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Full text of "Facts for the people: or, Things worth knowing. A book of receipts in which everything is of practical use to every body"



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INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLE! 



*<It ia never too late to learn.M 



FACTS FOR THE PEOPLE, 



A BOOK OF RECEIPTS, 



IN WHICH 



EVERY THING 



IS OF 



PRACTICAL USE 



TO 



EVERY BODY. 



^y, 



^ PHILADELPHIA: 

PUBLISHED BY LARAWAY & HOLSTZ. 
1850. 



Price Twenty-Five Cents. 



-.1 



CONTENTS OF THIS 1 

T¥liat to do in Cases of* Emergency, 3 

Art of* Crood Behaviour 5 

How to Get Rich, 9 
The Choice oriVIeats, and Hoir to Cook them, 11 

Diseases of the Hair, 1 7 

On the Preservation of the Sight, 19 

Art of Carving, 2S 

Hoiv to inai«:e Puddings, &c,, 29 

Art of Raising, &c., Canary Birds, 33 

Etiquette for Eadies and Gentlemen, 37 

Hydropathy or the liVater Cure, * 43 

Art of Conversation, 47 

Cooking for the Sick Room, 50 

Valuable Household Receipts. 53 

UoPF to make Svreetmeats and Preserves •iG 

' Valuable IVIedical Receipts, 39 

Preservation, &c., of the Hair, 66 
Hoiv to cure dyspepsia, or the art of attaining 

ahd preserving long health, 73 

Voung JTIan's iVIanual. "^S 

Hints on Etiquette. 79 

□Cr" Also a large number of valuable Receipts on subjects not 
mentioned above. 

' — — 1—1— ■w^— ^ 

Price Twenty-Five Cents. ^ ' 



IT IS NEVER TOO LATE TO LEARN." 



FACTS 



FOU 



THE PEOPLE 



THINGS WORTH IJfOWISe. 



A 



A BOOK OF RECEIPTS 



'Af 



IN WHICH 



EVERY THING IS OF PRACTICAL USE 



TO EVERY BODY 



^ PHILAD.ELPHIA: 

PUBLISHED BY LARAWAY & HOLSTZ 
1850. 



'iV. 



WHAT TO DO IN CASES OF EMERGENCT 



WHAT TO DO IN CASES OF EMERGENCY. 

There are certain accidents which all are more or less subject to, and which eveif 
prudent and humane person should know how to treat skilfully. What would a man of 
ordinary sensibility give to know, upon the spur of the moment, the proper methods ©f 
treating successfully an esteemed friend just rescued from drowning 1 or to apply with 
skill remedies essential to the preservation of tlie life of a beloved child after a severe 
burn 1 I once lost a valued relative by not knowing how to extract a venomous sub- 
stance which became lodged in his ear during a hunting excursion. Since then I have 
spared no pains in making myself acquainted with the most skilful methods of knowing 
" what to do in cases of emergency," and I here present my readers with a portion of 
the results. All I will say of these methods is, that the most implicit reliance may be 
placed on their being the best now known, as I have not only observed and inquired but 
read, and have, in short, availed myself of all the sources of information upon these topics 
accessible in both hemispheres, and here present my readers with the result. 



(1.) To Restore a Drowned Person. 
On being got out of the water, the body, 
laid on the side, and the head and chest 
raised, should be immediately removed on a 
plank or shutter to the nearest house, or to 
a warm and dry situation. Having cleansed 
the mouth and nostrils from frolii, mucus, 
&c., the next important step is to strip the 
body of its wet clothes, to rub it quickly 
diy with hot cloths, and till a warm bed ^r 
olankets can be prepared, to cover it with 
the spare clothes of the by stand ers. Heat 
should be applied in eveiy possible way; 
the hot bath will be the most efficacious of 
any, and should always be employed where 
the circumstances of the case will admit; 
in the mean time bottles filled with hot water 
should be applied to the arm-pits, feet, and 
pit of ihe stomach. The means, however, 
most to be relied upon, is the effecting arti- 
ficial respiration. This is to be accom- 
plished by making strong pressure with both 
hands on the anterior surface of the chest, 
the diaphragm being at the same time 
pushed upwards by an assistant, while 
inspiration is effected by the mere removal 
of tlie pressure, and consequent resiliency 
of the ribs. This process should be repeated 
from fifteen to twenty-five times in a minute, 
ao as to imitate natural breathing as nearly 
As possible. The old mode of introducing 
air into the lungs by means of bellows, &c., 
is now justly discarded ; there being not 
only 'he strongest evidence against its 
Utility, but also sufficient to warrant the 
eoaaiit'uoQ that, much mischief has been 



occasioned by it, and many lives lost that 
might have been saved. 

During the attempt to restore respiration, 
friction with hot flannels should be unre- 
mittingly applied to liie body and extremi- 
ties, and volatile stimulants held to the nose. 
Warm clysters, with salt and mustard, or 
brandy and water, may be administered, and 
warm spiced wine got into the stomach by 
means of the stomach-pump, or a flexible 
catheter and syringe, — not to be attempted, 
however, without such assistance, till the 
patient can swallow. 

Electricity and galvanism will be found 
invaluable adjuncts to the above means, and 
should, whenever practicable, be had re- 
course to where the respiration is not quickly 
restored. The author lias in two instances 
employed electro-galvanism with complete 
success. 

Bleeding is occasionally useful, but re- 
quires the utmost caution. The abstraction 
of a small quantity of blood from the exter- 
nal jugular vein, may in some cases relieve 
the engorgement of the venous system of 
the brain, but it should not exceed from an 
ounce and a half to three or four ounces, as 
a larger quantity would probably extinguish 
the remaining feeble powers of vitality. 

(2.) Burns and Scald'. 
There is no accident respecting the treat- 
ment of which so much difFerence of opin- 
ion exists as this; authorities of eqmiJ 
respectability and experience advocating the 
most opposite remedies. Some recoiiuQonii. 



■WHAT TO 10 IN CASES OF EMERGENCY, 



in the case of a slight burn or scald, insuffi- 
cient 10 produce any constitutional depres- 
sion, the immediate application of cold in 
any convenient form, and its continuance 
until pain and inflammation have subsided. 
Others adopt a directly opposite course, 
employing in the first instance stimulants, 
both externally and internally. The latter 
plan was introduced about forty years ago, 
by Mr. Kentish of Newcastle, and is gen- 
»*.raily called by his name ; and there is no 
\ueslion but that in all cases severe or 
ixtcnsive enough to endanger life by the 
jreat depression of the vital powers, it is 
he safest to be adopted. It consists, 
whether the skin be removed or not, in 
bathing the part burnt or scalded with a 
piece of soft linen dipped in warmed spirit of 
turpentine or of wine, and then, as quickly 
as possible, covering it with a liniment com- 
posed of spirit of turpentine [one part] and 
basilicon ointment [two parts] thickly spread 
on lint or hnen rag. This dressing should 
remain on as long as possible, and not be 
removed unless there be a profuse discharge 
or bad smell from the wound. Notwith- 
standing a slight smarting may be at first 
occasioned by the above applications, a 
soothing sensation in a very short time 

y succeeds, and the patient feels compara- 

? lively easy. 

In dressing extensive burns, care should 
be taken to avoid exposing more than a 
small part at a time ; and if blisters have 
ari.sen, they should on no account be punc- 
tured , as is often done with a view of reliev- 
ing the tension; but this latter is of no 
importance, and will speedily subside, while 
the cuticle is the best possible covering to 
the injured part, and it should be a leading 
object to keep it entire whenever it can be 
done. When cicatrization of extensive 
burns is advancing fast, and suppuration 
.subsiding, the bowels should be kept open 
and the diet curtailed. 

The treatment which for the last five 
years has been almost exclusively adopted 
at St. Bartholomew's Hospital, consists in 
enveloping the parts burned with finely- 
carded cotton wool, spread out of equal 
thickness ; upon this a second and third 
layer is placed, according to the profuseness 
of ih.' discharge, the wliolc being encircled 
vith a bandage. This dressing is allowed 
to re.nain till the fifth day, when the whole 
is removed, and the surface of the sore is 
generally found to be in the most favourable 
state to heal with the ordinary simple dress- 
ings, as the zinc or chalk ointment, or com- 
mon cerate. Should the cotton be found to 
tdliere to the sore, no force is to be used 



to separate it, but a poultice of bread and 
water (or bread and linseed meal together) 
is to be applied over it, which in a few hours 
will enable it to be removed without vio- 
lence or pain. Poultices must also be 
resorted to, or lint or fine rag wetted with 
water, and over it a piece of oiled silk to 
retain the moisture, [called the " vjaier- 
dressing,''''] when the surface is very irritable 
and painful, giving a mild opiate at night, 
followed by an aperient. The constitu 
tional powers, when greatly depressed, must 
be supported by diffusive siimulants, such 
as hot brandy and water, ammonia, and 
ether, according to the urgency of the case, 
continuing the use of these till reaction is 
completely established, but not pushing 
them so far as to produce congestion in the 
head or chest, or aggravate the succeeding 
fever and inflammation. The system is to 
be kept up during the treatment by beef-tea 
or other mild nutriments. 

The proportion of severe cases cured in 
the above named Hospital, since the adop- 
tion of the cotton wool, has very greatly 
increased, while the favourable termination 
is brought about in half the time it formerly 
was. 

It remains only to mention several rem®" 
dies which have obtained popular reputation 
in these accidents, and which are valuable 
not only as giving more or less relief, but 
as being generally at hand, or to be readily 
procured in every dwelling. Thev are, 
loheat flour, which may be thickly sprinkled 
over the injured parts with a common 
kitchen dredger, till a perfect crust is 
formed ; — an excellent application. Finely 
scraped chalk, or magnesia, applied in the 
same way. These act both by excluding 
the atmospheric air and absorbing the fluid 
secreted by the vessels of the inflamed sur- 
face. Another application reported to be 
very efficacious in allaying the pain, is a 
piece of lint wetted with a saturated solu- 
tion of carbonate of soda. A ])ouliice or 
grated raw turnip or potato, applied cold, 
is quickly productive of ease in slight burns, 
but requires renewing often enough to keep 
up the sensation of coldness. 

Scalds of the Glottis, through swallowing 
boiling water, an accident not uncommon 
with children, who are in the habit of drink- 
ing from the spout of a tea-kettle, prnrluce 
the ordmary symptoms of laryngitis, — suffo- 
cative cough and diflicult respiration. 

Treatment. — Leeches, ice to tl.e threat 
calomel in large doses, so as rapidly \q affeet 
the system, and tracheotomy if required. 



WHAT 7 ) DO IN CASES OF EMERGENCY. 



(3.) Contusions or Bruises. 

In slight bruises, and those not likely to 
be followed by mucli inflammaiion, nothing 
more is usually necessary than to bathe the 
part with spirit, as eau de-Cologne, brandy, 
&c., mis.eu with an equal proportion of 
vinegar and water. In more severe cases, 
however, and where the accident is near an 
important part, as the eye, or any of the 
joints, it becomes a desirabb.; object to pre- 
vent the ap[)roach of inflaminalion. This 
is. to be attempted by the application of 
leeches, repeating them according tocircnm- 
Btances. Should there be considerable fever 
present, bleeding from the arm, purgatives, 
and a low diet, may become necessary. 

In the last stage of a bruise, where there 
is merely a want of tone in the parts, and 
swelling from the effused blood, &c., fric- 
tion should be employed, either simply or 
with any common liniment, as opodeldoc. 
Wearing a bandage, pumping cold water on 
the part, succeeded by warm friction ; also, 
a saturated solution of common salt in water, 
have each been found beneficial. The roots 
of briony and Solomon's seal, bruised and 
applied as a poultice, are efficacious in 
hastening the disappearance of the lividity 
of bruises. 

(4.) Convulsions or Fits in Children. 

When children are attacked with convul- 
sive fits, the most active means should be 
promptly employed, since there is danger 
of the fit proving fatal. The best remedy 
is the warm bath, in which the child is to 
be placed and retained till the fit goes off. 
It must not, however, be unnecessarily 
repea".ed. The cold bath, exposure to a 
current of cold air, and sprinkling cold 
water on the face, have been severally found 
useful in shortening the attack. In every 
case, purgatives, particularly of calomel, 
and an injection, will be proper. In the 
generality of cases, leeches to the temples, 
and a blister to the back of the neck, are 
required. When the fits appear to be con- 
nected with acidity or flatulency, a little 
calcined magnesia in peppern\int water, with 
a few drops of spirit of sal volatile, or of 
the fetid spirit of ammonia, will be useful ; 
and if caused by the irritation of teething, 
free scarification of the gums is necessary. 

Emetics deserve attention in the treatment 
of convulsions, for usually after free vom- 
iting reli.:'f is obtained. Ipecac or tartar 
emetic may be used according to the age, 
and advantageously while in the warm bath. 
Dr. Tripler has lately recommended mus- 
tard, not only for its emetic effect, but for 
some apparent specific property. 



(5.) To Extract Substances from the Ear 
In case the substance be within sight 
and can be grasped reaoijy with a small paii 
of forceps, that will be the best way to 
extract it ; but to accomplish this, force 
must on no account be used. By far the best 
and safest method is, to inject lukewarm 
water pretty forcibly into the ear by means 
of a rather powerful syringe (it should bo 
one that will hold at east two < unces, to 
be efficient for the purpose.) This will 
rarely be found to fail, the water passing 
beyond the substance, and being there con- 
fined by the tympanum, forces the former 
outwards. It occasionally happens that the 
foreign body has become firmly fixed, either 
from its having swelled through the moist- 
ure, as a pea, &c., is apt to do, or from the 
surrounding parts having become swollen; 
in which case, should a few trials with the 
syringe not succeed, and the ear be very 
tender, it will be the better plan to pour 
into the ear a little sweet oil, and leave it 
till the next day, when the syringing may 
be renewed. I have seen a child relieved 
of a bead„ by his mother placing his head 
between two pillows on the table, the 
affected ear downwards, and striking the 
upper one smartly once or twice, when the 
bead dropped out. Glass beads and similar 
substances have been extracted by a probe, 
dipped into some appropriate cement, being 
introduced into the ear, and kept in contact 
with the body to be removed, till it is set 

(6.) To Extract Substances f-o/n the Eye. 
A substance getting accidentally in the 
eye may either lie disengaged on its surface, 
or, having penetrated the external coat, may 
there remain fixed. In the former case, it 
is easily removed by a camel-hair pencil, or 
a piece of paper rolled into the size of a 
crow-quill, with the end softened in the 
mouth. It is very common for the sub- 
stance to stick in the cornea, when, if it 
cannot be removed with a probe or fine for- 
ceps, the point of a lancet should be care- 
fully passed under it so as to lift it out. If, 
however, the removal cannot be effected 
without considerable difficulty, it is better 
to leave it to be detached by ulceration, 
taking every precaution to keep off undue ^ 
inflammation, by avoiding a strong lig^ht, 
fomenting with warm water, &c. To 
remove fine particles of gravel, lime, &c., 
the eye should he syringed with hike warm 
water till free from them ; enjoining the 
patient afterwards to abstain from worrying 
the eye, under the impression that the sub- 
stance is still there, which the enlargement 
of some of the minute vessels cnakos hiiD 
believe to be actually the case. 



ART OF GOOD BEHAV.OVR 



ART OF GOOD BEHAVIOUR. 

Thbke aia numberless writers upon thia subject, from Chesterfield to Willis, but the 
reat fault with all of them is that their works are designed exclusively for the boji ton. 

hey ate very well for those who spend tueir whole lives in the fashionable circles ; but 
if a plain, unpretending man or woman were to follow their directions, they would only 
make themselves ridiculous. 

In view of this fact, I shall now present a few plain directions, fashioned not after an 
imaginary model, but upon the world as it is. I address only sensible persons, and expect 
them to be satisfied with such rules and principles as shall form well-bred men and women, 
and not coxcombs and dandies. My directions are all the result of my own observation and 
experience, and may be relied upon as being the actual practices of respectable people, 
both in this country and in Europe ; for the manners of well-bred people are the same in 
all parts of the world. 



(1.) Of the Person- 
Cleanliness, absolute purity of person, is 
the first requisite in the appearance of a 
gentleman or lady. Not only should the 
face and hands be kept clean, but the whole 
skin should be subjected to frequent ablu- 
tions. Better wear coarse clothes with a 
clean skin, than silk stockings drawn over 
dirty feet. Remember that dirt is the never- 
failing sign of vulgarity, as cleanliness is of 
gentility. Let the whole skin be kept pure 
and sweet, the teeth and nails and hair, 
clean, and the last two of a medium length, 
and naturally cut. Nothing deforms a man 
more than bad hair-cutting, and unnatural 
deformity in wearing it. Abstain from alf 
eccentricities. Take a medium between nature 
and fashion, which is perhaps the best rule 
in regard to dress and appearance that can 
be given. 

(2.) Dresx. 

The importance of dress can scarcely 
be overrated, but by comparison. It is 
with the world the outward sign of both 
character and condition, and since it costs 
no more to dress well than ill, and is not 
V(!ry troublesome, every one should endea- 
vour to do the best that his circumstances 
will allow. 

A clean, unrumplcd shirt, coarse or fine, 
cotton or linen as you can afford, is of the 
first importance. If the choice is between 
a fine shirt or a fine coat, have the shirt by 
all means. A well bred man may be ever 
80 reduced in his wardrobe — his clothes 
may be coarse and thread-bare, but he sel- 
dom wears a coarse, and never a dirty shirt. 



Boots are now men's common wear on 
all occasions, varying in elegance for differ- 
ent purposes. They should always be 
clean, and invariably well blacked and pol- 
ished. 

Make a point of buying a good hat. One 
proper fur hat worth four or five dollars, 
when a year old, looks more respectable, 
than a silk one bought yesterday. 

Be as particular as you like about the cut 
of your pantaloons. Run into no extrava- 
gances of bell bottoms, or puckered waists. 
Buy strong cloth that will not be tearing at 
every turn, and if you consult economy and 
taste at the same time, let them be either 
black or very dark grey, when they will 
answer upon all occasions. 

The vest allows of some fancy, but be- 
ware of being too fanciful. A black satin is 
proper for any person or any occasion. 
Nothing is more elegant than pure white. 
Some quiet colours maybe worn for variety 
but beware of every thing staring or glar 
ing, in materials or trimmings. 

If you have but one coat, it will be a bhck 
dress coat, as there are occasions where no 
other will answer. Frock coats are woni 
in the morning, riding or walking, but 
never at evening visits, or at weddings, 
balls, parties, or the opera. Overcoats are 
worn for comfort ; they need not be fine and 
should not be fanciful. Stocks are pretty 
much out of use. Most gentlemen wear a 
simple, plain black silk cravat, neatly tied 
in a bow-knot before. Balls and parties 
require white or light kid gloves. Black, 
or very dark ones, of kid, silk or linen are 
worn upon all other occasions, except in 



ART OF GOOD BEHAVIOUR. 



driving, when buff leather gloves are 
preferable. 

The best dressed men wear the least 
jewelry. Of all things avoid showy chains, 
large rings, and flashy gewgaw pins and 
broaches. All these things should be left 
to negroes, Indians and South Sea is- 
landers. 

The most proper pocket-handkerchiefs 
are of white linen. If figured, or bordered, 
it should be very delicately. 

Gloves are worn in the street, at church, 
and places of amusement. It is not enough 
to carry them — they are to he worn. 

Ladies are allowed to consult fancy, 
variety, and ornament, more than men, yet 
nearly the same rules apply. It is the 
mark of a lady to be always well shod. If 
your feet are small, don't spoil them by 
pinching — if large, squeezing them makes 
them worse. Be as moderate as you can 
about bustles. While it is the fashion you 
must wear them, but don't lay them on too 
thick. Above all, as you regard health, 
comfort, and beauty, do not lace too tightly. 
A waist too small for the natural proportion 
of the figure is the worst possible deformi- 
ty, and produces many others. No woman 
who laces tight can have good shoulders, a 
straight spine, good lungs, sweet breath, 
or is fit to be a wife and mother. 

The most elegant dresses are black or 
white. Common modesty will prevent in- 
decent exposure of the shoulders and bosom. 
A vulgar girl wears bright and glaring 
colours, fantastically made, a large, flaring, 
red, yellow, or sky blue hat, covered with 
a rainbow of ribbons, and all the rings and 
trinkets she can load upon her. Of course 
a modest well-bred young lady chooses the 
reverse of all this. In any assemblage, the 
most plainly dressed woman is sure to bs 
the most lady-like and attractive. Neat- 
ness is better than richness, and plainness 
better than display. Single ladies dress 
less in fashionable society than married 
ones, and all more plainly and substantially 
for walking or travelling, than on other 
occasions. 

In my opinion, nothing beyond a .simple, 
natural flower, ever adds to the beauty of 
a lady's head-dress. 

It is a general rule, applicable to both 
uexes, that persons are the best dressed, 
when you cannot remember how they were 
dressed. Avoid every thing out of the 
way, uncommon or grotesque. 

\3.) Behaviour in the Street. 
When you meet a gentleman with whom 
you are acquainted, yon bow, raising your 



hat slightly, with the left hand, which leaves 
your right at liberty to shake hands if yoB 
stop. If the gentleman is ungloved yon 
must take ofl!" yours, not otherwise. 

Meeting a lady, the rule is that she should 
make the first salute, or at least, indicate 
by her manner, that she recognizes you. 
Your bow must be lower, and your hat 
carried further from your head; b>.t vou 
never ofl^er to shake hands ; that is Ajt 
privilege. 

The right, being the post of hcnour, is 
given to superiors and ladies, except in the 
street, when they take the wall, as farthest 
from danger from passing carriages, in 
walking with or meeting them. 

In walking with a lady you are not 
bound to recognize gentlemen with whom 
she is not acquainted, nor have they in 
such a case, any right to salute, much jess 
to speak to you. 

Whenever or wherever you stand, to 
converse with a lady, or while handing her 
into or out of a carriage, keen your hat in 
your hand. 

Should her shoe become unlaced, or her 
dress in any manner disordered, fail not to 
apprize her of it, respectfully, and offer 
your assistance. A gentleman may hook 
a dress or lace a shoe with perfect pro- 
priety, and should bs able to do so grace- 
fully. 

Whether with a lady or gentleman, a 
street talk should be a short one ; and in 
either case, when you have passed the 
customary compliments, if you wish to con- 
tinue the conversation you must say, " Per- 
mit me to accompany you." 

Don't sing, hum, whistle, or talk to 
yourself in walking. Endeavour, besides 
being well dressed, to have a calm, good 
natured countenance. A scowl always be- 
gets wrinkles. It is best not to smoke at 
all in public, but none but a rufl^ian in grain, 
will inflict upon society tlie odour of a bad 
cigar, or that of any kind, on ladies. 

Ladies are not allowed upon ordinary 
occasions to take the arm of any one but a 
relative or an accepted lover in the street, 
and in the day time ; in the evening — in 
the fields, or in a crowd, wherever she may 
need protection, she should not refuse it. 
She should pass her hand over the gentle- 
man's arm, merely, but should not walk at 
arm's length apart, as country girls some- 
tim.es do. In v.alking with a gentleman 
the step of thelady mustbe lengthened, and 
his shortened, to prevent the hobbling ap- 
pearance of not keeping step. Of couise, 
the conversation of a stranger, beyond asking 
a necessary question, mustbe considered as a 
gross insult, and repelled with proper spirit 



ART OF GOOD BEHAVIOUR^ 



(4 ) Visiting. 

Of course, you ring or knock, and await 
Uie opening of the door. When this is 
done, you ask for the mistress of the house, 
not the master. 

Should she be not at home or engaged, 
you leave your card, where cards are used, 
or your compliments. Where there are 
several ladies in the family, you may ask 
for the ladies. Where people dine early, 
calls are not made until some time after 
dinner— in cities they are made from eleven 
till three. 

You leave ")ver-coat,cane, umbrella, &c., 
and if the call is of any length, your hat in 
the entry. A graceful bow, a pleasant 
smile, an easy way of paying the customary 
compliments, and suiting them to each per- 
son, no lesson can teach. In the presence 
of ladies, you are only silent when listening 
to them. You never yawn, nor lounge on 
your seat, nor interrupt, nor contradict, but 
by insinuation — you never tell unpleasant 
news, nor make ill-timed observations. 
Study to please, by a respectful demeanour, 
and an easy gaiety. Never be rude or bois- 
terous, or presuming. In short, it is much 
easier to tell what you should not do, than 
what you should — but there is one important 
direction, "never wear out your welcome." 
It is well to know how to enter a room, but 
it is much better to know when and how to 
leave it. If you have made a good impres- 
sion, a long story may wear it off— if a bad 
one, being tedious only makes it worse. 
Don't stand hammering and fumbling, and 
saying, " Well, I guess I must be going." 
When you are ready, go at once. It is 
very easy to sa}', " Miss Susan, your com- 
pany is so agreeable, that I am staying 
longer than T intended, but I hope to have 
the pleasure of seeing you again soon ; I 
wish you a good morning;" and, bowing, 
smiling, shaking hands, if the hand be prof- 
fered, you leave the room, if possible with- 
out turning your back ; you bow again at 
the front door, and if any eyes are following 
you, you still turn and raise your hat in the 
street. 

(5.) Introductions. 

The rule is, never to introduce oi:e person 
;& another without knowing that it is agree- 
able to both. Ladies are always to be con- 
sulted beforehand. Gentlemen are intro- 
<luced t") ladies, not ladies to gentlemen. 
fn other cases, the younger to the elder. 
Where ] ersons are equal, we " introduce " 
thum. Where there is much difference in 
age or station, we " present." 

A common form is, "Mr. Jones, Mr. 
Smith — Mr. Smith, Mc Jones." Messrs. 



Jones and Smith bow, shake hands, express 
their happiness at being made acquaioted 
with each other. 

When more ceremony is required, th» 
introducer says, " Miss Smith, permit me 
to introduce Mr. Jones to your acquaint- 
ance," or, " allow me to present " 

Coffee-house, steam-boat, and stage- 
coach acquaintances last only for the lime 
being. You are not obliged to know them 
afterwards, however familiar for the time, 
no more than a lady is required to recognize 
a gentleman with whom she has danced at 
public ball. 

(6.) Behaviour at Dinner. 

There is no situation in which one'fc 
breeding is more observed, than at the din- 
ner-table ; our work would therefore be 
incomplete without the proper directions as 
to its etiquette. 

If there are ladies, gentlemen offer their 
arms, and conduct them to the dining-room, 
according to their age or the degree of 
respect to be shown them. 

The lady of the house sits at the head of 
the table, and the gentleman opposite at thrj 
foot. The place of honour for gentlemen 
is on each side of the mistress of the house 
— for ladies on each side of the master. 
The company siiould be so arranged thai 
each lady will have some gentleman at her 
side to assist hor. Of course it is every 
gentleman's diKV, first of all to see that 
ladies near him are attended to. 

When napkins are provided, they are at 
once (carefully unfolded, and laid on the 
knees. Observe if grace is to be said, and 
keep a proper decorum. If soup is served, 
take a piece of bread in the left hand, and 
the spoon in the right, and sip noiselessly 
from the side of the spoon. Do not take two 
plates ol' the same kind of soup, and never 
tip up the plate. 

When regular courses are served, the 
next dish is fish. If silver or wide-pronged 
forks are used, eat with the fork in the right 
hand — the knife is unnecessary. 

Next come the roast and boiled meats. 
If possible the knife should never be put in 
the mouth at v\\, and if at all, let the edge 
be turned outward. Any thing taken into 
the mouth not fit to be swallowed, should 
be quietly renjoved with the fingers of the 
left hand, to that side of the plate. The 
teeth should be picked as little as possible, 
and never with fork or fingers. Carefully 
abstain from every act or observation that 
may cause disgust, such as spitting, blow- 
ing the nose, gulping, rinsing the mouth, 
&c. Should a gentleman send you wine 
at a public table, or ask the hoDout of a 



8 



ART OF GOOD BEHAVIOUR. 



glass with you, observe when he raises his 
glass, snd do the same, bowing, whether 
von drink or not. 

When the ladies leave the table, which 
they do tojjether at the signal of ihe mis- 
tress of the house, the gentlemen rise and 
conduct them to the door of the apartment, 
and then return to the table. This is in 
formal parties. 

If at dinner you are requested to help any 
one to sauce, do not pour it over the meat 
or vegetables, but on one side. If yon 
should have to carve and help a joint, do 
not load a person's plate — it is vulgar : also 
in serving soup, one ladleful to each plate 
is sufficient. 

Eat PEAS with a dessert spoon ; and curry 
also. Tarts and puddings are to be eaten 
with a spoon. 

As a general rule, in helping any one at 
table, never use a knife where you can use 
a spoon. 

Making a noise in chewing, or breathing 
hard in eating, are both unseemly habits, 
nnd ought to be eschewed. 

Never pare an apple or a pear for a lady 
unless she desire you, and then be careful 
10 use your fork to hold it ; you may some- 
times offer to divide a very large pear with 
or for a person. 

At some tables, large coloured glasses, 
partly filled with water, with a bit of lemon, 
are brought when the doth is removed. 
You dip a corner of your napkin in the 
water, and wipe your mouth, then rinse 
your fingers and wipe them on your napkin. 

The best general rule for a person unac- 
quainted with the usages of society, is to 
be cautious, pay attention, and do as he sees 
others do, who ought to know what is 
proper. Most of our blunders are the result 
of haste and want of observation. 

(7.) On Conversation. 

The object of conversation is to entertain 
and amuse. To be agreeable, you must 
learn to be a good listener. A man who 
monopolizes a conversation is a bore, no 
matter how great his knowledge. 

Never get into a dispute. State your 
opinions, but do not argue them. Do not 
contradict, and, above all, never offend by 
correcting mistakes or inaccuracies of fact 
or expression. 

Never lose temper — never notice a slight 
— never seem conscious of an alFront, unless 
it is of a gross character, and then punish 
it at once. You can never quarrel in the 
presence of ladies, but a personal indignity 
may be avenged any where. 

You are not required to defend your 
fiiends in company, unless the conversation 



is addressed to you ; but you may correct a 
statement of fact, if you know it to be 
wrong. 

Never talk at people, by hints, slurs, 
innuendoes, and such mean devices. If 
you have any thing to say, out witx. it 
Nothing charms more than candour, when 
united with good breeding. 

Do not call people by their names, in 
speaking to them. In speaking of your 
own children, never " Master " and " Miss " 
them — in speaking to other people of theirs, 
never neglect to do so. 

It is very vulgar to talk in a loud tone, 
and indulge in horse-laughs. Be very 
careful in speaking of subjects upon which 
you are not acquainted. Much is to be 
learned by confessing your ignorance — 
nothing can be by pretending to knowledge 
which you do not possess. 

Never tell long stories. Avoid all com 
mon slang phrases, and pet words. 

Of all things, don't attempt to be too fine. 
Use good honest English — and common 
words for common things. If you speak ol 
breeches, shirts, or petticoats, call them by 
their right names. The vulgarity is in 
avoiding them. 

(8.) General Rules of Behaviom . 

Having dressed yourself, pay no farthei 
attention to your clothes. Few things look 
worse than a continual fussing with youj 
attire. 

Never scratch your head, pick your teeth, 
clean your nails, or worse than all, pick 
your nose, in company ; all these things 
are disgusting. Spit as little as possible, 
and never upon the floor. 

Do not lounge on sofas, nor tip back your 
chair, nor elevate your feet. 

If you are going into the company of 
ladies, beware of onions, spirits and tobacco. 

If you can sing or play, do so at once 
when requested, without requiring to be 
pressed, or making a fuss. On the other 
hand, let your performance be brief, or, if 
never so good, it will be tiresome. When 
a lady sits down to the piano forte, some gen- 
tleman should attend her, arrange the musio 
stool, and turn over the leaves. 

Meeting friends in a public promenade, 
you salute them the first time in passing, 
and not every time you meet. 

Never tattle — nor repeat in one society 
any scandal or personal matter you hear in 
another. Give your own opinion of people 
if you please, but never repeat that of others. 

Meeting an acquaintance among strangers 
— in the street or a coffeehouse, never 
address him by name. It is vulgar and 
annoying. 



HOW TO GET RICH. 



HOW TO GET RICH. 

What will my reader give to know how to get rich'? Now 1 will not vouch thai 
the following rules will enable every person who may read them to acquire wealth, but 
this I will answer for, that if eiera man does grow rich by honest means, and retains hia 
wealth for any length of time, he must practise upon the principles laid down in the 
following essay. The remarks are not original with me, but I strongly commend them 
to the attention of every young man, at least as alfording the true secret of success in 
attaining wealth. A single perusal of such an essay, at an impressible moment, has 
oraetimes a very wonderful effect upon the disposition and character. 



FoRTUNE,they say, is a fickledame — full 
of her freaks and caprices ; who blindly 
distributes her favours without the slightest 
discrimination. So inconstant, so waver- 
ing is she represented, that her most faith- 
ful votaries can place no reliance on her 
promises. Disappointment, they tell us, 
is the lot of those who malie offerings at 
her shrine. Now, all this is a vile slander 
upon the dear, blind lady. 

Although wealth often appears theresult 
of mere accident, or a fortunate concurrence 
of favourable circumstances, without any 
exertion of skill or foresight, yet every 
man of sound health and unimpaired mind, 
may become wealthy if he takes the 
proper steps 

Foremost in the list of requisites, are 
honesty and strict integrity in every transac- 
tion of life. Let a man have ihe reputation 
of being fair and upright m his dealings, 
and he will possess the confidence of all 
Avho know him. Without these qualities 
every other merit will prove unavailing. 
Ask concerning a man, " Is he active and 
capable?" Yes. " Industrious, temperate 
and regular in his habits?" 0, yes. "Ishe 
honest? is he trust- worthy?" Why, as to 
that, I am sorry to say he is not to be 
trusted ; he wants watching ; he is a little 
tricky, and will take an undue advantage, 
if he can. " Then, I will have nothing to 
do with him ; " will be the invariable reply. 
Why, then, is honesty the best policy? 
Because, without it, you will get a bad 
flame, and every body will shun you. 

A character for knavery will prove an 
insurmountable obstacle to success in al- 
mosil every undertaking. It will be found 
that the straight line is in business, as in 
geometry, the shortest. In a word, it is 
almost impossible for a dishonest maa to 



acquire wealth by a regular process of 
business ; because he is shunned as a de- 
predator upon society. 

Needy*men are apt to deviate from the 
rule of integrity, under the plea that neces- 
sity knows no law : they might as well add, 
that it knows no shame. The course is 
suicidal, and by destroying all confidence, 
ever keeps them immured in poverty, al- 
though they may possess every other 
quality for success in the woild. 

Punctuality, which is said to be the soul 
of business, is another important element 
in the art of money-getting. The man 
known to be scrupulously exact in the ful- 
filment of his engagements, gains the con- 
fidence of all, and may command all the 
means he can use to advantage ; whereas, 
a man careless and regardless of his pro- 
mises in money matters, will have every 
purse closed against him. Therefore be 
prompt in your payments. 

Next let us consider the advantages of a 
cautious circumspection in our intercourse 
with the world. Slowness of belief, and a 
proper distrust are essential to success. 
The credulous and confiding, are ever the 
dupes of knaves and impostors. Ask those 
who have lost their property, how it hap 
pened, and you will find in most cases, it 
has been owing to misplaced confidence. 
One has lost by endorsing ; another by 
crediting ; another by false representations -, 
all of which, a little more foresight, and a 
little more distrust would have prevented 
In the affairs of this world men are saved 
not by faith, but by the want of it. 

Judge of men by what they do, not by 
what they say. 13elieve in looks, rather 
than in words. Observe all their move- 
ments. Ascertain their motives and their 
ends. Notice what they say and do in 



10 



now TO GET RICH. 



their unguarded moments, when under the 
influence of excitement. The passions have 
been compared to tortures, which force 
men to reveal their secrets. Before trust- 
ing a man ; before putting it in his power 
to cause you a loss, possess yourself of 
every available information relative to him. 
Learn his histor}', his habits, inclinations 
and propensities ; his reputation for honesty, 
industry, frugality and punctuality ; his 
prospects, resources, supports, advantages 
and disadvantages; his intentions and mo- 
tives of action ; who are his friends and 
enemies, and what are his good or bad 
qualities. You may learn a man's good 
qualities and advantages from his friends — 
his bad qualities and disadvantages from his 
enemies. Make due allowance for exagge- 
ration in both. Finally, examine carefully 
before engaging in anything, and act with 
energy afterwards. Have the hundred 
eyes of Argus before-hand, and the hun- 
dred hands of Briarius afterwards. 

Order and System in the management of 
business must not be neglected. Nothing 
contributes more to despatch. Have a place 
for every thing, and every thing in its place; 
a time for every thing, and every thing in 
its time. Do first what presses most, and 
having determined what is to be done, and 
how it is to be done, lose no time in doing 
it. Without this method, all is hurry and 
confusion, little or nothing is accomplished, 
and business is attended to with neither 
I)ieasure nor profit. 

A polite, affable deportment is recom- 
mended. Agreeable manners contribute 
powerfully to a man's success. Take two 
men, possessing equal advantages in every 
other respect, but let one be gentlemanly, 
kind, obliging and conciliating in his man- 
ners; the other harsh, rude and disoblig- 
ing, and the one will become rich, where 
the other will starve. 

We are now to consider a very import- 
ant principle in the business of mone3'-get- 
ting, namely, — ^ Industry — Persevering 
indefatigable attention to business. Per- 
severing Diligence is the Philosopher's 
stone, which turns every thing to gold. 
Constant, regular, habitual and systematic 
application to business must, in time, if 

firoperly directed, produce great results. 
t must lead to wealth with the same 
certainty that poverty follows in the train 
of idleness and inattention. It has been 
truly remarked, that he who follows his 
amusements instead of his business, will in 
a short time have no business to follow. 

The art of monev-saving is an important 
part of the art of money-getting. Without 
inif slity no one can become rich ; with it 



few would be poor. Those who consume 
as fast as they prod ace, are on tiie road to 
ruin. As most of the poverty we meet 
with, grows out of idleness and extrava- 
gance, so most large fortunes have been the 
result of habitual industry and frugab'ty. 
The practice of economy is as necessary m 
the expenditure of time, as of money. 
They say that, if " we take care of the 
pence, the pounds will take care of them- 
selves." So, if we take care of tie mi- 
nutes, the days will take care of them- 
selves. 

The acquisition of wealth, demands as 
much self-denial, and as many sacrifices of 
present gratification, as the practice of vir- 
tue itself. Vice and poverty proceed, in 
some degree, from the same sources, name- 
ly—the disposition to sacrifice the future to 
the present ; the inability to forego a small 
present pleasure for great future advantages. 
Men fail of fortune in this world, as they 
fail of happiness in the world to come ; 
simply, because they are unwilling to deny 
themselves momentary enjoyments for the 
sake of permanent future happiness. 

Every large city is filled with persons, 
who, in order to support the appearance of 
wealth, constantly live beyond their in- 
come, and make up the deficiency by con- 
tracting debts which areneverpaid. Others 
there are, the mere drones of society, who 
pass their days in idleness, and subsist by 
pirating on the hives of the industrious. 
Many who run a short-lived career of 
splendid beggary, could they but be per- 
suaded to adopt a system of rigid economy 
for a few years, might pass the remainder 
of their days in affluence. But no ! They 
must keep up appearances, they must live 
like other folks. Their debts accumulate ; 
their credit fails ; they are harrassed by 
duns, and besieged by constables and 
sheriffs. In this extremity , as a last resort, 
they often submit to a shameful dependence, 
or engage in criminal practices, which 
entail hopeless wretchedness and infamy 
on themselves and families. 

Stick to the business in which you are 
regularly employed. Let speculators make 
their thousands in a year or day ; mind 
your own regular trade, never turning from 
it to the right hand or the loft. If you are 
a merchant, a professional man, or a me- 
chanic, never buy lots or stocks unleea 
you have surplus monej^ which you wish 
to invest. Your own business you under- 
stand as well as other men ; but other peo- 
ple's business you do not understand. Let 
your business be some one which is useful to 
the community. All such occupations pos- 
sess the elements of profit in themselVeJi 



OS THE CHOICE OF MEATS AMD HOW TO COOK THEM. 



11 



aA THE CHOICE OF MEATS AND HOW TO COOK THEM. 

This 's one of the most important branches of household affairs. There is not one 
person m fifty who is capable of selecting good meats if his butcher chooses to impose 
upon him ; and as for cooking, T suppose every one will admit there is room enough for 
reform in this department, all the world over. I have therefore taken paii;s to prepare 
a complete system of rules and observations by which any person of ordinary prudence 
and sagacity can not only purchase good meats, but have them cooked properly. 



(1.) Venison. 
If the fat be clear, bright and thick, and 
the cleft part smooth and close, it is young; 
but if the cleft is wide and tough, it is old. 

(2.) Beef. 

If the flesh of ox-beef is young, it will 
have a fine smooth open grain, be of good 
red, and feel tender. The fat should look 
white rather than yellow ; for when that is 
of a deep colour, the meat is seldom 
good ; beef fed by oil cakes is in general 
so. and the flesh is flabby. 

In roasting beef, 10 pounds will take 
above two hours and a half: 20 pounds 
three hours and three quartei-s. 

(3.) Veal. 

The flesh of a bull-calf is firmest, but not 
80 white. The fillet of the covt^-calf is 
generally preferred for the udder. The 
whitest is the most juicy, having been made 
80 by frequent bleeding. 

Veal and mutton should have a little 
paper put over the fat to preserve it. If 
not fat enough to allow for basing, a little 
good dripping answers as well as butter. 

(4.) Mutton. 

Choose this by *he fineness of its grain, 
good colour, and firm white fat. 

A neck of mutton will take an hour and 
a half, if kept a proper distance. A chin 
of pork, two hours. 

(5.) Lamb. 
Observe the neck of a fore quarter ; if 
the vein is bluish, it is fresh ; if it has a 
green or yellow cast, it is stale. 

(6.) Pork. 

Pinch the lean, and if young it will break. 

II the rind is tough, thick and cannot easily 

be impressed by the finger it is old. A 

thin rind is a merit in all pork. When 



fresh, the flesh will be smooth and cool ; it 
clammy it is tainted. 

A leg of pork, or lamb, takes the allow 
ance of twenty minutes, above a quarter of 
an hour to a pound. 

(7.) Bacon. 
If the rind is thin, the fat firm, and of a 
red tinge, the lean tender, of a good coloar 
and adhering to the bone, you may conclude 
it good, and not old. 

(8.) Hams. 

Stick a sharp knife under the bone : if it 
comes out clean with a pleasant smell, the 
ham is good ; but if the knife is daubed 
and has a bad scent, do not buy it. 

A ham of tv/enty pounds will take four 
hours and a half, and others in proportion. 

A tongue, if dry. takes four hours slow 
boiling, after soaking ; a tongue out of 
pickle, from two hours and a half to three 
hours, or more if very large ; it must be 
judged by feeling whether it is very tender. 

Put the meat in cold water, and flour it 
well first. Meat boiled quick will be hard ; 
but care must be taken that in boiling slow 
it does not stop, or the meat will be under 
done. 

If the steam is kept in, the water will 
not lessen much ; therefore when you wish 
it to boil away, take off the cover of the 
soup-pot. 

Vegetables should not be dressed with 
the meat, except carrots or parsnips with 
boiled beef. 

Weigh the meat: and allov.- for all solid 
joints a quarter of an hour for every pound, 
and some minutes (from ten to twenty) 
over, according as the family like it done. 

The meat should be put at a good distance 
from the fire, and brought gradually nearer 
when the inner part becomes hot, which 
will prevent its being scorched while yet 
raw. Meat should be much basted, and 



12 



ON THE CHOICE OF MEATS AND HOW TO COOK THEM. 



■when nearly June, floured to make it look 
frothed. 

In roasting meat it is a very good way to 
put a little salt and water into the dripping- 
pan, and baste for a while with it, before 
using its own fat or dripping. When dry, 
dust it with flour, and baste as usual. 

Salting meat before it is put to roast 
draws out the gravy ; it should only be 
sprinkled when almost done. 

(9.) For Roasting. 
The cook must order a fire according to 
what she is to dress. If any thing little or 
thin, then a brisk little fire, that it may be 
done quick and nice. If a very large joint, 
be sure that a good fire is laid to cake : let 
it be clear at the bottom, and when the 
meat is half done, move the dripping-pan 
and spit a little from the fire, and stir it up. 
The spit ought to be kept very clean, and 
ought to be rubbed with nothing but sand 
and water. Wipe it with a dry cloth. — 
Oil, brick-dust, &c. will spoil the meat. 

(10.) To Roast Pork. 
When you roast a loin, take a sharp 
penknife and cut the skin across, to make 
the crackling eat the better. Roast a leg 
of pork thus : take a knife and score it ; 
stuff the knuckle part with sage and onion, 
chopped fine with pepper and salt ; or cut 
a hole under the twist, and put the sage, 
&c. there, and skewer it up. Roast it crisp. 
Make apple sauce and send up in a boat ; 
then have a little drawn gravy to put in 
the dish. This is called a mock goose. 
The spring, or hand of pork, if young, 
roasted like a pig, eats very well, otherwise 
It is better boiled. The spare- rib should be 
basted with a bit of butter, a little flour, 
and some sage shred small : never make 
any sauce to it but apple. The best way 
to dress pork griskins is to roast them, baste 
them with a little butter and sage, and 
pepper and salt. — Pork must be well done. 
To every pound allow a quarter of an hour : 
for example, a joint of 12 pounds weight 
will require three hours, and so on. If it 
be a thin piece of that weight, two hours 
will roast it. 

(11.) To Roast Veal. 
Be careful to roast veal of a fine brown 
colour ; if a large joint, have a good fire ; 
if small, a little brisk fire. If afillet or a 
loin, be sure to paper the fat, that you lose 
as little of that as possible : lay it at some 
distance from the fire, till it is soaked, then 
lay it near the fire. When you lay it down, 
baste it well with good butter ; and when it 



is near done, baste it again, and drudge b 
with a little flour. The breast must b« 
roasted with the caul on till it is done enough; 
skewer the sweet bread on the back side of 
the breast. When it is nigh done, take off 
the caul, baste it, and drudge it with a little 
flour. Veal takes much about the same 
time in roasting as pork. 

(12.) To Roast Beef. 

•Paper the top, and baste it well, while 
roasting, with its own dripping, and throw 
a handful of salt on it. When you see the 
smoke draw to the fire, it is near enough; 
take off the paper, baste it well, and drudge 
it with a little flour to make a fine froth. 
Never salt roast meat before you lay it to 
the fire, for it draws out the gravy. If you 
would keep it a few days before you dress 
it, dry it with a cloth, and hang it where 
the air will come to it. When you take 
up the meat, garnish the dish with horve- 
radish. 

(13.) To Roast a Pig. 

Spit a pig, and lay it to the fire, which 
must be a very good one at each end, oi 
hang a flat iron in the middle of the grate. 
Before you lay the pig down, take a little 
sage shred small, a piece of butter as big 
as a walnut, and pepper and salt, put them 
in the pig, and sew it up with a coarse 
thread ; flour it well over, and keep flour- 
ing till the eyes drop out, or you find the 
crackling hard. Be sure to save all the 
gravy that comes out of it, by setting basins 
or pans under the pig in the dripping pan, 
as soon as the gravy begins to run. When 
the pig is done enough, stir the fire up ; take 
a coarse cloth with about a quarter of a 
pound of butter in it, and rub the pig over 
till the crackling is crisp, then take it up. 
Lay it in a dish, and with a sharp knife cut 
off the head, then cut the pig in two, before 
you draw out the spit Cut the ears off 
the head, and lay them at each end; cut 
the under jaw in two, and lay the parts on 
each side : melt some gocd butter, lake the 
gravy you saved, and put in it, boil it, pour 
it in the dish with the brains bruised fine, 
and the sage mixed together, and then send 
it to the table. — If just killed, a pig will 
require an hour to roast ; if killed the day 
before, an hour and a quarter. If a very largo 
one, an hour and a half. But the best way 
to judge is when the eyes orop uat, and the 
skin is growing very hard . then rub it 
with a coarse cloth, with a good piece of 
butter rolled in it, till the crackling is crisp 
and of a light brown colour. 



ON THE CHOICE OF MEATS AND HOW TO COOK THEM. 



13 



Timo, disiance, basting often, and a clear 
5re of a proper size for what is required, 
are the first articles of a good cook's atten- 
cion in roasting. 

(14.) To Roast Mutton and Lamb. 

In roasting mutton the loin, haunch, and 
saddle, must be done as beef; but all other 
parts of mutton and lamb must be roasted 
with a quicic, clear fire ; baste it when you lay 
it down ; and just before you take it up, 
drudge it with a little flour; but be sure 
not to use loo much, for that takes away 
all the fine taste of the meat. Some choose 
to skin a loin of mutton and roast it brown ; 
be sure always to take the skin olTa breast of 
mutton. A leg of mutton of 6 pounds will 
take an hour at a quick fire ; if frosty 
weather, an hour and a quarter : 9 pounds, 
an hourand a half ; a leg of 12 pounds will 
take two hours ; if frosty two hours and a 
half. 

(15.) To Roast Venison. 

Spit a haunch of vCTiis^n, and butter well 
four sheets of paper wo of which put on 
the haunch ; then make a paste with flour, 
butter, and water, roll it out half as big as 
the haunch, and put it over the fat part ; 
then put the other two sheets of paper on, 
and tie them with pack thread : lay it to a 
brisk fire, and baste it well all the time of 
roasting. If a large haunch of 24 pounds, 
it will take three hours and a half, uuless 
there is a very large fire; then tiiree hours 
will do : smaller in proportion. 

(IG.) To Roast a Tongue or Udder. 
Parboil it first, then roast it, stick 8 or 10 
cloves about it, baste it with butter, and 
have gravy and sweet sauce. An udder 
eats very dcliciously done the same way. 

(17.) To Roast a Leg of Pork. 
Choose a small leg of fine young pork ; 
cut a Slit in the knuckle wiih asharp knife, 
and fill the space with sage and onion 
chopped, and a little pepper and salt. 
When half done, score the skin in slices, 
but do not cut deeper than the outer rind. 
Apple-sauce and potatoes should be served 
to eat with it. 

(18.) Rolled Neck of Pork. 
Bone it ; put a forcemeat of choppea sage, 
a very few crumbs of bread, salt, pepper, 
and two or three berries of alspice, over 
the inside; then r)ll tlie meat as tight as 
you can, and roas' it slowly, and at a good 
distance at first. 

(19.) Spare-Rib. 
Should be basted with a very little butter 
and a little flour, and then sprinkled with a 
little dried sape crumb'ed. Apple-sauce 
tad potatoes for roasted pork 



(20.) Beef a-la-Mode. 
Choise a piece of thick lank of a iina 
heifer or ox. cut into long slices some fat 
bacon, but quite free from yellow ; let each 
bit be near an inch thick ; dip them into 
vinegar, and then into a seasoning ready 
prepared, of salt, black pepper, alspice, and 
a clove, all in a fine powd t, with parsley, 
chives, thyme, savory, and knotted marjo- 
rum, shred as small as possible, and well 
mixed. With a sharp knife make holes 
deep enough to let in the larding, then rub 
the beef over with the seasoning, and bind 
it up tight with tape. Set it in a well 
tinned pot over afire or rather stove ; three 
or four onicnis must be fried brown and put 
to the beef, with two or three carrots, one 
turnip, a head or two of celery, and a small 
quantity of water, let it simmer gently ten 
or twelve hours, or till extremely tender, 
turning the meat twice. 

(21.) Rolled Beef that equals Hare 
Take the inside of a large sirloin, soak it 
in a glass of vinegar mixed, for forty-eight 
hours ; have ready a very fine stuffing, and 
bind it up tight. Roast it on a hanging 
spit, and baste it with a glass of port wine, 
the same quantity of vinegar, and a tea- 
spoonful of pounded alspice. Larding im- 
proves the look and flavour : serve with 
rich gravy in the dish ; currant-jellv and 
melted butter in tureens. 

(22.) Leg of Veal. 
Let the fillet be cut large or small, as 
best suits the number of your company. 
Take out the bone, fill the space with fine 
stufilng, and let it be skewered quite round ; 
and send the large side uppermost. When 
half roasted, if not before, put a paper over 
the fat ; and take care to allow a sufficient 
time, and put it a good distance from the 
fire, as the meat is very solid; serve with 
melted butter poured over it. You may 
pot some of it. 

(23.) Stewed Beef Steaks 
Beat them with a little rolling pin, flour 
.nd season, then fry with sliced onion of a 
fine light brown, lay the steaks into a stew- 
pan, and pour as much boiling water over 
tliAn as will serve for sauce ; <stew then? 
va^y gently half an hour, and add a spoon- 
ful of catsup, or walnut liquor, before you 
serve. 

(24.) Cucumber Sauce. 
Put into a sauce-pan a piece of butter 
rolled in flour, some salt, pepper, and one 
or two pickled cucumbers minced fine. — 
Moisten it with boiling water. Let it stew 
gently a few minutes, and serve it up. 



14 



*N THE TKEATMENT OF NFANT8. 



ON THE TREATMENT OF INFANTS. 

Would that parents generally were aware of the importance and adequately understood 
the principles of properly taking care of children. One half of the diseases of mature 
Jife have their origin in our early years. 

In the following treatise may be found a complete code of precepts for the bringing up 
of children. It is from the highest medical authority, and I cannot too highly commend 
it to the attention of all parents and all those who ever expect to become such. 



(1.) Rules for treatment of the Child after 
Birth and before Weaning. 

Give the breast within twelve or eighteen 
hours after birth at latest. 

Foment the breasts with warm water if 
the milk does not flow ; avoid rubbing the 
breasts with spirits. 

If there be too much milk, drink little, 
and take opening medicine. 

As a nurse, wear easy dresses about the 
bosom atid chest. 

Keep down the tendency of the abdomen 
to enlarge, by exercise 

If the nipple is small or turned in, have it 
drawn by an older or stronger infant, not by 
artificial means ; but let the new-born child 
have the first milk. 

Choose a hired wet nurse [when required] 
nearly of the same age with the mother, 
like her in constitutional peculiarities, and 
who has been confined about the same time. 

When nursing, live on nutritious but not 
heavy diet. A f\ill habit requires less 
nutriment, than a delicate constitution. 
Stimulating liquors are to be avoided. 
Simple diluents, such as tea, are quite 
enough as drinks for many mothers. 

The mother's milk is the best food for 
the new-born child for three months 

An infant from two to four months old, 
requires to be suckled once about every 
three hours. 

The best substitute for the breast, but as 
temporary as possible, is asses' or diluted 
X>ws' milk ; but on no account should fari- 
naceous food be given at this early period. 

Apply a flannel bandage to the lower 
part of the body in bowel complaints. A 
warm bath soothes irritation. 

After six months an approach may be 
made to more solid diet. 

Raise up the child after feeding. 

Give no stimulants, caraway-seeds, car- 
minativos, &c. ; they are most pernicious. 



Give as little medicine to a child a« 
possible, and always by advice. 

Never over-feed, and never stop crying 
by feeding. 

Avoid rough jolting and patting of the 
back. 

Train an infant to regularity in all its 
wants. 

(2.) Rules for Weaning. 

Wean gradually, discontinuing suckling in 
the night : the gradual change is beneficial 
to both mother and child. Avoid weaning 
in severe weather. 'J'ake for yourself a 
cooling purgative, and refrain from fluids 
and stimulating diet. 

In weaning, apply to the breasts thrcB 
ounces compound soap liniment, three 
drachms laudanum, one draclim camphor 
liniment. If this is too irritating, foment 
with warm water, or poppy liuads and cam- 
omile flowers boiled together in water. 
Avoid tightness or pressure from the dress, 
and all roughness, for fear of al>scess 
Avoid drawing the breasts-, avoid exposure 
to cold. 

(3.) Rules for treatment after Weaning — 
Food. 

Study the child's constitution, digestive 
powers, teeth, strength, and proportion tho 
Idnd and quantity of food. 

Animal food in small quantity once a-day, 
if the teeth can masticate, is necessary when 
there is ripid growth. 

Avoid too nourishing a diet with aviol&ct 
tempered child. 

Give a nourishing diet to a white looking 
lymphatic child. 

Both overfeeding and underfeeding pro- 
duce scrofula and consumption. 

The spoiled and petted child is injured 
both in health and temper. 

Avoid seasoned dishes, fried ana salted 



ON THE TREATMENT OF INFANTS. 



1^ 



meats, pastry, uncooXed vegetables, unripe 
fruits, wine and rich cake. 

Insist on thorough chewing or masti- 
cation, 

Never tempt the appetite when disin- 
clined. 

Vary the food from day to day, but avoid 
variety at one meal. 

Animal food should be tender, and eaten 
with a little salt, vegetables, and bread. 

Take care that the child's food is well 
cooked. Give no new bread. 

Sweeimeals and confections are only to 
be given to children in a very sparing man- 
ner, if given at all. Never pamper or 
reward with eatables. 

(4) Rules for Sleep. 

Allow the child plenty of sleep without 
disturbance. 

Avoid accustoming the child to sleep on 
the lap ; it will not sleep in bed if so accus- 
tomed. 
^^ Establish times for regular sleeping. 

Keep the hands, feet and face comfortably 
warm — blankets are better than sheets. 

Support every part of the body, raising 
by a slope the head and shoulders. 

Avoid laying the child in the same bed 
with an adult, unless for a short time to 
restore warmth if it fail. 

riever rouse the child by play when taken 
up during the night. 

(5.) Rules for Clothing. 

In the first stage of infancy, warmth 
depends on clothing alone, for there is no 
muscular movement. 

Avoid a degree of warmth which pro- 
duces sensible perspiration. 

Flannel and calico are the best materials 
in all seasons. 

Dress the child loosely, and fasten with 
•trings, not with pins. 

The umbilical cord, navel, and belly- 
band, require much attention. 

Avoid keeping the child's head too warm 
or its feet cold. 

Avoid chilling the child, or taking it 
abroad in cold weather. 

Attend to the form and size of the child's 
shoes, so that the feet shall not be cramped. 

The practice of plunixing infants into cold 
water, to r< nder them hardy, is exceedingly 
dangerous. 

Let a child's washing be very completely 
and carefully performed. Keep the child 
ilways j)erfectiy clean and neat. 

Be very attentive to ventilate the apart- 
ment where a child lives, but never expose 
it to draught* of air 



Begin early to form habits of peraonil 
cleanliness and delicacy. 

(6.) Vaccination. 
Let the child be vaccinated from six weekt 
to two months after birth, and that by a 
proper medical attendant. VaccinatioD 
should take place before teething. 

(7.) Deformities and Distortions. 

Consult the surgeon upon the first appear^ 
ance of any deformity ; and do not allow 
fears for giving pain to the child prevent 
the use of the necessary remedies. 

Be very vigilant with rickets or soft bones. 
Never allow the rickety child to support its 
own weight. It ought to be kept on its 
back for many months, and carried about 
on a little mattress on a board or tray, and 
have nourishing diet, and the proper medi- 
cines to give solidity to the bones. 

Never jerk or swing children by the arms ; 
much mischief has been done by this 
practice. 

When a child falls or meets with any 
accident, it is highly culpable in a nurse to. 
conceal it. If she do not immediately men- 
tion it, she may be the cause of the child's 
deformity and lameness for life. 

With proper attention, a tendency to be 
Ifl handed may be easily cured in a cliild. 

Prevent ail tricks and ill-habits which 
injure the features and organs; such as 
stuffing the nostrils, ears, &c., distending 
the mouth with too large a spoon. 

Curvature of the spine is of very frequent 
occurrence from mismanaging children, by 
tight lacing, lonjr sitting without support 
to the back — (all school seats nnd forms 
should have backs.) Take all deformities 
of the spine in time, before they get fixed. 

(8.) Precocity. 

When a child appears to be over-intellj 
gent, or too clever, or loise for its age. this 
is a symptom of an unnatural development 
of the brain; it is a kind of disease. Avoid, 
therefore, exercising the child's ability; 
treat ii as an animal, with nutritive food, 
muscular out-door exercise, and plenty of 
sleep ; and do this, and this only, for some 
years. 

No child should be kept for more than a 
few minutes at a time engaged in mental 
study. 

(9 ) Stammering and Defective Articulation. 

This defect, with care, maybe cured ; ot 
rather, when it is first threatened, it may be 
prevented. 



16 



ON .'HE TREATMENT OF INFANTS. 



Praclise the child in letters or articula- 
tions where a peculiar defect appears. 

(10.) Squinting. 

Watch this very common weakness : 
ehecli it in the infant by holding the hand 
over the eyes till they are shut ; and when 
opened ajrain, if they have not assumed a 
proper position, repeat the operation. It 
may have often to he repeated. Careless 
nurses are very apt to prodiux squinting 
in children. 

An ingenious and effectna! mode of curing 
squinting has been discovered, and is now 
practised by surgeons. 

(11.) Teething. 
The hrst sign of teething is heat in the 
mouth of the child — felt by the mother dur- 
ing sucking — (low of saliva — biting and 
grinding the gums. A piece of India-rubber 
is better than coral, ivory, or any hard sub- 
stance, for rubbing the gums. 

When the child is much distressed, have 
recourse to medical aid. 

When the bowels are confined, give with- 
out delay a gentle purgative, such as castor- 
oil, muiina, magnesia, or senna. The warm 
bath at 1)6 degrees sooilies the child. 

A child's mouth should be often exam- 
ined, even after three years of age. Way- 
ward temper, cough, and even croup, have 
been traced to cutting a double tooth. 

Do not hesitate to allow the child's gums 
to be lanced. 

(12.) Exercise — Walhng Alone. 
Very little motion, and that of the gen- 
tlest and most careful kind, is all the infant 
should have for a considerable time after 
birth. 

Avoid the upright posture as much as 
possible. 

Avoid all sudden and violent jerking, and 
long-continued positions. 

Allow the child to move its limbs freely, 
on the floor or in bed. 

Watch the first efforts of the child to walk 
alone, and interfere rather with eye and 
hand than by exclamations of caution and 
alarm : these last do much harm. 

Avoid sympathising too strongly with a 
child when hurt : assist quietly, and show 
how the accident happened. Children who 
ate angry when hurl should see that you 
do not sympathise with their rage, although 
you do with their suflierings. 

Abjure all leading-strings and go-carts, 
or other artificial means of teacliing the 
child to walk. Never drag the child by 
one hand, or lift it bv either one oi both 
arms. 



When the child walks alone, it should 
not be permitted to over-fatigue itsell. 

I'he mother should have her eye both on 
child and its attendant out of doors, and be 
as much as she can in her child's company 

(13.) Moral Government. 

Anticipate and prevent fretfulness and 
ill-temper by keeping the child in good 
health, ease, and comfort. Never quiet 
with giving to eat, or by bribing in any way, 
still less by opiates. 

For the first few months avoid loud and 
harsh sounds in the hearing of children, or 
violent lights in their sight : address them 
in soft tones ; do nothing to frighten them; 
and never jerk or roughly handle them. 

Avoid angry words and violence both to 
a child and in its presence : by which 
means a naturally violent child may be train 
ed to gentleness. 

Moderate any propensity of a child, such 
as anger, violence, greediness for food, cun- 
ning, &c., which appears too active. Show 
him no example of these. 

Let the mother be, and let her select ser- 
vants such as siie wishes the child to be. 
The youngest child is affected by the con- 
duct of th(»se in whose arms he lives. 

Cultivate and express benevolence and 
cheerfulness ; in such an atmosphere, a 
child must become benevolent and cheerful. 

Let a mother feeJ as she ought, and she 
will look as she feels. Much of a child's 
earliest moral training is by looks and ges- 
tures. 

When necessary, exhibit firmness anrf 
authority, always with perfect temper, com 
posure and self posst^ssion. 

Never give the child that which it cries 
for ; and avoid being too ready in answer- 
ing children's demands, else they become 
impatient of refusal, and selfish. 

When the child is most violent, the 
mother should be most calm and silent 
Out-screaming a screaming child is as use- 
less as it is mischievous. Steady denial of 
the object screamed for is the best cure for 
screaming. 

In such contests, witnesses should with- 
draw, and leave mother and child alone. 
A child is very ready to look round and 
attract the aid of foreign sympathy in its 
little rebellions. 

Never promise to give when tlie child 
leaves off crying. Let the crying be the 
reason for not giving. 

Never strike a child, and never teach it 
to strike again. Never tell a child to beat 
or threaten any animal or object. Corpora, 
correction may be avoided by substitutes. 



DISEASES OF THE HAH 



17 



DISEASES OF THE HAIR. 

Nothing contributes so much to personal beauty as a good head of hair. Neveithe- 
sss, the hail has its diseases like other parts of the human frame. Appended will be 
found an accurate and scientific description of these diseases, from the highest medical 
autlioriliii', with prescriptions that may be implicitly relied on for their alleviation and 
care iilvery person who begios to find his hair loosen or prematurely turn grey, should 
read this essay, and practice its precepts. It will save him from being imposed on by 
(]uack nostrums if notiiing else. 



(1.) To remove superfluous Hair. 
With many persons it is an important 
question, How hairs in improper situations 
are to be disposed of? I wisb I could 
answer this question satisfactorily, for it 
is one that I have addressed to me very 
frequently. I know of no specific remedy 
for such a purpose. Substances are sold 
by the perfumers called dvpilatones, which 
are represented as having the power of re- 
moving hair. But the hair is not destroyed 
by these means, the root and that part of 
the shaft implanted within the skin still re- 
main, and are ready to shoot up with in- 
creased vigour as soon as the depilatory is 
withdrawn. The effect of the depilatory 
is the same in this respect as that of a razor, 
and the latter is unquestionably the better 
remedy. It must not, however, be imagined 
that depilatories are negative remedies, and 
that if they do no permanent good, they are 
at least harmless ; that is not the fact ; they 
are violent irritants, and require to be used 
with the utmost caution. This will be im- 
mediately seen when I inform my reader 
that depilatories are chiefly composed of 
quicklime, soda, and sulphuret of arsenic, 
all of which substances act by burning up 
and dissolving the hair. There could be 
no objection to this process, if it were con- 
ducted with safety to the skin ; but the 
depilatory requires to be laid on the skin 
cither in the form of powder or paste, and 
necessarily destroys the scarfskin at the 
same time that it acts on the hair, for the 
ficarf-sldn and hair are, as I have shown in 
prp'ieding chapters, identical in composi- 
tion After all, the safest depilatory is a 
|wur of tweezers and patience. 

(2.) Loosening of the Hair. 
I -will not advert to the loosening of the 
hair, which frequently occurs in yoang per- 



sons, or in those of the middle period of 
life, and which, if neglected, would become 
real baldness. Such a state as I am now 
describing is not uncommon in women, and 
generally terminates in its mildest form, in 
excessive loosening of the hair. The case, 
however, is far from being the hopeless one 
which is generally imagined ; and if proper 
treatment be pursued, the hair will grow 
afresh, and assume all its pristine strength. 
A useful practice in men, and those of the 
opposite sex whose hair is short, is to im- 
merse the head in cold water, morning and 
night, dry the hair thoroughly, and then 
brush the scalp, until a warm glow is pro- 
duced. In women with long hair this plan 
is objectionable ; and a better one is to brush 
the scalp until redness and a warm glow 
are produced, then dab among the roots of 
the hair one or other of the" following lo- 
tions. If the lotion produce smarting, or 
tenderness, the brush may be laid aside, 
but if no sensation is occasioned, the brush- 
ing should be resumed, and a second appli- 
cation of the lotion made. This treatment 
should be practised once or twice a day, or 
at intervals of a few days, according to the 
state of the scalp ; namely, if tender, less ; 
if insensible, more frequently. When the 
baldness happens in patches, the skin should 
be well brushed with a soft tooth-brush, 
dipped in distilled vinegar, morning and 
evening, or dipped in one of the following 
lotions : — 

Lotion for promoting the growth oftht Hair 

No. 1. 

Vineajar of cantharides, half-an-ounce 
Eau de Cologne, one ounce. 
Rose water, one ounce. 

No 2 
Eau de Cologne, two ounces. 
Tincture of cantharides, half-an-ouDC9 



18 



DISEASES OF THE HAIR. 



Oil of nutmegs, half-a-drachm 
Oil of lavander, ten drops. 
Mix. 

No. 3. 
Mezereon bark in small pieces, one ounce. 
Horseradish root in small pieces, one ounce. 
Boiling distilled vinegar, half-a-pint. 

Let this infusion stand for a week, and then 
strain through muslin for use. 

£f either of these lotions should be found 
too irritating to the skin, use them in smaller 
quantity and less frequently. I^'o. 3 may 
be diluted with more distilled vinegar. If 
they have the effect of making the hair 
harsh and dry, this inconvenience may be 
removed by the use of oil or pomatum after 
each application of the lotion. Pomatums 
for the growth of the hair are very inferior 
to the lotions, and the celebrated pomatum 
of Dupuytren is both clumsy and inefficient. 

(3.) To remedy premature greyness of the 
Hair. 
It must be a matter of common observa- 
tion, that in those instances in which the 
pigment presents the deepest hue, blanch- 
ing most frequently occurs, and greyness 
is most common ; while in persons of light 
hair and light complexion, blanching is 
eomparatively rare. There can be no doubt 
that the production in this climate of a dark 
pigment is a greater exertion to the econo- 
my than one of a lighter kind ; and hence, 
when the power of the nervous system is 
reduced, the formation of pigment is one ol" 
the first actions which sufiers. It is wisely 
ordained that it should be so, for colour of 
the hair is one of the conditions of existence 
most easily spared, and it is one also that 
may well serve as a monitor of human de- 
cay. When greyness shows itself in the 
hair, it is therefore an indication of want 
of tone in the hair-producing organs ; and 
if this tone can be restored, the hair would 
cease to change, and at the same time, 
further change would be prevented. The 
lotions for promoting the growth of the 
hair are remedies of this kind, and I know 
no better local means for chocking greyness. 
Thev must be used as recommended in the 
preceding paragraph. 

(4.) On dying the Hair. 
1 have heard of persons who have oeen 
led to adopt this artifice under the supposi- 
aoD that the hair being once dyed will 
grow for ever afver of that colour. If they 
had reflected in time that the dye acts only 
on 'he hair above the level of the surface, 
and that the hair continues to grow of the 
; ft'N'i^Sionable colour, so as to require a 
t. g y !j BSgetition of a disagreeable process . 



they would, I think, have hesitated before 
they had offered themselves as willing 
slaves to a barbarous practice. 

(5.) Altered direction of the Hair. 

Altered direction of the hair may be dis- 
cussed in a few words ; the only situalioB 
in which the hair is known to give rise to 
inconvenience by irregularity in the direo- 
tion of its growth, is upon the margin of 
the eyelids, where the lashes sometimes 
grow inwards, and by pressing against the 
front of the eyeball, occasion irritation, and 
even inflammation. When such a state as 
this occurs, the erring hair must be re- 
moved by means of a pair of fine tweezers, 
and the inflammation afterwards subdued 
by cooling and slightly astringent lotions. 

(6.) Ringworm. 

In the treatment of ringworm, the first 
point for attention is rigorous cleanliness : 
the head should be washed with a profusion 
of soap, and the hair carefully combed, to 
remove all loosened hairs and every particle 
of crust. When this has been done, the 
whole head, and particularly the disordered 
parts, should be well rubbed with the fol- 
lowing lotion, namely : — 

Ringivorm Lotion. 

Sublimate of mercury, five grains. 

Spirits of wine, two ounces. 

Tincture of musk, one drachm. 

Rose water, six ounces. 
Mix well. 

It must be recollected that the yellow mat- 
ter is not confined to the surface alone, but 
extends deeply into the hair-tubes, and 
the friction of the diseased parts with the 
finger, when well wetted with the lotion, 
is necessary to introduce the latter into the 
hair-tubes. Unless attention be paid to 
tills observation, the lotion might be used 
without ever reaching the seat of the disor- 
der, and of course without avail in respect 
of the cure of the disease. Another point to 
be noticed is the necessity of carrying the 
principle .of cleanliness to the sponges, 
combs, and towels used by the patient. 
The sponge and combs should be dipped in 
a weak solution of chloride of lime, and » 
clean towel employed at each washing 
Unless these pre" 'iitlons be adopted, the 
sponge, the comb, the >rush, the towel, 
may each corwey the sep>is of the vegeta- 
ble growth, and conseqaently the disease, 
back to "^f^ s".^\\,. 

T ivo. - said nothing abo'i*^ snaving tne 
head in ringworm, becausf m private life t 
know it to be quite uni.ecessary. 



OW THB PRESBRVAtlON OF THK SIGHT. 



19 



ON THE PRESERVATION OF THE SIGHT. 

There are no people in the world that suffer so much from weak eyes as the Ameri- 
cans, so at least T am assured by the ocu.ists. In the essay which follows will be found 
a complete treatise on the cure of the eyes, and the proper method of warding off the 
diseases to which they are subject. Let every one who perceives the slightest approach 
to weakness in his organs of sight, take counsel from the maxim that " an ounce of 
preventive is worth a pound of cure," a maxim of singular correctness in all that relates 
to the eyes. 



( 1 . ) Diameter of the pupil of the eye. 

In proportion to the expansion of the 
Dupil of the eye, is the sensibility of the 
organ : the mean diameter of the pupil, 
though varying from one to two tenths of 
an inch, in proportion to the brightness of 
objects, is reckoned to be commonly about 
one tenth of an inch. 

When the light is too strong, or the object 
too bright, the pupil contracts, that it may 
intercept the excess of light, by which the 
eye would otherwise be distressed : on the 
contrary, when the light is faint, the pupil 
expands, in order that a larger portion of it 
may be admitted by the eye, and thus a 
more powerful impression be made upon it. 

(2.) Injury of sudden Transitions of lic^ht. 
Sudden changes from comparative dark- 
iiess to strong light, and vice versa, are 
nighly improper : hence the eyes should be 
carefully guarded from the full effect of the 
.Tiorning sun on first awaking in summer ; 
and the custom of breakflisting in the lightest 
room in the house, as is generally practised. 
vs certainly weakening to the eyes, which 
ought to bo accustomed by gentle transitions 
from one degree of light to another, till 
rhey can bear the effulgence of the sun's 
meridian splendour. 

(3.) Cautions against rubhing the eyes. 

Rubbing the eyes on waking is a destruc- 
tive habit which many people have con- 
tracted; and though healthy persons, whose 
sight is moderately used through the day, 
may not be sensible of receiving any injury 
fiDm this custom ; yet those whose occupa- 
tions demand close application of their visual 
organs for any continued space of time, 
will soon be convinced by painful experience 
of the truth of this remark. Besides the 
daily injury thus done to the eyes, it some- 



times also happens that hairs and other 
foreign matters are forced into them by 
their being violently rubbed, which may 
occasion inflammation, and are frequently 
very troublesome to dislodge. The inflamed 
and weak eyes of many persons are like-. 
wise in a great measure to be attributed 
primarily to this most imprudent habit. 
Should, however, the eyelids be so fixed 
that a difficulty in opening them is felt, let 
them be moistened with a little warm milk 
and water for a few mhmtes, which, in all 
cases where the organ is healthy, will be 
found to answer the purpose in a manner 
such as they can have no idea of who have 
never tried this simple remedy. 

(4 ) On the pernicious effects of shades and 
bandages. 
The use of shades and bandages, on every 
trifling affection of the eye, is an evil that 
cannot be too strongly reprobated ; for the 
action of light and air being thus excluded, 
and the organ rigidly compressed, ophth- 
almia, and even total blindness, is not un- 
frequently the consequence of that which, 
being perhaps merely a slight flow of hu- 
mour, or a little extravasated blood, would 
have subsided in a few days, if judiciously 
treated, or even if left to itself 

(5.) Care of the eyes. 
Bathing the eyes occasionally during the 
day, as well as on rising, is of much im- 
portance to their preservation ; where the 
organ is healthy, cool spring water should 
be preferred ; but where there is reason 
to suspect any disease, people cannot be 
too careful, considering what a very delicate 
organ the eye is, in haviijg professional 
advice before they adopt any remedial 
means. When the roads are dusty and the 
weather windy, bathing the eyes is so pleas- 



ON THE PRESERVATION OF THE SIGHT 



ant, and felt to be so necessary to comfort, 
that I need say nothing as to its salubrity, 
to induce its employment by those who 
have experienced the annoyance arising 
from dust in walking our streets in summer ; 
but I have to remark, that care must be 
taken to be perfectly cool before l):ithing 
the eyes, because if the face be covered 
with perspiration, the application of cold 
water may be very dangerous. 

The most frequent situation of counting- 
houses, and other places where business is 
carried on, in closr^ and d'lrk situations, is 
equally injurious to the sight and to the 
general health ; for the latter is not more 
affected bv confined and ill-ventilated rooms, 
than the former by dim and obscure ones, 
into which the light of day can hardly ever 
be said fairly to penetrate. It is therefore 
essential to the preservation of the sight in 
any degree of vigour, that the apartments 
in which the greatest portion of our time is 
spent, and in which are carried on those 
occupations requiring a continued exertion 
of our eyes, be in a light and cheerful situ- 
ation ; for whoever neglects this advice will 
assuredly sooner or later feel the baneful 
effects of his temerity. Care should also 
be taken to avoid rooms whose windows 
face whitewashed walls, which reflect the 
rays of the sun so powerfully as in a short 
time sensibly to weaken the strongest sight, 
causing inflammations and a train of other 
evils. 

An excess of gilding, or indeed, of any 
shining or white articles, in rooms, ought 
to be carefully avoided. Dress also, it can- 
not be doubted, exercises much influence 
on the visual organs ; and many naturally 
good eyes have been permanently weakened 
iby the apparently innocent custom of wear- 
ing a veil, the constant shifting of which 
affects the eyes so prejudicially, in its cease- 
less endeavour to adjust itself to the veil's 
vibrations, that I have known not a few 
young ladies who have brought on great 
visual debility by this means alone. Again, 
tight clothing is manifestly hurtful to the 
sight; too copious a flow of humours 
being thereby induced to the head ; for it 
needs not to be demonstrated, that the 
effective state of the eyes, like every other 
part of the body, depends on a free circula- 
tion of blood, which cannot take place when 
tlie body is too straitly laced or buttoned. 

(6.) Choice of situation important. 
Whatever may be the nature of the occu- 
pation, an equal degree of light should, if 
possible, be attained, and a happy medium 
observed — there should neither be too much 
aor too little, both being very destructive 



to the eyes. Some, however, seem VD 
think that nothing can affect their sight ; 
hence we find such persons, as a matter ol 
choice, working opposite a wall white 
enough to reflect powerfully the sun's rays ; 
never considering that this foolish conduct 
cannot fail to weaken their vision. T h?ve, 
indeed, frequently known this to be the 
caufce of obstinate and dangerous inflamma- 
tions, which, even after being cured, left 
the eyes still so weak as to unfit them ever 
after for their accustomed duties. 

(7.) Value of an equal light. 

A good and equal light being procured, 
the next remark I have to make is, that it 
is highly conducive to the comfort and dur- 
ability of the eye, to vary frequently the 
position in w'hich any employment is car- 
ried on ; this being a very effectual way of 
preventing too great an influx of humours 
to the head. For e5cample, the student 
and man of letters should be furnished with 
a high desk, at which he should stand to 
read or write, alternately with silting. 
This, simple as it seems, if once fairly 
tried, would, I am confident, so strongly 
commend itself by its beneficial influence 
not only on the sight, but on the general 
healtii, that they would not easily be in- 
duced to abandon the custom. To their 
constant habit of sitting, and seldom chang- 
ing their position, there can be no reason- 
able doubt that very many of the com- 
plaints peculiar to literary men are owing 

(8.) Importance of Cleanliness, especially 
in Children. 

Rigid cleanliness is a point of much im- 
portance, as regards the sight of children 
especially ; for it is well known, that though 
one powerful cause of inflammatory ophth 
almia among the children of the poor con 
sists in improper and innutritions diet, yet 
it cannot be denied that the putrid exhal 
ations of the places in which many of them 
arc doomed to live have a greater effect in 
producing diseases of the eyes, than ever, 
the deleterious and insufficient food which 
is the lot 01 but too many of our miserable 
fellow-creatures, in a great and densely 
populated metropolis. 

(9.) Cautions to persons of wec^ sigfu. 

Costiveness, and whatever causes mucii 
straining at stool, is very injurious to the 
sight; as in such cases, the pressure on 
the intestines impels the blood with an ui\- 
natural rapidity to the head. 



THE PRESERVATION OF THE SIGHT. 



21 



^10.) Fiequent cmises of Diseases of the 

Eyes. 

Among the common causes of diseases 
of the eye may be noticed, derangement of 
the digestive functions — high living— ex- 
cess in vinous and spirituous liquors — cold 
fever — -suckjing too long protracted — an 
immoderate use of tobacco and cigars. 
which often produces debility in youn"- 
persons — siuin<r up late at night, and be- 
ing much excited by card-playing, &c, — 
straining and fatiguing the eyes by staying 
several hours in a theatre, asnianv persons 
of weak sieht do, instead of retiring as 
soon as they feel any symptoms of dimness 
of vision, or pain in the eyes — the modern 
use of dinner-lamps, the purpose of which 
is much better answered by wax candles; 
together with every species of intemperance 
whicli always aflects the sight, especially 
in persons advanced in life. 

A due portion of sleep is as essential 
to enable the eyes to perform their office 
comfortably and effectively, as a due por- 
iion of rest is to enable the limbs wearied 
with toil, or the mind with reasoning or 
other kind of exertion, to resume with 
alacrity their wonted offices. But sleep loo 
long protracted, on the other hand, is per- 
haps hardly less destructive of accurate and 
healthy vision than when taken too spar- 
ingly ; for as in the one casethe organ is 
enfeebled by unremitting activity, without 
a proper decree of repose, so in the other 
case tlie eye, from unfreqncnt orinsufTicient 
exercise, becomes torpid and dull, and if 
inaction be persisted in, is at length unfitted 
for its functions. 

(11.) Weak Eyes ought not to he too Ion."- 
employed in • one occupation . 

Consequently, however strong and good 
our sight may be, it ought always to be 
moderately and carefully used : and to make 
il plain what J consider tlie symplorns of 
iU having been immoderately and carelessly 
used, I shall throw together a few remarks, 
hy whir-h each may judge for himself of the 
nature of his own case. 

If, iii order to perceive objo-jls distinctly, 
we are compelled to place them nearer to the 
eye liian we have been accustomed, t. c. if 
the focus of sight or point of view begins 
closer to the eye tiian usual. If one desires, 
while emphiyed or otherwise, to fix the 
cyej sic.ifas'ly on some distant object, and 
they begin involuntarily to emit aqueous 
humours. ]t\ during labour or occupation, 
a painful contraction through the entire 
orbit of the eye be experienced, but which 
invariaoly disappears after a few minutes' 



rest, or shutting the eyelids now and then 
If the employment be protracted, or require 
close mental application added to consider 
able visual tension, and the contraction just 
noticed is followed by heat in the eyelit's, 
heaviness, ditTicully of opening them, &c. 
If in young persons who are fair and san- 
guine, the bonders of the eyelids become 
red, or thicker than when in health, and 
the blood vessels turgid. If, in fine, we 
perceive motes floating before the eyes 
(called musca.vo!itantcs,) and objects become 
so indistinct and ill defined as to oblige us 
to shut our eyes for a while; then, in any 
of these cases, wc may be certain that the 
sight has been overworked, and that relax- 
ation is absolutely necessary to its recovery 
to a healthy tone. It is of the utmost con- 
sequence that these premonitory symptoms 
be carefully attended to, otherwise the eyes 
are in danger of being materially weakened 
ever after. 

If, however, these symptoms are ne- 
glected, others of more formidable character 
will not be long in making their appear- 
ance ; the first of which will be. that objects 
will seem as if encircled by a faint cloud or 
mist, the extremities of it being tinged with 
every variety of colour: after which, ob- 
jects will begin to dance before the eyes, 
w liich are suddenly enveloped in great ob- 
scurity, and the objects themselves, at times 
seemingly raised, at others lowered, not 
unfrcfiuently topsy-turvy, look as if they 
were floauiig at random. Now, though 
even this stage can hardly be called an 
actual disorder, bei^g rather perhaps a kind 
of oscillation, as it were, between disease and 
health, yel, if still unattended to, it may 
altogether ruin the sight for the rest of life. 

A few simple remedies are, indeed, all 
that are rf!quired to restore the healthy 
functions of the organ in such cases; and 
these i shall briefly explain. 

The first thing to be attended to, is a 
careful regulation of the use of the eyes in 
regard to length of time, as far as this is 
practicable: entire disuse of them suddenly 
would be almost as injurious as a continued 
straining of them beyond their capabilities. 
They should, therefore, be variously era- 
ployed, as nuicli as this can be done, not 
applying tliem too long or too intently to 
the same object, l)nt relieving them by 
change of scene and diversity of occupation. 

( 12. ) Change of scene and fresh air benejinal. 
Children at school should not be kept too 

long enn-aged in the same kind of tasks, 

especially in such as fatigue the eyes. 
Fresh air and change of scene have a 

wonderful effect in relieving the eves whea 



^ 



ON THE PRESERVATION OF THE SIGHT 



overfatigfued, ard ir restoring their power. 
A friend of mine, who is busily employed 
in the city several hours daily, informs me, 
that, though oblijred to wear crlasses while 
at business, after leavinjj town for a few 
days he is able to read with ease without 
hem ; and this he riorhtly attributes to the 
Denericial influence which the change of air 
and scene has upon his visual orirans. I 
may add, that one of the chief remedia. 
means in ophthalmia is fresh air. 

Another means that will be found to be 
beneficial, and to help the eyes where much 
relaxation cannot be obtained, consists in 
shutting them now and llien while at worlc, 
"■oing into the air, looking out at an open 
window, especially if there be any trees or 
verdure within sight ; this interval of rest, 
though only of a few minutes' continuance, 
will be found greatly to relieve the eyes, 
and enable them to resume their employ- 
ment with comparative pleasure. 

A third caution is, that those who are 
conscious from experience that their sight 
has been weakened by its severe and pro- 
tracted exercise, or arising from any other 
cause, should carefully avoid all attention 
to minute objects, or such business or study 
as requires close application of the visual 
faculty, immediately on rising; and the 
less it is taxed for a while after eating, or 
by candle-lighi, the better. 

The fourth moans I have already recom- 
mended, — viz. baliiing the eyes frenuently 
ihrouffh the dav with cold water. Though 
the effect of tills simple remedy may for a 
time be hardly perceptible, yet if duly 
persevered in, I can vouch for its producing 
the happiest results. . So long as there is 
no actual disease of the eyes, onlv cold 
water should be used ; and this, applied in 
tlie gentlest manner, will soon become 
sufficiently tepid for all the ends of utility 
and comfort. 

These several methods are of course re- 
ferable only to cases of weakness, &c. 
brought on by faligtie and over-exertion. 
But where no sucli cause can be assigned 
for imperfection of sioht and pain in the or- 
gan, advice ought to be immediately sought ; 
and on no account should any remedies be 
applied but under the direction of an experi- 
nccd oculist. 

(13.) Colour of the eye. 
That the colour of the eyes should affect 
iheir strength may seem strange ; yet that 
such is the case need not at this time of the 
day be proved ; and those whose eyes are 
brown or dark-coloured, should be informed 
thai they are weaker and mort susceptible 
f iwury from \ arious causes than grey or 



blue eyes. Light-blue eyes are aeieru 

paribus, generally the most powerful ; and 
next to these are grey. The lighter the 
pupil, the greater and longer continued is 
the degree of tension the eye can sustain. 
Within these few years past, screens ana 
shades against the light have come very 
much into vogue for weak eyes ; but I 
may observe that such artificial defences 
are only servicable and proper for those 
whose eyes are very prominent, and who 
have very sparing eyelashes and eyebrov/s 
To such as, from this cause, need some 
protection for their eyes, a green silk shade 
is the simplest as well as the best contri 
vance that can be used. 

(14.) Reading by night highly prejudicial. 
Reading by moonlight, or gazing stead- 
fastly on the moon for any considerable 
length of time, is a common practice with 
many young people, but one which cannot 
be too strongly censured. Even total loss 
of sight has sometimes been the consequence 
of astronomers pursuing their observations 
of the moon for too long continued a period, 
without sufficient intervals of repose ; and 
in all cases the sight is more or less dim- 
med and weakened by exposure to such in- 
lluence. 

(15.) Care of the sight in infancy, youth, 
7nanhood, and age. 

In order to see well, it is necessary to 
begin in infancy to take care of the eyes. 
Many children have their sight permanently 
weakened by the carelessness of nurses, ia 
exposing them soon after birth to a strong 
light, or to the bright glare of a fire, &c. 

The eyes of infants should be gradually 
accustomed to exercise tjiemselves in scru- 
tinizing distant objects ; but this should be 
done in the most careful manner, without 
inducing them to strain their tender sight 
on such things as are too remote or daz- 
zling for them to see without causing too 
forcible a contraction of their immature 
organs, which may lay the foundation of 
permanent, and, irremediable debility 
tlirongliout life. 

If these precautions are duly laken in in- 
fancy, and a proper regard be had in the 
use of the vision during youth, by not over- 
straining it, by excessive reading at night, 
or by needlework too long continued by 
candlelight, or any other practice likely to 
be detrimental, then even to dotage the 
(ives will sustain a great deal of labour 
without injury ; and thus one of the most 
annoying of decaying nature's infirmities 
be kept at bay, perhaps even till the hour 
of dissolution. 



THE ART OF CART NO. 



23 



THE ART OF CARVING. 

Without a perfect knowledge of the art of Carving-, it is impossible to perfonn the 
honours of the table with propriety ; and nothing can be more disagreeable to one of a 
sensitive disposition, than to behold a person at the head of a well-furnished board, 
hacking the iinest joints, and giving them the appearance of having been gnawed by 
dogs. 

It also merits attention in an economical point of view — a bad carver will mangle joints 
so as not to be able to fill half a dozen plates from a surloin of beef, or a large tongue ; 
which, besides creating a great difference in the daily consumption in families, often 
occasions disgust in delicate persons, causing them to loathe the provisions, however 
good, which are set before them, if helped in a clumsy manner. 

I cannot therefore too strongly urge the study of this useful branch of domestic economy ; 
and I doubt not that whoever pays due attention to the ibllovving instructions, will, after 
a little practice, without which all precept is unavailing, speedily acquire the reputation 
of being a good carver. 



Slight, rather than muscular strength, is 
iha secret of the art. To carve with ease, 
and with dispatch, requires practice. The 
observing of otlicrs, and attention to the 
following plates, will soon enable the prac- 
titioner to become an adept. The carver 
should be seated sufficiently elevated ; so 
near the dish as not to require effort in 
reaching ; and should wield, witli the 
greatest facility, a keen blade. 

Fish wants but little carving. The pieces 
should be preserved as wliole as possible, 
A fish trowel will be found preferable to a 
knife. 



(1.) Cod's Head and Shoulders. 
a i 




Introoucc the trowel at «, and cut through 
the back as far as 5, then help to pieces 
from between c and d, and with each piece 
help a portion of the sound, which lines the 
under part of the back bone. It is esteemed 
a delicacy ; is thin, and of a darker colour 
than t^c rest of the fish. 

Some persons are fond of the palate and 
tongue, for which yuu must put a spoon into 



the mouth. About the jaw-bone lies the 
jelly part, and within the head the firmer 
parts. 

(2.) Surloin of Beef. 




There are two ways of carving this joint. 
The belter is, by long thin pieces from a 
to c ; the other way is, which spoils it, to 
cut across. 

The most tender and best part lies in the 
direction of the line b ; there, too, lies some 
delicate fat. Part should be giver, with 
each slice. 

(.3.) litbs of Beef. 
These may be sliced like the surloin, 
commencing at the thin end and slicing the 
whole length, so as to give a mixture of fat 
and lean. 

(4.) Round of Beef 
Remove the upper surface, as in the edg« 
bone ; help to thin slices, with a portion of 
fat ; cutting as even as possible, to preserve 
its beauty of appearance 



THE ART OF CARVING, 



(6.) Aitch-Bone of Beef. 

d 




Cut oft and lay aside a thick slice from 
the entire surfiice, then help. There are 
two kinds of fat attached to this joint, and 
as tastes differ, it is necessary to learn 
which is preferred ; the solid fat w ill be 
found at c, and must be cut horizonlally ; 
the softer, which resembles marrow, at the 
back of the bone, below d. 

A silver skewer should be substituted for 
the one which keeps the meat properly 
together while boilinjr, and it may be with- 
drawn when you cut down to it. 

(7.) Calfs Head. 




Cut thin slices from a to A, to the bone. 
The throat sweetbread lies al c. Slice from 
c to d, and help that with the other part. 
Should the eve bi^ requested, extract with 
the pointof liie knife, and help to a portion. 
The palate, a delicate morsel, lies under the 
head. The sweet tooth, too, not an inferior 
delicacy, lies back of all the rest, and, in a 
young calf, is easily extracted with the 
knife. On removing the jaw-bone, fine lean 
will appear. Ilelj) to each of these. 

(8.) Shouhhr of Mvtlnn. 




slice on either side of the line c, which 
represents the blade-bone, and nice pieces 
may be obtained. From the under sida 
also, by slicing horizontally. 

(9.) Lnr of Multon. 




The nicest part lies at a, midway between 
the knuckle and the other end. Thence, 
cut thin slices each way, asdeepasi. The 
outside being seldom very fat, some favour- 
ite pieces may be sliced off the broad end at 
c. The knuckle is tculer, but the other 
parts more juicy. Some good slices may 
be cut lengthwise, from the broad end of 
the back of the leg. The cramp bone is 
much thought of by some : to gel it, cut 
down to the bone at d, and in the curve line 
to e. 

(10.) !^pnrr Bih. 




Carve, first, slices from the fleshy pan 
tracing the line a, b. Tliis will give a pro- 
portion of lean and fat; and being removed, 
separate the rib, placed in the direction 
d, b, c; breaking it at the point c. If an 
entire rib is too much, a slice of meat raa> 
be taken from between two ribs. 

(11.) Fore Quarter nf Lamf). 




Slice to the bone at the line a, and help Separate, first, the shoulder from the 

thin pieces from each side. The choice fat scuven, which constitutes vne ribs and the 

lieBattheimteredge, atA. Should morebe breast, by sliding the knife under the 

aepded than can be gotten from those parts, knuckle, m the direction of a, b, c, ieaviofe 



THE ART OF CARVING, 



25 



^n the ril)s a due proportion of meat. Place 
it on a fiiffi^rent disli. Now squeeze half 
a Seville oransre on the other part, which, 
beinn- sprinkled with salt and pepper, should 
be carved in Uie direction c, d. This will 
separate the gristly part from the rihs. 
Now help from either, as may be the choice, 
«arvinjr as directed by the lines e. f. 

(\1.) Saddle of Mutton. 




Cut Ion? slices, on each side of the back 
bone, in the direction f^ /*. As some are 
fond of a joint of the tail, they can easily be 
served by cutting between the joints. 

(13.) Breast of Veal. 




Separate the ribs from tlie brisket by 
cutting tliroiigli the line c/, b. The brisket 
is the thickest part, and of a gristly sub- 
stance. Carve each, and help according to 
preference. 

(14.) Fillet of Veal. 




5^ 

This resembles a round of beef. Like 
that, it should be carved hoi-izontally, or by 
cutting thin even slices off the top, cutting 
deep into the flap, i)etween a, b, for the 
Bluffing, lielp to each person a portion of 
the dressing, 

(15.) Pig. 




chops and ears, and dividing the body length- 
wise. Separate a shoulder from the luxly ; 
next a leg ; and divide the ribs. The joints 
may be divided, or the meat sliced from 
them. Some prefer tiie neck, though most 
the ribs. Help with stufhiig and gravy. 

If the head is not otiicrwise disposed ct 
the brains should be mixed with the gravy 

(16.) Venison. 




Slices of a medium thickness may be 
given, and plenty of gravy with them. Cut 
quite to the bone in the line a, c, b; then 
turn the dish witii the end b towards you, 
and putting in the point of the knife at c, 
cut as deep as possible in the direction c,d. 
You may now, at pleastire, slice from 
either side. As the fat lies deeper on the 
left, those who like fat, as most venison 
eaters do, may be helped to the best 
flavoured and I'atlest slices on the left of 
the line c, d. 




Ham may be carved three different ways. 
Usually, commencing by long delicate 
pieces, cut to the bone through the thick 
fat, in the line a. b.. A second way is, to 
cut a small round hole on the top, as at c, 
taking thin circular pieces. The raos* 
saving way is to begin at the knuckle. 

(18.) A Fowl. 




This is seldom sent to the table whole; It will be more convenient carving Ihi*? 
the cook first garnishing the dish with the to take it on your plate, replacing thejoif*' 



26 



THE ART OF CARVING. 



as sepaiated, neatly on the dish. Place 
the fork in the middle of the breast, and 
remove the wing in the direction of a, b, 
separatinor the joint at a, and lifting up the 
pinion with the fork, and drawing tlie entire 
wing towards the leg. This drawing will 
separate the fleshy part more naturally than 
cutting. Cut between the leg and the body 
at c, to the joint b. By giving the blade a 
sudden turn the joint will break. Repeat 
the same operation for the other wing and 
eg. Next, take off t!ie merry thought by 
drawing the knife across the breast and 
turning the joint back; and then remove 
the two neck bones. Divide the breast from 
the back, by cutting through all the ribs, 
close to the breast. Turn the back up ; 
half way between the extreme ends press 
the point of the knife, and on raising the 
rump ei; J the bone will part. Take off the 
sidesmen, having turned the rump from 
you : — and done. 

The wings should be made as handsome 
as possible. These, with tlie breast, are 
the most delicate parts of the fowl ; the legs 



are more juicy. 



(19.) A Goose. 




With the neck end toward you, to take 
^ffthe wing,putthe fork into tlie small end 
of the pinion and press it close to the body, 
dividing the joint at a, and carrying the 
knife along as far as h. Take ofl the leg 
by an incision from b to c, and separate the 
drumstick. Part the wing and leg from 
the other side, and between the line 1 and 
2, cut long slices from each side of the 
breast. The apron must be removed by 
cutting from d to e. by c, to get at the stuf- 
fing. The merry thouglit being removed, 
the neck bones and all other parts are to be 
divided as in a fowl. 

A Duck may be carved in a similar man- 
ner 

(20.) Turkey. 

To carve, without withdrawing the fork, 
place your fork firmly in the lower part of 
the breast, so as to have the turkey at per- 
fect command. It is not difficult to com- 
plete the entire carving of this fowl without 
extracting the fork till done — the whole 
back, of course, making one joint. Proceed 
to lemove the wing ; the leg ; another wing 
and leg. (This may be done either before 
or after slicing the breast.") Next, remove 



the merry-thought, the neck bones, the 
neck itself; then, cutting through the ribs 
the job is done. 

(21.) Partridge. 
Carved as a fowl. Wings, breast, anJ 
merry-thought, are the best parts. Tho 
two latter not often divided. The wing tha 
best joint ; the tip the very best. 

(22.) Pigeons. 

Halve them, dividing lengthwise ; or, so 
as to make the breast and wings form one 
division. The lower division generally 
preferred. 

Woodcocks, Grouse, 4*c., are carved like 
fowls, if not too small ; when they must be 
cut in quarters. 

Snipes should only be halved. 

(23.) Tongue. 
Cut perpendicular thin slices, commencing 
a little nearer the root, than the tip. The 
fat lies underside, at the root. 

(24.) L-g of Pork— [See Ham.] 
The stuffing, in a roast leg, will be found 
under the skin, at the thick end. 

General Directions. 

The seat for the carver should he some 
what elevated above the other chairs : it is 
extremely ungraceful to carve standing, and 
it is rarely done by any person accustomed 
to the business. Carving depends more on 
skill than on strength. We have seen very 
small women carve admirably silling down ; 
and very tall men who know not how to cut 
a piece of beef-steak without rising on their 
feet to do it. 

The carving knife should be very sharp, 
and not heavy ; and it should be held firmly 
in the hand : also the dish should be not too 
far from the carver. It is custom.^.ry to help 
the fish wiih a fish trowel, and not with a 
knife. The middle part of a fish is gene- 
rally considered the best. In helping it, 
avoid breaking the flakes, as that will give 
it a mangled appearance. 

In helping any one to gravy, or to melted 
butter, do not pour it oftr their meat, fowl, 
or fish, but put it to one side, on a vat aiU 
part of the plate, that they may use just as 
much of it as they like. In filling a plate, 
never heap one thing on another. 

In helping vegetables, do not plunge tho 
spoon down to the bottom of the disii, in 
case they should not have been perfectly 
well drained, and the water should have 
settled there. 



ON WARTS AN:D CORNS AND HOW TO CURE THEM. 



2r 



ON WAETS AND CORNS AND HOW TO CURE THEM. 

Su:;h persons (atitl who have not) as have been troubled with these afflicting annoy- 
ances, will no doubt feel gratified to see a scientific exposition of the nature of their 
enemy, and of the proper and ready means of exterminating him. The essay which 
follows is from one o** our most enlightened surgeons, and his prescriptions may be 
implicitly relied on, 



(1.) Hovi Warts are formed 

The papillee of the sensitive skin are 
covered and protected by the scarf-skin, 
and the thickness of the scarf-skin bears an 
exact relation to the size of the papilla?. It 
may therefoie be inferred, that if the pa- 
pillifi grow to an extraordinary size, they, 
<n their turn, will occasion the production 
of a proportionate quantity of scarf-skin, 
which will form a rounded prominence on 
the surface of the body. Such is the rea- 
lity, and the little prominence so produced 
is termed a wart, (fig. 1). The wart may 




be regarded as the eflfect of an excitation 
acting generally from within ; but instances 
are not wanting, in medicine, to prove that 
they may also be dependent on an obvious 
external cause of irritation. 



(2.) On the formation of Corns. 

Whenever a portion of the skin is sub- 
jected to long-continued and unequal pres- 
sure, the pa[)il]ae of the sensitive sidn are 
stimulated, and grow to an unusual size. 
Associated with this increase of growiji of 
the papilla;, is the increased thickness of the 
scarf skin, and this latter being the outward 
and perceptible effect, is denominated, ac- 
cording to its size, either " callosity " or 
"ccrn." When the pressure, and conse- 
qnflntly the thickening of the scarf skin is 
distribuled over an extensive surface, the 
stale is properly a callosity. Where it is 
limited, occupying, for example, the promi- 
nence of a joint, and where in consequence 
01 this limitation, the effects produced are 
biuie severe, the case is one of corn (lig. 2). 




Callosities may occur on any part of the 
body where much pressure exists; on the 
shoulder, for instance, in persons who are in 
the habit of carrying burdens ; on the hands 
in certain crafts ; on the elbows and knees, 
and on different parts of the body. Corns 
are usually limited to the feet, and are, in 
fact, a more severe degree of callosity. 
The papillae of the central part of the corn 
are enlarged to such an extent as to be 
equal in magnitude to those of a wan. In 
this state, the papilla; take on the action of 
producing separate sheaths of scarf-skin in 
the same manner as warts, and ir.ese 
sheaths, seen on the cut surface of a corn, 
give the idea of fibres, which populai ignor- 
ance magnifies into roots. A corn extracted 
by its roots is therefore expected never to 
grow again, because trees, which have 
roots, when torn up from the ground never 
re-appear. But the fact is, that these so- 
called roots are, in reality, brunches, and- 
thcy may be cut iifT, and lorn off, and twisted 
off, as long as the possessor lives, without 
curing tlie corn, unless the cause, namely, 
the pressure and friction, be removed. 
When the cause is taken away, the papillae 
return by degrees to their pristine bulk, and 
the corn disappears. 

It will be apparent to every one, that if 
a shoe of a certain size he worn, and if this 
shoe, by its too small dimensions, and con- 
sequent pressure, occasion a corn, ilie corn, 
by increasing the size of the injured part of 
the foot, will necessarily increase the pres- 
sure on the already irtiiated skin. Pain and 
inflammation follow this injury, and the 
least mischief that can happen is the en- 



28 



ON WARTS AND CORNS AND HOW TO CUKK THKIM. 



larged growth of the papillas, more blood 
than natural being now habitually sent to 
them. But, on a particular day, when 
vanity triumphs over comfort, and the " light 
fantastic toe" has been more than usually 
wronged, blood bursts from the pores of 
the sensitive skin, and the next morning, 
when the corn is inspected, it lias the 
character of a bruise. The doctor is sent 
for, a poultice is put on, rest enjoined, and 
in a few days all is again well ; too well, in 
fact, to allow experience even a whisper. 
A gay party again dues slaughter on the 
unfortunate corn, but siuiilar means reslore 
it as before. Each section of a corn which 
has been thus maltreated, is precisely that 
of the geological section of a stratified moun- 
tain, stratum following stratum, of various 
hues, from a delicate yellow to the deep 
black of dried blood. 

(3.) Of Soft Corns. 
The soft corn occurs between the toes, 
and s produced in the same manner as the 
common corn ; but in consequence of the 
moisture existing in this situation, the thick- 
ened scarf-skin becomes saturated, and re- 
mains permanently soft. The soft corn, 
again, rarely becomes convex outwardly, 
but presses severely on the deep textures, 
and gives little indication, as regards size, 
of the torment which it occasions. It is no 
uncommon thing to find a blister fornned 
under the soft corn, and its fluid oozing 
through a sinall, round aperture in the 
centre of the latter. Someiimes, also, the 
soft corn is followed by a deep and |)ainful 
sore, and intiannnaiioii )f the foot ; and on 
one occasion I examined a soft corn which 
liad eaten into the bones, and produced 
inflammation of a joint. Diseased bone 
originating in soft corns is no infrequent 
occurrence. 

(4.) To cure Warts. 
The treatment of warts is to pare the 
hard and dry skin from their tops, and then 
touch them with the smallest drop of strong 
acetic acid, taking care that the acid does 
not run off the wart upon the neighbouring 
skin, for if it do, it will occasion intlaumia- 
tion and much pain, if this practice be 
continued once or twice daily, with rrgula- 
riti,, paring the surface of the wart oc- 
casionally, when it gets hard and dry, the 
wart may be soon effect ally cured. 

(5 ) Sure method of curing Corns. 
The same treatment will keep corns un- 
der, in spite of pressure; but there is a 
knack in paring them wliich 1 will now 



explain. The end to be gained in cutting 
a corn is to take f)!! the pressure of the 
shoe from the tender papilla; o( the sensitive 
skin ; and to effect this object, the summit 
of the corn must be cut in such a manner 
as to excavate it, the edges be ng left to 
act as a bolster and still furtlier protect the 
central i)art, where the longest, and, conse- 
quently the most sensitive papillae are found. 
The prof(?ssional chiropodist effects this 
object very adroitly ; he generally works 
around the centre, and takes out the fibrous 
portion in a single piece, lie digs, as ho 
says, for the root. There is another way 
of disposing of a corn which I have been 
in the habit of recommending to my friends; 
it is effectual, and i.l, i'iatcs the necessity 
for the use of the knife, liave stmie com- 
mon sticking-plaster spread on buff-leather; 
cut a piece suIR ienily large to cover the 
corn and skin around, and have a hole 
punched in the middle of exactly the size 
of thesninmit or' the corn. Now take some 
common soda of the oil shops, and make it 
into a paste, with about half its bulk of 
soap; fill the hole in the plaster with this 
paste, and cover ii up with apiece of stick- 
ing-plaster. Let this be done at bed-time, 
and in the morning remove the plaster, and 
wash the corn with warm water. If this 
operation be repeated every second, third, 
or fourth day for a short time^ the corn will 
he removed. The only precaution requir- 
ing to be used is to avoid causing pain ; 
and so long as anv tenderness occasioned 
bv the remedy lasts, it must be repeateo 
When the corn is reduced within reasona- 
ble hounds by either of the above modes, 
or when it is only threateninir, and has not 
yet risen to the heiiriit of being a sore an- 
noyance, the best of all remedies is a piece 
of soft buff leaiher, spread with soap-pia.s- 
ter, and pierced in the centre with a hide 
of exactly the size of the summit of the 
corn. If it can be procured, a better sub- 
stance still for spreading the plaster upon 
is " amadou," or " German tinder," com- 
monly used fi)r lighting cigars, and kept by 
the tobacconists. This substance is softer 
than leather, and does not become hard and 
ruck up, as the latter does, after it has been 
on for a short time. The soft corn is host 
relieved bv cutting away the thick skin 
with a pair of scissors, avoiding to wound 
the flesh ; then touching it with a. drop of 
Friar's balsam, and wearing habitually > 
piece of cotton wool between the toos. 
charijring the cotton daily. Caustic, as a^ 
application I'or the cure (d' corns, is a remfr 
dy which should l)e used with great cautioft 
and would be better left altogether in ih.^ 
hands of the medical man. 



/ 



OBSERVATIONS ON MAXING PUDDINGS. 



99 



OESEKVATIONS ON MAKINTx PUDDINGS, &c. 

The receipts which follow are from an experienced and capable housewife. They are 
amply worthy the attention of all who have any interest in the kitchuu. It will be per- 
cei &J that the prescriptions are all upon the cold-water princip!-^, .o aicohol is in no 
insta..iv ijcommended. 



OBSERVAaCNS ON 3IAKING PUDDINGS. 

The cloths u^jeJ to tie over puddings, or 
boil them in, shcalJ be nicely washed and 
dried in the sun, s.r\iL kept in a dry place. 

When to be used, ihey nhould be dipped 
into boiling water, squeezed >.'ry, and floured. 
In all cases the eggs mui.i be thoroughly 
beaten. Tf bread pudding, tiie doth shc-uld 
be lied loose, to give room for rising. If 
flatter, tight over. Tlie water slionld boil 
quick when the pudding is put in ; and it 

hould be moved about for a minute, that 
tlie ingredients should mix evenly. Batter 
pudding should be strained through a coarse 
sieve when all mixed. In others, strain the 
eggs separately. The pans must always be 
buttered before the pudding is put in. And 
the milk or cream used, should be boiled 
and cooled, before the eggs are put in. A 
pan of cold water must be ready, and the 
pudding dipped in, as soon as it comes out 
of the pot ; then it will not adhere to the 
doth. 

Transparent Pudding. 

8 eggs. S oz. of sugar, 

S oz. of butter. Nutmeg. 

Beat up the eggs, put them into a stew- 
pan with the sugar and butter, nutmeg to 
taste, set it on a stove or fire of coals, stir- 
ring it constantly until it thickens, then pour 
It into a basin to cool. Set a rich paste 
round the edge of your dish, pour in your 
pudding, and bake it in a moderate oven. 
A most delicious and elegant article. 

A Cheshire Pudding, 
1 lb. of raspberry jam, 4 oz. of butter, 

1 cup of creamer buttermilk, 11-2 lbs. flour. 
I table spoonful of saleratus, 

Rub the half of the butter into the flour, 
wfrm the milk, rub the saleratus fine with 
the broad blade of a knife on the corner of 
a paste-board, then scrape it in, and while 
It is in effervescence, mix with the flour 
and therestof the butter, and adust of more 
salt if necessary, then roll out to fourteen 
or fifteen inches long, and eight or nine in 



width ; spread with the jam, and roll it up 
in the manner of collarea eel ; have a floured 
cloth ready and wrap it two or three times 
around and pin it ; tie it tight at each end. 
Boil in plenty of water two hours. Serve 
with thickened sweet sauce, with some 
rose-water and nutmeg, and juice of a 
lemon. 

Nice stewed peaches are fine in this 
dumpling, with cream sweetened, and nut- 
meg for sauce. Almost any acid fruit is 
excellent in this way. The crust should 
bt light, and it must be cat as soon u- done. 

Tapioca Pudding. 
1 qjiart of milk, 5 eggs. 

Seasoning, 1 coffee cup of tjpioca. 

Stesp the tapioca in the milk two hours, 
put it in cold, let it warm a little, beat up 
the eggs well with sufficient sugar, .i little 
essence of lemon. Bake half an hour, eat 
with butter. 

^mce Pudding. 
Scald the quinces tender, pare them ihin, 
scrape off the pulp, mix with sugar very 
sweet, and add a little ginger and cinnamon. 
To a pint of cream put three or four yolks 
of eggs, and stir it into the quinces till they 
are of a good thicaness. Butter the dish, 
pour it in, and bake it. 

Baked Pciato Pudding. 
12 oz. of boiled potato 1 oz. of suet, 

skinned and mashed, 1 gill of milk 

1 oz. of cheese grated fine. 

Mix the potatoes, suet, milk, cheese, and 
all together ; if not of a proper consistence, 
add a little water. Bake it in an earthen pan. 

Almond Pudding. 
1 lb. of blanched almonds, 8 oz. of sugar, 
1-2 glass of rose-water, I pmt of cream. 

6 eggs. 

Put the rose-water to the almonds in a 
marble mortar, pound them fine ; beat the 
sugar and eggs together well, the sugar 



30 



OBSERVATIONS ON MAKING PUDDINGS. 



being nicely sifted ; put all into a basin and 
stir them over a few coals, well tog-ether, 
until they are warm, then put it into a thin 
dish, put paste only around the edges (or 
sides of the dish^ bake three quarters of an 
hour 

Winter Pudding. 

Take the crust off a baker's loaf of bread, 
and fill it with plums • bi)!! it in milk and 
water. 

Custard Pudding. 
1 quart of milk, 6 spoonsful of flour, 
6 eggs, 1 nutmeg, sugar and butter. 

Boil the milk, and, whilst scalding, stir 
in the flour, set to cool half an hour before 
it is wanted, beat up the eggs nicely, and 
put to the milk with sufficient salt, bake in 
a quick oven twenty minutes. Rub nutmeg 
with nice sugar and butter for sauce. 

Flour Pudding. 
I pint of milk 6 spoonsful of flour. 

6 eggs, 

Boil the milk, stir in the flour whilst 
scalding, let it cool ; have the water boiling. 
When sufficiently cool, beat the eggs well, 
and put them in with salt to taste ; boil hard 
one hour. Use the sauce above. 

Sago Pudding. 

4 spoonsful of sago, 4 eggs, 

1 1-2 pints of milk, Sugar to taste. 

Lemon peel, cinnamon, nutmegs. 

Boil the milk and sago nicely, let it cool ; 
beat the eggs up perfectly with some sugar, 
add the other ingredients, then mix all 
together, put a nice paste round the dish, 
pour in the pudding, and bake slowly. 

Boiled Custard Pudding 

1 pint of nev/ milk, Orange-flower water. 

2 spoonsful of flour, Cinnamon,currant-jelly. 
Yolks of five eggs, 

Mix the flour with the milk, by degrees ; 
beat the yellows and other ingredients with 
a little salt together, and put with the milk. 
Butter a basin that will exactly hold it, pour 
the batter in, and tie a floured cloth over it. 
Put in a kettle of boiling v>'ater, and turn it 
aoout a few minutes to prevent the eggs 
from settling on one side. Half an hour 
will boil it. Pour currant-jelly over, and 
seive with sweet sauce. 

Rice Pudding. 
1 quartet milk, 1 stick of cinnamon, 
4 cz. of rice, 4 spoonsful of rose-water, 

1.2 nutmeg, S eggs, salt. 

Boil the rice and cinnamon with the milk, 
etir it often to ke,ep from burning, cool, add 



the nutmeg and other ingredients, haying 
beat the eggs well. Butter a pan or dish, 
or cover the dish with puff paste ; pour the 
above composition in, bake one hour and a 
half. Serve with butter and sugar. 

An Apple Pudding Dumpling. 

Put into a nice paste, quartered apples, tie 
up in a floured cloth, and boil two hours 
serve with sweet sauce. 

Pears, plums, peaches, &c., are fine done 
this way. 

Indian Pudding. 
3 pints of milk, 1-4 lb. of butter, 
7 eggs, 7 spoonsful of Indian meal, 

1-2 lb. of raisins, Spice, salt, sugar to taste. 

Scald the milk, and stir it in the meal 
whilst boiling, set it to cool, stone and put 
in the raisins, salt, and spice ; then beat the 
eggs well, and if only milk-warm, put them 
in, stir all well together, bake an hour and 
a half, good heat. 

A Superb Lemon Pudding. 
1-2 lb. of sugar, 5 eggs, 
1-2 " best butter 1 glass of rose-water, 
1 lemon, 1 glass orange-fiovver water. 

Beat the rose-water and butter to a froth, 
prepare the sugar and eggs as for pound 
cake, grate the yellow part of the lemon 
rind in, (but not a particle of white) have 
a nice puff paste ready in your dish, and, 
after incorporating the pudding well to- 
gether, pour it into your paste. Bake in a 
moderate oven. Orange pudding is made 
in the .same way, using a pounded orange, 
instead of a lemon. 

Boston Apple Pudding. 
IS good apples, 1-4 lb. of butter, 

4 yolks of eggf^, 1 white. Cinnamon, cloves. 

1 lemon. Sugar to taste. 

1-2 nutmeg. 

Peel, core and cut the apples into a stew- 
pan that will just hold them, with a little 
water and the spices, rasp the peel of the 
lemon in, stew over a slow fire till quite soft, 
then sweeten and pass through a sieve, beat 
the eggs and grated nutmeg together with 
the juice of a lemon, then mix all well, lino 
the inside of your pie-dish with good pufl- 
paste, put in your pufkUng. bake l,alt an 
hour. 

Nesmm'kct Pudding. 

1 pint of milk, -I oz. of currants, 

1 teaspoonfulcinnamosi, 1 lemon peel, 
5 yolks, 3 whites of cg^^s, sweeten with sugar- 
Boil the milk with the lemon peel and 
other spices, for five or ten minutes ; then 
set tc cool ; spread butter upon nice bread 



CBSERVATIONS ON MAKING PUDDINGS, ETC 



31 



<nd cut very thin ; spread a layer in the 
dish, and strew over a layer of currants, 
and so on until the dish is nearly full, then 
lav the custard over, and bake it half an hour 

Vermicelli Pudding. 
■» oz. ot vermicelli, lemon peel, cinnamon, 
S yolks, 3 whites eggs, loaf sugar, salt to taste. 
1 pint of milk. 

Boil the milk with the lemon peel grated 
m, sweeten, and strain throufjh a sieve, put 
in the vermicelli, boil ten minutes, cool, 
have the eggs well beaten ; when suffi- 
ciently cool, put them into the pudding, mix 
well together, and steam one hour and a 
quarter, or bake half an hour. 



Slid Pudding. 
4 oz. of suet, 2 eggs, 

1-2 pint of milk, 1 spoon of ginger 

3 table spoons of flour. 

Mince the suet fine and roll it thin, salt 
it, and mix well with the flour, beat the 
Eggs well, and mix with milk and spices; 
flour a cloth that has been dipped into boil- 
ing water, tie it loose, put it into boiling 
water, boil hard an hour and a quarter. 
Serve with sweetened sauce, with the 
squeeze of a lemon in it. 

Spring Pudding. 
i doz. sticks of rhubarb 1-2 lb. of loaf sugar, 
(or pie-plant), 1 spoon of cinnamon. 

• lemon, 

Wash and peel the rhubarb, cut short, 
throw it into a stew-pan with the grated 
rind of the lemon, and cinnamon, and sugar ; 
set it to cook, reduce it to a marmalade, 
paiss it through a hair sieve, have a pie-dish 
lined with good pufF paste, and pour the 
pudding in ; bake half an hour. 

Batter Pudding. 
3 oz of flour, salt, 

3 eggs, 1 pint of milk. 

Have the milk boiled, and beat the eggs 
well ; add milk until it is smooth, the thick- 
ness of cre?.m, mix all well together, then 
tiave a dish buttered that will just hold it. 
Bake three quarters of an hour ; or it is nice 
to boil as before directed. Boil one and a 

, half, or two hours. 

u 

^' Bread Pudding. 

i efl^gs, 1 stick of cinnamon, 

' pint of milk, sugar, nutmeg, 

! pint crumbs of bread, salt to taste. 

Boil the bread and milk with the cinna- 
mon ten minutes, then cool, pass through, 
t Bieve, beat the eggs very well, and add 



to the batter, sweeten, and salt, mix well 
together, bake half an hour ; or, boil one 
hour and a quarter. 

Nottingham Pudding. 
6 fine sour apples, sugar. 

Prepare the batter as for the above batter 
pudding, peel the apples, and take out the 
core with a sharp-pointed penknife, but do 
not cut the apple open ; fill the space with 
sugar, (where the core was taken from,) 
after setting them in a pudding-dish; then 
pour the batter over them, bake in amoder 
ate oven one hour. 



SMALL DISHES FOR SUPPER OR TEA. 



6 eggs, 6 slices of bread 

1-4 lb. of butter. 

Draw the butter nicely, have ready a nice 
kettle of boiling water, toast the bread of a 
light brown, wet with the drawn butter, 
and place in a covered dish ; break the eggs 
one at a time into a teacup, and drop into 
the boiling water, (having thrown some salt 
in) ; two will cook at once. When cooked 
to suit, slip a skimmer under and place them 
upon toast; drop in more, and so on, until 
all are cooked. Then pour the remainder 
of the butter over. 

Custards. 
1 quart of cream, or new milk, nutmeg, 
8 eggs, 1 oz. of sugar 

Beat the eggs and sugar well together, 
grate in some nutmeg, add the cream by 
degrees, stirring it all the while; set your 
custard cups in a dripping-pan, pour the 
custard into the cups, set the dripping-pan 
into the oven, then pour water around 
Bake in a quick oven. 

Orange Custards. 
1 Seville orange. Rose-water, 

1-2 oz. of loaf sugar, 1 pint of cream 

4 eggs. 

Squeeze the juice from a Seville orange, 
take half of the peel and boil very tender, 
beat it in a (marble) mortar until fine ; put 
to it two spoons of rose-water, the juice of 
ihe orange, the sugar, and the yellows of 
the eggs. Beat all together for ten min- 
utes, then have ready the cream boiling hot, 
which put to them by degrees; beat them 
until cold, then put them into custard eups, 
in a dish of hot water. Let them stand 
until they are set, then take them out and 
stick preserved orange peel on the top. 
This forms a fine flavoured dish, and may 
be served up hot or cold. 



32 



ON MAKING SMALL DISHES FOR SDPPER OR TEA. 



Some are fond of sippets of toast in cups 
©f custard. 

Dried beef sliced thin is nice for tea, or 
venison dried is nice, sliced thin, or mutton 
dried and sliced thin is nice, tojretlier with 
good bread and good butter, and a dish of 
fruit, cheese, and a plate of cake of some 
kind. Some nice corned beef sliced thin is 
a substilute for dried; cold boiled ham 
sliced thin is a good relish, or cold tongue 
for tea. Some are fond of other cold meats 
of any kind, nicely sliced thin. The man- 
ner of doing things is a great deal. 

Ice Currants. 
Take large hunches of ripe currants, have 
them clean, whisk the white of an Qgg to 
a froth, and dip them in it, lay them on a 
sieve or plate not to be touched, sift double 
refined sugar over them very thick, and dry 
them in a cool oven. 

Icing for Cake. 
2 lbs. double ref'd sugar, 5 eggs, 
1 spoon of fine starch, 1 spoon rose-water, 
1 pennyworth gum Ara- 1 juice of lemon, 
bic in powder, 

Make the sugar fine, and sift it through 
a hair sieve, rub the starch fine, sift, and 
the gum Arabic sift also ; beat or stir all 
well together. Take the whites of the 
eggs, whisk them well, put one spoonful of 
rose-water, one spoon of the juice of lemon, 
beat well together, then put to the sugar 
by degrees, until you wet it, then beat it 
until the cake is baked ; lay it on with a ' 
knife, and the ornaments if you have any ; 
and if it does not harden sufliciently from 
the warmth of the cake, return it to the 
oven. Be careful not to discolour. 



Ice Cream. 



2 oz. of sugar, 
2 lemons. 



2 quarts of milk, 
>2 eggs, 

Grate the peels into the milk, and boil ; 
sweeten ; take the yellows of all of the 
eggs, and half of the whites ; beat them 
well, then add the boiling milk, keep them 
stirring, set the dish over the fire five min- 
utes, stirring it constantly , then pour through 
a sieve into your freezing-pot. The pro- 
portions to surround the pot is one quart of 
salt to one pail full of ice. Place it in as 
cold a place as possible ; as fast as it freezes 
on the sides, remove it with the spoon. 
One hour is sufficient to freeze it. 

Scotch Marmalade. 

2 lbs. honey, 2 pints juice of Seville oranges. 

Squeeze the juice from the oranges, put 

hem together, ajid boil in a nice, well 



tinned stew-pan, and boil to a proper coi» 

sistence. 

Ice Cream with Frutt. 
1 pound of preserved fruit, 2 lemons, 

1 quart of cream, CochineaJ 

Squeeze the juice of the lemons into rfome 
sugar to taste ; then pass all through n 
sieve, and if raspberry, or strawbeny, ii 
any other ripe fruit, add a little cochineal 
to heighten the colour. Have the freezing 
pot nice and clear, put the cream into it and 
cover it ; then put the pot into the tub with 
the ice beat small, and some salt ; turn the 
freezing-pot quick, and as the cream sticks 
to tlie sides, scrape it djwn with an ice- 
spoon, and so on until it is frozen. The 
more the cream is worked to the side with 
a spoon, the smoother and better it will be 
flavoured. After it is well frozen, take it 
out and put it into ice shapes with salt and 
ice ; then carefully wash the shapes for fear 
of any salt adhering to them ; dip them in 
lukewarm water, and send to the table> 
Fresh fruit, strawberries, or raspberries, are 
uice, but more sugar will be necessary. 

Currant Jelly, to use with Venison. 
10 lbs. of the juice, S lbs. clean brown sugar 
of red currants. 

As the currants may for this jelly get 
very ripe, they can be broken through a 
colander and then be cleaned with flannel 
jelly-bags. When perfectly clean, add the 
sugar, boil and skim until it jellies, which 
is known by dipping in a spoon and holding 
it in the air; when it hangs in a drop to the 
spoon, it is done: pour into pots; when 
cold, cover as before directed. 
Another ivay 
4 lbs. of double refined sugar, 
4 lbs. of clear juice extracted in ajar. 
Stir gently, and smoothly for three hours, 
then put into glasses, and in three days it 
will concrete into a firm jelly .' then cover 
and set by for use. 

Black Currant Jelly. 
6 quarts of juice, 9 pounds of sugar. 

To ten quarts of the dry fruit add one 
quart of water ; put them in a large stew- 
pot, tie paper close over them, and set them 
for two hours in a cool oven. Squeeze 
them through a fine cloth, and iidd to every 
quart of juice a pound and a half of sugar 
loaf, broken in small pieces. Stir it until 
the sugar is melted ; when it boils skim it 
quite clear. Boil it quick over a clear fire 
till it jellies; try it as above directed. If 
jelly is boiled too long, it will lo.se its 
flavour, and shrink very much : pot and 
cover. 



THE CANARY BIRD FANCIER. 



33 



THE CANARY BIRD FANCIER. 

For the amusement of our leisure hours, I know not that a more innocent or rational 
fairsuit can be recommended than that of rearing these harmonious songsters. 

1:\ many of the principal cities and towns, the industrious mechanic and manufacturer 
are enabled to pay the entire ot their rents, and to add to their comforts, by attending, 
in the intervals of their labour, to the rearing and management of these pleasing little 
v/arblevs. Pleasure is thus blended with profit; and our pretty songsters help to " feed 
ttie hungry and clothe the naked." 

To the gentleman fancier they aflbrd an equal degree of amusement and delight ; and, 
if profit were his object, the prices which are frequently given for well-bred birds, suffi- 
ciently prove that they may be easily obtained. I will only add, the directions here given 
for their treatment in cases of illness, are the result of practical knowledge, and many 
vears experience of their efficacy. 



(1.) Of the general characteristics of 
Canaries. 

Canaries are not naturally so delicate as 
they are thought to be, but become so from 
ihe little attention and improper treatment 
that is sometimes paid them. It may be 
said with truth that they excel most other 
birds in their good qualities — 1st, In the 
sweetness and melody of their song, which 
continues nearly the whole of the year, 
excepting only the time of moulting, during 
W'hich they are generally silent ; although 
some in spite of this annual illness, do not 
even then lose their song. 2dly, By their 
rich and beautiful plumage, which is dis- 
played in seven or eight different colours, 
causing a variety of corresponding names 
to be given them by different fanciers. 
3dly, By their docility ; which is manifested 
by their learning quickly a variety of pleas- 
ing little tricks — such as coming at the 
order of their master, and even pronouncing 
distinctly several words. Add to this their 
aptness in learning airs, by means of a flage- 
olet or bird-organ, even keeping time as 
correctly as a skilful inusician The man- 
lier of leaching them will be shown here- 
after. 

(2.) The proper tiine for fairing Canaries. 
As to the time of pairing, it generally 
commsnces about the middle or latter end 
of March, but in some degree depends upon 
the weather, at that period, being genial or 
otherwise. The best criterion is, when the 
frosts have disappeared, and the rays of the 
un begin to shed the enlivening warmth, 



which, at the time I have named, is gene- 
rally the case. 

You may then pair them in the following 
manner : Take a small cage which is well 
cleaned ; be careful there are no small red 
insects, which are very injurious, and of 
which I shall hereafter speak. Select the 
cock and hen Canary you intend to pair 
and put them in together, as they sooner 
match in a small cage than in a large one. 
Although at first they may fight and qua* 
rel, let not this alarm you, as you will soon 
see them reconciled, which will be known 
by their feeding each other, billing, &c. 

During the time they are preparing, they 
must be fed in the following manner : Boil 
an egg very hard, and chop or grate it very 
fine, to which add bread crumbled equally 
fine, a little maw seed, and mix this all up 
well together in a plate, and give the birds 
a table spoonful twice a day. In ten days 
(sometimes much sooner) they will be 
paired. 

(3.) The most advantageous place for the 
Breeding Cage. 

The situation of the breeding cage is an 
object of considerable importance ; let it be 
where it may, the birds, prompted by nature, 
will go to nest ; but there will be a great 
difference in the success that awaits the 
breeder. 

For instance, if the cage be in a dark 
room where the sun seldom appears, and 
never shines on the cage, the young birds 
that may be bred, will be weakly, duU, 
and small ; and not equal in three weeks. 



34 



THE CANARY BIRD FANCIER. 



to birds of ten days old, which are bred in 
a more cheerful situation ; so that if you 
wish to procure fine birds, let your breed- 
ing cag-e be in a room which enjoys the 
morning sun, and on which it continues, if 
possible, the best part of the forenoon, 
which is preferable to a room where the sun 
shines only in the afternoon, as the exces- 
sive heat then sometimes causes the hen to 
fall ill, and forsake her nest ; it likewise 
occasions what may be termed a sweating 
sickness, and causes the birds to breed 
mites, which destroy the young ones, suck- 
ing their blood, and sticking to them with 
the most obstinate pertinacity, as long as 
life remains. I do not now speak of a vari- 
ety of accidents to which they are liable, as 
having clear and unproductive eggs, or being 
in a room which does not suit their temper, 
for they have their preferences and antipa- 
thies, and their behaviour in their room or 
cage, will readily testify their satisfaction 
or dislike to it. 

(4.) Observations on the mode of Pairing. 
The original Canary, which was of a 
dusky buff and dark green colour, is now 
but little esteemed in comparison with the 
birds distinguished by the terms, jonque, 
and mealy. In pairing, care should be taken 
not to put a cock and hen both mealy, other- 
wise the colour of the young ones would 
degenerate to a disagreeable dirty or whitish 
tint : but rather you should pair a fine 
jonque or yellow cock with a mealy hen, 
and you may then expect the young birds, 
particularly the cocks, to follow the colour 
of the father. So also is it with streaked, 
striped, spotted, or various coloured birds, 
taking care if the predominant colour be 
yellow, to pair with mealy, and vice versa. 
if you wish to breed splashed or marked 
birds, I should recommend you to pair a 
fine shaped lively green or splashed male 
bird with a yellow or jonque hen ; the pro- 
duce of this pair will be marked, and of 
various colours. To breed full-coloured 
yellow birds without a spot or splash, you 
should procure a fine large mealy hen, bred 
i'rom yellow birds, with which match a 
jonque cock bird ; or a pair of close-feath- 
ered yellow birds, large and strong : these 
latter will, from being both jonque, if they 
are not of a good size, dwindle very much, 
but from such matches are thrown the fine 
deep yellow birds. If you wish to breed 
green Canaries, let the birds you pair be 
both green, or a green cock bird with a yel- 
low or mealy hen, bred from green old ones, 
from which I have known to be produced 
that pleasing variety called "Cinnamon 
Birds." 



(5.) The proper materials for Nests. 

There are different materials given them 
to build their nests with ; but nothing is so 
good as a little fine hay and cow's hair, or 
deer's hair, which latter ought to be well 
washed to clean it from dust, and then dried 
in the sun or before the fire. This hair, 
after serving one nest, may be washed s.nd 
dried, and it will serve the remainder of the 
season, being as goed as the first for Jhe 
succeeding nest. 

Tlie best nest boxes are those which are 
composed entirely of wicker, or wooden 
sides with wire bottoms, so that the dust, 
if any left in the hair, falls through, and 
does not breed the red mites which prey on 
the young birds. You must not fail to let 
the paired birds, when in the breeding cage, 
have red sand or gravel, which ought to be 
dried before it is given them, and laid pretty 
thick at the bottom of the cage, so that if 
the cock or hen, in flying off the nest, hap- 
pen to draw a young bird or egg out after 
them, which sometimes occurs, it falls on 
the soft sand, and thus frequently is saved 
a valuable bird. I would recommend, when 
your birds are first put up, to give them only 
one nest box, as they are apt, when they 
have two, to carry the building materials 
first to one and then to another, and by these 
means lose time. When the hen sits, the 
other nest box is easily put in, or indeed 
after she has hatched. It is better to make 
the second and following nest for them, as 
by so doing they are saved much unneces- 
sary fatigue ; and if it does not please them, 
they soon adapt it to their wishes or faney. 

(6.) Directions for Feeding. 

The following food must be given to them 
when they have young : Boil an egg very 
hard, and grate it through a giater, such 
as is used for grating horse-reddish ; after 
that, take a stale piece of bread about the 
size of an egg, and grate it through the 
grater, after the egg is grated ; then mis 
them together, pass it through the grater 
twice, and it will mix the better. Give 
them, now and then, for a change, a stale 
piece of bread soaked in water, \^ith the 
crust taken off, then squeeze the water out. 
add a little sweet milk to it, and then give 
it to the birds ; also give them cabbage 
now and then when in season — this is a fins 
thing for them. This ought to be given 
them two or three times a day, witi) 
chicken-weed or salad, if in season. Many 
persons who commence breeding Canaries, 
without previously knowing the necessary 
management of them very often meet with 
such disappointmeni from the number o\ 



THE CANARY BIRI FANCIER, 



35 



birds that die, that they give it up in dis- 
gust, attributing fault ;o the bird, when they 
aione are to be blamed. The young ones 
are generally lost from being either fed too 
much or too little, and without paying any 
attention as to the food being proper at the 
season it is given them or not. For instance, 
chickweed or salad, which in proper season 
are excellent, if given too early in the year, 
arc absolute poison ; that is, before the 
plants are in that stage of their growth that 
their bitterness goes off, and their cold acrid 
juices are dissipated or exhaled by the heat 
of the sun. Thus, when your young birds 
can feed themselves, (which you will 
observe by their not letting the cock feed 
them any longer, or by his discontinuing to 
do so,) you may cage them off and give 
thera chopped eg-g, with bread, as before 
stated, with the addition of a little maw 
seed, and some ground or bruised rape, till 
they are seven weeks old ; when they will 
be able to crack hard seed, which should, 
however, before that time, be given them. 
They should then have a mixture of rape, 
canary, yellow, and hemp seeds mixed 
together, taking care that fresh seed be put 
in their box every two days, with now and 
then a few grains of bruised hemp seed. 
Some feed their birds with rape alone, 
thinking they live longer. I have observed 
it renders them so thin, that they often die 
at the first illness that attacks them — and 
particularly the later birds when moulting. 
Another evil to guard against is, when your 
old birds are put in a cag'e with soft food, 
&c., to breed, they generally gorge to such 
a degree as to swell themselves and die. 
Many Canaries are killed by giving them 
too large a quantity of soft food, as eggs, 
greens, &c., which is not always necessary 
for them. Remember, when breeding, your 
old birds should have (besides canary, rape, 
and hempseed) a little lettuce seed, which 
purges and clears them of such foul hu- 
mours as may have generated during the 
vvinter. And, as the breeding time is the 
most difficult period to manage them, I shall 
be particular in my directions for their treat- 
ment at that season. 

The hen sits thirteen, but more frequently 
fourteen days, although much depends on 
the state of the weather, as in very fine 
weather they hatch sooner than in dull and 
told weather ; however, two days before 
»kB hatches, I generally clean the perches, 
fill the box with seed, and the fountain with 
water, so that they may not be disturbed 
for two or three days after they hatch. 
The soft meat must be given them three 
times a day ; you may likewise give them 
a little seed, chickweed as free as possible 



from the large rank leaves, ■vhicti are very 
injurious. In July and August, they should 
have ripe plantain, or a lettuce leaf, feeding 
them at six o'clock in the morning, at noon, 
and again at five in the afternoon. In the 
hot months, -hey must be very particularly 
attended to ; and this food put in the cage 
in the morning, if any remains, should be 
taken away when next fed, as the soft meat 
in a few hours turns sour, the chickwee*' 
also withers, so that the old ones, feeding 
their young on these nauseous, half-rotten 
substances, retard their growth, and make 
them weak and large bellied, instead of 
being strong, straight, and taper. I also 
give them lettuce seed and plantain seed 
mixed in a small pot. Observe what the 
old ones prefer, giving them as much of 
that particular seed as they will eat : for 
the less they feed the young ones on green 
meat the better, as it causes the surfeit or 
swelling before observed. I put sometimes 
a piece of stick liquorice into their water 
glass, which gives a flavour to the water 
and acts as an alterative. 

In hot weather they should have cleam 
water once a day in pans, to bathe and wash 
in, which greatly refreshes them ; as well 
as in their glasses, as they drink much 
oftener than in cold weather. 



(7.) Directions tomake Pastp,io brinsthem 
up by hand. 

When you wish to bring up a Canary by 
hand, for the purpose of rendering him 
remarkably tame, you must first see if he 
is strong enough to be taken away from the 
old ones ; as should he be taken away too 
soon, he is apt to pine ; neither must he be 
left too long, as in that case he is obstinate 
sullen, and difficult to breed 

The bird thus intended to be brought up 
should be well fledged or feathered ; if a 
mealy bird, eleven days is the proper age; 
if a jonque, thirteen. When taken from 
the hen, he should be placed in a warm box 
and kept in rather a dark situation, to make 
him forget the old ones. 

This rule is not without exception ; as 
sometimes the hen is taken ill in breeding, 
and cannot feed her young, so that it be- 
comes necessary they should be taken from 
her sooner, and bred up by hand, if you 
have not another hen under which you can 
put them. And occasionally a hen feeds so 
ill, that the young ones fall away and will 
die for want of food. When this is the 
case, they must be taken from her, or they 
would soon be past recovery, from the effect 
of her neglect. Frequently the hen leavea 
them at eight days old to the care of the 



36 



THE CANABY BTRD FANCIEH 



cock ; and althoug-h you give her proper 
things for Jier nest, she unmercifully plucks 
the feathers from her young ones; in which 
case they must be taken from her, or she 
will kill them in two or three days. But 
when there is no pressing occasion to take 
them from the old ones, they should be suf- 
fered to remain as before stated. 

When they are taken away, the follow- 
ing paste is given them, which will keep 
good fifteen days : In a large mortar, or on 
an even table, you must bruise with a roll- 
ing-pin, a pint or quart of rape, in such 
manner that you may blow the chaff away ; 
to this bruised seed add a piece of bread, 
reducing them to powder ; mix these 
together, and put them in an oak box, 
which should be kept from the sun. You 
may give them a tea-spoonful of this pow- 
der, with the addition of a little hard yolk 
•f Ggg, and a few drops of water. By^ these 
means you will have prepared in a minute 
food for your young birds without trouble. 
This powder must not be kept longer than 
twenty days, as it then becomes unfit for use, 
the rape seed turning sour, so that when 
the water is put in, it smells like mustard. 
After twenty days, if any of the powder 
remains, it may be given dry to the old ones, 
and it will do them no harm. I rather pre- 
fer giving them their paste fresh every day, 
as I observe they thrive better. The first 
three days I take them from the old ones, 
I give them part of a sponge biscuit, reduced 
to powder ; add a hard boiled yolk of pgg, 
(or the white, which is better, if fresh, as 
it does not heat them so much as the yolk,) 
with a drop or two of water : make this up 
into a thick paste, as, if it be too liquid, it 
digests so quickly as to be of little or no 
service to them. 

After your birds are three or four days 
old, and begin to be strong, add to the mix- 
ture a small quantity of scalded rape seed, 
without bruising it, as they are strong 
enough to digest it. I sometimes give them 
too, (chopped very fine,) a sweet almond 
peeled, and a small quantity of chick weed 
seed. This latter ought to be given them 
twice a day in very hot weather. If you 
attend strictly to this mode of feeding, you 
may depend on your Canaries thriving well, 
and, on an average, you will scarcely lose 
©ne in fifty. 

(8.) Hotv to treat those that are sick. 

If any of the young ones are ill, you must 
treat them as follows : Take a handful of 
hemp seed, which first wash in cold water, 
then bruise it in a mortar, and put in water 
again, from which again take it and put it 



in a clean piece of linen, which yoa mn» 
squeeze very strongly in the last used water, 
and this is termed milk of hemp seed ; it 
will strengthen and nourish your young 
birds very much. Remember to take the 
water glass away when you give your sick 
birds this medicine. 

Birds brought up by hand require fre- 
quent feeding ; let them be attended to 
every two hours at farthest. This regu- 
larity and frequency is ahsoLutely requisite 
to procure complete success. To feed 
them, sharpen a small piece of wood, and 
at each time of feeding give them four or 
five mouthsful, or till they refuse to open 
their mouths voluntarily ; as, if too much 
gorged, they are apt, from a want of suffi- 
cient digestive powers, to become ill, and 
to fall into what may be termed a surfeit. 
At a month old you may cease feeding them 
with a stick, as they will then begin to feed 
alone. You must put them in a cage with- 
out perches, at first, and feed them as before 
directed for about a month. There must 
also be a little rape and canary in the seed 
box, or glass. When you see them strong 
enough, which will generally be about seven 
weeks old, take the soft food by degrees 
away from them, and leave them only the 
rape, yellow, and canary. It will be well 
to give them now and then, a little bruised 
hemp seed, especially in the winter. Many 
fanciers boast that the Canaries brought up 
by the old ones, are the strongest and best, 
while some maintain that the birds brought 
up by hand by far exceed the others in 
strength and force; (and the additional 
trouble considered, so they ought.) It often 
happens that those brought up by the old 
ones fall into a consumption, owing to the 
parent birds being ill, and not giving them 
half enough food ; having five or six hi a 
nest to bring up at a time, they must neces- 
sarily neglect some, which become feeble 
and die. The cock and hen are likewise 
much relieved when the young ones are 
taken away at ten or twelve days old ; and 
they live longer than when they are left 
entirely to tear them themselves. The 
young brought up by hand are more familiar 
than the others, and fewer die in the moult. 
At least, a nest from each pair of birds is 
gained by thus rearing them ; and they may 
have four nests without too much fatiguing 
them during the breeding season, and they 
will the next season be in as good a state 
to breed as they were the first year. 

A bird that breeds, seldom lives longer 
than ten years : others; that are not bred 
from, but kept merely for song, have beeo 
known to attain the age of twenty years. 



TB£ ETIQUETTE OF COURTSHIP AND MAKRUGE. 



THE ETIQUETTE OF COURTSHIP AND MARRIAGE. 

No subject in this work is more important, and certainly none will be studied with M 
much attention, as that of the present section. Love is the universal passion, courtship 
is the most interesting avocation of human life, and marriage one of the great ends of 
existence. As our wives are not purchased as in China, nor stolen as in some parts of 
Africa, nor in general negotiated for by parents, as in some countries in Europe, but 
wooed and won by polite attentions, the manner in wliich a fjentleman should behave 
towards ladies, is a matter of the greatest importance. Charms, filters, and talismans 
axe used no longer — the only proper talismans are worth and accomplishments. 



How to win the favour of Ladies. 

To win the favour of the ladies, dress and 
manner mustnevor be neglected. Women 
iook more to sense than to beauty, and a 
man shows his sense, or his want of it, in 
every action of his life. When a young man 
first finds himself in the company of the 
other sex, he is seldom free from a degree 
of bashfulness, which makes him more 
awkward than he would otherwise appear, 
and he very often errs from real ignorance 
cf what he should say or do. Though a 
feeling of respect and kindness, and a de- 
sire to be obliging and agreeable, will al- 
ways be recognised and appreciated, there 
are certain forms very convenient to be un- 
derstood. 

How to address a Lady. 

We address a married lady, or widow, 
as Madam, or by name, as Missis or Mis- 
tress Jones. In answering a question we 
contract the Madam to ma'am — as "yes, 
ma'am, no ma'am, very fine day, ma'am." 

A single lady, of a certain age, may also 
be addressed as Madam. 

A young lady, if the eldest of the fami- 
ly, unmarried, is entitled to the sirname, as 
Miss Smith, while her younger sisters are 
called Miss Mary , Miss Julia, &c. The term 
" Miss," used by itself, is very inelegant. 

It is expected, that gentlemen will, upon 
every proper occasion, offer civilities to la- 
dies of their acquaintance, and especially 
to those for whom they have a particular 
attachment. 

_ A gentleman neeting a lady at an eve- 
ning party, is struck with her appearance-. 
Ascertaining that she is not engaged, which 
he may do from some acquaintance, he 
\akes some opportunity of oayinir. 

"Miss Ellen, will you honor "me, by ac- 
cepting my escort home to-night?" or, 



"Miss Ellen, shall I have the pleasure 
of seeing you home?" or, 

" Miss Ellen, make me happy by select- 
ing me for your cavalier ;" or, 

"Miss Ellen, shall I have the pleasure 
of protecting you?'' 

The last of course, as the others, may be 
half in fun, for these little matters do not 
require much seriousness. The lady re 
plies, if engaged, 

" Excuse me. Sir, I am already provided 
for;" or, pleasantly. 

"How unfortunate! If you had been 
five minutes earlier, T might have availed 
myself of your services ;" or, if disen- 
gaged, 

" Thank you, sir ; I shall be obliged foj 
your attention ;" or, 

" Wiih pleasure, Sir, if my company 
will pay you for your trouble ;" or, any 
other pleasant way of saying that she ac- 
cepts, and is grateful t<)r the attention prof 
fered to her. 

The preliminaries settled, vviiich should 
be as early as possible, his atte-ntion should 
be public. He should assist her in put- 
ting on her cloak and shawl, and offer hei 
his arm before leaving the room. 

Preliminaries of Courtship. 

There is no reasen why the passion of 
love should be wrapped up in mystery. Il 
would prevent much and complicated mise- 
ry in the world, if all young persons un- 
derstood it truly. 

According to the usages of society, it is 
the custom for the man to propose mar- 
riage, and for the female to refuse or ac- 
cept the offer as she may think fit. There 
ought to be a perfect freedom of the will 
in both partiep. 

When a young man admires a lady, and 
thinks her society necessary to his happt- 



88 



THE ETIQUETTE OF COURTSHIP AND MARRUGE. 



ness, it is proper, before committing him- 
self, or inducing the object of his admira- 
tion to do so, to apply to her Parents or 
Guardians for permission to address her ; 
this is a becc/ming mark of respect, and 
the circumstances must be very peculiar, 
wliich would justify a deviation from this 
course. 

Everything secret and unacknowledged 
is to be avoided, as the reputation of a 
clandestine iatsrcouTse is always more or 
less injurious ti.rough life. The romance 
evaporates, but the memory of indiscretion 
survives. 

Young men frequently amuse themselves 
by playing with the feelings of young 
women. They visit them often, they walk 
with them, tliey pay them divers atten- 
tions, and after giving them an idea that 
they are attached to them, they either leave 
them, or, what is worse, never come to an 
explanation of their sentiments. This is to 
act the character of a dangler, a character 
truly dastardly and infamous. 

How to Commence a Courtship. 

A gentleman having met a lady at social 
parlies, danced with her at balls, accompa- 
nied her to and from church, may desire 
to become more intimately acquainted. In 
short, you wish to commence a formal 
courtship. This is a case for palpitations, 
but forget not that " faint heart never won 
fair lady." What will you do? Why, 
taking some good opportunity, \'ou will 
say, 

" Miss Wilson, since I became acquaint- 
ed with you, I have been every day more 
pleased with your society, and I hope you 
will allow me to enjoy more of it — if you 
are not otherwise engaged, will you permit 
me to visit you on Sunday evening?" 

The lady will blush, no doul't — she may 
tremble a little, but if your proposition is 
acceptable to her, she may say : 

" I am grateful for your good opinion, 
and shall be happy to see you." 

Or if her friend's have not been consult- 
ed, as they usually are before matters pro- 
eeed so far, she may say: 

" I am sensible of your kindness, Sir ; 
»ut I cannot consent to a private inter- 
view, without consulting my family." 

Or she may refuse altogether, and in 
such a case, should do so with every reg ird 
to the feelings of the gentleman, and if en- 
gaged, should say frankly : 

" I shall be happy to see you at all times 
as a friend, but I am not at liberty to grant 
a private interview." 

As, in all these affairs, the lady is the re- 



spondent, there is little necessity for anj 
directions in regard to her conduct, as s 
" Yes " ever so softly whispered, is a suf- 
ficient affirmative, and as her kindness of 
heart will induce her to soften as much aa 
possible her " No." 

To tell a lady who has granted the pre- 
liminary favours, that you love her better 
than life, and to ask her to name the hap- 
py day, are matters of nerve, rather than 
form, and require no teaching. 

Love Letters. 

A gentleman is struck with the appear 
ance of a lady and is desirous of her ac- 
quaintance, but there are no means within 
his reach of obtaining an introduction, and 
he has no friends who are acquainted wit" 
herself or her family. In this dilemiu 
there is no alternative but a letter. 

There is, besides, a delicacy, a timidity, 
and nervousness in love, which makes many 
men desire some mode of communication 
rather than the speech, which in such ca- 
ses too often fails them. In short, there 
are reasons enough for writing — but when 
the enamoured youth has set about pen- 
ning a letter to the object of his passion, 
how difficult does he find it ! How many 
sheets of paper does he spoil ! How many 
efforts does he make before he succeeds in 
writing one to suit him \ 

It may be doubted whether as many 
reams of paper have ever been used in 
writing letters upon all other subjects, as 
have been consumed upon epistles of love ; 
and there is probably no man living who 
has not at some time written, or desired to 
write, some missive which might explain 
his passion to the amiable being of whonj 
he was enamoured; and it has been the 
same, so far as can be judged, in all the 
generations of the world. 

Affairs of the heart — the delicate and in- 
teresting preliminaries of marriage, are of- 
tener settled by the pen than in any other 
manner. 

To write the words legibly, to spell them 
correctly, to point them properly, to begin 
every sentence and every proper name with 
a capital letter, every one is supposed to 
learn at school. 

To give examples of letters would tfl 
useless and absurd, as each particular case 
must necessarily require a widelj'' different 
epistle, and the judgment and feelings of 
the party writing, must bo left to contro! 
both the style and substance of the letter. 

For a love letter, good paper is indi.'^pen- 
sable. When it can be procured, that of a 
costly quality, gold-edged perfumed, <w 



THE ETIQTTETTE OF COURTSHIP AND MARRIAGE. 



39 



ornamented in the French style, may be 
properly used. The letter should be care- 
fully enveloped, and nicely sealed with a 
fancy wafer — not a common one of course, 
where any other can be had ; or what is 
better, plain or fancy sealing wax. As all 
persons are more or less governed by first 
impressions and externals, the whole affair 
should be as neat and elegant as possible. 

Popping the Question. 

There is nothing more appalling to a 
modest and sensitive young man than ask- 
ing the girl he loves to marry him : and 
there are few who do not find their moral 
courage tasked to the utmost. Many a man 
who would lead a forlorn hope, mount a 
breach, and" seek the bubble reputation e'en 
in the cannon's mouth," trembles at the idea 
of asking a woman the question which is 
to decide his fate. Ladies may congratu- 
late themselves that nature and custom 
have made them the responding party. 

In a matter which men have always 
found so terrible, yet which, in one way or 
other, they have always contrived in some 
awkward way to accomplish ; it is not easy 
to give instructions suited to every emer- 
gency. 

A man naturally conforms to the dispo- 
sition of the woman he admires. If she 
be serious, he ■v^ ill approach the awful sub- 
ject with due solemnity — if gay and lively, 
he will make it an excellent joke — if soft- 
ly sentimental, he must woo her in a strain 
of high-wrought romange — if severely 
practical, he relies upon straight-forward 
common sense. 

There is one maxim of universal appli- 
cation — Never lose an opportunity. What 
can a woman think of a lover who neglects 
one? Women cannot make direct advan- 
ces, but they use infinite tact in giving men 
occasions to make them. In every case, it 
i.'s fair to presume that when a woman gives 
p. jnati an opportunity, she expects hirn to 
improve it; and though he may tremble, 
and feel his pulses throbbing and tingling 
through every limb ; though his heart is 
filling up his throat, and his tongue cleaves 
to the roof of his mouth, yet the awful 
question must be asked — the feartV task 
accomplished. 

In the country, the lover is taking a ro- 
majitic walk by moonlight, with the lady 
of his love — talks of the beauties of the 
scenery, the harmony of nature, and ex- 
claims, "Ah! Julia, how happy would 
existence prove, if I always had such a 
companion !" 

She sighs, and leans more fondly on the 
aan that tremblingly supports her. 



" My dearest Julia, be mine forever !" 

This is a settler, and the answer, ever so 
inaudible, "makes or undoes him quite." 

" Take pity on a forlorn bachelor," says 
another, in a manner which may be either 
jest or earnest, " marry me at once and put 
me out of my misery." 

" With all my hsart, whenever you are 
ready," replies the laughing fair. A joke 
carried thus far is easily made earnest. 

A point is often carried by taking a thing 
for granted. A gentleman who has been 
paying attentions to a lady, says, " Well, 
Mary, when is the happy day f" " What 
day, pray?" she asks, with a conscious 
blush. 

" Why, every body knows that we are 
going to get married, and it might as well 
be one time as another ; so, when shall it 
be?" 

Cornered in this fashion, there is no re- 
treat. 

"Jane, I love you! Will you marry 
me?" would be somewhat abrupt, and a 
simple, frankly given, "Yes!" would be 
short and sweet, for an answer. 

" Ellen, one word from you would make 
me the happiest man in the universe!" 

" I should be cruel not to speak it then, 
unless it is a very hard one." 

"It is a word of three letters, and an- 
swers the question. Will you have me?" 

The lady, of course says Yes, unless 
she happen to prefer a word of only two 
letters, and answers No. 

And so this interesting and terrible pro- 
cess in practice, simple as it is in theory 
is varied in a hundred ways, according to 
circumstances and the various dispositions- 
One timid gentleman asks, " Have yda 
any objection to change your name?" and 
follows this up with another which clench- 
es its significance, " How would mine suit 
you?" 

Another asks, " Will you tell me what 
I most wish to know?" 

"Yes, if lean." 

" The happy day when we shall be mar- 
ried?" 

Another says, " My Eliza, we must do 
what all the world evidently expects we 
shall.'"' 

" All the world is very impertinent." 

"I know it— but it can't be helped. 
When shall 1 tell the parson to be ready ?'' 

As a general rule, a gentleman never 
need be refused. Every woman, except a 
heartless coquette, finds the means of dis- 
couraging a man whom she does not intend 
to have, before the matter comes to the 
point of a declaration. 



4f 



THE ETIQUTTE OF COURTSHIP AND MARRIAGE. 



Marriage Ceremony. 

Weddings are every where accompanied 
with some degree of ceremony, and are 
usually considered as occasions of festivity. 

The preliminaries having been arranged 
ny the contracting parties, and the lady 
having named the happy day, prepar^itions 
aie made for the weddmg. Those who be- 
long to the Episcopal and Roman Catholic 
Churches are usually married at Church, 
m the morning, and by the prescribed 
forms. In some cases there is a wedding 
party given in the evening ; in others, the 
happy couple make a short wedding tour, 
and issue cards of invi'.ation on their re- 
turn. 

Among other denominations, the parties 
are married by a clergyman or magistrate ; 
and in the state of New York, marriage 
being considered by the law only a civil 
contract, it may be witnessed by any per- 

Where a wedding is celebrated in the 
usual forms, cards of invitation are issued, 
at least a week before hand. The hour 
selected is usually 8 o'clock, P. M. Wed- 
ding cake, wines, and other refreshments, 
are provided by the bride and her friends 
for the occasion. The bride is usually 
dressed in pure white — she wears a white 
•veil, and her head is crowned with a wreath 
of white flowers, usually artificial ; and 
orange blossoms are preferred. She should 
wear no ornaments but such as her intend- 
ed husband or her father may present her 
for the occasion — certainly no gift, if any 
such were retained, of any former sweet- 
heart. 

The bridemaid or bridemaids, if there 
be two, are generally younger than the 
bride, and sliouid also be dressed in white, 
but more simply. The bridegroom must 
be in full dress — that is, he must wear a 
dress coat, which, if he pleases, may be 
iaced with white satin ; a white vest, black 
pantaloons, and dress boots or pumps, with 
black silk stockings, and white kid gloves, 
and a white cravat. The bridegroom is at- 
tended by one or two groomsmen, who 
should be dressed in a similar manner. It 
is the duty of the bridemaids to assist in 
dressing the bride, and making the necessa- 
ry preparations for theentertainment of the 
guests. The chief groomsman engages 
the clergyman or magisliate, and u])on his 
arrival introduces him to the bride anu 
bridegroom, and the friends of the parties. 

The invited guests, upon their arrival, 
are received as at other parties, and after 
visiting the dressing rooms and arranging 
their toilets, they proceed to the roon: 



where the ceremony is to be performed. 
In some cases the maerirge is performed 
before the arrival of the guests. 

When the hour for the ceremony has 
arrived, and all things are ready, the wed 
ding parly, consisting of the happy couple, 
with the bridemaids and groomsmen, walk 
into the room arm in arm ; the groomsmen 
each attending the bridemaids, preceding 
the bride and bridegroom, and take their 
position at the head of the room, which is 
usually the end farthest from the entran^se ; 
the bride standing facing the assembly on 
the right of the bridegroom — the bnde 
maids taking their position at her right, and 
the groomsmen at the left of the bride- 
groom. The principal groomsman now 
formally introduces the clergyman or ma- 
gistrate to the bride and bridegroom, and 
he proceeds to perform the marriage cere- 
mony : if a ring is to be used, the bride- 
groom procures a plain gold one previously, 
taking some means to have it of the proper 
size. 

As soon as the ceremony is over, and the 
bridegroom has kissed the bride, the cler- 
gyman or magistrate shakes hands with the 
bride, saluting her by her newly acquired 

name, as Mrs. , and wishes them 

joy, prosperity and happiness: the grooms- 
men and bridemaids then do the same; 
and then the principal groomsman brings 
to them the other persons in the room, 
commenciiig with the parents and relatives 
of the parties, the brides relatives having 
precedence, and ladies being accompanied 
by gentlemen. Jn this manner all present 
are expected to make their salutations and 
congratulations, first to the newly married 
couple, and then to their parents and 
friends. And where the wedding ceremo- 
ny has been performed before the arrival of 
the guests, they are received near the door, 
having of course first visited the dressing 
rooms, and introduced in the same manner 
The groomsman takes occasion befe)re the 
clergyman or magistrate leaves, to private- 
ly thank him for his attendance, at the 
same time placing in his hand the marriage 
fee, which is wrapped up nicely in paper, 
and if more than the legal sum, as is fre- 
quently the case where the parties are 
wealthy, it is usually in gold. The bride- 
groom, of course, takes an early opportuni- 
ty to reimburse his grooinsman for neces- 
sary expenses. 

When the presentations and congratula- 
tions are over, that is, when the gue3t.s 
have arrived, the bridal party, which till 
now has kept its position, mingles with the 
rest of the company, and joins in the dati- 
ng or other amusements. 



THE ETIQUETTE OF COURTSHIf AND MARRIAGE. 



4] 



The Bridal Chamber. 

The festivities should not be kept up too 
Jate ; and at the hour of retiring, the bride 
is to be conducted to the bridal chamber by 
the bridemaids, who assist her in her 
night toilet. The bridegroom upon receiv- 
ing notice will retire, without farther at- 
tendance or ceremony. 

The practice of kissing the bride is not 
so common as formerly, and in regard to 
this, the taste of the bridegroom may be 
consulted, as the rest of the company fol- 
low the example of the groomsman ; but 
the parents and very near relatives of the 
parties, of course act as affection prompts 
them. 

The chamber frolics, such as the whole 
company visiting the bride and bridegroom 
after they are in bed, which was done 
some years ago, even at the marriage of 
monarchs, and the custom of throwing the 
stocking, etc., are almost universally dis- 
pensed with. 

After Marriage. 

After maiyiage the bridal party usually 
travel for a week or two : upon their re- 
turn, it is customary for the bride to be " at 
home " for a few days to receive visits. 
The first four weeks after marriage consti- 
tute the honeymoon. 

You need not retain the whole of your 
previous acquaintance ; those only to whom 
you send card j are, after marriage, consid- 
ered in the circle of your visiting acquain- 
tance. The parents or friends of the bride 
usually send the cards to her connexion ; 
the bridegroom selects those persons among 
his former associates whom he wishes to 
retain as such. The cards are sometimes 
united by a silken cord, or white ribbon, to 
distinguish those of a newly married pair 
from ordinary visiters ; but it is doubtful 
whether it be in good taste. 

A married lady may leave her own or 
her husband's card in returning a visit ; 
the latter only would be adopted as a re- 
source in the event of her not having her 
own with her. 

A lady will not say, ' My husband," 
except among intimates, in every other 
ease she should address him by his chris- 
tian name, calling Mm Mr. It is equally 
good ton, when alone with him, to desig- 
tat'". him by his christian name. 

Cobbett, in his " Advice to -«. Husband," 
6ays, " I never could see the sense of its 
being a piece of etiquette, a sort of mark 
of good breeding, to make it a rule that 



man and wife are not to sit side by side in 
a mixed company ; that if a party walk out, 
the wife is to give her arm to some other 
than her husband ; that if there be any 
other hand near, his is not to help tc a seat 
or into a carriage. I never could see the 
sense of this ; but 1 have always seen the 
nonsense of it plainly enough ; it is, in 
short, a piece of false, refinement : it, being 
interpreted, means that so free are the par- 
ties from a liability to suspicion, that each 
man can safely trust his wife with another 
man, and each woman her husband with 
another woman. But this piece of false 
refinement, like al. others, overshoots its 
mark ; it says too much ; for it says that 
the parties have lewd thoughts in their 
minds.''' 

This is the sensible view taken of part 
of the etiquette of mtirriage, by a man of 
extreme practical sense. 



Acquaintances after Marriage. 

Whe-n a man marries, it is understood 
that all former acquaintanceship endl, un- 
less he intimate a desire to renew it, by 
sending you his own and his wife's card, 
if near, or by letter, if distant. If this be 
neglected, be sure no further intercourse ia 
desired. 

In the first place — A bachelor is seldom 
very particvlar in the choice of his com- 
panions. So long as he is amused, he will 
associate freely enough with those whose 
morals and habits would point them out as 
highly dangerous persons to introduce into 
the sanctity of domestic life. 

Secondly — A married man has the tastes 
of another to consult ; and the friend of the 
husband may not be equally acceptable to 
the ivife. 

Besides — Newly-married people may 
wish to limit the circle of their friends, 
from praiseworthy motives of economy. 
When a man first " sets up " in the world, 
the burthen of an e.\tensive and indiscrimi- 
nate acquaintance may be felt in various 
ways. Many have had cause to regret the 
Aveakness of mind which allowed them to 
plunge into a vortex of gayeiy and expense 
they could ill afford, from which they have 
found it difl[icult to extricate themselves, 
and the effects of which have proved a se- 
rious evil to them in after-life. 

When a man is about to be married, ho 
usually gives a dinner to his bachelor 
friends ; which is understood to be theii 
conge, unless he choose to renew their ac- 
quaintance. 



42 HYDROPATHy, OE THE WATEK CURE. 



HYDROPATHY, OE THE WATER CURE. 

Bathing has been practised, both as a preventive and a curativa of disease, from iht 
earliest ages to the present day. 

It is a vulgar error that the practice of cold bathing when the body is bedewed with 
perspiration, is dangerous, and that numbers of persons, every summer, lose their lives 
by this means. But the true fact is, that the danger in such cases is owing to the fa- 
tigue present, and not to perspiration checked. The ancient Romans were in the habit 
of often passing from their sudatorium, or sweating o the cold bath. The Russians 
for centuries have been accustomed to go, while in a state of reeking sweat, to a cold 
immersion, or to roll in the snow. So, also, in this way, the Indians of our own coun- 
try accomplish in a multitude of cases of rheumatism, fevers, etc., what could not be 
•with any amount of drugs, and the lancet besides. 

The Macedonians considered warm water to be enervating. Their women, after ac- 
couchement, were washed in cold water. 

The Spartans bathed their children, as soon as born, in cold water; and the men of 
Sparta, both old and young, bathed at all seasons of the year, to harden their flesh, and 
strengthen their bodies. 

Among the Araucanian Indians of South America, a mother, immediately after child 
'jirth, takes her child, and going down to the nearest stream of water, washes herself 
and it, and returns to the usual labours of her station. 

A remedy that has proved so potent in untrained and unskilled hands, affords a legiti 
mate prospect of much greater success when wielded by men of cultivated minds, and 
devoted to the practice of the healing art. 

So far as great names give a sanction to a system, the Water Cure is not without 
some of the most eminent in science, and the most distinguished in practice. Not to 
mention a host of physicians and professors on the Continent of Europe, with the illus- 
trious Liebig at their head, it may be enough to cite some names of well-deserved note 
in England — Sir Charles Scudamore, Drs. Wilson, Gully, Johnson, Adair, Crawford, 
Hume, Weatherhead, Freeman, Heathcote, Swethurst, Mr. Herbert Mayo, Mr. Court- 
ney, Mr. Abdy, and many others. The system is rapidly gaining ground among intel- 
ligent and scientific men in our own country ; and the French, Prussian and Austrian 
Governments have already given their public approval of its practice, the reports of 
their respective commissions sent to the establishment of Priessnitz at Grafenberg to 
investigate its merits, having given a favourable verdict. 



The Process of the Water Cure. len blanket extended on the bed. An at- 

tendant wraps first the one side of the 
Having premised with these general ob- blanket round the body of the patient 
servations, we shall proceed to explain the drawing it close in all directions; grasping 
various modes of administerng the reme- now firmly wiih the one hand the portiotk 
dy, with the diseases for which each mode in which the patient is wrapped, he draws 
is peculiarly applicable. with the other hand the blanket round the 

body, and tucks this part also under him 

Sweaiin"-. l^hc coverings must be in close contact 

°' with the body, particularly at the neck, so 

This is produced as follows : The pa- that the heat emitted may be retained, for 

tient is stripped and laid upon a thick wool- it is the excess of caloric thus confined tha 



HIDROPATHY, OR "iTTE WATER CURE 



43 



induces sweating. Before the outbreak of 
perspiration, slight excitement of the ves- 
Bels generally passes olF spontaneously ; 
but where it does not, a cooling bandage 
must be laid on the head of the patient, at 
the same time administering cold water in- 
lernally. All parts affected with swellings 
•re to be wrapped up in warming applica- 
tions before envelopment, in order to allay 
the pain, which is usually more violent pre- 
vious to perspiration. As persons thus en- 
veloped are helpless, a servant should 
.ilvvays be in attendance to open the win- 
dows as soon as sweating ensues, and to 
give as much cold water as is necessary to 
promote perspiration, every ten or fifteen 
minutes. 

The result of this mode of treatment is 
pretty certain. 

The best time for sweating in chronic 
cases, is in the early hours of the morn- 
ing, from four to five o'clock. A repeti- 
tion of the process the same day, is only 
admissible as an exception. The ordinary 
duration in chronic cases is from half an 
hour to three hours daily ; but moderate 
perspiration may be encouraged for a lon- 
ger time in acute diseases. 

When the patient has remained in a state 
of perspiration long enough, the woollen 
covering should b6' loosened about his feet 
and legs, to enable him to walk. If not 
able, he is to be carried to the bath. No 
danger is to be dreaded from the transition 
from heat to cold, if every thing is proper- 
ly done. 

After the bath, patients who can should 
walk, or take other exercise, in fresh air. 
Those who cannot, must be rubbed after 
the bath for some time, first with wet cloths 
and then dry. 

This is a powerful part of the treatment, 
and must be resorted to with prudence. 
Priessnitz does not now use it as often as 
formerly. 

Wet Sheet. 

This is the great bug-bear of the treat- 
ment. The wet sheet is laid upon one or 
more blankets, the patient lays himself at 
full length upon the former, whereupon it 
is folded round him, so as to come in close 
contact witli every portion of the body. 
lie is then enveloped in the blanket and 
bed covering. 

The wet sheets are of remarkable utili- 
ty in all febrile diseases. In acute fevers 
they must be changed according to the de- 
gree of heat, every quarter or half hour, 
until the dry hot skin becomes softer, and 
more prone to sweating. When this symp- 
wra is observed, the renewal of the wet 



cloths may be delayed till pei -epilation ac- 
tually ensues. The patient ../lust then re- 
main for- several hours in this state, until 
rxneasy sensations render it necessary to ex- 
tricate him ; but it is more advisable to 
keep him in the loosened envelopment un- 
til the sweating ceases spontaneously, when 
a tepid ablution, or half bath, should fol- 
low. In acute eruptions of the skin, 
measles, scarlatina, small pox, &c., the 
wet sheets are not less serviceable, than 
when the eruption cannot make its way to 
the surface in consequence of the dry state 
and heat of the skin, and of the violence of 
the fever ; or where the rash has receded 
suddenly, owing to other disturbances. The 
wet sheets followed by tepid ablutions can- 
not be sufficiently recommended in many 
diseases of children. 

In using the envelopment, we generally 
raise the temperature of the patient, and 
occasionally allow him to perspire, accord- 
ing to the circumstances of the case. De- 
termination to the head during the process 
must be removed by cold applications to 
that part. If the feet remain cold for a 
long time in the wet cloths, and show no 
disposition to become warm, they are to be 
extricated and wrapped in the dry blanket 
only. 

The wet sheet produces two diametrical- 
ly opposite effects, accordingly as it is used- 
If it be changed frequently, as fast as the 
patient becomes warm, as, for instance, in 
cases of fever, almost any amount of 
heat may be abstracted s\o\\\y and gradu- 
ally from the body. But if the patient re- 
main half an hour, the most delicious sen- 
sation of warmth and a gentle perspiration 
are produced ; while pains and uneasiness 
are removed. 

Cooling Bandages. 

Bandages are made to produce the same 
effect upon any part of the body, as the 
wet sheet upon the whole body. As cool- 
ing applications, they should be applied of 
a size suited to the part inflamed, folded 
from three or four to eight times, dipped in 
very cold water, and are to be renewed 
from every three or four to ten minutes, 
according to the necessities of the case. 

Warming, or Stimulating Bandages. 

These are applied by folding linen two 
or three times, and dipping them in cold 
water, or they may be made slightly tepid ; 
they should be well pressed or wrung out, 
and are not to be changed until they begin to 
dry. They must be well adapted to the 
part, and also well secured from the actiop 



44 



HYDROPATHY, OR THE WATER CURE. 



of the air by a dry oandage, which is bet- 
ter to be a non conductor of heat, so that 
the part may be raised in temperature. 
The combined action of heat and moisture 
thus produced is highly beneficial in a 
great variety of indurations, swellings, tu- 
mours, &c. In the water-cure, they are 
also much used in derangements of the di- 
gestive organs, affections of the abdomen, 
diseases of the liver, &c. 

For the abdomen, a convenient form is 
aiade by folding and sewing together two 
or three thicknesses of linen, of sufficient 
length to pass round the body two or more 
times, the width vai-ying according to the 
size of the person ; one end is wet and 
wrung out, enough in length to cover the 
abdomen, or to pass round the body if de- 
sirable, and then applied as tightly as com- 
fortable — and the dry folds over in the same 
manner , the whole secured by tapes at- 
tached for the purpose. There should al- 
ways be enough dry cloths to prevent a 
permanent chill. 

Rubbing Wet Sheet. 

A coar!58 linen sheet, suitable for hold- 
ing considerable water, and for friction, is 
here used. It may be allowed even drip- 
ping. The patient standing ready, it is to 
be thrown over the head or closely about 
the neck, so as to create a slight shock, 
and immediately very active friction is to 
be used by the assistant behind, and the 
patient, if able, or another assistant, be- 
fore. This should be continued from one 
to five minutes, when the skin will have 
become reddened and warm. This must 
be followed briskly by a coarse dry sheet 
or dry cloths, until ihe surface is perfectly 
dry and in a complete glow. The patient 
is then immediately dressed for exercise, or 
for bed, as the case may be. The temper- 
ature of the water used should correspond 
with the strength of the patient. Those 
who are so feeble as to render it necessa- 
ry to remain in bed, can be often much 
benefited by a judicious rubbing while in 
bed. This is a highly useful application, 
and, if judiciously made, will produce near- 
ly all the good effects of a bath, and will 
often be found m^ich more convenient of 
application. 

Ablutton.1. 

These may be performed in the foil ow- 
ing manner : — The hands, or a sponge or 
cloth, is dipped into a vessel containing 
cold water, placed on a chair. The sponge 
or cloth is to be gently expressed, and then 



conveyed for some few minutes rapidly ovoi 
the whole surface of the body ; then tha 
same operation is to be performed with dry 
cloths, brushes, &c. until the surface ia 
entirely dry. Every one, old and young, 
should practise daily ablutions. 

The best time for these ablutions is the 
morning. They are to be performed imme- 
diately after rising from bed, when the 
temperature of the body is raised by tht 
heat of the bed. In many cases a .second 
ablution before going to bed will suffice. 
Local ablution will have to be repeated 
luost frequently, where we wish to produce 
increased reaction ; even in these cases the 
natural warmth of the body should be re- 
stored before proceeding to a second ablu- 
tion ; to increase the beneficial effects of 
this washing, it should be accompanied by 
friction during the process ; this is also 
essential immediately after it. Quite as 
necessary is exercise in the open air, if 
circumstances will in any way permit it 
Very great invalids only may be allowed 
after washing to retire to bed. 

Plunging Baths. 

The immersion of the body covered with 
sweat, into cold water, is exempt from dan- 
ger, provided the organs of perspiration 
are in a state of repose The risk which 
is incurred of catching cold, if, on arriving 
at a river to bathe, we remain until the 
body is cold, cannot exist in this case ; as 
we thereby abstract from the body the heat 
which it requires to produce reaction, and 
thus lose the good effect of bathing. If 
we walk fast, or a long distance, to the 
bath, it is requisite to repose a little in or- 
der to tranquillize the lungs, after which we 
must undress quickly and plunge head- 
foremxost into the water, having first wetted 
the head and chest, to prevent the blood 
from mounting to those regions. This 
precaution is strongly enforced at Graefen- 
bcrg. ■ During the bath the head ought to 
be immersed several times into the water. 
Great care is requisite in not expobing the 
body, betYv^een throwing aside "he blanket 
after sweating and entering into tL.3 ba*b. 

It is highly advantageous to leep in 
movement in the bath, and to rub v ith tha 
hands any parts afflicted. The skit, isthua 
stimulated, and the sensation of cold abated. 
Those whose chests are affected muat exer- 
cise moderation in the use of the b:ith, en- 
tering it only by degrees, and not staying 
in it too long. In general, the time for re- 
maining in the bath is governed by tho 
coldness of the water, and the vital heat. 
At Graefenberg, where the temperature ^ 



HYDRarATHY, OR THE WATER CURE. 



# 



the water is from 43 to 50 degrees, no one 
stays longer in the bath than from six to 
eight minutes. Priessnitz advises his pa- 
tients to avoid the second sensation of cold 
by leaving the bath before it is felt ; by 
this means the patient will avoid a too 
powerful reaction provoked by a great sub- 
traction of heat. This precaution is indis- 
pensable at the epoch of the treatment, 
marked by fevers and eruptions. Then a 
reaction, produced by an immoderate use 
of the bath or douche, would compel the 
invalid to keep his bed for some days with- 
out at all accelerating the cure. 

A glass or two of water immediately af- 
ter the bath, is agreeable, and should not 
be omitted whilst walking. 

The Half-Bath. 

This is employed in cases in which the 
whole bath would be too much for the 
strength of the invalid, who may require to 
be bathed for a longer time, in order to ex- 
cite the morbid humours. It is less active 
than the entire bath, and is attended with 
less danger. The temperature of the small 
or half-bath isaever lower than about sixty 
degrees. 

The water in these half-baths is only 
about three to six inches deep. When it 
is necessary that the invalid should have 
the advantage of an entire bath, water is 
poured upon him, or the attendant con- 
stantly wets the body and head with the 
water of the bath. 

The half bath is frequently taken by the 
patient immediately after he has been con- 
fined in the wet sheet. It may be accom- 
panied by a general sprinkling of the body 
with cold water and rubbing. When the 
patient quits the bath, he dries himself, 
dresses, and proceeds to take exercise in 
the open air. 

Sittins- Baths 



should be turned up, and the^egs and feet 
are to be enveloped in a woolle'n coverlet. 
Whilst the person is in the bath, he may 
rub the abdomen with a woollen cloth, ta 
increase the action of the skin, and to facili- 
tate the passage of flatulent collections. 
The action of sitting-baths varies. Wheje 
they are desired to have a tonic action, the 
temperature should be from 50° to GO" of 
Fah., and thej should be continued from 
ten to ^fteen minutes. To act as a stimu- 
lant, and to produce more powerful reac- 
tion, they must be continued for the same 
length of time ; but their temperature must 
not exceed 40o to 45a of Fah. 

Where the sitting-baths are to act as de- 
rivatives, determining the blood from parts 
which suffer from congestion, the patient 
must remain twenty minutes to half an 
hour in the bath. It is sometimes necessa- 
ry during the bath to adapt cold applica- 
tions to the parts affected ; this is the more 
necessary, if the congestion increase dur- 
ing the bath. 

If the sitting-baths be intended to pro- 
duce a solvent effect, a moderate tempera- 
ture of 60o to 70" of Fah., and rather a 
lengthened continuation of them, say from 
half an hour to an hour or more, will be 
required. It is advisable, that patient?) 
suffering from obstructions or haemorrhoids 
should sit in deeper water ; it may in this 
case extend beyond the umbilicus. 

These baths should not, as a rule, be ta 
ken immediately after eating, as they will 
be liable to derange the digestion and pro- 
duce irregularities in the evacuations. The 
best time is an hour before dinner, or be- 
fore going to bed. In the latter case they 
offer the advantage of securing a night 'f^ 
rest to the patient. Generally speaking, 
two sitting-baths a day will suffice ; in par- 
ticular cases, especially if not persevered 
in for a long time, five to six may be taken 
during the day. Exercise in the open air 
is to be strictly recommended both before 
and after these baths. 



The dimensions of the vessel should be 
about the following : height of the pedes- 
tal, four to six inches; the inner depth of 
•he vessel from nine to ten inches; height 
of the back, six to eight inches ; whole 
breadth of the vessel, twenty-two to twen- 
ty-four inches. These baths are made of 
■w jod or tin. The vessel in which the bath 
33 taken should be filled with water, until 
it reaches the navel of the patient, when 
in the sitting posture. In especial cases, a 
greater or less height of water may be re- 
quisite. During the bath, the upper part 
of the body is to remain covered, the shirt 



Leg-Bath. 

The thighs and legs, when afHicttd 
with ulcers, ring-worms, wounds, or fix- 
ed rheumatic pains, ought to be put into a 
bath so as to cover the parts afflicted. 
The object of these baths is for them to 
act as stimulants. They may be taken 
for an hour, and sometimes longer : they 
always determine abscesses, and where 
they already exist, thef cause an abundant 
suppuration. They aie also applicable to 
any other mtembers afflicted in a like man- 
ner 



46 



HYDROPATHY, OR THE WATER CURE. 



Shower-Bath. 

Tn tills kind of bath very weakly or irri- 
table people may begin with tepid water, 
and they will soon accustom themselves to 
cold, as these baths produce a very grateful 
impression. Those who cannot obtain a 
proper machine may stand in an empty 
bathing vat, or other vessel, sufficiently 
large, whilst an assistant standing on a 
chair pours water over them from a com- 
mon watering-pot, which answers the pur- 
pose perfectly. 

The action of these baths consists in a 
general shock to the nervous system, and 
to the skin ; in consequence of which, the 
secretion and excretion is promoted, and the 
whole economy benefited. As the action 
of shower-baths is closely allied to that of 
ablutions, they are justly preferred to these 
by many people, because their effect is 
milder, and more grateful, and the water, in 
the form of rain, is brought in contact with 
all parts of the body at the same time. 
They are to be recommended in diseases 
requiring repeated sweatings for their cure ; 
for patients who, in consequence of con- 
gestions, and diseases of the chest, cannot 
bear the full baths after the process of 
sweating. These baths deserve recommen- 
dation to families. Children may be best 
accustomed to cold water in these baths 
where the temperature can at first be rais- 
ed, and then gradually decreased. 

The Douche^ 

This description of bath is prepared with 
the aid of mechanical contrivances, by 
means of which a stream of water is made 
to fall upon the body with more or less 
force. In some respects it is most advan- 
tageous to make use of a natural fall of 
water for this purpose ; we can then con- 
duct the water simply into a channel, giv- 
ing it a fall of twelve to twenty feet, and 



to the stream a calibre of half an inch to 
five inches. Douche rooms, admitting by 
their construction of the access of air from 
above, produoe an agreeable sensation, es- 
pecially in summer, and are very beneficial 
in their action. After the first time ol 
using these baths, the dreadful ideas which 
many patients preconceive of them quick- 
ly disappear. 

The chief consideration in the use of the 
douche should be to guard against apply- 
ing it to the body when quite cold, or when 
in a slate of perspiration after active exer- 
cise. The patient, after undressing in a 
moderate temperature, steps below the 
falling stream, attempting to receive it in 
the palms of his hands, that the whole 
force and volume of the water may not fall 
upon his body immediately, which is not, 
to say the least, at all times agreeable. 
After having thus prepared himself for the 
more potent shock, he must expose himself 
to the full stream, and, in such a manner, 
that the whole columa of water falls chiefly 
on the neck and spine. From time to time 
he must equably expose the other members 
of the body to the stream ; but the affect 
ed parts chiefly, and for a greater length 
of time. He should be careful not to al- 
low the stream to fall perpendicularly on 
the head, chest, or the region of the liver, 
especially if these parts be weak or affect 
ed with disease. 

The duration of the douche must be 
regulated by the constitution of the patient, 
and the effect we wish to produce ; it should 
never be continued for less than one, noi 
more than twelve minutes. 

It is only to be taken fasting, or imme- 
diately after sweating, and never on a full 
stomach, nor oftener than once or twice 
daily. It is, moreover, not advisable to 
drink cold water immediately after the 
douche, because a rapid generation of heat 
is thus impeded, and inflammation of the 
stomach and the bowels might be caused. 



The subject of water-cure has necessarily been briefly treated in these few pages, and 
the reader who wishes for more ample information, is recommended to refer to some of 
the popular hydropathic works of the day. " The Philosophy of the Water Cure," by 
Dr. Balbirnie, is a complete and thorough treatise, published by Wilson & Company 
of New York, and merits the perusal of the intelligent inquirer. Dr. Shew's " Wates 
Cure Journal," published periodically by Wm. H. Graham, is also a most valuable 
source of information ; and Dr. Johnson's work on the "Results of Hydropathy," pub- 
lished by Wiley & Putnam, presents some new and important theories respecting the 
influence of Hydropathic treatment upon the various secretions. The last mentioned 
work is peculiarly interesting to those labouring under the evils of constipation and indi« 
gestion 



Trtl*. ART OF CONVEHSATJON. 



47 



THE ART OF CONVERSATION. 

The art of conversation, so essential to every one who wishes to mingle in society 
can only be perfected by frequent intercourse with the polite ; yet great assistance may 
be derived by an intelligent person from the observations below, and no important blun- 
ders ean possibly be made if the rules here given be attended to. 



Under favourable circumstances, and 
among persons who know how to train a 
conversation, there are few if any amuse- 
ments more grateful to the human mind. 
Every one knows something which he is 
willing to tell, and which any other that he 
is in company with wishes to know ; or 
which, if known to him, would be amusing 
or useful. 

To be a skilful conversationist, one's 
eyes and ears shodld be busy ; nothing 
should escape his observation. His memo- 
ry should be a good one, and he should 
have a good-natured willingness to please 
and to be pleased. 

It follows that all matter of offence in 
conversation should be avoided. The self- 
loYe of others is to be respected. There- 
fore, no one is tolerated who makes him- 
self the subject of his own commendation, 
nor who disregards the feelings of those 
whom he addresses. 

There is as much demand for politeness 
and civility in conversation as in any other 
department of social intercourse. One who 
rudely interrupts another, does much the 
same thing as though he should, when 
walking with another, impertinently thrust 
himself before his companion, and stop his 
progress. 

It was one of the maxims of a French 
philosopher, that " in conversation, confi- 
dence has a greater share than wit " The 
maxim is erroneous, although it is true 
that a fashionable fool may attain to the 
small talk of which much of the conversa- 
tion of society is composed, and his glib 
confidence may so far impose upon the su- 
perficial as to make this pass for wit; but 
it will not be received as such by that por- 
tion of society whose esteem is desirable. 
Good sense, sound and varied information, 
are as necessary as confidence, to enable a 
man to converse well. 

In addition, then, to the ordinary routine 
of education, make yourself acquainted 
with the passing circumstances of the day 
--its politics, its parties, its amusements, 



its foibles, its customs, its literature, and 
at the present time, 1 must also say its sci- 
ence. Some of these subjects may be the 
parent of much gossip and scandal ; still, 
a man moving in society as a gentleman, 
must be ignorant of nothing which relates 
thereto, or if he is, he must not appear to be. 

Avoid a loud tone, particularly if speak- 
ing to ladies. By observing men of the 
world, you will perceive that their voices, 
as it were, involuntarily, assume a softness 
as they address the sex ; this is one of the 
most obvious proofs of an intimacy with 
good society. 

Never attempt to occupy the attention 
of a company for a long time ; unless your 
conversation be very brilliant, it must be- 
come tiresome. 

Never tell long stories, or retail well- 
known anecdotes. 

Be not partial to theorizing, or your con- 
versation will assume the style of speech- 
making, which is intolerable. 

Badinage is pleasant, but i-t may be dan- 
gerous ; stupid people may imagine you are 
ridiculing them, and the stupid are the 
most assiduous enemies. 

Abjure punning : it has been aptly de- 
signated "the wit of fools." A man of 
talent rarely condescends to be an habitual 
punster ; a gentleman, never. Punning is 
a sort of pot-house wit, which is quite in- 
compatible with good manners. Be not 
over anxious to be considered a wit ; recol- 
lect, that except in the society of wits, the 
wit of the company is likely to become the 
buit of the company. 

It is a common error, that of adapting 
your conversation to the occupation of the 
persons with whom you are conversing, 
and to some persons it is exceedingly offen- 
sive. Thus, introducing the subject of 
theology to a clergyman, — of law to a bar- 
rister, &c. &c., is in fact saying, "I have 
chosen the subject with which you are best 
acquainted — all are alike to me.'' This is 
an assumption of superiority which is high- 
ly indecorous, and will ultimately ensure 



48 



1UL ART OF CONVEKSATltTK. 



punishment. A man of the world might 
not be offended, but he would instantly at- 
tribute the inadvertence to ignorance ; in- 
deed, it generally arises from a desire to 
avoid the awkwardness of silence, and is a 
bungling way of throwing on another the 
onus of sustaining the conversation, and of 
confessing your own incompetence ; but 
where one person will give you the benefit 
of this apology, a dozen will consider you 
impertinent. 

A Tattler is a most contemptible charac- 
ter, uniting in person either excessive ig- 
norance, folly, and vanity, or the extremes 
of meanness, mischief, and malignity. 

Women ordinarily slander more from 
vanity than vice — men, from jealousy than 
malignity. 

Without intending mischief, many per- 
sons do much, by repeating conversations 
from one house to another. This gossip- 
ing is all but as injurious as scandal ; for 
as you can never represent the exact cir- 
cumstances under which a fact may have 
been related, your version may give a to- 
tally different meaning to that which was 
intended by the original speaker ; as ob- 
servation proves that, in relating an anec- 
dote or conversation, we give our impres- 
sion of the meaning of the speaker, not his 
words : thus a misconception of our own 
may produce infinite mischief. 

A man should never permit himself to 
lose his temper in society — nor show that 
he has taken offence at any supposed slight 
— it places him in a disadvantageous posi- 
tion — betraying an absence of self-respect, 
or at the least of self-position. 

If a " puppy " adopt a disagreeable tone 
of voice, or offensive manner towards you, 
never resent it at the time, and above all do 
not adopt the same style in your conversa- 
tion with him ; appear not to notice it, and 
generally it will be discontinued, as it will 
be seen that it has failed in its object, be- 
sides which — you save your temper. 

Avoid a loud tone of voice in conversa- 
tion, or a " horselaugh :" both are exceed- 
ingly vulgar ; and if practised, strangers 
may think that . you have been " cad " to 
an omnibus. There is a slightly subdued 
'patrician tone of voice, which we fear can 
only be acquired in good society. Be cau- 
tious also how you take the lead in conver- 
sation, unless it be forced upon you, lest 
people reiterate the remark made on a cer- 
tain occasion upon that ^' Brumrnagem'^ 
Johnson, Dr. Parr, — that " he was like a 
great toe in society ; the most ignoble part 
of the body, yet ever thrust foremost.''^ 

Be very careful how you " show off" 
in strange company, unless you be thor- 
oughly conversant with your subject, aa 



you are never sure of the person next to 
whom you may be seated. 

Lounging on sofas, or reclining in chairs, 
or leaning back in a chair when in society, 
as if in the privacy of one's own dressing 
room or study, is always considered indeco 
reus; but in the presence of ladies, is deem- 
ed extremely vulgar. 

Mothers should be on their guard not ».o 
repeat nursery anecdotes or bon-mots, »s, 
however interesting to themselves, they 
are seldom so to others. Long stories 
should always be avoided, as, however well 
told, they interrupt general conversation, 
and leave the impression that the narrator 
thought the circle dull, and consequently 
endeavored to amuse it. 

Never use the terra " genteel.^'' Do not 
speak o-f " geiitecl people ;" it is a low es- 
timate of good breeding, used only by vul- 
gar persons, and from their lips implies that 
union of finery, flippancy and affectation, 
often found in those but one remove from 
the essentially vulgar. Substitute " toell- 
bred persons, ^^ " manners of a gentlewo 
man,'''' or of " a gentleman,'''' instead 

Never use the initial of a person's name 
to designate him; as "Mr. P.," "Mrs. 
C," "Miss W.," &c. Nothing is more 
abominable than to hear a woman speak of 
her husband as " Mr. B." 

It is allowable in some cases to conceal 
our sentiments ; but we ought never to do 
so for the purpose of deceiving others 
Make it a rule never to give utterance to a 
falsehood : in all circumstances, and what- 
ever be the consequences, adhere to truth. 

It is not considered good taste for a lady 
to say " yes, Sir,'"' and " no, Sir," to a 
gentleman, or frequently to introduce the 
word Sir at the end of her sentences, un- 
less she desires to be exceedingly reserved 
towards the person with whom she is con- 
versing. 

It is not contrary to good breeding to 
laugh in company, and even to laugh hear- 
tily, when there is anything amusing going 
on ; this is nothing more than being socia- 
ble. To remain prim and precise on suoh 
an occasion is sheer affectation. 

If upon the entrance of a visitor yon 
continue a conversation begun before, you 
should always explain the subject to tho 
new-comer. 

There cannot be a custom more vdlgat 
or offensive than that of taking a person 
aside to whisper in a room with comoany, 
yet this rudeness is of frequent occurience 
— and that with persons who ought to know 
better. 

Conversation should be studied as an art. 
Style in conversation is as important, and 
as capab'e of cultivation, as style in wri- 



THE ART t>P CONVERSATION 



49 



linfj T!ie manner or saying things is 
what, gives them their value. 

Avoid provincialisms in your language 
and pronunciation. Walker is the stand- 
ard for pronouncing in tlie best society both 
in the T^niled .States and in England. 

Swearing, which formerly pervaded eve- 
ry rank of society, is now to be chiefly 
found in a very low and uninstructed chiss ; 
it 13, in fact, a vulgar and proscribed mode 
of speech. Nevertheless, it is still used 
Oflca^i.inally by persons of no humble rank, 
especially by the young, though chiefly for 
the purpose of giving an emjjhasis to 
speech, or perhaps simply to give token of 
a redundancy of spirits, and a high state 
of excitement. To those who are guilty 
of it for these reasons, it is only necessary 
to point out, that no well-informed person 
can be at the least loss, with the genuine 
■words of the Englisii language, to express 
all legitimate ideas and feelings, and that 
to use either profane or slang words, is at 
the least, the indication of a low taste and 
inferior understanding. A direct, pure, 
manly use of our native language, is an 
object which all may cultivate in a greater 
or loss degree ; and we have invariably ob- 
served, through life, that the most virtuous 
persons are the most exempt from the use 
of mean and ridiculous phraseology and 
monkey tricks of all kinds. 

Meeting an acquaintance among stran- 
gers — in the street or a coffee-house, never 
address him by name. It is vulgar and an- 
noying. 

Kever tattle — nor repeat in one society 
any scandal or personal matter you hear in 
in another. Give your own opinion of peo' 
pie if you please, but never repeat that of 
others. 

You are not required to defend your 
friends in company, unless the conversation 
is addressed to you ; but you may correct 
a statement of fact, if you know it to be 
wrong. 

Do not call people by their names, in 
speaking to them. In speaking of your 
own children never " Master " and " Miss " 
them— in speaking to other people of theirs, 
never neglect to do so. 

In the use of latiguage, avoid too great 
formality of expression, and an affectation of 
preciseness. It is better to say " I don't 
know," or " I can't tell," than " I do not 
knew," or " I cannot tell." Preserve a 
proper medium, avoiding pedantry on the 
one hand, and vulgarity on the other. In 
all cases speak plainly, with proper empha- 
sis and inflection, neither drawling, nor 
mumbling, nor chattering, nor spluuering, 
nor speaking through the nose, nor mouth- 
ing, like a stage-player murdering Shak- 



speare, nor whining like a whipped school- 
boy. There are a thousand vulgarities of 
pronunciation and expression wliich it ia 
impossible to enunieraie- such as " onct," 
for once ; " dost,"' for does; " wulgar," 
for vulgar; and the rest. 

In relating a circumstance to any one, do 
not be constantly saying— " you know" — 
" you understand " — " you take." 

Do not at everv six words, put in a "says 
he," or "says she," which last I have 
heard voluble old ladies shorten into a con- 
tinual " sheshe." 

What is called d^iubling coniparatives 
should be carefully avoided, such as " more 
better," more honcster," &c. 

Avoid grand words and high sounding 
phrases, particularly when you are no» 
quite sure you can use them correctly, os 
you may be exposed to the same ridicule asj 
was a worthy lady with more money than 
learning, who, in describing the mansion 
her husband was about to build, said there 
was to be a " Pizarro " on the front, and a 
" lemonade " all round it, while to com- 
plete the arrangement the water was to 
come in an " anecdote." 

There is another vulgar affectation — that 
of claiming acquaintance with distinguish- 
ed people. Some persons are forever tell- 
ing of Governor this, and General that, 
evidently to increase their own conse- 
quence. 

While music is playing, especially while 
any one is singing, it is very bad manners, 
little better than an insult, indeed, to talk 
at all. 

in general society, certain subjects must 
he carefully excluded. Politics g'^nerally 
lead to warm and intemperate discussions. 
Sectarian opinions of religion cannot be 
put forth without offence, and all matters 
of controversy should be avoided. 

In ordinary conversation, the modulation 
and proper management of the voice is a 
point worthy of the attention of young la- 
dies ; for a fine and melodious voice, " sweet 
as music on the waters," make the heart- 
strings vibrate to their very core. 

The thin, small voice is the mostdiificuU 
to manage, as it is liable to degenerate into 
shrillness ; and ladies who have this kind 
of voice must keep strict guard over their 
temper, when within hearing of any one 
on whom they may wish to make a favour- 
able impression ; for the very idea of a 
shrill voiced scold makes us place our hands 
to our ears. But with a sweet temper, a ' 
pretty little harmonious voice is pleasing 
enougti. Always recollect, however, that 
affectation, constraint, or striving for effect, 
is the certain ruin of *he prettiest voice \v 
the world. 



COOKERY FOR THE SICK BOOM. 



COOKERY FOR THE SICK ROOM. 

Too little attention is generally paid to the preparation of food for the sick, and 

nen we consider that " kitchen physic is often the best physic," it is a matter of Bur» 

prise that so important a subject should be so frequently neglected. The palate of 9 

sick person is usually more nice, and less easily pleased than that of one in good health, 

and the utmost delicacy is required in preparing nourishing articles of diet. 

The cookery for the sick room is confined to the processes of boiling, baking, and 
roasting ; and it may~be useful to offer a few remarks upon the principles which render 
these processes serviceable for the preparation of food. By cookery, alimentary sub- 
stances undergo a two-fold change, — their principles are chemically modified, and theii 
texture is mechanically changed. The extent and nature of these changes greatly de- 
pend on the manner in which heat has been applied to them. 



(1.) Boiling. 
Boiling softens the animal fibre, and the 
principles not properly soluble are rendered 
softer, and easier of digestion. In boihng 
meat, the water should scarcely be brought 
to the boiling temperature, but it should be 
long kept at a lower th^ the boiling point 
of water, or in that state which approaches 
more to stewing than to boiling. The na- 
ture of the water is also of some import- 
ance. Dr. Paris observes, that meat boiled 
in hard water is more tender and juicy than 
when soft water is used ; while vegetables 
are rendered harder and less digestible 
when boiled in hard water. 

(2.) Baking. 
Excepting in the preparation of light 
puddings, the process of baking is inad- 
missible for the sick. 

(3.) Roasting. 
Roasting softens the tendonous part of 
meat better than boiling, and it retains more 
of its nutritious principles. Care should 
always be taken that the meat be neither 
over nor under-d-one ; for, although in the 
latter state it may contain more nutriment, 
yet it will be less digestible on account of 
the density of its texture. It has of late 
years been much the fashion to regard 
under-done roasted meat as being well 
adapted for weak stomachs ; but no opinion 
is more erroneous. 

(4.) Mutton Broth. 
This is prepared from a pound of good 
mutton, freed from fat, and cut into slices, 
and a pint and a half of soft water. Boil 
^r half an hour, after the maceration, 
•ltd then strain it through a siere. 



(5.) Panada. 
Having pared off the crust, boil some 
slices of bread in a quart of water for 
about five minutes. Then take out the 
bread, and beat it smooth in a deep dish, 
mixing in a little of the water it has boiled 
in ; and mix it with a bit of fresh butter, 
and sugar and nutmeg to your taste. 

(6.) Tapioca. 
Wash the tapioca well, and let it steep 
for five or six hours, changing the water 
three times. Simmer it in the last water 
till quite clear, then season it with sugar 
and v/ine, or lemon juice. 

(7.) Rice Jelly. 
Having picked and washed a quarter 
of a pound of rice, mix it with half 
a pound of loaf sugar, and just suffi- 
cient water to cover it. Boil it till it be- 
comes a glutinous mass ; then strain it ; 
season it with whatever may be tliought 
proper ; and let it stand to cool. 

(8.) Gruel. 
Allow three large table spoonfuls ot 
oatmeal or Indian meal to a quart of 
water. Put the meal into a large bowl, 
and add the water, a little at a time, mix 
ing and bruising the meal with the back of 
a spoon. As you proceed, pour off the 
liquid into another bowl, at every time, 
before adding fresh water to the meal, till 
you have used it all up. Then boil the 
mixture for twenty minutes, stirring It all 
the while ; add a little salt. Then strain 
the gruel and sweeten it. A piece of butter 
may be stirred into it ; and also a little 
wine and nutmeg. It should be take* 
warm. 



HOUSEWirs's MAKVAL 



^'• 



RESPECTING CLOTHING, Ac. 



(1.) Putting away Woollens, 
The followingf method of putting- away 
all the woollen and worsted articles of the 
house, will be found an infallible preserva- 
tive against moths ; and the cost is nothing 
in comparison to the security it allbrds of 
finding the tilings in good order when open- 
ed for use on the return of cold \\ eather. 
Procure at a distiller's or elsewhere, a tight 
empty hogshead that has held whiskey. 
Have it well cleaned, (without washing) 
and see that it is quite dry. Let it be placed 
in some part of the house that is little used 
in summer, and where it can be shut up 
dark. 

After the carpets have been taken up, 
and well shaken and beaten, and the grease 
spots all removed, (see 4) let them be fold"- 
ed and packed closely down in the cask. 
Putin also the blankets, having first washed 
all that were not clean ; also, the woollen 
table-covers. If you have worsted or cloth 
curtains and cushions, pack them likewise, 
after they have been freed from dust. Also, 
iiannels, merin«es, cloaks, coats, furs, and 
in short every thing that is liable to be at- 
tracted by the moths. Fold and pack them 
closely, making all the articles fit advanta- 
geously into the space, and so disposing 
them that each may find a place in the hogs- 
head. The furs had best be sewed up in 
linen before they are put in. If well pack- 
ed, one hogshead will generally hold all 
the woollen articles belonging to a house 
of modern size, and a moderate sized family. 
Then nail on the head of the cask, and let 
the whole remain undisturbed till the warm 
weather is over. While the house is shut 
up, and the family out of town, in the sum- 
mer, you may safely leave your woollens 
put away in this manner. Choose a clear 
dry day for unpacking them in the autumn ; 
and when open, expose them to the air till 
the odour of the whiskey has gone off. If 
they are put away clean and free from dust, 
it will be found that the w^hiskey atmos- 
phere has brightened their colours. As 
soon as the things are all out of it, nail up 
the cask again, and keep it for next season. 

Where camphor cannot be conveniently 
procured, furs, flannels, &c., may be kept 
Ihrough the summer by sewing them up in 
linen, and interspersing properly among 
ihem bits of fresh sassafras bark, or shav- 
ings of red cedar. But there is nothing so 
certain to preserve them from moths as an 
»ld whiskey cask. Never keep hair trunks. 
They always produce moths. 



(2.) French method of ivashing Silk Cra- 
vats, Scarfs, Shawls, 4c- 

Make a mixture in a large flat dish, of 
the following articles : — A large table- 
spoonful of soft soap or of hard brown soap, 
sliaved fine, (white soap will not do) a smaH 
tea-spoonful of strained honey, and a pint of 
spirits of wine ; have ready a large brush 
(a clothes brush, for instance,) made per- 
fectly clean. Lay the silk on a board or on 
an ironing-table, stretching it evenly and 
securing it in its place with weights on its 
edges. Then dip the brush into the mix- 
ture, and with it go all over the silk length- 
wise of the texture, beginning at the pan 
least seen when worn, and trying a little at 
a time, till you have ascertained the efl'eci. 
If you find that the liquid changes the col- 
our of the silk, weaken it by adding more 
spirits of wine. 

Having gone carefully over the whole of 
the article, dip it up and down in a bucket 
of clean water ; but do not squeeze or ring 
it. Repeat this through another clear wa- 
ter, and then through a third. Afterwards 
spread it on a line to dry, but without any 
squeezing or ringing. Let it dry slowly. 
While still damp take it down, pull it and 
stretch it even, then roll and fold it up and 
let it rest a few minutes. Have irons ready 
and iron the silk, taking care that the iron 
is not so hot as to change the colour. 

The above quantity of the washing mix- 
ture is sufficient for about half a dozen silk 
handkerchiefs, one shawl, or two scarfs, if 
they are not too long. If there is fringe on 
the scarfs, it is best to take it off and replace 
it with new ; or else to gather the ends of 
the scarfs and finish them with a lapell or 
b;xll. Brocaded silks cannot be washed in 
this way. 

Gentlemen's silk or chaly cravats may b*? 
made to look very well washed in this ma.".- 
ner. Ribbons, also, if they are thick and 
rich. Indeed, whatever is washed by this 
process, must be of very good quality. A 
foul or dyed silk dress may be washed this 
way, provided it is first taken apart ; silk 
aprons also. We have seen articles washed 
by this process, and can assure our readers 
it is a good one. This is also a good method 
of washing blond, using a soft sponge in- 
stead of a brush. When dry, lay the blon«:< 
in long folds within a large sheet of whitf 
paper, and press it for a few days in a largp 
book, but do not iron it. 

In putting away ribbons or silk, wrap or 
fold them in coarse brown paper, vvhich, as 
it contains a portion of tar or lurpeatine. 



52 



HOVSEWIFE'S MANUAL. 



will preserve the colour of the article, and 
prevent white silk from turning yellow — 
he chloride of lime used in nranufacturin<r 
v.'hite paper renders it improper to keep 
silks in. as it frequently causes them to spot 
>»r to change colour. 

\3 ) To make a soiled Coat look as good as 
new. 

First clean the coat of grease and dirt 
(see No. 4,) then take one gallon of a 
strong decoction of logwood made by boil- 
ing iotrwood chips in ■vater. Strain this 
liquid, and when coo. add two o_ices of 
gum arabic in powder, which shou.J ';-:- 
Kept in well stopped bottles for use. Then 
go gently over tiie coat with a sponge wet 
,n the above liquid diluted to suit the colour, 
and hang it in the shade to dry. After 
which brush the nap smooth and it will 
look as good as new. The liquid will 
suit all brown or dark colours if properly 
oiluted, of which it is easy to judge. 
(4.) To extract Oil or S-permaccti from a 
Carpet or othcrWoollcn. 

If oil has been spilt on a carpet, that part | 
of the carpet must be loosened up and the 
floor beneath it well scrubbed with warm 
soap and water and fuller's earth ; other- 
wise the grease will continue yet to come 
through. You may extract some of the oil 
by washing that part of the carpet with 
cold water and a cloth. Then spread over 
It a thin coating of scraped Wilmington 
clav, which should be renewed every two 
or three hours. If you have no Wilming- 
ton clay, take common magnesia. 

To remove spots of spermaceti, scrape 
off as much as you can with a knife, then 
lay on a thin soft white paper upon the 
spots and press it with a warm iron. By 
repeating this you may draw out the sper- 
maceti. Afterwards rub the cloth where 
the spots have been, with some very soft 
brownish paper. 

Wilmington clay, which may be had in 
small round balls, is excellent for removing 
grease spots however large. Scrape down 
a sufficient quantity and rub on the spot, 
letting it rest an hour or naore, then brush 
it off and continiie to repeat the process. 
The genuine Wilmington clay, pure and 
unmixed, is far superior to any other 
ptfeaseball sold by the druggists. 

(5.) To extract Grease spots. 
Grease of the very worst kind, (whale 
oil for instance,) may be extracted even 
from silks, ribbons, and other delicate arti- 
.■;!es, by means of camphine oil. As this 
til is the better for being fresh, get but 
ittle at a time. Pour some camphine into 



a cup, and dip lightly with a clean aof 
white rag. With this rub the grease spot. 
Then take a fresli rag dipped in the cam- 
phine, and continue rubbing till the grease 
is extracted, which will be very soon. 
The colour of the article will be uninjured. 
To remove the turpentine odour of the 
camphine rub the place with cologne water 
or strong spirits of wine, and expose it to 
the open air. Repeat this process if anv 
odour remains after the first. 

(6.) To take Mildeiv out of Linen. 

Take soap and rub it well ; then scrape 
s^me fine chalk and rub that also in the 
linen ; lay it on the grass ; as it dries wet 
it a little, and it will soon come out. 
(7.) To take Paint off of Cloths. 

Rub with spirits oi^ turpentine or spirit." 
of wine, either will answer if the paint is 
but just on. But if it is allowed to harden 
nothing will remove it but spirits of turpen- 
tine rubbed on with perseverance. Use a 
soft sponge or a soft rag. 

(8.) To clean IMiite Kid Gloves 
Stretch them on a board, and rub the 
soiled spots with cream of tartar or magne- 
sia. Let them rest an hour, then take a 
mixture of alum and fuller's earth in pow- 
der, and rub it all over the gloves with a 
clean brush, and let them rest again for an 
hour or two. Then sweep it all off, and 
go over with a flannel dipped in a mixture 
ol bran and finely powdered whiting. Let 
them rest another hour ; brush off the 
powder, and you will find them clean. 
(9.) To xoash coloured Kid or Hoskin 

Gloves. 
Have on a table a clean towel, folded 
three or four times, a saucer of new milk 
and a piece of brown soap. Spread a 
glove smoothly or. the folded towel, dip in 
tlie milk a piece of clean flannel, rub it on 
the soap until you get enough, and then 
commence rubbing the glove, beginning at 
the wrist and rubbing lengthwise to the 
ends of the fingers, the glove being held 
firmly in the left hand. When done, 
spread them out to dry gradually. When 
nearly dry, pull them out the cioss way oi 
the leather, and when quite dry, stretch 
them on your hands. 

(10.) To clean White Leather Gloves. 

White leather gloves may be cleaned lo 
look very well by putting on one at a time 
and going over them thoroughly with a 
shaving brush aud lather. Then wipe 
them off with a clean handkerchief or 
sponge, and dry them on the hands by the 
fire, or in the sun. 



HOOSEWIFS'S MANOAL. 



5$ 



** (11.) To presci've Furs from Moths. 

Wrap up a few cloves or pepper ^,:)rs 
with tlicm when you put them away for 
iny leii<;th of time. 

(12.) To cTlract Dui Me Ink. 

Ruh tlie ink stahi with a little sal-ammo- 
tiia moistened with water. 



(13.) To remove Stains from Cotton and 
Linen. 
Put a small quantity of brimstone into 
an iron vessel, and drop in a live coal ot 
fire ; having first wet the stained spot with 
water, lay the clotli over the vessel, so a» 
to let the fumes have full access to the 
stained spot, and it will soon disappear, or 
become loose, so as to wash out. 



ON THE CARE OF FURNITURE AND HOUSE-KEEPING ARTICLES 



(14.) To clean the inside of Sal's 
There is frequently some trouble in clean- 
ing the inside of jars that have had sweet- 
meats, pickles, mince-n<eat, or other articles 
put up in them for keeping, and that when 
empty are wanted for furtlier use. This 
can be done in a few minutes without scrap- 
ing or soaking, by filling up the jars with 
hot water, (it need nut be scalding hot,) 
and then stirring in a toaspoonful or more of 
pearlash. Whatever of the former contents 
has remained sticking about the sides and 
bottom of the jar will immediately be seen 
U) disengage itself, and float loose through 
the water. Then einpty the jar at once, 
and if any of the former odour remains 
about it, fill it agaiii with warm water and 
pearl- asli, and let it stand undisturbed a few 
hours, or till next day ; then empty it again, 
and rinse it with cold water. Wash phials 
in the same manner. Also, the insides of 
kettles, or any thing which you wish to 
purify or clear from grease expeditiously 
and completely. If you cannot conveniently 
obtain pearl-ash, the same purpose may be 
answered nearly as well, hy filling tiie ves- 
sels with strong Ive, poured olF clear from 
the wood-ashes. For kegs, buckets, crocks, 
or other very large vessels, lye may be al- 
ways used. 

(15.) To clean Wine Decanters. 
Use a little pearl-ash or soda and some 
cinders and water. Rinse them well out 
with clean water. 

(IG.) To clean China. 
Use a little fuller's earth and soda or 
oearl-ash with your water. 

<17.) Cements. I 

Cements of various kinds should be kept I 
for occasional use. Flour paste answers 
very well for slight purposes, if required 
stronger than usual let a little glue be boiled 
ui it, or put some pow<iered rosin in it. 
VS'hite of egg, or a sobitioa of glue and 



strong gum water are good cements. A 
paste made of linseed meal dries very hard 
and adheres firmly. A soft cement is made 
of yellov/ wax melted with its weight of 
turpentine and a little venetiari red to give 
it colour. This when cool is as hard as 
soap and is very useful to stop up cracks, 
and is better to cover the corks of bottles 
sent to a distance than sealing-wax or hard 
cement. 

The best cement for broken china or glass 
is that sold under the name of the diamond 
cement wiiich is cobnirless and resists mois- 
ture. This is made by soaking isinglass in 
water till it is soft and then dissolving it in 
proof spirit. Add to this a little <ium-am- 
moniac, or galbonum, or mastic, both dis- 
solved in as little alcohol as possible. When 
the cement is to be used, it must be greatly 
liquified by placing the phial containing it 
in boiling water. The phi:jl must bo well 
closed by a good coric, not by a glass stop- 
per as they may become forced. It is ap- 
plied to the broken edges with a camel's 
hair pencil. 

When the objects are not to be exposed 
to moisture, white of an e^iz alone or mix- 
ed with finely sifted quick-lime will answer 
pretty well, shelac dissolved in water is bet- 
ter. 

A very strong cement for earthen wara 
is made by boiling slices of skim-milk 
cheese with water into a paste, and then 
grinding it with quick-lime in a marble 
mortar or on a slab with a mallet. 

(18.) To remove dark staxnsfrom Silver. 
A certain remedy for the most inveterate 
stains that are sometimes to be seen on tea- 
spoons and other silver ware, is to obtain 
from a druggist a small vial of sulphuric 
acid, and pouring a little of it into a saucer, 
wet with it a soft linen rag and rub it on 
ttie blackened silver till the stain disappears. 
Then brisrhten the article with whiting fine- 
ly powdered and sifted and wetted with 
whi&iiey or spirits of wine. When the 



54 



HOUSEWIFE'S StAlfVAL. 



whitinff has dried on, and rested a quarter 
of an hour or more, wipe it with a silk 
handkerchief and polish with a soft buck- 
skin. 

(19.) To prevent Lamps smoking. 

It is very often ditticult to iret a fr'jod 
light from a lamp and yet keep it from 
smoking-, but if the wick is first soaked in 
strong vinegar and then thoroughly dried, 
this annoyanc(- will bo prevented. Slill the 
wick must not l)e put up too high. 

(20.) To take stains out of Mahogany. 

Mix spirits of sallte 6 parts, and salt of 
[emons 1 part, then drop a little on the 
stains and rub them until they disappear. 

(21.) To clean Britannia loarc. 
Britannia ware should be first washed 
with a woollen cloth and sweet oil, then 
washed in water and suds, and rubbed with 
soft leather and whiting. Thus treated it 
will retain its beauty to the last. j 

(22.) To clean Looking-glasses. 

Take a newspaper or part of one, accord- 
ing to the size of the glass. Fold it small ^ 
and dip it into a basin of clean cold water, 
when thoroughly wet, squeeze it out in 
your hand as you would a sponge, and 
then rub it hard all over the face of the . 
glsss, taking care that it is not so wet as to 
ran down in streams. In fact the paper i 
must only be completely moistened or j 
damped all through. After the glass has | 
been well rubbed with the wet paper, let it | 
rest a few minutes ; and then go over it \ 
with a fresh dry newspaper (folded small 
in your hand) till it looks clear and bright 
—which it will almost immediately, and 
■with no further trouble. 

This method (simple as it is) is the best 
and most expeditious for cleaning mirrors, | 
and it will be found so on trial -giving it a i 
clearness and polish that can be produced 1 
by no other process. It is equally conve- j 
nient, speedy, and effective. The inside ! 
of window frames may be cleaned in this | 
manner to look beautifully clear ; the win- [ 
dows being first washed on the outside, j 
also the glasses of spectacles, &c. The 
»lass ijlobo of an astral lamp may be clean- 
ed with a newspaper in the above manner, i 

(23.) To clean Mahogany and Marfde, and\ 
to restore Mahogany Varnish. | 

Use no soap on them ; wash them in fair ! 
water, and rub them till dry with a clean \ 
soft cloth. A litt'e sweet oil, rubbed on | 
occasionally, gives them a polish. I\ub 
furniture with a cloth dipped in oil ; then, 
with a clean cloth, till dry and polisiied. 



Rubbing with sweet oil will restore th« 
spots from which the varn.sh has been re- 
moved. White spots on varnished furnifire 
iTiay be removed, by rubbing them with % 
M'arm flannel dipped in spirits of turpentine. 
Remove ink spots by rubbing them with a 
woollen cloth, dipi)(;d in the oil of vitriol and 
water. Be careful to touch only the spots 
with the vitriol. Rinse them wiih salacratua 
water, and then with fair water. It is said,^ 
blotting paper will extract the ink, if rolled 
up, and rubbed hard on the spots. Maho- 
gany furniture may be beautifully polished 
thus: — rub it with cold drawn linsccd oil: 
wipe ofTthe oil, and polish by rubbing smart- 
ly with a clean dry cloth. And marble may 
be cleaned thus : — pound, very fine, a little 
stone blue with four ounces of whiting ; mix 
them with an ounce of soda dissolved in a 
little water, and four ounces of soft soap : 
boil all fifteen minutes over a slow fire, 
carefully stirring it. When quite hut lay it 
on the marble with a brush, and let it re- 
main half an hour ; wash it off with warm 
water, flannel, and a scrubbing brush, and 
wipe it dry. Some clean alabaster and all 
kinds of marble, by mixing pulverized pum- 
ice stone with verjuice, letting it remain 
several hours ; then dipping in a perfectly 
clean sponge, and rubbing the marble tin 
clean. Rinse it off with fair water, and rub 
it dry with a clean linen cloth. 

(24.) To clean Knives and Forks. 

Use finely powdered Bath brick to re- 
move rust, and to polish steel utensils. 
Rub knives on a board with a thick leather 
cover over it fastened dov/n tight, applying 
a cork dipped in the powder, and moistenecJ 
if they are spotted. Do not wet them, only 
wipe them with a dry cloth. Wipe the 
handles with a cloth rather damp, to make 
them smooth ; do not touch the blades, as 
it will tarnish them. It will yellow ivory 
handles to dip them in hot water. If yellow 
rub them with sand paper. If Batli brick 
does not remove rust from steel, rub the 
spots with sand paper or emery, or rub on 
sweet oil and let it remain a day, and then 
rub it off with quicklime. Clean thoroughly 
steel utensils that are not in constant use ; 
rub them over with sweet oil, and exclude 
the air by a wrapper of brown paper — vvra[>- 
ping each knife and fork separately. 

(25.) To clean stoves and Stone Hearihs. 

Put on varnished stoves several coats of 
vamish in the summer, to have it gPt hard 
before used. Wash them in warm water, 
without soap, and rub a little oil on thens 
occasionally. It will make them look nice, 
and prevent the varnish wearing off. Black 



HOUSEWIfE S M1Nl}.t]< 



05 



eloves ihat have never been varnished, with 
black lead and British lustre. It will not 
answer if they have been varnished. Mix 
.hem with cold water to a paste, rub it on 
the stoves, and let the paste remain till quite 
.Iry ; then rub the stoves witli a dry, stiff, 
rlat brush, till clean and polished. To pre- 
serve the colour of freestone hearths, wash 
them in water without any soap, rub on 
them while damp, pulverized freestone, let 
it remain till dry, and then rub it off. If 
stained, rub them hard with a piece of free- i 
stone. To have your hearths look dark, 
rub them with pure soft soap, or dilute it 
with water. Use redding for b-rick hearths, 
mixed with thin hot starch and milk. j 

(26.) To remove Putty and Paint from ' 
Window-glass. 
Put salseratus into hot water, till very 
strong ; saturate the putty or paint daub 
with it ; let it remain till nearly drv ; then 
rub it off hard with a woollen cloth. Whi- 
ting is good to remove it. Salan-atus water \ 
is good to remove putty while green, on the 
glass. 

(27.) To Extract Ink from Floois. 

Remove Ink from floors, by scouring them 
with sand wet with water and tlie oil of vit- 
riol, mixed. Then rinse them with strong 
salaeratus water. 

(28. ) To temper Earthrn-ware. 
Boil earthenware that is used for baking, 
/before using it, as it will be less liable to 
crack.) covering it with cold water, and 
then iieating it gradually. Let it remain in 
till the water has cooled. 

(29.) To loosen tightly-ioedged Stopples of 
Decanters and Smelling-bottles. 
Rub a feather dipped in oil round the 
stopple, close to the mouth of the bottle ; 
place the mouth of the bottle towards the 
fire, about two feet from it. Wrien warm, 
strike the bottle lightly on both sides, with 
any convenient wooden instrument, and 
take out the stopple. You may have to re- 
peat the process. By perseverance, you 
will ultimately triumph, however closely 
wedged in. 

1 30.) To prevent the formation of a Crust 
in Tea Kettles. 
Keep an oyster-shell in your tea kettle. 
By attracting the stony particles to itself, it 
will prevent the foimation of a crust. 

'31.) To cleanse Vials and Fie Plates. 

Cleanse bottles ihat have had medicine in 
them, by putting ashes in each, iniiiicrsiug 
them m cold v;ater, and then iieatiug the 
wavei gradually till it boils. A 'ter boiling 



i an hour, let them remain in the water till it 

lis cold. Wash them in soap suds, and 
j rinse them till clear in fair water. Pie 
plates that have been long used for baking, 
are apt to impart an unpleasant taste on ac 
, count of the rancidity of the butter and lard, 
imbibed. Put them in a brass kettle, with 
ashes and cold water, and bud them an hour. 

1 (32.) Tti renovate Feather Beds and 
Mattresses. ■ 

Make soiled and heavy feather beds clean 
and light thus : — dip a stiff brush in not 
soap suds, and rub them ; when clean, lay 
them on a shed or in some clean place, and 
let it rain on them ; when thoroughly soak- 
ed, let them dry a week in the hot sun, 
shaking them well and turning them over 
daily, and covering them nightly with a 
thick cloth. It is quite as well as to empty 
the feathers, and to wash them and the tick 
separately, and much easier. Dry the bed 
thoroughly before sleeping on it. Hard 
and dirty hair mattresses can be made al- 
most as good as new, by ripping them, 
washing the ticking, picking the hair free 
from bunches, and keeping it some days in 
a dry airy place. Fill the ticking lightly, 
when dry, and tack it together. 

(33.) To clean Bed Ticks, however ladly 

Soiled. 
Apply Poland starch, by rubbing it on 
thick, with a wet cloth. Place it in the 
sun. When dry, rub it in with the hands. 
Repeat it, if necessary. The soiled part 
will be as clean as new. 

(34.) To clean Bedsteads, and keep them free 
of Chintscs 
Apply lard. 

(35.) Creaking Hinges, Iromng Board, 
Shec's and Holders, Mending. 

Put soft soap on the hinges. Keep ex- 
pressly for ironing, ail ironing apparatus ; 
cover v.ith old flannel, and then with fine 
cotton, u board twenty-four by fourteen 
inches, as a convenient ajjpendnge for the 
ironing of small articles. i\Iend clothes be- 
fore wusiiing, except stockings. 

(30.) To clean the inside of a Stove. 

lHlr(7ducs the poker, or some convenient 
instrument, by removing the top of the 
stove or otiierwise, and scrape the slag- off, 
wliiie red hot. 

(37.) A cheap Waf^r Filter. 

Lay a thick bed of pounded charcoal on 
thi Ijottom of a large common earthen 
flower-pot, and over f.nis lay abed of fuifl 
sand about four inches thick. 



56 



housewife's MANUAt.. 



TO MAKE CHEAP AND WHOLESOME DRINKS FOR WARM WEATHl '* 



(38.) Sassafras Mead. 

This is a very pleasant, wholesome, and 
cheap beverape in warm weather. Stir 
jrraduallv with two quarts nf boiling water, 
tiiree po'unds and a half of the best brown 
sugar, a pint and a half of good West India 
molasses, and a quarter of a pound of tartar- 
ic acid. Stir it well and when cool strain 
it into a large jug or pan, then mix in a 
quarter of an ounce of essence of sassafras. 
Transfer it to clean bottles (it will fill about 
half a dozen) cork it tightly and keep it in 
a cool place. Have ready a box containing 
about a quarter of a pound of carbonate of 
soda to use with it. 

To prepare a glass of it for drinking, 
pour a little of the mead into a tumbler, stir 
into it a small quantity of soda, and then add 
sufficient ice water to half fill the irlass, 
give it a stir and it will immediately foam 
up to the top. 

(39.) To make Pine apple ade. 

This is a delightfully refreshing drink in 
warm weather, and is much used in the 
West Indies. Pare some ripe Pine-apples, 
cut them into thin slices, then cut each slice 
into small bits, put them into a large pitch- 
er, and sprinkle powdered white sugar 
among them : pour on boiling water in pro- 
portion of lialf a pint of water to each pine- 
apple, cover the pitcher, stop up the spout 
with a roll of soft paper, and let the pine- 
apple infuse into the water till it becomes 
quite cool ; stirring and pressing down the 
pine-apple occasionally with a spoon, to get 



out as much juice as possible. When the 
liquid has grown quite cold, set the j-iiehei 
for a while in ice. Then transfer the in- 
fusion to tumblers, add some more sugar 
and put into each glass a lump of ice. You 
may lay a tliin slice of fresh pine-apple into 
each tumbler before you pour out the infu- 
sion. 

(40.) Brown Spruce Beer. 

Pour eight gallons of water into a barrel, 
and then eight gallons more boiling liot ; 
add twelve pounds of molasses, and half a 
pound of essence of spruce ; and Avhen 
nearly cool, put in half a pint of goed ale 
yeast. This must be well stirred and well 
mixed, and leave the bung out two or three 
days ; after which the liquor may be imme- 
diately bottled, well corked and tied, and 
packed in sawdust or sand, when it will be 
ripe and fit to drink in a fortnight. 

(41.) Cottage Beer. 

Take a peck of good sweet wet bran, and 
put it into ten gallons of water with three 
handsful of good hops ; boil the whole to- 
gether in an iron, brass, or copper kettle, 
until the l)ran and hops sink to the bottom. 
Tiien strain it through a hair sieve, or a thin 
sheet, into a cooler, and Avhen it is about 
lukewarm, add two quarts of molasses. As 
soon as the molasses is melted ] our the 
whole into a nine or ten gallon cask with 
two tablesponsful of yeast. When the fer- 
mentation lias subsided, bung up the caskf 
and in four days it will be fit for use. 



TO MAKE SWEETMEATS AND PRESERVES. 



Sweetmeats should be kept in a cool, dry 
place ; they should be properly boiled, and 
then they will not be likely to ferment ; 
but they should be well looked to the first 
two months, and if not likely to keep, set 
the jar in the oven after the bread comes 
out, or on a hot hearth. 

As soon as preserved fruit is entirely 
cold, it should be covered with either a 
carmel cover (for which I shall give direc- 
tions), or white paper, cut the exact si»ze 
of the pot or jar, that the fruit may be 
covered ; then dip the paper in a liquid, 
one part pepper-sauce, two parts (fourth 
proof) brandy. Then an entire white 
paper tied down over the top pricked full 
»>f holes, and the article mentioned thai the 
poi coiAijins, and the year made, &r t 



am thus particular, as I feel that those to 
whcmi this will be most welcome, will not 
have a mother to teach these little et 
ceteras. Jellies should be covered in ihe 
same way. 

A pan should be kept for preserving, of 
double block tin. A bow handle opposite 
the straight one for safety will do well ; 
skimmers, sieves, and spoons, should he 
kept on purpose for sweet things. If brass 
is ever used, it must be kept free from ver- 
digris. 

It is necessary that nice conserves should 
be put into small jelly-pots or glasses, that 
no more should be disturbed than what is 
required, at the time wanted; there are 
many reasons, which will scon appeal to 
&11 good managers. 



housewife's manual. 



57 



(48.) A CaiTncl Cover for Sweetmeats. 
Dissolve eipiit ouaccs of double refined 
Buniir ill three or four spoonsful of water, 
and three or four drops of leinou juice ; 
ilien put into a l)ra,ss kettle. When it 
hoils to be thick, dip liie hcuidlc of a spoon 
in it, and put that into a pint basin of 
water Squeeze the sujar from the spoon 
into '.„, and so on, till yon have all the 
suir-vr. Take a bit out of the wat;;r, and if 
it snaps, and is brittle when cold, it is done 
enough. But only let it be three parts 
cold, then pour the water from the suf^ar, 
and having a copper form well oiled, run 
the sugar on it, in the manner of a maze ; \ 
and when cold, you may put it on the dish ' 
it is to cover ; but if on trial the sugar is 
not brilile, pour off the water, and return 
the suirar into the kettle and boil a;iain : 
it should look thick, like treacle, but of a 
hriglit light good colour. It is an elegant ' 
cover. ' 

(43.) To Preserve Plunis an Elegant 
Green. 

8 lbs. of (lou!>le refinod su?:ir, 
8 ll)s. ol' /Viiit picpajcil us l)L'l()\v. 

Take the plums whilst a pin will pa?3 
ihrough them, set them covered willi water, 
in wliich a little alum has bfen dissolved, 
in a brass kettle on a hot hearth, to coddle. 
If necessary, change the water ; they must 
be a beautiful grass-green ; then if y(>ii 
prefer, peel them and coddle again ; take 
eight pounds of this fruit to the above 
sugar after it has been dissolved in one 
quart of water and nicely skimmed. Then 
set the whole on the lire to boil, until 
clear, slowly, skimming them often, and 
they will be very green , put them up in 
glasses, as before directed, for use. Cher- 
ries, apricots, or grapes, can be done in 
this way ; they look fine. 

(44.) To Preserve Cherries. 

4 !l)s. of fruit, 3 Il)s. of sugar. 

Ta''e "ne quart of water, melt some 
Bugar in, and boil, then the rest, lioil and 
skim, then put in the cherries, boil softly 
but steadily, take off the scum as it rises; 
and talvc them oil" two or three times and 
siiake them, and put theiji on again, then 
let llicni boil fast. When the fruit looks 
ilear, take it out with a skimmer, and boil 
the syrup until it will not spread on a 
tliina plate ; then return the fruit, and let 
it cool ; then pot for use. 

(45.) To Keep Damsons. 

Take damsons when they are first ripe, 

pick them off carefnllv, wipe them clean, 

put them in snuff bottles, stop them up with 

nice new coiks, that neither air nor water 



can penetrate. Set the bottles in a kettle 
of cold water, put over the fire, let them 
heat fc'ov'ly, then let them boil slowly for 
half an hour, set oil' to cool, let the bottles 
remain in the water until cold, then rosin 
the corks, and set tiiem in a cool cellar : 
they will keep one year nice, if done right. 
But they must bo used as soon as ojiened. 
It will answer as well, to place the bottles 
in a good brick oven after the bread is re- 
moved. All kinds of fruit can be preserved 
in this same way, placed with the mouth 
downwards, to prevent fermentation 

(40.) To Preserve Quincs. 
Take a peck of the finest golden quinces, 
put them into a bell-metal kettle, cover 
with cold water, put over the fire, and boil 
until done soft, then take them out with a 
fork into an earthen dish ; when sufficient- 
ly cool to handle, take off the skin, cut 
open on one side and take out the core, 
keeping them as whole as possible. Take 
their weight in double refined sugar, put it 
with a quart of w^ter into tiic kettle, let it 
boil, and skim until very clear, then fyt m 
your quinces ; two orangec "ut up thii- and 
put with the fruit, is an improvement. Let 
them noil in the syrup half an hour, -nen 
with your frait-ladle take out the fruit and 
boil the juice sufficiently, then pour it <)ver 
the fruit. 

(47.) To Preserve Peaches. 

Ill Ills, of uicfily poelcil fruit, 'i h-iiions, fre.sh. 
!i)lli> <,f liKif.-ugir. 

The white clingstone is the nicest ; n<;el 

and drop into a pan of water, cut up the 

lemons, break the sugar slightly, put into 

a well tinned hettle (brass will do if nicely 

cleaned), with one quart of water and the 

lemons, let it scald, and skim, and having 

the required quantity of peaches in a nice 

I stone jar, pour the syruj) over, let it stp^id 

j over night, then put all into the pros'". ving 

i kettle and boil slowly, until the f' it looks 

clear ; take out the peaches, and boil down 

the svrup to a proper consistence, and 

pour over the fruit. 

(48.) To Preserve Magnvm Bonvm Plums 

V^ lbs. of plums, Id lbs of Ijuf su;,'ar. 

i M oranges. 

Take two pounds of the sugar and make 

a weak svrup, pour it boiling upon the 

fruit, let it remain over night, closely 

covered: then, if preferred, skin them, and 

slice up the oranges nicely, dissolve the rest 

I of t!ie suffnr by taking the lage cakes and 

I dip in water quickly, and instantly brought 

out. If the plums are not peeled, they 

must be nicely drainedvfroin the first syrup, 

and the skin pricked with a needle. Do 

. them gently, until they look clear, and the 



58 



HOUSEWIFE 8 M A M D A !• 



<yrup adheres .,0 them. Put them one by 
one into small pots, and pour the liquor 
over. These plums will ferment if not 
ooiled in two syrups. 

(49.) To Pieserve Barberries. 

6 lbs, of barberries, C lbs. of sugar. 

Put the sujrar and fruit into a jar, and 
place the jar in a kettle of boiling water ; 
let it boil until the sugar is dissolved and 
the fruit soft ; let them remain all night. 
Next day put them into a preserving-pan 
and boil them fiftepn minutes : then pot, 
as soon as cool. The next day cover as 
directed, tie close, and set by. 

(50.) Raspberry Jam. 

6 lbs. of nicely picked fruit, G lbs. of lo:if sujar. 

Put the fruit into a nice kettle over a 
quick fire, and stir constantly, until the 
juice is nearly wasted, then add the sugar, 
and simmer to a fine jam. In this way the 
jam is greatly superior to that which is made 
by putting the sugar in first. 

Another iifay. \ 

Put the fruit in a jar into a kettle of boil- 
ing water (or cold, and let it boil) or set the 
jar on a hot hearth till the juice will run 
from it; then take one gill from every 
pound of fruit. Boil and bruise it half an 
hour, then put in the weight of the fruit in 
sugar, and the same quantity of currant 
juice, boil it to a strong jelly. The rasp- 
berry juice may be boiled with its weight in 
sugar to a jelly, to make ice cream. 

(51.) To clarify sugar. 
Take half a pint of water to one pound 
of loaf sugar, set it over the fire to dissolve ; 
to twelve pounds of sugar thus prepared, 
beat up an e^^ very well, put in when cold, 
and, as it boils up, check it with a little 
cold water. The second time boiling, set it ■ 
away to cool. In a quarter of an hour, 
skim the top, and turn the syrup off quickly, 
leaving the sediment which will collect at 
the bottom. 

(52.) Currant Jelly. 

4 quarts of juice, 8 lbs. of refined su§[ar. ; 

The currants should be used as soon as 
of a light red ; put them, stem and all, into 
a jar, place that in boiling water, cook, then 
squeeze the juice, and to every quart put 
two pounds of sugar ; boil together fifteen 
minutes, then put iiito glasses. 

(53.) Bread Cheese Cakes. i 



possible, and pour the cream boilinp on to 
it, let it stand two hours. Beat together 
the eggs, butter, and grated nutmegs, and 
rose-water, add the cream, beat well, and 
b.xke in patty-pans on a raised crust. 

f54.) Almond Custards. 

4 oz. of blanched almond?, 4 yolks of e-rsrs, 

1 pint of crc'ani, 2 spoonsful of su-jar, 

2 spoonsful of rose-water. 

Beat the almonds fine with the rose 
water ; beat the yolks and sugar together, 
then add to the other ingredients, stir them 
well together until it becomes thick, then 
pour it into cups. 

(55.) Cranberry Jelly. 

2 oz. of isinglass, 1 lb. of double refined suijar, 

3 pints of well strained cranberry juice. 

Make a strong jelly of the isinglass, then 
add the sugar and cranben-y juice, boil up, 
strain it into shape. It is very fine. Oi 
put the cranberries with calfs feet, or pork 
jelly. 

(56.) Apple Marmalade. 

10 lbs. of apples, 10 lbs. of lump sug-ar. 

Peel pippins (or any fine apple to cook) 
drop in water as they are done ; then scald 
until they will pulp from the core. After 
being nicely done, take equal weight of 
sugar in large lumps, just dip them in 
water, and boiling it until it be well skim- 
med, and is a thick syrup ; then add the 
pulp, and simmer it on a quick fire fifteen 
minutes. Keep it in jelly pots. 

(57.) Apple Jelly. 



20 ffoldcn pippins, 
1 lemon. 



sugar, 



1 nutmei, 

1 pint of cream, 

1-iiU. of butter. 

Scald the cream, slice the bread thin as : 



1-2 lb. of currants, 

I spoonfnl of rose-water, 

1 penny loaf of bread. 



Peel and core the apples, put into a pre- 
serving-kettle with onp pint and a half of 
water, stew until tender; then strain the 
liquor through a colander. To every pint, 
put a pound of fine sugar, add grated orange 
or lemon, then boil to a jelly. 

Another. — Prepare the apples as above ; 
have ready half an ounce of isinglass boiled 
in half a pint of water to a jelly. Put this 
to the apple- water, and apple as strained 
through a coarse sieve ; add sugar, a little 
lemon juice and peel. Boil up all together, 
and put into a dish. Take out the peel. 

(58.) Biscuit of Fruit. 

To the pulps of any scalded fruit put an 
equal weight of refined and sifted sugar, 
beat It two hours, then put it into little 
white paper forms ; dry in a cool oven, 
turn the next day, and, in two or three 
days, box them. 



TEC NURSC S MANVAIi 



«? 



THE NURSE'S MANUAL. 



The head of every family should become 
familiar with the readiest methods of curing 
at least the ordinary complaints. I would 
by no means attempt to make " every man 
his own doctor," for when serious disease 
threatens it is the first duty of every one 
to call in an experienced physician ; but 
there are a countless number of cases 
where a faithful prescription will save many 
a djctor's fee, and not unfrequently years 
of sulFering or even a valuable ]"fe. 

I present now a few receipts, all of which 
I have tesied on myself and others, and 
know to be correct. Still what will cure 
one person will not always cure another, 
as people's idyosyncracies of constitution 
differ. In many cases, therefore, 1 have 
given more than one prescription for tiie 
same complaint. If one will not answer let 
another be tried. If they will do no good, 
1 am sure they will do no harm. 

It is hardly necessary to state, perhaps, 
that all the articles of a medicinal character 
here mentioned can readily be procured 
either at the drug or herb stores. 

(1.) A sure remedy for Summer Complaint. 

Put three-fourths of a tea spoonful of | 
powdered rhubarb and one tea spoonful of I 
magnesia into a tea cup and pour it full of , 
boiling water ; let it stand till it is cool, and 
then pour the liquid off, to which add two 
tea spoonsful of good brandy, and sweeten 
well with loaf sugar; give a child of from 
one to three years old a tea spoonful five or 
six times a day. For food, take a double 
handful of flour, tie it up in a cloih, and 
boil it three hours ; when cold, take off the 
outer covering of paste and grate the hard 
white substance in a sufficient quantity to 
thicken with milk, boil it a minute or two, 
stir it with a sticlc of cinnamon and sweeten 
it. Both the medicine and the food are 
quite palatable, and together rarely fail of a 
perfect cure. 

(2.) A simple remedy for the Summer 
Complaint. 

I have often seen quite severe attacks of 
this disease, attended with severe griping 
in the bowels, immediately subdued by 
laking sis drops of the essence of spear- 
mint on a little sugar. This is a very easi- 
ly applied remedy, and in very many 
cases, particularly with women and chil- 
dren, (children should take but two drops 
if less than five years of age, and delicate 
women four drops,) will be found a perfect 



cure. If nothing better, it is\ery dseful to 
check the complaint when it comes on one 
as it often docs, at a time when it is incon- 
venient to take other medicines ; for in- 
stance, in travelling. The dose can be re- 
peated every six hours if found necessary. 

(3.) Cure for run-rowids. 
That disease of the finger or toe which 
is commonly called a run-round, may be 
easily cured by a remedy so simple that 
persons who have not tried it are generally 
incredulous as to its efficacy. The first 
symptoms of the complaint are heat, pain, 
swelling, and redness at the top of the nail. 
The inflammation, if not checked very soon, 
goes round the wliole of the nail, causing 
intense pain, accompanied by a gathering 
of yellow matter, which, as soon as it ap- 
pears, should be punctured or opened by a 
needle, not waiting till it has extended its 
progress, other^t^ise the finger will become 
excessively sore, and the nail will eventu- 
ally come off. All this may be prevented 
at once, if as soon as the swelling and in- 
flammation begin, the finger is laid flat on 
the table, and the nail is scratched all over 
(first lengthwise and then crosswise) with 
the sharp point of a pin or scissors, or of a 
pen knife, so as to scratch off the whole 
surface of the nail, leaving it rough and 
white. This little operation will not give 
the slightest pain, and we have never known 
it fail in stopping the progress of the dis- 
ease ; all symptoms of which will disap- 
pear by next day. This may be relied on 
as a positive cure, if done before matter be 
gins to appear, and even then it will suc- 
ceed if the yellow part of the gathering is 
first punctured with a needle. 

(4.) A good remedy for the Tooth Ache. 

Take kreosote one part, spirit of wine 
ten parts. Mix and apply by means of a 
small piece of lint. This ofteu affords im- 
mediate relief. 

(5.) Cure for Coriis. 
Pare them down to the quick, but not so 
far as to make them bleed, then apply on 
going to bed the inner part of an onion 
mashed fine. A very few applications will 
soon cause a complete cure. 

(b.) To remove a Wart. 
Touch it with a clean pen dipped in a lit- 
tle aquafortis. By repeating this daily, the 
wart w'ill crumble and come off without 
pain or trouble. If is a'l excellei;! and safe 
remedy for hard, hornyj callous, whitish 



60 



THE NUR^IS MAMCAL. 



watts, but if the wart is red, fleshy, and 
sore to the toudi, do not apply the aqua- 
fortis. 

(T.) Ring Worms. 
There is no Ijetter remedy than mercurial 
ointmert riibbed on at niy-ht and not washed 
off till MK-rning. It causes no pain, and a 
few applications of it will effect a cure. 

(8.) Cure for Qumsjj. 
ISimmer hops in vinegar until their 
Rtrenpth is extracted, strain the liquid, 
sweeten it with supfar, and pive it frequently 
\o the patient until relieved. Thisi" an al- 
most infallible remedy. 

(9.) To aire /he Omsumption. 
{ do not cive the followinfi' as an effect- 
ual remedy for a Hecf seated consumption, 
but that it will cure maiiy most obstinate 
cases I well know. T have witnessed its 
ofood effects in nismberless instances. Live 
temperately — avoid spiriUious liquors — wear 
flannel next the skin — and take every morn- 
ing half a pint of new miHc mixed with a 
wineglass full of expressed juice of green 
hoarh(vand ; and if you are not too ^'ar gone 
a cure is certain. 

(10.) To make Lozcjigcs that will cure the 
Heart-bnrn. 
Take prepared chalk four ounces, crab's 
eyes prepared two ounces, bole ammoniac 
one ounce — make into a paste with dis- 
solved gum arable. When lield in the 
oioutli till they dissolve they will afford 
sensible relief. 

(11.) S-pittmg of Blood. 
Take two spoonsful of the juice of net- 
tles at night, or lake three spoonsful of sage 
juice in a little honey. This presently 
stops either spitting or vomiting blood ; or 
twenty grains of aluin in water every two 
hours. 

(12.) Cure for a ('ovgh. 
This is a complaint which admits of a va- 
riety of remedies. Here follows a number 
of receipts, all of which I know to be ffood. 
]f one does not cure try another. What 
will cure one person will not always cure 
another. 1. Roast a large lemon very care- 
fully without burning ; when it is thorough- 
ly hot, cut and squeeze it into a cup upon 
three ounces of sugar candy finely powder- 
ed ; tnko a spoonful whenever your cough 
'.roubles you. Tt is ea-sy to he obtained, 
pleasant to take, and in very Hiuny in- 
siances will prove a perfect cure. 2. Take 
tw" cmr.-"? -.f gyrup of poppies, as much 
conserve ot red roses ; rnix, and take one 
epooulu) Sbi (Jiree nights when gomg to 



I bed. .3. Make a sironw tea of alehoof, 
sweeten it with sugar candv, pour this 
upon a white toast well rubbed with nut- 
meg, and drink it first and last. 4 For a 
CO gh with hoa7'scn(SS. — Syrup of jujubes 
and olthea, of each two ounces, lohock sa- 
vans one ounce, saflron and water flag pow- 
dered, of each a scruple ; lick it off a 
liquorice stick when you cough. 5. For a 
Consiimpfirc Covgh. — Take half a pound 
of double refined sugar, finely beat and sift- 
ed, wet this with an orange, water and boil 
it to a candy, then stir in an ounce of cas- 
sia earth powdered, and use it as othe, 
candy. 

(13) To cure a Cold with a Coi/gh. 

The editor of the Baltimore Farmer and 
Gardener says the l)t st remedy he ever tried 
in his I'amily for a cough or cold, is a de- 
coction of the leaves of the pine tree, sweet- 
ened with loaf sugar, to be freely drank 
warm when going to bed at night, and cold 
through the day. It is a certain cure in a 
short time. 

(14) A certain cure for Colds. 

Talce a large tea spoonful of flax seed 
with half an ounce of extract of liquorice, 
and a quarter of a pound of sun dried rai- 
sins. Put it into two quarts of soft wa v.r, 
and let it simmer over a slow fire till it is 
reduced to one ; then add to it a quarter of 
a pound of brown sugar candy, j.ounded, a 
table s))oonful of white wine vinegar, or 
lemon juice. N. B. The vinegar is best to 
be added only to that quantity you are go- 
ing immediately to take ; for if it be put 
into the whole it is liable in a little tiiue to 
grow flat. Drink a half pint on going to 
bed, and take a little when the cough is 
troublesome. 

This receipt generally cures the worst of 
colds in two or tin>e days, and if taken in 
time may be said to be almost an infallible 
remedy. It is a sovereign balsamic cordial 
for the lungs withoi^t the opening qualities 
which engender fresh colds on going out. 
1 have known it to cure colds that have 
almost settled into consumptions, in three 
weeks. 

(15.) To 'prevent the nails growing down 
into the toes. 

This is a very troublesome and sometimes 
dangerous thing, for I know an instance of 
a foe's having to be ainpuiated in consO' 
quence. But the cure is very simple. Take 
a .^harp pointed knife and cut a little furrow 
all along the top of the nail lengthwise. 
As it fills up scrajie it out again. This will 
cause the nail to contract at the top and M 



THE NVR8E S MANUAL. 



61 



loosen its. hold from the flesh. Persevere 
antil the diificulty is entirely overcome. 

(16.) A sure cure for the Barber's Itch. 

Havin<T in numberless instances seen the 
good cffectd of the followino- prescription, I 
can ccrtily to its being- a perfect remedy. I 
Dilute cmTosive sublimate with the oil of \ 
aluioiids, apply it to the face occasionally, 
tnd m a few days a cure will be effected. 

(17.) For Barns and Scalds. 

Mix in a bottle three ounces of olive oil, 
and four ounces of lime water. Apply the 
mixture to the part burned, five or six times 
a day with a feather. Linseed oil is equally 
as good as olive oil. 

Another. — Spread clarified honey upon a 
linen rag, and apply it to the burn immedi- 
ately, and it will relieve the pain instantly, 
and heal the sore in a very short time. 

(18.) To slop Diarrhoea. 
Take half a pint of brandy and stir it with 
an iron red hot, previously adding loaf 
sugar sufficient to make it agreeably sweet. 
A spoonful or two, or even more, to be 
taken as required. I have known this re- 
oeatedly to cure this disease in its very 
worst stages. 

(19.) To apply an Eye Stone. 

Eye-stones are frequently used to extract 
matter, rail road sparks, and other extrane- 
ous substances from the eye. They are to 
«e procured from the apothecaries. They 
cost but two or three ceuts apiece, and it is 
well to get several, that '*' c.e does not suc- 
ceed you may try another. To give an eye- 
stone activity, lay it for about five minutes 
m a saucer of vinegar and water, and if it 
is a good one, it will soon begin to move or 
swim round in the liquid. Then wipe it 
dry, and let it be inserted under the eyelid, 
binding the eye closely with a handkerchief. 
The eye-stone will make the circuit of the 
eye, and take out the mote, which, when 
the eye-stone finally drops out, it will bring 
with it. 

The first thing to be done, when a mote 
^r spark gets into your eye, is to pull down 
.he lower part ot the eye lid, and with a 
'lardkerchief in your hand blow your nose 
violently at the same nionvjnt. This will 
/requently expel the mote, without further 
trouble. A mote will in many cases come 
of itself, by immediately holuin.T your eye 
wide open in a cup or gla&s filled to the 
irim with clear cold water. Or tuKe a small 
pin, and wrapping the head in the Crirner of 
A soil c[<nibric handkerchief, sweep oareful- 
ly Tuurd the eye with it, under tho lid, 
iJi'j'.e iu.d below. This should be done 



with a firm and steady hand. Another way 
is to take a bristle from a brush, and first 
tying the ends together with a bit of thread, 
so as to form a loop, sweep round the eye 
with it, so that the loop may catch the mole 
and bring it out. A particle of iron or steel 
has, we know, been extracted from the eye 
by holding near it a powerful magnet. 

(20.) Ointment for Sore Eye-Lids. 

Sedigatcd red precipitate one part, sper- 
maceti ointment twenty-five piirts. Mix 
and ajjply with the tip of the finger on 
going to bed ; or, 

^no/Ai'r.— Apply balsam of sugar ; or 
apply butter of wax which speedily heals 
them. 

(21.) Cw-cforthe Tetter. 
Obtain at a druggist's an ounce of sul- 
phuret of potash. Be careful to ask for 
this article precisely. Put the sulphuret 
into a large glass jar, and pour on it a quart 
of cold soft water. Stop it tightly, and 
leave it to dissolve. It may be more con- 
venient afterwards to transfer it to smaller 
bottles. Care must be taken to keep it 
closely corked. To use it, pour a little into 
a cup, and dipping in it a soft sponge, bathe 
the eruption with it five or six times a day, 
Persist, and in most cases, it will soon effect 
a cure. There is indeed no better remedy. 
Should the tetter re-appear in cold weather, 
immediately apply this solution, and it will 
again be found more efficacious. A bath 
of sulphuret of potash, made as above, and 
frequently repeated, has cured the tetter in 
a child after it had spread all over the body. 

(22.) A cure for the Rheumatism. 
I have known the following prescription 
to cure the rheumatism in its worst stages, 
and in a very short time. Take one pint of 
the very best brandy and add to it one ounce 
of the gum of guiacum powdered fine, take 
as much of it at a time as you can bear, ai:d 
take clear. Repeat the dose till a cure is 
effected. 

(23.) Relief for a sprained ankle. 

Wash the ankle frequently with cold sab 
and teater, which is far better than warm 
vinegar or decoctions of herbs. Keep your 
foot as cold as possible to prevent inflamma- 
tion, and sit with it elevated on a cushion 
Ijive on very low diet, and take every day 
some cooling medicine. By obeying thesf 
directions only, a sprained ankle has been 
cured in a few days. 

(24 . ) Bathing the Feet . 
In bathing the feet of a sick person, use at 
the beginning, tepid or luke-warm water. 



62 



THE NURSE S MANUAL. 



Have ready in a tea-kettle or a covered 
pitcher, some hot water, of which pour in a 
little at intervals, so as gradually to in- 
crease th.e temperature of the foot-bath, till 
it becomes as warm as it can be borne wilh 
comfort ; after which the feet siiould be 
taken out before the water cools. This is 
a much better way than to put them at first 
into very warm water ; letUiis- it grow cool 
before they arc taken out. Clean stockings 
well warmed, should be ready to put on the 
feet as soon as they arc out of the water, 
and have been rubbed dry with a flannel. 

(25.) A 7m Id puke. 
^^OT a grown person dissolve 20 grains of 
ippe. acuanha in six spoonsful of warm wa- 
ter ; give a spoonful every ten minutes un- 
til it operates. 

(26.) To prevent sivcUing from a Bruise. 
Apply at once a cloth five or six fold in 
thickness dipped in cold water, and when 
it grows warm renew the wetting. 

(27) To cure the Cramp. 
This involuntary contraction of the mus- 
cles, attended with a convulsive effort of the 
neck, arms, and legs, as well as a violent, 
though transitory pain, is often the portion 
of the sedentary, the aged and infirm. A 
variety of remedies have been tried with 
occasional success. Sometimes a garter, 
applied tightly round the part affected, re- 
moves the complaint; ])ut when it is more 
obstinate, a heated brick, wrapped in a 
flannel bag, may be placed at the foot of 
the bed, against which the person afflicted 
may place his feet, and as the brick will 
remain warm the whole night, a return 
will thus be prevented. No remedy, how- 
<;ver, is equal to that of diligent and perse- 
vering friction ; which, while it restores the 
free circulation of the lilood in the contract- 
ed part, is more simple, expeditious, and 
safe in its effects. If cramp attacks the 
interior organs, as the stomach or bowels, 
it is always attended with danger, as fre- 
quent returns of it may occasion death. 
Medicine may relieve but cannot cure ; we 
therefore advise all who are liable to be af- 
flicted in this way, to adopt a strictly tem- 
perate, and regular mode of living — to ab- 
stain rigorously from all spirituous and fer- 
mented liquors — to shun inundating their 
stomachs twice or thrice a day wilh hot tea 
— and to avoid smoked, salted and pickled 
provisions, as well as fat, rancid and flatu- 
lent dishes, which require a vigorous diges- 
tion ; in short, thus avoiding both the pre- 
disposing and exciting causes — the latter of 
which is generally found in an irritable 
temper, indulgence in fits of anger, and 



I other depressing passions — which geneisUj 

' relaxing the animal fibre, it again becomee 
! contracted, and a paroxysm of the cramp is 

the inevitable consequence Remedies for 
' convulsions and spasm are generally good 

for the cramp. 

! , 

i (29,) To purify the atmosphere of a sick 
I . room. 

Keep always on the shelf of the washing- 
stand, or on the mantel-piece or table, or in 
a corner of the floor, a saucer or smal. 
bread-pan. or a shallow mug filled with a 
solution of chloride of lime in cold water, 
stirring it up frequently. The proportion 
may be about a tablespoonful of the powder 
to hpdf a pint of water. Renew it every 
two or three days. If the room is large, 
place in it more than one vessel of the chlo- 
oride of lime. In stirring it, any unplea- 
sant odour will be immediately dispelled. 

On going to sea it is well to take wilh 
you omj or more quart bottles of this solu- 
tion, to sprinkle occasionally about your 
state-room. 

(30.) For constipation of the boioels. 

This is one of the most troublesome of all 
complaints, and if allowed to become con- 
firmed, often leads to most serious conae 
qucnces. It can never be cured by pills (r 
other medicines taken into the stomach 
On the contrary, the tendency of these 
things is inevitably to make it worse. The 
only permanent cure is a proper system of 
diet and regimen of which I shall speak 
hereafter. But if not cured all dangerous 
consequences may be avoided and iuimedi- 
ate relief may be obtained by using injec- 
tions. The best instrument for this pur- 
pose is the common syringe, which costs 
I but a few shillings. There is a machine 
sold by the druggists, which is complicated, 
! soon gets out of order and is troublesome 
! to keep it clean, and besides is quite expen- 
j sive. For injections pure water in many 
cases will answer. Throw up as much as 
i to make the stomach feel a little unconi- 
! fortable, and if one injection does not an- 
swer try another, and even a third. But 
: there are many cases in which there is some- 
thing required to stimulate and relax the 
] system, and for this purpose nothing is su- 
perior to the prescription below. I should 
not recommend its constant use if it can be 
avoided. Still no bad effects need be ap- 
prehended from It, fur upon the whole i» 
has a very soothing and strengthening ten- 
dency ; it is a very excellent remedy to bo 
used in case of sudden attacks of sickness. 
The bowels are in this way thoroughly 
emptied in a few minutes. It will tend at 



THK NURSK S MANDAt. 



63 



first to weaken the system slightly, but 
this soon passes off; however, to avoid this 
altogether, the quantity of lobelia and Cay- 
enne may be reduced, as to make it more 
powerful, they should be increased. 

Receipt. — Take one ounce fine bayberry, 
one and a half ounce Cayenne pepper, one 
third of an ounce of pulverized lobelia, and 
one quarter of an ounce of gum myrrh pul- 
verized ; mix them well together. For a 
common dose take about two teaspoonsful or 
more, as it is needed, in half a pint or so of 
warm water. 

(30.) To prevent Night Mare 
Avoid heavy suppers, and on going to 
bed take the following mixture. Sal-vola- 
tile twenty drops, tincture of ginger two 
drachms. 

(31.) Cure for Excoriated Nostrils . 

If after a severe cold in the head, the in- 
side of the nostrils continue very sore and 
inflamed, (as is frequently the case,) lub 
them lightly with a little kreosote ointment, 



applied to the interior of the nose witk youi 
finger. Do this at night, and several times 
during the day. It will very sooo effuct a 
cure, often in twenty-four hours 

(32.) To cure the Flux. 
Take a quantity of water-cresses, and 
boil them in clear water for 15 minutes; 
strain them off, and drink half a pint of the 
decoction now and then about milk warm 

(33.) To cure the Hic-Covgh. 
A single drop of chemical oil of cinna- 
mon dropped on a piece of lump sugar, let 
it dissolve in the mouth leisurely. 

(34.) To cure the Whitlow. 
Steep in distilled vinegar as hot as you can 
bear it four or five times a day lor two days 
successively; then moisten a leaf of tobac- 
co in the vinegar, bind it round the pan 
grieved, and a cure follows. 

(35.) To cure bleeding at the Nose. 
Rub your nostrils with the juice of net- 
tles, or round nettles bruised. 



MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS 



There are many useful preparations and 
bimple remedies easily made when one 
knows how, that every one should keep in 
the house. To say nothing of the conve- 
nience and safety in case of emergency of 
so doing, the economy is very great. For 
in case of an accident you are obliged to 
run to the apothecary and pay more for 
enough for a single application, than for 
what with a little trouble would have last- 
ed a whole family for a twelvemonth. 
The few receipts I now present are ex- 
ceedingly valuable. I heartily c^inmend 
them to the attention of every housekeeper. 

(1.) Camphor Spirits. 
There is both convenience and economy 
in preparing liquid camphor yourself ; and 
no house should bs without it. Buy two 
ounces of gum camphor, and a pint and a 
half of spirits of wine (alcohol.) Break 
up the camphor, pick it clean, and put it 
into a large glass bottle or jar — one with a 
glass stopper will be best— pour on the 
alcohol , and cork it closely, tying a piece 
of kid leather over the top. Next day you 
will find the camphor entirely dissolved. 
For present convenience, transfer a portion 
of it to small bottles or phials. In buying 
phials, it is best always to get the short j 
wide ones that will stand steadily by them- 



selves. To take camphor as a remedy for 
faintness, pour a few drops into half b 
wineglass of water ; stir it a little, and 
drink it. Camphor is excellent to sprinkle 
about a sick room. It is well to keep in a 
second large bottle a somewhat different 
preparation to be used in bathing the fore- 
head for nervous headache, or as an embro- 
cation of rheumatic pains. For these pur- 
poses, instead of dissolving the camphor in 
alcohol only, pour on it spirits of wine 
and whiskey mixed in equal proportions. 
Thus diluted it will cause less irritation to 
the skin. This will be found to be quite 
as good as the camphor spirits obtained at 
the drug stores and infinitely cheaper. 
One should always keep a bottle of it in 
the house. When taken to remove faint- 
ness, nervous pains, &c., pour a few drops 
of the liquid camphor into a half wine glass 
of water and swallow it. 

(2.) Fine Hoarhound Candy. 
Take a large bunch of the herb hoar- 
hound, as green and fresh as you can gel 
it. Cut it up (leaves and stalks) with 
scissors. Scald twice a china teapot or 
covered pitcher, and then put into it the 
hoarhound, pressing it down hard with 
your hands. The pot should be about two- 
thirds full of the herb. Then fill it ap 



64 



THE KDROe'g MANUAL. 



witli boilinj? water. Cover it closely, and 
put a small roll ors<if'l paper into the moiiili 
of the spout, to prevent any of tlie strength 
e(f»capiafr with the steam. Set the pot close 
to the fire to infuse, and keep it ihere till 
It comes to a hard boil. Then immediately 
Take it away, and strain it into another ves- 
sel. Mix with tlic liquid sufficient powder- 
ed loaf sugar to make it very thick soft 
paste. Then put over the fire and give it 
a boil, stirring and skimming it well. 
Take a shallow square tin pan, grease it 
slightly with sweet oil, and put into it the 
candy as soon as it is well boiled, smooth- 
ing it over tlie suface with a wet knife 
blade. Then sift on some powdered sugar. 
Set it away to cool. When nearly con- 
gealed score it into squares. It is good for 
colds, and coughs, and hoarseness. 

If you find it too thin, you may stir in, 
when it is nearly done boiling, a spoonful 
of fiour, or arrow-root, or pulverized starch, j 

Another v/ay of making this canay, is to ' 
boil the hoarhound in as much water as i 
will cover it, and till all the juice is ex- , 
tracted. Then strain it, and give it another I 
boil, stirring in gradually sugir enough to | 
make it very thick and stiff. Afterwards, | 
sift sugar over a shallow tin pin. and fill it! 
with the paste and leave it to congeal. 1 

Any herb candy may be m ide as above, j 

(3.) Blackberry Syrup. ] 

Take a sufficient quantity of ripe black- J 
berries. Put them into a sieve placed over( 
a large broad pan. and with a clean potato- ( 
masher, or something of the sort, press out ! 
all the juice. Or having bruised them I 
first, put the blackberries into a linen bag, 
and squeeze out all the juice into a vessel 
placed beneath. Measure it, and to every 
quart of the strained juice, allow half ai 
pound of powdered loaf sugar, a heaped I 
teaspoonful of powdered cinnamon, the j 
same of powdered cloves, and a powdered I 
nutmeg. Mix the spices with the juice I 
and sugar, and boil all together in a por- | 
celain kettle, skimming it well. When j 
cold, stir into the above quantity half a pint 
of fourth proof brandy. Then bottle it for : 
use. This is i good family medicine, and j 
IS beneficial iii complaints incident to warm | 
weather. \ 

It should be administered at proper 
times, (at proper intervals.) from a tea- 
Bpoonful to a wineglassful, according to 
the age of the patient. 

(4.) French Raspberry Vinegar. 

Take a sufficiency of the ripe raspber- 

lies. Put them into a deep earthen pan, 

and mash them with a wooden beetle. 

Then pour them, with all their juice, into 



a large linen bag , and squeeze and press 
< the liquid into a vessel beneath. Mea- 
sure it, and to each quart of the raspbeirv 
juice, allow a pound of pov.(h-red whi<a 
sugar and a pint of the best cider vinegar, 
\ First n-<i»x toceiher the juice and the sinr.- 
I gar, and give them a boil in a preserving 
I kettle. When it has boiled well, add gra- 
I dually the sugar, and boil and skim it till 
! the skum ceases to rise. When done, put 
I it into clean bottles, and cork them tightlj. 
j It is a very pleasant and cooling beverage 
I in warm weather, and for invalids who aie 
I feverish. To use it, pour out half a turn- 
I bier of the raspberry vinegar, and fill it i p 
! with ice water. 

(5.) Fine Lavender Compovnd. 
I For this purpose use lavend-er buJa 
gathered just before they are ready to bio x. 
As soon as the blossom expands into a 
fiower, a portion of its strength and Ira- 
grance immcdiatelv evaporates. This is 
also the case with roses, which, for ro:-ie- 
water, should always be gathered not alter 
they are blown, but when just about to 
open. Having stripped the lavender l)ud3 
from the stalks, measure a pint of the buds, 
and mix with them an ounce of powdered 
cocliineal ; half an ounce of whole cloves ; 
and two nutmegs broken up but not grated. 
Put the whole into a glass jar, and pour in a 
quart of the best French brandy, cover the 
jar close; making it completely air-tigiit 
by the addition of strong papei pasted 
down over the cover. Set away and leave 
the ingredients to infuse undisturbed for a 
month. Then strain it into a pitcher, and 
bottle it for use. It is a well known re- 
medy for flatulence, and pains and sickness 
of the stomach. To use it, put some loaf 
sugar in the bottom of a wineglass, pour on 
sufficient lavender to soften the sugar, and 
then eat it with a teaspoon. 

(6.) Mustard Plasters. 
Mustard plasters are freqaently very 
efficacious in rheumatic or other pains. It 
is best to make them entirely of mustard 
and vinegar, without any mixture of flour. 
Thev should be spread between two pieces 
of thin muslin and bound on the part affect 
ed It is not well to allow them to stay om 
more than twenty minutes at the utmost, it 
not being advisable that they should blister 
the skin. When a mustard plaster is 
taken off wash the part tenderly with a 
soft sponge and warm water. K the irri- 
tation continues troublesome, apply poul- 
tices of grated bread crumbs well wetted 
with lead water, renewing them frequent- 
ly. A mustard plaster behind the ear will 
often remove a tooth ache, ear ache, oi 



TH« YOUNG lady's MANUAL. 



65 



fhcumatic pain m the head. Applied to the 
wrists they are very beneficial in cliecking^ 
an ag-ue fit, if put on as soon as the first 
Eymptorns of 'he chill evince themselves. 
(7.) Medicated Prunes, a palatable medi- 
cine. 
Take a quarter of an ounce of senna and 
manna (as obtained from the druggists) 
and pour on it a pint of boiling- water. 
Cover it, set it by the fire, and let it infuse 
for one hour. If the vessel in which you 
prepare it has a spout, slop up the spout 
with a roll of wad on soft paper. This 
should also be done in making herb teas 
or other decoctions, as a portion of the 
strength evaporates at the spout. When 
the senna and manna have thus been an 



hour by the fire, strain it into a skillet ot 

saucer, (one lined with porcelain will he 
best,) and stir in a large wine glass a small 
tea cup of West India molasses. Adi? 
about half a pound or more of the besi 
pruues, putting in sufficient to absorb the 
liquid while stewing. Then cover the ves- 
sel tightly, and let the whole stand for an 
hour, or till all the stones of the prunes are 
loose. If stewed too long the prunes will 
taste weak and insipid. When done pat it 
into a dish to cool, and pick out all the 
stones. This will be found an excellent 
and agreeable cathartic medicine, as there 
will be no perceptible taste of the senna or 
manna. It may be given to children at 
their supper. 



YOUNG LADY'S MANUAL. 



UPON DRESS AND THE TOILETTE— A CHAPTER FOR YOUNG LADIES 



I have little respect for that philosophy 
-vhich inculcates a contempt for what some 
jUdicious writer terms "the minor morals 
of society,'' or the arts and accomplish- 
ments which tend to exalt and refine the 
manners and disposition. Foppery is one 
thing and a proper regard to dress and 
the toilette is quite another. Nothing is 
more ridiculous than the first — nothing 
tends more to enhance one's self-respect, 
force of character, and even strength of 
moral principle, than the other. While 1 
would not therefore (especially in a new 
country like this) encourage an undue at- 
tention to the fripperies and frivolities of 



mere fashion, I would strenuously uyge 
upon all a due regard to neatness of dress, 
propriety of deportment, and such a rea- 
sonable attention to the person generally as 
shall tend to render oneself as agreeable as 
possible to one's associates and acquaint- 
ances. I must be permitted to add that he 
who doubts the propriety of such advice, 
has yet much to learn of the nature of man 
and of the influence of appearances. 

I shall now present a few observations 
and prescriptions arranged under appro- 
priate heads, which will I trust meet the 
approbation and approval of all sensible 
and intelligent ladies. 



DRESS 



Every lady should study and determine 
what dress is most becoming and suitable 
to her style of person. In Paris, the style 
of beauty, and the peculiarities of every 
mdividual, are considered before her style 
of costume is determined upon. In an 
English or American ball-room, on the 
contrary, one dress is too often the fac- 
simile of all the others ; the tall and the 
short, the lean and the stout, are all robed 
alike — and all, as they imagine, dressed 
according to the latest Parisian fashion. 
This is an error which every woman of 
teal taste will endeavour to coiroct. 



A few general rules concerning drefc 
may be given, which can enable our readers 
to determine what mode of dress will most 
effectually display and heighten their charms. 

Tight sleeves, without any trimming, are 
becoming to full forms the medium height 
or below it. Upon a tall slender woman, 
with long arms, they are very ungraceful, 
unless trimmed with folds, or a small ruffled 
cap, which is made to reach the elbow. 
Upon a very short stout person, moderately 
wide sleeves are more becoming than tight 
ones, 38 they conceal the outlines of the 
fonn. 



66 



THE YOUNS lady's MANDAL. 



Flounces are graceful upon tall persons, 
whether slender or otherwise, but never 
upon diminutive ones. Tucks are equally 
graceful upon both, and never look out of 
fashion. A couple of wide tucks, which 
give the appearance ol wo shirts, are very 
beautiful for an evening dress, made of deli- 
cate materials. Any species of trimming 
down the front or sides of the skirt, increas- 
es the apparent height. 

Capes are, in general, only becoming to 
persons with falling shoulders. | 

High neck dresses are convenient, and ; 
almost always look well. Upon a very 
high-shouldered person, alow-necked dress | 
is more appropriate, and if the shoulders I 
are only moderately high, the neck may ' 
still be covered, and the dress finished off | 
about the throat with a narrow piece of lace, 
lurned downwards, instead of a collar, i 
Dresses with loose backs are only becoming i 
upon very line, and at the same time slen- 
der figures. Evening dresses of transpar- | 
ent materials look well when made high in 
the neck ; but upon very young girls it is 
more usual to cut the dress low, leaving a 
part of the shoulder bare. A dress should 
always be made loose over the chest and 
tight over the shoulder blades. 

Every species of drapery is graceful, and 
may always be worn to advantage. 

Long sashes, knotted in front, are more 
becoming than belts, unless there is much 
trimming upon the dress. 

No dress with long sleeves is complete 
without a pair of cufts. They look very 
pretty when simply made of linen cambric, 
with a double row of herring-bone. Cuffs 



with small ruffles make ihe hands look 

small. 

To make narrow shoulders look wider, 

an inside cape, (or cape fastened to the 

dress,) falling at the shoulders, should be 
; worn. 

The effect of a well made tournure (or 

bustle) is to make the waist look round and 
! delicate. An extremely small and waspish 
j looking waist can never be considered a 

beauty. It is exceedingly hurtful to those 
I who attain it by tight lacing, and doubly 
; ungraceful, since it prevents all graceful 

movements. Tying the sash in a point in 

I Iront, gives a roundness to the waist, and 

I lessens its dimensions. To prevent the ful- 

[ ness of the skirt from rising above the sash, 

which is very ungraceful, the belt should 

be lined with buckram. 

Short cloaks are very unbecoming to 
short and clumsily built persons — upon 
others they are generally graceful. 

A close cottage bonnet is never out of 
fashion, and there are very few faces whict 
it does not improve. 

The morning costume of a lady should 
consist of a loose lorapper, fastened with a 
cord and tassel at the waist, and worn with 
very plain cuffs and collar. 

Shoes should always be worn a littig 
longer than the foot, so that their length 
makes the foot look narrow, which is a 
great beauty. A broad short foot can 
never be considered handsome. Tight 
shoes impair the gait, and a large foot is at 
any time preferable to an awkard mode of 
walking. 



THE HAIR 



Hair should be abundant, soft, flexible, 
growing in long locks in colour suitable to 
the skin, thick in the mass, delicate and 
distinct in the particular. The mode of 
wearing it should differ. Those who have 
it growmg low in the nape of the neck 
should prefer wearing it in locks hanging 
down, rather than turned up with a comb ; 
the wearing it, however, in that manner, is 
delicate and feminine, and suits many. In 
general, this mode of wearing the hair is to 
be regulated by the shape of the head. 
Ringlets hanging about the forehead suit 
almost every one. On the other hand, the 
fashion of putting the hair smoothly and 
drawing it back on either side, is becoming 
to few ; it has a look of vanity instead of 
sissplinity ; the face must do every thing 



for it, which is asking too much ; especial- 
ly as hair in its pure state is the ornament 
intended for it by nature. Hair is to the 
human aspect what foliage is to the land- 
scape. 

Dressing the Hair. 

After a few experiments a lady may very 
easily decide what mode of dressing her 
hair, and what head-dress, renders her face 
most attractive. 

Light hair is generally most becoming 
when curled. For a round face the curls 
should be made in short half ringlets reacn- 
ing a lettle below the ears. For an oval 
face long and thick ringlets are snitable, but 
if the face is thin and sharp, the ringlets 
should be light and not too long, nor too 
many in number. 



THK TOUNG LADT's MANUAL. 



67 



When dark hair is curled, the ringlets | Next take the yolk of an eg^, slightly 
should never fall in heavy masses upon the i beaten in a saucer, and with your fingers 
shoulders. Open braids are very beautiful rub it well into the roots of the hair, let il 
when made of dark hair — they are also be- , rest a few minutes and then wash it oif en- 
coming to light-haired persons. A simple tirely with a cloth dipped in pure water, 
and graceful mode of arranging ihe hair is rinse the head well till the yolk of the egg 
to fold the front locks behind the ears, per- i has disappeared from it, then wipe and rub 
mitfing the ends to fall in a couple of ring- it dry with a towel, and comb the hair up 
lets on either side behind. I from your head parting it with your fin- 

Another beautiful mode of dressing the i gers. In winter it is best to do all this 
hair, and one very appropriate in damp I near the fire. 

weather, when it will not keep in curl, is to ! Have ready some soft pomatum made ol 
loop up the ringlets with small hair pins on | fresh beef marrow boiled with a little al- 
either side of the face and behind the ears, | mond oil or sweet olive oil, stirring it all 
and pass a light band of braided hair over i the time till it is well amalgamated, and as 
them. thick as an ointment. When you take it 

Great care should be taken to part the ! from the fire (and not before) stir in a 
hair directly in the centre of the forehead , little mild perfume ; such a3 oil of roses, 
in a line from the nose. When the hair is or rose-water; oil of carnations; essence 
parted at the side, the line of parting should of violets, or orange flower water. Put it 
be made directl}' over the centre of the riffht into gallicups with lids, and keep it well 
or left eyebrow. There ate very few per- ' covered for use. Take a very small quan- 
sons who do not look better with hair part- tity of this pomatum and rub it among your 
ed in the middle of the forehead than at the i hair on the skin of your head, after it has 
side. 1 

Persons with very long narrow heads 
may wear the hair knotted very low at the , 



been washed as above. 

To make the Hair curl. 
At any time you may make your hair 



curl the more easily by rubbing it with beat- 
en yolk of an egg, washed off afterwarda 
with clear water, and then putting on a lit- 



hack of the neck. If the head is long but 

not very narrow, the back hair may be 

drawn to one side, braided in a thick braid, 

and wound around the head. When the 

head is round, the hair should be formed in . ^le pomatum betore you put up your curls; 

a braid in the middle of the back of the i '* is well always to go through this process 

head. If the braid is made to resemble a ^hen you change to curls, after havmg 

basket, and a few curls permitted to fall ! ^'or" J^^^ ^air plam. 



from within it, the shape of the head is 
much improved. 

Caps are becoining to most ladies, but 
they should be trimmed with as few bows 
and as little lace as possible. Upon a long 
head they look well with a narrow border 
of lace lying dose to the face and forehead. 

Turbans are very generally becoming, if I 
well arranged. Upon a young person they 
should only consist of a silk, gauze, or cash- 
mere scarf, laid over the head, fastened at 
one side, and the long ends twisted into a 
roll and wound round the head. The scarf 
should have a fringe. 



The German method of treating the hair. 

The women of Germany have remarka- 
bly fine and luxuriant hair ; the following 
is their method of manag'ing it 



To make the Hair grow rapidly. 

Take half a pound of southernwood, and 
let it be slightly pounded, boil it in a pound 
and a half of old olive oil, and half a pint 
of port wine ; when these ingredients are 
thoroughly impregnated, take them off the 
fire, and strain out the liquid well, through 
a linen cloth. Repeat the operation three 
times with fresh southernwood ; and this 
being done, add to the filtered liquor two 
ounces of bear's grease, or hog's lard. 

It should hi added that excess in the use 
of this as wr,ll as any other oleaginous sub- 
stance muFC be avoided, as it would pro- 
duce a coMtrary effect, and cause the hair 
to fall off. The receipt we have here given 
is one o( the best prescriptions for making 
Abom. ^^^ '^^^'^ gi'ow, ever given. 



once in two or three weeks boil for half an 
hour or more, a large handful of bran in a 
quar*, of soft water ; strain it into a basin, 
and let it cool till nearly tepid ; rub into it 
a little white soap, and then dip in the cor- 
ner of a soft linen cloth or towel, and wash 
your head with it thoroughly, dividing the 
hair «11 over so as to reach the roots. 



To prevent the Hair falling out. 
One of the most efficacious methods of 
preventing the hair falling out is to moisten 
it occasionally with a little fresh strong 
beer. It also keeps the hair in curl. 
When first used it is apt to render the hair 
dry, but a small quantity of bear's oil will 
remove this objection. 



THE TLUNO LADT 9 MAKDAL, 



68 

To stain the Hair black. 

Take of bruised gall nuts one pound, boil 
them in olive oil till they become soft ; then 
dry them, and reduce them to a fine powder, 
which is to be incorporated with equal parts 
of charcoal of the willow, and common salt 
prepared and pulverized. Add a small 
quantity of lemon and orangfe peel, dried and 
reduced to powder. Boil the whole in 
twelve pounds of water till the sediment at 
the bottom of the vessel assumes the con- 
sistence of a black salve. 

Obs. — The hair is to be anointed with 
this preparation ; covering it with a cap till 
dry, and then combing it. All prepara- 
tions of this kind should be used once a 
week, because as fast as the hair grows, it 
appears in its original colour at the part 
nearest the skin. 

Another Method. 
Boil for half an hour on a slow fire, equal 
parts of vinegar, lemon juice, and powder- 
ed litharge. With this decoction wet the 
hair, and in a short time it will turn black. 

To remove superfluous Hair. 

Hair is said to be superfluous when it 
^rows on the back of the hands, or fingers, 
the cheek bones, the upper lip or chins of 
females, or other parts of the exposed sur- 
face of the skin. 

The depilatories iti general use are vari- 
ous, possessing different degrees of strength. 
The mildest are parsley water, acacia 
juice, and the gum of iv3^ It is asserted 
that nut oil, with which many people rub 
the heads of children, prevents the hair 
from growing. The juice of the milk-this- 
tle mixed with oil is recommended by Dr. 
Turner to remove the hair which grows too 
low upon the forehead. It is also said that 
the gum of the cheny tree prevents the 
hair from growing. 

The following method, if carefully adopt- 
ed, may be employed with success : Apply 
gently, by means of a hair pencil, a few 
drops of muriatic acid a little reduced at 
first; and if this does not succeed, let the 
concentrated form be used by delicately j 
touching the tops of the hair to be removed, ' 
avoiding, as much as possible, the skin, or ' 
what is a better way to apply this acid, rub I 
the skin and hair over at the same time, 
'ind immediately afterwards rub the part ! 
with a linen cloth. 

To remove Hair from the Nostrils. 

Take some very fine and clean wood 
ashes, dilute them with a little water, and 
with the finger apply some of the mixture 
within the nostrils. The hair will be re- 
moved without the least pain. 



Oil for the Hair. 

A very excellent ready made oil for the 

hair which answers all common purposes is 

made by mixing one part brandy with three 

parts of sweet oil. Add any scent you pre- 

I fer, a selection can he got at the druggist's, 

{ But the best oil upon the whole, for the 

j hair, to be used regularly, is perhaps the 

j Macassar oil ; this is now very difficult to 

obtain in its genuine form, that which i? 

I commonly sold in this country is a vile 

! counterfeit, and in most cases is an abso- 

I lute injury to the hair, causing it to crisp 

j and dry up. Appended is a receipt which 

will enable every one to make the genuine 

article, and at one fourth the price at whicl. 

i't can be procured. 

Take half an ounce of the chippinga of 
alkanet root, which may be bought 4>r a few 
cents at a druggist's. Divide this quantity 
into four portions, and tie up each portion 
in a separate bit of new bobbinet or clean 
thin muslin. The strings must be white; 
for instance, coarse white thread or fine cot- 
ton cord. Take care to omit any powder or 
dust that may be found about the alkanet, 
as if put in, it will render the oil cloudy 
and muddy. Put these little bags into a 
large tumbler or a strait-sided white-ware 
jar, and pour on half a pint of the best fresh 
olive oil. Cover the vessel, and leave it 
untouched for three or four days or a week, 
being careful not to shake or stir it ; do not 
press or squeeze the bags. Have ready 
some small clear glass phials, or one large 
one, that will hold half a pint. Take out 
carefully the bags of alkanet and lay them 
in a saucer. You will find that they have 
coloured the oil of a beautiful crimson. 
Put into the bottom of each phial a small 
portion of any perfume you fancy; for in- 
stance, oil of orange flowers ; oil of jessa- 
mine ; oil of roses ; oil of pinks ; extract 
of violets. The pungent oils (cloves, cin- 
namon, bergamot, lavender, orange-peel, 
lemon, &c.,) are not good for the hair, and 
must not be used in scenting Macassar oil. 
Having put a little perfume into the phials, 
pour into each through a small funnel suffi- 
cient of the coloured olive oil to fill them to 
the neck. — Then cork them tightly, and tie 
a circular bit of white kid leather over the 
corks. 

To use Macassar oil, (observing never to 
shake the bottle) pour a little into a saucet 
and with the finger rub it into the roots of 
the hair. 

The bags of alkanet may be used a sec- 
ond time. 

To prevent one^s bonnet being injured b^ 
the hair. 

Great advantage will be found in h«Ting 



THE YOUNG LADY's MANUAL. 



6» 



a piece of white or yellow oiled silk basted 
inside of that part of your bonnet where the 
crown unites with the brim, carrying it up 
some distance into the crown, and some dis- 
tance dov/n into the hair between the out- 
side and the lining-. This will pi-event the 
bonnet being- injured by any oiliness about 
your hair. Or you may have an oiled silk 
bonnet cap. 

All hair should be combed every morning 
■with a fine comb, to remove the dust which 
insensibly goes into it during the day, and 
to keep the skin of the head always clean. 

To Clean Hair Brushes. 
Clean your head brushes by washing them 
thoroughly with a bit of soft sponge tied on 
the end of a stick, and dipped into a warm 
solution of pearlash, prepared by dissolving a 
table-spoonful of pearlash in a pint of boiling 



water. When the bristles have thus oeen 
made quite clean, rinse the brushes in dear 
hot water, leaving them in it till the v/ater 
gets cold. Afterwards drain and wipe the 
brushes with a clean cloth, and set them up- 
right before the lire to dry. 

To Cleaji a finc-tooi.h Comb, 
The most convenient way of cleaning 
combs, is with a strong silk llirsad, made 
fast to the handle of a bureau-drav/er — in 
front of which seat yourself, with a towel 
spread over your lap to catch the impurities 
that fall from the comb. Pass the thread 
hard between each of its teeth, holding the 
comb in one hand and the end of the thread 
in the other. Afterwards wipe the comb 
well, and then wash it in warm soap suds 
and dry it on a clean cloth. 



THE EYE-LASHES 



The Circassian method of treating the 
eye -lashes is as follows: — The careful 
mother removes, with a pair of scissors, the 
forked and gossamir-like points (not more) 
of the eye-lashes ; and every time this is 
done, their growth is renewed, and they be- 
come long, close, finely curved, and of a 
silky gloss. 

The growth of the eye-lashes has been 
promoted, where they have been lost from 
disease, by the following ointment : — Take 
ointment of nitric oxide of mercury, two 
drachms, hog's lard, one drachm. Incor- 



])Orate the ointment well with the lard, and 
anoint the edges of the eye-lids night and 
morning, wasliing after each time with milk 
and water, warm. 

To blacken the eye-lashes. 
The simplest preparations for this pui 
pose, are the juice of elder berries, burnt 
i cork, and cloves burnt at the candle. A.rv- 
' other means is, to take the black of frank- 
incense, resin, and mastic. This black will 
not come off with perspiration. 



THE MOUTH. 



The mouth requires paticular care, as 
lothing is more offensive than a want of 
cleanliness in this organ. It should be 
rinsed every morning, after dinner, and the 
last thing at night, witii cold water. This 
frequent washing of the mouth is necessary 
because small particles of food settle about 
the interstices of the teeth, and if not re- 
moved will affect the breath, and gradually 
affect the teeth. The tongue ought no less 
to be clfc.insed every morning, either with 
a small piece of whale bone or v/ith a leaf 
of sage, wliich last is also useful for polish- 
ing the teeth. To clean the throat it should 
be gurgled v<i\i\\ cold water, and more or 
less of the same swallowed every morning 
fasting. 



Purity of the Breath. 

Purity of breath is an advantage that can- 
not be too highly prized, as the want of it 
is the most unfortunate circumstance that 
can befall beauty, and is alone sufficient to 
annihilate in an instant the most perfect 
and ot.iervvise inviting charms. 

A f i'lid breath mav be the consequence 
of vaii-ms causes. When it proceeds from 
a disf'.iscd state of the lungs,— riding on 
horse Lack, fresh air, and the use of gar- 
gle^ ('myrrh, or of the infusion of oak bark, 
with -^itoper attention to the state of the 
bovvelo, ii; j palliate the affection, and ulti- 
mately remove it. if not too deeply seated. 

1( it "^.i.-,,' froiii causes which derange the 
digestive organs, the ca\ises may be re 



THE TOUNG lady's MANUAIr. 



moved by proper medicines before the effect 
can cease ; but cleanliness, and attention to 
the state of the mouth and teeth, morning 
and night, will assist to remove the incon- 
venience. Tonic gargles, charcoal, and 
Peruvian bark, or myrrh, for a tooth povi^- 
<ler ; chewing occasionally a little mastic 
will be useful. 

Bad breath is frequently the consequence 
of repeated watching, or excessive fatigue, 
immoderate pleasures, or amusements.— 
When it proceeds from an incurable evil, 
ihe person so alTccted is reduced to the sad 
necessity of removing ihe smell by others 
of a different kind . For this purpose cashoo 
is recommended, to which, as it combines 
with many other odoriferous subs'tances, 
any sceni may be given that is preferred. 

There are many forms prescribed for 
using it; we select the following : — 

Take gumlragacanth and cashoo, enough 
of each to make a ball about the size of a fil- 
bert ; scent it with Cologne water, oil ber- 
gamot, ambergris, or any other agreeable 
perfume. 

Keep one of these in your moBth, on oc- 
casion, or you may chew occasionally a bit 
of the root of Florentine iris, or gum mas- 
tic ; or wash the mouth frequently, as al- 
ready observed, with the tincture of myrrh : 
or, at night going to bed, chew a piece of 
the myrrh, about the size of a small nut ; 
or every night and morni.'ig, a clove ; or a 
piece of burnt alrm, about the size of a 
small bean ; but attention to the state of 
the bowels, is an indispensable requisite 
where the breatii is tainted from whatever 
cause, and all other remedies without this 
will be useless. 

Tlie teeth and gums. 

Cleanliness of the teeth is to the eye 
what purity of the breath is to the sense of 
smelling. Nothing, indeed, is more pleas- 
ing than clean white teeth, and gums of 
the colour of the rose ; nothing more dis- 
agreeable than dirty black teeth, thickly 
encrusted with tartar, a sight alone suf!i- 
eient to excite disgust : the most beautiful 
fllce and vermillion lips being repulsive, if 
the latter, when open, exhibit the horrible 
spectacle of neglected teeth. 

The teeth ai^ liable to lose their wliite- 
ness by the influence of various causes— for 
instance, they became encrusted with tar- 
tarous matter, and are tarnished either by 
the actions of certain elements.- or by the 
exnalations of the stomach. When the 
loss of whiteneES is occasioned by the pro- 
duction of tarto.r, a coral stick may be used 
to clean the teeth, and to remove the tar- 
^rous salt The blackness of the teeth 



may be corrected by the following process : 
pulverize equal parts of tartar and salt, and 
having washed your teeth fasting, rub 
them with this powder. 

The preservation of the teeth depends 
not only on the particular pains necessary 
to be taken with thern, but also on the 
regimen best adapted to health. The 
teeth do not long continue sound with bad 
digestion, with unwholesome food, with a 
stomach which but imperfectly discharges 
its functions, and with vitiated digestive 
juices. All these causes may contribute to 
the decay of the teeth, and the bad state of 
the gums. 

The gums cannot be healthy unless they 
are firm and red, and adhere to the roots of 
the teeth. These qualilies depend in a 
great measure on the state of the health. 

The gums are liable ta a variety of acci- 
dents which impair both their health and 
beauty, and which often transform them 
into objects most disgusting to the eye'. 
Sometimes they grow soft, swell, and ap- 
pear full of livid and corrupted blood — at 
others they project, and cover great part of 
the teeth : they also become inflamed and 
painful, and covered with offensive and 
maiignaint ulcers. 

When disease of the gums proceeds from 
i-nternal causes, these must be first attacked 
with adequate remedies : in this case re- 
course must be had to medical advice ; we 
shall only here, therefore, consider such 
cases for which local applications are suffi- 
cient. 

Tincture for the Teeth and Gums. 

Take Peruvian bark coarsely powdered 
one ounce, and infuse it for a fortnight in 
half a pint of brandy. 

Gargle the mouth morning and night; 
with a teaspoonful of this tincture, diluted 
with an equal qiiantity of rose water. 

Mixture for Caries, or Rotten Teeth. 

Make a balsam with a sufficient quantity 
of honey, two scrup'es of myrrh in fine 
powder, a scruple of gum juniper, and ten- 
grains of rock alum. A portion to be ap- 
plied frequently to the decayed teeth. 

A. Coral Stick for the Teeth 
Make a stiff paste with tootl powder 
and a sufficient quantity of mucilage oJ 
gum tragacanth : form with this paste 
cylindrical rollers, the thickness of a large 
goose-quill, and about three inches in 
length. 

The way to use this stick is to rub iJ 
against the teeth, which becomes cleaner 
in proportion as it washes. 



THK YOUNO LADT'S MANUAL 



71 



Dog-wood for the Teeth. 
A small twig of dog-wood is of great 
service in cleansing the teeth. It may be 
used instead of a tooth-brushy and is parti- 
cularly serviceable in cleansing between the 
teeth without injuring the enamel. A silk 
thread, well waxed, will also effectually 
remove the tartar from between the teeth. 

To Clean the Teeth and Gums. 
Take an ounce of myrrh in fine powder : 
two spoonsful of the best white honey, and 
a little green sage in a very fine powder. 
Mix them well together, and wet the teeth 
and gums with a little every night and 
morning. 

Allot her Prescription. 
Take pumice »ione, and cuttle-fish bone, 
of each half an ounce ; vitriolated tartar, 
and mastic, of each a drachm ; oil of rho- 
dium, four drops. Mix all into a fine 
powder. 



Obs 

Charcoal alone stands pre-eminent m 
the rank of dentifrices. From tiie property 
it possesses of destroying the colouring 
particles, it has been turned to a good pur- 
pose as a tooth powder for whitening the 
teeth : as it attacks only the colouring 
matter of the teeth, it does no injury to the 
enamel. It possesses besides the property 
of opposing putrefaction, of checking its 
progress, and even causing it to retrograde ; 
hence it is calculated to destroy the vices 
of the gvms, to clean them and to correct 
the fojtor which may accumulate in the 
mouth and among the teeth ; in these two 
respects, powdered charcoal is the tooth- 
powder, par excellence, and is accordingly 
recommended by many eminent physicians 
and chemists. It may occasionally be used 
either with myrrh, Peruvian bark, cream 
of tartar, or chalk. 



THE LIPS, 



The lips are liable to excoriation and! 
chaps,— which often extend to considerable 
depth. These chaps are generally occa- 
sioned by mere cold ; the following salves 
will be found efiicacious in. correcting these 
evils. 

(1.) Lip Salve. 

Take oil of almonds three ounces ; sper- 
maceti one ounce ; virgin rice half an 
ounce. Melt these together over a slow 
fire, mixing with them a little powder of 
alkanet root to colour it. Keep stirring 



till cold, and then add a few drops of the 
oil of rhodium ; or, 

(2.) Take oil of almonds, spermaceti, 
white wax, and white sugar candv, equal 
parts. These form a good v/hite lip salve ; 
or, 

(3.) Take oil of almonds two ounces, 
white wax and spermaceti, of each one 
drachm ; melt, and while warm add rose 
water two ounces, and orange flower water 
half an ounce. These make Hudson's oold 
cream, a very excellent article. 



THE HANDS AND ARMS 



A fine hand is always pleasing, and next 
to the charms of a beautiful face, a w'oman 
has an undoubted right to be proud of a 
fine, delif -itely tapered hand, and a sym- 
metrica, and elegantly rounded arm. A 
handsome head maybe appended to a very 
ordinary body, or an ug-jy head may detract 
fi*oni the elegance of a v,-el!-shapen body; 
but a fine liand and arm scarc^lv ever ac- 
::ompany any than an otherwise perfect 
person, and are an unerring symbol of 
gentility or nobleness of birth and charac- 
ter 



To improve the Skin of (he Hands ana 
Arms. 

Take tv.'O ounces of Venice soap, and 
dissolve it in two ounces of lemon juice. 
Add one ounce of the oil of bitter almonds, 
and a like quantity of the oil of tartar. 
Mix the whole and stir it well till it has 
acquired the consistence of soap ; and use 
it a^ .'=.U(.'h for the hands. 

Tho paste of sweet almonds, which con- 
tains an oil fit for keeping the skin soft and 
elastic, and removing indurations, may be 
beni'iri-ijly applied to the hands and arms. 

Tb )acst common accidents to which 



72 



THE TOUNO lady's MANUAL. 



the hands are liable, are chaps, chilblains, [ a yellow colour, which it would be in vain 
and warls. The perspiration of the hands i to attempt to correct by external applica 
is also at times very troublesome, especial- j tion. 

1)'^ to such as are employed in works which I There are sometimes white specks upon 

require gieat cleanliness. the nails, called gifts. These may be 

^, ' removed by the following preparaiiou : 

^^* I Melt equal parts of pitcli and turpentine 

Are usually the result of co,d, and I in a small vessel : add to it vinegar and 

though not so serious as chilblams, of i powder sulphur. Apply this mixture to 

which we shall treat hereafter, are very the nails, and the spots will soon disappear. 

detrimental to delicate hands. They leave Pitch and myrrh melted togetner may lie 



the true skin, which is acutely sensible, 
bare, raw, and sore ; and thus cause irri- \ 
tation and inflammation. This may alike I 
occur from summer's heat as the cold of] 
winter : and equally attack the lips, face, 
hajnds, or any other part exposed to head I 
or cold. 1 



used with equal success. 

Chilblains 

Generally attack the hands and feet ; but 
are cured by the same means, on whatever 
part tli'iy may appear. 

When the tingling and itching are first 



For the cure of chapped hands take j fy]t (a sure sign'of "chilblains,) The parts, 



three drachms of bole ammoniac, three 
drachms of myrrh, and a drachm of white 
lead. Incorporate these with a sufficient 



hands or feet, ought to be bathed in cold 
water, or rubbed with snow, till the sensa- 
tion subsides, then well dried ; or the fol- 



quantity of goose-grease ; and with this i ]owino- preventive embrocation may be 

anoint the parts affected ; and wear worsted I sed, thouirh the first method is unques 
gloves; or, " ^ 

(2.) Take myrrh one ounce ; litharge 
one diachm ; honey four ounces; v>-ax, yel- 
low, two ounces; oil of roses six ounces. 
Mix the whole in one well-blended mass 
for use. 

"When the hands are chapped avoid put- 
tin a- them in water. To whiten the hands 



tionably the best. Take spirits of turpen 
tine one ounce, balsam of copaivi one ounce 
Mix them together, and rub the afflicted 
parts two or three times a day wath a per 
tion of it. 

Mr. Wardrop's Chilblain Embrocation, 

Take tincture of cantharides twr 



and preserve them from being chapped, | drachms ; soap liniment one and a halt 
rub them with a tallow candle before re- "" - . - _ . 

tiring, and wear a pair of gloves through 
the night. 

To remove Stains from the Hands. 
Ink-stains, dye-stains, fruit-stains, &c., 
can be immediately removed, by dipping 
the fingers in water (warm water is best) 

and then rubbing on the stain a small por- , ^^^_j ^^^^^ ^^ ^,^g 1,^,^^^ ^^ ^^^^ ^^^ 

tion of oxahc acul powder and cream of I ^jpi^^tely to wet or cold : or as before 



ounces. Mix, and rub the affected parts 
therewith. 

Warm spirits of rosemary, or spirits ot 
camphor, are useful at the first appearance 
of chilblains. Those who are most liable 
to chilblains, should on the approach of 
winter cover the parts most subject to be 
affected with woollen gloves or stockings, 



observed, to a considerable degree of heat. 



Hints to Ladies. 



tartar, mixed together in equal quantities, 
and kept in a box. When the stain disap- 
pears, wash the hands with fine soap or 
almond cream. A small box of this stain- ' 
powder should be kept always in the wash- 

stand drawej ; unless there are small chil- ] g^^j^ ^^ ^j^^^l^ ^^ ^^^^ ^ g,- 

dren in the family, in which case it should ^^^ ^^ ^^^^j^^. ^,^^.^,^ ^^ ^,^j ^^.^^ ^j^^ 
be put out of their reach, as it is poison if ^j^*; >^f ^^^^.^ ^^^-^^ ^^,^-^^^ -^ ^1^^, ^^^^ ^^.ji^^.^ 
swallowed. i ^j^^y ^^^^^ wear out, in oider to lessen the 
The Nails. friction of the carpets against the boards 
To give a fine colour to the nails, the beneath. The strips should be within an 
hands and fingers must be well lathered inch or two as long as the carpet is wide, 
and washed in scented soap ; then the nails and about four or five inches in breadth, so 
should be rubbed with e(ii:al parts of cinna- as to lie a distance from each stair. This 
bar and emery, and afterwards with oil of simple plan, so easy o" execution, will, we 
hitter almonds. When the bad colour of know, preserve a stair carpet half as long 
the nails is occasioned by some internal again as it would last without the strips of 
evil, the cause must be first attacked. In paper. 
i&andice, for instance, the nails become of' 



I 



THI invalid's manual. 



73 



THE INVALID'S MANUAL 



HOW TO CURE DYSPEPSIA, OR THE ART OF ATTAINING AND 
PRESERVING HIGH HEALTH. 



It is an acknowledged fact that there are \ 
fewer individuals in the constant enjoyment | 
of robust health in this country, according 
to its population, than among any other ' 
people. The want of a proper physical I 
education and an intense application to 
business, are among the most obvious caus- 
es for this phenomenon. I 

Having been for a considerable part of | 
m^ life an invalid, I have made the art of | 
regaining and preserving health a subject j 
of the most careful and elaborate study, and ' 
I am firmly of the opinion that almost every ' 
individual not absolutely broken down has I 
it completely within his power to compass , 
this attainment. ! 

As I have now established in my own mind | 
a complete system or code of principles re- 
lative to the preservation of health, I pro- 
pose in this, and the succeeding numbers 
of the " Manual," to give such an exposi- 
tion of the subject as I am entirely confident 
contains the true secret of reaching this 
object, and of curing all those maladies 
now so prevalent, that are usually spoken 
of as dyspepsia, liver complaint, nervous- 
ness, hypochondria, &c. 

Of late years there has been a multitude 
of theories and systems put forth for the 
cure of this class of complaints ; one (Hal- 
stead) says kneed the stomach ; another 
(Graham) prescribes the use of bran bread 
;is indispensable ; a third (Banning) has a 
sort of lace which he says performs wonders, 
and so on. Now I do not wish to say that 
these systems are all perfectly false, on the 
contrary, I believe all of them contain more 
or less truth, but their propagators being 
men of narrow minds, and moreover, being 
actuated by selfish motives, push their views 
to the most absurd limits. The poor in- 
valid who has, mayhap, tried medicines of 
all sorts, when he takes up one of them as 
a last resource, and does not find the relief 
iC has been promised, very naturally arrives 
at the conclusion, that in his case, systems 
of diet or regimen have as little efficacy 
B8 prescriptions of medicine. But in this 

e is in error, for there can be no question 
n the mind of any one who has given much 
reflection to this subject, that no permanent 
cure can be made for this class of diseases 
except in and by a proper course of diet and 
regimen. A cure in such cases depends 
upon a few plain principles strictly follow- 



ed ; these I shall now proceed to lay down 
in the order of their importance, with the 
cautionary remark, that 1 hope no one who 
takes up some one of them for a few weeks 
and does not get well, will thereby conclude 
that it is of no avail. No ; the invalid, if 
he would regain his health, must put in 
practice all the means requisite for that 
purpose, and pursue them rigorously and 
systematically. 

I now proceed to give what I shall term 

THE FIRST FUNDAMENTAI, PRINCIPLE IN THE 
ART OF PRESERVING AND ATTAINING HIGH 

HEALTH, which is 

To give the S/cin a thorough cleaning, at 
least as often as once in every twenty- 
four hours. 

How to do it. — It is of little use, I have 
found, to tell a person to do a thing to 
which he is not accustomed, without you 
at the same time, give him some ready and 
easy method by which he may do it ; I shall, 
therefore, here give a means by which 
every one may indulge in that greatest of 
all luxuries, as well as an essential means 
of preserving health — a cold bath — as often 
as he chooses. First then, get four yards 
of cotton cloth of about one yard in width, 
cut it in two in the middle and sew the 
pieces together lengthwise, sew also round 
the edges a piece of rope of at least half an 
inch in diameter, then take it to a painter, 
and get him to put upon it two or three 
coats of paint to make it thoroughly water 
proof. You will then have a bathing mat^ 
elevated at the edges and two yards square, 
which is large enough to enable the most 
careless to make use of in the nicest bed 
room, without leaving any slops upon the 
pet. When you are travelling it can and 
should be taken withyou,so that whenever 
you can get a pitcher of water, you will 
have the means of taking a bath. N.B. A 
mat made of India rubber will answer the 
same purpose, but is not quite so cheap. 

Now, for the bath. Spread your mat 
nicely on the carpet, before and under your 
washstand, the last thing you do before go- 
ing to bed, so that it will collect every drop 
of water. Have in your room, or what is 
better, have brought to you, from six to 
twelve quarts of the purest and coolest wa- 
ter you can get, pour it into the wash- 
bowl, then commence by dipping the face 



74 



THE IKVALID's MAN0AI. 



into it, then wet the neck, back part of the 
head, amis and hands, then with the palms 
of the hands, or with a sponge, if you like 
it better, throw it all over your person as 
quickly as possible. Be careful to have a 
good quantity run down in front and upon 
the spine ; in fact, give every part of your 
person a rapid but thorough wetting ; then 
wipe rapidlvwith a coarse towel, and after- 
wards apply the flesh-brush (one with a 
long handle is the best) until you produce 
a healtliful glow throughout the system 
Well, your bath is completed, and you feel 
at least a hundred percent, better than you 
would have done if you had not have taken 
it. The only thing now that remains to 
do, is to take up your mat by the four cor- 
ners, and empty it into a slop-pail, and 
your room is in as perfect order as if you 
had not attempted this formidable operation. 

I wish I could impress upon my readers, 
not what I think of the value of this pro- 
cess, for that would be impossible— but 
what I know they will think of it after 
they have prcatised it for a few weeks. 
To the weakly and sedentary it will add 
ten fold to the charms of existence, and 
will at once give them a better appetite, 
an easier digestion, and a bolder energy, 
and it will be a greater beautifier of the 
.complexion than all the cosmetics sold in 
Broadway. 

There are many people, so irrational are 
the habits of society, tiiat will be frighten- 
ed at the idea of making use of cold water 
in this way. Oh dear I I should take my 
death of cold, says some pretty miss, 



whose skin probably has never had a per- 
fect ablution for years, and as a necessary 
consequence, is thoroughly clogged with 
impurities, and thus deprived of its most 
essential attributes as a secreting organ. 
Now we must try and convince such that a 
cold bath taken daily is not only perfectly 
safe, but is a positive luxur}^. Ijet all 
such as labour under this form of hydro- 
phobia commence gradually by wetting at 
iirst only the arms, neck, &c., the next 
morning make a still further application, 
and so on, till they shall have obtained 
sufHcient courage to take a full bath, but 
be careful to use the flesh brush, or coarse 
towel, or what ia better than either, per- 
haps, hair gloves to produce a healthy 
glow in the system ; or, if they like it 
better, they can commence with water 
made slightly tepid, and every succeeding 
morning use water more and more cold, till 
they shall be able to make use of the cold- 
est iced water. 

A few cautionary remarks respecting this 
method of using cold water will not be oul 
of place. The good or bad effects of a 
bath are always immediately apparent ; you 
feel them at once, if at all. If one is in 
feeble health, he must be cautious and not 
overdo the matter. Then a very little 
water slowly applied is the best ; if in firm 
vigorous health, a common shower bath is 
far better than the one we have prescribed, 
as it will give a greater shock to the sys- 
tem and will cause a more powerful re- 
action. 



ON DIET 



Few persons of delicate health are aware 
how much their sufferings might be alle- 
viated bv adopting a light diet. This 
applies more especially to such as are at all 
troubled with indigestion or any of its con- 
comitants ; to such, a light nutritious food 
that will sit easy upon the stomach is in- 
dispensable if they would enjoy any com- 
fort. 

We give below receipts for a few arti- 
cles of diet which we would strongly urge 
upon the attention of those who are at all 
troubled with indigestion. They will find 
from their adoption the most surprising re- 
lief. Literary men that are compelled to 
exercise their minds much and their bodies 
little ; females who are much confined 
within doors ; and indeed all who lead a 



sedentary life, will find the prescriptions 

below of the greatest service. 

Invalids when they find it necessary to 
commence a dictic reform usually begin by 
making a selection from their ordinary ar- 
ticles of food, but I believe the dishes pre- 
scribed below will be found far more 
beneficial than any thing in ordinary use 
Many people will wish probably, for a 
greater variety, but if they eat for gaining 
strength and not for the mere pleasure o' 
gustatory enjoyment, they will find these 
few articles with a little Graham bread (no 
butter) will be far more beneficial than the 
most varied diet. I have lived upon them 
for months with great satisfaction, and 
soon lost all relish for other kinds of food : 
however, what will su't one person will 



THE IHTALID's MANUAL, 



'75 



not always suit another, and I, therefore, 
leave every one to judge for himself. I 
shall hereafter take up ihe subject of diet 
in the series of articles " How to Cure 
Dyspepsia," &c., and give it a thorough 
discussion. 

The first receipt which follovi's for mak- 
ing what the Irish term flimmery, or pud- 
ding made out of oat meal starch, is per- 
fectly light, very nutritious, and at the 
same time laxative. Until one gets accus- 
tomed to it, it is not so palatable as some 
other dishes, but with syrup or molasses or 
good milk it soon becomes agreeable. In 
Great Britain, where oat meal is more 
common than in this country, it is univer- 
sally prescribed for invalids, particularly 
those of consumptive habits, and not for 
invalids alone, but many persons compara- 
tively hearty wall find great advantage in 
adopting it as an article of daily diet. 
Their minds will be clearer, their bodies 
more active, and spirits freer. It is made 
in this wise : 

(1.) To make oat meal starch pudding. 
Take, say, two quarts of oat meal and 
pour into it sufficient pure cold water to 
well cover it, let it stand about two days, 
then strain it through a sieve or cloth into 
^ a clean vessel. To make sure that you 
•' get all the substance out of the meal, after 
the first water is drained off, pour on it 
more water and rub it well. Let the water 
stand till well settled, then pour off the 
top, and p.t the bottom will be found the 
starch. To make this perfectly pure and 
white, after you have turned oil the first 
water, pour in on top of the starch a little 
more pure water, and after it has swelled, 
pour it off as before ; this operation may 
be repeated till the starch becomes perfect- 
ly fine and white. It is then fit for cook- 
ing. This is done simply by putting a 
few spoonsful into a saucepan with fresh 
water and a little salt. It will be done 
with about four minutes boiling. 

(2.) To make fotatoe starch fudding . 

Take two or three spoonsful of potatoe 
starch, mix it in half a pint of milk, beat 
into it two eggs, then pour all into a sauce- 
pan containing half a pint of boiling milk a 
little salted, let it boil two or three minutes, 
(stirring it well all the time,) as otherwise 
the eggs will get overdone and become 
hard and indigestible. Eat with sugar or 
molasses. 

Mr. Fowler, the well known phrenolo- 
gist, says in one of his publications, this is 
the best article of diet he has ever found, 
and he has been a dyspeptic for twenty 
rears I think every one who gives it a 



fair trial will agree with him, nothing can 
be more easily digested, whi.e with the 
eggs it is very nutritious, and is at the 
same time very palatable ; it may be added, 
also, that it is very cheap, for the whole 
expense of a good meal from it need no* 
exceed six or eight cents. 

N. B. As many weak stomachs will find 
two eggs at a meal, more than they can 
master, I would recommend that if they 
eat of this dish three tmies a day, as many 
invalids should, that at breakfast it be 
made with but one ego;^ at dinner with 
two, and for supper with but the yolk of 
one. or without any. 

The only objection that can possibly bo 
urged against this article is that it has a 
tendency to constipate the bowels. In thai 
case I would recommend the injection 
prescribed on page 14, or what will be 
preferred by some, the reinedies for consti- 
pation prescribed by the llomceopathic prac- 
titioners. I do not endorse all the theories 
of tliis sect, but I have found their reme- 
dies for constipation very beneficial. 

Potatoe starch is to be obtained at the 
groceries, being sold by them as Boston 
arrow root. As many people, however, 
prefer to make it themselves, I add a 
method of doing it. 

(3.) To make potatoe starch. 
Take a quantity of good mealy potatoes 
and after having them nicely peeled and 
washed, grate them on a fine grater, (if 
the grater is too coarse, much of the virtue 
of the potatoe will be wasted,) pour into 
the pulpy mass enough pure cold water to 
cover it a few inches, after it has well 
settled, strain the whole through a sieve or 
cloth into a convenient vessel, pour into the 
sieve fresh washings of water and squeeze 
the potatoes well, so to be sure you get all 
the nutriment out of them, let the water 
stand for a short time and then pour off; 
there will be found at the bottom a quanti- 
ty of starch. To render it quite pure and 
nice more fresh water should be poured 
into it, and after having settled, again 
poured off. This may be repeated a second 
and even a third time to the improvement 
of the starch. 

(4.) To make buckwheat pudding. 
This is also a very light, agreeable pud- 
ding, and at the same time decidedly laxa- 
tive. Take half a pint of buckwheat flon', 
mix it with cold milk and eggs, if the sto- 
mach will bear them, add a little salt, and boil 
in cold water two or three minutes. This 
pudding made of Indian meal is, by many, 
preferred to the buckwheat, but is not so 
laxative as when made of buckwheat. If 



76 



THE invalid's MANUAL. 



made of wheat flour it is decidedly consti- 
pating. 

(5.) To make flour caudle. 
Into five spoonsful of the purest water, 
rub smooth one dessertspoonful of fine flour. 
Set over the fire five table spoonsful of 
new milk, and put two bits of sugar into 
it : the moment it boils pour into it the 
flour and water, and stir it over a slow fire 



twenty minutes. It is a nounshiR* and 
gentle astringent food, particularly foe 
babies who have weak bowels. 

(6.) To make milk porridge. 
Make a fine gruel of cracked corn, grits, 
or oat meal, long boiled ; strain off, eithei 
add cold or warm milk, as may be approv 
ed. Serve with toast. 



HINTS ON THE USE AND CHOICE OF SPECTACLES. 



Most persons begin to feel the necessity 
for some assistance to their eyes in reading 
and working after the age of thirty-five ; 
though even the commencement and pro- 
gress of the deterioration of the eyes vary 
according to the degree of health the in- 
dividual has enjoyed, their original forma- 
tion, the use that has been made of them, 
&c.; so that some persons have as much 
occasion for spectacles at twenty -five as 
others liave at fifty ; and others, on the 
contrary, have as good sight at fifty as they 
had at twenty-five. Still, the average time 
at which glasses are needed for reading, 
may be said to be from thirty-five to forty- 
five. After this latter period of life, the 
power of adjustment possessed by the eye 
in youth fails ; and those who continue to 
pefcei\e distant objects, clearly, arc unable 
to see plainly those which are near ; and 
the man who can read the smallest print 
nnfatigaed without glasses, cannot distin- 
guish anything distinctly at the distance of 
ten yards. 

Among the many vulgar errors that are 
daily injuring those who clierie>h them, few 
Have done more injury to eyes than the 
notion that all persons of the same age re- 
quire glasses of the same focus. Nothing 
can be more absurd ; as well miglit the 
same remedies be ajjplied indiscriminately 
to all diseases, provided the ages of the 
sufferers but tally !* 

The most general, and probably the best 
direclion which can be given to those who 
/eel that glasses are necessary to ei:.ible 
them to u.se their eyes with comfort to 

*"Tlic piopt-r selection of glassRs for imperfect vision 
is a point of uiucli deeper importance tli:ui is jfonorMlly 
relieved. An oculist who is ac(pj;iinteil only vvitti llic 
'lisenses of the liunian eye. witliout posses.sina; any 
knowledge of it as an optical instrument, is often led 
professional!;- to recommend ^'lasses when they oii','ht 
not to be used, and to fi;i on focal lenjrth.s entirely unfit 
foi the purpose to wliicli they are applied; and the 
mere vendor of lenses and spectacles is still more fre 
qucntiy in the haUit of |)rotferins his dcloterioas couu- 
iel." — Brewster on SpcciacUs. 



themselves, and advantage to their occn- 
pation, whatever that may be, is to make 
choice of such as represent objects nearest 
to their natural state ; for, to be exactly 
suitable to the eye, spectacles ought neither 
to magnify nor minify, but should enable 
us to read or work without creating any 
straining or unnatural exercise of the pupil. 

The great design of spectacles is to give 
the eyes of the wearer ease ; and although 
this is also attended by increased power of 
application, yet no glasses can be said to be 
properly accommodated to the sight of the 
individual, which do not, with additional 
capability, also procure rest and comfort to 
the eyes. If they weary them, we may 
conclude, either that we have no occasion 
for any, or that those we have are improper 
for us, or defectively made. 

Glasses are of two kinds — convex and con- 
cave. Convex glasses are for the use ol 
those who have what is commonly call- 
ed an old or long sight, and are una'ble to 
read or see small objects near them ; con- 
cave glasses are for the use of those who 
are short-sighted, to enable them to see dis- 
tinctly objects at the same distance at which 
they were able to perceive them before 
they became short-sighted.* 

'• If the humours of the eye, through age 
or weakness, have shrunk or decayed, the 

* "When the eye (says Dr. Younj) is possessed of 
too i^rcat refractive power for the distinct peiccption 
of distant ohjccts, the pupil is generally large, so that 
the confusion of the image is somewhat lessened l>y 
partially closing the eyelids; and from this habit an 
eye so formed is called myopic. In such cases, by tlin 
hel|) of a concave lens, the divergence of the rays of 
li.?ht may be increased, and a virtual ima?e maybe 
formed, at a distance, so much smaller than that of the 
object as to afiford perfect visi(ni. For a long-siijhted 
or jiresbyopic eye, on the contrary, a convex lens is 
required, in order to obtain a virtual image at a greater 
distance timn the object; and it often happens that 
the rays must be made not only to diverge less than 
before, but even to converge towards a focus behind 
such an eye, in order to make its vision distinct. Pres- 
byopic persons have in general a small pupil, and 
thftreforj seldom aciiuiro the habit of ocvcring am 
part of it v^ith tlieir eyelids, ' 



TJC invalid's manual. 



cornea will then be too flat, and the rays 
not being sufficiently bent or retracted, 
arrive at the retina before they are united 
ill a focus, and would meet, if not inter- 
cepted, in some place behind it. They, 
therefore, (unless influenced by artificial 
means,) do not make an impression suffi- 
ciently correct and forcible, but form an in- 
distinct picture on the bottom of the eye, 
and exhibit the object in a confused and im- 
perfect manner. This defect of the eye is 
therefore remedied by a double-convex lens, 
Buch as the common spectacle-glasses, 
which, by causing the rays to converge soon- 
er than they otherwise would, afford that aid 
to this defect of nature which the circum- 
stances of the case may require, the cop vex- 
ity of the glass being always proportioned 
to the deficiency in vision. 

If, on the contrary, the cornea is too con- 
vex, the rays will unite in a focus before 
their arrival at the retina, and the image 
will also be indistinct. This defect is re- 
medied by concave glasses, which cause the 
rays to diverge; and consequently, bybeing 
properly adapted to the case, will enable the 
eye to form the image in its proper place. 

By the aid of convex glasses of thirty- 
six or thirty inches' focus, persons, whose 
sight is beginning to be unequal to read 
small print, or to work without fatiguing or 
paining their eyes, will be enabled to do 
either ; and, if properly chosen, by the ease 
and comfort they affi^rd, will tend material- 
ly to preserve the sight : hence their name 
o^ prcse}-i-ers, which, however, is a term as 
applicable to all the various gradations of 
glasses. The length of time that will 
elapse before it may be necessary to change 
these first spectacles must depend upon the 
same circumstances which I have mention- 
ed as creating the necessity for using them 
at all. However, it may be said that they 
will commonly serve for reading in the day- 
time about six or seven years. 

As soon as the eye begins to do little 
better with the glasses used than without 
them, it is time to change them for more 
powerful magnifiers, and the second sight, 
or thirty inches' focus, are necessary ; 
though these should not be too hastily 
adopted by those who wish to preserve 
their sight unimpaired to old age ; but they 
should be content to use them as sparingly 
as possible — only when unavoidable. Many 
have worn out their sight prematurely by 
using spectacles of too great a magnifying 
power, or of improper materials and faulty 
workmanship, to which their eyes have 
Boon become accustomed ; but they speedi- 
ly exhausted the resources of art, and, be- 
frjrf aeath, have become totally blind. 



I Those who are about to commence wear* 

j ing glasses, as they cannot know what will 
1 suit their eyes, will do well to borrow a 
I set of {glasses, consisting of spectacles of 
' regular gradations of power, and try at 
; home, for a few days, which suit them 
! best : they siiould make the experiment by 
j day-light and candle-light, in that posture 
! of the body in which they will be most 
1 used. 

' Almost all persons, on first wearing 
spectacles, if they keep them on a few 
hours, complain of fatigue and uneasy sen- 
sations in their eyes ; and this, even though 
they have been judiciously chosen, and 
when they were needful. Such weariness 
will be most felt by candle-light, and is 
caused, no doubt, by the eyes, for some 
time before resorting to glasses, having 
been tasked beyond their ability ; and not, as 
is commonly supposed, by the artificial light, 
though that, probably, contributes to it. 

Those whoae avocations or amusements 
render the assistance of magnifiers neces- 
sary, ought to bear in mind, that the lower 
the degree of magnifying power possessed 
by their glasses, the less the eye will be 
fatigued by them, the less constrained the 
position of the body in using them, and 
the larger, as well as more uniformly dis- 
tinct, the field of view embraced by them. 
Where only a moderate magnifying power 
is required, I would recommend, instead of 
a single magnifier, the use of spectacles of 
nine inches' focus, which will enable the 
eye to be directed to minute objects with- 
out weariness for a longer time than if an 
eye-glass only be used, as well as being Ot 
material benefit in preserving one of the 
eyes from becoming injured, by being con- 
stantly unemployed. 

The use of spectacles is every way pre- 
ferable for short-sighted persons to single 
eye-glasses ; a strong confirmation of the 
truth of which may be found in the fact 
that Mr. George Adams, a late highly ce- 
lebrated English optician, asserted that he 
did not recollect an instance of a short- 
sighted person who had occasion to increase 
the depth of his glasses, if he began with 
spectacles ; but, on the other hand, he 
knew many cases where only one eye had 
been used, in which the individuals had 
been obliged repeatedly to change theii 
glasses for concaves of higher power. In- 
deed, the advantage of a pair of spectacles 
over an eye-glass is very evident, from the 
circumstance that all objects are much 
brighter when seen with both eyes than 
when looked at wth one only. 



78 



THE YOUNG MAN'K hlAMUAL 



THE YOUNG MAN'S MANUAL 



My litde book in my humble opinion 
•contains a great deal of valuable informa- 
tion, but the three prescriptions which fol- 
low are worth infinitely more than all the 
rest. I strontrly commend them to the at- 
tention of every young man into whose 
hands this book may fall. 

(I.) Upon getting a loife. 

Young man ! if you have arrived at the 
right point in life for it, let every other con- 
sideration give way to that of getting mar- 
ried. Don't think of doing any thing else. 
Keep poking about among the rubbish of 
the world till you have stirred up a gem 

orth having in the shape of i. wife. Ne- 
ver think of delaying the matter ; for you 
know that delays are dangerous. A good 
wife is the most constant and faithful com- 
panion you can possibly have by vur side, 
while performing the journey of lite — a dog 
isn't a touch to her. She is of more ser- 
vice, too, than you may at first imagine. 
She can " smooth your linen and your 
eares" far you — mend your trousers, and 
perchance your manners — sweeten your 
sour moments as well as your tea and cof- 
fee for you — ruffle, perhaps, your shirt bo- 
som, but not your temper ; and, instead of) 
Bowing the seeds of sorrow in your path, I 
she will sew buttons on your shirts, and I 
plant happiness instead of harrow teeth in ] 
your bosom. Yes — and if you are too con- i 
'bundedly lazy or too proud to do such j 
cvork yourself, she will chop wood, and dig ' 
potatoes for dinner : for her love for her : 
husband is such that she will do anything j 
to please him — except receive company in , 
her every day clothes. j 

When a woman loves, she loves with a 
aouble-distilled devotedness ; and when she 
h.ates, she hates on the high pressure prin- 
jiiple. Her love is as deep as the ocean, as I 
a hempen halter, and as immutable as the i 
rock of ages. She won't change it, except j 
It is in a very strong fit of jealousy, and 
even then it lingers, as if loath to part, like 
evening twilights at the windows of the I 
west. Get married by all means. All the ! 
excuses you can fish up against ' doing the 
deed' ain't worth a spoonful of pigeon's 
milk. Mark this — if blest with health and 
employment, you are not able to support a 
wife, depend upon it you are not capable of 
supporting yourself. — Therefore, so mucli 
more the need of annexation ; for, in union, 
as well as an onion, there is strength. Get 
married, I repeat, young man ! Concen- 
trate your affections upon one object, and 



'not distribute them crumb by crumb, amoiu^ 
a host of Susans, Sarahs, Marys, Loranas, 
Olives, Elizas, Augustas, Betsies, Peggies, 
and Dorothies — allowing each scarcely 
enough to nibble at. Get married, and 
have somebody to cheer you as you journey 
through this " lowly vale of tears" — some- 
body to scour up your whole life, and what- 
ever linen you possess, in some sort of Sun 
day-go-to meeting order. 

Young woman, I need not tell you to 
look out for your husband, for I know that 
you are fixing contrivances to catch one, 
and are as naturally on the watch as a cat 
is for a mouse. But one word in your ear, 
if you please. Don't bait your hook with 
an artificial fly of beauty : if you do, 
the chances are ten to one that you will 
catch a gudgeon — some silly fool of a fish 
that isn't worth his weight in saw-dust. — 
Array the inner lady with the beautiful gar- 
ments of virtue, modesty, truth, morality, 
and unsophisticated love ; and you will dis- 
pose of yourself quicker, and to much bet- 
ter advantage than you would if you dis- 
played all the gew-gaws, flippejigs, fol-de- 
rols, and fiddle-de-dees in the universe. 
Remember that it is an awful thing to live 
and die a self-manufactured old maid. 

My hearers — get married while you are 
young : and then when the frosts of age 
shall fall and wither the flowers of affection, 
the leaves of connubial love will still be 
green, and, perchance, a joyous offspring 
will surround and grace the parent tree, 
like ivy twining and adorning the time- 
scathed oak. 

(2.) Upon Choosing a Wife. 
Young men, a word in your ear, when 
you choose a wife. Don't be fascinated 
with a dashing creature, fond of society, 
vain, artistical, and showy in dress. You 
do not want a doll or a coquet for a part- 
ner. Choose rather one of those retiring, 
modest, sensible girls, who have learnt to 
deny themselves and possess some decided 
character. But above all seek for a good 
disposition. No trait of character is inore 
valuable in a female than the possession of 
a sweet temper. Homo can never be made 
happy without it. It is like the flowers 
that sprinff up in the pathway, reviving 
and cheering us. Let a man go home ai 
night, wearied and worn by the toils of the 
day, how soothing is a word dictated by a 
good disposition ! It is sunshine falling on 
his heart. He is happy and the cares of 
life are forgotten 



THE YOUNG MANS MANUAL. 



79 



(3.) How to Treat a Wife. 
First get a wife — secondly be patient. 
You may have great trials and perplexities 
in your business with the world ; but do 
not therefore carry to your home a clouded 
cr contracted brow. Your wife may have 
had trials, which though of less magni- 
tude, may have been as hard to bear. A 
kind, consoling, and tender look, will do 
wonders in cliasing from her brow all 
clouds of gloom. You encounter your 
difficulties in the open air, fanned by 
heaven's cool breezes, but your wife is 
often shut up from these healthful in- 
rluences, and her health fails, and her 
spirits lose their elasticity. But oh ! bear 
with her ; she has trials and sorrows to 
which you are a stranger, but which your 
tenderness can deprive of all their anguish. 
Notice kindly her little attentions and 
efforts to promote your comfort. Do not 
take them all as a matter of course, and pass 



them by ; at the same time being very sura 
to notice any omission of what you may 
consider her duty to you. Do not treat 
her with indifference, if you would not seai 
and palsy her iieart, which, watered by 
kindness, would to the latest day of your 
existence throb with sincere and constant 
affection. 

Sometimes yield your W'ishes to hers. 
She has preferences as strong as vou, and 
perhaps just as trying to her to yield her 
choice as to you. Do you find it hard to 
yield sometimes? Think you it is not hard 
for her to give up always'? If you never 
yield to her wishes, there is danger that she 
will think you are selfish, and care only for 
yourself, and with such failings she cannot 
love you as she ought. Again, show your- 
self manly, so that your wife can look up 
to you, and feel that you will act nobly, and 
that she can confide in your judgment. 



HINTS ON ETIQUETTE. 



(1.) In all your associations keep con- 
stantly in view the adage, " too much free- 
dom breeds contempt." 

(2.) Never be guilty of practical jokes: 
if you accustom yourself to them, it is 
probable you will become so habituated as 
to commit them upon persons who will not 
allow of such liberties : I have known a 
duel to arise from a slap on the back. 

(3.) If there be another chair in the 
room, do not offer a lady that from which 
vou have just risen. 

(4.) Always suspect the advances of any 
person who may wish for your acquaint- 
ance, and who has had no introduction : 
circumstances may qualify this remark, but, 
as a general principle, acquaintances made 
in a public room or place of amusement 
are not desirable. 

(5.) Never converse while a person is 
singing ; it is an insult not only to the 
singer, but to the company. 

(6.) The essential part of good breeding 
is the practical desire to afford pleasure, 
and to avoid giving pain. Any man pos- 
sessing this desire requires only opportuni- 
ty and observation to make him a gentle- 
man. 

(7.) Always take off your hat when 
handing a lady to her carriage, or the box 
of a theatre, or a public room. 

(8.) If in a public promenade you pass 
lid Te-pass persons of your acquaintance, 



it is only necessary to salute them on the 
first occasion. 

(9.) Do not affect singularity of dress by 

wearing anything that is so conspicuous as 

to demand attention ; and particularly avoid 

what I believe I must call the ruffian style. 

(10.) Never lose your temper at cards, 

I and particularly avoid the exhibition of 

anxiety or of vexation at want of success. 

If you are playing whist, not only keep 

(your temper, but hold your tongue; any 

I intimation to your partner is decidedly un- 

I gentlemanly. 

! (11.) Let presents to a lady be charac- 
i terised by taste — not remarkable for intrin- 
j sic value. 

j (12.) Except under very decided circum 
I stances, it is both ungentlemanly and dan- 
gerous to cut a person : if you wish to rid 
yourself of any one's society, a cold bow 
in the street, and particular ceremony in 
the circles of your mutual acquaintance, is 
the best mode of conduct to adopt. 

(13.) Never introduce your own affairs 
for the amusement of a company ; it shows 
a sad want of mental cultivation, or exces- 
sive weakness of intellect: recollect also 
that such a discussion cannot be interesting 
to others, and that the probability is that 
the most patient listener is a complete 
gossip, laying the foundation for some tale 
to make you appear ridiculous. 



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