*&&&. \ 




Copyright 1894 by Macmillan &• Co. 

I -Qreed'to-Neecl'doth'Surely'lead: | 



LABOURER lay listening to a 
Nightingale's song throughout the 
summer night. So pleased was he 
with it that the next night he set 
a trap for it and captured it. " Now that I 
have caught thee,' 3 he cried, " thou shalt 
always sing to me." 

" We Nightingales never sing in a cage," 
said the bird. 

" Then I'll eat thee," said the Labourer. 
" I have always heard say that nightingale on 
toast is a dainty morsel." 

" Nay, kill me not," said the Nightingale ; 
" but let me free, and I'll tell thee three things 
far better worth than my poor body." The 
Labourer let him loose, and he flew up to a 


branch of a tree and said : " Never believe a 
captive's promise ; that's one thing. Then 
again: Keep what you have. And a third 
piece of advice is : Sorrow not over what is 
lost forever." Then the song-bird flew away. 




NE moonlight night a Fox was 
prowling about a farmer's hen- 
coop, and saw a Cock roosting 
high up beyond his reach. " Good 
news, good news ! " he cried. 

" Why, what is that ? ' said the Cock. 
" King Lion has declared a universal truce. 
No beast may hurt a bird henceforth, but all 
shall dwell together in brotherly friendship." 

" Why, that is good news," said the Cock ; 
"and there I see some one coming, with whom 
we can share the good tidings." And so saying 
he craned his neck forward and looked afar off. 
" What is it you see ? ' said the Fox. 
" It is only my master's Dog that is coming 
towards us. What, going so soon ? ' he con- 
tinued, as the Fox began to turn away as soon 



as he had heard the news. " Will you not 
stop and congratulate the Dog on the reign of 
universal peace ? ' 

" I would gladly do so," said the Fox, "but 
I fear he may not have heard of King Lion's 

fijunnins often outtoitg it$zlt+ 

" What, going so soon ? " 

HE Wind and the Sun were disputing 
which was the stronger. Suddenly 
they saw a traveller coming down 
the road, and the Sun said : " I see 
a way to decide our dispute. Whichever of 
us can cause that traveller to take off his cloak 

shall be regarded as the 
stronger. You begin." 
So the Sun retired be- 
hind a cloud, and the 
Wind began to blow 
as hard as it could upon 
the traveller. But the 
harder he blew the 
more closely did the 
traveller wrap his cloak 
round him, till at last the Wind had to give 



up in despair. Then the Sun came out and 
shone in all his glory upon the traveller, who 
soon found it too hot to walk with his cloak 


l&iittmegg tffectg more tfjan S>d)rat|>* 





WAGGONER was once driving a 
heavy load along a very muddy 
way. At last he came to a part 
of the road where the wheels sank half- 
way into the mire, and the more the horses 
pulled, the deeper sank the wheels. So 
the Waggoner threw down his whip, and 
knelt down and prayed to Hercules the Strong. 
" O Hercules, help me in this my hour of 
distress," quoth he. But Hercules appeared 
to him, and said : 

" Tut, man, don't sprawl there. Get up 
and put your shoulder to the wheel." 

W&Z ptig fjelp ttjem tljat Ijelp tfjem0*tt>*& 

CO c " 

NCE upon a time there was a Miser 
who used to hide his gold at the 
foot of a tree in his garden ; but 
every week he used to go and dig 
it up and gloat over his gains. A robber, who 
had noticed this, went and dug up the gold 
and decamped with it. When the Miser next 
came to gloat over his treasures, he found 
nothing but the empty hole. He tore his 
hair, and raised such an outcry that all the 
neighbours came around him, and he told 
them how he used to come and visit his 



gold. cc Did you ever take any of it out ? ' 

asked one of them. 

"Nay," said he, "I only came to look at it." 
" Then come again and look at the hole,' 1 

said a neighbour ; " it will do you just as much 


(Laiealrf) tmugcti mfgljt atf toell not txi$U 



W- a 




MAN and his son were once going 
with their Donkey to market. 
As they were walking along by 
its side a countryman passed them 

" You fools, what is a Donkey for 

and said 

but to ride upon ? " 

So the Man put the Boy on the 
Donkey and they went on their way. 
But soon they passed a group of men, one of 
whom said : " See that lazy youngster, he lets 
his father walk while he rides." 

So the Man ordered his Boy to get off, and 
got on himself. But they hadn't gone far 
when they passed two women, one of whom 
said to the other : " Shame on that lazy lout 
to let his poor little son trudge along. ,: 

Well, the Man didn't know what to 



do, but at last he took his Boy up 
before him on the Donkey. By this time 
they had come to the town, and the passers- 
by began to jeer and point at them. The 
Man stopped and asked what they were 
scoffing at The men said : " Aren't you 
ashamed of yourself for overloading that poor 
Donkey of yours — you and your hulking son ? ' 
The Man and Boy got off and tried to think 
what to do. They thought and they thought, 
till at last they cut down a pole, tied the 
Donkey's feet to it, and raised the pole and 
the Donkey to their shoulders. They went 
along amid the laughter of all who met them 



till they came to Market Bridge, when the 
Donkey, getting one of his feet loose, kicked 
out and caused the Boy to drop his end of the 
pole. In the struggle the Donkey fell over 
the bridge, and his fore-feet being tied to- 

gether he was drowned. 

" That will teach you,' said an old man 
who had followed them : 

"f>lcage all, anD pott to ill plcatfc none/' 

>~£v» J^J 









FOX after crossing a river got its 
tail entangled in a bush, and could 
-^> /,§) n °t move. A number of Mos- 
£lj//vv) quitoes seeing its plight settled 
upon it and enjoyed a good meal undisturbed 
by its tail. A hedgehog strolling by took 
pity upon the Fox and went up to him : 
" You are in a bad way, neighbour," said the 
hedgehog ; " shall I relieve you by driving off 
those Mosquitoes who are sucking your 
blood ? " 

" Thank you, Master Hedgehog," said 
the Fox, u but I would rather not." 

"Why, how is that?" asked the hedgehog. 



" Well, you see/' was the answer, " these 
Mosquitoes have had their fill ; if you drive 
these away, others will come with fresh 
appetite and bleed me to death. ,: 

Swift- -£*, 

T happened that a Fox caught its tail 
in a trap, and in struggling to release 
himself lost all of it but the stump. 
At first he was ashamed to show 
himself among his fellow foxes. But at last 
he determined to put a bolder face upon his 
misfortune, and summoned all the foxes to a 
general meeting to consider a proposal which 
he had to place before them. When they 
had assembled together the Fox proposed that 
they should all do away with their tails. He 
pointed out how inconvenient a tail was when 
they were pursued by their enemies, the dogs ; 
how much it was in the way when they 



desired to sit down and hold a friendly 
conversation with one another. He failed to 
see any advantage in carrying about such a 
useless encumbrance. " That is all very 
well," said one of the older foxes ; " but I do 
not think you would have recommended us 
to dispense with our chief ornament if you 
had not happened to lose it yourself." 

SDigtrugt interested atitiice* 

DOE had had the 
misfortune to lose 
one of her eyes, and 
could not see any 
one approaching her 
on that side. So to 
avoid any danger she 
always used to feed 
on a high cliff near the 


sea, with her sound eye looking towards the 
land. By this means she could see whenever 
the hunters approached her on land, and often 
escaped by this means. But the hunters 
found out that she was blind of one eye, and 
hiring a boat rowed under the cliff where she 
used to feed and shot her from the sea. 
" Ah," cried she with her dying voice, 

"gott cannot escape pour fate." 



fJS ONG ago, the mice 
held a general council 
to consider what measures they 
could take to outwit their com- 
I mon enemy, the Cat. Some said 
this, and some said that ; but at last a 
young mouse got up and said he had a pro- 
posal to make, which he thought would meet 
the case. " You will all agree/ 5 said he, 
" that our chief danger consists in the sly and 
treacherous manner in which the enemy 
approaches us. Now, if we could receive 
some signal of her approach, we could easily 
escape from her. I venture, therefore, to 
propose that a small bell be procured, and 


attached by a ribbon round the neck of the 
Cat. By this means we should always know 
when she was about, and could easily retire 
while she was in the neighbourhood." 

This proposal met with general applause, 
until an old mouse got up and said : " That is 
all very well, but who is to bell the Cat ? ' 
The mice looked at one another and nobody 
spoke. Then the old mouse said : 


31 1 10 eagp to propose impossible remeDieg*" 

d)hat b all 

very well , 



THE Hare was once boasting of his 
speed before the other animals. " I 
have never yet been beaten," said he, " when 
I put forth my full speed. I challenge any 
one here to race with me." 

The Tortoise said quietly : Ci I accept your 

"That is a good joke," said the Hare; "I 
could dance round you all the way." 

" Keep your boasting till you've beaten," 
answered the Tortoise. " Shall we race ? ' 

So a course was fixed 
and a start was made. 
The Hare darted almost 
out of sight at once, 
but soon stopped and, 
to show his contempt 
for the Tortoise, lay 
down to have a nap. 




The Tortoise plodded on and plodded on, and 
when the Hare awoke from his nap, he saw 
the Tortoise just near the winning-post and 
could not run up in time to save the race. 
Then said the Tortoise : 

"fHoMrfng tout£ tlje race." 


old labourer, bent double with age 
and toil, was gathering sticks in a 
forest. At last he grew so tired 
and hopeless that he threw down 
the bundle of sticks, and cried out : " I cannot 
bear this life any longer. Ah, I wish Death 
would only come and take me ! " 

As he spoke, Death, a grisly skeleton, 


appeared and said to him : <c What wouldst 
thou, Mortal ? I heard thee call me.' 

cc Please, sir," replied the woodcutter, 
" would you kindly help me to lift this faggot 
of sticks on to my shoulder ? ' 

(Lule tooulti often in tforry if our toigrtjcg toere 




HARE was very popular with the 
other beasts who all claimed to 
be her friends. But one day she 
heard the hounds approaching and 
hoped to escape them by the aid of her many 
Friends. So she went to the horse, and asked 
him to carry her away from the hounds on 
his back. But he declined, stating that he 
had important work to do for his master. 
" He felt sure," he said, " that all her other 
friends would come to her assistance." She 
then applied to the bull, and hoped that he 
would repel the hounds with his horns. The 
bull replied : " I am very sorry, but I have 
an appointment with a lady ; but I feel sure 
that our friend the goat will do what you 
want." The goat, however, feared that his 
back might do her some harm if he took 
her upon it. The ram, he felt sure, was the 


proper friend to apply to. So she went to 
the ram and told him the case. The ram 
replied : " Another time, my dear friend. I 
do not like to interfere on the present occasion, 
as hounds have been known to eat sheep as 
well as hares. ' : The Hare then applied, as 
a last hope, to the calf, who regretted that he 
was unable to help her, as he did not like to 
take the responsibility upon himself, as so 
many older persons than himself had declined 
the task. By this time the hounds were quite 
near, and the Hare took to her heels and 
luckily escaped. 

il?e tljat Ijas manp friend, lja<* no fticntis. 

,/ / 

THE»t7lON#l^«fcOlfll ? 


1 ,1, ' , ' I", 

LION once fell in love with a 
beautiful maiden and proposed 
marriage to her parents. The old 
people did not know what to say. 
They did not like to give their daughter to 
the Lion, yet they did not wish to enrage the 
King of Beasts. At last the father said : " We 
feel highly honoured by your Majesty's 
proposal, but you see our daughter is a tender 
young thing, and we fear that in the 
vehemence of your affection you might 
possibly do her some injury. Might I 
venture to suggest that your Majesty should 
have your claws removed, and your teeth 
extracted, then we would gladly consider 
your proposal again/ The Lion was so 
much in love that he had his claws trimmed 
and his big teeth taken out. But when he 



came again to the parents of the young girl 
thev simply laughed in his face, and bade him 
do his worst. 

Hobc can tame tljc toiltic^t. 


N old man on the point of death 
summoned his sons around him to 
give them some parting advice. 
He ordered his servants to bring in 
a faggot of sticks, and said to his eldest son : 
" Break it." The son strained and strained, 
but with all his efforts was unable to break 
the Bundle. The other sons also tried, but 
none of them was successful. " Untie the 
faggots," said the father, " and each of you 
take a stick." When they had done so, he 
called out to them : cc Now, break," and each 
stick was easily broken. u You see my mean- 
ing," said their father. 

"JKnton fftbeg gtrengttu" 

5he Con, the Tfoy 

atto the Wum 

J j 

HE Lion once gave out that he was 
sick unto death, and summoned the 
animals to come and hear his last 
Will and Testament. So the Goat 
came to the Lion's cave, and stopped there 
listening for a long time. Then a Sheep went 
in, and before she came out a Calf came up to 
receive the last wishes of the Lord of the 
Beasts. But soon the Lion seemed to recover, 
and came to the mouth of his cave, and saw 
the Fox who had been waiting outside for 
some time. " Why do you not come to pay 
your respects to me ? ' said the Lion to the 

tc I beg your Majesty's pardon," said the 
Fox, " but I noticed the track of the animals 
that have already come to you ; and while I 



see many hoof-marks going in, I see none 
coming out. Till the animals that have 
entered your cave come out again I prefer 
to remain in the open air." 

31 1 fa easier to get into tlje cnemg'0 toiitf 

tljan out again* 

ahe 7H%% 9 % TSrain* 

HE Lion and the Fox went hunting 
together. The Lion, on the 
advice of the Fox, sent a message 
to the Ass, proposing to make an 
alliance between their two families. The 
Ass came to the place of meeting, over- 
joyed at the prospect of a royal alliance. But 
when he came there the Lion simply pounced 
on the Ass, and said to the Fox : " Here is our 
dinner for to-day. Watch you here while 
I go and have a nap. Woe betide you if you 
touch my prey." The Lion went away and 
the Fox waited ; but finding that his master 
did not return, ventured to take out the brains 
of the Ass and ate them up. When the Lion 
came back he soon noticed the absence of the 
brains, and asked the Fox in a terrible voice : 
" What have you done with the brains ? ' 

" Brains, your Majesty ! it had none, or it 
would never have fallen into your trap." 

Mlit Ijag altoapg an angtoer reat)p> 


N Eagle was soaring through the air 
when suddenly it heard the whizz 

0&%iM' ; ®i °f an Arrow, and felt itself wounded 



to death. Slowly it fluttered down 
to the earth, with its life-blood pouring out of 
it. Looking down upon the Arrow with 
which it had been pierced, it found that the 
haft of the Arrow had been feathered with one 
of its own plumes. " Alas ! ' it cried, as it 

"fflle often gibe our enemies tlje means* for our 

oton tiegtcttctiotV 


HE gods were once disputing whether 
it was possible for a living being 
to change its nature. Jupiter said 
" Yes," but Venus said tc No." So, 
to try the question, Jupiter turned a Cat into 
a Maiden, and gave her to a young man for 
wife. The wedding was duly performed and 
the young couple sat down to the wedding- 
feast. " See," said Jupiter to Venus, " how 
becomingly she behaves. Who could tell 
that yesterday she was but a Cat ? Surely 
her nature is changed ? " 

" Wait a minute," replied Venus, and let 
loose a mouse into the room. No sooner did 



the bride see this than she jumped up from her 
seat and tried to pounce upon the mouse. " Ah, 
you see," said Venus, 


Mature to ill out." 


The Milkmaid 

and her Pail 


PATTY, the Milkmaid, was going to 
market carrying her milk in a Pail 
on her head. As she went along she 
began calculating what she would 
do with the money she would get for the 
milk. " I'll buy some fowls from Farmer 
Brown,' said she, " and they will lay eggs 
each morning, which I will sell to the 
parson's wife. With the money that I get 
from the sale of these eggs I'll buy myself a 
new dimity frock and a chip hat ; and when I 
go to market, won't all the young men come 
up and speak to me ! Polly Shaw will be that 
jealous ; but I don't care. I shall just look at 
her and toss my head like this.' As she spoke, 
she tossed her head back, the Pail fell off it 
and all the milk was spilt. So she had to go 
home and tell her mother what had occurred. 
u Ah, my child," said her mother, 


2Do not count jour cljicfcentf More tljep are 


HORSE and an Ass were travelling 
together, the Horse prancing along 
in its fine trappings, the Ass carry- 
ing with difficulty the heavyweight 
in its panniers. " I wish I were you/ 3 sighed 
the Ass ; " nothing to do and well fed, and all 
that fine harness upon you.' Next day, how- 
ever, there was a great battle, and the Horse 
was wounded to death in the final charge of the 
day. His friend, the Ass, happened to pass by 
shortly afterwards and found him on the point 
of death. " I was wrong," said the Ass : 

" Better ljumlile gecurfrj? tljan gilDeti Hanger*" 

TRUMPETER during a battle 
ventured too near the enemy and 
was captured by them. They 
were about to proceed to put him 
to death when he begged them to hear his 
plea for mercy. " I do not fight," said he, 
" and indeed carry no weapon ; I only blow 
this trumpet, and surely that cannot harm 
you ; then why should you kill me ? " 

" You may not fight yourself," said the 
others, i£ but you encourage and guide your 
men to the fight." 

cllllortis map be ticeti^ 

" You fools ! see what you have been hissing. 

"Che Buffoon &-> 
the Countryman 

T a country fair there was a Buffoon 
who made all the people laugh by 
imitating the cries of various 
animals. He finished off by 
squeaking so like a pig that the spectators 
thought that he had a porker concealed about 
him. But a Countryman who stood by said : 
" Call that a pig's squeak ! Nothing like 
it. You give me till to-morrow and I will 
show you what it's like.' The audience 
laughed, but next day, sure enough, the 
Countryman appeared on the stage, and 
putting his head down squealed so hideously 
that the spectators hissed and threw stones at 
him to make him stop. " You fools ! ' he 
cried, " see what you have been hissing,' and 
held up a little pig whose ear he had been 
pinching to make him utter the squeals. 

®$tn often applaud an imitation, anti Ijigg tlje real 


— . )i 

OU must know that sometimes old 
women like a glass of wine. One 
of this sort once found a Wine-jar 
lying in the road, and eagerly went 
up to it hoping to find it full. But when she 
took it up she found that all the wine had 
been drunk out of it. Still she took a long 
sniff at the mouth of the Jar. " Ah,' 5 she 

"(LSlljat memories cling counti rlje instruments of 

our pleasure/' 


Y an unlucky chance a Fox fell into 
a deep well from which he could 
not get out. A Goat passed by 
shortly afterwards, and asked the 
Fox what he was doing down there. " Oh, 
have you not heard ? 3 said the Fox ; " there 
is going to be a great drought, so I jumped 
down here in order to be sure to have water 
by me. Why don't you come down too ? ' 
The Goat thought well of this advice, and 
jumped down into the well. But the Fox 
immediately jumped on her back, and by 
putting his foot on her long horns managed to 
jump up to the edge of the well. " Good- 
bye, friend/' said the Fox ; " remember next 

"j^cfcer tcu£t tlje atifoice of a matt fit Mfficultiejaf*" 


i 9 4 


And this is the end of iEsop's Fables. 
Hurrah ! 


So the tales were told ages before /Esop ; and asses under 

lions' 1 manes roared in Hebrew ; and sly foxes flattered in 

Etruscan ; and ivolves in sheep's clothing gnashed their teeth 

in Sanskrit^ no doubt. 

Thackeray, The Newcomes. 








•> / 














.2 - 




Q +-» 

. CO 

< .2 



• Sci 

u ~> 


en => 

en *-i 

C3 -* 

r o 




^ >, 








- 6 












o --^ 

O -o 

t<-> S 

. r- 


o 3 


- «*• 



w a 

£ * 


■- & 

2 3 


£ — > 


<o 3 


& b 



h ' 

w ^ 

s 5 

w c- 


.a j & 

M t: E 



~ — 


H " 




— -\ 


2 '*■ 


C hH 



i 2 


.a e 

■*-> « 

w o 

fa. 3 



I— 1 


5 c 

3 U 

o ■*-> 






„ t) 





• -* 










W fa: 











































 — 1 

















^HE European /Esop is derived from the Latin and 
German iEsop compiled by Heinrich Stainhowel 
about 1480 a.d. This consists of the following 
six parts (see Pedigree opposite). 

(1) Medieval life of iEsop, attributed to Planudes. (I. in 

(2) Four books of fables, connected with the name of 
Romulus, but really, as modern research has shown, all 
derived from Phaedrus, though in a fuller form than the 
extant remains of that poet. (II. -V. in Pedigree.) 

(3) Fabulae Extravagantes : a series of beast stories of the 
Reynard the Fox type, and probably connected with the new 
fables introduced by Marie de France. (VI. in Pedigree.) 

(4) A few fables from the Greek prose iEsop, really 
prosings of Babrius. (VII. in Pedigree.) 

(5) Selection from the fables of Avian. (VIII. in Pedigree.) 

(6) Facetiae from Poggio and Petrus Alfonsi. 

All the vernacular versions of Europe were derived in the 
first instance from this omnium gatherum. Thus in England 
Caxton introduced the Stainhowel through the medium of 
the French. Later collections omitted much of the Stain- 
howel, especially the Fabulae Extravagantes and the Facetiae^ 
and added somewhat from the later editions of the Greek 
prose iEsop, which up to the time of Bentley were supposed 
to be derived from the Samian slave himself. La Fontaine 


introduced a few oriental Apologues among the latter half 
of his Fables. Some of these, e.g. " La Perrette," have been 
incorporated into the later iEsops. 

The present collection aims at representing in selection 
and arrangement this history of the European ^Esop. 1 
Three quarters of its contents give in due order those of 
Stainhowel, which have survived in the struggle for existence 
in the popular consciousness. As a kind of appendix the 
last quarter of fables in this book gives a miscellaneous set 
derived from various collections published since the Stain- 
howel, and winning their way by force of merit into the 
popular iEsops. For the fables derived from the Stainhowel- 
Caxton I have referred briefly to the bibliographical appendix 
in my edition of Caxton, pp. 225, 268, by the symbols 
used there, as follows : — 

Ro. = Four books of Romulus, really Phaedrus. 

Ex. v. = Extravagantes. 

Re. = Greek prose fables, latinised by Remicius. 

Av. = Avian. 

Po. = Poggio. 
I give here a short summary of the information more 
fully contained in these bibliographical lists. I have gone 
more into detail for the last twenty fables or so which do 
not occur in Caxton. 

I.— COCK AND PEARL (Ro. i. 1). 

Phaedrus, iii. 12. Cannot be traced earlier or elsewhere. 
It gave its title to Boner's German collection of fables. 
Luther, La Fontaine, Lessing, Krilof, included it in their 
collections. It is quoted by Rabelais, Bacon, Essays^ xiii., 
and Mr. Stevenson, Catrlona. 

1 Dodsley's .^Esop in the 'last century was arranged on a somewhat similar 
plan, being divided into three books of Ancient, Modern, and Original Fables. 

NOTES 199 

II.—WOLF AND LAMB (Ro. i. 2). 

Phaedrus, i. 1. Probably Indian, occurring as the Dipi 
Jataka, in Tibet and in Madagascar. In the Jataka a 
Panther meets a Kid and complains that his tail has been 
trodden upon. The Kid gently points out that the Pan- 
ther's face was towards him. 

Panther. " My tail covers the earth." 

Kid. " But I came through the air." 

Panther. " I saw you frightening the beasts by coming 
through the air. You prevented my getting any prey." 
— TVarra, JVarra, JVarra. 

The Jataka occurs in Tibet, told .of the Wolf and the 
Sheep. It is referred to by Shakespeare, Henry IF. Act I. 
scene viii. 

III.— DOG AND SHADOW (Ro. i. 5). 

Phaedrus, i. 4. Probably Indian, from the Calladhanuggaha 
Jataka [Folklore Journal^ ii. 371 seq.). An unfaithful wife 
eloping with her lover arrives at the bank of a stream. 
There the lover persuades her to strip herself so that he may 
carry her clothes across the stream, which he proceeds to do, 
but never returns. Indra, seeing her plight, changes him- 
self into a jackal bearing a piece of flesh and goes down to 
the bank of the stream. In its waters fish are disporting, 
and the Indra-jackal, laying aside his meat, plunges in after 
one of them. A vulture hovering near seizes hold of the 
meat and bears it aloft, and the jackal, returning unsuccess- 
ful from his fishing, is taunted by the woman. In the imi- 
tation of the Jataka which occurs in the Panchatantra 
(v. 8) her taunt is : 

" The fish swims in the waters still, the vulture is off* 
with the meat. 


" Deprived of both fish and meat, Mistress Jackal, whither 
away ? " 

The jackal replies : 

" Great as is my wisdom, thine is twice as great. 

" No husband, no lover, no clothes, lady, whither away ? " 

Thus, in the Indian version the loss of the meat is a 
deliberate plan of the god Indra to read a lesson to the faith- 
less wife. In all the earlier versions the dog is swimming 
in the stream. The passage across the bridge we get from 
Marie de France or her original. 

IV.— LION'S SHARE (Ro. i. 6). 

Phaedrus, i. 5. The companions of the Lion in Phaedrus 
are a Cow, a Goat, and a Sheep. This seems to point to 
some mistranslation from an Indian original, though none 
such has been discovered. The medieval versions of Marie 
de France and Benedict of Oxford (Hebrew) have another 
version in which the Lion's partners are carnivorous, as is 
appropriate. Our expression, " Lion's share," comes from 
this fable, on which a special monograph has been written 
by C. Gorski, 1888 (Dissertation). 

V.— THE WOLF AND CRANE (Ro. i. 8). 

Phaedrus, i. 8. Certainly Indian. Occurring as the 
Javasakuna Jataka, in which Buddha tells the story of a Lion 
and a Crane to illustrate the ingratitude of the wicked. 
The Jataka concludes : " The master, having given the 
lesson, summed up the Jataka thus : At that time the Lion 
was Devadatta [the Buddhist Judas], and the Crane was I 
myself." This is a striking example how the Indian doc- 
trine of the transmigration of souls could be utilised to 

NOTES 20; 

connect a great moral teacher with the history of the fable. 
In the same way Buddha is represented as knowing the 
Wolf and Lamb fable, because he had been the Kid of the 

In my History of the Msopic Fable I have selected the 
" Wolf and the Crane " for specially full treatment ; and my 
bibliography of its occurrences runs to over a hundred 
numbers, pp. 232-234. The Buddhistic form of the fable 
first became known to Europe in 1691 in De La Loubere's 
Description of Slam, It had undoubtedly reached the ancient 
world by two different roads : (a) As a Libyan fable which 
was included by Demetrius of Phaleron in his Assemblies of 
Msopic Fables, circa 300 B.C., from whom Phaedrus obtained 
it ; (Z>) as one of the " Fables of Kybises," brought from 
Ceylon to Alexandria, c. 50 a.d. This form, which still 
retains the Lion, was used by a Rabbi, Jochanan ben Saccai, 
c. 120 a.d., to induce the Jews not to revolt against the 
Romans ; this is. found in the great Rabbinical Commentary 
on Genesis, Bereshith Rabba, c. 64. 

It has been conjectured that the tradition of the 
Ichneumon picking the teeth of the Crocodile (Herod, ii. 
68) was derived from this fable, which has always been very 
popular. The Greeks had a proverb, " Out of the Wolfs 
mouth." The fable is figured on the Bayeux tapestry 
(see frontispiece to my History). 

VI.— MAN AND SERPENT (Ro. ii. 10). 


In medieval prose Phaedrus ; also in Gabrias, a medieval 
derivate of Babrius, though not now extant in either 
Phaedrus or Babrius. Certainly Indian, for as Benfey has 
shown, the Greek and the Latin forms together make up 
the original story as extant in Fables Bidpai. (See Jacobs, 
Indian Fairy Tales, xv. : " The Gold-giving Serpent," and 


Notes, pp. 246, 247.) The fable has found its way among 
European folk tales in Germany, Poland, and Iceland. 


(Ro. i. 12). 

Horace, Sat. II. vi. JJ. It must also have occurred in 
Phaedrus, as the medieval prose version of Ademar contains 
a relic in the Iambic Trimeter of the line — 

Perduxit precibus post in urbe?n rusticum. 
Prior and Montagu elaborated the fable for political pur- 
poses in their "Town and Country Mouse," 1687. 

VIII.— FOX AND CROW (Ro. i. 15). 

Phaedrus, i. 13. Probably Indian. There are a couple 
of Jatakas having the same moral. There is an English 
proverb : " The Fox praises the meat out of the Crow's 
mouth." The fable is figured on the Bayeux tapestry. 
(See Frontispiece to History.) Thackeray makes use of it 
in his pot pourri of fables in the Prologue to The Newcomes. 
It is perhaps worth while quoting Professor de Gubernatis's 
solar myth explanation of the fable in his Zoological 
Mythology^ ii. 251 : "The Fox (the Spring aurora) takes the 
cheese (the Moon) from the Crow (the winter night) by 
making it sing ! " 

IX.— THE SICK LION (Ro. i. 16). 
Phaedrus, i. 21. 

X.— ASS AND LAP-DOG (Ro. i. 17). 

Not in extant Phaedrus, but must have been in the com- 
plete edition, as the medieval prose versions preserve some 
of the lines. 

NOTES 203 


From medieval prose Phaedrus, which still retains a line 
or two of the original, but not now extant. Also certainly 
Indian in the form of " Elephant and Mouse," as elephants 
are often tied to trees as preliminary to taming them. The 
Greek form of the fable got into Egyptian literature about 
200 a.d., when it occurs in a late Levden papyrus. Upon 
this a whole theory of the African origin of the fable was 
founded by the late Sir R. F. Burton. (See Jacobs, I.e. 91, 92.) 


(Ro. i. 20). 

In medieval prose Phaedrus and Bayeux tapestry. An 
attempt has been made to find an Indian origin for this 
fable, but without much success. 


Phaedrus, i. 2. Said to have been recited by Solon to the 
Athenians. It has been recently found in Madagascar, 
where the Frogs present their petitions, in the first place, to 
the Sun, and, when the Heron commences to eat them all up, 
attempt to get the intervention of the Moon. (Ferrand. 
Contes Malgaches, 1893, No. xiv.) 


(Ro. ii. 5). 

Phaedrus, iv. 23. Referred to by Lucian, Vera His- 
torla. Clearly referred to in Horace's line, Ars Poet. 139 — 
P arturiunt monies^ nascetur ridleulus mus. 

2o + .£SOP'S FABLES 

XV.— HARES AND FROGS (Ro. ii. 8). 
In medieval prose Phaedrus. 

XVI.— WOLF AND KID (Ro. ii. 9). 
In medieval prose Phaedrus. Cf. Grimm, Marchen^ v. 


(Ro. i. 10). 

Phaedrus, iv. 19. Probably Indian, occurring in Maha- 
bharata. The versions vary as to the threatened victim. In 
some it is the peasant himself; in others, it is one of his 
children after he arrives home. In one of the medieval 
prosings of Phaedrus, by Ademar, a woman finds and 
nourishes the serpent. 

XVIIL— BALD MAN AND FLY (Ro. ii. 12). 

Phaedrus, iv. 31. Probably Indian, from the Makasa 
Jataka, in which a foolish son takes up an axe to kill a fly 
which is worrying his father's bald pate, but naturally misses 
the flv. 

XIX.— FOX AND STORK (Ro. ii. 13). 
Phaedrus, i. 26. Occurs also in Plutarch, Symp. Whitest. 


XX.— FOX AND MASK (Ro. ii. 14). 

Phaedrus, i. 7. In Caxton this becomes " The Wolf 
and the Skull," and so loses all point. 

NOTES 20: 

XXI.— JAY AND PEACOCK (Ro. ii. 15). 

Phaedrus, i. 3. Referred to by Horace, Epist. I. iii. 18, 
and Plautus, AuluL II. i. Probably Indian, owing to the 
habitat of the bird and the similarity of the Nacca Jataka. 
The parvenu bird varies. Benedict of Oxford, in his 
Hebrew version, makes it Raven. Most of the English 
iEsops call it a Jackdaw. Thackeray includes it in the 
Prologue to The Newcomes. A monograph has been 
written on this fable by M. Fuchs, 1886 (Dissertation). 
Our expression, " Borrowed plumes," comes from it. 

XXII.— FROG AND OX (Ro. ii. 20). 

Phaedrus, i. 24. Told by Horace, Sat. II. iii. 314. Cf. 
Martial, x. 79. Carlyle gives a version in his Miscellanies, ii. 
283, from the old German of Boner. Thackeray introduces 
it in the Prologue to The Newcomes. There is said to be 
a species of Frog in South America, Ceratophrys, which has 
a remarkable power of blowing itself out, 

XXIII.— ANDROCLES (Ro. iii. 1). 

Medieval prose Phaedrus. Quoted by Appian, Aulus 
Gellius, and Seneca. Probably Oriental. Was dropped out 
of iEsop, but is familiar to us from its inclusion in Day's 
Sandford and Merton ; see also, Painter, Palace of Pleasure, 
ed. Jacobs, i. 89, 90, where the slave is called Androdus. 

XXIV.— BAT, BIRDS, AND BEASTS (Ro. iii. 4). 

Medieval prose Phaedrus. Ouoted by Varro, and in the 
Pandects, xxi., De evict. I have made use of the Arabic 


proverb about the ostrich : " They said to the camel-bird, 
c Fly ' ; it said, c I am a beast ' : they said, c Carry ' ; it said, 
' I am a bird.' " 

XXV.— HART AND HUNTER (Ro. iii. 7). 

Phaedrus, i. 12. Possibly Eastern. It has recently been 
collected in Madagascar. (Ferrand. Contes Malgaches, xvi.) 

XXVI.— SERPENT AND FILE (Ro. iii. 12). 

Phaedrus, iv. 8. Told in the Arabic fables of Loqman 
of a cat. Quoted by Stevenson, Master of Ballantrae. 

XXVII.— MAN AND WOOD (Ro. iii. 14). 

Medieval prose Phaedrus. Indian. Found also in 
Talmud, Sanhedrim, 39A 

XXVIII.— DOG AND WOLF (Ro. iii. 15). 

Phaedrus, iii. 7. Told in Avian, 37, and Benedict of 
Oxford, of a lion and a dog. 

XXIX.— BELLY AND MEMBERS (Ro. iii. 16). 

Medieval prose iEsop. Occurs also in Plutarch, Coriol. 
vi. (cf. North's Plutarch, ed. Skeat, p. 6. Also 
North's Bidpai, ed. Jacobs, p. 64). It is said to have been 
told by Menenius Agrippa to prevent the Plebeians seceding 
from the Patricians in the early days of Rome (Livy, I. 
xxx. 3). The second scene of Shakespeare's Coriolanus is 
mainly devoted to this fable. Similar fables occur in the 

NOTES 207 

East. An Egyptian Debat on very much the same subject 
was recently discovered by M. Maspero, who dates it circa 
1250 B.C. It is found in the Upanishads, whence it came 
to the Mahabharata, thence possibly into the Zend Yacna. 
A Buddhistic version exists in the Chinese Avadanas. 
The Jews had early knowledge of a similar fable, which is 
told in a Rabbinic Commentary on Psalm xxxix. There 
can be no doubt that St. Paul had a similar fable in his 
mind when writing the characteristic passage, 1 Cor. xii. 
12-26. This combines the Indian idea of the contests of 
the Members with the Roman notion of the organic nature 
of the body politic. Thus this fable forms part of the 
sacred literature of the Egyptians, of Chinese, of Buddhists, 
Brahmins and Magians, of Jews and Christians ; and we 
might almost add, of Romans and Englishmen. There were 
also medieval mysteries on the subject. Prato has a mono- 
graph on the fable in Archivio per Tradizione Popolari^ iv. 
25-40, the substance of which I have given in my History , 
pp. 82-99. 

XXX.— HART IN OX-STALL (Ro. iii. 19). 
Phaedrus, ii. 8. 

XXXI.— FOX AND GRAPES (Ro. iv. 1). 

Occurs both in Phaedrus (iv. 3) and Babrius, 19. Has 
been found by Dr. Leitner in Darbistan as " The Fox 
and the Pomegranates." Our expression, " The grapes are 
sour," comes from this. 

Phaedrus, iii. 18. Cf. Avian, 8. 



(Ro. iv. 9). 

Phasdrus, iv. 4. Attributed by Aristotle, Rhet. ii. 20, to 
Stesichorus. Referred to by Horace, Epist. I. x. 34, Given 
in North's Bidpai, ed. Jacobs, p. 65. 

XXXIV.— FOX AND LION (Ro. iv. 12). 

Medieval prose iEsop. Probably Indian. Quoted by 
Plato, Alcib. i. 503. Horace, Epist. I. i. 73. 

XXXV.— LION AND STATUE (Ro. iv. 15). 

Medieval prose Phasdrus. Ouoted by Plutarch, Apophth. 
Lacaed. 69. Curiously enough, though this fable is no longer 
extant in Babrius, it is one of those used by Crusius to prove 
that Babrius was a Roman ; for it exists among those pass- 
ing under the name of Gabrias, which were certainly derived 
from a completer Babrius than that now extant. In this 
the Statue is declared to have been placed upon a sepulchral 
monument : a custom only found among the Romans and 
not among the Greeks. The fable also occurs in the Greek 
prose i^sop, ed. Halm, 63 (which is also derived from the 
Babrius), and in Avian, 24. It is quoted in Spectator, 
No. 11. 


Medieval prose Phaedrus. The Ant is also the type of 
provident toil in Proverbs vi. 6. La Fontaine's first fable 
deals with this subject, and has recently formed the basis of 
the Opera La Cigale. 

NOTES 209 

XXXVII.— TREE AND REED (Ro. iv. 20). 

Not from Phaedrus, nor in the original Romulus, but 
inserted by Stainhowel at the end of his selections from 
" Romulus " to make up the number twenty of the fourth 
book. Probably from Avian 16, though it also occurs in 
the prose iEsop, Ed. Halm, 179 (which is ultimately derived 
from Babrius 36). It is probably Indian, as in Mahabharata 
the Sea complains that the Rivers bring down to it oaks, 
but not reeds. It occurs also in the Talmud, Tanith 20. b. 
Cf. the line in the dirge in Cymbeline, " To thee the reed is as 
the oak." Wordsworth's poem : 77?^? Oak and the Broom 
develops the subject at great length. 

XXXVIII.— FOX AND CAT (Ex. v. 5). 

Probably from Marie de France, 98. There was a 
Greek proverb on the subject, attributed to Ion (Leutsch, 
Paraeom. Graecl, i. 147). The tale has got among the 
Folk, Grimm 75, Halm, Griech. M'dhrch. 91. 


(Ex. v. 15). 

Practically derived from Matt. vii. 15. Thackeray makes 
effective use of it in the prologue to The Newcomes. As a 
matter of fact it does not occur in any of the collections 
attributed to iEsop. L'Estrange gives it as number 328, 
from Abstemius, an Italian fabulist, circa 1450. 

XL.— DOG IN THE MANGER (Ex. v. n). 

It is difficult to trace how this fable got so early into the 
Stainhowel. It is told very shortly of a Dog and a Horse 
by Lucian, Adv. in Doct. 30, but is not included in the 



ordinary Greek prose .^Esops. It was included as the last 
fable in Alsop's Oxford JEsop, 1798, where it was introduced 
in order to insert a gibe against Bentley for his " dog in the 
manger " behaviour with regard to the Royal Manuscripts. 
See Jebbj Bentley, p. 62. 


Taken by Stainhowel from the hundred Latin prose 
versions of Greek fables translated by Ranutio D'Arezzo 
from a manuscript, in 1476, before any of the fables had been 
published in Greek. It occurs in the Greek prose iEsop 66, 
from Babrius 119. 

XLIL— THE FISHER (Re. vii.) 

Told by Herodotus, i. 141. Thence by Ennius, Ed. 
Vahlen, p. 151. Ranutio got it from prose iEsop, 39, 
derived from Babrius 9. There is an English proverb : 
" Fish are not to be caught with a bird-call." 


Ultimately derived from Babrius : though only extant in 
the Greek prose iEsop. Gittlbauer has restored it from the 
prose version in his edition of Babrius, number 199. We 
are familiar with the story from its inclusion in the spelling- 
books, like that of Mavor, whence our expression " To cry 


(Re. xiv.) 

From Babrius through the Greek prose. Restored by 
Gittlbauer 247. 

NOTES 211 


The last of Ranutio's hundred fables derived from prose 
iEsop's 56 = Babrius 22. It is probably eastern. Cf. 
Liebrecht, Zur Volkskunde, p. 120. Clouston, Popular Tales^ 
i. 16. 


From Avian. Chaucer seems to refer to it : Freres 
Tale, 6957. 


From Avian, though it also occurs in the Greek prose 
/Esop 419, from Babrius 115. ^Elian's story of the Death of 
/Eschylus because an eagle mistook his bald pate for a rock 
and dropped the tortoise on it, is supposed to be derived 
from this fable. It is certainly Indian, like most of Avian's, 
and occurs in the Kacchapa "Jataka. Here a Tortoise is 
carried by two birds, holding a stick in its mouth, and falls 
on opening its mouth to rebuke the birds that are scoffing 
at it. Buddha uses the incident as a lesson to a talkative 
king. Cf. North's Bidpai^ ed. Jacobs 174, and Indian 
Fairy Tales , number 13. 


From Avian. Aristophanes, Pax 1083, says: "You 
will never get a crab to walk straight," which may refer to 
this fable. 

Avian, ed. Ellis, 5. Supposed to be referred to by Socrates 


when he says, Plato, Cratyl. 41 1 a, " / must not quake now I 
have donned the lion's skin" But it seems doubtful whether 
Socrates would have written himself down an ass, and the 
expression may really refer to the stage representations of 
Hercules. The fable is certainly Indian as it occurs among 
the Jatakas in a form which gives a raison d'etre for the 
masquerade. The Ass in the Jataka is dressed every morn- 
ing by his master in the Lion's skin, so as to obtain free 
pasturage by frightening away the villagers. (Given in 
Jacobs, Indian Fairy Tales^ number 20.) The story is told 
of a Hare in South Africa (Bleek, Reineke Fuchs in Africa). 
Thackeray includes it as before in his Newcomes. 

Avian, ed. Ellis, 9. 

LL— TWO POTS (Av. ix.) 

Avian, ed. Ellis, II. Probably Indian. [Panch. iii. 13.) 
It occurs also in the Apocrypha : " Have no fellowship with 
one that is mightier and richer than thyself, for how agree 
the Kettle and Earthen Pot together ? " (Fcclus. xiii. 2). 
There is a Talmudic proverb : " If a jug fall on a stone, 
woe to the jug ■> if a stone fall on a jug, woe to the jug." 
(Midr. Est. ap. Dukes Blumenlese^ No. 530.) 


Avian, ed. Ellis, 18. Also Babrius 44 {Three Bulls). 
We have ancient pictorial representations of this fable. Cf. 
Helbig, Untersuchungen 93. 

Avian, ed. Ellis, 20. Also Babrius 6. Our " bird in 

NOTES 213 

the hand " is the English representation of the ancient fable 
which has gradually ceased to appear among the popular 


Avian 22. Probably Indian, occurring in the Pancha- 
tantra. It has been recovered amono- the Indian folk of 


to-day by Major Temple in his delightful JVide Awake 
Stories^ p. 2155 very popular in the Middle Ages, occurring 
as a fabliau, and used in the Monks' sermons. (See the 
Exempla of Jacques de Vltry^ ed. Crane, 196.) Hans Sachs 
used it, and Gower, Conf. Amant. ii. 2. Chamisso made it 
the basis of his tale Abdullah. 


Avian 27. A similar anecdote is told in the Talmud, 
Aboda Sara^ 30 a. It is therefore probably Eastern. 

LVL— MAN AND SATYR (Av. xxii.) 

Avian 29. Also in Babrius, ed. Gittlbauer, 183. From 
Greek prose iEsop, 64. Our expression " blow hot and 
cold " comes from this fable. 


Avian 33. Probably Indian, as a similar tale occurs in 
the Jatakas. 


(Alf. iv.) 

From Petrus Alfonsi, DiscipUna Clericalls, c. 1106 a.d. ; 
a set of tales taken from Oriental sources to season sermons ; 


very popular in the Middle Ages. Lydgate founded his 
Chorle and Bird upon it. 

LIX.— FOX, COCK, AND DOG (Ro. vii.) 

Inserted among a selection from Poggio's Facetiae by 
Stainhowel, who derived it from Romulus, iv. 18, so that it was 
probably once extant in Phasdrus. A similar fable occurs 
as the Kukuta "Jataka which is figured on the Buddhist 
Stupa of Bharhut. I have reproduced the figure in my 
History^ p. 76, and suggest there that the medieval form 
represents the original of the Jataka better than that 
occurring in the present text, from considerations derived 
from this illustration. 

All the preceding fables occur in the Stainhowel, and so 
in Caxton's ./Esop. The remainder have come into the 
popular ^Esops from various sources, some of which are by 
no means easy to trace. 


Avian 4, but not included by Caxton in his Selections 
fro?n Avian. L'Estrange has it as his Fable 223. It occurs 
also in Babrius, 18, whence it came to the Greek prose 
iEsop. An epigram of Sophocles against Euripides contains 
an allusion to this fable (Athen. xiii. 82). The fable is 
applied to the behaviour of wives by Plutarch : Conj. Praec. 
chap. xii. It is given by La Fontaine vi. 3, Loqman (the 
Arabic iEsop) xxxiv., and Waldis' Esopus i. 89. 


Avian 32. Babrius 20. Greek iEsop, ed. Halm, 81. 
Not included by Caxton in his Selections. " Put your 
shoulder to the wheel " obviously comes from this fable, and 
thus ultimately from Avian's line : 

NOTES 215 

" Et manibus pigras disce juvare rotas." 
Also in La Fontaine vi. 18, Waldis ii. 14, L'Estrange 246. 


Greek Prose iEsop, 59. Lessing, ii. 16. La Fontaine, 
iv. 20. L'Estrange, 146. 


La Fontaine, iii. 1, from Poggio's Facetiae. We get this 
ultimately from Conde Lucanor^ a Spanish collection of tales, 
many of which can be traced to the East, so that this is 
probably of Oriental origin, and indeed it occurs as the 
Lady's nineteenth story in the Turkish book of the Forty 
Vezirs. The remarks of the passers-bv in the original are 
more forcible than elegant. 


This is the only fable which can be traced with any 
plausibility to iEsop himself. At any rate, it is attributed 
to him on the high authority of Aristotle, Rhet. II. 20. 
The Roman Emperors seem to have had a special liking for 
this fable which they were wont to use to console pro- 
vincials for the rapacity of proconsuls or procurators. 
Occurs in Plutarch, ed. Wittemb. IV. i. 144. Prose 
iEsop, 36 (from Aristotle). Gesta Romanorum, 51. Waldis, 
iv. 52. La Fontaine, xii. 13. L'Estrange, 254. 


Greek prose iEsop, 46. Probably from Babrius (see 
Gittlbauer's edition, no. 224). Also Waldis, iii. 41. La 
Fontaine, v. 5. L'Estrange, 10 1. 



Greek Prose iEsop. L'Estrange, 147. 


La Fontaine, ii. 2, who probably got it from Abstemius, 
who may have derived it from the Fables of Bidpai. 
L'Estrange, 391. It is admirably told in the Prologue 
to Piers Plowman, texts B. and C. M. Jusserand, in his 
recent monograph on Piers Plowman (Eng. ed, p. 43), gives 
a representative of this fable found on the misericord of a stall 
at Great Malvern, the site of the poem. In a conspiracy 
against James III. of Scotland, Lord Grey narrated the 
fable, when Archibald Earl of Angus exclaimed : " I am he 
who will bell the cat." Hence afterwards he was called 
Archibald Bell-the-Cat (Scott, Tales of a Grandfather, I. xix.). 
The Cat in Plowman's apologue is John of Gaunt. Skelton 
alludes to the fable in his Colin Clout, We get the expression 
" bell the cat " from it. 


L'Estrange, 133. It occurs as a folk-tale in Grimm, 
and among the Folk in England. 


Greek iEsop, ed. Halm, 90. Loqman, 14. La Fontaine, 
i. 16. L'Estrange, 113. The similar fable of the 
Messengers of Death (on which cf. Dr. Morris in Folklore 
fournal) is certainly derived from India. 


An original fable of Gay's, which has perhaps retained its 
popularity owing to the couplet : 

NOTES 217 

And when a Ladv's in the case, 
You know all other things give place. 


Babrius 98. Used by Eumenes to warn the Macedonians 
against the wiles of Antigonus (Diod. Sicul. xix. 25). 
La Fontaine, iv. 1. L'Estrange, 121. 


Babrius 47. A similar apologue is told of Ghenghiz Khan, 
and occurs in Harkon's Armenian History of the Tartars. 
Plutarch tells it of a king of Scythia (Jpophth. 84, 16). 
Cf. Eccl. iv. 12. L'Estrange, 62. La Fontaine, iv. 17. 


Referred to by Plato, Alcib. i. 503 ; also by Horace, Epist. 
I. i. 73 [Nulla vestigia retrorsum). It comes to us from the 
medieval prose Phaedrus. Probably Indian, as it occurs in 
the Panchatantra^ iii. 14. Also in the Tutinameh, ii. 125. 


Babrius 95, told of the Lion and Bear. Certainly 
Indian, where it occurs in the Panchatantra, iv. 2, except 
that an Ass occurs instead of a Deer. From India the 
fable got to Judaea, where it is found in the Rabbinic Com- 
mentary on Exodus, here again the animal is an Ass. In 
both Indian and Greek original the animal loses its heart, 
which is regarded by the Ancients as the seat of intelligence. 
I have had to change the missing organ in order to preserve 
the pun which makes up most of the point of the story. 
The tale is however of very great critical importance in the 


history of the fable, and I have inserted it mainly for that 
reason. Mr. G. C. Keibel has studied the genealogy of the 
various versions in a recent article in Zeits. fur vergleich. 
Literaturgeschichte^ 1894, p. 264 seq. 


iEschylus' Myrmidons as given by the Scholiast on Aristo- 
phanes' dves, 808. iEschylus quotes it as being a Libyan 
fable, it is therefore probably Eastern. Byron refers to it in 
his English Bards and Scotch Reviewers : 

So the struck eagle, stretch'd upon the plain, 
No more through rolling clouds to soar again, 
View'd his own feather on the fatal dart, 
And wing'd the shaft that quiver'd in his heart. 

He got the idea from Waller, To a lady singing a song of his 
composing. Cf. La Fontaine, ii. 6. 


From Phaedrus, though not in the ordinary editions ; 
the whole of the poem, however, can be restored from the 
prose version in the medieval Esopus ad Rufmi. (See my 
History^ p. 12.) The fable is told of a weasel by the 
dramatist Strattis, c. 400 B.C., and by Alexis, 375 B.C. Prob- 
ablv Indian, as a similar story occurs in the Panchatantra. 
A Brahmin saves a Mouse and turns it into a Maiden whom 
he determines to marry to the most powerful being in the 
world. The Mouse-Maiden objects to the Sun as a hus- 
band, as being too hot : to the Clouds, which can obscure 
the Sun, as being too cold : to the Wind, which can drive 
the Clouds, as too unsteady : to the Mountain, which can 

NOTES 219 

withstand the Wind, as being inferior to Mice which can 
bore into its entrails. So the Brahmin goes with her to the 
Mouse-King. Her body became beautified by her hair 
standing on end for joy, and she said : " Papa, make me 
into a Mouse, and give me to him as a wife." The Indian 
fable has exactly the same moral as the Greek one, Naturam 
expellas. We can trace the incident of strong, stronger, 
more strong still, and strongest, in the Talmud, while there 
is a foreign air about the metempsychosis in the Phasdrine 
fable. As this fable is one of the earliest known in Greece 
before Alexander's march to India, it is an important piece 
of evidence for the transmission of fables from the East. 
(Cf. La Fontaine, ii. 18 ; ix. 7.) 


Has become popular through La Fontaine's Perrette. 
Derived from India, as has been shown by Benfey in his 
Einleitung. Panchatantra, § 209. Professor Max Miiller 
has expanded this in his admirable essay on the Emigration 
of Fables, Selected Essays^ i. pp. 500-576. The story of 
Alnaschar, the Barber's Fifth Brother in the Arabian 
Nights^ also comes from the same source. La Fontaine's 
version, which has made the fable so familiar to us all, 
comes from Bonaventure des Periers, Contes et Nouvelles^ 
who got it from the Dialogus Creaturarum of Nicholaus 
Pergamenus, who derived it from the Sermones of Jacques de 
Vitry (see Prof. Crane's edition, no. ii.), who probably 
derived it from the Directoriufn Humana Vitce of John 
of Capua, a converted Jew, who translated it from the 
Hebrew version of the Arabic Kalilah iva Dinmah, which 
was itself derived from the old Syriac version of a Pehlevi 
translation of the original Indian work. 



Babrius 7. Cf. Kirchhoff, Wendenmuth^ vii. 54 (edit. 
Oesterley). Some versions have only a "wounded charger," 
who is afterwards set to work as a draught horse. 


Greek prose iEsop, 386. Probably from Babrius. Cf. 
Gittlbauer, 171. Waldis, 155. L'Estrange, 67. Kirchhoff, 
vii. 93. 


Greek Prose iEsop. 


Greek Prose iEsop. 


Phaed. iv. 9 ; occurs also in Babrius as reconstructed by 
Gittlbauer, No. 174. 


Roman numbers refer to the order of notes, Arabic to pages of text. A few 
proverbial expressions derived from fables are given in italics, with reference to 
the fables from which they are derived [see Notes). Cross references have 
been given for other titles of the fables. 

Androcles, xxiii., 60 

Ant and Grasshopper, xxxvi., 86 

Ass and Lapdog, x., 24 

Ass in Lion's skin, xlix., 116 

Ass's Brains, lxxiv., 177 

Avaricious and Envious, liv., 127 

Bald Man and Fly, xviii., 47 
Bat, Birds, and Beasts, xxiv., 62 
Belling the Cat, lxvii., 159 
Belly and Members, xxix., 72 
Bloiu hot and cold, see Man and Satyr 
Bcrroived plumes, see Jay and Peacock 
Brass Pot and Earthenware Pot, see 

Two Pots 
Buffoon and Countryman, Ixxx., 1S9 
Bull and Frog, see Frog and Ox 
Bundle of Sticks, lxxii., 173 

Cat-Maiden, lxxvi., 180 

Cock and Pearl, i., 2 

Countryman and Serpent, see Woodman 

and Serpent 
Crabs, see Two Crabs 
Crow and Pitcher, lv., 129 

Daw and Peacocks, see Jay and Pea- 

Death and Old Man, see Old Man and 

Dog and Shadow, hi., 7 

Dog^and Wolf, xxviii., 70 

Dog in Manger, xl., 97 

Eagle and Arrow, lxxv., 179 


Eagle and Tortoise, see Tortoise and 

Fisher, xlii., 100 

Fisher and Little Fish, liii., 124 

Four Oxen and Lion, lii., 122 

Fox and Cat, xxxviii., 91 

Fox and Crow, viii., 19 

Fox and Goat, lxxxii., 193 

Fox and Grapes, xxxi., ~6 

Fox and Lion, xxxiv., 83 

Fox and Mask, xx., 52 

Fox and Mosquitoes, lxiv., 

Fox and Stork, xix., 50 

Fox, Cock, and Dog, lix., 140 

Fox without a Tail, lxv., 154 

Frog and Ox, xxii., 57 

Frogs and Hares, see Hares and Frogs 

Frogs desiring a King, xiii., 31 

Goose with the Golden Eggs, lvii., 


Grapes are sour, see Fox and Grapes 

Hare and Tortoise, lxviii., 162 
Hare with many Friends, lxx., 168 
Hares and Frogs, xv., 38 
Hart and Hunter, xxv., 65 
Hart in Ox-stall, xxx., 74 
Hercules and Waggoner, lxi., 145 
Horse and Ass, lxxviii., 185 
Horse, Hunter, and Stag, xxxiii., 80 

Jay and Peacock, xxi., 55 

Juno and Peacock, see Peacock and Juno 



Kid and Wolf, see Wolf and Kid 
King Log and King Stork, see Frogs 
desiring a King 

Labourer and Nightingale, lviii.. 138 

Lapdog and Ass, see Ass and Lapdog 

Lion and Mouse, xi., 26 

Lion and Statue, xxxv., 85 

Lion, Fox, and Beasts, lxxiii., 174 

Lion in Love, lxxi., 170 

Lion Sick, see Sick Lion 

Lion's Share, iv., 8 

Man and Serpent, vi., 12 

Man and Satyr, lvi., 131 

Man and Two Wives, xlv., 106 

Man and Wood, xxvii., 68 

Man and Wooden God (statue), xli., 

Man. Axe, and Wood, see Man and 

Man, Boy, and Donkey, lxiii., 149 
Man, Lion, and Statue, see Lion and 

Master's Eye, see Hart in Ox-stall 
Mice in Council, see Belling the Cat 
Milkmaid and Pail, lxxvii., 183 
Miser and Gold, lxii., 146 
Mountains in Labour, xiv., 36 
Mouse and Lion, see Lion and Mouse 

Nulla Vestigia retrorsum, see Lion, Fox, 

and Beasts 
Nurse and Wolf, xlvi., 109 

Oak and Reed, see Tree and Reed 
Old Man and Death, lxix., 164 
Old Woman and Wine-jar, lxxxi., 190 
One-eyed Doe, lxvi., 156 
Oxen and Lion, see Four Oxen and 

Peacock and Juno, xxxii., 79 

Pitcher and Crow, see Crow and 

Put your shoulder to the wheel, see 

Hercules and Waggoner 

Satyr and Man, see Man and Satyr 

Serpent and File, xxvi., 67 

Shepherd Boy, xliii., 102 

Sick Lion, ix., 23 

Sun and Wind, see Wind and Sun 

Swallow and other Birds, xii., 28 

Thief and Mother, see Young Thief 

and Mother 
To bloiv hot and cold, see Man and Satyr 
To cry " Wolf," see Shepherd Boy 
To ivarm a serpent in your bosom, see Man 

and Serpent 
Tortoise and Birds, xlvii., 1 1 1 
Town Mouse and Country Mouse, vii., 

Travellers and Bear, see Two Fellows 

and Bear 
Tree and Reed, xxxvii., 88 
Trumpeter taken Prisoner, lxxix., 187 
Two Crabs, xlviii., 114 
Two Fellows and Bear, 1., 118 
Two Pots, li., 120 

Waggoner and Hercules, see Hercules 

and Waggoner 
Wind and Sun, lx., 142 
"Wolf! " see Shepherd Boy 
Wolf and Crane, v., 10 
Wolf and Dog, see Dog and Wolf 
Wolf and Kid, xvi., 40 
Wolf and Lamb, ii., 4 
Wolf and Nurse, sec Nurse and Wolf 
Wolf in Sheep's Clothing, xxxix., 93 
Woodman and Serpent, xvii., 43 

Young Thief and Mother, xliv., 105 

Printed by R. & R. Clark, Edinburgh. 





r m$$± 

>.*> I] 



\y\;,.:.x"), va^away: 










'  ; ■.■.■;■■; ■•-■ ■■'■■■' 






> w