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i 



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\ 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



BY THE SAME AUTHOR 

STARS OF DESTINY 

The Ancient Science of 
Astrology and How to 
Make Use of It Today. 



Fully Illustrated with 
Diagrams and Tables 



Net $2.00 



NEW YORK 

E. P. DUTTON & COMPANY 

68 1 FIFTH AVENUE 



THE 

FABRIC OF DREAMS 

Dream Lore and Dream Interpretation, 
Ancient and Modern 



KATHERINE TAYLOR CRAIG 

ACTBOK OT "STAM OT MniMT" " 



NEW YORK 

E. P. DUTTON & COMPANY 

68X FIFTH AVENUE 



CopyxiGHT, f9ibt 
By E. p. DUTTON k COMPANY 



AU Rights Reserved 



Printed in fhe United States of Amerion 



^ 






PREFACE 

This volume is written for the perusal of the unprejudiced. 
It is an appeal to those who neither affirm the infallibility of 
dreamSy nor yet deny their significance as symbols, also to 
those persons who have given &e subject no bought whatso- 
ever, but who are never&eless willing to listen impartially to 
the arguments of the old-fashioned dream interpreters and to 
the h3^theses of modem psycho-analysts. At first glance a 
vast distance seems to stretch between the desert of sterile 
scientific facts and the teeming jungle of riotous dreams, yet 
between these extremes winds many a temperate, pleasant path 
which the normal mind may follow if it will. 

The writer does not advocate any especial theory over an- 
other; the purpose is merely to untangle the truth, if truth 
there be. At times this quest has led to the oracular springs 
of old Egypt, or to the temples of Greece, or through the 
sickly vaporings of medievalism and again through the 
bleak materialism of modem physiology, for each cult that has 
withstood the blight of time must perforce have held its 
strength, and that strength must have been bom of tmth, 
otherwise the teachings would have been forgotten. The 
writer has merely gathered the facts — ^the reader is left to 
judge them. 



VnVvv 

CONTENTS 

CHAPTER I 

SUBSTANCE OR SHADOW 

PAGB 
An Andent Cult, a Mediaeval Jest, a Modem Sdenoe— Ancient Divina- 
tion and Modern Dream Analysis — Converging Theories Old and New 
— ^The Soul and the Scalpel of Science-— Dreams that Made History 
— ^The Purpose ci Dreams — Their Therapeutic Value — ^Their Psychic 
Significance — The Sources of Dreams 1 

CHAPTER II 

IVHO SHALL DECIDE WHEN DOCTORS DISAGREE? 

Psychologists at Loggerheads — the Ancients and a Few Modem»— The 
Mohammedan Theories — Plato, Pythagoras, etc. — Charcot, Jung, 
Freud, Dr. Prince and Other Ultra-Modems — ^The Mono^idea — ^The 
Occultists 16 

CHAPTER III 
SLEEP, THE MYSTERY 

Transmitted Tendencies the Cause of Dreams — Inherited Memory or 
Atavism — ^Explanation of Morbid Fears — Reincarnatioh versus In- 
herited Memory — Day-Dream and Reverie — Nocturnal Dreams and 
Day-Dreams — Socrates and Several Other Dreamers — ^Abstiaction — 
Sir Isaac Newton — Somnambulism — Epilepsy — Nightmare — ^Various 
Examples of these Conditions 27 

CHAPTER IV 

WHERE SCIENCE PAUSES 

The Mystics, their Dreams or Visions — Clairvoyance, Clairaudience and 
Other Super-Terrestrial Faculties — St. Paul, St. John-^wedenborg — 
Dreamers of the Desert--St. Francis, His Dreams and His Work — 
The Peasant Maid of Domremy^— William Blake— William Sharp . 49 

vu 



viii CONTENTS 

CHAPTER V 

NBUKASTHEKIA VERSUS THE SIXTH SEM8B 

PAGE 
The Natural Body>— The Spiritual Body— Bishop Brent— The Instinct- 
Instance of Captain Grade and the TUanic Disaster — Consdeooe 
and the Sixth Sense — Legends and Histbrjr— Universal Legends, 
The Niebelungs, Tower of Babel, Atlantis — Monastidsm and the 
Sixth Sense— Dreams of Children, Angels and Savages — Count Tol- 
stoy's Dream — ^The Hebrides, Switserland and the Canary Islands— 
St. Paul, Csesar, Cromwell, and a Few Epileptics — Neurasthenia or 
Genius ,, 05 

CHAPTER VI 

^'SLEEP THAT KNITS UP THE SAVEL'D SLEEVE OE GABE*' 

Memory During Slee)>— Hsrpnotic Sleep — Methods of Inducing Hypnotic 
Slumber — ^The Oracles — Modem Methods of Healing — The Cave of 
Trophonius— The Legends of Sleep > . . 78 

CHAPTER VII 

DHEAM S THAT HAVE COliE TRUE 

Each Avatar Heralded by a Mother's Dream — Zoroaster-— Mahomet- 
Gautama Buddha— Christ— The Mother of Cyrus the Great— Of 
Philip of Macedon — ^Dreams of Camby^ses, of Xerxes — Of Alexander — 
Murderers Apprehended through Dreams — Miscellaneous Dreams 
that Have been Verified — ^The Death of President Lincoln ... 01 

CHAPTER VIII 

YOUR DREAM WILL HMD YOU OUT 

Wish Dreams Contrast Dreams — ^Alas for the Dreams of Childhood'— Rep- 
rehensible Dreams — Dreams of Revelation — ^Dreams that Defy Sci- 
ence — ^Xenoglossia, Memory or Inspiration — The Apostles — ^Anni- 
hilation of Time and Space — Relative Values — Spiritual or Spiritistic 
—Angel, Devil, or Naked Soul 137 

CHAPTER IX ! 

POPPIES AND liAMDSAOOSA 

Drugs and Narcotics — Opium — ^Alcohol — Pulque or Mescal — ^Hashish- 
Morphia — ^Lupulus or Hop— Mandrake — ^Dittany^— Hyssop— Bella- 
donna-— Stramonium— The Male Fern 136 



CONTENTS ix 

CHAPTER X 

DXEAM ANALYSIS AND IMTEXPKXXAXIOH 

FAGB 

Divination and Dream Analysis — ^Example of Freudian Interpretatloii— 
Frink— Havdock Ellia— Dr. Prince— ^ypsylnterpietenh—Daniel't 
Interpretationa — Moses and Josepli— The Latent Content-— Mani- 
fest Content — ^The Censor— Displacement and other Factors in 
Dream Analysis — Illustrations of Scientific Analyiris 161 

CHAPTER XI 

8YMBOLI8H IN DKEA1I8 

Ssrmbolism oi Mythology and of Mysticism— Modificatloo of Synbola— 
Time and History as Factors in Symbolism — Gypsy Ssrmbolisni— The 
Dream Books~-S3rmboIs Whose Significance has Altered—The Dove 
— ^The Cross— Serpent— Crocodile — ^Table of Symbols • • . . 186 

CHAPTER XIL 

IBE ANCIENT ART OT GEOMANCS 

Dream Interpretation by Means of Geomancy— Definitioii of Geomancy 
—Its History^— Directions for Geomantic Interpretatton— Gcomantic 
Tables •• ... 968 

CHAPTER Xin 

A BUDGET 07 DREAMS AND THEIE INTESPSETATION 
The Si-Fati-I-Serosah— The Oneirocritioon of Astrampsichus .... 867 






THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



CHAPTER I 



SUBSTANCE OR SHADOW 



'There is no reason why we should not get together while we can 
and tell each other our dreams." — Plato, The Apology. 

Notwithstanding its world-war, the twentieth century has 
wrought a truce between the Apocalyptic lion and lamb. Sci- 
ence, represented by Dr. Sigmund Freud of Vienna, Dr. Carl 
Jung of Zurich, Dr. Morton Prince of Boston, M. Jules Bois 
of Paris, Mr. Havelock Ellis of London, and numerous other 
savants of France, Italy, England and America, has granted 
the existence of a sixth sense, the subconsciousness, clair- 
voyance, crystal-gazing and dream interpretation. 

Thus a cosmic circle, formed of die thought of the ages, 
has merged ultra-modernism and ancient myth. The recent 
cognizance taken of dreams by physiology as well as by psy- 
chology, savors strongly of ancient philosophy ; and an aston- 
ishing similarity between twentieth century thought and that 
of ante-Christianity is apparent in the resuscitated science of 
dream interpretation. The practice of translating dreams and 
of searching for their meaning was forgotten by the educated 
classes during the ages intervening between remote antiquity 
and our own era, albeit it was to a certain extent kept alive by 
the superstition of the masses, who, despite the ridicule of 
the enlightened few, clung to their dreams and to the estab- 
lished and symbolical interpretation thereof. They were a 
fantastic antidote for the oppression and misery of the lower 
classes during the Middle Ages. 



2 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

The emphasis with which the wise men of each century 
affirm or deny the validity of dreams indexes the enlighten- 
ment, spiritual or mental, of the era in question. 

In the dawn of recorded history dreams were held as divine. 
The Egyptians, Chaldeans, Greeks and Romans studied, re- 
corded, and classified their visions, and various degrees of 
importance and divers meanings were attached thereto. Divin- 
atory and prophetic qualities were attributed to the higher, 
holier dreams, and the temples of antiquity, notably those of 
Greece and Egypt, were provided with dormitories wherein 
the supplicant might slumber and await the message of his 
dream. 

From Noah in Genesis to John on Patmos the Bible abounds 
in dreams. That Jehovah of the Jews is believed to have 
appeared to His chosen ones as they slept is evidenced by 
the reverence with which Moses, Abraham, Elijah and other 
mighty men of the historic past received these nocturnal 
messages. 

"For God speaketh once, yea twice, yet man perceiveth it 
not. In a dream, in a vision of the night, when deep sleep 
f alleth upon men, in slumberings upon the bed, then He open- 
eth the ears of men and sealeth their instructions." Thus 
spoke Elihu, son of Barachel, to Job. 

The prevalent belief that men were unerringly consoled, 
warned or punished according to their deserts, established 
dreams as a medium for the expression of Divine wishes, 
whether these were thundered from Sinai by Him of the Un- 
speakable Name, or whether they were attributed to Osiris, 
the mighty, or to Zeus of the human foibles and ntmierous 
loves. 

The visions of Abraham were undoubtedly dreams and 
God's promises were made to him as he slept. "Aiid the Lord 
appeared unto Abraham and said: Unto thy seed will I give 
this land and there builded he an altar unto the Lord who ap- 
peared unto him." 



SUBSTANCE OR SHADOW 3 

Philo Judeas (25 B. C) in his "Book of Giants and of Civil 
Life," pronounces Abraham the first dream interpreter. 

Believers in an anthropomorphic Deity will note the signifi- 
cant fact that^ notwithstanding His love for Abraham, when 
the latter sinned by denying Sarah as his wife to Abimelech, 
King of Gorar, God appeared to Abimelech in a dream of 
warning. And when Abimelech answered horror-stricken: 
"Lord, wilt Thou slay a righteous nation?" a dream reas- 
sured him : "Nay, I know that thou didst this in the iot^rity 
of thy heart." 

Herodotus and Josephus regard dreams with reverence, and 
their historical characters rely upon visions for counsel and 
guidance, but time has lessened the humility of the world 
toward these messages. Though still heeded as auguries and 
portents, dreams had obviously lost their esoteric significance 
and had assumed the nature of personal premonitions. Herod 
the Tetrarch dreams of his brother's death, and Mariamne, 
Herod's wife, is warned that her own beautiful body must 
perish, and these dreams, though verified, savour of the gath- 
ering shades of superstition rather than the glow of faith. 

Even the warnings of Christ's birth brought to Herod's 
dream interpreters the mere foreshadowing of an earthly 
monarch who might supplant the weak despot on a tottering 
throne held at the caprice of Rome. While the thunderous 
portents of the Christian Era were translated to Herod's 
puerile egotism as earthly rivalry, until, shivering under his 
own pigmy conception, he issued the edict that "fulfilled that 
which was spoken by Jeremy the prophet," the proclamation 
that spread woe among the mothers of Judea. 

Joseph's dreams concerning the son of Mary seem to have 
left him troubled and somewhat puzzled, while the forewarn- 
ing sent to Pontius Pilate's wife pierces the centuries as the 
cry of an anxious woman, rather than the wail of a soul 
over the tragedy of all ages. 

Mary the Virgin and Saint Elizabeth dreamed with clearer 
vision than did their contemporaries, or than did the smoke- 



4 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

smothered oracles of the past, but these two stood alone, even 
as Saint John of the mystic Revelation and Saint Paul, who 
became blind that he might see, were the pharos of their 
time, shining upon a world darkened with the double shadow 
that holds when the stars are set and before the sun has risen. 

Thus at the time of Christ's coming, not only men's dream- 
ings, but their very souls had lost the sweep of the spiritual 
and had materialized to a circumstance in the individual life. 

The legend of the voice crying across the waters of the 
Nile, mourning the death of Pan, the god of nature, was 
founded upon a pilot's dream, yet it bore its literal and pro- 
phetic meaning: Pan's day was actually done, the sun had 
set upon old faiths ; and although a brighter day was dawning 
a long darkness must follow before the sun could wax suffi- 
ciently strong to penetrate the materialism of the crepuscular 
mid-era. This chaos, however, prevailed chiefly in the civilized 
world. In the barbarous north, for the most part unknown 
and uncharted, the old gods held sway ; the Druids prophesied 
and dreamed in their groves, and faith and vision remained 
mystic, strong and true. Saxo Grammaticus and Livy de- 
scribe auguries, oracles and vivid, sentient dreams, invariably 
fulfilled, whether of good or evil portent, and received trust- 
fully as sacred messages. They dealt with armies^ dynasties 
and the fate of nations, and with arcana celestial or diabolical 
rather than with the ordinary individual. The women accom- 
panied their men to battle, counseling with celestial wisdom 
or healing wounds by magic and by the art of simples. The 
prophetesses were called VoUen and their songs and lamenta- 
tions were echoed in the north long after the introduction of 
Christianity; besides the VoUen, there were the Valkyren, 
dreaming, battling maidens, whose celestial attributes entitled 
them to immortality, for piety was commingled with ferocity in 
the hearts of these deep-bosomed dreamers of the north. Vitel- 
lius, the first Emperor to make use of the northern troc^s 
to become ruler of Rome, was invariably accompanied by one 
of these sybils who interpreted his dreams. Boadicea, the 



SUBSTANCE OR SHADOW 5 

"British Warrior-Queen/' was of this race, as were Villeda, 
the renowned maid who dwelt in a lonely tower in the Bruc- 
terian forest and whose dreams forecast victory for her peo- 
ple and defeat to the Romans, and Ganna, the wise woman 
who cursed as lustily as she blessed and who went with her 
people to battle. The dreams and visions of these women are 
in sturdy contrast to the timid remonstrance of the wife of 
Pontius Pilate, or to the vaporings of Calphumia, the spouse 
of Julius Caesar. 

Yet civilization in the south has ever held its few seekers 
after the old dreams and ideals, and the teachings of these 
rare spirits, whether pagan or Christian, were to loom large 
in future thought. Plotinus, founder of the school of neo- 
Platonists, and his pupils, lamblichus, Porphyry and Proclus, 
united and revived the doctrines of Pythagoras, Plato and Aris- 
totle. Plotinus, who lived in the third century during the 
reign of Alexander Severus, not only persuaded the Emperor 
to many deeds of clemency and kindness, but he is said to 
have inspired Alexander's treatise upon dreams and divina- 
tion. The influence of Plotinus was not, however, confined to 
followers of the pagan deities. The Greek fathers, Basil, Clem- 
ent and Gregory, and, at a later date. Saint Augustine, and 
still later the mediaeval mystics, Anselm and Hugh de Lor- 
raine, absorbed largely of the teachings of Plotinus upon 
dreams and other occult subjects. These Christians were, to be 
sure, of the elect and understanding few; Plotinus was gen- 
erally held in horror by the followers of orthodox Christianity, 
who consigned him to oblivion as soon as might be. Here he 
remained, save for an occasional plagiarist, until the twentieth 
century restored him to his own. 

In the second century Artemidorus compiled a dream book. 
His claim of having been aided in the work by Apollo Daldia- 
nus probably accounts for the obloquy that succeeding genera- 
tions have cast upon his name. Hor/ever, his dream dic- 
tionary, in four volumes, forms the basis of dream interpreta- 
tion and symbolism of the present day. 



V 



6 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

Synesius, the paradoxical pagan bishop of the fourth cen- 
tury, whose manful defense of Cyrenaica and Ptolemais when 
those cities were besieged by barbarians, adds a touch of quaint- 
ness to his history, wrote a treatise upon dreams entitled *T)e 
Insomnis." Before he became a Christian he was a pupil of 
Hypatia. His recipes for creating dreams are preserved in the 
Leyden Papyri. 

Ambrose, the saintly Bishop of Milan, wrote a treatise on 
dreams in which he testifies as to the fulfillment in every detail 
of a dream in which he was commanded to open the earth 
at a certain spot and to exhume the bodies of two martyrs, 
dead two hundred years. He found the bodies and obeyed 
the command to bury them with Qiristian rites. 

The clear vision of the few, however, failed to lighten the 
blindness of the world, and the majority of thoughts and 
dreams must follow the outward trend of events. t 

» 

Despite the barbarity of the rising nations that were to rule ? 

the world after the fall of Rome, early Christianity gathered 
strength therefrom, and the invigoration developed a certain 
ferocious fervor not altogether congruous with the spirit of 
the Founder of the Faith. The first compulsory conversions 
to Christianity, under Charlemagne in the eighth century, ' 

blazed the path for future persecutions. The din and clamor 
of clashing faiths sent mystics and dreamers to seek the silence 
of the deserts of Arabia and of Africa, where the cenobites 
and hermits might dream in peace and keep alive the Spirit 
of the Master. 

The expulsion of the Druids, who were compelled to hold 
their meetings beneath the trees at night, founded the legend 
of the Witches Sabbath, the nightmare of the Middle Ages. 

The legends of King Arthur's Court and of the Quest of the 
Grail were but visions, dreams higher than the dreamers knew, 
and the mental progenitors of the Crusades. 

The inception of the Crusades was a visionary's dream, and 
the end a nightmare. The barons and princes who dreamed 
of following the footsteps of the Saviour and of regaining the 



SUBSTANCE OR SHADOW 7 

Holy Sepulchre for Christianity, found a rude awakening at 
the hands of the Saracens. Their return filled Europe with 
broken lives. The legend of vampirism is scientifically trace- 
able to nightmare induced by physical, leprous conditions. 
The peasantry, neglected and starving during the absence of 
landowners in the Holy Land, were fit subjects for infection, 
and thus the nightmare^ of the vampire grew and spread. To 
the fancy distorted by disease fairies became witches, religion 
bigotry ; all things bright, happy, or wholesome, were forgotten 
by a tortured world; God Himself became personified Re- 
venge. Mawkish sentimentality, strongly flavored with Orien- 
tal sensualism, confined the women to castles. They were per- 
mitted wings, but denied nether limbs, a relegation scarcely 
conducive to health or happiness. The sterility of the moyen 
age resulted and its very mysticism was perverted in its dream- 
ing. The pietistic imagination dwelt ravenously upon bodily 
agony, the marks of the stigmata, physical temptations and 
hysteria. Witches and sorcerers, the dream manufacturers and 
hypnotists of that day, flourished apace, until in sheer reaction 
the Renaissance robbed dreams of their morbid significance 
and left them empty visions by declaring that they held no 
meaning whatsoever. Materialistic joys now put a suffering 
world to shame; there were no more portentous dreams, no 
more Witches Sabbaths ; God not only ceased to appear Him- 
self, but would not permit Satan to do so. An era of prac- 
ticality followed: utilitarianism, the sciences of mathematics 
and medicine buried traditions, dreams and abstract truths 
without partiality. Then, suddenly, a new science came to the 
fore and resuscitated not only truths that had heretofore been 
challenged, but s)mibols, traditions and dreams. 

She came as a clean-cut, clear-eyed creature whose prac- 
tical tolerance silenced anaemic orthodoxy, while the sturdy 
commonsense of her raiment was in absurd contrast to the 
rainbow wings of ancient faith. The knowledge that the 
dreams and visions of the world had been driven from the 
realm of fact by her grandparents, the eighteenth century 



8 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

sciences^ only stimulated her interest in the banished legends. 

With a laugh she unearthed the dreams of past ages and 
resurrected their accompanying faith. Myths, gods and heroes 
were likewise revived and with their return to earth were ac- 
cepted as psychological entities. Dreams were investigated, re- 
corded and labeled with their classification, origin and pedi- 
gree. Symbols to which ancestral memory had always cltmg 
were recognized and accepted. 

The news that Modem Science had rehabilitated dreams 
was flashed around the wire-bound world. Volumes upon 
the subject were promptly forthcoming. Psychologists and 
students proceeded to analyze their own dreams and those of 
their long-suffering friends. Whenever an unwary dreamer 
could be induced to reveal his dream his soul was dissected 
with a thoroughness that warned against future confidences. 
The scalpel, microscope and X-ray were alike invoked. Divin- 
ers and oracles of the past had become the dream analysts 
of super-civilization. 

The preservation of dreams in man's memory is their strong- 
est claim to consideration. The fact that amid the myriad evan- 
escent visions of the dream-world any one dream should be 
sufficiently strong to figure in human history, is in itself 
proof of the importance of the dream state. But for these 
examples the transient character of the average dream, its 
apparent irrelevance, and above all the frequency of its occur- 
rence, would relegate it to a functional rather than to a phe- 
nomenal condition. In the former circumstance the average 
person could no more recall his dream than he could recollect 
the normal beating of his heart, the circulation of his blood, 
or his respiration. 

Yet notwithstanding their proverbial fragility, dreams have 
frequently coped with time, which is even more destructive 
than death, in that death may leave in its wake memories 
which time destroys. The pyramids of Eg3rpt have thus far 
defied time, so have Buddhism, Christianity, a few of the more 
precious legends and — dreams. Dreams came before man found 



SUBSTANCE OR SHADOW 9 

articulate thoughts or words for the myriad symbols that 
crowded his brain with the persistence and regularity of a 
physical process. Despite their infinite throngs on countless 
nights in unnumbered brains, many dreams have been pre* 
served and handed down to posterity. We may forget our 
thoughts of the past, our opinions, the garments that we wore, 
or even the friends whom we loved, but memory holds our 
more significant dreams from our very childhood. Herodotus 
does not tell us what Xerxes wore, nor how he looked, nor 
whom he loved, yet one of the Persian King's dreams altered 
the course of history. 

Xerxes, bewildered by quarreling counsellors, some of whom 
advised the campaign against Greece, whilst others opposed it, 
had fallen into a troubled sleep. A tall, beautiful figure ap- 
peared to his dream and urged the continuance of the expe- 
dition. Xerxes, however, remained undecided. A second time 
the admonitory figure appeared. Puzzled, Xerxes summoned 
Artabanus, a counsellor who had opposed the undertaking. 
Artabanus sneered at his master's weakness, whereupon Xer- 
xes, whose superstition makes him human through the cen- 
turies, became indignant and commanded Artabanus to don 
the royal robes, place himself upon the kingly couch and await 
developments. The figure presently appeared to Artabanus, 
but its respectful demeanor was replaced by a ferocity that 
frightened Artabanus into withdrawing his opposition to the 
expedition. 

The Venerable Bede of unquestioned veracity describes many 
dreams, among them that of Edwin, a Saxon king, a maker 
of English history. 

Rollo the Norseman, who lived in the seventh century and 
whose strength was such that no horse could carry him, had 
a ''supernatural dream" warning him not to land in England, 
which country was amply protected by Alfred the Great. In- 
stead, he was advised to try France. He accordingly sailed 
up the Seine to Rouen and laid siege to Paris. Afterwards 
he married Gisela, daughter of Charles the Simple, became a 



lo THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

Christian, and was transformed from a fierce sea-rover to one 
of the most humane princes of his time. He was an ancestor 
of William the Conqueror. 

The dream of Theodora, the courtesan, that she would one 
day become an Empress caused her to abandon her loose 
mode of life and to try to fit herself for the exalted station 
promised by her vision. Afterwards she married Justinian 
and ruled Rome. 

The dreams of Catherine de Medici, astrologer and prac- 
titioner of various occult arts, not only strengthened her own 
blood-lust, but induced feeble Francis to consent to the mas- 
sacre of Saint Bartholomew. This royal lady, herself addicted 
to magic, protected magicians and sorcerers, while her lord 
and master, Henry II, and his affinity, Diane de Poitiers, 
burned them. Queen Catherine was also given to dreams, for 
while she lay ill at Metz the night before the battle of Jamac 
she saw her victory over the Huguenots in a vision. 

Whether Cromwell's dream that he should become the great- 
est man in England had aught to do with his career is a 
problem for students of psychology. 

Madame de Krudener believed her dreams inspired and at- 
tained so great an influence over Alexander I of Russia that 
he is said to have accepted from her the idea of the Holy 
Alliance, concluded September 5, 1815, in the name of the 
Holy Trinity, between Russia and Austria. 

"I believe men only dream that they may not cease to 
see. I have fallen asleep in tears, but in my dreams the love- 
liest figures came to give me comfort and happiness and I 
awoke the next morning fresh and cheerful." 

(Quoted by Havelock Ellis from Goethe's letter to Erck- 
mann.) 

Doubtless Goethe's contemporaries shrugged at the poet's 
vagary, which afterwards was to be accepted as sound psy- 
chology, for at that date the therapeutic value of sleep was 
unappreciated and the purpose of dreams wholly unknown. 
Men of genius, notably Byron, Poe, and Napoleon, were rather 



SUBSTANCE OR SHADOW 1 1 

inclined to boast of being able to dispense with the normal 
amount of slumber, while many physicians regarded sleep as 
the result of toxic poisons in the system. The comparative 
leisure of the world had not at that time been broken by the 
mad rush that later overwhelmed the nineteenth century 
and the necessity for sleep as a repairer of womout nerve 
tissue and a source of physical endurance and the value of 
the dream as a respite from the wear and tear of reality had 
not been revealed to the western world. 

The physical side of nightmare was the first phase of the 
dream to receive investigation from modern students, while 
happy dreams were regarded as the whims of women, poets 
and children. Woman was supposed to require a larger pro- 
portion of sleep than man, a fact frequently quoted as triumph- 
ant proof of her mental inferiority. 

The purpose of the dream as the preserver of sleep is a 
recent discovery, developed primarily through physical chan- 
nels, and through the investigation of the so-called "typical 
dream", i.e., one common to every race and condition. For 
these dreams each cult has its specific explanation, though all 
agree that sleep is preserved by the mysterious psychic func- 
tion of certain dreams arising from physical needs. In the 
"thirst dream," for instance, the sleeper dreams of being thirsty 
and of enjoying a refreshing- draught, thus gratifying in fancy 
thirst that has an actual, physical existence and that unslaked 
might interrupt slumber. Whatever their other differences, 
psychologists agree that dreams do not interfere with sleep, 
but that they protect it. 

In regarding dreams as an index of the character, ultra- 
modernism agrees not only with the ancients but with Artemi- 
dorus of the first century and with Paracelsus, the greatest 
mediaevalist. While Kant, the predecessor of ultramoderns, 
suggests in his "Anthropology" that the dream exists in order 
to bare to us our hidden selves, and to reveal to us, not what 
we are, but what we might have been under a different en- 
vironment 




12 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

Although Havelock Ellis quotes Sancto de Sanctis as show- 
iQg on the basis of long experience that the dreams of crimi- 
nals are usually peaceful, even beautiful, while the visions 
of innocent persons are frequently horrifying in the extreme, 
and while Michelet holds that the dreams of the philosophers 
of the discovery of a panacea and of Eldorado were alike 
based upon th^ misery of the peasants during the middle ages, 
none of these instances can be held as contradicting the theory 
of the dream as indexing the subconsciousness. Thus, issu- 
ing from the unsounded depths of man's being and forming 
part of his essential self, dreams describe his character as 
inevitably as the lines upon his face portray his mode of life 
and as accurately as his fetishes measure the heights of his 
ideals. Not the individuality formed by training and environ- 
ment, the product of social inhibitions and the result of paren- 
tal pruning, or a carefully instilled creed, but the primal, atavis- 
tic self, the self that the dreamer does not suspect, an entity 
answering the description of a "naked soul." 

Bede's quaint story of Saint Augustine portrays Pope Greg- 
ory's opinion of dreams. On becoming Bishop of Hippo after 
rather a wild and fitful youth, the Saint inquired of the Pope 
as to whether after certain dreams, a man may receive the 
body of our Lord, and whether, if he be a priest he may, 
under the circumstances, celebrate the holy mysteries. 

The reply leaves no doubt as to the papal opinion. Sinful 
dreams do prohibit a priest from celebrating the holy mysteries, 
or from administering the sacrament, unless there should hap- 
pen to be no other priest to take his place. 

The therapeutic value of dreams is the most ancient of re- 
discovered theories. The priests of JEsculapius, the god of 
medicine whose temple was situated in the ancient Grecian 
town of Epidaurus, practiced the science of healing by slum- 
ber and dreams. On one occasion Euphanes, a child of the 
town, slept in the temple to be cured of stone. JEsculapius 
himself appeared to him in a dream. 

"What will you give me if I cure you?" demanded the god. 



SUBSTANCE OR SHADOW 13 

•Ten small bones," answered the boy. 

iEsculapius laughed and disappeared and the child awak* 
ened cured. 

Hippocrates secularized the practice of healing by slumber ; 
he admitted, however, that faith combined with sleep was 
more efficacious as a cure than sleep alone. 

Doctors Frank, Freud, Jung, Prince and numerous other 
physicians attach strong psychotherapeutic significance to the 
vision of their patients and they f requentlyinduceh3rpnosisand 
its attendant dreams to discover the psychic source of the mal- 
ady. Apart also from the materialistic and physiological in- 
terpretation of the function of dreams many students main- 
tain that they hold a higher purpose. Visionaries attach to 
them a sort of psychic and poetic justice that lifts them above 
the functions of the body and beyond the work-a-day world 
generally. In his dream the cripple waxes strong, the beggar's 
rags become royal robes, the sorrowing find joy, the mystic 
sees his God. Meanwhile other students regard the dream as 
guarding that mysterious entity so baffling to psychologists, so 
elusive to students of brain structure, in that it has never 
been located physiologically, although it dies physiologically at 
the withdrawal of blood from the body. Certain schools of 
thought term this mystery the soul and a belief in its ex- 
istence is the oldest and most universal creed known to man. 
Scientists scout the probable existence of this soul, even as 
they seek it with all the appliances known to modem ingenuity. 
Meanwhile they are steadily pushing back the boundaries of 
the seen towards the world of the unseen, and life defined 
by Spencer as **a continuous adjustment to external relations" 
is constantly rising towards the attainment of a perfect equi- 
librium through the acquisition of knowledge. The primary 
obligation for modem discoveries is due to purely physical sci- 
ence. Medicine and surgery have been and still are of incalcu- 
lable aid in the attainment of material comfort, of bodily well 
being and of the attendant capacity for work, mental and 
physical. They have vastly assisted the material organism of 



14 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

man, the most perfect and refined of orgamsms. Yet, on the 
other hand, there have been countless sacrifices to science and 
warm human blood has spurted as freely over its ahars as it 
was ever poured forth for the idols of old; quivering limbs 
have been dissected as relentlessly as they were ever torn or 
crushed by Juggernaut's car, and still steel has been unable 
to find the human soul upon which all the history of the human 
race has its foundation. Skillfully as doctors have examined 
the human brain, earnestly as they have probed the arteries of 
men and animals, the very essence of Ufe has eluded their 
search and avoided the eyes of science even more successfully 
than in the days of old when the spirit of man was stq»posed 
to ascend in the smoke of sacrificial ahars. Back of all anat- 
omy there are processes for which anatomical processes can 
give no adequate explanation and which physical law can not 
control Human history, for instance, is frequently hermc 
when physical instinct would have made it di^pracefuL Men 
battle for truth when truth leads to dishonor and poverty; 
martyrs go to the stake for ideals when the flames are tor- 
turii^ realities. The rq>entance of the sinful, the de^nir of 
the guilty, and the peace of God alike defy the invest^tion of 
the (9>erator*s microscope and knife. Physicians reafizii]^ diese 
limitations are turning more and more towards psychological 
work, yet thus far psychology merely sldms the surface of 
psychic thought and applies itself to rules and mental proc- 
esses. These rules do not apply to the dreams of deqier slum- 
ber, for the larger number of dreams are of psychic, not mental 
origin. 

Freud, the radical, taddy recognizes these conditions: 
"Other psydiic sources of dreams are unknown," he states at 
one time in his book upaa ''Dream Interpretation,*' and at an- 
other: InA as a matter of fact no such conq>lete solntioo of 
the dream has ever been accooqdidied in any case, and what 
is more, every one attempting sodi solution has found, that 
in most cases there have remained a great many conqionents of 
tiie dream the source of whicfa he has been unaUe to explain. 



SUBSTANCE OR SHADOW 15 

. . , The validity ascribed to dream life by some schools of 
philosophy, the School of Schelling is a distinct echo of the un- 
disputed divinity of dreams in antiquity ; nor is the discussion 
closed on the subject of the mantic or prophetic powers of 
dreams. This is due to the fact that the attempted psychologi- 
cal explanations are too inadequate to overcome the accumu- 
lated material, however strongly those who devote themselves 
to a scientific mode of thought feel that such assertions should 
be repudiated." — Freud, '^ Interpretation of Dreams," Chap- 
ter I. 



CHAPTER II 



"who shall decide when doctors disagree?" 



"Tolerance is a genuine, philosophic virtue; the forum, not the arena* 
should he the resort of students of philosophy." 



Psychologists are at loggerheads upon the universality of the 
dream state. Locke, MacNish- and others contend that they do 
not dream: while many authorities, equally soimd, aver that 
they dream every night ; again it is contended that man is per- 
petually adream, but that only the dreams that rise above the 
surface of consciousness are recorded by the memory, as they 
come thereby within the scope of the dreamer's recognition. 
Many who grant this last h3rpothesis as correct use it as an 
argument against the psychic value of dreams. 

"Mind," said Titchener, "lapses every night and reforms 
every morning, but the bodily processes go on in sleeping or 
in waking. An idea drops out of memory and recurs quite un- 
expectedly in after years, but the body's processes have been 
going on without interruption." 

This statement, while true and comprehensive as to the 
outer or physical mind, does not apply to inner or dream con- 
ditions. The indiscriminate application of the theory is largely 
responsible for the scientific error relegating the dream to a 
chaotic whirl of unformulated ideas, lacking coherence, in- 
telligence or any discoverable connection. Popular opinion, 
however, has never accepted this scientific decree, but has 
persistently treated the dream with awe, ascribing to it both 
symbolic and prophetic value. And, as in manifold instances, 
popular opinion has proven itself in the right. 

Diodorus of Sicily, whose "Bibliotheca Historica," despite its 

l6 



'WHO SHALL DECIDE*' 17 

lack of consecutiveness, is acknowledged authority upon his- 
toric matters, regards the Chaldeans as masters of dream in- 
terpretation. The Egyptians and Assyrians learned oneirom- 
ancy from this people, who in common with the Hebrews held 
dreams as sacred messages from the gods. Remarkable dreams 
were recorded side by side with the important historical events. 
Upon the same authority we learn that it was the custom to 
investigate the dreams of ill persons and to diagnose the dis- 
ease accordingly. The perfection attained by the Chaldean 
sages in interpreting dreams and omens has outlived the na- 
tion, and the term Chaldean from being synonymous with po- 
tentate, wise man and prophet, has become the pseudonym of 
a race of nomads, earning a nefarious living through "fortune- 
telling." 

Bcrthelot mentions the Manuscript of St. Mark in Venice 
and the papyri at Leyden, in the Louvre and in Berlin, as the 
most ancient manuscripts known to this day. All were de- 
rived from the same source, probably taken from the tomb 
of some old magician of Thebes, and they are of the same de- 
scription as the books burned in 296 B. C. as a punishment to 
the Egyptians. Amongst other things is a recipe that will cause 
insomnia till the patient dies. Divination by dreams is de- 
scribed and there is a treatise upon this subject by Ptolemy 
the wise, and another by Cleopatra the resplendent. 

Mohammedans hold that dreams form one of the forty-six 
parts of prophecy and that "the man who undertakes their 
interpretation should understand the book of God and remem- 
ber the words of His Apostle, whose name be perpetually 
blessed ! He should comprehend the Arabic proverbs, the ety- 
mology of words, the distinction of men and of their habits 
and of their conditions, be skilled in interpretation and possess 
a clean spirit, chaste, moral and the word of truth." 

Yet despite this eloquent outburst the general influence of 
the Arabs rather impeded the progress of psychological in- 
vestigation. Skilled as they doubtless were in certain arts 
and sciences, healing, astrology, medicine, etc., there seems 



i8 THE FABMC OF DREAMS 

to have been a curious paucity of spiritual knowledge and of 
intuition. Avicenna, for instance, an Arabian physician, the 
author of the ''Canon of Medicine/' a work that guided medi- 
cal minds of Europe during the eleventh and twelfth centuries, 
attributed dreams to an ultimate intelligence moving in the 
moon. 

Heraclitus of Ephesus advocated the dominance of mind 
over spirit. He went to Rome for the purpose of decrying 
dramatic art, but the evening before his speech he dreamed that 
he killed the tragedians and the judges who were against him. 
In accordance with the correct interpretation of his dream he 
lost his cause and was discredited. 

P)rthagoras, whose name and teachings have transcended 
time, and been transmuted into modem thought, held dreams 
as the index of the soul and as emanations from a divine 
source. He also ascribed them to physical causes, and in- 
stances the morning dream as originating in the liver; patients 
were warned against lying upon the back or upon the right 
side lest they constrict the liver, the mirror of dreams. Owing 
to atmospheric conditions Spring dreams were regarded as best. 
Autumn dreams as the worst 

Socrates, declared by the Pythian oracle the wisest man 
on earth, believed in dreams, while his theory of a daemon, or 
familiar spirit, is doubtless the forerunner of the modem sub- 
conscious self. 

"As I fully believe I am commanded to do this (teach the 
young) by God, speaking in oracles, and in dreams, and in 
every way by which the divine voice has ever spoken to man 
and told him what to do." Socrates to the men of Athens 
(Plato). 

Aristotle, founder of the Peripatetic school and tutor of Al- 
exander the Great, is doubtless responsible for the regard 
in which his illustrious pupil held his own dreamings, many 
of which are recorded. Cornelius Agrippa quotes Aristotle as 
referring the cause of dreams to commonsense placed in the 
fancy, while prophetic dreams set up a mono-idea in the brain ; 



'WHO SHALL DECIDE'* 19 

man when he wakes merely follows out this idea, thus ful- 
filling the self-made prophecy. This conclusion resembles the 
goal idea advanced by Du Prel and other modems. Like De- 
mocritus, Aristotle believed in both a physical and a psychic 
cause for dreams. Among Aristotle's works on the subject 
are : "Sleeping and Waking," "The Soul-Sense and the Sensi- 
ble," "Dreaming and Prophesying in Sleep," "Catharsis." 

Skeptics suggest that Freud may have imbibed much of 
Aristotle's "Catharsis," but the accusation is denied by Freud 
himself on page two of "Interpretation of Dreams." "I have 
been unable to go more deeply into the Aristotelian treatise 
because of insufficient preparation and lack of skilled assist- 
ance." The learned Teuton admits, however, that the Greek 
philosopher was fairly well informed upon his subject. 

"The good and bad men are least distinguishable when 
asleep; whence it is a common saying that during one-half 
of life there is no difference between the happy and the wretch- 
ed, and this accords with our anticipations; for sleep is an 
inactivity of the soul insofar as it is demonstrated good or 
bad except that in some wise some of its movements find their 
way through the veil and so the good come to have better 
dreams than ordinary men." — Aristotle's Ethics. 

Plato, whose teachings have probably influenced the morals 
and thoughts of mankind more strongly than those of any 
other mortal not an avatar, and whose psychic potency was 
such that even to this day his doctrines are quoted and lived 
by many who have never heard his name, regards dreams 
as important physical and psychic symptoms while certain 
other dreams are conceded as of supernatural origin. 

Boehme, Swedenborg and other mystics possessed the faith 
that saw and heard but lacked the analytical faculty, and their 
theories of dreams are rather vague. 

Descartes who lived in the sixteenth century, and who 
forestalled modem occultism by teaching the pineal gland as 
the seat of the brain, says of dreams: "I have sometimes 
found difficulty in distinguishing dreams from reality." Many 



20 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

times at night he thought that he was in a certain room and 
that he was clothed and standing near the fireplace, when in 
truth he was in bed and undressed. 

"The one logical Christian," as Nietzsche calls Blaise Pascal, 
writes of dreams: "Who knows whether that part of life 
when people think they are awake is but another kind of 
sleep, a trifle different from the first, to which people are 
aroused when they think they are asleep." 

The nineteenth century with its characteristically unimag- 
inative theory of the dream was redeemed of its utter ma- 
terialism by Dr. Charcot of Paris. * To him the world owes 
the foundation of ultra-modern knowledge of dreams and 
dreamers. Professor of anatomy as well as student of nervous 
diseases and of morbid psychic conditions, he was the first 
scientist to recognize the limbo that lies between the physical 
body and the psychic entity. He was the pioneer in the use of 
h3rpnotism as a means of reaching the lower or subconscious 
stratum in the human mind and of thus bringing to the up- 
per mental stratum emotions that had been forgotten by the 
waking consciousness. Faded memories and dead emotions 
were thus resuscitated in h)rpnotic sleep and treated by sug- 
gestion. The dream was regarded as symptomatic in the 
diagnosis of nervous diseases. Though many of Charcot's 
theories on the conscious and the subconscious have been 
disproven by more recent investigation, he stands, neverthe- 
less, as the first scientific adventurer in the realm of the sub- 
conscious. 

Dr. Freud who is said to have studied under Dr. Charcot 
has ignited controversies innumerable with his theories of 
the dream. Although his fundamental hypothesis of the sex- 
ual origin of every dream has raised storms of anger and 
ridicule, it has created a cult of Freudians who accept their 
leader's views unreservedly and who are intolerantly eager 
to thrust them upon others. The Freudian dream interpre- 
tations are invariably elaborate and frequently revolting, yet 
their originator has done psychology a service in changing 



s 



^WHO SHALL DECIDE'' 21 

scientific opinion, 'which formerly held all dreams as sense- 
less shibboleths, into accepting them as logical mental or 
psychic processes, capable of analysis and interpretation. 

Dr. Carl Jung of Zurich, formerly a follower of Freud, 
has founded a rival cult a trifle less revolting in that it rejects 
the unvarying sexual origin of the dream. Doctors Frink, 
Brill, Coriat and Leonard Hirshberg are exponents of Freud's 
theories, although they may differ on minor points. 

While the Freudian methods of dream analysis have been 
accepted and put into practice, the highest authorities upon 
the subject deny many of Freud's theories. Kronfield, a 
contemporary, says that "beside Freud's conception of the 
voroconscious Henroth's 'Demonomania' becomes a modest, 
scientific theory;" Boris Sidis observes that the "Freudian writ- 
ings are full of unconscious sexual humor." 

Dr. Morton Prince attributes dreams chiefly to memory. 
Either consciously or subconsciously this faculty forms our 
opinions, prejudices, superstitions and beliefs; it is also the 
foundation of the subconscious processes and therefore fur- 
nishes the materials from which dreams and other subcon- 
scious processes find their source. No experiences in htmian 
life are entirely obliterated from the memory, they merely 
sink below the surface of consciousness into the realm of the 
subconscious, later to become potent factors in the dream-life. 
These forgotten, though by no means lost, experiences may be 
recalled to the consciousness after certain changes of condi- 
tion. In order to induce these conditions which are those of 
dreams, hypnosis, etc.. Dr. Prince makes use of hypnosis, crys- 
tal-gazing and of automatic writing. 

The frequent recurrence of childhood's experiences in the 
adult dream exemplify this theory of subconscious conserva- 
tion. 

Dr. Prince also traces a percentage of dream material to 
the thoughts that drift through the individual's mind in the 
hsLzy, half-waking state that is the foreshadowing of actual 
sleep. On this drowsy plane of mental mirage, the desires and 



22 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

the hopes of the day assemble, and when they can attain suffi- 
cient strength, clamor for fulfillment. This disturbs the slumber 
and in order to quiet these insistent images that throng the 
weary brain, the sleeper summons imagination and attempts to 
substitute dream symbols for waking desire. Dr. Prince agrees 
with Freud in so far as Freud holds the dream as the imagined 
fulfillment of a wish, 
.-'""^r. George Hyslop while considering the Freudian theories 
as satisfying in many respects does not accept them in their 
entirety. He denies the sexual content of every dream, although 
admitting it in many instances. Nor does ne find in every 
dream reference to some experience of the previous day, al- 
though he grants that the theory might hold good in instances 
where the sleeper has begun to dream immediately on falling 
asleep.^-^ In his book upon the subject he gives interesting data 
of the various causes of dreams that have come within his own 
experience. Of 225 dreams 206 were influenced by the thought 
of the previous day ; 6 to a preceding dream on the same night ; 
121 were influenced by experiences of six months before; 28 
were due to the activities of daily life; 80 due to worry or 
stress; 61 showed sex complex; 117 contained the sex ele- 
ment; 3 the home complex and 10 various complexes. Dr. 
Hyslop does not believe that suppressed thoughts and emo- 
tions are relegated to the dream consciousness, and in this 
respect he makes a wide departure from contemporaneous 
theories. 

Ultra-modems generally reject the views advanced by Mr. 
Havelock Ellis in "The World of Dreams." The fact that he 
rather elides the sex content that fascinates a certain school 
of students, and that he attributes less importance to the psy- 
cho-neurological side than is customary amongst the medical 
fraternity does not detract from the interest of his work. 
Though admitting that the usual function of dreams is the con- 
servation of sleep, he refers to the exhaustion that sleepers fre- 
quently undergo after dreaming and attributes it to the emo- 
tional quality of many dreams. He cites an instance given by 



"WHO SHALL DECIDE" 23 

Delboeuf, in which the sleeper experienced a dream so horrify- 
ing that his hair whitened as he slept. In fact Mr. Ellis holds 
the basic structure of dream psychology to be the controlling 
power of the emotions over the dream thought. The function 
of dreams is to supply adequate theories to account for the 
magnified emotional impulses which are borne in upon the 
slewing consciousness. 

/'Addington Bruce agrees with the Russian authority, Marie 
de Manaceine, in r^farding sleep as the resting time of the con- 
sciousness ; at the same time he rather paradoxically classifies 
dreams as mental images, mirroring the inner life of the 
dreamer. They may also, he thinks, represent an eflFort on 
ffie^part of the sleeping consciousness to interpret internal and 
external stimuli. Although as a rule dreams are composed of 
the experiences of the day and their scenes and figures are 
largely due to association of ideas, Bruce agrees with Freud 
that many dreams are totally beyond scientific explanation ; in 
short that ''many dreams may be evidential of an unrecognized 
power in the human mind.'' His final advice that any one 
having a frequently recurring dream evidently excited by ex- 
ternal physical stimuli should ^'consult a physician as they may 
be s)rmptomatic of some bodily ailment," is given without 
prejudice and rings of the theory of Paracelsus. 

Bergson does not consider that there is a wide difference 
between the states of waking and dreaming, the latter being 
merely a substratum of the normal state. The perception and 
the memory of dreams he regards as in a sense more natural 
than those faculties in waking life. We are capable of logic 
in dreams, he argues, though indifferent to it, hence chiefly 
insignificant things are remembered in the dream life. Berg- 
son regards sound as playing a less important part in the 
dream life than does color. But on this point authorities 
differ, notably Havelock Ellis, who says that his own dreams 
are invariably gray, cast as it were in a half light. 

Baron du Prel, the French psychologist, attributes all dreams 
to the mono-idea, or as it is more usually termed, the goal 



24 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

idea. Napoleon, Santos Dumont, Christopher Columbus, Wil- 
liam of Germany and Harry Thaw are instances of the wak-* 
ing mono-idea in its lights and shadows. When taken over 
into sleep it solves problems, explains mysteries and indulges 
in sundry uncanny performances. According to Du Prel 
dream prophecy is based upon the mono-idea and built upon 
hundreds of minute details ignored or unnoticed by the wak- 
ing conscious mind, but recognized plainly in sleep where 
there is nothing to distract the attention from the basic thought. 
Du Prel, following this h3rpothesis, has created artificial sleep 
by hypnosis and in this artificial sleep has successfully in- 
duced prophecy. 

Pierre Janet, the French nerve specialist, puts forward the 
theory that insomnia is an hysterical symptom produced by 
a subconscious dread of experiencing during sleep the repe- 
tition of an unpleasant dream. In other words, the origin of 
the night-mare is the subconscious, fixed idea — forgotten ter- 
rors of childhood reproduced in dreams. 

Wundt and others of the German school deny the existence 
of the purely psychic or psychopathic dream with the con- 
tention that a physical disturbance may reach the sleeping con- 
sciousness days or even weeks before reaching the waking con- 
sciousness, and that it may thus establish itself as a more or 
less fantastic dream. 

Max Nordau holds that not only dreams but legends revert 
to the period of the world's history when man lived without 
labor and that therefore dream and legend alike are (he out- 
come of inherited or ancestral memory. 

Jules Bois attributes clairvoyance and prophetic dreaming 
to the same mysterious psychic source; he also recognizes a 
sixth sense in dreams and in the waking life. He applies the 
apt term "metapsychic" to these phenomena instead of the 
hackneyed word metaphysic. In his extraordinary work 
"Le Miracle Modeme" he mentions the case of M. Dieulafoy, 
who lived not far from Toulouse and who dreamed one night 
of the severe illness of his brother, a resident of Bordeaux. On 



"WHO SHALL DECIDE" 25 

awaking M. Dieulafoy was handed a dispatch saying that his 
brother had died during the night. 

On another occasion M. Dieulafoy dreamed that he was 
giving a large ball at his country house, when suddenly 
stretchers bearing corpses were carried through the assemblage 
in the ball-room. The next morning, while he was relating his 
dream to Mme. Dieulafoy, his manager informed him that 
the farmer and his wife who lived on the country estate had 
been drowned in a canal. They had been taken to the house 
and the bodies borne through the ball-room precisely as M. 
Dieulafoy had seen in his dream. 

Mme. de Blavatsky, the exponent of theosophy, has taught 
that many laws governing psychic conditions are unknown to 
science; among them the laws governing the phenomena of 
dreams, a doctrine that is corroborated by modem scientists 
of even the most materialistic school. According to theosophi-* 
cal doctrines, dreams are the experiences of the wandering 
soul, temporarily freed from the trammels of the body. Cases 
of persons having witnessed occurrences that actually trans- 
pired at vast distances from where the bodies lay asleep have 
been authenticated in support of this theory. 

Not only do physical stimuli affect the dream, but psychic 
or psychological influences have been known to do so, a fact 
that has been contended by occultists and theosophists for 
many years before the reluctant admission was wrested from 
science. 

The occultists, however, are somewhat at variance upon 
the subject of dream sources. Papus and others of his school 
agree with Porphyry and Synesius in attributing dreams to 
spiritistic sources, namely, to elementals or evil spirits in some 
instances, and to spiritual and holy influences in many cases. 
On the other hand, Franz Hartmann, also an occultist, dis- 
trusts dream experiences as a commingling of the objective 
and the subjective that necessarily engenders confusion of the 
psychic and physical. Although he admits that the deeper 



26 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

dreams are purely psychic, he does not consider that man is 
at present sufficiently developed spiritually to receive them. 

Besides the authorities cited in this chapter there are count- 
less popular writers upon the subject of dreams and their inter- 
pretation. In many instances their work is based upon symbols 
as old as the history of the human race itself. Hence the so- 
called "Dreambooks" possess a value of their own, apart from 
the satisfaction which they undoubtedly a£Ford their readers, 
now even as they have done for centuries. 

The art of Geomancy, reconunended by Raphael, a popular 
ondromantic authority, is extensively practiced by the Chi- 
nese. In figuring the dreams after this system the results 
prove mysteriously correct 

Thus have dream students of all ages, races and conditions 
puxiled over and expounded upon the infinitely reiterated phe- 
nomena of dreams, and whether we decide to view the sub- 
ject from the scientific pinnacle of the century whose qpiritnal- 
ity is yckpt psychology, and whose soul is called the subcon- 
sciousness, or whether we descend to the hnmUe depths of 
primitive faith, whose god was elemental fire, we are equally 
far from a solution of the mystery. It therefore behooves 
us to approach the subject with an open mind and to ezamine 
each authority without prejudice, and with due re^Kct for that 
practical, hard-headed and at times most kindly of 



CHAPTER III 

SLEEP, THE MYSTERY 

"We are obliged to regard every phenomenon as a manifestation of 
some power by whidi we are acted upon." — Spencer, First Principles, 

The law of physical traits, transmitted from generation to 
generation, is too firmly established to admit of question, and 
atavism is a positive factor in the study of the human brain. 
Upon the same principle the psychology of ancestral or in- 
herited memory should take a prominent position in both 
waking and dreaming consciousness. As yet the quantity 
and the quality of these bequeathed experiences are unclassi- 
fied, for while they are generally granted as existent we can 
not be positive as to whether they are filmy, vanishing visions 
or impressions, too fragile to be worthy of record, or whether 
they are psychological entities to be prefigured even before 
their appearance in the realm of consciousness. The fre- 
quency with which dream experiences bear a grotesque re- 
semblance to ancestral conditions permits us, in lieu of a more 
practicable theory, to regard them as representing the racial 
development of our forbears. Not only has the theory of in- 
herited memory a certain therapeutic value but it is of dis- 
tinct historical importance. In this instance the dreams of 
children and of uneducated persons deserve more considera- 
tion than those of the intellectually developed, who might 
naturally be supposed to be influenced by tradition, reason and 
acquired knowledge. 

Professor Stanley Hall finds inherited memory, or atavism, 
most strongly indicated in the dreams universally classified 
as typical. 

27 



28 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

"Our animal ancestors were not birds and we cannot in- 
herit sensations of flying, but they floated and swam for 
longer than they have had legs ; they had a radically different 
mode of breathing and why may not there be vestigial traces 
of this in the soul as there of gill-slits under our necks? . . . 
To me sensations of hovering, gliding by an inner impulse 
rather than limbs, falling and rising have been from boyhood, 
very real, both sleeping and waking." — Study of Fear, Stanley 
HaU. 

The same eminent authority also advocates the theory of 
atavism as an explanation of morbid fears. The fear dreams 
that are traceable to nothing within our actual or knowable 
experience are assumed to have been begotten by experiences 
of another age. They are unknown to the visual knowledge of 
the dreamer, and frequently it is impossible to articulate them 
into definite ideas, but they hover, shapeless, shadowy hor- 
rors in the subconsciousness ; this especially applies to the ter- 
rors and dreams of childhood. 

Authorities disagree as to the source of the creative faculty 
that frequently manifests in dreams, but the theory of in- 
herited memory is the most generally accepted, even when, 
as in many instances, it implies the memory of past civili- 
zations, which alone could have furnished the knowledge of 
conditions described in the dream. 

The widely quoted experience of Professor Agassiz, in 
which he solved in his dream a problem that had baflled him 
for weeks, is a puzzle which has many answers. The obscure 
outline of a fossil fish on a marble slab meant nothing to the 
great naturalist who vainly endeavored to decide what por- 
tions of the marble should be chiseled away in order to bring 
the whole fish to light. At length the completed fish appeared 
in his dream; for three successive nights the vision returned, 
until finally he sat up in his darkened bedroom, made a sketch 
of the fish he had seen in his dream and, turning over, went 
back to sleep. The next morning he discovered that his 
dream-self had drawn the fish with sufiicient accuracy to 



SLEEP, THE MYSTERY 29 

determine him to break the surface of the stone beneath which 
the fossil was concealed. This knowledge of piscatorial anat- 
omy could scarcely have been inherited from ignorant for- 
bears, nor could it have lain in the learned man's subcon- 
sciousnessy for the fossil remains antedated any fish within 
his experience; and in view of the uncharted experiences in 
race history which the immensity of the nervous system makes 
possible, such a dream may naturally be attributed to in- 
herited memory. 

The objection put forth by many scientists to this doctrine 
is that it opens the door not only to reincarnation or metem- 
psychosis, but to clairvoyance, spiritualism and other super- 
terrestrial modes of acquiring super-terrestrial knowledge — 
or theories. As yet the information acquired by these methods 
is challenged and held as scientific heresy, although Jung, 
Freud and many others at times draw perilously near the 
borderline. To quote Jung: "From all these signs it must be 
concluded that the soul has in some degree historical strata, 
the oldest stratum of which would correspond to the tmcon- 
scious." 

Inherited memories as translated by science, do not move 
in generations, they bound in centuries, and this idea is some- 
thing akin to the teaching of reincarnation, or the rebirth 
of the same soul through countless lives and vast e3q>eriences 
whose memory is closed by the gates of birth and death. Be- 
tween these portals the mortal may now and again catch 
startling glimpses of the terrors and joys of past lives. Most 
frequently these experiences come by way of dreams. 

The acceptance or denial of these theories is a question, 
not of the theory, but of the student's temperament. There 
are in the present age two cardinal types of temperament, 
the scientific and the mystical. The latter accepts religious 
creeds without doubt or question ; to these the light of the 
miracles shines in the sky to-day even as it did two thousand 
years ago. The former type, the scientific, questions religious 
faith, but takes for granted any statement upon which sci- 



30 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

ence has stamped approval. Between these poles range the 
varying degrees of religious faith and scientific skepticism. 

Although superficially dissimilar there is but a narrow mar* 
gin between the day-dream or reverie and the night dream. 
Both, we are told, are wish-dreams but the desires of the 
waking dream are trained and trellised by inhibition into 
the wall-fruits of fancy, while the night dream riots in 
strange and tropical growths. Humanity at large is prone 
to day-dreaming, but few of these visions are consistent with 
the tenor of daily life, although they are colored by its ideals. 
A momentary weariness of the brain, a flash of mental excite- 
ment, an unconscious loosening of the tension that civilized 
life demands as its toll upon the nerves, and reality and fancy 
draw together and come down upon us a tantalizing, indis- 
tinguishable pair. The day-dream of normality has its pretty 
whim faintly redolent of the forbidden or the impossible. 
The Judge's reverie in Whittier's Maud MuUer, has made 
the simple verse classic through its "touch of nature." A 
somnolent, quaint hint of forbidden fancy is suggested when 
amid the squabbles of country attorneys the rural Solon drow- 
sily hums '*an old love tune," and pictures Maud's "long- 
lashed hazel eyes." In fact the day-dreams of the average 
man are usually amusing rather than reprehensible and there 
is a gleam of drollery in their sentiment as they steal in on 
his moments of abstraction, usually enshrouded in trails of 
his favorite tobacco. While, however, the ordinary male thus 
lightly holds his reveries and day-dreams, regarding them 
either with a twist of mischief or a flush of boyish shame, his 
wife takes hers far more seriously. To the vapidity of her 
usually dull life her day-dreams seem splendidly colorful and 
fascinating. Instead of being crowded into spare moments to 
be furtively brushed aside, banished at the first call of rea- 
son, they fill an actual void and assume an importance that 
lends possibility to the thought of fulfillment. They are fur- 
thermore strengthened with a tang of youthful hope and a 
simulacrum of reality that' experience with a work-a-day 



SLEEP. THE MYSTERY ^i 

world has long since brushed from her husband's visionings. 
For except in the instance of genius, and of mysticism, and 
of childhood, life has a fashion of shattering the realism of 
dreams. The day-dream largely owes its existence to the 
loneliness of imaginative minds and to their instinctive grop- 
ing for comprehension and sympathy. Thus poets turn to na- 
ture for the understanding that they miss among men, and as 
they personify her into kindliness, they recognize their own 
moods. 

Quiet, uninterrupted thought, necessary not only in imagina- 
tive work, but in creative effort has a trick of gradually slip- 
ping into reverie, thence into day-dreaming, whereupon mate- 
rialism loses patience. Physiology is even prone to classify 
reverie and its gradation into day-dreaming as s)rmptomatic 
of nervous disorder. With a suspicious smile the physician 
questions the patient as to the depth and character of the 
hallucination. In fact it is almost as dangerous to admit to 
day-dreaming as it is endangering to the reputation to repeat 
the night dreams in the hearing of a skilled analyst While 
the nocturnal dream may bring to light hitherto unsuspected 
depths of depravity in the moral character, the day-dream 
bears scarcely less humiliating scientific possibilities in its 
revelation of the mentality. 

A few of earth's great ones, from the pinnacles of fame, 
have been unafraid of their reveries, illusions and day-dreams. 
One of these was Socrates, who through the portals of im- 
mortality has nevertheless been called to account by Dr. 
Greisinger with the up-to-date and unpleasantly flippant sug- 
gestion that the historic daemon, the philosopher's guide and 
counsellor, was none other than ''an incipient, auditory hallu- 
cination symptomatic of an incipient mental hallucination." 

Precisely what terms the learned Dr. Greisinger would use to 
define the ailment of Sprenger, the inventor of the automatic 
brake, who found the secret of its mechanism in a dream, 
we do not presume to guess, any more than we could judge the 
mental status of Professor Lamberton, the great mathemati- 



32 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

cian who worked for weeks upon the solution of a problem 
whose answer finally came to him in a dream. 

The poet Southey attributes John Bunyan's "Pilgrim's 
Progress" to the inspiration of the following dream : 

"About this time the state of happiness of the people at 
Bedford was thus in a kind of vision presented to me — I saw 
as if they were on the sunny side of some high mountain there 
refreshing themselves with the pleasant beams of the sun, 
while I was shivering and shrinking in the cold, afflicted with 
frosty snow and dark clouds ; methought also betwixt me and 
these I saw a wall that did compass about this mountain. 
Now through this wall my soul did greatly desire to pass; 
concluding that, if I could, I would there also comfort myself 
with the heat of their sun. 

"About this wall I bethought myself to go again and again, 
still prying as I went to see if I could discover way or passage 
by which I might enter therein ; but none could I find for some 
time. At last I saw as if it were a narrow gap, a little door- 
way in the wall through which I attempted to pass. Now 
the passage being very straight and narrow, I made many 
offers to get in but all in vain — ^At last, with great striving, 
methought I at first did get my head in ; and after that, by a 
sidelong striving, my shoulders and my whole body; then I 
was exceedingly glad and went and sat down in the midst of 
them, and so was comforted with the light of their sun. 

"Now this mountain and wall was thus made out to me : the 
motmtain signified the church of the living God; the sun 
that shone thereon shining of His merciful face on them that 
were therein ; the wall I thought was the wall that did make 
separation between the Christians and Christ, who is the way 
to God the Father. But as the passage was wonderfully nar- 
row, even so narrow that I could not but with great difficulty 
enter in thereat, it shewed me that none could ent«r life but 
those that were in downright earnest and left the wicked world 
behind them ; for there was only room for body and soul and 



SLEEP, THE MYSTERY 33 

sin. This resemblance abode in my soul many days/' — Auto- 
biography of John Bunyan, 

Tasso, the poet, contended that he was guided by a daemon 
who frequently appeared to his dreams, and, being a poet, it is 
safe to say that he was held as mad. Many things, we are 
told, that Tasso would never otherwise have known were con- 
veyed to him by this familiar spirit. 

Lord Byron received several suggestions from ghosts which 
appeared to him in his reveries, and Alfred de Musset was so 
obsessed by his day-dreams and imaginings that he found 
difficulty in distinguishing the real world from his world of 
shadows and it became necessary to call upon his brother to 
help him to discriminate. 

Milton is said to have received inspiration from a vision, a 
muse who dictated to him his "unpremeditated song." 

Sir Walter Scott also was visited by visions, one of which 
he recognized as Lord Byron after that erratic young bard 
had met his untimely death. 

One of Goethe's favorite occupations was watching for 
ocular spectra, and he could at will transform these day-dreams 
into definite sensations ; he frequently made different varieties 
of flowers arise from one bouquet and rain in an endless 
shower of blossoms. It is even said that he once saw an exact 
counterpart of himself coming across the fields in full daylight. 

Pope, the poet, was likewise subject to day-dreams or 
visions; and Berlioz's music roused visions like those of De 
Quincey in Heine's soul. 

While Mozart was composing his "Requiem," the vision of 
a melancholy man in black arose and urged the completion of 
the composition with as little delay as need be. When the 
requiem was finished the vision ceased to appear. Mozart died 
shortly afterwards. 

Dr. Johnson frequently heard his absent mother calling to 
him, and Descartes says that after a long confinement he 



34 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

was constantly followed by an invisible person adjuring him 
to pursue his search for truth. 

Rousseau, De Quincey, Charles Lamb and numerous writers 
of fact as well as those who weave fiction have had day- 
dreams that have aided in their work. To Charles Dickens in 
particular they came with peculiar force and color, moving 
through his actual life with the verve of flesh and blood per- 
sonalities. The death of Dora in "David Copperfield*' and 
the end of little Nell's brief life, the Dickens biographers tell 
us, filled the kindly heart of the novelist with very real sor- 
row. To quote Dickens's own words : "There are manifold 
problems in literature except by the suggestion that the mind 
is at times the instrument played upon by the fingers of some 
unseen force, and when I sit down to write my book, some 
beneficent power shows it all to me and tempts me to be in- 
terested — and I don't invent — really do not — ^but see it — ^and 
write it down.'* 

Nor are the writers and persons who traffic in works of 
the imagination generally the only ones who take cognizance 
of day-dreams, reveries or hallucinations, as the term may be 
chosen and applied. Frederick Greenwood, the author of 
"Imagination in Dreams," mentions frequently seeing a shower 
of scintillations that would transform themselves into a flock 
of sheep that ran do\vnhill. 

Johann Muller, the priest who abandoned his sacred call- 
ing for the pursuit of the science of physiology, could conjure 
up the vision of flowers at will. 

Napoleon also had day-dreams in which figures appeared to 
him and told him what to do. 

Abraham Lincoln gives this description of one of his day- 
light visions :"...! went upstairs to Mrs. Lincoln's reading- 
room. Feeling somewhat tired I lay down upon a couch in 
the room, directly opposite a bureau upon which was a look- 
ing-glass. As I reclined my eye fell upon the glass, and I 
saw distinctly two images of myself, exactly alike, except that 
one was a little paler than the other. I arose and lay down 



x^ 



SLEEP, THE MYSTERY 

again with the same result." — The True Abraham Lincoln, 
WUliam E. Curtis. 

It IS authoritatively stated that the solution of the problem 
of the telegraph code came to S. F. B. Morse as he lay in a 
state of profound abstraction, in other words a waking dream. 

The most triumphant instances in favor of the theory of 
day-dreams, however, are those of Professor Huxley and of 
Weir Mitchell respectively. 

The great nerve specialist says that he himself has seen 
faces in the dark ever since boyhood, and that these faces dis- 
appear as soon as the eyes are opened. 

Thomas Henry Huxley, the English scientist, calls the voices 
that he heard "auditory hallucinations" ("Elementary Lessons 
in Physiology," p. 267), yet nevertheless he acknowledges 
having heard them as distinctly as the maddest poet who ever 
wrote a rhyme, or heard the "voices of the soul." 

Despite Weir Mitchell and Huxley as exponents of the audi- 
tory hallucination, the visual dreams are considered as more 
wholesome and farther from the "way that madness lies." 
While internal voices are frequent visitors of patients in 
asylums, who complain that their thoughts are spoken to them 
aloud and that confused voices shout and set them various 
impossible tasks, hallucinations of sight unless produced by 
fatigue or by artificial means are not regarded as particularly 
symptomatic of mental disease. It is no unusual gift, for in- 
stance, for portrait painters to be able to summon at will a 
mental picture of the sitter, while a mere line will often con- 
jure an entire scene for a landscapist. It is said that Turner, 
the master of color, would spend hours gazing into space ap- 
parently watching nothing, yet in reality seeing colors that 
were lost upon the ordinary vision. 

"Materialism brings the accusation that occultism, mysticism 
and other faiths that encourage the cultivation of supernormal 
seeing and hearing have a tendency to overcultivate an ab- 
straction that leads towards hallucination. The accusation is 
probably largely due to partisan exaggeration, yet that the 



36 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

condition has arisen is undeniable. An interesting example 
is that of Vilgard, the grammarian of the tenth century who 
became so infatuated with the pagan poets that their figures 
moved through his dreams and asleep or awake he heard their 
thanks and their assurances that he should participate in their 
glory. In his enthusiasm he taught matters prohibited by the 
Qiristian faith and was consequently condemned as a heretic. 
Others we are told became infected by his opinions and per- 
ished by sword and fire, for those were the days of compul- 
sory Christianity." — Medieval Mind, Taylor. 

Abstraction, though frequently confused with reverie and 
with day-dreaming, is in fact their polarity. In reverie there 
is always more or less difficulty in fixing the mind upon a 
particular subject, whereas in abstraction the mind is con- 
centrated with such firmness that it can not be withdrawn. 

"Abstraction," says the occultist, "is the faculty by which 
man rules nature." 

Sir Isaac Newton, who in his abstraction made a tobacco 
stopper of a lady's finger, and Archimedes, intent on a problem 
and remaining unconscious during the noise attending the cap- 
ture of Syracuse, illustrate entire abstraction. 

Sonambulism, though a distinct phenomenon of sleep, 
scarcely comes under the head of dreaming; there is really 
a wider chasm between the conditions of somnambulism and 
of dreaming, than there is between the day dream and that 
of the night. If a dreamer be suddenly waked he will tell 
his dream, whereas if a sleep-walker be roused, he will have 
no recollection whatever of his dream state; it is therefore 
sometimes contended that sonmambulism is a deeper sleep 
than that of the dream slumber, and that it goes lower into the 
depths of the subconsciousness than the ordinary dream, and 
that for this reason the sleep-walker rarely comes to harm 
while in the somnambulistic state. On the other hand, many 
physicians hold that sleep-walking is due to chorea, a nervous 
disease. 

In ordinary slumber, the sense of sight seems to be the only 



SLEEP, THE MYSTERY 37 

one of the five senses irrevocably closed; in somnambulism, 
on the contrary, the eyes are wide open, though whether the 
subject actually sees is an unsolved riddle, as no somnambulist 
has ever been known to recall his state of mind as a sleep- 
walker. Though their action seems automatic, there is a cer- 
tain method in the movements of somnambulism, and the ac- 
tions are commonly those that have been suggested in the wak- 
ing state. Sleep-walking usually occurs in the early night, 
whereas we are told that the important dreams take place in 
the early morning. Certain forms of somnambulism may be- 
come automatic. MacNish mentions that the soldiers of Sir 
John Moore, who frequently marched all night, many of them 
fell asleep upon the march although they continued to walk 
with their comrades. 

One of the most remarkable somnambulistic feats on record 
is that of Condillac, tutor of the infant Duke of Parma, 
nephew of Louis XV : this zealous teacher wrote the greater 
part of his "Cours Complet dlnstruction," a remarkable work 
including a grammar, and elementary lectures on the arts of 
writing, history, reasoning and thinking, in a state of som- 
nambulism. 

MacNish offers an interesting instance as follows: ''In 
Lodge's 'Historical Portraits' there is a likeness by Sir Peter 
Lely of Lord Culpepper's brother, so famous as a dreamer. 
In 1806 he was indicted at Old Bailey for shooting one of the 
Guards and his horse to boot. He pleaded somnambulism and 
was acquitted on producing nearly fifty witnesses to prove the 
extraordinary things he did in his sleep." 

Shelley the poet was a somnambulist, which does not seem 
strange in a man of the poet's many vagaries, but when sober, 
staid Dr. Franklin comes forward with a sleep-walking ex- 
perience, there is a hint of the incongruous. Again to quote 
MacNish : "I went out," said the Doctor, "to bathe in Mar- 
tin's salt water hot bath in Southampton, and floating on my 
back fell asleep, and slept nearly an hour by my watch, with- 



38 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

out sinking or turning, a thing I never did before and should 
hardly have thought possible !" 

Epileptics are peculiarly prone to sleep-walking, and the con- 
dition is more usual with children than with grown persons. 
Havelock Ellis asserts that when children become somnambu- 
listic they cease to be troubled with nightmare. On the whole 
the state is more nearly allied to mental maladies than that of 
dreaming. 

Nightmare, or the ephialtes of the Greeks and the Incubus 
of the Romans, is responsible for generations of misconception 
regarding dreams. Arising from physical causes, nightmare 
produces physical effects, which have a mental reflex of ter- 
ror, oppression, a feeling of helplessness and of despair. 
Physically there are the stertorous breath and twitching limbs 
of suffering. All are obvious symptoms which have caused 
the more subtle type of dreams to be thrust into the back- 
ground. In many instances their basis is the typical dream, 
but they are distorted by physical conditions, heart disease, 
epilepsy, etc., until they outdo the horrors of ancestral memo- 
ries. The instinctive protection of the subconscious is en- 
feebled in the nightmare, which is probably the foundation 
of the hell doctrines advocated in the older, sterner creeds. 
From the time of Galen, the nightmare has been attributed to 
physical sources ; the Romans, replete with food and drink, and 
the saints with starved cold bodies, paid alike the penalty of 
maltreated flesh ; the Roman with his visions of irate gods, the 
saint by the appearance of the devil who would try to draw 
him from his faith with diabolical, physical torture. 

Suetonius tells us that Caligula was tormented with night- 
mare. After his recovery from the illness that came in pen- 
alty for his evil habits, it was said that he was never able to 
sleep for more than two or three hours a night, and that his 
dreams were so terrific that he feared to close his eyes. On 
one occasion in a dream the sea rose up and conversed with 
him and reminded him of the prophecy of his predecessor the 



SLEEP, THE MYSTERY 39 

Emperor Tiberius^ that he, Caligula, was educated for ''the 
destruction of the. Roman people." 

After the Massacre of St. Bartholomew, Qiarles IX of 
France was haunted by nightmare. 

It is said that the insanity of the poet Cowper was trace- 
able to nightmare; and in numerous instances neurotic chil- 
dren have become mentally unbalanced from the same cause. 

Robert Louis Stevenson describes the nightmares of his own 
childhood in "A Chapter on Dreams."* 

"He was from a child an ardent and uncomfortable dreamer. 
When he had a touch of fever at night, and the room swelled 
and shrank, and his clothes hanging on a nail, now loomed 
up instant to the bigness of a church and now drew away 
into a horror of infinite distance and infinite littleness, the 
poor soul was very well aware of what must follow and 
struggled hard against the approaches of that slumber which 
was the beginning of sorrows. But his struggles were in 
vain: sooner or later the night-hag would have him by the 
throat and pluck him strangling from his sleep. . . . But pres- 
ently, in the course of his growth, the cries and physical con- 
tortions passed away seemingly forever; his visions were still 
for the most part miserable, but they were more constantly 
supported and he would awake with no more extreme symp- 
toms than a flying heart, a freezing scalp, cold sweats, and the 
speechless midnight fear." 

A letter to the London Times from H. Rider Haggard re- 
lates the following nightmare: "Perhaps you will think with 
me that the following circumstances are worthy of record. I 
have made up my mind to publish them over my own name, 
though I am well aware that by doing so I may expose my- 
self to a certain amount of ridicule and disbelief. 

"On the night of Saturday, July 9th, I went to bed about 
12.30 and suffered from what I took to be a nightmare. I 
was awakened by my wife's voice calling me from her own 
bed upon the other side of the room. As I awoke, the night- 

*Fiom Across ike Plains, (c) 1892, Chas. Scribner'a Sons. 



40 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

mare itself, which had been long and vivid, faded from my 
brain. All I could remember of it was a sense of awful op- 
pression, and of desperate and terrified struggling for life, 
such as the act of drowning would probably involve. Between 
the time that I heard my wife's voice and the time that my 
consciousness answered to it, I had another dream. I dreamed 
that a black retriever dog, a most amiable and intelligent 
beast named Bob, which was the property of my eldest daugh- 
ter, was lying on its side among brushwood, or rough growth 
of some sort, by water. My own personality in some myste- 
rious way seemed to be arising from the body of the dog, 
which I knew quite surely to be Bob, and no other, so much 
so that my head was against its head, which was lifted up at 
an unnatural angle. In my vision the dog was trying to speak 
to me in words, and failing, transmitted to my mind in an un- 
defined fashion, the knowledge that it was dying. Then every- 
thing vanished, and I awoke to hear my wife asking me why 
on earth I was making such horrible, weird noises. I replied 
that I had had a nightmare about a fearful struggle, and that 
I had dreamed that old Bob was in a frightful way and was 
trying to talk to me and tell me about it. Finally, seeing 
that it was still quite dark, I asked what the time was. She 
said she did not know, and shortly afterwards I went to 
sleep again and was disturbed no more. On the Sunday 
morning Mrs. Rider Haggard told the tale at breakfast, and I 
repeated my story in a few words. Thinking that the whole 
thing was nothing more than a disagreeable dream, I made no 
inquiries about the dog and did not even know that it was 
missing until that Sunday night when my little girl, who was 
in the habit of feeding it, told me so. At breakfast time, I 
may add, nobody knew that it was gone. On the morning 
of Thursday, the 14th, my servant, Charles Bedingfield, and I, 
discovered the body of the dog floating in the Waveney against 
a weir about a mile and a quarter away. Two platelayers 
informed me that the dog had been killed by a train. The 
animal must have been killed by an excursion train that left 



SLEEP, THE MYSTERY 41 

Ditchiiigham at 10.25 on Saturday night, returning empty 
from Harleston, a little after 11. This was the last train 
which ran that night. It appears that the animal was knocked 
or carried along some yards by the train and fell into the 
brink of the water, where the reeds grew. Here, if it were still 
living, it must have suffocated and sunk, undergoing, I should 
imagine, much the same sensations that I did in my dream, 
and in very similar circiunstances to those that I saw therein 
— ^namely, amongst a scrubby growth, at the edge of the water. 
If the dog's dissolution took place at the moment when I 
dreamt, this communication must have been a form of telep- 
athy, which is now very generally acknowledged to ^occur 
between human beings from time to time and under special 
circumstances, but which I have never heard of as occurring 
between a human being and one of the lower animals. If, on 
the other hand, that dissolution happened, as I believe, over 
three hours previously, — ^whatam I to say? Then it would 
seem that it must have been some non-bodily but surviving 
part of the life or of the spirit of the dog which, so soon 
as my deep sleep gave it an opportunity, reproduced those 
things in my mind as they have already occurred, I presume, 
to advise me of the manner of its end and to bid me farewell." 

The creative faculty that evidently exists under certain 
circumstances in the dream state is one of the most baffling 
mysteries with which psychology, physiology and biology have 
to contend. 

Freud grants that the dream has the ability to take up 
the day's problems and to solve them, also that the dream 
may become a source of inspiration to poets and composers. 
Instances in which scientists, as well as poets and musicians, 
have drawn inspiration from their dreams, justify, in a meas- 
ure, the belief in their supernatural origin, and Freud, with 
his paradoxical liberality, admits that ''the bigoted and mysti- 
cal authors'' are quite justified in adhering to their old be- 
liefs "until they are swept away by scientific explanation." 
He grants also that it is possible to "meet sagacious men. 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

averse to anything adventurous" who base their religious be- 
lief upon the existence and cooperation of superhuman forces 
in dream manifestations. . . . The attempted ps}K:hological 
explanations are too inadequate to overcome the accumulated 
material/' — Interpretation of Dreams, p. 3, chapter i. 

Again to quote Robert Louis Stevenson's "Chapter on 
Dreams/' one of the most honest, accurate and at the same 
time most forceful descriptions of the dream state ever writ- 
ten: 

*\ . • He began to read in his dreams — ^tales for the most 
part, and after the manner of G. P. R. James, but so incredibly 
more vivid and moving than any printed book that he has ever 
since been malcontent with literature. . . . This honest fellow 
had long been in the custom of setting himself to sleep with 
tales^ and so had his father before him; but these were ir- 
responsible inventions, told for the teller's pleasure with no 
eye for the crass public or the thwart reviewer; tales where 
a thread might be dropped or one adventure quitted for an- 
other, on fancy's least suggestion. So that the little people who 
manage man's internal theater had not yet received a very 
rigorous training; and played upon the stage like children 
who should have slipped into the house and found it empty, 
rather than like drilled actors performing a set piece to a 
huge hall of faces. But presently my dreamer began to turn 
his former amusement of story-telling to (what is called) 
account, by which I mean that he began to write and sell his 
tales. Here was he, and here were the little people who did 
that part of his business in quite new conditions. The stories 
must now be trimmed and pared and set upon all fours, they 
must run from a beginning to an end and fit (after a manner), 
with the laws of life ; the pleasure, in one word, had become a 
business ; and that not only for the dreamer, but for the little 
people of his theater. They understood the language as well 
as he. When he lay down to prepare himself for sleep, he 
no longer sought amusement, but printable and profitable 
tales, and after he had dozed off in his box-seat, his little peo- 



SLEEP, THE MYSTERY 43 

pie continued their mercantile designs. . . . This dreamer 
(like many other persons) has encountered some trifling 
vicissitudes of fortune. When the bank begins to send beg- 
ging letters and the butcher to linger at the back gate, he sets 
to belaboring his brains after a story, for that is his readiest 
money-winner; and behold! at once his little people begin to 
bestir themselves, in the same quest and labor all night long, 
and all night long set before him truncheons of tales upon 
their lighted theater. No fear of his being frightened now; 
the flying heart and the frozen scalp are things by-gone; ap- 
plause, growing applause, growing interest, growing exulta- 
tion in his own cleverness (for he takes all the credit), and 
at last a jubilant leap to wakefulness, with the cry, "I have 
it, that'll do!" upon his lips: with such and similar emotions 
he sits at these nocturnal dramas, with such outbreaks, like 
Claudius in the play, he scatters the performance in the midst. 
Often enough the waking has been a disappointment: he has 
been too deep asleep, as I explain the thing; drowsiness has 
gained his little people, they have gone stumbling and maund- 
ering through their parts ; and the play to the awakened mind, 
is seen to be a tissue of absurdities. And yet how often have 
these sleepless Brownies done him honest service, and given 
him as he sat idly taking his pleasure, in the boxes, better 
tales than he could fashion for himself. . . . Well, as regards 
the dreamer, I can answer that, for he is no other person 
than myself; — ^as I might have told you from the beginning, 
only that the critics murmur over my constant egotism — ^and 
as I am positively forced to tell you now, or I could advance 
but little farther with my story. And as for the Little Peo- 
ple, what shall I say they are but just my Brownies, God 
bless them! who do one-half my work for me while I am 
asleep, and in all human likelihood, do the rest for me as 
well, when I am wide-awake and fondly suppose I do it for 
myself. That part which is done while I am sleeping is the 
Brownies' part beyond contention; but that which is done 
while I am up and about is by no means necessarily mine, 



44 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

since all goes to show that the Brownies have a hand in it 
even then. ... I can give but an instance or so of what 
part is done sleeping and what part awake and leave the 
reader to share what laurels there are, at his own nod be- 
tween myself and my collaborators and to do this I will first 
take a book that a number of persons have been polite enough 
to read, the Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. I had 
long been trying to write a story on this subject, to find body, 
a vehicle for that strong sense of man's double being which 
must at times come in upon and overwhelm the mind of every 
thinking creature. I had written one. The Traveling Com- 
panion, which was returned by an editor on the plea that it 
was a work of genius and indecent, and which I burned the 
other day on the ground that it was not a work of genius and 
that Jekyll had supplanted it. Then came one of those finan- 
cial fluctuations to which (with an elegant modesty), I have 
hitherto referred to in the third person. For two days I went 
about racking my brains for a plot of any sort; and on the 
second night I dreamed the scene at the window, a scene 
afterwards split in two, in which Hyde, pursued for some 
crime, took the powder and underwent the change in the 
presence of his creditors. All the rest was made awake, 
and consciously, though I think I can trace in it much of 
the manner of my Brownies. ... Of another tale, in case the 
reader may have glanced at it, I should say a word, the not 
very defensible story of Olalla. Here the court, the mother's 
niche, Olalla, Olalla's chamber, the meetings on the stair, 
the broken window, the ugly scene of the bite, were all given 
me in bulk, and detail as I have tried to write them : to this 
is added only the external scenery (for in my dream I never 
was beyond the court), the portrait, the characters of Felipe 
and the priest, the moral, such as it is, and the last pages, 
such as they are." 

Although Stevenson's description rises triumphantly as the 
verbal masterpiece upon the subject of dream creation, he is 
not alone in the experience. 



SLEEP, THE MYSTERY 45 

"Were my memory as faithful as my reason is fruitful, I 
would never study but in dreams, and this time I would choose 
for my religious devotions," says Sir Thomas Browne in 
the "Religio Medici." 

The poet Dante whose birth gives him to Italy, but whose 
genius gives him to the world, owes the inspiration of his 
"Divinia Commedia" to the dreams of one Alberico of Alvito, 
a noble youth bom in iioi. Being desperately ill on one oc- 
casion and delirious for nine days, Alberico dreamed of being 
carried from earth by a dove and laid at the feet of St. Peter, 
who lifted him up, healed him of his sickness and conducted 
him through Purgatory and Hell, the saint explaining the tor- 
tures of the sinners and various other things as they passed. 
Afterwards they were transported into the seven heavens and 
to Paradise, where they beheld the glory of the blessed. On 
regaining health Alberico entered the monastery of Monte 
Casino. His vision with a preface by the first editor, Guido, 
and a letter from Alberico himself, is preserved in a MS. 
numbered 257 in the archives of the monastery. 

Novalis, the mystic, declares dreams to be a breastplate 
against the monotony and triviality of real life ; without them 
we would grow old far more rapidly than we do. His "H)rmns 
to Night," inspired by dreams of his lost love, the lady Sophia, 
and of his dead brother Erasmus, are replete with the dream 
quality. 

Mallarme, the poet, also acknowledges his debt to the visions 
of slumber. 

The first canto of "L'Henriade" came to Voltaire in a dream 
and he did not fear to admit the fact. From his "Dictionnaire 
Philosophique" we learn that: "I have had, in my dreams, 
reflections in spite of myself, in which I had no part. I had 
neither will nor freedom, and yet I combined ideas with sa- 
gacity, and even with some genius. . . . Whatever theory you 
adopt and whatever futile efforts you may make to prove that 
your memory rules your brain, and that your brain moves your 
soul, you are obliged to admit that all of your ideas come to 



46 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

you in sleep, independently of you and in spite of you. Your 
will has no part in them whatsoever. It is certain then that 
you may think seven or eight hours consecutively without 
having the least desire to think, or without even knowing that 
you do think." 

Goethe appreciated the value of the assistance rendered his 
waking self by his dream fancy. But for a vision Hood's ''Song 
of a Shirt" would have remained unsung : and the "woman who 
sat in unwomanly rags plying her needle and thread/' would 
never have benefited by the reformation, the historic predeces- 
sor of the modem sweat-shop crusade, that followed in the 
wake of the pathetic verses. 

We are not told whether Thackeray ever saw Becky Sharp, 
Colonel Newcomb or Major Pendennis in his. dreams, but he 
gives us in the "Roundabout Papers" an inkling of his faith 
in the creative faculty in dreams : "I have been surprised at 
the observations of some of my characters. It seems as if an 
occult power was moving the pen. The personage does or 
says something and I ask how did he come to think of that? 
Every man has remarked in dreams the vast dramatic power 
which is sometimes evinced. I won't say the surprising power, 
for nothing surprises you in dreams. But those strange char- 
acters you meet make instant observations of which you 
never can have thought previously.'* 

And in the same paper, the master of English fiction says of 
one of the greatest Frenchman: "Alexandre Dumas de- 
scribes himself when inventing the plan of a work, as lying 
on his back for two whole days on the deck of a yacht in a 
Mediterranean port. At the end of those two days he arose 
and called for dinner. And in those two days he had built 
bis plot. He had molded a mighty clay to be cast presently 
in perennial brass." 

The dream of Tartini, the Italian musician, that he had 
sold his soul to Satan who in joy at the bargain took the violin 
and played the composition known as Trillo del Diavolo is 
U>Q widely quoted to reguire further detail 



SLEEP, THE MYSTERY 47 

From Tartini, whose sanity was open to question, to clear- 
headed Benjamin Franklin seems as long a step as the cross- 
ing from Italy to America, and yet — Franklin had his dreams. 
He told Cabanis, the French physician and writer, that dreams 
had helped him to a solution of many of the problems of 
life. 

The creative faculty in dreams, however, does not con- 
fine itself to fanciful literature, nor restrict itself to moral 
guidance. Dr. John Abercrombie, the Scotch authority upon 
mental disease (1824), whose endeavors to reconcile science 
with religion have made him beloved on both sides of the 
case, relates that once for several days he had tried to re- 
call a certain verse in the Bible that he had learned as a 
child of seven: his efforts were unsuccessful until one night 
in a dream he saw before him the verse and the chapter in 
Jeremiah in which the verse had occurred. 

William Hanna Thompson in "Brain and Personality" cites 
an instance of a British consul in Syria who afterwards rose 
high in the diplomatic service in England. He had been a 
diligent student of Arabic in order to fit himself for the duties 
of his position, when one night he tried to compose a letter 
to a Lebanon Emir. Arabic etiquette requires that such a 
letter should testify to the accomplishments of the writer 
in the selection of a multitude of conventional compliments 
corresponding to the rank of the person addressed, besides 
which the matter in hand must be handled delicately and with 
diplomacy. One letter after another had been written and 
torn up as unsatisfactory, and at bedtime the consul was in 
despair^ for no missive had proven satisfactory. At last he 
went to bed, blessing Arabs in general, and the Lebanon Emir 
in particular. The next morning on his desk he found a fresh 
letter, in his own handwriting, and so happily worded that he 
forwarded it forthwith. 

Schleyer, the inventor of Volapiik, the universal language, 
conceived the language in a dream. Having mastered fifty 
languages he was working over the problem of combining them 



48 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

into one, but the bulk of his knowledge had grown so un- 
wieldy that the plan of a universal tongue seemed far away. 
One night as he lay asleep, he saw the necessary characters, 
forms and processes of the new language come trooping to- 
wards him and arranging themselves in a concise and orderly 
manner. When the vision ended he rose from his bed, rushed 
to his desk and recorded on a single sheet of note-paper the 
language which has remained as Schleyer received it in a 
vision. 

It is said that Elias Howe solved the problem of threading 
the sewing machine in his dream of a long line of mounted 
warriors with leveled lances making a charge. Each spear- 
point was pierced with a tiny, needlelike hole, through which 
the light slanted sharply. *1 must thread my needle at the 
end," he said when he awoke and grasped the symbol. 

Apart from the cherished convictions of the dreamers them- 
selves, certain eminent authorities concede that the fruits of 
science, literature and art are manifolded and enhanced in 
value by dreams. Lange, Helmholtz, Greisinger, Brodie, 
Maudsley, Herbart, Fechner and others lend the authority of 
great names to the statement, and while they express their 
concession grandiloquently and scientifically as ''unconscious 
cerebral activity, the result of mental work during dreams,'* 
the dreamers receive the concession in the spirit of Lazarus 
who drew comfort from the criunbs that fell from Dives' table. 



CHAPTER IV 



WHERE SCIENCE PAUSES 



'To expect that bjr any multiplication of our faculties we may be 
enabled to know a spirit as we do a triangle, seems as absurd as if we 
should hope to see a sound." — Bishop Berkeley. 

Probably no one has ever traversed the allotted span of a 
lifetime without sooner or later finding himself baffled by a 
mystery; without facing an immutable, impenetrable wall for 
which experience has no parallel, nor science an explanation. 
Practical business men and hard-headed scientists alike make 
constant demand upon unknown powers of intuition and upon 
unconscious forces of which they can give no adequate ac- 
count — ^nameless faculties deprived through constant usage of 
their quality of the marvelous. Any attempt to classify these 
forces as m3rthical or even as spiritual evokes denial or ridi- 
cule from the person employing them. The reason for this 
intolerance in an age that glories in its breadth of thought, 
being the unceasing endeavor to measure spiritual matters 
with the plummet of materialism. 

The word mystic is derived from the Greek verb signifying 
"to shut," thus implying^that a mystic was originally a person 
who kept shut within himself the mysteries into which he 
had been initiated. Certain psychic attributes have been ac- 
credited to the mystics and these gifts which they undoubtedly 
possess have in a measure served to belittle their examples 
and their teachings. Thought, feeling, philosophy and religion 
combine to form modem mysticism. Philosophically it is 
an attempt to apprehend ultimate realities by direct intuition. 
Pietistically it is a striving to grasp the Divine Essence and 
to approach direct communion with God. 

49 



so THE FABMC OF DREAMS 

Mysticism perceives with the inner eye of faith and com- 
prehension, materialism with the outer eye of meticulous rea- 
son. Consequently mystics find difficulty in conveying their 
meaning to materialists whose thought is in a different lan- 
guage. Symbolism is their most available mode of expres- 
sion ; it is also the language of the dream, of the subconscious- 
ness and of the soul. 

At one time dreamers and mystics were classified as mad- 
men; after medical investigation established the fact that 
lunatics rarely dream, visionaries and dreamers were termed 
neurotics. 

Physiology yclept "commonsense" by its devotees, accords 
the word psychic no place in its lexicon, and the votaries of 
modem psychology, a science that has unquestionably achieved 
marvels, are distinctly at variance with mystics and mysti- 
cism, or psychism. This attitude is due to the recent attempt 
at developing psychology into an objective science, thus doing 
away with the possibility of acknowledging the subjective and 
unseen forces of the soul. This process renders the very 
term psychology misleading, for except as a study of self and 
the application of theories of self-development, psychology is 
useless. In other words psychological knowledge is limited to 
each individual consciousness and is limited to that conscious- 
ness in exact proportion to the degree of the development 

On the other hand, the psychic or mystic's faculty is above 
and beyond psychological development. Its possession is not 
necessarily concomitant with development of any sort, and con- 
trary to the egoistic quality of psychology and the development 
of the study of self, true mysticism and true psychifem are self- 
less. In fact the mystics and other psychically gifted persons 
know that when they attempt to apply their powers of clair- 
voyance and of penetration to themselves or for personal ends, 
these powers become void. It is, therefore, from the psychic 
faculty as opposed to the psychological and the physical that the 
quality of mysticism is derived. 

Man's history is marked by the fact that remote from the 



WHERE SCIENCE PAUSES 51 

world and unknown and unintelligible to the mass of man- 
kind, a few master minds have lived and thought. The 
thoughts of these ""great souls have extended first among the 
higher intellectual orders, then into the ordinary literature 
and into the schools, then into the common thinking of the 
homes and the speech of the streets, until finally the funda- 
mentals of character and thought are felt and obeyed by the 
most ignorant members of the social organization. These 
master minds have been earth's mystics. Plato, Pythagoras, 
St. Paul, St. John, the mediaeval mystics and teachers, and 
lastly the few, the very few of modem times. That the mys- 
tics have invariably been dreamers goes without saying, for 
we have their dreams as proof. 

Ancient philosophers leaned more towards mysticism than 
did the theologians. In fact tmtil some time after the birth of 
Christ, let us say until the Gospels and the Epistles were com- 
piled, the schools of theology and of mysticism were distinct 
and separate. Plato was never a favorite with the priests, 
Socrates was compelled to drink hemlock and Pythagoras 
lost his school at Crotona. lamblichus, Porphyry and Plotinus 
were the last of the older school of mysticism as apart from 
Christianity. Even before their time the new mysticism and 
faith were beginning to bear their influence upon the world. 
St. John, St. Paul, St. Augustine, Origen and others were 
making themselves felt in the thought of mankind at large. 

Whatever the origin and whatever the definition of mysti- 
cism, it was undoubtedly the soul of primitive Christianity, 
and even at the present day this faith produces its quota of 
mystics. A supernormal faculty continues to accompany the 
fervid type of mystic, a sense akin to clairvoyance, vision, 
and dream-consciousness. This faculty puzzles the more 
learned and worldly-wise, for the essentials of mysticism do 
not pertain to the erudite nor to the scientific but are endow- 
ments of the lowly, precisely as the Master Mystic chose to 
appear to the humble folk rather than to the great ones or 
to the mighty. Sometimes a little child will make a statement 



52 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

revealing astounding knowledge of elemental forces ; or again 
some lowly old man or woman whose eyes are unaccustomed 
to the beautiful things of the world and whose toil-stained 
hands are perpetually busied over some humble task, will mani- 
fest a deep wisdom regarding the qualities of the soul and of 
the unseen world that will send the listener away bewildered. 
In fact these untaught ones are, for the most part, the mystics 
of to-day, and their knowledge of spiritual truths is beyond the 
ken of the ordinary mortal as they prophesy of unborn kings 
and of unfought battles and of cosmic conditions of which they 
can have no ulterior knowledge. No study of books nor of 
the sciences could have told them — ^yet they know. They will 
answer, as their kind have ever done when asked, that they 
find their wisdom in dreams and in visions. And scoffers 
question their veracity and hold them up to contumely, or if 
the prophet chance to be a relative, they silence him with 
a guilty terror lest he be overheard saying strange things, yet 
there has been a time in the world's history when the forecasts 
of the mystics and dreamers of the past were accepted 
reverently, for they made all that was beautiful and everlast- 
ing in the hearts of men. To them, the untutored, we owe 
our legends, proverbs and traditions. Through the mysticism 
of the common man, not the practicality of the wise one, the 
kernel of Christianity was preserved throughout the dark ages. 
New Thought, Christianity and Christian Science are all re- 
crudescences under new formulae, and they have been ex- 
pounded, not by the learned nor the worldly wise, but by the 
humble whose mysticism was developed ahead of the ration- 
alistic brain. 

None can deny that there is an ideal in dreams, and that 
these ideals alter with the changing times, although behind 
every dream there must be the individual who apprehends 
spirit in his own measure. The outward signs of dreams have 
changed with the centuries although certain fundamental sym- 
bols have remained the same. The modem dreamer who dis- 
sects his dream for an analysis of his own psychological proc- 



WHERE SCIENCE PAUSES 53 

esses misses the mystical quality and reduces his dreams to 
commonplace. 

In the days, however, when dreams were accorded their 
mete of attention, visions came more easily, not as the resultant 
of drugs or anodynes, nor the sequelae of outward or physical 
stimuli as certain schools of dream study would imply, but 
as manifestations of the higher powers of the spiritual world. 

Unquestionably in many instances self-hypnosis, auto-sug- 
gestion and hysteria were responsible for the visions; espe- 
cially might these have been the factors among the mediaeval 
saints and the early Christian martyrs with their starved, 
racked bodies waiting and praying for a visible, tangible mani- 
festation from their God. But none of these semi-physical 
conditions can explain the prophetic visions, nor account for 
the permanence of the conversions. 

There is marked similarity in mystical religious experiences ; 
the sudden vision of a great and blinding light characterizes 
the conversion of St. Paul, St. Augustine and St. Francis, 
while St. John, Anselm and Cardinal Newman knew a gradu- 
ally growing state of illumination. The faculty of seeing God 
in all His creations is a fundamental of mystical thought that 
binds together the ancient and the modem followers of mysti- 
cism. 

Emanuel Swedenborg, whose hold upon modem mind is 
exemplified in the "New Church" that he founded, was a 
dreamer and a seer of visions. Bom in the latter part of 
the seventeenth century, son of a Swedish Bishop, in youth 
he was essentially a scientist and a man of the world. His 
brilliancy so impressed Charles XII of Sweden that the 
Bishop's son was consulted at the seige of Frederickshall, and 
his invention of a machine that would convey two galleys, 
five large boats and a sloop overland from Stromstadt to 
Iderfjol and thus transport heavy artillery to the very walls 
of Frederickshall won Swedenborg a knighthood. He was 
also a professor of mathematics in the University of Upsala 
and wrote books upon algebra and mathematics. A certain 



54 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

class of Swedenborg's followers maintain that he forestalled 
Herschel with the discovery of Uranus; Swedenborg's allu- 
sions, however, to a seventh planet may be based upon super- 
normal knowledge, as in the instance of Anna Kingsford, 
whose dreams have immortalized her work, and who saw 
in a vision the forty-eight satellites of Jupiter many years 
before the entire ntmiber had been discovered. In his forty- 
seventh year Swedenborg began to follow the dreams and 
visions whose mystic light was to guide thousands after hini 
along the path. His dream experiences are given with un- 
usud accuracy in ah article in the Medical Critic and Psycho- 
logical Journai, vol. i, 1861, and taken from a manuscript 
of unquestioned authenticity in the royal library of Stock- 
holm. 

« 

''At ten o'clock I lay down in bed and was somewhat better ; 
half an hour after I heard a clamor under my head ; I thought 
then that the tempter went away ; immediately after there came 
over me a rigor so strong from the head and the whole body, 
with some din, and this several times. I found that something 
holy was over me: I thereupon fell asleep, and at about 12, 
I or 2 o'clock at night, there came over me so strong a shiver- 
ing from head to foot, with a din, as in many winds rushed 
together, which shook me, was indescribable and prostrated 
me upon my face. Then, while I was prostrated, I was in 
a moment quite awake, and saw that I was cast down, and 
wondered what it meant. And I spoke as if I was awake, but 
found that the word was put into my mouth, and I said, 
'Omnipotent Jesus Christ, as of Thy great grace Thou con- 
descendest to come to so great a sinner, make me worthy of 
this grace!' I held my hands together and prayed, and then 
came a hand which pressed my hands ; immediately thereupon 
I continued my prayer and said, 'that Thou hast promised to 
pardon all sinners, Thou canst not but keep Thy word.' At 
the same time I sat in his lap and saw Him face to face : it was 
a face of a holy look, such as cannot be described, and smiling, 
such as I believe His face was while He lived. He spoke to 
me and asked me whether I had a clean bill of health. I an- 
swered, 'Lord Thou knowest better than 1/ 'Well, do so,' 
said He. That is, I thought, 'Love me really,' or 'Do what 



WHERE SCIENCE PAUSES ^s 

thou hast promised.' God give me grace thereto. I found it 
depended on my .own strength. I awoke with rigors." 

It would seem that Swedenborg in 1743-1744, had beccMne 
subject to frequent dreams, contemporaneously with a marked, 
and to him inexplicable, change in his ordinary mental state, 
if we understand aright his brief observations at the com- 
mencement of his diary, that "the propensity and self-love of 
his work had passed away, which he, himself, wondered at." 

"I have been called to a holy office by the Lord Himself," 
he says afterwards in a letter to one of his friends. 

St. Paul frequently refers to the dream state. "I must 
needs glory though it is not expedient, but I will come to 
visions and revelations of the Lord." II Corinthians, xii, 4. 
In the same chapter, a few verses on he continues, "How 
that he was caught up into Paradise, and heard unspeakable 
words that it is not lawful for a man to utter." 

Not only is a state of dreaming or trance often implied by 
Paul's own words, but others give account of his visions: 
"Then spake the Lord to Paul in the night by a vision. Be 
not afraid, but speak, and hold not thy peace." Acts xviii, 9. 

A longing to withdraw from the world seems to possess 
the mystics immediately after the light has manifested to 
them; they crave a period for brooding and reflection, an 
opportunity to ponder in solitude and to upbuild the faith 
and to weave the dreams that are to help the; world. St. Paul 
retired to the Arabian desert. After his conversion he writ& : 
"I went away into Arabia . . . When after three years I 
went up to Jerusalem to become acquainted with .Cephas." 
Galatians i, 17-18. 

The brief words kindle the imagination from across the 
centuries. In that desert solitude, away from the world's hur- 
ried happenings, he would turn the new, clear vision upon 
things alike of the earth and of the heavens. Those .who have 
sensed desert vastnesses can understand its dreams. The 
ringing silences, the elemental sands, the sweeps of cloud are 
attuned to the moods of the Infinite, and here more nearly 
than elsewhere the soul is freed from its shackles of flesh 



56 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

and is ready to ascend the voids of blue. Voices heard 
through the silence are unbroken by human discord. Christ 
Himself sought the wilderness and that both Master and His 
mighty disciple should have had dreams and visions unspeak- 
able, is a natural inference. In the soundful silence of the 
Arabian sands, there was but a trifling distinction between the 
closed lids of actual slumber and the heavy lids of haunted 
reverie, both filled with visions of the Unknowable. Later 
other mystics sought the wilderness for peace. After the 
monasteries had fallen under the glamour of the world or 
had developed into mere repositories of secular learning, the 
monks who wished to lead ascetic lives were drawn to the 
barren bosoms of the deserts of Egjrpt and of Palestine. 
St. Ammon built the first cell in the famous Nitrian Desert, 
and at the end of the fourth century the Nitrian mountains 
were dotted over with hermit cells. Here the physical aspects 
of life were peculiarly harsh. The mountains, rocky and 
rough, the cold intense and water so scant that the supply 
must be obtained from collecting the dew as it fell — ^but the 
saints held their dreams and their visions. Clairaudience and 
clairvoyance peculiar to the wastes of the world came to them 
and we read of mystic voices calling through the air and of 
sentient dreams, vivid with heavenly hosts and celestial arcana. 
Southeast of the Nitrian Desert was Coma, the birthplace of 
St. Antony, regarded as the father of Eg)rptian monasticism, 
although Ammon of Nitria was its actual founder. Still to the 
south lay the Inner Mountain, whither celestial voices led the 
saint, when, after having parted his possessions amongst his 
friends, he sought the solitude that they refused him. A 
rare dreamer, St. Antony, according to tiie hagiologists. 

"Oh Antony," cried the heavenly voice of his vision at one 
time, "turn your attention to yourself; as for the judgments 
of God, it is not fit that you should learn them." 

To our modem ideas he seems scarcely to have deserved 
the rebuke even in a dream and his soul is very humble and 
patient as he sits on his mountain top. 



WHERE SCIENCE PAUSES $7 

On one occasion he saw some one being carried aloft amid 
great rejoicings, while an angelic throng met the new ar- 
rivals and joined them. Humbly wondering, and blessing such 
a choir, the saint prayed to be taught the meaning of his vision. 
Straightway a voice answered that the soul of Ammon was 
taking flight. Afterwards the fact was confirmed by monks 
from the Nitrian Desert. 

St. Antony's dreams, however, were not entirely devoted 
to heavenly voices and holy souls. Athanasius mentions that 
the devil frequently beset the saint in the shape of a woman, 
and again that as he lay asleep the devil let loose wild beasts 
and almost all the hyenas in the desert; these came out of their 
burrows, beset him round and he was in their midst. ''And 
when each gaped on him and threatened to bite him, perceiving 
the art of the enemy he said to them all : 'If ye have received 
power against me, I am ready to be devoured by you; but 
if ye have been set on by daemons delay not to withdraw, 
for I am a servant of Christ.* And when Antony said this 
they fled, pursued by his words as by a whip." — Kingsley, The 
Hermits, 

St. Romauld also is described as having been continually 
in conflict with the devil, who raised memories of his loves 
and hates in his former life in the world. "Every night for 
nearly five years the devil lay on his feet and legs and weighted 
them with the likeness of a phantom weight so that Romauld 
could scarcely turn on his couch." — Mediaevcd Mind, Taylor. 

St. Benedict, the successor of St. Macarius, the Great, was 
a dreamer of dreams who lived in the Scetic Desert, to the 
south of the Nitrian wastes; close beside him stand St. Dom- 
inic, St. Bernard, and St. Francis, founders respectively of 
the orders that bear their names. To the Franciscan order 
especially the world owes many of its dreamers who follow 
their gentle leader in a sort of apostolic succession. 

Like Paul of Tarsus, St. Francis found the guiding light 
as he pursued a broad and worldly path. His first dream 
caused him to lay aside his arms as a soldier for earthly kings 



58 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

and to don the garb of a mendicant and, despite family opposi- 
tion, to part with his worldly possessions and to go forth 
among the lepers at Gubbio. The second dream directed him 
to his vocation, commanded him to fomid the order of Fran- 
ciscans and enunciated its three rules: Poverty, Chastity and 
Obedience. The confirmation of the order at Rome gave rise 
to a curious dream that appeared not to the saint himself, 
but to Pope Innocent III. The Holy Father, having been 
greatly harassed by schisms, defections and innovations, de- 
layed seeing the ragged band of mendicants, when lo, as he 
lay in bed, he dreamed that the huge basilica of St. John 
Lateran was tottering upon its foundations. The colossal 
structure would have fallen but for a slender little monk who 
held it up in both hands. It was the leader of the band of 
beggars at the gates of the Vatican. The Pope gave them the 
right to found the order without delay. And it was well for 
his church that he did so, for the Franciscan monks were the 
dreamers who carried their hopes and visions far into the 
fastnesses of the New World. Quietly they bore the cross 
of their faith along the blood-smeared path of the Conquista- 
dores whose dream of gold had become a nightmare of avarice. 
By thousands, uncounted and unknown, they died of torture, 
paying for the sin^ of their racial predecessors whose dream 
was different. All along the Mississippi River and through 
the Great Lakes they have left the trail of their shining dreams. 
California's gleaming, golden shores are dotted with the gray 
adobe churches of their faith and so likewise are the deserts 
of Texas and New Mexico. Padre Junipero stands out, a 
brown-clad dreamer against the golden sands of California, 
his sculptured face tells its story of strength, and legend 
iterates his dreams. Descended from the proud nobility of 
Spain, he took the vow of poverty and toiled along the wastes 
of the Califomian shores. Whether shattered hopes sent him 
thither, or whether his spirit was purely altruistic, we may 
not know. Time only holds the tradition of the clear-eyed 
old priest and of his dreams, which he was fond of repeating. 



WHERE SCIENCE PAUSES 59 

One night he even saw the Blessed St. Francis, the founder 
of his order, but that was not very long before his death. 
With all his other dreams, however, he never mentioned the 
one that led to his leaving Spain* The missions that he 
established still bind California's coast in a blessed rosary 
from one end of the state to the other. 

Bede, the impeccable, himself a mystic, noted numerous 
dream-revelations. 

Archbishop Theobald, of blessed memory, had a dream warn- 
ing him of the precise hour of his death. 

Laurentius, an English Bishop, being about to quit Britain 
(616 A. D.), was warned in a dream by Christ Himself to 
remain, which he accordingly did, and later made a convert 
of Eadbald, the English king. 

Anselm, the gentle saint who bore no fear in his soul for the 
kings of earth, was a dreamer. After being driven into exile 
by William Rufus, Anselm, then Archbishop of Canterbury, 
was warned in a dream that he might return to England. 
In his vision he saw "all the saints in England complaining 
to the Most High of the tyranny of King William, who was 
destroying his churches." William's death by a flaming arrow, 
directed by a celestial hand, is described in the dream and 
Anselm never questioning its truth, returns to his church in 
England. 

Anselm's love of God and contempt of the world were typi- 
fied in one of his visions in which he saw a torrent of filth 
on which were borne numbers of worldly people, while apart 
from the turgid slime, rose the cloister with its walls of shining 
silver. 

St. Bonaventura, or John of Troanza (1221-1274), a pupil 
of St. Francis, by whom he was miraculously cured, was a 
dreamer as well as a mystic who bore the burden of the in- 
communicable, things of which he dared not speak. His 
dreams were especially favored by heavenly visitants, some 
of whom were supposed to have appeared to his waking 
vision. 



6o THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

Perhaps the most picturesque of the mystical dreamers, 
the one who somehow stands forward from stained-glass 
mediaevalism with more human distinctness than any man of 
his time, is Jacob Boehme, or Behmen, as it is frequently writ- 
ten in English. Direct illumination lent him spiritual vision 
of the root of all things; nature unveiled before him, mys- 
teries were made clear. Essentially and of necessity he must 
have been a dreamer, this lad who spent his earlier years 
tending cattle and then became a shoemaker's apprentice, and 
who in later life had all the theologians of the world about his 
ears seeking to find fault with his doctrines. Every cloud 
in the sky threw him into ecstasy, every flower in the field 
made its revelation. His first book, "Aurora," suggests dreams 
and dream phantasy brought into the ken of the possibilities 
of life. And the term Ungrund or Urgrund for the source of 
ever3^ing, love, joy, purgatory, paradise, weak, strong, etc., 
savors of the modem dream phantasy. 

The mysticism that is woman's inheritance through the 
infinitely and essentially mystical function of nurturing and 
bearing a human body and of incarnating a human soul, fits 
her especially to receive dreams and visions, and yet many 
women who have sung of their dreams and have told their 
visions have been, not the mothers, initiates to the inner shrine 
of motherhood, but those who have been called to celibacy 
and the hierophantic life. 

Many of these dreams have descended to us from the days 
of the sibyls, oracles and priestesses; with a sort of ethereal 
S3rmbolism as subtle, and strong, and indescribable as the odor 
of the vervain that they loved, their visions have come whis- 
pering across the seas of time. 

Mediaevalism with its saints furnishes minute descriptions 
of women's dreams. In that age of class distinction, class 
itself was forgotten and the dreamers were heard with becom- 
ing reverence, whether they boasted of the high lineage of 
the beautiful Lady Clare, the follower of St. Francis, or 
whether like St. Catherine of Sienna, they sprang from the 



WHERE SCIENCE PAUSES 61 

peasantry. The dreams of Lady Clare took tangible form 
in the order of the Poor Clares which works amid the suffering 
world to this day, while those of St. Catherine and of St 
Teresa are received with unquestioning reverence by the devout 
To St. Catherine especially was vouched a vision of the Saviour 
of mankind seated amongst His disciples, and all about Him 
stretched the seas of illimitable glory. 

Well-nigh perfect examples of the dream state at its highest 
development are the dreams of St. Veronica (1497). The 
daughter of poor parents, she earnestly desired to become a 
ntm, but as she was without money and had not learned to 
read she was disgualified. Each night when her work for 
the day was done she would struggle over the alphabet by 
the light of her little oil lamp, until at last, worn out she would 
fall asleep. One night the Blessed Virgin appeared to her 
robed in the blue of the midday sky and bearing a sheaf of 
lilies. Her message was distinct : "My child, trouble not thy- 
self with this scholarship, the only learning thou needest is 
comprised in three letters, black, white and red. The white 
letter is purity of soul and body. This black letter is con- 
tentment with what Grod sends you. This red letter is medi- 
tation on the passion of my dear son. Let these branches of 
learning be mastered and the letters will come of themselves." 
She finally became a lay sister in the convent of St. Martha, 
but she was never able to sing in the choir offices until a cer- 
tain dream in which an angel descended to her cell holding in 
his hand a psalter which he bade her read. From that moment 
all difficulty vanished and she "chanted the psalms of David 
with the antiphons and responses alternately with the angels 
of God." 

There is one instance especially of a simple maid, bom of 
peasant parents in the little village of Domremy in France. 
She is held as a witch by the English and defined as a sorceress 
by the Council of Basle, but to the French people she was and 
is a high and holy saint. An ancient prophet, no other indeed 
than the enchanter Merlin, had forecast from his own 



62 THE FABMC OF DREAMS 

dream that France would be saved by a maid from an oak- 
wood, and curiously enough, it is an oakwood that one sees 
to-day from the door of the cottage once occupied by Joan of 
Arc's father. At the time of the child's visions and dreams, 
however, none recalled the old wizard's enchanted words. She 
was ever a dreamer, of delicate and slender build after the 
fashion of those whose minds dwell largely in other worlds. 
Her father was sufficiently well-off to spare her the arduous 
toil that generally falls to her class, and we are told that she 
attended the lighter household duties while her brothers and 
sisters watched the flocks in the field. Seated in the shade 
of the oaks beneath which Merlin had espied her, she learned 
from her mother to weave and to mend linen, accomplishments 
of which the poor child was one day to boast to her judges. 
And here too she wove the dreams that were to attain the 
glory of celestial vision. The countryside itself was filled 
with dreams and legends; nearby was a haimted gooseberry 
bush and a fountain, of which the priest forbade the children 
to speak, although nevertheless^ the little ones believed in 
fairies; besides this elf-ridden fountain there was a church 
near the cottage of Jacques D'Arc and Joan especially loved 
its bells whose chimes set her dreaming, long before her 
dreams had articulated into definite pictures. At the age of 
thirteen, as she sat sewing in her father's garden, her first 
vision came to her. She dared not speak of the voices to any 
one, least of all to her little peasant companions, with whom 
she had often invoked the fairies at the fountain, but they 
noticed that from that day she became strange and wistful, 
wrapped in meditation. At length she told her father of her 
dreams, greatly to the good man's bewilderment and vexation, 
for he, himself, had just been visited by a dream that he did 
not fancy. He thought that he saw his daughter Joan follow- 
ing the king's men-at-arms, a proceeding that he told her he 
would rather see her in her grave than witness in actuality. 
Then he placed her under strict surveillance and co;nmanded 
her to forget such nonsense. Later she was sent to an uncle 



WHERE SCIENCE PAUSES 6^ 

at Vaucouleurs who understood her better than her father 
had done and who recalled Merlin's prophecy. All the while 
she had continued to dream and to see visions day and night 
The peasants at Vaucouleurs believed in her, but the upper 
class, after the fashion of the worldly wise of all ages in regard 
to the spiritually wise, were sceptical. They made it rather 
unpleasant for the uncle by holding him accountable for the 
eccentricities of his niece. What had the King of Friance, 
craven though he might be, to do with the dreams of a daugh- 
ter of a peasant of Domremy, a girl of nineteen? When the 
women of the Court heard of Joan, however, they were less 
inclined to ridicule. Yolande of Arragon, Queen of Sicily 
and mother-in-law of Charles VII, had a strange dream con- 
cerning the wonderful peasant, and the young Queen Mary 
was likewise anxious to see her. And whether directed by 
their own dreams or by the less tangible though equally real 
sixth sense, which is the matrix of dreams, these two women 
espoused Joan's cause from the first and were loyal to it to 
the bitter end, when her visions and voices and dreams had 
deserted her, leaving merely a terrified child, begging that 
her white young body be not consumed to ashes. Her dreams, 
however they failed her afterwards, were true while they 
lasted, which was long enough to make history. They led 
her to recognize the King at Chinon, when all the wits of 
the Court were trying to puzzle her; they showed her where 
to find the sword that was to win the victories that they fore- 
told for France; they designed the banner under which she 
was to redeem her country. Joan herself realized when her 
dreams had ceased to guide her and bad she been permitted, 
she would have returned to her simple village life. But 
those who had profited by her dreams, having none themselves, 
were avid of further marvels; they forced her to remain at 
Court, dreamless awaiting her doom. 

William Blake, the forerunner of modem mysticism, was a 
dreamer of exquisite dreams, which he made articulate through 
the medium of pen and pencil. 



6+ THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

God's face appeared to him when he was four years old, 
and a little later he saw the prophet Ezekiel, rare dreams for 
a child of those tender years^ yet dreams none the less. Satan 
he beheld one evening when he was standing in his garden 
door; a "horrible grim figure, scaly, speckled, very awful, 
stalking downstairs" towards him, and at another time he 
mentioned having seen a tree all fluttering with angels. 

Not only do Blake's visions suggest dreams, but the names 
that he has invented in his own mythology suggest dream no- 
menclature of the conventional order: Rintra, Urthona, Palam- 
bron, Luvah, are all names in accord with conventional dream 
description as used by Freud and Jung and Coriat. 

William Sharp, whose dream self, Fiona Macleod, baffled 
alike literary cults and men of science, has left a record of his 
dreams, especially those of his youth. 

"For I too have my dream," he writes to the woman whom 
he afterwards married, "my memory of one whom as a child 
I called Star-Eyes. ... I was not more than seven when, 
one day by a well, near a sea-lock in Argyll, just as I was 
stooping to drink, my glancing eyes lit on a tall woman stand- 
ing among a mist of wild hyacinths under three great syca- 
mores. I stood looking as a fawn looks, wild-eyed and un- 
afraid. She did not speak, but she smiled, and because of the 
love and beauty in her eyes, I ran to her. She stooped and 
lifted the blueness out of the flowers, as one might lift foam 
out of a pool, and I thought she threw it over me. When 
I was found lying among the hyacinths, dazed, and as was 
thought, ill, I asked eagerly after the lady in white, and with 
hair all shiny gold like buttercups. ... I was told I was 
sun-dazed and had been dreaming." — lVilliamSharp,aMemoir 
by Elieabeth Sharp. 



CHAPTER V 

NEX7RASTHENIA OR THE SIXTH SENSE 

"There are also celestial bodies and bodies terrestrial, but the glory 
of the celestial is one and the glory of the terrestrial is" another." — 
/ Corinthians xv, 40, 

Thus St. Paul defines the body and the soul or spirit With 
the physical body science has held its sway and has worked 
its wonders. It has learned to substitute new limbs for old, 
has traced the convolutions of the human brain, and has ana- 
lyzed the constituents of the blood. But here science must 
pause bewildered, for although the recent psychological theory 
of the subjective mind has explained something of the un- 
forgiving, unforgetting self that lies beneath the normal 
trained consciousness, and while thoughtful persons are grow- 
ing timid of their own unknown potentialities — for daemons 
and angels emerge indiscriminately from this primitive self — 
the term subconsciousness does not cover the entire psychic 
region. The "celestial bod)r" mentioned by St. Paul covers 
far more than the conscious and the subconsciousness taken 
together, while participating of something of both. The sub- 
consciousness accounts for otherwise forgotten memories, for 
the revival of experiences physical, psychic or mental, but for 
unprecedented knowledge, for the instincts above humanity 
itself, the subconscious can give no explanation. Over and 
above the analyzed and classified faculties a higher sense 
awaits an opportunity to manifest. 

The wisdom of untutored mystics, the knowledge of ignor- 
ant peasants^ the childhood dreams that so often "come true'' 
and even the unerring instinct of dumb animals, defy alike the 
classifications of physical science and the definitions of ac- 

65 



66 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

cepted psychology. This mysterious, undefined faculty, par- 
taking as it does of super-terrestrial laiowledgc,has been classi- 
fied by Bishop Brent and by the occultists as the "Sixth Sense." 
Though essentially different from the five senses it partakes 
of them all. It is the foundation of the human conscience, 
the basis of instinct, clairaudience, clairvoyance and other 
supernormal qualities; it is the mysticism of the mystic, the 
essential of the higher dreaming. 

Scientifically the sixth sense does not exist, but human expe- 
rience from which all scientific knowledge must necessarily 
be derived, there being no other source of information, estab- 
lished the sixth sense as a fact. Its most usual exemplification 
is in the faculty known as instinct, although under certain 
circumstances instinct is attributable to the subconsciousness. 
The homing instinct in birds and animals, the parental instinct 
common alike to birds, beasts and to mankind, and finally the 
universal instinct of self-preservation ; all transcend in certain 
phases the bounds of the subconscious and merge into the 
sixth sense. 

The nesting bird that flies to a distant tree and with cries 
and fluttering wings attempts to distract attention from her 
brood, cannot in the case of her first brood have learned the 
nise from past experience, but a sixth sense, motivated by 
maternal affection, supplants experience and reason. In hu- 
manity this same instinctive protection for the loved ones 
frequently results in clairvoyance, or second sight. 

During the Franco-Prussian War, the mother of a young 
French officer was suddenly overwhelmed by an impression 
that her son was in mortal peril. After vain endeavors to 
reason away her fear, she finally knelt in prayer, and calling 
her son's name aloud petitioned for his safety. 

Later she learned that no battle had occurred on that night, 
and somewhat ashamed of what seemed a foolish fear, she 
thrust the impression aside. The war ended and her son 
returned and she had almost forgotten the incident until one 
day he told her of lying asleep upon a certain night without 



NEURASTHENIA OR THE SIXTH SENSE 67 

either tent or cover, when suddenly he had seemed to hear her 
calling his name. Starting up he looked around, but every- 
thing was as usual, and once more he slept. Twice again he 
heard his mother's voice and at the third call some mysterious 
instinct prompted him to move from where he lay. As he 
left the spot from which he had been thus strangely disturbed, 
a shell whizzed past, fell and burst in the grass that had made 
his bed. 

The horrifying Titanic disaster furnishes an instance of the 
sixth or higher sense in the case of Mrs. Archibald Grade, 
widow of the gallant gentleman and soldier, whose life after- 
wards paid the forfeit of his unselfish and superhuman efforts 
for others on that terrific occasion. Secure in the thought 
that her husband, though at sea, was returning home on the 
most splendid and safest vessel afloat, Mrs. Gracie retired on 
the night of the catastrophe without any uneasiness for her 
soldier whose brilliant life had already braved greater dangers 
than fall to the average mortal. Suddenly, over her sleep 
crept a chill horror; an undefinable fear waked her, a con- 
viction of something amiss with Captain Gracie. Sleep there- 
after being impossible she passed the remainder of the night 
in prayer for her husband's safety. In his description of the 
wreck. Captain Gracie refers tenderly and beautifully to his 
faith in the efficacy of his wife's prayers. 

Both these incidents demonstrate the influence of the sixth 
sense upon the dream consciousness; the student will recog- 
nize die dream as the awakening factor preceding the articu- 
late thought. The story of the young soldier especially pre- 
cludes the possibility of thought transference or mental telep- 
athy. 

There is, however, a bare margin between instances arising 
from the sixth sense and those attributable to mental telepathy, 
or the communion of two minds separated by physical space. 

Where a harmonious understanding exists between two or 
more persons, and when the facts in question are known to 
at least one of them beforehand, then the sixth sense may 



68 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

be challenged in favor of mental telepathy, a scientifically 
recognized factor. But where the communication is unknown 
save to the recipient at the time of its reception, there can be 
no possibility of telepathy, or the domination of one mind 
over another. The sixth sense offers the simplest explanation 
of these conditions. The sixth sense provides the warp and 
woof of dreams and accounts for the vision that frequently 
accompanies sleep when the physical eyes are closed upon 
the world. Perhaps its most important and least recognized 
function, however, is its dominion over the conscience. The 
subconsciousness may play pranks with morality — in fact, 
modem psychologists represent it as astotmdingly and humili- 
atingly wicked — ^but the character of the sixth sense is im- 
peccable, a sort of instinct for right that for the time being 
dominates and transcends the ego. It can not be traced to 
the outer nature and is above and beyond the training and 
inhibitions of ethics, of human intelligence and of psychology. 
It holds the soldier to his post in time of danger and leads 
the martyr to the stake with a smile for his enemies and a 
vision of glory to come. It points to the sacrifice of love, 
honor and recognition for the sake of a just but lost or hope- 
less cause; it stirs pity in savage or untutored souls who 
have never heard the precepts of the Nazarene. It is part 
alike of the natural and the supernatural, including them 
both. 

According to the current press. King Peter of Servia finds 
the sixth sense an inconvenient dream factor. 

Extract from the London Chronicle, dated May, 1913. 

"London, May loth, 4 145 a. m. — ^The Belgrade Correspond- 
ent sends this account of the distracted condition of mind to 
which King Peter has been reduced by the anxieties of his 
monarchy. 

". . . He (the King) also suffers from insomnia and when 
he does sleep is haunted by the most horrible dreams. Unable 
to sleep, he rises at 2 a. m., and calls the officer on watch to 
keep him company. 



NEURASTHENIA OR THE SIXTH SENSE 69 

''He complained to one of them that he dreams of seeing 
King Milan running through the corridors with a drawn sword 
in his hand shouting: 'Where are the murderers of my son?' 

"These dreams, which seem to be frequently recurring, 
make such an impression on the King that they are begin- 
ning to exercise a visible effect on his health." 

Bishop Brent coincides with occultism in regarding the 
sixth sense as the future attainment of the human race; tra- 
dition, legend and folklore, however, point to its having been 
the possession of mankind in the remote past. The growing 
importance of these last named factors in the establishment of 
lieglected facts can not be too highly estimated. The en- 
lightening work of such patient students as Dr. Frazier in 
England and Mr. Henry W. Shoemaker in America are of 
inestimable value in the rehabilitating of facts that history 
has discredited. 

The universal legend of a Golden Age and the powers at- 
tributed alike to god and hero imply supernormal qualities 
that corroborate man's former possession of a sixth sense. 
The fall of Adam, of the Nibelungs, the legends of Parnassus 
whither the gods withdrew from earth, the story of the Tower 
of Babel bear salient points of resemblance that preclude the 
theory of coincidence. 

The legends of great floods that destroyed entire races are 
confirmed by geological evidence. And despite scientific doubt 
of the existence of the Continent of Atlantis, a persistent tradi- 
tion holds that a universal and deliberate disregard of certain 
natural laws led to its gradual submergence in the sea. 

Natives of the Hebrides and Canary Islands, the Basque 
Pyrenees Mountains and of certain lofty cantons in Switzer- 
land are more generally gifted with second sight, or clair- 
voyance than any peoples known to modem man. Science 
attributes this peculiarity to geographical isolation and its 
resulting loneliness which is conducive to habits of introspec- 
tion and to the idea of seership. We are not told why this 
condition does not apply to other spots in the world equally 



70 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

lonely, whose inhabitants possess no mystical characteristics 
whatever. Occultists explain the singular gifts of inhabitants 
of the localities just mentioned, by the statement that these 
points are supposedly the highest peaks of the submerged 
Continent of Atlantis. 

Believers in knowledge that transcends physical laws as the 
world knows them are taught to withhold their knowledge 
from humanity at large until the world has become spiritually 
fitted for its use, hence students of psychic subjects are prone 
to withdraw from the world. Every race and every creed 
has had its cult of hierophants and dreamers, mystics whose 
development of the sixth sense has gone hand in hand with 
dreams. 

When the Spaniards discovered Central America with its 
astounding civilization the difficulty in subduing the new coun- 
try lay not with the simple natives, but with the priests, who 
persistently prophesied evil to result from the advent of the 
newcomers. The invaders were piqued that untutored heathen, 
priests of the sun, should penetrate the guile beneath their 
smiles, for many of their adventurous crew were courtiers 
of old Spain, diplomats of an effete civilization. They could 
bide their time, however, until the priests of the old faith were 
imprisoned, dead or otherwise disposed of. Later, as the 
Aztecs toiled under Spanish chains, forcible converts to a 
new religion, the Christian priests listened, half amused and 
half indignant to tales of their predecessors, the stm-wor- 
shipers, who held no earthly possessions, yet whose dreams 
taught them the hearts of men. Emissaries of Satan, declared 
the Christian fathers piously, and proceeded to extort more 
gold to send to Spain. 

For in that era the priesthood of the so-called old world 
had abandoned their dreams of celestial glory and had become 
shrewd financiers bent on acquiring temporal power for the 
church. And the sixth sense had ceased to manifest save in 
the case of some saintly ascetic who had left the world for 
the cloister. 



NEURASTHENIA OR THE SIXTH SENSE 71 

Thus the sordid world from which the visionaries had 
withdrawn moved on, growing more material as time passed, 
and the clergy who had remained in the world must keep 
pace with their flocks if they would serve them, for the teacher 
must not be too far above his charge. To each age and to 
each people are allotted the ideals of which its dreams are 
made. 

The priests of the Aztecs and Incas, the Magi of Egypt and 
Assyria, the Oracles of Greece, the Vestals of Rome, and the 
Druids of Northern Europe deliberately acquired and culti- 
vated the sixth sense through isolation, meditation and the 
avoidance of secular cares. Every tribe of so-called bar- 
barians of the present day has its medicine man or high priest 
who lives apart from the people and gives counsel and guid- 
ance when they stand in need, setting thereby an example 
that civilization might wisely follow. 

The existence of the sixth sense in children and in animals 
is referred to in the adage that "Children and dogs know who 
love them." Later life develops reason in the child and intui- 
tion, or the sixth sense, becomes atrophied precisely as any of 
the other senses might do under disuse ; not so, however, with 
the animal who retains alike instinct and faith. 

Certain schools of philosophical reasoning have traced the 
universal idea of a Divine Spirit and Creator to the dreams 
and traditions of primitive man. In which case, being true, 
the world owes more to dreams than it wots of. Unquestion- 
ably, primitive races hold the more salient attributes of the 
sixth sense that civilized man has all but lost, a condition 
due not to lack of civilization in the primitive races, but to 
their strength of faith, the d3mamic element in the human 
soul. Commercialism, not civilization, has cramped men's 
psychic development, and thus the man who lives under the 
stars and among the greening, growing things, holds a truer, 
stronger faith than he whose vision is circumscribed by the 
walls of a counting house. The difference in the point of view 
of the two types is illustrated in the dream of flying, scien- 



72 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

tifically termed a "typical" dream or one common to all ages 
and races. Visionaries regard this dream with ecstasy, as a 
promise of the life to come when time nor space shall be; 
materialists attribute it to vertigo, heart failure, or some other 
physical cause and point to it triumphantly as the basic origin 
of the notion of angels and of angelic visitations. Primitive 
races and children are held responsible for the idea, admittedly 
as 0ld as mankind. And insofar as this goes, faith and science 
may agree, for probably the primitive races and children were 
the first to see angels and to recognize them. 

Apart from dreamings or visionings, one idea is held by the 
human race as a whole, and while furnishing the basis of 
dreams and of creeds, refuses to be accounted for upon any 
ground that has thus far fallen beneath the spade of modem 
iconoclasm — ^the thought of infinity. Its presence in the con- 
sciousness could not have found its way through the five 
senses, nor can it be the product of human experience, nor 
of the subconsciousness* We know that all human knowledge 
and experience is finite and that personal experience is limited 
to ourselves — and yet we have a positive thought, an articulate 
idea concerning Infinity* Our experience is of perpetual 
change — ^yet this thought is changeless ; experience deals with 
yesterdays, to-days and to-morrows of time — ^yet the thought 
of Infinity is above and beyond time. Whence, then, in expe- 
rience, which is limited to the relative and the dependent, 
do we find the source of this all-pervading idea of Infinity ex- 
cept in the knowledge that is above the senses, yet pertains to 
them, the knowledge that can only come through the sixth 
or transcendental sense — ^the sense of dreams ? 

Since the abolishment of the Inquisition, an institution that 
vigorously put an end to skepticism by heroic remedies of 
torture chamber and scaffold and stake, freed iconoclasm has 
reveled in the ridicule of religious and spiritual enthusiasm. 
St Paul has been described as an epileptic, the martyrs 
as maniacs, the saints as insane persons of a type more or 
less pronounced. In fact the theory of religious mania has 



NEURASTHENIA OR THE SIXTH SENSE 73 

developed the universality of a popular fallacy. The layman, 
in hurling reproaches at mysticism and at faith ignores the 
narrow margin that separates genius and enthusiasm from in- 
sanity, and while he pillories the religious mystic, the secular 
monomaniac goes free. While reminding us that St. Paul 
was an epileptic, the student forgets that Julius Caesar suffered 
from a similar affliction. St. John may have been a neuropath, 
but so were Cromwell and Alexander the Great. Both Lincoln 
and Napoleon were subject to mental hallucinations, while 
Descartes and Sir Isaac Newton were unbalanced mentally. 
All were instances of genius or of the sixth sense, sometimes 
termed neurasthenia — ^and all were weavers of dreams, or they 
could not have helped the world. 

Undoubtedly many of the satanic or angelic visions of 
the mediaeval saints were dreams, whether they originated in 
the subconsciousness or from the sixth sense. St. Hildegarde 
of Bingen and St. Elizabeth of Schonau illustrate the dreams 
of the subconscious mind and those of the sixth sense re- 
spectively. 

St. Hildegarde, bom in 1098 A. D., died in 11 79, called 
the Sibyl of the Rhine, was abbess of a nunnery which she 
ruled with all the sternness and vigor of an ascetic nature. 
Her dreams were seldom prophetic save of the punishment 
of sin, but on this subject her visions of the future were 
numerous and horrific. Apparently she was perfectly sincere 
in dreaming of confusion to her enemies whom she likewise 
modestly regarded as enemies of God. Hier dreams were 
terrifying to her antagonists who found to their discomfiture 
that quite as often as not they were verified. To-day they 
would furnish excellent examples of the so-called "wish- 
dream" albeit they were too frankly anathemistic for the 
average modem. 

The dreams of St. Elizabeth of Hungary are trenchantly 
contrasted with the neurotic visions of the ascetic Hilde- 
garde. 

The daughter of a Hungarian Prince and the wife of a 



74 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

Margravine, she sensed more of the beautiful side of the 
world than was the fashion of that stem age, and the spirit 
of her dreams was celestial and full of joy. Hyacinthine skies, 
purple peaks and mystical presences thronged her visions which 
were essentially of the sixth sense. The legend of the loaves 
miraculously converted into roses in order that she might 
avert the wrath of the cruel Margravine, whom she after- 
wards influenced into becoming a Christian, is one of the most 
tender and charming of the sacred legends. 

The continuance of the sixth sense and of its dream gifts 
in the present workaday world is implied in an extract from 
the New York World, dated October 2nd, 1915 : 



Melody Dream Haunts Girl from Childhood 

marie hughes spends ten years trying to catch an 

elusive tune 

"A little eight-year-old girl had a dream about ten years 
ago in Chicago. She dreamed of sitting before a piano idly 
running her fingers over the keys when from the instrument 
issued forth the grandest music that she had ever heard. 
This music haunted her hours of wakefulness and at night 
she always dreamed of the same beautiful composition. 

"As she grew older the dream of sweet music followed her. 
Her sleeping hours were filled with the mysterious music 
that haunted her brain. By day as she practiced at the piano 
she sought vainly to play the haunting melody, but while 
awake it ever eluded her. . . . Marie Hughes of Chicago is 
the girl of the haunting musical dream. After two years 
striving with the piano masters of Europe she has been unable 
to catch the dream melody. She is now a finished pianist 
but is not at all satisfied.'' 

"When I am able to play the music that has run through 
my mind asleep and awake since I was a little girl I will feel 
that I have succeeded as a musician," says Miss Hughes. "I 



NEURASTHENIA OR THE SIXTH SENSE 75 

don't think that any one has ever had such a strange dream 
experience as I have had." 

" 'If I am ever able to play the mysterious, haunting piece 
that has followed me since childhood, it will be the greatest 
music in all the world. My dream experience makes me think 
of the old song, "The Lost Chord"! At night, when I am 
asleep I can hear each note distinctly and even when I am 
awake the mysterious, beautiful melody haunts me, but try as I 
may, I cannot play it on the piano.' " 



"SAW IRVING DIE IN DREAM 

^Sfage Manager of London Theatre Tells of a Remarkable 

Vision/* 

Special Cable to the New York Times. 

"London, Wednesday, June 3. — ^Abe Tapping, stage manager 
of the Kingsway Theatre, London, relates an extraordinary 
dream he had about the time of the Empress of Ireland dis- 
aster, wherein he saw the exit of Lawrence Irving from life. 
He dreamed he was present at a gathering of a number of 
people in a handsomely appointed room. The people passed in 
solemn procession before Sir Henry Irving, who was seated and 
had the appearance of a dying man. Each person shook the 
actor by the hand in sad farewell. 

"When all had passed. Sir Henry Irving rose and uttered 
these words : 'I can endure it no longer.' He placed his hand 
on his forehead and disappeared, death having claimed him. 

"Tapping then for the first time noticed Lawrence Irving 
standing alone in the far end of the room. He said : 'I went 
toward him, stretching out my hands appealingly, exclaimed : 
"Don't you see what is happening? Your father is dying; he 
has left us forever." 

"The son looked past me with amazement in his eyes, seemed 
for a moment as if he would collapse, but suddenly drawit^ 



76 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

himself up and with a resolute expression followed his father 
with unfaltering steps. It was a most dramatic departure and 
made a deep impression upon me. There was no farewell on 
the part of the son whose call to go seemed to come suddenly 
and unexpectedly." 

'Tapping afterwards saw a photograph of the Salon of the 
Empress of Ireland and recognized it as the room of his dream. 
He had never seen the vessel, nor was he aware that Lawrence 
Irving was aboard the Empress of Ireland/* 

The following dream, taken verbatim from an evening 
paper illustrates the catholicity of the gift of the sixth sense, 
which does not necessarily deal with the more serious side of 
life. 

Her DREA.M Netted Fortune at Races 

"Mrs. John D. Crawford, youthful wife of the proprietor of 
the Crawford House, Jamaica, L. I., admitted yesterday that 
she had won a fortune at the Belmont Park track a week 
ago by placing a bet on a horse of whose name she dreamed. 
It was the first bet that she ever made and she plunged. 

"Her horse, Field Mouse, was quoted a lOO to i. 

"Early on Saturday morning, May i6th, Mrs. Crawford 
shook her husband and in a frightened voice, begged him to 
save her from a field mouse that was chasing her about a 
field. 

"'Forget it and go to sleep; there's no mouse there, we 
aren't in camp,' said Crawford sleepily. 

"At breakfast she reverted to the subject, saying she be- 
lieved her dream had some significance. In the morning 
papers she found the horse Field Mouse entered. Then 
she grew excited. 

"She was laughed at by her husband, but she finally coaxed 
him to let her put $ioo on the horse. 

"She sent the money in the track by her stepson. Mrs. 
Charles Sweeny, a friend of Mrs. Crawford, said she must 



NEURASTHENIA OR THE SIXTH SENSE .771 

risk $5.00 on the dream, and Mamie Prendergast, housekeepei 
at the Crawford House, to whom Mrs. Crawford related her 
dream, drew five dollars and sent it along. 

'' 'It is true that I dreamed and won a lot of money,' said 
Mrs. Crawford yesterday. 'I have always been a dreamer and 
this is the second time that real benefit has resulted . . . Once 
I dreamed a horse's head was being continually thrust into my 
face. ... I could not elude it. It would dash at me, its eyes 
bulging and its nostrils distended. I told my aunt and she 
said it must be a warning against an ill-tempered horse my 
uncle intended driving that day. She told him of the dream 
and he did not drive the horse that day. The same day 
the horse went mad, kicked his stable to pieces and killed him- 
self." 



CHAPTER VI 
"sleep that knits up the ravel'd sleeve of care" 

"For I am sure if any man were to wake that night in which he saw 
no dreams, and put it beside all the other days and nights of his whole 
life and compare them and say how many of them all were better 
spent or happier than that one night — I am sure that not the ordinary 
man alone, but the King of Persia himself, would find them few to 
count/'— Plato, The Apology, XXXIL 

Sleep, says Boris Sidis, is not an abnormal condition, but 
a normal state ; sleep and sleep conditions are a part and par- 
cel of the individual. 

Memory, the cardinal function of consciousness, is inten- 
sified during sleep, while the will power is comparatively nil. 
In this condition the external world bears no interest for the 
dreamer and those external stimuli that impress themselves 
upon the consciousness are transformed into totally different 
effects. The slamming of a door becomes a mighty thunder- 
clap, the crackling of a log fire assumes the horror of a battle, 
the hum of a mosquito vibrates into the rhythm of an orches- 
tra. Despite certain phases of memory abnormally developed 
in the dream state, this faculty itself becomes erratic and un- 
accountable, and proportionately few dreams are recalled by 
the dreamer upon awaking. And although normal sleep has 
been established as a condition of perpetual dreaming, the ma- 
jority of dreams, formed as they are in the crypts of deepest 
slumber and dragged from the depths of the subconsciousness, 
or the soul, do not rise to the shallows of the waking con- 
sciousness. The dreams that are remembered by the average 
dreamer are those which come immediately before rousing, 
when consciousness is strengthening in the crepuscular light of 

7S 



SLEEP THAT KNITS UP 79 

returning physical faculties. These are the so-called normal 
dreams which can, as a rule, be traced either to outer stimuli, 
to half obliterated memories or to suppressed desires. 

Papus divides the dream state into two conditions, one the 
result of natural slumber, the other produced by artificial 
sleep induced by artificial methods. Inspired dreams, visions, 
prophecy and certain phases of clairaudience and of clair- 
voyance are attendant upon specific conditions of natural slum- 
ber, while sleep induced by drugs, hypnosis, etc., produces 
trance, mediumistic susceptibility, clairvoyance and clairau- 
dience in the ordinary acceptation of these latter terms. 

Clairvoyance and clairaudience during natural sleep are not 
unusual. In many cases they are traceable to mental telepathy, 
which Bacon defines as ''sympathy between two distant minds, 
sympathy so strong that one communicates to the other with- 
out reference to the ordinary channels." 

Izaak Walton compares this same sympathy to the strings 
of two lutes that are strung to such precise harmony that 
when one instrument is struck the other sounds. 

These faculties come and go as they will and thus far science 
has been unable either to account for them or to twist them 
to its purposes. In these cases a super-terrestrial sense of 
sight and of hearing is developed while the physical body 
lies apparently locked in sleep. Keen, far-reaching faculties 
are exercised of which the waking mind, cribbed and confined 
by its material body, has no conception. High medical au- 
thorities acknowledge the existence of this condition without 
furnishing a satisfactory explanation for it. The occuk theory 
of the astral body, a semi-physical essence which may and fre- 
quently does leave the material body under certain conditions 
and wander abroad, is perhaps the explanation that taxes cre- 
dulity most lightly. 

The Society for Psychical Research contains many cases 
which have thus far baffled explanation. The instance of clair- 
voyance on the part of the son of Dr. Lee, the late Bishop 
of Iowa, is authenticated beyond question. A tender and 



8o THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

syiiq>athetic affection existed between the father and son ; the 
latter was greatly distressed one night by a vivid dream of 
seeing his father fall down stairs. He sprang to catch the 
Bishop and in doing so awoke both himself and his wife, to 
whom he related his dream. He looked at the time; it was 
two fifteen a. m. Unable to sleep, he rose early and tele- 
graphed his father to know if all were well. The letter in 
reply informed him that on the night of and almost within 
the minute of his dream, the Bishop had fallen down a flight 
of steps and was seriously injured. 

An independent confirmation of this incident was sent to 
Dr. Hodgson by the Bishop of Iowa. (Records of the S. P. R., 
Vol. Vn, p. 38.) 

A volume published in 1879 under the title of "X Y Z, or 
the Sleeping Preacher of North Alabama," gives a well authen- 
ticated account of the clairvoyant faculty in a highly respected 
Presbyterian minister, the Reverend Sanders. Professor 
James, Dr. Hodgson, Chief Justice Brickell and Dr. Thach, 
who attended the Reverend gentleman when he became en- 
tranced, unite in corroborating the incidents set forth in this 
volume. 

In the trance condition Dr. Sanders would ignore his own 
named and designate himself X Y Z. His sleep would last from 
fifteen minutes to as many days, during which time he could 
direct his consciousness to events transpiring at any distant 
spot to which his attention was called. 

Sixty-nine witnesses, all of unimpeachable character and 
many of them persons of education, testify to having seen 
the Reverend Sanders in these conditions of trance and to 
having heard him describe incidents that he could not have 
known in a waking state. One of these is given herewith. 

"I hereby certify that one day about the middle of the 
month of February, 1866, while Brother Sanders was confined 
to his bed from a dislocated thigh, I was at his house, and he 
was lying in his bed in one of his so-called 'sleeps/ He at- 
tracted my attention by a hearty laugh. I asked him the cause 



SLEEP THAT KNITS UP 81 

of his amusement. He replied : 'I was laughing at De Witt/ 
I asked what De Witt was doing. He said: 'He was having 
a hard scuffle to ke^ from falling off the fence, for the top 
rail was turning with him and he was trying to keep from 
falling over it.' Nothing more was said imtil De Witt ar- 
rived, which was in ten or fifteen minutes. 

"The fence where the difficulty occurred was some three- 
fourths of a mile distant, on the other side of a thick grove 
of timber and underbrush and of an intervening hill. 

"And I further certify that no communication from any per- 
son or source was received in reference to De Witt until he 
arrived and confirmed what Mr. Sanders said." — (/. W. 
Pruitt.) 

Hypnotic sleep is the principal and most mysterious form 
of artificial or induced sltunber. It may be produced either 
through the control of another will, or it may be self-induced. 
In either case the realm of the subconscious is invaded by the 
will, either one's own, or that of another. 

The orientals, especially the Hindus, excel in the art of 
h3rpnosis and the clairvoyant and clairaudient faculties mani- 
fested under these conditions are amazing to the occidental 
mind, which does not relinquish the will with the same readi- 
ness. 

The late Andrew Lang mentions an illustrative incident that 
bears an historic interest. 

Dr. Gregory, Professor of Chemistry in the University of 
Edinburgh, is quoted as giving an account of a certain Major 
Buckley, who put a young British officer into hypnotic trance, 
or sleep, whereupon the latter revealed the secret of a certain 
ring that Major Buckley wore, which the young man said 
had once belonged to Mary of Scotland, and which, the dream- 
er insisted, had been a gift from Rizzio to Queen Mary. Nine 
years after the officer's vision, and three years after the pub- 
lication of Dr. Gregory's book, an inventory of Queen Mary's 
jewelry was found, and it contained a description of Major 
Buckley's ring. 



82 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

The employment of light h3rpn6tic sleep is a usual method of 
procedure among modem pathologists for the treatment of 
neurosis. That each physician has his own mode of procedure 
in tapping the unconscious is obvious. 

Dr. Freud, says the writer of a recent magazine article, 
employs hypnotism, as does his former apostle, Jung. 

*The patient takes a reclining position, while he (Freud) 
takes his own seat with his back to the patient behind the hood 
of the sofa." Just how far in this semi-hypnotic state the 
physician's will creates the hypnotic dream, and whether or 
not the physician's thought may color the patient's mind and 
give rise to the invariably erotic dream that seems to pursue 
the Freudian patient is a question for the doctor's followers 
and foes to decide amongst themselves. 

"Dr. Frank of Zurich shuts himself up with a patient in a 
room from which all noise has been carefully excluded by 
double windows and doors, although through the aid of an 
electric system, visible to him alone, he keeps, in touch with 
a servant outside. He directs the patient to recline as com- 
fortably as possible on a low sofa, while he kneels on a cushion 
at the head, and bending over, looks directly into the patient's 
eyes. Meanwhile his left hand rests upon the patient's fore- 
head and he gently presses the eyelids with his thumb and 
forefinger. At the first sign of the patient's weariness, Dr. 
Frank arises and takes a seat nearby, observant of every look, 
gesture and word. After a quarter of an hour, unless the 
patient wakens spontaneously, he is aroused. Together, phy- 
sician and patient discuss the material that has been procured, 
and then the latter goes into renewed hypnosis, which lasts 
about an hour. The scenes described are usually recalled by 
the patient just as they were experienced by them, even when 
taken frcwn earliest youth. . . . He succeeds best in inducing 
this sleep by exhorting the patient when he closes his eyes 
not to bother whether he sleeps or not, but to fasten his 
attention upon the scenes which are about to present them- 



SLEEP THAT KNITS UP 83 

selves, that is to think himself, so to speak, into a state re- 
sembling a moving picture show." 

Another well-known physician uses a small black mask 
which he draws over the patient's eyes before following Dr. 
Frank's method. 

Dr. Morton Prince employs the crystal. He thus describes 
the process in his book "The Unconscious." 

"The common technique is to have a person look into a 
crystal, at the same time concentrating the mind, or assuming 
a state of abstraction. Under these conditions the subject 
sees a vision, i.e., has a visual hallucination. The vision 
may be of some person or place, or represent a scene which 
may be enacted. Because of the use of a crystal such hallu- 
cinations are called 'crystal visions,' but a crystal is not req- 
uisite, any reflecting surface may be sufiicient, or even the con- 
centrating of the attention." 

A shade more sensational, yet no whit less true, is the 
brilliant article by Cuthbert Tunstal in the "Channel" (1916) 
in which he describes the methods of Dr. Leonard Coming of 
New York: "The dream-making apparatus of Dr. Leonard 
Coming of New York differs only in detail from what Aspasia 
found in the Temple of Patras. His method of imposing 
dreams upon the subject of his experiments is identical with 
that of the priest of Hygeia. First he bids you look at a 
luminous object whirling jronder in the dusk of the room; 
then he covers your ears with an acoustic cap permitting him 
to control the sounds which reach your ears. You are now 
in that state of 'gentle' somnolence whereof Aspasia wrote 
to Pericles ; and the scientist lays you on a soft couch draped 
with shadowing curtains. It is as though you lay in a tent 
of dreams. At the foot of your bed a chromatoscope, made 
of two motley colored discs, whirls and weaves capricious 
patterns of color and form; and a phonograph whispers in- 
cantations into the tubes of the acoustic cap, into the sonmo- 
lent ears and brain. And the dreams come trooping — vague 
carnivals of color and sound. Of course one can weave these 



84 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

dreams according to any pattern ; it is merely a matter of in- 
tensifying this sensation or that. It should be said that Dr. 
Corning has used his dream machine only for the healing of 
the brainsick dreamers." — Physical Basis of Dreams, Cuthbert 
Tunstal. 

Thus the circling centuries swing science face to face with 
the oracles of old. The favorite method of oracular demon- 
stration was through dreams and visions whether to the querent 
as he slept in the temple or through the medium of a priestess it 
mattered not. 

Modem hypnotists could scarcely find more ideal conditions 
than those that prevailed at Dodona where the priestesses 
placed themselves under the ancient oak of Zeus and listened 
soulfuUy to the rustling of the sacred leaves, while others con- 
centrated their attention upon the murmurous monotone of 
the clear spring that gushed from beneath its roots. 

We are told that the priestesses of Northern Europe could 
only prophesy amid the roar of tumultuous waters. Lulled by 
the inarticulate suggestions of the subconscious, and gazing 
fixedly upon the eddies of the swirling currents, they drifted 
into a state of hypnotism. 

Music was employed therapeutically in the Eg3rptian temples 
and the priests of Serapis chanted the seven vowels as a 
hymn. The hypnotic and healing powers of sound were, how- 
ever, not the only means invoked in the artificial production 
of dreams by the ancient hierophants, who discriminated be- 
tween a blind force acting spontaneously and the same force 
when directed by the intelligence. Stately ceremonials and 
elaborate rites, the quafiing of the waters of sacred springs, 
chewing the leaves of certain medicinal plants, inhaling somnif- 
erous smoke from incense, or drowsing in the fumes of nat- 
ural vapor that rose from oracular caverns, were all methods, 
often simultaneously employed, to induce dreams and prophetic 
vision. 

Marsh gas, containing large quantities of carbon monoxide, 
was probably responsible for the half muttered, semi-delirious 



SLEEP THAT KNITS UP 85 

ravings of the dniidesses m their forest temples, whereas in 
Greece and in Southern Europe, carbon dioxide rising from 
caverns and clefts in the earth produced similar effects, and 
in either case the prophecies of the oracular vision were more 
often correct than otherwise. 

A long, deep cleft in the side of Mount Parnassus was the 
site of the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi, perhaps the most re- 
nowned of the Grecian oracles. The courageous goatherd who 
saw his fiock prancing and dancing over the fissure in the 
rock and who ventured to try the effects upon himself, de- 
serves more than an anonymous niche in song and story. And 
even though his name was not to be remembered it would 
seem but fair that he should have been made a priest of the 
temple that was erected on the spot whose strange magic he 
had discovered, and whose fumes had set him adream of 
things he dared not mention. We are not told, however, 
that this happened and its lack of poetic justice, while not 
enhancing the beauty of the legend, assuredly strengthens its 
probability. But we do know that a priestess yclept the 
Pythia took possession of the oracular demonstrations emanat- 
ing from the marvelous cavern and that with great solemnity 
she gave forth, her dreams and visions. She was first pre- 
pared for the function by ceremonial ablutions in the spring 
of Castaly which issues from a narrow gorge shut in by a 
jutting wall just east of Apollo's temple. After chewing the 
leaves of the sacred laurel, themselves intoxicant, she was 
led in stately procession to a tripod over the fissure and here 
fumes of carbon dioxide combined with the drone of sacred 
incantations would produce the marvelous results. 

The oracle of Trophonius at Lebadse in Boeotia likewise 
owed its mystic character to gaseous emanations. It was first 
discovered through a swarm of bees that clustered about the 
mouth of the cavern. The pernicious effect of the carbon 
monoxide was felt by the anxious inquirer who was per- 
mitted to enter the cave to consult the oracle. After a long 
and tedious ritual the supplicant must crawl on all fours 



86 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

through a narrow fissure in the rock. The pallor and dejec- 
tion that followed these joumeyings into futurity gave rise 
to the adage: ''he looks as though he had visited the cave 
of Trophonius." 

The priestesses of the oracles at Thebes, Dodona and Ephe- 
sus partook of the waters of a sacred spring before prophesy- 
ing. It was also a custom to lie upon some holy spot of 
ground and to await visions that were supposed to come 
after the fulfillment of certain rites. Notable instances are 
those of the temple of -ZEsculapius at Epidaurus, of Amphia- 
rus in Boeotia and of Podalirius in Apulia ; in the two latter 
temples the inquirer was obliged to sleep before the altar 
upon the skin of some wild animal he had killed in sacrifice. 
Dendy in his chapter on dreams mentions this custom as 
being imitated by the modem Franciscans, who "after the 
ceremony of the mass throw themselves on mats already con- 
secrated by the slumber of some holy visionary." 

That the learned men of the Greeks and Egyptians knew 
and recognized the nature of these gases, even while ac- 
knowledging a certain supernatural quality in the result, is 
proven by their own words. 

Plutarch: "For the power of exhalation neither has a 
predisposing influence over all, nor does it always predispose 
the same people in the same way, but as has been said, it sup- 
plies a beginning, and as it were, enkindles spirits which 
are prepared and fitted to receive and suffer change under its 
influence. This divinatory vapor is a breath and a most divine 
and holy spirit." — Moralia. 

"And what could be more divine than the exhalations of the 
earth which affect the human soul so as to enable her to pre- 
dict the future? And could the hand of time evaporate such 
a virtue? Do you suppose you are talking of some kind of 
wine or salted meat?" — Cicero "On Divination," 

Perhaps the most convincing to the modem mind is the 
opinion of Aristotle: "Likewise there exist in many parts 
of the world openings through which exhalations escape, some 



I 

I 
I 



SLEEP THAT KNITS UP 87 

of these cause those who approach them to become inspired, 
while others make people waste away, and others again, as 
for instance those at Delphi and Labadea, cause them to 
utter oracles." — Translated from Aristotle's de Mundo ad 
Alexandrum, Chapter IV, page 10. 

Madame Blavatsky mentions iBsclepiadotus, one of Miltia- 
des' generals, who reproduced chemically the deleterious ex- 
halations of a certain sacred grotto. These vapors, like those 
of Cumea, threw the pythoness into sacred frenzy. (Isis 
Unveiled,) 

Yet their shrewd investigation of physical causes did not 
prevent the ancient sages from holding psychic theories as 
something higher than and apart from the world, and thus 
they built beautiful legends about their dreams, lore that 
shielded the gossamer fabric from brushing against the com- 
monplace thought of the ignorant. 

Lethe whose waters brought forgetfulness even now sym- 
bolizes sleep and rest to weary souls. 

Somnus was the god of sleep, Morpheus his son was the 
god of human dreams, he counterfeited the forms and imi- 
tated the walk of men, while his brother Icelos personated 
birds, beasts and serpents, and Phantasos, another brother, re- 
produced the waters and groves and the everlasting hills in the 
panorama of dreams. Morpheus was painted by Philostratus 
in a white and black coat with a box of horn and one of ivory 
to S3rmbolize dreams good and bad. 

Lucian describes an island of dreams reached by the haven 
of sleep and covered with a forest of poppies and mandragora. 
The only birds are owls and bats and the city glows in fitful, 
rainbow hues; two of its gates were of iron and earth and 
by these the frightful dreams made their exit. Two other 
gates of horn and of ivory respectively were the entrance to 
the city. Sleep was the king of the island, night its divinity, 
the inhabitants various dreams, some captivating, some wicked, 
some hideous. 

The analytical mind of to-day can scarcely judge the ex- 



88 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

tent to which the mediaeval mentality may have been hypno- 
tized into the dreams usually attendant upon certain ancient 
rites and customs. The modern jests of dreaming upon wed- 
ding cake, of dumb cake, of bannich brauder are all relics of 
self-hypnosis in the past, established as efficacious producers 
of dreams by the self suggestion of our forefathers. That 
these so-called communications were received with a certain de- 
gree of seriousness is evidenced by the following from a 
dreambook of the eighteenth century. 

"But natural things and their co-mixtures do likewise belong 
unto wise men and we often use such to receive oracles from 
a spirit by a dream, which are either by perfumes, unctions, 
meats, drinks, etc." 

HOW TO RECEIVE ORACLES BY DREAMS 

*'He who would receive true dreams should keep a pure, 
undisturbed and imaginative spirit and so compose it that 
it may be worthy of knowledge and government by the mind, 
for such a spirit is most fit for prophesying and is a most 
clear glass for all images which flow everywhere from all 
things. When, therefore, we are sound in body, are not dis- 
turbed in mind, our intellect not made dull by heavy meats 
and strong drink, not sad through poverty, not provoked 
through lust, not incited by any vice, nor stirred up by wrath 
or anger, not being irreligiously or profanely inclined, nor 
given to levity nor lost in drunkenness, but chastely going to 
bed fall asleep, then our pure and divine soul being free 
from all the evils above recited and separated from all hurt- 
ful thoughts and now freed by dreaming — is endowed with 
this divine spirit as an instrument and doth perceive these 
beams and representations which are darted down as it were 
and shine forth from the Divine Mind into itself in a deifying 
glass." 

And even in present day enlightenment, when the average 
person will call it nonsense, fraud, black art or magic, as 



SLEEP THAT KNITS UP 89 

the case may be, he will nevertheless have his divination ; and 
with his head aside and a sneer on his lips he will peer into 
the future and eagerly recount his dreams. There are eight 
hundred million believers in divination and black magic in 
the world to-day, according to Mme. Blavatsky, and dreaming, 
whether natural or induced by artificial means, is one of the 
principal methods employed in the translation thereof. 

The following formulae for the manufacture of dreams 
were whispered, blushed over, tried and trusted by our grand- 
mothers, who none the less believed them to have been derived 
from Satan: 

ST. AGNES'S CHARM 

"It must be only used on the 21st of January, known as St. 
Agnes's day. You must prepare yourself by a twenty-four 
hours fast, drinking nothing but pure spring water, begin- 
ning at midnight on the 20th to the same hour on the 21st; 
go to bed, and mind you sleep by yourself, and do not tell 
what you are trying to do to any one, or you will break the 
spell. Go to rest on your left side and repeat these lines : 

'St. Agnes, be a friend to me 

In the gift I ask of thee ; 

Let me this night my husband see.' 

"You will then dream of your future spouse; if you see 
more than one in your dream you will wed two or three 
times ; if you sleep and dream not, you will never marry." 

THE MYRTLE CHARM 

A method of having your future husband revealed in a 
dream is by the Myrtle Charm, which must be used on the 
^5th of November, St. Catherine's day. 

Let a number of young women, not exceeding seven, as- 
semble in a room where they will be safe from interlopers. 



90 THE FABMC OF DREAMS 

As the clock strikes ii at night, take from your bosom a 
spray of myrtle which you have worn all day and fold it up 
in a bit of tissue paper. Light up a small chafing dish of 
charcoal and on it let each maiden throw nine hairs from her 
head and a paring of her toe and fingernails; then let each 
sprinkle a small quantity of myrrh and frankincense in the 
charcoal, and while your vapor rises fumigate your myrtle; 
the plant is sacred to Venus. Go to bed while the clock is 
striking twelve and you will dream of your future husband. 
Place the myrtle exactly under your head. Only virgins find 
this charm efficacious. The myrtle hour must be passed in 
silence. 

Bannich Brauder, or dreaming bannocks, are much esteemed 
by the Scotch. They contain r 'A little of that substance 
which chimney sweeps call soot.' In baking them the baker 
must be 'mute as a stone' — one word will destroy the whole 
concern. 

"Each person has one, slips off quietly to bed, lays his or 
her head on the bannock and the sweetheart of each person 
appears during sleep." 

The efficacy of these formulae in the production of dreams 
must obviously depend upon the sleeper's power of self hyp- 
nosis. The dreams themselves may be divided into two 
classes, those that hardheaded fact may trail to their very 
inception amid the processes of the subconscious, repressed 
desires and half-shamed wishes, and which may be accurately 
labeled and learnedly accounted for; and on the other hand 
there are the dreams of hope and love and youth, halcyon 
dreams whose very sweetness and innocence causes them to 
pass beyond the plummet of science^ . 



CHAPTER VII 

DRBAMS THAT HAVE COME TRUE 

•Tor SO He Givcth Unto His Bdovcd in Slccp-^—F^a/m CXVIL 

The intensity of certain conditions of dream consciousness 
has wrested from dogmatic physiology a reluctant admission 
that under given circumstances certain dreams must originate in 
something beyond mere concentration of vision, or a reflex of 
outside impressions and influences. The mysterious and fre- 
quently decried dream faculty, having been variously produc- 
tive of marvels unbelievable save for indisputable evidence, has 
compelled the attention of the skeptics. 

In ancient times the dream faculty was conceded without 
question and reverently accorded to the priesthood and to 
women, in which latter cases the gift brought hierophantic 
privileges. Among the Druids of Gaul and Ireland there 
were ten prophetesses to one prophet, a condition that Edouard 
Schure considers led to the eventual downfall of the Druidical 
faith, ior as their strength increased, the priestesses grew 
tyrannical. Yet with or without priestly privileges, women 
have ever woven their dreams as they have woven the gar- 
ments of their loved ones, drawing exquisite hopes into the 
bright threads of the tissue, and even to-day when the world 
of spinning, weaving women is passed away, the women tint 
their dreams with the bright hues of the dreamer's hope. Thus 
each mother has her own dream of the life that is given her 
to bring into the world, and that the child may chance to lack 
the magic touch that gives to earth its genius, saint or avatar, 
is due to no weakness of the loving maternal wish, but lies 
with the destiny that shapes the human soul. At times, after 

91 



92 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

the fashion of all dreamings, the vision fades with the 
mother's waking, or again, alas, the perfect hope may be 
mercilessly remembered, unfulfilled throughout the years; or 
yet again it may be a haunting happiness, gloriously verified. 
But whatever the dream or its outcome, the mother's soul has 
given its best, and whether the dream substance was paltry, 
ambitious or worldly, or whether it was a glory with "the 
light that never was on land nor sea," it was her highest ideal 
for her unborn child, the best she knew. And thus it is that 
the helpers of mankind have ever been heralded by a mother's 
dream, visions so superlatively resplendent that they are re- 
membered and held. And every ray of comfort to be drawn 
from dreams or from any other source, has been sorely needed 
by these same dreaming mothers of the high and holy ones — 
for the life path of an avatar is ever rough and fraught with 
pain. 

The dust of ages has gathered over many of these dream- 
ings, leaving blurred, legendary outlines, even as the corrosion 
of time has erased the teachings of the masters themselves, 
yet the dim vibrations linger for those who seek. 

To Sir Edwin Arnold we of the West owe the story of the 
"Light of Asia." 

The Scripture of the Saviour of the World, 
Lord Buddha, Prince Siddartha, styled on earth. 

All honoured, wisest, best most pitiful; 
The Teacher of Nirvana and the Law. 

Thus came he to be born again for men. 

That night the wife of King Suddhodana, 
Maya, the Queen, asleep beside her Lord, 

Dreamed a strange dream: dreamed that a star from 
heaven, — 
Splendid, six-rayed, in colour rosy pearl, 

Whereof the token was the Elephant 
Six-tusked and whiter than Vahuka's milk, — 



DREAMS THAT HAVE COME TRUE 93 

Shot through the void and, shining into her. 
Entered her womb upon the right. Awaked 

Bliss beyond mortal mother's filled her breast. 
And over half the earth a lovely light 

For went the mom. 



And when the morning dawned and this was told, 
The gray dream-readers said 'The dream is good ! 

The Crab is in conjunction with the Sun: 
The Queen shall bear a boy, a holy child 

Of wondrous wisdom, profiting all fleshy 
Who shall deliver men from ignorance. 

Or rule the world, if he will deign to rule." 



9* 



The Mahabharata relates the dream of Devaki, the mother 
of Krishna. Seated under the tree of life, the banyan, she 
heard the predictions of the priests for the child to whom 
she would give birth and with whom her dreams were filled, 
until night and day she heard holy music and the sounds 
of divine harps, while the skies were rent with flashes of light. 

The dream of Daghchi, the mother of Zoroaster, the founder 
of Zoroastrianism, the faith of the Parsees of India and of 
Persia, is fotmd in the Zartusht-Namah, or the life of Zoro- 
aster. 

DREAM OF THE MOTHER OF ZARTUSHT 

"She dreamed, she wondering marked in heaven's clear skies 

A cloud like to an eagle's pinions rise, 

So thick a gloom its shadows spread. 

The sun is veiled, the day grows dark and dread; 

And from that cloud no rain, but strange to tell 

Lions, tigers, wolves and dragons fell ; 

The crocodile, the panther of the waste ; 

All that is horrible, misshapen, vast; 

The writhing serpent and the bird obscene 

All things detested that the eye has seen. 



94 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

Or fancy figured ; and still with gathering storm 

Fast falls each savage shape and g^sly form; 

Sudden from forth that phantom train appears 

One who than all a ghastlier semblance bears; 

On Daghchi rushing, in her tender side 

The direful monster tore an opening wide. 

And thence the infant Zartusht in his grasp 

Dragged forth to light. Death seemed in every clasp. 

But on their prey ere yet those jaws could close, 

Loud threatening shouts, as those of men arose; 

And in that hour of seething misery 

While helpless Daghchi strove for aid to cry — 

'Wail not,' her infant said, 'for not from these 

Shall harm approach me or destruction seize, 

God is my guardian and protection. He 

From every evil thing shall keep me free; 

Then dread not, though you view assembled here 

These monsters grim and loathsome forms of fear!' 

Cheered with these words the mother calms her care 

When lo, a hill descends from upper air. 

And from its side beams forth refulgent light 

Dispels the clouds and breaks the gloom of night" 

At length an angel appears to the young mother, apparently 
for the purpose of explaining fully the wonder of the child 

« 

to whom she had been privileged to give an earthly birth. 

"Arise nor let thy heart grow faint with dread. 
Comfort thee, for from thee a child shall spring 
On whom shall rest the favour of heaven's king 
The world beholds the glad event with joy. 
And future ages hail the promised boy; 
To a lost world the mysteries of grace 
Glad earth rejoices at his coming feet. 
The wolf and lamb in peace and union meet." 



DREAMS THAT HAVE COME TRUE 95 

Softly along the path already trod by these sumptuous Ori- 
ental favorites conies the simple maid of Galilee. Apart from 
the colorful symbolism and the exuberance of eastern fancies 
in verse and rhyme, is the bare description of the conception 
of the Christ. There are no wolves nor falling stars, only the 
serenity of a wistful, wondering maid, upheld by a power be- 
yond her comprehension. There were no soothsayers nor 
royal prophets to proclaim her dreams as triumphs and to fore- 
cast the immortality of her son. To the eastern woman the 
birth of a man-child has ever been in itself a sacred and 
wonderful achievement, and when glorious auguries, whether 
of the flesh or of the spirit, are forecast for that son, the cup 
of material happiness is brimming. To the Virgin of Naza- 
reth, however, there could be no earthly triumph ; the ecstatic 
vision of her destiny must lie in her soul, locked by the very 
lowliness that was to make her immortal. It was a marvelous, 
untranslatable strength that soothed her into serenity under 
Joseph's suspicion ; her childishness and innocence enabled her 
to grasp its glory where a more sophisticated soul must have 
shrunk back afraid. Whether a dream or a vision or a tangible 
reality the angel who hailed her as "blessed among women" 
was vivid and sentient to her soul, but to Joseph, pondering 
upon his just course, it brought no message. His own vision 
must come. Meanwhile, to the mother the dream was all and 
she awaited the world verdict, unafraid. Outwardly her peril 
was great, for the divine light, glory, angel or whatever the 
mystery that had spoken to her dream, was seen to her eyes 
alone, not to those of her little world. 

The sparseness of description in the New Testament carries 
conviction, and from its meager outline the imagination fol- 
lows the ecstasy and agony of that inexperienced, wondering 
life, palpitating on the brink of the Event of All Ages. 

In a book called the "Gospel of Mary," purported to have 
been written by James, the son of Joseph, we find a descrip- 
tion of the Virgin's life and of her surroundings. The 
churches of the orient have never questioned its authenticity 



96 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

and it has been translated into the Arabic, Syriac and other 
tongues, but while the early Christian fathers, Origen and 
Gregory of Nyassa, accepted it, for some reason it was rejected 
as apocr3rphal early in the fourteenth century. The scenes of 
the Virgin's childhood are here depicted as around the tem- 
ple, under its very shadow. Anne, the mother of the Virgin, 
and another Anne, the prophetess and wife of the high priest, 
and Elizabeth, her cousin, the mother of St. John, were 
banded together, a little group of mystical, dreaming women 
who believed in the future and in the great miracle of the 
Saviour to come to the sinful world. 

Elizabeth's dream was first. With unquestioning faith those 
about her accepted their marvel. The verification of her vision 
and that of Zacharias, her husband, came when, though beyond 
the age of child-bearing, and never having had a child, Eliza- 
beth became pregnant. The angel who appeared to Zacharias 
had said that the child would be a prophet, a fore-runner, 
and Zacharias had marveled and questioned the dream's ful- 
fillment, but to Elizabeth no questioning was necessary; life 
itself was a fulfillment. The maid listened awe-stricken to 
these older women and to their prediction of the Messiah 
for whom Elizabeth's miraculous son was to prepare the way. 
The air was charged and heavy with prophecy and already the 
world-pulse was quickening with anticipation ; the stars them- 
selves were brightening with the story. Thus, when the won- 
der of her own condition dawned upon her consciousness it 
filled her with a glory that her humanity could not fathom nor 
follow, yet she did not question nor doubt. In the pure, early 
morning hours we are told that she prayed and again in the 
mystical evening hours, and in the midday when all the desert 
drowsed in the heat of the sun she sat in the shade of the 
temple and worked upon the purple veil for the Holy of Holies. 

Mothers less privileged, though humanly speaking, happier, 
in that they have not been called for the supreme sacrifice, 
have also had prophetic vision in the measure of the greatness 
of the soul that they were bringing into the world. 



DREAMS THAT HAVE COME TRUE 97 

Samson's mother dreamed of the birth of her mighty son, 
who was promised as a deliverer of Israel in that he was to 
•'begin to deliver Israel out of the hands of the Philistines." 

Likewise to Hagar, the outcast handmaid, came the vision 
of her boy and the prophecy of his greatness. Notwithstanding 
law, conventions and the Chronicle's evident S3rmpathy for 
Sarah, there is something dominant in Hagar's personality; 
its sheer strength has wrested verse after verse from the un- 
willing historian. Two of her dreams are given, almost un- 
wittingly, as it would seem, while those of Sarah are ignored. 
Both dreams are characteristic, replete with the humanity that 
fits them to all time. To the black-browed woman of the des- 
ert, stung by the insults of a mistress whose race she secretly 
despised, these visions brought comfort in their forecasts for 
her boy, while to the modern student they are perfect alike 
in psychology and content. 

In the first dream, deserted by Abraham, who has left her 
fate in Sarah's hands, Hagar has fied into the wilderness and 
worn with fatigue and excitement has fallen asleep beside 
the fountain on the road to Shur. An angel appears and 
counsels her return to Sarah. Although her aching sense of 
wrong has banished the waking thought, her condition, her 
desolation, and of all things the welfare of her unborn child 
urges the dream-self to adopt the prudent course. And then, 
whether through divine miracle, or whether owing to the psy- 
chological gratification of a suppressed wish expressing in a 
dream, comes the angelic prophecy that calms the hot heart 
and cools it to wisdom. 

"And he (the child Ishmael) will be a wild man ; his hand 
will be against every man, and every man's against him ; and 
he shall dwell in the presence of all his brethren." — Genesis 
xvi, II. 

The rebellious soul's obedience of the angelic mandate to 
return is indubitable proof of the dream's potency. 

The character of Hagar's later dream evinces the same 
faultless psychology, or the miraculous force of angelic inter- 



98 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

position, according to the individual viewpoint. Again trouble 
had arisen between the two strong women of Abraham's house- 
hold, and again Hagar had gone forth into the desert, this 
time with her son at her side. Abraham had risen early 
and had provided her with a loaf of bread and a bottle of 
water. When the water and bread were gone Hagar left her 
child in the shadow of a shrub and went off a little way in 
order not to see his death. Despair had driven anger from 
her heart; she asked no revenge and Sarah was forgotten in 
the parching misery of the wilderness. Then came the dream 
or vision that promised her safety for Ishmael and showed 
her the well with water. 

Ishmael's rivalry of Sarah's son played no part in this wish- 
dream wrung from the depths of the mother's heart; her one 
desire, that of his safety, found its answer in the dream of 
her delirium on the desert, and in the angel's message. 

The faith of the early Christians frequently manifested in 
mother's dreams, forecasting the triumphs, persecutions, and 
even the martyrdoms awaiting their unborn children. 

Doubtless the recollection of her dream of a miraculous 
light emanating from her side until it illuminated the entire 
world served to comfort the high-bbm mother of St Colum- 
ban when her sturdy son set forth from Ireland to brave the 
perils of Upper Burgundy, and the prophecy of the light met 
its verification in the Saint's canonization when, after having 
founded the monasteries of Luxeiul and Fontaine and having 
braved the wrath of King Thierry, he was called to his rest in 
his own monastery amongst the Apennines. 

All the waters of the Thames seemed pouring through the 
pious bosom of Rohese, mother of Thomas a Becket, as she 
dreamed of her child to come and the symbolism of the dream 
was justified as she watched the tide of her son's career. 
From the ebb of his father's failure it rose to the high shoals 
of the Archbishopric of Canterbury, on then, through the flood- 
tide of fortune and the shallows of kingly favor, back to the 



* 

•i 



DREAMS THAT HAVE COME TRUE 99 

ebb again and to the humiliation of death and defeat, to rise 
again to sainthood. 

The mother of -^thelwold of Winchester is said to have 
seen a golden eagle flying from her own mouth before her 
son was born, an augury of the golden speech that was to 
win the souls of men and to earn the title of Saint. 

Amalberga, the mother of St. Gudula, dreamed of the won- 
derful light that is not of earth before her child was born. 
Perhaps it is for this reason that St. Gudula is represented 
as carrying a lantern with an angel kindling it. To her are 
attributed the powers of healing the sick, of mending broken 
bones and of curing deformities in children. She was the 
daughter of Count Witgin of Brabant and Charlemagne built 
and richly endowed a monastery in her honor. 

St. Euthymius was heralded to earth by his mother's dream. 
The martyr Polyeuctus appeared to her, saying : "Thy prayer, 
O Dyonisia, is heard ; depart in peace and when the child for 
whom thou prayest is bom let him be named Euth3miius, the 
well-beloved." This saint, who loved the deserts, converted 
the Empress Eudosia to Catholicism. 

Monica, the mother of St. Augustine, dreamed of him be- 
fore his birth, and long afterwards when he had gone beyond 
her care ; he himself acknowledges the efficacy of her prophecy 
and prayer. 

"And Thou sentest Thine hand from above and drewest 
my soul out of that profound darkness, my mother. Thy faith- 
ful one, weeping to Thee, far more than mothers weep the bod- 
ily deaths of their children. For she, by that faith and spirit 
which she had from Thee, discernest the death wherein I lay 
and Thou heardest her, O Lord. . . . For whence was that 
dream whereby Thou comfortest her? . . . For she saw her- 
self standing on a certain wooden rule and a shining youth 
coming towards her, cheerful and smiling on her, she herself 
grieving and overwhelmed with grief. ... He having inquired 
of her the cause of her grief and of her daily tears, and 
she answering that she was bewailing my perdition, bade her 



icx) THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

rest contented and told her to observe that where she was 
there was I also. And when she looked she saw me standing 
by her on the same rule. ..." 

Whence was this that when she told me this vision and I 
would fain bend it to mean that she should not despair of 
being what I was, she without any hesitation replied: "For 
it was not told me that 'where he thou art also,' but 'where 
thou, there he also.'" — St Augttstine's Confessions. 

The mother of Sir Thomas More "saw in her sleep the 
niunber of children she should have, written, as it were, in 
her marriage ring, and the forms, shapes and countenances 
of them all. One she saw full bright and beautiful and fairer 
than all the rest; whereby, no doubt was this lampe of Eng- 
land prefigured." — Life of Sir Thomas More. 

Bocaccio relates a dream that was sent to the mother of 
Dante. Seated under a high laurel tree by the side of a vast 
fountain the woman dreamed that she gave birth to a son ; she 
saw him nourished by the fruit and refreshed by the' clear 
waters ; she soon beheld him a shepherd, approaching to pick 
the boughs she saw him fall! When he arose he had ceased 
to be a man and was transformed into a peacock. Disturbed 
by her admiration she suddenly awoke. When the father 
found that he really had a son, in allusion to the dream he 
called the child Dante, or Given. 

Amina, mother of Mahomet, dreamed of a great light that 
shot from her side and illumined the whole desert and reached 
to the temple at Bosra, where it paused, hanging about the 
holy edifice as awaiting the coming of some great event. In- 
spired by the vividness of Amina's vision and by its s)rmbolism, 
her father insisted that the child be named Mahomet, signi- 
fying Light. 

Hecuba, the mother of Paris, had a most portentous dream 
before the birth of her son, who was to cause the downfall 
of Troy. 

01)rmpias, the mother of Alexander the Great, the night be- 
fore her marriage to Philip of Macedon, dreamed that a thun- 



DREAMS THAT HAVE COME TRUE loi 

derbolt fell upon her body and kindled a great fire whose di- 
vided flames dispersed themselves in all directions before they 
were extinguished. And Philip himself was visited by a dream 
before the birth of his famous son. He dreamed of a lion, 
from which symbolic vision the interpreters predicted that the 
child to come would have manifold characteristics of the king 
of beasts. In turn Philip's own mother had been prepared for 
her son's success by a prophetic dream. 

Agarista, the mother of Pericles, dreamed that she was de- 
livered of a lion, and the mother of Cicero had a vision fore- 
telling her son's invaluable services to the Roman States. 

The mother of Augustus Caesar dreamed that she would 
bring forth a child by the Deity transformed into a snake, a 
gloriously prophetic dream in view of the symbolism at that 
time attached to the snake as an emblem of wisdom. The hap- 
less mother of Nero, dreamed, on* the contrary, that she had 
given birth to an inconceivable monster. 

At the birth of Apollonius of Tyana, Proteus, the Egyptian 
god, appeared to the expectant mother. When she asked: 
"What shall I bring forth?" the answer came: "Thou shalt 
bring forth Me." 

Heraclides of Pontus, a disciple of Plato, is authority for 
the account of the dream that came to the mother of Phalaris, 
the tyrant of Agrigentum, whose atrocities rivaled even those 
of Nero. In her dream the woman saw the statue of the gods 
whom Phalaris had consecrated in his house. Among them 
was a statue who held his cup in his right hand from which he 
poured blood, which as it touched the earth gushed forth like a 
fresh fountain, filling the entire earth with gore. Tradition ac- 
cuses Phalaris of roasting his enemies alive in a brazen bull. 

The birth of Paganini was foretold to his mother by an 
angel, radiant and gracious, who asked the dreamer to name 
what gift she most desired for her son. "That he shall become 
the greatest of violinists," the mother answered in her dream. 
And so confident was she of the fulfillment of her wish that she 



102 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

frequently told the lad : "My son, you will be a great violin- 
ist" 

It IS said that the mother of Napoleon Bonaparte dreamed 
that she had given birth to an eagle. 

No doubt of her son's future career crossed the mind of 
Mary, the mother of Washington, after certain dreams that 
were sent her before his birth. 

The mothers, however, have not been the only ones to 
receive visions of world blessings or disturbances at the time 
of an especially epoch-making birth. Other lives to be inter- 
woven with that of the new-born child, or the child to come, 
have frequently received warnings, as in the instance of Herod 
the Tetrarch. 

The birth of Cyrus, the Great King of Persia, was pre- 
ceded by curious dream-omens that nearly cost the royal babe 
his life. Astyages, grandfather of Cyrus, dreamed one night 
that a colossal stream of water filled not only his capital but 
entire Asia. The Magian interpretation of this dream, was 
so portentous that the Princess Mandane, daughter of Asty- 
ages, was promptly bestowed in marriage, not to one of the 
ruling class, a Mede, but to an obscure young Persian of good 
family but a quiet disposition named Cambyses. Having thus 
disposed of his daughter, Astyages remained tranquil until 
just before Cyrus was bom, when, lo, another dream dis- 
turbed his equanimity and caused him to send Harpagus, then 
a loyal and devoted follower, to destroy the babe. The wife 
of Harpagus, however, prevailed upon her husband not to de- 
stroy the child but to give him into the care of a herdsman. 
Later, when Astyages put the son of Herpagus to death, the 
outraged father turned to Cyrus for revenge. The secret of 
his birth was made known, tfte Persians stirred to revolt and 
the dream of Harpagus verified. 

Cyrus also was a dreamer, and Herodotus mentions that a 
false interpretation of a dream led to the monarch's down- 
fall. 

In later times the dream of Frederick the Second of Prus- 



DREAMS THAT HAVE COME TRUE 103 

sia recalls the portents that were wont to terrorize ancient 
monarchs. In his dream he saw a star shoot from heaven to 
earth ; fiercely luminous it cast an uncanny light over the whole 
world and dazzled and confused the dreamer's path until he 
waked. The weird memory haunted the following day and 
his courtiers were commanded to note the dream and its date, 
which was August 16, 1769, the birthday of Napoleon 
Bonaparte, himself a believer in dream portents. 

The number of verified dream prophecies defies alike the 
shibboleth of coincidence and the skepticism that has synthe- 
sized the rainbow and analyzed the soul. From the dream of 
Pontius Pilate's nameless wife, whose sole claim to memory is 
that helpless cry, premonitory of the everlasting execration of 
her lord and master, to the present day newspapers filled 
with instances of warning dreams men's minds have been 
haunted by them. 

Alexander the Great dreamed not only of his future domin- 
ion over the world, but he was advised in dreams upon the 
affairs of daily life. Plutarch mentions Alexander's dream 
at the siege of Tyre when he beheld Hercules beckoning him 
from the city walls. At another time during the same siege, 
Alexander dreamed he saw a satyr mocking him ; he only suc- 
ceeded in catching the animal after great difficulty. The 
soothsayers making two words of satyrus assured Alexander 
that the city would be his. And lest the irreverent reader smile 
at the suggestion of a pun in a dream, his attention is directed 
to Freud and modem oneiromanticists who contend that the 
dream self is inveterately addicted to punning and to double 
entendre. 

Plutarch thus describes the locating of the city of Alexan- 
dria: ''designed to build a large and populous city, giving it 
his own name ... he (Alexander) had measured and staked 
out the ground with the advice of the best architects. He 
chanced in his sleep to see a wonderful vision of a grey-headed 
man of extraordinary aspect who pronounced these verses: 



104 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

'An island lies where loud billows roar, 
Pharos they call it on the Egyptian shore.' 

Alexander upon this immediately arose and went to Pharos. 
He said Homer, beside his other excellencies, was a very 
good architect and ordered the plan of a city to be drawn up 
to the place." 

Josephus too gives an instance of the conqueror's dreamings 
after he had taken Gaza. Hearing that Alexander was on his 
way to Jerusalem Jaddua the high priest was in an agony 
of fear and doubt as to how to meet the conqueror, when he 
was warned by God in a dream to gather courage, adorn the 
city and open the gates. Accordingly Jaddua went out with 
a procession of priests and the multitude. When Alexander 
saw the high priest wearing his miter and the golden plate 
whereon was engraved the Name, he approached by himself 
and adored that Name, having first saluted the priest. Par- 
menio asked the conqueror how this came to pass that he 
whom others adored should adore the high priest of the Jews. 
Alexander answered : "I did not adore him, but that God who 
hath honored him with this very high priesthood, for I saw 
this very person in a dream, in this very habit when I was 
at Dios in Macedonia, who, when I was considering within 
myself how I might obtain dominion over Asia, exhorted me 
to make no delay . . . for he would conduct my army and 
give me dominion over the Persians, whence it is that having 
seen no other in that habit and now seeing this person in it, 
and remembering that vision and the exhortation I had in my 
dream, I believe that this army I bring under divine conduct 
and shall therefore conquer Darius and destroy the power of 
the Persians and that all things will succeed according to the 
power that is in my own mind." 

Ntuna Pompilius was taught in dreams by the nymph Ege- 
ria. 

Julius Caesar was not only heralded into the world by 



DREAMS THAT HAVE COME TRUE 105 

dreams and portents of the sky, but his death was forecast by 
various warnings, dreams and omens. 

The dream of Caesar's wife, Calpumia, has been immortal- 
ized by Shakespeare; the historical accounts, however, differ. 
Some say that Calpumia in her dream found herself weeping 
over Caesar's dead body. Others say that she dreamed that 
a pinnacle which, as Livy relates, the senate had ordered to 
be raised in front of Caesar's house by way of ornament and 
grandeur, was tumbling down. 

In any case her woman's instinct divined the augury of mis- 
fortune and she begged her husband not to venture forth upon 
that especial day, but to adjourn the senate until a more aus- 
picious time. Caesar, who had never found Calpurnia foolish, 
was half inclined to humor her fears. Whereupon Decimus 
Brutus, who was in the conspiracy, although professing to be 
a friend of Caesar's, ridiculed dreams and augurs ; should any 
one be sent to tell the senate that they must adjourn until 
Calpumia had better dreams, what would those sturdy Ro- 
mans make answer? And having thus delivered himself of his 
opinion, Brutus took Caesar by the hand and led him to his 
doom. 

Cinna, a friend of Caesar's, had an odd dream the night 
before the assassination. He dreamed that Caesar invited him 
to supper and upon his refusal that Caesar had taken him 
by the hand and had forced him to go. Upon hearing that 
Caesar's body was burning in the market place he went thither, 
though his dream roused some apprehensions. The crowd, 
finding out his name and mistaking him for one of Caesar's 
murderers bearing the same name, tore him limb from limb. 

It is said that just before his breach with Caesar Marc An- 
tony dreamed that his own right hand was thunderstruck, a 
curiously ominous dream in view of Antony's subsequent 
downfall. 

Another of Caesar's treacherous friends was destined to an 
evil dream evilly fulfilled. Before the defeat of Pharsalia 
Pompey dreamed that as he went into a theater the people 



io6 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

received him with great applause and that he himself adorned 
the triumph of Venus, the victorious. And whether through a 
guilty conscience, or knowledge of dream lore and the "dream 
that goes by contraries" the dream we are told disheartened 
Pompey, for he feared that the splendid gifts to Venus might 
be made with the spoils furnished by himself to Caesar, who 
derived descent from that goddess. 

After the Battle of Pharsala, Pompey reaped the benefit of 
another's premonitory dream, that of Petticus, a Roman com- 
mander of a merchantman lying in the harbor. The night 
before the battle Petticus had dreamed of seeing Pompey, not 
as he knew him, but meager, forlorn and dejected, flying for 
his life. As he was sitting on deck relating his dream, a small 
hired boat approached the vessel and its passenger humbly 
begged to be taken aboard. Although Petticus had never seen 
Pompey save at a distance and gorgeous in his robes of state, 
his dream enabled him to recognize the great Roman despite 
his humble guise. Pompey was therefore received with every 
consideration. 

The dreams of the Romans, as handed down by the histo- 
rians, are curiously correct both in symbolism and in the struc- 
ture that permits modem analysis to be carried out in every 
detail. 

The vision of Brutus with its threat to "meet at Philippi," is 
an instance combining verified prophecy, dream phantasy and a 
distinct influence through the subconsciousness. 

Something after the Brutus dream is one that appeared to 
Cassius of Parma, who had espoused the cause of Marc Antony 
and was therefore, after the Battle of Actium, forced to seek 
refuge at Athens. In his dream he saw a large, dark-skinned 
man, who stalked menacingly into the room. "I am your evil 
genius," he said in a tone that awakened the sleeper and left 
so vivid an impression that Cassius rose and calling the slaves, 
made them search the house. Finding that no stranger had 
entered, he settled himself to sleep. Again the vision appeared. 



DREAMS THAT HAVE COME TRUE 107 

whereupon Cassius arose a second time and sat up for the 
rest of the night 

At dawn he was assassinated by the order of fhe Emperor 
Augustus. 

Augustus himself, according to Suetonius, was a slave to 
dreams. 

At Philippi he had determined not to leave his tent, but his 
physician had a dream forewarning him to have the Emperor 
removed from his couch and Augustus accordingly had himself 
carried forth. It was well that he did, for during the battle 
the tent was destroyed and a spear pierced the royal bed. 

Tiberius was warned of his impending doom in a dream. In 
honor of his own birthday he had brought from Syracuse a 
wonderful work of art, a full-sized statue of the Timenian 
Apollo. This he intended to place in the temple library. In 
a dream, however, Apollo himself appeared and assured Tibe- 
rius that his statue could not be erected by him. "Nor was it," 
adds Suetonius. 

Caligula dreamed that he stood in heaven near the throne 
of Jupiter and that the god gave him a push with the great 
toe of his right foot and sent him headlong back to earth. An 
ominous vision, indeed, and one that found fulfillment the very 
next day when Caligula was assassinated. 

Nero's latter days were darkened by swarms of threatening 
dreams, especially after the murder of his mother. Not long 
before his suicide he dreamed of steering a ship whose rudder 
was forced from his hand. Another dream showed his body 
swarming with winged ants. One night he fancied himself 
surrounded by the national images that Pompey had ^et up, 
these stood in his pathway and forbade his further progress. 

Vespasian, who succeeded Nero's successor Galba, once 
dreamed of a balance in the middle of the palatine house. In 
one scale stood Claudius and Nero, in the other himself and 
his sons. The balance was perfect. The symbolism of this 
prophetic dream was verified, for the reigns of the two fac- 
tions were of precisely the same duration. 



io8 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

When Vespasian was in the Island of Achaia with Nero, 
who secretly feared and disliked his general, yet was unable 
to dispense with his services, he had another dream, the symbo- 
lism of which and its subsequent verification have caused it 
to become a classic. In his dream Vespasian met a stranger 
who informed him that his good fortune and that of his fam- 
ily would begin as soon as Nero lost a tooth. The very next 
day a surgeon coming into the hall showed him a tooth that he 
had just extracted from the Emperor. 

Domitian, the son of Vespasian, was also subject to pre- 
monitory dreams in which he implicitly believed. Among the 
portents of his impending fate was his dream that Minerva 
was withdrawing from him her sanctuary, declaring that Jupi- 
ter had disarmed her and she could therefore protect him no 
longer. Peculiar significance was attached to this dream 
through the superstitious excess with which Domitian wor- 
shiped Minerva. 

Suetonius also states that Domitian dreamed of a golden 
hump growing out of the back of his neck. This he considered 
an augury of happy times for the empire after him, and 
through the moderation of his successors, says Suetonius, the 
augury was fulfilled. 

Julian the Apostate was warned of his approaching end, not 
only through his own visions, but through those of friends 
and foes. 

When one of the former was hastening to join the Em- 
peror's army in Persia, chance compelled him to pass the night 
in a church. As he lay asleep he had a vision of the apostles 
and the prophets who had assembled to complain of the in- 
juries that Julian had inflicted upon Christianity. Finally two 
individuals arose from the assemblage and bidding the others 
be of good cheer, set forth as though to wreak vengeance 
upon Julian. 

So serious did these portents appear to the dreamer that he 
did not resume his journey, but on awaking, lay down to sleep 
agai^ in the hope of continuing his dream. Again he saw 



DREAMS THAT HAVE COME TRUE 109 

the assemblage, and the messengers returning announcing the 
Emperor's death. 

Didymus, the philosopher of Alexandria, was vouched a 
prophetic dream on the day of Julian's death. Wearied by 
fasting and prayer for his fellow Christians suffering under 
the Apostate's persecutions, Didymus had fallen asleep. In 
his dream he saw white horses flying through the air, while a 
voice cried: "Go and tell Didymus that Julian has just been 
slain and let him arise and eat and communicate this intelli- 
gence to Athanasius the bishop." 

The Apostate's own reason must have clouded before the 
ominous portents of the night before his death. The genius 
of the Empire clad in mourning appeared and fled from his 
approach, and by this he knew that she was ready to abandon 
him. In the next day's battle Julian fell with the cry upon his 
lips : "Thou hast won, O Galilean !" 

Charlemagne had his dreams and followed them, we are told, 
and Alfred the Great of England lives to this day in the hearts 
of the simple folk through the legends and dreams that his- 
tory has forgotten or meticulously ignored. Coincidentally 
with Arthur Pendragon, King of Britain, and with the dreams 
of the Grail and of the Holy Rood that were one day to bur- 
geon into dreams of the Crusades, the deserts of Arabia were 
nourishing a dreamer whose visions were to incarnate as the 
cause of the Holy Wars. Mahomet, bom in 571 A.D., was a 
veritable prince of illusion and of dreams. His dreams began 
in early youth, when each year during the month of Rama- 
dan, he withdrew from the arms of his elderly wife Kadijah 
and retired to the cave of Hera. Here the angel Gabriel ap- 
peared to his dream and pointed to the path that was to lead 
down the gory centuries. At another time a mysterious ani- 
mal, the borak, conveyed him from the temple of Mecca to 
that of Jerusalem. With his companion, Gabriel, he succes- 
sively ascended the seven heavens, and received and returned 
the salutations of the patriarchs, the prophets and angels in 
their successive mansions. Beyond the seventh heaven Ma- 



no THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

hornet alone was permitted to proceed. He passed the veil of 
unity and passed within a bowshot of the throne and felt a 
cold that pierced him to the heart, when his shoulder was 
touched by the hand of God. After this familiar though im- 
portant incident he again descended to Jerusalem, remounted 
the borak, and returned to Mecca. The dream faculty of an- 
nihilating time and space is herein exemplified, for the entire 
journey of many thousands of miles was performed in the 
tenth part of a night. 

For several centuries after Mahomet the wish to redeem 
the Holy Sepulcher did not crystallize in the hearts of the 
many, but hovered in the soul dreamings of the few. Inspired 
by a dream, the Empress Helena, mother of Constantine and 
widow of Constantius Chlorus, made the arduous journey to 
the city that had witnessed the birth of the Redeemer of Man- 
kind, and founded the Church of the Nativity at Bethlehem. 
The Empress was then in her eightieth year. Constantine, 
her son, likewise built a church on the site of the Holy Sepul- 
chre and following his mother's dream made explorations 
which resulted in the discovery of the true cross. The Em- 
peror's conversion to Christianity dates from his wonderful 
dream of a flaming cross in the eastern sky. 

Again, in the eleventh century, when the glory of Jerusalem 
seemed forever departed, when the site of the temple was oc- 
cupied by Omar's mosque, when the Christians were beaten 
with rods and driven through the streets like oxen, there rose 
a dreamer, one Peter, known as the "Little Hermit," whose 
dream was to alter the story of the world. Plain, poor and 
unattractive, his vision of visiting the Holy Sepulchre seemed 
absurd, for the distance was vast, the journey costly and the 
perils many for the frail monk whose small size had earned 
the sobriquet of "Little Peter." Finally, urged on by his 
dream, he set forth on the pilgrimage from Amiens to Jerusa- 
lem, without defense and with no guide save the sign of the 
cross. 

Finally he reached Jerusalem, where he took up his resi- 



DREAMS THAT HAVE COME TRUE in 

dence at the abode of a Latin Christian. On the day that he 
ascended Mount Calvary and Icnelt to pray a voice cried in his 
ear: "Peter, arise and proclaim the tribulation of my people. 
For it is time that my servants should be aided and that the 
holy places should be freed." Whereupon Peter repaired to 
the house of the Patriarch Simeon and disclosed his vision and 
his plan. He made his way back to Rome and craved an au- 
dience with Pope Urban II, who treated him as a prophet and 
commissioned him to rouse the warriors of Europe. Peter, 
setting forth upon his mule, undertook the task undaunted. 
Urban himself, accompanied by his train of prelates, traveled 
through France preaching the holy war in which other dream- 
ers were to find inspiration. Godfrey of Bouillon, Raymond 
of Toulouse, Robert Curthose, son of William the Conqueror, 
and Edgar Atheling, heir of the Saxon Kings, were to be 
filled with the light of this high and holy vision, and besides 
this noble and goodly company there were the serfs whose 
dream of freedom was materialized into a promise, should they 
join the mighty cause. Thus eighty thousand visionaries of 
different races gathered under the banner of the simple hermit 
and set forth on the eighth of March, 1096, to verify a dream. 

Their imaginations were doubtless aflame with dreams, not 
always mystic or religious, for there were many stories of the 
Holy Land, of its graceful palms, fig trees and pomegranates, 
of its golden citrons, caravans, Saracenic castles and veiled, 
oriental women. There was Sharon, famed for its roses with- 
out thorns, and Lebanon for its palms, vines and cedars, then 
there was Carmel, with its solitary convent and its thyme- 
covered summit haunted by the boar and the eagle, all of which 
gave a setting to the dreams. 

The monk Godeschal, who followed after Peter the Hermit, 
was likewise a dreamer, and under his spell twenty thousand 
peasants left their villages in Germany for the Holy Land. 

With dreams as their conception, it is natural that the Cru- 
sades should have begotten dreams. 

Louis IX, the Saint-King of France, was a dreamer whose 



112 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

vision accorded him the privilege of delivering the holy places 
from desecration, and while he followed his. dream his saintly 
wife followed him in her own dreams, for she might not at- 
tend him in person, lest she endanger both her own life and 
that of her imbom child. Once she witnessed a fearful scene 
in which her husband's followers were butchered by Saracens, 
and another dream warned her of the capture of her husband. 
King John was bom on the third day of these dreams. 

Louis the Young, whose dreams were haunted because of the 
church that he burned at the siege of Vitry, when thirteen 
hundred persons who had sought sanctuary were killed, was 
persuaded to join the crusades by St. Bernard of Clairvaux. 
Queen Eleanor accompanied her husband in his quest of peace. 

Martin Luther rancorously denounces dreams, while admit- 
ting to having them himself. "Many frantic spirits boasting 
of their dreams sought to seduce him . . . This made me 
earnestly pray to God that He should give me true understand- 
ing of His holy word that I might never be drawn away by 
such deviations as dreams." 

That, despite his petition, he not only dreamed himself, but 
that he was the source of dreaming in others, is demonstrated 
by the following dream of Frederick, Elector of Saxony. 



"The Elector Frederick of Saxony (say the chronicles of 
his time) was at his Castle of Schweinitz, six leagues from 
Wittenburg. On the morning of the 31st of October, being in 
company with his brother, Duke John . . . the Elector said to 
the Duke : . . . 'Having gone to bed last night, fatigued and 
out of spirits, I fell asleep shortly after my prayer and slept 
about two hours . . . and dreamed that Almighty God sent 
me a monk who was a true son of the Apostle Paul. All the 
saints accompanied him, by the order of God, in order to bear 
testimony before me, and to declare that he did not come to 
contrive any plot, but that all he did was according to the 
grace of God. They asked me to have the goodness gra- 
ciously to permit him to write something on the door of the 
church of the castle of Wittenburg. This I granted through 
my Chancellor. Thereupon the monk went to the church and 



DREAMS THAT HAVE COME TRUE 113 

began to write in such large characters that I could read the 
writing at Schweinitz. The pen which he used was so large 
that its end reached as far as Rome, where it pierced the 
ears of a lion that was couching there, and caused the triple 
crown upon the head of the Pope to shake. All the cardinals, 
running hastily up, tried to prevent it from falling. You and 
I, brother, wished to assist and I held out my arm — ^but at 
this moment I awoke with my arm in the air, quite amazed 
and very much enraged at the monk for not managing his pen 
better. I recollected myself a little. It was only a dream. 

"I was still half asleep, and once more closed my eyes. The 
dream returned. The lion, still annoyed by the pen, began 
to roar with all his might so that the whole city of Rome and 
all the states of the Roman Empire began to see what the 
matter was. The Pope requested them to oppose this monk 
and applied particularly to me, on account of his being in my 
country. I again woke, repeated the Lord's Prayer, entreated 
God to reserve his Holiness and once more fell asleep. 

"Then I dreamed that all the Princes of the empire, and we 
among them, hastened to Rome, and strove, one after another, 
to break the pen ; but the more we tried the stiff er it became, 
sounding as if it had been made of iron. We at length desisted. 
I then asked the monk (for I was sometimes at Rome and 
sometimes at Wittenburg) where he got his pen and why it 
was so strong. 'The pen,' replied he, 'belonged to an old goose 
of Bohemia one hundred years old. I got it from my old 
schoolmasters. As to the strength, it is owing to the impossibil- 
ity of depriving it of its pith or its marrow, and I am quite 
astonished at it myself.' Suddenly I heard a loud noise ; a large 
number of other pens had sprung out of the long pen of the 
monk. ... I awoke a third time; it was daylight" 

The tragic death of William Rufus of England was fore- 
told in divers dreams. Anselm, the exiled Archbishop of Can- 
terbury, saw the occurrence in a vision, and also "A lay- 
brother belonging to the Abbey of St. Peter at Gloucester was 
likewise visited by a prophetic dream. Besides there was Ful- 
chered, a zealot monk and an eloquent expositor of the Holy 
Scriptures, about this time in the Kalends of August spoke 
prophetically about the matter." 

Each of these dreamers beheld William Rufus mortally 



114 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

wounded by an arrow ; the most frightful of the premonitory 
visions, however, was that of a foreign monk, a relative of 
ORobert Fitzhamon. '^ . . He saw William Rufus come into a 
church, with his usual menacing and insolent gestures, looking 
contemptuously on the standers-by, and gnaw the legs and 
arms of Jesus Christ on the crucifix. The image bore this 
for some time, but at length struck the king with its foot in 
such a manner that he fell backwards. Then such volumes 
of flame burst from his mouth that the smoke blackened the 
sky." Robert Fitzhamon thought it right to tell this dream to 
the king, who heard it with shouts of laughter. 'He is a 
monk,' he exclaimed, *and dreams for money, give him a hun- 
dred pence !' Still he hesitated a long time before going hunt- 
ing and did not go till after dinner, having taken a more than 
usual quantity of wine." — William of Malmesbury. 

Eusebius in his "Ecclesiastical History" gives a circumstan- 
tial account of the king's death and the attending portents. 

"On being informed of them (the dreams) the venerable 
Abbot Serlo wrote letters which he dispatched in a friendly 
spirit from Gloucester, informing the king very distinctly of 
all that the monk had seen in his vision. . . . Being in great 
spirits the king was joking with his attendants while his boots 
were being laced, when an armorer came and presented to 
him six arrows. The king immediately took them with great 
satisfaction, praising the work; and, unconscious of what 
was to happen kept four of them himself, and held out the 
other two to Walter Tirel. It is but right,' he said, 'that 
the sharpest arrows should be given to him who knows best 
to inflict mortal wounds with them.' . . . The king's words 
on receiving Abbot Serlo's letter concluded with: 'Does he 
think I follow the example of the English, who will defer 
their journey or their business on account of the dreams of 
a parcel of wheezing old women?"' 

King Hdnry the First was himself tormented with strange 
dreams. In one he saw a multitude of plowmen with their 
tools, followed by soldiers with their weapons and after 



DREAMS THAT HAVE COME TRUE 115 

these came bishops with their crozier staves ; all seemed ready 
to fall upon the king, so much so that he sprang from his bed 
and called his servants around to defend him. This dream, 
we are told, had a magical effect upon the brother of Rufus. 
In the words of the chronicler : "Thus we may see that the 
two sons of the Conqueror had each been warned by dreams : 
the one disregarded the warning, and met his death; the 
other (as the learned do gather) improved the occasion and 
reformed his life." — Chronicles of England, Ireland and Scot-' 
land. 

Catherine de Medici's fame as a dreamer was shared by 
other members of her family. Her son, Henry the Third, 
dreamed that he had lost the crown jewels and all fhe royal 
paraphernalia or that they were trampled underfoot and 
crushed by the feet of religious men and of the people. This 
dream was interpreted as auguring personal danger and Henry 
himself accepted it seriously and endeavored to avoid every 
risk. Nevertheless, he was murdered three days after his pro- 
phetic vision. Henry the Fourth had numerous ominous 
dreams before his assassination, and the stormy path of his 
consort, Maria de Medici, was portrayed to her in dreams. She 
has written : "For myself I declare that every signal accident 
of my life, happy or not, has been presaged me by a dream 
or otherwise." 

In her celebrated dream not long after her marriage she 
saw the brilliant gems of her crown change into pearls, the 
recognized symbols of mourning. This was just prior to the 
king's assassination. 

Besides Queen Catherine's dream before the Battle of 
Jamac, already mentioned, she was visited by a portentous 
vision in connection with the death of her husband, Henry the 
Second, of France. The day before the king was killed she 
saw him walking with bowed head and faltering steps through 
the streets of Paris, while the multitude followed mourning 
for him. It is said that she begged him on bended knees not 
to join the tourney that next day, but he insisted upon entering 



fii6 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

the lists against the Count of Montgomery. The king was 
but slightly wounded, yet he died two weeks later. Her own 
death tiie great Queen distinctly beheld in a dream two weeks 
before its actual occurrence. 

A dream that conferred benefit upon the world was that 
of Dante's son Jacopo. Boccaccio, whose life of Dante is 
something on the order of Boswell's life of Johnson, gives 
the dream at length. The thirteen cantos of the Paradiso could 
not be found after Dante's death until the poet himself ap- 
peared to Jacopo in a dream and led him to a secret hiding 
place in which the manuscripts had been concealed. 

Among the most widely known, and most thoroughly au- 
thenticated dreams of comparatively modem date, is that of 
Thomas, Lord Lyttleton. 

An account of it is given by his uncle. The dream ran as 
follows : Lord Lyttleton found himself in a room into which 
a bird flew and suddenly became transformed into a woman 
dressed in white. She bade Lord Lyttleton prepare to die 
and he answered "I hope not soon — not in two months." She 
answered, "In three days." 

The verification of this dream prophecy caused great con:^ 
ment in London at the time of its occurrence, and various 
opinions were advanced and the controversy became world- 
wide. The consensus of opinion, however, concedes the dream 
and its verification. 

The dream of a certain Mr. Cunningham in connection with 
the death of Major Andre is an interesting case of prophecy. 
Just before the gallant young officer set out for America, two 
gentlemen invited a Miss Seward, a mutual friend, to bring 
Major Andre to tea. While the hosts awaited the arrival of 
their guests, one of them, Mr. Cunningham, mentioned to 
the other, Mr. Newton, that on the previous night he had 
dreamed such an extraordinary dream that he could not get 
it out of his mind. JHe had been in a strange forest, through 
which a horseman was tearing at mad speed. As he reached 
the spot where the dreamer stood, three men rushed out of 



DREAMS THAT HAVE COME TRUE 117 

the thicket and seizing his bridle hurried him away, after 
closely searching his person. Sympathy for the stranger's 
predicament roused the dreamer, but after a little he slept 
again. This time his dream showed him a great crowd sur- 
rotmding a gallows and the man whom he had seen captured 
in the wood was hanging. When Miss Seward arrived with 
Major Andre, Cunningham was appalled to recognize the man 
whom he had seen in his dream. It is needless to recall the ful- 
fillment of this dream and the fate of gallant Major Andre to 
those familiar with the history of the American Revolution. 

President Abraham Lincoln was a dreamer of dreams ; not 
only did he frequently see his son who died during Lin- 
coln's occupancy of the White House, but he had a peculiarly 
significant recurring dream in which he placed implicit confi- 
dence. He himself was heard to say that it invariably marked 
the mileposts in his career. It came to him the night before 
his assassination, leaving him expectant and wondering. He 
would find himself aboard a strange vessel, sailing over a 
smooth yet sullen sea, towards a sad-hued, silent, misty shore. 
On and on the boat would drift, yet the dream invariably 
waked before reaching the dim, dull land. 

The sequel to this dream corresponds to the gypsy interpre- 
tation of the symbol of turgid, grim waters. 

Maeterlinck cites the instance of the Countess ToutschkofI 
who, three months before the French invasion of Russia, 
dreamed that she saw her husband fall at Borodino, a town 
of which she had at that time never heard and one of such 
trifling importance that she was unable to find it upon the 
map. 

Lord Roberts was wont to relate a story of his father. Gen- 
eral Roberts, when he was in command of the Peshawar. On 
one occasion the General insisted upon countermanding a 
dance because he had twice had a dream that had always por- 
tended the death of a near relative. The next day word was 
brought from Lahore of the death of Lord Roberts' sister and 
General Roberts' daughter. 









118 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

Zoe Anderson Norris, story-writer and editor of the East 
Side, 2L magazine once published in New York, furnishes food 
for thought in the fulfilknent of the dream given herewith. 
The story of the dream experience written by herself ap- 
peared in the East Side. 

'Now I will tell you my dream. 

1 sat alone one night not long after I had published the 
audacious statement about the dead never coming back. I 
was very lonely in the big chair under the lamp, pondering 
over the problem of life and wondering, as I often do, what 
was the use of it all anyhow, and then I went to bed and 
slept. 

'Along toward dawn I had a dream. 

'Again I sat alone, wondering, wondering. And then I 
thought there came swiftly down a long and dusky hall a little 
woman, a tiny little woman all in black. 

''As she came down the hall, the doors swung open and shut 
for her in a mysterious way, as if blown by winds. 

"Finally she reached my bed and stood there. 

"It was my mother, such a tiny little thing to have borne 
thirteen children. 

"She was hardly higher than the posts of my low bed as 
she stood before me. 

"In my dream I put my arms and clasped them about her. 
I felt the soft slazy silk of her black dress. 

" 'Am I next ?' I asked, and she said 'Yes.' 

"I screamed and she put up her small hand said 'Shhh I 
Shhh 1' 

"My scream wakened me." 

"How glad I was that it was light, for though I had put 
my arms around my little mother, I was afraid of her. 

"Her presence was so strongly with me that I think it stood 
there beside my bed, though I couldn't see it because of the 
light. 

"At any rate, the first thought that came to me as I lay 
there in the dawn was that I didn't care." 



DREAMS THAT HAVE COME TRUE 119 

Two weeks later the dreamer died of an affection of the 
heart 

A touching case of premonition in a dream is brought out 
in the letters of Raymond Lodge, the gallant young son of Sir 
Oliver Lodge, who gave his brilliant life to his country, and 
to whom the father has dedicated the extraordinary book en- 
titled "Raymond, or Life and Death." 

On May 7, 191 5, Sir Oliver writes to a friend: "I do not 
reckon that I often have conscious intuitions; and when I 
have had vivid dreams they have not meant anything. . . • 
I happen, however, to have had an intuition this morning 
before I was more than half awake, namely, that an attack 
was going on at the present moment and that my son was in 
it, and that 'they* were taking care of him." 

*'I was awfully impressed by father's dream," writes the 
lad on May 11. . . . Well I don't know about the 'thick of 
the fighting,' but I have been through what I can only describe 
as a hell of shrapnel. My diary tells me it was on the 7th 
at about 10:15 a. m." 

Several curious and authentic instance of dream forecast 
are mentioned in the Journal of the Society for Psychical Re- 
search, October, I9I4, Professor G. Huhn of the University 
of Ghent is quoted as naming five instances, all occurring with- 
in five years and apparently within the same district in Belgium, 
in which young men had dreamed of the actual number which 
they would draw for conscription, and had announced the 
number beforehand to the presiding officer. 

That "coming events" of national and even of international 
importance may and frequently do "cast their shadows be- 
fore" is a fact signalized by the dream-stuff that world hap- 
penings invariably furnish certain individuals. The Boer War 
was productive of various visions and prophecies before its 
actual occurrence, and dreams were sent to friends and rela- 
tives of the soldiers destined to fall in action. The contem- 
porary magazines of that period abound in well authenticated 
instances. 



120 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

Likewise there were dreams innumerable immediately pre- 
ceding the San Francisco earthquake, visions of varying impor- 
tance and authenticity, yet withal so numerous that they stamp 
the consensus of thought at the time. 

In the case of the Messina catastrophe, disaster seemed 
to brood over the psychic thought of the dreaming Italians and 
to infect all conditions and ages. We have the instance of 
the little child whose dream caused her to tell her mother on 
the eve of the earthquake, that she was putting her in her 
grave clothes. Again there was the aristocratic Roman lady, 
whose dream caused her to summon her physician, Dr. Santi, 
and to beg him to tell the king of Italy that he must order 
the town of Messina evacuated as she had seen it destroyed in 
her dream. Dr. Santi listened patiently and to soothe his neu- 
rotic patient promised to write to the king. And relegating 
the promise to the professional limbo of the whims of neu- 
rotic patients, he ignored it and went his way. On the 28th of 
the month, however, Messina was destroyed. 

A Sicilian Countess was warned by her grandfather, who 
appeared in a dream, not to permit her husband and son to go 
to their palace on that fateful night. This dream warning 
saved their lives, for the palace was demolished, and they 
would certainly have been killed. 

Many Neapolitans insist that they invariably dream before 
an eruption of Vesuvius; nor is the superstition, or belief, 
call it what one will, confined to the ignorant peasantry. One 
lady of title asserts that before an outbreak she invariably 
has a dream of ships on the bay of Naples, scudding ahead 
of a violent wind with a black storm cloud above. The se- 
verity of the eruption is indicated by the number of the ves- 
sels in the bay. 

Flocks of prophetic dreams hovered about the loss of the 
Titcmic. Visions of shipwreck or a multitude of drowning, 
helpless human souls filled the psychological publications long 
before, concurrent with and immediately after the tragedy. A 



DREAMS THAT HAVE COME TRUE 121 

single instance, that of the Hon. J. Cannon Middleton, is one 
of many thoroughly attested examples. 

On the 23rd of March the Hon. J. Cannon Middleton booked 
his passage on the fated vessel, which was to sail on April 10. 
One night in a dream he saw the Titanic, her keel upward, 
her passengers and crew in the water. On the following 
night the dream was repeated. Although very uneasy, he 
reasoned with himself against superstition and took no action 
in regard to canceling his passage. He was greatly relieved 
on April 4 to receive a cable suggesting that for business 
reasons he postpone his journey. He told his dream to his 
wife and to three friends, who can testify as to its actuality. 

Prophetic dreams of to-day's world war are crowding into 
contemporary publications. As a cataclysm predicted for 
centuries, the manifold forecasts concerning it are too numer- 
ous to mention. The vision of the Prophet Daniel is perhaps 
the safest choice in that it has stood the test of time. The 
fact that this identical vision has been fitted to various other 
wars does not in the least detract from its application to the 
present instance. It is the most colossal prediction, by the 
most colossal prophet that the world has ever known — and it 
applies to the most colossal tragedy. 

"In the first year of Belshazzar, king of Babylon, Daniel 
had a dream and visions of his head upon his bed then he 
wrote the dream and told the sum of the matters. 

"Daniel spake and said I saw in my vision by night, and 
behold the four winds of the heaven strove upon the great sea. 

And four great beasts came up from the sea diverse from 
one another. 

The first was like a lion and had eagle's winds: I beheld 
till the wings thereof were plucked, and it was lifted up from 
the earth, and made stand upon the feet as a man ; and a man's 
heart was given to it. 

And behold another beast, a second like to a bear, and it 
raised up itself on one side, and it had three ribs in the mouth 



122 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

of it, between the teeth of it and they said thus unto it : Arise, 
devour much flesh. 

After this I beheld and lo, another like a leopard, which 
had upon the back of it four wings of a fowl ; the beast had 
also four heads; and dominion was given to it. 

After this I saw in the night visions, and behold, a fourth 
beast, dreadful and terrible and strong exceedingly; and it 
had great iron teeth; it devoured and brake in pieces, and 
stamped the residue with the feet of it; and it was diverse 
from all the beasts that were before it ; and it had ten horns. 

I considered the horns and behold there came up among 
them another little horn, before whom there were three of 
the first horns plucked up by the roots: and behold, in this 
horn there were eyes of man, and a mouth speaking great 
things. 

I beheld till the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of 
days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair 
of his head like the pure wool; his throne was like the fiery 
flame and his wheels as burning fire. 

A fiery stream issued and came forth from before him; 
thousand thousands ministered unto him, and ten thousand 
times ten thousand stood before him: the judgment was set 
and the books were opened. 

I beheld then because of the voice of the great words which 
the horn spake I beheld even till the beast was slain, and his 
body destroyed, and •given to the burning flame. 

As concerning the rest of the beasts, they had their domin- 
ion taken away, yet their lives were prolonged for a season 
and time. 

I saw in the night visions, and behold one like the Son of 
man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient 
of days, and they brought him near before him. 

And there was given him dominion and glory, and a king- 
dom that all people, nations and languages should serve him: 
his dominion is an everlasting dominion which shall not pass 
away, and his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed. 



I 



DREAMS THAT HAVE COME TRUE 123 

I, Daniel, was grieved in my spirit in the midst of my body, 
and the visions of my head troubled me. 

I came near unto one of them that stood by, and asked him 
the truth of all this. So he told me, and made me know the 
interpretation of the things. 

These great beasts which are four, are four kings which 
shall arise out of the earth. 

But the saints of the Most High shall take the kingdom and 
possess the kingdom for ever, even for ever and ever. 

Then I would know the truth of the fourth beast, which was 
diverse from all the others, exceeding dreadful, whose teeth 
were of iron, and his nails of brass; which devoured, brake 
in pieces and stamped the residue with his feet. 

And of the ten horns that were in his head, and of the 
other which came up and before whom three fell; even of 
that horn that had eyes, and a mouth that spake very great 
things, whose look was more stout than his fellows. 

I beheld, and the same horn made war with the saints and 
prevailed against them. 

Until the Ancient of days came, and judgment was given 
to the saints of the Most High; and the time came that the 
saints possessed the kingdom. 

Thus he said, the fourth beast shall be the fourth kingdom 
upon earth, which shall be diverse from all kingdoms, and 
shall devour the whole earth and shall tread it down, and 
br^ak it in pieces. 

And the ten horns of this kingdom are ten kings that shall 
arise: and another shall rise after them; and he shall be di- 
verse from the first and he shall subdue three kings. 

And he shall speak great words against the Most High, 
and shall wear out the saints of the Most High, and think to 
change times and laws; and they shall be given unto his 
hand until a time and times and the dividing of time. 

But the judgment shall sit and they shall take away his do- 
minion, to consume and to destroy it unto the end. 



124 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

And the kingdom and dominion, and the greatness of the 
kingdom under the whole heaven, shall be given to the people 
of the saints of the Most High, whose kingdom is an ever- 
lasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey 
him. 

Hitherto is the end of the matter^ As for me, Daniel, 
my cogitation much troubled me, and my cotmtenance changed 
in me ; but I kept the matter in my heart.— -T/r^ Book of Dan- 
iel. Chapter vU. 

This prophetic dream, though written and dreamed before 
the Christian era, is weird in its application to present day 
conditions. France, Russia, England, Germany — France with 
the heart of a man, the Russian bear devouring much flesh, 
England with its four wings and four heads (Scotland, Ireland, 
England and Wales) and to whom dominion was accorded, 
and the fourth beast Germany with its nails of brass and teeth 
of iron. As for the man who "speaks great words against the 
Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the Most High" 
and who presumes to think "to change times and laws," there 
could be but one in all the centuries that are past and in those 
to come. 

Apart from the somewhat intangible function of prophesy- 
ing the future, dreams have in several instances been turned 
to more practical purposes. In Scotland and in France, for 
instance, they have been used to strengthen the arm of the 
law. 

Mr. John Hill Burton in his book entitled "Narratives 
from Criminal Trials in Scotland," mentions an instance in 
which a prophetic dream assisted the ends of justice. 

In the year 183 1 a young Highlander was tried and executed 
for the murder of a peddler "in the wilds of Assynt in Ross- 
shire. A certain Kenneth Fraser, the village tailor, pointed 
out the place where the plunder was hidden, and stoutly main- 
tained that it had been revealed to him in a dream. The tes- 
timony is given thus: 'I was at home when I had the dream 



DREAMS THAT HAVE COME TRUE 125 

in the month of February. It said to me in my sleep, by a voice 
like a man's, that the pack was lying in such a place. I got 
a sight of the place, just as if I had been awake. I never 
saw the place before. The voice said in Gaelic — The pack 
of the merchant is lying in a cairn of stones in a hole near 
the house.' The voice did not name the McLeods, but he got 
sight of the ground, fronting the south with the sun shining 
on it, and a bum running beneath McLeod's house.' " — Aher- 
deen Magazine, II, ^4. 

Cuthbert Tunstall mentions the case of M. Berard, now a 
member of the French Chamber of Deputies. 

Berard in those days was a magistrate. Upon one occasion 
chance led him to a lonely inn in a forest in the mountains 
of the Cevennes. In the night he dreamed that the wife of 
the inn-keeper seized his arms and held him while the man 
cut his throat with a kitchen knife. Then the murderers took 
the body and threw it into a pit half-filled with stable manure. 
Berard awoke from the dream covered with sweat and shiv- 
ering with terror. At daybreak he left the inn, but before 
leaving he took a good look at his hosts, silent black-browed 
mountaineers. 

A year later this same Monsieur Berard found himself 
sent as examining magistrate to the chief town in this same 
district. His first case was a mystery of long-standing; a 
notary had disappeared with a large trust fund. The Police 
classified it as a case of ordinary embezzlement, but at 
the time of M. Berard's arrival an anon3rmous letter had 
stated that on the evening of his disappearance the notary 
had been seen entering the wayside inn. On summoning the 
inn-keeper and his wife to give evidence, Berard recognized 
the murderers he had seen in his dream. Obstinately the 
man and his wife denied all knowledge of the notary, until 
finally, full of his dream, Berard said to ihem: ''You are 
the assassins; I saw you commit that crime. You, the man, 
cut the notary's throat with a big kitchen knife, while you, the 



126 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

woman, held his arms; then the two of you threw his body 
into the manure pit. It is there now." 

The murderers confessed and Inspector Rossignol, who had 
been sent from Paris to find the supposed criminal, proceeded 
to search the pit ; here he found the notary's body. 



CHAPTER VIII 

YOUR DREAM WILL FIND YOU OUT 

"There is an universal law that limits the power of anj creature in 
exact proportion to his advancement along the indefinite route of his 
limitations." — Papus. 

Epictetus advised that dreams should not be related, for 
while the dreamer might enjoy the recital, the listener might be 
bored. Though time has not weakened the philosopher's ad- 
vice it has reversed the reasons which led to it For in the 
instance of the modem dream the latterday victims are not, 
as of yore, the listeners, who, like the hapless wedding guest, 
*'may not chuse but hear," it is the dreamer himself who must 
cry for mercy as the secrets of his innermost soul are laid 
bare and bleeding upon the altar of psychological investiga- 
tion. 

The outcome of modem dissection is usually a glorifica- 
tion of the abnormal mentality, while normal minds and nor- 
mal dreams are overlooked; a condition largely due to the 
natural reticence of the average person, who is instinctively 
silent upon topics previously held as sacred, or those inti- 
mately associated with the inner consciousness. Thus the av- 
erage investigator of dream psychology has been compelled to 
use either his own dream experiences or those of his pa- 
tients, a procedure that must inevitably render the dream anal- 
yses more or less abnormal in their nature. For the dream of a 
pathological subject must of necessity partake of the qualities 
and peculiarities of the dreamer, while the student's own 
dreams must inevitably partake of the individual character- 
istics of the dreamer, thus banishing the fundamental quali- 

127 



128 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

ties of the impersonal dream, viz., psychism and the free 
play of fancy. 

The machinery of the dream, namely, the content, frame- 
work, etc., would bear analysis, but the subtle psychic value 
of the dream as a dream would be absent, or in the case of 
the dreamings of an invalid, would be distorted by neurosis, or 
whatever the ailment of the dreamer. The fact that most stu- 
dents of the dream are physicians, practitioners, or students 
of morbid psychology and of nervous diseases argues an ail- 
ment in the subject. The result has been terrifying, foolish, 
or even shameful dreams among the neurotics, accompanied 
by reticence amongst the true dreamers, the normally simple- 
hearted, the kindly and the children with their sunshiny 
fancies. In fact the abnormal and the pornographic have 
to such an extent become typified that many dream analysts 
advise their patients not to relate even the simplest dream in 
the presence of strangers lest their dream be misconstrued. 
This attitude does not encourage investigation of psychic and 
psychological phenomena, the significance of whose nomencla- 
ture, derived from the word psyche, or butterfly, is beyond 
the ken of the searcher with his net and chloroform and pins ; 
and idealists, of whom there are fortunately a few left, hesi- 
tate to turn their fragile fancies over for dissection and soul- 
searing analysis tmder the same system that is applied to para- 
noiacs and erotics. A condition of timidity on one side and 
of merciless misunderstanding on the other has resulted in a 
quality of coarseness as applied to dream analysis. Undesir- 
able standards and dubious S3mibols have been established in 
good faith by scientific dream interpreters, who seem in many 
cases to lack discrimination in judging the character of the 
dreamers. Under these conditions a dream conceived without 
guile and related in all innocence may become translated into 
a veritable Frankenstein of unsuspected and unknown desires. 
In short, the dreamers of the world have been robbed of their 
fancies, and dreams have become psychotherapeutic revela- 
tions of depnmifj. Childhood especially has suffered under 



YOUR DREAM WILL FIND YOU OUT 129 

this new construction of the dream. Although Sir Francis 
Galton, the English anthropologist, maintains that children are 
frequently unable to distinguish between the real and the 
dream world, so vivid are the dreams of childhood, no allow- 
ance is permitted the little ones by the rigid morality of 
artificial interpretation. 

Having thus crushed the beautiful, nautilus sails of child- 
hood's dreams and tossed them as flotsam and jetsam on the 
shores of scientific fact, the Freudian analyst proceeds to decry 
their origin. Every dream has its source in a childish wish. 
Not the happy, innocent wishes heretofore attributed to child- 
hood, but desires of a sexual nature, derived from a wish of 
early childhood, or even infancy. The dreamer of mature 
years is not responsible for his dreams, however unlawful their 
desire — these are solely attributable to his childhood. That 
the desire is both unlawful and hidden goes without saying, 
however guileless the dream may seem to normal observation. 
The stern morality of modem civilization, having inhibited 
unlawful desires and analyzed the human heart, can do noth- 
ing with the innate and hopeless wickedness of childhood. 
Thus the adult is exonerated of his dreams and the blame 
attached to primitive childhood desires that find their way to 
the surface of consciousness through the dream self. 

The myths of Qur youth, cherished in the mirage hope of 
their "coming true," in the misty future, over the hazy hills 
pf time, have also become tragically and ironically fixed as 
the "dreams of savage races," or classified as "the distorted 
residue of the wish phantasies of whole nations, the secu- 
larized dreams of young humanity." The immortal love of 
Orpheus and Eurydice and the glorious vision of Mary Mag-^ 
dalene at the tomb of Christ are placarded as "primitive sym- 
bolic tendencies to objectify the subjective." 

Whether this primitive fault is exemplified in the modem 
fashion of measuring religious faith with the yardstick of ma- 
terialism, or whether it is demonstrated solely in uncon- 
scious and depraved childhood, is a question that for some 



V 



130 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

reason does not seem to arise, although the meticulous meas- 
uring of the intangible by the tangible might be held an ob-* 
jectification of the subjective. 

Again, the ultra-modems find themselves face to face with 
,older theories in the views of a certain school of theologians 
who held to the doctrine of infant damnation. Calvin him- 
self would have paused over Freud's theory of innate infantile 
depravity. 

Meanwhile the children continue to dream, apparently un- 
disturbed by the responsibility of their visionings. And while 
analysts may seek for Satan in the childish hearts, the poet 
seeks and finds — God. 

A number of psychologists, however, especially those of the 
American and English schools, ignore the phase of the Freu- 
dian theory attributing every dream to a childish origin; a 
few, who may have been biased by certain immortal words of 
the Nazarene concerning little children, turn from the destruc- 
tion of their faith in childhood with absolute horror. 

The theory of sex as the invariable originator of dreams 
is less revolting when taken alone than when combined with 
the desires of infancy or childhood. Sexual desire, normally 
recognized in its strength and glory as one of the primal forces, 
is not, however, the only desire in the human soul. Heroic 
deeds of self-sacrifice and of martyrdom have frequently been 
free from sex as a motive. Patriotism, pity for the weak and 
helpless, avarice, terror, the desire to commit murder, are all 
more or less primitive forces in man's being, ^specially the 
last-named — ^murder — of which Friederich, the criminologist, 
has said that probably every man might be caused to commit 
murder, if the provocation were sufficient, and that those who 
have never committed this crime owe it to circumstances rather 
than to superior powers of inhibition. 

Infancy seems especially to revel in dreams of anger, but 
the sex element seems usually to be lacking, or if it is there it 
is unexpressed, a condition which the Freudian theory of the 



I 

' ment. 



yOUR DREAM WILL FIND YOU OUT 131 

lack of symbolism and disguise in the dreams of savages, ani- 
mals and children, would render impossible. 

Count Tolstoy's reminiscences by his son furnish an almost 
perfect example of a childish dream of anger without a sug- 
gestion of the sex element. 

Count Tolstpy had been flogged by his tutor for some child- 
ish offense, and weeping and angry had retired to the attic, 
where he fell asleep. 

In his dream he ran away, became a soldier and was pro- 
moted, first to corporal, then to lieutenant, and finally, attain- 
ing the dignity of colonel, he led a forlorn hope in a great 
battle and was crowned with victory, though wounded. As 
he stood bleeding the Czar himself approached, saluted him 
as the hero of the day and told him to name his request. 
The patriot replied that he asked no reward save that his tutor 
be decapitated at mice! 

Hunger and revenge being emotions equally as independent 
and aboriginal as anger, would tend, especially the former, to 
drive thoughts of sex into the background. In later life 
avarice and anger are more dynamic than sex emotions. 

The expletives of the various races should index the unex- 
pressed and primitive emotions, and singularly few of these 
hint at the sex element. Hell-fire, the curses of the Higher 
Powerdv and cries implying emotion wrought to the degree of 
torture, contain no hint of sex whatever, and dating as many 
do to remotest antiquity, no innate delicacy, morality nor ar- 
tificial restraint would inhibit the expression of the sex ele- 



Plato calls anger the base of the state; Ribot makes it the 
establisher of justice in the world. Competition and ambi- 
tion, keynotes of modem life that sound back to primal forces, 
come as frequently from anger or from avarice as they arise 
from love. Anger is seldom cold-blooded and the scriptural 
injunction to "love one another" is directed as an antidote 
against anger rather than to establish or to countenance in- 
discriminate affection. 



132 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

The wish, latent or otherwise, is conceded in many instances 
of dream interpretation, though not in all. The Freudian mech- 
anism of dream interpretation is excellent in many respects; 
but the translation of every dream wish should be in accord 
with the personality of the dreamer, not with that of the 
interpreter of the said dream, especially if that interpreter be 
a theorist f erretting for his favorite symptoms of degeneracy, 
or of disease, all of which may be absolutely incompatible 
with the dreamer's desires, character, mode of life or conscious- 
ness. It frequently happens that the analytical dream enthusi- 
ast fastens his own favorite theories upon a hapless dreamer 
as permanently and as remorselessly as the Old Man of the Sea 
attached himself to Sinbad the Sailor. 

The utter annihilation of space as well as time in the dream 
establishes a basis for the occult and theosophical teachings of 
the wandering of the soul while the body sleeps. 

The same characteristics of the dream with regard to time 
and space are also employed to substantiate a diametrically op- 
posite theory of the non-existence of the soul and of the utter 
triviality of dream phenomena, which apparently consist of a 
group of heterogeneous incidents thrown together in a form 
greatly resembling the delirium of fever patients. This con- 
fusion of ideas and distortion of proportion common to the 
dream state and to several physical conditions correlated with 
the psychic, does not shake the faith of believers in the powers 
of the soul as an entity. They advance the theory that the 
freeing of the soul from the trammels of the body in slumber 
obliterates the physical faculties, and that with the escape 
from material, the finite qualities of time, space, etc., are 
cast aside. 

The sense of time seems to be the first of the mundane 
measurements to disappear. In sleep a moment may seem 
years, precisely as years may unroll their multitude of happen- 
ings in a moment. This same assimilation of time is notable 
in those who approach the brink of death; those who after 
drawing close to the great mystery have been permitted to 



YOUR DREAM WILL FIND YOU OUT 133 



return have invariably recounted the same experience, the pano- 
ramic view of their whole lives unrolled in a few moments. 

Memory, a quality less tangible than time or space, is a 
factor of the dream. As a fundamental of the dreaming 
state, it refutes the Freudian theory of the sex content of 
childish dreams, for memory can only be aroused by some- 
thing that has already occurred within the experience. In 
the dream there is no forgetting. The memory of the slumber 
is far more profuse and accurate than that of the waking life. 
Lack of perspective from the waking viewpoint and a confu- 
sion of relative values are frequent causes of bewilderment to 
the waking self with its opposite tendency towards forgetting 
trifles, while important happenings loom large in the material 
mind. To childhood, and in the world of dreams, however, 
there are no trifles ; all experiences are of equally vast mean- 
ing. The so-called spirits invoked at seances present this 
same curious inversion of ideas with regard to trifles. The 
triviality and apparent irrelevance of the spiritualistic com- 
munications are frequently used as an argument against the 
entire theory of spiritualism. The absence of the sense of 
proportion and of relative values, however, may be plausibly 
explained by the change that takes place in reverting from 
material to immaterial life, which is analogous to the weaken- 
ing of the physical in the dream state and at the approach of 
death. 

Whether the dream proves the soul or the soul the dream is 
a question of personal opinion. 

Revelations that have been made through dreams have 
been conspicuously lacking in a sense of proportion, so much 
so that Freud has used this quality as a basis for his theory 
of the Latent Content, or hidden meaning, of the dream. The 
abnormal development of memory and the corresponding loss 
of ratiocination form the difficulty in determining the dream 
content. With the apparent obliteration of mundane quali- 
ties, however, new and transcendental faculties seem to de- 
velop in the dream state. In our present stage of humanity 



134 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

we are unfamiliar with these faculties, which would suggest 
a touch with the Infinite Power that thus far has proven be- 
yond the attainment of normal man. No satisfactory account 
has ever been given of these super-normal attributes, although 
both psychology and physiology have made the attempt. 

H)rpermnesia, Paramnesia and Xenoglossia are three fac- 
ulties whose frequent occurrence makes them worthy of a sci- 
entific nomenclature. Although abnormal conditions in the 
waking state, and usually the product of diseased brain or 
nerves, they are essentially normal attributes of the dreamer. 

Hypermnesia, or abnormal memory, has already been re- 
ferred to as a condition attendant upon dreaming. Despite 
the obvious importance of a certain amount of memory in the 
attainment of knowledge, the overdevelopment of the faculty 
is not, in the waking state, a mark of intellectuality. On the 
contrary it tends to draw trifles to the surface of consciousness 
and to sacrifice the perspective of the waking world. In many 
instances of hypermnesia the patient is prone to dwell upon 
trifling facts or fancies of the past and to neglect the wcTrk of 
the present. Certain dreams are accounted for by this fac- 
ulty in the sleeping state, which vanishes on awaking, leaving 
the dreamer with his resuscitated memories that he fails to 
recognize. 

Paramnesia is an essentially beautiful quality, whether wak- 
ing or dreaming, whether normal or abnormal. It has been 
coldly defined as "hallucinatory memory," but those who are 
blessed with its golden illusions could no more forego them 
than they could forego their dreams. Havelock Ellis finds 
that it seems to affect educated people and people of more 
than average intellect to a far greater degree than the ignorant 
and phlegmatic worker. He gives Dickens, Shelley and Bour- 
get as instances, and the fancy has no difficulty in finding 
others. 

Skepticism attributes paramnesia to the saints whose mystic 
experiences fill many pages of the world's wonder-book. 
St. Paul, St. Theresa and Catherine von Emmerich are set 



YOUR DREAM WILL FIND YOU OUT 135 

apart and placarded as q)ileptics, but gentle St. Francis, Swe- 
denborg and Jeanne D'Arc are mentioned as victims of param- 
nesia. It is a disease, however, of which little is definitely 
known; this is due to "the rarity of finding instances of 
paramnesia experiences by scientific observers alive to the 
importance of accurately recording all conditions." This as- 
sertion of a scientific observer is reminiscent of numerous 
other instances of psychic experiences and conditions that fly 
before the microscopic gaze of the incredulous. Yet whether 
paramnesia be a disease or a celestial attribute, suffering hu- 
manity still owes its debt to the faculty that gives color and 
light to its dreams. 

Xenoglossia, or speaking and understanding a language not 
known to the normal self, is a phenomenon of dreams, delirium 
and of the mystical forms of paramnesia, otherwise known as 
spiritual relaxation. The case of the twelve apostles, ignor- 
ant men of the humbler class, who were yet empowered to 
understand and to be understood by men of all races, affords 
the most noteworthy instances of this attribute. 



CHAPTER IX 

POPPIES AND MANDRAGORA '* 

"How sweet it were, hearing^the downward stream, 

With half-shut eyes ever to seem 

Falling asleep in a half -dream! 

To dream and dream, like yonder amber light, 

Which will not leave the myrrh-bush on the height; 

To hear each other^s whisper'd speech; 

Eating the Lotos day by day." 

— Tennyson, The Lotos-Eaters, 

Since dreams would not always come themselves they could 
be made to come. The world learned this early, and when the 
forces of hypnotism, mesmerism and other mysterious facul- 
ties were in the hands of the priestly orders, who guarded 
their secrets so successfully that they frequently lost them 
beyond recovery, while the few that were rediscovered as- 
sumed the aspect of startling newness, the humbler folk whose 
limited knowledge and inclination have ever held them nearer 
the homelier and more comfortable element of earth, were 
studying simples and herbs, especially those that induce sleep 
and thus serve as a balm for hurt souls. 

The hierophantic class, however, did not altogether disdain 
the use of drugs and narcotics, for while hypnotism and its 
kindred arts were more mysterious, they were likewise more 
uncertain, besides which the grottoes emanating natural gases 
were too few to fill the requirements of a rapidly populating 
world avid for foreknowledge. Thus when the deadly fumes 
of carbon monoxide and of carbon dioxide in which to steep 
the oracular consciousness and to thus open the path for sub- 
consciousness and dreams, were lacking, other means were 
employed. Ancient lands were misty with smoke wreaths 

136 



POPPIES AND MANDRAGORA 137 

from incense conducive to dreams and visions. ApoDo's 
priestesses after eating the sacred Laurel inhaled its smoke 
before prophesying, and to-day in the Hindu Koosh Mountains 
the sibyls breathe deeply of the fumes of the sacred cedar, 
then drawing a cloth over their heads inhale the aromatic 
smoke until they fall senseless to the ground. 

The burning of sacrificial incense is one of the favorite 
themes of Egyptian frescoes, the incense was evidently in- 
tended to inspire the priest as well as to influence the congre- 
gation. 

The bacchantes ate ivy and their frenzy was attributed to 
the influence of the sacred plant. 

Anise seed is said by Pliny not only to impart a youthful 
look to the features, but to have the power "if attached to 
the pillow so as to be smelt by a person when asleep of pre- 
venting all disagreeable dreams." 

The seed of Pycnocomen, or Thick Hair, a plant gen- 
erally, but not always identified with the Leonurus Marru- 
biastnun of Linnaeus, taken in doses of one drachm of wine, 
is provocative of unquiet dreams. — Pliny, Natural History, 
XXVI, 237. 

Opium is probably the oldest of the narcotics. Its history 
trails through unwritten epochs by way of India to China, and 
its legend during lost ages is confirmed by the poppy, the 
blossom from which the deadly narcotic is brewed and which 
is the universal symbol of sleep. It is also the flower of 
Demeter, tutelary goddess of the harvest. 

The Digger tribe of Indians in California, whose nomad 
traditions have long since been seared out of existence by 
the white man's scorn, have held to the legend of the tiny 
crimson poppies that grow on the edge of the desert in the 
spring. They are called "sleep flowers" and the story goes 
that he who lies among them even for a little while will be 
visited forevermore by a spirit who will drag him each night 
to that same spot. The flame yellow California poppy, or 
eshscholtzia, bears no legend, whether by reason of the fact 



138 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

that its long, slender capsule contains but little opium, or 
whether because no legend might survive the blight of the 
consonants in the hapless flower's cognomen, it is difficult 
to tell (the unfortunate poppy was called for a German bot- 
anist Eshscholtz, whose fame might otherwise have died a 
natural death). 

To opium the world owes Kubla Khan and the gorgeous 
dream fugues of De Quincey, with their gradual closing in of 
horror. 

"The sense of space," says De Quincey, "and in the end, 
the sense of time, were powerfully affected. Buildings, land- 
scapes, etc., were exhibited in proportions so vast as the bodily 
eye is not fit to receive. Space swelled and was amplified to 
an extent of unutterable infinity. This, however, did not dis- 
turb me so much as the expansion of time. I sometimes lived 
for seventy or a hundred years in one night : nay, sometimes 
had feelings of a millennium passed in that time, or, how- 
ever, of a duration far beyond the limits of any human ex- 
perience." 

These dreams, from being gorgeous phantasms of oriental 
imagery, gradually waxed heavy and oppressive, until at length 
they distorted to the menace of a nightmare, but in their con- 
sistency and continuity more horrifying than any nightmare, 
other than one drug-ridden, had ever dared to become. 

The fancy of the opium dreamer usually riots in oriental 
imagery and scenes ; these scenes may be waked by the dream- 
er's subconscious association with the history of the drug, or 
they may be roused by some intrinsic quality of the opium 
that thus affects the human brain. 

Alcohol in various forms, whether as brandy, wine, etc., of 
the civilized races, or the crude, fermented liquors of bar- 
barous and semi-barbarous people, when taken in sufficient 
quantity to carry the patient beyond the first exhilarating stage 
of intoxication, causes dreams. 

The alcoholic vision is almost invariably unpleasant Spi- 
ders, reptiles and various other insects are the usual subjects 



POPPIES AND MANDRAGORA 139 

of the dream, so usual in fact that they have been termed 
t3rpical. These visions invariably begin with the dreamer's 
sensation of being bitten or stung; this effect is due to a tactile 
stimulus, for the skin itches from alcohol. 

*'At first the dream of the alcoholic appears as a passing 
trouble and ceases on awakening. It is only a nightmare. 
After a while the dream is prolonged beyond the awakening 
and exteriorizes itself in a sort of grandiloquized delirium. 
Finally, auto-intoxication reaches its maximtmi in that pe- 
culiar mental state described by an eminent French physician 
as Mental Confusion. The recollection of the dream may 
survive the memory of the dream itself for some time and so 
become a sort of acute delirium which Baillarger has given 
the name of fixed ideas." — Bigelow, The Mystery of Sleep. 

''Lasegue remarks that in the delirium of alcohol, visual 
hallucinations predominate, that these are varied and incessant, 
constantly changing into new and fantastic shapes as the fig- 
ures in a kaleidescope.*' — Manaceine. 

Tissie and de Sanctis alike mention the voices that haunt 
the dreams and delirium of the alcoholic addict. These voices 
are peculiarly prone to accuse the husband or wife of the 
dreamer of infidelity. Flames and blood sometimes accom- 
pany the voices that accompany the alcoholic dream. 

The specific property of alcoholic stimulants in disassociat- 
ing the subconscious from the conscious faculties has led to 
the gross excesses attending the religious rites of archaic times. 
The worship of Bacchus and the Dionysaic mysteries con- 
sisted largely in the quaffing of wine or other fermented 
liquors. 

Pulque, or mescal, the intoxicant of the Mexicans, bears an 
origin clouded by Toltec and Aztec legend; it rouses fiery 
dreams that consume the dreamer's very soul. 

Prescott mentions soma, another Mexican drink, made from 
com ; the Incas indulged in it to excess, but it was forbidden 
to the common people by reason of its peculiar effect and 
its excessive strength. Alcoholic derivatives have in some 



140 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

instances the effect of aphrodisiacs, and affect the dreams 
accordingly. 

Oouds of fancy gather at the bare mention of the eastern 
magi with their fumes of narcotizing incense, as mysterious 
and unknown to us of this day as they were to the awe- 
stricken multitude in days of yore. Camphor is one of the 
few of these with which we are familiar. **j3hr's Manual'' 
tells us that: "It conjures strange figures before the eyes 
which do not disappear on awaking." A fairly useful drug 
we may guess in the practice of ancient magic, especially if 
we combine it with a further description from Herrick's 
"Materia Medica," "Anxious, fearful dreams ; suffocation, op- 
pression." Who knows then what evil may have been 
wrought, what nightmares of terror inflicted by the magicians 
of all time, who were wont to mutter their incantations while 
clouds of camphor smoke created dreams autosuggestionized in 
the victim's brain. Images that would not vanish with the 
opening eyes, but that lingered on. 

Among the East Indians tradition insists upon accompanying 
the gathering of camphor with certain rites. The gatherer of 
camphor must not search for it, instead he must lie down and 
dream where it is to be found. During his quest hejnust 
abandon the speech of daily life, and when the tree is cut he 
must wrap it in a cloth that the crystals from the heart of the 
tree may not escape. 

The extract of Anhalonium Lewinii, or the mescal button, is 
one of the most peculiar and potent narcotics. Its effects 
are described at length by Dr. Weir Mitchell in an article in 
the British Medical Journal, December 5th, 1896. 

"My eyes being closed, I began to see tiny points of light, 
like stars or fireflies, which came and went in a moment. The 
star points became many and then I began to observe some- 
thing like fragments of stained glass windows. The glass was 
not very brilliant, but the setting, which was irregular in form, 
seemed to be made of incessantly flowing sparkles of pale 
silver, now going here, now there, to and fro, like, as I thought, 



POPPIES AND MANDRAGORA 141 

the inexplicable rush and stay and reflux of the circulation 
seen through a lens. These window patterns were like frag- 
ments coming into view and fading. 

"The display which for an enchanted two hours followed 
was such as I find it hopeless to describe in language which 
shall convey to others the beauty and splendor of what I 
saw. . . ." 

'^Especially at the close of my experience, I must I think 
have been for a while in the peculiar interval between the 
waking state and that of sleep — ^the 'praedormitum* — ^the time 
when we are apt to dream half controlled stories; but as to 
this I am not sure. . . . 

"My first vivid show of mescal color eflFects came quickly. 
I saw the stars, and then, of a sudden, here and there, deli- 
cate floating films of color — ^usually delightful neutral purples 
and pinks — ^now here, now there. Then an abrupt rush of 
countless points swept across the field of view, as if the un- 
seen millions of the Milky Way were to flow a sparkling mir- 
ror before the eye. In a minute this was over and the field 
was dark. Then I began to see zigzag lines of very bright 
colors, like those seen in some megrims. I tried to fix the 
place and relation of these tints, but the changes were such 
as to baffle me. One was an arch of angled lines of red and 
green, but of what else I could not determine. It was in 
rapid, what I may call minute, motion. 

"The tints of intense red and green altered and soon were 
seen no more. Here again was the wonderful loveliness of 
swelling clouds of more vivid colors, gone before I could 
name them, and, sometimes rising from the lower field, and 
very swiftly altering in color tones from pale purples and 
rose to g^ays, with now and then a bar of level green orange, 
intense as lightning and as momentary. 

"When I opened my eyes, all was gone. Closing them I 
began after a long interval to see definite objects associated 
with colors. The stars sparkled and passed away. A white 
spear of gray stone grew up to huge height, and became a 



142 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

tall, richly finished Gothic tower of very elaborate and definite 
design, with many rather worn statues standing in the doorways 
on stone brackets. As I gazed, every projecting angle cornice, 
and even the face of the stones at their joinings were by de- 
grees covered or hung with clusters of what seemed to be 
huge precious stones, but uncut, some being more like masses 
of transparent fruit. These were green, purple, red, and 
orange ; never clear yellow and never blue. All seemed to pos- 
sess an interior light, and to give the faintest idea of the 
perfectly satisfying intensity and purity of their gorgeous 
color- fruits is quite beyond my power. All the colors I have 
ever beheld are dull as compared to these. 

"As I looked, and it lasted long, the tower became a fine 
mouse hue, and everywhere the vast pendent masses of ruby 
reds, and orange began to drip a slow rain of colors. All this 
while nothing was at rest for a moment. The balls of color 
moved tremulously. The tints became dull and at once past 
belief vivid ; the architectural lines were all active with shift- 
ing tints. The figures moving shook the long, living lines of 
living light, and then, in an instant, all was dark. 

"After an endless display of less beautiful marvels, I saw 
that which deeply impressed me. An edge of a huge cliif 
seemed to project over a gulf of unseen depth. My viewless 
enchanter set on the brink of a huge bird-claw of stone. 
Above, from the stem or leg, hung a fragment of some stuS. 
This began to unroll and fioat out at a distance which seemed 
to me to represent Time as well as immensity of Space. Here 
were miles of rippled purples, half transparent and of in- 
efiFable beauty. Now and then soft golden clouds floated from 
these folds, or a great shimmer went over the whole of the 
rolling purples, and things, like green birds, fell from it, flut- 
tering down into the gulf below. Next I saw clusters of stones 
hanging in masses from the claw-toes, as it seemed to me miles 
of them, down far below into the underworld of the black 
gulf. 

"This was the most distinct of my visions. Incautiously I 



POPPIES AND MANDRAGORA 143 

opened my eyes and it was gone. A little later I saw interlaced 
and numberless hoops in the air all spinning swiftly and all 
loaded with threaded jewels or with masses of color in long 
ropes of clustered balls. I began to wonder why I saw no 
opals^ and some minutes after, each of tfiese circles, which 
looked like a boy's hoop, became huge opals; if I should say 
fluid opals it would best describe what was, however, like 

nothing earthly. 

• • • • • • 

"On the left wall was pinned by the tail a brown worm of 
perhaps a hundred feet long. It was slowly rotating like a 
Catherine wheel, nor did it seem loathly. As it turned, long 
green and red tentacles fell this way and that. On a bench 
nearby two little dwarfs, made, it seemed, of leather, were 
blowing long glass pipes of green tint, which seemed to me 
to be alive, so intensely and vitally green were they. But 
it were vain to find in words what will describe these colors. 
Either they seemed strangely solid or to possess vitality. They 
still linger visibly in my memory and left the feeling that I 
had seen among them colors unknown to my experience. 

"Their variety and strange juxtaposition were indeed fas- 
cinating for one to whom color is more than it is to most 
men; nor is it possible to describe the hundredth of what I 
saw. I was at last conscious of the fact that at that moment 
I was almost asleep and then wide awake. In one of these 
magic moments I saw my last vision and the strangest I 
heard and then saw a beach, which I knew to be that of New- 
port, On this, with a great noise, which lasted but a mo- 
ment, rolled in out of darkness, wave on wave. These as they 
came were liquid splendors, huge and threatening, of wonder- 
fully pure green, or red or deep purple, only once deep orange, 
and with no trace of foam. These water hills of color broke on 
the beach with myriads of lights of the same tint as the wave. 
This lasted some time, and while it did so I got back to more 
distinct consciousness, and wished the beautiful terror of 
these huge motmds would continue. 



144 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

"A knock at my door caused me to open my eyes, and I 
lost whatever of wonder might come after." 

Hashish, or Indian Hemp (Cannabis Indica), is a narcotic 
to which time and knowledge have given a cloak of horror 
and mystery. The preparation is obtained from the dried 
flowers of the hemp and the word hashish is derived from the 
Arabic term signifying "dried herb." Its introduction into 
Europe was due to the Crusaders, who needed the dreamy 
lethargy that the drug produces at the first in order to soothe 
them into forgetting the turmoil in which they found their 
homes. 

Numerous preparations of the drug are presented under 
the collective name of hashish, some of these are merely nar- 
cotics, others contain important admixtures, such as stramon- 
ium, camphor, nux vomica, cantharides, musk, alcohol, opium 
and tobacco; these of course produce various effects. Garas, 
ghanja and bhang are the natural products of Indian hemp, 
the last named product, bhang, being especially popular in 
India. 

Less harmful to the functional organs than either opium 
or morphia, hashish is more insidious and the habit far more 
difficult to overcome. The first dreams are vague extrava- 
ganzas, fantastically colorful and pleasing to the senses; 
sounds lift the soul to ecstasy. The waking is comfortable, the 
enfeeblement of the mental and physical power is as stealthy 
as the padded step of the tiger in the jungle. The sapping of 
the will and of the brain goes on without recognition as the 
dreamer dreams. Prophecy comes afterwards, vaguely un- 
pleasant forecasts, but they bring no discomfort to the sleeper 
who has grown impersonal, and whose body seems far away, 
the property of another. Brain and body finally become 
weakened to the point of discomfort; the physical makes a 
final effort to warn the enfeebled psyche, perils are hinted at 
in the dreams, discomforts, love adventures attended by 
dangers that leave the dreamer in a cold sweat on awakening, 
morbidly anxious to return to his world of nowhere. Night- 



POPPIES AND MANDRAGORA 145 

mare follows after a time, fury and somnambulistic frenzy 
that beggar waking imagination and send the hashish victim 
forth to murder and to rapine. It is said that the English 
word "assassin" is derived from the Arabic word "hashishin" 
or hemp-eater. 

The Hop (Lupulus), which belongs to the same family 
as cannabis indica, has a contrary eifect. Gentle slumber is 
induced from the hop pillow recommended so earnestly by old 
herbalists, with purely commonplace and soothing dreams 
from quiet surface of the conventional consciousness. 

Hemlock, according to Herring's "Materia Medica," gives 
rise to hideous dreams fraught with superstitious horror and 
uneasiness, probably a subconscious warning to the sleeper of 
the physical danger wrought upon his body by the adminis- 
tration of this drug. It was a favorite remedy of the middle 
ages. 

Countless andjundry traditions have gathered around the 
man dp Uar^llffSncfra^ra or, as it is called in modern nomen- 
tflSture, briony. Antiquity has conferred upon the simple 
plant a distinction that the somewhat inadequate physical facts 
fail to dim although they do not altogether justify. Pliny and 
other writers make frequent allusion to its potency as a sopo- 
rific, and in the Book of Genesis (Chapter xxx) the story 
of Reuben and the mandrakes establishes the antiquity of the 
plant. "The mandrakes make smell and at our gates are all 
manner of pleasant fruits,'' sings King Solomon. 

Brand quotes Cole's "Art of Simples," in referring to the 
use of the roots of mandrake, or briony, by the mediaeval 
witches, while its virtues as a narcotic are voiced by Shake- 
speare when lago says of Othello : 

"... Not poppy nor mandragora, 
Nor all the drowsy syrups of the world 

Shall ever medicine thee to that sweet sleep 
Which thou owd'st yesterday." 



146 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

Modern medicine gives it the dignified appellation of Bry- 
onia Alba, and accredits the drug with vexatious, vivid dreams 
and somnambulism. Sounds rather than colors are attendant 
upon the dreams of mandrake, or briony; now the chirping 
of locusts in the hedges, and again it is the roaring of a storm, 
the pealing of an organ or the swinging harmony of the 
spheres. The flowers sing, the earth speaks and the woes of 
humanity cry aloud. Besides these there are strange cravings, 
a longing for that which never existed even in the soul of a 
dreamer. So upon the whole, despite its marvels as a pro- 
ducer of sounds and despite its high reputation as a soporific 
with so mighty a sage as Shakespeare, it is perhaps best for 
moderns not to build their dreams with mandragora. 

Hypericum, Dittany, Hyssop, the male fern, Belladonna, 
or Solanum, were alike remedies of the moyen age. That 
the potions derived from these herbs did not necessarily induce 
dreams of a soothing and comforting nature is obviously a 
fact. In truth one is inclined to wonder whether the sorcerer 
may not have used some of these remedies for the strengthen- 
ing of curses rather than as unmitigated blessings. Wild fan» 
tastic vi$ions induced by a surreptitiously administered dose of 
stramonium might readily have fulfilled a witch's imprecation 
in the mind of a dreamer. 

Stramonium, Datura or thornapple was, we are told, a fav- 
orite drug with the Druids, and a description of the dreams 
induced by this remedy corroborates the fact that the Druids 
were banished for tampering with human life and for the mis- 
use of the so-called black art. The dreams are characterized 
by visions of ghosts and of voices that seem to come from 
back of the ears, singing, siren voices that will not be denied. 
Strange animals seem to run at the dreamer, jumping side- 
ways out of the ground. At times he finds himself growing 
tall, elongating to twice his own height, and then suddenly 
he is lying crosswise with half his body cut oflf. And during 
all these weird performances there are ghosts, ghosts, ghosts. 
The gift of strange, unheard-of tongues is also his, and he has 



POPPIES AND MANDRAGORA 147 

written an epic that only he and the ghosts can understand. 

The outlaw of East India, the apache of Paris and the hood- 
lum of San Francisco have a common tie in the use of stra- 
monium for their nefarious work of robbing the unwary ; ad- 
ministered as a narcotic, in either food or beverages, it renders 
the victim drowsy and trustful, then stupidly somnolent. The 
gypsies also have a weakness for this plant and it is said that 
the fair dames of Portugal make use of its seeds as a remedy 
for otherwise unmanageable husbands, thus soothing them 
into complacent dreams. 

Although the plant riots in the woodlots and other neg- 
lected comers of North America, it is known among the In- 
dians as the "white man's plant" ; tradition associates it with 
the settlement at Jamestown by giving it the appellation of 
Jamestown weed, a not altogether improbable connection in 
view of the regard in which the alkaloid from datura, or 
stramonium, was held by the physicians of the seventeenth cen- 
tury who favored its use more than the use of morphine, the 
alkaloid of opium. 

Dittany and hyssop are Biblical remedies as well as reme- 
dies of the moyen age; ancient medicos, however, attril^ute 
to these romantic herbs properties that the modem pharma- 
copoeia denies. Deep stupor follows in their wake, and Hahne- 
mann mentions "slumber full of dreams" ; the nature of those 
dreams, however, is left to the reader's imagination. 

The fame of the plant known as Hypericum, or St. John's 
wort, has come winging down the ages as a preternatural 
benefit. It was said to avert evil eye, to reveal the pres- 
ence of witches, and dipped in oil, to be a panacea for every 
wound. Even nowadays in rural districts the dew that falls 
on the plant on the twenty-fourth of June, St. John's day, is 
carefully collected as a remedy for eye troubles. Herringf's 
"Materia Medica" describes the dreams produced by St. John's 
wort as "visions of spirits and specters with the sensation of 
being lifted high in the air"; increased intellectual power is 
furthermore attributed to the dreamer. From this basis of 



148 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

scientific material it is simple to picture the possibilities of a 
dreamer who might find himself borne by spirits far into the 
ethereal blue^ away from the dreaded evil eye and the mach- 
inations of witch and wizard. 

Solanum, or belladonna, has held its fascinating, half re- 
pulsive mystery through Biblical lore and mediaeval magic to 
the stern, straight-laced science of to-day. The Bible refers 
to it as the vine of Sodom, Deuteronomy xxii, 32, although 
its more recent name of solanum is derived from solamen, 
meaning solace or consolation, in that it induces sleep. Its 
modem portion is belladonna, or atropine. Tanner describes 
its visions as wild and fantastic, while Herring and Jahr ascribe 
to the dreams, "merry craziness, dreams of undressing and 
of walking through the streets undressed. Walks around the 
churchyard gathering herbs and in his dream converses with 
his late sister in the churchyard." 

The male fern was also used in enchantments and in in- 
ducing visions and dreams, but modem medicine does not 
describe the dreams induced thereby. 

Henbane has a mediaeval lilt that wakes the thought of 
magic dead and gone. Its recent name, hyoscyamus, though 
more scientific is less appealing to the imagination. Double 
vision, presbyopia, lights flashing before the eyes, are symp- 
toms ascribed to it by Tanner, who further recounts a quaint 
story of some monks who partook of the roots of henbane, 
under the impression that they were eating parsley. They 
rang the matins bell at midnight, and those who waked from 
their dreams sufficiently to attend, read what was never printed 
in any sacred book. The usual dreams of henbane are of 
persons far away and the delusion of the presence of the ab- 
sent ones continues after the waking. Visions of persecu- 
tion attend these dreams, imaginary wrongs and a burning 
desire to right their injuries by punishing those about them 
with an undercurrent of jealousy and licentiousness, render 
the victims of this dmg dangerous. 

Absinthe or wormwood was first brought to Europe from 



POPPIES AND MANDRAGORA 149 

Algiers by French soldiers. Oil of wormwood is one of the 
chief ingredients of absinthe. The plant wormwood (Ar- 
temisia absinthtun) is mentioned in the Bible; its acridity 
has made it the s3rmbol of bitterness. As drug, intoxicant 
or narcotic its use is very ancient; its effects upon the moral 
character are regarded as peculiarly deleterious, it rouses 
weird, unnatural dreams and hallucinations. 

"Here, for instance was a field of scarlet poppies, — I walked 
knee-deep among them, inhaling the strong opium odor of 
their fragile leaves — ^they blazed vividly against the sky, and 
nodded drowsily to and fro in the wind. And between their 
brilliant clusters lay the dead! — ^bodies of men with ghastly 
wounds in their hearts, and fragments of swords and guns in 
their stiffening hands, while round and about them were 
strewn torn flags and broken spears. . . . The sound of a 
sweet song sung at midnight and lo, the moon is there, full, 
round, and warm ! Grand gray towers and palaces rise above 
me on all sides, — and out on that glittering yellow water 
rests one solitary gondola, black as a floating hearse, yet hold- 
ing light! She, that fair siren in white robes, with bosom 
bare to the amorous moon-rays, — ^she with her wicked, laugh- 
ing eyes and jewel-wreathed tresses, — ^is she not beautiful, 
wanton enough for at least one hour's joy! Hark! — she 
sings . . . when all at once the moon vanishes, — ^a loud clap 
of thunder reverberates through earth and heaven, — the light- 
ning glitters aloft and I am alone in darkness and storm. 
Alone, yet not alone, for there gliding before me in aerial 
phantom-shape is Pauline, — ^her thin garments wet, — her dark 
locks dank and dripping, — ^her blue eyes fixed and lusterless, — 
but yet she smiles ! A strange, sad smile ! she waves her hand 
and passes; — I strive to follow, but some imperative force 
holds me back; — I can only look after her and wonder why 
those drops of moisture cling so heavily to her gown and hair ! 
She disappears! — good! — Now I am at peace again, I can 
watch to my heart's content those little leaping flames that 



150 THE FABMC OF DREAMS 

sparkle round me in lambent wreaths of exquisitely brilliant 
green, — I can think! . . ." — Wormwood, Marie CoreUi. 

Lobelia, established in modem pharmacopoeia, likewise has 
a creditable share of antiquity, dating back to the days of 
the Crusades. It brings restless sleep and many dreams. 
There is a sensation of falling, and the limbs, suddenly leaden 
seem dragging the sleeper into fathomless abysses, in which 
there is no light nor hope of light. The limbs are amputated, 
or perhaps the sleeper dreams of a bullet passing through 
the head from one temple to the other. 

The American Indians likewise understood the value of 
lobelia as a narcotic, hence its name, Indian tobacco, derived 
from the pro{||msity of the braves to seek oblivion in the 
fumes of lobel&. 

Laudanum and morphine, or morphia are alike derivatives 
of opium and the substance of these dreams is virtually the 
same, although they are probably more acute and clearly de- 
fined in the dreams resulting from morphine, as the latter 
drug is the most efficacious anod)me known to science, even 
as it is the most deleterious alike to the mental, moral and 
physical system of the patient. The flying, swimming and 
falling dreams are especially common to morphia addicts. 
Laudanum, the predecessor of morphine, was discovered by 
Paracelsus. 

That the t)rpical dreams induced by narcotics and anodynes 
are due to the physical effects of the drugs themselves is ob- 
vious to the modem dream analyst. Impeded heart action, 
the effect of certain stimuli upon the various nerve centers 
and organs, the retina, the lungs, the bladder, etc., all these 
are translated by the dream consciousness into terms of the 
individual temperament of th^ dreamer. They may, however, 
be forced to give a complete account of themselves as physical 
stimuli, hence their psychic value as dreams is of little or no 
importance. 



CHAPTER X 

DREAM ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 

"A skilful man reads dreams for his self-knowledge." 

— ^Emerson. 

Recent students afHrm the existence of certain rules and 
laws that govern dreams. By applying these rules the dream- 
er's mental processes may be followed through the mazes of 
the subconsciousness and the dream analyzed and explained. 
However new the methods, the result is merely the recovery of 
a long-lost art, for dream interpretation is nothing new. By 
the modem processes human motives, unrecognized thoughts 
and forbidden desires are unerringly ferreted out and, in the 
case of a neurotic patient, frequently cured, but here the work 
ends. The older methods dealt in divination, prophecy and 
occult matters, warnings and admonitions were administered 
and heeded by the recipients thereof. At first glance the dif- 
ference seems as vast as the distance that sweeps between the 
generations of the dreamers, but in reality the variance is 
slight. For while the modem method merely claims to dis- 
sect character or tendencies, and the ancient oneirocritics at- 
tempt to forecast the future, the scientists are confronted with 
the fact that "character is destiny," and thus despite them- 
selves the ultra-moderns become prophetic. 

In all ages students haye divided the dream into various 
classes according to their form and meaning. This differen- 
tiation agrees in essentials, for excepting the divinatory and 
prophetic dreams that abound in the sacred literature of every 
race and creed, the universal classification of the dream rests 
upon the same basic principles. The symbolic, significant, 

151 



152 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

and curative dreams of Egypt find a replica in the symbolic, 
symptomatic and therapeutic dreams of modem medicine. The 
classification of dream stimuli, or causes, in Dr. Freud's work, 
"The Interpretation of Dreams," written in 1900 agrees in the 
salient points with the "Philosophy" of Paracelsus, an equally 
significant work in its day and generation, 1650 A. D. 

The Mediaeval Philosopher has no hesitation in acknowledg- 
ing the Greeks as his authority, while Freud, the modem sci- 
entist, actually over-reaches the older authorities by attribut- 
ing vast importance to every dream, however trivial. 

Comparison of Dream Stimuli according to the Classifica- 
tion of Freud and Paracelsus respectively : 

Freud (i9cx>) Paracelsus (1493-1531) 

1. External, objective stimu- i. Arising from physical con- 
lus ditions 

2. Internal, subjective stimu- 2-3. Dreams resulting from 
lus psychological conditions 

3. Intemal, objective stimu- and astral influences 

lus 4. Those that are caused by 

4. Purely psychical excita- spiritual agency 
tions 

The more important visions Paracelsus attributes either 
to a natural cause or to a spiritual source, the latter being 
especially significant. Dreams arising from physical sources 
may originate from joy or sadness, from impurities of the 
blood or from internal or external stimuli, as when a gambler 
dreams of his cards, or when a victim of heart trouble dreams 
of toiling uphill. Supernatural or spiritual dreams can not 
be traced, as they arise from the spirit and they may be 
messages from God or warnings of danger. Only the wise pay 
attention to dreams, says Paracelsus, the foolish pass them 
by. 

Modem students unhesitatingly accept the first three of the 
Freudian stimuli or dream sources: the fourth, however, at- 



DREAM ANALYSIS 153 

tributing a specific class of dream to purely psychical excita- 
tion, they challenge, contending that it opens the door for 
the debatable hypothesis of spiritism. 

Freudians universally agree that the source of every dream 
is a wish. 

Dr. Frink divides the wishes that may become dream 
sources as follows: 

I. Wishes originating during the day and remaining tmful- 
filled by accident, either from being crowded out of the mind 
by other things which absorb the attention, or because they 
are impossible of gratification. 

Petty problems and unpleasant situations of every day life 
are taken up in dreams and so adapted that the dreamer is 
relieved of unpleasant emotion. Things unattainable in wak- 
ing life are thus attainable in sleep, and as the dreamer escapes 
the annoyance of unsatisfied desire his slumber remains prac- 
tically undisturbed. 

II. Wishes that occur during the day but that are repressed 
for moral, ethical or other reasons. 

III. Wishes that were conscious in- early childhood, but 
that were rejected in later life are frequently brought into 
dream-forming activity by some occurrence during the day. 

Dream students generally attach great importance to the 
third class of dream inciters, although they do not regard 
them as the sole source of dreams, as do ultra-Freudians. 

Biblical students classify the dream according to the manner 
in which the vision appeared to the dreamer. Their classifi- 
cation falls into four groups. 

1. Purely s)anbolic dreams as instanced in Joseph's earlier 
visions, to which Jacob, his father, attached little importance. 

2. Dreams characterized by divine manifestation sufficiently 
obvious to be recognized. Exemplified in the appearance of 
the angel to Joseph, "Behold the angel of the Lord appeared 
to Joseph in a dream, saying : Arise, take the young child and 
his motiier and flee into Eg3rpt," etc. Matthew ii, 13. 

3. Purely prophetic dreams, without celestial or angelic in- 



154 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

terposition. These usually require interpretation, as in Nebu- 
chadnezzar's dreams, those of Pharaoh's butler and the baker. 

4. Moral warnings, threats or promises, generally symbolic. 
Jacob's dream of the ladder stretching to heaven is of this 
group. 

Laurentius, a Christian bishop and a contemporary of Para- 
celsus, classifies dreams clearly and distinctly. 

1. Dreams of Nature (those produced by external causes). 

2. Dreams of the mind (based on memories). 

3. Dreams of God and of the Devil. 

A comparatively modern treatise classifies under separate 
headings. Dreams, Oracles, Reveries and Apparitions. The 
first class are purely symbolical and frequently require inter- 
pretation, as in Pharaoh's dream of the seven kine. The sec- 
ond class, or Vision, is immediately prophetic and is recognized 
by the dreamer on awakening, as in the instance of Elijah, 
who when pursued by the malice of Jezebel of the feminine 
foible for cosmetics which afterwards led to her undoing, fled 
to Beersheba and from there a day's journey into the wilder- 
ness : "as he lay under a juniper tree behold an angel of the 
Lord touched him and said to him, arise, and eat." — Kings, xix. 

The third class, the Oracle, is manifested through an angel 
or divine messenger, as when the angel appeared to the shep- 
herds on the night of the Nativity. 

In the fourth class, that of the Apparition or Phantom, 
the dreamer does not himself recognize whether he is waking 
or sleeping, as in the story of Whittington who heard the 
London bells calling him to return. 

Modem Gypsies classify dreams symbolically under three 
headings: Dreams relating to Animals, to Objects and to Ce- 
lestial Things. Those relating to animals find their origin in 
the passions; those relating to natural objects imply the 
dreamer's physical condition ; those relating to things celestial 
require no definition, as they appear only to the few who un- 
derstand them and who do not discuss them with the light- 
minded or curious. 



DREAM ANALYSIS 155 

The Gypsy classification of the dream of animals as repre- 
senting human passions coincides with the theory of Freud, 
Jung and other modems, who likewise attribute animal dreams 
to this source. The Gypsy, however, is less narrow than the 
scientist in that he grants the existence of several basic mo- 
tives unconnected with the sex motive. The Gypsies derive 
their dream lore from their progenitors, the Chaldeans, to 
whose customs they have clung with extraordinary tenacity 
through centuries of nomadic wanderings. 

Moses Amyraldus (1657) published a discourse on "Divine 
Dreams," in which he gave a method for testing the origin of 
visions. One must question whether the dream contain an in- 
timation of such things as are only consistent for God to 
know and to reveal, or whether it deal with facts already 
known ; in the latter case the dream is worthless. 

Homer and Solomon alike recognize the distinction between 
brain clouds and significant dreams of warning or prophecy. 

The oriental imagination of the great, wise king revels in 
gorgeous vision and sumptuous symbol, yet there is a world 
of childlike simplicity and faith in his wistful request for 
wisdom, when God appeared to his dream in Gibeon. 

Homer's "Golden dreams" that "descend from Jove," are of 
psychological, literary and historic value. Clytemnestra's 
dream of the Fall of Troy is portentous prophecy, and no ex- 
perience of modem spiritism can vie with the vision of 
Achilles to whom the dead Patroclus comes in sleep and who 
tries in vain to grasp him with long, bony hands, but the soul, 
like smoke, flies away beneath the earth. The deceitful dream 
with which Zeus beguiled Agamemnon is as clear an example 
of dream illusion as a modern psychoanalyst could create or 
cite. 

Pliny notes that the dream after wine or food is without 
significance. Like the Greeks, Romans and Arabs, he attaches 
vast meaning to certain dreams. First in importance are those 
before dawn; next those during the noontide nap, and third 
those during the season of ripe f mit. 



156 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

Freud has most nearly succeeded in drawing dream analysis 
into the range of a scientific formula. His technique — ^which 
he terms his dream mechanism — is almost universally adopted, 
even by those who reject his interpretation. 

The first step in dream analysis consists in the division of 
the dream into its component factors. These are primarily: 
First: the actual text of the dream. Second: the hidden 
thought which these dream pictures represent. Technically 
these parts are called the Manifest Content and the Lat- 
ent Content. 

The Manifest Content merely represents what is dreamed 
of in an abstract or symbolical form. The Latent Content is 
the hidden part of the dream and requires interpretation. The 
Manifest Content requires no intellectual effort, the Latent 
Content does the thinking. The determining of the Latent Con- 
tent is the most important part of dream interpretation and 
one in which the older writers and interpreters were espe- 
cially proficient; this is demonstrated by their skill in inter- 
preting the dreams of the kings of old. 

Joseph's dream of binding sheaves in the field with his 
brethren, when his own sheaf stood upright and those of his 
brothers made obeisance to it, furnishes an example of the two 
contents. The sheaves and the attendant circumstances fur- 
nish the manifest content, the latest content is supplied in the 
implied superiority of Joseph's position above his brethren as 
symbolized by the upright sheaf. Anciently this was construed 
into prophecy of Joseph's future greatness. In the modern 
dream interpretation the contents would have been the same, 
but the latent content would have been labeled as showing a 
tendency to self-esteem on Joseph's part; a characteristic, 
however, that is open to various constructions, and accord- 
ing to certain schools of modern thought, one that augured 
well for the dreamer's rise in the world. 

Whether consciously or not, the manifest and latent con- 
tent are utilized in every dream analysis and interpretation. 

Bergson declares that the Freudian dreams invariably have 



DREAM ANALYSIS 157 

a meaning, but that it is never what it appears to be. This is 
literally true; by an elaboration of the process of resolving 
a dream into its several contents, each dream is traced to its 
cranny in the subconsciousness and dragged forth, aired and 
translated into startling thoughts with a thoroughness that 
spares no reservation of the hapless dream-self. 

The first step, according to Freud's method, consists in 
dividing the dream into the Manifest Content and the Lat- 
ent Content. The former being obvious is easily found ; to find 
the Latent Content however is a more difficult matter, for to the 
Freudian the Latent Content of a dream is the exemplification 
alike of a theory and a psychic problem. It invariably finds its 
origin in a suppressed, childish wish, usually of an erotic 
nature, and probably representing a desire which a normal, 
civilized man would feel inclined to repress- This invariably 
erotic meaning to every dream is the chief source of discord 
between the Freudian school and the other schools of dream 
interpretation. 

Having decided upon the respective contents, the next step 
in dream analysis is to convert the Latent Content into the 
Manifest Content, in other words to bring the hidden mean- 
ing of the Latent Content into the broad and easily compre- 
hended light of the Manifest Content. However simple this 
may sound, it is something of an intricate process owing to 
the careful repression on the part of the Manifest Content, 
and owing also to the general unwillingness of dreamers to ac- 
cept the Freudian interpretation of the Latent Content. 

A third element in the modem dream, one that the older 
oneirocritics do not employ in their mechanism, is the Censor. 
This is, figuratively speaking, a bar to the gate of consciousness, 
past which dreams do not slip if they are either outwardly 
reprehensible, or of such a nature as to awaken the dreamer. 
To this Censor the Manifest Content owes its entire existence, 
for without the Censor the Manifest Content would become 
tinged with the inevitable eroticism of the Latent Content and 
therefore part of it. 



^ 



158 THE FABMC OF DREAMS 

The methods employed by the Latent Content for passing 
the Censor are many. Symbols, innuendoes, allegories^ hints, 
puns, veiled suggestion, anything, in fact by which a dream 
idea may slip past the Censor's gate and express the dreamer's 
hidden desire. 

The dream of the death of a parent, held by Freud as a 
typical dream of frequent recurrence, a wish dream of un- 
varying significance, furnishes an example of the Latent Con- 
tent, Manifest Content and the work of the Censor. The 
Manifest Content is obviously the dream itself, i.e., of the 
mother's death. The latent Content Freud discovers in the 
hidden wish, the wish that the mother might die. The dream 
passes the Censor through its apparent harmlessness. 
/ The following example of Freudian and modem dream 
' analysis is taken from a series of lectures given by an Ameri- 
/ can follower of Freud. The phrasing is slightly altered, but 
the substance is the same. 

A young woman dreamed that she walked up Fifth Avenue 
with a girl friend. They paused before a milliner's window, 
looked at the hats and, in her dream, she purchased one. Here 
the Manifest Cont«nt is evidently the walk up Fifth Avenue 
and the purchase of a hat. For the Latent Content we must 
wander afield. On the day before her dream the young woman 
had actually taken a walk on Fifth Avenue with the friend of 
her dream; she had, however, not bought a hat although she 
had looked in the milliner's window. The analyst therefore 
holds as the Latent Content (necessarily a wish) the desire for 
a hat that the dreamer could not afford. This desire, however, 
is not sufficiently strong nor morbid for a dream incentive, 
there must be a still more complex Latent Content. Question- 
ing elicits the fact that dreamer's husband was ill at the time 
of her dream. Although the wife was aware that the illness 
was not serious, she showed an unreasoning fear that harm 
might come of it; she refused to leave his bedside even for 
a moment and showed such morbid anxiety, that her husband 
himself at length coaxed her to go for a walk, in the hope 



DREAM ANALYSIS 159 

that she would return in a happier mood. In this abnormal 
anxiety the analyst found his Latent Content. The conversa- 
tion between the dreamer and her friend next awaits investi- 
gation. She admits that among other subjects the name of a 
man whom she had known before her marriage was men- 
tioned. Formerly he had been rather attentive to her, but she 
had not regarded his attentions as serious, he being her supe- 
rior in wealth. This condition presented the sex question, es- 
sential to the Freudian analysis, combined with the element of 
female vanity, an offshoot of the sex question, as represented 
in the desire for a hat. The dreamer admitted that she would 
have liked to have had one had she been able to afford it. In 
the dream, however, having bought the hat, she established the 
strength of the suppressed wish. 

The style of hat purchased in the dream next claims the 
analyst's attention. The dreamer thinks it was a black hat. 

This admission, insignificant on the surface, is held as im- 
portant by the analyst. The symbolism of black is mourning, 
the determining factor of the unexpressed wish is a symbol 
of death. Analysis therefore shows the mourning hat as 
the true key to the dream. The abnormal disquiet at the 
thought of the husband's death in the waking life is merely 
an hysterical effort at concealing the desire expressed in the 
black hat, namely that the husband might die in order that 
the subject might marry a richer man. In the dream the sub- 
ject had the money that she did not possess in real life. The 
purchase of a hat on Fifth Avenue suggests a wealthy hus- 
band. 

In the example we have the Manifest Content or the dream 
as the dreamer sees it. The Latent Content or the story as 
interpreted by the Analyst, and the Censor or guardian of 
the patient's self-respect, who forces the use of the Latent 
Content. 
^^"In the Latent Content the dream material seems to con- 
/ cem matters which were very trivial," observes the eminent 
authority to whom we are indebted for the analysis. 



i6o THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

This probing the soul for secrets to be turned frcMn the 
Latent Content into the Manifest is called the Dream Work. 

This Dream Work embodies four processes: First, Con- 
densation ; Second, Dream Mechanism ; Third, Dramatization ; 
Fourth, Elaboration. 

Condensation consists of the process of condensing the 
Latent Content and its factors into the Manifest Content. 
The Latent Content is frequently scattered, elaborate and diffi- 
cult to find. One element of the Manifest Content is usually 
composed of several elements in the Latent Content, as when 
the purchase of a new hat symbolized both the death of the 
dreamer's husband and escape from poverty through a desir- 
able marriage.^ ^ 

' Condensation is a fusion of the memory of several different 
scenes or objects into new scenes or objects, or the combina- 
tion of different persons into one person; also the changing 
of different words and sentences into seemingly senseless 
phrase§/br neologisms. The dreams of Alice, in "Alice in 
Wonderland" are examples of Condensation. 

Dream Mechanism is called Displacement. ^ is a clever 
mancEUvre on the part of the Latent Content to escape the 
Censor by making important ideas in the Latent Content seem 
unimportant in the Manifest Content. Through displacement, 
the unwary are lured into revealing their dreams. 

In the example cited above, the walk up Fifth Avenue is 
the most important part of the Manifest Content, but it is 
the least important part of the Latent Content. 

Dramatization, or the Dream-forming Mechanism, is the 
means by which the Latent Content is represented in con- 
sciousness, for, J>e^ it remembered, that in a dream all the 
thinking is done in the unconscious and consists of pictures 
represented by the unconscious dream thoughts, the expres- 
sion of the Latent Content through visualization, or turning 
into pictures, pantomime or moving pictures the ccmiponents 
of a dream. The dreamer is invariably represented in a 
dream and is usually the central figure, or chief actor. 



DREAM ANALYSIS 161 

Elaboration is the waking process under which the dreamer's 
conscious mind forms the dream into a story with a certain 
logical sequence and coherence. The longer the dreamer 
waits before recalling the dream the more this process loses 
in accuracy. In other words, dreams should be repeated and 
recorded as soon after waking as practicable. 

The dreamer is directed to fix his attention upon the dream 
and to relate it as accurately as possible, withholding nothing 
from the analyst. Then he must allow his mind to wander 
at will; wholly abandoning any tendency to direct or to 
\ criticise his thought, he must relate everything that occurs to 
him. Nothing must be kept back, no matter how unpleasant 
or trivial it may seem. 

"The information thus obtained is never personal. It deals 
with a person's inmost secrets and reveals to a surprising 
extent the influence of the sexual and infantile upon adult 
life, the Latent Content is always logically formed and per- 
fectly coherent." — Freud. 

Freud himself admits that his process of analysis is compli- 
cated and at first rather difficult, but he adds that it well 
repays the trouble. 

Opinions vary as to the practical value of the Freudian 
analysis ; many hold it as a most valuable method of procedure. 

A. W. Van Renterghem, M.D., Amsterdam, writes as fol- 
lows: 

"When we finally comprehend the true meaning of a dream, 
then we at once feel ourselves transported into the very midst 
of the secrets of the dreamer, and to our amazement we see 
that even an apparently meaningless dream is full of sense 
and really bears witness of extremely important and serious 
things pertaining to the soul life. This knowledge obliges us to 
have more respect for old superstitions concerning the mean- 
ing of dreams, a respect which is far to seek in our present 
day rationalism." 

Jung, Freud's former pupil, now his greatest rival, uses the 
Freudian form, though the substance of the interpretation is 



i62 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

less materialistic. He agrees with Freud in holding dreams as 
symbolical or artificial substitutes for personally important 
wishes of the waking self, those which had received too little 
attention at the time or which had been suppressed. 

Jung has created a iiew term, "libido," which he uses to 
express a force inclusive of but deeper than mere sexuality; 
something in the nature of Bulwer-Lytton's Vril or of Berg- 
son's Elan Vital; the energy of life that, while manifesting 
in sex, also manifests in other physiological and psychological 
processes. Anger, hunger, jealousy, ambition, struggles, the 
urge of higher ideals, growth, mental and physical, originate 
from this force. , 

Instead of tracing every dream to unfulfilled sexual de- 
sires, framed in the occurrences of the day before, yet 
originating in infancy or childhood, Jung attributes many 
dreams to attempts at compensation for ungratified wishes 
and ideals. "In short they are a sort of artificial substitute 
for the unfulfilled reality." He also construes the striving 
or libido as the origin of the myths and traditions of the dawn 
of humanity. 

Dr. Isidor H. Coriat interprets dreams after the Freudian 
method with two slight variations. The process is less com*^ 
plicated and the eroticism less obtrusive. He elaborates Re- 
pression, or the work of the Censor into a positive factor and 
adds a fifth mechanism to Freud's four. This mechanism 
Coriat terms Reinforcement. It is defined as: "The rein- 
forcement or strengthening of the wish of the first dream by 
a second dream following the first dream in the same night." 
Although Freud does not make use of the term, he mentions 
the fact that dreams occurring during the same night, how- 
ever diflFerent as to form, are always related or correlated. 

Pharaoh's dream of the kine and of the corn furnishes an ex- 
ample of Reinforcement, and Joseph proves his skill as an in- 
terpreter even according to ultra-modem methods in attribut- 
ing the same meaning to both dreams. 



DREAM ANALYSIS 163 

Coriat acknowledge the importance of symbols in dream 
interptetations and makes use of typical dreams. 

A typical interpretation from his "Meaning of Dreams" is 
the case of a young man who after a delightful visit to some 
friends, returned home and dreamed that a bed of bulbs 
planted by his hosts during his sojourn had burst into leaf 
and blossom. Dr. Coriat translates this dream as expressing 
a desire that the visit might have been prolonged to the length 
of time that is normally required for bulbs to leaf and blos- 
som. He adds : "The wish in the dream is perfectly clear.'* 

Havelock Ellis gives four methods of dream interpretation : 

First, the Literary, by which all books are taken. 

Second, the Clinical, derived from personal observation, with 
the summarizing and analysis of results. 

Third, the Experimental. 

Fourth, the Introspective. 

"By learning to observe and to understand the ordinary 
night experiences of dream-life, we shall be laying the foun- 
dation of future superstructures. 

"For rightly understood, dreams may furnish us with the 
clews of the whole life." 

Havelock Ellis's conclusions as to the psychic conditions 
during sleep differ fundamentally from those of the Freudian 
school. The relaxation of the will, the narrowing of the 
voluntary attention, while the involuntary mind broadens and 
sweeps into the vastnesses of the world of the subconscious, he 
regards as forming an entirely new mental order. This he ad- 
mits may be a more truly natural and even rational order than 
that of the waking state. He cites his own dreams as ex- 
amples, many of which he traces to inherited memory, or to 
half forgotten experiences. He does not attach importance 
to each and every dream, nor does he recognize a possible 
prophetic value. He has no elaborate mechanism for re- 
solving a dream into its elements, and his symbolism is en- 
tirely modem. He interprets the large majority of his own 
dreams by tracing their origin to sensory stimuli, which are 



i64 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

translated to the subconsciousness and retranslated into 
dreams. Many of these stimuli are responsible for the so- 
called typical dreams which will be given later in the chapter. 
The color sense in a dream, for instance, Havelock Ellis at- 
tributes to a cerebral disturbance on the part of the dreamer. 
Speech disturbances in dreams, Havelock Ellis attributes 
to some deep disturbance of thought, such as occurs in sen- 
sorial aphasia. The Freudians, it will be remembered, call 
these disturbances part of Condensation, one of the Freudian 
mechanisms. A typical dream analysis according to the Ellis 
system, is given in the following: 

A physician, ill himself with influenza, dreamed that in 
the course of a conversation with one of his neighbors, he had 
placed his hand upon her knee. She requested him to re- 
move it, but to his horror he was unable to do so. He awak- 
ened, horrified at finding himself in a position so incom- 
patible with professional dignity, and found his own hand be- 
tween his own knees. This dream is easily and logically trace- 
able to its source. 

He does not agree with Freud in banishing morality from 
the dream world, although he frequently traces dreams to 
childish wishes and desires. Again they may have their origin 
in elements perceived at some time in the life, but long since 
forgotten. In many instances there is a transposition of facts, 
and the element of Displacement enters largely into the dream- 
life, though without necessarily having an erotic motive. 

The classification into sensorial, auditory and visual stimuli 
renders the Ellis analysis comparatively simple, and while it 
is undoubtedly of physical value, its psycho-therapeutic use 
is inconsiderable. 

A comparison of the methods of the past and those of the 
present does not result in an entire concession of superiority 
to the students of our own era. Undoubtedly the dream 
analyses and interpretations of the past were as skillful and 
as accurate as those of to-day; and where the modern psy- 
chologist pauses and questions, the older philosophers and 



DREAM ANALYSIS 165 

prophets went forward, superbly confident in their convictions 
until they rent the veil of futurity and sounded the human 
soul. 

The antagonistic views of the modem cults of dream analy- 
sis find a precedent in the theories of Plato and Aristotle. The 
latter, though conceding that in many instances a dream might 
be of divine origin, attributed them for the most part to 
physical sources, headache, hunger, cold, etc. 

Biblical dreams, apart from their element of prophecy, fur- 
nish in many cases clear examples of dream interpretation and 
analysis. Like the modem dreams they are frequently symboli- 
cal or allegorical in form, both symbol and allegory befitting 
the age and people to whom they refer. The adaptation of 
dream symbols and allegories to the intellectual and psychic 
development of their dreamers is quoted as a potent argu- 
ment against both the prophets and the spiritual quality of 
dreams, despite the salient fact that the Power capable of 
sending prophetic or inspired dreams would scarcely com- 
mit the blunder of employing symbolism beyond the compre- 
hension of the dreamer. The symbolism that would appeal 
to a Scotch Covenanter, for instance, would scarcely make 
an impression upon a Mahommedan, while on the other hand, 
a Covenanter whose dream savored of the most highly vir- 
tuous ideals possible to a Moslem might awake to find himself 
thoroughly ashamed. 

The dreams of Pharaoh (Genesis xli, 8) as interpreted by 
Joseph are bits of keen analysis that would be creditable to the 
most skillful modem student. 

"And behold there came up out of the river seven well-fav- 
ored kine and fat-fleshed and they fed in a meadow. 

"And behold seven other kine came up after them out of 
the river, ill-favored and lean-fleshed and stood by the other 
kine upon the brink of the river. 

"And the ill-favored and lean-fleshed kine did eat v^ ;.he 
well-favored and fat. So Pharaoh awoke. 



i66 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

''And he slept and dreamed a second time ; and behold seven 
ears of com came up upon one stalk rank and good. 

"And behold seven thin ears and blasted with the east wind 
sprung up after them. 

"And the seven thin ears devoured the seven full ears. And 
Pharaoh awoke and behold it was a dream." 

The modem scientific analysis of these two dreams is evi- 
dently similar to the method by which Joseph achieved his 
interpretation and, incidentally, prophecy. And that the in- 
terpretation was scientific and methodical, and not haphazard, 
is proven by the frequency with which Joseph was called upon 
for interpretation. Reinforcement, Coriat's fifth Dream Mech- 
anism, has already been mentioned in this connection as weld- 
ing two dreams into one idea. 

The kine and the ears represent the Manifest Content or 
apparent subject of the vision; the river, the number seven 
and the act of devouring or absorbing, form the Latent Con- 
tent, and very distinct examples of Dramatization. For 
Joseph to have questioned Pharaoh upon his dream was pat- 
ently unnecessary in an instance whose content was so truly 
patriotic and obviously full of kingly anxiety for the country 
and the people. Persons who have lived in an irrigated 
country will readily realize the source of the royal solici- 
tude. Egypt as an agricultural land was dependent upon the 
Nile for its welfare, and any monarch who had proper care 
for his subjects would naturally have watched the weather 
and its auguries for years of famine or of plenty, as the case 
might be. Amid the wildest of the kingly revels, or while 
taking part in the most solemn of the Egyptian ceremonials, 
the ever wakeful subconsciousness would doubtless note the 
gathering of flocculent, far-off clouds, forming the distant 
snows whose melting filled the river that fed old Egypt. The 
bucolic symbolism of the kine and of the ears is obvious. Not 
so, however, according to modern methods, is the number 
seven, iterated into notice four times. 



DREAM ANALYSIS 167 

Josq)h's first observation on hearing Pharaoh relate his 
dream is strictly in accord with modem theories of analysis. 

"The dream of Pharaoh is one." He then proceeds to in- 
terpret the symbolism. "The seven good kine are seven years, 
and the seven good ears are seven years." Then, for the Lat- 
ent Content, the fear that must haunt the heart of every 
dweller of the desert: "And the seven thin and ill-favored 
kine that came up after them are seven years, and the seven 
empty years blasted with the east wind shall be seven years 
of famine." 

The number seven, for which modern dream analysis fails 
to account, despite the importance attached to it by repeti- 
tion, Joseph construes as the most important element of the 
d^eam, that of prophecy. Whether the elimination of this 
ancient constituent of the dream has strengthened the art of 
dream interpretation, or has weakened it, is a mooted ques- 
tion. 

The dreams of Nebuchadnezzar are amenable to modem 
anal3rtical methods. 

Daniel ii, 31. "Thou, O King, sawest and behold a great 
image: This great image whose brightness was excellent, 
stood before thee and the form thereof was terrible. 

"The image's head was of fine gold, his breast and his arms 
of silver, his belly and his thighs of brass. 

'His legs of iron, his feet part of iron and of clay. 
Thou sawest till that a stone was cut without hands, which 
smote the image upon his feet that were of iron and clay 
and brake them to pieces. 

"Then was the iron, the clay, the brass, the silver and the 
gold, broken to pieces together, and became like the chaff of 
the summer threshing floors ; and the wind carried them away, 
that no place was found for them: and the stone that smote 
the image became a great mountain and filled the whole 
earth." 

The Manifest Content of this dream is plainly the great, 
golden image that Nebuchadnezzar had in mind at the time 



it' 



i68 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

and that he erected not long afterwards in the plain of Dura, 
in the province of Babylon, and before which he commanded 
the mighty men of his realm to bow down and worship. His 
fury at the refusal of Shadrach, Meshach and Abed-Nego, 
is an index of the king's mental condition. Of this condition 
Daniel must have been aware and naturally his knowledge as- 
sisted him in the discovery df the Latent Content of the 
dream. 

The Latent Content includes the several elements of the clay 
and iron feet of the statue, the stone cut without hands that 
became a mountain and filled the earth. The interpretation 
of the Latent Content is Fear. It is rendered concrete in 
the knowledge of Daniel's mysterious power; subconsciously 
it forecasts the fall of his nation through the various races 
that will not amalgamate, typified by the metals representing 
the various portions of the statue; and finally awe of the 
Unknown God is personified in the wind and in the power that 
wielded the stone. The erection of the statue was evidently 
an attempt on the part of the objective to uproot fear from 
the subjective mind. 

Apart from the prophecy, which was verified, Daniel's in- 
terpretation is in scientific order : 

"For thou, O King, art a king of kings: for the God of 
heaven hath given thee a kingdom, power and strength and 
glory. 

. . . Thou are this head of gold. 

'And after thee shall arise another kingdom inferior to thee, 
and another third kingdom of brass, which shall bear rule 
over the earth. 

"And the fourth kingdom shall be strong as iron forasmuch 
as iron breaketh in pieces and subdueth all things. . . . 

"And whereas thou sawest the feet and toes, part of potters' 
clay and part of iron, the kingdom shall be divided ; but there 
shall be in it of the strength of the iron, forasmuch as thou 
sawest the iron mixed with miry clay ... So the kingdom 
shall be partly strong and partly broken . . . they shall mingle 



it 



DREAM ANALYSIS 169 

themselves with men, but they shall not cleiave one to another, 
even as iron is not mixed with clay." 

The prophetic element in Nebuchadnezzar's second dream 
is sufficiently pathological to satisfy Dr. Coriat, Dr. Brill, or 
even Dr. Freud. 

"Thus were the visions of mine head in my bed ; I saw and 
behold a tree in the midst of the earth, and the height thereof 
was great. 

"The leaves thereof were fair and the fruit thereof much, 
and in it was meat for all ; the beasts of the field had shadow 
under it and the fowls of heaven dwelt in the boughs thereof, 
and all flesh was fed of it. I saw in the visions of my head 
upon my bed and behold, a watcher and an holy one came 
down from heaven. 

"He cried aloud and said thus: Hew down the tree, and 
cut off his branches, shake off his leaves and scatter his fruit ; 
let the beasts get away from under it, and the fowls from 
his branches. 

"Nevertheless, leave the stump of his roots in the earth, 
even with band of iron and brass in the tender grass of the 
field; and let it be wet with the dew of heaven, and let his 
portion be with the beasts in the grass of the earth. 

"Let his heart be changed from a man's and let a beast's 
heart be given unto him ; and let seven times pass over him." 

The vision of the tree is the Manifest Content, an evident 
disguise of the terrifying fact revealed by the Latent Content 
in the destruction of the tree as a poisonous, harmful thing. 
The heart too was changed to the heart of a beast, a reinforce- 
ment of the idea in the Latent Content, which is purely patho- 
logical and formed from the king's subconscious knowledge 
of his own physical condition, rapidly approaching the climax 
which should send him forth with the beasts of the field until 
his "understanding returned to him." 

In view of the affliction to which this dream was a psycho- 
physiological forerunner, there is small wonder that the 
prophet should have remained a whole hour ''while his 



170 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

thoughts troubled him" before giving his interpretation, which 
he knew would be verified. 

Homer's method of interpretation was similar to that of 
the Biblical characters. He makes Ulysses interpret and care- 
fully verify his wife's dream: 

■ 

"But I have dreamed. Hear and expound my dream! 
My geese are twenty: which within my halls 
I feed with sodden wheat: they serve to muse 
Sometimes my sorrow. From the mountains came 
An eagle, huge, hooked-beaked, brake all their necks 
And slew them: scattered on the palace floor 
They lay, and he soared swift into the skies. 
Dream only as it was, I wept aloud ; 
Till all my maidens, gathered by my voice 
Arriving, found me weeping still, and still 
Complaining that an eagle had at once 
Slain all my geese. But to my palace roof 
Swooping again he sat, and with a voice 
Of human sound, my tears forbidding, said — 
Take courage, daughter of the glorious chief 
Icarius : no vain dream hast thou beheld. 
But in thy sleep a truth. The slaughtered geese 
Denote thy suitors, and myself 
Who seem an eagle on thy sight, am yet indeed 
Thy husband, who have now, at last, returned. 
Death, horrid death, designing for them all.' 
He said : then waking at the voice, I cast 
An anxious look around, and saw my get§b 
Beside their tray, all feeding as before. 
Her then Ulysses answered, everwise— 
*0 Queen, interpretations cannot err 
Unless perversely, since Ulysses self 
So plainly spake the event. Since death impends 
O'er every suitor, he shall slay them all.' " 



DREAM ANALYSIS 171 

Cicero in his work on "Divination" gives an example of 
dream interpretation by the magi, held as sages and teachers 
in Persia- 
Cyrus dreamed that "beholding the sun at his feet he thrice 
endeavored to grasp it with his hands, but the sun rolled 
away and departed and escaped him." Interpreted the dream 
ran: "The three attempts of Cyrus to catch the sun in his 
hands signified that he would reign thirty years." 

Cicero adds : "And what they predicted really came to pass ; 
for he was forty years old when he began to reign and 
reached the age of seventy." 

Herodotus gives an example of dream interpretation by 
the world famous interpreters of Telmessus in Caria. 

Croesus, the king whose name has become symbolic, saw in 
his dream the whole suburbs of his capital filled with ser- 
pents, and as soon as they appeared, the horses, forsaking 
their pastures, came and devoured them. Croesus sent im- 
mediately to have the dream interpreted, but before his mes- 
sengers could reach him with the interpretation as given by 
the Carians, the dream and its auguries had been verified and 
Croesus had been taken prisoner. The interpretation given 
by the oracle ran as follows : that Croesus must expect a for- 
eign army to invade his country, which on its arrival would 
subdue the natives ; because, they said, the serpent was a son 
of the earth, the horse is an enemy and a stranger." — Herod- 
otus Clio, 78. 

Plutarch's story of Eumenes, the Cardian, one of Alexan- 
der's generals, is a charming instance of a dream suggested by 
external stimuli. 

In his dream Eumenes saw two Alexanders ready to engage 
in battle, each commanding his several phalanxes, the one as- 
sisted by Minerva, the other by Ceres. After a hot dispute 
Minerva was beaten by Ceres, and gathering ears of com, 
Ceres wove them into a crown for .the victor. This vision 
Eumenes interpreted as boding his own success, for he was to 
fight for Cappadocia, at that very time covered with young 



172 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

corn. Furthermore he was encouraged by the enemy's pass- 
word which was Minerva and Alexander. Accordingly he gave 
out his word as Ceres and Alexander and ordered his men to 
make garlands for themselves and to dress their arms with 
wreaths of corn. Eumenes achieved great reputation for valor 
after Ih is victory over Craterus. 

The interpretation of the so-called T)rpical Dream is a 
simple process by reason of the universality of these dreams, 
and the fact that they are more or less due to outward stimuli. 
They are common to all races and conditions of men and are 
accepted by physiologists, psychologists, seers and scientists, 
by reason alike of their frequent recurrence and of a certain 
similarity of content. 

Coriat defines the typical dreams as "the unconscious think- 
ing of the human race," and declares that they deal with 
unpleasant subjects without giving rise to unpleasant emo- 
tions. 

The number of typical dreams is necessarily limited; the 
following list comprises the most universally recognized : 

Flying, Falling, Swimming or Floating, Levitation, Naked- 
ness, Standing upon the edge of a precipice. Dreams of dead 
persons, of the Death of Relatives, Losing a tooth or having 
one drawn, Tietum to school-days. Dreaming of lakes, rivers, 
etc.. Dreams of burglars. Dreams of climbing. 

To the dreams given above Freud adds dreams of missing 
a train and of the anxiety attendant upon school examina- 
tions, and four typical erotic dreams, to wit : Passing through 
narrow alleys; passing through suites of rooms; being pur- 
sued by wild animals, horses, bulls, etc.; being threatened 
with knives, daggers, etc. 

The interpretations of these dreams and their attributed ori- 
gins are given herewith. 

The Dream of Flying. — Havelock Ellis terms this the 
most usual of the typical dreams. He traces to it the day 
of man's first transcendent, heavenward thought; we owe to 
it the legend of Icarus; the story of the winged feet of 



DREAM ANALYSIS 173 

Mercury, the tutelary god of the dream. St. Jerome and 
the happy pagan bishop Synesius attributed it to God's grace. 
Yet despite its lordly history, according to Mr. Ellis, the 
origin of this dream is humble ; it is due to the rh)rthmic ris- 
ing and falling of the sleeper's respiratory organs — ^with 
the possibility of a snore ! In substantiation of this view he 
instances cases of persons who have drawn near the brink of 
death, and having lost consciousness, have had the sensa- 
tion of flying, as though the soul were taking flight. 

Freud attributes this dream to erotic sources, although he 
admits that it may have several interpretations. 

Manaceine mentions the deadening of normal sensations 
during slumber as responsible for this dream, while Ad- 
dington Bruce agrees with Havelock Ellis in regard to res- 
piration, but adds another possible cause, namely the freedom 
from tactile pressure produced when waking by the boots or 
by the contact of the ground and the soles of the feet. 

Coriat defines the flying dream as having its origin in a 
childhood desire to be freed from conventionality and re- 
straint. He says that this dream is invariably characterized by 
a keen sense of delight and freedom. 

Stanley Hall with the courage of true greatness attributes 
the flying dream to atavism, or ancestral memory. 

None of these explanations, with the exception of those of 
Freud and of Coriat, are incompatible with the Christian faith 
or with that of the theosophists, who construe this dream as 
a corroboration of their belief in the flight of the spirit. Oc- 
cultism also upholds the flying dream as an actual experience of 
the soul. Among the exercises given by occult teachers for the 
control of the astral forces, etc., is the practise of rhythmic 
breathing. Swedenborg's power as a seer, it is said by his biog- 
raphers, was largely due to his rhythmic breathing, which he 
utilized unconsciously to induce a state of trance. 

T3rpical dreams frequently furnish Gypsy interpreters with 
a clew, when geomancy and symbolism are complicated. The 
Gypsies interpret flying as a fortunate dream. 



174 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

Raphael, on the contrary, qualifies it thus: "To dream of 
flying denotes that you will escape many difficulties and 
dangers: If you dream that you are trying to fly very high, 
you will aspire to a position that you will never reach and 
for which you are not qualified." 

A Witches Dream-book gives the following: 

"To servants this means liberty; to the poor it is a dream 
of riches. To fly very high from the earth and without 
wings is fear and danger, as also to fly over the houses and 
through the streets and forlorn ways signifies trouble and 
sedition." 

Hovering, Gliding, Ascending or Rising and Falling 
are attributed generally to the same sources as the dream 
of fl)ring. 

Havelock Ellis, however, adds that as a rule the falling 
dream comes at the end of a flying dream and that being usu- 
ally accompanied by fear, it presupposes an organic origin, per- 
haps a circulatory or nervous trouble, even apoplexy or epi- 
lepsy. 

Freud attributes, it to eroticism, as in the case of the flying 
dream, but adds that in woman it frequently has its origin in 
the fear of a moral downfall. He classifies it as a typical, sex- 
ual dream of fear. 

Manaceine attributes the falling dream to the fact that on 
falling asleep the dreamer does not feel that he is supported 
by the bed, and that therefore he has the sensation of being 
in the air, i.e., unsupported. 

Bruce thinks the falling dream arises from some slight dis- 
turbance affecting the heart action. 

Raphael interprets this dream as foretelling the loss of a 
sweetheart ; to a sailor it augurs shipwreck. 

The gypsies generally agree that it augurs losses and crosses, 
unless the dreamer should pick himself up afterwards, in 
which case this dream foretells changes and movings. 

Swimming is generally attributed to the respiration, but 
Ellis qualifies this by adding that it is sometimes due to cu- 



DREAM ANALYSIS 175 

taneous sensations. Freud holds it as erotic dream associated 
with childish memories. Coriat classifies it among the dreams 
of freedom, flying, etc. 

Raphael and other dream interpreters are almost unani- 
mous in agreeing that to dream of swimming with the head 
well up is an augury of success in business and in love 
affairs ; with the head under water this dream implies trouble 
and unpleasant news; in dirty water slander and malice; if 
you dream of sinking ruin will follow. 

Nakedness or Being Insufficiently Clad. Freud and 
Ellis agree that this dream is due to the perception felt in 
sleep when one has thrown off the bed covers and is exposed. 
Freud divides this dream into two varieties, one in which the 
dreamer is indifferent to his condition, and the other in which 
the dreamer is overwhelmed with shame. The latter he classi- 
fies as having a sexual content. 

Coriat considers this dream as a residue of childish memo- 
ries, a desire to abandon all social restraint. 

The interpretations of the dream-books are more or less 
synonymous. 

Raphael, Poverty and disgrace ; Witches dream books trans- 
late it as disappointment, also a sign that the dreamer will 
suffer an affront. To the gypsy interpreters it augurs sick- 
ness, poverty and misfortune generally. 

In connection with this typical dream of nakedness, the 
following extract from Der Grune Heinrich by G. Keller il- 
lustrates the antiquity of the dream interpretations by the 
gypsies, witches, etc. 

"I do not wish, dear Lee, that you should ever come to 
realize from experience the peculiar, piquant truth contained 
in the situation of Odysseus, when he appears before Nausikaa 
and her playmates naked and covered with mud ! Would you 
like to know what it means? Let us consider the incident 
closely. If you are ever separated from your home and from 
everything that is dear to you, and wander about in a strange 
country, when you have seen and experienced much, when you 



176 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

have cares and sorrows, and are, perhaps, even miserable and 
forlorn, you will some night inevitably dream that you are ap- 
proaching your home ; you will see it shining and beaming in 
the most beautiful colors ; charming, delicate and lovely figures 
will meet you; and you will suddenly discover that you are 
going about in rags, naked and covered with dust. A nameless 
feeling of fear seizes you, you try to cover yourself and to 
hide ; and you awaken bathed in sweat. As long as men exist 
this will be the dream of the care-laden, fortune-battered man, 
and Homer has taken his situation from the profoundest 
depths of the eternal character of humanity." 

Dream of the Death of Parents or of Dead Persons. 
Freud and Coriat classify this as a wish dream, and they sub- 
divide it under two headings, the dream in which the dreamer 
is unmoved and the dream in which he is grieved. The dream 
without attendant grief is not a typical dream, in that it is 
used to cover another wish in the Latent Content. The dream 
attended by expressions of grief, however deep, is a desire for 
the death of the person dreamed of : if the wish does not exist 
at the time of the dream, it must have existed at some time 
in the past. Freud gives an example of a woman who dreamed 
that all her sisters and brothers suddenly grew wings and flew 
up into the sky. Of course, he says, the lady wished all her 
relatives dead or she would not have had this dream. 

Raphael and the popular dream authorities take the more 
normal view of this dream and translate it as foreboding sor- 
row and trouble. 

Falling Out of Teeth. This dream is attributed to dental 
irritation by all except the Freudian school, who define it as 
an erotic dream. 

Oneirocritics agree that it forecasts heavy sorrows. Raph- 
ael expresses the general view : *To dream that your teeth are 
very loose portends personal sickness ; that one comes out de- 
notes the loss of a friend or relative; that they all fall out is 
a sign of your own death." 

Return to School Days. This dream is classified as typi- 



DREAM ANALYSIS 177 

cal by Havelock Ellis, Foucault, Wundt and others, though 
Freud does not mention it. It is generally attributed to a 
cramped position of the body or the limbs, suggesting the 
restraint of a school desk. 

The Examination Dream, i. e., of passing through a school 
examination, Freud terms a typical dream; it occurs only to 
persons who have passed an examination, never to those who 
have failed. 

The Dream of Missing a Train. Freud classifies as a 
"consolation dream" directed against a fear, or the fear of 
dying. Havelock Ellis, on the contrary, attributes dreams of 
trains and railroads as due to headache. 

With a few exceptions the symbolical interpreters, gypsies, 
etc., agree that to see oneself in a railroad train augurs either 
a change of residence or a long journey. A few authorities, 
however, hold this dream to mean the visit of a friend from 
a distance. In this connection it is rather curious to note 
the agreement of authorities upon the subject of the dreams 
of older origin, while their disagreement upon the more mod- 
ern dreams, engines, railroads, electricity, etc., is almost in- 
evitable. 

Climbing a Hill, Sweating, Drawing Heavy Loads, etc. 
These dreams are with one accord attributed to pulmonary, 
respiratory or cardiac troubles; they manifest themselves in 
sleep through the subconsciousness before the waking mind 
has recognized them. The dream of Robert Louis Stevenson, 
previously quoted, is an illustration. 

The Dream of Burglars Breaking Into the House is at- 
tributed to sounds without which become exaggerated by the 
dream consciousness. Freud, however, traces this dream to 
erotic sources. 

Raphael declares that to dream of burglars and to overcome 
them signifies victory over enemies; to be defeated by the 
burglars signifies proportionate misfortune. 

Standing Upon the Brink of a Precipice is caused by 



178 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

lying diagonally across the bed with the feet extended beyond 
the edge. 

Artemidorus, as well as Raphael, construes this as a dream 
of warning, and the symbolism is obvious. 

Lakes, Springs, etc. These are attributed to a full bladder 
by Manaceine and others. 

Freud suspects them of erotic origin, while Raphael says 
that to dream of a glassy lake denotes prosperity and future 
happiness ; a muddy lake, on the contrary, is supposed to repre- 
sent loss and heavy cares. 

Havelock Ellis mentions contrast dreams as typical, and de- 
fines them as those which take the emotions of the day and 
invert them ; the classification of these dreams, however, is diffi- 
cult for the ordinary dream student. Freud divides typical 
dreams into three classes. Fear Dreams, Anxiety Dreams and 
Consolation Dreams 

The Anxiety dream, Freud announces as merely superficially 
attached to the idea containing it and coming from another 
source, to be inferred from a knowledge of the patient. An- 
xiety dreams may be psycho-neurotic in their nature; chief 
among them is that of failing to pass an examination. 

The dream of committing murder, while not precisely typi- 
cal in that it lacks unanimity as to its fundamental source, is 
nevertheless sufficiently universal to merit mention among the 
typical dreams. 

Freud attributes the dream of murder to the suppressed 
wish of the dreamer. Nacke and other writers claim that the 
dream is due to the innate vileness of the human heart when 
freed from conventional restraint. 

Havelock Ellis takes the optimistic view that especially sen- 
sitive persons dream of crime as they are frequently more im- 
aginative when sleeping than when awake. In proof of this 
theory he cites the sleep of criminals which is usually free from 
dreams, and those that they have are generally harmless. To 
which Freud replies that the most beautiful dream is commonly 
the most wicked in content. 



DREAM ANALYSIS 179 

Certain schools of philosophy hold the murder dream as 
an atavistic return to the psychic condition of our ancestors 
of ages back. 

Of thirteen popular dream-books, eight ignore the dream of 
murder; the five remaining agree with Raphael: "To dream 
you have committed a murder is an awfully portentous dream. 
It foretells your vicious life, the perpetration of evil and prob- 
ably imprisonment. After such a dream repent and abandon 
sin, or it will be the worse for you." 

The reader will not fail to find a certain analogy between the 
interpretation of typical dreams by modem psychologists and 
their translation by the much derided school of oneirocritics. 

Dreams resultant from physical stimuli are next in impor- 
tance to the typical dream as a connecting link between the 
psycho-physiological and the purely psychic world of dreams. 
Many of Freud's anxiety dreams come tmder this classifica- 
tion and Tissie assumes that all diseased organs of the human 
body impress their characteristic features upon the dream con- 
tents. Diseases of the lungs, for instance, give rise to dreams 
of suffocation, of crowds, and of flight. Boemer has even 
induced nightmare by lying on the face and closing up the 
openings of the respiratory organs. Paracelsus speaks of the 
dream of a nail being driven into the head as symptomatic of 
apoplexy. 

Havelock Ellis, who claims that the color sense is lacking in 
the normal dreamer, advances the opinion that when the 
dreamer sees colors in his sleep he manifests the symptoms of 
some cerebral disturbance. Many students, however, fail to 
endorse this thA)ry. 

The bodily senses are our medium of connection with the 
external world. We close our eyes, and lo, the universe is 
shut from our outer sight; we close our ears and find our- 
selves in a silence as profound as the darkness ; if disease de- 
stroys the sense of taste or smell, the world becomes insipid 
and odorless; when anaesthesia is produced upon any special 
part of the body, the sensation of life is gone therefrom, and 



i6o THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

yet, in sleep, with our eyes closed, and the body apparently un- 
conscious, it is sensitive to the smallest touch or sound. The 
desire to unravel this mystery of sleep has led to countless 
experiments upon sleeping persons. Various stimuli have been 
applied during slumber and then the subject aroused that he 
might give an account of the effect. Of course these purely 
sensory stimuli did not reach beyond the outer fringe of sleep, 
and yet the results have been interesting and at times sur- 
prising. The slightest touch, or suggestion in sleep may 
produce a dream. 

The time-honored theory of a heavy meal as the creator of 
evil dreams is rejected by the Freudians in favor of the more 
psychological but decidedly more nebulous hypothesis of the 
wish as an incentive to every dream. Many students, however, 
are reluctant to resign the established point of view, whether 
from personal observation, or whether from the fact that 
Galen, Hippocrates, Artemidorus and others have stamped it 
with their approval. In any event, the theory of heavy food 
as a dream incentive has withstood time. Paracelsus agrees 
with his predecessors as to this source of dreams and as to 
the unimportance of the dreams themselves, save as physical 
warnings against excess. Later we have no less an authority 
than MacNish, who instances Mrs. Radcliff, the author of "The 
Mysteries of Udolpho" and a "Romance of the Forest," as de- 
liberately consuming large quantities of indigestible food in 
order that she might behold more vividly the horrors por- 
trayed in her stories. We are also informed that in order to 
induce splendid dreams, Dryden and Fuselli ate raw flesh. 

The sensibilities seem in a measure preserved during sleep, 
for the sleeper can hear, feel or smell, although the workings 
of the sense organs are intensified or modified in some mysteri- 
ous fashion not as yet accounted for. In the case of disease, 
for example, premonitory symptoms frequently manifest more 
clearly to the sleeping than to the waking mind. A case in 
question is that of M. Terte, a minister of justice in the time of 



DREAM ANALYSIS 181 

Louis Philippe ; his dream of an attack of apoplexy preceded 
his death of that disease by three days. 

Macario, the first scientific writer on pathological dreams, 
recalls his own dream of a severe pain in his throat. On awak- 
ing he felt perfectly well, but a few hours later developed an 
acute attack of quinsy sore throat. Macario divided patho- 
logical dreams into three groups, prodromic dreams, or those 
preceding the disease ; symptomatic dreams, or those occurring 
in the course of the disease, and essential morbid dreams, in 
which the dream constitutes the main feature of the disease. 

A young woman who dreamed that she had swallowed molten 
lead and awaked with an attack of tonsilitis, and a case men- 
tioned by Havelock Ellis of a gentleman who before an attack 
of hemiplegic paralysis repeatedly dreamed that he had been 
cut in two down the middle and could only move on one side 
are among numerous examples of Macario's classifications. 

Physical sensations are frequently and unaccountably drama- 
tized and symbolized during sleep. A mosquito's bite becomes 
the attack of a monster; a headache is symbolized by spiders 
crawling over the wall; a sore throat becomes a dream of a 
consuming fire. 

MacNish quotes a case in which a man dreamed of being 
assaulted and thrown on his back, then a stake was driven 
into the ground between his toes. He waked to find a blade 
of straw between his toes. 

In another instance when he dreamed he was being hanged 
he found that the button of his shirt was too tight around his 
neck. 

Dr. Gregory having applied a hot water bottle to his feet 
dreamed of scaling Mount ^tna ; another individual dreamed 
that he was taking a walk with the devil. A paroxysm of gout 
during sleep has suggested the tortures of the Inquisition, 
and a man having a blister applied to his head dreamed that 
he was scalped by a party of Indians. Another person, having 
inadvertently gone to bed between damp sheets, dreamed that 
he was being dragged through a stream. 



i82 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

Maury attempted a series of experiments in which external 
sensations were provoked by stimuli of which he was igno- 
rant at the time of falling asleep. 

1. His lips and nose were tickled by his coadjutor with a 
feather; he dreamed that he was subjected to horrible tor- 
tures, that a pitch plaster was applied to his face, descending 
to his lips and cheeks, it was withdrawn causing hideous pain. 

2. A pair of tweezers were struck by scissors, while held 
close to his ears. He dreamed that he heard the ring of bells 
which speedily became the tocsin, and suggested June, 1848. 

3. He was made to smell eau de cologne. He dreamed 
of being in the shop of a perfumer, which led his fancy to 
the East, and to the establishment of John Farina in Cairo. 

4. He was made to feel the heat and odor of a burning 
match, and the wind at the time whistled through the shutters. 
He dreamed that he was at sea and that the powder room 
of the vessel blew up. 

5. His neck was slightly pinched. He dreamed that a 
blister was applied, and then there arose the recollection of a 
physician who had treated him in youth. 

6. A piece of red-hot iron was held close to his face 
until it communicated a slight heat. He dreamed of bandits 
who broke into houses and applied hot irons to the feet of 
the inhabitants, in order to extract money from them. This 
idea suggested that of the Duchesse d'Abrantes, in whose me- 
moirs he had read of chauffeurs, or bandits, who had burned 
people. He dreamed that he was employed as her secretary. 

7. The word "parafaramus" was pronounced close to his 
ear. He heard nothing, but on a repetition of the attempt the 
word "maman" was followed only by a dream of the hum- 
ming of bees. The sound of "chandelle" and of "haridelle" 
awoke him while pronouncing the words "c'est elle," but with- 
out any recollection of the idea attached to the expression. 

8. A drop of water falling on the brow suggested a dream 
of Italy, great thirst and a draught of Orvieto. 

9. A light surrounded by a red paper was repeatedly passed 



DREAM ANALYSIS 183 

before his eyes. He dreamed of a storm of lightning, which 
reproduced a violent tempest which he had encountered be- 
tween Morlaux and Havre. 

The following dream of Maury's has become celebrated. 
He was ill and his mother sat beside his bed. As he slept 
he dreamed of the Reign of Terror. He took part in hideous 
scenes of carnage and was finally summoned before the Tribu- 
nal. There he saw Robespierre, Marat, Fouquet and all the 
sorry characters of that brutal epoch. He was compelled to 
give an account of himself and after many incidents which 
he did not remember afterwards, he was sentenced to death. 
Accompanied by an enormous crowd he was led to the place 
of execution. He mounted the scaffold, was tied to the board 
by the executioner. The board tipped, the knife fell, he felt 
his ^ head severed from its body. He awakened in terror to 
find that the top piece of the bed had fallen down and had 
actually struck his cervical vertebrae in the same manner as 
the knife of the guillotine. 

Johann Muller believes that ocular spectra play a promi- 
nent part in the formation of dreams. Changes of blood 
pressure in the retina produce the apparent mists of light, rays 
and patches of light known to dreams; these only manifest 
clearly when the eyes are closed and when the more powerful 
external stimuli are cut off. These spectra only come into 
consciousness in the sleepy condition, or what Maury calls 
"hallucinations hypnogiques,'' and which he regards as the 
chaos out of which the dream cosmos is evolved. Although 
these sensations undoubtedly are responsible for a number of 
picturesque dreams, bright and beautiful lights, etc., they do 
not fully account for the visions of celestial radiance whose 
effect has been permanent from a psychic standpoint. 

Subjective auditory sensations are less frequent causes of 
dream illusions than those of visual sensation, yet sound is 
invariably exaggerated when it is noticed at all by the dreamer. 
Schemer mentions a lover who was accorded the privilege of 
whispering his own name into the ear of his sleeping mis^ 



i84 THE FABMC OF DREAMS 

tress. Whereupon the obdurate dame fell into the habit of 
dreaming of her admirer, who eventually won his suit. 

Radestock cites the instance, taken from Narnier, that while 
Napoleon the Great was sleeping in a carriage he was awak- 
ened by an explosion which revived the memory of crossing 
the Tagliamento and the bombardment of Austerlitz. Where- 
upon the Emperor started up shouting: "We are undermined!" 

Less illustrious examples are quoted of the noise of thunder 
that takes us in our dream into the thick of battle, and of the 
sotmd of the crowing of a cock that a dream may distort into 
human shrieks of terror. 

The sensations of smell and taste produce less positive effects 
than do the other senses in the production of dream illusions. 
Radestock says that the odors of flowers in a room lead to 
visual images of hothouses, perfumers' shops, etc., but he adds 
that these lower sensations do not make themselves recog- 
nized as such by the slumberer's mind. On the contrary, they 
make a picture or visual image, and the dreamer does not 
imagine himself smelling or tasting, but derives associated 
ideas therefrom. 

Havelock Ellis mentions that Meunier found that tuberoses 
caused agreeable dreams in one instance and unpleasant dreams 
in another; essence of geranium invariably created happy 
dreams followed by a pleasant emotional tone throughout the 
day. 

Professor W. S. Munroe, of the Westfield Normal School, is 
also quoted by Havelock Ellis as having experimented upon 
his pupils. A crushed clove was placed on the tongues of 
certain pupils for ten successive nights before going to bed. 
Of the two hundred and fifty-four dreams that followed, sev- 
enteen were taste dreams, eight were dreams of odors and 
three dreams actually involved cloves. 

Innumerable instances of the translation of sensory stimuli 
into the ''stuff that dreams are made of," form a distinct class 
of vision, not to be confounded with the higher psychic or in- 
spirational variety that baffles science. Frequently the differ- 



DREAM ANALYSIS 185 

ent classes overlap one another in a way that puzzles those stu- 
dents who would make hard and fast classifications without 
considering the gradual rising of the sleeping self from the un- 
knowable depths of the human soul, past the threshold of 
sleeping consciousness into the broad waking of material day. 



CHAPTER XI 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 



"What is excellent, as God lives, is permanent'' 

— Emerson. 

Language can not create thought, but on the contrary is 
created by thought. Thus the first expression of articulate 
thought must have been through symbols rather than through 
words, for obviously before attempting speech man must have 
perceived objects, and their meaning, use and similarity must 
have established themselves in his consciousness. Spoken 
words, therefore, were evolved later than symbols and in the 
capacity of symbols they have remained incomplete, for they 
merely express ideas and do not originate them. For while 
human ingenuity may invent an object of which it has never 
heard, no man can give a name to that of which he has never 
heard, nor that he has not seen, either with his own eyes or 
through the description of another. Furthermore, it is not un- 
usual for persons using the same words to misunderstand one 
another, but it is a demonstrated fact that a traveler may 
journey the length of the American Continent from Cape Horn 
to Point Barrow and one set of symbols will render him in- 
telligible to all of the hundreds of Indian tribes that he will 
find, each one of whom employs a different dialect. 

Science must hear Dr. Freud upon the subject of symbolism : 
"For a few kinds of material a universally applicable dream 
symbolism has been established on a basis of generally known 
allusions and equivalents. A good part of this s)mibolism, 
moreover, is possessed by the dream in common with the psy- 

186 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 187 

choneurosis, and with legends and popular customs." — Inter^ 
pretation of Dreams, p. 318. 

Havelock Ellis likewise commits himself to symbolism: 
"It seems to-day by no means improbable that amid the ab- 
surdities of this popular oneiromancy there are some items 
of real significance. . . . Where we are faced with the ques- 
tion of definite and constant symbols, it still remains true that 
skepticism is often called for. But there can be no manner 
of doubt that our dreams are full of symbolism." — The World 
of Dreams. 

This recent tolerance of ultra-modernism accords tardy rec- 
ognition to Schemer and other symbolists of the older schools 
of students who delved into dream symbolism. 

"Schemer's book," says Freud, "after being considered fan- 
tastic for fifty years has suddenly been recognized by psycho- 
analysts. He is hailed as the true discoverer of symbolism 
in dreams." 

A generous tribute from the father of modem psycho- 
analysis, whose laudable enthusiasm over a colleague causes 
him to forget that dream s)rmbolism could scarcely be a dis- 
covery of fifty years ago, in that it has existed since the days 
of the Chaldeans. 

Jung's fascinating, if somewhat cryptic, work likewise 
abounds in symbolism, marvelous of its kind but like that of 
Freud, Brill and others of their cult, incomplete. For in 
their enthusiastic desire to establish their h3rpotheses and to 
demonstrate their theories, they revert to whatever era may 
chance to bear upon their individual opinions, totally ignoring 
entire epochs of history and psychological thought that may 
intervene. Thus in translating the meaning of certain symbols 
and in fitting them upon certain dreams, they often ignore the 
history of that symbol throughout the centuries, and in so 
doing they are apt to belittle or make light of the mental and 
religious progress of the entire htmian race. The modem 
theory of the erotic significance of the dream of weapons is an 
example of the point in question. In the prehistoric era the 



i88 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

sword, lance and spear were undoubtedly phallic symbols ; ages, 
however, have intervened, ranks and files of knights of the 
Graii, centuries of crusaders, and years of men fighting for 
freedom ; to each and all their weapons were sacred treasures 
over which they must pray, fast and keep vigil before re- 
ceiving the golden spurs, symbols of God's love and of Divine 
illumination. 

Human experience, source alike of science and of tradition, 
has piled up tomes of evidence to prove that symbolism is 
no random phantasy of disordered nerves, and of worn brains 
seeking novel methods of expression, but that it is purposeful 
and significant, the outcome of inherited memory, tradition 
and history. Tradition, representing the accumulating reason- 
ing of the race from the inception of thought, is the most 
universal authority for the interpretation of s)ntnbols. 
I The precise translation of symbols is, however, impeded by 
the automatic rivalry between the subjective mind which re- 
members all things, neither blurring nor losing a fragment of 
life, and the objective mind that forgets everything not apper- 
taining to the material. The objective mind is represented by 
history and the subjective is cosmically prototyped by tradi- 
tion and the psychology of the race^ History as tjrpifying 
the objective mind has failed to record much that is of vast 
psychic importance, while tradition has faithfully clung to 
the subjective thought even when it presented apparent trivi- 
alities. I Hence in the interpretation of symbols, which are, 
after all, merely instinctive records of the human psyche, we 
must consider not only history, creeds and traditions, but ap- 
parent trivialities, all of which combine to explain the soul of 
the race from which the symbol emanatesi 

The gamut of symbolism is vast and stretches over all 
humanity. The primitive expression of speechless man, it is 
also employed by the genii of the race. Beethoven, Raphael, 
Michael Angelo, Dante and Blake have bequeathed the world 
symbols that will outlast time. The Wise Men in the East 
with their frankincense and gold, and the man in the street 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 189 

who wears his bit of green on St. Patrick's Day, are alike 
symbolists, whatever the expression of the symbol. St. John, 
St. Paul, Solomon, Daniel and Ezekiel, the Bible, the Book 
of the Dead and the Zend Avesta express thought sjonbolically, 
while the baseball "fan" who "puts it over the plate" does 
likewise. And thus the rabble and their saviors find their 
common kin. 

Although the ciyilizing centuries have taught man to think 
in words, in dreams the mind flies backward to its primitive 
thought and employs pictures, or symbols. Not only do the 
Chaldeans, Egyptians and the Biblical oneirocritics utilize the 
ineradicable human tendency towards s)rmbolism, but the mod- 
ems, gypsy and scientist alike, acknowledge its importance. 
Thus, despite the mocking few, the dream-book with its 
list of s)rmbolic dreams flourishes in the world to-day and is 
consulted frequently and with interest. For while man some- 
tiq;ies abandons his God, he somehow holds to his dreams. 

^he symbolism of dreams is merely an effort at expression 
on the part of the dreaming self, whether we term that self 
the soul, the spirit, the subconscious or merely the physical; 
for whether these expressions originate in eroticism as main- 
tained by Freudians, or in outer stimuli as claimed by physi- 
ologists, or from the heights of the human spirit as taught by 
the mystics, the thought is imaged in the language of sjmi- 
bolism. It is admitted that this S)mibol need bear no out- 
ward resemblance to the dream, and that the dream is fre- 
quently represented by a symbol antedating mere speech.^ 

The\ older dream interpreters have accepted a simple sym- 
bolism founded upon human history and the traditions of the 
people, and therefore more generally correct than the elabor- 
ately reasoning symbolization of modem analysts, whose ten- 
dency to ignore memory and race tradition and to attribute all 
dreams to physical stimuli, or again to revert to purely conjec- 
tural periods of history sometimes renders their translation 
questionable.^ 

Both mediaevalism and the renaissance, for instance, held 



190 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

a totally different point of view from the ages that preceded 
them, and both modified symbolic expression. Again racial 
differences bore their influence. Thus the caverns, moun- 
tains and groves were temples and places of worship to Egypt 
and Greece, while the Hebrews regarded them with suspicion 
and fear; the Apis, or sacred bull, symbolizing the equinox, 
at that time in the sign Taurus, was the golden calf, abhorred 
of the Scriptures, and the serpent, personifying wisdom, was 
to become accursed of man in the story of Eden. 

The g3^sies are the most widely known and the most uni- 
versally accepted of the dream interpreters. Originally de- 
rived from Chaldean, Egyptian and possibly Atlantean sources 
their s)mabolism has been modified, augmented or diminished 
as the case might be, by time and circumstance. After their 
descent from their heights of hierophantic teachings, legend 
and symbol sought the humbler folk. Scorned by the learned 
ones, they entered the nursery by way of the servants' hall 
and established themselves by the fireside and in the niches 
of childish memory. Thus unconsciously the homely tradi- 
tions and symbols flourished and scattered to the four winds 
of civilization, like the seeds of the thistle, the floral proto- 
type of the Gypsies themselves. Their roots in the subcon- 
sciousness have been deep and permanent, and from these 
fireside tales have sprung" the homely s)mibols that are most 
frequently employed in dreams. Their universality is attrib- 
utable to their vagrant career and to the nomadism of their 
preservers, the gypsies. Lacking a written literature, the latter 
have assimilated local surroundings and have drawn to them- 
selves the spiritual atmosphere of the varied eras, thus modify- 
ing the fundamental significance of the symbols. Early 
paganism, Hebrewism, Judaism, Christianity, iconoclasm, ma- 
terialism, each in turn has tinted the mutable science of 
symbols with the parti-colored fragments of oral tradition. 
The scientific color-blindness that has led students to ignore 
this chameleon quality of symbolism has caused misunder- 
standing of the symbols themselves. 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 191 

A certain high and scientific authority, for example, men- 
tions rather derisively the Christian s)rmbolism of the dove 
as an emblem of the Holy Ghost. With caustic humor he 
refers to the favorite bird of Aphrodite or Venus and to the 
well-known amorousness of the dove ; he hints at the astound- 
ing ignorance of the early Christian fathers in selecting not 
only the dove, but the fish and the cross, all phallic or erotic 
symbols. Unquestionably the learned writer has some truth 
and a modicum of history as authority. His only error is 
that of omitting the psychology of intervening centuries and 
the history of the races that have risen and had their fall since 
the period to which he most accurately reverts. Unquestion- 
ably the dove was originally the symbol of Aphrodite, but 
it was also the least costly living sacrifice that could be prof- 
fered to Jehovah of the Jews, hence for many centuries it was 
the offering of the poor and the hiunble, a not unfitting symbol 
for the Son of Man, who had not where to lay His head. The 
dream of the dove, while defined by Freud as erotic, is trans- 
lated by the Gypsies as a holy dream and a good one, and 
probably in the every day subconsciousness of the ordinary 
person, it bears this latter meaning. 

The cross, unquestionably one of the oldest symbols, is of 
phallic origin ; it is now, however, inextricably associated with 
the Passion and Sacrifice of Christ. And surely this most 
glorious sacrifice that ever altered human history and the 
reckoning of time itself, should be sufficiently strong to change 
the meaning of a symbol, the outward and visible sign of an 
idea. And thus, despite the sneers of the too literal historian, 
the modem, be he Christian or no, who sees a cross in his 
dream regards it as a symbol of self-abnegation or of glory 
as the case may be. Rarely indeed does his thought hark back 
to prehistoric days when the holy emblem bore a phallic sig- 
nificance. 

The adoption of the fish, held by primitive pagans as a sym- 
bol of fecundity, was, according to Hulme, adopted by Chris- 
tians for the reason that the initials of Jesus Christ, the Son 



192 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

of God, are the Greek letters for the word fish; Bishop Kip 
of California in his work, "The Catacombs of Rome," cor- 
roborates Hulme's theory of the fish as a Christian emblem 
with the statement that the symbols adopted by the Christians 
of that day were selected for the purpose of misleading the 
persecutors of the new faith as well as to convey a message 
to its followers. They would scarcely suspect beneath the sym- 
bol of Aphrodite the meaning that the dove and the fish bore 
to the followers of Christ. 

The G3^sy s)mibolism lacks the salacious quality usual in 
that of the scientific dream student, and their interpretations 
manifest a large share of the humor that the grave scientist, 
alas, is lacking. This humor is demonstrated in the interpreta- 
tion of the dreams that "go by contrary." The gypsies also 
demonstrate a working knowledge of the Bible and a shrewd 
comprehension of the psychological h3rpothesis of the subcon- 
scious self, which latter is especially surprising in view of the 
fact that the symbols are old, far older than any possible 
knowledge of the term subconscious. Dreams of anxiety and 
loss of property or possessions, for instance, are translated as 
suggesting thrift on the part of the dreamer, and anxiety indi- 
cates the concern that begets wealth, while dreams of prod- 
igality and lavishness imply to the shrewd gypsy interpreter a 
self-complacency and wastefulness that naturally results in 
poverty. 

Since the days of Shakespeare, who tmdoubtedly was fa- 
miliar with dreams and their interpretations, a dream of money 
has implied its loss. 

"There is some ill a brewing towards my rest, 
For I did dream of Money-bags to-night," wails Shylock. 

Dreams of hunger, care and poverty seem invariably to 
bear a contrary meaning, whether from motives of consola- 
tion to the dreamer or whether through the establishment of 
symbolism in the days of gypsy supremacy when the witch 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 193 

was sent for to comfort my lady in her bower, we may not 
decide. 

The invariably happy augury of every dream relating to the 
farmer or to agricultural implements pictures the mediaeval 
g3rpsy looking with longing eyes upon the land that he might 
not own. Implements of trade, especially the trades of the 
town, on the other hand imply discomfort and contempt. 
Female avocations of domesticity evidently rouse the disdain 
of the wandering tribes, for to dream of a distaff, spindle, 
needle, pin or any other symbol of a purely feminine occupa- 
tion implies gossip and mischief. 

Apart from these there is still a certain natural and obvious 
S3rmboHsm that establishes itself even more strongly than 
symbols of past traditions. These symbols are derived from 
a knowledge of the powers of nature and of natural history, 
and in gypsy dream interpretations these take, and hold prece- 
dence. The goose appears in dreams, not as the sacred bird of 
the Greeks and Romans, but as an emblem of stupidity; in- 
sects denote hurts and stings and animals generally signify 
misfortune in accord with the naturalist's knowledge of the 
proclivities of the beasts themselves. Sometimes this natu- 
ral symbolism is tinged with humor as in the dream of soap 
which is held to signify transient worries, while the dream 
of yeast is another example of practical homely symbolism. 

Rigid morality is the general tone of the gypsy translation, 
the morality of children's fairy tales and of folk lore in which 
the villain is discovered and punished and the good man re- 
warded. The virtue of toil is implied in th?t all manner 
of work prognosticates success, even when superficial worldly 
judgment might argue the contrary ; a workhouse for instance 
is a dream that forecasts a legacy. 

Falsity of every description is fiercely frowned upon by the 
old-world morality of the dream-books; wigs, false hair, 
artificial teeth, rouge, etc., invariably connote evil or evil con- 
ditions. Physical indulgence is likewise disapproved, and 
dreams of eating or food invariably augur illness; whether 



194 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

from a sternly moral disapprobation of gluttony or whether 
from the ultra-modem theory of a physical dream as imply- 
ing a physical desire, it is impossible to say. Cynical knowl- 
edge of human nature is implied in the translation of the 
dream of servants and inferiors into a prognostication of en- 
mity ; and the interchangeable dreams of tombs and weddings 
might wrest a smile of assent from the veriest skeptic. With 
all dream interpreters dreams of marriage herald death and 
dreams of death and of the appurtenances thereto, a wedding. 
The phallic and erotic symbols of modem interpreters are 
invariably translated as ominous dreams by the gypsy. 

The appended list of dream symbols has been carefully 
culled from seven well-established authorities. Artemidorus 
Daldianus being the one generally preferred, Raphael follow- 
ing in importance. 

Time has established Artemidorus as the "Great law-giver 
of the dream world," says a popular writer upon the sub- 
ject, "and his 'Oneirocriticon' is the statute book of dreams." 

He lived in the second century under the Emperor Antoninus 
Pius, and he claims to have gathered his dream lore from 
ancient and established sources. 

He gives certain rules for dream interpretation which it 
may be well to remember, not only in dream interpretation, 
but in forming judgment upon the efforts of others in this 
direction. 

"In giving judgment on dreams we are to take notice that 
dreams are proportioned according to the condition of the 
party dreaming. Thus those of persons of eminency, be they 
good or bad, will be great — ^that is, if good, they signify great 
benefit; but if bad great misery. If the party that dreams be 
of a mean condition, the dreams, with their events, will be 
mean also; if poor, their dreams will be very inconsiderable. 
For the rules of dreaming are not general and therefore can- 
not satisfy all persons at once, but often, according to times 
and persons, admit of various interpretations. . . . Moreover, 
all those things which are done by us and to us, and towards 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 195 

us only, we must think that they appertain to us particularly. 
And on the contrary, that all such things as are not done by 
us, nor towards us, nor in us, shall happen to others; and 
yet, notwithstanding, if they be our friends, and the dreams 
signify good, the joy shall come to us; and if contrary, then 
the contrary; but if they be our enemies, we ought to think 
and judge accordingly," 

A 

Abbey. — Not mentioned by Artemidorus. Dream-books de- 
fine this dream as one of comfort, peace of mind, etc. The 
symbolism of sanctuary is obvious. 

Abbot, Abbess, Hermit, Monk, Nun, or Priest. — ^To 
dream of becoming one, calmness in passion. Merely to 
dream of one, pride, or malice qf which the dreamer will be 
the victim. The significance of this dream is evidently due to 
the regard in which the clergy of past ages held their gypsy 
brethren. 

Abscess, Boil, Ulcer, Running Sore, etc. — To dream of 
having any of these afflictions foretells good fortune and good 
health, preceded by a temporary sickness (Raphael)* Dreams 
probably caused by irritation of the parts of the body afflicted 
in the sleep; the interpretation obviously attributable to the 
theory that these visitations clear the system of impurities, 
thereby conferring comfort after sickness. 

Abyss. — Impending danger, a dream of warning (Artemi- 
dorus) ; an erotic dream of warning (Freud) ; physiologists 
interpret this dream as a symptom of vertigo, due to apoplexy, 
etc. • 

Acacia Flowers. — ^A dream of rest and tranquillity, say 
the gypsy dreamers. An erotic dream, announces Herr Freud, 
while flower symbolists proclaim the blossom as signifying 
"Rest to the Heart." The Egyptians held it as sacred to 
woman. 

Accident. — ^To meet with an accident or injury to any part 
of the body augurs suffering in that part (Raphael). Obvi- 



196 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

ously a dream attributable to physical stimuli^ and in accord 
with medical theory. 

Acorns. — ^A good dream according to Artemidorus, augur- 
ing healthy wealth and happiness. If single, a happy marriage. 
Frazier describes acorns as articles of food through certain 
parts of Europe and therefore held in regard as a symbol 
of well-being. They also bore a certain significance as asso- 
ciated with the sacred fire in the worship of Zeus at Dodona. 
Bayley gives it as a phallic s)rmbol. 

Alley. — Loss of property is augured here, a plausible inter- 
pretation from the gypsy standpoint, while the Freudian erotic 
meaning is less obvious. 

Alligator. — ^A cunning and dangerous enemy. The Freud- 
ians translate this as an erotic dream. 

Almond. — ^To dream of eating, future enjoyment, travel- 
ing in distant lands. If the almonds be bitter the journey will 
be unhappy. The almond has always been a sacred S3mibol 
throughout the orient. Bayley traces the name to al monde, 
meaning Lord of the World, sole protecting Lord. 

Almond Tree. — ^A dream of success (Raphael) ; the sym- 
bol of the Father of All, the Pre-existing One (Bayley). 
Freudians contend that all dreams of trees bear an erotic 
meaning. 

Anchor. — ^Hope fulfilled is the general dream interpreta- 
tion, endorsed by Christian symbolism. The Japanese hold it 
as an emblem of security and safety. Inman hints at a dark 
and dangerous meaning to this S3mibol, but good usage sanc- 
tions the one already given. 

Angel. — ^A purely Christian symbol of protection, divine 
grace, etc. To the dreamer it augurs peace and happiness 
unspeakable. 

Animals. — Freud and others attach sexual significance to 
dreams of animals; dream interpreters, however, regard the 
dream of a number of domestic animals as auguring happiness, 
while wild animals S3rmbolize enemies. 

Ants. — ^To the tradesman this dream augurs success; in 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 197 

mediaeval S3nnbolism ants t3^ify industry ; Plato says the souls 
of unimaginative persons return to earth as ants. 

Anvil. — Prosperity despite obstacles (Raphael) ; an emblem 
of the primal force (Bayley). 

Ape. — ^A dream of deceit, treacherous friends and associates 
(Artemidorus) ; Plato taught that the soul of a bad jester 
would return as an ape; it is a modem symbol of unclean- 
ness, lust, cunning, and malice. It was, however, an emblem 
of wisdom in Egypt and of the god Thoth, patron of the art 
of writing. 

Apples. — Ripe apples augur success in trade, love, etc.; 
green apples, the contrary. The gypsy influence is distinctly 
traceable in the folk-lore of the apple as coloring the dream. 
It confers immortal youth in the fairy-tale, golden apples, 
love apples, etc., while in Christian symbolism it represents the 
fall from Eden, the sin that made Christ's coming necessary. 
Freud makes this a sexual dream, and Inman gives the apple 
as a symbol of sexual love. 

Apple Tree. — ^Alive and flourishing, good news ; dead, bad 
tidings. In mystic literature, the apple is the tree of life 
(Bayley). 

Archbishop. — ^To see one in dreams, a sign of coming 
death ; undoubtedly the gypsy outlaws established this unwhole- 
some symbolism for the mighty prelate. 

Arms. — ^To dream of losing the right arm signifies the death 
of father, son or brother; of the left arm, of the mother, 
daughter or sister. To dream that the arms are withered 
predicts suffering in health and fortune ; that they have grown 
strong indicates success. 

The latter part of this interpretation is obviously based upon 
physical stimuli, and the conditions of the body may be deduced 
therefrom. 

Arrow. — ^An ominous dream if the arrow is directed to- 
wards the dreamer, or penetrate his body. Some person or 
persons are plotting against you (Artemidorus). An interpre- 
tation obviously derived from the significance of the arrow in 



198 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

warfare. Freudians regard this as a sex dream, probably trac- 
ing the symbolism to the arrows of Eros or Cupid. 

Ashes. — A dream of trouble and misfortune at hand. 
Qiristian symbol of mourning and grief. 

Ass. — ^A dream of patience that will enable the dreamer 
to overcome all obstacles. A Christian S3rmbol of humility and 
patient endurance. 

Ax. — ^To see an ax in a dream denotes death; Freud des- 
ignates this as an erotic dream, although the interpretation is 
rather hazy. Amongst primitive races the ax was the symbol 
for God or the Divine Being. Later it became a symbol 
of solar power; with modem times, however, its symbolism 
altered and it became a crudely murderous weapon. 

B 

Bacchus, Bacchanalians. — A bad year for wine and grapt 
growers (Artemidorus). 

Back. — ^To see your own back in your dream indicates 
misfortune, uneasiness of mind, sickness, etc. This is obvi- 
ously a dream incited by the physical condition, from backache^ 
and its attendant discomfort that draws the dreamer's atten- 
tion to that portion of the anatomy. 

Backbite. — To dream that you are victimized by a scandal 
promises high success, the favor of great persons (Dream- 
books). A dream of the contrary, probably inspired by the 
interpreter's knowledge of the subconscious. 

Backbone. — Promise of offspring who will adore the 
dreamer, success in love (Artemidorus). An erotic dream 
(Freud). 

Baggage. — ^A dream of weariness, fatigue, an overburdened 
conscience (Gypsy). A load of sin (Bunyan). 

Bagpipes. — ^A dream forecasting increase in family and 
fortune (G3rpsy). Bayley recounts the legend of the moun- 
tain called Caraiman; whenever he played the bagpipes all 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 199 

things that he desired would grow about him (Carpathian 
legend) . 

Balloon. — ^Unsuccessful schemes (G)rpsy). 

Balm. — A dream denoting sickness but sure recovery (Ar- 
temidorus). Obviously a dream incited by discomfort in some 
part of the body. 

Bamboo. — ^A dream of dissension in the family circle 
(Gypsy). Probably originating in the use of rattan or bamboo 
for purposes of chastisement. 

Bananas. — ^To dream of eating them denotes misfortune 
(Gypsy). There is a Melanesian legend that the banana was 
the cause of human mortality. 

Banner. — ^To see the banner of your native country augurs 
misfortune to a loved one, a fatal journey (G3T)sy). Obvious 
meaning to military emblem. 

Barefoot. — ^To dream that you have become barefoot, a 
dream of success and prosperity (Gypsy). 

Barley Bread. — ^To dream of eating, denotes health, con- 
tentment, etc. (Gypsy) ; plainly a dream of healthful hunger 
and its gratification. \ 

Barley Fields. — ^To walk through them augurs trouble and 
pain to the dreamer (Gypsy) ; distinctly gypsy symbolism, in 
view of the penalties attached to damaging the farmer's crops. 

Bathing. — In clean, clear water, a dream of great good 
fortune; in muddy water, the reverse (Artemidorus). Sym- 
bolism obvious. 

Battle. — ^To dream of being in battle implies trouble of a 
serious nature with friends; to overcome indicates triumph 
(Gypsy). Evidently the realities of warfare were too grim 
and too close to admit the rule of contraries to apply to 
this dream, to which modem interpreters, however, attach an 
erotic meaning. 

Beacon Light. — ^A dream indicating deliverance from care 
and trouble (Artemidorus). Symbolism obvious. 

Beads. — ^This dream denotes success, good fortune, honor 



200 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

and wealth (Gypsies). As amulets beads avert misfortune 
and the evil eye (Pavitt). 

Beans. — An unfortunate dream ; to eat them augurs illness, 
to see them growing predicts contentions and quarrels ( Artemi- 
dorus). An erotic dream according to recent authority. The 
Flamen Diates at Rome, the Egyptian priests, the ancient 
Hebrews and the P)rthagoreans were forbidden to eat them. 

Bear. — The dream of a rich powerful enemy ; to overcome 
a bear in your dream is a favorable sign (Artemidorus). Al- 
though the cult of Artemis worshiped the she-bear, in Christian 
thought the ferocious animals are usually suspect. Modem 
symbol of ferocity and surliness. Freudian sex dream. 

Beaiid. — ^To see one in a dream denotes health; if it be 
long, gain. A beard on a woman, however, is a disagreeable 
omen (Artemidorus). An erotic dream (Freud). The beard 
symbolizes the male sex (Smith, Sacred Emblems). 

Beasts. — See Animals. 

Bee. — "A dream both good and bad. Good if the bees 
sting not, bad if they sting. Bees flying about the ears signify 
harassment by enemies, but to beat them off without being 
stung signifies victory over foes. Seeing bees profit to coimtry 
people and trouble to the rich. To dream that they make their 
honey in the house signifies dignity, eloquence and success 
to the occupants. To be stung by a bee denotes vexation and 
trouble. To take bees augurs profit. A dream of bees is 
auspicious to plowmen and to thosei profiting from this 
industry, to others this dream signifies trouble by reason of 
the noise bees make, wounds by reason of their sting, and 
sickness by reason of their honey and wax. Jupiter is said 
to have been nourished by bees, and in his infancy Pindar 
was supposedly fed on honey instead of milk. They were 
sacred to Artemis and they appear on her statues and on her 
coins ; Mahomet admits bees to Paradise. In modem Christian 
art they symbolize industry. 

: Beetles. — ^This dream signifies that some slander is cir- 
Culated concerning you; to kill the beetle is to overcome it 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 201 

(Raphael). The beetle was held as sacred by the Egyptians, 
a symbol of virility, new life and of eternity (Budge). Ac- 
cording to Brewer, it is the modem Christian S3mibol of blind- 
ness. 

Bells. — ^A good dream under all conditions (Gypsy). They 
were believed by the ancients to disperse storms, to drive 
away pestilence, devils and to extinguish fire. In Christian 
symbolism they represent the exorcism of evil spirits. 

Birds. — Freudians regard this as an erotic dream. Oneiro- 
critics give it a varied meaning according to the nature of the 
birds. Many small birds signify lawsuits ; to catch birds with 
lime denotes unfair triumph over enemies ; singing birds fore- 
tell joy and delight; to the poor a dream of birds implies 
many friends; to the rich it forecasts flight of fortune. The 
dream of Uta, mother of Kremhild, who married Attila, the 
Hun, and sent for her kinsmen to avenge Siegfried's death, 
is symbolic. "Stay here, good heroes," she warns her children ; 
"last night I dreamed an evil dream, that all the birds in the 
land were dead." The treachery of the Huns justified the 
evil omen. In Christian symbolism a bird represents the soul ; 
the bird of Paradise especially bears this significance. 

Bird's Nest. — ^To dream of finding a nest with eggs indi- 
cates profit; an empty nest augurs disappointment (Artemi- 
dorus) ; here the symbolism is that of nature itself. 

Blackbirds. — Both in dream lore and in symbolism these 
birds indicate slander, suspicion and trouble. 

Black Cat. — ^To dream of any black animal is unfortunate, 
for these are associated with evil spirits (Artemidorus) ; the 
Chinese attach especial misfortune to the symbol of the black 
cat. American Indians hold it as a symbol of good luck. 

Blossoming Trees. — An invariable dream of gladness and 
of prosperity (Artemidorus) ; doubtless the symbolism is taken 
from the gladness of spring, as associated with these blossoms. 

Boar. — Storms and tempests are augured by this dream, 
also trouble caused by evil-minded persons (Artemidorus). 



202 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

*'The wretched, bloody and usurping boar. 
That spoiled your summer fields and fruitful vines/' 

— Shakespeare. 

A Christian symbol of impurity. A phallic symbol with 
the Freudians. 

Boat, Canoe, Sailboat, Ship, etc. — Seen in a clear stream, 
a dream of happiness; to see one sink indicates disappoint- 
ment; to fall from one, great dangers; to sail on smooth water, 
happiness and prosperity; on muddy water, trouble (Raphael). 
Here the symbolism requires no explanation. Bayley, how- 
ever, says that the original meaning of the word bateau, or 
boat, is derived from the word beatus, or happy. 

Body. — ^To dream that your body is robust denotes author- 
ity, that it is weak denotes failing or infirmity of the part in 
question (Artemidorus) ; here the ancients and modems meet 
undoubtedly the dream of any part of the body, whether of 
one's own or that of another, is resultant upon physical stim- 
ulus. 

Bones. — ^Human bones an omen of death in the family 
(Artemidorus) ; a Christian symbol of death, mortality 

Books. — ^A dream auguring the acquisition of knowledge, 
wisdom (Artemidorus). Christian s3mibol of hidden wisdom 
and of learning. 

Boots. — If new, renown, a happy future (Art) ; boots or 
shoes are S3rmbols of luck. 

Bottle. — ^Joy, singing wassail ; a broken bottle, disappoint- 
ment (Artemidorus) ; symbolism obvious. 

Bow. — See Arrow. 

Box. — ^To dream of opening a box and of looking for some- 
thing that you cannot find augurs disappointment in money 
matters (Gypsy) ; the interpretation here is obviously derived 
from a knowledge of the subconscious desire to search for and 
to find money, an anxiety dream. 

Box. — ^A plant ; the dream denotes long life, prosperity and 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 203 

a happy family (Artemidonis) ; the symbol of long life, per- 
petual hope. 

Bracelet. — ^A wealthy marriage; an Egyptian amulet for 
happiness and success. 

Brain. — Sickness, loss of reputation, etc. (Gypsy) ; a dream 
due to physical causes, for which the ancient students made 
obvious allowance. 

Brambles or Briars. — A dream of desire in love, a wish for 
the unattainable (Artemidonis) ; Freud and modem symbolism 
alike corroborate this interpretation. 

Branches. — Covered with leaves and buds symbolize hap- 
piness and joy ; here symbol and dream are one : "And there 
shall come forth a rod out of the stem and vase, and a branch 
shall grow out of his roots/' — Isaiah xi. 

Break. — ^Any dream of breakage implies misfortune; to 
break a limb denotes sickness; furniture, loss of money; a 
looking glass, death ; a broken window, danger of fire (Gypsy) ; 
the logic of these interpretations is plain, the breaking of a 
limb is a forewarning of pain, possibly not yet noted by the 
waking consciousness , fear of financial loss readily expressed 
in the destruction of property ; by the same token the warning 
of fire, subconsciously read and noted while the consciousness 
was unaware might readily be construed as a broken window, 
symbolizing a means of escape. The superstition of a broken 
mirror as auguring death antedates written history. 

Bride or Bridegroom, Bridesmaids, Ushers, etc. — ^Erotic 
dreams, all of them, announce the moderns. Dreams denoting 
grief and disappointment, declares Raphael, who invariably 
places an unforttmate construction upon all dreams of an erotic 
nature. 

Bridge. — ^To see one, successful undertakings, probably a 
change; to cross one, work and anxiety in store; a broken 
bridge, fear and trouble and a warning to take no steps on 
an unknown road ; to fall from a bridge denotes brain trouble 
(Artemidonis). These interpretations are distinctly traceable 
to the subconsciousness. The symbolism of a bridge spanning 



204 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

water is obviously the subconscious hope of success. 'T)o not 
cross a bridge," etc., is the proverb justifying the anticipation 
of work in store for the dreamer who crosses a bridge in his 
sleep. The broken bridge bears its own significance, based 
upon the subconsciousness that warns the dreamer, while the 
fall from a bridge is a physical dream stimulated by dizziness, 
vertigo, etc. 

Brood. — For a mother to dream of seeing a brood of chick- 
ens under a hen warns her that despite her care some of her 
oflFspring will stray (Artemidorus). Obviously this dream is 
traceable to maternal anxiety. 

Brooks. — Clear and near the house, an honorable office 
in which the dreamer will practice benevolence ; muddy brooks 
indicate loss; dried up brooks augur ruin to their owners 
(Artemidorus) ; the Bible justifies in a measure the promise of 
the dream of the brook : "And lo, my brook became a river, 
and my river a sea." — Eccles. xxv, /. "A little fountain be- 
came a river, and there was light and the sun and much water. 
This river is Esther, and the two dragons are I and Hamon." — 
From the Greek version of the book of Esther, quoted by 
Bayley. 

Bugle. — ^To hear a bugle unexpected good news (Artemi- 
dorus) ; the bugle was the horn of salvation of the Old Testa- 
ment (Bayley). 

Bull. — ^Violent enemies and slander are forecast by this 
dream (Artemidorus) ; an erotic dream (Freud and Jung) ; the 
Assyrian symbol of royal authority and of the sun, sacred also 
to the Egyptians and the Romans; its modern symbolism is 
strength, yet throughout the whole of. the gypsy dream inter- 
pretation it bears an evil meaning, due either to the legend of 
the golden calf, or to the apparently evil construction of all 
erotic and phallic symbols. 

Bulldog. — Faithful, loyal friends (Gypsy) ; the s)rmbol of 
pertinacity and fidelity (Brewer). 

Bullock. — ^To be attacked by one is an ominous dream 
(Gypsy) ; an erotic dream (Freud). 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 205 

Buoy. — ^A warning of danger ahead (G)rpsy) ; symbolism 
apparent. 

Butcher. — ^To dream that he cuts up meat denotes trouble 
and sickness (Gypsy) ; probably a dream of physical stimuli 
originating in the organ that the butcher seems to be cutting. 

Butterfly. — Lack of fixed purpose, restlessness, incon- 
stancy (Gypsy). It was the Greek symbol for the psyche or 
soul, and the Christians also employed it as a symbol of the 
resurrection ; the significance of its bursting from its chrysalis 
into glory, was, however, lost during the middle ages, when 
men ceased to observe nature, and the shallow s)anbolism 
became established and continues to the present day; modem 
s)mabolism, sportiveness, living in pleasure. 



Cabbage. — ^To sec them, health and long life ; to eat them, 
sorrow, loss and illness (Gypsy) ; the first part of the dream, 
like all dreams of growing things, is fortunate, the latter 
plainly interpreted by rules pertaining to physical stimuli. 

Cage. — ^Without birds a dream of a cage denotes trouble; 
with birds, contentment, happiness; with the door open and 
the bird flown, the dream signifies desertion by the lover or 
husband; to see a bird escape augurs an elopement (Artemi- 
dorus) ; the symbolism patent. 

Camel. — ^A dream of many burdens patiently borne ( Artemi- 
dorus) ; modem symbol of patience and submission. 

Candle. — To see one being lighted forecasts a birth, to 
exhibit a lighted candle augurs contentment and prosperity; 
to make candles, joy and satisfaction ; to see a candle burning 
brilliantly denotes prosperity to men, health to invalids, mar- 
riage to celibates; a dimly burning candle shows sickness, 
sadness and delay (Artemidorus). The symbolism is that of 
the sacred flame, the vital spark, with the sacredness invariably 
attendant upon the fiery element. 

Candlestick. — ^Tbis dream forecasts an invitation to a wed- 



2o6 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

ding (Artemidorus) ; here the ecclesiastical association is ap- 
parent. Erskine regards the candlestick as the emblem of 
Christ and His church, and it is a well-nigh universal symbol 
of ceremonial faith. 

Cap. — ^"To dream of a female with a fine cap is a sign that 
she is in love with you. To dream that you see a man with 
a cap on denotes that your lover is a silly fellow and will care 
but little for you" (Raphael). According to Inman the cap 
was an erotic symbol, of phallic origin. 

Captive. — ^A sign of insolvency and imprisonment for debt 
(Raphael). A pitiful significance to the dreamer of the days 
of imprisonment for debt, and undoubtedly originating in the 
subconsciousness. It is also translated as a dream of a bad 
wife or husband, and here again the symbolism is plain. 

Cards. — ^To play them in a dream denotes quarrels and 
deception of which the dreamer will be a dupe (Gypsy). A 
curious bit of self-revelation on the part of the G)rpsy fortune- 
tellers. 

Carp. — Good luck through work (Gypsy) ; Japanese emblem 
of endurance and pluck. 

Castle. — ^A good dream; to enter one, pleasant hopes: 
to see one burned, damage, sickness or death to the owner 
(G3rpsy). Here the nomadic point of view establishes the 
symbol. 

Cat. — ^An unfavorable dream of treachery and deceit; to 
be scratched by a cat, ill luck, but to kill one is a good omen, 
denoting triumph over enemies (Artemidorus). "The image 
of a cat in a dream expresses an angry, discontented mood" 
(Schemer). The cat was worshiped as a symbol of the 
sun god in Egypt; the same word, Mau, stands for both cat 
and light ; the Hebrew horror of the gods of the Egyptians is 
therefore expressed in their interpretation of the cat as a sym- 
bol of deceit and treachery. 

Caterpillar. — ^Trouble through secret enemies is predicted 
by this dream (Gypsy) ; although anciently symbolists classi- 
fied it with the butterfly as an emblem of the soul, modems 



SYMBOLISM IN PREAMS 207 

regard it as the secret enemy destroying leaves and vegeta- 
tion. 

Cattle. — ^A dream of prosperity (Gypsy) ; "cattle over a 
thousand hills/' we read as the s)mibol of success in the Old 
Testament. A sexual dream^ declares Freud. 

Cave or Cavern, Canon, Grotto, Crypt. — Obscurity and 
misfortune are interpreted from these symbols (Gypsy) ; 
the ancient and sacred symbolism of caves, grottoes, etc., 
was lost upon the Jews who regarded them with horror, while 
popular tradition peopled them with dragons and other evil 
creatures. 

Cedar. — ^To dream of cedar denotes happiness, joy and 
peace (Artemidorus) ; a symbol of incorruptibility (Bayley) ; 
the cedar of Lebanon, by its height, perfume and healing quali- 
ties was a symbol of goodness and of the Virgin (Qement). 

Cellar. — ^To dream you are in a cellar shows that you are 
threatened with illness (G^psy) ; Schemer makes this dream a 
sign of abdominal disturbance. 

•'Cemetery. — The universal acceptance of this as a dream 
of prosperity suggests either the spirit of contrariety found 
in certain dream interpretations, or symbolism derived from 
the morbidity of certain early Christian sects. 

Chaff. — ^A dream of abortive or worthless schemes (Arte- 
midorus) ; symbolism obvious. 

Chains. — ^A dream warning you against the conspiracy of 
enemies, from which, however, you will escape (Artemidorus). 
Symbol obvious. 

Chalice. — A dream of high ideals and strivings never to 
be attained in the flesh (Old Dream Book) ; the emblem of 
the priestly order and of the Grail. 

Chameleon. — This dream indicates that the dreamer is 
being cheated mercilessly (Gypsy). 

Cherries. — ^To see them, health ; to gather them, deception 
by a woman; to eat them, love (Artemidorus). "Cherry is 
identical with Cheres, the Greek for Grace, cognate with our 
charity or lave/' — Bayley. 



2o8 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

Children. — ^To dream of children betokens success (Arte- 
midorus). Children s)rmbolize Christ's love and beneficence 
(Clement). 

Chimney. — ^To dream of one, especially if a fire be lighted 
therein, denotes domestic joy (Artemidorus). 

Cholera. — ^A dream portending serious illness (Artemi- 
dorus) ; evidently a dream of sensory stimuli. 

Christ. — ^To dream of Christ denotes consolation; to see 
Him on the cross, trouble and sorrow (Old Dream Book). 

Church. — ^To dream of building one, divine love; to enter 
one, honorable conduct, benevolence; to talk in one or see 
it desecrated, lying, envy and sin; to go to church in mourn- 
ing denotes a wedding; to go in white denotes a funeral 
(Gypsy). 

Church Service. — ^To listen to mass, internal satisfaction ; 
to listen to church music, overwhelming joy. 

City. — A busy city, riches; a deserted city, plague (G)rpsy). 
Maternal symbol of woman who fosters the inhabitants as 
children (Jung). 

Clam. — ^To dream of digging for them is a good omen, 
denoting thrift (Gypsy) ; evidently a laudable desire to sym- 
bolize labor. 

Climb. — ^A dream auguriiig successful wrestling with ob- 
stacles, and final promotion, honor, etc. (Artemidorus). An 
interpretation of the character whose subconscious desire is for 
attainment. 

Cloak. — ^A dream denoting concealment of poverty, etc. 
(Gypsy) ; a Christian symbol of the "charity which covereth 
a multitude of sins." 

Clock. — ^A dream of misfortune (G)rpsy) ; probably asso- 
ciated with the common superstition attached to the time- 
piece, its stopping at the death of a member of the family, 
etc. 

Clouds. — ^To dream of heavy clouds signifies threatened mis- 
fortune; light, opaque clouds denote mystery (Gypsy); they 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 209 

are sometimes symbolic of the majesty of Jehovah, at other 
times of doubt and obscurity. 

Clover. — ^A bright, happy dream (Gypsy) ; "the Shamrock 
or Qover Leaf may be regarded as the three-fold symbol of a 
lover, the Great Lover." — Bayley. 

Clown. — ^A dream of misfortune and disgrace (G3^sy) ; 
the attitude of the mediaeval world towards the jesters, ex- 
plains this interpretation. 

Club. — ^A dream auguring suffering and misfortune 
(Gypsy). Inman and Freud regard it as a phallic symbol, 
although it denoted strength and power amongst the ancients, 
bearing no erotic significance; to the Christians it became an 
emblem of suflFering and of martyrdom. 

Coals. — ^A dream of trouble, loss, hunger (Raphael) ; secret 
love is the interpretation attached to this dream by Freud. 
"With coal no fire so hotly glows as secret love, which no one 
knows." — Freud, Interpretation of Dreams, p. 316. 

Cock. — ^A dream denoting pride, success and power, com- 
bined with watchfulness (G)rpsy) ; modem symbol of vigi- 
lance, formerly held sacred to the sun; the herald of Apollo. 

Cock-Chafer. — See Beetle. 

Cock-Crowing. — ^This dream warns of a false friend, a 
betrajral (Gypsy) ; the connection here with our Lord's be- 
trayal is apparent. 

Column. — ^An unfortunate dream (Gypsy) ; Freud regards 
this dream as bearing a phallic significance. Christians, how- 
ever, hold the column as an emblem of the passion. 

Comet. — ^A dr-eam of death and illness (Artemidorus) ; here 
the portent is apparent in the legends connected with these 
heavenly bodies. 

Corkscrew. — ^A dream signifying an inquisitive friend 
(Gypsy) ; a bit of homely metaphor that needs no comment. 

Corn. — A dream of riches (Artemidorus) ; ears of corn, 
symbol of the Holy Eucharist (Qement) ; ear of com also the 
s)anbol of Horns bringing light and plenty to the world 
(Churchward). 



210 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

Cornucopia. — ^A dream of abundance (Gypsy) ; the Horn 
of Plenty of ancient tradition. 

Cow. — ^A dream of plenty in proportion to the number seen 
(Artemidorus) ; a symbol of the earth as mother of all things. 

Crab. — ^The dream of a ruinous lawsuit (Gypsy) ; a modem 
expression for an ill-tempered person; the tenacity of the 
crab has become symbolic. 

Crane. — A dream denoting wickedness on the part of the 
dreamer (Gypsy) ; the symbolism here is probably derived 
from the well-known destructiveness of these birds among the 
fish and smaller varieties of their own species. To the Egjrp- 
tians it was a symbol of the dawn and of regeneration, while 
to the Japanese it denotes longevity. Freudians regard it 
as bearing an erotic significance. 

Cravat or Tie. — ^A sore throat; to take off indicates the 
cure of a cold (Gypsy) ; the dream of a troublesome woman 
from whom dreamer longs to be freed (Freud). 

Crescent. — ^A dream interpreted as signifying successful 
love. The symbol of Isis and of motherhood. In Egypt it is 
used as an emblem of the Virgin Mary by Christians. 

Cricket. — Pleasant meeting of old friends symbolized by 
this dream. Superstition holds this insect as a pleasant omen. 
Pliny mentions it ^s much esteemed among the ancient magi- 
cians. 

Cripple. — ^To dream of a cripple denotes unexpected help 
or success (Gypsy) ; an interpretation doubtless founded upon 
the old superstition of the luck attendant upon meeting a 
cripple or a hunchback. 

Crocodile. — See Alligator. 

Cross. — To dream of a cross augurs success and honor; 
to carry it, trouble (Artemidorus). The cross as a symbol of 
victory is illustrated in the dream of the Emperor Constantine 
as related by Eusebius. In one of the marches the Emperor 
saw the "luminous trophy of the cross placed above the meri- 
dian sun, and inscribed with the following words : By this con- 
quer." — Gibbon. 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 211 

Crow. — ^Invariably ill-omened is this dream. Artemidorus 
holds it the dream of an adulterer. Raphael labels it the sign 
of a funeral. Cicero was warned of his own death by a num- 
ber of crows circling about his head. 

Crowd of People. — Importunity, excitement (Gypsy). 
"This dream is a sign of great excitement in the unconscious, 
especially in persons outwardly calm." (Jung). 

Crown. — ^A dream of reward among all people: "To bear 
a gold crown on the head signifies the friendship of your liege, 
honor, pleasure and many gifts" (Artemidorus). The unvary- 
ing symbol of reward. 

Crutches. — An unfavorable dream auguring illness (Arte- 
midorus) ; obviously this dream is inspired by sensory stimuli. 

Cuckoo. — ^Disappointment in love, a rupture (Gypsy) ; the 
cuckoo, according to Dr. Johnson, is the S3rmbol of faith- 
lessness. 

Cucumber. — ^A dream auguring serious indisposition 
(Gypsy) ; sensory stimuli would account for this dream and its 
interpretation. 

Cupid. — ^A dream of love and happiness (Artemidorus). 

Cypress. — ^A dream of sorrow and mourning (Artemido- 
rus) ; symbolism agrees with the dream. 

D 

Daffodils. — ^A dream of good health and good news 
(Gypsy) ; symbolism obvious. 

Dagger. — Foretells death and suffering, unless you dream of 
grasping it firmly, when it augurs success. Jung interprets the 
dagger as a phallic symbol. 

Daisy. — ^A good dream in spring or summer, auguring a 
true lover; bad in winter or autumn (Raphael) ; symbol the eye 
of day, the sun, also see the charm of daisy petals. 

Dandelion. — ^This dream denotes secret enemies at work 
against you (G3rpsy) ; interpretation probably derived from the 
fact that the farmers regard the flower as a nuisance. 



212 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

Darkness. — A dream of warning against treachery, false 
friends, wiUful blindness to reason and good sense (Artemi* 
dorus). 

Dates. — Either strong and powerful enemies or admirers 
of the opposite sex (Artemidorus) ; an erotic dream (Freud). 

Day. — ^A dream of a clear day is a good omen (Artemi- 
dorus). 

Deer. — ^Dissensions, disputes and quarrels with one's sweet- 
heart (Gypsy); an erotic dream (Jung). 

Deluge. — ^Overwhelming business loss (Artemidorus) ; sym- 
bolism obvious, financial affairs are usually indicated by storms, 
rain, etc. 

Desert. — Loss of friends and wealth are shown by this 
dream (Artemidorus) ; loneliness and isolation are plainly sym- 
bolized. 

Devil. — ^The worst possible dream (Gypsy). 

Dice. — A dream of enmity, quarrels and business vicissi- 
tudes (Gypsy) ; symbolic interpretation moral and obvious. 

Digging. — ^To dig in clean ground denotes thrift and good 
luck ; in dirty or wet gnGtmd, trouble ; to dig for gold and find 
large lumps, good fortune; to fail to find it, disappointment 
(Raphael). Most dreams of honest toil are of favorable 
augury. 

Distaff. — ^A favorable dream (Gypsy). The symbol of 
woman's work (Jennings). 

Dog. — ^A fortunate dream on the whole, denoting faithful 
friends (Gypsy). Modern symbol of fidelity, anciently held 
sacred to the Lares, i. e., the home. 

Dolphin. — ^Out of water, a dream of the loss of sweetheart 
or friend; swimming it augurs unexpected adventure. In 
mediaeval art it symbolizes social love. Anciently held as the 
special friend of man and the savior of the shipwrecked. The 
interpretation of this dream is therefore vague and inap- 
plicable. 

Dove. — ^A fortunate dream denoting happiness and fidelity 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 213 

at home (Artemidorus). Originally an erotic s)mibol as the 
bird of Aphrodite, it became at a later date the bird of holiness, 
symbolizing the sacrificial offerings of the Hebrews. In the 
great Upanishads the human spirit is represented as a dove. 

Dragon. — ^A dream of sudden changes in the worldly con- 
dition, riches and treasure (Raphael). In Christian art the 
dragon symbolizes Satan, or sin. With the Chinese a dragon, 
or winged serpent, is regarded as the symbol of the Infinite In- 
telligence, keeping ward over the Tree of Knowledge ; a dragon 
was also the standard of the Welsh, of the West Saxons, of 
the Phoenicians and of the Chinese Manchu djmasty. The 
Celts use the word dragon to signify a chief, a dictator in 
time of danger, and probably the dream interpretation is de- 
rived from this symbol. 

Dream. — To dream of relating a dr6am indicates that some- 
thing unusual is about to happen (Raphael). Evidently a 
struggle on the part of the subconscious to bring the matter 
before the consciousness. 

Dregs. — ^A dream of poverty, failure and loss (Gypsy). 

Drown. — ^An unfortunate dream auguring illness (Gypsy). 
A dream evidently due to some physical cause affecting the 
breathing apparatus. 

Drugs or Drugstore. — ^A dream of illness (Gypsy). Obvi- 
ously a dream inspired by the subconscious knowledge of need. 

Drum. — ^A dream of strife and war (Gypsy). 

Duck. — ^A dream of profit and pleasure (Gypsy). A sym- 
bol of good fortune (Chinese). 

Dust. — ^A dream of temporary calamity (Gypsy). Dust is 
the Christian symbol of humility and woe, but its effects are 
obviously temporary and easily thrown aside. 

Dwarf. — ^An ominous dream of hatred against which you 
are warned to protect yourself (Artemidorus). The malevo- 
lence and ill-temper of the dwarfs by whom great personages 
were attended is proverbial. 



214 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



Eagle. — ^An eagle rushing through the air denotes success- 
ful undertakings; flying overhead, dignity and honors; to a 
pregnant woman this dream augurs the birth of a prodigy. 

Earthquake. — ^Losses, broken ties, bereavements (Gypsy) ; 
nature's own symbolism. 

Earth-Worm. — ^A dream of secret enemies (Gypsy). 

Earth. — ^A universally portentous dream (G)T)sy). The 
earth as the symbol of the universal mother is curiously at 
variance with this interpretation of the oneirocritics. It is 
only to be accounted for by the h)rpothesis that in their Anxi- 
ety to escape all implication of idolatry and paganism, the 
gypsies reversed the symbols of the ancient creeds. 

Echo. — False news and absurdity are here indicated (Art). 

Eclipse. — Of the sun, great loss predicted; of the moon, 
small damage, but whatever your wish you will not attain it 
(Artemidorus). The s3rmbolism here is apparent. 

Eels. — ^A wariiing to beware of uncertain speculations 
(Gypsy). "As slippery as an eel," is the old simile for a 
rogue. 

Eggs. — ^A dream meaning happiness ; broken eggs, however, 
prognosticate quarrels and law-suits; fresh eggs, good news 
(Artemidorus). An ancient symbol of creation the egg has 
been held as an emblem of good fortune by all races. 

Elderberries. — ^A dream of good luck, speedy marriage and 
success financially (Raphael). The fruit of the sacred elder, 
these berries were highly esteemed by the ancient Prussians as 
symbols of good fortune. 

Elephant. — ^A fortunate dream forecasting riches (Gypsy). 
A symbol of power and wisdom. In India the god of wisdom 
is elephant-headed. 

Elk. — ^A dream of good luck (Gypsy). The great god 
El-ek; its horns were a protection from ill-luck (Bayley). 

Emerald. — ^The dream indicates wealth, a rise in the world 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 215 

(Gypsy). Persians use it as a charm against the devil, it also 
bestows knowledge of the future. 

Entrails. — ^A bad dream auguring sickness (G)rpsy). Here 
the dream analysts agree with the gypsies on the ground of 
physical stimuli as causing this dream. 

Epaulet. — ^A dream of dignity (Gypsy). 

Equator. — ^Good weather and fine crops are promised the 
farmer by this dream; to others, abundance (Gypsy). The 
tropical heat here S3mibolizes fruitfulness. 

Ermine. — Rise to honor and dignity ; gorgeous state awaits 
this dream (Gypsy). The ermine symbolizes royalty. 

Ewe>-Lamb. — ^A dream of a faithful and precious friend- 
ship (G3rpsy). "A possession greatly prized" in Scriptural 
symbolism. 

Eyes. — ^A dream auguring success through foresight (Arte- 
midorus). The symbol of the eye is eternal vigilance. 



Faggots. — ^A slander to the reputation (Gypsies). A phallic 
symbol (Jung, Freud). 

Fair, — ^This dream augurs coming into company of many 
people through whom you will profit (Gypsy). Here the 
gypsy interprets according to his own custom and tradition. 

Fairy. — ^A dream of riches and independence to the poor, 
to the rich temptation (Gypsy). The Providence of nursery 
legend and mythology, their dream symbolism is apparent 

Falcon. — ^To have one on the wrist, honor (Gypsy). "Now 
it fell that Kremhild, the pure maid, dreamed that she fondled 
a wild falcon and eagle wrested it from her. . . . Uta, her 
mother, interpreted it thus: 'the falcon that thou sawest is a 
noble man, yet if God keep him not, he is a lost man to thee." 
— Fall of the Nibelungs. 

Fan. — ^A dream of pride (Gypsy). A Japanese emblem of 
authority, power, royalty. 

Farewell. — To dream of bidding friends farewell denotes a 



2i6 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

change in business (Gypsy). Evidently a dream from the 
subconsciousness. 

Farm. — To dream of taking a farm denotes advancement; 
to visit a farm and partake of its products, good health (Gyp- 
sy). Obviously an interpretation derived from the rural dis- 
tricts. 

Farthing. — ^To dream that some one gives you a farthing, 
or that you are not possessed of one foretells a fall in the 
world (Gypsy). The unfortunate interpretation that invari- 
ably attends the dream of money. 

Fat. — ^To dream of growing too fat is a sign of afHiction^ 
physical or otherwise (Gypsy). Obviously resultant of physi- 
cal stimuli, probably the plethora attendant upon certain ail- 
ments. 

Fawn. — ^A dream denoting inconstancy (Gypsy). Popular 
s)rmbol of fleetness, timidity. 

Feathers. — White feathers foretell success; dark feathers, 
the reverse (Artemidorus). A symbol of power, and in Eg3rpt 
the emblem of truth, goodness and knowledge. 

Ferret. — ^A dream of enemies deep and sly (Gypsy). Sym- 
bol founded on knowledge of natural history. 

Fever. — ^An evil dream of ambitious desires, extravagance, 
etc. (Gypsy) ; the restlessness and delirium accompanying 
fever would justify this interpretation of a dream undoubtedly 
attributable to the physical condition. 

Fields. — ^Fertile fields, a dream of prosperity ; barren fields, 
disappointment (Gypsy) ; a symbolical dream. 

Figs. — A dream of joy and pleasure; out of season, grief; 
to eat, loss of fortune; dry figs signify the slipping away of 
wealth, but success in married life (G)rpsy). In sacred sym- 
bolism they denote prosperity (Smith). They were held as 
sacred by the Romans, a symbol of fruitfulness and life, also 
an erotic symbol. 

Finger. — To dream of losing one, trouble (Gypsy). A 
dream due to physical stimuli, probably gout, etc. 

Fire. — ^A dream oi health and happiness; to be burned. 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 217 

however, signifies calamity (Gypsy). Sacred to primitive man 
it symbolizes fructifying strength and heat, the life-giving ele- 
ment. 

Firb-Brand or Torch. — Good for young folk to whom it 
signifies love and pleasure ; to see another hold a fire-brand is 
an ill dream for one who would be secret (Artemidorus). 
Sjrmbolism obvious. 

Fire from Heaven. — 

"When thou dreamest Fire from Heaven is sent 
Some extraordinary thing is meant; 
A king or prince that often dreameth so 
Will in his country find both war and woe." 

— Artemidorus. 

Fish. — ^Much pleasure, and comparative independence 
(Raphael). A dream of fish denotes gastric disturbances 
(Manaceine). Originally an emblem of sex and of fecundity 
it was adopted by the Christians as a symbol of Christ and the 
church. 

Flames. — ^To dream of flames denotes happiness (Gypsy). 
Flames, a Christian symbol of zeal, fervor. 

Fleas. — A dream of annoyance and discomfort (Gypsy). 
Probably the result of physical stimuli. 

Fleet. — ^To dream of a fleet of vessels promises fulfillment 
of hopes (Gypsy). Ships symbolize hopes both in ancient 
and modem symbolism. 

FuES. — ^Troublesome persons who will scandalize you 
(Gypsy). 

Floods. — See Deluge. 

Flowers. — ^Joy is indicated by dreaming of flowers in sea- 
son, the dream augurs disappointment, white flowers are but 
slightly unfortunate; yellow fldwers forecast painful difficul- 
ties; red flowers indicate death (Gypsy). Freud regards this 
as a purely erotic dream. In Christian symbolism flowers sym- 
bolize immortality; cut flowers, however, are emblematic of 
death. 

Flying. — Invariably a happy dream, auguring beautiful 



2i8 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

things to come. Modem dream interpreters, however, classify 
it as a typical dream induced by vertigo, etc. 

Fog. — ^A dream of uncertainty (Gypsy). 

Foolscap. — ^To dream of one signifies foolishness (Gypsy). 
An occult symbol of determination to suffer wrongs gayly. 

Forest. — ^A dream of dire trouble and sorrow (Artemido- 
rus). The legends that people the forests with witches, ogres 
and giants account for this interpretation. 

Forge. — ^A dream of brilliant success through hard work 
(Gypsy). 

Fountain. — ^To dream of a clear fountain indicates abun- 
dance to well persons and health to invalids (Artemidorus). 
A symbol of the gospel and of miraculous healing waters. 

Fox. — ^A dream of a lurking enemy determined to under- 
mine you (Artemidorus) ; the symbol of cunning (Hartmann). 

Fratricide. — Success will never attend the dreamer of this 
dream (Raphael). The interpretation of what is evidently 
regarded as a wish dream. 

Frogs. — ^A lucky dream, forecasting good to all conditions 
(Artemidorus). The symbol of transformation and of my- 
riads (Churchward) ; of regeneration, new life, resurrection 
(Budge). 

Frost. — ^An unfortunate dream (Raphael). To a man in 
business, difficulties in trade, love nipped in the bud, etc. The 
symbolism is apparent. 

Funeral. — ^The funeral of a relative or a great lord is a 
good dream; betokening either a wealthy marriage or a for- 
tune through relatives (Artemidorus). A wish dream (Freud). 



Gad-fues. — ^A dream of trouble in store for the dreamer 
(Gypsy). 

Gallows. — Fortunate, the dreamer will rise proportionately 
to the height (Gypsy). 

Gardener. — ^A dream of good luck and speedy success 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 219 

(Gypsy) ; agriculturists generally connote good fortune in 
g3rpsy symbolism. 

Garlands. — ^A dream of triumph (Gypsy). 

Geese.— The cackling of geese, good luck and speedy suc- 
cess in business (Artemidorus). See Roman history of the 
cackling geese that saved the city. 

Gems. — ^A dream forecasting a rise in social position (Gyp- 
sy). 

GiLLY-FLOWER. — ^A dream denoting bad speculation (the 
significance of the flower itself). 

Girdle. — ^A dream of marriage ; a new girdle denotes honor, 
a broken one damage, a golden girdle gain, a silver one less 
profit (Artemidorus). In Christian symbolism it is an emblem 
of righteousness, virtue, truth. 

Goat. — Enemies, trials and deceit (Artemidorus). An em- 
blem of lewdness and wickedness in Christian symbolism. 

Gold. — ^To dream of gold embroidered garments, indicates 
joy and honor, to wear a gold crown signifies royal favor; 
to gather up gold and silver signifies deceit and loss ; to dream 
of pockets full of gold betokens but little money (Artemido- 
rus). Gold was the emblem of the sun, of the goodness of 
God. 

Gondola. — See boat. 

Goose. — ^A bad dream for a single man auguring a silly and 
incompetent wife (Raphael). Modem nursery lore represents 
the goose as an emblem of silliness, despite that fowl's illus- 
trious reputation in both Rome and ^gypt. 

Gooseberries. — Many offspring and the accomplishment of 
plans are denoted by this dream (Raphael). The ancient sym- 
bol of reproductiveness and fertility. 

Gore. — ^To see a quantity of gore or congealed blood augurs 
dreadful calamity or death (Raphael). A dream that might 
be interpreted as either symbolical or inspired by physical 
stimuli. 

Grain. — ^A dream of prosperity; to see great bins in a 
storehouse, plenty; a field of grain denotes profit; to harvest 



220 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

grain augurs wealth; to carry it, weariness (Artemidorus). 
The symbolism is obvious. 

Grapes. — Eating grapes, cheerfulness, profit; treading 
grapes, the overthrow of enemies; gathering white grapes, 
gain; gathering black grapes, damage (Artemidorus). The 
symbol of joy, happiness and fertility. 

Grass. — ^To dream of walking through fields of grass signi- 
fies happiness and fortune ; to dream of grasses such as sorrel 
lettuce, etc., denotes grief and embarrassment. To eat them 
sorrow and sickness. Dead or withered grass denotes mis- 
fortune (Gypsy). 

Grasshopper. — ^A dream prognosticating poverty due to lack 
of energy on the part of the dreamer (Raphael). The symbol 
of improvidence. 

Grave. — To see one being dug, the sign of the funeral of 
a friend or relative ; if you dream you are in it yourself, your 
recovery is doubtful (Gypsy). 

The first part of this interpretation might readily be con- 
strued as a wish dream, the second part as denoting incipient 
malady. 

Green Gages. — ^To dream of eating these plums denotes 
trouble and grief (Raphael). This bit of interpretation is 
plainly due to physical stimuli. 

Grind-stone. — Success through toil indicated by this 
dream (Gypsy). 

Grocery. — Wealth by dishonest means (Gypsy). 

Ground. — To fall to the ground, humiliation and disgrace 
(Gjrpsy). Freud places an erotic construction upon this 
dream. 

Grove. — ^Trouble but in a less degree than in a forest 
(Gypsy). 

Guitar. — ^A dream of happiness (Gypsy). 

Gun. — To hear the report of a gun denotes the death of a 
friend, a slander, enmity and loss (Gypsy). 

Gypsy. — ^To see one in a dream, a lucky sign to business 
men (Gypsy). 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 221 

H 

Hack. — ^To see one denotes a visit from a friend. 

Hail. — Sorrow and trouble, with tempest and thunder, af- 
flictions ; repose to the poor, however, for during storms they 
rest (Artemidorus). 

Hair. — To dream that you have white hair denotes high 
honor; black and short, misfortune; disheveled hair, annoy- 
ances, sorrows, etc.; falling out, loss of friends; hair in a 
tangle, lawsuits; long hair like a woman, eflfeminancy, weak- 
ness ; longer and blacker than usual, increase of riches ; thin- 
ner than usual, affliction, poverty; seeing it grow white, loss 
of fortune ; a bald-headed woman, famine ; a bald-headed man, 
abundance, riches, health (Gypsy). 

Hammer. — ^A dream of oppression (Artemidorus). 

"Like a hammer that breaketh the rock in pieces/' Jeremiah 
xxiii. 

Handbills. — ^To post them, dishonor; to read them, labor 
without reward. 

Hanging. — ^To dream of being hanged prognosticates suc- 
cess in proportion to the ^bbet; if the dreamer be ill he will 
find joy and contentment ; the dream of condemning another to 
be hanged signifies anger with the person, followed by a restor- 
ation of confidence which will be abused. The Persians and 
Egyptians interpret the dream of hanging as auguring riches, 
honor and respect. To dream of being delivered from being 
hanged forecasts downfall in estate and dignity (Artemidorus). 

Hare. — ^A dream of wealth resulting from fertility of re- 
source, and address. Symbol of nimbleness of wit and clever- 
ness in Gypsy and African lore. 

Harp. — ^A cure for madness (Gypsy), Ancient symbolism. 

Harpies. — Tribulation and pain caused by envious persons, 
malice and treachery (Artemidorus) ; see Mythology. 

Hart. — ^To kill a hart in your dreams forecasts an inheri- 
tance from an old man, also the overcoming of fugitive and 
deceitful enemies. A running hart shows wealth through 



222 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

subtlety (Artemidorus). A symbol of fieetness and of hennit 
Ufe. 

Harvest. — ^A dream of prosperity (Gypsy). 

Harvesters. — ^To dream of many of them denotes success 
in trade; to see them idle, scarcity (Gypsy). 

Hatchet. — ^A warning to expect peril or death (Gypsy). 

Hawk. — ^The dream of the commencement of a new enter- 
prise; if the hawk dart downwards you will succeed, but if 
a little bird attack the hawk you will fail (Gypsy). Ancient 
symbol of the sun, of intelligence and good luck; also of 
enterprise ; the bird of Horus. 

Hawthorn. — ^A dream of constancy (Gypsy). Symbol of 
constancy. 

Hay or Hay-Cart. — Success . through diligence (Gypsy); 
agricultural symbol of prosperity. 

Headache. — ^A dream of trouble, sickness, loss of wealth 
(Gypsy). The physical stimuli account for this interpretation. 

Health. — ^A bad omen for the sick (Gypsy). Evidently 
due to physical stimuli. 

Heart. — ^To dream of the heart as sick or suffering augurs 
illness dangerous in proportion to the suffering; an injury to 
the heart portends danger ; to dream of having no heart shows 
that death is near at hand (G3rpsy). Obviously attributable to 
physical conditions. 

Heat. — ^To dream of eternal heat denotes fever (Gypsy). 
Obvious interpretation. 

Heather or Heath. — ^A dream of hope ; if withered or dry, 
frustrated hopes (Gypsy). 

Heaven. — ^A beautiful and auspicious dream; to ascend 
thereto, grandeur and glory (Artemidorus). 

Hedgehog. — A dream forecasting the meeting with an old 
friend whom you have not seen for years (Gypsy). A G3rpsy 
emblem of honesty and loyalty. 

Hedges. — ^When green, prosperity; when thorny and im- 
penetrable, dangers and difficulties (Gypsy). Obvious sym- 
bolism. 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 223 

Hell. — ^A dream denoting mental agony or bodily pain 
(Gypsy). 

Hen and Chickens. — See Brood. 

Herbs. — ^To dream of hemlock, henbane and other poison- 
ous herbs denotes that you are in danger, but to dream of 
useful herbs is good (Gypsy). Apparently a dream from phys- 
ical stimuli induced by the odors of the herbs in question. 

Herdsman. — ^A dream of damage to the rich and profit to 
the poor (Raphael). Here the interpretation is obviously 
based on reason, for what would be gain to one is loss to the 
other. 

Herd of Cattle. — See Cattle. 

Hermit. — See Abbott. 

Heron. — See Crane. 

Hickory-Nuts. — ^Trouble from creditors. 

Hill. — ^To dream of climbing a steep hill and reaching the 
top, difficulties overcome; to fail to reach the top, disappoint- 
ment ; green hills in the distance, hope, promise ( Artemidorus). 

Hog. — ^Avarice and greed are augured by this dream (Arte- 
midorus) ; symbol of sensuality; Circe turned men to swine of 
old. 

Holly. — A good dream (Gypsy) ; the symbol of joy. 

Honey. — ^A dream of prosperity (Artemidorus). "A land 
flowing with milk and honey,'' was the promised land of the 
Hebrews. 

Hops. — ^A dream of peace and plenty (Gypsy) ; the sooth- 
ing influence of hops is well known. 

Hornet. — ^A dream of vexations (Gypsy). 

Horns. — ^Dream of wearing horns denotes dominion and 
grandeur (Artemidorus). Horns have ever been worn by 
priests and rulers of barbarous tribes as S3rmbols of state and 
power. Jung and Freud attach to them a phallic significance. 

Horse. — ^A dream of happiness, to dream of riding signi- 
fies success (Gypsy). Jung regards this as an erotic dream; 
courage and generosity are symbolized by the horse, while 



2^4 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

Swedenborg regards it as the emblem of the ''intellectual prin- 
ciple." 

Horse-Chestnut. — ^A dream denoting home quarrels and 
worries. 

HorsexShoe. — ^A peculiar dream denoting good fortune in 
business and home aflfairs (Gypsy). A world s)mibol of good 
fortune. 

Hospital. — ^An unfortunate dream (Raphael). A dream 
of sensory origin. 

Hounds. — To dream of following them denotes unprofitable 
pursuits (G)rpsy). Symbolism obvious. 

House. — ^To build one, profit; to be in a strange house de- 
notes change (Gypsy). Schemer contends that the dream 
phantasm of a house has its representation in the entire or- 
ganism. Under some conditions a single organ would be rep- 
resented by a whole series of houses. Long rows of houses 
symbolize intestinal excitements. On other occasions particu- 
lar parts of the house would represent particular parts of the 
body. In one headache dream, the ceiling of the room which 
the dreamer sees is covered with disgusting reptilelike spiders 
— ^the ceiling represents the head (Freud). 

Howls. — ^To hear howls in a dream is an omen of death 
(G)rpsy) ; popular superstition concerning howls responsible 
for this interpretation. 

Humming-Bird. — -Travel in a foreign land, success there 
is denoted by a dream of this little creature flittering from 
flower to flower (Artemidorus). 

Hump-Back. — ^A dream denoting prosperity (Artemido- 
rus) ; derived from the superstition that these unfortunates 
bring luck to whosoever touches the hump. 

Hyacinth. — ^A dream denoting riches (G)rpsy). 

Hydra. — To see a hydra or seven-headed serpent signifies 
temptation (Art). See s)miboKsm of the serpent. 

Hyena. — ^A dream of cruel sorrow (Gypsy). The symbol 
of ferocity. 

Hymns. — ^To sing them in a dream signifies the dreamer's 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 225 

death (Gypsy). The symbolism comiecting h3m3n-singing with 
the funeral service is obvious. 

Hyssor. — ^A dream signifying labor, trouble, sickness, weak- 
ness. To physicians, however, the dream is propitious (Arte- 
midonifi). 

I 

Ice. — ^Always a bad dream (Raphael). Probably a dream 
caused by unnatural chilling of the sleeper's body, and there- 
fore not good. 

Icicles. — ^To a young woman marriage to an old and 
wealthy man (Gypsy). 

Idiot. — ^To dream of being turned idiot and going mad 
augurs favor with princes, also gain and pleasure through 
things of the world (Artemidorus). An instance of the philo- 
sophical basis of certain interpretations. 

Illness. — ^A dangerous dream (Raphael). . 

Illumination. — Some great joy at hand is augured by this 
dream (Gypsy). 

Imps. — ^An ill dream for those advanced in years, to others 
disappointment (G)rpsy). The imp is a symbol of malice. 

Incense. — A dream of flatterers, parasites, etc. (Gypsy). 

Indigence. — ^A dream of becoming indigent indicates sud- 
den gain (Gypsy), probably based upon the caution of the 
provident and therefore successful person. 

Infernal Things. — To dream of an infernal spirit is a bad 
sign, indicating death to the sick, melancholy to the health- 
ful, also anger, tumults, illness (Artemidofus). This dream is 
conceded by physiologists to result from outward stimuli. 

Infirm. — ^To dream of seeing a person becoming infirm, in- 
dicates you, yourself, will become so (G)rpsy). A dream in-, 
spired by physical weakness. 

Insects. — ^A dream of illness and loss (Artemidorus). This 
dream usually due to overindulgence in alcoholic liquors. 

Iron. — ^To dream of being hurt with iron signifies damage ; 



226 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

to trade in iron with strangers, losses and misfortune (Arte- 
midorus). See Kipling, "Rewards and Fairies." 

Island. — ^A dream auguring isolation, loneliness (Gypsy). 
Obviously sjonbolical. 

Ivory. — ^Augurs abundance and success (Gypsy). Held as 
a precious substance by orientals. 

Ivy. — ^A dream of strong trust and friendship (Gypsy). A 
symbol of the Trinity and of the triple creative power, also of 
loyalty and friendship. 

J 

Jackal. — ^This dream denotes an enemy who will backbite 
and bring trouble (Gypsy) . An Egyptian symbol of judgment, 
and of watchfulness over sacred things, it was evidently held 
in horror by the faiths that succeeded those of Egypt. 

Jackdaw. — ^To dream* that one crosses your path, bitter ene- 
mies; to catch one, success in defying enemies (G)rpsy), 

"I neither tattle with Jack Daw 
Or maggot-pye on thatched house straw/' 

says Rowlands in the "Night-Raven" ( 1620) . 

Japan. — ^A dream of ill-luck (G3rpsy) ; s}rmbolism probably 
based upon Japanese inhospitality to foreigners in former 
days. 

Jaundice. — ^A dream of sickness and poverty (Gypsy). 

JesSxVmine. — A dream of true love and success (Gypsy). 
Poetic symbol. 

Jewels. — See Gem. 

Judge. — ^To come before a judge, a bad dream, indicating 
malice, persecution, etc. (Gypsy) ; a dream probably inter- 
preted from the Gypsy experience. 

Justice. — ^A good dream (Gypsy). 

K 

Kangaroo. — Prolonged worries, to kill one is a lucky dream 
(Gypsy). Wild animals generally symbolize misfortune with 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 227 

gypsy interpreters ; Freud and Jung, however, attach to them 
an erotic significance. 

Kettle. — ^A bright kettle denotes success in every day life 
(Raphael). Obvious symbolism of the Gypsy life. 

Keys. — ^A dream of coldness and hindrances to travelers. 
Fortunate for managers of other people's affairs; to dream 
of giving a key augurs marriage; to receive one, honor and 
confidence; many keys denote wealth; to lose keys denotes 
anger and misfortune (Gypsy). A talisman of power, sagac- 
ity and foresight. Christ speaks of the key of knowledge 
(Luke xi, 52). Chinese symbol of prudence. 

Kid. — ^A dream of thrift (Gypsy symbol). 

Kill. — See Murder. 

Kiss. — ^To kiss a relative in a dream denotes treason; a 
stranger, a speedy journey; the earth, humiliation; the hand 
of a person, friendship, good fortune ; the face 6i a stranger 
rashness followed by success (Gypsy). 

Kite. — ^A dream auguring elevation in life ; should the string 
break, sudden downfall (Raphael) ; Kite (the bird) ; a dream 
portending danger of robbers (Artemidorus). Kites and buz- 
zards are s)rmbols of rapine and robbery (Brand). 

Kitten. — ^Joy, peace and happiness at home ; to be scratched 
by one, an unhappy married life (Gypsy). 

Knave. — ^To dream of being one connotes wealth; to be 
connected with them, lawsuits (Artemidorus). 

Knee. — ^To fall upon the knees symbolizes need of help 
(Gypsy), 

Knife. — ^An unfortunate dream, bright sharp knives connote 
enemies. 

Knife-Grinder. — ^To see one foretells robbery (Gypsy) ; 
this occupation was a common one amongst the Qypsies them- 
selves. 

Knight in Armor. — A dream of peril to come (Gypsy). 

Knitting. — ^A dream denoting wicked talk, gossip (Gypsy). 
The dcMnestic occupations of women frequently bear this 
meaning. 



228 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

Knots. — ^A dream of embarrassment and perplexity (Gyp- 
sy) ; "a knotty ptoblem," etc. Chinese symbol of longevity 
and luck (Pavitt). 

L 

Laborer. — ^A dream denoting happiness, increase of fortune, 
etc. (Gypsy). Symbolic of frugality, prudence, etc. 

Laces. — ^To wear them in a dream forecasts disappointment 
in some new garments (Gypsy). 

Lackey. — ^A dream denoting a secret enemy; on the back 
of a carriage, undue pride and ostentation (Gypsy). Symbo- 
lism apparent. 

Ladder. — ^A dream of advancement; to ascend denotes ele- 
vation; to descend augurs a downfall (Artemidorus). 

Ladies. — ^To see one, a dream of weakness, frailty; many 
ladies, calumny and slander (Raphael). 

Lady's Maid. — ^A dream of evil reports that will injure 
the dreamer (Gypsy). 

Lake. — See Brook. 

Lambs. — ^Always a favorable dream except to slay one, this 
denotes moral torment ; to own one, comfort, peace and happi- 
ness (Gypsy). Christian symbol. 

Lamp. — ^To carry a bright one, success, an especially favor- 
able dream for lovers ; a dim lamp, sickness ; a light that goes 
out or is extinguished, death; or at least danger (Raphael). 
In ancient symbolism the lamp or flame represented the vital 
spark of life.* Truth, righteousness, illumination, etc., are 
symbolized by the lamp in scriptural art. 

Lance. — ^A dream of trouble and tragedy (Raphael) ; an 
erotic dream (Jung) ; Christian symbol of martyrdom; Greek 
s}mibol of the god Mars. 

Lantern. — ^To dream of carrying one on a dark night fore- 
tells riches; to stumble denotes trouble; for the light to be 
darkened or extinguished, poverty (Artemidorus). Modem 
symbol of lanterns, leadership; Christian symbol, piety and 
truth ; the tarot gives it as a symbol of wisdom. 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 229 

Lark. — ^A lucky dream forecasting health and prosperity 
(Raphael) ; the symbol of joy and of praise (Bayley). 

Laurel. — ^A dream betokening victory and pleasure (Raph- 
ael) ; symbol of victory. 

Law, Lawyers. — ^A dream forecasting heavy business loss- 
es; after this dream be careful about entering into bargains 
or contracts (Raphael). 

Leaves. — Trees covered with fresh leaves signify success 
in business ; blossoms and fruits among leaves, a dream of mar- 
riage; withered leaves signify losses and bad crops (Raphael). 

Leeches. — ^To dream of leeches being applied denotes sick- 
ness (Raphael) ; as an ancient and popular remedy, the appli- 
cation of leeches would connote a subconsciousness of illness. 

Leeks. — See Onions. 

Leopard. — ^To dream of a leopard signifies dangers and dif- 
ficulties and as many changes as there are spots on his coat 
(Gypsy). The leopard is the symbol of watchfulness and 
alertness, also treachery. 

Leper. — ^A dream of shame and infamy, it also prognosti- 
cates illness (Gypsy). 

Letters. — ^To write or receive them, good news (Gypsy). 

Lettuce. — See Grass. 

Liar. — To dream of being called one denotes wealth by 
questionable means (Gypsy). 

Library. — ^To dream of being in a library shows success 
through wisdom and learning (Gypsy). 

Life-Boat. — ^A dream prognosticating success at the last 
moment (Raphael). 

Light. — To dream of being aboard ship and of seeing a 
light afar off assures one of his desires ; to hold a burning light 
in the hands is good, especially to the young, signifying accom- 
plishment of designs, honors and good will to all persons. A 
light in the hands of another foretells the discovery of mis- 
chief and the punishment of the offender (Old Dream Book). 
The symbolism is easily followed. 



230 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

Lightning. — ^A portentous dream of war and trouble 
(Gypsy). 

Lighthouse. — A dream of warning of danger ahead and 
the possibility of a mistake in judgment (Raphael). 

Lilies. — A dream promising happiness through virtue 
(Raphael). A symbol of innocence, of chastity and of purity. 

Lily of the Valley. — ^A dream of humility; water lily, 
regeneration and purification; Lotus, symbol of new birth, 
of inexhaustible life, immortality. Tiger-lilies, a dream of the 
temptation of wealth (G)rpsy). 

Limping. — ^A dream prognosticating misfortune and shame 
(Artemidorus). 

Linen. — ^To dream of being dressed in clean linen denotes 
glad tidings; soiled linen, poverty, imprisonment, disappoint- 
ment, etc. (Artemidorus). 

Lion. — ^A dream denoting discourse with a great king or 
commander; combat with one forecasts a quarfSl with some 
great adversary, and the lioness signifies the same as the lion, 
only less good and less hurt, and that not by men but by 
women. "I have known by a dream of a lioness tearing or 
biting that rich personages have fallen into crimes and ac- 
cusations." Artemidorus. Strength, majesty and courage are 
symbolized by the lion. In Egjrpt the overflow of the Nile oc- 
curred when the sun was in Leo, the constellation of the lion. 
Hence the Lion's months became symbols of water-spouts, etc. 

Lizard. — Misfortune through secret enemies is denoted by 
this dream (Artemidorus). The lizard is the mediaeval symbol 
of misfortune and ill-luck. 

Load. — ^A dream of care and toil, to succeed in carrying it, 
the triumph over difficulties (Gypsy). 

Loaves. — ^To dream of seeing loaves foretells want (G3rpsy). 
Evidently a desire or need is assumed as the foundation of 
this dream. 

Lobsters. — ^A dream foretelling sorrows and troubles 
(Gypsy). 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 231 

Lock. — ^A dream auguring difficulty in the attainment of 
your desire (G)rpsy). 

Locomotive. — ^A dream auguring travel (Raphael). 

Locusts. — ^A dream forecasting extravagance, misfortune 
and short-lived happiness (Gypsy). 

Logs. — ^To dream of cleaving logs portends a visit from 
strangers (Artemidorus). 

Looking-Glass. — ^To dream of looking from high places, 
out of windows, or in a well denotes ambition, imagination, 
confused desires. Looking in a mirror, to married folk betok- 
ens children ; to the young, sweethearts ; vanity to a maid. To 
see oneself in water forecasts the dreamer's death or that of 
a friend (Artemidorus). This dream can be directly traced 
through ancestral memory back to the legends of mythology. 

Loss. — For a woman to dream of losing her wedding-ring 
augurs little love for her husband; if she finds it again, the 
love is not wholly dead ; for a man to lose his shoes, signifies 
reproaches (Gypsy). 

Love. — To dream of unsuccessful love is a dream of con- 
trary, you will marry and be happy; to dream that friends 
love you foretells prosperity in all things; to dream of being 
with your lover foretells a speedy marriage (Raphael). 

Lucky. — ^To dream that you are lucky is a dream of con- 
trary, of misfortune (Raphael). 

Lute. — ^A dream of delightful company, happiness, success 
(Gypsy). 

Lying. — ^To dream of lying is bad except for players and 
those who practice it professionally (Gypsy). 

Lynx. — ^A dream warning you that you are watched by a 
keen-eyed enemy (Artemidorus). 

M 

Mace. — To dream of mace is good, for mace comforts the 
heart (Artemidorus). 



232 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

Magician. — ^A dream connoting unexpected events, sur- 
prises (Gypsy). 

Magnet. — ^A dream warning you to resist the snares that are 
across your path ; to see a magnet denotes that you are plan- 
ning to fascinate some other person (Raphael). 

Magpie. — A dream of deceit (Gypsy). The bird itself sym- 
bolizes deceit and misfortune. 

Malice. — To dream that some one bears you malice denotes 
a sudden advancement to an important place in the world 
(Gypsy). 

Mallows. — ^To dream of eating mallows signifies exemption 
from trouble, as this herb renders the body soluble (Artemi- 
dorus). This is an unusually clear example of the folk lore 
that has made symbols and symbolism in dreams. 

Mantle. — See Cloak. 

Map. — ^To dream of examining a map denotes that you will 
leave your native land (Gjrpsy). 

Maple. — ^A dream of comfort and a happy life (Gypsy). 
The national emblem of Canada, connoting goodness, service, 
etc. 

Mare. — For a man to dream of seeing a young mare denotes 
marriage to a beautiful, young, rich gentlewoman; an ill- 
shapen mare denotes a disadvantageous alliance (Artemi- 
dorus). 

Marigolds. — Constant lover, happy marriage, advancement, 
riches (Raphael). It is called the flower of flame or light, and 
is also used to break the spells of enchantment. 

Mariner. — A dream denoting voyages (Gypsy). 

Market. — See Fair. 

Marriage. — ^A dream invariably auguring sickness, death, 
etc 

Mars. — ^An unfortunate dream forecasting quarrels at home 
and abroad (Gypsy). 

Marsh. — ^To dream of walking in a marshy country, trou- 
bled life; swamps denote sorrows and difficulties; to escape 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 233 

them, future comfort; to try to till a marsh, misery in spite 
of work (Gypsy). 

Marten. — See Wren. 

Martyr. — ^A dream of honor and public approbation (Gyp- 
sy). 

Mask or Masquerade. — ^To attend one is a dream of de- 
ceptive pleasure (Gypsy). 

Mastiff. — ^A dream of a strong, powerful, but unknown, 
friend; to be bitten by one, injury from a friend (Gypsy). 
Jung and Freud classify all dreams of animals or of being 
bitten by animals as erotic, or sex dreams. The mastiff is the 
modem symbol of loyalty, gentleness and fidelity. 

Mat. — ^To dream that a door mat has been stolen fore- 
casts that some one will try to enter your house (Raphael). 
A dream obviously originating in the unrecorded observation 
made by the subconscious. 

May-Pole. — ^A dream denoting love and lovers (Gypsy) ; 
an erotic symbol (Freud). The ma)rpole dance and festival 
had its remote origin in sex- worship (Frazier). 

Meadow. — ^To dream of walking through pleasant meadows 
portends happiness (Gypsy). 

Medal. — ^To dream of receiving medals for good conduct 
denotes depravity and loss of character (Raphael) Evidently 
a wish dream arising from the consciousness of a guilty con- 
science. 

Medicine. — To dream of taking it with difficulty is a dream 
of physical distress (Gypsies and medicos agree on this 
dream). 

Melons. — ^To a sick person this is a dream of recovery by 
reason of the juiciness which dispels fever (G)rpsy) ; a dream 
originating in physical stimuli indicative of coolness and mois- 
ture after fever. 

Mice. — ^A dream of envious slanderers, also of poverty 
(Gypsy). 

Midwife. — ^A dream denoting revelation of secrets and 
hurt thereby (Artemidorus). 



234 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

Milk. — ^To drink it, joy ; to sell it, a disappointment in love ; 
to milk a cow, abundance, plenty (Gypsy). 

Mill or Miller. — ^A dream denoting happiness and riches 
(Gypsy). Prosperity is usually attributed to these gentry, 
t.e., millers. 

Mire. — ^An evil dream although it may be rendered harm- 
less (Raphael). 

Mirror. — See Looking-glass. 

Miser. — ^Like all dreams pertaining to money or hoards, this 
is unfavorable (Gypsy). 

Mistletoe. — ^A dream of fortune and health (Gypsy). The 
legends attached to the plant justify this symbolism. 

Money. — Ever an evil dream (Raphael). 

Monk. — See Abbot. 

Monkeys. — See Ape. 

Monster. — ^To dream of a monster or monstrous fish at sea 
is evil, but a monster on land is good, signifying evil enemies 
who will be impotent (Artemidorus). 

Moon. — ^A brilliant moon prognosticates: to a wife, love 
and good health ; to a husband, increase in wealth. New moon : 
advancement in business; waning, death of a great man; a 
halo around the moon denotes pardon and deliverance through 
a female; a red moon, voyages, pilgrimages; dull moon, death 
or illness to wife, sister or female relative; perilous joumey- 
ings, especially by sea, brain fever, eye trouble. An obscure 
moon becoming bright, profit to a woman, joy to a man. From 
clearness to obscurity, loss, sadness, misfortune to men and 
women. Two moons denote increase in rank and dignity; 
when a beautiful woman dreams of the moon, the dream fore- 
casts high standing, dignity and admiration. To thieves, mur- 
derers, etc., it denotes justice; to invalids danger of death 
or shipwreck. For a young girl or widow to dream of a 
full, dazzling moon, the prognostication is marriage ; to a mar- 
ried woman, the birth of a beautiful daughter; to a man the 
birth of a son. A happy dream to jewelers, goldsmiths, etc. 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 235 

(National Dream Book). Most of these presages, it will be 
observed, are astrological. 

Moor or Negro. — ^An unfortunate dream (Gypsy), The 
general superstition attached to a dream of darkness or black 
objects seems to apply here. 

Morning-Glory. — ^A hopeful, happy dream (Gypsy), A 
symbol of the resurrection (Smith). 

Mosquitoes. — Persecution from petty enemies (Gypsy). 

Moss. — ^A dream signifying the acquisition and hoarding of 
money (Gypsy). 

Mother. — ^To dream of your mother (living) denotes joy; 
if she be dead, sorrow (Gjrpsy). 

Moths. — ^A dream of a love aflfair in which the dreamer will 
suffer betrayal (Gypsy). The proverbial moth and flame is 
symbolized in this dream. 

Mountains. — ^A dream of heaviness, fear and trouble 
(Artemidorus). Thus Kremhild warns her lord Siegfried of 
his approachiiig death. 

"Nay, Siegfried, I fear some mischance. Last night I 
dreamed an evil dream ; how that two mountains fell on thee 
and I saw thee no more. If thou goest thou wilt grieve me 
bitterly." Nevertheless he rode off. She never saw him alive 
again. — Fall of the Niehelungs. 

Mouth. — ^To dream of being unable to open the mouth, 
danger of death (Gypsy). A dream due to physical condi-' 
tions. 

Mud. — ^To dream of being covered with it denotes slander 
(Gypsy). 

Muff. — ^A dream forecasting a harsh winter, lack of money 
(G3rpsy). In this instance the subconsciousness has probably 
recorded weather signs of which the consciousness has taken 
no note. 

Mulberry-Tree. — ^A dream of increase of wealth, of abun- 
dance of goods (Artemidorus). A symbol of prosperity in 
Persia and in Italy. 



236 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

Mule. — ^A dream that is good for all work, especially hus- 
bandry, only that they cross weddings and increase ; to dream 
that mules are savage and mad and that they do hurt argfues 
deceit by some one of your own household (Artemidorus). 

Mushrooms. — To dream of eating them danger of death or 
personal sickness to the dreamer (Gypsy). Evidently an anxi- 
ety dream, expressed in the doubt of the mushrooms. 

Music. — ^A dream of ravishing music signifies sudden and 
delightful news; harsh sounds denote the contrary (Artemi- 
dorus). 

N 

Naked. — ^A dream of sickness, poverty, affront, fatigue. In- 
variably ominous according to older interpreters. Modem stu- 
dents, however, attribute to it a. totally different significance; 
holding it in some instances as a wish dream, in others as an 
erotic dream and again as a dream symbolizing freedom from 
social restraint. The theory of the subconscious and its warn- 
ings, etc., is, however, in accord with the older school, for the 
dream of nakedness might readily originate in fear, especially 
with women who habitually devote a large amount of thought 
to clothes. 

Neck. — ^A dream of power, honor, riches. Imperfections 
or ailments of the neck, however, prognosticate sickness (Arte- 
midorus). 

Necklace. — ^A dream of riches and honor ; if you break it, 
misfortune (Gypsy). 

Nectar. — ^Riches, honor, a long life (Gsrpsy). This was the 
drink of the ancient gods. 

Need. — ^A dream of need denotes wealth in store (Gypsy). 
The shrewd interpreter might easily augur that the anxiety 
that roused the dream would give birth to frugality, etc., that 
tend to accumulate wealth. 

Needles. — ^A dream of disputes and quarrels (G)rpsy). 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 237 

"Needles and pins ! Needles and pins I 
When a man marries" — etc. 

Nest. — Full of eggs a dream of profit and domestic happi- 
ness ; success in love, etc. ; broken eggs, or dead birds, distress 
and desolation (Gypsy). 

Net. — ^To dream of being entangled in denotes worry and 
a powerful enemy who is attempting to ensnare you (Gypsy). 

Nettles. — ^To dream of stinging yourself denotes striving 
to attain desire ; in youth it augurs love that will risk all. 

Newspaper. — ^To dream of buying and selling denotes hard 
work and small profit. To read one, deception (Gypsy). 

Night. — To be suddenly overtaken by night, a sudden ad- 
versary. To walk on a dark night denotes grief, disappoint- 
ment, loss. It is ominous to dream of night-birds, with the 
exception of the nightingale, which denotes joyful news to the 
dreamer, if a married woman, she will have children who will 
be great singers (Artemidorus). It is said that Jenny Lind's 
mother dreamed of a nightingale. 

NiGHT-GowN. — ^To dream of wearing one denotes an hon- 
orable career; to dream of tearing it, hasty action (Gypsy). 

Nightmare. — ^To be ridden by a nightmare signifies that a 
woman shall suddenly marry ; that a man shall be domineered 
over by a fool (Artemidorus). 

Nobility. — ^To dream of fraternizing with them, signifies 
social downfall (Gypsy). 

Nose. — ^To dream of a great, fair nose is fortunate, signify- 
ing subtlety, prominent acquaintances, great personages. 
Dreaming of a nose longer than ordinary promises wealth and 
power ; two noses augur discord and quarrels ; stopped up nose, 
deceit in the domestic circle (Artemidorus). The Egyptian 
priests believed that a wart on the nose indicated knowledge in 
proportion to the size of the wart (Churchward). 

Nosegay. — ^An unlucky dream prognosticating withered 
hopes (Artemidorus). 

Numbers. — Freud believes that numbers in a dream have 



238 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

certain symbolism of their own. The subject, however, is too 
exhaustive to be treated here. 

Numbness. — ^A dream indicating futile labor and discour- 
agement 

Nun. — See Abbot. 

Nurse. — To dream of a nurse denotes sickness, sorrow and 
trouble (Gypsy). 

Nuts. — ^The kernels well-filled, a dream of riches, happiness 
and honors; shriveled kernels denote disappointment (Gypsy). 

Nutmeg. — ^To eat one is a dream of sickness ; to grate one, 
victory despite obstacles (Gypsy). 

Nut-Trees. — ^To see nut-trees and to crack and eat their 
fruit signifies riches gathered at great pains. Hidden nuts 
denote the discovery of treasure (Artemidorus). 

O 

Oak. — ^A dream presaging long life, riches, happiness (Arte- 
midorus). The symbol of strength, longevity, etc. 

Oars. — ^To dream of losing one, death of the father, mother 
or some one to whom the dreamer looks for protection 
(Gypsy). 

Oats. — ^A dream denoting success, to each after his own de- 
sire (Gypsy). Agricultural symbols are invariably auspicious. 

Obelisk. — ^A dream of fame and wealth, of honors to be 
conferred (Gj^sy). Rather curious symbolism in view of the 
fact that but recently has this meaning been attributed to the 
obelisks of Egypt, heretofore wrapped in mystery. 

Obscurity. — ^To dream that the sun is obscured denotes 
damage to the reputation ; the moon aif ects the life in a lesser 
degree (Gypsy). 

Oculist. — ^A dream denoting some fault to repair, some 
evil or injury to confess (Gypsy). 

Ocean. — ^The ancient symbol of life. In a dream a calm 
ocean augurs good, a stormy one ill, a smooth ocean denotes 
accomplishment in love and in life. 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 239 

Offerings and vows to the divinity signify a desire to re- 
turn to virtue and divine love (Gypsy). 

Office. — ^To be deposed from office is a dream auguring 
ill, and if the dreamer be sick it presages death (Artemidorus), 

Oil. — To be anointed is good for good women, but ill for 
men (Artemidorus). 

Ointment. — ^A dream of illness (Gypsy). 

Old Age. — ^A dream denoting wisdom (Gypsy). . 

Old Woman. — A fortunate dream ; to court and marry one 
is also fortunate, but you will have reproaches from the world 
(Artemidorus). 

Olive. — ^To dream of gathering them, peace, delight, happi- 
ness to all conditions; eating olives, a rise in circumstance 
(G)rpsy). The emblem of peace and plenty. 

Olive Tree. — Peace, delight, dignity, attainment of desire 
(Artemidorus). 

Onions. — ^Luck both good and ill; to eat onions augurs re- 
ceiving money, discovery of lost or stolen articles; a faithful 
but hasty sweetheart. Also attacks from thieves and failure of 
crops. To gather onions, joyful news, recovery from illness 
and a speedy removal (Artemidorus). 

Opal. — ^A dream of deceitful security (Gypsy). The ill- 
luck attributed to the gem coincides with the interpretation. 

Oranges. — ^A dream of tears, anxiety (Gypsy). Symbolism 
obscure. 

Orchards.' — Orchards in fruit is a dream of abundance; 
fountains therein, pleasure and great wit. Barren trees bear 
a contrary meaning (Artemidorus). 

Organ. — The pealing of an organ augurs happiness and 
prosperity (Raphael). 

Ornament. — ^A dream denoting want and penury through 
extravagance (Raphael). 

Ostrich. — Long futile conversations are here denoted 
(Gypsy). Coincident with the legend of the stupidity of the 
ostrich. 



240 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

Otter. — ^Disagreeable and dangerous acquaintances (Gyp- 
sy). 

Overboard. — ^To fall overboard denotes poverty, imprison- 
ment and sickness (Raphael). Obviously an anxiety dream. 

Owl. — ^Unhappiness, sickness, discontent ; the hooting of an 
owl in a dream denotes death (Gypsy). The Romans re- 
garded the owl as the bird of wisdom, yet it was an evil por- 
tent ; in Christian art they symbolize mourning and desolation. 

Oxen. — ^An ox in a dream signifies the yoke of obedience ; 
a pair of fat oxen predicts a year of plenty, lean oxen threaten 
scarcity and famine. Oxen plowing a field presage gain and 
plenty (Artemidorus). See Pharaoh's dream of the kine. The 
ox symbolized patience, strength and sacrifice, in Christian 
art. 

Oysters. — "To dream of opening and eating oysters shows 
great hunger, or a living earned through pains and difficulty." 
Artemidorus. 

Oyster-Shells. — ^Empty, these signify loss, disappointment, 
worry (Gypsy). 

P 

Padlock. — Mysteries to be solved (Gypsy). The Christian 
symbol of silence. 

Painting. — A dream of painting a house denotes sickness 
in the family, but thrift and luck in business ; to paint beauti- 
ful landscapes, poverty and false hopes (Gypsy). Practical 
S3rmbolism. 

Palace. — ^A good dream foretelling wealth and dignity 
(Gypsy). 

Pall. — ^To dream of a body being borne to the grave fore- 
tells that the dreamer will attend a wedding. 

Palm. — ^A dream foretelling success and prosperity, to 
a woman children, to a maid marriage (Artemidorus). The 
Christian emblem of victory. 

Palm-Tree. — ^A dream foreshadowing great joy (G)rpsy). 
The sacred tree of lower Egypt, also the Tree of Life (Egyp- 



SYMBOUSM IN DREAMS 241 

tian). The Scriptural symbol for the righteous and godly. 

Pansy. — This dream foretells a constant sweetheart, but 
great poverty ; the emblem of remembrance and kind thought. 

Panther. — ^A dream prognosticating the approach of evil, 
a lawsuit (Gypsy) ; the panther is the s)mibol of watchfulness 
and alertness. 

Pantomime. — ^A dream denoting living among deceitful per- 
sons (Gypsy). 

Paper. — To dream of white paper, innocence; written on, 
chicanery; printed, good fortune; decorated, deception (Gyp- 
sy). 

Paradise. — ^A good dream to each according to his desire 
and calling (Raphael). 

Paralysis. — ^A dream denoting the approach of illness 
(Gypsy). 

Parasol. — ^To hold one open, a false covering; closed, a 
marriage (Gypsy). 

Parents. — ^A dream of warning, especially if the parents be 
dead ; if you have been guilty of folly their visit is to rebuke 
and to warn you of danger (Raphael). Obviously a dream in- 
spired by a guilty conscience, expressed through the symbo- 
lism of the subconsciousness. 

Park. — ^To walk through a park, health and happiness 
(Raphael). The difference in the symbolism of the park and 
that of groves and forests is due to the difference in the ages 
to which they belonged respectively, the park being a mediae- 
val institution, while the grove dates to remote antiquity. 

Parrot. — ^This bird denotes the revelation of secrets, also 
eavesdropping (Gypsy). 

Partridges. — ^To a man this dream connotes dealings with 
malicious and conscienceless women (Artemidorus). This bird 
has ever been held as the symbol of foolishness. 

Passing-Bell. — ^To dream of hearing it denotes the illness 
of the dreamer or of a near relative (Raphael). 

Patches.— For a woman to dream of patching her hus- 
band's or her children's garments is an excellent augury of 



242 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

well-being and riches (Raphael). Frugality and thrift are in- 
variably recorded as happy omens. 

Path. — ^To dream of a straight path denotes success and vir- 
tue^ a crooked and thorny path forecasts disappointment and 
treachery (Gypsy). 

Pawnbroker. — ^A dream of poverty, losses and disappoint- 
ments (Gypsy). 

Peaches. — ^To dream of them in season denotes content- 
ment, wealth and pleasure (Artemidorus). A Chinese s3rmbol 
of longevity and good fortune ; the peach-tree was also the sym- 
bol of the Paradise of Osiris. 

Peacock. — ^To see one spreading its tail denotes wealth and 
a handsome wife; for a woman this is a dream forecasting 
the promotion of her husband to popular favor. To a young 
woman it S3rmbolizes vanity and the attempted seduction by 
a coxcomb (Gypsy). The early Christians held it as the sym- 
bol of immortality. It was also the bird of Juno, who cursed 
whosoever should pluck its feathers; their children should 
never be well, nor should men come for their daughters ; hence 
the superstition attached to these feathers. The modem S3mi- 
bol of pomp and vanity. 

Pearls. — ^A dream of tears (Gypsy). The jewel is also 
S3rmboIical of weeping, especially to brides. 

Pears. — ^A dream denoting sickness (Raphael). It was held 
as an emblem of the human heart (Bayley). 

PtiAS.— A dream denoting success in business (Artemido- 
rus). 

Pen. — ^Adversity, loss to a business man (Gypsy). Prob- 
ably derived from the idea that knowledge interfered with the 
accomplishment of business. 

Pepper. — ^A dream denoting truthfulness to the* verge of 
irritation (Gypsy). 

Perfumej — ^To compound them and to distribute them 
among friends is a dream connoting agreeable news; to re- 
ceive them as gifts denotes news in accordance with whether 
the scent be agreeable or otherwise (Gypsy"). 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 243 

Pest or Pestilence. — ^A dream threatening sickness and 
misfortune (Gjrpsy). 

Pet.— To dream of having one denotes protection by friends 
(Gypsy). 

Petticoat. — ^A dream of trouble and sorrow (Raphael). 

Pheasants. — ^A dream of inexhaustible happiness ; to carry 
one in the hand, health, profit, glory; to eat one, surfeit, indi- 
gestion (Raphael). 

Phoenix. — ^A dream of renewed health and vigor (Gypsy). 
The symbol of immortality, resurrection, the soul. 

Photograph. — ^A dream warning you to make a final settle- 
ment of your affairs (G)rpsy). Evidently derived from the 
ancient superstition concerning photographs. 

PiCK-Ax. — ^A warning of coming evil, destruction by fire 
(Gypsy). 

Pictures. — ^A dream of falsehood and deceit (Raphael). 

Pies. — To dream of making pies augurs joy and profit 
(Gypsy). 

Pig. — ^A dream both good and bad, false friends, but a faith- 
ful lover (Gypsy). Chinese lucky symbol, but regarded as an 
emblem of greediness. 

Pigeons. — ^A good dream. Wild pigeons signify dissolute 
women; tame pigeons, honest women and matrons (Artemido- 
rus). For sjonbolism of pigeon see Dove. 

Pillow. — ^A dream prognosticating death (Gypsy). The 
Christian symbol of eternal rest. According to Budge it was 
used as a symbol of power and placed with the dead in order 
to enable them to lift their heads. 

Pills. — A dream forecasting sickness (Gypsy) ; an interpre- 
tation obviously attributable to sensory stimuli, and to subcon- 
scious knowledge of a physical condition. 

Pilot. — ^A dream of safety and of protection (Gypsy). 

Pincers. — ^A dream of persecution and injustice (Gypsy). 
In Christian symbolism they represent martyrdom. 

Pineapples. — He who dreams of pineapples will soon r^ 



244 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

ceive an invitation to a feast or to a wedding ; this dream also 
denotes prosperity and good health (Gypsy). 

PiNE-CoNE. — A happy dream auguring health (Gypsy). 
The pine-cone is the symbol of life, abundance and power 
(Barber). 

Pine-Tree. — ^To see a pine-tree in your dream signifies idle- 
ness and remissness (Artemidorus). This tree was especially 
dedicated to Dionysius, hence the interpretation after the pass- 
ing of the Greek Gods. 

Pins. — ^This dream signifies contradiction and discussion of 
trivial matters (Gypsy). Sharp or pointed instruments usu- 
ally receive an unpleasant interpretation. 

Pipe. — ^A dream of peace and tranquillity (Gypsy). The 
symbolism of the "Pipe of Peace" is probably derived from 
the American Indian. 

Pirate. — To a girl this dream indicates marriage to a for- 
eigner; to a man travel in strange lands (Raphael). 

Pistol. — A dream prophesying attacks from secret enemies 
(G3rpsy). Probably a suggestion from the subconsciousness, 
which recognizes much that is unperceived by the conscious. 

Pit. — ^A dream forecasting decline of business, possible de- 
scent to want and distress ; to fall into a pit denotes misfortune 
and tragedy (Raphael). 

Pitchfork. — An evil dream save to farmers, to whom it 
augurs wealth through toil (Gypsy). A symbol of Satan in. 
Christian art. 

Pitcher. — ^To carry one, a dream of failure; to drop or 
break it, disaster, death (G3rpsy). See legends, etc. 

Planets. — ^A dream denoting joyful tidings (Gypsy). Prob- 
ably derived from the Biblical description of the birth of 
Christ. 

Plank. — ^To walk a plank in your dream forewarns you 
of treachery (Gypsy). 

Plants. — See Flowers. 

Plow. — ^A dream denoting wealth through industry, also 
marital comfort (Raphael). 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 245 

Plums. — Green plums forecast sickness ; ripe ones are for- 
tunate; to dream of picking them from the ground and find- 
ing them rotten denotes false friends, poverty and disgrace. 
(Raphael). 

Polb-Star. — ^A dream of loyalty and devotion (Gypsy). 
The universal emblem of stability. 

Police. — ^To a respectable person this dream denotes hon- 
ors (Raphael). 

Pomegranate. — ^To dream of gathering them ripe denotes 
fortune through an influential person; unripe pomegranates 
foretell sickness and scandal (G)rpsy). It was the Christian 
symbol of the resurrection and of fertility. With the golden 
bells they form part of the symbolic robe of the Israelitish 
high priest. 

Pond. — See Lake. 

Poniard. — ^A dream denoting injustice and persecution 
(G)rpsy). A Christian symbol of martyrdom. 

Poplar. — ^To dream of a green poplar denotes fulfilled 
hopes, if withered it denotes disappointment (Gjrpsy). It 
was once held sacred to Hercules. Afterwards it symbolized 
the Holy Rood of the Christians (Bayley). 

Poppy. — ^A dream denoting illness to the sleeper or tidings 
of illness to loved ones (Gypsy). An interpretation evidently 
derived from the use of the poppy in the manufacture of 
opium, rather than from the S3rmbolism of the blossoms. 

Porcupine. — ^A dream auguring the handling of a delicate 
affair (Gypsy). 

Porpoise. — ^A dream of joy and happiness (Artemidorus). 

Portfolio. — ^A dream bespeaking mysteries, things hidden 
from sight (Gjrpsy). 

Portrait. — ^A dream forecasting long life to the person rep- 
resented, especially if the portrait be painted on wood. To 
receive or to give one away, treason (Gypsy). 

Potatoes. — ^To dream of digging them, success, profit; if, 
however, they be few or small, failure (Gypsy). 

Pot-Herbs. — To dream of them, especially if they have a 



\ 



246 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

strong odor, is the prognostication of the discovery of hidden 
secrets and of domestic concerns. 

Popcorn. — ^To dream of watching popcorn or of eating it 
forecasts a pleasant surprise. 

Poultice. — ^To dream that one is applied to any part of the 
body implies trouble to that especial organ or limb (Gypsy). 

Poverty. — A dream of contrary to the poor, but ill for the 
rich or for those who use eloquent speech (Artemidorus). 

Precipice. — To fall over, personal injury (Artemidorus). 

Primroses. — A dream foretelling sickness, sorrow, death 
(Raphael). 

Prison. — ^A dream of contrary denoting happiness, hope, 
etc. (Raphael). Evidently many of these interpretations trace 
their derivation to the days of the early Qiristians when per- 
secution and humiliation were borne with joy and hope. 

Procession. — ^To see one in a dream denotes happiness and 
joy to come (Gypsy). 

Profanation.— Misery and future misfortune are herein de- 
noted (Gypsy). 

Prunes. — ^A dream denoting health and joy; dried foretell 
vexations (Gypsy). 

PuBUC House. — ^To dream of keeping a public house de- 
notes extremes financially; to drink in one, sickness, poverty, 
imprisonment for debt (Gypsy). 

Puddles. — ^A dream denoting undesirable acquaintances who 
will get the dreamer into trouble (Gypsy). 

Pumpkin. — ^To see one augurs that the dreamer will have 
admirers; to eat them, indisposition (Gypsy). 

Purity of the Air. — ^The dream of pure air is supposedly 
lucky; of bad air, the reverse may be said (Gypsy). Obvi- 
ously this interpretation has a physical basis. 

Purse. — ^To find a full purse denotes happiness ; to dream of 
losing one, sickness (Gypsy). 

Pyramid. — ^A dream of grandeur and wealth; to be on top 
of one at^rs great achievement (Gypsy). 



SYMBOUSM IN DREAMS 247 

Q 

Quagmire. — ^To fall into one augurs impassable barriers 
(Artemidorus). 

Quail. — ^A dream denoting bad news, misfortune (Artemi- 
dorus). The word quail has become S3monymous for prosti- 
tute, owing to the salacious character attributed to the bird 
(Brewer). 

Quarrel. — ^A dream of the contrary, to quarrel in a dream 
means to make love (li.aphael). 

Quarry. — ^To dream of falling down a quarry denotes sud- 
den illness (Gypsy). 

Quay. — ^A dream that promises protection (Gypsy). 

Queen. — ^To behold a king or a queen in a dream prognosti- 
cates joy, honor, prosperity (Artemidorus). 

Quicksands. — ^A dream warning you of temptations, dan- 
gers and weaknesses of which you are unaware (Raphael). 

Quicksilver. — ^A dream denoting changes, vicissitudes and 
restlessness (Gypsy). 

Quoits. — ^A dream signifying losses, a change in circum- 
stances (Raphael). 

''If you can make a heap of all your winnings 
And risk them on a game of pitch and toss . . •" 

— Kipling. 

R 

Rabbit. — See Hare. 

Raccoon. — ^To dream of a raccoon is a sign of rain (Gypsy). 
The Ainos pray to the skulls of these animals during drought 
to bring on rain; to increase the storm they don gloves and 
caps of raccoon skin and dance (Frazer). 

Race, — ^A good dream to well persons, to the sick a speedy 
termination to the race of life is denoted (Artemidorus). 

Rags. — ^A dream of contrary, auguring success (Gypsy), 

Raffle. — ^A dream of doubt and uncertainty (Gypsy). 



248 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

Raft. — ^A warning of danger from which you will be de- 
livered (Gypsy). 

Railway. — A dream of change (Gypsy). 

Rain. — ^Trouble, heavy, or not, according to the dream 
(Raphael). 

Rainbow. — ^A change in the dreamer's present condition; 
a rainbow in the East denotes benefits to the poor and the 
sick ; in the West good for the rich but not for the poor. Over- 
head, a change in fortune; sometimes ruin and death to the 
dreamer and his family. On the right it is good, at the left 
ill, judging right and left according to the sun, but wherever 
it appears it brings good to poverty and affliction by changing 
the air (Artemidorus). Modem oneirocritics regard the rain- 
bow as an invariable sign of failure. 

Raking. — ^A dream of success (Raphael). 

Ram. — See Goat. 

Raspberries. — ^To dream of eating them, remorse and sor- 
row (Raphael). The fruits of the raspberry were miniature 
hearts and for this reason were christened the berries of 
Eraspe, or Father Eros (Bayley). 

Rats.— Many enemies through whom the dreamer will suf- 
fer losses, trouble and anxiety. To kill rats, however, is a 
good dream (Raphael). 

Raven. — ^A bad dream, trouble and mischief brewing (Raph- 
ael). Conjugal infidelity (Gypsy). A symbol of knowledge 
(Hartmann) ; the raven was once dedicated to Apollo ; modem 
symbolism, however, regards this bird as an omen of misfor- 
tune (Hulme). 

Reading. — ^To dream of reading romance indicates joy; seri- 
ous books, wisdom (Artemidorus). 

Reapers or Reaping. — Prosperity according to what ye 
shall have sown (Artemidorus). 

Reeds. — ^To dream of seeing them near the water warns you 
to be decisive if you would succeed (Gypsy). The scriptural 
metaphor uses them to symbolize weakness. 

Reindeer. — ^Always a fortunate dream (Gypsy) ; the asso- 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 249 

dation with the Christmas legends accounts for this interpre- 
tation. 

Reucs. — ^This dream comes as a warning to guard your val- 
uables (Gypsy). 

Reptile. — ^Anger, quarrels, bitterness, while to a maid this 
dream denotes a false lover. 

Rescue. — ^A dreani forecasting a rise in the world, the pos- 
sible establishment in some successful business (Gypsy). 

Revenge. — ^To dream of taking revenge prognosticates a bed 
of sickness for the dreamer (Raphael). 

Rice. — ^To dream of eating rice denotes abundance of in- 
struction (Artemidorus). Certain legends and traditions of 
Western Europe associate rice with wisdom; sages were held 
to live upon it, the yogis of India, etc. 

Riches. — ^A dream of the contrary (Gypsy). 

Riding. — ^A dream of good fortune (Raphael). An erotic 
dream (Freud, Jung). Legends and tradition generally justify 
Raphael's interpretation. 

Ring. — For a woman to dream that her wedding ring breaks 
augurs the death of her husband; if it presses her finger the 
dream forecasts the illness of her husband or of some of his 
family. To dream that some one draws a ring on the dreamer's 
finger denotes marriage (Raphael). In all times the ring has 
been held as an amulet of affection and of home, its suggestion 
in a dream is therefore obvibus. 

River. — ^To see a broad, rapid and muddy river is a dream 
denoting difficulties; calm and clear augurs happiness and pros- 
perity (Raphael). The river is usually taken as a symbol of 
human life and represented as smooth or turbulent according 
to the nature of the occurrences. 

Road. — ^See Path. 

Robin.—- A dream of happiness and joy (Gypsy). The sym- 
bolism of the robin as a Christmas bird is obvious. 

Rock. — Impassable obstacles (Gypsy). 

Rocket. — ^A dream denoting momentary triumph (Gypsy). 



250 THE FABMC OF DREAMS 

See old proverb of ''going up like a rocket and coming down 
like a stick." 

Rod, — ^A dream of sadness (Gypsy). See scriptural symbo- 
lism. Erotic symbol (Freud). 

Roof. — ^A dream indicating command and dignity (Gypsy). 

Rook. — ^A dream auguring business promptly concluded 
(Gypsy). 

Root. — ^To dream of eating them denotes mental disorder 
(Gypsy). See tradition of Nebuchadnezzar. 

Ropes. — To dream of being led by ropes warns you against 
making any contracts with others (Gypsy). 

Rosemary. — ^To see it in a dream is a good sign ; to smell it, 
however, is an augury of death (Gypsy). 

Roses. — In season this is a dream of happiness; decayed, 
wilted, or out of season a dream of trouble and poverty 
(Gypsy). 

Rouge. — ^A dream of treason and deceit (Raphael). 

Rowing. — ^A dream of success unless the boat upset, in 
which case it is bad (Raphael). 

Ruins. — A dream of contrary denoting unexpected gains 
(Gypsy). 

RuNNiNa — A fortunate dream of advantageous journeys 
and elevation in rank unless the dreamer fall, in which case 
misfortune is denoted (Gsrpsy). 

Rust. — ^Destruction of property, trouble (Gypsy). 

Rye. — ^To see it growing is a dream of triumph over ene- 
mies (Gypsy). 

S 

Sable. — ^To be in a room hung with sable is a dream prog- 
nosticating the death of a close friend (Artemidorus). 

Saber. — ^A dream of triumph over enemies (Gypsy). An 
erotic dream (Freud). 

Sage. — ^Honor and advancement are here foretold (Raph- 
ael). 

Sailing. — Over smooth water, prosperity; rough water, 



SYMBOUSM IN DREAMS 251 

misfortune; in a small boat, gaining harbor, sudden wealth 
(Raphael). 

Sailor. — A dream warning you of a dangerous sea voyage 
(Raphael). 

Salamander. — ^A dream of assurance that neither man nor 
elements can harm you (Gypsy). See tradition concerning 
salamanders. 

Salmon. — ^A dream denoting division and strike in the fam- 
ily (Gypsy). 

Salt. — ^Wisdom is here foretold (Gypsy). Salt is the 
s3rmbol of wisdom, and of wit. See Attic Salt, etc. 

Satin. — A dream of joy, profit, etc. (Gypsy). 

Satyr. — ^A dream of lechery and lewdness (Gypsy). 

Scaffold. — See Gallows. 

Scarecrow. — A dream denoting dishonest friends (Gypsy). 

School. — ^To dream of attending school and being unable 
to learn shows an undertaking that the dreamer does not un- 
derstand (Artemidorus). 

Scissors. — ^A dream forecasting marriage to a young girl, 
but very evil for a married woman (Gypsy). An erotic dream 
(Jwng). 

Scorpions. — Misfortunes through secret enemies (Gypsy), 
Ancient symbol of War (Churchward). 

Scratched. — ^A dream forecasting accident or hurt (Gyp- 
sy). 

Scroll. — ^This dream forecasts the revelation of secret 
things (Gypsy). 

Scythe. — ^The loss of a friend through death (Gypsy). 
Mediaeval emblem of death. 

Sea. — Placid and smooth denotes happiness ; rough and tur- 
bulent, sorrow (Gypsy). 

Seed. — To sow seed in a dream augurs the foundation of 
future wealth, joy, and health (Gypsy). 
. Sentinel. — ^A dream of personal security (Gypsy). 

Seraglio. — Feebleness of disposition and inactivity are 
here indicated (G)rpsy). 



252 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

Seraphim. — ^A dream of spiritual exaltation, piety (Gypsy). 

Serpent. — ^A dream of temptation and of evil (Gypsy). Ob- 
viously the dream interpreters of modem times have accepted 
the Christian and Jewish symbolism, rather than that of more 
remote antiquity. Freud and Jung, however, revert to more 
primitive times and interpret this as an erotic dream. Raph- 
ael interprets the serpent dream as one of "a deadly enemy 
bent on your ruin; to kill one denotes success over your 
enemy." The serpent was the ancient Egyptian symbol of 
wisdom and of the sun ; curled in a circle it represented time 
without end ; twisted around a staff, it denoted health. "More 
subtle thou art than any beast of the field" (Bible). 

Servants. — Secret enemies ; to hear them talk, scandal, sus- 
picion (Gypsy). 

Shamrock. — Good health, longevity, some say a journey 
by water (Gypsy). 

Shark. — ^This dream denotes an enemy; if the shark eats 
you, the enemy will ruin you (Gjrpsy). 

Sheaves. — ^A favorable dream (Gypsy). 

Sheep. — Prosperity and enjoyment, if scattered they signify 
persecution (Gypsy). Early Christian symbol for the church. 

SHELiy-FisH. — ^To find shells empty, loss of time and credit; 
to find them full, hope of success. To gather them, merry 
making and sport (G)T)sy). 

Shelter. — ^To dream of seeking shelder against rain denotes 
secret trouble; to fly from a storm, evil to come; to find shel- 
ter prognosticates misery and despair; to have it refused, 
triumph and joy (G)rpsy). Here the interpretation is easily 
traceable to early Christian persecution, when shelter and food 
were refused to the elect. 

Shepherd. — ^To dream of being a shepherd is a dream de- 
noting great piety and charity (Gypsy). Christ, it will be 
remembered, was called the "Good Shepherd.*' 

Ship. — ^A dream of hopes and plans, fulfilled according to 
the fate of the dream bark in question (Gypsy). Also the 
Christian symbol of hope, etc. 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 253 

Shipwreck. — Misfortunes, to see others shipwrecked in 
your dream denotes that you will rise above tliem (Gypsy). 

Shirt. — ^A torn shirt denotes slander ; to tear it yoursdf , 
indiscretion; a whote and good shirt is & dream of succesi 
(G)^sy). 

Shoeuaker. — ^To dream that you are a shoemaker or even 
that you see one augurs a life of toil and difficulty (G)rpsy). 

Shoes. — ^To dream of wearing a new pair denotes many 
journeys; generally unsuccessful; to travel without shoes 
means comfort and honor as you pass through life (Raphael). 

Shooting.— To dream of shooting a bird augurs accom- 
plishment of purpose ; to shoot and miss is ominous ; to shoot 
a bird of prey forecasts triumph over enemies (Raphael). 

Shower. — See Rain. 

Shrimp. — ^A dream of grief and distraction. 

Shrubs.-— Love and happiness are augured by this dream 
(Gypsy). 

Sibyl. — ^To consult a sibyl denotes deception and ill-founded 
fears ; to dream of being one forecasts the disclosure of future 
events (G)rpsy). 

Sickness. — To dream of being sick, illness or imprisonment ; 
to dream of attending the sick, joy and virtue. 

Sieve. — ^A dream of waste and want (Gypsy). 

Silk. — ^To be clad in silk augurs honor; to trade in silk, 
profit (Artemidorus). 

Silver. — A dream auguring unsuspected revelation (Gyp- 
sy). Silver is the emblem of knowledge (Bayley). 

Singing. — ^A dream of contrary, a dream of lamentation; 
to sing yourself signifies your own trouble, to hear others 
sing denotes distress among friends (Raphael). 

Siren. — ^Domestic entanglements are denoted by this dream 
(Gypsy). 

Skeleton. — ^A dream of horror, fright (Gypsy). 

Skull. — A dream denoting penance (Gypsy). Sjrmbolism 
obviously Christian. 



254 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

Sky. — ^To see it clear and blue denotes health and prosper- 
ity; cloudy, troubles in proportion to the clouds (Gypsy). 

Slang. — ^To use slang in a dream augurs pleasure followed 
by regret (Gypsy). 

Slave. — ^To dream of seeing one punished denotes arbitrary 
injustice of which you will be the victim (Gypsy). 

Sliding. — ^A dream of success; to fall, however, connotes 
misfortune; to be tripped denotes an enemy (Raphael). See 
typical dreams. 

Smoke. — ^A dream indicating false glory (Gypsy). 

Snail. — ^To see a snail in your dream foretells honorable 
promotion ; if it shows its horns it denotes infidelity, adultery, 
want of chastity, etc. (Artemidorus). The symbol of sexual 
power (Bayley). 

Snake. — See Serpent. 

Snow. — ^A dream of prosperity; a snow-storm, however, 
foretells difficulties from which the dreamer will escape (Gyp- 
sy). 

Soap. — ^A dream of transient worries (Gypsy). 

Soldiers. — ^Abandonment of present employment is augured 
in this dream, losses through the change as well as fighting 
and serious contentions (Gypsy). 

Sovereign. — ^To dream that you are a sovereign indicates 
disgrace (Gypsy). 

Spade. — ^A dream of futile toil (Gypsy). 

Sparrows. — ^A good fortune will attend whatever you have 
in view after this dream (Raphael), 

Spear. — ^A dream of suffering at the hands of enemies 
(gypsy). A symbol of the Passion, the spear was also wor- 
shiped as the emblem of the god Mars. Freud attributes 
an erotic meaning to this dream. 

Spectacles. — ^To dream of wearing them, disgrace, low 
spirits (Gypsy). 

Spice. — ^A sad dream (Gypsy). A symbol of the passion 
and death of Christ. 

Spiders. — ^To dream of a spider foretells money; for a 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 255 

spider to spin its web before your face augurs a fortune 
(Raphael). The spider is the symbol of shrewdness, perse- 
verance and foresight (Pavitt). Schemer holds that to dream 
of seeing the upper part of a room covered with spiders is a 
symptom of headache. 

Spindle. — ^A dream denoting gossip and plotting (Gypsy). 

Spinning. — Many worries. 

Spools of Thread. — ^A dream of many serious worries 
(Gypsy). 

Spring. — Good fortune and success (Gypsy). 

Squirrel. — See Animals. 

Staff. — ^A dream of pilgrimage and journeys (Gypsy). 

Stag. — ^A dream denoting gain, profit (Gypsy). Symbol of 
solitude (Christian). 

Starung. — ^A dream invariably bringing happiness and suc- 
cess (Gypsy). 

Stars. — See Planets. 

Starving. — ^A dream of contrary auguring success and 
plenty (G)rpsy). 

Steps. — ^To walk up steps is a dream auguring success in 
love, a happy marriage and a rise in life (Raphael). 

Sting. — By a bee, wasp or hornet injury by a wicked person 
(Raphael). 

Stockings. — ^To lose a dream of distress and trouble ; holes 
warn you to guard your conduct (G3rpsy). 

Stork. — ^A dream of change, possibly loss (Gypsy). Evi- 
dently the interpretation antedates the German interpretation 
of the symbol. 

Storm. — Heavy misfortunes which will vanish (Gypsy). 

Stranger. — ^To see one a dream of honor and success. 

Straw. — Misfortune, lack of money (Gypsy). 

Strawberries. — Good luck, a happy marriage (Gypsy). 

Stream. — See Brook, River, etc. 

Struggling. — ^With a burglar or in a dangfcrous place, a 
dream denoting attainment of honor; the struggle to obtain 
mastery denotes recovery from illness, to dream of being 



256 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

overcome in a struggle forecasts death during the next illness, 
which is probably near at hand (Gypsy). 

Success. — ^A dream of contrary signifying failure (Gypsy). 

Sugar. — ^To dream of swallowing a quantity of sugar de- 
notes that privation is about to beset you (Gypsy). 

Suicide. — A dream denoting misfortunes brought about by 
yourself (G3rpsy). 

Sulphur. — A dream denoting purification (Gypsy). Me- 
diaeval physicians accounted sulphur the greatest of disinfect- 
ants and purifiers. 

Sun. — To see the sun is a dream of success ; the sun rising 
denotes good news ; a setting sun is bad, while for the sun to 
be overcast augurs troubles and changes (Gypsy). The in- 
variable symbol of light and wisdom. 

Sundial. — ^A dream denoting wasted time (Gypsy). 

Swallow. — ^News from afar is forecast by this dream: a 
swallow's nest, domestic happiness (G3rpsy). 

Swamp. — ^To dream of getting into a swamp foretells vexa- 
tions through lack of money. 

Swan. — ^A white swan denotes wealth and happiness; a 
black one, grief (Raphael). A sacred bird of the ancients, 
though a mediarral s)rmbol of hypocrisy as the swan has white 
feathers and black meat. In the Norse legends, however, they 
were held as sacred and are thus held in Eastern Europe of 
to-day. 

SwEETHEAKT. — ^To dream that he or she is well and smil- 
ing denotes purity and constancy; pale or ailing, the reverse 
(Raphael). 

Swimming. — -With the head above water, success; the head 
under water, denotes misfortune; to sink forecasts ruin 
(Raphael). 

Sword. — ^To wear one is a dream denoting authority ; to be 
cut with one, humiliation (Gypsy). 

Sycamore. — ^This dream signifies marriage to the maid, but 
jealousy to the wedded (Gsrpsy). In eastern lands it sym- 
bolized the tree of life. 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 257 



Table.—To see one denotes sensual pleasures, to break one 
in your dream augurs a removal (Gypsy). 

Tablet. — ^A dream forecasting remarkable events (G3rpsy). 

Tack. — ^A dream of quarrels and enmity (Gypsy). 

TAMARiNDS.-^Rain or news and trouble through a woman 
(Gypsy). 

Tambourine. — ^A dream of good-luck (Gypsy). The gypsy 
instrument at festiva4s. 

Tar. — ^Travels by water; on the hands, difficulty (Gypsy). 

Tassels. — ^A dream denoting delight (Gypsy). 

Tea. — ^A dream denoting encumbered finances (Gypsy). 

Teapot. — ^Augurs new friendships (Gypsy). 

Tears. — ^A dream of contrary denoting joy (Gypsy). 

Teasing. — ^To tease denotes trouble and sickness ; to dream 
of being teased, good news (Gypsy). 

TEfiTH. — ^To dream of loose teeth denotes personal sick- 
ness ; to lose a tooth denotes the death of a friend or relative ; 
for all the teeth to fall out forecasts your own death (Gypsy). 

Telegram. — You will go on a very long journey after this 
dream (Gypsy). 

Tempest. — ^See Storm. 

Toad. — A dream denoting a malicious enemy; to kill one, 
success, triumph (Gypsy), The symbol of malice. 

Toadstool. — ^A dream denoting sudden elevation (Gypsy). 
Interpretation derived from their growth of a single night 

Tobacco. — A dream denoting sensual pleasure (Gypsy). 

Toil. — Rude labor, drawing water, etc., denotes servitude 
to the rich and profit to the poor (Gypsy). 

Tomato. — ^To dream of eating denotes happiness of short 
duration (Gypsy). For many years the tomato was regarded 
as poisonous and it was considered a risk to eat one. 

Tomb. — ^A dream of marriage, the handsomer the tomb the 
more brilliant the alliance (G3rpsy). 

Torches, — See Fire, Candles, etc. 



258 THE FABMC OF DREAMS 

ToRPEDa — ^A dream foretelling a shodking discover 
(Gypsy). 

Torrent. — ^To wade in one, sorrows, adversity ; to be caught 
in one, danger of lawsuits (Gypsy). 

Tortoise. — Success through long toil and perseverance 
(Gypsy). See JEsop's fable of Hare and Tortoise. 

Tower. — To ascend a tower signifies reverses of fortune 
(Gypsy). Interpretation corresponds with the aversion of 
the Hebrews for towers, an example of which is instanced 
in the Tower of Babel. 

Trap. — A dream connoting losses through law and lawsuits 
(Gypsy). 

Trap-door. — ^To see some one emerging from a trap-door 
is a dream of a secret divulged ; shut down it denotes mystery, 
hidden treasures, etc. (Gypsy). 

Traveling through a wood a dream of trouble and hin- 
drances; uphill, advancement with difficulty (Raphael). 

Temple. — See Church. 

Tent. — ^A dream of war or a quarrel close at hand (Gypsy). 

Thermometer. — ^A dream denoting fever or some sudden 
change in the temperature (Gypsy). 

Thicket. — See Hedge. 

Thighs. — To dream of their being broken or injured im- 
plies an accident or death in a foreign country (Gypsy). 

Thimble. — ^A dream denoting a vain search after work 
(Gypsy). 

Thirst. — ^To quench with clear water, sound sleep, con- 
tentment; to drink tepid or foul water, discomfort lasting 
through the night (Gypsy). A gypsy interpretation coinciding 
with the ultra-modem school. 

Thistle. — ^To mow thistles denotes insolence, to be pricked 
by one forecasts vexation (Gypsy). 

Thorns. — ^A dream denoting grief, care, difficulties (Gyp- 
sy) . Symbols of the passion. 

Thread. — ^A dream denoting mysterious intrigfues; to un- 
ravel, the discovery of a secret; a dream of gold thread dc- 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 259 

notes success through intrigue; silver thread, intrigue frus- 
trated (Gypsy). 

Throat. — ^To dream of cutting some one's throat augurs un- 
witting injury to that person (Gypsy). 

Throne. — ^A dream connoting credit, renown, honor (Gyp- 
sy). 

Thunder. — See Lightning (Gypsy). 

Tide. — ^To watch it a dream of sorrow (Gypsy). 

Tiger. — ^The dream of an enemy; to escape is well, other- 
wise the dream augurs ruin (Raphael). 

Tinker. — ^A dream denoting trouble with neighbors (Gyp- 
sy). 

Tint. — ^Pale or lead color forecasts speedy illness of long 
duration (Gypsy). 

Treasure. — ^To find treasure is a dream of success (Gypsy). 
One of the few dreams involving material gain that is not 
a dream of contrary, the reason probably lies in the fact 
that treasure and its discovery so frequently figures as the 
traditional reward of virtue in the fairy stories and in myth- 
ology. 

Trees. — In foliage, joy and happiness; cut down, loss of 
friends through death; climbing trees, toil uphill (Raphael). 

Trench. — ^A dream denoting siege and triumph over re^ 
sistance (Old Dream Book). 

Triangle. — ^A dream concerning objects of respect and ado- 
ration (G3rpsy). See occult and Qiristian significance of this 
figure. 

Tripod. — ^A dream of unveiling the future, of uncertain- 
ty (Gypsy). Obviously derived from the tripod upon which 
the oracles were seated when forecasting. 

Trout. — ^A dream denoting money, the larger the trout the 
more the money (Gypsy). 

Trumpet. — ^To blow denotes triumph over enemies ; to hear 
one denotes coming trouble (Raphael). Invariably the symbol 
of triumph. 



26o THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

Trunk. — ^FuU it shows economy, empty it denotes ex- 
travagance (Raphael). 

Tub. — ^Always a bad dream ; filled with water it denotes evil ; 
empty it augurs misfortune; to run against a tub, grief/ sor- 
row, etc. (Raphael). 

Tumble. — See Fall. 

Tunnel. — ^To be in one, a dream of temporary anxiety and 
misfortune (Gypsy). 

Turkeys. — ^A dream denoting triumph over enemies (Gyp- 
sy). 

Turnips. — ^A field of riches; to the lover, a faithful sweet- 
heart (Gypsy). 

Turtle. — See Tortoise. 

TuRTLE-DovB. — Fidelity, gentleness and good house-keep- 
ing in the marriage partner (Gypsy). 

U 

Ulcer. — ^To dream of having one denotes health to a green 
old age (Gypsy). Evidently attributable to the idea that ulcers, 
boils, etc., clear the system. 

Umbrella. — ^A dream denoting a sheltered and peaceful life 
(Gypsy). Eastern symbol of distinction. 

Uncle, or Aunt. — ^A dream denoting family quarrels (Gyp- 
sy). Evidently attributable to the proverbial wicked uncle and 
guardian. 

Undertaker. — ^A dream forecasting a wedding (Gypsy). 

Unguent. — ^To use, a dream of profit (Gypsy). 

Unicorn. — ^A dream of righteousness (Gypsy). Ancient 
emblem of purity. 

Uniform. — A dream of glory, valor, celebrity (Gypsy). 

Urn. — ^A dream of death (Gypsy). 



Vagabond. — Sudden joumeyings or changes from place to 
place (Gypsy). 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 261 

Valet. — ^Concealed, domestic enemy (Gypsy). 

Vause. — Filled it denotes abundance ; empty, misery. 

Valley. — ^To dream of walking in a pleasant valley denotes 
sickness (Raphael). An interpretation in conformity with 
the modem theory of physical stimuli, and attributing hills, 
valleys, mountains, etc., to sensations in various parts of the 
body. 

Vampire. — ^A dream warning against thieves and other in- 
sidious persons (Gypsy). 

Vase. — ^Labor is signified by this dream (Raphael). 

Vegetables. — ^To dream of eating them denotes sickness 
(Raphael). 

Veil. — ^A dream of modesty (Gypsy). Symbol of hidden 
things (Tarot). Symbol also of the submission of woman to 
man. 

Veins. — A dream of trouble and of sorrows (Gypsy). 

Velvet. — Honor and riches (Artemidorus). 

Vermin. — ^A dream denoting sickness (Gypsy). A typical 
dream in alcohol addicts. 

Viands. — ^To see them denotes idleness; to eat, sickness 
(Gypsy). 

Victory. — ^Over opponents a dream of success (Raphael). 

Village. — See City. 

Villagers. — A dream denoting gayety, absence of care 
(Gypsy). 

Vinegar. — ^To dream of drinking it signifies sickness (Arte- 
midorus). Obviously due to sensory stimuli, acidity, etc. 

Vines. — ^To walk under or to pick their fruit is a dream of 
abundance, wealth, fecundity (Gypsy). The spiritual symbol 
of fruitfulness. 

Violence. — ^To dream of violence from one from whom you 
had a right to expect kindness denotes success, promotion 
(Raphael). 

Violets. — In season a dream of success ; out of season, law- 
suits; double violets, extreme happiness or pain (Gypsy). 

Violin. — A dream of social pleasures (Gypsy). 



262 THE FABMC OF DREAMS 

Viper. — ^Enemies who strive to injure you, an unfaithful 
partner (Gypsy). See fable of the man who nourished a 
viper. 

Vision. — ^To see a person in a vision or dream denotes the 
death of that person ; see places, etc., denotes disappointment, 
illusion (Gypsy). 

Voices. — ^A dream of merry voices connotes distress and 
weeping; wailing voices, joy and merriment (Gypsy). 

Volcano. — Family jars, disturbances, fights (Gypsy). 

Vow. — If broken, the dream denotes misfortune; fulfilled, 
success (Gypsy). 

Vulture. — ^An evil dream of persons seeking to destroy 
your reputation, malevolent rivalry, revenge (Gypsy). Here 
the symbolism of the Scriptures is obvious; ancient Hebrews 
held the vulture in abhorrence, while in Egjrpt it was the 
symbol of maternity and of the protection of Isis. 

W 

Wading. — For a girl to dream of wading in clear water de- 
notes a speedy marriage; in muddy water, illicit connections 
(Raphael). 

Wafer. — Good news close at hand (Gypsy). Despite the 
universally evil interpretation given to men of the church, the 
consecrated objects of the worship seem to be held in a certain 
reverence. 

Wagon. — See Cart. 

Wake. — ^To dream of attending, denotes scandalous asser- 
tions (Gypsy). 

Walking. — In the dirt, sickness; in water, grief; in the 
night, trouble (Gypsy). 

Walls. — To dream of them as an impassable barrier de- 
notes difficulties in the family; narrow walls denote danger; 
to ascend without injury denotes success (Raphael). 

Walnuts. — ^To see or eat them, a sign of trouble and dif- 
ficulty (Artemidorus). 



SYMBOUSM IN DREAMS 263 

Walrus. — To dream of a walrus denotes a wasted life 
(Gypsy). 

Waltz. — ^A dream denoting wasted time (Gypsy). 

War. — ^A dream warning of danger of persecution (Gsrpsy). 

Warbling. — Of birds> assured success (Gypsy). 

Warehouse. — Success and possessions through frugality 
and saving (Gypsy). 

Washing. — ^To dream of washing oneself denotes good 
after an illness, a change for the better (Gypsy). 

Wasps. — ^To dream of being stung by wasps, a dream denot- 
ing envious enemies (Artemidorus). 

Watch. — ^A good dream, success (Gypsy). 

Watchman. — ^Loss through thieves, a dream of warning 
(Gypsy). 

Water. — ^To drink clear water, a favorable dream; thick 
or muddy, unfavorable (Gypsy). 

Water-Bearer. — ^Always a good dream (Gypsy). 

Va.ter-Mill. — A favorable dream (G)rpsy). 

Watermelon. — ^A dream of sickness (G)rpsy). 

Wax. — ^A dream denoting an unstable character, doubt on 
the part of the dreamer (Gypsy). 

Wax-Candle. — ^To dream of one denotes a birth ; many, a 
death (Gypsy). 

Wealth. — ^A dream forecasting sickness, even death (Gyp- 
sy). 

Weasel. — ^A dream forecasting friendship for malicious per- 
sons (Gypsy). "An emblem of malice." 

Weather. — ^Good weather, a dream of deceptive security; 
bad weather, see Storm. 

Weathercock. — ^This dream denotes fickle friends (Arte- 
midorus). 

Weaving. — Success in trade (Raphael). 

WEDDiNa — ^A dream denoting a funeral ; if the dreamer be 
ill, his own death is denoted (Gypsy). 

Weeding. — ^A dream of health, wealth and happiness (Raph- 
ael). 



264 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

Weetc. — ^A dream of much labor and small benefit (Gypsy). 

Weeping. — ^A dream of joy (Gypsy). 

Whale. — ^A dream warning the dreamer of danger (Gypsy). 

Wharf. — ^Assurance of safety (Gypsy). 

Wheat. — ^A dream denoting great wealth (Gypsy). 

Wheel. — ^A symbol of eternity, and therefore a happy 
dream (Gypsy). 

Whelp. — ^A dream of domestic happiness (G)rpsy). 

Whip. — To dream of whipping an animal denotes sorrow 
to you; to dream of being whipped augurs scandal (Gypsy). 
A symbol of martyrdom. 

Whirlpool. — ^A dream warning you of danger, physica/1 or 
otherwise (Gypsy). The dreams of whirling or of being 
whirled are readily attributable to physical causes, headaches, 
vertigo, etc. 

Whirlwind. — Heavy troubles (G)rpsy). For physical 
causes see Whirlpool. 

Whisper. — To dream of whispering or hearing a whisper 
denotes scandal (Gypsy). 

Widowhood. — ^A dream of satisfaction, joy (Gypsy). 

Wife. — ^To a woman this dream augurs that she will never 
be one ; to a man this predicts his wife's illness and recovery 
(Gypsy). 

Wig. — ^A dream warning the dreamer of peril ahead (Gyp- 
sy). 

Wild-Cat. — ^A warning to bdware of enemies who have 
gained your confidence (Gypsy). 

Wilderness. — ^A warning that the dreamer's friends will 
prove false and that he must keep his own counsel (Gypsy). 

Will. — To dream of making your own denotes melan- 
choly; to make that of another, profits (Gypsy). 

Willow. — ^A dream of sorrow and grief (Gypsy). Old 
English writers associate this plant with graves and mourn- 
ing. 

Wind. — ^A moderate breeze is a dream of joyful tidings; 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 265 

strong winds augur crosses in love and in all matters (Gypsy). 

Wind-Mill. — Changes for the better (Gypsy). 

Window. — ^To sit at one forecasts slanderous reports; to 
see a light in one, knowledge (G)rpsy). The^symbol of knowl- 
edge (Hartmann). 

Wine. — To dream of drinking, health, wealth, etc. (Gypsy). 
To dream of drinking in moderation might well im^ly strength 
and refreshment through sensory stimuli. Some dream in- 
terpreters translate this as a forecast of the dreamer's mar- 
riage. 

Wings. — ^To dream of having them forecasts your own 
death, or that of the person to whom they are attached 
(Gypsy). The symbol of immortality. 

Wire.— A dream denoting loss of liberty; gold wire, utter 
poverty; iron wire, drunkenness (G)^sy). 

Witchcraft. — Misfortune to the dreamer and his family 
(Gypsy). An interpretation made for the possible purpose 
of inspiring a wholesome awe of the black art 

Wolf. — See Lion, Fox, etc. 

Woman. — ^To dream of woman argues infirmity (Gypsy). 

Wool. — ^To buy or to sell, a dream of prosperity and 
abundance (Gypsy). 

Work. — ^To be tired from work, a dream of sickness ; to see 
men at work denotes success in business ; to work 'with the 
right hand signifies good fortune, with the left embarrassment 
(Gypsy). 

Work-house. — ^To dream of being in one denotes a legacy 
(Gypsy). 

Work-shop. — ^A dream of thrift and wealth (Gypsy). 

Worms. — ^To dream of seeing them in the path augurs death 
to the dreamer or to his friends (Gsrpsy). Mediaeval symbol 
of death and decay. 

V/oBUVfooD. — ^A dream predicting bitter trials (Gypsy). 
Ancient symbol of bitterness. 

Wounds. — ^A dream denoting affliction of the wounded parts 



266 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

(Gypsy). Interpretation coincides with that of modem writ- 
ers. 

Wreath. — A dream of triwnph (Gypsy). Pagan symbol 
of triumph. 

Wreck. — ^A dream of misfortunes to come (Gypsy). 

Wrinkles. — ^To dream of seeing them in your own face 
promises a green old age (Raphael). 

Wrist. — To dream of hurting the wrist augurs future in- 
jury through a foolish act (Gypsy). 

Writing. — ^A dream promising surprise through a letter 
(Gypsy). 

Y 

Yacht. — ^To see one in clear, smooth water, success; in 
stormy seas, the reverse is signified. 

Yarn. — ^A dream denoting inheritance and powerful friends 
(Gypsy). 

Yawning. — ^A warning to beware of surprises (Gypsy). 

Yeast. — ^A dream symbolizing the stirring of discontent 
(Gypsy). 

Yew-tree. — ^A dream denoting honor and great wealth. 
(Gypsy). A sacred tree amongst the Romans and the early 
Britons, who prized it especially in the manufacture of bows. 

Yoke. — ^To dream of wearing a yoke denotes anger (Gypsy). 

Young!. — ^To dream of becoming youthful denotes a faith- 
ful and loving husband or wife (Gypsy). 



Zebra. — ^A dream denoting misplaced friendship, ingratitude 
(Gypsy). 

Zephyr. — Inconstancy is augured by this dream (Gypsy). 
A symbol of lightness and fickleness. 

Zero. — ^A dream denoting a rise to the apex of power and 
fortune (Gypsy). 

Zinc. — A dream connoting the distrust of friends (Gypsy). 



SYMBOLISM IN DREAMS 267 

Zither. — ^A message from a lover is augured by this dream 
(Gypsy). 

Zodiac. — ^To dream of the twelve signs of the zodiac 
shows a great traveler, and predicts a voyage around the world 
(Gypsy), 



CHAPTER XII 

INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS BY MEANS OF THE ANCIENT ART 

OF GEOMANCY 

"Tliese whimsical pictures, inasmuch as they originate from us, 
may well have an analogy widi our whole life and fate." — Goethe. 

In 1830 Raphael, the "astrologer of the Nineteenth Century," 
published a ''Royal Book of Dreams," which he claimed to 
have unearthed in the form of an ancient manuscript^nd in 
which he gives a full explanation of Geomancy, the art of 
dream interpretation. Another early authority was M. Nicolas 
Oudot in 1669, who published explaining the translation of 
dreams by means of the ancient art of Geomancy. 

The art of Geomancy, or divining by the earth, received 
its name from ancient diviners who drew their magic figures 
upon earth before inks and pens had come into general use. 
Two Greek words — ^.Ge, the earth, and Manteai, prophecy, go 
to make up the term. The art is respectfully referred to by 
Chaucer, Dryden and others, while in later times Sir Edward 
Bulwer-Lytton is supposed to have made frequent experiments 
with it. At present it is chiefly practiced by the Chinese, in the 
Soudan, Egypt, and in India, in which countries its votaries 
may frequently be seen drawing geomantic figures upon the 
sand or in the dust of the streets. A small stick and earth, 
dust or well cleaned sand were employed by the Chaldeans, 
Egyptians, Persians and Hebrews, when papyrus and parch- 
ment were only for the elect. 

The theory of Geomancy in dream interpretation is the 
application of the subconsciousness to the mechanical produc- 
tion of certain groups of ciphers, lines, dots or asterisks. Each 

268 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 269 

group when divided according to directions forms a figure 
which bears a specific meaning. The accuracy of this method 
of tapping the subconscious can not, in our present state of 
knowledge, be vouched for as either infallible or as wholly 
unreliable. While many scoff at the system, it nevertheless 
has its followers who contend that curious and satisfactory 
results have attended this process of dream interpretation. 
Directions for the use of Geomancy are simple. With a 
pencil mark down ten lines of stars. Do not count the number 
of stars placed in the lines, as this should be left to chance, 
or the subconscious. While marking down the lines of stars 
the querent should think intently of the dream that he wishes 
to interpret, silently demanding to know its true meaning. 



ILLUSTRATION OF PROCESS 

Line 
I 
2 

3 

4 

5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 

These stars, however roughly drawn, should be made at 
random, the inquirer merely keeping count of the number of 
columns, which are invariably ten in number as above. 

They should then be grouped after the following system: 

In the first line there are twelve asterisks, an even number, 

hence in the figure we write two asterisks : • O ^ 
In the second Tine there are eight asterisks, also an 

even number : O O * 
In the third line there are eleven, an odd number, 

hence we write one asterisk: O 3 
































































































« 





































































































































































\ 






























270 THE FABMC OF DREAMS 

In the fourth line there are five (odd) o 

In the fifth line there are three (odd) O 5 



The second figure falls as follows. 

Sixth line, four asterisks (even) O O 6 

Seventh line, six (even) O O 7 

Eighth line, three asterisks (odd) O 8 

Ninth line, five, (odd) O 9 

Tenth line, eleven asterisks (odd) O xo 

The two signs are placed side by side and a third figure 
called die index figure made from combining them thus. 

FIRST FIGURE SECOND FIGURE THIRD, OR INDEX 

FIGURB 

88 





Referring to the Index of Hieroglyphical Emblems given 
below we find that the figure formed by combining figures one 
and two is found under the sign Aries. Turning from the 
index table to the page devoted to translating figures that come 
under the hieroglyphic Aries we find the interpretation to be 
as follows. "This dream connotes a great change in the for- 
tunes of the dreamer : Wealth and friends await thee." 

Raphael, the great authority upon dreams, speaks of this 
method of interpretation: "The occult principle of the soul 
shall so guide and counsel the dreamer (or diviner) and con- 
trol his hand so that he shall mark down those signatures which 
will convey a true answer/' 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 271 



Index of Hieroqlyphical Emblems 



Arks 



Leo 

o 



S^it. 



8 



MeduM 
O 



Sol I Taunis 

8S 



Man 
O 



Juno 

8 

88 

O 



Phoebus 
O 

O 

o o 



Vicga 



o o 



o 

88 
8 



Hecate 
0.0 



8 



O O 



Jove 



88 



O 
00 



Ceiee 

o o 
o 

©JO 

8 



Apollo 

8 

o 



Geaoini 

88 



o o 
o 



o 
o o 



Fortana 

O 

o 
o o 



o o 



o o 



Vesta 

o o 
0^0 



Neptmw 

o o 

8 
88 



M 

O O 



00 



o 
o 

88 



Orion 

8 

O O 

o 

o o 



Saturn 



8 



Dfaoa 

88 

o 



Finii 

8 



FIRST ROLL OF ORACLES 

HiEBOGLYPHICAL EhBLEM 



1 2 



ARIES 



8_8 8 8 



This dream connotes great changes in the 
fortune of the dreamer; wealth and friends 
await thee. 



0^0 



00 



A merry dream of banquets and feasting. 



8 8 



A dream of disappointments. 



272 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



Thy dream presages a saturnine enemy. 



A dream of voyages, waters and flitting from 
place to place. 



This vision has little or no significance. 






o o 



A sign of anger; high words and contention. 
Be careful to eschew strife. 



88 



88 
8 



This dream is connected with a multitude of 
business and great deeds. 



O 

o o 



o 
o o 



A dream of warning: thou wilt be tempted to 
travel but accidents and danger threaten. 
Do not travel. 



o o o o 



o o o o 



o o o o 



A joyous dream foretelling happiness and 
feasting. 



News of distant friends or relatives is herein 
prognosticated. 



This dream augurs funerals, burials, grief. 



A dream of warning; beware of a secret 
enemy. 



O O 

o 



o 



Avoid travel and dangers ; beware of an alarm 
or fright. 



O 

o o 



o 
o o 



To a man this dream forecasts joy, the com- 
pany of women, marriage. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 



273 



00 

8 



8 
8 



Of small import is this dream to a male ; to a 
female foretells society, happiness, the at- 
tainment of desire. 



8 

O 



8 

O 



O 

8 



O 

8 



o 
00 



o 
00 



8 8 



Sad and ominous forecasting bereavements, 
griefs and tears. 



A dream of misfortune. Prepare thyself by 
avoiding speculations and risks. 



Cheerful, happy fortune, the accomplishment 
of desires. 



v 
K 




Good fortune; in business profit far beyond 
thy expectation. 






Crosses to lovers; disappointments to trades- 
men. 


88 


OjO 

8°8 


Crosses, thwarted purposes, failures. 


V 


V 




For several months after this dream thou wilt 
have journeys and various unsettled con- 
ditions. 


V 

88 


V 

88 


Curiously ominous; cares, toils, harassments. 
Proceed cautiously. 


00 





Thieves, losses or fire are threatened. Beware 
of losing goods and money. 




00 







Disappointment, deception, vain hopes. 


808 


8.8 


Prosperity and increase of business. 



274 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



88 88 



A sad dream ; thou wilt have a funeral in thy 
family or perhaps lose a loved friend. 



1*1 



i§ 



Bereavement^ the loss of a valuable friend. 



8«8 8 8 

O O 

o o o o 
o o 


The friendship of powerful persons. 


o o 
o^o OJO 

8 8 

O O O O 


Shifting fortunes, sudden gains, losses, tri- 
umphs, perplexities. 


U 8 8 
8 8 

O O O O 


Conquests, triumph over enemies and anta^^- 
onists. 



SiGir 
1 2 



HeIROGLYPHICAL y.ifmtjwr 



¥ 



SOL 



88 



Thou wilt shortly travel; be ready. 



88 



Weariness, despondency and soreness of spirit 
are here indicated. 



g 
i§ 



Toil, care, discomfort are here augured. 



8 



A faithless friend is near, take care lest thou 
be entrapped. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 275 



88 



8 
00 

8 



Fighting, possible bloodshed, also l^al entan- 
glements. Avoid giving offense. 



8 

8 



88 



A dream of quarreling and falsehood. 



8J 

O 

88 



§§ 



o 
o 



Illness is prognosticated. Avoid excitement. 



8 



88 
88 



Friends are indicated, except on the first day 
of the moon, when this dream augurs a 
legacy. 



O 



§ 



8 



8 
8 



Thou wHt receive a gift, but beware of treach- 
ery. 



00 



§§ 



Unimportant, save on Saturday when this 
dream forecasts trouble and sorrow. 



§§ 



O O 



8J 



After this dream avoid speculation and betting. 



K^ §1 



0% 

o 



0^0 



Better fortunes are in store for the dreamer 
whose troubles are nearly over. 



8J 
8 

o o 



Heavy clouds and annoyances surround Uie 
dreamer. 



8 

o o 



News, also the illness or death of a near rela- 
tive or kind friend. 



00 

8 



00 

o 
o o 



The stars will be with thee for three years; 
thou shalt prosper. 



o 
o o 



Y 

o 



A happy dream; legacies before three years. 



276 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



00 



8 



Joy, mirth and a wedding are at hand. 



O 
00 



%9 

§§ 



8 

o o 



To a female a betrothal, to a male the love 
of a fair woman. 



Beware a thief who lives nearby. 



O 

8 

o o 



%9 

u 



An evil dream denoting joy ending in sorrow. 



00 

o 

8 

O O 



00 

o 

O 



The imprisonment of a friend will greatly 
trouble thee. 



o 

O 



00 



o o 



Do not leave thy dwelling the day after this 
dream lest thou meet sorrow and harm. 



8 



o 



00 

o 

o o 



Disappointed hopes, anger, quarreling and con- 
tention are augured. 



O 

o 
o o 

o 
o o 



o o 
o 



An absent friend will visit thee. 



O O 



8 



Slander is aimed at thee. 



8 
8_8 



O O 



Temporary misfortune and trouble are prog- 
nosticated. 



O 

8 



O 

o 

88 



Evil and disappointment are herein denoted 
save on the second and third days of the 
moon. 



88 



O 



Important matters concerning thy welfare, also 
a journey within a short time. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 277 





V 

88 


Wealth in plenty, a dream implying fortunate 
stars of destiny. 


88 


V 
V 


An auspicious dream. Thou art destined to 
fortune and to many friends. 


V 







A stormy time ahead to landsmen; to mariners 
a rough voyage. 




00 




Thou wilt find treasure, or will recover some- 
thing that has long been lost. 



HiEROGLYPHICAL EmbLBK 



SlGir 
1 2 



TAURUS 



An obscure and unimportant dream. 



88 

i 



8 
l§ 



8 
I! 



8 8 



§ 
88 



8 



Trouble, severe but transient is at hand. 



A fortunate dream save on Saturday when it 
forecasts ill. 



The dreamer win shortly receive money. 



This dream bodes heavy expenses, the losing 
and paying away of money. 



278 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



8 88 



Financial difficulties, loss and vexation in busi- 
ness. 



88 



8 
00 

8 



8 

O O 

o 
o 



88 



00 
O 



OJD 



O 



00 



New friends who will benefit the dreamer. 



A malicious enemy is watching the dreamer, 
let him beware. 



The dreamer is warned against deceit, malig- 
nant private enemies and treachery, also 
mental depression. 



Sorrow and blighted hopes. 



8 



o 



Unpleasant suggestions through letters and 
papers. 



O O 

o 



8 



The dreamer will triumph over rivals in busi- 
ness and in love. 



O O 



An unlucky dream : avoid irritating thine ene- 
mies. 



O O 



Avoid a tall, dark, saturnine person; he seeks 
to injure thee. 



00 



A fortunate dream, forecasting good news and 
gratified wishes. 



0^0 



A pleasant dream denoting merrymaldng, joy, 
prosperity. The object of the dreamer's af- 
fection is sincere. 



00 



O O 



Prepare for traveling; thou shalt take a for- 
tunate journey. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 279 



0.0 



o o 



Journeys, changes, agitation, the arrival of 
friends long absent 



8 
88 

O 



8J 
8 

o o 



Depression, the weight of cares and troubles. 



8J 
8 

o o 



8 
88 

O 



Loss through carelessness and neglect ; a warn- 
ing to take care. 



O 

8 



o o 

8 
88 



A dream warning the dreamer to be careful 
of his signature and of signing papers. 



8 
88 



o 

8 



o 
00 

o 
o o 



o 
00 

o 
00 

o 



o 
o 
o 



o o 

o 
o o 

o 
o o 



A dream of disappointment alike in love and 
in business. 



A favorable dream for both love and finance. 



A troubled dream to lovers; to others diverse 
fortunes through strange planetary influen- 



ces. 



808 


8 

00 

o**o 


Letters containing evil news will disquiet thee. 


4« 




88 






Slander and false rumors will attack thy 
credit 




00 





00 

8 
00 


Deceitful friends whom thou trustest will 
prove thy greatest enemies. 





8»8 
"0° 


Sickness will assail those whom thou lovest 
most 










8 




Annoyance^ concerning papers or documents 
which will not arrive in time. 



28o 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



8 

o 



o 

88 

O 

o o 



00 

o 

0.0 



8 



o 
o 

88 



Letters and news from those who have long 
been silent are approaching. 



A fortunate dream forecasting prosperity and 
changes for the better. 



O 

o 

88 



00 
O 

o o 

8 



Losses are predicted; to the lover parting 
with his beloved. 



HiEROGLYPHICAL EmBLEM 



Sign 
1 2 



88 



JOVE 



8 



O 
O 



88 



A change is near at hand. 



Prepare for a journey across the water. 



8 



On the third day of the month this dream 
prognosticates loss; ordinarily, however, it 
is unimportant. 



8 



An unfortunate dream ; guard thy dwelling. 



O 

88 



8 



This dream augurs that thy letters are inter- 
cepted. Have a care. 



8 



88 

O 

88 



Family cares and sorrows are herein foretold. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 



281 



00 
o 



o 

O JO 

S8 



The land of thy abode is subject to perils. 



O 
00 

o 

88 



00 



Thou art threatened with a fright or alarm. 



O 

o o 



o o 



Ere long thou wtlt lose a near relative. 



00 00 



O 



o 



o o 

8 
88 



8 
88 



§§ 



O O 

8 
88 



o_o 



8 



00 
O 






0.0 



o o 



o 

88 

O 

o o 



Scandals and many cares herein are pro- 
phesied. 



An old, half forgotten grievance will be vig- 
orously revived. 



This vision is an omen of anger or angry 
words. 



A more propitious fortune is herein augured, 
one over which the dreamer may well re- 
joice. 



Extraordinary news from friends ; much action 
for the next three months. 



An ill-omened dream. 



Peril, grief and secret sorrows at home are 
foretold. 



Beware of horses and of riding. 



O 

o 
o o 



00 



o o 



An ominous dream of old grievances renewed. 



/ 



282 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



o.o 



o o 

o 

o o 



8 



Rejoicings and merry-making; weddings. 



o 
8 



o 
o o 



o o 



8 



o 

8 



o o 



8 



88 

O 

o 



8J 

O 

o 



8 



o 
o 



o o 
o 

o 



o 
o 



o 

o o 

o 

o 



o o 

o 
o o 

o 
o o 



o 



8 



o o 



o 

8 

o o 



o o 

o 
o o 

o 
o o 



88 

8 

o o 



8 



o o 

o 

o o 



Joy and mirth are here foretold. 



The dreamer will shortly receive a most 
charming invitation. 



Grief and misfortune attend this dream. 



The dreamer is subject to evil influences of 
which he should beware. 



Thou wilt find a new and helpful friend within 
the month. 



Loss, especially if dreapied on the third day of 
the moon. 



This dream forecasts disputes, avoid them. 



Three strong friends shalt thou find within 
the year. 



If thou art single this dream forecasts mar- 
riage. 



If thy dream was terrifying have no fear, it is 
not ill. 



8 

o o 

o 

o o 



8J 

s 

o o 



Frame thy speech with care; quarreling is 
shown. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 



283 



8 
8 



88 



Thy dream signifies that the times are op- 
posed to thy success. 



8J 
§ 



8 
8 



Of whatever this vision may consist have no 
fear of harm. 



HiEROGLYPHICAL EmBLEAC 



Sick 
1 2 



8J 
88 



GEMINI 



8.8 
88 



Journeys or crossing deep water are fore- 
shadowed. 



88 



Increased business affairs and much to do 
with writings and documents. 



8 
8 



The death of an enemy to thy peace of mind 
is herein foretold. 



8 
8 



Something that thou hast long wished for has 
gone by. 



88 



8 



Good fortune and a long purse are herein 
foretold. 



8 



88 



Profit through some business transaction or 
Imrgain. 



8 



88 



Victory over enemies. 



^^'^www"^"-"^»wi^»^»*i*ii"^i— i«i-»i^^^^«pwp"""^«"*"T*w^^^^^^F— ^"Wi^wpw 



m^t^ff^^mm^'mmi 



284 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



8 
§§ 



88 



Meriy-making and festivities to which thou 
fhaJt be biddeiL 



§§ 



8 
88 



You are warned of falsehood among your 
friends and of sickness in thy dwelling. 



O O 

8 
88 



00 

§1 



O 

o o 



8J 
8 

o o 



8J 

8 

o o 



§ 



o 
o o 



8.8 

o 
o 



8«8 

O 

o 



o 

00 

o 

88 



O 
00 

o 

88 



00 



o o 



00 

o 
00 

o 
o o 



Trouble from treacherous and scornful ene- 
mies, but final victory over them. 



Whatsoever thou hast on hand will, on the 
morning after this dream, bring thee trouble. 



Expect letters and news from friends long ab- 
sent 



Sadness and sorrow are herein predicted. 



Death will soon rob thee of a near and dear 
companion. 



A jovial, happy dream. 



A dream of regret for vanished joys. 



s 




A loss by thieves is herein forecast 






Beware of treacherous enemies near at hand. 



Marriage within the year is here prognosti- 
cated. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 



285 



o o 



00 



o o 



A dream of great profit unless it be dreamed 
on the first day of a new moon or in an 
eclipse. 



OjO 



8 



A dream of friendship to all, but to a male 
the love of a beautiful damsel is promised. 



O 

V 



o 
00 



00 

o 



8 

o 



8 

O 



00 



8 



6 O 



V 

o o 



8 



o 
o o 



o o 



OJ> 



00 
o 

o • 



8 



00 

o 
0.0 



o.o 



8 



This dream warns thee of trouble. 



A "wearyful" dream. 



Harassment, even possible imprisonment is 
forecast by this dream. 



An evil dream ; disappointed hopes. 



Troubles overshadow thy home. 



A dream assuring thee that the stars are pro- 
pitious to a return of fortune. 



On Friday this dream foretells deceit; on 
Monday a journey; on other days a new 
friend. 



0^0 
O 

o 



o o 

8 

o 



Quarrels and unhappiness are here indicated. 



8 

o 



00 

O 



This dream proceeds from ill-health. 



OjO 

8 

o o 



88 

o o 



Joy, mirth and pleasure are here denoted 



286 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



88 



O O 

8 

o o 



Unfavorable; danger of discredit or of loss 
of goods. 



HiEROGLYPHXCAL EmBLEM 



Snar 



i§ 



LUNA 



O O 

o 



§ 



Dreamer, be warned of guile and deceit about 
thee. 






Thy fears are groundless; from now on thj 
sorrows will leave thee. 



88 



O O 



A happy dream promising wealth. 



CO 

o 
o 



g 



88 



I 



Seven yesLTs of good fortune are promised by 
this dream. 



o^o 



O 

o o 



§ 



88 



8**8 



Voyages and changes are herein denoted. 



Voyages and journeys and adventures with a 
pleasant companion. 



Trouble to some of thy absent friends is indi- 
cated. 



O 

o 



88 88 



Losses in thy family circle are foretold by this. 



mvm'^a^m^mimmm^mm^i^ii^fmr* 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 287 



o 

88 



8 
88 



Thou wilt be busied over books and papers. 



0^0 

8 
88 



8J 

O 

o o 



o 
o o 



00 

o 

00 

o 
o o 



o a 



a 
o o 



o 

O 



o o 
o 

88 

O 



8 



8 



u 



8 

O 



8 

O 



o 

o 
o o 



o®o 



Hasty news is here forecast 



A legacy will follow this dream. 



Favourable times await the dreamer. 



A dream forecasting death among thy rela- 
tives and friends. 



A dream warning thee of sickness. 



A fortunate dream promismg thee gold and 
silver. 



The dreamer will discover a secret 



A dream of sickness and calamity. 



A bad dream forecasting trouble, sickness, etc. 



Prepare for a change of residence. 



O 



o o 



o 
00 

o 
o o 



Favorable times draw near; expect to receive 
money. 



288 



DREAMS 



o.o 



I V 

o o o o 



o o 



o o o o 



I 



o o 
o 

o 
o o 

o 



o 

V 

o o 
o 



I 



o o 
o 

8 

o o 



o 
o 

8 

o o 



o o 



8 8 



8 8 



8j8 o (0 
8 8 



o o 8 8 
8 8 



O 

o o 
o 



8 

o 



V «o8 

O JO o o 

o o 



A removal is hereby indicated. 



Confusion and possible loss among papers, 
deeds and documents. 



A disagreeable month; be warned of losses. 



Mischief surrounds the dreamer who is warned 
to act cautiously. 



Be warned of a funeral within a twelvemonth. 



A dream of fickle fortune and of trouble. 



Good fortune, money, presents, prosperity are 
herein augured. 



A golden influence has caused this dream; 
slight it not 



A dream of universal character portending 
troubles to many mighty persons. 



Thou art warned to guard well thy actions af- 
ter this dream. 



A frightful dream thou hast had, but its omens 
are happy. 



Thou wilt shortly take a journey; prepare. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 289 



o 

o 
o o 



g 

o o 



8 



o o 



o 

88 

o o 



Soon thou wilt hear of the illness or decease 
of a loved one. 



Grief 18 herein forecast 



S16K 
1 2 



§§ 

o o 



o o 

T 



00 
o 



8 



o o 
o o 

8 

o 



88 

o 
o 



o 

o o 

o 



88 



o o 



HiEROGLYFHICAL EmBLEH 

§i 



0^0 

CANCER 



An unimportant dream unless it concerns 
money, m which case it augurs deceit 



An omen that thou wilt voyage or hear news 
of voyager. 



Melancholy and affliction are herein denoted. 



Thou wilt hear news of a death. 



o 8 8.8 



Aches and pains are prognosticated for the 
dreamer. 



Sickness and trouble are here forecast. 



Enemies over whom thou wilt triumph are 
near at hand. 



290 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



A dream ominous of consternation and Ol 
words. 



O O 



88 



88 
88 



8J 
8 

o o 



Og 



8 



O O 



88 

O 

88 



To a dark person this dream predicts many 
friends. 



Mirth and jollity; be happy while thou canst 



O O 



§§ 



00 

o 
_o_ 



00 
o o 



00 

o 

§1 



An ill dream; thou art warned to be watchfuL 



Beware of a sudden foe and thou wilt con- 
quer him. 



8 
8 



§§ 
8 



*>8 



8 



Thou art warned to be on the lookout for 
trouble, sadness, heaviness, cares. 



On the 1st day of the moon this dream fore- 
tells letters, on the 4th or 6th joy, on the' 
13th a funeral, other days, sorrows. 



O 

o o 



o 



Expect glad news after this dream. 



Beware of secret and treacherous foes. 






8 



o 

8.8 
8 



i 



O O 



o o 



0^0 

8 
88 



Disappointments: thou wilt not take the jour- 
ney diou hast planned. 



Sorrow is at hand. 



Traveling and many journeys are foretold. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 291 



00 

8 
8S 



0.0 



o o 



First a journey is forecast, next a voyage and 
dealings with mariners. 



o_o 



o 
00 

o 
00 

o 



A treacherous dream, albeit it may have been 
a happy one. 



00 

O 

o o 



o 
o.o 



Beware lest a treacherous woman cost thee 
dear. 



O 

8 

O 



o o 

8 

o 



An amazingly fortunate dream. 



O O 

o 
o 

o o 
o 



00 



8 



8 



8 

o 
o o 



A favorable dream, prognosticating money 
or letters by messenger. 



Annoyances and differences between friends. 



O 
O 

o o 

o 

o o 



8 



A dream warning thee of approaching illness. 



8 
88 



8 
8 



One of thy undertakings will fail. 



O 
O 

o 
o 



8 

O 



A fortunate dream denoting rich and power- 
ful friends. 



O O 

o 
o 



0^0 
o 

88 



Manv moons of prosperity and good fortune 
will follow this dream. 



00 
O 

o 



00 
o 

8 



Disappointments are here signified. 



O 

o 

88 



O 

8 

o o 



Losses and business vexations are foretold. 



~c* 



292 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



8 
o o 



00 

o 

88 



This dream is an index of much diversity. 



HiEROGLYPHICAL EmBLEM 



Sigh 
1 2 



O 

SATURN 



Thou wilt soon attend a f uneraL 



An ominous sign denoting the death of thy 
dearest friend. 



O O 



Thou shalt have difficulty in obtaining that for 
which thou strivest 



O O 



Sepulchers, biers and funerals are here con- 
noted. 



8® 



§ 



8^8 
8 

o o 



Merry-makiiig, feasts and dancing are here 
augured. 



8 

o o 



8J 
S 



Friendship is promised through this dream. 



88 



§ 



00 

o 



V 



88 



The dreamer is hereby warned against anger. 



The expected shall not come to pass. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 293 



o 
o 



s 

88 



o o 
o o 

o 



8J 

o 

00 

o 



88 
88 



Joy and profit through letters and books. 



Legacies and gain through the dead are here 
prognosticated. 



O 

o o 

88 



00 
O 

O 



Thou art warned of deceit in one to whom 
thou hast shown courtesy. 



00 
O 

o o 

o o 

o 



00 

o 



Dissimulation is indicated by this dream. 



o 5 

o 

o o 



8 



A good omen of fortune soon to visit the 
dreamer. 



8 



O 

o o 



Thy thought and thy dream are contrariwise. 



O 

S8 
8 



Something which thou hast lately sought shall 
be accomplished without labor. 



O 

o 



The dream warns thee against signing docu- 
ments. 



00 00 



8 



O O 



Thou wilt shortly receive a large inheritance. 



O O 

8 
8 



0.0 



O O 



New friends and a turn in the tide of fortune. 



O 

00 



00 

8 



The attentions of fair and goodly damsels. 



8 

O O 



o 
00 



Letters treating of love and courtship. 



294 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



d 


I'tl 


Safety in the midst of difficulties. 


A 


6 


Riding on horseback and traveling swiftly. 


« 




o o 


Changes, removals, voyages. 


p. 


« 


An unlucky dream of thwarted desires. 


r 


o o 


A dream of riches. 




V 


A prosperous fortune awaits thee, persevere. 


O O 

o 


88 


* 

Losses and financial difficulties. 


o^o 




An omen of thieves ; guard thy dwelling. 

1 


r 

o o 
o 


o o 

88 


Tidings, letters and messages. 


o o 

8 
S8 


V 


Except on Sunday this dream prognosticates 
money. 



8 



O O 

o 
o o 



8 

o o 

% 



8 

o o 

8 



8 

O O 

o 
o o 



Avoid quarreling and watch well thy words. 



A sign prognosticating reel-haired friends of 
whom beware. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 295 

s 

HiEROGLYPHICAL EmBLEU 



Sigh 
1 2 



LEO 



Bounteous favors of fortune are herein au- 
gured 



Profit through merchandise or from over- 
seas. 



0.0 



Letters, news and gifts. 



o_o 



The dreamer will shortly find a true» land 
friend. 



82 






Friends are here forecast and to the business 
man, money. 



O 
0.0 



88 



This dream forecasts marriage within the year. 



88 



8 
88 



Great disappointment in one of thy undertak- 
ings which shall fail. 



00 

8 
88 



88 



Peril if thou journeyest after this dream, also 
trouble and loss through writings and pa- 
pers. 



O 

88 



O 

o 

88 



Be warned against lawsuits and confusion 
amongst papers. 



O 

o 

88 



8J 

O 

88 



If dreamed on the third day of the moon, 
death of blood relatives. 



296 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



00 
o 



8 



A warning against secret enemies. 



S 



00 

11 



Prognosticates mastery over secret foes. 



O O 



o 
o o 



The revival of a past grievance long f oigott< 
by the dreamer. 



O 

O 

o o 



o o 



Beware of losses. 



i§ 



Death of some of thy kindred. 



8 



0.0 



O O 



The dreamer will shortly attend the funeral 
of one beloved. 



Beware of affixing thy signature to documents. 



0.0 



O O 



Probable loss through thieves. 



i 



O O 

o 



00 

8. 



Avoid the quarrels denoted by this dream. 



X 

o o 
o 



§ 



o o 
o 



s 



o 

8 



Thou wilt be angered by letters or papers. 



Restlessness and change. 



8**8 
8 



§§ 
8 



Sad news causing dismay and sorrow. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 297 









Deceitful friends and thoughtless persons will 
cause thee trouble. 


00 

§08 


8 


Anger, strife and ill news are here betokened. 


8 


8 
V 


A speedy change for the better in thy for- 
tunes. 


8 
00 

8 


V 


Glad tidings from friends. 


♦ 
V 


8c8 
V 


Losses and sorrow are approaching. 


8o« 




A secret enemy would fain harm thee. 


CO 


0^ 




However evil this dream may appear it augurs 
good. 


40 

00 


V 1 

00 


Qianges, journeys, possibly across water. 





¥ 




News of a woman friend and from one in 
trouble. 






V 




A journey is here foretold. 



298 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



Skv 
1 2 



§i 



HiESOGLYPHICAL EliBLEM 



fi 



MARS 



Weeping, sorrow and grief to others is here 
foretold. 



§§ 



A relative in a far distant land will be laid to 
rest. 



§ 



8S 



8 



00 



I 



o o 



8 

o o 



88 



On Monday or Wednesday the dream implies 
good; otherwise unimportant 



Traveling and a long joum^ are forecast 



A good dream auguring plentiful wealth. 



Gifts and favors shalt thou receive. 



A 


¥ 


In three weeks thou shalt make an acquaint- 
ance who will become a true friend. 


¥ 


8^8 


Happiness and joy are herein foretold. 


8.8 
S8 


V 


Business, letters, charts and activity of mind. 




8.8 
88 


Trouble through a dark woman. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 399 



o 

O Q 



8 

O 



8 

O 



00 

o 
o 



A deceitful dreatn! Beware of a red-haired 
man. 



Thou wilt shortly hear of the illneM of a 
friend. 



O O 



o 

8 



The perils that of late have beset the dreamer 
will vanish; his destiny will mend. 



88 
8 



§.§ 



O O 



Grief and sorrow are here connoted. 



A mixture of joy and sorrow is here prog^ 
nosticated. 



Tears and annoyances, followed hj joy. 



0^0 



8J 
8 

o o 



Thou wilt either marry thysdf or will attend 
a wedding. 



o 5 

8 

o o 



o 



On the 7th day of the moon this dream fore- 
. casts a journey; on any other day, new 
friends. 



00 
O 



00 

8 
88 



Disputes in relation to writings. 



00 

8 
88 



O O 

o 



The sudden death of a dear friend is hereby 
augured. 



00 



O O 



Trouble will follow this dream. 



0.0 



O O 



Gires will beset the dreamer* 



300 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



y 


ft 


Disappointments, relating to mon^. 


ft 


V 


Deferred hope. 


0*0 


V 


Good fortune will soon follow this vision. 


«.8 


it 


To a female this dream signifies marriage, to 
a male deceit 


"0° 

V 


4. 




An omen of many months of good fortmie. 


4" 




V 


Harsh words concerning mon^. 


o**o 


s 1 
V 


The receipt of monQr. 


•^ 





Unexpected news. 




8J 
8°8 


An unimpertant dream. 


8„8 
gg 


88 


Let the dreamer prepare for a removal unless 
dreamt on the full of the moon. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 301 



fkmx 

1 2 



HiBROGLYPHICAL EkBLUC 



s 



VIRGO 



o o 



o o 



00 



o o 



Joarneying and activity especially if the moon 
be not full. 



Travels, voyages. 



O 
O 

o 



Business delays and dissatisfaction. 



§§ 



A vexatious dream. 



8.8 
8 



00 

o 

88 



Happiness, marriage, especially if dreamed on 
Thursday. 



88 



88 



On the gth day of the moon, this dream pre- 
dicts robbers. On other days deceitful 
friends. 



8 



O O 



Prognosticates meeting with rich and noble 
friends. 



O 

88 

O 

o o 



88 



Prognosticates the fulfillment of desires and 
intentions. 



O 

o o 
o o 



o o 

o 
o o 

o 
o o 



Riches after poverty; fulfillment of wishes. 



O O 

o 
o o 

o 
o o 



88 
88 



Honors and dominion over others will come 
to thee after this dream. 



302 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



M 8 8 

80 00 



00 



88 

00 8 8 



§§ V 

88 



o 
o o 



00 

8 
88 



o 
o o 



00 



0.0 



o o 



o o 



o 



8 
88 



8 

O 



o 
o_o 



o o 



o 

8J 
8 



o 

8J 

O 



o o 
o 



On a Friday this is an unlucky dream, other* 
wise unimportant 



Favors, presents and benefits from wealthy 
persons. 



Joumeyings or flitting from place to place. 



To a female marriage, to others buying of 
houses or heavy goods. 



Delay in the marriage of a friend. 



Marriage, joyful news, the desires of thy heart 



Hatred, joy and sorrow commingled. 



Secret enemies especially a dark, saturnine 
person. 



A good dream for a sick person; on the in- 
crease of the moon it foretells the coming 
of money. 



A reward for that which thou hast done. 



Servitude to the rich, profit to the poor are 
here betokened. 



Crosses in love are herein forecast 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 



303 



9 
S 



8 



00 

8 

o 



Danger even death to the sick; to one in cap- 
tivity or grief, a speedy release. 



O O 

8 

0.0 



8 



Sickness through feasting. 



8 
88 

O O 



o 
00 

8 

o o 



00 

8 



8 

i§ 



o 

OQ 

8 



8J 

o 
o 



8.8 

o 
o o 



00 
o 

8 



Merry-making, joy, new garments. 



A dream forecasting happiness and prosperity. 



Fortunate and happy save on the full of the 
moon. 



A long peaceful life is promised. 



00 
O 



8 
8 



Thou art warned against deceitful friends. 



8 
8 



O 

o 
o 



Quarreling and angry words. 



O 

o 

O Q 



8 

O O 

o 
o o 



A had dream, guard thy actions. 



8 



O O 

o 
o o 



o 
00 

o 

88 



Sickness either to thyself or family. 



304 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



Sign 



1 



HiEROGLYPHICAL EmBLEM 



I 



MERCURIUS ' 



O 

o o 



On Friday this portends marriage to the 
young and success to the aged. 



o o 



§ 



A long journey with a satisfactory termination. 



O O 



Sorrows and care surround thee. 



8 



An enemy will endeavor to harm the dreamer. 



8® 



Wealth and plenty in thine old age. 



O 
O 

g 



o 

8 



In a few years hence thou wilt have fortune 
and prosperity. 



O O 

o o 



o o 

o 

o o 



8 



Thou wilt gain wealth but thou mayest lose it. 



O O 

o 



8 



8 
88 



A present of gold and silver. 



O O 

o 

88 



88 

O 
O 



o 

8 



8J 
88 



Riches in later life. 



Poverty for a season through the dreamer's 
own negligence. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 



305 



o 
o 



o o 
o 

o 



A dream of trouble in high places, in affairs of 
state, etc. 



O 

o 



§ 



o 
o o 



A dream warning thee to look well to thy 
character lest Uiou be discredited 



§ 

O 



o 
o o 

o 

o 
o o 



Trouble and sadness after merry-making. 



O 

8 



Thou wilt shortly find a sincere and trust- 
worthy friend. 



O 

Q 5 
O O 

o 



88 

Q 

O 

O O 



Beware of robbery; a heavy loss is prog- 
nosticated. 



00 



8 



o o 



Herein are shown rides on horseback and 
journeyings. 



O O 



o o 



8 



8^ 

o 5 



o o 



o o 



00 



o o 
o 

o 
o o 



Vexatious removals or voyages. 



Great evil if thy dream fall on a Saturday. 



An evil minded enemy, but with care thou 
wilt be victorious. 























^^^ 





Financial 


success 


and 


health 


are 


herein 


au- 


00 



gured. 



































o 



Many enemies against whom thou must guard. 



00 

O 

o o 

o 



o o 



On Friday the 13th of the month this dream 
foretells death amongst thy relatives ; other- 
wise insignlBcant. 



3o6 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



o o 



8 



§ 



Feastiiig and prosperity. 



8 



o o 



Wealth and success to the dreamer. 



8 



o 

OJO 

o 

88 



Profit and honour. 



o_ 
o o 

o 

88 



8 



««8 

o^o 



o 
o o 



1# 

o 
o o 



8J 

o 
o 



Beware of homed cattle and four-footed 
beasts. 



Letters containing news of absent friends. 



Illness hovers near the dreamer. 



V 


o o 


Much walking or joumejring. 


4. 

o o 


? 


News and financial affairs. 


K 


•^ 


An evil dream denoting temporary poverty. 


.J. 


?; 


Beware of removals and changes after this 
dream. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 307 

HiEKOGLYPHICAL EmBLEM 



Sign 
1 2 



o o 
o 



o o 
o 



u 

o 
o o 



o 



o o 



A 8 8 






8S g 

o 

88 



o o 
o 



80 



o 
o 



O Q 08 

00 O 



X 8 8 
V 8 8 



00 

o 

UBRAi 



Thou art warned of danger from thieves and 
robbers. 



Fair persons will profit thee much. 



Thou mayest expect visitors from a long 
journey. 



A fortunate dream; thou wilt recdve money 
through letters and packets. 



Many months of fortune and prosperity. 



Profitable business and increase thereof. 



Guard against a spiteful enemy who would 
harm thee financially. 



Be prepared for sudden and sad news. 



Confusion amongst workmen and laborers 
from which thou mayst suffer. 



Some secret foe has lately been worldng mis- 
chief with thy name. Take care. 



3o8 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



o o 



g 



o 
o o 

o 
o o 



o 



o o 
o 

i§ 



o o 

8 

o o 



o o 

8 



O (O 

8 
88 



o o o 

o Q 8 8 



o_o 



o 

88 
8 



o 

88 
8 



o_o 



o o 



o o 
o 

o 
o o 



o o 
o o 



o o 



8 



8 



8 



o o 



Beware of deceit and false friends. 



To a male this dream connotes trouble with a 
female. 



Better fortune is at hand; thy troubles ¥rill 
soon pass. 



Thou wilt receive a gift of money and will 
prosper generally. 



A journey or removal within six months. 



Misfortunes and troubles are herein foretold. 



A change is here predicted. 



A funeral in thy family which will grieve thee 
sorely. 



To a male approaching nuptials, to a female 
courtship. 



On a Thursday, Tuesday or Wednesday, good 
fortune and success to the dreamer. 



Losses; avoid speculation. 



Sorrow; also guard thy health against sick- 
ness. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 



309 



00 







Luck will attend thee in six weeks. 



o**o 


®o^ 


Thou shouldst warn thy absent friends to be- 
ware of approaching trouble. 


88 


y 


Wealth and fortune to the dreamer, death to 
his enemies. 

< 


8.8 




A 


Unimportant; a mixture of good and evil. 


V 






Love and happiness; prosperity and marriage 
among thy kindred. 





Y 


Thou hast just escaped loss and sickness. 


88 




«.8 


Fortunate on Sunday; otherwise look for a 
month of trouble and vexations. 


«c8 


88 


Toil, worry and anxiety are herein forecast 



o o 
o.o 



8 



8 

Ct o 

8 



8 
8 



8J 
8 

o o 



An ttninlportant dream due to ill-health. 



New friends are herein forecast 



310 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



HiBROGLYPHICAL EmBLEH 



SiGK 
1 2 



o o 

VENUS 



A sad dream denoting sorrows and cares. 



O O 



Trouble amongst thy absent friends. 



Many changes alike in thy lot and in thy habi- 
tation. 



Troubles and cares will befall thee for a short 
time. 



SS 



8 

O 



Joy and merry-making. 



8^ 

O 



88 



First disappointment, then the receipt of a 
large sum of money. 



88 



i§ 



o o 



If dreamed on Sunday and the loth day of the 
moon, this dream denotes wealth in middle 
age. 



O 

o o 



88 



An enemy of the dreamer will shortly die. 



O 

88 



8 

O O 

o o 



Thou wilt soon see some one whom thou 
hast sorely missed. 



8 



O O 

o o 



8J 
88 



Seven months of trouble will follow this 
dream. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 311 



o o 

o 

O Q 

8 8 



O 

o o 

8 



Anger, strife, loss throttg^ treadiery. 



O 

o o 

8 

o o 



o o 
o 



Unless thy dream proceeds from ill-health, be- 
ware of a dark person near thee. 



O O 

o o 



o o 



o o 



A fortunate dream. 



00 



o o 



Thou wilt soon take a long and prosperous 
journey. 



o o 



8 



o o 
o 

88 



Marriage, nuptials, love are herein signified. 



O O 

o 



8 



O 

o o 



Treachery is herein denoted. 



I 



o 



o 
o 



§ 



Beware of a faithless friend who will slander 
thee. 



o o 



8 



00 

o 



A warning not to enter thv enemy's dwelling 
nor to cross his threshold. 



o_o 



§ 



The present weariness and care will soon 
change to better fortune. 



O 

o o 



o o 



8 



The death of a dear friend or relative who 
lives at a distance. 



8 

O O 
O Q 

o 



88 
8 

o o 



Good fortune, gifts of money, jojrful letters. 



o o 
00 

o 

o 
o o 



8 



Heavy cares, yet victory over adversaries at 
last 



312 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



* 


¥ 


Business cares and disappointments. 


¥ 


«?l 


After three days the dreamer will escape harm. 


V 


V 


Success in business, joy and pleasure. 




V 


A dream that augurs well for public life and 
for voyages. 


V 

:<>: 


88 


Troubles that will soon pass. 


S8 


o o 
o% 


A warning not to be too confiding in your 
friends. 


88 

o 


•!- 


Beware of journeys or voyages for the space 
of one moon. 


-^ 


^^ 


This dream forecasts a sudden rise in for- 
tunes. 


(4 


V 

S8 


Prepare thy mourning garb, some one is about 
to die. 


88 




o o 


A warning to look to thy health. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 313 

HiEROGLYPHICAL EmBL&M 



I 2 



SCORPIO 



o o 



Prognosticates a joyous time; financial suc- 
cess beyond present expectation. 



00 



Changing drcumstances, money, friends and 
happiness. 



A beneficial, happy voyage. 



8 
8 



An unimportant dream. 



88 



O O 

o 

§§ 



Thy fortunes will mend, but for the present 
avoid speculation. 



O O 

o 

O Q 

o 5 
o o 



8 



A faithless friend will harm the dreamer. 



8 



O 
O 



o 

88 
8 



Victory over adversaries who shall rise up 
against thee. 



8''8 § 
8 88 


A warning of sickness; guard thy health. 


8^8 V 


News from distant friends or from one whom 
thou hast believed dead. 


8 88 


ff 

Financial success; plentiful gold and silver. 



3H 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



ii 



O O 

o o 
o 



A warning to beware of law and lawyers. 



Y 



M 

O O 



Thy desire shall be fulfilled. 



i 



O O 



Thou shall acquire a small sum, but do not 
risk it in speculation, lest thou lose. 



§ 



O O 



8 



o o 



Happy surprises are herein denoted. 



Take care whom thou consultest on important 
matters. 



§1 



Dream of funerals, grief and cares. 



A joyous dream ; thou wilt be bidden to many 
feasts. 



8 



8 



O 

o o 



To the young this brings joy and feasting; 
to the aged, the peace they desire. 



O 

o o 



To a female suitors and possible wedlock. 



8^8 § 



o o 
o 



Take care lest thou make an enemy who will 
cost thee dear. 



§§ 
8 



8 
88 



Victory over an adversary. 



8 
88 



8 



Beware of scandals which are being drcu- 
lated about thee. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 315 



g 

8.8 


A 


An illness within three weeks is here f aretold. 





i' 


Sorrow and pain; the death of a near rela- 
tive. 




8 



o®o 


An unimportant dream. 


4" 







A quiet, unimportant dream. 


o°o 


808 


• 

A change in fortune; prosperity, happiness, 
pleasure. 







News and letters containing money wilt thou 
shortly receive. 


88 


f 


Unfavorable conditions will cause misfor- 
tunes for a time. 

w 


•!■ 


fi 


A funeral if dreamed on the 4th, 5th or 20th 
day of the moon. 


5 





Quarreling and strife. 


:«! 


«.8 


Thy best friend will shortly be in trouble 
and will seek thy aid. 



3i6 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



SiGir 
1 2 



o 

g 



8 



HlERCX^LYPHICAL EmBLEM 

Y 

PALLAS 



An unfortunate dream; worse on the new 
moon. 



s 



8 



Beware of crossing water after this dream. 



88 



Changes and perplexities are herein augured. 



88 



A dream of vain toil and labor. 



88 



8J 

O 

88 



Wealth and plenty; success financially and in 
love. 



8«8 

8 
o 



88 



o o 
o 

o o 
o 
o 



8 



o o 

o 

o o 

§ 



Joy, health and wealth amongst thy kindred. 



Guard thy person and thy house against 
thieves. 



o o 

o 

o o 



o o 



8 



To the sick danger of death; to the well 
care and grief. 



8 



o o 



o 

Q 

8 



o 

O O 



An evil dream, financial cares and crosses 
in love. 



An omen of sore afiSictioa 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 317 



85 

8 



A dream forecasting bad wearier. 



88 

O 



A dream of hope, but be not too sanguine 



w 

O 

o o 



On the 1st day of the moon, a journey; on 
the 3rd day a friend ; on any other day deceit 



O 

88 

O 

o o 



§§ 



A dream signifying that thy mind is unneces- 
sarily burdened with fears and troubles, but 
with care thou need not fear. 



00 



O O 



00 

8 

o 



A dream forecasting long journeys which 
will benefit the dreamer. 



8 

CO 



00 



o o 



Strange news will alarm the dreamer. 



O 
00 



o 
o 

88 



A dream of joy and marriage festivals. 



o o 

o Q 

o 



o 
00 



This dream denotes the passing of evil times 
and the beginning of a new era. 



o o 



8 



An omen of secret enemies; beware of 
treachery and deceit 



00 



Put thjT trust in none; many would injure 
thee if they could. 



o o 



o o 

8 
88 



Difficult business dealings* cogitation and ex- 
pedition. 



00 

8 
88 



o o 
o 



Success in law or finance. 



3i8 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



t'l 


•i 


Voyages, journeys, the meeting wifh absent 
friends. 


•^ 


A 


Thy dream is an omen of war, pestilence and 
famine. 


« 


Beware of enemies; trust few whom thou 
knowest 


& 





Disappointment in business, vexations in love. 

1 







Crosses to the lover, disappointments to the 
business man. 


t 

o o 


O'O 




A dream warning thee of the loss of goods 
and money. 


o o 


V 

«o8 


Money and a change in thy fortune for the 
better. 


808 





Falsehood and treachery, but in three days 
thou wilt have good news. 




8«8 

080 


Writings, study, letters and books are herein 
denoted. 


8J 

8 



808 1 


Danger of the sea is herein prophesied. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 319 



Sign 
1 2 



HiEROGLYPHICAL EmBLESC 



8 
§§ 



SAGITTARY 



8 



A dream of prosperity and fortune. 



§1 



Trouble on Saturday, money when dreamed 
on other days. 



88 



Changes, travels, journeys. 



®8 



Removals, changes. 



88 



8J 
88 



On the 5th, 8th or 12th day of the moon this 
vision denotes funerals. 



88 
88 



88 



A fortunate dream financially. 



■^ w * 



00 

O 



A dream betokening grief, sadness, anxiety. 



8 



O O 



o o 



Sickness is shadowing thee or thy household. 



8 



8 



o o 



o o 

o 
o o 



Thou wilt be in jeopardy. 



K i 



o 
o o 



o 
o o 



Losses, crosses and afflictions threaten. 



320 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



88 



8^ 
88 



i§ 






o o 



o o 



o 



U 



8 



Sadness and care are herein denoted. 



Much walking and riding on horseback. 



Evil news is. here foretold. 



One whom thou hast loved and trusted will 
become thine enemy. 



The arrival of letters and of a friend long 
absent 



O O 

o o 



A vexatious happening is herein foretold. 



O O 



o o 



Pleasure, fortune and a wedding amongst thy 
kindred. 



O O 



o 
o o 



Pleasure and felicity in thy domestic affairs. 



§ 



88 



Anger is herein foretold. 



88 

O 

o o 



88 
8 



o o 



An omen of a journey or a removal in a few 
weeks. 



Beware of bodily hurt or injury from homed 
cattle. 



O O 



8 8 1 
8 

o o 



Thou hast a secret foe in a tall saturnine 
person. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 321 








8 
8 


Good fortune, a plentiful supply of monqr. 


4 


V 


An omen of lawsuits which the dreamer had 

best avoid. 

• 


'} 


¥ 


Be not disheartened by delay; thy wishes 
will finally be attained. 


V 





Wealth through trade or merchandise. 




Y 


A portent of danger during the present moon ; 
avoid the water. 


V 





00 




Feasting, joy and mirth are herein foretold. 
















Abundance, peace and happiness. 














Thy dream forecasts trouble by law; also 
guard against theft 








88 


00 

8 
88 


Thy dream warns thee of disgrace; dreamer, 
it behooves thee to have a care. 



o o 

Q 

o 

o o 
o o 



o 

88 



A happy life and good fortune are herein 
prognosticated. 



322 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



Snar 



HiEXOGLYPHICAL ElCBUEH 

o 

JUNO 



8J 

o 



Thou art warned against sorrowful dianges, 
even imprisonment 



8 
88 



This connotes the death of some friends to 
whom thou art deeply attached. 



88 
8 

o o 



Within three months wilt thou lose one whom 
tiiou lovest 



88 
8 

O O 



This forecasts unprofitable removals. 



88 



Many of thy undertakings will prove unprofit- 
able and vexatious. 



88 



O O 



Thou art warned of ill-health, also of a de- 
ceitful friend near thee. 



O O 



8«8 

O 

o o 

o 



Sickness to thyself and idle words about thee. 



8 



I 



o o 
o 



'S 



Privation, loss, disappointment. 



88 
88 



§ 



O O 

o 



On the ^h day of the moon this dream fore- 
casts theft and cheating. 



I 



O 



88 

O 

88 



Beware of some curious accident which will 
befall thee. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 



323 



00 

§§ 



§§ 



To a female an offer of marriage; to a male 
angry words. 



O 

§§ 



Trouble and harassment in thy family. 



§i 

O 

o o 



8 
8 



This denotes the friendship of aged persons. 



8 



18 

o o 



g 

§§ 



g 

§§ 



Many are envious and oppose thee, but they 
cannot harm. 



Sorrow and misfortune are herein denoted. 



Poverty and misfortune are here forecast. 






Deceit and slander surround thee. 



S8 



00 

5 o 
o 



An unstable dream, caused by bad blood. 



0.0 



O O 



O-O 



o.o 



o o 



00 

s 

o o 



8 

o o 



A happy old age and an end to thy afflictions 
is here forecast. 



Prosperity governs this dream. 



Increase, gain and wealth are hereby fore- 
cast. 



Ominous of trouble through beautiful women. 



324 


THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 


§§ 

V 


CO 


Beware of false friends who betray and 
slander thee. 

« 


A 


§§ 

Y 


Avoid the water after this vision. 


•:' 


o o 


Evil if dreamed on Friday, denoting de- 
ferred hopes. 


e o 


Y 


To a female this denotes love-letters ; it warns 
a male against lewd women. 


V 




o o 


Pleasure comcth after pain. 


8> 

o o 


V 1 

V 


The death of a neighbor is hereby forecasts 




V 

88 


Ill-health and much sickness are herein de- 
noted 


V 

88 


♦ 1 


Thou art warned of sickness near thee. 


88 


V 

© o 

o 


Mourning and angry words from those with 
whom the dreamer comes in contact 


Y 


88 


A warning against deceptive and vain hopes. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 325 

HiEROGLYPHICAL EmBLEM 

o 

s 



Sl»K 

1 2 



o 

V 



CAPRICORNUS 



The interpretation of this dream is con- 
nected with the churdi or some religious 
friend whom thou shalt meet 






Barter, exchange, the counting of money. 



8 
88 



Thou shalt soon make great and noble ac- 
quaintances. 



00 

8 
88 



Letters and news from those long absent 



88 



O 

88 



Slanders and lying reports are being circu- 
lated concemmg thee. 



O 

88 



88 



Troubles, annoyances, an unsettled time. 



88 



Health, wealth, and happiness. 



88 



The dreamer will soon receive glad tidings. 



«.8 
88 



00 



§ 



Thou art warned that thy pleasures will cost 
thee dear. 



I 



88 

O 

88 



Weddings and festive gatherings. 



3i6 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



i§ 



o% 



i 



O O 

o 

§§ 



Strife and anger; be cautions. 



Thy dream denotes sudden frights. 



y 



o 



Guard thy dwelling against thieves. 



I'i M 



O 

o o 



Thy dream foretells good news. 



O 

o o 



After this drean^ sorrow and humiliation, if 
not disgrace will be thy portion. 



O 

o o 



Great distress of mind. 



O 

88 



G>mfort and solace after thy troubles wilt 
thou find. 



O 

o o 



This dream augurs the death of an enemy. 



O O 



o o 

8 



Thy dream borders on anger and is there- 
fore vain. 



8, 

o 



o o 



Three things are herein predicted, a strange 
guest, a letter and the departure of an 
enemy. 



O O 



o o 



o o 



§ 



o o 



A dream of poverty and misfortune. 



Glad tidings are at hand. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 327 



I'l 


¥1 


On Friday this dream brings news; on Sun- 
day money; Monday traveling; Tuesday 
quarreling; other days, strife. 


¥ 


i'l 


• 

On the I2th day of the moon this dream 
augurs a legacy; on Ihursday or Sunday, 
money. 


* 





Advancement after toiL 




* 


The coming of a f riiaid. 




li 


Deceit and vain words. 







A dream of illness, guard thy health. 







Trials are at hand, but later thy fortune will 
mend. 


V 


'I' 




Bad news, especially if dreamed on Monday. 



I' 



O 



Great labor and small profit are here foretold. 



3^8 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



HlEBOGLYPHICAI. EmBLBK 

y 



8 



y 



o o 

o 

88 



A f orttmatc dream. 



Honor and healdL 



A vain and nsdcss dream. 



O O 

o 

88 



A change in the dreamer's fortune for the 
better. 



,h 



Rejoicings, feasting and pleasure. 



O 

o o 



s 



88 



On a Monday thy dream foretells a mar- 
riage among thy friends, on other days 
gladness. 



88 



News and letters from friends. 



88 
88 



o 

11 



8 



II 



o o 
o 

§§ 



Thrice wilt thou travel within the year. 



Beware of false friends who would do thee 
harm. 



Within a month wilt thou lose a friend by 
death. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 329 



IS 

O 

o o 



8^*8 

O 



A spiteful enemy would injure thee. 



o o 

88 

O 



§ 



o 
o o 



Some inonths of sorrow are before thee. 



O O 

_o_ 



o o 



Losses unless thou lookest well to thy purse. 



O 

o o 

o 

o o 



Little import attaches to this dream. 



OOOO 

pooo 


g 

V 


The grief and restlessness that has burdened 
thee will now disappear. 


* 





The vanishing of fear is here denoted. 


if 


^l 




Danger of falls and bruises. 


A 





The death of a relative will grieve thee within 
the year. 


Y 




«o8 1 


Funerals and burial of the dead. 


s 


Y 




Grief through the death of a friend abroad 
in a foreign land. 


4 


•k 


A dream of many interpretationSi among them 
the augury of loss by thieves. 


t 


i 


On the even days of the moon (the 2nd, 4th, 
6th, etc.) this dream foretells removing; 
on other days sorrows. 



330 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



Death of a spiteful enemy; nerertheless tiioa 
wilt have troubles after this dream. 



O O 



o 
o o 



Weeping, tears and sorrow. 



S 



o 

88 
8 



On Thursday this dream betokens a year of 
happiness, on other days fortune. 



88 



8 
§§ 



A combination of good and cyU is this vision. 



8 
88 



88 



Heavy respon8it»lities and enmities. 



o r 
88 

O 

o o 



^8 
88 



***** 
8 

o e 



O O 



On Saturday thy dream is good, on any other 
day it betokens sorrow and trouble. 



A large sum of money is on its way to thee. 



88 
8 



O O 

8 

o o 



Good fortune awaits the dreamer, peace and 
plenty. 



HiEROGLYPHICAL EmBLEM 



Snsw 
1 2 



o 

AQUARIUS 



Thy dream warns thee of disappointment 



llfrERPRETATION OF DREAMS 



331 



8 



O O 



Beware of going on or in the water after this 
dream. 



o 
o o 



Take care of thy purse; financial losses. 



O 

o o 



Beware of those who would malign thee. 



88 
I 



o o 



Some of thy kindred or near neighbors are 
thine enemies. 



88 

O 

o o 



88 



On the 3rd and 9th days of the moon, an 
unfortunate dream» denoting treason and 
false counselors. 



88 



00 

O 



Thou art warned against false friends who 
would injure thee. 



o o 

8 
88 



88 



Hurry and confusion, probably voyages. 



8J 
88 







88 
88 



00 



i§ 



O O 



o o 



o o 



00 



o o 



An unsettled time^ anxiety and trouble. 



An unfortunate dream forecasting grief. 



On Thursday a funeral is augured; on other 
days news of the severe affliction of a 
friend. 



Good fortune attends this dream. 



Thou shalt have friendship despite women 
who seek to injure thee. 



33^ 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



I 



S§ 



Thou art warned of 
and dear to tfw g. 



88 



This deaotes the fear of 
healtfL 



sidoMss and 91- 



88 



Thoa wift suffer Jmanrial lost. 



8«8 



Thou wilt shortly meet one who will hecome 
a true friend. 



8.« 



Thou wih jonmejr and change fhgr abode. 



O O 



I 



i- 



Letters and news of absent friends. 



•J 



! 



o o 



A powerful enemy thou hast who will seek 
to ruin thee. 



O O 



o o 



i 



A sad dream foretelling sickness and trouble. 



O O 



8 



i 

O O 



Annoyances will precede the rescue from thy 
troubles. 



O O 



8 



O 

o o 



8 

o o 

o 
o o 



o o 



Thou wilt soon receive a sum of mon^. 



Although a pleasant dream, It is unfortunate 
in meaning. 



V 



O 

Y 

o o 



Several translations fit this dream: a loss by 
theft, a gift and a funeral. 



§ 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 333 



II 

8 



Unfortunate for purse, person and property. 



1^1 



«.!• 



On Monday and Wednesday, trouble; other- 
wise, news. 



8 

I C 

o 



I'i 



News of absent f ri^ds. 



8 
88 

o 



88 



A warning that thou art in peril 



8 



8 



8 



V 



88 



88 
8_ 



8J 
8 



Danger of four-footed beasts. 



The scattering of thy goods. 



PoTerty in youth; riches in old age. 



HlBBOGLYFHlCAL EmBUBH! 



VES^A 



00 



I 

o 



00 
o 

o o 



A fortunate dream for friends and money. 



Profit through the death of some one in a 
foreign land; wealth in latter life. 



334 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



V 



Thy vision is tmin^wrtant 



o% 



Trayeling and changes. 



SS 



8 

o o 



Thou wilt shortly receive an inheritance. 



8 



o o 

o 



V 



A run of good fortune lies ahead. 



88 



y 

O O 



Feasting and jay: a wedding. 



O 

o o 

s 

o o 



88 



Wine, mirth, feasting; 
thy Idn. 



a marri^ige amongst 



88 
88 



O.O 



&vil news concerning friends. 



O O 



§ 



o o 



8c8 
88 



Letters and papers; also a secret foe. 



O O 

o 



o o 



Danger of accidents near thy dwelling. 



§§ 



O O 



o o 

o 

§§ 



Watch thy servants lest they ^^frand thee. 



% 



TroaUe, harassments, cares. 



O O 

o 

8 



Unexpected riches from divers sources. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 335 



8 



Q O 



This dream forewarns the dreamer of many 
malicious and treacherous foes. 



g 

O O 

o o 



Good by means of apparent evil and mis- 
fortune. 



80 



8 

o o 

s 



Trouble amongst thy friends is here de- 
noted; some are imprisoned, others will 
die. 



■ 



a 



Anger and contention are here forecast. 



O O 



I 



o o 

o 



Marriage for a single male; to a married 
man, widowhood; to a female, courtship, 
love, friendship. 



The dreamer is warned against poisonous 
liquids. 



O O 

o 

2B 



Crosses and griefs are here ominous. 



88 



A dream due to physical ailments. 



8S 



o_o 



Advancement, pride and ambition. 



o_« 



88 



Good will come through ecclesiastical friends. 



§§ 



8 



^8 



A dream connoting unfulfilled desires. 



O O 

o 



§§ 

8 



Trouble, care, bereavement^ even death are 
here foretold. 



336 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



88 




o o 


Ere long thou wilt be delivered from the 
peril into which thou art prone to falL 


o 

8.8 

o o 


fi 


A joyous dream denoting deliverance from all 
thy afflictions. 


d 


'? 


Many unfaithful friends to whom thou hast 
been faithful. 


'? 


6 


Danger to the dreamer from the falling of 
weights. 


V 

o o 


M 


Man^ enemies against whom thou shalt pre- 
vail. 


V 

88 


:«! 


A long life bat heavy sorrows. 



Sl6K 
1 2 



HiEROGLYPHICAL ElCBLBIC 

O 

o o 

o 

88 



PISCES 



o o 

88 



Dtsappointment at home and i& thy business. 



8 

O 



8 88 



Many changes; traveling. 



8 



o 
o o 

8 



A friend will soon visit thee. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 



337 



o o 



88 i'% 
8 



¥ I 



o o 



8^ § § 



V 



§§ 88 



88 
88 



8 
8 



88 
88 



O 

o o 

% 

o o 



o 
o o 



8 



o o 



§1 



o o 



The handling of large sums of gold and 
silver. 



Scenes of grief and sorrow, also financial 
worries. 



Beware of frauds and cheats. 



Loss through theft or fraud. 



Strange^ unexl>ected news. 



Social pleasures; new faces. 



A vain unprofitable vision. 



Danger of accidents and falls. 



Travel not for a month after this dream. 
Danger. 






o 






88 



To a female, love and courtship: to a male, 
rivals. 



On the nth day of the moon, vexations; on 
other days, removals. 



Vexatious letters or news. 



338 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



8i 



o 

O Q 



Death will visit thy family. 



O O 



o o 



% 



a 



8 



o o 
o 



o o 



o o 



o o 
o 
o 
o 



8 



Festivities and social pleasures. 



A wedding amongst thy kindred. 



Changes that will cause thy business to 
flourish. 



O O 



o 
o 



A large sum of money will shortly be thine. 



O 

8 

o 



o o 

o 
o o 



o o 

o 

o o 

o o 



§ 



o o 



o 
o 
o 



o o 

o 
o o 

o 
o o 



Strife, quarreling, fear of bloodshed 



Deceit and vanity. 



A death among thy kindred within a twelve- 
month. 



O O 

o 
o o 

o 
o o 



o o 



o a 
o 

8 

a 



8 

o o 

8 



o 
o 



o o 



8 



8 

o o 

88 



o o 
o 
o 

88 



Danger of fire is herein forecast 



Letters and news. 



Thy vexations are nearly o'er. 



Strangers are about to visit the dreamer. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 



339 



V 


h 


Riding on horseback or traveling. 




o o 

•I. 


False friends will seek^to injure thee. 


Y 


«!« 


Jay, lore, prosperity are here indicated. 


o o 




On the 3rd or 7th days of the moon this 
dream augurs sickness; on other days, 
grievances. 




o o 


VI 

o o 


Vexation, grief and trouble. 



Sign 
1 2 



O Q 

o 5 

o 
o o 



HiEROGLYPHICAL EmBLEK 

O 

o o 

o 

DIANA 



The advent of good fortune is predicted. 



i§ 
88 



88 

^O 
00 

o 



Fortunate signs connoting business activity. 



8 



00 

o^'o 



The revelation of secrets is here prophesied. 



8 



O O 



8 



Danger from water is threatened. 



340 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



8 






Approaching prosperity is here heralded. 



88 



o% 



Money and this world's goods shalt thou 
have. 



8 



8 

O 



Divers strange events are here denoted. 



8 

O O 

o o 



s 

88 



Sorrow, care and loss. 



o a 



A false friend will cause thee trouble. 



88 



88 
88 



Sickness and ill-health to thyself and family. 



o 
o o 
o o 



o o 

8 



Treacherous enemies are endeavoring to harm 
thee. 



8 



O O 

o 



§§ 



Beware how thou affixest thy signature. 



O O 

o o 

o o 

o o 



o 
o o 

o 
o o 

o 



Pleasure and profit are herein denoted. 



o 
o o 



Thou shalt soon receive glad tidings. 



88 



On the moon's increase this dream foretells 
disaster; on the wane, funerals. 



88 



§§ 



Evil news is here predicted. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 341 



o o 



o o 



o o 



s 



Long life and riches are herein forecast. 



o o 

g 



00 



I 



o o 



o 
o o 

s 



o 

O 

o o 



A happy dream. 



To the single this dream augurs marriage; 
to the wedded an increase of family. 



O O 

o o 

Q 
O O 



00 



8 



00 



8 
§§ 



A dream of tears. 



Anger and quarreling. 



I O O 



o o 
o o 



o 



8 
8 



8 



A doubtful dream. Have a care. 



Thy dream arises from physical disorder. 



8 

I I 

8 



O O 



A vision of clouds and shadows. 



0.0 O O 
_o_ 



Amity, joy, love. 



o 

o o 

o 



Thou wilt acquire money. 



8 



8 

O 



8J 
% 

o o 



Affliction and misfortune are here denoted. 



O O 



8 



Fortunate on the ist, 5th and nth days of 
the moon; on other days, evil. 



342 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



o 


o o 


Evil times follow this dream. 


o 

Y 

o o 




o 


Temptations to the frail sex; to males, 

pleasure. 


o o 




o o 

88 


Thou art warned that a deceitful friend is 
near thee. 


****** 
8 

88 


«o« 


Anger concerning papers and books is here 
denoted. 



SiGK 
1 2 



o o 
o 

O Q 

o_5 



o o o o 

o o o 

88 88 

o o o 



o 
o 
o 

8 



o 
o o 

s 

o o 



8 

o o 



8 



8 



o o 



o o 



HiEROGLYPHICAL EmBLEM 

o o 

88 



MEDUSA 



This warns the dreamer against a fair-haired 
comely person^ 



Injury and misfortune to the rich; to the 
poor, comfort and help. 



Shame or reproach; look to thyself. 



Sickness threatens thee. 



Care to the rich; wealth to the poor. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 343 



o o 



88 



§ 



o o 

o 

o o 

o 

O JO 

o 



o 
o o 

o 
o o 

o 



%% 



o 
o o 
o S 



o o 

% 

o o 
o 



8 



8J 



o o 
o 
o o 
o o 
o o 



o _ 

o o 



o o 



u 



o o 

ss 

o 
o o 



o o 
o_o. 



s 



o o 
o_ 

o o 
o 
o 



II 



o 
o o 
o o 
o o 
o a 



88 

a 



8 



8 



o 

8 



Amorous friendships are here betokened. 



Loss and treachery through servants. 



A warning to beware of thieves. 



On a Thursday this dream is an omen of 
many happy years to come; on other days, 
a good dream. 



Strange news is on its way to thee. 



Accidents through weapons or four-footed 
beasts. 



Danger threatens the dreamer. 



Sorrow and tears will soon come to thee. 



A promotion is herein augured. 



Trouble that will end in the receipt of money. 



Losses and damage to property are here signl 
fied. 



o o 
o o 



8 

o 



Within three months after this dream thou 
wilt meet with some mishap. 



344 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



9 I 



§ 



Very evil if dreamed on llie 7th day of the 
moon; it also denotes the paying away of 
large sums of money. 



O 



o o 



Thou wilt attend hoth a wedding and a funeral 
widiin a twelvemonth. 



O 
O 

o 



o o 



Let the dreamer beware of private enemies. 



O 

o o 



o 
o o 

o 

88 



o 
o o 

o 
o o 
o o 



8 



o o 

o 



8 



o 8 
8 

O O 



o o 



o o 



o o 

8 



Deceitful pleasures are here foretold. 



Travel and labor both in vain are hereby 
signed. 



Many annoyances from enemies, but eventual 
victory is here forecast 



On Tuesday this dream denotes money; on 
Wednesday or Friday, gifts; Monckiy, a 
friend; Thursday, a ring; Saturday, a foe; 
Sunday, a journey. 



o o 

o o 

o 



o o 

o 
o o 

o 
o o 



Thy dream predicts money. 



o o 

o 
o o 

o 
o o 



8 



o 
o 



o 
o o 
o o 

o 

o 



g 

o o 

o 

o o 



8 



o 
p o 



o 
o o 
o o 

o 



Good and lasting fortune. 



Guard thy purse. 



Sore affliction. 



o 
o o 



o o 

8 
88 



No good can come of this dream. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 



345 



V 

88 




Hindrances in thy affairs. 


o o 


s 
Y 


Grief, heaviness, sorrow. 


4 




o o 


Sodden anger is here foretold. 



Sigh 
1 2 



HiBROGLYPHICAL EmbLEM 

O 

o o 

PHOEBUS 



8°8 



Sadness, care, grief are herein signified. 



8 



O O 

o o 



o o 



Dangers threaten thee from watery element 



O O 



8 



V 



Loss through theft or a secret foe. 



O O 

o 

o 

o o 



%3 



o o 



o 
o o 

o 
o o 



8.8 

I 



Thou wilt receive joyful news. 



Marriage to virgins and widows; to others, 
riches. 



Health and vigor to the sick; to others, an 
insignificant dream. 



346 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



o o 



o o 



I 



o o 



Business activity, profit 



o 

o 

o 

o o 



§ 

Si 



Deliverance from thy troubles is forecast 



o o 

o 

o o 

o o 



o 
o o 



s 



o o 



To a single person, marriage if dreamt on 
Wednesday; Sunday, profit; other days, 
good friends. 



O 

o o 

o 

o 
o o 



8g 



A reward will come t9 thee. 



O O 

o 
o 
o 
o o 



s 



s 



o o 

o 
o o 



To the rich, secret envy; to the poor, assist- 
ance. 



O 
O 

o o 
o 



O Q 

O 
O 



Grief and danger will beset the dreamer. 



O Q 
O Q 
O O 



On the 13th day of the moon, death ; on other 
days, sickness. 



O 
Q O 

a Q 
o o 



g 



o 
o 
o o 



Thy undertakings will prosper after this 
dream. 



Q O 
O Q 
Q O 

O 

O 



Thou wilt discover some hidden secrets. 



O Q 

O Q 
O 



§§ 

8 



Thy adversaries and foes will meet with ruin 
after this dream. 



O O 



8 



o 



Riches and honor will follow this dream. 



8 






o 
00 



Thou wilt be bidden to feasts and merry- 
making after this dream. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 



347 



s 

o 



o.o 



Death is about to deprive thee of an enemy. 



O.O 



The dreamer will be bidden to a wedding. 



O O 

8 

Q 



Thou art warned of spiteful enemies. 



o o 
o 
o 

88 



o o 



A funeral amongst thy relatives is approach- 
ing. 



8 



O O 

a o 
o o 



00 

o 
o o 

o 
o o 



Thou wilt make new friends, but thou art 
warned not to trust them. 



O O 

o 
o o 

o 
o o 



8 
88 

o o 



Thou wilt shortly receive money. 



o 
o o 

8 



8 
88 



Attainment of wishes is here denoted. 



8 



o o 



o o 
o 

V 



o o 

****** 
8 



8 
8 



Deliverance from loss or hurt, which here-' 
tofore overhung the dreamer. 



Sadness, or sad news is here prognosticated. 



O S 



80 
o 



An obstruction in thy business is herein de- 
noted. 



O 

o o 

o o 
o o 



8«8 

o 

o 

o o 



This dream on a Sunday foretells love; Mon- 
day, sickness; Wednesday, a gift; Friday, 
friendship; other days, losses. 



o o 



Q 

o 

88 



Be careful of writing letters; trouble thereby 
is signified. 



348 



THE FABMC OF DREAMS 



o o 
o 

O Q 

o 5 



s 



o o 



% 



Enemies are tryiQg to bar thy path. Beware. 



8 

O O 

8 



o o 

o 

88 



A tallt fair man shall prove an adversaiy. 



HiEROGLYPHICAL ElfBLEU 



1 2 



8 

o o 

HECATE 



8 



Pleasure, wealth and enterprise are here de- 
noted. 



O 

o 
o 
o 
o 



o 
o o 

8 

o o 



o o 



o o 
o 

88 

o 



88 



o 



IJ 

§1 



O Q O 8 

8.^ 8 



a 



o o 

o 
o o 

o 
o o 



Right merry a»d mirthful is thy dream. 



Many bitter and malicious enemies. 



A rich friend and helper wilt thou have. 



Delay, obstacles and inactivity. 



Mon^ wilt thou receive. 



Success and profit 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 349 



o o 

o 

o o 



S8 



8 

I 

o 
o 



®8 



o 

S8 

O 

o o 



Q Q 
O O 

o 
o o 



88 
88 



O O 

8 o 



o o 



o o 



81 



o«L 



•^ 



8 



00 

4«> 



§§ 



O 
00 






o 
o 
o 



81 o 
o 

8 

o o 



88 

o 

o 

o o 



s 



o 

o 

o 

o o 



8_ 

§§ 



Evil news is on the way to thee. 



Sknder U about thee; be on thy guard. 



Unlucky on all days but the 3rd day of the 
moon. 



On Tuesday this dream shows an enemy; 
Monday, a false friend; other days it is 
unimportant 



Pleasure and social gatherings. 



Merrymakings that will end in sorrow are 



Lerrvmak 
at hand. 



Weddings to which the dreamer will be in- 
vited. 



Ere long thou wilt lose a respected friend 
throu^ death. 



A joyous dream. 



Feasting and mirth are here indicated. 



Success in thy pursuits. 



Thou wilt remove thy residence. 



350 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



88 



o o 



I 



Hasty and extraordinary news is at hand. 



O (0 

o 



V 



Profit and enterprise 



o o 

o 

o o 



8 



i 



o o 



V 

8 



8 



Thou wilt make a new and profitable friend. 



A fortunate dream. 



8 

O O 

o 8 
o 



o o 



8 



o o 



Sickness is at hand, say the portents. 



On Friday, disaster; on other days, tears. 





V 


To a man this dream is a warning to beware 
of pleasure; to a female is warned that 
one is near who seeks her disgrace. 


8°8 


J^ 


Delay in thy wishes and their fulfillment 




«? 


Letters and news are herein prognosticated 


88 


o ooo 
ooo 


A spiteful and malicious person envies the 
dreamer. 


000^0 


000 


88 


Death and funerals among thy relatives. 


Y 

88 


4- 

CO 


Ere long thou wilt take a journey. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 351 



S 



00 

o 
o o 



00 

2 



The dreamer is warned to act discreetly 
he is watched. 



Sign 
1 2 



HiEROGLYPHICAL EmBLEIC 

o o 

8 



APOUjO 



o o 



8 



00 

o 



An augury of future honor and dignity. 



8 



The dreamer will receive a gift of money. 



S8 



Troubles are upon the dreamer. 



88 

O O 



Happiness and wealth. 



O Q 
O S 

o 



8 



00 



Health, wealth and friends. 



O O 



8.8 
I 



Enterprise and profit are herewith predicted. 



I 

88 






Evil is near at hand. 



n 



88 



A dream that heralds sorrow. 



352 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



S8 



8S 



Malice and strife of enemies. 



8g 



o 



Treachery from which thou shalt escape. 



;•" 



8S 



Trouble b at hand. 



«.8 



§§ 



On a Sunday thy dream Is evil; Monday it 
brings news; Tuesday, treachery; Wednes- 
day, letters; other days, anger. 



Years of wealth and happiness are presaged 
here. 



§1 



Quarrels, rivals in love. 



§§ 



One of thy family will soon die. 



§§ 



I 



Great adversaries and many of thenu 



Wealth and property are herein predicted. 



Quarrels over money. 






Promotion in thy business or everyday life. 



o 9 

8 



o o 



Evil news is at hand although no harm will 
come of it. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 



353 



♦ 


^: 


This dream is am omen of a funeraL 


o o 


t 


Sickness is hereby foretold. 


o o 


« 


If dreamt on the 3^4 Sth, 7th or loth days, 
death within a twelvemondi. 


o 





A dream arising from anxiety and not pro- 
phetic 


8*1 

o S 


$ 


Evil is here prophesied to the dreamer. 


o 


it 


Beware of secret enemies. 


080 


88 


On Sunday this dream predicts a present; on 
Thursday a loss through a bad debt; in- 
significant otherwise. 




«!« 


A prognostication of many troubles. 


Y 





A good dream, promising money. 







Y 


Profitless pleasures are here denoted. 


t 


•^ 


Thou wilt soon meet with kind friends. 

• 


•^ 


080 


Pleasures, new scenes, happiness. 



354 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



Sum 

I 2 



HiEKOGLYPHICAL EmbLEM 

8 

o o 

F08TUNA 



8 

o o 



8 

o o 



8 
88 



8 
88 



88 



SS 



Ominous; a funeral among thy relatives 
within the year. 



Secret cares and grief. 



Misfortunes for a season. 



On Saturday, accident; on odier days, trouble. 



The approach of a beneficial, prosperous in- 
fluence. 



After expenditures, money will come. 



,i, 


o o 


Thou art warned against misplaced trust 


■k 


8S 


To a male this dream augurs trouble through 
one of the opposite sex. 


H 


000 
000^0 


Strange news approaches the dreamer. 




INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 355 



0.0 



s 



Beware of a false friend. 



i 



§§ 



8 



00 
o o 



A warning not to lend money, lest thou be 
cheated. 



The approach of something joyful and good. 



O 

s 

o o 



Pleasure and mirth. 



Sg 



00 



§ 



i§ 



This dream informs thee of the illness of an 
absent friend. 



Guard thy speech; speak against no one. 



v 



Anger will cause thee trouble. 



S 



O O 



s 



A change of residence is here forecast 



8 
II 



To the sick, peril ; to the well, disappointment 



8 

O Q 
O O 



Beware of secret foes. 



8 
8 







Thou art warned of an unpleasant occurrence 
about thy person or in thy dwelling. 



00 

O 

o o 

o o 

o 






% 



Watch for a concealed enemy near at hand. 



356 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



'} 


t 


On Sunday, good news; Monday, a quarrel; 
other days, money. 

* 


s 


«? 


Great prosperity is here foretold. 


Y 


Y 


Theu wilt see some one who is trying to help 
thee. 


Y 


Y 


A marriage is here forecast 




Yl 

88 


Thou shalt attain thy wishes. 


Y 
sg 


•o" 1 
o o 


Money and friends are foretold thee. 


gg 


0I 

o o 


Delays followed by a month of prosperity. 


A 


88 


Danger from injury by animals. 


V 


8p8 


Thy wishes will be delayed in fulfillment 


K' 

o o 

o 


II 

Y 


An unfortunate dream in divers ways. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 357 



SnsK 
1 2 



HiEROGLYPHICAL EmBLEM 

o o 

8 
88 



NEPTUNE 



8 
88 



On the 2nd day of the moon this dream 
connotes gold and silver; on other days, 
traveling and news. 



8 
8 



o o 

8 
88 



Increase in thy business. 



8J 
8 



Rather an unfortunate dream. 



8 



8 



Unhappiness is augured after this vision. 



88 
8 



Y 



Thy dream promises promotion and pros- 
perity. 



o o 

8 






Wealth and power shalt thou achieve. 



88 



Prosperity to a man; to a woman, marriage. 



00 5 

88 88 



Thou wilt overcome thine enemies. 



88 
88 



00 

O 

n 



Annoyances and insults from enemies. 



88 



88 
88 



Avoid litigation, warns thy dream self. 



358 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



o o 



o.o 



o o 



See to thj healthy illness is foretold. 



V 



§§ 



Trouble; a death in thy family within the 

year. 



Si 

8 5 
o 



o o 



8 



o o 
o 



Evil tidings are here forecast. 



g 



Success and comfort for the remainder of thy 
life. 



8 



o o 



To the sick this dream denotes speedy re- 
covery. 



§§ 



Thou art warned not to undertake important 
business on the day succeeding this dream. 



8 



8 



To a male this dream denotes a happy union 
with his beloved. 



O 

o o 



o 
o o 



8 



Feasting; an especially pleasant invitation. 



O 

8 

O 

o o 



o 

88 



Many troubles and cares will follow this 
dream. 



88 

O 
Q Q 



O O 



Enemies will harm thee; be on thy guard. 



O O 

Q 

Q 



8 



o S 
o 



On Wednesday, Thursday or Friday, the ac- 
quisition of riches ; on other days, friends. 



O O 
O Q 

o o 
o 
o 



o o 
o 

Q 
O 
O 



A fortunate, prosperous dream. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 359 



8 

O O 
O O 
O O 



o 

o o 
o 

88 



o o 

o 

o o 

o o 



8 



8 



O O 

o o 
o 



o 
o o 



Prosperous enterprises. 



Glad tidings are at hand. 



Improvement in financial conditions and peace 
of mind. 



o°o 



8 


6 


Pain, and sorrow, and toil. 




Q 


K 


Enemies are working for thy nndoing; have 
a care. 








Money is here foretold. 




§ 



4" 




A vbit from absent ones from afar. 


0% 





Trouble among thy kindred. 


*»o*» 

88 




88 




A marriage is near. 












One whom thou hast thought a friend will 
become an enemy. 



36o 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



HiEROGLYPHICAL EmBLEM 



Sign 
1 2 



o 
o o 

o 
o o 

ORION 



o 

o 

o o 

o 




o o 

O Q 

O O 

O Q 

O O 



s 

o o 
o o 



s 



88 

o 

o o 
o 



o o 
o o 

o 
o o 

o 



g 



o o 
o o 

g 



g^ 

o o 
o 



o 
o 
o 



o o 
o o 
o 



g 



o 
o o 



o o 

o o 

o 

88 



o o 

a o 

o 

o o 

o o 



8^ 



O Q 

o o 



8 



g 

o 
o o 



o 
o 
o 



88 



Fortune will vex thee for awhile. 



An unfortunate dream. 



Much will happen contrary to thy desire. 



A friend will deliver thee from some heavy 
trouble. 



Benefits from a great personage. 



Hurt from four-footed beasts, or a fall is here 
foretold. / 



See to thy health; sickness threatens. 



On Sunday, Tuesday or Thursday, honor and 
friends ; on other days, friends. 



Persecution from contemptible persons. 



Loss of credit and of friends. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 



361 



o o 

o 
o o 



s 



p 

o o 



A sorrowful dream. 



O 
Q O 
O O 

O 
O O 



§§ 



Thou art warned against excess. 



o o 
o o 
o o 
o o 
o 



o 
o o 



8 



Good fortune and prosperity are foretold. 



S 



o o 
o 



Anger and strife are predicted. 



O Q 
O O 



O O 

O 
O O 

o 
o o 



A fortunate dream connoting wealth and 
health. 



o 
o o 

o 
o o 



Wealth in due season. 



O 

o o 

o o 

o o 

o 

00 

o 

00 



o o 

o 

o o 

s 



s 



§§ 



Q a 
o 
o 
o_ 

Q O 
Q 

o o 
o 

CI o 

o o 

o 
o o 
o 
o 
o 



o 

o o 
o 

So 
o 



o o 

o 

o 

o 
o o 



o o 



8 



o o 
o 



o o 

o 

o_ 
o o 



o 

o o 
o 

o 



A change for the worse in thy fortunes. 



A legacy will he thine shortly. 



A dream of illusions, broken promises. 



Guard thy speech and action; treacherous 
friends surround thee. 



Travel in strange lands. 



Money through wit and wisdom. 



362 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



00 


o*»o 


Saturday this dream brings a rich gift; Son- 
day, a journey; Wednesday, labor in vain; 
other days, profit 





00 


On the increase of the moon, weddings, fes- 
tivals. 


"8^ 


* 


News and various gossip and reports. 


d 


V 


Avoid quarrels if thou wouldst escape sorrow. 


8j 


¥ 


A sharp tongue wiU slander or vex thee. 







'? 


Strife and discord. 




Y 






8 
88 


Thou art warned of misfortune and loss of 
money. 




88 





Although many of thy sorrows are o'er have 
a care. 



Sign 



HiEROGLYPHICAL EmBLEIC 

8 

o o 

8 



FINIS 



8 



Beware a quarrelsome person who is near 
thee. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 



363 



occcc 
cccco 


s 1 



8 


• 
Eschew strife, angry words and contention. 




808 

88 


If thy dream pertains to business it denotes 
enterprise and activity. 


ooooo 

00 00 

CO CO 


Changes and removals. 


n 


Q 





88 


Thou wilt finally succeed. 

1 


a 


Q 

n 



8J 

8 




A dream of financial success. 





s 




00 
8 


Thou art in danger of being wronged by 
friends and neighbors. 


V 







V 


Business enterprise. 

















Take heed lest flatterers mislead thee. 






8 




§1 


Labor, strife and sorrow are here forecast. 


COO 

ceo 


] 


88 




The dream shows an uneasy mind. 










A powerful friend shall cross thy path. 

\ 


0000 
0000 


8 
V 




Marriage, but be not hasty. 



364 



THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 



8 



O O 

O 



A vain person is jealous of thee. 



O 

o o 
o 



o o 

o 

o o 



8 



Riches in old age. 



00 
O 
O 



Thou hast enemies but they can do no harm. 



8 



O 
00 



Beware of back-biters and false friends. 



o 
00 

o 
o o 



if 



Thou shalt triumph over subtile enemies. 



o 

o 

o 

o o 



o 

o o 

o 

O Q 



o 
o o 

s 






8 

a 



o o 
o o 

o 
o o 

o 



o 

o o 

o 



o.o 



o o 



g 

88 



8 

o 



88 
8 

o o 



Beware of water after this dream. 



A funeral approaches the dreamer. 



Changes and trouble are here manifest. 



One whom thou hast befriended will vex and 
annoy thee. 



Many secret enemies. 






8 

00 


•f-i 



o o 



Victory over enemies if dreamed on Tuesday, 
otherwise, ill. 



Many and varied misfortunes assail the 
dreamer. 



INTERPRETATION OF DREAMS 



365 






8c8 

®«** 




Perils, though they are passing. 







S8 


Fortune and success. 


gg 


®o® 


An offer of matrimony to the single. 


88 
V 


i'll 


To a female^ disappointed love. 


8^8 




VI 


Although thy dream was tempestuous it hodes 
no harm. 


V 

K^ 







Do not place too much faith in friends. 


o**o 



808 


On Tuesday or Saturday, quarrels; Friday, 
courtship; other days, unimportants. 



CHAPTER XIII 



A BUDGET OF IMtEAMS AND THEIR INTERPRETATION 

^dl me for a time your Dreams and I wiU tell you what mann^ 
of man you are." — Pfaff. 

The Parsees interpret dreams not through the symbolism 
of the vision itself, but according to the time, 'i.e., the day of 
the month of its occurrence. 



THE SIFAT-I-SIROZAH 

1. The first day of the month is that of the good Ormazd, 
and the dreaming is attended with good. The dream, however, 
should not be revealed to any person till its result be known. 
The signification of a dream will be manifest and not occult 

2. The second day is that of Bahman, the angel presiding 
over the increase of mankind, and who protects horses and 
goats. Events dreamed of will occur in four days; but the 
hopes which may be cherished will be disappointed. 

3. The third day is that of Ardebehist, the guardian angel 
of fire. The dreams will not be realized. 

4. The day of Sharivar, presiding over hills, mountains, 
mines, gold and silver. A good day whose visions will be 
speedily realized. 

5. The day of Sipandarmad, protector of animated beings, 
these dreams will have speedy realization. 

6. The day of Khurdad, the presiding angel over water 
and vegetation. Before the close of the month this vision will 
be realized. 

7. The day of Amshaspand Amardad, an anchangel, who 

366 



A BUDGET OF DREAMS 367 

presides over trees and grass. The verification of these 
dreams will be known within twenty days. 

8. The day of Depadar Izad. A lucky day, the verifica- 
tion of this dream will follow within ten days. 

9. Adar, the angel, presiding over fire, governs this day. 
The dreams will be verified within a fortnight. 

ID. This day is denominated from Awan Izad, who pre- 
sides over water. The visions will be realized within ten 
days. 

• II. Khurshid, the angel who presides over the sun, gov- 
erns this day, but to mere mortal the dream is unfortunate. 

12. This day is sacred to the angel Maha, guardian of cat- 
tle. The visions of these dreams will be immediately realized. 

13. Tir, who presides over clouds and rain, rules this day. 
Inauspicious. Dreams will be realized within forty days. 

14. Gosh, the angel presiding over animals, rules this day. 
Dreams will be fulfilled within twenty days. 

15. This day is ruled by Depmeher, the angel presiding 
over all the languages of the world. Dreams will be realized 
the same day. 

16. This day sacred to Meher, who resides with the sun 
and presides over blossoming trees. A lucky day for dreams 
which will be realized the same day. 

17. Serosh, the presiding angel of learning, rules this day, 
which is inauspicious for dreams; they will prove false. 

18. This is the day of Rashne, presiding over truth and 
righteousness; an auspicious day, its visions will be fulfilled 
within sixteen days. 

19. The day of Favardin, presiding over Paradise and over 
the souls of men. An auspicious day whose dreams will 

be verified within eighteen days. ^^ 

20. The day of Behram, the angel who presides over trav- 
elers. A good day whose dreams will be realized within ten 
days. 

21. The day of Ram, who presides over destiny^ The 
dreams will prove delusive. 



368 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

22. The day of Guvad, who presides over the winds. A 
good day, the visions will be realized. 

23. This is the day of Dep-din, who is God Himself. It is 
an inauspicious day and whatever is dreamt of should be 
kept secret. 

24. The day of Din, who presides over Mazdayasnan re- 
ligion. An auspicious day whose visions will be realized 
before the day is over. 

25. The day of Ashasang, who presides over religious men- 
dicants. A bad day, dreams will be bad and their issue un- 
pleasant. 

26. The day of Ashtad, presiding angel over the seeds of 
the earth. A good day whose visions will be realized within 
ten days. 

2^, The day of Asman, who presided over heaven. An ex- 
cellent day, the visions will be realized within ten days. 

28. The day of Zamiad, who presides over fruit-bearing 
trees. An indifferent day, the visions will soon be realized. 

29. The day of Maharaspand, who presides over Paradise, a 
good day. 

30. The day of Aniran, the presiding angel of marriage 
among mankind. A good day whose visions are soon real- 
ized. 

The Oneirocriticon of Astrampsychus comes down to us 
from the Fourth Century ; the latter was apparently the last of 
a long list of Magi and Dream Interpreters. "After Zoroaster," 
says Diogenes Laertius, "there was a school of Magi, under the 
names of Ostanes, Astrampsychus, etc. . . ." Each verse of 
the Oneirocriticon explains the significance of a hypothetical 
dream. 



THE ONEIROCRITICON OF ASTRAMPSYCHUS 

"To talk in dreams is a sign of their truth. To move slowly denotes 
unfortunate journeys. It is good to fly, for it is the sign of an honour- 
able deed." 



A BUDGET OF DREAMS 369 

Laughter in sleep presages difficult circumstances. 

To weep in sleep is a sign of utmost joy. 

To eat with enemies indicates a reconciliation. 

To be dead in dreams announces freedom from anxiety. 

An offensive odor signifies annoyance. 

If any one offers incense to you, it portends affliction. 

If you seem to be an old man, you will attain honor. 

To run in dreams shows the stability of your circumstances. 

To wash the hands denotes release from anxieties. 

To clean the feet denotes release from anxieties. 

To dean the body denotes release from anxieties. 

To cut the hair signifies losses in business. 

To lose the hair heralds great danger. 

To see white meats is exceedingly advantageous. 

To see black meats forebodes evil to one's children. 

To embrace your mother is to have a lucky dream. 

To embrace one's best beloved is very fortunate. 

All embraces bring about protracted labors. 

To kiss or to love excites the long continued opposition of 
one's enemies: 

To have broad feet is a sign of misfortune. 

The amputation of the feet is a bar to a contemplated jour- 
ney. 

The burning of the body indicates a very evil reputation. 

Gladness of mind shows that you will live abroad. 

For a blind man to see is the best omen possible. 

To wear a white robe is an excellent omen. 

To wear a black one is a mournful spectacle. 

To wear a purple robe threatens a long disease. 

To wear a red one promises an honorable action. 

To wear the pall of kings is the solution of our expectations. 

The tearing of a garment is relief from the burden of anxi- 
eties. 

A severed girdle speedily cuts short a journey. 

To behold the stars forebodes much good to men. 

Thunder-peals in dreams are the words of messengers. 



370 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

To see lights indicates guidance in affairs. 

The sight of snow-figures, the hostilities of enemies. 

The sight of the dead indicates the ruin of affairs. 

The sight of withered trees declares the uselessness of 
labors. 

Pearls denote a torrent of tears. 

Milk confounds the politics of enemies. 

Milk is the sign of peaceful circumstances. 

Gay or mud symbolizes the sordid avarice of the disposi- 
tion. 

A pellucid fountain dispels the distresses of the mind. 

Wine poured from the vessels soothes the distresses of the 
mind. 

Musty wine announces many difficulties. 

To mix different wines is to invite serious quarrels. 

Water gushing up from below is a sign of enemies. 

To drain a cup of water is a lucky token. 

The pouring out of rivers dissipates the joy of enemies. 

To stand in the assemblies brings with it a crime. 

Sitting naked signifies loss of property. 

Sitting on a dunghill signifies disastrous circumstances. 

Sitting upon a stone, you may conceive great expectations. 

Sitting on a wall indicates coming prosperity. 

To embark on a lake is a sign of evil. 

To walk over potsherds signifies loss of one's enemies. 

To creep up a mountain signifies the difficulty of business. 

To walk over live coals signifies loss from one's enemies. 

To tread upon serpents is to blunt the sharp attacks of 
foes. 

If you sail over mud, look out for mental disquiet. 

The falling from a precipice is an evil omen. 

The eating of sweets portends disagreeable circumstances. 

To swallow bunches of grapes indicates a deluge of rain. 

To feed on lettuces is a sign of disease of the body. 

To drink muddy water foretells disease of the body. 

If you are governing children, expect a coming danger. 



/ 






A BUDGET OF DREAMS 371 

To hold a bull is to be disappointed of one's hopes. 

If any one holds goods, let him fear the attack of his 
enemies. 

A broken staff portends an unhappy death. 

To catch falcons indicates the fulfillment of your utmost 
desic^s. 

To hold keys signifies the settlement of affairs. 

To hold a twig foreshadows a prosecution. 

To seize the sword is a sign of contest. 

To handle threads is a presage of troublesome circumstances. 

To hold a sparrow, struggling to escape, forebodes mischief. 

To grasp a pillar is to expect Divine favor. 

To shiver a sword signifies the crushing of one's foes. 

The escape of a hawk from the hand is disastrous to those 
in power. 

To hold gold is a warning to leave one's projects undone. 

To hold eggs or to eat eggs symbolizes vexation. 

To behold oxen in dreams is of evil tendency. 

To see black mares is a thoroughly bad sign. 

To see white horses is a vision of angels. 

To see lions announces the contentions of one's enemies. 

The sight of a mouse bespeaks propitious circumstances. 

To see a colt running denotes something mysterious. 

The barking of a dog portends the detriment of one's ene- 
mies. 

A gaping wolf signifies nonsensical discourse. 

Dead oxen signify times of famine. 

The sight of wasps marks injuries to one's foes. 

The sight of a hare portends an unlucky joum^. 

If you see oil you will escape every misfortune. 

To see the ocean calm is favorable. 

The noise of the sea stands for the throng of business. 

To swim in the sea forebodes bitter sorrows. 

To dream in the daytime of swimming in the sea is good. 

The eating of figs signifies nonsensical discourse. 



372 THE FABRIC OF DREAMS 

And all the while, as the physiologists and psychologists 
clamor among themselves, the world dreams on. Some dreams 
savour of shameful thoughts, others are haunted by the penal- 
ties of overindulgence ; there are dreams of lost hopes, of sup- 
pressed wishes, of passion, of pain, of loves living and of 
loves dead; dreams of high triumph and of unholy pride; 
dreams that are insistent, and dreams that are fleeting; dreams 
that will never be forgotten. But over and above them all 
are the dreams of the higher soul, and here the analyst must 
pause and may not follow. Whether these dreams are sub- 
stance of shadow their dreamers care not, as keeping the 
white flame of their thought to themselves, they dream on in 
the knowledge that no physiological interpretation can explain 
the psychological residue that remains in every dream and 
which comprises the Fabric of Dreams. 



THE END 



INDEX 



For Dream-symbols under A, 
see 195-198 

Abercrombie, 47 

Abimelech, 3 

Abraham, 2, 3 

Absinthe (or Wormwood), 148, 

149, 150 
Abstraction, 36 
Adam, the fall of, 69 
i^sculapius, the god, 12, 13 
Agassiz, Professor, dream of, 28 
Age, The Golden, 69 
Agnes, St., Charm of, 89 
Alberico, vision of, 45 
Alcohol, 138, 139, 144 
Alexander the Great, y^^ 103, 104 
Alexander Severus, 5 
Alfred the Great, 9, 109 
Alice in Wonderland, dreams of, 

160 
Ambrose, 6 
Ammon, St., 56 

Analysis, of dream, 158, 165, 167 
Analysts, dream, 8 
Andre, Major, death of, 116 
Anise, seed of, 137 
Anselm, 5, 59, 113 
Antony, St., 56 
Apollo Daldianus, 5, 3S2-354 
Apparition, 154 
Aquarius, 331-333 
Arabia, deserts of, 6 
Arabic proverbs, 17 
Arabs, science of, 17; dreams of, 

iSS 
Aries, 271-274 

Aristotle, 5, 86, 87; dream the- 
ories of, 18; works of, 19 
Arnold, Sir Edwin, 92 
Artabanus, 9 
Artemidorus, 5, 178 
Aspasia, 84 



Assyrians, 17 

Astrampsychus, interpretation of 

dreams, 369 
Atavism, 27, 28 
Atlantis, continent of, 69, 79 
Augustine, St., 5, 12, 51, 100 
Avicenna, 18 
Aztecs, 70, 71 

B 

For Dream-symbols under B, 
see 198-205 

Bacchantes, the, 137 
Bacchus, 139 
Bannich, Brauder, 90 
Bartholomew, St., massacre of, 

10 
Basil, 5 

Bede, 9, 12, 59 
Belladonna (or Solanum), 146, 

148 
Benedict, St., 57 
Bergson, 23, 156 
Berkeley, Bishop, 49 
Berlin, manuscript of, 17 
Berlioz, music of, 33 
Bernard, St., 57 
Berthelot, 17 
Bhang, 144. 

Bibliotheca Historica, The, 16 
Bigelow, on sleep, 139 
Blake, William, 64, 188 
Blavatsky, Madame de, 25, 86, 87 
Boadicea, 4 
Boehme, 19^ 59 
Boer War, The, 119, 120 
Bois, Jules, I, 24 
Bonaventura, St. 59 
Brent, Bishop, The Sixth Sense, 

66; in occultism, 69 
Brill, Dr., 21, 169 
Bruce, Addington, 23, 174 
Browne, Sir Thomas, 45 



373 



374 



INDEX 



Buckley, dream of, 8i 
Buddhism, 8 
Bunya|i, John, 32, 33 
Byron, 10^ 33 

C 

For Dream-symbols tmdsr C, 
see 20S'2it 

Cesar, Julius, 5, 73 
Caligula, 38 
Calpurnia, 5 
Camphor, 140. 144 
Canary Islands, 69 
Cancer, 289-291 
Cantharides, 144 
Catherine, St., 60, 61 
Catherine de Medici, 10, 115 
Caprlcornus, ^^-327 
Carbon-monoxidfe, 84, 136 

dioxide, 85, 136 

Catharsis of Aristotle, 19 

Cenobites, The, 6 

Ceres, 328-336 

Chaldeans, dream interpretation 

h7» 7, 155; symbolism of, 187, 

189, 190 

Christ, 3. 4. 51 

Christian, 10 

Era, 3 

Christianity, 6, 7, 8, 52 

Christian Science, 52 

Cicero, On Divination, 86, 171 

Clairvoyance, 28, 51, t6, 6ft 79 

Condensation, 160^ 164 

Charcot, Dr., 20 

Charlemagne, 6, 109 

Charles IX, 39 

Children, neurotic, 39 

Chinese, the, 26 

Clare, Saint, 61 

Qeopatra, 17 

Qement, 5 

Columbus, Christopher, 24 

Condillac, 37 

Constantine, Emperor, no 

Content, the dream, 128; Latent, 
133. 156, 160, 168, 169; Mani- 
fest, 156-160, 166, 167, 169; 
Sex, 133 

Corelli, Marie, 150 

Coming, Dr. Leonard, 83 

Coriat, Freudian interpretation of 
dreams, 162, 163) 106, 169, 172, 
173> 175» 177 



Cowper, 39 

Creed, Universal, 13 

Criminal Trials, dreams of, 124, 

125 
Cromwell, 10, 73 

Crusades, The, 6; dreams of, 109- 

112 
Cyrus the Great, dreams of the 

birth of, 102 

D 

For Dream-symbols under D, 
see 211-213 

Daniel, 121-124; interpretation of 
dreams of, 167, 168; symbolism 
of, 189 

Dante, dreams of, 45 ; son of, 116; 
symbolism of, 188 

De Insomnis, 6 

De Krudener, Madame, 10 

Delboeuf, 23 

De Quincey, 33, 34, 138 

Demonomania, Henroth's, 21 

Descartes, 19, 20, 33, 73 

Desert, Arabian, 155; Nitrian, 56; 
of Egypt, 56; Scetic, 57. 

Diana, 340-342 

Dickens, Charles, vision of, 34; 
paramnesia of, 134 

Didymus, 109 

Dieulafoy, 24, 25 

Diodorus of Sicily, 16 

Displacement, 160, 164 

Dittany, I4j5, 147 

Diviners, The, 8 

Dodona, Oracle of, 84 

Dominic, St., 57 

Dramatization, 160, 166 

Dream books, 26, 174, 179 

Dream conditions, 16 

Dream work, 160 

Dreams, analysis and interpreta- 
tion of, 52, 106, 132, 151, 152, 
156, 172, 189, 367 

-Aristotelian theories of, 19 



artificial, 136 

^atavistic, 179 

Biblical, 153, 154, 162, 165 

^by celebrated Greeks and 

Romans, 103, 105, io6, 171 
-by Roman emperors, 107, 



108 



INDEX 



375 



Dreams, celestial, 56 

children's, 129, 130^ 133 

color in, 23 

construction of, 128 
divination by, ly, 8ft 151 



-erotic, 172, 175 
-flying or floating, 28 
-fortune-telling by, 17 
-hysteria in, 53 
-inherited money in, 28 
-Island of, 87 
-logic in, 23 
-meaning of particular, 131, 



146, 154, 172, 174-178, 192 

mental images in, 23 

^mono idea of, 25 

moral warnings in, 154 

^mothers', 92, 4t uq, 

^mystical, 52 

oracles concerning, 88 



-origin of, 14, 91 
-pathologic 18 
-prenatal, 92, et seq, 
prophetic, 15, 18, 103, 121, 



122, 124, 144, 151, 153, 169 
^psychic, II, 14, 16, 26 



-psycho-therapeutic signifi- 



cance of, 12, 13, 152 

^purpose of, 11 

^recurring, 23 



16 



remarkaole, 17 
revelations in, 133 
scientific errors regarding, 



28 



^79 



-sexual origin of, 20, 21 
-sixth sense in, 24 
-subconscious experiences in, 

-symbolic, 151, 155, i8p 
-time and space m, 132 
-typical, n, 38, 73, 150, 17a, 



■unpleasant, 24 



Druids, The, 4, 6, 71, 85, 91, 146 
Dumas, Alexandre, 46 
Du Prel, Baron, 23 



152; frescoes of, 137; priests 

of, 84; symbolism of, 189, 190 
Elaboration, 160-161 
Eldorado, The Dream of, 12 
Elements as dream sources, 25 
Elijah, 2, 154 
Elizabeth, St, 3, 73. 74 
Ellis, Havelock, i, 10, 12, 22, 23, 

38, 134, 163, 164, 17^174, 177' 

179, 181, 184, 187 
Epictetus, 127 
Epidaurus, 12 
Epileptics, 38 

Escholtzia, Legend of, 137 
Euphanes, 12 



For Dream-symbols under F, 
see 215-218 

Famous men, dreams by mothers 

of, 92, et seq, 
Fechner, 48 

Fern, the male, 146, 148 
Folklore, 69 
Fortuna, 35S-3S7 
Framework of dream, 128 
Francis, St., dreams of; 57; order 

of, 57-59; paramnesia of, 135 
Frank, Dr., 15, 82 
Franklin, Benjamin, 47 
Eraser, Dr., 69 
Frederick of Prussia, i«i 

of Saxony, 112 

Freud, Dr., i, 3, 13-15, ift 20, at, 

29, 41, 42, 82, 130, 152, 155, 161, 

169, 173-174, 177-179, 186 
Freudian dreams, 156, 157 

mechanism, 132, 164 

methods of analysis, 21,^ 157 

morality in dreams, i(S4 

^psychology, 21 

school of interpretation, 

157-159 

-theory, 133 



^Ultra-, 153 

Frink, Dr., 21, 153 



For Dream-symbols under E, 
see 213-215 

Earthquake, dreams of, 120 

Edwin, King, 9 

Egyptians, curative dreams of, 



For Dream-symbols under G, 
see 218-221 

Galen, 38 

Gait on. Sir Francis, 129 



376 



INDEX 



Ganna, 5 

Garas, 144 

Gemini, 283-2% 

Geomancy, 26, 173; directions for, 
269; interpretation by, 268-366 

Ghanja, 144 

Gisela, 9 

Goethe, 10, 33, 46 

Grade, Captain, 67 

Grail, 6, 109 

Greece, symbols of, 189 

Greenwood, Frederick, 34 

Gregory, Dr., 8i, 181 

Pope, 12 

St., 5 

Greisinger, Dr., 31, 48 

Gjrpsies, as interpreters, 173, 174; 
classification of, 154; dream an- 
alysis of, 155; symbolism of, 
189, 190, 192 

H 

For Dream-symbols under H, 
see 221-225 

Haggard, H. Rider, 39 

Hall, Professor Stanley, 27, 28^ 

173 
Hallucinations, 34, 183 

Hartmann, Franz, 25 
Hashish, 144 
Hebrews, 17 

Hebrides, natives of, 69 
Hecate, 349-351 
Heine, 33 
Helmholtz, 48 
Hemlock, 51, 145 
Hemp, Indian, 144 
Henbane, 148 
Henry I, 115 
Henry II, 115 
Heraclitus of Ephesus, 18 
Herbart, 48 

Herbs, the study of, 136 
Hermits, The, 6, 56, 57 
Herod, 3 

Herodotus, 3, 8, 171 
Herring, 140 
Hierophants, The, 136 
Hildegard, St., 73 
Hippocrates, 13 
Hirschberg, Leonard, 21 
Hodgson, Dr., 80 
Holy Alliance 10 



Holy Land, The, 7 

Homer, 155, 170 

Hood, j6 

Hop, The, 14s 

Howe, Elias, 48 

Hugh de Loraine, 5 

Huxley, Professor, 35 

Hygeia, Priests of, §4. 

Hypatia, 6 

Hypericum, 146, 147 

Hjrpermnesia, 134 

Hypnosis, 24, 81; mono idea in, 

Hypnotism, 21; forces of, 136; 

by priests, 84 
Hypnotists, 7, 84 
Hyslop, Dr. George, 22 
Hyssop, 146, 147 



For Dream^symbols under I, 
see 22S'226 

lamblichus, 5, 51 

Incense, 137 

Indians, American, 150; Digger, 

Insomnia, recipe for, 17 
Irving, Sir Henry, 75 
Ivy, 137 



For Dream-symbols under J, 
see 226 

Jahr, the manual of, 140 

James, Professor, 80 

Jeremy, 3 

Joan of Arc, dreams of, 62-64; 
paramnesia of, 135 

John, St., 2, 4, 51, 73 

Johnson, Dr., 33 

Joseph, 3, 156, 162, 165 

Josephus, 3 

Jove, 280-283 

Judeas, Philo, 3 

Juggernaut, car of, 14 

Julian the Apostate, dreams con- 
cerning death of, 108, 109 

Jung, Carl, i, 13, 29, 161, 162; 
cult of, 21 ; symbolism of, 187 

Junipero, Padre, 58, 59 

Juno, 322-324 

Justinian, Emperor, 10 



INDEX 



377 



K 

For Dream-symbols under K, 
see 227-228 

Kant, anthropology of, 11 
King Arthur, 6 

Kronfield, on the Freudian the- 
ory, 21 



For Dream-symbols under L, 
see 228-231 

Lamb, Charles, 34 
Lamberton, Professor, 31 

Lange, 48 

Lasegue, 139 

Laudanum, 150 

Laurel, the sacred, 137 

Laurentius, Bishop, 59, 154 

Lee, Dr., 79 

Legends, 8, 69 

Lely, Sir Peter, 37 

Leo, 295-297 

Leyden, Papyri of, 6, 17 

Lethe, the waters of, 87 

Libido, 161, 162 

Libra, 307-309 

Lincoln, Abraham, 34, 7Z» Ii7 

Livy, 4 

Lobelia, 150 

Locke, 16 

Lodge, Sir Oliver, 119 

Raymond, 119 

Lotos-Eaters, The, 136 
Louis IX, III 

the Young, 112 

Louvre, 17 
Luna, 286-288 
Luther, Martin, 112 
Lyttleton, Lord, 116 

M 

For Dream-symbols under M, 
see 231-236 

Macarius, St., 57. 
Macleod, Fiona, 64 
MacNish, 16, 37, 181 
Maeterlinck, 117 
Magi, 369 
Magicians, The, 10 



Mallarm^, 45 
Mars, 289-300 
Martyrs, Christian, 53 
Manaceine, Marie de, 23, 139, 

173, 174, 178, _. , 

Mandragora (or Bnony), 136, 
145, 146 

Mandrakes, The, 145 

Maria de Medici, 115 

Mariamne, 3 

Mark, St., manuscript of, 17 

Mary, the Virgin, 3 

Magdalene, 129 

Materia Medica, 140, 145, 147 

Maudsley, 48 

Maury, 182-183 

Mediaval Mind, The, 36, 57 

Mediaevalism, 60 

Medusa, 343-345 

Memory, abnormal, 134; ances- 
tral, 24, 27; dream, 8, 21, 133; 
hallucinatory, 134; in sleep, 78; 
psychology of, 27 

Mentality, 127 

Mercurius, 304-306 

Mescal, 139, 140 

Mesmerism, 136 

Merlin, 62, 63 

Methods, comparison of, 164 

Michelet, 12 

Middle Ages, The, 6, 12 

Milton, John, 33 

Mitchell, Weir, 35, 140-143 

Mohammed, 109, no 

Mohammedans, 17 

Monks, Franciscan, 58 

Mono idea, 24 

Monroe, Professor W. S., 184 

Moore. Sir John, soldiers of, 

Life of Sir Thomas, 100 

Morpheus, 87 
Morphia, 144, 150 
Mor^e, S. F. B., 35 
Moses, 2, 155 
Mozart, 33 
Muller, Maud, 30 

Johann, 34, 182, 183 

Musk, 144 

Musset, Alfred de, 33 
Myrtle Charm, The, 90 
Mystic faculty, 49 
Mysticism, SO-S3, 60, 64 
Mystics, The, 10, 50, 66, 70 



378 



INDEX 



N 

For Dream-symbols under N, 
see 236-238 

Napoleon, le, 24, 34, 73, IQ3. 184 
Narcotics, 136, 137 
Nebuchadnezzar, 167, 169 
Niebelungs, legend of, 69 
Nietzsche, 20 
Neo-Platonists, The, 5 
Neptune, 358-360 
Neurasthenia, 65 
New Thoup^ht, 52 
Newton, Sir Isaac, 36^ 73 
Nightmare, 6, 7, 11, 24, 38 
Noah, 2 

Norris, Zoe^ 118 
Novalis, 45 
Nux vomica, 144 

O 

For Dream-symbols under O, 
see 238-240 

Occultism, 19, 25, 70 
Omens, dream, 17 
Oneirocriticon of Astrampsychus, 

369-372 
Oneirocritics, 151 

Oneiromancy, 17 
Opium, 137, 138* 144 
Oracles, 60, 71, 85, 86, 154 
Origin, 51 
Orion, 361-363 
Orpheus and Eurydice, 129 
Osiris, 2 
Ostanes, 369 



For Dream-symbols under P, 
see 240-247 

Pallas, 316-318 
Pan, 4 

Panacea, 12, 147 
Papus, 25, 79, 127 
Paracelsus, 23, 150, 152 
Paramnesia, 134, 135 
Parnassus, 69, 85 
Parsees, 367 
Pascal, Blaise, 20 

Paul, St., 4, 51. 55, 65, 72, 73, I34 
Peter the Hermit, no, in 
Phoebus, 346-348 



Physiology, SO 

Pilgrims' Progress, The, 32 

Pineal gland, 19 

Pisces, 337-339 

Plato, 5, 18, 19, 51, 13X 

Pliny, 137, ISS 

Plotmus, 5, SI 

Plutarch, 81, 171 

Poe, 10 

Pontius Pilate, 3, 103; wife of, 5 

Pope, 33 

Poppies, 136, I37» 145 

Porphyry, s, 2S, Si 

Prescott, William N., 139 

Prince, Martin, i, 13, 21, 22, 83 

Proclus, 5 

Psychic faculty, the, 50 

Psychical Research, Society for, 

79, "9 
Psychology, S# 

Ptolemy, the Wise, 17 

Pulque, 139 

Pycnocomen, 137 

I^ramids of Egypt, 8 

Pyrenees, 69 

Pythagoras, 5, 1% 51 

Q 

For Dream-symbols under Q, 
see 247 



For Dream-symbols under R, 
see 247-250 

Radestok, 184 

Raphael, 26, 174, 175, 178, i8t, 

268 
Reincarnation, 28 
Reinforcement, 162, 166 
Religio Medici, 45 
Renaissance, The, 7 
Revelations, The Book of, 4 
Reverie, 30, 154 
Ribot, 131 

Roberts, Lord, 117, 118 
Rollo, The Norseman, 9 
Romans, The, 5 
Romauld, St, 56 
Rome, 6 
Rousseau, 34 



INDEX 



379 



For Dream-symbols under S, 
see 251-256 

Sagittary, 319-321 

Sancto de Sanctis, 12, 139 

Sanders^ Rev., 80 

Santos Dumont, 24 

Saracens, The, 7 

Sarah, 3 

Saturn, 292-294 

Satan, 7 

Saxo Grammaticus, 4 

Schleyer, 47 

Schemer, 183 

Schelling, sdiool of, 15 

Science, modern, 8 

Scorpio, 313-31S 

Scott, Sir Walter, 33 

Sepulchre, The Holy, 7 

Sex content in dreams, 20-23, ^^ 

^theory of, 130 

Sharp, William, 64 
Shoemaker, Henry W., 69 
Sidis, Boris, 21, 78 
Sifat-i-Sirozah, The, 367-369 
Sixth sense, 24, 66 

-and folklore, 69 



68 



-and the conscience. 



68 



-«s a dream factor, 



-character of, 68 
-cultivation of, 71 



in animals, 71 

in children, 69, 71 

instance of, 66 

Sleep, apoplexy in, 180 

artificial, 11, 24 

as repairer of nerves, 11 

■ delirium in, 132 



-fear in, 24 
-hypnotic, 20, 81, 82 
-memory in, 133 
-mystery of, 27 
-occult theories of, 132 
-prophecy in, 24 
-sense of time in, 132 
-S3rmbols of, 87 
-the senses in, 179 
-the soul in, 132 



Slumber, see Sleep 
Socrates, 18, 31 
Sodom, Vine of, 148 



Sol, 27^'2T7 

Solanum. See Belladonna. 

Solomon, 155, 189 

Somnus, 87 

Somnambulism, 36-38^ 146 

Soul, in sleep, 132; the mystery 

of, 13; wandering of, 132 
Sorcerers, 7, 10 
Southey, 32 
Spaniards, 70 
Spectra, Occular, 33 
Spencer, 27 
Sprenger, 31 
Stevenson, Robert Louis^ 39, 42- 

44 
Stimuli, 23, 25, ISO, 152, 153, 164, 

179, 181-184 
Strahionium, 144, 146, 147 
Subconsciousness, The, 12, 18, 21, 

65 
Subjective Mind, 65 
Suetonius, 38 
Sun, Priests of the, 70 
Swedenborg, 19, 53-55, 135 
Symbols, 7, 8, 26, 117, 158, 163, 

16s, 186-192 
Symbolism, 50, 60, 186, 188-191 
Synesius, 6, 25, 173 



For Dream-symbols under T, 
see 257-260 

Tanner, on narcotics, 148 

Tartini, 46 

Tasso, 33 

Taurus, 279, 280 

Taylor, Medi<Bval Mind, 36, 57 

Telepathy, (rj, 68 

Thackeray, 46 

Theosophy, 25 

Thompson, William Hanna, 47 

Tiberius, Emperor, 38 

Titanic, The, 67, 121 

Thaw, Harry, 24 

Thebes, Magician of, 17; Oracle 

of, 86 
Theobald, Archbishop, 59 
Theodora, 10 
Tissie, on alcohol, 139 
Titchener, 16 
Tolstoy, Count, 131 
Torte, M., 180, 181