(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Fallout protection : what to know and do about nuclear attack"

FALLOUT PROTEC 




KNOW AND DO 




,-<?S0fc?^ 




From the collection of the 



Z ^ ^ 

oPreTinger 



Jj 



a 



V JJibrary 
p 



San Francisco, California 
2008 



H-6 DECEMBER 1961 



CONCERNING THIS BOOKLET 



One of the first tasks assigned to me by the President, after I 
assumed responsibility for the Federal Civil Defense Program 
last August, was to give the American people the facts they 
need to know about the dangers of a thermonuclear attack 
and what they can do to protect themselves. This booklet 
attempts to provide the facts. ^ 

The factual information in this booklet has been verified by 
independent scientific authority, and represents the best con- 
sensus of the scientific community that we can establish. 

The booklet also describes the national civil defense program. 
This program necessarily rests on judgments about what are 
prudent precautions in the light of our knowledge of what 
might happen and our evaluation of scientific facts. Judgments 
may differ. It is my considered judgment that this is a reason- 
able and prudent program — and that it is the best program we 
can have, measured against the other priorities of our national 
life. 



/^^^S. A^^ yi^. 



Secretary of Defense 



WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW 
AND WHAT YOU SHOULD DO 



How to survive attack and live 
for your country's recovery 



The purpose of this booklet is to help save lives if a nuclear 
attack should ever come to America. The foreign and defense 
policies of your Government make such an attack highly un- 
likely, and to keep it unlikely is their most important aim. 
It is for this reason that we have devoted so large an effort to 
creating and maintaining our deterrent forces. However, 
should a nuclear attack ever occur, certain preparations could 
mean the difference between life and death for you. 

The need for preparation — for civil defense — is likely to be 
with us for a long time, and we must suppress the temptation 
to reach out hastily for short-term solutions. There is no 
panacea for protection from nuclear attack. In a major attack 
upon our country, millions of people would be killed. There 
appears to be no practical program that would avoid large-scale 



loss of life. But an effective program of civil defense could save 
the lives of millions who would not otherwise survive. Fallout 
shelters and related preparations, for example, could greatly 
reduce the number of casualties. 

President Kennedy, speaking on July 25, 1961, put it this 
way: "In the event of attack, the lives of those families which 
are not hit in the nuclear blast and fire can still be saved if they 
can be warned to take shelter and if that shelter is available. 
We owe that kind of insurance to our families and to our 
country." 

The President was talking about shelter from radioactive 
fallout. The blast, heat, and fire of a nuclear explosion are 
appallingly destructive. But radioactive fallout could spread 
over thousands of square miles, covering a much greater area 
than the area endangered by fire and blast. Fallout would 
be a potential killer of millions of unprotected persons, but it 
also is a hazard that individuals and communities can prepare 
for through reasonable programs and actions. A fallout shel- 
ter program is one of these. This booklet contains information 
about a shelter program — what the Federal Government in- 
tends to do, and how State and local governments, and indi- 
vidual citizens can work together to bring it into being as a 
sound measure of national preparedness. 

There is much we can do together, and perhaps the first step 
is to take a clear look at nuclear warfare and what it could mean 
to the world as we know it today. 

There is no escaping the fact that nuclear conflict would 
leave a tragic world. The areas of blast and fire would be 
scenes of havoc, devastation, and death. For the part of the 
country outside the immediate range of the explosions, it 
would be a time of extraordinary hardship — both for the Nation 
and for the individual. The effects of fallout radiation would 
be present in areas not decontaminated. Transportation and 
communication would be disrupted. The Nation would be 
prey to strange rumors and fears. But if effective precautions 
have been taken in advance, it need not be a time of despair. 

These are somber subjects, and they presuppose a catastrophe 
which can be made very unlikely by wise and positive policies, 
pursued with imagination and faith. Still, realistic prepara- 



6 



tion for what might happen is far more useful than blindness, 
whether from fear or ignorance. A sane and sober person can 
assume that, whatever comes to pass, he would draw on his re- 
serve of courage and intelligence — and the unquenchable will 
to live — and begin to build again. 

The experience would be terrible beyond imagination and de- 
scription. But there is much that can be done to assure that it 
would not mean the end of the life of our Nation. 

There are no total answers, no easy answers, no cheap answers 
to the question of protection from nuclear attack. But there 
are answers. Some of them are in this booklet. 



WORDS TO KNOW 

A-BOMB AND H-BOMB. Popular terms for what should cor- 
rectly be called nuclear weapons. An atomic or A-bomb 
explodes through the fission (splitting) of atomic nuclei; a hy- 
drogen or H-bomb is called a thermonuclear weapon because 
tremendous heat is needed to start the fusion process. 

KILOTON. The power of nuclear weapons is measured in 
equivalents of the explosive energy of TNT. A one-kiloton 
weapon has the explosive equivalent of 1,000 tons of TNT. 

MEGATON. The explosive equivalent of one million tons of 
TNT. In this booklet, a five megaton nuclear weapon ex- 
ploded at or near ground level is assumed as a basis for describ- 
ing explosive effects. There are much larger weapons which 
could do more damage, but the damage from larger weapons 
does not increase in direct ratio to the size of the weapons. 

GROUND ZERO. The surface point at or above which a nu- 
clear weapon detonates. 

FIREBALL. The large, swiftly expanding sphere of hot gases, 
producing brilliant light and intense heat, that is the first man- 



ifestation of a nuclear explosion. After about a minute, the 
fireball fades into the atmosphere. 

BLAST (SHOCK) WAVE. The near-solid wall of air pressure 
produced by a nuclear explosion. Beginning at more than 2,000 
miles per hour, its speed decreases rapidly with distance. 

BLAST WIND. The wind gust which travels with the blast 
wave and may be of many times hurricane force. 

ROENTGEN. A unit for measuring an amount of radiation 
exposure. 

INITIAL (PROMPT) RADIATION. The burst of gamma 
rays and neutrons sent out from the explosion during the first 
minute after detonation. Initial radiation is most deadly within 
about two miles of ground zero. 

FALLOUT. The radioactive debris of a nuclear explosion, 
which eventually falls to earth in particles. The amount of 
fallout is enormously greater if a weapon detonates on or near 
the surface than if it explodes high in the air. Large amounts 
of earth are drawn up by the fireball. High in the sky, radio- 
active elements are incorporated into the earth particles, which 
are scattered by winds and in time fall to the ground. 

FALLOUT RADIATION. The radiation emitted by fallout 
particles. Each particle of fallout gives off radiation as though 
it were a miniature X-ray machine. This radiation consists 
chiefly of beta rays (dangerous only if fallout particles touch 
the skin or are swallowed or inhaled) and gamma rays. Gamma 
rays, like X-rays, are very penetrating, and create the need for 
protective shields (fallout shelters). 

EARLY FALLOUT. The fallout that returns to earth during 
the first day. This booklet is mainly about early fallout. The 
radioactivity of such fallout decreases rather rapidly at first, 
and more slowly as time passes. 



SOME BASIC FACTS 

The probable effects of nuclear attack and the relative value 
of certain protective measures are complex subjects. There is 
no attempt here to discuss them in great detail, but to present 
information that might be helpful in understanding the overall 
problem. 

EfFects of a 5-megaton burst 

A five-megaton nuclear burst at ground level would destroy 
most buildings two miles from the point of the explosion. 
Steel-frame buildings would be knocked sideways and great 
fires started. 

The destruction five miles away would be less severe, but 
fires and early fallout could be a significant hazard. 

At 10 miles, sturdy buildings would remain intact. At this 
distance fires probably would not be started by the fireball, but 
might be started by the blast wave which could rupture gas 
lines and short-circuit wires. Flying glass would present a 
major danger, as would early fallout. 

At 50 miles from the bomb burst, all buildings would remain 
standing. The fading blast wave would take about five minutes 
to arrive, but would still shatter many windows. The greatest 
danger at this distance would be from early fallout which would 
begin arriving in some areas within three or four hours, depend- 
ing upon weather conditions at the time. 

Danger of fire storms 

When nuclear or incendiary bombs strike a highly combusti- 
ble city area, they can create a "fire storm"; the rising column of 
hot gases draws in surrounding cool air, producing inward- 
blowing winds that confine the fire storm to the blast damage 
area. Primary fires would be a much greater hazard than fire 
storms. For maximum fire damage, a nuclear weapon must be 



detonated high in the air. This would eliminate most of the po- 
tential fallout hazard. The spread of fires from a nuclear attack 
would be limited in the same ways as are peacetime fires — by 
barriers such as open space, rivers, highways, by rainfall, and by 
varied distribution of burnable material. 

Exposure to radiation 

During the average lifetime, every human being receives 
about 10 roentgens of nuclear radiation from natural sources. 
In addition, people are exposed to small amounts of radiation in 
dental and chest X-rays and even from the luminous dials of 
wrist watches. 

When large amounts of radiation are absorbed by the body in 
short periods of time, sickness and death may result. In gen- 
eral, 'the effects of radiation stay with people and accumulate 
over a period of time. Few people get sick who have been ex- 
posed to 100 roentgens or less. Exposure to more than 300 
roentgens over a period of a few days will cause sickness in the 
form of nausea, and may cause death. And death is certain if 
a person receives an exposure of 1,000 roentgens over a period of 
a few days. 

Young people might be injured more by nuclear radiation 
than older people. This is because young people are more apt 
to absorb radioactive elements into their bones and internal 
organs than are older people. Since young people are potential 
parents, they should be protected as much as possible following 
a nuclear attack to minimize the possible genetic effects on their 
descendants resulting from too much exposure to nuclear 
radiation. 

Radiation sickness not contagious 

Radiation sickness is neither contagious nor infectious. Fall- 
out radiation cannot make anything radioactive. Food and 
water that have been exposed to fallout radiation are contami- 
nated only to the extent that they contain fallout particles. Ex- 
posed food that may have particles on it can be made safe by 
washing, brushing, or peeling. Fallout particles can be re- 
moved from water supplies by sedimentation or filtering. Peo- 



10 



pie who have fallout particles on their bodies or clothing prob- 
ably would not carry enough to endanger other people, but 
they should wash themselves for their own protection. 

Long-term effects of radiation 

Following a nuclear attack, most radioactive elements in fall- 
out would decay rapidly, losing most of their power to harm. 
However, for some time thereafter the hazard could continue to 
restrict normal activities in some parts of the country. A few 
elements, such as strontium 90, cesium 137, and carbon 14, are 
long-lived and could harm humans in some ways, such as by 
being absorbed by food plants. However, the long-term dam- 
aging effects of such exposure are not yet known in great detail. 

Radiation in the air 

Following a nuclear attack the air would be contaminated by 
radioactive fallout only to the extent that it contained fallout 
particles. The most dangerous fallout particles — early fall- 
out — would reach the earth in the first day after the detonation, 
but their mere passage through the air would not contaminate 
the air. Fallout particles in harmful amounts would not be 
present in basement family shelters. People in underground 
family shelters could keep fallout particles out of their shelters 
by having a simple hood over the air-intake pipe. Special filters 
are not needed for small shelters. However, group shelters 
that have high-velocity air-intake fans would have to have 
filters on the air-intake system to keep fallout particles out. 

How early fallout looks 

The most dangerous fallout — early fallout — would consist of 
radioactive particles that are relatively large and heavy — about 
the size of table salt or fine sand. The chances are you could 
see the particles although you could not detect the radiation 
from the particles without the use of a special instrument. 

11 



Special clothing offers little protection 

Fallout radiation would pass through any type of protective 
clothing that would be practical to wear. Heavy and dense 
materials, such as earth and concrete, are needed to stop the 
highly penetrating fallout rays. Certain types of protective 
clothing could be useful — particularly for emergency work- 
ers — in keeping fallout particles off the body, but the wearer 
would not be protected from the gamma radiation given off by 
the particles. The worker would wear the clothing when in a 
fallout contaminated area, and then discard it or brush and wash 
it off thoroughly before entering a non-contaminated area. 

Little hope in special medicines 

Although many experiments have been conducted, there is 
little likelihood that a pill or any other type of medicine will 
be developed that can protect people from the effects of fallout 
radiation, so that shielding from fallout becomes necessary. 

Evacuation vs. shelter 

Two conditions make pre-attack evacuation of less general 
value as a protective measure for nuclear attack than it appeared 
to be a few years ago: the danger of radioactive fallout to un- 
sheltered evacuees, and the decrease in the probable attack- 
warning time if an enemy should attack with high-speed mis- 
siles. However, the problem of mass movement of people in 
the event of a nuclear attack is still a significant one because 
plans must be made to get people into shelters rather rapidly. 
Also, it may be necessary to move people out of severely 
damaged areas after an attack. 

Probable reaction to disaster 

Experience has shown that many human beings act coopera- 
tively when disaster strikes, many feel helpless, a few panic. 
Disaster studies indicate that information, planning, and prepa- 
ration clearly increase the extent of cooperative and construc- 
tive behavior following a disaster. 



12 




A NUCLEAR EXPLOSION: 
FIRST, THE BLAST 

A five-megaton nuclear weapon explodes with a brilliant 
flash that lasts about a minute. A quick burst of nuclear and 
heat radiation emerges from ground zero, the point of the ex- 
plosion. The spurt of nuclear radiation (wavy lines extending 
from the fireball) is called initial radiation or prompt radiation 
and kills within a mile or two. The heat rays (straight lines) 
can kill unprotected people up to 10 miles away and may start 
fires beyond that. The heat rays and initial radiation are fol- 
lowed by a blast wave which starts at more than 2,000 miles an 
hour, but loses much of its damaging force by about 10 miles 
out. With the blast wave comes a violent wind which picks 
up loose objects and bears them outward. In the illustration 
here, the weapon has burst at ground level, leaving a crater 
about half a mile across and 200 feet deep. Nearly everything 
within a radius of a mile of ground zero would be destroyed. 



13 



NEXT: FALLOUT 
STARTS DESCENDING 

As the brilliant fireball rises in the sky, it draws up a vast 
amount of earth that is melted or vaporized and contaminated 
by the radioactive residue of the explosion. A little later this 
material, condensing in the cold upper air like rain or snow, 
starts falling back to earth because, like ash from a fire, it is 
heavier than air. It is called fallout because it falls out of the 
sky, wherever the winds may blow it. You cannot tell from the 
ground which way it will be carried because its scatter is de- 
termined by high-altitude winds, which may be blowing in a 
different direction from the ground-level winds you can ob- 
serve. About five miles from the explosion, me heavier par- 
ticles — early fallout — would reach the ground in half an hour. 
Twenty miles away, people may have nearly an hour to get 
ready. One hundred miles away the fallout may not start for 
four to six hours. All this early fallout, which carries the bulk 
of the radiation danger, descends in less than 24 hours. The 
less dangerous lighter particles — delayed fallout — might stay 
aloft for months. 








CRATER 5 Ml. 2 Ml. 



100 Mi. 



GROUP ACTION: 
COMMUNITY SHELTERS 

Experience in Europe in World War II and other human 
experiences under disaster conditions have pointed to distinct 
advantages of the community or neighborhood fallout shelter 
when compared with the family shelter. There are several 
reasons why group shelters are preferable in many circum- 
stances: 

1. A larger than family-size group probably would be better 
prepared to face a nuclear attack than a single family, 
particularly if some members should be away from home 
at the time of an attack. 

2. There would be more opportunity to find first aid and 
other emergency skills in a group, and the risk of radia- 
tion exposure after an attack could be more widely shared. 

3. Community shelters would provide shelter for persons 
away from their homes at the time of an attack. 

4. Group shelters could serve as a focus for integrated com- 
munity recovery activities in a post-attack period. 

5. Group shelters could serve other community purposes, as 
well as offer protection from fallout following an attack. 

For these reasons the Federal Government is undertaking a 
number of activities — involving guidance, technical assistance, 
and money — to encourage the development of community fall- 
out shelters. (See "Organizing for Civil Defense.") The over- 
all program, which got underway with the National Shelter 
Survey, aims at securing group fallout shelters in existing and 
new structures, stocking them with essential supplies, marking 
them, and making them available to the public in an emergency. 



15 



A model public shelter 
and community center 



As a model for its hundreds of communities. New York State 
expects to have a dual-purpose shelter, like the one below, on 
display at the Westchester County Airport by May of 1962. 

Many growing communities or neighborhoods are cramped 
for space in which small civic groups can hold their meetings. 
Gregarious teenagers often have no after-school hangout where 
they can relax with sodas and play the jukebox. This shelter 
can serve such purposes admirably; here a Scout meeting is 
going on in one section while adults attend an illustrated lecture 
in another. Requiring no surface space except for its entrances, 
the shelter can be built under a school playground or other civic 
property without interfering with present uses. 

The shelter, built of corrugated metal arches buried under 
several feet of earth, can vary in size. New York's will have 
three arches, each 10 feet high, 20 feet wide, and 100 feet long. 
A steel surface door will lead to a corridor-tunnel providing 
entry to all arches. Arches can be reinforced with metal ribs 
for extra blast protection. 




, -mfrntiasaiif 




16 



Built-in shelter 
in new structures 



Added safety against fallout radiation can be built into a new 
structure without great extra cost. Sometimes the necessary 
protection can be assured by using the "safety core" design 
principle illustrated in the school building below. Even 
though it has no basement, the school house provides a shelter 
that is also useful for other purposes. The thick-walled central 
core with concrete-slab roof contains "activity rooms," divided 
and reinforced by the walls of a library and rest rooms. Pro- 
jecting baffle walls shield the windows of surrounding class- 
rooms. 




17 



A city building 

provides fallout protection 



After a nuclear attack, a tall apartment or office building 10 
miles or more from the explosion could be one of the safest 
refuges. In this drawing the people have taken shelter from 
radioactive fallout in an office building. 

Because the gamma rays given off by fallout penetrate much 
like X-rays, the people taking shelter in the building shown on 
the opposite page have put as much mass of material as possible 
between themselves and the particles which have settled on the 
roof, ground, and other horizontal surfaces. Above ground, 
they have gone to the middle of the building; below ground, 
they have found shielding in a basement corner. Those in the 
main basement are shielded from radiation by the surrounding 
earth, by partitions, and by the whole mass of the building 
above. On the upper floors, people have shielded themselves in 
the "core" of the building. They have avoided the floor with 
the setback and terrace because of radiation from the fallout 
piling up there. (For better protection on any floor, it is advis- 
able to keep below the window-sill level.) Because the tall 
building shields lower floors from some radiation, people have 
taken shelter in more rooms on that side. But no one has taken 
cover on the ground and top floors because the shielding there 
is inadequate. 



18 



PI 



I 111 




INDIVIDUAL ACTION: 
FAMILY SHELTERS 

^ Families living in rural or sparsely settled areas may find that 
family shelters are the only feasible solution to their falloii 
shelter problem. Others may have personal preferences f' > 
family shelters. 

There are a number of ways to construct home shelters. S 
eral types are shown here. All of the shelters shown here cai. 
be built with about SI 50 worth of materials or less, it mate- 
rials, such as the lumber used in a basement lean-to shelter, are 
available at little or no cost, some persons could build these 
shelters for considerably less than SI 50. In all of the shelters, 
the danger from fallout would be at least 100 times less than to 
unprotected persons. 




This family is building a basement compact shelter of sand-filled con- 
crete blocks. Solid concrete blocks are used for the roof shielding. 
This type of shelter also could be built of brick or structural tile. 



20 



Construction drawings on these and other family shelters can 
be obtained by following the instructions on the last page of 
this booklet. 

In selecting shielding material for any shelter, sand or earth 
can be substituted for concrete or brick, but for each inch of 
solid masonry you need an inch and a half of sand or earth. 
Adding shielding material to a shelter will improve the protec- 
tion offered by the shelter, but it also may increase the cost of 
the shelter. 



This sand-filled lean-to base- 
ment shelter will accom- 
modate three persons. The 
house itself gives partial 
shielding. Sandbags are 
used to block the end of the 
shelter. 




"'^ 



This backyard plywood shelter can be built partially above ground 
and mounded over with earth, or be built totally below ground level. 

A gravel drain under the shelter and a ditch outside help keep it dry. 
The family blocks the entrance with sandbags after entering the shelter. 



21 



A number of firms have entered the home shelter field. As 
in any new commercial activity there are abuses. Advertising 
claims may be misleading; designs and products may be inade- 
quate. Your State and Federal governments will do what they 
properly can to minimize these abuses, but the most effective 
discouragement to those taking advantage of the rising interest 
in home shelters is your caution and shrewdness. You will 
have the cooperation of the Better Business Bureau, your local 
Civil Defense director, and of your local. State, and Federal 
government officials concerned with such matters. 

Trade associations that are interested in the shelter construc- 
tion business have offered their cooperation in making home 
shelter plans available to the public and in working with others 
to maintain a high level of business practice. Several of these 
are listed on the last page of this booklet. 

In the event of a nuclear attack, be prepared to live in a shelter 
as long as two weeks, coming out for short trips only if neces- 
sary. Fallout would be most dangerous in the first two days 




This prefab backyard shelter for four can be bought for under $150. 
The price includes the corrugated steel-pipe unit (4-foot diameter), 
entry and air vent pipes. 



22 



after an attack, and even if you were inside a shelter you prob- 
ably would have absorbed some radiation. Your freedom of 
action would depend on your radiation exposure during the 
critical period after the fallout descends. So, never expose 
yourself unnecessarily to radiation. 




This four-person basement-corner shelter is made of curved asbestos- 
cement sheets which are covered with sandbags. Materials cost about 
$125. 



LAST-MINUTE IMPROVISED MEASURES 

In the nuclear age, nobody can guarantee you so many min- 
utes, hours, or days of warning time. An enemy ultimatum 
might set a deadline; enemy bombers could be tracked while 
hours away; but enemy missiles could arrived unannounced. 
However, even the briefest warning you might get by radio or 
sirens would give you the precious, live-saving time to act. 

The two public warning signals are: 

A 3- to 5-minute STEADY TONE, meaning, turn on your 
radio for directions from local authorities. 



23 



A 3-minute WARBLING TONE or SHORT BLASTS, mean- 
ing take cover immediately. 

There are at least two situations that could increase the se- 
verity of the danger you would face: A plan of action but no 
time to put it into effect, or time to act but no plan of action — 
no shelter, for example. 

A plan but no time 

Your first warning of nviclear attack could be the flash of an 
explosion. Don't look at it. Quick action during the next few 
seconds could save your life. 

If you are inside, dive under or behind the nearest desk, table, 
sofa or other piece of sturdy furniture. Try to get in a shadow; 




If you have no basement, you can improvise a shelter by digging a 
trench next to the house, and making a lean-to structure with house 
doors. Pile the dirt from the trench and other heavy objects on top of 
the doors and at the sides for as much radiation shielding as possible. 



24 



it will help shade you from the heat. Lie curled on your side 
with your hands over the back of your neck, knees tucked 
against your chest. Stay away from windows, or turn your 
back to them — they admit heat rays and also may shatter. 

If you are outside, run into a building and assume the same 
curled-up position. If possible, face a corner. 

If you cannot get into a building, seek the lowest, most 
protected spot, such as a ditch, gutter or depression in a lawn. 
Lie in the cvirled position. Face away from loose or breakable 
objects. 

If you are far enough away from the explosion you may feel 
no effect at all. But stay put for five minutes to be sure. By 
then the blast effects will have passed or lost their force. You 
will have at least half an hour to find fallout protection. 

Time but no plan 

If you should receive warning of an attack but do not have 
a plan of action — no shelter to go to, for example — your first 
actions should be to guard against the hazards of fires set by 
the heat of a nuclear explosion. Get rid of svich quick burning 
things as oily rags, curtains, and lampshades. Get rid of old 
newspapers and magazines, or stack them in the basement if 
you plan to improvise a fallout shelter there. Shut off main 
electric and gas lines until the fire danger has passed. If your 
house has Venetian blinds, lower and shut them to bar flying 
glass and screen out some of the blast's fierce heat. Fill buckets, 
sinks, a bathtub, and other containers with water. 

Then turn your attention to fallout protection. There are 
six general guidelines to keep in mind for improvising last- 
minute fallout protection: 

1. A basement is usually better than aboveground floors, par- 
ticularly in private residences. (In large commercial or 
civic buildings, however, the central areas of middle 
floors could offer good protection.) 

2. A corner of a basement that is below ground level is better 
than the center of the basement. 

3. On aboveground floors, improvise shelter away from out- 
side walls. 



25 



When improvising shelter, keep it small. Concentrate 
the shielding mass immediately around and above you to 
conserve construction time. 

Stay away from windows and outside doorways. They 
are weak points in your fallout shield. Also, windows 
could be shattered many miles beyond the severe blast 
damage area of a nuclear explosion. 

If caught in the open, try to get to some substantial struc- 
ture, such as a large commercial or civic building, a tun- 
nel, or cave. If none of these is readily available, look for 
a culvert, underpass or ditch — anything that will get you 
below ground level — and improvise a shelter. 




This man is improvising a fallout shelter in a basement corner by stacking 
heavy material on and at the open sides of a sturdy table. Piling dirt 
and other heavy material in the basement window wells will improve 
his margin of protection. 



26 



SHELTER SUPPLIES 

Not every item on this chart is vital to life. (The most essen- 
tial ones are outlined in color.) But even though you might be 
able to leave your shelter briefly after a day or two, you should 
prepare to be completely self-sustaining for at least two weeks. 



EATING UTENSILS 
AND FOOD 




27 



The one essential is water; most people can live no more than 
four days without it. The minimum for a shelter is one quart 
of fluid per person per day; if space is available near the shelter, 
a gallon of water a day per person would provide for your com- 
fort, including washing. 

Some items, such as tools, should be kept handy but need not 
be inside the shelter itself. 



CIVIL DEFENSE 
INSTRUCTION MATERIAL 




1 1 1 



III uu m 



RUBBER SHEETING 



— @ ((® 




RADIATION METERS, radio! 



■I 



EXTRA BATTERfES 



CHARGER 



RATE METER. BATTERY-POWERED RADIO 

DOSIMETER WITH AERIAL 




TOOLS AND OTHER ITEMS 



SCREWDRIVER 



W III i^ 

I^^Bf CANDLES ^^" 





FLASHLIGHT 



EXTRA BATTERIES 



CALENDAR 



CROWBAR 



28 



EMERGENCY 
HOUSEKEEPING 

Following is a checklist of preparations for, and best ways 
of, living in close confinement for the two days to two weeks 
when a shelter may have to be your home. Also included 
is a resume of the first aid information you may need. 

Water 

It is more vital than food. Humans can live on a quart of 
water or other fluid a day, but an allowance of a gallon is far 
more comfortable, especially in a warm shelter. 

Store water in five-gallon or larger containers to conserve 
space. If you use small glass containers, seal them well and 
pack them with newspapers or wadding to prevent breakage. 
Some may want to test their stored water for smell and taste 
every three months, but it is not necessary for health. Odorous 
as it might become, it will still be usable in an emergency. 
Announcements on your radio may tell you whether local water 
supplies are safe. If they are not, you can preserve a consider- 
able safe water supply in your house by closing the water shut- 
off valve leading in from the street. The water in toilet flush 
tanks, pipes, hot water tanks, and similar home sources is 
drinkable. 

Unless authorities have pronounced it safe, try to avoid using 
water from outside the house or open sources (lakes, reservoirs) 
after the attack without purifying it. Germs or radioactive 
material, or both, may get into water. Cloudy or unclear water 



29 



should first be strained through a paper towel or several thick- 
nesses of clean cloth, or else be allowed to settle in a deep 
container and then siphoned off. After that, it may be freed of 
germs with water purification tablets, obtainable at drug and 
sporting goods stores, or by boiling vigorously for a few min- 
utes, or by adding 20 drops of iodine to a gallon of clear water 
or 40 drops to a gallon of cloudy water. Then let it stand for 
30 minutes. Liquid household bleaches of the sodium hypo- 
chlorite type can also be used. The label usually gives 
instructions. 

Radiation in itself does not affect water. It is only if the 
radioactive particles themselves get into water that the water 
becomes dangerous. There are effective ways to decontaminate 
water containing radioactive particles. The particles can be 
removed by the simple filtering process with paper or cloth that 




Enlarged view of a ratemeter 
scale. This particular model 
must be exposed to radiation 
for certain specific times to 
measure the dose rate (inten- 
sity) of radiation. 



Enlarged view of a dosimeter 
scale. The instrument is used 
to measure the total amount of 
radiation to which a person has 
been exposed. 



30 



was described earlier, or by running the water through one of 
the devices that are sold to soften water for home use. Perhaps 
an easier way would be to mix a handful of clay soil with each 
gallon of water and allow it to settle out over a period of a day. 



Radiation meters 

Because gamma rays, like X-rays, are not detected by any of 
the five senses, each shelter should have some simple instru- 
ments to detect and measure them. Instruments developed 
specifically for home use can be ordered through department 
stores and other retail outlets. Having these instruments does 
not automatically provide you with simple solutions to prob- 
lems of radiation exposure since the relations between dose 
rate, total dose, time, radioactive decay, etc., must be learned. 
Instructions will be available, however, on how to interpret 
the instrument readings. If these are studied and understood 
in advance, the instruments can be of great value in intelligently 
planning your action in a fallout situation. 

A ratemeter will tell what the intensity of the radiation is. 
It is similar to a speedometer in a car except that it measures 
roentgens per hour rather than miles per hour. Thus, from a 
ratemeter reading made just outside the shelter, you can get an 
indication of whether it is safe to leave the shelter for a brief 
period. The dosimeter will show you the total amount of 
radiation to which you have been exposed during an emergency 
period. It is similar to a mileage indicator in a car but it 
measures total roentgens rather than miles. Carefully study 
the instructions provided with these instruments by the manu- 
facturer. 



At right is a kit of radiation instru- 
ments developed specifically for 
home use — a ratemeter, dosimeter, 
and charger. Other models are 
being developed. 




31 



Food 

Wherever you live — in the country, city apartment, or subur- 
ban house — you should keep a two-week supply of food on hand. 
Large community shelters in existing buildings are going to be 
stocked by the Federal Government with emergency foods. 
But for the present, and especially for apartment residents who 
may have to take quick refuge in the central core or basement 
of their building, a good plan is to keep handy a box or basket 
with rations and water. 

In planning a two-week supply of food for whatever shelter 
you will use, bear these things in mind: 

Ten thousand calories will be adequate for an adult during 
an inactive two-week shelter stay. Select familiar foods (they 
are more heartening and acceptable during times of stress) and 
food that will last for months without refrigeration and can 
be served without cooking. Suggestions: canned meat, fish, 
poultry, beans, peas and fruits; cereals and tinned baked goods; 
cheese spreads, peanut butter and jellies with crackers; evapo- 
rated or dried milk. 

Pick cans and packages of a size suitable to your family's 
needs for one meal; this prevents spoilage and offers you greater 
daily variety. Keep all foods in their original containers. 
Those that do not come in cans should be wrapped and tape- 
sealed in polyethylene sheets. Write the date of purchase on 
cans or packages, and use oldest purchases first. 

After a nuclear attack, food stored indoors should be safe to 
eat. That is especially true of food in freezers and refrigerators, 
which should, of course, be kept closed as much as possible. Eat 
the perishable foods first, especially if electricity and gas are 
cut off. Bread is still edible even when moldy; sour milk is 
drinkable. Fruits and vegetables with "rotten" spots cut out 
are safe to eat; if they have been exposed to fallout, wipe, wash 
and peel them, disposing of wash-water and peelings outside 
the shelter. 

Throw out canned foods if bubbles appear in the juices, even 
though they smell all right. In an emergency, most canned 
and packaged animal foods can be eaten by humans without 
harm. 



32 




A hand-operated air blower, like this 
one at the left, would provide ample 
ventilation for any underground fam- 
ily shelter. Other models are being 
developed. 



Ventilation 

Fresh air is more vital than food and water. A basement 
home shelter will get its air via door cracks and other crevices 
through which fallout particles are unlikely to drift. But well- 
sealed community shelters and home underground ones will 
need ventilation systems because even at rest a person should 
have at least three cubic feet of air a minute. 

In many home underground shelters a three-inch intake pipe 
is installed to suck in fresh air by means of a hand-operated 
blower that is cranked periodically, and an exhaust pipe is set 
up to vent stale air. The air-intake pipe should extend at least 
a foot above the ground, and have a weather cap over it to keep 
out fallout particles. 

Community shelters should have an air filter to remove par- 
ticles that may get into the ventilation system. Since this filter 
may collect radioactive material, the people in the shelter should 
be shielded from it. No blower is necessary for the outlet or 
exhaust pipe because of the pressure created within the shelter 
by the intake blower. In smaller shelters the outlet pipe may 
be unnecessary because air would leave through cracks around 
the door. Blowers are available at hardware stores. 

Radiation sickness 

The principal ailment unique to nuclear warfare is radiation 
sickness. Its severity depends on the amount of radiation to 
which a person is exposed and on the length of the exposure 
time. That is because the body can take a certain amount of 
radiation damage and repair it without serious permanent in- 
jury. It is only when one gets too much too fast that sickness 



33 



or possibly death may result. Radiation sickness is not con- 
tagious, regardless of how much exposure the victim has had. 
It is important to know that many of its symptoms may appear 
in anyone subjected at any time to anxiety and great stress. 

Symptoms of three degrees of radiation sickness are: Mild — 
the especially sensitive person will show some nausea, lack of 
appetite and fatigue within a few hour after exposure. He 
should rest but can continue normal activities. Recovery will 
be rapid. Moderate — the same symptoms appear, but well 
within two hours of exposure, and more markedly. Vomiting 
and even prostration may occur. By the third day, recovery 
may seem complete, but symptoms may recur in the next days 
or weeks. Severe — again, all the early symptoms show up and 
may vanish after a few days. But after a week or more, fever, 
mouth soreness and diarrhea may appear; gums and mouth may 
ulcerate and bleed; and, in about the third week, the patient's 
hair may start to fall out. Recovery may take seven to eight 
weeks. When exposure has been overwhelming, death comes 
in hours or weeks. 

Treat symptoms in this way: General rest. Aspirin for 
headache. Motion-sickness tablets for nausea. Liquids as soon 
as possible for diarrhea and vomiting, but not until vomiting 
has stopped (ideally, one teaspoon of table salt to one quart of 
cool water, to be sipped slowly). For sore mouth, this solution 
can be used as a mouthwash. 

First aid 

Since doctors, medical supplies, and other aids may not be 
available to everyone for days or even weeks in some areas, it 
is important for at least one adult in every family to know 
standard first aid. Civil Defense units, in cooperation with Red 
Cross Chapters, give courses you can take. In addition, a new 
training course in Medical Self Help, with a reference hand- 
book, contains valuable information on what to do should 
professional medical care be unavailable to you because of 
emergency conditions. 



34 



There are five basic first-aid rules that everyone should know. 
They are: 

How to stop bleeding. The average adult body contains 
only six quarts of blood; the loss of one quart is serious, so 
bleeding has priority over all other emergencies. Apply pres- 
sure to the wound at once — with your hand if nothing else is 
available, although a bandage, clean cloth, or sanitary napkin 
will help prevent infection. But don't waste time looking for 
them. Don't wash the wound. Apply pressure hard and fast, 
bringing the edges of the wound together if you can. You may 
have to continue the pressure for 30 minutes. 

Never apply the old-fashioned tourniquet except as a last 
resort. It may cost the patient his limb. 




ARTIFICIAL RESPIRATION 



35 



Breathing difficulties. Getting air into the victim's lungs 
fast is vital. Remove throat obstructions such as mucus, debris, 
a jarred-loose denture. If he is breathing, place him on his 
stomach, head to one side so that blood or secretions will not 
flow into air passages. If he is not breathing, apply mouth-to- 
mouth respiration. Tilt victim's head back to "sword-swal- 
lower" position (a blanket or pillow under shoulders will help), 
pinch his nose shut (see drawing), seal your open mouth over 
his, inhale deeply through your nose and exhale deeply into 
his mouth 12 to 16 times a minute for an adult, 20 for a 
child. Continue this for two hours, even if life seems extinct, 
before giving up. As he revives, adjust your breathing rhythm 
to his. 

If the patient has a chest wound, cover it with an airtight 
dressing. 

Handling fractures. Simple bone fractures show themselves 
by being tender to touch, or by the unnatural shape of the 
affected part, or by swelling and change in skin color. Com- 
pound fractures are indicated by broken skin, sometimes with 
the bone protruding. Splint the fracture wherever the patient 
lies before moving him, firmly supporting the broken limb. 

Burns. Light burns (reddening of the skin) need not be 
covered, and can be treated with pain relievers or left alone. 
Deeper burns, where blisters and especially destruction of tis- 
sue under the skin occur, should be covered with a clean dress- 
ing. No ointments or salves should be used. Fluid that oozes 
from the burn and forms a crust is a good dressing in itself. 
Don't puncture blisters unless they are likely to break; in this 
case make a small slit at the edge. 

If the burns are severe, get the victim to drink a salt solution 
if possible (one level teaspoon salt to one quart of water) in 
small amounts. A gallon during the first 24 hours is not too 
much. 

Comfort. Reassuring the patient in a confident way is vital. 
Move him only if necessary and then as little as possible. It 
may be useful to place the patient in a slightly head-down posi- 
tion. Do not give alcoholic drinks as a stimulant. 



36 



Sanitation 

In the limited space of a shelter, good sanitation is not merely 
a matter of comfort; it could be a matter of life or death. The 
familiar, old-fashioned diseases can still kill as surely as blast or 
radiation, and intimate living makes contagion easy. Probably 
the biggest single problem is the disposal of human waste, 
which can spread such diseases as typhoid, dysentery, and 
diarrhea. 

The most elemental device is a metal pail with a tight 
cover. A better expedient, especially where elderly persons are 
involved, is to make a commode by cutting the seat out of a 
chair and placing the pail under it. In either case a supply of 
plastic bags, obtainable at department stores, is needed, a bag 
being placed in the pail with its top overlapping the pail rim. 
A small amount of disinfectant (creosol or household bleach) 
can help control odors and insect breeding. 

A larger can with a cover, such as a garbage can, should be 
available to store the plastic bags after use. After two days, 
the container can be placed outside the shelter. At a later 
time, bury such waste under one to two feet of earth. Garbage 
should be handled and disposed of in the same way. It is best 
wrapped first in several thicknesses of newspaper, which ab- 
sorbs some moisture and helps hold down odors. Then put it 
in a covered can. 

Control of vermin 

Measures to control vermin would be vital in the event of an 
attack, but some measures can be taken now. The shelter area 
should be painted or sprayed with a five per cent solution of 
DDT or other insecticides containing chlordane, dieldrin, 
Diazinon, or ronnel — taking the usual precautions against in- 
halation or skin contact. Repeat every few months. Lice and 
other body-infesting insects can be eliminated by dusting with 
a 10 per cent DDT dust which should be kept on the body and 
in clothing for 24 hours. The shelter should be stocked with 
screening material, a fly swatter, mouse and rat traps. Do not 
use spray insecticides in an occupied shelter; there is danger of 
explosion or of injuring eyes and lungs. 

37 




FIRST STEPS TOWARD RECOVERY 

The world and your community would be shattered by 
a nuclear war. Normal services would be disrupted; essential 
skills could be in short supply; equipment you had taken for 
granted might not be available. You would face the aftermath 
of a catastrophe, but if there had been previous planning, you 
need not face it alone. 

Using community resources 

As in the case of natural disasters, community action is by 
far the best way to do all that must be done to recover from a 
nuclear attack. Local governments have at hand many organ- 
ized units, such as the police and fire departments, the county 
road commission and the health department, whose survivors 
can serve as a hard core for organized recovery actions immedi- 
ately after people can emerge from shelters. Government agen- 



38 



cies, military units, and other organizations, such as construction 
companies and the repairmen of the public utilities, would help 
to repair damage and restore service as soon as possible — as they 
have in past natural disasters. But many more helpers would 
be needed. Wherever you might be, in a community or family 
shelter, your help would be needed. If your community is lucky 
and receives little fallout, you may be needed to help a neighbor- 
ing gommunity. 

The communities that are well organized and have planned 
their recovery actions would be able to return to tolerable liv- 
ing conditions in the shortest time. The first job in this would 
be to clean up pre-selected areas to make them safe for living 
outside of shelters. The initial action may well originate with 
organized units in community shelters — from the basement of 
the city hall, from a shelter at a school — or it could come from 
groups in several shelters working together. As groups, they 
would have more of the manpower, equipment, and communi- 
cations needed to start the job. 

Getting rid of fallout 

The process of removing fallout particles from exposed sur- 
faces and disposing of the particles in places where they cannot 
harm people is called radiological decontamination. Paved 
areas could be decontaminated with firehoses or street flushers, 
using high-pressure nozzles, and with motorized street sweepers. 
Roofs could be decontaminated with fire hoses. Unpaved areas 
could be decontaminated by scraping off or plowing under a 
thin top layer of soil. This could be done with large earth- 
moving equipment — such as motorized scrapers and motor 
graders — on large open areas, and with bulldozers, tractor 
scrapers, shovels and wheelbarrows on smaller areas around 
houses and trees. Another method would be to cover a con- 
taminated area with clean earth. 

In decontaminating paved areas, crews could flush the par- 
ticles into storm drains or into ditches, where the particles 
could be covered with clean earth or picked up and hauled to a 
dumping area. The scrapings from the unpaved areas could 
be dumped in a pile about 100 feet from occupied areas, or 

39 



hauled away. The dumping area might be a gully, refuse area, 
or even a vacant lot roped ofiF at a safe distance. 

Since the most effective and rapid methods of decontamina- 
tion would involve the use of crews and equipment working in 
large areas, the best places to start the decontamination are 
likely to be at schools, shopping centers and downtown areas, 
and at parks and open fields where large equipment can operate. 

It is vital that communities set aside in advance many rallying 
points where people can meet to start work after an attack. If 
you are in a home shelter and have a ratemeter, you should wait 
until the radiation level has fallen to a point where you can go 
out for about an hour without receiving more than a few 
roentgens. You could use this time to go to your local school, 
shopping area or other designated gathering place and join with 
your neighbors in community decontamination efforts. 

If you do not have a radiation instrument, stay in shelter 
until you are assured, by radio, by contact from local author- 
ities, or by other means, that clean areas are established near 
you and that it is safe to proceed there. 

In areas of heavy fallout where the first decontamination 
actions can be started, if well organized, within the second week 
after attack, there is relatively little danger from fallout par- 
ticles getting on people doing cleanup work — especially if 
normal habits of personal cleanliness are maintained. The 
most likely articles of clothing to pick up fallout particles are 
shoes, so keep them brushed clean. 

On a farm 

If you live on a farm, your pre-fallout preparations will have 
a lot to do with your cleaning up afterward. 

You should place as much of your livestock and produce in 
barns as you can. A normally filled hayloft affords some shield- 
ing from fallout radiation for animals below. Farm machinery, 
troughs, wells, and any produce you cannot get into barns should 
be covered with tarpaulins. You should store as much water in 
covered containers as you can, taking the precautions already 
outlined. 

Afterward, any livestock exposed to fallout could be washed 
or brushed to remove fallout particles. Water from wells and 

40 



streams would be safe for animal use. Even water standing in 
a pond could be use since fallout particles would settle to the 
bottom. Pond water could be made even safer by stirring up 
a clay bottom and then letting it settle out. Feed and fodder 
stored under cover should be used first. If no other feed is 
available, animals could be turned out to pasture after a few 
days when the radioactivity has decreased. 

Farm animals and poultry would be an important source of 
human food and they should not be allowed to sicken and die 
from thirst and starvation. Animals which have been exposed 
to early fallout or which have fed on contaminated pastures 
could be slaughtered and the muscle meat would be fit for 
human consumption. Internal organs, however, such as the 
liver and spleen, should not be eaten unless no other food is 
available. It would be easier to preserve meat on the hoof 
than on the hook. Hogs and steers could be kept alive even 
with water and feed containing early fallout particles. 

Animals, like humans, can have radiation sickness. If the 
radiation level in your area indicates that animal sickness may 
be widespread, you probably will be told and given instructions 
on slaughtering. Care must be taken in slaughtering to prevent 
contamination of the carcasses by fallout particles from the 
hides and digestive tracts. 

Chickens and eggs would be a particularly important direct 
food resource because they are relatively resistant to radiation, 
especially if they are raised under cover using safe packaged 
feeds. 

Milk from cows that have grazed on contaminated pastures 
would be radioactive, but in the absence of other food in an 
emergency, it could be used. 

Potatoes, corn, and other field crops exposed to early fallout 
would be safe to eat after cleaning. Grain that has been covered, 
as in elevators, would be safe. Threshing would reduce the 
amount of fallout particles in grain. Threshed grain exposed 
to fallout could be made safer by washing. 

If county agents are available, they can help you decide what 
crops, pasturage, and methods will be best and safest to use. 
Seeds of all sorts are quite resistant to radiation and do not 
require any special protection. 



41 



ORGANIZING 

FOR CIVIL DEFENSE 

Fallout shelter is only one part of a complete Civil Defense 
Program. The details of a Civil Defense Program may change 
with changes in the kinds of missiles that might be used against 
us. But the essential elements of the program remain the same. 
They consist of a warning system to alert the civilian population 
to an imminent attack; a system of shelters equipped and pro- 
visioned to furnish protection against those effects of an at- 
tack for which protection is feasible — i.e., radioactive fall- 
out; and a system to provide training and equipment, so that 
the survivors can monitor the effects of the attack and carry out 
the tasks of decontamination, fire fighting, rescue, and recon- 
struction, that would be necessary to restore a functioning 
society. 

An effective civil defense requires the participation of every 
citizen. It calls for advance planning at every level of govern- 
ment — local, State, and national. This planning must be flexi- 
ble enough to adapt itself to changes in enemy weapons and 
tactics. It must be comprehensive enough to cover people liv- 
ing under widely different ^conditions from ranch houses, to 
apartment buildings, to frame cottages. 

Responsibilities 

The Federal Civil Defense Act puts the responsibility for 
civil defense jointly on the Federal Government and the States. 
Until this year, there has been little interest, and less money 
available for civil defense, so that it has not been necessary to 
define responsibilities precisely. Now we have launched a 
major program. Under this program, the Federal Government 
has assumed four responsibilities: First, to keep track of the na- 
ture of the threat which the Civil Defense Program must be de- 
signed to meet; second, to prepare information about the threat 
and how it can be met; third, to bear a major part of the costs of 



42 



certain kinds of civil defense activities, where such sharing will 
stimulate State and local and private activities; and, fourth, to 
provide technical assistance through State and local channels for 
civil defense planning. 

Your State and local governments, on the other hand, have 
the operating responsibility for civil defense. An individual 
must be able to look to some agency of his State or local Govern- 
ment for advice and assistance on civil defense planning, just as 
he looks to them for police and fire protection services. By the 
same token, the responsibility for organizing community civil 
defense protection falls on the States and, through them, on 
local government units. Because the job is an extraordinarily 
difficult one, the Federal Government is preparing to assist the 
States with technical help and matching funds for certain pro- 
grams. 

The key element in our new program is the provision of fall- 
out shelter. We expect community shelters to protect a large 
part of the population; but we recognize that many families, 
because of their location or individual preferences, will choose 
family fallout shelters. The Federal Government will join with 
States and communities, in a variety of ways, to help provide 
fallout shelter. 



National shelter survey 

We have already taken the first step towards a realistic Civil 
Defense Program by launching the National Shelter Survey. 
The survey will identify the approximately 50 million shelter 
spaces that are now available in existing buildings, tunnels, 
subways, and other structures to provide protection from 
radioactive fallout. 

Many of these spaces in the central areas of large population 
centers would be exposed to destruction by blast and fire in the 
event of a nuclear attack. But the pattern of attack cannot be 
predicted, and existing shelter is more widely distributed in 
relation to population than appears to the casual observer. 
Further, this space is immediately available, and the cost of 
identification, marking, and stocking is less than $4 per space. 



43 



All such shelter spaces, accommodating 50 or more people, 
and which would be open to the public in an emergency, will 
be marked and stocked with essential food, water, first-aid kits, 
and radiation detection instruments. 

Proposed shelter incentive program 

The President plans to seek funds from the Congress to sup- 
port a Federal Shelter Incentive Program in which the Federal 
Government would meet a substantial part of the costs of pro- 
viding fallout shelters in schools, hospitals, and other public 
welfare institutions. The program is designed to encourage 
the construction of fallout shelter in these essential community 
facilities. Many of these institutions are in excellent locations 
for group fallout shelters, but many of them have very limited 
resources of their own to pay for shelter construction. 

The Federal Shelter Incentive Program would help to fill this 
gap. The plan provides a Federal grant of something less than 
actual cost for every shelter space meeting approved standards, 
and created in public, or private non-profit institutions, en- 
gaged in health, education, or welfare activities. A substantial 
number of these shelters would be dual purpose, serving a use- 
ful peacetime community purpose, in addition to offering pro- 
tection from radioactive fallout in the event of attack. 

In order to qualify for incentive payments, each shelter would 
have to accommodate a minimum of 50 people, and would have 
to be open for public use in time of emergency. Upon com- 
pletion, each shelter would be identified by the continuing 
operations of the National Shelter Survey, and would be marked 
and stocked with food, water, first-aid kits, and radiation detec- 
tion instruments. All schools, colleges, hospitals, clinics, and 
welfare institutions would be eligible for shelter incentive 
payments, provided they were operated by a State or local 
government unit, or by a private non-profit organization. 

The Federal Shelter Incentive Program, together with the 
Federal Shelter Survey, is expected to stimulate a good deal of 
additional construction and modification of shelter space. The 
primary responsibility for exploiting the exemplary effect of 
the Federal programs lies with, the State and local civil defense 

44 



organizations. Their success will depend largely on their ability 
to organize a local civil defense program in each community. 
This effort includes not only the provision of shelter, but an 
adequate system of warning, of radiological monitoring, and of 
training and information on survival techniques. 

Other federal programs 

Every citizen needs to know how he will be warned of im- 
minent attack, where he will take shelter, how he should behave 
in the shelter, and what he should expect when he emerges from 
it. In addition, as many citizens as possible should be trained 
in the techniques of shelter management, radiological monitor- 
ing, decontamination, rescue, fire fighting, and restoring essen- 
tial service. 

Besides helping to build shelters, the Federal Government will 
help in building these other elements of the Civil Defense Pro- 
gram in a number of ways. 

The Federal Government helps to provide warning against 
an attack. The National Warning System carries the warning 
signal from the Headquarters of the North American Air De- 
fense Command to State warning points. From these points 
the States send the warning to local warning systems. The 
Office of Civil Defense is studying national installation of a 
new warning system, the NEAR System, which would bring 
the warning into every home with electric power. The NEAR 
system operates through signal generators placed in the elec- 
trical power grid. These generators would be actuated directly 
by the National Warning System, and in turn, actuate buzzers 
plugged or wired into home electrical circuits. 

The Federal Government is providing equipment for 50,000 
radiological monitoring stations, and is training operators for 
this equipment. The eventual plan calls for 150,000 of these 
monitoring points to be established in selected community 
shelters and tied into a control point at the local emergency 
operating center. 

The job of educating every citizen on the results of thermo- 
nuclear attack, and what he can do about it, is necessarily the 
responsibility of State and local civil defense organizations. So 

45 



is the job of giving specific training to the literally hundreds of 
thousands of volunteer workers who must be prepared to under- 
take decontamination, rescue work, firefighting, first aid, and 
restoration of necessary services. The Federal Government has 
available a wide range of informational and instructional litera- 
ture, including course material, technical manuals, and training 
aids. It also conducts schools to which States may send civit 
defense operating officials and civil defense instructors. These 
instructors can then conduct technical training at the local level. 

These Federal schools will offer instructor-training courses 
in shelter management, radiological ofl&cer training, radiological 
detection, civil defense director-training, civil defense opera- 
tions and plans. This training is provided at Federal expense, 
and the Federal Government helps pay travel costs to and from 
the schools. The training materials will be prepared and pack- 
aged for the instructor's use in his home State. 

The Federal Government, through the Department of Health, 
Education, and Welfare, also provides instructor training and 
instructional material for an adult education course in the ele- 
ments of civil defense, which is currently being conducted in 
15 States, and will be extended to cover 35 States by next sum- 
mer. The President plans to seek funds from the Congress to 
cover the entire country. 



Shelter, warning, radiological monitoring, training and edu- 
cation are all parts of a total community civil defense program. 
The res|>onsibility for integrating these parts, and relating the 
whole to the needs and capabilities of the community, neces- 
sarily falls on the State and loca| civil defense organizations. 
The Federal Government is prepared to help in major ways. As 
has been indicated, it has already begun, through the National 
Shelter Survey, to make civil defense a reality. 



46 



MORE INFORMATION IS AVAILABLE 

In addition to this booklet, there is a considerable amount of 
published information available from State and local Civil De- 
fense offices on various aspects of Civil Defense. 

A new booklet, Family Shelter Designs, published by the 
Department of Defense, Office of Civil Defense, containing con- 
struction drawings and step-by-step construction procedures for 
building eight types of family fallout shelters, will be made 
available without charge from State and local Civil Defense 
offices. 

Several associations have developed plans for family shelters, 
available upon request. These include the following: 

American Concrete Pipe Association 
228 North LaSalle Street, Chicago 1, 111. 

American Iron and Steel Institute 

150 East 42nd Street, New York 17, N.Y. 

Asbestos Cement Products Association 
509 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y. 

Douglas Fir Plywood Association 
1 119 A Street, Tacoma 2, Wash. 

National Concrete Masonry Association 

1015 Wisconsin Avenue, N.W., Washington 7, D.C. 

National Lumber Manufacturers Association 
1619 Massachusetts Avenue, Washington 6, D.C. 

Portland Cement Association 

33 West Grand Avenue, Chicago 10, 111. 

Structural Clay Products Institute 

1520 18th Street, N.W., Washington 6, D.C 



U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE: 1961 O— 621904 




EPARTM 



!137