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Full text of "The fall of the Congo Arabs"

THE FALL 



OF THE 



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UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA 

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THE FALL 



THE CONGO ARABS 




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THE FALL 



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THE CONGO ARABS 



SIDNEY LANGFORD HINDE 

CHEVALIER DE l'oRDRE ROVAL DU LION 

MEMBRE HONORAIRE DE LA SOCi6t6 BELGE DE GEOGRAPHIE 

MEDICAL OFFICER OF THE INTERIOR, BRITISH EAST AFRICA 

LATE CAPTAIN, CONGO FREE STATE FORCES 



METHUEN & CO. 

36 ESSEX STREET, W.C. 

LONDON 

1897 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Introduction ....... 1 



CHAPTER I 
Introductory ....... 21 

CHAPTER II 

Arrival at Banana — Description of a Caravan — Journey from 

tlie Coast Inland — Skirmish with Natives of Interior , 26 

CHAPTER III 

Bangala Cannibals — Voyage up the Kasai and Sankuru 
Rivers — Arrival at Lusambo — Defeat by Commandant 
Dhanis of Tippu Tib's Slave-raiding Agent, Gongo 
Lutete — Basongo Cannibals . . " . .51 

CHAPTER IV 

Proposals of Peace and Alliance with the State Forces from 
Gongo Lutete — Visit to Gongo Lutete at his capital, 
N'Gandu— The Little People of the Forest . . 70 



vi CONTENTS 

CHAPTER V 

PAGE 

Gongo Lutete finally leaves the Arabs and allies himself 
with the State Forces— Arrival at Kabinda, capital of 
Lupungu, Great Chief of the Baluba — Movements of 
the Enemy headed by Tippu Tib's son, Sefu — Prepara- 
tions for an Encounter . . . . .92 

CHAPTER VI 

First Encounter with the Arabs — Capture of two of their 

Forts ....... 112 

CHAPTER VII 
Skirmishes with the Enemy — Return of Sefu to the Attack . 126 

CHAPTER VIII 

More Arab Defeats — The Commandant decides to take the 

initiative and to lead an Attack upon Sefu's Forces . 141 

CHAPTER IX 

The State Forces camp opposite the town of Nyangwe, on 
the other side of the River Lualaba — Description of the 
Water-people — Surprise Encounter with two columns of 
advancing Arabs . . . . . .153 

CHAPTER X 

Account of the Fall of Nyangwe . . . .169 

CHAPTER XI 

Arrival of Ambassadors from Sefu with offers of Peace— The 
Commandant postpones his March on Kasongo — Rein- 
forcement of the State Forces— March on Kasongo : its 



CONTENTS vii 

PAGE 

Fall — Description of tlie Luxuries found in the Town — 
Kelics of Emin Pasha — Insubordination in the conquered 
town of Nyangwe . . . . . .178 

CHAPTER XII 

The State Forces settle down at Kasongo — Superstitions of 

the Natives : their Habits and Mode of Living . .194 

CHAPTER XIII 

Our ally, Gongo Lutete, accused of Treachery and executed 
at N'Gandu — Arrival at Kasongo of five Officers from 
Europe — Continued Encounters with the Enemy — The 
Arabs decamp from the town of Stanley Falls, leaving 
it at the mercy of the State Troops — The State Forces 
are joined by Captain Lothaire from Bangala, and follow 
the Arabs up the River — After severe Fighting, the River 
cleared of Arabs and their Hordes as far as Nyangwe — 
Reverses of the State Forces — Attack by Commandant 
Dhanis on Rumaliza's Fort, eight hours' march from 
Kasongo ....... 206 

CHAPTER XIV 

Transference of the State Forces from Kasongo to Bena 
Musua — The Commandant divides his Forces in order 
to cut off the Arab Communication — Extra Forces 
stationed at Bena Quia, on the main road to Kabam- 
bari, at Bena Kalunga, and at Bena Musua — Reinforce- 
ment of the Enemy — The State Troops form a semicircle 
round the Arab Forts and cut off their Food Supply — 
Arrival of Captain Lothaire with contingent of Soldiers 
from Bangala — Explosion in the Arab Camp — Capitula- 
tion of the Enemy — The Taking of Kabambari — Arab 
Chiefs made Prisoners by Lothaire . . . 233 



viii ' CONTENTS 



CHAPTER XV 

PAGE 

Description of Expedition to explore the Upper Waters of 

the Lualaba River ...... 248 



CHAPTER XVI 
The Return Journey to the Coast .... 272 



Note on Cannibalism ...... 282 

Note on Congo Lutete's Bodyguard .... 285 

Note on Exploration of section of Lualaba River by Captain 

Hinde ....... 287 



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27 



Vincent BrooUs^Da/ 1 Son (iLh 



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INTRODUCTION 

The year 1892 marks tlie crisis of a struggle in 
Central Africa between the conflicting forces of the 
East and the West. Between these forces, repre- 
sented on the one hand by the Arabs from Zan- 
zibar, and on the other by the Europeans from 
the mouth of the Congo, a collision had long been 
pending ; and since each was bent upon supre- 
macy within the same area, it was evident that 
the extinction of one power or the other could 
alone solve the problem. 

A body of Arab traders, hunters of slaves and 
ivory, had long striven to gather to Zanzibar the 
entire trade of Central Africa ; while the Belgians 
of the Congo Free State, later in the field, sought 
to divert the commerce of the Interior to the 
Congo mouth, and thence, ultimately, to Europe. 



2 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

During the present century, many circumstances 
have combined to make the Zanzibar Arabs the 
most noted slave-hunters and slave-dealers in the 
world. Of their earlier history little is definitely 
known, beyond the fact that already in the tenth 
century there were Arab settlements along the 
East Coast of Africa. 

After the discovery of the Cape Road to the 
Indies, most of these settlements were conquered 
by the Portuguese, and were then gradually re- 
conquered in the eighteenth and beginning of the 
nineteenth centuries by the Imams of Muscat. 

Of this second Arab dominion the most im- 
portant centres were the islands of Zanzibar and 
Pemba ; and from these islands, as the result of the 
mingling of Arab and negro blood, a race of black 
Arabs has sprung. Yet, despite their long occupa- 
tion of the Zanzibar coast and neighbouring dis- 
tricts, it is only within recent times that the Arabs 
have advanced into the Interior. 

Some two generations ago the island of Pemba 
developed into a great clove-plantation, worked by 
slaves in the manner of the cotton and sugar 



INTRODUCTION 3 

plantations of America. A little later, certain 
merchants of Zanzibar, becoming involved with 
their creditors, migrated to Central Africa to 
prospect for ivory. Owing to the destruction of 
their beasts of burden by the tsetse fly, they found 
it necessary to employ the natives as porters ; and 
thus it arose that blacks were shipped to the 
Zanzibar slave-market, as a by-product of the 
ivory-trade, at the very time when there was a 
strong demand for their laliour in the clove-planta- 
tions of Pemba. The supply of slaves ultimately 
became such as to permit of a large export across 
the seas to the Mohammedan countries of Asia. 

Many of the ivory and slave hunters, failing to 
make their fortunes, or drawn by the spell of a 
nomadic life, remained in the Interior ; and hence 
there grew up a system of Arab trade-routes and 
trade-centres, controlled by certain well-known 
Arab chiefs. It was along these routes, and with 
the aid, or at times the obstruction, of the Arabs, 
that the European explorers of the Lake country, 
and of the sources of the Congo and the Nile, 
travelled. Thus the great trunk-route from Baga- 



4 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

moyo (opposite to Zanzibar), by Tabora in Unyan- 
yembe, to Ujiji on Tanganyika, was followed 
successively by Burton and Speke, Livingstone 
and Stanley, Cameron, and, in part, by Speke 
and Grant. An extension of this route from Ujiji, 
across Tanganyika, led through the Manyema 
country, by Kabambari and Kasongo, to Nyangwe 
on the Lualaba River. 

So far, European discovery had followed in the 
track of the Arabs from Zanzibar as a basis. But 
the serious occupation of Central Africa by the 
Europeans began with Stanley's expedition under 
the International Association, from the mouth of 
the Congo up the river ; and from that moment 
a conflict, however postponed, was certain. Nor 
was it less certain in what region, and along w^hat 
strategical lines, the struggle would take place. 
The Europeans had access for their ocean steamers 
to Matadi, just below the Yellala Falls, and thence 
by portages, far removed from Arab interference, 
up to Stanley Pool. From the Pool, their river 
steamers could navigate without interruption, on 
the one hand, eastwards, along the main river to 



INTRODUCTION § 

Stanley Falls, and, on the other, from the Kwa 
mouth, southwards, along the Kasai and Sankuru 
systems. Since the Falls are to the north, and the 
Sankuru is to the west, of the Manyema country, 
the Belgians had two separate lines of advance, 
converging from two distinct bases upon Nyangwe, 
the head of the road from Zanzibar. The Man- 
yema country was therefore the natural centre, 
both offensive and defensive, of the Arabs. 

When the Belgian expedition of which Captain 
Hinde was a member, passed from the Kasai, 
southwards, to the copper country of Katanga, it 
exposed itself to a flank attack from the east, at a 
time when the Arabs wxre secure on the side of 
the Falls ; for they had destroyed the State station 
there in 1886. Reinforced by Commandant 
Dhanis, the expedition turned eastwards to face 
the Arabs, and advanced upon Nyangwe, crossing 
tributaries of the Congo and driving the Arabs 
from river-line to river-line. Successive encounters 
took place at the Lubefu and the Lualaba, ending, 
in each case, in the successful passage of the 
Belgians. 



6 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

On the Lualaba the Arabs made a long stand 
at Nyangwe, the two forces occupying the two 
banks of the river, firing across it, and occa- 
sionally attempting the passage by a flank 
movement. 

At a later stage of the campaign, when the 
fighting had been carried still farther eastward, to 
Kasongo, the Belgians, having recovered their 
position in the Falls country, brought reinforce- 
ments from the north — thus illustrating the second 
line of advance that was open to the forces 
of the Free State. 

In summing up the results of the Belgian cam- 
paign, Captain Hinde says ^ : — 

"The political geography of the Upper Congo Basin has been 
completely changed, as a result of the Belgian canipaign among 
the Arabs. It used to be a common saying, in this j^art of Africa, 
that all roads led to Nyangwe. This town, visited by Living- 
stone, Stanley, and Cameron, until lately one of the greatest 
markets in Africa, has ceased to exist ; and its site, when I last saw 
it, was occupied by a single house. Kasongo, a more recent though 
still larger centre, with perhaps 60,000 inhabitants, has also been 
swept away, and is now represented by a station of the Free State 
nine miles away, on the river bank. 

1 Paper entitled " Three Years' Travel in the Congo Free State," 
read before the Koyal Geographical Society, 11th March 1895. 



INTRODUCTION 7 

"In harmony with this political change the trade-routes have 
been completely altered, and the traffic which used to follow the 
well-beaten track from Nyangwe and the Lualaba, across Tan- 
ganyika to Ujiji, or round the lake to Zanzibar, now goes down the 
Congo to Stanley Pool and the Atlantic. 

" Despite their slave-raiding propensities during the forty years 
of their domination, the Arabs have converted the Manyema and 
Malela country into one of the most prosperous in Central Africa. 
The landscape, as seen from high hills in the neighbourhood of 
Nyangwe and Kasongo, reminds one strongly of an ordinary English 
arable country. There is nothing similar, that I am aware of, in 
any other part of the Congo Basin ; and yet the Arabs have left the 
Malela perhaps the most inveterate cannibals on the face of the 
globe." 



Chief of the Arabs who organised this imperium 
in imperio — for the Manyema country was wholly 
within the treaty frontiers of the Congo Free State 
— was the great slave-raider Tippu Tib. So closely 
are the events of the last thirty-five years inter- 
woven with this man's personality that it is im- 
possible to realise their full significance without 
some conception of the moving force from which 
they resulted. Tippu Tib's career supplies the key 
to the Arab position before the collision of forces 
which led to the transfer of power in Central 
Africa. 

Hamed ben Mohammed ben Juna, known to 



8 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

the world by his nick-name of Tippu Tib/ is 
descended from a line of wealthy and influential 
merchants settled at Zanzibar. ^ His father was a 
half-caste Arab, and his mother a full-blooded 
negro slave - woman. Yet, despite the strong 
element of negro blood in his veins, Tippu Tib is, 
in most of his mental characteristics, essentially 
Arab ; and it is from this side of his descent that 
the indomitable will, which raised him from a 
Zanzibar merchant to the position of potentate 
over a vast tract of country, has doubtless its 
origin. 

At an early age Tippu Tib struck out an 
independent line for himself, and, having gathered 
round him a band of a hundred fighting men, 
entered the African mainland in quest of ivory and 
slaves. After plundering several large districts, 
and forcing the inhabitants into bondage, he re- 

^ Tippu Tib, or " the gatherer together of wealth.'"' According 
to some theories the name originated in the frequent use he made 
of his guns, which the natives described as sounding like 
" tip-u-tip-u-tip." 

2 Since Mr. Stanley in 1876 describes Tippu Tib as "about forty- 
four years of age," he was presumably born somewhere about the 
year 1832. 



INTRODUCTION 9 

turned to Zanzibar to realise on his captured ivory 
and to recruit his forces. This he successfully 
accomplished, and his second entry into Africa was 
at the head of a large armed following. 

With this increase of strength Tippu Tib was 
able to extend his raids, and to penetrate into 
regions hitherto unexplored and presenting rich 
possibilities of ivory. His tactics, based upon and 
shaped by the ruling motive of his life — an in- 
satiable greed for riches — were of wider scope than 
those of his fellow slave-traders ; and although the 
policy most generally adopted by him was the 
ordinary system of attack and plunder, he was 
sufficiently statesmanlike to be guided by the 
special circumstances he had to deal with. Thus, 
on more than one occasion, he employed the 
method of stirring up discontent and jealousy 
among rival native chiefs, and, through bringing 
about a condition of strife which resulted in war, 
gained his ends by identifying himself with the 
victorious side and claiming a large share of the 
booty. Of his resourcefulness in furthering his 
own interests many instances testify. It is told 



10 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

of him that, at a time when his ammunition 
was at too low an ebb for summary measures to 
be advisable, he pacifically gained entrance, for 
himself and his following, to a strongly-fortified 
town by impersonating the king's nephew, who 
had been carried into slavery years before in a time 
of war. So successful was this strategy that the 
king abdicated in his favour, and Tippu Tib 
suddenly found himself reigning sovereign over 
some thirty or forty thousand people. From this 
position of vantage he conquered the neighbouring 
chiefs, and annexed their spoils and ivory ; and 
by these means, together with the establishment 
of his allies in strongholds in the surrounding 
districts, his influence extended so widely that 
he became practically unassailable. On various 
occasions the native chiefs of adjacent tribes, 
goaded by his brutality, united in making an 
attack upon him ; but each time Tippu Tib 
routed his enemies, to the complete destruction 
both of their forces and of their villages. Such 
was the terror inspired by his name that many 
of the chiefs voluntarily tendered their stores of 



INTRODUCTION ii 

ivory to him, seeking by means of these bribes to 
ensure safety against his raids. But though Tippu 
Tib appropriated the gifts, he remained unin- 
fluenced by them, and continued to drain the 
district of its most valuable product. 

At the end of some years, during which time he 
had amassed great wealth and almost unbounded 
influence, this life of raiding began to pall upon 
Tippu, and he resolved to make a journey to the 
Arab settlements of Kasongo and Nyangwe. At 
Nyangwe, which he reached in the year 1874, he 
fell in with Cameron, who already had knowledge 
of the great slave-raider through Livingstone. 
Tippu Tib had crossed Livingstone's path as early 
as 1867, in the interval between which date and 
his meeting with Cameron he had trebled his 
influence and importance. After escorting Cam- 
eron across the Lualaba as far as Utotera, and 
providing him with escort sufficient to enable 
him to continue his journey, Tippu Tib proceeded 
to Kasongo. Here, in recognition of his position 
as the most powerful Arab of the Interior, he 
was elected governor. But a stationary life held 



12 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

few attractions for the restless slaver, and, placing 
his son Sefu in command of the settlement, he 
diverted his energies to raiding the surrounding 
districts, and to the further increasing of his 
wealth and strength. 

In the year 1876 Stanley arrived at Nyangwe, 
on his great expedition down the Congo Kiver, 
and there met Tippu Tib. It is from this meet- 
ing at Nyangwe that dates the connection between 
the organisers of the rival powers — the Congo 
Free State and the Arab dominion at Kasongo. 
Tippu Tib was at this time, as described by 
Stanley, " about forty-four years of age, of middle 
stature and swarthy complexion, with a broad face, 
black beard just greying, and thin-lipped." His 
manners were those of a well-bred Arab, and 
his presence conveyed a sense of great power and 
energy. With considerable difliculty Stanley 
succeeded in persuading Tippu Tib and a large 
following of his people to accompany him part- 
way on his expedition. The agreement between 
them stipulated that Tippu Tib and his people 
should, on certain specified conditions of Tippu's 



INTRODUCTION 13 

own making, act as escort for a distance of sixty 
camps, for which service he was to receive the 
sum of 5000 dollars. 

The expedition started from Nyangwe on the 
5th November 1876, but, from the first, so 
great were the difficulties encountered that before 
many days were over Tippu Tib lost heart, and, 
after some weeks of vacillating between his desire 
for the 5000 dollars and his conviction that the 
undertaking was an impossible one, he finally 
deserted Stanley at Vinga Njara on the 28th 
December. 

From this point Tippu Tib made his way across 
the country — raiding and plundering as he went — 
to Ujiji, where he made a halt of some length 
before continuing his journey to Zanzibar. There, 
and at Tabora (at which place he extended his 
acquaintance with European travellers by meet- 
ing the explorer Wissmann), he established trusted 
vassals, whose business it was to receive and 
forward his goods, and to keep the road open. 
By a great stroke of diplomacy, he succeeded in 
making peace between the Arab settlers at Ujiji 



14 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

and a hostile native chief who had for years 
blocked the trade-road. This achievement secured 
to Tippu Tib the favour both of the Sultan and 
of the British Consul at Zanzibar ; and in the 
light of their approval he made a protracted stay in 
the island, utilising the opportunity by investing a 
considerable portion of his fortune in firearms 
and powder. 

When Tippu Tib again returned to the Interior 
it was as uncrowned king over a vast territory, 
and at the head of a following of many 
thousands. He struck out in the direction of 
Stanley Falls, where he had decided to make 
his headquarters ; and there he arrived soon after 
the founding of the Free State, and the establish- 
ment of the Falls station, by Stanley. 

From the Falls as a basis, Tippu began a fresh 
system of operations. He erected small fortified 
camps in the surrounding districts ; wdiile bands 
of his Arabs made organised incursions into wide 
regions beyond, capturing slaves which they 
bartered back to their tribes in return for ivory. 

This state of affairs continued until 1886, when, 



INTRODUCTION 15 

for reasons of his own, Tippu Tib resolved upon 
another expedition to Zanzibar. On the way he 
inspected his settlements along the trade-route, 
and chanced to fall in with Dr. Lenz and Dr. 
Junker, whom he accompanied back to Zanzibar. 

It was during this absence of Tippu Tib that 
the Arabs attacked and destroyed the Falls station 
of the Free State. Though Tippu was himself 
absent from the scene, it is inconceivable that 
the attack should have been planned without his 
knowledge, and it is probable that he was the 
instigator of this fresh development of Arab 
enterprise. 

Hostile relations had from the first existed 
between the officer in command of the station 
and the Arab chiefs in the neighbourhood, who 
strongly resented the white man's authority. On 
his departure for the coast, Tippu Tib had left as 
deputy in control of his people, his partner, Bwana 
N'Zigi ; and N'Zigi, with his son Raschid, exercised 
unlimited sway over the natives, and interfered 
largely in matters connected with the manage- 
ment of the station. Perpetual friction between 



i6 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

the European officer and N'Zigi culminated in an 
open contest of authority, which presented to the 
Arabs the excuse, long sought by them, for an 
attack upon the station. As they fully realised, 
the opportunity was one not likely to recur ; 
the station was cut off from all possibility of 
reinforcement, and was at the mercy of an 
attacking force overwhelmingly greater than its 
power of resistance. From the outset, notwith- 
standing the desperate defence made by the com- 
manding officer, Deane — who with a handful of 
men kept his opponents at bay for four days — 
the fall of the station was inevitable. 

No immediate attempt was made by the State 
to retake the position, and the Arabs were for 
some time left in undisputed mastery of it. 

After the overthrow of the Falls station 
Tippu Tib and Stanley again met — this time at 
Zanzibar, where Stanley was organising the Emin 
Pasha Belief Expedition. The position to be 
faced was one of extreme difficulty'; and it is 
unnecessary here to enter into the motives which 
induced Stanley to adopt the policy of installing 



INTRODUCTION 17 

the chief instigator of the attack, and the most 
renowned slave-raider of the Interior, as State 
Governor of the Falls. As was to be expected, 
Tippu Tib gave a ready assent to his proposal, 
and thus, in the year 1887, the notorious slave- 
trader climaxed a life of adventure as the repre- 
sentative of law and order on behalf of a recognised 
Government. 

The anomaly of the situation was, from the 
first, distasteful to the State officials, who found 
it hard to reconcile Tippu Tib's professions of 
good faith with his known characteristics. 
In order, therefore, to strengthen their de- 
fences in the event of Arab treachery, the Free 
State Government despatched a Belgian officer, 
with a small force, to occupy the abandoned 
island' of Stanley Falls. This slight Tippu Tib 
had the wisdom outwardly to ignore, though at 
the same time he quietly set about increasing his 
strongholds, which were beginning to assume for- 

^ The State station was built upon an island in the river, 
just below the cataracts. Most of the Arabs were established 
upon the mainland, but some occupied a village on the island 
itself. 



i8 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

midable dimensions. Both within and without 
the limits assigned to him by the State his 
Arab allies had established themselves, and from 
all sides, in districts hitherto uninvaded, their 
usurpation was reported. 

Parallel with this Arab advance was the gradual 
extension of European influence ; and as each force 
realised that the contest was drawing to greater 
significance, hostilities assumed a more definite 
character. The Belgians, who had erected fortified 
camps on the Aruimi, the Lomami, and the San- 
kuru Rivers, began to push back the Arab out- 
posts, and sought by occupation of the country to 
prevent further encroachment. Meanwhile the 
Arabs, recognising to the full the largeness of the 
stakes at issue, and foreseeing that the impending 
struggle would be the final one, resolved to take 
the initiative. To this end they allied to them- 
selves, as vassals of Tippu Tib, many powerful 
chiefs in the surrounding districts, among whom 
Lupungu and Gongo Lutete were of widest influence. 
These two chiefs, and Gongo Lutete in especial, 
were largely instrumental in shaping the subse- 



INTRODUCTION 19 

quent course of events. The defeat of Gongo in 
an attack led by him against the State, and his 
subsequent desertion to the Free State, brought 
on the Arab invasion in force, headed by Tippu 
Tib's son, Sefu ; and this opened the campaign 
narrated in the following pages by Captain Hinde. 
Had the attempt of the Arabs succeeded, it is 
probable that the Free State would have been 
replaced by a Mohammedan Empire analogous 
to that of the Khalifa in the Soudan. But cir- 
cumstances combined against the Arabs ; and in 
their attempt to obliterate the white man's influ- 
ence in Central Africa they precipitated their 
own downfall, and brought about the destruction 
of a power which, though not so indicated in 
our maps, was virtually an independent rival of 

the Congo Free State. 

E. C. M. 



THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

CHAPTER I 

INTRODUCTORY 

Within the limits of the Congo Free State, as 
arranged by the Berlin Congress, was a great 
district often marked Kasongo or Many em a in 
the map of Africa, over which the Government 
of the Congo Free State had no control, except 
through Tippu Tib, Raschid, and one or two other 
Arabs, who were appointed officials in their own 
country by the Congo Free State Government. 
In this great district a powerful Arab organisation 
was established, w^hich was in constant communi- 
cation with Zanzibar by the direct road through 
Ujiji, and by other more roundabout routes. 
This Arab power recognised that as soon as the 

European influence was sufficiently strong in the 

•n 



22 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

Congo Basin a collision between the two forces was 
inevitable. The Arabs, moreover, realised that, in 
the event of a European success, the greater part 
of the ivory and rubber trade would be taken out of 
the hands of the Mohammedans, and would, instead 
of going to the east coast, go down the Congo to 
the Atlantic. The great country, which was then 
their hunting-ground for forays and slave-raiding, 
would thus be lost to them for ever. Anticipating 
this, they chose their moment well, at a time when 
the Free State was utterly unprepared for war. 
With the success of the Mahdi, in founding an 
empire from which he had ousted Europeans, before 
them, they were encouraged to hope that they 
might do likewise in the Congo Basin. Their 
first move was to murder Hodister's expedition, 
together with the white men left in the two 
trading stations he had formed within their 
territory ; they then murdered Em in Pasha, who 
was at the time a harmless traveller through 
their country, and under the protection of a 
powerful Arab chief. Lastly, they organised a 
large army, and attacked the expedition to which 



INTRODUCTORY 23 

I was attached ; the object of which was to 
establish stations in Katanga, a district not 
under Arab influence. Had they succeeded in 
annihilating us, it would have been easy for them 
to continue by land to Stanley Pool ; at the same 
time they hoped that their attack on Stanley Falls 
Station would be successful, in which case they 
would have descended the Congo itself with 
another column, and would have found small 
difiiculty in ousting the remaining Europeans, 
and in subsequently establishing a Mohammedan 
Empire. As will be seen from the following pages, 
extraordinary luck, together with good leading, 
was the cause of our first success. Realising what 
was at stake, and fully recognising the gravity 
of the position, the Mohammedans fought to the 
bitter end, returning again and again to the 
attack, even when there was no hope of success. 
An almost incredibly large loss of life was the 
result. To the casual reader unfamiliar with 
African history, this might, on the surface, appear 
to have been a curious little war, with a dozen 
white officers and four hundred regular black 



24 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

troops on the one side, and a couple of hundred 
Arab chiefs, supported by a few hundred half-bred 
Arabs and commanding large numbers of irregular 
soldiery, on the other. But it must be borne in 
mind that, unlike the Soudan struggle, this war 
took place in a thickly-populated country, whose 
whole population, used to savage warfare, took 
part in the fighting, and that large bodies of men 
were constantly changing sides as the prestige of 
one or other party increased or diminished. As the 
Arabs were driven back towards Tanganyika, they 
succeeded in enrolling all the fighting men of fresh 
tribes under their banners. This was the easier, 
since for thirty years they had been the sole power; 
Europeans were also unknown, and the credulous 
natives readily believed the tales spread among 
them by the Arabs of European cruelties to their 
subordinates. Though large our losses and those 
of our allies, the Arab loss was immensely greater ; 
it is, in fact, estimated at seventy thousand men. 
This great struggle is, without doubt, a turning- 
point in African history. It is impossible to even 
surmise what would have been the efiect on the 



INTRODUCTORY 25 

future of Africa had another great Mohammedan 
Empire been established in the Congo Basin. As 
things now are, with the Arab power in Central 
Africa crushed out of existence, the result to the 
country is difficult to prophesy. 

In our present state of ignorance, colonisation, 
as opposed to settlement, by Europeans is out of 
the question. Increased knowledge of diseases, 
and of the treatment of those peculiar to tropical 
climates, may some day render it possible for a 
healthy European colony to spring up in this 
rich land, in which migratory traders with some 
sort of military occupation form now the sole 
European element. 



CHAPTER II 

ARRIVAL AT BANANA — DESCRIPTION OF A CARAVAN 
— JOURNEY FROM THE COAST INLAND — 
SKIRMISH WITH NATIVES OF INTERIOR 

The Congo Free State, as most people now know 
(though four or five years ago few knew of 
more than its existence), is, roughly speaking, a 
country from which the Congo and its tributaries 
draw their water supply. It extends from the 
Congo mouth, on the Atlantic coast, to the western 
shore of Lake Tanganyika ; and from the fifth 
degree north latitude to the thirteenth degree 
south latitude. All the important tributaries 
of the Congo, with one exception in the district 
known as French Congo, are within these bound- 
aries. Large tracts of this enormous space of 
country in equatorial Africa are covered by the 
great Congo forest. Of the world's great tropical 
forests, one may say that there are three only — 



ARRIVAL AT BANANA 27 

the Amazon, tlie Malay Archipelago, and the 
Congo. From the coast to Stanley Pool, a dis- 
tance of about two hundred and eighty miles, the 
Congo lies between great cliffs, and forms a series 
of rapids and cataracts which render the com- 
munication by water with the interior absolutely 
impossible. Once arrived at Stanley Pool, com- 
munication with the interior is easy. Stanley 
Falls, a thousand miles up the river, can be 
reached by steamer, since between it and Stanley 
Pool there are no rapids. Nearly all the tribu- 
taries of the Congo are navigable, and some of 
them for hundreds of miles. As may be easily 
imagined, the country in the immediate neigh- 
bourhood of any of these tributaries is now fairly 
well known, though at a very short distance 
away from a river bank it is still entirely 
unexplored. The fact that unknown country 
and as yet unknown races are to be found in 
the Congo Basin gives it a curious fascina- 
tion to many people. From my boyhood, 
everything connected with the mysterious con- 
tinent interested me ; and I determined to see 



28 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

something of it if ever circumstances gave me 
the opportunity. 

The possibility of doing so arose in the follow- 
ing manner : — 

My friend, Dr. Park, of the Emin Pasha Relief 
Expedition, had several times asked me to go out 
to Africa in the service of His Majesty the King 
of the Belgians ; and at last, after holding several 
resident appointments in hospitals, I decided to 
do so. I went down to Netley on the 26th of 
October 1891, and, after an hour's conversation 
with Park, left for Brussels the same night. On 
the following day I accepted a commission as 
medical ofhcer in the Congo Free State forces, and 
duly arrived at Banana, at the mouth of the 
Congo, in December 189L Taken into conside- 
ration with the reputation the West Coast of 
Africa has, the entrance to Banana creek is not 
encouraging. The first thing noticeable is that 
the head of the little strip of sand on which 
the station is built is entirely occupied by a 
crowded cemetery. Yet this strip of sand, not 
many inches above high-water mark, with man- 



ARRIVAL AT BANANA 29 

grove swamps and lagoons on the landward side, 
has the Atlantic rollers on the other, and is a 
very good sanatorium for many of the enfeebled 
Europeans who come down from the far interior. 
My reception at Boma was, for the first few days, 
not of the pleasantest. The hotel was crowded ; 
and as it seemed nobody's business to find me 
a lodging, I slept on board the steamer at the 
quay. The Custom House arrangements, also, 
strike one as peculiar. An ofticer has to pay duty 
on his guns, ammunition, and even on his service 
revolver. After a short time, however, orders to 
proceed to Lusambo on the Sankuru reached me, 
and I accordingly took the next boat to Matadi, 
from which point the caravan route starts for 
Stanley Pool. As the river Congo for upwards 
of three hundred miles from Stanley Pool to 
Matadi consists of a series of cataracts, this part 
of the journey had to be done on foot, though 
matters will soon be facilitated by the railway, 
which is now well on its way. Just below Matadi 
the scenery is magnificent ; the mighty Congo — 
the second largest river in the world — has to force 



30 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

itself through a narrow gorge less than a mile wide, 
and known as the " Chaudron Infernal." Though 
the ocean steamers go up to Matadi regularly, they 
have never yet succeeded in getting soundings in 
this gorge. It is probably only a matter of time 
for one of these boats to break its steering-gear or 
other machinery, and for a fearful catastrophe to 
take place. Matadi — as its name in the native 
language implies, meaning " stone " — is a bare, arid, 
rocky plateau, where the heat is intense. After 
a week's futile waiting here (during which time 
I was supplied with neither house, bed, nor tent, 
but had to sleep in my overcoat on the verandah 
of the commissary's house), I, in company with 
three officers since dead, was given a few dozen 
porters to carry my baggage, and we started on 
the caravan road. 

A caravan, as most people know, is a number of 
people travelling together for mutual comfort and 
protection : that it should contain the proper 
elements and equipment is indispensable for the 
success of its mission. As I shall often have 
occasion to mention a caravan, and as this my 



DESCRIPTION OF A CARAVAN 31 

first was in no sense typical, I will describe ours of 
some months later, leaving Lusambo for Katanga. 
It was composed as follows : — 

White officers and their servants ; gun-bearers 
and porters ; regular soldiers, and a certain 
number of additional porters to carry the extras 
which are indispensable to the health, well-being, 
and contentment of the men. The porters carry 
all loads — including food, ammunition, and water 
— for the caravan en route, together with the loads 
pertaining to the special object of the expedition, 
such as the forming of stations, exploration, trade, 
or war. Most of the expeditions with which I 
was connected included all four elements. A few 
extra men — such as a carpenter, blacksmith, 
armourer, tailor, and cook — add largely to the 
general comfort ; and all expeditions in Central 
Africa should be accompanied by one or two 
hunters by trade, and at least half a dozen good 
canoe and general water men. Commandant 
Dhanis instituted a new departure in African 
travel by allowing every soldier to take his 
wife, or wives as the case might be, along with 



32 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

him ; and even the porters were generally 
followed by their women. Only by personal 
experience of caravan-travelling with and without 
women is it possible to realise the enormous 
advantages gained by allowing the men full 
liberty in this respect. Among the most indis- 
putable of these advantages is the avoidance of 
trouble with native villages, or peoples, on the 
subject of w^omen. The annoyance and danger 
due, despite the strictest discipline, to what 
every African traveller knows as "woman palaver" 
is ]3ractically done away with when the men are 
accompanied by their wives. On the road, too, 
the women form extra porters — it being much 
easier for a soldier to carry his food, mat, cooking- 
pot, blanket, ammunition and rifle, with a wife to 
help him ; and if she has a servant or two in 
addition, it makes things easier still for him. 
It must be borne in mind that among the races 
of which I am speaking the women are all used 
to hard work ; and I have rarely heard of a case 
in which they preferred to stay in a comfortable 
station to following their men on the road. 



DESCRIPTION OF A CARAVAN 33 

Arriving at the camp, each man immediately 
sets to and builds a small hut for himself and 
his family, and while he is thus occupied the 
women forage for and cook the food. As a 
consequence the men are comfortably housed and 
well fed, and are not affected by the changes of 
weather. At the end of a long and weary 
march, it is almost impossible to get the men 
to take care of themselves : after carrying a 
heavy load all day, they refuse to take the 
trouble of looking after themselves properly, and 
in the case of bad weather, or short commons, 
soon become ill. If a man falls sick on the road, 
though he may still be able to walk well, the first 
thing he throws away is his supply of food — 
often a heavy and cumbersome bundle — in the 
hope that on the following day he will be able 
to beg, borrow, or steal another supply. The good 
health enjoyed by our caravans, as a consequence 
of this system, was most remarkable. On one 
occasion we were on the road for seven months, 
with four hundred soldiers and a caravan com- 
prising eighteen hundred souls, and during the 
3 



34 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

whole of this time did not lose one man from sick- 
ness or desertion. The expedition included seven 
days' marching through a district recently raided 
by Arab parties, in which it was impossible to 
find an atom of food of any kind, and during 
which time we saw no living thing, the natives 
having all been taken prisoners or destroyed. 
They had previously exterminated the game ; and 
the pigeons and guinea-fowl, which prefer the 
neighbourhood of man, had taken themselves off 
into other districts. Knowing what was in store 
for us, the whole caravan had loaded itself 
beforehand with food, the women in many 
cases carrying more than an average man could. 
Caravans in Africa usually march in single file, 
the paths through the country being seldom 
more than ten inches wide. Our formation was 
generally headed by a strong advance-guard of 
soldiers, who were not allowed to carry anything 
but their rifles and ammunition ; after them came 
the loads with the guard, then the women, and 
lastly a strong rear-guard. The white ofiicers, 
each with a good bodyguard, were distributed 



DESCRIPTION OF A CARAVAN 35 

along the whole line, which was sometimes two 
or three miles in length. The officer in command 
of the advance - guard halted the head of the 
caravan for perhaps twenty minutes after passing 
even so small an obstacle as a fallen tree. All 
auxiliary forces and camp followers were sent on 
in front of the caravan, and if overtaken had to 
withdraw from the road, since they were not 
allowed to mingle with or interfere in any way 
with the main caravan. With the rear-guard the 
available extra porters and prisoners marched, 
whose duty it was to collect and bring in any 
loads or sick that had fallen out of the ranks. 

The caravan road itself merits some descrip- 
tion. It is seldom more than ten inches wide, 
and wherever it goes the width never varies : 
whether crossing rocky uplands or traversing 
forests, descending mountains or the steep sides 
of ravines, it is always the same monotonous 
track. It is wearying enough to follow for a 
few hours, but when the hours grow into days, 
and the days into weeks, one comes to regard it 
almost in the light of a personal enemy. After 



36 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

crossing a scorching sandy plain, with its dry 
blades of grass a foot or two apart — so drear 
and lonely that the insects do not even hum — 
one perhaps emerges on a rising rocky ground 
(for hours before seen as a grey streak in the 
distance), from whence the unending path stretches 
away in a yellow line towards the horizon. It 
may be that away to the northward, though the 
course has been a north-easterly one, a blue line 
of mountains is visible, and you know that, how- 
ever hard they may be to climb, the path will 
turn aside and scale them at their steepest point. 
If it has led you into a fertile country, it winds 
about like a snake, forming itself into letter S's, 
and succeeds in doubling the distance to the 
village, apparently quite close an hour or two 
before. The hostile native looks upon this path 
as his friend. He digs holes in it a foot in 
diameter, and places sharp spikes or poisoned 
arrow-heads in them, laying dust-covered leaves 
over the opening, into which the unwary among 
the barefooted porters puts his foot, and becomes 
useless or dies on the road. A fallen tree across 



DESCRIPTION OF A CARAVAN 37 

the way also serves the enemy : he places a spear 
in the grass or brushwood overhanging the track 
on the other side, in such a position that the first 
man who steps over or jumps across the tree is 
impaled. When a man dies on the caravan road 
he is not buried, and the path takes a little turn 
aside two or three yards from the body, and 
returns to its course at the same distance on the 
other side of it. The loop thus formed remains 
for ever — once having left the straight course, the 
path never returns to it again. A small thorny 
bush, a fallen tree, or a stone may be sufficient 
to turn it, and if a precipice or a ford forces it 
into a detour of yards or miles, it invariably 
returns to the point opposite to, and never very 
far from, the obstruction. Rivers and ravines the 
path usually ignores : whatever the difficulty of 
crossing them may be, it winds its way up the 
bank on the opposite side, neither larger nor 
smaller for the fact that, though the river is per- 
haps fordable in the dry season, a bridge or canoe 
is often the only means of crossing during the 
wet. 



38 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

But to return to the journey to Lusambo. 
Before we were many days on the road we came 
to the conclusion that something unusual must 
be the matter. Dead bodies in every state of 
decomposition were lying on the path just as they 
had fallen, and loads of all kinds and descrip- 
tions were hanging from the trees, often within 
a few feet of the bodies of the men who had 
evidently placed them there. It is a habit with 
native porters to hitch a load in a forked branch 
of a tree, or, with the help of the six-foot walking- 
stick which all of them carry, to balance it on 
some excrescence. By this means they are saved 
the trouble of lifting the load from the ground 
when they wish to resume their journey. All the 
way to Lukungu — the half-way station to Stanley 
Pool — we found this horrible state of affairs. 
Several times we had difficulty in obtaining water, 
as a dead body was lying in the stream or spring 
which we had been making for as a good camping 
neighbourhood. We saw no one to tell us what 
was the matter, or to warn us of the then danger- 
ous state of the district. Arriving at Lukungu, 



JOURNEY FROM THE COAST INLAND 39 

we found that, owing to an epidemic, said to be 
dysentery, practically all communication with the 
coast had ceased, the natives refusing to go 
through the infected district. This epidemic 
spread like wildfire through the caravans, chiefly 
because of the filthy habits of the natives of these 
especial districts. It was, in addition, the rainy 
season (which is also the tornado season), and we 
had altogether many uncomfortable experiences. 
Having been forewarned, I always sank the 
poles of my tent six or eight inches lower than is 
usually considered necessary into the soil, and saw 
to the driving of each individual tent-peg myself 
In consequence of the poles being sunk, the flap 
at the lower edge of the tent was on the ground, 
and, with earth thrown up upon it, formed an 
extra security. This, with a trench dug round the 
tent and my baggage piled in front of the most 
exposed side, gave even a tornado some difliculty 
in shifting my habitation. Several times in the 
night, with little or no warning, the tents of one 
or other of my companions, who were too lazy to 
superintend things themselves, were whirled away 



40 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

from over them, and occasionally even deposited 
in the surrounding trees. 

After travelling for some time with them, I 
eventually grew tired of the slow and haphazard 
manner in which my companions proceeded on the 
road ; I therefore left them, and, forging ahead, 
arrived at Leopoldville, on Stanley Pool, on the 
7th of February 1892. At Stanley Pool, which 
was extremely short of provisions, an order had been 
issued to the effect that every officer must in 
turn go hippo-hunting to supply the troops with 
meat. This seemed a delightful break in the 
monotony of station life, and I immediately 
volunteered to hunt whenever or whatever was 
desired. There had, unfortunately, been one or 
two accidents during elephant hunts, and antelope 
and hippopotamus hunting was therefore the 
only sport then allowed. My first experience of 
hippo-shooting, though in itself unnoteworthy, 
serves to illustrate the foolish things that ignor- 
ant men may do. I had camped on a sand- 
bank near the head of Stanley Pool — a place, as I 
discovered to my cost, usually the camping-ground 



JOURNEY FROM THE COAST INLAND 41 

for natives. On turning in for the night I found, 
in addition to the sandflies and mosquitoes, my 
tent so infested with vermin that sleep or rest was 
alike impossible. My Bangala canoe-men, who 
were huddled in groups enveloped with the thickest 
smoke they could make by putting damp grass on 
the fire, were no better ofi", and the constant slap 
slap on their bare bodies as they disposed of some 
audacious biter was very irritating. Sleep being 
out of the question, I determined to try hunting 
by moonlight. After an hour or two's silent 
paddling, the Bangala intimated that on an island 
close to us hippos were to be found, and, running 
the canoe into the rank vegetation fringing its 
edge, we forced our way some distance up a 
narrow slippery path. This led to an open space, 
where the grass had evidently been trampled 
down or eaten, and almost immediately I found 
myself face to face with a pair of hippopotami not 
twenty yards distant. I had only a Mannlicher 
and the five cartridges in its magazine with me. 
As the trampled and broken grass was still nearly 
up to my shoulders, I had no difficulty in working 



42 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

my way round the open space, which enabled me 
to get a fair shot at the nearer animal. I fired at 
the shoulder, and, as he swung round, a second 
time, at the head. The other hippo meanwhile 
advanced towards me, and I fired, as I thought, 
between his ears. As he still advanced, I fired 
again, and he dropped on to his knees, but 
immediately afterwards got up. This interval 
enabled me to make a bolt for the narrow path 
by which I had come, it being almost impossible 
for a man to break a path for himself through the 
grass, where every grass stem is from half an inch 
to an inch in diameter and ten or twelve feet 
high. I arrived at the path first, fired my last 
cartridge at the old bull, and, rushing down the 
narrow track, jumped into the Congo, to find that 
my boatmen had already embarked, and had 
departed in the canoe to a safe distance. No 
sooner was I swimminsr in the Congo than I 
remembered the crocodiles. I seized the first 
clump of big reeds I came to, and, lying still, 
shouted till the canoe returned and picked me up. 
Taking a fresh supply of cartridges, we returned, 



JOURNEY FROM THE COAST INLAND 43 

and found my first hippo dead, but the second one 
had apparently rolled down a steep place into the 
water, and was nowhere to be seen. From the 
amount of blood about I was sure that he was in 
his death struggles, but could not persuade the 
men — who were quite satisfied with the prospect 
of gorging themselves that the one hippo aff'orded 
— to help me to look for him. We loaded the 
canoe with as much meat as it would hold, and 
towed the remainder down the river to Leopold- 
ville. The other hippo was picked up the next 
day lower down the river, stone dead. When 
wounded on land a hippopotamus generally 
charges, but it is a very easy matter, with a 
certain amount of space, to get out of its way, since 
it is only able to turn slowly. A hippo almost 
invariably returns to the water, when alarmed, by 
the same road from which he left it, and one 
should therefore never run down or stand in the 
trail left by a hippo when on shore. It is unwise 
to approach big game, especially in a circumscribed 
space, with a small-bore rifle such as the Mann- 
licher, since, however great its accuracy and 



44 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

penetration may be, its stopping power is practi- 
cally nil. In this particular case my shoulder-shot 
at the first hippo passed through both shoulder 
blades and a rib, in each case leaving only a small 
hole, through which it would have been difficult 
to force an ordinary cedar pencil. My second 
bullet had entered just above the right eye and 
had penetrated the brain. It is fairly safe^ as I 
afterwards often found, to fire at the head of big 
game with the new small-bore rifles ; for though it 
is improbable that the game will be bagged, except 
by accident, the animal is too stunned to know 
what he is doing, and his mad charges are without 
method. The use of a small-bore rifle for big 
game seems, however, hardly sportsmanlike, since 
the number of animals wounded in this way com- 
pared with those killed outright must always be 
enormous. Some two years after this I had nine 
close careful shots with a Mauser rifle at a big 
bull elephant, the bullet used being within half a 
grain of the same weight as our Lee-Metford 
rifle ; yet I did not succeed in bagging him, and 
eventually he made off" at a pace wliich defied 



JOURNEY FROM THE COAST INLAND 45 

pursuit. The poor beast probably died in the 
depths of the jungle before many hours were over. 
My stay at Stanley Pool, though it involved 
some most unpleasant work, taught me much 
which was afterwards of use. The doctor was 
generally ill, and his duties devolved almost 
entirely upon me. The station was badly 
supplied with provisions, and, as a consequence, 
both the white and black men were thoroughly 
out of health. More than half the black soldiers 
were suffering from ulcerated legs and feet — huge 
gangrenous sores, which at first resisted all treat- 
ment. Later on, I found that the probable cause of 
this state of things was a want of salt ; for, when 
some months afterwards we were in the Lualaba 
district, in which salt is plentiful, these ulcers were 
never seen except in troops arriving from down- 
river. On several occasions a whole contingent 
suffering from these loathsome ulcers joined us, 
and within a month were perfectly well, with no 
other treatment than a large ration of salt daily 
with their food. 

Punishment for offenders of the black race is a 



46 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

very difficult matter to arrange. In the Congo 
Free State the men are supplied with rations while 
up-country, and are only paid on returning to the 
coast after the expiration of their term of service. 
Certain advances on their pay during their service 
are allowed, and it is almost impossible to stop 
this advance as a punishment, since the few things 
obtainable up-country are necessary to their health. 
Prisons, in the present state of the country, 
are almost an impossibility, and the substitute 
used of chaining the men in gangs is not only 
detrimental to health, but is in every way per- 
nicious and abominable in the extreme, and should 
certainly not be used for any but dangerous 
criminals. When half a dozen or a dozen men 
are chained in a row, and have to work, rest, eat, 
and sleep without being ever free of the chain for 
weeks and sometimes months together, their health 
naturally gives way. Commandant Dhanis was so 
convinced of the harm done by this treatment, 
which often incapacitated a man from work for 
months afterwards, that he practically abolished 
the chain in his district. During my stay at 



JOURNEY FROM THE COAST INLAND 47 

the Pool I managed to keep in health, partly- 
through taking plenty of exercise, and also by 
contriving to get a pigeon or two, or some 
other kind of game, almost every day. Con- 
tinuous living on tinned food seemed to damage 
everybody's physique, and a little fresh food daily- 
has an extraordinary effect on a white man's 
health and strength in this climate. The question, 
too, of suitable clothing should, I am convinced, 
be emphasised much more than it is. Woollen 
clothing should always be worn, and an extra wrap 
in the evening is indispensable. The white popu- 
lation in the Congo district are gradually coming 
to the conclusion that a house, or station, set on 
a hill is always a danger to health. A house 
situated on higher ground than the surrounding 
country is exposed to every wind that blows, and 
the difference of temperature is sufficient to make 
it dangerous for anyone in a heated condition to 
return in the evening to the cooler situation. The 
statistics of sickness and death rates of the stations 
in the Congo on high altitudes, compared with 
those in valleys or actually on river banks, are 



48 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

found to be enormously in favour of those low 
down, despite the accepted theory with regard 
to malaria. There seems to be little doubt 
amongst those who have been on the Congo, that 
the healthiest class of men in the whole country 
are the officers, mechanics, and engineers employed 
on the steamers and boat services ; and this not- 
withstanding the fact that they live on the water, 
and are every night moored to the river bank 
in the immediate neighbourhood of the forest, in 
order that they may be able to procure fuel for 
the following day. 

In the beginning of April some natives in the 
interior murdered one of the station soldiers, and 
their chief, calling his people together, attacked 
and routed one of our friendly chiefs within three 
or four hours' march of Leopold ville, killing his 
two sons and many of his people. An expedition, 
which I accompanied, consisting of a hundred and 
fifty men with a couple of officers, was sent to 
punish the offender. The marauders declined to 
enter into open action, and we were nearly worn 
out at the end of a week by chasing an invisible 



SKIRMISH WITH NATIVES OF INTERIOR 49 

foe, whose villages when we climbed the palisades 
were always empty, though our arrival five 
minutes before in front of the defence was invari- 
ably saluted by a volley. They also made their 
presence felt when we were on the march, by occa- 
sional shots. All the paths in the district had 
traps arranged in them — small dug-out holes, with 
a spike or arrow fixed point upwards in the bottom, 
and the whole covered over with a plantain leaf 
sprinkled with dust or sand, so that it was indis- 
tinguishable from the surrounding soil. Every 
bush or tuft of grass which obstructed the path 
had a spear placed in it in such a manner that any 
person pushing through was sure to be wounded. 
After a week of this amusement we returned to 
Leopoldville, very doubtful whether we had not 
sufi'ered as much as the enemy in actual casualties, 
though we had brought back with us a flock of 
goats and a number of fowls. The blacks with us 
were all young soldiers, most of whom had been 
recruited, and who were terribly afraid of what 
they termed " bush niggers." Charging into the 
jungle or scouting in twos or threes they point- 



50 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

blank declined to do, and they were afraid to 
move a dozen yards from the main body unless 
accompanied by a white man. It was curious, 
however, to find how quickly many of these men 
developed into good soldiers some months after- 
wards, when we had a serious war with the Arab 
slave-raiders. 



CHAPTER III 

BANGALA CANNIBALS — VOYAGE UP THE KASAI AND 
SANKURU RIVERS — ARRIVAL AT LUSAMBO — 
DEFEAT BY COMMANDANT DHANIS OF TIPPU 
TIB's SLAVE-RAIDING AGENT, GONGO LUTETE — 
BASONGO CANNIBALS 

On the 29th of April I embarked on the Stanley^ 
a thirty-ton stern-wheel paddle-steamer, towing 
two large whaleboats full of men. Her crew 
consisted of sixty Bangala and three white 
officers. 

The Bangala, a very intelligent useful people, 
are a sort of Kru boy of the interior, and are 
largely employed on the steamers. They dress 
their hair fantastically, allowing one or more pig- 
tails to grow a foot long, and stiffening the plaits 
with wax to give them the appearance of horns. 
They also cut and re-cut the skin from the root 
of the nose upwards to the hair, the cicatrix 

51 



52 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

thus formed being often an inch high, and re- 
sembling a cock's-comb. Upon the steamers they 
are invaluable. They are at once hunters, soldiers, 
and sailors. When the boat approaches the bank 
with the intention of mooring, two or three of 
them tumble overboard, and hanging on to the 
flukes of the anchor, run along the bottom in 
several fathoms of water, till they come up at the 
bank, and are able to hook the anchor into the 
root of a tree. They are, however, cannibals, and 
are constantly giving trouble in this respect. 
When I was returning from Stanley Falls on my 
homeward journey, over two years afterwards, six 
of the crew were in irons on board the ship, whom 
the captain delivered up to justice at Bangala for 
having eaten two of their number during the 
voyage up to the Falls. I was not at the trial, 
but the captain told me that two of the crew had 
fallen ill on the upward voyage, and had been 
given a day or two's rest. On the next ration 
day these two were missing, and, upon making 
inquiries, the captain was informed that they had 
died in the night and had been buried on shore. 



BANGALA CANNIBALS 53 

This, however, did not satisfy him, and having 
his own suspicions he searched the ship, and dis- 
covered parts of the men smoke-dried, and hidden 
away in the lockers of the six Bangala, whom he 
was then handing over to the authorities. 

Leopoldville, as the chief port of the Upper 
Congo, has large numbers of these Bangala con- 
stantly coming and going, and has, as a conse- 
quence, to keep a guard on the cemetery, several 
cases of body - snatching having been proved 
against them. This practice became at one time 
so inveterate that capital punishment had to be 
resorted to as the only means of putting it down. 

The Bangala have themselves told me when, 
on shooting parties, I remonstrated with them 
for only breaking the wings and legs of the 
wounded game instead of killing it outright, that 
it was better to let the bird linger, as it made 
the flesh more tender. This led to conversation, 
in which they explained that, when at home and 
about to prepare a feast, the prisoner or slave who 
was to form the piece de resistance had always 
his arms and legs broken three days beforehand, 



54 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

and was then placed in a stream, or pool of water, 
chin-deep, with his head tied to a stick to prevent 
him committing suicide, or perhaps falling asleep 
and thus getting drowned. On the third day he 
was taken out and killed, the meat then being 
very tender. Though I cannot vouch for the truth 
of this story, I have heard it from different men 
at different times, and it is curious that they 
always break the legs and wings, or arms, as 
the case might be, of birds and monkeys before 
killing them. 

During this voyage on the Stanley we stopped 
every evening, and, putting all the crew and soldiers 
on shore, formed a camp. Half of the men were em- 
ployed in cutting up timber and carrying it on board 
before five o'clock the following morning, when 
we resumed our voyage. A steam launch, with 
a lieutenant and his men on board, accompanied 
us. This was deemed advisable, since a trading 
station, established only a short time previously on 
the Kasai River, had just before this been burned, 
and its occupants murdered by the district natives. 
On the 7th of May we moored opposite the charred 



VOYAGE UP THE KASAI RIVER 55 

remains of the trading station, but were not 
attacked during the night. The day following 
all the troops were landed, and operations com- 
menced with the intention of punishing the 
natives who had committed the outrage. The 
Bangala crew of the steamer departed in a canoe 
on their own account, and returned the same 
evening with about forty other canoes, and a 
great deal of the cloth and tinned food which 
had been taken from the trading station. They 
also brought with them a few prisoners, and the 
heads of those they had killed. Later on, the 
regular troops returned, several of them being 
wounded, though they had seen very few natives. 
The Bangala proved splendid men for this sort 
of work. They seemed to know by instinct where 
the natives hid their canoes in the swamps, and, 
when attacked, immediately opened out, each 
individual hunting an enemy through the bush 
until he either caught him, or, what rarely hap- 
pened, was himself killed. At the end of some 
two or three days, having, thanks to the Bangala, 
collected nearly all the canoes (which we broke 



56 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

up for firewood) in the swamps, we proceeded on 
our way, and the launch returned to Stanley Pool. 
Almost daily when, owing to sandbanks or other 
obstructions in the river, we had to approach the 
bank, we were fired at by the natives, who, how- 
ever, seemed to have very few guns ; and as their 
arrows usually either fell short or stuck in the 
sun-deck overhead, no one was wounded. At 
night the woodcutters were on several occasions 
attacked, or had their axes stolen by the natives, 
who were on the watch for anything they could 
pilfer. 

While steaming up the Kasai one day at noon, 
the air was suddenly darkened by bats in such 
numbers that the crew of the steamer knocked 
some of them down with sticks. Upon every tree 
on the islands and river banks the bats were con- 
stantly settling, and flying ofi" again when some- 
thing alarmed them, such as the breaking of a 
branch by their own weight. I measured some 
that were killed, and found that they averaged 
from eighteen inches to two feet six, from wing- 
tip to wing-tip. The boys on board and the 



VOYAGE UP THE SANKURU RIVER 57 

crew of the steamer cooked and ate them, and 
maintained that they were very good eating. On 
one occasion I saw myriads of bats behaving in 
the same way near Stanley Falls, and I have also 
seen them in large numbers on the Lualaba. 

The whole of the Kasai district teems with game 
— elephant, buffalo, buck, and hog in the forest and 
swamps ; and hippopotami, crocodiles, and birds 
of every description on the islands and banks, and 
in the river itself. 

At this time — 18th May 1892 — there were no 
other stations on the Kasai, though now there are 
several dozen on this river and its tributaries. 
The natives, too, have become friendly, and bring 
in great quantities of indiarubber, which is found 
everywhere in the forest, to trade. At Benabendi, 
at the mouth of the Sankuru, we stopped a couple 
of days. Here a Frenchman was established, who 
was doing a roaring trade in rubber and ivory. 

The Sankuru River is only from half a mile to a 
mile wide, and is very deep, with a slow current. 
It is in every respect a marked contrast to the 
Kasai ; there are few islands in it, and the banks 



S8 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

are clothed with forest down to the water's edge. 
Hippopotami are rare, and all other game, with 
the exception of monkeys, is, owing to the dense- 
ness of the forest, invisible ; as there are no islands 
or open spaces, birds also are not to be seen. At 
one place on the Sankuru I noticed a small kind 
of hippopotamus in a herd of twenty-three, none of 
which were larger than an Alderney cow. Some 
time later in the Lualaba district I saw a herd 
of seventeen of these small hippos. To anyone 
acquainted with the habits of this animal, it is 
impossible to suppose that these could have all 
been young hippos together, and leads to the 
conclusion that they must have been an, as yet, 
undescribed species. They were considerably larger 
than the slightly-known Liberian hippopotamus, 
and not half the size of the common hippopotamus. 
On both occasions I could easily have shot some, 
but since, except by great luck, I should have been 
unable to pick them up I refrained from firing, 
hoping to come across them again under more 
favourable circumstances. 

Up the Sankuru we found ourselves always ex- 



ARRIVAL AT LUSAMBO 59 

pected, the steamer having been signalled two or 
three days in advance. When we arrived at our 
destination we found that the whole native popula- 
tion at Lusambo had known that we were coming, 
a couple of days before our arrival. Here, as else- 
where in Africa, the natives have such a perfect 
system of telegraphing, or signalling, by means of 
their drums that they are able to make any 
communications as far as a drum can be heard, 
which is often several miles. As the information 
is usually repeated by all the drummers who hear 
it, a whole district knows of an event a very 
few minutes, or hours, after it has occurred. 
This system of telegraphing is most interesting. 
Though different tribes and parts of tribes have 
their own codes, there seems to be some method 
running through all the codes ; for, when inter- 
rogating a drummer on the subject of another 
chiefs signal, he often replied that he had 
never heard that particular drum, or would of 
course know it. We were, by means of these 
drums, able to keep up a constant communication, 
day and night, with our allies and natives for 



6o THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

miles round the camp. Every evening some 
member of our company would amuse himself 
by rapping out abuse at the enemy, which was 
returned with zest from the hostile camp. Occa- 
sionally a friendly gossip would be kept up, one 
side telling the other news of its respective 
harems, what food they had to eat, and how 
many hours the chief had slept that day. The 
native instinct for boasting and exaggeration 
generally became a predominant feature on these 
occasions, and the conversation would almost in- 
variably degenerate into a lying match, each 
drummer trying to cap his opponent's last message. 
Everything that happened was so well known 
in both camps, that by simply telling a piece 
of news to one's servant it immediately spread 
throughout the whole Arab camp. 

Our arrival at Lusambo was the signal for 
tremendous rejoicing ; for we not only brought 
the first intelligence from the coast, but were the 
bearers of the only letters that had been received 
for seven months. I was heartily welcomed by 
de Wouters and de Heusch, two of the nicest 



DEFEAT OF CONGO LUTETE 6i 

men I had met in the Congo Free State. A few 
hours after our arrival the Commandant Dhanis 
appeared, having just finished a most successful 
little campaign against Tippu Tib's slave-raiding 
agent, Congo Lutete. He brought with him over 
two thousand prisoners of war and freed slaves. 
A fete, lasting three days, celebrated the Com- 
mandant's successful return ; at the end of which 
period of rejoicing I had most of the station 
on the sick-list. There were also occasional cases 
of smallpox in the town, and I vaccinated some 
hundreds of people with vaccine I had brought 
from Europe, but unfortunately none of it took. 

After the defeat of Congo Lutete by Dhanis 
and Descamps, the Arab authorities at Stanley 
Falls refused to take any action in the matter. 
Upon the State officials demanding satisfaction 
for the incursion, they replied that they were 
not responsible for Congo Lutete, who was acting 
independently of them, and that the Free State 
officials must take what steps they pleased in the 
matter. 

With us orders had arrived from Europe to 



62 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

form at the earliest date possible a large ex- 
pedition to explore Katanga; and before many- 
days had passed we were all engaged in drilling 
men, sorting stores, and making up loads to last 
a caravan of four hundred men for a year. No 
load was allowed to exceed forty pounds, which 
did away with the likelihood of delay on the road 
through the lagging behind of overloaded porters. 
On the 5th of July, just as we were ready to start, 
one of our most energetic men, named Smit, 
died suddenly, and two other men sickened with 
hsematuric fever. This threw a gloom over the 
station, which arrested work for some days. 

It was during this time that the commissary 
of the district found that a regular human traffic 
was being carried on ; the people on the upper 
river — the Basongo — themselves cannibals, being 
in the habit of selling slaves and children lower 
down the river to the Basongo Meno for food. 
He therefore ordered the sentries on the river to 
take, or fire on, any canoes descending the river 
with children on board, and, after catching a few, 
succeeded in stopping the traffic. Some of the 



BASONGO CANNIBALS 63 

people belonging to Pania Mutumba (the chief of 
the tribe in question up the river) accompanied 
the Commandant in an attack on Gongo Lutete, 
One of these men was on "sentry go" for a 
night, and, having shot a man, came in to report 
what he had done, and despatched someone else 
to bring in the body. When it was brought 
in, he found, to his astonishment, that he had 
shot his own father. He immediately went to 
Dhanis and complained that the spy he had 
shot was his father, and that it was very hard 
lines, since he was unable to eat him. The 
Commandant ordered him to bury the body pro- 
perly, but discovered afterwards that, though the 
man would not eat the body himself, he had 
given it to his friends to eat. That same week 
a young Basongo chief came to the Commandant 
while at his dinner in his tent, and asked for the 
loan of his knife, which, without thinking, the 
Commandant lent him. He immediately dis- 
appeared behind the tent and cut the throat of 
a little girl-slave belonging to him, and was in 
the act of cooking her, when one of our soldiers 



64 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

saw him, and reported what he was doing. This 
cannibal was put in irons, but some two months 
later I found him in such a wretched condition that, 
fearing he would die, I took him out of the chains, 
and gave him his liberty with a warning. Scarcely 
a fortnight had passed, when he was brought in 
by some of our Hausa soldiers, who said that he 
was eating the children in and about our canton- 
ments. He had a bag slung round his neck, 
which on examining we found contained an arm and 
a leg of a young child. As three or four children 
had disappeared within the fortnight, and there 
had been no deaths amongst them in camp, this 
was at the trial considered sufficient evidence 
against him, and he was taken out and shot, as 
the only cure for such an incorrigible. 

Shortly after this a number of the prisoners of 
war took to deserting, and, finding out in which 
direction they went, we demanded of the great 
chief of the district that they should be given 
up to us. He replied that, with the exception of 
one prisoner, they had all been eaten, and sent 
thirty-seven slaves in exchange. The one he 



BASONGO CANNIBALS 65 

returned proved to be a little boy-servant of 
mine who had been persuaded to run away by 
some of the deserters. By a lucky chance, how- 
ever, he had found a friend in the village, and 
was the only one of the party not eaten. His 
descriptions of what he had seen at the time 
were quite sickening. 

Prisoners or servants have often spoken to me 
in this manner: "We want meat; we know you 
have not enough goats and fowls to be able to 
spare us some, but give us that man [indicating 
one of their number] ; he is a lazy fellow, and 
you'll never get any good out of him, so you 
may as well give him to us to eat." 

The question of cannibalism in Africa has been 
very little discussed ; the great travellers, such as 
Livingstone, Cameron, Stanley, and Wissmann, 
frequently refer in their works to the simple 
fact that the peoples they passed through were 
cannibals, but all details or statement of the 
causes that led to these references have usually 
been omitted. As travellers through an unknown 
continent, accompanied by an alien race or races, 



66 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

they were naturally not in touch with the people 
through whose countries they passed, who, when 
not actually hostile, remained in a state of armed 
neutrality. So far as I have been able to discover, 
nearly all the tribes in the Congo Basin either are, 
or have been, cannibals ; and among some of them 
the practice is on the increase. Races who until 
lately do not seem to have been cannibals, though 
situated in a country surrounded by cannibal 
races, have, from increased intercourse with their 
neighbours, learned to eat human flesh ; for since 
the entry of Europeans into the country greater 
facilities for travelling and greater safety for 
travellers have come about. Formerly the people 
who wandered from their own neighbourhood 
among the surrounding tribes were killed and 
eaten, and so did not return among their people 
to enlighten them by showing that human flesh 
was useful as an article of food. 

Soon after the station of Equator was estab- 
lished, the residents discovered that a wholesale 
human traffic was being carried on by the natives 
of the district between this station and Lake 



BASONGO CANNIBALS 67 

M'Zumba. The most daring of these natives 
were the tribes about Irebo, whose practice was 
to ascend the river Luluno;u with large armed 
parties, and raid among the natives on its 
banks. These people, though a well-built sturdy 
race, were not fighting people. When the 
raiders had collected a sufficient number of 
people to fill their canoes, they returned to the 
Congo, and carried them up the Oubangi, where 
they were sold to the natives to serve as food. 
Even now, though since the establishment of the 
Government stations some years ago this traffic 
has been stopped, it is almost impossible for the 
steamers that go up the Oubangi to buy meat. 
The captains of the steamers have often assured 
me that, whenever they try to buy goats from the 
natives, slaves are demanded in exchange, and the 
natives often come on board with tusks of ivory or 
other money with the intention of buying a slave, 
complaining that meat is now scarce in their 
neighbourhood. 

Judging from what I have seen of these people, 
they seem fond of eating human flesh ; and though 



68 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

it may be an acquired taste, there is not the 
slightest doubt in my mind that they prefer 
human flesh to any other. During all the time 
I lived among cannibal races I never came across 
a single case of their eating any kind of flesh raw ; 
they invariably either boil, roast, or smoke it. This 
custom of smoking flesh to make it keep would 
have been very useful to us, as we were often 
without meat for long periods. We could, how- 
ever, never buy smoked meat in the markets, it 
being impossible to be sure that it was not 
human flesh. 

The preference of difl"erent tribes, more than 
diff'erent individuals of a tribe, for various parts 
of the human body, is interesting. Some cut 
long steaks from the flesh of the thighs, legs, 
or arms ; others prefer the hands and feet ; and 
though the great majority do not eat the head, 
I have come across more than one tribe which 
prefers the head to any other part. Almost all 
use some part of the intestines on account of 
the fat they contain ; for even the savages of 
Central Africa recognise, in common with our 



BASONGO CANNIBALS 69 

own cooks, that fat in some form is a necessary 
ingredient of different dishes. 

During the war in which we were engaged for 
two years, with our enormous crowds of camp 
followers we reaped perhaps the only advantages 
that could be claimed for this diso^usting custom. 
In the night following a battle or the storming 
of a town, these human wolves disposed of all the 
dead, leaving nothing even for the jackals, and 
thus saved us, no doubt, from many an epidemic. 

A man with his eyes open has no difficulty in 
knowing, from the horrible remains he is obliged 
to pass on his way, what people have preceded 
him on the road or battlefield ; — with this differ- 
ence : that on a battlefield he will find those parts 
left to the jackals which the human wolves have 
not found to their taste ; whereas on the road — 
generally by the smouldering camp fire, or the 
blackened spot indicating where the fire has been 
— are the whitening bones, cracked and broken, 
which form the relics of these disgusting banquets. 
These form a diary by the way, which •' he who runs 
may read," if he know the habits of these peoples. 



CHAPTER IV 

PROPOSALS OF PEACE AND ALLIANCE WITH THE STATE 

FORCES FROM GONGO LUTETE VISIT TO GONGO 

LUTETE AT HIS CAPITAL, n'gANDU — THE LITTLE 
PEOPLE OF THE FOREST 

On the 19th of July, Gongo Lutete had in- 
formation conveyed to us that he was sending 
ambassadors with a large present, hoping to make 
peace. De Wouters and I received orders to 
proceed on the way to meet them, and at five 
o'clock the following morning started up the river 
in a large canoe. Our canoe was a very good 
one, of the usual kind used by the Bakuba — the 
Sankuru water-people — who are not nomadic, but 
are a fine race of traders and farmers. The canoe 
was flat-bottomed, with sides about ten inches 
high, and tapering to a point fore and aft. The 
paddles used by these people are about nine 
feet long, and are well made, many of them 



PROPOSALS OF PEACE AND ALLIANCE 71 

having a small knob at the upper end which is 
held in the hand. While paddling, the water- 
people chant, and take a step forward as they 
catch the beginning of the stroke, and draw the 
foot back as they pull through. They keep the 
most perfect time. Ten of them paddle in an 
ordinary canoe. On this occasion we had two- 
and-twenty paddles, as the canoe was a specially 
large one. We arrived at Pania Mutumba's at 
the end of the second day — a very rich village, 
well built in straight lines, and with about three 
thousand inhabitants. The huts were square, but 
with roofs of the ordinary beehive shape. They 
were larger than the usual native hut, being 
thirty or forty feet high, and fifteen feet square 
on the ground. The only sanitary arrangements 
the village could boast of were a herd of pigs, 
which was turned loose morning and evening to 
dispose of the dirt in and about the village. All 
the sick who die, and some before they are dead, 
I fancy, are thrown into the river, which passes 
in front of the village. Those who die violent 
deaths are generally eaten. 



72 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

Here we found five envoys from Gongo, in a 
very nervous condition, not knowing how we should 
treat them. They showed their pluck in coming to 
us at all, though of course the fear of death was 
behind them if they had returned to their chief 
with their mission unfulfilled. They had brought 
with them a present of some ivory and a flock of 
goats, and said that Gongo had been badly treated 
by the Arabs, and, having been beaten whenever he 
had attacked the State forces, had now determined 
to make terms for himself, and, if allowed to, 
would become our friend and auxiliary. This 
seemed satisfactory, and we sent the envoys with 
their present, under a strong guard, to Lusambo. 
The guard was necessary as a protection against our 
own natives, who were far from friendly to Tippu 
Tib's people, their raiding propensities being 
known far and wide. De Wouters and I re- 
turned to Lusambo by water. Gongo's terms 
were so favourable that his emissaries, after 
having been feted at Lusambo, were sent back to 
him with presents, and a promise that we would 
visit him and arrange the final terms of the 



VISIT TO CONGO LUTETE 73 

agreement. Immediately afterwards two officers 
were sent with a strong guard to visit Gongo ; the 
Commandant, as a result of this new arrangement, 
wdiich had upset many of his plans, being unable 
to start for another fortnight. At this time we 
found that a fetisher, or " medicine man," in 
the immediate neighbourhood of Lusambo was 
poisoning people in the district, and several 
suspicious cases among our own people decided 
the Commandant to arrest him. He was brought 
in for trial, much to the surprise of the native 
population, who arrived by hundreds to see what 
would happen to us for having interfered with 
him. Upon being found guilty, he was sen- 
tenced by the tribunal to receive a flogging. 
Before his sentence was carried out, however, the 
Commandant told him publicly that he was going 
to be flogged, but that he would be allowed to 
make medicine first, in order that he should not 
feel it. He replied that he had nothing to make 
medicine with, his materials being all in his hut. 
Some men were accordingly sent to his village, 
and returned to the compound with the hut itself 



74 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

and everything it contained. He was thereupon 
put inside it, and given half an hour to make 
medicine, after which he was taken out and 
publicly flogged. His squeals soon convinced 
the assembled multitude that the white man's 
" medicine " was stronger than his, and when 
liberated afterwards we were obliged to give him 
a guard as protection against the natives over 
whom he had so long tyrannised, and who would 
otherwise have torn him to pieces. The follow- 
ing day there was a tornado accompanied by a 
hailstorm, some of the hailstones being as large 
as hens' eggs. Hail is a most unusual occurrence 
in this district — in fact, numbers of natives said 
they had never seen it before ; and it was 
immediately supposed by the native population 
to be a vengeance brought on us by the 
" medicine man " for having interfered with him. 
As we, however, all rushed out and collected the 
hailstones, with which we made iced drinks, this 
feeling soon wore off, the natives tersely remark- 
ing that it was no good making medicine against 
the white man, who only ate it. 



VISIT TO CONGO LUTETE 75 

Lusambo was blessed with a half-wild herd of 
cattle, the bulls from which herd we broke in 
without much difficulty and used for riding. 
For this purpose they are most useful, as their 
huge horns enable them to push through thick 
grass or light bush with comparative ease. They 
are not at all afraid of swampy ground, but 
plunge and struggle through it without hesita- 
tion. 

On the 18 th of August I started with the 
Commandant on an expedition to visit Gongo 
Lutete and Lupungu, on the way to Katanga in 
the south. On the following day, having crossed 
the Sankuru, I had my first experience of travel- 
ling in the great forest. 

There is, despite the myriad difficulties it 
presents at every hand, an element of fascination 
about a tropical forest unlike anything else, 
though perhaps the chief pleasure lies in looking 
forward to getting out of it. A great silence 
hangs over everything, and seems only greater 
for the extraordinary and often unaccountable 
sounds which break in upon it at intervals, 



ye THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

mingled with those more familiar, such as the 
harsh shriek of the toucan, the chatter of an 
occasional monkey, or the crash of a falling 
branch or tree. Still, despite all its strange 
sounds, the forest silence is oppressive, and makes 
itself so much felt that the different members of 
a caravan generally speak in whispers, or in low 
tones, and the slightest noise on either side of 
the way will turn instinctively every head. There 
seems a complete absence of life everywhere — no 
whir of insects or twitter of birds ; and though 
everywhere but in the forest each blade of grass 
and every inch of soil is teeming with life of 
some sort, here there is no sound or movement. 
The dank heavy smell which pervades everything 
is unrelieved by other odours, or even breezes ; 
for in a tropical forest a very strong wind only 
can make itself felt. There are no flowers, and 
no birds sing. Miles and miles of sombre greens 
and browns stretch unrelieved by a single blossom. 
Of the life, the flower-wonders, the brilliance told 
of tropical forests, there is no sign. It has been 
said that these may all be found on the tree 



VISIT TO CONGO LUTETE yy 

tops, a hundred feet or more overhead ; but 
though on several occasions I climbed to the 
summit of a spur of rock rising out of the forest 
into the sunlight, and commanding a full view of 
the tree tops, and from there watched the great 
undulating sea of green for hours together, the 
same monotony of colour and of soundlessness 
was above us as in the depths below. Every 
now and then a solitary toucan or a flock of 
green pigeons would pass, but even these were 
only to be seen in the evening or the morning. 
Here and there, perhaps half a mile apart, a tree 
top was entirely covered with blossom, usually 
dead white in hue, and sometimes a tree with 
scarlet leaves gave the efii"ect of flowers in the 
distance. These notes of colour were, however, 
so rare that they could hardly be said to relieve 
the uniformity of sombre green stretching on 
every side as far as eye could reach. Camps in 
a forest are most melancholy aff'airs. Everything 
is damp, and the only wood that will burn is a 
newly-dead log or branch, from which half an 
inch or an inch of the sodden exterior has to be 



78 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

cut away first. The ordinary cheery signs of 
camp life are absent, and everyone moves about 
noiselessly — the many layers of sodden and decay- 
ing veo-etation under foot deadenine; all sound. 
Even the porters and soldiers lie quietly round 
the fires, and do not laugh and chatter and sing 
as usual. 

We arrived at Pania Mutumba's village on the 
24th, and here rearranged the caravan. In reply 
to our demand that fifty men should be sent 
with us to serve as guides or extra porters, Pania 
raised many difficulties, but eventually said we 
could have the men if we paid for them. The 
Commandant thereupon bought sixty-three men 
for two cups of white beads each. A few of 
these men afterwards ran away, but many of 
them were promoted, and became good soldiers 
when they recognised the advantages of freedom. 
The advantage to be derived from freedom is one 
of the hardest things it is possible to explain to 
the ordinary negro slave. His powers of reason- 
ing never seem to get beyond this : " If I am 
free and don't get work, who is going to feed me ? 



VISIT TO CONGO LUTETE 79 

Whereas, if I have a master, he has to find me 
work, and when there is no work he has still to 
feed me." 

On crossing the Sankuru we marched through a 
deserted district for five days, in which it was very 
difficult to feed the caravan. As we had, how- 
ever, been forewarned, the men, and the women 
who accompanied them, had as much food with 
them as they could carry, and we got through 
the desert in comparative comfort, arriving at 
Mono Kialo's village on the 1st of September. 
Mono Kialo was a sub-chief of the Baluba race, 
the great chief being Lupungu, four days' march 
to the southward, whom we afterwards visited. 
The Balubas are a fine, healthy, industrious race, 
the products of whose industries are to be found 
immense distances outside their own district. 
They are agriculturists, iron-workers, and cloth- 
makers ; the cloth made in this district being the 
money used by a great portion of the Arab settle- 
ments to the westward. Until quite lately they 
were not cannibals, and even now the men only 
eat their enemies who fall in battle. All the 



8o THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

Balubas, both men and women, have their teeth 
filed and pointed ; but though this is often 
considered a habit peculiar to cannibal races, 
I have noticed that it is by no means an 
invariable custom amongst them, and that many- 
inveterate cannibal tribes do not make it a 
practice. The Baluba women are graceful, lively, 
gay, and industrious. The whole Baluba race, 
and the women more especially, are no darker 
than the Egyptians. They have very good 
features, with the exception of the nose, which is 
flat ; though even this is more prominent, and has 
a more pronounced bridge, than is common amongst 
negro races. The lips are thin and well formed, 
the face oval, and the eyes large and brilliant. 
Most of the women of the Baluba race use a 
pigment to blacken the upper and lower lids, as do 
many European women, though this custom is not 
peculiar to them alone, but is common wherever 
Arab influence has penetrated in the Congo Basin. 
Nearly all the natives of this region are brown 
or dark yellow in colour, a really black person 
being very rare. The front teeth are all filed, 



VISIT TO GONGO LUTETE 8i 

though, strange to say, this is hardly a disfigure- 
ment. Their many good qualities and high moral 
standard make them very valuable, and they are 
much sought after by Arab and even native chiefs 
for their harems. 

Another point that struck me among the 
Balubas within the Arab sphere of influence was 
their extreme personal cleanliness. A thorough 
bath half a dozen times a day was the rule rather 
than the exception. 

Amongst most of the natives in these districts 
it is customary for girls and boys to marry at the 
ages of seven and eight or nine respectively, yet 
it is an indisputable fact that the negroes are both 
a healthy and prolific race. The women are middle- 
aged at fourteen or fifteen, and the men, with the 
exception of the chiefs, do not live to old age, the 
accidents of life among these savage tribes being 
so common that a man is usually killed before he 
is out of his prime. 

While resting a couple of days at Mono Kialo's 
village, two large presents arrived, one from 
Gongo Lutete and one from Lupungu, each of 



82 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

whom begged us to visit liim first. As Gongo 
Lutete's present was the larger, the Commandant 
turned north-east to pay him the first visit. Our 
march for some days lay through tracts of forest, 
and here, for the first time, I saw the Batwa, the 
interesting "little people of the forest." Through 
the influence of a guide, who was on friendly terms 
with them, they did not disappear from sight as 
they usually do at the approach of a caravan, and 
I had therefore opportunities of observing them 
more closely than would otherwise have been 
possible. 

What first impressed me was that, despite the 
fact that their average height is under four feet, 
they are both sturdy and independent. They are, 
as a rule, nomadic, and I have never met anyone 
who has seen them in large numbers in a settle- 
ment. Being hunters, they follow the game in 
small parties, changing their locality with the 
migration of the game. Since they are the only 
real hunters in the Congo Basin, and are versed 
in all the science of woodcraft, the ordinary 
traveller (European or native) may pass within a 



THE LITTLE PEOPLE OF THE FOREST 83 

few yards of them and be utterly unaware of their 
presence, though they meanwhile may be watching 
him. Their short stature enables them to run 
along a game-path with perfect ease, which to an 
ordinary man would be impassable unless bent 
nearly double. In fact, it is as difficult for an 
ordinary man to find, or to see, them in the forest 
as it is for a town-bred person in this country to 
discover mice in a cornfield. I can remember 
on more than one occasion, while marching in a 
shower of rain, walking over their little footprints, 
which were still dry but which in a few moments 
became wet, thus showing that the small people 
must have passed within a few yards of me, 
though I had seen and heard nothing ; the silence 
of the great forest seeming, from the presence of 
human beings, more unbroken than usual. For 
though man may frequently be unaware of the 
proximity of his fellow-man, nature, whether 
animal or insect, seems often instinctively to know 
when the arch-enemy is in the vicinity. 

The pygmies possess an intimate knowledge of 
poisons, and their bows and arrows, which have 



84 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

the appearance of harmless toys that children in 
Europe would disdain as playthings, are as deadly 
engines in hunting or war as have ever been in- 
vented. The action of some of these poisons is 
so rapid that a man will die in from three to ten 
minutes after having been scratched. An elephant 
in one of our stations, which was scratched on 
the haunch by a poisoned spear, fell down dead 
before going a hundred yards ; and on another 
occasion a poisoned arrow, which had passed 
through my corduroy coat at a distance of 
thirty yards, killed a fowl I scratched with it 
in about two minutes. One trick the little 
forest people have in common with the bushman 
(which though often mentioned by travellers yet 
stated in black and white sounds impossible), 
namely, the shooting of three, or even four, arrows 
so rapidly that the last is discharged before the 
first reaches its mark. They are also able to throw 
a lance so that it goes in at one side of a man and 
out at the other. The Arab slave-raiders and 
ivory-hunters have often sent expeditions into the 
great forest, which have suffered to such an extent 



THE LITTLE PEOPLE OF THE FOREST 85 

at the hands of these small demons, that few, and 
sometimes none, have returned to tell the tale of 
how they died, without even seeing who smote 
them. Occasionally the dwarf people attack a 
caravan in the openings of the forest, and so agile 
are they in their movements that defence is practi- 
cally impossible. On seeing the flash of the firing 
gun, they drop, and running in, hidden by the 
grass, spear their opponent while he is in the act 
of reloading. This system, though answering very 
well with ordinary expeditions armed with muzzle- 
loading guns, did not succeed against us and our 
breechloaders. Many of us were, however, scared 
by the seemingly magical appearance of these 
gnome-like beings within three or four yards of us, 
with their murderous little spears pointed for our 
destruction. And, indeed, their success was often 
extraordinary enough to make one almost doubt 
their being human. 

Our march from here to N'Gandu, Gongo's 
capital on the Lomami River, was through a 
country devastated by the slave-raiders in Tippu 
Tib's employ. Ever since we left Pania Mutum- 



86 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

ba's, with the exception of the small district in 
which Mono Kialo's village was situated, this 
vacancy, devoid alike of men and food, surrounded 
us. Every height was covered with splendid 
palm plantations ; and the remains of villages, 
whose precise extent was indicated by the bomas, 
or palisade fortifications, which had taken root 
and grown into ring fences. Our caravan did not 
suff'er hunger, for the Commandant had allowed 
every man to take at least one woman and a boy, 
who acted as transport, and who looked after the 
commissary's arrangements. On the 13th of 
September we arrived at N'Gandu, and received 
a splendid reception by Gongo Lutete : thousands 
of his people turned out to welcome us, firing 
guns, and dancing and yelling as if they were 
possessed. 

Gongo Lutete was born in Malela, and was by 
blood a Bakussu. He had himself been a slave, 
having as a child fallen into the hands of the 
Arabs. While still a youth, as a reward for his 
distinguished conduct and pluck on raiding ex- 
peditions, he was given his freedom. Starting 



AT N'GANDU 87 

with one gun, at eighteen years of age, he gradu- 
ally collected a band of brigands round him, whom 
he ruled with a rod of iron, and before long became 
Tippu Tib's chief slave and ivory-hunter. 

He established himself at N'Gandu on the 
Lomami, holding part of Malela for Sefu, and 
by raiding gradually extended his influence to the 
westward, which brought him into conflict with 
the State. Captain Descamps first, and Baron 
Dhanis afterwards, defeated him. After the de- 
feat by Dhanis, in April 1892, he came to the 
conclusion that it was no use fighting any longer 
against the State ; and since the Arabs for some 
time past had paid him neither for his work 
nor for the ivory he sent them, he determined if 
possible to make peace with the State on his own 
account. This was a wise decision, as there is no 
doubt that the Arabs were both afraid and jealous 
of his power, and would probably before long 
have assassinated him. 

At this time Gongo Lutete was perhaps thirty 
years of age. He was a well-built intelligent- 
looking man of about 5 ft. 9 in. in height, with 



88 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

a brown skin, large brown eyes with very long 
lashes, a small mouth with thin lips, and a 
straight, comparatively narrow nose. His hands 
were his most remarkable characteristic ; they 
were curiously supple, with long narrow fingers, 
which when outstretched had always the top joint 
slightly turned back. One or both hands were 
in constant movement, opening and shutting rest- 
lessly, especially when he was under any strong 
influence. His features meanwhile remained ab- 
solutely immovable. Though very familiar and 
friendly with some of us, he had a way of never 
letting anyone forget that he was a chief, and his 
manners were extremely dignified. One had to 
see this man on the warpath to realise the different 
aspects of his character. The calm haughty chief, 
or the genial and friendly companion, became on 
the battlefield an enthusiastic individual with a 
highly nervous organisation, who hissed out his 
orders one after another without a moment's hesi- 
tation. He was capable of sustaining intense 
fatigue, and would lead his warriors through the 
country at a run for hours together. 



AT N'GANDU 89 

The band of brigands with which Gongo had sur- 
rounded himself were mostly of the Batetela race. 
These Batetela, and more particularly one tribe 
called the Bakussu, are, as far as I could ascertain 
from making inquiries in every direction, the most 
inveterate cannibals. During excursions in the 
neighbourhood of their towns, I on more than one 
occasion saw a public execution. When the chief 
of the town — who is of course an absolute monarch 
— decides that a man must die, he hands him over 
to the people. He is immediately torn to pieces, 
and disappears as quickly as a hare is broken up 
by a pack of hounds. Every man lays hold of him 
at once with one hand, and with the other whips off 
the piece with his knife ; no one stops to kill him 
first, for he would by doing so lose his piece. 
More than once, after a drum-head court-martial, 
when a spy or deserter was shot, the onlookers 
have said to us, " Why do you bury him ? It's 
no use — when you are gone, we shall of course dig 
him up." Hanging fetishes over the grave, with 
a view to preventing the people from touching 
it for fear of magic, had no efi'ect. These people 



90 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

seem to have no form of religion whatever, and 
no fecar of death or evil spirits. Through the 
whole of the Batetela country, extending from the 
Lubefu to the Luiki, and from the Lurimbi north- 
wards for some five days' march, one sees neither 
grey hairs, nor halt, nor blind. Even parents are 
eaten by their children on the first sign of 
approaching decrepitude. It is easy to under- 
stand that, under the circumstances, the Batetela 
have the appearance of a splendid race. These 
cannibals do not, as a rule, file their front teeth, 
nor do they tattoo the face. 

I explored the Lomami for some six or eight 
hours above N'Gandu. The river is about two 
hundred yards wide, rapid in many places, and 
rocky, and navigation even in a canoe is very 
difficult. Northwards, eastwards, and southwards 
of N'Gandu extends a vast palm forest, containing 
great patches of indiarubber creepers. 

N'Gandu itself, as I first saw it, was situated on 
an open plain, one side of which was separated 
from the left bank of the Lomami by a strip of 
swamp and forest one or two hundred yards in 



AT N'GANDU 91 

width. This village — containing from ten to fifteen 
thousand inhabitants — was oval in form, and 
strongly fortified by a double ditch and loop- 
holed earthwork, the whole being surrounded by 
a palisade. The top of every tree in this palisade 
was crowned with a human skull. Six gateways 
defended the village ; and, after passing through 
each gate, it was necessary to traverse a tunnel, 
some thirty yards long, made out of piles of large 
timber, and loopholed throughout its whole length. 
On the top of this tunnel was a guardhouse, the 
floor of which was honeycombed into holes, through 
which the guard above could spear an unsus- 
pecting passenger on the road below. The ap- 
proach to each of these six gates was ornamented 
by a pavement of human skulls, the bregma being 
the only part that showed above the ground. 
This pavement was of a snowy whiteness, and 
polished to the smoothness of ivory by the daily 
passage of hundreds of naked feet. I counted 
more than two thousand skulls in the pavement 
of one of the gates alone. 



CHAPTER V 

GONGO LUTETE FINALLY LEAVES THE ARABS AND 
ALLIES HIMSELF WITH THE STATE FORCES — 
ARRIVAL AT KABINDA, CAPITAL OF LUPUNGU, 

GREAT CHIEF OF THE BALUBAS MOVEMENTS 

OF THE ENEMY HEADED BY TIPPU TIB'S SON, 
SEFU — PREPARATIONS FOR AN ENCOUNTER 

For a whole month we were regally entertained 
at N'Gandu. Almost every day Gongo sent us a 
present, and as he seemed to count everything by 
hundreds — a hundred sheep one day, a hundred 
goats another, a hundred baskets of corn, or a 
hundred bunches of bananas — we fared well. To- 
wards the end of the month Gongo Lutete 
announced that he would leave the Arabs and come 
over to us, providing we would keep faith with 
him, and, in the event of his being attacked by 
the Arabs, help him to defend himself. In proof 
of his own fidelity he gave a large present of 

02 



GONGO LUTETE ALLIES HIMSELF 93 

ivory, and obtained leave from the Commandant 
to remain in the territory in which he was estab- 
lished, and which, according to a treaty arranged 
by Mr. Stanley for the Congo Free State, at 
Zanzibar, was outside the Arabs' sphere of in- 
fluence. Gongo told us that the Arabs had 
massacred M. Hodister's whole expedition, and 
the " white Pasha from the East," whom we 
guessed to be Emin. He also told us that they 
had murdered the Stairs and Delcommune ex- 
peditions in the south ; but this, though we did 
not then know it, was of course incorrect. We 
left two officers with a guard at N'Gandu, and 
resumed our march towards Katanga, following 
the ridge of the watershed between the Lomami 
and the Lubefu. During this march we came 
across hundreds of human skeletons — according 
to our Batetela guides, the victims of a smallpox 
epidemic. But there were bullet-holes in some of 
the skulls, and the epidemic had probably been 
a Batetela slave-raid. 

After six days' march we arrived at Kabinda, 
Lupungu's capital. Lupungu was the great chief 



94 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

of the Balubas, with an influence extending 
northwards to Lulua, and southwards to Katanga. 
The people in this district are olive-coloured, with 
thin lips, and, even from a European point of view, 
are good - looking. De Heusch was appointed 
resident, and immediately set to work to build 
a station at Kabinda. 

At this point Dhanis was obliged to return to 
Lusambo. There were many affairs in the district 
to arrange, and this was the last place from which 
it was possible to communicate with Lusambo, 
before resuming our march to Katanga. 

In the neighbourhood of Kabinda — a fine, rich, 
healthy country — I constantly made exploring and 
shooting expeditions during my stay, and had very 
good sport. 

On the 16tli October Scherlink and I decided 
to start for Kolomoni's town on the Lurimbi 
River. Our reasons for making this decision 
were several : food was, we heard, very plentiful 
there, and our host Lupungu either had no 
supplies or was unwilling to give us any. The 
men, too, were complaining ; and de Heusch, 



ARRIVAL AT KABINDA 95 

having finished the big house he was making, 
all but the floor and walls, had begun to 
bring into camp large quantities of freshly- 
dug sandy clay for this purpose. As a conse- 
quence of the newly-turned soil being in our 
vicinity, we were all out of health, and several 
of the blacks, with Scherlink and Cerkel, had 
fever. The injurious effect of newly-turned soil 
is probably due in a large measure to the fact 
that it has not been exposed to the influence of 
light, this being apparently instrumental in 
destroying the bacilli with which untilled earth 
teems. In support of this theory, the outbreak 
of malaria in Antwerp, which followed upon the 
excavations made in that city during the building 
of the new fortifications, may be cited. This red 
sandy clay, which, when wet and dry, becomes 
as hard as a brick, is found all over the district 
at a depth of from one to two yards. 

We took eighty men with us, and on the fourth 
day arrived at Kolomoni's. At about an hour's 
distance from the town, two fine straightforward- 
looking young chiefs, Kolomoni and Makipula by 



96 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

name, met us with a thousand men, many of whom 
were armed with guns. These people danced 
round us, firing their guns and giving vent to 
extravagant expressions of delight at seeing us. 
It was hard to imagine what prompted them, 
but it spoke well for the Delcommune expedition, 
which passed about a year before. During a 
talk with the chiefs, who had given us, amongst 
other things, presents of pigs and goats and forty 
baskets of flour, we learnt that Makipula was a 
personal friend of Kolomoni's, and, though a 
good agriculturist, no warrior. They had, it 
appeared, decided to live in the same town and 
make common cause, as Kolomoni was good 
only for fighting. This arrangement seemed to 
have worked well, for the whole country was 
cultivated, and the large town itself one of the 
best built I had seen. 

On the 22nd October a letter arrived from 
Sub-Lieutenant Debruyne, a Belgian officer, who, 
with Commandant Lippens, was resident at Sefu's 
court at Kasongo. In it he told us that he was a 
prisoner, and Tippu Tib's son, Sefu, accompanied by 



MOVEMENTS OF THE ENEMY 97 

ten thousand men armed with guns and swords, 
had marched from Kasongo with the intention 
of destroying us. This was, however, only part of 
a general Arab rising, the Arabs having already 
murdered the Hodister - Emin expeditions. The 
letter went on to say that Sefu's plan was, after 
killing us, to take all the country as far as Leopold- 
ville ; and that the only thing to save us and pro- 
pitiate Sefu would be, either to give up our friend 
Gongo Lutete, or else to send his head as a 
present, and then depart out of the country, which 
Sefu maintained was his. Unless these two con- 
ditions were immediately complied with, Sefu would 
cross the Lomami River and fight us. We wrote a 
temporising letter, and, as soon as the carriers had 
started, broke camp and followed them, hoping to 
arrive at Goimuyasso's on the Lomami before the 
Arabs — to reach the river before the Arab forces 
succeeded in crossing, being our only chance of 
checking their advance. The first day's march 
nearly wore out the energies of the caravan. We 
crossed no fewer than twenty-five rivers and 
streams, all running into the Lurimbi, glimpses 



98 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

of which river we sometimes caught to the north- 
ward. Unluckily for us, there had been several 
storms during the previous week, and every stream 
had become a torrent. At 5 p.m. we camped, quite 
tired out, having marched without stopping for 
ten hours. 

Goimuyasso's town, which we reached on 26th 
October 1892, has a grand situation on the fertile 
banks of the Lomami River, here about two 
hundred yards wide, with the current running 
at about three knots. After great difficulty we 
found a fairly good place for a camp, with planta- 
tions belonging to Goimuyasso all round us, and 
commanding the river for about a mile above and 
below our position. Goimuyasso, a great greasy 
chief, brought us a quantity of flour and goats, but 
gave us little or no information, either from the 
usual African apathy, or else incredulous that the 
Arabs were within four hours' march of us, and 
that at any hour of the day or night he might 
have to run for his life. Possibly, the most likely 
solution of his incommunicativeness was that he had 
then not decided whether he would join us or the 



MOVEMENTS OF THE ENEMY 99 

Arabs. The following day our spies reported that 
Sefu had ordered Gongo Muchufa and Nyar Gongo 
— two chiefs on opposite sides of the river, five or 
six hours' march to the northward — to hold their 
canoes in readiness to ferry his forces over, as in a 
few days he intended to cross the river in their 
neighbourhood. We also heard that a big chief 
named Dibui, though unwilling to fight, had been 
compelled by Sefu to join his forces. The same 
afternoon a niece of Goi's, a chieftainess from up 
the river, brought me news that Mahomedi and 
Dibui were trying to cross the river opposite to 
her village, but that she had driven back the first 
canoes. On hearing this. Lieutenant Scherlink 
and I decided to march at night. To anyone 
who has not experienced a night-march through 
an unknown part of tropical Africa, it is almost 
impossible to explain the difiiculties that this 
entails. The ordinary ten-inch-wide trail through 
swamp and forest, which, without warning, leads 
the traveller up and down ant-hills or rocks, down 
ravines, and into streams and game-traps, is in the 
daytime, with plenty of light, trying enough to 



lOO THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

temper and physique. But to follow one of these 
trails in the dead of night, dodging thorn-bushes 
and ant-hills, with the risk of being strangled by 
"monkey-ropes" or tripped up by roots at every 
turn, verges almost upon impossibility. 

After three hours of stumbling about in the forest, 
it was a great relief to meet a messenger from our 
friendly princess, who told us that her people had 
crossed the river in the dark, and had lifted all the 
canoes from the right bank, so that there was no 
immediate danger of the enemy crossing. We 
thereupon retraced our steps, heartily glad to get 
back to camp. The next few days were occupied 
in constructing a boma — which consisted of a 
thorn fence with a double ditch — to surround 
the whole camp. This was a very poor defence 
compared with those contact with the enemy after- 
wards taught us to build. As these Arab fortifica- 
tions formed an important element in our subsequent 
dealings with the enemy, it may be well to describe 
one in detail. 

An Arab force on the march employs a large 
number of its slaves in cutting down, and carrying 



PREPARATIONS FOR AN ENCOUNTER loi 

with them, trees and saplings from about twelve to 
fifteen feet in length and up to six feet in diameter. 
As soon as a halting-place has been fixed on, the 
slaves plant this timber in a circle of about fifty- 
yards in diameter, inside which the chiefs and 
ofiicers establish themselves. A trench is then dug 
and the earth thrown up against the palisades, in 
which banana stalks, pointing in difi"erent direc- 
tions, are laid. Round the centre, and following 
the inequalities of the ground, a second line of 
stakes is planted, this second circle being perhaps 
three or four hundred yards in diameter. Another 
trench is then dug in the same way, with bananas 
planted, as before, in the earthwork. The in- 
terval between the two lines of fortification is 
occupied by the troops. If the boma is only to 
be occupied for two or three days, this is all that 
is usually done to it ; but if it is intended for a 
longer stay, a trench is dug outside the palisades. 
The object of using banana stalks in this manner 
is ingenious. Within four or five hours they shrink, 
and on being withdrawn from the earth leave 
loopholes, through which the defenders can fire 



102 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

without exposing themselves. Little huts are 
built all over the interior of the fort, and these 
huts are also very ingeniously devised, and are 
furthermore bomb-proof. They consist of a hole 
dug a yard and a half deep, and covered with 
wood. This wood forms a ceiling, over which the 
earth from the interior is placed to the depth of a 
couple of feet, and a thatched roof placed over all 
to keep off the rain. In many of the bomas we 
found that the defenders had dug holes from the 
main trenches outwards, in which they lived, having 
lined them with straw. The whole fort is often 
divided into four or more sections by a palisade 
and trenches, so that if one part of it is stormed 
the storming party finds itself in a cross fire — a 
worse position than when actually trying to effect 
an entrance. We found that the shells from the 
7 '5 Krupps did little or no damage to these 
forts. 

On the 29th October we received another letter 
from Debruyne, saying that the Arabs had divided 
forces with the intention of crossing the river 
in three places at the same time, and thus com- 



PREPARATIONS FOR AN ENCOUNTER 103 

pelling us to divide up. In the event of this 
succeeding, they anticipated no difficulty in 
destroying us in detail. Debruyne begged us to 
abandon the idea of fighting, which he maintained 
was hopeless, and, instead, to cross the river and 
hold a friendly palaver with Sefu. He added, 
as a warning, that Sefu, although not anxious to 
fight, had told him the night before that his 
patience was nearly exhausted, and that he would 
spare none of us if we did not give in at once. 
The first men he intended to kill were Lippens 
and the writer of the letter. We naturally de- 
cided not to throw ourselves on Arab generosity, 
and sent to say so, at the same time despatching 
more than half our stores to Debruyne. That 
evening we had a letter from de Heusch, saying 
that he and forty men would arrive next day 
from Lupungu. 

On the 2nd November definite information con- 
cerning Gongo Muchufa reached us. He held his 
canoes in readiness for the passage of Sefu's 
forces. As we knew that de Heusch must soon 
arrive, I took forty men and marched down the 



104 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

river bank, my object being, if possible, to cut 
out the canoes — if not, to attempt to check the 
Arab forces while in the act of crossing the river. 
Six hours' marching brought me to the river 
bank, which the high ground, however, compelled 
me to leave again, the dry and open space a 
mile or two from the river affording much better 
walking. I found the ferry village deserted, and 
all the canoes gone. As there was no open space 
near the river, and the forest was dangerously 
thick, I retired to some high ground about a 
mile off. A tornado was raging, and there 
being nothing else to do, we lay down, hungry, 
wet, and cold, and waited for the wind and rain to 
stop. My men built a little house of palm 
branches for me, and grass ones for themselves. 
With the additional luxury of a fire I felt warm 
and comfortable, and, in spite of the storm, slept 
quietly until roused by a leopard sneaking into 
the camp and scaring the sentries nearly out 
of their wits. The following morning I was 
honoured by a visit from Nyan Gongo, a 
muscular man about six feet two inches in 



PREPARATIONS FOR AN ENCOUNTER 105 

height, and one of the finest -built natives I 
ever met. His village, the capital of the 
district, was near ; and after the usual talk — in 
which he showed his familiarity with Arab 
customs — I requested him to bring food for sale, 
which he did, but asked so high a price for it 
that we bought very little. It was, however, a 
mistake to offer to buy food, the Arab custom 
being to supply travellers with it gratis. For two 
days after this Nyan Gongo showed no signs of 
life, at the end of which time, our supplies being 
completely exhausted, I sent a native to him, 
requesting an interview. He responded by 
swaggering into my camp at the head of his 
harem and a large following of his people, preceded 
by a band composed of girls singing and men 
beating tum-tums, and with several hundred armed 
men. He insolently demanded what present I had 
for him. I temporised by asking what he supposed 
we were going to feed on if he had brought us no 
food, to which he replied that he could not afi'ord 
to feed us, as we paid him too little, and that 
before we began to talk I must give him my coat 



io6 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

and boots. The Arabs, he said, had more cloth 
and presents for him than I had, which was un- 
pleasant, the more so because it was probably 
true. The Arabs also were on the other side of 
the river and anxious to cross, whereas I was 
on his side and had nothing to gain. It was, 
however, imperative that we should get food 
somehow. I therefore whistled my men round 
us, and in a moment, before they knew what was 
happening, we had disarmed and taken prisoner 
the unaccommodating chief and half a dozen of 
his head men. I then explained to him that it 
would be better to send away all his armed 
men, as if one of them forgot himself the con- 
sequences would be to his disadvantage, and 
that the sooner his people brought me food the 
better, since I had no intention of dying of 
starvation unless he and his chief men died too. 
After some time he appeared convinced, and 
sent for food, which came into camp in enormous 
quantities the same evening. He was then set 
at liberty, with a small present to soothe his 
ruffled dignity. He seemed more surprised at 



PREPARATIONS FOR AN ENCOUNTER 107 

the idea of a man, in whose power he was, giving 
him his liberty and a present, than he was at 
being disarmed and kidnapped while he thought 
himself monarch of all he surveyed. Nyan 
Gongo and I were from that time always friends. 
Months afterwards, when he was only an indi- 
vidual in a crowd of petty chiefs — who were 
indebted to us for their very existence, and who 
were not expected to pay tribute in any shape 
or form except through Lupungu — he used to 
bring me little presents himself; I suppose from 
the same instinct which causes a dog to fawn 
on the person who has punished him. 

For three or four days I patrolled up and down 
the river, which, my spies told me, Sefu was 
actually trying to cross in this neighbourhood. 
At this time I received a letter from Duchesne, 
at N'Gandu, enjoining us to be very careful — his 
spies having discovered that Sefu really meant 
to attack us where w^e were, and that our so- 
called friendly natives had arranged to assist the 
Arabs. Lieutenant Scherlink arrived in my camp 
on the 7tli November, having left dc Heusch 



io8 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

in charge of Goimuyasso's. I was delighted to 
see him, as I had had little or no rest, night or 
day, sifting false news and marching on " reliable 
information" to meet an enemy who had never 
even crossed the river, and who, as we afterwards 
discovered (knowing that I was there), had no 
intention of crossing. On the evening of the 9th 
November we got a hurried note from de Heusch, 
saying that by the time it reached us he would 
probably be cut off from us. A prisoner he had 
taken, gratuitously informed him that Sefu would 
make an attack on the morning of the 11th. We 
struck camp when the moon gave light enough, 
and, without finding any signs of the enemy, 
arrived at Goimuyasso's. Simultaneously with 
our arrival, a number of prisoners, caught by 
Goi's people in the act of stealing canoes, were 
brought in. They said that Sefu had sent them 
across the river to get him canoes, and this seemed 
to have been the whole source of the alarm. One 
of these prisoners, a " witch-doctor," calmly told us 
that he changed himself into a duck whenever he 
wanted to cross a river. This man was afterwards 



PREPARATIONS FOR AN ENCOUNTER 109 

caught in our camp and shot as a spy. Every 
native, and even some of our own regulars, firmly 
believed he had passed the sentry changed into 
the form of some animal, and told us it would be 
useless to try and kill him. He was, however, 
given ample warning, and we demonstrated that 
his witchcraft was not proof against lead. 

In preparation for the reported attack on the 
11th we put up some rests for the rifles, and placed 
them in a position to command the chief roads round 
the camp. Our men, who were mostly Hausas, 
were such appallingly bad shots, that, left to them- 
selves, they would not have been likely to hit a 
man at thirty yards. Letters from Commandant 
Dhanis reached us on the 11th, saying that 
he hoped to arrive on the 14th with about ten 
thousand native allies, and giving us orders not 
to cross the river on any pretext whatever until 
then. Hearing that there were a number of canoes 
higher up the river, which the Arabs were trying 
to get hold of, we sent a detachment under de 
Heusch up the river bank to bring them down to 
us if possible, or, failing this, to destroy them. 



no THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

De Heusch, who was known as the most reckless 
of dare-devils, had been told not to cross the river. 
He surprised the town where the canoes had been 
found, and discovered that the Arab forces had 
already taken them to the other side. Having 
come across one half of an old canoe, he patched 
this with clay, and, taking two men with him in 
this apology for a boat, crossed the river and set 
about to hunt for the canoes, which were hidden in 
the long grass. The Arab allies lined the bank 
by hundreds, and amid a shower of balls and 
arrows de Heusch beat a retreat, strange to say 
unhurt, and left, " apres les avoir envoyes quelques 
prunneaux" as he expressed it to me. During his 
absence Sefu had despatched Debruyne with a strong 
escort to the river, his object being to persuade 
us to cross over and visit him, escorted by not 
more than half a dozen men. Our own spies had 
warned us that Sefu intended by some pretext to 
persuade us to cross over, and then either to kill 
us or make us prisoners. Being forewarned we 
refused, and explained that we had the Com- 
mandant's orders not to pass the Lomami, at the 



PREPARATIONS FOR AN ENCOUNTER iii 

same time mentioning that we expected the Com- 
mandant Dhanis to be with us in a day or 
two. I did my best to persuade Debruyne to 
swim over to us, but as things then stood he 
refused to. Some months afterwards, when we 
opened the poor fellow's grave at Kasongo, we 
found that he had been cut into pieces about a 
foot long, though happily, as we discovered from 
his murderers and from independent witnesses, 
this was post-mortem mutilation. 

On the 20th November the Commandant arrived, 
having with him one 7 '5 Krupp gun, and 
accompanied by Captain de Wouters, Cerkel, 
Lupungu, Kolomoni, and a great following. On 
the way, hearing that the Arabs had appeared 
lower down the river opposite N'Gandu, Dhanis 
had sent Captain Michaux with eighty men to 
reinforce Lieutenant Duchesne, who was with 
Congo Lutete at N'Gandu. This detachment 
became eventually a second of attack. 



CHAPTER VI 

FIRST ENCOUNTER WITH THE ARABS — CAPTURE OF 
TWO OF THEIR FORTS 

The day following tlie Commandant's arrival at 
the Lomami we heard that some of Sefu's people 
had crossed the river about eight hours' march 
below us. Not thinking it a very serious matter, 
we sent a detachment of forty men under a black 
sergeant named Albert Frees and a corporal called 
Benga, together with Lupungu, Kolomoni, and 
their people, to reconnoitre and, if necessary, fight. 
Albert Frees, a Monorovian by birth, was a 
wiry little man of about five feet six, who spoke 
English with a strong American twang and much 
volubility. His energy and intelligence were ex- 
traordinary in a man who had had no education. 
Benga was a native of Sierra Leone, a thick-set 
heavy-faced negro, who seldom spoke unless he had 
something very important to say. His reticence 



FIRST ENCOUNTER WITH THE ARABS 113 

was most remarkable, and for hours together he 
would not open his lips. These two were sworn 
friends ; and as each of them had more pluck in his 
body than all the other blacks I have ever met 
with put together, and both were capital shots, 
they succeeded during the campaign in successfully 
accomplishing the most daring exploits possible 
for anyone to undertake. After a day's fighting 
they habitually got their men together, and 
followed the retreating enemy far into the night. 
How they came out alive from some of their 
undertakings was always a marvel to us. 

The next evening a man rushed into the camp 
carrying an Arab gun, and bringing a message 
to the eflfect that the Arabs were in force, and 
that after severe fighting the position had not 
been carried. The Commandant immediately 
started for the scene of action, Scherlink and I 
accompanying him with a detachment of all the 
best men. We marched half the night, when, 
getting into a dense forest, where it was too dark 
and dangerous to move on, we lay down in our 
tracks and waited for dawn. We were only about 



114 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

three hours on the road next morning when we 
met a number of natives sent to us with a letter 
from Michaux. Tliey were carrying several Win- 
chester repeating rifles, and escorting prisoners — 
tokens of a victory over the Arab forces. Gongo 
Lutete, it seems, had found that the Arabs were 
already across the river ; whereupon he and all his 
people, ahead of Michaux and Duchesne, together 
with the regulars, had marched to find the Arabs, 
and had arrived at the two forts just as the sun 
went down. Albert Frees, meanwhile, had been 
skirmishing round these forts for some hours. 
Arriving at dark, Michaux and Gongo Lutete 
withdrew their men and encamped about an 
hour's march distance from Albert Frees and Lup- 
ungu, who lay down in front of the smaller fort. 
[The diagram on page opposite shows the position.] 
A tornado came on, followed by rain, which 
lasted all night, and at dawn Albert Frees recom- 
menced to attack. The Arabs charged out in 
force, but very few of their cap guns (which re- 
presented the great bulk of their armament) went 
off, the night's rain having thoroughly soaked the 



FIRST ENCOUNTER WITH THE ARABS 115 

powder. Albert Frees was quick to see the 
dilemma they were in, and, taking advantage of it, 
charged them home with Lupungu, and carried 
the smaller fort just as Michaux and Gongo Lutete 
came up. The Arabs retreated to the larger fort, 



« ** 

• «» 




"ta* 



which did not long resist the combined attack. 
A panic, of which no one knows the cause, started 
among the Arab forces, and the whole crowd 
jumped into the river, here about a hundred yards 
wide, with a four-mile current. The regulars and 
friendly natives killed them by hundreds in the 



ii6 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

water. Sefu himself had recrossed before the 
fighting began, and so escaped. On counting the 
Arab loss, we found it to be over 600 on the field 
of battle, and between 2000 and 3000 killed or 
drowned in the river. We took about 30 good 
repeating rifles and upwards of 2000 cap guns, 
with large quantities of powder and cartridges. 
Sergeant Albert Frees and Corporal Benga were 
the first to get to the palisades of the fort, Albert 
being three times touched by balls. Benga, who 
was a great athlete, managed, by running hard and 
flinging himself against the palisade, to start two or 
three posts ; this gave an opening, through which 
he and Albert, quickly followed by their men, 
managed to efiect an entry. Here we took three 
chiefs prisoners, one of whom, Sadi by name, had 
served with Stanley. Both his arms were broken 
and his thigh and scalp were ripped open by 
bullets, yet he lingered on in this state for three 
weeks. 

The Commandant now decided to follow the 
Arabs into their country. He was at liberty to 
do this, since they, by crossing the Lomami and 



CAPTURE OF TWO OF THEIR FORTS 117 

attacking us, with Sefu, an officer of the State, 
at their head, had broken the Treaty of Zanzibar. 
Scherlink and I were in charofe of the advance- 



'&' 



guard. We crossed the Lomami River on the 
26th of November and camped in a plain about 
half a mile from the river bank. After two days of 
inactivity, while waiting for the main body to cross 
the river, we, to satisfy the men — who were dis- 
contented and hungry — started foraging. We 
rushed a fortified village named Chile, the most 
tastefully built and beautifully planted town I 
have seen in Central Africa. The houses were 
built on platforms raised about two feet from the 
ground, and were made of wood, thatched with 
the ordinary grass. On the inside, the walls were 
plastered with white clay, grotesquely ornamented 
in yellow, black, and red. Nearly all of these 
houses were furnished with regular-made fireplaces 
and seats. Windows or openings of any form in 
the sides of his hut are things the African native 
never dreams of arranging. A small hole in the 
roof is occasionally left for the smoke to escape 
by, though even this is by no means a general 



ii8 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

practice, and, more often than not, a small low 
doorway is the only means of ventilation, with 
the exception of any stray chinks that may have 
been left through careless thatching of the roof. 

I frequently noticed among African natives a 
certain brown, and often bloodshot, condition of 
the conjunctiva, though, on opening the lid a 
little wider than normal, the white of the eye 
not usually exposed was found to be clean and 
clear. This condition of things was, I came to 
the conclusion, produced by smoke. It will be 
easily understood that the atmosphere inside a 
hut of this description, with a fire in it, is so 
thick with smoke that an ordinary European, 
unused to the life, would be almost suffocated. The 
natives are, however, accustomed to it from their 
earliest days, and when sitting by a fire in the 
open air generally choose to place themselves to 
leeward, the smoke being a protection against 
the attacks of mosquitoes and other noxious 
insects. 

It was here that the cannibal propensities 
of our friendlies and camp followers were first 



CAPTURE OF TWO OF THEIR FORTS 119 

brought before me. On returning through the 
town after following the inhabitants a mile or two 
beyond, I found that the killed and wounded had 
all disappeared, and some of my men volunteered 
the information that the friendlies had cut them 
up and carried them off for food. This I did not 
believe. On our way home, however, we were 
again attacked. The friendlies, who were dancing 
along in front, promptly broke and fled, leaving 
amongst the other loot scattered about the road, 
several human arms, legs, and heads, which the 
men whose information I had doubted took care 
to point out to me as proof that they had not 
lied. This skirmish was curious, for another 
reason. I mounted an ant-hill to see how 
things were going, and how the enemy were 
posted ; straight in front of me, on another hill 
about sixty yards off", the opponent chief with 
his staff was posted. On seeing me he promptly 
commenced emptying his Winchester in my 
direction, till I knocked him off his perch with 
a Mauser bullet in his chest. A year afterwards 
Scherlink met this man ; and the chief, quite proud 



I20 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

of them, showed him the scars that the bullet 
had left in his breast-bone and back, after which 
it had passed through the abdomen of one of his 
men, who died some days after from the wound. 
My brother officers used to suggest that the bullet 
had become septic in passing through the chiefs 
chest, and that the second man had probably died 
of blood-poisoning. 

After much experience with different patterns 
of the newest small-bore rifles, we all lost faith 
in their killing and stopping power, and preferred 
to arm our men with the old chassepots used in 
the Franco-Prussian War of 1870. 

On our way back from the skirmish we met the 
Commandant, with de Wouters, the white sergeant 
Cerkel, and all the available force he could muster. 
We immediately camped, and that evening the 
Commandant repeated what he had before told us 
when he asked who would go with him — namely, 
that he had no intention of returning alive from 
the campaign if it were unsuccessful, and that 
if any of us were unfortunate enough to be 
taken prisoners by the enemy he would consider 



CAPTURE OF TWO OF THEIR FORTS 121 

us as dead, and would not risk a man to save 
us. 

The next day we took Kitenge's town. Albert 
Frees had been sent on in front to reassure the 
chief and his people. As they were natives, we 
had no intention of fig-hting with them, our 
quarrel being, of course, only with the Arab slave- 
raiders and their allies. He succeeded in tranquil- 
lising them, and was quietly talking to the chief 
when our forces appeared on the hill above the 
town, at the sight of which the entire population 
was seized with panic and fled. Kitenge himself 
dodged through the crowd ; but Albert, realising his 
intention, gave chase into the jungle, and brought 
him back to us just as we had taken possession 
of the town. Upon being asked by the Com- 
mandant what had happened, Albert vouchsafed as 
answer, " I catched man plenty wild passed him 
before." We took our whole force into the 
town and gave them quarters in Kitenge's harem, 
which he had emptied. It contained about two 
hundred separate houses, and was surrounded by a 
strong palisade, the whole forming a very efiicient 



122 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

camp for our people. The situation possessed the 
additional advantage of being separated from the 
natives and the town, and thus lessened the chance 
of collision between the two parties. The country 
round this town is exceedingly rich. Our people 
brought in prodigious quantities of bananas, differ- 
ent kinds of corn, pineapples, potatoes, sugar- 
cane, and other food. 

On the 3rd of December we commenced march- 
ing in a N.N.E. direction. Though our way lay 
through swamps, there were fortunately no forests. 
We arrived at Kabamba's on the 5th, and were 
met by the chief, who assured us that he had no 
quarrel with us, and that he had already refused 
to join the Arabs against us, though he had no 
intention of joining us against the Arabs. He 
boasted that he had never yet been drawn into 
war. Living as he did amongst almost inter- 
minable swamps, it is probable that even the 
Arabs had found it useless to try to coerce him. 
He presented us with a splendid bullock left in 
his charge by Wissmann four years before, but he 
brought us no other present, nor did he ask for 



CAPTURE OF TWO OF THEIR FORTS 123 

any. After a week's stay there news reached us 
that Michaux and Gongo Lutete were advancing 
to meet us, which made the Commandant doubt- 
ful whether to meet them at Dibui's or at Lusuna. 
After some days' waiting, during which our camp 
was fixed on a small space of dry ground about 
a foot above the level of the surrounding morass, 
we heard that Michaux's column was advancing on 
Lusuna, whereupon, to the great delight of every- 
one, the Commandant gave orders to start on the 
morrow. On the 11th we arrived at Lusuna, and 
there found Michaux, who had taken the town by 
storm three or four days before. He gave us 
sugar, tobacco, and salt, which were great luxuries 
after three weeks with no other food than the 
flesh of the tough goats taken in some of the 
skirmishes, and rice boiled in the stinking swamp 
water. Of the many hardships encountered 
during the expedition, I think we all agreed 
that the worst was the deprivation of salt. During 
the whole time spent in these swamps the health 
of the caravan was excellent, although the water 
drunk by everyone varied in colour from red, 



124 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

green, and yellow to black. The officer of the 
day who had the rearguard, and more particularly 
the gunguard, under supervision, was invariably 
ten or twelve hours on his feet, often without food, 
and working the greater part of the day up to his 
waist, or even neck, in the swamps. I can only 
attribute the absence of fever in the caravan to 
the effect of light, since there were no forests 
in the immediate neighbourhood, and all the 
swamps were open to the sun's direct rays. 

At Lusuna we found that Michaux had brought 
Gongo Lutete, with between 5000 and 10,000 
auxiliaries with him ; and as we were accom- 
panied by Lupungu, Kolomoni, and Goimuyasso, 
our camp at this time numbered about 25,000 
natives, 400 regulars, and 6 white officers. The 
old Lusuna — or Rusuna as Cameron calls him 
— had died a few months before our arrival, and 
his successor was a mild man of very different 
stamp. 

The fact that both sides were cannibals, or 
rather that both sides had cannibals in their 
train, proved a great element in our success. 



CAPTURE OF TWO OF THEIR FORTS 125 

The teaching of the Mohammedan religion does 
not allow that a man whose body has been 
mutilated can enter into the highest heaven, 
where only perfect men are admitted. As a con- 
sequence of this belief, the white Arabs and other 
faithful followers of Islam would, after a rebuff, 
instead of trying to retrieve the fortunes of the 
day, fly from the field with all possible speed — not 
so much in order to save their lives, as through 
fear lest their carcasses, in the event of their 
falling, should be torn to pieces. Notwithstanding 
this, however, on the occasions on which they 
were practically cornered, the desperate valour 
generally attributed to the Arabs showed itself 
in full force. 



CHAPTER VII 

SKIRMISHES WITH THE ENEMY — RETURN OF SEFU 
TO THE ATTACK 

The Commandant instituted a very good system 
which we afterwards often felt the benefit of, namely, 
the supplying of every white man, at the State 
expense, with as many boy-servants as he chose to 
employ. These were generally savage little rascals, 
lately -freed slaves, and either the children of 
prisoners of war, or presents sent from native 
chiefs. Their business being to attend to the 
personal comfort of the whites, they rapidly ac- 
quired a certain amount of civilisation, and an 
absolute confidence in white men. While still 
quite small, they acted as interpreters in the ordi- 
nary business with natives. As soon as they were 
old enough and sufficiently strong — often, with 
good feeding, a matter of only a few months — they 
were given guns, and taught how to use them ; 

126 



SKIRMISHES WITH THE ENEMY 127 

thus forming a sort of bodyguard for their 
masters when visiting friendly native chiefs. 
Very quickly after having arms in their hands 
they asked to be allowed to become soldiers, and 
were then drafted into the regular force. Eventu- 
ally, what was called a " boy company " was 
formed, and it became the smartest set of soldiers 
we had. Their chief amusement when off duty 
was to go through their drill. The boy corporals 
had generally a few natives, or prisoners, who had 
been given into their charge to look after ; these 
recruits they used to drill for the pleasure of 
drilling them, and many of them also became 
soldiers. One great advantage in connection with 
these boys was, that, when in action they got into 
trouble or retreated, they invariably rallied round 
the nearest white man, their sole idea of safety 
being to be somewhere in the neighbourhood of 
the whites. 

It having been decided that we should count the 
auxiliary forces, in order that some idea of how 
much powder to give to the different chiefs might 
be arrived at, we proceeded to do so in the usual 



128 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

Arab manner. A wild animal's skin was placed 
on the ground, and the whole number of forces to 
be counted walked over it one by one. We found 
that Gongo Lutete had little over two thousand 
guns ; Lupungu and the tribes with him, over three 
thousand. Gongo Lutete and Lupungu were old 
enemies ; Lutete having represented the Arab 
power, whereas Lupungu was grand chief of the 
native powers. Lupungu at this juncture coolly- 
announced that he was afraid to advance any 
farther ; that his people would desert if he did so, 
as dysentery and smallpox were rife towards the 
Lualaba, and that all would die if they advanced. 
As the question of feeding this enormous multitude 
had also to be considered, Commandant Dhanis 
sent Lupungu with all his people home, giving 
out that we had a large enough force at our dis- 
posal without him. This was a bluff which rather 
scared the Arabs advancing against us. While at 
Lusuna's we heard that Delcommune and Frankie 
had returned from their expedition to Katanga, 
and the Commandant requisitioned them to come 
to us or to send what help they could. News also 



SKIRMISHES WITH THE ENEMY 129 

reached us here of the murder of Lippens and 
Debruyne, two officers representing the Free State 
Government, resident at Sefu's court in Kasongo. 
We found out later that, after the defeat of Sefu 
on the Lomami (which resulted in the death of 
his cousin and several other noted chiefs), an 
advance party of the retreating Arabs arrived at 
Kasongo, and, by way of individual revenge, mur- 
dered the two Residents. It is probable, since we 
have no actual proof to the contrary, that this 
was done without Sefu's orders. Twelve of these 
people, armed with knives hidden in their clothing, 
made some trivial pretext for visiting Lippens at 
the Residency, who, however, refused to come out 
and interview them. They then said that news 
of a big battle had come to them from Sefu ; on 
hearing which Lippens came out, and, while talking 
in the verandah, was promptly and silently stabbed. 
Some of the murderers entering the adjoining 
room, found Debruyne writing, and killed him 
before he had learned the fate of his chief. When 
Sefu returned to Kasongo, a day or two afterwards, 
he gave orders that the pieces of Debruyne's body 



130 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

should be collected and buried with Lippens, whose 
body, with the exception of the hands (which had 
been sent to Sefu and Mohara of Nyangwe as 
tokens), was otherwise unmutilated. The strong 
innate respect for a chief had protected Lippens' 
body, while that of his subordinate had been 
hacked to pieces. A curious fatality followed 
these twelve murderers. The chief of the band, 
Kabwarri by name, was killed by us in the battle 
of the 26 th of February with Lippens* Martini 
express in his hand. Of the others — all of whom 
were the sons of chiefs, and some of them impor- 
tant men on their own account — four died of 
smallpox, one was killed at Nyangwe, one in the 
storming of Kasongo, and the remaining six we 
took prisoners at Kasongo. During the trial they 
one day, though in a chained gang, succeeded 
in overpowering the sentry, and thus escaped. 
One was drowned in crossing a river ; three more 
were killed, either fighting or by accident, within 
a month or two of their escape ; and the two 
remaining we retook and hanged ; — which brings 
to me a curious point. Of the many men I have 



SKIRMISHES WITH THE ENEMY 131 

seen hanged nearly all died by strangulation, and 
not by having the neck broken. As compared 
with shooting, hanging seems to me the less pain- 
ful death ; the wretched being becomes insensible 
in a very few seconds, whereas a man shot will 
often require a coup de grdce, no matter how care- 
fully the firing party is placed. 

During this time I made several excursions 
through the country in search of game, and also as 
a means of getting to know the district What 
struck me most in these expeditions was the 
number of partially cut-up bodies I found in 
every direction for miles around. Some of them 
were minus the hands and feet, and some with 
steaks cut from the thighs or elsewhere ; others 
had the entrails or the head removed, according to 
the taste of the individual savage, though, as I 
afterwards discovered, this taste is more tribal 
than individual. Neither old nor young, women 
or children, are exempt from the possibility of 
serving as food for their conquerors or neighbours. 

Many rumours reached us that Mohara of 
Nyangwe was advancing against us. We had 



132 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

several false alarms of night attacks, and were 
very glad when, on the 29th of December, these 
rumours became so definite that Gongo Lutete 
oftered to bet the Commandant that if we marched 
on the morrow we should meet the Arabs. Dhanis 
was still unbelieving, and took up the bet for ten 
bales of cloth, hoping that he would lose it, as the 
uncertainty and false alarms were wearing out 
the temper of our caravan. 

At five o'clock on the morning of the 30th we 
marched, with Gongo and his thousand guns 
scouting in front of us. After six hours and a 
half's severe marchino; we heard firino' in front. 
The Commandant and I raced on, and emerged 
on a plain covered with short grass in time to see 
Gongo and his men in full flight before the vic- 
torious Arabs, not four hundred yards ofi" in front 
of us. Michaux soon came up with his company, 
and the Commandant gave orders to charge. As 
we started he ordered me to draw ofi" my men, 
and to stay behind to guard the women and bag- 
gage. He also charged me to send on the other 
companies with the Krupp as soon as they arrived. 



SKIRMISHES WITH THE ENEMY 133 

At this moment the Haiisas started their war-cry. 
My men were all Hausas, and no sooner had they 
heard it than they bolted into the fight, leaving 
me alone with the chief corporal. Perched on the 
top of an ant-hill, with my corporal at my side, 
I had certainly as good a view of a battle as 
any man could wish for. I saw the Commandant 
and Michaux disappear apparently into the ground 
— the cause being, what neither they nor I knew 
till they were in it, that a swamp, some hundred 
yards wide, intervened between us and the enemy. 
It was a most curious effect to see our men up to 
their necks in mud and water firing on the Arabs. 
As they advanced the Arabs retired, and Gongo, 
seeing that help had arrived, i-allied his retreating- 
forces, and, in conjunction with our own forces, 
drove the Arabs across the plain and into their 
entrenched camp, which the regular troops then 
stormed. A large body of Arabs were gathered on 
our left wing, though apparently neither our 
troops nor Gongo had noticed this, and to my 
horror I saw our forces commence driving the main 
body into the scrub, and following them out of 



134 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

sight. Soon the crack of the rifles became almost 
inaudible, and I was left as a target for the four or five 
hundred Arabs who were now between me and the 
Commandant, at less than four hundred yards from 
my ant-hill. The only thing I can think of that saved 
me is, that these Arab troops must have mistaken 
the baggage and women by whom I was surrounded, 
for a reserve. After about twenty minutes Scher- 
link arrived, and, proceeding to join the Com- 
mandant, was quickly followed by Captain de 
Wouters with the gun. We then followed as 
rapidly as possible, skirting the swamp. I saw on 
this battlefield the only case I can remember of a 
native putting love before fear or danger. In a 
bare spot my comrades had just swept over, I 
passed a woman seated on the ground by a dead 
chief, quietly crying with his head in her lap, 
while the bullets whizzed round her, sometimes 
only missing her by inches. A little later on, 
when recrossing the battlefield, the only signs 
left were bloodstained spots here and there, 
marking the place where the victims of the fight 
had been cut up to furnish a banquet in the even- 



SKIRMISHES WITH THE ENEMY 135 

ing to the victorious survivors. Our disgust may 
be better imagined than expressed, for we found 
that the camp followers and friendlies made no 
difference in this respect between the killed and 
wounded on their own side or the enemy's. One 
of Gongo Lutete's wives was killed during the 
progress of the battle, and was cut up and eaten by 
his own men, on whom, however, he took summary 
vengeance the day following by handing them over 
to form a repast for their comrades. Several of 
our people had been taken prisoners during the 
Arab successes earlier in the day, and when the 
Arabs were retreating they killed some of them, 
and frightfully mutilated others without killing 
them, leaving them on the road. This was not 
a wise proceeding, as it did not tend to make our 
people more tender in their dealings with the 
retreating perpetrators of these outrages. 

The Arab camp which we took was situated on 
a rising ground in and around the village of 
Kasongo Luakilla. Being a strong position, it 
served us well for headquarters. In the camp 
we took powder, cartridges, rifles, and other 



136 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

ammunition ; and we also found Arab tents and 
paraphernalia, with a tent made by Edison, which 
had probably belonged to a member of Hodister's 
unfortunate expedition. We discovered from 
prisoners and some of the papers taken in the 
camp, that Muni Pembe (the son of Mohara) 
and Mahomedi commanded the Arabs. Their loss 
was difficult to estimate, but we imagined must 
have amounted to over two hundred killed. Our own 
loss amounted to eighty-two killed and wounded. 

On the 1st of January we broke camp to look 
for food. A fearful storm overtook us, and, as 
it showed no signs of abating, we were forced 
to camp on a hillside. Everybody was very 
miserable and bad-tempered, food was scarce, 
cooking impossible, and all things were wet and 
cold. The next day we advanced under a hot 
sun, and found the heat delightful after the cold 
and wet of the previous day and night. A couple 
of hours brought us to the Mwadi Eiver, which, 
with its rapid current and twenty-five feet depth of 
water, was a difficult obstacle for the caravan to cross. 
With four hours' hard work we succeeded in making 



SKIRMISHES WITH THE ENEMY 137 

a bridge, and everyone crossed in safety, with the 
exception of some half a dozen of Gongo Lutete's 
people, who were drowned. After another two 
hours' march we camped on a plateau called 
Goio Kapopa, about three hundred feet above the 
surrounding plain, in which the courses of three 
moderately large rivers could be easily made out. 
Opposite us, to the eastward, was a high range of 
hills. 

One evening, while lying in camp at Goio Kapopa, 
some of the superstitious among our men came as a 
deputation to the Commandant and begged him as 
a favour to "make medicine," to show what the 
result of the next conflict with the enemy would 
be. The Arabs, they said, had been trying every 
form of fetish known to them, but their oracles 
were dumb (the Arab method most usually 
practised is, after certain forms and ceremonies 
have been gone through, to kill a goat or fowl, 
from the appearance of whose entrails the witch- 
doctor pretends to be able to read the future). 
They had never seen the white man experiment, 
and were very anxious that we should comply with 



138 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

their request. The Commandant gave out that he 
would test the fates at eight o'clock that evening, 
and told them that if his medicine, after due pre- 
paration, became red, the Arab forces in the next 
battle would be annihilated ; if it became white, 
the battle would be drawn ; but if green should be 
the colour, we should have to avoid battle for a 
couple of months, as the result would be uncertain. 
By the evening every soul in our and the native 
camps around had turned out to see what would 
happen, and Sefu's hosts on the opposite hills 
were also eagerly watching. We had a few dozen 
signal rockets with us, of which, however, only a 
dozen were in good order, and which had been 
kept in the event of a great emergency. When 
the Commandant ordered three of the red signal 
rockets to be fired, the yell of joy that rang 
through the camp was perfectly appalling. As 
the onlookers realised that the "medicine" was 
red, three times repeated, they danced round us in 
a perfect frenzy of joy, and demanded that powder 
should be given to them to make a night of it. 
It is a characteristic of Arab followers and natives 



SKIRMISHES WITH THE ENEMY 139 

to let off their guns at every opportunity — ^joy or 
sorrow, arrival or departure, serving as an excuse 
for the discharge of firearms. Even a shower of 
rain causes a reckless waste of powder, and every 
man fires his gun " for fear the powder should get 
wet." When the rain stops and the sun reappears, 
he fires another charge "to make sure that the gun 
has not got damp." On this special occasion they 
asked for powder, and were made happy with a 
couple of barrels, when with yells and dances and 
the constant discharge of firearms they made night 
hideous. A corresponding silence reigned in the 
enemy's camp, who, I believe, had we been able to 
attack them, would have stampeded then and there. 
On the 5th of January three or four hundred 
women, who had been left behind at the Lomami 
River with the soldiers' private baggage, came to 
us, and there was great rejoicing in camp. The 
men having been without their extra blankets, and 
not having had their women to look after them, 
had been out of condition and ill-nourished. The 
women also brought a note from the Lomami, 
saying that Delcommune had responded to the 



I40 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

Commandant's requisition by sending a white 
officer named Cassar, some soldiers, and all his 
rifles and ammunition, but that he could not send 
the bulk of his soldiers. They would, he said, 
have to be re-engaged at Lusambo, so that we 
could not expect to see them for a couple of 
months. From Frankie's expedition there was no 
response whatever. That same evening we saw 
camp fires on the hills opposite, and heard drums 
rolling and great shouting. The next day we 
could see, with glasses, a very large camp covering 
upwards of a mile. This turned out to be Sefu, 
with the other princes of Kasongo, who had 
returned to the attack in spite of his overwhelm- 
ing defeat at the Lomami. The Commandant 
determined to let them cross the river, or at all 
events to land part of their force on our side, 
before attackinoj them. 



CHAPTER VIII 

MORE ARAB DEFEATS — THE COMMANDANT DECIDES 
TO TAKE THE INITIATIVE AND TO LEAD AN 
ATTACK UPON SEFU's FORCES 

On the morning of the 9 th of January, at about 
6 o'clock, we heard firing behind our camp. On 
inquiring from Gongo Lutete, he suggested that 
some of his people might have become involved in 
a quarrel with the natives. After a few minutes, 
however, we distinctly heard volley -firing, and, 
since it was not possible that this could be from 
natives, the Commandant sent Michaux and de 
Wouters to reconnoitre. They returned without 
having discovered what it was. A few minutes 
later a man rushed breathless into the camp, 
and, holding up a breechloader and half a dozen 
cartridges, shouted, " The white man is attacked 
and wants help," and fell down fainting. When 
he could give a coherent account of himself, he 

141 



142 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

said that the white man was still fighting, but was 
very hard pressed, and had sent for help. Michaux, 
de Wouters, and Scherlink promptly started off 
with their companies and a contingent of Gongo 
Lutete's, leaving the Commandant, with myself 
and Cerkel, in a horrid state of suspense. We got 
the camp ready to resist an attack ; Sefu's force 
being camped in front of us, and, according to the 
report we had just received, Mohara of Nyangwe 
fighting in our rear. This, at the time, seemed 
scarcely credible, though it turned out to be true. 
At midday the firing commenced a few hundred 
yards from our camp, in the grass. Just as we 
thought the fight would begin, Cassar marched into 
the camp with all his baggage — wounded, but 
having extricated himself from the dilemma he 
was in without even seeing the force we had sent 
to help him. His first words amused us : " Com- 
mandant," said he, " I was all but taken, and I 
have burnt an awful lot of cartridges." " Oh," 
said the Commandant, " you're alive, and that's the 
main thing. I suppose you've lost all the baggage 
and ammunition you were bringing us," But the 



MORE ARAB ATTACKS 143 

plucky little man had not; and this, from the 
account he gave us, is what had taken place. 

He had, the evening before, camped about two 
hours and a half's march in our rear, and, suspect- 
ing nothing, had slept well. He was bringing 
us about 50,000 rounds of ammunition, and 
40 chassepot rifles tied up in bundles; and his 
caravan consisted of 26 regular soldiers, and 250 
of Gongo Lutete's men as porters. While washing 
himself at his tent door at a quarter to six in 
the morning, he was astonished by a volley fired 
into the camp from the surrounding scrub. He 
found that the bush on every side of him was full 
of turbaned forces. Getting his men in hand 
immediately, he returned the fire. Those of his 
porters who were not armed with muzzleloaders, 
broke open the ammunition boxes, and, taking the 
chassepots, kept up an erratic fire in every direction 
but the one most necessary. This ill -directed fire 
was, however, enough to prevent the Arabs from 
rushing the camp, and Cassar charged out with his 
soldiers at any point where the enemy approached 
too closely. This continued for over four hours, 



144 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

when, for a reason unknown to Cassar at the time, 
the Arabs withdrew for an hour and twenty 
minutes. The explanation, as we afterwards 
discovered, was that Mohara had been wounded 
in the leg by a chance shot. During this pause 
Cassar dismounted his tent, got his loads and 
wounded on the road, and retired in our direction. 
The bush was very thick, and when the Arabs 
followed him in force he managed to hold them in 
check till all his own force had crossed a deep river, 
which, fortunately for him, was on his road. As 
the only means of crossing the river was by a 
single enormous tree, which had been felled across 
it, he had no difficulty in keeping the Arabs at 
bay till the main part of his caravan had got a 
long start. He then raced after them, and arrived 
at our camp as I have described. 

While we were still talking, firing commenced 
again almost in the same direction as we had heard 
it in the morning. In the evening one of our 
soldiers came in, bringing with him Mohara's 
head, and a note from de Wouters saying that 
they had fought the Arabs' main body, which they 



MORE ARAB ATTACKS 145 

had defeated, and had killed Mohara, whose head 
he was sending for identification. Our troops 
arrived in the early morning, bringing with them 
great quantities of food, donkeys, and a large 
bundle of Arab despatches, in addition to prisoners 
and tents. De Wouters' report said that on 
taking the Arab camp they had found enormous 
numbers of wounded, and many freshly-made 
graves, which testified to the severity of Cassar's 
fighting in the morning. He had, he said, suc- 
cessfully carried the position through the Arabs 
having mistaken our force for an envoy from 
Sefu and his guard, whom they were expecting. 
Through this mistake, they had allowed de 
Wouters' party to march through the swampy 
valley which defended one side of their position, 
and to gain the high ground on which the camp 
stood, without molestation. As soon as they had 
crossed the swamp, they got into high grass and 
cassada fields, which hid their real character from 
the enemy until they had formed line and broken 
cover within a hundred yards of the nearest Arab 

line. Though the Arabs had seen the arrival of 
.10 



146 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

our people, they were to all intents and purposes 
surprised. Mohara, who had been wounded in 
the morning, was, luckily for us, killed very 
early in the fight ; and the loss of their chief, 
as is usual with any but European soldiers, spread 
dismay among the ranks. . ' 

The nearest river to us to the eastward was the 
Lufubu. After our successes on the 9th, the 
Commandant decided that there was no reason 
why we should not attack Sefu's forces, who were 
still in front. On the 11th, therefore, Michaux 
and his company were sent as a guard to Lutete's 
people, who were ordered to build a bridge over 
the Lufubu. This they accomplished in about 
three hours, at a point where the river was only 
forty yards wide and about ten feet deep. When 
the bridge was finished Michaux crossed over, and 
after a couple of hours' march found himself on 
the banks of the Kipango, not a mile from Sefu's 
camp, which was pitched on a height about three- 
quarters of a mile from the river. The enemy, on 
discovering our troops so near them, came down 
in force to prevent our people crossing the river 



THE COMMANDANT LEADS AN ATTACK 147 

Kipango, which they naturally supposed was our 
intention. There seems to have been a sharp 
skirmish across the river. Wordy war, which also 
raged, had more effect than even our rifles. 
Mahomedi and Sefu led the Arabs, who were 
jeering and taunting Lutete's people, saying that 
they were in a bad case, and had better desert the 
white man, who was ignorant of the fact that 
Mohara with all the forces of Nyangwe was 
camped in his rear. Lutete's people replied : 
*' Oh, we know all about Mohara ; we ate him the 
day before yesterday." The news of Mohara's 
defeat had not then reached Sefu, as our camp 
lay between, and Mohara was defeated and slain 
before communication had been established be- 
tween the Arab armies. 

Michaux retired, leaving Lutete's people, masked 
by the forest and unknown to the enemy, to build 
a bridge across the river higher up. On the 
12th we crossed the Lufubu, and coming to the 
Kipango found that the bridge, made in the night 
by our allies, had been carried away. Three hours' 
steady work enabled us to build another, strong 



148 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

enough to bear the passage of our regulars and 
baggage, part of Lutete's force having crossed 
the river before the bridge was carried away. A 
great many of the remainder of his force succeeded 
in passing by climbing the trees on the bank, and 
swinging across by the creepers. Though in some 
places the boughs of the trees were interlocked, the 
most frightful scenes nevertheless occurred. We, 
who were working lower down stream, saw many a 
face, arm, or leg in the boiling flood, which was 
tearing like a mill-race past us. Help it was 
impossible to render. Our own men had many 
narrow escapes, and one was carried away and 
drowned. Just as the sun went down our forces 
crossed, and after forty minutes' marching we 
rushed into the Arab camp, and were surprised 
to find it deserted. We spent a miserable night, 
as the baggage and provision porters were unable 
to find their way into the camp in the dark. From 
information volunteered by some prisoners the 
next day, it appeared that Sefu had been some- 
what perturbed ; one of his favourite wives had 
been killed by a stray shot fired during Michaux's 



THE COMMANDANT LEADS AN ATTACK 149 

skirmisli on the river bank, wliile sitting in his 
tent with him a mile away from the scene of 
combat. Shortly after Michaux had retired, a 
messenger confirmed what our allies had already 
told them — namely, that Mohara was killed and 
his forces dispersed. 

The hill on which the Arabs had made their 
camp, and which we now occupied, rose abruptly 
out of the plain, and formed a plateau about a 
mile and a half square, surrounded on every side 
by nearly perpendicular grassy slopes. No better 
position for defence could possibly have been 
found. Had Sefu only defended this position, I 
doubt if we should ever have been able to take it ; 
but he was still smarting after his rout at the 
Lomami, and was much alarmed by hearing of 
the death of Mohara, who was known to be the 
grandest old warrior west of Lake Tanganyika. 
A saying of Mohara's was well known in the 
country : " I have never lost a battle which I 
personally conducted ; I would rather die on the 
field than go home after it was lost." One cannot 
help admiring this grand old slave-raider, who, 



I50 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

after years of victory, preferred to die rather than 
leave the scene of his first defeat. 

On the 20th January the Commandant struck 
camp, having suggested the night before that we 
might have a look at the Lualaba, in order that 
we might be able to say that we had seen it — we 
having received definite information that all the 
Arab forces had retired to the right bank of the river. 
Our caravan was heavily laden with food, everybody 
who pretended to know anything about it seeming 
to agree that between us and the river there was 
only a desert, and that it would be impossible to 
nourish the caravan for more than a day or two. 
While in this camp we had had a great deal of sick- 
ness — chiefly colic and slight fevers — which I attri- 
buted to the exposed position of the plateau. The 
nights were really cold — with a fall in temperature 
from 100" to about 50° — though we were only some 
three hundred feet above the surrounding plain. 

Notwithstanding this, however, our caravan was 
in a great state of jubilation, as we were now in 
the Salt District, several large saline marshes being 
within an hour's march. These salt marshes 



THE COMMANDANT LEADS AN ATTACK 151 

extend from tte Lufubu to the westward, to the 
Lualaba to the eastward. The salt from this 
district supplies the whole country from Tan- 
ganyika to Kasai. I visited, among others, a rather 
curious salt-pit at the bottom of a dark narrow 
gorge of triangular shape. Through this marsh, 
hot black brine was bubbling out of the ground 
over almost the whole surface ; yet down the 
middle ran a stream of pure cold water, which 
had been banked up by the natives to prevent 
the fresh water diluting the brine. 

Two eagles on the cliff above looked as if they 
were stuffed ; everything was hot and still ; and 
even the men spoke only in whispers. In the 
middle of the silence half a dozen bullets suddenly 
hissed round, and the far side of the gorge filled 
almost instantaneously with Arabs. In a moment 
the most terrific din filled the place — everyone 
was shouting and firing. I noticed that even one 
of the eagles shrieked. The echoes were tre- 
mendous, and caught up and doubled the confusion. 
When we had cleared the gorge I sat down and 
rested. The whole place, pervaded with the smell 



152 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

of sulphur and hung with clouds of smoke, sug- 
gested the gateway to the Inferno. One of my 
men, an American nigger from Liberia, who was 
quietly hacking the hand off a dead body as the 
simplest method of removing the bracelets, said, 
" I guess they ain't had such a dust up in this hole 
since creation." At this I blew the retreat — the 
echo of which went on sounding for over two 
minutes — and left. 



CHAPTER IX 

THE STATE FOPwCES CAMP OPPOSITE THE TOWN OF 
NYANGWE ON THE OTHER SIDE OP THE RIVER 
LUALABA — DESCRIPTION OF THE WATER- 
PEOPLE — SURPRISE ENCOUNTER WITH TWO 
COLUMNS OF ADVANCING ARABS 

At midday on the 21st of January 1893, on coming 
out of a dense belt of forest, we saw Nyangwe 
spread out before us. Between us and it was a 
plain some two miles wide and the river Lualaba, 
which we knew to be about a thousand yards 
across ; yet so clear was the air that we felt as if we 
were within rifle-range of the city. We had not 
been many minutes in the open before we could 
detect with our glasses tremendous commotion in 
the streets of Nyangwe. It was evident that we 
had been seen. The Commandant halted our 
forces in order to get the different divisions into 
position. At this point a tornado commenced, 

153 



154 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

but the line being formed we advanced forces, and, 
as soon as we had descended from the heights, 
the long grass with which the plain was covered 
prevented any individual from being able to see 
more than ten or fifteen yards ahead. When 
nearly opposite to the south end of Nyangwe, and, 
as it proved, at least a mile and a half from the 
river bank — though at the time it seemed much 
nearer — we came upon a knoll of ground rising 
out of the half-dry swamp in which we were 
marching. From this situation we saw a long 
line of men advancing towards us through the 
grass, not more than half a mile away. We 
promptly laagered, and the Commandant ordered 
off two companies to check the supposed advance 
of the enemy. When we were within hailing 
distance, it was discovered that they were a 
detachment of Lutete's force who had lost their 
way, and had, to their great surprise, struck the 
Lualaba just in front of the town. A volley or 
two, fired at them from the opposite river bank, 
sent them flying in our direction as fast as their 
legs could carry them. This precipitance was 



CAMP OPPOSITE NYANGWE 155 

within an ace of costing them dearly, and, had 
they not been in open order, we should certainly 
have shelled them before finding out who they 
were. On and by this knoll we camped, the highest 
part of which was only a few inches above the 
surrounding swamp ; and daily for five or six 
weeks some part of our force waded through the 
swamp, in the latter days having to swim part of 
the way to the bank of the Lualaba. Opposite 
the main part of the town of Nyangwe was an 
island about three-quarters of a mile long, and 
strongly fortified by the Arabs. It took us some 
time every morning to silence the trenches com- 
manding our favourite position on the bank of 
the river for annoying the town itself. In 
the daily interchange of civilities there were many 
interesting incidents. One of the favourite 
ruses of the Arab chiefs was to ask for a few 
moments' quiet in which to talk with one of 
the white officers ; and on several occasions an 
officer — believing in the good faith of the enemy 
— while holding conversation with the chief, and 
thoroughly exposed, was, without warning, fired 



156 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

on simultaneously by a dozen or two of men. 
It seemed to us curious that the Arab allies using 
muzzleloaders made good practice from the other 
side of the river, their bullets being iron, 
hammered round, or pieces of copper about an 
inch long and nearly half an inch in diameter. 
These pieces of copper scared our men consider- 
ably at first, for the muskets from which they 
were fired were not rifles, and the bullets arrived 
on our side of the river with a horrid shriek. From 
the island, which was only four hundred yards off, 
these bolts were very efi'ective ; and some of them 
fired from the town itself occasionally dropped in 
among us, though the nearest point across the 
river was over nine hundred yards. 

A large herd of cattle we could see in Nyangwe 
sometimes afi'orded us sport. On one occasion 
when they were brought down to the river bank 
to drink (their herdsmen being unaware that we 
were lying in the reeds opposite them), we killed 
or wounded a number of them. The herd became 
enraged, and seemed further annoyed by their 
masters, who were returning our fire from the 



DESCRIPTION OF THE WATER-PEOPLE 157 

trenches in their neighbourhood. They charged 
into them, and in a very few seconds emptied the 
trenches. The flying soldiers, turning round and 
firing on the infuriated beasts, were quickly dis- 
persed by one or two volleys from us. But for 
some hours afterwards we could see the cattle 
racing after terror-stricken wretches through the 
streets of the town. 

We should have done much better during the 
siege with smokeless powder. As it was, the 
Arab soldiers dropped down in the trenches at 
first sight of a puff of smoke, and could of course 
not be hit. Our marksmen made big grass fires 
behind them, and, firing in front of the thick 
smoke, bettered their chance of getting the shot 
home unperceived. 

During the whole of this time, the Waginia, who 
are the water-people, and who do all the transport 
on the river, were constant visitors in our camp. 
The Waginia are in every respect a peculiar 
race. Though they are all free men they have 
no slaves, and in most of their characteristics they 
are curiously contradictory. They never walk. 



IS8 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

yet — water-people as they are — those with whom 
I came in contact were very bad swimmers. All 
the ferrying and up and down transport, both for 
us and for the Arabs, was done by them, without 
any other payment than their food during the 
time they worked. Their villages are made of 
grass only, and change position almost daily. All 
the Waginia know each other. When any member 
of the tribe happens to want a canoe, he helps 
himself to any he chances to come across, and 
returns it perhaps months afterwards. These 
canoes are dug out of the trunks of trees, and 
hold from one to fifty men ; but, though always 
used by the Waginia, they are unable to make 
them themselves, and buy them from the little 
forest people with fish and pottery. Neither do 
they fight, and, at the first sign of disturbance in 
a district near to them, they drop down the river 
one or two hundred miles, and are within an hour 
hopelessly beyond chase. They constantly brought 
us information about the doings of the Arabs 
(for which, of course, we paid them), and then 
went direct from us back to the town, and told 



DESCRIPTION OF THE WATER-PEOPLE 159 

the Arabs all about us. Though we knew this, 
and taunted them with double-dealing, they were 
quite unconcerned. 

After we had been some time in camp, Dhanis 
ordered Lutete to build a canoe. In addition to 
this a boat was on the road to us from Lusambo, 
and with these two we hoped to be able to get 
together some of the canoes from the other side 
of the river. The boat was, however, lost in 
crossing the Lufubu River, and the canoe when 
finished would only hold six men. Before we 
could build another, circumstances were so changed 
that we had no need of them. The Commandant 
despatched Lutete and his people to fight to the 
northward, with instructions to be back in a fort- 
night. Lutete departed, leaving behind him, as a 
guard for over five thousand women whom he left 
in his camp, two hundred muzzleloaders and the 
men who carried them. Shortly after his departure, 
the Waginia, who were as usual spying about the 
camp, had an interview with the Commandant, in 
which they told him that provisions were very 
scarce in Nyangwe. In the course of the con- 



i6o THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

versation they inquired how soon Lutete would 
be back, to which the Commandant replied 
that he expected him in a fortnight or so. He 
furthermore added that it would be a grand 
chance for the Arabs to attack him then, and 
suggested that they should inform Sefu of his 
opportunity. " Give him my compliments," said 
Dhanis, "and tell him I hear he is hungry, so 
am sending him half a dozen fowls. You see we 
have plenty. When we have eaten all the food 
on this side of the river, we shall cross over to 
the other." And he gave them the last half 
dozen fowls we had in camp. The Waginia, how- 
ever, seem to have reported this conversation 
faithfully on the other side of the river, and it 
had its effect. A few days later we heard that 
the Arabs had crossed the river, a couple of hours* 
march below us. This information we treated 
with the contempt that rumours in Africa ordi- 
narily merit. Next day, however, a runaway slave 
came to us, declaring that he had been brought 
across the river by his master, and had been 
engaged for the last two days in building bomas ; 



SURPRISE ENCOUNTER i6i 

the whole free population of Nyangwe with 
the ordinary Arab forces would, he said, attack 
us in a day or two. That same evening eight of 
our people, while fetching water from a spring 
within two hundred yards of the camp, were carried 
off by an Arab scouting party. As the plot seemed 
to be thickening, everyone was on the alert. 
Towards midnight a tremendous uproar took place : 
the women of Lutete's camp stampeded and over- 
ran the corner of our camp in which Michaux's 
lines were situated. With great difficulty we got 
rid of them, but in less than an hour they again 
were panic-stricken, by the accidental discharge 
of a rifle, and a second time spread confusion 
throughout our camp. We then made them lie 
down on the ground, and put sentries over them, 
with orders to shoot if anyone stood up. Nothing, 
however, happened during the night ; and as the 
Arabs, contrary to their custom, did not attack 
at dawn, the Commandant decided to take the 
initiative. De Wouters and I were given the 
advance-guard, with which we had a Krupp gun ; 
the camp being left in charge of two officers and 



i62 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

half the men. After three-quarters of an hour's 
march the road forked : the right-hand branch, 
the guides told us, led direct to the Arab bomas ; 
the left-hand branch we followed, the guides 
explaining that by so doing we should take the 
Arab force in the rear. On our right, we had 
now a strip of forest which separated us from 
the other road. Hearing a hum at this point, 
which sounded like a large body of men in our 
immediate neighbourhood, we mounted the Krupp 
gun and advanced. Before very long we heard 
firing on our right flank rear. After a consulta- 
tion, we came to the conclusion that it must be 
the Commandant, who had taken the direct road 
to the bomas with the object of attacking them 
in front, and who was to have followed us within 
half an hour. It being then too late to turn 
back, we advanced at the double, hoping to arrive 
in time to attack the rear of the force before he 
had effected an entry. To our astonishment, how- 
ever, on arriving in a sort of cul de sac of open 
ground — at no point more than four hundred yards 
wide, and surrounded on three sides by forest — we 



SURPRISE ENCOUNTER 163 

were hailed by volleys on both flanks and in front 
at the same time. We had run in between two 
columns of advancing Arabs, who, hearing us 
arrive, or warned by their scouts, had formed in 
open order, and had posted large bodies of men 
in the wood on each side of the road by which we 
were arriving. These first volleys, being fired at 
from thirty to one hundred yards from our line, did 
more damage to each other than to us, most of the 
bullets passing over our heads. How de Wouters 
escaped on this and subsequent occasions it is hard 
to imagine : six feet five inches in height, and 
nearly always dressed in white, he was the man 
of all others who served as a mark for the Arab 
riflemen. On this occasion, a body of Arabs 
charged into our line between de Wouters and 
me, in the hope of taking Kirongo — " the Heron," 
as he was called both by our men and the enemy. 
Their orders were to take "the Heron," alive or 
dead, and to use their knives, since bullets were 
useless against his fetish's witchcraft. I was 
lucky enough to be able to stop this rush before 
they had effected their object. The left-hand 



i64 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

column of Arabs broke and fled after about an 
hour's fighting. De Wouters and I then turned 
to attack the right-hand column, which was the 
stronger. Just as the movement was completed, we 
were delighted to find Michaux on our right flank, 
he having come up at full speed upon hearing 
the firing in front. It was fortunate for us that he 
decided on this line of action, instead of returning 
to find out what the firing was, which he had also 
noticed in the rear. This was now the position : — 




ihri AH the blank Spares 



The grass was certainly twelve feet high, and 
rendered our charge most rafjged and irreo;ular. 



SURPRISE ENCOUNTER 165 

This, however, was of small consequence, as the 
Arabs broke and retired. De Wouters, owing to 
some inequalities in the ground, and confused by 
the smoke, led his men from the left flank across 
to the right flank, where he and Michaux attacked 
small numbers of the enemy, who had posted 
themselves in the forest. I followed the main 
body, and found myself suddenly on the enemy's 
rear, posted in a belt of forest. Making a charge, 
I found that the only way through this belt was 
by a path not five feet wide. The sensation of 
going through this undergrowth, with the enemy 
all the time firing apparently from out of the 
ground, from the tree tops and in every direction, 
was not a pleasant one. I, however, got safely 
through the forest, and, halting my men on the 
other side, tried to get them into something like 
order. There I was rejoined by de Wouters and 
Michaux, who had hardly found an Arab in the 
wood : as they had not succeeded in stopping 
me, they realised that they would have been 
caught between two fires had they remained. As 
soon as we had collected sufficient men we again 



i66 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

charged the main body of Arabs, and were sur- 
prised at their stubborn resistance ; for it is 
generally easy to keep a body of men moving 
who have once started retreating. During this 
part of the engagement our right flank was 
attacked. The enemy kept up a well-sustained 
steady fire, which approached yet seemed to 
advance on our front obliquely ; then the main 




body, which we were attacking in front, gave 
way, and we continued to fire on the troops 
advancing on the right flank. Presently we 
heard a drum, which we recognised as belongingr 
to our allies, and immediately ceased fire. [The 
diagram shown above explains what happened.] 



SURPRISE ENCOUNTER 167 

The Commandant had taken the other road, and 
had immediately fallen in with the enemy, whom 
after some severe fighting he drove back. We, 
in making our way through the belt of forest, had 
driven the enemy in front of us across his column, 
which checked them, and we advanced at a right 
angle. When the Arab forces dispersed, we were 
left firing into each other, the grass being very 
long and neither of our columns numerous. 
Fortunately, only one of our men was killed and 
three or four wounded by this unpleasant accident. 
Our buglers, on both sides, were blowing their 
best, but could of course not be heard more than 
twenty yards distant in the din of battle, whereas 
the drum could be heard above everything. As 
soon as we could get a large enough number of 
men into order we followed the retreating Arabs, 
and came upon their advanced fort, which, after 
about two minutes' sharp work, we stormed. 
The Arabs, not having had time to organise 
after their defeat in the open, seemed unable 
to rally, and their other holds quickly fell. As 
they commenced to re-form on the plain between 



i68 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

the forts and the Lualaba, we again advanced 
against them, and they retreated to the river 
bank. At about an hour and a half's march 
from the forts, the Lufubu River empties itself 
into the Lualaba, and is here about one hundred 
yards wide and very deep. The enemy gathered 
in solid masses in the angle formed by the junction 
of the two rivers. On our approach something 
started a panic in the re-formed lines of the enemy ; 
and as Sefu and Miserera were crossing the Lufubu 
(filling all the canoes with their own staff), the 
rank and file tried to swim across by hundreds at 
a time, and great numbers were drowned. 

On this occasion we might claim to have unin- 
tentionally surprised the Arab forces. It seems that 
they left their forts at the same hour at which we 
left our camp, with the intention of attacking us 
in camp on three sides at once. The three columns, 
taking different roads, were intended to arrive at 
the same time ; but two of them, owing to the 
bad state of the ground, were forced within two 
hundred yards of each other, just at the moment 
when de Wouters and I marched in between. 



CHAPTER X 

ACCOUNT OF THE PALL OF NYANGWE 

On the 1st of March the Waginia offered to give 
us their canoes, if we, in return, would give them 
an escort past the Arab camps on the islands 
down the river. The impression made on them 
by our victory was so great that they were quite 
confident in the result of our attack on Nyangwe, 
and were even willing to lend us their canoes to 
cross the river. Their hope was, if we succeeded, 
to be able to do some looting in the town ; and on 
the other hand, if by chance we failed, to gather 
a considerable amount of booty in our camp. The 
Commandant sent Scherlink and Cerkel down the 
river bank, and, after a smart skirmish or two, they 
succeeded in arriving at our landing-place opposite 
the camp with a hundred large canoes. 

On the 3rd of March letters and despatches of 
great interest reached us from Inspector Fivd 



170 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

and others. We had heard nothing of what had 
been going on outside our own little world for 
months. The Inspector gave us good news too, 
and his despatches informed us that he had 
ordered Commandant Chalian of Basoko to form 
junction with us, and to bring with him artillery 
and supplies. Commandant Gillian, he said, would 
join as soon as possible with all the available 
men from the Sankuru-Kasai districts. He hoped 
that with these forces arrayed against them the 
enemy would not be able to hold out long. On 
talking affairs over, it occurred to us that Chaltin 
might take Nyangwe by marching up on the right 
bank of the river. This idea took hold of us, 
and we all rushed out from mess with our glasses, 
to make sure that the Arab flag was still flying 
over Nyangwe. It would have been a disappoint- 
ment if, after all our trouble and discomfort, 
somebody else had had the honour of taking 
Nyangwe. This notion had, I think, a great deal 
to do with Commandant Dhanis' prompt attack 
on the town within an hour of our having the 
canoes which made it possible. 



THE FALL OF NYANGWE 171 

During the morning of the 4th March we struck 
camp and immediately formed on the river bank. 
The canoes started loaded with soldiers, each white 
officer having in his charge about thirty or forty 
men. It was certainly a grand sight to see over 
a hundred canoes in open order, full of yelling 
demons, dashing down the stream on the doomed 
city. We succeeded in landing and in taking 
the greater part of the town, scarcely firing a 
shot. By ten o'clock that evening we had fortified 
ourselves in the higher part of the town. The 
Waginia withdrew as soon as we landed, and it 
was not until they were assured of our success 
that they consented to continue ferrying over the 
camp followers, women, baggage, and friendlies. 
We were established in a not altogether enviable 
position, with hardly a footing on the hostile 
bank of the Lualaba, an enormous river behind 
us, no means of retreat, and no possibility of 
receiving either a reinforcement or a fresh supply 
of ammunition. All, however, went well. The 
following day Albert Frees was sent off with a 
detachment and some of Lutete's people to attack 



172 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

the camp which Muni Pembi — who was supposed 
to have two of Hodister's children as prisoners — 
had formed at a few hours' march from Nyangwe. 
After marching all night in a storm, the expedition 
succeeded in surprising the Arab camp, and brought 
back Hodister's children. Muni Pembi's harem, and 
large quantities of powder, arms, and other loot. 
An envoy from Sefu at Kasongo had meanwhile 
come to us with ofTers of peace. Dhanis replied 
that he could make no conditions whatever until 
Lutete's two children, whom Sefu held as hostages, 
were returned to us, after which, he said, he would 
see what could be done. The envoy, who had 
been Lippens' body-servant, had since the death 
of his master been an Arab slave ; he was not 
afraid to return to Sefu, and, on being questioned, 
naively remarked, " I will lie to him if necessary, 
till he sends me here on another mission, and then 
I need not return." This was what eventually 
took place. Large numbers of splendid-looking 
natives came in offering their submission to the 
Commandant. Many were men who acknowledged 
themselves to be defeated Arab soldiers, and many 



THE FALL OF NYANGWE 173 

were chiefs with large followers, but they all had 
the same story ready : " They would give up their 
arms and become the white man's men." 

On the 9 th of March Nyangwe was discovered to 
be overrun by armed men. I was strolling about 
in some gardens at a distance from our part of 
the town, when I came across hundreds of people 
gathered together. Our men became uneasy, and 
flocked round us. Suddenly the whole town 
seemed to wake up at once, and several of our 
people were seized upon and murdered by the 
Mohammedans. The Commandant sent for Lutete 
and told him that there was treachery in the town. 
Lutete, who was camped outside the south end 
of the town, fancied that the Arabs must be 
arriving from the north side ; he therefore 
followed the river bank to the northward till he 
reached the outside of the town, when, steady 
firing having commenced inside, he turned, and, 
coming across the town towards our quarters, took 
the Mohammedans in the rear. When the attack 
commenced, every man, white or black, fought where 
he stood. It was so sudden that there was no 



174 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

time for any plan of action, and it was not for 
a couple of hours that we had any idea of how 
the tide of battle was turning. Then, with one 
accord, the masses of the enemy seemed to break 
up. They continued to fight only in isolated 
knots in the squares, or defended individual houses 
in different parts of the town. After another hour 
or two of patrolling the streets, and occasionally 
engaging in small fights, the town was cleared. 
Our loss was very heavy, but might have been 
much greater, and many of our own and Lutete's 
casualties had been caused by wild shooting on the 
part of our own men. The town was set fire to in 
several places, and hundreds of houses were burnt 
during the night. On the following day the whole 
force was sent out with instructions to bury the 
dead, or rather to throw them into the river, it 
being impossible to deal otherwise with them. 
Matters were, however, simplified for us, since 
only a few hundred heads were to be found, 
all the bodies having been carried off for 
food. The Commandant then ordered the greater 
part of what remained of the town to be burned, 



THE FALL OF NYANGWE 175 

as it was impossible for our small force to keep 
such an enormous number of buildings under 
proper supervision, and we were also thus guarded 
against a second outbreak of treachery. This 
might be said to be the last stand of Mohara's 
army, the few who escaped being entirely dis- 
organised. For three days we saw nothing of 
Lutete, and I learned afterwards, when talking 
over affairs with him, that during this time he 
had not left his own quarters ; the sights in his 
camp were so appalling that even he did not care 
to put himself in the way of seeing them unneces- 
sarily. He told us that everyone of the cannibals 
who accompanied him had at least one body to 
eat. All the meat was cooked and smoke-dried, 
and formed provisions for the whole of his force 
and for all the camp followers for many days after- 
wards. A volunteer drummer who had been with 
us for some time disappeared, and we imagined 
had been killed. A day or two afterwards he was 
discovered dead in a hut by the side of a half- 
consumed corpse — he had apparently over-eaten 
himself, and had died in consequence. 



176 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

Now began the worst time we had known during 
the campaign. A very virulent form of influenza 
broke out in the camp. On the first day there were 
thirty cases of it, on the day following nearly 
seventy, and before the end of the week almost 
all our men were down — the few who were still fit 
having double duty, both mounting guard and 
attending the sick. For the ensuing fortnight 1 
spent my time going round the camp and insisting 
on the survivors burying the dead. The great 
bulk of the dead or dying were thrown out on 
to the open street by the other inhabitants of 
each hut. At about this time, also, the Arabs and 
their friends began sending into what was left of 
the town all the smallpox cases in the district. 
This ruse succeeded, and influenza was followed by 
an epidemic of smallpox. In connection with the 
smallpox outbreaks during the whole expedition 
there are some curious facts. Our Hausas were, 
with one exception, all vaccinated, and this man was 
the only one in the company who caught smallpox, 
and he died of it. In the Elmina company there 
were only two men unvaccinated, both of whom 



THE FALL OF NYANGWE 177 

got smallpox, and one of whom died of it. Of our 
Lower Congo porters very few had had smallpox, 
and only some half dozen had been vaccinated. 
Among this body of two hundred men rather over 
two-thirds took smallpox, and there were sixty- 
five deaths amongst them. The mortality both 
from smallpox and influenza among Lutete's 
people and the other friendlies and camp fol- 
lowers was frightful. A great deal of it is easily 
accounted for by the fact that, in spite of the 
most stringent orders to the contrary, after the 
third day of the fever, when they were beginning 
to feel a little better, they insisted on bathing. 
The Mohammedans and Manyema natives had 
learnt from the Arabs (who had not got vaccine) 
to inoculate with smallpox. Though on several 
occasions vaccine was sent to me from Europe, 
and packed in a dozen different ways, in no single 
instance could I get it to take. This was most 
unfortunate, since, if I could have got but one 
successful case, we should have been able to 
vaccinate the whole population. 



iz 



CHAPTER XI 

ARRIVAL OF AMBASSADORS FROM SEFU WITH 
OFFERS OF PEACE — THE COMMANDANT POST- 
PONES HIS MARCH ON KASONGO — REINFORCE- 
MENT OF THE STATE FORCES — MARCH ON 
KASONGO: ITS FALL — DESCRIPTION OF THE 
LUXURIES FOUND IN THE TOWN — RELICS OF 
EMIN PASHA — INSUBORDINATION IN THE CON- 
QUERED TOWN OF NYANGWE 

While we were in this predicament Sefu sent 
ambassadors to us from Kasongo, bringing with 
them Lutete's son and daughter, whom the Arabs 
had held as hostages, and making offers of peace. 
After much palavering, the Commandant agreed not 
to march on Kasongo for five days, on condition 
that Sefu sent him all Lippens' effects, and also 
his servants, who had been made slaves. Within 
five days the ambassadors reappeared with all 
that was demanded, and the Commandant granted 

178 



MARCH ON KASONGO POSTPONED 179 

Kasongo another respite of five days, on condition 
that all the ivory that had been taken from 
Lippens should be delivered up to us. This they 
also complied with, and brought an additional 
present of some thirty magnificent tusks, praying 
us to wait another four or five days. The Com- 
mandant assumed a magnanimous pose and gave 
way to their supplications, casually remarking that 
he supposed Sefu wanted to finish the fortifica- 
tions of Kasongo. To this, he said, he had no 
objection, as he wished to teach his soldiers how 
to take a properly-fortified town. All this was 
the more amusing as, during the time these 
negotiations were proceeding, we had not more than 
thirty or forty available men at our disposal. In 
this afiair Omari, an old soldier of Stanley's, was 
the chief ambassador ; he protested all the time 
that he loved the white man, and that he intended 
to throw in his lot with us, but when it came to 
fighting again he joined our enemies. On the 
23rd of March we again received letters repeating 
that the Inspector Five had ordered the camp of 
Basoko, with guns and at least five hundred men, 



i8o THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

to march to our support (thus confirming what we 
had heard on the other side of the river) ; and 
also stating that the Commandant Gillian was 
coming to our support with reinforcements from 
Lusambo, and might be expected to arrive a day 
or two after the despatches. 

We allowed for an African day or two, which 
usually means a fortnight at least — and were not 
far out ; for though Commandant Gillian arrived 
on the 5th of April, the whole of his caravan did 
not reach us until the 13th, which gave our people 
a chance of recovering from the effects of their 
sickness. By the 14th of April we were in march- 
ing order and in very good spirits, a large supply 
of ammunition and reinforcements making every 
one feel confident that better days were in store. 
On the 17th Commandant Dhanis gave orders to 
march towards Kasongo, leaving de Wouters with 
a white sergeant and fifty men in command of 
Nyangwe, which in six short weeks had been 
reduced from a well-built town of about thirty 
thousand inhabitants to one large fortified house 
with a soldiers' camp round it. Commandant 



MARCH ON KASONGO i8i 

Gillian and Lieutenant Doorme with their men 
formed the advance-guard; the Commandant 
Dhanis, Lieutenant Scherlink, and myself the 
main body ; and Sergeant Cerkel the rear. We 
marched very slowly, and it was not until the 
morning of the 22nd that we came in sight of 
Kasongo. The Commandant — as w^as usual when 
there was anything to be done — had left the main 
body and was well in advance, when he was 
attacked by Sefu's skirmishers, whom he drove in. 
Meanwhile Doorme charged Said - ben - a - Bedi's 
fort. This fort defended the end of the town at 
which we entered, and was by a great piece of 
fortune carried in the first rush by Doorme, though 
his men had never engaged an Arab force before. 
He then followed the retreating garrison through 
the town. Kasongo was built in a valley and on 
the hill-slopes on two sides of it. Doorme, in his 
charge, went across the valley, and appeared on 
the opposite hill just as our whole force deployed. 
This altogether upset the calculations of the de- 
fenders : in the first instance, owing to the fact 
that we had lost our way, we arrived by a detour 



i82 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

instead of by the direct road, and took all their 
defences in the rear. Ten minutes after the 
fighting had commenced, Doorme appeared on 
the other side of the town, and the enemy were 
thus caught between two fires. As we advanced 
through the maze of streets the Arabs steadily 
retreated before us, impeded in their movements 
by enormous numbers of unarmed slaves and by 
the crowd of women and children. After a while 
the non-combatants became panic-stricken, and in 
their flight spread further confusion among the 
Arab ranks. We allowed them no time to steady 
themselves again, and within an hour and a half 
were masters of all the main points and chief 
fortified places in the city. Our auxiliary forces 
and camp followers, encouraged by the position, 
became very brave, and followed the retreating 
Arabs through the open country — knowing well 
that nothing is easier than to keep a retreating 
body on the move. With the retreat the panic 
became greater, and enormous numbers were 
drowned in trying to cross the rivers which lay 
in their road. One large body of men was driven 



THE FALL OF KASONGO 183 

by Lutete to the Lualaba, about three hours 
distant. Here they were cornered ; and the 
Waginia, under pretence of ferrying them over 
the river, either carried them off as prisoners or 
threw them overboard, and the whole force, with 
the exception of the women and children — many 
of whom also suffered — was annihilated. 

Soon after the chars^e through the town all the 
different companies were separated, and the Com- 
mandant, with four men, was not only separated 
from everyone else, but also from his own company. 
While looking for his men he was all but shot from 
the watch-tower of one of the finest houses in the 
town, which he supposed to be vacant ; and on 
approaching the loopholed wall he again narrowly 
escaped being killed. The place, however, capitu- 
lated when I came up with about a dozen men. 
He had just taken five white Arab prisoners, one 
of whom was, I believe, a very large merchant at 
Zanzibar, named Said-ben-Halfan. 

Kasongo was a much finer town than even the 
grand old slave capital Nyangwe. During the 
siege of Nyangwe, the taking of which was more 



i84 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

or less expected, the inhabitants had time to carry 
off all valuables, and even furniture, to places of 
safety. At Kasongo, however, it was different. 
We rushed into the town so suddenly that every- 
thing was left in situ. Our whole force found new 
outfits, and even the common soldiers slept on 
silk and satin mattresses, in carved beds with silk 
mosquito curtains. The room I took possession of 
was eighty feet long and fifteen feet wide, with a door 
leading into an orange garden, beyond which was 
a view extending over five miles. It was hard, on 
waking, to realise that I was in Central Africa, 
but a glance at the bullet - holes in the doors 
and shutters, and a big dark red stain on the wall, 
soon brought back the reality. Here we found 
many European luxuries, the use of which we had 
almost forgotten : candles, sugar, matches, silver 
and glass goblets and decanters were in profusion. 
We also took about twenty-five tons of ivory ; 
ten or eleven tons of powder ; millions of caps ; 
cartridges for every kind of rifle, gun, and revolver 
perhaps ever made ; some shells ; and a German 
flag, taken by the Arabs in German East Africa. 



LUXURIES FOUND IN THE TOWN 185 

The granaries throughout the town were stocked 
with enormous quantities of rice, coffee, maize, 
and other food ; the gardens were luxurious and 
well planted ; and oranges, both sweet and bitter, 
guava, pomegranates, pineapples, and bananas 
abounded at every turn. 

One of the first visits we paid — and it was a sad 
one — was to the house occupied by Lippens and 
Debruyne, our poor brother officers, sometime 
ambassadors at Sefu's court Strange to say 
(though they had been murdered and mutilated), 
they were buried opposite their own front door, 
with a neat little tomb built over them by their 
murderers. On disinterring their bodies we found 
that, owing to the nature of the soil in which 
they had been buried seven months before, they 
were not decomposed. We re-buried them with 
military honours. 

Our men brought in, among the other spoils, 
several ten-bore double breechloaders, sixteen-bores, 
twelve-bores, about fifteen Winchester expresses, 
and the same number of ordinary Winchesters. 
They also found dozens of Martini — ordinary 



i86 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

and express — and innumerable cap guns ; thirty 
or forty watches and chains in silver, gold, and 
nickel ; and several of Emin Pasha's relics, in- 
cluding his diary from January to October 1892, 
and two decorations — the Crown Royal of Prussia 
and Francis Joseph of Austria. Even our Arab 
prisoners told us that Emin was the most inojQfen- 
sive man that was ever seen in Africa. They 
had, according to their own accounts, no other 
reason for murdering him except that a general 
massacre of white men had been decided on, and, 
coming into a district in which all the white 
men had already been killed, he shared their fate. 

The herd of cattle we found in Kasongo was com- 
posed of three distinct breeds : the small Indian 
cattle — large-humped, and extremely docile — gave 
the best milk, though for eating purposes the half- 
Portuguese long-horned variety was best. Where 
the third variety originally came from I have not 
been able to find out. They were weedy medium- 
sized cattle, usually white or piebald in colour, and 
not very good either for fattening or as milkers. 
We also took two fine breeds of donkeys — the 



STATE FORCES AT KASONGO 187 

large white Syrian ass, and the cross between this 
and the small donkey, in appearance very like the 
coster's donkey of this country. The Syrian ass, 
though a fine animal, with one or two exceptions, 
did not turn out so useful as either of the other 
varieties. The cross between the common kind 
and the Syrian ass was enormously strong, and, 
though often bad-tempered, was certainly the most 
useful animal of the donkey class I have ever seen. 
When running away, the Arabs shot many of their 
best asses and some of the cattle, to prevent their 
falling into our hands alive. 

During the time spent at Kasongo I made a 
point of getting to know the surrounding country, 
and was constantly astonished by the splendid 
work which had been done in the neighbourhood 
by the Arabs. Kasongo was built in the corner 
of a virgin forest, and for miles round all the 
brushwood and the great majority of trees had 
been cleared away. Certain trees, such as the 
gigantic wild cotton-tree, had been left at regular 
intervals, whether as landmarks or for the shade 
they afforded I do not know. In the forest- 



i88 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

clearing splendid crops of sugar-cane, rice, maize, 
and fruits grew ; and some idea of the extent of 
this cultivation may be gathered from the fact 
that I have ridden through a single rice-field for 
an hour and a half. When placing groups of 
people about this country to form villages, these 
villages became self-supporting within three or four 
months. Rice yielded two or three crops between 
the planting in October and the commencement of 
the dry season in May ; and maize could often be 
eaten six or seven weeks after planting. Game 
had naturally been driven out of the neighbour- 
hood — except on the Lualaba, where I often went 
on small shooting expeditions. All kinds of water- 
fowl and small game might be shot on the banks 
of the river in quantities — in greatest number 
during the wet season ; though on the Lower Congo, 
Kasai, and other rivers the best shooting season 
is the dry (from May to October), when the 
sandbanks are bare, and the swamps and streams 
of the interior are all dried up. On the Lualaba, 
however, when the river is low, during a long 
day's canoeing one rarely sees even a duck or a 



STATE FORCES AT KASONGO 189 

goose, and never a wader. Hippopotami, for a 
hundred miles or so above and below Kasongo, 
are scarce and very vicious, constantly attacking 
unprovoked either canoes or people who approach 
them. The natives are so afraid of the hippos 
here that it is a matter of difficulty to get a crew 
to approach a herd ; the most extravagant pro- 
mises of unlimited meat having no effect, even 
with men who have already been present at a 
successful hunt. It was while on the road from 
Kasongo to Nyangwe, on my way to visit de 
Wouters — which I was in the habit of doing as 
often as possible — that I shot the largest hippo 1 
have ever seen. The sight of his four feet in the 
air fifty yards from the canoe, instead of reassur- 
ing my crew, so scared them that they all jumped 
overboard and swam ashore. Luckily, I had three 
or four soldiers with me, by whose help I managed 
to secure him. His curved teeth, measured on the 
convex, were thirty-two and a half inches long, and 
one of his straight lower teeth eighteen and a half 
inches — the other, which was broken, measuring 
somewhat less. 



IQO THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

The best way of securing a hippo is to approach 
him as near as possible in the canoe directly he is 
wounded. Provided with a long sounding pole and 
in deep water, he can be approached without danger, 
and a cord made fast to him while still struggling. 
What is not generally recognised with regard to 
the hippopotamus is that his short legs and small 
feet, compared with the enormous bulk of his body, 
render him a very indifferent swimmer ; in fact, he 
can only just swim enough to keep his head above 
water while breathing or looking round. His 
usual mode of progression, owing to the fact that 
he displaces a weight of water less than his own 
weight, is to run along the bottom. I remember 
seeing a herd of hippopotami trying to work up 
stream in ten fathoms of water : it was comical 
to see the bound and explosion with which 
they arrived at the surface after each dive — the 
greater part of which was spent in getting a footing 
at the bottom — having gained only some four or 
five yards during the whole time. 

It was on this occasion of visiting Nyangwe in 
July 1893 that I found de Wouters somewhat 



INSUBORDINATION IN NYANGWE 191 

awkwardly situated. Within the town a number 
of small Arab chiefs and vassals, who had sub- 
mitted and sworn fidelity to us, were established. 
Of these, a desperate rascal named Ali gave de 
Wouters a great deal of trouble. After many 
acts of insubordination and petty treacheries, 
matters culminated in the discovery by de 
Wouters' faithfuls of a plot arranged by Ali to 
murder the entire garrison in the swamp and 
long grass within a hundred yards of de Wouters' 
house. Ali had intended to post his men — of 
whom he had three or four hundred in the town — 
close to the garrison and hidden in the grass, 
when, by raising an alarm, he hoped to draw de 
Wouters and some of his men into the snare ; de 
Wouters' energetic way of looking into every 
question himself being well known. On hearing of 
the plot, de Wouters despatched his interpreter, 
Selimani, alone to All's camp, which was situated 
at the end of the swamp above mentioned. Seli- 
mani's business was to inquire into the affair, and 
to tax Ali with it, who it was thought, knowing 
that his trick was discovered, would be afraid to 



192 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

carry it out. Selimani had hardly started when 
de Wouters repented of having sent him alone. 
Fearing lest Ali might take it into his head that 
Selimani was the only man who knew of the plot, 
and might murder him on the spot, he quickly 
sent a corporal with five-and-twenty Hausas into 
the grass after him. The Hausas, passing the 
word round in their own language (which even 
their wives could not understand), slipped into the 
grass on different sides of the town, and, completely 
hidden by it, joined the corporal one by one in 
the swamp, from which they were able, unobserved, 
to approach All's camp to within twenty-five yards. 
Selimani meanwhile, accompanied only by his boy, 
approached the camp by the main road. When 
Selimani was within fifty yards of the camp, 
Ali called out to him to remain where he was and 
not to enter his camp : if he had a message to 
deliver, Ali himself would come to him. Then, 
without any warning, Ali ordered his men to fire 
a volley on Selimani, who, strange to say, was 
untouched, though his boy was killed. The Hausas 
immediately realised the position, and, running 



INSUBORDINATION IN NYANGWE 193 

into the camp, fired a volley into the rear of All's 
force, who were rushing out to catch Selimani. 
This created such confusion amongst them that 
the Hausas managed to hold their own with their 
long knives till de Wouters and the rest of his 
force — who had heard the firing — arrived, and 
drove All's force into the Lualaba. Ali himself 
and a few of his men succeeded in swimming across 
the river, and thus escaped. Some time afterwards, 
having collected together a fresh band of men, he 
attacked another party of our people, but was 
taken prisoner and shot, after a drum-head court- 
martial. 



13 



CHAPTER XII 

THE STATE FORCES SETTLE DOWN AT KASONGO — 
SUPERSTITIONS OP THE NATIVES : THEIR HABITS 
AND MODE OP LIVING 

While arranging the country after having 
settled down at Kasongo, we found it advisable to 
make use of those native and Arab slaves who 
were capable of teaching the others. All the 
masons, brickmakers, agriculturists, carpenters, 
armourers, and ironworkers found among the 
prisoners were given charge of the intelligent lads 
among the prisoners or volunteers from the native 
tribes, and set to work, with the intention of event- 
ually forming colonies in suitable districts for these 
trades. We even employed their elephant-hunters, 
who had been taken fighting, and left them their 
arms on condition that they hunted for us, and 
taught everyone who chose to go with them what 
to do. The elephant-hunters were very super- 

194 



THE STATE FORCES AT KASONGO 195 

stitious, and used to spend a week before the new 
moon rose in " making medicine " to ensure the suc- 
cess of the ensuing expedition. As a consequence 
they could only be induced to go hunting every 
second new moon, and nothing would persuade 
them to start on an expedition (which generally 
lasted a month) under any other conditions. They 
were armed with old long ten-bore muskets, and 
refused to use either lead or iron as bullets, saying 
that copper made the best missile. We used to 
buy all the copper bracelets and anklets obtainable 
from the women, and hammer them into balls. I 
had always my suspicions, however, that copper, 
being very valuable throughout the country, was 
found a convenient form of money. I was sorry 
never to have had time to accompany one of these 
expeditions. Their mode of procedure seems to 
have been to set up a camp in a district where 
elephants were common, and for the slaves, in the 
first instance, to watch and follow a troop of ele- 
phants. The head hunter, accompanied by a 
dozen or so armed freemen, was then sent for, and, 
choosing his elephant, approached quite close and 



196 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

fired a shot. If he was lucky enough to kill the 
animal, which rarely happened, matters were sim- 
plified ; if not, he returned to camp, and the re- 
mainder of the detachment followed the wounded 
animal for a day or a week, as the case 
might be, till they succeeded in killing him. 
The tusks were handed over to us, the sale of the 
meat alone making these hunters the wealthiest 
people in the district. 

We were at this time having a good deal of 
trouble with the natives to the westward of the neigh- 
bourhood of Kasongo, who had been attacking our 
friendlies, and even our own people, whenever they 
went out to look for food. The caravans of friendly 
natives bringing food to sell in the town had been 
stopped and dispersed. Lieutenant Doorme and 
Sub-Lieutenant Cerkel were sent by the Com- 
mandant to punish them, and at the same time to 
explore the country. Within six hours' march of 
Kasongo the expedition entered a virgin forest, 
in which they wandered about for a week. The 
undergrowth was very dense, forming a kind of 
wall on each side of the path ; and in this dense 



THE STATE FORCES AT KASONGO 197 

bush paths had been cut at right angles to the 
main road, which was hidden by a single bush on 
each side at the point of intersection. The natives 
stationed themselves on one side of the main road, 
and as the caravan passed (in Indian file, with occa- 
sional long gaps between the men) jumped across 
the road, seized the first man they could lay 
hold of, and disappeared with him into the dense 
bush on the other side. In this way it would often 
happen that, without anyone knowing what had 
taken place, every straggler would be killed. Spears 
were launched out of the dense jungle, and trans- 
fixed the men without warning. The by-paths and 
game-paths were known only to the natives, and they 
were thus enabled to accompany the caravan and 
to watch their opportunity for attack. On several 
occasions the assailants fired from trees, within ten 
or fifteen yards of the path, and, dropping down 
iminediately, were safe from pursuit with ten or 
fifteen yards of impenetrable jungle between them 
and our people. The villages in this district were 
all fortified, and were practically hidden by the 
forest, which had only been cleared sufficiently to 



198 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

allow the necessary building space. Most of the 
villages in this district were burnt before Doorme 
arrived. When camping in the few which he 
managed to surprise, he was subjected the whole 
night to volleys of arrows, spears, and bullets 
from the surrounding forest, to which it was 
useless even to reply. He, however, succeeded 
in taking some twenty-five or thirty important 
prisoners, and returned to Kasongo after perhaps 
the most unpleasant ten days he had ever spent. 

From the time that we crossed the Lualaba 
we were continuously worried by the native and 
Arab superstition concerning what they call 
" Kim - putu " — " Kim - putu " being in reality 
nothing more than a common tick. I have 
often had one brought for my inspection by the 
people, who always declared that if this insect 
bit an individual he was sure to waste away and 
die. As a consequence of this belief, all cases of 
poisoning, tubercular disease, or indeed any form 
of death for which their ignorance could not see 
an exact cause, were attributed to "Kim-putu." 
So strong is this feeling, that once a native (and 



SUPERSTITIONS OF THE NATIVES 199 

even some of our own men became infected with 
the superstition) had made up his mind that he 
was in the clutches of the " Kim-putu " fiend, it 
was practically impossible to save him. 

In Kasongo and its neighbourhood the inhabit- 
ants, both Arab and native, have a firm belief in 
ghosts. They believe that the spirits of the dead 
haunt not only certain places, but individual people 
also, and that one of these spirits may appear to a 
living man and call him, after which he is certain 
to die. This belief had, we found, influenced our 
own people to such an extent that even intelligent 
well-educated men from the coast were afraid 
to move about at night. Several people came 
to me with stories of havins; been called or 
attacked by an invisible being ; and one case 
in especial I remember, of a soldier who came 
with his sergeant, Albert Frees. This man 
declared that, towards evening, while sitting 
with three or four people round a fire, a 
" thing " which he could not see had come up 
behind him and had smacked his face and boxed 
his ears. He wanted to know if I could catch 



200 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

the spirit for him, for if I could not, he said, 
he would surely die. I tried to laugh him out 
of his belief, expecting to be supported by the 
sergeant, but he astonished me by requesting 
that I would not treat the matter lightly, and 
assured me that if I did not do something for him 
the man would die. Though I used every argu- 
ment I could think of, I was unable to shake their 
belief. The sergeant, however, came back and 
begged me to take things seriously, as the man 
was valuable and we could not afford to lose 
him. I explained that I could do nothing, and 
told them both to come up and talk it over 
in a couple of days. The following evening I 
was called to the man, who was in a very 
weak condition and apparently dying. He was 
convinced that he would have to die, and the 
next day was dead. When the average black 
man makes up his mind to die, die he will, and 
it is almost impossible to do anything for him. 
I mention this as one out of many instances 
recorded in my diary of similar cases. 

Both in Kasongo and Nyangwe every large 



HABITS AND MODE OF LIVING 201 

house was fitted with one or more bathrooms, 
the arrangements of which were very ingenious. 
A large hollow log, or an old canoe with a small 
hole drilled through the bottom and closed by 
a plug when not in use, was suspended from 
the roof. When filled with water, it formed a 
most convenient shower-bath, and half a dozen 
logs, laid side by side in a depression in the 
ground, made a clean platform for the bather. 
The water was conveyed away by a trench, in 
which a hollowed log, carrying the waste water 
through the wall of the house to the exterior, 
was placed. Every house or hut, however small, 
had an enclosure attached to it containing the 
same arrangements for cleanliness, with the ex- 
ception only of the shower-bath. The Arabs 
have also introduced soap-making, and, as a con- 
sequence, in every large establishment or market, 
soap of a coarse but useful kind can be bought. 
This soap is made by mixing potash — generally 
obtained by burning banana stalks and leaves — 
with palm oil. 

During the first few months we occupied 



202 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

Kasongo, we were constantly worried by alarming 
fires, which always occurred at night. We found 
that the conflagrations on the far side of the river 
were due to Lutete's people, who were in the 
habit of setting fire to the houses as a means 
of driving out the rats, which they were very 
fond of as food. This was eventually put a 
stop to by Lutete in a somewhat summary 
manner. After this, fires were seen on our 
side of the river, and, as they always started 
up - wind from our own quarters, we concluded 
that there was treachery somewhere, and dis- 
covered that they were caused by people in 
our camp who were friendly to the Arabs. On 
several occasions we had very narrow escapes, 
and eventually decided to pull down all the houses 
in our immediate neighbourhood. When we had 
left a ring of about two hundred yards wide 
round our headquarters the fires ceased. It was 
curious to notice the attitude of our men on these 
occasions. When an alarm was given, I have 
often rushed out to find myself immediately 
surrounded by a voluntary guard of a dozen 



HABITS AND MODE OF LIVING 203 

or more armed soldiers, who refused to allow 
me to approach the crowd, or indeed to move a 
yard in any direction unaccompanied. The other 
officers were, I believe, treated in the same way, 
as the men explained that it was easy to stick 
a knife even into a white man at night or in a 
crowd. 

During these months we had great difficulty 
in separating, arranging, and organising the 
enormous numbers of people — male and female 
— who considered themselves our slaves, and who, 
since the Arabs had been driven out, were like 
sheep without a shepherd. Thousands of Arab 
slaves, and native freemen and slaves with their 
herds of women, were daily coming to ask what 
they were to do. We selected the petty chiefs 
who still existed (and in cases where the chiefs 
had been killed, made new ones), and these, in 
turn, selected their own people ; one of us then 
marched this party out into the surrounding 
country, and, choosing a convenient place for 
them, gave orders that they should build a 
village and start planting. AVe supplied these 



204 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

colonies with maize, rice, and other seeds ; and 
so successful was this method that within three 
or four months they became self-supporting, and 
later on supplied our whole forces with food. 
At about an hour's march to the north of Kasongo, 
I found a splendidly rich country, with beautiful 
clearings in the forest and a good water supply. 
Traces of former villages abounded, and I should 
much have liked to raise up a thriving colony 
in so convenient a district. Two or three times 
I established villages, witli invariably the same 
result : the whole population decamped, and either 
took up their abode elsewhere, or arrived in 
Kasongo clamouring to be placed in some other 
district. The leopards in their neighbourhood, 
they said, were so numerous, and so big and 
courageous, that any man going out of his hut 
after five in the evening or before seven in the 
morning was certain to be carried off by them. 
These people never seemed to have the pluck 
or energy either to hunt or trap the leopards. 

While at Kasongo a flight of locusts passed 
over the country in a south-south-easterly direc- 



HABITS AND MODE OF LIVING 205 

tion, and continued to pass for upwards of a 
month. The Arabs and natives told us that this 
was the first time they had ever seen a locust 
pest, though they had heard of them many years 
before. It would be interesting to know if the 
cause of this might not be looked for in the fact 
that the greater part of the Central African Basin 
had been, owing to war, in a disturbed state for 
nearly three years. It is a custom all over the 
Congo Basin for the natives to burn the grass 
during the dry season ; when occupied by war 
they naturally did not continue to do so ; and 
there is no doubt that other pests, such as rats 
and snakes, in consequence of this habit, never 
become a plague except in the forest districts. 
May it not be that the locust larvae, owing to the 
plain fires, are under ordinary circumstances 
never allowed to come to maturity ? 



CHAPTER XIII 

OUR ALLY, GONGO LUTETE, ACCUSED OF TREACHERY 
AND EXECUTED AT n'gANDU — ARRIVAL AT 
KASONGO OF FIVE OFFICERS FROM EUROPE — 
CONTINUED ENCOUNTERS WITH THE ENEMY — 
THE ARABS DECAMP FROM THE TOWN OF 
STANLEY FALLS, LEAVING IT AT THE MERCY 
OP THE STATE TROOPS — THE STATE FORCES ARE 
JOINED BY CAPTAIN LOTHAIRE FROM BANGALA, 
AND FOLLOW THE ARABS UP THE RIVER — 
AFTER SEVERE FIGHTING, THE RIVER CLEARED 
OF ARABS AND THEIR HORDES AS FAR AS 
NYANGWE — REVERSES OF THE STATE FORCES — 
ATTACK BY COMMANDANT DHANIS ON RUMAL- 
IZA's fort, EIGHT HOURS* MARCH FROM KAS- 
ONGO 

In the last week in August tlie Commandant 
started for Nyangwe from Kasongo. For some 
time previously rumours had been arriving from 

206 



CONGO LUTETE ACCUSED 207 

the Malela and Lomami districts, showing that 
Duchesne's rule was not altogether successful. 
The natives were in a quarrelsome turbulent 
state, and our ally, Gongo Lutete, had been sent 
back to his capital, N'Gandu, to arrange matters. 
As there seemed no chance of active service, or 
any immediate prospects of an expedition to Lake 
Tanganyika, I determined to volunteer for the 
district of N'Gandu, and with this intention 
went down to Nyangwe to interview the Com- 
mandant. While at Nyangwe despatches arrived 
from Duchesne, saying that he had discovered, 
among other charges, that Gongo Lutete was a 
traitor, and that he had made him a prisoner. 
This seemed to us a most extraordinary proceed- 
ing, and the rumour that Gongo was plotting to 
assassinate the Commandant Dhanis himself we 
placed no faith in whatever. 

Taking twelve men and two hundred of Lutete's 
people under a petty chief named Kitenge, I 
started at five o'clock on the morning of September 
11th. My interview with the Commandant had 
lasted the whole night. Six days' rapid marching, 



2o8 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

with an average of eight hours a day, brought 
us to N'Gandu — too late, however, to save our 
brave and faithful ally, who had been shot forty- 
eight hours before our arrival. I was perhaps the 
first to feel the effects of this ill-conceived policy. 
While yet two days from Lomami, and only a 
few hours after the death of Gongo Lutete, the 
natives, by means of the drum telegraph, all knew 
of what had taken place at N'Gandu, and, 
as their great chief was dead, considered them- 
selves at liberty to murder and eat all his personal 
followers and outposts. This particular tribe had 
seven of Gongo's men billeted on them, whose 
duty it was to forward all communications between 
the Lualaba and the capital N'Gandu. After the 
news of Gongo's death, these seven men were set 
upon and killed and eaten by the inhabitants 
of the town belonging to the chief Wembe. 
Wembe, collecting all his forces together, 
attacked my camp, under the impression that it 
was a party of Gongo Lutete's soldiers going 
home ; he, however, immediately withdrew on 
discovering that I was present. The following 



CONGO LUTETE ACCUSED 209 

morning some men from the capital came in 
with news that Congo Lutete had been shot by 
the white men ; and later that same day we 
heard that, after the death of their chief, the 
Bakussu had attacked the State station, and were 
then besieging it. This was anything but re- 
assuring news, as I had made a forced march, 
hoping to arrive before the fall of the station. 
Later in the day we heard that the station had 
fallen. This report, however, I did not believe, 
since it seemed impossible that it should not have 
been able to hold out a week or two at least. As 
we approached the Lomami River, however, I 
noticed that my dozen Hausas kept very close. 
They had given everything, with the exception of 
their rifles and ammunition, to their women to 
carry, and would not allow any of Kitenge's people 
to come within thirty yards of me : a somewhat 
futile precaution, even supposing the station to 
have fallen, since, though we might have routed 
for the moment the body of Congo's people with 
us, our position — six days from help — would have 

been an absolutely hopeless one. This was 
14 



2IO THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

another instance of what I have often noticed, 
that the Hausas always meant to die game, and 
would stick to their white officers as long as 
they were able to stand. 

On surmounting the hills on the east side of 
the Lomami, I was delighted to see by the help 
of my glasses that the State flag was still flying, 
three miles off" across the valley. Arriving in 
the station, the cause of the disquieting rumours 
which had reached me became apparent. The 
whole population of N'Gandu and the surrounding 
districts (deprived as they were of their head) 
had split up into factions, which were fighting 
amongst each other, raiding each other's quarters, 
and murdering whoever they came across. A 
few shots had even been fired at the State station, 
probably by drunkards or men in a fighting 
frenzy. 

During the ten days following my arrival, the 
unfriendly attitude of the white officers and the 
anarchy in the district made my position any- 
thing but an enviable one ; and I was very pleased 
when, ten days after, Commandant Gillian arrived 



GONGO LUTETE ACCUSED 211 

to hold an inquiry. He settled himself in the 
town, at about a mile's distance from the station 
(in which I remained), and we soon had Lupungu 
established in place of his father, and his authority 
fully recognised. 

Gongo Lutete exceeded his compact with us, 
and it is due in a great measure to his care and 
pluck that we were successful during the first 
half of the campaign. More than half of our 
transport department was under his charge, and 
with everything entrusted to his care he was so 
successful that we never lost a single load. After 
we had conquered Malela and Samba he held 
them for us, and established regular communica- 
tion between Nyangwe and Lusambo. All letters 
and loads were simply handed to him, without 
even one of our own men accompanying them, and 
were always safely delivered at their destination. 
One thing ought not to be forgotten with regard 
to him. When war broke out the Arabs held 
two of his children — a son and a daughter — as 
hostages, and when he threw in his lot with us 
he thought that he could never hope to see them 



212 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

again. The Commandant, however, as may be 
remembered, ransomed them from Sefu, in ex- 
change for postponing our attack on Kasongo for 
five days. When the children arrived and were 
presented to Lutete, his transports of delight 
were quite affecting to everyone present. Though 
this was his eldest son, since he had been five years 
with the Arabs, Gongo would not allow him to 
succeed him, but made his second son, Lupungu, 
his heir, and sent him to live in one of our 
stations to be educated by us. When, after the 
court-martial, poor Gongo was told that he would 
be shot the following morning at eight o'clock, 
he appointed Lupungu his successor, and when left 
in his cell hanged himself with a rope plaited 
from part of his clothing, to avoid the disgrace 
of a public execution. Unfortunately, he was dis- 
covered before life was extinct, and was cut 
down and resuscitated, and, as soon as he was 
sufficiently recovered, marched out and shot. 

At Dhanis suggestion he had relaxed his 
discipline, and had pardoned so many offenders — 
who before his alliance with us would have been 



GONGO LUTETE EXECUTED 213 

handed over to the others for food — that at one 
time his power was in danger, and we had to 
interfere on his behalf. His great idea was to 
visit Europe, and before his death he had made 
arrangements to send his eldest son, N'Zigi, to 
Europe to undo the evil effects of his Arab teach- 
ing. The lad is now at school in Belgium. 

This was perhaps the hardest-worked month 
I had known during the expedition, — there were 
palavers to be arranged, cases to be tried, and 
much galloping about the neighbourhood, to and 
fro between the town and station, as fast as my 
donkeys (a magnificent pair, imported into the 
country by the Arabs from Muscat) could carry 
me. The sight of a white man riding seemed 
to be an unfailing source of interest to the natives 
of this district, who had seldom seen anything of 
the kind. On one occasion, I remember, I was 
going fast across an open space in the town, 
where two large expeditions, just having returned 
from a foray, were drawn up and had formed a 
line to see me pass. As we went about un- 
guarded, not to appear afraid of them, I always 



214 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

rode as fast as I could, so that, if any mal- 
content took it into his head to fire or to 
throw a spear, I was more likely to be missed. 
I was just returning the chiefs salute when my 
ass put his foot in a hole, and turning a complete 
somersault sent me flying. My boy, who was 
carrying a spare revolver, seeing everybody 
laughing at my discomfiture, promptly emptied 
it in their faces, which, though it stampeded the 
whole mass, luckily did not touch anybody. 1 
noticed that in my subsequent gallops through 
the town everyone seemed to get out of my 
neighbourhood, having apparently urgent business 
inside the houses or behind the trees. 

Just as things had begun to settle down, five 
officers arrived from Europe and proceeded to 
join the Commandant at Kasongo, where he was 
supposed to be preparing for an attack on 
Rumaliza, who had left Ujiji and had crossed 
Tanganyika, and established himself with Sefu, 
and what was left of his forces, at Kabambari. 
During the preceding month, rather important 
movements had taken place to the northward. 



FIVE OFFICERS FROM EUROPE 215 

In March 1893, by order of the Inspector of 
State (Fiv^), Captain Chaltin, commander of the 
military camp at Basoko, was ordered to join us 
with all his available forces at the seat of war. 
He was in a particularly good position to give us 
every succour, as the camp at Basoko had been 
established by the Free State as a precaution, in 
the event of a quarrel with the Arabs at Stanley 
Falls. He, with two steamers, went up the 
Lomami, and occupied the former Arab post, Bena 
Kamba. From this point he had only three days' 
march to the large Arab town, Riba Riba, on the 
Lualaba ; but owing to bad weather he was de- 
layed, and when he arrived at Riba Riba the town 
had been burnt and deserted by the natives. 
Miserera and Boina Loisi, the Arab governors, 
had left the town with their forces some time 
previously, and at the very moment were engaged 
in fighting us at Nyangwe. Chaltin returned to 
Basoko, as smallpox had broken out in his 
caravan. He arrived at Stanley Falls on the 18th 
of May, where Captain Tobback and Lieutenant 
Van Lint had for five days been resisting the 



2i6 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

attacks of the Arabs under Raschid, the rebel 
governor and State officer of Stanley Falls. On 
the landing of the troops from Basoko at Stanley 
Falls, the Arabs decamped, leaving the town, with 
all its riches, at the mercy of the State troops. 
After this everything remained quiet till the 
25th of June 1893, when Commandant Ponthier 
arrived at the Falls from Europe. He imme- 
diately collected all the troops he could, and, taking 
Commandant Lothaire and some men from Bangala 
with him, followed the Arabs, who had fled from 
the Falls up the river. After some severe fighting 
and many skirmishes, he cleared the river, and its 
neighbourhood, of Arabs and their hordes as far 
as Nyangwe, where he arrived a day after I left 
for N'Gandu. 

Meanwhile we at N'Gandu had received several 
despatches from the front at the same time — the 
sum-total of which amounted to this : that the 
attacks on the forts of Rumaliza had failed ; that 
during a fortnight's severe fighting Commandant 
Ponthier had been killed ; and that the supplies 
of ammunition had nearly run out. A powerful 



REVERSES OF THE STATE FORCES 217 

auxiliary chief, named Kitumba Moya, half an 
hour after hearing of the execution of Gongo, had 
gone over to the Arabs with six hundred guns. 
His example was naturally followed by many 
others. We were, the despatches said, to join 
with all possible speed, bringing all the ammuni- 
tion and men with us. The latest despatch was ten 
days old, and we could not hope to reach Kasongo in 
less than ten days, when in all human probability 
we should be too late. We started on the 4th 
of November, four officers, of whom two — Com- 
mandant Gillian and Lieutenant Augustin — had 
to be carried in hammocks. Our force consisted 
of fifty soldiers, and all that was left of Gongo 
Lutete's forces — a thousand indifferently-armed 
men. 

This was a most trying time, and at times I 
almost despaired of getting the two sick officers 
alive to Kasongo. We had infinite trouble, too, 
in trying to keep Gongo's people and their petty 
chiefs (now without a leader) in hand. They had 
taken it into their heads that they were at liberty 
to plunder the whole country through which we 



2i8 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

passed, under the impression that I was not 
sufficiently strong to enforce my orders to the 
contrary. We arrived at Kasongo on the 14th 
of November, to find that, the day before, the 
Arabs had abandoned their bomas and had com- 
menced what appeared to be a retreat towards 
the east. This is what had taken place : — 

On the 13th of October 1893, there being now 
no further doubt that Rumaliza had formed a 
camp not more than eight hours' march from 
Kasongo, the State troops, under the command of 
Baron Dhanis, commenced the advance against 
this new enemy. The troops were divided as 
follows : — A reserve under Commandant Dhanis, 
and another under Commandant Ponthier; six 
companies under Lieutenants Lange, Doorme, and 
Hambursin, and Sergeants Collet and Van Kiel ; 
the whole force of regulars, consisting of four 
hundred men ; and a 7*5 Krupp, for which we 
had only forty-four shells and a dozen rounds of 
canister left. They were accompanied by irregular 
troops armed with muzzleloaders, to the number 
of over three hundred. The first march of ten 



ATTACK ON RUMALIZA'S FORT 219 

miles was made to the village of Piani Mayenge. 
The next day a dozen miles brought the column 
to Mwana Mkwanga, when the enemy were 
supposed to be within a couple of hours' march. 
On the 15th of October, with the auxiliaries 
scouting in front, the column started with the 
intention of getting a position in the rear of the 
Arab positions ; the enemy being established in 
several forts, two of which were situated between 
the Lulindi and Luama — tributaries of the Lualaba 
— and were very large, splendidly built, and well 
defended. Our experience had taught us that the 
Arab fortifications were generally weaker in what 
they considered their rear, and the Commandant, 
moreover, wished to be on the enemy's natural 
line of retreat in the event of a successful attack. 
In spite of the severe lessons we had already 
taught them, the Arabs seemed unable to grasp 
the fact that we were as likely as not to make a 
detour before attacking. 

Having completely turned the enemy's flank, 
at about two o'clock in the afternoon the column 
approached a large fort, hidden by the high grass. 



220 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

and not visible until within a quarter of a mile 
of the enemy. The line having been formed, the 
companies of Doorme and Lange advanced slowly 
in skirmishing order, the signal to charge being 
a shell thrown into the fort. They charged up to 
within twenty yards of the boma without firing 
a shot, the enemy's fire not doing material damage. 
When within twenty yards, the enemy's fire 
became so hot that the rush was checked, and 
the men commenced to return the fire. The 
supports arrived almost immediately, and the men 
lay down within a few yards of the fort. It was 
some time before the officers could make the men 
cease firing. Luckily, the enemy's loopholes were 
placed at such an angle that our men were under 
the line of fire, and the enemy, to ensure an 
efi'ective fire, had to expose themselves over the 
top of their earthworks. Lieutenant Lange was 
badly wounded during the first few minutes of 
this his first battle, but he nevertheless succeeded 
in directing his company until the end of the day. 
Despite the reckless energy of the Commandant 
and all the officers, it was found impossible to 



ATTACK ON RUMALIZA'S FORT 221 

induce the men to climb the obstacles, in the face 
of such a well-sustained fire, into the fort. The 
gun was ordered up, to try to stop the enemy's 
fire with canister ; but so many of the porters on 
the drag ropes were hit that a panic started, and 
they bolted precipitately, leaving the gun in the 
hottest of the fire. Commandant Ponthier, 
Hambursin, and Collet dragged the gun nearly 
into position themselves, and, with the timely help 
afi'orded by Doorme and a few of his men, the 
gun was got into position within a hundred yards 
of the fort. Protected by the effective fire of the 
piece, the men were withdrawn from under the 
walls of the fort with comparatively little loss. 
At this very moment a large body of the enemy 
appeared on the right flank, having come out of 
a much larger fort, so masked by the bush that 
until the appearance of their troops no one had 
noticed its existence. The great bulk of the 
troops faced this new enemy, leaving only sufiicient 
forces in front of fort No. 1 to check any attempt 
at a sortie that might be made by the garrison. 
The main body had a much pleasanter time now 



222 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

with the enemy in the open, and soon drove them 
back to their shelter, their return being consider- 
ably more rapid than their advance. A small 
plateau, about a mile from the big fort and half a 
mile from the lesser fort, was then chosen, and, with 
the exception of a skirmish in the morning, the 
night passed quietly. After a good deal of re- 
connoitring, Commandant Ponthier found a better 
position for the camp closer to the forts. During 
his absence Doorme drove in the enemy — who had 
come out of the lesser fort to attack the Krupp — 
keeping, meanwhile, the larger fort quiet with a 
few shells. As soon as the troops commenced to 
take up the position, prior to forming a new 
camp, the enemy attacked on all sides, but, 
directly the new position was occupied and 
shelter thrown up for the men, they withdrew 
to their forts. During the following two or three 
days several small attacks on the camp were 
repulsed, and the remaining shells thrown into 
the forts. 

Captain de Wouters, meanwhile, joined us from 
Kasongo with seventy men, leaving a young Ger- 



ATTACK ON RUMALIZA'S FORT 223 

man sergeant named Mercus, with twenty men 
and the sick, as a guard at Kasongo. A few days 
later, the Commandant sent an order to Mercus to 
send every cartridge that could be spared vid the 
Lualaba and Luama Rivers, and thus to his camp 
by the rear, the Arab forces being between him 
and Kasongo. What was his horror, a couple of 
days later, to see Mercus himself arriving with the 
ammunition, having left Kasongo absolutely unde- 
fended, and knowing that, by the means of drums 
and spies, Rumaliza would instantly be aware of 
the position ! 

De Wouters immediately started with a detach- 
ment, hoping to be able to get between Rumaliza 
and Kasongo before it was too late. Thanks to a 
terrific tornado, which stopped the Arabs but 
which did not check de Wouters, who knew it to 
be a case of life or death, he managed to get before 
them on the road, and, turning round, attacked 
them in front. Finding that they had been out- 
manoeuvred, the Arabs retired to their fort, and 
de Wouters entrenched himself in the position he 
had taken up. De Heusch, who arrived a few days 



224 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

later, was ordered to take up a position to the 
eastward of de Wouters. As will be seen from 
the accompanying sketch-map, the Arabs were in 
an awkward position — the Commandant Dhanis 
cutting off their retreat, de Wouters and de Heusch 
on each side of their advanced fort in front, the 
Lualaba, a mile wide, to the westward, and almost 
inaccessible and arid mountains to the eastward. 
The whole plain, in the neighbourhood of de Wou- 
ters and de Heusch, and from there to Kasongo, 
was cultivated — immense fields of rice, plantains, 
and cassada being ripe and ready for food, so that 
our forces had plenty to eat; whereas the Arabs 
could only draw their supplies from the narrow 
strip between their forts and the Lualaba. Nearly 
all the skirmishes during the following ten days 
took place in this district, and innumerable Arab 
foraging parties were cut up. As the Arab slaves 
— who of course felt the famine first — were begin- 
ning to die of hunger, Rumaliza made a tremendous 
attack on Dhanis' position, which he nearly suc- 
ceeded in turning. At one time he actually suc- 
ceeded in occupying a portion of the camp, and 



m 



ATTACK ON RUMALIZA'S FORT 225 

here our brave Ponthier was killed. Captain 
Doorme, whose part of the camp it was, had been 
surrounded, whereupon Ponthier, seeing his posi- 
tion from a distance, with his pipe in his mouth 
and not even a revolver in his hand, called on a 
dozen men who were standing near to follow him. 
The enemy tried to take him alive, but, fearing 
they would fail, shot him. He lingered for three 
or four days, and was buried under his tent, which 
was left standing, food being carried in regularly, 
and a confidential guard placed over the tent. 
The morale of our force would have suflfered had 
they known of the death of so important an officer, 
and Rumaliza would have been in a corresponding 
degree elated. 

Five hours' heavy fighting saw the Arabs re- 
pulsed all along the line, the Commandant Dhanis 
himself leading the last and most successful charge 
of the day right up to Rumaliza's gates. Review- 
ing our position that night, we found it a deplor- 
able one ; for besides the large number of killed 
and wounded, there were only forty rounds per 

head for the regular troops left, and no powder or 
15 



226 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

caps for the auxiliaries and friendlies, and, what 
was worse, they could not expect us to arrive from 
1^'Gandu with supplies in less than a fortnight. 
But the Arabs had also had enough fighting for 
the time being, and remained quiet in their bomas 
for the next few days. Spies informed us that a 
caravan from Ujiji was expected by the Arabs, with 
powder and other supplies, and small expeditions 
were sent out to try and discover its whereabouts. 
An auxiliary chief surprised it, and, beating a 
retreat, it came on our sergeant Albert Frees, who 
was out in the same neighbourhood, and between 
them they cut the caravan to pieces. Albert 
marched proudly into the camp the same evening 
with over 2^ tons of splendid German powder 
and 60,000 caps, the greater part of which was 
immediately distributed among the auxiliaries and 
friendlies. These latter, day and night, prowled 
round the whole neighbourhood, and attacked any 
small parties of the enemy who ventured out of 
their fortifications in search of food. During these 
times Captain Doorme selected numbers of natives 
and Arab slaves from among the prisoners, and 



ATTACK ON RUMALIZA'S FORT 227 

drilled them as soldiers with most successful results. 
In the subsequent fighting he frequently led a 
hundred of them himself into action. The idea 
occurred to him in a somewhat singular manner. 
He had an intense objection to writing reports, 
and whenever a man was killed in his company he 
reported the death, and immediately filled his 
place by one of these recruits, giving the recruit 
the dead man's name, number, rifle, and accoutre- 
ments. This was not discovered for a long time, 
till the Commandant one day, on looking over the 
reports of effectives, found that Captain Doorme, 
though he had had 50 per cent, killed, had appa- 
rently his company identically the same, in names 
and numbers, as it was three or four months before. 
On the 16th of November the Arab forces, who 
had suffered severely from famine, abandoned 
all their positions and fled to the eastward, with 
our irregular forces and auxiliaries following on 
their trail. The Commandant returned to Kasongo 
with his own guard and Ponthier's men, leaving 
all the rest with de Wouters at Mwana Mkwanga. 
A light column was immediately organised by 



228 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

Captain de Wouters, with which he followed the 
retreating Arabs. For two hours' march the 
road was strewn with dead bodies, showing how 
precipitate had been the flight of the Arabs, and 
what destruction had been worked by the irregulars 
and other natives in their rear. De Wouters heard 
from the natives that the Arabs were entrenched 
not very far in front of him, so, leaving all natives 
and irregulars to follow in the rear (to avoid the 
inevitable recoil when face to face with the Arabs), 
he advanced with the regulars, hoping to take the 
position in the first rush. The route was bad : 
there were no roads, and only the broad trail left 
by the flying enemy to follow. While advancing 
through the forest, which lay across their route, they 
could hear the enemy in every direction cutting 
wood for their fortifications. They were, however, 
lucky enough to approach the enemy's position 
without being discovered, and the advance-guard 
was only fired upon after holding conversation 
with the enemy in camp, whom they had mistaken 
for natives. The irregulars had reported the 
enemy to be encamped on a large plain, whereas 



ATTACK ON RUMALIZA'S FORT 229 

they had taken possession of an opening in the 
forest ; this they had surrounded by a palisade, 
which, as it subsequently turned out, was in some 
places still unfinished. Outside the palisade were 
many grass huts, showing that the enemy had only 
formed the inner circle of the fort (see description, 
p. 101). Many of the enemy thus surprised fled 
into the surrounding forest, and the rest took up 
their position inside the fort. Outside the fort 
large numbers of guns and caps, bales of cloth, and 
other loot fell into our hands. The other com- 
panies became successively engaged, taking up 
their position by their right. Lieutenant de 
Heusch led his company round the fort and 
attacked it in the rear, hoping to find a weak place. 
In this he was successful : the palisade not having 
been finished, there were openings of two or three 
yards wide in several places, and de Heusch, find- 
ing that he could probably effect an entrance 
before the Arabs had recovered from their surprise, 
led his company up to the very ditch, where he 
fell, shot through the breast. His men retreated, 
leaving their gallant leader and many of their 



230 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

number on the ground, marking the position they 
had occupied. The black sergeant Albert Frees 
and a native corporal named Badilonga saw him 
fall, and alone rushed up to try to save him from 
falling into the hands of the enemy. De Heusch's 
fall gave courage to some of the enemy, who 
charged out of the gap in the palisade a few yards 
distant, but were driven back by the two blacks, 
who kept up a steady fire across their leader's 
body. Albert sent the corporal for help, and, upon 
his return with Captain de Wouters and half a 
dozen men, they found the sergeant still in position. 
He had not only prevented the enemy from getting 
the body, but, though exposed to a terrific fire, was 
himself untouched. De Wouters carried off his 
comrade, who was already dead. When de Wouters 
had time to review the position, he found that de 
Heusch's company and all the irregulars and auxiliary 
troops had disappeared, the white man's fall having 
had such an effect on their morale. Only civilised 
troops can stand the strain of a leader's fall. As 
the regular troops had themselves to carry the 
dead and wounded — and they were numerous — de 



ATTACK ON RUMALIZA'S FORT 231 

Wouters decided to beat a retreat. No sooner, 
however, was the movement understood by the 
enemy than they took the offensive, and it was 
only with the greatest difficulty, and by a series of 
attacks and retreats, that he succeeded in burying 
the dead and in getting the wounded, together 
with the guns and ammunition taken in the early 
part of the engagement, safely out of action. 

During one of the Arab charges, Sefu (Tippu 
Tib's son, and the first great Arab chief who 
attacked us on the Lomami) was mortally wounded, 
and died a few days afterwards. The Arabs con- 
tinued to attack the retreating column until it was 
within a couple of miles' march of our position at 
Mwana Mkwanga. Commandant Dhanis never 
decided whether this was a victory or a defeat ; 
for though we failed to take the fort and lost de 
Heusch, the Arabs lost Sefu, many men, and a 
quantity of guns and ammunition. 

For ten days no further operations were under- 
taken, when, Rumaliza having crossed the Lulindi 
(in reality another advance on Kasongo), de 
Wouters, with Doorme and Hambursin estab- 



232 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

lished himself at Bena Musua, on the road 
between Rumaliza's new position and Kasongo. 
Lange, whose wound was now nearly healed, was 
left at Mwana Mkwanga with two other officers. 

By the 4th of December we had been reinforced 
by one hundred and eighty men, under the com- 
mand of Captains Collignon and Rom, and two 
other officers, and a good supply of ammunition 
with three hundred new breechloading rifles. The 
Commandant thus found himself again in position 
to assume the offensive. 



CHAPTER XIV 

TRANSFERENCE OF THE STATE FORCES FROM KASONGO 

TO BENA MUSUA THE COMMANDANT DIVIDES 

HIS FORCES IN ORDER TO CUT OFF THE ARAB 

COMMUNICATION EXTRA FORCES STATIONED 

AT BENA GUIA, ON THE MAIN ROAD TO KABAM- 
BARI, AT BENA KALUNGA, AND AT BENA 

MUSUA — REINFORCEMENT OF THE ENEMY 

THE STATE TROOPS FORM A SEMICIRCLE ROUND 
THE ARAB FORTS, AND CUT OFF THEIR FOOD 

SUPPLY ARRIVAL OF CAPTAIN LOTHAIRE 

WITH CONTINGENT OF SOLDIERS FROM BANGALA 
— EXPLOSION IN THE ARAB CAMP — CAPITULA- 
TION OF THE ENEMY — THE TAKING OF KABAM- 

BARI ARAB CHIEFS MADE PRISONERS BY 

LOTHAIRE 

By the 20tli of December the Commaiidant had 
transferred all the available officers and men from 
Kasongo to Bena Musua, and himself joined us on 



234 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

the 23rd. Rumaliza, who had also been reinforced, 
was in a very strong position, having a large and 
well-built fort on the right bank of the Lulindi 
Kiver, and three smaller advanced forts in the 
direction of Kasongo. He had direct communi- 
cation by a small bridge (which he had succeeded 
in building over the Lulindi) with the fort where 
de Heusch was killed, and had thus a safe line of 
communication with the large fortified town of 
Kabambari. Kabambari was at this time held 
by Bwana N'Zigi, who, it may be remembered, 
commanded the attack on Stanley Falls station, 
which ended in Deane and Dubois being driven 
out, and the establishment of the Arab dominion 
on the Congo proper. This Arab success was after- 
wards ratified by Mr. Stanley, who placed Tippu 
Tib, the greatest Arab slave-raider, there as gover- 
nor with almost absolute power. 

On the 23rd of December a council of war was 
held, as a result of which Commandant Dhanis 
decided to divide his forces in order to cut off the 
Arab communications as much as possible. He 
had fairly authentic information that Raschid and 



THE STATE FORCES DIVIDE 235 

the other Arabs from Stanley Falls, who had been 
driven south by the Commandant Ponthier (in his 
campaign at Kirundu and on the Lowa River) 
before he joined us, were now reunited and march- 
ing from the north-east to join Rumaliza. Every 
effort was to be made to turn the natives of the 
whole district to co-operate with us and to supply 
us with food, and thus starve out Rumaliza's forces. 
Many of the natives had informed us that certain 
of the tribes who had already joined Rumaliza were 
willing to come over to us to carry out this policy. 
Commandant Gillian and Captains Collignon and 
Rom were detached with a strong force of the new 
troops, and started on the 24th of December for 
Bena Guia, on the main road to Kabambari. The 
same day Captain de Wouters and other officers, 
with two hundred and fifty regulars and four 
hundred irregulars, departed to establish them- 
selves at Bena Kaluuga, an hour to the south-east- 
ward and about three thousand yards from the 
main fort of Rumaliza. The Commandant and I 
meanwhile held Bena Musua, on the main road to 
Kasongo, which was the intermediate position 



236 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

between the other two. We had been joined by- 
Mr. Mohun, the United States commercial agent, 
who had arrived the day before our departure 
from Kasongo. He had also taken part in the 
march by Captain Chaltin on Riba Eiba, eight 
months before, and had very kindly taken charge 
of some supplies for us which he brought through 
from Lusambo to Kasongo. Our position was 
now as follows : — Lemery was in command at 
Nyangwe, and in a very dangerous position, since 
Raschid and his forces from the north might at 
any moment, instead of attempting to form a 
junction with Rumaliza, turn aside and attack 
Nyangwe ; Kasongo was held by Lieutenant 
Middagh ; on our extreme right Lange was at 
Mwana Mkwanga with one hundred and twenty 
men and a Krupp gun, in a very strong position ; 
de Wouters and the Commandant Dhanis and my- 
self were in the centre ; and Commandant Gillian 
occupied the extreme left at Bena Guia. We, in 
the centre, had two 7*5 Krupps, and, for thefirst time 
during the war, plenty of ammunition. 

De Wouters found that, owing to the nature 



^/ 




/ 



'^ Sj 



THE STATE FORCES DIVIDE 237 

of the ground and a very thick bush, he could 
approach one of Rumaliza's forts to within three 
hundred yards, without the enemy being able to 
see them. He therefore determined to try to make 
a breach, and hoped to carry the fort. At six 
o'clock on the morning of the 28th he commenced. 
Having nothing in particular to do, I climbed 
to the top of a mountain which commanded a 
view of the scene of operations, and was in the 
tantalising position of seeing the fight going on, 
though unable to know" with what result. After 
steady cannonading till nine o'clock there was 
very heavy musketry fire on two sides of the fort, 
and this ceasing led me to suppose that the fort had 
been carried, whereas the real state of affairs was 
quite diflferent. De Wouters had only succeeded 
in making a breach of not more than a yard square, 
although he had advanced the gun to within a 
hundred yards of the fort. While thus engaged, 
Commandant Gillian had, unknown to him, attacked 
the main fort in the rear, and after twenty minutes' 
hard fighting had been repulsed with very heavy 
loss. De Wouters and Doorme then led the men 



238 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

up to the fort, but nothing they could do could 
persuade the men to mount the breach, though 
some of them followed actually into the ditch. 
De Wouters eventually retired. When we took 
the fort we found that the Arab loss on this day 
had not been more than a dozen men killed, so 
well protected were they by their earthworks and 
the holes in the ground beneath their huts. 

The Commandant had now fresh difficulties to 
contend with, as we had definite information that 
Bwana N'Zigi, with a large reinforcement from 
Tanganyika and quantities of ammunition, was 
marching from Kabambari to join Rumaliza, and 
that he was then situated at Kitumba Moyo. 
Lieutenant Hambursin was detached with as strong 
a column as could be spared to cut Bwana N'Zigi 
oflf or to drive him back. He had to make a 
detour, the country on the left bank of the 
Lulindi — with the exception of that on our 
extreme right at Mwana Mkwanga — being held 
by the Arabs. The natives in the district were 
also hostile to us. After a week's continuous 
fighting with N'Zigi — who was entrenched at 



STATE FORCES FORM A SEMICIRCLE 239 

Kitumba Moyo — Hambursin was forced to retire. 
He had lost many men as the result of the fight- 
ing and of a bad epidemic of smallpox which broke 
out in his troop. N'Zigi had, however, suffered 
so severely that, instead of trying to advance 
and join Rumaliza, as soon as Hambursin was 
recalled he returned to Kabambari, and shortly 
afterwards, when Kabambari was taken, fled to 
Zanzibar. 

On the 30th of December, despatches, in answer 
to the Commandant's demand for reinforcements, 
arrived from Commandant Chaltin at Basoko, and 
also from the Falls, to the effect that none would 
be forthcoming. Mr. Mohun volunteered to go 
down the river to Basoko and bring us up what- 
ever reinforcements he could raise, and he 
accordingly left us on the 1st of January. On 
the 8th, Captain Collignon was detached from 
Gillian and established at Bena Bwesse, in front 
of the Arabs' two advanced forts. Our semicircle 
was thus completed ; and as patrols could now pass 
with comparative safety between our different 
positions, the Arabs could only draw their supplies 



240 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

of food from the left bank of the Lulindi. They 
soon began to find difficulty in feeding their men, 
as, in accordance with their usual practice, they had 
devastated most of the country through which 
they had marched. On the 8th of January we 
were surprised and delighted by the arrival of 
Commandant Lothaire with a strong contingent of 
soldiers from Bangala and two smart officers. He 
had outrun the courier ; in fact, Dhanis had not 
even hoped to get an answer to the requisition he 
had sent to him for another fortnight. One need 
hardly emphasise the contrast between Chaltin's 
action and Lothaire's, the same demand having 
been sent to both. Lothaire immediately departed 
with two hundred men to join de Wouters, and 
within two days they had established themselves 
in a position three hundred yards from Rumaliza's 
own boma and between it and his first advanced 
boma, our men being thus in a position to annoy 
both. Rumaliza, under the impression that they 
were simply reconnoitring, did not attack them 
until their camp was established, and partly forti- 
fied, in a deserted village, the huts of which, being 



EXPLOSION IN THE ARAB CAMP 241 

made with clay walls, were a very useful protection 

from rifle fire. 

On the 14th of January, Hambursin, having 

returned from his expedition against N'Zigi, joined 

Lothaire, bringing with him a Krupp. The gun 

was placed in position, and Hambursin fired a 

shell to measure the distance, in order that all 

should be ready for the bombardment, which was 

intended to take place on the morrow. This trial 

shot, however, efi'ected other results than were 

intended : it blew up the magazine and set the 

Arab fort on fire. Being the wet season, all the 

huts, trenches, and retiring holes in the fort were 

very heavily thatched. A few rounds of canister 

prevented the enemy from extinguishing the fire, 

and in a few minutes the whole fort, covering three 

or four acres, was a roaring fiery furnace, with 

ammunition exploding in every direction. Our 

troops were not idle, and, taking advantage of the 

disorder that prevailed among the enemy, climbed 

the fortifications in every direction and poured in 

a most destructive fire with their rifles. The heat 

inside became so intense that the Arabs heaved 
16 



242 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

immense quantities of cartridges, powder, and caps 
over their defences to prevent them exploding. 
They broke out of the fort and fled precipitately 
to the river, being forced into this direction by the 
position of our forces between them and their 
other bomas. On arriving at the river, they 
crowded on to the bridge in such numbers that it 
broke : the irregulars, natives, and even their own 
auxiliaries, harassed them, and as the panic became 
complete they jumped into the river, and, in trying 
to cross, drowned each other. What with the 
falling of the bridge, crammed with humanity, and 
those killed by native arrows or drowned, their 
losses at the river alone must have been several 
hundreds. The official report for the day was 
"Enemy's loss over a thousand." Our gain in 
ammunition was small, most of it having exploded 
during the fire, and the greater number of guns 
and repeating rifles were so badly burned as to be 
useless. Without following the flying enemy, 
Lothaire turned his attention to the other fort in 
his immediate neighbourhood, and partially in- 
vested it. The following day Commandant Dhanis, 



CAPITULATION OF THE ENEMY 243 

leaving me in command of the centre at Bena 
Musua, joined Lothaire, and, taking command, 
completed the circle round the boma. The line 
was advanced so that our men were established 
actually between the enemy and the brook from 
which they drew their water supply. These 
positions were maintained for three days and 
nights, the enemy during this time keeping up a 
well-sustained fire, which our men did not return ; 
in fact, for these three days and nights hardly a 
shot was fired on our side, except when the enemy 
attempted a sortie. On the third day, under a 
flag of truce, the Arab chiefs sent ten men to the 
Commandant offering ten guns for a bowl of water. 
The Commandant ordered a bowl of water to be 
brought to him, and poured it on the ground before 
them, after which he sent them back into the fort 
with their guns. This ruse succeeded. In half an 
hour the fort capitulated — the men having seen 
water, there was no holding them. They piled arms 
in our camp, after which the fort was searched, for 
fear of treachery, and the thirsty wretches were 
allowed to rush down to the brook, into which they 



244 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

plunged. This affair was liardly finished when a 
tornado came on, and rain enough fell in ten 
minutes to have supplied the garrison with water 
for a month had they still held out. With this 
capitulation 2000 prisoners, 600 guns, 20 repeat- 
ing rifles and ammunition fell into our hands. 
During this time Commandant Gillian had left 
Bena Guia and had joined Collignon in attacking 
the two advanced forts, both of these officers 
having been rather severely handled by the 
defenders. The intermediate fort having now 
fallen, all our troops marched with Commandant 
Dhanis to invest the remaining positions of the 
enemy ; but before this was accomplished the 
forts capitulated. Captain Rom did a plucky but 
(with our knowledge of the Arab character) foolish 
thing. Bwana N'Zigi, the commander of the Arab 
forts, sent a messenger into Commandant Gillian's 
camp carrying a Koran, who said that if a white 
man would come to the fort with the same Koran 
in his hand no harm should happen to him, and 
Bwana N'Zigi would himself arrange terms with him. 
While discussing the question, Captain Rom seized 



THE TAKING OF KABAMBARI 245 

the Koran and started off with it, saying that this 
would probably save bloodshed. He went to the 
fort, arranged the terms of capitulation with Bwana 
N'Zigi, and at the end of the palaver exchanged 
a State flag with Bwana N'Zigi for his standard. 

On the 18th of January a column was despatched 
after Rumaliza, under Commandant Lothaire and 
Captains de Wouters and Doorme. By a forced 
march they surprised Kabambari on the 25th 
of January, arriving at the outskirts of the town 
at four o'clock in the afternoon, and rushing into 
it before the Arabs had time even to shut the 
gates. The natives and slaves in the surrounding 
fields were, meanwhile, looking on in apathetic 
indifference at their arrival. This easily achieved 
success may be attributed to the excellent policy 
which the Commandant Dhanis had pursued 
throughout the whole campaign, in never allowing 
the natives to be interfered with or molested, 
unless they actually attacked us under the Arab 
flag. The natives throughout the whole country 
had got to know this, and, on Lothaire's approach, 
instead of flying terror-stricken into the town, they 



246 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

simply watched with curiosity our troops passing. 
Rumaliza is said to have escaped into the great 
forest, accompanied by only four men. De Wouters 
and his company marched to Tanganyika, to open 
communication with the forces of the Anti-Slavery 
Society, who had lain inactive during the whole 
of our campaign. He met Captain Descamps on 
the road, twenty miles from Albertville. Descamps 
had just taken command of the Anti- Slavery 
troops, and immediately organised an expedition 
and took the field. De Wouters returned with 
him, and they joined Commandant Loth aire, who 
was marching towards the north-east on the Ujiji 
road, this being the direction in which the relics of 
the Arab force had fled. They took four forts on 
the road, which the defenders on each occasion 
deserted as soon as our troops came in sight, 
without firing a shot. Arriving at the Lake, a 
station was formed at Bakari on Burton's Gulf, of 
which Lieutenant Lange was left in command ; 
the troops meanwhile returning to Kabambari, 
where a large fortified camp was immediately 
formed in the event of a return of the Arabs from 



ARAB CHIEFS MADE PRISONERS 247 

the south or east. All the natives, and small 
detached bands of Arabs, submitted ; and Lothaire 
took Raschid, Said-ben-a-Bedi, Miserera, and Amici 
prisoners. Said-ben-a-Bedi had conducted Emin 
Pasha from the Equatorial province to the neigh- 
bourhood of Kabungi, where Emin was murdered 
by the Chief Kibungi, and was accused of being 
himself concerned in the murder. After trial by 
court-martial he was acquitted, and afterwards 
came to Europe with us. 

On the 12th of March, Mr. Mohun, the American 
Consul, returned from Basoko, having collected 
about a hundred men, who were following him 
under the command of Lieutenant Baldwin. It 
will be remembered that after the refusal of Com- 
mandant Chaltin to send us help, on the 1st of 
January, the Consul had offered to go down the 
river and get together what men he could, we being 
very hard pressed at the time. He returned hav- 
ing successfully accomplished this voluntary work, 
though, fortunately for us, the danger was then 
already averted. Lieutenant Baldwin arrived with 
the men in due course. 



CHAPTER Xy 

DESCRIPTION OF EXPEDITION TO EXPLORE THE 
UPPER WATERS OF THE LUALABA RIVER 

The country being for the moment practically 
quiet, and a road open to Tanganyika, the Com- 
mandant was anxious to find out if a water- 
way to the Great Lake were possible to discover. 
On the old caravan road through Kabambari 
everything had to be carried on men's heads, 
which was naturally a very expensive method, and 
a water-way for even part of the road would mean 
enormous advantages. I received an order to 
take over Baldwin's men and to form a caravan 
to explore the upper waters of the Lualaba, which 
till then were unknown to Europeans. 

My instructions were in the following terms : — 

Kasongo, le 16 Mars, 1894. 
Monsieur le Docteur,— J'ai I'hoiineur de vous faire savoir que 
je vous charge de conduire une expedition de reconnaissance vers 
le Tanganyika. 



EXPEDITION TO EXPLORE 249 

M. le Consul Mohiin exprime le dosir de vous accompagner ; 
vous lui rendrez tous les services que vous pouvez. 

Vous partirez avec le detachement de Basoko. 

Votre but sera de suivre le Lualaba et le Lukuga, et d'examiner 
la navigabilite de ces cours d'eau jusqu'au Lac. Vous devez surtout 
marquer les noms des villages, des chefs, indiquer leur importance, 
dire le cas echeant de quels Arabes ils dependaient, indiquer le plus 
exactement possible jusqu'ou s'etendait I'influence Arabe. Je joins 
d'ailleurs h cette lettre une instruction concernant les itineraires. 

Vous irez jusqu'a M'pala ou Albertville. Si vous le jugez 
necessaire vous pouvez aller en tout autre endroit ou se trouve le 
Comt. de la Region Administrative. Si ce n'est pas trop loin. 

Dans tous les cas, 11 faudra lui donner communication de votre 
rapport et de votre carte de Kasongo au Lac. II ne faudra rester au 
Lac que le temps strictement necessaire pour reposer votre troupe 
ou pour achever vos relations officielles. 

II faudra rapporter si possible du Lac des pommes de terre 
d'Europe et des semences de ble ; vous en donnez une petite partie 
a Kabambari. 

J'enverrai votre correspondance k Albertville et vos colis postaux 
a Kabambari. 

Le Commandt. de la Zone Arabe 
Dhanis. 

Monsieur le Docteur Hinde. 

Thomson, Stanley, and others had suggested 
that the Lukuga, flowing out of Tanganyika, 
emptied itself into the Lualaba, or indirectly 
into the Lualaba through Lake Lanchi. It had 
also been suggested that the Lukuga flowed into 
Tanganyika, and not out of it. These were, 
naturally, important points to be solved. The 



250 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

United States agent, Mohun, wished to accompany 
me, and we started arranging the caravan. After 
carefully eliminating the worst men from Bald- 
win's detachment, I found sixty - five sturdy 
fellows to take with me. They proved, however, 
the most undisciplined disobedient set of thieves 
I had ever to deal with. In addition to their 
general worthlessness, they could neither swim 
nor paddle — an exceptional disadvantage in an 
expedition by water, since, in the matter of trans- 
port, it left us entirely in the hands of the 
natives through whose districts we passed. 
Among these men were five Abyssinians, the 
only survivors out of a band of seventy-five who 
had started from Boma to join us, the rest having 
died on the way, unable to withstand the bad 
climate, bad feeding, and want of care to which 
they had been subjected. These five Abyssinians 
were in a wretched condition and sufi'ering from 
fever when they joined us, but it seemed to me 
that something might be made of them ; and so 
it proved, for with proper care and feeding they 
became the most useful, hard-working, and faith- 



EXPEDITION TO EXPLORE 251 

ful men in the whole detachment. On several 
occasions, when the detachment was on the verge 
of mutiny, these Abyssinians kept close to Mohun 
and myself, and, in fact, usually insisted on sleep- 
ing within a yard or two of our tents. 

On the 14th of March I distributed a hundred 
cartridges per head and a new suit of uniform 
to each man. That night I was wakened by an 
alarm of fire on our side of Kasongo, and rushing 
out found that the section of the camp in which 
the Kwangolas (my new company) were quartered 
was in flames. A whirlwind, or small tornado, 
had unluckily at that moment sprung up, and the 
whole of that section of the camp was quickly in 
a blaze. My men, though supposed to have been 
soldiers for more than six months, were absolutely 
useless, and, as a consequence, I lost three rifles 
and over seven hundred cartridges, and had also 
two very narrow escapes from cartridges exploding 
when I was trying to save them. Notwithstand- 
ing this, the Commandant severely reprimanded 
me for the loss of ammunition, and on the follow- 
ing day I had to start without being allowed to 



252 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

replace my losses. We marclied to Farrhagis 
on the Lualaba, where we were to be supplied 
with canoes. Mohim had six men of his own, 
and a Hausa cook named Philip, who was a 
useful interpreter and a good cook when he was 
not drunk. At Farrhagis we lost a whole day 
hunting up canoes which were supposed to be 
ready for us. The Waginia, true to their instincts, 
had made away with, and hidden in the lagoons 
and swamps, all the best and biggest canoes they 
could lay their hands on. We, however, eventually 
got together a dozen canoes, which were sufficient 
to carry our whole party. These canoes, though 
simply dug out from a single tree, are a grand 
means of transport. The largest one, which 
belonged to Mohun, carried sixty men to paddle ; 
twelve soldiers with their kit and food ; Mohun, 
his bed and luggage, in a house built on the canoe ; 
the cook Philip and two or three other servants ; 
together with a kitchen fire and a couple of milk 
goats, besides half a ton of stores. This canoe passed 
through the most extraordinary adventures without 
damage. Coming down rapids at the rate of 



EXPEDITION TO EXPLORE 253 

twenty miles an hour, it was often suddenly 
arrested in full career by a rock, the shock send- 
ing half the paddlers flying overboard. (In this 
region the men all paddle standing up, both the 
bow and stern being flattened into a platform, 
three or four feet square, on which numbers of the 
men stand while at work.) After some months 
of the roughest work, which I do not think any 
other kind of boat could have withstood, I left 
this canoe at Stanley Falls, apparently as good as 
new. 

On the 17th of March we started, and within 
an hour were poling and dragging the canoes up 
the first rapids. The whole day was spent in 
this work. When the current was too strong, 
or when there was an actual fall of two or 
three feet to be mounted, we cut long creepers 
of monkey ropes, and, attaching them to the 
canoes, set a couple of hundred men hauling, and 
in this way dragged them up by main force. 
For a present of a few yards of cloth or a handful 
or two of beads, we generally got as much help 
as we Wanted from the fishing villages on the 



254 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

river bank. Occasionally, the only passable part 
of a cataract or rapid was blocked by enormously 
strong weirs, some of which were made of whole 
trees, and had evidently been placed there by 
the natives when the water was low. Holes, 
two or three feet square, were left in these 
weirs, over which fish-traps, formed like an 
ordinary lobster-pot and made of wicker-work, 
were placed. The mouths of these traps were 
always placed down river, in order to catch the 
fish mounting the stream while on the feed. In 
one of these traps, which measured over eight 
feet in diameter, I found a kind of carp about 
twenty-five pounds weight. This carp is of a 
golden brown colour, and is the most delicious 
fish I have tasted from Congo waters. 

The rocks in these rapids were a very dark 
brown — almost black — streaked with red, and 
apparently exceedingly rich in iron. As a con- 
sequence, we had great difficulty in mapping this 
part of the river, our compasses being practically 
useless, and always pointing towards the nearest 
rock. Game was very plentiful, especially in the 



EXPEDITION TO EXPLORE 255 

rapids. Herons, of various colours and sizes, 
abounded, from flocks of snowy egrets to enormous 
solitary birds. One of these latter, which I shot, 
measured eight feet six inches from wing-tip to 
wing-tip, and six feet nine inches from the point 
of his bill to his toe-nails. A species of grey 
plover, and ducks of half a dozen different colours 
and sizes, were to be seen in every direction. I shot 
many sperm-wing geese, which, though rather out 
of season, were much liked by the caravan. Hip- 
popotami were comparatively scarce, the natives 
having learnt how to kill them by spearing, or 
with the ordinary hippo trap. This consists of 
a spear fixed in a beam, suspended in a likely 
place near the river bank, the suspending cord 
being fastened to a trigger placed in the hippo's 
way. In the villages in which we camped w^e 
often found the heads and teeth of hippos, wart 
hogs, and wild pigs, and occasionally a buffalo or 
antelope horn. Although elephants and buff'alo 
are numerous all over this district, they are 
seldom molested, as the natives stand in great 
awe of them. 



256 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

On the 20th of March, after a very hard day's 
work, we arrived at Mona Tambui's village. It 
was situated on an island, surrounded and inter- 
spersed by rapids and streams, with the main river 
passing in front of the village — a most beautiful 
situation, and one which completely commanded 
the surrounding country. Mohun and I sat by 
the front of the village and amused ourselves by 
shooting duck, which were constantly passing and 
repassing overhead, to and from their feeding- 
grounds. The whole population turned out, mani- 
festing intense surprise and delight to find that 
it was possible to kill birds on the wing, flocks 
of which they were in the habit of seeing pass 
before them every day of their lives. 

Whenever it was possible, instead of sleeping 
in the boats or putting up our tents, we slept in 
native villages. Most of these villages were 
hostile, though throughout a great part of the 
district the natives did not know what a gun 
was, and, under the impression that we were 
only armed with clubs, even twenty or thirty 
of them were willing to attack us with their 



EXPEDITION TO EXPLORE 257 

arrows and spears. I found the best way of 
approaching a village (the warriors of which were 
usually all grouped on the beach, with their 
arrows on the string) was to leave the rest of the 
flotilla at some distance, and to exhibit, from 
my canoe, handkerchiefs and strings of beads as 
I drew near — as soon as possible throwing a few 
handfuls of beads on shore. If anyone in the 
village could speak Swahili, or one of the 
other languages known to us, I then put 
myself into communication with the chief. 
After giving him a present, and promising a 
bigger one the next day, I allowed him half an 
hour to clear the village of all the women, 
goods, and chattels, explaining that my men were 
bad, and would probably take anything that he 
left behind. In this way I generally succeeded 
in passing through the country without disturb- 
ances with the natives. As soon as we took 
possession of a village, and such food as was left 
in it, we started a market and bought whatever 
more was necessary. This greatly astonished the 

natives, who always consider that they must feed 
17 



258 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

travellers for nothing, if the said travellers are 
strong enough to demand it. We generally 
brought our marketing transactions to a close by 
scrambling a few handfuls of beads, handkerchiefs, 
or wire ; or by starting races, for which a handker- 
chief or a small bell, fixed on the top of a tree or 
a hut, was the prize. The whole population would 
race and fight for the prize, often bringing the 
establishment, on the top of which it was sus- 
pended, to the ground in their efi'orts to secure it. 
Having established these relations with the natives, 
we had usually little difficulty in getting men to 
paddle us on our way the following morning. 
If our camp the next evening happened to be 
situated among people of the same tribe, or among 
a tribe friendly to our former host, we found that 
our reputation had preceded us, and we were 
received with open arms. Occasionally, however, 
the other side to the question presented itself, 
and all did not proceed so smoothly, the trouble 
usually arising through the disobedience of my own 
men. On one or two occasions when I was on 
shore arranging matters with the chief, and accom- 



EXPEDITION TO EXPLORE 259 

panied by only two or three of the Abyssinians, 
several canoes sneaked into the bank lower 
down, and, led by the native paddlers — who, like 
most natives, rob or murder their own kith and 
kin without hesitation — took the village in the 
rear and commenced looting. This placed me 
many times in most uncomfortable and dangerous 
positions, and, though I made example of several of 
the worst blackguards, I had trouble almost to the 
end of the chapter. As soon as we got above Fam- 
busi village we found no more Waginia, the water 
race here being called Waujabillio. And a very 
fine race they are — tall, almost handsome, brown 
men, w4th the most fantastic methods of dressing 
the hair ; though, curiously enough, the men only 
pay attention to this part of their appearance, "and 
I rarely saw a woman who seemed to have taken 
any trouble at all- about her headdress. This, 
however, may have been owing to the fact that 
we saw only slaves — the free women and chief's 
wives being kept out of the way. The men wore 
festoons of fetishes suspended round their necks 
and waists, some of which, representing figures of 



26o THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

men and women, were beautifully carved in ivory 
or wart hogs' teeth. They all wore round their 
waists a piece of native cloth, woven from palm 
fibre, called madeba. They were armed with 
fairly powerful bows and arrows, the arrows 
being well made, barbed and tipped with iron, and 
coated with poison. This poison was not, however, 
invariably fatal, probably owning to the fact that, 
in common with most of the native poisons I 
have seen in the Congo Basin, it loses its virulence 
when not fresh. One of my men who had his thigh 
transfixed by an arrow, thickly coated with so- 
called poison, did not die, though the only remedy 
I used was a drink of ammonia and water, with 
a couple of drops of ammonia poured into each 
of the wounds. This pained him so much, and 
stung his nose, throat, and eyes to such an extent 
that he concluded the white man's medicine must 
be more powerful than native poison, and so made 
up his mind to live. Almost every "Waujabillio 
that I saw carried a curious razor with a triangular 
blade fixed on a handle, and stuck in a sheath 
suspended from the waist-belt or neck. These 



EXPEDITION TO EXPLORE 261 

razors were, for some unaccountable reason, always 
carried handle down, the blade being jammed so 
tightly in the sheath that it did not drop out. 
Their carving in wood and ivory is really beautiful, 
and I was fortunate in beinsj able to o;et to England 
some fine specimens in the shape of paddles, walk- 
ing-sticks, and axe handles, which are now in the 
British Museum. The houses of this race are 
curious : they are built of mud, and consist of two 
rooms, the front one about seven feet square, and 
the back one — which is the main part of the house 
— of circular shape and about ten feet in diameter. 
The entire hut is thatched, the circular portion 
having a beehive roof, and the square part a lean- 
to. In the interior were always twenty or thirty 
balks of timber thickly covered with soot. Some 
of these were evidently used as beds, but for what 
the others served I could never discover, though 
the general idea in the caravan was that they were 
used for forming platforms, on which to smoke fish 
or flesh. This seems almost incredible, with the 
far simpler alternative of using lighted sticks. In 
both the outer and inner rooms were placed raised 



262 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

platforms of clay, about a yard long and two feet 
wide, which served as fireplaces. On these hearths 
three or four conical lumps of clay, shaped like an 
ordinary flower-pot and inverted, were always 
found. Three of these, placed close togetlier with 
the fire between, formed a capital stand for a 
cooking-pot. This system is common all over the 
Lualaba and Lomami districts. In other parts of 
the Concro I have seen the common mushroom- 
shaped ants' nests used for this purpose. All the 
houses were infested b}^ myriads of rats, which 
were fearfully and horribly tame. Enormous 
numbers of them used, nightly, to swarm up and 
down the sides of my mosquito net, and on 
more than one occasion broke the strings 
and descended in a solid mass upon me in bed. 
We eventually became so accustomed to them that 
they ceased to disturb us, unless they were of the 
musk variety — a grey long-nosed animal about 
the size of our own drain rat, with the abominable 
peculiarity that wherever it goes or whatever it 
touches is infected with the stench of musk for 
days afterwards. One only of these rats in a hut, 



EXPEDITION TO EXPLORE 263 

if I did not succeed in catching it, was sufficient 
to necessitate a change of dwelling. The extra- 
ordinary numbers of rats found in these districts 
led me to suppose that the natives, unlike those of 
other parts of the Congo Basin, do not make use 
of them as food. 

Once free of the Waginias our daily worries 
increased — and with reason, for we were outside 
the sphere of Arab influence. I have always found 
that peoples and tribes who have had to do with 
the Arabs are civil and obliging, having doubtless 
learned that the best way to get rid of both 
pleasant and unpleasant visitors is to help them 
on their way. One of the most difficult people 
we had to deal with was a chief named Kitenge, 
a powerful and unruly vassal of a good-natured 
timid old patriarch named Kongolo, whom we 
afterwards visited. Kitenge's headquarters were 
on a large island in the middle of the river. The 
greater part of this island was formed of a beauti- 
ful white quartz, and the approach to it was one 
of the finest pieces of scenery I have ever seen. 
At the lower end of the island were a series of 



264 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

falls and rapids called Nyangi. On the left bank 
of the river, at this point, a magnificent cliflf of 
quartz rose abruptly ; at the foot of which, huge 
blocks, piled up into fantastic shapes, stretched out 
into the river. In the middle of the rapid a great 
cone-shaped block of quartz, thirty-five or forty 
feet high, stood, crowned with a little grass plateau 
and two or three trees, round which flocks of white 
and black eagles were circling. On the left side 
the hill -slope rose sharply from the river bank, 
forming almost perpendicular cliff's sparsely covered 
with grass. 

Kitenge promised us both food and men to 
proceed on our journey, and left us without either, 
to starve on the island. On the following day he 
renewed his promises, but protested that he had 
no men handy ; he had, he said, sent for some to 
the interior, but since he possessed neither boats 
nor paddles we would have to lend him our own 
to bring the people from the mainland. While so 
talking, we saw three canoes quietly crossing over 
to the lower end of the island. Keeping the chief 
engaged in conversation, I despatched some of my 



EXPEDITION TO EXPLORE 265 

men with orders to seize the canoes, which they 
succeeded in doing and in bringing them up to 
our end of the island, much to the chief's chagrin. 
In one of the canoes was a fine cat-fish weighing 
perhaps two hundred pounds, which was very 
acceptable to the hungry troops. With these 
canoes, Omarri the interpreter and a few men 
crossed over to the mainland, the chief meanwhile 
being detained by us on the island. After a couple 
of hours they returned with all that we wanted, 
and we started, under the impression that we had 
done with Kitenge ; we had, however, not seen the 
last of him. Later in the day, as I had just 
passed a difficult piece of rapid, and was waiting 
at the tail of the next one for the rest of the 
boats to come up, I saw the natives deliberately 
overturn one canoe in the middle of the stream. 
Though it was in comparatively smooth water, 
as the Kwangola were unable to swim, they were 
all drowned. The canoe fortunately contained 
only eight men — one of whom was the interpreter 
Omarri, who swam ashore with his rifle in pur- 
suit of the natives. From my perch on a rock 



266 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

I could of course do nothing, the roar of the cata- 
ract above preventing anyone from hearing the 
directions I shouted. The catastrophe occupied 
only a few seconds : I saw a head and two hands 
appear, and the great river swept on, leaving no 
sign of what had taken place. Omarri returned 
to me, but the native paddlers all disappeared into 
the bush, and I saw none of them again. 

Towards evening we were still in the rapids, and, 
since there was great difficulty in getting Mohun's 
big canoe along, I joined him in it. At dusk, 
having only succeeded in getting half the canoe 
over a ridge of rocks, all the natives jumped over- 
board and swam to the shore half a mile away 
in the gloom. By an unfortunate chance the 
provisions and bedding had preceded us in the 
other canoes, and we were left in the unenvi- 
able position of passing the night in a wet canoe, 
worried by myriads of mosquitoes, hungry, and 
drenched by a dense fog. The following morning 
our servants, the interpreter, and the Abyssinians 
returned and helped us out of the predicament ; 
the remainder of our men, thinking themselves 



EXPEDITION TO EXPLORE 267 

quit of us, amusing themselves meanwhile to the 
annoyance of the natives. We afterwards dis- 
covered that Kongolo, to whose village we next 
came — and who was grand chief of the whole 
district — had given orders that we were not to be 
allowed to land. His village was situated above 
the rapids, and when, in spite of his orders, we 
put in our appearance, he made the best of what 
he considered to be a bad job, and treated us very 
welh From him we learned that we could con- 
tinue paddling up the river for another three 
weeks without encountering any more rapids. This 
was probably not true, and I am sorry that we 
were unable to test its accuracy; for on the 31st 
of March, four days afterwards, we reached the 
mouth of the Lukuga, up which we turned. Before 
getting there I had rather an unpleasant experience. 
At Kiembenema village, which was situated half a 
mile from the shore on which we were encamped, 
a number of my men broke loose and started off 
looting into the village. The chief came to me 
complaining of the treatment his people were 
receiving, but was pacified when, after following 



268 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

the men, I took from them the fowls, goats, and 
other things they had looted, and returned them 
to him. One of my rascals, however, seeing the 
position of affairs, bolted with his prey, and when 
I came up with him dodged behind a bush. I 
heard his breech-block snick as he opened it. 
Springing through the bush with a revolver in 
hand, I was just in time to fell him with the butt- 
end as he closed the breech and before he had 
time to draw on me. As he was rather badly 
injured by the blow, I disarmed him and let him 
continue the rest of the journey without further 
punishment. The moral effect of this incident on 
the men was very marked, and there were never 
afterwards any open signs of insubordination when 
I was in the neighbourhood. 

The Lukuga, or, as the natives at its mouth call 
it, the Lumbridgi, was at this time — early in April 
— not within many feet of the highest water- 
mark. This river empties itself directly into 
the Lualaba. There is no sign whatever of Lake 
Lanchi, which is marked in so many maps at this 
point. Nor is there even a broadening of the 



EXPEDITION TO EXPLORE 269 

Lualaba which could be mistaken for a lake either 
above or below the mouth of the Lukuga. We 
found the mouth of the river, which here forked, 
partially blocked by a delta about half a mile 
wide and a mile and a half long. The river above 
the delta was about ten feet deep, with perfectly 
clear water, and varied from a mile and a quarter 
to a mile in width, with the same depth right 
across. Long grass was growing in a great 
portion of it, and there were no signs of swamp 
about its banks. Some miles up the river we 
were brought almost to a standstill by the grass, 
which was six or seven feet above the water and 
blocked all outlook. The water at this point 
being more than five or six feet deep, we had 
great difficulty in paddling, poling, and pushing 
the canoes through. We felt absolutely lost in 
this trackless wilderness of grass, and could only 
follow the course of the river by going against 
the current, the bank being completely hidden. 
After several miles of this unpleasant travelling 
we found an open stretch of water about forty 
yards wide, which led us up to the village of 



270 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

Angoma. It has been suggested that, by the 
growth of this rank grass and other vegetation, 
together with the debris deposited in it by the 
percolating water, the Lukuga is sometimes 
dammed, and that this may be a cause for the 
extraordinary variation of the level which has 
been noticed on Tanganyika. Sir Francis de 
Winton told me that in one year when he was 
at Vivi, near the mouth of the Congo, the river 
rose over fourteen feet in a single night. On 
subsequent inquiry he succeeded in getting a 
report from Stanley Pool to the efifect that a great 
lake had broken out above. There are only two 
things to be said with regard to this. First, 
that it is always open to doubt whether the 
bursting of a dam in the Lukuga would affect 
the great river sixteen hundred miles lower 
down to the extent of raising its level fourteen 
feet in a night ; secondly, that what applies in 
this respect to Tanganyika might also apply to 
Lake Leopold II., the latter lake being com- 
paratively near to the coast. 

When we were in this neighbourhood the spur- 



EXPEDITION TO EXPLORE 271 

wing geese seemed to be flocking preparatory to 
migrating. For hours on end I paddled through 
the largest flock of birds I have ever seen. The 
river and river banks, islands, and plains, as far 
as the eye could see, were literally covered with 
geese, and no other birds but geese were to be 
seen. 

We reached M'Burri, or M'Bulli as the natives 
(who cannot articulate the letter " r ") pronounce 
it, on the 4th of April. This was the farthest 
point, from the eastward on the Lukuga, to which 
either Thomson or Delcommune had penetrated. 
I am thankful to say that I did not break down 
until the exploration of the unknown parts of the 
river had been accomplished. For some days I 
had been feverish, and here became delirious. 



CHAPTER XVI 

THE RETURN JOURNEY TO THE COAST 

On the 11th of April Mr. Mohun took command 
of the expedition, and returned down the river, 
hoping to get me back to Kasongo alive, where 
there was some chance of finding the necessary 
medicines and light food. The very first night 
(when landing on a strip of sand under a high 
clifi" covered with bush) the natives attacked us, 
under the impression that we were afraid to 
proceed, and were not really so strong as they 
had first thought us when going up the river. 
I was too weak to sit up, and lay helpless while 
the skirmish raged around ; everyone was engaged, 
and I could get no information as to what was 
happening even on the sandbank, on the edge of 
which my canoe was drawn up. It ended in the 
natives being driven oft', leaving some prisoners, as 
well as their dead and dying, in Mohun's hands. 

272 



THE RETURN JOURNEY 273 

To each of the prisoners he gave a present, and 
dismissed them in the morning after trying to 
explain to them that we had not come there to 
fight. When we got back to the Lualaba we 
found that the waters had risen many feet, and, as 
a consequence, were able to shoot down many 
of the rapids, which would otherwise have neces- 
sitated disembarking to negotiate. The journey 
was not a pleasant one to me, for besides being ill 
and being unable to eat goat's flesh, which was 
the staple food, I was several times more than 
half drowned by the canoe filling with water in 
shooting the rapids. Of the rest of the journey I 
have little recollection. We reached Kasongo on the 
25th of April, to find that Baron Dhanis had gone 
down the river to Stanley Falls on his way home ; 
and my great friend, the Chevalier de Wouters 
d'Oplinter, arrived from Tanganyika in a dying 
condition. I was carried to see him, and on 
examination found that he was sufl'ering from an 
abscess in his liver. This set me thinking ; and 
the next day, when a little rested after the 

journey, on examining myself as well as I could, 
18 



274 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

I found that I also was suffering from the same 
complaint. There was, however, nothing to be 
done, as we were without instruments ; and even 
had we possessed them, there was no one near us 
capable of using them. Poor de Wouters died 
two or three days afterwards. Commandant 
Lothaire, whose kindness nothing could exceed, 
on talking over my condition with me, decided 
that I had better try to get down to Basoko, 
below Stanley Falls, where there was a doctor. 
There was still a chance that I could get there 
in time to be operated on ; but since it depended 
on my keeping alive, in the weak condition I had 
been in for three weeks, the chance was a small one. 
I, however, agreed with him that it was better 
to take it, together with the risks of the road. 
Commandant Lothaire despatched Captain Rom 
to convoy me, and, notwithstanding all the trials 
and worries of looking after a sick man, I can 
only say that he treated me as if I had been a 
brother instead of a stranger and a foreigner. 

On the 29th of April, two days after the death 
of poor de Wouters, I left Kasongo, comfortably 



THE RETURN JOURNEY 275 

installed in the big canoe I have already mentioned. 
I arrived at Nyangwe on the 1st of May. Here 
Lieutenant Lemerie, who was in command, insisted 
on our remaining for two or three days, urging 
that the cows' milk he had succeeded in obtaining 
from the herd at Nyangwe would go a long way 
towards giving me strength to bear the journey. 
He had, after many difficulties — for the herd of 
cattle was practically wild — succeeded in getting 
sixteen cows that were possible to milk, and had 
established a dairy. He was very proud of being 
able to make butter, though the milk from the 
sixteen cows gave him only enough cream to 
make three or four ounces of butter a day. It 
had until then always been an accepted theory in 
the Congo, that, owing to the climate, it was im- 
possible to make butter either from cows' or goats' 
milk. This idea had most probably originated 
from the fact that the milk, partly owing to the 
climate and partly to the rank vegetation on 
which the animals feed, contains so little fat that 
no one had before succeeded in getting a sufficient 
quantity from which it was possible to extract 



276 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

enough, cream, before it became solid, to get any 
result at all. 

From Nyangwe to Riba Riba 1 suffered a great 
deal, but on arriving there the abscess in my liver 
burst successfully, and so saved my life. Lieu- 
tenant Rue was established at Riba Riba, and had 
built three or four houses on the site of the old 
town, which was burnt by the natives after the 
Arabs had left, and just before the arrival of 
Captain Chaltin many months before. It was 
here that Miserera and the other Beloochies, 
established as Arab chiefs, had flogged Noblesse and 
Michels to death, afterwards cutting them up and 
dividing them among their slaves for food. These 
were the only two officers of Hodister's ill-fated 
expedition who were unfortunate enough to fall 
into the hands of the Arabs alive. One of the 
only relics of the original town left intact was 
pointed out to me as the identical sugar-cane 
crusher to which these wretched men were bound 
while being tortured to death. Of the instigators 
of the outrages, Mohara, the great chief of Nyangwe 
(who had ordered the extermination of the white 



THE RETURN JOURNEY 277 

men), was killed by us in battle on the 9th of 
January 1892; Boina Losa, one of the chiefs 
of Riba Riba, was also killed by us, in the 
battle of the 26th of February 1892 ; and 
Miserera and his son were taken prisoners at 
Kirundu, and hanged after trial by Baron Dhanis. 

On the 9th of May we arrived at Kirundu, 
where we found Dhanis established. He had 
found the district in so disturbed a state that, 
instead of starting direct for Europe, he had re- 
mained behind to arranoje matters. With him I 
spent a most delightful though painful evening, 
for he, determined that I should have one more 
good laugh before I died, gave such a ridiculous 
description of his doings, and of the state of the 
district, that he kept me laughing the whole 
evening. It proved the best thing that could 
have been done, for the constant shaking, it 
appears, so effectively emptied the abscess that I 
got rapidly better from that day forward. 

It was at Kirundu that retribution overtook 
most of the murderers of Emin Pasha and his men. 
Mohara of Nyangwe had, after the murder of 



273 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

Hodister and his company, given orders that 
all the white men in his dominions were to 
be slaughtered. Said-ben-a-Bedi, an intelligent 
well - educated young Arab chief (who had 
accompanied Emin Pasha from the Equatorial 
province, through the great forest, to within two 
days' march of the Lualaba, in the neighbourhood 
of Kirundu), received orders through Kibungi, the 
chief of Kirundu, to murder the Pasha. Instead 
of doing so, he immediately went to Nyangwe and 
begged of Mohara to spare Emin's life. The old 
tyrant was, however, immovable in his determina- 
tion, and Said returned, still hoping to be able 
to save Emin on his own responsibility. When 
yet a day or two from Kirundu, Kibungi and 
his company took upon themselves to carry out 
Mohara's orders. Emin Pasha and his soldiers 
were shown every mark of friendship, and treated 
with the greatest hospitality, till any suspicion 
they may have entertained towards their host 
was lulled. After establishing relations of trust 
between Emin and his caravan, each individual 
— being surrounded by a little group of appar- 



THE RETURN JOURNEY 279 

ently the most friendly persons — was, at a given 
signal, slaughtered where he stood. This, so far 
as I can remember, is the story told to me by 
two or three members of Emin's harem whom 
we rescued. At the tribunal, Said-ben-a-Bedi 
was acquitted of any participation in Emin's 
murder, he having apparently done all in his 
power to save him. Eleven of those actually 
concerned in the massacre, together with Miserera 
and his son, were hanged the same morning at 
Kirundu for the murder of Noblesse and Michels. 
Kibungi himself escaped into the great forest, and 
it was not until nearly nine months later that he 
was caught by Captain Lothaire, and tried by 
court-martial and shot. 

We reached Stanley Falls on the 15th of May, 
and the same day Captain Cock arrived from 
Stanley Pool in the Ville de Bruges. With him 
I went down to Basoko, where the doctor inclined 
to think that, though out of danger, it was advis- 
able for me to return to Europe without loss of 
time, to recruit. Captain Jasen arriving with his 
ship a few days after, I took a passage with him 



28o THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

to Stanley Pool. I was much struck on the way 
by the fact that, the farther we descended the 
river from Stanley Falls, the more savage, uncouth, 
and dirty the natives seemed to be, though Bomba, 
on the main river, is the only place where the 
natives are absolutely naked. Arriving at Leo- 
poldville I found myself so much better, that 
since both doctors had told me if I chose to take 
the responsibility I might return to Stanley Falls, 
I decided to do so. My good friend Captain 
Jasen was taking his ship up to the Falls again ; 
so after a few days' rest I embarked with 
him, not caring to go home without Baron 
Dhanis, who had also been through the whole 
campaign and still considered that he had 
some work to do. Our voyage to Stanley Falls 
was, excepting for one small scrimmage with the 
natives in Itimberie, uneventful. To my immense 
disgust I found, on arriving at the Falls, that, 
while we were in the Itimberie River, Dhanis had 
passed us on his way home. A despatch from 
him awaited me with orders to join him at 
once, he having heard on his way down that I 



THE RETURN JOURNEY 281 

had gone up again. This I was only too delighted 
to do, and we joined him at Stanley Pool — Jasen 
having made a record passage from Stanley Pool 
to the Falls and back, including a trip to Ibembo, 
in thirty days. After a few days at Stanley Pool, 
spent in organising a caravan, the Commandant 
and I started for the coast, in company with 
Monseigneur van Aertzlaer, and Pere de Deken, 
the celebrated Asiatic traveller of the Belgian- 
Chinese African Mission. 

On arriving at Congo de Lemba we found a 
special train awaiting our arrival. I, however, 
preferred to continue the march, rather than trust 
myself to the railway in its then insecure state ; 
and having arrived at Matadi a couple of days 
later, on the 1st of September 1894, a few weeks 
afterwards took ship for Europe. 



NOTES 



Note on Cannibalism 

Tlie Manyema country, which was the scene 
of the Belgian campaign, lies mid-way between 
the Arab centre at Zanzibar and the Belgian 
settlement at the mouth of the Congo. Living- 
stone, in his endeavours to find the Great River 
of which the Arabs brought him word, was the 
first European to cross Many em aland ; and it was 
under the protection of a party of Arab slave- 
traders that he entered the country in the year 
1869. Travelling with the Arabs, and compelled 
to follow their erratic course, he was enabled, by 
the delays this involved, to observe more closely 
than would otherwise have been possible the 
habits of the people. Though the cannibalistic 
propensities of the Manyema were well known, 
and a subject of great terror to his followers, it 
was some time before Livingstone himself accepted 
the fact, and it was with great reluctance that he 



NOTES 283 

became convinced that their cannibalism was the 
outcome of gourmandise, and, from whatever cause 
it might originally have resulted, had then little to 
do either with religious ceremony or with supersti- 
tion. The Manyema freely admitted their practice 
of eating human flesh, which they described as 
" saltish in flavour, and requiring little condiment," 
though certain parts, such as the heart, were some- 
times mixed up in a mess of goat's flesh ; and on 
one occasion, after a fight, Livingstone saw the 
bodies " cut up and cooked with bananas." 

In summing up the question of cannibalism, 
Livingstone finally came to the conclusion that, 
amongst the Manyema at any rate, a depraved 
appetite could alone account for the custom, since 
the country was rich and full of foods (both animal 
and farinaceous), and starvation, or want of animal 
matter, could not be urged as a defence. " And 
yet," said Livingstone, " they are a fine-looking 
race ; I would back a company of Manyema men 
to be far superior in shape of head, and generally 
in physical form too, against the whole Anthropo- 
logical Society. Many of the women are very 
light-coloured and very pretty." 

The practice of cannibalism would seem to be 
less a matter connected with civilisation than the 
result of a definite perversion of taste ; and it is 



284 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

frequently the case that cannibal races are less 
cruel and bloodthirsty than many tribes not ad- 
dicted to the practice. Mr. Herbert Ward, in his 
Five Years tvith the Congo Cannibals, says : " It 
must not be supposed that the cannibal tribes of 
the interior are altogether brutal in every action 
of life. On the contrary, I have observed more 
frequent traits of affection for wife and children 
among them than are exhibited in the conduct of 
domestic affairs among the people of the lower, or 
Ba Congo, country, Avho are not cannibals, nor ad- 
dicted to the shedding of blood, save in religious 
matters." 

A note on the " Origin and Distribution of 
Cannibalism " in the Geographical Jouryial for 
July 1893 says, that while some writers have 
attributed the origin of cannibalism to religious 
motives, others consider that " hunger was the 
original incentive to the practice, which was after- 
wards persisted in from choice, the superstitious 
and religious aspects being later developments. 
Cannibalism seems to have prevailed to a con- 
siderable extent among the primitive inhabitants 
of Europe, and still more in America. The fact 
that no traces of it have been found dating back 
to palaeolithic times, while the lower animals rarely 
devour their own species, seems to show that a 



NOTES 285 

certain degree of intelligence was first attained. 
With this may be compared the remark of Peschel, 
that the custom is most prevalent among tribes 
distinguished by a certain social advance. . . . 
While instances of resort to human flesh as food 
in times of famine are widely diff'used, the most 
common motive seems to be the well-known super- 
stition that by eating the heart or other part of an 
enemy — to which the practice is often restricted — 
his prowess is acquired. In Polynesia and in 
Central America it occurs most frequently in con- 
nection with religious rites. In the former region, 
special preference is given to the eye of the victim. 
Human sacrifices, however, do not always lead to 
cannibalism. . . . While in many cases the flesh of 
relatives especially is eaten, this was viewed with 
abhorrence among the Maoris, who also forbade 
human flesh to women." E, C. M. 



Note on Gongo Lutete's Bodyguard 

Gongo Lutete's bodyguard consisted of about 
600 men, who, as the only members of all his 
people in whom he could place trust, held special 
privileges. A day or two after the execution of 
Gongo, these men, who were devoted to their chief, 
showed a disposition to avenge his execution. For 



286 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

his own safety, and the greater security of the 
station, Lieutenant Scherlink despatched them to 
Lusambo, and from thence on to Luluaburg, since 
it was thought that outside their own district they 
would be less likely to cause trouble. 

I arrived at N'Gandu from Nyangwe on the day 
on which they were ordered to leave ; and, angry 
at their power being broken, they vowed vengeance 
against the white man and the rest of Gongo's 
people, whom they had ruled with brutal 
severity. As they marched out of N'Gandu they 
fired on the townspeople, killing and wounding a 
few, and shouting through the streets that they 
would come back some day and would kill and eat 
everyone they found there. 

Shortly after their arrival at Luluaburg, they 
were enlisted as soldiers in the State service, and 
in this capacity distinguished themselves for intelli- 
gence, willingness, and pluck against a rebellious 
slave-raiding tribe in the Kasai district. 

Some two years later they revolted, and, after 
murdering their officers at Luluaburg, marched 
through the country, killing white men and raid- 
ing natives, till eventually, having raised the whole 
country against the Government, they arrived at 
N'Gandu. In the battles that followed, Com- 
mandant Lothaire and Captain Doorme were 



NOTES 287 

wounded, and many officers, including Lieuten- 
ants Collet, Franken, Augustin, and Sandrad, and 
also Said-ben-a-Bedi — who came to Lothaire's 
assistance — were killed. Captain Collignon died 
of fever, and Captain Bauduin was drowned in 
Stanley Pool. S. L. H. 



Note on Exploration of Section of Lualaba 
River by Captain Hinde 

As the geographical aspect of Captain Hinde's 
work has been somewhat hurriedly dealt with in 
his account of the Belgian campaign, the follow- 
ing epitome of a paper entitled " Three Years' 
Travel in the Congo Free State," read before the 
Royal Geographical Society on 11th March 1895, 
is given : — 

Towards the close of the campaign I received 
orders to survey the Lualaba and Lukuga, from the 
neighbourhood of Kasongo upwards. This mission 
was successfully accomplished as far as M'Bulli on 
6th March 1894. It will be remembered that the 
river below Kasongo had been explored by Stanley, 
and by others since his time, and that the Lukuga 
from Tanganyika as far as M'Bulli had been made 
known by Thomson and Delcommune. My work, 
therefore, was to connect the surveys of Thomson 



288 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

and Delcommune with those of Stanley and his 
successors. 

The United States commercial agent, Mr. Mohun, 
obtained leave to accompany me. 

The journey up the river from the coast, by 
Leopoldville to the station of Lusambo on the 
Sankuru, has been frequently described, and I need 
only draw attention to one or two points concern- 
ing the path from Matadi up to Stanley Pool — a 
way which is now so far a made road that there are 
bridges over most of the rivers, and the pathway 
is cleared of trees and all large obstructions. 
Shelters have been built at intervals of three hours 
over the whole distance. The porters employed 
for the carriage of goods belong to the Manyanga 
and kindred tribes. There is a marked difference 
between these people and the carriers used by the 
Arabs in the Manyema district : the latter are 
slaves, forced to work, but fed on a sufficient meat 
diet ; the former are free men, but indifferently 
nourished. The Manyemas are able to carry 80 or 
90 lb. without much difficulty, while the Man- 
yangas are rarely equal to a burden of more than 
60 lb. 

After three months spent in the neighbourhood 
of Stanley Pool, I received instructions to proceed 
to the district of Lualaba on the Sankuru. I left 



NOTES 289 

Stanley Pool in the Stanley, with 500 soldiers and 
porters, and after four days' steaming we reached 
the mouth of the Kasai, up which we turned. We 
were now in the land of plenty. Goats could be 
bought for a handful of blue beads, or for cloth or 
handkerchiefs if blue. Wood for the steamer was 
difficult to obtain, the edge of the forest being 
usually a mile or so from the river bank, and 
we repeatedly steamed a whole day without being 
able to replenish our stock. The marshes and 
grassy plains along the river border, and the sand- 
banks and islands in its course, literally teemed 
with game : there were vast flocks of egrets, 
pelicans, geese, and many other species. On one 
occasion we counted 230 hippopotami in a line, 
looking like a ridge of black rocks. The Kasai 
natives seem to be dangerous. On several occasions 
when we were passing close to the land, at points 
where the scrub on the banks was sufficiently thick 
to hide them, the natives fired into the steamer 
with arrows and muskets, apparently from pure 
love of mischief ; for, at the time of which I am 
speaking, there had not been enough traffic on the 
river for steamers to have given general cause of 
quarrel. 

After twenty -two days' steaming we arrived at 
Benabendi — the Belgian Commercial Company's 

19 



290 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

station, where the Sankuru joins the Kasai. Three 
years ago this was the only station on the Kasai, 
though at the present moment there are, I believe, 
fourteen belonging to different companies. 

We now turned from the racing Kasai to the 
placid Sankuru, whose banks, in marked contrast 
to those of the Kasai, are clothed with forest to the 
water's edge. At this time the Sankuru was without 
a single station ; there are now twelve stations 
engaged in the collection of large quantities of 
indiarubber. 

Ten days more of steaming took us to Lusambo, 
the capital of the Lualaba district, situated, accord- 
ing to Lemarinel, in 23° east longitude, latitude 4° 
south. The station is built on a sandy plain, on 
the right bank of the Sankuru, opposite the mouth 
of the Lubi, and was founded to check the Arab 
advance from the east. It consisted of a garrison 
of 13 white men and 400 black soldiers. There 
having been little fighting, the whole station had 
been occupied for two years in making large planta- 
tions of cassava, maize, and rice, which were in 
such splendid condition that the station was self- 
supporting. 

The Stanley had brought up orders for the 
despatch of an exploring expedition to Katanga, 
and I was at once directed by the Commandant to 



NOTES 291 

join the caravan, which consisted of 7 officers (white 
men), 300 soldiers, and 200 porters, besides camp 
followers and women. The Commandant himself 
took command. Each of the seven officers had 
three trained bulls to ride, which eventually served 
for food on the road. 

We started on 17th July for Pania Mutumba's 
village, three days' march from Lusambo. Crossing 
the Sankuru, we marched up its left bank through 
an extensive forest, in every part of which were 
wild coffee, indiarubber, and elephants. In all 
parts of the virgin Congo forest I have visited, 
wild coflfee is so abundant, and so excellent, that 
we left our tins of imported coffee unopened. For 
five days south-eastwards to Mona Chellios we 
found practically no food on the road — the vacancy 
of this district, devoid alike of men and food, 
having been created by slave-raiders in Tippu Tib's 
employ. 

Two or three hours beyond Mona Chellios, to the 
eastward, we came on two villages in clearings, 
freshly constructed, and inhabited by Baquas, or 
pygmies, from the surrounding forest. 

Immediately beyond the last dwarf village we 
came to the Lubefu, an extremely rapid stream 200 
yards wide, which took the caravan two days to 
cross. The water was at this time red, a small 



292 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

tributary higher up, wliidi flows through red 
clay, being in flood. At this point, ambassadors 
came to us from Gongo Lutete with proposals 
of peace, and requesting the white man to 
visit him at his capital, N'Gandu. Commandant 
Dhanis decided to do so, at the cost of a long 
deviation north-north-east from the direct road to 
Katanga. 

Among the hills, about four hours' march from 
Mulenda on the Ludi, we found a small circular 
lake of about a mile in diameter. This lake is 
supposed by the natives to be haunted. It is, they 
say, dangerous to sleep near it, drink of it, or bathe 
in it, and, thanks to this superstition, it is inhabited 
by two of the largest bull - hippopotami I have 
ever seen. The water of the lake is perfectly pure. 
On a subsequent occasion many of our people 
drank of it, and bathed in it for a couple of days, 
without any ill eff'ects. 

We halted for a month at N'Gandu, at the end 
of which period, leaving a post with two ofiicers 
behind us, we resumed our march towards Katanga, 
following the ridge of the watershed between the 
Lomami and the Lubefu. We passed the Two 
Mountains, seen from a distance by Wissmann. 
Seen from a point a mile away, it is almost impos- 
sible to believe that one of them is not a castle 



NOTES 293 

built by human hands, the vast square blocks of 
grey rock having all the look of old masonry. 
After six days' march we arrived at Kabinda, 
Lupungu's capital, at which point Dhanis was 
obliged to return to Lusambo. 

Kabinda is in 6° south and 24° 35' east, and is 
built on a hill. Its chief industry is the making of 
native cloth out of palm fibre. Pieces of this cloth, 
about eighteen inches square, called Madebas, serve 
as money at Kasongo on the Lualaba, where there 
are no palms. Iron is also a source of riches to 
these people, and some of their work is very beauti- 
ful, especially the axes and arrow - heads. We 
hunted and shot in this neighbourhood, and found 
that the Lukassi, a tributary of the Lomami, dis- 
covered by Wissmann, rises in a lake about twelve 
miles south of Kabinda. This lake, though only 
about two miles square, is full of hippopotami. 

For six weeks we encamped in the swamps 
described by Cameron, on the left bank of the 
Lualaba, opposite to Nyangwe. 

On returning to Kasongo I received instructions 
to try to discover a road from Kasongo, by water if 
possible, to Lake Tanganyika, the caravan road 
by Kabambari being one full of difficulties. The 
United States commercial agent, Mr. Mohun, had 
requested to accompany me, and I had orders to 



294 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

assist him in any way in my power, since he was 
anxious to get through to Zanzibar. 

We started on 16th March and struck the Lualaba 
at a commanding bluff just below the first of the 
Kasongo rapids. Here we managed to obtain 
twelve canoes. We pulled up the rapids, and 
stopped at Luntumba's, on the left bank, the 
country we passed being low and rich, and culti- 
vated by the Arabs. The river above the rapids 
was very fine, running like the tail of a mill-race 
for several miles. Twenty minutes' above Lun- 
tumba's village we came to other rapids, through 
which the natives dragged our canoes. This they 
did by attaching creepers to the canoes, by which 
means sixty or seventy men hauled them one by 
one up the rapids. In one place I calculated 
the fall to be about twenty feet. The rocks in this 
second series of rapids are dark in tint, in places 
nearly black, and streaked with deep red. They 
are very rich in iron — so much so that all this 
day our compasses were of no use. In going 
twenty yards in a straight line, with no rock visible 
above the water, the needle would turn halfway 
round the box. 

Immediately above the second rapids, the 
Lualaba, here a mile wide, is joined on the right 
bank by the Lulindi. In the upper angle formed 



NOTES 295 

by the Lualaba and Lulindi are fine mountains, 
covered with forest, and called the Mountains of 
Bena Twiti. Some distance higher up, the Lualaba 
is joined by another tributary from the east — the 
Luama. Between the Luama and the Lulindi the 
main river describes a right angle, flowing west- 
ward to the village of Sekabudi, then northwards 
to the confluence of the Lulindi. We camped on 
the left bank of the Luama, this river at its con- 
fluence with the Lualaba being about 250 yards 
wide, with a very rapid current. On the right 
bank of the Luama the Mountains of Bena Twiti 
seem to be about ten miles distant. Passino; two 
more small rivers on the right bank — the Kasima 
and the Kalambija — we came to the rapids of 
M'Toka. These rapids were formed by a whitish 
rock, which broke up the river into small streams. 
The main current was about 100 yards wide, 
churned into froth, and apparently not very deep. 
The difficulty of seeing the banks, and of following 
the course of the river, made it impossible to say 
what its exact width here was ; but I should think 
that from the mainland on the one hand to the 
mainland on the other must be about two miles, 
though this would, to a great extent, depend on 
the season. We saw large flocks of geese and 
some hippopotami here. The mountains, com- 



296 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

mencing about a mile from the river bank on either 
side, are, as far as the next falls, called Simbi ; 
they are not very high, and are thickly wooded. 
After having ascended these rapids we arrived at 
Mutetele ; here the Lualaba narrows, and just above 
the falls is not more than 100 yards across. From 
this point we could see high blue mountains to the 
south-west, apparently about twenty miles off. One 
of these mountains, now called Mount President, 
was of a curious shape — something like an elephant 
with the head pointing eastwards. Enormous 
quantities of geese and duck were shot, with which 
the entire caravan was fed. Palm-trees were fairly 
common, though the natives refused to give us 
palm wine, alleging, as the excuse, that it was 
habitually stolen by the elephants. 

At the falls of Simbi the native chief Tamwe 
had a couple of hundred men ready, when we 
arrived, to haul us up. The natives at this place 
were very kind — probably because they were 
anxious to get rid of us. The Lualaba here 
narrowed considerably ; the river banks were 
thickly wooded, and there seemed to be large 
numbers of buffalo on the plains. The hills were 
only 200 to 300 feet high, and commenced about 
a mile from the river side. The river itself varies 
from 100 to 200 yards wide, is very rapid, and 



NOTES 297 

has a rocky bottom. When the river is at its 
fullest it is evidently at least 400 yards in width, 
and deep enough to cover all the rocks. Palm- 
trees abound, but natives are scarce, this country 
having frequently been raided in days gone by. 

At the top of the rapids we came to the village 
of Fambusi, at which point there is a sort of pool ; 
it is not a lake, but a mere broad in the river. The 
mountains are wooded, and are covered with game, 
and grassy plains run for about two or three miles 
inland from the river banks. The natives here are 
of a new race, the Waujabillio, and speak a dialect 
of the Batetele language. Here, at Fambusi, we 
saw the elephant-like Mount President, about twenty 
miles off, to the westward. For the next three hours 
the river was not difficult of navigation. We then 
came to fresh rapids, where I saw, for the first 
time, a quantity of grey plover, and also large 
flocks of wild geese, which were very acceptable to 
the caravan. We slept in the villages of the 
Waujabillio. 

The next rapids were those of Lukalonga, formed 
of dark-coloured rocks. In the middle of the river 
was a very large island, thickly populated by a 
settlement of a vassal of Sefu's. There we arrived 
on 23rd March, and were told that this was the 
last point at which the Arabs had posts. We went 



298 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

on to Kinsali, and then to Kufi. The country 
seemed very thickly populated in this district, 
having apparently never been raided. Forests 
came down to the river banks, in which enormous 
troops of monkeys were to be seen. To the east, 
apparently about ten miles ofif, were some very fine 
mountains. This stretch of the river is about one 
mile wide at high water, not improbably two miles 
if the grass islands be included. The next reach 
of the river came from the westward, with very 
high mountains on the left bank, and was free 
from rapids, very slow, and apparently very deep. 
I found no bottom at thirty-five feet. 

We passed the mouth of the Mukalli, an appar- 
ently insignificant tributary, on the right bank. 
In the angle between the left bank of the Mukalli 
and the Lualaba there was a high range of hills, 
and here the rapids again began. After working 
up them for many hours we came to a specially 
difficult one called Nyangi. The fall here cannot be 
less than fifteen feet. A curious cone-shaped rock, 
about forty feet high, apparently of white quartz, 
juts out in the middle of the river, on both sides of 
which are enormous blocks of quartz, while on the 
left bank is a cliff" of quartz about ninety feet high. 
We camped on an island, which seemed to be a 
solid block of quartz, with only scrubby grass 



NOTES 299 

growing on it. This island is called Kitenge, after 
the chief who owns it, and is about three miles long, 
and from half a mile to a mile wide. 

We had great trouble with the natives here, and, 
after working all day to make an advance of three- 
quarters of a mile, Kitenge refused us food, and 
was very ferocious. From our position on an island 
we should have starved, but that my men were 
fortunate enough to catch a cat-fish weighing 200 lb. 
"We had further difficulties when we left, for the 
chief would find us neither canoes nor men. 
When at last w^e got started, w^e found the country 
very thickly populated, the people turning out in 
thousands to see us off". Kongolo, the great chief 
in this region, had apparently given orders that we 
were not to proceed. Our paddlers told us that it 
was impossible to mount the rapids, but, despite 
the impossibility, we succeeded in persuading them 
to do so. Kongolo's village was situated at 
the head of the rapids, where the river forms a 
pool, and looks almost like a lake : here we were 
told that there were no more rapids, and that we 
could travel for three weeks or a month up the 
Lualaba without finding any obstruction. I am 
sorry I could not verify this ; but it is probably 
not true. 

We now paddled for a couple of days past islands. 



300 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

the stream running only about two knots an hour. 
As far as we could see into the interior, village 
followed village, the river banks being densely 
covered with people, brought out by curiosity to 
see the white man. They were a fine race called 
Jambulus, fairly well clad in native cloth, the hair 
of the men being arranged fantastically in various 
forms. Two splendid ranges of hills rose, one on 
each bank of the Lualaba ; those on the right bank 
are called Muambo, and those on the left bank 
Kaloni. As the people speak a bastard Batetele, 
which we could not understand, it is possible that 
these are not the names of the mountains at all, 
but only those of the chiefs of the districts. 

On the 31st we came to the mouths of the 
Lukuga, which form a delta. The northern mouth 
is about thirty yards wide, the southern about eighty 
yards. The latter has a very rapid current. The 
Lualaba, at the confluence with the Lukuga, is about 
400 yards wide, and about half a mile higher must 
be nearly a mile wide. It runs in the direction 
north 20° west for several miles, and there is no 
sign whatever of Lake Lanchi, which is marked on 
so many maps. The Lualaba runs from the mouth 
of the Lukuga southward, and is so straight that, 
except for a few palm-tops, sky and water touch 
at the horizon. As soon as we got into the 



NOTES 301 

Lukuga, the natives told us this was Tanganyika 
water. This is interesting, since I see Mr. H. H. 
Johnston has said that he has never been able 
to find any natives who call Tanganyika by its 
name. 

The Lukuga above the delta is about ten feet 
deep, and was at this season perfectly clear, vary- 
ing from one and a quarter to a mile wide, with the 
same depth right across. A great part of it had 
long grass growing in it. There was no sign of 
swamp about its banks. Some miles up we were 
blocked by grass, but were able to follow the 
course of the river by going against the current, 
though we could not see the banks. After three 
or four miles through the grass we came to an open 
stretch of water forty yards wide. The whole ex- 
panse of water from bank to bank was about a 
mile. We stopped at a village called Angoma. 
The country is very densely populated, but the 
people did not seem to know anything about the 
Arabs. They speak a kind of patois of the Batetele 
language, which a man from Lusuna, in the Malela, 
whom we had with us, could understand. We 
reached M'Bulli (passed by Delcommune a year and 
a half previously) on the 5th, and here I was taken 
ill. Opposite M'Bulli was a high range of hills, which 
seemed to grow higher towards the east. M'Bulli 



302 THE FALL OF THE CONGO ARABS 

told me that he sent his ivory to be sold at Tan- 
ganyika, a journey of six days. 

Mr. Mohun here took command of the expedi- 
tion, and returned down the river to Kasongo. 

S. L. H. 



INDEX 



Anti-slavery Society, 246 

Arab attacks upon the State 

forces, 143, 144 
Arab bomas, 100, 101, 102 
Arab camp, explosion in, 241 
Arab fortifications (see Bomas), 

100, 101, 102 
Arab habits, 201 
Arab prisoners, 183 
Arabs, 7, 13, 216 
Arabs, appearance of, at N'Ganda, 

111 
Arabs at Stanley Falls, 215 
Arabs at Zanzibar, 1, 2 
Arabs, first encounter with, 113 
Arabs, encounter with, at Ka- 

songo Luakilla, 133, 134 
Arabs, flight of, from Stanley 

Falls, 216 
Arab rising at Nyangwe, 173 
Arab soldiers, 24 
Arab trade-routes, 3, 7 
Arab usurpation, 18 
Augiistin, Lieutenant, 217, 287 

B 

Bagamoyo, 3 

Bakuba, Sankuru water-people, 

70 
Baldwin, Lieutenant, 247 



Baluba, people, 79, 80, 81, 94 
Banana, town of, 28 
Bangala, people, 51, 52, 53, 55 
Basoko, camp at, 215 
Basongo, people, 62, 63 
Batetela, people, 89, 90 
Bats, 56 

Batwa, dwarf people, 82 
Belgians, 1, 5, 6, 18 
Belgians, King Leopold ii. of, 28 
Belgians, erection of forts by, 18 
Benaljendi, trading-station of, 

289 
Bena Musua, 232, 233, 235, 243 
Bena Twiti, Mountains of, 295 
Benga, Corporal, 112, 113, 116 
Berlin Congress, 21 
Boina Loisi, Arab chief, 215 
Boma, town of, 29 
Bomas, Arab, 100, 101, 102 
Boy companies, 126, 127 
Burton, Sir Richard, 4 
Bwana, N'Zigi, 15, 16, 234, 238, 

244, 245 

C 

Cameron, Commander, 4, 11, 65, 

124, 293 
Cannibalism, 65, 60, 67, 68, 69, 

118, 119, 124, 131, 135, 175, 

283, 284, 285 



304 



INDEX 



Cannibals, Baluba, 79 
Cannibals, Bangala, 52, 53, 54 
Cannibals, Basongo, 62, 63, 64, 65 
Cannibals, Batetela, 89, 90 
Canoes, native, 70, 71, 252 
Caravan, description of, 30, 31, 

32, 33, 34, 35 
Caravan road, 35, 36, 37 
Cassar, Lieutenant, 140, 142, 143, 

144 
Cerkel, Sergeant, 95, 111, 142, 

169, 181, 196 
Chaltin, Commandant, 170, 215, 

236, 240, 247 
Chaudron Infernal, 30 
Clothing, in tropics, 47 
Cock, Captain, 279 
Coffee, wild, in Congo Forest, 291 
Collet, Sergeant, 218, 221, 287 
Collignon, Captain, 232, 235, 

239, 244, 287 
Congo Free State, 1, 12, 21, 20 
Congo River, 4, 12, 27, 29 

D 

Deane, the late Mr. Walter, 16, 234 
Debruyne, Lieutenant, 96, 102, 

103, 110 
Debruyne, Lieutenant, murder 

of, 129 
Debruyne, Lieutenant, disinter- 
ment of body at Kasongo, 185 
Delcommune Expedition, 93, 128, 

139, 271, 287, 288 
Descamps, Captain, 61, 87, 246 
Dhanis, Baron (Commandant), 

abolition of chain punishment 

by, 46 
Dhanis, Baron (Commandant), 

advance against Rumaliza by, 

218 



Dhanis Baron (Commandant), 

at Kirundu, 277 
Dhanis, Baron (Commandant), 

attack on Nyangwe by, 1 70, 171 
Dhanis, Baron (Commandant), 

arrival at Lusuna, 123 
Dhanis, Baron (Commandant), 

campaign against Congo 

Lutete by, 61 
Dhanis, Baron (Commandant), 

conditions made with his 

officers by, 120 
Dhanis, Baron (Commandant), 

decision to attack Sefu's forces 

of, 146 
Dhanis, Baron (Commandant), 

defeat of Congo Lutete by, 87 
Dhanis, Baron (Commandant), 

defeat of Rumaliza by, 225 
Dhanis, Baron (Commandant), 

division of forces by, 234 
Dhanis, Baron (Commandant), 

encampment opposite Nyang- 
we of, 153 
Dlianis, Baron (Commandant), 

escape during the taking of 

Kasongo of, 183 
Dhanis, Baron (Commandant), 

interview with Sefu's envoy, 

172 
Dhanis, Baron (Commandant), 

journey from Kasongo to 

Nyangwe of, 206 
Dlianis, Baron (Commandant), 

makes "medicine," 137 
Dhanis, Baron (Commandant), 

march against Mohara of 

Nyangwe by, 132, 133, 134 
Dhanis, Baron (Commandant), 

new departure in caravan 

travelling by, 31 



INDEX 



305 



Dlianis, Baron (Commandant), 

march on Kasongo hy, 180 
Dhanis, Baron (Commandant), 

organisation of boy companies 

by, 127 
Dhanis, Baron (Commandant), 

position in attack on Ruma- 

liza of, 236 
Dhanis, Baron (Commandant), 

return to Lusambo of, 94 
Dhanis, Baron (Commandant), 

attack on Arabs of Nyangwe 

by, 161-168 
Dhanis, Baron (Commandant), 

system of boy servants adopted 

by, 126 
Doorme, Captain (Lieutenant), 

181, 182, 196, 198, 218, 220, 

221, 222, 225, 227, 231, 237, 

245, 286 
Drum-signalling, 59, 60 
Dubois, Lieutenant, 234 
Duchesne, Lieutenant, 107, 111, 

114 

E 
Emin Pacha, 16, 22, 93, 186, 

247, 277 

F 
Fambusi, 297 
Falls, Stanley, 5, 14, 23, 27, 

216 
Falls Station, 5, 6, 14, 15, 16 
Fetishes, 73, 74, 89, 137, 138 
Fivd, Inspector, 169, 179, 215 
Forests, tropical, 26 
Franken, Lieutenant, 287 
Frankie, 128 

Free State, Congo, 1, 7, 14, 16 
Free State, defences of, at Stan- 
ley Falls, 17 
20 



Frees, Sergeant Albert, 112, 113, 
114, 115, 116, 121, 171, 199, 
226, 230 

G 

Gillian, Commandant, 170, 180, 
181, 210, 217, 235, 237, 239, 
244 

Goio Kapopa, 137 

Gongo Lutete, 18, 19, 61, 70, 72, 
75, 81, 82, 86, 87, 88, 89, 97, 
111, 114, 123, 124, 128, 132, 
133, 141, 173, 175, 183, 207, 
208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 285, 
286, 287, 292 

Grant, Captain, 4 

H 

Hambursin, Lieutenant, 218, 

221, 231, 238, 239, 241 
Hanging, death by, 131 
Hausas, 109, 133, 176, 192, 193, 

210 
Heusch, Lieutenant de, 60, 94, 

103, 107, 108, 109, 110, 223, 

224, 229, 231, 234 
Hippopotamus hunting, 41, 42, 

43, 44, 189, 190 
Hippopotamus, Liberiau, 58 
Hippopotamus, small unde- 

scribed species, 58 
Hodister Expedition, 22, 93 
Hodister-Emin Expeditions, 97 
Houses, native, 117 

I 

Imams, 2 

Influenza epidemic, 176 

Ivory, 3, 8, 4 

J 
Jambulas, race of, 300 
Jasen, Captain, 279, 280 



3o6 



INDEX 



Jolmston, Sir H. H., 301 
Junker, Dr., 15 

K 

Kabambari, 234, 235, 238, 239, 

248, 293 
Kabinda, 93, 94, 293 
Kalarabija Kiver, 295 
Kasai natives, 289 
Kasai River, 5, 7, 289, 290 
Kasai River, stations on, 57 
Kasima River, 295 
Kasongo, 6, 7, 11, 21, 217, 218, 

223, 227, 234, 236, 287, 293, 

302 
Kasongo, fall of, 182, 183 
Kasongo, life of State forces at, 

194-205 
Kasongo, luxuries found in town, 

184 
Kasongo, march on, by State 

forces, 180, 181 
Kasongo, murder of Lippens and 

Debruyne at, 129, 130 
Kasongo, postponement of attack 

on, by Commandant Dhanis, 

178, 179 
Kasongo, spoils found by State 

forces in, 185, 186 
Kasongo, surrounding districts 

of, 187, 188, 189 
Katanga, 5, 23, 62, 75, 290, 

292 
Kibungi, Chief, 247, 278, 279 
Kitenge, Chief, 299 
Kitenge, village of, 299 
Kirundu, 277, 278, 279 
Kolomoni, Chief, 96, 112 
Kolomoni, village of, 94, 95 
Kongolo, Chief, 299 
Kongolo, village of, 299 



Lanchi, Lake, 249, 268, 300 
Lange, Lieutenant, 218, 220, 232, 

246 
Lemery, Lieutenant, 236, 275 
Lenz, Dr., 15 
Leopold II., Lake, 270 
Leopoldville, 40, 48, 49, 53, 288 
Liberian hippopotamus, 58 
Lippens, Commandant, 96 
Lippens, Commandant, murder 

of, 129 
Lippens, Commandant, disinter- 
ment of body at Kasongo, 185 
Livingstone, Dr., 4, 65, 282, 283 
Locusts, flight of, 204, 205 
Lomami River, 85, 90, 93, 97, 98, 
112, 117, 129, 139, 140, 208, 
210, 231 
Lothaire, Commandant (Major), 
216, 240, 241, 242, 243, 245, 
246, 286 
Lualaba River, 5, 6, 7, 11, 154, 155, 
168, 171, 188, 213, 248, 268, 
287, 294, 295, 296, 299, 300 
Luama River, 295 
Lubefu River, 5, 93, 291 
Lufubu River, 168 
Lukalonga, rapids of, 297 
Lukassi River, 293 
Lukuga River, 267, 268, 269,270, 

287, 301 

Lukuga River, mouth of, 300 
Lukungu, 38 
Lulindi River, 294, 295 
Lupungu, Chief, 18, 75, 81, 82, 
93, 94, 111, 112, 114, 124, 128 
Lurimbi River, 97 
Lusambo, 29, 38, 60, 72, 73, 75, 

288, 290, 291 
Lusuna, 123, 124, 128 



INDEX 



307 



M 
Malela, 7, 86, 87 
Manyanga carriers, 288 
Manyema country, 4, 5, 7, 21 
Manyema people, cannibalism 

of, 182, 183 
Manyema country, 282 
Manyema porters, 288 
Marriage amongst natives, 81 
Matadi, 4, 29, 30, 288 
M'Bulli or M'Burri, 271, 301 
M'Bulli's village, 287 
Micliaux, Captain, 111, 114, 123, 

132, 133, 141, 142, 146, 147, 

149, 164, 165 
Middagh, Lieutenant, 236 
Miserera, Arab chief, 168, 215, 

247, 276, 277, 279 
Mohammedan religion, in connec- 
tion with cannibalism, 125 
Mohara of Nyangwe, 130, 131, 

142, 144, 146, 147, 149 
Mohun, Mr., U.S. commercial 

agent, 236, 239, 247, 250, 251, 

256, 272, 288, 293, 302 
Mono Kialo, 79, 81 
M'Toka, rapids of, 295 
Mukalli River, 298 
Muscat, Arabs from, 2 
Mwana Mkwanga, 227, 231, 232, 

236, 238 

N 
N'Ganda, 85, 86, 87, 90, 91, 92, 

207, 208, 216, 292 
Nyangi, rapids of, 264, 298 
Nyangwe, 4, 5, 6, 7, 11, 13, 189, 

190, 236 
Nyangwe, arrival of State forces 

at, 153, 154, 155, 156 
Nyangwe, attack upon, by State 

forces, 170, 171 



Nyangwe, battle with Arabs in, 

174 
Nyangwe, meeting between 

Stanley and Tippu Tib at, 12 
Nyangwe, ruined condition of, 180 
N'Zigi, Bwana, 15, 16, 234, 238, 

244, 245 

O 
Oubangi River, 67 

P 

Pania Mutumba, Chief, 78 
Pania Mutumba, village of, 71, 

291 
Park, Dr., 28 
Peniba, island of, 2, 3 
Ponthier, Commandant, 216, 218, 

221, 222, 225, 235 
Portuguese, 2 

President, Mount, 296, 297 
Prisons, 46 
Pygmies, 82, 83, 84, 85 

R 

Raschid, Arab chief, 15, 21, 216, 

234, 236, 247 
Rats, 262 

Riba Riba, 215, 236, 276 
Rom, Captain, 232, 235, 244 
Rue, Lieutenant, 276 
Rumaliza, 214, 216, 218, 222, 

223, 224, 225, 231, 234, 235, 

238, 239, 246 

S 
Said-ben-a-Bedi, 181, 247, 279 
Salt, deprivation of, 123 
Salt district, 151 
Sankuru River, 5, 29, 57, 58, 270 
Scherlink, Lieutenant, 94, 95, 

99, 107, 113, 117, 119, 134, 

142, 169, 181, 186 



3o8 



INDEX 



Sefu, 12, 19, 87, 96, 97, 99, 103, 

107, 108, 110, 116, 117, 129, 

130, 140, 147, 148, 149, 168, 

172, 178, 214, 231 
Simbi, Falls of, 296 
Simbi Mountains, 296 
Slaves, 8, 14 
Slave-trade, 3 

Smallpox epidemic, 176, 177 
Speke, Captain, 4 
Stairs Expedition, 93 
Stanley, Mr. H. M., 4, 8, 12, 13, 

14, 16, 65, 93, 116, 179, 234, 

249, 287, 288 
Stanley Falls, 5, 14, 23, 27 
Stanley Falls, flight of Arabs 

from, 216 
Stanley Pool, 4, 7, 23, 27, 40 
Superstitions, native, 198, 199, 

200 
Sultan of Zanzibar, 14 
Swamps, 123, 124 



Tabora, 4, 13 

Tanganyika, Lake, 24, 26, 270, 

293, 301, 302 
Thomson, the late Mr. Joseph, 

249, 271, 289 
Tippu Tib, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 

14, 15, 16, 17, 21, 234 
Tobback, Captain, 215 
Trade routes, 3, 7, 15 
Tropical forest, description of a, 

75, 76, 77 
Two Mountains, the, 292 



U 
Ujiji, 4, 7, 13, 21, 214, 226 
Ulcers, caused through depriva- 
tion of salt, 45 

V 
Vaccination, eftects of, amongst 

natives, 176, 177 
Van Lint, Lieutenant, 215 
Van Rial, Sergeant, 218 

W 
Waginia, water-people, 157, 158, 

159, 169, 171, 183, 252 
Waujabillio, race, 259, 297 
WaujabiUio, carving of, 260 
Winton, Sir Francis de, 270 
Wissmann, Dr., 13, 65, 122, 292, 

293 
Witch doctor, 108 
"Wouters, Chevalier d' Oplinter 
de, 60, 70, 72, 111, ,120, 
134, 141, 142, 144, 163, 164, 
165, 180, 189, 190, 191, 192, 
193, 222, 223, 224, 227, 228, 
230, 231, 235, 236, 237, 238, 
240, 245, 246, 273, 274 



Zanzibar, 2, 8, 9, 13, 15, 16, 

21 93, 
Zanzibar, Arabs from, 1, 2 
Zanzibar, Arab centre at, 1, 2, 8 
Zanzibar, British Consul at, 14 
Zanzibar, Sultan of, 14 
Zanzibar, Treaty of, 93, 117 



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J. M. RIGG 

ST. ANSELM OF CANTERBURY : A Chapter in the 

History of Religion. By J. M. Rigg, of Lincoln's Inn, 

Barrister-at-Law. Demy 8vo. Js. 6d. 

This work gives for the first time in moderate compass a complete portrait of St. 
Anselm, exhibiting him in his intimate and interior as well as in his public life. 
Thus, while the great ecclesiastico-political struggle in which he played so prominent 
a part is fully dealt with, unusual prominence is given to the profound and subtle 
speculations by which he permanently influenced theological and metaphysical 
thought ; while it will be a surprise to most readers to find him also appearing as 
the author of some of the most exquisite religious poetry in the Latin language. 

EDWARD GIBBON 
THE DECLINE AND FALL OF THE ROMAN EMPIRE. 
By Edward Gibbon. A New Edition, edited with Notes, 
Appendices, and Maps by J. B. Bury, M.A., Fellow of Trinity 
College, Dublin. In Seven Volumes. Demy Svo, gilt top. 8j. i>d. 
each. Crown %vo. 6s. each. Vol. II. 



4 Messrs. Methuen's Announcements 

W. M. FLINDERS PETRIE 
A HISTORY OF EGYPT, from the Earliest Times to 
THE Present Day. Edited by W. M. Flinders Petrie, D.C.L., 
LL.D., Professor of Egyptology at University College. Fully 
Illustrated. In Six Volumes. Crown %vo. ds. each. 

Vol. II. XVII. -XVIII. Dynasties. W. M. F. Petrie. 

' a historj' written in the spirit of scientific precision so worthily represented by Dr. 
Petrie and his school cannot but promote sound and accurate study, and supply a 
vacant place in the English literature of Egj'ptology.' — Times. 

J. WELLS 

A SHORT HISTORY OF ROME. By J. V^ells, M.A., Fellow 

and Tutor of Wadham Coll., Oxford. With 4 Maps. Crown Svo. 

y.6d. 1^0 pp. 

This book is intended for the Middle and Upper Forms of Public Schools and for 
Pass Students at the Universities. It contains copious Tables, etc. 

H. DE B. GIBBINS 
ENGLISH INDUSTRY: HISTORICAL OUTLINES. By 

H. deB. GiBBlNS, M.A. With 5 Maps. DeniySvo. los. 6d. /^. 450. 

This book is written with the view of affording a clear view of the main facts of 
English Social and Industrial History placed in due perspective. Beginning 
with prehistoric times, it passes in review the growth and advance of industry 
up to the nineteenth century, showing its gradual development and progress. 
The author has endeavoured to place before his readers the history of industry 
as a connected whole in which all these developments have their proper place. 
The book is illustrated by Maps, Diagrams, and Tables, and aided by copious 
Footnotes. 

MRS. OLIFHANT 

THOMAS CHALMERS. By Mrs. Oliphant. Second Edition. 
Crown 8vo. ^s. 6d. [Leaders 0/ Religion. 



Naval and Military 



DAVID HANNAY 
A SHORT HISTORY OF THE ROYAL NAVY, FROM 
Early Times to the Present Day. By David Hannay. 

Illustrated. Demy %vo. 1 5 j. 

This book aims at giving an account not only of the fighting we have done at sea, 
but of the growth of the service, of the part the Navy has played in the develop- 
ment of the Empire, and of its inner life. The author has endeavoured to avoid 
the mistake of sacrificing the earlier periods of naval history — the very interesting 
wars with Holland in the seventeenth century, for instance, or the American 
War of 1779-178^ — to the later struggle with Revolutionary and Imperial France. 



Messrs. Methuen's Announcements 5 

COL. COOPER KING 
A SHORT HISTORY OF THE BRITISH ARMY. By Lieut.- 
Colonel Cooper King, of the Staff College, Camberley. Illustrated. 
Demy 8vo. "js. 6d, 
This volume aims at describing the nature of the different armies that have been 
formed in Great Britain, and how from the early and feudal levies the present 
standing army came to be. The changes in tactics, uniform, and armament are 
briefly touched upon, and, the campaigns in which the army has shared have 
been so far followed as to explain the part played by British regiments in them. 

G. W. STEEVENS 

NAVAL POLICY : With a Description of English and 
Foreign Navies. By G. W. Steevens. Defny ?,vo. 6s. 

This book is a description of the British and other more important navies of the world, 
with a sketch of the lines on which our naval policy might possibly be developed. 
It describes our recent naval policy, and shows what our naval force really is. A 
detailed but non-technical account is given of the instruments of modern warfare — 
guns, armour, engines, and the like — with a view to determine how far we are 
abreast of modern invention and modern requirements. An ideal policy is then 
sketched for the building and manning of our fleet ; and the last chapter is 
devoted to docks, coaling-stations, and especially colonial defence. 



Theology 



F. B. JEVONS 
AN INTRODUCTION TO THE HISTORY OF RELIGION. 

By F. B. Jevons, M. A., Litt.D., Tutor at the University of Durham. 
Demy Svo, los. 6d. 

This is the third number of the series of 'Theological Handbooks' edited by Dr. 

Robertson of Durham, in which have already appeared Dr. Gibson's 'XXXIX. 

Articles ' and Mr. Ottley's ' Incarnation.' 
Mr. F. B. Jevons' ' Introduction to the History of Religion' treats of early religion, 

from the point of view of Anthropology and Folk-lore ; and is the first attempt 

that has been made in any language to weave together the results of recent 

investigations into such topics as Sympathetic Magic, Taboo, Totemism. 

Fetishism, etc., so as to present a systematic account of the growth of nrim'.tive 

religion and the development of early religious institutions. 

W. YORKE FAUSSETT 
THE DE CATECHIZANDIS RUDIBUS OF ST. AUGUS- 
TINE, Edited, with Introduction, Notes, etc., by W. Yorke 
Faussett' M.A., late Scholar of Balliol Coll. Crown %vo. ^s. 6d. 

An edition of a Treatise on the Essentials of Christian Doctrine, and the best 
methods of impressing them on candidates for baptism. The editor bestows upon 
this patristic work the same care which a treatise of Cicero might claim. There 
is a general Introduction, a careful Analysis, a full Commentary, and other useful 
matter. No better introduction to the study of the Latin Fathers, their style and 
diction, could be found than this treatise, which also has no lack of modern interest. 



6 Messrs. Methuen's Announcements 
General Literature 

C. F. ANDREWS 
CHRISTIANITY AND THE LABOUR QUESTION. By 
C. F. Andrews, B.A. Crown Svo, 2s. 6d. 

R. E. STEEL 

MAGNETISM AND ELECTRICITY. By R. Elliott 

Steel, M.A., F.C.S. With Illustrations. Crowti Svo. 45. 6d. 

G. LOWES DICKINSON 
THE GREEK VIEW OF LIFE. By G. L. Dickinson, 

Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. Crown Svo. 2s. 6d. 

[ University Extension Series. 

J. A. HOBSON 
THE PROBLEM OF THE UNEMPLOYED. By J. A. 
HOBSON, B.A., Author of 'The Problems of Poverty.' Crown Svo. 
2s. 6d. [Social Questions Series. 

S. E. BALLY 
GERMAN COMMERCIAL CORRESPONDENCE. By S. 
E. Bally, Assistant Master at the Manchester Grammar School. 
Crown Svo. 2s. 6d. [Commercial Series. 

L. F. PRICE 
ECONOMIC ESSAYS. By L. F. Price, M.A., Fellow of Oriel 
College, Oxford. Crown Svo. 6s. 

This book consists of a number of Studies in Economics and Industrial and Social 

Problems. 

Fiction 

MARIE CORELLI'S ROMANCES 

FIRST COMPLETE AND UNIFORM EDITION 
Large crown Svo. 6s. 
Messrs. Methuen beg to announce that they have commenced the pub- 
lication of a New and Uniform Edition of Marie Corelli's Romances. 
This Edition is revised by tlie Author, and contains new Prefaces. The 
volumes are being issued at short intervals in the following order : — 

I. A ROMANCE OF TWO WORLDS. 2. VENDETTA. 
3. THELMA. 4. ARDATH. 

5. THE SOUL OF LILITH. 6. WORMWOOD. 

7. BARABBAS. 8. THE SORROWS OF SATAN. 



Messrs. Methuen's Announcements 7 

BARING GOULD 
DARTMOOR IDYLLS. By S. Baring Gould. Cr. Zvo. 6s. 
GUAVAS THE TINNER. By S. Baring Gould, Author of 

'Mehalah,' 'The Broom Squire,' etc. Illustrated. CrozvnSvo. 6s. 
THE PENNYCOMEOUICKS. By S. Baring Gould. 

New Edition. Crown Svo. 6s. 
A new edition, uniform with the Author's other novels. 

LUCAS MALET 

THE CARISSIMA. By Lucas Malet, Author of ' The Wages of 

Sin,' etc. Crown Svo. 6s. 

This is the first novel which Lucas Malet has vn-itten since her very powerful ' The 
Wages of Sin.' 

ARTHUR MORRISON 
A CHILD OF THE JAGO. By Arthur Morrison. Author 
of ' Tales of Mean Streets. ' Crown Svo. 6s. 

This, the first long story which Mr. Morrison has written, is like his remarkable 
' Tales of Mean Streets,' a realistic study of East End life. 

W. E. NORRIS 

CLARISSA FURIOSA. By W. E. NORRIS, 'Author of 'The 
Rogue,' etc. Crown Svo. 6s. 

L. COPE CORNFORD 

CAPTAIN JACOBUS : A ROMANCE OF HIGHWAYMEN. 
By L. Cope Cornford. Illustrated. Crown Svo. v:, 

3. BLOUNDELLE BURTON 

DENOUNCED. By J. Bloundelle Burton. Author of ' In 
the Day of Adversity,' etc. Crown Svo. 6s. 

J. MACLAREN COBBAN 
WILT THOU HAVE THIS WOMAN? By J. M. Cobban, 
Author of ' The King of Andaman.' Crown Svo. 6s. 

J. F. BREWER 

THE SPECULATORS. By J. F. Brewer. Crown Svo. 6s. 

A. BALFOUR 

BY STROKE OF SWORD. By Andrew Balfour. Cro7an 
Svo. 6s. 



8 Messrs. Methuen's Announcements 

M. A. OWEN 
THE DAUGHTER OF ALOUETTE. By Mary A. OwEN. 
Crown Svo. 6s. 
A story of life among the American Indians. 

RONALD ROSS 
THE SPIRIT OF STORM. By Ronald Ross, Author of 
' The Child of Ocean. ' Crown 8vo. 6s. 
A romance of the Sea. 

J. A. BARRY 

IN THE GREAT DEEP : Tales of the Sea. By J. A. 
Barry. Author of 'Steve Brown's Bunyip.' Crown Svo. 6s. 

JAMES GORDON 

THE VILLAGE AND THE DOCTOR. By James Gordon. 
Crown Sz/o. 6s. 

BERTRAM MITFORD 
THE SIGN OF THE SPIDER. By Bertram Mitford. 
Crown 8vo. 35. 6d. 
A story of South Africa. 

A. SHIELD 

THE SQUIRE OF WANDALES. By A. Shield. Crown 8vo. 
y. 6d. 

G. W. STEEVENS 
MONOLOGUES OF THE DEAD. By G. W. Steevens. 
Foolscap 8vo. 35. 6d. 
A series of Soliloquies in which famous men of antiquity — Julius Caesar, Nero, 
Alcibiades, etc., attempt to express themselves in the modes of thought and 
language of to-day. 

S. GORDON 
A HANDFUL OF EXOTICS. By S. Gordon. Crotan Zvo. 
35. 6d. 
A volume of stories of Jewish life in Russia. 

P. NEUMANN 

THE SUPPLANTER. By P. Neumann. Crown 8vo. 3s. 6d. 

EVELYN DICKINSON 

THE SIN OF ANGELS. By Evelyn Dickinson. CrownZvo. 
3J. 6d. 

H. A. KENNEDY 

A MAN WITH BLACK EYELASHES. By H. A. Kennedy. 
Crown 8vo. 'Ks. 6d. 



A LIST OF 

Messrs. Methuen's 

PUBLICATIONS 



Poetry 



Rudyard Kipling. BARRACK-ROOM BALLADS; And 

Other Verses. By Rudyard Kipling. Ninth Edition. Crown 

%vo. 6j-. 
' Mr. Kipling's verse is strong, vivid, full of character. . . . Unmistakable genius 

rings in every line.' — Times, 
' " Barrack-Room Ballads " contains some of the best work that Mr. Kipling has 

ever done, which is saying a good deal. " Fuzzy- Wuzzy," " Gunga Din," and 

"Tommy," are, in our opinion, altogether superior to anything of the kind that 

English literature has hitherto produced.' — Ai/temeunt. 
' The ballads teem with imagination, they palpitate with emotion. We read them 

with laughter and tears ; the metres throb in our pulses, the cunningly ordered 

words tingle with life ; and if this be not poetry, what is?' — Pail Mall Gazette. 

"Q." THE GOLDEN POMP : A Procession of English Lyrics 
from Surrey to Shirley, arranged by A. T. QuiLLER Couch. Croivn 
^vo. Buckratn. 6s. 
' A delightful volume : a really golden "Pomp." ' — Spectator. 

"Q." GREEN BAYS : Verses and Parodies. By "Q.," Author 

of 'Dead Man's Rock,' etc. Second Edition. Crown %vo. 35. dd. 
' The verses display a rare and versatile gift of parody, great command of metre, and 
a very pretty turn of humour.' — Times. 

H. C. BeecMng. LYRA SACRA : An Anthology of Sacred Verse. 
Edited by H. C. Beeching, M.A. Crown 8vo, Buckram. 6s. 
'An anthology of high excellence.' — Athe>tcsu?n. 
'A charming selection, which maintains a lofty standard of excellence.' — Times. 

W. B. Yeats. AN ANTHOLOGY OF IRISH VERSE. 

Edited by W. B. Yeats. Crown 8vo. 35. 6d. 

' An attractive and catholic selection.' — Times. 

' It is edited by the most original and most accomplished of modern Irish poets, and 
against his editing but a single objection can be brought, namely, that it excludes 
from the collection his own delicate lyrics.' — Saturday Review. 

E. Mackay. A SONG OF THE SEA : My Lady of Dreams, 
AND OTHER PoEMS. By Eric Mackay, Author of ' The Love 
Letters of a Violinist.' Second Edition. Ecap. 8vo, gilt top. ^s. 

' Everywhere Mr. Mackay displays himself the master of a style marked by all the 
characteristics of the best rhetoric. He has a keen sense of rhythm and of general 
balance; his verse is excellently sonorous.' — Globe. 

' Throughout the book the poetic workmanship is fine.' — Scotsman. 



A 2 



lo Messrs. Methuen's List 

Ibsen. BRAND. A Drama by Henrik Ibsen. Translated by 

William Wilson. Second Edition. Crown Svo. 35. 6d. 

'The greatest world-poem of the nineteenth century next to "Faust." It is in 
the same set with "Agamemnon," with " Lear," with the literature that we now 
instinctively regard as high and holy.' — Daily Chronicle. 

"A.G." VERSES TO ORDER. By"A. G." Cr.Zvo. 2s. 6d. 

net. 

A small volume of verse by a writer whose initials are well known to Oxford men. 
' A capital specimen of light academic poetry. These verses are very bright and 
engaging, easy and sufficiently witty.' — St. James's Gazette. 

F. Langbridge. BALLADS OF THE BRAVE: Poems of 
Chivalry, Enterprise, Courage, and Constancy, from the Earliest 
Times to the Present Day. Edited, with Notes, by Rev. F. Lang- 
bridge. Crown Svo. Buckram. 35. 6d. School Edition. 2s. 6d. 
'A very happy conception happily carried out. These " Ballads of the Brave" are 
intended to suit the real tastes of boys, and will suit the taste of the great majority.' 
— Spectator. ' The book is full of splendid things.' — World. 

Lang and Craigie. THE POEMS OF ROBERT BURNS. 
Edited by Andrew Lang and W. A. Craigie. With Portrait. 
Demy Svo, gilt top. ds. 

This edition contains a carefully collated Text, numerous Notes, critical and textual, 
a critical and biographical Introduction, and a Glossary. 

' Among the editions in one volume, Mr. Andrew Lang's will take the place of 
authority.' — Times. 

' To the general public the beauty of its type, and the fair proportions of its pages, as 
well as the excellent chronological arrangement of the poems, should make it 
acceptable enough. Mr. Lang and his publishers have certainly succeeded in 
producing an attractive popular edition of the poet, in which the brightly written 
biographical introduction is not the least notable feature.' — Glasgow Herald. 

English Classics 

Edited by W. E. Henley. 

' Very dainty volumes are these ; the paper, type, and light-green binding are all 

very agreeable to the eye. Simplex jnunditiis is the phrase that might be applied 

to them.' — Globe. 
' The volumes are strongly bound in green buckram, are of a convenient size, and 

pleasant to look upon, so that whether on the shelf, or on the table, or in the hand 

the possessor is thoroughly content with them.' — Guardian. 
'The paper, type, and binding of this edition are in excellent taste, and leave 

nothing to be desired by lovers of literature.' — Standard. 

THE LIFE AND OPINIONS OF TRISTRAM SHANDY. 
By Lawrence Sterne. With an Introduction by Charles 
Whibley, and a Portrait. 2 vols. 'js. 

THE COMEDIES OF WILLIAM CONGREVE. With 
an Introduction by G. S. Street, and a Portrait. 2 vols. "js. 



Messrs. Methuen's List u 

the adventures of hajji baba of ispahan. 

By James Morier. With an Introduction by E. G. Browne, M. A., 
and a Portrait. 2 vols. Is. 

THE LIVES OF DONNE, WOTTON, HOOKER, HER- 
BERT, AND SANDERSON. By Izaak Walton. With an 
Introduction by Vernon Blackburn, and a Portrait. 3^-. 6d. 

THE LIVES OF THE ENGLISH POETS. By Samuel 
Johnson, LL.D. With an Introduction by J. H. Millar, and a 
Portrait. 3 vols. \os. 6d. 



Illustrated Books 

Jane Barlow. THE BATTLE OF THE FROGS AND MICE, 

translated by Jane Barlow, Author of ' Irish Idylls,' and pictured 
by F. D. Bedford. Stnall 4I0. 6s. net. 

S. Baring Gould. A BOOK OF FAIRY TALES retold by S. 

Baring Gould. With numerous illustrations and initial letters by 
Arthur J. Gaskin. Secoiui Edition. Crown %vo. Buckram. 6s. 
'Mr. Baring Gould has done a good deed, and is deserving of gratitude, in re-writing 
in honest, simple style the old stories that delighted the childhood of " our fathers 
and grandfathers." We do not think he has omitted any of our favourite stories 
the stories that are commonly regarded as merely ' ' old fashioned." As to the form 
of the book, and the printing, which is by Messrs. Constable, it were difficult to 
commend overmuch. — Saturday Review. 

S. Baring Gould. OLD ENGLISH FAIRY TALES. Col- 
lected and edited by S. Baring Gould. With Numerous Illustra- 
tions by F. D. Bedford. Second Edition. Crown%vo. Buckram. 6s. 
' A charming volume, which children will be sure to appreciate. The stories have 
been selected with great ingenuity from various old ballads and folk-tales, and, 
having been somewhat altered and readjusted, now stand forth, clothed in Mr. 
Baring Gould's delightful English, to enchant youthful readers. All the talcs 
are good.' — Guardian. 

S. Baring Gould. A BOOK OF NURSERY SONGS AND 
RHYMES. Edited by S. Baring Gould, and Illustrated by the 
Birmingham Art School. Buckram, gilt top. Crow7i 2>vo. 6s. 
' The volume is very complete in its way, as it contains nursery songs to the number 
of 77, game-rhymes, and jingles. To the student we commend the sensible intro- 
duction, and the explanatory notes. The volume is superbly printed on soft, 
thick paper, which it is a pleasure to touch ; and the borders and pictures are, as 
we have said, among the very best specimens we have seen of the Gaskin school." 
— Birmingham Gazette. 



12 Messrs. Methuen's List 

H. C. Beeching. A BOOK OF CHRISTMAS VERSE. Edited 
by H. C. Beeching, M.A., and Illustrated by Walter Crane, 
Crown 8vo, gilt top. ^s. 

A collection of the best verse inspired by the birth of Christ from the Middle Ages 
to the present day. A distinction of the book is the large number of poems it 
contains by modern authors, a few of which are here printed for the first time. 

' An anthology which, from its unity of aim and high poetic excellence, has a better 
right to exist than most of its fellows.' — Guardian. 



History 



Gibbon. THE DECLINE AND FALL OF THE ROMAN 
EMPIRE. By Edward Gibbon. A New Edition, Edited with 
Notes, Appendices, and Maps, by J. B. Bury, M.A., Fellow of 
Trinity College, Dublin. In Seven Volumes. Demy 8vo. Gilt top. 
85. dd. each. Also crown %vo. 6s. each. Vol. I. 

' The time has certainly arrived for a new edition of Gibbon's great work. . . . Pro- 
fessor Bury is the right man to undertake this task. His learning is amazing, 
both in extent and accuracy. The book is issued in a handy form, and at a 
moderate price, and it is admirably printed.' — Times. 

' The edition is edited as a classic should be edited, removing nothing, yet indicating 
the value of the text, and bringing it up to date. It promises to be of the utmost 
value, and will be a welcome addition to many libraries.' — Scotsman. 

' This edition, so far as one may judge from the first instalment, is a marvel of 
erudition and critical skill, and it is the very minimum of praise to predict that the 
seven volumes of it will supersede Dean Milman's as the standard edition of our 
great historical classic' — Glasgow Herald. 

' The beau-ideal Gibbon has arrived at last.' — Sketch. 

' At last there is an adequate modern edition of Gibbon. . . . The best edition the 
nineteenth century could produce.' — Manchester Guardian. 

FUndersPetrie. A HISTORY OF EGYPT, fromthe Earliest 
Times to the Present Day. Edited by W. M. Flinders 
Petrie, D.C.L., LL.D., Professor of Egyptology at University 
College. Fully Illustrated. In Six Volumes. Crown %vo. 6s. each. 

Vol. I. Prehistoric Times to XVI. Dynasty. W. M. F. 
Petrie. Second Edition. 
' A history written in the spirit of scientific precision so worthily represented by Dr. 
Petrie and his school cannot but promote sound and accurate study, and 
supply a vacant place in the English literature of Egj-ptology.' — Tivtes. 

Flinders Petrie. EGYPTIAN TALES. Edited by W. M. 

Flinders Petrie. Illustrated by Tristram Ellis. In Two 

Volumes. Crown 2>vo. 3^. 6d. each. 
' A valuable addition to the literature of comparative folk-lore. The drawings are 

really illustrations in the literal sense of the word.' — Globe. 
' It has a scientific value to the student of history and archaeology.' — Scotstnan. 
' Invaluable as a picture of life in Palestine and Egypt." — Daily Ncjus. 



Messrs. Methuen's List 13 

Flinders Petrie. EGYPTIAN DECORATIVE ART. By 

W. M. Flinders Petrie, D.C.L. With 120 Illustrations. Crown 
8vo. y. 6d. 

' Professor Flinders Petrie is not only a profound Egyptologist, but an accomplished 
student of comparative archaeology. In these lectures, delivered at the Royal 
Institution, he displays both qualifications with rare skill in elucidating the 
development of decorative art in Egypt, and in tracing its influence on the 
art of other countries. Few experts can speak with higher authority and wider 
knowledge than the Professor himself, and in any case his treatment of his sub- 
ject is full of learning and insight.' — Times. 

S. Baring Gould. THE TRAGEDY OF THE C^SARS. 

The Emperors of the Julian and Claudian Lines. With numerou^ 
Illustrations from Busts, Gems, Cameos, etc. By S. Baring Gould, 
Author of ' Mehalah,' etc. Third Edition. Royal Zvo. 155. 
' A most splendid and fascinating book on a subject of undying interest. The great 
feature of the book is the use the author has made of the existing portraits of the 
Caesars, and the admirable critical subtlety he has exhibited in dealing with this 
line of research. It is brilliantly written, and the illustrations are supplied on a 
scale of profuse magnificence.' — Daily Chronicle. 
' The volumes will in no sense disappoint the general reader. Indeed, in their way, 
there is nothing in any sense so good in English. . . . Mr. Baring Gould has 
presented his narrative in such a way as not to make one dull page.' — Athenceum. 

A. Clark. THE COLLEGES OF OXFORD : Their History, 
their Traditions. By Members of the University, Edited by A. 
Clark, M.A., Fellow and Tutor of Lincoln College. Svo. 12s. 6d. 

' A work which will certainly be appealed to for many years as the standard book on 
the Colleges of Oxford.' — Aihencsum. 

Perrens. THE HISTORY OF FLORENCE FROM 1434 
TO 1492. By F. T, Perrens. Translated by Hannah Lynch. 
2>vo. i2s. 6d. 
A history of Florence under the domination of Cosimo, Piero, and Lorenzo de 

Medicis. 
' This is a standard book by an honest and intelligent historian, who has deserved 
well of all who are interested in Italian history.' — Manchester Guardian. 

E. L. S. Horsburgh. THE CAMPAIGN OF WATERLOO. 

By E. L. S. Horsburgh, B. A. With Plans. CroivnZvo. 5^-. 

'A brilliant essay — simple, sound, and thorough.' — Daily Chronicle. 

' A study, the most concise, the most lucid, the most critical that has been produced. ' 
— Birmingham Mercury, 

'A careful and precise study, a fair and impartial criticism, and an eminently read- 
able book.' — Admiralty atid Horse Guards Gazette. 

li. B.George. BATTLES OF ENGLISH HISTORY. ByH. B. 
George, M.A., Fellow of New College, Oxford. With mimerous 
Plans. Third Edition. Crown Svo. 6s. 

' Mr. George has undertaken a very useful task — that of making military affairs in- 
telligible and instructive to non-military readers — and has executed it with laud- 
able intelligence and industry, and with a large measure of success.' — Times. 

'This book is almost a revelation ; and we heartily congratulate the author on his 
work and on the prospect of the reward he has well deserved for so much con- 
scientious and sustained labour.' — Daily Chronicle. 



14 Messrs. Methuen's List 

0. Browning. A SHORT HISTORY OF MEDIAEVAL ITALY, 
A.D. 1250-1530. By Oscar Browning, Fellow and Tutor of King's 
College, Cambridge. Second Edition. In Two Volumes. Crown 
2iV0. 55. each. 

Vol. I. 1250-1409. — Guelphs and Ghibellines. 

Vol. II. 1409- 1 530. — The Age of the Condottieri. 

'A vivid picture of mediteval Italy.' — Standard. 

' Mr. Browning is to be congratulated on the production of a work of immense 
labour and learning.' — Westminster Gazette. 

O'Grady. THE STORY OF IRELAND. By Standish 

O'Grady, Author of ' Finn and his Companions.' C7\ 8vo. 2s. 6d. 

' Most delightful, most stimulating. Its racy humour, its original imaginings, 

make it one of the freshest, breeziest volumes.' — Methodist Times. 
'A survey at once graphic, acute, and quaintly written.' — Times. 



Biography 



R. L. Stevenson. VAILIMA LETTERS. By Robert Louis 

Stevenson. With an Etched Portrait by William Strang, and 

other Illustrations. Second Edition. Crown Svo. Buckram, ys.bd. 
' The Vailima Letters are rich in all the varieties of that charm which have secured 

for Stevenson the affection of many others besides "journalists, fellow-novelists, 

and boys."' — The Times. 
' Few publications have in our time been more eagerly awaited than these " Vailima 

Letters," giving the first fruits of the correspondence of Robert LouisStevenson. 

But , high asthetideof expectation has run, no reader can possibly be disappointed 

in the result.' — St. James's Gazette. 
' For the student of English literature these letters indeed are a treasure. They 

are more like " Scott's Journal " in kind than any other literary autobiography.' 

— National Observer. 

F. W. Joyce. THE LIFE OF SIR FREDERICK GORE 
OUSELEY. By F. W. Joyce, M.A. With Portraits and Illustra- 
tions. Crown 8vo. "js. 6d. 

' All the materials have been well digested, and the book gives us a complete picture 
of the life of one who will ever be held in loving remembrance by his personal 
friends, and who in the history of music in this country will always occupy a 
prominent position on account of the many services he rendered to the art.' — 
Musical News. 

' This book has been undertaken in quite the right spirit, and written with sympathy, 
insight, and considerable literary skill.' — Times. 

W. G. Collingwood. THE LIFE OF JOHN RUSKIN. By 
W. G. Collingwood, M.A., Editor of Mr. Ruskin's Poems. With 
numerous Portraits, and 13 Drawings by Mr. Ruskin. Second 
Edition. 2 vols. Svo. 325. 

' No more magnificent volumes have been published for a long time.' — Times. 

' It is long since we had a biography with such delights of substance and of form. 
Such a book is a pleasure for the day, and a joy for ever.' — Daily Chronicle. 

' A noble monument of a noble subject. One of the most beautiful books about one 
of the noblest lives of our century. ' — Glasgow Herald. 



Messrs. Methuen's List 15 

0. Waldstein. JOHN RUSKIN : a Study. By Charles 
Waldstein, M.A., Fellow of King's College, Cambridge. With a 
Photogravure Portrait after Professor Herkomer. Post 2,vo. 55. 
'A thoughtful, impartial, well-written criticism of Raskin's teaching, intended to 
separate what the author regards as valuable and permanent from what is transient 
and erroneous in the great master's writing.' — Daily Chronicle. 

W. H. Hutton. THE LIFE OF SIR THOMAS MORE. By 
W. H. Hutton, M.A., Author of ' William Laud.' With Portraits. 
Crown 8vo. ^s. 

' The book lays good claim to high rank among our biographies. It is excellently, 

even lovingly, written.' — Scotsman. 
' An excellent monograph.' — Tiines. 
' A most complete presentation.' — Daily Chronicle. 

M. Kaufmann. CHARLES KINGSLEY. By M. Kaufmann, 

M.A. Crozvn Svo. Btich'am. 55. 
A biography of Kingsley, especially dealing with his achievements in social reform. 
' The author has certainly gone about his work with conscientiousness and industry. — 
Sheffield Daily Telegraph. 

A. F. Robbing. THE EARLY PUBLIC LIFE OF WILLIAM 
EWART GLADSTONE. By A. F. Robbins. With Portraits. 
Crown Svo. 6s. 

' Considerable labour and much skill of presentation have not oeen unworthily 
expended on this interesting work.' — Times. 

Clark RusseU. THE LIFE OF ADMIRAL LORD COL- 
LINGWOOD. By W. Clark Russell, Author of ' The Wreck 
of the Grosvenor.' With Illustrations by F. Brangwyn. Third 
Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

' A most excellent and wholesome book, which we should like to see in the hands of 
every boy in the country.' — St. fames' s Gazette. 

'A really good book.' — Saturday Review. 

Soutbey. ENGLISH SEAMEN (Howard, Clifford, Hawkins, 
Drake, Cavendish). By Robert Southey. Edited, with an 
Introduction, by David Hannay. Second Edition. Crown%vo. 6s. 

' Admirable and well-told stories of our naval history.' — Army and Navy Gazette. 

'A brave, inspiriting book.' — Black and White. 

'The work of a master of style, and delightful all through.'— ZJaz/j/ Chronicle. 

General Literature 

S. Baring Gould. OLD COUNTRY LIFE. By S. Baring 

Gould, Author of ' Mehalah,' etc. With Sixty-seven Illustrations 
by W. Parkinson, F. D. Bedford, and F. Masey. Large 
Crown 8vo. \Qs. 6d. Fifth and Cheaper Edition. 6s. 
"Old Country Life," as healthy wholesome reading, full of breezy life and move- 
ment, full of quaint stories vigorously told, will not be excelled by any book to be 
published throughout the year. Sound, hearty, and English to \.\i<tcoxK.'— World. 



i6 Messrs. Methuen's List 

S. Baring Gould. HISTORIC ODDITIES AND STRANGE 

EVENTS. By S. Baring Gould. Third Edition. Crown^vo. 6s. 

' A collection of exciting and entertaining chapters. The whole volume is delightful 
reading.' — Times. 

S. Baring Gould. FREAKS OF FANATICISM. By S. Baring 

Gould. Third Edition. Crown Svo. 6s. 
' Mr. Baring Gould has a keen eye for colour and effect, and the subjects he has 
chosen give ample scope to his descriptive and analytic faculties. A perfectly 
fascinating book.' — Scottish Leader. 

S. Baring Gould. A GARLAND OF COUNTRY SONG : 

English Folk Songs with their Traditional Melodies. Collected and 
arranged by S. BARING Gould and H. Fleetwood Sheppard. 
Demy £,to. (ys. 

S. Baring Gould. SONGS OF THE WEST: Traditional 
Ballads and Songs of the West of England, with their Traditional 
Melodies. Collected by S. Baring Gould, M.A., and H. Fleet- 
wood Sheppard, M. A. Arranged for Voice and Piano. In 4 Parts 
(containing 25 Songs each). Parts /., //., ///., 3^. each. Fart 
IV,, 5^-. In one Vol., French morocco, l^s. 
'A rich collection of humour, pathos, grace, and poetic fancy.' — Saturday Revieiu. 

S. Baring Gould. YORKSHIRE ODDITIES AND STRANGE 
EVENTS. Fourth Edition. Crowji 8vo. 6s. 

S. Baring Gould. STRANGE SURVIVALS AND SUPER- 
STITIONS. With Illustrations. By S. Baring Gould. Cro-cun 
Szio. Secoiid Edition. 6s. 
' We haveread Mr. Baring Gould's book from beginning to end. It is full of quaint 
and various information, and there is not a dull page in it.' — Notes and Queries. 

S. Baring Gould. THE DESERTS OF SOUTHERN 
FRANCE. By S. Baring. Gould. With numerous Illustrations 
by F. D. Bedford, S. Hutton, etc. 2 vols. De/fiy %vo. 325. 

This book is the first serious attempt to describe the great barren tableland that 
extends to the south of Limousin in the Department of Aveyron, Lot, etc., a 
country of dolomite cliffs, and canons, and subterranean rivers. The region is 
full of prehistoric and historic interest, relics of cave-dwellers, of mediaeval 
robbers, and of the English domination and the Hundred Years' War. 

' His two richly-jllustrated volumes are full of matter of interest to the geologist, 
the archasologist, and the student of history and manners.' — Scotsman. 

' It deals with its subject in a manner which rarely fails to arrest attention.' — Times. 

R. S. Baden-Powell. THE DOV^NFALL OF PREMPEH. A 

Diary of Life with the Native Levy in Ashanti, 1895. By Lieut. -Col. 
Baden-Powell. With 21 Illustrations, a Map, and a Special 
Chapter on the Political and Commercial Position of Ashanti by Sir 
George Baden-Powell, K.C.M.G., M.P. Demy Svo. los. 6d. 

' A compact, faithful, most readable record of the campaign.' — Daily News. 
'A bluff and vigorous narrative.' — Glasgo%u Herald. 
' A really interesting \)QQ\i.' —Yorkshire Post. 



Messrs. Methuen's List \y 

W. E. Gladstone. THE SPEECHES AND PUBLIC AD- 
DRESSES OF THE RT. HON. W. E. GLADSTONE, M.P. 
Edited by A. W. HuTTON, M.A., and H. J. Cohen, M.A. With 
Portraits. 2>vo. Vols. IX. and X. \zs. 6d. each. 

Henley and Whibley. A BOOK OF ENGLISH PROSE. 
Collected by W. E. Henley and Charles Whibley. Cr. ^vo. 6s. 

'A unique volume of extracts — an art gallery of early prose.' — Binningham Post. 

' An admirable companion to Mr. Henley's " Lyra Heroica." ' — Saturday Revie7v. 

' Quite delightful. The choice made has been excellent, and the volume has been 
most admirably printed by Messrs. Constable. A greater treat for those not well 
acquainted with pre-Restoration prose could not be imagined.' — Athcnauvt. 

J. Wells. OXFORD AND OXFORD LIFE. By Members of 
the University. Edited by J. Wells, M.A., Fellow and Tutor of 
Wadham College. Ci-own %vo. 35. M. 
This work contains an account of life at Oxford — intellectual, social, and religious — 
a careful estimate of necessary expenses, a review of recent changes, a statement 
of the present position of the University, and chapters on Women's Education, 
aids to study, and University Extension. 
' We congratulate Mr. Wells on the production of a readable and intelligent account 
of Oxford as it is at the present time, written by persons who are possessed of a 
close acquaintance with the system and life of the University.' — AthetuEtnn. 

W. M. Dixon. A PRIMER OF TENNYSON. By W. M. 

Dixon, M.A., Professor of English Literature at Mason College. 
Crown %vo. 2s. 6d. 

' Much sound and well-expressed criticism and acute literary judgments. The biblio- 
graphy is a boon.' — SJ>eaker. 

' No better estimate of the late Laureate's work has yet been published. His sketch 
of Tennyson's life contains everything essential ; his bibliography is full and con- 
cise ; his literary criticism is most interesting.' — Glasgow Herald. 

W. A. Craigie. A PRIMER OF BURNS. By W. A. Craigie. 

Crown Sfo. 2S. 6d. 
Tills book is planned on a method similar to the ' Primer of Tennyson.' It has also 

a glossary. 
' A valuable addition to the literature of the poet.' — Times. 
' An excellent short account. ' — Pall Mall Gazette. 
'An admirable introduction.' — Glohc. 

L. Whibley. GREEK OLIGARCHIES : THEIR ORGANISA- 
TION AND CHARACTER. By L. Whibley, M.A., Fellow 
of Pembroke College, Cambridge. Crown %vo. ds. 

'An exceedingly useful handbook : a careful and well-arranged study of an obscure 
subject. ' — Times. 

' Mr. Whibley is never tedious or pedantic.'— /"«// ^fall Gazette. 

W. B. Worsfold. SOUTH AFRICA : Its History and its Future. 
By W. Basil Worsfold, M.A. IVzl/i a Map. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

'An intensely interesting book.' — Daily Chronicle. 

' A monumental work compressed into a very moderate compass.' — World. 



A 3 



1 8 Messrs. Methuen's List 

C. H. Pearson. ESSAYS AND CRITICAL REVIEWS. By 
C. H. Pearson, M.A., Author of 'National Life and Character.' 
Edited, with a Biographical Sketch, by H. A. Strong, M.A., 
LL.D. With a Portrait. De7ny %vo. los. 6d. 

'These fine essays illustrate the great breadth of his historical and literary sym- 
pathies and the remarkable variety of his intellectual interests.' — Glasgow Herald. 

' Remarkable for careful handling, breadth of view, and thorough knowledge.' — Scots- 
man. 

'Charming essays.' — Spectator. 

Ouida. VIEWS AND OPINIONS. By Ouida. Crown %vo. 
Second Edition, ds. 
' Ouida is outspoken, and the reader of this book will not have a dull moment. The 
book is full of variety, and sparkles with entertaining matter.' — Speaker. 

J. S. Shedlock. THE PIANOFORTE SONATA: Its Origin 
and Development. By J. S. Shedlock. Crozvtt 8vo. 55. 

' This work should be in the possession of every musician and amateur, for it not 
only embodies a concise and lucid history ot the origin of one of the most im- 
portant forms of musical composition, but, by reason of the painstaking research 
and accuracy of the author's statements, it is a verj' valuable work for reference.' 
— A thencEum. 

E. M. Bowden. THE EXAMPLE OF BUDDHA : Being Quota- 
tions from Buddhist Literature for each Day in the Year. Compiled 
by E. M. Bowden. With Preface by Sir Edwin Arnold. Third 
Edition. i6mo. 2s. 6d. 

J. Beever. PRACTICAL FLY-FISHING, Founded on 

Nature, by John Beever, late of the Thwaite House, Coniston. A 
New Edition, with a Memoir of the Author by W. G. CoLLiNGWOOD, 
M.A. Crown %vo. -^s. 6d. 
A little book on Fly-Fishing by an old friend of Mr. Ruskin. 

Science 

Freudenreich. DAIRY BACTERIOLOGY, A Short Manual 
for the Use of Students. By Dr. Ed. von Freudenreich. 
Translated from the German by J. R. AiNSWORTH Davis, B.A., 
F.C.P. Crown 8vo. 2s. dd. 

Chalmers MitclieU. OUTLINES OF BIOLOGY. By P. 

Chalmers Mitchell, M.A., F.Z.S. Fully Illustrated. Crown 
Szio. 6s. 
A text-book designed to cover the new Schedule issued by the Royal College of 
Physicians and Surgeons. 

G.Massee. A MONOGRAPH OF THE MYXOGASTRES. By 

George Massee. With 12 Coloured Plates. Royal %vo. i8s.net. 

' A work much in advance of any book in the language treating of this group of 
organisms. It is indispensable to every student of the Myxogastres. The 
coloured plates deserve high praise for their accuracy and execution.' — Nature. 



Messrs. Methuen's List 19 



Philosophy 

L. T. Hobhouse. THE THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE. By 

L. T. Hobhouse, Fellow and Tutor of Corpus College, Oxford. 

Demy 8vo. 2is, 
' The most important contribution to English philosophy since the publication of Mr. 

Bradley's " Appearance and Reality." Full of brilliant criticism and of positive 

theories which are models of lucid statement.' — Glasgow Herald. 
' An elaborate and often brilliantly written volume. The treatment is one of great 

freshness, and the illustrations are particularly numerous and apt.' — Times. 

W. H. Fairbrother. THE PHILOSOPHY OF T. H. GREEN. 
By W. H. Fairbrother, M.A., Lecturer at Lincoln CoUet^e, 
Oxford. Crown 8vo. ^s. 6d. 

This volume is expository, not critical, and is intended for senior students at the 
Universities and others, as a statement of Green's teaching, and an introduction to 
the study of Idealist Philosophy. 

' In every way an admirable book. As an introduction to the writings of perhaps the 
most remarkable speculative thinker whom England has produced in the present 
century, nothing could be better than Mr. Fairbrother's exposition and criticism. ' — 
Glasgoiu Herald. 

F. W. BusseU. THE SCHOOL OF PLATO : its Origin and 

its Revival under the Roman Empire. By F. W. BussELL, M. A., 

Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose College, Oxford. Demy Zvo. Two 

volumes, los. 6d. each. Vol. I. 
' A highly valuable contribution to the history of ancient thought.'— Glasgow Herald. 
' A clever and stimulating book, provocative of thought and deserving careful reading.' 

— Manchester Guardian. 

F. S. Granger. THE WORSHIP OF THE ROMANS. By 

F. S. Granger, M.A., Liit.D., Professor of Philosophy at Univer- 
sity College, Nottingham. Crown 8vo. 6.f. 
The author delineates that group of beliefs which stood in close connection with the 
Roman religion, and among the subjects treated are Dreams, Nature Worship, 
Roman Magic, Divination, Holy Places, Victims, etc. Thus the book is also 
a contribution to folk-lore and comparative psychology. 
' A scholarly analysis of the religious ceremonies, beliefs, and superstitions of ancient 
Rome, conducted in the new instructive light of comparative anthropology.'— 
Times. 



20 Messrs. Methuen's List 



Theology 



E. C. S. Gibson. THE XXXIX. ARTICLES OF THE 
CHURCH OF ENGLAND. Edited with an Introduction by E. 
C. S. Gibson, D.D., Vicar of Leeds, late Principal of Wells 
Theological College. In Two Vohinies. Deviy ?>vo. ys. 6d. each. 
Vol. I. Articles I.- VIII. 

' The tone maintained throughout is not that of the partial advocate, but the faithful 
exponent. ' — Scotsman. 

'There are ample proofs of clearness of expression, sobriety of judgment, and breadth 
of view. . . . The book will be welcome to all students of the subject, and its sound, 
definite, and loyal theology ought to be of great service.' — National Observer. 

' So far from repelling the general reader, its orderly arrangement, lucid treatment, 
and felicity of diction invite and encourage his attention.' — Yorkshire Post. 

R. L. Ottley. THE DOCTRINE OF THE INCARNATION. 

By R. L. Ottley, M.A., late fellow of Magdalen College, Oxon., 

Principal of Pusey House. In Two Volumes. DeniyZvo. 155. 
' Learned and reverent : lucid and well arranged.' — Record. 
' Accurate, well ordered, and judicious.' — National Observer. 
' A clear and remarkably full account of the main currents of speculation. Scholarly 

precision . . . genuine tolerance . . . intense interest in his subject — are Mr. 

Ottley's merits.' — Guardian. 

S. R. Driver. SERMONS ON SUBJECTS CONNECTED 
WITH THE OLD TESTAMENT. By S. R. Driver, D.D., 
Canon of Christ Church, Regius Professor of Hebrew in the Uni- 
versity of Oxford. Crown Svo. 6s. 
' A welcome companion to the author's famous ' Introduction.' No man can read these 
discourses without feeling that Dr. Driver is fully alive to the deeper teaching of 
the Old Testament.' — Guardian. 

T. K. Cheyne. FOUNDERS OF OLD TESTAMENT CRITI- 
CISM : Biographical, Descriptive, and Critical Studies. By T. K. 
Cheyne, D.D., Oriel Professor of the Interpretation of Holy Scrip- 
ture at Oxford. Large crown Svo. Js. 6d. 
This important book is a historical sketch of O. T. Criticism in the form of biographi- 
cal studies from the days of Eichhorn to those of Driver and Robertson Smith. 
It is the only book of its kind in English. 
'Avery learned and instructive woTk.'— Times. 

C.H.Prior. CAMBRIDGE SERMONS. Edited by C.H. Prior, 
M.A., Fellow and Tutor of Pembroke College. Crown Svo. 6s. 
A volume of sermons preached before the University of Cambridge by various 

preachers, including the Archbishop of Canterbury and Bishop Westcott. 
'A representative collection. Bishop Westcott's is a noble sermon.' — Guardian. 

H. C. Beeching. SERMONS TO SCHOOLBOYS. By H. C. 
Beeching, M.A., Rector of Yattendon, Berks. With a Preface by 
Canon ScOTT Holland. Crown %vo. 2s. 6d. 

Seven sermons preached before the boys of Bradfield College. 



Messrs. Methuen's List 21 

E. B. Layard. RELIGION IN BOYHOOD. Notes on the 
Religious Training of Boys. With a Preface by J. R. Ii.i.ing- 
WORTH. By E. B. Layard, M. A. iSmo. is. 

2Detjotional BooU^. 

IVzi/i Full-page Illustrations. Fcap. ?>vo. Buckram. 35. 6d. 

Padded morocco, K^s. 

THE IMITATION OF CHRIST. By Thomas a Kempis. 
With an Introduction by Dean Farrar. Illustrated by C. M. 
Gere, and printed in black and red. Second Edition. 
'Amongst all the innumerable English editions of the " Imitation," there can have 
been few which were prettier than this one, printed in strong and handsome type 
by Messrs. Constable, with all the glory of red initials, and the comfort of buckram 
binding.' — Glasgozu Herald. 

THE CHRISTIAN YEAR. By John Keble. With an Intro- 
duction and Notes by W. Lock, M. A., Sub- Warden of Keble College, 
Ireland Professor at Oxford, Author of the ' Life of John Keble.' 
Illustrated by R. Anning Bell. 

' The present edition is annotated with all the care and insight to be expected from 
Mr. Lock. The progress and circumstances of its composition are detailed in the 
Introduction. There is an interesting Appendix on the Mss. of the "Christian 
Year," and another giving the order in which the poems were written. A " Short 
Analysis of the Thought" is prefixed to each, and any difficulty in the text Is ex- 
plained in a note. — Guardian. 

' The most acceptable edition of this ever-popular v/ovk.'— Globe. 



Leaders of Religion 

crown i 

3/6 



Edited by H. C. BEECHING, M.A. With Portraits, crown 8vo 
A series of short biographies of the most prominent leaders 

of religious life and thought of all ages and countries. 
The following are ready — 

CARDINAL NEWMAN. By R. H. Hutton. 

JOHN WESLEY. By J. H. OvERTON, M.A. 

BISHOP WILBERFORCE. By G. W. Daniel, M.A. 

CARDINAL MANNING. By A. W. Hutton, M.A. 

CHARLES SIMEON. By H. C. G. MOULE, M.A. 

JOHN KEBLE. By Walter Lock, M.A. 

THOMAS CHALMERS. By Mrs. Oliphant. 

LANCELOT ANDREWES. By R. L. Ottley, M.A. 



22 Messrs. Methuen's List 

AUGUSTINE OF CANTERBURY. By E. L. Cutts, D.D. 
WILLIAM LAUD. By W. H. Hutton, M.A. 
JOHN KNOX. By F. M'CUNN. 
JOHN HOWE. By R. F. HORTON, D.D. 
BISHOP KEN. By F. A. CLARKE, M.A. 
GEORGE FOX, THE QUAKER. By T. Hodgkin, D.C.L. 
Other volumes will be announced in due course. 

Fiction 

SIX SHILLING NOVELS 

Marie Corelli's Novels 

Crown Svo. 6s. each. 
A ROMANCE OF TWO WORLDS. Fourteenth Edition. 
VENDETTA. Eleventh Edition. 
THELMA. Fourteenth Edition. 
ARDATH. Tenth Edition. 
THE SOUL OF LILITH. Ninth Edition. 
WORMWOOD. Eighth Edition. 

BARABBAS : A DREAM OF THE WORLD'S TRAGEDY. 

Twenty-fiph Edition. 

' The tender reverence of the treatment and the imaginative beauty of the writing 
have reconciled us to the daring of the conception, and the conviction is forced on 
us that even so exalted a subject cannot be made too familiar to us, provided it be 
presented in the true spirit of Christian faith. The amplifications of the Scripture 
narrative are often conceived with high poetic insight, and this "Dream of the 
World's Tragedy " is, despite some trifling incongruities, a lofty and not inade- 
quate paraphrase of the supreme climax of the inspired narrative.' — Dublin 
Review. 

THE SORROWS OF SATAN. T-wenty-ninth Edition. 

' A very powerful piece of work. . . . The conception is magnificent, and is likely 
to win an abiding place within the memory of man. . . . The author has immense 
command of language, and a limitless audacity. . . . This interesting and re- 
markable romance will live long after much of the ephemeral literature of the day 
is forgotten. ... A literary phenomenon . . . novel, and even sublime.' — W. T. 
Stead in the Review of Revieius. 



Messrs. Methuen's List 23 

Anthony Hope's Novels 

Crown Zvo. 6s. each. 
THE GOD IN THE CAR. Seve?tth Edition. 

' A very remarkable book, deserving of critical analysis impossible within our limit ; 
brilliant, but not superficial ; well considered, but not elaliorated ; constructed' 
with the proverbial art that conceals, but yet allows itself to be enjoyed by readers 
to_ whom fine literary method is a keen pleasure ; true without cynicism, subtle 
without affectation, humorous without strain, witty without ofience, inevitably 
sad, with an unmorose simplicity.'— The World. 

A CHANGE OF AIR. Fourth Edition. 

'A graceful, vivacious comedy, true to human nature. The characters are traced 
with a masterly hand.' — Times. 

A MAN OF MARK. Third Editio7i. 

' Of all Mr. Hope's books, " A Man of Mark " is the one which best compares with 
"The Prisoner of Zenda." The two romances are unmistakably the work of the 
same writer, and he possesses a style of narrative peculiarly seductive, piquant, 
comprehensive, and — his own.' — National Observer. 

THE CHRONICLES OF COUNT ANTONIO. Third 

Edition. 
'It is a perfectly enchanting story of love and chivalry, and pure romance. The 
outlawed Count is the most constant, desperate, and withal modest and tender of 
lovers, a peerless gentleman, an intrepid fighter, a very faithful friend, and a most 
magnanimous foe. In short, he is an altogether admirable, lovable, and delight- 
ful hero. There is not a word in the volume that can give offence to the most 
fastidious taste of man or woman, and there is not, either, a dull paragraph in it. 
The book is everywhere instinct with the most exhilarating spirit of adventure, 
and delicately perfumed with the sentiment of all heroic and honourable deed.s of 
history and romance.' — Guardian. 

S. Baring Gould's Novels 

Crown Sifo. 6s. each. 

' To say that a book is by the author of " Mehalah " is to imply that it contains a 
story cast on strong lines, containing dramatic possibilities, vivid and sympathetic 
descriptions of Nature, and a wealth of ingenious imagery.' — Speaker. 
' That whatever Mr. Baring Gould writes is well worth reading, is a conclusion that 
may be very generally accepted. His views of life are fresh and vigorous, his 
language pointed and characteristic, the incidents of which he makes u.se are 
striking and original, his characters are life-like, and though somewhat excep- 
tional people, are drawn and coloured with artistic force. Add to this that his 
descriptions of scenes and scenery are painted with the loving eyes and skilled 
hands of a master of his art, that he is always fresh and never dull, and under 
such conditions it is no wonder that readers have gained confidence both in his 
power of amusing and satisfying them, and that year by year his popularity 
widens. ' — Court Circular. 

ARM I NELL : A Social Romance. Fourth Editio7i. 
URITH : A Story of Dartmoor. Fourth Edition. 

' The author is at his best.' — Times. 

' He has nearly reached the high water-mark of " Mehalah." ' — National Observer. 



24 Messrs. Methuen's List 

IN THE ROAR OF THE SEA. Fifth Edition. 

'One of the best imagined and most enthralling stories the author has produced.' 
— Saturday Review. 

MRS. CURGENVEN OF CURGENVEN. Fourth Edition. 

' A novel of vigorous humour and sustained power.' — Graphic. 
' The swing ofthe narrative is splendid.' — Sussex Daily News. 

CHEAP JACK ZITA. Third Edition. 

' A powerful drama of human -pViSiXon.' ^Westntinster Gazette. 
' A story worthy the author.' — National Observer. 

THE QUEEN OF LOVE. Fourth Edition. 

' The scenery is admirable, and the dramatic incidents are most striking.' — Glasgmv 

Herald. 
' Strong, interesting, and clever.' — Westminister Gazette. 
' You cannot put it down until you have finished it.' — Punch. 
' Can be heartily recommended to all who care for cleanly, energetic, and interesting 

fiction.' — Sussex Daily News. 

KITTY ALONE. Fourth Edition. 

' A strong and original story, teeming «'ith graphic description, stirring incident, 

and, above all, with vivid and enthralling human interest.' — Daily Telegraph. 
' Brisk, clever, keen, healthy, humorous, and interesting.' — National Observer. 
' Full of quaint and delightful studies of character.' — Bristol Mc7-ciiry. 

NOEMI : A Romance of the Cave-Dwellers. Illustrated by 
R. Caton Woodville. Third Edition. 

' " No^mi " is as excellent a tale of fighting and adventure as one may wish to meet. 

All the characters that interfere in this exciting tale are marked with properties 

of their own. The narrative also runs clear and sharp as the Loire itself.' — 

Pall Mall Gazette. 
' Mr. Baring Gould's powerful story is full of the strong lights and shadows and 

vivid colouring to which he has accustomed us.' — Standard. 

THE BROOM -SQUIRE. Illustrated by Frank Dadd. 

T/m-d Edition. 

' A strani of tenderness is woven through the web of his tragic tale, and its atmosphere 
is sweetened by the nobility and sweetness of the heroine's character.' — Daily News. 

' A story of exceptional interest that seems to us to be better than anything he has 
written of late.' — Speaker. 'A powerful and striking story.' — Guardian. 

' A powerful piece of work.' — Black and White. 



pilbert Parker's Novels 

Croiun 8vo. 6s. each. 
PIERRE AND HIS PEOPLE. Third Editio7i. 

' Stories happily conceived and finely executed. There is strength and genius in Mr. 
Parker's style.' — Daily Telegraph. 



Messrs. Methuen's List 25 

MRS. FALCHION. Third Edition. 

' A splendid study of character.' — Athetiaum. 

' But little behind anything that has been done by any writer of our time. ' — Pall 

Mall Gazette. 
' A very striking and admirable novel.' — St. Javicss Gazette. 

THE TRANSLATION OF A SAVAGE. 

' The plot is original and one difficult to work out ; but Mr. Parker has done it with 
great skill and delicacy. The reader who is not interested in this original, fresh, 
and well-told tale must be a dull person indeed.' — Daily Ckrcniclc. 

' A strong and successful piece of workmanship. The portrait of Lali, strong, 
dignified, and pure, is exceptionally well drawn.' — Manchester Guardian. 

THE TRAIL OF THE SWORD. Fourth Edition. 

'Everybody with a soul for romance will thoroughly enjoy "The Trail of the 
Sword." ' — St. James's Gazette. 

' A rousing and dramatic tale. A book like this, in which swords flash, great sur- 
prises are undertaken, and daring deeds done, in which men and women live and 
love in the old straightforward passionate way, is a joy ine.xpressible to the re- 
viewer, brain-weary of the domestic tragedies and psychological puzzles of every- 
day fiction ; and we cannot but believe that to the reader it will bring refreshment 
as welcome and as keen.' — Daily Chronicle. 

WHEN VALMOND CAME TO PONTIAC : The Story of 
a Lost Napoleon. Third Edition. 
' Here we find romance — real, breathing, living romance, but it runs flush with our 
own times, level with our own feelings. Not here can we complain of lack of 
inevitableness or homogeneity. The character of Valmond is drawn unerringly ; 
his career, brief as it is, is placed before us as convincingly as history itself. The 
book must be read, we may say re-read, for any one thoroughly to appreciate 
Mr. Parker's delicate touch and innate sympathy with humanity.' — Pall Mall 
Gazette. 
' The one work of genius which 1895 has as yet produced.' — New Age. 

AN ADVENTURER OF THE NORTH: The Last Adven- 
tures of ' Pretty Pierre.' 

'The present book is full of fine and moving stories of the great North, and it will 
add to Mr. Parker's already high reputation.' — Glas^07u Herald. 

' The new book is very romantic and very entertaining — full of that peculiarly 
elegant spirit of adventure which is so characteristic of Mr. Parker, and of that 
poetic thrill which has given him warmer, if less numerous, admirers than even 
his romantic story-telling gift has done.' — Sketch. 

THE SEATS OF THE MIGHTY. Illustrated. Fourth 
Edition. 

' The best thing he has done ; one of the best things that any one has done lately.'— 
St. James's Gazette. 

' Mr. Parker seems to become stronger and easier with every serious novel that he 
attempts. . . . In " The Seats of the Mighty " he shows the matured power which 
his former novels have led us to expect, and has produced a really fine historical 
novel. . . . The great creation of the book is Doltaire. . . . His character is 
drawn with quite masterly strokes, for he is a villain who is not altogether a villain, 
and who attracts the reader, as he did the other characters, by the extraordinary 
brilliance of his gifts, and by the almost unconscious acts of nobility which he 
performs. . . . Most sincerely is Mr. Parker to be congratulated on the finest 
novel he has yet written.' — Athenxum. 



26 Messrs. Methuen's List 

'Mr. Parker's latest book places him in the front rank of living novelists. "The 
Seats of the Mighty" is a great book.' — Black and White. 

' One of the strongest stories of historical interest and adventure that we have read 
for many a day. . . . Through all Mr. Parker moves with an assured step, whilst 
in his treatment of his subject there is that happy blending of the poetical with the 
prosaic which has characterised all his writings. A notable and successful book.' 
— Speaker. 

' The story is very finely and dramatically told. ... In none of his books has his 
imaginative faculty appeared to such splendid purpose as here. Captain Moray, 
Ali.xe, Gabord, Vauban— above all, Doltaire — and, indeed, every person who takes 
part in the action of the story are clearly conceived and finely drawn and indivi- 
dualised. — Scotsman. 

' An admirable romance. The glory of a romance is its plot, and this plot is crowded 
with fine sensations, which have no rest until the fall of the famous old city and 
the final restitution of love.' — Paii Mall Gazette. 

Conan Doyle. ROUND THE RED LAMP. By A. Conan 
Doyle, Author of 'The White Company,' 'The Adventures of 
Sherlock Holmes,' etc. Fourth Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
' The book is, indeed, composed of leaves from life, and is far and away the best view 
that has been vouchsafed us behind the scenes of the consulting-room. It is very 
superior to " The Diary of a late Physician.'" — I Ihistrated London News. 

Stanley Weyman. UNDER THE RED ROBE. By Stanley 
Weyman, Author of ' A Gentleman of France.' With Twelve Illus- 
trations by R. Caton Woodville. Eighth Edition. Crown %vo. bs. 

'A book of which we have read every word for the sheer pleasure of reading, and 
which we put down with a pang that we cannot forget it all and start again.' — 
Westminster Gazette. 

' Every one who reads books at all must read this thrilling romance, from the first 
page of which to the last the breathless reader is haled along. An inspiration of 
"manliness and courage." — Daily Chronicle. 

' A delightful tale of chivalry and adventure, vivid and dramatic, with a wholesome 
modesty and reverence for the highest.' — Globe. 

Mrs. Clifford. A FLASH OF SUMMER. By Mrs. W. K. 
Clifford, Author of ' Aunt Anne,' etc. Second Editiott. Crown 
Svo. 6s. 

' The story is a very sad and a very beautiful one, exquisitely told, and enriched with 
many subtle touches of wise and tender insight. It will, undoubtedly, add to its 
author's reputation — already high — in the ranks of novelists.' — Speaker. 

' We must congratulate Mrs. Clifford upon a very successful and interesting story, 
told throughout with finish and a delicate sense of proportion, qualities which, 
indeed, have always distinguished the best work of this very able writer.' — 
ATanckester Guardian. 

Emily Lawless. HURRISH. By the Honble. Emily Law- 
less, Author of ' Maelcho,' etc. Fifth Edition. Crown Svo. 6s. 
A reissue of Miss Lawless' most popular novel, uniform with ' Maelcho.' 

Emily Lawless. MAELCHO : a Sixteenth Century Romance. 

By the Honble. Emily Lawless, Author of ' Grania,' etc. Second 
Edition. Crown Svo. 6s. 

' A really great book.' — Spectator. 

' There is no keener pleasure in life than the recognition of genius. Good work is 
commoner than it used to be, but the best is as rare as ever. All the more 
gladly, therefore, do we welcome in " Maelcho " a piece of work of the first order, 
which we do not hesitate to describe as one of the most remarkable literary 
achievements of this generation. Miss Lawless is possessed of the very essence 
of historical genius.' — Manchester Guardian. 



Messrs. Methuen's List 27 

J. H. Findlater. THE GREEN GRAVES OF BALGOWRIE. 

By Jane H. FiNDLATER. Third Edition. Cro7vn 8vo. 6s. 
'A powerful and vivid story." — Standard. 

' A beautiful story, sad and strange as truth itseW—Faniiy Fair. 
' A work of remarkable interest and originality.' — National Observer. 
' A really original nov^V— Journal oj Education. 
'A very charming and pathetic tale.' — Pall Mall Gazette. 
' A singularly original, clever, and beautiful story." — Guardian. 
' " The Green Graves of Balgowrie " reveals to us a new Scotch writer of undoubted 

faculty and reserve force.' — Spectator. 
' An exquisite idyll, delicate, affecting, and beautiful.'— 5/n!c/t- and White. 
' Permeated with high and noble purpose. It is one of the most wholesome stories 

we have met with, and cannot fail to leave a deep and lasting impression.' — 

Ne-Msagcnt. 

E. F. Benson. DODO : A DETAIL OF THE DAY. By E. F. 

Benson. Sixteenth Editiott. Crow7i Svo. 6s. 
' A delightfully witty sketch of society." — Spectator. 
' A perpetual feast of epigram and paradox.' — Speaker. 
' By a writer of quite exceptional ability.' — A t/tenaum. 
■ Brilliantly written.' — ll^'orld. 

E. F. Benson. THE RUBICON. By E. F. Benson, Author of 

'Dodo.' Fifth Edition. Crown %vo. 6s. 
' Well written, stimulating, unconventional, and, in a word, characteristic' — 

Birjuingliam Post. 
' An exceptional achievement ; a notable advance on his previous ■work.'— National 

Observer. 

M. M. Dowie. GALLIA. By M^nie Muriel Dowie, Author 
of 'A Girl in the Carpathians.' Thij-d Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
' The style is generally admirable, the dialogue not seldom brilliant, the situations 
surprising in their freshness and originality, while the subsidiary as well as the 
principal characters live and move, and the story itself is readable from title-page 
to colophon." — Saturday Review. 
' A very notable book ; a very sympathetically, at times delightfully written book. 
— Daily Graphic. 

Mrs. Oliphant. SIR ROBERT'S FORTUNE. By Mrs. 
Oliphant. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
' Full of her own peculiar charm of style and simple, subtle character-painting come 
her new gift, the delightful story before us. The scene mostly lies in the moors, 
and at the touch of the authoress a Scotch moor becomes a living thing, strong 
tender, beautiful, and changeful." — Pall Mall Gazette. 

Mrs. Oliphant. THE TWO MARYS. By Mrs. Oliphant. 
Second Edition. Crown ?>z'o. 6s. 

W.E.Norris. MATTHEW AUSTIN. By W. E. Norris, Author 
of ' Mademoiselle de Mersac,' etc. Fourth Edition. Crown Sz'O. 6s. 
' "Matthew Austin " may safely be pronounced one of the most intellectually satis- 
factory and morally bracing novels of the current year.' — Daily Telegraph. 

W. E. Norris. HIS GRACE. By W. E. Norris. Third 
Editiott. Crown 8vo. 6s. 
' Mr. Norris has drawn a really fine character in the Duke of Hurstbourne, at once 
unconventional and very true to the conventionalities of life, weak and .strong ui 
a breath, capable of inane follies and heroic decisions, yet not so definitely por- 
trayed as to relieve a reader of the necessity of study.'— A ihenaum. 



28 Messrs. Methuen's List 

W. E. Norris. THE DESPOTIC LADY AND OTHERS. 

By W. E. Norris. Crow7t ?)Vo. 6s. 

' A budget of good fiction of which no one will tire.' — Scotsman. 
'An extremely entertaining volume — the sprightliest of holiday companions.' — 
Daily Telegraph 

H. G. Wells. THE STOLEN BACILLUS, and other Stories. 
By II. G. Wells, Author of 'The Time Machine.' Crown 
%vo. 6s. 
' The ordinary reader of fiction may be glad to know that these stories are eminently 
readable from one cover to the other, but they are more than that ; they are the 
impressions of a very striking imagination, which, it would seem, has a great deal 
within its reach.' — Saturday Revleiu. 

Arthur Morrison. TALES OF MEAN STREETS. By Arthur 
Morrison. Fozirth Edition. Crown 8vo, 6s. 

' Told with consummate art and extraordinary detail. He tells a plain, unvarnished 
tale, and the very truth of it makes for beauty. In the true humanity of the book 
lies its justification, the permanence of its interest, and its indubitable triumph.' — 
A tliefiiPum. 

' A great book. The author's method is amazingly effective, and produces a thrilling 
sense of reality. The writer lays upon us a master hand. The book is simply 
appalling and irresistible in its interest. It is humorous also ; without humour 
it would not make the mark it is certain to make.' — World. 

J. Maclaren Cobban. THE KING OF ANDAMAN : A 
Saviour of Society. By J. Maclaren Cobban. Croivti Svo. 6s • 

' An unquestionably interesting book. It would not surprise us if it turns out to be 
the most interesting novel of the season, for it contains one character, at least, 
who has in him the root of immortality, and the book itself is ever exhaling the 
sweet savour of the unexpected. . . . Plot is forgotten and incident fades, and 
only the really human endures, and throughout this book there stands out in bold 
and beautiful relief its high-souled and chivalric protagonist, James the Master 
of Hutcheon, the King of Andaman himself.'' — Pall Mall Gazette. 

'A most original and refreshing story. James Hutcheon is a personage whom it is 
good to know and impossible to forget. He is beautiful within and without, 
whichever way we take him.' — Spectator. 

' "The King of Andaman," is a book which does credit not less to the heart than 
the head of its author.' — AtliencEum. 

' The fact that Her Majesty the Queen has been pleased to gracefully express to the 
author of " The King of Andaman " her interest in his work will doubtless find 
for it many readers.' — Vatiiiy Fair. 

H. Morrah. A SERIOUS COMEDY. By Herbert Morrah. 
Crotvn Svo. 6s. 
' There are many delightful places in this volume, which is well worthy of its title. 
The theme has seldom been presented with more freshness or more force.' — 
Scots>iian. 

L. B. Walford. SUCCESSORS TO THE TITLE. By Mrs. 
Walford, Author of 'Mr. Smith,' etc. Second Edition. Crown 
2>vo. 6s. 

' The story is fresh and healthy from beginning to finish ; and our liking for the two 
simple people who are the successors to the title mounts steadily, and ends almost 
in respect.' — Scotsman. 

'The book is quite worthy to be ranked with many clever predecessors. It is ex- 
cellent reading.' — Glasgow Herald. 



Messrs. Methuen's List 29 

T. L. Paton. A HOME IN INVERESK. By T. L Paton 

Crown hvo. os. 
'A distinctly fresh and fascinating no\&\: —Montrose Standard. 
'A book which bears marks of considerable promisi^.'— Scotsman. 
'A pleasant and well-written s.\.ory.'— Daily Chronicle. 

John Davidson. MISS ARMSTRONG'S AND OTHER CIR- 
CUMSTANCES. By John Davidson. Crowtt 8w. bs. 

' Throughout the volume there is a strong vein of originality, a strength in the 
handhng, and a knowledge of human nature that are worthy of the highest nraise ' 
— Scotsman. ^ 

J. B. Burton. IN THE DAY OF ADVERSITY. By T 

Bloundelle Burton. CroixmZvo. bs. 

' Unusually interesting and full of highly dramatic situations.'— Guardian. 

' A well-written story, drawn from that inexhaustible mine, the time of Louis XIV 

—Pall Mall Gazette. ' 

H. Johnston. DR. CONGALTON'S LEGACY. By Henry 
Johnston. Crown Svo. 6s. 

' The story is redolent of humour, pathos, and tenderness, while it is not without a 
touch of tragedy.' — Scotsman. 
A worthy and permanent contribution to Scottish creative literature.'— C/^jp-^d 
Herald. ^ 

Julian Corbett. A BUSINESS IN GREAT WATERS. By 

Julian Corbett. Croiutt ^vo. 6s. 

' In this stirring story Mr. Julian Corbett has done excellent work, welcome alike 
for its distinctly literary flavour, and for the wholesome tone which pervades it. 
Mr. Corbett writes with immense spirit, and the book is a thoroughly enjoyable 
one in all respects. The salt of the ocean is in it, and the right heroic ring re- 
sounds through its gallant adventures.' — Speaker. 

C. Phillips Woolley. THE QUEENSBERRY CUP. A Tale 
of Adventure. By Clive Phillips Woolley, Author of ' Snap,' 
Editor of ' Big Game Shooting.' Illustrated. Crown Svo. 6s, 
' A book which will delight boys : a book which upholds the healthy schoolboy code 

of morality.' — Scotsman. 
' A brilliant book. Dick St. Clair, of Caithness, is an almost ideal character — a com- 
bination of the mediaeval knight and the modern pugilist.' — Admiralty and Horse- 
guards Gazette. 

Robert Barr. IN THE MIDST OF ALARMS. By Robert 

Barr. Third Edition. Crown Svo. 6s. 
' A book which has abundantly satisfied us by its capital humour.' — Daily Chronicle. 
' Mr. Barr has achieved a triumph whereof he has every reason to be proud.' — Pall 

Mall Gazette. 

L. Daintrey. THE KING OF ALBERIA. A Romance of 

the Balkans. By Laura Daintrey. Crown Svo. 6s. 

' Miss Daintrey seems to have an intimate acquaintance with the people and politics 
of the Balkan countries in which the scene of her lively and picturesque romance 
is laid. On almost every page we find clever touches of local colour which dif- 
ferentiate her book unmistakably from the ordinary novel of commerce. The 
story is briskly told, and well conceived,' — Glasgow Herald. 



30 Messrs. Methuen's List 

Mrs. Pinsent. CHILDREN OF THIS WORLD. By Ellen 

F. Pinsent, Author of ' Jenny's Case.' Crown 2>vo. 6s. 
' Mrs. Pinsent's new novel has plenty of vigour, variety, and good writing. There 
are certainty of purpose, strength of touch, and clearness of vision.' — AtkencEUtii. 

Clark Russell. MY DANISH SWEETHEART. By W. 

Clark Russell, Author of ' The Wreck of the Grosvenor,' etc. 
Illustrated. Fourth Edition. Crown 8vo. 6s. 

G. Manville Fenn. AN ELECTRIC SPARK. By G. Manville 
Fenn. Second Edition. Crown Svo. 6s. 
'A simple and wholesome story.' — Manchester Guardian. 

R. Pryce. TIME AND THE WOMAN. By Richard Pryce, 

Author of ' Miss Maxwell's Affections,' 'The Quiet Mrs. Fleming,' 
etc. Seco7id Edition. Crown Svo. 6s. 
' Mr. Pryce's work recalls the style of Octave Feuillet, by its clearness, conciseness, 
its literary reserve.' — Atkenceum. 

Mrs. Watson. THIS MAN'S DOMINION. By the Author 
of ' A High Little World. ' Second Edition. Crown Svo. 6s. 

Marriott Watson. DIOGENES OF LONDON. By H. B. 

Marriott Watson. Crown Svo. Buciram. 6s. 

' By all those who delight in the uses of words, who rate the exercise of prose above 
the exercise of verse, who rejoice in all proofs of its delicacy and its strength, who 
believe that English prose is chief among the moulds of thought, by these 
Mr. Marriott Watson's book will be welcomed.' — National Observer. 

M. Gilchrist. THE STONE DRAGON. By Murray Gil- 
christ. Crown Svo. Buckram. 6s. 

' The author's faults are atoned for by certain positive and admirable merits. The 
romances have not their counterpart in modern literature, and to read them is a 
unique experience.' — National Observer. 

E. Dickinson. A VICAR'S WIFE. By Evelyn Dickinson. 

Crown Svo. 6s. 
E. M. Gray. ELSA. By E. M'Queen Gray. Cro'i07i Zvo. 6s. 



THREE-AND-SIXPENNY NOVELS 

Croiini Svo. 

DERRICK VAUGHAN, NOVELIST. By Edna Lyall 
MARGERY OF QUETHER. By S. Baring Gould 
JACQUETTA. By S. Baring Gould. 
SUBJECT TO VANITY. By Margaret Benson. 
THE MOVING FINGER. By Mary Gaunt. 
JACO TRELOAR. By J. H. Pearce. 



3/6 



Messrs. Methuen's List 31 

aut diabolus aut nihil. by x. l. 

THE COMING OF CUCULAIN. A Romance of the Heroic 

Age of Ireland. By Standish O'Grady. Illustrated. 

THE GODS GIVE MY DONKEY WINGS. By Angus 
Evan Abbott. 

THE STAR GAZERS. By G. Manville Fenn. 

THE POISON OF ASPS. By R. Orton Prowse. 

THE QUIET MRS. FLEMING. By R. Pryce. 

THE PLAN OF CAMPAIGN. By F. Mabel Robinson. 

DISENCHANTMENT. By F. Mabel Robinson. 

MR. BUTLER'S WARD. By F. Mabel Robinson. 

A LOST ILLUSION. By Leslie Keith. 

A REVEREND GENTLEMAN. By J. M. Cobban. 

A DEPLORABLE AFFAIR. By W. E. NORRis. 

A CAVALIER'S LADYE. By Mrs. Dicker. 



2/6 



HALF-CROWN NOVELS 

A Series of Novels by popular Authors, 

1. HOVENDEN, V.C. By F. Mabel Robinson. 

2. ELI'S CHILDREN. By G. Manville Fenn. 

3. A DOUBLE KNOT. By G. Manville Fenn. 

4. DISARMED. By M. Betham Edwards. 

5. A MARRIAGE AT SEA. By W. Clark Russell. 

6. IN TENT AND BUNGALOW. By the Author of ' Indian 

Idylls.' 

7. MY STEWARDSHIP. By E. M'Queen Gray. 

8. JACK'S FATHER. By W. E. NORRIS. 

9. JIM B. 

Lynn Linton. THE TRUE HISTORY OF JOSHUA DAVID- 
SON, Christian and Communist. By E. Lynn Linton. Eleventh 
Edition. Post %vo. \s. 



Books for Boys and Girls "^/^ 

A Series of Books by well-known Authors, well illustrated. ^~^l 

1. THE ICELANDER'S SWORD. By S. Baring Gould. 

2. TWO LITTLE CHILDREN AND CHING. By Edith 

E. CUTHELL. 



32 Messrs. Methuen's List 

3. TODDLEBEN'S HERO. By M. M. Blake. 

4. ONLY A GUARD ROOM DOG. By Edith E. Cuthell. 

5. THE DOCTOR OF THE JULIET. By Harry Colling- 

WOOD. 

6. MASTER ROCKAFELLAR'S VOYAGE. By W. Clark 

Russell. 

7. SYD BELTON : Or, The Boy who would not go to Sea. 

By G. Manville Fenn. 



3/6 



The Peacock Library 

A Series of Books for Girls by well-known Authors, 
handsoinely bound in blue and silver, and well illustrated. 

1. A PINCH OF EXPERIENCE. By L. B. Walford. 

2. THE RED GRANGE. By Mrs. Molesworth. 

3. THE SECRET OF MADAME DE MONLUC. By the 

Author of ' Mdle Mori.' 

4. DUMPS. By Mrs. Parr, Author of 'Adam and Eve.' 

5. OUT OF THE FASHION. By L. T. Meade. 

6. A GIRL OF THE PEOPLE. By L. T. Meade. 

7. HEPSY GIPSY. By L. T. Meade. 2j. M. 

8. THE HONOURABLE MISS. By L. T. Meade. 

9. MY LAND OF BEULAH. By Mrs. Leith Adams. 

University Extension Series 

A series of books on historical, literary, and scientific subjects, suitable 
for extension students and home-reading circles. Each volume is com- 
plete in itself, and the subjects are treated by competent writers in a 
broad and philosophic spirit. 

Edited by J. E. SYMES, M.A., 

Principal of University College, Nottingham. 

Crown 8vo. Price (with some exceptions) 2s. 6d. 

The following volumes are ready : — 

THE INDUSTRIAL HISTORY OF ENGLAND. By H. DE 

B. GiBBiNS, M.A., late Scholar of Wadham College, Oxon., Cobden 
Prizeman. Fourth Edition. With Maps and Plans. 3^. 
'A compact and clear story of our ndustrial development. A study of this concise 
but luminous book cannot fail to give the reader a clear insight into the principal 
phenomena of our industrial history. The editor and publishers are to be congrat- 
ulated on this first volume of their venture, and we shall look with expectant 
interest for the succeeding volumes of the series.' — University Extoision Jo2i7^al. 



Messrs. Methuen's List 33 

A HISTORY OF ENGLISH POLITICAL ECONOMY. By 

L. L. Price, M.A., Fellow of Oriel College, Oxon. Second Edition. 

PROBLEMS OF POVERTY : An Inquiry into the Industrial 
Conditions of the Poor. By J. A. HoBSON, M.A. Third Edition. 

VICTORIAN POETS. By A. Sharp. 

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. By J. E. Symes, M.A. 

PSYCHOLOGY. By F. S. Granger, M.A., Lecturer in Philo- 
sophy at University College, Nottingham. 

THE EVOLUTION OF PLANT LIFE : Lower Forms. By 
G. Massee, Kew Gardens. With Illustrations. 

AIR AND WATER. Professor V. B. Lewes, M.A. Illustrated. 

THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE AND HEALTH. By C. W. 
KiMMlNS, M.A. Camb. Illustrated. 

THE MECHANICS OF DAILY LIFE. By V. P. Sells, M.A. 

Illustrated. 
ENGLISH SOCIAL REFORMERS. H. de B. Gibbins, M.A. 
ENGLISH TRADE AND FINANCE IN THE SEVEN- 
TEENTH CENTURY. By W. A. S. Hewins, B.A. 
THE CHEMISTRY OF FIRE. The Elementary Principles of 

Chemistry. ByM. M. Pattison Muir, M.A. Illustrated. 
A TEXT-BOOK OF AGRICULTURAL BOTANY. By M. C. 

Potter, M.A., F.L.S. Illustrated. 3^-. M. 
THE VAULT OF HEAVEN. A Popular Introduction to 

Astronomy. By R. A. Gregory. With numerous Illustrations. 
METEOROLOGY. The Elements of Weather and Climate. 

By H. N. Dickson, F.R.S.E., F.R. Met. Soc. Illustrated. 
A MANUAL OF ELECTRICAL SCIENCE. By George 

J. BuRCH, M.A. With numerous Illustrations. 3^. 
THE EARTH. An Introduction to Physiography. By Evan 

Small, M.A. Illustrated. 
INSECT LIFE. By F. W. Theobald, M.A. Illustrated. 

ENGLISH POETRY FROM BLAKE TO BROWNING. By 

W. M. Dixon, M.A. 
ENGLISH LOCAL GOVERNMENT. By E. Jenks, M.A., 

Professor of Law at University College, Liverpool. 



34 Messrs. Methuen's List 

Social Questions of To-day- 
Edited by H. DE B. GIBBINS, M.A. 

Crown 8vo. 2s. 6d. \ /^ 

A series of volumes upon those topics of social, economic, ^ / \j 

and industrial interest that are at the present moment fore- ' 

most in the public mind. Each volume of the series is written by an 
author who is an acknowledged authority upon the subject with which 
he deals. 

The followhtg Volumes of the Series are ready : — 

TRADE UNIONISM— NEW AND OLD, By G. Howell, 

Author of ' The Conflicts of Capital and Labour.' Second Edition. 

THE CO-OPERATIVE MOVEMENT TO-DAY. By G. J. 

HoLYOAKE, Author of 'The History of Co-operation.' Second 
Edition. 

MUTUAL THRIFT. By Rev. J. Frome Wilkinson, M.A., 
Author of ' The Friendly Society Movement.' 

PROBLEMS OF POVERTY : An Inquiry into the Industrial 

Conditions of the Poor. By J. A. HOBSON, M.A. Third Edition. 

THE COMMERCE OF NATIONS. By C. F. Bastable, 

M.A., Professor of Economics at Trinity College, Dublin. 

THE ALIEN INVASION. By W. H. Wilkins, B.A., Secretary 

to the Society for Preventing the Immigration of Destitute Aliens. 

THE RURAL EXODUS. By P. Anderson Graham. 

LAND NATIONALIZATION. By Harold Cox, B.A. 

A SHORTER WORKING DAY. By H. DE B. Gibbins 
and R. A. Hadfield, of the Hecla Works, Sheffield. 

BACK TO THE LAND : An Inquiry into the Cure for Rural 
Depopulation. By H. E. MoORE. 

TRUSTS, POOLS AND CORNERS : As affecting Commerce 
and Industry. By J. Stephen Jeans, M.R.I., F.S.S. 

THE FACTORY SYSTEM. By R. CooKE Taylor. 

THE STATE AND ITS CHILDREN. By GERTRUDE 

TUCKWELL. 

WOMEN'S WORK. By Lady Dilke, Miss Bulley, and 
Miss Whitley. 



Messrs. Methuen's List 35 

MUNICIPALITIES AT WORK. The Municipal Policy of 
Six Great Towns, and its Influence on their Social Welfare Bv 
Frederick Dolman. ' ^ 

SOCIALISM AND MODERN THOUGHT. By M. Kauf- 

MANN. 

THE HOUSING OF THE WORKING CLASSES. By R. 

F. BOWMAKER. 

MODERN CIVILISATION IN SOME OF ITS ECONOMIC 
ASPECTS. By W. Cunningham, D. D. , Fellow of Trinity College, 
Cambridge. 

Classical Translations 

Edited by H. F. FOX, M.A., Fellow and Tutor of Brasenose 
College, Oxford. 

Messrs. Methuen are issuing a New Series of Translations from the 
Greek and Latin Classics. They have enlisted the services of some 
of the best Oxford and Cambridge Scholars, and it is their intention that 
the Series shall be distinguished by literary excellence as well as by 
scholarly accuracy. 

^SCHYLUS — Agamemnon, Choephoroe, Eumenides. Trans- 
lated by Lewis Campbell, LL.D., late Professor of Greek at St. 
Andrews, ^s. 

CICERO— De Oratore I. Translated by E. N. P. Moor, M.A., 
Assistant Master at Clifton. 3^. 6d. 

CICERO — Select Orations (Pro Milone, Pro Murena, Philippic II., 
In Catilinam). Translated by H. E. D. Blakiston, M.A., Fellow 
and Tutor of Trinity College, Oxford. 55. 

CICERO — De Natura Deorum. Translated by F. Brooks, 
M. A., late Scholar of Balliol College, Oxford. 3J-. 6d. 

LUCIAN — Six Dialogues (Nigrinus, Icaro-Menippus, The Cock, 
The Ship, The Parasite, The Lover of Falsehood). Translated by 
S. T. Irwin, M.A., Assistant Master at Clifton; late Scholar of 
Exeter College, Oxford. 3^. 6d. 

SOPHOCLES— Electra and Ajax. Translated by E. D. A. 
Morshead, M.A., late Scholar of New College, Oxford ; Assistant 
Master at Winchester. 2s. 6d. 

TACITUS— Agricola and Germania. Translated by R. B. 
Townshend, late Scholar of Trinity College, Cambridge. 2s. 6d. 



36 Messrs. Methuen's List 

Educational Books 

CLASSICAL 
TACITI AGRICOLA. With Introduction, Notes, Map, etc. 
By R. F. Davis, M.A., Assistant Master at Weymouth College. 
Crown 8vo. 25. 

TACITI GERMANIA. By the same Editor. CrownZvo. 2s. 

HERODOTUS: EASY SELECTIONS. With Vocabulary. 

By A. C. LiDDELL, M.A., Assistant Master at Nottingham High 

School. Fcap. 8vo. is. 6d. 
SELECTIONS FROM THE ODYSSEY. By E. D. STONE, 

M.A., late Assistant Master at Eton. Fcap. 8vo. is. 6d. 
PLAUTUS : THE CAPTIVI. Adapted for Lower Forms by 

J. H. Freese, M. a., late Fellow of St. John's, Cambridge, is. 6d. 
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