(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Faiths of man; a cyclopædia of religions"

Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 



•; I . . V »:l' ♦ \ , 



e 



FAITHS OF MAN 



A CYCLOPEDIA OF RELIGIONS 



BY 



MAJOR-GENERAL J. G. R. FORLONG 

M.R.A.S., F.R.G.S., F.R.S.E., M.A.I., A.I.C.E., F.R.H.S. 

AUTHOlt OF "RIVBR8 OF LIPK " 

AND 

"SHOBT STUDIES IN THE SCIEMCE OF COMPARATIVE RSLI0I0X8 " 






• • • 



PUBLISHED BY HIS EXECUTORS 



• -• 



•*•* ••••• 



• • • %• • • • 

,• ■ • ♦ • 

• •• •• • ■ • 



• •• • # 



• • • • • 



IN THREE VOLUMES 



Vol. II. — E to 



■ •• • • 



• •••• 






«« •• • 



• tf 



• • •• 



• : ••• 



• « « « 



•• • • « 






• • • 



> w <; w 



LONDON 



c ' • •" 



BEKNARD QUARITCH. 15 PICCADILLY* * 

1906 

{All right! reaerved) 




• • • 



PBIKTBD BT 

TDSNBULL AXD SPKARS. 

BDIHBDBOR 



• 



% • •• I 



• • • • I 

• • ■ • 

• • • • I 

• • « • ' 



• • • •• 

• • • 

%• • 
% • • 

• • • 

• • ••• 



• • • • • 

• • • • • 

• ••• • 

•••• 

• •• •• 

• • • 



• • • • • 



• • •• • 

• • • • ■ 



• •• • • 

• • • 

• • 

• • % • • 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • 

• • • • • 



• • • • • 



10396 2 



• • • • 

• • • b 



• • ■• 



<> » » 

» * • » 



- fc • • 

» b W • 4r 



SUBJECT INDEX 

This Index will enable the reader to see at a glance the headings under 
which to look for information, on any subject which he may wish more 
particularly to study. 

Animals 

(Vol. I) See. Aino, Animal-worship, Apis, Apophis, Ass (see Onolatria) 
Basilisk, Bear (see Ursus), Bee, Beetle, Behemoth, Bestiaries, Birds, Boar, 
Butterfly, Calf, Cat, Cobra, Cock, Cow, Crab, Cuckoo, Dog, Dove, Dragons : 
(Vol. II) Eagle, Eel, Elephant, Fish, Fox (see Japan), Frog, Gkiruda, Goats, 
Goose, Hansa, Hare, Harpy, Hat€, Hawk, Heifer, Hippos, Horse, Ibis, 
Eachcha-pa, Kerberos, Kingfisher, Kira, Leviathan, Lion, Lukos (Lupus), 
Magpie, Minotaur, Mnevis, Munin, Mus (mouse), Mygale : (Vol. Ill) 
Naga, Nahash, Nandi, Nightingale, Onolatria, Owl, Parrot, Peacock, Peleia, 
Pehcan, Phoinix, Picus, Quail, Ram, Kaven, Eiksha, Bohits, Sada, Sam-pati, 
Sand, SaramS, Sasa, Serpents, Shesha, Simurgh, SkoU, Stork, Swallows, 
Taons, Taurus, Turtle, Unicom, UrsBus, Ursus, Yahana, Yfirsha, Yartika, 
Vistash-pati, Wagtail, Weasel (see Cat), Worm, Wren. 

(Yol. I) See. Antony, Arah&t, Bftiragi, Bhikshu, Buddha, Chela, 
Christianity, Conversion, Cynics, Dervishes : (Yol. II) Essenes, Gurus : 
(Vol. Ill) Rahan, Tirthankara, Wahhabis, Yati, Yoga, Zikr. 

Astronomy 

(Yol. I) See. Aquarius, Aries, Budha, Crab, Day, Dhanus : (Yol. II) 
Eras, Falguna, Friday, Oemini, Geology, Gor, HeliadSs, Hijirah, Ejetli-yuga, 
Kalpa, Kanopos, Rarabos, Karkas, Eartika, Krittika, Kroda, Libra, Makara, 
May, Mexico, Month, Muharram: (Yol. Ill) Nurth, Phosphor, Ramadfin, 
Rohina, Samvata, Sar, Scorpio, Sothik cycle. Star, Sun, Sunday, Sveta, 
Thalgs, UttarSyana, Yikram, Week, Year, Zodiak. 

Books 

(Yol. I) See. Acts, Apokaluptik, Apokrupha, Apokruphal gospels, Athftr- 
va Yeda, Avasta, Baman Yasht, Bhilgavad-gita, Bible, Bidpai, Br&hmanas, 
Buddharcharita, Bundahish, Canticles, Chronicles, Clement of Rome, Dabist&n, 
Des&tir, Deuteronomy, Dhammapada, Dharraa-Sastra, Didachd, Dinkard^ 



vi Subject Index 

Dipa-vansa : (Vol II) flcclesiastes, Eddas, Enoch, Esther, Exodus, £zekiel, 
Ezra, O&tha, Gemara, Genesis, Gospels, Gi^nth, Haggada, Hebrews (Epistle), 
Hitopadesa, Isaiah, James, Jasher, Jatakas, Jeremiah, Job, John, Jonah, 
Joshua, Jude, Judges, Lalita-Yistara, Libraries, Luke, Maha-bharata, Maha 
vansa, Mainyo-i-kard, Manak-meya, Mantra, Manu-shastra, Mark, Massorah, 
Matthew^ Midrash, Mishnah, Mormons, Muhammad (Koran) : (Vol. Ill) 
Pancha-tantra, Pentateuch, Peshito, Peter (epistle, gospel), Prajna-paramita, 
Proverbs, Psalms, Psalms of Solomon, Pur&nas, Kaghu-vansa, Ramayana, 
R&ti, Bevelation, Rig-Veda, Saga, Samuel, Satapatha, Septuagint, Shah- 
namah, Sutra, Talmud, Tantras, Tao-ti-king, Targum, Testament, Tibet, 
Toldoth-Jesu, Tri-pitaka, Upanishad, Upa-Vedas, Vedas, Vendidad, Wisdom 
of Solomon, Yajur- Veda, Yasna, Yasts, Zachariah, Zoroaster (Zend-Avesta). 

Buildings 

(Vol. I) See. Agni-mundalum, Agora, Anuradha-pur, Architecture, 
Bamoth, Boro-Budur, Briddha-kala, Chaitya, Chaurten, Cholula, Church, 
Dsgoba, Dipadan, Dolmen : (Vol. II) Fidh, Gya, Hospitals, Ka'aba, Kalil, 
Kranog, Kromlech, Madhneh, Manda, Mazar, Minaret, Mithra, Mukam : 
(Vol. Ill) Nakon-vat, Naos, Nuraghes, Pagoda, Prutaneion, Kam-isvara, 
Synagogues, Tabernacles, Tombs. 

(Countries 
(Vol. I) See. Abyssinia, Africa, Albion, Anam, Arabia, Aram, Armenia, 
As&m, Asia, Assyria, Babylon, Bahrein, Baktria, Barmah, Borneo, Britain, 
Ceylon, China, Delos, Dhrita-rashtra : (Vol. II) Eg3rpt, Elam, Fiji, Gand^lra, 
Georgia, Gilbert Island, Hadramaut, Hawaii, Hebrides (New), India, Ionia, 
Ireland, Italy, Japan, Kaldea, Kaledonia, Kalinga, Kamaon, Kana'an, 
Kappadokia, Kaptor (Caphtor), Kardunias, Kaukasia, Kerala, Korea, 
Koromandel, Krete, Kuntala, Kupros, Lesbos, Lud (Lydia), Lukia (Lycia), 
Magadha, Magan, Mexico, Midiau, Melukha, Moab: (Vol. Ill) 'Om^n, 
Ophir, Palestine, Panjab, Peru, Phrygia, Polynesia, Punt, Rhodes, Russia, 
Sardinia, Siam, Sumer, Sunda Islands, Suvama, Syria, Tahiti, Ta-tsin, Tibet, 
Trakia (Thrace), Union Islands, Uz, Yaman, Yukataii. 

Festivai^ 
(Vol. I) See. Agonia, Argei, Assimiption, Bakr, Bel-tein, Candlemass, 
Carnival, Christmas, Corpus Christi, Dipa-vali, Dola-yatri : (Vol. II) Easter, 
Eleusis, Eleutheria, Epiphany, Feralia, Floralia, Haj, Hallow-even, Harvest, 
Hogmanay, Holi, Lamb-mass, Lent, Liberalia, Lupercalia: (Vol. Ill) 
Passover, Pentecost, Perumal, Pongal, Punya, Purim, Sabbath, Shrove-tide, 
Siva-Ratri, Whiteday (Whitsunday), Yule. 

Images 
(Vol. I) See. Bambino, Christmas, Colors, Cross, Doll: (Vol. II) 
Faith, Hajr el Aswad, KSmardhenu, Krom-kruach: (Vol. Ill) Teraphim, 
Tirthankara. 



Subject Index vii 

GrODS 

(Vol I) See. Abu, Achara, Adar, Adhi-Buddha, Aditi, Adon, ^sar, Af , 
Ag, Agdos, Agenor, Agu, Ahriman, AhOra, Ai, Air, Akad, Akar, Akheloos, 
Alakh, Alah, Amba, Amen, Ames, Amidas, Amset, Amt, Anahita, Ananta, 
Anapurna, Anar, Anhur, Anita, Anouki, Anubis, Anunit, Aparna, Apet, 
Aphrodite, Apollo, Ares, Arjuna, Arkat6, Armaiti, Armakhos, Artemis, 
Aruna, Aser (Assnr), Askl^pios, Ason, Asoros, 'Astar, Asura, Asvins, 
Atargatis, Ate, Aten-Ra, Athene, Athor, Attus, Avalokit-isvara, Ayanar, 
Ba'al, Ba'al-Peor, Ba'al-Zebub, Baau, Badari, Baidya-Nath, Bakkhos (Bacchus), 
Bala-rama, Baldur, Bas (Bes, Bast, Pasht), Bath-kol, Baze, Benapa, Bertha, 
Beruth, Bhairava, Bish, Brahm, Brahma, Brihas-pati, Bura-penu, Buts, Ceres, 
Chandra, Chiun, Cupid, Cyb6l6, Dag, Dagon, Dahana, Daikoku, Daj-bog, 
Daksha, Daktuloi, Damkina, Damodara, Danae, Danawas, Dani-devara, 
Dasaratha, Davata, Derketo, Dh&t, Dhater, Diana, Dis, Diti, Dodol, Durga, 
Dyaus: (Vol. II) Ea, Earth, Ekashtaka, El, Elagabalus, Eleos, Elicius, 
Elohim, 'Elion, Enzuna, Eos, Erinues, Ens, Eros, Evuna, Fatsmu, Fear, 
Feronia, Fors-Fortuna, Frey, Freyr, Freya, Frig, Fro, Fufluns, Gad, Ganesa, 
Gauri, Gefion, Giri, Glam, Gluskap, Gdpa, Govinda, Grain, Gritta (Grydat), 
Gugga, Guha, Guller, Habal, Hadad, Haldis, Hari, Harmakhis, Harpakrut, 
Haubas, Heb€, Hekate, Helene, Helios, Henir, Hgphaistos, HSra, Heraktes, 
Hermes, Hertha, Hesi, Hestia, Het, Hindi, Hiuke, H'nos, Hod, Holda, Honix, 
HoDover, Hor, Huacas, Huitzilo, Hurakan, lal, lao, Ida, les, Ifa, Ignis, Ila, 
Ilmaka, Im, Indra, Indrani, Ino, lo, lord, Irkalla, Isis, Istar, Istio, Isvana, 
Jagarn&th, Janus, Jata, Jehovah, Jingo, Jupiter, Kabeiroi, Kali, Kalisto 
(Callisto), Kalki, Kama, Kamilla, Kamillus, Kandi, Kane, Kapalin, Kartika, 
Kasyapa, Kauman, Ked, Kekt, KemOsh, Ken, Keres&sp, Ketket, Khalisah, 
Kharis, Khem, Kheper-ra, Khonsu, Kinuras, Kiun, Kla, Kneph, Knuphis, 
Konsus, Kos, Kotus, Kouretes, Krishna, Kritanta, Kronos, Ku, Kua, Kubete, 
Kuetzal-koatl, Kulal, Kula-devas, Kulmu, Kumara, Kumbha-karna, Kunti, 
Kur, Kuvera, Kwan-yin, Lada, Lagamar, Lakhmu, Lakshmi, Lalan, Lar, Las 
(Laz), Lethem, Lodur, Loki, Lono, Losna, Lucina, Ma, Madava, Madhava, 
Madia, Mahlnieva, Maha-at, Mah-endra, Maha-esha, Mah3reshvara, Mahi, 
Mahila^ Maia, Malak, Manaf, Manasa, Mania, Manko-Kapak, Mara, 
Marduk, M&ri, Mari, Mars, Martu, Maruts, Mary, Mat (Maut), Mau, 
Matuta, Mean, Menat, Mentu, Mercury, Merti, Metis, Minerva, Mini, 
Mithra, Mlakukh, Moon, Mritya, Mulge, Mulida, Munthukh, Murutas: 
(Vol. ID) Nahab, Naila, Nakarah, Namtar, Nana, Nanar, Narada, Nagatai, 
Nathu-rSm, Nature, Nebo, Nefr-aten, Neith, Nejamesha, Nephthys, Neptune, 
Xereus, Nergal, Neri, Nerthus, Night, Nik, Nile, Niord, Nirba, Nisroch, 
Nubti, Nutar, Nyang, Oannes, Odin, Oegir, Oitosuros, Okeanos, Okro, Oler, 
Omito, On, Onouris, Orthia, Os, Osiris, Ouranos, Ouri, Pacha -kamak, 
Pakshin, Paku, Pales, Palin, Pallas, Pan, Pandia, Panth, Papa, Param^tma, 
Param-Isvara, Paran, Parasu-r&ma, ParSvati, Parcae, Parjanya, Parvata, 
Parana, Payzone, Pele, Penates, Persephon6, Pertunda, Phan6s, Phlea, 
Poseiddn, Pothos, Praja-pati, Pramzimas, PrSna, Priapos, Pritha, Pro- 



viii Subject Index 

makhos, Ptah, Pundarik-aksha, Purari, Purikh, Purudamsa, Pushan, Pushpa, 
Ra, Rsdha, Raivata, Kanan, Rayavant, Remphan, Rhea, Rimmon, Rinder, 
Rongo, Rua, Rudra, Runga, Sabaoth, Sakra, Saman, Samas, Sands, Sancus, 
Sandan, Sanja, Sankara, Sankin, Sanku, SarSsvati, Sarbanda, Satarnipa, 
Saturn, Sauni, Sava, Savatri, Seb, Sebek, Seben, Sekhet, SelSne, Selk, 
Serapis, Set, Shu, Sige, Silik-mulu-khi, Silenus, Simigiz, Sin, Sipna, Sitala, 
Siva, Skrat, Sky, Son (Shon€), Sopt, Soramus, Spurke, Suko, Sut, Syama, 
Syn, Tahiti, Tammuz, Tanaoa, TanS, Tanen, Tangaloa, Tanith, T&ra, Taramis, 
Tarku, Tartak, Tasm'etu, Tefnut, Tengri, Teo (Ti), Teo-yami-que, Tepeyeotli, 
Tethus (Thetis), Teut, Tez-katli-poka, Themis, Thor, Thoth, Titans, Tlalok, 
Toeris, Toia, Toma-tink, Trita, Triton, Tuisko, Turn, Tvashtri, Typhon, 
Tyr, Udar, Ugra, Uko, Uller, Urania, Usil, Vach, Vaidya-nath, Varuna, 
Vasishtha, Vayu, Vena, Venus, Vertumnus, Vesta, Vetal, Vira-bhadra, Vira- 
kocha, Vishnu, Visva-deva, Visva-krit (Visva-karma), Visv-6svara, Viteres, 
Vivasvat, VoUa, Vrik-dara, Yama, Yarai, Y'auk, Yeue, Zalmoxis, Zeus, 
Zir'a-banitu, Zima. 

Language 

(Vol. I) See. A, Ab, Ad, Ain, Ak, Aka, Alarodian, Am, An, Ap, Ar, 
Aral, Aryans, Asak, Asma, At, Atua, Ba, Bar, Basar, Bel, Bhabra-lat, 
Bhadra, Bhaga, Bhas, Bhur, Bor, Brim, Bu, Bud, Bukabu, China, Da, 
Dad, Dagal, Dar, Daughter, Deva, Dharma, Dhu, Dil, Dimir (Dingir), 
Dravidians: (Vol. II) Er-gal, Eskimo, Etruskans, Ey, Faidth, Fal, Fallah, 
Finns, Fo, Fu, Ga, Gab, Gabar, Gal, Gam, Gan, Gandha, Ganta, Grar, Garbh, 
Gard, Garj, Gas, Gau, Ge, Ge-beleizes, Geis, Ghata, Giaur, Gipsies, Girdh, 
Gled, Gt>ld, Ghora, Griha, Gud, Gul, Hakm, Han, Haug, Hel, Helde, Her, 
Hindi, Holy, Hotra, Htir, I, In, Indriya, Indu, Iravata, Islam, Israel, Isvara, 
Itu, Ivashstri, Ja, Jan, J&ti, Jews, Jin, Jiv, Jiya, Ka, Kab, K&fir, Kala, K&la, 
Kam, Kandara, Kandasa, Kantha, Kanya, Kar, Karas, Kas, Katso, Kelde, 
Kha, Khoda, Khrio, Khu, Ki, King, Kirana, Kitu, Kit-tu, Kratu, Krish, 
Ku, Kuli, Kund, Kup, Kut, La, Lad (Lud), Languages, Law, Leach, Liod, 
Lu, Lucus, Luk, Luna, Ma, Mag, Mah (Mas), Maitri, Mala, Malabar, Mam, 
Man, Maol, Mar, Mari, Massebah, Me, Medha, Mehtar, M€ne, Meni, Mer, 
Mera, Muk: (Vol. Ill) Na, Nab, Nag, Nagar, Nala, Naos, Nara, Nara, 
Naraka, Nef, Nesos (Nusos), Nin, Numphe, Pa, Pad, Pahlavi, Paiya, Pai5n, 
Paighamber, Paka, Pakh, Pal, Palakis, Pali, Pan, Pandu, Par, Paradise, 
Patesi, Pati, Pen, Pharaoh, Pis, Prabhava, Prakrit, Pra-moda, Pu, Pur, 
Pushtu, Put, Python, Quirites, Rabb, Raga, Raham, Ramh, Ramya, Ki, 
Riki, Ru, Ruakh, Ruh, Rum, Rupa, Sa, Sak, Sal, Salim, Samal, Sam-Buddha, 
Sami, Samudra, Samvarta, San, Sanskrit, Sar, Saracen, Sarira, Sarvaga, Sas, 
Sastra, Sat, Satan, Satva, Sed, Seka, Selah, Set, Shaddai, Shekina, Shem, 
Shu, Sil, Silver, Simha, Slesha, Smriti, Sri, Sruti, Stamba, Stana, Su, Suchi, 
Sula, SOr, Svadhfi, Sviti, Ta, Tal, Tarn, Tan, Tap, Taphos, Tar, Tarkhan, 
Tat, Theos, Ti, Tol, Tu, Turanians, Ua, Ud, Uma, Un, Unu, Ur, Us, 



Subject Index ix 

VaisSkha, Vakea, Van, YSna, Varna, Varvarika, Vas, Vata, Vik, Vir, Vrata, 
Vrish, Yidish, Zarvan-Akarana, Zogo. 

Legends and Superstitions 

(Vol. 1} See. Aalu, Abram, Adam, Africa, Ahi, Amenti, Amphiarios, 
Amshashpands, Andromeda, Apsaras, Apt, Ardhanar, Aricia, Arthur, 
Asmodeufl, Asva-ghosha, Atalanta, Atlas, Baubo, Begelmir, Bellerophon, 
Bhima, Bhishma, Boar, Brimir, Buns, Buto, DaimOn, Darvands, Deuce, 
Devil, Druids, Drupada, Duma, Duryodhana: (Vol. II) Ea-bani, Elektra, 
Elijah, Elves, Endumi6n, Enoch, Eon, Er, Erekhtheus, Erikhthonios, Esau, 
Etana, Europe, Eve, Faflun, Farid, Fervers, Fetish, Fin, Floods, Fravashis, 
Gabriel, Oandharvas, GanumedSs, Garha-patya, GarQda, Genesis, Gilgamas, 
Glastonbury, Govan, Gdpa, Gorgons, Grail, Graphiel, Greeks, HSg, Haidas, 
Hand, Haris-chandra, Harpy, Hasan and Hosein, Hasis-adra, Hawaii, Helen€, 
Helenos, HellS, Heos, Hesperides, Houris, Ijhdaha, Ilos, Incubi, Israfil, Ixion, 
Janaka, Jason, Jemshid, Jerusalem, Jin, John, Jonah, Joseph, Ka, Kachins, 
Kadmos, Kadru, K&han, Kain, Kakos (Cacus), Kalil, Kftliya, Kardama, 
Kama, Kentaur, Ker-neter, KerQb, Khairon, KheirOn, Kinnaras, Kissaros, 
Korubantes, Kox-kox, Laburinthos, Lakshmana, Lamia, Lamech, Lilith, 
Logos, Lukaios, Luka6n, Lukastos, Luke, Mahdi, Maitra-varuna, Maitreya, 
Makka, Manasarawar, Mani, Mao, Maricha, Mas, Maya, Memnon, Meru, 
Meshio, Mimir, Minos, Misor, Mista, Moses, Muda, Munker and Nakir, 
Mythology : (Vol. Ill) Nag-arjuna, Nahusha, Nand, Nara-sinha, Nfit, Navajo, 
Nazareth, Neimhidh, Nephilim, Nemi, Nimrod, Nix, Noah, Numph3, Ob, 
Oidipous, Orpheus, Parasu, Paris, Peleus, Pelias, PersS, Perseus, Phoroneus, 
Phlegethon, Pigmy, Pisasha, Pitris, Pradyuma, Prahlada, Pramatha, Prokn$, 
Prokris, Prometheus, Psukhe, Puck, Pundarika, Pururavas, Piirusha, Push- 
kara, Pushti, Raghu, Bahu, Raji, Bakshasa, Rama, Rambha, Raphael, 
Rephaim, Romulus, Sadhya, Sagara, Sakuntalfi, Saleh, Sali-v&hana, Samael, 
Samba, Sambara, Sambhu, Samson, Sanjna, Saranyu, Sargina, SarpSdon, 
Sarva, Sem$l€, Semiramis, Seraphim, Shfimir, Shatiyeh, Sidh, Sirens, Sita, 
Skanda, Sosiosh, Sraosha, Subhadra, Su-brfthmanya, Suki, Sukra, Suna-sepha, 
Su-pamas, Surasa, Surabhi, Suriel, Tages, Tamas, Tantalos, Tartaros, Tashtir, 
Telchines, Telephassa, Telephos, Tiamat, Tithdnos, Tituos, Tri-lochan, Urana, 
Uriel, Urvasi, Usha, Vfidava, V&mana, Vanth, Vesantara, Vibhandaka, 
Vichitra-virya, Vira-vara, Visva-Mitra, Vohu-mano, Volta, Vritra, Wandus, 
Wejas, Witch, Yakshas, Yas6dha, Yatus, Yayati, Yazatas, Yima, Yimr, 
Zarik, Zi, Zohftk, 

Persons 

(Vol. I) See. Aaron, Abel, Abram, Adam, ApoUonius of Tyana, 
Aristaios, Aristeas, Arius, Arthur, AsCka, Asva-ghosha, Athenagoras, 
Avicena, Badar-ayana, B&li, Basava, BerQni, Bharad-waja, Bhartri-Hari, 
Bhava-bhuti, Bokika, Buddha, Buddha-ghosha, Gelsus, Chaitanya, Christ, 
Chrysippus, Chuang-tze, Clement of Alexandria, Clement of Rome, Ctesias, 



X Subject Index 

Cyprian, CyrQ, Dadicha, Daityas, Daniel, Darwin, David, Dbrita, Diderot, 
Dido, Dilapa, Drona : (Vol. II) £lagabalus, Epaphas, Epimenides, Epiphanius, 
Efiop, Eusebius, Ezekiel, Ezra, Fa-hien, (Jondophares, Gotama, Gugga, Gupta, 
Gushtasp, Hammurabi, Harsha, Hasan, Hesiod, Hillel, Homer, Hume, Ibn- 
Batuta, Ignatius, Iksbvaku, Irenseus, Isaac, Isaiab, Jacob, James, Jarsrsandha, 
Jeremiab, Jerome, Jesus, Josepb, Josepbus, Justin Martyr, Kabir, Kadambas, 
Kain, K&U-dSsa, Kamban, Kanishka, Kbalifa, Kuras (Cyrus), Kushan, Lao- 
tze, Lokman, Lutber, Madbavacbarya, Mabft-nama, Mabarsena, Maba-vira, 
Mabina, Maimonides, Manes, Manetbo, Manu-skibar, Marcion, Megastbenes, 
Mencius, Menes, Moses, Moses of Kbor^ne, Mubammad: (Vol. Ill) Nsg- 
arjuna, NSga-sena, Nami, Narayana-svami, Nimi, Nimrod, Noab, Origen, 
Osman, Palladius, Panini, Pantainos, Papias, Patanjali, Paul, Pelagius, Peter, 
Pbilo, Pbilo of Byblos, Plato, Pliny, Plutarcb, Polycarp, Quirinus, Rabula, 
K&ma-nand, Kama-nuja, Sankar-acbarya, Sargina, Saul, Solomon, Subanda, 
Suetonius, Symmacbus, Tacitus, Tamo, Tatbagata, Tatian, Terab, Tertullian, 
Tbeodotion, Tiru-valluvar, Vallabba-acbarya, Vyasa, Wixi-pekocba, Yajna- 
valkya, Yaska. 

Philosophy 

(Vol. I) See. Adam-Kadmon, Advaita, Agnostiks, Akademy, Aristides, 
^Vristippos, Atbeism, Atma, Ayin, Bala, Br^ma, Cbina, Clement of Alex- 
andria, Confucius, Conscience, Cynics, Darsana, Deatb, Demokritos, Design, 
, Dreams, Dvaita : (Vol. II) Empedokl6s, Epikouros, Etbiks, Faitb, Freewill, 
Geology, Gnostiks, God, Heaven, Hel (Hell), Henotbeism, Hypnotism, Im- 
mortality, Kabbala, Kamftrila, Kant, Kapila, Karma, Logos, Lucretius, 
Materialism, Mencius, Metempsycbosis, Metse, Mimansa, Mimra, Miracles, 
Monism, Morality: (Vol. Ill) Nature, Nirvfina, NySya, Pantbeism, Peri- 
patetiks, Plato, Plotinus, Porphureos, Positivism, Pra-dbana, Prajna, Prakriti, 
Pratyek-Buddba, Pbren, Pyrrbo, Pytbagoras, Religion, Sankya, San^akas, 
Secularists, Skeptiks, Slavery, Sokrates, Sopbists, Soul, Spinoza, Spirits, 
Stoiks, Sufi, Superstition, Theism, Tiru-valluvar, Vaise-sbika, Woman. 

Places 

(Vol. I) See. Abu, Adam's Peak, Afka, Agadbe, Ajanta, Amarua, 
Amrftvati, Anuradba-par, 'Arafat, Ararat, Argos, Aricia, Arvand, Asen, 
Ba'albek, Baku, Balkb, Banaras, Beni-Hasan, Bethel, Bethlehem, Cholula, 
Dalriada, Damavend, Delphi, Denderab, Deo-garh, Deval, Dodona, Dvipa: 
(Vol. II) Easter-Isle, 'Eden, Edessa, Ekbatana, Elburz, Elepbanta, Eleusis, 
Elora, Elvand, Endor, P]pidauro8, Erech, Euphrates, Galeed, Gaza, Gebal, 
Gezer, Gilgal, Glastonbury, Govandana, Gya, Hamath, Haran, Hastinapur, 
Hebron, Hima, Ida, Ilion, Indra-putra, Innisb-muir, Isernia, Jaga-isvar, 
Jerusalem, Jezreel, Kadesh, Kailasa, Kalab, Kalinda, Kalneh, Kama-rupa, 
Kanchin-janga, Kanchi-pQr, Kanoj, Kapilsrvastu, Karkemisb, Karli, Karmel, 
Karnak, Kausambi, Kunthos, Kusanagar, Kusko, Kutha, Lacbisb, Lhasa, 
Lob (Tell), Loka, Magan, Maba-bali-pur, Makka, Mari, Markand, Martan, 
Memphis, Mem, Miktlan, Moriah, Mukene, Muri (Murray): (Vol. Ill) 



Subject Index xl 

Nazareth, Nebo, Nineveh, Nipur, Nizir, Olives (Mt), Olumpos, Ombos, Omei, 
PagdOf Palatine, Palenque, Paphos, Pasargadse, Patali-putra, Persepolis, 
Philse, Potakara, Prayag, Rivers, Rome, Sais, Salsette, Samfila, Samaria, 
SamothrakS, Sanchi, Sar-nfith, Saron (Sharon), Shiloh,' Siloam, Sinai, Sindhu, 
Sippara, Soraktd, Sr&vasti, Sri-saila, Sukhada, Susa, Svarga, Tarshish, Thebes, 
Thinis, Tophet, Tripolis, Troy (see Trojans), Tyre, Ujjain, Uxmal, Vaikuntha, 
Vaisali, Van, Vi-jayarnagar, Vindhya, Walhalla, Yamuna, Zamzam, Zoan. 

Plants and Trees 

(Vol. I) See. Almond, Apple, Aricia, Ash, Asoka, Bean, Birch, Citron, 
Dudaim : (Vol. II) Eshel, Figs, Gonds, Grass, Groves, GyS, Hebron, 
Hyssop, Jambu, Kalpa-vriksha, K&ma-lata, Kusa, Lily, Manna, Mistletoe, 
Mula-vriksha : (Vol. Ill) Nalina, Nut, Oak, Olives, Onion, Orange, Padma, 
Palasa, Parijata, Pipal, Plantain, Rose, Rudrftksha, Rue, Sekina, Sindura, 
Skambha, Soma, Strawberry, Tala, Taru, Trees, Tulsi, Vriksh, Yggdrasil. 

Rages 

(Vol. I) See. Abors, Ad, Aghori, Ahirs, Aino, AithiopSs, Akad, Akaians, 
Allemanni, Amazons, Amorites, Amu, Anak, Andamans, Andhra, Anga, 
Ans&ri, Arabia, Arasas, Aryaman, Aryans, Asura, Australians, Azteks, 
Badagas, Badawi, Badumas, Bali, Bangas, Belgse, Bhars, Bhargas, Bhats, 
Bhils, Birhors, Borneo, Brahui, Brinjaris, Buts, Chalukyas, Chera, Chin, 
Chins, Cholas, Danai, Dangars, DSsa, Doman, Dr&vids ; (Vol. II) Eruthrea, 
Eskimo, Etru8kans,Fene, Fin, Finns, Gael, Garos, Grauls, Gipsies, Gonds, Goths, 
Greeks, Haidas, Haihayas, Ham, Hebrews, HellSn, Hindus, Huns, Hyksos, 
IberSs, Ilvas, Jftts, Jerahmeel, Kabyles, Kachins, Kafir, Kanjars, Kasdim, 
Kati, K&tis, Kelts, Khaldaioi, Khariyas, Kharvars, Khasis (Kosis), Kheta 
(Hittites), Khonds, Kimbri, Kols, Kopts, Koreish, Kosa, Kuehs, Kukis, 
Kulins, Kuinri, Kurks, Kurmis, Kurumbas, Kurus, Kus, Kus (Cush) Lapps, 
Libu, Ligues, Luzi, Madai (Medes), Malagasi, Malays, Mali, Manehus, 
Maoris, Mayas, Melanesia, MeropSs, Minas, Minyans, Mongols, Mons, Mros, 
Mans: (Vol. Ill) Nabatheans, Naga, Nairs, Navajo Indians, Neolithik, 
Oskans, Palavas, Palaeolithik, Pandus, Papuans, Parsis, Parthians, Pata- 
gonians, Pathrusim, Pelasgi, Persians, Phoinikians, Picts, Population, 
Pulayas, Pulusatu, Pundras, Purus, Rajputs, Rattas, Rodiyas, Sabeans, 
Sabines, Sabiria, Sakyas, Samoans, Sanars, Savars, Saxons, Scots, Serbi, 
Siberians, Sikani (Sikuloi), Silures, Skuths (Scythians), Slavs, Sontals, 
Tartar, Tellingas, Todas, Tongas, Tritsus, Trojans, Tuatha-Dedanan, 
Tunguse, Turanians, Turditani, Turks, Tyrrheni, Umbri, Vaggis, Veddahs, 
Voduns, Yadavas (Yadus), Yavana, Yezidis, Yorubas, Yourouks, Yu-chi, 
Zulus, Zu2im. 

Religions and Sects 

(Vol. I) See. Adamites, Akad, Animism, Arius, Armenia, Arya-Som&j, 
Asrama, Atonement, Azteks, Bfib, Babylon, Baigas, Bhrigus, Bon, Brahmo- 



xii Subject Index 

Somaj, Buddha, China, Christ, Church, ConversioDs, Creeds, Druids, 
Druses : (Vol. II) Ebionites, Egypt, Essenes, Etruskans, Eutycheans, Fetish, 
Free-masons, Ghebers, Gnostiks, Grosain, Greek-Church, GOru, Hinduism, 
Inspiration, Jacobites, Jains, Jangams, Japan, Justification, Eadesh, 
Kanaka-muni, Karaites, Karens, Kasi (Kassdtes), Kfisyapa, Khonds, Kiblali, 
Kil, Kraku-chandra, Kshatriya, Kukus, Kulins, L&mas, Levi, Linga-puja, 
Luther, Maha-atma, MahS-yana, Malagasi, Malays, Mamitu, Mandseans, 
Manes, Maoris, Marcion, Maronites, Maz&r, Mazbah, Mehtar, Melanesia, 
Mennonites, Messiah, Mexico, Mlechas, Moab, Monachism, Mongols, Mono- 
theism, Mormons, Muhammad : (Vol. Ill) Nabi, Naga, Nazarite, 
Nestorians, Nun, Pagan, Palaki, Pariahs, Parusva-n&t, PatalS^ Pharisees, 
Phongye, Phoinikians, Pontifex-Maximus, Population, Prayer, Prophets, 
Purgatory, Purohita, Quakers, Rechabites, Religion, Resurrection, Rita, 
Sabbath, Sabians, Sabellius, Sacraments, Sacrifice, Sadducees, Sakta, Salii, 
Samans, Samaria, SanySsi, Saoshyas, Sarospa, Shakers, Shi'ahs, Shinshu, 
Shin-to, Sibulla (Sibyl), Sikhs, Skoptsy, Sobotnikis, Spentarmainyus, 
Sraman, Sravak, Stundists, Sudra, Sunni, Tantras, Thera, Therapeutai, 
Trinities, Vaishnfiva, Yezidis, Zoroaster. 

RiTBs AND Customs 

(Vol. I) See. Ag (Agni), Agapse, Asva-medha, Australians, 'Azazel 
(scape goat). Baptism, Basivis, Boar, Circumcision, Couvade,- Dakshina, Danc- 
ing, Dasara, Dead, De-Suil, DevadSsis: (Vol. II) Eucharist^ Fire, Flamen, 
Haruspices, Homa, Mass : (Vol. Ill) Oaths, Om-kara, Pra-dakshina, Prayas, 
Sam-kalpam, Sati (Suttee), Spondists, Sraddha, Tabernacles, Tabu, Tawaf, 
Thargelion, Thing, Tirtha, Tlachto, Upa-nyana, Water, Wells, Whippings, 
Yaj. 

Saints 

(Vol. I) See. Agnes, Antony, Asitfi, Barlaam, Chrysostom, Columba, 
Cyprian, Cyril, Declan, Denys: (Vol. II) Faith, Faolan (Fillan), Foutin, 
George, Josaphat, Kosmas, Michael, Mungho : (Vol. Ill) Nicholas, Ninian, 
Olaf, Patrick, Peter, Swithin, Thomas, Ursel (Ursula), Yahyah. 

Symbols 

(Vol. I) See. Abraxas, Aigis, Ait, Akmdn, Altar, Ambrosia, 'Amud, 
Angula, Augusta, Ank (Ankh), Ankus, Ans&b, Apron, Arani, Argha, Arks, 
Arrows, Arthur (Table), Asyins, Balls, Bands, Banner, Beads, Bells, Bhuj, 
Bones, Bridges, Bulla, Buns, Candles, Cauldrons, Caves, Chakra, Chrisma, 
Colors, Comb, Crosses, Crowns, Cup, Dalada, Danda, Danta, Delta, Dhavja, 
Distaff, Door, Dor-je, Drums, Dust : (Vol. II) *Ed, Eggs, Ephod, Eye, Fan, 
Fascinum, Feathers, Fingers, Fleur-de-lis, Foot, Fylfot, Garter, Hair, 
Hammer, Hand, Harhut, Harp, Head, Heart, Horns, Idol, Jamdiya, Janivara, 
Kakud, Kam (Cairn), Kestos, Klachan, Klogha, Knots, Kteis, Kuris (Quiris), 
Kurumbas, Kut, Labarum, Labrus, Laksha, Li, Lingam, Mace, ' Mandara, 



Subject Index xiii 

May-poles, Mirror, Mountains, Muidhr: (Vol. Ill) Nails, Nama, Nimbus, 
Noose, Nudity, Obeliskoe, Om, Omphalos, Orkoe, Pad, Pakhad, Pftla 
(Phalloe), Pall, Palladium, Parusha, Pas, Pasent (Pshent), Pavaka, Pegasos, 
Pestle, Phulakteria, Pillars, Pinaka, Pind, Pita, Pitba-veda, Plough, 
Puramidos, Pyx, Rakab, Rat, Ring, Rod, Rood, Rosaries, Rudder, Salagrama, 
Salt, Sambba, Sambhuka, Samva, Sankha, Scapular, Sea, Shekel, Shells, 
Shields, Shoes, Sila-nargig, Simfi, Sisna, Sistrum, Spear, Sphinx, St^lS, Stole, 
Stones, Su-nanda, Sutrala, Svastika, Sword, Tail, Tak€, Tale, Talisman, 
Teeth, Teraphim, Thigh, Threshold, Thumb, Thummim, Thunder, Thursos, 
. Toe, Tonsure, Torii, Totems, Triangles, Trident, Triskelion, Trisul, Urim, 
Vajra, Vedi, Vesica-Piscis, Vestments, Wheels, Wings, Yoni, Zikr. 

Writing 

(Vol. I) See. A, Alphabets, Amama, Arabia, Asoka, Brahmi, C, China, 
Deva-nagari : (Vol. II) E, F, G, Gamma, Georgia, Gezer, Greeks, H, I, J, 
K, Kharoshthi, Krete, Kuneiform, Rupros, L, M, Mongols : (Vol. Ill) N, 
Nestorians, 0, Ogham, Orthography, P, Q, R, Rosetta Stone, S, T, Tau, Z. 



ERRATA, VOL. II. 

P. 42, line 16, for " son " read grandson. 
„ 387, „ 37, for "Deva-nagari'* read Deva-nagari. 



FAITHS OF MAN 



The Bnglish E represents various sounds in other languages, such as 
the long ay and short eh, and the Latin ob (Greek ai). In Arabic 
this vowel is not marked. Thus Mekka is Makka. 

Ea. Akkadian. The ocean god, adopted by Babylonians and 
Assyrians, and worshiped by Sennacherib on the Persian Qul£ [The 
word may mean only " spirit " (Turkish ee) or E-a " water spirit" — 
Ed.] His wife was Dam-ki-na, " lady of the earth/' and their child 
was the sun. The Akkadians also called him En-ki, " the lord of 
earth." The Armenian king Dusratta invokes Ea in the 15th 
century B.a when writing to Amenophis III. Like Osiris he was 
judge of the dead, who were led before him, by Tammuz and Istar, 
under the ocean. He was also Zi-kia (" spirit of earth "), and the 
Greek Oannes (see Dagon), " the great fish," half man, half fish, 
according to Berosus (compare Vishnu under Matsya). He thus 
combined the character of Pluto and PoseidCn, and was the wisest of 
gods* His emblems were the bull, the deer (Dara, which was one of 
his names as ''chief"), the ram's head, and the sea goat (Capricorn^ 
as shown on Eassite boundary stones. 

Ea-bani. A friendly minotaur who aided the Babylonian hero 
Gilgamas, and was slain by the gods (see Babylon). He is 
represented as a kind of bull-satyr, with bull's legs, horns, and 
tail. [The name is probably Akkadian, meaning ** Ea's spirit/' 
though usually regarded as Semitic for "Ea has made." — Ed.] 
Eabani was destroyed by a gad-fly, and his ghost came up from 
Hades to console his mourning comrade the sun hero (see further 
Gilgamas). 

Eagle« The Yahana, or vehicle, of Vishnu and many other 
8un and heaven gods (see Etana), suitably chosen by Christians also, 
to carry the Logos or Word of Life. It was the emblem of Zeus, 
bearing his thunderbolt, and that of Indra (the Yajra). It slept on 



2 Earth 

the sceptre of Zeus, and placed eggs in his lap, recovering his lost 
ring, and giving him his darts. It was carried on the standards of 
Imperial Home, denoting the sky spirit (see Hawk) and messenger of 
Jove (see Rivera of Life, i, p. 134, fig. .53). The eagle stole the 
garments of Aphrodite, in aid of Hermes (a dawn myth), and is 
connected with the griffin. The marvellous Saena bird of Zoroastrians 
symbolising wisdom, and the Persian Simurg (in the Bundahish) was 
" the ever blessed, glorious, and mighty bird whose wiugs dim the very 
sunbeams." As Garuda it is the power of Vishnu (often two-headed), 
and the destroyer of serpents. It is also the Arab Bukh (or the Boc), 
but Skandinavians and Franks, when Christians, regarded it as gloomy 
and demonifikcal. It has a long mythical history among Turanian 
Hittites, and other tribes from Central Asia, connected with owls, 
and Svastika crosses (see Acaxiemy, 18th August 1883). Christians 
replaced it in brazen beauty in their churches. [The double-headed 
eagle surmounts an Akkadian text at Tell Lob* It occurs as a 
Hittite sign at Boghaz Keui and Eyuk, in Asia Minor, with the 
Sphynz. It was the ensign of the Seljuk Turks, found in several 
cases in Armenia, and also the Oaruda bird on coins of the Arsacidse 
in Parthia. The Hittite double-headed eagle supports a pair of 
deities, and seems to be the emblem of Tammuz and Istar as the 
twins of day and night. — Ed.] 

Earth* The great mother godess (Damkina, B'elit, De-Met6r, GS, 
£ra, Terra, Bhsea, Hertha, Kubelg, or Parvati). In all ages she is 
the mother, nurse, and nourisher. In Egypt alone the earth is male 
(see Seb). The root er apparently means ** abode " (Sanskrit ira, 
Greek ira, Old German ero, Old Saxon ertha, Turkish ar, Hebrew 
ere^, Arabic ar<^ for " earth "). She was mother of gods and men, of 
whom heaven was the father (see China). 

" Endowed with fertile all destroying force, 
The all parent, bounding, whose prolific powers 
Produce a store of beauteous fruits and flowers. 
The all- various maid, the eternal world's strong base 
Immortal, bless^, crowned with every grace. 
From whose wide womb, as from an endless root 
Fruits many formed mature, and grateful shoot. 
All flowery daemon, centre of the world, 
Around thy orb the beauteous stars are hurled" 

The poetic Platonist (as rendered by Mr Thomas Taylor) also sings of 
Rhsea as earth. 



Easter 8 

^ Mother of gods great nurse of all, draw near 
Divinely honoured ; and regard my prayer. 
Throned on a car, by lions drawn along 
By bull-destroying lions swift and strong." 
"The earth is thine, and needy mortals share 
Their constant food from thy protecting care. 
From thee the sea and every river flows. 
From thee at first both gods and men arose." 

The prevailing idea of the ancients was that the earth was a pivot round 
which all revolved, and herself a large, living, gracious being. The 
earth godess Ma, in Asia Minor, rode or stood on a lion. She bad 
her right to a small secluded corner of the field, left untilled : though 
Kelts dedicated this to an earth demon (" the good man of the croft ") 
whom they feared to call a devil (see also the Corner of the Field, 
Levit xxiii, 22). The earth we now know is not the centre of the 
universe. It revolves on its axis with a surface speed of 1040 miles 
an hour, and in its orbit at 66,476 miles an hour ; and rushes with 
the rest of the solar system towards the constellation of Hercules. 

Easter* The season of the sun's ''easting," when it rises due 
east The date at which Easter should be kept was a bone of con- 
tention among Christians down to our 6th century* In 445 A.C. the 
Easters of Home and Alexandria differed by 18 days. St Ambrose 
of Milan says that, in the 4th century, the Gauls kept it on the 
21st March (the equinox), but the Italians on the 18th April; and 
there was a double Easter as late as 651 A.C. The Koman and Qreek 
Easters still differ like their Calendars (see Zodiak, and Rivera of 
Life, i, Table, p. 424). Grimm calls the Teutonic Eostre "the rising 
light: on her day (Bal-dag or 'sun's day') she opens heaven to 
Baldur." [The original Easter controversy was whether the feast 
should be held after the full moon, the crucifixion being on the 14tb 
of Nisan ; or whether the day of the Resurrection (Sunday) should 
be celebrated on the Lord's-day following the first full moon after the 
vernal equinox. — ^Ed.] In Europe many ancient rites not of Christian 
origin marked Easter (see Buns, and Eggs) ; and Brand (Antiq,, i, 
p. 145) says that "small breads were indiscriminately distributed, by 
being thrown from church steeples/' a custom surviving till quite 
recently at Paddington and Twickenham. In Somerset, according to 
its "Old Book" (see Notes and Queries, 18th January 1902), the 
ancient phallic rite of the clippan survived ; and " clipping, embrac- 
ing, kissing," with dances round the steeple of the parish church, are 
said to be still practised at Easter. Mr Elwortby says it was " a spring 
performance, in which both sexes took part . . . the essential part 



4 Easter Isle 

being the clipping," or worshipful dance round the tower. In the 
year 1883 the Christian Easter, the Hindu Holi, the ParsI Nao-roz, 
and the Jewish Passover, were all celebrated in India on the same 
day, which might have impressed on the masses the oneness of all 
religions. The Jews still offer eggs on the SMer night of the Passover, 
as '' emblems of immortality and speedy resurrection " ; and their 
" heaving " or " lifting ** rites (the wave-offering) take place at E^aster. 
A writer in Notes and Queries (3rd August 1883) describes the 
" liftings at Durham, a city famous for sundry suggestive maiden rites, 
water fStes, mustard, law, physics, and gospel" These include much 
play with shoes (see Foot) ; and on Easter Sunday this writer " saw 
over half a dozen young women thrown down, others held almost 
upside down till their boots were dragged off: these were not returned 
without a forfeit — not too seemly." On the next Tuesday the women 
seize the men's hats, and levy a forfeit, or ''accept some token of 
amity." At Church-Stretton in Shropshire (Notes and Queries, 
22nd September 1883), men force women into gaily decorated chairs 
on Easter Monday, and brush their feet with a bunch of box. In 
Staffordshire this was done on Tuesday in Easter week. In the 
cathedral town of Ripon, lads make a rush for the girls' feet at the 
end of the Easter service, and keep their shoebuckles till noon next 
day, unless a forfeit is paid. The women then do the same to the 
men, keeping their seizures till the Tuesday evening — a day when all 
wives should beat their husbands (see ** Flagellation," in the Index 
Prohibitorum of 1877), while on the next day husbands beat their 
wives. During this feast the sexes also steal the clothing of one 
another, and boys and girls sing, wave branches, and romp together, 
as at the Roman Terminalia and Floralia. 

The First Council of Nicea (325 A.C.) fixed Easter by the rule 
still observed, and so dissociated it from the Passover day. The 
Western date was revised in 1582 by Pope Gregory XIII (Gregorian 
calendar), but England only adopted the correction in 1752, and the 
Greek and Russian Churches retain the old incorrect Julian calendar. 

Easter Isle : otherwise Vaihu, or Davis' Isle : off the W. coast 
of S. America, a little N. of the latitude of New Zealand. It appears 
to have been a resting-place for races drifting from Polynesia to 
America. Fornander {Polynesia, i, p. 3) says that the massive 
masonry here found is like that of the Ladrones (near Formosa on the 
E. of China), and of neighbouring islands. Capt. Herendeen (Journal 
RL Oeogr. Socy., July 1885), describes similar "heavy masonry both 
above and below present sea level, in Ponape, a small islet of Micro- 



Easter Isle 6 

nesia (near the Ladronea) . . . and other ruins of temples, and forts^ 
built evidently by a superior prehistoric race." Similar structures are 
found in the islet of Kusaie, in the Eastern Caroline group (S. of the 
Ladrones), in the line from the Indian Archipelago to Peru. These 
are all interesting landmarks for the philologist and archseologist ; and 
native dialects indicate the same track for the Malays (see ShoH 
Studies, i and ii ; and Mr Christian, Journal Rl, Oeogr. Socy.^ 
December 1898). 

Miss Gordon dimming found *' on Easter Isle, great platforms of 
Cyclopean masonry, with hundreds of stone figures 18 ft. high"; and 
other travellers speak of intractable trachyte stones cut and inscribed, 
in other Polynesian islands, some of which Sir T. Brassey brought to 
Europa One statue from Easter Island now stands outside the British 
Museum. Fourteen texts, incised on wooden boards, have been found, 
io unknown language : the characters on the most celebrated old stone 
" certainly resemble S. Indian writing " (Prof. T. De la Coup^rie. See 
Jov/nud Rl. Asiatic Socy., July 1885, p. 443). We showed in 1872 
and 1897, that the Mflla builders cut the rock temples of Central 
India, and the shrines of Cambodia, and with these the elaborate stone 
structures of Japan, of the Carolines, Formosa, and Polynesia. 

Capt H. V. Barclay (PaU Mall MagaziTie, October 1902) 
describes the ruins of Easter Isle, which are still a striking relic 
of Indian civilisation. The weird statues, sometimes 50 ft. high, 
are hewn from single stones, but always terminate at the hips. In 
some ** the back of the head is flattened," with inscriptions down the 
back. They have all a stern contemptuous expression with deep-sunk 
eyea The ears (as among non-Aryan Buddhists : see Buddha) are 
long, and often adorned with carvings. The flat top of the head had 
originally a large cylinder of red volcanic stone upon it : numbers of 
these stones are found near the statues on the ground. The faces 
of these images are well cut, in grey durable trachyte from quarries 
close by. They stand on platforms faced with large well-dressed 
stones, without mortar. Most of the statues lie fallen, many broken 
at the neck, their downfall being probably due to earthquakes. Some 
500 more or less perfect images have been counted. About 100 
platforms remain, covered with volcanic scoriae and grass. Single 
hewn stones often weigh five tons or more, facing rough walls which 
are connected by cross walls, at irregular intervals, making small 
chambers, roofed with flat slabs. There are no visible means of access 
to these, but they often contain human bones. The statues stand on 
slabs of hewn stone, and show no connection with the chambers, but 
are spaced equally along the front of the platform. 



6 Eben 

EbeH; Hebrew ; '' stone/' see Aben. 

Ebionites* Hebrew : EHon *' needy " : or otherwise " wishing*' 
(i.e, men of " good will "), a sect of our let century described by 
Eusebius (JEcdea, Hist.^ iii, 27: vi, 17): called "poor," he says, 
** because cherishing low and mean opinions of Christ." They were 
only described by their enemies till the discovery of their own manual 
(see DidachS). Epiphanius, as bishop in Cyprus (360 A.C.), said that 
they were founded by Ebion, a Samaritan, and he apparently follows 
Tertullian, and Origen. Epiphanius says that Ebion held Christ to 
have been appointed by Qod to rule the future, but the devil to rule 
the present world, and that Jesus was one on whom Christ descended 
as « dove at the Baptism, forsaking him on the cross (as Gnostiks, 
Moslems, and Druzes, all taught also) on account of the words " my^ 
God, my God, why hast thou forsaken me." Jesus, said the Ebionites, 
was a " plain man of Nazareth," born like other men : and they rejected 
the account of Virgin birth in the Gospels. They observed the Sabbath, 
and circumcision. But another kindred sect (called Nazarenes) accepted 
this dogma, yet refused to recognise Christ as pre-existent, or as the 
Logos. They both rejected Paul as an enemy, and an apostate from^^ 
the^ Jewish law, regarding his writings as heretical. The Gospel 
of Matthew they held to be alone trustworthy (excepting the first 
chapters), and Symmachus, an Ebionite, commented on it. Cerinthua 
and Carpocrates were Ebionite Gnostiks (see Gnostiks and Irena^s) : 
such judaic Christians were known to Jews, according to the Talmud, 
aa " Galilean §addl]|j;im " or '' pious persons " (see Essenes). The 
Ebionites lived mostly in Basban (at Pella, Kaukabah, and other 
sites), and clung to the teaching of Peter, as opposed to that of Paul« 
The Aramaik " Gospel of the Hebrews " was perhaps theirs, but is 
now lost. It spoke of the Jordan as being changed into fire at the 
Baptism, and of the Holy Ghost as the " mother " of Christ whom it 
carried by the hair to Tabor — according to quotations in the Christian 
fathers. 

The Gnosticism of Cerinthus and Saturninus, in Syria, was 
distinct from Egyptian Gnosticism. These teachers were ascetiks 
who forbade the use of flesh and wine, observed abstinence from 
marriage, and believed in the approaching return of the Messiah, 
like Essenes and Ebionites. The latter seem, in short, to have been 
the early Judaic Christians who regarded Jesus only as a hum^n 
prophet, inspired by God, and as the true Messiah. The Catholics of 
the 4th century persecuted and destroyed this original sect. 

Ecclesiastes. The Hebrew ]^oheleth, "the preacher." The 



Ecclesiastes 7 

writer of this Old Testament Book speaks in the character . of a 
" Preacher, the son of David, king in Jerusalem " (i, 1), or " King 
over Israel in Jerusalem" (i, 12). He says, ''better is a poor and a 
wise child than an old and foolish king, who will no more be admon- 
ished. For out of prison he cometh to reign" (iv, 13). ''Vanity of 
vanities " is his refrain ; but all was not vanity to Koheleth, who 
believed in honest work, love, and youth. The Hebrew of this work 
is often like that even of the Mishnah. Some verses may be later 
interpolations, such as the last six in the book, thought to be added 
to counteract the general Agnosticism of its tone. Dr Delitzsch calls 
it "a collection of the days of Ptolemy Euergetes " (247 to 222 B.c.) : 
Prof Oraetz thinks it as late as the time of the Herods. The 5th 
General Council questioned the inspiration of Koheleth and of the Song 
of Solomon, and it has always been considered doubtful scripture, 
especially by some Protestants. Dr Cheyne (in 1885-87) rejects the 
final six verses, and questions other passages, but maintains ( Wiadom 
of ihe Old TestaTnent) that : " The author of Koheleth is not atheistic 
in any vital sense in his philosophical meditations." Dr Graetz says 
that "the old text reads for 'thy Creator* (xii, 1), 'tby well' or 
wife." He explains the passage that follows according to the Rabbinical 
interpretation of the allegory, as referring to the decay of the body — 
** keepers of the house " are arms and hands ; " strong men," feet and 
legs; the "grinders" (feminine), teeth; and the voice rises, piping 
like a sparrow in childish treble, till the silver cord (or string) is 
loosed (the tongue) ; and the golden bowl (the brain) is brok^ (xii, 
3-6). The author of ]^oheleth appears as a Stoik weary of study, and 
one who advocates calm enjoyment of all that is really good in life, 
with patience in sorrow. He passes lightly by dogmas which were so 
important to others, as vanities with no solid foundation. This writer, 
who had evidently led a busy, thoughtful life, was weary of thought 
and of learning. He finds even the order of nature oppressive at 
times. The ills of life prevent permanent enjoyment : even pleasure 
is monotonous, and the wise man dies like the fool : we can but live 
on, and suffer as others have done. . Death seems preferable to life, 
for energy breeds envy, and indolence brings poverty : riches lose us 
true friends, religion is generally hypocrisy, women usually false. It^ 
is well to fear Qod, and unwise to defy or ignore Him. It is useless 
to speculate on the future, but a good name is no doubt better than 
riches. We should strive to do good, and leave aloqe the great 
problems. 

All religious systems have produced their skeptikal ^oheleths, 
who have attacked alike Yedas and Buddhist Tripitakas, the Christian 



9 Ecclesiastes 

Bible, and the ^oran. In our 11th century, when the latter had 
become the '* Eternal Word of God " from Spain to India, the cultured 
poet-astronomer, 'Omar Khayyam, wrote (Whinfield's TranslatioD, 
1883):— 

" I drown in sin, show me thy clemency. 
Mj soul is dark. Make me thy light to see. 
A heaven that must be earned by painful works 
I call a wage : not a gift fair and free." 

" Hypocrites only build on saintly show, 
Treating the body as the spirit's foe." 

'' Your course annoys me, O ye wheeling skies. 
Unloose me from your chain of tyrannies.'' 

" Some look for truth in creeds, and forms, and rules. 
Some grope for doubts and dogmas in the schools. 
But, from behind the veil, a voice proclaims 
Your road lies neither here nor there, O fools." 

Again we read in. Sanskrit, perhaps 1000 B.C. (Dr Muir's 
rendering, pp. 17-22), how the Brfthman addresses Rama : — 

*' To us no sacred texts are given 
Unerring, perfect, dropped from heaven. 
No love inspired, no truth supplied, 
From source supernal men to guide. 
Have ever reached this world." 

In the Maha-bhaxata (perhaps about 500 B.C.) : — 

" The principles of duty lie 
Enveloped deep in mystery. 
On what can men their conduct found ? 
For reasons lack all solid ground. 
One text another contradicts. 
The Veda with itoelf conflicts." 

Dr E. J. Dillon (Contemporary Review, Feb. 1894) thinks that 
the text of ]^oheleth has suffered from transpositions and interpola- 
tions, and that the Latin and Syriak versions show clearly that passages 
have dropped out of the Greek text He concludes that the book 
''undoubtedly constitutes the most potent solvent of theological 
Christian doctrines ever written, by Jew or Christian. It is no harm- 
less work." Christians vainly strove to explain the blunt, clear 
statements of the Preacher — ^as when St Augustine says that he really 
meant the Eucharist when he said that there was nothing better for 
man than to eat and drink. The teaching, says Dr Dillon, is clearly 



'Ed 9 

"a mixture of the pessimism of Epicureans and Buddhists." [The 
language of ^oheleth is the later Hebrew of the books of Ezra and 
Nehemiah (3rd cent B.C.), with words found in use in the Mishnah as 
late as 200 A.C. ; but some terms, like PhithegaTn, " decree " (viii, 11 ; 
Esther i, 20), are not Hebrew, and may be archaic. The author con- 
siders it better to listen than to sacrifice in temples (v, 1), yet seems 
to share with the author of Job a belief in guardian angels (v, 6). 
Two expressions recall ancient Babylonian ideas (see Babylon) ; the 
first being the terrible misfortune of dying without burial, and without 
a record of one's name (vi, 3; viii, 10); and the other the words, 
"let thy garments be always white, and let thy head lack no ointment," 
which are found in the address of Qilgamas to the god of fate. " Thy 
belly is full, day and night men are affrighted. To-day decide to give 
joy. Day and night there is carrying off and mourning. Let thy 
robes be white, let thine head be anointed, let water be brought thee. 
Let the captives of thy hand be free a little. Let them enjoy a 
breathing time from these things." — Ed.] The title " Ecclesiasticus " 
is given to a work now known in Hebrew as well as in Qreek and 
Syriak, and properly called the Wisdom of SircLch, This (according 
to its Preface) was first written in the time of Ptolemy Euergetes 
(probably I, acceding 247 B.G.); and Simon the High Priest (probably 
Simon the Just, about 330 B.c.) is the latest worthy named. This 
work also belongs to Hebrew " Wisdom " literature. 

'Ed. Hebrew : " witness," " token." The 'Edoth were " tokens " 
before the Tablets of the Law or of the 'Edoth (Ex. xxxii, 15) were 
made, or put (xxv, 1 6), in the Ark : for the manna was placed before 
'Edoth (xvi, 34) ere reaching SinaL The 'Edoth, or " tokens," were 
placed on the king at accession (2 Kings xi, 12). 

Eddas. These embody ancient Skandinavian traditions, or 
"mothers' tales." The Elder Edda, consisting of 39 poems, was 
written out for the first time by priests in Iceland (Ar6 Erode, and 
Saemund Erode) about 1120 A.C. The Younger Edda, a century 
later, was so written by the Christian bishop Snorri Sturlassen (1178 
to 1241). Neither was known to Europe before 1643. The hymns 
in this Younger Edda are called sagas ('' saws " or " sayings "), but 
are not to be confounded with the Norse sagas, which arose in the 
Vickin (Viking) ages (see Vik). In the Elder Edda we begin with the 
creation of gods, giants, men, dwarfs, and other creatures, and proceed 
to the " Last Battle " — the destruction and renewal of the world, as 
related in the divine "Song of Volva" — a sibyl. Other hymns are 
devoted to particular gods and heroes, to the Niflungs, and to Sigurd 



10 'Eden 

who slew the dragon Fafnir. The Yoiva, seated on a throne, 
addresses Odin and other gods, telling them about the world before 
their existence, and of the dread day of Ragnarok, when all will end 
and Chaos rule supreme. A god Heimdal, disguised as a man, 
named Big (or '' king "), finds a pair of dwarfs, Ai and Edda (" father 
and mother''), by the seashore, and gives them power to produce 
Thralb who dig and burn peat, herd swine, and farm land. Rig 
then finds Afi aud Amma (also a " father and mother "), who produce 
Churls, who plough, use carts, and build houses. Lastly, he comes 
to Fadir and Moder, who produce the Jarl or firee man, who hunts, 
and uses swords, and runes or writiugs (which the Norse got from. 
Greek traders, as Dr Isaac Taylor shows), about our 5th century 
(see Ruues). In the "Soug of Thrym" we learn how Thor lost his 
hammer, which the giant refused to return unless Freya was given to 
him. Thor feigned (see Freya) to be a maideu, in whose lap his 
hammer is found (a phallic tale). The Younger Edda is in prose, 
and is Christianised by its author. It consists of five parts. The 
first begins with an Adam aud Eve. The second is about ''the 
delusion of King Qylf i and the giantess Qefion " : also as to the 
miraculous rise of the island of Zealand, and how Odin led the ^sir 
(or gods) to settle in Gylfi's land, that is in Sweden. Minute details 
as to the poetry of Skalds are here given, with lists of their names, 
and even a philological treatise with rules of grammar for their 
guidance. 

The three oldest MSS. of this work — of which that of Upsala is 
the most important — date from about 1300 A.G. Hence, perhaps, 
the allusion to baptism ; for Fadir and Moder baptise their child JarL 
The spirit of a dead father, in one tale, appears and urges his son to 
"righteousness of life." The Elder Edda contains a **Lay of the 
Sun." Rydberg {Teutonic Mythology) holds that the Younger Edda 
is not reliable as a key to the Elder, and that neither are true records 
of the religion of Odin. But they rescue from oblivion many ancient 
fragments of poetry ; and he believes the myths to have a historic 
foundation. 

'Eden. Hebrew : " delight." A garden in the east, with the 
trees of life and knowledge (see Meru). Dr Delitzsch would place 
Eden in lower Babylonia, comparing the word Edina for "plain." 
[He however ignores the fact that the root of this word is spelt with 
Aleph, not (as in 'Eden) with 'Ain — Ed.] ; but Eden is not noticed in 
Babylonian records, unless in the later allusions to Sargina's conquest 
of Su-Edin (perhaps " River of Eden ") ; and it is placed (Gen. ii, 8-14) 



Edessa li^ 

at the sources of the Tigris and Euphrates or in Eastern Armenia.' 
[In the legend of Gilgamas the magic tree is in a mythical land 
beyond or beneath the sea. See also Eridu and Paradise. — Ed.] 

Edessa. Now Orfah, an ancient city of N. Mesopotamia, said 
to be founded by Nimrod, and to be "Ur of the Chaldees" (see 
Abraham). In our 4th and 5th centuries it was famous for its. 
libraries, and learning. Moses of KhorSne (the historian of Armenia)- 
came thither to study, from his home near Darou in Armenia, about' 
390 A.C. Hence also, according to tradition, came the only portrait 
of Christ, an event celebrated on the 16 th August each year. In the^ 
Edessa University also Nestorius studied (see Councils), which led to 
the suppression of this college about 500 A.C., and so to the spread> 
of Nestorian Christianity through Mid-Asia even to China (see* 
Nestorians). 

EeL In mythology a water serpent The Kelts feared it 
Women with child used to say they "came on an eel," by a river or, 
at a well; and "she who had touched the eel was said to have 
discovered nature's great secret'! It was the Madara or Madone^' 
hero or fool, and the Manthana that produces Ambrosia (Prof A. de. 
Gubematis' Zocl, Mythol., ii, p. 36). 

Egg^. Plutarch calls the egg HtUe tee geneaeos, as containing all 
elements of Itfe, though not itself capable of motion. ** All comes from 
^6 %g '' : &U life from the cell (see Dove and Japan). The egg was 
the symbol of Venus, and of earth godesses, and therefore found in 
Bakkhik rites. Plutarch discussed whether the egg or its parent 
eame first Orpheans claimed priority for the egg, saying that Erebos 
(Hades or Evening) incubated an egg before anything else existed 
save Eros Q* desire "), ether, night and day. It was the nucleus of 
crude matter in chaos, or in the abyss. To produce it (see Clerrientine 
Homilies, vi, 4-6) required " Time " (Kronos) and ** Earth " (Rhaea). 
From it came all things material and spiritual Orpheans called this 
PhaneSf " because when it appeared the universe shone forth, with the^ 
lustre of fire, perfected in water." Life so " appeared " no longer 
chaotic but orderly, though what some called Pluto remained as crude 
dead matter in the depths. The Orpheans (see Taylor's Hymns), 
spoke of " the egg-born one (the Protogonos or first-born), the bull-faced 
roarer, with golden wings, generator of the blessed immortals, the 
renowned and holy light, ineffable, occult, the celebrated Erikapaios : 
Phanes the glory of the pure light, and Priapos, king of dark-faced 
splendour {i.e, Praja-pati, the creator) : genial, and ever-varying 



12 Eggs 

sacred mysteries." Proclus dwells on this Orphic muDdane ^g, and 
mundane phallos (the female and male principles in nature). Sir P. 
le Page Kenouf thinks that the Egyptians had no conception of a 
mundane egg, but only of the ''golden egg" which was the sun, and 
sprang ** from the back of Seb " (the goose, and the earth god), and 
was separate from the earth (" Ritual of Dead," Proc. Bib. Arch. 
8ocy., May 1893). Ba created the egg, and in a magic papyrus some 
are cursed " because they believe not in Ra's egg" ; and we read " 
liquid found in earth, substance of the seaoun gods, great in heaven, 
great in Hades, which is in the nest over the waves, may I liquify 
thee with water " (Hibbert Lect, iii ; Bee. of Past, x, p. 147, in 1892). 
On Greek and Phoenician coins we find the creative principle as an 
egg with a serpent twined round it (see Druids, and Rivera of Lift, 
i, p. 248, fig. 250). Phoenician cosmogonies also spoke of the egg 
whence all nature issued. 

In India the egg signifies either sex : for, set with the big end 
upmost it is Parvati (mother earth), and with small end up it is Siva 
(the lingam) ; and this held good in the west also in the Paphian 
shrine of Venus {Rivera of Life, plates x and xvi, and fig. 233, 
p. 166). Sir W. Jones gives us, in solemn verse, the high flown 
language of Hindus as to the egg whence Brahma came (see Brahma) : 
the "lucid gem," an egg "bright as gold," produced, by the seed 
placed in the waters {Inatit of Manu., vii, 92). Brahma long dwelt 
in it, meditating on himself, and then divided it equally, and made 
from it the heavens and the earth. In China (Shih-King) Hsieh was 
produced from an egg, which fell on a godess while bathing ; as the 
Dea Syria came from an egg pushed to shore by fishes, when fialling 
into the Euphrates (see Dove). The egg fertilizes all it touches — land, 
river, or well — and women excused their condition by saying they saw, 
or touched, an egg by a sacred well. Eggs are marriage emblems (see 
Indian Antiq., April 1892). They are broken before guests. The 
mistress of a house (among Hindus and Parsis), brings a tray with 
eggs, a cocoanut, rice, salt, cakes, sugar, and water : she waves an egg 
over her guest's head, and breaks it at his feet ; she does the same 
with the cocoanut, and sprinkles the other gifts about him. Waving 
her hands she cracks her finger joints on her forehead, and bids him 
step forward, right foot first, assured that as he leaves, all evil influences 
have been dissipated. In the case of a bridegroom, the mother-in-law 
has in her tray a gem-ring, nuts, almonds, a cone of sugar ; and she 
places the ring on his finger, and rice on his forehead ; passes her 
hands over his face and head, and aids the priest to tie the couple 
together with a thread, or by their garments, before the sacred fire, 



J 



Egypt 18 

in addition to the rites above-mentioned. She strews flowers and 
incense as prayers are chanted, and in these cases the breaking of the 
egg is considered to be a symbol of sacrifice, since the taking of animal 
life is abhorrent to Hindus and Parsis alike. 

Landseer (Sabean Bea., pp. 81-83) describes a sacred egg in 
Cyprus as 30 ft. in circumference. The Phcenicians worshiped it, 
and the sacred bull was sculptured on it. [This however — at Amathus 
— was apparently a stone " sea," in egg form. — Ed.] Dr Schliemann 
found an alabaster egg deep down in the ruins of Troy. The Druid 
gUinirTtadrcedd, or " snake stones," among the Welsh, are the Boman 
" serpent eggs " (see Druids). The procession of Ceres in Rome, says 
Yarro, was preceded by an egg. Christians bear eggs on Palm Sunday 
also at Rome (see Rivera of Life, ii, p. 138, fig. 55). Ostrich eggs 
were found in the Etruskan cemetery of Vulci, painted with winged 
camels (see Dennis, "Etruria"), and are noted by Diodorus (i, 27). 
Fausanias says that, in the temple of Hilakra and Phoib^, the egg of 
Leda (whence came Helen — the moon, and the twin brothers Castor 
and Pollux — day and night), hung from the roof wrapped in ribbons. 
Ostrich eggs are commonly hung also in Moslem mosks, as at Hebron 
above the tombs of the patriarchs. 

Many coarse jokes about eggs belong to the Easter festivities. 
[In Italy, Easter eggs are coloured with cofiee grounds a dark brown, 
and then adorned with designs scraped on them by nuns. — Ed.J In 
Chinese temples, and Christian churches alike, they symbolise resurrec- 
tion ; and in Christian lands texts and mottoes are inscribed on them. 
The " material of being," as we have seen Plutarch to call the egg, is 
about to be quickened at this season. " The entwined egg," says 
Pliny, is " a badge of distinctiou in Rome." Claudius Csesar put a 
Boman to death for assuming it Among modem Syrians eggs are a 
charm against the evil eye (see Eye). 

Eg^pt. The Egyptian gods and beliefs will be fouud under 
special articles. The name Aiguptos, as given by Greeks, seems to 
mean "shore land of Kopts," as a native word. The native name 
Khemi is rendered "dark" — perhaps better "sun-burnt" The 
Semitic name Misri, or Misraim, signifies " guarded places " — perhaps 
on account of the wall, or chain of forts, separating Egypt from the 
Asiatic tribes on her east frontier ; whence the modern Arabic Musr. 
The original civilising race came apparently from Asia, before the age 
of the Pyramids. [The carved slates, supposed to be as old as the 
Ist dynasty (see Proc. Bib. Arch. Socy., May 1900, p. 135 ; Novem- 
ber 1904, p. 262, papers by Mr F. Legge), represent hunting scenes, 



.i> Egypt 

und wars with negroes ; and the writer regards them as showing 
invaders from Asia Minor : for they are armed with the double axe 
(the Ldbrus), of Karians and Ejretans, found also on Hittite monu- 
ments, and at Behistun, as well as in Etruria, as used by TuraniaDS. 
The native language, however, is closest, in grammar and in vocabulary 
alike, to Semitic speech. — Ed.] 

At the dawn of monumental history Egypt and Babylonia are 
equally found to be powerful and civilised. The building race spread 
from Memphis to Thebes, and yet further south : and Menes (succeed-^ 
ing the mythical age of the 12 great gods), was traditionally the 
.founder of Memphis. But cities and nomes (or provinces) jealously 
preserved their independence, and their distinct cults. Monotheism 
proper had no existence ; but, in the fusion of various beliefs, Heno- 
theism (the selection of one out of many gods), was usual, as it is 
to-day in India. Beast worship, according to Brugsch (Hist. .Egypt, 
i, p. 32), appears at the earliest historic period (see Animal Worship) ; 
but religious texts are rare till the 12 th dynasty. In the 18th 
•century B.c. all the chief Egyptian gods are noticed, and pictured, 
with their legends, which are rarely mentioned earlier (Maspero, Hist, 
Egypt, i, p. 124). Beast worship came first, mythology followed with 
.gods both phallic and solar, and philosophy developed later. The 
people of Lukopolis (" wolf town "), propitiated the wolf that tore their 
sheep ; other diepherds adored the bull and the ram. None ate the 
flesh of the beast sacred in their town, save on rare occasions ,of sacri- 
fice. Yet the beasts' head (Amen's ram, Thoth's ibis, etc.), did not 
of necessity denote a totem of the tribe, but rather the divine 
attributes of power, fertility, or intelligence ; the physical or moral 
peculiarities of gods. 

[The great gods may be classed as follows : — 



Heaven . 


. Nut (Neith), Maut, female. 


Earth . 


. Seb, male. 


Sun 


. Horus, Ba, Tum, Amen, Ptah, Osiris. 


Moon 


• Isis, female ; Aah, male. 


Water . 


. Hapi, the Nile (androgynous). 


Hell 


. Set, Typhon, Bes, Bast, Sekhet. 


Air 


. Shu, Tefnut. 


The Messenger 


. Thoth, Anubis. 


Dawn and Sunset 


Hathor and Nephthys. — Ed." 



M. Maspero classifies the deities as (1st) Qods of the Dead — 
•Osiris, Isis, Hprus, Nephthys, Sokaris : (2nd) Elemental gods — Seb, 
^ut, and others : (3rd) Solar gods — Ra, Amen, Ptah, and others, with 



Egypt 16 

their enemies Set» Typhon, etc. The great myth of Osiris relating his 
feud with Set is, says Benouf, "as old as Egyptian civilisation/' 
belonging, says Maspero, to the Ist dynasty, though the details are 
known to us only from much later text& 

The Egyptians, like the Hindus, seem to have scorned ordinary 
chronology, and spanned time by great astronomical cycles, like the 
Sothic cycle (1461 years), depending on the "heliacal rising'' of the 
dog star. [It should be remembered that there is no monumental 
chronology at all in Egypt. All that we know of actual early dates 
is, that Amenophis lY corresponded with Bumaburias of Babylon 
about 1430 B.C., that Thothmes III reigned 54 years, and Amenophis 
III 36 years. The two copies of the Abydos tablet (found in 1818 
and 1864), in which 75 kings precede Seti I, and his son Barneses II 
— the 12th dynasty immediately preceding the 18th — have no dates : 
nor has the &Lkkara list published by Mariette in 1863. The "Turin 
Papyrus" is a mere fragment, though it once contained a chronology 
made out in a late age, and attributing reigns of 70 to 95 years to 
kings of the 1st and 2nd dynasties. All systems of chronology rest 
on the statements of Manetbo (about 250 B.C.), as extant in a hope- 
lessly corrupt condition, according to copies by Eusebius (4th century 
^a), and George the Syncellus (about 800 A.C.), these conflicting as 
to names and numerals with the Turin papyrus for early kings, and 
with the list of Eratosthenes (born 276 B.C.), the librarian of Ptolemy 
Euergetes, for Theban kings. It is uncertain whether early dynasties 
were successive or contemporary, and Manetho relates mythical stories 
of the earlier kings, and is hopelessly confused as to the great 18 th 
and 19 th dynasties. Mahler's dates rest on an attempted calculation 
from certain notices of the heliacal rising of Sothis (Sirius), but are 
vitiated by the fact that the orbit of the earth is not in the same 
plane with the movement of Sirius, so that the rate of difference in 
the rising is not constant. The uncertainty in these calculations as 
to dates about the time of the 18th dynasty amounts to some 200 
years, and calculations of the sun's position have also been mistaken 
(see Aries). Dates therefore are better fixed by aid of Babylonian 
chronology (see Babylon), than by any calculation of the difference 
between the Egyptian vague year of 365 days (which was ancient, and, 
perhaps, continuously retained), and the sidereal year. — Ed.] 

By about the 4th century B.C. the ancient Egyptian cults 
admitted — at Alexandria — the free thought of Greece, the teaching 
of Grove and Stoa, the positivism as well as the mysticism of Greek 
rulers. The later accounts of Plutarch are tinged with contemporary 
foreign colouring, and untrustworthy in consequence. The monuments 



16 Egypt 

and the ritual alone are true guides. Agnosticism, Theism, Pantheism, 
invaded Egypt in Greek and Roman times. The secret rites of the 
Serapeum superseded Osiris by a foreign god — Serapis — ^brought firom 
Pontus. The Gnostiks framed their systems from ancient Egyptian 
and later Greek or Jewish philosophers. Buddhism also was known, 
at least as early as 250 B.C., to the Ptolemies (see Buddha); and the 
Therapeutai (" healers ") appeared as ascetiks in Egypt (see Essenes), 
followed by Christian hermits. In study of the religion, as of the 
history, we are confused rather than helped by Greek accounts. 

The date of Menes' accession is very variously estimated, according 
as the dynasties are considered to have been contemporary or other- 
wise. The results are as various as those for the date of Adam (see 
Bible), the best known students being disagreed as follows : — ^Dr Birch 
gives 5895 B.C. for Menes, ChampoUion 5870, Mariette 5004, Le* 
normant 4915, Petrie 4777, Lepsius 3892, Eenouf 3000, Wilkinson 
2691 B.C. All we can say is that by 3000 B.C., and perhaps before 
5000 B.C., Egjrpt was a country of settled government and civilised 
manners, recognising the principles of law and ethiks, skilled in 
metallurgy, architecture, art, and irrigation. Brugscb relates how a 
medical work on leprosy was found hidden in a writing case, buried 
under a statue of Anubis at Sakhur, in the days of Bameses II ; and 
ethikal treatises go back much earlier than this. The dry climate of 
Egypt has preserved for us mummy cloths, and papyri, some 4000 
years old. Compared with their texts all writings, save those of 
Babylonian tablets, are but as of yesterday. Benouf says of the 
Prisse papyrus that it was wiutten (like Hammurabi's laws) " centuries 
before the Hebrew lawgiver was born, by a writer of the 5th dynasty." 
In the British Museum we can still read the will of Amen-em-hat I, 
of the 12th dynasty. Works on religion, history, medicine, with 
travels, fiction, and poetry, belong to the 19th and 20th dynasties 
(1400 to 1200 B.G.). The oldest known book in the world is that of 
Prince Ptah-hotep, belonging to the reign of Assas in the 5th dynasty. 
A text in the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford belongs to the 2nd dynasty, 
and Dr Isaac Taylor {Alphabet, i) says of the script that "it was 
even then an extremely ancient graphic system, with long ages of pre- 
vious development stretching out, behind it, into a distant past of 
almost inconceivable remoteness, and far older than the pyramids" — or 
some 7000 to 8000 years ago (pp. 57 to 64). When Plato visited 
the schools and libraries of Heliopolis they were perhaps at least 2000 
years old. Egyptian civilisation, about 3000 B.C. or earlier, is considered 
to have been equal to that of many European countries during the 
18th century of our era. Go back as far as we may there is not, says 



Egypt 11 

Benouf, a *' vestige of a state of barbarism, or even of patriarchal life, 
anterior to the monumental period. The earliest monuments present 
the same fully devebped civilisation, and the same religion, as the 
later. The systems of notation, the decimals, the calendar, the 
political divisions into nomes — each with its principal deity— piost of 
the gods still known to us, certainly all the great ones ; the nature 
and offices of the priesthood, all are as old as the pyramids. Much of 
the above belonged to the 1st and 2nd dynasties yet descended to 
Christian times." [Deductions of recent years from the supposed 
discovery of the tomb of Menes — which is not generally accepted as 
proven — and of certain Libyan remains, which — however rude — may 
yet be contemporary with higher art, cannot be held to modify this 
statement. — ^Ed.] 

Dr Birch (Introduction to Anct. Hist, of Egypt) says of Egyptian 
law : " Crimes were punished according to their enormity. . . . 
Treason, murder, adultery, theft, and the practice of magic, were crimes 
of the deepest dye, and punished accordingly." In domestic life the 
Egyptian was attached to his wife and children ; and equality of the 
sexes was well marked, the woman appearing as the equal and com- 
panion of her father, brethren, or husband. 

The NuteVf or ** deity," in Egypt was the " mighty one " who 
(says Brugsch) is, in some inscriptions, "tlie only one, and alone; 
none other is with him. He is the One who has made all." He is 
" the One alone with many hands," according to the Hymn to Amen, 
of whom there is " no true image in any temple." But like other 
ancient peoples the Egyptian was a Henotheist — he selected Amen 
from many other gods — and by the time of the 19th dynasty the 
Pantheistic stage was reached. If Amen was the '' one " at Thebes, 
so was Ra at On, or Ptah at Memphis. Vast galleries were cut in 
solid rock for the mummies of the Apis bulls. Apis was the symbol 
of the " god of gods," and symbolised also all gods : he was '' the 
second life of Ptah," as the goat of Mendes was the soul of Osiris, of 
Shu, and of Khepra the creator. To the philosophic " the one " was 
Ptah, but the masses loved the plurality of solar, lunar, phallic, and 
fire symbols. The priestly Pantheist preached in vain that, as 
Renouf says : " All individual things are only the modifications of the 
One and All — the Eternal and Infinite God-World, and the universal 
force in Nature, eternal and unchangeable though varied in form." 
Do the masses among ourselves understand such truths ? Yet the 
priests inscribed on the walls of Amen's temple in the Libyan desert : 
" The Lord, the Supreme One, reveals himself in all that is ; and 
has names in everything from hill to stream. Each god assumes his 



is Egypt 

aspect. He shines in Ba, Ptah, Shu, Ehonsu, and dwells by this 
Ammonian shrine " : being there depicted, as Benouf remarks, ** under 
the type of the ithyphallic god " {Hihbert Led,, p. 232). Amen-Ra 
was " heaven, earth, fire, water, air, and whatever is in the midst of 
them. ... He is immanent in all things. ... He is, as creator, the 
ram of the sheep, the god of the goats, and the bull of the cows. . . . 
He strengthens the woman in travail, and gives life to those bom 
from her" (p. 233). Ptah remained to the last, ^Hhe ithyphallic 
soul of the universe " ; and Neith the good mother. Ra was the 
earliest and most universal heavenly father — ^the sun who was Osiris 
on earth and in Hades. Popular beliefs and the teaching of the texts 
conflict, because they are beliefs of distinct classes of Egyptians. 

There was in Egypt no metempsychosis (or transmigration of the 
soul) such as Indians and Greeks taught. The soul during, or after, 
itft journey in Hades could assume such form as the Osiris of the 
deceased pleased, such as the hawk, the bull, or other emblems of 
gods (Renouf, Ritual of the Dead, notes to chap. Ixxvii ; Proc. Bib, 
Arch. Socy., February 1894). By such changes of form the soul 
escaped various dangers on its way to the judgment hall of Osiris 
(see Amenti), but this is a different idea from that of successive lives on 
earth as beast, bird, or man. In addition to scenes and texts of the 
Bitual, the tombs contained jewelry and cosmetics, false hair, and 
court dresses for heaven, with favourite animals such as dogs and 
hawks, showing that man expected to live in the other world much 
as he had done on earth. 

The Ritual of the Dead was called in Egyptian the " Per-em- 
hru," or " going out of day." The soul departed, like the sun, west- 
wards to enter Amenti or Hades, and travelled with the sun at night 
eastwards, under earth, to meet Osiris. When tried and justified it 
might enter the " bark of Ra," and float on the waters of heaven 
with the sun by day, being thus united with Osiris, or Ra, There 
was apparently no book with a regular sequence of chapters of this 
Ritual, prior to the 26th, or last native dynasty, about 600 B.C. But 
texts occur in tombs, on cloths, and on coffins, as early as the days of 
Teta (1st dynasty), Unas (5th), and Pepi (6th dynasty). They abound 
on sarcophagi of the 12th dynasty, but are not found on papyri before 
about 1600 B.C. Renouf finds that, as early as the 10th or lltb 
dynasty, some texts were already so ancient as to require glosses to 
explain them. He recognises three periods in the successive growth 
of the Ritual: (1) previous to the 18th dynasty; (2) the period of 
Theban kings (1700 to 1000 B.C.); and (3) subsequent additions. 
About 600 B.a appeared the complete book, with chapters and sections. 



Egypt 19 

Stero injunctions then forbade additions or alterations ; but up to the 
26 th dynasty scribes had been busy in collecting scattered texts — as 
when the 64th chapter was found in 'Hhe temple of Thoth the 
revealer/* by the son of King Men-ka-ra of the 4th or 5th dynasty, 
when making an inventory of records; or the 130th chapter in the 
temple of This or Abydos, in the reign of Hespu (or Hesepti) probably 
the 5th king of the 1st dynasty, when the coffin made by Horus for 
Osiris was said to have been discovered. The inscriptions on the 
coffin of Men-ka-ra (either 4th king of 4th dynasty or, 7th of the 
5thX with contemporary documents, show the texts to have been then 
well known ; and those on the coffin of Queen Mentu-hotep prove the 
same for the 11th dynasty. 

Papyri of the 18th and down to the 20th dynasty seem to have 
been in use for the Ritual down to 1200 B.C. The first queen of the 
21st dynasty had a nearly perfect copy of the whole of the Ritual 
texts made for her use. Other works, such as Books of the Breath of 
Life, and Of the Lower BeTnisphere, were also sacred, commenting on 
the original Per-em-hru. The Turin papyrus copy of the Ritual used 
to be considered the best, and was probably made in the 5th century 
B.C. But in 1883 the British Museum had secured the better text 
written by Ani, the royal scribe in the time of the 19th dynasty, some 
3200 years ago; and this has been published in fac-simile by the 
Trustees (see Timea, 25th August 1890; Dr Vleyte^s Livre des Moris, 
1883 ; Proc. Bib. Arch Socy,, 1885 to 1904 ; Academy, 23rd June 
1883, 10th September 1887, 4th August 1888). The Ani version is 
judged by script, language, and art to belong to the 14th century B.C. ; 
and is much more perfect than the Harris papyri, only a few characters 
being missing. It is 76 feet 10 inches long, by 1 foot 3 inches wide. 
Its style is the same as that of Hu-nefer, written in the age of 
Seti I, about 1350 B.c. M. Naville, after ten years of labour, gives a 
translation of the Ritual (Todten-Buch der xviii-xx Dynastie, 1887). 
This is called "the cream of 71 papyri, of sculptured texts of six 
sepulchres, and of the winding sheet of Thothmes III." From this 
edition came perhaps two-thirds of the thousands of less perfect papyri, 
which are known, but are all faulty in some degree. The old edition 
of Lepsius gave a corrupt text, because founded on specimens of a late 
period. M. Naville recognises four phases of the text : (1) that of 
the ancient or middle empire in hieroglyphics — ^as yet to be collated ; 

(2) the Theban text (17th to 20th dynasties), also in hieroglyphics; 

(3) the hieratic (or tunning hand), as used from the 20th to the 26th 
dynasty ; (4) the Saite and Ptolemaic text — a revised version in both 
hieroglyphs and hieratic script. M. Naville agrees with Mariette that 



20 Hgypt 

there were more ancient books which were not included in the Ritual ; 
and he accepts the great age of the 64th and 130th chapters above 
noticed. 

Ani, the author of the new text, calls himself ** Scribe of the 
sacred revenues of all the Theban gods, and guardian of the granaries 
of Abydos.'' A picture shows him standing with his wife before a 
table of offerings, with a hymn to the sun-god which he is supposed 
to be chanting. This pictorial introduction exhibits the teaching of 
the Kitual as to the future of the dead. The second picture shows the 
adoration, at sunrise, of the dog-headed apes — spirits of dawn, with 
invocation of Osiris as " King of Kings, and Lord of Lords, Ruler of 
Bulers, who from the womb of Nut (the sky) hast inherited the whole 
earth, and ruled the world and the under world." Then comes the 
weighing of the heart (see Amenti) : " there is no iniquity in him : he 
is not one who cut down the bread in the temples, he was not sordid 
in his actions, he is not one who set speech going against others as 
long as he was on earth." He is therefore permitted to join the 
followers of Horus, with a permanent allotment of food ; the "Devourer" 
not being allowed to prevail over him. He is led by Horus to Osiris, 
and passes on to enjoy a renewed existence " as on earth." He may 
assume any form he pleases, may join the gods, or may be assimilated 
to Osiris. The next scene is the burial of the mummy, surrounded by 
priests, and the widow, with a group of mourning women ; and the 
reception of the same by Anubis as god of the tomb. Afterwards we 
see Ani'in the other world, playing draughts with his wife in a bower, 
while their souls stand by as human-headed birds. The lion gods of 
*' yesterday and to-day/' and the Bennu bird, stand between them and 
the bier guarded by Isis and Nephthys (dawn and eve) as two vultures. 
Other scenes represent the " gates of the tomb," the meeting of Ba 
and Osiris in Tattu, the sun-god Mau (the cat) beheading the serpent 
of darkness, the sun-boat, the seven gates and ten pylons of Amenti, 
the "opening of the mouth" of the deceased giving him words of 
power. Short chapters deal with " not dying the second death," " not 
.turning to corruption," " reuniting the soul to the dead body," " living 
after death," transformations into a dove, a hawk, a good serpent Seta, 
a crocodile ; or into Ptah, and the soul of Tmu ; into a heron, a coot, 
a lotus, a " god enlightening the darkness." Finally, we find the soul 
in the " valley of the shadow of death," crying, '* what is this place to 
which I have journeyed ? For it is without water and without air ! 
It is all abyss, utter darkness, sheer perplexity" (see Times, 25th 
August 1890. The complete translation was issued in 1895). 

The Bitual shows us that the Egyptian standard of morality was 



Egypt n 

very high. " Not one of the Ofaristian virtues," writes Chabas, " is 
forgotten in the Egyptian code : piety, charity, gentleness, self-com- 
mand in word and .action ; chastity, the protection of the weak, 
benevolence towards the needy, deference to superiors, respect for 
property, in its minutest details." The Ritual includes 15 Books,, 
divided into chapters, each headed by some illustration of the contents* 
These may be briefly described. 

Book I. *' The Manifestation of Light," in 16 chapters, opens with 
the *• Wisdom of Thoth," the inspiration by Osiris of the " Osiris " of 
the de»ad man. We see Hades (Amenti) with the ploughers and 
powers of the fields of Aalu, and men drawing water, and transporting 
the " divine gifts, in the abodes of the blessed." 

Book IL "The Egyptian Faith" — chapters 17 to 20. It treats 
of mystic matters, and of all the startling phenomena of the sky. The 
writer saw strange forms in the constellations — as of ^ seven spirits 
of God, Osiris, his coffin, his throne," etc. 

Book III. "The Reconstruction of the Deceased" — chapters 21 
to 26. It allegorises the various bodily members of Osiris and Isis, 
and the renewed creation of all things by the sun. 

Book IV. " The Preservation of the body in Hades "—chapters 
27 to 42. It describes the soul fighting its way through Had^es. 

Book V. "Protection in Hades" — chapters 43 to 51. This 
continues the story of the soul's journey, till it sees Osiris and cries 
triumphantly : '' I am thy son, O Osiris, and I die not again. I have 
escaped the second death." (Revelat. ii, 11). 

Book VI. "The Celestial Diet" — chapters 52 to 63. The Osiris 
of the deceased is " built up to live forever, and be one with the eternal 
Lord of Ages." 

Book VII. Chapters 64 to 75. The progress of the soul, its 
trials, and egress from darkness into light It is said to " Come forth 
like the sun, and live forever ... to be the greatest of created forms, 
which has opened the doors of heaven and earth ... and now sees 
his father face to face." . . 

Book VIII. "The Metamorphoses" — chapters 76 to 90. The 
^ul (as above noted) takes various forms, suitable for progress in its 
purification. It seeks to become " pure as the sun, incorruptible, 
UDdefiled, and separated from sin." Thus (chapter 85) it exclaims, 
"I am the Sun . . . my soul is God. I create perception. I am 
the Lord of Truth, and dwell in it. Osiris loved and made me as I 
am, and though created I rule eternity, and have no end." 

Book IX. "Protection of the Soul " — chapters 91 to 117. The 
soul is seen in the sun-boat, emerging from Hades into space, "the 



22 Bgypt 

alxkle of Osiris." This Elysium is a world like this one, but better. 
It is a land where com and wine abound, where wheat and barley 
grow 7 cubits high, with ears 2 to 4 cubits long. '* It is reaped by 
the glorified ones in presence of the Powers of the East" Chapter 9 1 
is repeated in chapter 108. 

Book X. "The going into and out of Hades" — chapters 118 to 
124. The soul is bom again in a spiritual resurrection. It goes 
into Hades as a hawk, and comes out as a Bennu — ^a solar bird or 
Phoenix. 

Book XI. "The Hall of the Two Truths"— chapter 125. The 
soul pleads before the judges, and cries : " O thou great Lord God of 
Truth I know thee, and the forty-two gods around thy throne ; and 
I am here to receive thy blessings." Each of the 42 personifies a 
virtue,, a moral law, or attribute ; and if, in naming each, the soul can 
claim obedience to it, it is fully justified, and is thenceforth called the 
Osiris of the deceased. The Hall itself personifies Truth and Justice — 
punishment and acquittal. Ever since the soul entered the sun-bark 
it is said " to have fed on Truth, and delighted in all that the gods 
desire, and that good men have said." 

Book XII. " Adoration of the Gods of the Orbit " — chapters 126 
to 129. Mysterious addresses to the gods accompanying Osiris to 
heaven. 

Book XIII. "The Day of Osiris" — chapters 130 to 143. The 
sun's course, from birth to death, corresponding to that of the soul 
from birth to glorification, when its aspirations are all attained, and it 
is one with God, and can come and go as it pleases. 

Book XIV. "The House of Osiris" — chapters 144 to 161, 
The house has 21 halls and gates, each with its guardian, symbolising 
the attributes of Osiris. This was the most popular, if not the most 
important, book of the Ritual, laying down rules for the temple — that 
is the body. It is here written that : " None but the king or the 
priest may see this book ... no such other is known anywhere, nor 
will be forever. . . . The spirit for whom it is made has prevailed 
forever . . . none may add to its words." This book orders the 
making of the tomb, in which " the body shall lie incorrupt, and 
produce no forms that live and die." It is to be preserved like 
Osiris, '* who knew no decay." At the portal of the tomb the Osiris 
cries : " I am, I live, I grow, I wake in peace ; my substance knows 
no decay ; it is not dispersed ; it neither wastes nor dies in that 
land," He goes on (chapter 154) to say that he will enjoy ever- 
lasting life, because his father Osiris rose from death to be the king 
of immortality. 



J 



Egypt 



23 



. Book XV. The "Orientation" — chapters 162-3. Mystical passages 
concerning Amen-Ra. The book ends with the words " it is ended/* 

The priestly scribe Hu, about 1650 B.G., says : "Thou shalt not 
recite the book of Un-nefer (' the good god ') in the presence of any 
person." This prohibition is still stronger under the 19th dynasty. 
This book is a great mystery, to be revealed by the priest only to his 
son (see Dr Budge's " Facsimiles of Papyri of Hu-nefer," Athenceum^ 
16th September 1899). Thus the mysteries were in later times kept 
secret, as we gather also from Herodotos. But, in spite of the usually 
expressed Egyptian belief in a future life. Agnosticism is found as 
early as the 17th century B.C. (see Dr W. Max Mtiller, "Translat. 
Harris Papyrus," Egtn. Arch. Report, 1898-9); and death is "treated 
from an Agnostik point of view, alike in Theban tombs, and in other 
writings " — including even the Ritual. 

The leading facts of Egyptian history may be briefly stated, 
adopting the moderate chronology of Mariette. [This chronology is 
based on the numerals given by Manetho, and regards all dynasties 
as successive, except the 15th, 16th, and l7th, which are made 
contemporary with each other. Mariette and Brugsch agree in a 
date about 1700 B.C., for the foundation of the 18th dynasty, and 
this fits with Babylonian dates. If, however, the four foreign dynasties 
were (as seems indicated by a text of Bameses III), contemporary with 
the 13th dynasty ruling Upper Egypt, and if the dynasties of Upper 
and Lower Egypt were parallel down to the rise of the great conquering 
18th dynasty, we should obtain the following results from the numbers 
given by Manetho : — 



Lotver 


Egypt 


B,C. 


Upper 


Egypt 

B.C. 


3rd dyn. lasted 214 years 3128 


Ist dyn. lasted 263 years 3139 


■ 4th 


274 „ 


, 2914 


2nd 


302 ,. 2876 


6th 


200 „ 


, 2640 


5th 


218 „ 2574 


1th 


„ 


, 2440 


nth 


43 „ 2356 


8th 


146 „ 


, 2440 


12th 


160 „ 2313 


9th . „ 


409 „ 


, 2294 


13th 


453 „ 2153 


10th 


185 „ 


1885 


(Both lines end 1700 B.C.) 



The kings of both Upper and Lower Egypt, reigning before 
1700 B.C., thus go back to about 3000 B.C. (Renoufs date for the 
first pyramids) ; and the Abydos list not only omits the four foreign, 
or Hyksos, dynasties (14th to 17th), but even seems to ignore the 
weak 13th dynasty. It gives 75 kings before 1400 B.C., who may 
have occupied 1000 years, to which some 500 should be added for 



S4 Egypt 

the Hyksos period, which again brings us very near to 3000 kaas 
the date for Menes at Abydos, and Nicherophes in Memphis. All 
dates, however, lire speculative before the 1 8th dynasty, and even then 
only approximate. — Ed.] 

let dynasty, at This {Kharabdt-d'Madfilneh, "ruins of the 
buried," Abydos) say 5000 down to 4750 B.c. The Ritual dates 
back (chapter 130) to Hesepti the 5th king. The slate carvings, 
mentioned above, are believed to be of this dynasty. The great 
stepped pyramid of Sakkara is attributed to the 4th king. It is 
more roughly oriented than those of the 3rd and 6th dynasties^ 
There are Nubian pyramids 139 in number which, if representing 
139 successive monarchs, might cover some 3000 years (see CStm« 
Umpy. Review, Sept. 1881 ; and Bonwick's Pyramids, p. 95). 
Lepsius found GO royal tombs of the 1st dynasty, as old as the 
pyramids. Metallurgy, and some elements of mathematics, must have 
been known to the first pyramid builders. Rude surgical implements, 
of flint, existed in the time of Teta the second king, according to the 
Berlin papyri. The 5th king built the pyramids of Kochome, it 
is said. 

27id dynasty, at This : about 4750 down to 4450 B.O. Kaka, 
the second king, appears to have worshiped the Apis of Memphis 
(Mnevis), and the ram (Ba-en-tattu) of Heliopolis. Nefer-ra-ra, the 
7th king, built the Meidun pyramid, between Cairo and Beni Sueif. 
Dr Birch (Rede Led., 1874) held that Senat was the 1st king, and 
his monument the oldest known. 

8rd dynasty, at Memphis in Lower Egypt: say 4450 to 
4235 8.0. The treatise of Ptah-hotep claims to be of this age, but 
the copies belong to the 5th and 12th dynasties. The author says 
he was 110 years old when he wrote it — which we may doubt It 
inculcates morality, and speaks of God in the singular as judge of all 
The second king is said to have written on surgery, and to have 
performed lithotomy : he was deified as a son of Ftah. The national 
type in this age, according to Prof. Owen, and Dr Birch, was more 
like the European than either the African or the Semitic (see Rede 
Lect, 1876 ; Tran^. Oriental Congress, 1874). Mr S. L. Poole says 
that " in architecture, and reliefs," the results are immature, but in 
other respects the art is equal to that of later ages. 

4th dynasty, at Memphis: say 4235 down to 3950 B.C. The 
3rd king (Khafira or Cheops) built the great pyramid ; and the 4th 
king (Men-ka-ra) built the third. His coffin is in the British Musseum^ 
showing that he adored Uasir (Osiris) as " the Eternal One, ruler of 
the ages, the bull, the sun." Papyri, both rolled and folded, belong 



Egypt 23 

to this age ; and in a medical treatise we have (says Mr Poole) '' pre- 
scriptions of foreign physicians . . . another indication of relations 
with civilised countries" (Contemporary Review^ September 1881). 
The usual implements of ancient scribes are also thus early mentioned. 
The Meidun tombs belong to the beginning of the dynasty ; many 
were: found intact (Dr F. Petrie, Oriental Congrats, September 1891) : 
some of the pictures occupied an area of 1200 square feet. The 
skeletons are complete, lying on the left side with the knees drawn 
up to the trunk, though the coffins are equal to the whole length of 
the body, and with the heads to the north (see Dead). 

bth dynasty^ at Memphis (or at Elephanta) : say 3950 to 3700 
B.C. The Turin copy of the Ritual belonged to this age, with various 
proverbial treatises. *'A change in (racial) type now took place/' 
according to Dr Virchow (Geog. Soc., Berlin, November 1888). The 
skulls are long, like those of modern Egyptian peasants, whereas those 
of the first four dynasties are round, suggesting a Turanian race. The 
wall pictures show us a jovial nation, rejoicing in field sports, and not 
fearing death. Professor Ebers, and others, believe that a canal from 
the Mediterranean to the Red Sea was begun at this time, though not 
completed till a later age — 1400 B.C. Treatises of this and the next 
dynasty suggest a high civilisation (Academy, 8th September 1900), 
as the passage that follows shows : '' As to thy conduct in debate : 
If the disputant wax warm, and is thy superior in ability, lower thine 
hands, bend the back, and do not be passionate, or interrupt him, for 
this shows that thou art unable to be tranquil when contradicted. If 
thou carry messages from one great man to another, conform thyself 
exactly to what has been entrusted to thee. . . . Whoso perverts his 
message, by repeating only what may be pleasing to any man, great or 
small, is detestable. . . . The great man who has plenty can do as 
pleases himself. ... To order thyself humbly before thy betters is not 
only wisdom but & religious duty, and good before Ood. It is the duty 
of a master to see that his servant knows what is to be done, and does 
it. Give orders without reserve to those who do wrong and are turbu- 
lent. They will not then deviate from the right path. Lose not thy 
temper ; this is a supreme duty. Anger is a fatal malady, leading 
to discord and entanglements. It is fatal to a judge : for he must 
encourage witnesses, and pleaders, and petitioners, advising them, and 
listening with kind looks. The good man must be able to plead before 
bis God that he has given food to the hungry, water to the thirsty, 
clothes to the naked, a boat to the shipwrecked : that he has not 
illtreat^d slaves, nor defrauded the oppressed, nor caused any one 
pain : that he has neither committed nor ordered a murder, nor 



26 Egypt 

harmed even animals; has not wrought fornication, nor borne false 
witness, nor trespassed on the lands of any ; nor has been a tale 
bearer: that he has lied to no man, nor upheld a lie against the 
truth. For he knows that Ood punishes the liar and deceiver." This 
is a higher code than that of patriarchs like Jacob. 

6th dynasty, at Elephanta (Assouan), and at Memphis: saj 
3700 to 3500 B.C. An important family, which seems to have ruled 
all over Egypt, at least in some reigns. It announces in its texts that 
" all priestly establishments " of the early pyramid period ** are to he 
duly maintained." The Ritual in this age is mingled with other 
prayers on the coffins. " They are similar in characters to those of 
the pyramid of Pepi (or Ra-meri) of this dynasty " (Proc, Bib. Arch. 
Socy., May 1881). There are constant allusions to the myth of Osiris, 
and to Nut, Horus, and Seb : to Set, Sothis, and even to Amen. 
Mariette found a memoir by Una, a great prime minister of this 
age — a royal secretary for war and public works alike. He describes 
his services from youth to old age, under the first three kings (Teta III» 
Pepi I, and Mer-en-ra). The country was invaded, and all — including 
the priests — were bidden to defend it : while friendly negro tribes were 
to send contingents. Una says that he defeated the ** people of tbe 
sands," and of the neighbouring sea coasts. Negroes are here first 
mentioned in writing, but are represented on the 1st dynasty slates. 
Negro slaves, and boatmen, and galleys, are noticed supplying Egypt 
with wood, for ships and camps, which came apparently from forests 
on the Atbara River. Una was governor of Upper Egypt, and is 
mentioned in texts on five pyramids. The dynasty ended with Queen 
Nefer-ka-ra (Nitocris), the heroine of many legends. She enlarged 
the third pyramid (4th dynasty) as a tomb for herself, casing it with 
red granite from Sy6ne, and naming it " the superior." Dr Birch 
regards the 6th dynasty as the actual last age of the Old Empire. 
But we have a pyramid as late as the 12th dynasty. 

7th dynusty, at Memphis (say 3500 B.C.), consisted of 70 kings 
ruling for only 70 days, according to Manetho; but others give it 
5 kings ruling for 70 years. We have little information as 
to the period (3500 to 3010) of the 7th and down to the 11th 
dynasty. 

8th dynasty, at Memphis: say 3500 to 3350 b.c. Dr Birch 
says : " After the 6th dynasty a monumental silence announces a 
national calamity. No tomb, nor pyramid, nor contemporary inscrip- 
tion details its fate, or links it to its successors of the 11th dynasty" 
(Sede Lect, 1874). Some doubts exist as to this family. [If they 
were contemporary in lower Egypt with the great 12 th dynasty of 



Egypt 27 

Thebes, which dominated the whole country, this silence might be 
understood perhaps. — Ed.] 

9th dynaMy, at Heracleopolis (Ai^Tiae'el'Medmeh in Lower 
Egypt).: say 3350 to 3240 B.c. These kings also are monumentally 
obscure. 

lO^A dynasty, at Heracleopolis: say 3240 to 3050 B.c. They 
were apparently also quiet rulers, in the Nile valley, or Delta. 

lltJi dynasty^ at Thebes: say 3050 to 3010 B.c. Manetho 
gives no names of these kings, any more than for the four preceding 
dynasties. 

12th dynasty, at Thebes, in Upper Egypt: say 3010 to 2850 
B.C. This was a powerful family, of whom we know much. They 
worked the Sinaitic copper and blue-stone mines ; and appear to have 
held Oezer in Philistia, according to scarabs there excavated. Texts 
of Usertesen I (the 2nd king), occur at Wady el Magharah (** cave 
valley "), and Sarbut-el-Khadim (" servant's stone "), in Sinai ; and 
Amen-em-hat II (the 3rd king), raised a temple at the latter site. 
The story of Saneha begins in the reign of Usertesen I (Proc. Bib. 
Arch. Socy., xiv, pp. 452-458, in 1891 ; Rec. of Fast, New Series, 
ii, p. 19). Saneha fled from Usertesen to Edom, and to shore lands 
far north, beyond the limits of Egyptian influence ; telling a foreign 
ruler, Ammiansi, that the Pharoah " did not covet the lands of the 
north." Lake j\loeris and the Labyrinth were constructed in this 
age. The obelisk of On (Heliopolis), and the tombs of Beni-Hasan, 
are of the same period. Amen-em-hat I, founder of the dynasty, is 
said to have appeared in a dream to his son Usertesen, giving him 
good council. It was apparently a golden age of Egyptian prosperity, 
before the invasion of the Delta by mixed Mongol and Semitic tribes 
from Syria. The vision (of fvhich six texts are known), urges the 
monarch to mix with his people, and not merely with his nobles ; 
the glory of a king is to defend the weak and poor (see Mr S. L. 
Poole, Contemp, Review, Feb. 1879). The will of Amen-em-hat I 
is in the British Museum. The regulation of frontiers, and relations 
with Asiatics, are evidenced by pictures (see fieni-Hasan). The 
Labyrinth, with its 3000 chambens — serving perhaps as public quar* 
ters — was kept in repair henceforth down to the 4th century B.c. 
Pliny regards it as the parent of the Labyrinth of Krete. Dorians 
and lonians probably borrowed their architectural style from the 
monuments and pillars of this age. Some parts of the ritual appear 
for the first time on the monuments of the 12th dynasty. The oasis 
of the Feiyum was filled by Amen-em-hat III (the 6th king), by 
means of a canal dug for 70 miles from the Nile. It became Lake 



28 Egypt 

Moeris, which covered 150 square miles in area. A secondary lake 
was made by another channel, running N.W. to El-!K^rn ("the bom"). 
Ouages were set up on the Nile at the 2nd cataract (Semneh) in 
Nubia. Here Usertesen III (the 5th king), was worshiped. The 
obelisk of On raised by Usertesen I (the 2nd king), was described by 
Strabo, and stands in the ruins of the old sun temple, with its legend : 
" The Hor of the Sun : the life of those who are born, , , . The son 
of the sun-god, Ra Usertesen, friend of the spirits of On. The ever- 
living golden Hor, the good god and dispenser of life for ever more/' 

13^/^ dynasty, at Thebes: say 2850 to 2400 ac Manetho 
gives no names of this dynasty, and the Abydos list seems to ignore 
it. Lenormant considered that the 14th dynasty was contemporary 
with the 13th. [A text of Rameses III refers to a king of the south, 
Soknunra, as contemporary with Apepi, the last king of the loth 
dynasty. Probably the 13 th dynasty was confined to Thebes by the 
foreign princes of the Delta, the Hyksos and others ; it lasted, says 
Manetho, 453 years, while the Hyksos age lasted some 500 years in 
all. — Eo.] A king Sebek-hotep (worshiping the crocodile) is noticed 
at Tanis (Zoan in the Delta), and is attributed to the 13th dynasty. 
Nefer-hotep is called the 22nd king in the Turin papyrus, and he 
records at Philae that " Anka was the giver of my life." The Delta 
was now half Asiatic, and the Theban kings lost power. 

14th dynasty, at Xois (Sakha): say 2400 to 2200 B.C. The 
Turanian fondness for confederacies of tribes instead of kingdoms (seen 
also among Hittites and Etniskans), appears to suggest several small 
provincial chiefs, ruling at the same time in various Egyptian nomes. 
The Hyksos (15th dynasty) seem never to have assumed, the crowns 
of either Upper or Lower Egypt. The 14th dynasty was probably 
contemporary with them, ruling for either 184 or 484 years, accord- 
ing to two statements in Manetho, who gives no names. 

16^A, lUh, nth dynasties. In the Delta: say 2200 to 1700 
B.C. These were foreign Asiatics, at a time when the 1st dynasty of 
Babylon was invading Syria (see Babylon). The 15th dynasty were 
Hyksos (Hyk-shasu, "Nomad Rulers,'' according to Brugsch), and 
ruled, says Manetho, for 284 years : he gives the names of six kings, 
the last being Apophis (Apepi), whose capital was at Zoan or Tanis 
(San), where his name is found (see Hyksos). The l7th dynasty were 
also "shepherds," ruling for 151 years, so that the total shepherd 
period was 435 years. The 16th dynasty are called "Greek shep- 
herds," ruling 518 years (perhaps at Naucratis). Nothing is known 
of them monumentally. The sphynxes found at Tanis were supposed 
to be the work of the Hyksos, but later scholars say that Apepi 



Egypt 29 

scratched his name on native Egyptian sculptures. The sphynz was, 
however, both a Hittite and a Babylonian emblem. Apepi (according 
to Barneses III) worshiped no Egyptian god, but was devoted to 
Sutekh (or Set, according to Cbabas), who was the Hittite chief deity. 
The Hyksos called themselves Min (Brugsch, Hist. JEgt,, i, p. 234), 
coming from a country east of Syria, and near Assyria. They appear 
therefore to have been Minni, or Minyans, from near Lake Van ; and 
the Minyans of this region (Matiene or Mitanni), in the 15th century 
B.C., spoke a Turanian language, being apparently of the same stock 
with the Kassites of Babylon and the Hittites, which agrees with the 
worship of Sutekh. [Between the 12th and 18th dynasties also, foreign 
pottery, like that found in Palestine, Kappadokia, and on the shores of 
the iEgean Sea, appears in Egypt, and is marked with emblems of the 
" Asianic syllabary " which was used by Hittites, Karians, Kretans, and 
Kuprians. These emblems also recur in the lower strata of the 
excavations at Lachish and Oezer in Philistia, indicating the probable 
derivation of this pottery during the Hyksos age. The Hyksos names 
of kings given by Manetho are not Egyptian, and after their time 
Semitic and Akkadian loan words appear, in great numbers, in the 
Egyptian vocabulary. — ^Ed.] 

ISth dyvasty, at Thebes: about 1700 down to 1400 b.c. The 
founder of this great conquering dynasty was Ah-mes ("son of the 
moon "), who first drove the Nubians from Wady Haifa, and afterwards 
expelled the foreigners from the Delta. He then undertook public 
works, <as recorded by his favourite admiral and general Ah-raes, son 
of Abna. Egyptian war vessels now appeared on the Nile, with 
chariots drawn by horses (previously, it seems, unknown to the 
Egyptians, but already used in Asia). White stone was quarried to 
repair the temples of Amen at Thebes, and of Ptah at Memphis. 
Ahmes was succeeded, about 1670, by his son Amenophis I (Amen- 
hotep), whose throne name was Tser-ka-ra. He conquered in the 
south, and enlarged the great Karnak temple of Thebes. About 
1660 he was succeeded by his son, Thothmes I ("child of Thoth "), 
under whom, for the first time, Egyptian armies overran Syria and 
entered Mesopotamia, where the 2nd dynasty of Babylon was appar- 
ently far less powerful than the first had been. He also added Nubia, 
^ far as Dongola to his empire on the south. His eldest son, 
Thothmes II, succeeded (Nefer-shau), but seems to have been a weak 
prince. During the minority of the next king, Thothmes III, brother 
apparently of Thothmes II, Egypt was ruled by his able elder sister, 
Hatasu, who was a great worshiper of Amen-Ba. From the text at 
Sarbut-el-Khadim, in Sinai, it appears that she was still the actual 



30 Egypt 

ruler in the 16th year of Thothmes III. Including these 16 years 
he reigned for 54 in all, and began his conquests in Syria in his 
22 nd year. During 19 years he fought 15 campaigns, and received 
tribute not only from Palestine and N. Syria, but also from Assyria 
and Babylon, according to his own records. His last 14 years were 
apparently peaceful, temples being dedicated in Egypt. Under Hatasu 
an expedition was sent to bring spices and foreign shrubs from Punl^— 
apparently in Abyssinia or Somaliland. The envoys brought back 
ebony, apes, leopards, dogs, slaves, gold, silver, and ivory. In the 
22nd year Thothmes III (about 1580 RC.) defeated Hittites and 
Canaanites near Megiddo, in Central Palestine, and returned laden 
with spoil. In subsequent campaigns he reached Damascus, and 
marched thence to Aradus in Phoenicia. In the 32nd year he 
attacked Sangara the Hittite — probably at Karkemish, where this 
name was dynastic. He then set up his tablet on the Euphrates, 
beside that of Thothmes I. The list of conquered towns includes not 
only Karkemish, but others beyond the Euphrates. He hunted a 
herd of 120 elephants in this region. He left to his son an empire 
reaching 1000 miles NT. and S., and about 400 miles R and W. He 
was brave and determined in war, and equally great in peace. [The 
names of the conquered cities include 119 in Palestine, and 231 
further north. In the south these are all Semitic, but in the north 
many of the town names survive still in the Turkish nomenclature of 
N. Syria.— Ed.] 

Amenhotep II (Ea-aa-Khefru) succeeded his famous father. [His 
mummy has been recently found in its original tomb, in the outer 
chamber of which certain mutilated bodies appear to represent slaves 
sacrificed to accompany him to Hades. See as to this practice under 
Dead. — Ed.] He is said to have slain seven Syrian kings, and to 
have hanged up their bodies in Egypt. He built temples also, and 
made his son priest of Amen. This son, Thothmes IV, appears to 
have been the first to marry an Asiatic wife. His aid was invoked 
(according to an extant tablet), by Bimmon Nirari (apparently of 
Assyria), against the Hittites of Mer'ash in N. Syria. The great 
sphynx was repaired in his reign, and an altar to Har-makhis placed 
in a shrine between its paws. The chariot of this king has also 
recently been discovered. He was succeeded (about 1500 B.c.) by 
his son Amenophis III, who ruled for 36 years. He married 
Teie, a princess who seems to have been an Asiatic, and a recent 
scarab (Proc, Bib. Arch. Socy., May 1899, p. 156), shows that she 
was already his queen in the second year of his reign. In the tenth 
year, according to another scarab {Rec. of Past, Old Series, xii, p. 39) 



Egypt 3t 

he married Gilukhepa, daughter of Suttarna, king of Matiene, or 
Armenia. Thus, for three generations, Semitic and Turanian influ- 
ence b^gan to reassert itself in Egypt ; for Amenophis, son of Ame- 
nophis lU, married Tadukhepa, granddaughter of Suttarna, and 
daughter of Dusratta, while yet crown prince (see Amarna and Aten). 
Amenophis III (whose crown name was Neb-mat-ra, or NimmutriyaX 
visited Armenia himself and there slew 102 lions. During his reign, 
after Suttarna's death, the Hittites revolted ; and Gebal in Syria, was 
attacked by 'AbdasbSrah, the Amorite chief of Lebanon. But this 
Amorite revolt was not countenanced by Kuri-galzu I of Babylon, 
who refused to aid the Canaanites ; while the Hittites were (iefeated 
by Dusratta of Matiene. About the same time, or later, the wild 
Habiri, or 'Abiri, overran S. Palestine (see Amarna and Hebrews), 
and slew the rulers of Gezer, Lachish, Askalon, and other cities of 
Philistia. Amenophis lY acceded after his father had reigned 36 
years; and we know him to have been contemporary with fiurna* 
burias of Babylon — about 1440 or 1430 B.C. He was the principal 
builder of Tell Amarna, though the seals and correspondence of his 
predecessors are found there also. His throne name was Nefer-Rheper- 
Ea, or Nabkhuriya. He assumed later the name Rhu-en-Aten. In 
his reign certain texts with the names of Amen seem to have been 
mutilated ; but he is addressed by the Asiatic princes as being, like 
his father, a worshiper of Amen (as well as of Aten), and the Ritual 
occurs on his coffin. He was no doubt influenced by his Armenian 
wife, and his foreign mother, Teie. In his time 'Aziru, son of 'Abd- 
asherah, revolted aqd captured Semyra, Gebal, Beirut, Sidon, and 
probably Tyre ; while the Hittites of ^adesh, under Edugama, in- 
vaded Bashan in league with Amorites, and attacked Damascus. This 
second revolt may have been after the death of Dusratta, to whom a 
large part of N. Syria — from Haran to Ralkhis (Rinnesrin), appears 
to have been granted under Egyptian suzerainty, at the time of Tadu* 
kbepa*s marriage to Amenophis IV. The Hittites of Mer'ash were 
still independent in this region, and those of ^sulesh on the Orontes^ 
further S., became so also during this later rebellion. The last-named 
kiug of this famous dynasty was Horus (Hor-em-heb : Proc. Bib. ArcK 
Socy,, March 1896), of whom little or nothing is known. His throne 
name was Heri-en-Amen ; and he was apparently a worshiper of 
Amen, Uor, Thoth, Rhem, Set, Maut, Athor, Anuk and other native 
Egyptian gods. He is called ** the lion of the land of Rush . . . like 
to Mentu, lord of Thebes." His wife was a sister-in-law of Ame- 
nophis lY ; and he appears to have died about 1400 B.C., or a little 
earlier, Egyptian chronology is only approximate down to about 800 B.C, 



82 Egypt 

19th dynasty, at Thebes ; about 1400 down to 1200 ac. The 
founder Rameses I (Ramessu, enthroned as Men-pehti-ra) appears to 
have been at war with Sap-lil, the Hittite king of l^adesh, while striv- 
ing to recover what had, perhaps, been lost during the reign of Ameno- 
phis IV. He was succeeded by Meren-ptah, or Seti I, said to have been 
his son-in-law. This king began by defeating Asiatics at SbaruheD, east 
of Gaza, and fought with Mautenar, the Hittite king of il^adesh [an 
inscription with his name was found in 1901 at Tell esh Shehab, in 
Bashan, by the Rev. John Kelman. — Ed.] His fleets sailed on the 
Red Sea, but we hear of no naval exploits in the Mediterranean. He 
began (or continued) a canal from the Mediterranean to the Gulf of 
Suez, which his son completed ; and built temples at Karnak, Thebes, 
and Abydos. In the " Valley of Kings " he excavated the deepest 
tomb in the world for himself: the shaft runs 900 feet through solid 
rock ; and here his empty sarcophagus — now in the Sloane Museum — 
was found by Belzoni in 1817. The mummy, like most of those of 
the 18th and 19th dynasties, was transferred later to the rocky 
hiding-place at Deir el Babeiri. This coffin is covered with portions 
of the Ritual, describing Amenti ; the boat of Ra ; and the punish- 
ment of the wicked by Tum and Horus. Seti I calls himself Seti- 
meri-Ptah (" lover of Ptah ") ; but, on the gates of temples at Karnak 
and elsewhere, he appears as a worshiper of Amen, Mentu, Shu, 
Khein, Knef, Sati (Set), Tefnut, Ank, Maut, and other gods. His 
miners in the deserts between the Red Sea and the Nile (as shown 
by the stela of Kuban, near Dakg), were perishing for want of water, 
and (like Moses) he is said to have supplied it : " He spoke to the 
rock and the water flowed forth." A shaft was dug for 120 cubits 
(200 feet); the water at length sprang up to 6 feet above the ground 
(this being the first known artesian well) ; and the people cried : 
** Thou art Ra ; whatsoever pleases thy heart shall happen. If thou 
seekest light in the night, it is so. If thou sayest to the water come 
up upon the mountain ; lo 1 the ocean will come forth *' (see JBec. of 
Past, New Series, vol. v). The tablet of Abydos comes down to Seti I, 
giving 75 kings before him, from Menes to Nefer-ka-ra (Nitocris) the 
last of the 6th dynasty, followed by 18 unknown kings; the 57th 
name is Mentu-hotep, and that of Seti's father immediately precedes 
his own. The list differs, however, from that of Sakkara. Seti's wife, 
Tua, is believed to have been a daughter of Amenophis IV. He had 
three sons, the eldest being Miamun (Rameses II), whom he is said 
to have associated with himself in the government when only 12 
years old. 

The reign of Rameses II must have begun about 1330 B.c. 



Egypt 88 

He is Raid in one text to have ruled '* when yet in the egg " ; and 
from his mummy (with sparse grey hairs) he appears to have been an 
old man when he died. Manetho states that he reigued 66 years, so 
that his son would not succeed till about 1270 B.C. His wars in 
Syria carried Egyptian arms north of ilgladesh on Orontes into the 
Hittite country, and in later years he made a treaty with the Hittite 
king Kheta-sar on equal terms. He made Tanis (the old Hyksos 
capital) his chief city in Lower Egypt, calling it Fi-Ramessn (" capital 
of Barneses ") ; and his inscriptions are found here, and at Tell 
Maskhutah, or Pithom, in the same district 

The city of Rameses (probably Tanis) could not apparently have 
been so named before the commencement of the 19th dynasty at 
earliest (see Oen. xlvii, 11 ; Ex. i, 11); but to suppose that 
Joseph lived in this age would cause inextricable confusion, if Israel 
dwelt 430 years in Egypt: for in that case the Exodus would be 
brought down to 900 ac. — a century later than the approximate 
diite of Solomon's accession ; whereas we know from the " Black 
Obelisk" that Jehu was reigning about 840 B.c. Renouf (Proc. 
Bib, Arch^ Socy., Dec, 1893) says that: "Egyptian records know 
absolutely nothing about Israelites " ; and he adds : *' We may dis- 
sociate Moses and the Exodus from the date of any Bameses, but we 
cannot so dissociate the writer of the sacred nairatives. He did not 
live before the great Bameses, and he may have lived many centuries 
later. The further back the Exodus is placed, the more clear it 
becomes that the Pentateuch could not have been written by Moses^ 
and the less claim has the narrative to be considered contemporaneous, 
or even recent, history." 

On the S. wall of the Eamak temple the siege of Askalon by a 
Rameses, supposed by Brugsch to be Rameses II, is represented. A 
rock text at the mouth of the Dog River, N. of Beirut, shows that 
Rameses II was there with his army in his 4th and 10th years. 
Other texts of his reign occur at Sidon, and at Sheikh S'ad in Bashan. 
In his 5 th year a great league of northern nations, " from the extreme 
end of the sea to the land of the Hittites " was formed to oppose him 
(Brugsch, Hist. Egt., ii, p. 44). The names of the tribes include 
maoy that are the subject of learned disputes, but among them we 
find Hittites, and people of Aradus, and Aleppo, and Gozan, with 
those of Naharina (Naharalm), gathering under the prince of the 
Kheta or Hittites (Rec. of Past, Old Series, i, p. 67). Kadesh and 
Karkemish are named, with the Masu (Mysians), Pidasa (Pedasos), 
Leka (Lycians or Ligyes), Dardani (Dardanos), and others. [The 
Kassites were then ruling in Babylon, and the whole Turanian power, 



84 Egypt 

from Asia Minor and Syria to Mesopotamia — perhaps aided by Aryans 
(see Barneses III, below) — ^was leagued against Egypt — Ed.] Id 
his 8th year Kameses II conquered certain towns in lower Oalilee, 
including Dapur or Tabor and Shalama : [this may be Sulem (Shunem), 
to which are added Marama (Mevrun), Beta Antha ('Ainata, Beth 
'Anath), and Elalopu (perhaps Shelabun\ with 'Ain Anamim — Ed.]. 
The conquest of ^adesh on Orontes (^adea) followed the defeat of 
the league. The army appears ("Third Sallier Papyrus") to have 
advanced by Beirut and the valley of the Eleutherus ; and Bameses 
himself narrowly escaped from a Hittite ambuscade, through which 
he dashed with his wonted bravery. Eventually he overthrew them ; 
and their king humbly sued for peace. An honourable and Mendly 
treaty was concluded for mutual protection ; and, in the 34:th year of 
the reign of Barneses II, King Kheta-sira (of Ijladesh) brought to 
Egypt his daughter, who was admired by the Pharaoh, and who 
received the name Ur-ma-nefer-ra. Up to his 21st year Barneses 
continued to march and fight for empire in Asia (Brugsch, Hist 
Egtf ii, p. 63). Many otherwise learned critics still maintain that 
the Exodus took place during the active reign of Bameses II. Even 
in 1896 Dr E. Mahler published a volume to show that "the flight 
was in 1335, the 13th year of Bameses II, which is proved from the 
Amama tablets, showing the synchronism of the reigns of Amenophis 
lY and Burnaburias and Assur-uballid." The connection is not 
apparent ; and the coincidence of reign certainly does not fix exactly 
the accession of Bameses (see Babylon). 

[Another valuable record of this reign relates the adventures of 
an Egyptian in Syria (Rec, of Past, Old Series, i, p. 108). He 
travelled from the land of the Hittites by l^ladesh to Gebal, Beirut, 
Sidon, and Sarepta. He mentions Tyre on its island with a double 
port ; and names many cities of Galilee, and the Jordan Biver, with 
Megiddo. The country was full of robbers ; but friendly chiefs gave 
him camel's flesh. His chariot was repaired at Joppa, whence he 
returned home by Behoboth, Gaza, and Baphia. — Ed.] 

Bameses built granaries in the desert near the Delta, and a wall 
90 miles long, from Heliopolis to Pelusium, to keep out the wandering 
tribes on the borders of Egypt. The age was one of great literary 
activity, and we find " writers on history, divinity, practical philosophy, 
epistolary correspondence, poetry, and morals." " Pentaur, the epic 
poet," wrote the Lay of Bameses Victorious. Enna, the State librarian, 
was the first novelist, writing the Tale of the Ttvo Brothers, Anpu 
(Anubis), and Bata (** the earth soul "), which contains an episode 
recalling the story of Joseph and Potiphar's wife. [This folk-lore tale 



E^pt 85 

describes how Bata, when accused by his brother's wife, cut off his 
phallus which a fish swallowed. He heard the cows talking, and fled 
to the cedar tree in the East, where he left his heart, and met a 
beautiful witch. The sea carried a scented lock of her hair to Egypt, 
and the king sent an army to find her. Bata wa.s slain, and became 
a Fersea tree, a chip of which the witch swallowed, and he was thus 
reborn a king. The incident of the scented hair occurs in a Hindu 
tale : and other legends of this age in Egypt recall Aryan myths. — ^Ed.] 
The fragmentary Turin papyrus, giving the dates of kings, also 
belonged to this age originally. Rameses II was a great builder, and 
constructed the Ramesseum at Thebes, and the beautiful rock temples 
of Abu Simbel. He completed the '' Hall of Columns " at Kamak ; 
and from its has reliefs we learn much as to his conquest of il^adesh 
and other cities. He died in old age, and his mummy presents a very 
striking countenance, more Asiatic than Egyptian, with a powerful 
aquiline nose. He did not however scruple to erase the names of 
former kings (even it is said of his own father), to substitute his own 
in records of conquest. He was worshiped in temples as " the just 
and vigilant one, the son of the sun, of Amen, Ptah, and Horus." 
" Resting," says Dean Stanley, " in awful majesty, after the conquest of 
all the known world." He appears to be the Sesostris of the Greeks, 
whose conquests extended to the shores of the iEgean Sea according 
to Herodotos, the name being the Egyptian Se-sopt-ra. 

About 1270 B.C. Rameses II was succeeded by his eldest 
surviving son Merenptah II (the first so named being Seti I), or the 
Mineptah of Manetho. His throne name was Hotep-hi-ma (" he who 
trusts in truth '*) ; ^and he maintained the power of Egypt, and the 
Hittite alliance. The " White Libyans " [apparently Greek colonists 
from Krete, in accord with Greek tradition — Ed.], raided the W, 
borders of Egypt in his reign, in alliance with tribes from the north. 
They threatened On and Memphis, but the generals of Mineptah 
" defeated the invaders totally and irremediably " (Rec, of Passt^ Old 
Series, iii, p. 39) ; and afterwards it appears that Libyans were found 
in Egyptian service as " most trusted troops." [Among the names of 
tribes allied to the Libyans we find Akausha (supposed to be Achseans), 
Tursha or Tulsha (people of Tros, Thrace, or Tlos), Shartana (Sardians), 
and others "of the lands of the sea." Of Libyans 6359 were killed 
and of the allies 2370 : the Libyan prisoners included 218 women 
of vanquished chiefs; and 9376 weapons were taken from 9111 men. 
" They came to the land of Khemi (Egypt) to search for possessions," 
but were defeated after '^ six hours of slaughter." Mineptah also sent 
to the land of the Fettishu, " which I made to take corn in boats to 



*6 Egypt 

give life to the land of the Eheta : for I am he to whom the gods 
have brought all support : the world is under my power : king of the 
upper and lower country, Ba-en-ra ('soul of Ra'), beloved of Amen, son 
of the sun — Meren-ptah." — Ed.] In 1896 Prof. W. M. Flinders 
Petrie (Academy, 11th April ; Contemporary Review, May) published 
an account of a granite stela of Amenophis III, found face downwards 
in a wall, with a later text of Meren-ptah, supposed to be. Mineptah IL 
It refers to the victory ; and, in the last paragraph, the king says : 
^' Vanquished are the Tahennu (N. Africans) : the Kheta (Hittites) 
are quieted : ravished is Pa-Ejinana (noticed by the Mohar of the 
reign of Rameses II as being near Tyre) with all violence ; taken is 
Askadna : Yenu of the Amu (Yanoab near Tyre) is made as though it 
had not existed : the people I-si-ra-il-u is spoiled, it has no seed, 
Syria (Ruten, or Khar) has become as the widows {Khar) of the land 
of Egypt : all lands together are at peace." This name Isirailu has 
the determinatives of man and woman (Atheiueum, 25th April 1896), 
evidently applying to a race and not to a city. [The suggestion that 
we should read " Jezreel " is also objectionable, as the word does not 
contain the letter z, or the guttural *ain, in the Egyptian. — ^Ed.] If 
we have here a notice of Israel in Palestine about 1270 to 1260 EC, 
we must discard the legend attributed to Manetho, which would place 
the date of the Exodus in the reign of an Amenophis, following 
Rameses II and supposed to be Mineptah. It relates (according to 
Josephus, who entirely discredits it) that, after a rebellion of a leprous 
people led by Osarsiph they were expelled, and founded Jerusalem. 
But Renouf {Proc. Bib, Arch, Socy,, December 1893) warned us that 
^' no importance should be attached to any of the statements attributed 
to Manetho, when they cannot be verified by the monuments " (see 
Hebrews). 

Mineptah II was succeeded by his son Seti II, or Mineptah III, 
who appears to have lived quietly at Thebes. On the rocks of Abu 
Simbel there is notice of his conquests in Nubia ; and Brugsch believes 
that " his rule was acknowledged in the far north-east " (Hist Egt,, 
ii, p. 133). There is some doubt as to the successor of this king 
(Set-nakht, or Miamun II, according to Brugsch ; Meri-en-Ptah or 
Siptah according to others); but the great 19th dynasty sank 
in decay, and anarchy followeid about 1200 B.c. According to 
Rameses III a Syrian or Phoenician named Haris, or Harith, ruled 
in the Delta during this period. Papyri of the 19th or 20th dynasty, 
found in 1894, speak of workmen employed in the necropolis of 
Thebes, with notice of their sickness, bad morals, and revolt for 
non-payment of their wages; and it was at this time, apparently, 



Egypt 87 

that the great Pharaohs were removed from their coffins to the 
hidlDg-pIace at Deir-el-Baheiri, being stolen — some suppose — ^by the 
tomb excavators. 

20th dymasty, at Thebes; about 1200 down to 1060 ac 
This age is not yet clearly known. Set-nakht» according to his 
son Bameses III, '* established his authority by prompt and vigorous 
measures." He seems to have been a relative, if not a son, of Seti 11. 
He was " like the god Khepra-Sutekh in his fury : he put in order 
the lands that had revolted, executed the rebellious, and purified the 
throne; set up temples, and prescribed their services and laws." 
Kameses III is called ''the last of the great Pharaohs,", and is 
known to us by the Harris papyri, and by sculptures at Medinet 
Habu. He appears to have fought in Mt Seir and the Sinaitic 
desert, and with the Mediterranean races in the north. From pictures 
of his reign we know that many of these were light-complexioned 
peoples, with blue eyes, and long side-locks like those of early Greek 
statues, wearing also homed helmets such as occur on Mycenean vases. 
The list of tribes who attacked Egypt '' by sea and land," and who 
wasted Aradus and Karkemish, and "camped in the land of the 
Amorites" — that is to aay in the Lebanon — includes the Hittite^, 
and the Kati (of Kappadokia), the Ainorites, and the Danau (Danai 
or Qreeks), with the Zakkar (of Mt. Zagreus), and the Purosata or 
Pilista. Rameses III appears to have pursued them to Cilicia and 
Cyprus, and afterwards deported Shardana (Sardians) to Egypt, and 
settled the Uashuash (Libyans) at the Bamesseum, receiving tribute 
also from Buten or Syria (Brugsch, Hist. Ilgt., ii, p. 140-152). His 
conquests include (Rec. of Fast, New Series, vi, pp. 31-45) a list 
of 39 towns. . [The position of these is disputed in most cases ; but 
they are admitted to include Aleppo and Karkemish in Syria ; 
Adana in Cilicia with Soli; and, in Cyprus, Idalion, Kition, and 
Kabyra. — Ed.] 

Bameses III made a great reservoir near Suez, and reopened the 
SiDaitic mines. He suppressed a serious palace plot ; and it is recorded 
that " the weakest woman could travel unmolested wherever she wished, 
and mercenary soldiers reposed at ease in their cities." With his death 
the palmy period of Egyptian history closes. He never mentions any 
Hebrews ; and we may suppose that their judges were merely local 
sheikhs, mainly in the mountains, whose deeds were magnified by later 
Hebrew writers. We know very little about the later kings of this 
dynasty, who appear to have borne the name of Bameses as a rule. 
A king Meri-tum followed Bameses YI; and about 1060 B.c. the 
dynasty fell into decay, Egypt being then apparently under Assyrian 



88 Egypt 

influence. The priests of Amen rose to protect themselves, and 
Barneses IX is represented leaning on a priest. The connection 
with Mesopotamia seems to be indicated by a story which relates 
how the ark of Ehonsu was sent away "a 17 months' journey," to 
heal a princess in Baktan, where perhaps Tiglath Pileser I was 
ruling. 

21 8^ dynasty, in Thebes; about 1060 down to 960 B.c. The 
high priest of Amen in Tanis, Her-hor, was a friend of Rameses XIII, 
and became king, having, it is believed, married a princess of Nineveh. 
Egypt was perhaps in friendly relationship with the rising power of 
Assyria, In this age (see Brugsch, Hist. Egt., ii, p. 192) we read of 
a Rameses who married the daughter of Palaskhalnes the great 
king of Assyria ; but Assyrian history is unknown during the 11th 
century B.c. We hear also of a certain Naromat (perhaps Naram- 
Addu, '' Hadad be exalted ") son of '' Sheshonk (Shishak) great king 
of Assyria," and himself " great king of Assyria, king of kings," as 
having been buried at Abydos, where a statue was erected in his 
honour. He appears to have been the son of an Egyptian princess 
Mehet-en-nukh. The second king of the dynasty was Fi-ankh ; and 
the third, Pi-netem I, is noticed in Tanis. This dynasty would be 
contemporary with the reigns of David and Solomon, and it appears 
that the Egyptians then attacked Gezer in Palestine (1 Kings iii, 1 ; 
ix, 16), being allied according to the Bible with the Hebrews. Egypt, 
however, had not relinquished its claims to suzerainty, as the next 
episode in its history shows. 

22nd dynasty, at Bubastis ; about 960 down to 840 B.c. The 
first King Sheshonk, or Shishak, assembled a great army (2 Chron. 
xii, 2), and attacked Palestine after the death of Solomon. He was 
apparently a son of Naromat, aud thus an ally of Assyria. He has 
left us a list of 133 towns in Palestine, extending to Galilee, which 
he conquered. Reboboam was only allowed to reign in Judah as a 
tributary of Egypt, and Jeroboam found refuge in Egypt when flying 
from Solomon. The name Tuda-Malak, in the list of Shishak, is 
that of a town (perhaps Jehud of Dan) not of a " king of Judah " 
[which would be bad grammar in Egyptian speech — Ed.]. The 
second king of the dynasty was Usarkon I : who appears to be the 
Zerab of Ethiopia (2 Chron. xiv, 9) who attacked Asa of Judah. 
Takelut I (perhaps Tiglath), the 6th king according to Manetho, was 
succeeded by Usarkon II ; and the last three were Sheshonk II, 
Takelut II, and Sheshouk III. [As far as known, therefore, nearly 
all the kings of this dynasty seem to have borne names connecting 
them with Assyria. — Ed.] 



Egypt 89 

23rd dynasty, aX Tanis and Thebes; about 840 down to 750 
B.C. Four kings are noticed by Manetho, but there are no monu- 
mental records of their history. 

24th dynasty ; a single king Bochoris is noticed by Manetho, 
and was captured about 744 B.C. by Sabaco. 

25th dynasty. These kings appear to have been Ethiopians 
ruling from Napata (Jebel Barkal), the dynasty (consisting of three 
kings, Sabaco, Sevechus, and Tarako or Tirhakah, according to 
Manetho) lasted till 670 B.C., when the latter was taken prisoner by 
Esarhaddon of Assyria (as represented on a bas relief at Samala in N. 
Syria) after the destruction of his palace at Memphis. [According to 
Sennacherib Egypt had several small kinglets in this age; and if 
Tirhakah was king of Ethiopia about 702 B.G. (2 Kings xix, 9) he 
must have reigned some 32 years. Manetho gives him only 18 ; but 
his total of 40 for the dynasty appears to be too short to agree with 
Assyrian dates; for Sevechus was the King So (2 Kings xvii, 4) 
whose aid Hoshea invoked against Assyria, about 730 B.C. — Ed.] In 
C70 B.O. Egypt became a satrapy of Ass3nia under Esarhaddon. 
Tirhakah calls himself "King of Khemi, of Tesher (the Bed Sea 
region), and of Kep-Kep or Nubia." He appears, according to a 
recent discovery, to have pursued the retreating Sennacherib (in 702 
B.C.) to Syria, though previously defeated by him in the plains near 
Joppa, when Sennacherib shut up Hezekiah in Jerusalem, and carried 
off 200,150 captives from towns of Judah. 

26th dynasty. From 670 to 527 B.C., the dates being now 
controlled by Assyrian records. [On the death of Esarhaddon, in 
Egypt, Assurbani-pal acceded in 668 B.c. Assyria was now suzerain 
from Elam to Egypt, but the tributary nations were all discontented. 
In 648 he was involved in a great struggle with his brother at 
Babylon, and after that in a long Elamite war. On his death the 
power of Assyria rapidly decayed from about 625 to 610 B,c., when 
Nineveh, already ruined by the Scythian incursions, was destroyed by 
the allied Babylonians and Modes. The Babylonians were conquered 
by Cyrus in 53.8, and Cambyses couquered Egypt in 527 B.C. 
Manetho gives 9 kings for the 26th dynasty, of whom the third was 
Necho I, who, according to Brugsch, was deposed by Assur-bani-pal 
and taken prisoner to Nineveh, but afterwards re-established as a 
tribatary ruler at Sais and Memphis. His successor, Psammetichus, 
ruled 54 years, followed by Necho II, who attacked Josiah, king of 
Judah, about 607 B.C. (2 Kings xxiii, 84). The 7th king was 
Hophra, and the 8th, Amasis. — Ed.] Psammetichus I was a Libyan 
who, aided by Gyges, king of Lydia, asserted his independence of 



40 Egypt 

Assyria. His name as an ^thiopic word is rendered ** son of the 
sun." He introduced Phoenician, E^arian, and Greek mercenaries into 
Egypt, whose rough texts are found at Abu Simbel. He is said to 
have built a temple to Ptah at Aradus in Phoenicia; but, about 630 
B.C., all western Asia was devastated by the Scythiaos, who advanced 
to the borders of Egypt from the Caucasus. Psammetichus repaired 
the Theban temples, and added a great court to that of Ptah at 
Memphis. He excavated the great Apis mausoleum at Sakkara. In 
his time also the Phoenicians, starting from Suez, circumnavigated 
Afirioat 

Necho (Nuku II), the successor of Psammetichus, undertook a 
ship canal from the Bitter Lakes to Suez, but desisted after losing 
some 120,000 workmen. In 608 he attacked Palestine, but soon 
after was defeated by Nebuchadnezzar (Nabu-kudur-usur) of Babylon, 
at Elarkemish on the Euphrates. After his death, and the short 
reign of Psammetichus II, Apries or Hophra acceded about 590 B.c. 
(Jer. xliv, 30) ; he appears to have been killed by Nebuchadnezzar 
when he invaded Egypt as far as Syene in 568 B.c. : Ahmes or 
Amasis was then set on the throne, as a Babylonian tributary. He 
favoured the introduction of foreign art and trade, and established 
Greeks at Naucratis. When the power of Babylon began to wane, on 
the death of Nebuchadnezzar, Amasis seized on Cyprus, and demanded 
tribute from Phoenicia. He imprudently allied himself with Croesus 
against the rising power of Cyrus, and shortly after his death 
Cambyses, son of Cyrus, entered Egypt, and Psammetichus III was 
slain, with some 2000 of his leading men. Thus ended the long 
line of the Pharaohs, and Egypt became a Persian province. 

2^th dynasty, from 527 to 405 B.C. This consisted of Persians 
to the death of Darius II. The temples of Egypt were preserved by 
the tolerant Persians, and no stranger was allowed to defile them ; at 
Sais Cambyses is described as ^ the friend of all the gods and guardian 
of the temples" (Brugsch, Hiat Egt., ii, pp. 294-296). He offered 
libations to " The Everlasting One," in the temple of Neith, and this 
title was that given to Osiris by his Egyptian subjects. Darius I 
(521 to 485 B.C.) also dedicated a temple to Amen near El Kharjeh, 
and here a text of Darius II (about 424 b.g.) says that it "stands 
in remembrance of my father the great god Amen-Ra." About 
485 B.O., however, Egypt strove to shake off the Persian yoke, when 
Xerxes (485 to 464 b.c.) succeeded Darius I, and became involved 
in his great war on Greece: it again revolted in 460 B.c. from 
Artaxerzes I, with Athenian aid, and was not subdued for five 
years. 



Ekash-taka 41 

28ih dyncuty. Amertseus of Sais revolted in 405 B.c. on the 
accession of Artaxerxes II, or perhaps earlier ; and was not subdued 
for 6 years. 

29th dynasty — Mendesians, ruling for 20 years according to 
Manetho (about 400 to 380 B.c). During this period Evagoras of 
Cyprus revolted firom Persia (391 to 385 B.C.), and was supported by 
aid of 50 Egyptian galleys. 

30^ dynasty — ^the Sebenytic; consisting of three kings, 
380 to 340 B.C. This was the last attempt of the Egyptians to 
recover their freedom. In 351 RC. Nectanebo was set up in Egypt 
as a Pharaoh, supported by the Greeks. The Phoenicians drove out 
their Persian governors from Syria and Cilicia. But Artaxerxes III 
(Okhos) succeeded in detaching Tennes, king of Sidon, and enlisted 
10,000 Greeks from Thebes, Argos, and Asia Minor — enemies of the 
Athenians and Spartans. The treachery of Tennes led to the ruin of 
the alliance against Persia, but on his submission, he was put to 
death. Nectanebo — the last Egyptian king — fled to Ethiopia, and 
never returned. 

31 8^ dyTuisty. This merely consisted of the last kings of Persia, 
''Okhos, Arus, and Darius," according to Manetho — firom 340 
to 332 B.C., when Alexander the Great conquered Egypt. Even as 
late as this period we find the ancient Egyptian gods still worshiped, 
including according to inscriptions *' Khnum the lord of all gods," 
and " Tum the great primordial male power, the ram, the begetter " 
(Brugsch). 

Ekash-takft. The daughter of Praja-pati (the creator) and the 
mother of Indra and Soma. 

Ekbatana. Otherwise Agbatana (Aiskhulos). A name given 
to several fortresses in Greek works, in Media, Persia, and even on 
Mt Earmel. The most famous is the palace-citadel of the Median 
king Deioces, supposed to be Hamadan at the foot of Mt Elvand. 
Herodotos describes it as having seven surrounding walls, each painted 
a different color, like the Babylonian Ziggurats (see Architecture). 
It is supposed that Akhmetha (Ezra vi, 2), the fort (Bvrah) of the 
Medes, was the same (Proc. Bib. Arch, iSocy., June 1893). Perse- 
polis, Ispahan, and the Arsacid fortress Europus, were so named. 
[Probably it is Akkadian, viz. Ak-bata-na, "height of the fort," 
rendered Hama-danu, or ''strong enclosure," in Semitic speech. 
—Ed.] 

EL Elah. Elohim. Hebrew : " strong one." (Assyrian ilu^ 



42 Elagabalus 

Hi, Udni : Arabic Aldk) The name for " God " or " Lord " in all 
Semitic languages. [In Assyrian, and in the Amarna letters, the 
plural {Hi, or Elohim) is used as a singular, and as a title for kings. 
— Ed.] From the same root come names for high trees, £lah, 
" terebinth," and " oak " (also Elon and All on) ; as also perhaps 
AU "ram," Ayil "buck" [from the cognate root AiZ "strong" 
— Ed.]. The Elohim, or Ale-im, were gods of trees — see Abraham's 
oak-tree shrines at Shechem and Hebron ("the oak of Moreh," 
Oen. xii, 6: xxxiii, 20: xxxv, 4: Josh, xxiv, 26: "the oaks of 
Mamre," Gen. xiii, 18: xviii, 1, 4: the "oak" of Bethel, 
Gen. xxxv, 8), 

Elagabalus. Otherwise Heliogabalus. The Aramaik Ela- 
gabal ("god of the mountain"), a deity worshiped at Emesa 
(Homs), in Central Syria, as a " large black stone." Bassianus 
(commonly called Heliogabalus), the high priest of this shrine, was 
the son of Julia of Emesa, sister of the Empress Julia Domna, and 
so became Emperor of Eome at the age of 14 years, by the favour of 
the legionaries of Syria in 218 A.C. He assumed the name Marcus 
Aurelius Antoninus Pius, in memory of his famous Antoniue prede- 
cessors. He built the great Ba'albek temple, and carried the black 
stone of Elagabalus to Rome, where it was solemnly married to 
Venus Urania. After four years of foolish, corrupt, and superstitious 
rule, he was murdered by his own soldiers, and the body thrown into 
the Tiber (222 A.C.), whence he was nicknamed Tiberinus. 

'Elam. Hebrew : " high land." The plateau of W. Persia, east 
of the Tigris. [The Akkadian name is Si-nim, " high region," Baby- 
lonian *Elamu. See Isaiah xlix, 12. — Ed.] 

Elapatra. Sanskrit. A powerful serpent, hero, or deity, son 
of Kadru, a daughter of Daksha, and of Easyapa (the sun) : she 
produced a thousand many-headed snakea 

Elburz. The mountain chain N. of Teheran (see Damavand and 
Elvand), rising 18,600 feet above sea level, with many peaks 10,000 
feet high. It was the Persian " world mountain," Hara-barazaite, or 
Hala-barjat. 

Elektra. Greek. The daughter of Okeanos and Tethus, the 
" bright one," wife of Athamas (Tammuz), also a daughter of Iris, 
the rainbow. She bore Dardanos, and lason, to Ilios — a sky god; 
and through grief for the destruction of Troy (Ilion), she was changed 
into one of the Pleiades. 



Eleos 43 

EleOS. An Athenian god of " mercy." 

Hlephant* This revered and royal animal symbolises wisdom 
in India (see Ganesa), but was not generally worshiped. It wajs the 
carrier and symbol of Indra ; and Buddha took the form of a white 
elephant in the womb of Maya, which is the reason why it is sacred 
in Barmah. The range of the elephant in W. Asia appears to have 
been considerably wider in earlier ages. Carved ivory figures of 
elephants are mentioned as offerings even in the reign of Khufu (2nd 
king of 4th dynasty) in Egypt, and they decorate the coffin of 
Antef II. About 1580 B.C., Thothmes III hunted 120 wild elephants 
near Ni (Ninus Yetus), on the Euphrates ; and a picture of his reign 
shows a Syrian leading a young elephant as a present to Egypt. 
Ivory is also noticed as part of the tribute from Syria. About 850 
B.C. the elephant appears, with apes, Baktrian camels, a buffaloe, and 
a rhinoceros, on the '' black obelisk " of Shalmaneser in Assyria. In 
702 B.C. Sennacherib received ivory thrones from Hezekiah of Judah, 
recalling Solomon's ivory throne. About 490 to 403 B.C., Phidias in 
Greece used ivory for statues. In China (1700 to 1100 B.C.), the 
Shang dynasty imported ivory, with apes, peacocks, tortoise-shell, and 
pearls (Sir George Bird wood, Aihenoeum, 22nd June 1895). Apes 
still exist in China, elephants probably came from Barmah. The 
"horns" of the Am-aki (" bull's tooth") hunted by Tiglath Pileser I 
(1130 B.C.), near the Euphrates, are variously regarded as elephants* 
teeth or horns of the wild bull. Ivory (SheTt^hablm, "tooih of 
elephants"), came from Tarshish [Tarsus — Ed.] in Solomon's time, 
according to the Bible (1 Kings x, 22). The Hebrew Hab is pro- 
bably the Sanskrit Ibha (used also in Tamil) for " elephant " {Mann, 
vi, 121, Ibha-^nta, "elephants tooth " or ivory). In India hati is 
the *' hand-nosed one." Homer (about 750 B.C. or later) speaks of 
elephas, for ivory, as do Pindar, Hesiod, Herodotos, and Aristotle. 
Ivory objects are found early at Troy, and in Earia and other parts 
of Asia Minor, as well as in Syria. Elephants were used by both 
Persians and Indians against Alexander the Great (330 B.C.), and by 
the Seleucidie in Syria. Ptolemy Philadelphos (283-247 B.C.) 
organised elephant farms in Abyssinia, or in Somaliland, and had 
400 African war elephants. Pyrrhus defeated the Romans (280 B.C.) 
by bringing elephants to Italy; about 250 B.C. they are commonly 
represented in Indian cave-temples. The Carthaginians apparently 
tamed the African elephant, and Hannibal (218 B.C.) brought them 
over the Alps. The Romans called them "Lucanian bulls." The 
word defphaSy for elephant and ivory (Arabic El-fU), is the Semitic 



44 Elephanta 

aleiph or aJ/pu, "bull" or "ox." [The word eb signified "elephant" 
in Egyptian, like the Hebrew hah (see Abu). The Assyrian word 
hiri for " ivory " is probably the origin of the Greek fbwr ; and ibis 
ivory was known first, apparently, by Semitic trade in Europe. — ^Ed.] 
(see BehemothX 

Elephantai or Ghara-puri. A celebrated sacred islet in the 
Bombay harbour, about 6 miles from the city, and 4 miles from the 
coast It is named frt)m a large stone elephant {goQ or gcLr}\ which 
stood near the usual landing-place, close to the cave-temple of Siva» 
In 1814 this elephant began to decay, and was reconstructed in 1864 
being transferred to the Victoria gardens in Bombay. A large stone 
horse, once in the valley between the two hills of the island, has 
disappeared. The trap rock weathers easily, and the great cave 
(about 130 ft. square, and 15 to 18 ft. high), is now half filled up. 
A winding path leads up to the entrance, 250 fL above the sea. On 
entering we are faced by a colossal three-faced bust of the Tri-murti 
or Trinity — Siva as Creator, Preserver, and Destroyer. Other statues 
of the god, some 40 or 50 figures, are cut in the rock. In a chapel 
15 ft square there are 8 nude figures, 13 to 14 ft high, guarding the 
lingam, on the top of which the sun setting in the west shines, through 
an orifice. This so-called " wishing stone " is 2 fL in diameter, and 
3 ft high, standing in an Argha (see Argha), which is filled with ghu 
or melted butter, or with juices of plants, rice, etc., with which pious 
Hindus constantly anoint the lingam. They collect the drippings to 
anoint themselves, as a cure for sickness, or for fertilising purposes. 
East of the Tri-murti is the famous Ardhanar-Isvara figure, half male, 
half female, now much mutilated (see Rivera of Life^ i, plate xiv). 
It represents the legend of creation (see under its name, and under 
Brahma). Other caves on the island have been plundered by 
foreigners. They contain strange phallic figures (see Payne Ej:iigbt, 
Worship of Priapvs), The site is visited in February (see Siva- 
Batri). Fergusson supposes the caves to date from our 8th or 9th 
century (see Elora). 

Elephantis. See Abu. 



The city of the mysteries of Eleusina, or Ds-m§ter, 
crowned by her great fire shrine, with its huge statue of Zeus. Broadly 
stated, the rites were those of the worship of the mysterious phenomena 
of nature, especially as manifested in fertile spring and fruit-laden 
autumn. M. F. Lenormant (Contemporary Review, 1880) speaks 
of ''phenomena converted into divine figures, and theological poetry 



Eleusis 45 

running into Pantheism, and anthropomorphism developing legendary 
history." In course of time when men became enlightened, and found 
that the gods and their legends were unreal and their old faith un- 
founded, they charged their priests with having invented it all for 
their own benefit — which indeed had long been the case. Theological 
chaos followed, and true religion would have perished with the gods, 
but for philosophers like Sokrat^, to whom they gave hemlock as 
poison. The Orpheans claimed to have established the Eleusinian 
rites, in honour of DSmStdr and Persephond. Others said they came 
from Egypt The site was one that nature worshipers were likely 
very early to select. It lies at the foot of the S.E. extremity of 
a rocky akropolis, guarding the sacred and fertile Rhavian plains. 
The tribes said that DSmetSr here first produced com ; and they used 
for centuries to reap it for the making of sacrificial cakes. Here they 
showed the threshing-floor of Triptolemos, and the Holy Mother's well 
{KaUi-kharon Phrear) where women used to sing and dance, especially 
when in autumn they celebrated the descent of FersephonS beneath 
the earth, and garnered its fruits with wild rejoicings. Beside the 
well stood (as the lingam now still stands by wells in India) the 
Agdaetoa Petra, round which they danced, chanting cyclic hymns. 
It was called the *' sad rock " (Triste Saxum), from the legend that 
here D^mStSr (as Amobius relates) sat in sad miseiy, mourning her 
child, till roused by Baubo the naughty nurse (see Baubo). The 
" sacred way " led from the east, first to the temple of Triptolemos 
(now the church of St Zacharias), and, by the Propylsea of Artemis 
and Poseidon, to the great temple of D€-m6t6r — mother earth. Here 
the epopta, or initiates, contemplated in the dark interior the 
" mysteries " — the phallus, the sacred egg and serpent, and the kista 
or ark. Here Zeus was said to have placed the testes cut from the 
goat in the lap of the godess (see Thos. Taylor, Meuainia); for 
the oldest cult was a coarse nature worship. The services were held 
in the dark adytum of the rock-cut shrine (see plan, Athenceum, 22nd 
August 1885), a pillared hall (50 by 54 metres), with rock-cut seats 
in tiers 20 feet deep, capable of holding 3000 persons. There were 
four side entrances, and two from the front colonnade to the S.K The 
temple was windowless ; but the mysteries were celebrated by night, 
with rites that Orpheans called ** Omphalik " (Lenormant, as above, 
p. 426). They resembled those of Bakkhos (or Zagreos) at Delphi. 
The phallus was a symbol in the processions ; but the spring rites 
were in honour of the mother of nature, whose daughter Persephond 
(the seed) had been buried in Hades or earth, whence arose fear lest 
she should not rise again. Over the entrance to the shrine were the 



46 Eleusis 

enigmatical words ** Konx Ompax/' which were reiterated over the 
initiated. Above the white marble fane was the colossal statue of 
Zeus, calm and majestic. On either side of the sacred way was 
a smiling figure of the loving Mother, greeting novitiates, as they 
were led, crowned with myrtle, to her doorway. Here they halted, 
and were baptised with holy water, and asked in a solemnly intoned 
chant : '' Art thou free from crime, pure in word and deed : only if 
so enter thou here, else will the gods destroy thee, and this portal 
will be to thee the shadow of death. Though weak and thoughtless, 
if thou aspire to combat the world, and to perfect thyself, approach 
the gods, and they will help thee." Baptism was the first, and the 
most important, rite of Eleusis. The hierophant then relinquished 
his original name forever, if a priest, receiving a new and holy name, 
which could only be told, under seal of secrecy, and to initiates (see 
Rev. ii, 17). 

The " Greater Mysteries " were those of the month Boedromion, 
lasting nine days at the season of ingathering, in September and 
October. They began with fasting, and baptism in the sea, with 
solemn processions, and offerings of fish, fruits, and grain, to the 
gods — or rather to their priests. Women then carried mystic 
"cists," or boxes, symbolising the expected fruits to be received 
from the deities. There were torch-light processions in honour of 
lakkhos, son of De-meter, with sacrifices following. The worshipers 
partook of the Eucbaristic cake (see Buns), with fruits, and water 
mingled with wine. They then broke up, to celebrate games and 
rejoicings, when universal licence was permitted (see Africa, and 
Australia). There was (as among savages) need for the oaths of 
secrecy which were demanded of the initiates : for, according to 
Lenormant (following ancient writers), they were conducted to a 
dark chamber to witness the "great sacrifice of nature" performed 
by a god and a godess. The lesser mysteries took place in the month 
Anthest^rion, in February, beginning with the sacrifice of a sow, with 
rites as above, but now lugubrious since fear for the newly buried seed 
kept the hearts of all in a state of doubt and dread. 

[Arnobius and Clement of Alexandria appear to have been initiates, 
and hint plainly at the phallic emblems, revealed to epopts after "many 
sighings of the seers." That the initiated believed in nothing but 
the dual principle of nature (see Druses) seems to be indicated by the 
fact that Alcibiades, after initiation, mutilated the statues of Hermes 
at Athens. Sokrates spoke of the mysteries as giving glorious hopes of 
immortality. Cicero said that the initiates not only received lessons 
that made life more agreeable, but that they also drew from them 



Eleutheria 47 

hopes for the moment of death. At Eleusis the wandering mother had 
offered herself as a nurse for Demoph5on, the child of King Celeus, and 
the parents were alarmed to find her bathing the infant with fire. The 
passers-by were greeted by the celebrants with rude jests. A posset 
of barley meal, mint, and water was drunk. The greater mysteries, in 
autumn, were held as follows : — 1st day, that of assembly ; 2nd, of 
baptism, with the cry " Mistai to the Sea," where they were purified 
on the shore hard by ; 3rd, the fast day ; 4th, the day of baskets, 
holding pomegranates and poppy seeds, and borne on a car, together 
with the kistai, or chests, carried by women ; 5th, the day of lamps 
and torches ; 6th, the great day of lakkhos (Dionusos), with a pro- 
cession carrying his statue : by night the epopts were initiated ; 7th, 
the day of jests and games ; 8th, that of Epidauria, in honour of the 
healing god Asklepios ; 9th, the day of libations, when water was 
poured out towards the east, and wine towards the west See F. 
Lenormant, Elevsia^ 1860 : Voie Sacrie Meusinienne, 1864. — Ed.] 

Eleutheria. Rites celebrated at Eleuthera in Boiotia, by tribes 
claiming descent from Aithusa, a daughter of Poseidon. They adored 
Dionusos as an incarnation of Helios, the sun, with sacrifices of bulls, 
and very licentious customs. 

Elicius. Latin. A name for Jupiter. Numa's altar to Elicius 
stood on the Aventine hill. 

Elijah. Elish'a. Hebrew prophets, of whom there were many 
mythical tales. Their names mean " Yah is my God," and " God 
saves." Elijah, among Arabs, is the mysterious el-Khudr — " the 
green one" (who is also, atnong Christians, St George), typifying 
verdant nature (see Green). He is, with Enoch, one of the fabled 
guardians of paradise. The Jews, from the middle ages downwards, 
have regarded Elijah as a mysterious being who guards men from birth 
to death. He beats those who pray behind (or N. of) a synagogue. 
At weddings a chair is placed for him, as also at the Passover. His 
father, Sabak, foresaw his birth ajs a babe wrapped in swaddling bands 
of fire. Priests foretold that his words should be as fire, and never 
fail to be fulfilled {De Vita Porphyr.). He is the " angel of the 
covenant/' and the " messenger" (Malachi iii, 1). He assumed many 
forms to bless the faithful, appearing as a nobleman, a reptile, and a 
harlot (see authorities in Proc. Bib. Arch. Socy., May 1886). He 
will return to earth three days before the coming of the Messiah. 
He lives in the 5th heaven, under the tree of life, eating its fruit, and 
drinking the water of life. He lays the head of the Messiah on his 



4S Elohim 

bosom. Baying, *'Be still, for the end is nigh." His body has never 
tasted death, for Tahveh promised him immortality as the destroyer 
of the priests of Ba'aL He is much respected as Elias by Christiaos, 
in W. Asia and Greece, and he has a wooden statue on KarmeL In 
the Old Testament Elijah the Tishbite appears as a meteor from 
Qilead, and destroys men with fire. The largest cup is filled to the 
brim, and set for him on the Passover table (see Hershon, Talmvdie 
Miscellany), The voice of Elijah, says Rabbi Yassi (Berakoth), is 
" like the cooing of a dove " ; but he is specially angry with idolators : 
a small child who, when famishing, pressed an image to its bosom, was 
killed by him in a horribly cruel manner (Sanhed/rin, Hershon, 
p. 171). He was bold in "charging God with turning Israel's heart 
to evil" {TaZ. Bab. Sanhedrin, 113, B) ; for he is a "passionate man." 
He ascended to heaven in the " chariot of Israel," after miraculonsly 
dividing Jordan by means of his mantle. In S. Europe the 20th 
July is his day, but Christians generally dedicate the 1 4th June to 
St Elias. A double portion of his spirit fell on Elish'a, who also 
crossed Jordan dryshod, and raised the dead like Elijah. He fed his 
followers on miraculous food, and increased the supply of oil for a 
widow, as did Elijah ; he made iron float, and healed the waters ; 
while Elijah wajs fed by ravens, and tended by an angeL Elish'a slew 
the children who mocked him as being bald (or rayless), by aid of the 
wintry bears. The monastery of Mar Elias, between Jerusalem and 
Bethlehem, marks the spot where Elijah was born (or one of them), 
and preserves his foot or body mark. Ilias, accoixling to Moslems, 
" still lives, for he drank of the fountain of life ; and will live till the 
day of judgment" 

Elohim. Hebrew : " god," and also " gods." See El. 

Elora. This site, celebrated for its caves and rock temples, is 
150 miles N.E. of Bombay, in the Aurangbad hills, which run K and 
S., and curve, in crescent form, on the east of the town of Elar or 
Yelur, which has long been famous for its holy kund, or tank, 
probably the centre which caused the excavation of the caves (see 
Capt. Seely's octavo on the site, 1824, p. 311). It is popularly 
believed that a Raja Edu, or Elu, was healed by its waters, in our 
8th century, coming from EUich-pur; and that he founded the 
village ; but some of the Buddhist caves may be as old as the 2nd 
century b.c. There are in all 30 caves, or more, literally covered 
from floor to roof with elaborate carvings, often leaving hardly a span 
of space between them : every curve and line in the carefully 
executed figures has some reference to the mythological ideas of 



Elora 49 

Hindus. Capt. Seely says that these caves contain three times as 
many figures as can be found in the 200 caves of Salsette. An 
artist deputed by the Bombay Government to draw them said this 
would require the labours of 40,000 men for 40 years (Archceologia, 
vii, p. 336 ; Seely, p. 328). The Buddhist caves are to the south, 
and the Jain caves to the north, of the central Hindu caves. Out of the 
total of 30 there are 12 still recognisable as Buddhist, and 5 as Jaina, 
in one of which latter is a colossal statue of one of their Tirthankaras, 
or saints (see plan, Rivera of Life, plate iv). The Qhat road ascends 
to the central caves, the Buddhist group being about 1^ miles to the 
south. All the caves face nearly due west, so that the light of the 
afternoon sun shines into them. In the oval lake, or kund, is a 
conical islet, all the features of the site being thus such as ancient 
nature worshipers usually selected. Hence Sivaites say that this was 
a place very early recognised as a Sivala-Tiriut, or place of pilgrimage. 
The caves however, and not the kund, now attract the attention of 
Brahmans, of whom native princes still maintain a host at Elur, none 
other being allowed by them to touch the holy waters. Siva no 
doubt was symbolised by the cone in the lake (a lingam in an 
Argha) which recalls that of the Davinish, or *' god's island," at 
Enniskillen. 

The caves include ten principal ones, in order of importance as 
follows. The Kaildaa (Siva's Paradise) : the Dha/rma (or " religion's 
cave ") : the iTidra-eabha (" Indra's cave ") : the Tin-tal (or three 
storeyed): the Viefxi- Karma Saiha: the NUdkantha (a shrine of 
" blue throated " Siva) : the Rama cave : the Jana-vdea {" nuptial 
hall ") : the Das-Avatdr cave (of " ten incarnations ") ; and the shrine 
of Jagor-Tidtha, The details are fairly described by Capt. Seely, after 
a fortnight's residence at Elur in 1810 (see also the papers of Sir 
C. W. Malet in 1794, Asiatic Res., vi : and the works of Fergusson 
and Burgess). But some features are not understood by those who 
have not studied the growth of faiths. 

Mr Burgess, the archsBoIogical surveyor, considers the Kailas- 
Sabha to be purely Dravidian. The kneeling bull guards the 
entrance, under a pillared canopy, facing the fine central hall beyond 
which is the Holy of Holies, with its Sri-linga in the Argha ; and a 
great dome with spiral symbolic tracery rises above. The wide area 
adjoining is occupied by great pillars, and couchant elephants ; and 
two large columns (like Jachin and Boaz) stand in the outer facade. 
Everywhere near we find figures of BaJa-Bama, Bhlma, Vira-Bhadra, 
and other types of the Hindu Hercules. The latter, the eight-armed 
son of Siva, rises out of one of the lingams (Asiatic Res., vi, p. 409). 



50 Elora 

In the Jana-vasa also all creation is seen issuing fron^t the liugam of 
Vishnu : it is the primary Jarva, or " birth " of human forms — or 
perhaps of those apelike beings described in some Puranas ; while 
Siva and Parvati are represented in nuptial embraces, od an en- 
tablature supported by the eight-handed, five-headed Yira-Bhadra ; 
two joyous apes peer out of a crevice, pointing to the scene above 
them, as the means of their coming into existence (plate, p. 396, 
Asiatic Res,), Vishnu looks on also as an assistant of Maha-Deva 
(Siva) ; but elsewhere he is the principal figure. These caves indeed 
furnish representations of every legend and doctrine of Vedik, £pik, 
and Puranik mythology : of Vedik cosmogony as well as of the 
creation by Brahma. The presiding deity has usually a solar nimbus, 
but the assistants have invariably the conical, phallic headdress (see 
Rivera of Life, i, p. 185). 

The symbolic pillars standing in the entrances, or in the principal 
inner chapels, are now known as Dvipans, or " light-shafts '* (compare 
the great cones of Saivat, and near the Futtepur shrine, Rivera of 
Life, ii, p. 254, plate xiii). In the Indra-Sabha, says Capt. Seely 
(p. 243), are two remarkable slender pillars to which magical powers 
are supposed to be attached, because when struck " they yield a deep 
hollow sound, which continues for about a quarter of a minute.'' 
Here too are huge elephants typifying the wisdom of Indra ; and 
elephants, with lions, are commonly carved on the pillar capitals, with 
solar discs, which however the fanatical soldiers of Aurungzebe's 
armies have often destroyed. This great emperor died in the Elora 
district in 17 17 A.c. His tomb, and that of his wife, are the great 
sights at Aurangabad, not far S.W. of Elora. 

Fergusson says that these cave pillars had a ** flame " above them 
(like obelisks), though the artists omit this. He thinks the Kailasa 
cave was carved as it now is by Cheras or Cholas — true phallic wor- 
ehipers (see those headings). They probably were here dominant about 
750 to 950 A.C. ; and this would account for the abundance of 
serpent, and phallic, symbols. The whole designs of this cave, 
including the sitting bull, seem to belong to a single period which 
cannot have been one of Buddhist rule. Here we find Bhavani seated 
near Anapurna, godess of abundance ; and Krishna trampling on the 
iCalya-Naga of the Jamuna. Beside eternal Brahma, who however 
has rarely even an altar, we see Vithoba, a rude local Avatara of 
Vishnu, and Bhairava the early phallic Siva. There are chapels to 
Visva-Karma — the Indian Vulcan who is even said to have made 
Brahma (see under these two names). We have also Vishnu on 
bis watery couch with Sesha the serpent above him : and in the 



Elvand 61 

Jaga-natha cave a frieze represents two serpents entertwined as on the 
Caduceus (Asiatic Rea,, vi, p. 389). Nude figures of males, and 
females, with serpents, occur in the Indra-Sabha {Asiatic Res,, p. 392, 
and Fergusson's Indian Architecture), Cobras, with 3, 5, or 7 hoods 
and strange half human heads, cover the canopies above the lingams. 
Some of these stand on 3 steps in their Arghas : others are over- 
shadowed by a cobra's hood. The sacred odd numbers 3, 5, 7, and 9, 
at Elora, are repeated iu groups of divine figures, in steps, and in the 
hoods of the Nagas. Indra and Indrani, with attendants, sit each 
under a Tree of Life, that of Indrani bearing symbolical egg-shaped 
fruits. She also appears on a lion or a tiger: and she bears her sun-babe 
in her lap, both mother and child holding up the fore-finger of the 
right hand (see Eye). Indra rides on his elephant, and four peacocks 
are perched on his tree (see Fingers, Pad, Peacock). Both deities have 
as usual the left foot doubled over in front of their lower parts. 
The "horses of the sun'' (2 Kings xxiii, 11) are also carved at Elora, 
as well as a sun-god with seven horses* heads ; and there are many 
zodiakal emblems, and groups of twelve figures. 

In the undoubted Buddhist and Jaina caves we find shrines of 
Adi-nath, the primeval deity, and numerous cells for monks, each with 
a resting place, and a spring of clear water. But the Buddha is 
strangely associated with emblems of the older Bod worship (see Bud), 
no doubt as the later Budha Avatara of Vishnu. He appears often 
nude, and always with the thick lips and elongated ears, given to him 
by non-Aryans (see Buddha). The progress of Neo-Brahmanism is 
represented also at Elora, in the Haldl-Kor Sabha, or ** low-caste cave " 
— a name probably given by Brahmans to a Buddhist's, or " heretic's " 
shrine. 

Kurma, the turtle, only appears once, " standing," says Capt. 
Seely, "by itself like the sphynx at Kailas." We have evidently 
much still to learn as to the symbolism of these and other famous 
Indian caves. 

« 

Elvand El vend. This is the Baga-vand, or Boga-vati of 
ancient Persians (see Damavand and Elburz) : a high conical mountain 
overlooking Hamadan (see Ekbatana). It is the eastern peak of the 
range N. of Teheran, to which also belongs further W. the Tak:t-i- 
Suleiman. 

Elves* In German Elbes ; plural of elf. Spirits of woods, 
hills, and streams, usually mischievous, and much feared by our 
ancestors. They presided specially over metals (see Daktuloi). The 
aame may mean ''Alpine" spirits. 



52 'Elion 

'Elidn. Phoenician : " the most high." The deity also of 
Melkisedek (Gen. xiv, 18, 19) whom Abraham is represented to have 
identitied with Tahveh (ver. 22). 

Empedokles. A native of Sicily, about 450 B.C. He was a 
man of wealth and learning, who embraced the atomic theory of 
DSmokritos (see that heading), and affirmed that all nature evolved 
under fixed laws, without the inteiference of the gods. With poetic 
fancy he spoke of atoms combined or separated through love and 
hate. He thus anticipated our modern theory, and our discoveries as to 
attractions and repulsions. He said that unfit combinations endured 
only for a time, to be succeeded by others, and that matter was but 
the combination of unalterable and substantial atoms, which he 
called " the roots of things." He distinguished four elements, fire, air, 
water, and earth, deified, he said, as Zeus, Hera, NSstis, and Aidoneus. 
These he supposed to be simple elementary substances, eternal and 
unalterable, which united mechanically according to properties of 
attraction and repulsion. He conceived them to be constituted by 
spheres of pure existence, offering equal resistance in every direction, 
and embodying the ideas of pure divinity, united by Love. Like the 
Eleatiks he spoke of a " holy and infinite Spirit passing through the 
world with rapid thoughts ... an eternal power of Necessity " (see 
Prof Brandis. Smith's Dicty. Or. and Rorn^ Biogr.). Empedokles 
insists on good moral conduct, as the best preventive of disease, since 
all things so follow their natural course. He was extolled as an 
" averter of evils," and even as a " controller of storms," his disciples 
saying that he accomplished this miraculously : that he drained 
marshes, and quelled noxious winds, and epidemics : that he cured 
strange malignant diseases, and prolonged lives. He was supposed to 
desire that men should regard him as being an incarnate god. It was 
an age of varied movements ; and Empedokles was acquainted with 
Anaxagoras, Parmenides, Pausanias, and the Pythagoreans : he was 
also said to have visited Magi. He believed in transmigrations of 
souls ; and Aristotle places him among the " lonik " physiologists, 
holding that an existence could as little be supposed to pass into 
non-existence as that the non-existent could pass into existence, 
since *'from nothing nothing comes/' Thus a complete final 
annihilation (of the universe), is, he said, impossible ; and life and 
death are mere questions of mixture and separation. 

En. Akkadian : '' Lord«" See An 

Endor. Hebrew *Ain-Dorf "spring of habitation*" Now the 



Endiimion 58 

village Andur on a rocky slope, with caves, 4 miles S. of Tabor. 
It is feunous for its witch (1 Sam. xxviii, 3-25), see Ob. 

Endumion. Endymion. The slumbering beautiful sun, of 
Karia, and Olumpos, with whom SelenS (the " shining " moon) fell in 
love, descending to kiss him in the cave of Mt. Latmos (probably 
" oblivion " like Lethe, from the root lot " to hide ") : he is the 
opposite to Hyperion (Huper-ion), and the setting as contrasted 
¥rith the rising sun. Endumion had toiled like his father Aithlios, 
and had wandered with Asterodia (the " starry "). He sank at last 
to rest below, as the moon rose above him. By her he had fifty 
daughters, and others by other godesses. He had loved Hdra ; and 
Zeus cast him into everlasting slumber on Latmos in consequence. 
He was, like all sun-gods, a shepherd and a hunter. A shrine was 
erected to him on Olumpos, whence he could be seen sinking into his 
^* grave " — a " glowing western spot " on the hills of Elis, as seen by 
those who ran races in his honour in the plain below Olumpos. 
Pausanias (viii, 1) here found his tomb, where Arkadians, Argives, 
and Akhaians, daily saw him die. 

Enoch. The name both of a mythical hero and of his city 
— KhanvJc in Hebrew, or Hanuk, [This may be the Akkadian 
Khan-uk "great chief" and Un-ug "great city": the latter was 
firecli near the mouth of the Euphrates. — EId.] He is variously 
called a son of l^ain (Gen. iv, 17), and seventh in descent from 
Adam (Gen. v, 19) : he " walked with God " for 365 years (or days), 
and " was not, for God took him." This " translation," and that of 
Elijah, established the doctrine of immortality according to the 
Pharisees ; but they forgot that they had not established the reality 
of either of these mythical events. Enoch was supposed to have 
invented astronomy and arithmetic ; and the authors of the Epistles 
to the Hebrews and of Jude knew much about him which we do not 
know (Heb. xi, 5 ; Jude 14), as for instance his prophecy. Later 
legends connected him with Behemoth ; and he is commemorated as 
unlike any other man (Ecclus. xlix, 14). The Arabs called him 
Idris (l^oran xix), " exalted by Allah to a high place " (see Elijah). 
He is perhaps the Anak of a Phrygian legend, who predicted the 
flood of Deukalion — a Phoenician story. 

Enoch — Book of. An important apokaluptik Jewish book, 
supposed to have been written in the 1st or 2nd century B.C. It 
seems to be quoted in the Epistles of Jude and Barnabas, and was 
known to Christians of our first three centuries, including Justin, 



£4 Enoch — Book of 

Clement of Alexandria, Irenseus, TertuUian, and Origen. TeTtuUian j 
(190 to 210 A.C.) called it "a divinely inspired book of the immortal ! 
patriarch . . . which Noah preserved in the Ark . . . Jews disavowed : 
it because it speaks of Christ." The credulous African "father" . 
quotes Hebrews (zi, 5) and Jude (14), to prove that it is as holy as 
any other Hebrew scriptures. Origen, adopting this view, gives it 
authority equal to that of the Psalms, quoting its doctrine (xl, 8, 9) 
as to angels ; but the bishops of the 4th century rejected it, and it 
was lost to Europe by the time of Augustine (6th century), though 
George the Syncellus (800 a.c.) notices fragments of it as still to he 
found in the East lu 1773 Bruce brought a Coptic version from 
Abyssinia, presenting one copy to the Paris library, and a second to 
the Bodleian. Dr Laurence, Archbishop of Cashel, and Hebrew Pro- 
fessor at Oxford, translated it in 1821 ; and Dr Dillmau (1853) 
rendered it into German. This edition was edited by the Rev. K H. 
Charles, M.A., at Oxford in 1893, and is probably the best. [There 
is the usual difference of opinion as to the integrity and age of the 
text, but it is generally regarded as a work extant in the time of 
Christ, with corruptions and glosses by Christian copyists. Much of 
the matter which it contains recalls the Persian literature (see Bun- 
dahish) which was apparently known to Pharisees. It has been called 
the '' Semitic Milton " ; and Enoch, guided by an angel through the 
various hells, recalls the vision of Dante. Ewald divides the book 
into six parts : it begins with an account of the fallen angels and 
giants (see Gen. vi, 1-4), and of Enoch's travels through heaven, earth, 
and hell (i to xxxvi) ; the second '' Vision of Wisdom " relates to 
angels and the Messiah (xxxvii to Ixxi) ; the third part treats of 
the sun, moon, stars, four winds, and other matters (Ixxii to Ixxxii); 
the fourth includes two visions of the Kingdom of the Messiah (Ixxxiii 
to xci); the fifth (xcii to cv) contains various admonitions; the sixth 
(cvi to cviii) includes appendices as to wonders connected with the 
birth of Noah, and concerning the future of the just and the unjust — 
Ed.] 

According to Enoch, the Messiah is " a son of God " (cv : called 
also ''son of woman/' Ixii) ''whose name was named before the sun, 
and the signs, were made . . . who existed secretly from the begin- 
ning in presence of God." Though he is the Elect, Righteous, and 
Anointed, yet he is the Son of Man, and of Woman (see Logos). 
Enoch exults in the triumph of " faith and truth '* ; he peoples the 
world with legions of angels ; he sees " hosts of heaven, and of eternal 
darkness " ; he believes in Satan and in the doom of the wicked, as well 
as in the glorious kingdom of the Messiah, in the future, when the 



En-zu-na 65 

pious will enjoy peace and plenty, and have 1000 children each. 
But the ResurrectioD (xci-civ) will be spiritual, the righteous being as 
the angels in heaven, whose chants Enoch heard. The book appears 
to have been written (in Hebrew, or in Aramaik) by a Jew of Pales- 
tine. It was translated into Greek and other tongues, receiving 
additions and emendations through the ages. Archbishop Laurence 
placed it as late as 36 B.C., or in the early years of Herod the Great. 
The expansion of the original continued for at least a century. We 
may trace in it the Buddhist influence on Jewish ascetics (see Essenes). 
Men are exhorted to walk quietly in the " paths of righteousness," 
expecting death without sorrow. Enoch denounces iniquity, injustice, 
and distrust of his God ; he hears a voice from heaven say, " The 
elect shall inherit the earth . . . joy and peace . • . they will sit 
on thrones of glory, while for those who reject the Lord it were better 
tbey had never been bom ; for an everlasting fire awaits them 
hereafter " — a direful doctrine eagerly accepted and propagated by 
Christians, based perhaps on the great Mazdean beliefs, which domin- 
ated Western Asia after SOO B.C. and are found to have been known 
in Asia Minor in Roman times (see Hamilton's texts. No. 193). From 
Persia Enoch may have gleaned that the righteous would become 
angels in heaven (li), and that "great punishment follows great 
iniquity " (xc). The ** gates of heaven " (Ixxi) seem to be borrowed 
from the account of Ahura-mazda's heavenly city. Enoch travelled 
through the universe with an angel, to study the mysteries of creation ; 
yet, like other simple folk of the age when the book was written, he 
thought the earth to be the centre of creation, resting on a " comer 
stone." He '' beheld also four winds," and the pillars of heaven with 
those supporting earth (as in Job and the Psalms) : yet he admonishes 
men to " seek for wisdom . . . the simple will perish in their sim- 
plicity. ... if they listen not to the wise " (xcvii). 

En-zu-na* Akkadian : " lord of growth," a title of Aku, the 
moon-god (Sinu, in Semitic speech), who was the son of Mulge (or 
Eu-lil)y the lord of Hades and of ghosts. The name may also be 
rendered " lord of wisdom." 

Eon. Greek aidna. The Greek form of the name of a " being " 
pair to Protogonos (" the first bom "), children of the wind (Kolpias) 
and of his wife Baau (** the depth "), according to Phoenician myth- 
ology. Eon " found food on trees " like Eve. 

Eds. The Greek dawn godess, with rosy fingers and a crown of 
light ; she was the sister of Helios and Sel6n§ (sun and moon), and 



66 Epaphus 

a child of Huperion (the rising sun) and of Theia (the "bright" 
godess). She was winged, and drove a chariot with four swift steeds. 
The Latins called her Aurora. She rises from the couch of the old 
immortal (see Tithonos), over the all-encircling ocean, to announce the 
coming of the Lord of Day. Her red light guides him, and she 
becomes Hemera or " day." She wooed many heroes, such as Orion, 
the hunter sun. She shut up the aged Tithdnos in a chest or cave. 
Her great son, Memnon, king of the Aithiopes in the south, was 
slain by the solar Akhilleus, and her tears then fell on earth as the 
morning dew. Boreas the 14. wind, and other such figures, were her 
children by Astraios the "starry" one. She loved Kephalos ("the 
head "), a rising sun who forsook her, and slew Procris (" the dew "), 
thus drying her own tears. The root of the name is the Aryan Is or 
Ua " bright '* (see Ushas). 

Epaphus. According to Greeks the first king of Egypt (see To), 
whose daughter's son colonised the Libyan desert. The 2nd king of 
the 6th dynasty was Pepi, and the last of the Hyksos was Apepl 

Ephod. Hebrew : from a root meaning " to gird." It is some- 
times rendered stole, or " stole," in the Greek of the Old Testament 
It is generally regarded as being a vest, or tunic, worn by priests and 
kings when divining in the presence of their tribal god. [If it was a 
" stole," to which the breastplate was attached, it may compare with 
the Tallith or prayer scarf, worn by Jews over the shoulders, but on 
the head during prayer. This is of white lamb's wool — not of linen 
like the ephod — with blue stripes and fringes. The ephod was 
embroidered (Exod. xxxix, 2), and had a '* band for fastening " (verse 
5), which was of like work. The breastplate hung from gold chains, 
fastened by the two onyx stones to the " shoulders " or " sides " of the 
ephod. — Ed.] The high priest's ephod hare the zodiakal amulet of 
12 stones, connected with the 12 tribes of Israel, behind, or in which 
were the Urim and Thummim (see Urim) : so that the whole garment 
resembled the vestments of Egyptian and other priests : [at Mycense 
breastplates of gold were found, and another in an Etruskan tomb — 
Ed.]. Among our own Druids, who wore white garments like Hebrew 
priests, the lodha-moran was a ** plate of judgment," or talisman like 
the Hebrew " breastplate of judgment " (Identity of Heha. and 
Druids, probably by Godfrey Higgins, 1829). The Polynesians even 
had such emblems of their god Atua. David, as a priest-king, danced 
before the ark in a linen ephod (2 Sam. vi, 14 ; 1 Chron. xv, 27). 
The priest Ahimelech had one at Nob (1 Sam xxi, 9), and Abiathar 
his son carried one with him in his hand, when he fled to David — ^a 



Epidauros 67 

linen ephod (1 Sam. zxiii, 6, 9) used in enquiring of God. In Saul's 
time (after the massacre at Nob) Hebrews did not enquire at the ark 
(see 1 Chron. xiii, 3), and even before this the Qreek translators read 
"ephod'* for "ark" (in 1 Sam. xiv, 18). Samuel wore an ephod at 
Shiloh before the ark was lost (1 Sam. ii, 18), and it was a regular 
symbol at any shrine yet earlier (Judges viii, 27 ; xvii, 5 ; xviii, 14). 
Hindus and Buddhists still possess a talismanic breastplate, in the 
Nava-Eatna or " nine gems " (see Sir G. Birdwood, Journal of Socy. 
of Arts, 18th March 1887). 

Epidauros. One of the earliest religious centres of the Pelopon 
nesos, called " holy Epidauros." It was said to have been founded by 
Karians from Asia Minor, and was as old as Argos, Muk6n6, and 
Tiruns, if not older. lonians, and Dorians, followed the Karians ; 
but the city fell, with others of Argolis, in the Cth century B.C.; 
though its sanctuaries — especially that of Askl^pios some 5 miles 
inland — ^were still wealthy and venerated in the 2nd century B.C. ; 
and famous for medical cures, even after they had been robbed by 
foreigners, in our 1st century. The sacred way at this site (now the 
village Pidavro) led west from the port to the shrine of Asklepios in 
the plain enclosed by surrounding mountains. The god was said to 
have been suckled by a goat like Zeus. The shrines of Apollo and 
Artemis stood on the hills. The shrine of Asklepios was of white 
marble, and circular — the " Labyrinthik Tholos," in which he sat on 
a throne, staff in hand, resting his left on a serpent, with a dog at 
his feet There were temples also of Dionusos, Athene, Here, Artemis, 
and AphroditS, and of Apollo Aiguptios, indicating Egyptian influence. 
In the shrine of Asklepios none might be born, or die ; but rooms for 
the sick were provided hard by. A subterranean passage still leads 
from a hole in the ruined walls, connected perhaps with an oracle (see 
Academy, 14th Aug. 1886). 

Epikouros. Epicureans. Epikouros was bom (342-341 

B.C.) at Samos, and began life as a poor boy studying philosophic 
discipline. He was in Athens for four years from the age of 14, and 
at the time when Xenokratgs was teaching in the Akademy. His 
father was a petty " klerikos," or scribe, at Kolophon, on the Ionian 
coast, where Epikouros next joined him, and read the works of 
Demokritos of Abdera (see Demokritos). He mastered the atomic 
theory of this philosopher, and was amazed at the ignorance of 
Athenian teachers. In 306 B.C. he was settled in a small garden in 
Athens, which he watered for a livelihood. Diogenes Laertius says 
that he was ** a man of simple, pure, and temperate habits, a kind 



5» Epikouros 

friend, and a patriotic citizen " ; but one who avoided politics and i 
devoted himself to philosophy, with the object of showing his fellows 
how to lead a cheerful independent life. He was an invalid for many 
years, bearing his sufferings with courage and patience, and showing 
an affectionate character. Yet few great minds have been as mud) 
misunderstood, or maligned, in spite of his voluminous writings. His 
doctrine of the pursuit of happiness as our chief aim — of the greatest 
Imppiness, for the largest number, and for all time — required to be 
carefully handled, being as hard to define as Plato's god. Men were 
quite willing to regard happiuess as the chief good, but they discarded 
the otlier definitions of this good man in regard to true, prolonged, 
and universal happiness. He went further than Aristippos (see that 
heading) ; and spoke lightly of Aristotle's school, proclaiming himself 
to be self-taught. He came under the lash of powerful sects who 
culled him an atheist, a libertine, and by many other opprobrious 
epithets. He was feared by the ordinary devout and ignorant citizen, 
as well as by priests : for be said that the gods were mere images or 
idols, phantoms of the imagination, in a world of atoms. They might 
exist in supreme happiness, but tbey did not interfere, for good or for 
ill, with the world, or with mankind — a doctrine which took from 
priests and politicians their power of controlling the masses, through 
their hopes and fears. Epikouros (like Buddha) said that pleasure 
rests on continual, pure, and noble, intellectual enjoyment : on d-tn- 
raxia and dponia^ freedom from pain and trouble : on peace, and on 
the happiness bred by peace of mind. It must not be transient, but 
rest in quiet — the pronesia which is the " beginning of every good." 
Rome never honoured Epikouros, nor did Cicero understand him 
aright, though he strives to represent his views in' the arguments of 
Vellius (De Nat. Deorum). He paints Epikouros as "dreading 
nothing so much as seeming to doubt,'' and ** speaking as one just 
descended from a council of the gods " — many of whom the wise 
Samian thought to permeate space. Greek Epicureans were devoted 
to their master, and almost worshiped him after death. They were 
not few : " exceeding," says Diogenes, " the population of whole towns." 
By " Nature " Epikouros understood a material entity, moved mechanic- 
ally by its properties. Strato (300 B.c.) thought the same, but did 
not enter on the atomic theory of Epikouros, and called the Law of 
Nature a fluid necessity (see Empedokles and Stoiks). To Epikouros 
the god of Plato, and the Pronoia of Stoiks, were indefinable phantoms 
like our " Providence " ; and he laughed at the idea that the world 
was endowed with sense and spirit. His atoms, he thought, came 
together in a vacuum fortuitously, but were yet attracted by fixed 



Epimenides 69 

laws. He was equally opposed to popular superstition and to Stoik 
fatalism. Yet he admitted a prol^pseia or "preconception/' such as 
mankind generally have felt^ in connection with the idea of a Qod. 
He saw that men had recourse to the explanation of divine action 
when unable to account for phenomena, and so made for themselves 
an awful and eternal master. 

Cotta, the old Roman priest, inclined to the Akademik doctrines, 
is represented (De Nat. Deorum^ 187) as telling the Epicureans that 
" they— only to avoid censure — do not deny the existence of the gods 
. . . they believe them to be wholly inactive, and regardless of every- 
thing/' They had no belief in the miraculous (183), and said that 
fear of the gods never restrained men actually from evil deeds. 
Epikouros taught that ''he is not godless who rejects the gods of the 
crowd, but rather he who accepts them." The greatest disciple of 
Epikouros in later days was Lucretius. 

Epimenides. A Kretan poet and sage of Enossos, the capital 
of Minos, living a meditative life, which is fabled (as among Hebrews) 
to have lasted for 5 or 7 generations. The Athenians carried him to 
Athens, to stay the plague in 596 B.C. This he did, ordering the city 
to be cleansed, while sundry rites and sacrifices satisfied people and 
priests. The only reward he asked was a decree of eternal friendship 
between Athens and Knossos. He was called one of the Seven Sages, 
but best known as an Orphik bard. 

EpiphEnius. A writer of Jewish origin, converted to Chris- 
tianity about 360 a.c, and born about 320 to 310 A.C., near 
EleutheropoHs (Beit Jihrln) in S. Palestine. He was a monk who 
burned with zeal for ecclesiastical orthodoxy. He became a bishop in 
Cyprus, and a famous literary character (356 to 367 A.C.) residing at 
Salamis or Constantia. He aided his great friend Hilarion in estab- 
lishing monasticism in Syria : and he opposed the Arians, and the 
Semi-Arians whom most Eastern bishops favoured. He entered 
warmly into the controversies of the age ; and in his great book on 
Heresies he bade Arabia to accept the dogma of the '* perpetual 
virginity" of Mary. In his Ankv/rotos, and Panarion (374 to 
377 A.c.) he attacks Gnostiks, Arians, and followers of Origen, as 
*' corrupt heretics who knew not the true gospels, and taught soul- 
destroying errors." He said that "only he, Jerome, and Paulinus, 
knew the gospels." He apparently accepted the doctrines of the 
2nd Council — that of Constantinople — in 381 A.C.; and when in 
Rome lived with Jerome at the house of his patroness Paula. She 
visited him later at Salamis, and went with him to rejoin Jerome in 



60 Epiphany 

Palestine. The latter called Epiphanius the " father of the episcopate." 
He was wont to abuse Origen as the " father of Arian heresies/' aod 
would not permit monks to read the works of that famous writer 
(see Origen). In spite of old age he set out, in 394 A.a, to denounce 
the Origenists at Jerusalem, where John, the bishop of the city, allowed 
him to preach in the Church of the Anastasis. He very ungraciously 
denounced John, and a violent quarrel followed, the populace taking 
his side. Even Jerome was not spared as having leanings to Origen's 
teaching. On his return home in 399 A.C. he expelled Origenists, and 
was finally ordered to Constantinople by Chrysostom, with whom he had 
refused to hold communion. He died on board ship in 403 A.a He 
is mainly remembered as an enemy of heretics, denouncing 80 heresies 
which arose, he said, between his own time and that of the birth of 
Christ. His Panarion was described as a " box containing cures for 
the bites of the bereticaJ serpents." Even in his days opinions were 
still very unsettled. His disquisitions are prolix, and we cannot feel 
assured that his statements are reliable, for he called those who 
dififered from him wild beasts, vipers, infidels, etc. He is not to be 
confused with Epiphanius Scholasticus (about 510 A.C.), the chaplain 
and amanuensis of CassiodOrus, the famous abbot of the Monasterium 
Vivarieuse, and a translator of Greek and Latin scriptures, and of 
other works such as those of the Greek historians Socrates, Sozomen, 
and Theodoret, as well as of Josephus. 

Epiphany. The feast of *' manifestation," 12 days after Christ- 
mas, when traditionally the Magi visited Bethlehem. Their names 
are usually given as Caspar, Melchior, and Balthasar, sons respectively 
of Shem, Ham, and Japhet. Even to the beginning of the 19th 
century kings used to offer gold, frankincense, and myrrh, at this 
feast in memory of these " Three Kings " ; and Romans then still 
flocked to the Ara Coelior " altar of heaven " (see Bambino). The vigil 
of " Twelfth Night " was famous also for the " Twelfth Cake " (see 
Beans), and for the election of the " Lord (or Abbot) of Misrule," or 
of a Fool to lead the well-called " Feast of Fools " — a period of 
licentious revelry. Farmers and their servants assembled on a mound 
overlooking the corn fields, lighted 12 fires, shouted, and drank 
boisterous toasts in cider, and strong ale. Others poured libations in 
orchards ; the young wore masks, and men put on women's clothes. 
Some placed the great cake on the horn of an ox to be tossed. If it 
fell in front it was given to the master, but if behind to the mistress 
of the house. Women barred themselves in their chambers, admitting 
only those who guessed what they had on the spit — a choice morsel 



Epistles Cl 

given to him who guessed aright. Epiphany was called "Little 
Christmas" but not recognised as a separate feast till 813 A.G. (see 
Hone's Mysteriea). Roumanians, Bohemians, and Magyars, celebrate 
the feast of the " Three Kings," whose great shrine is Cologne 
Cathedral 

Epistles. See Bible. 

Er. A common root for " man " : The Armenian ayr, Turkish «r, 
and Latin vir (see Ar). 

[At the end of the Republic (Book x) Plato tells the legend of 
Er son of Armenios, in Pamphylia. He came back from the dead, and 
described what he had seen. In a great plain there were two holes, 
corresponding with two in heaven above. Souls came up from earth, 
and down from heaven, to judges who sat in the midst. The subter- 
ranean journey might last 1000 years — ten for every year of life on earth 
before the soul entered Hades. Each soul might choose its next life 
on earth, and chose by memory of former experience. After 8 days' 
journey Er found a beam or pillar of light, and saw the steel spindle 
of Necessity, belonging to the distaff on her knees, whence the fate of 
the world is spun. Round it are 8 revolving whorls — eight spheres 
each uttering a note of its own. Beside it sit the three fates — Lakhesis, 
Klotho, and Atropos (past, present, and future) : here the souls make 
their choice ; and a herald proclaims that heaven is guiltless if they 
choose wrongly. They then go to the plain of forgetfulness, and are 
bom again, appearing from heaven as shooting stars. The spindle is 
the centre of the world (see Earth) ; and there seems to be some 
resemblance to the Buddhist ** Wheel of Existence." — Ed.] 

Eras. These are very important for the correct determination 
of historic dates, but often uncertain — ^like the Christian era (see 
Chnstmas), which came into use only in 529 A.C., in the time of 
Justinian. The most familiar eras are : The First Olympiad, 776 B.C.; 
the foundation of Rome, 753-4 B.C. (Varro) ; the era of the Seleucidse, 
26th September 311 B.c. ; the Saka era in India, 78 A.c. ; the Gupta 
era in India, 319 A.C. ; the Moslem era of the Hejira, 16th July 
622 A.C. There is a Burmese era of 639 A.C., and a Napalese era 
of 880 A.C. ; also a Pars! and Siamese era, 631 A.O. 

Erebus. See Europe. 

Eridu. See Euphrates. 

Erech. The Akkadian Ur-uk, or '* great city," E. of the 



02 Erekhtheus 

Euphrates, near its mouth : now Warka (Oen. x, 10). It is one of 
the oldest and most important sites in Kaldea. 

Erekhtheus. ErikhthdnioS. Greek. Apparently " man of 
earth " (see Er). The Greeks regarded the first as a local Attik hero. 
The latter was the child of Athene and Hephaistos, liom as a serpent, 
and called also G^-gen^s ('' earth bom "). Athene, the dawn godess, 
hid him in an ark, basket, or chest, which was given to Herse (the 
" dew") and her two sisters, who were prohibited from .opening it. Heree 
and Aglauros however did so, and were driven mad, being hurled from 
the Akropolis of Athens. Erikhthonios had his shrine in this Akropolis 
(see Athene). 

Er-g^al. Akkadian : " great man " — probably the origin of the 
name given in Greek as H^rakles : in Latin as Hercules : in Etruskan 
as Ercle. 

ErinueS. Erinyes. The Furies according to the Greeks. 
They were also, however, called Eumenid^, or "well minded," 
perhaps through fear of their wrath. They were personified curses, 
and said to be more ancient than Zeus. Neither sacrifice nor teais 
would stay the Erinues, as they hunted the sinner cursed by a father, 
or an ancestor. They appealed to Dike — godess of justice — ^to aid 
them in punishing the wicked. They are pictured as black maidens, 
with serpents in their hair, and blood dripping from their eyes. Black 
sheep were offered to them, with honey and water, white doves, and 
the narcissus plant. A cave near the Areopagos was sacred to them, 
where they had a special day of rites. None dared enter their sacred 
grove at Kolonos. They were three sistei-s (Alektro, Megaira, and 
Tisiphong) borne by earth when the blood of Ouranos fell on her. 
Their name appears to mean "injury." They stood by the throne 
of Zeus, but generally abode in Tartaros or Erebos (Hell and 
Night). Some connect them with Saranyu. [This, however, would 
be Herinues. The Akkadians, and Babylonians, were equally afraid 
of curses. — Ed.] 

Eris. The Greek godess of discord, and strife, the sister of 
Ares, god of battle. Hesiod says she was a daughter of night 
Virgil makes Discordia the companion of Mars and of Belldna 
. (" war "). She appeared at the marriage of Peleus and Thetis, and 
flung the apple marked ''for the fairest," which led t-o the ruin of 
Troy. She was angry at not being bidden to the feast — like the 
witch of our folk-tales. 

Eros. Greek : ** love " or " desire " : said to have been worshiped 



Eruthrea 68 

very early, at Tbespiai in Boiotia, in the form of a phallic atone. 
The Athenians placed bis statue at the entrance of the grove of the 
Akademy, and in the temple of Aphrodite : they offered to him the 
cock, ram, and hare. His flower was the rose. Orpheus and Hesiod 
called him the "first begotten/' who arose from chaos to guide the 
councils of heaven and earth — which truly love, or passion, still does 
on earth. He was the ** father of night, and the splendour of day." 
Plato called him the oldest of gods, sprung from the mundane egg 
(see Eggs). He is usually a winged boy, with a golden quiver full of 
arrows. He had a mother but no father, though later writers called 
him the cbild of Zeus and Oaia (sky and earth) : he played many 
tricks on gods and men (see Kama). He loved Psukhg (the breeze — 
afterwards the soul), and they lived in the cave of Dikte, or Luktos, 
till she lighted her lamp to see him, when he fled. 

Eruthrea. The Erythreans of S. Arabia were the Himyar or 
Hamyar race (see Arabia), the Greek, like the Arabic name, meaning 
"ruddy." Erythreans founded Paphos in Cyprus, according to Stephen 
of Byzantium (see Cesnola's Cyprus, p. 219). The Phoenicians were 
so called, as comiug from the Erythrean Sea or Persian Gulf (see 
^Tieid^ vii). The wife of Mercury was Eruthrea or " ruddy," and 
Herakles of Akhaia was Eruthreus, like the horse of Apollo in the 
Iliad. ., 

Es. A root for '* fire," and also for " spirit " (see As). 

ESclU. Hebrew *Asu,, the " hairy," also called S'eir " rough," 
SLnd £dom "red." The hunter brother of Jacob ("the follower"), 
who held bis heel (Gen. xzv, 25 ; Hosea xii, 3). He lived in the 
rough, red, sandstone mountains of S'eir. 

Eshel. Hebrew. This is rendered " tree " or " grove " 
(Gen. xxi, 33; 1 Sam. xxii, 6; xxxi, 13), but it means properly 
a " tamarisk " — Arabic Ithel, 

Eskimo. A name given to the Greenland race by the Cree 
Indians — namely Wiyaskimowok " raw flesh eaters." They are said 
DOW to number only about 10,000 in all, and are under Danish rule, 
professing Christianity. Attempts to convert them, in the 11th 
century, had died away by the 15th ; but iu 1733 they were taken 
in hand by Moravian missionaries, chiefly mechanics, who won their 
esteem in about five years. Before this they were regarded as 
** godless," but had a supreme god Tornarsuk (" head of the Tornak " 
or spirits — an old Turanian word) : he is now degraded as a kind of 



64 Eskimo 

Satan. He used to live within the earth, and " all who had stmen 
after goodness, and suffered for the benefit of their fellows, were to go 
to him and lead a happy life." A good life was all that Tomarsuk 
demanded ; but the Danish Eskimo now accept a god in heaven. Dr 
Rink (Eskimo Tribes, 1887) says (p. 141) that " the poor Eskimo's 
ideas of good and evil, recompense and punishment, are tamed 
topsy-turvy." The old priests and lawgivers — the Angakoks — have 
become mere wizards. Yet, according to Dr Rink, the results of a 
century and a half of Christian teaching are highly unsatisfactory 
(pp. 148, 153, 155). The soul used to be regarded as "in some way 
independent of the body . . . probably as ruling it " : (it is called 
the inniui, or " owner " of the body) : for the whole world was held 
to be " owned and ruled by spirits." The Eskimo call themselves 
also Innuit, or " owners," of their country. The souls of the dead 
went to either a lower or an upper world : the former was warm and 
comfortable, like their own underground bouses ; the latter was a cold 
and hungry region, where dwelt the Arssar-tut, spirits who play ball 
with the head of a walrus, and so cause the Aurora Borealia Prayeis 
(seratit, or " charms ") and amulets were used ; and Tomarsuk 
provided Tornaks as guardian angels, to listen to the supplications 
of his children through their Angakoks. Witchcraft (Kusuinek), 
and sorcery (Ilisinek), were regarded as unlawful means of escaping 
evil, yet were much practised as appeals to evil powers. The 
Eskimo had no master-devil, but some bad spirits like *' Grand- 
mother Anarkuagsak," who lives at the bottom of the sea, and is 
apt to draw people down to herself: all mortals must keep on 
good terms with her, and also with the Eiugtoks, or wandering 
subterranean demons, generally of evil nature. The Ingnersuaks, 
who frequent the caves, and pointed rocks, on dangerous coasts, 
must also be propitiated, and some mariners have found them to 
be benevolent spirits, giving shelter in times of trouble. 

The original home of this people, but in very remote times, 
must have been in N. Asia. Dr Rink (who believes them to be 
American aborigines) says that *' only a few " (the Tuski) are found 
on the Asiatic side of Behring Straits. He finds the Alaska 
Eskimo often crossing to Asia. [Baron Nordenskiold says that 
they are connected with the Chukchis and Eoryaks of N.K Asia. 
Some regard them as descendants of the early inhabitants of KW. 
Europe, where remains of small Lapp-like people occur — as in Auvergne. 
They are remarkably long-headed ; but Sir W. Flower is strongly of 
opinion that they are "a branch of the typical North Asiatic 
Mongols," who have " gradually developed characters most of which 



Eskimo 65 

are strongly expressed modifications of those seen in their allies, who 
stiU remain on the western side of Behring Straits " (see Mr R. 
Lydekker, F.RS., in Hutchinson's Living Racea^ p. 506). Donner has 
also compared Eskimo vocabularies with those of Finns and Lapps. — 
£d.] Mr C. Lelland (Algankvn Legends) says that " the old Shaman 
religion, sorcery, . . . and legends of the Eskimo, all point to an 
early N. Asian cradle " : he finds the same folk-lore " common to 
Greenlanders, Finns, Lapps, Tunguses, and Northern Tartars. '* 
Among all alike we find laws of primogeniture, and worship of 
ancestors — an animism like that of Akkadians; nor do they 
neglect sky gods, such as Olus-kap among the Wabanaki, or N.E. 
Eskimos : he was worshiped as a friendly power, yet called " the 
liar,'' having vowed an immediate return to earth, like other known 
deities, which he has neglected to accomplish. Mr Lelland finds the 
mythology of Eskimos of mixed Algonkin blood (in the East), to recall 
the Ealevala (see Finns) : " but in spirit and meaning entirely 
unlike anything American.'' He calls the demigods, Gluskap and 
Lax, " the gentleman and Puck " : for Lax is something between 
PuDcb and Satan — perhaps connected with the Norse Loki. There is 
no difficulty in crossing the straits (see Vining, Inglorious CoLurribus, 
pp. 6 to 0) : for rats cross from island to island. M. de Rosmy 
says : " Fleets of Eskimos annually resort to Russian America from 
Kamtchatka." On both coasts there are tattoed Eskimos, and their 
physical type approaches that of the Aleuts, as do their social habits 
and rites. 

The Eskimo language seems to have been stationary. It is still 
the same from British Labrador, throughout Qreenland to Behring 
Straits, along some 3500 miles of coast. It is quite unlike the Aryan 
tongues of Europe. [It is called an " incorporating " language, like 
those of American Indians, as consisting of long compound words, or 
set phrases regarded as such. This, however, is quite as observable 
in Mongol speech (see Castren's Orammar of the Buriat Dialect) ; 
and indeed such compounds are common even in German. — Ed.] 

Mr Murdoch {Report of the Bureau of Ethnology : Smithsonian 
Institute, 1887-1888, published 1892) says that the Eskimo are 
devoid of morality, the married, unmarried, and children joking freely 
together about sexual matters (p. 419) : yet they have discovered the 
Golden Rule "to avoid doing to anyone what you would not have 
done to yourself." Chanus are commonly used, especially the canine 
teeth of bears. The spirits are often heard making a rushing noise, 
as if of a large bird flying over or under the roof, or even as a singing 
in the ears (pp. 427 to 432). 

e2 



66 Eshmun 

Hshmun, Esmun. PhoeDician (probably from the root 
shaman^ "fat," "rich," "prosperous"). The Greeks identified this 
god with Asklepios, the god of health. He was worshiped at 
Beirut, and at Carthage, with 'Ashtoreth and Melkarth ; and his 
name is found in Punic texts (see Cox, Aryan Mythol,^ edit 1882, 
p. 281 ; Brown's Oreat Dionya. Myth, ii, p, 258). 

Hsop. Aisdpos. The reputed author of fables, many of which 
were known to the Greeks in the time of Sokrates. The Assyrians 
also had fables, such as that of the Horse and Bull, or of the Serpent 
and Eagle (see Etana), in the 7th century B.C. Esop's fables ha?e 
been ascribed to many peoples from Egypt to China. Many occur in 
the Pali Jataka, or " birth " stories of Buddhists, in the Pancba-tantra 
and Hitopadesa of Hindus, in the Jewish Talmud, in the !^lila wa 
Dimna of Arabs, in the Anwar-i-Suhaili of Persians, and in Urdu 
Khirad-afroz, and Bait al Pachise ; as well as in the Sanskrit Vetala 
Pancha-Vinsati, or " Twenty-five Stories." The English Esop is mainly 
taken from the fables of Bidpai or Pilpay (see Bidpai) — a mediaeval 
collection first published in 1610 — and, as the work of Elsop, may 
be considered spurious. Mr J. Jacobs calls our Esop " Phoedrus with 
trimmings," for Phoedrus made the first Latin collection in 25 A.C 
apparently following Demetrius Phaleros (about 320 B.a); whereaa 
Aristophanes knew of fables by Esop in 425 B.c. Esop was supposed 
to have lived in the time of Solon (620 B.C.), and to have died about 
564 B.C. Samos, Sardis, Thrakia, and Phrygia claimed his birth, 
and he appears to have been a foreign slave who won freedom by his 
talents. He refused to distribute the charities of Croesus to the 
people of Delphi, who flung him from a precipice ; but the gods 
supported him and punished Delphi with plagues. He is often 
described as having been an ugly and diminutive person, as is also 
the Arab Esop, Lukman. Both seem to have been familiar with 
Eastern traditions and fauna. They allude to monkeys, panthers, 
peacocks, and other Indian or Asiatic animals, whom they describe as 
able to talk and reason like the serpent in Eden, or Balaam's ass 
(see Proc. Bib. Arch. Socy,, November 1882). Mr Jacobs thinks 
that about a dozen of our English fables come from the Jatakas, 
others are found in the Talmud (but may be borrowed), and others in 
Libyan fables, in Arabia, in Greek literature, and in Anglo-Saxon 
mythologies. See Hitopadesa and Pancha-tantra. 

Essenes. The name for Jewish ascetiks, found in Josephus, 
Pliny, and Philo : they lived mostly in the deserts of Judea and 
Jordan, and in caves N.W, of the Dead Sea. The origin of the 



Essenes 67 

name is much disputed. [Perhaps the best derivation is from J^dsah, 
"to seek refuge," to "retire," since they were hermits. — Ed.] 
Josephus makes them the third great Jewish sect, the others being 
Pharisees and Sadducees (see Ant, iKIII, v, 9 : xi, 2 : XV, x, 4 : 
Wars, I, iii, 5 : II, viii, 2-13). He describes their customs at length 
{ArU., XVII, i, 5 ; and especially in Wars, II, viii). Philo's account 
is found in his tract " That all the good are free " (the authenticity 
of which is disputed), and in a fragment from his Apology for the 
Jews, preserved by Eusebius {Prcep, Evang,, viii, 11), Pliny 
{H, Nat, V, 17) speaks of their colony by the Dead Sea. We 
gather that they were generally celibates, who had all things in 
common, and met in a common establishment. They wore white, 
and had a novitiate of three years' duration. They forbade oaths, and 
offered no sacrifices, yet adored angels and the rising sun. There 
were four grades or castes ; and if touched by one of a lower grade 
they must be purified by water. They kept the Sabbath, and 
reverenced Jewish scriptures. They were much venerated as 
prophets and healers of the sick. Judas in 110 ac, is the earliest 
known Essene, but lived in ordinary society according to Josephus, 
Menahem was a friend of Hillel, and of Herod the Great One of the 
gates of Jerusalem was named after them {Wars^ V, iv, 2). 

Josephus says (Ant, XVIII, i, 5) that they " resembled those 
DacsB who are called Polistai." This is perhaps a clerical error 
for Podistai or Buddhists. These were the Etistai of Strabo 
(i, pp. 453-454, Bohn's translat, 1854). The Puthagorik Dakai 
are mentioned by Scaliger (Whiston's note on the above passage of 
Josephus) which connects them with the Indian Budha-guru or 
'' wisdom teacher '' ; and he says that " these Dacse lived alone like 
monks, in tents and caves," and Strabo tells us that " the Ktistai 
were a Thrakian sect who lived without wives." Their brethren the 
MaBsi '* religiously abstained from eating anything that had life, 
living in a quiet way on honey, milk, and cheese : wherefore con- 
sidered a religious people, and called EapnobataB," that is to say 
"smokers." Josephus himself compares the Essenes to the 
Pythagoreans ; they were excused from the oath of allegiance by 
Herod (Ant, XV, x, 4), who "had them in much honour"; and they 
"are like those whom the Greeks called Pythagoreans." The 
whole region N. of modern Greece, from the Hellespont to the 
Adriatic — ancient Thrakia and Msesia — abounded in such ascetik 
sects, whom Strabo and Homer alike call "most just men," 
" livers on milk," " devoid of desire for riches," " peregrinators 
of the country," and otherwise resembling Sramans and Bhikshus. 



68 Essenes 

De Quinoey called them *'the first Christians." Bishop Lightfoot 
(on Coloaaiane) argues that Mazdean ideas supplied ''just those 
elements which distinguish the tenets and practices of Essenes &om 
the normal type of Judaism ... as dualism, sun adoration, invoca- 
tion of spirits, and worship of angels, magical rites, and intense 
striving after purity." We can, however, hardly acquit the Jews of 
having been generally prone to all these beliefs. Hermippos of 
Smyrna (about 250 B.C.) had "given to the Greeks," says the bishop, 
"the most detailed account of Zoroastrianism which had ever been 
laid before them . . . the Magian system then took root in Asia 
Minor, making itself a second home in Cappadocia. . . . Palestine 
was surrounded by Persian influences." [The cuneiform texts, no less 
than the historic statements, show us that from the 5th century KC 
to the Christian era, Asia Minor was full of Persians. The worship 
of Mithras was brought from Pontus, by the soldiers of Pompey, to 
Bome about 60 B.c. — Ed.] But as we show (see Buddha), the 
Buddhist creed had reached Syria as early as the 3rd century B.C., 
and was more akin to Essene asceticism than was the Mazdean. 
Does not this teach us that all is due to evolution, and that there has 
never been a really new religion since the world began ? 

During and after the time of Pythagoras the countries N. of 
Attika and Thebes were known as Thrakia, from Byzantium to the 
Danube. The DacsB, or Dakai, were a Skuthik people, N. of the 
Danube, from which region they had driven the Getse southwards (see 
Strabo, i). They were Asiatic tribes, who had arrived before the time 
of Alexander the Great. Mr Gossellin (on Straho, i, 467) calls them 
Dags from Daghistan, east of the Caucasus. The name no doubt is 
connected with Dagh, for "mountain." Thus they appear to have 
reached Thrakia from regions which were already full of Buddhists in 
the 3rd century B.C., or earlier. Their asceticism, as we have seen, 
was known to the Jewish historian in our 1st century. Asiatic 
Buddhism appears to have penetrated not only to Syria, but along the 
N. shores of the Black Sea to Europe. The ideas of Essenes may 
have been derived — as regards suu worship, angels, and other matters 
— from Mazdeans. After the break-up of the Crotona school Pytha- 
goreans were scattered throughout the Greek kingdoms. They gradually 
became merged in the later Platonists. The Essenes are said to have 
regarded death as setting free the soul, which they may have learned 
from either Buddhists or Greeks. They had much sympathy with 
Greek philosophy and " probably also with Oriental ideas," says Mr 
Kirkup (Ihficyclop. Brit\ who also admits that they " could nob have 
reached these peculiar points of view in perfect isolation from ante- 



Esther 69 

cedent and contemporary speculation." Philo says that they rejected 
logic as unnecessary to the acquisition of virtue ; and speculation on 
nature as too lofty for the human intellect ; in which respects they 
agreed with Buddha and Confucius. 

The Essenes shunned marriage, and often adopted children to be 
brought up in their tenets. They regarded pleasure as evil, and dis«» 
trusted women ; some (like Hindus) retired from domestic life after 
the birth of a son. They lived on fruits and vegetables, and gave 
thanks before their meals. They drank no wine, and regarded uuction 
with oil as a defilement : so that they were not in sympathy with the 
idea of a Messiah or "anointed one." They had no servants, but 
helped one another. They wore old clothes, and were engaged in 
husbandry. Their officers were elected, and they judged causes among 
themselves by a council of at least 100 members. They were estimated 
to number some 4000 in all. The novice received a white robe, an 
apron, and a symbolic axe. Those convicted of crime were expelled 
from the society. They bound themselves by a vow of secrecy not 
to reveal the contents of certain sacred books, or "the names 
of the angels." They also vowed piety, justice, obedience, and 
honesty; and they showed active charity to the poor. Philo says 
that their three rules were, the love of God, of virtue, and of all 
mankind. 

Mr A. Lillie regards Essenes as the predecessors of Christ, who 
thus appears as no more than an Essene monk. Dean Mansel (Gnostic 
Heresies, p. 31) comes to the conclusion that ''Essen ism was due to 
Buddhist missionaries, who visited Egypt within two generations of 
the time of Alexander the Great" [The Essenes said that the souls 
of the just went to a happy land beyond the ocean, where was no rain, 
nor snow, nor heat, but only a west breeze from the sea. The wicked 
went to a land of winter, darkness, and torment. It is notable that 
this is very like Mazdean accounts of the fate of men after death ; 
though the Psalms, and the book of Job, furnish hints as to "gathering," 
and as to the wicked being blown away to darkness by the wind, 
which are equally comparable with Persian allegoric language. — Ed.] 

Esther. Persian, stara " star." Her Hebrew name was Hadas- 
sah, "myrtle," a plant with a white starlike flower. She is the 
heroine of a Hebrew romance, written in the 3rd — or perhaps 2nd — 
century B.C., where she is represented as becoming the queen of Xerxes 
(Ahasuerus, compare Ezra iv, 6), or of Artaxerxes according to Joeephus, 
and the Greek Septuagint. The latter contains long passages which 
are not in our Hebrew text, including a preface which describes 



70 Etana 

Mordecais vision of two dragons fighting, and of a small spring 
becoming a great river; also two letters by Artaxerxes (after iii, 
13> and viii, 13), with Elsther's prayer (after iv, 17), and the final 
explanation (after x, 3) of the vision, as fulfilled by Mordecai and 
Haman, as the dragons, and Esther as the river. It also ends with a 
note which refers to Ptolemy and Lysimachus, and which cannot be 
earlier than 307 B.a 

Nothing is more improbable than that a Hebrew maiden could 
become a queen of the Persian monarch, in an age when these kings 
only intermarried with certain noble Persian families ; or that the 
king should have taken a Jew as prime minister, giving him per- 
mission to arrange for a massacre of 75,300 Persians (ix, 16). The 
story is connected with the winter feast of Purim in the month Adar. 
[The word Pur for " lot" is not known in Persian (see Elsther ix, 24), 
yet may come from the Aryan Par whence para " a part." — Ed.] It 
is remarkable that Mordecai, though a Jew, should bear a name con* 
nected with that of the Babylonian sun god Marduk. We cannot 
wonder that Esther was regarded as a doubtful book in our 4th 
century, and by later Protestant^, though accepted by the Council of 
Trent in 1563. 

Etana. A Babylonian mythical hero, whose legend is gathered 

from several broken kuneiform tablets (see Brit Mus. Catalogue^ 

1900, p. 74). It recalls that of Ganymede among Greeks. It 

begins with the story of the serpent who complained to Shamash (the 

sun) that the eagle had devoured its young, praying him to catch the 

eagle in his net. Shamash counsels the serpent to hide in the carcase 

of an ox, and to catch the eagle himself and clip its wings. The 

serpent goes to the eagle's mountain, and hides in the body of a wild 

ox. Birds assemble to devour the carrion, but the eagle says to its 

young, " Come, let us go, and not trouble as to the flesh of a wild 

ox." An eaglet spies the serpent. Here, unfortunately, there is a 

gap in the text. We next find Etana praying to Shamash to grant 

him a son in return for sacrifices ofiered : "Let the command go 

forth from thy mouth, and give me the plant that assists birth ; bring 

a child to birth, and grant me a son." Shamash bids Etana visit the 

eagle, and on reaching the mountain he asks again for this plant A 

gap follows. The eagle then proposes to carry Etana to heaven, 

where alone this plant is to be found. He holds on to the eagle's 

neck, and is borne aloft in three flights to the heaven of Anu. In 

the first flight earth is seen below as a mountain in the sea ; in the 

second, the sea is a girdle of the land ; in the third, ocean appears no 



Ethiks 71 

broader than a garden ditch. The eagle tries to fly yet higher, but 
is exhausted and falls. 

Ethiks (see Morals). Early religions were not ethikal in our 
sense of the term ; and even the good Melancthon (Schwartzerde) 
says : " We do not excel in intellect and learning, nay, nor in decency 
and morals, but in true knowledge and worship of God." " Religion,** 
said Schleiermacher, " belongs neither to the domain of science, nor 
of morals; it is essentially neither knowledge nor conduct^ but 
emotion only, specific in nature, and inherent iu the immediate con- 
sciousness of each individual.'' Only by education does man leara 
that religion must fail unless ethikally based. Matthew Arnold 
defined his theistik belief as " morality touched by emotion " ; James 
Martineau regarded his own faith as " the culminating meridian of 
morals." 

Etmskans. The first civilisers of Italy are variously called 
Etruskans, Tuskans, Tursenoi, and Tyrrhenians (Turr^noi) ; and were 
said to be of Lydian origin (Herod., i, 94; Tacitus, Ann,, iv, 55), 
reaching Umbria or N. Italy about 1000 B.C. They appear also to 
have called themselves Rasena. They ruled Rome itself till 510 B.C., 
when the Aryan Keltik element began to dominate them. [The 
early population was no doubt much mixed, the Umbrians in the 
north, and the Oskans in the south, speaking, and writing, in Aryan 
dialects. But Sir H. Rawlinson points out that the Etruskans proper 
were not Aryans. Even in Lydia there was a mixed population, and 
Hittite remains occur there. Among the parallels traceable between 
Etruskans and the non- Aryans of Asia Minor are found : the common 
use of Cyclopean masonry ; of similar pottery ; of the tutulua or high 
conical headdress ; of the calcevs repandua or shoe with a curled toe ; 
of the labms, or double-headed axe of Krete, Karia, and Kappadokia, 
found also on a Hittite monument ; of the Gorgon's head, and the 
spbynx, which is also a Hittite figure. The Lydian seal cylinders 
show us a double-headed god like the Etruskan Janus, and bear 
Hittite characters. The Turanian type of the Etruskans, and the 
Turanian character of their language, are fully treated by Dr Isaac 
Taylor, Etruscan Beaearchea, 1874, with his pamphlet on the 
Etruscan Language, 1876. The magnificent Etruskan terra cotta 
sarcophagus from Caere in Etruria (Cervetri), now in the British 
Museum, shows an Etruskan lady with black hair and yellow face, 
and sloping Mongol eyes. It bears two Etruskan legends, and is 
supported on four winged sphynxes. The grinning head of the 
Etruskan god of Hades — Charun — is very like that of Babylonian 



72 Etruskans 

demons. The Etniskan chronology (V^rro, quoted by CensormuB, 
De Die Natale, xvii) goes back to 1000 B.a — Ed.] 

Ovid and Cicero speak of the Etruskan founder Tages, who was 
ever young, coming from the earth in the land of Tarquinii (the 
Tarkon of Etruskan inscriptions), and teaching agriculture to Tarkoa, 
Pe also instructed the Etruskans in auguries preserved in the 12 Books 
of Tages — ^perhaps meaning ''stone" tables (Akkadian Tag ''stone"). 
The Aryans venerated Etruskan rites, and books, their ritual, and omens 
by lightning and otherwise : even the word (xerenionia for " cere- 
monies" was said to come from the name of . the Etruskan city Caere. 
The mother of Etruskan cities (Acca-Larentia) became the nurse of 
Romulus and Remus (see Aka). The Etruskan cosmogony resembled 
that of Akkadians as borrowed by Babylonians. The creator formed 
all things in periods of 1000 years each : 1st, the heavens and the 
earth ; 2nd, the firmament ; 3rd, the waters ; 4th, sun, moon, and 
stars; 5th, birds, reptiles, and beasts; and 6th, man. Hellanicas 
calls the Tursenoi an aboriginal people, distinct from all othera. 
Dionysius (i, 30) says that their language was "barbarous," and Dot 
related to others known to him. We gather from this language 
(especially from the known numerals) that they were of Altaik, or 
Turanian, stock, like their Asiatic neighbours the Hittites and Katl 
[Among the clearest philological indications are the use of postpositions 
and agglutination, with words such as Lar, " lord " or " god ". (the 
Kassite lar "master"), Tarkon "chief" (the Hittite Tarkhun, Turkish 
Tarkhan), Idus " full moon " (Akkadian idu, Turkish yede, " moon," 
"month"), Lucumo "noble" (Akkadian lu "man," gum "official"), 
Puia "child" (Finnic pu\ Leine "he lived" (Finnic), Clan "son" 
(Turkish oglan "boy"), Avil "life" (Turkish ol "to be"), and 
C!barun (Turkish Khar-un " evil god "), for the demon ruler of 
^ades, who bears the double-headed axe. Many words attributed 
— ^perhaps incorrectly — to Etruskans are, however, Aryan, especially 
.^Ssar for "gods," noticed by Suetonius in the Life of Augustvs. 
Various texts at Lemnos, and in Etruria itself — ^like the Eugubian 
tablets — ^are loosely called Etruskan, but appear to be rather Sabine, 
Umbrian, or Oskan (see Sir W. Betham, Etruria Cdtica, 1842, 
voL i, p. 89). Sir W. Gell calls the Eugubian texts Umbrian in 
8 cases, while 4 in Roman characters are .Oskan. The true Etruskan 
alphabet differs from those of Umbrians and Oskans, and the texts 
are often written, in alternate lines, from right to left and left to 
right, as in early inscriptions (Greek and others) in Asia Minor. 
Mirrors called Etruskan also appear to be often of Greek origin, with 
Greek legends and names. Scarabs found in Etruskan tombs resemble 



Etruskans 73 

those of Egypt, and PhceDicia, yet are undoubtedly original, and 
Dot either copies or imported. Some of the names of Etruskan 
deities also appear to be Greek, though most of them are non- 
Aryan. — Ed.] 

The Etruskan inscriptions found in tombs are generally very 
short The Perugia text is of 46 lines [apparently Umbrian or 
Oskan — Ed.]. In 1849 an Egyptian mummy of the Ptolemaic age 
was brought to Europe by an Austrian explorer, and found its way 
to the Agram museum. Its bandages were found to be covered with 
alphabetic texts which Prof. Karl, in 1891, states to represent an 
Etruskan ritual, in a Turanian tongue. An ancient book appears to 
have been torn up for the purpose of swathing the mummy. 

The Etruskans seem to have been at first a ruling class, with 
serfs tilling the soil, who may have been Pelasgi or other Aryans. 
Their earliest capitals were at Agulla and Tarquinii. In personal 
appearance they resembled Hittites and Mongols, with sloping eyes, 
black hair, high cheek bones, short noses, large heads, and faces 
generally (but not always) hairless. In figure they were stoutly 
built. They are believed to have conquered or expelled older in- 
habitants, probably Umbrians, with whom they also inter-married. 
A Tarkon ("tribal chief '*), was said to have founded their 12 cities, 
and to have decreed laws and rites. They first introduced the 
civilisation on which that of Rome was based, spreading over Latium, 
and S. to Campania — where they met Greeks and Phoenicians later. 
Livy says that even the Bhoeti in the Alps were civilised by them, 
and retained the Tuskan language. There were Turr^noi also in 
Thrakia, and Pliny and Justin thought that the Basini (or Basena) 
invaded Italy from the Tyrol. The Etruskan power extended from 
the Po to Capua (Vulturnum), where Mtiller supposes them to have 
been settled by 800 B.C. They were hardy sailors; and, in 538 B.C., 
they joined the Carthaginians, each people supplying 60 galleys, to 
expel the Phocseans from the island of Corsica. The Roman victory 
at Cumae was the first blow to their power in 474 B.C. In 396 fi.c. 
Kome seized Veii; and in 384 B.c. Dionysius of Syracuse plundered 
the Tuscan coast, while the Oauls overran their northern province 
near the Po : yet the Etruskans were still allied to Carthaginians, and 
9thers, as late as 307 B.c. Romulus was said to have fought with 
Veii ; but Coeles Vibenna, the Etruskan, with his mercenaries settled 
later on the Coelian hill at. Rome, where one quarter was called the 
Tuscus Vicus. [The word Tus, whence Tuskan, apparently means 
"south," as in Turkish dialects. — Ed.] The Etruskan Tarquin I 
(a Tarkon) was the founder of Roman power, receiving from the 



74 Etniskans 

people " a golden crown, an ivory throne and sceptre, a purple robe 
figured with gold," and other badges of royalty (Dionys., iii, 57-61). 
Under the Tarqiiin dyuasty useful works like the Cloaca Maxima were 
begun in Rome ; and Etruskan power was at its height about 600 to 
500 B.C. The Tarquin being expelled again attacked the city, in 
alliance with Porsena, the Lar (or ''master") of Clusium, about 
610 B.C.; and is said, after a siege, to have granted terms of peace. 
Further hostilities are unnoticed till 483 B.C. ; and the Latins, accord- 
ing to Livy, called the Etruskan capitals " allied cities," and their own 
people " Roman colonists in Etruria." The Etruskans remained more 
or less distinct, in religion and language, down almost to the Christian 
era. Even now in Tuscany the names of their gods are remembered, 
as those of " folletti " or fairies. In 89 B.c. they were admitted to the 
jealously guarded privileges of the " Roman citizen " ; but they sided 
with the tyrant Marius ; and the war of Perusia (Perugia), in 41 B.C., 
led to their ruin. In the time of Augustus, Etruria was the " seventh 
region of Italy,'* which Constantino incorporated with Umbria. 

In the Etruskan confederacy of 12 cities each king was in- 
dependent, and all were allied for war — an universal Turanian custom 
which we may trace among Hittites, Akkadians, and non- Aryans in 
India. The cities are variously reckoned, but included Veil and 
Tarquinii near Rome, Caere or Agulla, Falerii, Volci, Volsinii, Clusium 
(taken from Umbrians), Arretum, Cortona, Volaterrse (or Velathri), 
Populonia, and Vetulonia. [The word Vol appears to be the Turkish 
aul, and Akkadian alu, for a "camp" or "city." — Ed.] This 
system of government among Turanians proved too weak to resist the 
empires of united races, whether Semitic or Aryan. In Etruria the 
leaders were often the priests, as being the best educated magnates (see 
livy, V, i), and politicians strengthened their power by accepting 
sacred offices, and performing the rites of a complicated ritual. The 
Lucumos (called Principes by Romans), were a sacred aristocracy not 
in touch with the mixed Umbrian serfs, or Penestai — Aryans who in 
time asserted their rights and power. Like other Turanians, the 
Tursenoi, or Etruskans, were highly religious, or, as we should call 
them, superstitious. Livy calls them ''a people who excelled all 
others in devotion to religions, as well as in the knowledge of worships " ; 
and they thus became the instructors of Romans, in augury and rites. 
The Greeks equally owed many of their deities, and early arts, to the 
congeners of the Tuskans in Asia Minor. The mythology of Etruria 
points to an Eastern, and to a Turanian, origin ; as we see from the 
groups of gods on Etruskan mirrors, and from the names written over 
them, or from the pictures and sarcophagi in Etruskan tombs. [One 



Etruskans 



75 



mirror represents Tinia with sceptre and trident, having Apulu on his 
right, and Turms, with winged hat and caduceus, on his left. Another 
shows Tina as Jove, with sceptie and spear, supported by Thalna» 
while Menerva springs armed from his head, to be received by the 
godess Tha . . . r, behind whom on the right is the youthful Sethluns 
with his hammer. A third represents Herkole aided by a winged 
Menerva. A fourth shows Therme and Menerva driving a demon 
down to hell. — Ed.] The chief triad consisted of Tina, Cupra, and 
Menerva (answering to Zeus, Her6, and Athene), and these had every- 
where three shrines, with three gates. There were also six male and 
six female deities, whom Latins called Dii Consentes — a heavenly 
council. The relation of the chief gods was as below. 



Character. 


Etruakan, 


Greek. 


Latin, 


Heaven 


Summano 


Ouranos 


Uranus 


Earth 


Angerona 


De-m6t€r 


Ceres 


Sea 


Neptuus 


Poseiddn 


Neptunus 


Hell 


Mantu 


Hades 


Pluto 


Sun 


Tushna 


Apollo 


Apollo 


Moon 


Lala 


Selene 


Diana 


Air 


Tina 


Zeus 


Jupiter 


The herald 


Turms 


Hermes 


Mercurius 



The names of the gods of Etruria are explained by Dr Isaac 
Taylor, and others, by aid of Turanian languages. Tina, the sky spirit 
(Tartar Tin\ Chinese Tien, "sky," "heaven"): Summano (Mongol 
Srnnans, Lapp TuTrum, " holy ") : Usil, the rising sun (Finnic, Uaal, 
Aaal, " morning ") : Tushna, the midday sun (Tartar Tua " south ") : 
Janus, the god of creation, and of doors, two-headed or l>isexual 
(Tartar Jen "god": Akkadian Gan "being"): Nethuns or Nep- 
tuns (probably from Nap " to swell." and un " Lord," as in Akkadian 
" lord of waves ") : Mantu (Akkadian Man " chief," Tu " below "), 
otherwise Vetis or Vedius (perhaps the Akkadian Bat " death **). 
Puphluns or Fufluns (perhaps Pupulu-un " lord of what is grown " : 
see Bu) answered to Bacchus : Sethluns was Vulcan (from Set or Silt, 
Turkic, ** to bum," "roast" — Setlu-uns, "lord of what is smelted"): 
Turms, or Therme, was the messenger of heaven (Akkadian tur " to 
travel"): Erkle or Herkole was Hercules (Akkadian Er-gal "great 
man ") : Charun, or Kharun, was an infernal deity (Tartar KhxiT 
"evil" — Khar-un "lord of evil"): Sancus was a Sabine god (Akka- 
dian San, Turkish Savg, " mighty ") : Voltumna was a deity of vows 
(perhaps UUtv^un-na, " lord of future doing " — ^Akkadian) : Vertum- 
nu8 was a god of autumn (perhaps Ir-tu-un-na, " god of rain giving," 



76 Eucharist 

as in Akkadian). The godesses included Gupra as Juno (perkaps 
Kvr-par " purple light/' as in Akkadian — the sky godess) : Tuian was 
Venus, and wife of the sun (perhaps Finnic, Turan, Tarom, " heaven " ; 
or Tur-an-nay Akkadian, '' child of heaven ") : Thana was Diana (Tartar 
Tan "light": Yacut ting "dawn"). Thalna (Akkadian tal "to 
rise ") was also a dawn godess : the moon was Lala (Akkadian lal 
" full "), or Losna (perhaps an Aryan name). Menerva was the Latin 
Minerva (probably MaVr-uru^ " leader of light " — see Ar). Nortia 
was Fortune (Nar-ti-a "ruler of casting" lots). Mania was the 
bride of Mantu (perhaps Man-ea " ruler of the hole " or of Hell) ; and 
Aogerona is rendered Horta " garden " — a deity of enclosures (Akka- 
dian an " god," gar " garden," " enclosure," un " lord " or " lady," 
" the divine lady of gardens ") : the Fates were also female, and called 
Dii Involuti in Latin, while the Dii Novensiles were apparently gods 
who controlled thunderbolts. The Lares were spirits (Kassite lar 
"lord"), as were the l^enates (Tartar ban "spirit"). The doable- 
headed god — Janus — is represented on a Lydian cylinder seal, holding 
a cross in his right hand towards a worshiper, and a whip in his left 
towards two demons (Col. Conder, Anthrop. Journal, Nov. 1887). 
The " Disciplina Etrusca " grew into a complicated system of worship, 
with divination by dreams, weather, stars, lightning, entrails, the 
flight of birds; with fire, solar, and phallic rites. The populace 
adored genii, junones, lares, penates, and lemures, or ghosts, with much 
fear. All these beliefs were also features of religion yet earlier among 
Hittites, Kati, Eassites, and Akkadians (see also Fors). 

Eucharist. HvJchariatia, "giving thanks," in Greek. The 
Jews at the Passover pronounced a prayer of thanksgiving, or grace, 
over the *' cup of blessing," to the " giver of the vine." The 
memorial rite became among Christians a " sacred mystery." In 
Egypt wine and meet cakes (like the Hebrew ma^soth, or unleavened 
cakes, whence probably the Missa or Mass was named), were sacred to 
Osiris. The cakes and Haoma drink of the rites of Mithra were 
called by Tertullian a " satanic parody " of the Christian rite. In 
the Gita Krishna says " I am the Soma " — the Ifersian Haoma which 
was the spirit of the deity. So also many Christians still identify the 
bread and wine with the actual " flesh and blood " of their Lord, giving 
a material interpretation to his mystic words. These elements were 
regarded, as eariy as our 2Dd century, as capable of working miracles. 
They were laid on the breast of those who died too suddenly to 
partake of them. The bread was even taken home, and reserved to 
be eaten before the first meal, and used as a poultice to cure disease. 



Euhemeros 77 

The churches accepted, from the earliest age, the words of the 4th 
Gospel (vi, 53), and Ignatius (if his text has not been altered) 
certainly taught Transubstantiation. The reformers of our 16th 
century shrank from such materialistic ideas ; but the first Canon of 
the Council of Trent (1563) lays down that: "If any one shall say 
that Christ, as exhibited in the Eucharist, is only spiritually eaten ; 
and not sacrameutally and really, let him be accursed." In the 
second Canon it is laid down : " In the most holy sacrifice of the 
Eucharist there is truly, really, and substantially, the body and 
blood, together with the soul and divinity, of our Lord Jesus 
Christ . . . there is made a conversion of the whole substance of 
the bread into the body, and of the whole substance of the wine 
into the blood ; which conversion the Catholic Church calls Tran- 
substantiation." This is supplemented by the Catechism of the 
Council of Trent, requiring " Pastors to explain that there is contained 
(in the elements) not only the true body of Christ, and whatever 
belongs to a true condition of a body (such as bones and nerves), 
but also a whole Christ." The Lutherans winced from such definitions 
(compare Sacrifices), and adopted Consubstantiation, saying that : 
" there is only a substantial presence of the body of Christ with the 
bread and wine of the Sacrament." But the partakers equally 
believed that they absorbed the qualities of their Lord, and thus 
attained to communion with him — which is the ever-present idea of 
similar sacrifices among savage peoples. We see it clearly in accounts 
of ancient Mexican, or of modern Red Indian sacrifices (see Capt. 
Brooke's Medicine Men of the ApacheSy 1892, p. 524; and under 
Azteks). The Apaches mixed human blood with their unleavened 
bread, baked from maize, and from various grass seeds on which 
they live. 

Mr Clodd — ^President of the Folk Lore Society — says that the 
Christian rite " is a distinct survival of the barbarian idea of eating a 
god, so as to become a partaker of his divine nature." The Eucharistic 
feast however, originally, included more than the two elements which 
were distributed, after thanksgiving, by the Christians who met for a 
communion {Koinonia) or meal in common. Cheese, fruits, and even 
fish, were eaten at this meal, as represented in the Catacomb 
pictures, or in that of the Capella Qrecia two miles outside the Porta 
Salaria of Rome — ^said by some to be as early as 170 A.c. The 
fish is here connected with a cup which the priest offers on the altar 
(see Baptism). 

Euhemeros. A philosopher of the Kurenaik school, about 



78 Eumenides 

320 B.C., teaching a doctrine at which Herodotos and others had 
hinted a century earlier, namely, that the gods had been once living 
heroes, who had usually benefited their race, and invented arts of 
peace and war : thus being idolized during life, and worshiped after 
death. These ideas Euhemeros put forward, in popular style, in his 
Hierai Anagraphai or Sacred Histories^ basing his ideas on what he 
had seen in his extensive travels down the Red Sea to the Indian 
Ocean ; which however, according to others, were conceptions that 
could have been gathered from temple inscriptions in Greece itself. 
No doubt his mind was widened by travel, and study, in other lands, 
which showed him the relations of faiths, and the ideals of men, 
convincing him that legends concerning gods were based on incidents 
misunderstood, or exaggerated, in histories which were traditional, and 
imperfect 

Polybius, Dionysius, and other philosophic historians and writers, 
more or less accepted Euhemerism as a general rule ; and some still 
offer the same explanations. 

Eumenides. See Erinues. 

Euphrates. The name of this great river in Hebrew is Fherath 
(Assyrian Puratu), usually explained as "fertile." [Possibly the 
Akkadian Pur-ata, "chief stream." — Ed.] At its mouth was the 
city of Eridu (supposed to have been at Abtb-Shahrein), which is 
connected with myths like that of Oilgamas : the elysium of the 
gods being near ''the mouth of the rivers" (12th Tablet Gilgamas 
Series). [The mythical, and the actual, city may both be called £ridu 
or " spacious." A legend of the " Bride of Hell/' in the Amarna 
collection, speaks of the gods as dwelling in Eridu — perhaps meaning 
"in space." — Ed.] 

Europe. This word may be the Semitic 'Ereb for "sunset," 
and " west," (Arabic gharb " west "), like Erebos, the place of sunset 
and Hades (from a root " to descend," as in the Assyrian Eriim also). 
Zeus, as a bull, fled with a nymph from the East ; and she became 
Europa in the West She was the daughter of a Phoenician god (see 
Agenor), or of Phoinix the Phoenician " palm," or of Telephassa (" far- 
shining"), whom the jealous Artemis pierced with her arrows — ^she 
was the wife of Ag§nor ; and Europa's brother was Kadmos {^edtm 
" the east ") ; so that most of the names are Semitic. She was trans- 
ported to Krete, which thus appears to be the western limit of the 
legend. 

Eusebius. The bishop of Csesarea in Palestine, and the " father 



Eutycheans 79 

of Church history ** — an obsequious ecclesiastic, who wrote eulogies 
OQ CoDstantiiie, the first Christian emperor. He was born iu Pales- 
tine about 260 A.C. ; and became bishop of Laodicea iu Phoeuicia 
about 303 A.C. ; and of Csesarea a few years later. He was thus 65 
at the time of the first Council at Nicea, about which time he wrote 
his valuable, though perhaps not quite trustworthy, Ecclesiaatical 
History, Gibbon (Dedine and Folly ii, 79) says that: **Euaebius 
himself indirectly confesses that he has related that which might 
redound to the glory, and suppressed all that could tend to the dis- 
grace, of religion." Baronius was a sincere Christiao, yet he calls 
Eusebius a ** falsifier of history, a wily sycophant, consummate hypo- 
crite, and time-serviug persecutor." Eusebius heads one chapter 
{Proep. Evang,,xx\, 31) with the monstrous title, "How far it may 
be lawful and fitting to use falsehoods, as a medicine for the advantage 
of those who require such a method." [It is a question of textual 
criticism whether he was responsible for such words. — Ed.] Hence 
arose the theory of " pious fraud," among those who attempt to justify 
such language. 

We search in vain for reliable chronology in regard to this father 
of history. Bishop Lightfoot admits that his writings " are perplexing 
and contradictory," We cannot even prove that he exerted the 
influence that he claims over the great emperor. Yet we depend 
mainly on him for the history of Christianity before his time ; and 
without him we should know nothing of Papias, Polycarp, John the 
Elder, and other early Christian worthies ; or of synods and councils 
down to 325 A.c, which decided for us the creeds, canons, and 
dogmas of later ages. 

Eutycheans. Followers of Eutukhes, abbot of a monastery in 
Constantinople, who denied that Christ had more than one nature. 
He was condemned by the Council of Chalcedon in 451 A.C. : but in 
the 6th century his doctrines were further advocated by Jacob 
Baradaeus, who convinced the Kopts and the Armenians, as well as the 
greater part of the Syrian Christians, who were called, after him, 
'* Jacobites," Thus all the Asiatic Churches — except the Nestorians 
— became Monophysites, or believers in a single divine nature of 
Christ, which Greeks and Latins have alike denied since the question 
was first raised. 

Eve. Hebrew Khavah, supposed to come from the root Kkih 
"to live," Gen, iii, 20 (see Adam). Her grave is shown by Arabs 
outside the walls of Jeddah, the sea-port of Makka, and, according 
to Sir R Burton, is a huge tumulus 300 feet long from head to 



80 Evuna 

waist, and 200 feet from waist to heel. But the tomb itself is oalj 
about 75 feet by 18 feet in area. This is one of the stations of the 
pilgrimage to Makka ; and the pilgrim arriving by sea must here put 
on the Ihrdm, or ** sacred " dress, to be worn on his visit to Makka. 

Evuna. A non-Aryan deity, especially among the aborigiDal 
Todas of S. India. 

Exodus. Greek ex-odoa *' going out." In the Hebrew this book 
is only called after the first words, '* These are the names." The 
Jews early regarded it as having been written by Moses. Amos 
(about 770 B.C.) speaks (v, 25) of Israel as having passed 40 years in 
the desert: Uosea (about 750 B.c.) knew of a prophet (ii, 15) who 
brought Israel out of Egypt; but Micah alone (about 700 B.G.) names 
Moses, Aaron, and Miriam (vi, 4). The Book of Exodus, however, 
professes to give an historical account of the growth of a nation of 
600,000 fighting men from Jacob's family of 70 men. That a 
population of 2^ millions should grow up in 215 years (as stated in 
the Greek version) would represent a marvellous increase, though in 
430 years (as stated in the Hebrew text) it might be possible. Bishop 
Colenso (Pent, part i) showed, however, that this vast host could not 
have left Egypt in a single day, or have subsisted in the desert. The 
writer who speaks of the building of Pithom and Raamses (i, 11), 
cannot have lived earlier than 1400 B.C., and probably wrote much 
later. The power of Egypt in Palestine remained unshaken till 
about 1480 B.C. or later (see Amarna, Bible, iE^ypt, and Hebrews). 
Manetho (250 RC.) is credited with a legend of the expulsion of a 
leprous people, which is " of uncertain origin, and not Egyptian." No 
monument yet found speaks of Israel in Egypt; but the Hyksos 
rulers, and their Asiatic subjects, were expelled about 1700 B.C. The 
only possible allusions to Hebrew history refer to Israel as in Palestine 
between 1480 and 1270 B.C. Josephus rejects as incredible the 
accounts of Manetho, and of unknown writers named Cheremon and 
Lysimachus, saying that they disagree, and regarding their Amenophis 
(a successor of Rameses) as fictitious. The supposed summary of 
Egyptian history in this age, by Sextus Julius Africanus — a Libyan 
who lived in Palestine, and became bishop of Alexandria, in our 3rd 
century — is known to us only by quotations in the works of George 
the Syncellus, as late as 800 A.G. Such literature has no value, and 
the only authority for an Exodus having occurred is the Old Testa- 
ment tradition^ 

Ey. In Keltik speech an " island." This is apparently an old 



Eye 8i 

word 2 Egyptian oi : Hebrew at ; for an " island/* or " shore land " — 
found also in Turanian speech. 

Eye. The English word is from the Aryan root Ak 'Ho see.*^ 
In the symbolism of religions the eye is a favourite emblem ; and as^ 
there is a good and also an evil serpent, so too there is a divine eye» 
and an evil eye : the soft sweet glance of love, and the withering 
look of the envious : the eye of Osiris in Egypt, and the evil eye of 
Akkadian magic texts. All early peoples believed that they saw the 
soul in the eye, which is the great revealer of the inmost thoughts 
and passions. The eye of the witch, and of the gipsy, have always 
been dreaded, like that of the Najar, or Briakta^ in India. Many 
are the charms. Mantras, and fetishes, required to ward off the evil 
brought by the eye. The Italian still believes that all misfortunes 
come from the " mal occhio," or evil eye (see Rivera of Life^ and the 
posthumous work by Mr Westropp — for which we wrote a preface in 
1885 — on Primitive Syrfihclism). 

"The man with the evil eye," says Mr P. B. Joshi, *'is not 

necessarily a cruel man, nor one bearing ill-will towards his victim '' 

{Jowmal Bombay Anthrop. Inatit, i, p. 3). Yet any good and 

comely thing, or person, is liable to be injured by such a man; the 

envious eye, according to Bacon, does most harm to the beautiful and 

prosperous. In Indian villages such evil-eyed persons are known to 

all, and are shunned like witches, beggars, and strangers. They are 

said to ruin fields, crops, food, clothes, and implements. Cows are 

so affected by them that their milk turns to blood ; trees drop their 

fruits or leaves ; even walls crack and fall ; while gems lose lustre 

in their presence. Salt should be spread about, and conspicuous 

objects put in view, to attract the unlucky gaze, such as beads, brass 

objects, hair, and tiger's claws ; or garlic, cloves, and shells. These 

must be arranged so as to divert the Drishta from the face, or from 

the vital organs, of man or beast Thus Neapolitans use a piece of 

horn, or an image of the Madonna : or propitiate St Antony (patron 

of animals) by tying a small bag of sea sand and flour, with flowers, 

to the manes of horses, to defeat the evil eye. In Brand's Antiquities 

we read of Kelts in the Western Islands who wore nuts or beans, to 

ward off the eye ; as the Indian peasant wears his Drishta-mani, the 

Irish his "scapular," or the Fellab his similar leather case, with a 

written charm sewn up inside. In the Engadine a mother recently 

clad her only son in girl's clothes, to deceive the evil-eyed one (sea 

, Punjab Notes and Queries, i, p. 135). Indian parents do the same» 

and tie old shoes, horns, skulls, black threads, and necklaces that 



82 Eye 

have been consecrated by holy men, on trees which overlook their fields 
or houses, and on cattle, to divert the eye. Kelts in the Hebrides 
pluck the snow-white blossomed ^'Toranain/' and wave it De-suil 
wise over anything that they fear to lose, chanting " Eolan," and 
calling on their old saints, Columba, Oran, or Michael, to aid them. 
The sick must be given to eat whatever the evil-eyed one has been 
seen to eat, on the great principle of " similia similibus " — as stones 
are offered to a stone god, or as the brazen serpent of Moses cured the 
bites of other serpents. 

Ancient and modem Jews alike have believed in the evil eye (see 
Prov. xxiii, 6: xxviii, 22: Matt, xx, 16). Col. Conder (HeUi ani 
Moah, chap, ix) gives many Jewish and Syrian superstitious " similar to 
those of the Persians." For these questions the Talmud, Mishnah, and 
Haggadah, should, he says, ''be read side by side with the Zend- 
Avesta" (pp. 273, 274). This applies to the Psalms as well (see 
Zoroaster) ; and " Jews who wish to free themselves from the tyranny 
of Talmudic prescription " are recommended to compare the Persian 
scriptures with the Mishnah. In Syria horses' skulls are placed in 
apple trees, eggs, and bits of blue china are hung on walls, and amulets 
are worn, to avert the *Ain Farigh — the " empty (or evil) eye.'* A 
red hand is carved and painted over doorways, or on the door, with 
such marks as *' Solomon's seal," or the double triangle ('* the Shield of 
David "), by Jews, Samaritans, and Moslems alike. Yet, according to 
the Babylonian Talmud, 99 per cent, of all deaths are due to the eya 
In both Italy and Syria blue, or grey, eyes, are especially dreaded 
as evil. 

Hindus fear the glance of a stranger, or of a heretic, lighting on 
their food, or on the place where it is cooked. It is not considered 
lucky by them (or by Italians, or Syrians, either) to praise or admire 
a child, or any valued object, belonging to another ; and curious charms 
are uttered if this be done (see Jov/rnal Bomhay Anthrop. Instit.\ 
Jews, and Moslems also, utter special phrases in such cases. Children 
are purposely left with dirty faces to conceal their natural beauty. In 
the Hall of Ambassadors, in the Alhambra, we saw in 1858 words to 
the effect : ** I will remove the malice of the evil eye by these five 
texts," written on the wall. Our judges used to be protected by sprigs 
of rue from such influences — the Fascinatio of the Romans, in which 
Greeks and Spaniards also believe. Such superstition still exbts 
throughout Europe, but especially among the ignorant classes of the 
south. They hang small horns, and phalli, and teeth, rings, and beads, 
on their children, especially on babes, to divert the eye. Ostrich eggs 
are infallible charms. Teutonic peasants set up vases, on gable ends. 



Eye 83 

which must be kept bright, as Chinese and Japanese place mirrors on 
roofs. Horse shoes also avert the dreaded invidia, or envious glance. 
C. 0. Mtiiler says " the more repulsive and disgusting the object used 
the more certain is the desired effect." Phalli, human or animal, 
especially those of the bull and ass, are therefore nailed up over the 
doors of dwellings. 

The eyes of extraordinary persons, learned men, and popes, are 
much feared. Pius IX was said to have the evil eye. Those with a 
" cast," or with apparently double pupils, are specially dreaded. The 
combined cross and phallus is a powerful sign, as seen on the walls of 
Alatri. In Naples red coral phalli are worn as charms against the eye. 
Ferdinand II, and Victor Immanuel, were often seen to make the 
sign against the eye, which may either be the pointing with the little 
and the fore finger extended, or the thumb placed between the second 
and third fingers, or the single raised finger. Knots are also useful 
(see Sir Walter Scott's Demonology, 1830, p. 329), and Heron writes 
(ii, p. 228) that "cattle not protected by knotted manes, ribbons, etc., 
are very apt to suffer" from the eye. Ash trees avert it, and are 
therefore planted near dwellings. Plutarch (Sympos,, v, 9) says that 
objects affecting witchcraft derive efficiency from fantastic forms. 
Hence horns, corals, bits of bone, and sticks of strange shape, are 
strung to the necks of Arabs, Africans, and other savages : or great 
necklaces of teeth, as in Fiji. More advanced races used texts, 
enclosed in cases of leather or of metal. In Sardinia these are found 
vith Hebrew lettering of early date. The Babylonian seal-cylinders, 
worn on the wrist, were similar charms, and Egyptian Arabs wear 
leather cylinders on the wrist, with cuttings from the !^oran inside. 
Keys, anchors, and crosses, are worn as amulets, and the Bible, with a 
key, may be found at the bed head still in European homes. The 
Koumanian decks himself and his beasts with red ribbons, and red 
flannel Greeks and Turks will even spit in the faces of their 
children if a stranger has admired themi All such customs are due to 
the eye : to avert which the Divine Eye was carved on the temples of 
East and West, or on Buddhist stupas. Phoenician and Burmese 
galleys, and Neapolitan fishing boats, have eyes at the prow, to 
frighten away the demons of the deep. 

Mr Murray Aynsley (" Asiatic Symbolism," in Indian Antiq,, 
November 1886) speaks of the sign of horns — the two extended 
fingers above mentioned — to counteract the "jettatura," or evil eye, 
in Italy : " Bonus Eventus " was a youthful god depicted as holding 
up a born in his right hand. In ancient Egypt the Uta or *' eye " 
was a symbol of " salvation." It was the " light of the body," the 




84 

Eye of Horus, which Set as a black boar swallows by night. The hair 
of the eye was a very holy ofiering to the gods of Peru. Dr Biich 
says that symbolic eye charms were commonly used by Egyptian 
ladies. The Uta had two drops called ai. The right eye was the 
sun, and the left eye the moon. Out of 92 samples found by Mr Price 
at Bubastis (1886) 43 were right eyes, 34 were double or reversible, 
5 were left eyes, and 10 were combinations of two pairs of eyes. These 
were of blue porcelain, lapis lazuli, or cornelian, and in the pupil of one 
was the figure of the pigmy god, Ptah-Sokaris. 

Africans call the evil eye Nazar (perhaps the Semitic tio^r to 
" watch "), with the meaning of " gazing." Blood feuds sometimes 
arise from quarrels as to this gaze. Many races use skulls as charms 
against it. The Hindu sets up cattle skulls, daubed with white or 
with red, in the rooms occupied by pregnant women, placing them 
near an image of Sasthi the godess of pregnancy. Bue, onions, and 
garlic are potent all over the world against the eye. Neapolitan 
mothers bind a *' cima ruta '' or " head of garlic " over the heart di 
a new-bom child, and strew rue round the mother's bed. The Hindu 
father, giving away the bride, puts rue into the sacred fire. In Handet 
Ophelia says, '' There's rue for you, and some for me, we call it Herb o' 
Grace o' Sundays " — that is when seeking grace on the Sunday. " Rue 
was hung round the neck as an amulet in Aristotle's time " (Brandy 
Pop, Ant). In Italy a little bull's horn of gold or silver or of coral 
(" the horn of plenty ") is worn to avert the jettatura. Mr Aynsley 
heard of a bull being driven into the courtyard of an Italian house, ia 
order to expel the mal occhio. He supposes it to have acted as a 
kind of scapegoat (see 'Azazel). Dr Schuyler says that human *' sin 
bearers" (Iskachi) are found even in Turkestan. Throughout Turkey 
shoes are used to counteract the evil eye, though it is an insult to liftt 
or cast, a shoe throughout the East. Greeks and Turks hang such 
shoes on their dwellings (see Foot). The egg, ring, holed stone^ 
crescent, and boat, the bell, lotus, rose, lute, and whistle, are female 
charms, of which Mr Aynsley gives illustrations from Italy, Norway, 
and Switzerland. The Greek mother, making the '* horns " sign with 
two fingers, exclaims " Garlic ! " the Swede cries out " Pepper ! " or 
" Onion ! " The Moslem says " Iron, accursed one." All over 
Europe a coin or stone with a natural hole in it is lucky. A heavy 
necklace of holed stones to keep off the evil eye was found (Notes and j 
Queries) in a Yorkshire house. Salt is thrown after a bride, or 
when some evil person has trodden near a dwelling. Among Mr Aynsley's 
talismans we find one with a serpent and a tree from which it issues ; 
its head resting on a key ; between them is an arm holding a horn. 



Ezekiel 85 

The heart is a common charm, as in Egypt, and ofteii is transfixed by 
a dart, and hangs from a sacred bull (see Rivers of Life, ii, p. 316, 
plate ziii). The heart is also hung to the waist of children in S. India 
(see Rivers of Life, i, p. 237, fig. 109), and is a usual form for a 
'' bulla " charm in Italy (see Abraxas). 

In Smyrna (and indeed, all over the East) grey eyes are feared. 
Hindus think that black, or dark blue eyes are protective, but a blind 
^r one-eyed man is dangerous. Apparently the unusual colour is 
regarded as suspicious. Women make black marks on themselves, 
and on children, as charms ; and kohl, or black eye paint, is useful 
against the evil eye, as are stripes and brightly coloured figures on 
walls and furniture ; for the evil glance is diverted to these. Iron, 
and steel-blue objects, are a great protection ; thus nails are driven 
into trees and walls, as at the Capitol, or at the west wall of the Haram 
at Jerusalem where Jews affix them (see Ezra ix, 8 ; Isaiah xxii, 23 ; 
Ecclea xii, 11). Doors are studded with nails, as are the sticks of 
travellers and post-runners in the East, who swing post-bags on them, 
and believe that wild beasts will be afraid to attack them* Africans 
generally believe in the evil eye, and also in the '' unlucky foot." 

Ezekiel. Hebrew : Yekhazak-d, *'Grod strengthens." This prophet 
was a zealous priest, and a visionary, who strove to stir up the nation 
in captivity, and to reform the Hebrew priesthood, using very vigoroujs 
language and strange symbolic actions. We must, according to Dean 
Plumptre (Commenta/ry), regard these as "real, physical, outward acts," 
not as dreams, even when (iv) his Qod commands him to lie for 390 
days on his left side, and 40 days on his right, beside a tile on which 
be has portrayed the siege of Jerusalem, having first baked his barley 
cakes on a cow-dung fire. Such austerities are quite in accord with 
the ways of modem Yogis, and Sanyasis, in India. In spite of his 
coarse language (see xvi and xxii) Origen called Ezekiel a type of 
Christ — because he was a "Son of Man." His visions continued from 
594 to 588 B.C., in the land of captivity, beside the Khabur river 
(ii 3). His tomb is shown both near the Euphrates, N. of Baghdad, 
and also in Palestine, N.E. of Shechem. The Jewish Sanhedrin long 
refused to allow his writings to be read, or included in their canon, on 
account of his vivid description of the Merkebeh, or cherub-supported 
throne of Yahveh, which they regarded as dangerously suggesting 
image-worship, and the imagery of Babylonia, especially where the 
figure of Yahveh himself is described (i, 26) as the " appearance of a 
man." 

'Ezra. Hebrew : " help." He was " a ready scribe in the law of 



86 

Moses" (Ezra vii, 6), who had " prepared his heart to seek the law of 
Yahyeh, and to do it, and to teach in Israel statutes and judgments" 
(verse 10). But, according to the later Jewish legends, the ancient 
books were lost (Fourth Book of Esdras xiv, 27-48), and the whole 
literature was communicated to him by direct inspiration, including 
70 books which were not to be revealed. The whole law, however, he 
is there represented as having dictated to scribes, "to be published 
openly." Josephus, and others, place Ezra in the reign of Artaxerxes I; 
but the notice of Darius 11 (Ezra iv, 24) seems to point to his having 
lived under Artaxerxes II (see Short Studies, 1897, p. 416; also 
papers by Sir H. Howarth, Academy, Jany. to April 1893 ; and more 
fully in Proc. Bib. Arch, Socy., Novr. 1901 to Octr. 1904.) 

[This suggestion requires some explanation. It is generally 
acknowledged that the books of Ezra and Nehemiah, found in the 
Hebrew text of the Old Testament, originally formed part of Chronicles. 
Later scribes separated them as distinct books, repeating the closing 
clauses of Chronicles (see 2 Chron. xxvi, 22, 23 ; and Ezra i, 1-3). 
An extended Greek version of Ezra also exists, known as " The First 
Book of Esdras," and this repeats the account in Chronicles as far back 
as the time of Josiah (2 Chron. xxv, 1), including also a story of three 
youths who argued on the proposition, what was the strongest thing 
in the world (1 Ezdras iii, iv). It can hardly be said that this work 
is historically more reliable than the Hebrew book (rendered into 
Greek as the '' Second Book of Esdras "), considering that it speaks of 
the "King of Assyrians" (1 Esdras viii, 15) in the reign of Darius I, 
or nearly 100 years after the fall of Nineveh. The Hebrew boob 
come down, in the final chapters concerning Nehemiah, to the time of 
Jaddua, who was high priest in the time of Alexander the Great (see 
Neh. xii, 22); and the expression "Darius the Persian" — referring to 
Darius Ill^-can hardly have been used till after the Greek conquest 
of 332 B.C. The Book of Ezra, as found in modem Hebrew and 
English Bibles, includes three separate documents : — 1st, a fragment 
of autobiography (vii, 27 to ix, 15) ; 2nd, the compiler's account, also 
in Hebrew (i, 1 to iv, 6; vi, 19 to vii, 26; x, 1 to 44); and 3rd^ 
a note in Aramaik (iv, 7 to vi, 18), which begins : ** The writing of the 
letter was written in the Aramaik tongue ; and the Targum is in the 
Aramaik tongue " ; the Targum in question was perhaps added to the 
Hebrew compilation of 300 B.C. at a later period. 

The visit of Ezra to Jerusalem is supposed by Josephus to have 
been made in the reign of Artaxerxes I (Ezra vii, 8), or in 458 B.a 
This is not contradicted by the Greek 1st Book of Esdras. The theory 
that it occurred under Artaxerxes II (or in 398 B.C.) rests on a single 



87 

verse in the Aramaik Targum above mentioned (Ezra iv, 24), where 
we have a distinct notice of the 2nd year of Darius II, or 423 B.C. 
It is argued that the Hebrew passage (vii, 1) which begins, "Now 
after these things/' can only apply to the reign of Artaxerxes II. 
This view has not, however, been received with any general acceptance, 
for the Aramaik Targum in question may have been incorporated in 
the original Hebrew work at a late period. The Hebrew (Ezra iv, 
1 to 7, and vi, 19 to vii, 26) begins with events under Cyrus; con- 
tinues the history of various attempts to frustrate the Jews down to 
the reign of Artaxerxes I ; and then returns to the reign of Darius I» 
and of his successor Artaxerxes I, under whom Ezra reaches Jerusalem. 
It also contains (vi, 22) the same notice — apparently an anachronism 
— of the " King of Assyria," which, as already said, is found in the 
Greek 1st Book of Esdras. The Aramaik note, or Targum, inserted in 
this connection (Ezra iv, 7 to vi, 18), in like manner follows its sub- 
ject — the frustration of the Jews — down to the reign of Darius II, or 
423 B.C., and then takes up the subject of their success (v, ]), going 
back to the time of Cyrus, with the words : " and " (not " then " as in 
the English, where the confusion is palpable) " the prophets, Haggai 
the prophet, and Zechariah, the son of Iddo, prophesied." The notice 
of Darius II is important as regards the date of the Aramaik passage ; 
but it does not perhaps affect the date of Ezra himself There is no 
doubt that Zerubbabel, and his followers, are represented (in both the 
Hebrew Ezra and the Greek 1st Book of Esdras) as living in the age of 
Cyrus and Darius I ; since it would be impossible for anyone who 
had seen the temple destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar, in 588 B.C,, to be 
alive in 398 B.C. (see Haggai ii, 3; Ezra iii, 8, 11); and, if the 
Aramaik Targum is left aside as a later interpolation, Ezra, in the 
Hebrew Book of Ezra, appears to follow (without a gap of 117 years) 
in the reign of Artaxerxes I. — Ed.] 



This letter is represented, in English renderings of both Greek 
and Hebrew, by Ph. It interchanges also with B and V. The 
Assyrian letter usually represented by P had, in reality (at all events 
in later times) the sound F (see Proc. Bib. Arch. Socy., March 
1902, pp. 108 to 119); and in this respect Assyrian resembled 
modem Arabic. The Hebrews and the Greeks had both the P and 
the F sounds. The Latins distinguished B, F, and P; but the 
Etruskans had no B. 



§a Faflun 

Faflun. A '* foUetto/' or fairy of the N, Italians, answering to 
the Etruskan Puphluns, and like him a spirit of the vineyards (see 
•£truskans)» 

F&-Hien» A famous Chinese Buddhist pilgrim, who set out 
with a few friends in 399 a.g. by the usual route from China passing 
the Lob Nor lake, and the Gobi desert, to Baktria, and though the 
Afghan passes to India. He travelled to Ceylon, and returned after 
15 years, having, as he says, visited some 30 kingdoms. He was 
born at Wu-yang in China, and became a monk ; his object was to 
study genuine Buddhist books ; for though China received Buddhism 
as early as 56 A.a, yet it had only a few Sutras, and abbreviated 
.*' Rules of Discipline,'' with the legendary life of Buddha, receivbg 
these through Tibet. Intercourse with India had ceased between 
150 and 250 A.C. on account of the rise of the Turkish "White 
Huns." Fa-Hien had begun to study Sanskrit and Pali, and was 
dissatisfied with the corrupt Buddhism of China. He set out towards 
the end of the year (399 A.G.) from a quiet monastery at Tchangan. 
His diaries are full of marvels. Near the Lob Nor he found 4000 
Buddhist monks ; and the faith then flourished in the Pamirs, Yar- 
kand, Siralkol, and the fertile Swat Valley. At Kie-cha, in the 
Tsung Ling, or " onion " range, were large Buddhist establishments ; 
and here the king held five yearly assemblies, *' to which Sramans 
came in crowda" In Udyana there were 50 monasteries, which had 
all disappeared a century after Fa-Hien's visit He evidently followed 
the route from Yarkand to the Gilgit river, and to the country of the 
Dards ; he speaks of Taksha-sira, but apparently saw neither this 
place nor Manikyala. In Khoten Buddhism was mixed with older 
nature-worship of lingam pillars. Near Darel he notices a famous 
wooden image of the future Buddha — Maitrya — from the original 
seen by the artist in heaven. This perished, and a rock-cut figure 
stands on the site. He speaks of Buddha's footprint in Udyana, and 
relates other legends, such as that of Gotama giving his life to appease 
the hunger of a tigress with whelps, at Taksha-sila. He saw 
Eauishka's great stupa (at Peshawar) over the earthen bowl of 
Buddha which none could remove ; the poor could fill it with a few 
flowers, but the rich failed with even a thousand measures. At 
Beghram, near Jelalabad, he saw as it were the " veritable person of 
Buddha," shining like gold on the mountain side. This luminous 
shadow faded as you approached. Kings sent painters to copy it, but 
none succeeded. Buddha's skull and staff were here, and here he 
cut his hair, and built a tower as a model of all future stupas. 



Faidth 8i 

Bowls which once contaiDed perfumed waters, such as he describes in 
connection with the rites of this skull, have been found in caskets in 
these ruins (Mr A. M. Clive- Bayly, iTidian Magazine), At Sabet- 
Mahet there was a Brahman temple, which could not throw its 
shadow on the adjoining Buddhist chapel. Here too were Buddhists 
who denied worship to Gotama, though believing in earlier Buddhas. 
He remained long at Patna (Pali - botbra), visiting many shrines, 
and here found a copy of the Vinaya, and of the Rules of Discipline. 
He copied and translated them, as well as other *' original MSS. of 
the Lord " at Gaya, where on the adjoining hill he saw " the isolated 
rock near Giryek/' with 42 commandments written by '' the finger of 
Buddha." His diary, in short, is as full of marvels as those of 
Christian pilgrims to Palestine in the same age. He went south to 
the famous Sri-Salla monastery, on the Krishna river, and seems to 
have followed that stream to the sea — sailing thence to Ceylon, 
where he remained two years, studying Buddhist books, and copying 
the Vinaya Pitaka of the Mahisasaka school ; both versions of the 
*' Rules of Discipline " ; and the two Ajamas (see Prof. Beal on 
Legge's " Fa-Hien," Acad., 30th Oct. 1886). 

Faidth. Eeltik: a diviner or wise one — pronounced Fai or 
Faith : from the Aryan root Bhidh " to trust." 

Faith. From Bhidh "to trust" Greek Pistis, Latin Fides, 
Sanskrit Bhakti — among the subtlest temptations of Buddha under 
the Bodhi tree. 

" And third came she who gives dark creeds their power 
Draped fair in many lauds as lowly Faith ; 
Yet ever juggling souls with rites and prayers." 

" The Buddha answered * What thou bidd'st me keep 
Is form, which passes ; but the free Truth stands. 
Get thee into thy darkness/ " 

• 

In S.W. Gaul Sta Foy is still worshiped as a martyr of 300 A.G. 
Her image, as Sancta Fides, was of gold, 3 ft. high, with a crown of 
gems and enamel, on which were represented Jupiter, Mars, Apollo, 
and Diana ; so that this ** holy faith " owes its image to a pagan idol, 
probably of Byzantine workmanship. It came to Conques, : on the 
Garonne, from Agen about 874, and a fine basilica was built for it in 
942-984 A.C. which has ever attracted pilgrims. Yet faith is but as 
the sand in which the ostrich hides its head, awaiting its doom : '* We 
know" means that we dimly feel what we cannot explain. One 
brother as cardinal is satisfied with the authority of priests and 
Others — entangled in the Roman net — the other (Francis Newman) 



90 Faith 

stands up to seek Truths and to reason out its problems, content to rest 
in hope when he touches on the unknown. Faith, of necessity, be- 
lieves in wonders, and fears examination. Buddha shook off Bhakti 
when, after studying all faiths and philosophies of his age, he rejected 
them all alike as unproven, and attained to the path. He too bad 
felt a " call," like many another pious youth. Tet some, like Confucius, 
have reached wisdom without suffering from the struggle which early 
belief makes hard for others. Chaitanya, the Vishnu va reformer, 
on the other hand, declared Bhakti to be "more eflScacious than 
abstraction ; than knowledge of the divine nature (on which Brahman 
philosophers insisted) ; than subjugation of the passions ; than the 
practice of the Yoga (austerities) ; than charity, virtue, or anything 
deemed most meritorious" (Wilson). Faith, said the Christian 
(Heb. xi, 1), "is the assurance of things hoped for; the evidence of 
things not seen" — of things therefore that can only be imagined. 
But the word for " evidence " is not witness {ruarturia), but only 
" statement " {elenJchoa), It is faith such as led Abraham to offer up 
his son in obedience to a dream ; or Sarah to believe, though she 
knew the physical laws of nature — and laughed. The walls of 
Jericho fell, not to battering rams, or the blowing of trumpets, or 
even because of perambulations with the sacred ark, but to faith, 
which slaughtered old and young, guilty and innocent alike, in the 
doomed city — ^a fair example of the evils that followed an unreasoning 
faith in a "God of Battles." Faith has required bloody sacrifices, 
and scorns doubt, and enquiry, by which alone we advance on the road 
to truth. Thomas the doubter is condemned, because he would not, 
without evidence, believe that the dead had arisen. Faith condones 
for many crimes. Even the murderer may go forth safely to his 
cruel deed if he has humbly prayed at the Madonna's shrine. 

Faith in the past has barred the way against science and philo* 
sophy. Even Faraday said (see G. H. Lewes, Piroblema of Life and 
Mind, i, p. 11) : "I prostrate my reason before mysteries I am unable 
to comprehend " — forgetting that he was accepting assumptions which, 
had they referred to science in his laboratory, he would have rejected 
as groundless. To change Faith, a new generation, educated anew, is 
needed ; but we now see on the horizon what Draper perceived 30 
years ago : " Faith must render an account of herself to Reason." 
Facts must replace asserted mysteries. Religion must abandon the 
old tone of authority. Thought must become absolutely free. The 
ecclesiastic must restrict himself to his chosen domain, and no longer 
hinder the philosopher who, conscious of the strength and purity of 
his motives, will no longer brook the interference of priests. Voltaire 



Fal 91 

was a strong Theist, but he said : " Divine faith, about which so much 
has been written, is evidently nothing more than incredulity brought 
into subjection : for we certainly have no other faculty than the 
understanding by which we can believe ; and the objects of faith are 
not those of the understanding. We can believe only what appears 
to be true ; and nothing can appear true but in one of the three 
following ways : by intuition or feeling — as, ' I exist, I see the sun ' ; 
by an accumulation of probability amounting to certainty — s^, * there 
is a city called Constantinople'; or by positive demonstration — as, 
' triangles of the same base and height are equal.' Faith, therefore, 
being nothing at all of this description, can no more be a belief than 
it can be yellow or red. It can be nothing but the annihilation of 
reason, a silence of adoration at the contemplation of things absolutely 
incomprehensible. Thus, speaking philosophically, no person believes 
the Trinity : no person believes that the same body can be in a 
thousand places at once ; and he who says, ' I believe these mys- 
teries/ will see, beyond the possibility of a doubt, if he reflect for 
a moment on what passes in his mind, that these words mean no 
more than, 'I respect these mysteries.' I submit myself to those 
who announce them. For they agree with me that my reason, or 
their own reason, believes them not ; but it is clear that, if my reason 
is not persuaded, I am not persuaded. I and my reason cannot 
possibly be two different beings. It is an absolute contradiction 
that I should receive as true that which my understanding rejects 
as false. Faith, therefore, is nothing but submissive, and deferen- 
tial, incredulity." For Faith has been defined as the "inactivity of 
our reason." 

Fal- Fail Keltik: *' judge," "boundary," "decision," "fate" 
— ^as in the Lia-fail or "stone of fate." Fal was a hero whom 
Christianised Erse in Ireland identified with Simon Magus (Prof. 
Rhys, Hibbert Lect, 1886, p. 213). He rode on a wheel, the Roth- 
fail, or Roth-ramach, " the wheel of light," which was " one of the 
four precious things brought to Ireland by the Tuatha Dedanaan." 
Wherever the Lia-fail is taken a Milesian Goidal (or Irishman) will 
reign, like Conn at Tara. Under every king whose right it recog- 
nised this "stone of fate" gave a scream. From Tara it went to 
Scone in Scotland, till Edward I of England seized it ; and it now 
is fitted beneath the seat of the coronation chair at Westminster. 
The legend says that Jeremiah brought it to Tara, when he came to 
Ireland with an Irish princess. 

Falguna or Phalguna. The Hindu month (15th January to 



92 Fallah 

« 

15tb February) when girls must worship Ama ("the mother"), with 
salt, and long kidney beans (see Beans). 

Fallah. Fellah. Arabic : '' ploughman." This word is often 
used incorrectly as though applying to a special race. 

Faolan. Saint Fillan. Faolan, or "little wolf," was one of 
St Columba's missionaries, at Strath-fillan, where is the famous stone 
and bell of St Fillan. He had also a charmed crozier (the Quigreach), 
with a bone relic. We have stood by the weird pool under the steep, 
karn-crowned cliff, where hundreds used once to be healed, and the 
possessed were chained to cleats still visible in the rock. Within the 
memory of living men the place has been visited, and two women 
were submerged in the pool in 1860. The old rites were connected 
with the moon, after sunset, in her first quarter. The sick and peni- 
tent plunged in, over their heads, in the water ; took stones from the 
bottom ; climbed to the three earns on the mound ; walked thrice 
*' sun-wise " round them, casting a stone at each. They then walked, 
or were carried, to the Priory Chapel, now a ruin, and were tied down 
on the sacred stone slab (a holed stone), wearing their wet clothes; 
in very bad cases the magic bell was put on the patient's head, but 
was fortunately not very heavy ; in the morning the patient was 
found to be unbound, which proved that he was cured. The site is 
still a sacred centre, for a new parish church stands opposite the pool 
(see Rivera of Life, ii, pp. 298-304). 

Fan. The mystic Vannus, or winnowing fan, was an emblem of 
lakkhos, son of D6-Meter. Fans are often represented on Assyrian 
bas-reliefs ; and with Indian Sanyasis (beardless tonsured priests) the 
fan is sacred. Apuleios, in our 2nd century, describes it in the 
procession of Isis, beside the wine cup, caduceus, and sacred branch 
and fire : it was piled up with gold. The Greeks also piled up a fan 
with fruits, and placed it on the bride's head at weddings, as an 
emblem of fertility — like the rice showers in other cases. At Thebes 
in Egypt wo find fans represented in pictures of the 18th dynasty. 
Christian churches had special fans, which only tonsured priests might 
use, and this only when consecrating the sacred elements. 

Faiid. A celebrated sheikh, and a Sufi freethinker (see Sikhs). 
His shrine was built round a sacred Pilu tree, at Farid-Kot, con- 
'secrated by his touch. It grants fertility to those who flock to the 
spot He is called "Farid of the sugar stick"; for sugar sticks, 
called Faridi, are here given out to girls, from the Shakar-ganj or 
" sugar place " on Thursdays. 



Farj 98 

Farj. Arabi6 : " pleasure " : FarHj is the YOni. 

Far'oun. Arabic : " Prince," " Tyrant." The word Phar*aoh is 
the same, and, according to Benouf, is Semitic. It is not used to 
mean "king" (Per-aa), in Egypt, before the time of the 18th 
dynasty, and was apparently a loan word coming in with the Hyksos 
(see Proc, Bib. Arch. Socy., Feby. 1901, p. 73). 

Fascinum. Like the Greek Baskanon this meant, in Latin, 
'^ bewitching," " fascination." Horace uses the word to mean the 
phallus (French Feane), The Synod of Tours forbade the phallic 
worship of the Fesne in 1396 A.C., unless accompanied with 
chanting of the Creed and Lord's Prayer. But the Fesne as an 
amulet is still in use. 

Father. See Ab, and Ad, Pa and Papa. 

Fatsmil. The Japanese Hercules. 

Fear. All nations have had gods of fear. The Greek Phobos 
was a son of Ares, with a lion's head, as on the shield of Agamemnon, 
which showed Terror in a lion's skin, sounding a trumpet, and holding 
a shield on which was the head of the Gorgon Medusa (Turkish 
gorgo " fear "). Homer also makes Terror a godess on the Aigis of 
Athene. Hesiod calls her a daughter of Ares and Aphrodite, placing 
her on the shield of H3rakl6s, and saying that Fear always accom- 
panies Are&— or war. Pausanias says she had a statue at Corinth ; 
others speak of her temple at Sparta, by the palace of the Ephori. 
Aiskhulos describes seven chiefs as swearing by Fear, and by Ares, 
before Thebes. The Bomans personified her as Pavor and Pallor 
— ^fear and paleness — and she was invoked by their generals, as by 
Theseus or Alexander the Great, that she might frighten the foe. 
AH who were engaged in hazardous enterprises prayed to her. On 
ancient medals, and shields, she appears (as the Gorgon) with 
scared aspect, open mouth, and hair standing on end, or turned 
into snakes. The Hebrew Yahveh was called a God of Fear, and 
Christians still regard fear of God as the first principle of religion. 

Feathers. The feather in Egypt was held in the hand of 
Tbmei, godess of justice : for a feather would turn the scale, in 
Amenti, when the soul was judged. But feathers — like the Fleur- 
de-lis — are often later euphuistik emblems for the phallus, as we 
see in the three Prince of Wales' feathers. The popes had a 
similar badge of three ostrich feathers, which was previously 
adopted by Lorenzo dei Medici (a family whose arms were the 



94 Feet 

three balls) : this was also called the " giglio " — lily or gilly 
flower — bearing the motto "Semper" ("ever"), the three feathers 
being green, white, and blue (or red), which the Church said 
meant Faith, Hope, and Charity {Notes and Queries, Ist May 
1886). The feathers appear (Jenning's Rosicrucians), with the 
moon and the Yoni beneath them — the moon resting on a Fleur-de-lis 
form — with a lingam. The motto Ich dien " I serve " is thus 
appropriate, but the date is unknown (see Times' Lit. Supplem... Nov. 
14th, 1902, p. 341). The Egyptian gods Amen-Ra and Sebek have 
long feathers on their crowns, representing probably rays of light 

Feet. See Foot. 

Fene. Fin, Fiann. Feinn. The old Irish militia were 

called Feinn or Fenians, and Fionn, son of Cumhal, was a famous 
hero. The Fion-gail or "fair strangers" were contrasted with the 
Dubh-gail or '* black strangers," so that the word comes from the 
Aryan root bhan " bright " or ** white." But Fiene is also a sacred 
place like the Latin Fanum a " fane " (see Fin). 

FeralicL A Roman festival, celebrated from the l7th to the 
21st of February, or otherwise early in March. The seed being 
committed to earth the infernal gods must be propitiated, and Ceres 
was now mournfully seeking Proserpina. The Latins lighted torches 
to help her in the dark, and worshiped Februa (" heat ") as a godess. 
The Christians substituted their Virgin (see Candlemas), but trans- 
ferred the worship of souls to November, when they lighted up 
cemeteries, and perambulated the graves with torches, afflicting 
themselves with flagellations (see Feronia). 

Feridun. The son of Jamshid, an early royal hero of Ispahan 
(Firdusi's Shdh-ndmehy 11th century A.C.). A blacksmith (Kaveh) 
persuaded him to slay Zohak (see Max Milller, Chips, i, p. 99 ; and 
Rivers of Life, ii, p. 24). This is the later form of the legend of 
Thraetona (the Vedik Trita) slaying Azi-dahak " the biting snake," as 
in the Zend Avesta. 

Feronia. The godess of fire, whose altars were on mountains 
(especially volcanoes) in sacred groves, by thermal springs like that of 
the Samian city under Mt. Sorakte (" snow peak "), which was sacred 
to Etruskans. The Sabines consecrated this to Soranus (from sar to 
"shine"), who (Virgil, ^n., xi, 785) was a god of fire and light, the 
Apollo of Sorakte "guardian of the holy mount." The name Feronia 
comes from the Aryan root bhur " to burn " (see Phoroneus). 



Fervers 96 

Fcrvers. The Fravardin of the Zend Avesta — female genii 
dwelling in all things, and protecting men. 

Festivals, These are detailed under their special names (se^ 
subject index). 



The word '^ Fetiche" was first used by President de 
Brosses (Du CvXte dea Dieux FHichea, 1760). He says that: 
*' African negroes called material and terrestrial objects of worship 
fetiche." The Portuguese have for several centuries used the word 
" Feitice " for charms and magic. Fetishism is now the term for the 
worship of natural or manufactured objects or symbols, such as the 
horns, bones, skulls, or organs, of animals and human beings (see Eye), 
or stones, corals, serpents, crosses, and idols of all kinds. Holy Scrip- 
tures may become — or be used as — fetishes. [The Christians of 
Antioch in our 4th century, according to Chrysostom, used copies 
of the gospels as charms tied on to their beds : as the Bible — with 
the door key — is used by European peasants. — Ed.] Major Ellis 
{Ishi-speaking peopUa of the Gold Coast, 1887) and Professor 
Keane, in reviewing the same work, deny that any savages originally 
regarded sticks and stones as supernatural beings, though '' fear 
made the gods." But what savages believed was that spirits could 
tiike up their abode in consecrated objects and emblems, such as 
lingam stones and stakes, idols, and symbols. Bede says that the 
" Psalter was carried sun-wise round the Scottish army on the breast 
of a sinless cleric." The Irish made fetishes of ancient copies of the 
gospels, on which they swore with fear and trembling. Relics such as 
Veronica's handkerchief, or the '* holy coat " of Treves, denounced as 
fraudulent by the popes, are as much fetishes as the hairs, tooth, 
bones, and begging bowl of Buddha. 

Fidh. Keltik : " wood," from the Aryan root Bhid " to cleave " 
(see Bud). It appears to mean a "stake," or any other long 
pointed object. The round towers were called Fidh - neemhedh 
(the heavenly Fidh), as the Gauls had their . Dru-nemet or 
" holy tree " down to our 8th century (Dulaure, Hist, dea Cultes, i, 
pp. 58 to 60). O'Brien (Round Towera, 1834) regards the Fidh 
(p. lOo) as meaning a phallus. Among many mediaeval writers the 
"dry tree" was an emblem of celibacy, and the "green tree" of 
reproduction — these both growing in a paradise beyond the sea 
(see Yule's Marco Polo). Cormac, bishop of Cashel in our 9th 
(or some say 7th) century, says that anciently hundreds of round 
towers existed in Ireland, " and that noble judges placed in them 



06 Figs 

vases containing relics" (O'Brien, Round Toiuers, chap, xxvi), so 
that they then resembled. Indian stupas. [These high, slender, roand 
towers existed, according to Gerald of Cambray, before Strongbow's 
conquest, 1170 A.C. They have, however, in some cases pointed 
arches later than the 11th century. There are 64 of them in 
Ireland, mainly near the coast. They are found in flat ground 
near ancient churches. They cannot therefore have been beacoa 
towers ; but may have served as refuge towers — such as are found 
in Afghanistan — for the church relics and plate. The door is 
always high up, and only to be reached by a ladder. Human 
skeletons occur in the foundations — perhaps victims sacrificed to the 
earth god intended to render the building safe. — Ed.] Round these 
towers men and women danced at solar festivals. General Valiancy 
and others relate this took place at Tailetan (now Tell-town). "On 
the 1st of August (Luc-nasa), when the sun and moon were said to 
be married," games were held at Tara, and maidens danced round the 
great menhir on the hill. It was called the " love festival," lasting 
15 days: "the females exposed themselves to enamour the swains." 
The name Tailti was that of the daughter of the 12th king of 
Ireland (O'Brien, Round Towers, p. 388). The Irish (see Petrie, i, 
pp. 61, 62), according to a vellum MS. at Trinity College, Dublin, 
represented King Priam (^nid, ii, 512 to 539) as exclaiming, 
" Wretch, would you kill my son before the altar of the gods, in the 
Fid-nemid of Jove." So that the word, applied to the round 
towers, had evidently the sense of a holy place or symbol Two 
towers like those of Ireland exist in Scotland : one at Brechin in 
Forfarshire, the other at the old Pict capital of Abernethy on the 
S. shore of the Firth of Tay. 

Figs. The shape of the leaf, and of the fruit, of this tree did 
not escape the attention of ancient nature worshipers ; and the 
" fig leaf" was an euphuism for the phallus. The aprons of the first 
pair in Eden were fig leaves, and the form is that still used in the 
amulets of silver, ivory, and bone, which Indian mothers hang from 
the waists of small girls otherwise naked. Even the Buddhist 
archbishop of Ceylon signs his name with a fig leaf — as Christian 
bishops use the cross. ' To adore the fig leaf (Asvattha) is, according 
to the Ananda Tantram, to adore the Adho-Mukam or "inner 
place" (see Sakta) : that is to say, the "fig-leaf shaped Yoni." The 
Italians, like the ancient Romans, call phalli '' figs " ; and the latter 
joked about the Ficus, and the Ficaria, Ficetum, and Ficarii. It was 
under a fig tree — the Ruminalis, named from rwma "a teat"— 



Fiji 97 

that the wolf suckled Romulus and Bemus in the Lupercal oave ; and 
senators sat under the sacred fig in the centre of the Comitium of the 
Forum, the tree, according to Augurs, having transferred itself from 
the old site under the Palatine hill to this spot (Pliny, Hist. Nat^ 
XV, 20). The wild fig (Capri-ficus or "goat's fig") was on the site 
where women sacrificed to Vulcan at the Caprificiales. The fig was 
identified with Romulus himself. (Prof. A. di Gubernatis, Mythol, dee 
Plantea, ii, p. 137). Phalli made of fig tree wood were symbols in 
the rites of Bakkhos ; and were kept in sacred arks. Piedmontese 
peasants say that "the fig chases away the wolf" (winter, night, or 
sterility) ; and it has its demoniac aspect, as well as that of sweetness 
and ambrosial juice. Bakkhos was said to create the fig as well as 
the grape ; and Greeks adored Dionusos Sukites, the fig god. Sukeos, 
pursued by Zeus, was changed into a fig tree to please RhsBa, the 
earth mother. The fruit was sacred to Hermes, and to Here, and 
interchanges with the apple in popular folk-lore (see Apple) ; but it 
is also the "arbor infamis," and the tree of Judas, as betraying 
innocence. None dare to sleep under it, a superstition also found 
among Syrians, who say it is " bad for the eyes " : for it should not 
be seen. The expressions '* fare la fica," " faire la figue," " dar una 
higa," in Italian, French, and Spanish, mean " to make the fig," that 
is the symbol of the thumb lietween the two middle fingers, a phallic 
sign (see Eye). Up to' our 4th or 5th century the Manichsean 
Gnostiks are said to have observed "detestable ceremonies of figs." 
Mr Jibrail (Quarterly Stat. Pal. Expl. Fund, July 1889) says that 
Druzes still present figs to one another, and Druze women eat figs 
after prayers, and have a special " Egg Thursday " in spring (see 
Eggs). The sign of the fig — above described — is a common amulet 
in S. Europe ; and over the gates of Fort Kumarom is a hand with 
one finger extended (Notes and Queries, 11th July 1886), which is 
the gesture called also by Italians " showing a fig " ; thus the virgin 
fortress of Kumari derides its foes. A Spanish mother, says the 
Marquis de Custine, meeting a suspicious character, hastily puts her 
child's hand into the right position, saying " Higo higo haga, usted 
una fija." Such customs and amulets are common also among 
Basques and Bretons. 

Fiji. This is a group of 200 islands, with a population of about 
130,000 persons, who profess some kind of Christianity, mingled with 
ancient superstitions : for they know only as a rule the leading rites, 
and are practically still worshipers of demons, fetishes, and stones, 
though fast forgetting the meaning of their old customs (see Samoans). 



98 Fiji 

Mr Coote (WaTideringa, 1882) says that their prayers remind him 
of Hebrew Psalms. " Let us live ; and let those who speak evil of 
us perish. Let the enemy be clubbed, swept away, utterly destroyed, 
piled in heaps. Let their teeth be broken. May they fall headlong 
into a pit. Let us live : let our enemies perish." Akkadians and 
Babylonians had such prayers, and such words we still repeat with 
pious reverence in civilised Europe. The Fiji gods include Tanum- 
banga, Ndauthina, Kumbunavanua, M'batimona, Kavuravu, Mainatava- 
sara, and others. N'dengei is described as the " supreme impersona- 
tion of abstract eternal existence" — ^which we do not believe any 
Fijian to have ever been capable of conceiving. He has a serpent's 
head, or dwells in a serpent, and in a gloomy cavern, with a single 
priest or Uto. He was " produced by a mother who found two stones 
at the bottom of a great moat/' in which we find a simpler symbol of 
existence. Fijians worshiped " two stones " (Sir J. Lubbock, Origin 
of Civil. ; see Itivera of Life^ ii, p. 140, fig. 253, "Fijian phalli*'). 
The stone worship was extremely sensual, and the emblems included 
seals, lizards, eels, and other creeping things inhabiting holes. Each 
tribe had its sacred animal, which never injured any of the tribe that 
adored it. The small stone called Eavek, or " love," had a girdle 
round it called Liku ; it was sacred to a Venus, and food was ofiered 
to it daily at Thokova. Another menhir covered with cup-marks — as 
in India (the Danda) and among Kelts — was probably a solar symbol 
One chief, according to Lubbock, "represented his two wives by 
two stones" — probably egg-shaped. Fijians also have sacred trees, 
especially worshiping the ash. Conical and bullet-shaped stones, 
from Fiji, are in the Christie collection of the British Museum. The 
dead are buried in caves and tumuli, and it was the duty of the 
widow's brother to strangle her unless indeed she called on him to do 
80 : for the demon Nanga bars the road to Mabula, or Hades, and 
tortures male ghosts unaccompanied by wives, whom he allows to pass 
When a chief is dying he is taken to the Mabure-Ealous, or " god's 
house," and his death is concealed as long as possible, since revolutions 
and general plunder will follow. If women die in child-birth, a 
banana, wrapped in a child's garment, is laid on the breast Tbe 
Fiji gods (as at Samoa) are swathed in mats and robes (as in Japan, 
or among Eomans, or in the case of the Inish-Murray stone), like the 
Tarao of Tahiti, swathed with straw (see Ta-aroa). Circumcision in 
Fiji is " a propitiatory rite, as an offering of atonement," for a sick 
father, by one of his brother's sons, with, as usual, heavy fees to 
priests to induce the deities to accept the sacrifice. [In 1897 the 
population had dwindled to 122,000 natives, having diminished by 



Fiilan 99 

nearly half since 1859, and including a small number of Polynesians, 
The Fijians proper are a mixed negrito and Malay race, some tall 
and chocolate coloured with frizzled hair like Papuans, and some 
nearer to the Malay type. They were cannibals, and one chief is said 
to have set up 900 stones to represent the men he had eaten. 
Human sacrifices were common. Fire was made by means of the 
fire-stick (see Hutchinson's Living Races, p. 1 ). — Ed,] 

Fiilan. See Faolan. 

Fin. Fion. See Fene. The Fion-gail, or "fair strangers," 
formed a small Fenian army under King Cormac about 220 to 230 
A.C. He was Kin^ of Tara (Dr Joyce, Old Celtic Romances, p. 411), 
and " the Find or Finn, son of Cumhal, or Cumhail." The traditional 
site of his palace is at the tall pillar on the hill of Allen, near Kildare, 
in Ireland. Though he could perform miracles, and was regarded as 
divine, he was killed by a fisherman in 284 A.C., leaving two sons, 
Ossian the poet, and Oskar. Many legends of the Fin are connected 
with pillars, bones, and stones : such as the " thumb," which was 
"an erect bone with the flesh off," and the "tooth of knowledge" 
(see Bones, Teeth, Thumb). The son of Fian, or Fin, was Diarmed, 
whose elopement with Graine (" the sun ") betrothed to Find, and the 
courtship of Ailbhe, form a well-known Irish epos. 

Finns. A very important Turanian group, on the east of the 
Swedes, and south of the Lapps. They now number about 2 millions ; 
and, having mingled with Skandinavians, they are usually fair, with 
blue eyes. Their language also is full of Aryan loan words, though 
in structure and vocabulary it is Turanian (see Basques) : the name 
Finn may itself be Aryan (from the root Bhan " fair "), and they are 
called in their own tongue " Suoma-leinen," or "swamp-dwellers." 
They spread early from the valleys of the Volga and the Don to 
Finland, and Lapland (see Journal Anthrop. Instit, Nov. 1886). 
Only about 10,000 are now supposed to be pure Finns, and the Lapps 
number ouly 30,000 persons, representing perhaps a yet earlier 
arrival from Central Asia, constituting the Ugro-Finnic group — 
connected with the early Turkish Uigurs; including also the Estho- 
Dians south of Finland (see Japan). These people are called Chudes 
in Russian, colonising the fen, and lake, regions N. of St Petersburg* 
Eastern Finns also extend beyond the Urals into W. Siberia ; and 
Sir H. Rawlinson supposes Finnic populations to have preceded the 
Aryans throughout Europe; of whom the Basques are an outlying 
group. The Finnic and the Magyar tongues are the representatives 



l«) Finns 

of Turanian speech in E. Europe, and are connected with that of the 
Samoyedes in N. Asia. Finnish was first studied scientifically about 
1820 A.G., when it was discovered that a rich mythology, with many 
myths and legends, existed, forming the Kalevala — a great epik orally 
preserved, which " equals the Iliad in length and completeness, aad 
ia not less beautiful/' according to Dr Max MtLller. It claims its place 
as the " fifth national epic of the world " with Homer, the Maha- 
bharata, the Shah-nameh, and the Nibelungen-Iied. It is named 
from Ealeva, the " land of plenty and happiness," and begins with the 
creation of the world, and with the triumph of a divine triad ruling 
the land of cold and death. We may ask, if these rude Turanians 
of the far north were thus able to create such literature, why should 
not others of the stock have done the same in Kaldea or in 
India ? 

The Finns had gathered on the Baltic shores before 700 A.C, 
and accepted Swedish rule by 1200. England first heard of them 
about 1000 A.C., as "K wains, living on the White Sea," and as 
Beormas or Permiansr — "wild people knowing neither God nor good 
order." In the south-east Russians ruled them in 1300 ; and in 
1716 they were subjugated by Peter the Great. Since 1809 they 
have been all Russian subjects, claiming to be ruled by their own 
laws — an agreement recently broken (1890 to 1894) by the Tzar. 
Their myths have been compared by F. Lenormant (La Magie) with 
those of the Akkadians, and their language compares with Akkadian. 
Xheir god of air and winds is Ukko : their wood god is Tapio : their 
god of water is Ahti. Jumala, "the Lord," is their "Great Father'' 
— now identified with the angel Gabriel ; and Perkel (perhaps the 
Aryan Ferkunas) presides over demons. The Lapps are allied to the 
Finns racially, and are remarkable for their magic drums (FoUcLore 
Quarterly, March 1893). The Tcheremiss and Votiaks, Permians* 
Ostiaks, and Voguls, are branches of the same race, between the 
Caspian .and the Samoyeds of W. Siberia; their dialects have been 
compared by Donner (1886), Prof. Smirnoff (Scot Oeog. Mag., June 
1891) says that polygamy, and survivals of communism, still exist 
among the Tcheremiss and Votiaks. Wives are still carried off by 
force and purchased. Foo<j and drink are still put in coflSns, or a 
bridal dress for a maiden, and a string in a boy's cofiBn showing hi& 
father's height, to which he must grow in the other world. Sacrifices 
— especially the head and heart of the victim — are offered in groves, 
and cakes in the shape of horses. The chief gods are those of the sky 
and of the dawn — mother of the sun, with deities of agriculture, rain^ 
and cattle. Wizards are believed (even among the Finns, who have 



Fingers lol 

attained to a high civilisation) to control storms and diseases, and to 
ascend to heaven and descend into hell. 

Fingers. These form phallic signs (see also Daktuloi, Eye, and 
Fig). The finger laid to the mouth (as on gems representing the 
Egyptian Harpokrates) has this meaning, and is a common Qnostik 
emblem (see Rivera of Life, ii, p. 31tj, plate xiii), being a charm 
against the evil eye. Among Romans the hand with the middle 
finger raised was the " digitus impudicus " or " infamis." Such signs 
are common at Pompeii and Herculaneum (see Miuade Secret^ plates 5, 
20, 32, 33, 37, 45). The two raised fingers (first and second among 
Latins, or first and fourth in the East), are a Christian emblem of 
blessing. We may compare also the '* Pardon de St Jean du doigt " 
or " St John of the Finger " in Bretagne, for surviving phallic sym- 
iwlism (Wide World Mag., Octr. 1899). To this shrine, on 23rd 
June, thousands of pilgrims march in procession from Plougasnou to 
adore the sacred symbol, in a precious case on the high altar. It is 
the finger with which John the Baptist pointed to the Lamb of God. 
Julian the Apostate — says the legend— ordered it to be burned, but 
a miraculous fall of rain protected it, and Philip, patriarch of Jerusalem, 
concealed it. Thecla, a Norman maiden, took it to her home, and 
built a chapel. In the 16th century, a young Breton archer of 
Plougasnou, in the service of a Norman noble, witnessed the miracles 
of the '^ holy finger," and grieved not to be able to take it with him. 
As he went home the trees bowed to him, and the bushes greeted 
bim, the bells of a Norman village rang for him, and he was cast into 
prison as a sorcerer. He woke to find himself near home, and as he 
entered the chapel of St Meriadec, to return thanks, the bells chimed 
and the candles were lighted by unseen handa Those who were with 
him saw the holy finger emerge from the archer's arm and place 
itself on tlie altar. Pilgrims then became so numerous that a special 
chapel was built in 1513, where miracles have ever since occurred. 



The Greek Pur : firom the Aryan root Bhur (see Bar), AU 
nations regarded fire as sacred since the discovery of the fire drill (see 
Ag and Azteks). The Yedas distinguish five elements : 1. Akas& or 
Ether, which has the property of conveying sound : 2. Air, which has 
the properties (guna) of sound and feeling : 3. Fire with sound, feeling, 
and colour: 4. Water, with these and taste : 5. Earth, with the gunaa 
of sound, feeling, colour, taste, and smell. Skandinavians, who still 
carry fire to protect them, used to place it in pits dug in new lands 
to drive away demons, and keep it alight beside babes till baptised 
(see also Candles). Dr Stewart, minister at Lochaber {Jownwl Scot 



102 Fire 

Ant Socy.y March 1890) witnessed such rites in Wigtonshire in 1889. 
Five women of a hamlet, in a remote glen^ were passing a sick child 
through the fira Two held a blazing hoop, two others passed the 
child backwards and forwards through it. The mother looked on a 
little distance away, and when her child was restored to her, the hoop 
was thrown into a pool hard by. The child was 18 months old, and 
a weakling, supposed to have been affected by the evil eye. A bunch 
of bog myrtle was then placed over its bed by an old woman, who 
directed that it should not be removed till the next new moou. 

Kelts still jump round burning cart wheels, while village smiths 
are welding the tyres, to avert the evil eye (see also Bridget). In 
Bulgaria sorcerers called Nistinares leap through fires on May Day 
(see Beltine), walking on the hot embers to prophecy, bless, and curse; 
only in May does the fire not hurt them (Mr A. Lang, Contempy. 
Review^ Aug. 1896). We have often witnessed such rites in S. India, 
and found the feet of the fire walkers only badly scorched. Mr 
Thomson (South Sea Yams) gives a photograph of fire treaders in Fiji 
in 1893, but cannot explain the apparent impunity with which they 
walk on hot stones and burning embers, as do the Moslem Dervishes. 
We may probably distinguish the ** passing through " the fire to 
Moloch (Levit. xviii, 21 ; 2 Kings xvi, 3 ; xxiii, 10 ; Jer. xxxii, 35) 
from the burning of children (2 Chron. xxviii, 3 ; Jer. vii, 31). In 
Iceland (Edda) a pious Christian hero aided a pagan hero to pass 
unscathed through the fire, and the '' Fire Ordeal " was kept up till 
1817. Lockhart (Church Service, 1826) says that a "communicant 
carried a red hot bar of iron, and walked on a red hot plough-share 
without scorch or scar ... to the glory of God . . . one of the most 
extraordinary records ... of the audacity and weakness of mankind" 
(" Janus," quoted by Mr. A. Lang, as above). 

The Russians light fires near corpses, or in cemeteries, maintained 
by watchmen. Australian bush tribes employ old women with fire- 
sticks to guard the young from evil spirits, as Kelts did for babes aod 
mothers. Fire rites were common in Europe down to the 13th 
century. Lithuanian Aryans, in Russia, like Hindus and Tartars, still 
regard fire as a deity. In Rome, down to the first Christian century, 
the emperor walked behind the sacred fire, and all marriages were 
solemnised in its presence, bride and bridegroom both touching the 
holy altar fire, and the holy water beside it. Fire rites survive among 
the Pueblos of Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado. A visitor to the 
fetes of Taos, near Santa F6 in the United States, says that he found 
natives — probably of Aztek descent — holding councils beside "the 
sacred fires of Montezuma," which are never allowed to go out Theae 



Fire 103 

Estufaa were regular fire temples^ under ground, with pits fenced 
round and jealously guarded* They could only be reached by a ladder, 
which was hidden when not in use {MacmyXan^a Magaziney November 
1882). Even Indians supposed to be Christians have fire and serpent 
rites (Capt. Bourke, Mokis of Arizona), the Mokis being offihoots of 
the Snake Indians (Prof. Keane^ Acaderay, 22nd November 1884), 
whose lands stretch from Mexico to British Columbia (see Serpent). 
Mongols, who are Moslems or Buddhists, still venerate fire, never 
stepping over it, or scattering it, or allowing it to be defiled. A 
marriage contract is sealed by being committed to the flames, for it is 
then recorded in heaven — just as Agni of old was the messenger of 
the gods (see Indian Antiq., July 1882). When a bride is brought 
to her lord in China her chair is carried over a brazier of live coals 
(see Apple). Casati says that among the Niam-niams, of Central 
Africa, an ever burning fire is maintained in its shrine by sacred 
virgins, in connection with the tombs of chiefs. These poor maidens 
are immured for life, and their food is brought to them. (Athenceumf 
11th August 1883). The Japanese say of relatives that they "are of 
the same fire," as did Greeks and Phoenicians {Jov/mal Anthrop. 
Instit, July 1870, p. 58). 

Every Latin village had its round hut for sacred fire, and the 
temple of the Vestals was also circular. Persian fire-worship survived 
till recently (see Baku). In Ireland at Beltine, mothers gave their 
children the " baptism by fire/' tossing them through the flame to be 
caught by a man ; and Beltine-glas (" the yellow sun-fire ") is still 
known in some parts of Ireland (Mr M. Aynsley, Indian Antiq., 
March, April, 1886). Householders, after the rites are concluded, 
seize a brand, and rush to their homes to light the fire ; it is considered 
unlucky if they fail to do so. The last year's brand is burnt, and 
replaced by the new one, which is placed over the hearth when the fire 
is lit The fire of Jehovah's altar was ever burning till the fatal 9th 
of Ab in 70 A.c. The fire rites at Easter in Jerusalem, when the fire 
from heaven falls into, and issues from, the Holy Sepulchre, and when 
all must light their tapers at it, is traced to 800 A.C. It used, in the 
12th century A.C., to appear sometimes in the Templum Domini (the 
Borne of the Bock), or in the Templum Salomonis (the Aksa mosque 
hard by), instead of in the cathedral (see CoL Conder, Tent Work in 
Palestine), 

Virgil makes Aruns say (AEn,. xi, 784) : — 

" O patron of Soracte's high abodes 
PhcebuB thou ruling power among the gods 



104 Fish 

Whom first we serye, whole woods of unctuous pine 

Bum on thj heaps, and to thj glory shine 

Bj thee protected on our naked soles 

Through flames unsinged we pass, though treading kindled coals." 

The " heap " was the kara emblem of Apollo. The Hirpini 
C' wolfish ones ") in Qaul were his priests, and their fires were sacred 
to the sun. Fire cures every ill — whence the Hindu ceremony of 
the Dam-madar, when the worshipers run or jump through sacred 
flames. The name comes from that of Shah-Madar, a Moslem ruler 
about 1400 A.C. The Hindu often exclaims "Cure me, holy Kali, 
and I will walk thy fires." He drives his sick cattle between two fires, 
as Kelts used also to do, a custom forbidden by churches, yet still not 
quite obsolete. All sacred iSres are lighted from the sun, or by the 
fire stick (see Arani and Svastika). The fire stick should be of 
Asyattha (Ficus Religiosa) and Sami (Acacia Suma) usually planted 
near temples, aud thus " married " as Hindus say. The altar fire at 
Jerusalem was of fig wood, with pine and cedar. The Greeks and 
Egyptians also used fig wood, aud the former called it phallos-wood : 
this, with the harder wood of the laurel or thorn as the drill, formed 
their • fire-drill (the Prometheus, or Pramantha) ; and both Persian 
Magi, and Eskimos, lighted holy fires by the same means : for fire, 
*' the golden handed one," was the first principle to Mazdeans. The 
Jews said that their sacred seven-branched lamp burned miraculously, 
without trimming, till the death of Simou the Just, and from it all 
other lamps should be lit (see Mishnah Tamid ; and Quarterly Stat. 
Pal. Hxpl. FuTid, April 1886, p. 129). 

Fish. A very important emblem in mythology. The first 
Avat&r or incarnation of Vishnu, in India, was the fish (see Matsya). 
The story is related in the Matsya, and in the Bhagavata Puranas, 
with some differences. While great Brahma slept a demon stole the 
Yedas, and the destruction of the world was thereupon decreed. Vishnu 
had perceived the theft, and to avert injustice he appeared, as a small 
fish, to a pious man while he was bathing. The good Satya-Vrata 
spared the fish, placing it in a vessel for which it soon became too large, 
then transferring it successively to a larger vessel, to a lake, to the 
Ganges, and finally to the ocean, where Satya worshiped this great fish as 
Narayana. Vishnu then- told him that the world must perish, ordering 
him to build a vessel, for himself and the seven Bishls or pious persons, 
with their families, and for the seeds of plant and animal life. The 
waters covered the plains, and all men perished save those thus elected. 
Vishnu appeared again as a huge golden fish, to which the hero (Manu 
or Satya- Vrata) made fast his ark, with a serpent tied to the single 



Flamen los 

horn of the fish, which drew the vessel to a high mountain where 
Satya — afterwards called a demigod and son of Yirasyat — was taught 
all religion and philosophy, fpr the new world after the Flood (seo 
Floods). 

The ,Matsya-nari, or Indian mermaid, is also connected with 
Vishnu when issuing from the mouth of the fish — recalling Hercules 
swallowed by the fish, and the Hebrew legend of Jonah, as well as 
many folk-tales of the fish that swallows and restores a ring, or a 
phallus. The recovery of the Vedas by aid of a fish also recalls the Irish 
mermaid (see Rivera of Life, ii, p. 247, fig. 115) as represented at 
Clonfert, carrying a sacred book. Other fish emblems of the Kelts 
are found at Cashel, and at Kells in County Meath (Rivers of Life, 
i, p. 247; fig. 116). The fish was also a favourite emblem among 
early Christians (see Baptism), representing the '* Ikhthus " — ^the 
Greek letters being supposed to stand for " Jesus Christ the Son of 
God Saviour." It is found in Soman catacombs, and on Christian 
buildings of the 4th century in Syria, and was recommended by 
Clement of Alexandria as an emblem on Christian signet rings. In 
Naples however the fish is a phallic emblem. Fish were sacred to 
Venus, and to Ashtoreth (see Dove) : " the fish that laughs " must not 
be touched by women : the two twin, or crossed^ fishes are emblems 
of fertility and of early spring (see Dagon, Derkdto, £a). Ascetiks 
were not allowed to eat fish ; but Christians eat it in Lent, and it 
ODce formed part of their communion meal (see Eucharist). The joke 
of the '' poisson d'Avril " was phallic, says Gubematis (Zool, MythoL, 
ii, p. 339): and the expression "nuova pesce" in Naples has a 
similar meaning. Even the water in which fish are boiled will cure 
sterility. In ancient Egypt Isis is represented with a fish on her 
head: and fish are common emblems in church architecture, support- 
ing the fleur-de-lis (see Rivera of Life, i, p. 6, plate v). The so-called 
Vesica Piscis is an euphuism for the Yoni. Egyptian priests shunned 
fish, as do most African tribes (except the Ba-tlaping or " fish- people '' 
among the Bechuanas), while Arabs generally avoid fish, and eels (see 
Kel) as being quite as unclean food as snakes. Kelts refused to eat 
eels : Eastern Jews do not eat fish, but at marriages they place one 
on the ground, and the bride and bridegroom walk round, or step over 
it seven times aq an emblem of fertility, just as Indians circum- 
ambulate the linga and yoni (see Lingam ; and our letter in Notes arid 
Queries, 16th February 1884, p. 134). 

Flamen. A priest of the holy " flame," which he alone might 
touch, and fan with the " mystic fan " of Bacchus (see Fan). The 



106 Fleur-de«lis 

flame-colored robes of Flamens are said to have been copied by the 
Boman cardinals. Their chief was the Pontifex Maximus (a title 
also adopted by Popes), or " great bridge-maker," who made the bridge 
from heaven to earth (see Bridges). 

Fleur-de-lis. An emblem supposed to represent the iris or 
gillyflower ; but which seems (see Feathers, and Trisul) to have been 
often an euphuism for the phallus. The lilies appear on a Bible pre- 
sented by Charles II of France, 869 A.C., and the Franks claimed to 
have used the symbol in Friesland as early as 400 A.C. The white 
lily IS an emblem of the Virgin ; and St Joseph has always a rod with 
white lilies (on which a dove sat), in connection with the legend of 
his flowering rod (see Dove), which indicated him as a husband for 
the Virgin. 

Floods, Inundations having been common catastrophes — 
though never universal as that of Noah was said to be — it is natural 
that legends of floods should appear in many countries. The Baby- 
lonian legend, however, appears to have an astronomical meaDing. 
being connected with the eleventh episode in the labours of the hero 
Gilgamas (" the sun spirit "), and thus terminating before the spring 
equinox. The dove, the swallow, and the raven in this myth are 
emblems of the winter months, the dove being migratory like the 
swallow, and a harbinger of the dry spring weather. The name of 
the Babylonian Noah, who escaped in a boat with his family and 
treasures, and the seeds of animal and vegetable creation, and who 
afterwards sacrificed and was removed by the gods to their paradise 
land '* at the mouth of the rivers " is variously rendered Khasisadra 
(the Xisuthros of Berosus) and Tamzi (or Tammuz) ; and by him the 
story is related to Gilgamas, after he has crossed the sea and passed 
the jewelled tree guarded by a snake (see Gilgamas and Hasis-adra). 
[Critics suppose the Bible account to consist of two narratives blended 
together. They follow the present Hebrew text in distinguishing a 
Jehovistic and an Elohistic document ; but the Greek Septuagint 
gives these sacred names quite differently in the narrative. — Ed.] 
The date at which Noah's flood is supposed to have occurred (2592, 
or 3217 B.C., according to Hebrew or Gceek reckonings — see Bible), 
is later than the age in which the great civilisations of Western Asia, 
and of Egypt must now be regarded as having already commenced. 

Science declares the idea of an universal deluge to be fraught 
with impossibilities. Even if we suppose Ararat only (see Ararat) to 
have been covered by the flood, we should require a rainfall of 217 
inches per hour to cover it in 40 days. The idea of a local flood, 



Floods 107 

covering all Mesopotamia, is as impracticable as that of a universal 
deluge, under the geological conditions of that region within the age 
of man's existence on earth. No ark or boat could contain specimens 
of the known fauna of. that country, nor does the history of geological 
evolution point to any such cataclysm* The ancient legends are in 
hopeless disagreement with scientific facts. 

The Greeks borrowed, like the Hebrews, from all the mythology 
of the early races of West Asia. The Phoenicians had a flood legend, 
which was preserved in the story of Deukalion (" the lord of the ship," 
Ihi Kcdiun), who was a son of Prometheus, and a king at Phthia 
in lower Thessaly. Warned by his father that Zeus would destroy 
mankind, being wroth at his treatment by Lukaon, Deukalion built a 
boat which, after nine days' flood, was stranded on Pamassos. Here 
he landed with his wife Purrha, and with Megaros, a son of Zeus ; 
cranes and wolves (creatures of winter and spring) guided them to 
new homes in Thessaly, and a new race sprang from stones that 
Deukalion, and Purrha, flung behind them. Another legend of a 
local flood, from which Ogug^ escaped, belonged to the low-lying 
plains of Boidtia, and is described by Pindar, " the lyrical Theban," 
about 500 B.C. Ogug^s, though an " autokhthon," or aboriginal in- 
habitant of Boiotia, was transferred later with his legend to Attika. 
According to Hesiod also, the Titans (who recall the giants living 
before the Flood according to the Hebrews), were submerged in 
Stygian waves after they had piled up their cloud mountains against 
Zeus in heaven* Iris, the rainbow godess, hovered over the ocean 
when Jove swore not to flood earth again, as the bow of Istar appeared 
in the Babylonian tale, or the bow of Yafaveh in the Hebrew (see 
Hesiod, Theog., 779, and Rev. G. Faber, Cabiri, i, p. 261). 

The Hindus had their flood of Manu (see Fish), and the Chinese 
their river " Flood of Yu." The Persian legend (in the Vendidad), 
speaks only of a great winter, and of Yima's Vara or " enclosure," 
whence birds bade him come forth in spring. There is, however, no 
distinct flood story in Egypt ; for, when men are destroyed by the 
wrath of Ra and of Sekhet, they are only drowned in blood. The 
Koran legend is taken from the Hebrew scriptures, but states that 
the flood issued from a certain spring called the Tannur (" oven "), 
which again swallowed the waters. This Tannur is shown in N« 
Syria (see Col. Gender's Heth and Afoah, i), close to an enclosure 
called "The Ship of the Prophet Noah," not far from Kadesh ("the 
holy place ") on the Orontes ; and again at Bambyce (Membej), or at 
Hierapolis, " the holy city," further north. 

In the Skandinavian Eddas we read of a flood, but this is an 



108 Floralia 

Asiatic echo, and perhaps due to Christian teaching, which also is to 
be suspected in the Welsh story of the " great lord of waters/' and of 
those who escaped when lake Llion overflowed (Welsh Triads). Its 
waters were drawn off by " the oxen of Hu-Qadern," servant of the 
demon Afane, which oxen appear to be the bellowing thunder clouds — 
like Indra's oxen. The Mexicans seem to have had flood l^esds, 
being well acquainted with mighty rivers; but the details recorded 
are liable to suspicion of Spanish influences, about 1540, in the case 
of Kox-kox-tli ; for Dr Tylor {Oiffurd Lecture^, 1891) says that the 
original Aztek picture only represents a man in a canoe stranded on 
an island (see Azteks). Nata, and Nina his wife, were enclosed in a 
hollowed cypress tree by the god Titlahnan, and came out after the 
flood : they roasted fish and were admonished by the deity. The 
Quiches of Guatemala said that the flood destroyed the first men who 
were made of wood. The Algonquins said that birds warned Messoa, 
the hunter, of the rising of a great lake, and the wolves guided him 
to safety ; he sent a raven to find land, and the musk rat — whom he 
married — helped him to make it. The Tupis in Brazil (about 1550) 
spoke of a stranger who caused a flood, whence few escaped, and of 
the god Monan, who burned earth with fire, and drowned it with 
water. The Peruvians believed in successive destructions by famine, 
and flood (recalling the Hindu " Ralpa " cycles) ; and the Aztek 
flood was the end of the first of four such cycles (Dr D. 6. Brinton, 
Myths of the New World, 1876, pp. 220-229). 

What is more natural than that men who observed fossil fish, 
and shells, on high mountains or in deserts, should conclude that the 
gods had once dipped the earth under ocean, and had again brought 
it up from the depths ; but that they had also saved some few men 
and beasts, whence those of later ages were descended ? (See also 
Hawaii.) 

Floralia. The fSte of Flora, the godess of flowers, from 28tb 
April to Ist May ; a Roman edict of 238 B.C. defined the rites, 
which were already ancient on the " seven hills " of Home, going back 
to the 8th century B.C. among Etruskans. Numa was one of the 
priests of Flora's shrine. The rites became so gross that they were 
prohibited ; yet, even in our 2nd or 3rd century, women are said to 
have celebrated them naked ; similar practices continued in some 
Italian states even to the Middle Ages. 

Fo« The common Chinese corruption for the name of Buddha. 
Foot. The Yishnuvas in India regard the foot as a symbol of 



Foot 109 

the phallus (see Pad). The footprints of gods and heroes, of their 
horses, or of other animals, are regarded as conclusive evidence of 
the legends attached : see, for instance, the Ceylonese footprint 
(Adam's Peak), or the Palestine examples. The latter include that 
of Christ on Olivet, and another in the Aksa Mosk ; that of Mu- 
hammad — with Gabriers finger marks — on the ^khrah rock ; that 
of Adam at Hebron ; vestiges of Elijah at Mar Elias ; footsteps of a 
prophet in the mosk at Baalbek ; and of a prophetess in Moab, S. of 
Heshbon. The gigantic footprint of Herakl6s was shown in Scythia. 
Numerous other examples occur all over the world (see Mr Kumagusu 
Minakata, ''Footprints of Gods," Notes and Queries, 1st Sept, pp. 
163-165 ; 22nd Sept., pp. 223-226, 1900). The Japanese scholar 
compares the examples in his native land with those recorded by 
others, such as the bird-like prints of the great spirit in N. America 
and Mexico, in Columbia and Peru ; the sculptured pair of footprints 
at Man^-er-Hro^ in France, and others of early date in Sweden; 
those of Christ in Rome and in France ; those of the miraculous 
bitch that aided Clovis at Pas de Dieu ; the knees of St Ursicinus at 
Rome, and of Sta Theocrita in the island of Pares. Of St Hyacinth 
and St Mark footsteps also are shown. In Egypt we hear of foot- 
steps of Osiris; and Bechuana Kaffirs show those of the Modimo 
C' god '') cave, near Lake Ngami. In this case they are the footprints 
of many animals that were created in, and issued from, the cavern. 
Footprints of the horses of heroes are also common (see Arthur). The 
footprint on Adam's peak — whether of St Thomas, Buddha, Adam, 
Siva, or the Chinese Panku — holds rain water in which believers wash 
their faces. In Japan, too, Buddha left footprints (though never 
visiting the island), and horse prints are shown. In Eosala a lion's 
print, and one of Buddha, are noticed. In Siam we have the prints 
of elephants and tigers, who escorted Buddha ; and in Polynesia those 
of Tiitii, made when he was pushing heaven and earth apart. Those 
of giants, godesses, and priests are numerous in Japan, where also the 
lightning fiend leaves bis claw marks on trees. Horse prints occur in 
Korea ; and in China emperors were begotten by maidens who trod 
in the footprints of gigantic deities. Lao-tzse has also left footmarks, 
and others belong to dragons, birds, bulls, horses, tigers, cranes ; to a 
hermit and his deer, to donkeys, and dogs, and fowls, connected with 
Taoist or Buddhist saints. Lhassa, and Ferghana, furnish other 
examples. To those thus enumerated we may add many Christian 
examples, for wherever Christ, or an apostle, or a saint went, rocks 
became soft and retained marks of their feet or hands. 



110 Fors 

ForS. Fortuna. The Italian deity of Fate, answering to the 
Greek TdkbS. Dr Max MtLller {Biography of Words) shows that the 
popular derivation from fer (" bear," " carry ") is impossible. In the 
Book of Esther (iii, 7; ix, 26, 32) the word Pur for a "lot" ia 
apparently Persian, though not known as such, and is given a 
Hebrew plural, whence the name of the festival of Purim. In 
Aryan speech PHr is "fire" (see Bar), but we need not, in Italy, 
look only to Aryan speech (see Etruskaus) ; and Fors may have 
beeo a Turanian word. [The Aryan root Bhar may be suggested, 
whence the Latin par *' equal," pars " part," portio ** portion " ; in 
Akkadian we have bar or par "half"; the idea being that of 
equal chances. — Ed.] The early shrines of Fortuna included that at 
the Volscian capital of Antium : the temple of the Latini on Mi 
Alba; and the Sabine or Samnite shrine of Praeneste, with the 
Etruskan temple at Caera Here the " sortes " or lots were cast, 
sealing fate. (Cicero, Be Div.^ i, 34 : ii, 41, 56 ; Ovid, Fasti, ii, 477 : 
vi, 93, 217 ; Virgil, ^n,, iv, 346, 377 : vii, 679 ; see Danet, Did. 
Ant, and Gibbon, Decline and Fall, vi, 333.) Qibbon derives the 
Christian " Sortes Sanctorum " from the Sortes of Fortuna. The 
Augurs delivered the decisions of Fortuna (whether as a male or a 
female deity) in little sealed packets, sometimes called Sortes Con- 
viviales, which survive among us in the modest form of Christmas 
" crackers " with mottoes to decide our fate, connected as of old with 
fire rites. 

The rites of Fors were observed by the Roman kings Ancus 
Martins, and Servius Tullius. Tullus Hostilius, succeeding Numa, 
in 670 B.C. attacked the Sabines and the Albans, and destroyed 
Yeii and Tusculum. On this account the gods sent fire and 
pestilence on Some, and a voice from the Alban temple of Fors, 
otherwise Jupiter Latiaris, foretold the death of Tullus : he besought 
mercy of Jupiter Elicius. but was destroyed, we read, with all his 
house, by burning stones from the Alban Mount (Varro, see Smith's 
Dicty, Or. and Rom. Biog.) : wherefore Ancus Martins (succeeding in 
641 B.G.) erected a temple, on the most sacred hill in Rome, to the 
Alban Fors. Servius Tullius was a favourite of Tanaquil (or Thana- 
kul " the servant of Thana " the Etruskan godess) wife of Tarquin 
(Tar-kon), and succeeded this Etruskan monarch, whose daughter he 
married, on his murder in 579 B.C. According to Ovid and others 
he must have been an incarnation of Fors, for Tanaquil and Ocrisia 
— the mother of Tullius — saw in the sacred fiame a phallus (com- 
pare under Deuce) while worshiping the Lars with " buns " and wine. 
Ocrisia was therefore devoted to Jove (like Babylonian maidens — see 



Fors 111 

Deva-dasis) ; and TuUius was bora, and even as a babe was seen by 
Tanaquil sleeping surrounded by flames. He built a beautiful shrine 
to the godess Fors Primigenia, and by her be was often visited ; she 
was a deity of Alba and of PrsenestS alike ; and the temple built by 
TuUius was in the Capitol, This Fors was the daughter, according 
to Cicero, of Jupiter Latiaris. TuUius was apparently an Etruskan, 
aud his native name was Mastarua ('* hero of the tribe," Mas-tar-na 
in Akkadian) : he was a comrade of the Etruskan Cseles Yibenna, 
who colonised the Cselian hill at Rome, and being in favour of the 
Plebeians he was murdered, in 535 B.a, by Patrician adherents of the 
murdered Tarquin, who was of the same race. Thus Fors appears to 
have been an Etruskan deity. The laws of TuUius were set aside, by 
his successor, Tarquin the proud, and this Etruskan tyrant was 
expeUed in 510 &c. These and other indications show us that the 
Etruskans educated the Aryans of Italy — Umbrians, Oskans, Sabines, 
and Latins — especially in religion, laying the foundation of Boman 
civilisation (see Etruskans). 

The worship of Fors, in her beautiful shrine on the E^quiline 
hill, long survived. In 400 A.C., St Augustine {City of Ood, iv, 18) 
inveighs against her, and asks " How can Fors be sometimes good 
and sometimes bad . . . give evils as well as blessings ? " He 
argued with his teacher that a fountain cannot send forth bitter water 
as well as sweet (Epist. of James iii, 11) ; but he forgot that Yahveh 
says (Isaiah xlv, 7), " I make peace and create evil," ** shall there be 
evil in a city and Yahveh hath not done it ?" (Amos iii, 6 ; Job ii, 10). 
At the entrauce of the palace of Zeus there are two great vessels, from 
one of which flow all blessings for men, and from the other misery 
and misfortune. The Greeks said that the gods themselves are 
subject to Tukhe or '' Fate." In Athens she was shown with the 
babe-god Ploutos, or *' wealth," in her arms. On medals she appears 
standing on the round globe which she rules, having in one hand the 
Horn of Plenty, and in the other the Rudder. Sometimes her hand 
rests on a wheel, showing the revolving fortunes of the fickle godess 
Fortuna-Beduce, the ever changeable. 

At PrsenestS Fors had a wondrous gilt statue. The Romans said 
that when she came to Rome she threw off her wings, and shoes, 
determined to remain there for ever. Pausauias calls Tukhg an ocean 
njmpb, and one of the blind fates (the Parcae). Pindar calls her a 
dangbter of Zeus, on whom he bestowed power to aid, or to thwart, 
the affairs of men. "The ancients," says M. Danet (Diet. Antiq,), 
" represented Fors Fortuna of both sexes, as they did several other 
divinities." In her Roman temples she was Fors Libera, and Fors 



us Foutin 

Parva, worshiped by newly-married women, who dedicated to her 
their maiden girdles, and prayed to her to make the husband's love 
continue. She was Mammosa (like Artemis of Ephesus), Publica, 
Frivata, Conservatrix, and Primigenia. The Prsenestd shrine was said 
to be founded by Coeculus (" the little blind one "), son of Vulcan — 
the fire (Bryant, Mythol, i, pp. 123-128). The boy Jove — ^the 
Bonus Puer Phosphor — was the child of Fortuna Primigenia (Grater's 
Inscriptions^ No. Ixxvi, 6, 7). Cicero connects him with the casting 
of lots (De Div., ii), saying " there is still a place religiously fenced 
off on account of the boy Jove, who being suckled, with Juno, seeking 
the breast in the lap of Fortuna, is most chastely worshiped by 
mothers." Prsenestd retained its rites and freedom till 351 &c. 
(Livy, vi, 30 ; Diod., xvi, 45). Cicero calls it a Colonia (Cat.^ i, 3) 
It stood on a bold spur of the Alban hills, 2400 ft above the sea, 
23 miles E. of Rome, facing and towering above Alba and Tusculum. 
The fane of Fors Fortuna was on the summit of the hill. Sulla 
destroyed the upper city in 83 B.C., and a new city and shrine were 
built lower down. In our 5 th century it became Palestrina (where 
a famous Phoenician votive bowl was found). Horace says that, in his 
time, " still did chaste Sabine wives pile up the sacred fires," of Vesta, 
and of Fors Fortuna. 

Foutin. St Foutin (or Photinus), is supposed to be named 
from the Latin Fotum, "fostered," from a root meaning "to warm" 
— more probably from Phos " light " in Greek. 

Fox. See Japan, Lukos, and Spirits. The fox is in mythology the 
emblem of craft and deceit, a demon among Japanese and Chinese. 

Fravashis. See Fervers. The Fravardin of the Avesta. 

Freemasons. French, Franc- ma9on : German, Freimauerei : 
" mason " being Low Latin (nuicio for Truirdo), from " marcus " a 
hammer. The brotherhoods date only from the 18th century; the 
first London lodge from the 24th June I7l7 ; that of Paris from 
1725; and that of Dublin from 1730. But such associations had 
been developing during previous centuries, tracing back even to the 
Middle Ages, and being due to the necessity for self protection, against 
tyranny in both Church and State. Dr Priestly, commenting on 
Dupuis (Origin of Religions), compares Freemasons to gypsies, as 
having rites of initiation, and oaths of fidelity. Such secret societies 
are ancient in Asia, among Essenes, Gnostiks, and Templars, or 
Moslem Dervishes, Druzes, and others ; and especially so among the 
Chinese. Freemasons devoted themselves especially to John the 



Freemasons 118 

Baptist (patron of the first Kuights Hospitallers), and to John the 
Divine. They attach mystic value to certain colors, such as white, 
blue, purple, and crimson, which typify air, water, earth, and fire. 
They have symbols, many of which are ancient religious or magical 
emblems. These occur on the masonry of the Crusaders' churches 
built by Italian Normans, in Palestine, in our 12th century, and are 
equally found on that of European cathedrals in the 14th and 15th 
centuries, including the hammer, the trowel, the gavel, the triangle, 
circle, and square, the fylfot, the fish, and the pentacle or 
" Solomon's seal," with the double triangle or ^* shield of David " (see 
Rivers of Life, i, p. 235, fig. 108). The triangle is an emblem of 
Deity (see Triangles). Nor is the " luminous ring " overlooked (see 
Ring), being presented to those initiated into the Order of Noah (see 
Fellows, Myateriea, chap. v). Mr FeUows says, indeed (p. 284): 
'* There is scarcely a single ceremony in Freemasonry which is not 
found in the old pagan mysteries." He considers it demonstrable 
that " Freemasonry was (in its essence) nature and sun worship . . * 
see especially the hidden mysteries of our Blue Lodge symbolism." 
Freemasonry seems to have gleaned much in the East from older secret 
confraternities. We have been assured ourselves, by Pars! and 
Jewish Freemasons, that a brother is expected always to assist a 
brother, and never to prosecute him for debt. 

The symbolism of Freemasons is mainly based on the Bible, but 
includes many astronomical emblems, besides the ark, the pillars, the 
tables of the law, and the arch. The "Royal Arch" consists of 
seven stones, marked by the signs of the genial months — the ram, 
bull, twins, crab (as the keystone), lion, virgin, and scales. [The 
month signs were also carved, in the 12th century, on the arch of the 
Hospital of the Knights of St John at Jerusalem.— ^Ed.] Above the 
arch is the sun to the proper right, and the moon to the proper left 
Beneath it are the seven Pleiades, round which the universe revolves, 
and under these the masonic coat of arms — a cross with the bull, lion, 
eagle, and man, in its 4 quarterings — representing the four evangelists, 
while the crests are the horn of plenty, and the compass crossing the 
gavel (or mason's square), forming the double triangle. Between 
these is the name of God. These arms stand on the tesselated pave- 
ment under the arch, which is supported by a plain pillar to the right, 
and an entwined one to the left. The two pillars Jachin (strength), 
and Boaz (stability) are important masonic symbols. Before the arch 
stands the coiBn, in form of two truncated cones, marked by the cross, 
and indicating that the initiate must die to his old nature, before he 
passes through the gate (see Door), and is born again : at its foot is 



114 Freemasons 



the " urn of St John " — a box whence a serpent issues, reminding ns 
of the Greek mysteries (see Bleusis, and Erekhtheus). This am has 
a conical cover — ^recalling the phallic cones in the temples of the 
Syrian Venus. 

The apron is the characteristic Mason's dress ; but the Essene 
initiate received an apron and a hammer-like axe (see Rivera of Life, 
i, p. 237, fig. 109); and popes and bishops, like some Brahmaos, 
wear aprons — as did Adam and Eve. The Tau cross (used also by 
Gnostiks, and found in Templar churches) is marked on the apron; 
and Masons say that it " marks the Pythagorean solar cycle of 600 
years." Irenseus (Against Heresies, III, xxiii, 5) says that " Adam put 
upon himself and Eve a bridle of continence . . . conformable to his 
disobedience. ... At last God mercifully clad them with skins." 
In the rites of Mithra the candidate was invested with a tiara, a 
purple tunic, and a girdle, with a white apron, which is found also on 
many statues in Egypt, Greece, India, and America, and is indeed 
used "always and invariably," according to the Royal Masomn 
Encylopcedia (p. 48). Mr F. Crowe (trans. Are Quatvxyr Corona- 
tomm) gives most of the various masonic aprons, including one " having 
the appearance of the Highlander's sporran." On one of these the Tau 
is upside down, beneath a dark circle on a white ground, and the circle 
is wreathed with flowers (see Mr Simpson's articles in the last-named 
publication, V, i, Jany. 1892). 

In other rites three candles stand at each angle of the triangle 
of the Trinity, which is Abraxs, or 365 — the days of the year. The 
sacred numbers 3, 5, 7, and 9 — making 24 for the 24 elders — are 
gorgeously colored round the triangle in blue and gold. The number 
three appears in the three degrees of the lesser and greater mysteries, 
and Royal Arch, or Arch of the Master Key. The Master Mason 
stands on the east, while others cluster round him, as planets round 
the sun (see Dervish). 

The mysterious design of the "certificate" belonging to the 
" Grand Lodge of England," and intended to " certify that the name of 
(N) is written in the cubical stone," appears to give a fairly complete 
collection of symbols. " Nothing" (it says) "is wanting save the key" 
(see Heckethorn's Secret Societies of All Ages, 1897). We here find 
an oval in a square, and a cross made up of 8 squares in the oval, 
each square bearing the emblems of degrees. On the left (proper 
right), outside the oval, is a bell at the top, and men dancing round a 
pillar or obelisk at the bottom, with the legend " Talia St lun gere 
possis " : the sun, and the magic square, are also on this side. Opposite 
(on the proper left) is the watch (for time) and a scene of tree worship, 



Freemasons 115 

with the legend, " Sit tibi scire satis." The crossed circle, and the 
moon, are on this side. The squares forming the central cross are 
arranged two to left, two to right, and four beneath each other in the 
centre. These — beginning with the central top design — appear to 
represent : 1. The Logoa^ as described in the Revelation of St John. 
2. Jerusalem, with its mediaeval coat of arms. 3. The fortress of 
Enoch or Hermes, 4. The pyramid sepulchre, with a serpent : the 
tower of liberty (Solomon), equality (Moses), and truth (Hermes), with 
a cross and ladder, above which is the two-headed eagle. The squares 
to the proper right are : 5. Creation, with the four elements, the 
central flaming triangle of the Trinity, the cross and other emblems, 
and the legends, " Chaos," " Open," ** Lux ex tenebris." 6. The Brvie 
Stone, with Jachin and Boaz, the pick, the broom, the waning moon, 
and other emblems. On the proper left we have : 7. The Order of 
Baldwin (1118 A.C.), the second king of Jerusalem, with the infant 
Christ on a rainbow spanning the space between a fire tower and a bull 
tower (Jachin and Boaz), and with the legend, " The fear of the Lord 
is the beginning of wisdom." 8. Justice, with the scales, the com- 
passes, the gavel, and the circle divided into degrees. This is called 
" The Cubical Stone!* AH this symbolism, however, as in the case of 
other sects, may be regarded as belonging rather to the exoteric than 
to the higher teaching of Masonry. 

Masons claim great antiquity for their mysteries, tracing them to 
a divine origin through Adam, Moses, and Solomon. Hermes was a 
common name among Gnostik societies. Some trace Masonry to 
St Alban (709 A.C.), and claim King Athelstan as a Mason. But the 
mediseval Masons' Guilds did not appear in the west till about 1356 
A.a {Ars, Quat Coron., V, i, pp. 41-44), though a "masonic habita- 
tion," at York, is spoken of as existing in the 11th or 12th century. 
In 1677 a royal charter was granted to certain Masons by Charles II 
of England. In the 1 8th century they began to organise their later 
mysteries of 7 and 33 degrees, and the order of the "black and white 
eagle/' apparently two-headed, and symbolising day and night, as 
among Hittites (see Eagle). The "luminous ring," and the "blue 
lodge," appear to borrow from the Templars, and later Rosicrucians. 
Hiram of Tyre — as a temple builder — is also much spoken of by 
Masons Masonry, however, sprang probably from the mediseval guilds, 
which were originally a kind of trades' union, of skilled stone workers 
and carpenters, employed on the beautiful fanes of Norman Europe. 
These collegia had well-defined rules and customs : some had a common 
fund ; and they were ruled by Arch or Master Masons, who maintained 
the rights of even the humblest apprentice. They came in time to 



116 Free-will 

regard themselves as religious societies, and in modem times became 
dissociated from their crafts, and perhaps little more than societies for 
mutual help ; the associates (like Onostiks and others) being known bj 
secret signs, such as the " Mason's grip " in the palm of the hand. 
They spoke of their degrees as "holy and solemn sacraments," swearing 
secrecy on the Bible, with obedience to superiors, and service to God 
and to the brethren. They protected themselves by guarding the 
door (looking out through a wicket or window), while the lodge was 
** tiled/' Like other associations (Christian, Onostik, Templar, or Druze) 
they have been subject to many calumnious accusations. The Church 
of Bome, especially, has always denounced a society over which priests 
have no control, and which is unconcerned with the interests of her 
system — which rests on belief in a good life, apart from faith, thus 
bringing down on its members the anathemas and slanders of popes 
and priests. 

Pree-wilL The teachers of religion deny, ignore, or avoid this 
question. Neither the word nor the idea are found in the Bible. To 
the Hebrew, Ood was the author of good and evil — blessing and 
punishment — who deceives false prophets as well as iuspiring others. 
Amos (iii, 6) says, '' Shall there be evil in a city, aud the Lord hath 
not done it.*' The Moslem agrees with the Christian in saying •'Thy 
will be done." [Luther agreed with Paul (Romans vii, 15-25) as to 
the struggles of the will. Erasmus, on the other hand, was influenced 
by Greek ideas. Plato (see £r) taught that God was not to blame if 
man wrougly decided in face of his own previous experience. Aristotle 
believed (but does not attempt to prove) that man had Free Choice, 
and was responsible (Nicom. Ethica, III, ii-v) for couduct; unless 
through madness, disease, or " impenetrable ignorance," he could be 
Excused. The Council of Trent, in declariug for Free-will, did not 
even allow " impenetrable ignorance " as an excuse. They feared to 
charge God with responsibility for human sins, or the Devil either, as 
that would make him independent of God ; but Calvin in teaching 
Predestination — which Moslems also believe — had no such scruples. — 
Ed.] Science teaches that there is no freedom of choice, but that 
all decision is as purely a matter of necessity as is the action of the 
balance : all must act according to the conditions of existence, and as 
the influences of heredity and surroundings lead. It is on the 
strength and continuity of these influences that the training of man 
or child depends. They have no power to become free from them ; 
and few ever break away from conditions imposed by early training, 
unless they come under new influences of an enlarged experience. We 



Free-will iiT 

canBot coDceive of the non-conditioned, so that it is practically to us 
non-existent A power that was without a law (that is, a consistency 
of action) woald be one that we could not dare to trust, and not a 
law-giver to man. Such a Ood, if all knowing aud creating sin, must 
(as the Hebrews taught) be responsible for all evil. The learned 
Qifford Lecturer of 1892 placed this view before the Aberdeen 
students in these words : " Qod purposely created man capable of 
sinning, because only so could He create a being capable of obedience." 
But such rhetoric makes Ood, though He had almighty power for 
good, the creator of infinite misery, with the object of forcing obedience 
from slaves, who only in a secondary degree are responsible for errors 
due to the sins of their fathers, which the best efforts throughout life 
can seldom amend. 

Volition without motive is — according to Mill, Sir W. Hamilton, 
and other thinkers — quite inconceivable. It supposes man capable 
of producing uncaused motives — that is of creation out of nothing. 
Prof. Tyndall recognised that we are not the masters of circumstances, 
which are made, not by, but for us. Hamilton says that if the power 
of motive A be as 12, and of motive 6 as 8, it is inconceivable that 
action should not be due to motive A — the weight in that scale is the 
heavier (see Mr A. J. Bell, Why does Man Exist, xlix). The 
umversal and mechanical law is, that force will follow the line of least 
resistance (see Conscience and Design). Cause and effect have no 
meaning if conceived of as independent Yet Hamilton seems to 
have believed in the freedom of the will, though he says that " the 
proof of it is impossible, nay inconceivable." 

These speculations were familiar to the old philosophers wha 
studied Vedas and Darsanas : to Kapila and Buddha, as well as to 
the disciples of Plato. They, like Aristotle, saw only one solution in 
education, as the cure of " invincible ignorance," to which error is to 
be solely ascribed. We can be trained to pause when influenced by 
impulses of passion, and to reflect on past experiences of inevitable 
results, or to listen to wise counsels from those of wider experience 
than our own. Thus the wise man instead of rising up to smite sits 
down to think. He learns that there is no more a will (or choice) 
than there is a soul or ghost : " I will " is as much a vague phrase 
as " I laugh " or " I jump." We labour to make use of experience, 
until we gradually change our disposition, and create a new line of 
least resistance more in accord with the realities of circumstance. We 
still personify the Will, but " whether we will or no," we are " con- 
vinced against our (untrained) will." Free-will in fact is a con-» 
tradiction in terms. We can, it is true, "do as we like," but we 



118 Free-will 

mast '' like " first ; and our liking must be consistent unless we have 
lost the balance of Reason — ^that is of action due to experience of 
reality. The will is tied by knowledge of consequence, and if we are 
ignorant of such experience, our motives are prejudices and untrained 
passions. Truly do we say that " D.Y. we will do so and so/' for an 
onmipotent law rules all Mr Herbert Spencer puts this clearly when 
he says : " A body in space, subject to the attraction of a single other 
body, moves in a direction that can be accurately predicted. ... If it 
is surrounded by bodies of all sizes, at all distances, its motion wiJJ 
apparently be uninfluenced by any of them ; it will move in some 
indefinable varying line, that appears to be 8elf-<letermined "; but it is 
not really so, only we are unable to calculate all the attractions or 
repulsions on which it depends. Hobbes roughly declared that the 
will was " the last appetite." If the race be uneducated and untrained, 
it cannot shake off the evils of heredity and of past racial developments 
and circumstances. Believers in " Necessity " hold that all events 
follow a natural sequence, according to laws as inevitable as that of 
gravity, or of chemical aflSnity, ruling the organic and the inorganic 
world alike. As bad seed, and bad cultivation in bad soil, produce 
inferior vegetables, so surely do animal heredity and bad surroundings 
produce bad men and women. Our bodies are made up of carbon, 
oxygen, hydrogen, and nitrogen, elements which follow the inevitable 
laws of their chemical aflSnities (the causes of which are unknown to 
us) : thus neither child nor vegetable can accomplish anything 
against the bodily conditions of its existence. Beyond the sensations 
due to bodily action we can know nothing. Fancy may regroup such 
experiences, but it is to be recognised as imagination, apt to run riot, 
and not as reality. [Reflection, whether original or due to others, 
aims at discovering the realities which should govern our action : it is 
careful observation of results. But such training is due to the same 
consistent purpose which has developed higher from lower forms, and 
life itself from inorganic attractions. — Ed.] The fact is, as Kant 
long ago showed, that : " All human actions are as much under the 
control of the universal laws of Nature as any other physical pheno- 
mena " : " The rational predispositions," he adds, " seem destined to 
develop themselves more in the species than in the individual" It 
is not every wave that shows the tide, but neither the wave nor 
anything else is due to " chance," which is merely a word expressing 
our ignorance of the forces that are at work, and our want of pre- 
vision of the inevitable consequence. The eternal laws, which move 
stars and planets and the elements of animal organisms, are the same; 
why not therefore those that control the tiny race of man, on his tinj 



Frey 119 

planet, in thought, will, and progress ? Voltaire said : '* Nothing 
happens without a cause ... an effect without a cause is a sentence 
without meaning . . . my will is but a consequence of my judgment, 
and the one necessarily follows the other as cause and effect." The 
will is as natural to the creature as scent and color are to the 
flower; and these we know depend on its heredity, yet can be 
influenced by soil and cultivation. Knowing these exactly, we can 
predict the result ; but in the more complicated question of human 
motive we must be content with an Agnostik attitude, though assured 
that the law of necessity still holds good. 

Frey. Freyr. Fraig. Fro. The Skandinavian god of 
reproduction. The name comes from the Aryan root Bhri or Bhxir 
" to produce " or " bear " (see Bar), found in the Latin Frux " fruit." 
His female forms are Freya and Frigg. He is represented as the 
brother of Freya. At Upsala he was represented by a menhir or 
phallus (see Norweg. Antiq,, i, p. 25). He was drawn through 
heaven by the golden boar (see Boar). He is the " Lord of Increase " 
presiding over rain and sunshine, harvests, wealth, and peace — the 
sun god (Indra), who is the cause of all fertility. Gerda, the earth 
godess, is said to have resisted him though bribed by apples and 
rings, till Skiruer, his attendant, threatened her with eternal sterility. 
Freyr ploughed Oerda at the season when Teutons used to carry 
their ploughs, in boats or arks, over their fields in spring. Frey and 
Freya were children of " Niord the rich," whom the Vanir gave to 
the iEsar or Msir (the gods) as hostages at the end of a great war. 
Niord (or Njord) was born in Vana-heim (" water home ") being the 
third As (or " spirit "), ruler of the winds and quencher of the evil 
fire of Loki. Fro, among Teutons, was a beneficent form of Frey, 
merciful and long-suffering — a god who gives strength and sweetness 
to life. 

Freya. The Skandinavian Venus, sister of Frey, is distinguished 
from Frigg the Skandinavian Juno, but they are only various aspects 
of one godess of reproduction — the earth mother and virgin earth. 
Freya also is called Sessrymner " the large wombed " (see Earth), and 
was a " godess ^of the Vanir delighting in love, song and dance." 
She listens to the vows of lovers, and produces general fertility. Loki 
(" fire ") opened her door, loosed her girdle, and crept into her bed as 
a flea, by order of Odin (Woden "the blue one") or heaven. By 
Odin she had a child called Hnos, "the treasure" or "delight" Her 
car was drawn by cats, and she (like Loki) was clothed in feathers. 
She was consecrated by receiving in her lap the hammer of Thor, 



120 Friday 

which Thrjm, the winter giant, stole. Thor, disguised as a bride, 
went to Freya in Jotun-heim and there regained the hammer from 
Thrym. Freya's abode was in the Folk-vang or " people's habita- 
tions" (see Sharp's Nor. Myth,, i, p. 56). She ever longs for Odin 
(the ancient pair, heaven and earth, being so represented), and is 
intoxicated by his love. Her tears and her ornaments are of gold. 
She travels abroad and takes many names and forms. To one she 
gives " the sacred joys of marriage with many children," to another 
vain longings. She is a wild and joyous Ceres, related to Gerda the 
earth, and to Skirner the invigorating air. She becomes a cloud 
rider, a swan maiden, the leader of the Valkyries or silvery clouds — a 
maid of the mist. The twins Frey and Freya (like Tammuz and 
Istar) were gods of love, taking the highest rank in Asgard, the 
abode of spirits. 

Friday. The day of Freya and Frigg ; and of Venus among 
Latins. To Moslems, who worshiped a Venus at Makka, it became 
the holy day {YoTa d Juw^a, " the day of gathering") ; and it is the 
'' wife's day " to them, on which the husband may not approach a 
concubine. She alone, on that day, may light the household fire, and 
preside at the hearth. Christians now object to weddings on Friday, 
which is regarded as an unlucky day of fasts and fish eating — the fish 
being sacred to Venus. Yet in 1871 the census shows that, amoog 
Irish Kelts, nearly 44 per cent are married on Friday. The Hindu 
house-mistress adores her cow on Friday, calling it *' Eamadevi, 
"godess of love." 

Frigg. Frigga. Frygga. See Frey and Freya. The 
Skaudinavian Juno, wife of Odin or Heaven : godess of marriage 
and of earth, and of Hlyn, or mild warmth. Her name signifies 
" the bearer," and she is the Frau or married woman (Thorpe, 
Not. Antiq., i, p. 231). When Odin, the blue sky, disappeared, 
and the M&ar despaired of his return, she married his brothers, Ve 
and Vilir. Her father was Fiorgynn, the male earth, whose consort 
was Fiorvin or lordt, otherwise Ertha, the mother also of Tbor. 
Frigg lived in Fensaler, the humid earth, but she is also, like Freya, 
a feathered godess or falcon. From Odin and Frigg sprang the 
^ar ; and Baldur the beautiful (see Baldur) was their lamented 
son. Fulla or " plenty " waited on Frigg, as did Hlyn " the warm," 
and Gna the " gentle " breeze. Orion was her rok or distaff. She 
appears (in winter) as the " white lady," and has flaxen hair. Her 
legends refer to snow and feathers, milk and cows (see Bertha), all 
connected with rain and snow. She is the Mother Rose (see H§bd)» 



Fro 121 

the *' marriage grass " (Orchis odoratissima), the primrose, the forget- 
me-not. Stones must be cast on her cairn or heap (as memorials 
of a visit) ; and Christians still cast stones into Frigga's cave at 
Urselberg, on the Burgeiser Alp near Wartenburg. She watches 
Odin her lord, being ever anxious lest some misfortune should 
overtake him. Though silent she is said to know the destinies of 
all, like Hindu godesses. She is jealous of Gerda and Gunnlod, 
the earths of spring and of autumn, whom Odin embraced, receiving 
from them his "mead" of blood and honey. The mead produced 
poetry, and art, from its " maddening " influence. Frigga, and Code 
daughter of Thor, were worshiped at midsummer. Christians found 
it hard to put down these fStes (see Mr M. Conway, Defmonologyy ii, 
p. 379). 

Fro. Fruija. See Frey. 

Frog. This night croaker is called in India the friend of Indu 
the moon. In Egypt, Hekt, wife of Khnum, is a frog godess (see 
Baubo), and moon deity. Bhekas " the frog " (Sanskrit), is the 
harbinger of rain, and Indu is the " rain dropping " or dewy one. 
Indra, the rain god, grants what Bhekas croaks for ; but the moon is 
said to kill the frog, silencing him with heavy dews. In spring, under 
the showers, he sings and calls on men to plough the earth. Italian 
children (says Prof. A. de Gubernatis) have an instrument — the Canta- 
Rana or "frog singer" — used to imitate his song in Holy Week, 
lu the Rig Veda (Hymn 103) we find the praises of the Mandukas 
ur *' cloud-frogs," with those of Indra, who drives the cloud cows from 
the cave of the Panis who obstruct rain. One Manduks is said to 
bellow like a bull (the bull-frog), others are of yellow-greeu Qiarit) 
color. The cloud frog swells itself out like the cloud bull, and 
bursts (as in the fable), but also assumes beautiful forms to enchant 
maidens (see ZooL MythoL, ii, under Frog). 

Fu. " Father " : in Chinese. See Bu. 

Fufluns. Puphluns. The Etruskan Bakkhos. From the root 
Pu (see Bu) reduplicated with the passive aflSx. Pu-pu-lu-uns is 
*' the god of that which is made to grow," connected with the name of 
the Etruskan city Populonia, and perhaps with the Latin word popuZus, 
" population " or increasing tribes. 

Fyl-fot. The Teutonic name of the Svastika or cross with feet, 
the Greek gammadion or " crooked " sign (see Count G. D'Alviella, 
La Migration, dee Symbolea, 1892). This sign, found from Peru to 



122 

Cornwall, ia called Fael-fut, Fujel-fot, and Fyl-fot, among Aryans, and 
identified with Thor's hammer, being found on dolmens in Com* 
wall, and, as a charm against thunder, on bells in Yorkshire (see Bells). 
It appears to signify the " fowl's foot " (German Vogel " bird "), or 
" flying foot," alluding to the whirl of the Svastika wheel (see Svastika). 
It was everywhere a sacred emblem. The Aryan root Plu signifies 
" to fly." The symbol is also the croix crampone^, or " crook cross/' of 
heralds. 



The third letter of early alphabets (see C), represents both the 
hard O and the soft J sound, which interchanges with the bard in 
dialects — such as Syrian compared with Egyptian Arabic. The 
hard O interchanges with the guttural !K, which is sometimes dropped 
like H. The final G is replaced by the guttural ng in Turkish speech, 
which also stands for M (see Dimir). 

Gsu See Ea, and Gan. This root is widely spread as meaning 
" cry," " live," and " be." [Egyptian kha " to be born " : Aryan ga 
" beget," ^ri "live": Mongol ke^ khe, "make." Perhaps originally a 
"mouth" or "hole": Akkadian ka, gu, "mouth," "'call," ge "abyss," 
kw " eat " : Egyptian hu " food " : Aryan gha " gape " : Hebrew gau 
" inside " : Chinese hau " mouth " : Turkish agui " hole," ag " open." 
—Ed.] 

Gab. Sanskrit : " mouth " " hole " (see Ga). This is also an 
ancient root, meaning " hollow," or " cup," and the " hand " or hollow 
of the hand : hence to " catch " or " hold." [Egyptian kap, khab, 
" bent " : Aryan kap, kubh, " bend " (see Gam) : Hebrew guph " hollow," 
^abb " domed " : Akkadian gdb " breast " : Turkish, kob^ kaJb, kou, 
" hollow " : Finnic kap " sphere " : Akkadian gub " hand," " hold '* : 
Egyptian kheb "fist," '*khefa "hold": Aryan kap "hold": Hebrew 
caph " hollow of the hand " : Turkish kap " grip " : Chinese chap 
" hold," kup " cover." The Aryan kup " cup " is the Hebrew koh'a 
"cup," "helmet."— Ed.] 

Gabar. in Hebrew a root meaning "strong," whence the Gib- 
borim, or " very strong men " (heroes), were named (see Gab " to hold," 
and Ar " man "). 

Gabriel. Hebrew : " power of God," personified as an angeL 
(Daniel viii, 16 ; ix, 21 : Luke i, 19, 26) : he appeared to Daniel as 



Gad 123 



''a man." The Jibiil of the i^oran inspired Muliammad, and 
according to Moslem tradition his finger marks appear on the Sakhrah 
or " rock " at Jerusalem, which he held down to prevent its following 
Muhammad to heaven. Moslems call him "Ruh el Amin/' the 
*' faithful spirit," and he appears usually to be a good spirit helping 
mankind. 

Ga.d. The name of a deity of good luck, from a widespread root 
meaning ** the right hand." [Akkadian kat " hand " : Finnic hat 
" hand," " luck " : Aryan ghad "grasp " : Hebrew akhcul " take."— Ed.] 
It is perhaps connected with gud " strong " (see Gut). In Isaiah we 
read (Ixv, 11) that the Hebrews "prepare a table for Gad," and 
" furnish a drink ofifering for Meni " (also a deity of " numbers " or 
" lots "). Ba'al Gad (Josh, xiii, 5) was a Syrian " master of luck." 
The name was also given to a Hebrew tribe (rendered " troop " in the 
English), as is made clear by the Greek Septuagint translation TvJche 
''fortune." He is compared to a lion (see Gen. xxx, 11 : xlix, 19 : 
Deut. xxxiii, 20), and those who increase good luck are blessed. 

Gael. Gail. Keltik. Probably like the words Gaul and Galli, it 
comes from the root gal to be " mighty," " great," ** brave." In Ireland 
the Fion-gail, and the Dubh-gail, are rendered respectively " fair " and 
'* black strangers " — perhaps referring to the Belgse or fair Kelts, and 
the red-haired Brythons on the one part, and to the Goidels or black- 
haired Kelts on the other. They were akin to the Gauls who invaded 
Galatia 279 A.C. ; and to the Caledonians who were a fair race in 
Scotland — the " Gail-dana " or " place of Gaels." Galway and Galloway 
are also supposed to preserve their name. Caledon however is other- 
wise explained as meaning " the woods." 

Gal. In Akkadian " great " (Turkish khalin). The eunuch priests 
of Kubgle were called Galli, perhaps from the Akkadian gal-lu "great 
nian." In Aryan speech the root means " brave." 

Gal. An ancient root meaning " to go in a circle," " to roll " — 
otherwise kar, as B and L are not distinguished in early languages. 
In Hebrew gall is "to roll," khol "circle." In Keltic speech gal-gal 
'ha" pebble," or " rolled " stone (see Gilgal). The Hebrew gelUoth 
were the " windings " of Jordan : the Aramaik Golgotha is a " rounded " 
skull : Galilee is a region of " rolling " hills. 

Gale'ed. [See Genesis (xxxi, 48) : there is a play on the words 
Gile'ad (probably "rough country") and Gal-'ed "heap (or 'circle') of 
witness," referring to the memorial stone monument erected by Jacob 
Mid I^ban, called in Aramaik Yegar-Sahadutha (" heap of witness "), 



124 Gam 

and according to a gloss Mispeh (" place of watching ") : according to 
the Qreek Septuagint the monument consisted of a bounoa or " heap," 
and a fttde or " menhir " ; and it is a common early custom to cast 
stones, as memorials of a visit, at a menhir, which thus gradually 
becomes covered by a stone pile. — ^Ed.] The Scythians and Teutons 
used to set up' a spear or pole in their kams or cairns ; and General 
Valiancy says that the central stone of Irish circles was called the 
*' gull or gail." On this stone-heap Jacob and Laban swore oaths, and 
ate bread together, and it became a border mark between Hebrews and 
Arameatis. 

Gam. GcUnma. The root gam means '* to bend " : Akkadian 
ganiy Egyptian ham, Aryan kam, " bend " : Turkish kom, " round " : 
Chinese kung " bow/' Hence the letter G, was called gamma " crook " 
or gimel " crooked." The name of the *' camel " is perhaps Turanian 
gam-el or ^ hump-beast." [Turkish kam, " humpy," and el " beast" — 
Ed.] From the same root, in the sense of " inclination " or as we say 
" a bent," come words for favour, and love. [Akkadian gam. " favour" : 
Egyptian khemt " desire " : Aryan kam " love " : Hebrew kamaJi " to 
long for " : Arabic jam^a " to embrace," " to draw together," " to 
assemble." — Ed.] The Greek gamein "to marry" means "to 
embrace." The word " gem " signifies a " bud," or rounded object ; 
and " gemini " or twins are a pair, attached or embracing. 

Gan. See Qa. A common root for "growth" or "being.*' 
[Akkadian gan, gin, gun, " to be," " to grow " : Aryan gan " to 
beget " : Hebrew kun " to be " : Turkish kin " to do " : Chinese ching 
" to make." Hence we have Gan " a being," the Arabic ja/n " spirit," 
Latin gens " tribe," and Greek gv/n€ " female being " or " woman." 
The Etruskan Janus may be from this root — Ed.] 

Gandha. Sanskrit : " smell " — whether good or bad. Hence 
unguent (see Gandharvas), sulphur, and a title of Siva. 

Gandhara. A country, and an ancient city, near Atak, on the 
Indus, famous for horses, horsemen, and irrigation works. Moslems 
called it Kandahar later ^not the Afghan city so named) ; the in- 
habitants of Gandaritis were known to Herodotos as Persian subjects. 
The population was Turanian (Mr Hewitt, Journal Bl, Asiatic Socy., 
April 1889, p. 216): the Purus and Kurus of this region appear to 
have had a capital at Hastinapur (near Peshawar) as early as the 
age of the Rig Veda, and it was the Kuru capital in that of the 
Mahabharata epik. These Dravidians, moving S.E. from the western 
Kandahar, retained their old character as brave horsemen. 



Gandharvas 125 

GaDdbarl was a princess of Gandhara, who married the blind 
king Dhrita-rashtra, and was the mother of 100 Kurus (see those 
headings). Hastinapur is now sunk in the Ganges, a little N.W. of 
Delhi (see Hastinapur). 

Gandharvas. The first of these revealed the secrets of heaven 
to man according to the Yedas. The meaning of the name appears 
to have been lost ; they seem — as horsemen — to have been confused 
with inhabitants of Gandhara, and in the Puranas are called " great 
horsemen." [Possibly it is derived from the same original as the 
Greek Ken-taur. — Ed.] They are said to have been "movers in 
unguent " (see Gandba) which appears to be a later false etymology 
for the word. Their wives were the Apsaras, or " water carrying " 
clouds. In the Atharva Veda they are innumerable, and they minister 
to the gods, supplying them with Soma, and with songs, and music. 
The sun itself is " ridden by the fiery Gandharba " ; but Chitra-ratha, 
the name of the chief Gandharba, means " the car of brightness." He 
ruled the heavenly nymphs (see Apsaras) and invaded the hell of the 
Nagas, or snakes, where he was lost in the great waters. The Puranas 
say that the Gandharvas sprang from Brahma's nose, which connects 
them with the winds : they were also children of Muni, one of the 
wives of Kasyapa — the sun — and were marvelous beings inhabiting 
** mighty cities." They appear to be the thunder clouds whose music 
is heard in heaven, confused with historical horsemen of Gandhara, 
who fought the Naga tribes. In the Aitareya Brahmana they are 
dancers and singers, and " lovers of women." They are described in 
the Atharva Veda (see Dr Muir, Sanskrit Texts, v, p. 309) as being 
hairy like dogs or monkeys (or Kentaurs), yet taking beautiful forms 
to deceive women. They are implored to content themselves with 
their own wives, the Apsaras or silvery rain clouds. Gubernatis 
{Zool. MythoL, i, p. 368) connects the Gandharvas, as ''perfume 
movers" with the "Asinus in unguente," and so with the Ono- 
kentaurs (see Onolatria), and the famous "three-legged ass" of 
Persians (described in the Bundahish). The ass that brays in 
heaven, like the bellowing bull, is connected with the thunder. 
The Gandharba is a demi-god, yet half a demon, bringing rain and 
fire. The ooly weapon of these warriors in heaven is the thunder 
— the golden horn of Odin. They are swift and invulnerable war- 
horses, walking in perfumes, and changing color at will, being most 
beautiful in the evening. The Aryan myths seem in this case to 
be based on a Turanian conception. The jovial spirits of Gandharva- 
Loka (heaven as the " place of clouds "), are the wild Kentaurs of the 



126 Ganesa 

Thessalian mountains. They have a common origin with the homed 
offspring of Ixion, and of Nephelg (the cloud): nor must we foiget 
the Oandharva-Veda, at the end of the Sama-Yeda, where they are 
described as the spirits of music, song, and dance, in a work supposed 
to be among the latest Hindu Shastras (see Max MuUer, Chips, toL ii, 
on Kuhn's essay about the Oandharvas). 

Ganesa. Gana-patL The name of the elephant-headed god 
of India, rendered " lord of hosts " (gan-iaa), or (gana-pati) " master 
of many." He is a form of Siva, said to have been borne by Parvati 
to the Maruts (" storms "), or from the dust which they raised from 
earth. He is also a son of Durga. He is represented as an obese 
deity with the head and trunk of an elephant (Gaja), but with only 
one tusk {eka-danta or ** one-toothed "), the other according to the 
legend having been cut off by Bama, but more probably (see Teeth) 
in connection with the phallus which he displays at the Holi rites. 
Other legends say that Sama deprived him of half his power, and 
that the sun looking on him, to please Parvati, burned off his head, 
which Brahma replaced by that of the elephant, typifying sagacity 
and power. Siva is said to have cut off Qanesa's head for opposing 
him when visiting Parvati. He is the god of wisdom, and of seductive 
eloquence, called Vinayaka or the '* god of difficulties," whom all pious 
Hindus consult in matters of difficulty and importance. He is ruler 
of the home, and has a chapel, or a niche, wherever men can offer 
him daily worship. He is squat, and fat, with four arms ; he holds 
aloft the lotus, or the sacred thread, and the sceptre or Ankus (the 
elephant goad), and beneath these the sacred shell, and the chakra 
or wheel. He is, like Siva, the Danda-kar " bearing a club " ; and 
is also the Chakra- Raja or " lord of the wheel." He also carries 
sometimes the Trisul or trident of Siva, or holds a small tooth. 
The deep-rooted Durva grass is his emblem (or food), and thus called 
also 6ana-isa. He grants this nourishment of fast-spreading herbage, 
without which animal life would perish (Nuti and Kutra, " nourishing," 
are also among his names), for he is the nourisher and " strength of 
the flocks." Grass was of the flrst importance to early nomads (see 
Grass), whence perhaps the Kusa grass became so sacred. The 
Khasiyas, and other non-Aryan tribes of the Himalayas, worship 
Ganesa as Pasu-pati, or Bhutesa, rude forms of Siva, associating him 
in their rites with 16 Matris or "mothers." All household matters, 
they say, such as cooking, and vessels for food and water, are under 
his care ; and he must be worshiped at weddings with the Jiva- 
matris. He is worshiped at births, with prayers that every organ 



Ganga 127 

— touched in turn — mBj receive strength from him. His Sakti or 
female form, Shasti, with 4 breasts, and 4 arms, wards off every 
eviL Ganesa alone can forgive those who kill a serpent, and his 
image stands at the entrance of gardens, at passes on the road, and 
at cross- ways. He must be invoked at rites of purification (Punya- 
vachanam, or "words spoken on a good day") such as those of 
bathing (Snanam), when a cone of turmeric powder is offered on 
a silver traj, by young mothers, 12 days after the birth of a child. 
The husband may then shave himself, but not before. Ganesa rides 
on the rat or mouse, which was sacred to the Sminthean Apollo, to 
Freya and Holda, and to Odin who, like the "Pied Piper," led an 
army of rats (see Bev. Baring Gould, Cttrious Myths of the Middle 
Ages, p. 467). 

In Banaras there is hardly a temple (see Sherring's Band/raa) 
where the figure of Ganesa is not found in some niche, or as the 
principal deity. He is sprinkled with holy water, and painted with 
vermilion, having silver head, hands, and feet. When Devodas 
determined to banish all gods, even Siva could not move him, but 
the wisdom, and eloquence, of Ganesa prevailed on him. Ganesa 
appears with Surya the sun, and with the Kaugrah or planets : with 
the black ugly godess Barnarasi, in the Tri-lochan shrine of Siva ; and 
beside the Kot-ling-esvar, or deity of a thousand lingas ; invariably 
also where the Pipal tree, and the Naga snake, of the old sylvan 
worshipers are found. His special shrine (the Bara-ganes), at Banaras, 
is close to that of Jaga-nath the Bhut-esvar, or " deity of spirits." He 
is found near the Chandrarkup or " moon cup," and in the shrines of 
Siddh-esvari, and Sankata-Devi, godesses of the sacred city, with whom 
he is worshiped on Mondays, especially at Chait or Easter. He accom- 
panies Siva, alike in Banaras and in the Himalayas, at Eedar-nath, 
as also where the marble foot of Vishnu (Til-ubhand-isvar), the three 
Nagas, and the three lingas of Siva, are adored. In all Durga's 
shrines also her son Ganesa appears (see Durga). His festival takes 
place about Christmas-time, when students of Sanskrit in multitudes 
stand before him, from sunrise to sunset, praying for knowledge. 
Vyasa, the author of the Ramayana, says that he was inspired by 
Ganesa. Yalmiki says that Brahma bade him to become a scribe of 
Ganesa (see Mr Winternitz, Journal M, Asiatic Socy., April 1898). 
Ganesa does not appear in the Vedik Pantheon, but in the Ganesa- 
Purana he is superior even to Brahma, though not in the earlier epiks. 
According to Barth, he appeared ** early, as the god of arts and letters." 

Ganga. The Hindu godess of fertility (see Gan), and of the sacred 



128 Ganumedes 

river sprang from the head of Siva, as Minerva from the head of Jove. 
She is the Jan-gam or " life mover/' and a daughter of Himavat, from 
whose "snowy" breasts she draws her life. Aryans and aborigines 
alike adore her, at any stream that they cross. We have often flung 
silver to her, as we waded, swam, or were ferried over streams and 
rivers in India — to the delight of our attendants. Siva is the (jaDga- 
dhara or " giver of Ganga " ; and the Hari-dvara (*' door of verdure ") 
is the gate of the Ganges at Hardwar, where she finally leaves her 
mountain home. To it all Hiudu sects make pilgrimage to cleanse 
body and soul. Siva's child Eartika is the holy son of Gauga (see 
Eartika), called also Gangeya. She is said to be born on the lOtb of 
Jeth, or in the third week of May, when she springs up as Himavati, 
the " snow born one." She is then adored for ten days at Banaras, 
all classes bathing in her blood, and making gifts to Brahmans. Girls 
float on her breast their dolls, as symbols of future progeny, and use 
no such playthings for the next four months, while the lands are 
flooded by mother Ganga. She also supplies milk (Dudh) or nourishing 
waters. 

Ganumedes. The boy cup-bearer of Zeus, a son of Tros, who 
was carried to heaven by the eagle, or by Eds. Zeus presented his 
father with a pair of divine horses, telling him that his son had been 
made immortal. In some respects the legend recalls a Babylonian 
story (see Etana) having a solar connection. [Perhaps the derivation is 
from Gan " living," and Medha " sacrifice " — see Andromeda. — ^Ea] 

Gar. (1) An ancient root meaning to "create" or "make." 
Hence the Creator is called Oar or Oorra, in Irish and other dialects. 
[Akkadian Oar, Aryan Oar, " cause." — Ed.] 

Gar. Kar. Gal. (2) An ancient root moaning "to shine." 
[Akkadian /chil, Turkish chel, " to beam " : Egyptian hrn, " day " 
Aryan kar^ ghar, gla, " shine " or " glow," whence glad, " bright " 
Hebrew and Arabic harr, " burn " ; Turkish kara, " burnt," " black " 
Mongol gal, " fire," hair, " gleam " : Finnic kar, " burn," kaUa, " flame," 
kil, " shine." Also " to see." Turkish kar, Mongol kara. The Persian 
kvyr (Cyrus) for " sun " is from this root — Ed.] 

Gar. Kar. (3) An ancient root for " surrounding " and " enclos- 
ing," thus "guarding." [Akkadian khar, "round": Egyptian ker, 
" circle " : Aryan gar, " assemble," kar, " round," " roll." " run " : 
Hebrew gor, " turn " : Arabic kar, " turn." Hence also many words 
for " running," such as Mongol kar, " to run " : Akkadian kwrra, 
Hindi ghora, " horse " : Akkadian kar, " to speed " : Finnic kars, 



-pura 12& 

" to spring/* " to run." Words for " circle " and " enclosure " come 
from this root. — Ed.] 



Gara-pura, or Gaja-pura. See Elephanta. 

Garbh. Sanskrit : " shrine," " cell," " womb." See Gar (3). 

Gard. An inclosure " guarded " or ** girded " : see Gar (3), a» 
in Aa-gard, " the fortress of the gods," and the Keltik Girdh, " a 
sanctuary." The Hebrew ^ir, Kiriah, ** fort," " city," comes from 
the same root, as does our English " yard." 

Garha-patya. Griha-patya. Sanskrit. A class of Pitris or 

" fathers " — manes of ancestors, " lords of the house " : from gar or ger^ 
an " enclosure " or " house " in many languages (see Gar (3), alsa 
Mongol ger^ "house"). 

Garj. Sanskrit : " to thunder " or " roar," from the common root 
Icar or kal, " to call." From this perhaps comes gdrja or gdja^ 
" elephant." 

Garos. Non-Aryans on the Garo hills, in S.W. Assam, probably 
named from a common word for " hill " (Kur), They number 80,000 
to 100,000 persons. They live in villages, as labourers, foresters, 
and fishers ; but they are too fond of the strong rice beer that they 
make. They resent British interference, and include five tribes^ 
Rabhas, Kochs, Mechs, Kachars, and Dalus. Neither males nor 
females cut their hair, but tie it up off their faces. They are of 
middle height, and dark brown, ugly looking, with prominent cheek 
bones, thick lips and noses, large ears, and very little beard. They 
wear many ornaments, but few clothes. Like other tribes of Assam 
and Barmah they will not touch milk. They have for the most part 
given up polyandry ; but inheritance still passes in the female line^ 
the wife being the head of the house. The husband lives in his 
mother-in-law's house, and is required to marry her if her husband 
dies. They burn the dead — believing in a future life — and bury the 
ashes at the door of the bouse, sacrificing dogs (see Dog), as they say 
the dog guides the dead on their way. Their supreme god is Saljang, 
an incarnation of the sun, but they also worship the spirits of rivers 
and forests, with malignant demons to whom bloody sacrifices are 
offered. Their priests— or E^mals — are diviners, who watch omens» 
and direct ceremonies. They believe that their spirits pass into wild 
animals. Saljang, being a good deity, requires no propitiation. 
Images of the dead are placed in niches in the house. They believe 
a Garo is always born as soon as a Garo is buried. They preserve 



ISO Garter 

with pride the skulls of those whom they have killed, using them as 
drinkiug-cups, and ornaments, or hanging them up in rustic shrine& 
They claim descent from heaven, and adore mountains, especially 
Azuk, the heaven mountain. They worship Maha-Deva (Siva) and 
the sun and moon, casting lots, and divining as to which should he 
^ored. They pray to Saljang for good crops, and offer the bull, cock, 
hog, and dog, to the sun. They faithfully keep promises vowed by 
placing their heads on a sacred stone representing Rishl-Maha-deva, 
and looking fixedly at a sacred mountain which symbolises him, while, 
with the right hand on the stone, they bow towards it They cany 
-charms, and tie a tiger's nose to the necks of women, to preserve 
them in childbirth. The dead are kept four days, and when burned 
a light is kept burning near the ashes for a month or more, which is 
also the practice of the Bunis who bury the dead. They used to 
sacrifice a Hindu, or a slave, at funerals, but now substitute a bullock. 
The " dead lamp ** or " dead fire " must be lighted exactly at midnight, 
and they then dance, drinking, round it. They were once great slave 
holders, 4 per cent, being Nakals or slaves, who however were greatly 
cared for, and devoted to their masters. The bachelors live apart, and 
the women sally out and capture those whom they wish to marry. 
They have no temples, and can worship Eishi-ji (Siva) in any place. 

Garter. The "girder." See Gard. It used to be a custom to 
tear in pieces the bride's garter, and distribute it among the wedding 
guests, which is the origin of our " wedding favours." This is still 
done in Alsace, and points to early communistic rites (see Africa and 
Australians). According to tradition the British order of the Garter 
was founded by Edward III in 1349, A.C., and the allusion in the 
motto ** Honi soit qui mal y pense," or " Shame to him who thioks 
«vil therein," points to the same symbolism as above. The garter is 
like the kestos or girdle, which only the bridegroom could loose 
among many ancient races. 

Garuda. An eagle, or eagle-headed, messenger of Vishnu (see 
Eagle), the son of Kasyapa (the sun) and of Vinata : called also 
Naga-teka, the " snake killer." [The Assyrian Nisrok was apparently 
Niar-ukii, " the eagle man," represented with an eagle's head. — Ed.] 
Garuda was a younger brother of Aruna or of Arjuna (see those head- 
ings) ; and his consort was Suki. His color is green, and the emerald 
is the product of his spittle. He was chief of the " Fine Winged " 
ones (see Supamas), and rests on a heavenly tree, watching earth and 
swooping down on dragons and snakes. In the Ramayana he is the 
grandchild of Qyena and Qyeni, the " hawks " who carried off the 



Gas 131 

Amnta or ambrosia of the gods. The Vedik Qyena also so carries 
off the Soma plant. The Garuda is thus the Qino-muru of the Iranian 
Avesta — the well-known Simurgh or miraculous eagle, which sits on 
the heavenly tree, like Indra when taking the form of the Qyena- 
mriga hawk. [An Etruskan mirror also shows the eagle sitting on a 
beavenly tree by Tina. — Ed.] It is clear that this figure — often 
double-headed on Parthian and Indian coins — originated with the 
Turanians of Babylonia. 

Gas. An ancient root for "breathing" or "moving" (see 
Spirits). 

Gath* The name of a Philistine city, whence the Gittites were 
so called. It is usually rendered "wine press," but is perhaps a 
Turanian word Gatu for "place" (Akkadian) or "hill," like the 
Finnic Kadu for " hill." The site commonly supposed to be Gath is 
on a hiU at the mouth of the Valley of Elah, S.W. of Jerusalem (Tell 
^8 Safi), where ancient remains have recently been excavated, including 
a line of rude menhirs, which appear to have belonged to one of the 
Bamoth of the Canaanites (see Bamoth). 

Gatha. Sanskrit Gaitha, " song " or " verse." The Gathas of 
the Persian Avesta are supposed to be the oldest part of that litera- 
ture, on account of their dialect, including five hymns. 

Gauls* See Gael. The Greek Galloi and Keltoi, the Latin 
Celti, inhabited Europe from the Rhine to the Pyrennees. They 
sacked Rome in 388 B.C., and poured into Asia Minor in 279 A.C. 
Their Druids are described by Roman writers (see Druids), and their 
gods were compared to those of the Latins. Their name probably 
comes from Gala, " courage." 

Gau. Sanskrit : " cow," from an ancient root meaning " to call " 
or " bellow " (see Ga). The Turkish ong " to bellow " produces the 
word uTiek " cow " (see Go, " cow "). 

Gauri. The " yellow haired " sky virgin of India — a name of 
Parvati, and the wife of the Vedik Varuna (see Gar, Kar, Ghar " to 
shine "). The name applies to hermits, on account of the " yellow " 
robe. Gauri became Durga (see Sherring's Bandraa Past aTid 
Present, pp. 160-162) on conquering the demon Durg, who had 
nearly destroyed Indra, Agni, Pavana, and Jala : they prayed to 
Siva, and (according to the KasT-Khanda) he commanded Gauri to 
slay Durg. She sent Kali (death) to do so : Durg however seized 
Kali, and she only escaped by vomiting flames, and fled back to 



132 Gautama 

Gauri in heaven in the form of a ball. Oauri then became incarnate 
in a form with a thousand arms reaching from heaven to earth. 
Durg was at first enchanted with her, but had to gather his army 
fighting for life with his trident (Trisul), sword, bow and arrows. He 
cast rocks and mountains on Gauri, nearly killing her, but at length 
she struck him to earth, and cut off his head (see Durga), when 
heaven rained flowers on earth — evidently a solar and lunar myth. 
Gauri's fete precedes that of Durga, and (except at Banaras) it occurs 
in the end of August, when the new rice is offered to Parvati ; and 
wells and serpents are also then adored, as at the Nag-Panchami 
feast at the end of July. Throughout July and August women sing 
the praises of Gauri, visiting friends to arrange marriages and to 
name babies. At the new moon of August they make sweat-meats 
in the form of balls, to be eaten on going to bed (Rivera of Lift, i, 
p. 427). Great efficacy is ascribed to visits paid to wells and shrines 
of " our Lady Gauri." 

Gautama. See Gotama. 

Gaya. See Gya. 

Gaza. Hebrew 'Azzah (Deut ii, 23) "strong." The most 
southerly city of Philistia, a fortress on a mound 100 ft high near 
the sea, on the trade route from Egypt to the north. It is mentioned 
as early as the 15th century B.C. (see Amarna). The hillock called 
£1 Muntar ('* the watch tower ") on its south is the traditional spot 
to which Samson — the " sun " hero — took the gates (see Judg. xvi, 
3). An inscription of Amenophis II (see Quarterly Stat Pal. Expl. 
Fund, January 1893) shows that, about 1540 B.C., he dedicated a 
shrine to Maut, the '* mother " godess, in Gaza. The place was also 
famous, down to 400 A.C., for a temple to the eight gods, of whom 
the chief was Mama (" our Lord **), a Jupiter whose colossal statue has 
been found at Tell el 'Ajul to the south. The 'Ashtoreth of Gaza 
is described as represented by a naked phallic statue much as 
elsewhere. 

Ge. Greek : " earth." In the Dorik dialect Ga, and otherwise 
Gaia. In Sanskrit Oau ; in Zend Oava ; in Gothic Chivi, mean 
earth. The Akkadian Ki, " earth," " place," may be compared. Ge 
as a godess of earth (a " producer," see Ga), is the wife of Ouranos or 
heaven (see Earth). 

GebaL Hebrew: "mountain." A Phoenician city of great im- 
portance in the 15th century B.C., lying S. of the Eleutherus Siver, 



Ge-beleizes 133 

and N. of Beirut. Its famous temple of Baalath is noticed by its 
kiug Bib-Adda, in his letters to Egypt (see Amama), and by the 
Mohar traveller of the 14th century B.C. (see Adonis). 

Ge-beleizes. A god of the Daci and Getae, to whom human 
sacrifices were offered : supposed to be the same as Xalmoxis of the 
Scythians. As an Aryan name it may mean " creator of light " (see 
Ga and Bel). 

Gefion. The Skandinavian Diana, a guardian of maidens (see 
£ddas). 

Geis. Eeltik : vows and places where vows are made (see Rivera 
of Life, ii, p. 342). 

Gemara. Aramaik : " completion." The name given to the 
Aramaik commentary on the Hebrew Mishnah, which together form 
the Talmud, or "teaching/' of the Jews. There are two Talmuds, 
which have the same Mishnah or commentary on the liaw, but 
different Qemaras. The Jerusalem Talmud belongs to the 4th 
century A.c. : the Babylonian Talmud is placed as late as 800 A.o. 
Both are gradual accretions round the Mishnah of the 2nd century 
A.C. Most of the legendary lore of the Talmud is found in the 
Oemara, and in other works of the same age. The Mishnah is a dry 
commentary which, though it includes many curious superstitions, 
does not diverge into legend, fable, and myth, as does especially the 
later Babylonian Gemara (see Asmodeus, Mishnah, Talmud). 

Gemini. Latin : " twins." See Asvins, and 0am. Properly 
speaking these are the pair represented by Tammuz and Istar among 
Akkadians, and called in their language Kas or " pair " (Turkish Koa 
"pair") who ruled the "brick making" month (the Semitic Sivanu), 
being brother and sister, as well as husband and wife (see also Frey 
and Freya). They appear on a Hittite monument (see Eagle). 

Genesis. Greek : " origin." The first part of the Hebrew Law, 
divided ofif by later scribes, and relating Hebrew traditions from 
€reation to the Descent into Egypt, is called in Hebrew " be-Bashith," 
from the opening words " In the beginning." The Hebrew cosmogony, 
like that of Babylonians, represents the world to be produced (see 
Bar) by the spirit, or wind, of Elohim brooding on chaos. The 
primeval matter is called Tohu and Bohu (the Babylonian Tiamat 
and Baku) or *' empty " and " void." Science rejects these ancient 
cataclysms, as rude early speculations (see Nineteenth Century 
Review, January, February 1886); but the Book of Genesis is 



1 34 Genesis 

invaluable to the student, in spite of its crude " kosmikal " legends ; 
for it gives us glimpses of the beliefs, customs, rites, and legends of 
an early age comparable with yet older folk-lore of kindred races. 
The Babylonians, like the Hebrews, represented the Tree of Life and 
the serpent on seal cylinders, and they believed in gods who appeared, 
and spoke with men. 

Critical scholars suppose the Book of Genesis to consist of various 
documents gathered together by the writer of Deuteronomy, and 
edited by a priest in or after the Captivity (see Bible). The division 
of the " Elohist " and the " Jehovist " was first pointed out in the 
18th century. [Astruc and his successors base their distinction od 
the received Hebrew text : the occurrence of the two names, in the 
ordinary text of the Greek Septuagint, is quite dififerent. Dr Driver 
regards the two documents as often incapable of separation. Bishop 
Colenso thought that Samuel was the Elohist : but the first chapter 
of Genesis, and much that was attributed to the Elohist, are Donr 
attributed to P, a priestly editor of about 600 to 500 B.C. Critics 
have assumed the superior authority of the Jewish Massoretic text> 
and have no documents earlier than 916 A.c. on which to form their 
opinions, if they set aside the Greek version. — ^Ed.] Some idea of 
the date of the original documents may perhaps be obtained from the 
geography of Genesis (x), where we find Japhet representing the 
" fair " northern race, including the lonians, and Modes, with Gomer. 
The lonians were known to Sargon in the 8th century B.C. The 
Modes were first met by Assyrians about 820 B.c. Gomer appears 
on their texts as Gamri, or Girairai, about 670 B.C. [The PersiaDS, 
who appeared in the west about 560 B.C., are unnoticed. Aryans are 
noticed by the Egyptians between 1300 and 1200 B.c. (see Egypt). 
—Ed.] 

Science has long rejected the idea of specific creations, and the 
supposed order of appearance of the various phenomena as described 
in Genesis, plants and animals having been produced by a very slow 
and gradual system of evolution. Birds were differentiated from 
reptiles after the latter had, for long ages, been the only form of 
vertebrates. The sun was certainly formed before the earth, and 
the moon after it. It is impossible really to reconcile such know- 
ledge with Biblical ideas. Mankind, we learn, were first made as 
" male and female " in the likeness of Elohim. This led tbe 
Rabbis to speak of Elohim as embracing both the male and the 
female sex ; and as Eve was created from the " side " of Adaiu» 
they said that the pair were originally joined together — as in the 
Persian legend of the first pair (in the Bundahlsh) ; but Josephus, 



Geology 135 

Philo, and Maimonides, regarded the first chapter of Genesis as 
purely allegorical. The six days of creation (also noticed in 
Persian scriptures, and in Etrnskan tradition) were devoted to the 
making of : I. Light ; II. the Firmament — a " thin plate " or 
" expanse," separating the heavenly waters above from those below 
(the Babylonians and Persians supposed it to be in the form of a 
hollow hemisphere, resting on Ocean, or on the " World Mountain " 
surrounding the habitable flat earth in the midst of Ocean) : III. the 
appearance of dry land, grass, herbs, and trees : IV. Creation of sun, 
mooD, and stars for ** signs and seasons " : V. Fish and birds are 
made : VI. Beasts and creeping things, and lastly mankind — all 
" male and female " — are created : VIL The Day of Rest 

The second chapter is a distinct document (beginning ii, 46), by 
a writer who uses the name Yahveh-Elohim. [In the Greek it is 
Tkeoa only, in verses 7, 9, 18, 21, 22. — Ed.] We are here told that 
'" In the day that Yahveb-Elohim made the heavens, and the earth, 
and before any plant of the field was in the earth, and before any 
herb of the field grew — for Yahveh-Elohim had not caused it to rain 
upon the earth, and there was not a man to till the ground, but there 
went up a mist from the earth and watered the whole face of the 
ground — Yahveh-Elohim also formed man — dust of the ground — 
and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a 
living soul." Eden, the Garden of "Delight," was then made "in 
the east," includmg the " Tree of Life " and the " Tree of the 
Knowledge of Good and Evil." To the man thus made all animals 
were brought to be named, but no " help " (*ezer) was found for 
him till a woman was created from his " side " or " rib." This 
account apparently conflicts with that in the first chapter, if "the 
Adam" so created was the first man, and not merely the first tiller of 
the ground (see Adam). 

Geology. In studying the history of man, and of his religious 
beliefs, it is useful to remember the conclusions now drawn from 
" earth study," and the evidence that man first existed as a river* 
drift hunter, and subsequently as a cave-dweller; and that the 
earliest known human remains — in Java or at Neanderthal — are more 
brutish than those of even the lowest extant savages. In the 
Miocene age (see Darwin's Descent of Man, i, p. 199) the hylobates 
— or man-like monkeys — living in Europe, were often as large 
as men now are. [We must not forget that the record at 
present is most imperfect No bone caves have yet been explored in 
W. Asia that contain any human remains. In Brazil, out of 800 



186 Geology 

caverns examined, only six contained human bones, and the only one 
in which they were associated with those of extinct animals showed 
disturbed strata (see Dr D. G. Brinton, Myths of the New World, 
p. 35). Recent discoveries in Belgium show skidls of the same low 
type as that at Neanderthal to have belonged to savages who used 
beads for necklaces; and Dr Isaac Taylor points out that these 
extraordinarily flat heads (found also among the dolmen builders of 
Guernsey who were in the polished stone stage) even exist to 
the present day among Skandinavians. The evidence of bones split 
to extract marrow, and of wild oxen whose skulls have been smashed 
by a blow, is also unsafe, as dogs may have split these bones, while 
the bear in America still so kills the bison. The Neo-lithic, or 
polished stone, stage in Europe lasted, according to the evidence of 
the Swiss and Italian lake dwellings, as late as 1500 B.C., a time 
.when all the metals were in use in W. Asia. Many modem savages 
are still in the Neo-lithic stage. Prof. Virchow has warned all 
students of anthropology that it is premature to form theories as to 
the races of mankind, on our present evidence ; and although no man 
of science now believes that man was created 6000 years ago, yet his 
existence before the close of the latest glacial period is still pro- 
blematical. — Ed.] The various changes in the level of the ocean, 
with floods, and changes of climate, may have blotted out the evidence 
of races that connected man with his simian ancestors. Some of his 
" rudestone " shrines in Brittany have been submerged — and even the 
Temple of Esculapius at Puteoli shows us such variations of sea level 
in quite recent historic times. Quite recently also Bennett Island has 
xisen 100 feet; while in 1884 Krakatoa, which was a mountain 
12,000 feet high, and 25 miles in circumference, sank into the sea 
with effects felt all over Asia and Europe. The history of early man 
must have been affected by similar changes, and by the existence of 
the great central Asian Sea (see Aryans) which must have sensibly 
affected climatic conditions. 

During the Pleistocene — or latest tertiary — period, there is 
supposed to have been more than one change of climate. Prof. J. 
Geikie describes the "glacial succession in Europe," in 1892, from 
the Pliocene period to the Pleistocene. The age of the earliest 
glaciers was succeeded by that in which Britain was joined to Europe, 
and inhabited by elephants and hippopotami. The four glacial 
periods correspond with periods when the land was depressed, and the 
warm periods with those in which it was elevated [suggesting a 
connection with the *' nutation " of the earth on its poles, and con- 
sequent shifting of the ocean surfaces — Ed.]. The last change in the 



George 137 

Pleistocene age was a glacial period, when the land sank 500 feet, 
and Britain became iDSulated as at present. Dr Geikie (see Scottish 
Geogr. Mag.^ Sept. 1897), would place the appearance of Palaiolithik 
man in Europe not later than 20,000 years ago, according to the 
evidence of the thickness of the strata connected with the " prehistoric 
rock-shelter" found near SchafFhausen. Dr Hicks {British Assoc., 
1886), supposes the earliest worked flint flakes to have been chipped 
not later than 80,000 years ago. Id the quarternary age the remains 
of man have now been known for half a century, from the caves and 
river drifts of England, France, and Belgium, in connection with 
glacial " moraines," or barriers of boulders, boulder clay, and sub- 
marine forests. Prof. Whitney in America, and Prof. Capelli in Italy, 
•claim that man existed even in the Pliocene age. 

George. The English saint bears a Greek name, signifying the 
*' earth-tiller." Some say that he was George of Kappadokia, who was 
martyred by Diocletian on 23rd April 303 A.c. Others identify him 
with another George of Kappadokia, living 300 to 361 A.C., who, for his 
last 5 years of life, was an Arian bishop of Alexandria, with a previously 
disreputable record as an imperial purveyor of bacon (Gibbon, Decline 
<ind Fall, xxiii). This saint appeared to the first Crusaders, according 
to later historians, and was seen in vision by Richard I in Palestine, 
while Edward III recognised him as the Patron of England, Oxford 
having appointed his festival in 1222 A.c. The Pope acknowledged 
the martyr, but declined to accept all the legendary miracles — such 
as that of his war with the dragon, which belongs to St Michael. 
Si George became the successor of many sun-heroes, from Marduk of 
Babylon to Apollo of Delphi. The same story of the dragon applies 
to Krishna, Herakles, Buddha, and Daniel, recurring in the Book of 
Bevelation. For Buddha encountered a fiery dragon in the Lumbini 
garden (Prof. Beal, Journal Bl. Asiatic Socy., April 1884), according 
to the Chinese version' of his legend ; and, like that conquered by 
Krishna on the Yamuna river, it was a black and poisonous monster 
that he slew. The dragon of St George guarded a spring while men 
languished lor want of water. The saint is also represented to have 
freed a princess from the dragon, as in the story of Perseus and 
Andromeda. From the localisation of this legend, on the Syrian 
coast, the name of St George's Bay at Beirut arose. The Christians 
of the East identify Mar Jirjis (or St George), with the mysterious 
£1 Khudr (" the green one "), mentioned in the ^t^oran, who is also 
Elijah, and personifies the spring verdure. He was sought according 
to the Moslem legend by Moses, and his shrines are as widely dis- 



140 Gerda 

been influeoced by Armenian. The western, or Abkhasian, group of 
Caucasian dialects is regarded as agglutinative or Tartar, and the 
eastern, or Lesghian, as inflexional, modern Georgian being between 
these. The Armenian king Mesrop decreed a new alphabet of Greek 
derivation in 406 A.c. ; and from this the Georgian king Artchal 
{413-446 A.c.) constructed the Georgian alphabet of 28 letters — see 
Dr I. Taylor, Alphabet, ii, p. 270. — Ed.] Printing was not introduced 
into Georgia till 1720, when a new literature arose, but Georgian 
books are chiefly religious, and the language is not traceable further 
back than the Middle Ages. 

Gerda. See Frey. 

Gezer. [An early Amorite city, at the foot of the hills about 
17 miles S.E. of Jaffa, in Philistia. It is now Tell Jezer, a large 
Qiound with a small modern village. The name signifies ''cut off," 
xhe site being isolated from the adjoining spurs. Gezer is mentioned 
in the 15 th century B.C. (see Amarna) as held by the Egyptians, and 
attacked by the 'Abiri. It was again captured by Egypt about 1000 
B.C. (1 Kings ix, 15, 16), and had never been securely held by the 
tribe of Ephraim (Judg. i, 29). It was an important fortress in the 
time of the Makkabees (or Hasmoneans), and continued to be the 
«cene of contests between Christians and Moslems down to the end of 
the 12th century. Excavations here undertaken (Quarterly Stat 
Pal, Expl. Fund, 1903-1905) have brought to light remains going 
back to an early period, including scarabs of the 12th Egyptian 
-dynasty, and ancient walls, with other relics of all ages between at 
least 2000 B.C. and the Christian 5th or 6th century. The earlier 
interments of some Semitic race present the cramped position of the 
body common in Egypt, and elsewhere, among primitive peoples. 
Bodies of children cremated in earthen jars have also been discovered, 
And a row of rude menhirs running N. and S. (see Gath), on a pave- 
ment under one corner of which a brick of gold, worth £500, had 
purposely been buried. Mr G. Macalister's latest discovery is that of 
two local cuneiform commercial tablets, dating 649 B.C., which is of 
interest for the history of writing in Palestine. Here too, as else- 
where, he finds seal cylinders like those of Phoenicia and Babylon, 
which may represent Canaanite workmanship ; and jar handles with 
short votive texts, in early Hebrew characters, giving the names of local 
Mcleks (or Molochs), apparently Canaanite deities named after towns. 
The same pottery with Cypriote characters is found at Gezer, and at 
Lachish, which occurs in Egypt before 1600 B.C. Later pottery 
resembles that of the Phoenicians and of the Greeks. Weights at the 



Ghanta 14I 

Philistine sites of Lachish, Oath, and Gezer establish a Hebrew shekel 
of about 320 grains imperial. The excavations, however, have not yet 
resulted in showing that the inhabitants of Qezer were a literary 
people. The place indeed was only a comparatively small town, not a 
city as large as Jerusalem, Tyre, or Sidon. — ^Ed.] 

Ghanta. Sanskrit: ''a bell/' from the Aryan root Kan "to 
sound." 

Ghata. Sanskrit*, "a jar" — the sign Aquarius (see Zodiak). 
To be distinguished from the Ghat^, or landing place with steps at 
a ferry, and from the Ghata, or burning place for corpses. 

Ghebers. Fire worshipers of Persia, perhaps connected witb 
Giaur. 

Ghost. See Soul, and Spirits. 

Giaur. A Turkish word, used also by Persians, to signify 
" strangers " and " infidels." It appears to be the Akkadian Kv^^ 
"enemy" or "stranger." 

Gilbert Island. One of a Melanesian group of islands, midway 
between New Guinea and S. America. The inhabitants sacrifice on 
a single stone inside a stone circle. Their chief god is Tapwar-iki, 
symbolised by a clam-shell, filled with water and measuring 30 inches 
by 18 inches : this is found only in temples, the household god being 
represented by a wooden pillar 4 or 5 feet high, on which, as in 
India, oil is poured ; and offerings usually of fish and cocoa nuts are 
made to it. The godesses are represented by stones laid flat, as 
among the non-Aryan Khasias of India. Stones placed in circles 
(Maoiis) are common. Dr Taylor thinks these circles were once 
covered in to form temples. Dolmens, and flat stone altars, occur 
Dear these circles. Erect stones denote male deities, and skulls and 
bones are set up on mounds. 

Giles. The Scottish saint. See Bones, Rood. 

Gilgal. " Circle " (see Gal). The name of at least three towns 
in Palestine, not including one near Mt. Gerizim according to 
Samaritans. These retain their names as Jiljulieh, but no traces of 
the circles are known (see Josh, iv, 5-8, 20). 



Gil^amaS. GilgameS. Dr T. G. Pinches has shown clearly 
that this is the proper reading of the name of the Chaldean sun-hero, 
previously read Izdubar, or Gizdubar (see Proc, Bib, Arch, Socy,, 



142 Gilgamas 

May 1903, pp. 198, 199). The usual signs may be read either 
An Oil-ga-maSf or An Iz-dhu-bar^ the prefix An showing that the 
name is that of a deity: but a tablet discovered in 1890 equates 
tbis with the spelling An Oi-U-ga-mea, in signs which cannot 
be otherwise read. The name is apparently Akkadian, signifying 
" hero of light " (gil like the Turkish chel meaning " to beam ") so 
that Gilgamas is a sun hero. The name of Gilgamas is mentioned 
by iElian (see Hist Anim., xii, 2 ; Bee. of Past (1891), v), and 
his legend makes him the child of a daughter of Sakkhoras king of 
Babylon, who was warned by diviners that his grandson would slay 
him. He shut up his daughter (like Danae) in a high tower, to 
which, however, a peasant found access. Gilgamas was then bom, 
•and cast out on a high mountain, but an eagle carried the babe to a 
garden, and the gardener nourished it till at last the prophecy was 
fulfilled, and Gilgamas ruled in Babylon. The story recalls not only 
that so common among Aryans, of the maiden on a tower, but also an 
Egyptian legend of a foreign horseman who climbed up a tower to 
win a princess. It also seems connected with the Babylonian stoiy 
of Etana (see Etana). Gilgamas is equivalent to Perseus in Greece, 
who slew his grandfather Akrisios, accidentally, with a quoit He 
was born to Danae in her tower, and cast away in an ark on the sea 
(see Danae and Perseus). There is a similar tale in the Jewish 
Midrash, relating how Solomon shut up a beautiful daughter who 
wished to marry a low-born Jew. The weary youth crept into the 
carcase of a cow, which a great bird carried up to the top of the tower 
where he married the princess. 

The Babylonian epik of Gilgamas consisted of 12 tablets, full 
of legends which often recall those of Greece — such as the stories of 
Aktaion and Adonis, Deukalion and Theseus — not less than those of 
Semitic races. The twelve episodes are twelve labours of the 
Akkadian Herakles. The first tablet — which may have included 
the story found in iElian — is missing. In the second Gilgamas is 
ruler in Erech (Warka) or in S. Kaldea. He dreams that the stars 
fall on him from heaven ; and that a demon with lion's claws and a 
terrible face stands over him. None can interpret the dream, so 
Saidu ("the hunter") is sent to fetch the wise bull-satyr Ea-bani, 
who undei*stands visions and portents. This being lived in the woods, 
being human but with the legs, tail, and horns of a bull : no man 
<;ould catch or tame him. " He dwelt with the cattle by day, and 
with the gazelles by night : he ate his food with the cattle by day, 
and drank his drink with the gazelles by night, and rejoiced his heart 
with creeping things of the waters." In the third tablet we learn 



Gilgamas 143 

how, all else having failed, Gilgamas sends the two sister handmaids 
of Istar to lure £a-bani. Their names were Samkhat (" gladness ") 
and Harimat (" devotion "), and by them the intoxicated Minotaur is 
induced to come to Erecb, bringing a panther to test the courage of 
Gilgamas, of whom, when so conquered, he became the inseparable 
companion. The fourth and fifth tablets are lost : the sixth belongs 
to the month preceding the autumn equinox (August-September) 
when the sun is at its hottest. Istar is here represented to be 
wooing Gilgamas, who rejects her. She promises him riches and 
power, and a chariot of crystal, silver, and gold, with tribute from all 
kings of the earth. He reproaches her with the fates of her former 
lovers, including Tammuz, who bewails his enchantment, the eagle 
whose wings she broke, the horse whose speed and strength she 
destroyed, the shepherd Tabulu (compare Tubal, Gen. iv, 22) who 
sacrificed to her till she was weary of him and changed him into a 
jackal, so that his kinsmen drove him out, and his own dogs (as in 
the story of Aktaion) tore him in pieces. She had also loved 
IsuUanu (perhaps the " tamarisk ") who was a gardener, and changed 
him into the sand whirlwind of autumn ("the wanderer"): "If I 
yield to thee," said Gilgamas, " I shall be even as one of these." The 
enraged Istar flies to Anu and Anatu, god and god ess of heaven, and 
appeals to them to avenge the slight. They send a monster in the 
shape of a winged bull to destroy Erech, but this foe is conquered by 
Gilgamas aided by Ea-bani. The Babylonian seal cylinders often 
represent these two heroes as slaying a monster wild bull ; and 
Gilgamas is often represented killing a lion like Herakles, or robed 
in lion's skin, which episode may have been described in the missing 
tablets. 

But as the autumn goes on Gilgamas becomes leprous and feeble, 
and sets out to seek immortality, in the eighth tablet. He journeys 
west, and finds an enchanted garden (like the Greek Hesperides or 
garden of "sunset") where is a tree, covered with jewelled fruit and 
frequented by beautiful birds. It is guarded by scorpion men, and 
by giants whose feet are in Sheol, and their heads in heaven. From 
them be learns that Tamzi only can cure him. Evidently we have 
reached the month of thunder clouds, and of the scorpion archer 
(Sagittarius) represented on a Kassite boundary stone. In the 9th 
tablet Gilgamas is found fighting a giant, who lived in the dark pine 
forests in Elam (or the East), and was named Hum-baba — probably 
**the father of darkness." The 10th tablet includes the dirge of Ea- 
bani, who is slain by the Tambukki (supposed to be a " gad fly ") by 
order of the gods. Gilgamas goes over the sea to find him, and to 



144 Gipsies 

recover from bis leprosy : for his long hair has fallen off (as Samson s 
was shaved), and he is now weak and ill. He is ferried over the 
waters of death by Ur-Ea (** the servant of Ea/' the ocean god), and 
reaches the abode of Tamzi, " the sun-spirit." 

The 11th tablet contains that famous flood legend which so 
closely resembles the Hebrew story in many details. Tamzi relates 
how he came to be taken away to his resting-place at the " mouth of 
the rivers." ' Ba'al had decreed the flood, and Tamzi was warned by 
Ea to make a ship, in which he was to take his treasures, and the 
" seeds " of living things. The flood is poetically described, and 
Tamzi seuds out a dove, a swallow, and a raven, finally emerging from 
his ship, which is stranded on the mountains of Nizir, in Gutiom 
(Jebel Judi), when these spring migrants show him that the winter 
flood is over. Ba'al is angry at his escape, and the gods take him and 
his wife away from earth. This part of the epik is clearly as mythical 
as the rest. Oilgamas is now bathed (like Istar in Hades) with the 
'' water of life " ; for the winter solstice is past ; his skin is healed^ 
and his locks (or rays) grow again. The 12th tablet is unfortunately 
broken but (judging from other fragments — see Babylon), Gilgamas 
crosses the desert still mourning for Ea-bani, and calling on the god 
of fate to restore him. The faithful Minotaur, or his ghost, appears, 
and Gilgamas comes up from Hades once more reaching Erech. [A 
seal cylinder in the British Musaeum (see Guide, 1900, plate xxiii, 
No. 8) perhaps refers to this episode. Ea-bani and Gilgamas are seen 
ascending out of a well, leading from the lower world. Above them 
are Ann, the sky god, with his bow, Istar with wings, the eagle, £a 
(with the ocean stream full of fishes), treading on the bull ; and a 
double-headed god : while a lion stands behind Anu on the left. 
This " seal of Adda the scribe " is early, and probably Akkadian. It 
is also notable that the story of a friendly Minotaur, who is found at 
a well, survives in Tartar folk-tales to the present day (see Guber- 
natis, Zool Mythol., i, p. 129). — Ed.] This legend is told in the Semitic 
language of Babylonia, and the existing copies are only of about the 
7th century B.C. But the names are Akkadian, and the myth is do 
doubt of Turanian ori^n. 

Gipsies. Our English word is a corruption of '* Egyptians " ; 
but the race by type, custom, and language, is shown to be of N» 
Indian origin. They are mixed tribes, mainly Jats who entered 
Europe in our Middle Ages. The Jats prefer a wandering life in 
tents and jungles, dancing, conjuring, stealing, and fortune-telling, to 
any settled occupation. They are workers in copper, tin, bronze, and 



Gipsies 145 

iron ; smiths (Lohari) and makers of baskets and mats, always ready 
for a predatory life. They are popularly identified with the Dom or 
Rom tribes (whence perhaps the gipsy name Romani-ri, or ** Rom 
people ") and with the Brinjaris. The Jats, Zuths, and Luris ap- 
peared in Persia about our 3rd or 4th century. The dialects of such 
tribes are Aryan dialects of the Panjab, Sind, and Baluchistan. The 
gipsy language, in structure and vocabulary, belongs to the same 
stock, though much mixed with loans from Greek, Latin, Arabic, 
Armenian^ Bulgarian, Slav, Magyar, and Keltik, according to the 
countries reached by these migrants. [The Palestine gipsy women 
carry the child on the hip like Hindu women, whereas all Arab 
women carry it on the shoulder. — Ed.] Firdusi (Shah-Nameh, about 
1000 A.C.) speaks of the Lurs (probably Lohdria, or "smiths") as 
nomads in or near Persia, who roamed about stealing by day and 
night, and associating with dogs, and wolves. The Lurs in Baluchistan 
are still notorious for stealing children and cattle, drinking, dancing, 
pilfering, and leading about performing bears and monkeys. They 
have a king and queen like gipsies, and migrated to the wilds of 
Kurdistan, where they became more settled. 

It appears that a horde of 12,000 magicians and minstrels was 
sent in 420 A.C. by Shan-Kal (as the Persian account calls him) the 
Maha Raja of Kanoj, to Persia, at the request of a Sassauian prince 
who gave them land and cattle, but could not induce them to settle 
down. They, however, are unknown in Persia later, when in the 7th 
century the Moslems swept over W. Asia ; but wandering tribes fied 
in our 7th and 8th centuries to Armenia. In the 9th century there 
was a Jat quarter in Antioch, and they rose in 810 A.C., and were 
massacred amid the marshes of Ehusistan by the people of Baghdad 
in 834 A.C. Mabmud of Ghazni persecuted all such tribes who would 
not embrace Islam, from 998 till his death in 1030, and the Jats fled 
K and W. from the Indus, and beyond the Ozus to the Caspian and 
Black seas, where their black tents were found among the Tartars. 
About 1256 they were so numerous in Poland that King Boleslas V 
granted them a charter : they were called Szalasu or " tented ones " ; 
and were enumerated by tente. In 1260 also special laws were 
passed in Hungary concerning them. In the 14th century they 
became known all round the shores of the Mediterranean. From 
1346 to 1386 they held a fief in the island of Corfu under the name 
of Cingani, and in 1387 the prince of Corfu regranted "forty tents" 
of the tribe to a monastery. They were protected by charter in the 
Peloponnesos in 1398, but lost all rights after the Turkish conquest 
of Greece. They were thus driven further west: and in 1422 were 



146 Gipsies 

numerous in Italy (where they are now called Zingari) ; while in 
1427 they were found living round Paris. Bavaria included maDy 
groups of these gipsies in 1433, and S. and Mid Europe knew of a 
Zindl "king" in 1438. They swarmed on the Baltic coast where 
they were called Guptis (Kopts), and were led by chiefs popularly 
called " Egyptian dukes." They were outlawed in many countries, as 
they refused to obey laws and led notorious lives. They were often 
legally *' shot down like wild beasts." The Turks regarded them as 
spies and destroyed them. The laws of Elizabeth, in the 16th 
century, made it a " felony, without benefit of clergy," to be seen a 
month in their company. In 1561 the Orleans government declared 
" fire and sword " against them. In Italy they were forbidden to 
remain two nights in one place. In Spain they were persecuted, and 
accused of stealing and eating Christian children. They found peace 
only as civilisation advanced in Protestant countries, settling in 
England and America, where they are fast becoming merged in the 
general population. 

The Germans of the 15 th century called the gipsies Zigeuner: 
the Venetians, Segani — the older Cingani (see Dr Miklosich's learned 
work), other Europeans called them Sintes or Sindes, no doubt from 
their old home in Sind (Scinde) or Sindhu on the Indus. The word 
*' tinker" applied to gipsies is probably from Zingar or Tchangar, a 
Jat tribe of the Panjab, which the Turks converted into Chengain. 
They were popularly regarded as Egyptians, and some may have come 
thence, as they are still found among Arabs in Syria. The gipsies 
held many strange beliefs which Europe could not understand, but are 
-even said to have spoken of " an incomprehensible governor of the 
universe." They retained their ancient symbols and customs, conjuring 
with serpents, and holding superstitions as to the pine, birch, and 
hawthorn (see Mr Groome, Encycl. Brit\ they also retain lunar and 
fire rites, with "a survival of phallic worship." Their moon god 
Alako is connected with witchcraft. On the 1st of May they draw 
water from rivers or from the sea, sprinkling it on little altars or 
shrines, and invoking the local deity as they drink mysterious potiooB. 

The Archduke Joseph, commander of the Hungarian army, wa«: 
much interested in gipsies about 1889, and knew their language. 
He agreed with Grellmann as to its Hindi origin. According to these 
authorities the gipsies call earth phno, saying it has existed from 
eternity. They call God devel (see Deva), and the Devil is heng: 
they drive away demons by throwing brandy, or water, on the corpse 
or the grave. They swear by the dead, and speak of Beng-ipe as the 
abode of the devil. They pass children over the fire (like early 



Girdh 147 

Aryans — see Fire), even when subsequently baptized as Christians. 
They are married by the chief, even when afterwards wedded in 
church ; and he can also punish adultery by beatings, and pronounce 
divorce. The father has absolute authority, but a group of families 
will elect a vajda or " friend " as their magistrate. In Hungary they 
number about 76,000 souls. The total number in Europe, Asiatic 
Russia, and Turkey, is estimated at some 2,000,000 persons. They 
are most numerous in Roumania (250,000), Transylvania (79,000), 
and Spain (40,000), being few in France and Britain. In Russia 
and Poland they are variously estimated. In Asia we find some 
67,000 in Persia and Turkey, and there are said to be 16,000 still 
in Egypt. 

Girdh. Keltik. A "kist-vaen," or stone box for ashes and 
bones, in a mound — an " enclosure " (see Qard). 

Giri. Girya. A name of Parvati as mistress of the ** house " or 
** enclosure " (see Gar). 

Girvan. Parvati's mountain abode (see Giri). 

Gisdhubar. Izduban See Gilgamas. 

Glaill. Glamr. The Skandinavian name of the moon in the 
Edda, from the Aryan root gla '* to shine." Thus "glamour" is 
moonshine — deceptive and dim light. 

Glastonbury. "The burgh of the green dune" — from the 
Keltik glds '' green " — a famous islet in Somersetshire, with a sacred 
thorn tree, and a holm oak called Glastenen. The island is surrounded 
by the marshes of the winding river Brue. The oldest shrine on it 
was said to be a chapel, and cells, of wattled oziers, built by Joseph 
of Arimathsea, who was sent by St Philip to convert the natives, 
bringing with him the Holy Grail — the cup or dish of the Last 
Supper. The miraculous thorn tree was said to blossom at Christmas, 
*' mindful of our Lord " (Tennyson). A larger abbey is said to have 
been enriched by Saxon kings, despoiled by Danes, and restored by 
St Dunstan. The present ruins date from 1186, St Joseph's chapel 
being on its ancient site. It was despoiled by Henry VIII, and the 
sacred tree was cut down to the root by a Puritan in the reign of 
Elizabeth. It was at Glastonbury that King Arthur was buried, after 
his last battle with Mordred in Cornwall (see Arthur). The Tor, or 
mound, was probably a sacred place of Keltik Druids, afterwards 
consecrated by early monks. The fertile land below was called the 
Isle of Avalon, or Aval-yn, *' the apple isle." The sacred mistletoe 



148 Gled 

is still here abundant. To Avalon the three fairy queens are said to 
have taken Arthur in a boat, to heal his wounds, and it was a magic 
land of eternal summer — the apple being that of the Greek Hesperides 
garden. In 1191, we are told (Notes and Queries, 12th March 1887), 
a coffin marked with the cross was found, bearing the text — cut in 
the lead — "Hie jacet sepultus, inclytus rex Arturius, in insula Avalonia" 
The Tor, rising 500 feet above this Eeltik Eden, is conspicuous in the 
great valley bounded by the Folden, and Mendip hills, on which the 
remains of many dolmens, menhirs, and circles are still visible: 
the mound is called Werval (perhaps from Var " enclosure ") : the 
holy thorn was said to have sprung from the staff of St Joseph. It 
suffered from Puritans in the reign of Charles I, but the stump wa^ 
still visible in 1715, and a stone was then placed over it (Notes and 
Queries, 25th January 1890). The desecrator of course came to a 
bad end, losing his eyes and limbs. The present holly tree which 
replaces it is still superstitiously regarded. We are told that it 
" becomes covered with an abundance of large leaves of a tender 
tone of golden green, in December and January, and flowers richly 
at Christmas, retaining the ripe red berries, and brown dead leaves 
of the preceding year, with the new ones and the brilliant white 
flowers," being a double holly (Prcecas), a variety of the Crafjobijtis 
oxyacantha. It is said to be capable of growing out of nothing as 
a stake, or hanging on a hedge without root, such a specimen having 
been exhibited before a horticultural society in 1834, and said to 
produce leaves, flowers, and berries every year. On Saturday, 5th 
January 1884 (being old Christmas Eve), crowds of believers came 
from Weymouth and other places, and saw it burst suddenly into leaf 
and blossom. It had budded during the day, and was in full Hower 
by midnight (Notes and Queries, 2nd February 1884). Such marvels 
are sufficient to account for its being still sacred. 

Gled. Anglo-Saxon ; as in Gled-how, *' the mound of sacrifice." 
From the Aryan root kal to " kill." 

Gluskap. See Eskimo. A good deity of the Algonkin Indians, 
and Eskimo. 

GnOStiks. Greek Onostikoi, " knowing ones," from gnosis, 
" knowledge " or " wisdom " — the Aryan gna, " to know." They 
were the Christian philosophers of our first three centuries, who, 
being learned in the current religions and supposed scientific ideas 
of the age, sought to reconcile the primitive Jewish Christianity with 
Greek philosophy, and the ideas of Eleusis, of Persia, of Egypt, and 



Gnostiks 149 

of Buddhism, as then understood in the West. Qnostik systems 
ranged from mystic philosophy aud Platonism to the lowest demon- 
ology of Babylon, Syria, and Egypt : from subtle thought to conscious 
fraud* Gnostiks were attracted by the dualism of the Mazd@an creed, 
and taught that the Hebrew Yahveh was a being inferior to the 
Supreme Grod — a Demiurge, or " people - maker," author of evil. 
According to TertuUian they appear to have regarded the Gospel 
stories as only fit for women and children, representing an exoteric 
creed, suitable for the masses but not for the wise and initiated (see 
CoL Condor in Asiatic Review^ January 1888). Certain terms much 
used by Gnostiks — ^such as Pleroma, or " totality," Aion for " age " or 
*" emanation," and others, are used by Paul in his Epistles ; and the 
later " harmonisers " attempted to reconcile his philosophy with the 
earlier purely Jewish views of the followers of Peter. But the Gnostiks 
embraced all kinds of enthusiasts and impostors. Thus the Cainites 
iiononred Judas Iscariot — apparently as having been the instrument 
through whom prophecy was fulfilled — and are said to have named a 
gospel after him. The Adamites (see that heading) worshiped naked. 
The Markosians placed the bust of Christ beside that of Plato with 
others ; aud their leader claimed to change the sacramental wine 
miraculously, by aid of Kharis or "grace"; for, when poured from 
a small into a larger cup, it effervesced. This Markos was a great 
deceiver of rich women. The extravaorancies of these sects are detailed 

o 

by Irenseus, TertuUian, Theodoret, and Epiphanius. But the true 
Onostik aimed at attaining the inner or esoteric wisdom, and the 
ecstatic state in which he might be able to lay hold on the spiritual 
KLrestoB, or " good one," rather than on the Ehristos or " anointed 
one." They held that the Logos, or Wisdom of God, had appeared in 
a phantom form in Palestine, not of human flesh and blood, and not 
really suffering death on the cross — a spiritual body such as Paul 
believed to be the Resurrection body, perhaps of Jesus Himself (1 Cor. 
XV, 35-54). The definite statements in the Fourth Gospel, as to Christ's 
body and death, are said to have been written in direct contradiction 
of this theory. 

The great centre of Gnosticism was Alexandria, where many 
Onostik works were penned in Greek, including such Gnostik gospels 
as that " of the Egyptians," full of mystic epigrams. But other lead- 
ing Gnostiks were Samaritans, followers of Dositheus, and of his pupil 
Simon Magus, the "father of Gnostiks," whose home was W. of 
Shechem. Among these were Menander, Cleobius, Cerinthus, and 
&tuminus. Most Gnostiks believed in miracles and sorcery, and 
mingled the philosophy of Alexandrian Greeks with the mysticism 



150 Gnostiks 

and demoDology of the East Simon Magus, we are told (Acts viii, 
9-24), bewitched the Samaritans, and was regarded as the "great 
power (Dunamis) of God/' He was baptised as a Christian, but pro- 
claimed himself a divine incarnation, or Messiah, and Jerome (on Mat4 
xxiv, 5) states that he said : *' I am the Word of God ; I am the 
beautiful ; I am the Paraclete ; I am the Almighty ; I am all the 
things of God " — which Christians naturally regarded as blasphemous. 
Simon's consort Heleua was the Ennoia, or " Divine Intelligence * 
Later legends say that Simon went to Rome, where Peter opposed 
him, but where a statue was erected to ** Simoni Deo Sancto.*' He 
appears to have been confounded with the Etruskan Sancus, atui a 
text found in the Tiber is dedicated to " Deo Sanco." Cerinthus was 
an active Syrian Gnostik, who is said to have met St John in the 
baths at Ephesus, but we know no more of him than of the Apostles 
from any contemporary records. He appears to have believed, like 
others (includiug Muhammad) that Christ was a man born like other 
men, on whom the Holy Spirit descended at baptism, leaving him on 
the cross when Jesus cried, " My God, my God, why hast thou forsaken 
me " : and that Jesus died, and will not rise again till the last day. 
Many Gnostiks denied the resurrection of any of the dead, saying that 
Matter is evil and a delusion, and cannot dwell with God. The Soq 
of God must, like God, be a spirit, and had therefore only a spiritual 
body. 

The Gnostiks regarded Jewish beliefs as very crude. Some en- 
tirely rejected the Old Testament as in error regarding the "' Supreme 
and Inefiable God," being only inspired by Yahveh, whom they called 
Ildebaoth (El-di-bahoth, ** God of the Abyss "), an evil creator of 
Matter, which is also evil, and a spirit " ignorant " of the true God, 
as Ahriman in Persia is ** ignorant " of the designs of Ahura- Mazda. 
Yahveh from the first opposed the " divine serpent " of knowledge 
and wisdom. He was a fiend rather than a God, and only one of the 
Aions, or emanations of the Pleroma, which constituted true deitj. 
Thus Gnosticism was opposed alike to Judaism, and to the Judaic 
Christianity, which in its earliest form spoke of Jesus only as a 
** Servant of God," and made no mystery of the memorial supper 
(see Didache). But among the wilder sects the search for the " cause 
of causes" gave place to immoral indulgences (if we may believe 
Christian accounts), and the dangerous doctrine (revived later by some 
Puritan fanatics) was taught, that those born of the spirit could not 
be defiled by the deeds of the flesh, any more than gold is defiled by 
being covered with mud. Crime indeed was permitted (we are told) 
on the plea that, by experience of all weaknesses of the body, the 



Gnostiks 1 6 1 

spirit would escape from any further probation in future incarnations. 
These sects celebrated ''spiritual marriages," which seem to have 
been similar to the rites of Indian Sakti worshipers and Tantraists 
(see these headings). The naked worship of Adamites, and Prodi- 
cians, survived among the Beghards, or " Brethren of the Free Spirit,'*^ 
even in our 13th century. The Gnostik Kharitas, or "kindness/*^ 
recalls practices of hospitality among Turks, Tartars, and Chinese, as 
well as among non-Aryans in India, who offer their wives to guests 
and strangers. Such practices are described by Arab writers in our 
10th century, and still survive. ''Such were the depths of degrada- 
tion," says Col. Conder, "to which Gnostiks sank from the purer 
philosophy of Valentinus." 

We must not forget that the gospels and literature of the 
Gnostiks (excepting a few works such as the Poemandres, or " Shep- 
herd of Men," and the Pistis Sophia or ''wise belief") were destroyed 
by the triumphant Catholics of the 4th century, so that " it is hardly 
possible to obtain more than an incomplete and fragmentary concep- 
tion of this once powerful and popular movement." Clement of 
Alexandria, though believing in the spiritual body of Christ — not 
needing nourishment by food — was a bitter enemy of Gnostiks. He 
accuses one sect of holding their wives in common, saying that social 
laws were commanded only by an evil deity. The *'Revealer" at 
Gnostik ceremonies was the same phallus that had been revealed to 
Clement as an initiate at Eleusis, according to TertuUian. The 
serpent also was connected, and was a prominent Gnostik symbol 
lldebaoth and Abraxas were serpents, with the head of a lion sur- 
rounded by rays, as we see on Gnostik gems. Jerome says that 
Abraxas (mystically 365), the "supreme" among Gnostiks, was 
Mithras and Khreistos. He was also Adoni, "the Lord," Samas- 
Alam or " the sun of eternity," Elohim, and lao-Sabao (or Yahveh- 
Sabaoth), "the Lord of Hosts." He appears as Harpocrates, the 
child Horus, on the lotus with his finger to his mouth (see Fingers). 
He again has the head of an ass on gems and on a Syrian terra-cotta 
(see Onolatria) ; and Irenseus himself says that " the ass mentioned in 
the Gospels is a type of Christ " ; Epiphanius calls it the emblem of 
Sabaoth, and Plutarch tells us that Set in Egypt was ass-headed. 
The "supreme one" was also the Agatho-daimon, or "good spirit" — 
the serpent with the rayed head accompanying the names lao and 
Khnumis. Such gems were used as amulets, like many others that 
have been classed as Gnostik, but only those with ^ell-known Gnostik 
names attached can be so described. The serpent worshiping Gnostiks 
included Sethians, Peratse, Nicolaitans, and Nabasim or Ophites (" ser- 



152 Gnostiks 

pent worshipers") as described by Hippolytus (see Rivera of Lifty 
ii, p. 528, fig. 334). 

Karpocrates, and his sou E[)ipbanes, in our 2nd centurj, 
developed doctrines that spread among other sects, including Eocra- 
tites or " abstainers " from wine (even for the Eucharist), Docetae who 
spoke of Christ's spirit-body, Antitactes, Markosians, and followers of 
Tatian, Yalentinus, and Bardesanes. The latter, with his son Har- 
monius, appeared in Mesopotamia ; but the most famous of these sects 
was that of the Manichseans, followers of Manes, who was executed b 
our 3rd century in Persia, and who was well acquainted with both 
Mazdean and Buddhist teachings. The Manichseans were specially 
detested by the Catholics of the 4th century, but their ideas spread 
to Asia Minor, Bulgaria, France, and Spain, and appear as late as the 
13th century among the Albigenses. To them is sometimes attributed 
the apochryphal gospel of the '* Pseudo- Matthew/' though the Markosians 
appear to have claimed it as the work of their leader Markos. Many of 
its legends seem to be borrowed from the legend of Buddha, such as the 
story of the tree that bowed to Mary in Egypt (as the Palisa tree bowed 
to Maya, mother of Buddha) : Christ, like Buddha, astonishes his teachers 
at school by inspired knowledge of the mystic meanings of the letters 
of the alphabet : images bow down to him, as they did also to Buddha. 

Most of these sects sought to unite men by a vast syncretic 
system, like the later Moslem philosophers and mystics (see Druses) ; 
and they compassed sea and land to make proselytes. Some deified 
their teachers, and Epiphanes — dying young — was so worshiped. 
By our 6th century, however, they had been all more or less stamped 
out by the orthodox emperors and bishops, though opinion among 
Christians still remained much divided. Some were severe ascetiks, 
like the Encratites and the Mesopotamian Sabians or " baptisers,'' 
oalled later " Christians of St John." Many taught that matter was 
evil, and forbade matrimony, holding Essene beliefs (see Matt, xix, 12). 
The accusations levelled against Manichseans, as regards eating babies, 
and their " fig ceremony " (see Fig), were repeated later about the 
Templars (see King's Gfnoatics, pp. 192-198). The world, in Gnostik 
belief, was evil and material, and could not be saved, for all except 
the few elect were incapable of wisdom. They rejected a Saviour of 
men, and were in consequence much persecuted. Irenaeus says that 
John's gospel was expressly written against Cerinthus. Simon Magas, 
and the Ophites, became the very types of Satan. Tatian, Marcion, 
and even Paul did not escape condemnation as inclined to Gnosticism 
— all according to the later Cleinentine Homilies were " followers of 
the great magician." Epiphanius (in the Panarion) about 400 A.C., 



Gnostiks 153 

describes the Manichseans as still favouring communism as regards 
wives, and holding midnight orgies, when the Eucharist was con- 
secrated with the blood of a babe, or infants sacrificed and eaten. 
Markosians and others prepared love philtres, and many dark rites 
were celebrated, like those of witches and others in the Middle Ages 
(see Ancient Worship of Priapus, Chiswick Press, 1865). 

But Basilides, the great Gnostik philosopher (100 to 140 A.C.), 
was a learned and earnest Christian — a Syrian taught at Alexandria, 
deeply imbued with Platonic ideas, and founding a great school. His 
writings showed knowledge of Mazdean beliefs, and of other Eastern 
doctrines. He called the Supreme Qod " the unnameable," known 
ouly through his emanations or energies — these Aions of Pl6r5ma 
including Christ, and the Demiurge. He regarded evil (like Buddha) 
as being imperfection, and believed in transmigration, but not in 
resurrection of the body. His system personifies various virtues as 
qualities of the " unknown and unborn father." The Demiurge 
(" people maker ") was an emanation in the lower heaven, the Arkhon 
or " ruler " of the world, whom Jews called Yahveh, the creator of 
earth, but not of wisdom, justice, or piety. Yalentinus was a follower 
of Basilides (105 to 165 A.C.), who taught philosophy among Christians 
in Rome about 140 A.C. He created a great system of 15 pairs of 
Aions, constituting Pleroma, or " The All." Col. Conder (Asiatic Rev., 
Jan. 1888) summarises the list of the Aidns as follows : " From Depth 
aod Silence sprang Mind and Truth : from Word and Life came Man 
and the Church : from these the Comforter, and Faith : whence the 
Fathers Hope and the Mother's Love : thence Eternal Wisdom, Light, 
and Blessing ; Eucharistic Knowledge, Depth and Mingling, Endless 
Union, Self-born Temperance, the Only-begotten Unity, and Endless 
Pleasure ; such is the reading of the famous riddle of the thirty 
.£ons." Irenseus and other fathers, from the 2nd to the 4th century, 
were ignorant of the meanings often concealed by Gnostiks in Semitic 
words, and unable to tell us the truth as to these heresiarchs — as 
they called them — or leaders of " individual opinions." Yalentinus 
said that, from the passionate striving of the latest Aion " wisdom " 
(Sophia) for union with " depth " or " insight " (Bathus), there arose 
a being outside the Pleroma — or " all " — who communicated the germ 
of life to matter, and so produced the Demiurge or creator (see 
Brahma). Then, according to some Yalentinians, arose two Aions, 
namely Christ and the Holy Spirit, to restore the lost balance of the 
Pler6ma ; and finally from all the Ai5ns Jesus as the Saviour (Soter) 
was produced, and united at baptism with the Messiah promised by 
the Demiurges. Such mystic symbolism is of little importance in the 



154 Goats 

present age. Gnosticism however spread far and wide, and ever^ 
reached Turkestan. Mas'udi in 944 A.G. speaks of the religion of 
Mani as powerful between Khorasan and China among Turkish tribes. 
Col. Conder sees traces of Manichaean beliefs among the Dnizes, 
Ism'ailiyeh, and Nuseireh — Moslem mystics originally — in Syria, in 
connection with "phallic rites, and annual orgies," "Islam." he says, 
** far from remaining a distinct system is tinged with colouring deriveil 
from Indian, Zoroastrian, and Gnostic teaching. Even MubamiiiJ^il 
drew his knowledge of Christianity from gospels akin to those used 
among the Markosian Gnostics." Such skeptiks "regarded all alike 
with a contemptuous toleration /' and " still throughout the East . . . 
the spirit of Gnosticism may be recognised as surviving . . . along 
with profession of deep religious belief." Gnosticism, says Principal 
Tulloch {Encyclop, Brit), ** laid the foundation of Christian science, 
and of the Christian schools of Antioch and Alexandria ... it lost 
importance in the middle of the 3rd century, but lingered on till the 
6th, dominating mostly all other forms of Christianity ... It burst 
forth again in the 12th century as Paulism (the Paulicians), spreading 
from its old centres into Greece, Italy, Germany, and France, where 
for a time it almost displaced Catholic Christianity." It was stamped 
out by the persecution of the Albigenses, and its mysteries were 
discredited through the birth of a timid rationalism which grew 
stronger in time ; but its protean forms may yet appear wherever 
spiritualism and mysticism attract the ignorant. 

Go. Gau. Sanskrit : '* cow," from ga " to bellow " (see Ga). 

Goats. These animals became emblems of creative energy ; and 
Mendes, the goat of Memphis, symbolised the ithyphallic Ehem in 
Egypt. The Jews accused the Samaritans of saying that a goat 
created the world (ail for el)^ and Mendes was worshiped naked. 
The Greek Pan and the Satyrs were goat-men, famous as runners in 
the woods, dancers, and licentious spirits, like the S'eirim " goats " or 
" rough ones " inhabiting ruins according to the Hebrews (Levit. xvii, 7; 
Isaiah xxxiv, 14) though the Greek Septuagint renders this "onoken- 
taurs." The goat was sacrificed to Dionusos as a destroyer of the 
vine ; and the scapegoat bore sins (see 'Azazel). St James in Italy, 
on the other hand, is the goat who blesses the vines (Prof A. de 
Gubernatis, ZooL MythoL, ii, under " Goat "), and to him an eflSgy of 
the " Lamb of God " is offered at Easter. The Thuringians also used, 
like the Jews, to send forth a goat in autumn, chasing it till caugbt 
and then sacrificing it. The Aigis, or shield of Jove, took its name 
from *AiXf " the goat," being covered with goatskin ^Herodotos iv. 



Gobhan 165 

189). The sea-goat is an emblem of the ocean god (see Ea). The 
robes of priests were made of goat-skin ; and the Babylonian gods 
seem also to have worn such hairy garments as represented on bas- 
reliefs and seal cylinders. Capella the goat star was highly important 
to sailors. The Norsemen said that goats drew the car of " Thor the 
stormy charioteer " — for black goats represent the flocks of dark clouds, 
80 that Dionusos himself in autumn is Melan-aigis, or clothed in black 
goatskins (Pausanias, ii, 35). In the Rig Veda (iii, 4) Pushan, " the 
primeval one," guides a car drawn by goats, and is himself Agas " the 
goat" The sacred goat Olene suckled Zeus, she being the sign of 
"rainy Capella" (Ovid, Fasti, v, 113). The demon goat, on the 
other hand, is ridden by witches ; and Satan takes this form at the 
Witches* Sabbath in connection with phallic rites. 

Gobhan. Govan. A seer and poet among Kelts in Ireland, 
supposed to have lived before the Christian era, and noticed on the 
Clon Mac Noise Cross. He is connected with tower building, but was 
an artizan and smith, apparently an early Keltik Vulcan, like the 
English Weyland Smith. 

God. It is remarkable that philologists are unable to decide 
the origin of this familiar Teutonic word. They are agreed that it 
cannot be directly connected with the word " good." The Teutonic 
Gutha (English Ood, German Gott) is nearer to the name Goth (see 
Out), and probably signifies "great" or "strong." Most names for 
God in ancient languages signifiy either " spirit " or " power " (see As, 
Dimir, El, Yahveh, Nutera, etc.), and sometimes " life " Or " light " (see 
Bu, Bagha, Deva). Early gods are terrible rather than good (see 
Fear). Nothing can be more important (as we urged in 1896, see 
Short Studies, vii) to the student of religions than to understand the 
radical meaning of the names of gods, which otherwise would convey 
no sense of reverence, unless lisped from childhood. The gods were 
spirits or phantoms, immortal and powerful, aud dwelling in all things 
(see Animism). But the pious and experienced John Wesley con- 
victs the world of natural Atheism when he says : " After all so 
plausibly written concerning the innate idea of God . . . that this 
is common to all men in all ages and nations, it does not appear that 
man has naturally any more idea of God than any beast of the field. 
Man has no knowledge or fear of God at all, nor is God in all his 
thoughts. . . . Whatever change is wrought by grace, or education, 
man is by nature an Atheist." But Dryden's view is found in the lines, 

'' The priest continues what the nurse began, 
And thus the child imposes on the man." 



156 Gold 

So great is the terror of offending a god that Qreek and Jew 
alike dared not touch the holy emblems. Uzzah was slain for touch- 
ing the Ark, even to prevent its falling, and the touch of a sacred elk 
brings evil on the Omaha Indian in America (Frazer, Golden Bough, 
ii, p. 56). Only the consecrated may touch holy things. But gradu- 
ally, as the ideal of a god grew more noble, justice, and mercy, took 
the place of wrath. " When I attempt/' says Prof. Tyndall {Frag- 
ments), " to give the power which I see manifested in the universe an 
objective form, personal or otherwise, it slips away from me, declining 
all intellectual manipulation. I dare not, save poetically, use the 
pronoun * He ' regarding it. I dare not call it ' a mind ' : I refuse 
to call it even a * cause.' Its mystery overshadows me, but it remains 
a mystery, while the objective frames which my neighbours try to 
make it fit, simply distort and desecrate it." The Qod of Ezekiel 
filays all who do not bear his mark (ix, 4-6) : the Qod of a later 
prophet is the only Saviour (Isaiah xliii, 11). The knowledge of 
God is too wonderful for man (Psalm cxxxix, 6), but he pervades the 
universe (verses 7 to 18) as Paul also taught (Ephesians iv, 6). 
These allusions serve to show us the gradual evolution of thought as 
to God, from the early times when Yahveh came down to see the 
tower (Gen. xi, 5), to the later age when God becomes our Father in 
Heaven, and when God is Love (1 John iv, 8-16). 

Gold. The use of gold throughout western Asia, and in Egypt, 
or even as far west as ilycense, in the 15th century B.C., was common 
at a time when Europe was still in the Neo-lithik stage. Gold bad 
been known to the Akkadians much earlier, as ku-gin *' precious Gin " 
— the Tartar kin for " gold." The Greeks adopted a Semitic word 
in khru808 (from khdru§ " shining " metal), and according to their 
legends it was brought from the Caucasus. Herodotos speaks of gold- 
fields east of the Caspian, and the supply may have been from the 
Altai mountains, but the Egyptians obtained gold dust from Abys- 
sinia. The eastern Aryans knew it (Sanskrit Hiranya : Zend Zaranya) 
as the ** yellow ** metal, and such is the derivation of the Teutonic 
gulth, 

Gonds. A widespread race of Eolarian origin in N. India — 
akin to Dravidians — now numbering perhaps 124,000 persons only. 
Their first home was Gondia or Kosala, along and N. of the rivers 
of Oudh, but they are now rude forest tribes of Gondivana in Central 
India. The name is probably derived from Koh or Go "a hill" 
{the common ancient word ku " high "), which is the base of Konda 
*' mountain " — a word found in all languages of the Kolarians. The 



Gonds 157 

pare Good calls himself a Koi-tar, or Ko-taa or " bill-dweller." The 
Gonds came from Central Asia, and Mr Hislop, who was learned in 
the dialects of Orissa, says that '* their features are decide<lly 
Mongolic." They are darker than most Hindus, round headed, wide- 
mouthed, with thick lips and flat nose, and lank black hair which 
they shave, leaving one lock as a top-knot like Arabs. Like 
Mongols, they have little hair on the face. They tattoo their bodies,, 
and the women disfigure their faces like the Kakyens of Barmah, as 
do most Kols and Muns. They wear shells and charms, and when 
the climate permits, the Gonds go naked. They eat rats, mice,, 
snakes, and ants, and are filthy in person and habits, licentious, and 
fond of drink. Their coarse phallic deities are incarnations of Tari 
and Buru-penu, inchiding Boda, Bodil, Baum, and Budu-Kol (see 
Bud). Like Muns, Kosis, and other Kolarians, they are great tree 
worshipers, holding festivals in forest clearings, under ancient trees 
which are surrounded with stone circles. They there erect little cairna 
or Chaityas, especially at the foot of trees sacred to Yital or Betal 
(see Rivers of Life, i, p. 193, figs. 74, 75). Each group of hamlets 
has its holy tree with its quaint charms, stones, and small lingama 
aod Yonis ; or with figures of Mamoji as a horse, with phallus, 
usually daubed with aandhur red paint. At the beginning of the 
longed-for rainy season they propitiate the water god, by the 
"sacrifice of the holy Karma tree," which rite is preceded by fasting 
— a very unusual practice among poor and rude tribes. The young 
of both sexes then go (as in our May rites) to cut down a young 
Karma tree in the forest, and bring this, or a branch, home, with 
music, song, and dance. It is planted on the village green among 
the ancestral trees, and is consecrated by a Pahu or priest : after 
certain rites the whole night is spent in dancing round it, and in 
revelry. It is freshly festooned next day, and loaded with charms, 
resembling our Christmas tree. The daughters of the village 
patriarch reverently adorn it with " Varuna's corn," which is specially 
grown for the purpose, and the yellow pink petals of its flowers are 
distributed, to be worn by all. Wild dances follow, and finally the 
tree god is taken to a stream or pool, and thrown in as an oflfering to 
the water god. This boisterous festival is usual at the New Year 
(see Vana). 

The Gonds claim to have been the first colonisers of India, and 
say that they came from the far north : after dwelling long by 
Devala-^ri, one of the highest peaks of the Himalayas, and thence 
descending to Kosala along the Gogra and other streams, they pushed 
further south ; but continued within historic times to bury the dead 



168 Gonds 

with their feet towards Devala-giri, which they still remember 
lovingly, with their Linga-wan-gad at the foot of which they long 
to rest. The Gonds are noticed in the Rig Veda as typical aborigines — 
Dasyas or country folk — which also points to their northern origin. 
The Naga-Bunsi Qonds call themselves offspring of Delhi Nagas; 
another body of them came from the swamps of the lower Indus, 
through the Bhil country ; but most Gonds came from Kolaria, and 
from Assam or the East, especially the Baiga hunters of game, who 
are sorcerers consulted in all difficulties as to land (see the Settlement 
Reports, 1867-1869). Mr Hewitt, in 1869, speaks of Gond traditions 
as to their coming from Scythia about 600 B.C., settling as Tugas, or 
Takshaks, at Taxila and in other Naga states. These probably 
brought with them the worship of the sword or spear common among 
Kaur Gonds ; for Attila's Huns belonged to a kindred stock, and 
placed a sword or spear on a mound in their encampments. This 
sword cultus, noticed early in Scythia, is also common among 
Dravidiaus of the Travankor coast. The chief Gond gods, however, 
are now known by A.ryan names adopted in Gond speech, such as 
Bhuma-ji, the " earth god," and Thakur-Deo or Bhaga-wan-ji, who 
is Siva or Lingo, dwelling on Linga-wan-gad, but often symbolised as 
a small egg-shaped stone set on a cubical altar. He is Buda-deva^ 
the source of life, called also Pharsa-pen in the neighbourhood of 
Chanda, according to Mr Hislop. He is commonly represented by 
''a spherical block of wood, with a small shaft 3^ inches long stuck 
into it." There are some 15 gods in all, of whom only half the 
number are commonly mentioned. They are symbolised by cairns, 
menhir stones, and posts daubed with vermilion and worshiped with 
libations and offerings, sometimes of cows but usually of pigs, goats, 
fowls, fruits, and ardent spirits, without full use of which no 
ceremony can proceed. At marriages and burials general licence 
is permitted as among other savages (Hislop, in Appendices to 
Sir Richard Temple's Reports) : the old communistic customs are 
thus retained on special occasions. 

The attributes of the Pens, or gods, do not vary much through- 
out the vast extent of the basins of the Narbada and Godavery 
rivers, and also that of the Krishna. The Buda and Kodo who 
are great Gond deities, are the Bura and Kati of the Khonds. 
Brahmanism is fast converting these wild races, and some few have 
accepted Islam, or Christianity. As a race they love a wild life, and 
are skilful with bow and gun, though gradually settling down to 
agriculture, and becoming sharp traders, especially the two higher 
classes of Goles and Koitaus, who are considered too nearly related to 



Gondophares 169 

allow of intermarriage. North India, invaded by stronger and more 
civilised races, was no place for such broken and primitive tribes : 
they were driven to the southern hills and forest fastnesses, forming a 
highland population of some two millions, including Gonds, Khonds, 
and others. They were grievously persecuted, especially about 360 
to 635 A.C., and were Hinduised to some extent through Buddhist 
influence, as well as by later Brahmans who have converted the 
" Baj-Gonds/' 

Gondophares. Gundofores. Gondafares. A king of 

^* India," according to Christian legends of St Thomas ; but in such 

literature " India " means any country E. of Mesopotamia. According 

to tbe Legenda Aurea, he ruled about 60 A.C., when Eanishka (10 

A.C. to 78 A.C.) reigned in India and Afghanistan. Gondophores more 

probably was king in Baktria, or further west. Coins bearing this 

name bave been found in Seistan, I^^abul, and Kandahar, in Sind and 

the S. Panjab, according to which, the first Gondophores would appear 

to have preceded Eanishka. His exploits are noticed on a stone in 

the Lahore Museum, and he appears to have been of the Sakya 

<lynasty. Another text of a Gondofares is in the Woking Museum. 

The Legenda Aurea asserts, on the authority of St Gaudentius, " in 

his MaHyrology" that St Thomas " slept in the city Calamina, which 

is in India,'' and here he is said to have built a palace for Gondophorea 

*' The Lord told Thomas that Gondophores wanted masons : that he 

was to go as one and convert all India, and come to Him by the 

crown of martyrdom." Thomas obeying, was torn in pieces by dogs, 

" because he refused to eat and drink like others." Prof G. BUhler, 

in describing the latest Jaina inscriptions of Mathura (see Academy, 

2Qd May 1896), places the reign of Gondophores about 30 to 50 A.C. 

(see Max MtlUer, Ivdia, p. 293 ; Beal, Buddhism in Chinas p. 135 ; 

and Gen. Cunningham, Arch, Survey of India, ii, p. 69). 

Goose. In Egypt Seb — the earth — is a goose, "the great 
■cackler" who lays the gold egg — the sun. The goose was early 
tamed by Egyptians, though they had neither ducks nor fowls as 
domestic birds. In India Brahma rides the goose (see Hansa), and in 
mythology it is often confused with the swan, which is the great 
emblem of white, and snow, clouds. The goose is an emblem of Frey, 
and the swan of Freya, among the Norse. The swan was sacred to 
the sea god Niord. Russian folk-lore abounds with tales of geese, 
swans, and ducks. Wedding gifts always include geese, which are 
symbolic of conjugal fidelity. A goose is carried before the bride- 
groom's procession to fetch home the bride. She is borne over " a 



160 Gopa 

brazier of fire " (see Fire), and worships the goose with her bride- 
groom (Notes and Quei^ies, 6th August 1898). Dr Morrison {Didy., 
under Marriages) says that *' wild geese have in every age been an 
emblem of conjugal fidelity in China." In the Shi-King classic we 
read : " The wild geese cackle in response ; day breaks and morning 
commences ; the bridegroom has gone to bring home his wife ere 
approaching spring shall have melted the ice.'' 

From the swan egg were born Helen — the moon — and the two 
brethren — day and night — children of the swan Zeus, who thus 
answers in the legend to Seb the goose that lays the sun-egg. Leda, 
who lays the egg, is apparently the darkness (like Latona and Lethe, 
from Idt " to hide "), and in tlie Veda also the Asvin twins have a car 
drawn by swans. Cycnus {Cignna "the swan") is the brother of 
Phaeton ; and swans and geese were choristers of Apollo in spring, 
when the wild geese come from the south. The swan sang also at 
Delos, when Apollo was borne by Latona (see Callimmachus, Hymns 
Delo8, 1111 ; Bryant's Mythol, i. p 367 ; ii, p. 360). 

Gopa. Sanskrit : " cow nourisher " — a title of Krishna. The 
Qopis or milkmaids are the nymphs with whom Krishna sports. 

Gor. Gaur. in Skandinavian, the harvest month. Compare 
Qauri " the fair one." 

Ghora. Persian : " horse," an emblem of the sun. The old 
Akkadian kurra is " horse," as the beast that runs (Mongol har ** to 
gallop "). 

GorgO. Gordons, in the Odyssey only one Gorge is named, 
as a frightful phantom in Hades. She is one eyed — darkness with 
the shining moon. [The name is perhaps Turanian — Turkish gorga 
" fear," which she typifies : see Fear. — Ed.] Hesiod mentions three 
Qorgons, of whom two were immortal and terrifying — namely Stheoo 
(" strong ") and Eur-uale (" far howling ") ; while the third was mortal 
and called Medousa or " mad " fear. Medousa consorted with Poseidon 
in a temple of Athene (Fear, Ocean, and the Dawn), and Athene 
being enraged, decreed that whoever should look on this maddened 
Gorgon should be turned to stone by fear. Hence Perseus, the sun, 
slew her without seeing her — cutting off her head. In the earliest 
representations she has a round face and protruded tongue. The 
Qorgonian head appears on Etruskan and Greek shields, intended to 
frighten the foe, and is worn also by Athene. 

Gosain. Gossain. These are saintly followers of the Vishnuva 



Gospels 1^1 

Brahman (see Chaitanya) who proclaimed the religion of love ; but 
the term is applied to any Hindu ascetik of Brahman caste, and 
Gauriya Brahmans are many. A Gosain may be, or may not be, a 
celibate and ascetik. The notorious Yalabhacharyas of the " Bombay 
Maharaja" trials (see ffiaty. of Mahdrajaa, 1865), were Gosains. 
Some are learned and wealthy ; all are notorious for sensual lives ; 
some claim rights regarding women that are also admitted in the case 
of Dervishes among Moslems. As brides were offered to Irish chiefs 
(or French nobles), so too the old communistic right is claimed 
by Gosains. Usually in India they go about as mendicants (like 
Sanyasis), often naked save for a dirty yellow loin cloth. Their hair 
is long and matted, their bodies are covered with vermin ; thousands 
of such Brahmans are scattered over India; and even educated 
Hindus pester them to take their daughters, even in nominal marriage. 
They say that Krishna, as the Lord of Love, has given to them rights 
over all females, since he is the Gdpa and the lord of Gdpi nymphs 
(see Gurus). 

Gospels. The English word " God-spell," meaning " God's news," 
is a rendering of the Greek " £u-angelion," or ''good message" (see Bible, 
a^id Christ). We possess no text of the four Canonical Gospels older 
than the 4th century, and no really reliable notice of their existence 
before about 175 A.c. (the Muratorian Canon giving a list of New 
Testament Books) : for quotations in the '* Fathers " are admitted to be 
untrustworthy, owing to corruptions in the texts of Patristic litera- 
tare. In the Canonical Epistles — that is to say as late, at least, 
as 63 A.C. — we do not find any allusion to written accounts of the 
life of Christ, or of bis teaching. The traditional views as to the 
origin of the Gospels rest on statements made by Eusebius, in our 
•1th century, which may or may not be reliable ; and there is no 
earlier evidence, save a fragment of Matthew's Gospel found in 
E^ypt, on papynis, which is attributed to the 2nd or 1\t6. century. 
By the end of the 3rd century there were many gospels, and 
collections of Logia or ''-say logs" of Christ (see Apokruphlkl 
Gospels) ; but Celsus objected that there was no true account. 
Papias is quoted by Eusebius as an authority ; but even he 
*' never saw the Lord." Justin Martyr does not speak of four 
Gospels, though he is supposed to have quoted them. Irenseus 
is the first (as his text stands) to mention the four. It is ad- 
mitted, by those who are aware of textual studies, that certain 
passages in our text are very doubtful (Luke xxii, 43, 44 ;> John v, 
4; viii, 1-11) as not occurring in the oldest MSS. ; and t^he saine 



162 Gospels 

applies to the last verses of Mark (xvi, 9-20); while those in 
Matthew (xxviii, 16-20) seem also to be a later addition to the 
original book. [Such interpolations naturally gave rise to the view that 
the Gospels were written late. It is clear that the concluding passage 
in the Fourth Gospel (John xxi, 24, 25) could not have been written 
by John the Apostle, even if we could admit that a Galilean fisher- 
man was likely to become able to write Greek, and to understand the 
philosophy of Plato and Philo. On the other hand, the expectation 
of Christ's return during the lifetime of His own generation (Uatt 
xxivy 34 ; Mark xiii, 30 ; Luke xxi, 32) could hardly have been put 
in writing after it had been falsified by the death of the latest 
survivors. The passages quoted speak so clearly of the siege of 
Jerusalem that they may be supposed later than 70 A.C. ; but they 
are hardly likely to be much later than 100 A.C. The date of 
" Luke " is not really fixed (as earlier than 63 A.c.) by the preface of 
Acts ; because, though the two works may be by the same writer, who 
inserts passages in the first person taken apparently from the memoirs 
of a companion of Paul, yet we have no evidence of the date when he 
wrote, or of his having been named Luke. The tradition quoted 
by Eusebius, as derived from Papias, says that Matthew wrote in 
Hebrew, and that " every one interpreted as he was able." We have 
no such Hebrew work ; and the passages quoted by the Fathers, from 
a " Gospel of the Hebrews" which has not been recovered, are not in 
Matthew, since they include a fiery baptism in Jordan, and the 
carrying of Christ to Mt Tabor by his ** mother " the Holy Ghost 
The idea that Mark wrote in Rome is probably founded on a single 
allusion (Coloss. iv, 10); Papias says that Mark was ''an interpreter 
of Peter (who) wrote down accurately, though not in order, the things 
that were said and done by Christ" The allusion to " John the 
Elder" by Papias is also a similar deduction (see 2 John verse 1); 
and Dionysius of Alexandria (248-265 A.C.) was the first to remark 
that the Gospel, and Epistles, attributed to John were in a style so 
different from that of the Revelation that tiie same author could 
hardly have written both. It is quite possible that Mark and 
Matthew were gospels used by the Palestine Church : Luke by that of 
Antioch : and John by that either of Ephesus or of Alexandria, after 
about 100 A.C. The Fourth Gospel was written by one who knew 
Palestine, and who correctly calls the inhabitants of Jerusalem 
lavdaioi (which we render ^ Jews ") since they belonged to the tribe 
of Judah ; but the work was penned especially to oppose Gnosticism 
(see Gnostiks), and claims only to rest on the authority of a beloved 
disciple, who appears to have been John. The writer knew Hebrew ; 



Gospels 163 

but whether be was a Jew is less certain. Luke also was apparently 
a Gentile ; and it was natural that the Grospels should be written in 
Greek — the great literary language of the age, used also by Josephus 
— ^as being addressed to the Roman world. All we can find through 
comparative study is, that Matthew and Luke agree generally as to 
matters mentioned by Mark, but disagree whenever they add what is 
not there given ; while the Fourth Gospel is an entirely independent 
work, conflicting with the other accounts, and of equally uncertain 
<iate. — Ed.] 

The disciples of Christ (excepting Judas Iscariot who came from 
Samaria) were Galileans, and mostly fishermen. They were Hebrews, 
and knew nothing of Greek, being no doubt strongly opposed to all 
foreigners whether Greek or Roman. Galilee was a region (according 
to the Rabbis) remarkable for its ignorance ; and the Galilean dialect 
was not that of Jerusalem, as we know from the Gospels. Peter and 
his companions had little sympathy with the views of Paul, who was 
acquainted with the semi-Greek philosophy of the Jews — as repre- 
sented by Philo. The Gospel of Mark, and that of Matthew, appear 
to have been written by Galilean Hebrews ; but Luke was appar- 
ently a Greek companion of Paul, while the author of the Gospel 
*' after" (or "according to") John was more probably an Alexan- 
drian Jew. If these Gospels had been known to the writers of the 
New Testament Epistles they would probably have quoted them ; 
but they do not even mention any of the " Logia " therein recorded as 
spoken by Christ. Dr Davidson (on the Canon of the Fathera) 
remarks that none of the bishops knew '' either the authors of 
the Gospels, or the date of the writings they canonized." These 
gospel widters make no claim to have been inspired ; and would 
probably have beeo amazed by the idea that their tractates were 
written by dictation of the Holy Ghost. Canon Westcott (Faith 
<ind Reason, 1896) said that "the canon of the New Testament 
cannot be proved by appeal to the Patristic writings . . . these 
allude ouly to the substance — not authenticity — of the Gospels " ; 
that 18 to say that they do not vouch for their being contemporary 
records. The views of Dionysius the Areopagite, though accepted by 
Thomas Aquinas, are admitted by Westcott to be those of an unknown 
person at Edessa about 480 to 620 A.C. 

According to the latest critics (Encydop, Bib., 1899) Matthew 
was penned in 105 A.C. ; and the Fourth Gospel by "John the 
Presbyter " (or Elder) ; while Luke could not have been written by 
^ny companion of Paul. Dr Davidson supposed that, from Hebrew 
I^fti and from a primitive form of Hebrew gospel, came that of Mark, 



164 Gospels 

on which those *' according to " Matthew and Luke depended, being 
contemporary with the Didache. In Acts (xx, 35) Paul is reported to 
have quoted Christ's words, '' It is more blessed to give than to receive'* 
— a Logion which does not occur in any of the four Gospels. Clement 
of Rome, and Justin Martyr, laid great stress on the '* sayings of Jesus ''i 
but the " Gospel of Peter " is held by many to be quite as early (about 
115 A.C.) as the canonical gospels, though expressing the views of the 
Doceta3, who did not believe in the material nature of Christ. [We 
do not even know whether Paul agreed with those who taught that 
Jesus rose from the dead in his material body, or with those who held 
that he rose in a spiritual body (see 1 Cor. xv, 35-54). — ^Ed.] The 
miracles recorded in the " Gospel of Peter " are like those of mediaeval 
legends ; the stone rolls itself aside ; the cross speaks in answer to 
voices from the sky ; angels whose heads are lost in the clouds attend 
on Jesus, whose head also rises till lost in the heavens. Reasonable 
men in the past rejected these marvels, but those of the canonical 
gospels are not less incredible. 

Prof. Ludwig Paul, as an advocate of the Fourth Gospel, revives 
Baur's old theory, placing the synoptics as late as 130 to 150 A.C 
He thinks that " Justin (Martyr) had no acquaintance with any of the 
synoptics." Dr Davidson, however, tJiought that the Fourth Gospel 
was "written in 150 (A.C.) by some unknown author"; and another 
writer {Encyclop, Brit,^ 1881) says, "by some Ephesian elder who 
knew St John. ... It is certainly not John's composition." According 
to the synoptics the ministry of Jesus lasted only one year, but accord- 
ing to the Fourth Gospel it must have lasted three or four. The 
former authorities speak of his death as occurring on the day after the 
Passover, but the latter writer as taking place before the Passover was 
eaten. None of the former mention the raising of Lazarus, on which 
the Fourth Gospel insists, or the spearing of Christ by a soldier, which, 
according to the Fourth Gospel, proved that he died. The long mystic 
discourses in the Fourth Gospel present to us Jesus as the incarnate 
XiOgos, and have no counterpart in the synoptics, where Jesus is recorded 
to have uttered short logia and parables. These discourses remind as 
of the philosophy and mysticism of Paul, and of the Gnostiks. The 
Archon of the world (John xii, 31) was the Hebrew Yahveh according 
to the Gnostiks, an evil deity, like the devil whom Christ called the 
father of the Jews (John viii, 44). But all these writers alike believed 
sincerely in miracles attributed to Jesus, which are quite as difficult to 
believe as any others attributed to other gods or heroes. The difficulty 
in accepting these, felt by those who have received a scientific education, 
is so insurmountable that they serve to discredit the whole narrative: 



Gospels 166 

and the ethical teaching which it includes is thus obscured (see 
Miracles). Christ is represented as believing that Moses wrote the 
Pentateuch, and David even Psalms in which he is addressed by some 
other poeL [Jesus, however, often is made to refer only to '* those of 
old time." The documentary evidence shows that later scribes some- 
times inserted the name of a writer where the older text of the Qospel 
only quotes " the prophet " ; and they did this incorrectly (see Matt, 
xxvii, 9 ; Zech. xi, 13). — Ed.] No doubt the writers held the ordinary 
views of Jews in that age on these questions ; and Christ may have 
quoted the words ** Tahveh said to my Adon " (Psalm ex, 1) as if 
spoken by David (Matt xxii, 43) ; but we have no contemporary 
record of anything that he said. The general opinion of to-day seems 
to be that the authors of the Gospels shared the common beliefs and 
superstitions of their age, and repeated oral traditions, and the contents 
of earlier writings by unknown authors, which are no longer known 
to exist 

Setting aside all apocryphal writings, and the Onostik mysticism 
of the Fourth Gospel, we may suppose that a residuum of fact remains, 
which even historical purists can admit as such ; that about the com- 
mencement of our era a pious Jewish teacher lived in Palestine, and 
went about teaching ethikal truths which Hillel and others also 
taught, and following the mode of life that was customary abo among 
the Essenes, and the Jordan baptists. His forerunner had proclaimed 
that One among them, whom they knew not, was the expected Messiah ; 
and the followers of Jesus proclaimed him to be such, although he had 
forbidden them to do so openly. They brought him, as Messiah, 
triumphantly into Jerusalem, where he was arrested by the frightened 
priests, accused of blasphemy and sedition, and given ovel* by the 
Roman governor, very unwillingly, to be crucified. His followers 
believed that he died on the cross (see Crosses), and they found the 
rock tomb in which he was laid open and empty. He was said to have 
appeared to them afterwards, both in Jerusalem and in Galilee ; and 
Paul, though apparently not an eye-witness of any of the events of this 
time, believed that he had so been seen (1 Cor. xv, 3-7). He also 
believed Jesus to have instituted a memorial rite symbolic of his 
niartyrdom (1 Cor. x, 16, 17; xi, 17-34), which already, within a 
generation, had become a "communion" giving rise to disorders 
among the converts. The believers continued, for at least a century, 
m the East, to expect the return of their Master at the end of the 
world : for he had said '* My kingdom is not of this world," and had 
himself predicted such a return in the clouds of heaven, accompanied 
by thousands of angels. But this belief died away among the Greek 



166 Gospels 

and Roman Gnostik Christians ; and even in Paul's lifetime Christians 
denied the resurrection of the dead (1 Cor. xv, 12). 

After about 100 a.c, a great many accounts of Jesus and 
collections of his sayings were written, as the first generation of 
witnesses died out, and oral traditions began to be set. down in 
writing. Some of these followed the purely Jewish ideas of the 
original disciples ; others followed Paul, in whose belief Jesus was the 
pre-existent Logos ; others went further and regarded him as either a 
divine phantom, or as a holy man possessed by the Holy Ghost. We 
learn from the four Gospels themselves (Luke i, 1 ; John xxi, 25) that 
many had already written accounts of what was believed before they 
were penned; but by about 170 or 180 A.C., these four bad attained 
to peculiar estimation ; and nearly 300 years after the Crucifixion 
they were declared to be the " only authentic Apostolic records of the 
Lord," in opposition to all Gnostik doctrines* They were added to the 
collection of Epistles by Paul and other teachers, forming the new 
Bible of Christian churches. Finally they came to be ascribed to the 
four authors on whose authority they were believed to rest (see Dr 
Harnack's History of Dogma ; and Kenan's History of Christianity), 
To those who regard the traditions as incredible it is a matter of very 
little importance whether they were written in the 1st or 2nd 
century. We have no more certainty as to the original text of these 
writings than we have in the case of Old Testament books. We know 
that small, but often important, alterations were made in the wording 
by scribes of our 4th and 5th centuries. An additional copy (supposed 
to belong to the 8th century) was found by Mrs Lewis in 1892, at the 
Sinai Monastery, and transcribed in 1893 by Dr Bensley. It is 
written in Syriak, on vellum, having been effaced in 779 A.c. in order 
to reuse the parchment to record the legend of a martyr. From this 
copy we learn that Jesus was the first-born son of Joseph — as indeed 
appears from the third Gospel (Luke ii, 41, 43, 48) according to the 
oldest MSS. though later scribes substituted (in verse 43) the words 
"Joseph and his mother" for the words "his parents" (see Bible)L 
Prof. Huxley said truly that : " The question of the age and author- 
ship of the Gospels is not of much importance, for the simple reason 
that even the reports of eye-witnesses would not suffice to justify belief 
in a large essential part of their contents ; on the contrary these 
reports would discredit the witnesses." 

An interesting discovery was made in 1897, at Oxyrhynchtts, 
on the border of the Libyan desert, about 120 miles S. of Cairo. It 
is a leaf from a papyrus book, containing eight Logia or ** sayings " 
attributed to Jesus. It is written in the Greek characters in use 



Gotama 167 

perhaps as early as 150 A.C., though it may be as late as 300 A.a 
The writer is thought to show the influence of the tract On the 
ContemplcUive Life ascribed to Philo (30 to 50 B.C.), and of the 
Jewish Essenes (see AtheTicewm, July 1897). There were many such 
Logia (as Papias is said to have called them), besides those in the four 
Gospels, some of which however are evidently of Gnostik origin, like 
those in the " Gospel of the Egyptians/' No less than 61 such sayings 
(many of very doubtful authenticity) have been carefully collected (see 
Rev. Dr B. Pick, Ph.D., in the Chicago Open Cowrt, September 1897) ; 
and they have been studied with great scientific and literary minute- 
ness. The collection suggests the existence of primitive Gospels now 
lost, out of which our four Gospels grew. 

We have no authentic accounts of the history of any of the New 
Testament writers, or of the later actions of Peter and other disciples. 
There are legends to be found in Syriak and ^thiopik fragments (see 
Dr Wallace Budge, History of the Twelve Apostlea); but these 
narratives all bear the stamp of romance. The Mariolatry which 
characterises such accounts is itself evidence that they are not older 
than our 5th century. As regards both these and the four Gospels, 
the foundations of the faith are based solely on tradition. [From the 
Gospels themselves we gather that the first disciples were very often 
vmable to understand what their Master said. We see dimly, in the 
accounts that we possess, a beautiful and loving figure of one who had 
compassion on the poor and ignorant, and who laid down his life for 
his friends : who knew the Hebrew Scripture from boyhood, and 
strove to free the spirit of its noblest conceptions from the dead letter 
of Kabbinic formalism. The power of early Christianity lay in this 
deep sympathy with human hopes and sorrows ; but, to the writers 
of gospels, the wonders in which all men then believed seemed 
more important, as evidence of truth, than the loving words of 
Jesus. — Ed,] 

Gotama. Gautama. Buddha is commonly known as Gotama 
the Muni (" teacher ") of the Sakya race, but his family name was 
Siddartha (see Buddha). Gotama appears to have been a clan name. 
In Tibet it becomes Geontan, in Mongolia Godam, in Siam Eodom, 
and in China Kiu-tan. A Gotama is said to have founded the Nyaya 
school of philosophy, and to have been the author of the Dharma 
Sastra — a wise hermit who, according to his legend, married Ahalya a 
daughter of Brahma. Durga is also called Gotami ; and one of the 
12 great lingams of India was named Gotam-Isvara. 

Goths. The. name of this Teutonic race is rendered ''noble" 



I68r Govan-Dana 

(Mr Bradley, Ooths) or ''mighty" (see Out). They are found S. 
of the Baltic Sea, and East of the River Vistula, from the 4tb 
century B.C. (Pythias) to the Ist century A.a (Tacitus), and the 2nd 
(Ptolemy) : they were widely spread, the Visigoths (or " west 
Croths ") being led to oppose the Romans by ** Bal-things " or " bold '' 
kings, and the Ostrogoths (or ''east Goths") by Amalings or 
** mighty ones." Their great deity was Tiw or Teu — the equivalent 
of Deva — who was a war god ; while Helya was their godess of the 
lower world. They were served by priests and priestesses. Authentic 
history of the Goths begins in 245 A.C., when they invaded Moesia 
and Thrakia. They slew the Roman Emperor Decius, and Gallas 
his successor had to buy them off. Their invasion of Greece (253 to 
268) led to the sack of Athens. Constantino twice defeated them, 
but in 330 a.c. they, in turn, defeated his armies and signed a peace 
for 30 years. After 350 A.C. they were driven W. and S. by the 
Huns from Central Asia ; and these Turkish armies harried them 
till the death of Attila in 453 A.c. The east Goths were then 
spread all over Dacia (now Hungary), and in 410 A.C. Alaric, their 
leader, sacked Rome. The west Goths followed the Vandals into 
Gaul and Spain in 412 A.c. ; and for 32 years the great Theodorik 
ruled the greater part of S.W. Europe. In 476 the western Empire 
of Rome was destroyed by Odoacer ; and the Catholic Church would 
probably have succumbed but for the Frankish victories — Clovis 
(480 A.C.) driving the Goths to Spain, where they mingled with other 
populations, disappearing as a distinct race about 650 A.C. 

The Goths received Greek civilisation from the traders of Olbia, 
near Kiev, perhaps as early as the 6th century B.c. Their '^Ranes" 
were Greek letters (see Dr Isaac Taylor, Alphabet^ ii, p. 215). They 
took the side of Arius in the great schism of 325 A.C., having been 
converted to Christianity by the Greeks. Thus they became per- 
secutors of the Popes in Italy ; and the triumph of Latin Christianity 
in W. Europe was due to the Franks, who opposed the Goths and 
protected the Popes. 

Govan-dana. The sacred hill near Mathura, overlooking the 
Jamna River, where Ejrishna sported with the Gdpl nymphs. Human 
sacrifices were once here offered, but now only milk, rice, and flowers, 
with prayers. 

Govinda. Krishna was so called, after his war with Indra, as 
the leader of the Qopls. 

Grail. Graal. Greal. Terms in old French for a dish 



Grain 169 

or a flat bowl, from the Low Latin grcUeUa whence gradcUe and 
grcuKxlej diminutives of crater, *' a cup " or bowl. The Holy Grail 
was supposed to be the dish (or otherwise the cup) of the Last Supper, 
and its legends are akin to those of Buddha's begging bowl in India. 
Among the £elts a kaire was a large wooden bowl, such as are found 
in bogs in Ireland. In the legend of the battle of Magh-rath (Moyra, 
'*the great fort") in 637 A.C., the sons of the King of Scotland pray 
the Prince of Ulster for his " Caire Ainsiun/' which '' gives to each 
his just share, and sends none empty away." Whatever was put in 
it, it boiled just enough for the assembled company according to their 
rank. Caires were bowls for milk and mead, and magic cups (see 
Century Mag., April 1890, p. 897). According to the legend 
(Prof. Skeat on New Testament legends) Joseph of Arimathea 
collected the blood of Christ in the OraiL Hence arose, in the 
Middle Ages, the false etymology which converted the San-grail into 
the " sang-real " or *' true blood," which healed sickness and wounds, 
made the old young, and bestowed rest and ineffable delight on the 
pious. Like the Soma worship this cultus sprang originally from the 
consecration of intoxicating wine. The Orail disappeared in days of 
unbelief, but when Arthur and his knights established Christianity it 
was seen again, and became the object of their " quest," being found 
in the safe keeping of King Peleas, or of "brother Pelles." The 
Skandinavians had a similar legend pf the ''dwarfs cup," which, 
Uke the Soma cup of the Vedas, was the source of poetry and wisdom : 
for wine "cheereth the Elohim and man" (Judg. ix, 13). The term 
Grail, according to Mr Surtees (Notes amd QuerieSy 9th April 1887), 
came to be applied, as a general term, to any holy thing. 

Grain. Grian. Keltik : ** shining," " yellow," " green," the 
" sun " (see Gar), personified (as among Germans) as a female. In 
Panjabi Garav is the sun (Sanskrit Gravdn), and the Greeks had an 
Apollo Grunaios, the sacred river Grunaios also flowing from Mt 
Ida. Dolmens in Ireland are called " beds of Diarmed and Grain," 
and the legend of their elopement (see Fin) speaks of 365 such beds, one 
for each day of the year, connecting the Dolmens with solar worship. 

Granth. The Sikh Bible (see Sikhs). It includes the Adi- 
Granth of Nanak the founder, about 1540 A.C., and the second Granth 
of Govind-Singh, his 9th successor (1675 to 1708 A.C.). Nanak 
strove to unite Moslems and Hindus as brothers ; and it is related of 
him that a Moslem kicked him for presuming to lie with his feet 
towards Makka and the " House of God," but only elicited the mild 
reply : '* Pray turn them in any direction in which the House of God 



170 Graphiel 

is not." The second Oranth, which departs considerably firom Nanak's 
teaching, is called the " Dasama Padshah-ka Granth " or " Bible of 
the tenth ruler." It includes an impassioned account of the trials, 
faith, and battles of the Sikhs or '"disciples" who, under Grovind. 
became Singhs (from SimJia) or " lions." No other scriptures were 
to be allowed, yet Nanak had said : " I implore you to read other 
scriptures as well as your own ; but remember that all reading is 
useless without obedience : for God decrees that none shall be saved 
except he perform good works. He will not ask what is your tribe 
or belief, but * What good have you done ? ' Put on armour which 
will harm none. Let thy coat of mail be understanding. C!oDvert 
thine enemies into friends ; fight valiantly, but with no weapon save 
the Word of God." 

In the time of Govind-Singh, Nanak was worshiped as he still 
is, but this Tenth Guru said : " Whoever shall call me Param-eswara 
(the Supreme) shall siuk into helL ... I announce what God speaks 
... to establish virtue and to exalt piety was I sent into this world ; 
but also to exterminate vice, and wicked irreligion." " Wherever five 
Sikhs (or ''disciples") are assembled there also shall I be present" 
(see Malcolm's Sikha). " Singhs must not keep company with heretics, 
schismatics, or sectaries who intrigue against the faith ; yet they must 
be gentle and polite to all, and endeavour to attain to the excellences 
of their Guru." Temples were to be reverently approached, and that 
at Amritsa especially to be visited in order to secure the unity of the 
Khalsa State, the interests of which are superior to any others, and 
even to life itself. Prayer, and the reading of God's Word, are the 
first morning, and the last evening, duties of the Sikh. 

Graphiel. A spirit in l^abbalistik enumerations : '' The might of 
God " ; answering to Gabriel. 

Grass. Many ancient rites are connected with grass. The Kusa 
grass was early sacred to Aryans (see Ag). Grass was the support of 
the flocks and herds of the nomads. It used also to be connected 
with Manx rites (Rivera of Life, ii, p. 441, 442), and many grass 
rites occur among American Indians (see Capt. Bourke, Medici^^ 
Men of the Apachea, p. 527). Rushes, as covering for rude shelters, 
have similar importance. The married pair are seated, and covered 
with fresh grass as an emblem of productiveness (Grihya Sutras). The 
Azteks and Apaches believed that they sprang from rushes, over which 
their god Napatekutli presides. They scatter the pollen of flowering 
rushes at birth and marriage festivals, and at the Eucharistic rites of 
Tlalok. 



Greeks i7i 

Greeks. The *Qraikoi" (see Grote, History of Oreece, ii, 11) 

were an Illyrian people whose name meant '' mountaineers " ; and the 

fiomans, coming first into contact with these Oreci, extended the title 

to all the Hellenic races, known originally as Danai, Akhaioi, Hellenes, 

Dorians, and others. These tribes all came from the N.K, following 

Thrakians, Pelasgi, and other early Slav or Kelto-Latin races. All 

were equally rude, and learned Asiatic civilisation from the Turanians of 

Asia Minor, and from Babylonian and Phoenician traders ; borrowing also 

no doubt from Egyptians about 1300 B.C. (see Egypt). At Troy and 

at Mycenae, about 1500 B.C., we find an Asiatic culture among a people 

who apparently were unable to write. [The Greeks obtained their 

syllabiuries and alphabets, their early arts, their weights and measures, 

and many legends and names of gods, from Asia Minor (see Edin. 

Seview, July 1901, pp. 28-48, "Greece and Asia"). In her great 

age (500 lo 300 B.c.) the Greeks had far surpassed their early teachers, 

and their infiuence and language spread over Asia, and dominated the 

Seleucid and Ptolemaic empires as far as India and Upper Egypt, for 

two centuries more ; but the basis of this civilisation is found in 

Babylonia. — Ed.] As the Greeks reached the coasts of the jEgean, 

and passed over into Ionia, they came in contact with arts then quite 

unknown in Europe. Only about 800 to 700 B.c. did their bards begin 

to weave legendary histories, mythologies, and poetry, out of the oral 

traditions of their own race, and the myths of Asiatics. The Greeks 

adopted the Asianic syllabary, and the early alphabets of Karians, 

Lycians, and Phoenicians. Dated Greek texts in alphabetic writing 

go back only to about 600 RC. The early Mgeaji pottery, marked 

sometimes with syllabic signs, is similar to that of Kappadokia and of 

Palestine (see Jowmal RL Asiatic Socy., 1890, p. 213). There is 

no evidence of Aryan speech in alphabetic characters E. of Phrygia 

before about 700 B.c. But in Asia Minor the European Aryans met 

the Iranian current (Medes and later Persians) which flowed W. to the 

shores of the ^gean. Almost every Hellenic State, as Dr Isaac Taylor 

tells us {Alphabet, ii, pp. 4, 1 1 0), had its own alphabet, borrowed from 

Phoenicians or others ; but the great Ionian alphabet included five 

final letters which are not Phoenician, but are used by early Karians, 

Lydans, and Phrygians, and are traceable to the older ** Asianic 

syllabary." 

The modern Greeks, like their ancestors, are a mixed Aryan race, 
having much Slav blood in their veins. [The pale, dark-eyed, dark- 
haired Greek of to-day is very different from the golden-haired, blue- 
eyed Hellen, or the red-haired and hazel-eyed type that is represented 
by the early painted statues of gods at Athens. — Ed.] They retain 



172 Greeks 



much of their ancient mythology — especially in the Greek islands — 
in the form of popular folk-lore, mingled with Christian legends. 
St Nicholas has inherited the worship of sailors from PoseidOn. St 
Pemetrius takes the place of D€-m6t6r or the ''earth mother/' 
Artemis is succeeded by the unknown St Artemidos (see Bent's 
Inavlar Oreek GvMoma). The rites and superstitions, among even 
fairly educated Qreeks, are as numerous as of old. As in the days of 
Herodotos, the handsomest man must be the first to kiss the babe, 
and the wisest woman the first to suckle it. The most beautiful 
woman among the Spartans had been the ugliest babe, till her nurse 
took her to the temple of Helen. In Karpathos the child's patron 
saint and name are determined by the candle bearing it being the last 
alight : the " Father of Fate " is invoked to bless the child, with au 
offering of bread and honey in a bowl. Greeks go up the mountains 
to call on the Fates, and hang charms on their children's necks to 
ward off the evil eye. They avoid the use of unpropitious words, 
and call colic " sweetness," smallpox " praise," and minor ailments 
" unintentionals." A naughty child is said to have Charon for a 
sponsor, and a Nereid for dam ; but these spirits may be appeased 
by spreading a tablecloth on a cliff, or by a river where they live, 
putting on it bread, honey, wine, and knife and fork, with a new 
candle and an incense censer. In the island of Eeos weakly babes 
are brought to St Artemidos, to be healed at his hillside shrine 
Throughout the islands Charon has become a Satan — '*the lord of 
hell " — a giant with flaming eyes, riding a black horse, and gathering 
the dead. Sometimes as a beast, or bird, he darts on his victims, 
whom he ferries over to Hades, where his palace is decked with human 
bones. He gives the dead the water of Lethe, so that they forget the 
past (see £r) ; and the ** obelus " for Charon is still placed in the hand 
or mouth of the corpse ; while priests place in the coffin a wax cross, 
with the letters I. X. N. (*' Jesus Christ conquers "). St Elias has 
taken the place of Helios — the sun (see Elijah), and is a giant who 
requires food and worship. He devours his own parents and children, 
and Eos, who is the virgin opening the red gate for the Lord of Glory 
to come forth. Eclipses, according to these Greeks, are of evil omen 
(as in China), and brass kettles should be then beaten, and guns fired, 
to drive away the demons. The winds are still personified. The hated 
N. wind escapes from its Thrakian caves, and Michael the archangel 
binds the sons of Boreas in their tombs with a great stone over them — 
as Herakles slew Zetes and Kalais, sons of Boreas. All winds assemble 
at certain times to dance together on mountain tops. 

The twelve months, the islanders say, are twelve handsome 



Greek Church 173 

youths, but one is fickle and untrustworthy — a secret friend of 
Charon. The agriculturist must roast goats and fowls, and pour 
out wine, before the first sod is turned in ploughing. At Naxos 
St Dionysius must be honoured if the vineyard is to prosper. In 
Paros this Dionysius has become " the drunken St Qeorge/' and 
orgies occur in his honour, with the sanction of priests, on 3rd 
November. No seed is sown till some of it has been presented 
with flowers (especially the rose) at a church. Sir Charles Wilson 
(Asiatic Quarterly , Jan. 1887, "The Greeks in Asia") says: "The 
superstitions of the Greeks and the Turks are the same . . . both 
sects reverence the skeleton of St Gregory . . . the Christians and 
Moslems own a church in common, and hold in equal veneration 
a box of bones, said by some to be bones of St Mamas, and by 
others of Christ . . . these superstitions have far more influence over 
the daily life of the Greeks than their religion, for they do not 
imderstand a word of the church services, and look upon them as 
mere forms, which have to be gone through, to ensure salvation.'^ 
Grood deities do not need to be propitiated, but at noon and at dusk 
the evil Lamia, and Strigla (the Latin Strix) are to be feared, while 
Pan and Charon rage in the noonday heat and in the darkness. 

Greek Church. [This Church is the second in importance as 
regards the numbers of its adherents, in Christendom ; for the tenets 
of the Russian Church, under the Tzar, are the same as those of the 
Greek Orthodox and Catholic Church. The Greeks definitely separated 
from the Latins in 858 A.C., when Fhotius was made Patriarch of 
Constantinople by the Greek Emperor Michael III. The two Churches 
had diflfered as to the question whether the Holy Ghost proceeded 
only from the Father, or, as Latins said, from the Father and the 
Son, and as to the use of images, other than pictures, in churches ; 
but the separation coincides with the appearance of the new western 
empire of Charlemagne and his successors, which was inimical to the 
Greeks, and which protected the Eoman Pope. The breach widened 
when Latin clergy superseded Greeks in Palestine after the first 
crusade, and became incurable in the 13th century, when the 
Normans established a dynasty in Constantinople. No council of 
all Catholic Churches was possible after 451 A.C., nor of combined 
Greeks and Latins after 787 A.C., when the Iconoclasts were con- 
demned. — Ed.] If we take the total number of Christians not to 
exceed 500 millions, the Church of Rome claims some 240 millions 
or nearly haUl Protestants may be reckoned as not exceeding 100 
millions, and the Oriental Churches include only about 10 millions. 



174 Greek Church 

The Greek Church cannot therefore include more than 150 milliong 
of nominal adherents, and in 1880 it numbered less than 90 millions, 
against 239 millions of Roman Catholics. 

The Greek Church differs from the Latin in various points, 
besides the *' Filioque Clause " as to the Procession of the Holj 
Ghost. It has the same seven sacraments — ^baptism, confirmation, 
penance, the £ucharist, matrimony, extreme unction, and holy orders. 
It teaches transubstantiatiou, the invocation of saints, and prayer for 
the dead, as do the Latins. But it rejects later Roman dogmas, such 
as Purgatory, works of supererogation, and Papal infallibility, with the 
immaculate conception of the Virgin. It does not insist on celibacy 
of the clergy, for it allows all priests to marry before ordination. It 
celebrates the Eucharist with leavened bread, and with warm water 
mixed with the wine. Baptism it administers in the more ancient 
manner by immersion, and not by sprinkling. It allows priests to grow 
their beards ; and its bishops wear crowns instead of mitres. At no 
time in history did the Greek Church, as a whole, ever admit the 
claim to supremacy over all Catholics which the bishops of Rome 
advanced from the times when Christian Rome was still the capital of 
an undivided empire. The Greek monks follow for the most part the 
'* Rule of St Basil," and from them alone are bishops selected. They 
live in seclusion and gross idleness in their monasteries, engaged in 
an endless round of prayers and meditations, like those of Buddhist 
ascetiks. According to Von Maurer (see Mr J. Brown, Oreek 
Chwrch), "out of 1000 priests only 10 could write in 1832," 
and few know anything of the great doctrines which have divided 
the Churches. To the laity religion is a mere round of fasts and 
festivals, which have a semi-magical importance. Dean Stanley says 
that for a thousand years the Eastern Church has never moved, as 
regards either theology or philosophy. It is notorious, among all 
who really know the Levant, that the grossest immorality, corruption, 
and simony characterise the Greek clergy. Ecclesiastical rank is 
bought and sold almost openly, and for two centuries patriarchs 
have rarely held office for more than about three years. Jew and 
Turk alike are leagued with the more powerful ecclesiastics, in 
intrigues for dismissing and retaining holders of sacred offices — 
poor ignorant men concerned only in earning their daily bread by 
endless services and visitations, for which they receive fees, fining 
their iiocks for non-attendance, and other sins. They frighten them 
with threats of excommunication, social ostracism, and hell fire, much 
as the Roman clergy also do. The church service, as far as the laity 
are concerned, consists in listening and looking on, lighting candles, 



Green 175 

and repeating again and again *' Have mercy, Lord, have mercy " — 
often emphasised by striking the head on the church flagstones so 
violently as to be heard from far off. The liturgy is in a language 
which even priests no longer understand ; and the reading of saintly 
legends takes the place of any attempt to educate the ignorant, who 
are kept on their knees before pictures, and relics, for 226 days in 
the year. The churches are full of untold wealth, in the useless forms 
of jewelled lamps and vestments, and pictures overlaid with gold. 
At least 200 millions sterling is annually subscribed by the laity, 
to support this system, yet the Greek priests are both hated and 
despised. 

Green* This is the color of youth, spring, and verdure (see 
Colors). The mysterious " el Ehudr " (the '* green one ") was sent 
(according to Moslem legends) to fetch the Water of Life from 
Paradise, by Dhu-el-Kamein (" he of the two horns "), or Alexander 
the Great. After much toil be found the " Fount of Youth " in the 
*'Land of Darkness," and drank some of it. But the fountain dis- 
appeared for ever, leaving el Ehudr immortal and — according to the 
^oran — a friend of Moslems. So also Varuna, lord of rainy skies in 
the Veda, rides a green crocodile ; Surya the sun has green attendants, 
and rides a green peacock. Nearly all the Saktis — or female counter- 
parts of the gods — are colored green (see Mr Eodriquez, Hindu 
Pantheon, 1841-1845, colored plates). Kama the love god is 
green, and shoots arrows at Siva and at his green consort. Green is 
the color of Nats and spirits, of elves, fays, and dwarfs. Satan 
even is sometimes painted green by Christians ; and Christ wears a 
green robe when rising at the vernal Easter. To Kelts and Skandi- 
navians green is unlucky, as the color of jealousy and of " green-eyed 
monsters." The cloak of death is green, and bad women wear green 
stockings in Hell (Notes and Qtieries^ 24th February 1900). The 
*' green faction " of Delphi was able to place Claudius on the imperial 
throne, and became powerful in Constantinople. In the 1 2th century 
the Knights of St Lazarus at Jerusalem bore a green cross — a symbol 
still used in 1389 in secret rites of Swabia and Westphalia. 

Griha. Sanskrit : '' house." See Gar. The Griha-Devas are the 
"household gods" or manes, in niches or beside altars (see 
Salagrama), 

Glitta« Grydat Two wives of Odin (see Gar '< to shine"). 
Groves. See Asei^ The worship of groves is intimately con- 



176 Gubarra 

nected with that of single trees, but the word as a translation of 
Ash^rah in Hebrew is incorrect. 

Gubarra. Probably gvhara "powerful," but otherwise read 
Dibbara, or Ura, the Babylonian plague god. The legend is found on 
broken tablets which origiually numbered five in all (see Brit. Mu8, 
Ouide, 1900, p. 74). Gubara slew many in Babylon and ErecL 
Marduk was angry and Istar wept ; for good and bad were alike 
sacrificed to him. He was pacified by praises, and promised to spare 
all who adored him. Amulets with this legend were bung up in 
houses at Nineveh ; and a scribe informs us that such an amulet made 
the house safe from pestilence. 

Gud. See Gut 

Gug^g^a. A name for God (Baghavan) in N.W. India, and else- 
where — ^perhaps '' the mighty " as a Turanian word. Also the name 
of a holy man, who is said to have lived in our 10th century, 
worshiped by the humbler classes (Indian Antiq., February 1882), 
and supposed to be an Avatara or incarnate deity. 

Guha. Sanskrit : " secret " — a name of Kartikeya, the " mysteri- 
ous one," of Siva, and of other gods, just as Amen was the ** hidden 
one " in Egypt. It probably comes from guha, a " cave " or secret 
place ; and Mithra with many other gods issues from the cave. 

GuL Keltik : " a round thing " (see Gal). The Irish called the 
round towers Gul, as also the eye, and hence the sun. It also means 
sorcery, second sight, and the month of August 

Gula. An Akkadian and Babylonian godess. She appears as 
one of the brides of Samas, but is distinguished firom Istar, and 
appears to be the mother and the earth. She is represented, on 
Kassite boundary stones of the 11th century B.C., seated and accom- 
panied by a dog. She was one of the most important godesses of 
Babylonia. 

GuUer. Gyler. In Skandinavian mythology, the guardian of 
the horses of the sun. 

Gune. Greek : " woman " (see Gan). 

Guptas. A Royal dynasty of W. India (see Mr V. Smith, 
Jowrnal Royal Asiatic Society, January 1839). Chandra-Gnpta 
(315-291 B.(\) may have been of this family. The coins, and the 
-tests such as that of the Allahabad Lat, or pillar, show the first Gupta 



Guru 177 

Maharaja to have reigned about 300 to 315 A.C. ; and Skanda-Gupta 
from 452 to 480 A.G. A seal from Gbazipur brings Gupta rule down 
to 550 A.C., extending from the E. border of Napal to the Gulf of 
Eatch. The kingdom was broken up by invasions of Hunas, or 
Hunns, who overcame Buddha-Gupta son of Skanda-Gupta, about 
500 A.c. The eastern kingdom was held by Krishna-Gupta, and ten 
descendants, from 500 to 720 A.c. The Gupta capital was Patala- 
putra (Patna), and afterwards, till 500 A.C., Eanoj. 

Gum. Sanskrit : " venerable one," applied however not only to 
teachers (as among Sikhs) but also to a Pandaram or religious mendi- 
cant Thej' rank in nearly all Hindu sects much like mediseval 
abbots, their decisions on religious, social, and even political questions 
being final. But the Guru is not a priest, and worships in temples 
like others. He makes progresses in almost regal state, throughout the 
region where his disciples live, to confirm faith, to initiate, and to 
decide causes, or points of doctrine. A Saiva Guru distributes sacred 
ashes. These Maharajas, as they are called, claim the same privileges 
as Gosains in regard to women. We have seen young wives going to 
the palace of the Maharaja of Kangwali in Rajputana, and the motives 
attributed to them were piety, the desire to receive a sacred son, and 
probably old tribal rights. The Gurus live in Maths or monasteries 
as celibates, and are rarely seen except seated on the Simhasina or 
" Uon throne " ; or on a gorgeously caparisoned elephant, surrounded 
— in native states — by cavalry, infantry, musicians, and dancing girls. 
A herald proclaims the approach of the demigod, before whom all 
fall prostrate. The Guru is often really worshiped, and decked with 
the same garlands and ornaments as the temple idol. 

We have, however, known learned Gurus — pious men who 
adopted the Siddhanta creed of Saivites, accomplishing severe ascetik 
exercises with perfect sincerity. Some become, in the eyes of their 
disciples, Jivan-muktas, " still in the flesh," but already in mystical 
union with God. Such Gurus require no further transmigrations 
before the soul enters bliss. Dr G. U. Pope, the respected missionary 
and Dravidian scholar, has described (Indian Antiq., Dec. 1894), a 
pious Guru whose friendship he valued, finding him *'a model of 
accurate, painstaking, self-denying, and conscientious adherence to 
the letter of his religion ... a man of saintly and enlightened 
devotion, full of repose, and gladly awaiting his call home.'' He 
believed the soul to come from, and return to, Siva after many 
incarnations. The Guru who has attained to this reunion is worshiped 
as the image of God on earth. 



178 Gushtasp 

Gushtasp. Kustaspi* The Hystaspes of the Greeks, ancestor 
of the first kings of Persia, and father of Darius I, who acceded 
521 B.G. He is a leading figure in the later legends of the Shah- 
nameh. 

Gut. Gud. Akkadian : " mighty one," " buU " : Turkish Kui 
"mighty" ; perhaps connected with the Indian Khuda, and Teutonic 
Oott ** God " ; as also with the name of the Goths. 

Gya, or Buddha-GEySL The most sacred spot in India, where 
Buddha took up his station under the Pipal, or Ficus Religiosa, in the 
forest of Raja-griha in the Bihar province of Bangal, some 55 miles 
S. of Fatna. Here he attained to enlightenment, and to the Path. 
The tree is about 5 miles from the town of Gya, near which is the 
shrine of the foot of Vishnu. Gya (see Vayu Purana) is said to have 
been a demon, clothed in elephant's hide, whom Vishnu captured 
He was covered with a stone, but would not lie quiet till the gods 
granted that any who worshiped on the spot should escape helL 
There are no less than 45 sacred ''stations" to be visited io 
38 shrines, which it needs 13 days, and much money, to visit Id 
Buddha's time the forests were here full of Naga tribes, and serpent 
symbolism still survives here. In the adytum of the Buddhist 
temple itself a great lingam stone shows the decay of the pure 
faith preached by the gentle ascetik. Here Hindus, scowling or 
scoffing, will now even spit on pious Buddhists, who come from the 
steppes of Mongolia, the forests of Barmah and Siam, or the cities of 
China and Japan, to worship at the holy spot (Dr Waddell, Journal 
Bl, Bengal Asiatic Socy., i, 1892). Thebau, the last king of 
Barmah, here built a rest house for his people. Japan sent later 
a valued image of the Master, which roused the jealous ire of the 
Mahants, or Hindu ruling priests, worshiping the footprint, and the 
phallic lingam in the Argha The Lamas of Darjiling believe that 
"the holy staff of Bod" (Buddha) has now rested 2400 years at 
Gya, being their Dorji or mace (see Dor-ji). 

Hiuen Tsang, the Chinese pilgrim, described Gya in 637 A.C. 
He found the holy BOdhi tree (*' tree of wisdom ") in a comer of a 
square platform raised to its N.E. The trunk and branches are now 
daubed with red ochre, as is usual among most Hindu sects. The 
Pipal tree is now in sad decay, and its vicinity was occupied when 
Sir Edwin Arnold saw it (see Daily Telegraph, letter in February 
1893) by a Brahman and his disciples. He describes the temple, 
which rises as a pyramid flanked by four lesser ones, as occupying an 
area equal to that of Bedford Square, the site being full of terraces, 



Gya 179 

stone images, and shrines. From the great plinth on which the 
pyramids stand the central tower rises nine storeys. All the 
exterior of the temple is profusely carved. The great pyramid is 
crovrned with a pinnacle, on which the gold finial represents an 
amalaka fruit. Over the E. porch is a triangular opening which 
admits the rays of the morning sun, striking on the gilded image of 
Buddha. This shrine, according to a Barmese inscription, is the 
most holy of *'the 84.000 stupas" erected by Kiog Asoka ••218 
years after the Lord Buddha's Nirvana." This shrine the Maha- 
fiodhi society of India, Barmah, and Japan, were then arranging to 
purchase ; for the dark pointed leaves of the Pipal could only be 
obtained by a gratuity to Brahman attendants chanting the praises 
of Siva, or of Vishnu, or engaged in rolling little pindas (" buns ") 
which they bake and bless as holy bread. Yet the great railing bears 
tbe inscription of Asoka (250 B.C.) marking the palmy age of 
Buddhism ; the text in the Mahants College (written in Barmese) 
as above noticed (attributing 84,000 stupas to Asoka) does not, 
however, agree with the usual date (543 B.C.) for Buddha's Nirvana. 
It says that on this spot he " tasted milk and honey." The seven 
years of meditation which Qotama here passed through *' moulded 
(says Sir Edwin Arnold) the life and religions of Asia, and modified 
a hundred Asiatic histories." What site in India, so rich with 
monuments and shrines, can be compared for imperishable associations 
with this, by the little fig tree at Buddha Gaya (India Revis, xiv, 
1886). 

At every important Buddhist site there is always a representa- 
tive " B5dhi tree," but this Pipal near the former village of Uruvela 
is the great original, and its monastery the greatest in the Buddhist 
world, tbe Maha-Bodhi Sangharama. The stupa, or pyramid, was 
repaired and plastered by the Bangal government in 1879-81. It 
is 170 feet high and 50 feet square at the base, marking, we are told, 
the "exact spot" where Buddha sat under the original B5dhi or Bo 
tree. The original temple is not later than the 1st century B.C., but 
it was extensively repaired by Barmese monarchs in our 14th century, 
and again in 1876. It is of burnt bricks, laid in mud and covered 
with a stone facing at the doors and angles, like many temples of 
Upper Barmab. The level of the whole site has been raised, by the 
accumulation of debris, some 20 feet above the natural level of 
Buddha's time. From this debris memorials of various ages are 
constantly exhumed. The fine stone railing of Asoka was among 
these. He here erected the first Vihara or monastery, with Lats, or 
pillars, bearing his wise counsels engraved upon them. The second 



180 Gymnosophists 

group of Viharas is believed to date from about 140 A.C., being due 
to the Huvisbka kings. 

Gymnosophists. " Naked wise men " — a name applied by 
the Greeks to the Indian ascetiks visiting the West, about 350 to 
200 B.C. They astonished all men by their austerities, burnlQg 
themselves, like Kalanos in Persia, as well as fasting and praying. 
Bryant (iii, p. 220) would however suppose the title to be a comip- 
tion of Shamano-sophists. The influence of such ascetiks on the West 
is elsewhere described (see Buddha, Essenes, Pythagoras). 



H 

The English letter H represents both the soft H (Hebrew Heh) 
which interchanges with S (as in the Sanskrit Soma and Zend Hcuma, 
or the Hebrew Hii and Assyrian 8u for " he "), and also the hard 
H (Hebrew Kheth), which interchanges with strong gutturals. 

Hab'al. HobaL The principal male deity of Makka and 

Arabia. The name originally appears to have been Ha-B'al, "the 

Baal" or lord, perhaps confused later with Habal — that is Abel — 

the son of Adam. The statue of Habal stood outside the E'abah 

shrine, with the 360 Ansab or erect stones, which probably formed 

a circle round it. On his triumphant return to Makkah in 632 A.c.^ 

Muhammad and his followers, in accordance with the ancient rite (see 

Dancing), solemnly circumambulated these stones seven times, and od 

the last round he is said to have exclaimed " the Truth is come,'* and 

to have pushed over the statue of Habal. The deity's consorts in the 

Hajaz were AUat (" the godess "), and Al-'Ozzah (" the mighty one ") : 

his statue stood apparently close to the Zem-zem (or "murmuring") 

sacred well (as stated by Sprenger), behind the K'abah or " square " 

temple of AUat. Habal was the special patron of the IS^oreisb tribe, 

to which Muhammad belonged, as they were the guardians of the 

Makka Haram. They claimed that their ancestor Khuzaima first 

adopted Habal, preferring him to the older gods, Khalasa (" purity "]♦ 

Nabik, and Mut'am ("decider"). 'Amr of the 'Amru clan is said 

to have brought the statue from the Belka region, which is the countrr 

E. of Jordan, in the 3rd century A.c. He was especially revered as 

sending rain, and was a god of fate. The statue was of red stone, but 

the right hand was of gold, and held the seven headless "arrows of 

fate *' used in casting lots, and called Azldm Kiddah, or " arrows of 

divination." There was a similar deity at Tebalah who was consulted 



Hadad 181 

by Azlam, and whom Muhammad also destroyed ; but he was there 
called Dhu el Ehalasah, or " he of purity." Habal was represented 
as an old man with a long beard. Sir W. Muir {Life of Muharamad, 
iv, p. 128) says that Abraham was represented on the wall of the 
K'abah in the act of divining with arrows. Probably this statement 
of later Arab writers really points to a picture of Habal. 

Hadad. In Hebrew, for Ha-dad (" the father") see Dad. This 
Syrian god, called Addu in kuneiform texts as early as the 15th 
century B.C., was the chief deity, otherwise called Rlmmon (" the most 
high"), a god of air and storm, and a thunderer. The kings of 
Damascus who bore the name Ben-Hadad ("son of Hadad") were 
named after him, and the king of Gebal in the 15th century B.C. (see 
Amarna) was named Rib- Adda [" child of Hadad," Rib in Aramaik 
signifying a child — Ed.]. According to Macrobius (Satumal, i, 23), 
he was " the one," the god of light, fire, and sun, resembling Reseph 
(a thunder god), and Zeus. 

Hadramaut. Arabia " The enclosure of death " or desert 
E. of Yaman (see Arabia), the Hebrew Hasar-maveth (Gen. x, 26). 
In this region some of the Babylonian gods were worshiped, and 
stepped pyramids like those of Babylonia were made (see Arabia). 



A demon, or screech owl, in Teutonic mythology, answer- 
iog to the Latin " fury " (see Erinues) : whence the English " hag," 
and old English hagge. The Teutonic Hagdessen were Truds (see 
Druids) or " wizards." 

Hag^g^adah. Hebrew : "narrative." That part of the Mid rash, 
or *' teaching " concerning the Jewish scriptures, which deals with the 
legendary history of their heroes, as contrasted with the Halaka or 
"exposition" of the law. The Jews regard the Haggadafa as *'a 
comfort and blessing," its . stories being regarded as allegories often 
with a moral. 

Haidas* A race found in the Queen Charlotte islands, and in 
some 200 islands of this Melanesian group E. of Australia. They 
were first known in 1790, and are considered to have drifted from 
the S.E. of Asia. They believe in two great gods of a generally good 
character, rulers of the upper and lower world. Shanungetta-gidas 
is their Zeus, and Hetgwaulana is their Pluto, who loves darkness, 
peace, and slumber. The first named, or light god, quarrelled with 
the latter, and cast him out of heaven, which became full of other 
gods — mostly hurtful to man, as producing fever and other ailments. 



182 Haidas 

and requiring therefore to be propitiated with offerings of fish and 
fruits. Such offerings are cast to the good sea god, who is asked to 
intercede for men. The descending cloud spirit, also called the 
''cannibal god/' devours men, first drawing out their spirits, and tbeQ 
seizing the bodies as they go in quest of the lost soula He is evea 
known to eat souls. The wicked souls are given over to him, and are 
sent to Hetwange, or Hades, the region of their Pluto beneath ocean. 
There they live forever naked and cold, amid storms, darkness, and 
misery. The light god is invoked to grant blessings through the 
mediation of the sun, or of the ocean god. The dark god is invoked 
to send curses on foes, with offerings of fish. Those who have been 
good on earth go up at last to Shatuge, or heaven — a land of the 
blessed, and of light, where there is no more hunger or thirst, but 
plenty, and rest among friends : there all love each other, and enjoy 
feasts and dancing. 

The greatest sin man can commit, according to the artful Saagas 
or priests, is to disregard the wishes of those by whose intercession 
alone welfare can be obtained, and whose curse condemns a man to helL 
The soul remains with the cloud spirit, or with death, for 12 months^ 
and learns many mysteries. If good it becomes the essence of pure 
light, and so acceptable to the light god, who is assured, by the spirit 
of death, that it no longer is a part of the depraved earthly body. 
But the soul has the power of revisiting friends on earth. There is 
no possible salvation, or atonement, for the wicked. To increase 
their punishment they are kept within sight of their earthly friends, 
and they are ever longing to speak with them. Some wicked souls 
do revisit earth, but they are visible only to the Saagas, who caution 
the living to hide, lest by seeing such a ghost disease, or death, should 
ensue. Very wicked souls are sent into the bodies of animals and 
fish, to be there tortured, by disease and death. They are found iu 
bears, and in the whale which upsets boats, also in mice which destroy 
food ; and they are the cause of bowel, and liver diseases. 

The islands peopled by the Haidas are believed to have bi-en 
created by Yetlth the raven god, sent by the dark god to see what 
the light god was doing. The raven formed clouds by beating the 
water with his wings, and afterwards rocks and earth ; and then womao, 
as his slave, was made out of clam shells. Women complained of 
their lone condition, and so man was made out of a limpet There 
are many legends of the raven, and of the eagle that stole the sud- 
child and the firestick by which all warmth in heavens and earth is 
created. These the eagle, being pursued, dropped into the sea, but 
recovered them, and was kindly allowed by the light god to keep 



Haihayas 188 

them, others being made for heaven which were purer. The sun- 
babe grew into a handsome man, and ran off with the raven's wife, 
hiding in the bush where she concealed him with the firestick in a 
cedar box — clearly a phallic myth. 

Haihayas. Haihai-bunsis. Gonds of the Panjab and of 
Oudh (see Gonds). Ha\ a is a " horse." They are said, in the Mahfir 
bharata, to be descended from Ila, grandson of Nabusha — a snake 
deity, who had contended with Indra — which suggests a connection 
with the Semitic Haiyah " snake." In early hymns of the Eig Veda 
the Haihayas or Iravatas, appear as a busy people on the Sutlej and 
Iravati rivers. [The word Haiyah, from the root " to live," is used in 
Arabic to mean '* a tribe " or " clan." — Ed.] They are called children 
of Ila or Ira — their god who founded the shrine of Soma-nath. This 
site is identified vdth Veraval or Ila-pur, where the Pahlava prince 
Krishna built a fort and shrine in 720 A.G. which '* astonished the 
immortab." It stands on a headland washed by the sea, and over- 
looked by the sacred hills of Ravataka. In the Mahabharata we read 
that Kama slew the Haiyahas, who made war on Indra and annoyed 
IndranL They were driven S. by the Kurus into Cental India, where 
we find Haihaya dynasties ruling till the Mahratta conquest of 1741 ; 
and both Dravid and Aryan chiefs in S. Bangal still hold fiefs from 
Haihaya Gonds. 

Hair. From the earliest times hair was an offering to the fire, 
or by fire to the sun, and to other gods. It was a symbol of self- 
sacrifice. Men shaved in fulfilment of a vow. The Japanese still 
shave the head when mourning, and Arab women hang plaits of their hair 
on graves. Even in the 12th century the hair of Frank maidens was 
cut off and offered, in the Cathedral of the Holy Sepulchre, during 
the siege of Jerusalem by Saladin. The nun's hair is so cut off by 
Koman Catholics. 

In the 16th century B.C. we see Phoenicians with shaven heads 
represented among tribute bearers to Egypt. Absalom cut off his 
hair and weighed it (2 Sam. xiv, 26), the weight being about 4 lbs. 
It was usual to make an offering, or to give alms, on shaving the head, 
to the amount of the weight of hair. The hair of the head and of 
the feet (or phallus), with the beard, was shaved in deep mourning 
(Isaiah vii, 20) by men and women (Jer. vii, 29). Jewish women 
shave^ or carefully conceal, the hair of the head after marriage, " because 
of the angels," and of the Shedim, or demons, who sit in the tangles of 
women's hair (see 1 Cor. xi, 1 0). The Nazirite (or " separated one ") 
preserved his hair untouched, until shaving it in accomplishment of 



184 Hair 

his vow. No Samaritan can, or could, be made a priest if his hair 
had been cut, after which they cut it every fortnight The Moslem 
(like the Qond) shaves the head, leaving only the Shueheh or " top 
knot,'' by which the angel Gabriel is to hold him as he crosses the 
narrow Sirat bridge to heaven (see Bridges). Virgil says that the 
hair of the head was sacred to the infernal gods. Greeks of both 
sexes used to cut off their hair a few days before marriage, and wore 
the hair of those thev loved. Christian Greeks cut three locks from 
the babe's head, devoting tbem to the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost, 
by placing them in the font at baptism. Hair was also torn in sigo 
of mourning by many races. The monk or the priest is marked by 
his tonsure ; and St Augustine in England disapproved of the shape 
of the Culdee tonsure, which was probably like that of the Greek, 
and not of the Eoman, Church. St Gregory of Tours said that a 
king in France would only cut his son's hair if he intended to exclude 
him from the succession : for the early Frankish kings were long 
haired. The Chinese suffered martyrdom rather than cut their hair, 
• when ordered by the Manchu Conquerors to adopt the Tartar pigtail 
The Kelts equally objected to shave like Christian Normaos, and 
could only be induced to sacrifice their beards as late as 1100 A.a 
In the Middle Ages a godfather only, or an honoured frieud, was 
allowed to cut the child's first hair, "after which it must forever be 
beholden to him." The Emperor Constantino, father of Heracleus, 
sent his son's hair to the Pope. Among the Malagasy the first cutting 
of hair is an important festive rite. They, and the Siamese, do Dot 
allow children to be educated till the hair is cut (see Academy^ 24th 
November 1877 ; Journal Anthrop, /nsttf., August, November 1881). 
Many Indian tribes associate the first cutting of the child's hair 
with the naming rite. The Chinese consider it the most sacred rite 
of infancy, occurring when the infant is three months old. Nero 
consecrated his youthful beard to Jupiter Capitolinus (according to 
Suetonius), depositing it in the Capitol in a gold box set with gems. 
In the 16 th century gentlemen wore their beards in gold leaf as a 
sign of mourning. At the funeral of Patroclus (according to Homer), 
Achilles cut off his golden locks, which his father had dedicated to 
the river god, and threw them into the stream. Lucian says that the 
hair of youths and maidens was offered to the Dea Syria. The 
young men let it grow till reaching manhood, and placed it in the 
temple in a gold or silver vase, inscribed with the worshiper's name, as, 
says Lucian, ** I myself did when young." In Polynesia the Sandwich 
Islanders — though professing Christianity — still cut off their hair, to 
offer it to Pele and other fire gods (Miss Gordon Cumming, Fire 



Haj 185 

Fountai7i3, i, pp. 7, 8). Just so Queen Berenice (220 b.g.) sacrificed 
her hair to Venus, praying for victory for her husband. The tresses 
are said to have been taken by Zeus, and formed the constellation of 
"Berenice's Lock." At the Liberalia, in Rome, a procession passed 
through the streets at the vernal equinox, ascendiug by the Forum 
to the Capitol with songs ; and the young then offered their hair in 
connection with the assumption of the Toga Virilis (see Smith's Diet, 
of Antiq,y articles " Impubes *' and " Toga "). The growth of hair was 
the sign of maturity. The Arabs of £dom still offer to ancient deities 
the hair of babes, with blood of circumcision (see Rev. R Smith, 
Kinship and Marriage, p. 152), 

It is generally considered unlucky to leave hair, or nail parings, 
on the ground : for demons get hold of them. The hair is also used 
by witches, in making images of persons who are to be tortured by 
maltreating the wax effigy, which may be melted or stuck full with 
pins (an ancient form of sorcery in Egypt) : for some part of the 
victim's body — a hair or nail paring — must be in the effigy to give it 
reality. Jewesses also hide nail parings in cracks of the wall, and put 
a hair or two of their own in the husband's pudding, to be eaten by 
him, and so secure his love. The Flamen Dialis, in Rome, saw that 
hair and nail parings were burned under a lucky tree. The Parsis 
have a formal ritual at burials in this connection (Yendidad). 

In mythology the hair of gods is a symbol of rays of light (see 
Gilgamas) ; and the infant Horus in Egypt wears a single side lock, 
as did the Libyans. The strength of Samson (Shamash, '* the sun ") 
was in his locks, which were at last shaved when he became blind, 
but grew again, when his strength returned. Among the holy men 
of India none are more sacred than those with long hair. Camping 
in the jungles we have often passed days in company with filthy 
Yogis while enquiring, with youthful zeal for information, as to their 
ideas, and were told that they had ** the power of their god on their 
heads " in the uncut hair, never having cut their matted locks, but 
continually anointing these, and their malodorous bodies, which they 
were proud to show us alive with vermin. 

Haj. Hajj. Arabic : *' a going round " or " visiting," and " cir- 
cumambulation," commonly understood to mean a ''pilgrimage" to 
Makka, like the Hebrew Hogg applied to the great festivals of the 
Jewish year in the Old Testament. 

Hajr-el-Aswad. " The black stone " at Makka, built into the 
wall of the K'abah at one corner — a small fragment of an ancient 
lingam stone, sacred in the time of Muhammad according to later 



186 Hakm 

writers, and supposed to have been worshiped for 400 years on the 
Persian Gulf (see Makka). 

Hakm* In Hebrew and Arabic, signifies " wise." Hebrew Hole- 
mail (divine) " wisdom." Arabic Hakim, a " wise man " or doctor, 
Holcm "wise decision," and "government" Hakim-bi-*Amr-Allah 
was a mad Kbalifah worshiped as an incarnation of God (see 
Druses). 

Hala. Sanskrit: "ploughing." Hala is "ploughed earth." 
Hali is Sita " the furrow," or Indian Proserpine. Siva is also Haloa 
the " plougher," and Bala- Rama is Hal-dar the " plough bolder." 
The ploughshare was a mark of Indian chiefs. 

Halaka. Hebrew : " exposition." That part of the Jewish 
Midrash, or " teaching," which is concerned with exposition of the law. 
It is of three kinds — Peshat or " extension," that is to say commeDt : 
Deruah " lesson "*or application ; and Lot " hidden," or esoteric mystical 
meaning. 

Haldis. Aide. An Armenian god noticed near lake Van, by 
Sargon of Assyria, about 713 B.C. [The language of the region was 
apparently Medic, and the name may be from the Aryan root Hal 
" shining." — Ed.] 

Hallow- Even. A popular British festival on the eve of the 
31st October, when new fires should be lighted, by chiefs or priests 
The Church made it the feast of All Souls. Among Irish Kelts it 
was the feast of Samh-suin or ** the end of summer." Torch-light 
processions were made, and new fires lighted, the sacred ashes of the 
old fires beiog carefully gathered and strewn on fielda A feast 
followed, and after it apples were floated in large tubs of water, or 
hung on strings, to be caught in the mouth without using the bands. 
This is still the custom at the season in Ireland, and large numbers 
of apples are required for the day. The revellers sought to discover 
their future fortunes by various " sortes," or means of divination, cas^ 
ing lots by nuts and crackers. Maidens went into gardens to seek 
for cabbage stalks symbolising future husbands. In Scotland (as 
Bums describes) they went in the dark to barns, and other outbuild- 
ings, where the future husband would appear. The rites often were 
not less savage than those of Australians (see Journ. Anthirop. InsiiU 
Nov. 1894). The great sun-image of the Krom-kruach was specially 
worshiped at this season, as were boats, ploughs, and farm implements: 
these were sprinkled with " fire-spoken water " (Brand, Pop, Antiq-^ 



Ham 187 

or water consecrated by passing it over fire. The Kelts near the sea 
coast went, says Brand, " at the Faalan-tide and sacrificed to the sea-god 
Shony " (as Neapolitans, and natives of Bombay and Madras alike, 
worship the sea in autumn) ; and the people of St Kilda used to eat 
a triangular cake on the seashore, in honour of their ocean godess 
Shony. 

HeiII. The ancestor of a race in W. Asia and in Egypt (Gen. x, 
6), which apparently included the Akkadians of Kaldea and other 
Turanians. It is usually rendered "black/' as his son Eush is sup- 
posed to mean " dark," but is perhaps better rendered " hot " or ** sun- 
burnt." From the same root (Hamm) comes the name of the 
Hammanim or ** sun images " (Levit. xxvi, 30 ; Isa. xxvii, 9). 
It has also been compared with the name of the Egyptian god Ehem, 
and with Khemi the name of Egypt itself. [Possibly it is a Turanian 
word from the root Kham " to move," to " push forward," as a con- 
quering people. — Ed.] 

Hamar. Arabic: "ruddy brown." The Hamyar, Himyar. or 
Homerites of S. Arabia were thence named (see Arabia). 

Hamath. Hebrew : " fortress," " sanctuary." The chief city of 
central Syria, where the first Hittite texts were found (see Kheta). 

Hammer. This emblem, originally phallic, is the weapon of 
Thor among Skandiuavians, often represented by the Fyl-fot, or Crux 
Ansata, and also as a three-legged object (see Sir G. Cox, Aryan 
Mythol., ii, p. 115), or simply as a stone axe, being the "thunder 
bolt." It awakens maidens to become the brides of kings {At^yan 
Mythol,^ i, p. 265) being akin to the Akm5n or "anvil" of Zeus 
(p. 359). Thor's hammer remained nine months in the earth, and 
then returned to him in As-gard, or heaven. It is variously de- 
scribed as a hammer, spear, arrow, or club, which when cast returned 
to him ; or as a rock hurled at giants in cloudland (p. 380). It was 
found with the maiden Freya (see Freya) when held by the giant, 
being brought out " to consecrate the bride." Miolner (the hammer) 
" lay on the maiden's lap." The Japanese god Dai-ko-ku, the patron 
of wealth, also holds the " hammer which contains seven precious 
things." It is also the weapon of the Vedik Maruts or " storm " gods, 
"the crushers" (see Hephaistos and Svastika). 

Hammurabi. 'Ammurabi. Ammurapi. The sixth king 

of Babylon, and the first to found an empire independent of Elamite 
suzerainty. He acceded probably in 2139 B.C., and ruled for 43 or 



188 Hammurabi 

45 years. [Becent discoveries have added much to our knowledge of 
this kiug, especially that of the stela of laws found at Susa E. of the 
Tigris. We have some texts by him in Akkadian, one referring to 
his Elamite conquests, another — ^a bilingual — recording his victories 
in poetical form (No. 73, Brit Mue. Caty 1900, p. 83). His chronicle 
is unfortunately much damaged, in the Babylonian chronicle of the 
Ist dynasty, which is also written in Akkadian. His great canal, we 
learn, was dug in the 9th year of his reign, and his contest with 
Elam appears to have begun in his 30th year. We possess also 47 
letters which he wrote to Sin-idinnam, a subordinate ruler in S. Baby- 
lonia. These show the most elaborate system of civilised and centralised 
power. 'Ammurabi gives orders as to all kinds of arrangements for 
trade, irrigation, taxation, local crovernment, the calendar, farming, 
and grazing, punishment of officials for taking bribes, accounts, navi- 
gation, rents, debts, religion, slaves, trials, and appeals ; they indicate 
that Assyria as well as Babylonia was under his rule. From the 
opening clauses of the Susa law tablet we learn aJso that he ruled 
over Babylon, Ur, Sippara, Erech, Cutha, Borsippa, Zirgul, Agade, 
and inany other cities, including Ninua or Nineveh. . The bas-relief 
above this text represents him worshiping the sun god. He wears a 
round cap like that worn by the Akkadian prince Gudea, at Zirgul, 
yet earlier. He is bearded, but the features, with short nose and 
round head, are not at all distinctively Semitic. 

There is some dispute as to the nationality of this great ruler. 
He used both the Akkadian and the Semitic Babylonian in his texts. 
There is no reason for supposing that he was an Arab, and the dynasty 
according to Berosus was Medic, and according to some scholars was 
Kassite. The name has been found by Dr T. Q. Pinches (see Proc 
Bib. Arch. Socy,, May 1901, p. 191) spelt 4m-mu-ra-jt)i, which 
would not be a Semitic title. The later Babylonians translated it by 
Kimti'Vapastum (" my family is large "), which suggests that it is a 
Turanian name, Ara " family," mu " my," rdpi " increases." The 
nationality of the monarch is, however, not very important, as it is 
clear that he ruled a mixed Turanian and Semitic population. We 
have as yet no reliable account of any conquests made by him io 
countries W. of the Euphrates, two supposed records of his reign 
being admitted, by specialists, to have been erroneously translated, one 
being a tablet of the 7th century B.C., and the other (a letter by 
Hammurabi) containing no real historical allusions. But, as his pre- 
decessors and successors invaded Syria, it is probable that so victorious 
a ruler did the same (see Abraham). 

The celebrated laws of Hammurabi have been translated by Father 



Ij^ammurabi ' 189 

Schie] (see also ThR Oldest Code of Laws in the World, hj Rev. C. 
H. W. Johns, M.A., 1903). They have been eagerly compared with 
the laws of the Pentateuch, to which they often present marked 
similarities. They also serve, in several cases, to explain the customs 
of the Patriarchs — Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob— according to Genesis, 
suggesting familiarity with Babylonian laws on the part of the 
Hebrew writer ; and these laws we find in existence more than 600 
years before the age of Moses. The laws number about 280 in all, 
and are special cases, not general propositions ; they do not contain 
any Ten Commandments, or any universal principles. They are con- 
cerned with cases of witchcraft, the bribing of witnesses, theft, slaves, 
robbers, royal officials, tenants, irrigation, trespass by animals, gardens, 
merchants' agents, women who kept wineshops, debts, and storage of 
property. They define the duties of wives, husbands, and children ; 
divorce is regulated, and the rights of women ; breach of promised 
marriage, wills, inheritance, and adoption. They then treat of 
assaults, of doctors, of rent, and builders' liabilities, of boat -hire, 
damage to cattle or by cattle, loans to cultivators, the duties and 
liabilities of herdsmen, and the wages payable to such, and to labourers. 
In no case is there any evidence that Hebrew literature directly 
borrowed the wording of any law of Hammurabi. The influence of 
the ancient code on Hebrews is, on the other hand, very evident, 
suggesting that the Hebrews were Babylonian subjects ; and probably 
that, as their own traditions stated, they came from Babylonia about 
the time of Ammurapi. The penalties of the Babylonian code are 
much more severe than those of the Hebrew Law, and are usually 
different Most of the laws deal with conditions of trade and of 
settled government, unknown to early Hebrews of the desert. None 
of the merciful provisions of Deuteronomy, or of other passages in the 
Pentateuch, have any parallel in Hammurabi's laws, which are all 
intended to safeguard property, and to keep slaves and the poor in 
subjection. In about 60 cases only, out of 280 laws, is there any 
parallel between the Babylonian and the Hebrew codes. In 16 other 
cases the Babylonian law is different from, or opposite to, the Hebrew. 
In all cases the punishment is barbarously severe in Hammurabi's 
code. The sanction of his laws was the formula '* As God (or a God) 
has commanded," which has some resemblance to the often repeated 
Hebrew heading ''Yahveh spake to Moses"; but it is abundantly 
shown by the list of temples which, in the Susa law-tablet itself, 
Ammurapi claims to have built for various deities, that he was — like 
all other Babylonian kings — a polytheist. Much has been written as 
to the comparative study of this remarkable code, but the facts are 



190 Han 

as above summarised ; showing only a family likeness between its 
enactments and those of the Pentateuch. — Ed.] The letters to Sin- 
idinnam (see Mr L. W, King, Inscriptions of Hammurabi, 1899) show 
that Prof. Sayce, Prof. Hommel, and even Dr Pinches, have " misread 
the tablets/' and that the kings noticed with Amraphei (Gen. xiv) are 
never mentioned in any text of this Babylonian monarch. [Father 
Schiel had read, in one of Ammurapi's letters to this official or king, 
the words Um Ku-dur-la-akk-gamir, and supposed it to mean " the 
day of Chedorlaomer." But the third syllable is tv/i\ not dvur, and 
the fourth is nu, not la : nor is there any reason to suppose that a 
personal name is to be here recognised. The letter salutes Sin- 
idinnam, wishing him success against some foe through the protection 
of deities, and the words Um kutwr nu-vJch gamir apparently mean 
" now that rest (peace), which was expected, is come to an end." — Ed.] 

Han. Egyptian : the phallus, *' strength " (see An " t^ be "). 

Hand. The hand, in hieroglyphic systems, stands for "power," 
*' taking," *' giving," and " attestation." It is a sign very commonly 
found on door posts or doors, and indicating a god's power to bless or 
to smite. In Moslem literature '* God's hand " means the divine 
" essence " (see Rev. T. Hughes, Diet of Islam, under " Standards '*). 
Most solar gods are symbolised by a hand, often of gold (see Habal), 
or of silver, as on the cross of Clon MacNoise (compare Rivers of Life, 
ii, p. 434, fig. 288); and Savitar, in the Vedas, is the "golden 
handed " sun. Zoroaster is also *' golden handed ** in Persia ; and 
Horace speaks of the '* red right hand." The fingers and thumb 
had phallic significance (see those headings), and the hand is a com- 
mon luck mark on ancient monuments and amulets, especially on 
votive texts at Carthage. Among Hebrews also the Yad or " hand " 
meant a memorial monument. Saul ** set him up a hand, and went 
round, and passed over, and went down to Qilgal" (1 Sam. xv, 12), 
meaning apparently that he perambulated this monument near Karuiel 
of Judah, S. of Hebron. Absalom also ''set himself up an erect 
stone," which was called ''Absalom's hand" (2 Sam. xviii, 18). 
Modern Jews suppose this to be the tomb called " Absalom's tomb " 
in the valley E. of the Jerusalem temple, and cast stones at it in 
consequence ; but this monument is not older than Greek or Roman 
times. Yahveh also is said to have sworn the destruction of Amalek 
(Exod. xvii, 16) by Yad 'al Kes, usually rendered "hand on throne": 
Kes, however, in Arabic, is a common term for the phallus, or the 
Kteis, as meaning " concealed " or pudenda ; and this recalls similar 
oaths in the Bible (Gen. xxiv, 2). 



Hand 191 

The haud and the foot are still common symbols in Palestine (see 
"iiiarteviy Stat. Pal. Expl Fuvd, July 1882; July 1883), Col 
Conder finding the red hand od, and over, doors of Jews, Samaritans, 
iod Moslems. The Jews call this " Yad-ha-Ehazak " or the " Hand 
of Might " ; and the ** strong hand " is the emblem of the Irish King 
Brian Boru, and of his descendants the O'Briens. Syrian Christians 
have also the emblem Keff Miriam^ or *' Mary's palm," the hand 
of the Virgin. The Jews (Mishnah, 'Abodah Zarah, see Hershon's 
Treaawrea of Talimvd, p. 163) destroyed all pagan monuments, but 
not such as had a hand on them '* for all worship these/' including 
as we see themselves. The hand however often accompanies, or is 
interchanged with, the phallus as an emblem of strength. It is a 
common amulet at Pompeii ; and coral hands are worn in S. Italy, as 
charms against the evil eye (see Eye). Youths are often punished, 
in India, for having made certain gestures of the hand which are 
insulting when understood. On the pillar at St Sophia, in Con- 
stantinople, a red hand is painted as an auspicious sign. 

Stevens (YuccUan) says: ''the Red Hand stared us in the face 

over all the ruins of the country " ; and Leslie says : " the sacred 

hand is a favourite subject of art in most of the old shrines of 

America." It is also used in Central Asia all along the Oxus ; 

and the '* Silver Hand " is a charm in Persia, whence it has become 

the crest of one of our Panjabi regiments in India. The red hand 

is also the badge of baronets at home. It is common in Central 

and Southern India, in Arakan, Barmah, and Java, as well as in 

Siam (see our paper in Jourmal Bl. Asiatic Socy,, Jany. 1895); 

and Mr Vining notices it in Mexico (see also Jowmal RL Geogr. 

Socy., Septr. 1884, p. 504), Orimm says that the Teutonic deity 

Tyr is powerless when the wintry wolf has bitten off his hand. 

Siva s blood-red hand is found on temple doors in India, for he is 

the "Lord of the door" (see Door). The ''Red Hand of Erin" 

is the same {Journal, Ulster Archoeol. Socy., title-page). The 

" golden hand of Anu " was placed on the pyramid of Bel in 

Babylon ; the Romans used the hand on standards ; and the 

Saracens marked it in the courts of Grenada. The " Hand of 'Ali " 

was an emblem of Persian Moslems ; and the " Hand of Fatimah," 

his wife, is found at the sacred city of Eairwan, and elsewhere in 

Tunisia, originating in Egypt and " common throughout the Moslem 

world" (Sir R. Burton, Travels in Tunisia, 1888, title-page). In 

the Persian mosk of Mesh-hed 'Ali, the " Hand of 'Ali " is on the 

keystone of the entrance gate. It is found with the key in the 

'* Hall of Justice '' of the Al^amra, or " red " palace of Spanish 



192 Hansa 

SaraceDs ; while it is the emblem of Nawabs of Arkot, and of 
Moghul princes. Ancient priests, among Parthians and others, often 
raised the whole hand in blessing (see Rivers of Life, i, p. 139, 
fig. 222). Captain Galway found it even among negroes in Benin 
{Journal Rl. Oeogr, Socy,, Feby. 1893). In all cases it is the 
emblem of power and good fortune. 

HanSSL The sacred goose, swan, or duck of Brahma (see Goose) 
on which he rides. It was sent by Siva and Vishnu to awake him to 
creative work when he slept. The eggs of the Hansa, in Sanskrit 
literature, are said to be full of ambrosia. They swim on the waters, 
and the Hansa is said to be " drunk with love.'* He is the goose 
that lays the gold and silver eggs (sun and moon), and also a 
" messenger of love." The goose betokens conjugal fidelity. 

Hanuman. The Hindu monkey god, child of the wind. He 
is sometimes red, sometimes golden. He could tear up trees, or even 
the Himalayas, and spring over the sea lashing its waves to fnrj. 
He set Lanka (Ceylon) on fire with his burning tail, and commanded 
his monkeys to build the bridge for Rama to reach the island. He 
is sometimes a giant, sometimes '' only the size of a thumb/' and the 
friend of Bharata or India. He was the son of Pavana {" the 
breeze"), and of the Virgin Anjana, who was married to the 
monkey Kesare. As a babe he playfully seized the chariot of the 
sun, but fell to earth disfiguring himself and breaking his jaw. He 
aided to recover Sita — the Indian Proserpine. He is a joyous and 
popular demi-god, round whose shrines the peasantry love to dance 
and sing. 

Haoma. See Homa. 

Hapi. Egyptian. The primary meaning of such names as Hapi, 
Apis, and Hapu (the Nile), according to Renouf, is " to overspread." 
Hapi is the child of Horus, the overshadowing spirit of creation. 
He carries the ankh or emblem of life, and is bull-headed with a 
conical head-dress. The sky, and the Nile, alike spread over earth. 
The Nile god is represented as androgynous — male and female at 
once : he is Hapi or Hapu, a somewhat corpulent red deity, who 
pours water from his vase. 

Haran. Harran. A city of Mesopotamia, the home of 
Abraham, where the worship of Sinu the moon god survived till the 
time of Greek writers, with that of Baalshemin *'the god of the 
heavens," as mentioned by St James of Seriij about 500 A.C. 



Hare 193 

Hermes was here adored as a conical stone, surmounted by a star. 
The name is probably the Akkadian Kharran '* road/' for the city 
was on the great trade route to the Euphrates at Earkemish (Jerablus), 
the Hittite capital. 

Hare. In mythology the hare is usually the moon, and is also a 

common form for witches. The Aryan name Sasin, ISasa, or Hase, 

means " the swift." It is also found in Finnic speech ; and the 

Akkadian Kazinna is the '' hare," from the old root Kaa " to 

run." The gods gave hare's flesh to Indra, as it was supposed to 

arouse love and passion ; and loose women in India are called 

''hares." Among many primitive tribes (as among the Hebrews) 

the hare is not eaten, apparently because it is a timid animal, and 

the qualities of food are reproduced in the eater. Some only allowed 

it to women. In Hindu literature the hare is said to dwell in the 

lake of the moon ; and Yingaya-datta, the funeral god, is the " Hare 

King" living in the lunar disk. In China also Yu, the hare or 

rabbit, is the moon. Neither Saxons, nor Scottish or Irish Kelts, 

would proceed on a journey if a hare crossed the path (Folk-Lore 

Review, Deer. 1892, p. 452). The hare is "uncanny" because it 

is a witch, or warlock, and Russians, like N. American Indians, see in 

hares *' accursed spirits, and flitting white ghosts." " Spectral and 

three-legged hares," which can never be caught when hunted, have 

been the terror of Europe, being either "ghosts of the damned," or 

dangerous spirits of mountain, stream, forest, or corn field, where they 

hide till the last " corner of the field " is reaped. At Easter however 

the bare was placed on sacrificial cakes or buns ; and Teutons say 

that the hare lays the Paschal eggs, so that German peasants still 

make a nest for it at Easter. For this reason perhaps the hare was 

sacred food, forbidden to all Kelts, Germans, and Lapps — in fact from 

Greenland to ^ypt and Arabia, and among the Jews and Chinese 

alike. Yet Finns, and the ancient Irish kings of Tara, highly 

esteemed the flesh. The Kaffirs in Africa call it " the timid and 

alert, crafty little swift one " — the guardian of children — pointing to 

the conclusion that its timidity renders it unfit for food. The 

Russians and Chinese connect it with the " water of life '* (the dew 

from the moon); for Soma (the moon) is the holder of divine 

ambrosia. The hare is said to outwit the wisest and strongest of 

beasts — the elephant, and the lion, whom it entraps into a well. The 

'' Somnus Leporinus," among Latins, was sleep with open eyes, like 

a hare, when the upper lids were too short to close. The Greeks 

called such persons " hare eyed." In China the hare sits in a bush. 



194 Har-hut 

with the moon above. The Japanese also make the moon a hare, or 
rabbit, pounding rice in a mortar. The moon and hare are stamped 
on cakes also in Central Asia. 

Dr Brinton (Myths of the N&w Worlds p. 179) finds this hare in 
Manibogh, or Michabo, "The Great Hare," — ^**a sort of wizard, half 
simpleton, and full of pranks and wiles." Originally he was the 
" highest divinity, in power and beneficence." His house is at the 
eastern horizon. To the Chipeway Indians he is Manito-wabos, *^ the 
divine hare," and Wapa is "the dawn." The godess Eostre (the 
east) was changed (among Teutons) from a bird into a hare : hence 
hares lay eggs, as above shown, at Easter (Folk-Lore Journal, i, p. 121, 
in 1883). In Egyptian Un is the "hare," and Un-nut, or the **8ky 
hare," is the godess of Denderah. The hare was sacred to Thoth, and 
appears as a mummy god like Osiris (Renouf, Proc. Bib. Arch. Soqi,, 
April 1886). For Un means "to spring up," and hence the rising 
sun was Un or On, which is the name of the sun city, Heliopolis. 

Har-hut. ** Abode of Horns." The symbol of Horus in Egypt— 
the winged disk of the sun with its Ursei snakes. 

Hari. Sanskrit : " green," " verdant" Siva and Agni are Hara, 
Vishnu is Hari, all being yellow, or light green, gods of fertility and 
light. The Harits are the horses of the sun. The sun and moon 
are Hara and Hari ; and Hari is the ass-lion on which Indra rode 
(see Prof. A. do Gubernatis, Zool. MythoL.y i, p. 376 ; ii, p. 98). The 
Hari-dvar or *' gate of verdure," is the gate of the Ganges where it 
leaves the mountains. 

Haris-Chandra. A devotee of Siva who is called ''the Hindu 
Job " (on accoimt of his troubles), and the Eshatriya Raja. In return 
for marvellous and long-continued austerities Varuna ("heaven") 
promised him a son, on condition that the son should be sacrificed to 
Varuna when attaining manhood. This son Rohita was claimed in due 
time ; but Haris-Cfaandra excused himself, as Rohita had fled beyond 
his control. After six years Rohita returned, his father having been 
smitten by Varuna with disease, and brought the son of a Rishi (see 
Suna-sepha) as his substitute. The poor Brahman had been paid 100 
cows to consent, and Varuna, accepting the substitute, ordered him to 
bind his son Suna-sepha. The Rishi demanded 100 more cows, and 
yet 100 more if he was himself to slay his son. By prayers to all the 
gods Varuna was induced to save the life of Suna-sepha. The trials 
of Haris-Chandra continued, on account of disputes among the gods. 
He had a house-priest named Visva-Mitra. The god Indra was adcing 



Har-makhis 195 

Yahifihta- — a famous Brahman — whether he knew a single man who 
had never lusted or lied ; 'and, on Vahishta naming Haris-Chandra 
as such, Yisva-Mitra laughed. Vahishta retorted that he would forfeit 
all his merits if Haris-Chandra the Raja had failed in a single in- 
stance. The gods then decreed his temptation. He was the trustee 
of enormous wealth belonging to the Rishi, which he was now called 
on to restore with compound interest. He had to sell his kingdom 
province by province, to sell his wife Saivya, his only son Rohita, and 
himself as a slave. He was degraded to become a burner of corpses. 
His son died and he had to bum him, while his wife hod to carry the 
corpse. He recognised her by her marriage Tali, or badge, which she 
had refused to give up. She was seized by royal messengers, and 
accused of stealing a young prince. She was condemned to death, 
and Haris-Chandra was ordered to behead her. But his sword was 
changed into a flower, and his son sprang up again alive : his kingdom 
was restored to him, and he and his were taken up to heaven. They 
fell again through pride, but repented as they fell : and Hindus say 
they often see Haris- Chandra's city in the air. He is commended 
for his righteousness by Manu the Lawgiver as follows : — 

" Our Virtue is the only friend that follows us in death, 
All other ties, and friendships, end with departing breath. 
Nor father, mother, wife, nor son beside us then can stay, 
Nor kinsfolk. Virtue is the one companion of our way. 
Alone each creature sees the sun : alone the world he leaves — 
Alone of actions wrong or right the recompense receives. 
Like log or clod, beneath the sod, their lifeless kinsman laid 
Friends turn round and quit the ground. But Virtue tends the dead. 
Have then a hoard of Virtue stored, to help the day of doom. 
By Virtue led we cross the dread immeasurable gloom/' 

Har-makhis. Egyptian. "Horus on the horison" — symbolised 
by the Sphinx, which was old even in the time of the 4th dynasty. 
Thothmes III built a temple between its paws (see Egypt). 

Harp. The harp was well known in Egypt, and the Beni Hasan 
picture shows Edomite Asiatics, one with a ten-stringed lyre. In 
mythology the harp is the wind. Apollo is the great harper in heaven, 
like Odin, as a god of vernal weather ; and Siva is also a harper in 
India Harps of 14 strings, and lyres of 17 strings, are as old as the 
18th dynasty in Egypt. 

Har-pa-krut Harpocrates. The child Horus in Egypt, 

usually seated on a lotus with its finger to its mouth (see Fingers). 
It wears the side lock (see Hair). He is represented also as surrounded 



196 Harpy 

by dangers ia the form of monsters. He stands on two crocodiles 
(those of £. and W.), and B^s (see Bas) holds snakes over him. He 
is the sun in Hades, or among the winter clouds, still weak before the 
equinox. He also carries a goose under his left arm, and grapes in hi» 
right, or the staff and cornucopia, as the vernal sun, child of Osiris 
and Isis. The festival of Harpocrates, as Hermes Trismegistos, wsu* 
forbidden at Rome on account of its licentious character. For the 
child Horus became a Cupid. 

Harpy. The Harpies were "snatchers" or robbers, represented 
on a Lycian tomb (about 500 to 400 B.c.) as vultures, with the 
heads and breasts of women. [The soul was a human-headed bird in 
Egypt, and the Harpies apparently ghosts of the evil dead who caused 
tempests. — Ed.] The names of the three Harpies were Aello (" bowl- 
ing "), Kalaino (** crying "), and Okupet^ (** fast flying") : they emitted 
evil odours, and defiled everything when they appeared. But Hesiod 
speaks only of two (Kalaino and OkupetS) who were fair-haired winged 
maidens, swifter than winds or birds. Aiskhulos makes them vulture- 
like women, with bear's ears, long claws, and faces pale with hunger. 
They carried off the daughters of King Pandareus, whom they gave as 
slaves to the furies (see Erinues). The gods sent them to torment 
Phineus (*' the fair "), who was the blind king of Arkadia in Greece, 
because he had revealed the secrets of Zeus. They stole his food, and 
defiled his table. But the sons of Boreas (the N. wind), aiding lason, 
drove them away. Hesiod calls them daughters of Thau mas (*' wonder " 
or Tammuz) by the ocean nymph, the " bright " Elektra. They were 
also daughters of Neptunus and Terra (^'sea*' and " land ''), whose home 
was in Thrakia. In Egypt the evil winds of May (the Kharrmn, or 
"fifty day" hot E. wind) were called Harops, bringing flies and locusts. 

HarseL The Suabian moon (see Ursel, Ursula). 

Harsha. Sanskrit : " joy " ; the son of Kama (" love ") and 
Nandi (''pleasure"). This was the name also of the Buddhist 
monarch said to have established the Samvat era of 56-57 A.C. He 
is also called Sri-harsha, Sil-Aditya, Yikram-Aditya, and Harsha- 
Yardhana : and he was famed for patronage of learning. Hiuen 
Tsang visited his court (629 to 645 A.C.), and says he found there the 
Nava-ratna, or "nine gems" of literature. His history is obscured 
by romance, but he appears to have ruled in Than-esvar (or Stan- 
Jsvara) in the Panjab, as early as 607 A.C., and afterwards at Eanoj 
as emperor of N. India. He fell in battle (in 648 A.c.) fighting Sail- 
vahana, king of the south (Dakahin), having failed to conquer Maha- 



Har-si-Ast 197 

rashtra. Though son of King Qardha-billa, he is said to have been 
only a Vaisya, and ruled when Buddhism was fast waning in India. 
His conqueror is said to have founded the Saka era of 7S A.c. 

Har-si-Ast. Har-Si-Amen. Names of Horus, son of Isis and 
Amen (see Har-pa-krut). 

Haruspices. The Aru-spex was the diviner by entrails of 
beasts and birds, the most famous of these soothsayers being Etruskan. 
The Arvix is said to have been a sacrificed ram. 

Harvest. All nations, in temperate climates, have celebrated 
harvest festivals in late summer, or autumn, and in hotter countries as 
early as March or April. In Rome the young colonists assembled at the 
Capitol in August, and the Pontifex Maximus purified them with 
incense, and smoking torches (Tcedce) as they knelt — a custom retained 
by Christians. Dressed in white, crowned with flowers, and carrying 
in their hands wheat, barley, beans, and first fruits, they went up to 
the temples of Jupiter, Apollo, and Diana, on the Aventine mount, 
chanting hymns, and adoring the images everywhere exposed for 
worship. Three nights were devoted to worship especially of infernal 
powers : a black bull was sacrificed tp Pluto, and a black cow to 
Proserpina. Holy fires were lighted throughout the city, and consuls, 
with priests, slew three lambs beside the Tiber, and sprinkled all 
present with the blood. On the second day a white bull was sacrificed 
to Jupiter, and a white heifer to Juno, with music and rejoicings ; and 
theatrical entertainments were given at the Capitol, in honour of 
Apollo and Diana. Games at the circus, and gladiatorial shows 
followed : at night prayers were offered to the terrible Parcae or 
"fates" (see Fors), whose victims were sheep, and a black goat. 
On the third day the women went with songs to the temples, and 
prayed for the nation's prosperity. The Parcse, with Juno, and 
Lucina, were besought to aid them in child birth. Games followed, 
and a black hog and black sow were offered to Tellus " the earth " 
(see Durga, Holi, Kali). 

Ijlasan. Hosein. The two sons of Fatimah only daughter of 
Mu^mmad, wife of 'Ali the 4th Khalifah ('* successor "), cousin of the 
prophet, ruling a rebellious Islam in 35 to 40 after the Hijira. 'Ali 
was murdered by means of a poisoned sword in 660 A.C., at Kufa, 
while at war with Muawiya, the son of Muhammad's old enemy Abu 
Sofian, who established the independent Khalifate of the Ommeiya 
family at Damascus. [The political schism was that of the two 
parties Arab and Persian, following Muawiya and 'Ali respectively ; 



198 IjLasis-adra 

and the religious schism that of Sunni or purely Semitic Islam, and 
of the jS>A'i'a/i (" sectarians") influenced by the old Mazdean faith of 
Persia. — Ed.] 

Tradition has entirely departed from true history, and gives a 
mystic character to 'Ali, Hasan, and Hosein, the first martyrs and 
Saiyids (" masters '*), as the descendants of ' Ali are called in Persia. 
The two brothers are mourned with rites like those of Tammuz, and 
symbolised by the sacred Tabut arks borne in procession. Plays are 
acted representing the tragedy of the fatal field of Earbala, and the 
execution of Hosein by Shamer, the demon with boar's teeth. But, 
as a fact, Hasan succeeded his father as Khalifah in Persia, and 
abdicated six months later in favour of Muawiya (in 661 A.C.). He 
lived in retirement, and was poisoned (in 667 A.c.) by his wife, at the 
instigation of Yazid the son of Muawiya ; but he left 1 5 sons, and 
5 daughters, from whom many Saiyids are descended. His brother 
Hosein (bom in 626 A.C.) fell in battle against Tazld at Earhala 
("anguish"), on the 10th day of Mubarram, in the 61st year of the 
Hijira (680 A.C.), so that he was not a boy as the legend represents. 
The Mubarram festival celebrates his death. It is even observed in 
the docks in London, where the Tabut arks can be seen at the rite 
called "Hobson Jobson" — a corruption of "Hasan wa Hosein." 
Karbala has become a sacred city to Persian Moslems, who make 
pilgrimages to its ruined tombs, and are buried there, or take thence 
earth for their graves. It is a sanctuary for criminals and for the 
oppressed. 

The "miracle play" celebrating the death of Hosein (see Sir 
R. Polly's translation, 1879) excites the most extraordinary hysterical 
emotion among the spectators as they cry " Ya 'Ali ! Ai Hasan ! Ai 
Hosein ! Hosein Shah ! " beating their breasts, with tears and groans. 
It occupies the first 10 days of the month (Mubarram or "most 
consecrated "), and each day the excitement increases. The life of a 
Sunni would be unsafe, and fanatics rush out of the processions to 
attack the police. Naked men, painted as tigers, leap about and 
brandish swords, clubs, and spears, amid the general lamentations of 
the crowd. 

I^asis-ddra. This is one reading for the name of the Baby- 
lonian Noah (see Gilgamas) and supposed to be the Xisuthrus of the 
Greek version of the legend. [It is otherwise read UTn-napisturt^ 
as a Semitic name, and Tam-Zi ("sun spirit") as an Akkadian term: 
the latter seems the most probable. — Ed.] This mythical personage 
relates the Flood legend to the Babylonian Hercules. He was livinf 



Hasis-adra 199 

in a city on the Euphrates, called Suripak, and was warned by the 
ocean god Ea that the great gods Anu, Adar, and B'el were displeased 
and about to drown mankind. As commanded he built a ship 
600 cubits long and 60 cubits broad and high, to contain his family 
and slaves, his silver and gold, seeds of all kinds, cattle and beasts 
of the field : it was smeared over with bitumen within and without 
Tamzi entered and shut the door, and a pilot took charge when the 
rain began. The pilot is called "the servant of the great spirit'' 
(probably to be read Ur-Ea) : at dawn a black cloud came up. 
Rimmon thundered, Nebo and Marduk went before it, Uragal 
("the great hero") tore up the anchor, Adar (or Ninip) led the 
storm, and the ''earth spirits" flashed torches. The gods cowered 
like hounds in the heaven of Anu. Istar wept for her children, who 
filled the sea like the spawn of fishes. On the 7th day the 
tempest was spent, and the sea became calm. Tamzi looked out on 
the waters, and called aloud ; but no man was left : he wept, for 
there was no land visible. On the 12th day land appeared, and the 
ship struck on the mountain of Nizir: after 7 days more he sent 
out a dove which found no resting place and returned : then he sent 
a swallow which in like manner came back : and then a raven which 
did not return. Tamzi then came out of his ship on to the mountain, 
and offered sacrifice. The gods swarmed round it " like flies." Istar 
besought that B'el should not come, as he made the flood ; but B'el 
saw the ship and was wroth that any man should have escaped. 
Adar said that it was the doing of Ea; and Ea reproved B'el for 
general destruction, saying : " On the sinner lay his sin, and on the 
transgressor his transgression, but let not all be destroyed." He 
ordained that beasts, famine, and pestilence should in future slay 
mankind, but not any flood in future. B'el forgave Tamzi and his 
wife, saying " Let (them) be as we who are gods ; and let them dwell 
afar off at the mouth of the rivers." 

This legend, in the 11th tablet of Gilgamas, is known from a 
copy in the library of Assur-bani-pal at Nineveh (about 650 B.C.). 
It is preserved in Semitic Babylonian language, but the original was 
probably Akkadian. It is quite possible that large vessels were built 
very early, and caulked with bitumen from Hit on the Euphrates, 
fiiver floods in the valley are also common, and the Tigris often rises 
20 to 30 feet causing great inundations, so that nothing could be 
seen save water, and the high range of Nizir (Jebel Judi) on 
the N.K But the story forms part of a purely mythical cycle. The 
later legends, recorded by Berosus in Greek in the 4th century B.C., 
exaggerate the wonders of the original. The ark is made five stadia 



200 Hastina-pur 

in length, and was said to be still extant on the Gordean mountains 
(see Floods). 

Hastina-pur. The capital of the Earns, the ''city of eight" 
subject cities, or otherwise of the sun (QenL Cunningham, Journal 
Bl. Asiatic Socy., April 1889, pp. 217, 338). This capital is 
recognised at Hastinagar on the Swat river (see India). A second 
Hastina-pur, in the old bed of the Ganges in the Mirat district, is foand 
still in ruins. 

Hat-hor. See Athor. The Egyptian dawn godess enshrined 
beside Isis in the pjrramid of Cheops. 

Hate. The Skandinavian winter wolf, which pursues godesses, 
and (as Sk5ll) pursues the sun. 

Haubas. The male sun among Hamyar tribes of Arabia. 

Haug. Hawr. Hau^. in Skandinavian, a " howe " or high 
place, mound or barrow (see Stones). 

HawaiL The main island of the Sandwich group, west of the 
coast of Mexico. The inhabitants (called Kanakas) are Polynesians 
— of mixed Negrito and Malay stocks. A century ago they are said 
to have numbered 300,000, but are reduced to 40,000, sufferiLg 
from leprosy and from diseases introduced by Europeans. Their 
legends often recall those of Hebrews and other Asiatics, including 
the creation of light and darkness, of animals and men, and the story 
of a great flood. Fornander considers that these stories had a 
common origin, and reached Hawaii after our 1st or 2nd century, 
when the Malays invaded Polynesia. The Kanakas reached this 
island in our 5th or 6th century passing through Samoa ; but they 
are little known before the 11th century. Their supreme god Kane 
(see Gan) is symbolised by a rude menhir, engraved with a trident 
like the Trisul of India. They have also a sea god, and believe in 
departed spirit& The creation was due to Lono and Lol, '* gods of 
heaven and eartlu" They were lovers, and Lono is ever darting 
kisses (rays) at Lol. Both warred with the evil spirit of night called 
Atua. Wan, the sea god, woos Lol in the absence of Lono, casting 
gems, pearls, gold, silver, and corals before her ; but she leaves them 
lying scattered He then tries to submerge her, but she builds 
ramparts which resist his waves. He deceives her in a calm night 
by wearing the mantle of Lono, who suddenly appears and drives 
Wan back to the sea, whit^e with rage and fear. Lol is ashamed and 
sinks into the depths. All men would have been drowned, but 



Hawk 201 

Paumakea, a friend of Lono, saves some in a great canoe. Lol 
then bears her firstborn Hawaii, red and glowing, who is the flaming 
volcano (Mauno-lea) 14,000 feet high — -a peak of Mauna Eilea 
which rises 18,700 feet, and is covered with clouds and snow. It 
was here that the survivors of the flood landed, and spread thence 
over Polynesia. 

The Kanaka Trinity consists of Kan6, Eu, and Lono, who made 
light, and inhabited three heavens, being said to have " sat with earth 
for their footstool." They next created the sun, moon, and stars, with 
other spirits, and lastly man in the likeness of Ean6, all three gods 
breathing life into him. They then took from him a bone (lalo- 
puhako), and made it into a woman. This pair would have been 
immortal, but the foolish angel Eanaloa also made a man and could 
not vivify him : he therefore cursed the race created by Kane, so that 
all must in time die. Men have two souls, one of which roams about 
and is immortal, but the other dies forever with the body. 

In 1819 the severities of the religious Tabu, on which the 
Kanaka priests insisted, drove the young king and his strong-minded 
queen with their nobles to revolt, and the gods were set at defiance. 
Their Heians, or temples, their images and property, were burned and 
destroyed. The influence of European sailors had something to do 
with this, but they unfortunately also introduced drink and vice. 
The priests and their followers rose in rebellion, but in 1820 
American missionaries appeared, and by aid of sailors and fire-arms 
the old religion was crushed out, and Christianity established. The 
Kanakas seem only to miss their ancient Pu-uhonuas, or ** sanctuaries 
of refuge," where the oppressed and the criminal were safe, being 
defended by priests who after a time sent them forth, free and washed 
from sin. 

Hawk« In Egypt the hawk (Bak) is the emblem of Horus, the 
rising sun (see Eagle). The chariot of the Vedik Asvins (the twins), 
is drawn by hawks. Parvati takes the form of falcons, vultures, and 
grifons ; and Indra as a hawk stole the thunderbolts of heaven, and 
the *' luminous virgin Amrita " (the ambrosial drink). This Amrita 
fell from the hawk, and was swallowed by the fish (Arika or Girika) 
of the Jamuna river (Prof. A. de Gubematis, Zool. MythoL, ii, pp. 
181, 182). The N. American Indians value the dust in which a 
hawk is seen to bathe itself (like fowls and sparrows) ; for when tied 
to the body in a linen cloth, with red string, it cures fevers, and other 
evils (Capt. Bourke, Medicine Men of the Apaches, 1892). Similar 
ideas of the life-giving power of hawks are found in ancient Europe 



202 Hayti 

(Brand's Pap, Antiq.). Among the Greeks the hawk was the spy of 
Apollo, and the migratory hawk betokened spring (Aristotle, Birds, 
502). It sat on the sacred Mt Ida, as the hawk or eagle of Skandi- 
navians sat on the branches of the world-tree Yggdrasil, and the Persian 
Simurgh on the summit of Elburz, waiting (like the Oaruda) to swoop 
down on serpents and demons, and to bear behests of heaven to men. 

Hajrti. See Voduns. 

Head. The head in mythology is the sun (Eephalos), and also 
the top of the phallus. The foundations of any city could be rendered 
secure by either a head or a phallus (Mr D. Ferguson, Indian Antiq,^ 
Feb. 1S84) ; and those who may doubt the connection should see the 
Vatican bronze of the cock-crested head (Payne Knight, Essays on 
Ancient Worship, 1865, p. 10, plate ii). The torso of this figure 
bears the Greek words SoUr Kosmou, " the saviour of the world." 

Heart. The Egyptians had a heart emblem (see Ait. aad 
Abraxas), which hung from the sacred bull It is a common symbol 
of passion. In the temple of Prometheus (" fire "), above its gateway, 
were carved an eagle and a heart The latter apparently (Ait) was 
the hieroglyphic for Aetos, " the eagle " (Bryant, Mythol., i, p. 18). 
The Egyptian names Ab, and Hat, for the heart signified (says 
Renouf) that which leaps or throbs, as do the Aryan names from the 
root Krad " to quiver " (Greek Kardia, Latin Cardia, Sanskrit 
Hrid, Zend Zaredhaya, Teut. Hairto, Kelt. Cride : see Proc. Socy. 
Bib. Arch, May 1887 : Rivers of Life, i, p. 500; ii, p. 516). The 
heart charm is still common, and the ** sacred heart," with its flames 
bursting out from above, is a Roman Catholic symbol (see Agnostic 
Journal, 14th Oct. 1899). Irish bishops distribute a written prayer 
illustrated with this heart in which are the Virgin and a kneeUng 
man and woman : this is " to be attached to the inner door of 
houses in order that the inmates may be preserved from cholera, and 
all other misfortunes." In the prayer the Virgin is besought, by her 
immaculate conception, to save the house from " pestilence, cholera, 
fire, water, thunder, tempests, earthquakes, thieves, schisms, heresies, 
and sudden death." In ancient Egypt it is the heart that is weighed 
in the balances (see Amenti). The heart of Siva, in India, is called 
the Nadi-chakra, the " vital spirit which drives life through the tubes" 
(or Nadis), The heart resting on the sun is also a sacred symbol in 
ancient sculptures ; and snakes issue from the heart, while three 
hearts form a trinity, or a wheel, in mediaeval symbolism (see Riv&rs 
of Life, ii, plate ii, fig. 2). 



Heaven 203 

The heart plays an importaDt part in the mysticism of the 
"philosopher's stone" (see De Lapide Sap. Prdctica, 1618, by Father 
B. Valentine, a Benedictine monk). In Clavis lY a queen holds a 
heart before an altar, and from it spring 7 roses, while a rampant lion 
and the sun are combined with this figure ; and Cupid shoots at the 
heart in front, while a satyr-like man stands behind, blowing fire at 
the queen with a bellows. In Clavis Y a " still " beside the queen is 
drawn from a furnace, fed by a man with a trident ; and a double 
Janus head blows into another opposite. Above these are the sun, 
the moon, and a swan. In Clavis YI two women ride lions whose 
jaws are inter-locked, and hold hearts whence spring the sun and 
moon. Yenus reclines under a tree : a Cupid on her arm points at 
her ; and two others support a heart The interpretation of all this 
is clearly intended to refer to passion. 

Heaven. The heaven idea is the logical outcome of the 
speculative doctrine that men — if not all animals — have immortal 
souls ; an idea now commonly believed to be bom of dreams, the 
untutored savage observing that when the body lay, as it were dead, 
in sleep his spirit, mind, or intelligence was active, and often wandered 
amid strange scenes. Bad souls then naturally went down into dark- 
ness or Sheol, and good souls upwards to dwell with the " spirits of 
life" in heaven — ^speculations which ignored the hard facts as to a 
rapidly revolving and advancing little globe. 

The idea of going to heaven is however modem, compared with 
the long past of man, and is a weak and varied growth. The ancients 
hardly recognised it, and in the Hebrew scriptures no such after life 
is formulated, or apparently longed for. The Hebrew deity dwelt 
above a "firmament" over the waters, to which Hebrews thought 
that Babylonians strove to build a tower. From the windows of this 
firmament came rains and a great flood, and from it God talked with 
patriarchs and prophets. An early Christian saw this heaven opened, 
and Jesus standing at God's right band (Acts vii, 55, 56). As it 
must have been made, a creator was also pre-supposed — a lord of souls 
or spirits who must provide them for his whole world. He is the Lord 
of Heaven, and the enemy of the " Prince of the Power of the Air," 
who ruled hosts of spirits in Hades or Sheol — another logical, though 
fanciful creation. But many wise teachers called on the ignorant to 
remember that these great conceptions were based on our hopes and 
fears, on dreams and insufficient reasonings. So our immortal bard 
seems to have thought when he said : ** We are such stuff as dreams 
are made of, and our little life is rounded with a sleep." 



204 Heaven 

Nevertheless these ideas of Heavens and Hells assumed a grossly 
materialistic aspect, and were more or less accepted by I^yptians and 
Babylonians some 5000 years ago, by writers of Vedas, and Zero- 
astrians, about 3000 years ago, and by Greeks and W. Asiatics as 
early as the age of Pythagoras and Sophokles, as also by Hebrew 
Psalmists. Vainly have spiritualists, whether Mazdean, Hindu, or 
Christian, condemned materialism : man can grasp no phenomenon, 
whether god or ghost, heaven or hell, save through material concep- 
tions bom of consciousness, or knowledge gained through his five 
senses. The more devout the priest or pietist the more materialistic 
do we find his ideas to be. Heaven becomes a very real Mt Mem, 
with an Olympian Zeus in the circling skies — ^the Hebrew Shemim or 
" heights," the Chinese Tien round which the sun makes his diurnal 
journey. It is the Vedik Varuna and Greek Ouranos (" the covering "), 
and the Latin Camera or Kymrik Kamvios, *' the arch " or " vault" 

Our English word heaven (Anglo-Saxon Hebhen ; German 
Him/meC) is evidently connected with the idea of "that which is 
lifted, heaved, or heaped up " : for many rude races believed the sky 
was forced up from the earth, when the darkness ceased and the 
Devas or " bright ones " arose to rule in heaven. [These Aryan 
words are also from the same root Kam " to bend," found as above in 
Kamuloa. — Ed.] Other words also mean " swelling up " (Russian 
Nebo ; Polish Niebo ; Bohemian Nebe\ or ** bright " (Livonian dehbee ; 
Hindu dibi). The Babylonian Samami means '' heights " ; the 
Akkadian E-anfia ** the abode on high " ; the Kassite Tur-hi *' the 
high abode," and in Finnic Tanym is heaven. 

The Asiatic ideas of transmigration, and expiation in future lives, 
were not recognised by Egyptians, Babylonians, or Hebrews. In 
Sheol (the "hollow"), according to Hebrew ideas about 7o0 B.C.. 
dwelt both the holy and the unholy. Samuel ascends from Sheol 
(1 Sam. xxviii, 13, 14, 15, 19). Yet the Psalmist says (Psalm xvi, 
10)'* Thou wilt not leave my soul (or self) for Sheol, nor suffer thy 
pious ones to see destruction " — ^a text whence Hebrews aud Christians 
alike have concluded that the body is to be resurrected. Sheol (or 
Abaildou, that is " destruction ") became later a '* bottomless pit," into 
which Yahveh cast his emng angel, once a visitor to heaven (Job i, ii), 
but chained — or otherwise he might still be falling forever more. 

The early beliefs of Christians, as to heaven and hell, are seen in 
writings attributed to Peter and Nicodemus. Christ is said (1 Peter 
iii, 19) to have "preached to the spirits in safe keeping" (phillake): 
Micod em us devotes ten chapters to describing Christ's visit to Hell: 
for two of the dead (Karinus and Leucius) were induced, when 



Heaven 205 

they rose from their graves after the Crucifixion, to write what they 
had seen. This unfortunately is lost, but perhaps we should not 
have believed them (see Er). These legends recall the descent of 
Gilgamas (the sun) and of Istar (the moon) into Sheol. The Greeks 
had similar tales, perhaps from the same source, as to the diurnal or 
annual descent of the sun into Hades. 

The heaven life of the Egyptians was a glorified existence as on 
earth. The pious ate the choicest viands at the table of Osiris (see 
E^pt), the climate was exquisite, and there was only such amount of 
healthy labour as was necessary to sweeten repose : men ploughed, 
sowed, and reaped the fields of Aalu, which yielded crops never seen 
on earth (see Amenti). These descriptions were even exaggerated by 
Rabbis and by early Christian Fathers. The corn grew seven cubits 
long, the grapes were two cubits across. The Egyptians said that the 
Osiris of the dead man, or saint, could at will transform himself into 
beast, bird, or flower, or even into a god, and so traverse the universe. 
But the heaven of Paul is indefinite : he quotes (1 Cor. ii, 9) the 
saying : *' Eye hath not seen, nor ear heard, neither hath it entered 
into the heart of man " to conceive the future of those who love Ood, 
though seers were supposed to have seen heaven. The Satan could 
once enter it (Job i, 6 ; ii, 1) : it was opened when the Holy Ghost 
descended (Mark i, 10) ; and Stephen saw it open also (Acts vii, 56), 
in spite of the swift revolution of this little globe, which makes such 
words meaningless, and destroys belief in inspiration. Hebrew seers 
saw Yahveh on his throne in heaven, with its hosts standing before 
him (1 Kings xxii, 19 ; 2 Chron. xviii, 18), and Jesus said that the 
spirits of little ones do always behold the face of God (Matt xviii, 10). 
The Hebrews, nevertheless, seem to have believed, like Jesus 
(John iii, 13), that no man has ascended into heaven ; not even the 
pious David so ascended (Acts ii, 34), which is confusing when we 
recall Enoch and Elijah. Some texts point to the throne of God as 
"enduring forever"; but Job said that man does not rise till " the 
heavens be no more" (xiv, 12). In the second Epistle attributed to 
Peter we read that : " the heavens being on fire shall be dissolved, and 
the elements shall melt with fervent heat" Ezekiel (i, 22-28) saw a 
firmament (or platform) supported on " living creatures," which was 
like crystal, having on it a sapphire throne, on which sat the " like- 
ness of a man " with rainbow colours. The author of Revelation is 
equally definite. His idea is that of an Eastern court or of a gorgeous 
cathedral in full worship. The door of heaven was opened, and 
immediately he was in the spirit (Rev. iv), and saw one seated on a 
throne, who was " like a jasper and a sardine stone, and a rainbow 



206 Heaven 

round about the throne in sight like an emerald " (verses 2, 3). 
Before the throne were the seats of 24 elders, clothed in white, with 
gold crowns, and seven burning lamps with a crystal sea, and *' four 
beasts full of eyes." The whole description seems to be of Mazdean 
origin (compare the city of Ahuramazda as described in the Pablavi 
Bv/ndahlsh). The lamb with seven horns and seven eyes takes a 
book with seven seals from " him that sat on the throne " (v, 6, 7). 
There is, moreover, a temple or tabernacle (Rev. xiv, 17 ; xv, 5 ; 
xvi, 17), and an altar (vi, 9) in this heaven. But the conceptioDS of 
the 6th century B.C., and of the Ist century A.C., expand also into the 
vision of "Abraham's bosom" (Luke xvi, 22), which was in sight of 
Sheol — a subject on which many Rabbis wrote. [The BabyloDians 
had a place of rest *' under a bright sky " in Sheol for the pious — 
like the Greek Elysium adjoining Hades among the Greeks. — £d.] 
Christians accepted heaven as a palace in cloud-land, which poets like 
Dante or Milton have described as a sweet, dreamy abode of hymning 
and chanting, where no increased powers, knowledge, or virtues can 
be of future use. Paul pictures a heaven, not for flesh and blood, 
where we shall be '' all changed," yet " know even as we are known " 
— ideas seemingly incongruous of which he is " fully persuaded " in 
his own mind, from feeling that Christ's resurrection, and ascension, 
were historical facts. Nay, men were assured that within that 
generation Christ would come down again, " in like manner as ye saw 
him ascend," which involves his being yet in his lacerated body — 
materialistic ideas common to all religions. 

Paul insisted on resurrection to an eternal hell, as well as 
to an eternal heaven (2 Thess. i, 8, 9). To the majority the future 
is a " resurrection to damnation " (John v, 29 ; Jude 7). The 
gospels fully warrant this, and the Churches have preached it for 
18 centuries (Matt, xiii, 42; xviii, 8; xxv, 46; Mark iii, 29; ix, 
44-47), for Christ is made to insist that the wicked are cast into 
everlasting fire, and that the good inherit eternal life. These are 
mutual complements, and fundamental tenets of the faith, for if there 
be no damnation why did God's only Son die? Why preach 
'' atonement " by a Saviour who never saved ? No explaining away 
of the Gai-Hinnom ("valley of groans*' — the Moslem Jehannum or 
hell) as a place where the refuse of Jerusalem was burned, will satisfy 
believers in the fall of Adam, and in salvation by the son of David. 
The Greeks believed that H^rakl^ descended into Hades to visit the 
" mighty dead," like Odusseus ; but Akhilleus (according to Homer) 
would rather have been a hireling on earth than a king in the world 
of ghosts. Adam in Sheol had not only the Satan as his companion, 



Heaven 207 

but Samuel also, apparently in unchanged earthly form ; and Chrifitians 
at first held similar beliefs. Only Christ and his apostles, with the 
few who were the " salt of the earth," would go to heaven, though at 
the millenium the pious were to dwell in the heavenly Jemsalem let 
down from heaven. A poetic vagueness pervades these descriptions, 
and the Churches were wise at first in not insisting (as Irenseus shows) 
on the millenium, or on the doctrines now current as to immortal 
life, which Mr Gladstone, as a learned theologian, held to be only 
certain for the good believer in Christ. 

Tet, many centuries before Christ, shrewd and pious meta- 
physicians in the East had thought out, and for the most part had 
rejected, the legendary joys of all popular heavens. Their speculations 
as to the eternal rest, after toils on earth followed by sundry trans- 
migrations, or other states of existence necessary for the attainment 
of purity, are fairly summed up in the story of the pious sage 
Mugdala, as found in the Maha-bharata. Owing to his holy life, 
good works, and wise words, and after severe trials of temper, and 
patient endurance of all that the gods decreed to test his faith, they 
declared that he must ascend to heaven in a celestial car : but 
Mugdala hesitated. He asked first that the "holy ones" should 
make clear to him the advantages of heaven over earth where he was 
so busy in good and useful works. A long debate ensued (see Muir's 
Orig, Sanskrit Texts, v, 342-346), and heaven was described as the 
blest abode where there is no hunger, thirst, weariness, heat, or cold ; 
no desire, labour, suffering, pleasure, or pain ; no passion good or 
evil : no fear or joy ; but *' rest in a perfect celestial repose, amid 
gardens glorious and delightful, fragrant and unfading, near golden 
Mem with its silvery cascades." There free from troubles the glorified 
ethereal " bodies of the blessed move on aerial cars, amid scenes of 
perfect purity, feeding on the divine ambrosia with the eternal gods." 
" To such a place," said the divine messengers, " do the gods invite 
thee, Mugdala, as a reward for thy faith and good deeds. No more 
faith or works are required of thee — nay, none can be wrought ; for 
no reward can spring from any, all being perfection." To this the 
sage gravely answered : " Then I desire no such heaven. It cuts off 
at the root all sources of true happiness — the blessing of working and 
of doing good, and all those high gratifications of heart and mind 
which, in a thousand ways, rise therefrom. Go blessed ones, and 
leave me in the daily practice of virtue. I desire to remain, as far as 
possible, indifferent to praise or blame, till my Nirvana shall come — the 
time for absorption into the essence of Brahm." 

The epik writer continues, in the same trenchant manner, to 



208 Heaven 

criticise popular ideas of heaven. Tudishthira arrived at the celestial 
gates, but his faithful friends, and dog, were forbidden to approach 
and consigned to helL One by one wife and brothers had sunk down 
in the weary pilgrimage on earth, and now found heaven indiffereDt 
to their cries. The '' eternal one " at the gate welcomed Tudishthira 
only. But this good man and true looked back on his fallen friends, 
and exclaimed in anguish : ^ Nay, not so, thou thousand-eyed one. god 
of gods ! Let my brothers come with me : without them I seek not 
even to enter heaven." After much debate, and equivocal arguments 
by the gods, Yudishthira was assured that his friends were already in 
heaven. Then, gazing on his faithful dog, he urged that this dumb 
companion of his joys and weary wanderings must also accompany 
him wherever he went. " Not so," was the stem reply, " this is no 
place for dogs." The good sage (more merciful than the gods) 
turned aside murmuring that duty forbade him to forsake even a 
dumb friend : and the reproof pricked the conscience of henvea : 
great Indra appeared and urged that, as he had left his brothers b? 
the way, so now he might consent to leave his dog at the gates of 
heaven. To this Yudishthira haughtily replied : " I had no power 
to bring them back to life : how can there be abandonment of 
those who no longer live ? " At last the capricious deity and the 
just man are reconciled, the former finding that the dog is a saint in 
disguise, and even the father of a righteous prince — a celestial 
equivocation needful to reconcile justice and mercy. But wben man 
and dog enter heaven another diflSculty arises : no brothers are found, 
and Yudishthira sees them, to his horror, enduring torments in hell 
below. Incensed at the deceitfulness of heaven he insists to be 
permitted to go to his brothers, and to share their misery. This is 
too much for the gods, whose principles are changed to accord with 
the eternal laws of justice, truth, and loving kindness. And so 
doubtless will a new heaven again be evolved as our culture advances, 
one full of science, art, music, and song — better perhaps than the old 
one, but quite as fanciful : while our Hades will fade into a sublimated 
Purgatory. 

To the Moslem as to the Hiudu, heaven was a garden. " Who- 
soever," said MuUammad, " performs good works and believes, men, 
and women as well, shall enter paradise " (^j^oran, xl, 43 ; see also 
xiii, 23 ; xvi, 99 ; xlviii, 5) : and in its tents the modest Huris hide 
— the Valkyries of the Moslem. We have said above that the idea of 
heaven is based on that of the soul's immortality — both soothing to 
the fears of humanity. Such fancies have slowly grown to be part of 
our heredity, and have thus been almost unquestioned throughout 



Hebe 209 

many ages. Wise and pious thinkers have argued that the very 
gods must be thought unjust unless they hereafter . recompense 
goodness, and compensate us for the miseries and inequalities of life : 
unless there be reward for virtue and punishment for vice— crude 
ideas truly, which cut at the roots of moral action (see Conscience). 
In spite of science, in spite of actual inward belief, men cry as of old, 
in crowded churches, *'I believe in the resurrection of the body/' 
well knowing that it crumbles to dust, and is eaten by worms, that 
it is converted into earth nourishing vegetation, and dissolved in 
gases in the air. No educated man of science now asserts that any 
soul exists apart from some form of matter : in spite of creeds, and 
solemn chants, the old belief which enabled the martyrs to endure the 
fiery stake, or to face the devouring lion, has all but vanished away in 
Europe and America. Life is perhaps more dear, and more endurable, 
than it was of old, though no angel voices are now heard calling ; no 
crown of glory, palaces of gems and crystal, or streets of gold, await us. 
Irenseus said that, at the millenium " the vines have each ten thousand 
branches, each with ten thousand lesser branches, each with ten 
thousand twigs ; and every twig has ten thousand clusters of grapes, 
every one of which yields 276 measures of iine wine." Tet hear the 
wise old Persian 'Omar the Tentmaker, who calls 

'^ Heaven but the vision of fulfilled desire 
And Hell the shadow of a soul on fire, 
Cast on the darkness into which ourselves 
So late emerged from shall so soon expire.'' 

Hebe. Greek : the " downy " representative of youth and of 
tender herbage, a daughter of H6re or " earth," and of Zeus or 
"heaven," and sister of Ares the "storms" of spring. She is the 
Zend Yavya " young " (Sanskrit yavan, Latin juvenia). She could 
restore youth and vigour with Ambrosia, and so became cup-bearer 
to the gods, and is even called Ganumeda (see GanumedSs). She 
was wedded to Herakles the sun, and bore to him Alexi-ares Q' the 
most powerful ") and A-niketos (" the unconquerable "), harbingers of 
spring. 

Hebrews. Hebrew : ^Ebrlm, or " those who have crossed " 
some river, whether Tigris, Euphrates, or Jordan. The term applies 
to others besides the tribes who entered Palestine (Gen. x, 24 ; 
xi, 15): Arabs called those N.E. of the Euphrates 'Ebrim, before 
they crossed S.W. It is a geographical not a racial name. As far 
as the evidence of texts, and monuments, is concerned we know 
scarcely anything of Hebrews before the 9th century B.C., if we 
0« 



210 Hebrews 

except the disputed identification of the 'Abiri invaders of the 15tb 
century b.g. (see Amarna), and the notice of Israel in Palatine 
about 1260 B.c. (see Egypt): for the first Hebrew king mentioned 
by the Assyrians is Jehu, who gave tribute to Shalmaneser II in 
840 B.C. ; after whom we read of Menahem, Pekah, and Hoshea of 
Samaria, and of Azariah, Ahaz, Hezekiah, and Manasseh of Judah as 
tributaries in the 8 th and 7 th centuries. [The most definite notice 
is that by Sennacherib in 702 B.c. ''As for Hezekiah of Judaih, who 
did not submit to my yoke : forty-six of his cities, strong forts, and 
villages of their region which were unnamed, I took ... I made 
spoil of 200,150 people small and great, male and female; of horses, 
mules, camels, oxen, and flocks innumerable. He shut himself up 
like a bird in a snare in Jerusalem, his royal city : he raised 
ramparts for himself; he was forced to close the gate of his town. 
I cut off the cities I sacked from his fortress. I gave them to 
Mitinti King of Ashdod : to PadI King of Ekron ; and to Sil-b'el 
EjDg of Gaza. I made his land small. Beyond the former tribute 
— their yearly gift — I imposed on them an additional gift of sub- 
jection to my government Fear of the glory of my rule overcame 
Hezekiah. The priests, the trusty warriors whom he had brought 
in to defend Jerusalem, his royal city, gave tribute. Thirty talents 
of gold, 800 talents of molten silver, mauy rubies and sapphires, 
chairs of ivory, high thrones of ivory, skins of wild bulls, weapons 
of all kinds — a mighty treasure — and women of his palace, slaves 
and handmaids, he caused to be sent after me to Nineveh, my royal 
city, giving tribute; and he sent his envoy to make submission." 
—Ed.] 

Euneiform tablets were used in Palestine as early as the lotb 
century B.C., and down to 649 B.c. (see Gezer) ; and we know that 
the Hebrews used tablets in writing in the same age. But we have 
no allusion to their having written iu kuneiform characters ; and the 
earliest alphabetic text is the Moabite Stone, about 900 B.C., in a 
dialect very like Hebrew. In this, Yahveh appears as the tribal god 
of Israel. The Siloam text (about 700 B.C. according to Dr Isaac 
Taylor) is written in a variety of the same Phoenician letters used 
by the Moabites, and in pure Hebrew. We also possess weights 
of about the same age, which are inscribed, and represent the Hebrew 
shekel of about 320 grains inaperial. We have seals said to come 
from Jerusalem, which are equally early, bearing names compounded 
with that of Yahveh ; and one of these has on it a winged sun. 
We have also many handles of pitchers, bearing the same characters 
in texts which dedicate them to the Meiek or Moloch of various 



Hebrews 211 

S. Palestine towns, and to '' Melek-MarashatL" [Probably the deity 
presiding over " what is drawn forth ** — ^that is to say the water in 
the pitcher. — Ed.] After the Captivity we have many seals, with 
Hebrew names compounded with Tab or Yahveh. We have a 
complete series of coins at least as early as the time of Simon 
the brother of Judas Makkabeeus, and down to the reign of Herod 
the Great. We have texts at Gezer probably as old as the age of 
the Makkabees ; and one at 'Arak: el Emir (E. of Jordan) of about 
176 B.a We have a boundary stone of Herod's Temple in Greek ; 
and, about 50 B.C., the square Hebrew appears at Jerusalem on the 
tomb of the Beni Hezir priests. De Saulcy also found a sarcophagus 
of a " Queen Sarah " in the tomb of the kings of Adiabene, N* of 
Jerusalem, probably of the same age. The supposed " coins of the 
revolts " are forgeries, imitating those of Simon, on defaced Roman 
coins ; but we have Hebrew texts on the Galilean synagogues of the 
2nd century A.a ; and Col. Conder notices one at Umm ez Zeinat on 
Karmel, which bears the name of ''Eli'azer Bar 'Azariah," which is 
that of a well-known Rabbi about 135 A.C. A semi-Phoenician text, 
found by M. Clermont Ganneau in the village of Siloam, appears to be 
ancient and perhaps important, but it is illegible; and another at 
Joppa is doubted as perhaps not genuine. These are all the texts 
at present known, in Syria, which are of Hebrew or Jewish origin 
down to our 2nd century. 

The dispersion of the race is witnessed by Eju:aite tombstones, 
in the Krimea, of probably the 2nd century A.c. ; and a fragment of 
a papyrus from Egypt, with the Ten Commandments (see Proc, Bib. 
Arch. Socy., Jany. 1903, pp. 39 to 56), is supposed, by Mr Stanley 
A. Cook, to belong to about the same age, being the oldest known 
text of any part of the Old Testament in existence. The mosaic on 
the tomb of Galla Pocida (built 432 to 440 A.c.) is the oldest known 
Jewish text in the West (see JourTial Bl. Asiatic Socy., May 1882). 
The oldest Samaritan MS. at Shechem (never collated) cannot be older 
than our 6th century, the characters being apparently the same used 
in a text on a stone of the old Samaritan synagogue at the same site, 
which belongs to that period (about the time of Justinian). 

As regards language, we have no evidence before 700 B.c. ; and 
the Moabite dialect in the 9th century ac. is not pure Hebrew. We 
have Aramaik texts (on a Jerusalem tomb and in Bashan) older than 
the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.C. ; and there is no doubt that, 
in the time of Christ, Hebrew was a dead language only known to 
priests, and Aramaik (as we see also in the Gospels) the ordinary 
language of Jews, to many of whom however Greek was also known. 



212 Hebrews 

Greek texta of the period being common in Bashan, though rare in 
other parts of Palestine. None of these Hebrew and Aramaik texts 
have any " points " : nor were such used before our 6 th century ; so 
that as Dr Isaac Taylor says (Alphabet, i, p. 282) :'' it is to be feared 
that the old pronunciation is now lost beyond recovery." [All that 
we know is that the present pronunciation of words, in the Old Testa- 
ment, is not the same as that represented by the Greek Septuagint 
translators in the case of proper names and other nouna — Ed.] 
;Hebrew was not perfectly known to the Greek translators for (as 
Dr F. Delitzsch says) '* the Jewish writers of those days failed to grasp 
the meaning of difiBcult passages, and for 200 years even the most 
learned Jews wrote in Aramaik. . . . The Greek Septuagint, some portions 
of which were written in the 3rd century B.G., shows similar defective 
knowledge of Hebrew, and the translators often only guess at the 
meaning.'' From the 2nd or 3rd century A.C., learned Jews at 
Tiberias laboured to create a standard text of their Bible ; but their 
knowledge of the true pronunciation of " unpointed " texts was 
imperfect, and their conclusions were often very manifestly wrong. 
'' There is ample room," says Dr Ginsburg, *' for many readings, 
for the words are not always distinctly separated, nor the characters 
properly formed." 

As regards literature, besides the Bible the Jews possess a vast 
number of works ranging from about 150 to 800 A.C., and later. 
These include the Midrash or Commentary (see Haggadah, Halaka, 
and Midrash) : the various Targums (from our 4th century downward) 
or Aramaik paraphrases of Bible books ; the vast Talmud with its 
Hebrew text (Mishnah), and two commentaries thereon (see Gemara) ; 
and the Jg^abbala or mystic, and sometimes magical literature, supposed 
to have originated in our 2nd century, but only extant in mediaeval 
works which pretend to greater antiquity. All these valuable writings 
require study by any who would wish really to understand the ideas, 
customs, and legends, of the Jews, from the time of their final dispersios 
(after 135 A.C.) down to our Middle Ages. 

With respect to the earlier religion of the Hebrews, Kuenen 
(Religion of Israel^ i, p. 223) says : **The polytheism of the Hebrew 
masses cannot be regarded as a subsequent innovation. On the 
contrary everything is in favour of its originality." It was only by 
very slow degrees, during and after their captivity in Babylon, that 
they began to adopt the Monotheism of their prophets and psalmists. 
To Mesha, king of Moab, Yahveh was only the god of Israel, who was 
conquered by Chemosh the god of Moab. The whole nation, like 
those around it, was steeped in superstition though, about the time 



Hebrews 218 

of Alexander, great skeptiks like ^oheleth appeared amoDg Jews (see 
Ecclesiastes). How far such views have now advanced we may judge 
from a passage recently published in the Jewish World, in London. 
" The substantial difference between Judaism and Christianity is, that 
the one desires to teach us how to live, and the other how to die ; 
Judaism discourses of the excellence of temporal pleasure and length 
of days, whilst Christianity emphasises the excellence of sorrow and 
the divinity of death." " Judaism now cares not for the results of 
Old Testament exegesis one iota, if the Old . Testament records be 
proved false from beginning to end, the Bible personages veritable 
sun myths, and the exodus from Egypt an astronomical allegory. . . . 
Judaism knows nothing of faith, and requires from its adherents no 
form of belief. ... It only notices what man does. . . . Jews had 
no words even to express our present ideas ' faith ' and ' belief.' All 
true religion must be independent of the authority of any set of books " 
{Jewiah World, January 1885). This however is, as yet, only the 
opinion of the highly educated Jews. 

In regard to the legendary account of the sojourn of the Hebrews 
b Egypt, and of their Exodus thence (see Exodus) long and close study 
of the subject has convinced the author that no reliance can be placed 
on the Hebrew narrative, whether that residence extended only to 
three generations, or to 430 years. We cannot reject such parts of the 
story as do not appear to fit with actual history, and accept such 
portions as seem more probable. We cannot ignore all the miracles 
{ind plagues, in Egypt and in the desert, or the assertion that a 
population of some three millions — men, women, and children — left the 
country in a single night. It is very generally acknowledged now 
that the story consists merely of traditions mingled with myths. 
Hebrew prophets of the 8th century B.C. (Amos v, 26 ; Hosea ii, 15 ; 
Micah vi, 4) believed, it is true, that their ancestors were led by 
Moses and Aaron from Egypt into the wilderness, where they lived for 
forty years ; but they wrote eight centuries later. The difficulties are 
such as to lead scholars to ask, with the Rev. O. H. Bateson Wright, D.D., 
'' Was Israel ever in Egypt ? " and, in his work bearing this title, he 
says that : " there is no true history of Israel till David's time " : " the 
patriarchal traditions are due to conjectural etymologies of the names 
of places and persons" — a view which he illustrates as follows, in 
accordance with the simple style common to many early histories. 
" Now King Cetus took to himself a wife Belga, and she bore him 
three daughters, Hibemia, Caledonia, and Britannia ; and the sons of 
Hibemia were these : Ulster, Munster, Leinster, and Connaught ; and 
Leinster was the father of Dublin. . . . Now the sons of Teuton were 



214 Hebrews 

these: Anglua, Saxo, Juta, Danus, and Horsa. And to Saxo were 
born four sons, Essex, Middlesex, Wessex, and Sussex." Such a 
parallel easily explains the genealogies of the 10th chapter of Genesis, 
referring to early tribes of W. Asia. 

Neither later statements of the prophets, nor the Egyptian records 

of any age, including the reign of Merenptah (Mineptah) about 

1270 B.C., serve in any way to confirm the marvels of the Exodus 

story. It is clear from the Bible chronology that Moses was supposed 

to live about 1600 B.C., in the time of the 18th dynasty of Egypt. But 

Egyptian history could not have been entirely silent as to the existence 

of two or three millions of Hebrews in the Delta, while noticing so many 

much smaller foreign tribes (see Egypt), i^ptian residents, and 

merchants, in the 15 th century B.C., were found everywhere from 

Naharaim and the Taurus to Philistia, Edom, and the Sinaitic 

peninsula. In their correspondence we find no allusions to great 

plagues and disasters ; nor any in Egyptian records at alL They speak 

it is true of certain Habiri or 'Abiri in the S. of Palestine, whom some 

scholars regard as Hebrews (about 1480 b.g. or later), and others as 

Hebronites, or as ** confederates " : [the word is geographical, for '^ the 

country of the 'Abiri " is noticed (see Amarna) — Ed.] ; but they never 

say that these marauders, who killed many Canaanite chiefs at Gezer, 

Lachish, Askalon, and other places, came from Egypt. It is difficult 

to believe that Hebrews could have gone into the Sinaitic desert : for 

it contained the precious mines of copper and bluestone (mafka), which 

were protected, according to the texts extant on the spot, by a gaard 

of Egyptian soldiers. These mines were known in the time of Senefru 

(3rd or 4th dynasty), and worked in the time of the 12th dynasty. 

We have a text of Queen Hatasu, of the 18th dynasty, in this region ; 

and the mines were also worked under Bameses III, of the 20th 

dynasty, about 1200 B.a [There are however no texts known in 

this region in the time of Tbothmes IV, of Amenophis III, or of 

Amenophis IV. — Ed.] Wherever the Hebrews went in Palestine 

they must have encountered the Egyptians ; though we see from the 

Amarna tablets that there was rebellion, and a weakening of Egyptian 

rule, in the days of Amenophis III and Amenophis lY, when raids on 

Philistia by the Habiri occurred. It is of course possible that border 

tribes of Beni Israel may, like the Edomites in the time of the 

1 2th dynasty, have entered the Nile delta, under Hyksos rule, in time 

of famine, and may have worked as slaves, and have again fled to the 

desert, pursued by Egyptian troops ; and it is possible that out of such 

events the wondrous legend of the Exodus grew up in time. If Moses 

lived — as represented in the Old Testament — about 1500 B.C., and the 



Hebrews 215 

Hebrew records were edited by scribes like Ezra in the Persian age, 
the small nucleus of fact might have had ample time to grow into 
these portentous developments .of Hebrew tradition. . A writer in the 
Jewish World (Ist March 1883) said sadly: "In vain do we look 
for some record of the 400 years our ancestors are said to have dwelt 
in Egypt. It is a long period in the history of a nation, and surely, 
iluring so long a stay, some reference to Hebrews must have been 
made on papyrus, tomb, stele, or monument. At present we know of 
Doae. The history of Israel in £gypt is simply a blank " — and so it 
remains up to the present time. Some have, in the past, seen in the 
pictures of the Beni Hasan tombs a " representation of Joseph and bis 
brethren " (see Beni Hasan) ; but the inhabitants of Seir there 
represented arrived in the time of Amen-em-bat II, of the 12th 
dynasty — a thousand years before the date when Joseph is supposed 
to have been in Egypt. Some have supposed the names Jacob-el, 
and Joseph-el to occur as those of deified patriarchs in the reign of 
Thothmes III, but these words are the names of towns in Fhilistia. 
[The correct readings, given by Mariette, are Isphxir (Saphir) and 
'Akbar (now *Ohbwr) places very well known in this region. — Ed.] 
Such suggestions have never been accepted by impartial scholars. 
[The notice of Israel as a people in Palestine under Mineptah, while it 
shows us that he could not have been the Pharaoh of the Exodus, is 
Aot difficult to reconcile with the history of the Hebrews under their 
Judges ; but it does not prove that Israel ever was in Egypt. In the 
ancient song of Deborah the Hebrew opening verse (Judg, v, 2) reads : 
" Praise ye Yahveh : for the Pharaohs tyrannised (6i pher'a Phar'aoth) 
in Israel, when the people devoted themselves'' ; and this indicates con- 
tact with i^ypt after the time of Joshua's raids throughPalestine. — Ed.] 
In the 12tb century B.C., the decay of Egyptian power allowed the 
Hebrew chiefs to shake themselves free, and to become independent 
in their mountains, even raiding the Philistine plain from about 1150 
to 960 B.C. Egypt had too many home anxieties to allow of her 
troubling about Judea, and probably felt it an advantage that an 
allied buffer state should exist, as a protection against Assyria ; but 
even in Solomon's reign a Pharaoh, to whom he was allied by marriage, 
is said to have burned Gezer (see Oezer). On his death Shishak, of 
the 22nd dynasty, attacked the weak Rehoboara, and claims victories 
over 133 towns of Judea and Galilee (see Egypt). The king of 
Judah was glad to become an Egyptian vassal; and a rival at 
Samaria was supported. From that time down to 670 B.C. the kings 
of Israel, and Judah, constantly sought Egyptian aid against the grow- 
ing power of Assyria. 



216 Hebrews 

The discrepancies in our present text of the Book of Kings are 
such that scholars are unable to fix their dates within 20 years^ Dr 
J. Oppert (Proc. Bih. Arch. Socy,^ Jan. 1898), in his recent attempt 
to settle definitely this chronology, is obliged to suppose a break in 
the Assyrian canon ; alterations of the Old Testament statements ; an 
interregnum of ten years in the history of Israel ; two 'Azariahs, and 
two Menahems, unnoticed in Scripture. This chronology, from the 
time of Jehu's tribute to Assyria in 840 B.C., must be settled by 
referenccf to Assyrian ascertained dates (see Col. Conder, Bible avd 
the East, p. 161); and the limits of error do not appear to exceed 
about 20 years. JeMrish history and beliefs are now weighed in the 
balance of actual historic records ; and the results were placed before 
the learned, ten years ago, by Mr Cust, a distinguished Indian ad- 
ministrator (Oriental Oougress at Geneva, 1894), who says, ''It must 
be borne in mind that, for long centuries, Judaism has had the mono- 
poly in the mind of Europeans. ... It has now been reduced to its 
proper position, as only one of the factors in the composition of the 
dominant religious conceptions. . . . An importance, during cen- 
turies of European ignorance, has been attributed to the Hebrews, 
which they never deserved. Compare their tiny geographical area, and 
few millions of population, with India and China. . . . Their sovereigns 
were never more than petty Rajas, at the mercy of the rulers of the 
Nile, and the Euphrates. . . . Hebrew literature came into exist* 
ence between the 9th and the oth centuries B.c. . . . Up to the 
9th century the Hebrew was a monolator, rather than a monotheisti 
for he seems to have admitted the existence of other gods for other 
tribes. ... No moral condemnation can be severer than that which 
their own prophets poured on Hebrews. At the beginning of our 
era the spirituality of the Hebrew conception had all but disappeared. 
It has been the great misfortune of Europe that, for 17 centuries, it 
had but one type presented to it of an ancient religion : one only 
volume was available ... of an Asiatic conception of the relation 
between Gk>d and man. Athenian philosophy had destroyed the 
Greco-Roman conceptions. The wisdom of Egypt was buried in 
tombs . . . and of Persians, and the sages of India and China, 
nothing was known." Nor, we may add, of Babylon, Assyria, or 
Syria. 

Since the fall of the Jewish temple in 70 A.c, the Jews have every- 
where suffered persecution. More civilised nations hated and despised 
them, scorned their circumcision, and detested their exclusiveness, and 
their assertion that they were a " chosen people." The Jews naturally 
retaliated when they were able. In Cyprus, in 117 A.C., they are 



Hebrews 817: 

said to have massacred 260,000 persons : upwards of a million of 
them are supposed to have perished during the^war against Vespasian, 
and half a million in the revolt under Bar-Kokeba in 135 A.C. They 
had been banished from Bome by Claudius, and now they were forbidden 
to enter Jerusalem, even to weep over their ruined temple. In our 
5th century they were banished from Egypt, and in the 6th a Jewish 
revolt in the East cost another half million of lives. Some of their 
fiercest persecutors were those who believed in their Yahveh, and 
called a Jewess the " Mother of Ood." Throughout the Middle Ages 
their history is one of wrong and massacre in all parts of Europe, and 
of undying belief in the appearance of Messiahs (see under Christ). 
They were plundered and banished ; and some states — such as France 
— recalled them and again robbed and expelled them, when they 
became rich. In Spain a million were forced to become renegades, 
and three quarters of a million, including helpless women and children, 
were driven out, having no land to which to flee. Dr Goldschmidt 
(History of Jews in England, 1886) thinks that they entered Britain 
before the Norman Conquest, some even in Boman times. Many 
French Jews came with William of Normandy, and Henry II allowed 
them a burial ground. They were '^ the King's Jews " ; but a Jewish 
oath or deed was not valid against Christians. They were however 
protected, and even friendly to the monks of Canterbury besieged 
by the sheriff, until the accession of Bichard I (1189 A.C.), when 
terrible massacres followed false accusations, and excitement about his 
crusade. Greed and fanaticism embittered their fate, till they were 
banished by Edward I, and only again allowed to settle freely in 
England by CromwelL For some generations now the abatement of 
ecclesiastical tyranny, and increased education, have led to greater 
tolerance towards English Jews ; and since December 1847 they have 
been allowed all rights of British subjects. Alien marriages have 
consequently increased, and are increasing ; and the advance of thought 
among educated Jews shows us that, when left to themselves, they 
produce many amiable humanitarians, moralists, and theists ; though 
Renan bitterly says of them that : " they who gave God to a world 
now believe in him least." 

[The history of the Jews in other countries shows that they early 
prospered among all races save those who were Christians. About 
the Christian era they were divided into Saddukim (" pious ") who 
held the old Semitic beliefs as to temporal rewards for piety, and 
endless life in Sheol, and Pharisees (Perushim, " separators ") whose 
traditions were deeply tinged with Mazdean beliefs in the resurrection 
of the just and the coming of a divine king. But only part of the 



218 Hebrews, Epistle to 

nation had returned with Ezra, and the schools of Babylonia were 
held in high estimation. The Mishnah, and nearly all the later Jewish 
literature, we owe to the Pharisees ; but from the Sadducees sprang 
the Karaites of Mesopotamia, who were never more than a minority. 
The dispersion of the race carried these Karaites through the Caucasas, 
even to the Krimea, in our 2nd century ; and, near the Caspian, the 
* Tarkhans " of the Khozar Turks had Jewish prime-ministers : while 
even Jewish kings there ruled about our 4th century. The Jews early 
reached Abyssinia as Falashas : they were powerful in N. Arabia in 
our 7th century : they spread as " black Jews " to Ceylon, and reached 
China some time in the Middle Ages. In 1160 A.c. Rabbi Benjamin of 
Tudela found many in Egypt, but only a few poor Jewish dyers in Pales- 
tine. In Palmyra 6000 warlike Jews held the trade route; and tbey 
were many, and rich, in Moslem countries further east — Babylonia and 
Persia — and busy in trade throughout Baktria. In France on the 
other hand (see Hallam's Middle Ages, 1871, p. 97) the Jews are 
said to have held half Paris, in 1180, under Philip Augustus. He 
released all Christians from liability for Jewish debts, but kept a fifth 
of the spoil for himself when he expelled the Jews. They returned 
and were again expelled by Charles VI ; and no statute in their 
favour was afterwards made till Napoleon reorganised their status. 

Distinctive as is the Jewish type it is everywhere modified by 
that of the general population. The Polish Jew is fair and blue- 
eyed : the Spanish Jew has a tinge of Latin blood ; the Ceylon Jew 
is dark as the Hindu, Climate alone will not account for difierences 
due to a greater proportion of mixed marriages than Jews are willing 
to admit. The nation is held together by its religion alone ; but the 
tyranny of Talmudic prescription, and of Babbinical fanaticism, is so 
great that the highly educated are everywhere repelled, and more 
and more seek to escape from bondage to the Law. Their leaders 
know well that the nation will be merged among the Gentiles if 
once they cease to believe in Moses and the Messiah. Some now 
desire to form a Jewish State in Palestine, where the number of 
Jews has increased tenfold since the Russian persecutions of 1833, 
and where Jewish vine-growers and orange-gardeners lead a some- 
what precarious life iu their settlements, but are said to have 
materially improved in physical type through a country life. The 
majority however have no desire to abandon the pursuit of wealth in 
Europe, to which they were driven by unjust land laws. — Ed.] 

Hebrews, Epistle to. This Epistle, which is remarkable 
for allegorising the Old Testament (vii), and for belief in the pre- 



Hebrides, New 219 

existent Messiah (i), was not generally accepted by the Eastern 
Churches till about 250 A.C. It was written apparently before the 
Temple services had ceased (viii, 4), and while Levites still received 
tithes (viiy 9). It represents Jesus as learning obedience, and being 
so made perfect (v, 8, 9) : many Christians rejected it as late as 
370 A.a It has been attributed to Paul, ApoUos, Clement, and 
Barnabas. Origen thought that it represented Paul's views though 
not written by him. Luther called it " an Epistle of straw, which 
ApoUos seems to have written." It appears to belong to the school 
of Philo, the Jewish philosopher of Alexandria. Dr Davidson says : 
" the eleventh chapter (on Faith) is almost verbatim from Philo " 
(Westminster Rev., July 1868). Dr Overbeck (Prof, of Theol, Basle) 
says that it was forced into the Canon as Pauline, with emenda- 
tions (Academy^ 5th Feby. 1881). It is very difiBcult to suppose 
that Paul would have written the appeal to *' them that heard " 
Christ (Heb. ii, 3; see GaL i, 15-23; ii, 1-13). The Pauline 
authorship was rejected by Irenaeus, Hippolytus, and Tertullian. 
Eusebius had doubts as to its being admitted into the Canon. Dr 
Westcott (Epistle of Heh.y 1889) is certain that neither Paul nor 
ApoUos wrote it; and Dr Sanday (Academfiy, loth March 1890) 
thinks that perhaps Barnabas was the author. 

Hebrides, New. A group of islands, E. of Australia, covering 
5000 square miles, with a population of 70,000 persons ; discovered 
by Captain Cook in 1774. Little is known of these Melanesian 
islands, on account of the ferocity, treachery, and cannibalism of the 
inhabitants ; but they are said now to include 1000 Christians. The 
Rev. J. Lawrie (Scottish Oeogr, Mag,, June 1892) says that they are 
a mixture of Papuans, coffee-coloured with frizzled hair, and of 
Western PolyiMaiana, Some are pure Polynesians with straight 
hair, and the light tint showing their Malay admixture. They 
have little shrines, and stone circles called Marums (see Maoris); 
and erect stones of all sizes, some engraved with figures of the sun 
aud moon, the fish and turtle. Smooth stones of various sizes 
Btand under sacred trees. " Priests and sorcerers harangue their 
flocks in peripatetic fashion, walking from the circumference to the 
centre of the circles, emphasising their words, which are chanted, by 
flourishing a club." These sorcerers can produce rain, wind, and 
fruits of the earth ; and can prevent sickness and death. But they 
have no real gods, believing only in spirits ; and no symbols except 
the Marums. On the N. side of Oneityum is a basalt stone "38 ft. 
long and 13 ft. high," sacred to the sun and moon as husband and 



220 Hebron 

wife : it is covered with emblems " like yams and bread-fruit " which 
were carved by " no one knows whom." 

[The inhabitants have mock combats at weddings, and after due 
resistance the bride is dragged by female friends to the bridegroom's 
house — Ed.] : on the death of their chiefs widows and servants are 
strangled, and a fire is lighted that they may comfortably reach Umatmss, 
the abode of the dead, near the setting sun. The people speak of 
Inhujaraing as the chief spirit, " the discoverer, but not the creator, 
of the islands." None may pronounce his holy name (as in the case 
of Yahveh among Jews) : he has many spirits under him whom 
sorcerers invoke. There are shrines in sacred caves, the sides of 
which are carved with figures, and there are huge wooden figures of 
men, and altars on which pigs are sacrificed. 

j^ebrdn. Hebrew : *' the confederacy '! : said in Genesis (xiv, 13 ; 
xxiii, 3) to have been inhabited by both Amorites and Hittites, as well 
as *Anakim (Num. xiii, 22), being built seven years before Zoan in 
Egypt. It was also a city of Arb'a (Josh, xiv, 15) a son of 'Anak, and 
facing it, in Mamre Q' the fat " land) with its oak trees (or terebinths), 
under one of which Abraham pitched his tent — Gen. xiii, 18 ; xviii, 4 
— was the cave of Makpelah (" the double " or *' the locked ") in a field 
with trees, where the patriarch purchased a tomb. Thus Hebron counts 
with Jerusalem, Tiberias, and Safed, as one of the four sacred cities 
of modern Jews. Kaleb (" the priest ") of the tribe of Judah, received 
it as his lot after expelling the sons of 'Anak. The Arabs now call 
it El KhalU — ** the friend " of God — after Abraham. It was famous 
for its grapes, and still has good vineyards. The King of Hebron 
was one of those leagued together as Amorites against Joshua 
(Josh. X, 5). The city is on the mountains 20 miles S. of Jeru* 
salem. " Abraham's oak," the most famous tree in Palestine, is 
now shown W. of the city, at " Ballutet Sabta," the '* oak of rest" 
— an ancient oak tree now fast decaying. [In the 4th century this 
oak was shown at Beit el KhalU ("Abraham's house") close to 
Bdmet el KhalU (" Abraham's tank ") N. of Hebron. Jerome says 
that the stump was visible when he was a boy, but Constantine cut 
the tree down, because it was adored by the peasantry, Josepbus 
places the site, in his time, nearer apparently to the town than either 
of these two traditional sites. The present tree was flourishing some 
twenty years ago, but in the 14th century it was a " dry tree." So we 
see that this tree has often been renewed in different positions. — Ed.] 
The Jews said that Adam lived and died at Hebron, after expul* 
sion from Eden. In the Middle Ages Christian pilgrims here ate the 
red earth of which he was made. In the Hebron Haram enclosure his 



Heel 221 

footprint is still shown. Christians however (according to Origen) 
said that he was buried at Golgotha. The Haram is a very sacred 
enclosure, of large masoniy exactly like that of Herod's temple ramparts 
at Jerusalem. Under it is a rock cave, in which Abraham, Isaac, and 
Jacob, Sarah, Rebekah, and Leah, were said to be buried. Benjamin 
of Tadela says he went into the tomb about 1160 A.C. ; but no one 
has been in it since. In the 1 2th century the Crusaders built a church 
in the Haram : later, Moslems turned it into a mosque, which few 
Europeans have ever entered. 

HeeL See Pad. The "heels" appear to be an euphuism for 
the phallus (Jer. xiii, 22), like ''feet" (Isa. vii, 20). Many gods 
and heroes are wounded in the heel — such as Akhilleus, H^raklSs, 
Krishna. 

HegesippUS. A writer whom Eusebius claims as a Christian, 
thought to have been a Hebrew living about 180 A.C. He is quoted 
{Hist, Eccles., iv, 11) as an authority for bishops of Home, from Peter 
and Paul to Anicetus, " who had a deacon Eleutherus * as his successor 
in 175 A.C., under whom Irenseus, bishop of Lyons, wrote " his extant 
work." Hegesippus is said to have written five books of commentaries ; 
but the quotations by Eusebius refer to context not now extant, in his 
account of Irenaeus (Bishop Dunelm., Academy, 2l8t May 1877). 
Hippolytus, writing on the same subjects, never mentions him ; and 
Hegesippus apparently makes all his Boman bishops rule 12 years 
each. 

Heifer. The sacrifice of the Bed Heifer (Num. xix, 2-13) was of 
the utmost importance to the Jews, since its ashes alone could purify 
from defilement by the dead ; so that, since the supply failed, all Israel 
has remained unclean. The Romans used ashes of a heifer sacrificed 
to Yesta for purifications. The Mishna (2nd century A.C.) devotes a 
whole tract to the Parah or '^ Heifer." Boys bom in the Temple rode 
on cows to Siloam — carefully avoiding contact with defiled ground, or 
passing over a hidden tomb— to fetch water which was mixed with the 
ashes. A wooden bridge led straight E. (see Bridges) from the Holy 
House to Olivet, where a pyre of cypress, and fig wood, was erected. 
The high priest here burnt the heifer (on a few historic occasions) at 
dawn, on the summit of the Mount of Olives. Hyssop bunches, tied 
with red wool, were used to sprinkle the blood and ashes (see Hyssop), 
as holy water and ** barsom " twigs were used by Mazdeans. It is 
however doubtful if this account is historical. 

Hekate. Greek. One of the phases of the moon (see Baubo). 



222 Hel 

In Sanskrit Ekata is called " the watery one," who rose from sacri- 
ficial ashes which Agni threw into the waters. She is a ** queen of 
night/' daughter of Astoria (the ''starry" sky), and connected with 
dogs who howl— or bay at the moon. She is an aspect of the *' Tri- 
form " Diana, giving peace or war, and watching (at night) over men 
and flocks. She holds the torch, but is cold, spectral, and mysterious. 
She has the three heads of serpent, horse, and dog, issuing from the 
cave of darkness. She witnessed the rape of Proserpine by Pluto, and 
was the sister of Hekatos, being originally a Thrakian deity, and a 
Titan (Artemis-Hekate) whose strange rites, at Samothrace, were per- 
formed by Rur^t^, and by Kabeiroi ("great ones"), including the 
sacrifice of black female lambs, and dogs, with honey. Her statue 
stood at cross roads, in gardens, and before houses. 

Hel. Hell. The root Hel, or Hoi, in Teutonic speech, means 
" to hide " (Latin cdare) ; and Hell was the " hole " or " hollow," like 
the Hebrew Sheol " hollow," hidden under earth. Hel, or Hela, was 
the Skandinavian ''godess of hell," described as a hideous, old, black 
woman, riding the " Hell horse." She was the daughter of Loki the 
evil "fire," and had two brothers, Fenrir, the winter wolf, and the 
serpent of Ifing. The world tree Yggdrasil has its roots in Hell : its 
trunk grows up above Mid-Gard, or earth, round which is the river 
Ifing (the ocean) in which the serpent lives : this is never frozen ; and 
to reach Asgard (heaven) one must cross it by the " quaking bridge ** 
Bifrost (the rainbow), which is of three colours, and is guarded by the 
virgin spirit Mod-gudhr. As-gard is the home of Grod, above the tree 
on which sits the divine hawk. Loki and his children were cast out 
of As-gard, to the dark under-world, at the roots of Yggdrasil, called 
Nifl or Nebel (" dark," like the Greek nephele, whence the Nibelungs — 
children of the underground dwarf — are also named) : in Nifl-beim, 
** the home of darkness," all " those dying of age or sickness " were 
doomed to remain : for Norsemen despised such deaths. Here Hel, 
"the queen of death," ruled. "Her dish was Hunger, her knife 
Starvation, her bed Disease draped with misery." Those who crossed 
the bridge of hell to her abode came not back ; even Baldur, the 
" light giving " sun, hardly escaped (see Baldur) : it was separated from 
this world by a dark forest, high peaked mountains, and a river or 
lake. It was a land of darkness, ice, and fire, like Dante's HelL But 
(as with Pluto and Plutus) its caves were places whence came riches, 
arts, magic, cunning work, and wizards. Its lord was a subtle crafts- 
man, and smith, who wrought in the fire. Thus Hell had its Elysium, 
as among Kelts : the '* isle of birds " — of St Brandan — was near the 



Hel 223 

icy rock where Judas is punished — a Hesperides, like the " Land of 
Cockayne/' where all was. feasting and hospitality. Even Christians 
long retained this belief, which recalls the Greek Erebos and Latin 
Erebus (" the west "), including both Tartarus and Elysium — the 
Egyptian Amenti with its pits of flame and demons, and its " Fields 
of Aalu " ; or the Babylonian Sheol (Sualu) where there was also a 
place of rest " under a bright sky/' Good and bad went alike to the 
underworld, whence heroes — ^Norse or Greek — were carried up to 
heaven. All must be judged, and cross the river of hell (the Styx) ; 
and from the border river Hraunn they passed to Nifl-heim, over the 
rugged forest-clad mountains. It became the HoUe or Hohle, of 
Germans ; " the hole " or grave into which men sink at death. 

[The Akkadians called this underworld Ki-gal ** the dead land " 
(Turkish Khal : Finnic Kuol " to die "), and Nu-ga " no return." Its 
lord was Ner-gal (" prince death "), Ir-Kalla (" the strong one of 
death^" called by Babylonians "the great devourer"), En-ge "lord 
below/* or En-lil " the chief ghost" He was lion-headed (see Bas), 
and his consort was Nin-ki-gal " lady of dead-land," who also was 
lion-headed, and suckled lion cubs. She is represented, on a bronze 
plaque from Palmyra, kneeling on the " hell horse" or "death horse" — 
as among the Norse — in her boat on the infernal river, approaching 
offerings on the bank. — Ed.] 

The Babylonians knew this dark abode of Irkalla (see Babylon), 
with its feathered ghosts. Gilgamas (like Odusseus, or ^neas, or 
Herakl^) visited it. The story of Istar's descent is an evident 
lunar myth. She entered successively its seven gates, at each of 
which a porter despoiled her : at the 1st of her crown by order of the 
hell queen — for she had threatened to break it open, and to let free 
the dead to devour the living if not admitted — at the 2nd of her 
earrings, at the 3rd of her necklace, at the 4th of her diadem, at 
the 5th of her girdle, at the 6th of her bracelets and anklets, and 
at the 7tb of her garment The.se were the presents she received 
from Tammuz on her wedding day — the lights of a waning moon — 
and so she stood before the hell queen, who smote her with 
diaeasa Tet afterwards (the dark nights past) she was washed in 
the water of life, and issued again through the seven gates, receiving 
back at each her ornaments, till she shone once more a full moon, 
in heaven. 

[In another legend (from the Amama collection) we find the 
sister of the gods as the " bride of hell," tortured by her lord Ner-gal 
in flames, but saved by the gods, who besiege the hell gates until he 
grants her desire te return, for a time, to heaven* In another it is 



224 Hel 

the sun who lingers in this Hades, fed with poisoned food, till the 
prayers of men cause heaven to restore him. This Sheol was reached 
by passing under the ocean, where Ea judges men. One of his 
names is Tar-tar (** he who causes judgment/' in Akkadian) perhaps 
the origin of Tartaros for hell, in Greek, used also once in the 
Epistle (2 Peter ii, 4). The pious man is led by the sun god, and by 
Istar, before this judge. So also in Job we read (xxvi, 5), *' Ohosts 
flit under the waters where they dwell"; and again (xxxvi, 30, 31), 
"He hides the depths of the waters, for in them judge th he the 
tribes." The Persian legends are also comparable with Bible ideas. 
The soul sits three nights in the grave till the good angel, created by 
good words, thoughts and deeds, comes to take him to the "bridge 
of the gatherer " ; but the evil soul is blown to darkness by a foul 
wind — ideas borrowed in the Talmud, and in Moslem legends as to 
the trial of the soul, in its grave, by the angels Munker and Nakir 
(" hewer and hewing ") ; while the Koran is full of the horrors of 
many pits of flame and boiling water, and of the " bitter tree " in hell 
So in Job the wicked is not " gathered," but " blown away by a tempest " 
(Job xxvii, 19 : see Psalm i, 4) : but all these are later ideas. — Ed.] 

The Hebrew Sheol was not originally a place of torment (see 
Heaven), but only the dark world of the grave where men might rest 
(Job iii, 17-19). Life — as one of the Rephaim "weak ones" or 
shades — was eternal but hopeless. None praised Grod in Sheol, or — 
in the first ages — ^hoped for any release therefrom, save in special 
cases. It was not till the later days of the Pharisees that Sheol was 
called Ge-Hinnom (" valley of groans " — whence the Grehenna of the 
New Testament) in memory of the old worship of Moloch in that 
valley (Josh, xv, 8). Sheol was a prison-house to which the dead 
king of Babylon goes down, to find other kings lying on their couches 
as Rephaim (a term used also, of ghosts, on the Phoenician coffin of 
Eshmuu'azar of Sidon in the 3rd century 6.a) ; and they salute him 
saying, "Art thou become weak as we?" (Isaiah xiv, 9-11). Here 
the dead lie with their swords beneath their heads (Ezek. xxxii, 18-31). 
Samuel was wroth when called up from his rest in this underworld 
(1 Sam. xxviii, 16). The Pharisees, borrowing the Persian concep- 
tion of a hell of torment, quoted a later prophet (Isaiah Ixvi, 24) : 
" For their worm shall not die, neither shall their fire be quenched " 
(see Mark ix, 44, 48). Sheol was only eternally hopeless (Job xir, 
12), and insatiable (Isaiah v, 14 ; Habak. ii, 5). The terrors of 
hell increased with time, till now Christians shrink from an idea which 
they cannot reconcile with that of a loving Father in Heaven. Yet 
Christ, we are told, drew the picture of a hell of torment where even 



Hel 225 

a drop of water was to be denied to him who was ** tormented in this 
flame" (Luke xvi, 24). Dante and Milton alike drew from sources 
other than the Bible (from Asia and from the Norse Hel) their 
terrible pictures, as when the former reads on Hell gates : '' Through 
me men pass to a city of woe . . . before me nothing was save the 
eternal things ; and I endure for even" 

'* Lasciate ogni speranza voi ehe entrate " 
** Leave every hope, O ye who enter in." 

Can we wonder then that men should now say with Mr Boss 
{The BottoYnleas Pit) that " Many of the noblest and truest have had 
their lives blighted ... to the sincere and sensitive hell has, for 
long painful centuries, been a cancer of fire that has, as life advanced, 
eaten deeper and deeper into the heart ... it is not the worst that 
hell has affected, but the best." The pious Agnostik Ingersol said, 
shortly before his death, " I insist that if there be another life, the 
basest soul that finds its way to that dark, or radiant, shore will have 
the everlasting chance of doing right Nothing but the most cruel 
ignorance . . . ever imagined that the few days of human life spent 
here . . • fixed to all eternity the condition of the human race." So 
among Hindus and Brahmans, many and terrible as are their hells 
they are not more eternal than their heavens ; and there is escape 
from them for those who strive to do better. Infinite punishment is 
not discipline, but savage and useless revenge. The savage saw the 
flames in the west at sunset, and thought that a great furnace under 
earth or sea produced them. Even later Babbis said these fiery lights 
were flames from hell, as the blush of dawn was that of the roses of 
Eden. '*The whole idea of hell was born of ignorance, brutality, 
fear, cowardice, and revenge." Such cruel dogmas were very ancient 
Yama, according to Hindus, was the first of mortals, and thus the first 
to enter the dread land, tended by his dogs (see Dog), to become the 
lord of death. In later Puranas this Vedik idea is enlarged, and 
men were told *' that there existed for all a capacious hell, with walls 
a hundred miles thick, wherein they would lie to all eternity, ever 
BuflTering new and indescribable torments." 

Luther and Calvin accepted the picture that they found in the 
Oospels ; but the majority of Christians were glad to find refuge in 
that mitigation of horror presented to them by the Bomanist doctrine 
of Purgatory, though the Protestants rightly said it was *' un«- 
scriptaral." Broad Churchmen waxed bolder in denial when, in 1863, 
Canon Farrar (who quotes Psalms vi, 5 ; Ixxxviii, 10-12, as represent- 
ing the older ideas) called •" God to witness that, so far fVom regretting 

p2 



226 Hel 

the possible loss of aeons of blisd, • • • I would on my knees ask God 

that I might die as the beasts that perish, and forever cease to be, 

rather than my worst enemy should endure the tortures ascribed by 

TertuUian, or Minucius Felix, Jonathan Edwards, Dr Fusey, Messrs 

Fumiss, Moody, or Spurgeon, for a single year *' — to which most good 

and reasonable men say Amen. Mr John Morley ¥nrote : " Eternal 

punishment is the most frightful idea that has ever corroded the 

human character/' Annihilation, Purgatory, transmigration of the 

soul, are any of them infinitely preferable ideas, and quite as likely 

(see Mr Stephens' ''Dreams and Realities," Fortnightly Beview, 

September 1878). The Churches have burned and tortured tboee 

who would not believe such horrors, for 1500 years ; yet the Churches 

themselves have come to disbelieve in them, though vouched for by 

the Bible. Priests may denounce those who judge of Cod's justice by 

human reason, but science knows of no *' hollow " under earth, or 

firmament above. We have come to agree with Koheleth : " Who 

knoweth that the spirit of man goeth upwards, and that the spirit 

of the beast goeth downwards to the earth?" (Ecclesiastes iii, 21). 

Even devout Catholics, like Mr St George Mivart, have gone back to 

the old idea of " happiness in Hell " ; and have also experienced the 

old penalties of excommunication. But what said TertuUian, at the 

close of our second century, when denouncing Pagan theatres ? *' I 

shall have a better opportunity then of hearing tragedians louder voiced 

in their misery: of viewing actors in dissolving flames: choruses 

glowing in chariots of fire ; and wrestlers tossing about in fiery 

billows " {De SpectacvZia, xxx). The burning of souls he thought to be 

assured by the words of Christ, '* there shall be weeping and gnashing 

of teeth." Justin Martyr, Irenseus, Athenagoras, Cyprian, and 

Augustine, were equally sure as to hell fire. Origen was condemned, 

when be raised his voice in the cause of mercy, by the later Council of 

Carthage (398 A.c.) which discarded his views, then no longer in 

fashion. The descriptions given by Christians of fancied torments 

are almost as fiendishly ingenious as those of Chinese pictures of hell : 

darkness, poisonous thorns, serpents, red-hot metals, birds and dogs for 

ever gnawing human flesh, devils who saw their victims, and spear, or 

roast, yet never kill them — it is to be hoped these devils, dogs, birds, 

and reptiles, are happy in hell. But if we abandon hell and heaven, 

the sin of Adam and the fall of Satan, what room is there for a 

Saviour from such fancied ills ? The whole system crumbles when one 

stone is taken from the foundation. Man makes his own bell or 

.heaven, even on earth, and needs only the wise and tender teacher, 

who shall show him ways of peace and love. 



Hel 227 

HeL [An ancient root " to shine/' as in the Greek HAios ''sun/' 
Hebrew Helel ** bright " (star or moon), and Finnic Hel " bright." 
The soft H interchanges with S ; and in other languages Sal, or 8U, 
is the same : Latin Sol " sun " : Akkadian and Turkish Sil '' shine." 
This root gives several names that follow^ such as Helena, and 
Selene. — Ed.] 

Helde. A title ("brilliant/' *' noble") of the Skandinavian 
Norns, and Valkyries — ^fates and clouds — who chose those worthy of 
As-gard or heaven, 

Heleios, See Helios* A demi-god, son of Perseus and 
Andromeda. 

Helene. Greek : " the bright " or " fair " Helen, heroine of the 
Trojan war. Ate having thrown down the apple which Paris pre- 
sented to Aphrodite, that godess promised him the fairest of women. 
Paris, son of King Priam of Troy, was a beautiful youth, but — as his 
name indicates (see Bar) — was a firebrand, and a dissolute seducer. 
He became the guest of Menelaos, king of Argos, to whom the 
beaatiful Helen was married ; she and Paris were aided by Aphrodite 
to flee together. Helen was the daughter of Zeus and Leda, bom 
from the swan's egg, and sister of the divine twins, and of 
Clutemnestra ; she had one daughter Hermione, Menelaos and his 
allies besieged Troy, and Paris — called also Alexander ('* the choicest 
of men ") — after escaping from the wronged husband in a cloud spread 
over him by Aphrodite, was finally slain by the arrow of Herakles. 
Helen is said to have then married his elder brother Deiphobos ; but, 
after the fall of Troy, she was taken back by Menelaos to his palace 
at Argos, which " shone in splendour like the sun and moon." Paris 
indeed is equally a mythical deity of light with Helen. Like other 
sun-heroes he had been exposed (on Mt Ida) and nourished by a she- 
bear and a shepherd. 

Later legends (in Euripid^) say that Paris and Helen were 
driven by storms to Egypt, on their way to Troy : that she was here 
held by the king, and afterwards recovered by Menelaos when return- 
ing from Troy, he also being driven to Egypt by storms : so that only 
a spectral Helen actually accompanied Paris to Troy. Helen is also 
said to have been carried to Attika (or otherwise to Hades) by 
Theseus, and to have been rescued by her brothers — which recalls 
Babylonian myths (see Hel) and the Keltik Diarmed and Graine. 
Again she is made the mother of Iphigeneia, whom the Taurians 
sacrificed to Artemis when Helen went there. But the tombs of 



228 Helenos 

Helen and Menelaos were shown at Therapne, a little to the N. of 
Argos. Helen in Hades is married to Akhilleus (Achilles), another 
solar figure. Helen§ was a name for the moon. At Bhamnus she 
was worshiped as daughter of Nemesis (Fate ; or dawn according to 
Kubn) : at Argos as deity of the temple of Ilithuia, presiding over 
child birth ; and at Sparta in connection with a sacred tree. 

Helenos. A son of Priam and of the Phrygian Hekab§, called 
also Hellenes, and Skamandrios from the river Skamander. He, like 
his sister Kassandra, was able to prophesy — a magic serpent having 
licked his ears as a baba He was wounded by Menelaos, and retired 
to the shrine of Apollo on Mount Ida,* refusing to fight after the 
murder of Hektor, whose widow Andromakhe he mamed. He ruled 
in Epeiros, where he entertained iEneas, and was buried in Argos. 
The legend is that of a sun oracle and priest. 

Heliades. Descendants of Phaeton, or of Apollo, by Rhod$ 
("rose"), daughter of PoseidOn (that is of the sun, and the dawn rising 
from the deep). They were " seven bright ones " — the seven planets. 



Helios. Heelios. Qreek : the '' shining *' sun god (see Heleioe): 
he was the son of Huperion, the " rising " sun, and of Theia (''divine"), 
or Euruphassa (" far enlightening "), and he sails in a golden boat, or 
drives a golden car, in heaven. To him (in times of trouble) children 
were sacrificed, but usually white rams and white bulls, and especially 
— in later times — white cocks. He also walks the water, and is bom 
of L^to (" darkness ") in the island of Delos, his mother embracing the 
palm. Thetis gave him ambrosia to drink, and his golden locks were 
never shorn (see Hair). He guided the ark of Deukalion to Delphi, 
and his son Apollo was the first to spring ashore after the Flood. 
When his cattle were stolen (like those of Indra), he threatened Zeus 
that he would leave the heavens, and shine only on the dead in Hades. 
He had many loves among cloud maidens, and those of dawn and 
sunset 

HelL See Hel. 

Helle. The ''bright" daughter of Athamas (Tammaz) and 
Nephele ("cloud"), sister of Phrixos ("the beaming"), with whom 
she was condemned to be a sacrifice, but fled with him on the magie 
ram of Hermes (" the wind ") ; recalling many stories given by Grimm 
from Teutonic folk-lore, where the sister and brother fly from the 
witch. Helle fell from the ram, into the sea called after her the 
Helles-pont, or " sea of Helle." Phrixos reached Eolkhis, and sacrificed 



Hellen 229 

the ^Iden ram to Zeus, while its skin — the golden fleece — was fastened 
to a sacred tree, in the grove of Ares the storm god. These myths 
belong to the uncertain April days. 

Hellen. Greek : " bright " or " fair " : the father of the fair Hel- 
lenik race, as distinguished from the Pelasgi who preceded them in 
Hellgnik states. Hellen was the son of Deukalion and Purrha, and 
succeeded his father as king of Phthia in Thessaly. His son Aiolos ("the 
wind") was borne by Orseis, a mountain nymph. Some called Hellen the 
son of Zeus and Dorippd, others of Prometheus and Elumene, which 
makes him the brother of Deukalion. But the historic Hellenes 
included several Aryan tribes, in and round Attika, coming from the 
north, and first civilised by contact with Asia Minor (see Greeks). 

Henir. Hoenir. The second of the Skandinavian triad, with 
Odin and Lodur : these three were " air, water, and fire." Henir was 
given as hostage to the Yanir, or water gods (see Vana), in exchange 
for Niord. Odin gave breath, Henir gave reason, and Lodur blood 
and fair color, to man. Henir reconciled the Yanir with the gods ; 
he never spoke save when prompted by Mimir or ** memory." He is 
represented by Yilli, who sets matter in motion ; and o£ferings will be 
made to him in the world to come, so that apparently worship is to 
continue in the Norse heaven. 

Heno-theism. A useful term introduced by Prof. Max MtQler 
to signify belief not in a sole but in a single god, one of many, worshiped 
as supreme, either always or in turn with others. This is a feature of 
Egyptian, and of Yedik, faiths. When Indra is adored as supreme 
Agni seems forgotten : or Yaruna and Mitra, though unnoticed, may 
be understood (see Prof. Whitney, Indian Antiq,, 1882), as the 
Father and the Holy Ghost may be, when praying to the Son as God. 
But in the Yeda we read, in an address to the Maruts : ** There is 
none that is small, that is young ; all are great indeed " ; and this is 
the true and primitive polytheism whence Henotheism, or Katbenoisro, 
arose, slowly changing into Monotheism and Pantheism. 

HeOS. A prince who fought at Troy, called Rhododaktulos or 
"rosy fingered." He is apparently connected with Eos ("dawn") 
mother of Memnon, since he was an Aithiopian. 

HfiphaistOS. The Greek Yulcan, god of fire and of smiths, 
represented as a bearded man (sometimes stunted, as on Etruskan 
vases), holding a hammer (see Tvashtri). He was the son of Zeus 
and HSrS (" heaven " and ** earth "), and split the head of Zeus with 



230 Her 

bis hammer when Ath§D&— the dawn — sprang from it. He was also 
the subterranean fire that splits the volcanic mountains. Zeus flang 
him as fire from heaven, and he fell, becoming a lame god like all fire 
deities (see Asmodeus) : he lighted on volcanic Lemnos, and earth was 
glad to receive him. He held Herg in a golden chair, cunningly made, 
demanding to know his father's name ; but Dionusos released her. He 
returned to heaven to build a brilliant palace (the aurora), and aided 
the gods to reconcile Zeus and H^re— for he is like Agni the sacrificial 
flame. Small uncouth images of this lame stunted god were placed in 
houses, beside the sacred fire, among Greeks. H^phaistos wedded 
Aphrodite, the dawn, who was false to him when Ares — the storm 
cloud — wooed her. But he himself was fickle in his loves, and hates, 
pleasing and offending both gods and men. He is represented with 
the conical hat — the cone being a fire emblem. 

Her. Herr. A Teutonic root, to be distinguished from har 
** bright " (see Ar), and connected with the Armenian Ayr^ and Latin 
Vir, as meaning a ''powerful" man. These two roots are much 
confused : Her-man in Teutonic speech is the " noble man " ; but 
Her-man-sul is a sun deity. 

Hera. Here. Greek. The sister and bride of Zeus, and, as 
such, the queen or consort of heaven. The origin of the oame is 
disputed. [Probably the '* earth " who is the great godess, and wife of 
heaven, in all other mythologies (see Earth). She watches heaveo 
jealously, because of changing weather ; and heaven sets Argus — ^the 
" shining " star sky to watch her at night, Argus being fitly repre- 
sented by the dark-blue peacock's tail, with its many bright eyes. — 
Ed.] H§rg presides over marriage and birth, and other earthly 
matters, and punishes those who desecrate marriage, and forget their 
vows, and the fees payable to her priests at weddings. She is jealous 
and quarrelsome — a daughter of Kronos and Rhsea (" time " and 
" earth ") ; and is said to have been swallowed by her father, but 
restored. The Arkadians said that Temenos, son of Pelasgos, 
nourished her in childhood. When she married Zeus, Ge ("earth") 
gave her a tree with golden apples, guarded by the nymphs of the 
Hesperides garden, and by Lad5n the dragon (see Rivers of Lifo, 
i, p. 133, fig. 51). Here herself was symbolised by a pear in Aigos 
— a heart shaped fruit (see Heart). She is sometimes virgin, and 
childless ; but also the mother of Hebe (the young grass), H^phaistos 
(the underground fire), and Ares (the storm) ; in statuary she appears 
robed, or veiled, with diadem, and sceptre, and the peacock beside 
her. Ixion tempted her, but embraced Nephele, and was bound to 



Herakles 231 

the fiety wheel in hell. She has been called the night sky, being 
mistress of heaven ; but was especially the mother and bride. 

Herakles. Hercules. The Greek and Latin names of the 
san-hero. As an Aryan name it may be rendered ''the admirable 
man" (see Her), many Greek names ending in "kles" (see Greek 
KcMae, " fine/' " beautiful," " admirable/' and Kleos, " glory "). But 
possibly it is a borrowed name, from the Akkadian £r-gal (" big man ")» 
since the hero, in his lion-skin, is found in Babylonia, and his myth 
is very similar to those of Gilgamas and Samson. The Turanian 
Etruskans had their Erkle (see Etruskans) ; and from them, rather 
than from the Greeks, the lAtins may have taken their legends. 
According to Fisk {Myth,^^. 117)i Hercules was not a sun god, bat 
'' a peaceful domestic deity, watching over households, and enclosures, 
and nearly akin to Terminus." He was the emblem of strength to 
Bomans. The Italian legends came from Asia Minor, and included a 
variant of that of Herakles and Geru5nes« Cacus (supposed to be 
Kakos ^ bad/' or Ccbcus " blind ") was son of Vulcan, and a three- 
headed monster in a cave. He stole the cows of. Hercules (as the 
Panis stole those of Indra) from their pasture in the Forum Boarium, 
or " cow market/' near the Porta Trigemina, and carried them to his 
cavern on the Aventine, dragging them backwards by their tails. Her- 
cules heard them lowing (as thunderclouds), and broke into the cave kill- 
ing Cacus. The Latins then erected the shrine of Jupiter Inventor (" the 
finder"), whom Sabines called Sancus (''the strong" — see Etruskans) : for 
Herakles was also known to the Greeks as Alexi-kakos, an averter of evil. 
There were many gods and heroes who bore the name Heraklte. 
Diodorus speaks of 3, Cicero of 6, and others of 43 in alL But the 
legend of the Theban hero is the best known. He was the son of 
Zeus (" sky "), by Alkmene (" the brightening one "), wife of Amphi- 
truon (" the very trusting "), king of Tiruns, an exile at Thebes, in 
Greece. The daylight ceased for three days and nights when 
Herakl^ was begotten. The jealous Herd, sitting cross-legged at the 
gate, prolonged the mother's labour, so that Eurustheus, the enemy 
of H^raklSs, was born before him, and became a cruel king who 
imposed "12 labours" on the sun-hero, by permission of Zeus; 
till at length on Mt OSta in Euboia the flaming pyre was kindled, in 
which Herakles sacrificed himself, after he had worn the poisoned 
garment of Nessos the kentaur (see Eentaur) or cloud. Herakles, Uke 
Akhilleus and other heroes, is also wounded in the foot (see Heel), 
and so loses power (see Rivers of Life, i, p. 461, fig. 178). 

The basis of the myths of Hercules is found in the Babylonian 



232 Herakles 

legend of the 12 labours of Gilgamas; and it compares with those of 
Samson, and with episodes in the Yedik myths of Indra. When he 
died, Juno (H6r$) was reconciled, and his new life begins in Hades 
where he weds HsbS, the emblem of spring. Josephus refers to tbe 
festiyal of H^rakl^ at Tyre ; and he appears on Tyrian coins, with 
the two ambrosial stones — the pillars of Hercules (see Bethel). His 
Phcenician name, at Tyre and Carthage, was Melkarth. [The spelliDg» 
as on Carthaginian votive texts, seems to render the usual explanatioD 
Melek-^lS^ariath, or "city-king," impossibla The word may be 
Akkadian originally, as MuUKara, '* the shining lord " : in Greek it 
became Melikertes. — Ed.] The " Pillars of Hercules " were in the 
br west, being the two pillars between which Samson dies, and the 
two ''ambrosial stones" under the sea at. Tyre. [One of these was 
Atlas (" not to be shaken ") ; and Herakles here supports heaven like 
the giant — see Atlas — whose place he took when going to the western 
garden. — Ed.] Like Samson he slays a lion, and is deluded by a 
£alse woman, breaks through gates, and is stronger than all others. 
Herodotos says that his Tyrian temple — as Melkarth — ^was built about 
2750 B.C. (ii, 45). He is also a harper, who calls up the soft Aiolian 
wiuds, and is called Ogmion, being eloquent, and a patron of music. 
Iteither women nor boars might enter his Tyrian shrine, for he 
sufifered from both. He is often crowned with white poplar, his 
favourite tree. He is subject to fits of fury, destroying all that he 
produces, and killing with his fiery arrows, or darts. His two stones, 
or two pillars, are the signs of his strength (see Rivera of Life, i, 
p. 279, fig. 181). His weapon is the club (see Danda) ; and his 
symbols the apple, and the cornucopia, all equally phallic. He wears 
the lion's skin, as Kudra (the violent Siva) is also Krith-vasa or '* he 
with the skin." In India Bala-Rama is the local Heraklds, connected 
also with skin coverings, and dogs. His dalliance with Omphal^ — 
the Lydian queen — recalls that of Samson with Dalilah, and his 
seizing the Kestos of the Amazon has also a phallic meaning. 
HSraklgs was the solar energy, never wearied or really dying, but 
sinking at times into ocean or Hades, to rise again, producing, slaying, 
and healing ; triumphant over darkness and sterility. Eurustheus, the 
tyrant (" the wide founded "), who opposes him is an immutable 
power of opposition, and Nessos (Nas, " illness ") is his foe in winter, 
whom he pierced with his arrow in summer. 

His twelve famous labours were : I. Killing the lion of Nemea 
or of Eithairon ("the harp mountain") — as Gilgamas and Samson 
slew the lion, whence came ambrosia : for Herakles was then tending 
cow clouds, whence come rains. II. Killing the Lemaian Hudra 



Herakles 233 

('* water "), ^^^^ 3 or 7 heads, as Marduk slew the dragon of Chaos. 
IIL CaptuiiDg the s¥rift hind or stag of Arkadia ("light"), the 
Hebrew '' hind of dawn," which has golden horns (rays) and brazen 
hoofis. lY. Slaying the boar of Erumanthos or of Kaludon (see Boar), 
y. Cleansing the Aug^n stable — the wintry mud of the cloud cows. 
VI. Slaying the flesh-eating birds of Lake Stumphalis, also cloud 
emblems. YII. Catching the wild bull of Krete, as Gilgamas also 
slew the mnged bull — a yet stronger power of darkness. VIII. Tam- 
ing the wild man-eating mares of Diom^es, in Thrakia, connected 
with Eentaurs, whom he also slew. IX. Taking off the girdle of 
Hippolute (" horse slain "), the Amazon queen whom he wedded. 
X. Slaying Oeruones (" the old man ") of Gades (" the holy place "),- 
defended by the two-headed dog (see Dog), when he brought back to 
Argos the cows that fed on human flesh. XI. Visiting the garden of 
the Hesperides (" the west "), in his boat, to slay the dragon and pluck 
the golden apples — like Qilgamas. XII. Dragging from Hades the 
three-headed dog Kerberos, the demon of darkness, when he set free 
Perithous and Thgseus, sun-heroes who were his friends. 

He freed Thebes from tribute, wearing the armour of Athens 
(dawn), the sword of Hermes (the wind), the golden coat of mail and 
bronze club of Hephaistos (flame), and the bow and arrows of Apollo 
the sun god. Yet Here (earth) made him mad, and he slew his 
children by Magara (the earth mother) : for the summer heats destroy 
the children of earth. He is called Alkides (" brilliant by race "), as 
son of AlkMOS, son of Perseus, himself a sun god. He is also voracious 
in appetite, eating an ox at a single meal, when sacrificed. He was 
father of the Tbespiades by the 50 daughters of Thespios. [Perhaps 
the Eassite Tessub for the sun in clouds. — Ed.] He was naturally a 
patron of hot springs, where he was said to rest. Among Sabines he 
abolished human sacrifice (only needfu] when he was wroth), and was 
known as Recaranus, to whom — as a fire god — round temples were 
built, like that between the Circus Maximus and the Tiber. He was 
called Victor, and his Sabine priests Cupeni. Diodorus said he lived 
10,000 years before the Trojan war, and the Thebans said 17,000 
before Amasis of Egypt. He is ever a benefactor of men, and his foes 
are winter and storm. The Boiotians called him Kharops ('' seizor "), 
and erected a shrine on the spot where he rose dragging Kerberos after 
him. The Hyperboreans — or northeners — called him Kbronos, and 
said that he walked on the waters, and was seen in boats, and 
swallowed by a fish like Jonah (see Fish), being again cast out. (See 
Fabers Cahiri, i, p. 25().) His pillars were Abula in Africa and 
Ealpe in Spain : HSraklea (or Tartessus) being near the latter. At 



234 Hermes 

Carthage, as Mel^rth, he had human sacrifices till Boman times ; 
and in a time of trouble 300 citizens walked willingly into his fires, 
while 200 children of the best families were sacrificed to him. At 
Kades in Spain (" the holy city '') pillars alone represented him, but 
Melikertes wore the golden belt of Teucer and Pugmalion — ^the circle 
which we so often see surrounding the winged archer sun god in 
Babylonia (Rivera of Life, i, p. 213; ii» p. 64). The Greeks and 
Romans might well say that in every land they found their Hercules. 
[He learned the lyre from linos when young, that being the windy 
season. He made his famous choice between light and darkness. He 
conquered Kuknos (** the swan "), according to Euripides, this being a 
common emblem of the snow cloud* He freed the sea from monsters 
— or storms — in summer. Hesiod says he freed Prometheus — ^the 
fire. The poisoned garb was given him by his wife Deiaaeira 
("husband destroyer"), whom he had rescued from the Kentaur 
cloud. She was jealous of lole, the violet sunset, whom he loved ; and 
his charioteer is lolaos. He takes part in the expedition of the Argo, 
to fetch the golden fleece : and wrestles with Antaios, the giant bom 
of ocean and earth, as Gilgamas fights a giant also. He is called 
Daphne-phoros (" dawn bringer "), and above all Soter, " the saviour." 
—Ed.] 

Hermes. The Greek god of stones, stoneheaps, and boundaries, 
also the swift messenger. [Like the Vedik Sarama — ^the messenger 
dog — the word seems to come from ear " to go," " to issue," and 
hence an " extent " or boundary. — Ed.] The original Hermes was a 
heap or karn of stones, or an erect stone around which a karn was 
made by visitors, each leaving a stone as a memorial (see Gale'ed). 
He answered to the Latin Mercurius, and to other messenger gods 
such as Nebo, and had the winged hat and winged sandals, with the 
caducous or snake rod, and the scrotum or bag, as he appears on a 
vase found by M. Clermont Ganneau at Jerusalem (Quarterly Stat 
Pal. EocpL Fund,, October 1874). He was naturally worshiped by all 
messengers and travellers, commercial agents, and those who went by 
sea. For he was the swift wind, and so the thief who stole light 
things, and thus the patron of thieves, holding the bag or purse. He 
is said to have been the thief Cacus (see Herakles), and as the wind 
he was also a harper, having found the shell of a turtle whence he 
made the lyre. He is the soft breeze, and plays his lyre as he goes. 
But the Latins called him "the universal column supporting all 
things." He answered, according to them, to the Teutonic Tmsko 
(see Rivera of Ufe, ii, pp. 219, 384; figs. 237, 281). He also 



Hertha 236 

appears as Hermes Kriopheros^ " the ram bearing Hermes " : for on 
his golden ram the twins fled (see Heile) ; and as such he became the 
type of Christ bearing the lamb, in catacomb pictures. 

Hertha. Aertha. The Teutonic earth godess specially 
worshiped at Shrove-tide when the ploughs were carried in proces« 
sion (see Bertha). She was the mother of the gods (see Earth) ; 
and Tacitus visited her shrine in groves by the ocean (see Sir Q. 
Cox, Ar. Mythol., p. 355 ; and Grimm, Deutch. Mythol.). Euripides 
makes Alkestis pray to the earth-mother: ''0 godess, mistress of 
the house, for the last time I bow before thee : to thee I pray as 
1 am about to descend to the house of the dead. Watch over my 
motherless children : give my son a tender wife, my daughter a noble 
husband. Let them not die before their time like me, but enjoy life 
and happiness " (see Hera), 

Hesi. Egyptian. Hes, or Mau-bes ''the lion Hes," was a son 
of Ra and of Bast (see Bas) with a feline head. He carries a sword, 
and wears three plumes, with Ursei or serpents (see As). 

Hesiod. The Greek poet of Boiotia bom about 700 B.c. (Fisk, 
Reconstructed Heaiod). His father migrated from Eum^ in Aiolia, 
to Boiotia, and Hesiod died at Orkhomenos, being born at Askra near 
Mt. Helikon. His poems are among the earliest sources for Greek 
mythology, with some sprinkling of myths from Egypt, Asia Minor, 
Syria, and Babylon. They include the Theogony or " birth of gods " ; 
and the '* Works and Days " describing the year. But the one is said 
to be in the sacred dialect of Delphi, and the other in the Aiolik 
of Eume. He also wrote on ** Justice," and the " Five Ages." His 
work was edited by later lonians of the 6th century B.c. He is said 
to have claimed descent from Apollo, through Orpheus, and Linos ; 
and his bones were worshiped and wrought miracles. In " Works 
and Days " we read — 

" O kings who bribes devour, 
Make straight your edicts in a timely hour. 
For Zeus' all-seeing, and all-knowing eye, 
Beholds at pleasure things that hidden lie, 
Pierces the walls which gird the city in. 
And on the seat of judgment blasts the sin.' 

Hesperides. The garden, in the west, of the four daughters of 
Hesperos (Vesperus) or "sunset," who were called the Hesperidos. 
They were sweet singers, watching the tree with golden apples guarded 
by the serpent, or dragon, Laddn ("the hider"). The garden lay 



286 Hestia 

near Libya and Atlas, in the extreme west To the Greeks Italy 
was Hesperia, and to the Latins Spain (see Apples, Herakl^, Trees). 
Hesperos was the star of sunset and of the west, a child of Phoibos 
(" bright "), and brother of Eos (" dawn "). The Hesperides were also 
daughters of Adas and Hesperis. Their garden was an Eden *' where 
were the springs of nectar which flowed by the couch of Zeus." 

Hestia. Greek. The Latin Yesta (from the Aryan root us or 
was " to shine/' '* burn "), she is the godess of the hearth-fire, said 
to have been the first bom of Rhsea — the earth (see Agora). Her 
fire was sacred, and must never be allowed to go out Zeus, Poseidon, 
and HSstia, form a triad (" air," " water " and " fire "), and she — like 
Agni — was a messenger of the gods. Yesta was adored in Alba where 
four Yestals presided, before Servius Tullius raised the number to six, 
and established her famous shrine in Bome, which still remained sacred 
down to our 4th century. These vestals were ruled by the Virgo 
Yestalis Maxima, but they were all under the Pontifex Maximus. 
The vestal abbess had' a great position, and her influence was appealed 
to as the last hope of peace, in revolution or civil war (see Sig. R. 
Lanciani, Academy, 2nd Feb. 1884). A remarkable object, said to 
be a mill, was found in the Atrium Yestse at Rome, which seems very 
much like an Indian, *'lingam in an argha," perhaps a symbol of the 
fire drill 

Het. Egyptian. The godess of fire. 

Hijirah. Arabic : " flight" The " Hejira Era," as it is usually 
called, dates from the night of the 16th of July 622 A.C. (see 
Muhammad). 

Hillel. Hebrew: "brilliant." A celebrated Rabbi of the sect 
of the Pharisees, whose teaching " made light " the Law — being liberal 
and merciful — in contrast with the severity of the school of Shammai 
(also a Pharisee), who " made the Law heavy." He came from Babylon 
to Jerusalem when 40 years old, and was regarded as a '* second Ezra." 
He said that " the true Pharisee is he who does the will of his Father 
in Heaven because he loves him." Gamaliel, at whose feet Paul sat, 
was the grandson of Hillel, who is said to have '' instructed 500 in 
the wisdom of the Greeks, and 500 in the Law.*' He sufiered greatly 
from poverty iu youth, and one tradition says that he was found 
insensible, covered with snow, outside the window of a school, listening 
to the lessons which he could not pay for inside it. Another story 
says that an unbeliever asked to be taught the whole Law while he 
stood on one foot, and Hillel epitomised it in the golden rule. ** Do 



Hima 237 

nothing to others that thou wouldst not have done to thee." Tet 
Hillel was a great supporter of the Law, and of all the tenets of his 
race that he could find thereby justified. He died about 10 A.c. : 
and some have attempted to identify him with the Simeon of the 
3rd Gospel. The prayers of the synagogue in Hillel's time — according 
to later accounts — must have contained much that is supposed charac- 
teristic of the New Testament only. " Our Father who art in Heaven 
proclaim the unity of thy name, and establish thy kingdom forever. 
Let us not fall into sin • . . lead us not into temptation. Thine is 
greatness and power . . . Thy will be done in heaven . . . Give us 
bread to eat and raiment to put on . . . Forgive all who have 
offended thee" (Prof. Toy's QiM)t<ition8, New Testavient). 

Hima. Sanskrit: "cold," *'snow," whence the Himalayas or 
" snowy " mountains. These were the sacred abode of Parvati, the 
mountain mother, consort of Siva, and the Parnassos of India. 
Himaji the pearly (t^arvati, or the lotus) was the consort of Himavat, 
the cold white hill, who was husband also of Mena, who bore him 
Uma C' the mother "), and Ganga ; for the rivers are bom of snow. 
Himavat in an early Brahmana is Indra, but in the Puranas is usually 
Siva, the lord of Mt Railasa, where dwells also Kuvera, the lord of 
riches, at his abode called Gana-parvata (the spirit mountain), or 
Rajatadri — a silver mountain by the sacred lake Manasa. Mt Everest 
(29,000 feet), the highest mountain in the world, appears to be the 
Hindu Gauri-sankar, Siva's virgin wife (see Kanchin-janga) and 
" I^y of the World." 

Himyar. See Arabia. 

Hindi. Hindira. The godess Durga, and a pomegranate, as 
her emblem in the character of Ceres. 

Hindi. The Hindi dialect of Bangal is descended from the 
Magadha and Bih&ri dialects (Prakrits) of the Sanskrit family. Mr 
Grierson {Indian Antiq,, July 1885) says that it took 1000 years 
to develop this into the form assumed under the Sena dynasty of 
1066 A.C. (see Prakrit), while after the Moslem victory over these 
kings, in 1203 A.C., it became fully developed. [The grammar is 
Aryan and the foundation is Sanskrit, but it is full of foreign words — 
Persian and Arabic — introduced by the conquerors. — Ed.] Mr 
Grierson (Journal Bl, Asiatic jS>oc^., April 1886) calls it "an off- 
spring of the Braj-basha (Braj '* speech ") the language of Western 
Baiswari." '* The book Hindi of to-day did not exist till the English 
conquest, and was really manufactured by order of Government, out 



238 

of Urdu, by the substitution of Sanskrit for Arabic and Persian words. 
. . . Nowhere is it a vernacular, and it is radically di£ferent &om 
Bih&ri, the language of East Baiswari." 



Hinduism. See Brahma, India, Yedas. The pre- 
sent Hindu faith is that Neo-Brahmanism which arose out of 
Buddhism (see Buddha) about the 7th to the 12th century A.c. It 
embraced the Vedik faith an(i philosophy purified by Ootama, but in- 
corporated the older nature worship of non-Aryan India. The growth 
of literature and art, and the writing of mediaeval Puranas, crystal- 
ised the oral legends which they somewhat refined, and filled the 
temples with statues and carved symbob, or reliefs representing 
mythical scenes. The faith became hydra-headed, and knit up with 
caste usages, sanctioned by codes like that of Manu, restoring all that 
Buddha had upset Eighteen sacred books, of various date, included 
all the myths of India, and the oral teaching of earlier Brahmans 
superseding the little known Vedas. The great epiks (Mabahharata 
and BAmayana) retained their hold on the afifections of the Hindus. 
Qods like Krishna may be traced to Vedas, others like Bhagavau 
were Aryanised conceptions based on older Turanian Bhuts aod 
spirits. As we first wrote io 1880 the Aryans appropriated the 
legends of Turanian rulers, who did not, as Prof. Oppert (BharcUa' 
Varaha, 1893) supposes, "gain access to the Aryan pale," for they 
were not likely to care much for the ideas of uncivilised nomads (see 
Aryans). The mixed system attracted the earlier natives of India; 
and the bonds of caste became ever more rigid, until only some 60 
or 70 out of 300 millions of Indian Turanians remain now non- 
Hindus. Hinduism is not the work of any single founder of a 
religion : it is the name given by us to the beliefs of those dwelling 
on, and east of, the Sindhu or Indus river : it includes the faiths of 
all India, save Moslem, Christian, and Pars! creeds, or the superstitions 
of the rude tribes not yet Hinduised. It is (like our constitution) a 
growth, patched, enlarged, and inlaid, with a great variety of ideas, 
without unity of design, but marked by considerable tolerance and 
receptivity, insisting only on the rules of caste. The old figures of 
Turanian nature worship it regards as divine incarnations or attributes, 
which it assimilates, knowing the words to be only descriptive titles. 
Gotama denied the gods and inspired writings of his day, and Brahoians 
consequently persecuted his disciples. But India had always favoured 
the ascetik idea of retirement from an evil world for communion with 
Qod; and this lies at the root of all later Hindu philosophy and 
mysticism, however pantheistic or fatalistic. 



Hindus 239 

The Bev, Dr Fope-^professor of Dravidian languages at Oxford 
— showed that the fundamental Indian idea is, that all action and 
energy are evil : external phenomena being mere illusions ; and 
that liberation from such illusions is thought only possible through 
profound abstract meditation, with suppression of every passion and 
affection. It is still believed — as it was 2400 years or more ago — that 
the ** chief good " is the attainment of non-existence, or self-extinction, 
by re-absorption with the eternal, impersonal, and universal. Hence 
pessimism is the undertone throughout — a belief in the vanity of all 
things that belong to the Bhava-chakra, or " wheel of existence," or 
the endless recurrence of decay and reproduction. Like some 
Christians, the Hindus often despise the body, regarding it as a 
hindrance to the freedom of the souL Hence history and chronology 
did not interest Indians, as Babylonians were interested, and 
patriotism had no meaning to Hindus, who were looking for a 
better land, having no abiding city here. The ever-present idea 
among the Hindu pious is sacrifice of self, of time, money, and all 
comforts, in order to please the gods, or to propitiate some evil 
power which, like their own sins, weighs them down continually. 
We have often heard the Hindu marvelling at our idea of a good 
and almighty Qod creating and maintaining this world, with all its 
sins and sorrows, crime and injustice. He thinks it vain to ask 
why these things are, and believes that we worship mainly through 
fear, or to please powers over which we have no control. 

Hinduism very early embraced the idea of Metempsychosis, or 
transmigration of the soul from one body to another — the Atma or 
"' self" remaining an individuality, through a series of births de- 
pending on conduct in preceding lives. Sivaite philosophers look on 
the universe as including ; 1st, Siva — the Life or Great Soul whence 
all comes, and to which all returns ; 2nd, the aggregate of souls ; and 
3rd, the bond — Matter or Delusion — which surrounds them, and 
which creates the need of Karma or ** conduct " whereby all will 
be judged. At the beginning of a Kalpa, or world-age, these three 
are separate, and souls are then burdened with matter, each becoming 
responsible, by the deeds of the body, for its Karma or conduct 
whether good or evil. Until this Karma is accepted, or the 
results of former Karma are cancelled by improved action, the 
Atma or "self" cannot return to the Maha-Atma or "great soul," 
the Father of Life, who is Siva; for this is not a Yishnuva 
doctrine. But Siva, through love for his creatures, gives grace 
through his Sakti or power, the compassionate female aspect of his 
being ; and she, as a spirit of knowledge (the Qnostik Sophia) gives 



240 Hindus 

desire and energy, so that dead souls are awakened, and the universe 
of phenomena is evolved, for good purposes. All living creatures, 
demons, and vegetables, play their allotted parts, under the supreme 
power, and can all work out their own salvation through Karma. 
The sooner this entanglement with matter ends the better for the 
Koul, and it is the desire — not always the practice — of the pious 
Hindu, as of some Christians, to escape from the world, the flesh, and 
the devil, in order to obtain union with God, and to escape from a 
prolonged series of re-incarnations. Long life means a long period of 
struggle to create merit by Karma or '* deeds " — a purgatorial pre- 
paration for atonement, or reconciliation with Gk>d. Thus Buddha 
was not heretical in his teaching as to Karma. 

No people are more regular and devoted in religious observances 
than the Hindus, none carry religion more into the daily duties of life, 
none are more docile, courteous, or respectful to age, to parents, to 
rulers, or to the learned, more faithful in domestic service — as we 
knew well during thirty -three years in their midst, in solitary places 
and in dangerous exigencies during the long trying period of tbe 
Mutiny in 1857-8. A Hindu writes in an English journal : "Hindus 
are superior in goodness, godliness, and happiness to ChristiaDs. 
Your poorer classes, from Italy to Britain, and especially in towns, 
are infinitely more wretched, godless, vicious, degraded, and barbarous 
than Indians." Perhaps he is right ; but at any rate, in face of the 
promise to those who do justly and love mercy, it is wrong for 
Christians to disturb the religious beliefs of Hindus. 

The thoughtful Hindu, like the thoughtful Christian, passes 
through the barriers of faith, and, discarding his evil gods, loves to 
imagine a single great and good Qod in whose presence he may 
dwell, or into whom he may be absorbed. He sees no way to 
approach him, or to lead others to him, except that of the rites and 
customs of his people. He advocates the conservative policy of not 
breaking with the past, for the sake of his children and for bis 
own sake. So the most skeptikal Brahmans have often argued, in 
conversation with us, when we deprecated their teaching their 
children the old rites and dogmas which, to the parents, have 
become mere superstitions : " the young,'' they plead, " must find 
out the truth by following the same paths their fathers have 
trodden" — a false plea if advance in truth is ever to be made. 
We must, they say, be practical, and since reason does not influence 
the masses they must be attracted by symbols and images of deity, 
by ritual, and by exciting fear and love : the devout must be com- 
forted in trial and sorrow, and the wicked must be restrained — ^it is 



Hindus 241 

the old argament of Qreek philosophers, Qnostiks, and all others who 
disbelieve, but do not hope that men in general should ever 
understand. 

Hinduism has never laid stress on any definite creed, or belief 
in a founder. It has no Christ, and no Muhammad. It relies on the 
teachings of many Rishis said to have been inspired, and of ancient 
discourses attributed to incarnate heroes, or gods, like Krishna. Thus 
it is ready to absorb all views, and to agree with all local cults, as did 
the ancient world before the three faiths claiming universality ap- 
peared. The pantheon is ever increasing, for Hinduism is essentially 
pantheistik, seeing God in all things whether organic or inorganic. 
It permits to the rudest tribes their tutelary gods, stocks, and stones, 
recognising the Creator in every creative agent. 

But while it welcomes eveiy attempt of man to know and serve 
the Unknowable One, its intelligent vqtaries freely acknowledge that 
the deity is not to be conciliated by sacrifices, nor do they believe 
that sins can be washed out by the merits of a Saviour, or by the 
intercessions of a priest. Indeed neo-Hinduism knows nothing of 
priest or sacrifice, but only of gifts and rites betokening penitence, or 
creating a pious frame of mind to which they — like Christians — think 
that their ordinances conduce, so reconciling us with Qod. They are 
outward and visible signs of feelings which the untutored cannot 
otherwise express. To the many the image is the form actually pos- 
sessed by an indwelling divine spirit, but to the instructed it becomes 
only a symbol of the highest ideal that the poor nature- worshiper can 
grasp. Dr Pope — himself long a missionary — showed that we must 
not suppose ail Hindus to be gross idolaters. They believe that Qod 
is found wherever Avahanam ('* consecration ") has been duly per- 
formed, for this is the '* bringing in " to the image, of the god whom it 
represents ; and it is he — not the image — who is adored. Hence- 
forth the symbol, or the idol, is ever regarded as the token of the 
divine presence, and is therefore enshrined, and adorned with costly 
jewels. This in no way differs from the ideas of Christians who use 
imagea In the^dead of night voices, they say, are heard coming from 
the image, or a hand of it may be sometimes extended to receive an 
offered flower, the devout worshiper being greeted with a smile. The. 
offered gifts of fruit or food are, they believe, actually consumed, and 
in return, rich gifts are sometimes found in the worshiper's home 
when he returns from the temple. Always the divinity — Siva the 
Blessed — is surely there to help in time of trouble. " I believe," said 
one Hindu to Dr Pope, " all that you believe, but I also trust that he 
who fills and pervades ... all space . . . condescends also to abide 

q2 



242 Hindus 

with me in this form. I worship him as dwelling here." What is 
this but to say as we also say — 

"Come to me, come to me, O my Ood, 
Come tx> me everywhere. 
Let the trees mean Thee, and the grassy sod, 
And the water, and the air.'' 

The Indian hymns are full of such ideas, as Dr Pope has shown 
from the early Tamil literature. The sincerity and devout thought 
of the people are shown by their austerities, as are their longings for 
purity, and their fears of offending deities to whom they believe they 
owe many blessings. Hinduism includes a transcendental belief, pro- 
found and subtle enough to attract the intellectual and the spiritnallj- 
minded, and a Pantheism which satisfies the philosophical. No subtler 
system exists than that of the *' divine lay " (Bhagavad-gita) or the 
discourses of Vishnu (** Laws of Vishnu " in Sacred Books of the East), 
and the educated Hindu finds here the highest code of ethiks, aud 
can put aside the accompanying myths as of no consequence. Hindu- 
ism receives, but does not seek for, converts: if they consent to 
attend the rites and hear the priests, they are admitted to the lower 
castes and can in time climb to the higher. Various sects must make 
mutual concessions, and that which survives, if not perhaps the best, 
is at least that which best meets the wants of the people and the 
circumstances of the time. Old ideas and rites die hard, and even 
among ourselves there are many strange survivals which we now regard 
as popular *' folk-lore." 

Leading Brabmans, Gurus, and ascetiks may claim to be incarna- 
tions of deity, but those who have most influence over Hindus are 
their Pujaris or Purohits — the family priests, who are, as a rule, unfor- 
tunately too ignorant to understand the thought and teaching of 
Rishis and Pandits, to be found in great schools and temples. In all 
troubles and anxieties the people go to these priests (though less so 
as education spreads), who are immersed in the routine of endless 
rites ; and have neither time nor inclination to study the advanced 
thought of their age and people — -just like so many of our Christian 
pastors. Their chief duty is to ward off the evils due to demons and 
evil deities. They teach that safety and happiness depend on due 
performance of rites, and on preservation of ancient customs, especially 
as regards caste, marriage, and birth and death : for through these 
customs priests live — or starve — botb at home and in India. The 
old Vedik ritual, and sacrifices, are no longer observed, but festivals, 
pilgrimages, gifts to priests and shrines are still insisted on as indis- 



Hippolutos 243 

peosabla In early morning, aided by pious volunteers, priests sweep 
out, wash, and cleanse the shrine and adorn the idols. Then wor- 
shipers come to visit their favourite shrines, and join in any ceremony 
going on. Some officials lead strangers and visitors round, and 
instruct the ignorant how to worship aright, directing them where to 
go to hear Yedas and Mantras explained. Advanced thinkers will 
then be told that all now demanded by God is a flower or a fruit, 
with bread for his anointed priests (see Sacred Books of the East, xii, 
p. 59). The Hindu is better than his creed. He no longer believes 
that only through blood is there redemption for man. Creeds stand 
still, but human intelligence moves on. 

Hippolutos. See Aricia. 

Hippos. Greek : " horse." The name occurs in mauy Aryan 
languages, and is not a borrowed word, showing early acquaintance 
with the horse (Zend aspa : Sanskrit asva : Lithuanian aszua (fem.) : 
Latin equus : Irish ech : Anglo-Saxon eoh : Gaulish epos). The horse 
existed in Europe from the earliest ages of man's existence. Palaio- 
lithik man appears, in the West, to have fed chiefly on the small wild 
horses roaming over Europe. There are huge heaps of horses' bones 
in front of Sicilian caves at Olmo ; in the Isola dei Liri in Italy ; in 
Germany, and in many parts of Switzerland : one heap at Ma9on in 
France is 10 ft. deep, and must have included bones of 3000 horses 
(Dr Isaac Taylor, Contempy, Review, August 1890). The Aryans 
must have learned to eat, sacrifice, and even worship, the horse in 
Europe ; and it has an early mythological importance (see Horse). 
Hippa is the cloud-bearer, and a nymph. Poseiddn is the " sea horse." 
Uippion is a mariner who rides the " white horses," as we still call the 
waves. So too the ship Argo was called Hippodameia ''the horse 
tamer." The word means "swift" (Aryan is "speed "), and the Hippo- 
griflf is the winged horse. The horned horse of Alexander the Great 
was called 6u-kepbalos or "bull headed." The horseman Hippomenes 
conquered Atalanta by means of golden apples ; and the stallion becomes 
a phallic symbol 

Hitopadesa. The Anwar-i-Suhaili of Persians, or " Book of 
Counsels," is an ancient and very popular work read especially in India 
and Persia, and now one of our college standards. It has been called 
the " Father of Fables" (see Esop), but its oldest parts (the poetry and 
proverbs) are said to come from its parent the Pancha-Tantra (see that 
heading), with which the Hitopadesa is often confused. The prose 
portions are held to be not older than 200 B.C., or about the age of the 



244 Hittites 

Book of Ecclesiastes. The present compilation dates firom oar 5th 
century. The Panchra-Tantra portions are of great antiquity, and 
include some Buddhist Jataka or " birth " tales. The Hitopadesa w&s 
originally written in Sanskrit, including quotations from the Vedas 
and Mahabharata. The Emperor Nushirvan, in our 6th century, caused 
it to be translated into Persian : it appeared in Arabic in 850 A.a^ 
and shortly afterwards in Hebrew and Greek. The Emperor Akbar 
used to translate it to his prime minister 'Abd-el-Fadl, and called it 
the "Criterion of Wisdom," often quoting such proverbs as: "Learn- 
ing changes not the wicked, nor will bitter pasture destroy the cow's 
milk." 

Hittites. See Kheta. 

Hiuke. Yuke. The Skandinavian moon god (see Agu). From 
the root Ak '' bright." 

H'nos. The Norse Venus, daughter of Freya. 

HobaL See Habal. 

Hod. Hodhr. The Norse god of winter, the "hider" of the 
sun, a strong, blind, son of Odin (heaven), who slew the fair Baldur 
(" light giver "), and was slain by his youngest brother, Vali the archer, 
when Vali was only a day old, at the new year in spring (see Baldur)L 
Hod shot at Baldur, with the mistletoe provided by Loki, and killed 
him. But both Hod and Baldur are to live in Odin's ball hereafter, 
and talk over the past. 

Hoeg. See Haug, a sacred mound or *' height" 

Hogmanay. New Year's Eve in Scotland. [Perhaps "mid- 
winter commemoration," from hoku and Ttina, — Ed.] 

Holda. Hulda. HuUe. The "bright" moon among the 
Skandinavians (see Hel, Hellen§), who has also (like HekatS) an evil 
aspect. She commands the completion of work at the end of the old 
year (see Bertha), and used to be burned on the eve, or day, of 
Epiphany, at the feast once called Berchten-nacht (Bertha's night), 
when the good Bertha expels the wicked old Holda, the winter, and 
the old moon. Hulda was feared as a sorceress, and was a washer- 
woman whose soapsuds were the melting snow. She flies with all her 
myrmidons through trackless wastes, in the cold night and blackness. 
She is slighted by her children, yet cheers them when angry gods are 
scowling. When the moon shines she is said to be combing her hair. 
when snow falls she is making her feather-bed. She loves lakes anii 



Holi 245 

fountains, where she can see her face ; and through them mortals can 
reach her dwelling. She is borne through heaven on a car whence 
chips of gold drop down ; but she is ugly, long-toothed, with shaggy 
hair ; and unbaptised babes are taken by Odin and Holda. 

Holi. The great Hindu spring festival: see Dola-Yatri. The 
cruel swinging rites belong to this fSte, which is held in honour of 
Krishna, as the spring sun god. It begins at the full moon of March, 
and lasts nine day& It is also called Dol§, whence pious Hindus 
r^ard it as a duty to '* swing " from a hook passed through the muscles 
of the back : this is called Ghakrapuja or '' the wheel rite." The 
season is sacred especially to Eama-jl, or Kama-deva, the god of love ; 
and loose talk, songs, and jests, are interchanged by the sexes, leading 
to drunkenness and licence, especially among the well-to-do city crowds. 
Respectable heads of families begin the season with prayer, fasting, and 
the lighting and worship of new fires, adoring small images of Krishna 
which must, together with themselves and their families, be sprinkled 
with abira, a red powder, or a pink liquid, typifying fertility, which is 
personified as a woman called Doll or Holi, about whom there are 
many legends, intended to explain the reason of the rites. According 
to one legend the rejoicings are because the Bakshasas, or ** demons," 
of winter are overthrown ; and, in N. India, winter is personified as 
the female Rakshasi, Dundhas — " the destroyer of many," associated 
with the giant Mag-dasur, " who disturbs the prayers and praises of 
gods and men." Another legend relates that Prahlada, the son of 
Hiranya-E^ipa, deserted the worship of Siva for that of Vishnu, which 
80 enraged his father (sometimes called Hamakas), who was a Daitya 
to whom Siva had granted the sovereignty of the three worlds, that 
with aid from his sister Holi he persecuted and tortured Prahlada, till 
Vishnu issued from a fiery iron pillar — some say as a " man-lion " — 
and tore in pieces the father. Holi then tried to burn Prahlada and 
herself; but neither fire, snake poison, nor anything else, could scathe 
him. Holi had tried previously to poison the babe Krishna by giving 
him her deadly nipples to suck, so that she was a godess of winter. 

As a centre for the games and other rites of Holi-tide, a stout 
high pole, or a branch of a large tree, is erected — like our maypole 
(see also Gonds) ; and it is decked with flags, and has a sugar cone at 
the top, with fruits and sometimes coins. Venturesome youths try to 
climb up, and are belaboured by women while so doing. Near this 
pole is always placed an image of the winter demon, made of sticks 
and straw (like Guy Fawkes) ; and this, in due time, is burned with 
joyous shouts and music. The story relates that so Krishna burned 



246 Holi 

the giant fiend for the salvation of men. The remaining emblems 
are those denoting fertility, often grossly phallic, including huge 
lingams on which women hang garlands, and which they anoint. 
This is the symbol of Kama-ji, Lal-ji, Putani, and Holika ; of the god 
of love and spring. Much romping between the young of both sexes 
accompanies their songs and jests, and they belabour each other with 
hands and sticks, and often wrestle and roll in the dusty road or in 
the bare field. All night, and long after sunrise, this goes on, followed 
by bathing and worship. Mr Crooks {Popular Religion of Northern 
iTuiia, 1894, p. 392) says that there is reason to believe that human 
sacrifice, and promiscuous intercourse, were necessary parts of the 
worship of the spring deities. " The compulsory entry of the local 
priest into the sacred fire," on which the people still insist, at Holi 
rites, and those of Eclipse (Ketu), is, Mr Crooks things, a survival of 
human sacrifice ; and the " unchecked profligacy which prevails at 
the spring Holi, and the Kajali in autumn," may, he thinks, be 
intended to aid in repelling failure of hskrvests, and of fertility. So, 
too, when rain is wanted, nude, indecent dances by women are 
prescribed, and are carried out joyfully. 

The great phallic poles being erected at cross roads, or on the 
village green, in tope or grove, or by a gateway, sacred fires are 
lighted, and all dance round the pole laughing, jesting, and adorning 
it with additional ornaments. The elderly and staid may be seen 
wheeling in the giddy maze, while reciting mantras, prayers, and 
confessions, such as : " I am consumed, Lord, by thy fires. 
Kama, in memory of thee I sprinkle over myself, and my family, my 
flocks, and all my possessions, the abira (red powder), and I pray thee to 
exert thy manifold powers, in loving increase of family, flocks, and crops/' 
Groups of small villages and hamlets usually combine to take a 
field which has yielded an abundant crop, in order there to celebrate 
Holi. The sacred fire, the pole, and the other figures, are placed in 
the centre, and many sally out to collect valuables to cast into the 
fire. They often seize costly articles of furniture ; and once these are 
brought to the sacred pile none may withdraw them, for they are 
consecrated. Polo, and other ball games, are played ; tin balls are 
collected round the fire, and when they burst, sprinkle the players 
with red powder. The scene becomes at times a pandemonium 
(see Carnival), and the dresses of the revellers are grotesque, and 
gaily colored, and smeared with red. Embers from the holy fire are 
wildly flung about — as at Italian candle-feasts — and balls of mock 
comfits which break and discharge liquids. The unwary are soused 
with disgusting fluids, or sent on bootless messages, like April fools 



Holy 247 

in Europe. Tbe Holika images and poles^ with all their gay 
trappings, are finally committed to the sacred flames ; and all rush 
frantically to secure embers, as at the Jerusalem fire feast of Easter. 
Indian women at this season are apt to play practical jokes on lone 
males in lone places, as we had once reason to know ; and stripping 
is regarded as a permissible assault, for all is now merriment, and all 
is done ** for the love of Kama." The Ehasia tribes (says Mr Atkinson, 
Journal Bengal Rl, Asiatic 8ocy., Jany. 1884), afiSx the phallic 
Trifiuly or trident of Siva, to the Holi poles, praying to them especially 
for ofispring bom, or expected, during the past year ; and priests go 
round to affix a special Tika, or mark, on the foreheads of donors to 
these rites. Mr Atkinson regards these as pre-Yedik. In Bangal 
the Yishntivas and the Sakti worshipers who celebrate the licentious 
rites of Durga and Kali, are among the most ardent Holi worshipers ; 
and this fSte is the greatest of the year at Jaganath. Siva then 
offers to forego all his merits for love of Lakshmi, and even Brahma 
bums with passion. Such are the excesses which, in many lands, 
accompany emotional faith. 

The Holi corresponds to the Roman Liberalia, with worship of 
Venus Hilaria, and of Fortuna Yirilis : or the old Christian rites of 
the " abbot of unreason," and " Feast of Fools," our April Fool's Day 
and the " gowks' day " of Kelts (see Rivers of Life, i, p. 425). It was 
also Cuckoo's Day according to Sir Walter Scott (see Cuckoo). The 
follies and extravagancies of the season are endless. We have seen 
Hindus, Moslems, and Christians, alike racing down a hill in the early 
morning to '* catch the sun." Native Christians said that this was 
done " in imitation of Peter and John " racing to the sepulchre of 
Christ on Easter day. For it is the season when the sun god leaves 
his cave of death and again appears in the world. 

Holy. This word originally means " whole," " wholesome," hence 
"perfect," and so " sacred " (Bivers of Life, i, p. 36). 

Homo. ilBOttiSL Zend. This answers to the Sanskrit Soma, 
the sacred drink which is the essence of Krishna (Bhagavad Gita), a 
mystic sacrifice to Yedik deities (see Soma). The rites of Homa 
require the use of five sacred woods, and of Eusa grass (or Barsom 
twigs in Persia), and should precede marriage and the investiture 
with the sacred Kosti necklace. [The drink is now made from the 
Asclepias Adda, and a few drops sufiSce for each. There is dispute 
as to the original drink, but Prof. Max Mliller, comparing the extant 
customs of Ossetes in the Caucasus, thinks the original Soma was a 
kind of dark beer or porter. — Ed.] 



24a Homer 

Homer. The blind bard of Khios, like Hesiod the shepherd 
poet of Mt Helikon, is important to all who study early Aryan 
mythology (see Hesiod). Homer appears to have preceded Hesiod by 
a generation or more. The one is the epik poet, singing heroic deeds 
of a young race ; the other is the Greek Virgil, singing the praises of 
rural life and religion. As many ages have claimed the Homeric 
poems, as cities claimed " great Homer dead." It is enough for our 
purpose that these poems were written about 800 to 600 B.C. But 
the picture they present accords with the civilisation of Troy and 
MycensB, recovered in remains supposed to be sometimes as old as 
1500 B.C. : and the conclusions of former critics are now modified, in 
part, by the discoveries of Schliemann. 

Honix. A name of Vili the brother of Odin. 

Honover. Pahlavi — the Zend Ahuna Vairya, or word of Ahura- 
mazda, which was incarnate in King Qushtasp and others, as the Logos 
was incarnate according to the 4th Gospel. 

Hor. Horus. Har. The Egyptian god of the rising sun, a 
name connected with Hru "day." He is exactly equivalent, says 
Benouf, to the Greek HuperiOn, the ''rising" sun. He is the son of 
Osiris and Isis, the avenger of his father, and conqueror of Set the 
dark god. But Set, as a black boar, swallows the " eye of Horus," 
and the double-headed figure Set-Hor represents the brothers day and 
night The hawk is the chief emblem of Horus (see Hawk). 

Horns. These are universal emblems of power (see Btyant, 
Mythol., ii, p. 530). The sun, the moon, and all river gods have 
horns, like Dionusos, or like Moses. They stood for rays ; but the 
horn is also the phallus, and the " horn of plenty " is the YonL 
Apollo Karneios is thought to mean " the homed Apollo," from the 
Greek Keraa "horn." His festival was the Kereneia, or Karneia; 
his priest was Karnas, he is the Latin Granus and Keltik Graine (but 
see Graine). The altar of Yahveh had horns ; and he fills, exalts, or 
anoints the horns of those he favoura The temple of Diana, on the 
Aventine, was hung round with horns of bulls and cows, and these 
sometimes declared divine behests, as when Marcellus defeated 
Hannibal, or Scipio subdued Spain ; for the sound of the horn is 
prophetic. From Tbrakia to Egypt we find wine drunk from bulls' 
horns, at weddings, and other feasts — they were the earliest cups of 
man. From Italy to India we find women setting up horns, as 
charms against the evil eye, with horse shoes, and eggs, on doors, and 
wells, and at cross roads. In Babylonia Anu, and other gods, wore 



Horas 249 

horned headdresses — seen also . on Akkadian seal cylinders — and at 
Ibreez, near Tyana, in Asia Minor, the giant figure of a horned god, 
bearing com and grapes, is accompanied by Hittite texts. Horned 
helmets are also represented in Egyptian pictures and iEgean vases, as 
worn by the Danau, and other fair faced tribes of the north. Horned 
iigurea are very common in ruins excavated both in W. Asia and in 
Europe. The witch dances used to take place round horns, or horn 
in hand, round rams, goats, and cocks. The " sacred horn of Tibet '* 
{Graphic, 19th May 1888) is only a lingam. Many such symbols 
have we seen, beside circles at woodland shrines, together with small 
terra-cotta lingams, and eggs (see Rivera of Life, i, fig. 1). Dr N. W. 
Taylor (Arch. Jownud, December 1887) describes the like beside the 
barrows of Wynad in India. 

Strange horn rites were, till quite recently, celebrated at the 
"Horn Church" of Charlton, near London; and *'horn dances" are 
still practised among us {Folk-Lore JoumcU, April 1893). The 
vicar of Abbot's Bromley is quoted as saying that, for a century, the 
vicars had known "horn dances" still surviving on the day after 
Wake's Sunday — the Sunday next to the 4th September — a period 
when harvest homes were celebrated (see Rivers of Life, i, p. 427). 
Mr Ordish says that the Abbot's Bromley dances, for 200 years, had 
taken place in the churchyard after morning service. Such dances 
were common in Stafibrdshire at the beginning of the 19th century : 
they had peculiar figures and tunes. The Bromley church still 
possesses *' six pairs of horns, a bow and arrow, hobby-horse frame, and 
curious old pots with a wooden handle, in which money was collected 
from the dancers by a kind of Maid Marian." The under jaw of the 
hobby-horse was loose, and clanked in time with the music. The lad 
with the bow was a rude jester, accompanied by six men each with 
a pair of reindeer horns : ten performers in all (lanced a traditional 
measure. The hobby-horse, even now, is said to figure in May-Day 
festivities ; and evidently old Norse rites are preserved. There is 
even a tradition that the hobby-horse is Odin's Sleipner, one of the 
steeds of As-gard (see also Mr Elsworthy's Horns of Honov/r, 1900). 
The horn among Hebrews was *^ exalted " in prosperity : it also 
betokened strength and light (Exod. xxxiv, 29; Deut xxxiii, 17; 
Hab. iii, 4). In the first-cited passage the Hebrew reads (as the 
Latin Vulgate understands) that ^* Moses wist not that the skin of his 
face was a horn " : see Michael Angelo's horned Moses. In the 
poetic psalm of Habakkuk the Hebrew also reads " His brightness 
was as light ; horns from his hands." The horn of Odin among the 
Norse is wind, or thunder. 



260 Horse 

Horse. See Asvins and Hippos. [The horse was called kwra 

(Mongol Kar '* to galop ") by the Akkadians ; and the horse aad 

chariot were used before 1500 B.C. in W. Asia. The old Semitic 

name was Sus, and the Egyptians borrowed this and other Semitic 

names for the horse, as well as the Semitic Merkebeh for " chariot " ; 

for they apparently had no horses before they were introduced into 

Egypt during the Hyksos period, just as they had no camela, which 

they also knew by the Semitic name Kamal. Asia Minor was a great 

centre for horse dealing, and the horse is still found wild in E. 

Turkestan. — Ed.] To Hindus the horse, like the bull, was sac^. 

But they will drink out of a horse-trough, yet not where a sacred 

bull or cow has drunk. The great sacrifice was that of the horse (see 

Asva-medha), and it was performed when the birth of a son was 

desired. The horse drew the chariot of the sun, and sacred horses 

were kept in temples. Miss North (liecoUectiana of a Happy Lift, i, 

p. 217, 1892) found one of these at Kobe in Japan, in a temple shrine : 

it was piebald, with blue eyes, and a pink nose, and " always stood 

there in case the deity came down." A stufifed horse also stoo<l in a 

shed near, lest the living horse should die. To touch a stallion caused 

maidens to bear children, and the Asvins as great riders had sacred 

horses. The head of the horse also produces ambrosia, and the 

Indian Mamojl is a phallic stallion. The horses of Frey and Sigurd 

are famous among Skandinavians. The neighing of the horse is its 

" laughter." [In Job we read " Hast thou endowed his throat with 

a thunder-noise," xzxix, 19. — Ed.]; and it is (as when the "bull 

speaks ") an emblem of thunder, like the braying of Indra's ass in 

heaven (Prof. A. de Qubernatis, Zool. Mythol,, ii, p. 346). The son 

of Dronas is said, in the Maha-bharata, " to laugh, and have strength 

in his horse, which neighed as soon as it was bom." Herodotos 

relates the legend of Darius whose horse gave him power. [Riding 

on horses is only noticed much later ; we have figures of riders in 

Assyria in the 7th century Ra, and in Lycia a century or so later; 

but all the older monuments merely show the horse as driven in a 

chariot. The Hittite king of Kadesh (1580 B.c.) had a wild horse, 

but all Syrians were using chariots like the Akkadians, earlier than 

the Egyptians. The horse of Caesar also foretold his fortunes. The 

** death-horse " is an ancient symbol long before the " pale horse " of 

Revelation ; for Nin-ki-gal, the queen of hell, is represented kneeling 

on a horse (see Hel) : it was a well-known Norse and Danish figure ; 

and Grimm gives the story of the horse's head over a gate, which 

warns the heroine of the future. The winged horse, Pegasus, is found 

at Nineveh, and on coins of Carthage. Its hoof mark was shown in 



Horsel 251 

Greece. The name is perhaps Semitic, meaning '' flying horse " 
(Hebrew pavak " to sway»" " to wave/' and 8vs •' horse "), and it also 
carries an Assyrian god. — Ed.] 

HorseL See Ursel, Ursula. The Swabian moon godess. 

Hospitals. These, as practical indications of ethikal ideas, 
require notice. It is a common error to suppose that the first hos- 
pitals were Christian. Western Europe in this, and many other such 
matters, was far behind Asia. Indeed it would seem that Christ 
needed no hospitals, nor his church as long as they claimed to heal 
the sick miraculously, or by anointing them, with prayers (Mark xvi, 
18 ; James v, 14). The medical art was very ancient in Egypt (see 
Egypt), and seems to have been publicly organised by 1100 B.c. 
[The Babylonians sought to cure disease by charms, as the result of 
demoniac possession; but the laws of Hammurabi (Nos. 215 to 225) 
lay down the scale of fees for doctors, and their responsibilities. If a 
freeman died from an operation (Law 218) the doctor's hand was cut 
off. — ^Ed.] Among Greeks there were hospices for the sick close to 
the temple of AsklSpios (see that heading) ; and, in the 5th century 
B.C., Greek physicians were elected and paid by the citizens ; but 
even earlier we read of public hospices for the sick, with other 
charities. In India rest-houses on the roads existed as early as 500 
or 400 B.C., where the sick and weary were charitably received; 
and in Ceylon, at the great Naga capital Anuradha-pur, a chari* 
table establishment for the sick is said to have adjoined the palace 
of Pandu-kabhay : in 350 B.C., before Asoka's missionaries arrived 
a century later, a king called Buddha-dasa is said to have studied 
medicine, and to have granted lands throughout his Ceylonese 
dominions for medical charities. Asdka (about 250 B.C.) in his 
inscriptions says : " Is any sick, the physician is his father. Is he 
weU, his friend. Is his health restored, his guardian " (see '* Pre- 
Christian Hospitals," Westminster Review y Oct 1877). Sir Monier 
Williams concludes that " the first hospitals for diseased persons of 
which we have historic record, were those of Buddhists, where also 
dumb animals were treated medically and kindly nourished." These 
were maintained as late as 700 A.c. To the same source we probably 
may trace the charitable institutions of the Mexican monasteries. 
Prescott says that the Spaniards " found hospitals established in the 
principal cities for the cure of the sick, and as permanent refuges for 
disabled soldiers . . . superintended by experienced surgeons and 
nurses, established by the Government, but supported by the rich and 
charitable" (Bancroft's Native Races, ii, pp. 595-567). 



252 Hotra 

Tacitus says that when 50,000 persons were killed and maimed 
by the fall of the amphitheatre at Fidense, the doors of the great were 
opened, and medicines and necessaries were supplied, as was usual also 
after the battles of the Empire (Ann,, iv, 65). From early times 
Roman governors appointed physicians in every city in proportion to 
population, and these were paid from the public treasury. The Greek 
Noso-komeia had nothing to do with Xenodokheia or " rest houses " 
Ptokho-tropheia or '* poor houses," Gerontokomeia or '' alms houses " 
for the aged. They were " sick houses " or hospitals. As r^iards 
Christian buildings of the kind, Jerome says that Paula his friend 
*' first of all established a Nosokomeion " in Rome, and " submitted 
to the humiliating penance of ministering to the sick with her own 
hands." The Emperor Julian was a fellow-student of St Basil in 
Greece, and speaking of such establishments said they were founded 
*' by impious Galileans, who thus gave themselves to this kind of 
humanity : as men allure children with a cake so they, starting from 
what they call love . . . bring in converts to their impiety." So that 
the idea of Medical Missions is not modem. But Basil's establishment 
at Csesarea in Kappadokia was only called a Ftokhotropheia or " poor 
house," connected with the good bishop's own house. The poor and 
sick were cared for, and lepers treated by Therapeutai, who had to 
investigate their disease. Basil himself came of a family of physicians, 
and suffered from ill-health during his lifetime. [Justinian in the 
6th century established a hospital for sick pilgrims at his chui*ch of 
the Virgin in Jerusalem. The hospice of Charlemagne (800 A.C.) in 
the same city became a Dominican hospital, and in it sick pilgrims 
were also treated. In the 1 2th century the Order of St Lazarus was 
founded by the Norman kings of Palestine to tend lepers. — £d.] 
Mr Lecky says that the Christian asylum for the insane at Grenada, 
in 1400 A.C., was founded 700 years after one established by Moslems. 
A great institution for the sick was founded by other Moslems at Fez 
in 1304 A.C. But Europe remained intensely ignorant of medical art, 
and of public hospitals, till after the Crusades. 

Hotra. Sanskrit: a "burnt offering." The priest who offers 
such is a Hotri. 

Houris. Arabic : Huriyeh. The nymphs of paradise mentioned 
in the ^^oran. They are the Persian Hurani Behisht — heavenly 
maidens like the Vedik Apsaras. They welcome the heroes slain in 
battle, like the Valkyries of the Norsemen ; and, together with the 
" swan-maidens " of European folk-lore, they were originally beautiful 
white clouds. 



Hu 253 

Hu« A very early Egyptian god. 

Huakas. Guacas. Ancient deities in Peru called 'Hhe gods 
who speak." The sun was Huaka, and his high priest (see Eusko) 
was the Huaka-villak or " converser" (see Hibbert Lecta., 1884 ; and 
Bradford, Amer. Antiq., p. 356). The Huaka-koal was a " Huaka 
stone," and the Peruvians had such in private houses which they called 
Kanopas. Every Dravidian village in India has its kod, or lingam 
stone, which points to the probable derivation of Peruvian speech from 
languages of S. India, with which also the Polynesian dialects are now 
known to be connected. The Huaka of Rimak was celebrated as the 
" revealer of secrets," and was a god older than the time of the sun 
worshiping Inkas in Peru, respected by them, while Huaka-villak 
ranked above all priests next to the Inka himself. The great temple 
of the mountain lake Titikaka, probably the oldest shrine in Peru, was 
named after Deo- Huaka, or Tio-Huanaka. It is a stupendous ruin at 
a height of 13,000 feet : one of its stones measures 38 feet in length. 
It had statues of the mother and child, and the buildings cover a space 
as large as that on which Westminster Abbey and the Houses of Parlia- 
ment stand. The ground is strewn with debris of the temple for a 
mile round, and with fragments weighing 140 to 200 tons, the nearest 
quarry being 15 miles distant. The massive doors are carved with 
human forms, birds, and serpents. There are no remains of any 
temple roof (see Mr Inwards, Temj)le8 of the Andes). Garcilasso 
says the Peruvians worshiped a serpent which grows to a length of 
30 feet. 

Huitzilo-poktli. Huitzilo-Mexitli. The Aztek god of war 
in Mexico. He was bom after his mother, Koatli-kue, had placed in 
her bosom a glittering ball of feathers which floated in the air. He 
had a tuft of green feathers on his head, a spear in his right hand, 
and a shield in his left. Bancroft calls his mother the godess of plant 
life, and his three great festivals were in the middle of May, the middle 
of August, and at the end of December. The Huitzla is a '' thorny 
plant " and the Meod is the valued agave whence Mexico was named : 
pochdi signifies a '' youth," and the name so explained by Mr Vining 
is more probable than any connection with a *' humming bird " (see 
Inglorious Columbus^ p. 380). The worshipers of this god dressed 
in green : the king wore a dark green tunic and a green veil orna- 
mented with skulls and bones ; he also wore green sandals (see 
Colors). The May festival followed that of the god's brother 
Tezkatli-poka, when the silk of the year was spun from cocoons, and 
the harvesting of the agave and preparation of its fibres took place. 



I 



264 Huli 

Two days before his feast an image of Huitzilo-poktli was made out 
of corn-meal and honey, reminding us of Tibetan practices (see also 
Azteks and Cross). 

Huli. See Holl 

Hume. The great Scottish philosopher David Hume (1711 to 
1776) strove in bis own solid and perfervid manner to do for Britain 
what Diderot was doing for France more brilliantly, and perhaps 
more effectively, as he more openly appealed to the masses. Diderot 
was not unknown to Hume who was the friend of the more 
timid encyclopaedists D'Alembert, and Turgot, while in Paris from 
1763 to 1766, as secretary of the British ambassador Lord Hertford 
The philosopher was well connected by birth on both sides of his 
family, and from youth was a calm student and severe metaphysician, 
ambitious only of excelling in literature and study of the old Stoiks and 
of human nature. He was intended for the law, but settled on account 
of bad health at La Fl^che in 1737 ; and at this place, where Descartes 
had shone, he issued — before he was 25 years old — ^his Treaiiae on 
Human Natv/re, perhaps the most unassailable of his works. It was 
fresh and vigorous, but too scholarly and severely logical to be a 
popular success. He was disappointed by its failure, but he never in 
after writings abandoned the views it contained, or added much to | 
them. In 1741 he published his famous Essays, being then at Nine- > 
wells. Butler " highly recommended " them, though Hume therein j 
says that : " a rational view of the existence of God can only be 
vaguely described as an a priori view of conscience . . . resting on 
ethical grounds." In 1744 he was all but elected to the chair of \ 
Moral Philosophy at the University of Edinburgh, but his opponents 
accused him of '* heresy, deism, scepticism, and theism." He then 
accepted the post of tutor to the Marquis of Annandale, and afterwards 
went as secretary with General St Clair to Vienna and Turin. In 1748 
he issued his Inquiry Concerning the Human Understanding, and 
returning home next year settled down for twelve years at Edinburgh, 
writing his Dialogues Concerning Natural Religion, which were not 
published till 1779. In 1751 he became Librarian to the Advocates' 
Library, and was very popular with literary ladies. He studied political 
economy, then a popular subject as set forth in the Wealth of Nations 
by his friend Adam Smith. In 1763 he began his History of 
England from the time of James L He was then in very poor cir- 
cumstances, yet " very contented though assailed with reproach, and 
even detestation." But 450 copies of the first volume of the history 
sold in a few weeks, and by 1755 his comforts increased. The second 



Hume 255 

volume, and further developments of Natural Religion occupied him 
in 1756, and the history was finished in 1761. It was "the first 
attempt at depicting the literary aspects of a nation's life" (Frof, 
Adamson). He alarmed the orthodox by declaring Polytheism to be 
the first sts^e in the natural development of religions, and Deism or 
Theism a product of reflexion on experience. In 1763 he went, as 
above explained, to Paris for three years, after which he was secretary 
to General Conway in London for two. Finally he returned to Edin- 
burgh at the age of 57 years, with an income of £1000 a year. He 
had renounced high Tory views, and the pessimism of his attacks 
on Society in 1756, with his dislike of the English. But he still 
denounced a hollow and licentious society, and the stupidity and 
ignorance of the nation. 

He insisted on perfect freedom of thought, and his influence in 
uprooting the foundations of Faith was very great Yet his eloquence, 
gaiety, gentle nature, and cordial manner, endeared him to all in spite 
of natural awkwardness, and a somewhat obese and grotesque figure. 
He came to be considered a patriarch of literature, and his house was 
the centre where learned men and women met. He enjoyed life, but 
especially the Nirvana of calm retirement in his study. He bore a 
serious illness in 1775 with cheerful fortitude, and died peacefully on 
the 25th of August 1776, maintaining to the last his views as to the 
deity. 

The orthodox belief in God was in his days regarded as the 
safest bulwark against infidelity, but he upsets it by showing that 
our finite faculties cannot grasp the incomprehensible nature of any 
" unconditioned " being. The deists of the school of Locke, who 
relied on the argument from Design, fared no better at his hands, as 
he concluded that no proof of God's existence was possible (see 
Atheism and Design). Prof. Adamson says that the philosophy of 
J. S. Mill is not further advanced than that of Hume, and posthumous 
works of the former follow exactly Hume's lines of argument. Hume 
was not only the first, but the most severely logical and powerful 
exponent of such philosophy — a Pyrrhonist, but greater than Pyrrho. 
He feared not to write all that he felt honestly to be true. Yet he 
never sneered at solemn creeds. His style was colorless and cold 
perhaps, but lucid and clear. He nursed no pleasant illusions, but 
sought Truth, not terrified by any gulf of night He raised the 
banner of Descartes; and free-thinkers of the 18th century, following 
him, established his ideas more firmly. He believed in a spiritual 
torce (or substance) as well as in matter, but not in memory surviving 
death. He entirely denied the credibility of any *' miracles," regarding 



256 Huns 

the accounts of such as traditions belonging to times of ignorance and 
credulity. 

Huns. A Turkish race of Mid- Asia who burst into Europe more 
than once, and attacked India (200 A.c.) and China, overrunning 
Persia. They were absorbed by the old Sakya stock in India, but in 
our 5th century they invaded Hung-ar ("Hun-land") or Hungary 
under Attila (At-ila "high chief"), and threatened the Byzantine 
empire (see Goths). They were at length defeated, in 451 A.C., by 
the Franks near Chalons ; but later Hungarian troublers of Europe 
were of the same stock. The excavation of Huns' graves in Hungary 
suggests a greater civilisation among them than is credited to them 
by historians (see Gibbon's account of Attila's court, from Ammianus, 
Jordanis, and Prisons). 

Hur. Hebrew : " hole." The caves whence Horites were named. 

Hura-kan. The mysterious creator among the Quiche Bed 
Indians : the Hushtoli of Choktaws : he is the " stormy wind " adored 
in Peru by kissing the air : the Spanish hurricano or *' hurricane." 

HyksoS. The foreign rulers of Egypt belonging to the 15th 
dynasty (see Egypt). The name is supposed to be Hikshasu in 
Egyptian, or '• Chief of Nomads," and they are the " shepherd kings " 
of Greeks. [Josephus makes them rule 511 years (Agat. Apion, 
i, 14, 15), and gives six names of their first kings during 260 years. 
The present text of Manetho gives the names differently, and the period 
as 284 years in all. These names are not Egyptian, nor are they 
Semitic, but may be Turanian, including Saites (Salatis), Beon, 
Pakhnan (Apakhnas), Staan, Arkhles, Apophis, and according to 
Josephus, after him lanias and Assis. — Ed.] The Apophis of these 
lists is mentioned in Egyptian history as a worshiper of the Hittite 
god Sutekh. 

Hypnotism. From the Greek hupnos "sleep," a state of 
unconsciousness which is easily produced, in nervous subjects, by 
gazing on some object close to the eyes. The Indian Ydgis hypnotise 
themselves by gazing at the tip of their noses, as some Christian 
hermits did by staring at their navels till they saw the " light of 
Tabor " issue thence. The patient can be assisted by an operator of 
strong personality, who rubs the forehead, or makes passes with his 
hands, and suggests the condition, till closing his eyes the hypnotic 
subject answers questions in apparent unconsciousness, according to 
suggestion. The Magi in Persia, and the Eastern Christians down to 



Hypnotism 257 

the lltb century, had " mysteries" due to hypnotic trance. Between 
1600 and 1670, Maxwell in Scotland, and Santanelli in Italy, became 
famous as hypnotisers. Mesmer of Vienna interested Europe, but 
mingled his facts with deceits or delusions as to '' animal magnetism," 
using magnets as objects to stare at. His magic powers consisted 
only in the action of a strong will aided by the ancient methods. 

Dr Braid of Manchester in 1841 began the scientific examination 
of the question, and other physiologists on the Continent soon dispelled 
the popular illusions as to " spirits '' and " vital force." Science 
found no " occult influences," or any inexplicable forces. Hypnotism 
is only a cerebral condition induced by straining the sight till the 
optic nerve is aflfected and the brain partially paralysed, when the 
patient becomes a fit subject for suggestions generally involving 
contact Man is not peculiar in this respect, for, when the attention 
is strained, rabbits and snakes appear to be easily hypnotised, as birds 
are also by serpents. The Indian juggler will gently stroke the neck 
of the snake with a wand, and the creature becomes rigid like the 
mesmeric patient in his trance. 

In 1866 M. Liebault started what is called the Nancy or the 
" suggestion " system — a school still extant, teaching many errors with 
foundations in facts capable of explanation. In 1878 M. Charcot 
exhibited, in theatrical fashion, phenomena of hypnotic influence on 
trained and untrained patients, in the Paris hospital of the Salp^triere 
similar to those with which itinerant hypnotists long ago have made 
us familiar. Charcotists relied entirely on some small bright object 
held close to the eyes ; but Nancyists relied on passes with the hands 
and on urgent suggestion, such as the '* thought-reader " receives from 
bis guide. Braidists said — ^as do the Indian Yogis who are self- 
hypnotisers — that a small dull object is quite as effective as a bright 
one: the same result is obtained — that of straining the vision, and 
paralysing the optic nerve : a revolving mirror, and even a banging 
noise, suffice to induce the hypnotic condition. The important point 
is to concentrate vision, and attention, on some one object. Idiots, 
who cannot so concentrate attention, skeptiks, and unwilling subjects, 
or persons of strong will, can rarely be hypnotised, while the weak, 
hysterical, diseased, or emotional are good subjects. Terror hypnotises 
when birds or rabbits gaze on the dreaded snake. Three conditions 
are distinguishable — the cataleptic, lethargic, and somnambulistic ; but 
in the last only, according to M. Charcot, does the patient remember 
what he has done during the mesmeric sleep. It was once hoped that 
hypnotism would be useful for the performance of painful operations ; 
and the author, while Superintending Engineer at Calcutta, was called 



258 Hypnotism 

OD by the Government of Bangal to build a mesmeric ward for the 
city hospital But it was soon found that no reliance could be placed 
on the continuance of the trance, and that only a few could be 
hypnotised. 

Since 1865 the police have watched, and have sometimes pre- 
vented, hypnotism ; for the practice is liable to become criminal, 
advantage being taken of it to influence the making of wills, and even 
to suggest shooting at relatives. It was thought that hypnotism might 
be used for the detection of crime, and the discovery of unknown fiacts; 
but the unwilling cannot be influenced, nor can the replies go beyond 
the knowledge, or fancies, of the suggesting agent. Nancyites claim 
to have cured inebriates, and morbid tendencies ; and we can believe 
that hypnotism may, by suggestion, influence nervous subjects, whose 
diseases are due to fears and self-suggestion. But the action on the 
brain is dangerous, causing disturbances as yet not well understood 
(but similar to the phenomena of epilepsy), and loss of brain power from 
such causes. Hypnotism has been of some service in connection with 
excitement due to sleeplessness or monomania. Dr Clouston, in an 
annual report on the Edinburgh Asylum for the Insane, considered the 
phenomena often similar to those of certain forms of insanity. Dr 
Robertson, after visiting Paris, and Nancy, found that in Scotland 
results such as French physicians claimed were not attainable, the 
patients being less excitable than the French — especially hysterical 
Frenchwomen in Paris. Epilepsy, he reported, was not cured, though 
the headache and confused feeling of which epileptics complain could 
be removed by hypnotic suggestion. The greatest blessing so obtain- 
able is sound sleep, and in one case a calm slumber for six hours 
was obtained when the most powerful narcotics had failed. But it is 
clear that hypnotism is no cure for insanity due to brain lesions. Far 
from its being necessary that the patient should be of weak will, he 
reports '' that a power of steady attention, a vivid imagination, and a 
readiness to receive impressions, are important qualifications for 
success. It is also necessary to have confidence in the power of the 
hypnotiser." " Many persons have delusions about mysterious and 
occult powers, such as thought-reading, magnetism, telephones, and 
electricity. . . . (and) believe that a headache, that a pain in the 
elbow, or noises in the ears, have been produced in them, through the 
agency of mesmerism, by some one having an ill-will towards them." 
Hypnotism shows the influence of the mind— or of another mind — 
upon the body, and clearly indicates that, in the waking state also, 
every mental suggestion towards recovery assists in the cure of a 
patient. 



Hyssop 259 

Hyssop. Hebrew Azub : Arabic AdhoLb, The plant which has 
always been supposed to be intended (Exodus zii, 22 : 1 Kings iv, 33) 
is still used in Palestine for sprinkling and purification as of old. It 
is a kind of Origany (Origamum Marw) called Miriamin by Syrian 
Christians — a labiate with hairy leaves — which grows from ruined 
walls, and is sold in markets. It was tied with red wool into bunches, 
and used to sprinkle the blood of the Passover Lamb, and of the Red 
Heifer (see Heifer). Its use answered to that of the Barsom twigs in 
ceremoDies of the Mazdean ritual. 



I 

The English I is both short and long, and stands for the Qreek 
Ai and Ei, as well as for the sound e in other languages. 

I : "shore." See Ey. Apparently an ancient word, found in Eeltik 
speech for " island." 

I or Ya: "bright." [Akkadian i "bright": ya "brilliant" (see 
A).— Ed.] 

lal. ler. See Ayanar. This god is said to be a son of Siva 
by Mohina — a feminine Vishnu — ^and is called Hari Hara-putra, or 
"Vishnu son of Siva." He has the symbols of both gods — the 
lingam of Siva, and the yoni of Vishnu. 

lao. laeuo. The name of Yahveh, or Jehovah, in Qreek 
letters on Qnostik gems, giving some indication of the pronunciation 
of the name in the 1st or 2nd century A.C. (see Jehovah). 

Iberes. Ivemi. Hibernia. An Aryan tribal term, generally 
stipposed to mean " the Westerns." The Iber^ of the Caucasus were 
Georgians, W. of the mountains. In Italy the Iberes were on the W., 
and in Sicily. Spain was Iberia to the Italian tribes. Tacitus speaks 
of Iber§s in the W. of England (Cornwall), who may have come from 
Spain ; but the term seems to be geographical rather than racial The 
Iverni were "westerns," and Ivemia, or Hibernia (Ireland), was a 
western island (see Ireland). 

The Ib6r6s of Spain, on the river Ebro, were connected with the 
Ligarians of N. W. and W. Italy (see Ligurians) ; Iberia included N.E. 
Spain and S. Qaul to the Rhone eastwards ; the race being that of 
neolithik times in Europe, about 3000 to 1500 B.C. Ib^r^ followed 
the valley of the Danube, and also entered Thrakia. They reached 



260 Ibis 

Sicily long before the Siculoi (see Sikani) ; and Tbucydides says that 
the Western Ibemians expelled the Sikanii '' from the river Sikanos in 
Iberia." [But it has to be proved that the term is racial (see 
Britain). — Ed.] They appear geographically on the lower Volga and 
Don about 200 B.c. 

Ibis. A sacred bird in Egypt (Ibis religioaaX with white plumage 
and black head, neck, and legs. It migrates from lower Egypt as the 
Kile falls, and thus becomes a sign of coming fertilisation by the river. 
It was regarded as a friend, destroying snakes and scorpions, and was 
the bird of Thoth the god of literature and of wisdom, represented 
with the head and long bill of the ibis (see Benouf, Hibbert Lects.^ 
1879). 

Ibn Batuta. A great Moslem traveller (1304-1378 A.c), whose 
journeys lasted 28 years, and extended over 75,000 miles, from Spain 
to China and from Mid-Asia to the E. coast of Africa. He describes 
the Chinese tra£Sc in the Red Sea, which was already ancient in 
his time. 

Ida. A name often interchanging with Ira and Ila, and applying 
to mountains in Phrygia and Krete, which were sacred. Idaios was 
a son of Dardanos and of Khruse, who migrated to Samothrake with 
his father, and established the mysteries of the Phrygian Kubel€. His 
consort Idalia became the godess of Idalion in Cyprus. The Bomans 
obtained the sacred " black stone " of Ida from Attalos, king of 
Pergamos, in 205 B.c. (Livy, XXIX, x, 11) ; and EubSlg herself was 
called Idaia or Idalia, being connected with many mountains. On 
Ida, in Krete, Zeus was nurtured by the nymphs, and guarded by 
Idaian Daktuloi, or Kouretes, in the Diktaian cave (see Ejrgte). In 
the Vedas Ida and Ira are names for the earth godess, the wife 
of Budha or Mercury. She trespassed in a grove sacred to Parvati^ 
and Siva decreed that Ida, or Ila, should be male and female in 
alternate months. As a male Ida had three sons, and as a female 
was the mother of the Purus. In the Rig Veda Ida is connected with 
food, worship, and speech, as a child of Mitra-Varuna. 

Idol. Greek Eidolon, ''image" (see Doll). The representation 
of a deity by a form usually leads to the adoration of the image, aa 
being the abode of a divine spirit. The Hindu speaks of the sun as 
the Murti (" body " or " image ") of the supreme deity, and would 
consider it blasphemous to make an image of the supreme Brabm, 
the '' absolute, ineffable, and eternal," as Hebrews consider it blas- 
phemous to represent Yahveh. The name of Brahm may only be 



les 261 

wluspered, and he is not even to be directly invoked. With closed 
eyes and ears, and with hands upraised to heaven, the worshiper — 
without moving the tongue, and after subduing every worldly thought 
— ^may only say inwardly, " Om. I am Br&hma " ; for the soul truly 
is part of the Supreme (see Wilford, Jowmal Bl. Aiiatic Socy,^ 
xi, 125). In this sense the Hindu is no more an idolater than the 
Christian or the Hebrew. 

les. A name or title of Bakkhos — the '' living one." The three 
letters were afterwards taken as initials for ISsous (Jesus), or for 
"Jesu Hominum Salvator" in Latin. 

Ifa. A god of the Yorubas in W. Africa, the name signifying 
" fire " (see Yorubas). 

Ignatius. An early Christian father supposed to have seen the 
apostles ; but all legends and epistles connected with him are untrust- 
worthy, being of late origin, or at best works that have been garbled 
by late writers. He is mentioned in the Epistle of Polycarp, but two 
references in Origen's works may be interpolations. Eusebius {Chnmi- 
con) makes him bishop of Antioch in 71 A.C., and a martyr in 109 A.C., 
but elsewhere {Hist, Eccles.) says *' as the story goes." Eight of his 
supposed epistles are acknowledged forgeries, seven others appear in 
Syriak, Greek, and Latin, in various discordant recensions ; and the 
earliest allusion to these seven is in Eusebius. Bishop Lightfoot 
expends much learning on the defence of these letters. Dr Killen 
concludes that they are ''forgeries, and the arguments of Polycarp 
and Irenseus thereon weak and inconclusive." The intention of the 
writers, and of the later interpolators, was the maintenance of sacer- 
dotal pretentions. 

Ig^is. Latin : " fire " (see Ag). Ignis was the son of Manus or 
"man," the mythical father of Teutons. The Eabeiroi were called 
Ignetes, and Vulcan was Igni-potens, to Bomans. 

Ijhdaha. Sanskrit Aja-gar, '' goat-eater " : a great python enemy 
of gods and men — a term applied in N. India to various dreaded 
serpents. 

Ikshvaku. The "sugar-cane people," or ruling family of the 
Sakya race in Oudh (see Brahma). The first king was '' son of Manu- 
vaivasta, son of the sun," who sprang from the nostril of Manu. He 
lived in the second Yuga, or world age, and had 100 sons, the eldest 
being Vikukahi, whose son Nimi founded Mithila or Tirhut The Rig 
Veda once mentions the Ikshvaku race as "a people ou the lower 



262 Ikhthus 

Ganges/' which indicates a late age for the written (as distinguished 
from the oral) Yedas. One of the Ikshvaku kings, " Triaruna, son of 
Trivrishnau/' was accused of murdering a Brahman youth, but pleaded 
that the family priest Yrisha accidentally drove over him. Vrisba 
displeased the Ikshvakus by restoring the Brahman to life, since he 
had not so treated those of lower caste. Their fires then lost power, 
till Agni pardoned them. This story is in the Satyayana BrahmaDa, 
supposed to be as old as Buddha's time (6th century B.a), indicating 
objections to caste in that age. The sister of the first Ikshvaku (Ila) 
married a Buddha (or Budha — that is Mercury), the child of Soma 
the moon, and of Tara the star. The Ikshvaku king sided with 
Yisva-mitra in the long war .between priests and warriors (see Suna- 
sepha) as described by Muir (Sanakr. Texts, i, p. 426). 

Ikhthus. Greek : " fish." See Baptism. 

II. Ilu, Babylonian : " God." See El. 

Ila. See Ida. We doubt however if these two are the same. Ua 
was the ancestral snake-god of Kolarians, who are the Ua-putras, or 
Elapathas of the Big Veda, founders of Ela-pur, or Soma-nath, in 
the peninsula of BaJabhi — the sacred centre of Krishna worship 
in Surashta. Ila or Ela is the Siva of Ela-pur, and of Elora (see 
Elora). 

Ilion. The fortress of Troy, supposed to be named from Ilos 
(see Trojans). 

Ilinaka. A god of the Himyarites of S. Arabia, probably " the 
smiter." 

IloS. Son of Tros, and founder of Ilion^ on the hill where a 
speckled heifer which he followed rested, and where a sacred stone 
was dropped from heaven by Zeus. In the Greek version of Phoenician 
mythology Ilos stands for Ilu, the Babylonian god of heaven (see £1). 

IlvaS. Eluvas. A widespread Indian race, including Farias, 
or Paravas, Nulias, Thandas, Shanars, and other d^raded tribes. 
In Travankor there are half a million of Ilvas, incorrectly called 
Ilvars since r is the plural. They are supposed to have come thither 
from Ceylon, bringing with them the cocoa-nut and other palms which 
the Shanars cultivate. They worship the spirits of woods, groves, 
gardens, or single trees, as well as serpents, and a fierce form of the 
godess Kali. They erect stones and pillars, and make niches for holy 
lights which must never be allowed to go out. Karns (or stone heaps) 



Im 263 

over graves are sacred, especially those marking the spot where a 
virgin died, or on the scene of a murder — where a ghost is to be 
feared. Members of the same Ilam, or clan, may not intermany. 
The Uvas use caste-marks, and recognise various Hindu gods. The 
dot and horizontal line of Siva's devotees is marked on their foreheads 
and chests. We have known instanoBB of human sacrifice reported 
among them, and youths circumambulate their shrines gashing them- 
selves with sharp irons, which they run through muscles in the side, 
and afterwards insert piapes of cane into the wound (see Bev. S. Mateer, 
Travancore, p. 98). 

IlXL One of the Akkadian names of the god of storms, called 
Bimmon by Semitic races. 

Immortality. Primitive peoples do not appear to have had 
any conception of what we now call ''Immortality," namely the 
eternal life of an individual spirit. Their gods even, like them- 
selves, were born, lived and died, though later poets called them 
immortaL Byron, pondering on ruined nations, says: — 

" Even gods must yield : religioos take their turn : 
Twas Jove's : 'tis Mahomet's, and other creeds 
Will rise with other years, till man shall learn 
Vainly his incense soars, his victim bleeds, 
Poor child of doubt and death, whose hope is built on reeds." 

The belief in a soul, spirit, or self, surviving the body is involved in 
this doctrine of immortality. Miss Naden, in her " Song of Immor- 
tality," expresses the more modem idea : — 

*' Though thou shalt die, these the immortal forces 
That meet to form thee, live for ever more. 
They hold the suns in their eternal courses 
And shape the long sand-grasses on the shore. 
Be calmly glad, thine own true kindred seeing 
In fire and storm, in flowers with dew empearled. 
Bejoice in thine imperishable being. 
One with the essence of the boundless world." 

To the ancients the soul after death dwelt forever in the world 
of ghosts (see Hel). They did not look forward with any pleasure 
to such a future. Akbilleus, in the Odyssey, would rather be a slave 
on earth than a king in Hades. The Hebrew philosopher (Eccles. 
iz, 4, 5) says : '' It is better to be a living dog than a dead lion, for 
the living know that they shall die ; but the dead know not anything^ 
neither have they any more a reward, for the memory of them is 
forgotten " [or : their " memorial is forgotten " — Ed.]. This is the 



264 Immortality 

Hebrew creed from the first, and down to the latest books of the Old 
Testament '* Dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return " (Gen. 
iii, 19): " All go unto one place, all are of dust and all turn to dost 
again" (Eccles. iii, 20). "While I live," says the Psalmist, "I wiU 
praise Yahveb " (Psalm cxlvi, 2), for there is no remembrance of him 
after death. The Jew of to-day (see Jewish World, 8th May 1885) 
recognises this : "Judaism knows no belief in reference to the state of 
the soul hereafter. It has no dogmas in respect to any life after the 
body is committed to the grave. ... Its sages have but speculated 
and pondered, like the votaries of all creeds, on the conditions of 
Divine judgment ; and Rabbinical views have never been other than 
speculations. . . . The question has been considered a morbid one, 
and of no practical importance. . . . The eupeptic man is likely, 
hereafter, to deride as ludicrous such speculative discussions as ' Is 
salvation possible after death ' ? These can tend to no earthly good ; 
are wholly and solely visionary and incapable of the least proof; and 
often lead to mischievous results such as spiritualism in all its vagaries, 
which, with like religious teachings, have unhinged the mind of scores 
of unfortunate peopla" These remarks are in the same tone that 
characterised the teaching of Buddha 2400 years ago. The Pharisees 
however became acquainted with Persian ideas, according to which 
the pious followers of a reincarnate prophet, having in them " the fire 
of life," were to be in future reborn on earth, as his companions in a 
millenium. The Sadducees, representing the better educated upper 
class, never accepted this belief, and remained content with the teach- 
ing of their ancient scriptures in the matter. 

The Hebrew who saw no certainty that the soul of man differed 
from that of a beast (Eccles. iii, 21) would have agreed with Bishop 
Butler that immortality must be supposed to apply to all living things, 
if logically possibla Francis Newman declares that "the argument 
breaks with its own weight when thus carried to completeness, and 
gives very imperfect relief to the terrible strain on our faith caused 
by the many miseries of life." But the strain is here due to the 
assumptions of this good Theist. Even the Pharisee, though he held 
(according to the Mishnah) that "all Israel" had a portion in the 
" life to come," never included any of the Gentiles : for they were 
^like the beasts that perish." 

Speculation on Immortality always gives way before imminent 
crises of human life, and has thus had but small influence on the 
actions of either savage or civilised man ; the latter — especially if 
educated in science — puts aside the question, as dependent on the 
unanswered problem of the souL The savage equally expresses 



Immortality 266 

ignorance, as Sir C. Lyall makes the Indian woodman say to the 
missionary : — 

" Thou aayest, I have a soul that never will die. 
If He was content when I was not, why net when I pass by ?" 

"Past and future alike/' says Tylor (Prtm. CuU.), "fade into 
utter vagueness as the savage mind quits the pursuit The measure 
of months and years breaks down even within the narrow span of 
human life, and the hazy survivors thought that the soul of the 
departed dwindled and disappeared with the personal memory that 
kept it alive. . . • Even among those who accept the doctrine of 
a surviving soul this acceptance is not unanimous. ... In savage 
as in civilised life, dull and careless natures ignore a world to come 
as too far off, whilst sceptical intellects are apt to reject it as want- 
ing in proof." 

But though we may not build up creeds on dreams and 
assumptions, we may still hope. We may rejoice while we confess 
with Hezekiah (Isaiah xxxviii, 18); "The grave cannot praise Thee, 
death cannot celebrate Thee, they that go down into the pit cannot 
hope for Thy truth." Hezekiah lived some 700 years B.C., and the 
writer of this passage held the ordinary Hebrew belief expressed by 
the ''Preacher" (Eccles. ix, 10): "For there is no work, nor device, 
nor knowledge, nor wisdom, in Sheol whither thou goest" Isaiah 
makes even the gods — other than Yahveh — to perish (Isaiah zxvi, 
13, 14); and Job says: "The cloud is consumed and vanisheth 
away ; so he that goeth down to Sheol shall come up no more " 
(Job vii, 9). The Hebrew scriptures make no allusion to general 
immortality, and the Jews expected rewards and punishments to be 
bestowed by God on men, in this life, according to conduct. We 
find the doctrine of a future life only in the later work of the 2nd 
century B,c., ascribed to Daniel (Dan. xii, 2) : " Mauy of them that 
sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, 
and some to shame, and everlasting contempt." Yet Isaiah (xxvi, 19) 
wrote to his nation : " Thy dead shall live : the corpses shall arise. 
Awake and sing dwellers in dust Thy dew is as dew on herbs, and 
earth shall cast out the ghosts " (Rephalm). We cannot, however, 
quote the Psalmist (xvi, 10), as believing in immortality when he 
says : " Thou wilt not leave my soul for Sheol, nor suffer thine holy 
ones to see destruction " : for he is only speaking of continued pro- 
tection in life, and of '*long enduring pleasures" on earth. The 
slow growth of such ideas had, by the time of Christ, developed 
helief in a Hell of torment. They were bom of Hope and Fear ; 



266 Immortality 

but Paul rejoiced in belief that " Light and Immortality " had been 
brought to men by Christ : for he rested in faith on the resurrectioii 
of Jesus (either in his actual or in some spiritual body), con6rming 
the Pharisaic dogma. 

Our own great genius of the Avon (Tempest, iv, 1), does not 
delude us when he says : — 

^ The cloud capp'd towers, the gorgeous pfti^^^^ 
The solemn temples, the great globe itself, 
Tea, all which it inherit, shall dissolve. 
And, like this insubstantial pageant faded, 
Leave not a rack behind. We are such stuff - 
As dreams are made on ; and our little life 
Is rounded with a sleep." 

Or again he sums up his thoughts as Hamlet (iii, 1). 

** To die — to sleep 
No more — and by a sleep to mj wt end 
The heart-ac^M^and the thousand natural shocks 
^lat flesh is heir to— 'tis a consummation 
Devoutly to be wished. To die — to sleep. 
To sleep ! perchance to dream : — ay, there's the rub : 
For in that sleep of death what dreams may come, 
When we have shuffled off this mortal coil, 
Must give us pause. There's the respect 
That makes calamity of so long life ; 
.... the dread of something after death — 
The undiscovered country, from whose bourn 
No traveller returns — puzzles the will." 

Col. IngersoU (born 11th August 1833, and dying 2l8t July 
1899), said at the grave of his beloved brother in 1886: ''life is 
a narrow vale between the cold and barren peaks of the two eternities. 
We strive in vain to look beyond the heights. We cry aloud and 
the only answer is the echo of our wailing cry. From the voiceless 
lips of the unreplying dead there comes no word. But in the nigbt 
of death Hope sees a star, and listening love can hear the rustle of 
a wing. • . . We have no fear of death. . . . Our religion is Help 
for the living, and Hope for the dead." Again he writes : " All hope 
to meet again the loved and lost. In every heart there grows this 
sacred flower. Immortality is a word that Hope, through all tbe 
ages, has been whispering to Love. Like a sea it has ebbed and 
flowed in the human heart, with its countless waves of hope and 
fear, beating against the shores and rocks of time and fate. It was 
not bom of any book, nor of any creed, nor of any religion, but was 



Immortality 267 

born of human affection, and it will continue to ebb and flow, beneath 
the mists and clouds of doubt and darkness, as long as love kisses 
the lips of death. . . . We do not know, nor cannot say, whether 
death is a wall or a door ; the beginning or the end of a day ; the 
spreading of pinions to soar, or the folding for ever of wings : the rise 
or the set of a sun, or an endless life that brings the rapture of love 
to every one. . . . Our myths were bom of hopes and fears, of 
tears and smiles, touched and colored by all there is of joy and grief 
between the rosy dawn of birth, and death's sad night They clothed 
even the stars with passion, and gave to gods the virtues, faults, and 
frailties of the sons of men . . . few there are who do not long 
for a dawn beyond the night And this longing is born of, and 
nourished by the heart. Love wrapped in shadow, bending with tear- 
filled eyes above the dead, convulsively clasps the outstretched hand 
of Hope." 

Seven weeks before his own death, in his poem called ''The 
Declaration of the Free," the same writer in the last stanza says : — 

^' Is there beyond the silent night 
An rndlfini day ? 

Is death a door that leads to light ? 
We cannot aay. 

The tongueless secret locked in fate 
We do not know. We hope and wait." 

Such are the humble thoughts of Agnostiks, which are now moulding 
those of this cultured and religious age. No apology is needed for 
presenting them to thoughtful readers. 

The Egyptian, perhaps, was the first to crystallise as dogma the 
vague beliefs of his age (see Egypt), and to conceive of a heaven where 
the good dwelt with Gk>d (see Heaven). Savage races, as well as 
civilised ones, have however been found to believe at times in 
immortality ; and the cold philosophic metaphysician as well as the 
perfervid Theist It was the interest of savage " medicine men " to 
point to portals before which they stood as well-paid sentinels. But, 
in all ages, thoughtful men have stood apart from the multitude, as 
they still do, in silence, because unable to affirm, and unwilling to 
deny, an idea that brings comfort to their fellows ; yet doubting how 
the individual soul or life can exist apart from the individual brain 
and body. They found no parallel in the case of the insect emerging 
from its chrysalis : no argument in the indestructibility of matter ; but 
recognised that the general longing for immortality has given birth to 
our various beliefs thereon. Granted that there is " an energy behind 
the phenomena," man has neither the power nor the knowledge to say 



268 Immortality 

one word more ; no inspiration can teach us what we cannot under- 
stand; and the wise think of a soul as only a complex group of 
activities and memories, a product of matter and of sensations imparted 
by outside forces — ^not (like Kant) as an unity with an objective and 
independent existence. The higher and more complex the organism, 
the more probable appears to be its resolution into its elements. 
Indestructibility of matter, or of energy, does not imply indestructi- 
bility of individuality. But belief in such a " self " or " ego " is the 
basis of belief in its immortality, without which. Theism falls back on 
the Sadducean doctrine of reward and punishment on earth. 

The teaching of Grotama Buddha, and of the Eleatiks, 24O0 
years ago (see Skeptiks and Sophists) was purely Agnostik. Grotama 
shunned discussion, but apparently had no belief in a soul independent 
of the body. He regarded animals and vegetables alike, as mere 
bubbles in a stream, floating for a short time, and again absorbed or 
dried up by the sun. Such ideas have contented millions of mankind 
for thousands of years, when they do not strive against the inevitable; 
and we cannot, therefore, think of belief in immortality as a necessary 
feature of religion or of ethiks. The Buddhist urges us to be practical, 
and not to waste our time in vain striving after the unattainable, or 
discussion of what can never be more than a hope. Buddhist priests, 
in reply to the author's anxious arguments on the subject, answered 
calmly — yet with amazement : " Why do you Christians agitate 
yourselves so much about the hidden future, if, indeed, such future 
there be ? Go forth to your duties, assured that while acting up to 
the light that your minds can perceive, and while leading the best life 
that you can, your goodness (karma or deeds) will be diffused in the 
world, to renovate it, and perchance to secure some happy future for 
alL" Beuan, in 1883, in the fulness of intellectual vigour, wrote: 
" The infinite goodness I have experienced in this world inspires me 
with the conviction that eternity is pervaded with a goodness not less 
infinite." Like the Agnostik, however, he was content to wait, and 
more or less to trust, careful only of the higher life on earth. Some 
are willing to say with Cicero — in opposition to the spiritual teaching 
of Plato — that : " If my soul existed previously — as to which I know 
and care nothing — why should I care about its supposed life hereafter, 
when my individualism is also gone ? " Cato, Seneca, EpictStus, 
Servius Sulpicius, Marcus Aurelius, all, like the Hebrews, spoke of 
death as the final end, and offered to the bereaved no comfort save 
the idea of " eternal rest" They had no belief in either the Tartarus, 
or the Elysian fields, of popular religion, any more than the educated 
of our own day who cast aside the heaven and hell of the Bible. 



Immortality 269 

Euripides denounced the desire of immortality as a '< foolish aspira- 
lion." Prof. F. Newman says that " it is the fruitful and fatal per- 
verter of the sense of duty, by which alone theology becomes beneficiar' 
(Thecl, Rev., Jany. 1879). He adds that " the result of all my studies 
devoted to these subjects, during a long life, convinces me that 
immortality has been to the Christian Churches, either a noxious 
doctrine or a dead faith," In 1886 (Palinodia — Life after Death) 
he writes : " I always regarded as trash Plato's arguments for 
immortality, as, I make no doubt, Cicero did. Therefore, as soon as I 
ceased to trust the Scriptures of the New Testament as a divine 
revelation, my acceptance of a future life as a dogma at once fell 
away. But knowing so many holy souls had devoutly believed it, and 
that ostensibly it had ennobled their devoted lives, I held it with a 
loose hand, feeling assured that if the Supreme Lord judged it better 
for them, or for me, he would bestow a second life without our asking; 
but if, on the contrary, for good reasons of his own, he did not grant 
it, then I was sure that that was best for us. . . . For me to be 
anxious as to my state after death I felt was wrong if I believed 
myself a child of God. In this spirit I write the closing chapter of 
my book on The Sotd, and on that simple basis I continue to rest. It 
entirely satisfies me." 

Only the Lord of Lords "hath immortality" according to one 
Christian writer (1 Tim. vi, 16); and general immortality seems not 
to have been expected by Paul, being only with difficulty " attained " 
(Philip, iii, 11). Christ and Paul alike (Luke xx, 36; 1 Cor. xv, 
40-54) taught that the future life would be one in ** spiritual bodies *' ; 
and in the early ages of the Church men freely discussed the possi- 
bility of three futures for men, namely. Annihilation, Restoration, and 
Retribution. The first of these was termed, in our 3rd century, 
" Conditional Immortality " — to be " attained," as Paul had said : 
good and believing men would live again through God's grace and 
Christ's death. The second condition was that of those who had 
fallen, yet could be restored to righteousness by Christ, and who — 
after purgation — might attain to eternal bliss. The third condition 
was that of the impenitent wicked, condemned to an eternal hell. 
Athanasius said that mortal man differed only from the brutes by 
being in the image of God, and only attained to immortality by the 
grace (or kindness) of Gk>d, having lost his original immortality by sin. 
The Church never regarded immortality as an inherent property of 
the soul. Mr W. E. Gladstone (see ReminiaceTicea by Mr W. E. 
Russell) shortly before his death " stated his belief that the human 
soul is not necessarily indestructible, but that immortality is the gift 



270 Immortality 

of God in Christ to the believer " : which belief gives little hope for 
the majority of mankind who have never heard of Christ at all. 
Goethe was wiser when he said that Immortality is only a subject for 
the well-to-do, and for *' women who have nothing to do, to chat 
about." 

Seneca, the wise tutor of Nero, said, " Death puts an end to our 
misery. Beyond that our misfortunes go not That places us in the 
same tranquillity as before birth. If anyone would grieve for those 
who are dead he ought to do so for the unborn." Athanasius and 
others asserted — ^like Brahmans and Buddhists — that eventually man 
" loses his life in God " ; but Paul said that we are even now in God, 
through whom we live. The idea of a resurrection of the dead body 
is discarded by all cultivated men educated in modem science, though 
it is still daily asserted in creeds, with other things in which men have 
no real belief. Man still however clings to the idea of the immortality 
of a self, or Ego, ever at war with the body during life. Yet — ^accord- 
ing to the famous Finsbury lecture of Sir G. Stokes, President of the 
Eloyal Society, delivered in 1890 — this "has always been rather a 
philosophic than a Christian doctrine." The orthodox President sees 
indications in Scripture of "an energy which may lie deeper down 
than even the manifestations of life and thought," and confines himself 
to "the immortality of this energy " ; which seems to prove only the 
" Conservation of Force " which no man of science disputes. Such 
energy, whether latent or otherwise, is however common to man and 
to the " beasts that perish " — nay matter, even inorganic, is also full 
of such energy. "Life and thought," says Sir G. Stokes, "are the 
results of interaction between the fundamental individualised eneigy 
and the organism " : which would apply equally to all organisms — to 
a tree or a moUusk : for the words mean no more than that the living 
thing is alive. He argues that as this energy remains even when the 
body faints or sleeps, so it may remain when the body is dissolved. 
The old familiar name soul, or spirit, might just as well be used as 
the term " individualised energy," but there seems to be a clear dis- 
tinction between the interruption of action on the motor nerves during 
sleep or faint, and the persistence of an individual mind when the 
body has ceased to exist, and the stored memories of the brain-cells 
no longer can be set again in action. The President, and the learned 
bishops who supported him, clearly argued under a heavy burden of 
traditional assumptions. They remembered Paul's words (1 Cor. xv, 
12), " Now if Christ be preached that he rose from the dead, how say 
some among you that there is no resurrection of the dead ? " Paul's 
answer is unmistakable, though he had never apparently verified the 



Immortality 271 

assertion on which he staked his faith. ''If Christ be not raised 
your faith is vain . . . if in this life only we have hope in Christ we are 
of all men most miserable." The President and the bishops, abandon- 
ing belief in a resurrection of the body» and silent as to an immortal 
soaly yet suppose the immortality of "something . . , with a con- 
tinuity of consciousness." This assumes the very point in dispute ; 
but as to the body Paul himself proclaims a " mystery. We shall not 
all sleep, but we shall all be changed • . . this mortal must put on 
immortality" (1 Cor. xv, 51). There is no uncertainty in his mind, 
but it seems clear that he never expected the heathen to rise, either 
to immortal bliss or for eternal damnation, 

Plato thought that every living being had an eternal spirit, in 
which case the oyster becomes co-eternal with God. Yet if the soul 
had formerly inhabited some other body this detracts — as Prof. F. 
Newman remarked — ^from the moral importance of immortality, and 
suggests that the soul might have no more remembrance of its human 
life than of those preceding — as Cicero seems to have also thought. 
Plato said the soul must be immortal because sin did not destroy it ; 
but Cicero thought that Plato did not always clearly know what he 
meant himself (see Akademy). Jewish philosophers taught (see !^ab- 
bala) that the soul was divisible into male and female elements, which 
sought each other during earthly life. Most transmigration theories 
guard against the objection that the soul loses individuality, by asserting 
that it is always conscious of the memories of its former lives. This 
is clear in the Indian Jataka tales, and in mediaeval or other legends 
of dogs, hares, and doves who reminded their persecutors of kindnesses 
shown to them in former lives by their present victims. The writer of the 
fourth Gospel seems to have held the belief, then common, in previous 
existences (ix, 2), which Sokrat^ shared with other Greeks. If this 
theory were true we must suppose ourselves surrounded by multitudes 
of spirits, incarnate not only in man, but in " all existing species of all 
creatures that have ever lived." We must account for the " individual- 
ised energy" of the fossils in Laurentian rocks, and in the ocean sludge, 
buried millions of years ago in the crust of earth. The soul of every 
nautilus that spread its sails on Silurian seas must, somewhere, continue 
its immortal existence in some other body (see Soul). Physical science 
sees no breach of continuity between man and beast ; and analogy 
suggests that (as Koheleth thought) there is no difference between 
them in death. " Analogy," says Prof. Newman, " must prevail till 
very solidly disproved. . . . The physical reasoner insists that a dis- 
embodied spirit is a chimsera — a form of existence of which we have 
no specimen, and no proof : therefore we cannot, with any sound logic. 



272 Immortality 

introduce it into a hypothesis for the satisfaction of our moral aspira^ 
tions." Even if we supposed a divine spirit which "animates sdl 
matter " to exist apart from matter, he (or it) would not be a specimen 
of disembodied soul — being unique— and a "divine energy" without 
matter in which to act is equally inconceivable. Universal belief in 
souls is no logical argument in favour of their existence, for we know 
that the masses are usually wrong in their conceptions, their minds 
being swayed by hopes, fears, and ancient custom. Physical laws — 
such as that of gravitation — are known to be true, though most men 
never understand them. We have shown also (Rivers of Life, ii, 
p. 591) that some 56 per cent of the whole population of the world 
may be regarded as Agnostik concerning any future life. 

It is again argued that belief in immortality produces a good life, 
through expectation of future reward or punishment, and affords con- 
solation under sorrow. This indeed is the foundation of the whole 
fabric ; yet mankind tacitly acknowledge, in the actual presence of 
death, how little as a rule they are influenced by any expectation of 
immortality. We do our best to live, and we bewail the dead wbo 
have left us. We fear, in fact, the unknown future. Between the 
finite and the infinite there could be no real communion, for " absorp- 
tion in deity " can only mean individual annihilation, and also implies 
that we are, as individuals, not such as ''live and move and have our 
being " in the Infinite Power. [Even when the Buddhist speaks of 
the ** drop absorbed in the ocean," he seems to have no clear concep- 
tion : since the matter of which the drop consists is indestructible, 
though it may be redistributed, and is as much in the ocean now as 
in future. — Ed.] 

The ancient Egyptians variously believed in souls that might 
return to the mummy, or migrate into other forms, or dwell with (or 
in) Osiria But none of those beliefs, any more than those of Eleatik, 
Epicurean, or Stoik philosophers, or of the Sadducee?, or of Hebrew 
psalmists and philosophers, in any way countenance the idea of a dis- 
embodied immortal spirit. Those who choose to rely on the vast 
systems of ancient and modern theologies, or on their *' feelings,'' and 
imaginations, will find ample support in the fancies of every a^- 
Emerson says : " there is a hint of immortality in that happy state of 
mind which loves life, and exclaims, ' What is good let it endure/ 
and in our insatiable desire to learn and know ... we feel in a 
manner wronged if there is to be nothing more." Goethe exclaims : 
" Nature is bound to give me another term." But who is she — the 
awful destroyer of life organic and non-organic — ^that we should trust 
her ? How is this new life to begin, and are we to conceive it, as 



Immortality 273 

Emerson asks, as " a fUte champdtre, or an evangelical pic-nic whose 
prizes will be delivered to virtuous peasants?" [Yet if Seneca is 
right we have no cause to fear : the woes of 50 or 70 years are hardly 
worth lamenting ; and punishment is not vengeance, but only the rod 
that guides us for a few short years on earth. — Ed.] Harriet Martineau 
looked forward to annihilation, and longed to sleep ; but her opinions 
were influenced by long years of sickness. The hard facts of the death- 
bed do not countenance the tales of joyful anticipation on the part of 
the dying ; as a rule they are fond illusions of the mourner, and their 
minds are generally occupied by their immediate physical wants. 
When the strong sane judgment of mature healthy life is ebbing away, 
we must not think that any weak death-bed words of repentance, or of 
recantation, can efface the good or the evil done in the past, or the 
consequences that follow therefrom. According as we have lived we 
have left our mark, for good or for evil. The law is stern but right. 
There is no recall : no Elisha whose bones can bring back the dead 
to life (2 Kings xiii, 21): no Jesus to bid us "come forth" like 
Lazarus : none to roll away the stone from our tomb : all these things 
are l^ends, like those of Greek heroes, or like Plato's Er son of 
Arraenius, belonging to ages of credulity and ignorance. Equally must 
we question the mystic who dreams of being " absorbed into deity " — 
the " great unknown from whom we came " : for that, were it true, 
means not new life, but — to the individual — eternal death, with the 
loss of every fond or sad memory of the past. Pessimistic Buddhists 
have indeed regarded this as the highest future bliss. The cry of the 
weary in Europe is much the same : ** If from Thee we came, then to 
Thee let us return " ; but this absorption, whether into a personal Qod 
or into Infinity — ^into a timeless, spaceless, unconditioned state, with- 
out memories, fears, or hopes — presents little comfort to most men. 
This only we know : that no theories of ours will affect the inevitable ; 
and that fear of the future has no foundation in the realities of exist- 
ence — ^it is only the instinct of self-preservation, which we see to be 
necessary in nature. Let us then face the inevitable as best we may, 
with hope and trust. Let us not shrink from enquiry, or fear research 
into those horrors which the minds of priests, in all ages, have conjured 
up. Tnith may be bitter and hard to digest, but it is always better 
than delusion : better than the fictions and fancies of ignorant monks 
and anchorites, or the threats of priests scheming to gain power over 
the timid through their tenderest affections. All truth is safe and 
sacred ; and he who keeps truth back from men, through motives of 
expediency, is either a coward or a criminal. 



8 



2 



274 In 

^^ Why soothe one with vain words when after coming light 
May prove them to be false. Truth is forever right." 

Wise men must do the thinking of the world. They must never 
-even if they do not tell the whole truth — utter an untrue word. 



Truth is usually the contrary of that which is generally believed. 
The wise man does not hasten to decide, but must be content with 
his horizon. He must doubt and ponder, even though told. 

" Faith never murmurs * Why ' ? 
For to think is to be tempted : to reason is to die." 

In. En. Hen. Words in various languages signifying " one," 
" individual," ** he," from the old root An " to exist" In Akkadian 
N and M are demonstrative pronouns (see An). 

Incubi. Latin : " liers over." See Deuce, and Spirits. The 
idea of Incubi (male) and Succubse (female) is part of the general 
belief in spirits that seek intercourse — like the Hebrew Beni-Elobim 
— with human beings, and is connected with the dread of "night- 
mares" and evil dreams. The fairy wives and husbands of Eeltik 
folk-lore belong to the same order of ideaa 

India. Hind. Sind. The populations and religions of India 
are the subjects of special articles (see Hindus), and we here deal 
generally with the earlier ethnological and religious questions, concern- 
ing Hindustan or the "Land of Hindus." The earliest name of 
upper and central India was Kolaria or the land of the Kols, and the 
term India properly refers to regions near the Indus river. The Kols 
have generally been supposed to have preceded the Dravid ra^es, 
entering India from the N.K, and not like Dravids from the N.W.; 
but this view presents difficulties in regard to the ancient Kolarian 
kingdom of Kosala (see Kols). Little trust can be placed in the 
claims to Aryan blood and belief by the non-Aryans of the present 
time, though they have mingled with Aryan stocks. It is evident, 
from the 1 0th chapter of the Manu-Shastra, supposed to have been 
written about the time of our era, that Aryans and non-Aryans were 
then already coalescing, and but for the tightening of caste rules, which 
the laws of Manu prescribe, the two races — Aryan and Turanian — 
might now be hardly distinguishable. Thus, for instance, the Kughis, 
Raj-Bhansis, and Bhanga-Eshatriyas of Bangal, in spite of Aryan 
titles, preserve the rites and customs of an ancient Turanian peopla 

The questiim of race is best illustrated by the anthropometric 
researches undertaken by the Government of India (see Mr H. fl. 
Kisley, K.C.S.I., Jov/mal Anthrop, Instit,, Feby. 1891). The anthro- 



India 



275 



pological survey began with the census of 1881, and leads Mr Risley, 
after ten years of study, to regard the measurement of the nose as the 
best racial indication, such measurements having been taken through- 
out the three governments of Bangal, the N.W. Provinces, and the 
Panjab, all in N. India. The Paujab Aryans (Brahmans, E^yasts, 
and Bajputs) are the most leptchrhine or '^ thin nosed " ; and *' the 
social position of a caste varies inversely as its nasal index " — that is to 
say that those with the most delicate noses are of the purest Aryan 
stock, and of the highest social position — just as among Arabs, the 
purest blood, and the aquiline nose, belong to the families of ruling 
chiefs. The proportion of width — outside the nostrils at the base of 
tlie nose — to height measured at the bridge, is expressed by a per- 
centage ; and the population studied is divided into four classes, as 
follows : — 



(1) Ultra-Leptorhine 
Hyper- 

(2) Leptorhiue 
Mesorhine 



(3) Platorhine 



(4) Hyper-Platorhine 
Ultra- 



40 or less 
40 to 55 

55 to 70 
70 to 85 

85 to 100 



100 to 115 
115 and over 



{High caste Brahmans, Rajputs, 
and Kayasts, Aryans. 
Qugars, Lepchas, Pathans, Sikhs, 
Beluchis, Kayasts, Bangal 
Brahmans, Sikhim, and Tibet 
tribes. 
/Hill Malis, Santals, Munds, Eols, 
( Kharwars. 

Mughs, Lepchas, Bhutanis, Na- 
wars, Munds, Oraons, Bhumis, 
Kakis, Kharwars, Bhuiyas, 
Khatris, Malis, Santals, Belu- 
chis, Pathans, and some Sikhs. 

This classification indicates the various fusions of Aryan, Turanian, 
and original Negrito stocks. The nasal measurement being taken into 
consideration with the usual measurements of the head, and with the 
color of the complexion, Mr Risley remarked (1) that the Leptorhine 
peoples (40 to 70 nasal percentage) are tall, fair, and long-headed 
men, with a high facial angle, and are found especially in the Panjab, 
where the exogamous groups (that is those marrying out of the tribe) 
bear still the names of Yedik heroes ; (2) the Mesorhine people (70 
to 90 nasal index) are of the middle height, broad-headed, sturdy, and 
of yellowish complexion, with a low facial angle ; they are Mongoloid 
tribes of the N. and E. frontiers of Bangal, who have never advanced 
far into the interior; (3) the Platorhine class (85 to 100 nasal index) 
are thickset, and of low stature, long-headed, very dark, and with a 
low facial angle, representing the Kolarian type of Bangal and Central 



276 India 

India ; (4) the remamder with the broadest noses, and usually darkest 
complexions, are mingled with Aborigines (see Dravids). The 3rd 
class are usually called Dravids, but Mr Risley says that the difference 
between Dravids and Kolarians is one of language, and that the two 
stocks are really of one origin — ^a view which explains difficulties as 
to the occurrence of Kolarian names in the Fanjab (see Malis). The 
two langui^es themselves are both Turanian, being classed as formiog 
the " Himalaic " division of Turanian speech. The succession of races 
begins with — (1) Aborigines, such as Yeddahs, etc.; (2) Kolarians; 
(3) Dravidians ; (4) Vedik Aryans ; (5) Persians ; (6) Greeks ; (7) 
Huns, Tartars, and Sakas ; (8) Arabs and Turks ; (9) Mongols ; all 
entering India from the north between 2000 B.C. and 1400 A.C.— 
with exception of the Aborigines, and perhaps of the Kolarians, who 
came yet earlier. 

[The actual history of India — ^if we except the legendary wars 
of Kurus and Pandus — is not traceable earlier than the age of Peisian 
empire. No cuneiform or other hieroglyphic character seems to have 
been ever used in India, and the oldest script was derived from the 
Aramean alphabet of the Persian age. The art and architecture of 
India are also acknowledged to owe much to Persian and Qreek 
influences ; and claims to very early civilisation are as unproven in 
India as they are in China. The leading dates of Indian chronology 
may be here tabulated, as serving to explain more clearly the general 
deductions of the author from racial, linguistic, and religious data. 
—Ed.] 

Qotama Buddha .... 

Persian Satrapy, N.W. India 

Alexander crosses the Indus 

Maurya dynasty of Magadha 

Megasthenes is sent by Seleucus to form alliance with 
Chandra-gupta of the Maurya family . 

Asdka, of this dynasty, emperor of India. Buddhism 
of the " lesser vehicle " type prevails . 

Invasion by Yue-chi Tartars 

Kushan dynasty 

Su Tartars conquer Baktria, and invade the Panjab . 126 6.C. 

Samvat era. Vikram-aditya of UJjain defeats Scy- 
thians . . . . . 56 tf 

Kanishka, emperor. Buddhism of the '' greater 

vehicle " type prevails, about . 10-78 A.c 

Invasion by Jats, or Getae . . . .75 



623- 


543 B.C. 


520- 


327 ,. 


, 327 


n 


. 316- 


292 ,. 


i 

. 306- 


298 „ 


. 263- 


225 „ 


. 165 


)> 


165 RC. 


-226 A.C. 



Dynasty of Sayid emperors 

Baber, descended from Timur, emperor 

Akbar, grandson of Baber, emperor 

Jebanjir, emperor 

Shah Jaban, emperor 

Aurangzeb, emperor 

Decay of the Mughal dynasty, Shah-'Alam I, 

Nadir-Shah the Persian, emperor . 

Battle of Panipat, fall of Delhi to British 



. 1398-1450 
. 1625-1630 
. 1566-1605 
. 1605-1627 
. 1627-1658 
. 1658-1707 
emperor 1707-1738 
. 1739 
. 1761 






India 277 

Saka era ..... 78 A.c. 

Oupta era ..... 320 

Gaptas overthrown by White Huns . 466- 500 

Yalabbi dynasty in Kutch, N.W. of Bombay. Cha- 

lakyas powerful in Qujerat, about . . 480 

Sakas and Huns expelled from N. India . .644 

Valabhis overthrown by Arab Moslem invaders . 664 

Mubammad ]E^iin» under the Khalif Walid I, 

conquers Scinde . . .711 

Expulsion of the Moslems . .760 

Mubammad of Ohazni accedes . . .998 

Seventeen campaigns follow, till the victory in the 
Peshawar VaUey, leaving the Panjab Moslem 
till now ..... 1001 
Death of Muhammad of Ghazni . . .1030 

Gbor Afghans rule Ohazni . . .1152 

Two Rajput States at Eanoj and Delhi established. 

Muhammad Ghori invades N. India . . 1172-1206 

^atub-ed-Din, a slave of Muhammad Ghori, estab- 
lishes the '' slave dynasty" of Delhi . . 1206-1288 
Slave dynasty conquered by 'Ala-ed-Din Khilji, in 
Delhi, who expels the BajputB, and plunders 
Mahrattas, and Central India, the Dekkan and 
Gujerat ..... 1294-1316 
Tughlak establishes a Turkish dynasty in the Panjab 1321-1398 
Timur, a Turkish Moslem ruling Mongols of Central 

Asia, takes Delhi .1398 



If 

»> 
>» 

n 



» 



f> 
»» 



It is at present impossible to say when Aryan nomads first began 
to drop into India ; but, on the assumption that Vedik hymns are purely 
Aryan, and are as old as usually stated, we may suppose the singers 
to have appeared near Taksila about 1600 B.C., and that Aryans 
gradually increased in numbers in the extreme N.W. of India during 



278 

the next thousand years. Their religion was akin to that of the 
Persian Mazdeans of Iran, though distinct. They were fire worshipers 
who gradually adopted, in India, the older tree, stone, and serpent rites 
of Turanian Naga trihes, whom they found established in India. But 
if they gradually became de-Aryanised they also, to some extent, 
Aryanised the older populations. The Aryan element was also rein- 
forced in the 6 th century B.C. under the rule of Darius I of Persia, 
and again when the Y&vana (Ionian) hosts of Alexander the Great 
crossed the Indus, and the Greek empire of Seleucus (312 to 286 RC.) 
was established in Baktria, on the N. borders of the Panjab. They 
then became rulers of the Ganges Valley, and the first Sakya, or 
Maurya ("peacock") dynasty — ^represented by Chandra-gupta, who 
successfully maintained his independence — ^bore Aryan names, though 
probably not of pure Aryan blood. To this Sakya or Scythic race 
(probably of mixed Aryan and Turanian stock, the two races having 
then long lived together in Baktria) Gotama Buddha, the Sakya Huni, 
is said to have belonged. It is a recognised fact that, in our own 
times, the European Aryan cannot long maintain his family in India; 
and Dr Isaac Taylor (Origin of Arycma) says that " the Dravidian 
types have now almost swallowed up the Aryans throughout India." 

The Sakyas, Skuthi, Huns, and Tartars, had indeed probably 
been invading and colonising India from Central Asia long before 
Yedik Aryans arrived, or at least before the appearance of PersianSi 
Jats, and others, on the Indus in the . 6th century B.C. These 
Turanians possessed a rude civilisation derived originally from the 
Akkadians of Babylonia. They continued to pour in, between the 5th 
and 15th centuries A.C. as Huns, Turks, and Mongols. The ''slave 
dynasty " of Delhi (1206-1288 A,c.) was of Turkish origin, and the 
great Mughal emperors (1398-1738) were Turko-Mongols. They 
were however nearly annihilated by the valour of Aryan Mah-rattas, 
at the close of the reign of Aurangzeb. In spite of all these inroads 
of Turanians, Aryans, and Arabs, little efiect has been produced on 
the great non-Aryan masses of Indian population ; and neither Islam 
nor Christianity has prevailed over the mixed system of native religion 
described under " Hindus." This native system has indeed developed 
and advanced wonderfully, under the tolerant and sympathetic rule of 
the British race. 

The Turanians, we must remember, from the dawn of history 
were rulers of Western and Central Asia ; and to our own days they 
rule all over Eastern Asia, dominate Semitic and Aryan races throagh- 
out the Turkish empire, and are now showing their superiority rf 
civilisation in the victories of purely Turanian Japanese over Bassiao 



India 279 

Aryans. From monarch to village chief, high and low in India still 
boast of their Turanian blood, in spite of Brahmans and other Aryans 
proud of Iranian descent. The Aryans are few, and their great 
influence in the north is, in a measure, due to our own racial connec- 
tion with the Vedik races. In ancient days these gradually encroached, 
till the old Turanian Naga-pur (" snake city ") became Indra-prastha, 
and the later Delhi. The Aryan hordes of the Panjab princes first 
perhaps saw the "Holy Ganges" about 800 B.C., and began to spread 
in E[andj and other cities of Fanchala — capitals of those Turanians 
whom they called Ahi-Eshatras, or " serpent kings." A period of 
comparative peace followed, as the ideas of Buddhism, and the influence 
of India's great apostle Gotama, tended to the amalgamation of races, 
and the discouragement of caste distiuctioDS, about 500 B.c. The 
researches of scholars as to Medic population round lake Van show 
that Aryan influence in Persia, and in Armenia, is not traceable much 
before 800 b.c. ; and we find no indication of any Aryans on the 
Ganges before about the same period. To the Yedik bards this great 
river was unknown, though the Aryan immigrants seem to have taken 
sides in the wars of Kurus and Pandus, perhaps as early as 1200 or 
1000 B.C., according to the later literature of the epiks written in 
Aryan speech. To this age we may attribute the gradual education of 
Aryan nomads by the Turanian and Semitic races of Asia. They did 
not begin to commit their hymns and legends to writing till about 
Grotama's time, and then borrowed alphabets of Semitic origin, as did 
the Western Aryans also. No doubt they learned much in India 
itself, from the Turano-Dravid ruling race, in the upper valley of the 
Ganges. Their literature became classic through the labours of such 
scholars as Panini (5th century B.C.), and Patanjala (2nd or 3rd century 
B.C.), and other Aryan grammarians. Both Aryans and Turanians, 
while spreading from Central Asia, must early have been aware of 
the ancient civilisations of the West ; but the Vedik Aryans were 
evidently rude nomads whose earliest hymns (like the early Yendidad 
of Persians) include no mention of coin, but refer only to the barter of 
cattle, sheep, goats, and horses, their earliest beliefs including the 
worship of elemental deities and especially of fire. In the Vedas we 
have no allusions to writing, pens, or paper, and no notice of caste. 
Cows were then eaten, and ardent spirits were drunk, quite as much 
by Aryans as by the thirsty Turanian Malis and Eols of to-day. The 
Aryan hymns allude to these as Takshas, Asuras ('' godless ones"), 
BhCjas (" cattle owners "), Bhars, Eathas, and Yadus, holding the lands 
of India where they had built great fortresses of stone or even, it is 
said, of '* iron/' and possessing weapons of iron and brass, and chariots 



280 India 

of wood, often adorned with gold Their valour and civilisation atmck 
the ruder Aryans with awe. They are described as merchants, sailors, 
travellers by land and sea, and by rivera which the Aryans found 
thronged with vessels, including probably those of Sabean Arabs. 
They were worshipers of trees, and of snakes, of sun and moon, as the 
names Ahi, Na^ or Bar, given to them by the Aryans, denote. 

The Aryan Bharata-varsha seems then only to have extended to 
the Yamuna or Jumna, and the invaders must have passed through 
many severe struggles before reaching Indra-prastha or DelhL They 
found it held by Naga worshipers called Nishadas ; and everywhere 
they encountered Kolarian and Dravidian races — Takas at Taksila, 
Madras and E^athis on the Cheniab river, Malis on the Iravati (BaptiX 
Tugras on the Sutlej, and Rambhojas on the Indus. These Panjab 
races opposed Alexander on the last named river : and, in spite of his 
victories on the Jhelam and at Sangala, they forced him to abandon 
the conquest of India. Arrian says that at Sangala the Kathai lost 
17,000 slain, and 30,000 prisoners, and they were not the strongest 
Indian nation. The task that was beyond the great Macedonian could 
hardly have been performed by any Vedik heroes. India, already 
civilised and possessing written records in the 4th century RC, was 
still in the main Dravidian or Turanian. 

In the map of India (Rivera of Life, vol. ii) we have shown 
the old races and their chief seats of power ; but we have still to learn 
the history of non-Aryan Kolaxia. Modem authorities have been 
educated — as we also were — in the belief that there is nothing worth 
knowing about pre- Aryan India : that the Aryans conquered it all 
about 1200 or even 2000 B.C., and gave to the country civilisation 
and religion, though we have no knowledge of any native Aryan 
civilisation in the West. Nothing could really be more wide of the 
mark, as a study of other articles in this work shows. India was 
Kolarian down to about 1500 B.a ; and was then Dravidian, and 
may indeed still be called so from the highlands S. of the Ganges 
to Cape Kumari. But long before the advent of either Aryan or 
Turanian strangers it contained a yet earlier population, now repre- 
sented by the Yeddahs of Ceylon, and by the savages of the Palny 
and other forests of S.W. India, who are connected with the Negritos 
of the Polynesian archipelago, and with the Australians, by anthro- 
pologists — a Negrito race of wild men, like those whom the Malays 
called Ourang-utan or "men of the woods." They are now very 
scarce, but as a young surveyor the author made acquaintance with 
them in their forests about 1846 to 1850. They were poor, smsll, 
naked, untameable creatures, living none knew where in densely 



India 281 

wooded hilly tracts, sleeping, we were told, in caves and holes, or in 
summer on ma/njdna or platforms lightly made in thick lofty trees. 
We were only occasionally able to get within 30 or 40 yards of 
them, after sending away the Aryan officials whom they justly feared, 
for the Hindus used to shoot them as they would not shoot monkeys, 
fearing to be contaminated. The author took bread, fruits, and gaily 
coloured clothes with him, when alone, waving these at them, laying 
them down in the path, and then retiring : the wild men then used 
cautiously to approach, jabbering suspiciously like monkeys. One of 
them was captured by our Dravidian cbainman, and was sent to a 
German mission on the Cochin coast; but he was found, after long 
trial, to be quite incapable of instruction beyond learning the alphabet, 
and the reading of a few easy sentences, and eventually be escaped 
to his native fastnesses. Most continents and islands have legends 
or traditions of such aborigines, who may be recognised also perhaps 
in the bushmen, and dwarf races, of Africa. The Yeddahs of Ceylon 
are now recognised as a branch of the Continental aborigines from the 
S.W. of India. In Madagascar the Behoses, and Yizambas, are similar 
wild peoples, of whom traces are also found in China, even as lat« as 
the time of the Han dynasty in the 2nd century B.c. Wallace and 
other men of science suppose tbat a great Lemurian continent once 
occupied part of the Indian seas ; Madagascar on the west, with the 
Maldives, Ceylon, Java, and on the east Papuan New Guinea, being 
the present remains of it above sea level. This may have been the 
original home of the Negrito races of Asia and Africa, which racially 
and by language show some remote connection. Ceylon, in that age, 
would have been connected with India by the isthmus now repre- 
sented by '' Adam's Bridge," as the S. Arab sailors called it. Indian 
legends seem to refer to such a period, in connection with fairy con- 
tinents and islands, near Cape Kumari, which no longer exist. 

With this Negrito stock the early Mongoloid populations — 
Eolarian and Dravidian — mingled, and the dark color of the 
Himalaic Turanians, together with much in their languages which 
connects them with Polynesia and Australia, may be regarded as due 
to such admixture. The Aryans thrust out all the weaker mixed 
tribes to the extremities of their empire, as the early Kelts were 
thrust westwards by stronger races in Britain. The Eolarians were 
the first rudely superior race of India, followed by the Takas, Madras, 
E^this, and others above noticed, who descended from the N.W., 
and are classed as Dravidians. These again were followed by the 
Yue-chi, Su, and other Turko-Mongols of Central Asia. The non- 
Aryans are mentioned in special articles (see especially under Malis) : 



282 India 

in all cases the trend was first towards the lower Granges, and after- 
wards to the south, until — in our own times — ^the Madras provinces 
contain a population of some 46,000,000 Dravidians, while man; 
millions of Kolarians still people the forests and uplands of Central 
India. Mr Hewitt (" Early India," Jowmal Bl. Asiatic Society, 1888- 
1889) traces the Dravids even from Babylonia, by their rites, archi- 
tecture, and customs. They came from the highlands of Earmania, 
Arakhosia, Baktria, and Sogdiana, to the plains of the Indus; aod 
linguistically they were connected with the early non-Aryan, non- 
Semitic, tribes of Susiana, whose speech Darius I preserved at 
Behistun, showing its ultimate connection with the Akkadian. The 
tree worship of the Bars (see Bhars), in the land of Bharata^ was 
characteristic of this population, and is common also in W. Asia, 
as is the snake worship of the Kolarians (see Kols) : the wan of 
Pandns, or " pale faces," with Kurus may represent the early history 
of such races in Aryan literature. The wilder tribes were driven from 
the N.W., while others like the Bhdjas settled down to become rich, 
as herdsmen and agriculturists. They followed the pasture lands of 
the great rivers, and the fertile valleys at the foot of the mountains, 
where the wild men found refuge in forests. Others, like the Abhirs 
(see Ophir), reaching the western river-mouths became merchants, 
and traded with the Arabs and Assyrians. Strabo speaks of the 
Eam-Bhojas or Siva-Bhojas (Sibai) on the upper Indus, between 
Mali-tana and Taksila, as one of 1 8 tribes ; and their congeners were 
the Bhdjas of the Sutlej — the Tugras of the Rig Veda. They estab- 
lished the kingdom of Kam-Bhoja, stretching from the Indus to the 
gulf of Earn bay which was named from them, and as far as the Nai^ 
bada or Munda river. 

The race of the Sakas or Sakyas, from whom sprang Chandra- 
gupta in the time of Seleucus, ruled the lower Indus and founded 
the kingdom of Magadha, conquering Eosala, and fixing their capital at 
Saketa in Oudh. The Sakya emperor, As5ka (3rd century B.C.), speaks, 
in his 5th edict, of Yona-kambhoja-gandharas as his neighbours, 
meaning perhaps by Yona only " foreigners," and not Yavanas or 
Greeks. The Aryans spoke of Danu as the mother of Vrithra, the 
serpent of drought whom Indra conquered ; and the Danavas were said 
to be ruled by a great serpent king (Salya or Ajaka) the lord of the 
Takas. These non-Aryan serpent-worshiping Danavas were the 
sculptors of the Elora caves (see ElOra), and of other rock-temples» 
full of phallic and serpent symbolism which was detestable to Aiyan 
Brahmans. The Eolarian and Dravidian tongues still show a marked 
affinity, in both vocabulary and grammar, to the Turanian languages 



India 283 

of Central Asia, though borrowing in later times from both Aryan and 
Semitic speech. The mixture of these distinct classes of language is 
seen in the dialects of the Panjab, Sinde, and Qujerat, and even — as 
is now recognised — in Bangali (see Bangal). But time has not 
effaced the physical or mental distinctions which separate the pure 
fair Aryan from the tawny southern Dravid. The sacred Sanskrit, 
and the later Pali, became the languages of literature ; but, in the 
empire of the Nandas (in Magadha), the Pali was used by a dynasty 
of Drayidian origin. 

In reading ancient accounts, from Herodotos down to Eusebius 
or Chrysostom, it is necessary to remember that the name of India 
is very vaguely used to mean countries beyond Persia, including 
Afghanistan. The first known use of the name is in Aiskhulos (about 
the 5th century B.C.), and even in Herodotos the lands beyond the 
Indus are not of necessity intended in his account of the Persian 
empire. He speaks, however, of the Aithiopes, or " dusky faced " 
race of Asia, as distinguished from the Aithiopes of Africa by having 
straight hair, and this lank black hair still characterises the Eolarians 
and Dravids of India. St Thomas visiting India (see Gondophares) 
or Pantainos about 200 A.c. (Eusebius, Hist, Ecdes., v, 10), may only 
have reached Eastern Persia. Neither IrensBus nor TertuUian speak 
of India as Christian in their enumeration of nations. Augustus 
(Angora inscription) speaks of embassies from Indian kings ; but the 
Romans knew little of India, in spite of Roman coins there found, for 
the trade was mainly in the hands of the Sabean Arabs. Arrian 
relied on earlier Greek accounts, and many marvellous tales, as to 
Central Asia and India, grew up after the Parthians had closed the 
way to the Romans. 

We may now attempt to recapitulate the main periods of early 
Indian racial and religious history, including : I, The Kola/rian- 
Dravid age — say from 5000 to 1500 B.C., when Turanian - tribes 
dominated India, coming first from Assam and Tibet, as Mongoloid 
Kols, Gonds, Khonds, Malis, Munds, Mens, or Mughs, described under 
these heads. They settled on the lower Ganges in Gandwana, or 
Malli-desha, and spread west down the Indus, and over the Panjab. 
They went south from the Jumna to Malwa, driven down by stronger 
Turanians from the N.W., including Dravidian Eosis, Ehasyas, 
Takhsas, Bhojas, Madras, Saurs, Kathis, Yadavas, and Kalingas, who 
swept across the Indus, and advanced chiefly through Gandhara and 
Hastinapur. These people found apparently only the small wild 
Veddah negritos to oppose them as they moved gradually to the 
south. 11. The Vedik-Brdhman age (about 1500 to 600 B.c.) 



284 

when the Aryans followed the Dravidians across the Indus, bringing 
hymns and rites of their own, but possessing no native alphabet or 
script, though Western Asia and China had already then become 
civilised. A period of struggle ensued, represented by the wars of 
Kurus and Pandus. The growth of philosophy in India marks the 
close of this age. III. The Buddhist age (600 B.c. to 800 A.c.) 
marked by revolt from the growing tyranny of Brahman law, and of 
caste restrictions. The advent of the Greeks, and the establisbmeDt 
of their rule in Baktria, added to the forces in &vour of the Aryan 
supremacy ; and the influence of Qreek ideas became traceable iu 
architecture, writing, and perhaps philosophy. They drove the 
Turanians from the Indus, and Aryans prevailed to the Ganges and 
Jumna. Much new civilisation was di£fused even in Central and 
Southern India, Barmah, and the Indian Archipelago, through Buddhist 
influences. IV. The Neo-Brdhmcm or Purcmik age, from 800 A.a 
onwards, represents the decay and corruption of Buddhism, and 
reaction to the mixed Vedik-Puranik superstitions and mythologies. 
Slothful monks had forgotten the ancient philosophy, and left the 
masses a prey to the gross nature- worship represented by Puranik 
legends, and by the art of the cave temples of India. Indra, Varuna, 
Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva, resumed their sway ; and Krishna, or even 
the self-denying Buddha, were converted into divine Avataras or 
incarnations. Id time the influence of Islam added to the elements 
of new thought, and the appearance of the Portuguese and English 
brought Christianity to notice. Progress in liberal thought was 
perhaps most marked about 1860 (see Arya-Somaj and Brahmo- 
Somaj), but the inter-action of religions which produced the Sikh 
faith under Nanak, contiuues to modulate the history of Indian 
religions to the present day. Theism, Agnosticism, indifference, the 
loosening of caste restrictions, and a tendency to Materialism, contrast 
with the superstitions of the masses, who remain content with the 
coarse old phallic symbolism, and are ignorant of the ancient philo- 
sophic speculations on which that symbolism often depends. Chris- 
tianity spreads only among the lower orders : Moslem belief advances 
rapidly ; but Brahmanism, founded on the Vedas, makes yet greater 
progress (see Christ). Tet the ancient belief in the Vedas is sapped, 
and, like the holy city of Sarasvati, it is disappearing under the sands 
of time. The proportions in 1890 were as follows, including Ceyloo, 
Barmah, and the Andamans : — 

Hindus . 206,732,000 Buddhists and Jains 13,373,000 

Moslems 55,134,000 Sikhs , . . 1,009,000 



India 285 

ChristiaDS . 2,049,000 Parsis . . 85,400 

Various . 8,120,000 Jews . . . 13,200 

With regard to the scripts used in India, the Sahean Arabs (see 
Arabia) are believed to have introduced their alphabet about 600 B.c,, 
from which what is called the " South As5ka ** script developed. It 
appears that Nearkhos — the admiral of Alexander the Great — ^found 
Indians writing on cloth, in some non-Greek script, about 327 B.C. 
The North Asoka script of the next century was an Indo-Baktrian 
character, originally derived from the old Aramean characters adopted 
by Persians. It is found on Asdka's edicts (264-223 B.c.) at Kapur- 
di-giri, and on coins of the princes of Ariaua and India down to 126 
B.C., as well as on Sakya coins from 120 B.c. to 79 A.C. Maurya 
coins, from 319 B.C., exhibit Greek types, and those of the Sab Kings 
of Gujerat have even Greek legends. The alphabet was gradually 
developed to include symbols for Gh^ Dh, and Bk, needed in Sanskrit, 
and increased from 22 to upwards of 40 letters in time. The three 
original types, whence all Indian alphabets have grown, were the 
Nagari used for Sanskrit, and the later forms employed for Pali, and 
for Dravidian. Dr Isaac Taylor recognises seven families, including 
the Maurya script (250 B.C.), the Turushka (Indo-Scythic) of the Panjab, 
that of Sah Kings on the W. Coast, that of the Guptas (319 A.c.) in 
Magadha, the Valabhis (480 A.C.) in Kathiawar, the Ghera or Venghi 
on the Kistna and Godavery rivers, and the Chalukya script (490 a.c.) 
in the Dekkan (Alphabet, ii, pp. 258-324). To India we owe the 
great invention of cyphers, or numerals, which is popularly ascribed to 
the Arabs, who brought these signs westwards in our 8th century. 
Dr Bumell showed that they resembled those used in texts of the 
Venghi dynasty (4th and 5th centuries A.C.), and Dr Taylor (Academy^ \ 

28th Jany. 1882) proved that these signs were the initials for the 
Indian Aryan names of the numhers (see Alphabet^ ii, p. 263). "The 
, distinct alphabets of India," says Dr Taylor, " outnumber all the other I 

alphabets of the world, and many are among the most elaborate ever 
devised." Yet the absence of all notice in the Yedas, and in their i 

commentaries of earlier date, of any form of writing, of books, pens,^ 
ink, pencils, or engraving styli, shows how late the use of any script 
must have reached the Aryans. The Persians by 538 B.c. already 
knew of the kuneiform character, and probably of the Aramean 
alphabet ; but kuneiform emblems seem never to have reached India. 
The earliest monumental texts consist, as Dr Taylor says (Alph,, ii, 
p. 289), of "a magnificent series of primitive inscriptions. . . . (the 
alphabet) of Asoka and others standing unrivalled in the alphabets of 



286 

the world. . . . Not even modern phonologists liave ever proposed an 
alphabet so ingenious, exact, and comprehensive." This is found on 
the six pillar edicts, and on many rocks, caves, and boulders, such as 
the Gimar rock in Gujeiut, where the writing extends 75 feet along 
the boulder, the lines occupying a height of 12 feet. Five edicts 
belong to 236 B.C., and fourteen others to 251 B.C. This Gimar text 
was written by a Su satrap named Skanda-gupta (see Indra-putra) 
under Turuksha, a Persian ruler of the Panjab, of a family that held 
its own till the 3rd century A.C. The laws of Manu refer apparently 
to Turuk-shas (or Turk shahs), as " out castes " and *' long-bearded 
warriors" (Kshatriyas), "children of fortune" — ^apparently of the 
mixed Turko-Aryan race of Parthia — who sprang from the tail, or 
from the breath, of Yahishtha's cow — that is from earth. 

[As regards the languages involved in this study, the question su 
to whether Sanskrit was a spoken language has recently been raised 
by Mr E. J. Bapson (Journal RL Aaidtic Socy,, July 1904, pp. 435- 
456), the general result of the discussion being apparently that it may 
be compared thus: (1) Vedik Sanskrit to the English of Wyclif's 
Bible ; (2) Classic Sanskrit to Johnsonian English ; (3) Pali to our 
colloquial ; and (4) the Prakrits to our own "dialects." The alphabets 
in like manner all become more cursive as the language becomes later, 
in its forms and sounds. — Ed.] 

We have yet to discover the historic records of the great Valabhi 
or Balabhi kings of Kathiawar, and the lower Indus (480 to 664 A.C.), 
whom the first Moslem invaders attacked, and who succeeded the 
Ikshvaku or "sugar-cane" race. With exception of coins, however, 
we are equally ignorant of Parthian history, as we remarked previously 
{Rivera of Life^ ii, p. 139), and as Canon Rawlinson says in his 
history: for historic texts are still wanting. Kshatriya, or "warrior" 
satraps of Pei'sian rulers might have been either worshipers of Krishna, 
or Buddhists, or Jains, and the holiest shrine of Siva was built near 
Dvarka, "the door" of India on the N.W. (by which its conquerors 
entered), at Elapur, on the south slope of the beautiful hills of Juna- 
garh. This region became the home of three sects, Vishnuvas 
worshiping Vishnu and his incarnation as Krishna, Eadha-Valabhis 
adoring Badha his wife, and Krishna-Badhas who adored both deities. 

A very powerful Dravidian dynasty — the Chera or Venghi — 
ruled Eastern India from the Godavery to the Kistna river, till sub- 
dued about our 5th century by the Chalukyas (see that heading). 
The western origin of the Venghis is shown by their use of the 
" we«tern-cave character," as found at Elora. The Chalukyas, who 
founded Maharashtra — the home of later Mah-rathas, or Mah-rattas, 



India 



287 



bad formed two branches by this time, and were absorbing all weaker 
tribes, from the Qodavery river to the Mysore highlands. They were 
at first Buddhists or Jains, and afterwards Puranik Hindus by religion. 
Their texts are found in the Buddhist ruins of Amravati, written in 
what is now called the Kistna alphabet, which is however very 
similar to that of the western caves. In the inscription of Yaisala, 
which he wrote at Kutila — the very cradle of Buddhism — we find 
another ancient character which is known as Bareli. 

Among other non-Aryan tribes we may mention those of the 
Brahma-putra river in Assam, which are noticed under their names 
elsewhere. These include Nagas, Garos, Khasias, Mikirs, Bors or 
Abors, Mishmis, Singphos, Kukis or Kuchis, Kamptis, Kurmis, Kacharis, 
and Muns. The first five occupy the river valley, and the remainder 
are in the surrounding hills, with an aboriginal race claiming descent 
from the Shan or Tai rulers (see Asam), The Muns or Mughs worked 
south to Arakan (see Barmah), and Assam may be said to be dominated 
by Naga, or " serpent" tribes. Although Tibet is said to have had a 
cursive script by our 9th century in common with Assam, the Passep 
or K'chab writing which thence developed, and in which much valuable 
Buddhist literature is preserved, is not traced earlier than our 13th 
century. The earlier Buddhists — appealing to the populace — used 
the familiar Pali language, and the Deva-nagari characters (see 
Deva-nagari, and Kharoshthi). But Asoka did not confine himself to 
any dialect or script, desiring to be understanded of the people in all 
parts of his empire (see As5ka). 

Philologically Indian languages may be classed as follows, a 
population of about 300 millions in 1890 speaking 78 languages; 
and out of this 103 millions speak Dravid tongues; 105 millions use 
various Prakrits (" dialects ") ; 10 millions speak Mongolian tongues; 
another 1 millions Urdu,Persian,and Arabic; and 77 millions the Hindi 
language, which is Aryan with admixture of Turanian and Semitic words. 



Aryan. 


;ieK»CB UJL 


Dravid^ 


tan, etc. 


Hindi 


77 millions. 


Telagu 


20 millions. 


K Bangali . 


45 


>i 


Mahrathi . 


20 „ 


Prakrits 


50 


}> 


Panjabi 


20 „ 


XJriya . 


10 


» 


Tamil 


16 „ 


Urdu 


5 


9» 


Qujerati 


11 „ 


Barmese 


9 


n 


Kanarese 


10 „ 


Shan . 


1 


9t 

nillions. 


Malayalam . 

Total 


6 „ 


Total , 


, 197 t 


. 103 millions. 



288 Indra 

The language used does not however imply the purity of the 
race ; S. and Central India, racially, is dominated by Turanians, and 
the Aryan or Aryanised Prakrits are confined in great measure to 
the N.W. Vedik writers, and later historians alike, seem to have 
known little of the history of the Dr&vidians further south, or of the 
kingdoms even of S.E. Bangal. Only about the time of Seleucus do 
the Aryans seem to have attained power, when Chandra-gupta (the 
Sandra-cottus of classic writers) usurped, in 315 B.C., the throne of the 
old Nanda dynasty of Magadha. Asoka himself appears to have been 
partly a Greek, since Seleucus gave a daughter to his ally (see Asoka). 
Yet Ghandra-gupta claimed also to be connected with the Mali dynasty, 
having married a Mali princess, which seems to indicate an admixture 
of non-Aryan blood. The actual history of India, as learned from her 
monuments, begins with Asoka, and her influence on the world dates 
from the time that his Buddhist missionaries were sent out east, and 
west, and south. With the allusions to contemporary rulers of the 
West, in his texts, we first come into the full light of history io 
India. 

Indra. Indrani. Sanskrit : " the rainer," and his wife ; from 
Irvdu a ** drop." They are the sky gods of Aryans. Indra is the sod 
of Dyu or " day," and the ruler of the thunder, clouds, and rain — a 
Jupiter Pluvius, the guide and guardian of sun, moon, and stars, 
according to his pleasure, and with due regard to bis children on earth, 
the herdsmen, to whom rain was so important But he was not a 
model parent, and was a fiery and jealous god. Gradually he relapsed 
into the second rank, as Dyaush {" the bright "), and Varuna (the 
"wide" heaven) superseded him as supreme. Indra, says Mr Grierson 
(Indian Antiq., Jany. 1889), does not belong to the original Aryan 
pantheon ; some Orientalists connect the name with indh ''to be clear/' 
as representing the first light of dawn before the spread of the aurora, 
when the stars are still in the sky and harness his chariot. Light and 
darkness are then struggling together, and Indra conquers Susbna the 
demon who holds the light imprisoned (see Prof. A. de Gubematis, 
ZooL MythoL, i, pp. 18, 89). Indra is also called Soma-patam, ''the 
drinker of Soma," which he sprinkles on all creation. He is the owner 
of the cow clouds (see Herakles) which the Fanis stole and hid in a 
cave, as in the Greek and Roman legends. He strikes the cows with 
the triple Vajra (the thunder bolt) to make them yield their milk — 
as the Germans still strike cows with rods to make them fruitful He 
was a Mid-Asian deity, but in the Mazdean system of Persia he 
becomes a demon, with other Devas of the Vedik Aryans. The legend 



Indra 289 

of Indra's slaughter o{ the serpent Ahi (or Vritra) compares evidently 
with the Persian legend of Thraetdna and the serpent Azi-dabak, as 
well as with that of Apollo, or Marduk, or any of the other dragon 
slayers, including Krishna who slays KaJya the " deadly " snake of the 
Jamuna. Indra dwells among the waters, and is borne by Airavata — 
an elephant, which was the first being created from the chaotic ocean, 
and apparently symbolises a cloud. One of Indra's symbols is thus the 
Ankvs or elephant goad. He also carried a lance or dart, a ray of 
light or flash of lightning. He is constantly connected with the 
peacock, symbolising the dark blue sky (Argus) with all its luminaries, 
and is thus called Mayur-Isvara, a name also given to Siva, Kama, and 
Skanda. The Ceylon Balis said that Indra was Sakra, a god ruling 
the hosts of heaven, and all fairies and demons. 

Indra indeed assumes many forms, and became the hero Kavya- 
ukana. His struggles and " labours " were numerous. He is a 
wanderer seeking his lost cows, a hunter, and a god who pours water 
on dry places, and makes the wilderness rejoice (see Sir G. Cox, Arya/ih 
Mythd,, i, p. 339). Indra Sthatar answers to Jupiter Stator, who 
was symbolised by the erect stone. A Pandit of the Gorakh-pur 
district (Proc. Bombay Anthrop. Socy., 28th October 1896) describes 
his worship in connection with an obelisk, 24 ft. high, near the village 
of Majbauli. The Brahman Bhadra-Som who erected it, inscribed it 
saying that he offered sacrifices to this great god of rain, and " has set 
up five images of Indra as high as mountains," meaning five lofty, 
stones, one being at the foot of the Himalayas not far from Kapila- 
vastu, one at Bhagal-pur, and the others at Sara, Betuja, and Kahan- 
wa-gaon. 

Indra is said to chase the dawn-maiden Ahana, and to shatter 
the chariot of Ushas, breaking up the aurora. He seduced Ahalya 
the first-born daughter of Brahma, and wife of the Bishi Gotama : she 
was a *'godess of the shades of night" (Max MtLller, Science of Lang,, 
p. 502). The moon as a cock or peacock, Krika-vaka, roused Gotama 
for his devotions, and Indra took his place in Ahalya's couch. They 
were discovered, and Gotama turned the false wife into stone, while 
Indra was marked all over with the Yoni mark, and therefore called 
Sa-YonL But these marks the pitying gods turned into eyes, and his 
lost phallus was replaced by that of a ram — ^an ancient nature myth 
with very primitive symbolism. He is therefore often invoked to 
restore lost powers {Zool. MythoLy ii, pp. 155, 280). In the Rig 
Veda, on the other hand, Indra is said thrice to purify the maid 
Ahalya with his chakra or ** wheel " — the sun appearing from the 
darkness. The Rig Veda is full of praises of Indra, and records his 

•p 2 



290 Indra 

prowess and glories, as " begotten of a vigorous god and of a heroic 
godess/' From Indra sprang Arjuna the " shining *' Apollo of India, 
for whom he stole the divine coat of mail from Kama ; and Arjuna 
was called Aindri, while his son by Ulupl (the serpent princess) was 
Iravat, perhaps connected with Airavata, or Indra's elephant. The 
arms of Indra reach all over the earth, and his Protean forms are end- 
less. He is a " ruddy god " drawn by two ruddy or tawny horses, with 
flowing manes and tails — apparently clouds tinged with the colors of 
dawn. He alone can conquer Ahi — ^the cloud snake which causes 
dearth by swallowing the rains. He has also a hook, and a net ia 
which he entangles his enemies — as Mars was caught in Vulcan's net. 
He defeats the Asuras, or ungodly, and the Panis ; and " broke down 
the high stone-built cities " of these foes. He goes forth drunk with 
Soma, or Amrita, an armed warrior at whose beck hosts of Maruts 
("crushers" or winds) spring up. Vishnu is his "comrade" in the 
Vedas, but supersedes him later. The great triad of the Rig Veda is 
that of Indra, Agni, and Surya (" rain, fire, and sun "), while the legend 
of Ahalya, which discredits Indra, belongs to the later age of the epiks, 
in which also Bavana — the Sakshasa or demon — invades the heaven 
of Indra, and is so called Indra-jit, ** the conqueror of Indra," till him- 
self conquered by Rama. He refused to release Indra until Brahma 
promised immortality to the Dasyu, which indicates a non-Aryan oon* 
nection. In the Maha-bharata Indra is a drunken and licentious god, 
as King Nahusha pleaded when trying to gain Indra's wife. In the 
Puranas Krishna is the successful rival of Indra, who deluged the 
pastoral Vrajas with rain till Krishna raised over them, for protection, 
the mountain Govandana. The two gods met and fought when Krishna 
tried to carry off the sacred tree Parijata from Indra's Paradise — Indra- 
loka. Krishna conquered, and bore it away — an incident celebrated 
at the festival called the Sakra-dhvajot-thaua, or " raising of Indra's 
standard" (see Rivers of Life, ii, p, 154). The Daityas also con- 
quered Indra and reduced him to beggary, but through over confidence 
allowed the " thunderer " to regain all his power. 

Indraui, Sachi, or Aindri, " the ever blooming," was the wife of 
Indra, and the Queen of Heaven, She is pictured in the Indrani 
cave at Elora seated on the tiger. Like Devaki, mother of Krishnsi, 
she carries on her knee the infant son of Indra — Arjuna " the bright," 
who became the heroic friend of Krishna. He is usually known as 
Chitra-putra "the son of brightness," and Jaya or Jayanta who is 
said to have been born of a cow : for Indrani herself is ever viigin, 
and a virgin mother. Yet she had also a daughter, Deva-sena or 
Tavishi, otherwise called Jayani or Jayanta Indrani is not a 



Indra-putra 291 

promineDt figure in the Vedas, and is decidedly a phallic deity at 
Elora (see Asiatic Res., vi, p. 393). 

India stopped the chariot of the sun like Joshua, and divided 
the sea like Moses, but the more spiritual idea of a god who reads 
the thoughts of the heart attached, not to Indra, but to Yaruna. 

Indra-putra. Sanskrit : *' Indra's child." An ancient city, now 
a mound measuring 850 feet N. and S., by 1250 feet E. and W., 
haying on it a small village, Indor or Ind-Khera. A copper plate 
here discovered determines the date of a Skanda-gupta (see India), as 
either 146 or 224 A.C. 

Indriya. Aindriya. Sanskrit: "sap," "power." The palm, 
sacred to Siva, is called the Trina Indriya. 

Indu. Indhu. Sindhu* Sanskrit. A name of the full moon, 
as the " shining one," connected also with indu for " drop," as the 
moon was the cup which held the ambrosial dew or Soma. 

Infallibility. See Bible, Inspiration, Miracles, Prophecy. 

Innish-Muir. Inish Murray. A sacred islet off the W. 

Sligo coast, also called Inish-Kea. It is about 5 miles from the land, 
and contains a remarkable temple (see Muri). 

Ino. The nurse of Dionusos, and a sea godess. Near the 
Phoenician Kuthera there was an ancient temple and oracle of Ino, 
beside a sacred rock that overhangs the sea ; and *from this rock she 
was said to have leapt She appears to be connected with Juno- 
Matuta, as carrying the infant sun Dionusos. 

Inspiration. " In-breathing " : the suggestion by a god to 
some holy man. All Bibles have been regarded at some time or 
other, by their readers, as due to inspiration. Sometimes the prophet 
or poet claims to speak in the god's name, or to relate a divine vision. 
Even Hammurabi prefaces his laws with the formula, "as Ood has 
commanded." Sometimes the writing has only come to be regarded 
as inspired long after the author's death, or the writer refers to a 
traditional past in such words as ** The Lord spoke to Moses." 
According to Hindus, inspiration is of two kinds, Sruti ("heard") or 
Smriti (" remembered ") : that is to say, that they agree with the 
Council of Trent that " tradition is equally the Word of God." But 
all inspiration is usually regarded as the revelation by God of 
infallible truth ; and it is only in quite recent times that the word 
has been more loosely used, as when we call a poet " inspired." It 



292 Inspiration 

is clear, however, that no deity could so inspire any man as to cause 
him to understand, or to utter, things past human understanding ; so 
that Ezra can only publish the law (see Ezra), and Daniel must seal 
the book (Dan. xii, 4), while the sayings of the seven thunders are 
not to be written (Rev. x, 4). Yet in speaking of Christianity 
Tolstoi now tells us : " It is necessary, in reading the Christian 
Gospels, to remember that they have passed through a multiplicity of 
compilations, translations, and transcriptions, and were composed 18 
centuries ago, by poorly educated and superstitious persons." " They 
are no infallible expressions of divine truth, but the work of many 
minds and hands, and full of errors. . . . Let us respect the truth by 
correcting the errors we find in them." 

A great change has come over the attitude of learned men after 
long study of an open Bible. But if infallibility is no longer claimed, 
it is difficult to understand what they now mean by inspiration. The 
revelation of error by God cannot be supposed ; and if the Scripture 
is corrupted it is no longer a revelation of perfect truth. The boldest 
and most virile of our churches is known as the " United Free Church 
of Scotland " ; and their opponents — the conservative *' Free Church " 
— have been at the pains of collecting various dicta of the more 
advanced school, under the title " What is the Doctrine of the New 
Church ? " A few of these may be considered. 

Dr Boss Taylor as Moderator declares that " evolution holds on 
its way with upward impulse and beneficent result ... a restless, 
uneasy, uncertain feeling in regard to religious truth is abroad. . . . 
The whole trouble arises from a mistaken assumption that the opening 
chapter of Genesis was meant to be an authoritative account of the 
method, and order, of the creative work — it is not prose, but poetry; 
the great Creation hymn." Prof. Denney {Studies in Theology)^ 
says : " The plain truth — and we have no reason to hide it — is that 
we do not know the beginnings of man's life, of his history, of his 
sin : we do not know them historically on historical evidence, and we 
should be content to let them remain in the dark, till science throws 
what light it can on them." Prof. Martin (The AtUhority of the 
Bible) says : " All human ingenuity could not clear the Bible of 
mistakes on points of science, history, and morals — such as the 
scriptural account of creation, the m^iking of woman, and the Fall . . . 
all good things were of God ... in that indirect sense the Bible 
was the Word of God." Prof. Marcus Dods (sermon, "What is a 
Christian?" 29th Septr. 1890) says again: "We need not be 
seriously disturbed in spirit if we find we cannot accept what is 
known as the orthodox theory of the Atonement ... we must not 



Inspiration 293 

too hastily coDclude that even a belief in Chriflt's divinity is essential 
to the true Christian." As regards the Book of Jonah, Prof. G. A. 
Smith exclaims : '* How long, Lord, must Thy poetry suffer from 
those who can only treat it as prose — pedants, quenchers of the 
spiritual, creators of unbelief." Tet Christ is represented in the 
Gospels as having believed Jonah to have been three days in the 
belly of the fish. Prof. A. B. Bruce writes : " Cannot we see for 
ourselves, without voices from heaven, that Jesus of Nazareth, as 
revealed in His recorded works and acts, is a Son of God, if not in 
the metaphysical sense of theology, at least in the ethical sense of 
possessing a God-like spirit." 

A similar movement has now begun to be manifest even in the 
Church of England, due no doubt to the influence of Renan, and of 
such German writers as Harnack. The Rev. Dr G. A. Smith 
(Modem Criticiam, 1901) says: "The religion of Israel was poly- 
theistic until the age of the prophets . . . the writings that follow 
are to a large extent derived from Babylonian myth and legend, 
whilst the patriarchal narratives are of a fanciful and parabolic char- 
acter ** : " the Messianic prophecies are treated (by himself, as he says) 
in a naturalistic manner " ; and he goes on to question " the whole 
Old Testament sacrificial system, and the nature of vicarious suffering 
even in its relation to the substitutionary sacrifice of Christ." [Such 
views attracted little attention a quarter of a century ago when Rivers 
of Life and Bihls Folk-Lore were written. — 'Ed,] We cannot wonder 
that other churches should hold this to be " subversive of the history 
and truthfulness of large portions of Holy Scripture, its authority, and 
inspiration.'' 

But if these views are correct, as far as they go, it is surely time 
to drop the ancient dogmas of infallibility and inspiration altogether, 
not quibbling over words, or attempting to give them new meanings. 
Such adjustments have always misled ancients and moderns, diverting 
their thoughts into a thousand paths that lead nowhere. The meaning 
of the ancients is clear. Abraham believed in his call when he pre- 
pared to sacrifice Isaac, as the Hindu Kuruba did in 1901 (see 
Sacrifice) when he cut off his child's head in the temple saying, ** I 
offer this to the bestower of all blessings ; may he give them to me, 
and restore my boy." Eoruba died a willing martyr to the faith that 
was in him. He believed himself inspired as truly as any convert of 
Scotland or Wales (see Conversion). Inspiration has always been 
taught by priests, and has always been accepted by the masses, who 
are ever willing to follow them. Ignorance and impatience are always 
seeking short cuts to truth. The majority of mankind live in a daily 



294 Inspiration 

atmosphere of miracles^ and infallibility is a mighty weapon in the 
hands of those who desire to rule them. It enables the interpreters 
of the Word of God to threaten the thunders of heaven. '' By Thy 
terrors, O God, do we persuade men." " Fear Him who hath power to 
cast into hell." " It is a fearful thing to fall into the hands of God.** 
The people are ever crying, *' Tell us what to believe, what the Lord 
demands of us: we will obey, and will listen to no other god or teacher.** 
But even apart from fear men love dogma ; they hate doubt ; and 
they are averse to sustained thought and enquiry. They are ever 
ready to listen to the man who speaks with confidence and eloquence. 
If men, searching for truth and fairly educated, could calmly and 
reasonably choose their leader, as they would choose an adviser in the 
ordinary affairs of life, they would perceive that neither church nor 
man can establish the reality of infallible inspiration. If indeed any 
could prove himself, or another, to be so inspired, then all Bibles might 
equally be accepted. Our faith is only a geographical accident, due to 
the history of races. Faith in all lands is strong among those who 
know nothing of the history of their Bibles, or of the difficulties and 
complexities which special study of them reveals. 

Man's craving for a " Word from Heaven " has long been intense, 
and the cry has produced the answer, much to the detriment of our 
intellectual progress. Failing an infallible book men create for them- 
selves infallible men — Shamans in Tartary, the Lama at Lhasa, the Pope 
at Bome. The dark history of the past shows us that the results are 
discord, misery, and bloody persecutions. ^The belief in inspiration^ 
and in infallibility, has been a fatal nightmare, and has produced every 
form of mental and physical slavery. It has deluged the world with 
blood, and fostered cruelty and sorrow. It is a sword which is set 
between parents and children, tribes and nations. Christ, we would 
fain believe, never intended to send it on earth, though he is siud to 
have foreseen it The belief is due partly to fear, partly to thirst for 
truth suoh as should always inspire us ; but it has quenched truth in 
blood, and has darkened counsel Advance is impossible until this 
cardinal error in our views about ancient priests, and their writings, 
hais been recognised. He who thinks that the truth he has attained 
is complete, and final, knows nothing about his subject — nay is in 
most grievous bonds of ignorance, and very far from the road that 
leads to the heaven of Truth. He must go back to Doubt : he most 
question first principles : he must learn the ways of science — that is 
of real knowledge. He must seek Truth not once but continually, 
without bias, and severely investigating every statement placed before 
him, being assured only of his own ignorance, and deeming neitlier 



Inspiration t295 

himself nor any other man infallible on any subject. Let him be ever 
ready to test, again and again, all that he has hitherto taken for 
granted as proven, as his insight becomes deeper. Let him keep in 
memory the bias which he has inherited, through birth and education, 
or through circumstances — the swaddling bands wound round him in 
infancy, and the affections and memories to which he clings. Let him 
follow every sign of Truth, though he knows not where it will lead 
him, remembering that '' the wisest are those who know that they 
know not." Let him pause when he can find no firm ground on 
which to tread, but not even then rest content : for what we know 
to-day is but a small part of that which we have still to learn, especi- 
ally as regards the dark ways of the Unknown, who is perhaps 
unknowable. Divine communications, whether through man or by 
book, we cannot establish as realities : nor may we trust the asser- 
tions of those who thus strive to solve all problems, not even when 
they refer us to " ages of Faith," or to " millions of believers " : for we 
everywhere see that the blind, through blindness or through self- 
interest and prejudice, have led the blind, especially in matters of 
superstition and supernatural wonders. 

The idea of inspiration was taken up by the Jews from the time 
of Ezra ; and they became acquainted in the East with others who 
claimed inspiration for the Yedas, or the Avesta. No words were 
more common in the mouths of priests and prophets than ** Thus saith 
the Lord/' But all ancient scriptures claim, or have been claimed, to 
be inspired, in spite of all their irreconcileable statements and contradic- 
tions. It was in vain that the Christian wrote of the Hebrew Bible 
(2 Tim. iii, 16), "all scripture is given by inspiration of Gk)d." He 
was not including his own or any other work of the New Testament, 
for the claim that these were inspired is unnoticed till more than a 
century afterwards. It was not till after 70 A.c. that the Rabbis of 
Jamnia, or of Tiberias, settled their canon and finally declared it 
complete and infallible. The old conventional " thus saith the Lord " 
then obtained a new meaning, such as we attach to the idea of 
inspiration ; and Christians followed the Jewish example a century 
or so later. None of the New Testament writers claim to be inspired 
themselves ; and Paul when giving advice to converts only " thinks " 
he is led by God so to do. The misquotations of these writers are 
now explained by scholars as probably due to different recensions of the 
Scriptures that they quote ; they often appear to be the blunders of later 
scribes, who added to the words of their originals ; but we have shown 
{Short Sivdies, chapter ix) that no correct version now exists. An 
inspired writer (1 Cor. x, 8) would hardly have differed from his 



296 Inverness 

authority (Num. xxv, 9) in a simple question of numbers. Caoon 
Driver (in 1900), addressing the New College at Hampstead, is 
reduced by conscience to say that, though " the writers of all sacred 
books were in a sense inspired — that is, had a divine afflatus or 
illuminative spirit — ^yet our Biblical writers had this gift in a special 
and miraculous measure, though not so as to confer upon them 
immunity from error." He concludes, therefore, that the Hebrew and 
Christian Bible " is not strictly the Word of Qod, but only contains the 
Word of God." We are thus left to pick our way in painful uncertainty, 
with a very fallible guide — a book which has continually become 
more full of errors in passing through the hands of generations of 
compilers, and of copyists more or less ignorant and prejudiced. This 
was not what the Christian writer meant when he said (2. Peter i, 21) 
that : " Holy men of Qod spake as they were moved by the Holy 
Ghost." Dr Driver says that " the historical books are now seen to 
be no longer the works of Moses, Joshua, or Samuel . . . some 
of the principal stories are fabulous." Yet it is recorded of Christ 
(Luke xxiv, 27) that ''beginning at Moses, and all the prophets. He 
expounded unto them, in all the Scriptures, the things concerning 
Himself." To give this up is to give up the Bible, and Christianity 
as popularly believed. 

Inverness. See Stones, as to the Elach-na-kud3. 

lo. A cow godess and bride of Zeus, said to have been chained 
to an olive tree in the grove of HSre at Mukenai. Hermes, guided 
by Zeus in the form of a bird, slew Argus who watched her, and she 
wandered in Arkadia, Euboia, and Egypt. The name may mean 
" bright " (see /, and A). She was a daughter of Inakhos the first 
king of Argos, and became a white heifer. Juno sent a gadfly to 
torment her, but she found rest on the Nile where her son Epaphus 
was bom. 

Idnid*. Eidnes. The colonists of Ionia — the shores K of the 
Aigean Sea — were Greeks from the W. ; and Attika itself was 
originally called Ionia. The Yavanu of the Assyrians, the Tavan 
of the Hebrews, and the Yavana of Hindu tradition, were loniaos. 
[The name may perhaps come from / or Ai " shore," as meaning 
" shore-dwellers." — Ed.] According to Greek tradition Kodros, King 
of Athens, sent his younger sons Neleus and Androkl^s, to Ionia about 
1050 B.C. Ionia was conquered by the Medes and Persians under 
Harpagos in 545 B.C. 

lor. Welsh : the sun. 



lord 297 

lord. SkaDdinavian. The earth, daughter of Nott or night 

IravatcL Iravati. The base of this word is the Sanskrit ir 
*' to go ^' ; and Iravati is a stream or river. [In Turanian speech the 
meaning is the same, ir and ri signifying to " go " or " flow." Akkadian 
Or-rvoL " water-flow," or river ; Turkish irmak " river." — Ed.] Iravat, 
or Airavata, is the cloud elephant of Indra; and a great Naga tribe 
of Kolarians was known as Iravats. Iravat was also the son of Arjuna 
(see Indra). The Haihayas, or Qonds, were especially called Iravats 
on the river Iravati, now called Rapti, or Erapatha in Pali speech. 
The western Iravati river (our Ravi) was the " river of Purus." 

Ireland. The leme of Aristotle, and of Claudian, the Hibernia 

of Csesar, Tacitus, and Pliny, probably " western " (see Iberds), and 

locally known as Innis-fiod (" the isle of woods "), or Ir-fala (" green 

land "), was also called . Iberin, Irene, Ioum6, and Erin. It was never 

conquered by Home, and we have no evidence that it was ever visited 

by Phoenicians, or ever inhabited by non-Aryans. Place names are 

however said to indicate an early Eastern language (Prof. Mackinnon, 

and Mr J. Stadling in Contempy. Review, January 1901). [Irish 

legendary history is preserved in later works of Christian times, and 

is often influenced by Biblical teachings. The Irish claim early 

civilisation on the evidence of their famous MSS. ; but these belong 

to our 8th century, while Augustine brought the civilisation of Rome 

to the Saxons before 600 A.a Ireland is said to have received 

Christianity from Patricius, a nephew of St Martin of Tours, in 

432 A.G. He is popularly regarded as an Irishman, which is entirely 

wrong if his usual history be accepted. It is remarkable that he is 

never mentioned in Bede's history. Tacitus and Claudian say the 

island was colonised by Britons. Camden thinks by Qauls, Germans, 

and Spaniards. The Erse, or Irish language, is full of loan words 

from Christian Low-Latin, Norman French, and even from Teutonic 

languages, showing that the Irish Kelts were civilised by these nations. 

The population, from early times, has been very mixed, including, 

besides the Goidel Kelts, Danes, Frisians, Norwegians, Swedes, and 

Livonians, as early as our 9th century. It still includes mixed races : 

Danes in the islands and on the shores : semi-Teutonic Scots in the 

north ; and a Spanish element of the 1 6th century A.c. in the south ; 

together with some Dutch, Walloon, and similar stocks, even in the 

far west; as also a Norman element since the arrival of Strongbow 

in 1170. The round towers for which Ireland is famous were then in 

existence (see Fidh), but perhaps not very old. The Ogham characters 

— used also by Kelts in Wales aud Cornwall in Roman times — ^are 



298 Irenaeus 

perhaps the earliest indications of rude civilisation, connected with 
menhirs and dolmens of Keltik origin. The Irish legends begin with 
Partolan (otherwise Bartholomew) and his followers, who fought the 
Fomorian giants (perhaps "big beings"), followed (according to 
Gerald of Cambray, writing in 1190 A.c.) by Cessair the grand- 
daughter of Noah, and by Nemed from Spain, who also fought 
their way after the first immigrants had died of plague. About 
the 9th century A.C. the Fion-gael and Dubh-gael were ''fair 
strangers " and '' black strangers." The Firbolgs under 9 chiefs, ruling 
for 80 years, were also " fair men " — perhaps Belgae (see Kelts). The 
Tuatha Dedanaan were an unknown, and semi-mythical people some- 
times supposed to have been Danes. The Milesian Scots, sometimes said 
to have also come from Spain, migrated from N. Ireland to the Scottish 
lowlands. Their two leaders, Heber and Heremon, were brothers : 
the latter survived and defeated Picts and Britons. The first shadowy 
king of Ireland is Olam Fodla, whose wife Hugony was French, and 
his capital the famous hill of Tara. The later history includes the 
election of Malachy King of Meath in 846 A.c. as King of all Ireland, 
and the war of Hugh VI with Danes in 863, when new Skandinavian 
colonies were settling in Dublin, Waterford, and Limerick. The Danish 
Kings of Limerick gained power over most of the south of Ireland. 
The wars and dissensions continued till the accession of Brian Bom 
{Boirumhe) in 1002 A.C., and till long after the conquest of the 
eastern provinces by England in 1170. The character used in 
writing Irish is equally indicative of foreign influences. It is not 
of Keltik origin, but derived from the Latin minuscule alphabet 
of the 5th century, brought in by the missionaries from Gaul and 
Eome. — Ed.] 

Irenaeus. Greek EvrETiaioa^ " peaceful." A Christian father 
who wrote a work of which the original Greek text is known only 
through quotations of the first book. In 1526 Erasmus edited a 
barbarous Latin translation, using three MSS. which have since been 
lost. Tertullian thought that Irenseus lived as late as 220 A.C., and 
calls him *' a person most accurate in all doctrines," but does not call 
him a bishop. Eusebius {Hist, Ecclea,, v, 20) supposed him to have 
been a native of Smyrna, bom about 120 to 140 A.C., and dying about 
202 A.C. He was a mediator between the Boman bishop and those of 
Asia, in the question of the celebration of Easter {Hist Ecdes., v, 1), 
when Pope Victor nearly caused a schism. He also suffered in the 
persecution by Marcus Aurelius about 177 A.C. {Hist. Eccles., v, 24), 
and is supposed to have known Polycarp. Some say he was only 14 



Irish-Ki-Gal 29 » 

when he accompanied Fothinus as a missionary to Oaul ; and on the 
death of the latter in 177 A.c. he is supposed to have succeeded him 
as bishop of Lyons — the early Christianity of Gaul being thus derived 
from Ephesus (or Smyrna), and not from Rome, which accounts for the 
differences between Augustine and the Culdee monks of Britain (see 
Kil), since they were sent originally by the Church of Gaul, and 
followed the rites of the Oriental churches. 

Irenaeus is chiefly known as the author of a work in five books, 
directed against the Ebionites and Gnostiks, and especially against the 
Valentinians ; but his very existence has been doubted by Judge 
Strange and others; and the attribution of the work, as we now have 
it, may be considered uncertain. The writer, whoever he was, was an 
humble minded and somewhat ignorant man, who believed Christ to 
have lived to the age of 50 years. He says (according to the Latin 
text): " It is not possible that the Gospels can be either more or fewer 
in number than they are : for there are four quarters of the earth, and 
four winds ; and therefore there should be four pillars and grounds of 
truth. . . . the living creatures are four-formed." He knew appar* 
ently of four Gospels, with the Acts, 13 Epistles of Paul, the 1st 
Epistle of John, the Apocalypse, and other works such as the gospel 
of the Hebrews and the Shepherd of Hermas.- Irenseus is also the 
authority for the names of bishops of Rome, ** successors of Paul," 
down to Eleutherus. Cyprian knew of him apparently in the 3rd 
century, but Tatian, Athenagoras, and other early writers, do not mention 
him : so that he appears to have been known in the West earlier than 
in the East. He shared the belief of the pseudo-Petrine Gaspel and 
Epistle, saying that Christ ** descended to preach forgiveness of sins, 
and to loosen the chains of the righteous. . . . prophets and patriarchs 
lying in Hell " (Adv. Hoeres,, IV, xxvii, 2). 

Irish-Ki-Gal. See Hel, Hell. 

Ir-Kalla. Akkadian. '' The great devourer." See Hel. 

Ish. Aish. Hebrew : " man," " male." See As. 

Isaac. The legendary son of Abraham, the Hebrew I^-hak Q* he 
laughed "), named from the laughter of the parents when his birth was 
foretold (Gen. xvii, 17 : xviii, 12, 13, 15). He is said to have married 
his cousin Rebekah at the age of 40, but to have been 60 when his 
two sons were bom (Gen. xxv, 20, 26). The legend of Sarah and 
Abraham in Egypt is very similar to that of Rebekah and Isaac at 
Gerar in Philistia (Gen. xii and xxvi). The story of Abraham's sacrifice 
of Isaac is, by Eusebius, compared with the Phoenician myth (see 



300 Isaiah 

Coiy, ATicient Frag.\ according to which Eronos (Saturn) offered up 
Tahid (leoud), the *^ only son," to his father Ouranos (HeavenX and 
established circumcision, like Abraham, to prevent general ruin of the 
world. Jewish tradition makes Isaac an angel of light, created before 
the world, and afterwards incarnate as one of the three sinless ones, 
over whom death had no power. Shem instructed him ; and while 
Abraham was the first to offer prayer at dawn, and Jacob at night, 
Isaac instituted the evening prayer — Rabbinical deductions from 
passages in Genesis as to the lives of these patriarchs. 

Isaiah. Hebrew : " Yah saves " : the famous son of Amos (Amoz), 
living late in the 8th century B.a ; of whom we however know nothing 
but what we are told in the Bible. The book which bears his name, 
we are now informed by Prof. Duhm and Dr Cheyne, not only includes 
the work of two or more authors, but also " interpolations going down 
to the close of the 2nd century B.C." {Academy, 24th Deer. 1892). 
The learned and cautious Dr A. B. Davidson (Temple Bible^ 1901) 
^ays : '' Only the first part of this book is written by I$aialL ... 
nor is the editing of these writings his work, but that of scribes — 
collectors and arrangers of the scattered fragments of the sacred 
literature of their day. . . . Chapters xl to Ixvi cannot be by Isaiah, 
but mostly belong to the time of the exile." This is by no means a 
new view, aud it was held a century ago by Gesenius and others. 
Prof. Davidson cannot say who is intended by the ''servant of 
Jehovah," who is a well-known figure in the later chapters,: and 
apparently discards the explanation in the Gospel applying the words 
to Christ. The references to Cyrus, and to the Hebrews as in captivity 
and just about to return to Jerusalem, in the second part of the book, 
were brought to the notice of Europe only in 1790. But the discussiou 
as to the Virgin Mother is traced back to the 2nd century, when 
Trypho (Rabbi Tarphon) discarded the opinion of Justin Martyr as to 
the correct translation, on the same grounds^ that modem critics urge. 
Prof. Duhm (JDds Buck Jeaia, 1892) thinks that chapter Ix was the 
close of the composite book about 540 B.C., and that chapters Ixi to 
Ixv were added later by three different writers, while the " Deutero- 
Isaiah " was an author living near the Lebanon, and responsible for 
chapters xl to Iv " exclusive of later insertions." The poetical passages 
(xlii, 1-4; xlix, 1-6 ; 1, 4-9; lii, 13 ; liii, 1-12) with respect to the 
persecuted " Servant of Yahveh " are by this Deutero-Isaiah of 540 
B.C. ; while chapters Ivi to Ix are (by Duhm) thought to have been 
written in Jerusalem about 430 b.o. Even the first thirty-five chapters 
contain corrupt additions by some later writer of the 2nd century B.c. 



Isaiah 301 

[These speculations, like others, may however be considered as un- 
certain as the views of older critics which they aim at superseding. 
Dr Davidson's more generally accepted views have long been those 
held by educated scholars; but in detail critical assumptions have 
sometimes been proved to be unfounded. Thus chapter xiii was 
supposed once to be late because it notices (verse 17) the Medes 
whom we now know to have been encountered by the Assyrians as 
early as 840 ii.c. ; and the destruction of Babylon in 698 b.g. (chapter 
xiv), is also now historically established by the records of Sennacherib 
(see also xxi, 2, 9). The early part of Isaiah (to chapter xxxix inclusive) 
is full of political allusions, now illustrated by the monumental notices 
between 720 and 700 B.C. — Ed.] It is well known that the word 
'Almah (vii, 14) does not mean a " virgin " in Hebrew ; but it is clear 
that, during ages of oppression, the Hebrews looked forward to a 
Messiah or ''anointed king" — a ''branch" of the stem of Jesse, and 
a descendant of David (Isaiah iv, 2 ; xi, 1 : Jeremiah xxiii, 5 : Hosea 
iii, 5 : Ezekiel xxxvii, 24, 25 : Zech. iii, 8 ; vi, 12). The "Servant 
of Tahveh " (Isaiah xlix, 5, 6) appears to be the writer himself. The 
Messiah could not have been* expected to be a " man of sorrows '^ 
despised and rejected (liii, 3), and the figure stands apparently for 
Israel generally (xliv, 1). The writer refers to the "former things'* 
as having been fulfilled (xlii, 1-9), apparently with reference to the 
older chapters, then known for nearly 200 years. The application of 
such passages to the history of Christ's death is forced and difficult. 
He was not blind (xlii, 19), nor was he " taken from prison and from 
judgment " (liii, 8), neither had he any sons (verse 1 0), nor were his 
days " prolonged." He did not even himself claim (as far as we are 
told) to die, or to be smitten, for the sins of others. The epithets 
applied to the expected Messiah (ix, 6) are all applicable to a human 
prince, since the words " mighty God " and " everlasting father " may 
be better rendered : [" his name shall be called Wonderful, counselled 
by God, hero, father of ages, lord of peace." — Ed.] The predictions of 
the first part of the book refer to events just about to happen in the 
8th century B.C. Isaiah was wroth with his people for their cowardice 
and corruption, and they resented or laughed at his denunciations. 
The whole work, as Dr Davidson remarks, is based on the belief that 
Yahveh the God of Israel is the only true God, but one declaring 
vengeance against the Hebrew nation, for their sins and neglect of his 
service, and even commanding the prophet (vi, 10): "Make the 
heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their 
eyes ; lest they see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and 
understand with their heart, and convert and be healed." 



302 Isdhubar 

No doubt a historic Isaiah may have seen visions and had 
moments of ecstasy, believing that he saw what he describes. He often 
gives utterance to noble thoughts in beautiful language ; but these 
things are familiar to those who have witnessed the exaltation of 
living nahia or " prophets " in the East. They wander still all over Asia, 
and frequent the holy places of India, clad in sackcloth, or even quite 
naked when this is permitted. They are still religious politicians, and 
prophets whose predictions are not sdways fulfilled. They have caused 
us much trouble in India, and in Egypt alike. The reports of their 
miracles and visions spread far and wide among the masses, and they 
have often incited Messiahs and Mahdis (''guided ones") to their own 
destruction after terrible bloodshed (see Rivera of Life, ii, p. 597). 
Like most of them Isaiah believed only in his own inspiration, and 
condemned others who wore hairy garments and deceived the people, 
speaking falsely in the name of Tahveh, that priests might bear rule. 
Unable to decide between the opposite predictions of such prophets 
the Hebrews rejected them all, as we should do. But the noble 
language of Isaiah has caused his words to remain, while others are 
forgotten. 

Isdhubar. See Gilgamas. 

Isernia, an ancient Italian city 45 miles S.E. of Naples, where 
phallic rites were described as late as 1781 by Sir William Hamilton, 
then British Minister at Naples. He describes charms still worn (see 
Eye) including the hand and phallus. The priests were then 
endeavouring to suppress these emblems, and the Friapian cultus. At 
the fete of Saint Cosmo and St Damian they, however, still blessed 
phallic emblems, to be set up in gardens under the name of '*St 
Cosmo's toe " ; and women presented ex-votos to this saint of phallic 
significance. Any affected organ was uncovered that the priest might 
anoint it with " St Cosmo's oil." 

Isis. Egyptian Aai or Uaai, probably " the spirit " (see As) ; the 
feminine of Aa-ir or Uaair (Osiris) the male spirit. She is also Maut 
" the mother," and the godess of the moon, of the ark, and of water. 
Isis and Nephthys, the two wives between whom Osiris stands, are 
regarded by Benouf as godesses of dawn and sunset. Isis is the 
mother of Horus the rising sun. 

Islam. Arabic : from the root SaZam meaning *' to be safe," 
" peaceful," " healthy." Muhammad instructed his followers to call 
themselves Muslim (plural MualiTmn), and said that Abraham was a 
Muslim. [The correct rendering of Islam appears to be '* salvation," 



Israel 303 

and the Muslim is one " saved." But it is usually rendered " submis- 
sive," or '* at peace " with Grod. — Ed.] 

Israel. Hebrew: ''God commanded." In Genesis (xxxii, 28) 
there is a play on the word, making it to mean " he commanded God," 
as applied to Jacob (see Hebrews). 

Israfil. Israphel. The angel who, according to Moslems, is 
to blow the trumpet at doom's day. The word signifies the Seraph, 
or " burning one," of God, 

Istar. Akkadian : " light maker " (see 'Astar). The moon 
godess, bride and sister of Tam-zi (" sun spirit "), who was adopted by 
Semitic Babylonians as lataru, and by Phoenicians, Canaanites, and 
many Hebrews, as 'Ashtoreth. On the Moabite stone we find a dual 
god 'Astar-Kamush. Among Arabs, however, the sun was sometimes 
female (as with Germans), and 'Atthar became a male god. Istar was 
also a Venus, represented — from Nineveh to Ionia — as a naked 
godess, holding her breasts whence she nourishes creation. These 
early figures, of ivory and pottery, are generally grossly phallic ; and 
'Ashtoreth was so represented at Gaza down to 400 A.C. Sex is a 
matter of no moment among primeval deities ; Istar is called in 
Semitic texts " the daughter of Sinu " (the male moon) ; but devotees 
— recognising the original meaning of the name — would find no diffi- 
culty in a male Venus. She bore many other names in Akkadian (or 
Turanian) speech, such as Nin-ka-si (" lady horn-face '*), Nin-si-anna 
(" lady eye-of-heaven "), Nin-kar-zi-da (" lady of the (temple) house of 
the spirit "), Nin-kharak {" mountain lady "), and Nin-khar-sagga 
C'lady of the mountain top"), being also among Assyrians a fiery 
godess of war, armed with the bow. She is probably also Nina or 
Nana " the mother," represented with the infant sun god in her arms. 
The Greeks identified her with Artemis, and Athene, as well as with 
Aphrodite. 

Istio. The Teutonic patriarchal deity, son of Manus, ¥^ho was 
son of Tuisko. 

Isvana. Sanskrit A form of the sun or fire (se^ As) ; from the 
old root Is, Us, to " bum " or " shine," common to Aryan, Turanian, 
and Semitic speech. 

Isvara. Sanskrit : '* being " (see As). 

ItU. Idu. Akkadian: "moon" or "month." [The Etruskan 
idu8 " full moon," and Turkish Yede " month." — Ed.] 



304 Italy 

Italy. The ethnical anil religious questions connected with the 
peninsula are treated in special articles (see Etruskans, Fors, Iberes 
Oskans, Rome, Sabines, and Umbri). The meaning of the name is very 
doubtful ; some connect it with Tales as meaning ''sunny land " some 
with Itul or Vetul for " cattle " (Latin vitviua " calf ") ; Diodoros says 
that Samnium, or S. Sabellia, was called Talium or Italium ; and in 
the Timaeus of Plato Italy is called " the land of cattle." [These 
ancient etymologies seem however doubtful, and I-iAJil may simplj 
mean, as an Aryan or as a Turanian word, "the long shore-land." 
—Ed.] 

The ancient names of Italy included Saturnia, Ausonia, Opicia, 
Argessa, Jaoicula, Tyrrhenia, and Oinotria or the land of " wine 
makers." The country has always been populated either from the 
north by land, or from the south by sea. Thus, in addition to the 
Turanian Etruskans and the Pelasgi, it was invaded by Eeltik 
Umbrians and Oskans from the north ; and Greek colonies were 
early established in Magna Grecia on the south. The Aryan tribes 
whose names end in jY, including Sabini, Latini, and others, are 
believed to have formed a distinct stock, though akin to Kelts and 
Greeks. The Latin race owed its civilisation partly to the Etruskans 
and partly to early Greeks. The Etruskans encountered not only 
Pelasgic tribes, but the Ligurians, whose capital was at Pisa, and 
whom Roman authors call *' one of the most ancient nations of Italy.** 
They bad conquered the Iberian coasts, the island of Eurnus (Corsica), 
and apparently Sardinia, with Sicania and Latium : some r^[ard 
them as ancestors of Latins, and the Umbri as forefathers of the 
Romans ; but all the various races were no doubt much mixed. The 
Sabellians occupied provinces E. and S. of Etruria, and bore an 
European Aryan name. They were gradually driven south by the 
stronger races about 1200 B.C., or later. The Ligurians also appear 
to have been driven south by tribes from the Alps, called Taurini 
(near Turin), Rhetae, and Eugani, who (according to Livy) " were once 
great and powerful over all the country from the Alps to the sea," 
These tribes may have been descended from the neo-lithik uncivilised 
people whose "lake dwellings" (about 3000 to 1500 B.C.) are found 
along the rivers and coasts in the ** terra-mare " of N. Italy. These 
Aryan savages received metals and pottery, in the later ages (1500 
B.C. and onwards), from Phoenician and Greek traders. The Veneti, 
or Oueneti, were " fen-dwellers " of unknown race, in the vicinity of 
Venice, who were opposed to the Keltik tribes to their north — such 
as the Carni — and they seem to have been an Istrian or Danubiau 
race, probably also Aryan. 



Ivashtri 305 

When the Romans, in the 6th century B.a, began to become a 
nation, of mixed Latin and Etruskan origin, N. Italy was constantly 
receiving Teutonic immigrants and Gauls. About 500 B.C., we find 
Greeks occupying Calabria, and extending to the gulf of Tarento. 
lapygia was not then known as Italia, and was the true Oinotria, or 
" wine-makers " land, west of the Appenines. The Greeks said that 
the early inhabitants of this region were Felasgi, who came from 
£piru8 and Arkadia ; and Pausanias regarded these as *' the first 
colonisers of Italia." They may have been the Osci and Opici. The 
Osci occupied Apulia, Samnium, Campania, and Latium, having 
Lucanians to their south. This was before the establishment of 
Umbrian and Sabine kingdoms. Italy received all its alphabets from 
the Turanians and the Greeks of Ionia. The migrants from this 
region would be acquainted witli the great island of Euboia, which 
was then called Italika. [Dr Isaac Taylor (Alphabet, ii) describes the 
various alphabets — Etruskan, Oskan, Umbrian, and Latin — from 
extant texts of the 8th and later centuries B.C. The Caere alphabet 
is Etruskan, and distinct from the Latin which originated in Chalcis. 
The CumsB colony was Euboian, and that of Syracuse was Corinthian. 
In addition to these immigrants, Lenormant supposes that the 
Phcenicians of Tyre had founded settlements on the coasts, and in 
the islands of Italy, long before the Carthaginians entered Sicily. — Ed.] 

Ivashtri. Sanskrit: "the maker" or "creator," the Dhatir of 
the Vedas. 

Ixidn. Iksidn. Greek, from the root Ik or Ag, and the 
secondary Aka, meaning " burn " or " shine." He was the son of 
Ares or of Fhleguas, by Dia the daughter of Dionusos. He threw 
his mother into a pit of fire. Zeus favoured him till he attempted to 
seduce H^re, when a cloud was substituted for her, whence the 
Kentaur was born. Hermes (the wind) chained Ixlon to a wheel 
which was sent rolling through space ; and, in confession of his 
ingratitude, he was condemned to cry in Hades, " Benefactors should 
be honoured." We have here the usual mythical figures of sun, 
dawn, wind, earth, and cloud. At Khodes, Ixion was identified with 
Apollo, and his fiery wheel is a common sun emblem in Asia. The 
Hindus said that Dyaush snatched it from the grasp of night. It 
bad usually four spokes, but the three-legged symbol of Sicily, and of 
the Isle of Man, is the same as the fylfot or " flying foot " (see Fylfot 
and Svastika). The torments of Ixion are the labours of H^rakl^s, 
and akin to that of Sisyphus, who rolls the great stone to the zenith, 
only to see it fall back to Hades by night. 



306 Jacob 

J 

The English J sound is the same as in Syrian Arabic and id 
Sanskrit, but the symbol was originally used for long I, as it still is 
in German. Hence Y'alj:ob in our Bible is written Jacob, and Tnseph 
is written Joseph. The J sound interchanges with G. 

Ja. Sanskrit, " conquering " ; from the Aryan root gi or ga, to 
"bend" or "subdue." Hence Jaya-nat, "the conquering lord" — a 
title of Jaganat. 

Jacob, Hebrew : Y*akob, " he followed." The son of Isaac. 
The craft of Jacob, according to our modem ethiks, makes him a 
despicable character ; but the author who records his history regarded 
him as specially favoured by God (see Heel)* 

Jacobites. The Syrian Christians are so called, as followers of 
Jacob Baradseus, a Syrian monk of the 6th century, who maintained 
the doctrines of Eutych§s (coodemned at Chalcedon in 451 B.a), 
attributing a single divine nature to Christ. He influenced not col; 
the Syrian, but the Koptik, and Armenian churches, which, though 
distinct, agree in this Monophysite doctrine. Most of the Syrians, 
though accepting the decisions of previous councils (see Councib), 
rejected that of Chalcedon, and continued ever after to form a 
separate church. The minority were called Melchites, or those of 
the *^ royal " party, agreeing with the Greeks who taught the double 
nature of Christ, and with the Emperor. The Syrians are now few, 
having a patriarch of their own in Jerusalem (at the monastery of St 
Thomas), and ancient monasteries in the Lebanon where, and in 4 
neighbouring villages, the old Syriak language — which was that of the 
Syrian church in the 4th century — is still spoken. 

Jaga-nat. Sanskrit : " lord of creation," a title of Krishna, who 
is also Jaya-nat, " the conquering lord." His great shrine in Orissa 
has become world famous ; and the region is called Utkala-desa, or 
the land that ''efiaces sin," being sacred for 20 miles round the 
shrine. Brahmans traverse all India to urge pilgrimage to this 
temple, where " the granter of all wishes," bestows offspring, and heals 
every ailment. To bathe in the sacred waters of Puri, and to pray 
on its sandy shores, is to obtain remission of the most dire sins. 
Fervent piety, human and divine love, have here been manifested by 
myriads of pilgrims. The Rev. T. Maurice tells us that Capt. 
Hamilton found the symbol of this shrine to be '* a pyramidal black 



Jaga-nat so 7 

stone." The two chief festivals at the site are the Snana-yatra, or 
"bathing" of the god, in the end of May, and the Batha-yatra or 
*'car" festival in June, when the deity, accompanied by his brother 
Bala-mma and his sister Su-bhadra. is dragged in a huge car by 
hundreds of devotees, from his temple to one adjoining it, and back 
again. The Snana fete is a baptismal ceremony for the god and his 
worshipers, in preparation for the later ceremony. The legend says 
that Krishna died in a distant land, slain by Jara (" cold ") ; and his 
body lay uncared for, and wasted away ere pious persons gathered the 
bones in an ark. Vishnu directed the good king Indra-dyumna to 
make an image of Jaga-nat, and to place the bones in it. Yisva* 
Karma (or Hephaistos) undertook to make the image if left undis- 
turbed, but after 15 days the king visited him before he had finished 
the hands and feet: he therefore left the image in this unfinished 
state, and Jaga-nat is now so represented ; but Brahma consented to 
make it famous, and himself to act as priest at its consecration, when 
he bestowed on it eyes and a soul. 

The shrine is very ancient, and caste distinctions are there 

ignored. All are equal in the eyes of the creator, and though 

Hindus there attempt to preserve caste at the fStes, all are supposed 

to eat from the same dish, and the sexes mingle only too freely 

during the hot nights when pilgrims lie in the open, on the sands, 

or in the low jungle scrub round the shrines. The " World Mother," 

Jaga-mata, is Devi (or Himavat), wife of Siva, whose second name 

points to the home of Krishna in the north. In May and June 

200,000 to 400,000 pilgrims assemble on the Fun river, and 3000 

or 4000 priestly families minister to them, while probably as many 

missionaries are sent out all over India, in the spring months, urging 

the sick, the sorrowful, and the barren, to perform this pilgrimage. 

The area of 650 square feet occupied by the shrine is specially 

sacred. A tower 184 feet high (28 feet square) covers the shrine 

where the three images stand. The shrines are all pyramidal, and 

older than 1200 A.C. They are covered with elaborate carving, 

the figures being very indecent : at the entrance rises a basalt 

block 35 feet high, with 1 6 faces, highly ornamented and set on a 

pedestal — this being the liogam of the site, in front of the ark or 

shrine ; as the pillar of Zeus stood before the symbolic cave of 

Delphi. Various statues surround this pillar, in the quadrangle 

which includes the shrines. These represent heroes of the Maha- 

bbarata and Ramayana epiks. The rite of dragging the car over 

prostrate devotees has now been suppressed. Similar car rites 

belong to all temples of Jaganat in every part of India. 



308 Jaga-isvar 

Jaga-isvar. Sanskrit : " spirit of the universe." This is one 
of Siva's most beautiful shrines in Banaras, where rich and poor, 
ignorant and literary, alike worship, beating their heads on the 
threshold, and prostrating themselves on the temple floor, or wearily 
perambulating holy objects. In the central porch sits the sacred 
bull (Nanda), and within the shrine is a lingam of polished black 
stone, 6 feet high, and 1 2 feet in circumference ; water trickles on 
it perpetually from the roof, as at Tilubhand-isvar, where the bull 
kneels before a lingam 4^ feet high, and 15 feet in circumference. 

Jahveh. The German spelling for Yahveh, which they suppose 
to be the correct sound of the name (see Jehovah). 

Jains. See Yati, and Short Stvdiea, i and ii. [The name Jaio 
comes from Jina " being," as they are believers in 24 Jinas (called also 
Tirthankars) or successive ancient saints. The Jains are followers 
of Maha-vira (or Vardha-mana) the contemporary of Gbtama Buddha, 
whose predecessor they recognise in Farswa, probably about 700 6.C. 
They include (1) Digambaras, ''sky-clad," or naked ascetics, called 
Niganthas in Buddhist Pitakas, and in the edicts of Asoka ; and 
(2) Swetambaras or ''white-robed" ones, who date from our Gib 
century. The Jinas are always naked when represented by statues, 
and Nigantha means " free from bonds." But, among modem Jaius, 
only the Yati ascetics are naked, and the laity (Sravakas or 
"disciples") are clothed. The Jain scriptures include 45 Agamas 
in Jain dialect, namely, 11 Angas, 12 Upangas, 10 Pakinnakas, 
6 Chedas, 4 Mula-sutras, and 2 other books. The Jains aim 
at Nirvana, but now worship spirits and have caste distinctions: 
their charity extends to the creation of hospitals even for animals. 
Maba-vira, however, was a metaphysician rather than a practical 
philanthropist such as Qotama became in the second stage of his 
career, and Jains have not gone beyond what he also taught in hi» 
first stage (see Encyclop. Brit). — Ed.] 

Jambu. Sanskrit. The name of a tree of life and knowledge, 
which grows in the centre of Jambu-dvipa, the Hindu paradise (see 
Meru). The Jambu fruits were elephants, which fell on the moun- 
tains. Godesses became productive through eating these apples. 
The elephant (see Indra) here represents the cloud which fertilises the 
earth. 

Jamdiya. The Persian fire-stick, or candle of Agni. 

James. A corruption of the Greek lakobos, and Hebrew Y'akob. 

JameSi Hpistle of. Since our 4th century this tractate has 



James 309 

been supposed to have been written by James the brother of Christ, of 
whom however the author only calls himself a servant The author of 
the 4th Qospel (John vii, 5) says that the brethren of Jesus (that is 
James, Joses, Judah, and Simon) did not believe in him. Jesus is twice 
mentioned in the Epistle of James (i, 1 ; ii, 1) as the Messiah, and 
the Messiah of glory : and it is addressed to the 1 2 scattered tribes, 
or Jews out of Palestine. The unknown author writes an epistle 
such as Hillel might, in other respects, have penned. He was a 
pious Jew, who believed (v, 17) that Elias or Elijah had been able 
to restrain the rains by his prayers. James the brother of John, 
and son of Zebedee, was slain by a Herod probably about 44 a.c. 
(Acts zii, 1) ; and James the son of Alphseus (Matt x, 2) was an 
apostle. The name was naturally very common among Jews. But 
the Churches believed in the 4th century that James, the brother of 
Jesus, who was alive about 39 A.C. or later (Gal. i, 19), became 
bishop of Jerusalem. Eusebius, quoting Hegesippus, relates doubtful 
traditions about his being thrown from a pinnacle of the temple ; and a 
passage in Josephus (perhaps a later interpolation) would make this 
happen about 64 A.C. Hebrew Christians seem to have looked on 
James as little inferior to his brother. Hegesippus is said to have 
recorded that " he has been surnaraed the Just by all, from the days 
of our Lord till now. . . . He was consecrated from his mother's 
womb ... he drank neither wine nor strong drink, and abstained 
from animal food. No razor ever came on his head. He was never 
anointed with oil, nor used a bath. He was in the habit of entering 
the sanctuary alone, and was often found on his knees, interceding 
for the people. ... In consequence of his exceeding great righteous- 
ness he was called the Righteous, and the protector of the people " 
(Euseb., Hist. Ecclea., ii, 23). He appears to have been a Nazarite ; 
and many passages in the Epistle of James suggest an Essene or 
Ebionite writer. He inculcates peace (i, 19), and speaks of the piety 
of the poor (ii, 5-8) : the wisdom from above is gentle he says 
(iii, 17, 18), and he forbids evil speaking (iv, 11). The rich will 
suffer hereafter (v, 1-3), and the Christians must not swear, but 
confess sins mutually, while elders are to anoint the sick with oil 
(v, 12-16), Some early writers place this Epistle in the reign of 
Domitian (81-96 A.c), yet tradition makes James older than Jesus, 
and (if he be the author) it may be earlier than 70 A.C., supposing 
that the son of a Hebrew carpenter is likely to have been able to 
write Greek which, according to Bishop Alford, is " too pure, and too 
free from Hebrew, and Aramaic, words to have been written by any 
Palestinian " : or our present version may be a translation. Origen, 



310 Jan 

according to Dr Mayor, is " the first who cites the Epistle as scripture^ 
and as written by James"; but critics say {AthencBum, 27th Hay 
1893) that : " There is really no information of a trustworthy nature, 
regarding the Epistle, which can be assigned to the first three 
centuries." Eusebius in the 4th century says that it was then 
used " in a few churches, but was held by many to be spurious " 
{Hist Eccle8,f ii, 23 ; iii, 25), probably because it was too Ebionite in 
tendency to be accepted by the Nicene, or High Church, party. 

The Epistle nevertheless was evidently written by a good and 
sensible man, intent on urging his brethren to rely on good works 
rather than on faith alone — an ethikal teaching superior to most of 
that found in the Hebrew or Christian scriptures, and equally advo- 
cated in the same age by Buddhists and Stoiks, as it had been in 
Jewish books such as Ecclesiasticus and Wisdom. The Church of the 
4th century was not in sympathy with this purely ethikal tone {see 
i, 27), or with the secondary position assigned to faith — " the devils 
also believe" (ii, 19). But the spirit of Christ's address to the poor, 
as recorded in the Gospels, is found in this Epistle of James. 

Jan. Jin. Common words for " being " (see Ga, Gan), as in the 
Chinese Navrjdnf and Nu-jdn (or male and female life, and the Arabic 
Jin (plural Jdn) for a spirit (see Jin). 

Janaka. The patriarch of Mithila (Tirhut in India), and a 
common name for its princes, meaning the one '' unborn," or " without 
a father." The legend says that Janaka was produced from the body 
of his predecessor by rubbing, and by the prayers of sages, twenty 
generations before Sita, the wife of Bama, whose father was Janaka; 
and she was called Janaki. Janaka was also the ploughshare which 
scratches the soil, and so connected with Sita the "seed" in the 
furrow. The plains of India were bestowed on Janaka, and by him 
on Bama as the strongest (see Dowson's Hindu MythoL, p. 133). 

JangamS. The name given to priests who wear the lingam, as 
well as to shrines of Siva. Such priests may be seen driving the 
Nandas, or sacred bulls, which are covered with bells and shells, the 
tinkling sounds serving to attract the gods, and to drive away the 
demons. 

Jani-varai or Janvi. The sacred cord of Brahmans, which 
symbolises "new birth," given to the young Hindu at the rite of 
Upa-nyana. It consists of a certain number of cotton threads twisted 
together (like the Persian Kosti), the cotton being plucked and woven 
only by high caste Brahmans. It passes over the left shoulder and 



Janus 311 

rests on the right thigh. It is put on on the 12th birthday of a 
Brahman boy, when a wafer of cummin seed and sugar is stuck to 
the forehead » and the boy (like Siva) then becomes, mentally and 
physically, the Upa-nyanam, or " extra-eyed." Until this is done he 
is classed only as of Sudra caste (Iiidian Antiq,, June 1892). (See 
Upa-nyana.) 

Janus. The Etruskan god of gates, adopted by Bomans, the 
name probably coming from the Turanian gan or gin " to be." Ovid 
(Fasti) says : 

" Why is't that though I other gods adore 
I first mast Janus' deity implore ? 
Because he holds the door by which access 
Is had to any god you would address." 

The Etruskans called Janus the father of the twelve great gods, 
whose 12 altars belonged to 12 months. He was the sun, and Jana 
his consort, was the moon. Macrobius (400 AC.) calls him the "god 
of gods." He was bisexual like other creators, and represented as 
two-headed« The Latins compared Janus and Jana to Dianus and 
Diana (sun and moon) : he was also Patulcius and Clusius — ^the 
" opener " and the ** shutter " — and bore in one hand the rod or 
lituus (crozier), and in the other the key. For he was the master of 
the door q£ life (see Door), which he could shut or open at will. The 
doors of his temple were closed in peace time, and opened in war time. 
He is thus called Deus Clavigerus, and " Cselestis janitor aulse," or 
*' doorkeeper of the celestial hall," or of Paradise. All doors, caves, 
and passages, were sacred to him, and symbolised Jana. She was 
the '* queen of secrets," and (like Hekate) of witches, or Janaras. 
Siva in India, in like manner, is Dvarka-nath, " the Lord of the door." 
The first month of the year was called January after Janus, for he — 
like Siva — is Eala or "time," and is denoted by the 365 days. The 
cock was sacred to Janus as a bird of dawn. Many of his legends were 
transferred to Peter by the Roman Christians, and Peter's symbols 
include the cock and the key. The Janiculum hill W. of the Tiber 
(the Etruskan side) was named from Janus. The doors of the temple 
were closed only for the third time, by Augustus, in 29 B.c. Ovid 
says: "Thou alone, two-headed Janus — origin of the year— canst 
see thine own back." But two-headed figures are found also in 
Lydia, and in Egypt, and the Indian Brahma has four heads. 

Japan. The Japanese empire extends over 162,665 square 
miles, including the four large islands, and a total of 4223 islands in 
all. The Kurile group was annexed as late as 1875. The popula- 



812 Japan 

tion, according to the latest ceDSUs, includes 44,260,606 persons: in 
1872 it was only 33,110,825 persons, and it is apparently doubling 
itself within a century. It is generally held that the aboriginal races 
of China and Japan were quite distinct, and that the languages of the 
two countries show great philological differences, though both belong 
to the Turanian family (see Ainos). However this may be it is dear 
that the great Asiatic continent must, very early, have been the source 
of the race, language, and legends of Japan, just as the European cod- 
tinent is the source of population, language, faith, and superstition, 
whence Kelts, Angles, Jutes, Saxons, Latins, and Normans, came to 
the British Isles. Many indications point to the Japanese proper 
being descendants of the Samoyed Mongols of N.W. Asia, and ulti- 
mately connected with the small Lapp race and the Finns. The 
Samoyeds (as the Russians call them) of N.W. Siberia are an honest 
and peaceful people, who possess much of the artizan ability of the 
Japanese. They are now separated by the Turkish Yakuts from the 
branch that was driven east to Korea. The Koreans still preserve the 
Samoyed custom of not giving names to women {JowmaX of Anthrop. 
Instit, Feby. 1895, p. 234). Travellers have often remarked the 
resemblance between the small Japanese (averaging 5 feet 4 inches in 
height) and the Lapps of Norway, as contrasted with the Chinese 
type (see Proc. Viking Socy,, Feby. 1895: Academy, 16th Fefay. 
1895). Dr Wiuckler {Daily Chronicle, Slst Jany. 1896) says: 
^' The Japs are shown to be closely allied to the Ural-Altaic stock, 
which includes Samoyeds, Finns, Magyars, and in a less degree the 
Tunguse." 

The Japanese account of the Creation appears to be derived from 
that of the Mongols, as found in China. In China the original chaos 
included the male and female elements {Yan-Yin: see China) as yet 
undistinguished ; and so in Japan these elements, and Me, were 
conjoined with water, earth, and air, but were separable to the eye of 
wisdom, as the yolk is distinguished from the white of an egg. Iii 
time the earth sank down, and the water surrounded it, while air 
floated in immeasurable space. In China we hear that Pwan-Koo, the 
first man, then appeared, whom the Japanese call Pan-ko>si. The 
name Pan (as in Greece, or in Italy where we find Faunus and the 
Penates) appears to come — like the Mongol hani — from an ancient 
word meaning a " spirit " or " being." The Japanese legend describes 
the world as having been '' a fine soft mud, like oil, floating on the 
water " ; and out of this, in due time, sprang up " a rush called Asi," 
from which came forth the " earth-former " — a god — and after him a 
godess, who together kneaded mud and sand into a paste. These two 



Japan 813 

were called Iza-na-gi and Iza-na-mi — from gi '' male " and mi 
" femala" The divine pair, resting on a bridge ojr a ship, caused the 
dry land to appear as continents and islands, and then descended on a 
lovelj region, where they gave themselves up to love (a passion of 
which Japanese poetry is full) : they met at the " Imperial Column " 
(a strange term, unexplained but suggestive); and a child was bom to 
them which had to be hidden away» because (says the legend of the 
Ko-zi-ki or Ko-ji-ki) the godess was the first to speak. It was " set 
adrift in an ark of reeds" (like Sargina of Agadh^, or Moses in 
Egypt, or any other of the heroes), and was regarded as *'of evil 
presage " (see Mr Tatui Baba — a Japanese writer on the Ko-zi-ki — 
as followed by Dr Tylor, Journal Anthrop. Instit, 28th March 
1876). 

The Japanese, like Arabs, Teutons, and others, make the sun a 
female ; and the moon according to them was her sister. They had a 
very troublesome brother, Soosana-ono-mikoto " the god of winds," 
who is generally mild and gentle, with tears in his eyes, but who if 
thwarted becomes furiously destructive of all the beauties of earth. His 
breath moisture and fire ruin the work of the two sisters, Ama-terasu- 
Do-kami the sun, and Tsuki-no-kami the moon. The original parent 
deities had condemned the storm god to Hades, after he had blasted 
the fruits and flowers of earth. As he departed he trampled on, and 
blew about, the new seed that the kind sister sun (called also Ten- 
shu-dai-sin "the heaven-enlightening great spirit") had planted. 
Like his Egyptian prototype Set, the Japanese storm god returned 
from Had^es, and his sun sister was forced to take refuge in "a 
cavern in the sky," where she closed the opening with a great stone, 
leaving the world in darkness. " Distressed at this " (says Dr Tylor, 
8till quoting the Ko-zi-ki) "the 800,000 gods devise means to bring 
her out : they light a fire outside." Various joyous proceedings, such 
as all early peoples observed to usher in the spring, then followed, 
including dances, singing, processions, with jewelled banners and 
emblems such as "the sacred mirror, and peculiarly cut pieces of 
paper," with torches and colored lights. The sun godess was induced 
to listen at the door of her cave, wondering why men and birds were 
so mirthful, and could sing and dance in a world which she had left 
dark. Her curiosity led her slowly to " push the great stone a little 
on one side, and to peep out." The god on guard then opened the 
door, by .completely removing the stone. All then joined in per- 
suasive plaints, regretting the tyranny of the storm god, who was sent 
back to Hades. The sun godess issued forth, and the joyous 
worshipers " stretched a cord across the cave's mouth " to prevent her 



314 Japan 

again escaping from their sight. The whole legend is very clearly a 
myth of summer and winter. The wind god is however not always 
evil, for we read that he '' descends to earth, and slays the eight 
headed and eight tailed serpent (Oroti) who is about to destroy the lady 
of the young rice " ; by which we may understand the February winds 
drying up the floods. The heavenly mother godess, Iza-na-mi (already 
noticed), " falls from her high estate,** and descends to Hades, where 
she tastes food (like Proserpine) and is unable, or unwilling, to return ; 
she is followed by her lord Iza-na-gi who seeks to bring her back, but to 
him she says " Thou art too late, for I have eaten of the food of this 
world" — an idea held also by New Zealanders (Tylor, Jowmal 
Anthrop. Inatity VI, i, 57-59). In Babylonian myths also the sun 
is said to eat poison in Hades, which delays his reappearance, whereas 
Istar in Hades drinks water of life and is restored. The cut paper 
above mentioned (6o-hei), and the mirror (Kami), will be noticed again. 
They serve to connect Chinese and Japanese symbolism ; and the 
mirror is regarded as a defence against demons in China. The Go-hei 
papers are diamond shaped, and are often built up in a pyramidal 
form at praying places. 

The Japanese took their written characters also from China ; hut 

simplified the system of innumerable emblems into two syllabaries, 

apparently about our 9th or 10th century. The Kata-katui syWabaij 

is cursive, and is derived from the Chinese Kyai-ahu^ or "model 

character." The HirorJcavxt syllabary is derived from the 5r«itt-sA« 

or "grass character" of China (see Dr Isaac Taylor, Alphabet, i, 

p. 14). The sacred Japanese writings include the Kojiki (or 

Ko-zi-ki), completed in 711 A.c. ; and the Nihon-ki, completed in 

720 A.C. They will never rank with older Bibles, though not more 

full of mythical matter. They are both almost unreadable, the 

phonetic characters used being said to have been introduced into 

Japan in the reign of Ojin about 270 to 310 A.C. The first of these 

books seems to have been preserved orally for some time, through ''a 

woman of extraordinary memory who repeated all the old traditions " 

(Reed's Japan, i, p. 22). In the Nihon-ki we find patriarchs living 

140, and in one case 350, years. The Kojiki mentions "three gods 

of the gate " ; but " the three are one"; whereas now, at the Mikado's 

Court, two separate gods of the gate are venerated. These ancient 

annals are known from Mr Chamberlain's translation, and from essays 

by Sir E. Satow (see Shin-to). 

Religious toleration prevails in Japan ; and, in addition to the 
national Shin-to (" way of the gods " or " divine rites "), the race has 
been influenced by Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, and (in a lesser 



Japan 816 

degree) by Christianity. The religion of the peasant and that of the 
educated differ as much in Japan as elsewhere, and Shin-to beliefs 
permeate Buddhist ritual. The most distinctive features of Japanese 
religion belong to the original Animistic beliefs, to which the name 
Shin-to is given. Mr Brownell {Heart of Japan^ 1903) separates 
the deities usually adored into two classes, (1) the Kamii or Shin-to 
godSf worshiped in a Miya temple ; and (2) the HotaJce or Buddhist 
deities, in a Tera or monastery. These temples are approached 
through avenues, with huge symbolic gateways, recalling the gate 
which is used in China (see Door) for " passing through " to cure 
sickness. According to the Japanese Buddhists of Ise the creator 
produced Ama-terasu (the sun) from his left eye, and Susa-noo 
(the wind) from his right eye, after his return from pursuing his 
wife to Hades. 

Among other gods (according to Mr Brownell) are to be mentioned : 
(1) Marishiten, an eight-armed godess, thought to be of Indian origin, 
who guides the sun and moon from her throne in the constellation of 
the Great Bear : (2) Kishi-Bcjin, a sweet-faced lady, the protectress 
of children, whose lap is full of dolls, bibs, and caps, offered by women 
whose children she has called away. She has become a Buddhist 
deity ; for, according to her legend, she had determined to destroy 
Buddha, but was turned into a dragon or serpent, and then produced 
500 children, whom it was decreed bv heaven she should eat — one 
every day : but Buddha had mercy on her, and restored her to woman- 
hood, whereupon she became a nun, and now sits in monasteries with 
a pomegranate in her hand : (3) SaTa-biki-Zaru is a triune monkey 
god, who presides over Kcjin — the hearth or kitchen deity ; for the 
three monkeys are Iwa-Zaru who is dumb with hand to mouth, Kita- 
Za/rw who is deaf holding his ears, and Mi-Zaru who is blind with 
hands over his eyes ; these three refuse to speak, hear, or see, any 
evil : (4) Kompira (or Kotohira) is a god of sailors, worshiped by 
Buddhists for 12 centuries till recently, in a temple at the foot of 
Zozu-san-shi-koku ; his form is that of a huge crocodile 1000 feet 
long, with 1000 limbs and 1000 heads; his fSte was on the 11th 
October ; but when the Shin-to worshipers obtained power, some 
3 years ago, his Tera was pulled down, and a Miya shrine built 
over him instead, the sectaries saying that " he had been their god 
froai of old " : (5) Fvdo (Budha) is the god of wisdom, with a fierce 
ugly countenance, usually seated on a fiery throne, holding a sword 
in his right hand, and a noose in his left ; he binds the wicked and 
ignorant, handing them over to (6) Emma-o or *' awful wisdom," the 
regent of the hells, who judges them ; his scribe records their deeds. 



316 Japan 

and punishment is decreed accordingly ; but Emma-o was once a great 
Chinese general, and a lover of truth wiser than heaven, to whom also 
Chinamen sacrifice a cock when taking vows. Finally there are, 
besides these gods, seven pleasant looking deities of good luck, called 
Shichi-Fukurjin. 

The late Mrs Bishop (Miss Bird), in her interesting account of 
the wilder parts of Japan, describes the Aino worship (see Aino), and 
the Gohei paper emblems, which are attached to a white rod, forming 
a kind of Thyrsus (like that of Bakkhos) very similar to the Tarao 
emblem of Polynesia (see Rivers of Life, ii, p. 231, fig. 244). The 
Ainos offer libations of Saki to this emblem, and drink it also in 
honor of the god, who is often thus too much worshiped. The cult 
of sun and moon seems gradually to have replaced an older worship 
of beasts, birds, and snakes — especially of the bear. Even the Ainos 
have now rude temples, and Miss Bird was taken to a wooden shriue, 
and told on no account to tell the Japanese anything about it It 
was a dismal cell containing — as she understood — the image of a 
revered Japanese leader, Toshit-suni, who had been kind to the Ainoa 
It was built on an almost inaccessible hill, and contained also some 
Gohei rods, brass candlesticks, and a Chinese picture of a junk. When 
asked about a future life these Ainos replied : *' How can we know ? 
No one ever came back to tell us " ; and when told that one God 
made us all they refused to believe it, saying : " How is it then that 
you are so different — ^you so rich and we so poor " ? These are words 
we all might well take to heart. The Japanese, according to this 
author, have sacred fox-images of Inari : they say these beasts pursae 
men, and, taking the form of beautiful women, steal their senses; 
while badgers in the form of " loveable men " also seduce the affections 
of women (Miss Bird's Japan^ i, pp. 71, 381 ; ii, p. 95). The fox is 
also a great figure in early Chinese mythology. 

Other details of belief and custom may be found in the account 
by Mr Heam (Glimpses of UnfamUiar Japan), though the ethiks 
which he attributes to the Shin-to faith appear more properly to be 
derived from Buddhism, and the teaching of Confucius. He notices 
Uchi-no-Kami as a god of the house or home, whose shrine (or Kavii- 
dana) is a "god-shelf" facing S. or E. or SE. and never N. or W. 
which is the direction for female deities (i, p. 400). The dead are 
buried facing N., and all that is connected with death is impure. Fire 
also is subject to impurity, and must be renewed with flint and steel, 
or from the sun's rays, in order to purify houses. A sacred lamp must 
always burn beside the Kami-dana, or if poverty forbids this, must at 
least be lighted on the 1st, 15th, and 28th of each month, specially 



Japan 817 

sacred to the gods. The lesser gods, or spirits of the dead, are 
worshiped in a separate chamber called the Mitamaya, or "spirit 
chamber/* or — ^by Buddhists — the Butsu-dan or family shrine (p. 404). 
The Buddhists and Shin-toists often worship together ; and even the 
Shin-shu sect, which adores Amida-Buddha, respects the family Lares 
and Penates. The first duty at dawn is to place a cup of tea before 
the Butsu-ma, or Butsu-dau ; and on the 7th of March, at the " all- 
souls" festival (Bonku), special offerings must be made. Ancestor- 
worship is foreign to true Buddhism, but both in China and Japan 
Buddhists pray that their ancestors may help them (pp. 412-415). 
Phallic worship appears to have belonged to the Shin-to system, and 
was put down after the revolution, some 20 or 30 years ago, by the 
Imperial orders. Mr Hearn (ii, p. 348) found everywhere sacred 
stones, believed to be haunted and to possess miraculous powers, or 
variously called the woman's stone, nodding stone, death stone, wealth 
stone, etc. The Shin-to worshiping masses still cling to their very 
ancient rites and symbols. Mr Hearn (i, p. 392) quotes Sir E. Satow 
(on the Revival of Pure Shin-to) as saying: "all moral ideas are 
(believed to be) implanted by the gods, and are of the same nature as 
the instinct to eat or drink." 

Japanese customs depend on such beliefs. Marriages are cele- 
brated in a tent on a mound, where is the bride's idol, with eight 
lamps. She ascends the hill from one side, and the bridegroom with 
his relations from the other. The pair hold torches, lighted from 
altar fires, in their hands. A Bonzi blesses and unites them, amid 
joyful shoutings ; and grain is thrown over them. The bride's play- 
things are then burned, and a spinning wheel with flax is presented to 
her. She is led home ; and two oxen with some sheep are sacrificed 
in honour of a god with a dog's head. The Japanese bum the dead 
(i, p. 390), setting up the corpse in the attitude of prayer, clothed in 
white, with a paper pa.sted on giving the name of the deity worshiped 
by the deceased. The pit in which the body is placed is filled with 
wood, and covered with a cloth. Tables, with meats dressed in bloody 
and with perfumes, are set round : the friends touch the corpse, and 
invoke its god : the Bonzi waves a lighted torch, and throws it away : 
the nearest relatives seize it, and stand east and west of the body, 
finally lighting the pyre which is drenched with oils and perfumed 
essences. Letters are often burned, and answers are expected from 
the other world. On the following day the ashes are collected, and 
placed in the family chamber. Mourning continues for seven days, 
and the remains are then buried in a cemetery outside the town, and 
over them a monument is erected. 



318 Japan 

The gods in Japan are often represented by beaatiful images, 
such as that of Sikuani, who is covered with stars, and seated on a 
lotus, holding a scimitar, a rosary, a child, and a crescent ; or the god 
Jene, with 4 arms, and 4 heads under a seven-rayed glory. The 
Japanese say that sun-worship came to them from China and Siam 
(M, Aymonier, Royal Asiatic Society Journal, October 1894); and 
at the great temple in Sakai is a dedication to " all the deities of 
Arakan, Pegu, Eambodia, Java, Cochin-China, Siam, Borneo, the 
Philippine Islands, Korea, and China," 

Among very ancient customs is that of devoting girls (Geishas) to 
the service of Venus (like the Kodeshoth of Hebrews, Phoenicians, and 
Babylonians, or the Deva-dasis of India), and at such temples phallic 
emblems are found (Capt De Fonblanque, Niphxm, p. 141, published 
in 1862). The great centre of pilgrimage is the ''shrine of the 
gods" on Fuji-yama, the sacred mountain (12,370 feet above the sea), 
with a crater 1800 feet deep. But the last festival here was cele- 
brated in 1861. The Japanese god of wealth (Dai-ko-ku) has a 
hammer as his chief weapon, which lies on his lap, with balls of rice 
and seven precious things. This again has probably a phallic connec- 
tion, like the symbolic gateways (see Torii). The Japanese emblem 
of the Tortoise (as in China and India) signifies "longevity and 
happiness" (Mrs Solwey, J.«ia<ic Qtuirterly, October 1894), and is 
called Eame (see Turtle). The butterfly is also an important emblem 
(see Butterfly) called Cho, and representiiig the soul : it is connected 
with the fan (Ogi) which symbolises air ; and also with a crystal ball 
or disk — the jewel Hcjin-nO'tama, which typifies the soul, and is 
suspended over the dead. A group of these stones '* denotes eternity " 
(see Rivera of Life, i, p. 167). The mirror is as important as it was 
in W. Asia and Egypt, and is the emblem of woman — the Kagami — 
while the " accusing mirror " occurs in the Hell of Japanese Buddhists, 
as a record of sins. The Lotus also is as much revered as in India, or 
in ancient Egypt, The Kaan-nO'Eara, as this flower is called, is 
(according to Mrs Solwey) "creative power, and world growth . . . 
eternity, and a trinity . . . symbol of Spirit and Form " ; for its calyx 
is a triangle, whose base is a circle (see Rivera of Life, i, p. 47). The 
Chinese Yan and Yin (male and female) appear, according to this 
account, to answer to Yoi and Ye, '' represented as two colossal red and 
green figures at temple entrances. . . . They typify the two elements 
of life, male and female, and are also emblems of perfect strength." 

The three emblems of national importance in Japan — fonning 
the Palladium of the empire — are the Mirror: the Sword of Miya: 
and the stone Maga-Tama, of which we have no description, but which 



Japan 319 

is otherwise a *' ball/' perhaps typifying the mundane egg, or the soul 
(Hojin-no-tama) as already noticed. The Maga-Tama was the most 
revered object in Japan for more than 2500 years, down to the 
Revolution of 1868, and was always in the keeping of the Mikado. 
The three objects so described were in the royal palace till the time of 
the great Mikado Sugin in 97 B.c. ; after which the Mirror and the 
Sword were placed in special temples. In 3 B.C. the Mirror was finally 
placed at Ise, in the Aji temple of the sun god, which has repeatedly 
been rebuilt every ten years in scrupulous imitation of the original 
shrine. The Sword is placed in the famous Atsutu shrine of the city 
Ndgoya, and can be seen ; but the original Mirror is never shown to 
anyone : for in Shin-to temples (says Sir £. Eeed) " there are no 
visible objects of worship " : though at Naiku " the representation of 
the deity is in the hidden sacred mirror." The spirit of deity is, 
in general, enshrined in some concealed object known as the " august 
spirit," or "God's seed" (Keed's Japan, ii, pp. 248-256). Even the 
chief priest himself " does not for years together even see the case con* 
taining the sacred Mirror, and no other priests are admitted into the 
building without good cause." The sacred Sword is called Kussanagi- 
no-metzurugi — " the grass mowing sword " : three veils before this 
emblem are looped up to allow worshipers to see it, whereas the veils 
in front of the casket of the sacred Mirror are never raised. The 
Sword (says Sir E. Beed) is " the object of veneration to millions, who 
have come day and night to bow before it" (ii, p. 267): it was pro- 
duced from the tail of the serpent defeated by the wind god, as already 
described : it accompanied the monarch to war, and to quell a confla- 
gration — perhaps meaning a revolution. It was so withdrawn from 
its first shrine in the 2nd century A.C. ; and, after victory, was replaced 
and has never since been moved. 

The Chinese godess Kwan-yin (see Avalokit-Isvara) is worshiped 
as Kwan-on in Japan, and described by Miss Bird as "a rude 
block of rock shaped like a junk." Sir E. Beed states that she is 
bisexual (as elsewhere), and has 1000 arms, being honored alike in 
Shin-to and Buddhist temples. She is especially " Our Lady of the 
sea and of seafarers " (like the Boman Virgin, Stella-maris), and on one 
occasion she warned a prince of a coming flood, whereby he escaped 
while all others perished. A fine bronze statue of this deity was 
erected on the spot, and is still to be seen on a high conical granite 
hill under which runs the high road round Fujiyama. Buddhists 
and Shin-to worshipers alike adore Kwan-on. 

Shin-to is called Kami-nO'Tnichi or "the way of the superior 
ones " (Kami), and is described by Mr Bates (Assistant Secretary of 



320 Japan 

the Boyal Geographical Society — see JovAifud, vol v) as ''a sort 
of politico-moral faith, combined with the worship of ancestora." 
The chief deity is the great ancestress of the emperor, the godess 
Ama-terasu (or the sun) : the most important of Shin-to festivals (or 
MaUoori) takes place in the 6tb month, when young and old, rich 
and poor, attend. It is on this occasion that the offerings to the 
dead are sent out in boats to be burned at sea (see Bridges). The 
Shin-to priests are believed to hold communion with the deity, but 
images are not commonly used, while the ethikal teaching inculcates 
purity of thought, word, and deed, and honesty in dealing with others. 
The persistence with which nations adhere to their ancient ideas is 
illustrated by the national coinage of the " third year of peace and 
enlightenment" (1870). In the centre of the reverse is the mirror, 
above which is the " wheel " with six divisions, and below the 
KiH tree, while the sun appears on a standard to the right, and 
the moon on one to the left : the whole is surrounded by wreaths of 
chrysanthemums and Kiri leaves : the obverse bears a dragon, and 
the legend "Great Nipon" — that is **east" or "rising sun." 

About 250 B.G. Buddhism began to spread beyond India, and was 
established in China by 60 A.c. (see China ; and Reed's Japan, i, 
p. 75): but it was not preached in Japan till about 550 A.C., or a 
thousand years after the death of the founder Gautama the Sakya 
(see Buddha), who is called Shaka by the Japanese. They date bim 
(like the Chinese) as early as 949 B.C., whereas 543 fi.c. is the 
generally accepted date of his death. The semi-barbarous EoreaDS 
received a corrupt form of Buddhism, and sent to the Japanese monarch 
Elimei some statues, banners, and altars. The new faith took root, 
but at first every epidemic was attributed to it. By 605 A.G., royal 
edicts appear to have been issued under Buddhist influence ; and a 
little later a Japanese empress gave up hunting, as being contrary to 
the Buddhist scruples as to taking animal life. Within a generation 
or two, beautiful shrines began to be erected all over the islands; 
and in our 8th century every province was ordered to maintain a 
Buddhist temple, while endowments were increased, and monasteries 
and nunneries established. The master stroke of the creed came in 
the 9th century, when Kobo — a learned Japanese priest — declared 
that, as a result of foreign travel, he found the old gods of Japan to 
be manifestations of Buddha. Patriotism and piety were thus united, 
and the old Shin-to beliefs paled before the rising sun of Buddhism, 
which had its "golden age" in our 13th century. Intoxicated bj 
power Buddhists then forgot their ancient humility and unworldliness : 
the priests defiled their hands with gold ; and, as in India, the faith 



Japan 821 

decayed. Its rites and temples, in Japan, can now hardly be dis- 
tinguished from those of Shin-to worship, and in its highest form it 
becomes only a kind of emotional Confucianism. The extremely 
logical character of the teaching of Confucius has impressed the 
educated classes, especially as taught by the Chinese philosopher 
Chu-he. Thus Miss Bird found Buddhist temples deserted, and 
falling into ruins (though this is not alwajrs the case, even in 1900 
A«c.). Once freed from dogma, and belief in the supernatural, the 
course of thought becomes rapid, especially when the results of science 
have been studied ; and Japanese students now prefer the teaching of 
Mill, Huxley, and Herbert Spencer, to Buddhism or Confucianism. 
Since the great Reformation of 1868, and the calm consideration of 
Christianity, the Japanese Qovernment has decided on a neutral 
attitude, tolerating all creeds, and nominally accepting the ancient 
Shin-to system which suits the social and political: traditions of the 
reigning family. Confucianism pursues its ancient path (see 
Confucius), as a rational system, glad to accept all who are true to 
reason ^nd good conduct, standing apart from the wayward, or the 
excessively religious. Miss Bird {Japa/a, i, p. 8) thought that the 
educated upper class accepted the Buddhist ideals as distinguished 
from the religious development which has become corrupt, and she 
regarded them as materialistic and skeptikal, while the masses were 
still influenced by Shin-to beliefs tinged with Buddhist (Maha-yana) 
doctrines. The more advanced, '' though tired of the old religions, 
did not want a new one" (p. 378): "the throne of the gods," they 
said, " was in the heart (or brain) of the righteous man." When 
Miss Bird asked the directors of the Educational Department at 
Kubota, in W. Japan, if they taught religion they replied : " We 
have no religion, and all your learned men know that religion is false " 
(p. 306), meaning thereby the legends to which the name religion is 
given. [The religion of the Buahi in Japan, in 1904, is an ethical 
system in some respects not unlike the ideal of chivalry, or of our own 
upper class. — Ed.] 

Buddhism, however, even when corrupt, as in Japan, instils 
teaching which precludes the acceptance of the Christian dogma that 
"without shedding of blood there can be no remission of sin '' (Miss Bird's 
Japan, i, pp. 208-211). The people refuse to believe in "original 
sin"; and not only do they not fear to die (as we have seen in 1904), 
but they even exclaim " if you hate a man let him live " : [as the 
Quanchos of the Canary Islands also said " let him live and feel the 
evils of fate " — Ed.]. They have ever before them the teaching of 
the great Master, and the practical ethiks of China: and Miss 



322 Japan 

Bird gives us an extract from a sermon preached on Buddha's 
words : 

" That which is evil, be it small, do not. 
The good, be it but small, fail not to do." 

In this sermon a very practical lesson is taught, as to the necessity 
that our Yea be yea and our Nay nay; the preacher conduding 
with the words, *' Peace in a household is like joyous musia" Miss 
Bird complains that Japanese children pose Christian missionaries bj 
such questions as : " What was the name of God's wife ? " : ^ When 
Christ was God on earth, to whom did men pray ? " : ''If Jesus did 
not understand prophecy why was the meaning not sought; what 
could be the use of it if hidden so long from so many godly persons?" 
Buddhism has its High, its Broad, and its Evaugelical schools, 
like Christianity : its extreme Protestants ; and its Ranters, Sir £. 
Seed describes the Nicbiren sect as numerous, powerful, violent, aod 
noisy in their rites; intolerant and dogmatic in all things; much 
given to pilgrimage, revivals, proseljrtism, and frantic excesses. Their 
founder was Nicbiren (" the Sun-Lotus ") who was miracoloualv 
conceived by the sun godess. He was dissatisfied with Chinese and 
Japanese Buddhism ; and, after much study of Chinese and of 
Sanskrit, he discarded the prayer (or " aspiration after " the eteraal 
Buddha) in favour of a mere exclamation : " Hail to the salvatioD- 
bringing Book of the Law." He is said to have attacked bitterly all 
other sects, and to have been condemned to death : the sun however 
interfered, blinding the eyes, and shivering the sword, of the 
executioner. So that Nicbiren died finally in peace, protesting that 
only through his teaching, and by his book, could salvation be secured. 
The followers of Nicbiren devote themselves to the making of converts; 
and they revile and proscribe other sects : yet Sir E. Reed attributes 
their success to their exclusive teaching, and directness of speeoL 
Though persecuted at first this sect has ** produced a great number of 
brilliant intellects ; uncompromising zealots ; and nnquailing martyrs ; 
as well as of relentless persecutors." In the Nicbiren sect (our author 
adds) we find a spirit " not by any means alien to some bodies of 
Christians, and, in common with them, they appear to esteem a Book, 
or a Bible, before and above everything." The census returns of 1872 
showed 128,123 Shin-to temples, and 89,914 Buddhist shrines, in 
Japan, giving some idea of the proportionate numbers of the tvo 
creeds — the total of 218,037 places of worship being served by 
225,000 priests, generally ignorant and confident When allowing 
Christian missions in the west of the country the officials said that 



Japan 323 

tbey would " find the land sunk in Buddhism " ; and they might have 
added ^ and Buddhism sunk in Shin-to " (see Miss Bird's Japan, i, 
p. 199). 

In his report on the shell mounds of Japan, in 1879, Prof. 
£. S. Morse states that the early inhabitants were cannibals. Human 
bones were found in the Omori mound, with those of deer, boars, 
wolves, monkej^s, and dogs, all equally scratched, cut, split, and 
fractured, in order to obtain the marrow. These remains show the 
presence of man long before Japanese history begins about 25 
centuries ago. The Japanese themselves speak of the aborigines as 
having been a wild hairy people (like the Ainos), speaking a jargon 
which no one else could understand. Modem Japanese is a tongue 
distinctively Turanian, being agglutinative. [It is distinguished from 
Chinese by possessing the letter r, but not I : whereas the latter has 
the I, but no r sound — Ed.]. The Japanese era dates from the 
11th February 660 B.O.: the first Emperor Jimmu-Tennu — fifth in 
descent from the sun godess — then came from heaven on to Mount 
Kiri-Shima (in the S. Island of Eiushiu), being in his 50 th year of 
age. He conquered the country, and fixed his capital near Kioto. 
The present Mikado (bom on 3rd November 1852, and acceding'on 
13th February 1867) is the 125th successor of Jimmu; but really 
authentic history is supposed not to go back further than about 
400 B.C. 

After Jimmu, the first famous emperor was Ojin (270 to 310 A.C.) 
— "the '* Mars of the Morning Land." His mother, the warrior empress 
Jingu, is said to have delayed his birth a long time till she had finished 
the war with Korea, begun by her husband Chuai in 192A.C. The 
legend adds that she brought back books and writings to Japan, and 
promoted learning. Ojin introduced Chinese literature ; but a script 
had already been brought from Korea by Okara in 157 B.a, during 
the reign of Tenu Kaikua : on his death, in 97 B.C., writing was 
farther encouraged through the visit of a Korean prince to Japan, 
and continued to be studied ever after. Jimmu, and Ojin, are now 
deified in temples, and their history obscured by myths — Ojin being 
regarded as an incarnation of Buddha. His tutor Ajiki (or Anaki), 
according to some was an envoy from the Korean king, and brought 
over with him weavers, sempstresses, and brewers, with weapons, 
horses, and mirrors, so introducing civilisation. He also brought 
the " Confucian Analects and Thousand Characters," so that the 
foundation of Japanese philosophy was laid about 300 A.C. Japan 
was first made known to Europe by Marco Polo in the 13th century. 
He calls it Zipango, which, to the Chinese and Portuguese was 



324 Japan 

Jih-pon or *' sun-source " (tbe East) : the Portuguese reached it after 
establishing themselves in India, first appearing in 1543; and they 
were followed by Xavier as missionary in 1550. The Christians 
were expelled again in 1638. The Dutch in turn established a 
factory, and two centuries of Japanese ill-fortune — during which 
time Europeans are said to have extracted 100 millions in gold from 
the country — culminated in 1853, when an American fleet appeared 
in the harbour of Tedo and. extorted a treaty. 

Europe then became aware that the Mikado was a sacred and 
secluded monarch, deified and worshiped after death, according to the 
Shin-to creed. The rise of the Tai-kun (or " great chief") to the 
position of actual ruler appears to have been originally due to a 
Mikado in 85 B.C., who. appointed one of his sons Shiogun, or 
commander in chief. In our 12th century the Mikado Eoniei 
attempted to curb the increasing power of the Daimios or nobles, 
whom the common people called " lords of our heads." The Taikun 
however thus attained to the temporal headship, and the Mikado was 
secluded until the great reform of 1868. Tbe ''Era of Jtfeiji" then 
commenced, the youthful Mikado recovering liberty of action, as leader 
of the Samurai, or gentle class, which had long groaned under the 
tyranny of the Taikun, and of the feudal nobles, who were now obliged 
to relinquish their privileges. The Mikado had been always regarded 
as tbe source of honour, and had a nominal veto over the Taikun or 
Shiogun, whom he used to honour by an annual visit : for tbe two 
rulers lived 300 miles apart. The rapid increase in prosperity which 
followed this reformation is represented by the statistics of 1903, when 
Japan had £5,000,000 of imports, and £26,000,000 of exports, a 
small surplus of revenue over expenditure, and (in spite of war) a debt 
of only £55,000,000. In the same year Mr Okakura's book, Ideals 
of the East, became known in England (see Athenccum, 21st March 
1903) ; and this Japanese scholar gives reasons for the advance made 
by his country in the last 30 years. The reviewer says that ''this 
work of the President of the Bijutsu In {Academy of Fine Arts) 
is in many ways a remarkable and significant book." The author 
traces the reforms to the influence of tbe Confucianism of the earij 
Tokugawa period, and to that of Moto()ri, who revived Shin-to, and to 
whom Confucianism was an abomination. He feared the Western 
encroachments witnessed in India and China ; while the clans of the 
south and west had long hated the Eastern Tokugawa (Taikun) power. 
Loyalty .to the Mikado became the keynote of the new system, soJ 
a protection against Western invasion. The writer is no lover of 
democracy or of foreigners. " It must be from Asia itelf,*' he saj>» 



Japan 325 

• 

** along the ancient roadways of the race, that the great voice shall be 
heard, Victory from within or a mighty death without." [The resalts 
of this loyal patriotism we are now witnessing ; and Europe, ignorant 
of the native culture due to Confucian ethics, which teach obedience 
and patriotism, sees with astonishment the daring of a race who 
believe themselves to be ruled by one whose " merits," in this and 
in former lives, give victory and prosperity to his country — a race 
that fears not death, since the result of duty done will be a future 
life happier than the present. Japan, while adopting the science 
and inventions studied for many years in Europe, is attracted, not 
by our creeds but only by our philosophy. She is indifferent to 
Christianity, but appreciates Darwin and Herbert Spencer. She 
is not to be schooled by those whom she regards as less advanced 
in thought than herself ; but she is ready to absorb all new ideas that 
commend themselves as useful to her statesmen and soldiers. — Ed.] 

When Francis Xavier reached Japan in 1550 A.C. (see Venn's 
^if^ of Xavier) he was plied with such questions as this : '' If we 
have souls, have they power of utterance : will they return to this 
world and tell us all things — what they saw, and what we should 
do?" But out of nine religious sects Xavier found only one that 
denied the immortality of the soul. All alike had deeply meditated 
about the future, but they had learned from Buddha, and from 
Confucius, to regard such speculations as " vain and unprofitable." 
The Rev. Father Venn says : " It is strange to find Xavier rejoicing 
over his prospects in Japan because all told him he would find the 
Japanese willing to accept and obey Reason " (p. 168). It was Faith 
not Reason that he required. " A convert told him that, if he trusted 
to Reason, the people from king to commoner would cling to the new 
prophet (Christ) : for all follow Reason." But he could only offer them 
rites, symbols, pictures of saints, crosses, virgins and babes, which some 
accepted as charms. Theological discussions and sermons fell on deaf 
ears. The Bonzes however were alarmed, and appealed to the Govern- 
ment. Xavier and his friends were ordered to leave Japan, and bloodshed 
followed (see Dr Klsempfer's Japan, published in 1797). KsBmpfer 
wrote about 1700 A.C., after a two years' residence in the country, 
half a century after all Christians had been exterminated. He says : 
^ This new religion, and the great number of persons of all ranks who 
were converts, occasioned considerable altercations in the churches, 
prejudicial in the highest degree to the heathen clergy." Mosheim 
{Chv/rch History) says that : " An incredible number of Christians 
were found in Japan towards the beginning of the 17th century, and 
the Government feared a repetition of the misery and bloodshed and 



326 Japan 

rebellion that Xavier and others had previously caused. It was re- 
membered that after proclamations were issued in 1586 persecutions 
began, which for a time caused an increase of Christians. After 
thousands had been put to death, and the churches had been closed 
or destroyed in 1592, say the Jesuits, the converts had risen to 
12,000 in number." In 1616 the young emperor Fide Jou was 
put to death by his tutor Ijejas, who usurped the throne, and was 
suspected of being a Christian; and Japanese writers own that his 
court and soldiers professed Christianity (Venn, p. 297). Much 
cruelty was inflicted on these converts during the ensuing struggles. 
In 1635 the Dutch captured letters from a Captain Moro, leader of 
the Portuguese in Japan — a native who was a zealous Christian: 
these being traitorous were sent to the emperor, and ''in 1637 an 
imperial proclamation was issued by which Japan was shut to 
foreigners. Five hundred pounds were offered for a priest, and for 
every Christian in proportion : ' All persons who propagate the doc- 
trines of the Christians, or bear this scandalous name, shall be im- 
prisoned in the common jail of the town : the whole race of the 
Portuguese, with their mothers, nurses, and whatever belongs to them, 
shall be exiled to Macao.'" Some 40,000 Christians held a fortress 
near Simahara, but were bombarded by the Dutch as allies of the 
Japanese emperor : for they were Romanists, and hateful to the 
Protestant Hollanders. The place was taken by assault, and the 
defenders barbarously put to death. " The name of Christ became 
an object of shame and terror throughout Japan ... its very mentioD 
would bate the breath, blanch the cheek, and smite with fear as with 
an earthquake shock. It was the synonym of sorcery and sedition, 
and all that was hostile to the purity of home, and the peace of 
society." The " Jashiu-Mon " signified " corruption," and the " Kirishi- 
tan " faith was " an awful scar on the national memory." The only 
results of a century of Christianity and of foreign intercourse were, 
according to Mr Griffis (The Mikado's Empire)— the introduction of 
gunpowder, tobacco, sponge cakes, and a few foreign words and new 
diseases, with " one scourge that must be nameless " (see Heed's Japan^ 
i, p. 229). 

Recent missionary labours, according to Mr Heam (Ovt of the 
East, 1894), include those of 800 Protestants, 92 Roman Catholics, 
and 3 Greeks, expending £200,000 a year. The result is a popala- 
tion of 50,000 Protestants, and 50,000 Romanists, or less than 3 per 
cent of the population. The Japanese Government ordered, not long 
ago, an inquiry by a Commission charged to report on the value of 
Christianity, and its influence as a check on crime at home or abroad. 



Jara-Sandha 327 

Bat the report was entirely unfavourable. The Commission decided 
against all faiths of the West, as unsuited to the East,, and as ethikally 
inferior to the Japanese standard. The early Romanist missionaries 
haJi succeeded^ it is said, in converting 600,000 persons — ^mainly by 
approximating their language to that of Buddhism (according to Mr 
Griffis) ; but Christianity has now no better prospect in Japan than in 
China or India. 

The Marquis Ito» Prime Minister of Japan, said in 1896 : '* The 
educated Japanese prefer to live by reason, science, and the evidence 
of their senses : I have secured absolute toleration for all religions, 
and to a certain extent I would encourage a spirit of religion ; but I 
regard religion itself as quite unnecessary for a nation's life. . • * 
Science is far above superstition, and what is any religion but super- 
stition, and • • » therefore a source of weakness to a nation 1 . » • 
I do not regret the tendency to free thought and Atheism, which is 
almost universal in Japan, because I do not regard it as a source of 
danger to the community : so long as they are educated they will be 
moral ; and Shintoism, which for centuries has been the religion of 
the upper classes, has always taught that right living will secure the 
protection of the gods without prayer to them." 

" For modes of faith let senseleaa bigots fight, 
His can't be wrong whose life is in the right/' 

(See Shin-shu and Shin-to.) 

Jara-Sandha. " The ancient joiner," or first king of Magadha, 
who welded the Magh people with the Eusika or tortoise Aryan tribe. 
Bribad-ratha, father of Jara-Sandha, had according to the legend two 
queens, who each bore half a boy, through the influence of Chandra- 
Kusika of the Gotama clan of the " cow." Brihad-ratha, aided by an 
old Bakshasi or female demon, joined the pieces ; and the boy became 
strong, and was aided by Siva to conquer many kings. He attacked 
Krishna 18 times, and made him fly from Mathura to Dvarka, the 
" door of India." Krishna came back with Bhima and Arjuna, and 
Jara-Sandha, fighting Bhima, was slain. 

Jasher. Hebrew ; Yasher " upright." The Book Ha-Yasher is 
sometimes supposed to mean Ha-Shir (" of the song "), and to be the 
" book of the ode " noticed in the Greek Septuagint (1 Kings viii, 53). 
It was an ancient collection of songs, apparently not older than the 
time of David or of Solomon, and quoted as authority in Hebrew books 
of the Bible (Joshua x, 13 : 2 Sam. i, 18). Babbi Levi ben Gershon 
asserted that it was lost during the captivity. The word Yasher has 



32S Jason 

also been compared with Teshuron (Jeshuron "the upright") a title 
applied to Israel 

Two books called Yasher were written by Rabbis in 1394 aad 
1644 A.G., and a third (supposed to have been written by a Spanish 
Jew about 1250) appeared in 1625 A.C. But the best known work 
of the name Jasher was that of Flaccus Albinus Alcuinus, British abbot 
of Canterbury : it was' supposed to come from Gaza, or from Ghazoa (in 
Persia), apparently Ghazni. It was printed in 1-751 ; and it mentions 
the name of "Wycliffe" — perhaps the reformer of about 1380 — 
in a note. He '* approves it as a piece of great antiquity and curiositj, 
but cannot assert that it should be made part of the canon of Scripture." 
Alcuin died in 804 A.C. He was induced by Charlemagne to go to 
France, and is regarded as the founder of the University of Paris. 
His Jasher is noticed in an edition of his works printed in Paris in 
1600. He had been three years in Persia, we are told, with Thomas 
of Malmesbury and John of Huntingdon, and first heard of this Jasher 
at Kabin, near Baghdad. It appears to be a Jewish paraphrase of 
Old Testament history, Jasher receiving information " from Caleb his 
father, Hezron his grandfather, and Azubah his mother." It b^ns 
with the creation, and goes down to his own time. Before death 
Jasher commanded all the records of Israel to be placed in an Ark. 
This work is however now pronounced to have been forged by the 
printer. (See Notes and Queries^ 19th Jan. 1889.) 

Jason. Greek laaon (from the old root as, is, us^ or vas, " to 
shine" or "burn"), a sun hero who— like others — underwent per- 
secution. Pelias, king of lolkhos, was warned against a "one-sandaled" 
man ; and Jason so appearing at his city he sent him to Eolkbis (at 
the E. end of the Black Sea), to fetch the " golden fleece " of the ram 
of Hermes (see Helle). Jason is fabled to have set out from Fegasai 
in the ship Argo, with many other heroes as Argonauts. The ram is 
also said to have been the offspring of Poseidon and Theophan^ — the 
ocean and the east. The ship, or ark, was guided by a dove through 
straits with moving rocks (icebergs) ; and in Eolkhis (Colchis) Ring 
Aietes exposed Jason to all the terrors of dragon men and fierce bulls^i 
which guarded the fleece (see Gilgamas) ; but he was aided by the 
king's daughter, the witch princess MedSa. The accounts of the 
return journey are confused and various (see Faber's (Jabiri, ii, 70, 
122-124, 140), some saying that the Argo was wrecked on the African 
coast, others that it was carried by river, and dragged by land, to the 
Northern Ocean. The heroes were repelled from Krete by Talos the 
•brazen man, but finally reached Pegasai once more. Strabo speaks of 



Jata 820 

Jasonia, as shrlDes of Jason in Armenia, on the Caspian, in India, and 
on all shores of the Mediterranean. Med^, having murdered Pelias, 
and her own children by faithless Jason, is also said to have fled to 
Media, which was named after her. But her name may come from a 
root Mad for " mad/' Jason is called a grandson of Poseidon, or of 
King Kretheos, and deserted Med§a for Glauk6 (" the blue "), daughter 
of Kredn, king of Eorinth. He was worshiped as a deity, and (like 
other sun gods) had as a child been placed in an ark, and reared by 
KheirOn, the kentaur, in a cave. 

JsASL A name of Siva as the " hairy " one. 

Jati. Caste or "birth." From the root Oa **to be born." 

JatakaS. Sanskrit : *' birth " stories. Fables connected with the 
theory of transmigration of the soul, and its successive incarnations 
{see Esop). It is a Buddhist collection of 550 stories, in the Ehud- 
dak -Nikaya, a part of the Sutta-Fitaka. By this series of parables 
Gotama appears to have attempted to enforce good morals, piety, and 
self-sacrifice for others. Hindus believed that the tales represented 
actual facts, and belonged to a former Kalpa, or world age. The 
Dhamma-pada commentaries, of about our 4th century, include 423 
Jataka stories ; others are found earlier in the Chinese version of the 
Lalita Yistara, or legend of Buddha. These tales spread all over Asia 
and Europe. Prof. Fausboll of Copenhagen spent twenty years (187 7- 
1897) in translating them, and produced 7 volumes. The Ceylon 
Buddhists claim that some go back to the remote age of the Eassapa, 
or even to the Dipam-kara period, yet the morals are applicable 
still. 

The Jataka-thavan-nama, as we now have it, belongs to our 5th 
century. Some incidents however are represented in the early sculp- 
tures of Bharahut, and Sanchi, in the 3rd century B.C. They represent 
conditions preceding the foundation of the Magadha empire. They 
were included in the Buddhist canon settled by the Council of Yaisali 
in 377 B.C., and were written in Pali. Some attribute them to Parsva, 
the Jain saint of about 700 B.c. Mahinda, son of Asoka, appears to 
have brought them to Ceylon ; and they reappear in the work of 
Buddha-ghosha later. His text, given by Dr Fausboll, is the oldest we 
have; but a selection of 34 such stories in Sanskrit (Prof. Speyer, 
Cambridge Univ. Press) goes back to our Ist century. I-tsing, the 
Chinese pilgrim of our 7th century, saw some of them dramatised on 
.the stage in Java. They include one fable known to Plato ('* the ass 
in the lion's skin"), and one known to Esop — "the two birds." The 



330 Jats 

leading idea of the collection is the Ka/rmar-Ma/rga or ''path of 
deeds " : but rites and sacrifices are noticed, pointing to Jain beliefe. 
The Jatakas describe the customs, follies, and festivals, of early India, 
the Sura libations, the worship of demons, and trees : they describe 
kings' palaces as built only of wood; but they refer also to private 
and official correspondence, legal and forged letters, tablets of metal 
and wood, bonds to be paid on the banks of the Ganges, and other 
civilised idea& They exhort men not to commit suicide as Yogis and 
Sanyasis used to do : and Buddha also forbade this (in the 6th 
century RC.) according to the Parajika section of the Tripitaka, 
while Jains did so perhaps yet earlier. 



A large non- Aryan population of N. India. One of the 
5 divisions of the Tadus (see Gipsies). They were nomads without 
caste, fond of animals, especially horses, goats, and snakes. They now 
devote themselves to the work of farriers, to the mending of iron pots, 
and the making of baskets, like gipsies ; and also like them to fortune 
telling, cheiromancy, dancing, drinking, and stealing. They are strong 
and clever, and light colored for Indians, with long black hair. They 
are unchaste, and care nothing about what they eat, whether carrion 
or not They are good tanners, and flay and carry corpses like the 
Doms, Kanjars, and Nats ; and thus become indispensable in towns. 
They are the Yati-dhanas of the Rig Veda, classed with *' the godless 
Dasyus, and Bakshasas • • . prayerless, fierce, inhuman, eaters of horse 
flesh, with superhuman powers." 

Java. See Boro Budur. 

Jehovah. See Bible, Christianity, Hebrews. [As regards the 
pronunciation of the name now reading Yehovak in Hebrew, scholars 
usually prefer Yahveh, and consider that the '^ points," or short 
vowels, of the name Adonai (which is always read by Jews instead of 
the written Yehovah) have been given to the originals But we do 
not know that ancient Hebrew had a V sound at all, any more than 
modem Arabic has, and Yehuah would perhaps be better. We know 
for certain (Taylor cylinder) that the Assyrians pronounced the name 
Yahu, which is nearer to the " lao " of Gnostik gems. The root 
means " to breathe," as in the Arabic hawa " breeze " (Babylonian ait 
" wind ") ; and Jehovah means " he is," or the " spirit" Moses is 
instructed to pronounce the name Akiah (" I am ") to the people 
(Exod iii, 14), which apparently (vi, 3) was the older form. In 
cuneiform the signs used can sometimes be read either Ahu or Yahv* 
— Ed.] This Semitic name has no connection with the Akkadian A(i 



Jemshid 33 1 

or At " moon/' or with Ea (see these headings). Jehovah is represented 
as a god of wrath in many passages (1 Sam. zv, 3 : Isaiah Ixiii, 3 ; 
xlvii, 3 : Jer. ziii, 14 : Ezek. viii, 18), but is also said to show mercy 
to thousands of generations. 

Jemshid. An Iranian hero of the Shah-nameh, written about 
1000 A.C. (see Yima). 

Jerahmeel. Hebrew YeraJf^meel, or "God has pity." The 
brother of Ram, and son of Hezron of the tribe of Judah (1 Chron. 
ii, 9). The Jerahmeelites lived in the " south " {Negeb or " dry 
land") near the Eenites (1 Sam. xzvii, 10). Dr Cheyne would make 
them a pre-Israelite N. Arab people, but they are not otherwise 
noticed. 

Jeremiah. Hebrew Yeremiah "Jehovah raises up." This 
prophet of the 6th century B.a is sometimes regarded as the 4th 
author of the Pentateuch, and the writer of parts of Deuteronomy. 
He is supposed to have lived from about 630 to 587 B.a, being the 
son of Hilkiah the High Priest, and a native of Anathoth (now 
'Anata) near Jerusalem on the N.E. He is also supposed to have 
compiled the Books of Kings. The text of his prophecies in the 
Greek Septuagint Version differs greatly, in arrangement of the 
chapters, from the Hebrew, and nearly a third of the Hebrew work is 
missing in the Greek. He declared to his people that Jehovah had 
commanded them not so much to offer sacrifices, as to obey his voice, 
when he brought them out of Egypt (Jer. xi, 4) : and though a priest 
he seems to have either known nothing of the Levitical laws, or to 
have cared little for them. We know nothing of him except what is 
found in his writings. He appears to have been a visionary from 
childhood (i, 6). He was regarded as a traitor, because he exhorted 
the people of Jerusalem not to oppose the Babylonian conqueror, and 
predicted their failure. His fame as a prophet was established long 
after his death, when he was believed to have accurately predicted 
captivity for " seventy years " — from 607 to 538 b.c. (see Jer. xxv, 11 : 
Dan. ix, 2). He went about with a yoke on his neck (Jer. xxvii, 2 ; 
xxxiii, 10-12) like many a modern Fakir, or Yogi, some of whom 
wear a halter and ask men to pull it tight. Jeremiah says that self- 
made prophets are mad (xxix, 26). He went in danger of his life in 
599 B.C. (xxxvii, 13)- yet four years later he withstood Hananiah, who 
predicted Babylonian defeat within two years (xxviii, 1-1 7). He was 
set free by the Babylonians, whose friend he was, and endeavoured to 
persuade the remnant of Judah to stay quietly in their land ; but after 



332 Jerome 

the murder of the Babylonian governor they were afraid to do so, and 
seem to have carried Jeremiah with them to Egypt (xliii, 7-9 ; xliv, 1). 
Some traditions say he was stoned at Tahpanhes in Egypt, but Josephus 
is silent, and other Jewish accounts would make him live, with his 
friend Baruch, to a good age in Babylon. These stories however are 
probably guesses founded on the Bible statements. One legend 
(2 Mace, ii, 4-7) says that he carried the ark, tabernacle, sacred fire, 
and incense altar, to the mountain where Moses " talked with God " — 
either Sinai or Nebo — and hid them in a cave, the way to which 
could never after be found, though the cave mouth was *' stopped up 
by the altar of incense." His prophecies were concerned with the 
events of his time. Some Jews, in later ages, expected his return as 
a forerunner of the Messiah ; and Christ was believed to be his 
reincarnation (Matt, xvi, 14), among other views of his personality. 

Jerome. Eusebius Hieronymus, now known as St Jerome, was 
a monk of Dalmatia, who was born about 346 or 350 A.c, and died 
at Bethlehem on 30th Septr. 420 A.c. His parents lived at Stridon, 
in easy circumstances — that is probably at Aquileia at the head of 
the Adriatic ; and as a boy he went to Rome, and studied Latin, 
Qreek, and classic philosophy as a pupil of Donatus : he was there 
baptised, the parents also being Christians, and he afterwards traveUed 
in Gaul. He remained at Trdves some time to copy commentaries on 
the Psalms by Hilarius. In 370 he wrote his .first theological essay 
at Aquileia, and in 373 he went to Antioch, where he saw visions, 
and felt his " call." He put aside secular studies, and, in 374, became 
a hermit at Calchis (Einnesrin), east of Antioch. For four yeais be 
diligently studied Hebrew, and annotated the Scriptures : he also 
took part in the fierce theological disputes of the age, and in 379 he 
returned to Antioch to advocate the views of the Western Church. 
For three yeai*s after this he was in Constantinople, and he perfected 
himself in Greek, enjoying the society of Gregory of Nazianzen. He 
translated the chronicles and other works of Eusebius, and was 
selected as secretary of the Papal Council at Rome, where he 
endeavoured to quiet the disputes na to Faulinus, and became a friend 
of Pope Damasus, who set him the grand task of revising the Latin 
version of the Bible. He became popular, and was very jealously 
regarded by other ecclesiastics. In 384 A.c. Pope Damasus died, 
and his successor Siricius was less favourable to* Jerome, who in his 
own works draws a terrible picture of the pride and luxury of the 
Roman Church. Writing afterwards at Bethlehem {Epit. PatdcB) he 
does not scruple to apply to that Church the title of the '' Scarlet 



Jerusalem 338 

Woman." He was assailed with calumnies in public, and in disgust 
he left for Antioch, where he was joined later by Paula, a rich and 
pious widow, and by her daughter Eustochium. With these and 
others he travelled all over Palestine, and in 386 A.c. they settled at 
Bethlehem, where Paula built three nunneries. Paula died in 1404, 
but Jerome continued to live in Bethlehem (in a cave it is said), and 
to labour at his translation of the Bible till death. His later years 
were distracted by Pelagian heresy, and by the violence of the Greeks 
and Latins (see Epiphanius) : his controversial tone is violent, and he 
quarrelled with his old friend Augustine about Peter and Paul. His 
monastery was attacked in 1416 A.C., and he had to flee to a 
mountain cave or other hiding place for two years (see Prof. Bamsay, 
Smith's Dicty, of Christian Biogr,), Jerome's great work was the 
Latin Vulgate (see Bible), which was only accepted by the Church 
after 1000 JLC. He appealed to the Jewish authorities as to the 
correctness of his Old Testament version, and received instruction 
from Rabbis of Judea, and of Tiberias. This version is specially 
interesting, because it is earlier than the time when the Masorah was 
finally settled. Many of his renderings are valuable, and he had a 
minute knowledge of Palestine, while he was one of the best Latin 
writers and linguistic scholars of his day. 

Jerusalem. The name as spelt in the Amama tablets of the 
15 th century B.C. is UnLsalim, " the city of safety." It was also called 
YebUs (Jebus) by its early inhabitants. [Perhaps the Akkadian 
Eb-ua " house of safety." — Ed.] Its population consisted of Amorites 
and Hittites (Ezek. xvi, 3, and 45). The Jebusites held their own 
till the time of David ; for armies with chariots avoided the moun- 
taina Yet an Egyptian force of bowmen appears to have been 
stationed at Jerusalem in the time of Amenophis III. The 
inhabitants derided the Hebrew chief, setting the lame and the 
blind on the walls. Even after taking the upper city by assault 
David appears to have left Jebusites undisturbed, and purchased the 
site for his altar on the eastern hill from their king Araunah or 
Oman. From the Tell Amama correspondence we learn that the 
Egyptian hold on Palestine was loosened in the reigns of Amenophis 
III and Amenophis IV, and Joshua then probably led the 'Abiri or 
Hablri, as Col. Conder supposes (Letters 139, 141, Berlin collection) 
from the 'Abarim or mountains of Moab, into southern Palestine. 
But he was unable to take so strong a city as Jerusalem. The name 
of the Amorite king in Urusalim is variously rendered Arad-Ehiba 
and 'Abd-sadak, and he appeals to Egypt for help, the garrison having 



334 Jerusalem 

been withdrawn, and describes the general havoc wrought by the 
'Abiri in the surrounding country. There seem to have been then 
no Egyptian stations in the Hebron and Jerusalem mountains, nor do 
the letters mention any towns of Central Palestine, except Zabuha 
and Megiddo in the plains of lower Galilee. 

The building of a temple by Solomon, on the ridge £. of the 
city, was carried out by aid of Phoenician masons : this altered the 
whole character of the city, necessitating the extension of its walls to 
the east so as to enclose this sanctuary. It became the political 
capital of Palestine and of S. Syria ; and Solomon allied himself by 
marriage with the Pharaoh. But on his death Shishak plundered the 
city of the wealth accumulated during Solomon's reign ; and Senna- 
cherib in 702 B.a also exacted a heavy toll (see Hebrews) firom 
Heze]h:iah — facts which are established by monumental evidence. The 
sacred centre of the city was that " Eben-hash-Shatiyeh," or " stone of 
foundation," on which the temple was built. It was known about 
330 A.C. as the "Lapis Pertusus" or ''holed stone," and is now 
called the Sakhrah or " Eock," under the Dome of the Bock. This 
rock has in it a cave, and is ** pierced " by a kind of chimney in the 
roof of the cave, while below the marble floor there is said to be a 
well called Bvr d Anodh ("well of spirits") leading to Hades. 
Jewish legends as to the rock have been adopted by Moslems, who 
believe it to float without foundation over the abyss, and to be an 
original "Bock of Paradise" (see Rivera of Life, i, p. 181, fig. 64). 
Arab writers say that, in the future, " Paradise is to be brought to 
this holy place." The Ka'aba, with its black stone, will come as a 
bride to the Sakhrah. Dr Adler says that the latter is " believed to 
be suspended in air, but touching a palm tree, below which is the 
Well of Souls, where all souls rest till the Besurrection." Mediaeval 
tradition wrongly connected the site with the stone of Jacob at 
Bethel. Mu^iammad is fabled to have prayed in the cave, and to 
have ascended through the shaft in its roof to heaven. His footstep 
is shown on it (but in the 12th century Christians called this a 
footstep of Christ) ; with the finger marks of Gabriel, who held down 
the Sakhrah when it would have followed the prophet to the skies. 
To its north is a flagstone with nails driven into it, and when all 
these have dropped through the stone, into the abyss, the world will 
come to an end. Many other sacred sites are found here — the 
praying places of Abraham and David in the cave, and the " Dome of 
the Chain " to the E., where a magic chain from heaven once decided 
cases of dispute. Further south, in the enclosure of the Haram or 
Sanctuary, is the Jami'a el Aksa or " distant mosk," traditionall; 



Jerusalem 335 

supposed to be noticed in the Koran. But the whole legend of 
Muhammad's ''night journey" is unnoticed in any of his writings. 
Here we find the *' footstep of Christ/' the tomb of the sons of Aaron 
(an old Templar's monument), the shield of Hamzah (a beautiful 
Persian shield once shown in the Dome of the Sock), the pillars 
between which men must squeeze if they would go to Paradise, the 
black slab in the porch, to touch which with closed eyes gives the 
same bliss, and the '' Well of the Leaf," down which a Moslem is said 
to have descended, finding himself in the Garden of Paradise. On 
the east wall of the Haram enclosure we find the " Cradle of Christ " 
— ^an old Roman niche for a statue in the vault at the S.E. corner — 
the pillar whence the *' Bridge " will stretch to Olivet (see Bridges) ; 
and the " Throne of Solomon " further north, where his dead body 
was seated, so that the demons thought him still alive, till the staff 
supporting it decayed. In another shrine is preserved the " fragment 
of the Sakhrah " which is like the original (Herr K. Schick, Qaarterly 
Stat. Pal. Expl Fund, April 1897). The My rock itself has a 
pillar projecting southwards, called its " tongue," wherewith to speak 
in the future. 

Solomon's temple was a comparatively small shrine, standing on 
this sacred site. It was only about 80 or 90 feet long, 30 feet wide, 
and 40 or 50 feet high. Its ornamentation with metal, and its cedar 
roof, resembled the description of Babylonian temples, in texts of Nebu- 
chadnezzar and of yet earlier times. Nothing is known about its outer 
courts ; for Herod removed the ancient foundations, and doubled the 
area of the surrounding enclosure (Josephus, Wars, I, xxi, 1 ; V, v) ; 
and the masonry at the base of the present ramparts is his. The 
style is that of Greek masonry, and a few letters (as mason's marks) 
occur on the foundation stones, being in the character of his time. 
The stones are of great size, but they are only half the dimensions 
of the largest stones hewn by Romans in the 3rd century A.G. at 
Ba'albek. The style generally resembles that of the Palace of 
Hyrcanus ('Arak el Emir) in Gilead, built about 176 B.c. The 
enclosure now includes 35 acres, but the N.E. part seems to be 
later than Herod's time. In 1871 M. Clermont Gkmneau discovered 
a Greek text forbidding Gentiles to enter the inner courts (see Ant, 
XV, xi, 5 ; Wa/rs, V, v, 2). Herod's temple had no ark in it ; but 
the table of shewbread, and the altar of incense, became the spoil of 
the Romans in 70 A.C., and are represented, with the trumpets of 
Jubilee, on the arch of Titus. The Jews (not accepting the legend 
noticed under ** Jeremiah "), believe the Ark to be hidden somewhere 
in the sacred enclosure. Dr Adler (Lecture, Jews' College, Jan. 



336 Jerusalem 

1886) quotes the Misbnah (Ydma, see also 2 Chron. xxxv, 3) as to 
the hollows which were made under the ark, and other sacred spots, 
to secure purity from auy coDtaminatiou by a " tomb of the depth," 
or hidden grave ; whereas the altar must stand on bare rock according 
to the Law. He relates also the Talmudic legend of a priest who 
looked into a cavity under a loose flagstone, and fell dead before he 
could reveal the secret of what he saw ; but others concluded that 
here the ark lay buried. 

The sacred water for the temple (see Heifer) came from the 
Pool of Siloam to the south, where in 1880 was discovered (in the 
rock aqueduct leading to the pool from the spring of Gi^on to the 
north) the only ancient Hebrew text as yet known, dating probably 
about 703 B.C. 

The temple site remained in ruins after 70 A.C., and no building 
was erected over the Bock itself till 692 A.C. (72 jlh.), when the 
Damascus Ehalif 'Abd el Melek built the present '* Dome of the 
Rock/' to which chapel additions were made later; and in the 12th 
century it became the Templar chapel till recovered and purified by 
Saladin in 1187. Justinian however, about 530 A.C. restored the 
outer enclosure, built the Aksa Mosk as a Church of the Virgin 
(which was enlarged by the Templars whose Hospice adjoined itX 
and erected a small chapel of St Sophia still existing in the 
Barracks on the site of Antonia, which bounds the Haram on 
N. W. The " golden gate " on the E. wall belongs to this period. 
Other ancient gates on the S. and W. date back to Herod 

The question of the exact site of the " City of David " has been 
much discussed. Some scholars would place it on the small ridge of 
Ophel (some 20 acres only in extent) S. of the Temple, but Josephus 
very clearly states that the S.W. hill of the Upper City was that 
enclosed by David and Solomon (Wars, V, iv, 1), and describes Akra 
— or the lower city — as lying to the north. These represented the 
original town. Solomon's palace (see 1 Kings iii, 1 ; ix, 24) include* 
ing that of his queen, was not in the City of David but apparently 
(Neh. iii, 25) on Ophel, and from its dimensions must have covered 
the greater part of that spur. . The " Tombs ,of the Kings " (Neh. iii, 
16), or some of them, were in the valley close to Siloam beneath this 
palace. The city at its largest occupied about 300 acres, and the 
present walled town 200 acres. The detailed account of the 
temple from the Uishnah, and from later Jewish sources, such 9» 
the " Beth-ha-bekhereh," or " chosen house," of Maimonides has been 
carefully worked out by Dr T. Chaplin (Quarterly Stat. Pal. ^spl. 
Fund, 1885). The question of the "Holy Sepulchre" remains one 



Jesus 887 

of controyersy, some accepting Constantine's site covered by the 
present cathedral — though there is no evidence of any tradition 
having existed to be found in writings earlier than 326 A.c, 
while othera accept the site for Calvary N. of the city, at the 
Jewish traditional site of the Beth-has-Sakilah, or " place of 
stoning/' a remarkable knoll in which is the cave now called the 
** Grotto of Jeremiah*" Becent excavations on the S. side of the 
city have added only a few coins and engraved signet rings to our 
materials for history. The old walls seem here to have been 
destroyed, and only those of the 5th century A.C., and of the 
Crusaders, remain ; but the rock scarps indicate the ancient lines of 
defence. In the time of Hadrian (135 A.C.) Jerusalem was rebuilt 
as a Roman colony, and a temple to Venus is said to have then 
covered the site now occupied by the " Church of the Resurrection." 
The temple rock was then adorned with a statue of Jove and one 
of the Emperor, which Jerome appears to have seen. The inscrip- 
tion of this statue (in Latin) is built upside down in the S. wall of 
the Haram, and the head of Hadrian's statue was picked up by a 
peasant in 1874 on the stony road N. of Jerusalem. 

Jesus. Greek leaoua, corrupted from the Hebrew Yehoshu'a 
"Jehovah has saved," a common Jewish name. Jesus was the 
eldest son of Joseph the carpenter* of Nazareth, and of Mary his 
wife, and had four brothers (Matt xii, 46 ; xiii» 55) who did not 
believe in him (John vii, 3-5). Jesus (according to the Gospels) said 
that he did nothing of himself: that the end for which he was 
born was to bear witness to the Truth : that no one was good but 
God, who was a Spirit whom no man had seen. He also upbraided 
the Jews for seeking to kill him — '* a man who hath told you the 
truth which I have heard of God " (John viii, 40). His message to 
the world was that we should believe in God, and love one 
another. [An unfinished article (see Christ and Gospels). — Ed.] 

JezreeL Hebrew : yezr*e^el, " God sowed." An ancient town 
on the N.W. slope of Mt. Gilbo'a, in lower Galilee, one of the royal 
residences of Ahab and his successors, and a centre of Ba'al worship 
under the influence of Jezebel (Aizabel) the Tyrian daughter of Eth- 
ba'al, and wife of Ahab. Some scholars have proposed to read Jezreel 
instead of Israel in the famous text of Mineptah (see Egypt and 
Hebrews), which refers however to a *' people." [The Egyptian spell- 
ing does not favour this. — Ed.] 

Jews. See Hebrews. The Greek Iovdaio8 represents the 

y2 



338 Jin 

Hebrew yehndah (*' praiae **) and the word properly applies (as in the 
4th Cloepel) only to the tribe of Judah ; bat the Romans used the 
name Judea more loosely. 

Jin. Arabic : jinni, plural jdn, feminine jinniyeh^ pL jinniyat, 
a word perhaps borrowed from non-Semitic speech (see Gian and Jan)L 
Jins are spirits male and female, with airy bodies, half human in 
nature, half spiritual, and able to change their shapes, and to become 
diminutive or gigantic. Some are pious Moslems, and good spirits, 
some are eviL Some have married mortals, like the Beni EUohim 
(Gen. vi, 2). They live in the air or underground, frequent ovens, 
and lie under thresholds : they eat food and have children. Thej 
often rush into houses after morning prayer, but will not go near 
salt, and are afraid of iron (see Lane's Mod. Egtns,). They include 
*EfrU8 or evil ghosts, OhovZa (Turkish " fiend ") who live in caves and 
eat corpses, and Kerdd, " monkeys " or " goblins." A man possessed 
by a Jin is said to be Majnun in Arabic, which is usually rendered 
'' mad." Moslems have many tales (taken from the Talmud) about 
the Jins who obeyed Solomon. 

Jingo. Basque : jincoa " god " (see Qan and Jan). 

Jisti. Sanskrit. The father of the androgynous being first 
created (see Arda-nar-isvara). 

Jiv. Sanskrit : " life " (see Ga). Siva is called Jiva-dar " the life- 
giver." 

Jiya. Sanskrit: "conquering." See Ja. 

Job. Hebrew : Ayob " afflicted." The beautiful legend of Job is 
perhaps very ancient. His name was known about 600 ac. (Ezekiel 
xiv, 14) : but there is much controversy as to the date and the in- 
tegrity of the " Book of Job." Benan says " the 7th century B.a,** 
and Dr Cheyne (in 1886) supposes it to be written by a Hebrew 
about 550 B.C. Job and his friends (except Elihu of the family of 
BAm-— a clan of Judah) are represented as Edomites. The book 
refers to no law, or temple, or Hebrew ritual It mentions the 
Easdlm or Babylonians, as raiders in a time of great trouble. 
[This perhaps points to a period about 607 to 588 B.a as that in- 
tended. — ^Ed.] Modem critics suppose the prose story to be distinct 
from the poetic chapters, especially as using the name Yahveb not 
used in the poem : [this however does not apply to the Qreek ver- 
gion — ^Ed.], and regard the speeches of Elihu also as later additions. 
[Some of the latest critical writers however accept the int^ity of the 



Job 839 

book. It is the most admired in the Old Testament, and perhaps the 
worst translated. The Greek translators were often unable to under- 
stand it. The idiom is very terse ; and the language, though com- 
paring with the Hebrew of Amos, is full of Aramaik words — recalling 
the dialect of the "Moabite stone" — with others which Jerome called 
Arabic, probably Nabathean. The problem of the book is that of 
the righteous man in affliction, and the argument is simple. God 
determines (after the report of the Satan or accusing angel) to try 
Job's sincerity, and all his children and wealth are destroyed, while he 
is smitten with disease. His friends are convinced that he has sinned ; 
but Job knows his own innocence, and refuses to be a hypocrite. 
Elihu suggests that he is being tried. Yahveh finally speaks to him 
from the cloud, neither revealing the cause of his affliction nor even 
alluding to it, but pointing to Providence in nature as reason for trust 
in God's wisdom and goodness. Job is humbled and convinced, say- 
ing " I uttered that I understood not : things too wonderful for me 
which I knew not " (xlii, 3), and on his interceding for his friends his 
trial is ended. The poem is both beautiful and thoughtful, and its 
descriptions apply with exactness to the scenery of Edom ; but some 
details are much obscured by bad translation. — Ed.] 

The book attempts to solve the insoluble problem of misery, and 
expresses the revolt Arom trite dogmas of the age. Job's friends are 
shocked by what they consider to be his blasphemous irreverence, and 
even Elihu reproves him. But the famous exclamations " though he 
slay me yet will I trust him," and " I know that my redeemer liveth," 
are questioned by the modern critical scholar. [The word goel in 
Hebrew means both a " redeemer " and an " avenger," and the pas- 
sage (xix, 25-27) appears to read, " I know my goel is living, and one 
hereafter will rise over the dust ; and, after these things have de- 
stroyed my body, from my flesh I shall see God — and not a foe." — 
Ed.] Job has no hope of any future resurrection on earth. The 
tree, he says, may sprout again when it is pruned, but man lies down 
to rise no more (xiv, 12). He attributes to God the destruction of 
good and bad alike, and denies that evil is punished in this world, 
or that the wicked will care if the punishment falls on his children 
(xxi). He is confident that with a fair trial his innocence could be 
proved, but he can see God nowhere (xxiii, 8, 9) and does not know 
who has accused him or why (xxxi, 35). God is able, and he thinks 
determined, to make him appear guilty, and he wonders if his name 
will in future be a bye-word. He cannot understand why God is 
bringing general misery on the nation, and allows robbers and wicked 
persons to go unpunished. Elihu says it is because the time for 



840 John 

punishment has not yet come. Job questions the whole moral govern* 
ment of the world ; and while admitting that Ood is powerful, he 
doubts if he is just. Christian legends placed Job's country in 
Bashan, where an old monument of Rameses II is still shown as 
*' Job's stone " ; but scholars generally agree that the scene is laid in 
Edom. 

John. Hebrew Yohanan, " He has caused mercy " : Arabic 
YvJia/nna: Greek loannid. The festival of St John (23rd JuDe) 
represents the survival of ancient fire f<gtes of pre-Christian ages. 
In Bretagne youths still adorn themselves with green wheat, &d(1 
maidens with flax blossoms, dancing with songs and jests round 
menhirs and dolmens, and seeking to divine their married lot. 
Within 30 miles of Paris (see Academy, 6th July 1884) thev 
celebrate the " Saint Jean " on the borders of Normandy, gathering 
at early dawn the blue com flowers from the wheat, with poppies, 
to adorn " St John's Tree," " a slim young poplar," uprooted and 
replanted in the ''place" of the village. In the evening fiaggots 
were piled round it, and the village elders " with bared heads formed 
a circle, and the head man stepped forward and applied a lighted 
torch ; and when the fire burned up they paced slowly round and 
round, in solemn silence, and the women joined in widening circles." 
This is the Pradakshina of the Hindu, and the cyclic dance of the 
Greeks. " As the flames darted and leapt up the Normandy mothers 
made a feint of swinging their babes through the smoke ... to ward 
off disease, or misfortune." Youths took flying leaps through the fire, 
and as it subsided " snatched glowing brands which each strove to cany 
off, in order to relight the fires " in the village dwellings : " every piece 
of charred wood was carefully treasured " till the next eve of St John. 
Near Home, and Naples, similar rites accompany the " blessing of the 
pink flowers " in the sacristy of San Giovanni of the Lateran (Qtieen 
newspaper, 1881). "The pinks dried, and arranged in small packets, 
are ranged on a table on each side of a white cushion, before a crudfix 
under a miniature bcddacchino, A curious paper carpet laid down has, 
in the centre, a picture of the Madonna and Child, on a white Maltese 
cross on a blue ground, surrounded by heraldic devices, with a border 
of variegated flowers gummed on different shades of color. Sound 
this carpet the priests range themselves, while the officiating cardinal 
(Cardinal Chigi), supported by two bishops, chants the benediction 
previous to sprinkling with holy water, and incensing, the flowers." 

On the 29 th June also girls called "Amantole" march in 
procession through this church of St John, "loosely clothed, and 



John 341 

with hooded robes, corded at the waist bat enveloping the whole 
person, and stuck all over with pins." Pure white veils cover them^ 
and they are Uessed as they pass the altar. The Host is elevated, 
and they receive a gift in a white silk purse, with a candle. In the 
Evening they gather in the square, which glows with colored lanterns 
and torches, to indulge in revelry till daybreak. The crowd camps 
in booths, or sleeps on the church steps, and feasts on figs, and snails 
seasoned with garlic, decked with carnations and lavender. They dance 
and singy and make music with pipes, and trumpets, and drums, to 
drive away evil spirits, and witches, who are feared at this season 
when the summer has passed. Many carry lights on their heads, 
and scatter rice and salt, for witches must pick up and count the 
graina Mothers whisper prayers into the ears of infants, and black 
cats are hunted. It is the old festival of Concordia, and the 25 th 
of June was that of Ceres — the "Ambarvalia" or perambulation of 
the fields, when the sacrifice of a bull, sheep, or cow was known as the 
*' ambarvalis hostia," offered to the twelve brothers Arvales, descended 
from Acca-Larentia the Etruskan nurse of Romulus. 

The holy fire (see Beltein) should at this season be lighted, as 
in Charlemagne's days, and peasant dwellings still show the holes in 
door posts, into which a stick was thrust and whirled by a rope till 
tow was lighted by this fire drill of the house, barn, or stable. Bon« 
fires, torches, and trusses of hay, were thence lighted, and fire was 
carried round the houses and the cattle in the fields, or floated down 
rivers to drive away evil beings (Notes and Qaeriea, 26th January 
1895). An English visitor to Rome in 1899 describes again the 
feast of San Giovanni on the 23rd June, as one of general jollity, 
when bells were worn, and the stems of seeding garlic carried, with 
which men touched women and girls, without rebuke. With various 
wines they washed down the viands — fish, and pork or the " sacred 
pig of midsummer" (see Boar). The whole fSte partook of the 
character of the ancient licentious Bacchinalia. 

The 29th June is also St Peter's day, when, as Brand says, 
''boats each with a mast gaily garnished, and prows painted, are 
carried about the fields, and sprinkled with good liquor." French 
youths at this season sing : 

** Que de feuz brulans dans lea aers, 
Qu'ils font une douce harmonie. 
BedoubloDS cette melodie. 
Par noB dances, par nos concerts." 

St Antony of Padua has also been connected with St John's day as 



342 John, Gospel of 

the ''Protector of Fires/' and domestic animals are blessed at this 
season (Academy, 26th July, 16th August 1884). In some countries 
maidens stripped and ran naked in the woods like Bacchinals to seek 
love tokens in plants and flowers, such as the arum (the French ** vis 
de chien "), and the ^ dog (or goat) stones " called ** couillon de pr&tra" 
Fern seed, and maiden-hair, were equally lucky (see Ancient Worsfiip^ 
1866). In Venice such festivals were held after 1577 on the 3rd 
Sunday in July, called the **Festa del Bacchinale del Kedentore"; 
the " Redeemer " being so connected with the " Bacchinalia." The 
Venetians then feasted in arbours decked with lamps throughout the 
night, and at sunrise rushed naked into the sea with shouts of joy — 
a rite also found at Naples (see Baptism). 

John, Gospel of. See Gospels. Dr Martineau was of 
opinion, like German critics, that it is not older than about 140 a.c. 
The Rev. C. Hargrove thought it had three sources, (1) a theological 
work similar to the 1st Epistle of John, (2) certain discourses of Jesus, 
and (3) a traditional narrative of Christ's life and miracles. Dr 
Samuel Davidson {Introd. to New Test^ says : " It is remarkable that 
a legendary account of the gospel's origin should have come into ex- 
istence soon after the production itself, suggesting to us the idea of 
the slow acceptance which the gospel met with . . . any attempt to 
bring out of it even a nucleus of real history must be conjectaraL" 
Dr Martineau thus discusses it : *' That a constant companion of the 
ministry of Jesus should shift it almost wholly to a new theatre ; 
should never come across a demoniac, and never tell a parable ; should 
remember nothing about the ' Kingdom of Heaven ' and the ' Coming of 
the Son of Man ' ; should have forgotten the last Passover of the ' little 
flock,' with its institution of the Communion, and have occupied those 
festival hours with the crucifixion instead ; should have lost the Master's 
terse maxims and sweet images of life, thrown out in homely dialogue, and 
have fancied in their place elaborate monologues, darkened with h&rsh 
and mystic paradox, is so utterly against nature as to forfeit the rank 
of an admissible hypothesis." [Yet, if this be the work of the author 
of John's epistles, we must not forget that the writer especially dwells 
on the love of one another which was the Master's great doctrine. — 
Ed.] 

The existence of this gospel shows us that, in the 2nd century, 
there existed a mass of mystical, and legendary material unrepresented 
by the Judean synoptics. The writer speaks of a witness, aod of 
" we " who can attest his authority, with an " I " who adds the last 
word — unless this be the note of a later scribe (see xix, 35 ; xxi, 24» 



Jonah 843 

25). The text of the oldest MSS. does not contain all that we now 
have (v, 4; viii, 2-11) and in some versions the latter episode is 
found in Luke instead. Mr Hargrove thinks that the absence of the 
common particle ov/a in chapters ziv to zvii serves to distinguish these 
later discourses from other parts of the work, and to connect them 
with the 1st Epistle of John {Socy. Hist. Theol, l7th Nov. 1892). 
According to this gospel Christ calls Andrew and Peter at Bethabara, 
not by the sea of Galilee, and travels by Cana and Capernaum to 
Jerusalem, teaching before, not after, John the Baptist was thrown 
into prison. The synoptics appear to represent Jesus as never enter- 
ing Jerusalem before the last fatal visit John and the synoptics 
are at variance as to the day of the crucifixion — whether after the 
Passover or before it. In John's gospel Jesus is still in the judgment 
hall in the sixth hour (xix, 14), whereas Mark says he was crucified in 
the third hour (xv, 25). John's accoimt of the Besurrection is also 
quite different (see Christ and Gospels), and the raising of Lazarus, 
like the spearing of Christ on the cross, is not mentioned in the 
synoptic gospels. 

Jonah. Hebrew : Yonah " dove." The son of Amittai a native of 
Gath-Hepher (now El Mesh-hed) in Galilee, is said to have lived in 
the reign of Joash King of Judah (2 Kings xiv, 25) about 800 B.C. : 
but the Book of Jonah is probably a late work of Ezra's age. Christ 
is said to have believed in the legend of Jonah and the fish (Matt, 
xii, 40 ; Luke xi^ 29) which reminds us of that of H6rakles swallowed 
by a whale, or of Areion saved by a dolphin. Vishnu in India is 
represented issuing from' the fish's mouth, and Kama also was swallowed 
by a fish : the Red Indian Hiawatha again, is swallowed by a sturgeon 
whose heart he stabs : it floats to shore, and birds picking the bones 
release the hero. Jonah composed a psalm in the fish's belly, and 
was vomited out. The remaining miracles are equally incredible. 
The expression " God of heaven " (i, 9) is one that appears never to 
have been used before the captivity. 

Joseph. Hebrew : Yoseph " he increases " (Gen. xxx, 24), other- 
wise Yehuaeph (Psalm Ixxxi, 5) or " Yahveh increases." The son of 
Jacob, a dreamer as a boy, is a diviner by a magic cup when a man. 
His story is a beautiful and pathetic one — a legend with a moral;* 
and the writer is thought to show acquaintance with Egypt by certain 
words, as well as by the personal names which he gives. The story of 
Joseph and Potiphar's wife reminds us of that of Peleus, of Bellerophon, 
or of Hippolutos and the wife of Theseus. The same incident occurs in 
the Tale of the Two Brothers in Egypt (see Egypt), but the remainder 



344 Joseph 

of that story is a fantastic myth, having no relation to the Hebrew 
story of Joseph. 

Joseph. The father of Jesus Christ, sod of Heli (or otherwise of 
a Jacob) of the tribe of Judah. The descent of Christ from David is, 
in both Matthew and Luke, traced through Joseph. He is thought 
to have died before the Crucifixion. Legends about him are numerous, 
Especially in the Oospel of the Nativity of Mary, a work of about 
our 5th ceutury (see Jesus). 

Josephus. It has been said that without the aid of this learned 
Jewish historian we should have no history of New Testament times. 
Great importance has also been attached to short allusions, now found 
in his text, to Jesus, James, and John the Baptist (see Christ). But 
these are now generally regarded as corrupt interpolations. Dr 
Edersheim (Smith's Bih. Dicty.) reminds us that our text is traceable 
only to our middle ages, and has been '* extensively corrupted, corrected, 
and interpolated." 

Josephus was bom about 37 to 39 A.C., and died about 100 A.C. 
He called himself Flavins, after the Flavian emperors who befriended 
him, but was the son of Matthias the priest, of the High Priests' 
family, and so connected with the Sadducees. Matthias was the 
grandson of Annas, High Priest in 6 to 15 A.C.; and by his mother's 
side Josephus was descended from the royal Hasmonean house. He 
learned Greek, and also studied the tenets of the Essenes and of the 
Pharisees. He joined a hermit in the desert at the age of 16 years, 
and three years later returned to Jerusalem. In 63 or 64 A.a he 
visited Rome, to plead for priestly friends sent prisoners there by the 
Procurator Felix ; he was wrecked on the way, and so made 
acquaintance with a friend of the Empress Poppsea wife of Nero, 
procuring through her the release of the captives, and receiving from 
her valuable presents. On the outbreak of the Jewish revolt, in 
66 A.C., he was placed in command in Galilee; and in his Life he 
gives a detailed account of his attempts to withstand the Bomans, 
noticing many towns and villages easily traced, but not noticed by 
other writers. He put down risings in Tiberias, and elsewhere, of 
those who desired to make peace, but was taken prisoner when 
Jotapata — a strong hill fortress of Galilee which he defended — was 
taken by Vespasian ; and he says that he prophesied to the latter bis 
approaching election as emperor. He then gave up the cause of the 
Jews as hopeless, and when taken by Titus to Jerusalem tried to persuade 
the fanatical defenders of the city to save it by yielding to Rome. His 
wife and parents were made prisoners by the zealots. He took as a 



Josephus 345 

second wife a. Jewish captive in the camp, but she left him, when he 
took a third whom he divorced, and then a fourth — a rich Jewess of 
Krete by whom he had two sons. When Jerusalem fell to Titus, in 
August 70 A.C., Josephus was granted the lives of some 50 friends, 
and also the Temple copy of the Scriptures which he sent as a present 
to Vespasian, who had become emperor in July 69 A.C. He was 
granted lands in Palestine, and made a Roman citizen, prospering 
under Titus and Domitian. He is last heard of in the 3rd year of 
Trajan, 100 a.c. 

His history pf. the Wars was written in Aramaik, and trans- 
lated into Greek. It is said to have been corrected by Vespasian, 
Titus, and Agrippa, and is of high value. His later work the 
AiUiquitiea was written probably in Rome about 93 A.C., and 
dedicated to a courtier named Epaphroditos. In this work he adopts 
the standpoint of a Jewish philosopher, and explains away some of the 
Hebrew legends — ^like Philo — as being allegorical. He says that 
*' Moses speaks philosophically" about the serpent in.ijden. But like 
Jesus, and all other Jews, he believed in demoniacal possession and 
other superstitions (see Wa/rn, YII, vi, 3). His latest works included 
the interesting tractates Against Apion, and his own Life, in which 
he vindicates his conduct. 

Whiston's translation is defective, and taken from corrupt MSS. 
of the 16th century. In all such matters as numbers, dates, distances, 
weights and measures, the chief passages have been garbled so that 
they are now discordant. Yet there is only one short allusion to 
Christ, which Dean Farrar reluctantly discards as an interpolation. It 
is first noticed by Eusebius about 330 A.C.; but Chrysostom (347-407 
A.C.) though often quoting Josephus does not mention it, nor does 
Photius, Patriarch of Constantinople (9th century), though thrice 
noticing Josephus. Indeed in speaking of " Justus of Tiberias " this 
author says that the Jewish historian " has not taken the least notice 
of Christ." Justin Martyr, Clement of Alexandria, and Origen, never 
appeal to this testimony. Origen says that Josephus mentioned John 
the Baptist, but did not acknowledge Christ (Agst CelaiLs, I, xxxv). 
The other two allusions, to John the Baptist (Ant, XVIII, v. 2), and to 
James " the Lord's brother ** (Ant,, XX, ix, 1 ) were unfortunately in that 
part of the Palatine Codex (9th or 10th century) which is missing: 
but Dr Edersheim remarks that the sentences are Christian and not 
Jewish in tone, besides interrupting the context. 

In relating Bible history Josephus appears to follow the Septua- 
gint Greek version, or at all events one more like it than our present 
Hebrew text. He adds some curious passages, such as his account of 



346 Joshua 

the campaign of Moses as an Egyptian general in Nubia. He speaks 
highly of Philo, and of his useAil mission to Caligula in 40 B.G. He 
imitates him also in allegorising the Pentateuch, calling the Tabernacle 
the symbol of the world, and connecting the shewbread with the 12 
months, and the golden candlestick with the 7 planets. The God in 
whom he (like Paul) believed was a pure Essence, permeating the 
whole world — much as Plato and the Stoiks taught ; and he does not 
object to the Platonic Logos, which Philo also accepted. Tet he says 
that 22 books of his Bible contain " the full and accurate account of all 
past time, and are justly to be believed divine . . . since written by 
prophets who learned what was origiaal and most ancient by inspira- 
tion of God, and chronicled what happened in their own time." The 
five books of the Pentateuch were, he says, " written by Moses even to 
his death, and embrace a period of 3000 years (that is 4500 to 1500 
B.C.) • . . the Prophets wrote what was done in their days in 13 books 
. . . and the remaining 4 books contain hymns to God and rules of 
life for man. . . . from Artazerxes to our own time the same authority 
does not attach to the books " (Agst. Apion., i, 8). He speaks of the 
writers as " being seized by the divine, so that they could not be 
silent." Prophecy ceased, he thought, some two centuries before he 
was born, yet some Essenes, he says, prophesied much later, and he 
even claims to have prophesied himself. 

Joshua. Hebrew : Yehoahu'a, " Yahveh has saved." The son 
of Nun (Assyrian Nvmu " prince "), of the tribe of Ephraim. He was 
a great raider, and a worshiper at stone circles (see Gilgal), according 
to the account of his wars written Dot earlier than the time of Solomon 
(see Jasher) or of Behoboam — that is some 500 years after this 
Hebrew hero lived. The conquest of the hills might take place when 
Egyptian power was weakened (see Amama, Egypt, Hebrews, Jerusalem), 
but this does not substantiate the drying-up of the Jordan, or the 
standing still of the sun and moon, at Joshua's command. 

Josaphat. See Barlaam ; apparently a corruption for Bodasapb 
(Bodhisattva), the Budha-sap of the Chronicle of ATicierU Nations, 
by El Biruni, noticed by Sir H. Yule. Thus Buddha became a ChristLin 
saint, as the Portuguese historian D. de Couto recognised three centahcs 
ago, when he was told that the Salsette caves were cut by the father 
of St Jehosaphat, who was a great Indian king. " It may well be," be 
says, " that he was the very Budao of whom they relate such marvels " 
(see Academy, 1st Septr. 1883 ; Indian Antiq., Octr. 1883). We 
have much to learn of the influence of Buddhism on Christiaoity (see 
the author's articles, Open Court, August and Septr. 1887). 



Jude 847 

Jude* The short Epistle of Jude claims to be by the brother of 
James (see James), and shows apparent acquaintance (verse 14) with 
the Book of Enoch (see Enoch) : it denounces the scandals due to the 
*' feasts of charity " (verse 12). See Agapse. 

Judges. A fragmentary continuation of the Book of Joshua (see 
Joshua), which includes the solar legends of Samson (see Samson), as 
well as the story of Jephthah's daughter, which shows human sacrifice 
among Hebrews, and reminds us of the Greek legend of Iphigeneia 
(see Hebrews). 

Jupiten Latin. The Sanskrit Dyaus-pitar, and Greek Dio- 
pater, or Zeu-Pat€r, the " father of light " (see Dyaus, and Zeus). 

JustifiCEtion. This word means properly *' showing to be right" ; 
and the Egyptians spoke of those who passed the ordeal of the balance 
(see Amenti) as "justified," according to Mariette and Naville, as 
early as the time of the 6th dynasty (see Bonwick's Egtn. Belief, 
p. 408). 

Justin Martyr. The existence of this father, and the authen- 
ticity of his writiugs, have beeu questioned by Judge Strange and 
other writers. He is said to have been the son of Prisons, son of 
Bacchius, born near Shechem in Palestine (ApoL, I, i), and converted 
by witnessing Christian constancy under persecution {Apol.^ II, xii), 
and by the influence of a stranger (Trypho, ii). He had been a Stoik, 
a Feripatetik, a Pythagorean, and a Platonist. His dispute with 
Trypho (thought to be Rabbi Tarphon) is traditionally supposed to have 
occurred at Ephesus ; and his quarrel with Crescens the Cynic at Borne 
led (as Eusebius asserts or guesses) to his martyrdom. He makes 
Christ to be the Son of God and the Logos, and gives an interesting 
account of the simple rites of Christians in Palestine, which then 
involved neither a priesthood nor a ritual His conversion is supposed 
to have occurred in 132 A.C., and his martyrdom under Antoninus 
Pius in 167 A.a Yet he is supposed to have addressed his 2nd 
Apology to Marcus Aurelius, saying that "now the pious are per- 
secuted as they never were before," which perhaps disposes of earlier 
persecutions (see Donaldson's Histy. of Christian Literature, iii, p. 230). 
Dr Sanday says that " not one half of the writings attributed to him 
are genuine." He is said to have converted Tatian (see Tatian), and 
he believed that Christ was born in a cave (see Bethlehem). He 
received a good education in Greek and Latin, and is said to make 
100 citations from the New Testament; yet, as now known, only 
seven of these agree with our text, and only two are identical according 



348 Ka 

to Bishop Wescott. Justin notices the Meraaira of the ApastUs (see 
Didache), and speaks of Jesus as descended from David throogh 
Mary (see Joseph) : he was acquainted apparently with other non- 
canonical Christian books, and speaks of the Jordan as catching fire 
at Christ's baptism. The evidence of such works as the Apology^ as 
affecting the age and text of the Bible, is now admitted to be of very 
doubtful value (see Bible). 



K 

In Semitic speech two K sounds are distinguished. The soft K 
(Hebrew, Caph) interchanges with the soft Ch (as in " church ") ; and 
the guttural T^ (Hebrew, Koph) with hard G : it is the Latin Q, and 
the Greek Koppa^ which soon dropped out of Greek alphabets. In 
Turkish the nasal K has the sound ng. The KH is a guttural (the 
German c^, and the Greek hhi) which interchanges with the guttural 
gh^ and the hard H. 

Ke. [An ancient root meaning " to call " : Akkadian ka 
"mouth," "word": Egyptian A»"cry": Aryan agh "speak/* gu 
" bellow " : Hebrew g'dh " bellow " : Mongol ge ** say " : Finnic Jcai 
" cry," ki " speech " : Chinese kiu " call." — ^Ed.] 

Ke. " Being." See Ga, From this root comes the relative pro- 
noun [Akkadian ka, I^ption okK Aryan ka^ ki, " who " : Turkish hi 
" that which " : Hebrew fci " as " — Ed.]. In Egypt the Ka is the 
genius or spirit which resides in the statue placed in the outer 
chamber of the tomb. The sign represents two arms raised to 
heaven (see Ka " to cry ") ; but the " determinative/' or pictorial key 
to the meaning, placed beneath these when the Ka spirit is intended, 
is a phallus — showing the meaning to be " life " (see M. Revillout, 
Trams. Bib. Arch. Socy., VIII, i: Brugsch's Diet, 1435). Miss A. R 
Edwards {Academy, 5th May 1888) says that "she fails to fathom 
the full meaning of the Ka/' " usually in close association with the 
Ankh," or symbol of life (see Ank) ; " it answers to the vital principle, 
and like the Ankh stands for life/' The bull in Egyptian is also 
called Ka [see ka " call," gu " bellow/' whence the Aryan kau " cow "* 
— Ed.]. *' The Egyptian," says Renouf, " gave to man's personality a 
purely material form which exactly corresponded to the man." ^ In 
countless representations, subsequent to 1800 B.C., we see the kiog in 
presence of the gods, while behind him stands his Ka, as a little man 
with the ruler's own features." "About 1500 (b.c.) they had com- 



Kab 34» 

pletely separated the personality from the person, and we see the 
king appear before his own personality which carries the ruler's staff 
and emblem of life." The king prays to his Ka or genius, and has 
sometimes 7 Eas. The word Ea also, in Egyptian, is an affix of per- 
sonality as in other languages (see Proc, Bib. Arch. Socy., March 
1884). *' There are numerous representations of the king propitiating 
his own Ka, and it was customary to swear by the Ea of the king, or 
by the Kau of kings, as Bomans swore by the genius of the Emperor '^ 
(see Gan). The Hebrews also swore by the Yerek or phallus (Gen. 
xxiv, 2). " Even the Egyptian gods themselves, and local societies, 
had their favourite Eas. From the time of Rameses II victory, 
wealth, and other divine gifts, were personified and worshiped under 
the name of the 14 Eas." Dr Birch says that these facts explain 
'' the abstract idea, and mystical meaning, of the Ea in the Ritual of 
the Dead "(Trans. Bib. Arch. Socy., VI, ii). In the Ritual the Ea 
is '* the ever living," yet an object to which offerings are made. The 
phallic emblem of the Ea is called " the embodied soul " (see Ba). 

In a Georgian dialect we find Ea, Ee, or Ehe, for God as an 
invocation heading letters and documents, like the Arab Alef (see A). 

Kab. Kheb. Khef. Egyptian words for round and hollow 
objects. See Gab. 

K'ab. Ka'aba. Arabic: "square." The cubical cell of the 
Haram, or " sanctuary," at Makka in Arabia. It was already ancient 
when it was rebuilt, and the " black stone " replaced in its wall, in 
the youth of Mubammad. The shrine was surrounded by 365 men- 
hirs, and the statue of the god of fate stood near it (see Hab'al)» 
The well Zemzem (" murmuring ") was hard by. Tradition said that 
here Ishmael thirsted, and here he was prepared as a sacrifice by 
Abraham whose footstep was shown near the " black stone " (see Hajr 
el Aswad), the surface of which was worn by the kisses of devotees, 
like St Peter's toe at Rome. The MustajaJb (" wonder working ") 
was another upright red stone, in the S.W. angle of the Ea'aba, and 
was also much reverenced. The building was already covered by a 
Eisweh ("veil"), which appears to have been red, in the time of 
Mubammad — this being the Moslem female color, and belonging ta 
Allat the Venus of Makka — and the Eisweh, now renewed annually,, 
is known as the " holy carpet." 

Kabbala. Cabbala. Hebrew -. " reception " or " tradition," a 
mystic philosophy of the later Jews (see Dr Ginsburg's KabbcUa, 186«5)» 
It is. distinguished as including the Figurative, Speculative, Practical,. 



350 Kabbala 

and Dogmatical ^bbalas ; and the word is used to mean divining 
by numbers and magic squares. The Figurative Cabbala attaches 
mystic values to the 22 letters of the alphabet, and to their numerical 
meanings : they are classed under three '' mother letters/' seven double 
letters, and twelve single. From words, numerical values (and also 
anagrams) are thus derived. The Practical J^bbala teaches the art 
of preparing talismans — magic figures with letters. The Dogmatic 
!^abbala is concerned with the story of creation, with good and evil 
spirits, and with the magical power of the "ineffable name" of 
Yahveh. It also teaches the 32 ways of Wisdom, and the 50 gates 
of Prudence. The oldest i^abbalists appear to have taught (as in the 
Talmud) the doctrine of metempsychosis, or transmigration of the soul, 
which Mubammad also adopted from the Rabbis. The title " God of 
the spirits of all desh " was believed to " intimate that metempsychosis 
takes place in all flesh, in beasts, fowls, and reptiles." Dr Gaster 
(Lecture, Jew's College, London, March 1886) says that the ^S^bbala 
claims to be " a philosophy and a science, which has systematised and 
solved the eternal question of life, and penetrated into the inner 
mystery of that mechanism by which all things material are bound 
together, as well as shown their relation to a higher world." But the 
world in general does not believe such a i^abbala to have been handed 
down from Adam by patriarchs. It seems to have arisen in the time 
of Maimonides (13th century A.C.), when the Midrash was almost 
as sacred as the Scriptures, and when the marvels of the latter were 
explained allegorically by rationalists. The i^bbalists held that God 
was the Ain-Sv/ph (" without limit "), from whom the universe eman- 
ated, these emanations, or modes, being the Sephiroth (" orders " or 
*' numbers "), which were his qualities. 

This philosophy is contained in two works, Ye^rah (" creation ") 
and Z6ha/r ('' light "), of the Middle Ages, which were claimed as 
representing the teaching of Rabbi Simeon bar Yochai (70 to 110 kjo.\ 
whose tomb at Meirun in upper Galilee is visited annually in spring 
by Jews who bum shawls and other objects of value as offerings. The 
Cabbala seems to have been systematised in the south of Franca 
The book Zohar is the more important ; and, as it contains references 
to events occurring in 570, 1099, 1187, 1264, and 1306 A.o.,its late 
date is very evident We here learn that the Ain-Suph, or '' Infinite," 
produced a prototype of creation, a bisexual being (as in India or 
China) having 10 Sephiroth or qualities: (1) The Crown; (2) the 
head : Wisdom ; (3) Intelligence ; (4 and 5) the two hands, Love 
to the left being female, and Justice to the right male, proceeding 
from 2 and 3 : (6) Beauty, the breast, from 4 and 5 ; (7 and 



Kabeiroi 851 

8) Firmness and Splendour, the legs, from 6 ; (9) Foundation, the 
navel, from 6; and (10) the Kingdom, which is the earth on which 
the being stands. This being (the Ain-suph incorporate), called also 
the " king and queen," produced the Adam Kadmon or *' old Adam," 
and the throne of the Metatron (or angel of the throne), whence came 
the 10 Sephiroth of Te^irah (''creation"), constituting the world 
of spirits and angels. Thence came the material world, also with 
1 degrees of badness or grosser Sephiroth, 1 of Chaos, 2 of Darkness, 
and 7 of the seven Hells. These were ruled by Samael and his 
consort, who together are the Beast. From the Adam !^admon man 
was produced, having a Neshemah (spirit), RuaJch (soul), and Nephesh 
(self), which tripartite principle of life, in each case, is both male and 
female, but bom into the world in two halves, so that throughout life 
the male soul seeks its female complement The book Zohar also sees 
in the words " Yahveh our Elohim is one Yahveh " (Deut. vi, 4) a 
Trinity in unity, of Yahveh, Elohim, and Akhad. 

Such mysticism is found also in the Gnostik systems of the Aidns 
(see Gnostiks) in our 2nd century, and recalls the Ideas of Plato, while 
similar language occurs in Indian allegories (see Brahma). 

Kabeiroi. Kabili. Greek Kabeiroi. The Babylonian Kabvri 
or " great ones " is a term applied in texts to the principal gods. In 
Oreco-Phcenician mythology (Sanchoniathon ; see Cory's Frag,) there 
were 7 Kabeiroi, with Eshmun as the 8th ; or otherwise 12 of these 
chief deities. Hephaistos (fire) was the father of all Kabeiroi according 
to some Greeks, his son Kadmos (Kedem *' old " or " eastern ") being 
the first, and a guardian of flocks, herds, and sailors. In Krete the 
Kabeiroi, or Daktuloi, were symbolised by an iron-colored (red) stone 
'Mike a man's thumb" (Littleton, Lai. Diet). Varro and others say 
that Dardanos transported these gods from Samothrace to Troy ; and 
JBneas carried off these Penates for Lavinium, including the statues 
of Neptune, Apollo, and Jupiter, Vesta, and other gods and godesses 
(see Bryant, MythoLy ii, pp. 342, 451). 

There are other accounts according to which the " great gods " 
were two only — the Twins of Day and Night, Kastor and PoUux (see 
Asvins) who are incarnate in the " St Elmo's Fire," seen on the masts 
of ships, and were adored in Lemnos, Imbros, Samothrace, and Troy, 
during the ages of the Persian wars and of the Komans. The parents 
of Alexander the Great, and later Greeks and Komans, were initiated 
into the mysteries of Samothrace. Arsinoe (276-247 B.c.) founded 
there an asylum for fugitives, and the site was explored by the 
Austrian expedition of 1874. Such rites at Lemnos lasted 9 days 



352 Kabir 

(Strabo, x, 437). Camillus, or Gasmillas, a son of H^phaistos, is 
also father of Kabeiroi, connected with the EourStes, Eombantes, 
and Daktuloi. The names of the Kabeiroi are again given as Ajderos, 
Axiokersa, Axiokersos, and Kadmilos or Kasmilos. They are some- 
times three — Dardanos (or Poseidon or Ouranos), Jasion (or Apollo, 
or Oe " the earth "), and Harmonia their sister who married KAdmo& 
These appear to be of Phoenician origin. The Etroskans recognised 
the pair of brothers with a sister (the Eour^tes or ^* children " of the 
Greeks) answering to Eastor, Pollux, and their sister Helen, bom of 
the egg of Leda (see Helene). They were usually gods who wielded 
thunder, and connected with fire. 

Kabin A pious weaver of Banaras, a Moslem whose mother 
was a Brahman! woman. He was the most famous of the disciples 
of Bamanand, who taught in 1380-1420 A.c. (see Bamanand), and 
aimed at reconciling Islam with Yishnuva belief. His headquarters 
were at the well-known Kabir-Chaura at Banaras, and he travelled all 
over the mid-Gktnges region to preach. He became the teacher of Nanak 
(see Sikhs), whom he met while yet only a Fa|pr or SanyasL Kabir 
taught that the god of Moslems and Hindus was the same, ** The 
Inner," whether invoked as 'Ali or as Bama ('Ali being deified by 
Persian Moslems) ; and in the " Yijak," by one of Eabir's disciples 
named Bhagodas (see Imp. Gazetteer, India), we read that " to 'Ali 
and Bama we owe our life . . . that tenderness should be shown to 
all that lives ... it avails not to count beads or bathe in holy 
streams . . . bow at temples, mutter prayers, and go pilg^mages, 
while in the heart remains any deceit or evil. . . . The Hindu fasts 
every eleventh day, and the Moslem in Bamadan ; but why so ? Who 
made the other months and days ? If the Creator dwells in tabernacles, 
whose dwelling is the universe ? Who has ever seen Bama among 
images or pilgrim shrines? Every person that has ever been bom 
is of the same nature as yourself ; and He is One, my guide and 
my priest." Beligious differences are only Maya or " illusion," and 
emancipation is gained by meditating on the Supreme, and on the 
holy names of " Hari, Bam, Govind." 

The best known of Eabir's writings are the Sukh-nidban and 
the Sabda-bali, or ''Thousand Sayings," showing the emancipation 
from caste and from superstition attained in India about 1400 A.a ; 
with the revival of Vedanta doctrines, and of Jain or Buddhist 
philanthropy ; and with the Yishnuva monotheism first preached by 
Eamarila and Bamanuja, in the 6th and 7th centuries A.a 

KabyleS. Arabic : Kabllah a " clan." A mingled race in N.W. 



Kachchk-pa 853 

Africa, so called by Arabs ; fair haired and blue eyed — a cross between 
Berbers (akin to Eopts), Phoenicians, Greeks, Bomans, Vandals, and 
Arabs, congregated £. of Algiers and S. of Cherchel. Their language 
is much mixed, but of Berber origin akin to ancient Egyptian (see 
Prof. Francis Newman's Grammar, 1836, and the later researches of 
French scholars). 

Kachcha-pa. Sanskrit : '' the feeder on the seashore " (see 
Turtle). The Maha-Eachcha is the ocean shore, or Yaruna, " expanse.** 

Kachins. Kakins. Kakhyens. "The male beings" (see 
Ka and 6an). A wild race £. and N.K of the British Barmah 
frontier, called Sings, or Sinphos, in Assam — a loose tribal con- 
federacy in mountain regions, between . Bhamo on the Iravadi river 
and the N.E. Assam frontier. They dislodged the Shans in our 11th 
century, forcing them from Magaung in their Pong states to the 
Salween, Menam, and Mekong, thus creating new states of Laos and 
Siamese. As Chins, or Shus, the Kachins spread down the broad 
valley of the Chin-duen (or Kyen-dwen) to its junction with the 
Iravadi near Ava, and along the Yoma range of Arakan, beyond 
Prome, where the author became well acquainted with them as road- 
makers. Though feared by the Barmese we found them steady, 
honest workmen, if left to their own devices. They are very 
independent, and fierce fighters when roused, having hardly passed 
beyond the raiding stage. They bum the forests in the hot season, 
and sow maize, and hardy cereals. After the crops are reaped and 
hidden, they proceed to plunder the Barmese and the rich Shan 
traders. The many dialects of their language have not yet been 
reduced to writing. Each independent tribe has its tutelary deity. 
They say that they sprang firom 101 eggs, laid by Hli the supreme 
deity : the last egg produced a man and woman, but the man pre- 
ferred a bitch, and Hli had to help the woman to drive her away, 
when she married her brother the man. 

The dog is conspicuous in Eachin rites, and is sacrificed to Hli, 
who listens to the plaints of his children through the angel Nga- 
Thein, or Moung-Sein, who reports to Hli, and so obtains happiness or 
misery for all living creatures. The Kachins make agreements by 
killing a bufialoe, and dipping their arms in the blood mixed with 
spirits, vowing vengeance against any who go back from the oath then 
made. It is very difficult to deal with them, as the chiefs can only 
influence them by example, and each man expects to be dealt with 
separately in making oaths. 

The Kakins, Kakhyens, or Ching-paws (Sinphos) near BhamO, 



864 Kachias 

between upper Assam and China, are of the Karen stock (Dr 
Anderson, Mandalay to Mcmien — a narrative of Sir EL Sladen's 
Expedition of 1868). They include the Mari, Lataung, Lepie, 
Karine, and Maran clans, with the N'kun who are perhaps the 
strongest tribe. They own communal lands, under chie& called 
Tsaubwas, who are paid in kind; and they cultivate rice, maize, 
cotton, indigo, and opium, trading also in indiarubber, amber, and 
minerals. They wear little clothing except in the hills, or in winter, 
but are adorned with nose-rings, ear-rings, bracelets, and anklets. 
They bury the dead, excepting those killed by shot or steel, and 
women who die in child-birth. The latter are thrust away in the 
jungle. Those who die naturally are clad in their best, cleaned, and 
laid in coffins, which are hollowed out of tree stems, and consecrated 
by the blood of a cock, or a boar, or (for women) of a sow, or hea 
Food, spirits, and a coin to pay the ferry-man at crossings of rivers, 
are laid by the body, which is buried 3 feet deep. A shed is raised 
over the grave, and a trench about 2 feet deep is dug round, with a 
diameter of 30 or 40 feet The mourners dance round, and eat part 
of the sacrifice, drinking spirits to propitiate the Nats or ftfunlas 
(spirits), and the Tuhsais (ghosts), which are the fear of their lives ; 
while the needful Tumsas, or witch doctors, are a constant burden on 
the existence of Kakhyens. 

Though they believe in spirits they have no idea of immortality, 
or of God, such as we hold ; yet there is a " very big Nat " — Shin- 
grawa — over the innumerable ghosts and spirits in which they have 
faith. He is thought to have created all things ; " the good dead go 
to a place called Tsoja; and the bad, with those who die violent 
deaths, generally go to Marai, but of these places they know nothing." 
Sinla, the sky spirit, gives or withholds rain and corn, and the kindly 
Elring-wan watches over agriculture ; but malignant Nats — such as 
Masu, and Eajat — must be propitiated when sowing crops, or clearing 
forests, by sacrifices of buffaloes, pigs, and fowls. The sun (Chan or 
San) and the moon (Sada, or Shita) are worshiped as great male and 
female Nats, especially at harvest and clearing seasons. The offerings 
include fowls (red cocks for San), fish, eggs, boiled rice, bread, liqaor, 
and garments (of men to San, and of women to Sada). The earth 
Nat (Ngka, or Bumi-nat) is adored by the whole village, when groond 
is first tilled or annually sown. No work may then be done for 
4 days, and the same rule applies to the rites of Sharuva, and Modai- 
pronga, the "king and queen of the gods," and to those of the 
Nun-shan Nats, or village genii. The S^akhyens also worship Ngkhn- 
Nat a god of the home, and of ancestors, invoked in sickness, and 



Kadambas 355 

before migration. Ndong-Nat is a god of the outside, a protector 
against outside dangers, war, flood, and wild beasts. There are 
many other spirits of the air, mountains, fields, and gardens, forests, 
rice, eta Mo-Nat ("the heaven spirit") is called the "chief" 
(Tsaubwa), to be met after death. 

Kadambas. An important dynasty of Hindu Brahmans, or 
Jains, one of whom (Mayura-Sarman) seized Eanchi (Conjeveram) 
from its Palava rulers about 150 A.a He was called a Sarman, and 
his son Kanga took the title of Yarman. A poet named Kubja wrote, 
in high flown Kavya, a text preserved on stone, dating about 420 A.C., 
in honour of Kakustha- Yarman, who gave a tank to a temple of Siva 
at Sthana-Kundara, which his son Santi- Yarman completed ; and this 
gives the Kadamba history. They were Brahmans of the Manavya 
clan, and the poet says they were named from a sacred tree near their 
home — the Kadamba of Mt. Meru, which yields the drink of the gods. 
Yarious land grants point to Kadambas as Jains by creed, but others 
adored Siva who was always worshiped in Kanchi-pur (see Dr Biihler, 
Jov/mal Bl. Asiatic Society, October 1895). 

Kadesh. iCedesh. Hebrew : " holy." The name of 4 cities 
in Palestine, two— Kadesh Bame'a ('*of wanderings") and Kadesh 
further W. — in the south ; Kedesh in the plain of Issachar ; and 
Kcdesh Naphtali ; besides Kadesh on the Orontes (Kades) occupied 
by HitUtes at least as early as the 15 th century B.C. (see Egypt). The 
Kodashim, and Kodeshoth, of Canaanites and Hebrews, were " conse- 
crated " persons of either sex, the latter resembling the Deva-dasis, 
or temple women of India. They were devotees of the licentious 
'Ashtoreth, who were found as late as our 4th century at Apheka in 
Lebanon (see Adonis), at Daphne near Antioch, and at Faphos in 
Cyprus. Herodotos mentions them at Babylon ; and the '* Sicca 
Veneria," or " booths of 'Ashtoreth " at Carthage, like the Succoth- 
Benoth ("booths of girls") in the Bible, were places where they 
congregated. They are found in China and Japan, and all over Asia 
(see AaicUic Rea,, i, p. 166, and Inman's Ancient Faiths, ii, p. 168). 
In Deuteronomy (xxiii, 17, 18) such Kodeshoth, are denounced, and 
•connected with Kalbim rendered " dogs," but more properly " priests." 
They are noticed in the laws of 'Ammurabi, and were regarded as 
being consecrated, or brides of gods — as in India (see also Gen. 
xxxviii, 21). In Egypt a godess called Kadash (a foreign importa- 
tion) is represented naked, with an Egyptian ithyphallic god to her 
right, and the Semitic Reseph (the god of rain and thunder) to 
her left. 



S56 Kadmos 

KadmOS. Cadmus. Hebrew : ^edem *' the east " ; a PbiB- 
nician mythical hero adopted by the Greeks, and said to have taught 
them writing, and other arts. He was the brother of Europa *" the 
west " (see Europe). 

Kadru. The daughter of Daksha, wife of Kasjapa, and mother 
of serpents such as Sesha, and Yasuki. 

Kafir. Arabic : " villager/' used with the same signification as 
the Latin Paganua, ** peasant " or " pagan." The Cafires of S. Africa 
were so called by the Arabs, as Eufar or "pagans." In the N.W. 
comer of India, from the Swat valley westwards to the Hindu Kush, 
the tribes called Kafirs, by Afghan Moslems, have retained ancient 
superstitions of an Indo-Aryan character. They have rude square 
temples with sacred stones and images ; their chief god, or Deo-gan, 
being called Imbra. They offer cows and goats to him, to ^'keep 
them from fever, increase their stores, kill the Moslems, and take all 
Dards (as they call themselves) to Paradise." They fear to enter 
temples except when robed in dark garments, whence they are called 
Siah-posh. These temples are dark cells built of heavy timbers, little 
used save at funerals : for all coffins must be brought to them, and 
sacrifices then offered. These Dards are usually jovial robbers and 
murderers, who sing, drink, and dance, and requite the murderous 
cruelty of Moslems when they can. Some tribes however are Shi'ah 
(Persian Moslems). Their language is akin to Persian. 

Kahan. Arabic : " a wizard." It is the Hebrew Kohen " priest,'* 
but by the time of Mul^ammad denoted a degraded class of magicians 
in Arabia, supposed to be possessed by spirits usually eviL 

Kailasa. The great primeval lingam of Indra, and the heaven 
of Siva, from which eleven other lingams proceeded. The Greeks 
called it Roilos ; and, like the Latin Coelus, it may mean " the 
vault." Ruvera god of riches dwelt there, and all prosperity came 
thence. The actual peak is in the Himalayas, near the sources of the 
Indus and Sutlej. The summit of the cone was said to be a table- 
altar like a lotus, marked with a triangle — typifying Parvati It was 
said to radiate light all over India. 

Kain. Cain. The eldest son of Adam. As a Semitic word it 
means ** spear," and the Ij^enites were probably " spear men." But 
Eve said at Cain's birth (Gen. iv, 1) ''I have gotten a man from 
Yahveh," so that it may be the Akkadian Oin ''man" (see Gan), 
representing a non-Semitic race, as Abel (Ablu " son " in Assyrian) 



Kakos 357 

denotes the Semitic race. Cain was a tiller of the soil, and Abel 
a shepherd. Cain is driven out to the land of Nod (" exile "), ^^^ 
founds a city Un-ug (see Enoch). The " mark " set on Cain, accord- 
ing to the Rabbis, was a horn (verse 15. See Bereshith, Rabba^ 22), 
and he is supposed to have been slain by Lamech. His descendant 
Tubal-^ain is a smith, and the race appears to have originated civilisa- 
tion, as did the Akkadians. 

Kakos. CaCUS. Son of Vulcan and Medusai a three-headed 
monster living on men's bones and filth, in the cave of the Aventine 
at Rome (see Herakles). 

Kakud. Sanskrit. The hump of the sacred bull, which is adored 
and anointed, as symbolising Daksha (see Daksha) ; and it was the 
seat of Indra. The Kakud-stha is sacred to Siva, Vishnu, and 
Krishna ; and any hilly place, or rounded object, is a Kakunda 

Kala. Kalu. - Tamil : '' a stone." See Qal. 

Kala. Sanskrit : " time," " fate," " death," " black," a name of 
Yuma the " Restrainer," and " god of the dead with whom dwell the 
spirits of the departed." He is not a devil though much dreaded, 
for Yama (the Persian Yima) was the first man, and hence the first 
to dia He may have been first called Eala as ruling in "dark- 
ness," or as lord of fate, or a man's *' time " : he is Antaka 
(Death), and the judge of the dead. He ruled all worlds till 
Brahma drew them from chaos. Maha-Eala, and his bride Eall, 
are the destructive powers of nature (see Eali) ; and Siva is Eala, 
in his destructive mood, and " Lord of all " : being also (by Sata-hrada) 
the father of the man-eating Rakshasa demon Viradha Kala was 
also one of the eleven Rudras, or primeval deities ; and Vishnuvas 
call him " Time without end or beginning," uniting matter with life. 

Kalah. Calah. Hebrew : ** ancient " — an Assyrian city (Gen. 
X, 11-12) now NimrUd near Nineveh on the S.S.E. It was rebuilt 
by Shalmaneser I about 1300 B.C.: and again by Assur-nasir-pal 
about 885 B.C., and had temples of Assur and of Marduk, on a 
platform by the city wall. The famous " Black Obelisk " of Shal- 
maneser II (858-820 B.C.), comes from Kalab* recording victories in 
Syria and Palestine (including the tribute of Jehu), and tribute from 
the East, of the elephant, rhinoceros, and Baktrian hounds and 
camels, with monkeys, indicating trade with India 

Kaldea. Chaldea. The inhabitants of S. Babylonia, from the 
dth century B.C., are mentioned in Assyrian texts as Kaldi. The 



358 Kaledonia 

word Chaldeans in the English Bible represents the Hebrew Easdim, 
rendered Khaidaioi in the Greek version. Herodotos, and later 
classic writers, called the Babylonians generally Khaidaioi ; but, on 
account of their reputation as magicians and astronomers, the 
term came to be applied to Babylonian 'priests and divinerai 
There were other Khaidaioi in Armenia (according to Lenormant, 
Lettres AaayriologiqueaX who may be named from the Vanoic 
deity Khaldis. But this has no connection with the Kaldi, or 
with the Kasdim (see Abraham, and Kasdim). Strabo calls tbe 
Khaidaioi "teachers of religion and astronomy" (xvii, 1). Hero- 
dotos makes them also warriors (viii, 63), and Diodorus Siculos 
compares them to Egyptian priests. Later Byzantine writers only 
follow these notices, and the Greek text of the Bible ; bnt do 
monumental notice of the Kasdim exists to show that tbey were 
Kaldi. 

Kaledonia. Caledonia. Classic writers grouped the Cale- 
donii (apparently a fair Keltik people with red or yellow hair) with 
Belgse, Parisii, Attrebates, and Cantii — the latter in Kent, and the 
Parisii near Petuaria on the Humber: a township in Lincolnshire 
was known as Paris as late as our 13th century. The Caledoniass 
are thought to have been " woodmen," or tree worshipers (Irish and 
Gaelic Coil, CuiUean ; Welsh and Cornish Celyn ; Armoric Kekn ; 
" wood "), CoU-daoine signifying *' wood-people " ; but the subject is 
difficult, and other explanations are proposed connecting Caledonians 
with Gauls, Gaels, gillies, and gallants, as " brave men." Scodand 
north of the Forth and Clyde was Albin ("the Alpine land") and 
Kaledonia; and the Greek Kaludon may have been also a ''forest'* 
region where the boar was hunted. 

Kali. Sanskrit : " black " (see Kala). The " blue-black one," a 
cruel and gross godess, wife of Siva, represented (see Divali) dancing 
on his white body, with a long tongue dripping blood, her hair of 
serpents ; while like Siva she wears a necklace of skulls, and h&s four 
arms. She is also Durga or " fate " (see Durga), and is marked on 
the forehead with the Yoni, and the crescent. She presides over 
death and funeral pyres, and sometimes dances with a babe in her 
arms. She delights in bloody sacrifices which, among wild non-Aiyan 
tribes, are still sometimes of human victims. Calcutta (Kali-ghat) is 
named after her, and she is known also as Bhavani ("creatress"), 
though an infernal godess to whom the Thugs dedicated their victims, 
representing Kali with claws, snake locks, and skull ornaments. 

Kali-dasa, The famous Indian poet and dramatist, whom 



Kalil 369 

Lassen places about 170 A.C., but Prof. Petersou in our 1st century 
(Journal KL. Asiatic Socy., April 1891). Dr Daji, and Mr V. 
Smith think he lived several centuries later. Mr Pathak, B.Ai 
{Bombay M. Asiatic Socy., April 1894), shows that the mention of 
the '* White Huns " by Eali-dasa, as ruling in the Panjab and 
Kashmir, points to about 530 A.C. ; aud tradition in Ceylon makes 
him the contemporary of King Kumara-dasa about 515 A.C. He is 
not mentioned in Indian literature before about 600, and was famous 
in 634 A.C., as shown by the Aiholi inscription* He is said to have 
been one of the "nine gems that adorned the Court of Vikram- 
Aditya " ; which however shows popular confusion according to Mr 
Pathak. Kali-dasa is immortalised by his Sakuntala ("The Lost 
Ring")i a maiden who became mother of Bharata. Later writers 
often borrowed his name. 

KaliL KalliL Tamil : see Kala " stone " — a natural lingam on 
a sacred hill six miles R of Cochin in Travankdr. The shrine is like 
that of the Kaiktyo mountain in Barmah (see Rivera of Life, ii, p. 
314^ fig. 266). A conical shrine in both cases is built on a conical 
rocky the Barmese rock being marked by a Toni emblem, and that 
at Kalil by a " figure of Brahma " (Mr N. Sunkuni, Indian Antiq., 
March 1892). Pilgrims to Kalil must be careful not to see Devi 
before Siva in the shriue, or they will die before the moon changes ; 
they therefore often go blind-folded, and never in the evening when 
prayers and offerings are accepted at the house of the Pishardtis 
(temple servants), at the foot of the hill. They must worship very 
early, and sleep therefore near the shrine, especially on the eve of the 
New Year, in April, when the good or evil fortune of the year is 
determined. The sacred rock, thought hardly to rest on earth (see 
Jerusalem, where this legend applies to the Sakhrah), has according 
to living elders been known to soar upwards when its walls were 
touched by intruders, beasts or birds. 

Kalinda. Probably " Kali's Biver," as an old name of the 
Jumna. Kalindi is a daughter of Kalkin, a form of Vishnu. 

Kalinga. The land of the Trilingas (see Tellingas), a race 
ruled by a King Kalinga of warrior caste (see Dr Wilson, Sanskrit 
Lity p. 57). India, from the mouth of the Ganges to below the 
Kistna, was ruled by Kalinga people (Telagus), mingled with Bangas, 
Angas, Sunhas, and Pundras. Ptolemy calls the mid region of the 
Indian R coast ''Regie Calingarum," its capital being Kalinga- 
patnam. The Klings of Barmah, and throughout the K archipelago. 



860 Kalisto 

with Talings or Talains, are of this stock, being enterprising 
colonists. 

Kalisto. CailistO. Greek (probably ''most fair"). A form 
of Artemis, and a huntress, symbolised by a bear : daughter of tbe 
Lukaian Zeus, and mother of Arkas, and Arkadiaus, her mother being 
Maya. [Perhaps Arktos "bear" was popularly confused with Arg 
*' to shine." — Ed.] She was deified as Arktos " the bear," and said 
to have been accidentally shot as such by Artemis. Pausanias says 
that Artemis, as Kallisto, had a tomb and temple by the fountaio 
of EjTuni, and that the tomb of Arkas, near Juno's temple, was called 
*' the altar of the sun " (II, viii, 9, 36). Kallisto also appeared at 
Delphi in a bear's skin. Midler makes her the constellation of the 
"great bear." 

Kaliya. Sanskrit : " the killer." A five-headed serpent, slain by 
Krishna, in a "deep pool of the Yamima" It ''laid waste the 
country, vomiting fire and smoke," and would have strangled 
Krishna in its folds but for his strong brother Bala-Bama. It is 
the usual legend of the solar dragon slayer. 

Kali-yUga. The present age of the world, which began 3101- 
3102 B.C., and is to last 432,000 years from that date according to 
Hindus, or 1200 divine years — each being 360 human years, re- 
presenting multiples of 60 (the Babylonian unit). The four Yugas, 
or ages, are of 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000 years respectively, each with 
a " twilight " of a tenth, added before and after, making our age 1200 
divine years (see Kalpa). The Yishnuvas make the present Tuga 
to begin 400 years after Kama's conquest of Ceylon, or in 1370 &c. 
{Asiatic Res,, x, p. 83). Righteousness will only survive for a 
quarter of the Kali-yuga, and Yedik rites will gradually be n^lected 
as goodness decays. Dire calamities, disease, and famines, will then 
prevail, though many will still seek to acquire merits, and will reap 
the reward. This prediction seems to belong to an age when com- 
merce was spreading, and the usual evils due to basting to become 
rich accompanied it. Kali is personified, by Hindus, as the spirit of 
bad luck — the black ace in dicing, the cause of all mischief and 
quarrels. He possessed the body of Nala as the spirit of gamUing 
till expelled, when he took refuge in the Yibhitaka berries, which 
none touch lest Kali should attack them — sec the story of Nala and 
Damayanti in the Maha-bharata. After Nala's death Kali remained 
so imprisoned during the age of Krishna, but ventured out in that 
of King Pari-kshit, a grandson of the Pandus who, however, nearly 



Kallisto 36 1 

destroyed him, mother earth having discovered his presence in the 
spread of injustice, cruelty, and vice. Kali was then assigned certain 
places of abode by this king, namely battle fields and other places 
of slaughter, harlot's houses, and abodes of drinkers and gamblers. 
He was also, at his own request, allowed to abide in gold : and all 
these abodes of Kali must be avoided by any who wish for peace and 
happiness. The Kali-yuga began on the death of Pari-kshit, bring- 
ing strife, poverty, famine, war, and vice, which must remain till 
Kalki (the 10th incarnation of Vishnu) appears. The ''time of 
trouble " is also found in the eschatology (or " latter day " pre- 
dictions), of Persians, Jews, and Christians. 

Kallisto. See Kalisto. 

n 

Kalki. The future 10th Avatara of Vishnu will descend in fire 
from heaven, riding a winged white horse, and bearing a flaming 
sword wherewith to destroy the sinners of the Kali-yuga (see above), 
establishing a kingdom of righteousness over which this Hindu 
Messiah will rule. He will purify and strengthen the good, and teach 
them all things past or to come. His name means the " Conqueror 
of Kali "—the Hindu devil. 

Kalneh. This ancient city (Gen. x, 10) according to Rabbinical 
writers was Nipur, where many ancient Akkadian texts of the first 
age of Babylonian civilisation, and later records of the Kassites, have 
been unearthed by American explorers (see Babylon and Nipur). 

Kalpa. Sanokrit : '' a measure " or " rule," as in the Kalpa- 
Sutra (one of the Vedangas) which is a string of precepts or 
" ceremonial rubric." As a measure of time a Kalpa is a " day of 
Brahma'' which is 1000 years, or a divine year of 360 human years. 
There are 4 Kalpas, at the end of which the world is destroyed by 
water, wind, earthquake, and fire. [Peruvians had two such ages 
with destruction by famine and flood : the Mayas of Yukatan spoke 
of two destructions by plague, one by hurricane, and a fourth by 
flood. The Azteks knew of four such ages before the present one, 
when the world was destroyed by water, wind, fire, and famine (see 
Brinton's Myths of the New World, p. 229). — Ed.] Each Kalpa is 
worse than the preceding one, and shorter in its duration. The 
Krita age was 4800 divine years ; the Treta was 3600 ; the Dvapara 
2400; and the present Kalpa, or Kali-yuga, is to be 1200 divine 
years to the coming of Kalki (see Kali-yuga, and Kalki). The 
total Hindu astronomical cycle consists of 4,320,000 human years, 
based on multiples of the Babylonian unit of 60, and on the 



362 Kalpa-Vriksha 

coincidecce of lunar and solar years (see Sir K Phillips, Millian of 
Facts). The lunation is thus made to be it8 days, 12 hours, 44', 2^, 
47'". 36'"'; and the solar year 366 days, 5 hours, 31', 31", 24'". 
The four Kalpas, being in ibe proportion of 4, 3, 2, and 1, constitute 
this Maha-yuga or ^' great age/' each divine year being 360 human 
years : lor (4800 + 3600 + 2400 + 1200) 360 = 4,320,000. 

Kalpa-Vriksha, or Mula-Vriksha. The sky tree of 

paradise, of knowledge, and of life, sometimes represented with wings 
(see Prof. A. de Gubernatis, Zool. MythoL, ii, p. 168). At Sivas 
request Brahma sent it to earth (see Jambu) as the tree of Ganesa 
(see Dvlpa, and Trees). 

Kain. Khain. An ancient root for fire. [Egyptian kheint 
"fire," kem^ khem, "black": Akkadian gun "bright": Hebrew 
Ham/m " burning " : Assyrian Jcatnu ** to burn " : Turkish kun^ gun 
"bright," "sun," "fire": Chinese kan "dawn." — Ed.] In Gipsy 
language Eam is the sun, and Kem the moon (see Kemi in 
Japan). 

Kama. The Indian Cupid (see Gam) who has a bow strung with 
bees, and arrows pointed with flowers, and who rides on the love-bird 
or lory, a kind of parrot called the Rameri. He imparts the Madan 
which falls from heaven to earth, or which issues as a parrot from tLe 
lingam {Indian Antiq,, October 1882, p. 290), namely, the dew of 
life. Kama is the son of Vishnu, and of Maya (" delusion "), or of 
Rukmini, a form of LakshmL Kama is also said to issue from a 
Brahman's heart. The word signifies " love," " inclination," " kind- 
ness " : but the lingam is called the " love-bird," and the Kumari 
("youthful") fairies carry Kama's banner — a fish on a red ground 
His five arrows appear to be the five senses. Kama disturbed Siva's 
meditations, and was reduced to ashes, but revived as a son of 
Krishna. The Italian Camillus was a god of love, whose name 
comes from the same root. The material significance of the original 
idea of Kama as " desire," or " passion," or " fire," has been eclipsed, 
as poetry, the love of beauty, religion, and ethiks have played round 
his figure. All that is lovely in nature, and in religion itself, has 
been vivified by the touch of love; till gods of fear became the 
saviours of men, and man was taught kindly sympathy : till men 
learned, from the scriptures of Buddha, Confucius, and Christ, that 
" Love is the fulfilling of the Law," and that " God is Love." This is 
a departure from the idea of love among the ancients ; and the ancient 
Agapse have become spiritualised. The ancient Greeks pictured their 



Kama-dhenu 363 

deities in the most beautiful of human forms, and learned to love what 
was noble and fair in man and in woman. Love filled the home with 
melody, and the whole world with joy. It changed worthless things 
into delights, and first dreamed of immortality. Passion became 
devotion, duty, humble-heartedness, and patience — ^the perfume of the 
heart. > 

Kama-dhenu. A common image of the earth-cow in Indian 
bazaars. 

Kama-lata. The "bindweed of love" — the phallus, aooonliiig 
to Prof. Angelo de Gubematis (Mythol, dea Flaadea, i, p. 13S), one of 
many shrubs and flowers aaccBd to Kama. 

Kamaon. The Almora district, in the Himalayas in N.W. 
India, full of the rude-stone monuments and serpent shrines of 
Khasias and other non-Aryans. 

Kamarila. A teacher of Yedas, a Bhatta Brahman of Behar. 
Hiuen-Tsang in our 7th century called him a " dangerous Brahman 
enemy of Buddhista" Mr Justice Telang places him about 590 to 
650 A.C. ; and Mr Fleet makes his contemporary Sankar-acharya to 
live 635 to 655 B.C., but Mr Pathak places him later (see Jov/mal 
BoTubay RL Asiatic Society, 1892, xliic). He is said to have perse- 
cuted Jains, and Buddhists, from the Himalayas to Adam's Bridge, or 
throughout India (see Subandha) : they revolted against the Mimansa 
system, and the neo-Brahmanism of the age, but the persecution was 
not an actual war of soldiers. Mr Pathak points out that Kamarila 
(in his Tantra Yartika) often quotes Bhartri-hari (author of the 
Yakyapadiya) who died in 650 A.C., and was famous as a grammarian 
a century later. The question of date is important in the history 
of the decline of Buddhism, and Mr Pathak thinks that both Kamarila, 
and Sankar-acharya lived about 700 to 750 A.a ; and Surisvara 750 
to 838 A.C. Sir W. Hunter (Imp. Oaz, India^ iv, 298) says that 
Kamarila journeyed in S. India " in the 8th century " A.C., and 
" commanded princes and people to worship one God." This is the 
earliest notice of Theism, coming from the great source of Hindu 
learning — the uplands of Mathila or N. Behar. Tradition magnified 
into general persecution the attack on the Jains by Kamarila, in 
Siva's town or Budra-pur, as seen in the 8th or 9th century in 
Sankara literature. In Hindu theology Kamarila " figures as a 
teacher of the later Mimansa philosophy, which ascribes the universe 
to a divine act of creation, and assumes an all-powerful Ood as the 
cause of the existence, continuance, and dissolution of the world." 



864 Kama-nipa 

The '' one existent and universal soul " is Advaita, or ** without a 
second " — as opposed to the bisexual system. Saukar-achaiya was 
the disciple of Kamarila, who 19 said to have committed his own body 
to the flames in his presence. [The date suggests that such mono- 
theism in India may have been due to Moslem influences. See 
Sikhs.— Ed.] 

Kama-rupa. Kamrup. Now Oauhati with its surrounding 
province, at the foot of the Bhutan mountains : an Indo-Mongolian 
state full of non- Aryan and of Hindu shrines, the principal of these 
being Hajo, and Sal-kusa (see Rusa-nagar). Tibetans, misled by the 
latter name, thought that here Buddha died. It is the seat of Tantra 
and Sakta worship (see those headings) between the Brahma- putra 
near Gauhati, and the Ehasi country (see Journal Bengal Rl. Asiaiie 
Socy., 1892, i). On the summit of the cone of Hajo is a shrine of 
Siva called Eedar-nath, with a dark pool — '*' Siva's pool " — where he 
brewed an aphrodisiac potion by aid of a snake. The great image 
is here called a Buddha by Tibetans, and the Mddhab by Brahmana. 
There are other figures of the Tibetan Hung, and of Sambhava as the 
" holder of the Dorje," or sacred mace of Tibet 

Kamatta. Sanskrit See Vishnu and Turtle. 

Kamban. The author of a Tamil epik '* relating the immortal 
story of Kama, and Sita, in language which none of our European 
poets have ever surpassed " (Rev. Q. U. Pope, Indian Mag., Sept 
1888). The poem translated by this scholar belongs to our 7th or 
8 th century. 

Kamiila. Camilla. In Virgil's ^neid this Amazon is the 
counterpart of Atalanta, in the wars of iEneas and Turnus. She was 
dedicated to Diana, by her father the prince of the Volscians. M. E. 
Maury regards her as a Gallic godess. The name may come from the 
root Kam '* fire " [or, as the Latin C was at first a G, from Gam 
"conquering," 0am "to run," or Gavi "love" — Ed.]. She is the 
feminine of Camillus or Camulus. The Camillas were virgin 
priestesses of Diana (see next article). 

Kamillus. Camillus. An Italian deity. He is called a sod 
of Hephaistos or " fire " (see Kamilla). The Flamen-dialis in Rome 
was also called a Camillus, and Servius says that the Roman Camilli 
were " the priests of the great gods." 

Kammp. See Kama-rupa. 
. Kamsa. See Krishna. 



Kana'an 865 

Kana'an. Canaan. Hebrew : from Kcm'a " to be low." The 
lowlands of Syria and Palestine, including the sea plains and the 
Jordan Valley. The Amama tablets (15th century B.c.) call the 
inhabitants Kan'ai, In later times the word " Canaanite " came to 
mean *' merchant/' as the plains were the mercantile regions. The 
religion of Canaan is treated in articles on the gods, such as Ba'al, 
Ba'alath, Tammuz (Adonis), Istar ('Ashtoreth), Dagon, Hadad (Bimmon), 
Reseph, Eshmun, the Patoeci (see under Bas), and AshSrah. The 
population, from the 17th century B.C., is known to have been a 
mixed Turanian and Semitic race, of which the Hittites and Amorites 
are the chief tribes noticed on the monuments. 

Kanaka-MunL The second Buddha (see under Buddha). His 
body was ^* of pure gold/' He is called Konagamana in Pali, and 
Konak-mune at Bharahut. As " men, in his day, lived 30,000 years 
. . . he converted many." He was "born in a town leas than a 
yojana (8 miles) N. of Napei-kea, the birthplace of the first Buddha 
Kraku-chandra (Beal's Fa-hien). In Ceylon he is generally placed 
2000 or 1500 years before Gotama Buddha. Major Forbes saya 
about 2099 B.C. The tradition is of Asoka's age (Hardy, Eastern 
MoThochiam, p. 274), Kraku-chandra being placed about 3100 B.G.,. 
and Easyapa the third Buddha about 1014 B.C. Eanaka-muni was 
one of the 24 Jinas, or saints of the Jains. The three Buddhas pre- 
ceding Gotama appear in the sculptures at Bharahut, at the Bhilsa 
topes, and on the Sanchi Gates (see Rev. Spence Hardy, Manual of 
Bvddhiam, chap, iv : and Major Forbes, Jov/mal EL. Asiatic Socy., 
June 1836, p. 89). Buddhists say that E5naga-mani, in a previous 
existence as *' King of Parwata," said of Gotama in one of his previous 
lives : ** this person will become a supreme Buddha " (Manual of 
Buddhism" p. 98). EOnaga-mani's chief disciples were Sambahula 
and Uttara ; his attendant was Sortthi-jana, and his female disciples 
Samudda, and Uttara. His " water dipper " is a sacred relic buried 
under the Shwe-dagon pagoda at Rangun (Hardy's Eastern Monach.^ 
p. 219 ; Aaiaiic Res,, xvi, Manual of Buddhism, p. 199). Dr Ftihrer, 
archffiologist to the Indian Government, writes in 1896 that : " Kdnaka- 
mana's magnificent tomb is at the village of Nijliva in the sub- 
Himalayan borders of Napal. It is . . . surrounded with vast brick 
ruins of monasteries, half a mile in extent ... in the centre of 
which stands an Asdka pillar still erect with an inscription to com- 
memorate the Buddha" (see Eapila-vastu). 

Kanchin-janga. The third highest mountain in the world 
(28,176 feet) on the borders of Tibet — "The Virgin," or according 



866 Kanchi-piir 

to Tibetans KaTig-chen-dzonga, ** the five treasure chests of snow," 
In this chain Hindus adore Gauri-sankar as '' Siva's Virgin " ; but the 
dome of Choma-kankar, the " Lord of snows/' is the most holy to 
Tibetans — ^the Lep-echyi of Buddhists, and the Napalese Jomo-kang- 
kar, or "Lady of the white glacier." Dr Waddell says that this 
chain of holy mountains is known as Lap-chi-kang, 

Kanchi-piir. The old sacred capital of the Palavas, now Conje- 
veram, about 35 miles S.W. of Madras. Its temples exhibit the finest 
examples of Dravidian architecture, and it is famous for its beautifol 
temple girls, Devadasis, Eanchanis, or Pallakis. The Palavas thence 
ruled S. India, from about the Christian era till the 11th century, 
but lost territory to the Chalukyas in our 5 th century. Hiuen-Tsang, 
in July 639 A.C., found in Eanchi-pur 300 Buddhist monks on pil- 
grimage from Ceylon ; but neo-Brahman stone temples were then 
arising (see Jov/mal El, Asiatic Socy., Jany. 1884). 

Kandara. Sanskrit : " a cave " or hollow. One who dwells in 
a cave is a Eandarpa (see Eund). 

Kandasa. Hindi. A lingam. 

KandL Kandra. Chandra. Sanskrit: the moon as the 
*' white " light. The Ceylon Balis said that Kandu carried a cornu- 
copia to be filled by her lord Brahas-pati ; and Eandi-kumara (" young 
Eandi") is a male light-god of this people, bearing a sword (see 
Chandra). 

Kane. Tane. The chief light god of Hawaii in Polynesia. 
He ascended into heaven, leaving the rainbow as a token of his ever- 
lasting remembrance of mankind. " The east is his highway, and the 
west his great road of death " — the Hades into which he sinks to 
slumber. He dwells in sun and moon, and in all things, and is sym- 
bolised as a flying bird, and adored in stone circles, or Maraes, as the 
sun god La or Ba (Fornander, Polyn., i, pp. 42, 62). His brother 
Oro, Olo, or Eoro, is the war god of the Society Islands. The Hawaii 
triad (see Hawaii) includes Eane, Eu, and Lono, who are equal but 
distinct Eu-kau-akapi (''Euwho stands alone") is conjoined with 
Eane-oi-e ('* Eane the supreme ") in whose image man was created, 
of red earth and the spittle of Eane, the head of white clay being pro- 
vided by Lono. The triad together breathed life into his nostrils, 
and woman was made of his bone. According to other legends Tn- 
mata-uenga (see Tu) was the progenitor of man. 

Kanishka. The best known and probably the first pure Sakya 



Kanishka 367 

monarch (see India) and Buddhist emperor of N.W. India, succeeding 
his brothers Huvishka and Hushka, neither of whom seem to have 
shaken off the old worship of serpents and fire, though both of them 
are said to have built Yiharas or Buddhist monasteries. Huvishka 
reigned at ^bul in Afghanistan, but appears to have been forced by 
the Qreeks, or by the Tue-chi Tartars, into Kashmir, whence his 
conquests extended into India as far as Mathura where he built a 
monastery, Alexander Polyhistor (about 60 or 80 A.c.) speaks of 
Samanaioi (Buddhist Shamans) in Baktria (Lassen, as quoted by Dr 
Rhys Davids, Bvddhiam,^ p. 238). Kanishka is believed to have 
begun to reign in 10 A.C., and to have been crowned as emperor 
about 70 or 75 A.C. (Beal, in Indian Antiq., Dec. 1886). He 
ruled from |$[abul to the Hindu Kush and Bolor mountains, in Yark- 
and, Khokand, Kashmir, Ladak, the Panjab, in N.W, India to Agra, 
and in Bajputana, Sind, and Gujerat His Kashmir capital at Kanik- 
pur (now Kampur) was 10 miles S. of Srinagar. In our 7 th century 
Hiuen-Tsang relates that Kanishka assembled a council of 500 learned 
Buddhist monks, under Yasubandhu, who drew up three Tripitaka 
commentaries, though they did not, it seems, settle the Buddhist 
canon of Scripture, Their work, engraved on copper plates and buried 
in a Dagoba, has yet to be discovered, perhaps at the Manikyala tope 
of which Kanishka is the reputed builder, and which cannot according 
to Dr Max MUller (India, pp. 293-297) be older than 43 B.c. at 
most. The order of the Sakya kings according to Max Mtiller is 
different, but Kanishka was undoubtedly followed by Ooerki, and 
Bazadeo (or Yasa-deva) who reigned in 178 A.C. The Buddhist pro- 
paganda seems to have ceased on Kanishka's death, but revived with 
Megha-Yahana, king of Kashmir about 104 to 144 A.C. The latter 
conquered the Ganges valley, and as far as Orissa, where one of his 
inscriptions inculcates the ethiks of Buddha. His influence is said to 
have extended to Ceylon (Dr Ehys Davids, Buddhism, p. 241). 
Prof. Beal (in Indiom Antiq., Dec. 1886) says that Parsva presided 
over Kanishka's council, and '* was succeeded by Punya-yasas, Asva- 
ghosha, Kapila-mala, and then Nag-arjuna " (see Naga-sena) ; but 
he shows that two Nagas are confused. In Chinese accounts Kan- 
ishka of Gandhara is called Chandan-kanika, and is said to have had 
" three friends, Asvaghosha his spiritual adviser, Mochalo (Madra) his 
prime minister, and Chay-lo-kia (perhaps Jurka) his chief physician. 
Coins of Kanishka and Huvishka were found by Mr W. Simpson, in 
the Alim-posh tope, with coins of Domitian, Trajan, and Sabina (the 
wife of Hadrian) which may point to the tope dating as late as 130 
or 140 A.C. Princep also found Indo-Skuthic coins of Kanaahki and 



368 Kanjars 

Ooeahhi with Shoo, or Shiona/noshao (" king/' or '* king of kings ") 
on the revene, according to M. Stein {Academy, 10th Sept 1887). 
These facts indicate the date, and the Persian connection of die 
Sakya dynasty, established in N. India about 24 B.C., and having its 
imperial era in 78 A.C. 

Kanjars. A low-caste nomadic Indian race, like the Jats, who 

work baskets of bamboo and grass. 

Kandj. An ancient Indian capital, called in the Puranas Ejioya- 
kubja ("crooked maid"), and by Ptolemy (140 A.c.) Eanojiza. 
Fa-hien (400 A.c.) calls it a *' great city on the Ganges," and Hiuen- 
Tsang (634 A.C.) gives it a river frontage of 3^ miles, its width 
being | of a mile within the ditch and walls. It lay at the junction 
of the Kalindri and Qanges, but has now been swallowed up by the 
latter. From 606 to 648 A.C. it was the £. capital of the N. Indian 
empire, and it was '' unequalled in strength " as late as 1016 accord- 
ing to Muhammad of Ghazni. 

KandpOS. The pilot of Menelaos as a Greek hero. The Canopic 
vases in Egypt were the four in which the viscersF), brain, etc., of 
the corpse were preserved. The star Can5pus was also observed 
in Egypt. 

Kant* Immanuel Kant the celebrated philosopher (1724 to 
1804) was the son of a saddler at E5nigsburg, where he spent his 
life. His grandfather was a Scotsman, the family name being 
originally Cant, and he was brought up among the evangelicals of 
the E. Prussian capital. He was at first a writer on science, and 
took to metaphysics about 1781, when he published his Kritik of 
Pure Reason ; he had then risen high in public estimation, and wa^s 
greatly valued in the best society for his knowledge and conversational 
powers. Students flocked to the class-room of this thin diminutive 
teacher, who used to ask others to suggest to him — even to his last 
hour — ^any good action left undone. He was persecuted in an age 
when Prussia dreaded the results of the French Revolution, and, in 
1793, King Frederic William II was induced to forbid his writing 
or lecturing on any subject affecting religion. On the king's death 
Kant held himself to be freed from the undertaking, in 1797 ; but it 
was too late to resume academical teaching, from which he retired. 

Kant held that practical study of science, and of the universe, 
could only be founded on the accumulation of facts. He regarded 
knowledge as furnished partly by the subject and partly by the intellect 
itself. He believed in a non-sensuous intuition, as distinguished from 



Kantaka 369 

actual phenomena ; but as regards a supreme reality (or Ood) he thought 
that we have no power to reach conclusions : " so far as human know- 
ledge is concerned such a god must remain a mere transcendental idea." 
He was equally explicit as regards immortality, free-will, and the soul 
or spirit, as ideas " perhaps useful in practical life but certainly not 
warranted." He declared certain antinomies, or contradictions, as 
arising in the attempt to investigate facts beyond human experience 
— as for instance (2%m8, i) "that the universe has a beginning in 
time, and is also enclosed within limits of space," or " that the universe 
has no beginning, and no limits in space : it is eternal in time and 
infinite in space." [Kant's weakness, as indicated by Fichte and 
others, lies in his tacit assumption of a personal unity, or Ego, 
independent of the body. He is said to confuse the description of 
the machinery by which thoughts are communicated to the mind, 
or brain, with proof of the existence of such an individuality, which 
be never regards as the result of the received and repeated impres- 
sions from the outside world. He in fact accepts Aristotle's assumption 
of innate ideas. — Ed.] 

Kantaka. Sanskrit : " a thorn," a wicked person. Kantakita 
C' bristling ") is connected with the thorn god, and the sting of 
passion. 

Kantha. Sanskrit: "throat" — as in NUa-Kcmtha "the blue 
throated " (see Siva). 

iCanya. Sanskrit : " virgin." Kanyaka is the Ganges. 

Kappadokia. The KcU-pad-uka of inscriptions [probably " great 
north region " — Ed.], between Pontus and Kilikia, the Halys Eiver and 
the Euphrates. It is remarkable for its skncieut monuments of Eati 
and similar Hittite tribes, and for its kuneiform tablets in their 
language, and also others in that of Semitic Babylonian traders of 
about 2000 fi.c. (see Col. Conder, Times, 10th October 1899, and 
under Rati). The Greek Septuagint supposes the Philistines to come 
from Kappadokia (see Raptor). 

Kapalin. Sanskrit. Siva as bearer of the Rapala (Greek 
Kephalas) or " skull." 

iCapila. A celebrated Indian Rishi and philosopher, living about 
700 to 600 B.C. after whom Kapila-vastu, the home of Buddha, was 
named. He is specially identified with the Sankhya philosophy (see 
Darsanas) as a writer of aphorisms, and of the Pra-vachana (" preface ") 
which defined " the chief end of man " : he recognised spirit and 
2 A« 



370 Kapila 

matter in the Universe but no Supreme Spirit, as contrasted with 
Theistic opinions (see Patanjali). According to the Hari-vansa, EapiU 
was the son of a royal sage Yitatha, but he was regarded as an 
incarnation of Agni Q* fire "), or of Vishnu. In the legend of Sagara's 
Asva-medha Q* horse sacrifice ") King Sagara sends his youngest son 
to Eapila who gives him the missing horse. The elder brothers had 
found him irradiating Patala (hell) in deep meditation, and rushed on 
him as the thief, when they were at once reduced to ashes. In writings 
of Kapila there is no allusion to Buddhism, though the ideas recall 
those of Buddha's " Second Stage " of doctrine (see Max Mtiller, Chips, 
i, p. 328). Kapila's moral teaching is good, though he sets aside the 
religion of his age in favour of " highly matured knowledge." 

There is no reason to doubt that he was the author of the 
" Preface " above noticed, which was one of the earliest philosophic 
attempts to account for the order of the Universe, and to describe 
the misery and happiness, evils and virtues, of life. This feature 
of Kapila's teaching attracted the kindly Qotama as a young prince, 
but he declined finally to follow this master in speculation as to man's 
origin and destiny, being intent rather on practical alleviation of sorrow. 
India has produced no more powerful expositions than those of KapUa 
and his school ; but, as in other cases, they are based on the assumption 
of the existence of souls, though the existence of a supreme spirit was 
not directly asserted. From Prakriti ("matter") spring 23 Tatvas 
(atoms or entities) according to the Sankhya system, as milk from 
the cow and cream from milk : " into these Tatvas Purusha (a soul) 
is instilled," of the production of which we have no cognisance. 
Buddha wisely declined to be led into such a maze, especially when 
the philosophers went on to say that " the soul and matter develop 
8 guTUis or qualities, 5 principles, 8 producers, and 16 products, 
from 11 organs." 

Kapila was not an Atheist in the sense of denying the existence 
of a Supreme Being ; he only discarded the popular deities — especially 
Isvara the lord of the Yogins or mystics, because they claimed actually 
to see Qod in trance. He said the Supreme was either absolute 
(Mukta) or conditioned (Baddha, " bound "), but if absolute then firee 
from the conditions, and progressive desires, of a Creator. Even 
orthodox Yedantists admitted such argument, though believing in the 
Yedas as the " instruments of knowledge." But Buddha threw over 
all '' Revelation " and speculation alike. Kapila said that " the 
universe must be an emanation from a Brahma who was all, and in 
all" (as Paul also said later); and that ''our ideas of phenomena 
betrayed ignorance, which we should perceive when the spirit became 



Kapila-vastu 371 

free, since they are but passing impressions produced by nature on 
spirit," He urged that if we no longer believed in a soul, we had no 
right to speak of higher aims to man (Chips, i, p. 229). The 
Brahmans so revered Eapila as to assert that the gods had named 
after him a hill in Meru (Paradise), a serpent king, a sacred river, and 
a sacred city. 

Kapila-vastu. Kapila-nagar. See Eapila and As6ka. 
Till 1896 this '*city of Eapila," near which Buddha was born in the 
Lumbini garden, was placed on the borders of the Chandra-tal or 
''moon-lake" (see Short Studies, p. 11), but it is now found near 
Nijliva on the border of Napal in the N.W. corner of Eosala or Oudh, 
beside the tomb of EOnaga-mana, the 2nd Buddha. The previously 
accepted site was fixed by General Cunningham, from the itineraries of 
the Chinese pilgrims whose accounts of distance and direction prove 
to be inaccurate, according to the testimony of Asdka's inscription at 
the true site. The author visited Chandra- tal in 1875, but this site 
(see Introduction to our Short Studies) must now be given up 
(p. xvii), though Hiuen-Tsang describes the ruins of the palace of 
SuddhOdana and his statue with that of his queen Maya— >Buddha's 
mother — as 800 li S.K of Sarasvati, instead of far away to the N.E. 
by east. E^pila-vastu was the capital of the Sakya dynasty, built by 
Eing Virudhha (or Vaiduriya), son of Eing Prasenjit, who was 
Buddha's friend (Beal's Fa-hien, pp. 63, 64). In 410 A.C. Fa-hien 
found it in ruins, with only two poor families on the spot The name 
had been tortured to mean " city of beautiful virtue," as Buddha's 
birthplace, and the name of the Lumbini garden to mean " place of 
liberation," by the *' Rohini stream," as connected with Buddha's 
words on crossing the stream when he fled from his palace : " Father, 
though I love thee a fear possesses me, I may not stay." 

Buddha's mother visited the Lumbini garden or grove for quiet 
rest, or to visit her parents at the village of Eoli ; and Fa-hien says : 
*' She walked out of the garden tank (which still exists) on the north 
side about twenty paces, and grasping hold of the branch of a tree, 
having her face to the east, gave birth to the heir ... he immedi- 
ately walked seven paces, when celestial dragons took him, and 
wasbed his body with the holy and heavenly waters." Fa-hien 
noticed several " wells here, to which the pious came from far and 
near to be purified by their waters . . . but the country was a vast 
solitude infested with wild animals." He found many images of 
Buddha and of his mother Maha-Maya, with stupas connected with 
episodes in Qotama's life, after this birth in the "hall of impregnation 



372 Kapt-or 

of the immaculate virgin/' from whom he was bom as a white 
elephant (Beal, Fa-hien, pp. 64, 65 ; Hiuen-TaaTig, p. 95). Maya 
bad DO other son. She was the daughter of Anu-Sakya, Raja of Kofi, 
and of Tasodhara the aunt of Suddhodana her husband. The Asoka 
pillar, fixing the site where she bore Grotama in the garden, was 
found in 1897 (Mr Vincent Smith, Tirnes, 12th April 1898), as 
already stated (see Asoka) : " The pillar stands on the western edge of 
a mound of ruins about a hundred yards in diameter ; and on the 
south side of this mound is the tank in which the child's mother 
bathed." Another discovery which was made in a stupa, or brick 
tumulus, close to the British frontier, is that of relics of Buddha 
himself. 

Kapt-or. Cdiphtor. The region whence the Philistines came 
originally (Gren. x, 14 ; Deut. ii, 23 ; 1 Chron. i, 12 ; Amos ix, 7). 
In Egyptian keh was the " north," and the Eaft or Keft were the 
Phcenicians, perhaps connected with the Gubt or Kopts, from whom 
Egypt was named. [The Greek Septuagint translators render it 
" Eappadokia " ; and Kaft-wr may mean the " seaside Kaft." The 
Philistine god Dagon was worshiped in both Phoenicia and Babylonia, 
and the Philistines probably came from N. Syria. — Ed.] 

Kar. An ancient root *' to do " or '* make " (see Gar). In 
Barmah and Pegu horo is ** man,'* like the Dravid kwri in India. 

Karabos. Greek : " crab." The sign Cancer (see Zodiak). 

Karaites. Hebrew : from kara " to read." Readers of the 
Scriptures (see Dr Neubauer's Lecture, London Jews' College, Novr. 
1886). Dr Neubauer says that l^araite authors deny the derivatioD 
of the sect from the Sadducees, and that we have no authentic account 
of its origin, which, however, is said to date back to the 1st century 
B.C., before the time of HilleL The i^^raites reached the Krimea^ 
where their tombstones have been found, by our 2nd century. They 
are historically supposed however to date from the days of Hanan ben 
David (750 A.c), according to their own account, confirmed by 
Rabbinical chronicles, and from Arabic sources. Hanan's favourite 
saying was, " search diligently in the Law," whence a better ex^esis, 
based on study of grammar and words, was to be derived than that 
of Pharisaic schools. The !^araites are very strict in Sabbath 
observance, and the prohibition of fire, or artificial light, on that day 
makes their teaching unbearable in cold climates. They do not 
observe Rabbinic customs in the use of TefiUin, ZizUhy or the 
Mezuzah (phylacteries, fringes, and the charms attached to doon;). 



Karas 373 

none of which are distinctly inculcated in the Law. In the time of 
Christ phylacteries were evidently as yet uncommon. !^raites say 
that they remained in Babylonia, few going to Palestine (with Ezra), 
and had little intercourse with that country for some centuries. In 
1874 there were some 6000 of them in S. Russia. They, in 
common with the Sadducees, entirely reject the traditions and non- 
Hebrew customs of the Pharisees, and are in fact a sect that relies 
on the words of the Law only. 

Kaxas. Egyptian : " to anoint." The Earast was the mummy, 
or embalmed body. 

Kardama. Sanskrit : a hero or patriarch who was the son of 
Brahma, marrying Deyahuti daughter of Daksha. 

Kar-dunias, A name for Babylonia among the Kassites : " the 
region (or city) of the god Dunias." 

Karens. Tribes of the Mongolic stock (see Siam) in and round 
Barmah, very distinct from other stocks in both appearance and 
character. They are divided into Red (Sagan) and White (Pyu) 
Karens. The latter have for ages been a down-trodden people, who 
have gladly accepted the rule and faith of Christians ; yet they were 
once a terror to their neighbours (see Prof. T. de la Coup^rie ; and 
Mr H. S. Hallet, Proc. Royal Geog. Socy., November 1883). They are 
Nat ("spirit") worshipers, who used to occupy S.W, China, ruling in 
Youe-chang and part of Kambodia in our 4th century, but driven out 
by Mongols and Chinese. The Sagan Karens, and the Khyens, prey 
on the settled population, and on Shan traders still, but the White 
Karens are a quiet and timid race whom the Christian missionaries 
are educating. The Red Karens have sacred legends very like those 
of Christians and Jews, and may have been influenced by early 
Nestorian missionaries after 500 a.c. Their supreme god is Yuvah, 
to whom they sing hymns, but they are afraid (as were the Jews in 
relation to the sacred name Yahveh) to use this name, and they call 
him Kutra, or " creator," and Pu or '* father." They say that " his 
countenance shines like the sun, and his glory lights the heavens." 
He existed before the world, and is unchangeable, eternal, and all- 
knowing, ever ready to hear those who cry to him. He created sun, 
moon, and stars, and man out of earth, woman also firom the rib of 
man. He breathed his life into them, and created all animal and 
vegetable life for their sustenance. He placed them in a garden with 
seven kinds of fruit, one of which — " the Yellow Fruit of Trial " — 
they were warned not to eat, lest they should grow old and die. The 



374 Karkas 

evil one — ^a great dragon able to take human shape — ^persuaded £a 
and Thanai to eat They then at once ceased to believe in Yuvah, 
who turned his back on them. There was a " tree of life " and & 
'' tree of death/' and Yuvah withdrew the former when Kuplan (" the 
deceiver") or Yau-Eau, deceived this couple. Yau-Eaa means 
" trodden on/' and Euplan was a fallen angel. Thus, if these legends 
belong to the Sagan Karens, we must conclude that they were brought 
into S.W. China by the Jews, who reached Herat in our 6th century, 
or by Nestorian Christians, or Manichaean heretics. If by Christiaiis, 
however, we should have expected some story of Christ to appear 
among them. 

Karkas. Sanskrit : *' crab." The sign Cancer (see Zodiak). 
The sun is called Earkata as moving sideways on the horison, like 
a crab. 

Karkemish. The Hittite capital at tbe fords of the Euphrates, 
where many of their monuments occur, called later HierapoUs wheooe 
tbe modern name Jerdblus. [The name is perhaps Kar-garrUs ''citj 
of conquest," or Kar-kwmis "capital dty," in Turanian or Hittite 
speech. It is often connected with Kemosh the god of Moab, whose 
name is supposed to mean " subduer/' — Ed.] 

Karli. The celebrated Buddhist cave here looks down, from the 
high mountain crest, on the plains of Bombay, near Poena. An 
inscription on the base of the fine "lion pillar," in the porch, 
ascribes the excavation to Maha-Bhuti, or Deva-Bbuti, who according 
to the Puranas reigned in 78 B.c. It is a hall of pillars with a Dagoba 
or relic shrine. A prayer-wheel is thought to have been once placed 
over the four lions of the " lion pillar." 

Karma. Sanskrit: "doing," "conduct," "result." A virtuous 
person is a Karma-dJiarmi, or one who recognises the " duty of deeds." 
Oriha-kamui is "household work," and Qrama-karma is sensual 
conduct. In Pali it becomes Kama (see Buddha, and Hindus). The 
idea is bound up with that of transmigration, though Gotama pro- 
bably never taught this. All who are not yet fit to become Arahats 
must, according to later Buddhists, be bom once more, in another 
state or world, in accordance with their Karma or conduct here on 
earth. The result of a good or bad action is inevitable, though it may 
be delayed. We can only escape from rebirth by escaping its cause, 
and by entering the " four paths."