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Full text of "The family herbal, or, An account of all those English plants, which are remarkable for their virtues, and of the drugs which are produced by vegetables of other countries; with their descriptions and their uses, as proved by experience"

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THE 



OR AN ACCOUNT OV ALL THOSE 

ENGLISH PLANTS, 

WHICH ARE 

REMARKABLE FOR THEIR VIRTUES, 
A^^D OF THE DRUGS 

WHICU ARE PRODUCED BY 

Vegetables of other Countries ; 

WITU THEia 

, DESCRIPTIONS AND THEIR USES, 

;r* PRQFED BY EXPERIENCE. 



ALSO 



DirecHons for the gathering and 
preserving roots, herbs, flowers, and 
seeds ; the variong methods of pre- 



tisc ; receipts for making distilled 
waters, conserves, syrups, electua- 
ries, juleps, draughts, &e. &c. with 



serving fhcge simples for present j necessary cautions in giving Uicm. 
INTENDED FOR THE USE OF FAMILIES. 



BY SIR JOHN HILL, M. D. 

F. R. A. OF SCIENCES AT BOURDKAUI. 



EMBELLISHED WITH 

FIFTY-FOUR COLOURED PLATES. 



BUNGAY: 

rRIVTED AND PUBLISHED BY C. BRIOHTLT} 
AND T. KII^MEKSLEY. 






PREFACE. 



MxVN Y books have been written upon the same 
subject with this, but if one of them bad 
treated it in the same manner, this would have been 
rendered unnecessary, and would never have employ- 
ed the attention of its author. 

It i5 his opinion, that the true end of science is 
use ; and in this view, the present work has been 
undertaken. It appears to him a matter of more 
consequence, and a subject of more satisfaction, 
to have discovered the virtues of one herb unknown 
l»efore, than to have disposed into their proper 
classes si:i(een tlinusand ; nay, so far will a sense 
of utility get the better of the pride of mere 
curiosity, that he should suppose this a thing 
preferable to be said of hin\, to the having; dis- 
covered some unknown species ; to having picked 
from the bottom of some pond an undescribed con- 
ferva ; or to having fetched, from the most remote 
parts of the world, a kind of tree moss, with heads 
larger than those at home. 

It grieves a man of public spirit and humanity, 
to see those things which are the means alone of 
the advantages of mankind studied, while in the end 
that advantage itself is forgotton. And in this 
view he will regard a Culpepper as a more 
fespectablc person than a LixNiEUSor a Dille- 

KlUS. 

TIjat Botanv is an useful study is plain; he- 
%'4 



*'J 



n. PREFACE. 

cause it is in vain that we know betonj is good 
for head-achs, or self-heal for wounds,, unless wc 
can distinguish hetony and self-heal from one 
another, and so it runs through the whole study. 
We are taught by it to know what plants belong 
to what names, and to know that very distinctly ; 
and we shall be prevented by that knowledge from 
giwing a purge for an astringent, a poison for a 
remedy ; let us therefore esteem the study of 
botany, but let us know, that this use of the dis- 
tinctions it gives is the true end of it ; and let us 
respect those, who employ their lives in establish- 
ing those distinctions upon the most certain foun- 
dation, upon making them the most accurately, 
and carrying them the farthest possible : these 
are the botanists ; but with all the gratitude we 
owe them for their labours, and all the respect 
we shew them on that consideration, let us undcr- 
gtand them as but the seconds in this science. The 
principal are those who know how to bring -Iheir 
discoveries to use, and can say what are the ends 
that v/ill be answered by those plants, which they 
have go accurately distinguished. The boy col- 
lects the specimens of herbs with great care, 
and bestows ten years in pasting them upon pa- 
per, and writing their names to them : he docs 
well. When he grows a man, he neglects his 
useful labours ; and perhaps despises himself for 
the misemploymeut of so much time : but if he 
has, to the knowledge of their forms, added af- 
terward the study of their virtues, he will be 
fir from censuring himself for all the pains he 
took to that end. 

He who wishes well to science and to man- 
kind, must wish this matter understood: and this 
is tiie W'ly to bring a part of k^<)s^ ledge into cre- 
liit, vWiich, us it is commonly prnctisijcJ, is not a 



PREFACE. T. 

jot above the studies of a raiser of tulips or a car- 
liation fansier. 

When we consider the study of plants, as the 
search of remedies for diseases, we see it in the 
lig'lit of one of the most honourable sciences in 
the world ; in this view, no pains are too great 
to have been bestowed in its acquirement ; and 
in tliis intent, the principal regard ought to be 
had to those of our own growth. Tlje foreign 
plants brought into our stoves with so much ex- 
pence^ and kept there with so much pains, may 
hll tiie eye with empty wonder : but it would 
be more to the honour of the possessor of them, 
to have found out th« use of one common herb 
at home, than to have enriched our country with 
an hundred of the others. Nay, in the eye of rea- 
•on, this ostentatious study is rather a reproach. 
Why should he, who has not yet informed himself 
thoroughly of the nature of the meanest herb 
which grows in the next ditch, ransack the earth 
for foreign wonders ? Does he not fall under the 
same reproach with the generality of those, who 
travel for their improvement, while they are igno- 
rant of all they left at home ; and who are ridicu- 
lous in their inquiries concerning the laws and 
government of other countries, while they are not 
able to give a satisfactory answer to any question 
which regards their own ? 

I have said thus much to obviate the censures 
of those, to whom an inquiry into the virtues of 
herbs may seem the province of a woman. It ig 
an lionour to the sex, that they have put our 
studies to use ; but it would be well, if we had 
done so ourselves; orif, considering that they might, 
we had made our writings more intelligible to 
tlirrn. 

Hie ii.tcnt of vrOids- is to express our meaning: 



Yi. PilEFACE. 

^vrituiijs arc p'jblished that they niay be undfer^ 
&tooil ; and in this branch, I shall ahvays suppose 
he. writ< s best, who is to be understood most uni- 
vcrsailv Now so far are we from having had this 
point HJ view in botany, that n:orc new and more 
sir.inr';f; words have hern introduced inio it, than 
into all the sciences together : and so remarkable 
isthcSwLDE before mentioned, LiaN^us, for this, 
that R t::;"ood scholar, nay the best scliolar in the 
world, shall not be able to understand tliree lines 
together in his best writings, althongh they ar« 
written in latin, a language in which he is ever so 
familiar. The author has not been at the pains 
to explain his new words i^imself, but refers hii 
reader to nature; he bids him seek them in the 
jiowers, where he found them. 

We sec, that the most curious botanists have not 
concerned themselves about the virtues of plants at 
all ; that nrmy (;f the others wlio have written 
well on p'.Jnts, have thought it no part of their 
subject ; let us examine the others ; those who 
are of less repute. If we look into the English 
Ilcrbals ni particular, we fmd them large upon 
that subject ; indeed they are too hirgc by much. 
Thev say SI) many things, that we knovv not which 
of them to credit ; and therefore in the uncertainty, 
wo credit nooR of them. There is not the most 
ti itling herb, which they do not make a remedy for 
slmost all diseases. We may therefore as well take 
one plant for any case as another ; and the whole of 
tiioir labours amount to this, that the English herbi 
arc {'all ofviituos, but that they know not what they 
are. 

When knowledge is perplexed with unlntclligi* 
bh' t«rms, and the memnrv of tiie student con- 
f'ur.idcd w'lh a niultipliciu- (^f names ; when the 
Ignorant oiiiy, who have written cDiiceruing piaiit'j. 



PREFACE. vH 

liave given themselves any tremble about their 
virtues ; when physic is becoming entirely chymi- 
cal, and a thousand lives are thrown away daily 
by these medicines^ which miglit be saved by a 
better practice ; it appeared a useful undertaking, 
to separate the necessary from the frivolous know- 
ledge ; and to lay before those who are inclined 
to do good to their distressed fellow-creatures^ all 
that it is necessary for them to know of botany for 
that purpose, and that in the most familiar man- 
ner ; and to add to this, what experience has con- 
jirmed of the many thin^^s written by others con- 
cerning their virtues. This is the intent of the fol- 
lowing: work. 

The plants are arranged according to the English 
alphabet, that the English reader may know wliere 
to find them : they are called by one name only in 
English, and one in Latin ; and these are their 
most familiar names in those languages ; no matter 
what Caspar, or John Bauhine, or Linn^us 
call them, they are here set down by those names 
by which every one speaks of them in English ; 
and the Latin name is added, under which they will 
be found in every dictionary. To this is subjoined 
a general description of the plant, if it be a com- 
mon one, in a line or two ; that those who already 
know it, may turn at once to the uses ; and for 
such as do not, a farther and more particular 
account is added. Last come the virtues, as they 
are confirmed by practice : and all this is delivered 
in such words as are common, and to be understood 
by all. 

Every thing that is superfluous is omitted, that 
the useful part may remain upon the memory : 
and to all this is prefixed, in a large introduc- 
tion, whatsoever can be necessary to compleat the 
good intentions of the charitable in this way. 



viii. PREFACE. 

There are rules for gathering and preserving 
herbs, and their several parts^ directions for niakiiij^ 
such preparations from them, as can conveniently 
be prepared in families, and general admonitions 
and cautions in their respective uses. 

If I could have tliough.t of any thing farther, 
that could tend to the making the book more use- 
ful, I should luive added it ; as it is, the candid 
reader is desired ta accept it, as written with a, 
real view to be of service to aiaukiad. 



INTRODUCTION. 



C.OXTAiMNG (^LNEUAL liLLF.S FOR THE GATHERING 
AND PRESERYING HERBS^ ROOTS, BARKS, SEEDS, AND 
FLOWEIvS ; TOGtrrHER WITH THE MFI'HODS OF 
MAKING SUCH PREPARATIONS FROM ITIEM, AS MAY 
lJ>sr RETAIN TIIEUl VIRTLES, OR BE MO.T USLriT 
iO 2iE KEPT IN FAMILIES 



C>HAP. I 



'Hie design and purpose of this ijcork, and Ui-^ an 
tJiod observed in it. 

THE intent of the author in publisliing this 
book, is to inform those who live in the 
ronntry, and are desirous of bein«; useful to 
their families and friends^ or charitable to the 
poor in tiie leljef of their disorders, of tlie virtues 
of those plants which grow wild about them : that 
they may be able to sr.pply this necessary assis- 
tance, in pieces vvliere apolliecaries a;e not at hand ; 
and that they may be able also to do it without 
putting then)selves to tlie expense of medicines 
of price, wlien the common herbs, that mav be 

a 



li. INTRODUCTION. 

had tor gathering-. Mill answer the same pur- 
poso. 

However^ as there are cases, in wliich more help 
may he had from drugs brought from abroad than 
from any thing we can procure at home, an account 
of those roots, barks, seeds, gums, and other veget- 
able productions, kept by the druggists and apothe- 
caries, is also added ; and of the several trees rnd 
plants from which thcv are obtained ; together with 
their virtues 

This worK. theretore, will tend to instruct those 
charitable ladies who may be desirous of giving 
<his great relief to the pfthcted poor in their neigh- 
bourliood, and to remind apothecaries of what 
they had before studied : but the first mentioned 
purpose is by much the most useful, and the most 
considerable, and for this reason the greatest regard 
is j)aid to it. 

The plants are disposed in the alphabet, ac- 
cording to their English names, tiiat they may be 
turned to the more readily ; and an account is 
given, in two or three lines, of their general as- 
pect and place of growth, that those who in part 
know them already, may understand them at once : 
if they are not perfectly know)i from this, a more 
particular description is added, by observing which, 
they cannot be mistaken or confounded with any 
others ; and after this follow, not only their virtues, 
as others are content to set them down, but the part 
of each ];lant which contains tliem in most perfection 
is named, and the manner in which they may best be 
given. 

VVitii regard to the virtues of plants, it has been 
the custom to attribute too many to most of them t 
so much is said more than the truth on these oc- 
ra«ion';. that those who would be informed, know 



INTRODUCTION. iii. 

not wliat tliey should believe. This is more cau- 
tiously re«;ulatecl here. The reu! virtues alone 
are set down, as they arc assured by experience . 
and the principal of these are always set in the 
most conspicuous light. Perhaps it may be allow- 
ed the author, to speak with more ass urance than 
others of these things, because he has been accus- 
tomed to the practice of physic in that way. \ci'\ 
few things are named here that he has not s?en tri- 
ed ; and if some are set down^ which other w ri- 
ters have not named, and some, of which they have 
said most^ are slightly mentioned, it is owing to 
the same experience which has added to the cata- 
logue in some things, and has found it too great for 
truth in others. 

Nature has^ in this country, and doubtless also 
in all others, provided, in the herbs of its own 
growth, the remedies for the several diseases to 
wiiich it is most subject ; and although the addi- 
tion of what is brought from abroad, should not 
he supposed superfluous, there is no occasion that 
it shouhl make the other neglected. This has 
been the consequence of the great respect shewn 
to tliQ others ; and besides this, the present use of 
chemical preparations has almost driven the whole of 
galenical medicine out of our minds. 

To restore this more safe, more gentle, and 
often more efficacious part of medicine to its na- 
tural ciedit, has been one great intent in the wri- 
ting this treatise ; and it is the more necessary for 
the service of those, who are intended most to 
be directed in this matter, since this is much less 
dangerous than the other : nay, it is hard to 
say, that this is dangerous at all, in most in- 
stances. 

The apothecaries are apt, in their unfeeling 
u)()ckery, to say, they are obliged to the good 



IV. INTRODUCTION. 

ladies who g-ivc medicines to tiieir sick neigh- 
bours, for a great deal of tiicir business ; for out 
of little disorders they make great ones. This 
may be the case wliere their shops supply the 
means ; for chemical medicines, and some of the 
drugs brought from abroad, arc not to be trusted 
with those wlio have not great experience ; but 
tliere vvih he no dangc!" of this kind, when tiic 
fields are the supply. ' hi.^^ is the medicine of na 
(are, and as it is niorc efficacious in most cases ■ 
it is more safe in ail. If opium may be daogcr- 
oiis in an unexperienced iiand, the lady who will 
give in its place a syrup of the wild lettuce. 
(a plant not known in common practice at tins 
time, but recommended from experience in this 
treatise^) will find that it wiii case \v.\\n, and that 
it will cause sleep, in the manner of tliat foreign drag, 
but she will never find any ill consecjuences tVcm 
it: and the saiiie migh? be b-^v.d in nmny oilier in- 
stances. 

As the dosciiptions ni lins work, very rciidilv 
distinguish what are-tiv^ real plants ilnil should l)e 
used, the great care wil! remain, in an hat man- 
ner to gather and pvoserve, and in what man- 
ner to give them ; it will he useful to add a chap- 
ter or two on tliose heads. As to the former, I 
would have it perfectly underst(ji)d, because a great 
deal depends upon it ; the latter tannot easily be mis- 
taken. 

Having displaced llie dings brought from 
abroad in a great measure from this charitable 
practice, I would have everv lady, who has the 
s])irit of this true benevolence, keep a Kind of 
druggist's shop of licr own : this slionld he suj)- 
j)lied from the neig'ibouring fields, aiul from her 
garden. There is no reason the drugs should iu)t 
be as well preserved, and as carefully laid up, 



INTRODUCTION. v. 

us if (he ['liJiiet of a ditrcrent climate, thoug'h 
the use of liie IVesh ])ia!i{s will in general be best 
'when they can he h.ail. 

As (i;eie are *^oine wliich will not retain their 
viitaes in a dried stair, <ind can he met with only 
(hiring a snrall part of the 3'ear ; it will be ji.ro- 
j?er to add tlie best methods of preservinj^ these 
in sonic way, aecordini;' to the apo-hecarys man- 
ner ; and these chapters, with that which shall 
lay down the method of makini;' the preparations 
from them for ready service, will be sufficient to 
lead to the perfect use of the medicines of our 
own L!;rowth : and it v.iil be found upon ox^-ic.!- 
cnce. that those wh.o sulllcicniiv know how to make 
a proper nse of these, need soidorn have roc^Mirsc 
t-o any others. 



Conceni'ufpythe iiiciJiod^^ of collcctins!; and p^'cyn^'- 
it'L( iJiajits and parts of than for use. 

TilE virtues of dilTerent plants residing ])rinci- 
pa'dy in ceiiaiii ]iai'!s of tliem, and those 
dilferent according- to ('e.e nainre of tlie h.erb, 
these seveial parts are to be selected, aii(i tlio rc^t 
left ; and these are in some to be used fre.-h and 
just gathered ; in others, eitlier necessity, or -he 
natural preference, raake it proper to dry and pre- 
serve tliem. 

In some only tl-e leaves arc to be used ; in 
others the wiiole plant cat ftom the root: in oihers 
the (lowers only ; in olh.ers the fruits ; in <tthers 
t}>e seeds ; in some the roots ; and of some trees 



n. INTRODUCTION. 

tife barks ; some the woods ; and only the excres- 
enc'es of others : while some veg'etablcs arc to be 
uscxl entire^ whether it be fresh gathered, or dried 
and preserved. Of all these, instances will be 
given in great number in the following siieets, 
and the matter will be speciiied under each article, 
as the part of the plant to be used will always be 
named ; and it will be added %vhether it be best 
fresh, or best or necessarily drsed or otherwise 
preserved; but it will be prop' f in this place to 
enter into the full examination of this niatter, to save 
unneccss-ary repetitions under inc ^several particular 
ariiclcs. 

The whole of most plants native of oar coun- 
try, dies oft' in winter, except the root ; and iu 
many that perishes also, leaving the species to be 
renewed from the fallen seeds. When the whole 
plant dies, the root is seldom of any virtue ; but 
when the root remains many years, and sends up 
new shoots in the spring, it (ommonly has great 
virtue. This may be a general rule : for there is 
very little to be expected in the roots of annual plants : 
their seeds, for the most part, contain their greatest 
virtues. 

In otlicrs, the root lives through the winter, and 
there arise from it large leaves in the spring, be- 
fore the stciiks appear. These are to be distinguish- 
ed froin tho^c which afterwards grow on the stalk, 
for tliey are more jnicy, and for many purposes 
much better. In tiie same manner, some plants, 
from their seeds dropped in autumn, produce a 
root and leaves which stand ail the winter, and 
the stalk does not rise till the succeeding spring. 
These are (»f the nature of those leaves, which 
rise trom the root of other plants before the stalks 
in sj)ring ; and are in the same manner to be dis- 
tingni!:lu'd from those which grow upon the stalks : 



INTRODUCTION. vil. 

tliey have the full nourishment from the root, 
whereas the others are starved by the f^rowth of 
the slalk and its branches, and the preparations 
made by nature for the flowers and seeds ; which 
are the great purpose of nature^, as they are to con- 
tinue the plant. 

For this reason, when the leaves of any plant 
are said to be the part fittest for use, they are not 
to be taken from the stalk, but these larg'e ones 
growirio- from the root are to be chosen ; and these 
where there is no stalk, if that can be ; for then 
only they are fullest of juice, and have their com- 
plete virtue ; the stalk running' away with the 
nourishment fiom them. This is so much done in 
some plants, [that although the leaves growing 
from the root were verv vigorous before the 
stalk grew up, they die and wither as it 
rises. 

When the juice of the leaves of any plant is 
required, the^ie are the leaves from which it is 
to be pressed : when they are ordered in decoction, 
notice is always taken in this book, whether they 
be best fresh or dried ; if fresh, they should be 
just gathered for the occasion ; they should be 
cut up close from the root, and only shook clean, 
not washed ; for in manv, that carries off a part of 
the virtue : they are to be cut into the pot. If 
they are to be dried, the same caution is to be 
used ; and they are best dried, by spreading thcra 
upon tlie floor of the room, with the windows 
open ; often turning them. When thoroughly 
dried, they sjiould be put into a drawer, pressing 
them close down, and covered with paper. When 
the entire plant is to be used except the root, 
care is to be tnVen that it be gathered at a pro- 
per sea!|pn. Natiu'e in the whole growth of plants, 
tends to the production of their flowers and seeds. 



Mii INTRODUCTION. 

but nlicn tlicy are ripe, the rest bef^itis to decay, 
having- done its dutv ; so that the time when the en- 
tire plant is in Us most iVill perfection, is when it is in 
the bud ; when the iieads are formed for dowering', 
but not a single llower has yet disclosed itself : this 
is the exact tiir.e. 

When h.erbs are to be used fresh, it is best not 
to take them entire, but on!v to cut oil' the tops ; 
three or four inches long", if f)r infu;iio:i, and if 
for other purjjoses, less : if fliey are (o be beaten 
up \vith siigar, thiCv should !)e only an inch, or 
\>s ;, ji;sL ;i> hv as t!kn' ;;te ircsh and tender, 
'i'he Is'ps oi iiie p:;ir.i thus i;alhcred, are al- 
^vu\>. pielViabk' ui hie wliole plaiit lor immediate 
Vise 

V\ lien the entire lierb is to be dried, the season 
l,.r gatlicring it is to be as just described, when 
tile ihnvers are budding : and the time of the day 
iiHist be ^^lien tlse morning dew is dried away 
This is a verv material circumstance, for if they 
be cut wet with (he dew, iitibs will not dry well, 
ji.d if lliev be cut at noon day, when the sun has 
liiade llie !ra\es ilag, they will not have their full 
p()\M-r. 

V?.vc 1; i; c i\>:) ]'■<■ taken to cut them in a dry day ; 
tor the wet oi" rain will do as much barm, us that of 



W hen the herbs are thus gathered, tiiey are to 
be looked oyer, the decayed leayes picked off, 
and the dead ends of the stalks cut away : they 
are then to be tied uj) in small bunches, (the 
Ic'jS the better,) and hmig uj)on lines drawn across 
a ro(nn, where, ihe windows and doors are to be 
kept Mju I! in gocd weiiliicr ; te.e bunches are to 
''(' lirilf ;i lV)ot ii>uu<i'..a\ ar.d tliey are to hang till 
'j'l i !'( c;iv t\v\ 'sTiev are ih mi lo be takeiy softly 
'I'n-. u, v\:tli '111 -liuking olV the buda of the How- 



INTRODUCTION. Ul 

crs, and laid ovonly in a drawer, pressing them 
down, and coveiiiio them witli jiaper. They 
are thus ready for infusions and decoctions, and 
are better for distillation than when freiih. 

The flowers of plants arc principally used 
fresh, though several particular kinds retain their 
virtue very well dried ; they are on these different 
occasions to be treated diiferently. 

Lavender flowers, and those of sloecha, keep 
very well ; they are therefore to be preserved dry ; 
the lavender llowers fire to be stripped off the 
stalks, husk and all together, and spread upon 
the floor of a room to dry. The stcechas flowers 
are to be preserved in the whole head ; this is to 
he cut off from the top of the stalk, and dried in 
the same manner : when dry, they are to be kept 
as the herbs. 

When rosemary flowers are dried, they arc ge* 
nerally taken with some of the leaves about themi 
and tljis is very right, for the leaves retain more 
virtue than the flowers. Some dry borage, bu- 
gloss, and cowslips, but they retain very little 
virtue in that condition. Rose buds arc to. be 
dried, and to this purpose, their white heads are 
tobecutofl'; and the full blown flowers may be 
preserved in the same manner. The red ro«e 
is always meant^ when we speak of the dried 
flowers. 

For the rest of tha flowers used in medicine, 
they are best fresh ; but as they remain only a 
small part of the year in that state, the method 
is to preserve them in the form of syrups and 
conserves. Such as the syrup of cloves and pop- 
pies, the conserves of cowslips, and the like. Of 
these, a short general account shall be subjoined, 
t!i;it nothing may be wanting to make this book 



X. INTRODUCTION. 

as Useful for faiiiilie?, as the nature of sucli an 
one will admit. 

Among the fruits of plants, several are to be 
used fresh, as the hip for conserve, and the 
quince, mulberry, and black currant ; from the 
juices of which, sjrups are made. As to those 
which are to be drred, as the juniper berries, the 
bay berries, and the like, they are only to be g:a- 
thered when just ripening, not when quite mel- 
low, and spread upon a table or floor, often 
turning them till ihey arc dry. But of these 
we use very few of our own growth ; most of the 
fruits used in medicine are brought from abroad, 
and must be purchased of the druggist or apothe- 
cary. 

With respect to the seeds and plants, it is 
otherwise : many of them are of our own growth, 
and nothing is so easy as to pre?erve them. These 
are all to be used dry ; but nature has in a man- 
ner dried them to our hands : for they are not 
to be gathered till perfectly ripe, and then they 
need very little farther care. They are only to 
be spread for three or four days upon a clean floor, 
where the aii has free passage, but where the sun 
does not come ; and they are then ready to be 
put up. 

The seeds used in medicine may be referred 
to three general kinds. They either grow in 
naked ncads or umbels, as in fennel, parsley, and 
the like ; or in pods, as in mustard and crosses ; 
or in large fleshy fruits, as in melon and cu- 
cumbers. In each case they must be left upon 
the plant till perfectly ripe ; then they are only 
to be shook from the heads upon the floor, or if 
in pods, a smart stroke or two of the plant upon 
the floor, when they arc thoroughlj' ripe, will 



INTRODUCTION. xi; 

dislodge them. In the other case, the fruit must 
be cut open^ and they must be taken out from 
among the wet matter, separated from the mem- 
branes that are about thena, and spread upon a 
table, in a dry place, wlyere they must be of- 
ten turned and rubbed as they grow dry, 
that in the end they may be perfectly dry and. 
clean. 

Among the roots a great many are i(^ be used 
fresh, but a greater number are best dried. The 
black and whit« briony, the arum, and some 
others, lose all their virtues in drying ; and 
many that retain some, yet lose the greater part 
of it : there are others which arc excellent both 
fresh and dried, as the marshmallow and some 
more. 

As to the few which lose their virtue entirely 
ill drying, it will be best to keep some of them 
always in the garden, that they may be taken up 
as they are wanted. The others are to be mana- 
ged according to their several natures, and they 
do a great deal toward the furnishing this drug- 
gist's shop, which should be filled with medicines, 
the produce of our own country. 

The be«t season for gathering roots for drying 
is in the earlier part of the spring : what nature 
does for plants when they are just going to flower, 
she does for roots when the leaves are just going 
to bud : thcjuices are rich, fresh, aod full, and 
the virtue is strongest in them at this season, there- 
fore they are to be then taken up. 

In the end of February and the beginning of 
March, the ground should be searched for the 
first budding of leaves, and the roots taken up. 
They are to be wiped clean, not washed ; and, 
according to their several natures, prepared for 
drying. 

Some arc fuUof a mucilaginous juice, as marsh- 



?ii. INTRODUCTION. 

ETiallow, and above all other roots the squill, 
and in some degree many others of that kind : 
these must be cut into thin slices cross-wise, and 
they will dry best if laid upon a hair cloth stretch- 
ed across a frame. They must be frequently turn- 
ed ; and be very thoroughly dry, before they are 
put up, else they will become mouldy : but, right- 
ly prt^pared, they keep very well. 

Other roots have juices, that evaporate more 
easily. These have the virtue either throughout 
the whole substance, or only in the outer part, and 
they are to be prepared accordingly. When roots 
are of one uniform substance, they generally 
have the virtue equal, or nearly so, in all parts. 
These should be split open length-wise, first cut- 
ting off the head, and the little end ; or if con- 
siderably thick, they may be quartered ; when 
this is done, they are to be strung upon a lino, 
l^y drawing a needle threaded with a small twine 
through their thickest part, and they are then to 
be hung up to dry in the manner of the herbs ; 
the line being stretched across a room, the doors 
and windows of which are to be kept open in 
good weatiier. 

When roots consist of a sort of thick rind, or 
fleshy substance within the rind, and a hard sticky 
part in the middle, this fleshy substance under 
it possesses all the virtues, the hard inner substance 
having none ; in this case, the root is to be 
split long-wise as before, and the hard woody 
part is to be taken out and thrown awav ; the rest 
is to be strung as before described, and dried in 
the same manner. 

\\ lieu roots consist of fjlires, these are genr- 
raily connc^cted to a head, if it be ever so small, 
and the best way is to split Ihi in Iwo, and then 
Mriiig up (he separate paiis for (Irving. 

It is needless to enumerate the examples of the 



INTRODUCTION. xni. 

leveral Wmh of roots here ; they follow in their 
places . but if the charilable lady would, on iirst 
looking- over this book to see what arc most use- 
ful, order her gardener to take out of his gTound, 
and to seek in the fields^ the several roots there 
mentioned, and see them dried and preserved ac- 
cording to these directions, she would be possess- 
ed of a set of drugs of a nevr kind indeed ; but 
they would save the price of many brought from 
other countries, and might be used with less 
danger. 

The barks of trees make but a small part of 
the English drugs, and most of them are best 
fresh ; but such as will preserve and retain their 
virtues dried, are very easily prepared that way: 
nothing more is required, than to cut them into 
moderate pieces, and string them up in the 
same manner as the roots. When they are 
dry, they are to be put up as the others ; and 
they will keep ever so long ; but in all this 
time they arc for the most part losing of their 
virtues. 

It may be prudent to preserve drugs brought 
from abroad a great while because of their 
price ; but as these cost only the trouble of ga- 
thering and preserving them, I would, advise, 
that the whole shop be renewed every year ; 
what is left of the old parrel of every kind, being 
thrown away as the fresh one is collected in its 
season. 

The place for keeping these should be a dry 
room, neither damp nor hot ; and they slior.Id 
row and then be looked at, to sec that they arc 
in order ; that they do not grow mould v, or smell 
musty through damp, or become lighter, and lose 
tlieir virtue by too snuch heat. 

It may be proper just to mention, that the 



xiv. INTRODUCTION. 

woods which we use are best kept in the block, 
and shaved off as thcj are wanted ; for being 
kept in shavings, they lose their virtue : and ia 
the same manner as to the foreign woods, it is 
best to keep a block of sassafras, and of lignum 
vitcT, in the house, and cut them as they are 
wanted. 

As to the excrescences, such as galls of the 
oak, and the burr upon the wild briar, they are na- 
turally so dry, that they only require to be ex- 
posed a few days to the air, upon a table, and 
then they may be put up with safety, and will 
keep a long time. 

Lastly, the funguses, such as Jew's ears and 
the like, are to be gathered when they are full 
grouii, and strung upon a line, that they may 
dry leisurely, for else they spoil : they must be 
very well dried before they are put up, else 
they will grow mouldy in damp weather ; and 
if once that happen, no art can recover their 
vutnes. 

Thus may a druggist's shop of a new kind 
be filled, and it will consist of as many articles 
as ihose which receive their furniture from abroad ; 
and there will be this advantage in having every 
thing ready ; that when custom has made the vir- 
tues of the several things familiar, the lady may 
do from her judgment as the physician in his pre- 
scf'plion, mix several things of like virtue to- 
gelluT, and not depend upon the virtues of any 
one sini:ly, when the case requires something of 
power. These roots and barks powdered, will 
make as handsome and as eflicacious boluses and 
mixtures, as any furnish«i by the apothecary. 



INTRODUCTION. ^^ 



CHAP. III. 

Concerning the various mcthocls of preparing 
simples for present line. 

T'iFlRE is no form of medicines sent from 
tbe apolliccarVj which may not be prepared 
fiiuii the iierbs of our own growth in the same 
maimer as from foreign drugs. Electuaries may 
be made with the powders of these barks, roots, 
and seeds, with conserves of flowers, and of the 
tops of fresh herbs ; and syrups, made from their 
juices and infusions ; the raanner of making 
which is very simple, and shall be subjoined to 
tliis chapter, tliat all mav be understood be- 
fore we enter on tl'.e bnok itself: and in the same 
maimer their boluses may be made, which are only 
some of these powders mixed up \v;th syrup: and 
their drau2,hts and juleps, wliich arc made from 
the distilled water.i of these herbs, with spirit, or 
without these syrups being added ; and the tinc- 
tures of the roots ar,d barks ; the method of 
making which shall be also annexed in a familiar 
manner. 

But beside these several forms of giving them, 
there are others much more simple, easy, and 
ready, and these are generally more efficacious. 
1 shall arrawge these under three kinds, juices, in- 
fusions, and decoctions. These are the forms of 
p;iving the medicines most frequentlv mentioned 
in the course of the work, and thrreis less trouble 
in them than in the others. Tiiey are not in- 
deed contrived for shew, nor would they answer 
the purpose of the apothecarv, for his profits 
would be small upon them ; but when the design 



/xYi. INTRODUCTION. 

is only to do good, tliey are tlic most to beclio3en 
u.f uiiy. 

Jnices are lobe expressed from leaves or roots ; 
and ill order to this, thej arc to be first beateu 
ilia morti;r. Tliere is uo formMhatever in which 
licrbs liiiYe so nuich effect, and yd this is in 
a mannfir unknown in the common practice ot 
pliysic. 

These are lo be obtained in some plants from 
the entire lu>rb, as in water cresses, brook-lime, 
and others that have juicy stalks ; in others the 
leaves are to be used, as in nettles, and tlie like, 
where the staSk is dry, and yields nothing ; but 
is troublesome in the pre])aration. \VIieu the 
juice of a root is to be had, it must be fresh 
taken up, and thoroughiy beaten. A marble 
mortar aud wooden pesilc serve best for this pur- 
pose, for any thing of metal is improper : many 
plaists would take a tincture from it, and tlie 
jui'jo would he so in^preguated v» ith it, as to 
becmc a diiVerent medicine, and probably very 
imj;roper in tlic case in which it was about to be 
t^iven. 

As these juices have sometimes an ill taste, and 
as sonje of them are apt to be cold upon the 
stomach, or otluMwise lo dlsa^:ree with it, there 
nre meihofls to ho. used, tomakelliem sitbetlcr up- 
on it ; and in some cases these increase their ^ir-- 
tucs. 

\Vhen the thi(k j'.iice, fresh drawn, is too coarse 
for tiie ])(rson's stomach, it may he suffered to 
.«;tltle and grow clear: a little sugar mav be ad- 
ded also in lu-ating the herb, and in many cases, 
as in those juices given l"or the scurvy, the juice 
of a Hf^ville orange may be added, which will 
greatly improve the flavour. 



INTRODUCTION. xvii. 

To the roots it is often proper to add a little 
white wine in the bruising^ and tliey will operate 
the better for it. Thus, for instance, the juice 
of the flower-de-luce root will not stay upon 
many stomachs alone ; but with a little white wine 
added in the bruising, all becomes easy, and 
its eficcts are not the less for the addition. The 
same addition may be made ib some of the cold- 
er herbs; and if a little sugar, and, upon occa- 
sion, a few grains of powdered ginger be add^d, 
there will be scarce any fear of the medicine dis- 
agreeing with the stomach, and its effects -will 
be the same, as if it had been bruised and pressed 
alone. 

Infusions arc naturally to be mentioned after 
the juices, for they are in many cases used to sup- 
ply their place. Juices can only be obtained from 
fresh plants, and there are times of the year when 
the plants are not to be had in that state. Re- 
course is then to be had to the shop, instead of 
the field ; the plant whose juice cannot be had, 
is there to be found dried and preserved ; and if 
that has been done according to the preceding 
directions, it retains a great part of its virtues ; 
in this case it is to be cut to pieces, and hot wa- 
ter being poured upon it, extracts so much of its 
qualities, as to stand in the place of the other. 
Often, indeed, the virtues are the same : in some 
plants they arc greatest from the infusion ; but 
then some others lose so much in drying, that 
an infusion scarce has any thing. But it is not 
only as a help in the place of the other, that 
this preparation is to be used, for infusions are 
very proper from many fresh herbs ; and are 
of great virtue from many dry ones, of ^which, 
"when fresh, the juice would have been worth 
Httle. 



xTiii. INTRODUCTION". 

Infusions arc the tittcst forms for those hczbs 
whobo qualities are light, and whose virtue is 
easily extracted : in tijis case, hot water p-oured 
u],u[i thcni <al • s up enough of their virtue, and 
none is lost in the opeiation; olhers require to be 
boiled in tlio water. From these are thus made 
what we call decoctions : and as these last would 
not give their virtues in infusion, so the others 
would lose it all in the boiling. It would go 
olF with the vapour. Wc know very well, that 
the distilled water of any herb is only the vapour 
of the boiled herb caught by proper vessels, and 
condensed to water : therefore, whether it be 
caught or let to fly away, all that virtue must be 
lost in boiling. It is from this^ that some plants 
are lit for decoctions, and some for infusions. 
There are some which, if distilled, give no virtue 
to the w^ater, aiid these are fit for decoctions, 
which will retain all their virtue,, as bistort, and 
tormciitill roots, and the like. On the contra- 
ry, an infusion of mint, or pennyroyal, is of a 
strong taste, and excellent virtue ; whereas, a 
decoction of these herbs is disagreeable or good for 
DOthinir. 

There are herbs also, which have so little juice, 
that it would be impossible to get it out ; and 
others whose virtue lies in the husks and buds, 
and this would be lost in the operation. An in- 
fusion of these is the right way of giring them. 
Thus mother of Ihynic is a dry little herb, from 
whuii it would be hard to '^et any juice, and when 
gott<"n, it would possess very little of its virtues : 
lot an infusion of mother of thyme possesses ii 
entir<Iy, 

Infusions arc of two kinds. They are eithef 
prepared m (juuatity, to he drank cold ; or they 
ki:>c dr;iuk a« thev are made, in the manner of tea. 



INTRODUCTION. six. 

This last method is the bpst, ^"t people will not 
be prevaileii upon to do it, unless the taste of the 
herb be agreeable ; for the flavour is much strong- 
er hot, thau it is cold. 

Itifuiionsin the manner of tea, arc to be made 
just as tea, and drank with a liitle sugar : the 
others ^re to be made in this manner : 

A. stone jar is 10 be fitted with a close coyer ; 
the herb, whether fresh or dried, is to be cut to 
pieces ; and when the jar has been scalded cut 
with hot water, it is to be put in : boiling water 
is tlen to be poured upon it ; and the top is to be 
fixed on : it is thus to stand four, five, or six 
hours, or a whole night, according to the nature 
€%£ the ingredient, and then to be poured off 
cledv. 

It is impossible to direct the quantity in general 
for these iofusions, because much more of some 
plants is required than of others : for tlic most 
part, three quarters of an ounce of a dried plant, 
or two ounces of the fresh gathered. The best 
rule is to suit it to the patient's strength and palate. 
It is intended not to be disagreeable, and to have as 
Qiuch virtue of the herb as is necessary : this is 
only to be known in each kind by trial ; and the 
virtue may be heightened, as well as the flavour 
mended, by several additions. Of these sugar 
and a little white wine are the most familiar, but 
lemon juice is often very serviceable, as we find 
in sage tea; and a few drops of oil of vitriol 
give colour aid strength to tincture of roses. 
Salt of tartar makes many infusions stronger 
also than they would be, but it gives them a 
very disagreeable taste. It is, therefore, fit only 
for such as are to be taken at one draught, not for 
such as are to be swallowed in large quantities time 
jtfter time. 

Among the herbs that yield their virtues most 



x,t. INTRODUCTION. 

comuiodiously bv infusion, may be accoun((d 
many of those wbich are pectoral, and good iu 
coughs, as colts-foof, ground-ivy, and the like ; 
the light and aromatic, good in nervous disorders, 
as mother of thyme, balm, and the like ; the 
bitters are also excellent in infusion, but very 
disagreeable in decoction ; thus boiling water 
poured upon Roman wormwood, gentian root^ 
and orange peel, makes a very excellent bitter. 
It need f)nly stand till the liquor is cold, and may 
be then poured off for use. 

It is often proper to add some purging ingre- 
dient to this bitter infusion ; and a little fresh 
polypody root excellently answers that purpose> 
without spoiling the taste of the medicine. 

Several of the purging plants also do rery well 
in infusion, as pure;ing flax, and the like ; and 
the fresh root of polypody alone is a very good 
one : a little lemon juice added to the last named 
infusion does no harm ; and it takes off what is 
disagreeable in the taste, in the same manner as 
it does from an infusion of sena. 

Thus we see what a great number of purposes 
may be answered b}^ infusions, and the are the 
most familiar of all preparations. Nothing is re- 
quired, but pouring some boiling water upon 
the plants fresh or dried, as already directed, and 
pouring it off again \shen cold. 

Drroclions are coiJrived to rmswer the purpose 
of infusions, upon plants which are of so firm a 
te.\'.u,o, that they will not easily yield forth tlieir 
usnful parts. In these the ingr(:(lients arc to be 
boiled in the water, as in the others, the boihiig 
water was to be poured over Ihrni. In general, 
leaves, flowers, and entire plants, whether frej-h 
or dried, arc used in infusions ; the roots and 
barks ill decoctions. 

An earthen pipkin, with a close cover, is the 



INTRODUCTION. xxl 

best vessel for preparing- these ; for manv of those 
medicines which are little suspected of it, will 
take a tincture from the riietal ; and it would be as 
improper to boil them ni a copper pan,, (as it is 
too common a custom,) as to beat the herbs and 
roots in a metal mortar. 

Fresh ro'^ts are used in decoction, as well as 
those which are dried ; and the barks and other 
ingredients in like manner. V?'hcn the fresh are 
used, the roots are to be cut into thin slices, and 
the barks and woods should he shaved down ; as 
to ;liC leaves and enlirc plants, they need be cut 
bii( slightly. When dry ingredients are used, 
the i<;ots and barks are best pounded to pieces, 
and as to the herbs and flowers, little is to be 
done to them, and in general, they are best added 
tovsard (lie end of the decoction. 

It is always best to let the ingredients of a de- 
coction stand in the water cold for twelve hours, 
before it is set on the fire, and then it should be heat- 
ed gradually, and afterwards kept boiling gently 
as long as is necessary : and this is to be propor- 
tioned to the r-ature of the ingredients. Generally 
a quarter of an hour is sufficient, sometimes much 
longer is necessary. They are then to be strained 
off while they are hot, pressing them hard, and 
the liquor &ct by to cool : when they are thorough- 
ly cold, they arc to be poured oil clear from 
the settleraent, for they always become clear as 
th<;y cool, and sv/cctencd with a ^iltle sugar. 
Frequently also, it is proper to add to theui a 
little white wine, as to the infuiioiiS. 



Kxii. INTRODUCTION. 



CHAP. IV 



Concerning distUJcd ivaicrs, and other prepara- 
tions to be kept in tlic Jiouse. 

I SHALL bring tlie charitable lady farther in this 
matter than perhaps slie was aware at the 
lirst setting out ; but it will bo with little expcnre, 
and little trouble. She will find, that I now in- 
trnd she should keep a sort of chemist's or at 
least an apothecary's shop, as well as a druggist's ; 
but it will he founded upon the same materials. 
iSo drugs brought from abroad, or to be purchased 
at a great price, will liave place in it; they are 
all natives of our own coiuitry ; and the prepa- 
ration of these medicines from them will cost only 
a little spirit, a little sugar, and the labour of a 
servant. 

I'hat spirit is bc,«;t which h called molosscs spi- 
rit ; it is to be bought at a small price at the dis- 
tillers ; and as to the suirar, the most ordir.;irv 
loat knid v/ill do for most purposes ; where other 
is necessary, it v.ill be particularly named. 

Lew raniilies are without an alembic or still, 
and that will be of material service. With that 
ULsli'umcnt the simple waters are to be made, 
^^iill no expence beside the fire ; and it will he 
})roper to keep those of the following ingredi- 
ents. 

-^'I'lnt wafer, pepper-mint water, and penny* 
roval wafer, are fo be made of the drv herbs. 
Tlircc })o»uuls of (ach is to be put into the still, 
with fjiir gallons of water, and two gallons is 
to bo disfillf'd (AT. Milk water is to^be made 
tl)!!-^ : a pdiind and half of ';pcar-mii)f , a poiivd 
of rue, h til" a pcnnd of Human wornivvood. auJ 



INTRODUCTION. xxiii 

fcalf a pound of ang;elica leaves arc to be put 
into the still with live gallons of water, and 
three gallons are to be distilled off. Common 
mint water is good in sicknesses of the stomach, 
pepper-mint water in colics, and pennyroval to 
promote the menses. Milk water is good in fe- 
vers, afld to make juleps. It used to be made 
with milk, but that answers no purpose. Only 
one simple water more need be kept, and that for 
colics : it is best made of Jamaica pepper : a 
pound of Jamaica pepper is to be put into the 
still over night, witli three gallons of water ; and 
the next morning two gallons of water distil- 
led otf. 

h has been customary to keep a great many 
simple waters, but these are all tiiat are necessary 
or proper. The other herbs are better to be givea 
in infusion and decoction. 

As for cordial waters, tbey are made as the 
others, only with the addition of spirit. It may be 
proper to keep the following; and no more are ne- 
cessary, 

1. Cinnamon water; which is made by puttings 
into the still a pound of cinnamon, a gallon of 
spirit, and a gallon of water, and the next day 
distilling off a gallon. This is good in sickness at 
the stomach, and is a fine cordial. 

2. Spirituous milk water; made from a pound 
of spear-mint, half a pound of angelica, and a 
quarter of a pound of iionian wormwood, all 
green. To the^e is to be put a gallon of spirit, 
and a gallon of water, and a gallon to be distil- 
led off ; to which is to be added a pint of 
vinegar : this is goud to promote sweat, and is used 
instead of treacle water, being better. 

3. Strong pennyroyal water, which is used 
instead of hysteric water^ in ail hysteric cases^ 



XXIV. INTRODUCTION. 

and to promote tlie menses, is made of a pound 
and liaU* of dry pennvroyal, a gallon of spi- 
rit, and six quarts of water, drawing off a 
gallon. 

4. Annisced water, which is good in the colic, 
and is made with a pound of anniseed, a pound 
of aiigelica seed, imd two g^allons of spirit, with 
one y,allon of water, distilling off two gallons. No 
nnrc of these are necessary : but before I close 
tliis ariiele of distilling, I shall add the making 
cf laveuckr water, spirit of lavender, and II un- 
jiary water, which are preparations of the same 
kind, and very easy. 

J.avender water, is made from a pound of 
fresh lavender flowers, and a gallon of molosse* 
spirit, with two quarts of water ; five pints are to be 
distilled off. Hungary water is made of a pound 
and half of rosemary tops with the flowers, a 
grillon of spirit, and a gallon of water, distilling 
off five pints : and to make the spirit of laven- 
der, or palsy drops, mix three pints of lavender 
valer, and one pint of Hungary water, and 
add to this half an ounce of cinnamon, tlie 
same quantity of nutmegs, and three drams of 
red saunders wood ; these are to stand together 
tili <iie spirit is well coloured. 

'1 his is all the family practitioner will need 
witii distilhng : a short account, hut sufficient. 

As i\ir tinctures, which arc a great article 
with t!.!> apothecarv and chemist, making a 
fit-at slicw, and really very useful ; I would 
h.ue several of tlu ni kept, and they are as 
rasiiv made as the waters, nav, more easily. 
IVloioKSfs s{)iiit is all that is necessary for this 
p-rr.iwr. 

U v.':'.;](l be well <o keep tinctures of all 
tS'.A-i ,\\:i\ l:ark.% which are .said to be good dried 



INTRODUCTION. xxy, 

ia the coiirie of thi<? work, for a tincture will 
(Oi.tain more or less of the virtue of eveiv one of 
i(:c>e, and be oft»:n <'()R\ CM nt, wlierc the po\^der 
or decoction could not be t^iven. it is ii^'^dltss to 
enumerate these^ and one ni'^^ of makinG;, serves iot 
tlieni aii : two ounces of the inprrriient is to be 
cut to thin slices, or bruised in -i mortar, and 
put into a quart of spirit ; it is to i^f'^nd n fort- 
night in a place a little warm, and be often shook ; 
at the end of this time, it is to be taken out, strain- 
ed off, &n(l made to pass through a funut I, lined 
^vith whitish brown paper, and put up veith thei 
r.ame of the ingredient. 

To these tiiictnres of tbe English roots, barks, 
and sefd«, it would be well to add a fcNV made of 
foreign iugredionts. As, 

1. The bitter tincture for the stomach, is made 
of two ounces of gentian, an ounce of dried 
oranire peel, and half an ounce of cardamom 
seeds, and a quart of spirit : or it may be made 
in white wine, allowing two quarts. 

2. Tincture of castor, good in hysteric com- 
plaints, and rxiade with two ounces of castor aad 
a quart of spirit. 

3. Tincture of bark, which svill cure those who 
"will not take the powder, made of four ounces 
of bark, and a quart of spirit.^ . . 

4. Tmcture of soot for fits, madef^with tw<j 
ounces of wood-soot, one ounce of assafcetida, 
and a quart of spirit. 

5. Tincture of steel, for the stoppage of the 
menses, made of flowers of iron four ouuceSi and 
spirit a quart. 

6. Tincture of mvrrli, made of three ounces 
of myrrh, and a quart of spirit, good for curing 
the scurvy in the gums, 

1, Tincture of rhubarb, made of tw© ounces 

d 



xxvl INTRODUCTION. 

of iliiibarbj half an ounce of cardamom seeds^ 
aud a quarter of an ounce of salTron, with a 
quart of" spirit. 

b>. Elixir saluti.^, made of a pound of stoned 
rai-ii:?, a ])au!id of stna, an ounce and half of 
carrawaj seeds, and half an ounce of cardamoms, 
in a gallon of spirit. 

9. Elixir of vitriol, made of six drams of cin- 
r.amon, three drams of cardamoms, two drams 
of long pepper, and the same of ginger ; and 
£ quart of spirit : to a pint of this tincture strain- 
ed clear ofi", is to be added four ounces of oil o( 
vitriol : this is an excellent stomachic. Lastlv, 
to these it may be well to add the famous frier s 
balsam^ which is made of three ounces of ben- 
jamin, two ounces of strained storax, one ounce 
of balsam of Tolu. h:ilf i.u ounce of aloe?, and 
a quart oi" spirit ot wine, ^uch as is burnt under 
lanini. This spirit vvdy he made by pu(tii;g 
a gallon of molosses spirit into tlie still, and draw- 
ing off two quarts, and this will be useful for 
spirit of wine and caaiphire, wiiich is rn;uic 
by dissolving- an outjce of camphire in a qtiart of 
the spirit. Lastly, we are to ad^i what is called 
the astiunalic elixir, made with flower of lienja- 
mm aiid opium, of each a dram, camphire two 
scrnp.le?, oil oT aniseed forty drops, liqufirice 
root lialf an ounce, honey one ounce, and a 
qiiurt .rf rpinl. This is a gentle opiate, and is 
:ni;;*h bcilcr in families than the strong lauda- 
iiunj. 

As to t:,f t)iicturrs made with white wine 
inskad of spirit, a few are sufficient, Stctl 
wine is inadc. of a quarter of a pound of filings 
of iron, and half an omue of mace, and the 
same quaniity of cinnamon, put into iwo quarijs 
of Rheni->)h. Ilicra picra is made of half a pound 



INTRODUCTION. xx-n. 

of aloes, t\^o ounces of winter's bu-ik, and five 
{{uartii of wJiite wine. The first is a rt-^l-irative 
cordial and streiio'tliener : the latier is suiricientlv 
known as a purge, LaiJUanum is made ot two 
ounces of opium^ a dram of cloves^, and a dram 
of cinnamon, and a pint of wine. Viper v/ine 
is made of two ounces of dried vipers, and two 
quarts of white wine; a/id the tincture of ipeca- 
cuanha for a vorait, of two ounces of that root, 
half an ounce of dry orang-e peel, and a quart 
of sack. Lastly, what is called elixir propriefa- 
tis is made of aloes, myrrh, and saffron, of 
each an ounce, sal armoniac six drams, and salt 
of tartar eight ounces^ in a quart of m.ountain 
v/ine. 

These are all the tinctures and Vrir^es that 
need be kept in a family, whose charity h design- 
ed to be very extensive ; (ho expencc of the whole 
is a trifle, not worth naming, ;ind the trouble 
scarce any thing. Ijooks are full of directions 
in particular for every tincture, as if every one 
were to be made a diifercnt wav ; but the best 
method is to give a good deal of time, and fre- 
q*:innt shaking, and that will stand in the plac« 
of heat in most things of this kind : noverthelass, 
[ advise that they should stand in a room 
where a fire is kept while they are making ; and 
those which require heat, that is, those that 
take a colour most slowly, are to be placed nearest 
to it. 

KiSy as these are, they Rre by far the most dif- 
ficult \):ivt of the task, the rest is as it were 
nothing, Ca^^orves, syrups, and ointments will 
he wanting ; but in the same manner one direc- 
tion will serve for the making the whole assort- 
ment of eac'i, afid the ingredients will be at 
band. As to plaiaters in general, they do more 



xxviii. INTRODUCTION. 

l:arm than ffoofl. Surjj-eons at this time make 
\erv little use of them ; and in the course of this 
work, many herbs will be named, the bruised 
leaves of which are better than all the plaisters 
in the world. 

Cinservt s should be made of rue, mint, scurvy- 
grass, wood-sorrelj and Roman wora)v\ood. A« 
to (he four firsts the leaves are to be picked 
off iVotn the stalks^ and beaten up with three 
times the vcieht of sugar. The tops of the 
yotir.g' shoois of she latter are to be cut off, and 
ihcy arc to be beat up in the same manner. In 
the CM arse of this work, many plstnts will be 
ii.imcd;, tie ^Tvu) tops of wbich contain their 
\inue, these may atj be made into conserves in 
tiie sauic raaiiner^ or a« many of them added 
to Ihosc here named, as shall be thought pro- 
})(r.^ 

Conserves of the flowers of rosemary, mal- 
lor.s, archangel, and lavender, are to be made 
also in ihc same mar.nor, and of red rose buds. 
Thc-^c last are to be picked fr(mi the hn?k, and 
the white heels are to be cut off. They art^ all 
to bo beat up with three times their weight of 
sugar ; and iu the same manner may be made 
coriscrv's of cowslip flowers, and (^f those of 
rnai.v other plants mentioned in the following 

pai:' >. 

Tie outer rinds of Seville oranges and lemons, 
are :il?o to be made into conserves in the same 
majiner, beating theai first to a pulp, and then 
adtlir'g the. siig.ir; and to these must be added the 
C"!,.-erre of hips and sloes, which are to be made 
in a particular manner. The hips are to be 
guliierei! \viieii fnlU ripe, afterwards set by in 
a e< 11 ii, til! tiiey grow \erv s(»ft ; tlien they are 
to be la:d upon the back of a large hair sievCj^ 



INTRO nUCTION. xxIjL 

a dish bcins; put underneath ; tliey arc to be 
broke with the hand or a wooden prstU^, and rub- 
bed about t'll all the soft nriatter is forced through 
the liair-cloth, ihe seeds and skins only rciiiaminis^. 
This soft matt? i- is to be vr^igbed, and to be beat 
up iii a monar v, ith twiv:e its -weight of loaf 
sugur, fir'it povdcTftu. 

Sloes are t.) be gathered when they are mode- 
rat'^ly ripe, and they are to be set over the firs 
in water, till they gweil and arc softened^ but 
not till tlie skin burets : they are then to be 
laid upon a sieve, and the soft matter driven 
throuc::h as in the other case, ^nd three times 
the quantity of sugar is io be mixs^d with this> 
that it may make a conserve by beating- toge- 
ther. 

Syrups are to be made of many ingredients : 
they may h'^ niade indeed of any infusion, with 
sugar added to it in a due quantity ; and the 
way to add this so that the syrups shall keep 
and not candy, is to proportion tiie sugar to the 
liquor very exactly. One rule will serve for all 
this matter, and save a great deal of repetition. 
The liquor of which a syrup is to be made 
may be the juice of some herb or fruit, or a 
decoction, or an infusion ; which ever it be, let 
it stand till quite clear ; then to ev^ry wine pmt 
of it, add a pound and three quarters of loaf 
sugar, first beat to powder : put the sugar and 
the liquor together into an earthen pan that 
will go into a large saucepan ; put water in the 
saucepan, and set it over the fire. Let the pan 
stand in it till the sugar is perfectly melted, scum- 
ming it all the time ; then as soon as it is cold, 
it may be put up for use, and will keep the 
year round without danger. 

This being set down as the general method of 



XXX. INTRODUCTION. 

making ihe liquor into a syrupy the rest of* (he 
descriptions of them v, ill be; eusy. They are to 
be made in this manner. For syrup of cloves, 
weigh three pounds of clove July flowers picked 
from the liusks, and with tlie white heels cut oil' : 
pour upon them live niufscf boiling water, l.vt 
them stand all nighty, und in the morning pour 
ofT the clear liq;;oj', aisd raitke it into a syrnp 
a« direclcd &bovc : in the same manner arc to 
be mule the svn;ng of viole's and rtxl poppies : 
ont Ic«s oi' ihe vi'.'lct flowers v>ill do, aud more 
of the popjMe.i \:]or be added : thu?, also, are to 
bemavlci^e svvr.p^of ds'iiask roseSj peach blos- 
somsj c(»\\slip rl-.vv'er?, una nifiiiy others wh.icli 
will be rC' oum^cndcd for that purpose in this 
book. 

Svriip of bu- klhorn, is to be made by boil»?ig 
tlie i uue do wii io huif its quantity, with a little 
cinnamo!:, .quigorj and mitiueg, and then adding 
the sup;, ■'»-'. 

The svr',i{>s of lenion-juicc, mulberries, and 
tlie ]ik<", are to ))e made with a pound and half 
of ?i;r,ar to every pint of the clear juice, 
whit!: IS io be melted ns in the former man- 
ner. 

F;. rnp of garlic, leekp, ornn<?;e-pcfl, lemon- 
pcc). nnui, aiid many other things are to be made 
of strong infusions of ihose ingredients, made 
as b'-fore direcled, with the fir?t mentioned qnan- 
tity of stic;ar added to thcm^ when they have 
fc<0(>(] ((> settle. 

hvrup of marshmallows, and of poppv lirads, 
and S' me other?, are to be njade in the .same 
m.'iiUK r with tlie strcniirst decoctions that can 
possibly be made from those ingredients, with 
till' same quantity of si'gar as is f:rsi men-. 
t.'oued. 



I^TRODCCTIOX. xxxi. 

Svrup of brJsani is made bv boiiinc-* a quarter 
of a jiuund of bai^ani ci' 'i'iAw, iv. a pu^t ajjd tialf 
1)1 w iter in a c.]o?c vtsscl, and ihcn makirig the 
water into a svrup, wjtii tlie u.-;r.'j.l quantifvof 
sGgar : and thus u:ay be made svMip:i of dny of 
the balsams. 

Svrup of salfron is made of a strong tincture 
of saffron in wine. An ounce of safiVon beinj^ 
put to a pint of mountain^ and this, when strain- 
ed off, is to be made into a syrup, with the usual 
quantity of sugar. 

At owe time it "Was a ciistora to keep a quantity 
of syrups of a particular kir.d under the name of 
honevts. They were made with honey instead of 
*ut!,ar, and some of them, which had vinegar iu 
the composition, were called oxymels. A few 
of the i7rst kind, and very few, are worth keep- 
ing, and two or three of the latter, for they 
lune \ery particular virtues. The way of mak- 
ipig th<;m is much the same with that of making 
syrups; but to be exact, it may be proper just 
to give some instance of it. 

Honey of roses is the most useful, and it is 
to be made of an infusioa of the flowers and 
honey iu this manner. Cut the white heels from 
some red rase buds, and lay them to dry in a 
place where there is a draught of air ; when 
they are dried, pat half a pound of thrm into 
a stone jar, and pour on them three pints of 
boiling water ; stir them well, and let them 
strtiid twelve hours ; then press Otf the liquor, 
and when it ha« settled, add to it iWe pounds 
of l:«)ney, boil it well, ar.d uht'ii it is of the 
consistence of a tliick io/vup put it by fwr use. 
it is irovd ii^alu't £;)ie mouths, and on raanv 
otner t/cca;;''f,i).s. Iu the same manner mav be 
niixd^ tl.e htiicy of ixuy flower ; or with the 



xxxiJ. INTRODUCTION. 

jnli-e of any plant tliiis mixed with lioney and 
boiled do'.vi), niav be made what is ciillcd the 
]iu!ifcy of \hiit plaiU, As to the oxymels, they 
are a!::t> m:i[\c in a very iJinfonTi maiiiuT. 'i'fie 
fblicv.ii!:T yre so useuil, that it will be proper 
alwiy.i <o 1%: :p them in leadiness. 

For oxvmcl o!' jriilic, |;(it half a pint of\i' 
ncgar into an eartlteti |}iplc'.j, boii in it a qiiartei! 
of an ounce >f carasva' eeedt-, and the same quan- 
tity of s^vect f.nnr i speds, at Ihsc add an oiiucc 
and half of fresh ?:.ir!ic root '-iit ;d thin ; let it 
boil a rr^iiUite or tv> o lo;;2;e.ij tdu-n cover it up t*) 
stand liil cold, then prc^s out (he liquor, and 
add ten ounces of honey, and boil it to a con- 
sistence. 

For vinegar of squills, put iiito a pint of vi- 
negcar three ounces of dried squilis ; let it stand iy^o 
days in a s^eriiie heat, then prr-ss out the vinegrar, 
and whej; it iias stood to settle, add a pound and a 
half of honey, i su boil it to a consistence. Both 
these are cxcclien;. in ahtlimas. 

To th'jLe also should be ^nhled, the common sim- 
ple oxymei, whicli is ma j( of a pint of vinegar, and 
two pounds of honey boiled together to the con- 
sistence of a syrup. 

Finally, as to ointments, nothiiig cr.n be so easy 
as the ujaking them of the common herbs, and 
the ex pence is only so much hog's-lard. The lard 
is to be melted, and the fresh gathered leaves of 
the herb are to be chopped to piec< s, and thrown 
in((. ,1. : ^1 ev are to be btih'd till the leaves beffin 
to feel cri?p, and tlien the lard is lo be strained 
off. It will he greet', and will have the virtues of 
the !i rh, and niu'^t be called ointment of snrh an 
lurh. To the.»e 1 shall take the opportuiiitv of 
athiiiig the way of making two or three more, 
viiich, though not (he produce of English herbs. 



INTRODUCTION. xxxuh 

ire very useful, and our charitable shop should 
liot be without thecn, 

J. The white oiotmcnt, railed unguentuni ; this 
is made by meltini;^- together tour ounces oi' *' bite 
wax, and three oiu.( (5. of speiiuacet!, ui a p. .J ( f 
sallad oil, an 1 addaig, if it be desired, tbit'c 
ounces of ceoess, and a dram and half of cam(>hire: 
lint it is better for all common purposes witiiout 
these. 

2. Yellow basilicon, which is made bj melting 
together yellow wax, resin, and burgundy pitch, 
of each Imlf a pound, in a pint of oil of olives^ 
and adding three ounces of turpentine, 

3. Black basilicon, which is made by melting 
together ia a pint of olive oil, jeliow wax, resin> 
and pitch, of each nine ounces, 

4. The mercurial ointment, which is thus made: 
rub together in an iron mortar, a pound of quick- 
silver, and an ounce of turpentiiie ; when thev are 
well mixed, add four pounds of hog's-lard mel^ed^ 
and mix all thoroughly together. The ointment 
of tutty is prepared with levigated tutty, and as 
much viper's fat as will make it into a soft ointment ; 
these are only to be mixed together upon a marble, 
by working them with a ihin knife. This is 
for disorders of the eyes, the foregoing for the 
itch, and many other compiaints, but it must be 
used cautiously. And those which were before 
named for old sores. 

Of the same nature with the ointments, are, ia 
some degree, the oils made by infusion, of herbs 
and flowers in common oil. These are also very 
easily prepared, and an instance or two will serve 
to explain the making of them all. The most 
regarded among these is the oil of St. John's- 
wort, and that is thus made ; pick clean a quarter 
of a pound of the flowers of coramoa St. JohnV 

e 



ixxiv. INTHODUCTION. 

"wort, pour upon them a ouart of olive oil, nnd 
]et f hem stand tOixeiLher till the oil is of a reddisli 
co! ur. Oil of cider is made of a pound of elder 
flowers, ^vhich are to be put into a quart of olive 
oil, and boiled tii' thev are crisp, and the oil is to 
be then str; • jed off. 

3. Whai is called the green oil, is thus made, 
bruiso in a marble mortar three ounces of greca 
ch;;iiiomiIe, with the same quantity of bay leaves, 
sea-worm v,ood, rue, and sweet marjoram ; then 
boil them in a quart of oil of olives, till thej are 
a little crisp. The oil is then to be poured off, 
and when cold put up for use. 

These oils are used to rub the limbs when there 
is paia and swellings ; their virtues will be found 
'dt large, under the several herbs which are the 
principal ingredients : and after one or other of 
these methods, maj' be made the oil by infusion, or 
by boiling of any plant, or of any number of plants 
of like virtue. 

Lastly, though herbs are now left out of the 
composition of plaisters, even the melelot being novr 
made without the herb from which it was first 
named : it may be proper to add the way of pre- 
j)aiii!g a few that arc most useful, and ought to be 
kept in families. 

1. The common plaister is thus made; boil 
toj:;;ellier a gallon of oil, five pounds of powdered 
litharge, and a quart and four ounces of water. 
\V hca the watcv is boiled away, the rest will be 
waited int,* a jjlaisier, but it must be stirred all the 
time : <!iis . ^ d to he called diachylon. To make 
rliaciiyi jti v* ah the gums, add to a pound of the 
la.t^t dc\ribcd, two ounces of galbanum, and an 
ounce ,'f e<)ip:;;(;ii furpcnfine, and the same quan- 
tity o! IVa.ikir.^ci)-.. Melt them all together, the 
jruma li-t, m.d ;!.caada the plaister. 



INTRODUCTION. xxxt. 

2. For a strengthning; plai?fpr, mell two pounds 
of the common plaister, a-ici add to It half a pound 
of frankinceiise, and three ounces of dragon's 
blood. 

S. For a drawing plaister, melt together jellovr 
w^ , und yellow resin, of each three pounds, and 
a -yound of mutton suet. This is used instead of 
the old rrr/iilot plaister to dress blisters ; and the 
bister puaister itself is made of it, only by adding 
half a pint of vinegar, and a pound of Spanish 
flies in powder, to two pounds of it, just as it 
begins to cool from meltinr^. The quicksilver 
plaister is thus made ; rub three ounces of quick- 
silver, with a dram of balsam of sulphur, till it 
no longer appear in globules, then pour in a pound 
of f'-ii common plaister melted, and mix them well 
together. 

To close this chapter, I shall add a few wa- 
ters made without distillation, which are very 
cheap and very serviceable, and the family shop 
will then be quite compleat. 

J. Lime water. This is made by pouring gra- 
dually six quarts of water upo:> a pound of quick 
lime ; when it has stood to be clear, it must be 
poured off. If a pound of lignun vit^e wood, an 
ounce of liquorice root, and half an ounce of sas- 
safras bark be added to three quarts of lime wa- 
ter, it is called compound lime water ; and is ex- 
cellent in foulnesses of the blood. 

2. The blue eye Vvater. This is made by put- 
ting a dram of sal ammoniac into a pint of lime 
water, and letting it stand in a brass vessel, till it 
is of a sky blue colour. 

3. Alum water is made by boiling half an ounce 
of white vitriol, and the same quantity of alum 
m a quart ot water, till they are dissolved. 

Thus have we described all the drugs and com- 



xxxvi. INTRODUCTION, 

positions thaf need he kept in the charitable sliop 
of the family^, \vhicl) lutends to relieve a neigh- 
bourhood of poor in their c;reatcst of all distress- 
es, that of sickn(-ss. The diseases for which 
these remedies are to he u?ed will be found enu- 
mciitted at large under the several heads of the 
prineijjal inoredien<s, as described in the succeed- 
inj^- pa^es. It only remains to say a few words 
ai)out tiie manner of putting these things most con- 
veniently together^ and we then shall have pre- 
pared for all that follows. 



CHAP. V. 



Concerning the Jiest methods of put ting medicines 
together for present taking. 

IN the first place, althoug;h these several forms 
of syrups, conserves, and the like, have been 
ramed, as what will be sometimes necessary. The 
^reaf practice in tl;e country will lie in the in- 
fiisioiis and decoctions o-f the fresh plants and 
rool.^. 

The stren<!:th of these infusions and decoctions 
is to he j>roporlioncd to the taste : for as they are 
made to he swallowed in quantities, if they be 
made so stronji; as to be very disagreeable, that 
end will he defeated : they may "T)e rendered more 
pleasant hv sweeteninLi: (hem with sugar, about an 
ounce of which is to he allowed to a quart; and 
ot cishrianv a little wliite wine, or a small (|uan- 
titv of some of the cordial waters mav be added 
to tliein. The dose of either decoction or infu- 
sion, wijl be in general about hiilf a pint, except 



INTRODUCTION. xxxvii. 

where ihcy are intended- to purge or vomit ; there 
they must be more carefiillj and exactW propor- 
tioned to the strength^ than can be toid in this 
general mpjiner. 

Of th .• simple water?, about a quarter of a 
pint is a dose, a!\d of the cordial waters^ less than 
half that quantity. These may be occasionally 
given alone ; but they aic mostly intended for 
mixir;ir witl^ other ir;£:rcdients. 

Tiie titictures are to be given in drops, from 
ten to an hundred,, according' to their strength 
nnd nature : but to name a general dose, it is 
about i]\e and t'>venfy drops. These, however, will 
be alj^o more serviceable in mixtures, than sing- 
ly. Of the purging tinctures in ^Yinc, and the 
elixir saiutis, ihree^ tour, or more spoonfuls is the 
dose. 

It would be well tc keep tinctures of many of 
the ro<!ts recommended in rcrvons cases, as cor- 
dials, astri.'ge!;!-:, arid of minv other kinds; and 
also to keep po\^(i rs oi" tli^^se roots in readiness : 
and thus tlie eommon forms of medicines, as sent 
from apothicaries, will be very easy. 

For a julep, dx ouiiccs of one of the simple 
waters, two ounces of o:,e of the •(impound wa- 
ters, or those made with spirit, two drams of a 
syrup, and fifly drops of a tincture, make a very 
agreeable (me Thus for an hvsteric julep, let 
the simple water be pennyroyal, the strong water 
the strong pcnnvroval, the syrup that of saffron, 
and the tincture of castor, and it is a very pleasant 
julep : and so of all the rest. If a pearl cordial 
be desired, it is only mixing the simple and strong 
waters without syrup or tincture, and adding two 
drams of sugar, and half a dram of levigated 
oyster-shells. The apothecaries will not he plea- 
ned with this disclosing the mysteries of their pro- 



xxxvlii: INTRODUCTION. 

fession, but the public good is of more consequence 
than tiieir pleasure. 

Draughts arc only little juleps, with more pow- 
erful ingredients added to them. An ounce and 
haif ui a simple vvater^ three drams of a strong 
^vator, one dram of a syrup, and forty drops of 
a tincture, make a draught ; but to these may be 
added a simple of some power to increase the 
virtue. What waters, tinctures, syrups, or pow- 
ders shall be used will be determined from the 
case itself. 

Boluses are made with these powders in a cer- 
tain dose. A scruple or half a dram, is made 
into a sort of paste with syrup. The custom is 
to cover it with a little leaf-gold, but this is 
better let alone : some use leaf-brass, which is 
abominable. 

Electuaries arc to be made of powders, con- 
serves, and syrups, ihcy diffci" from boluses in this, 
as v/ell as in the size, that tlie dose is smaHer, al- 
though the piece taken be as large ; which is ow- 
ing- to the conserve, that having in general little 
virdii^ in comparison of the otlier ingredients. 
TI;i> is t!)c form most convenient for medicines 
ih.ixt are to be taken for a continuance of time, and 
l';e <lo G of which needs not be so very punctually 
rf^rar-K'il. 

'i iiu : for an electuary against an habitual loose- 
ness, vvlicn it etcends the proper bounds ; mix 
logctlicr a;i nuiuc of conserve of red roses, and 
six drains of svr[ij) of cloves, add to these two 
drinis of powdered bistort root, one dram of 
powdered tonncntiil, and lialf a dram of toasted 
rhnbarl). 'I liig makes an electuary, a piece of 
^''hi(ll, of ihci bigness of a nutmeg, taken once in 
two (Itvi, uill check the abundance of stools, with- 
O'.it, t injiiig t!ie cr.*tomusy looseness intirely : it 



INTRODUCTION. xx:.>x. 

will also be a pleasant medicine, li a drauj^bt of 
tirjfture of roses^ which wiil be described in the 
following part of this work, under the article 
red rosCj be taken after this, it will increase the 
power. 

In this manner the charitable lady may supply 
the place of the apothecary, to those who could 
not afiord such assistance : and experience is so 
good a guide, that she wiil be able in most cases 
to save the expence of the doctor also : and there 
will be this satisfaction in. her own mind, that 
while she deals principally with those innocent 
sort of RK'dicines which the fields afford her, she 
will be in very little danger of doing harm. The 
galenical physic perhaps will be found eO'ectual 
in many more cases, by those who stick to it sole- 
ly, tf':i!5 ''iev are aware who do not use it; as to 
the iniM-hitf of meuirinc, that is almost entirely 
•.:i;(^micr:l. It v/o:;ld be idle to say that chemical 
liiedirines do not do great good ; but they require 
t ) be in skilfal hu.nds i when the ignorant employ 
tlieni, death is more likely to be the consequence, 
than the relief from the disorder any other 

One useful observation may serve well to close 
l!Ms introduction. Opiates, and medicines of that 
iiind, to compose persons to rest, and to take off 
pain, will be often necessary ; but as they are the 
most po^crfu.' medicines the charitable practi- 
tioi.er will have to do withal, they arc the most ca- 
pable of doing harm : the great care will therefore 
he in the right use of tiicse. 

As there are three diifcrent preparations de- 
scribed in this book for answering this purpose, 
beside the opium, and that solutionof it in wine, 
"wliich is called laudanum^ I would advise that 
these two latter be used very seldom. A syrup 



xl. INTRODUCTION. 

made of t!:e juice of the wild lettuce, is an eK* 
cellent medicine ; the :ivi up of diacodiuin, wliich 
is made of a stroiii>; decoction of po})py li^adsj 
is a iidlc jc oii«ier than this ; ai.'d if soniethiiig 
more powerfii thu-- ♦luss is required, there is Ihe 
asthmatic elixir. O o or other of these ma^ al- 
most on everv occasiuu s'^rve the purpose ; and :t 
is ahnost iuiptis-^ible that the use of them shouki 
be attended with danger. I would therefore ad- 
vise, that opium or laudanum be very rarely used : 
perhaps it nughl be well to say, not used at all, 
for the others will be able in almost all caseSj if 
not uuiYcrsally, to aaswer the purpose. 



FAMILY HERBAL. 



A. 



Acacia Tree. Acacia vera sive spina ^gyptiaca. 



THE acacia is a large biit not tall tree, with 
prickly branches : the leaves are winged, or 
composed of several small ones set on each side a 
middle rib ; and the flowers are yellow. The 
trunk is thick, and the top spreading'. 

The leaves arc of a bluish green ; and the flowers 
resemble in shape pea blossoms ; many of them 
stand together. These are succeeded by long 
and flailed pods. The seeds contained in each 
are from four to seven ; and the pod between 
them is very small and narrow : the breadth is 
\\here they lie. 

The tree is frequent in Egypt, and there are 
a grent many other kinds of it. No part of the 
<u arin tree is kept in the shops ; but we have 
fi'tm it two drugs : 

I. The acacia juice, and 2. The gum arabic. 

The acacia juice, or succus acacia?, is like liquor- 
ice juice, hard and black. They bruise the un- 
ripe p()d< niui seeds, and pi'esg out the juice which 
Jhey evapoiiitf to tjii': consistence. The gum 
Hfabic \iU?i:< 'S'ly *A fiie bark of the trunk and 



2 FAMILY HERBAL. 

branche?, as the plum-trcL' and cherry-tree gum 
do with us. 

The acucia juice is an astringent but little 
used. Tlie u,uiu arabic is ^ood in stranguries, 
and in <:oui4;hs from a iliiii sliarp rheum ; it is 
to be given ii] solution, iin ounce boiled in a 
quart of barlr} -^^utcr, or in powder in electuaries 
or otherwise. 

\Miat is called the German acacia is the juice 
of unripe sloes evaporated in the ^ame manner. 

AcoMTE, Anihora ^Icc aconitum salutifej'um. 

There are many poisonous aconites, not used ; 
but there is one medicinal and kept in the shops : 
this is called the wholesome aconite and antithora. 

It is a small plant, a foot high, with pale 
green divided leaves and yellow flowers. It 
grows erect, and the stalk is firm, angular, and 
hairy ; the leaves do not stand in pairs. The 
flowers are large and hooded, and of a pleasant 
smell : the seed-vessels are membranaceous, and the 
seeds black ; the root is tuberous, it sometimes 
consists of OTie lump or knob, sometimes of more. 
ft is a native of Germany, but we have it in g"ar- 
dens. The ro<it is the only part used ; it is sup- 
posed to be a remedy against poisons, but it is not 
much regvirdod at this time. 

Addkk's-tongvf. OphioglossHm- 

AnDi.R's roNcvF. is a little plant common in our 
meadows. It consists of a single leaf, with 
a liitic s})ike of seeds rising from its bottom, 
winch is supposed to resemble the tongue of a 
serpent. 

ihc leaf i'» of an oval shape, and of a fifit^ 



FAMILY HERBAL. 3 

bright green colour ; it is thick and fleshy, and has 
no ribs or veins. The stalk on which it stands rises 
from a root composed of small fibres, and is four 
inches or more high. The spike rises to about the 
same height above it ; and the tongue or seed- 
vessel is notched on each side. The whole plant is 
buried among the grass, and must be sought in 
April and May, for it dies off soon after ; and no- 
thing is seen of it till the next season. 

It is a fine cooling herb, and an excellent 
ointment is made from it. The leaves are to be 
chopped to pieces, and four pounds of them are 
to be put into duec pounds of suet and one pint 
of oil melted together. The whole is to be boiled 
till the herb is a little crisp, and then the ointment 
18 to be strained off : it will be of a beautif\d green. 
Some give the juice of the plant, or the powder 
of tlie dried leaves, inwardly in wounds ; but this 
is trifling. 

Agrimony. Agrimonia. 

A COMMON English plant : it flowers in the midst 
of summer. It grows to a foot or more in height ; 
the leaves are \vinged, and (he flowers are 
yellow. The root is perennial ; the leaves are 
hairy, of a pale green, and notched at the edges ; 
the stalk is single, tirm, and round ; the flowers 
stand in a long spike ; they are small and nu- 
merous, and the seed vessels which succeed them 
are rough like burs. '^Phe plant is common about 
hedges. 

The leaves are used tVesli or dried ; they have 
been recommended in the jiiuiulic*- ; but they are 
found by experience to be good in tlie diabetes and 
incontinence of urine. The plant is alst> one of the 

B 2 



FA:\n].Y HERBAL. 5 

are fibro-as. The whole plant has a prniliar 
and stron<^ smelly it 8hou!d be gathered when in 
ilov/er. 

It is an excellent vulnerarv ., outwardly or inMardly 
used ; a conserve may be made of it in s])ring' : 
and it may be given by way of tea. It is excellent 
in all disorders of the breast and lungs, and in 
those of the kidneys, and against bloody and foul 
urine. 

AluieaLj or crown's allheal. Panax Coloni. 

A COMMON herb in our wet grounds with long 
hairy leaves and little red {lowers. It grows to a 
foot and a half high, but the stalk is weak, square, 
and hairy : the leav< s stand iv>o at a joint, and are 
of a pale green, notched at the edges, and of a 
strong smell ; the flowers stand in clusters round 
the stalk at the joints. They are like those of the 
dead nettle kind, but smaller ; the root is perennial, 
and creeps. 

It is an excellent wound herb, but must be used 
fresh. The leaves are to be bruised and laid upon 
a new-made wound, without any addition ; they stop 
the bleeding, and cure. 

Almond trke. A?iii/gdalus. 

Bitter and sweet almonds are very different in 
taste, but the tree which produces them is the same ; 
it is distinguishable at least only by the taste of the 
almond. 

'Tis a moderately large tree, with long narrow 
leaves, of a beautiful green, and notched at the 
edges ; the blossoms are large, of a pale red colour^ 
and very beautiful. The fruit is composed pf 



6 FAxMlLY HERBAL 

three parts, a (oug-h matter on the outside, a stone, 
within that, and in this shell the ahuond, by way of 
kernel. The} cultivate almond trees in France and 
Italy. 

Sweet almonds are excellent in emulsions, for 
stranguries and all disorders of the kidneys and 
bladder ; they ought to be blanched and beat up 
with barley-water into a licjuor like milk ; this is also 
jj^'ood, in smaller quantities, for people in consump- 
tions and hectics. 

Bitter almonds are used for their oil ; this tastes 
sweet, and what is called oil of sweet almonds 
is commonly made of them. But the cakes 
left after prossing' afford by distillation a water 
that is poisonous, iu the same manner as laurcl- 
w^ter. 

Aloe fl.\nt. Aloe. 

TiiTME are a great many kinds of the aloe pre- 
srrvcti in our green-houses and stoves. They are 
all natives of warmer climates ; but of these there 
are only two that need be mentioned here, as the 
aloe kept by apothecaries, though of three kinds, 
is the produce of only two species These two 
iivc the socotrine aloe-plant and the common 
aloe. 

The ><!C(^frine aloe Is a very beautiful plant ; the 
leaves are like those of the pme-apple, eighteen or 
t\\('i>ty ini lies long, prickly at tlie sides, and armed 
wiih a large thorn at the end. The stalk is luiif 
a \;in\ high or more, naked at the bottom, bat orna- 
mented at toj) with a long spike of flowers ; these 
are of a long shane and hollow, and of a beautiful 
red colour. 

The sorotriue or fmest aloe.^ arc produced from (his 



FAMILY HERBAL. 7 

plant ; the leaves are pressed gently^, and the juice 
received in earthen vessels : ii is set to settle, and then 
dried in the snn. 

The common aloe is a very fine plant ; the leaves 
are above two feet long-, and an inch thick ; they are 
dented at the ed<^es and prickly, and have a very 
sliarp thorn at the point. The stalk, when it 
flowers, is five or six feet hi^^h, and divided into 
several branches ; the flowers are yellow streaked 
with ^reen. 

From the jnice of the leaves of this plant 
are made the hepatic and the caballine aloes ; 
tlie hepatic is made from the clearer and finer 
part of the juice, the aibafline from the coarse 
sediment. 

The socotrine aloes is the only kind that 
should be given inwardly ; this may be known 
from tlie others, by not having' their offensive 
smell. It is a most excellent purge ; but it must 
not be given to women with child, nor to thosi^ 
who spit blood, for it nray be fatal. The best 
way of giving it is in the tincture of hicrai 
picra. 

Aloes Wood. Lignum aloes. 

It may be necessary to mention this wood, as it 
is sometimes Ui^ed in medicine, although we are 
not ac([uainted with the tree which atVords it. We 
are told that the leaves ai'e small, the il(nver.s mode- 
rately large, and the fruit as big as a pigeon's cg^^^ 
and woolly; and we read also that the juice of the 
Uee, while fresh, will raise blisters on the skin, and 
even cause blindness ; but these accounts are very 
imperfect. 

We see three kinds of the wood in the shops. 



8 FAIVIILY HERBAL. 

and they are dislingnishcd by three different names, 
calanihac, common hgnum aloes, and calamboHr ; 
of these the ca!aml)ac is tb.e finest and the most 
resinous, the calambour is ahiujst a mere chip, the 
other is of a middle value between them, - They are 
all of the same virtue, but in ditTerent deg^rees. They 
are said to be cordial and strengthening' to the 
stomach, but we use them very little. 

Trul Amomlm. Amovium vcrum racemosum. 

Amomum is another of those drugs we receive 
from abroad, and do not know the plants which pro- 
duce them. Tlie fruit itself, which is called amo- 
mum, is like the lesser cardamom, but that it is 
round ; it consists of a skinnv husk and seeds within, 
and is whitish, and of the bigness of a horse-bean. 
Several of these sometimes are found growing to- 
g'ether to one stalk in a close body. 

The old physicians u>ed it as a cordial and car- 
minative, but at present it is nmch neglected. 

Common Amomum. Amomum vulnare. 



o 



Though the auH^mum before mentioned be not 
used in prescription, it is an ingredient in some old 
compositions ; and, being often not to be met with, 
it has been found necessary to substitute another 
carminative seed in its ]d;ice ; this grows on an 
Knglish plant, thence called also amomum. 

The common amonunn, otluMAvise called bas- 
tard stone parsley, is frecjuent about our hedgt^; ; 
it trrows to three feet in heii>ht, but the stalk 
is slender, and divided into a great many branches 
The Icavrs are c^f a brip;ht green and winged, 
or coiMposed of doul>le rinvs of smaller, with an 




/^v/.V 



FAMILY HERBAL. 9 

odd one at the end. There grow some large 
and very beautiful ones from the root ; those on 
the stalks are smaller. The flowers grow in 
little umbels or clusters, at the extremities of 
all the branches. They are small and white. 
Two seeds follow each tlower, and these are 
striated^ small, and of a spicy taste : the plant 
is distinguished at sight from all the others of ita 
kind, of which there are many, by the slender- 
ness of its stalks and branches, and the smallnes3 
of the umbels ; and more than all by the pecu- 
liar taste of the seeds, which have a flavour of 
mace. 

. It is proper to be particular, because the plant 
is worth knowing, Its root is good for all dis- 
eases of the urinary passages, and the seeds ara 
good in disorders of the stomach and bowels, 
and also operate by urine. The quantity of 
a scruple given in cholics often proves an im- 
mediate cure, and they aie a good ing-redient in 
bitters. 

Alranei. Anchusa. 

Alranet is a rough plant, of no great beauty, 
cultivated in France and Germany for the sake of 
its root. It grows to a foot and half bigh : the 
leaves are largo, and of a rough irregular sur- 
face, and bluish green colour ; the flovrers are 
small and purplish ; the root is long, and of a 
deep purple. It is kept dried in the shops. It 
has the credit of an astringent and vulnerary ; 
but it is little used. The best way of giving of 
it, is to add half an ounce to a quart of harts- 
horn drink ; it gives a good colour, and increases 
the virtue 



10 FAMILY HERBAL. 

Angelica. Ans:i'lica. 



'ft 



A LARGE and beautiful plant kept in our ^^rdens, 
and found wild in some parts of the kingdom. It 
«:ro\vs to eight feet in height^, and the stalks robust, 
and divided into branches. The leaves are large, 
and composed each of many smaller, set upon a 
divided pedicle ; they arc notched at the edges, and 
of a bright green. The flowers are small, but 
they stand in vast clusters^ of a globose form : two 
seeds follow eacli flower. 

Every part of the plant is fragrant when bruised, 
and every part of it is used in medicine. The 
root is long and large: wc use that of our own 
growth fresh, but the fine fragrant dried roots 
are brought from Spain. The whole plant pos- 
sesses the same virtues, and is cordial and sudo- 
rific ; it has been always famous agaiast pestilen- 
tial and contagious diseases. The root, the stalks 
candied, the seeds bruised, or the water distilled 
from the leaves, may be used, but the seeds are 
the most powerful. It is also an ingredient in many 
compositions. 

AxisE. Anisum. 

The aniseed used in the shops is phxhiced by 
a small , plant cultivated in fields for that purpose 
in the island of Malta and clewhere. It grows to 
hall" a yard high, the stalks are firm, striated, and 
branched ; the leaves which grow near the ground 
are rounded and divided only into three parts ; 
those on the stalks are cut into slender divisions. 
Tlie flowers are small, but they grow in large umbels 
at the top of the branches, and two seed* follow 
eeuh ; tJLiesu are the aniseed. 



FAMILY HERBAL. ll 

As much bruised aniseed as will lie on a 
sijtpenee is excellent in cholic. 'Tis also 
good in indigestions^ and otlier complaints of the 
fctomach. 

Apples of Love. Poma Amoris. 

These are larf^e juicy fruits, but they are pro- 
duced not on a tree^ but on a small and low plant. 
The stalks are weak, and divided into many 
branches ; the leaves are large, but they are com-< 
posed of many small ones set on a divided stalk, 
and they are of a faint yellowish green colour. The 
flowers are small and yellow, the fruit is large, and, 
when ripe, of a red colour ; it contains a soft juicy 
pulp and the seeds. 

The plant is a kind of nightshade, we cultivate 
it in gardens. The Itiilians eat the fruit as we do 
cucumbers. The j\iice is cooling, and is good 
externally used in eruptions on the skin, and in 
diseases of the eyes, where a sharp humour is trouble- 
some. 

Archangel, Lamiuyn Album. 

A COMMON wild plant, more vulgarly called 
the dead-nettle. It grows about our hedges, it 
is a foot high, and has leaves shaped like those 
of the nettle, but they do not sting. The stalk 
is square, and the leaves are hairy ; the flowers 
are large and white ; they stand at the joints where 
the leaves are set on, and are veiy pretty. The 
leaves stand in pairs, and the root creeps under the 
surface. 

l^he flowers are the only part used ; they are 
to be g"?)thered in May, and made into consene, 
A pound of them is to be beat up with two pound>? 



12 FAMILY HERBAL. 

and a half of sugar. They may also be dried. They 
are excellent in the \Yhitesj and all other weak- 
nesses. 

There is a little plant with red flowers called 
also the red archangel^, or red dead-nettle. It is 
common under the hedges, and in gardens ; the 
stalks are square and weak, the leaves are short and 
notched at the edges, and the flowers .small and 
red ; the plant is not above four or five inches high, 
and these flowers grow near the tops among the 
leaves. They are in shape like those of the white 
archangel, but small. 

The herb is used fresh or dried, and the flowers. 
The decoction is good for floodings, bleedings at 
the nose, spitting of blood, or any kind of hemor- 
rhatje. It also stops blood, bruised and applied out- 
wardly. 

Arrach, or Stiming Arr.\ch, Atriplex olida. 

A s.MALL wild plant that grows about farm-yards, 
and in waste grounds. The stalks arc a foot long, 
but weak ; they seldom stand upriglit ; tiicy arc 
striated, and of a pale green. The leaves are 
small, short, and rounded, of a bluish gicen coloiu', 
and of the breadth of a shilling or less. The 
flowers are inconsiderable, and the seeds small, but 
they stjind in clusters at the tops of the branches, 
and have a greenish white appearance. The whole 
plant is covered with a sort of moist dust in large 
particles, and has a most unpleasant smell. It is 
fo })e used fresh gathered, for it loses its virtue 
m drying. A syrup may be made of a pint of 
its juice and two pounds of sugar, and will keep all 
the year. The leaves also may be beat into a con- 
?er\c, ^v\i\\ three times their weight of sugar. \n 
any c,i iht^c forms it is an excellent medicine in 



FAMILY HERBAL. I.^ 

all hysteric complaints. It cures fits/ and promotes 
the menses, and the necessar}' evacuations after 
delivery. 

There is another kind of arrach also mentioned 
by medical writers, and called g-urden arrach ; it is 
an annual raised from seed, for the use wf the kitchen. 
It grows to a yard hi<^h, and the leaves are broad : 
those which grow from the root have a little leaf 
also on :ach side of the base. They are covered 
with a wet dust like the other kind. These leaves 
are cooling and softening ; they are good in clysters, 
but they are less used, and k^ valuable than the 
other. 

Aron. Arun. 

A VERY common plant under our hedges, and 
more vulgarly called cuckovvpint, and, by the 
children, lord and lady. The root is of the 
bigness and shape of a walnut, brown on the 
outside and white within, and this, as well as 
the whole plant, is of a sharp and acrid taste. 
This root lies deep. The leaves are large and 
shaped like the bearded head of an arrow, of a 
strong green colour, and sometimes spotted. In 
April and May rise among these thick stalks, sup- 
porting a very singular kind of flower, the pointal 
of which is long, thick, fleshy, and of a red or 
white colour, and the whole surrounded with a 
green membranaceous case. Afterwards this case 
and the pointal fall off, and there remains only 
the stem supporting a quantity of berries, which 
are ripe in autumn, and are then of a fine red 
colour. 

The root is the part used. It is an excellent 
medicine in palsies. Half one of the roots, fresh 



14 FAMILY HERBAL. 

«^ithercd aiid bruised, will sometimes restore tiie 
speech at once ; and a continued use of them p^oes 
a great \^ay toward a cure. It is also g-ood in 
scorbutic cases^ and in all in\\ard obstruction?. 
Some dry and powder it^ but it then loses almost all 
its virtue. 

Arsmart or Water-pepper. Persicaria Urcns- 

A COMMON wild herb, neglected, but of great 
virtues. It gro>vs every where about ditches, and 
in watery places. It is a foot and a half high ; the 
stalks are ^veak, green or reddish, and jointed. The 
leaves arc long and narrow, like those of the peach 
tree, of a bright green, not spotted, and even at the 
edges. The [lowers stand at the tops of the stalks in 
slender spikes, of a greenish white. As there are 
several other kinds of arsmart, and most of them 
ditfcrent from this in their nature and qualities, great 
care is to be tal^en to gather the right. It must have 
no spot upon the middle of the leaf. There is 
another common kind of arsmart with such a spot, 
and with thicker stalks, and thick pikes of reddish 
ilowers, which has none of its virtue. 

The right arsmart is an excellent medicine in 
obstructions of urine, in the gravel and stone : and 
in the jaundice and beginning of dropsies it has done 
great cures. The juice of the fresh gathered plant 
is the best way of giving it. Outwardly it is good 
to cleanse old ulcers. 

Artichoke Cinara. 

TfJE root of the common artichoke, or hartichoke, 
cultivated for our tables, is nn excellent medicine. 
Th(; plaiTt itself is of the thistle-kind, and its 



FAMILY HERBAL. 1» 

bead, wliich we see at table, owes much of its big- 
ness and tieshiness to culture. The leaves are large, 
and divided into many parts, and often they are 
prickly. The stem is robust and striated, and the 
head is formed of large scales ; the flowers are of the 
thistle-kind, and the seeds are, as in tlie thistles, 
^vingcd with down. 

The root fresh gathered, sliced, and boiled in wa- 
ter, six ounces to a quart of the \vHter, makes a de- 
coction, which ^vorks by urine, and I have known it 
alone cure a jaundice. 

AsAB.^BAccA. Asarum. 

A VERY little and low plant found wild in many 
parts of Europe, and connuon in our g'ardens. 
The roots creep about the surlare of the ground, 
the leaves grovv singly from them, and there is no 
stem or stulk. Each leaf has its separate foot- 
stalk three or four inches long, and the leaf itself 
is roundish, of a dark green, and fleshy : the flowers 
small and of a dusky colour, and they stand near the 
round. 

The roots are the most valuable ]>art ; the 
juice of them may be given in small doses, or 
they Uiay be dry and given in powder or infusion. 
It works very powertiilly by urine, and is good in 
obstriictions of the menses, and in jaundices and 
dropsies. 

The Asit. Fraxinu^. 

A COMMON tree in our hedges and woods. The 
bark of tlie branches is grey, and tlie leaves 
are winged ; the small ones of which tliey are 
•composed are oblong and dented. The flowers 
are of a whitish green, and come before the leaves. 



& 



U FAMILY HERBAL. 

the seeds are what they call ash-keys, these ripen in 
September. 

The bark of the young branches is ^ood in 
oljstructions of tlie liver and spleen, and there- 
fore is of g-reat service in dropsies,, jaundice, 
and other complaints of that orig-in : it works by 
urine. The seeds have the same virtue, but in a less 
degree. 

The iManna AijH. F?'axi7iiis minore folio. 

This is a louer tree tlinn the common ash, and is 
not a native of our kingdom, but is frequent in 
Italy, \vl\ere the manna is gathered from its leaves 
and branches. 

The bark of this tree is paler than that of our 
connnon ash, and the leaves are conipo.sed of smaller 
and narrower parts, but the llower and fruit differ 
very Htlle. 

Th(>y have also in Calabria another low ash- 
Iree, wli;(h has the backs of tiie leaves small- 
er than ours, and flatter and more rounded, and 
from this also they collect manna for the use of 
the apolhecarirs. I'he manna is a sweet or honey 
juice that naturally sweats out of the bark and 
leaves in liof weather. Tlie finest manna of all 
is that whicli oozes out of the leaves ; this is in 
biinall ])ie(es. It flows out of the ribs of the 
hares in August, in \\m\ heat of the day, and soon 
hardens into this form. They get the greatest 
rjnanlitios of all, by cutting the bark of the trunk 
and branches, and this is often large and flaky, 
but it is yellowish. That which is flaky, white, 
and hollow, has issued out of itself, and is much 
better. 

Manna is a most excellent purge, very gentle, 
and without any after aslringency. Tliere is a 



FAMILY HERBAL. 17 

kimi of manna used in France, called the Eriancon 
niaiuia ; this is produced by the larch-tree: and 
there is another kind more rare, called Persian 
m:i!ii;a ; this is produced by the shrub called 
aJhag-i, a kind of broom, or nearly allied to it. 
But these are scarce with us. 

Asparagus. Aspcu^agiis saiiius. 

THE asparagus plant is one whose root is 
useful in medicine, although a different part 
of it be eaten at the table. Its virtues are 
not unlike those of the artichoke root but 
greater. 

The asparagus is a wild plant in many parts 
of England about the sea-coasts ; and its root, in 
this wild state, is better than that of the cultivated 
plants, but its shoots have not that fine fleshy 
fulness. The plant, when full grown, is three 
feet high, and very much branched, and the 
leaves are fine and of a pale green ; the flowers 
are small and greenish, but the berries which suc- 
ceed them, arc as big as pease and red. 

The root is a powerful diuretic, and is good 
in all obstructions of the viscera. It has been 
known singly to perform cures in jaundices and 
dropsies. It is best given in decoction. 

Asphodel, Aspliadelus verus ramosus alhus. 

AN elegant garden flower, a native of Italy, aini 
preserved with us more for its beauty than its 
Use, though sometimes taken as a medicine. It 
grows to three feet in height, and the stalk di- 
vides into three or four branches towards the 
top. The flowers are wliite, and they stand 'n\ 
spike? on the tops of these divisions. They are 



IS FAMILY IJERBAI. 

streaked with purple on the top, and have yel- 
low threads in the middle. The leaves are long 
and narrow^ hollowed and sharp-pointed; the root 
is composed of several oblong lumps. The root 
is the part used in medicine, and it is said to 
be 'good against all obstructions, particularly a- 
gainst those of the menses. 

There is another kind of asphodel w ith yellow 
flowers, the root of which is said to possess <hc 
same virtues, but it is more rarely used than the 
other. 

The AsAFCETiDA Pl-4nt. Asafoctida Jierha, 

THIS is a Persian plant, and is a very tall 
and robust one. It grows \o nine ft^et high, 
and the stalks are as thick as i. child's leg; 
they arc hollow and divided toward tlio <ops into 
several branches. The loaves yre \Qvy large, 
and composed of n; any smaller set upon a divided 
rib. Tiicy resriuble in some dcgicc the leaves 
of ihc piony. The large ones rise itnmcdiateiy 
iioni the root, and smaller of flic same iorni 
54and at distances upon the stalks, one at each 
joint. The flowers are singly very smail. bwt 
thev stand in vast clusters or umbels at the tops 
of the stalks ; and the seeds follow two after each 
flower; they are large, broad, and srriatcd, and 
fiave the same smell with the gum. but not so 
hlrong. The root is very h)ng and thick ; it is 
black on the outside and white within, and is 
full of a thick juice of a strong '»mell, which, 
when hardcn( (I, is asafoetida such us we see. 

No part of the plant is used but only tliis 
gum or hardened juice of the root. i'hev 
cut off the top of "the root and let the juice 
that risc.^ iVom the wound dry. it becomes 



FAMILY HERBAL. 19 

i-ed(]!:5h on the outside and white witliin, and is 
the asafa'tida of the shops. An excellent me- 
dicine iu all nervous disorders ; it nia.y be givca 
nlone rolled up into pills^ no way better. 

A YENS. Carri/ophi/Ilnia. 

A COMMON wild plant neglected, but worthy 
of our notice. It grows about hedges, and 
rises to fourteen inches high ; the stalk is firn 
and slender, and is divided into several branches. 
The leaves are large and rough, the stalk also 
i>; liairv. The leaves that grow from the root are 
-,' i.'Vpd ; they consist of three pair of small ones, 
and one maJi larger at the end. Those on tlie 
stalk are i^inaller, and consist of fewer parts; but 
otherwise they are like. The flowers are sraall 
and 3 cliow ; they are succeeded by rough head«, 
as big as a horse bean, composed of many seeds 
with hooked filaments. The root is longish 
and large, of a firm substance, reddis-h colour, and 
very fragrant spicy smell ; it is better than mauj 
drugs kept in the shops. 

It is a cordial and sudorific. It is good in 
nervous complaints, and I have known it alone 
cure intermittent fevers^ where the bark has been 
unsuccessful. 

Balm. Melissa, 

A PLANT common in our gardens. It grows to 
two ieet in height, and the stalks are robust, 
square, and hairy. The leaves are oblong, broad^ 
pointed at the end, and dentated about the edges, 
and they stard two at a joint ; the flowers are small 



20 FAMILY HERBAL. 

and wliitc, but ibey bave birge rough tops, whicli 
remain after they arc fallen. They stand in circus 
lar clusters round the stalk at the upper johits ; 
the whole plant is of a fragrant smell. The root 
creeps and spreads abundantly, the plant is in flower 
in July. 

FresI) balm is much better than dry^ for it loses 
its frag'ancy in drying. The best way of taking 
it is in tea ; it is good for disorders of the head and 
stomach. 

The Balm OF Gilead Shrub. Balsamum syvi- 
acum rutk folio 

THIS is an eastern shrub ; it grows to five or 
six feet h gh, and tlie branches are very tough, 
and, when br.oken^ iidvo a fragrant smell. The 
leavi.'i are like those of rue, only larger and 
of a deeper ger^cn ; the flowers are moderately 
large and like pea-bl. ssoms ; they are of a pah; 
p^i^pil^^ hue mixed with white. The seftds are 
yellow and very fragrant, they are contained in a. 
kiiid of pods. 

iio part of the shrub is used, but only Uie 
balsam which is obtained from it ; the finest k-nd 
runs from the tree, of itself : there is a second sort 
obtained by boiling the twigs and young shoots ; 
aad a third, coarser, which rises to the top of 
the water, after the })urer sort has been taken 
oiF. This last is almost the only kind we see, aiid 
evect this is verv frequently adulterated. 

It is a very fine hal.sanne and detergent ; it is 
good in til*' whites, and all weaknesses ; and it i« 
cordiii! at the same time that it acts as a balsam ; 
it is t;ebt taken alone upon sugar. 



FAMILY HERBAL. 21 

The Balsam of Capivi-Tree. Arbor halsamifera 
fruciu monuspcrino. 

THIS is a large tree. The wood is of a red 
colour, and fine grain ; the bark is brown; 
the leavcij are broad, short, and pointed at 
the end, and are of a dark green on the upper 
side, and a mealy white undertieath. The flow- 
ers are as large as apple blossoms, and of a pale 
colour ; the fruit is a pod containing only one seed, 
which is as big aa a nut, and the kernel is sweet and 
of a good taste. 

The tree is frequent in the Brasils. Vr e use no 
part of it, but orly the balsam which runs out at 
wounds they make in the trunk in summer ; it is 
thin like oil. It has the same virtues with tur- 
pentine, but is more powerful; it is excellent in 
the whites, and it is good in all complaints of 
the urinary passages. It may be taken alone on 



The Balsam of Peru-Tree. Arlor halsamifera 
Peruviana. 

THIS is a shrub of eight feet high, with 
slender and tough branches. The leaves are 
very long and narrow ; the flowers are yellow 
and large, and the fruit is crooked. The whole 
plant has a fragrant smell, especially the young 
shoots and the buds. 

The balsam of Peru is procured from the fra- 
grant tops of this shrub, by boiling them in 
water ; the blackish liquor rises like oil to the 
top, and, when cold, it is the balsam of Peru. 
There is a white balsam of Peru, very fragrant and 
fine, but it is scarce. This is the produce of 



:'2 FAMILY llEKnAL. 

the same tree, but it oo7.es uaiiiraliy frcrn the 
cracks in t)ie bark. 

Tlie black balsam of Peru is a. cordial as \veH 
as a balsam ; it is excellent in disorders of the 
breast, and in all obbtructions of the viscera ; 
ten drops at a time given on sugar, and con- 
tinued daily,, have cured asthmas and beginning 
consumptions. It also promotes the mer:ses, and 
is excellent in suppressions ©!► urine. Outwardly 
applied it heals fresh wounds. 

The Balsam of Tolu-Tree. Arboi balsamifera 
Tolutana. 

THIS is a kind of pine tree. It does not 
grow to any great height, but spreads into a 
great quantity of branches. The leaves are 
long and very slender, and of a deep green ; the 
bark is of a reddish white, and the fruit is a 
small cone, brown and bard. 

No part of the tree is used but the balsam 
only which comes from it. They wound the 
trunk in hot seasons, and lliis liquid resin flows 
out, which tbev ])ut up into shells for expor- 
tation : it is Ihick, brown, and very fragra;it 
It is excellent in consumptions, and other disord. . . 
of the breast, and may be given in pills : j 

balsamic syrup of the apothecaries is made Irom 
it, and possesses a ureat deal of its virtues. 

The I>AiiULin -Bisn. Btrhcris. 

Tins is a wild bush in some parts of Eng- 
iHud, hut it is common every where in gardens ; 
It L':iows to eight or W\\ feet high in an ir- 
rcuular manner, and mucii branched. The barH 








m:^ 



/j,-,/^//., 



FAMILY HERBAL. 23 

is whitish^ and Ihcre are abundance of pntMes 
•'^^''>",t the branches. The leaves are of au oval 
.^uine, and strong green colour ; and are ia- 
de<.i«d about the edges. The flowers arc small 
and of a pale yellowish colour ; the fruit is suf- 
ficiently k'jown ; the berries are oblong, red, and 
of a s;)nr taste. The branches are brittle, and, 
under the pale outer rind^, there is another jcllow 
and thicker. This is the part used in medicine ; 
it is excellent in the jaundice, and has often cured 
it singly. It is also good in all obstructions. 
The best way to give it is infused. in boiling water. 

Barley. Hordcum. 

THE barley u«^ed in medicine is the same with 
that of which bread is madC;, and which serves 
the brewer and distiller in their several capa- 
cities. It is known at sight from wheat, wlien 
growing, for it is not so tall, aud the leaves are 
smaller and narrower. A long beard grows from 
each grain in the car and the car is composed of 
two rows of them. 

We use this grain in two forms, ih^ one call- 
ed French braley, and the other pearl barley. 
The French b:irley is skinned, and has the ends 
ground otT : the pearl barley is reduced by a longer 
grinf.'ing to a little round white lump. The pearl 
barley makes the finer and more elegant barley- 
water, but the French barley makes the best. It 
is excellent in heat of urine, and in all gravelly 
cases, and is a good drink in most acute diseases, 
where dilutir^is required : it is also in some degree 
nourishing. 

Barren WORT. Epitkmium. 

A SINGULAR and very pretty pknt, native of 



C^ FAMILY IIERRAL. 

I''i5!.rl;ind, but not common. It ^rows in woods, 
and has beauitifnl purple and jellow flowers. 
It is a fof)t Iiigli, The leaves are oval and 
heut-fashioned, deeply indented at the edges, 
and of a dusky green. The stalks which pro- 
duce llie iiowers, are weak, brittle, and gene- 
rally (rooked ; the flowers stand in a kind of ver} 
loose spike, ten or a dozen upon the top ; they 
are small, but very singular and conspicuous ; 
they are purple on the back with a red edge, and 
yellow in the middle. The root is fibrous and 
creeping. 

It was an opinion with the old writers, that 
this plant produced no flowers ; but tlie occa- 
sion is easily known. \^'hen it stands exposed to 
sun, it seldom does flower ; we see that in gardens 
where it is planted in such situations^ for it will 
stand many years without flowering ; but our 
woods favour it, being ddrk and damp: the old 
people saw it in warmer climates, and under an 
unfavourable exposure. They called it from this 
circumstance, as well as I'lom its virtues, by a 
name, which expressed being barren and fruit- 
less. 

Tlic people in the north give milk in which 
the roots have been boiled, to the females of the 
donustic animals when they are running after 
the males, and they say it has the certain elFect 
of stopping the natural emotions. Plain sense 
leads these sort of people to many things. They 
liave from this been taught to give it to young wo- 
nie;i of robust habits, subject to violent hysteric 
complaints, and I am assured with great success ; 
they give the decoction of the root made strt)ng 
and sv,(^etcned. 'Twas a coarse allusion that led 
the li 1o the jiractice, but it succeeds in cases that 
foil ali ;!ii* parade of common practice. It is said 
that, if they take it in too large quantity, it ren- 



FAMILY HERBAL. 25 

ders thorn stupid for some hours, but no ill con- 
sequence has attended this. 

The Bay Tree. Lcnirus. 

THE bay is a native of Spain and Italy, where 
it grows to a large tree : we keep it in gar- 
dens, but it seldom rises to more than the figure 
and height of a shrub with ns. The wood is 
not strong but spongy and friable; the leaves re- 
main green all wnitcr ; tlie bark of tlie large 
branches is of a dusky brown, that of the twigs 
reddish; the leaves are long and somewhat broad, 
pointed at the end and very tragrant : the flow- 
erg fire very small and inconsiderable ; their colour 
is Vrhitish, they appear in May, but are not re- 
garded : the berries are ripe in the latter end of au- 
tumn, and are large and black, consisting of ivfo 
parts within the same skin. 

The berries are dried, and arc the part of the 
tree mostly used ; but the leaves also have great 
virtue. The berries are given in powder or in- 
fusion ; they are good in obstructions, and in 
cholics. They promote urine, and the evacu- 
ations after delivery. The leaves are cordial and 
good in all nervous complaints. Paralytic people 
\v()uld find great benelit from small doses of 
them often repeated ; and four or live doses have 
sometimes cured agues. They arc to be put fresh 
into an oven, and, when they are crisp, reduced to 
powder. 

Basil. Ocvmum xulgare inqjus. 

BASIL 1*; a small herb, native of warmer 
countries, but not uncommon in our gardens ; 
it is bushy and branched ; the stalks are square^ 

X 



i-^y FAMILY HERBAL. 

and (ht leaves stand two at each joiut. They 
ar»' broad and short, and somewhat indented 
at <he edges. The flowers are small and white^ 
and are (>f the shape of those of the dead nettle; 
they stand on the upper parts of the branches 
in loose spikes. The whole plant has a very fra- 
grant smell. 

Basil is little used, but it deserves to be much 
more. A tea made of the green plant is excellent 
against all obstructions. No simple is more ef- 
fectual for gently promoting the menses, and for 
removing those complaints which naturally attend 
their stoppage. 

There arc two or three other kinds of basil, but 
they have not equal virtue. 

The Bdellium Tree. Arbor hdeUium ftrcns, 

VYE are very well acquainted with the gum, 
or rather gum resin called bdellium, but we 
know very little of the tree from which it is 
produced ; the best description v/e have of it, 
amounts to no more than that it is moderate- 
ly large, bushy, and full of branches with prickles 
upon them, and wi<h oblong and broad leaves 
deeply indented at the edges, so that they re- 
semble oak-lcavpn ; and that, when the young shoots 
are broken, they yield a milky juice. But even 
this does not come upon certainty, that is, 
we are not assured that this tree produces the 
very gum v-e see. This is of a red brown colour, 
and bitterish taste. 

It is a good medicine in obstructions of the 
livrr and spleen, but it is nut much used. 



FAMILY HERJBAL 2: 



The Bean. Faba. 

THE common garden-bean is sufficienMy 
known ; it grows to a yard high, its stalks 
are angular, and the leaves, which are of liie 
winged kind, stand one at each joint ; the flowers 
are white spotted with black, and are finely 
scented. The pods and their seeds need not be 
described. 

It has been customary to distil a water from 
bean-flowers, and use it to soften the skm, but 
common distilled water does as well. It is other- 
wise with the water of the bean-pods. These 
are to be bruised, wlicn the beans are half ripe in 
them, and distilled with water in a common 
alembic. The water is a very gentle carminati?ej 
without any heat or acridness ; this is excellent for 
children's gripes. 

The Malacca Bean-Tree. Anacardhim h* 
gitimum. 

THIS is a large tree, native of Malabar and 
the Pliilippine islands ; it groves to the height. 
and bigness of our tallest elms, and has much ai 
their manner of growth, as to the branches. The 
leaves are vastly large, of an oblong figure, 
and obtuse ; the flowers are small and white, they 
grow in bunches, and have somewhat of the smell 
of the syringa flower but fainter. The fruit is 
of tlie bigness of a pear, and much of the sdxne 
fihupe ; it is of a deep red, when ripe, and of a 
pleasant taste; the kernel is not within this, 
as is commonly the case in fruits, but it hangs 
out loose at the end. This kernel or seed is of 
the shape of an heart ; it is as big as an olive. 



28 FAMILY HERBAL 

and lias a dusky red coat or sliell:, hut it \s 
white within. This is the part used in medi- 
eine, for the whole fruit is not regarded. The 
anacardiumj or kernel, is said to be a cordial, 
and a strengtlicner of the nerves, but we do not 
much use it. There is a very sharp liquor be- 
tween the outer and inner rinds of the shell, 
which will take away freckles from the skin, 
but it is so sharp that the ladies must be cau- 
tious how they use it. 

The West-Lndia-Bean, or Cashew Nlt-TreEo 
Arbor acqjou vulgo cajou, 

IT appears by the description of the anacar- 
dium how very improperly it is called a nut, 
for it is the kernel of a large fruit, though 
growing in a singular manner. The case is just 
the same with respect to the Cashew nut, for it 
is neither a nut nor a bean, any more than the 
other : but it is necessary to keep to the common 
names, and it is proper they should be mentioned 
together. 

The tree which produces it is large and spread- 
ing ; the bark is of a pale colour, rough and 
tracked, and the wood is brittle. The leaves 
are half a foot long, and two or three inches 
broad, l)lunt at the end, and of a tine green 
colour. T!ie flowers are small, but thr'V grow 
in tufts together. The fruit is ol' the bigness 
and sliape of a pear, and of an orange and pur- 
ple colour mixt together ; the Cahhcw nut or 
bean, as it is called, bangs nuked from the 
t)ottom of this fruit. It is of the bigness of a 
j;ardcn bean, and indented in the manner of a 
kidney ; it is of a greyish colour, and consists of 
ii shelly covering, and a fine white fle?hy sub- 



FAMILY HERBAL. 29 

sfance witliir?, as sweet as an almond. Between 
the two coats of" this shelly, as between those of 
the anacardium, there is a sharp and caustic oil, 
vhich serves in the same manner as the other 
to take off freckles, but it must be used with 
great caution. It actually burns the skin, so that 
it must be suffered to lie on only a few moments ; 
and even when used ever so cautiously ., it some- 
tiiut's causes njischief. 

I'ho Bengal Bean-tree. Falm Bevgalensis. 

A LARGE tree, native of the East, and not 
unlike our plimi-tree. It is thirty or forty feet 
hifi:h ; the leaves are roundish, but sharp-pointed, 
and of a deep green ; they arc ihiely indented, and 
of a firm texture. The flowers are large and 
white ; they resemble, in all respects, the blossoms 
of our pliun-trees. The fruit is a kind of plum, 
of a long shape, with a shkiII quantity of fleshy 
matter, and a very large stone. It is a kind of 
myrobolan, but is not exactly the same with auy 
that we use. 

The Bengal bean, as it is called, is an irregu- 
lar production of this tree : it is very ill-named 
a bean ; it is truly a gall like those of the oak ; 
but it docs not rise like them from the wood or 
leaves, but from the fruit of this particular plum. 
It is as broad as a walnut, but flatted, and 
hollowed in the center ; its original is this : 
There is a little black fly frequent in that coun- 
try, which lodges its eggs in the unripe fruit of 
this particular plum, as we have insects in Eng- 
land, which always choose a particular plant, 
and a particular part for that purpose. The flv 
always strikes the fruit while it is grc.cn, and has 
but the rudiments of the stone. It grows dis- 



so FAMILY HERBAL. 

tempered from the wound, and the stone never 
ripens in it, but it takes this singular form. 

It is an excellent astringent. It is of the na- 
ture of tlie galls of the oak, but less violently 
binding. It is good in all purgings and bloody 
fluxes, and against the overflowing of the menses. 

Beak's-Breecii. Acanthus. 

A VERY beautiful plant, native of Jtalv., 
and some other warm parts of Europe, and kept 
in our gardens. It grows a yard high ; the 
stalk is thick, round, and fleshy ; the leaves 
grow from tlie root, and are a foot long, four 
it.ches broad, very beautifully notched at tliC 
«'(!ge5, and of a dark glossy green. The flowers 
siand in a kind of thick short spike at the top 
of the stalks, intermixed with small leaves ; these 
flowers are large, white, and gaping. The whole 
plant, when in flower, makes a >ery beautiful 
appearance The root creeps. 

This phtnt is not so much known in medicine 
as it dpsrrves. The root being cut in shces and 
boiled in water, makes an excellent diuretic de- 
coction. It was a great medicine with an eminent 
apothecary of Peterborough, and he gave more 
relief With it in the gravel and stone, than any 
other medic n;e would aiiord. 

Br-AFi's-FOOT. IleUeborus niger. 

A LOW and singular plant, but not without 
ils b(ai!tv ; it is a native of many parts of 
Europe, but we have it only in gardens ; the 
iea:cs are larjj:;e ; cic!) ris( s from the root -iiiglv, 
on a fnof-^tal!; ol" six inches loner, and is di- 
vid'.-d into ni;;e purl^ like lingers <m a hand : 



FAMILY HERBAL. 31 

5omc<imfs the divisions are fewer. Tlie flowers 
are very large and beautiful, Ibey are as bitx as 
a common single rose, or nearly so ; tliey are 
white, reddish, or greenish, according to tiie time 
of their having been open ; and they stand each 
on a single stalk, which rises from the root, and 
has no leaves on it. It flowers in January. 

The root is an excellent purge, it w orks briskly 
but safely ; it destroys worms, and is good in 
dropsies, jaundice, and many other diseases, and 
even in madness. But it is very necessary to keep 
it in one's own garden, for, if the root be bought, 
they commonly sell that of the green flowered, 
wild or bastard hellebore in its place, which is a 
rough medicine. 

Ladies' Bedstraw. Gallium lutcum% 

A PRETTY wild plant, frequent about hedges 
In June and the succeeding months. The stalk 
18 weak and two fe^i high ; the leaves are of a 
blackish green, and small ; and the flowers are 
yellow. The stalk is angular and whitish, very 
brittle, and seldom straight ; the leaves stand a great 
many at each joint, and are small, narrow, and 
disposed about the stalk like i\\e. rowels of a 
spur : the flowers grow in great tufts on the 
taps of the stalks, so that they make a very 
conspicuous appearance, though singly they arc 
very small. 

This herb is little reaarded, but It has verv 
great virtue ; it should be gatlierrd, wiicn the 
flowers are not quite blown, and dried in the 
shade. An infusion of it will cure the most violent 
bleedings at the nose, and almost all other evacua- 
tions of blood. 



32 FAMILY IIERRAI. 

Beet. J]c(a alba. 

A COMMON garden plant cafen at our i;i- 
Mes, but these often afford medicines as ntcII a? 
food. The white beet, -which is the medicinal 
kind, grows three or four feet high. The stalk 
is robust and strong, the leaves are broad and 
undulated, the flowers are inconsiderable, tliey 
^re of a greenish white colour ; the root is large 
and long. 

The juice of fresh beet-root is an excellent 
remedy for the head-ach, and tooth-ach wiien 
the whole jaw is affected ; it is to be snufl'ed up 
the nose to promote sneezing. 

The red beet- root is good for the same pur- 
pose, but it is not so strong as the white. 

White Behen. Behen album. 

A COMMON wild plant in our corn fields. It 
is two feet hii;h ; the stalks are weak and often 
crooked ; but they are thick enough, round, and 
of a whitish green colour. The leaves arc oblong, 
broad, and of a fine blue green colour, not dent- 
ed at all at the edges, and tlicy grow two at 
every joint ; the joints of the stalks where they 
grow, are swelled and large, and the leaves have 
no stalks. The flowers are white, moderately 
large, and pricklv. Thev stand upon a husk which 
seefps blown nj) with wind. 

This is one of those plants of our own growth, 
that have more virtue than people imagine. The 
root, which is Ion*;-, white, aiui woody, is to be 
gathered Ix^fore tlu- stalks rise, and dried. An 
infusion is one of the brst remedies known for 
nervous rouiplaint.% : it wii! not take place against 



C A 'llO 



\\ 













FAMILY HERBAL, 55 

a violent present, disorder ; but is an excellent pre- 
servative^ taken cautiously. 

Red Beken, Limonium majus. 

A COMMON" wild plant about our sea-coast3, 
and a very pretty one. It stows to a foot 
i\\ height; the stalks arc naked^ and the flow- 
ers red ; and, in their disposition, they somewhat 
resemble lavender, whence the plant is also called 
by sjme sea lavender. About the bottoms of 
the stalks stared clusters of large and broad 
leaves, rounded at the ends, of a deep green 
colour and fattish substance ; these rise imme- 
diately from the root, and the stalks grow up 
among them. The stalks are very tough and strong, 
and branched, and of a paler green : the root is long 
and reddish. 

The people in Essex cure themselves of purg- 
ings, and of overflowings of the men:ses, with an 
infasion of this root ; and it is a very great me- 
dicine, though little known. It is to be gathered, 
as soon as the yon)}; leaves appear, cleaned and 
dried ; it miv be taken in powder half a drachm 
i\)i' a dose. These are not the white and red behen 
roots of the old writers on physick, but they are 
l)eUer. 

The Ben-Nut-tree. Balanus mi/repsica. 

THIS is an Arabian tree, not very large, bnt 
exceedingly singnhirin the nature of its leaves. 
Tiiev are composed of a great number of small 
roundish parts, growing at the extremities cff 
str^Mig branched foot-stalks. The leaves faU 
first, and tliesc foot-stalks king after. When 
Ibe leaves are fallen, and the stalks ren»aio^ 

F 



34 FAMILY HERBAL. 

the tree makes a very singuLir appearance. The 
fruit is a pod, long, but slender, and containins: two 
seeds : these arc what we call the ben-nuts. Tliey 
are of an oblong figure, and irregularly rigid ; the 
shell is hard, but the kernel fat, soft, and oilv, and 
of a bitter taste. 

The kernel operates by vomit and stool violently, 
and is seldom used. It affords an oil which has nei- 
ther smell nor taste, and which will keep a lung time 
without growing rancid. 

The Benjamin Tree. Arbor benzionifera. 

A BEAUTIFUL tree frequent in the East, and 
there affording the fine fragrant resin of its name : 
it is also of the growth of America^ and thrives 
there, but ii yields no resin. It is a moderaccly 
tall tree ; the bark is smooth and brown ; the 
leaves are broad, oblong, and not anlikc those 
of the lemon-tree. The fliov/er.? arc whitish, 
and very inconsiderable. The fruit is as big as 
a nutmeg, and consists of a fleshy substance on 
the outside, and a kernel inclosed in a thin and brit- 
tle shell within. The tree is properly of the bay- 
tree kind. 

They cut the branches of the benjamin trees, 
and the juice which flows out hardens by de- 
grees into that reddish and white fragrant rcsir> 
we see. It is an excellent medicine in disorders of 
the breast and lungs : and a tincture of it made 
with spirit of wine makes water milky, and this 
mixture is called virgins'-milk ; it is good to cleanse 
the skin. 

Wood Betony." Butonica sr/lvesiris. 

A (WVIMON wild herb, but of very g^reat ^ir* 



FAMILY HERBAL. 33, 

tne. It is frequent in our woods and among bushes, 
and flowers in June. The stalks are ahnost naked 
and a foot high, and the flowers are purple. 
There grow many leaves from the root ; they 
have h)ng stalks, and are broad, above an inch 
lona:; of a blackish green colour;, and hairy, blunt 
ai^ the point, and indented about the edges. 
The stalks are square, of a dark colour, hairy, 
and not very strone*. The leaves of them are 
very few, and very distant ; but lliey stand two 
it a joint, and are like the others. The flowers 
«tand at the to{5s in form of a kind of thick short 
spike ; tlicv are small and purple, and of the shape 
of the flowers of mint. 

Betony is to be gathered .when Jus^ gf^ing to 
flower. It is excellent for disorders of the head, 
and tOr all nervous complaints. The habitual 
use of it will cure tlie most inveterate head-aches. 
It rnay be taken as tea or dried and powdered. 
Some mix it with tobacco and smoke it, but this 
is a more uncertain method. 

There is a tall plant with small purple flowers 
^rowiiig by waters, thence and from the shape 
of the leaves caili^d water betony, but it has none 
of the virtues of tliis plant ; it is a kind of lig-wort, 
and possesses the virtues of that plant, but in an 
inferior degree. 

Bind "Weed. Canvolvulas ?najor. 

A COMMON wild plant which climbs about 
onr hedges,- and bears very large white flowers. 
The stalks are weak and slender, but very tough, 
s:x or oigiit {cct long, and twist about any thing 
that can support them. The leaves are Large, 
and of the shape of an arrow-head, bearded at 
the ba3e, and sharp at the point : they staLd 



36 FAMILY HERBAL 

singly, nof in pairs, and are of a pale green co- 
lour. The Mowers are of iKe breadth of a crown- 
piece at tl;e nioiilh, and narrower to the base, beiU 
fashioned, and pcrl'o<:tl}" wiiite. The root is long 
and slender. 

In Northamptonshire the poor people use the root 
of this plant fresl) gathered and boilcil in ale as a 
purg<^ ; they save the expence of the apothecary, 
and answer the jiurpose better than any one thing 
would do for them. It would nauseate a delicate 
stomach, but, for people of their strong constitution, 
there IS r.ot a beticr purge. 

The RiLLBEKRi' Bush. Vaccinia nigra. 

A LITTLE tough shiubhy plant, common in 
our bwggy woods, and upon wet heaths. The 
stalks ar<' tough, angular, and green ; the 'eaves 
arc small ; they stand singly, not in pairs, and 
are broad, sh.)rt, and indented about tht? edges. 
The flowers are small but pretty, their eolo.ir 
is a faiiit red, and they are hollow like a cui). 
The brrries are as large as the biggest pea, they 
are of a biarkish colour, and of a pleasant taste. 

A syrup made of the juice of l)iliberries, when 
not ove-r ripe, is cooling and hiiidiiiii- ; it is a plea- 
sant ami oeDti'' mediciiu; for women whose menses 
are Hj)t to be too redundant, taken for a week before 
the time. 

The Rircii-Trec. Be'uhi. 

A TALL and handsome trep, common in our 
woods and hedges. The bark \% smooth and 
wliite. The young shoots are reddis!i, and tliev 
are small and long 'I'he leaves arr b(\nitil'ul ; 
(he\ arc short, roundish^ of a line bric.hf -i(/jj. 



FAMILY HERBAL. 37 

r.rul notcliod about the edjros. The flowers are 
inconsiderable ; the fruit is a little scaly globule, 
preceding' tlie leaves in spring. 

The juice of the birch-tree, procured by boring 
a hole in it in spring, is diuretic, and good against 
the scurvv. The leaves, fresh gathered, and boil- 
ed in water, aflbrd a decoction, which acts in the 
same manner, and is good in dropsies : and in all 
cutaneous disorders, outwardly used. 

Round-rooted Birtiiwort. Arislolochia rv~ 
t unci a. 

A WILD plant in Italy, and the south of 
France ; but with us found onlv in the gardens of 
the curious. It has no great beantv, or even sin- 
gularity in its appearance, till examined. The 
stalks are a loot and a half long, but weak ; 
they are square, and of a duskv green colovir. The 
leaves are short, broad, and roundish, of a dusky 
green ; also the flowers are long, hollov»", and of 
an odd form, not resemblifig the floTvers of other 
plants : they are of a duskv greenish colour on 
the outside, and purple within : the fruit is fleshy, 
and as big as a small v.alnut. The root is large 
and roundish. 

The root is the only part used in medicine, 
and that we have from countries where the plant 
is native ; it is a rough aiid (lisagrccitble medicine ; 
ii often otfends the stomach, but it is an excellent 
drug for promoting the necessary evacuations after 
deliverv. 

There arc two other kinds ©f birlhwort, the 

•not rif which are also kept in the sh(^ps ; the one 

ine<l the lon<x birthwort ; the other the climbing- 

v^rthw^it. Tiicy possess the same virtues with the 



:>^ FAMILY HERBAL. 

round, but in a less degree^ and arc therefore less 
regarded. 

BisHorswEED. Ammi. 

ri WILD plant in France and Italy, but kepi 
only in our gardens ; in its external figure, some- 
what resembling parsley when in flower. The 
st<ilk is round, linn, and striated ; it grows two 
loot high. T!ie leaves arc of the compound kind, 
and formed of manv smaller, which are broad, 
short, ar.d indented at the edges. The flowers 
are small and white, br.t they stand in such 
large iu'ii'^ at the tops of the stalks that they 
make a considerable appearance. Each flower 
is succeeded by two seeds ; these are small and 
striated, of a warm aromatic taste, and not disa- 
greeable. 

The seeds are the only part of the plant used 
in medichic ; thcv are good against the colic, 
as all the other carminative seeds are ; but thcv 
are also diuretic, so that thcv arc particularly 
pro])cr in those colics which ari.-e from the sforic 
\'.\ tiie kidneys and ureters; thcj also promote the 

lUCllSfS. 

There is another sort of bisho]}S-weed called 
(relick ammi, the seeds of which are used in 
nH"(li(ine ; thcv are r^f the same virtues with these, 
but lire less used. They have a more spicy smell. 

Bistort. Bi>dorla. 

A Vi>ilV beautiful wiid])lant : it grows in oui 
vncadows, atid, when in flower, in May and June, 
1,^ V(;rv conspicuous, as well as very elegant in 
\y-i u{)i)caraiice. It is about a foot and a haU' 



FAMILY HERBAL. 39 

high : the leaves are broad and bcautiftiL and 
the flowers g-row in a Ihick spike or car, at the 
top (^f the stalks, and are of a bright red coh)iir. 
There ri-^e immediately from the root a number 
of large and beautiful leaves, long, broad, and 
of a fine green colour. The stalks on Mhich they 
stand, have also a rim of the leaf running dov/n 
them ; the stalks are round, firm, and erect, of 
a pale green, and have two or three leaves, like 
the others, but smaller, on them, placed at dis- 
tances. The spike of the flowers is as long, 
and as thick as a man's thumb : the root is thick 
and contorted, blackish on the outside, and red 
within. 

If we jvjinded our own herbs, we should need 
fewer medicines from abroad. The root of bis- 
tort is one of the best a'^tringcnts in the v.orld : 
not violent, but sure. The time of gathering it 
is in ]\larch, when the leaves bv^gin to siioot. 
String several of them on a line, and let thein 
dry in the shade. The pov/der or decoction of 
them, will stop all fluxes of the belly, and is one 
of the safest remedies known for overfiovvings of 
the menses. They are also good in a diabetes. 
The use of this root may be obtained without 
danger, till it effects a perfect cure. 

Bitter-Sweet. Sclafium lignnsnm. 

A COMMON wild plant, with weak, but 
woody stalks, that runs among our liedgc.-s, and 
bears bunches of very pretty blue flowers in 'juin- 
mer, and in auUunn red berries. The stalks 
run to ten i^eiii in lengthy but they cannot sup- 
port themselves upright ; they are of a bluish 
;i)lour, and, when broken, have a very disagrce- 
■•1)16 smell like rotten esfg-s, The leaves are oval. 



40 FAMILY HERBAL, 

Lut sharp- pointed, and have each iwo littk one? 
near the base ; they are of a duskj green and 
indented, and they grow singly on the sfalki-. 
The (lowers are small, and of a line purplish bliie^ 
with vellow threads in the middle. The berries 
are oblong. Tins is little regarded in medicine, 
but it deserves to be better known ; we account 
the night-shades poisonous, and many of them 
are so ; but this has no harm in it. Tiie wood 
of the larger branches and the young shoots of 
the leaves, are a safe and excellent purge. I have 
known a dropsy taken early cured by this single 
medicine. 

Blood-wort. Lapathum sanguincum. 

A BEAUTIFUL kind of dock kept in gardens, 
and wild in some places. It grows to four feet 
high ; the stalks are firm, still', upright, branch- 
ed, and striated. The leaves are very long and 
narrow, broadest at the base, and smaller all the 
way to the end. They are not at all indented 
at the edges, and they stand upon long foot- 
stalks: their colour is a deep green, but they 
arc in dift'erent degrees slained with a beautiful 
Ijlood red ; sometimes the ribs only are red, some- 
times there arc long vcuns of red irregularly 
spread over the whole leaf ; sometimes they are 
very broad, and in some plants the whole leaves 
and the stalks also are (»f a blood colour ; the 
flowers are very numerous and little. They iu 
all respects resemble those of the common wild 
docks. The root is lojig and thick, and of a deep 
blood red colour. 

The roots arc used : thev are best dry, and they 
may be given in decoction, or in powder : They are 
a powerfully astringent ; they stop bloody lluxcs. 



FAMILY HERBAL 4i 

spitiing' of blood, and tlic overflowings of ihc men- 
ses. It IS also good against violent purgings and 
against the wliites. 

Bramble. Ilubus vulgaris. \ 

THE most common bush in our hedges. The 
stalks are woodj, angulated, and of a pur- 
plish colour ; and thej are armed with crooked 
spines ; the leaves are roug:b, indented, and stand 
eitber five or three pn a stalk. The flowers are 
wliite, with a very faint tinge of purplish, and 
llie fruit is composed of a number of small 
grains. 

Tbe most neglected things have their use. 
The budj of tbe bramble-leaves boiled in spring 
water, and tbe decoction sweetened with honey, 
are excellent for a sore throat. A syrup made 
of the juice of the unripe fruit, with very fine 
sugar, is cooling and astriwgont. It is good in 
immoderate fluxes of the menses, and even in 
purgings. The berries are to be gathered for this 
purpose, when they are red. 

Blue Bottle. Ci/anus. 

A VERY common and a very pretty weed 
among our corn ; the leaves are narrow, and of a 
whitish green ; and the flowers of a very beauti- 
ful blue and large. The plant is about a foot 
high, and, when in flower, makes a conspicuou* 
and cl( gant appearance. The root is hard and 
iibrous ; the stalk is very firm, and whiie angu- 
lated, and branched. The leaves that grow from 
the root have some notches on the edges ; those 
on one the stalk have none, and they are narrow 
Jike blades of glass; the flowers stand oniv ()ii tl>« 

c- 



4'4 FAMILY HERBAL. 

tops of the branches^ and they grow out of scalv 
heads. The seeds arc beautiful, hard, white, and 
shining. 

The leaves which grow on the stalks of the 
blue-bottle, fresh gathered and bruised, will stop 
thebleedin£^ of a fresh wound, even if a large 
vessel be cut. They are not sufficiently known 
for this purpose, hut ^they exceed all other things : 
and may save a life where a surgeon is not to be 
had in t'me tor sucb an accidonf A distilled 
water of tlie flowers used to be kept in the shops, 
but it was of no value. An infusion of thcni 
works gently by urine. 

There is a large kind of tliis plant in gardens, 
which is called a vulnerary or wound herb. But it 
is not so good as this. 

The Box Tree. Buxus. 

A COMMON little shrub in oi:r gardens, 
and a native of our own country, though not 
common in its wild state. With us it grows but 
to a small height; in some other parts of Europe, 
it is a tolerably large shrub. The bark is whitish, 
tlic wood yellow ; the leaves small, roundish, 
smooth, of a very dark green colour, and very 
numerous. The flowers are small and greenish 
yellow ; the fruit is litfcie, round, and furnished 
with three points. 

The wood of the box-tree, and particularly 
of the root, is an excellent medicine in all foul- 
nesses of the blood ; it ha? the same virtues with 
the guiacura, but in a greater degree. It is to be 
given in decoction not made too strong, and con- 
tinued a long time. There have been instances 
of what were called leprosies cured entirely by 
this medicine. There is an oil made from it L-y 



FAMILY HERBAL. 43 

distillation, which is good for the tooth-ach. It 
is to be dropped on cotton, and to be put into the 
tooth. 

Borage. Borago. 

A ROUGH plant common in our gardens, with 
great leaves, and beautiful blue flowers. It grows 
two feet high ; the stalks are thick, round, fleshy, 
and juicy ; and covered with a kind of hairiness 
so sturdy tdat it almost amounts to the nature of 
prickles. The leaves are oblong, broad, very rough, 
and wrinkled ; and they have the same sdrt of 
hairiness, but less stiff than that of the stalk ; the 
largest grow from the root, but those on the stalks 
.ire nearly of the same shape. The flowers arc 
])laced toward the tops of the branches ; they are 
divided into fiveparts, of a most beautiful blue, and 
have a black eye as it were in the middle. 

Borage has the credit of being a great cordial; 
but if it possess any such virtues, they are to be ob- 
tained only by a light cold infusion ; so that the 
way of throwing it into cold wine is better than 
all the medicinal preparations, for in them it is 
nauseous. 

White Bryony. Bryonia alba. 

A TALL, climbing, wild plant, which covers 

our hedges in manv places. The leaves are some- 
what like those of the vine; the flowers arc in- 
considerable ; but the berries are red, and make a 
;. rcat shew. The root is vastly large, rough, and 
s-'hitish ; the stalks are tough, ten or twelve ieet 
jiiDg ; but weak and unable to support themselves ; 
1 !;cy have tendrils at the joijils, and by these they 
affix themselves to bushes. The leaves are broad, 



4^ FAMILY HERBAL. 

and divided deeply at the ed^e, and they are hairj. 
The flowers are of a greenish white and small, but 
the berries are moderately large and full of seeds. 

The root is the only part used in medicine ; the 
juice of it operates very strongly by vomit and stool, 
and that in a small dose. All constitutions eai not 
bear it, but, f r those that can, i'. is excellent in 
many severe fiisCciseb ; dropsies have been cur<(l by 
it. It is also good against hysteric coirplaints, but 
fur this purpose it is to be given m very small doses 
and frequently repeated. 

. Black Bryony. Brioiiia nigra. 

THERE is not any instance which more blames 
our iiegiect of the medicines of our own gro.vtb, 
than this of the black bryony, a medicine scarce 
kno\\n or heard of, but equal to any. 

The plant climbs upon bushes and hedges like 
the former, but this by twisting its stalk about 
the branches of trees iind shrubs, for it lias no 
tendrils. It runs to fifteen feet in height, the 
ctalk. is tdurh audaop'olar: the leaves arc broad, 
and of a heart-like shape, and aie perfectly smooth 
and shining, and of a gh>ssy and very deep blackish 
greei. The flowers are very small and of a greenish 
\vhite ; the berries are red The root is black 
■without, white within, and full of a slimy juice. 

Tiie root of black briony is one of the best 
diuretics known in medicine. It is an excel- 
lent r<^medy in the gravel, and all other oi)stiucti(;ns 
of urine, and other disorders of the urinary 
passages. 

Brooklime. Anagallis aquatica, bccahunga. 

A_ COM?/ION wild herb frequent about shallo\Y 



FAMILY HERBAL. 4:1 

waters, with a thick stalk, roundish leaves, and 
spikes of little bright blue flowers. Brookltnie 
grows to a foot high. The stalk is round, flcshv 
and larg'e, yet it does not grow very upright : it 
strikes root at the lower joints. The leaves are 
broad, oblong, blunt at the end, and a little 
indented on the edges. The flowers stand singly 
on short foot-stalks one over another, so that they 
form a kind of loose spike ; the roots are fibrous. 

Brooklime has great virtues^ but mnstbe used 
fresh gathered, for they are all lost in drying. The 
juice in spring is very good against the scurvy ; 
but it must be taken for some time. It works 
gently by urine^ but its great virtue is in sweetening 
the blood. 

Broom. (Genista. 

A COMMON naked-looking shrub that grows 
on waste grounds, and bears vellow flowers in 
May. It is two or three feet high. The stalks 
are very tough, angular, and green. The leaves 
are few, and they are also small ; thev grow three 
together, and stand at distances on the ions: and 
slender st;vlks. The flowers are numerous, they 
are shaped like a pea-blossom, and are of a beautiful 
bright vellow. The pods are flat and hairy. 

The green stalks of broom, infused in ale or 
beer for the common drink, operate by urine, and 
remove obstructions of the liver and other pnrts ; 
they are famous in the dropsv and jaundice. It is 
a common practice to burn them to ashes and infuse 
those ashes in white-wine ; thus the fixed salt is 
<.'xtracted, and the wine becomes a kind of lee. This 
also works bv urine more powerfully than the other, 
but the oilier is preferable for removing obstrurtior.s. 



46 FAMILY HERBAL 

Butcheks-Broom. Jiuscus. 

A LITTLE shrubby plant frequent on our waste 
grounds and heaths, with small prickly leaves 
and bushy tops. The plant grows a toot and a 
half high. The stalks are rounciish, striated, lliick, 
and very tough. They are naked towards tlic 
bottom, and divide into some branches towards the 
top ; they are there covered Avilh leaves. These 
leaves are short, broad, oval, and pointed, the point 
"funning out i;i a prickle ; they are of a bluish green, 
and verv thick and fleshy. The flowers are seldom 
fe'garded ; they grow in a singular manner upon the 
backs of the leaves ; they are very small and pur- 
plish : these are succeeded each by a aingle berry, 
wliich is red, round, and as big as a pea. The roots 
are white, thick, and numerous. 

The root is the part used, and it is an excellent 
medicine to remove obstructions. It works power- 
fully by urine, and is good in janndiccs, and ir. 
stoppages of the menses, and excellent in the gravel, 
« 
BucK-BEANs. Trifoliiim pahistre. 

AN herb better known by the common people, 
than among the apothecaries, but of great virtue. 
It grows wild with us in marshy places, and is 
of so very singular appearance, that it must be 
known at sight. It grows a foot high, the leaves 
stand three upon each stalk, and these stalks rise 
immediately from the roots. They are thick, 
jound, smooth, and fleshy ; and the leaves them- 
selves are large, oblong, and have some resemblance 
of those of garden-beans. The flowers stand 
upon nuked stalks, wh.ich are also thick, round, 
il. jliy, and whitish : they are small, but they grow 









/ J///r //y / I / j/r'/'>// 



FAMILY HKUBAL. 4T 

together in a kind of thick short spike, so that in 
ihe ciu:ter t})cy make a coiispicuous appearance; 
(hey are white with a very taint tinge of purple^, 
and are hairy within ; the root is whitish, long-, 
;ind thick. 

The h'aves of buck-bean arc to he g'atlicred 
before the stalks i-ppear for (lowering-, and are 
to he dried ; the powder of them will cure agues, 
Ijiit their great use is against the rheumatism: 
for this purpose they are to be given for a con- 
ti [usance of time in infusion^ or in the manner of 
tea. 

Buckthorn, Spina ccrzina. 

A PRICKLY shrub, common in our hedges,' 
v.ilh pale green leaves, and black berries. It 
grows to eight or ten feet high. The bark is 
<iark coloured and glossy, and the twigs are tough. 
Tb.e leaves are oval, of a very regular and pretty 
figure, and elegantly dented round the edges, 
Tlie ilowers are little^ and inconsiderable ; they 
are of a greenish yellow, and grow in little clus- 
ters. The berries, v.hich are ripe in September, 
are round, glossy, black, as big as the largest 
pepper-corns, and contain each three or four 
seeds. 

The juice of the berries, boiled up with sugar/ 
makes a good purge ; but it is apt to gripe, un- 
less some spice be added in the making : It is a 
rough purgCj but a very good one. 

BucKSHOUN Plantain. Corcrio'piisJ 

A VERY pretty little plants which grows i.'J 
our sandy and barren places, with the Icp.ves 
spread ont in a:'anner of a star, all the v/ay ro-j:;d 



48 FAMILY HERBAL. 

from the root ; and in the heads like other plan* 
tains^ although so very unlike them in its leaves. 
The root is long and slender: the leaves \\hicli 
lie thus flat upon the ground, are narrow and 
long, very beautifully notched, and divided so as 
to resemble a buck's horn, whence the name, and 
of a pale whitish green, and a little hairy. The 
stalks are slender, six inches long, but seldom 
quite erect : they are round, hairy, and whitish, 
and have at the top a spike of flowers of an inc!i 
or two in length, altogether like that of the other 
plantains, only more slender. 

Tiiis plant has obtained the name of star of 
the earth, from the way of the leaves spreading 
themselves. These leaves bruised, and applied 
to a fresh wound, stop the bleeding and effect 
a cure. It is said also to be a remedy against 
the bite of a mad dog, but this is idle and ground* 
less. 

Bugle. Bugiila. 

A COAIMON wild plant and a very pretty 
one, with js^lossy leave?, creeping stalks, and blue 
flowers ; it is frequent in damp woods. The 
stalks, wV.en they rise up to bear the flo\^ers, are 
eight or ten inches high, square, of a pale green 
colour, often a little purplish ; and have two It>avr« 
at every joint, the joints being somewhat distajit. 
Theoe leaves are of the same form with VJiose 
which rise immediately from the root ; oblong, 
broad, blunt at tlie point, and of a deep green 
colour, sometimes also a little purplish, and are 
slightlv indented round tlie edges. The flowers 
are pnmll and of a beaiitiful blue, in shape like 
TJio^c (if belonv ; tliev prow in a sort of circles- 
round the upper part of tlio stalks, forming a kind. 



FAMILY HERBAL. «9 

of iuose spikes. The cups remain when the flowers 
are gone, ir.ul bold the seeds. 

Tlie juice of this plant is esteemed good for in- 
ward bruibcs ; it is a very good diuretic. 

BuGLoss. Buglossum hortense. 

A llOUGII and unsightly plant kept in our 
gardens for the sake of its virtues^ but very rare- 
ly used. It grows to a foot and a half high ; 
tlic leaves are rough like those of borage^ but 
tiiey are long aixl narrow, of a deep green colour, 
and rough surface. The stalks are also covered 
wi;h a rough and almost prickly hairiness. The 
eaine sort of leaves stand on these as rise imme- 
diutf^ly from the root, only smaller. The flow- 
ers stand at the tops of tl.c branches^ and are very 
preltji, though not very large ; they arc red when 
they iirst open, but they afterwards become blue, 
the root is long and brown. It flowers in June 
and July. 

Bugloss shares with borage the credit of being 
a cordial ; but perhaps neither of them have any 
great title to the cliaractcr ; it is used like borage, 
in cool tankards ; for there is no way of making 
any regular prej)aiatioii of it^ that is possessed of 
any virtues. 

There is a wild kind of bugloss upon ditcli- 
banks, very like the gjiiden kind^ and of the same 
virtues. 

Burdock. BarduncL 

IF the last-mentioned plant has more credit for 
medicinal virtues than it deserves, this is not so 
much regarded as it ought. Providence has made 
some of the most useful plants the most coniHion ; 

H 



so FAMILY HERBAL. 

but, because they are so, we foolislily neglect 
them. 

It i.s Iiardly necessary to describe the common bur- 
dock. It niav be enough to say, that it grows a yard 
bigii, unil has vast leaves, of a figure approach- 
ing to triangular, and of a whitish green colour. 
The stalks arc round, siriated, and verv tough : 
The llowers arc small and red, and they grow 
among the hooked prickles of those heads v, bich 
we call burs, and which stick to our clothes. 
Even this seems a provision of nature in kindness 
to us. In pulling olf these we scatter the seeds of 
V/hirli tiiey are composed, and give rise to a most 
useful plant in a new place. The root of the 
burdock is long and thick; brown on the outside, 
and whitish within ; this is the ])art used in me- 
dicine, and it is of very great virtues. It is to 
be boiled, or infused in water, the virtue is diu- 
retic, and it is very powerfully so. It has cured 
dropsies alone. The seeds have tiie same virtue, 
but iu a less degree. The root is said to be 
sudorific and good in fevers ; \)ut iU virtue in ope- 
rating by urine h its great value. 

Bun NET. rii)!p!iicUa scuiguisoj^ba. 

A CO^^LMON wild plm.t. It grows by way- 
>«ides, and in iiry places, and ilowcrs in July. I'he 
leaves which rise immediately from the root are 
very beautiful ; they are of tlui winged kind, being 
composed of a great number of smaller, growing 
on each side a middle rib, with an odd one at the 
end. They are broad, short, roundish, and elegant- 
ly serrated round the edges. 'I'he stalks are a 
foot high, round, striated, purplish or green, and 
nlmost naked ; the few leaves they have are like 
(ho- J at the bottom. On the tops of these stalks 




/U(.^.^r 



lAMILY liERBAIv. 51 

Bfand tlic flowers ; tliev arc disposed in little round 
clusters, and are small, and of a pale reddish co- 
lour, and have a number of threads in the middle. 

Kurii.'t is called a cordial, and a sudorific, and is 
recommended in fevers. They put it also into cool 
tankards, like borage. The root is a good astrin- 
gent ; dried and powdered, it stops fluxes, and 
overflowings of the menses. 

BuiiNET Saxifrage. Fhnpinella saxifraga. 

A PRETTY plant, wild in our dry pastures, 
and under bedge<<, but not very common in ail 
parts of the kingdom ; it grows two feet bigh^ 
and has tbe flowers in umbels. The stalk is 
firm, striated, and branched ; tbe leaves rising 
from the root are pimiate'd, and tbe lesser leaves 
of which tbey are conij)o.-ed, are bard, of a deep 
green, narrow, and iiidented. The leayes upon 
the stalks are smaller and narro\ver ; tbe flowers 
are little and white, but tliey stand in so large 
chisters, that they make a ligure : the root is 
white, and of a hot burning taste; the seeds are 
striated. 

The root is tbe only part used ; it should be 
taken up in spring before the stalks shoot up, and 
dried ; it is very good in colics, aiid disorders of the 
stomachy and it works by urine. 

lluTTER-BnTi. Pctasites. 

A VERY^ singular and very conspicuous plant, 
not unfrequent with us in w^t places. The flow- 
ers appear before tbe leaves, and they would 
hardly be supposed to belong to the same plant. 
The stalks are round, thick, spungy, aFid of a 
whitish colour, and have a few films bv way of 



m FAMILY herbal: 

leaves upon them. On the top of each stands 
a spike of flowers, of a pale reddish colour; 
the '.vhole does not rise to more than ei^ht inihes 
in height. TlieffC appear in March, When they 
are dead, the leaves iiiov,' up ; these are roundiiih, 
gre^'H on the upper side, and whitish underneath, 
of A vrist hig'tiess, and stand sini^lv upon hollowed 
foot-stalks, of a purplish, wlntish, or greenish co- 
lour; they are often two feet hroad. The root 
is -white and long, it creeps under the surface of the 
gfcund. 

The root is the part used ; it is praised very 
highly, as a remedy in peslilenticil fevers ; hut, 
whether it Reserves tliat praise or not, it is a good 
diuretic, and excellent in the gravel. 

Bi3R-REED. Spargmiium. 

A COMMON water plant, with leaves hke 
flags, and rough heads of seeds : It is two or three 
feet high. The stalks are round, green, thick, 
and upright. Tlie leaves are verv long and nar- 
row, sharp at the edges, and with a sharp ridge 
on the hack along tlie middle ; thev are of a pale 
green, and look fresh and heautiful. The flowers 
are incojisiderable and yellowish : they stand in a 
kind of circular tufts ahout the upper parts of the 
ttaik : lower down stand the rough fruits called 
hurs, fr(un whence the ])lant ohtained its name ; 
tlicy are of the bigness of a large n\it meg, green and 
rnug.h. The root is composed of a quantity of 
while fibre's. 

The unri[)e fruit is used : thev are aslringent, 
and good against fluxes of the hellv, and bleed- 
ings of all kinds: the best wav of giving them 
is infused in a rough red win<', with ;i little cin- 
liamiMi. I'hey use them in some parts of England 




// / 



/C,^..„:./ 



FAMILY HERBAL. 55 

exiorr.allv ibr wouiids. A stronp; dcroctlon of 
tlierii is made to wash old ulcers, and tlio juice is 
applied to fresh hurts, and they say vvitii great 
success. 



The Chocolate Nut-tree. Cacao. 

THIS Is an American tree, very beaMtlful, as 
"Well as sexy valuable for its fruit. Tiie trunk 
is of the thickness of a man's levr, and the 
hcMght ot fiftoen ^ccX ; but in this it difT^is 
greatly arcorni.a" to the poil ; and the size of the 
fruit also will ''^Vor from the same cause, whence 
some have taikc ':! of four different kinds of the 
chocolate nut. The tree 2:rows very regular) v. 
The surface is uneven, for tlie bark rises into 
tu'i?prc'e«< ; tlie leaves are half a foot long-, three 
inches broad, of a fine strong- i>:reen, and pointed 
at the ends. The llowers are small and yo;- 
hnvi'-ii, and they g;row in clusters from the 
branches, and even from the trunk of th.c tree ; 
hut each has Ks separate stalk. The fruit is of 
the shnpe of a cucumber, half a foot lonrx,, 
and thicker than a man's wrist ; this is ridged, 
and, when ripe, of a purplish colour, witii some 
i'w.cX of vellow. The cacao nuts, as ther are 
called, are lodged withm this fruit; every fruii 
contains between twenty and thirty of them. They 
are of the bigness of a large olive, but not so 
tliick : and are composed of a woody shell, and a 
lari^e kernel, which alfords the chocolate. 

The common way of taking this in chocolate 
is not Ihe only one in which it may be given; 
the nut itself may be put into electuaries. It i* 
very nourishing and restorative. 



hi FAMILY HERBAL. 

Ca LAMi^T, CalajuiiiiJia. 

A COMMON wild plant of^reat virtues^ but 
too luucli neg-lected. It is frequent by our 
bed ;c3;, and m dry places, and is a very robust 
herb. It is eight or ten inclies hiol)_, and h^s 
roui:dish d^irk i^rcen le-ive.s and white flowers. 
Tiie stalks aic .sqviare^ and very much branched : 
f!i.? liMves are of tiie biii^ne?s of a man's tliuruh- 
iiaii, soiTievthat Irairv, ar.d '^lic.'.ily indeiited about 
ihe eiiges. The iiovvers stan.l in lit I in clusters 
«urron:!ding th" stalks, nnd arc of a :■ hitish co- 
lour, a lit'ie t.ir;ged wilh purplish. The root i=j 
con^pased of a few fibres, ('alaniint sliould be p,a^ 
tii'jrcd when just coiuini;' into flower, and careful-' 
1) dried ; it is afterwards io be ;j;iven in tlie man- 
ner of tea, and it will do g-reat service in weak- 
Dcsses of the stomach, ai;d in habitual colics. 
I ;jave knowu elFectual and lasting cures performed 
by it. 

Penny-koval Calamint. Calamintha odore 

■j)uicgh. 

A LITTLE plant of the same kind with the 
other, and found in the same places, but more com- 
mon. It is a foot hii:;h : tiie stalks are robust 
and firm ; the leaves are .small, and of a whitish 
p;iTen colour, and more/hairv than in the other : 
the ilo\v(>rs art' small and \s bite, with a liisge of 
purple ; the phuit i2:ro\\s m )r(^ erect and is less 
branched than \\\c otiier ; aiul it has a very strong 
and not a \<'rv aj.';re(\il.<le mucU ; the other is strong- 
scent \'d and pleasant. 

This ii to be preserved dr\ ;is tlje other, arid 
taken in the same manner. It is (>\cellent against 
stopage^ of the miMiscs, and, il' taken constantly, 
will bring them to a rcj-niar co"r ■• 



fa:\iily herbal. 55 

( ALVFs' irrvOlT OR SnAPB R ,^ GGN. Aiit ilTl: ! H UUl. 

A COT-. rST(^N v.ild plant in rr.nv.y pn.ifs of 
Europ.', UiUi is vcrv I'reqMent in orjr g"ir(i<'iis^ ;i;ul 
upon iho'Aalls of gardens : Its iKitural silu-i'sioi) 
is oil iiilU cinorig barrrii r(jcks, atid iioihing 
comes so near tliat, as Ihe iop of an eld \miU 
with ns : the seeds are light and arc easilv car- 
ried tliilhcr by the wind, and ihcy never fail io 
strike, and t]>e plant ilonrishes. U is two feet 
hiii'h, the stalks are round, thick, firm, and to- 
iera])!y npriii'ht, but generally a lililc ij(;nt towards 
the bottom ; tb.e leaves are verv numcroriS ; 
thev are oblong, narrow, not indented at the edges, 
blunt at the ends, and of a bluish gr^en colour. 
The flowers are large and red, they sland in a kind 
of loose s])ikcs \:pon the tops of tl.e .stalks ; the root 
is white nn.d oblonr;. 

The fres'i l<^.p^^ are ii?ed ; an infusion of tliein 
works bv urine, and has been recommended by 
some in the jaundice, aiul in other di-oascs arising 
frini ob'^trvictions of the viscera ; hut we have 
so manv English plants that excel in l!)l3 particu- 
lar, and the taste of the infnr^ion is so far from 
aLiTeea!)le. that it is not worth s\ hile to have recourse 
to it. 

C A ^i E L 's II Av . Sell cii a n lit u s. 

A SORT of grass of a flagrant smell, frequent 
in UKinv parts of tlie iuist, and broiight over 
to us (lri<'d for the use of medicine. ^It gr(n\s to 
a f )ot high, and in ail respects rcsemr)ies some of 
tnir comn!(/n kinds of grass, particnlarlv (he dar- 
nel. 'J'hc leaves are long and narrow : tie 
stalks are round andjoinled, and have grass v lea\:'s 
also on them, and the flowers .liland on the tops ol 



5(3 FAMILY HERBAL. 

<lie stalks in a double scries : thej are not unlike 
those of our i2;ra,sses, chaifj and oniaiiiented with 
a few lilaiiiciits. 

It %vas at one time in great esteem as a medi- 
cine ; thevealled it a cordial, and a promoter of 
the menses^ but it is now very little regarded. 

^ CuA.^ioMiLE. Chamocmclum. 

A COMMON low wild plant, of a beautiful 
careen, a fragrant smell, and with flowers not un- 
like daisies. It is frequent on damp heaths, and^ets 
Tiogood by being brought into gardens. It grows 
larger there, but has less eiiicaej. In i<s wild state 
it spreads its branches upon the ground, taking root 
at the joints. The stalks are round, green, and 
Ihirk ; ilie leaves are very tinely dluded, and of a 
dark blackish green colour. The llowers grow 
upon long foot-stalks, ai)d are white at the edge 
and yellow in the middle : the llowers are most 
used. Those which are raised for bale arc double, 
and they liave very little >ir'ue in compari^on of 
the single ones. They are to betaken in tea, whicii 
is a pleasant bitter ; or in powder <hey are excellent 
for disorders of the stomach, and have sometimes 
cured agu(;s, as many other bilters will. 'J'lie \c\i 
made of them is also good against the c(dic, anu 
works bv urine, 

The V A M rn iR e-Ti; i:i:. Arhor camiuiorifcra, 

THIS i'i a kind of l>av-freeof jhe East Indies, 
])ut it grows to the height of our tallest trees. The 
bark is brown and uneven on the <runk, but it is 
sinocth and grei^n on the young branches. 'J he 
leaves are like those of the connnon bav-trce, ordv 
a little longer ; and they are curled at the cdge^. 



FAMILY HERBAL. 57 

The flowers are small and white, and the fruit is 
a berry, altogether like our bay-berries, and of the 
bijj^ness of a la'-ge pea. The wood of the tree is 
white or a littlij reddish, and veined with black, 
and smells r/i the camphire. The leaves also, when 
thev are bruised, smell of camphire; and the fruit 
nio'^t of all. 

I'heoniy product of this tree, used in medicine, 
is the resin called camphire ; and tlus is not a natu- 
ral, but a sort of chemical preparation. They cut 
t!;e wood to pieces and put it into a sort of subli- 
ming' vessel with an earthen head full of straw. 
They make fire underneath, and the camphire rises 
iii form of a white meal, and is found among the 
straw. This is refmed afterwards, and becomes 
the carnphire we use. 

it is sudoiific and works by urine ; it also pro- 
motes the menses, and is good in disorders of the 
bladder. 

White Campion. Lychnis Jlore alio. 

A CO-VpylON wild plant in our hedges and dry 
pastures, with hairy leaves, and whiie flowers. It 
jrrows to a foot and a half hif-h : the stalks are round 
^:in i Iniiry ; the leaves are of an oval form, and also 
jliairy ; and they grow two at every joint : they are 
of a dusky green, and are not indented about the 
edges. The flowers are moderately large, and 
white; they grov/ in a kind of small clusters on 
the tops of the branches, and each has its separate 
foot-stalk. 

Thi.s is a plant not mucli regarded for its virtue.*?^ 
but it deserves notice ; tlie country people gather 
the flowers in some places, and give them in the 
whites and other weaknesses wifh success, 

I 



58 FAMILY HERBAL. 

The Canel T5ark-Tkee, cat.led the Winter's 
Bark-Tree. CancUaalba. 

A VERY beautiful Aincririn tree. It grows 
fifiv {V; t liigb, and IS conHuonly much blanched. 
The bark is of a grcyi-h bra-vv;; : t'.e leaNCS are 
ver- l.ke ti:ose of the b.iy-tree, aiul tiie iiowcr.s .tre 
puriile; they arc sini^Iy very siii;;ll, but Ihevs and 
in a kuid ofuaibels. and aiake a vc; v preflv li;ri;ro: 
the fiiiil is a berry wh.iidi stands in t!:e tup of the 
ibiwiT : li is of the bigness of a pea, and of a deep 
blaeki^h purple wbeu ripe. It is frequent in 
Jamaica in wet places. 

Tfie inner riiul of this tree is tbe part used in 
medicine; ii is brouohtto us rolled up in quills, iu 
the nranner of cirinanion;, and is of a spicy taste, 
and of a Vvdutisli colour. Its proper uame is canella 
alba, while canel; but the drngpists have aern^tom- 
ed theniselvi s to call it cortex winteranus, wintrr's- 
bark. It lias tjie same virtues with that, but in a 
iruuli less degree; and they are eaailv known 
as'inder, tb;tt beinsc the whole bark of (]::e tree, 
and composed of two coats ; this being onlv i\\c 
inner bark, and thereftjre compcscd onlv v\' one. 
It is L;->od v\ weaknesses of tlie .sb>mach, and in 
habi.'ii.il coiicr. Some recenimrnd it grrrdly in 
palsies and all nervous complainls, b-ut its viitri^s 
of tliis kind are not so well esta])lished. 

CANTECsuRi' Beli.s. Trdchcli UlU lUajlL'f. 

A VERY be;.>u*iful wihl plant with leaves like 
the ?tingir:a" -nettle, and lara'c aid very elegant blue 
flowers. It grows })y road-:-;de>, and in dry 
pasture^, and is two ox thnc fet t hiiih. The stalks 
are 'q;:are, thick, upright, siring, and hairy. 
Tl:-.^h'a\ ■" urjw iricgularly, tiw;y are of a duskjr 



FAMILY HERBAL. 59 

f^reen, and stand upon lon;^ fool-stalks; tlirv aie 
broad at the h.ac, a\id sharp at the pointy and al! 
tiiG wav indented \ery sharply at the edo-es. They 
are liairv and rt^igli to t\\i'. touch. The flowers 
gTo^^ ten or a dozen together at the top of every 
branch ; uiey are very ldrg,-c and of a hcaiitil\ii 
blue colour, h;dl;)w and divided into several parts 
at the extreu-i' V. If tl e s(/ii be poor, the ilouers 
wiil varv ia dieir colour to a pale bliie^ reudislij or 
white. bi:t thoplas-t is :,iili the same. 

TliC fresli tops, with the buds of the flowers 
upon theiTi; coiituiu most virtue, hnt the dried 
leaves mav be u^-ed. An infusion of tlicni sharp- 
ened \. ita a few drops of spirit of vidiol, and 
s.ciieiird with honey, is an exeeiieiit medicine 
f,»r -sore throats, i!sed hy way of a g-argle. The 
j; -.i.t IS so funoiis f ; r this virtue, tliat one of its 
c.--;i.i!Oii Eiig-li>h 1 an-.es is tSiroat-wort : if the 
i!,.-dicii.e be swallo •. eii, there is no iiarm in it ; but, 
I.; \'. e u (' of every thing in this v, ay, it is he-t to 
?};.t the liquor out looet'MT vvil!i (h.e foiihicsses 
which il may have waslicd from tlie aifected parts. 

The Cap::k SiiiiuB, Ca^r^aris. 

, A COMMON shrub in France and Ilaly, and 
ke[>t in our trardens. Tiie pickles unich we know 
under the name e.f capers, arc iiiadc of the buds of 
tlie flowers, l)ut the part to be used in meciiciLC is 
the bark of tlie roots. 

Tike shrub gro ■. s to no g;reat Iieirrlit ; the 
brandies are weak, and il! able to s!:p|u)it t!:: rii- 
i?eb. es, th<:y are tough and priclJy : lie leaves s;i!;d 
in (^i::ulariy, ar.d are of au o\al or r(-'i!;di !i !'::^m: ; 
the iliorns are hooked liJiC tho^e of l;ie brau.i \ ; 
the flowers, when full opened, arc pnrpli.sh .. .■ 
very pretty : the fruit is rouudibh. 



60 FAMILY HERBAL. 

The bark of tlie root is to be taken in pov/ucr, 
or infijsi'')n ; it is good against obstructions of the 
liver atid spleen^ in the jauadicc, and iiypochoijdriac 
complaints: it is also commended in indigestious. 

The Caranna Tree. Caranna arhor. 

A TALL East Lidian tree, and a very beautiful 
one : the trunk is tliick, and the bark upon it is 
brown and rough ; that on the young branches is 
smooth and yellowish. The leaves are long and 
narrow^ like those of some of our M-illow-trees. 
The flower is small and of a pale colour, and the 
fruit is of the bigiie;::3 of an apple. 

The resin called gum caranna, is a product of 
this tree ; it is procured by cutting tlie branches ; 
they send it in rolls covered with leaves of ruihes ; 
it is blackish on the outside, and brown wiiliiii. 

It is suposcd a good nervous medicine, but it is 
rarely used. 

The LESSER Cardamom Plant. Curdamoiimni 
lainiis, 

AN East Indian plant, in many respects resem- 
bling our reeds. It grows to U:\\ or twelve feet , 
high. The stalk is an incii Ihiciv, round, sinoolh, % 
green, and hollow, but with a pi(h wif.hia. Tl;e 
leaves are half a yard long, and as broad as a mno's 
hand : !)esides these stalks, ll.ore arista tVoni Ih.' sa.iie 
root others which are weak, t; luhr, ana ali^^ut 
eight incbics high ; these ])ro(lu(ethe (lowers v.hi. h 
are small and gieeni.'^b, anu aftvT evri •>■ llowc r one 
of the fruiis, called the leaser caril.iiuoi:;-;, wliifh 
r^re a light Avy hollov/ fi'i.'it, ol' a wliitish coloin-. 
and some v*hat iri.uigular s!i:ij;e ; of tiv- i>i 'lu- < ct 
an hor>e-bcan, and of a dry subsianee up. tlic oii:.- 



FA>,!ILY HERBAL. 61 

sid"". bu^ v--\\h scvcriil seeds within, wbicli are red- 
dish and >"rv acrid, but pleasant to the taste. 

Tiit';,v' iruiis are tlie lesser cr^i'daniovii^^ or, a-? 
ihey a.rj' i^eucraily called, the card.irnoiii ^;eeds of 
•ilie shorjs. Thev am exceileut to strciia'then the 
stoinacl). ai;d assist di-:;cstioii. Tliey arc also 2'ood 
for disorders of the head, and tlicy are equal to 
any thi';;:- against colics ; ihcv are best takeri bv 
chcwhic,' llieui sing;ly iii the hioulj, and tlieir taste is 
not at ;;!! ( i^i.o^teeable, 

Th*. two (,!i;er kiiu's are the r;!idd!e cardamom, 
a h>r ,' tViiit \cry' rarely uiet '.viin, ap.d the great 
card.i'-no!);, otherwise called the grain of paradise, 
Liuc.i ;>etter tiiao ihe cardamoms. 



The Caran'na Titee. Caragna. 

A TALL and spreading- tree of the West Itulie*, 
the branrhies are iiMmerous, and irieguiar ; the 
tr;; ak is eovcred ^vi;h a br:>vvn bark, the branches 
•,v!'. ii a pu'rir, they are brittle ; tlie leaves are long 
a ! nrriaw, of a p ile ^reen, and sliarp pointed ; the 
fh>\. iT, are sinuil, -he fruit is roaiKiisIi and of the 
b;^!V's; ■;)' an apple. This is the best account ^e 
ziave i)f It, !>iit ihij is far from perfect or satisfac- 

■orv ii) (^very respect. 

" Ail I -at we use of it i^ a resin which oozes 
out of the ha:'., in the great heats ; tliis is brown, 
soiiiewna. soft, and we have it in oblong pieceSj 
roil' d tip in rushes ; we put it only externally ; a 
pl»ib;.'.- ;\ia';Ie of it is good for disorders of the head, 
and !o:e.e say will cure the sciatica without internal 
inediciwe:5, out this is not probable, 

Cakli?.-e Thistle. Car J in a. 

I HAVE oliservcd that nsany plants are not 



G2 FAMILY HERBAL. 

so miicli re?;arded for tlieir virlues as (Lev ongf.t 
to be ; tli-eie are on tlie contrary some whicli arc 
cell bratrd more than ihcy deserve : tlie vnrliup, 
ihisiie is of tliis last imiuber. It is not ^vho!!y 
■Nviiiiout virtues, but it has not all that arc areilbcd 
to it. 

This is a plant without any stalk. The lea^pg 
are lona', narrow^ i>f a drak green ecthair, divided 
arid prit kly at the edges ; and they lie spiea f upnu 
the arn.iiid in nuuiicr of a star. Tiie Hover 
appears in the '.iiidst f ihese without a stalk, lisinp; 
imiiiediuiely i^irm tiie root^ with sseveral small 
leaves roii/d i.bonf if. I( is ibe liead of a tlustlc, 
and the ilowi^-v pait is whife ou the <'{iire, aud vei- 
low in the m;d(.";le Th'.- root is lot g-, aiiu of a brown 
coiotir i)ii the outide, and reddish wiihin ; it is of a 
wavnj aioiiiafie taste. 

'^liiis is tiie Oil! V part of the plant iisrd in niedi- 
ciiie. They say i! is a renujdy lo' tl'e ])!aaue : bnt 
however lii n mav he, it is good ii? licivoiis coin- 
plaiiils, a;id in stnp;;i:ges oftiic menses. 

The Caraway Plant. Cwuni. 

A WILD phmt of the mnbelli'Vrous kind, frc^ 
qiieut iii t:;ost pitrfs d' luirop/e, buf cnilivalcd in 
Gerniai'V Or the sr-ke of the seod. I ha\e met with 
it very eonnnon in Li ;ro!iishirc. 

It gr(>ws to a \:\y([ lii'xh ; tlic s»a!l'-: are striated 
and tirn; ; the h\i\(s aro tbio! v eli; id( d, and the 
flowers are white and ^niall, t\\c\- iiri^w in tnft.s. or 
\jrnbr!«, on the tops of the braneiic-; ; the seeds that 
fo1h>w them rire >(M'\ wcl! kiy;un. 

Thie^"eds art- rxeclhMit in tiu' (oli'v a:,d in disor- 
i]c:^ of the -IfKnaeh, tliev are bist c!iew\d. 



, ID ^ C=i^ 




FAMILY IIERr,\L. CS 

"Wild Carrot. Dai i c u s sv i v cslus. 

A COMMON plant about tlic Iicduvs,, and In 
dry pa4ures. 1( grows near a yard lugdi, and 
has small tlowcrs, and afier tlie.n ro;ni,'h seeds dis- 
posed i'l uiJibels, at the tops of liie braixlics, tli'-sa 
arc liolloWj and thence called bv the childten birds' 
iie?fs. 

The stalks are striated and firm, the leaves, 
are divided into fine and numerous j)arti(ions, and 
are of a pale green and hairy ; the flowers are 

The seed is the part used in medicine, and it 
U a verv enod diuretic ; it is excellent in all dis- 
orders of tlic g-ravel and stone, and all obstruc- 
t;;)!5s of iiriiic ; it is also good in stoppages of the 

nioiiSL'S. 

Candy Cakots. Daucus Cj'clcnsis. 

A PLVNT frequent In the east, and cultivated 
in some pUices for the seed. It grov/s near a yard 
hi5>;h ; the stalk is firm, iiprii^ht, striated, and 
branched : the leaves are like tliose of fennel, 
Oidvmore fi.iely divided,, and of a whitish colour; 
the'^flowers are white, and the seeds are oblong, 
thick in the middle, and downy. 

Tho:-,e seeds are the only part used : Tliry are 
good in colics, and they ^v(>lk by urine, but 
those 01 our ow n wild plant are more strongly di- 
uretic. 

The Cascarilli Tree. Cascarilla. 

A TREE of Souih America, of the U-\\\is and 
flo.\<n-s of which wc have but very inipei feet 



64 FAMILY HERBAL. 

iu-couvii^, ihoijo^h wc are very well acquainted 
with the h'dilv of its young branches. What we 
have been told of it is, that the branches are nii- 
meroiis, and spread irregularly ; that the leaves 
are oblong, green on the upper side, and whi- 
tish imdemeaUi ; aiul tiio flowers smallj fragrant, 
and placed in a sort of clusters. 

The bark ^\llicll our druggists ^^ell, is greyish on 
the outside, ])ro\vn wiv'iin, and is of an agree- 
able siuell : when burnt they call it Elcutheriari 
bark, and bastard je:aii'.s bark: it is cordial and 
astririjicnt. It is \ciy properly given in fevers 
attendoU with purging. And many have a cus- 
tom of smoking it among tobacco, as a remedy 
for I>ead-achs, and disorders of the nerves : it also 
does good in pleurisies aud pcripneumonies : some 
have recommended it as a sovereign remedy in those 
cases^ but that goes too far. 

The Cassia Fistula Tree. Cassia fistula. 

THIS is a large free, native of the East, and 
a verv beauiiful one when in fiawer. It grows 
twenty or thirty i^cd higii, and is very much 
branched. The leaves are large, and of a deep 
wreen, and each is composed of three or four 
pairs of smaller, with an odd one at the end. 
The ilowers are of a greenish yellow, but they 
are verv ])right, and very numerous, so that they 
make a fine appearance, when the tree is full of 
them: the pods follow these, they are tv/o feet 
long, black, and woi)dy, having within a black, 
soft, pulpy matter and the seeds. 

This pulpy matter is the f)nly part used in 
mediciu;^' it is u ge.nlle and excellent purge, the 
l)-;ulL\c eh. ctuiry owes its virtues to it. It never 



FAMILY HERBAL ^5 

binds afterward, a-^;' therefore is an excellent medi- 
cine for tliose who are of costive habits ; a small 
dose of it being- taken frequently. 

Tlie Cassia Bark Tree. Cassia lignca. 

THIS is a large spreading tree, frequent in 
the East Indies, and verj much resembling the 
cinnamon tree in its appearance. The bran- 
ches are covered with a brownish bark; the 
leaves are oblong and pointed at the end., and of 
4t deep green colour, and fragrant smell. The 
tlowers are small^ and tlic fruit resembles that of the 
tiiHiamon tree. 

The bark of the branches of this tree is the 
only part used in medicine ; it is of a reddish brown 
colour like cinnamon, and resembles it in smell 
and taste, orly it is fainter in the smell, and less . 
acrid to the taste ; and it leaves a glutinous or 
mucilaginous matter in the mouth. It is often 
mixed among cinnamon, and it possesses the same 
virtues, but in a less degree. However in purgings 
it is better than cinnamon, because of its mucila- 
ginous nature. It is an excellent remedy given in 
powder in these cases^ and is not so mucJi used as it 
ought to be. 

The Cassia Carvophythata, or Clove Bark. 

Tree, Cassia caryophjjthata. 

THIS is a large aini beautiful tree, frequent 
in South America. The trunk is covered with & 
dusky bark, the branches with one that is palef 
coloured and more smooth. The leaves are like: 
those of our bay-tree, only larger, and whea 
bruised, they have a very fragrant ifl^ei) iiie flov- 



6G FAMILY HERBAL, 

ers are small and bliie^ and liave a white eye In the 
middle. 

The only part of this tree used in medicine, 
is the inner baik of <lie brandies. This is brown, 
thin, and roiled up iili:e cinnamon; it is bard in 
colour, of a spicy snieU, and in taste it has a mixed 
flavour of cinnamon and cloves, and is very hot and 
punf^eiit. 

It is good in disorders of the stomach, and in 
colic:-:, but it ib not so much used as it de 
serves. 

Cassibony, or Arabian Stzechas. Stcechas 
Arabic a. 

A VERY fragrant and pretty slirub, native 
of Spain, and many other Marm parts of Europe. 
It grows much in the manner of lavender, to a yard 
or more in height, and is not uncommon in our 
gardens. The branches are firm and woody : the 
young shoots are pliable and square, and arc 
naked to tlie top. The leaves stand upon the 
branches two at each joint, they are long, narrow, 
and white. The flowers stand in little clusters or 
heads, like those of lavender ; aiul there are two or 
three large and beautiful deep blue leaves upon tlic 
tops of the heads, which give them a very elegant 
appearance; 

The flowers are the only part used : they arc 
of the nature of tliose of lavender, but more 
aromatic in tiie smell : thev arc very serviceable 
in all nervous complaints, and help to promote 
the ni5:n£e5. 'I'hey are be^t talv(n dried and pow- 
dered 



FAMILY HERBAL. 67 

The Cassl'munar Plant. Cassumunar, 

A COMMON plant of the East Indies, but of 
which we do not seem to have vet so perfect a des- 
cription as mii^htbe wished. Its leaves are large, 
lon£^, and like those of our flags, andthej involve one 
another in a singular manner about thefr bases. 
The flowers are small, and thej arc in shape some- 
what like those of certain of our orchise,s. They 
arc mottled with' purple and yellow : the seed is 
li(tlo and brown, the root creeps under the surface 
of tlie ground, and is of a yellow colour, and 
tVai»;rant smell, and of a M'arm taste. 

The root is used : we have it at the druggists. 
It is of the same nature with zedoary, and has 
by some been called the yellow zedoary. It is a 
very good medicine in nervous and hysteric com- 
plaints. It is warm and strengthening to the sto- 
mach : ii is remarkably good against the head- 
acli and in fevers. It operates quick by urine and 
\'-y sweat. 

Catmikt. Nepcta. 

A COMMON wild plant about our hedges, 
but of very great virtues; it grows a yard high, 
and has broad whitish leaves, and white flowers 
like mint. The stalks are square, whitish, hairy, 
and erect : the leaves stand two at a joint : they 
are broadest at the base, and terminate in an ob- 
tuse end ; they are a little indented at the edges, 
and of a whitish green on the upper side, and very 
white underneath. The flowers are small and 
white ; and they grow in a kind of spiked clusters, 
surrounding the stalks at certain distances. The 
v/holc plint has a very strong and not very agree- 
able sraell. 



68 FAMILY HERBAL. 

Cafmint should be g-athered just when the 
flowe. ) are opening, and dried. It is an excellent 
woman's medicine ; an infusion of it is good against 
livsteric complaints^ vapours, and fits, and it mode- 
rate! v promotes the menses : it is also good to pro- 
mote tile evacuaiions after delivery. 

Great Celandine CheJidonium mqju^^ 

A COMMON wild plant with large leaves, and 
jellow tiowcrs : which, when broken in any part, 
stalk, or leaves, emits a yellow juice. It grows 
tlirce icci high, but the stalks are not very robust, 
th-'j are round, green, and naked, with tiiick joints. 
The leaves stand two at each joint ; ihey are large, 
long, and deeply divided at the edges, and are of 
a yellowish green. Tiie flowers are small, bntctf 
a beautiful yellow, and they stand on long foot- 
stalks several together. 

Celandine should be used fresh, for it looses the 
greatest part of its virtue in drving. The juice 
is the he^t way of gi\ing it ; and this is an excel- 
lent n;»(Jicine in the jaundice : it is also good 
against ail ohstri.ctious of the viscera, and if con- 
tinued a time, will do great service against the 
scurvy. The juice also is used successfully for 
iore cyti. 

Little Celandine. Chelidonium minus, 

THE ^reat and the little celandine, are plants 
so perfect! V different, that it is hard to conceive 
what could indnce the old writers to call them 
both bv t!;e same name. They hardly agree in 
any thing, except it be that they have bcth yellow 
flowers. The gre>'»t celandine approaclics fo the 
mature of the poppy ; the small celandine to thai 



FAMILY HERBAL 69 

of the crow-foot ; nor are they any more alike in 
virtues than in form. 

Little celandine is a low plant, which is seen 
almost every where in damp places in springs, with 
br'" -i ieep green leaves, and glossy yellow flowers. 
It -.oes not grow to any height. The leaves are an 
inch long, and nearly as broad ; they somewhat 
resemble those of the garden hepaticas, and are of 
a dark green and frequently .spotted ; they rise 
sinii:ly from the root on loag% slender, and naked 
stalks. The flowers rise also singly from the root 
on long, slender, and naked stalks ; they are as 
broad as a shilling, of a fine shining yellow colour, 
and composed of a number of leaves. The root is 
fibrous, and has small while tuberous Jumps con- 
nected totiie strings. 

The roots are commended very much against 
the piles, the juice of them is to be taken in- 
wardly ; and some are very fond of an ointment 
n . !c of the leaves, they chop them in pie(;es, and 
hoi! them in lard till they are crisp ; then strain off 
the lard, which is converted into a fine green 
cooling ointment, Tlie operation of the roots is by 
urine, but not violently. 

Little Cent.4.i;ry. Ccntaurium minus. 

A PRETTY wild plant which flowers in autumn, 
in our dry places. It is eight or ten inclie.s high ; 
tlie leaves are oblong, broad, and blunt at the point ; 
tlie stalks are stiff, firm, ai)d erect ; and the flowers 
arc of a fine pale red. There grows a cluster of 
leaves an inch long or more from the root ; the 
stalks divided toward the top into several 
branches, and t!ie flowers are long and slender, and 
stand in a cluster. 

This is an excelleut stomatic ; its taite is a 



^0 FAMILY HERBAL 

pleaeant bitter^ and given in infusion ; it strength- 
ens llie stomacli, creates an appetite^ and is good 
also against obstructions of the liver and sj>leen. 
It is on this last account greatly recoinme;id( d in 
jaundice;.; and the country people cure agues with 
it dried and powdered. 

As there are a greater and lesser celandine, there 
is also a great as well as this little centaury ; but 
the large kind is not a native of our country, nor 
used by us in medicine. 

Chaste Tree, jignus castrus. 

A LITTLE shrub, native of Italy, and frequent 
in our gardens. It is five or six feet high; the 
trunk is rough, the branches are smooth, grey, 
tough, and long; tlie leaves are fingered or spread 
like tiie fingers of one's hand when opened : five, 
six, or seven, of these divisions stand on each staik, 
they are of a deep green above, and whitish under- 
neath ; the flovvcrs are small and of a pale reddish 
hue ; they stand in long loose spikes ; the fruit is 
us big as a pep})Ci" -corn. 

The seeds of this slirub were once supposed 
io allay venerv, but no liody regard'<^ that now. A 
cleeorliou of the leaves and tops is good against 
obstructions of the liver. 

The ]>LACK C'iiERRY TuEE. Covasusfructa niij^ro, 

THIS is a well known tall tree, and well shaped. 
Tin [pavrs are broad, roundish, siharp at the point, 
and indented round the edges. The flowers are 
-vvhite, th(! fruil is well enough known. The medicinal 
part of this iri the kernel w iiliin the stone. Tliis lias 
hen supj)osed good ag-up.-l apoplexies, palsies, 
and all liervuus (li.seascs. i i:c vvatcv distilled f^om 



I ATViiLY HERBAL. 71 

h \v;i5, for this reason^ in constant use a? a remedy 
for children's fits. But a better praclice has novr- 
obtaincd : it is highly probable that this water oc- 
casioned the disorders it was given to remove. 
Laurel water, Avhen made of a great strength, "we 
know to be a sudden poison : ^vhe^^veak, it tastes 
liice black-cherry-water, and is not mortal ; in the 
same manner black-cherry-water, which used to 
be given to children when weak drawn, has been 
found to be poisonous when of great strength. There 
is therefore the greatest reason imaginable to sup- 
pose that in any degree of strength, it may do mis- 
chief. Very probably thousands of children have 
died by this unsuspected medicine 

The gum which hangi upon the branches of 
cherry-trees, is of the same nature with the gum 
arabic, and may be used for the same purposes, as 
in heat of urine, dissolved in barley-water. 

Winter Cherry. Alkekengi. 

A VERY singular and prelty plant kept in our 
gardens ; it grows two feet high, not very erect, 
£ior Tnucb. branched ; the stalk is thick, strong, 
and anguhited : the leaves are large, broad, and 
sliarp pointed ; the flowers are moderately large, 
and white, but with yellow threads in tlie middle ; 
the iVnit is a round red berry, of the bigness of a 
common red cherry, contained in a green hollow 
husk, rou-ndj and as big as a walnut. 

The berries are the only part used, thev are io 
be separated from the husks and dried ; and riiay be 
then given in powder or decoction. They are verv 
good in stranguries, heat of urine, or the ^avel : 
they are also given in jaundices, and dropsies : 
they will do good in these cases, but are not to be 
depended upon alone. 



72 FAMILY HERBAL. 

Chervil. Chocrcfolium. 

A SALLAD herb cultivated in gardens, but 
not without its medicinal virtue. It is like pars- 
ley in its manner of growth, but the leaves are 
more divided, and of a paler colour. The stalks 
are round, striated, hollow, and of a pale green ; 
thej divide into several branches, and are about 
two feci high : the leaves on them are like those 
from the root, but smaller. The flowers are bitter 
and white, they stand in large tufts at the tops of 
the branches. The seeds are larg-e and smooth. 

The roots of chervil work by urine, but mode* 
LMtf'lv; they should be given in decoction. 

The Chesnut Thee. Castanca. 

A TALL, spreading, and beautiful tree. The 
hark is smooth and grey : the leaves long and 
moderately broad, deep, and beautifuilv indented 
round the edges, and of a fine strong green. The 
flowers are a kind of catkins, like those of willows, 
long and slender, and of a yellowish colour; the 
fruits arc covered with a rough pricklv shell, and, 
under that, each particular chesnut has its firm 
brown coat, and a thin skin, of an austere taste, 
over the kernel 

This thin skin is the part used in medicine ; it 
is to be sej)arated from the chesnut, not too ripe, 
and dried : it is a very fine astringent ; it stopi 
purgings and overflowings of the menses. 

I autji-Chesnut, or Earth-Nlt, 

Jlulbocastanum. 

A ('OMMON wild plant, which has tlic name 
from its root. This is of the biu'ncss of a chesnut. 



FAMILY HERBAL. 75 

irt^Tindisb, brown on the outside, and wLite ^itluiv, 
and of s\v( et taste. The j)lant grows to a foot 
high; the leaves are divided into fine and nume- 
rous partitions ; the stalk is firm, upright, round, 
striated and g-reen ; the flowers arc white acid 
Jittle, but they j2;row in great tufts on the tops of 
the branches. 

The root is the part used ; it is to be roasted in 
the manner of a chcsnut an<i eaten, it is sftid to 
hRvc great virtues as a provocative to venery, but 
this is not well coniinnod, 

CuicK-wEED. yil.'iinc media. 

THE commonest of ail weeds, but not vithout 
if> virtue. The right sort to use in medicine ( :"jr 
there are several) is that which grows so ccmnion 
iu our garden-beds : it is low and branched. The 
stalks are round, green, weak, and divided ; tliey 
commonly lean on the ground. The leaves arc 
short and broad, of a pleasant green, not dented 
at the edges, and pointed at the end : these grow 
two at every joint. The flowers are white and small. 

The whole plant, cut to pieces and boiled in 
)ard till it is crisp, converts the lard into a fine 
green cooling ointment. The juice taken inv^^ard- 
ly, is good against the scurvy. 

The CiiiNA-RooT Plant. Smilax citjus racU^ 

China officiorutn. 

A NAILING plant frequent in the East Indie* , 
It grows to ten or twelve feet in length, but the 
stalks are weak and unable to stand erect ; they 
are ridged, of a browH colour, and siet with hook- 
ed yellow prickles. The leaves are oblong ajid 
broad, largest at the stalky aud blunt at the jToint?, 



74 FAMILY llERIiAL 

of a shilling* green colour, and idossy surHice; the 
flowers are small and yellowish ; the fruit is around 
yellowish berry. The root is lari^e, irregular, and 
knotty; broNvn on the outside, and reddish within. 
This is the part used, they send it over to our 
drui^gisis: it is a sweetener of the blood, and is 
used in diet-drinks for the venereal disease and the 
scurvy. It is also said to be very g-ood against the 
gout, taken for a long time together. 

There is another kind of tliis root brought from 
America, paler on the outside, and much of the 
same colour with the other within ; some have sup- 
posed it of more virtue than the otlicr, ])ut most 
suppose it inferior, perhaps neither has much. 

CuicH. Cicc7\ 

A LITTLE plant of the pea kind, sown in some 
places for the fruit as peas. The plant is low and 
branched ; the stalks are round and weak, and of a 
pale green. The leaves are like those of the pea, 
but each little leaf is narrower, and of a paler green, 
and hairy like tlie stalk : the flowers are small and 
white, and resemble the pea blossom. The pods 
are short, thick, and hairy, and seldom contain 
more than two, often but one seed or chich in 
each. 

They are eaten in some places, and they are gentle 
diuretics. 

CiNQUEFoiL. Pentaphylluni. 

A CREEPING wild plant common about way- 
sides, and in pastures. The stalks are round and 
«mooth, and usually of a reddish colour ; they lie 
uoon the ground, and take root at the joints; the 
leaves stand on long foot-stalks, five on each stalk ; 



FAMILY HERBAL. 75 

they are above an inch long, narrow^ of a deep 
dusky green, and ind(Miled at the edges, the flowers 
also stand on long loot-stalks, they are }eriovv 
and of the breadth of a iliiiling, very bright, and 
beautiful. The root is large and long, and ij 
covered with a brown rind. 

The root is the part used ; it should be di;g up m 
April, and the outer bark taken off and drud, tlic 
rest is u^;elcss ; this bark is to he givrn \n po-.vdcr 
for all sorts of fluxes ; it stops purgir.gs, and th..-; 
overflowings of the menses ; few drugs are of equal 
power. 

The Cinnamon Tree. Cinnamon. 

A LARC E tree frequent in ih.e East, and not sjd- 
like tlie hisv-liee in its flowers, fruit, le.ives, or 
manner of growth ; onlv larger. The hark is 
ro»]g!i on ilw trunk, and smooth oa the branches ; 
it has little taste while fresh, but beconu s Mrtrmatic 
and sharp, in that degree wc perceive, by drving. 
The h-aves are of the siuipc of bav leaves, but twice 
as big ; the flowers are small and whitish ; tiie 
berries are little, oblong, and of a bluish colour, 
Epotted with white. 

'i'Jic root of tlie cinnamon tree smells strongly of 
cannihire, and a very fiwc. kind of camphire is made 
from it in the East ; the wood is white and nisipid. 
The leaves arc fragrant. 

Tile roo-i is the oniv part used, and tfiis is an ex- 
celieni aslvhigent ia the b()wels ; it is cordial and 
good "*■> j;vo!ii()ie a[)p('tite : it als;> promotes the 
:nei!^i-;. li:(j.,,':r!i it acts as an astriiigent in other 
c a,-, e i. 

■j'jK Vi intlr's Bari-'. Trf.e. Cortex icintcranus. 

A iWlX K called hy maiiv winter's bark, has been 



% iWMILY HERBAL 

already described under its true name canella alba ; 
in lliis place v/e arc to inquire into the true \v inter 's- 
bark. called by many writers cinnamon. The tree 
which affords it is a tree of twenty feet high, very 
spreadiniT, and full of branches^ the bark is grf^y 
on the outside^ and brown within. The leaves are 
two inches long, and an inch broad, small at the 
sfalk, and obtuse at the end, and divided a littb. 
The flowers are white and sweet-scented, the fruit 
is a small berry. 

The bark is the part used, they ?end over the two 
rinds together; it is verv fragrant and of a hot 
aromatic taste. It is a sudorific, and a cordial, and 
it is excellent a£;ainst the scurvy. 

The CisTT.'s SiiRUB, from whicli labdanuni \3 
})rocure(l. Cislm:, Icdafufcra. 

A VERY pretty shrub^ frequent in tlie Greek 
islands, an ' in other warm climates. It is two or 
three feet isc^h, ^'ery much branelied, and has broad 
leave:-, and I)eai!tirul large fiowers. The trunk is 
rough ; the twigs are reddisli ; the lea\es are al- 
most of (lie sh.ape of tliose of sage ; the\ s};md two 
at every j'^int, and are of a dark :;reen colour. 
""I'lie j^iwcrs are of the breadth of half a crown, 
7i\\(\ of a p:i!e red colour. The gum labdanum 
IS proei;r.-d from this shruh, and is its ordv produce 
i:s;m1 ia medicine Thir:i>an fxudation discharged 
froni \\\v leaves i;-) ii\'\ rnrjurier of manna, more 
than of any tin'na" el'-e. '[ iu-v ^et if off bv draw- 
TMp:; ,'i p.iretd of leaf her i\\ ii!;s o\<r \\^c. shrubfe. 
It IS not much used, but il is a ii,-ood ee[)halic. 

'.' !.'■ '■. rr::oN Trek. dtria .'I'l'c mains incdica. 

A "'"\'''A1,L ivcr. wAh pi-i(kiv braiirlies, bnf very 
b'Vi'ii:!"L:l in its !c:rv!'-, fr;\vrrs. and fruit ; th'j 



FAMILY HERHAL. 77 

f:;unk is frrev :ind rou2:h ; the twigs are <^reen. 
I'l'.o h\i\c-s are six inches loniC, a:id ot' a kind of 
oval fijj,urc, and of a most beautiful green colour, 
i'he iiowrrs arci v.Iiitc like those of the leinou tree, 
and tiieliiiit re^enlblt'S a lemon; but it is larger, 
and fd'ii ;i full id' jirotiiberances. The outer rind 
iri ofii })ale yellow, and very fragrant; the inner 
rind is exceedingly thick^ and whit(.' ; (here i^ very 
little pulp, though the fruit be so large. The 
juice IS like that of the lemon; but the yellow 
cuter rind is the only part used in medicine : tliis 
is an excellent stomachic, and of a very pleasant 
flavour. The l>arl)adoes \vater owes its taste to 
the peel of this IVuil ; and there is a way of making 
a water very nearly ctjual to it in England, bv the 
"riddition of spice to the fresh peels of good lemons ; 
the method is as follows : 

Put into a small still a gallon of fine molasseg 
spirit, put to it six of the peels (»f very fine h-mons, 
and half an ounce of nutmegs, and one dram of 
cinnamon bruised, Kt tliem stand all night, then 
add two quarts of water, and fasten on the head ; 
distil five pints and a half, and add to this a quart 
nnd half a pint of water, w ith live ounces of the 
■inest sugar dissolved in it. This will be very 
rif^arly equal to the finest Barbadoes water. 

The Crrr.ui.L. CitruUus. ' 

A CREEPING plant of the melon kind, cul- 
tivated in many paits of Europ.e and the Ea>t. 
"^riie biauches or stalks are \ca\ t'ect long, thick, 
angular, fleshy, and hairy : i]\oy trail up'on the 
grouiid uidess supported. The leaves are hirge, 
arul staiid singly on long fc)ot-slaiks ; ihey are di- 
vided dcc|;!v iiito five parts, and ar-; hair\ also, and 
Oi a pa'e green colour ; the flowers arc large and 



'♦'5 



FAMILY HERBAL, 



yeliov/ : and very like those of our cucumbers? 
the friJiti.s also like 1 he melon and cucumber kinds, 
rouiuli:;:!, often flatted,, and composed of a fiesliy 
part under a thick rind^ with seeds and juice 
Avit-hin. 

The seeds arc the only p:irt used, our drugi^ists 
liecp tliem ; they are cooling, and they work by 
urine ii;cntly ; they are best given in form of an 
enuilsion, beat up witii barley-water. 

Clakv. Horiniiinni. 



('I. \IIY is a common plant in our gardens, not 
Tcry ])cauiifiil, but kept for its virtues. it grows- 
two ft (I and a liaif higl: ; the leaves are rviiigh, and 
thellowers of a whitish blue. Tho stalks are thick, 
tli'shv, and ijpri;2;iii ; they are clammvto the touch, 
and a little hairy, 'i he leavc-^ are large, wrinkled, anil 
of a duskv greeii, broad at, the base, ami aiiialler to 
the point, which i.-. obtUse ; the flowers staod in 
long loose s}'( ike; ; they are disposed iu circles round 
i\u- "ipper parts of the stalks, and are ga!;ing and 
larre. the cups in whici) they stand are robust and 
^'1 souie degree prickly. 

The whole herb is used fresh or drie:!. It is 
corui;i], and in some degree astringent. li sh(;n:;(h- 
cns thi' stomach, is good against headaclis, and stops 
t!i;> whites, but Cor this l.i->t purpose, ii is necessary 
1o i;ir.e it a long tiiiij ; and there are nianv remedies 
more jiowerfiil. 

There is a kind of wild clarv on our dU<]) bank,s, 
atid in dry irrounds, wiiich is supjjoscd t > pv^sse.ss 
fhe same virtues with tlic garden kind. The seeds 
of this are [)ut mto the eyes (o take cut anv little 
oHVu-ive substance Jallen into them. As sjon as 
thev :!!'e j)ut ,i!>, th(w gather a coat of nunilage 
abouv ^liem. and tliis catches held of any litth* t!>ieg 



FAJ-IILY [lERBAL. ,d 

it meets with in the eve. Dr. Parsanslias perfectly 
explained this in his ])ook of seeds. 

Cleaver<?. Apariiif. 

A WILD herb common in aii our hedges, and 
known by sticking to people's clothes as thev touch 
it. The stalks are square and very rough, two 
feet long, but weak and unable to support theni- 
sehes ; they climb among bushes. The leaves arc 
h>ng and narrow, and of a pale green ; they grow 
several at everv joint, encompassing the stalk in the 
manner of the rowel of a spur ; they are rough 
hi the same manner with the stalk, and stick io 
every thiiig they touch. The flowers are small 
and white ; the seeds grow two together, and are 
roundish and rough like the rest of the plant ; the 
root IS fibrous. 

The juice of the fi'esh Iwjrb is used ; it cools the 
body, and operates by urine ; it is good against tlie 
scurvy, and all other outward disorders. Some 
pretend it will cure the evil, but that is not true. 

The Clove Barr-Tree. Cassia caryophylata, 

A TALL and beautiful tree, native of the West 
Indies. The trunk is covered with a thick brown 
bark, that of the branches is paler and thinner. 
The arms spread abroad, and are not very regularly 
disposed ; the leaves are oblong, broad, and sharp- 
pointed ; they are like those of the bay-tree, but 
twice as big, and of a deep green colour. The 
flowers are small and blue ; they arc pointed with 
streaks of orange colour, and are of a fragrant 
smell ; the fruit is roundish ; we use the bark^ 
wiiich is taken from the larger and smaller branches, 
but that from the smaller is best. It is of a fragrant 



so FAMILY HERnAL 

smell, and of a mixed lasle of cinnamon and cloxeii ; 
the cinnamon flavour is first perceived, but after 
tliat the taste of cloves is predominant, and is so 
very strong-, that it seems to burn the mouth. It is 
excellent against the colic ; and it warms and 
ytreng-thens the stomach, and assists digestion : it 
is also a cordial, and in small doses joined with 
other medicines promotes sweat. It is not much 
used fairly in practice, but many tricks are played 
Vfithit by the chymists, to imitate or adulterate 
the several productions of cloves and cinnamon;, for 
li is cheaper than either. 

The Clove July Flower, Carrjopliyllus 7^uher. 

A COMMON and very beautiful flower in 
our gardens ; it has its name from the aroma- 
tic snicll, which resembles the clove spice, and 
from the time of its flowering which is in July. 
It is a carnation only of one colour, a deep and 
fine purple. The plant grows two feet high ; 
the leaves are grassy ; the stalks are round and 
jointed ; the flower grows at the tops of the 
branches, and the whole plant besides is of a bluish" 
green. 

Tlic flowers are used ; they are cordial, and 
good for disorders of the head ; they may be 
dried. un;l taken in powder or in form of tea, 
iiiit the best form is the syrup. This is made 
by poming five pints of boiling water upon three 
jouniU of the flowers picked from the husks, 
^tid with the white heels cut off: after they 
fiave stood twelve hours, straining ofl' the clear 
liquor without pressing, and dissolving in it two 
p')inul of the finest sugar to every pint. This 
makes the most beautiful ani piciasant of all 
svr'.;!/-; 



FAMILY HERBAL. 8] 

The Clove Spice Tree. CariiGphijIlm, aroma- 
ticus, 

A BEAUTIFUL tree, native" of the warm 
coLHihies ; it grows twenty or thirty feet high, 
and very much branched. The bark is grevish ; 
the h.'avey arc like those of tlie bay-tree^ but twice 
as huge; they are of a bright shining green, and 
stand upon long- foot-stalks ; the flowers are 
j]i)t very large, but of a beautiful blue colour, 
and the cups that contain them are oblong and 
lirm ; these are the cloves of the shops, T^liey 
^father them soon after the flowers are fallen*; 
when they suffer them to remain longer on the 
tree, they grow large, and swell into a fruit as big 
as an oiive. 

The clove.s are excellent against disorders o£ 
the head, and of the stoiiiach ; they are warm, 
cordial, and strengthening ; they expel windj, 
and are a good remedy for the colic. The oil of 
cloves is made from these by chemists; it cures the 
tooth ach ; a bit of lint beihg wetted^ with it, and 
laid to the tooth. 

Cockle. Pseudomelanthium. 

A TALL, upright, and beautiful plant, wild in 
our corn-ficlds, with red flowers, and narrow 
leaves. It is two feet high : the stalk is single, 
slender, round, hairy, very Arm, and perfectly 
upright. The leaves stand two at a joint, and 
are not verv miraerous ; they are long, narrow, 
hairy, and of a bright green colour! the flowers 
stand siuglv, one at the top of each bianch. Thq,y 
are verv iarge^ and of a beautiful red. They have 
an eh'gant cup, composed of five narrow halt? 
leaves, wliiih are ruuch longer t-han the flower 



82 FAMILY HERB At. 

The seed vessel is i\>iuidl;!i^ :v,:d the ^eeds jkiC 
biack, Thry are apt lo be mixed auioiig grain, 
aiui sj;-ive the ilniir aii i!i 1ns(e. 

The seeds are used ; ilioy work by urine, ivaC 
open all obsJriiclio',!< } ^f'f'J promote the incrises. 
and are good in ihn crojisy and jaiip.dice ; iUc. 
best way of i>,'vii i;- ilu-.m is po\vdered, and pu( 
into an electuiuy to be iakeu Ibr a coiitinuancc 
of time : for tl;e->e meuieines, whose \i;(iie.s arc 
against chronie di.si'ases, do not take etrect 5iL oiicf;, 
]\']any have discontinued them for tliat rc;aiv)n : and 
the world in general is, from iJie same cause, become 
fond of cliymical medicines, but these are safer, and 
they are more (o be depended upon ; and if the two 
practices were fairly tried, chvmical medicinea 
■would loose their credit. 

Ti;e CocuLLS Inui Thee, Arhor coculos Indi- 
cos ferens. 

A MODERATELY large tree, native of the 
warmer parts of the world. It is irremilar in 
its growflij and full (-f branches ; the leaves arc 
rhort, broad, and of a Iicart-like shape ; they 
ju'.; thick, fleshy, snnill, and of a(!usky grecii : tin- 
flowers are '-.mall, an.l stand in elnsfers ; the fruit; 
follow these, they are of the bigness of a lurp- 
j)ea. roundish, but with a de:;( on one sid?,, 
wrinkled, friable, and brown in colour, and oL 
an ill smell 

The powder of tliesc strey ed npou fhiidren'f* 
heads that have yermin destroys tlienj, people also 
int(>xicate fish by it. Make a j)<nind of paste, with 
ilour ar.d w:Uer, and add a bltie red Wd to colour 
ii, add to it iwo ounces of ti}e coeulus indi pow- 
d'Ted. See Mheie roach and other fisli rise, and 
tr.raw in the i]iidi> in small j:icccs. th.ey will lake it 



IVnilLY HERBAL. 



S3 



in-rcidiiv, raid tlicy will l)c intoxicated. Thev will 
swim upon tlie suiTiice with their belly upward, 
atul ui.iy be taken out with the hands. They are 
iH.t the worse for eating.' 

The C o D A G A S H R L' B . Co da[;a pali. 

A LITTLE shrub frequent in the East Lidies, 
and verv beautiful, as well as useful. It ^rows 
ten or fifteen feet hi iih ; tlie branches are brittle^ 
and tjie wood is white. The leaves are long- and 
narrow, not at all noiched at the edges, and of a 
beautiful o-i-een on both sides ; the flower"^, nre huo'e 
and white, and somewhat rrseniblc tr.o.-e ofii^c ro-se- 
bay, or ncriun, of which some make it a kind. 
Each fli wcr is succced^^d l-v t\^o larg'c pods, which 
are joiu^d at the vwl"^, and twist one i/h.ciit the 
other ; thrv are full of a cottcniy matter about (]:e 
seeds. The whole platit is full of a milky juictj 
which it yields plei^tifuM v when brok-eu. 

The bark is tlic only p;iri Uoi-.d ; it is but newly 
introduced into medicine, but iiiav bo had of ti;c 
drug-o-ists ; it rs an excellent remedy f'sr puii^iiig-s. 
It is to be <?;i\en in powder for fluce or four d.-!- s, 
and a vomit or bleeding before ttic use of i(, as uiay 
be ibund necessarv. 

The Colfee-Trf.e. .-Irhor cojj^cc f,:rLns. 



;L ji!,;LL ;<rl 1j -iiriii; o[ th<^ eastern pait c- 
t!ie world, ^^:;l<.'[i we kccp' in nuuiyni" oiir -tuve.-, 
and which bowers uno hv'^M'- I'- f;-':i;. with us. it 
L^i'oy.^ eip:f',t or tc;u fet f:!j;'h ; the hrauches are 
■iiiidci and vve;ik ; the l-'-r;\es are !ar5;f, ohh !;g-, 
•Tw ?)ioad, somewiuit li'^e ihf.se of tlie h;; s-t'(e, 
i)nt b!p;jj;er, and thin. '\ IkmIovkts are\\iiil<^, n;!;- 
d ;ialc'v larLre^ and li\;.' i.;i:Uiinc ; the fruit is a 



BIf FAMILY HERBAL. 

large hc^rry, black wlien it is ripe, and in it are two 
seeds, w'hicii arc what we c/dM cofl'ee ; thoy are 
\yhitis!i, and of a disa^^reeablo fasto wlien raw. 

Cofae hrMps di£;e?(ion, and di«ipels wind • and it 
works genLv bv urine. The best way of /aking it 
is as we eouimonly drink it, and there are constitu- 
tions for which it is very proper. 

Sr:.\ Cole WORT, 014 Se.v Bindweed. SoJduntJla. 

A PRETTY wild plant tliat we have on the 
sea coasts, in many places ; and that deserves to be 
inuch iitore known tlian it is as a medicine. The 
stalks are a foot long, but weak and unable to sup- 
port themselves upright. Thej are round and 
green or purplish : the leaves are roundish, but 
shaped a little heart fashioned at the bottom ; thev 
sfand upon long foot-stalks, and are of a shining 
green. The flowers are large and red, they are of 
the shape of a bell ; the roots are white and smalK 
a milky juice flows from the plant when any part of 
it is broken ,- especially frini the root. 

The whole plant is to be gathered fresh when 
a]ioiit flowering, and boiled in ale with some nut- 
Tnrg and a clove or twf>, and taken in quantities 
■•^r jp'^'ftioned to the person's strength ; it i-i a strong 
pi)r.:.;e, and it sometimes operates al'?o bv urine, but 
therr is no harm in that. It is fittest for country 
TK'i'p'e of robust constitutions, but it will cure 
dropsies and rlicumaiism. Ni»v I have known a 
rlaj) cured on a country fclloxs, by onlv two 
doses of It. The juu'e which oozes from the 
stalk aaul roots uiav be saved, it liardens into 
a sidjstaucc like scammony, and is an cycellent 
j^u.-ge, 



FAMILY IIERBAI 85 

Coltsfoot. Tussilago. 

A COMMON wild ]ierb, of excellent virtues, 
but so different in the spring and summer, as that 
it is scarce to be known for the same. The flow- 
ers appear in spring without the leaves ; they 
grow on stalks six or eight inches high, round, 
thick, flesli}', and of a rtddish colour, on which 
there stand a kind of films instead of leaves. The 
flowers grow one at the top of each stalk ; they are 
mellow, and as large as those of the dandelion, and 
like them. 

The leaves come up after these are decayed, 
(iiey arc as broad as ones hand, roundish, and sup- 
p<r(c(i each on a thick hollow stalk, they are green 
Oil ihe upper side, and wh.ite and downy underneath. 
Tiic flowers are not miiuled, these leaves only are 
used. 

C o LU .M B I N E . ^4qu ilci^ia. 

A COMMON garden flower, but a native aNo 
«>r our country, it grows two feet high ; the 
leaves are divided into many parts, generally in a 
threefold order ; the stalks are round, firm, up- 
right, and a litile hairy ; the flowers are blue and 
large ; the seeds are contained in a kind of horned 
< a[)sules. The leaves and the seeds are used : a 
decoction of the leaves is said to be good against 
sore throats. The seeds open obstructions, and 
are excellent in the jaundice, and other complaints 
from like causes. 

CoMFREv. Symphytum. 

A COMMON wild plant, of great virtue ; it is 
fre(|ncnt by ditch sides; it grows a foot and half 



85 FAMILY Ii]:RBAL. 

Jiigli : tiio leaves arc larp^, loiig', not very broad, 
rouLLvh (otijc touch, and oriidecpdisar^reeablej^reoii : 
the stalks arc g-rccii, thick, aiigulated, and up- 
right. Tln^ ilcv.vcrs gTOW along- the tops of th« 
bnmchcs, and are while, sometimes' reddish, not 
vcr} largo, and hang often do^^n^vards. Tlie root 
is thick, black, and irregu.lar ; when broken it 13 
four.d to bo white within, and full of a sliiny juice. 
This root is Vac part, used, and it is best fresh,, but 
it may be beat up intv") a conserve, w ith three time* 
its weight of sugar. It is a remedy for thatterr 
])le disease the wliites. It is also ""ood asruin;. 
spitting of blood, bloody flaxes, and purgings^. and 
for inward bruises. 

The CoxTRAYERVA Plai.'t. Contraijerca. 

A VEEY singular plant, native of America, 
'^na iirit y^t got info our j.-ardens. It consists only 
of I<'avi's r^.ing from tlie root, upon single foot- 
s!:iiivs, wwA flov.ers of aririguiar kind, standing- also 
on siii:_:! ' and separate foot- stalks, with no leaves 
upon tlunn. I'he leave? arc large, oblong, very 
broad, and deeply divided ow each side ; their co- 
lour is a dusky green ; and the foot- stalks on 
\v!;i(h they stand are small and wdiitish, and often 
])end under the weight of tlie leaf. The stalks 
V. (li'-h support the flowers, are shorter and weaker 
jli.iu i'k'si' ; aiid the f]o\v(ns are of a very pecu- 
ii.ir kind ; ihev are disposed together in a kind of 
!!:'.! f.>rro, and arc; Acry small and inconsiderable. 
"\\\c he;! on V, hich th<"y arc sitnated is of an oval 
iivure, and is c;illcd the placenta of the plant ; 
it ;s <,'l' a pale colour and thin. 

Y. c arc lol.i of another \)\vi\\\ of the same kind ; 
tl:; leuvt s of w liicli are less divirled, and the pla- 
fjoJa rs s^iuare, but the ro'^vS of both arc allowed 



tobeexncily alike v.:3 jt is thercibre mrre pro- 
bable^ that this is int ai;other plant, br,t tiic same 
in a diirerent staii;e of growth. 

We use the root^ ; our druggists keep (hem, and 
flicy are the principal inuredient in that famous 
powder, called, from it? bcinp: volicd up into balls, 
lapis confraycrv.'i. It i^ an excellent cordial and. 
sudorific, (rood in fevers, and in nervous cases ; 
and againsi indigestions, colics, and weaknesses 
of tlie stoinacli. It may be taivcn in powder or 
in tincture ; bsit i( is better to give it alone, Ihar 
with that mixture of crab's claws and (ther use- 
less ingredi(Mi!s, wh.ic.h. go intif thr C(!n(raverv?. 
.stone. Ill fevers and lervous disorders, it is best 
to giv*- it in pi'wder ; in wt-aknr'sscs (tf the vto!!:arij^ 
it i?. !;tst ill iiiwhiie. It i>i ::ho an exc; li.ni iu- 
gri;(; u'li? in b'tter tinctuies ; aiid it is wGndcrfuI the 
present practice lias r.ot put it to U.vd u?e. All 
the old pre^scnhers of loruis for these tl)ings, have 
put some warm root into tlicm ; but noi^e is so 
jjroper as this ; the most uai'al Ikis been tl-.e grJan- 
gul, but (hat has a most disagreeable fiavonr in 
tincture: the contraverva has all the virtues ex- 
pccted to be found in Ihat^ and i« q\iiie unexcep- 
tionablc. 

1'hc Copal Tree. Arhor cojpalifcrc.. 

A L.\RGE tree of South America. \i grotv? 
to a great height, and is tail, straight, and toierablv 
regular ; the bark of the trunk i.^ of a deep !)row--. 
The branches are bitter. The leaves are large an:^ 
t>blong, and they are blunt at the ends ; tb^v arr 
dr\"j)iv cut in at the edges, and if it were not that 
t'ley area great deal longer in pronorlion to their 
bread (1), they would be very like those of tJie oak ; 
Uie flowers arc modcrs.t-My I.irp-e, and fidi rf 



is FAMILY HERBAL 

threads ; the fruit is round, and of a blood rej 
when ripe. 

We use a resin which oozes from the bark of 
large trees of this species in g-reat pk;ntjj and in 
called copal ; it is of a pale veliow colour^ some- 
times brownish, and often colourless, and like giirt 
arabic ; we have a way of calling it a gum, but 
itistrulj a res-in ; and the yellow pieces of it ara 
80 bright and transparent, that (hey very much re- 
semble the purest amber. 

It is good against the whites, and against weak- 
nesses left after the venereal disease ; but it is not 
so much used on these occasions as it deserve^. 
It is excellent for making' varnishes ; and what 13 
commonly called amber varnish among our artists 
i.i made from it. Amber will make a very fine var- 
nish, better than that of copal, or any other kind ; 
but it is dear. 

We sometimes see heads of canes of the colour- 
less copal, which seem to be of amber, only they 
want its colour ; these are made of tlie same resin 
in the East Indies, where it grows harder. 

Coral. Cor allium. 

A SEA plant of t!ie hardness of a stone, and 
witli very liltle of the aj)pearance of an herb, 
I he red coral, which is the sort used in medicine, 
grows a foot or more in ijeight ; the trunk is as 
thick as a man's thumb, and the branches are 
nuinrrous. It is fastened to the rocks by a crust 
which .sf)reads over them, and is covered all over 
with a crust also of a coarse substance and striated 
texture. Towards the top there are (lowers and 
ifcrds, but verv small ; fnuu these rise the voung 
plants. The seeds lia\e a mucilaginous matter 
about them, winch sticks tliem to the rocks. Th« 



FAMILY HERBAL. hd 

'Viho\e plant appears like a naked sliriib without 
leaves or visible flowers. 

It has been supposed lately that coral is made 
by small insects, but this is an error ; polypes live 
in coral as worms in wood, but these don't make 
the trees nor the other the plant. Coral is to be 
reduced to fine powder, by grinding it on a mar- 
ble ; and then it is given to stop purglngs, to 
destroy acid humours in the stomach, and to 
sweeten the blood. They suppose it also a cordial. 
Probably for all its real uses, chalk is a better me- 
dicine. 

There are several sorts of white «oral, which 
have been sometimes used in medicine ; but all al- 
low the red to be better, so that they are not kept 
an the shops. 

CoR.iLLiNE. Corallina, 

A LITTLE sea plant frequent about our own 
Coasts and of a somewhat stony textiire, but not 
like the red or white coral. It grows to three 
inches high, and is very much branched, and young 
shoots arise also from different parts of the branches : 
there are no leaves on it, nor visible flowers, but 
the whole plant is composed of short joints. It is 
commonly of a greenish or reddish colour, but 
when it has been thrown a time upon the shores, it 
bleaches and becomes white ; it naturally grows 
to shells and pebbles. The be.st is the freshest, n«t 
that which is bleached. 

It is given to children as a remedy against worms ; 
a scruple or half a dram for a dose. 

Coriander. Coriandrum, 

A SMALL plant, cultivated in France and: 

N 



90 FAMILY HERBAL. 

German, for Ibe sake of its seed. It is two fect 
liigli, and has clusters of white or reddish flowera 
upon the tops of the branches. Tlie stalks are 
round, upri<^ht, and hollow^ hut have a pith in 
them ; the leaves, which grow from the root, have 
rounded tops, those on the stalks are divided into 
narrow parts ; the seeds follow two after each 
flower, and they are half round. 

The seed is the only part used : the whole plant 
when fresh has a bad smell, but as the seeds dry, 
they become sweet and fragrant. They are ex- 
cellent to dispel wind ; they warm and strength- 
en the stomach and assist digestion. It is good 
against pains in the head, and has some virtue in 
stopping purgings, joined with other things. 

The Cornel Tube. Coj^nus mos. 

A GARDEN tree of the bigness of an appk 
tree, and branched like one ; the bark is greyish, 
the twigs are tough : the leaves are oblong, broad, 
and pointed, of a fine green colour, but not serrated 
at the edges. The flowers are small and yellowish, 
the fruit is of the bigness of a cherry, but oblong, 
not round; it is red and fleshy, of an astringent 
bark, and has a large stone. The fruit i5 ripe in 
autumn ; the flowers appear early. 

The fruit is the part used ; it may be dried and 
used, or the juice boiled down with sugar ; either 
way it is cooling and moderately astringent ; it is a 
gentle pleasant medicine in fevers with purgings. 

There is a wild cornel tree, called the female 
cornel, in our hedges ; a shrub five feet high, w j^th 
broad leaves, and black berries ; it ii not used in 
medicine. In some parts of the West Indies they 
intoxicate fish with the bark of a shrub of this 
kind, by only putting a quantity of it into the water 



FAMILY HERBAL. 91 

of a pond ; we have not tried whether this of ours 
will do the bauie. 

CoKN Marigold. Chrysanthemum segestum. 

A VERY heautiful wild plant growino; in corn- 
field^:, with large bluish leaves, a;id full of flowers 
like uiai igolds. It is two feet high ; the stalks are 
numei'oi!!«i, round, still* tolerably uprigb.t, and 
branched ; the leaves stand irregularly, and are 
long, very broad, and of a bluish green ; they are 
smallest towards the base, and larger at the end, 
and they are deeply cut in at the sides. The flow- 
ers are as broad as half a crown, and of a very beau- 
tiful yellow ; they have a cluster of threads in the 
middle. The root is fibrous. 

The flowers, fresh gathered and just opened, 
contain ihc greatest virhie. They are good against 
all obstructions, and work by urine. An infusian of 
them, given in the quantity of half a pint warm, 
three times a day, has been known to cure a jaun- 
dice, without any other medicine ; the dried herb 
has the same virtue, but in a less degree. 

CosTMARY. Costus hortoTum. 

A GARDEN plant kept more for its virtues 
than its beauty, but at present neglected. It grows 
a foot and lialf high, and has clusters of naked 
yellow flov ers like tansy. The stalks are firui, 
thick, green, and upright ; the leaves are oblong, 
narrow, of a pale green, and beautifully serrated; 
the flowers consist only of deep yellow threads. 

It was once greatly esteemed for strengthening 
the stomach, ar.d curing head-achs, and for opening 
obstructions of the liver and spleen, but mor^ seeraa 
to have been said of it than it deserved. 



92 FAMILY HERBAL. 

The Co3TUs Plant. Cosius. 

AN Indian plants wliicli bears two kinds of stalkf, 
one for the leaves, and the othei for the flowers and 
seeds ; these both rise from the sameroot^ and oftea 
near one another. 

The leaf-stalks are four feet high, thick, hollow, 
round, upright, and of a reddish colour. 

The leaves are like those nf the reed kind^ long, 
narrow, and pointed at the edges, and they are of 
a bluish green colour. The stalks which bear the 
flowers, are eight inches high, tender, soft, round, 
and as it were scaly. The flowers are small and 
reddish, and thej stand in a kind of spikes, inter- 
mixed with a great quantity of scaly leaves. 

The root is the only part used ; it is kept by our 
druggists ; it is oblong and irregularly shaped. It is 
a very good and safe diuretic, it always operates 
that way, sometimes also by sweat, and it opens 
obstructions of the viscera. But uhless it be new 
and firm, it has no virtue. 

The Cotton Tree. Gossijpium sivc xylon. 

A SMALL shriib, with brittle and numerous 
branches, and yellow flowers : it does not grow 
more than f(uir {evi I igh ; the leaves are large, and 
divided each into five parts ; and of a dusky green 
colour The ihtwtrs are large and beantiful, they 
are of the hell-fashioned kirjci, as broad as a half 
crown, deep, < i a yellow colour, and with a purple 
bottom ; the seed-vessels are large, and of a roundish 
figure, and they contain the cotton with the seeds 
among it. AVhcn ripe, they burst open into three or 
four pnrts. 

The s»(ds are used in medicine, bat not so 
jjinrli as they deserve ; they arc excellent in coughs. 



FAMILY HERBAL. dS 

and all disorders of the breast and lungs ; they 
cause expectoration^ and are very balsamic OKid 

sstriiigcnt. 

The Cotton Thistle, Acanthium. 

A TALL and stately wild plant, common by 
our way sides^ and known by its great white 
prickly leaves and red flowers. It is four or 
five feet high. The leaves which grow from 
the root are a foot and a half long, a foot broad, 
deeply indented at the edges, and beset with yel- 
lowish thorns; they are of a whitish colour, and 
seem covered with a downy matter of tlie nature ot 
cotton. The stalks arc thick, round, firm, and up- 
right ; and winged with a sort of leafy substances 
wliich rise from them, and have the same sort of 
prickles that are tjpon the leaves. The ordinary 
leaves upon the stalks are like those which grow 
from the root, only they are more deeply indented, 
and more prickly ; the flowers are purple ; they 
stand in long prickly heads, and make a beautiful 
appearance. The root is very long, thick^ aud 
white. 

The root, is the part used, and that should be 
fresh gathered. It opens obstructions, and is good 
against <he jaundice, and in dropsies, ind other 
disorders arising from obstructions. It also mo- 
derately promotes the menses. It may be dried 
and given in powder for the same purposes. But 
the virtues are much less. 

Couch Grass. Gramen caninum. 

* 

A VERY troublesome weed in fields and gar- 
dens, hut very useful in medicine. Nature 
\u\< made those plants which may be most useful 



m FAMILY HERBAL. 

to us <Le most common,, and tl^e most di*lBeuIt Iq 
Tbc removed. Ct^uch grass gros^s (wo feet high, 
Slid is a robust kind of grass : the stalk is round 
and poinfcd ; tiic leaves are grassy, but broad;, 
aiui of a fresh grcv.n colour; the spike at the top 
js like au ear of wheat, only thin and Hat. It 
cor.'^ists of ten rov/s of graiiis. The root is 
^vhik'^ slender^ very long and jointed, and it fakes 
Iresh Ijold at every joint ; so that if but a piece 
ii left in pulling it up, it grows and increases ver 
quickly. 

Tlie roots are used, and they are to be fresQ 
taken up and boiled. The dcc<jction is excellent 
in the gravel and stone; it promotes urine strong- 
ly, yet not forcibly or roughly. Taken fo»' a 
continuance, the same decoction is good against 
obstructions of the liver, and will cure the jauiv- 
dice. 

Cowslip. Paralysis. 

A PRETTY wild plant in our meadovvs. The 
leaves arc broad, oblong, indented, rough, and 
ofawhi(i.sh green colour; the stalks are round, 
upriafht, firm, thick, and downy ; they are six 
or eight inciies high, and arc naked of leaves. 
At tlir top of each stand a number of ])retty yellow 
blowers, each upon a separate foot -stalk, and ia its 
own separate cup. 

The (lowers arc the part used. TliCy have been 
celebrated very nuieli againi^t ;ip(;plc,\ies, palsies^ 
and other teirible di:-eases, but at pre-eot in .^.ucli 
cases we do ne.t trust sutli remedies. I'hey have 
a tcr.deriCy to procure sleep, aiui mnv be given in 
ua or nresci Ycd in form of a cor..;ervc. 



25'AMILY HERBAL. r> 

Cowslip o*" Jerusalem. Pulmonaria maculate, 

A LOW plant, but not without beauty, l^c'V'^ in 
gardens fo- the credit of its virtues, whicl^ are 
indeed m.ie and greater tlian the present neglect 
of it wo'ild have one to suppose. It grows to eight 
or ten njciii.'S hi£;h ; tlie leaves are long arid broad., 
hairy, of a deep green, and spotted with ^vhite 
spots on the upper side, but of a prJcr ccd'Hir, and 
cot spotted uriderneath. The sfa'ks arc slender, 
angulated, and hairy, and have smaller I 'aves on 
them, but of the same figure with those from the 
root. The fiov/ers arc srnail and reddisli, and grow 
several in a cluster at the top of the stalk. The 
root is fibrous. 

The leaves aroused; th.ey should he gathered 
before the stalks grv)Nv up, ar.d dried ; they are 
excellent in decoction for coughs, shortness of 
breath, and all disorders of the lungs ; taken m 
powder, thej stop tlie ovenlowing of the menses ; 
and when fresh bruised aod put into a new made 
wound, thej stop the bleeding and heal it. 

Cow-wiiE.rr. CrcUcognnuui, 

A COMMON \yild plant in our woods and 
thickets, with narrow blackish leaves, and ])rigiit 
yellow flowers. It is eight or ten inches high. 
The stalks are square and slender ; very brittle, 
weak, and seldom quite upriglit. The leaves are 
oblong and niTrow ; sometimes of a (kiskv gxvcn 
colour, but oftener purplish or hhu k^'sh ; they 
are broadest at the hase, and small all the way ti> 
the point; and they are commonly, but n(^t always 
indented a little about the edges. The flower? 
5tand, or rather hang, all on one side of the stalk, 
m a kiud of loose spike ; they are small and yeUovT. 



U6 FAMILY HERBAL. 

and grow two together. The seeds which follov*^ 
these are large, and have something of the as- 
pect of wheat, from whence the plant has its odd 
name. 

These seeds are the part used ; <hcy arc to I'e 
dried and given in powder, but in small doses. 
They have virtues which few seem to imagine ; 
they are a high cordial and provocative to venery; 
but if given in too large a dose, they occasion the 
head-^ach and a strange giddiness, I knew an in- 
stance of a woman who had boiled the fresh tops 
of the plant in a large quantity in water, as a re- 
medy fw the jaundice, (I know not by what in- 
formation, ) and having drank this in large draughts, 
was as a person drunk and out of her senses ; she 
complained of numbness in her limbs, and seemed 
in danger of her life, but nature recovered her after 
a few hours without other assistance. 

The Crab Tree. JMalus sylxestris. 

A COiVIMON hedge shrub, and when in flow- 
er very beautiful. The trunk is uneven, and the 
bark rough ; the branches arc knotty, th£ wood 
is firm, and the bark of a dark colour ; the 
leaves are broad and short, the flowers are large 
and reddish, very beautiful and sweet, and the 
fruijt is a small apple. 

Verjuice is made from the crab ; and it is a re- 
medy for the falling down of the uvula, better 
than most other applications : it is also good, 
against sore throats, and in all disorders ot the 
mciuth. 

Cranesbill. Geranium ruhcrtianum, 

CRANESBILL is a little herb very frequent 



Family herbal. 97 

tinder hedges, and in uncultivated places : tlicrs 
are many kinds of it, but that which i.'as most vir- 
tue, is tjie kind called herb robert ; this is a pretty 
and regularly growing plant. The stalks are a 
foot long, but thev seldom stand quite upright ; 
^hej are round, branched, and jointed, and are often 
red, as is frequently the v>hole plant : the leaves are 
large, and divided into a great number of parts, 
and they stand upon long foot-stalks, two at every 
joint. The flowers are moderately large, and of 
a briglitred, they are very conspicuous and pretty; 
the fruit that follows is long and slender, and has 
some resriublance of Ibo long beak of a bird, whence 
the nctme. 

The whole plant is to be gathered root and all, 
and dried for use ; it is a most excellent astringent : 
J5carc& anv plant is equal to it. It may be given 
dried and powdered, or in decoction. It stops 
overflowings of the menses, bloody slools, and all 
otiier ])lcedings. 

It is to be observed that nature ?;eem.^ to have 
set her stamp upon several herbs which have the 
vhtue to stop bleedings. Thii and the tusan, the 
tw o host remedies the Gelds afford for outward and 
inward bleedings, become all over as red as lilood 
at a certain season. 

The Garden Cress. Nasturtium hdrtcnse, 

A COMMON garden plant, raised for sailads. It 
H two feet high: the staik is r(>und and firm, and 
of a bliiisli green ; the leaves are di\ideU into scg- 
JiuMits, and the flowers are s-niall and whife ; but 
the full grow n plant is not seen at our tables ; wc 
eat only ihe leases rising immediately from the roiit, 
't'iiv<^e are lar. e, finely dividcJ, of a bright greer>. 



93 FAMILY HERBAL. 

and sharp. Cresses eaten in quantity are very good 
against the scurvy. The seeds open obstructions. 

Water Cress. J^Tislurtium aquaticum. 

A WILD plant common with us in ditches^ and 
shallow rivers. It is a foot high^ the stalks are 
round, thick^ but not very upright, of a pale green, 
and much branched ; the leaves are of a fresh and 
bright green, divided in a winged manner and ob- 
tuse ; the flowers are small and white, and there is 
generally seen a kind of spike of the flowers and 
seeds at the top of the stalks. 

The leaves are used ; they may be eaten in the 
manner of garden cress, and are full as pleasant, 
and they are excellent against the scurvy. The 
juice expressed from them has the same virtue, and 
works also powerfully by urine, and opens ob- 
structions. 

Sciatica Cress. Iberis, 

A PRETTY wild plant, but not frequent in all 
parts of the kingdom. It is a foot high. The 
stalk is round, firm, and upright ; of a pale green 
colour. The leaves are small, longish, and of a 
pale green also ; and the lh)wers stand at the tops 
of the branches, into whicli the stalk divides in its 
upper part ; they are white and little. The leave* 
that grow immediately from the root, are four 
inches long ; narrow and serrated about the edges, 
and of a deep green. 

The leaves are used ; they are recommended 
greatly in the sciatica or hip-gout ; they are to be 
applied externally, and repeated as they grow dry. 
The bestwav is to beat them with a little lard. It 





^-T^V \r 




/>>^//',V' 



FAMILY HERBAL. 99 

U an jipproyed remedy, and it is itrnngc that it ie 
not more in use. 

Wart Cresses^ or Swinb's Cressss. Coronoput 

rudlii. 

A LITTLE wild plant very common about our 
fields and g-ar-jens. It spreads upon the ground. 
The stalks are five OT six inches long; firnij and 
thick, but usually flat on the earth ; very much 
branched, and flill of leaves. The leaves that rise 
immediately from the root are long, and deepljr 
divided : and those on the stalks resemble them, 
only they arc smaller : they are of a deep glossy 
green colour, and not at all hairy. The flowers 
are small and white ; they stand at the tops of the 
branches and among the leaves ; the seed-vesseli 
Are small and rough. 

This is an excellent diuretic, safe, and ye( very 
powerful. It is an ingredient in Mrs. Stephens* 
medicine: the juice may be taken; and it is good 
for the jaundice, and against all inward obstruc- 
tions, and against the scurvy ; the leaves may 
also be eaten as salad, or dried and given in de- 
coction. 

Oko88-woRT. Cruciaia. 

A VERY pretty wild plant, but not very com- 
mon : it grows afoot and a half high. The stalks 
are square, hairy, weak, and of a pale green. The 
leaves are broad and short ; they stand four at 
every joint, star-fashioned, upon the stalk. The 
flowers are little and yellow ; they stand in clusters 
round the stalk, at thejoints, rising from the in- 
sertion of the leaves. It is to be found in dry 
places. 



100 FAMILY HERBAL. 

The wliole plant is to be gatlicrcd whc-n begin- 
ning to flower, and dried. A strong decoction of 
it is a good restriiigent, and styptic ; it stops pur- 
gings, even when there arc bloody stools ; and 
overflowings of the menses. 

Crow-foot. Ranuculus. 

A COMMON wild plant. There are several 
sorts of it^ but the kind used in medicine is that 
most common in meadows, and called the common 
creeping crowfoot. It grows a foot or more high ; 
the stalks are firm, thick, branched, and of a pale 
green ; but they seldom stand quite upright. The 
leaves on them are few, and divided into narrow 
segments ; the flowers are yellow, of the breadth 
of a shilling, and of a fine shining colour ; they 
stand at the tops of all the branches ; the leaves 
-which rise from the root are large, divided in a 
threefold manner, and of(en spotted with white. 

Some arc so rash as to mix a few leaves of tlii^ 
anu)ng salad, but it is very wrong ; tlie plant is 
caustic and poisonous. They are excellent applied 
eKternally in palsies and apoplexies ; for they act 
quicker thancantharides in raising blisters, and arc 
more felt. It is a wonder they are not more used 
for this purpose; but we are at present so fo^id 
of foreign medicines, that these things are nut 
minded. 

There are two other kinds of crow-foot distin- 
guished as poisons ; though all of them are, with 
some degree of justice, branded wilh this name: 
but the two most pernicious kinds are that called 
spearwort, which has long, narrow, and undivided 
leaves ; and that with very small flowers, and leaves 
somewhat liUe the divisions of those of smallage. 
These both grow in watry places, 



FAMILY HERKAL. 101 

The CuBEE Plant. Cuheha. 

A CLiMBERING plant of the ^Yarm cli- 
mates, but unknown in this part of the worlds until 
described bv those who have been where it grows. 
The stalks are weak, ang-ulated, and reddish; the 
leaves are b;oad and short, and the flowers small ; 
the fruit is of the bigness of a pepper corn, but a 
little oblong, and grows on a long and very slender 
foot stalk. 

This fruit is the part used ; the druggists keep 
it. It is a v/a;in and plea&ant spice good against 
weaknesses of tiic stomach, in colics, and in palsies, 
and all nervous disorders. Uut it is seldom used 
alone. 

The Cucumber Plant. Cucumis liorfeiisis. 

A CREEPING stragg]ii)g plant sufficiently 
known. The stalks are a yard or two long, thick, 
but spread upon the grouiid, angulated and hairy. 
The leaves are broad deeply indented, and very 
rough, aud of a bluish green colour ; the flowers 
are large ap.d yellow. The fruit is long and thick; 
the seeds are used in medicine, and the fruit should 
be suirered <o stand till very ripe before they arc 
gatlicrcd. They are cooling and diuretic, good 
against stranguries, and all disorders of the urinar v 
passages; the best way of giving them is bea-t up 
to an emulsion with barley water. 

The Wild Cucumber. Cucumis asininns. 

THIS, though called wild, is not a native of 
England. It spreads upon the ground in the 
EViiuner of the other cucumber, ami its branches 
giow to a considerable lengtli ; they are thick, 



103 FAMILY HERBAL. 

Iiairy, angiilafcd, and of a pale green and tough. 
The leaves are broad at the basC;, and narrow at the 
point, serrated round the edges, and of a pale green 
above, and whitish below. The flowers are jellow, 
and moderately large ; the fruit is of an oval 
figure, hairy, and full of juice. Care must be takeo 
in touching it when ripe, for the sharp juice flies 
out with violence. 

Th<» juice of the fruit is pressed out, and a thick 
Hiatter that subsides from it is separated and dried ; 
the druggists keep this and call it elatheriuiu, it is 
a violent purgative, but little used. 

CucKow Flower, or Lady's smcck.. Carda- 

v.unc. 

A VERY beavilifnl \Tild plant, frequent in our 
nieadows in spring, and a great ornament to them. 
It grows a foot high. Tl,e leaves which rise from 
the root, are winged very regularly and beautifully, 
and are spread in a circular manner, the stalk it 
round, thick, finn, and tpright. The leaves that 
grow on it are smaller, finely divided, and stand 
.Mngly. The flowers grow in a little cluster, on 
that spike on the top, and from the bottom of the 
leaves. They are huge, of a fine white, often 
tinged with a blush of red. 

The juice of the fresh leaves is to be used ; 
it is an excellent diuretic, and is good in the 
gravel and all suppressions of urine. It also opens 
obstructions, and is good in the jaundice and 
green sickness ; and a course of it against the 
scurvy. 

Cudweed. Gnaphalium. 

A COMIMON v^ild plant, but singular in is 



FAMILY HERBAL. 103 

appearance. There are many species of it. Hut 
that used in medicine is the kind called the middle 
cudv.eedj a herb impious. It has this last name 
from the whimsical observation of the young flow- 
ers rising above the old ones, which is called the 
son's growing above the father. This cudweed, 
is a little low plant, it seldom rises to a foot high. 
Ihe stalks are tough, firm, white, slender, and up- 
right ; they are very thick, set with leaves, which 
are small, oblong, white, and pointed at the ends, and 
seldom lie \ery even. The flowers are a kind of 
brown or yellowish heads, standing at the tops, and 
in the divisions of the stalks. 

The herb bruised, and applied to a fresh wound, 
stops the bleeding ; it may be also dried and given in 
decoction, in wliich form it is good against the 
whites, and will often stop violent purgings. 

Cummin. Cuminum. 

A PLANT of the umbelliferous kind, cultivated 
in every part of the East, for the value of the seed. 
It grows a font and a half high. The stalk is 
round, striated, green, and hollow. The leaves are 
large, and very finely divided in the manner of 
those of fennel. The flowers stand in larjre clus- 
ters, at the tops of the branches, and they arc small 
and white, with a blush of red. The seeds are long 
and striated. 

The seeds are used. Our druggists keep them. 
They are of a verv disagreeable flavour, but oi 
excellent virtues ; they are good against tlie colic 
and wind in the stomach, and, applied outwardly, 
they will often remove pains in the side. Tbey must 
be bruised, and a large quantity laid oa. 



104 FAMILY HERBAL. 

The Black Currant. Ribcsia nigra. 

THIS is a little shrub, of hite brought very 
luiiver sally into our g-ardens. it grows three or 
four foot high. The branches are weak, and the 
bark is smooth. The leaves are large and broad, 
and diviilcd in the manner of those of the coraraon 
currants ; but they have a strong sniell. The 
flowers are greenish and hollow. Tlie fruit is 
a large and round berry, black, and of a some- 
what disagreeable taste, growing in the manner of 
the currants. 

The juice of black currants boiled up with su- 
gar to a jelly, is an excellent remedy against sore 
throats. 

Long Cyperus. Cyjperus longns. 

A WILD plant in our marshes, fens, p.na other 
damp places. It is a foot and half high. The 
leaves are a foot long or more, narrow, grassy, and 
of a bright gr-i^en colour, flat, and sharp at ibe 
ends. The stalk is triangular and green ; there 
are no leaves on it, except two or three small ones 
at the top, from which there rises a number cA. 
small tufts or spikes of flowers. These are brown, 
light, cliaflV, and in ail respects like those of the 
other v/ater grasses. 

The root is used. It is loi;"; and iirown, and 
when dried, is of a pleasnut Ehiell, and aromatic 
warm taste. It sh.oiiid be taken i p in poring. It 
is good against pains iii (l;o iicad, ;t:ul it promotes 
urine. 

K.ounD CvPFJii.'s. O/prrzi.y rotundus. 

A PLANT in mai-y respects rescrnbiifigtl'.c others, 



FAMILY HERBAL. 101 

but a native of the warmer countries. It grows 
two feet high. The leaves are very numerous, 
.1 foot and a half long, narrow, of a pale green 
colour sharp at the point, and ribbed all along 
like those of grass. The stalk is triangular, and the 
edges are sharp ; it is firm, upright, and often 
purplish, especially towards the bottom. The 
flowers are chaffy, and they grow from the top of 
the stalk, vfith several small and short leaves set 
under thcin ; they are brown and light. The root 
is composed of a great quantity of black fibres, to 
Avhich there grows at certain distances roundish 
lumps. These are the only parts used in medicine. 
Our druggists keep them. They are light , and of 
a pleasant smell, and warm spicy taste. 

They are good in all nervous disorders. They 
are best taken in infusion, but as the virtues are 
rauch the same with the other, that is best, because 
it may be had fresher. 

The Cypress Tree. Cuprcssuf;. 

A TREE kept in our gardens, an evergreen, 
and singular in the manner of its growth. It 
rises to twenty or thirty foot high, and is all the 
way thick beset with branches. These are largest 
towards the bottom, and smaller all the way up ; 
so that the tree appears naturally of a conic fi- 
gurc. The bark is of a reddish brown. The 
leaves are small and short, they cover all the 
twigs like scales, and ar«? of a beautiful deep 
green. The flowers are «mall and inconsiderable. 
The fruit is a kind of nut, of the bigness of a 
small w alnut, and of a brown colour and firm sub- 
.stance. When ripe, it divides into several parts, 
and the seeds fall out. 

The fruit is the only part used. It is to b^ 

J? 



106 FAMILY HERBAL„ 

gathered uefi)rc it bursts^ and carefully dried and 
given in powder ; five and twenty grains is tiie 
dose. It is an excellent balsamic and styptic. 
It stops the bleeding of the nose, and is good 
against spitting of blood, bloody-flux, and over- 
flowing of the menses. We are not aware how 
powerful a remedy it is ; few things are equal 
to it. 

D. 

» Common Daffodill. JSa7xissus. 

A WILD English plant, with narrow leaves and 
great yellow flowers, common in our gardens 
in its own form, and in a great variety of ^shapes 
that culture has given it. In its wild state, it is 
about a foot high. The leaves arc long, narrow, 
grassy, and of a deep green, and thev are nearly 
as tall us the stalk. The stalk is roundish, butj 
somewhat flatted a[id edged. The fioM er is large 
and single ; it stands at the top of the stalk, and by 
its weight presses it down a little. The root is round 
and white. 

The fresh root is to be used, and 'tis very easy 
to have it always in readiness in a garden; and 
yery useful, for it has great virtues. (Jiveii in- 
ternally, in a small quantity, it acts as a vomil, 
and afterwards purges a little; and it is excellent 
against all obstructions. The best way of giving 
it is in form of the juice pressed out with some 
white wine, but its princij)al uses are externally. 
The eastern nations liave a peculiar way of dry- 
ing the thick roots of })Iants, especially if they 
are full of a slimy juice as this is : They put 
them to soak in water, and then hang them over 
the steam of a pot in which rice is boiling ; after 
thiithey string them up, and they become in some 



FAMILY HERBAL, 107 

ilee;ree transparent and horny. It would be worth 
wliile to try the method upon tins root and some 
others of our own growth ; which, because of this 
slimv juice, we cannot well dry any other way; 
probably this would lose its vomiting quality 
wlien driedj and would act onlv as an opener of 
obstructions^ in which case, it might be given in 
repeated doses ; for at present no body will be pre- 
vailed upon 10 take it often. 

The fresh root bruised and applied to fresh 
wounds lieals them very suddenlv. Applied to 
strains and bruises, it is also excellent, taking away 
the swellino; and pain. 

The Great Daisy. ' Bcllls ina]oi\ 

A BEAUTIFUL and stately wild plant, which, 
if it were not frequent in our fields, would douht- 
lei»s be esteemed in gardens. It grows to a foot 
high. The stalks are angulated slender, but firm 
and upright : the leaves are oblong, narrow, 
denied round the edges, and of a beautiful deep 
green. The flowers stand on the tops of the 
branches. 7'hey are v hite, and an inch broad; 
very like the white china starwort so much esteem- 
ed in our gardens. The root is slender. 

The ilowers arc the part used. Tliey are to be 
gathered when newly opened, and dried, and may 
afterwards be given in powder or infusion. Thev 
are good against cougiis and shortness of breath, 
and in all disorders of the lungs. They are balsamic 
snd strengthening. 

Tlic Little Daisy. Bcllis minor. 

A PRETTY wild plant, too common to need 
i\\\i:\\ tie>^cription, bu-t too much neglected for it? 



108 FAMILY HERBAL. 

virtues. The leaves are oblongs broad^ and ob- 
tuse. The stalks are three or four inches high, 
and have no leaves. The flowers grow one on 
each stalk, and are of the breadth of a shilling, and 
whitish or reddish. The root is composed of a 
v-ist quantity of fibrcii. 

The roots fresh gathered and given in a strong 
decoctioOj are excellent against the scurvy; the 
use of them must be continued sonic tirae, but the 
event will make amends for the trouble. People 
give these roots boiled in milk to keep puppies from 
growing, but they have no such elTects* 

Dandelion. Denslcoiiis. 

ANOTHER of our wild plants too common to 
need much description. The leaves are very long, 
somewhat broad, and deeply indented at the edges. 
The stalks are naked, hollow, green, upright, and 
5!X, eiglit, or ten inches high ; one llower stands 
on eacli, which is large, yellow, and composed of 
a great quantity of leaves, and seeds which follow 
this, have a downy matter afiixed to them. The 
whole head of them appears globular. The root 
is long, large, and white. The whole plant is full 
of a milky juice, the root most of all. This runs 
from it when broken, and is bitterish but not dis- 
agreeable. 

Tlic root fresh gathered and boiled, makes an 
excellent decoction to promote urine, and bring 
away gravel. The leaves may be eaten as salad 
when very young, and if taken this way in suf- 
iicient quantity, they are good against the scurvj. 

Red Darnell. Lolium ruhnun. 

A WILD gras?<, very conmion about way-sides. 



FAMILY HERBAL. 10^ 

and distinguished by its stubborn stalks and low 
growth. It is not above a foot high, often much 
less. The leaves are narrow, short, and of a 
duskv green. The stalk is thick, reddish, some- 
what flatted, and upright. The ear is flat ; and 
is composed of a double row of short spikes : thi^, 
as well as the stalk, is often of a purplish colour. 
The root is composed of a great quantity of whitii-h 
fibres. 

The roots are to be used ; and tliey are best dried 
and given in powder. They are a very excellent 
astringent ; good against purging, overflowing of 
the menses, and all other fluxes, and bleeding; 
but tlie last operation is slow, and they must be con- 
tinued. 'Tis a medicine fitter, therefore, for ha- 
bitual complaints of this kind, than sudden illness. 

There is an old opinion that the s'^eds of darneil, 
■when by chance mixed with corn, and made into 
bread, which may happen, whcu it grows in corn- 
fields, occasions dizziness of the head, sickness of 
the stomach, and all the bad effects of drunkenness : 
they are said also to hurt the eyes ; but we Jiave 
very little assurance of these efiects ; nor are they 
very probable. They properly belong to another 
kind of darnell, distinguished by the name of white 
darnell ; which is a taller plant, and more common 
in corn-fields than tlie red ; but this is very much 
to be suspected upon the face of the account. The 
antients make frequent meution of this kind ot 
darnell, growing, to their great distress, among ^I'he 
wheat ; but by the accidental hints some /lave 
given about its height, and the shape of it?> ear, 
they seem to have meant the common dogs grass 
or couch grass, under that name ; though others 
have seemed to understand the distir!clio/i. In this 
imcertainty, however, remains the matter about 
which particular kind of grass was really accused 



no FAMILY HERBAL. 

of possessing these bad qualities : but it is most 
j)r{)bable that they beloiuj to neither ; and that 
fancy, rather than auj thing really kaown, gave 
birth to the opinion. 

The Date Tree. Paluia dartylifera. 

A TREE of the ^varmer countries, very unlike 
ihose of our part of the world. The trunk is thick 
ard tall, and is all the way up of the same bigness ; 
it has no hark, but is covered with the rudiments of 
leaves, and the inner part of the trunk when it is 
young is eatable. At the tup of the trunk stand a 
vast quantity of leaven, some erect and some droop- 
ing, and from the bosoms of these grow the flowers 
and tlie fruit ; but it is remarkable that the flowers 
grow upon the trees only, and the fruit on some 
others. If there be not a tree of the male kind, that 
is a flowering tree near the fruit of the female, it 
will never naturally ripen. In this case they cut 
off bunches of the flowers, and shake them over 
the herd of the female tree, and this answers the 
pui'posc 

All plants have what may be called male and fe- 
male parts in their flowers. The male parts are 
certain dusty parlicles : the female parts are the 
rudiments of the l>uits. In some plants these are 
in the same flowers as in the tulip. Those black 
jrrains which dust the hands arc the male part, and 
th-, green thing in the middle of them is the female: 
it bv'comes afterwards the fruit or seed vessel. In 
other plants, as melons, and many more, the male 
parts grow in some flowers, and the female parts in 
others, on the same plant : and in others, the malt; 
flowers and the femah; grow upon absolutely dif- 
ferjMit ])lan(s, but of the smne kind. This is th^ 
jcase m the date tree as wo. see, and it is same (hough 



FAMILY HERBAL. Ill 

we do not iniicli regard it, in lieinp^ spinage, and 
many otltcrs. 

The fruit of the date is the only part used. It 
is as thick as a man's thumb and nearly as long, of 
a sweet taste, and composed of a juicy pulp, in a 
tender skin, with a stone within it. They are 
strciu>'thening and somewhat astringent, but we do 
not much use them. 

Devil's Bit. Succisa, 

A WILD plant in our meadows, with slender 
stalks, and globous flowers. It grows two U^.o.t 
high. The stalks are round, firm, and upright, 
and divided into several branches : they have two 
little leaves at each joint. The flowers are as big 
as a small walnut, and composed of many little ones; 
their colour is very strong and beautiful. Tlie 
leaves which grow from the root arc four inches 
long, an inch firoad, obtuse, of a dark green, and a 
little hairy, not at all divided, or so much; as in- 
ticiited at the edges. The roots are white, and com- 
puted of a thick head, which terminates abruptly 
a.s if it had been bitten or broken off, and of a 
nuillitude of fibres. The Devil, as old women say, 
bit it away, envving mankind its virtues. 

The leaves are to be gathered before the stalks 
appear. They are good against coughs, and the 
disorders of the lungs, given in decoction. The 
root dried and given in powder, promotes sweat, 
and is a good medicine in fevers, but wc neglect it, 

Dii.L. Anethum, 

An umbelliferous plant, kept in our gardens, 
principally for the use of the kitchen. The stalk 
is round, striated^ hollow, upright, three fee^ high. 



112 FAMILY HERBAL. 

and divided intfy a great main branclics. The leaves 
are divided into lujiiieroiis, narrow, and long parts, 
in the manner of fennel ; butthejare not so large. 
The flowers are sniall and veHow ; they stand in 
clusters on the tops of tl)e branches. The root 
is long. The seeds of dill arc good against the 
colic ; and they are said to be a specific against 
the hiccough, but I have known them tried with- 
out success. 

DiTTANDEit. Zcpidium. 

A TALL plant, with broad leaves and little white 
Howers ; wikl in some places, and frequent in 
our gardens. It grows a yard high. The stalks 
are rounds firm, of a pale green, and very much 
branched. 'I'he leaves are large towards the 
bottom, smaller upwards ; and the flowers stand 
in a kind of loose spikes ; the lower leaves are 
beautifully indented, the others scarce at all : the 
seeds are contained in little roujidish capsules, and 
are of a hot and pungent taste. 

The leaves of dittander fresh, gathered and boil- 
ed in water, make a decoction that works by urine, 
and })r()iv!(;tcs the menses : they are also good to 
promote the necessary discharges after delivery. 

DiiT.VNV or Crete. Dictamuns Crcticus. 

\ \'!''RY pretty lltde plant, native of the East, 
r.'ui k(T)t in some of our curio^is p'^ople's gardens. 
ii has been famous for its virtiirs. but thev stiind 
ni;ue upon the credit of rej)ort. tlian experience. 
it is si\ or cigltl iiielics high, tlie stalks are scjuare, 
.sleiuier, liarcl, WDodv, ;:n(l hranchfd. The leaves 
sire ^h()rt, broatl, and roundi-h ; they stand two at 
every joint, ainl are eoM.-red with a wliiie woolly 



FAMILY HERBAL. ILS 

matter. The flowers are small and purple: they 
grow in oblong and slender scaly heads, in the 
manner of those of origanum ; and these heads are 
themselves very beautiful, being variegated with 
green and purple. The whole plant has a fragrant 
smell. 

The leaves are used, our druggists keep them 
dried. The old writers attribute miracles to it in 
the cure of wounds ; at present it is seldom used 
alone ; but it is good in nervous disorders, and 
it promotes the menses^ and strengthens the sto- 
mach. 

White Dittany. Fraxinella, 

A VERY beautiful plant, native of many of the 
warmer parts of Europe ; but with us kept only 
in gardens. It is three foot high, very much 
branched and very beautiful. The stalks are round, 
thick, firm, and of a green or purplish colour. Tl>e 
leaves stand irregularly on tliem, and are like those 
of the ash tree, only smaller. The flowers are 
large and elegant : they are of a pale red, white, or 
striped ; and they stand in a kind of spikes at the 
top of the branches. Tiie whole plant is covered 
in the summer months \y'iih a kind of balsam, 
which is glutiiious to the touclij and of a very fra- 
grant smell. This is so inflammable^ that if a candle 
|je brought near any part of the plant, it takes fire 
and goes off in a flash all over ihe plant. Thi> 
does it no barm, and may be repeated after three or 
four days, a new quantity of the balsam being pro- 
duced in that time. 'Die roots of this plant ar .» (he 
only part used, and tney are kept dry by the drug- 
gists. They are commanded in f<ivers, and in 
nervous and hysteric cases, but their virtues arc 
not great, I hsTc f(?und an ii.fusionof th-c tops of 



114 FAMILY HERBAL. 

the plantj a rery pleasant and excellent medicine m 
the gravel ; it works powerfully by urine^ and gives 
ease in tliose colicy pains which frequently attend 
upon the disorder. 

Sharp-pointed Dock. LapatJium folio acuta, 

A COMMON plant, like the ordinary dock, but 
somewhat handsomer, and distinguished by the 
figure of its leaves, which are sharp-pointed, not 
obtuse as in that, and are also somewhat narrower 
and longer. The plant grows three foot high. 
The stalks are erect, green, round, striated and 
branched. The leaves are of a fine green, smooth, 
neither crumpled on the surface, nor curled at the 
edges, and have large ribs. The flowers are small, 
at first greenish, then paler, and lastly, they dry and 
become brown. The root is long, thick, and of a 
tawny colour. 

The root is the part used. It is excellent a- 
gainst the scurvy, and is one of the best things we 
know, for what is called sweetening the blood. It 
is best given in diet drinks and decoctions. Used 
outwardly, it cures the itch, and other foulness of 
the skin ; it should be beat up with lard for this 
purpose. 

Great Water Dock,. HydruUpathum maximum. 

THIS is the largest of all the dock kinds ; tbey 
have a gcunval resemblance of one another, but tliis 
is most of all like to th last described, in its man- 
iMT of growth, though vastly larger. It is fre- 
fjurnt about v. aters, and is five or six feet high. 
The stalks :«re round, striated, thick and very up- 
riglit, hr.'iiKhed a little and holiow. The leaves 
&re vuttly ixjge ; of a p'lle g.^'ccu colour, smooth^ 



F.\MILY HERBAL. 115 

^nd sliarp at the point. The flowers are small, 
and of a greenish coiour with some white threads, 
and they afterwards become brown. The root is 
large, long, and of a reddish brown. 

It is a good remedy in the scurvy. The root con- 
tains the greatest virtues, and it is to be given in 
diet drinks. The seeds of this, and all other docks, 
arc astringent, and good against purgings. 

G.4BDEN Docs., called Monks' Rhubarb. Lcrpa- 
thiim sativiun, jiaticntia. 

A TALL plant of the dock kind, a native of 
Italy, and kept in our gardens for its virtues. It 
grows six or seven feet high. The stalk is round, 
striated, thick, upright, and firm. The leaves are 
very large, long, and are pointed at the extremity : 
they stand upon thick hollowed foot stalks ; and 
the main stalk of the plant is also frequently red. 
The flov/ers are like those of the other docks, 
greenish and white at first, but afterwards brown ; 
but they are larger than in almost any other kind. 
The root is very large, long, and divided ; the outer 
coat is of a brownish yellow ; within, it is yellow 
mixed with red. This is the part used ; it has been 
called monks' rhubarb, from its possessing some of the 
virtues of the true rhubarb ; but it possesses them 
only in a slight degree, it is very little purgative, 
and less astringent : It works by urine as well as 
stool, and is good in the jaundice, and other disor- 
ders arising from obstructions. 

There is another plant of the dock kind, called 
liastard rhubarb, kept in sorae gardens, and mista- 
ken for this. The leaves of it are roundish. It has 
the same virtues with the monks' rhubarb, but in a 
much less degree, so that it is very wrong to use it 
m its place. 



116 FAMILY HERB At, 

Dodder. Cuscuta, 

A VERY strange and singular plant, but not 
luicommon with us. It consists of only stalks and 
flowers, for there are no leaves, nor the least 
resemblance of any. The stalks are a foot or two 
iiT length, and they fasten themselves to other 
plants ; ihey are of a purplish colour, as thick as 
a small pack-thread, and considerably tough and 
firm. These wind themselves about the branches 
of the plants, and entangle themselves also with 
one another in such a manner, that there is no end 
of the perplexity of tracing and unfolding them. 
The flowers grow in little heads, and are small and 
reddish, four little seeds succeed to each of them. 

Dodder is best fresh gathered ; it is to be boiled 
in water with a little ginger and allspice, and 
the decoction works by stool briskly ; it also opens 
obstructions of the liver, and is good in the jaun- 
dice, and many other disorders arising from the like 
cau'^e. 

The dodder which grows upon the garden thyme, 
lias been used to be preferred to the others, and 
has been supposed to possess peculiar virtues, from 
the plant on which it grows ; but this is imagi- 
nary : eaperience shews it to be only a purge as 
the other, and weaker. The common dodder is 
preferable to it with us, because we can gather it 
frosh, the other is imported, and we only have it 
dry ; and \i often loses a great deal of its virtue ia 
the hands of the druggist. 

Dog MERCURr. Cynocramhc. 

K COIMMON and poisonous plant nain<rd here, 
aot as a medicine but that people who gather herbs, 
fr.*r whatNSvcr use, may guard against it. It is 



FAMILY HERBAL. 117 

common under hedges ; and in the earlier part of 
the year makes a pretty appecirance. People might 
very naturally be tempted to eat of it among other 
spring herbs, for there is nothing forbidding in its 
aspect ; and what is much worse^ the authors most 
likely to be consulted on such an occasion, might 
lead those into it^ whom they ought to have guarded 
against it. 

It is about a foot high, and has but few leaves, 
but they are large. The stalk is round, thick, 
whitish, pointed, and a little hairy ; the leaves 
stand principally toward the top, four, five, or six, 
seldom more : they are long and considerably 
broad, «harp-pointed, notched about the edges, and 
a little hairy. The flowers are inconsiderable : they 
stand in a kind of spikes at the tops of the stalks ; 
and the seeds are on separate plants, they are dou- 
ble and roundish. The herb has been from this 
clivided into two kinds, male and female, but they 
have in earlier time given the distinctions of the sex 
wrong. Those which bear the spikes of fiowers, 
are the male plants ; the others, notwithstanding 
any accidental resemblance, female. 

There is not a more fatal plant, native of our 
country, than this ; many have been known to 
die by eating it boiled with their food ; and proba- 
bly many also, whom we have not heard of: yet 
the writers of English Herbals, say nothing of this. 
Gerard, an honest and plain writer, but ignorant 
as dirt, says, it is thought they agree with the 
other mercuries in nature. These other mercuries 
are eatable ; therefore, who would scruple on ih'n 
account, to eat also this. Johnson, who put forth 
another edition of this book, and called it (jiefar»l 
Emaculated, from the amending the faults of the 
original author, says nothing to contradict it : but 
g^fter Bome idle observatioiis upon other heibs of the 



HS FAMILY HERBAL. 

?ame name, but very different qualities, whicli yet 
he seems to suppose of the same nature, leaves his 
reader to suppose, that he meant equally any of the 
kinds of mercury, for the purposes he names ; and, 
like liis predecessor Gerard, supposed them all to be 
alike ; those safe, and those poisonous. It is true, 
Mr. Ray, in his Synopsis of the British plants, 
gives an account of it as a poison, and nsust suffici- 
enliy warn all \vho read him, from the herb : but 
who roads him ? His book in wlsich this is mentioned, 
is written in Latin ; and those who want the infor- 
mation, cannot read it. 

This is uM only the case in one or two particulars, 
it is so iu al!. To speak generally, the books which 
contain real knowledge, are written in Latin, 
through an ostentatioii of their autiiors, to shew 
iheir learning, or a pride in having them read in 
other nations as well as here ; and those ■we have 
in English are ignorant ; despised hy the persons of 
judgment, and fit only to mislead. If they enu- 
merate virtues, they give tiicm at random, or give 
too many false among the true, that the reader 
Icnows not what to choose ; or their real ignorance 
mingles poisons with salads, as we see in the present 
instance : Nor is any more regard to be paid to v/hat 
thev say of herbs, from certain great names they 
*]u<!tc. Dioscoricics and Galen were indeed great 
phy^icians ; but men like these are not qualified 
to profit from their labours. The names of plants 
have been changed so often since their time, that 
we do not know wliat they mean b}' several : and it 
IS easy for snch sad proficients as these, t(> record 
'•^.fonc plant, wliat tlu v spoke of another : besides, 
cvt'u in their best writings, there is a great deal of 
error and follv, as may bo seen in a quotation of this 
JobnHjn's from them, added to Gerard in tliis vcrv 
chattier. Miiere, speaking of one of the kinds of 



FAMILY HERBAL. 113 

mercury, distinguished like this poisonous kind, 
into male and female, he says, ' that the male kind 
* citnduccs to the generation of bovs, and the femaiti 
'^ of girls.' Such is the matter, that a superiority 
in one of these aiithors over the other, qualified 
him to add to his book : such are the English 
books that are extant upon this subject ; and such 
the direction offered to the charitable, confounding 
eatable herbs with poisons. This has been one 
great reason of writing the present book, tbat there 
ir.ay be one guide and direction at least, to be de- 
pended upon ; and this ifs atithur has thought pro- 
per to say at large upon the immediate occasion, 
rather than in a preface ; because thfire it must 
have been acco-inj)anied with a needless repetition, 
and perhaps would not have been observed by many,, 
who may have recourse to the book. 

Dog Tooth. Dens caninns. 

A VERY pretty little plant, with two broar] 
leaves and a huge droo[)ing fiovvcr ; common n\ 
Italy and Gtrmanv, and frequent in our gardii:.-. 
It is five or six inches higii. Tiie btalk is round, 
slender, weak, and greenish towards the top ; often 
white at th.e bottouj. The leaves stand a littic 
height above the ground : they are oblong, sonu - 
what broad, of a beautiful green, not at ail dented 
at the edges, and blunt at the end : they incloGft 
the stalk at the base. 'The flower is large ar.d white, 
but with a tinge of reddish; it hangs down, and 
is long, hollow, and very elegant. The root is 
round is!) , and has some fibres growing froin its 
bottom ; it is full of a slimy juice. 

The fi csh gathered roots are used ; for they dry 
very ill, and generally loi^e their virtues entirely. 
They are good aganisi wo-^m-j hi chiluien, ui:d lul^c 



!^0 FAMILY HERBAL. 

a surprising and speedy effect against those violent 
pains in the belly, which are owing to those crea- 
tures. The best way of giving them is in the ex- 
pressed juice ; or if children will not take that;, 
they may be boiled in milkj to which they gi\e very 
little taite. It is a powerful remedy ; and a small 
dose will take effect, especially of tlie juice; so 
that it is best to begin with very little, and as that 
is well borne, to increase the quantity. 

Dragons. Dj^acontium. 

A FINE, tall, and beautiful plant ; kept in 
gardens for its use in medicine, as well as for its 
appearance. It is four feet high. The stalk is 
thick, round, and firm ; perfectly smooth, and 
painted on the surface with several colours ; 
purple, white, green, and others. The leaves 
are very large, and stand on long foot-stalks : they 
are of a deep and strong green ; and each is divided 
into several portions in the manner of fingers. 
The flower is like that of the common arum or 
cuckoo pint : it is contained in a hollow green case, 
of a deep purple within, and the pistil is also of a 
deep purple ; after this is fallen, appear as in the 
arum, large red berries in a cluster. The whole 
plant is of an acrid and insupportable taste. 

The wholft plant is to be gathered when i\\ flower, 
and dried ; it may afterwards be given in decoction, 
powder, or otherwise. It was vastly esteemed for 
malignant fevers, and in the small pox ; but it has 
cf late lost much of its credit : ^i prescut it is only 
"ised in i.ome compositions. 



FAMILY HERBAL. {9A 

TiiC Dragon's Blood Tree, Saiiguis draconU 

arbor. 

A VERY beautiful tree, native of the Canaries^ 
r.ii.) grmc other places. It is of the palra kind, and 
«ti;c of (lie liaudsomest of them, Tlie trunk is na- 
ked ail the way to the top, and there stand on its 
siKumit a great quantity of leaves, long, narrov^, 
yjid pointed at the ends ; of a bluish green colour, 
arid not unlike the leaves of our flags. The fruit 
is round, and is of the bigness of a walnut with 
the green rind upon it. 

The dra:]cou's blood is a red friable resin. Our 
druggists keep it : the best is in small lumps ; there 
is an inferior kind iu cakes or masses. It is pro- 
cured by cutting the trunk of this tree in the great 
heats. There are also two other kinds of palm, 
that afford the same resin. It is a very excellent 
astringent. It h useful in purgings and in the 
overflowing of the menses, in spitting of blood, and 
all other occasions of that kind. It may be given 
HI powder, 

Dropwort. Fih'pe?idida. 

A VERY pretty wild plant, with tufts of whitish 
ilowcrs, and leaves finely divided. It grows two 
feet lilgh. The stalk is round, striated, upright, 
firm, and branched. The leaves are large and 
divided into a great number of firm eegments, they 
rise principally from the root, and stand on slender 
foot-stalks. There are few leaves on the etalkj^ and 
^.!iey are Kmall. The flowers are little, but they 
stand in great tuftsat the tops of the branches : they 
are white on the inside, and often reddish on the 
outside. The seeds are flaltidh and grow .several 
tog;etiier. The root is composed of a great ourabcr 



ISJi FAMILY HERBAL. 

of small lumps, fastened together by filaments. 
This root is the part most used ; it is good in fits 
of the 2:ravel, for it proraotes urine greatly and 
safely. For this purpose the juice sliould he givcn^ 
or a strong decoction of the fresh root, VV hea 
dried it may be given in powder to sti p the whites 
and purgingKj it i« a gentle and safe astringent. 

There are several other plants called in Eiiglisli 
dropwortSj which arc very different in their qua- 
lities, and one of them is poisonous in a terrible 
degree; this last is called hemlock dropwort; care 
must therefore be taken that the right kind is used, 
but this is sufficiently different from all the others. 
The flower is composed of six little leaves, and is 
full of yellow threads in the middle ; the flowers of 
all the others are composed only of five leaves each. 
They arc all umbelliferous plants, but this is not; 
the flowers grow in clusters, but not in umbels : 
Ihey grow like those of the^ ulmaria or meadow 
sweet. 

Duck-weed. Lenticuia. 

A SMALL green herb, consisting of single, little 
roundish leaves, which float upon the surface of 
the water, and send their roots into it for nourish- 
ment, without sticking them into the mud. It is 
the small green herb thai covers ahnost all our 
standing waters in summer. There are two other 
kinds of it, one with smaller leaves and many fibres 
fr«wn each, another with only one fibre from eacli 
leaf: both these are green all over ; and a third 
kind with larger leaves, which are purple under- 
neath, but ail these ha-^o the .%amc virtue, audit 
is no matter which is tai.en. The juice is to be 
giv«Mi ; and it is to be ciMitinUi'd i'or several days. 

\i works powerfully by \Mii\c, and opens cbstruc-- 



FAMILY HERBAL. 123 

tions of the liver : jaundices have been cured hy 
it singly. 

Dwarf Elder. Ehulus. 

A PLANT so much resembling the common 
elder-tree^, that it may be easily mistaken for it till 
examined. It grows four or five feet high. The 
stalks are green^, round, tender, and upright ; and 
they have very much the appearance of the young 
shoot;* of elder ; but there is no woody part from 
whence they rise. The leaves are large, and com- 
posed of several pairs of others, as those of elder, 
with an old one at the end ; but these are longer than 
in the elder, and they are serrated round the edges. 
The flowers arc imall and white; but they stand 
in very large dusters or umbels, just as those of the 
elder ; and they are succeeded by berries which 
are black when ripe ; but that is a condition in 
which we seldom see them ; for the birds are so 
fond of them, they eat them as they come to ma- 
turity. The root is white and creeping ; and the 
whole plant dies down every year to the gound. 

It is wild in England, but not common ; a great 
quantity of it grows at the back of Cuper's gar- 
dens. It may he dried : but the best way of 
giving it is in the juice. This works strongly both 
by stool and urine, and has often cured dropsies. 

Dyer's Weed. Liiteola. 

A VERY singular and pretty wild plant ; it 
grows on dry banks and upon walls, and is known 
at sight by its upright stalks, and very long spikeg 
of greenish yellow flowers. It grows to four feet 
or more in height. The stalk is thick, firm, chan- 
nelled, and in a manner covered with leaves : they 



m FAxMILY HERBAL. 

are small in proportion to the bigness of the plant, 
oblong, narrow^ and pointed at the ends, of a yel- 
lowish green colour, and not serrated at the ed^es ; 
a tuft of the same kind of leaves, but somewhat 
larger, surrounds the bottom of the stalk. The 
root is long and "white. The flowers arc small, 
but very numerous. 

The flowery tops of this plant dried, and givea 
in decoction, are said to be a remedy for the evil, 
but the report is not established by any known ex- 
perience. 

E 

Elder. Sa77ibuciis. 

A COMMON wild shrub ; it grows irregularly. 
The stem or trunk is covered with a rough w hitisli 
Lark, and the wood is firm, but there is a hollow 
within ; this is smallest in the largest parts of the 
shrub, but it is never quite obliterated. The young 
shoots are thick, long, and green ; thry grow quick, 
and are often a yard long before they begin to change 
colour, or grow woody. These cont;im a large 
quantity of pith ; and their bark as they stand be- 
comes browniah, and their under surface woody. The 
leaves are composed of several pairs of others, 
with an odd one at the end : the flowers stand in 
vast clusters, or umbels, and are small and white ; 
they arc succeeded by berries, which arc black 
when ripe, and are fidl of a purple juice. There 
is another kind of elder, with berries white when 
they are ripe, and another with jagged leaves, but 
the common elder is the sort to be used. 

The inner bark of the elder is a strong purge; 
and it has been known to cure dropsies when taken 
in time, and often repeated. The flowers are made 



FAMILY HERBAL. 1^5 

into an ointment, by boiling them in lard, till they 
are almost crisp, and then pouring it oft', this is 
cooling ; the juice of the berries is boiled down 
with a little sugar, or by some wholly witliout, 
and this, when it comes to the consistence of honey, 
is the famous rob of elder, good in colds and sore 
throats. A wine is made of the elder-berries^ which 
has the flavour of Frontignac. 

Elecampane. Enula cainpana. 

A TALL and robust plant, wild in some parts 
of England, but kept in gardens for the uses of 
medicine ; it grows five feet high, and the flower 
is yellowy and very large. The stalk is round, 
thick, upright, very robust, and reddish : the 
leaves are long, large, and rough, and the}' are 
pointed at the ends ; of a pale green colour. 
The flowers grow at the tops of the branches, 
and have something like the appearance of a dou- 
ble sun flower. They are two inches in diameter, 
yellow, and very beautiful. The root is long 
and thick, and is brown on the outside^ and white 
within. 

The root is the part used ; we have it dried from 
Germany, but it is for most purposes better to take 
that fresh out of the garden, which we have here. 
Hardly any plant has more virtues. It is good in 
all disorders of the breast and lungs, and it opens 
obstructions : It operates by urine powerfully, and 
also by sweat : and the juice of it will cure the 
itch, applied externally. Its greatest virtue, how- 
ever, is against coughs, and for tliis purpose it is 
best taken candied, provided that be well done. A 
little of it may in this way be lield almost conti- 
nuri.Uy in the mouthy and swallov/ed gently, so that 



125 FAMILY HERBAL, 

it will (akp effect much better than by a larger dos6 
swallowed at once. 

Elm. Uhnus. 

A TALL tree native of our own country, and 
sufficiently common in our hedges. It grows to a 
great bigness. The bark is brownish, rough, and 
irregular ; tlie twigs are also brown, and very tough. 
Tiie^leaves are small, broad, short, rough to the 
touch, and finely indented about the edges, and they 
terminate in a point. The flowers are not regarded ; 
they appear before the leaves, and principally about 
the tops of the tree, and they are only thready ; the 
^«epds are flat. 

The inner bark of the elm boiled in water, makes 
one of the best gargles for a sore throat that can 
be supplied by the whole list of medicines. It 
should be sweefeiied with honey of roses ; it i» 
extremely soft and healing, and yet at the same time 
very cleansing. 

There are two or ^hree other kinds of elms com- 
mon in garden hedges ; they are brought from other 
countries, but the bark of the English rough elm i§ 
preferable to them ail as a medicine. 

Endive. Endiiia. 

A COMMON garden plant kept for salads. It 
grows two feet high, and the flowers are blue, but 
we see it a thousand times with only the leaves 
for once in a flower, and these the gardeners have 
the art of twisting and curling, and whitening ill 
Mi( h a manner, that they are scarce to be known, 
:^s belonging to the plant. Naturally they are long 
aiid uitrrow, blunt at the end, and deeply notched 



FAMILY HER HAL. ^ 127 

Rt the cdgcSj and of a yellowish green colour ; the 
fetnlks arc round and firm, and the leaves that grow 
o.i tlu'in are like those from tlie root, but smaller : 
tlie lio-.ver!^ stand at the tops of the stalks and bran- 
eiies, they are blue, and in shape and structure like 
those of dandelion : thejare verv beautiful. 

The juice of endive niaj be taken with great 
advantages as medicine ; it cools the stomach, 
and operates bv urine very pov/erfully ; it also 
opens obstructions of the viscera. It is good 
a2;ainst th'c jaundice, and constantly taken for some 
tiine^ against the scurvy. 

Ervngo, Eryngiuni. 

A WILD plantj which gvow5 with us by tbe sea 
side^ and is kept al'io in gardens^ because of its 
virtues. It is prickly like a thistle, and the 
■\vhoie plant appears not green, but "svbitish. The 
ftalk is iirni, woody, round, striated, and thick, 
not very upright, branched, and spread irre- 
gularly about. The leaves are small, and of a 
pale bluish green, approaching t.o white ; they 
are broad, oblong, and jagged and prickly. The 
il(r\vers grow in little heads at the tops of the 
stalks, and there stands a circle of small leaves under 
them. The flowers, separately taken, are small, 
and of a pale greenis'n white, but (he head of them 
is tolerably Uu'ge. The root is long and slendeFj 
and of a idoasant taste. 

This is the part used ; the best w'ay is to take 
them candied ; they are good against coiii;'hs, and 
\veakne=e- of all kinds. They have also caused 
noble virtues, as u diuretic, and are good against 
the jaunbice ; for tVii. last p-ir^ose a decoction 
made from the fresh roois is !>e:ri. Thev are bal- 
fctiniit; as veil as diuretic, 



\m FAMILY HERBAL. 

The EupHORBiuM Plant. Euplwruimn. 

A VERY strangle plant, native Ki^ the hot coun- 
tries, and unlike every thiiig; that is known in 
this part of the world. It is ten or twelve i^et 
high, and is of a solid tJiick body, of a triangu- 
lar or else a square figure, as thick as a. man's 
leg, and is divided by knots placed at distan- 
ces, so as to seem made up of several joints. The 
edges of the body are all beset with very sharp 
prickles ; the plant itself is composed only of a 
pulpy soft matter, covered with a thick rind, of 
a green colour ; it abounds with a milky juice, 
but so acrid that there is no bearing a drop of it 
a moment on tlie tongue. The plant often con- 
sists of one single stem, such as is just described, 
but frequently it sends out several branches ;. these 
are naked m the same manner as the main stem. 
All that have beside the prickles, are a kind of 
thin films or membranes, small and growing from 
their bases, bat the phmt is altcui'cther without 
leaves. Tiie flowers grcv/ three together cmon^ 
the thorns, and the fruit is a vessel coutaining three 
jjced.s. 

Tiie gum wliicli sweats out from this plant, is 
us^d in mediciac ; it is yellowish and con:es forth 
iu small drops, \u taste io sharp and insupporta- 
ble : it is a violent purple, ai;d is recommended 
against drop'^ies, but we scarce ever prescribe it, 
it is so vc^ry r'".)i.gh ; it is sometimes used outwardly 
among other things applied lo the feet in violent 
fever^-, 

EvEtiu:(-.iiT. Euplinnia. 

A VF.IIY prettv low herb commmi in our mea- 
dow-, with woMdy stalks, a;iJ bright and little 



FAMILY HERBAL. 129 

^arieg"ated flowers. It grows six or eight inches 
high. The stalks are rounds thick, firm, and very 
hard ; the leaves are flat, broad, and very deeply 
indented at the edges ; and they are of a bright 
s^hining green. The flowers arc little, and they are 
very bright ; their ground colour is white, and they 
are streaked and spotted with black and some other 
dark colours. 

This plant has been always famous for dimness 
of sight, but whether experience warmnts the 
character that is given of it is uncertain. Thejuic«» 
is very diuretic. 

F. 

Fennel. Foeniculum.^ 

A COMMON garden plant, kept for its use in 
tbe kitchen, rather than its medicinal virtues. 
It grows six or eight feet high. The stalk is 
round, hollow, and of a deep green colour ; the 
leaves are large, and divided into a vast num- 
ber of fine slender segments, and they are also of 
a deep or bluish green colour. The flowers stand 
at the tops of the branches, and are small and 
yellow ; but there grow large clusters of them to- 
gether ; the seed is small, dark coloured, and striated, 
and is, of a sharp acrid taste ; the root is long and 
white. 

The root is the part most used * a decoction 
made of it with common water, and given in large 
quantities, works by urine, and is good against th« 
gravel and in the jaundice. 

Sweet Fennel. Fceniculum dulce. 

A CAR»EN plant very like the common kitid^ 



13(5 FAMILY HERBAL. 

l)iit of a paler colour. It grows four feet high • 
the stalk is round, hollow, striated, upright, and 
branched ; and the leaves are large and divided 
into a great number of fine segments, in the man- 
ner of those of common fennel, but both these and 
the stalks arc of a pale yellowish green coour, 
not so dark as in the other kind. The flowers 
are yellowish, end stand in small clusters or umbels ; 
the seeds follow, two after each flower ; and 
they arc quite ditferent from those of the common 
fennel, in size, shape, colour, and taste. They are 
long, slender, of a pnle colour, a little crooked, and 
deeply striated. Their taste is sweetish and a little 
acrid. 

As the roots are the part most used of the com- 
mon fennel, the seeds are the only part used of this. 
They are excellent in the colic, and are used exter- 
nally with success in pultices to swellings. The 
seeds of the common fennel are used by some, but 
they are very hot and acrid. These are preferable 
for internal use. 

Fennel Flower. NiircUa. 

A SINGULAR and pretty plant kept in garden."?. 
It grows a foot and a half high. The stalk is firm, 
round, striated, and upright and hollow. Tha 
leaves are divided into a multitude of fine slender 
parts like those of fennel, only very small in com- 
parison, and thence it had the English name of 
fennel Hower ; they stand irregularly on the stalks, 
and are of a pale green. The flowers stand at the 
tops of the branches : they are singular and pretty ; 
the colour is whitish, and they nre moderately large, 
tht' gro(Mi leaves about them give them a very par- 
ticular grace. 

TJie juice of tlie plant fresh gathered, is good 



FAMILY HERBAL. 131 

for the head-adie ; it is to be snuffed up the n<^c, 
and it will occasion sneezing' ; inwardly taken it 
works by urine^ and is g'ood in the jaundice. 

Hog's Fennel. Peucedanum. 

A WILD plant with divided leaves and umbels 
i>f yellow Howers, and thence bearing" a remote re- 
semblance to fennel. It grows two feet high : the 
stalk is round, striated, hollow, upright, and 
branched. The leaves are like those of fennel^ but 
tlie divisions are much broader, and they run in 
threes. The flowers are little and yellow, but the 
clusters of them are large, and the seed is oblong and 
flat. At the top of the root, there is always found 
a tuft of hairy matter. This is made up of the fibres 
of decayed leaves, but it has a singular appearance. 
The root is large, long, and brown, and this is 
the part used as a medicine. It is to be boiled in 
water, and the decoction drank night and morning' ; 
it dissolves tough phlegm, and helps asthmatic 
people ; it also works by urine, and promotes the 
menses, and is good in all obstructions. 

FcENUGREEK Fammi Grmcum. 

" A PLANT of the trefoil kind, but singular in its 
manner of growth, cultivated in fields in many 
places for the sake of the seed. It is emollient. It 
grows a foot and a half high ; the stalks are round, 
striated, and branched. The leaves are short and 
broad : they stand three upon every stalk as in 
the common trefoils : and are indented about the 
edges. The flowers are white and small, and they 
resemble a pea-blossom ; the pods are flat, and in 
them is contained a quantity of yellow secdj:>, of an 
irregular figure, and disagreeable smell 



132 FAMILY HERBAL. 

Male Feiin. Filix mas. 

A COMMON weed growing at the roots of trees, and 
in dry ditches. It has no stalk for bearing of 
flowers, but several leaves rise together from the 
root, and each of these is in itself a distinct plant. 
It is two feet high, and near a foot in breadth ; 
the stalk is naked for six or eight inches, and thence 
is set on each side with a row of ribs or smaller 
stalks, every one of which carries a double row 
of smaller leaves, with an odd one at the end ; the 
whole together making up one great leaf, as in many 
of the umbelliferous plants. 

On the backs of these smaller leaves stand the 
seeds in round clusters ; they look brown and dusty. 
The root is long and thick, and the whole plant 
has a disagreeable smell. The root is greatly re- 
commended for curing the rickets in children ; 
with what success it would be hard to say. 

Female Fern Filix fccmina. 

A TALL and spreading plant, common on our 
heaths, and called by tlie country people brakes. 
It grows four feet high. The stalks are round, 
green, and smooth : the leaves are set on each side, 
and are subdivided. The whole may indeed be 
properly called oidy one leaf as in the male fern ; 
hut it has more the a[)pcamncc of a number because 
it is so ramous. The small leaves or pinnules which 
go to make up the large one, are oblong, firm, hard, 
and of a deep green colour, and they are so spread 
that the whole plant is often three feet wide. On 
the edges of these little leaves stand the seeds 
in small dusty clusters. Ihit they are not so 
frerpirnt on this as on the male fern, for nature has 
F«t well provided for the pTOpag-atioa of this plant 



FAMILY HERBAL. 13.^ 

by the roots, that the seeds are less necessary ; and 
where it is so, they are always produced more 
sparingly. A certain quantity of every species is 
to be kept up, but the earth is not to be over-run 
with any. 

The roots of female fern fresh gathered, and 
made into a decoction, are a remedy a^inst that 
long and flat worm in the bowels, called the tape- 
worm ; no medicine destroys them so effectually. 

Flowering Fern. Osmunda rcgalis. 

There is something that at first sight appears 
gingular in the manner of this fern's flowering, but 
when particularly examined, it is not different in 
any thing material from the other. It grows three 
feet high, and the leaves are very regularly con- 
structed, and very beautiful ; they are composed 
in the manner of the other ferns, each of several 
small ones, and these are broader and bigger than in 
any of the other kinds, not at all indented on the 
edges ; and of a bluish green colour, and afterwards 
yellowish. Many leaves arise from the same root, 
but only some few of them bear seeds. These 
principally rise about the middle, and the seeds stand 
only on the upper part : they cover the whole 
surface of the leaf, or nearly so in this part, and the 
little pinnules turn round inwards, and shew their 
backs rounded up. These are brown from being 
covered with the seeds, and they have so different 
an appearance from all the rest of the plant, that they 
are called flowers. The root is long and covered 
with fibres. The plant grows in boggy places, 
but it is not very common wiUl in England. 

A decoction of tlve fresh roots promotes urine, 
and opens obetructioms of tlie liver and spleen ; it is 



154 FAMILY HERBAL. 

not much used, but I have known a jaundice cured 
by itj taken in the beginning. 

Feverfew. Matricaria. 

A COMMON wild plant, with divided leaves^ 
and a multitude of small flowers like daisies ; it 
grows about farmers' vardrf. The stalk is round, 
hollow, uprif^ht, branched, and striated, and grows 
two feet high. The leaves are large, divded into 
many small ones, and those roundish and indented ; 
they are of a yellowish green colour, and particular 
smell. The flowers stand about the tops of the 
stalks ; they are small, white round the edges, and 
yellowish in the middle. The root is white, little, 
and inconsiderable. 

The whole plant is to be used ; it is best frc§h, 
but it preserves some virtue dried ; it is to be given 
in tea, and it is excellent against hysteric disorders ; 
it promotes the menses. 

Fig-tree. Ficus. 

A SHRUB sufficiently known in our gardens. The 
trunk is thick, but irregular, and the branches, which 
are very numerous, grow without any sort of order. 
The leaves are very large, and of a deep blackish 
green, broad, divided deeply at the edges, and full 
of a milky juice. The flowers are contained within 
the fruit. The fig-tree producing fruit twice in the 
year ; the first set in spring, the second towards 
Septembor, but these last never ripen with us. The 
dried figs of the grocers are the fruit of the same tree 
in Spain and Portugal, but they grow larger there, 
and ripen better. 

Our own fige arc wholesome fruit, and they are 



FAMILY HERBAL 135 

applied outwardly to swelliiii^s with success, tbcy 
soften and give ease while the matter is forinnig 
within. 

FiGWORT. Scrophulana, 

A TALL and rcg'ular growing wild plants with 
small deep purple Howers. It grows four feet 
high, and is common in our woods and ditches, 
where there is little water ; there is another kind 
of it in wet places, called also water betony, which 
is to be distinguished from it by the round indent- 
ings of the leaves : it also grows in water, or just 
by it : the right figwort only loves shade and 
dampness, but not absolute wet. The stalk is 
square, upright, hollow, and very firm ; the leaves 
stand two at each joint, opposite one to the c^her ; 
they are large, broad at the l)ase, narrow* at the 
point, and sharply indented ; they starid on long 
foot-stalks, and tliey have the shape of the nettle 
leaf, but they are perfectly smooth, and of a 
shining colour ; they are sometimes green, but often 
brown, as is also the whole plant. The flowers are 
very small and gaping, their colour is a blackish 
purple. The root is long, white, and full of 
little tubercles, it spreads a great way under the 
surface. 

The juice of the fresh gathered root is an excellent 
sweetener of the blood taken in small doses, and 
for a long time together. The fresh roots bruised 
and applied externally, are said also to be excellent 
for the evil. They cool and give ea«e in the piles, 
applied as a pultice. 

Fir Tree. Ahies. 

A wi|i.D tree ia Germany, and many other parts 



136 FAMILY HERBAL. 

of Europe, but with us only kept in gardens. We 
have no kind of the fir native : Wiiat is called the 
Scotch fir^ is not a fir, but a pine. 

The lir-tree grows to a considerable height, and 
with great regularity. The trunk is covered with 
a rough and cracked bark, of a resinous smell ; the 
leaves are numerous, and stand very beautifully on 
the bmnches. They stand in two rows, one oppo- 
site to the other, and are oblong, but somewhat 
broad and flat. They are of a pale green, and of 
a whitish hue underneath. The tree is hence called 
the silver fir, and, from the disposition of the leaves, 
the yew-leaved fir, for they grow as in the yew- 
tree. The fruit or cones stand upright ; in this kind, 
they are long, thick, and brown. 

The tojis of this kind are great sweeteners of the 
blood, and they work powerfully by urine. They 
are best given in diet drinks, or brewed in the beer, 
which is commonly drank. 

Red Fir Tree, or Pitch Tree. Picea, 

A TALL tree, but not so regular in its growth, 
or in the disposition of its leaves, as the other. The 
trunk is thick, the bark reddish, and the wood soft. 
The branches are numerous, and they stand ir- 
regularly. The leaves are oblong, narro.w, and 
sharp-pointed ; and they do not grow in two even 
rows, as in the other, but stand irregularly on 
the twigs. The cones are long, slender, and hang- 
downwards. The whole tree has a strong resinous 
smell. 

The tops of this are boiled in diet drinks against 
the scurvy as the other, but they make the liquor 
much more nauseous ; and not at all better for the 
intended purposes. 

Pitch and tar arc the produce of the fir-tree, a? 



FAMil.V H Kill ML. 137 

ftlw (he Strashurg" and (^onic olhci' of 'lie turnr-^^int^s. 
T'h" larch tree a\ui tiirpcDline trre ui'.'hiiinu" the 
others, ^-i will he ^et-n in (^"^ir p]a(Ps. Tha Tv-od 
is piioi in hi'aps, ant' '.'.iiied at the titj), iiud 'he 
trii- svwi's out at tiio lov/ci- parts. This heing- 
boiled, hee-'-uies hiv:>\, ard is calicd pitch. 

The tiupciiline:^ ar^ b;d-iin ic, and very pow- 
erful promoters of uri'v, but of l'nc!^e more in 
their places : tiie tar has been of Uitc rendered 
lamous by the water made from it ; but it \^■as a 
fashionable remedy, and is now out of repute 
again. 

Sweet rr.AG. Jconis calamus uvomaticiiH dictus. 

A (OMMON wild plant tlvdt gTows undistinguished 
ann)n^- the flags and rush.es, bv our ditch sides. 
The old physicians meant nnoiher thini^ by calnnua 
ai<'-n:atieus : they xave this name to the dried sttilks 
of a plant, but at present it is used as the name of 
t]ie ioot of tliis. The sweet flag grows three feet 
high, but consi'^;ts only of leaves without a stalk. 
They are long, narrow, and of a pale green colour 
Among these there are commonly three or four in 
all respects like the lest, but that they have a cluster 
of flowers ])reaking out at one side, within five or 
six inches of the top. Thi:> is long, brown, and 
thick, and resendiles a catkiti of a lilbert tree, only it 
IS longer and thicker. The root is long, flattish, and 
creeping : it is of a strong and rather unpleasant 
smell when fresh, but it becomes very fragrant, and 
aromatic in drying. Our own has i;s value, because 
vvc can have it fresh, but the dried root \-\ bi^tler had 
of the druggists ; they have it from warmer countries, 
where it is more fracrrant. 

1 he juice of the fresh root of acorus is excel- 
h^'f^^ to promote tlse jnenscs, it works l>y urine 

■T 



\3H fa:mily herbal. 

inodoiately, and gives no olTencc to tlic stomach. 
The dried root is cordial aiid sudorific, it narms 
the stomachy and is good against indigestions and 
fevers. 

Common A(0ivr?, or VrLrow Flags. Acorus 

adiillcrlnus. 

A co>i>ioN' piaut in our ditches, and by river 
tides, distinguisiied by it.s blue-green flag bke 
leave?, and its large yellow flower?, which in shape 
resemble tbo'^e of the iris, or flower de luce. It 
grows four feet high : 'the stalk is roundish, but 
a little flatted, of a pale green, very erect, firm, and 
not branched. It only sends out two or three shoots 
upwards from the bosom of the leaves. The leaves 
are a foot and a half long, narrow, flat, and sharp 
Bt tlie edges ; the flowers stand at the tops of the 
stalks, and are large and beautiful. The seeds are 
numerous, and are contained in large triangular 
Yessels, The root creeps. 

Tlie root cif this is tlie only part used ; some have 
confounded tl;e[n with ilie true acorus r<:>ot, but 
They are called, bv ^^a^ <;f distinction, false or 
l>astard aco'^n? ; thev are not at all like them in 
phape, colour, or cpralitics ; thev are of a reddish 
hrown, have n » smell, a'ld are of an austere taste ; 
thev are an excv'llent astringent. They should be 
taken up in •^oniig and dried, and afterwards given 
in pi)V\ der. i'hev :ii<>p lluxcj and ovcrfl'jwings of 



t;iC nif'li 



I'i AX. J.i>;uin. 



A V: 


V \' 


V'V- 


• ft\ 


n'l'\u!. 


, 1 ' 


V '• 


1 >e 


''■i'.'i.-i. 


1 1 


IS 1 


l!-.r. 



o-, rt ^ ■■r\- nscfid pJnnt. 
![-. «■•, c-'.--. as Nu-11 a.- \i% 
luh ; il'-vi ^i.vl'.v 1.^ round, 



FAMILY HERBAL. \S9 

;«lenner, firm, and llpri^■ht. Tlve kaves are small, 
oblong-, and narrow ; and they stand irreg-ulaiiy, 
})ut in ^Yvvl nun^bers ow it. Toward the top the 
•talk divides into three or four short branches ; 
nn.d on the^e .[and tlie flowers ; they are large and 
oi' u beaiiti'ui blue. Each oi' these is succeeded 
by a rouiidisii seed-vessel ; in v^hich are a number 
oF seeds, 

I'his i^eed i-> v.'nat is called linseed. A tea made 
of it i:^ cx'T'lleiH. in coughs and disorders of the 
brenst and i'lnjj^'s, and tbe seed bruised is also p;ood 
in ra{aplasin-< and fomentations tor sAvellings. Tho 
oil driiwn Irotn it is j;iven in pleurisies and peripneu- 
monies with ij;reat surcess^ and it is oku excellent 
In the uravc'i and stone. 

PruGiNG Flax. JAiinni cul Jut, ileum,. 

A PKETTv Hide herb t'n't p'.':'\v« rdjinnlantly 
in our iiil'y ])?stures, in paik> ap.d Vwirrcns. It i.9 
(■ig-lit indies high. The stalk is rounds lirin^. and 
at the top divided into small brancl-es. The leaves 
are little, «d)!ong', and obtuse^ and they staiid two 
at each joint. The llowers are small and whitOj 
and tlie whole plant has very n^.uch the aspect of 
fcCMue kind of chickweed, l)ut tlie seed-vessel bein^ 
exandned, it appears to be aUop;et!;er of the f]n.x 
kind. The root is small and thready. 

This little plant is a strong- p.nt safe pii-g'e ; the 
country people boil it in alC; and cure t{icrnselve« 
of rheumatic pains, and a greiit many olher cb- 
stinate disorders by it. They talk of it as a re- 
medy for dropsies. Doubtless it is useful in all 
cases wh.ere a stvour^^ and brisk purgative is r^ 
quired. 



140 FAMILY HERBAL. 

Fleabane. Conyza. 



\y 



\ rRET^Y wid ])!anl, frcqjient about clamp places, 
wi*u whitish iciives arnl I'drge yellow llowers in 
an* ' liii. It IS hvo l\.et liigh. The staik is round 
ai!.l ncci, very iiMii aiul siioi'.;. and is often of a 
If ;.,; . 'i roiour. Iho Ic'dw^s arc iia . . /ou», and stand 
iito^rui' , they arc n'tovc'cin inch ...is;, moderately 
b.-!' ::' >■ :. >j!uo-h siiiuico, and whii.isi; green. The 
fiO'.'^i.ri. :i>.wm at t!ie top of tlic l)ran<-hes ; they ar« 
br »a(ier liiaii a sljiihni?^., yellow . and compobed of 
many nairciv j)ciaiS. I'he Vvhoie plant has a 
disa^rccfible ^■nicil . 

ii IS 'Ji r>|..ited v'-rliipr i\ih kind of fleabane,, or 
another v/hich i"-' smaller, and h.as glolxws llowers, 
I'i.^e the p;reater virtue : but most o-ive it for this. 
I'iic juice of the whole \)hc•^.X cures the itch, applied 
extciiia^iy ; aiui the very sracl! of the herb is said to 
destroy iicas. 

b^LAw oRT. Fsjjllhmi . 

An herb of no p^reat beauty, native of Fraiicf^ 
but kepi in gardens here. It has narrow leaves^ 
and inconsiderable flowers. It is a foot high. 
Th.e stalks are weak, greenish, and a little hairy, 
Tlie leaves stand two or more at every joini^ for 
tb.at '-•■•. ur. ,0' ^uin ; they are long, vcy narrow., and 
also Si>mewiiaL hairy ; there rise from the bosoms 
(>\ tliese leaves, lon.^:; naked stalks^ on which stand 
a kind of sp/.kes of litt'e iu-wcrs, somewhat like 
tl.e :j/!k(,s vX \)\,\\\'.VA-\, oniy sliorter ; t\to seeds 
?uo(\('(l each iU)wei ; and tfiev aie smooth, black- 
is! . aiid of liie shape cX 11 ;js ; whence the name. 
'\ 'icK^ .re inn'.jv llowct;.-; in t.^h head. 's :nucilagc 
is madt' «)i llie s-eeds to coi»l the throat in fovera. 



fa:mily iiruRAL m 

ThhX Weed. Sophia till- iiri:;vri;:>;. 

A PRETTY wild plant, about our waste places and 
farm yards ; conspicuous for its leaves, if not so (or 
its flower. It i^-rows two feet high ; and the sta^k 
is round, erect, very linn and strorig-, and not much 
branciied. The leaves are moderately large, and 
most beautifully divided into numerous small seg- 
ments, long- and narrow ; llicy stand irrcgulnrjy 
upon the stiiiks. The flowers are siruiii and yellow ; 
they stand in a kind of spikes at the tops o: the 
stalks. They are followed by short pods. The 
whole plant is of a dark green 

The seeds are the part used : tiicy are to be 
collected when just ripe, and boiled whole. The 
decoction cures the bloody 11 ux, and is good ag-ainst 
the overflowing' of the menses. 

Flower Gentle, Aniaranthus. 

A GARDEN flower. There are m^ny kinds of 
it; but that used in medicine is ;^e large one 
with the drooping purple s})ikc. It grows to four 
feet high. The stalk is firm, lound, and channel- 
led^ green sometimes, but often I'cd. The leiives 
are oblong and broad even at tr.e edges, and point- 
ed at the ends : they are very large, and are often 
tinged with red. The flowers aie purple, and 
they grow in long beautiful spikes hanging down- 
wards. 

The flowers are the part ns^cd. Tliey are to be 
gathered when not quite full blown, and drie^. 
They are good against purp.ing and overilowi.'.g 
of the menses in powder or decoction. 



U5 FAMILY HERBAL. 

Flov.er d£ Luce. Iris. 

A COMMON ihn^er in our gT.rdens. The ])hiiit 
grows three feet hig-h. The leaves are a foot and 
a naif \im<^, narrow, ilat^ and in all respects like the 
leaves of ilag's^ and of a blll:^^h irrern. Tiie staiks 
are round, or a lilue flatted ; thick, hnn, uprig'ht, 
and of a f^reencr colour, 'i he ilowcrs are larijre, and 
of a deep blue. The root spreads about the surface, 
and is thick and of a brownish colour, and marked 
with rii'ics. 

The juice of the fieuh roots of this plant bruised 
with white wine is a stron<]c nur<re : it w ill some- 
times also vomit ; but (hat is not hurtful ; it is a 
cure for dropsies. Gordon, an old ph.v-^ic writer, 
sRys if a dro])sy can be cured by the hand of man, 
this root will effect it. I have found it true in 
practice. 

Florentine Flower dc Luce. Iris Florcntina. 

A PUANT kept r)Ifto in our <.;;rt"(ie;is. but not •'O 
irequcnlly as (he fon-nee ; \i <^c..rcc* differs in any 
thinp; iVoin tlie comuso!; Ilo^ver de hice, excej>t that 
tl.c flowers are white. The rooi spreads in the 
same manner, and ihe leaves are lia4:,-p;'y. The 
stciik is tv » feet or more i'l height, and tiie (lowef 
i< as larg-e ;.:. that of the blue kind, and peri'cetly of 
tlie !^ame form. 

The i'.'d of ti.is ki'.ub ^vlien dried, is fragrant. 
Tiie drn'j;/i;ists k-'C-p it. It is i^-ood aj^ainst dis- 
orders r,f tiie hmj;-. coup;h9, h(tarseness, and all 
thai t! ji;i oi :!! .^ ; and it promotes the menses. 

FrULLLiN. Elaiine. 

/ LOW p]:i!;f frcfiuent in corn-fields, and fon- 



FAMILY HERBAL. 143 

»picuoi:s tor its prcttV;, thoiio^h small, flower. The 
ktalks are five or six inches long, round, hairy, 
weak, and trailing; upon the ground. The leaves^ 
are little, hairy, rounded, and placed irregidarly. 
The ilowers are very small, but they are variegated 
V: ith purple and yellow, both colours very bright ; 
they have a heel behind, and each stands upon a 
little hairv foot-stalk, arising from the bosom of the 
leaf. 

Tlierc is another kind, the leaves of which have 
two etirs at thoir bitse ; in other respects they arc 
the E-arne, and they have the same virtues. The 
juice of either is cooling and astringent. It is 
given by the country people in the bloody flux and 
^vcrflovTing of the menses. 

Fool's Sto!\es. Satyrium sire orchis. 

A BEALTiFUL wiid plant in our meadows and 
pastures in June. Tlie leaves are long and spotted, 
and the flowers are purple. It grows ten inches 
hig-h. The leaves are six inches lon<>% and three 
quarters of ai- inch broad, ot a very deep green, 
with large and irregular blotches of black in difterent 
parts. Tl>e stalk is round, thick, upright, single, 
and fler<]iy ; it has two or three smaller leaves of the 
same figure, and at the top stand the flowers, in a 
spike of an inch and a half long ; they are not very 
large, and of a shape different from the generality 
of licv.ers ; tiieir colour is a deep and glossy purple ; 
but soir'etinies they are white. The whole plant is 
juicy. Tlie root consists of two round bulbs or 
two round lumps, like a pair of testicles, and is 
white H'id fcljofa slimy juice. 

Ttie ro';<i is tlie only part used. It is .supposed 
to be a strengtliener of the parts of generation, and 



144 FAxMILY HERBAL. 

a promoter of venereal desires ; but with what truth 
one cannot say. Externally applied in cataplasms, 
it is excellent in hard swellings. There are a great 
many other kinds of orchis in our meadows,, but 
only this is used. The root^ called salep by our 
drug-gists, is brought from Turkey, and is the root 
of a plant of this kind. It is strengthening and 
restorative, good in consumptions and all decays. 

Fox-GLOVE. Digitalis. 

A VERY beautiful wild plant in our pasture?, 
and about wood-sides. The leaves are \vhitish, 
and the flowers large and red. It is three feel 
high. The leaves arc large, long, rough on the 
surface, pointed at the ends, and serrated roun(f 
the edges. The stalks are round, thick, firm, anc 
upright, and of a white colour. The flower, 
hang down from the stalk in a kind of spike : the} 
are hollow, red, large, and a little si)otted with 
white ; they are shaped like the end of tlie fmgcr 
of a glove. 

The plant boiled in ale, is taken by people of 
robust constitutions, for the rheumatism and other 
stubborn complaints ; it works violently upward* 
and downwards ; and cures also quartan agues, and, 
as is said, the falling-si eknes.s An ointment made 
of the flowers of fox-glove l.'.ilrd in May butter, has 
been long famous in scrophulous sores. 

Fii.A^NKiNCKNSE TuEF.. Arhov Uiuvifera. 

A T.AUCK tree, as is «;nid, a native of the warmer 
voiiiitrics, l)at wc ktiow very little of it. Those 
who d'/scrilx' it nio.st, only say tliat the trunk is 
tlnck, the wood spungy, and the bark rough. 



FAMILY HERBAL. 145 

The leaves, they say, are narrow, and of a pale 
<;reen : hut as to the flower and fruit, they are 
silent. Some say it is thorny. 

All tliat we use is the dry resin, which is of a 
yellowish white colour, and bitterisli resinous tiiste, 
and strong- smell. Our drug'gists keep this. What- 
ever tree produces this, it is a no])le balsam ; dis- 
solved iti the yolk of an eg'g-, and made into an emul- 
sion with barley-water, it will do good in con- 
gumptious, when almost all other things fail 
It were well if the rommon trifling practice in thrit 
fatal disorder would give way to the u>e of this 
great medicine. 

FiiENcn Mercurv. MerctiriaUs mas ct fcnnlna 

A WILD plant, ])ut not very frequent in Eng 
land, conspicuous for litde else than that it has 
the male flowers on sT)me plants, and the female 
flowers on others, in the manner of spinage, hemp, 
and some others, as has been explained already 
under the article date-tree. It grows ten inches 
high The stalks are angular, green, thick, but 
not fu'm, and stand but moderately upright. The 
leaves are oblong, broadest in the middle, sharp 
at the point, serrated at the edges, and of a deep 
green colour. The female plants produce two 
seeds growing together at the top of a little spike. 
The male produce only one spike of dusty flowers, 
without any seeds or fruit at all. But people com- 
monly mistake the matter, and call the female the 
male. 

A decoction of the fiesh gathered plant purges 
a little, and works by urine ; it is cooling, and 
good for hot con.stitutious and over fulness. The 
dried herl) is used in decoctions for clvstor'^. 



146 FAMILY HERBAL; 

Frog Bit. Morsus ranee. 

A LITTLE plant, not uncommon on waters, 
with round leaves and small white flowers. It 
has been by the common write is called a kind of 
water lily, because its leaves are round, and it 
floats upon the water, but it is as distinct as any 
thing- can be, when we regard the flower. Duck- 
weed has round leaves, and floats upon the water, 
and it might be called water lily for that reason, 
if that were sufficient. The leaves are of a round- 
ish figure^ and a dusky dark green colour : they 
are of the breadth of a crown piece, and they rise 
many together in tufts, from the same part of the 
stalk. This stalk runs along at a little distance 
under the surface of the water, and from it descend 
the roots, but they do not reach down into the mud, 
but play loose like the fibres of duck-weed in the 
water. The flowers stand singly upon slender 
foot-stalks ; they are white, and composed of 
three leaves apiece, which give them a singular 
appearance. 

The fresh leaves are used in outward applications, 
and are very cooling. 

Ffi^frroRY. Fumaria. 

A PRETTY wild plant, with bluish divided leaves, 
and spikes of little purple flowers, common in 
our corn-fields in June and July. It grows ten 
inches high. The stalk is round, striated, of a 
pale green, thick enough, but not very firm or 
perfectly erect. The leaves are large, but they are 
divided into a vast nwmber of little parts, which 
are blunt and rounded at the ends ; their colour 
is a faint green. The flowers are small and pur- 
ple : they have a heel behiml, and a number of 



FAMILY HERBAL. 147 

tlicm stand together in a kind of spike. The whole 
plant has Httle taste. 

The juice expressed from this plant is exceUeni 
against the scurvy. It opens obstructions of the 
viscera^ and is good against the jaundice^ and all 
other diseases arising' from obstructions. 

Furze Bush. Genista sninosa. 

A WILD bush, upon our heaths and by road 
sides, too common to need much description. The 
stem is thick^ tough, and of a whitish colour, cover- 
ed with fragments of an irrcorular kind. The bran- 
ches are extremely numerous, and spread in such 
a manner, that when the plant is left to itself, it 
forms a kir]d of globular or semi-globular tuft 
upon the ground. The thorns are very numerous 
and very sharp ; they stand, as it were, one upon 
another. The leaves are little, and of a pale green, 
and they fall off so c|uickly, that for a great part of 
the year we see the shrub without any. The flow- 
ers are yellow and beautiful, and the seeds are con- 
tained in pods. The root spreads a great way^ 
ond is not easily got up, when the shrub has once 
thoroughly fixed itself. Every piece of it left in 
will senc' up a new plant. 

The root and the seeds are used, but neither 
much. The seeds dried and powdered are astrin- 
gent, and a ])roper ingredient in electuaries, among 
other things of that intention. The bark of the 
root is used fresh taken up, and is to be given in 
infusion : It works by urfne, and is good against 
the gravel ; but we have so many better things oi' 
our own growth for the same purpose, that it is 
scarce worth while to meddle with it ; it loses it* 
virtues by drying. 



H8 FAMILY HERBAL 



G 



Galangal Plant. Gatanga. 

A WILD plant in the East, which grows by wa- 
ters, and has some resemblance of the g-enerahty 
of our water plants in its leaves, and manner of 
^rrowth. It is two feet and a half hioh. and has 
white flowers. The roots spread about the surface, 
and are of an irrefj;ular shape. The leaves are a 
foot lonp;, not half an inch broad, sharp at the point, 
and at the ed<i;es. The stalk is firm, thick, round, 
and of a purplish green ; the flowers are small, and 
of a snow white ; they consist of a larger upper 
lip, and a smaller tender one, each divided into three 
parts. The seed-vessels are oblong, and have each 
three divisions, containing many seeds. The roots 
liave a very acrid tasfe, and are reddish : as we 
have two sorts of galangal roots at the druggists, 
it might be expected there should be found two 
galangal plants, but they are both the roots of the 
.same. 

The lesser galangal is most used : it is a warm 
and tine stomachic, we put it in all bitter tinctures. 
Head-aches which arise from disorders in the sto- 
mach, are greatly relieved by this root. AVhat is 
called English galangal, is the root of the long 
cyperus, described already in its place. 

Garlic. .^lUinm. 

A PLANT kept in our gardens for its uses in 
medicine, and m the kitchen. It grows two 
Act and a half high. The leaves are broad, long, 
snd of a stronir e:rcen. Tlie stalk is round, smooth, 
a: '1 htm, upright, and el" ;j pale whitish or bluisli 



FAMILY HERBAL. 149 

colour Tlie flowers are white and small, but they 
<;tow in a large tuft at the top ()f the stalk. The 
root is white, or a little reddish ; it is composed 
of a great number of bu'bs, or, as we call tliera, 
cloves,, joined tog-ether, and co\ered with a common 
skin,, and with fibres at the bottom. The whole 
plant has an extremely strong' smell, and an acrid 
and pungent taste. 

The root is to be boiled in water, and the decoc- 
tion made into syrup with honev ; this is excellent 
in asthmas, lioarseness, and coughs, and in all diffi- 
cnlties of breathing. 

Gentian. Gentlana. 

A ROBUST and handsome plant, native of Ger- 
many, and kept with us in gardens. It grows 
two feet and a half high. The leaves that rise 
from the rciot, are oblong, broad, of a yellowish 
green colour, and pointed at the ends. The stalk 
is thick, firm, upright, and brownish or yellowish. 
.\t every joint there stand two leaves like the others, 
only sriudier ; and towards the tops at every joint, 
also, there stand a numl)er of flowers : these are 
small, yellow, with a great lump in the middle^ 
which is the rudiment of tl^.e seed-vessel, and a 
great quantity of yellow threads about it. The 
root is large, long, and often divided. It is of a 
brownish colour on the outside, and yellow within, 
and is of a very bitter taste. 

The root is used ; our drug^gists l;eep it dry : it 
is the great bitter and stomacliic of tlie modern 
practice. Gentian root, and the peel of Seville 
(>ianges, make the common bitter tinctures and in- 
fusions : beside strengthening the stomach, and 
creating an appetite, tbe«e open obstructions, and 



150 FAMILY HERBAL 

are good in most chronic disorders. Tiie powder 
of g«utian will cure ag'iies. 

Germander. Cham<x:drijs. 

A LITTLE plant, native of many parts of Europe, 
but with us kept in gardens. It grouts a foot 
or more in height^ but rarely stands quite up- 
right. The stalks are square, green, and a little 
hairy. The leaves stand two at each joint. They 
are oblong, deeply indented at the edges, of a 
firm substance, green on the upper side, but hairy 
underneath. The flowers are small and purple, like 
the flowers of the little dead nettle. They stand in 
clusters about the upper joints of the stalks, and 
appear in July. 

Germander is an herb celebrated for many 
virtues. 'Tis said to be excellent against the 
gout and rheumatism : however that be, it pro- 
motes urine and the nienses, and is good in all 
obstructions of the viscera. The juice is the 
best way of giving it, but the infusion is more 
frequent. 

Water Germander. Scordium. 

A little mean looking plunt, wild in some 
parts of England, but kept in gardens also for its 
virtues. The stalks are square^ hairy, of a dusky 
green, and so weak, that they seldom stand 
much up. They are eight or ten inches long. 
The leaves are short, broad, and indented about the 
edges, but not sharply or deep as those of the other 
germander : they are of a sort of woolly soft ap- 
pearance and touch, and of a dusky deep green 
colour. The flowers are very small and red, and 



FAMILY HERBAL. 151 

they stand at the upper joints of the stalkSj in httle 
parcels tog-ether. The ^vhole plant has a stronii,' and 
disa-';reeable smell. 

The whole plant is to be used fresh or dried. ^ 
it has been celebrated greatly as a sudorific, and for 
its virtues against pestilential fevers, but it is now 
little u?ed. 

Ginger. Zinziber. 

An East India plant, found also in other places, 
and very singular in its manner of growth. It 
produces two kinds of stalks, the one bearing the 
leaves, and the other only the flowers. The first 
grow two or three feet high, and are themselves 
composed in a manner of the lower parts of leaves ; 
so that they seem to be only bundles of leaves rolled 
together at the bottom. These are long, narrow, 
and in some degree resemble the leaves of our com- 
mon flags. The other stalks arc tender, soft, and 
about a foot high : they have no leaves on them, 
but only a kind of films, and at the tops they 
produce the flowers, in a spike : these are small, 
in shape like those of our orchis, and of a mixed 
colour, purple, white, and yellow. The root spreads 
irregularly imder the surface. 

The root is the only part used : we have it dr}*- 
at the grocers ; but the best way of taking it, is 
as it comes over preserved from the East Indies. 
It is a warm and fine stomachic, and dispeller of 
wind. It assists digestion, and prevents or cures 
cholics. It is also an excellent addition to the 
rough purges, to prevent their griping in the 
operation. 

Qladwyn. Xyris slvc spatula fcctida. 

A v^iLD plant of the iris kind, of no great 



Ib2 FAMILY HERBAL. 

beauty, ])ut not \vithout its virtues. The root 
creeps u])oiit the surface, like that of tlie common 
flower lie luce. The leaves are a foot loug-, nar- 
row, ar.d sliarp-poiuted, and of a strong- and very 
pecuhar smell. The stalks are round, firm, up- 
rig'ht, and of a bluish g'rcen. The flowers are like 
those of the common ilower de luce, but smaller, 
and of a very dull coloiu'. There is a little purple 
in the upper part of tlie ilower, and there are sonic 
veins and streaks in the lo\ver ; hut the rest is of a 
dull dead hue, between grey and brown, and they 
have a faint and had smell. 

The jnice of the root promotes urine, and the 
menses. The dried root, in powder or infusion, is 
gX)od against all Insteric disorders, faintings, and 
pains. Outwardly, the fresh root is said to be an 
excellent reuiedy for scrophulous swellings ; but this 
we must take upon trust. 

Glasswort. Kali. 

A COMMON wild plant, on the sea coasts of 
many parts of Europe, but not a native of our 
country. It is called cochleated kali, from the 
form of its seed-vessels, which are twisted in the 
manner of a snail's shell. It grows to a foot and a 
half in lieight. The stalk is round, thick, fleshy, 
and brittle, 'fhe leaves are few, and they stund 
irregularly ; thev are oblong, and blunted at the 
ends, and of a hluish green colour. The flowers 
are small, inconsiderable, and yellow. 

The juice of the fresh plant is said to ])e an 
excellent diuretic ; but we have no opportunities 
of knowing its virtues here. Some say the seed- 
vessels have tlie same virtue, and give them in in- 
fusion, but we have better remedies of the same 
kind, of our own growth. The whole plant it 



FAMILY HERBAL. L5S 

burnt for its fixed salt, which is used in making' 
glass. 

Goat's Beard. Tragopogon. 

A co3i>ioN wild plant, distinguished in our 
meadows by its narrow and fresh green leaves, and 
the long leaves of the cup, about its yellow flowers. 
It grows (o a foot and a half in height. The leaves 
are very narrow ; they are broadest at the base, 
and snuiiier all the way to the point. The stalk is 
round, thick, firm, very upright, and towards the 
to[) divided into two or three bi'anches. The 
flowers stinul at the extremities of tlie stalks; they 
are of a I eautifid pale yellow, very large and sur- 
rounded by a cup, composed of long and narrow 
green leaves, which, for the greate.^t ]>art of the 
day, are closed over it, so that it seems only in bud. 
The seeds are winged with a fine Avhite down, in 
the manner of those of dandelion, and, when ripe, 
they stand upon the tops of tlie bi'anches, in a 
round head, in the same manner. The root is long' 
and white ; and the whole plant is full of a n^ilky 
juice, which, after it has been a little time ex- 
posed 10 the air, becomes yellow, end tliick like 
crciim. 

'^Fhe root is used. It is so plev^sant in ta^te, that 
it may ^>? eaten in the manner of carrots, and other 
roots at table, but it exceeds them all in its qualities. 
It is an excellent restorative, and will do great 
service to people after long illness : the best way 
of giving it for this purpose, is to boil it first in 
'water, and then, cutting it to pieces, boil it again 
in milk, which is to be rendered palat'able in the 
usual way ; it becomes thus a must excellent mcdi- 
«ine in the form of food. 



154 FAMILY HERBAL; 

Goat's Rue. Gcdcsca. 



a' 



A TALL plant, native of Italy, but kept with 
UB in g'ardcns. It grows a yard high. The stalks 
are rounds striated, hollow, not very firm, or strong-, 
and of a pale green colour : they are vc^ry niuch 
branched, and not altogether uprii^ht. The leaves 
are long and large, each is composed of several j)airs 
of .'^mailer leaves, with an odd one at the end of the 
rib ; these arc oblong, narrow, and of a yellowish 
j^reen colour, thin, and not at all indented at the 
edges. The flowers are small, and of a bluish and 
whitish colour ; they stand a great many upon the 
same pedicle, in a drooping posture. 

The \\liole plant is used. It is to be gathered 
when just come to flower, and dried, and afterwards 
given in infusi(m : this gently promotes sweat, 
and is good in fevers ; so much is true of the 
virtues of this plant, but much more has been said 



of it. 



GoLDLx Rod, J^ir(ra aurca. 



o 



A VERY pretty wild plant, with tufts of yellow 
flowers, frequent on our heaths in autumn. It 
is two feet high. Tlie stalk is firm, erect, round, 
?ind hairy. Tlie leaves are long, broadest in the 
middle, indented at the edges, rough on the surface, 
hairy, and of a strong green ( olour. The floweis 
are snmll, and of a bi'ight yellow, but they gnnv 
together in a sort of thick and sliort spikes, so 
that they are V( ry conspicuous. Tlie r')ot is long, 
brown, and of aii auslerc taste, as is also the whole 
plant. 

'^rhe rool, tnken up in spring and dried, is an e\- 
celleuf medicine given in powder for purging'i, and 
for overflowing- of the menses, bloody stools, or any 



FAMILY HERBAL. 155 

other hcmorrhai^e whatsoever. The whole plant 
has been at all times famous as a vulnerary or 
wound herb, given in decoctions. 

Gold of Pleasure. Mijagrum. 

A VERY pretty plant, common in many parts of 
iMiiiland, and known at sig-ht by the vast quantity 
of sced-vesst Is. it is two feet high : the stalk is 
round, thick, fi'Mn, upi ght. and toward the top 
luis a great ma? branches, all standing upright. 
Tiic leaves stand irregularly, ai.ci are not numerous, 
tli< V SMC long, rot very broud, and of a pale green ; 
thc\ virc indented about the edges,, and surnamd 
(i;e strilk at the base; the flowers arc le and 
while ; the seed-vessels are short and round ;h, and 
Ihey stand in vast quantities, forming a kind of 
s])ikes all the wav up the tops of the branches, with 
few llowers at the summit. 

Tlie fresh tops of the plant are to be used 
beioi<^ it is run to seed. An infusion of them 
sweetened with honey, is excellent for sore throats, 
and ulcerations of the mouth. The seeds yield a 
great (juantity of oil on pressing, and they .'>re so 
j)ler.tiful, that it might seem "worth while to cul <- 
vate the plant for them ; the oil is pleasant and well 
Uisted. , 

GoLRD. Cucurbita. 

A LARGE plant, of the melon or cucumber kind, 
kept in gardens. The stalks are ten or twelve 
fret long, thick, angular, rough, and hairy, but 
unable to support themselves upright : they trail 
upon the ground or climb upon other things. 
The leaves are very large and broad, indented 
deeply, rough, of a bla«kish green, The tlovvers 



156 FAMILY HERBAL. 

are larj^c^ and bell-fashionedj white and downy on 
the inside, and not altogether smooth on the outer 
surface. 

The fruit is large, and has a hard, firm shell on 
the outside, and is fleshy and juicy with'n, "ith 
seeds in the manner of the melons ; these iire flat, oi 
an obloii^-; sha])e, and hard. 

These seeds are the only part u<-ed : they are 
cooling' 'ond diuretic. T'lt-'- hfivt- this vii ue in 
iiuich tlie same degre^^ witli tu< amoer and melon 
fseeds, and are given wilh them in emulsions. 

BriTER GouitD, called Bviter Apple. 
Cotoci/nihis. 

A ^.\TI\E of the East, and of some other ^vnrm 
countries, kept in our curious gardens, and atlord- 
ing the famous drug called coloquintide. It is a 
small plant of the gourd kind. The stalks are 
thick, angular, hairy, and '-f a pale green. They 
cannot support the.:isc!ves, hut have a number of 
tendrils growing from them, by which they lay 
hold of every tiling they come near. The leaver 
are large, broad, arid very deeply divided at the 
edges. Tlie llowers are of a pale yellow, large, 
and not unlike the flowers of melons. The fruit 
is a round gourd, of the bigness of the largest 
orange. The bark is hard, and the inner part spun- 
gy, Avith seeds among it : these are Hat, hard, and 
of an oval Hgiu'c. 

Tile fiuit is the part used ; they take off the 
outer shell, and send the dried pulp with the seeds 
among it : but these are to he separated aftiu'wards, 
and the pulp used alone. It is a very violent purge, 
but it may be given \' ith proper caution ; and it is 
e.\(r!ient againsi Ihe rheumatism, and violent 
iu'ljilual head-aclics. These rough purges will 



FAMILY HERBAL. 157 

leach the cause of disorders, that the common 2,'on- 
fle ones would not touch ; and the present practice 
<Ienies tlie use of many of the best medicines we 
kiiow. 

Gout Wort. Paddgrara herha gcrrardi 

A COMMON wild plant over-runnin<)j our o^ar- 
dens, and when once it iias taken root very diffi- 
v\)'* to be got out a^ain ; it jj;rows two feet hig^h. 
The leaves which rise from the roots are large, 
and ihey are composed each of several smaller, set 
on a divided rib, in the manner of those of angelica, 
of wiiic h they have some resemblance. They arc 
of a pale green colour, and are oblong and in- 
d; hU'lI at the edges. The stalks are round, up- 
riglit, and a little branched, they are slender, stri- 
attul, and green ; the leaves on these are smaller, 
and consist of fewer parts than those that rise from 
the root. The tlovcrs are little and white, and 
tliev stand in small round clusters ; each is suc- 
ceeded by two flat seeds. Tlie root creeps. 

Tl.e root and fresh buds of the leaves are l)oth 
used, but only externally ; they are excellent in 
fomentations, and pultices for pains ; and the plant 
has obtained its name from their singular efficacy 
against the pain of the gout : but it is not advise- 
ahle to do any tiling in that disorder; the warm 
applications of this kind are of all others the least 
d:ingerous. 1 have known a quantity of the roots 
and leaves boiled soft together, and applied to the 
i'lip in the sciatica, keeping a fresh quantity hot 
to renew the other, as it grew^ cold, and I have seen 
great good effect from it. lis use should not be 
confined to this pain alone, it will succeed in 
Others, 



158 FAMILY HERBAL. 

Gromvel. Lithospcrmon. 

A WILD plant of no great beauty, but distinguished 
by its seeds, \\hich are hard, glossy, and resemble 
60 many pearls, as they stand in the open husk. 
The plant grows a yard high. The stalk is round, 
thick, firm, very upright, and branciied. The 
leaves are oblong, not very broad, rougli, and hairy, 
of a deep l)lackish green colour, and placed irregular- 
ly ; the ilowers are small and white : when they are 
fallen off, the cups remain, and contain these shining', 
and, as it were, stony seeds. The plant is fre- 
quent about hedges. 

The seeds are the only part used ; they work 
powerfully by urine, and are of great service in 
the gravel and all other obstructions ; they are best 
given in powder, with a great deal of barley-water 
at the same iimc. 

Ground-Pine. Chamocpitys. 

A VERY singular little wild plant, of a mossy 
appearance, and resinous smell : it grows four 
inches liigh ; the stalks arc hairy, and seldom stand 
upright ; the leaves arc very close set, and the 
young shoots which grow from their bosoms perfectly 
obscure the stalk ; it seems a tliick round tuft. These 
leaves ;ire short, narrow, and divided into three parts 
at their ends, and they stand two at every joint of the 
stalk : they nre rough and Iiairy like the stalk. The 
ilowxMs are little and yellow, and they stand at the 
joints. 

The whole plant is used, and it has great vir- 
tue ; it is to bo used dry in powder or infusion. 
It works strongly by urine, and promotes the menses. 
It opens also all obstructions of the liver and 



FAMILY HERBAL. LVJ 

spleen, and is <j:;ood in jaundice, the rheumatism, 
and most of the chronic disorders. 

Groundsel. Erigcron ^'we ficuccio. 

A COMMON wci'd in our gardens, and upon walls, 
with iifde yeilow {lowers, and downy seed?; ; it 
L^rows ei^jfht inches high : the stislk i^- round, fleshy, 
toienvdy upj ii;-hi, and ^Tcen or pnvp .sh : tlie leave-; 
are ohlono'^ broad, blunt, and divided at the edges. 
The ilowers are small and yellow ; they grow in 
a rsort of long- cups at the tops of the stalks and 
branches. 

The juice of this herb is a gentle and very good 
emetic. It causes vomiting without anv great 
irritation or pain ; and it is also good for cutaneous 
foulnesses applied outwardly. 

Gl AfACTM Tree. Guaiacum. 

A GREAT tree, native of the West Indies, and 
to be seen in some of our crrious gardens. The 
fruit is very large, and ihe branches are numerous ; 
the leaves are snvall, each is com.po'^ed of two or 
three pair of smaller ones, with no odd leaf at the 
end of thf rib. These are short, broad, rou!mish„ 
and of a dusky green colour. The ilowers are 
small and yellow, but they grow in large clusters 
togcllier, so that the tree when in bloom makes a 
very pretty appearance. 

The bark and wood are the only parts of tlie tree 
used ; iliey are given in decoction, t(» promote ^^^eat, 
mid so cleanse the blood; thev are excellent against 
the rluMnni'ti-^m, scurvv, and all other di:^orderSj 
wliich arise from what is coinmoRiy cali^'d foulness 
of the blood, but tliev mutt be taken for a consider- 



160 FAMILY HERBAL. 

able time ; for these effects cannot be produced at 
once. 

AV liiit is c'cillcd f^'um f^iiaiacuni, is the rei^in poin*- 
ed t'lnni this tree ; it is very acrid and pnnt;-ent, 
and in the rheun)iitisni and many other cases is to be 
preferred to the wood itself. 

H. 

Hare's Ears. Bupleuron laiifolium. 

A COMMON wild plant in some j^arts of Europe, 
out kept here in i;Hrdcns. It is two feet or more 
in heigiit. The leaves are lonp^ and broad, of 
a stiff substance, and someAvhat hollowed, which 
fi,'ives them the appeanince of a lonijj' and hollow 
car, from wiience tliev are named ; thev are of a 
whili'^h ^'rcen colour, and )!»e ribs n on tiiem nre 
hip;h. There is a sort with narrow leaves, but the 
broad leaved ki'.id is to l)e us; (i in . uicine. Tiie 
stalks are rouiul, uprii;ht, suuiU'l, and toward the 
top blanched. ^Fhe {lowers aie little and yellow, 
and l';ev st<:nd at ti>e tops of tlu branches in small 
lunbi^is. The root is lonp; and diick, and has many 
fi'ores. 

The voun';- shoots of the leaves which grow 
fn)ni the pmI, are esteemed exceeding-ly in places 
where tluy are n.ilive, for the cure of fresh wounds, 
Th y cut tuo or three of tlu^se off close to tlie 
j;'roun(l, and without biaisini;' them, iirst closiiig- 
the lij)s of the woniul. they lay Ihem on one over 
the other, making; a kind of compress: thev then 
bind them on with linen rags, and never take oil 
the dressing for three davs, at the end of which 
time in most ea<es tliey <mi1v fnul a sr:ir : the cure 
i)eing perfected. This is «be, .subalance of a poiup- 



FAMILY HERBAL 161 

ous account sent lately to a person of distinction 
with seme leaves of the herb. There is no doubt 
of the truths and the surgeons will very well under- 
stand the nature of the cure ; the discovery how- 
ever is not new, for the herb has always been 
reckoned among the vulnerary plants ; and some 
have pretended that it will singly cure the king's 
evil, but that is not to be expected ; at the same 
time it may be proper to observe, that we do not 
want plants for the same use in England ; v,'e have 
the tutsan which is to be applied in the same man- 
ner, and has the same effect ; clown's all-heal, and 
many others, named in their places. 

Hare's Foot. Lagopus. 

A COMMON iiitle plant, singular in the tuft, 
which contains its seeds, and whence it has its 
name, but not so much regarded as it ought to be 
for its virtues. The stalks are numerous, round, 
slender, and spread upon the ground, each is 
divided into a number of lesser branches". The leaves 
are small, oblong, narrow, of a pa'e green colour, 
and hairy ; and they stand three together, in the 
manner of trefoils. The flowers are small and of 
a faint red, they stand several together in a short 
spike, and the cups which receive them at the 
base, are downy ; this gives the singular aspect of 
hairiness to these heads, and their softness to the 
touch. 

The whole plant is io be used dried. It is an 
excellent astringent. It stops the overflowings of 
the menses and the whites, and is good against 
bloody fluxes, and purgings of all kinds. The best 
\vay of taking it is in a strong decoction, which 
must be continued some time. 



163 FAMILY HERBAL. 

Hart's Tongue. Phyllitis. Lingua cermna 

A WILD plant of the fern kind, that is, con- 
sistinf^ only of leaves, without a stalk, the flowers 
and seeds being borne on the backs of them. But 
it has no r€f;?mblancc to the ordinary ferns in its 
aspect. Each leaf of hart's tongue is a separate 
plant;, but there rise many from the same root. 
The foot-stalk is five inches long, the leaf an inch 
and a 4^uarter broad, largest at the bottom, and 
smaller to the top, usually simple, but sometimes 
divided into two or more parts at the end. It is of 
a beautL j1 green at the upper side, somewhat paler 
underneath, and the foot-stalk runs all along its 
1); ddle in the form of a very large rib. The seed-ves- 
?< *s are disposed in long brown streaks on each side 
of this rib, on the under part of the leaf, and they arc 
more conspicuous than in most of the feni kind. 
The plant grows in old wells, and in dark ditches, 
and is green all the year. 

It is not much used, but deserves to be more 
Known. It is an excellent astringent; the juice 
of the plant, taken in small quantities, and for a 
continuance of time, opens obstructions of the liver 
and spleen, and will cure many of the most obstinate 
chronic distempers. 

Hartwort. Scseli. 

A TALL, robust, and handsome plant, native 
of the Alps, but kept in our gardens. It grows 
five or six feet in height : the stalk is round, thick, 
s^lriated, and hollow, very firin and upright, and 
but little branched. The leaves are very large, 
vind they are divided into a great number of parts, 
by fives and by threes ; they are of a yellowish 
^Tcen, Tiie flowers are small and white, but they 



FAMII.Y llERBAI. 103 

stand in great tufts or umbels at the tops of the 
stalks : the seeds follow^ two after each llower, and 
they are oblong", broad^ and edged with a leafy 
border ; they are of a dark colour^ a strong smell, 
and acrid taste. 

The seeds are the only part used ; they promote 
the menses^ and the necessary discharges after 
delivery^ and are an excellent warm and cordial 
medicine ; they work also gently by urine^ and cure 
col icy pains ; they are to be given iii powder or 
infusion. 

Hawthorn. Spina alba. 

A SHRUB too common in our hedges to need 
much description. The trunk is irregular, and sel- 
dom straight ; the branches are strong, tough, and 
thorny ; and the leaves of a glossy green and beau- 
tifully divided. The (lowers are white and beautiful, 
the fruit is small. 

The flowers and the dried fruit are used in medi- 
f ine ; they have the same virtue ; they work by 
urine, and are good in the gmvel, and all com- 
plaints of that kind ; but there are so many better 
things for the same pinpose at hand, that these are 
not much regarded. 

Hedge Mistard. Erisimum. 

A VERY common .wild plant, and of no great 
beauty ; it is freqr.ent about old walls, and in farm 
yards, and is distinguished by its long spikes of 
pods, whicli are lodged close upon the stalk. It 
grows two feet in height ; the stalk is round, firm, 
uprigiit, but not always quite straight, and a little 
branched. The leaves are of a pale green coloui, 
hairy, oblong, and deeply indented at the edges. 



164 FAMiLV HERBAL. 

The flowers are small and ydlow, and they common- 
ly stand at the tops of lonp; spikes of pods^ which 
have been tiowers before them. 

The whole plant is used, an infusion of it fresh 
is the bcvst way of taking it. This dissolves tough 
phlegm^, and is excellent in asthmas, hoarse- 
nesseSj and other complaints of the breast. This 
simple infusion, made into a syrup with honey, 
also answers the same purpose, and keeps all the 
year. 

Hemlock. Cicuta. 

A LARGE, tall, and handsome umoelliferous 
plant, frequent in our hedges. It grows to six 
feet in height ; the stalk is round, firm, hollow, 
and upright ; it is of a dark green, and often 
stained with purple and yellow. The leaves are 
very large, and divided into very fine and nume- 
rous partitions. The flowers are small and white, 
and stand in large clusters on the tops of the stalks. 
The seeds are roundisii. The whole plant has 
a strong disagreeable snieil, and has been called 
poisonous. 

The roots are excellent in pultices for hard 
swell in -IS. 



» 



Hemp. Cannabis, 

Hemp is a tall plant, of a coarse aspect, culti- 
vated in flelds for its stalk. It arrows Ave feet high, 
and is a robust plant ; the stalk is thick and rigid ; 
the leaves are numerous, they are large, and each 
composed of six or seven smaller ; these are disposed 
in the manner of fingers, nnd are of a deep green 
colour, rough, narrow, and scrmted at the edges. 
The flowers in hemp grow in some plants, and the 




/i<j/,///; 



FAMILY HERBAL. 165 

seeds on others. The flowers are inconsiderable, 
aiul whitisli ; the seeds are large, roundish, grey, and 
have a white pulp within. The root is fibrous. 
The seeds are used in medicine ; an emulsion made of 
them cures the jaundice. 

Hemp Agki.v.ony. Eupatorium cannabinum. 

A TALL plant growing by waters, with tufts 
of red flowers and leaves, divided in the man- 
ner of those of hemp. It grows five feet high ; 
the stalk is round, thick, reddish, and very up- 
right. The leaves are large, of a pale gree% 
and fingered ; they stand two at each joint ; the 
flowers grow in bunches as big as a man's fist, 
on the tops of the branches, and are of a bright 
red. 

The root fresh gathered and boiled in ale is 
used in some places as a purge ; it operates strong- 
ly, but without any ill effect, and dropsies are said 
to have been cured by it singly. 

Black Henbane. Hyoscyamus niger, 

A COMMON wild plant, of a dismal aspect 
and disagreeable smell. The farm yards and 
ditch banks in most places are full of it. It 
grows two feet high. The stalk is thick, round, 
hairy, and clammy to the touch ; but not very 
upright. The leaves are large, long, and broad, 
deeply serrated at the edges, of a bluish green co- 
lour, hairy, and clammy to the touch, and leav- 
ing a disagreeable smell upon the hands. The 
flowers are large, and stand in rows on the tops 
of the branches, which cften bend down ; they 
arc of a strange yellowish brown colour, with 
purple veins. The seeds are numerous and brown. 



1^ FAMILY HERBAL. 

The seeds arc used ; the rest of the plant is 
esteemed poisonous. They are g'iven in small doses 
ag-ainst the bloody flux^ and it is said with great suc- 
cess ; 1 have not known it tried. 

White Henbane. Uyoscyamus alhus. 

A NATIVE of Italy and Germany, kept in our 
gardens. It is a foot high, and has something of 
the aspect of the black henbane, but not so dismal. 
The stalk is round, thick, and of a pale green ; the 
leaves are large, broad, but short, and a little in- 
dented at the edges ; they are of a yellowish green, 
and somewhat hairy ; the flowers are small and 
yellow, and the seeds are whitish. 

The seeds of this kind are preferred to those of 
the othe; s, as less strong] in their effects ; but if any 
harm would happen from the internal use of the 
other, we should have known it, for they are gene- 
rally sold for them. 

Good King Henry. Bonus Ilcnricus. 

A ro^nioN wild plant, called also by some 
Engii'^li mercury, by way of distinction from the 
Dtiiei-, wliich is called French mercury, and has 
been described already. This grows a foot high ; 
the fetalk is round and thick, but rarely stands 
quite upright ; it is greenish and purplish, and is 
coveivd witli a kind of grey powder unctuous to the 
touch. The leaves are large, broad, nnd of the 
t-hapt; of an arrow-head, they stand on long stalks, 
uhd are of a pale green above, and greyish under- 
neath, being there covered with tliis grey powder. 
The flowers are inconsiderable, and arc of a green- 
isli \ell()w, and they stand in long spike« at the tops 
of the branches ; the plant is common in farm yards 



FAMILY HERBAL. 167 

The young shoots are eaten as spinag'c, tiie juice 
of the whole plant works gently, and well by urine ; 
and the dried herb is used in decoctions for glistens, 

IIermodactyl Plant. Hermodactylus. 

A BEAUTIFUL plant, having more the aspect 
of a garden flower, but it is common wild in the 
East. The root is roundish, but flatted, and in- 
dented at the bottom, and smaller at top. The 
leaves are small and broad ; they are sharp at the 
point, and of a deep green colour. The flowers are 
large and of a whitish colour, veined and striped 
with purple ; this is the best account we have re- 
ceived of the plant, but part of it comes with less 
authority than one would wish to things of this kind. 
The root is dried and sent to us. 

It is a gentle purgative, but it is less used at 
this time than many others. It has been in more 
repute, perhaps with reason. 

HoLLOAR. Malva arhorca 

A coM>;oN garden flower. It grows eight feet 
high, and the stalk is round, firm, h.airy, and 
upright. The leaves are large and roundish, of a 
deep green, hairy, and cut in at the edges ; the 
flowers are very large, red, white, or purple, and 
stand in a kind of lona: snike. The root is white, 
long, and thick, and is of a slimy nature, and not 
disagreeable taste. 

This is the part used ; a decoction of it operates 
by urine, and is good in the gravel ; it has the 
same virtue with the mallow and marshmallow, but 
i!\ a middle degree between them ; more than the 
mallow, and not ^ much as the otiier, nor is it so 
pleasant. 



168 FAMILY HERBAL, 

HoNEWORT. Selinwn siifoliis. 

A COMMON plant in corn-fields and dry places, 
with extremely beautiful leaves' from the root, 
and little umbels of white flowers. It has its 
Enj^Iish name from its virtues. Painful swellings 
are in some parts of the kingdom called hones, and 
the herb, from its singular effect in curing them, 
has received the name of honewort, that is, hone- 
herb. 

The root is long and white ; there rise from it, 
early in the spring, half a dozen or more leaves, 
wliich lie spread upon the ground, in an elegant 
manner, and are all that is generally observed of 
the plant. The stalks do not rise till the end of 
summer, and these leaves decay by that time, so 
that they are not known to belong to it. These 
leaves are eio-ht inches lona:, and an inch and a half 
ni breadth : they are composed each of a double 
row of smaller leaves, set on a common rib, with 
an odd leaf at the end ; these are oblong, toleral)ly 
broad, and indented in a beautiful manner. They 
are of a fresh green colour ; they are the part of 
the plant most seen, and the part to be used ; and 
they are not easily confounded with those of any 
other plant, for there is scarce any that has what 
are nearly so handsome. The stalk is two feet high, 
round, hollow, upright, but not very firm, and 
branched toward the top. The leaves on it are 
somewhat like those from the root, but they have 
not the singularity of those beautiful and numerous 
small ones ; tlio flowers arc Jittle and white, and 
the seeds are small, flatted, striated, and two of them 
follow every flower. 

The leaves are to be used ; they are to be fresh 
gathered and beat in .a marble mortar into a kind of 
paste. They arc to be laid on a swelling that is 



FAr>IlLY herbal; 169 

red, painful, and threatens to have bad consequences, 
aitd they disperse it. The apphcation must be 
frequently renewed, and the're are those who speak 
of its curing the evil. 

HoNEY-SucRLE. Periclymenum. \ 

A BEAUTIFUL wiid shrub. The trunk is seldom 
more than an inch thick ; the branches are very 
long' and slender, of a reddish colour, brittle, and all 
of the same bigness. The leaves stand in pairs, 
they are broad, short, blunt, of a dark dead green 
colour. The flowers grow in little clusters ; they 
are long, slender, tubular, and very fragrant ; the 
berries are red. 

The fresh leaves of honey suckle given in de- 
coction, are good against obstructions of the liver 
and spleen ; they work by urine, and they are also 
a good gargle for a sore throat. 

HoNEYWORT. Cerinthe. 

A JUICY plant frequently wild in many parts 
of Europe, but with us kept in gardens. It has 
its name from the sweet taste of the flowers. Al- 
most all flowers have a drop of honey juice in their 
bottom : this is indeed the real substance of honey, 
for the bees only pick it out and get it together : 
the hollow flowers in general have more of it, or 
it is better preserved in them than others, but scarce 
any in so great a degree as this plant named from 
it. It is two feet high, when kept erect,- but if left 
to itself, is very apt to lean upon the ground. The 
stalk is round, thick, juicy, and tender ; the leaves 
arc large, oblong, broad, they surround and inclose 
the stalk at their base ; they are of a bluish green 

z 



ITO FAMILY HERBAL. 

colour, spotted or clouded irreg'ularly with \AJiite, 
and they are fall of a sort of prickles. The flow- 
ers grow at Ihe tops of the stalks^ several tog^ethcr, 
among- the clusters of leaves ; they are hollow, 
oblong;, -and very wide open at the mouth ; their 
colour ,is yellow, variegated with purple in the 
middle, ■and they have a very pretty appearance. 

JJhe fresh gathered tops of the plant are to be 
used ; an infiision of them is cooling, and works 
by urine. }t is good against scorbutic complaints, 
and in the jaundice. 

Hop Plant. Lupulus. 

A CLIMBING plant, with very long stalks, common 
in our hedges, and cultivated also in many places. 
The stalks are roundish, rough to the touch, and 
of a purplish colour often, sometimes only green. 
The leaves are veiy large, of a roundish figure, 
deeply indented, of a dark green colour, and very 
rough also to the touch. Tlie fruit is sufficiently 
known . 

A decoction of fresh gathered hops is good against 
the jaundice ; and the powder of hops dried in an 
oven has been often known to cure agues, but upon 
this there is no absolute dependance. 

White IIoreiiolnd. Marruhhim album. 

'A "WHITE hoary plant, with little flowers in 
tuft!^ round the <?talks, frequent in dry places in 
many parts of (he kirtgdom. It grows sixteen 
inches higii. The stalks are square, and very ro- 
bust, hairy, pale coloured, and upright. The 
leaves i^tand two at each joint ; they are short and 
bi'oad, bUint at tiie ends, and widely indented at 




/y//y// yj/a/^^'-^^'^M'-^J 



FAMILY liroBAL* 171 

the edo^e-', of a roiig'h surface, and white colour, 
Tiie tlowei's are white, and the points of their cups 
are prii;k!y. 

The best part of the plant for me(Hclna] use, is 
tlie tops of the young' shoot* ; a decoction of these 
ina(}e very strong;, and boiled into a thin syrup with 
honey, is excellent af^inst coughs, hoarsenesses 
of long standing, and all disorder^ of the hings. 
The same decoction, if liiken in large doses, and for 
a continuance, promotes the menses, and opens all 
obstructions. 

Black Horehound. Ballote. 

A COMMON wild plant of a disagreeable smell, 
thence also called 1}} some stinking horehound. 
The stalks are square, the leaves grow two at every 
joint, and are broad, short, and of a blackish green 
colour, but in sliape not unlike those of the white 
kind. Tiie flowers stand in clusters round the stalk 
at the joints, as in the other, but they are red. 
The wliclc plant has a dismal aspect. The root i.^ 
iibroiis. 

The plant is to l)e used fresh and dried, and 
it has more virtue than most imagi'.ie. It is to be 
given in tiie form oi' tea : it promotes the menses, 
and is sn|}crior to most things as a remedy in hysteric 
cases, fiiintings, convulsions, and low-spiritedness^ 
and all th.e train of those di^sordcrs. 

Horsetail. F.quhctum scgetale. 

A co:\iMON, and yet very singular wild j)lant, 
frequent in our corn-fields^ and composed of 
brnr-clies only, without leaves ; there are also many 
otlier kinds of horsetail. It is a foot or more in 
height, and is extremely branched ; the stalk i» 



in FAMILY HERBAL. 

round, blunts ridgea', and angiilated^ and composed 
of joints. It is hollow, weak, and seldom sup- 
ports itself tolerably uprig'ht. The branches are 
of the same structure, and they are again branch- 
ed ; they grow several from every joint of the 
main statk, and have others again, though in less 
number, growing from their joints. The whole 
plant is of a green colour, and when bruised^ not of 
a very agreeable smell. 

The whole plant is to be usea, and it is best fresh ; 
though it retains a great deal of its virtue dried. 
Given in decoction, it stops overflowings of the 
menses, and bloody stools ; and applied externally, 
it immediately stops the bleeding of wounds and 
heals them. 

Hound's Tohgue. Ci/noglossuni^ 

A TALL and singular looking p;ant, frequent by 
our way sides, and distinguished by its large whitish 
leaves, and small purple flowers, as also by the 
particularity of its smell, which has been supposed to 
resemble that of a kennel of hounds. It is two feet 
and a half high. The stalk is angulated, firm, and 
upright : the leaves are long, considerably broad, 
^nd of a pale whitish or bluish green colour, sharp 
at the points, and not at all serrated at the edges. 
The flowers are small, and of a deep purple : they 
grow along the tops of the branches, and are followed 
by rough seeds. 

The root is the part used ; it is long, thick, and 
brown, but whitish within ; it is balsamic and 
astringent. Given in decoction, it is excellent against; 
coughs arising from a thin sharp humour. Dried 
and jiovvdered, it is good against purging?, and 
stops the overflowing of the menses. 



FAMILY HERBAL. 173 

Great IIouseleek. Sedum inajus. 

A PLANT sufficiently known as well by its particular 
manner of throwing', as for its place of oTovvth, It 
forms itself into clusters of a roundish li^^ure, these 
are composed of leaves^ Avhich are largest toward 
the bottonij and smallest at the end ; they are very 
thick and juicy, broad at the base, sharp at the 
point, flat on the upper side, a little rounded on 
the under, and somewhat hairy at their edg'es. The 
stalk grows to ten inches high ; it is very thick^ 
round, and juicy, upright, of a reddish colour, 
and divided at the top into a few branches. The 
leaves on it are thin and narrow. The flowers 
are numerous ; they arc red and have a green head 
in their middle, which afterwards becomes a cluster of 
seed-vessels. 

The leaves are the part used ; they are applied 
externally in inflammations, and are very useful, 
when cooling things may be employed. The juice 
is also cooling and astringent taken inwardly, but 
it is rarely used. Some praise it greatly for the in- 
flammations of the eyes. 

There is another kind of houseleek very unlike 
this in form, but of the same virtues, this is called 
the lesser houseleek ; the stalks are round, small, and 
reddish, and grow six inches high ; the leaves are 
long and rounded, not flat as the other leaves ; and 
the flowers are white, and stand in a kind of tufts, 
like umbels at the tops of the stalks. This grows on 
old walls, and the tops of houses like the other. 

IjEAst Houseleek, or Wall Pepper, Sedum 
miniynum acre. 

A COMMON plant on old walls, of kin to the 



174 FAMILY HERBAL. 

at 

preceding, but very different both in face i. ^^ 

virtues. The root is little; from this gTOw ah. '\n 
dance of stalks ; they are rounds weak^ and unal i 
to support tliemsehes ; they s})read every \va- 
about^ and are six inches in length. The g-reate?; 
part of every stalk is covered ^vitll leaves^ so that l », 
appears a green substance, of the thickness of one 1 
Vittle finger ; these leaves are short and thick ; the, ^ 
■are of a fine green colour, and are broad at the bast3 
and sharp at the point. The flowers are little, ando-: 
a bright yellow ; they grow in great numbers, from 
the tops of these brandies, and are of the shape of 
those of common hoiiseleek, and rounded by such 
5eod-vcssc]s. 

The juice of this kind of houseleek is excel- 
lent airainst the scurvy and all other diseases arisinjr 
jVom what is called foulness of the blood. It 
if? said that a continued course of it will cure 
the king'.s evil : but we want experience to support 
thirs 

IhrocisT. Hj/pocistus. 

A rrnv singular plant, native of the Grecian 
islands, and of some of the warmer parts of Europe. 
It ill five inches high, and of a singular figure. 
It does not grow in the earth at large as other 
plants, but to the root of some species of cistus ; 
as missletoe grows to the branches of trees. The 
ptalk is thick and fleshy, and is often twice as large 
toward (he top, as at the bottom. It is whitish, or 
veHowisii, or purplish, and has a parcel of short 
and bioad skinnv liiins, by Avay of leaves upon it. 
The flowers grow at the top, with leaves of the same 
klixl among (hem. They are large and beautiful, 
and urc succceucd by iVuits of a roundish figure, 



FAMILY HERBAL. Irj 

I'u'h is a quantity of e;]ulinous liquor, and with 
e seeds, v.hich are very small, and ui a uiown- 
colour. 

VVe use the hardened juice of the fruit ; it is 
aporated over the tire, to a thick consistence, and 
en is of a black colour, like the common iiqaorice 
ice, called Spanish liquorice. The drug'f^'ists 
?ep it in this state ; it is ^ood 'u\ \ioient pur^ing's, 
ith bloody stools, and in overflowing oi'the mense>; : 
is to be o'iven in an clecluarvj with conserve of red 



Dses. 



Hyssop, IIijssopus. 

A VERY pretty p^arden plant, kept for its virtues. 
It i^rows two feet high. The stalks are square, 
robust, upright, and of a pale green colour. The 
leaves stand two at each joint ; they are long, narrow, 
pointed at the ends, and of a briglit green colour. 
The flowers are small, and they stand in long spikes, 
at the tops of the branches ; they are of a beautiful 
blue colour. The whole plant has a strong, but not 
disagreeable smell. 

Ilyssop is to be gathered when just beginning to 
flower, and dried : the infusion made in the manner 
of tea, is not unpleasant, and is the best way of 
taking it : it is excellent against coughs, hoarse- 
nesses, and obstructions in the breast. A strong 
infusion made into a syrup with lioney, is excehent 
for the same purposes, mixed with an equal quantity 
of cil of almonds. 

Hedge Hyssop. Graf.iola. 

A LnTi.E plant kept in our gardens. It 
grov;s to a toot in heiglu ; ttie stalks arc squai'c, 
slender, ^:]d rc.t v^^ry I'mjis' ; the leaves are long. 



176 FAMILY HERBAL. 

fiarrow, and sharp-pointed : they stand iwc at 
every joint. The floAvers are lon«>,', moderat<^\y 
large, and yellow ; they grow from the bosoms of 
the leaves, and are hollow, and only a little divif* id 
at the ends : they are somewhat like fox-glo e 
[lowers. 

A decoction of the fresh plant is an excellerf' 
purge, but it works roughly ; it is good against 
dropsies and rheumatisms ; and the jaundice ha -^ 
been often cured by it singly. 



Jack by the Hedge. Alliaria. 

A rPRiNG plant of a conspicuous figure, fre- 
quent in our hedges. The stalk is rounds thick, 
iirni, upright, and of a pale green, three feet in 
height, and very stniight. The leaves are large, 
broad, and short, of a figure approaching to 
roundish, but f^nmewhat pointed at the ends, and 
notched at the edges; they are of a pale yellowish 
green coloui', and stand (;n long foot-:vtaiks. The 
ilowers are little and >vhite ; they stand ten or a 
dozen together, at the tops of the branches, and are 
followed by k)ng pods. 

The fre^li leaves eaten as salad work l)y urine 
powerJ\dl\ , and are recommended in dropsies. The 
juice of ilu m boiled into a syrup with honeV;, is 
good to bicak tough pidegm, and to cure coughs and 
hoarsenesses. 

jACiNrn, orHvacinth. Hj/acinthus 

Tuv. ct/iniuiMi spring plant our children gather 
with tli-Jr cowrlip^^ diid May (lowers, and call blue 




/..■r[/^.,„Aj 



FAMILY HERBAL i;v 

l)olls. The root is wliite and roundish ; the leaves 
are narrow and loni^-, hkc grass, but of a deep green 
coloar, and smooth surface : the stalks are round, 
iiprig'ht, and smooth ; they have no leaves on tliem, 
Tlie (lowers are large, and of a beautiiVil blue ; tliey 
are hollow, oblono*, and turn up at the run. Tli^^ 
root is the part used. 

It abounds in a shmy juice, but it is to be dried, 
and this must be done carefully ; the decociion of 
it operates well by urine ; and the powder is balsa- 
mic, and somewhat styptic. It is not enouf^h known. 
There is hardly a more powerful remedy for the 
whites 

Jalap Plant. Jalopium. 

A CLIMBING plant, native of America, and not 
yet got into our gardens. The root is long, irregu- 
larly shaped, and tiiick. The stalks are roundi, 
tough, and firm, but slender and unable to support 
themselves. They grow to ten or twelve feet in 
length, and wind among the bushes. The leaves 
are oblong, broadest toward the base, of a dusky 
green, and not dented about the edges. The flow- 
ers are large, and of the shape of a bell, and their 
colour is purplish or white. The seed-vessel is large 
and oval. 

The root is the part used ; and druggists sell it. 
Given in powder with a little ginger, to prevent its 
griping, it is an excellent purge. A strong tincture 
of it made in brandy answers the same purpose ; it 
is good in droj)sies ; and is in general a safe and ex- 
cellent purge. 

Jessamin. E Jasminwn. 

A COMMON shrub in our garden^, and a 

A a 



K/S FAMILY HERBAL. 

f;'reat ornament to them. It docs not well support 
itsclt^ go thcit it is common]}- nailed against walls. 
^rhe trunk is covered with a greyish bark : tlie 
youn<:^ shoots are green. The leaves stand two at 
each joints and they arc very beautifnl ; each is 
made \ip ot" about three pair of narrow, oblongs, and 
pointed leaves, with a very long one at the end. 
They are of a deep green colour : the flowers are 
1 oil g, hollow, open at the end, and white; half a 
dozen or tliereabout grow on each stalk, and they 
are of a very delicate and fmgrant smell ; these 
are succeeded by berries, which ripen in the warmer 
countries. 

The flowers are the part used. Pour a pint of 
boiling water upon six ounces of the fresh gathered 
and clean picked flowers of jessamine ; let it stand 
twelve hours, then pour it ofl* ; add honey enough to 
make the liquor into a thin syrup, and it is an excel- 
lent medicine in coughs. 

Rose of Jliucho. JRosa Hicraconiea. 

A LITTLE woody plant, named a rose from nothing 
but its size, and its manner of folding itself up^ 
by bending in the tops of the branches, so that it 
appears hollow and roundish. We are accustomed 
to see it dry, and in that condition it is always thii3 
drawn togetlu r. It ih of the bigness of a man's fist, 
and is composed of a quantity of woody braiiches, 
interwoven with one another, and all bending in- 
ward. VVhen it is put into warm water, it expands, 
and become flattish, but on di-)'ing, it acquires the 
old form again. 

It is in reality a ki-ul of thlaspi, or treacle mus- 
tard, but of a peculiar woody texture. Tiie root 
is long, and pierces deep info the ground ; there 
j^row from tliis eight or ten stiilks, which spread 



FAMILY HERBAL. 179 

tbemselves upon the <^round, in a circular manner, 
as we see the stalks of our bird's tbotj and many 
other little plants. These stalks are thick and 
woody, and about four inclies in length : they lie 
upOn the ground toward the base, but lay turned 
up a little at the tops, and each of them has a num- 
ber of branches. The leaves are long-, narrow, 
and of a pale green ; they are very numerous, and 
they stand irregularly. The flowers are small, 
and white like those of our shepherd's purse. The 
seed-vessels are small, and contain several seeds 
like those of the common tieacle mustard. 

This is the appearance of the plant, as it grows 
very frequent in the warmer climates ; and thus 
it has nothing singular in it, while in its perfection 
of growth, but after a time, the leaves decay awd 
fall otf, and the stalks as they dry, in the heal, 
draw up more and moi'e, till by degrees they get 
into this round figure, from which warm water 
will expand them, but they recover it ag-ain as they 
dry. 

This is the real history of that little kind of trea- 
cle mustard, which is called the rose of Jericho, 
and concerning which so many idle, as well as 
strange things, have been said. Our good women 
have many ways of trying many experiments with 
it, by way of deciding future events, but nothing 
can be so foolish. The nature of the plant will 
make it expand, and open its branches, Avhcn put 
into warm water, and draw them too-ether aoiiin, as 
it gro\^s diy. This will always ha))pen, and it will 
be more (juick or more slow, ijccording to the con- 
dition of the plant. Where it is to be had fresh, 
it does not want medicinal virtues. The youivg 
iihoots are good in infusion against sore throats, but 
we have the plant without its leaveij. and, in reality. 



180 FxVMILY HERBAL. 

little ntore than a stick ; so that it would be idle to 

exuei't :tny .[-pod in it. 

Jf SI ii'fe Bark Tree. Arbor Peruviana. 

A SMALL tree^ native of South America, which 
liiis not yet got into our gardens. The trunk is 
as thick as a man's leg", and its bark is grey. The 
branches are numerous and irregular, and their 
bark is of a browner colour, but with the same 
tinge of grey. The leaves are long and large, 
three inches in length, and half as much in breadth, 
and of a pale green colour : they are pointed at 
the end, but not at all indented at the edges. The 
flowers are small, and tlieir colour is a pale purple : 
tliey stand in great clusters together ; they are long", 
hollow, and open at the end, N\here they are a little 
divided. The fruit is a dry capsule, of an oblong^ 
figure. 

The bark is the part used. iBesides its ccrtaia 
enic'icy aginnst agues and intermitting fevers, it is 
r-n exi'ci'ent stomachic and astringent ; nothin<^ is 
bf:iter to s-srtngthen the ajipetite, and in overflow- 
i;igs of tile incises, and all other bleedings, it is 
of the grciitest iHicacv. It is best given in powder. 
The iiiu:}ure is to Ite nr.Kie in brandv, but it is not 
ricarly so good as the suiT-lriiice ; when it is given 
for dis(nder« of (he stooiarli, the best way is to pick 
fnie pieces <jf tlie hark and chew them. 



Jews Ears. Aurlcukc Judcr. 

A KIND of fungus, or, as the common phrase 
1'^, of toad's stool, gixnving upon old elder trees. It 
is al'out an inch and a half long, an.d gcneraliy fin 
inch hr(;ad, and is somewhat ttf the shape of aH 



FAMILY HERBAL. 181 

car. It oTows by a broad base to the bark of the 
tree, and from this it j]^radually spreads into a 
flat-i hollow, substance, with several ridges in it_^ 
rnnninji' irregularly, whence it is supposed to have 
the resemblance of the ear most perfectly. Its 
colour is a pale grev on the outside, it is darker 
within, and there run several ribs alont^ it. It is 
to be dried. Boiled in milk, it is recommended 
greatly in sore throats and quinsies. These reme- 
dies of the vuli>;ar have come originally from 
physicians, and they conimonly have something to 
support them. The Jew's ear is at this time out 
of repute^ but that seems owing to sophistication. 
They commonly sell, under the name of it, another 
fungus that grows to a great bigness, overspreading 
wood, in damp [)laces. They get it off the water 
pipes at the jS'ew River head at Islington^ to supply 
Covent Garden market, 

St. Ignatils's Bean. Taba sancti Ignatii 

A PLANT common in the West Indies, and very 
ill called a bean, beina: triiiv a <rourd. The name 
bean was given to the seeds of this plant before it 
was kno^vn how they were produced, and some 
have continued it to the plant. It grows to a 
great height, when there is a tree to support it, for 
it cannot support itself It has a stalk as thick 
as a mah's arm, angulated, light, and not firm. 
The leaves are very large, oblong, and undivided, 
and they have the ribs very high upon them : they 
are broad at the base, and grow narrower to the 
point, and are of a deep green colour. The flow- 
ers are very large, and of a deep blood red ; at a 
distance, they have the aspect of a red rose. The 
fruit is large and roundish ; it has a woody shell, 
and over that a thin skin, bright and 5>hining. 



182 FAMILY HERBAL. 

^^'ithin there arc twenty or thirty seeds ; they are 
ot" the bigness of a small nutmeg-, when \vc see 
tlieni : they are roundish, and very rough upon 
the surface : each is of a woody substance, and, 
AvhtMi tasted, is of the flavour of citron seeds, but 
extremely bitter and nauseous. The colour is of 
all grey or Ijrownish. 

These seeds ale what we use in medicine, and 
call the St. Ignatius's bean. It is a medicine, to be 
^iven with great caution, but it has many virtues : 
the most powerful remedies, when in ill hands, are 
naturally the most dangerous ; the powder given 
in a small dose occasions vomiting and purging, 
and oftew, if the constitution be tender, convulsions ; 
it is much better to give it in tincture, when no 
such eftects happen from it. 'Tis of an excellent 
effect against nervous complaints : it will cure the 
falling-sickness, given in proper doses, and con- 
tinued for a long time : the tincture is best for this 
purpos*e. Some have given the powder in very 
small quantities against worms, and that with suc- 
cess ; its extreme bitter makes it very disagree- 
able, and the taste continues in the throat a long 
time, whence it occasions vomiting. We neglect 
it very much at present, because of its roughness ; 
but it would be better we foimd the way of giving 
it with safety. There aie gentler medicines, but 
none of them so efliracious : it will do service in 
cases that the conmion methods do not reach. 

St. John's Wort, llj/pcrtciiin. 

A ROBUST and pretty plant, frequent in our 
pastures, and other dry ])laces. The height is a 
foot and a half. The stalk is round, thick, firm, 
and very upright, and divided to\\ards the top 
into se\oiai brandies The leaves are short and 



FAMILY HERBAL 183 

blunt at the points : they are of a briojlit green 
colour, and if held up a^inst the light, they seem 
to be full of pin holes. The Bovvers grow in 
abundance on the tops of the branches : they are 
large, and of a bright and beautiful yellow, full 
of yellow threads, which, if rubbed upon the hand, 
stain it like blood. The fruit is a dry seed- 
vessel. 

Ttic part used is the flowery tops of the plant 
just Q.A they begin to ripen. A decoction of these 
works powerfully by urine, and is excellent against 
the gravel, and in ulcerations of the ureters. The 
same tops fresh gathered and bruised are good for 
wounds and bruises ; they stop bleeding, and serve 
as a balsam for one, and take oif blackness in the 
other 

JujuiiE Tree. Zlzj/phus. 

A TREE of the bigness of our plum trees, and 
not unlike to them in shape. The bark is grey on 
the trunk, and l)rown on the branches. The leaves 
are moderately large, and each is comjiosed of a 
number of smaller ones, set on each side of a middle 
rib, but not opposite to one another, and with an odd 
one at the end : these are oblong, obtuse, and serrated 
round the edges, and the odd leaf at the end is the 
largest and longest. The flowers are small and 
yellow. The fruit is oval, and of the bigness of a 
moderate plum ; it has a soft substance on the outside, 
and a stone within, vvhich is large and long, and 
pointed at both ends. 

The fruit is tised. It was at one time brought 
over to us dried, but we see little of it now ; it was 
esteemed balsamic, and was given to cure coughs, 
nnd to work by urine. 



184 FAMILY HERBAL. 

White Stock. July Flower. Leucoium 
album. 

A ROBUST garden plants kept for its flowers, which 
art varieg'ates and makes double. It g-rovvs two or 
three feet high. The stalk is thick, firm;, rounds and 
of a greyish colour. Tiie leav es are long, narrow, 
hairy, and whitish, llic stalks which bear the flow- 
ers are also of a whitish green, and tender. The 
flowers are as broad as a shilling, white, and sweet 
scented. 

The flowers are the part used, and they are to 
be fresh gathered, and only just blown. A tea 
made of them is good to promote the menses, and 
it operates also by urine. An ointment is to be 
made, by boiling them in hog's lard, which is ex- 
cellent for sore nipples. 

Jumper Shrub. Ju^'pn-us. 

A COMMON shrub on our heaths. It grows to 
no great height in England, but in some other 
parts of Ein-ope rises to a c()iisideral)ly large tree. 
The bark is of a reddish brown. The branches arc 
Jough. T!ie leaves are longish, very narrow, and 
prickly al the ends. The flowers are of a yellow- 
ish colour, but small and i?H:onsi(leral)Ie. The 
berries are large, and when ripe blackish : they are 
of a stronc: but not disacfreeable smell, and of a sweet- 
ish, but resinous taste. The leaves are of a faint 
bluish green colour. 

The berries are the part most used. We have 
them from (icnnan\ principally. They have two 
excellent qualities, they dispel wind, and work by 
urine, for which rea:^on, they are excellent in those 
colics ^\hich arisi> from the gra\;l and stone. 
\\ii\\ these is also made the true (jcneva, but the 



FA:\IILY herbal. 185 

liquor our poor people drink under that namCj is 
only malt spirit* and oil of turpentine. 

Ivv. Jledera, 

A VERY conimon slirub, crawling' about old 
trees^ or upon old walls ; it sometimes runs upon 
the ground for want of such support, but then it 
rarely bears any fruit. The trunk is thick, brown, 
and covered with a peculiar roi'.ghness. The 
branches are nun-eious and brittle The leaves 
have a strange variety of sliapi-s, oblong, angular, 
cornered, or divider! . The flowers stand in little 
round clusters, and they are small and inconsiderable : 
they are succeeded by large i)erries. The leaves 
upon tlie young shoots that bear the flowers are al- 
ways ob'orig ; tliose on the trunk are angulated. 
They are all of a deep glossy green. 

The leaves and berries are both used, but nei- 
ther nuu'h. A decoction of the leaves destroys 
vermin in children's heads, and heals the soreness 
that attends them. The berries are purging ; an 
infu>:ion of them will often work also by vomit, 
but there is no liarni in tliis : thoy are an excellent 
remedy in rheumatisms and pains of all kind>, and, 
it is said, liave cured dropsies ; but this is perhaps 
going too flir. 

The ivy in tlie v.arm countries sweats out a kind 
of resin, which has been used externally at some 
times, on vario\is occasions r but at this time, it is 
ipiitc unknown in praclis:e. 

K. 

Kidney Wort. Umbilicus veneris. ' 

A VEuy singular plant, which c^rows on old 

B h 



186 fa:mily herbal. 

\^-all8 in some parts of England It is eig-ht inches 
high, and is distinguislied at sight by a chister of 
round leaves vvhicli grow about the stalk. The 
root is roundish, and its fibres grow from the bottom, 
Tlie leaves stand on longish and thick foot-stalks^, 
which are, except in the lowest of all, inserted not 
at the edges of the leaf? but in the middle : these 
are round, thick, llcshy, and indented about the 
edges. The stalk which bears the flowers is round, 
thick, £fnd, towards the top, divided into two or three 
branches ; on these grow the flowers, in a kind of 
spikes : tlrey are oblong, hollowish, and of a green- 
ish white coloiu'. 

The leaves are the part used. Externally, they 
are cooling, and good against pains. They are 
applied bruised to tiie piles, with great success. 
The juice of them, taken inwardly, operates J3y 
urine, and is excellent Hgainst stranguries, and good 
in the gravel, and inflammations of the liver and 
spleen. 

Knap-weed. Jacca. 

A VERY common wild plant, with dark-coloured 
l(»ngish leaves, and purple flowers, like those of 
thisitles. It is two feet high. The stalks are 
roundish, but ribbed : they are of a pale colour, 
very firm and strong, U})iight, and divided into 
branches. The leaves arc long, and of the same 
breadth : (hose which grow immediately from the 
root, are but little jagged or cut at the edges : 
those which stand upon tlie stalk, are more so. 
The flowers are large ; the\ stand in scaly heads, 
one of which is placed at the top of every branch : 
and at a distance, they have something of the ap- 
pearance of the flowers of thistles, but when ex- 
niiiined newrer, they are more likv' these of the blue 



Fi^MILY HERBAL. 187 

bottle. The Howers themselves are of a bright retl, 
and larg^e. 

Tlu' y'>iinp; plant is used fresh : a decoction of it 
is o()()d ag-ainst the bleeding of the piles, ag*ainst 
loosenesses with hloody stools, and all other bleed- 
ings. A slight infusion is recommended against 
sore throats, to be used by >vay of gargle. There 
are so many of these gende astringent plants, com- 
mon in our fields, as yarrow and the like, that less 
respect is to be paid to one of less power in the 
same way. Knapweed may be very properly added 
to decoctions of the others, but it would not be so 
well to trust to its effects singly. 

Knot-grass. Fo!i/»o?iu)n. 

A MOST common wild plant in our fields, palli- 
"ways, and hedges : there are two or three kinds of 
it, but they pretty much resemble one another in 
form, and in virtues : the largest is the best. The 
stalks of this are ten inches long, round, jointed, 
and of a dusky green. The leaves are of an oval 
form, of a bluish green colour, and not indented 
at the edges. The stalks lie u})()n the ground, and 
one of these only grows at eacli joint. The Howens 
are small and Avhite, but with a tinge of reddish. 
The seed is single, l)la(k, and three-cornered. 

It has been observed ])efore, that Providence has 
in general made the most common plants the most 
useful. A decoction of knot-grass roots, stalks,, 
and leaves, is an excellent astringent. It stops 
bloody stools, and is good against all bleedings, 
but, in particular, it is a remedy against the 
bleeding piles^ and against the overflowing of the 
menses 



rS8 FAMILY HERBAL 

L. 

Glm Lac Tree, l.aca arbor. 

A TREE of the bigness of our apple tree, fre- 
fjuont in the East, but not yet known in Europe. 
The tiuuk is covered witli a roHgh reddish bark. 
The branches are numerous and tough. They have 
a smoother rind, of a colour inchning to purple. 
The leaves are broad, and of a whitish green on 
the Uj)per side, and of a silvery white underneath. 
Tlie lioMers are small and yellow. The fruit is of 
tlie bigiic?'.s of a plum, and has in it a large stone :" 
Tlie outer or pulpy part is of an austere, and not 
\er\' agreeable taste. 

T!u.' gum lac is found upon the branches of this 
tree but it i . pretended by some, that a sort of flies ; 
do])()sit it there, and on other substances ; and 
ti^.at it is a kind of wa.x ; however, there are per- 
sons of credit, who s^iy tlioy have obtained by cut- 
ting (t.?; biiinches of tl'.i-. tree., and a like substance 
from the branches of the several kitvJs of jujubes, 
(o whi(h this belongs, in the hot countries. Pro- 
bably the flies get i« »*il" tins tree, and lodge it for 
their purposes upon sticks, and other substances, as 
we see it. 

Our druggists have three kinds of this resin, for 
it is ill called a gum. The one they call stick lac, 
b'eeause it is brought in round sticks ; the other 
see<l lac, in small lumps ; arid the other shell lac, 
\vhich is thin' and transparent, and has been melted ; 
oftliis resin tiie sealing wax is made with very little 
alteration more than tise colouring it, which is 
(lone bv means of a cinnabar or coarser materials. 
Taken inwardly, gum lac is good against obstruc- 
liuns of the liver : it ojierates by urine and sweat. 



and Is g-ooi] in most chronic cases iii'i-«:n>r lVc:i5 siuh 
oljstructious. 

Ladies' Mantlp:. ArchimlUa. 

A VERY pretiv little {)liint^ native ofsoinc pMrt? 'i: 
England, but not very common wild. The leaves 
are niuneroiis and verv heautiud ; they are hrotid, 
and of a roundisii hi;;'.!'.^, but aivided deeply iu'o ei^ht 
part>, and eacli ot" tlicse elei^'anliv indenied about 
the edji'es. Tiiev ar*,^ el" a veHowish ^reen coloitr. 
neariv as })r(Kid as tiie pahn of ones hand^ and they 
stand U]>on foot-stalks of an inch or two in len<i,th. 
The siaiks "tow in tlic midst ; they are roinul^ a 
little hairy, eig-ht inebes long-, not very npii;;! t, a-ui 
of a pale p,Teeu colour. The lU.wers stand in <:(.!>- 
sidei'a])le nnndjers at their tops ; they arc small aiid 
of H oreenish colonr, but have a i^reat maisy yell!>\r 
thiuids in the middle. TliC root is h'.Y^, thick^. aijJ 
dark c('loured. 

Tlic root is tlie \ydxl most valuable ; a di'cortiini 
of it fresh taken up, is an excellent rejnerly for tiic 
overilowing's of the menses, for bloody Ibt.ves, and 
all oiiier bleedini'^s. Dried and powdered it an- 
swers the sa?ne pur|)ose, and is also g'ooti a^ate.st 
common pur^ing's. Tiie p:(;'od women of tlu^ p.tn';h 
of Eng^laud apj;ly the heaves to their breasts, to nuske 
thent recover their lorn!, 'ifrc]" they liave been sw. '''d 
with milk. Hence it has t^ot the name vl l:u.h.<,* 
mantle. 

Larch TivEe. Larix. 

A MODERATELY ttill^ and in summer a very beautif.d 
tree ; but thougdi one of the resinous kind, and in 
many resj)ects ap])roachinp; to the natn'e of the ftr 
and piiu^ it lo?es its leaves in winter : it is u native 



190 FAMILY HERBAL. 

of ItalVj and is frequent in our gardc-ns. The trunk 
is rug'g'ed, and the branches are covered with a 
roui>-h bark, of a brownish colour, with a tinjre of 
reddish. The leaves are an inch or more in length, 
iwtremely slender, and of a bluish green colour, and 
they grow in little clusters, on different parts of the 
branches. The flowers are inconsiderable, the fruit 
is a cone, but very small. It is not bigger than a 
little walnut. 

The young leaves are boiled, and the liquor is 
drank to promote nrine, but this is an idle way of 
getting at the virtues of the tree. Venice turpen- 
tine is produced from it, and this liquid resin con- 
tains them ail in perfection. They cut the trunk of 
the tree deep, in the heat of summer, and the resin 
flows out. This works powerfully by urine, and 
is a noble balsam ; it is good against the whites, and 
to stop the running that often remains from a clap 
after all the virulence is removed ; but in this case 
it must be given cautiously. 

Larks' Spur. Delphinium. 

A COMMON flower in our gardens ; but not with- 
out its virtuc:s. It grows a yard high : the stalks are 
round, upright, firm, and of a ])alc green. The 
leaves arc cut into a nudtitude of long, narrow, and 
very fine divisions, and are of a deep green colour, 
and the lloMcrs Avhich grow in long spikes at the 
to])s of the branches, are naturally blue, but often 
red or whiie. Thev are moderat(>ly large, and have 
a kind of spur behind. 

The leaves are used ; they must be boiled frcsli 
\n water, and the decoction - is good against the 
bKcding piles. It f^tops the hemorrhage, and at the 
^amc time cc( ' t!ic bodv, whereas too many of the 
;i.st!!!i^;.''it "'M-'iicir.rr; are heating. 



FAMILY HERBAL. 191 

Lavender. Lavendula. 

A COMMON plant in our orardens, native of 
the warmer parts of ICurope ; it is of a shrubby 
nature in the stem, but the rest is lierbaceous. It 
grows a yard hii^h. The trunk, or main stem is 
thick, woody, firm, and covered with a whitish 
bark. The young' shoots from this, are tender and 
gTeenish ; and on these stand the leaves. They are 
long-, narrow, and of a pale green colour, and stand 
two at each joint. The stalks which bear the 
flowers are square, g^rccn, and naked ; the flowers 
stand in short spikes, or ears ; they are small, blue, 
and verv fragrant ; th.e cups of the flowers are 
whitish. 

These flowers are the part used ; they are good 
ugTiinst all disorders of tlie bend and nerves. They 
^lay be taken in the form of tea. The famous 
Spirit of lavender called palsy drops, and the sweet 
lavender water are made with them. The spirit of 
lavender called palsy dro})s is thus made best. 

Put into a small still a pound of lavender flowers, 
and five ounces of the tender tops of rosemary, put 
to them five quarts of common molasses spirit, and a 
quart of water : distil olV tliree quarts ; put to this 
cinnamon and nutmegs, of each three quarters of 
an ounce, red sanders wood half an ounce ; let 
these stand together a week, and then strain off the 
spirit. 

The lavender water is thus made. Put a pound 
of fresh lavender flowers into a still with a gallon of 
molasses spirit, and draw off five pints. This is 
lavender water. 

Lavender Cotton. Ahi otonuin f(£inina. 

A WTTJi: shrubby plant, frequently wild in Italy, 



vj'i FA MI LA" llKlinAL. 

l;it widi cs kcpi hi £:;urdens. IJ ^iwvs two fvc-t or 
:;:ore in hoii^ht, theslciu h \\hiti^h ; the stalks ^p'ow- 
isisi; from it. are tou.ijh and firm, of a wlillish colour 
;\iso, and very nunierous ; the leaves arc oblong-, 
siender, of a square shape, and inden.tcd ; they are 
iiho uiiitish and of a strong' sin; ']. The stalks which 
•upport the iiowers are jor.iv ^'^^ naked ; they are 
round, of a gieeiii>h CN;uj\n', and each has at its top 
a single flower, wlncii is v( !lo,y and naked, and of 
the bigness of an lii;r,-e-i;ean. 

Tlje leav( s aie die pait used, they are best fresh 
gatlR^ed. Thev are to be given infused in water 
ugainst wornis, they arc a disagreeable medicine, 
bu.t a very clficacic'ns one. Tliey also promote the 
r<\ei)ses, and (ipen o]>slnirti(!ns of the liver. They 
I'.ave been recommended greatly in the jaundice. 

SprRCE Lai UEL. Laurcola. 

A WJLD little shrub of a singular aspect and of 
considerable viitues. it is three ^i^Qi high, the stem 
is half'.ni inch thick, and divides into a great many 
branches. The bark is of a brownish colour, and 
Ihicy are not very str(;r.g. Tlie leaves stand at the 
Ions of the ]3ranclies, they are long, narrow, and of 
a bright and line green ; they arc of a fiim substance, 
and are not indented at tlie edges. Tlie llowers are 
very snrjll and inconsidcrabli", they are green with, 
some yellow threads, and have a sweet smell ; the 
iK-rries are small, nnindish, and ];I lek. 

The leaves are a ])owerful remedy against the 
dropsy, but they are so violent they n^ust be given 
,\i[h eaatio;! ; a sinail quantity of a slight infusion 
ijf therii in v,ater, w.tsks by vomit and st(K>l in a 
po'.vidVi! ja;unu-r. !i. is not every ronsiitution tl)at 
« :.in S;ear siu.li a mt licine. 



FAMILY HERBAL. 193 

Leek. For runt. 

A COMMON plant in our kitchen g'arJens. It 
gnms three feet hii?,!!; the slalk i:; round, g-reen, and 
thick ; the leave:, eirc hv2:c, long, nnd of a deep ^reca, 
and the flowers p:;:)-.v hi a round cluster at the top of 
the stalk ; they are of a pur])lish colour, \vith a tinge 
of green ; the root is winte, oblona,', thick, and round- 
ish, with fibres at ihe bottom. 

An infusion of the roots of leeks made in water, 
and boiled into a syrup with honey, is good again.st 
asthmas, coughs, and obstructions in the breast and 
lungs. It answers tlie same purposes with syrup 
of g-arlic, but it will agree with some who cannot 
bear that medicine. 

Lemon Tree. Limonla 7?ialus. 

A SHRUB, native of the warmer countries, and 
frequent in our green houses, very beautiful and 
fragmnt. The trunk is moderately thick, and 
covered with a brown Ijark ; the branches are nume- 
rous, irregular, and beset with prickles. The leaves 
are large, and very beautiful, of an oval figure, and 
&ct upon a naked stalk ; they are of a beautiful 
green, and remain on the tree all winter. The 
ilowers are large and white ; of a thick firm sub- 
stance, and very fragmnt smell. The fruit we are 
sufficiently acquainted with ; its shape is oblong, and 
its rind of a pale yehow colour: it has a part Idve 
a nipple at each end. Its smell is very fragrant, and 
itsjuice sour. 

The peel and the juice of the fruit are used. 
The peel is stomachic and warm, it is a good in- 
gredient in bitter infusions. The juice made into 
:i ^^yrup v.jih twice its weight of hue .«ut|;ar, is e.\- 

#: c 



194 FAMILY HERBAL. 

ccllent for sfivcetening' juleps and drinks in fevers, and^, 
mixed with salt of wormwood^ it stops vomiting's. 

Leadwort. DentUlaria she plwnhago. 

A LITTLE plant, native of some parts of Europe, 
and kept in our gardens. It is two feet high ; the 
stalks are slender, tough, and weak, hardly able to 
support themselves upright. The leaves are of a 
pale bluish <^reen colour, oblong, not very broad, 
and they surround the stalk at the base. The flow- 
ers are red, they are singly, very small, but they 
etand in thick, oblong clusters, on the tops of the 
stalks, and each is succeeded by a single seed, which 
is very rough, and stands naked. 

The dried root is to be used ; a piece of it put 
into the mouth, fill it with a ^reat quantity of rheum, 
and is often an almost instantaneous cure for the 
head-ache. It also cures the tooth-ache in the same 
manner as pellitory of Spain does : it is more hot 
and acrid than even that fiery root. 

Indl\n Leaf Tree. Malahathrum. 

A TALL and beautiful tree of the East Indies, 
not unlike the cinnamon tree in its manner of 
growth. The trunk is as thick as our elms, and it 
«^rows as tall, but the branches are disposed witli 
less regularity ; the wood is brittle, and the young 
shoots are of a pale brown. The leaves are wry 
large, nine inches long, and seven in breadth, and 
not at all indented. The flowers stand in clusters 
on the tops of the brancl^s ; they are small and 
greyish, and the fruit is of the bigness of our ied 
currant. It it) common in tlie mountainous parts <jf 
the eH«t. 



FAMILY HERBAL. 195 

These leaves are the part used, we have them 
Hrie(i at the chngf^ists, but they commonly keep them 
till tliey are decayed. It i's an aromatic mediciiie^ 
it sLier.gthen's the stunrdch^ and is g,ood in nervou* 
disorders. 

Lentil. Lens, 

A RIND of little pulse, sown in fields in some 
parts of England. It grows a foot and a half high, 
l)ut does not stand very upright. The stalk is an- 
gulated, of a pale green, and branched ; the leave.s 
are like those of the common pea : they consist each 
of several pairs of small ones, set on a rib, and tliere 
h a tendril in place of an odd leaf at the end. Tliese 
small leaves are of a pale green colour, and oval 
phape. The flowers are white and small, but in 
shape like a pea blossom, they stiiiid singly on long 
«ta!ks. The fruit is a pod of a flattish shape, in 
wliich there generally are tuo seeds also a little 
flatted, and of the bigness of a small pea. 

Tlie fruit is used ; it is ground to powder to 
niake into pultices for swellings, but it is not much 
regarded 

Lettice. Laciuca, 

A COMMON plant in our kitchen gardens, which 
we cat raw. When it rises to flower it is two feet 
and a half high. The stidk is round, thick, very 
upriglit, and of a pale green. The leaves are 
o])l<)ng, broiid, and son\ewiiat waved at the edges : 
tl>.( [lowers stand on tlie tops of the stalks, and are 
ofa pale yellow ; the seed is winged with a liglit white 
down. 

'i he juice of lettice is a good medicine to pro- 
cure sleep, or the thick stalk eaten will serve tlie 



tOfy FAMILY HEllBAL. 

same purpose. It is a g-ood method to put those 
into who require a gentle opiate^ and will not take 
medicines. 

AViLD Lettice. Lactuca ^ylvcstrls major. 

A COMMON plant in our hedges, and having 
^■me resemblance to the <z,Hi.'ea leu'ro in its ilovtcrs,, 
tlioUi^h not in its manner of f^iowtli. It is six oi 
se^.en feet liii>'h. The .-lailv is thick, ronnd, very 
lipri^ht^ bi'ainhed, and of a j)ale yellowish orceri 
colour. The leaves at t!ic bollom are very larg-e^ 
a foot loiii^- and tive inches broad^ and of a pale 
j^rcen colour ; those higiier up the stalks are smaller^ 
they are deeply indented at the ed£;es, and cither 
these, ti^ie ^talk, or any other part of the plant beinp^ 
wo.uided, there flows out a milky juice^ which lias 
tlie smell of opium^ and its hot bitter taste: the 
branches are very numerous, and the flowers arc 
slso very numerous,, but they are small and of a pale 
yellow. 

This is a pleint woi introduced into the common 
pnictice, but very worth) of that notice. 1 have 
known it used in private families, with great suc- 
cess. A syrup made from a strong infusion of it, 
is an excellent aiunU ne ; it ca.'^es the most violent 
pain in coliv^s, and <)tlicr disorders, and gently dis- 
poses the person to sleep. \i has the good eficci 
of a gentle (tpiate, and none of the bad ones of tluvt 
violent medicine. 

WnrTE Lily. LUin::: uJ'-tnu. 

A TALL, fragrant, :vm\ beautiful g.'.rclen prant. 
I( glows four or five feet high ; the rtalk is romub 
V'jvvw, thick, firm, and verv upright ; a ';ieat inauy 
itavc- surround it nt the bottonij and a great many 



FAMILY HERBAL. m 

grow upon it eill the way : these are of die game 
sliape, long', narrow, and smooth^ and of a pale gieeii 
upon the stalk, and deeper green at the root. The 
flowers stand on the divisions of the top of the stalk, 
they are large, white, and composed as it were of a 
quantity of thick scales 

The roots coiitain the greatest virtue ; fliey are 
excellent mixed in pnltices, to apply to sweliin^s. 
Thctlowers possess the same virtue also, being emol- 
lient and good against pain. An oil is made of the 
flowers steeped in common oil of olives ; but tlie 
fresh (lowers are much better in the season ; and the 
root may be had fresh at all timeSj and it possesses tlie 
same virtues, 

Lily of the Valley. TAllum convalUum. 

A VERY pretty pkmt, but so different from the 
formei", that one would wonder how it came to 
be called by any part of the same name, it is six 
or eight inches high. The leaves are large, long-, 
and broad, of a deep green colour, and full of very 
thick ribs or veins. The stalks are weak, slender, 
angular, and careen ; they bend towards the top, 
and on each there stands, or rather hangs, a row 
of white llowers ; they are roundish, hollow, and 
of a delicate and pleasing smell ; these are suc- 
ceeded by berries, which are red when they are 
ripe. 

Tl-e flowers are us(m1. A tea mad.e of them, and 
flrank for a constjnu v, is excellent against all nerv- 
ous com{)!aiiits ; it will cure nervous head-aches, and 
tremblings of the limbs : a great deal too much 
ha« been said of this plant, for p'M)pIr' call it a re- 
jvtedy for apoplexies and the dead palsies, but thon<?;h 
a!! this is not true, enough i,'^. to give the plant a 
J .nutation, aud bring it agaiu into use. 



198 FAMILY HERBAL, 

Water Lily. Ktjm-plictu alha. 

A LARGE, and elegant plants the broad leaves 
of which Me see floating upon the surface of the 
water in our brooks not u'.ifrequently ; and in the 
autumn larg'e white llovvei-s auion^" them. The 
root of the plant is very long, and extremely thick,, 
and lies bui i{ u .i\ the nmd. Tiie leaves rise singly 
orie on each stalk ; the stalks aie round, thicks and 
of a spungy substance, having . white pith in 
them ; and the leaves a.AO are thick and somewhat 
spungy ; they are of a roundish figure, and they 
lie ilat upon the surface of the water. The flow- 
ers stand upon single foot-stalks, arising like those 
of the leaves separately from the root, and being 
like them, light, round, gloss}', and full of a white 
pith ; the flowers are large and white, and have 
some yellow threads in the middle ; the seed-vessel 
is large and roundish, and the seeds are numerous. 

The root is the part used, and it is best fresh, and 
given in a strong decoction. It is a powerful re- 
medy in the whites, and in those weaknesses left 
after venereal complaints : it is a'>o a;ood against 
violent })urgings, especially where diere are bloody 
stools. There are other kinds of water lily in our 
ditches, particularly a kiri:;e ycliuvv flowered one, 
whose ro<»ts possess the shV.uc virtues with the others, 
but in a less degree. 

Lime I'rle. Tilia. 

A TREE common enough in parks and gardens, 
avid wilt n in flouer vei y hcaiitiful and fragrant ; 
tile trunk is (hick, and the branches gnnv with a 
tuleraiile regularity. I'he leaves are short, broad, 
of a figure approaching to rouiul, but terminating 
in a poinf, and serratotl about the edges. Tli« 



FAMILY HERBAL. 199 

fiovvers grow on long }X'lJovvish stalks, with a 
yellow, oblong', and narrow leaf upon them. Tliey 
are themselves also of a yellovvish white colour, 
and extremely delicate and sweet smell. The 
fruit is roundish and small. The flowers are the 
only part used ; they are good against giddiness of 
the head, tremblings of the limbs, and all other 
lighter nervous disorders. They are best taken as 
te^i. 

Liquid Amber Tree. Liquid Amhar. 

A VERY beautif4d tree of the American islands, 
which we have brought of late into our gardens ; 
it grows fifty feet high, and the branches are nn- 
merous and disposed with a tolerable regularity, 
I'^he leaves are large and very beautiful ; they are 
])road, and are divided much in the manner of the 
leaves of our maple tree, but much more beautiful- 
ly ; they are of a glossy green, and the tips of the 
boughs have a fragrant smell. The flowers are 
greenish and small ; the fruit is of the bigness of a 
small walnut, r'^'Midish and rough upon the surface, 
v/ith several seeds witiun. 

We use a resin ""vvaich runs fi'om the trunk of 
this tree in great licats. It is of a reddish colour^ 
soft, and exlremely fragtant, nearly a. perfume. It 
is an excellent balsam, nothing exceeds it as a remedy 
for the wliites ; and for the weaknesses left after 
venereal disorders. It i.^ also good in disorders 
of tlie lungs ; and it works by urine, and dislodges 
g-ravel. There was a custom at one time of mixing 
it among perfumes, but of late it has been neglectedj 
and is grown scarce. 



200 fa:mily herbal. 

Liquid Storax Tree. St^rax llqiilda arbor. 

A LAUGE tree, so much we hear of it, is native 
M' the East Indies, hut very ill descrihed to us. We 
are told the leaves are large, and the flowers fra- 
grant, hut of what form they are nohody has told 
us, or what is the fruit. All that we use is a hquidi 
resin of a very peculiar kind, which we are told is 
obtained by Ijoilinj^' the hark ; and the shoots of this 
(ree in water ; the resin swims at the top, and they 
scum it off and strain it, but it will not all pass 
through. It is from hence that we see two kinds ; 
the one finer, thinner, and purer, tlie other thicker 
and coarser ; this last kind is more common than th& 
better sort, and it is generally used. 

It is a balsam of the nature of the turpentines ; 
and is good against the whites, and the weaknesses 
that follow venereal disorders. Some have used it 
also in tfiseascs of the lungs, hut it h.as never been 
in great repute on those occasions. It is sometime* 
put into ointments intended for old ulcers ; and it is 
»;aid to he used this way with great success. 

Liquorice. Ghjcj/rrhiza. 

A ROUGH looking plant, cultivated in many 
places for the sake of the root. It is a yard high 
or more. The stalk is round, striated, and branch- 
ed : the leaves are long and large, each is com- 
posed of a great many pairs of smaller, standing on 
a midflle rib, with an odd one at tlie end ; these are 
of an oval iignre, of a dusky green colour, and 
thev are clammy to tiie touch. The flowers arc 
very small and Llue, they stand in long spikes, 
ri^^ini;- fiiMu liie bosoms of the leaves. The seeds 
arc ( untaiiied in pods. The root is the jKirt used ; 
and its viitiics are very 2,'reat. It is best fresh taken 



FAMILY herbal; 20\ 

out ot the ground, the sweetness of its taste renders 
it ai^ieeabie, and it is excellent against eoug'h?, 
hoarsenesses, and shortness of breath. It also 
woilcs gently by nrinc, and is of service in ulcera- 
tions of the kidneys and urinary passages^ acting 
there as in lungs at once, as a detergent and balsa- 
mic. 

The best way of taking it is by sucking or chewing 
the fresh root : but it may be taken in infusion, or in 
the manner of tea. The black substance called 
liquorice juice, and Spanish liquorice, is made by eva- 
porating a strong decoction of this root. But the 
fresh root itself is better. 

Noble Liverwort, or Hepatica. Hepadca, 
7iobilis. 

A COMMON garden flower, which makes a very 
pretty figure in spring, and is little regarded, ex- 
cept as an ornament in our borders ; though it is 
not without considerable virtues. The leaves are 
supported each on a single foot-stalk, white, slender, 
and reddish, they are near an inch broad, and of 
the same length, and divided each into three parts. 
The flowers rise early in the spring, before these ap- 
pear ; they also stand singly on long foot-stalks, and 
are moderately large and blue, with a greenish head 
in the middle, the root is fibrou?;. 

An infusion of the leaves of this plant is good 
against obstructions of the liver and spleen ; it works 
}i;c-nt]y by urine, and is a good medicine in the jaun- 
dice, taking it in time. 

Green liverwort. Lichen vulgaris, 

A COMMON low plant, composed wholly of 
feaves, which '-^iJiead themselves on the ground, and 



SOt^ FAMILY HERBAL. 

are of a beautiful gTeeii colour ; authors refer it to 
the kinds of moss. It *>row3 on old nails, in wells^ 
■and other damp places. The leaves are oblong-, blunt^ 
and thin^ they spread one over another and take 
root wherever they touch the ground. They often 
cover the space of a foot or more in one cluster. 
This is all that is usually seen of the plant, but in 
spring when thi^ place and the wealher favour, there 
rise up among these leaves certain long and slender 
stalks, on the tops of which stand impeifect flowers, 
as they are called, small roundish, and resembling the 
heads of ittle mushrooms. 

The whole plant is used, and it is best green and 
fresli "fathered. It is to be c:iven in a strong' decoc- 
t!on. It opens obstructions of the liver, and works 
"by urine. It is good against the jaundice, and 
?• ri.n excellent medicine in the first stages of con- 
umj'uons. It is not nearly so much regarded as it 
i'jg^ii (o be. It is also used extcnrnally for foulness of 
the skin. 

Grey Ground Liverwout. LicJibi cinervjc-^ ter 
restris. 

A PLANT, very common by our dry wood-side?^ 
and in pastures, in some degree resembling the 
last described, but diifering in colour and in its 
fructification. This consist«l also entirdy of leaves ; 
they arc of a bluish grey colour, on the outside, 
and of a Avhitish grey undcM'neath. They are two 
inches long, and an inch and a hali' broad ; and grow 
in clusters togetlier ; often they ;ire less di«^tinct, and 
therefore nppcar larger. These do not send up any 
stalks to bear a kind of flowers in heads. The tips of 
the leaves turn up, and are reddish, and in these part* 
are contiiined the seed*! TUe whole plajit seems dry 
and fcapless. 



FAIMILY HERBAL. 203 

The whole plant is used, and lias been of late very 
famous. Its efficacy is against the bite of a mad 
dog ; it is mixed \vith pepper, and the person is 
at the same time to bathe in the sea. There have 
been instances of its success, when given to dogs, but 
perhaps no cure was ever performed upon a human 
creature, when this terrible disease had arisen to 
any lieight. Bleeding and opium are the present 
practice. 

Logwood Tree. Arbor caiiqivchiarin. 

A TREE, native of the Southern parts of America^ 
the wood of whicii has been used iu dying, longer 
than in medicine, but is very serviceable in the 
latter capacity. The tree is large, and makes a 
beautiful appearance. The branches arc numer- 
ous, and they spread witli a sort of regularity. 
The leaves are composed each of several pairs of 
smaller, set on tlic two sides of a common rib ; with 
an odd one at the end. The flowers arc of the shape 
of pea blossoms, but they are yellow ; the pods 
which succeed them arc very large, and the boughs of 
tlie tree are very thick set, with sharp thorns of a 
reddisli colour. 

We use only the heart of the wood whicli is of 
a deep red colour. It is of an austere taste, but 
with something of sweetness in it at last, in this it 
resembles greatly what is called Japan earth, and 
it resembles that drug also in its virtues. It is a 
a very powerftd medicine to stop fluxes of the 
hclly, and overflowing-, of the menses. The best 
way of giving it is in form of an extract, which 
is to be nvtide by boilino- down a strou"; decoction 
of wood to the consistence of honey. In tliis 
form it w\\\ lieep a long time, and is always ready far 
use. 



•^Oi FAMILY HERBAL. 

Purple Loosestrife. Lysimachia purpurea. 

A WILD plant, that decorates the sides of 
ditches and rivers, and would be an ornament to 
our gardens. It grows to three feet high, and is 
very regular ; the stalk is square, hairy, and gene- 
rally of a rcddis!i colour. The leaves stand two 
at each joint, and tliey are long and narrow ; of a 
dusky green, and a little rough. The (lowers stand 
in cry long spikes at the tops of the stalks, and 
a.^t Kirge, and of a strong purple colour. The spikes 
are often a foot or more in length The seed is very 
little and brown. 

The leaves are need. They are a fine balsam for 
fresh wounds, and an ointment is to be made of 
them boiled in lard, which is also cooling and detersive, 
but it is not of a fine green colour. 

Yellow Loosestrife. Lijsimachia luica. 

A wild plant not uncommon in our watery 
places, but for its beauty, very worthy a place in 
our gardens. If it were brought from cVmerica, it 
would be called one of the most elegant plants in 
the world. It is four feet high, the stalks are rigid, 
firm, upright, and very regular in their growth ; a 
little hairy ; and towards the tops divided into several 
brandies. The leaves are as long as ones finger, 
and an inch and half broad in the middle, and small 
at each end ; they are a little hairy, and of a yellow- 
ish green. The flowers are large and of a beautiful 
yellow, they grcnv sevend together on the tops of 
tlie branches. Ti;e seed-vessels are full of small 

The root dried and given in f)Owder, is good 
.i;i,Mm>t the whitot; ;>tul a^^ainst bl(>(>dy fiuxes, <»ver- 

li;uli!g.-. of the niciis-s, i'.iid purging- ; it is ;i-^trin- 



FA.AIILY HERBAL. 205 

zcent and bakamic. The yoiing^ leaves bound about a 
fresh wound, sto}) the bleedlnii', and perforin a cuie 
in a short tinie. 

LovAGE. Lcvhlicum 

A TALL plant of the umbelliferous knid, kept 
in our j^ardens for its u^^e in niedieine. The stalk 
is round, thick, hollow, and deeply striated or 
channelled. The leaves are very large, and they are 
each composed of a number Oi' smaller ; these are 
set on a divided stalk, and are short, broad, and in- 
dented at the edges. The flowers are small and 
yellow, the seed is striated, the root is brown, thick, 
and divided, and the fibres from it are numerous ; it 
is of a hot aromatic taste. 

The roots fresh dug work by urine, and are good 
against the jaundice. The seeds have the same ef- 
iect also and ihey dispel wind. The dried root is a 
sudorific, and i« good in fevers. 

TiiEE Lungwort. Muscus Jinlmonarius. * 

A BROAD and large kind of moss, inform some- 
what resembling the green and grey liverwort, but 
bigger than either. It grows on the barks of old 
oaks, and beech trees, but is not common. It is 
principally found in large woods. Each leaf, or 
separate plant, is eight or ten inches long, and near- 
ly as murli in breadth, of a yelhtwish colour, and 
of a substance rescmljling ieuilier : it is divided deeply 
at the edges, and is rough, and full of high veins on 
the surface. At the season of {lowering there also 
appear certain small red heads, which contain the seeds 
for a new succession of].)lanls. 

This plant is not so nnich known as it deserves to 
be. It is an excellent astringent, a strong decoction 



206 FAMILY HSRBAL. v 

of it stops the overflowings of the menses, and all other 
bleedings ; it is remarkable a«^inst the spitting of 
blo<;d^ and hence it is got into general use in consump- 
tions, but that not so properly. It may be given in 
powder^ but the other way is better. 

Lupine. Lupinus sativus alhus 

There are many lupines kept in garden s^ but 
the best kind for use is the white-flowered ; it 
grows to a yard high, the stalk is round, thick, firm, 
and of a pale green. The leaves stand on long foot- 
stalks, and are each composed of seven, eight, or 
nine long narrow ones, disposed in the manner of 
fingers ; these are also of a whitish green colour. 
The flowers are large and white, of the shape of a 
pea-blossom. The pods are hairy, A decoction of 
the seeds of lupines, drank in the manner of barley 
water, not only works by urine, but is good to bring 
down the menses, and open all obstructions. It is 
excellent in the beginning of consumptions, jaun- 
dices, and dropsies ; but when tho^c diseases arc ad- 
vanced to a height, more powerful remedies are to 
be employed. A decoction made very strong is 
good to wash the heads of children that have break- 
ings out upon them ; they cleanse and dispose them 
to heal. 

Golden Lungwort. Pulmonaria aurca. 

A TALL, erect, and beautiful plant of the hawk- 
weed kind, with yellow flowers, and very hairy leaves ; 
it is frecpient in the mountainous parts of Europe, and 
\\v have it wild in some places in England, upon walls 
and in very dry places, but with us it is not common, 

It is two feet high ; the leaves are large and ob- 
long ; they grow half a dozen or thereabout im- 



FAMILY HERBAL. 207 

mediately from the T(H)t, and have thick foot-stalks ; 
they are oblong-, broad, of a deep and often a 
purplish colour, and are extremely hairy, the hairs 
being lon<^, white, and set so tliick, that they give 
it an aspect of wooiUness. The stalk is round, 
slender, tolerably firm, uprig^ht, of a purplish colour, 
and also hairy : the leaves on it fire smaller than those 
from the root, but like them in shape, and they are 
in the same manner very hairy. The flowers are 
not very laro;e, but they are of a beautiful yellow, 
and they have the more singular aspect, as the plant 
has so much whiteness. The seeds are winged with 
a white down. 

The young leaves rising from the root, are the 
part ueed. They are of the same nature with those 
of coltsfoot, but they possess their virtues i i a much 
greater degree. In many other parts of Europe, 
where the plant is more common, it is a constant 
medicine in diseases of the lungs, in coughs, asth- 
mas, and the first stages of consumptions ; it is 
best given in form of a strong infusion ; and I have 
known it tried here with more success than could be 
expected from so simple a remedy, in cases of such 
consequence. It is scarce wild, but it is easily pro- 
pagated in gardens. Let but one plant of it ripen 
its seeds and leave them to the chance of the winds, 
and the garden, the walls, and tlie neighbouring 
places will never be without a sufficient supply of it, 
for all purposes. 

M 

Mac£. Macis. 

The spice we call mace, is the covering of the 
stone or kernel pf a fruit, within which is the nut- 
meg. Th^ tree will therefore mor« naturally be 



208 FAMILY HERBAL. 

described under the article nutme<^ ; but it may be 
proper to say here^ that the fruit ot' it is large, artd 
roulidish, and has somewhat the appearance of a peach, 
being oi nearly its bigness ; the outer part is more 
like the green rind of a walnut, than the flesh of a 
peocli : within is the nutmeg contained in a hard 
sliell, and on the outside of Uiat shell, is laid the mace, 
in a kind of thin, divided, yellowish leaves. It is of 
a soft and unctuous nature, and very fragrant ; more 
so than the nutmeg itself. 

Mace is a noble spice, it warms and strengthens 
the stomach, and is good against pains in the head, 
arising from faults there : it is also good against colics ; 
and even outwardly a[)plied will take eiVect. The 
mace bruised may be used for this puj'posc, or its oil 
by expresiiion. 

Maddek. Ruhia tlnctonmi. 

A HOUGH and unhandsome plant, cultivated for 
the sake of its root, which is used by the dyers, 
and also in medicine. It i^ a foot and a half high. 
The stalk is stjuare and weak. The leaves stand 
six or eight at every Joint, disposed star-fashoned> 
and they are of a diiskv green colour, and very 
rmigh, they feel almost prickly. The flowers are 
little and yellow ; and they grow from the bosoms of 
tile leaves. Tlic root is long, slender, and of a red 
colour. 

A decoction of the fiosU roots of madder, works 
gently l)y urine, but it verv powerfully opens obstruc- 
tions of liie liver and .spleen. It is very good against 
till' gravel and jaundice. 

Thue i\J[.\iDKNUAni. Adlantum vcrtim. 

A VFjiY beautiful plant of tlie fern kind, but 



FAMILY HERBAL. ^9 

«xeeedai:^ the ordinary terns very much in dchcacy. 
The stalks are small, black, and g'lossy ; each divides 
toward the top, into a great many brandies, and on 
these stand the smaller leaves, which make np the 
complete one, or the whole plant ; (for in this^ 
as in the fern, every leaf is an entire })lant ; these 
are short, blunt, rounded, and notched very beauti- 
fully and regularly at the edges, and they are of a 
pale green colour. The seeds are fixed to the edges 
of the under side of the leaves, l\\ form of a brown 
powder. The whole plant is used : our druggists 
have it from France. 

A decoctioq of the fresh plant, is gently diuretic^ 
and opens obstructions, especially of tlic lungs ; 
but as we cannot easily have it fresh, and it loses 
a great deal of tiie virtue in drying, the best ex- 
pedient is to use tlie fine syrup of capellaire, which 
is made of an infusion of Use plant, when in its per- 
fection, with fine Narbonne honey. We suppose 
this a trifle, but ])tirley water sweetened with it, 
is one of the best known remedies for a violent 
c^ugh, 

English Maidenk.ajr. Trichomarws. 

A VERY pretty little plant, of kin to tke true 
utaidenliair, and frequently used in its place ; but 
tliis is very wrong, for its virtues are no greater, 
and it is unpleasant. It grows eight inches, and 
each leaf, as in the rest of the fern kind, is an entire 
plant. This leaf consists of a vast number of 
small ones, set on each side a middle rib, and they 
are very short and obtuse, of a roundisli, l)ut some- 
what oblong figuj-e. The stalk is slender, black, 
and shiniiig, and tlie little leaves are of a bright 
i\n(\ strong green colour. The seeds are lodged as 



210 FAMILY herbal: 

m Uic rest, in form of a brown dust^ on the under pari 
of these leaves. 

The plant grows frequently on the sides of old 
welJs and on damp walls, and it is used entire. A 
syrup, made from an infivsion of it, is the best shift 
we could make for the true French capellaire ; but 
that is so easy to be had, that no such shift is neces- 
sary ; an infti&ion of the dry plaat may also bt 
used. 

W lUTE MAmENu.4iR. Adiantum album. 

A VERY little plant of the feni kind, and of 
the nature of the two others just described. Some 
will be surprised at the callin.o; it a very little plant, 
])aving seen leaves a foot long', sold in Covent Gar- 
den, under tfiat name ; but this is an imposition : 
they sell a kind of water fern under this name. 
The real white maidenhair, is not above two inches 
high. The stalks aie very slender, and of a whitish 
green, not black as in the others. The leaves 
are divid-' into a great many small parts, and at 
first sight ti. have some resemblance of the leaves 
of rue. The .- ds are contaiaed in brown lumps, 
behind the Icavf. .ovL'ring the greatest part of the 
surface. 

This i^ not unco mc^ on in old walls : it has the 
same virtues v. ith ihe <»(.},t ^ against coughs, and a de- 
coction of it U5 '^^<o strongly iiurctic, and good against 
the gravel, and all sto])pag;s of urine. 

Blactv ^!l udenii^ir. Adiantum nigrrim. 

A\o-.!ir,n (H the sayAI plni'K of the fern kind, 
.i'<(l nio'c cX tiro Mh.uie Hnd form of the commoa 
ft^.iMs, than atvv Mt dwvcribtd I( is like the com- 



FAMILY IlERHAL. ^\l 

nwa fl'm of the divided kind, only very small. It 
•j^rows to eif;ht or ten inches hi^h. The stalks 
arc thick, black, and i^'loi^sy. The leaves are very 
beautifully divided into a g;rcat many parts : these 
are short, of a (!ark shining green, and deeply notch- 
ed at the edj^es, and they terminate in a sharp point, 
not blunt as some of those already mentioned. The 
seeds lie on (he edges of the under part of the leaves, 
in form of a bro\vn dust. It is not uncommon by 
wood sides, aiul in shady lanes. 

A decoction of it Avorks powerfully by urine, and 
>i ha? the same virtue with the rest in the cure of 
coug'hs. 

Of these four, for they possess the same virtues, 
the preference is j^iven to the first described, or 
true kind : next to tiie Eng-lish maidenhair ; and 
in defect of both these, to the black kind. The 
white maidenhair is ])referred to any against the 
gravel, and in suppression of urine ; but for the com- 
mon use in coughs and hoarsenesses^ it is the least 
esteemed of all. 

There is another plant, called by the name of maid- 
enhair, which is yet to be described, it makes one of 
what are commonly called the five capellary herbs, 
but it is so distinct from the others, that it is best 
kept separate. They are all kinds of fern : this is a 
sort of moss. 

Golden IMaidenhair. Adlantum mireum. 

A LITTLE upright plant, but considered as a 
rnoss, one of the largest of the kind. It grows 
four or live inches high, when in perfection. The 
lower part of the stalk is covered for an inch or 
more, with thick, short, narrow leaves, sharp at 
the point, and of a dusky green colour : these Stand 
in Buch clusters, that they quite hide the stalk ; from 



ei2 FAMILY HERBAL. 

the top ot ihese rise the pedicles, supportiiii^- the 
heads ; they are naked three or four inches hii;h, 
slender, and of a brownish, reddish, or blackish 
coknir : the head of the sammit of these is sing'Ie, 
♦square, and is covered with a woolly cap, of the 
iit?;i:i-e of an extinj^uishcr, which fall^. oft' when the 
head is ^intirely ripe : this head is full of a hue 
di.si. 

The plant is frequent in bog-o-y places, and is to 
be used intire. Some talk of its being i^ood in coug-Jis, 
but the more frequent use of it is externally, they boil 
it in water, and wash the head with it, to make tlic 
hair grow thick. 

Common Mallow. Mabvu. 

A WILD plant, every where about our hed<»:es, 
fields, and gardens. It is one among many in- 
stances, that God has made the most useful 'plants, 
the most common. The mallow grows three or 
four feet high. The stalk is round, thick and 
strong. The leaves are roundish, but indented 
and divided at the edges. The flowers are nu- 
merous, large, and red. The root is long and white, 
of a firm^ tough substance, and not disagreeable 
taste. 

The whole ])lant is used, but the root has most 
virtue. The leaves dried, or fresh, are put in de- 
coctions for glisters; and the root may be dried, 
for it retains a great deal of virtue, but it is best 
i'resh, and sliould be chosen when there are only 
leaves growing from it, not a stalk. It is to be 
boiled iv water, and the decoetion may he made 
very strong, for there is nothing- disagreeable in the 
taste : it is to be drank in (;n;inlities, and is e.\ 
relleiit to ]»romoie urine, and to tidvc otV the 
htrani,',ury. it is good alfiO in the same manner^ 



FAMILY HERBAL. 2\3 

a^f^ainst sharp humours in the bowels^ and for the 
gravel. 

1'hcrc is a httic kind of mallow, that has whitish 
ilowers^ and lies Hat upon the ground. This is of a 
more pleasant taste than the coEumon mallow, and Ijas 
the same virtues. A tea made of the roots and tops 
of this, is very agreeable to the taste, and is excellent 
for promoting the discharges by urine. 

Marsh Mallow. Allhcea. 

A TALL wild plant, of the mallow kind, fre- 
quent with us about salt marshes, and the sides of 
rivers where the tides come. It grows to four feet 
in height. The stalk is round, upright, thick, and 
so.'uewhat hairy. Tiie leaves are large, broad at tlie 
base, .small at the point, of a figure approaching to 
triangular, and indented round the edges : they are 
of a Avhitish green colour, and soft to the touch 
like velvet. The llowers are large and white, with 
sometiuies a fain;, blush of reddish. They are of 
the same size and shape with those of the common 
mallow. 

The root is most used. It is white, long, and 
thick, of an insipid taste, and full of a muciir;gnious 
juice. Boiled in water, and the decoctioa made 
strong, it is excellent to promote urine, and bring 
away gravel, and small stones ; it also cures stran- 
guries, and is good in -coughs. Its virtues are the 
same with those of the common mallow, but in a 
greater degree. 

Vervain Mallow. Alcea. 

A VERY beautiful plant, both in its flower and 
manner of growth ; common in pasi.lure.s, and worthy 
to be cherislied in pur gardens. Xi grows two feet 



%U FAMILY HERBAL 

liigh. The stalks arc rounds moderately thicks a 
little hairy, and very uprif^ht. The lower leaves are 
rounded, and divided slightly at the edges : those on 
the stalk arc cut into very small parts, and in a very 
beautiful manner. The flowers are of a very bright 
red, and are three times as large as those of ihe com- 
mon maliovVj and very beautiful. The seeds are dis- 
posed in the same c:- ^ ' < liUier as in the common 
mallow. The root is white. 

The ruot is the part used. It has the same virtue 
with that of the common mallow, but in a less degree 
The leaves also have the same virtue, and are very 
pleasant taken in tea. 

Musk Mallow. Bamia Moschata. 

A PL.\NT, not unlike the vervain mallow in 
its aspect, but a native only of the hotter countries. 
It is two feet high. The stalk is^ single, round, 
thick, hairy, and upright. I'he lower leaves are 
roundish, only indented " little at the edges ; the 
upper ones are divided in. i.e parts, pretty deep- 
ly. The flowers are of the ^'.^pe of those of the 
common mallow, and are large, biu their colour is yel- 
low. The seed is contained in r ' ng husk, or case, 
and is of a kidney-like shape, and ( sweet perfumed 
smell. 

The seed is the only part use ind tliat very 
rarelv. It is said t^ He jrood ajcainst tl. head-ach, but 
w'c seldom meet with it fresh enough to have any 
ni1ue, 

M.WDRAKE. Mandragora, 

A 1>LAKT, about which there have been ft mul- 
titude of errors, but in which, there is, in reality, 
nothing so singukr as pretcndexi. There are pr^- 




,^^../,.„.... 4.../ 



FAMILY HERBAL. S15 

perly speaking-j two kinds of mandrake ; the one 
Willi round fruity, and broad leaves, called the male ; 
the other with oblon*^ fruit, and narrower leaves, 
called the female : their virtues are the same, but the 
male 's generally preferred. They are natives ot 
Italy, where they <>tow in woods, and on the banks of 
rivers : we keep them in gardens ; but tiiey grow 
there as freely as if native. 

The mandrake has no stalk. The leaves rise im- 
mediately from the root, and they are very large : 
they are a foot long, tour inches broad in the mid- 
dle, and of a dusky green colour, and bad smell. 
The flowers stand upon foot stalks, of four inches 
high, slender, and hairy, and rising immediately 
from the root : these flowers are large, of a dingy 
purplish colour, and of a very bad smell. The 
fruit which follows, is of the bigness and shape 
of a small apple, or like a small pear, according 
to the male or female kind : this is yellow when 
ripe, and is also of a very bad smell. The root 
18 long and thick ; it is largest at the head, and 
smaller all the way down ; sometimes it is divided 
into two parts, from the middle downwards, if a 
stone have lain in the way, or any other accident 
occasioned it ; but usually it is single. This is 
the root which is pictured to be like the human 
form : it is when single, no mor^ like a man than 
a carrot or a parsnip is, and when by some accident 
it is divided, 'tis no more Kke, than any long 
root, which happens to have met the same acci- 
dent. Those roots which are shewn about for 
money and have the head, limbs, and figure, of 
a human form, are made so by art, and they sel- 
dom use the real mandrake root for that purpose : 
they are often made of white briony root, some- 
tinicii of anoelica. The people cut them into 
this shape, and put tjiem iiito the grompd again. 



216 FAMILY HERBAL. 

wliere they will be sonictimes in part covered with 
a new bark, and so look natural. All the story 
that they sliriek, when tliey are pnlled up, and 
they use a dog to draw them out of the ground, 
because it is fatal to any person to do it, and 
the like, are idle, false, and groundless ; calculated 
only to surprise ignorant people, and get money 
by the shew : Uicre is nothing singular in the root 
of the mandrake ; and as to the terms male and female, 
the two kinds would be better distinguished, by call- 
ing the one, the broader leaved mandrake, with round 
fruit, and the other, the narrower leaved mandrake, 
•nith oval fruit. There are plants which are se- 
parately male and female, as hemp, spinach, the date 
tree, and the like : but there is nothing of this dis- 
tinction in the mandrakes. 

The fresh root of mandrake, is a violent me- 
dicine ; it operates both by vomit and stool, and few 
constitutions are able to bear it. The bark of the 
root dried works ])y vomit alone, but very roughly, 
l^he fruit may be eaten, but it has a sleepy quality, 
tJiongh not stronii". Tlie leaves are used in fomenta- 
tions and pulticcs, to allay pains in swellings, and they 
do very woll. 

Most of the idle stories concerning the man- 
diake, have taken their origin from its being named 
in scripture. And from the account there given 
of it, some have imagined, it would make women 
fruitful ; f)ut this plant does not seem to be the 
thing intended bv the word, nor lias it any such 
virtues. What the vegetable is, which is named in 
the scripture, and translated mandrake, we do not 
know. 

Sweet Makjouvm. Major ana. 

A COMMON garden plant, of no great beauty^ 



FAMILY HERBAL. Sf? 

"but kept for the -^ako of its virtues and ii.se. It i«; 
a foot high. The stalks are firm, upright, and a 
little hairy. The leaves arc broad, short, and some- 
what hairy, of a ])ale g'reen colour, and not indented 
at the edgeS;, and of a fine smell. At the tops c>f the 
branches, stand a kind of soft scaly heads, three 
quarters of an inch long",' and from these grow the 
flowers, which are small and white. The see('»^ are 
very small ; and the root is fibrous. The whole plant 
has a fine smell. 

The whole ])lant is to be used fresh ; and it is 
best taken by way of infusion, it is good against the 
head ach, and dizziness, and all the inferior order of 
nervous complaints ; but they talk idly who call it a 
remedy for apoplexies. It gently promotes the menses, 
and opens all obstructions. The dried herb may be 
given for the same purpose in powder^ but it docs not 
succeed so well. 

Wild ]MARjoRA>r. Origanum. 

A WILD plant, frequent about way-sides, in 
marry places, but superior to the other in beauty 
and in virtues. It very well deserves a place, on 
both accounts, in oiir gardens. It grows a foot 
and a half high. The stalk is firm, very upright, 
a little haiiy, and of a purphsh brown colour, ex- 
tremely regular in its growth. The leaves are broad 
and short, of the bigness of one's thumb-nail, and of 
a dark green colour ; two stand at every joint, and 
they have long foot stalks. The flowers grow on 
the tops of the branches : there stand on (het^e long 
scaly heads, of a beautiful form, and purple colour ; 
from different parts of those, arise the flowers, 
which are little, but of a beautiful red colour. The 
whole plant has a fragrant smell, and an aromatic taste. 

The fresh tops of tiie herb are to be used. They 



21^ FAMILY HERBAL. 

are l.c.-t taken In infu^^ion : l!iey sirengihen the sto- 
niach^ -diid ure jr ;oa ai^aii.sL iiabitual ':olic>3 : they are 
also gO'.)d ill licad-achs, and in all nervous copiplaints ; 
and U\?y open obstructioll^i, and are good in the 
jaur.ii, c, aud to pnjmote thenieiiscs. Chymists sell 
what Liiey Ctdi oil of origanum, but its commonly 
ail c^l made fiom i^'arden thyine^ it is very acrid : 
a drop of it put upon lint^ and laid to an aching tooth, 
ofieu ii;[\i::] vii-<i. 

X^REiic Majoram. Originrnm crctlcuin. 

A REALincL piantj of the wild marjoram kind, fre- 
quent ^vi!d in the cast, and kept in our gardens. 
It grows a fool high. The stalks are square, upricjht, 
and brown. The leaves are oblong and broad : they 
ere of a whitish colour, and stand on long foot stalks : 
there grow scaly heads at the tops of the brandies, as 
in the other kinds, and from these burst out the flo\verSj 
which are little and white. 

The toj)s are the part used : our druggists keep 
them dry ; but they generally have lost so much 
of their virtue, that tlie fresh tops of our own wild 
majoram, or the dried ones of the last season, are 
belter. 

Marigold. Calendula. 

A PLANT too common in our kitchen gardens^ fo 
need much descrij)tion. It is a foot high. The .stalks 
arc thick, angulated, and not very upright. The 
leaves are long, narrow at the base, cind broader to* 
ward the end. The llov.ers are large and yellow, and 
tliey stand at the k)j)s of the branches. The whole 
])lant is of a pale bluish green colour, and feels 
ilammy. I'he root is fit)rous. 

A tea made of the fresh gathered flowers of 



FAMILY HERBAL. 219 

marig'old, picked from \\\o cuv)^, is g-ood In lovers : it 
f^eiitlv promotes perspiiation, and throws out any thing 
tliat ought to appear on the skin. 

Mastic Tree. Lcnllscifs. 

A NATIVE of the; warmer countricLv but act un- 
common ill our gardens. It grows to tlie bigness 
of our apple trees, and is as irregular in the dispo- 
sition oi Its bra-.iehes. They are covered with a 
greyisli bark, and are brittle. The leaves are com- 
posed, each of about four pairs of small ones, with- 
out any odd leaf at the end : they arc aifixed to a. 
kind of rib or pedicle, which has a film running 
down it, on each side. They are> oblong, narrow, 
and pointed at the ends. The flowers arc little, and 
ycUowisii ; and they grow in tufts. The fruit is a 
blui^^h berry. 

>\'e use the resin which drops from the v/oundcd 
branches of this tree. Tlie tree itself is common 
in France and Italv, but it yicid? no resin there ; wc 
have that from Greece : It is whi!).';h, hard, and in 
little lumps. It is good for all nervous disorders, 
apd acts also as a V)alsam. There is scarce any 
thing better for a spitting of blood, or in the first 
stage of a consumption : it is also good ag'ainst the 
whites, and in the gleets after gonorrlm-as. Somo 
have a cnstom of chewing it, to preserve the teeth 
and sweeten the breath. 

Herb ]\Listic. Mar inn. 

A PREiTY little j)lant, native only of the warmer 
dlmatcs, but common in our gardens. It is a 
foot high, and the stem and ])rinei})al branches 
are thrui^by or woody in their texture : the small- 
er shoots are whitish I'hc leaves grow two at 



^^§a FAMILY HERBAL 

eacli joirU. ; they arc liltlc^ oblon<^, and pointed ; 
of a pale c*>lour, ;ia:i fti^^'rant sineli like masti<;, 
resinous^ nv.d xety ;,.(reeal)b. At tiic tops of the 
sla^Vs^ s^:and a Viui -f 'lowny, or 'lairy spikes or 
eav.v o^a peculiai-'y ou-! appearrnce, and from out of 
tliebr loiiiI tiic tlowers^ which arc little and white 
i .;c roOt 1.5 small. 

The whole plan* Is n.^ed dry. It may be given 
in infusion, or in powder : it is a gooci hi- n.<jjihener 
of the gtoiuach, and an astringent. 1* sfop.-, the over- 
flowing' of the rnesises : the powder of the tops is best 
given for this purpose in red wine, a scruple for a 
dose. 

Syrian Mastic Thyme. Marimi Suriacum 

A BEALTTiFUL little plant, native of the warm 
countries, but not u:if;'C(ia(Mi( in our gardens. It 
grows a foot hi;^ii. The stalks ari; brittle slender, 
and wljitish. The leaves stand two at eucii joint : 
thev are small, in shape very like those of thyme, 
and of a })ale greer rolour on die upper side, 
and white and hoary uiiJ. rnea^;' The flowers 
are small and red : diey . )\v in a ks' i of litUe 
spikcj, or oblon^.'; clusters at ilie to|)s ol the stalks, 
and have h(mry w'-^.ite ruj)s. T!ie whole plant has a 
v^ry penetratnig, .ml ;^,loa>aiit snicli. and an aromatic 
taste. Cd\:i are fond of this pi.iMt, an I will rub 
it to pif^ces ir< tlu'ir fo;uine>s Jt is ;i;ood lor all 
disorders of tlv head inul nerves : it may be giveu 
in powdci but the most vommon way i;i to take it in 
«nutr 

M.v?!Ti:r''vort. T/)i]jcriloria. 

k PLWT of no b'auty, kept in our gardens 
^r its virtue. It grows two feet high. The stalks 



FAMILY IIKRBAL. 221 

arc rounds striated, iiollovved, iipright^ not very 
stiona,". The leaves are each com})Osed of three 
sniailer : they are of a dark green colour, blunt at 
the points, and indented about the edg^es. The flow- 
cis arc small and white : they stand in little umbels 
at l!ie tops of the brandies. The roots are long-, 
bro'vn, divided^ of astrong\smell,and a sharp aromatic 
taste. 

The root is the part used : it is good in fevers, dis- 
orders of the head, and of the stomach and bowels. 
It is best taken up fresh, and given in a light infu- 
sion : it promotes sweat, and is a better medicine for 
tliat purpose, than most of the foreign roots kept by 
drug-gists. 

Maudlin. Agcratum. 

A COMMON plant in our gardens, not without 
beauty, but kept more for its virtues. It ls a foot 
high. The slvilk is round, upright, firm, single, 
and of a p:!e green. The leaves are very numer- 
ous, and I'l.'j, arc lougish, narrow, and serrated 
about \\\: c ..ces. The flowers are small and naked, 
co!isisting only of a kind of thrums ; but they 
stand in a large cluster together, at the top of the 
stalk, in the manner of an umbel. The whole pknt 
has a pleasant smell. 

The whole is used, fresh or dried ; but it is best 
fresh gatheied. An infusion of it taken for a continu- 
ance of time, is good against obstructions of the liver ; 
it operates by urine. 

Stinking Maywi ed. Cotiila fatida. 

A COMMON wild plant in corn fields, and waste 
grounds, with finely divided leaves and white 
flowcis like daizies. The stalk is round and stria- 



22^ fa:,iily herbal. 

led. The lierb <.':rov.s a foot high, 
like those of cdiiiuaiiie, oaiy of a blacker giecDj and 
larger. The Howers stand ten or a dozen iii^ar one 
another^ at the tops of the branches ; but they grow 
separate, not in a cluster. The whole plant has a 
strong smell. 

The infuPion of the fresh plant is good in all 
hysteiiC complaintv:, and it promotes the menses. 
The herb boiled soft^ is an excellent pullice for ths 
piles. 

Meadow Sweet. Vlmaria. 

A WILD plaiit, freq^iont about the sides of rivers^ 
with divided leaves, ■i.-^i^ ()eautiful tufts of white 
flowers, it is four feel hipb. The stalk is round, 
striattxb upright, firu), aiul of a pale grecn^ or some- 
times of a purple colour. The leaves are each com- 
posed of about three pair of suiuUer, set on a thick 
ribj with an odd leaf at ihe end : ihey arc cf a fine 
green on the upper side, and \vhi!ish underneath, 
and tliey are rougli tu die touch. The (lowers are 
small and white, but they stand so cl«.r .', (hat the whole 
cluster looks like one large iio\ver. The seeds are 
set in a tw Istcd order. 

An infusion of the fresh top,^ of meadow sweet, 
is an excellent sweat, and it is a little astringent. 
It is a good medicine in fevers, attended with purg- 
irigs. It is to be given in a bason once in two 
hours. 

IMr.ClIOACAN pLANr. MvchoacoiUf. 

A CLiMTUNO )i!.iPit, iKitive of (ju^ AVesf Indies. 
It is capable of running to a great height, when 
it can be supportrci : it will climb to the tops 
of all trees. The stalks arc angulalcd^ slenderj 



FAxMILY HERBAL. 2!23 

green, and brittle ; and Avhen broken^ they yi'^ld a 
vast quantity of an acrid^ milky juice. The leaves 
8land h'ing'ly ; tJicy are broad, and not very long, 
and of a beautiful shape, terminaHnc: in a point. 
The fiowers are large, and of t!ic '^liRpe of a bell : 
they are of a deep purphi <: '.: tre inside, and of a 
pale red "vvitt'.f^vt ; ainl tiici seed-veg^-^ls are lar2;e, 
as are also the seeds. The root is whitish, and very 
thick. 

The root is the part used: onr drug'2:ists keep it 
dry. it is in slices, and is whitish and brittle. 
It is an excellent purg;e, but there requires a large 
dose to work tolerably : tliis has occasioned its beinsT 
much less used than worse medjcines. that operate 
more strongly, and can be taken with less disgust ; 
but it is to be lamented^ that su litt.'^ use is made 
of it. 

MEDLiiR Thee. Mesp^iUS. 

A coMMox tree in our gardens. It is of the big- 
ness of an apple tree, and grows in the same irregular 
manner : the branches have thorns on them. The 
leaves are longer and narrower than in the apple 
tree, and they terminate in a point. The blossoms 
are large and white. The fruit is roundish, and 
open at the bottom : and till very much mellowed, is 
of an austere taste. 

A strong decoction of unripe medlars, is good 
to stop violent purgings. The seeds work by tn-ine, 
and are good against the gravel ; but there are so 
many more powerful things at hand, tjic} are seldom 
used. 

MrxiLOT, Melilotns. 

A COMMON wild plant, witli three leaves Bt 



224 FAMILY HERBAL. 

a joints and long* stra<^gling' spikes of yellow flow-- 
crs. It is a foot and a half high, or more. The 
stalk is vveak^ slender, green, and striated. The 
(eaves are oblong, and blunt at the ends : they 
arc serrated round the edges, and of a bright green 
colour. Tlie llowfis are small, and of the shape 
»)f the flowers of tares, but little ; and there follows 
each a roundish pod, rough and green. The whole 
plant has a singular, but not disagreeable smell ; and 
the leaves are the foot! of so many insects, that they 
are commonly gnawn to pieces. 

The fresh plant is excellent to mix in pultices, to be 
applied to swellings. It was once famous in a plaister, 
\ised for dressing of blisters, but the apothecaries used 
to play so many bad tricks, to imitate the greeu colour 
it was expectied to give, that the plaister is now made 
without it. 

Melon. Melo. 

A TRAINING herb, witli yellow flowers, and large 
fruit ; well known at our tables. The plant grows 
to eight or ten feet lorjg, but is not erect. The stalks 
are angulated, tb.ick, -Mid of a pale green. The 
leaves are largo \\w\ broad, somewhat roundish, and 
riot deeply div'deii, as in most of the creeping plants 
of this sort. Tiierv.> are tendrils on the stalk for its 
laying hold of any thing. The flowers are very 
large, and open u' the mouth. The fruit is objong 
and rough, more c r less on the surface, containing 
seeds, with a juicy .natter within. 

The seeds are the part ased : tlupy are cooling, and 
soi k by urine. They are be^t given in an emulsion, 
\M\\i up wi(h barley water : this is a good drink in 
fivers iriven warm. 



Family herbal. iis 

Mezereon Shrub, Mcztrenm. 

A VERY pretty sl.rub, native of many parts of 
Eurcipe, and frequent in our gardens. It is four 
feet high, and very miuh branciied. The branched 
stand irregularly, and they are very tough and firm. 
The leaves are oblong- and narrow : they grow in 
clusters from certain little swellings on the bark. 
The iloweis are small and red ; they are hollow, and 
are succeeded by oblong berries, which are black 
when ripe. The root is woody and creeping' ; and 
tlie plant is not easily destroyed, when once well 
established. 

The baik of the root, or the inner bark of the 
branches is to be used ; but it is a violent medicine, 
and must be g'iven with great caution, in small 
doses, and only to those who have strong constitu- 
tions. It will cause vomiting, and bloody stools 
to people that are tender, or to any, in a lari^e dose ; 
but to robust people, it only acts as a brisk pur^^e. 
It is excellent in dropsies, and other stubborn dis- 
orders ; and the best way of giving it, is in a light 
infusion. 

Millet. MilUum. 

A PLANT of the grass kind, large, upright, and 
not without its beauty. It is io\xv feet high. The 
stalk is round, hollow, jointed, thick, and firm. The 
leaves are long and broad, of a pale green, and hairy. 
The ttoweis and s^^eds glow at the top of the stalk, 
in a vast cluster, so heavy that the head usually hangs* 
down : they are altog'ether of tlie grass kind. The 
flowers are inconsiderable, and the seeds sniall, hard> 
and white. 

The seeds are used sometimes in the raannf r f f 
barlf y to make a drink, Nshich is <j'»od \\\ fi-.^rr 



226 FAMILY HERBAL. 

^^nd ai^iinst iieat of urine ; it is also a little astringent. 
Tiie i^raiii is eaten also as barley. 

MiLKv;oKT, Polj/g-ala. 

A roMvjoN little plaiit ujxm our heatlis, and 
ta dry pasture;->, with numerous leaves and blue or 
»\hife tiowi'rs, (for this is a variety and caused by 
■-ireidents,) diHJ■o^ed in loose spikes. The root is 
lone,*, and divided into several parts, the stalks are 
very nunierous, and very much branclied, they are 
•^lender and ueak, and they spread themselves upon 
the f^innmd, I'onnir!^- a little greeii luit. There is 
g'reat variety in the appearance of tlie plant, beside 
what has been already named in tlie colour of the 
flower ; nor is that indeed the onlv variation thert; : 
so that it has been divided into two or three kinds 
by some writers, but as all (b.e.^e will rise tVoni the 
snme seed, and only are owie,.;' to the soil and 
exposure, the plant is witliui-t doubt the same in 
every appearance, and iis xiriues aie the same 
HI vviiich ever state it is lukcn. AVhen it grows 
iii ])arrcn piacee;, tlie sudl'ii; ;irc »',ot nore than three 
or fc>ur J!-cl)es in length, and (he ie.ivos are very 
^inaicrous, short, and of un oval U^,'ure. The ilow- 
crs are in this case ssna!! and blue, sometirnos 
\\hit!s)i, striated with biix', iind Sdinetimes in- 
tiiclv v-hite. When the (Jant i;rows ni some- 
what more favourable soil, f!;;' leaves are obloin;', 
atui narrow, pointed at the vnds, and of a beautiful 
j;n rn, the .-talks are live, oi siv in( ht>s long", and 
'■],-' ihn^ers in this case are counn-r.ilv blue, arai 
5hi> is fill' ]\)i:>i ordinary ^tate s)\ the piaat. W iti'ii 
i' •2;r«>\v-i ill verv iavourH})Ie phucs, e.s upon the 
<hoi);< -.':ue »>f a hill, \\ht'r.' J'jne aif sp.rinLV^. '^'i^l 
.tmiii!-- }iji> (all <irr.:--. llu-n its Uavcts ;ire hmutM", its 
■'■..ilj-.b )'-'iir i'<.;/ii'-i. wild 'tiorr nrii'^ulit, and i.'s ilowtTS 



FA:\51LY IIEUHAf. ^27 

arc red. 'I'licse are the several ;i](pca:auccs oi' thi-^ 
littic ])!a!it, i\ml it is all one in which of tliem it 
is takf'n. The root is? of'e'.i rf a con.sidenible tliiek- 
]icyis, and siii^Ie^ but it is more usually divided and 
smaller ; it is whitish, and of a dii«agreeable acrid 
taste. 

This plant had ])a.«sed un re <iardcd as to any 
medicinal use, till Dr. Tenr.ant brought into Kii<^'- 
land the senekka root, fau.ious in America af2;ainst 
the ciVects of the bite of the rattle-snake, and found 
here to be of service in pleurisies : but when it was 
found, that this was tlie root of a kind of milk- 
wort, not very diifercnt from our own, we tried 
the roots of our own kind, and found them effectual 
in tlic same cases : as to thic poisonous bites of a 
seipent, they are so uncomnum here, that we need 
not rcii^ard that part of the qaalitieSj but we find it 
i^'ood in the other disorder, and in all diseases in 
which the blood is thick and sizy. The fresh root 
is best, but it has not its full virtue except in spring, 
wlien the stalks are just shooting- out of the g-roiind, 
for tins reason it is most proper to take it up at that 
time, aiul dry it for the service of the year. When 
fresh, it is bc^t given in infusion : but when dried, it 
r> kepi in })owder. 

Spkar Mint. Mentha vulgaris. 

A co>nTo\ \)ui\\i in our gardens, and of frequenl 
n>c \\i the kitciu-n. It is two feet high, the stalks are 
-qiKire, single, upright, firm, and iA' a pale green, 
1 lie leaves staiul two at a joint ; they are long', 
narrow , of a blackish green, serrated at tliC edges, 
,in<i siiarp-poiiited. The llouers are siaall and pur- 
r-!.:' ; they staiid in long spikes, in a beab'.iful nrduner. 
IT.e whole plant Iras a fragiant smell, and a pieusant 
itroMiiitic taste. 



t^^ FAMILY HERBAL. 

The Tvhole plant is used, fresh or dried, and is 
excelicHt against disorders of tiie stomach. It 
\\\\\ s/op voiniting-, and create an appetite ; it is 
best ♦^iven in the simple distilled Avater, well made, 
or else in the form of tea. The fresh herb bruised, 
and applied outwaKlly to the stomach, will stop 
vomitings. 

W.4TER Mint. Mintha aquattca. 

A COMMON wild plant of the mint kind, not 
so much regarded as it deserves. It is frequent 
by dilch sides. It is a foot and half high. The 
stalks are .square, upright, firm, and strong-, and 
generally of a brown colour ; the leaves are broad 
and short ; they stand two at a joint, and are of a 
brownish or deep green colour, somewhat hairy, 
and serrated about the edges. The flowers arc 
Inrger than those of common mint, and are of a 
pale red colour ; they stand in round thick clus- 
ters at the tops of the stalks, and round the up- 
per joints. The whole plant has a strong smell, 
not disagreeable, but of a mixed kind between 
tint of mint, and penny royal : and the taste is 
strcng and acrid, but it is not to be called disagree- 
sbic'. 

A distilled water of this plant is excellent against 
colics, pains in the stomach and boAvels, and it will 
bring down the menses. A single dose of it often 
cures the co!ic. The use of peppermint has ex- 
chKlcd this kind irom the present practice, but 
all thiee ought to be used. A V here a simple weak- 
ne'-s t.f the stomach is the complaint, the common 
mint shouifl be used ; when coliey pains alone, 
tli»' pp})prrmiiit ; and where suppressions of the 
n""!"sai<' ni the cj'.so, tins wild water mint : they 
!' u) yli bo given iii the way of lea, but a simple 



FAMILY ilEUBAL 229 

water distilled from thein,aiul made sufficiently strong'^, 
is by much the most etficacious. 

Peppermint, Mentha pipcrata. 

A PLANT kept in our gardens, but much more 
resembling' the wild mint last descri!)e(b than the 
spear mint, both in form and qnalitie.-^. It grows 
two feet and a half high. 'J'he stalk is square and 
firm, upright, and of a jiuic gn^Mi ; the leaves 
stand two at each joint : they are broad, not very 
long, of a dark green, and sen'ated deeply at the 
edges. The llowers grow in thick spikes, but 
not very long ones, they arc large, and of a pale 
red. The whole plant has an agreeable quick 
smell, and a hot taste like pepper, but not dis- 
agreeable. 

The whole plant is used fresh or dried ; but the 
best way is to give the distilled water. It cures the 
colic, often almost instantaneously, and it is good 
against the gravel. 

Long Leaved Wild Mint. Menthrastrum. 

A singular wild plant, of the mint kind, 
but. not without its beauty ; it is two feet high, 
and grows with great regularity. The stalk is 
sqirare, firm, and of a pale green, very upright, 
and at the top full of young slioots. Tiie leaves 
arc long and narrow ; they are of a whitish green, 
deeply indented about the edges, and pointed at 
the ends : the flowers stand in spikes, at the tops 
of the young shoots ; they are ])a!(;, red, and large, 
and very innnerous. The whole plant has a strong 
smell. 

The wliole plant is used frc^sh or dried, and is 
to be given in the way of tea, for the distilled watev 



250 FAPiflLY HERBAL. 

is disyaTcrahlo It strcniiihens the stomach, and 
promotes iUc wj'w^vs. It is in this latter re.spect a 
veiv vakiuhle rn; diciiic^ but the u-c of it must be con- 
tinued some tiir.c. 

M'.iiTLE, Mijrtua 

A i.irrr.! shrub, very l)caatirui irj its nirHuifi 
of gTov, ui, u rntive of Italy, l)ut ei^ir.nioii in our 
g^aii'ei'.s. MMie inmk is covered witii h rough 
brow:; l-ark. Tiic branehcs are Tinnieroiis, slen- 
de:", t ■;rH', and ledthsh. I'he le^ives fire very 
lieitU-Lifui ; 'i\\^y are snralb short, of a fine ^^reen . 
]>oii:?!M{ ;!l -hi^ K:\\\\i, nf)t serrate<{ at the edges, and 
I'iH'V star.d in great iirnnhrrs, ar;rl in a l>eaulifui 
ord'-r upoi! tl":e branehes. The llouers stand on 
siuiii iWi;; s'alks ; tiu'v are large, white, and lull 
of ti'.i'eads ; th.e fruit is a round black berry, as 
large as tl:;' ])ig~g(^st jica, and has a crown at tlie 
top, Tlu^ i('avL> \\\\v,\ la'ii'.rtd, liave an extremely 
frai;'rant sia/li. J'iie .'-iinii) wiii bear our climate 
])e!!ei' tiran is ii:ii;i;-'nt d ; there are, in some }>]aees, 
he(iL';e> uf it live <>r six feet high, that stand the wintcr» 
Avithoel ih'.^ !ea^t hurt. 

The ie.ives and berries of th.e myrtle are u^ed ; 
IIk'V ;!i' ' »•>>/ liai and a^iringent. A slrong infusion 
ofth.' iVr;;. !rav( s i< good a,.v;dn:-.t a slight ])urging, 
strc!i;r!l:>!!':iiu~ the stonincli at the same time that it 
rer.ic.'- ti,c (■.;';. pi, ;int. Tiit' dried leaves ))ow(!ered, 
ari' »'\;.eii,ai( a .Mast tlie uliiles. The berries an* 
j^ood au'i'ir^l Mio:t-!\ 
ineii-.«.->, aad \\\ spaliie;' '-'f i/anj'. 



' '"axe. (iverllowinos of th** 



Ml -I rfor;. »' )sr:is 



A ^fv..t ' \i; i»:r.nl, nalivc (f onr own countiA 
bill g!<r,.:i. J-, ii'tt on ihe earth as other la-rb>^. h:)C 



FAmLY HERBAL. '231 

Mpon the branches of trees ; on wliich it makes a 
very cttrispiciioiis fi^'iire. It grows two feet h!g;li, 
and if:> hriinches arc so numerous, and spread in 
such a nranner, that the whole plant is as broad as 
tail, and appears a round ye'dow tuft of that di- 
aincfer^ quite unlike to the tree on wliic'i it g-rovvs, 
in tViiit, leaves and bark. ' The main stem is half 
an ineli in diameter; the branches divide aj v. ays 
bv twos and they easily !)reak at tiie joints or 
divi'^ion?. The b?irk \^ (iu"!ni<;"hout of a yellowish 
ei!i;v,ir, ti!i'i;,i;!i with sosne mixture of g-reen on 
ihe yis'.i'ij; shoots ; i\\c A'aves arc also yeliowis'i ; 
t'^oy .>;i(>Nv two at each j(;int : they are fieshy, oblong", 
itirrovse; t at the bottom, and broader toward the top. 
The dow^'rs are yellow, but they arc sinalfand i;i- 
conci icrable ; t!ie fruit is a white berry, round, and 
of (he h':^ne-^.-: of a pea, tliis is full of a lougli, clamniy 

1 he ]( aves of midefoe dried and powdered are 
a fneiMi- remedy fi:r tlie lidiing sickne-s. Thev 
are good in rill ncrvoiis disorders, and have been 
kn(»wi! to perform great cures taken f<;r a conlisnianv r 
of time. 

Iw'iw ^\•inoB'.T \s Ti?Er. Mijrobulirini^ 

/I • 

A TRKi: notive oi ihe \v;M-!ner ehn^;«te^, and n(ti: 
vvi g"<;t i;;o- oiir g":rdc:;s. It grows to twenty feel 
liii;n. 'i he braiu ia~s -.'oe numerous, and very irro- 
i:!,"r.h:; )\ di.^posed. Tin.- K.;ve'^ are lv)ogarid narrow ■; 
th'' iiow-rs are while, and li!;e the blu!^;soais tu onr 
pltiu! trees ; \v.m\ tiie fruit ic-^einblcs: a plum, (wdong. 
and ilp;.;;y, Vv ith a losig >:'.;iio va' kernel ; bv:t ?he fi'uit 
i- i^eiit-raliy gatliervd ! euav (lie ytone I1..1 ru;-n^, »o thai 
il ss-eios to l:;jve none. 

\\\ M^:o,i u; ii-s..- ibc' fiuo broiyrlii j'vcj- ;:vr] ;- 



253 FAMILY HERBAL. 

was f^ivcn as a purge, but at present none regar<i 
it. There are also four others of the same kind, 
the names of which we see in books of medicine, 
but the fruits are not to be met \vith, nor is it 
much loss, for we have belter thing's to anr.vver 
their purposes. They were called the citrine, 
chebule, belleric, andemblec pivrobalanus ; they are 
all used as purges, but comiiiou senna is worth 
them all. 

MooNWORT. Lunar la. 

A VERY singular, aiid very pretty plant, fre- 
quent in some [)arts of the knigdom, but in most 
very scarce. It gr(i>vs six inclios iiigh ; and con- 
sists of tlie stalk, one leaf, and i\\Q. flowers. The 
stalk is round, firm, and Ihick. It is naked to the 
middle, and there g'rt)ws tlie leaf, which is composed 
as it were of several pairs of small ones, or rather 
is a whole and single leaf divided deej)]y, so as 
to resemble a number of smaller ; thee^ are round- 
ed and hoUowvd, wnd thenle came its name of 
moonwort ; from the base of this leaf, tiie stalk 
is continued up an inch or two. and (lien rise the cIuk- 
tei's of tlovvers and seeds ; these are very snrall, and 
like dust, and of a brown colour. The leaves of moon- 
wort dried and given in })Owder, sttip pnrgings, and 
the overtlowiiig of the menses. 'I^he fresh plant 
bruised ;nid jaid to a cut, stops the bleeding, and lieals 
it in a day or t\M). 

Hairy Tki:e Moss. U^nca. 

\ M.wY siniiular plant of the moss kind, h<c:- 
i^'pu'nt in (Mir Vayvx ioivsls, but rare clsewlu're : 
it ';r(uvs to t!u' biwiiches oF old oa^.-^ r-nd hiisiu s, 
and hangs down from tliCH! in kmg .suiiii/:s Tiie 



V'>'-i4£^ 





0\ 







FAlVnLY HERBAL. 233 

tufts of it are often a foot long", and in the whole two 
or three inches thick ; they are composed of a great 
quantity of stalks and lu'anches, the largest not 
bii^g-ei' than a larg-e packtluead ; these are of a ^vey 
colour, and are composed of a soft bark, and a lirm 
wiiite fibre within : this bark is often cracked, and 
the fibres appear jointed ; the small fibres of the 
plant resemble hairs : on the lar£;er grow, at certain 
seasons, little hollow brown bodies. These contain 
the seeds, Imt they are too minute to be disting'iiished 
fiini^ly. The whole plant is dry, and sapless as it 
grows, and has not the least appearance of leaves np- 
on it. 

IMie powder of this moss is an excellent astrin- 
g;ent ; it is to be dried in an oven, nnd beat in a mor- 
tar : the while fibres wiii lemaiii, wlien the soft 
part has gone tln"t>ugh the sieve ; (hey are of no 
nse, the ctther has all the virtue, it is good against 
the whites, agiiinst overflowing of the menses, and 
bloody fluxes, and against spitting of blood : it de- 
serves to be much more regarded tb.an it is in the 
preisent practice. The dose is half a dram. 

Cup iVIos«;. Muscus pijxidatKS. 

A COMMON little plant on ditch banks, by 
wood sides, and in dry barren places. It consists 
of a thin coat of a leaiy matter, spread npon the 
surface of the ground, and of a kind of a little cups 
rising from it. The leafy part is dry and without 
juice, divided into several portions, and these 
irregularly notciied ; it is grey or greenish on the 
upper side, and whitish underneath. The cups 
are half an inch high. They have each a thick 
«tem, and an open mouth, and rather resemble a 
clumsy drinking glass, than a cup. They are of 
a grey colour, often with some odd mixture of 

Hh 



234 FAMILY HERBAL. 

green, of a dusty surface ; sometimes they c:ro# 
one from the edge of another, up to the third or fourth 
stage : they have also many other accidental varieties ; 
and sometimes they bear little brown lumps, which 
are supposed to contain the seeds. 

The whole plant is to be used ; it is to be taken 
fresh from the ground, j^hook clean, and boiled 
in water, till the decoction \yc very strong ; then 
there is to be added as mudi nvilk as there is of 
the jitpior, and it is U> be sweetened with honey. 
[t is an excellent medicine for children's coughs : 
it is rccMu mended pariicularly in that called the 
chincougli. 

Cv)MM()\ (inoLND Moss. Mhscus tcrrsstris vul- 

A rnr.TTY, but verv small ])lant. It creeps on 
the ground, or rises in tufts tv.o or three inches 
high, according to the place. The stalks arc veiy 
slender, but they are thick, covered with leaves, 
and their })ranches are disposed in such a manner 
that thev in som<? dejiree resemble tern. The leaves 
are very small, of a triangular shaj^e, and of a bright 
green ; they stand loosely on the lower j^art of 
the stalks, but on the upper, they lie close and cover 
them. It very rarely {produces its seeds ; but 
when it does, there rise naked and very slender pedi- 
cles an inch long from the bosoms of the leaves, and 
at the top of each of these stands a little oblong" head,^ 
of a brownish red cohmr, covered with a cap like 
an extinguisher in shape, and full of a fine greea 
dust. 

"^rhe whole ])lant is used ; it is to be dried and 
r>ovvdiT('d, and is given with success against overdow- 

ng;s of the menses, and all bleedings ; it is also good 

.•rainst the wiiites. 



FAMILY HERBAL 235 

Moss OF AN Human Skx jll. Miiscus ex cranio 
humano. 

There is not an}^ particular kJ.nd of moss that 
grows upon the human skull, nor docs any moss by 
l^rowing' upon it acquire any particular virtues, 
whatever fanciful people may have inia«^*incd. In 
Eng'land^ we comujonly use the moss just described, 
when it happens to rim over an human skull, 
that has been laid by actident, or has been hiid 
on purpose in its way : in other places, tliey use 
the sort of -white moss, tlvat p;ro\vs upon our old 
apple trees, l^oth these are in their own noturc 
astrin<^Tnts, but they ai^e as ii;ood if takv'U from trees, 
or otr the groiuul, as if found upon these bones. 
They have In^eii (supposed ji,oed ap^ainst disorders of 
the head, when gathered fjom the skull_, but diis is all 
fancy. 

AIoTHETl OF AMY ME. S^Tpj/llum. 

A ( OMMON wild little plant, but very ])retfy, very 
fragrant, and of great virtues. It grow?; in little 
tufts l)y Avay sides, and on dry hillocks ; the stalks 
^re round sJender, reddish, and six or eight inches 
long, but thc\ ilo not stand upright. The leaves are 
very small, and (tf a\i oval figure ; they grow two 
ut each joint, and they are smooth, and of a bright 
green. Th<! iiowers are of a pale red, and stand in 
little tufts at the tops of the stalks, the whole plant 
has a very fragrant smell, and an aromatic and 
agreeable taste. 

it is a better medicine in nervous cases than 
most that are used ; the fresh plant or dried, may 
be drank as tea ; it is very agreeable to the taste, 
and by a continuance, will cure the common nerv- 
i*us disorders. The uigiit marc is a very troubie* 



236 FAMILY HERBAL. 

some disease, ane? ofien puzzles the physician, but 
it will be perfectly cured by n. tea made of this 
plant. 

IMoTiiERwoaT. Cardiaca. 

A TALL, and not unhandsome wild plant. It 
grows wild about farm-yards and in diy places. It 
is a yard high ; the stalk is square, thick, upright, 
and firm. The leaves stand o'\ long foot stalks, 
two at each joint. They are divided into three parts, 
the middle one being the longest, and are deeply in- 
dented at the edges ; of a dnrk green colour, and bad 
smell. The fi(nvcrs are of a pale red : they grow 
in a kind of ])iickly cups, from (he bosoms of the 
leaves, surrounding the stalks. The root creeps, and 
is whitish. 

The whole plant may be used dried, but the tops 
fresli cut are best ; they are to be given in a strong 
infiu ion or decoction. It is good against hysteric 
cou^olainl^, and it promotes the menses. It is 
famv)us for curing the palpitation of the heart, when 
tlvcjt a; ;ses from an hysteric cause : for there ai'e j^al- 
pitations, which nothing can cure. 

i\IousE-EAU. Filosclla. 

An exceeding pretty litlle ])lant, with whitish 
leaves, J'nd larg(^ bright vellow flowers, frequent 
on our ditch banks. The leaves grow in little 
clusters, and are lon^>;ish and ])ro:ul, of a dark 
grcHin on the n-tip;'^r sidr. but wliite underneath ; 
and so much, of the undcn" ]);!rt is usually seen, 
tliat th(^ whole looks whi:i^h. 7^he stalks trail 
npon tlie ground, lUid take root at everv joint : 
thr li'Hvrs havf long bail's upon them. The stalks 
»\lii(.!) s!!}'[.'oit the lloNvrrs rise single. They arc 



FAMILY HERBAL. 237 

liairy, they have no leaves, and each boars only one 
Hower, this stands ou the top, and is larg^c, somewhat 
of the form of the dandeUon flower, l)ut oi'a beautiful 
pale yellow. 

The seeds are wing-ed with down, and tli.e stalks 
■wlien broken yield a milky juice, ])ut in no i^reat 
quantity. The plant has scarce any smell, but an 
austere !)itterish (ar-e. 

A decoction of ihe fresh o-athered herb is excellent 
ag-ainst the bleeding" of the piles : and the leaves 
boiled in niilk. may be applied externally. It is g-ood 
also in die overflowing^ of the menses, and in all othei' 
bleedings, and in the whites. 

JNluGWORT. ArlcmWia. 

A TALL, and r.ot unhandsome plant, frequent 
on ditch banks, having" divided leaves, and flowers 
like those of wormwood. it is a yard high or 
more : the strdk is round, striated, often purplish, 
firm, upright, and branched. The leaves stand 
irregularly upon it ; tliey are large, and composed 
of a number of sn?all parts, which are sharply in- 
dented and pointed. They are of a dusky green 
on the upper side and white underneath. The 
flowers are little and brownish, they stand in small 
tufts all along the upper parts of the branches, but 
they stand upriglit, whereas those of wormwood hnng 
down. They often have a tinge of purj)le before 
they are quite opened, which adds greatly to the 
beauty of the plant. 

The leaves of nnigwort are to be used fresh or 
dried ; they are best given in infusion, and thev are 
excellent to promote the menses, and against all tho 
£oiumon hysteric complaints. 



238 FAMILY HERBAL. 

Mulberry Tree. Morus. 

A LARGE and irrcg*ular growinp^ tree, common 
111 our g-ardens. The branches are numerous and 
spreading ; the leaves are very beautiful, large, 
broad, of a l)rigltt "rccn, pointed at the end, and 
<lelieatcly serrated round the edges. The flowers 
are small, and inconsiderable : the fruit is suf- 
ficiently known ; it is large, oblong, juicy, and 
composed of a great number of smvdl granules : it is 
usually black when ri[)e. But there is a kind with 
>vhite fruit. 

The bark of the root of the mulberry tree fresh 
taken off and boiled in water, makes an excellent 
decoction against the jaimthce ; it 0})cns obstruc- 
tions of the liver, and works by urine. A very 
pleasant syrup is madi' from the juice of the ripe fruit, 
M'ith twice the quantitv of sugar. It is cooling, and 
is good for sore mouths, and to quewch thirst in 
levers. 

White Mullen. Vcrbascion albu?n. 

A TALL and stately wild plant, singular for 
its white leaves, and long spike of yellow flow- 
ers ; and frequent on our ditch banks, and on dry 
places. It grows six feet high ; the leaves rising 
from the root, are a foot long, as broad as ones 
hand,' sharp-pointed, serrated about the edges, and 
* <.\ricd -with a white downy or woolly matter. The 
-iiilk is Ihick, firm, and very ujuight, and is covcr- 
<(! with >n)allcr leaves of the same kind : the llow- 
•Ts are yellow and large : they slaiui in spike*-;, of 
two feet lon;r, three or f(»ur onlv o])ening at a time : 
tlu' seeds are small and brown, the root is long and 
sh-.iiiav. 

The !(;i\eH aie u'<.'l, and those are best \^! irh. 



FAMILY IIERBaL. T^9 

grow from tlie root, when there is no slalk. Thcv 
are to be given in decoction ag^ainst the overflowings 
of the menses, the bloody flux, the Meedingof the piles, 
and spitting of blomi ; boiled in milk, they lire also 
excellent by way of pultice to the piles, and oth«r 
painful swellings. 

Mustard. SinapL 

A COMMON rough looking plants wild in many 
places, but kept also in gardens, for the sake of the 
«eed. It grows a yard high. The stalk is round, 
smooth, thick, and of a pale green ; the leaves arc 
large, and of a coarse green, deeply indented, and 
placed iiregularly ; they hang down, and have a 
disagreeable aspect. The flowers are small and yel- 
low ; they grow in great numbers on the tops of the 
branches, and the pods of ihe seed follow them. The 
whole plant is of an acrid pungent taste. The root 
ii white. 

The seeds arc the part used ; what we call mus- 
tard is made of them, and it is very wholesome ; it 
strengthens the stomach, and procures an appetite. 
The seed bruised and taken in large quantities, works 
by urine, and is excellent against rheumatisms, and 
the scurvy. It also promotes the menses. Laid 
vpon the tongue it will sometimes restore speech in 
glsies. 

Treacle ^NIistard. Thla^pl discordis. 

.X LnTLE wild plant with broad leaves, wiiite 
flowers, and flat pods, common in dry places. It 
is eight inches high ; the stalk is round and stri- 
ated. The leaves are oblong, and })road, of a 
jwle green colour, and deritatcd round the cdg-e». 



S-IO FAMILY HERBAL. 

They grow irrcp;u]arly on the stalks,, and Iiave no 
toot stalks. The ilowers are very sinall^ a little 
liift of them stands at the top of the stalk, and the 
pods foJiow them ; so that the usual appearance, 
when the j)Iant is in ilower, is a short sj)ike of the 
})ods, ^vith a little cluster of llowers on the top ; the 
])0{]s are lari;e, lUit, roundish, and edited with a leafy 
border. The seeds are small, brown, and of a hot 
taste. The seed is the part used ; but our drug-gists 
generally sell the seeds of the i^arden cress, in the 
plac^. of it. It is not much regarded. 

MrrjujiDATE iNIisTARD. Thlaspi incnno folio. 

A TJTrLE wild plant, common in corn-fields. 
Il IS of" a foot high ; the stalks are roun<l, firn,, 
upright, and not much branched ; the leaves are 
long, narrow, a little hairy, and of a dusky green. 
I'he (lowers are small and white, and th(i pods 
wiiieh follow them are roundish and little, not Hatted 
as HI the toi'mer kind, nor surrounded with a fo- 
iutceous v(V^i\ 'j'he leiwes g;row very thick upon the 
.'«;(alk. a\K! each has as it were a couple of little ones at 
the rxisc. 

The seed of Ihis is used also, at least in name, 
for tne cre.'-s seed serves for both : the nr.itter is not 
•rrePL lor tiiev seem to have the same virlues, and 
neit!i( r is niiniled, except as ing-reriients in com- 
))osiUon^'. 

^hijini T.'iF.K. Mjjrrha. 

A Tiu,K er»nreining' whirii we have but very 
imperft'ct viccontils, and those not well warranted 
for genuine. \1! tiiat we hear of it is, that the 
branches are niunt-rous, and have thorns on them ; 



FAMILY HERBAL. »ll 

that the leaves are oblong-, broad, and of a strong 
smell, and that the bark of the trunk is rough, and of 
a greyisli colour. 

The gum resin called myrrh, is certainly pro- 
cured from some tree in the hot countries, but 
whether this be a true description of that tree, there 
is no certainty. The gum itself is a very great medi- 
cine ; it opens all obstructions of the viscera ; is 
good in consumptions, jaundices, and dropsies ; and 
is excellent for promoting the menses, and assisting: 
in the natural and necessary discharges after delivery : 
it is to be given in powder ; the tiiicture dissolves it 
but imperfectly ; but this is ex'-f'llent ag-ainst 'Jisorders 
of the teeth and gums. 

N 
Sweet Navey. Kapim. 

A PLANT kept in some gardens, and not uniiko 
the convuiou turnip in its aspect and appearance. 
It grows a yard high. The stalk is round, smooth, 
•and of a pule green. The leaves stand irregularly 
on it, diwd they are oblong, broad at the base, where 
tliey surroimd the stalk, and narrower all tlie way 
to the point. The leaves, which grow from the 
root, are much larger and deeply cut in at the 
^ides ; and they are all of a paie or bluish green 
colour. The ilowers arc ^mall and yellow, and 
the pods ore long. Tlie seed is round and !)liick. 
The root is white and large, and has the taste, but 
not: the round shape of the turnip, for it is rather 
]i]\<-r a parsnip. 

The seeds are used, but not much, A decoc- 
iion of them is said to promote sweat, and to drive 
nnv thinf;- out to the skin ; but it docs not seem to de» 
*r.rve anv great regard. 

X i 



'M2 FAMILY IIHRBAL. 

Wild Navlw, Ihinias 

TiiE plarit wliich prculiiccs what wo call rape- 
^lecci, and in some plarcs cole-.sced. Thouo'h wild 
on our ditch banks ; it sown in some places for 
tiic sake of its seed;, from which an oil is made for 
HUM hanical purposes. The [)lant is two or three 
IVct hi^h ; the stalk is round, upright, smooth^, 
thick, firm, and of a pale green, the lower leaves 
are long and narrow, very deeply divided at the 
celiacs, and of a pale or bluish green colour. Those 
on tlie stalk are of the same colour, but small, 
narrow, and a litUe divided : the flowers are small, 
and of a bright yellow. The pods arc long, and 
the setcls arc round, large, and black ; they are of 
a somewhat hot and sharp t.iste. Tlie seeds are used 
for the same purposes as the other, and are supposed 
to have more virtue, but probably neither have 

JDUCll. 

Colic Naud. Kardm ccllica. 

A LITTLE plant of Ihe valerian kind, frequent 
in [many parts of FiUrope, but not a native of Eng- 
land. It is six or eight inches in height ; tiic stalks 
arc'roundj striated, and greeni.sh : the leaves at the 
bottom are oblong, narrow at the base, and rounded 
at tlu' end, and of a yeii<>vvi.^h green colour. Those 
()\\ l!,'^ stalks stand in j>airs ; they arc small and deeply 
« lit ; the flowers stand in a little cluster at the top of 
th(> »;(alk ; they are small and wiiitc : the root is long, 
s!<Muli'!-, and creeping. 

The root is tlie part used ; our druggists keep 
if (hy. It is best taken ia infusion. It operates by 
nriiie. and in some, degree by sweat, but that very 
TTKu'tiately • it is commended in fevers and in the 
)c;unLli«'e. 



FAMILY IIERBAr. 24.3 

Nettle. Urtica. 

A' PLANT too commnn ((i nerd niiicli descrip- 
tion. It is three' feet hii^h ; the stalks ure aiig'nlated 
and rough ; the leaves are large, and of a heauiifiii 
shape, ref»;ularly from a broad base diminishing' to 
a sharp point, and nicely serrated rmind the edges ; 
the colour of these and of the stalks is a dusky 
green, and they arc both covered with a kind of 
])rick]es, which easily make tlieir wav into the 
skin, and have at their base, a hoHow hag of sharp 
juice, which gets into the Avound, occasioning that 
swelling, inliainination, an<l pain tliat follows. The 
naked eye may distinguish these bags at the ])ottom 
of the prickles on the stalk of a full grown nettle, 
but a microscope shews them Jiil dver. The flowers 
of the nettle, are yellowish, little, ai.d inconsiderable, 
the seeds are small, and round, tiie root is long and 
creeping. 

The juice of the nettle is good against overflow- 
ings of the menses. Tiie root is to be given in infu- 
sion, and it works yxiwerfully by urine, arid is excel- 
lent against the jaundice. 

Roman Nlttle. Urtica Romana. 

A WILD ])lant of the nettle kind, but not com- 
mon. It is two feet high, tbe stalks are round, 
and of a deep green colour. The leaves are l;i rge, 
and of a deep green also ; broad at the base^, narrow- 
to the point, and deeply serrated. The flowers are 
small and inconsideral3le, the fruit is a round ball, 
a.s big as a large pea, it stands on a long foot-stalk, 
and is of a deep green colour, and full of small 
brown seeds. All the plant is covered with the 
same sort of prickles as the common nettle, but they 
are shorter and finer ; thev are silverv, ^vhitc at th* 



a44 FAMILY HERBAL. 

tips, and have the same bag of liquor at the base, and 
they sting- very terribly ; more a great deal than the 
common nettle. 

The seeds are the part used ; they are good 
against coughs, shortness of breath, and hoarsenesses ; 
the seeds of the common nettle are commended for 
this purpose, but these arc greatly preferable. The 
best way of giving them is in the manner of tea, 
sweetened with honey. 

Common Nichtshade. Solanum vidgare. 

A WILD plant, that over-runs gardens, and all 
other cultivated places, if not continually weeded out. 
It grows two fee? high ; the stalks are roundish, thick, 
l)iU not very erect or strong, and of a dusky green. 
Tlic loaves are broad and roundish, but th»\y ter- 
vnijiate in a point. They are of a dark green colour, 
and stand on foot stalks. The flowers grow in little 
clusters, ten or a dozen in a buncii ; llioy are white, 
with a yellowish centre, and they are succeeded by 
i^ound black berries. 

The leaves are used fresh, and only externally. 
They are very cooling, and applied bruised to in- 
flammations, scalds, burns, and troublesome erup? 
tions on the skin. 

Deadly Nightstade. Solarium Icthale- 

It may seem strange to mix a poison among me- 
dirincs, l)ut a part of this herb has its uses. This 
is a wild plant of a dul? and dismal aspect. It 
grows five feet high. Tiie stalks are angiilated, 
<Mi(i of a deep green. The leaves are very large. 
bro.id, and flat, and they alst) are of a diili dead 
givt'ii. The Howers stand singlv on long foot- 
stalks, nri:-ing from the bosom of the leaves, and 



FAMILY HERBAL. :245 

they also have the same dismal aspect ; trit y are 
large, hollow, and hans; down. Oa the outside 
they are of a dusky colour, between brown and 
.^reen, and within they are of a very deep purple. 
These are succeeded by berries of the ]>l^-ness of 
cherries, black and shining when ripe, and full of 
a pulpy matter, of a sweetish and mawkish taste. 
The root is Ian^>;. The berries are fa'.dl ; childr^'ii 
have often eat them, and perished by it. The leaves 
externally applied are cooling and softening; ; thev 
are <^ood ao-alnnt the ring"wonn and tetters, and ap,ainst 
hard sweliin^i^'s. They have very great virtue in tliis 
respect, but the [)laiit should be kept out of ttic way 
of children, or never sulTered to grow to fruity as (he 
leaves only are wanted. 

Nut:.ieg Tree. Nux moschaia. 

A TALL, spreatling tree, native only of the 
Marm climates ; the trunk is large, and the bran- 
ches are numerous and irregular ; the bark is of 
a greyish colour, and the wood light and soft. 
The leaves are large, long, and somewhat broad : 
they are not unlike those of the bay tree, but bigger, 
and are of a beautiful green on the upper side, and 
whitish underneath. They stand irregularly, but 
often so nearly opposite, that they seem in pairs^ 
as we see in the leaves of some of our willows. 
The bl(»ssom is of the shape and bigness of that 
of our cherry tree, but its colour is yellow. The 
fruit which succeeds this, is of the bigness of a 
small peach, and not unlike it in the p( iierul form ; 
when cut open there appears fir^f t!\e tleshy coat, 
wliich is a finger thick, an<l of a rou^h ta'^fe. liien 
the mace spread o\ov a woodv siieil, ]n winch ib the 
nutmeg. We often have the \\\><^c iVi;;t uent over 
preserved 



246 FAMiLYHERBAL. 

The nutmeg' is an excellent spice, it strengthens 
the stomachy and as?;ists dig^estion. It will stop 
vomitinii^'s, and is s^ood ag'ainst the colic. Wheu 
roasted before the fire, and mixed with a small quan- 
tit3^ of rhubarbj it is the best of all remedies against 
piirgin-s. 

O. I 

Oak. Quercus, 

A NOBLE and stately tree, native of our coun- 
try, and no where growing* to so great perfection. 
It is very tall, and though irregular in the dispo- 
sition of its branches, Ihat very irregularity has its 
beauty ; the tviuik is very thick ; tl]e branches are 
also thick, and often crooked : the bark is brown and 
rough : the leaves arc large^ oblong, broad, and 
deeply cut in at the edges, and they are of a shining 
given. The flowers art; inron.sideia])!e. The fruit 
is die acorn, well known. Galls are produced upon 
the oak, not as fruit, but from the wounds made by 
an insect. 

Tlic bark of tlie oak is a very powerful astrin- 
gent ; it stops purgings, and overflowings of the 
menses, given in po^vder ; a decoction of it is ex- 
cellent ior the falling down of the uvula, or as it 
is called the falhngdown of the palate of the mouth. 
Whenever a very powerful astringent is required^ 
oak bark demands the i)reference over every thing : 
if it were brought froiu the East Indies, it would be 
lield inestimable. 

Scarlet Oak. Ilex. 

A SHRUB not much regarded or its own ac- 
count, but from the insect called kcrmes, which 



FAMILY HERBAL. '247 

IS found upon it ; and has at sometimes been suppo- 
sed a fruit of it : the shrub thence obtained its 
name of the scarlet oak. It grows only six or 
eig-ht feet high. The branches are tough, and 
covered with a smooth greyish bark. The leaves 
are an inch long, three quarters of an inch broad, 
of a figure approaching to oval, serrated about 
the edges, and a little prickly. The flowers are 
small and inconsiderable ; the fruit is an acorn, like 
that of the common oak, but smaller, standing in 
its cup. The kermes, or scarlet grain, is a small 
round substance of the bigness of a pea, of a fine 
red colour within, and of a purplisli blue without, 
covered with a fine hoary dust, like a bloom upon 
a plum. It is an insect at that time full of young. 
When they intend to preserve it in its own form^ 
they find ways of destnning the principle of life 
within, else the young come forth, and it i^ spoiled. 
When they express tlie juice, they bruise the whole 
grains, and scjueeze it through a hair cloth ; they 
then add an equal weight of fine sugar to it, and 
send it over to us under the name of juice of kermes ; 
this is used in medicine much more than tiie grain 
Itself. 

It is a cordial, good against faintings, and to drive 
out the small pox ; and for women in childbed. It 
supports the spirits, and at the same time promotes 
the necessary discharges. 

Oak of Jerusalem. Botry^, 

A MTTLF, \,\'<\\\\, native of the warmer coun- 
trif's, and kept in our gardens, witii ieuves which 
have been siij^poseti to resemi)le those of the oak 
tree, wlieiKe it got its name, and small yeliowish 
flowers. I'he stalk is a foot and half high, round- 
ish anguiated a litile, or deeply striated, and of a 



S4K FAMILY HERBAL. 

pale ^roc.n ; tlic leaves are of a yellowish grccn, and 
of a rouf^h surface ; they are oblong, somewhat 
broad painted at the ends^ and deeply cut in on the 
sides. The (lowers .stand in abundance of long 
spikes on the tops of the branches ; they are very 
small and inconsiderable. The whole plant has a 
pleasant smell, particularly the young shoots, which 
are to bear the flowers. 

The fresh plant is to be used, and it is best taken 
in the manner of tea, or in infusion. It is good in 
asthmas, h()Hrsenes.«?, and coughs, and it promotes the 
menses and discharges after delivery. 

Olive Tree. Olea. 

A T.ARt.K tree, native of the warmer parts of 
Europe and the East. The trunk is thick and 
rough. The branches are numerous, and stand ir- 
remdnrly ; their bark is grey and smooth. The 
leaves are lorigi.sh and broad, and of a deep green on 
the upper side, and whitish undernealh, and of a firm 
texture ; the flowers arc small and yellow ; the fruit 
is of the bigness of a small plum, but of longer shape^ 
and lias a \(M*y large stone within. 
I The oil is (he only produce of this tree used in 
medicine, it is pressed out of the fruit, and is excel- 
lent in disorders of the lungs, and against colics, and 
stoppages of urine. But in the latter cases the oil 
of sweet almonds fresh pressed is |)refcrable, and for 
the first linseed oil ; so that oil of olives, or as it called 
sallad oil is seldom used in medicine, unless these 
others cannot be had. 

O.NioN. Cfjm. 

\ COMMON ])ln!it in our gardnis. known at 
S!;^ht bv ii.s hoji'ivv lunnl-.ir iv,>\t'^. 'I grows twa 



FAMILY HERBAL. 249 

feet and a half high. Tlie leaves are long", round- 
oii, of the thickness of a man's finger, and hollow. 
The stalk is round also, and has at the top a round 
cluster of little flowers, these are of a mixed purplisii 
and greenish colour ; and of a strong smelly as has 
the whole plant. 

The iY)ot is the part used ; it is ronndish, and com- 
posed of a great multitude of coats laid one over 
another. A syrup made of the juice of onions and 
honey, is excellent for an asthma. 

Opoponax Plant. Opoponax. 

A LARGE and robust plant, of which we have 
but imperfect descriptions : it is a native of the East, 
and has not been brought into Europe. It is said 
to be eleven or twelve feet liigh : the stalk is round, 
thick, and hollow. The leaves very large, and each 
composed of a vast number of smaller set upon a di- 
vided stalk. The flowers we are informed stand in 
very large round clusters at the tops of the stalks, 
and that the seeds are broad, brown, and of a stron«j 
smell ; striated on tlie surface and (lattish. The 
root is said to be long and large, and full of an acrid 
and milky juice. 

>Ve u'^e a kind of resin, winch is said to be col- 
lected from this root, after it has been wounded 
to make it flow in sufliicient quantity ; but the 
whole account comes to us very imperfect, and 
upon no very sound authority ; however it seems 
probable. 

The resin is brownish or yellowislij and in small 
pieces. It is an excellent medicine against ncrv- 
oui? complaints ; and particularly against disorders 
of the head. It works by urine and promotes 
the menses ; and has a tendency to operate, though 
very gently,, by stool. It is not so much used aft 

K k 



2a0 FxViMlLY HERBAL. 

it deserves to be. I have experienced excellent ef* 
fects from it. 

Orange Tuee. Auraniia malus. 

A BEAT TiFUL aiul Valuable tree, native of Spain^ 
Italy, aiul the East. It ^rows to a considerable 
))ii;ne.-s, aiuI its br^rirlieie spread irreg-ularly. The 
bark cf (Ik; trnrik is brown and rou^h, that of 
the bnji.'ces is smooth and gTe\jsh. The leaves arc 
Iwv'^Q, and very beautiful ; they are oblonj^, and 
mcuieniiL^ly broad, vnid the foot stalk has an edg'e 
of a leafy nuitter on each side, p,'i\ ing- it a heart- 
like appearance. The flo^vers are uhite^ large, 
fraivrant, and verv beautiful. The 'fruit is enough 
known. 

The sour, or Seville orani;"e, is the kind used in 
medicine, but the peel of this more than the juice 
or pnl{)y part. A pleasant s\ rup is made of Seville 
orang'c juice, })y mcliiin'; \\\ it twice its weight 
of liic finest sugar : and a s^yrup equally pleasant, 
iiioug'h of another kind, is made of an infusion of 
the })lc1 : but the great use (»f the peel is in tinc- 
ture, or infusion as a stomachic. It is for this pur- 
pose to ])e pared oif very thin, only the yellow part 
being useful, and to l>e put into brandy or wine, 
or to have boiling water poured on it fresh or dry. 
if a lillle irentian and a few cardamon seeds be 
added to this tnuture or inlusion, it is as good a 
bitter as can be made : it prevents sickness of the 
stomach and vomitings, and is e.Mcellent to amend the 
appetite, 

OnriNK. TtUplniin. 

A VEuv beautiful wild plant, of a foot hig^h 
•r more, with fresh green leave?, and tuff^ of 











'/, ll,,u\,'J 







^ i 1,1 




FAMILY IIERBAl.. 251 

hrigbt rod flowers ; common in cur hcdgc'^ in 
autumn in many parts of England. The stallc is 
iound and fleshy ; the leaves arc ohloiig-, broad^ 
and indented round the edg-es^ and tlieir colour is 
a bluish green. The flowers are small^ but they 
are very beautiful ; the root is v.iiiie and thick. 
The ^Yhole plant has a llcs'iy appearariJ^e, and it 
win grow out of the ground^ a long tir.ic, taking its 
nourishment from the air. 

The juice of orpine is good against the bloody flux : 
the best way of giving it is made into a thin syrup, 
with the finest sugar^ and with the addition of some 
cinnamon. 

OxEVE. Buph thalmum. 

A VERY beautiful wild plant, common in the 
North of' England, but not in other parts of the 
kingdom. It grows a foot and a half high. The 
stalk is round, firm, and branched ; tlie leaves arc 
numerous ; they are divided each into a multitude 
of fine segments, so that at a distance they somewhat 
resemble the loaves of yarrov/, but they are whitish. 
The flowers are large and yellow ; they somevr hat re- 
semble a marigold in form, and they stand at the tops 
of the brar-ches. 

The fresh herb is rr-ed ; , they boil it in ale, and 
give it as a remedy for l!ie jaund'uA' : it \n oiks by 
urine. 



Palma Cnr.isTf. lUcimc^. 

A roiir.iGN plant, kc]}i in onr gardens more 
for iis beauty than use. The stem is tiiirk, and 
looks woody toward ib(^ l>o((oin. It ;:.;ro\',s sii 



252 FAMILY HERBAL 

feet high, and on the upper part is covered with 
a sort of mealy powder, of a bluish colour. The 
leaves are larg'e, and very beautiful. Tiiey arc 
somewhat like those of the vine, but they are di- 
vided deeply into seven or more parts, which are 
also sharply serrated at the edges, and they stand 
upon long foot stalks, which are not inserted at 
the edge, but in the middle of the leaf. The llow- 
ers are small : they grow in bunches toward the top 
of the plant. The seeds grow upon the trunk of 
the plant in different places : three are contained in 
basks, and they have over them severally a hard 
shell. 

The kernels of these seeds are the part used, but 
they are very little regarded at present. There 
used to be three or four kinds of them kept by 
the druggists, under ditVerent names, but nobody 
now miiuis them : (hey are very violent in their 
<»j)crali(>n, which is both upwards and downwards, 
aud have been given in dropsies and rheumatisms. 

Oily Palm Tki^e. Palma oleosa. 

A VERY beautiful tree, native of Africa and 
America, It irrows moderatclv hii^h. The trunk 
is naked all the way to the toi>, where the leaves 
grow in va?t qir.mtities : they are long and nar- 
row, and the footstalks on which they stand are 
pricklv. The Jlouers are small and mossy. The 
fruit is of the bigness of a plumb, oblong, and 
llattish, and is covered over with a tough ami hhrous 
coat. From this I'fuit the natives express what they 
<a!l palm oil : it is a substance of the consistence 
of butter, and of a })leasant, though very little 
taste. 

'i'!ie (»il is the oidy produce of the tree used : 
Thi^y eat it upon the spot, but v.e apply it cxter- 



FAMILY HERBAL. 253 

nally agninst cramps, strains, pains in the limbs, 
and weaknesses : but we seldom meet with it fresh 
enou<^h, to be fit for use ; and at present, it has 
<^iven place to the famous opodeldoc, and to several 
other thini^s, which have the same qualities in a 
much greater degree. 

Panic. Panicum. 

A VERY singular and pretty plant of the grass 
kind, cultivated in some parts of Europe. The 
stalk is very thick and firm, round, jointed, and 
a yard high. The leaves are grassy, but they are 
large and broad. The flowers and seeds are con- 
tained in a long ear, which is broad and flat ; it is 
composed of several smaller ears, arranged on the 
two sides of the stalk ; these spikes are hairy. The 
seed is round, and is much like niiilet, only 
smaller. 

The seed is the only part used. It is good 
against sharp purgings, bloody fluxes, and spitting' 
of blood. 

Pareira Brava. Parcira hrava. 

A CLIMBING shrub of South America, the 
root of which has lately been introduced into 
medicine It grows to twelve or fourteen feet in 
height, if there be trees or bushes to support it, else 
it lies upon the ground, and is shorter. The stalks 
are woody, light, and covered \\\{\\ a rough bark, 
which is continually coining off in small flakes. The 
leaves are large and broad. The flowers are small, 
and of a greenish colour ; and the berrief, are round, 
and when ripe, black. 'I'he root is large, woody, 
and very long and creepin^^ 



254 FAMILY HERBAL. 

The root is used. It is of a brownish colour^ 
rough on the surface, and woody, but loose in its 
texture. It is to be given in infusion. It is an 
excellent medicine in the gravel, and in suppres- 
sions of urine, as also in the quinzy, and in pleu- 
risies, and peripneumonies. It works the most 
powerfully, and the most suddenly, by urine of 
any medicine : and is so excellent in forcing away 
gravel and small stones, that some have pretended 
it a remedy for the stone, and said it would dissolve 
and break it. This is going too far ; no medicine 
has been found that has that effect, nor can it be 
supposed that any can. Great good has been 
done by those medicines which the parliament pur- 
chas;cd of IMrs. Stephens, more than perhaps, by any 
other whatsoever, in this terrible complaint ; but they 
never dissolved a large and hard stone. Indeed there 
needs no more to be assured of this, than to examine 
one of tliose stoncn ; it will not be supposed, any 
thing that the bladder can bear, \\'\\\ be able to dissolve 
so firm and i;olid a substance. 

Parsly. Fetroselinum. 

A w.wi cniwrnon plant in our gardens, useful in 
the kitclien, and in medicine. It growtf to t\vo feet 
in height. The leaves are composed of m-my small 
parts : tlicy are divided into tiiree, and then into a 
multitude of sub-divisions : they are of a bright 
green, and indented. The stalks are round, angu- 
lated, or deeply striated, slender, npriglit, and 
branched. The ilowers are small and white ; and 
they stand in large tnfts at tlie tops of the branches. 
The seeds are r<Mmdish and striated. The root is 
long and while. 

The roofs arc the part used in raedicino A 



FAMILY HERBAL S5ii 

strong decoction of them is good ag^ainst the jaundice. 
It operates povverfuKy by nrinc, and opens ob- 
structions, 

Parsly Piert. Pcrcicier, 

A LITTLE wild plant, common among our corn, 
and in other dry places, v.jth nmall pale leaves, 
and hairy drooping stalks. It does not grow to 
more than three or four inches in length, and seldom 
stands well upriglit. The stalks are round and 
whitish. The leaves stand irregularly : they are 
narrow at the base, and broad at the end, where 
they are divided into three rounded parts. The 
flowers are very small : they grow in clusters at tl^c 
joints, and are of a greenish colour. The seed is 
small and round. The root is fibrous. 

The whole plant 13 used ; and it is best fresh. 
An infusion of it is very povvcrful against the 
gravel. It operates violently, but safely, by urine, 
and it opens cbstrnctions of tlie liver ; whence 
it is good also in the jaundice. Tliere is an opinion 
in many places, cf ;t.s having a power of dissolv- 
ing the stone \i\ the bladder, but iiiis is ittie : there 
is, however, a g.'cnt dc?] rf k';<x)d to be done in 
nephritic cases, by medicices '.-hich have not tins 
power. 

Macedon'l\n P.vr'^ly. }'eiroscl'7nun JMacedomcum. 

A PLANT kept in son-ie of our gardens. It is 
two feet high The sudk is -lender, bnuiched, 
and hairy. The leaves ;irc cjnnposed of man}' 
parts, and those are small awd rounded: those on 
the upper part of tlie stalk are more finely divided. 
The flowers are small and white, like those of com- 
mon parsly ; and they stand like thcni, in clusters 



25G FAMILY HERBAL. 

on the tops of the stalks. The seeds are small, some* 
uhat hairy, and of a dusky colour. 

I'he seed is used ; and it is best g'iven in pow- 
der. It operates powerfully by urine, and it is 
good against stoppages of the menses, and in the 
gravel and colics, arising from that cause. It 
is also recommended against the dropsy and jaun- 
dice. 

AYiLD Parsnep. Pastinaca sylvestris. 

A "WILD plant, conmion about our road sides. 
It is three feet high. The stalk is straight, up- 
rig'ht, round, striated, and yellowish. The leaves 
are composed of many broad divisions, and resem- 
ble those of the garden parsnep, but they are smaller. 
The ilowers are little and yellow : they grow at the 
tops of the stalks, in large, rounded tufts, and the 
seeds are flat, and of an oval figure. The root is 
long, white, and well tasted. 

The root is to be used. A strong decoction of 
it works by urine, and opens all obstructions. It is 
good against (he gravel and the jaundice, and will 
bring down the menses. 

Pa VAN A Sniiun. Pavana 

A sniii nnv ])lant of the East Indies, of a 
beautiful, as well as singular aspect. It is six or 
seven feci high. The stem is woody, firm, and 
naked almost to the top. The leaves grow upon 
long foot stalks, and they all rise nearly together, 
at the np])er part of the stem : they are large, of 
a rounded figure, and divided at the edges pretty 
deeply into several parts : their colour is a deep 
green. ^V\\q. Ilowers are small, and of a greenish 
colour. The fruit is of tb.e bigne^^; of a ba7.1« 



FAMILY HERBAL. 257 

nut. The wood is not very firm, and when cut, 
yields a inilkv juice, of a very disagreeable siiiell. 

The wood and the seeds are used; and they 
have bt th Hie same violent operation by vomit and 
stool ; but the wood given in infusion, and in a 
modor.ite dose, fnly purges, and that, thou^li brisk- 
Iv, without any uanger. It is good in dropsies, 
and in other stubborn disorders : and it is excel- 
lent aga;- ;t rheumatic pains. Some recommend 
it as a specific against the sciatica. The seeds are 
what yre called, grai;a t'glia ; but though much 
spnk^n of bv some v. liters, they are at this time 
very little used in the shops. 

The Pe-^lCH Tree. Persica malus. 

A TREE ver - frequent against our garden walls. 
The trunk is (overed with a brown oark. The 
branches grr.w irregularly. The leaves are beauti- 
ful : they are long, narrow, and e!ec;antly serrated 
at the edges. The blossoms are large, and of a 
pale red. The fruit is too well known (o need 
much description : it consists of a soff pnlpy mat- 
ter, covered bv a liairy skin, and inclosing a hard 
stone, in which is a kernel of a pleasant hitter taste. 

The flowers are to be used. A pint of water 
is to he poured boiling hot on a pound weiglit of 
peach blossoms ; when it has stood four and twenty 
hours, it is to be poured off, through a sieve, with- 
out squeezing, and two pounds of loaf sugar is 
lobe dissolved in it, over the fire : this makes an 
excellent syrup for children. It purges gently, 
and sometimes will makethom pukea little. They 
have so frequent occasion for this, that people 
who have children, have continual use for it. 

lI 



258 FAMILY HERBAL. 

Pellitory of the Wall. Parietarla. * 

A WILD plant frequent on old walls, with wtiik 
■branches, and pale green leaves. It grows a font 
high, but seldom altogether erect. The stalki^ 
are round, tender, a little hairy, jointed, and ottei- 
purplish. The leaves stand irregularly on them, 
and are an iwch long, broad in the middle, and 
smaller at each end. The flowers stand close upon 
the stalks, and are small and inconsiderable, of 
a whitish green colour whea^ open, but reddish in 
the bud. 

The whole plant is used, and it is best frosh. 
An infusion of it works well by urine. It is very 
serviceable in the jaundice, and is often found a 
present remedy in fits of the gravel, the infusion 
being taken largely. 

Pellitory of Spain. Pi/reihrum. 

A VERY pretty little plant kept in our gardens 
It is eight inches high. The stalk is round iiiid 
thick. The leaves are very finely divided, so that 
they resemble those of the camomile, but they are 
\ii' a pale green, thick, and fleshy, and the stalk is 
purple. The flowers stand at the tops of the 
branches, and are very pretty : they are of the shape 
and size of the great daisy or ox-eye, white at the 
fclge:s, yellow in the middle, and red on the back or 
underside. The root is long, and somewhat thick, 
©fa very hot taste. 

The root is used : we have it at the druggists. 
Its gre.it acridness fills the mouth with rheum on 
chewing, and it is good agivinst the tooth-ach. It 
is also good to be put into the mouth in palsies, for 
it will soiGetimcj alone, by its stimulation, reetor* 
i'*c vcice^ 



FAMILY HERBAL. 259 

PrNNr-RovAL, PuU;^iuin, 

A WILD plant, crcepine; about on pjarsliv 
places, with little leaves, and tufts of red flowers at 
the joints. Tiie stalks are a foot long, round, a'id 
often of a reddish colour. The leaves are jtnail, 
broaf^j and pointed at the ends, and of a pale green 
colour. The flowers stand round the joints in thick 
clusters : they are like those of mint, and of a 
pale red, and \\\q cups in which they stand are green, 
and a little hairy. The whole plant has a strong 
penetrating smell, and an acrid but not disagreeable 
taste. 

The whole plant is used, fresh or driod ; but 
that which grows wild, is much stronger than the 
larger kmd, which is cultivated in gardens. The 
finiple water is the best way of taking it, tbougli 
i! will do very well in infusion, or by way of tea. 
it is excellent against stoppages of the menses. 

Black Pepper. Piyer nigrum, 

AN eastern plant, of a very singular kind. It 
^rows six or eight (cei in length, but the stalks are 
not able to support themselves upright : they are 
ronnd, green, jointed, and thick, and when they 
(rail upon the ground, roots are sent forth from these 
joints. The leaves are large, of an oval figure, 
of a lirm substance, and ribbed highlj : they staad 
on short pedicles, one at each joint. The flowers 
a re sm;'Jl and inconsiderable : they grow to the 
^ialk. The fruit succeeds, which is what we call 
ppper: they hang upon a long stalk, iwcTity or 
lorty together : they are green at tirj-t, but wlien 
J!!)e they ^ire red : tliev ^row black and wrinkled 
it drying. The largest £ind least wrinkled ou the 
coai, arc the beat gia:iig. 



260 FAMILY HERBAL, 

TIic fruitis used^ and it is cxct^llent against all 
coldnesses and crudities upon t!u stowach. It 
^ives appetite iu these cases, anci assists digestion. 
It is also good against dizzinesses of the head, and 
against obstructions of the liver and spleen, and 
against colics. We are apt to neglect things as 
medicines, that we take wih food ; hut there i^ 
hardly a more powerful sin pie t^f its kind thaa 
pepper, when given singly, aiid on an empty stQ- 
raach. 

White Pepper. Piper Album. 

THE common white pepper we meet with, is 
made from the black, by soking it in sea water till 
it swells, and the dark waisikled coat falls off; 
but this though the common, is not the true white 
pepper : there is another kind, which is natural, and 
has 110 assistarjce from art. The v^hite pepper plant, 
has round, thick, and whitish stalks: they lie upon 
the ground, and have largejoiiits : at each joint stands 
a single leaf, which is long, and narrow, sharp at 
the eiid, and ribbed. The flowers grow on little 
stalks, hanging down from the joints : they are 
small and \ellow. The fruit is round ; at first 
green, and when ripe white, which is gathered and 
dried for use. 

This fruit is used. The common white pepper 
is milder than the black ; that is, it is black pepper, 
which has lost a part of its virtue : this pos-sesses all 
the qualities of the other, and yet it has not so sharp 
9- taste. 

T^ie Long Pepper Plant. Piper Jojigum. 

A,N American plant, in some degree resembling 
the other peppers in its general growth, but noi 



FAMILY HERBAL. 261 

at all in its fruit. The stalk is round, tliiclv;, joint- 
ed, and of a deep green colour : it is not able to 
support itself, but (fmbs upon bushes. The 
leasts arelo.)^^ and nairow : they stand one at each 
joi:;t, upon iopg fvct stalks. The flo-vvers gjow 
upon the outside f * the fruit : lliey are small and 
iriCOiisid:.'rable. T'le fruit, which is what we call 
loDg ptpper, is an ire' uiid a half h)ng:, and as thick 
as a lar^e quill, marked with spiral lices. and di- 
yided into cells w itliiu:, in each of which is a sin- 
gle s'-ed. 

Tiii.s f-as the tame virtues with the common black, 
pi^p-pcr, but in a less degree ; it is not so liot and 
acrid, and tht-refore will be borne upon the sto- 
mach wbeu tb.at cannot. It is excellent to assist 
digestion, aiid prevent colics. 

The Jamaica Pepper Tree, Piper Jamaicense. 

AN American tree, in all respects different from 
the ])iai)ts which produce the other kinds of pep- 
per, as is also the fruit altogether different. It 
should i,ot be called pepper : the round shape of 
it was (be only thing that'led people to giveit such 
a name. The Jamaica pepper tree is large and 
beautiful. The trr.nk is covered with a smooth 
brown bark. Tlie branches are numerous ; and 
they are well covered with leaves. The tree is 
as big and high as our pear trees. The leaves 
are oblong and broad, of a shining green colour: 
they grow in pairs, and they stand on long pedicles. 
The flowers grow only at the extremities of the 
branches: tb.evstanda great many together, and 
are small. The fruit which succeeds is a berry, 
^xpvi^ at first, and afterwards becoming of a red"^ 
(;i<^!i brown, and in the end, black.' Thev are, 
vvaen ri:)e, full of a pulpy matter, surrounding 



«ca FAMILY HERKAL. 

the seeds ; hut they a,re dried when unripe for 
<xir use. 

The fruit, thus gathered and dried in the sun, 
fs what we call Jamaica pepper, piamenta, or 
allspice. It is an excellent spice: it streugthpns 
the stomach, and is good against the colic. The 
best way to take it is in powder, mixed with a 
little sugar. It will prevent vomiting, and sick- 
ness after meals, and is one of the best known rC"» 
medics for habitual colics. 

Guinea Pepper. Capsicum. 

A COMMON plant in our gardens, distinguish- 
ed by its large scarlet pods. It grows a foot and 
a half high. The stalk is angulated, thick, and 
green, tolerably erect, and branched. The leaves 
stand irregularly, and are longish, pretty broad, 
and of a deep green colour. The flowers are 
moderately large and white, with a yellow head 
in the middle : they grow at the divisions of the 
branches. The fruit follows, and is an inch an(ji 
a half long, an inch thick, and biggest at the base, 
whence it grows smaller to the point: the colour 
is a fine red, and its surface is so smooth, that it 
looks like polished coral : it is a skin containing 
a quantity of seeds. 

The fruit is the part used. Held in the mrtutl^^ 
it cures the tooth-ach ; for its heat and acrimony 
arc greater than in pellitory of Spain, and it fills 
the mouth with water. Applied externally, bruis- 
ed and mixed with honey and crumbled bread 
it is good for a quinsy . 

PEBiwiNk.LE. Tljica pcrvinca. 

A VERY pretty crerping plant, wild in some 



FAMILY HERBAL. ^^-^ 

places, but kept in gardens also. The stalks are 
namerous, and a foot or more in length, but they 
do not stand upright : they are round, green, 
and tough, and generally trail upon the ground. 
The leaves are oblong, broad of a ihining green 
colour, smooth on the surface and placed two 
at each joint. The flowers are large and blue : 
they are bell-fashioned, and stand on long foot 
stalks : the fruit succeeding. Each is composed 
of two longish pods ; each containing several 
seeds. 

The whole plant is used fresh. It is to be boil- 
ed in water, and the decoction dranlc with a little 
red wine in it. It stops the overflowing of the 
meDses, and the bleeding of the piles. 

Spelt, or St. Peter's Corn. Zen, 

A PLANT of the corn kind, resembling barley ; 
sown in some parts of Europe, but not mufh 
known in England. It grow.<« a foot and a hair 
high. The stalk is round, hollow, jointed, and 
green ; the leaves are grassy, but broad. At the 
tops of the stalk stands an ear like that of barley, 
but smaller and thinner, though with long beards ; 
the grain is not unlike barley in shape, or between 
that and wheat, only much smaller than either. 

The seed or grain is the part, used ; it is supposed 
to be strengthening and in some degree astringent, 
but we know very little of its qualities, nor are 
they considerable enough to encourage us to in* 
quire after them. 

Pimpernel. Aii^gaUis Jlore riilro, 

A PRETTY little plant common in corn fields 
and garden borders. The stalks are square, smooth, 
green, but uot very upright : they are five or six. 



264 FAMILY HERBAL. 

inches loni^. The leaves stand two at each joint, 
and they are of an oblong figure, considerably 
broad in the middle, and pointed at the end. The 
liowers stand snig-ly on long sleisder foot-stalks ; 
they are small, but of a most bright scarlet colour. 

The whole plant is used, and the best method 
of giving' ii, is in an isifusion, ma(h^ by pouring boil- 
ing water upon it fresh gathered : this is an excel- 
lent drink in fevers; it promotes sAveat, and t'r.rows 
out the small pox, measles, or any oilur crnptinns: 
the dried leaves may be given in powder or a tea 
made of thewholedriedplant, butnothing is so well 
as the infusion of it fresh, those who have not seen 
it tried this way do not know how valuable a me- 
dicine it is. 

There is another kind of pimpernel, perfectly 
like this, but that the flowers are blue ; this is cal- 
led the female, and the other the male pimpernel, 
but the red flowered kind has most virtue. 

The Pine Tree. Pinus. 

A LARGE and beautiful tree, native of Italy, 
but kept in our gardens. We have a wild kind of 
pine in the North, called Scotch fir, but it is not 
the same tree. The trunk of the true pine is cover- 
ed with a rough brown bark, the branches with a 
smoother, and more reddish. The leaves are long 
and slender, and they grow always two from the 
same base, or out of the same sheath, thev arc <if 
ii bluish green colour, and are a little hollowed on 
the inside : the flowers are small and iiu'onsiderable ; 
tliey stand in a kind of tufts on the branches : 
the fruit are cones of a brown colour, large, long, 
and blunt at the top. These contain between the 
scales certain vliite kernels of a sweet taste, and 
covered with a tliio shell. 

These kernels are tnc part used, and they are ex- 



FAMILY HERBAL; 265 

reWe it ill cons'jinpiions, and after long illnes", given 
bv \v:iv of it'slorative. Am emulsion may be made 
by b .uiiig the.'n up wilh barley water, and this will 
be ot the sa;ne service with common emulsions tec 
heat, of uriiie. 

The Wild Pine Tree. Finns syhestris, 

A TREE native of many parts of Germany, 
vcrv mucli resembling what is called the manured 
pine, or simply the pine before described. It grows 
to he a large and tall tree ; I he trunk is covered 
with a rough brown bark, that of the branches is 
paler and smoother. The leaves are very narrow, 
and short ; they grow two out of a case or husk, as 
in the otlier, and are of a bluish greeKi colour. 
They ditTer principally in being shorter. TiiO 
flowers are yellowish, and like the others very small 
and iuGonsiderable, the cones are small, brown, and 
hard, and sharp at the tops, they contain ker;ie!s in 
their sliells, among the scales as the other ; but 
thev are smaller. 

The kernels have the same virtues a'', those of the 
other pines, but being little, they are not regarded. 
The resin which flows from this tree, either natural- 
ly, or when it is cut t^or that {purpose, it- what we 
''y>\\\ common turpentine. It is a thick su'i)si.-ince, 
like honeVj of a brownish colour^ and \.'iy sirong 
and disagreeable smell. 

^\ hen this turpentine has been distilled to make 
oil of turpentine, the resin whicl: remains, is what 
we call connnou resin ; if they put out the fire 
in time, it is vellow resin ; if they continue '\l 
lonii-cr, it is black rei>in. They oficn boil tb.e tur- 
peiiiii.e in water without distilling it for tlie com- 
mon resin; and when they take it out half boiled 
for this purpose : it is what we call Burgundy 



2G0 I VMUA IIERIUL. 

pitch. And tliG whitish rcsiii wliich is called thuSj 
or frankincense, and is a thing- qaite dift'erent from 
olibanurn, or the tine incense, is the natural resin 
tlovving from the branches of this tree, and harden^ 
ing into drops upon them, li docs not differ much 
from the common turpentine in its nature, but is 
lessofi'ensive in smell. 

The several kinds of pitch, tar, and resin, are 
principally used in plaisters and ointments. The 
turpentine produced from this tree also, and cal- 
led common turpentine, is principally used in the 
same manner, the finer turpentines being given 
inwardly. These are procured from the turpen- 
tine tree, the larch tree, and the silver fir. The 
yellow resin and the black are sometimes ta-ken 
inwardly in pills, and they are very good against 
the whit( s, and the runnings after gonorriia^as ; 
but for this p.urpose it is better to boil some bet- 
ter sort of turpentnie to the consistence and give it, 

PiONy. Pa:orJa. 

A FLOV/EP-, common in our gardens, but of 
great use as ■well as ornament. The common 
double piopy is not the kind usfd in medicine ; 
Jl-is ie called llie female piony ; the single flowered 
one called tlio nude piony, is the right kind. This 
grows two or three feet hli^h. The stalk is round, 
striated, u'ld branched : tlic leaves are of a deep 
iVieea, and eacii composed of several others : 
»!ie flowers are very large, and of a deep purple^ 
V. illi a gre; n luad in the middle. AVhen they are 
decayed, tliis head swells out into two or more 
-'( d vess< IS, wlich are whitish arid hairy on the 
uiifsidf, snul rr;i within, and full of black seeds, 
i i.e rcti is c{)i:)pr/;.rd of a number of longish or 
ji uiuli^i. lump., eoniiected by fibres to the maia 



FAMILY HI^RBAL. 267 

source of the stalk ; ihcse are browa on the out- 
s'uU\ and whitish within. 

The roots are used ; an infusion of them pro- 
motes tlie menses. The powder of tliem dried is 
good against hysteric and nervo\]s comphiints. It 
is particularly recommended against the falling 
sickness. 



T 1] c Pi s T A c II I A T R E E . Fist a cJi la. 

A TREE common in the East. The trunk is 
covered with a brown rough bark^ the branches 
grow irregularly, and their bark is reddish. The 
leaves are each composed of several pairs of small 
ones ; these are oblong, broad, and of a beautiful 
green colour, and ilnn texture. The flowers grow 
in tufts ; they are wiiitc and small ; tlie fruit which 
succeeds is what we call the pistachia nut ; it is 
as ])ig as a filbert, but long and sharp-pointed, and 
it is covered with a tough w rinkled bark. The 
shell with.in this is svoody and tough, but it easily 
enough divides into two parts, and the kernel with- 
in is of a greenish colour, but covered svith a red 
skin. It ie of a sweet taste. 

The fruit is eaten, but it mai'- he considered as 
a medicine ; it opens obstructions of the liver, 
and it works bv urine. It is an excellent restora- 
live to be given to people wasted by consumptions^ 
or other long and tedious illnesses. 

Pitch Tree, Picea. 

A TREE of the fir kind, and commonly called 
the red tii. It is a tall tree of regular growth ; 
the bark of the trunk is of a reddish brown, and 
it is paler on the branches; the leaves are verv 
numerous, short, narrow., and of a strong green : 



2QS FAMILY HERJIAL. 

Ihey siand very iliick^ and are sharp, or almost 
pricklj at the extremities. The flowers are vel- 
lovvisli and inconsiderable ; and the fruit is a long 
and large cone, which hangs down ; whereas that 
of the true fir tree, or the yevv-leavcd fir, stands 
upright. 

The tops of the branches and vourg shoots are 
used : thev abound with a resin of the turpentine 
kind. They are best given in decoction, or brew- 
ed with beer. They are good against the rheu- 
matism and scurvy ; they work by urine, and heal 
ulcers of tiie urinary parts. 

Pitch and tar are produced from the wood' of 
this tree, tlic tar sweats out of the wood in burn- 
ing, and the pitch is only tar boiled to that consis- 
tence. To obiain the tar, they pile up great heaps 
of the wood, and set fire to them at top, and the 
tar sweats oul of the ends of the lower, and is 
catclied as it rijns from them. 

Burgundv piti.!) is made of the resin of the wild 
j)ine tree, wiiich is connnon turpentine boiled in 
water to ;i certain consistence, if they boil it longer, 
it would be resin, for the common resin is only this 
(urpentine boiled to a hardness. 

The Ammoniacum Plant. Annnoniacum. 

A TALL plant, native of the East, and very im- 
perfectly described to us. "^^'hat we hear of it is. 
(hat it grows on the sides of hills, and is five or six 
iivci high ; the stalk is hollow and sfrialed, and 
painted \\\\\\ various colours like that of our hem- 
loc. 'I'lie flowers, we are told, are small and white, 
and sia.id in gre.it round clusters at the tops of the 
stalks, l!i(; leaves nre very large and composed of a 
viHiltitude of small divisions : one circumstance wc 
can add from our own knowledge (o this description^ 



FATJILY HERHAL: 2Gy 

and it gives g- eat proof of the authenticity of the 
rest ; this is, tliat the seeds are broad, flat,, striated, 
and have a folianous rim, as tliose of dili. We 
could know bv ti:' ;c widch are found very fre- 
quefitly anions; ilie i];um, that it was a plant of this 
kind which produced it : so that there is e:reat pro- 
bability thiit the rest of tlie description, which has 
been I'-iven u:-, by t!io-e who did not know we had 
this conhi'niation at l:ome, is true. These seeds 
often ^\;>p<'ar verr fair iind sound. I have caused a 
great riuuirMr of them to be sown, but they have 
never grown. Though one of the sagapennai seeds 
grew up a little when sown among them : it would 
bcvYorth while to repeat the experimentj for some 
times it might succeed. 

Vr e use a gum or rather gum resin, for it is of 
a mixed nature between botl], which is pr^^cuied 
from tlii-; plant, but from what part of it, or ia 
what maimer we arcnot informed ; it is whitish, of 
an acrid taste, with some bitterness, and is an ex- 
cellent medicine. It is superior to all otlicr drugs 
in an asthma, and is good to promote the menses, 
and to open obstructions of all kinds. The best 
wav of giving it is dissolved in hyssop water. 
Ic makes a milky solution. It is used externally 
also i!) plaisters for hard swellings, and pains ia 
the joints. 

Broad Leaved Plantain. Plantago major, 

A COMMON plant by our way-sides, with 
broad short leave^i, and long slender spikes of brown 
.^t'edj. The leaves rise all from the root, for 
there are none upon the stalk. Tliey are of a somc- 
wfiaf oval (Igure, and irregularly indented at the 
edges, sonjetimes scarce at all. Thev have several 
larir<: ribs, but these do not grow side-ways froa:j 



270 FAMILY HERBAL, 

the middle one, but all run length-ways, like tliat 
from the base of the leaf toward the point. The 
stalks grow a foot high, their lower half is naked, 
and their upper part thick set, first with small 
and inconsiderable ilowers, of a greenish white 
colour, and afterwards with seeds which are brown 
and small. 

This is one of those common plants, which have 
so much virtue, that nature seems to have made 
them common for universal benefit. The wliole 
plant is to be used, and it is best fresh. A dc-T 
coction of it in water is excellent against overflow- 
ings of the menses, violent purgings with bloody 
stools and vomiting of blood, the bleeding of the 
piles, ar.d all other such disorders. The seeds 
beaten to a powder, are good against the whites. 

There is a broad leaved plantain with short flow- 
cry spikes, and hairy leaves, this has full as much 
virtue as the kind already described: the narrow 
leaved plantain has less, but of the same kind, 

Plowman's SpiiiENARO. Baccliaris moiispelicnsium, 

{ 
A TALL robust wild plant with broad rou^' 

leaves, and numerous smaU yellowish flowc 

frequent by road-sides, and in dry pastures, 1 

plant grows three feet high. The stalks are rou 

thick, upright, arid a little hairy. The leaves 

hirgc, broad from the root, and narrower on 

vtalk ; they are blunt at the points, and a little 

dented at the edges, Tlu; flowers grow on ti. 

tops of the branches, sproading out into a large 

head from a single stem ; they are little and yellow : 

5 he seeds have down fixed to them. The root is 

brown and woody ; the whole plant has a fragrant 

ami aromatic smell, 

TI.^^ ieavrs and tops given in decoction, are goed 



FAMILY HERBAL. ^71 

ar;i'"nsl imvarJ bleedings. The root^ dried luul 
powdered, is a remedy for purgingSj and is good 
agaiii-t the whites. 

PoLEYMouNTAiN. PoUum iiiontanum. 

A PRETTY plant, native of the warmer parfg 
of Europe, a.iu\ kept in our gardens. It is ten in- 
ches high. The stalks are square and whitish : 
the leaves arc oblong and narrow, of a white colour, 
and woolly surface ; they stand two at a joint, and 
they arc indented at the edges. The flowers are 
small and white. They grow in a kind of woolly 
tufts at the tops of the branches. 

The whole plant is used ; it is best dried; given 
in infusion, it pioiiiotes the menses, and removes 
obstruciions of the liver, hence it is recommended 
greatly in (lie jaundice. It operates by urine. 

Candy PoLrvMorNTAiN. Podium crciicum. 

A LITTLE plant of n \vo(<l}y 'appearance, native 

"the Grecian Islajj.-l;, and kept iii some ii'ardens. 

■^rows but about six inches high. The stalks 

square, white, weak, and seldom upright. 

leaves stand two at each iinnt : they are nar- 

oblong, and not at ail i.-identcd at the 

s. Thev are of a white woolly :i^-}cct, and of 

asai'.t smell, Tiie (lowers aresr.iall '.xivl white, 

they grow in ivSiv. vA. the tops of the stalks: 

.r cups are very white. 

The whole plant is to be \\t>qA dried. It ope- 
rates very powerfnllv by urine, and is good against 
all hysteric complaints, but it is not to be given to 
women witli chilti, for it has so much efilcacv in 
promoting the mei.ses, that it may occasion abortior:- 



2?i FAMILY HKRCAT. 

Po LV PO D Y . Poh/podiujiU 

A S'TALL p]a-it of the fern kind. It is a fbo< 
liTg-]), atvj coiis.'sls only (.^f a .s;ti-io leiif. Several of 
thcvse c-'omonlj :\bc from the same rootj hut each 
is a scparafe aiui er.tire |)I.'i!it. The stalk is naktd 
for live inches,, and iVoui tlinice to tlie top sland on 
each 'side, a rov.' of small, o'ulorg-, and narrcnv 
Segments, rescmblin.*;;' 30 mar. y small ieves, with 
an odd one at the end. The v>hole plant is of a 
bright i^reeii coi(Mir, but f'le backs of these divisions 
of the leaf, are at a ccrtaivi season, toAvard autumn, 
ornamented wn'i a great nun^.ber of round brown 
spots, these are the seeds : tliose of all ferns arc 
carried iu (lie same manner. The root is long", 
shMider,. and creeps ui)on the surface of old stump> 
of trees among" tile moss. The root is us<:d, and it 
is best fresli ; it is a safe and gentle purj^-e ; the best 
Wily of ffivin':>; it is in decoction, in which form il 
always operates also by urine. It is good in tlie 
jaundice and dropsies, and is an excellent ingredient 
in diet-drinks against the scurvv ; but beside tliese 
considerations, it is a safe and good purge, on ail 
common occasions. 

The Pomegranate Trei:. (xranatns. 

\ C0:MM0N wild tree in Spain and Ita 1^ 
kept with us in gardens. It grows to the ')igm ' 
of our apple-trees. 'I'lu^ brandies spread irrcgi 
l;irlv;tht^v luive a reddish brown bark, and ba^ 
Jierc; and there a lew thorns. The leaves are u 
merous ; on the extremities of tlic braiu'bes thi 
are small, oblong, narr()^v, and of a line grcc. 
'I'lie iliAMers are !ar:;e, and of a beautiful deep red 
th.e fruit is as big as a l;iro;(^ apple, and has a brov 
WDOtly covering ; it contains within a great qu 



FAMILY HERBAL. 273 

tity of seeds, with a sweet and tart juice about 
them. 

The rind of the fruit is used, it is to be dried and 
given in decoction ; it is a powerful astringent : it 
stops purgings and bleedings of all kinds, and is good 
against the whites. 

Wild Pomegranate Tkee. Balaustia.' 

A SMALLER tree than the former, but like it 
in its manner of growth ; except that the branches 
are more crooked and irregular, and are more 
thorny. Tlie leaves are oblong, small, and of a 
bright green, and tb ?v are set in clusters towards 
the end of the bran.iios. The flowers are beau- 
tiful, they are double like a rose, and of a tine 
purple. 

The flowers are the part of the w ild pomegranate 
used in medicine ; our druggists keep tiiem ami call 
them balaustines. They are given in powder or de- 
coction to stop purgings, bloody stools, and ovei'flov.- 
ings of the menses. A strong infusion of them cures 
ulcers in the mouth and throat, and is a good thing to 
wash the mouth for fastening tiie teeth. 

PoMPKiN. Pvpo. 

A VERY large and straggling plant, cultivated 
by our poor people. The stalks are very long and 
thick, but they lie upon the ground ; they are 
angulated and rough. The leaves are extremely 
.arge, and of a roundish figure, but cornered and 
angulated, and they are of a dee]) green colour, 
and rough to the touch. The flowers are verv 
large, and yellow, of a bell like shape, but an- 
gulated at the mouth, and the fruit is of the melon 
jkind; only bigger and round ; of a deep green. 

T< n 



274 FAMILY HERBAL 

when Uiirip^, but yellow at last : in this, under the 
fioshy p- rl, are coul::i:ie{l many lar^-e Hat seeds. 

The poor people nux the fleshy part of the fruit 
witij apples, and bake them in pies. The seeds are 
excellent in tncdicine ; they are cooIin<^ and diure- 
tic ; the; host way of taran<^ tiicm is in emulsions, 
nr.uie with !)arley water. They make an emulsion 
a.s milky as iJin!) uife, und are preferable to them, 
and all liu: cold seeds, ii; sUan^'.iries and heat of 
UJine. 

Black Popl.vr. Fopulus nigra. 

A TALT, tree, fiequ(Mit about waters, and of a 
very beauiiiul as]jert. The trunk is covered with a 
smooth pale baik ; the branches arc n\unerous, and 
grow with a sort of rc<;-ular;{y. The leaves are short 
and broad, roundish at the base, but ending in a 
point ; they are of a glossy shininjj: i^'recn, and stand 
on long" fo(jt stalks. IMie (lowers and seeds are 
inconsiderable ; they appear in spring, and are littlft 
regarded. 

'I'hc young leaves (tf the black ])0]>liir are excellent 
mixed in pultices, to be applied to hard painfu. 
^vveliiiigs. 

AVuri'E Forrv. FapcKcr album. 

A TALL and beautiful plant, kept in our giir- 
dens, a native of the warmer climates. It grown 
a yard and half high : the stalk is round, smooth, 
upright, and of a bluish green ; tlie leaves are 
very long, considerably broad, and d'-eply and ir- 
regularly cut in at the edges ; they are also of a 
biu:sh gnen colour, and stand irregularly on the 
stalk. The flowers are very large and white, one 
stands nt the (op oi" rach diviiiiwu uf the stalk ; 



FAMILY HERBAL. 275 

when they arc fallen, the scr-il-vesscl. or poppy head, 
^rows to the bigness of a hirge appio, and contains 
within it a very g^reat qnantity of binall Wiutish seedsj 
with several skinny divisions. 

When any part of the pinnt h broken, there 
flows out a thick milky ju'ce, of a stronj^, bitter, and 
hot taste, very like that of opium, and full as dis- 
agreeable. 

The heads arc used with us, and sometimes the 
seeds. Of the heads boiled in water, is nsade the 
syrup of diacodium. The heads are to be dried 
for this purpose, and the decoction is to be made 
as stronp; as possible, anti then boiled up with 
sug'ar. The seeds are beaten up in'o emulsions 
with barley water, and they are good against stran- 
guries, and heat of urine ; they bave notbing^ of the 
sleepy virtue of the syrups, nor oi the Oilier parls or 
prcparctions of the poppv. Syrup of disicodirmi, 
puts people to pleep, but gently, and is safer than 
opium or laudanum. 

Opium is noihing more than the milky juice of 
this plant concreted ; it is obtained from the heads : 
they cut tliem while upon the plant in the warmer 
countries, and the juice which flows out of the 
Avound, hardens and becomes opium : they make 
an inferior kind also, by bruizing and sqeezing the 
heads. I^audanum is a tincture of this opium 
made in wine. Eldier one or the other is given 
to compose people to sleep, and to abate the sense 
of pain ; they are also cordial and pj'omotc sweat ; 
but they are to be given with great care and cau- 
tion, for they are very powerful, and therefore 
they may be very dangerous medicines. It is 
good to stop violent purgings and vomiting , l)nl 
tiiis must be etfected by small doses carefully given. 
The present pra^-tice depends ujton opium and 
bleeding for the cure of the bite tjf a mad dog : 



^216 FAxMILY HERFiAL. 

but it is not easy to say that any person ever was 
cured, who became thorougiily distempered from 
that bite. One of the stron<^cst instances we have 
known, was in a person at St. Geor«^e's hospital, 
under the cure of Dr. Hoadly, there was an appear- 
ance of the symptoms, and the cure was effected by 
this method. 

Black Poppy. Papaver nigrum. 

A TALL and fine jilant, but not so defiant as 
tlie former. It is a yard lii>^h. The stalk is round, 
liprio-ht, firm, and smooth, and toward the top 
divides into some branches. The leaves are loui;- 
and broad, of a bluish i^recn colom-, and deeply 
and irref^ularly cut in at tlie ( I.CC'- The flowers are 
hirp^Q and fing'ie : they are of a dead purple colour, 
with a black bottom. The heads or seed-vessels arc 
round, and of tiie !)ii>;ne>-s of a wahuit. The seed in 
black. 

A s}rup of the heads of (Ins poppy is a stronp;- 
cr sudorific than ihc common diacodium, but it is 
not used. The i2,entlone.ss of that medicine is 
its merit : when somcthini^ more powerful is 
used, it is better to have recourse to opium, or 
laudanum. 

Red Poppy. Papnrcr crrailcum. 

A COMMON wild ])iant in our corn fields, dis- 
tingTiished by it*^ '.^reat scarlet flowers. It is a 
foot hip;h. The stalk is round, slender, hairy, of 
a pale <z;reen, and branched. I'hc leaves are lonj^ 
aiul narrow, of a dusky g^reen, hairy, and very 
deeply, but very re<;ularly indented. The (lowers 
are very lar^v, and of an (xlremely brij^ht and 
fine scarlet colour, a little blackish toward the 



FAMILY HERBAL 277 

bottom. The head is small, not larj]^er than a horse 
bean, and the seeds arc small, arid of a dark colour. 
"j'lie whole plant is fidl of a bitter yellowish jiiice, 
which runs out when it is any where broken, and has 
something of the smell of opium. 

The ilowers are nsed. A syrup is made from 
them by pouring' as ranch boiling water on them 
as will just wet thcnij and after a night's standing, 
straining it olf and adding twice its weight of 
sugar : this is the famous syrup of red poppies. 
It gently promotes sleep. It is a much weaker 
medicine than the diacodium. It is greatly recom- 
mended in pleurisies and fevers ; but this upon no 
good foundation. It is very wrong to depend upon 
such medicines ; it prevents having recourse to 
better. 

Primrose. Primula vcris. 

A vr.RY pretty, and very common spring plant 
The leaves r.re long, considerably broad, of a 
pale green, and wrinkled on the surface : they gro\T 
immediately from the root in considerable numbers. 
The stalks which support tlie Ilowers are single, 
slender, four or five inches high, a little hairy, 
and have no leaves on them ; one llower stands 
at the top of each, and is large, w hite, and beautiful, 
with a yellow spot in the middle. The root is fibrous 
and wliitish. 

The root is used. The juice of it snuffed up the 
nose occasions sneezing, and is a good remedy against 
the head-ach. The dried root powdered, has the 
>ame cifect, but not so powerfully. 

Privet. Lifrusirum. 

A irnLi: wild shrub in our hedges. It 



TIB FAMILY HERBAL. 

f^rows four feet hip;h. The stalks are slender, 
tough, and covered with a smooth brown bark. The 
leaves are oblong- and nan'ow : they arc small, 
of a dusky green colour, broadest in the middle, 
and placed in pairs opposite to one another, and 
they are of a somewhat firm substance, and have no 
indenting at the edges. The flowers are white and 
little, but they stand in tufts at the ends of the branrl'???, 
and by that make a good appearance. The fru:t is a 
black berry : one succeeds to ^every flower in the 
cluster. 

The tops are used ; and they are best when the 
flowers arejust beginning to bud. A strong infusion 
of tliem in water, with the addition of a little honey 
and red wine, is excellent to wash the mouth and 
throat v.'hen there are little sores in them, and when 
tlie gums are apt to bleed. 

PuRSLAiN. Portulaca 

A COMMON plant in our gardens, and of a very 
singular aspect : we have few so succulent. It 
giowij a foot long, but trails on the ground. The 
^(alks «rc round, thick, and flc<^hy, of a reddish 
colour, and very brittle. The leaves arc short and 
broad . they are of a good green, thick, fleshy, nnd 
broad, and blunt at the end. The flowers arc little 
ond yellow : they stand among the leaves toward the 
tops rf the stalks. The root is small, fibrous, and 
whitish. 

Purslain is a pleasant herb in sallads, and so whole- 
some, that 'tis a pity more of it is not eaten : it is ex- 
cellent against the scurvy. I'he juice fresh pressed 
out with a little white wine, works by urine, and '\n 
excellent agninst stranguries and violent heats, an^ 
also against the scm vy. 



FAIVIILY HERBAL. 979 

Q 

QciNCE Tree. Cydonia. 

A COMMON tree in our p^ardens^ of irregular 
^•owth. The trunk is thick;, and has a brown bark. 
The branches are numerous, straf^gling^, and 
spreading. The ler.ves are roundish, of" a dusky 
crcen on the upper side, and whitish underneath. 
The flowers or l)lossoms are large and beautiful, 
of a pale flesh colour. The fruit is of the shape 
of a pear, and has a large crown : it is yellow when 
ripe, and of a pleasgnit smell : its taste is austere, 
but asreeable. The seeds are sou and mucila- 
ginous. 

The fruit and seeds are used. Tlie juice of the 
ripe quince made into a syrup with sugar, is ex- 
cellent to stop vomiting, and to strengthen tli^s 
stomach. The seed, boiled in water, gives it a 
softness, and mucilaginous quality ; and it is an 
excellent medicine for sore mouths, and may be 
used to soften and moisten the mouth and throat in 
f«vers. 

rt 

■^ Radish. Raphanus. 

A COMMON plant in our gardens, the root of 
which is eaten abundantly in spring. \i\ this state 
we only see a long and slender root, of a purple or 
scarlet colour, (for there are these varieties) min- 
gled with white ; from which grow a quantity of 
large rough leaves, of a deep green colour, and 
irregularly divided : amidst these in summer rises 
the stalk, which is a yard high, round, and very 
much branched. The leaves on it are much smaller 



SBi) PAl^JILY HfiaBAL. 

tbcQ tlirsc from the root. The flowers are very nti- 
xncrous^ smal]^ and white, with some spots of red. The 
pods are thick, ion^^, and spun<^v- 

The juice of the radish roots fresh feathered, with 
a httle white wine, is an excellent remedy ag'ainst 
the g-ravel. Scarce any thing operates more 
speedily by urine^ or brings away httle stones more 
successfully. 

Horse Radish. Raphanus rusticanus 

A rLA.NT as well known in our gardens as the 
other, and wild also in many places. The root is 
very long, and of an exceedingly acrid taste, so that 
it cannot be eaten as the other. The leaves are 
two feet long, and half a foot broad, of a deep 
green colour, blunt at the point, and a lit- 
tle indented at the ediics : sometimes there are 
leaves deeply cut and divided, but that is an 
accidental varie^v. The stalks are a yard high : 
The leaves on thetn are very sjnall and narrow, and 
at the tops stand iiltle wiiite fiowers, in long spikes: 
these are followed by little s-ccd vessels. The plant 
seldom flowers, and ^vhen it docs, the seeds scarce 
ever ripen. It is propagated sufiiciently by the roof, 
and wherever this is the case, nature is less careful 
about seeds. 

The juice of horse radish root operates very ])ow- 
erfully by urine, and i» good against the jaundice and 
dropsy. The root whole, or cut to pieces, is put into 
diet drink, to sweeten the blood ; and the eating fre- 
quently and in ((uantities, at table, is good against the 
jrheumatisni. 

ll\CWOUT. JdrobiC. 

A v!LD jdant. vcr} cfntinion in our pasturffi. 



,-v^ 







7.////? -^/,v/A 



FAMILY HERBAL. 281 

and distinguished by its ragged leaves, and clusters 
of yellow ilowcrs. It is two feet high. The stalk 
is robust, round, striated, and often purplish. The 
leaves are divided in an odd manner, into several 
parts, so that thev look torn oi' rag'ged ; their co- 
lour is a dark duieky green, and they grow to the 
stalk without any ibot-stalk, and are broad and 
rounded at the end. The (lowers arc moderate! v 
large and yellow, and the tops of the branches are 
%o covered with them, that they often spread toge- 
ther to the breadth of a plate. The ^^ hole plant has 
a disagrcv-^able smell. The root is fibrous, and the 
:»eeds arc downy. 

The fre«h leaves are used : but it is best to take 
iliose that rise immediately from the root, for they arc 
larger and more juicy than those on the stalk : they 
are to be mixed in pahiccs, and applied outwardly 
as a remedy against pains in ti::e joints : they have a 
surprising ellect. It is said that two or three times 
ajipHed, they will cure the sciatica^ or hip gout, when 
ever so violent. 

Ra'^pbhrrv BtrsH. Bubus idccus. 

A LITTLE sli rub, commou in our gardens, but wild 
iiTlso in some parts of the kingdom. The stalks are 
round, weak, tender, of a pale brown, and prickly. 
The leaves are each composed of five others : they 
are large, of a pale green, indented about the edges, 
and hairy. The (lowers are little, and of a whitish 
colour, with a great quantity of threads in the mid- 
dle. The fruit is the common raspberry, composed 
like the blackberry of several grains : it is soft to the 
iouch, and of a delicate taste. The colour varies, 
for white ones are common. 

The juice of vipc raspberries, boiled up with 
sn<^ar, makes an excellent syrup. It is pleasant, and 

90 



282 FAMILY HERBAL. 

agreeable, to the stomachy f^ood against sicknesses 
and rcacliing's. 

]Iattle-Snake Root Plant. Seneca. 

A SMALL plants native of America, uith weak 
stalks, little loaves, and white (lowers. It grows a 
loot iiigh. Tile stalks are numerous, weak, and 
round, tew of liiem stand quite upright, some gene- 
rally lie upon the ground. The leaves stand irre- 
gularly : they are ol)long and somewhat broad, and 
of a pale green. The flowers are little and white : 
they si-nd in a kind of loose spikes, at the tops of 
the stalks, and perfectly resemble those of the 
common plant we call milkwort, of which it is' in- 
deed a Icind : the whole plant has very nnich the 
aspect of the taller kind of our English milkwort. 
The root is <>f a singular form : it is long, irregu- 
lar, slender, and divided into many parts, and these 
h.ave on each side, a kind of membranous margin 
hangiiig from them, which makes it distinct in its 
appearance, frOm all the other roots used in the 
shops. 

Wq o'.ve the knowledji'e of this medicine, orii*-!- 
nally to the Indians : they give it iis a remedy against 
th.e poi^(;n of the nitUe-snake, but it has beeii 
i xloih'd, :vs possessing great virtues. Dr. I'ennant 
i)r<>',5ght it into England, and we received it as a 
p'twerfnl remedy against pleurisies, quinzies, and 
;;i; ot'iis" I'i-iiT.'us wliere the blood was sizey : it was 
<;iid t;> di'i<ol\(' tivis dangerous texture, bcHer than 
idl olh.or iiiiown medicines ; but experience does 
iwA. '-<M-ni tL> liave warranted altogether these elTects, 
for it ;s at ])rc >cnt ne!;lected. after a grc»t many and 
\ci\ '?,nv tr!.i!s. 

^\ lieu this remedy was discovered to ])e (he 
ioiit of a kind of poKgala, which discovery was 



FAMILY IIEUBAT.. 2S3 



owing- to the f^cntlcmiin wlio broiig'ht it over, and 
witii it some of the plant, tor tl\e inspection of thf» 
curious. The roots of tb.e Knglish ])o]ygala v*ere 
tried ; those of tlie connnon bkie or white flowered 
milkwort, (for that variety is purely accidental J 
and they Avere foiuul to have tlie siime eil'ects : 
they were p;iven by some in ])]cuiisies, with great 
success. It was said at that time they had less 
virtues than the seneca root, though of the same 
kind : but it nm^t be remembered, the virtues of 
the sencca root were then supposed to be much 
greater than tliey really were. The novelty addinij 
to the praise. 

Common Reed. Arundo. 

A TALL Avaier plant sufficiently known. Tiie 
stalks are round, hard, jointed, and six or eig'ht 
feet hig'h. The leaves are lonp,- and broad, but other- 
wise Uke those of jrrass, of a pale giTen colour, and 
hig-hly ribbed. The flowers are brown and chahV, aiid 
stand in prodig'ious numbers at the tops of the stalks, 
in a kind of panicle. The roots are knotty and 
jointed and spread vastly. 

The juice of the fresh roots of reeds promotes the 
menses powerfully, but not violentlv. It is an ex- 
cellent medicine : it works by urine also ; and is 
good against stranguries and the gra\el. 

Prickly Rejstiiarrow. Anonis spinosa. 

A LITTLE, tough, and almost shrubby plants 
common in our dry fields, and by road sides. It is 
a foot high. The stalks are round, reddish, tough, 
and almost woody. The leaves arc numerous : 
they stand three on evciy foot stalk, and gr(s\y 



:284 FAMILY TlERDAL. 

pretty close fo the ^taik, There are several shor^ 
and sharp pricklos about the stalks^ principally at 
the insertions of the leaves. The leaves are of a 
dusky g'reen, and serrated about the cd^es. The 
flowers arc small and purple : they stand amon*^ the 
leaves towards (lie tops of thestalksj and are in shape 
like pea blossoms^ but flatted : each is followed by a 
small pod. The root is white^ very long', tongh^ and 
Avoody. 

The root is to be taken up fresh for use, and the 
bark separated for that purpose. It is to be boiled 
in water, and the decoction given in large quantities 
It is good against the gravel, and in all obstructions 
by urine ; and it is also good in the dropsy and 
jauiulice. 

RiiAPo^Tic. Rhaponticum stvc rha. 

A TAT.L ro])ust blant, native of Scythia, but 
kept in xwcoxy of awe gardei'.s. It grows four feet 
high. The strik is I'ound, striated, an ineh thick, 
soiTictinies hollow, and very npriglit. I'he leaves 
are large and brond : thiJ<-;e from the root ar^ 
about a loot a;ul a ualf long, and a loot broad ; of a 
deep green colour, with large ribs, and blunt at the 
ends. The flowers are small and ^^hile : they stand 
in Clusters at (he tops of the stalks, they are succeeded 
by triangular seeds. 

I'he root is the part ii'jcd, und this is what the 
antients used under (iie name of rha. It is of the 
nature of rhubarb, but dJtU:ren{ in lliis, that it if- lesa 
purgative, and jnorc astringent ; for this reason, 
there are many purposes which it would ansv/er much 
l;et(er. We haw it at (he druggists, but thcie is no 
deprndiiip; upon what Ihey sfll, for they &t'ldom keep 
it genuine. 



FAMILY IlERo/vL. 285 

Rice. Ori/'ja. 

A very common plan* in tlie East^, so^mi iii 
the fields for tlie s^ke of tiic seed or gnaii. h 
grows four feet high ; tiie stalk is round, hoilovv, 
and jointed ; the leaves are lon<i; and grassy, and 
of a pale green colour, but they are broader than tliose 
of any of our kinds of corn. The flowers are incon- 
siderable ; the seeds or grains are contained in buslics 
of a brown colour, each having a long beard to it, 
usually curled at the bottom, and divided at the top 
into two parts. 

AVe cat rice as a food ratlier than medicine ; but 
it is excellent for those who have habitual purgings oj- 
loosenesses ; it is to be eaten any way for this pur- 
pose, only it must be continued, and it will do more 
than all the medicines in the world. The rice-milk 
J5 excellent for this purpf)sc. 

Garden Rockiit. Eruca saliva. 

A COMMON plant in o\n' gardens, two feet higii, 
and very erect. The stalk is round and <.f 
a deep green ; tlie leaves are oblong, considerably 
broad, of a deep groen ci^Ir.ur, and divided at tlie 
edges : the llowoj-s are roov^lerately large, and oi" a 
■whitish colour, veined wllii irnrple. and they staiio, iu 
a lo;ig spike at the t^o of tiic stalk. The pods are 
long and slender. 

Some people are iov>d ci rocket as a sallad Itcsb, 
but it is not very pleasant. It works l>v nriiie, and 
is good against the scurvy. A strong infiisiou of the 
leaves made into a syrup is good aganist coughs^ it 
<aiuses expectoration, and eases the lungs. 



286 FAMILY HERBAL. 

Dog RosEj en Wild Rose. CA/noshalus, she 
rosa si/Ivesiris. 

A COMMON busli ill our hedges. The stalks or 
*tems are round, woody, and very prickly. The 
leaves arc composed each of several smaller ; these 
stand in pairs on a rib^with an odd one at the end ; 
and tlicy jh'c small, olilong, of a 'orig'ht glossy green 
colour^ and regularly indented at the edges. The 
ilowers arc singie, large, and very beautiful : there 
is something simple and elegant in their aspect that 
])leases many, more than all the double roses raised 
by culture. They are white, but with a blush of red, 
and very bcai'liful. The fruit that follows there is 
the couiuion hip, red, oblong, and contaiiiing a great 
quantity of hairy seeds. 

The fruiL is the only part used ; the pulp is sepa- 
inted from the skins and needs, and beat up into a con- 
serve v?ith sugar ; this is a pleasant medicine, and is 
Oi'some cHieaey against couglis. 

Though this is the only ])art (hat is used, it is not 
the only that deserves to be. Tiie flowers, gathered 
in the bud and dried, are an excellent astringent, 
made more powerful than the red roses that arc com- 
monly dried for thi,-. })urpo.se. A tea, made strong 
of these dried buds, and soir.e of them given with 
if twice ':! w ;, in powder, is an excellent medicine 
ibr overllowi; gR of the nu'nses ; it seldom fails h> 
<']ect a cure The seeds sr^'iialed from the frail, 
<ir;e(l and po\\d<'red. ^^.•)rk by urine, and are good 
against the gravel, but th^y do not work very 
pc ' <M !;;i'\'. 

l^pon the branehes of tiiis .shiub, there grow a 
kind o!" si)u;i-;\ tibroim tufls. of a :;reen or redish 
roloar, they are rail.-d b.^'d'-^j unr. Tin'v are caus- 
ed by (hi' wcMiuds m.ule b\ tiiscd. in (he stalk"-', 
a'- the galls arc ]ii-o(hi''f,i n|)on I'ne o;)k 'I'iu'v arc 



FAMILY HERBAL. 287 

aLstring'ent, and may be given in powder against 
fluxes. They are said to work Ly urine, but expe- 
rience does not warrant this. 

Damask Rose. Bosa dcr/nasccna. 

A COMMON shrub in our g'ardens^ very imich 
resembling that in our hedges last mentioned. It 
grows five or six feet high, but the stalks are not 
very strong, or able to support themselves. They 
are round, and beset v»ith sharp prickles. The 
leaves are each composed of two or three pairs of 
smaller ones, with an odd one at the end : they ?re 
whitish, hairy, and broad, and are indented at tiie 
edges. The (lov>ers are white and very beautifi]], 
of a pale red colour, full of leaves, i.nd of an ex- 
tremely sweet smell ; the fruit is like the common 
hip. 

The flowers are used. The best way of giving 
them is in a s}rup tiius made. Pour boili ig wa- 
ter upon a quantity of fresh gathered damask roses, 
just enough to cover them; let them stand four 
and twenty fiours, then press off the liquor, and 
;id(i to it tv.ice the quantity of sugar ; melt this, 
and tlie syrup is completed : it is an excellent purge 
for children and there is not a better medicine > 
for growji people, who are subject to be costive. 
A little of it taken every night w id keep the body 
open continually ; medicines that purge str<;ngly, 
bind afterwards. Rose water is distilled from this 
kind. 

White Rose. Bosa alba. 

A co>iMON shrub also in our g-ardens. It 
gr^AVi ten or twelve feet high, but is not very able 
to support itself upright, ^The stalks are round. 



SB8 FAiMlLY HERBAL. 

prickly, and very much branched. The leaves are 
of a dusky grceUj each composed of several pairs 
of smaller, with an odd one at the end. The flow- 
ers are somewhat smaller than those of the damask 
rosOj but of the same form : and their colour is 
white, and they have less fragrance than the 
dnmask. 

The flowers are used. They are to be gathered 
in the bud, and used fresh or dry. A stronf]^ infusion 
of them is <z;ood agahist overflowings of the menses, 
and the bleeding of the piles. 

Pi.r.D IvosK. Rosa rubra. 

AxoTiir.n 'Awwh common in our gardens^ and 
tl;e i('?i>< ;!ii(' ln\vt\^t of the three kinds of roses. The 
sialics atv round, \voody, weak, and prickly, but 
they have iewer prickles than those of the damask 
roKc : the leave- are large ; they are composed each 
of tlirec or four pa-r of smaller, which are oval, of a 
dusky green, and serrated round the edges. The 
flowers are oi" ib-e shape and size of those of the 
damask rose, hut they are not so double, and they 
have a great qirr.itily of yellow threads in the middle. 
They are of an rx< ceding tine d':^ep and red colour, 
and ihey liave vciy little smell : the fruit is like the 
<-ommon hip. 

The fi'jwers arc used. I'hev are to be gathered 
v»hen in liud, and cut from the husks without the 
while bottoms and dried. The conserve of red 
roses is made of tliese buds prepared as for the 
drying ; they are beaten up with three times their 
weight of sugar. When dried, tliey have more vir- 
tue ; they are given in infusi^m, and sometimes in 
po^vder against overtlowings of the menses, and all 
other bleedings. Half an ounce of these dried buds 
are to be put into an earthen pan, aiid a pfnt of 



FAMILY HERBAL. 289 

boiiing water poured upon them after tliey liave 
stood a few mkintes, fifteen drops of oil of vitriol 
are to be dropped in upon them, and three drachrns 
ot the finest sugar, in powder, is to be added at the 
■^ame time, then the wliole Js to be well stirred 
about and covered up, that it may cool leisurely : 
when cold it is to be poured clear off. It is called 
tirjCiure of roses ; it is clear, and of a fine red colour, 
it strengthens the stomach, and preveiits vomiting-s, 
and is a powerful as well as a pleasant remedy 
ag-ainst all fluxes. 

Rose- Wood Tree. RJiodium. 

There are two kinds of v,ood known under 
tlie name of rose-wood, tlie oiie from the East^ 
which, when fresh brought o^•e^, has a very fra- 
grant smell, exceedingly like that of the damask 
rose, and from the wood is distilled the oil, whicli 
is sold under the name of essence of d?.ma:>^k rose ,- 
we have no account of the tree v.hich affords thif^. 
The other rose-\^ood is the produce of Jamaica, 
and has very much of the fragrant smell of the 
eastern kind, but it is not the same : tlie tree whicli 
produces this is fully described by tliat great natu- 
ralist sir Hans Sloane, in his History of the Island 
of Jamaica. Tlie tree grovvs twerity feel or more 
in height, and Us trunk is very thick in proportion. 
The leaves are each con) posed of three or four pairs 
of smaller : these stand at a distance from one ano- 
ther on the common stalk ; the flowers are little 
and white, and they grow in clusters, so that at a 
distance, they look like the bunches of elder flow- 
ers, 'j'he fruit is a round bcrrv, often each of the 
bigness of a tare. The wood of this tree is lighter, 
paier coloured, and of the looser grain than the 
(eastern rose-wood. 

p p 



S90 FAMILY HERBAL. 

The wood is said to be ji;o()d in nervous disorderjJj 
but we seldom make any use of it. 

Rosemary. Rosemarinus . 

A PRETTY shrub, wild in Spain and France, 
and kept in our gardens. It is five or six feet 
high, but weak;, and not well able to support itself. 
The trunk is covered with a rough bark. The 
leaves .stand very thick on the branches, which are 
brittle and slender : they are narrow, an inch long 
and thick, and they are of a deep green on tho 
upper side, and whitish underneath. The flowers 
stand at the tops of the branches among the leaves ; 
they are large and very beautiful, of a greyish co- 
lour, with a somewhat reddish tinge, and of a very 
fragrant smell. Rosemary, when in flower, makes 
a very beautiful appearance. 

'^f'lie flowery tops of rosemary, fresh gathered, 
contain its greatest virtue. If they are used in 
tlie manner of tea, for u continuance of time, ihcv 
are excellent agjiinst hcad-achs, tremblings of the 
limbs, and ail otiier nervous disorders. A conserve 
is made of them also, which very well answers 
this purpose l but when the conserve is made only 
of the picked flowers, it has less virtue. The con- 
serve is best made by beating up the fresh gathered 
tops with tliree tinies their weight of sug-tir. The 
famous Hungary water is made also of thciie flow- 
ery tops of rosemary. Put two ponnd of these into 
a common still, with two gallons of melnsses f^pirit, 
and distil off one gallon and a pint. This is Hun- 
gary water. 

Rosa Sous, ok Sunukw. Ron solis. 

A VERY iingular and very pretty little plant. 



FAMILY HERBAL. 291 

common in bog^gy places on our licaths. It grovrs 
six or seven inches hi^h. The leaves all rise im- 
mediately from the root : tiiey are roundish and 
hollow^ of the breadth of a silver t^yo-pcnceJ and 
placed on foot-stalks of an inch long ; they are 
covered in a very extraordinary manner with long; 
red hairSj and in the midst of the hottest days they 
Iiave a drop of clear liquour standing on them. 
Tlie stalks are slender and naked : at their tops 
stand little white fl'^wers^ which are succeeded 
by seed-vessels^ of an oblong- form, contain- 
ing a multitude of small seeds. The root is fi- 
brous. 

The whole plant is used fresh gathered. It is 
esteemed a great cordial^ and good against convul- 
sious^ hysteric disordeis. and tremblings of the limbs ; 
but it is not much regarded, 

RiiuBAP.n Jihaharharum. 

A TALLj robustj and not unhandsome planl^ a 
native of many parts of the East;, and of late got 
into our gardens, after we had received many others 
falsely called by its name. 

It grows to three feet in height. The stalk is 
roundj thick, striated, and of a greenish colour, 
fre((uently stained with purple. The leaves are 
very large, and of a hguic approaching to triangu- 
lar : they are broad at the base, small at the point, 
and waved all along the edges. These stand on 
thick hollowed foot-stalks, which are frequently 
also reddish. The flowers are whitish, small and 
inconsiderable : they stand at the tops of the stalks 
in the manner of dock-flowers, and make little more 
figure ; the seed is triangulated. The root is tljick, 
long, and often divided toward the bottom ; ttf a 
yellow colour veined with purple, but the purple 



292 FAMILY HERBAL. 

appears much more plainly in the dry^ than in the 
fresh root. 

The root is used : its virtues are sufficiently 
known ; it is a gentle purge^ and has an after as- 
tringency. It is excellent to strengthen the sto- 
mach and bowels, to prevent vomitings, and carry 
otT the cauae of colics ; in the jaundice also it is 
extremely useful. Rhubarb and nutmeg toasted 
together before the fire, make an excellent remedy 
against pnrgings. There is scarce any chronic dis- 
ease in which rhubarb is not serviceable. 

The Rhapontic monks rhubarb, and false monks* 
rhubarb, all approach to the nature of the true 
rhubarb ; they have been described already in their 
several places. 

Rue. Rut a 

A pRETTy little shrub, frequent in onr gnr- 
dens. It .srrows three or four teet hi^.!), The sten» 
is firm, upright, ar.d woody ; very tough, and 
covered with a whitish bark. The branches are 
r.invierons, and the young shoots are round, green, 
and smooth ; the leaves are composed of many 
smaller divisions ; they are of a blue green colour 
nnd flesh V snbsfance ; \\\n\ each division is short, 
obtu-e, aiid roundish. The ilowers are yellow, not 
large, but very conspicuous ; tiiey have a quantity 
of thrcuds in the center, and (hev are .'-ucceeded by 
io;!gh seed-vefscls. 

Hue is to be used fresh gathered, and the tops 
cif (he young shoots contain its greater-a virtue. 
Th:ey are U^ be given in infi;>ion : or they may be 
hcateii \\r) into a conserve with t'e.ree times their 
weii^lit of sugar, and tnl^en in that form. TIic i;i- 
Abion is an excellent medicine in fevers ; it raises 
the s])ir;tSj tind prrTneles 5:^< eal^ drives any thing 



FAMILY HERBAL. 293 

out, and is good a«-ainst head-aches, and all other 
nervous disorders ^vhich attend certain fevers. The 
coiiserve is good against ^vcaknesses of the stomach, 
and pains in the howels. It is pleasant, and may be 
taken frequently by people iiubject to hysteric dii 
orders with great advantage, 

RuFTL'UE-woRT. Ilcrniavia. 

A LITTLE low plant, wild in some parts of \hi' 
"kingdom, but not common, and kept in the gardens 
of the curious. It grows three or four ineiics lonp,., 
but the stalks lie on the ground : inany grow froru 
the same root, and they spread isiic' a kind of cir- 
cular figure. They are sk;\der, round, joirited, an>l 
of a pale green. The h'avcs are very small, and 
nearly of an oval fij;ure ; ihf^y stjiiid trvo nt cacii 
joint, and are also of a pale green. Ti;e leaves 
are very small ; the root is very long, but not thick. 

The juice of the fresh gathered herb, externally 
applied, has bee!! much celebrated against ruptures ; 
perhaps without any great foundation. An in- 
fusion of it, taken inwardly, v, -nks by urine, 
and is very good against the gravel, and in the 
janndice. 

S 

Saituon. Crocus. 

A VERY pretty ])iin!t, of tlie same kind with 
what are called ci(^cuses in our gardens. It is 
planted in fields, in some parts of England, and 
yields a very ])rohtable kind of produce. Tlie 
flowers of this plant Jippear in autumn, but the leavea 
not till sometime after they are fallen. These flow 
ers have, properly speaking, no stalk ; tliey rise im 



'2Q4t FAMILY HERBAL. 

mcilifdcly from the root^, wliich is roundish^ and as 
big lis a ]arf;e iiutmcf.^, and they stand a little way 
above t!iC surface of the ground ; they are of a pur- 
plish blue, and very hirf;e ; the lower part is cov- 
ered with a skinny Inisk. In the centre of these 
stand three stamina, or threads^ with yellow tops, 
Tviiich arc useless, l)ut in the tnidst between these 
rises np what is called tiie pislil of the flower. 
This is the rudiment of the future seed-vessel ; it is 
oblonp; and whitish, and at its top separates into 
three filaments ; these are long', and of an orange 
scarlet colour ; these three filaments are the only 
part of the plant that is used ; they arc what we call 
satiVon. They are carefully taken out of the flower 
and pressed into cakes, which cakes we see under 
the name of English saflVon, and which is allowed 
to be the best in the world. 

The leaves are long and grassy, of a dark gTcei> 
colour, and very narrow. They are of no use. 

SatlVon is a rnAAe cordial. 

Bastard Saivron. Carlluunus. 

A PL A. ST in its who!.' aspect as unlike to that 
"VAhich prodT-ecs the (nie satlVon, as one herb can 
be to another ; but calKni by this name, because 
iX the yellow threads which grow from the flow- 
cv. It is of the thistle kind, two feet and a 
half high, and very upright. The stalk is rouml, 
ai.gulated, and l)ran-:hcd, but it is not prickly. 
Tiie leav* s arc o!>l(ing, broad, round at the points, 
Jiiid prickly about the edges. The {lowers stand 
at ilie tops of the bnnjches : they c»)nsi5t of round- 
ish, scaly, uid prickly iseads, with yellow flowers 
growing from auKiugst (hem : these are like the 
flowers in the lieads of our tlusUcSj but narrower 
and lunirer. 



FAISULY HERBAL. 295 

These flowers are used by the dyers in some 
parts of Europe. The seed is the part taken into 
the shops : it is longish, covered, and white with 
a hard covering- ; it is to be j^ivcn in infusion, 
which works both l)y vomit and stool, but not 
violently. It is good against rheumatisms and the 
jaundice. 

Sag.\penum Plant. Sagapemmi. 

A LARGE plant., native of Persia in tho East 
Indies, and described but imperfectly to ns ; how- 
ever, so that wc have confirmation that the descrip^ 
tlon is authentic, if not so finished in all its parts 
a-3 we could wish. It p;rcws upon the mountains;, 
and is eight feet li!C':h ; the Jeaves are very large, 
and are composed of a great multitude of little 
parts, which are iixcd to a divided rib, and p.re 
of a l)luish green colour, and wl^ien bruised,, of a 
strong smell. The stalk is thick, striated, round, 
hollow, and upright, purplish towards the bottom, 
but green upwards. The leaves which stand ou 
it arc like those which rise from the root, only 
smaller. The flowers are little and yellowish ; 
they stand in very large umbels at the tops oi the 
stalks, and each of them is succeeded by two 
seeds ; these are ilat, large, brown, and striated. 
The root is long, thick, of a yellov-ish colour, and 
of a disagreeable smell. This is the account we 
have from those who have been of late in the 
East : and there is a great deal to confirm it. We 
find among resin which is brought over to us, 
pieces of the stalk and many seeds of the plant : 
these agree with the descri])tion, I procured some 
of the seeds picked out of some sarapcnum, by 
y<Ming Mr. Sisson, to be sowed witli all proper 
t.ire at the lord Petre's, whose principal gardener 



^96 FAMILY HERBAL. 

was an exci'lient person at hh business^ and with 
them soniL- seeds of the aninioniacum plants pick- 
ed also out of ii !ari>-c (juantity of that oum. Those 
of the an^moiiiacum plant ail perished ; from the 
Hagapenum treeds, lliuugh more tluin an hundred were 
sown, we had OiiSy one plan!, and that perished 
by some accident very youiu^' ; but what we saw 
of the leaves f^ave credit I; the account given 
of the plant by Mr. AV^illiains, who told us he 
had seen it in Persia. These are curious parts 
of knowledge, and they are worth proseculinj^ by 
those v.ho have leisure : die success of this experi- 
ment shews the possibility of raisin"' some of those 
plants at home, winch we never have been able 
to fcet truly and fully described to us. 

We use a <:^um resin obtained from the roots 
of this plant, by cuttiiv;" (hem and catching the 
juice ; we call th.is, when concreted into lumps, 
sagapenum. ^Ve have it either liner in small 
pieces, or coarser in masses ; it is brownish, wilh 
a cast of red, and will grow soft willi ihe heat of 
Ih.c hand : it is disagreeable both in smcil and taste, 
but it is an excellent medicine, ll is good tor all 
disorders of the Inngs arising iVom a tough ])idegm, 
and also in nervous cases. It has been found a 
remedy in inveterate head-aches, after many other 
medicines have failed. It is one of those drags 
loo much neglected by the present practice, ^vl!ich 
encourages the use of others that have not half 
their virtue : but there are fashions in physic, as 
there are in all other things. 

Red S.\ge. Saljtu Ii or tenuis. 

n^iE common sa:;C cf or.r gardens. It is a 
l'!;:d ')f shrubby ^il.r.st, a iVx-t or t-vo high, and 
li'i o!' biiuuf^hes T'le stem is tough, hard, woody. 



FAMILY HERBAL; 297 

•Ad covered with a brown rough bark ; the smaller 
brancUes arc reddish, the leaves are oblong and 
broad ; they stand on long foot stalks, and are of 
a singular rough surface, and of a reddish colour. 
The Howers grow on stalks that rise only at that 
season of the year, and stand up a great deal above 
the rest of the surface of the plant ; they are large 
and blue, and are of the figure of the dead nettle 
flowers, only they grape vastly more. The whole 
plant has a pleasant smell. The leaves and tops 
are 'ised, and they are best fresh ; the common 
way of taking them is in infusion, or in form j of 
what is called sage tea, is better than any other : 
they are a cordial, and good against all diseases of 
(he nerves : they promote perspiration, and throw 
anv thing out which ought to appear upon the skin. 
The juice of sage works by urine, and promotea 
ihe menses. 

Sage of Virtue. Salvia miner. 

Another shrubby plant, very like the former 
in its manner of growth, but wanting its red colour. 
It is a foot or two in height, and very bushy. The 
stem is woody. The branches are numerous. The 
Iraves are oblong, narrower than in common sage, 
and of a whitish green colour : there is often a 
pair of small leaves at the })ase of each larger. 
The flower-t grow in the same manner as in the 
red sage, but they are smaller. The whole plant 
has a pleasant smell - 

The green tops are used ; and their virtues are 
much the same with those of the former, but they 
are less. It got into use from an opinion that the 
other was too hot, but this vras idle. 



298 FAMILY HERBAL. 

^\ OOD Sage. Salvia agrestis. ?• 

A WILD p]antj cosnrnon in woods and hedgesy 
with leaves like sai^e, and spikes of small flowers. 
It i^rows two feet and a half lii^-h. The stalk is 
square, firm, slender, and upright. The leaves 
stand two at each joint : they are somewhat shorter 
and broader than those of sage, of a green colour^ 
and serrated about the edges. The flowers are 
numerous, and very small : they stand in long 
spikes, and are of a greenish yellow colour, with 
some red threads in thcni. The plant has a singu- 
lar smell, with something of the garlic flavour, but 
that not strong. 

The tops are to be used fresh. INlade into an iti- 
fussion, they promote urine and the menses : the 
juice of them drank for a continuancej is excellent 
against rhumatic pains. 

S.4LEP PL.iNT, Orchis oricntciUs. 

A VERY pretty plant, of the nature of our 
common Orchis, native of the East, but growing to 
a greater height and producing larger roots than 
with us, though it seems very nearly allied to what 
nc call the tall female orchis, wifli large flowers, 
which is frequent in our meadows. It grows in 
damp ground, and is a foot high. The stalk is 
round, jucv, and tender. The leaves are eight 
inches !';ng, and not an inch broad, of a dark greeu 
colour, and also juicy. The flowers stand at the 
tops of the stalk, in a spike of two inches long : 
they are moderately large, and of a pale red colour. 
"^I'hc root is compo^^ed of two roundish bodies, of the 
bigness of a pidgeon's egg, and of a white colour-, 
with some fibres. 

\\V use the root, which we receive dry from 



FA!\I1LY HERBAL. 299 

Turkey. They have a peculiar method of ciinng 
it ; they make it clean and then soak it four and 
twenty hours in water ; after this, they hang a 
quantity of it in a coarse cloth, over tlie steam of a 
pot in which rice is boilings ; this softens it, but it 
gives it a sort of transparence, and qualifies it foi 
drying' ; these juicy roots, otherwise e'rovving- hiouI- 
dy. VVhcn they have thus far prq:iared it, they 
string- it upon a thread, and hang it in an airy place 
to dry ; it becomes tough as horn, and transparent. 
This is a practice common in the East with the roots 
they dry for use, and it would be well if we would 
practise it here ; the fine transparent kind of ginseng, 
which we have from China, is dried in this manner. 
It is highly probable, nay it is nearly a certainty^ 
that the roots of our common o»'chis have all the 
qualities and effects of this salep, ])ut we do not 
know how to dry them. If we tried this method, 
it might succeed ; and in the same manner, our owr; 
fields and meadows might afford us many medicines,, 
what at present we purchase at a great price, from 
the farthest parts of the earth. 

The dried root is the part used ; and it is an ex- 
cellent restorative, to be given to persons wasted 
with long illnesses : the best way is to put a small 
quantity of it in powder, into a bason of warm 
water, which it instantly turns into a jelly, and a 
little wine and sugar are to be added. The Turks 
use it as a provocative to venery : they take it dis- 
solved in water, with ginger and honey. 

Sampsiiire. Crithmuni mariiimum. 

A PLANT not uncommon about sea coasts, witi; 
much of the appearance of fennel, only not so tall : 
some have called it sea fennel. It is two fe(?t high. 
The leaves arc large, and divided in the manner of 



300 FAMILY HERBAL^ 

those* of lennel, into slender end small ^krts, bu 
they arc thick and fleshy. Ihe stalk is round, hol- 
low, striated, and a little braijched. The flowers 
are small and yellow, and they stand at the tops of 
the stalks in g^reat clusters or umbels, in the manner 
of those of fennel. The whole plant has a warm 
and agreeable taste, and a good smell. 

The leaves are used fresh ; but tliose which grow 
immediately from the rooi, where there is no stalk, 
are best ; they are pickled, and brought to our 
tables ; but they arc often adulterated, and other 
things pickled in their place. The juice of the 
fresh leaves operates very powerfully by urine, and 
is good against the gravel ajid stone, against sup-- 
pressions of the menses, and the jaundice. 

Sanicle. Sanicula. 

A PRETTy wild plant common in our woods, 
and distinguished by its regular leaves, and small 
umbels of {lov\^rs. It grows a foot and a half 
InVh. The leaves are numerous, and they all rise 
inuocdiately from the root : they stand on long foot- 
stalks, and are very conspicuous : they are of a 
roundish shape, but rut in so^ as to appear five 
cornered, serrated about the edges, and of a very 
deep glossy green colour, and shining surface. The 
stalk is striated, upright, naked : on its top grows a 
little round cluster of flowers : they are small and 
white, and each is succeeded by two little rough 
^eds. The root is fibrous. 

The leaves are used. A strong decoction of thcnrj 
is good against the overflowing of the menses, and 
the bleeding of the piles. It has been vastly 
celebrated for the cure cf rupturo«, but that i> 
idle. 



FAMILY HERBAL. 301 

Sarsapauilla Plant. SarsapariUa. • 

A PLANT of the climing' kind, native of the 
warmer countries. I'he stalks run to ten or twelve 
feet in lengthy but are weak, and support them- 
gelvef? among the bushes : tbcy are v-hitisli, angu- 
lar, and striated, and are fall of small prickles. 
The leaves are an inch long, or more, and above 
half an inch broad, of an oval figure, of a deep 
green on the uppi'r side, and white underjieath^ 
firm in their texture, and very glossy. The flow- 
ers are little and yellowish. I'he berries are black, 
round, and of the bigness of a small pea. The 
root is very large and slender. 

The ro(>t is used. Our druggists keep it : they 
split it in two. It is brown on the outside, and 
■white within ; and its taste is insipid. It is sup- 
posed to have great virtues, but they are not per- 
fectly established. They have been at times dis- 
puted, and at times supi^orted. Given in decoc- 
tion, it promotes sweat and urine. It has been 
<!steemed good against the scurvy, and famous in 
the cure of the veneral disease. It is, in general^ 
accounted a sweatener of the blood. 

Sassafras Tree. Sassafras. \ 

A BE.\UTiFLL tree, native of America^ and 
lo be met with in some of our gardens. It grows 
twenty five or thirty feet high. The trunk is 
naked till it comes near the top. The branches 
grow near together, and spread irregularly. The 
leaves are of two kinds : those on the older parts 
of the twigs are oblong and pointed, somewhat 
like bay leaves ; and those on the tops of the 
blanches are larger, broader, and divided into 
three parts, like the leaves of maple, or tljey carry 



:;€'5 fa:jily herbal.' 

some Tcscmblance of the siiialler leaves of .the fig'" 
tree. The flowers arc small and yellow. The 
fruit are berries like bay berries. The wood is 
©f a reddish colour and perfumed smell. 

The \TOod is i:sed. Our drug'gists receive it ^irt 
log's^ and cut it out into shavings. The wood of 
Ihe root is ])est;, and its bark contains most virtue 
of all. It is best taken in infusion, by way of tea 
for it is very pleasant : it promotes sweat, and 
is good against the scurvy, and all other foul- 
nesses of the blood. It is a constant ingredient io 
diet drinks against the venereal disease. 

Sayine. Sabhia. 

A LriTE garden shrub, green all the winter. 
The trunk is covered with a reddish brown Irark, 
1'he branches are numeroirs, and stand confusedly, 
T!ie leaves are small, narrow, of a dark green 
folonr, and prickly. The flowers are very small, 
and of a yellowish colour ; and the V:>:\1 is a 
sm;;i! !>crry, of a black coh.ur wb.cn rip;?, :ind cover- 
ed v/ith II bhiish diK-.t like the bloom of ii plum. 

The lops of the sC^uil; branchrs are used ; they 
r<re best fre^h, and .•..';• ven in the manner of lea. 
Ti'.ey verv powerfuiiv promote tlie r;:ensc.s ; anc? 
if ^:;iveii Uf v»omen villi child, will fretjuenlly cause 
a niisraniage. The country people give the juice 
mixed v illi milk to children, as a retncdy against 
■ivnrms : it generally woiks by stool, and brings 
Morms a>^ay with it, 

SrM'ifKR Savojiy. SatHre/M ho7'tc7isi< 

\ roMMOv liftic plant in our kitchen gardens 
It IS ten ini Iu'<i or a foot high. I'he stalks are nn 
merous, and very hardj and woody toward tlic bet- 



FAMILY HERBAL. 503 

torn. The leaves arc oblong and narrovr : thejl^ 
stand two at each joints witli a quantity of young 
ones on their bosoms. The llowers grow on the 
upper parts of the stalks among- the leaves : they 
are white with a ting-c of blaish or reddish. The 
v.hole plant has a pleasant smelly and an a2;reeable 
taste. 

The whole plant is used. An iniiislon of it, 
drank in the manner of tea, is good against colicy 
painSj and it opens obstructions, and promotes tho 
menses. 

There is another kind of savory, with more woody 
stalks, railed winter savory ; this has hiucli the 
sanie virtues. 

Red Saunders Tree. SarJalum ruhruirt, 

A TREE, native of the West Indies, but of 
•which we have seen nothing but the wood;, and 
Lave received very imperfect descriptions. They 
say it grows forty feet high ; that the leaves are 
small, but many, set near together ; their colour is 
a dusky green ; and their substance thick and 
fleshy. The fiowei-s are like pea blcssoiils, and 
the fmit is a pod, containing three or four seeds. 
This is all we have been informed concerning the 
tree, and part of this by hear-say only. 

The wood is used, ft is of a deep red colour 
It is astringent, and is good against violent purging^ 
and overflowings of the menses : for the former 
purpose, it is best given in powder, in small doses ; 
and for the latter, it is given in decoction. But it 
is not much used. 

Yeelovv and White Saundfrs Tree. 
Santalum flavum et album, 

A BEAUTIFUL tree, native of the East Indies 



304 FAMILY HERBAL. 

It grows forty or fifty feet high, and is very much 
branched. The leaves stand two or three pairs 
upon a stalk, in the manner of those of the lentisk^ 
and are not unlike those of that tree in shape ; they 
are of a dark green colour, small, oblong, and 
fleshy. The flowers are moderately large, and of 
a dee<f) dusky blue ; the fruit is a berry, of the big 
ness of a large red cherrs*, which is black when ripf 
The wood is white in the outer part, and yellow 
the heart, and these two parts are kept separat' 
and were long supposed the woods of two differei 
(rces. They have the same smell and taste, onl 
(hat the yellow has them both in the greatest perfec 
tioii ; and in the same manner, their virtues are the 
f-anie ; but the yellow is so much superior, that tht 
vlnte deserves no notice. 

Tlie yellow saundcrs is best taken in the man' 
ner of tea, it is this way not unpleasant, and k 
cordial, good against disorders of the nerves, and 
hysioric complaints, and opens obstructions, it 
also gently promotes perspiriation, and works by 
urine. 

White Saxifrage. Saxifraga alba 

A VERY pretty plant in our meadows, dis- 
tinguished by the regular shape of its leaves, and 
its white snowy flowers. It grows ten inches high ; 
the stalk is round, thick, firm, upright, and a little 
hairy. The leaves are of a pale green colour, and 
fleshy substance : they are of a roundish figure, 
and indented about the edges ; and they stand upon 
long f()ol->t;:lks. The flowers are large and white ; 
they grow in considerable numbers on the tops of 
the stalks. The root is composed of a parcel of 
small white or reddish granules, 

'J'he root is used ; aiul tliese small parts of which 
it consists huvc been u=e(l to be called by ignorant 



J/H.. 




FAMILY HERHAL. 305 

apothecaries saxifrage seed. It is diuretic, and 
good against tlie gravel. The roots are best fresh, 
and tiie best way of giving' them is in decoction. 

Meadow Sixifkage. Scseli praicnsc 

A AviLD plant also, hut though known by the 
same Enghsh name with ihe other, very different 
ill focm and flower. It grows to more than two 
feet in iicight. The stalks are round, deeply stri- 
ated, of a diuk g'leen. colour, and considerably 
})!•;.! Mclied. Tiie leaves ai'c large, but they are di- 
vided into a mnliilude of fine narrow segments. 
The flowers stand at the tops erf the slalks in little 
umbels or round clusters, and they are r.mail and 
yellow. The root is brown, loi^.g, and slender, and 
is of an aromatic and acrid taste. 

The root is n.sed : it is best fresh taken up. 
Given in a strong infusion, it works powerfullv* 
])y urine, aiid brings away gravel. It also cases 
those colics, which are owing to the same 
cause. 

Scabious. Scablosa. 

A co^iMON wild plant in our corn ueid^^, dis- 
tinguished by its tall round stalks, an>'; round blue 
floweis. It grows to three feet in h( ight. The 
lea.ves rise principally from the root, and they lie 
?e,>iead uj)on the ground. They are oblong, and 
iiiegularly di\ided at the edges; tliev arc of a 
])ale green, hairy, and rough to the touch. The 
Fi.iiks are round, uprigh!, hairy, of the same pale 
green, colour, and they have a few leaves on them, 
placed two at a joint ; these are nwre deeply 
divided Irian those on the ground, The flowers 
stand at the tops of thu branches, they are of « 

ji r 



306 FAMILY HERBAL. 

deep blue colour^, and each is composed of a number 
of smaller tlosucles, collected into a head. The root 
is long' and brown. 

Tiie leaves g-rovving from the root are to be gathered 
for use before the stalks appear. They are best 
fresh. A strong infusion of them is good against 
asthmas, and difficulty of breathing, and the same 
infusion made into syrup, is g'ood against coughs. 
The flowers are said to be cordial, and an infusion 
of them to promote sweat, and carry off fevers, but this 
IS jcrfs aulhentic : the juice externally applied is g'ood 
against foulnesses of the skin. 

ScA'.iMOxy Plant. Scammonia 

A (lAMMriG plant, native of the eastern 
pcirts <n tiie world. The stalks are riumerous, 
irreen, slender, and angukited ; they are live or six 
leet long', but uuublc to support themselves with- 
out the help of bushes. The leaves stand irregular- 
\), and not very clo^^e to one another ; thoy are of 
a triangular figure, and bright srrcen colour, and 
tliey stand upon long foot -stalks. The flowers 
are large and bell-fashioned ; they resemble very 
much those of our connnon little bind-weed being- 
whitish but they oftener have a yellowisli than a red- 
dish tinge. 1 he root is a foot and a half long*, and 
us thick as a man's ami. full of a milky juice. They 
wound the roots and catch the milky juice as it runs 
out in shells ; and this wlien it is concreted into a 
hard mas.^ is the scannnony we use. 

Jt is a rough purge, but a very powerful and 
useful one. It is good against the rhumalic 
))ains, and wHl reach the seat of manv disorders that 
a tomnion purge does not etfect. However, it is 
seldoui given alone : and a great misfortun-e is«, 
iiiat the con)pf)sitions made with it are never to be 



FA:\ilLY HERBAL. 30? 

perfectly depended upon, because there is «o ranch 
difference in several parcels of scammony, that they 
seem hardly the same medicine, some are so very 
strong", and some so weak. 

Garden Scurvy Grass. Cothlearia hortensis. 

A cOiMMON wild plant about our sea coasts, 
but kept also in gardens for its virtues ; it is a foot 
high : the stalks are round, weak, and green ; the 
leaves that rise from the root make the most con- 
siderable appearance ; they stand in a large tuft, 
and are of a roundish figure, and a bright green 
colour, tender, juicy, and supported on long and 
slender foot-stalks. There are but few leaves on 
the stalks, and they are not so round as those from 
the root, but are a little angular and pointed. 
The (lowers stand at the tops of the stalks, in little 
clusters ; they are white, small, and bright ; they are 
succeeded by short roundish seed-vessels. 

The fresh leaves are used, and the best way of 
all is to drink the pres.sed juice of them ; this is 
excellent against the scurvy, and ail other foul- 
nesses of the blood. It may bo nii.xed witli Seville 
orange juice to make it pleasaiU, and siiould l>e 
(akcn every day for six weeks or two months toge- 
ther in spring. 

Sea Scurvy Grass. Cochlcnrla inarina. 

A COMMON plant also about our sea coasts, 
and by the sides of rivers, where the tide comes 
The leaves are not so numerous as those of the other ; 
and they are oblong, of a reddish green colour, 
pointed at the ends, and indented at the edgcf; in aa 
irregular manner • they are considerably larger than 
th(->s;e of gijrden scurvy grass, and moi- flcijhy. The 



2QS FAMILY ilEKBAL 

stalks are eight or ten inches high ; they are ten* 
der, round and striated ; they have lew leaves 
on them^ but the flowers are small and white, and 
stand in clusters at the tops of the stalks, as in 
the other. The leaves are to be used fresli gather- 
ed, or their juice is to be taken. Their virtues 
are the same as those of the other. But it is the 
«;encral opinion that they are greater^ though the 
taste be not so agiecabie. 

Sebesten Tree. Aj/xa she schcsfcn, 

A TREE of the bigness and form of our com- 
mon plum tree, and producing a IVuit not altogether 
uidike it, The trunk is covered with a rough 
bark, the branches grow irregularly and crooked, 
and are generally so slender toward the ends, and 
so full of leaves that they bend downward ; the 
leaves are broad and short ; the flowers are white, 
small, and sweet scented ; they stand in tufts or 
clusters, asul the cup in which they sf>incl remains, 
and encloses the fruit. This is somewhat like 
a plum, and has a kernel in the same manner : 
its shape is oblong ; and the pulpy part of it is so 
tough and clamy, that being beat up with water 
it makes good bird lime. 

This fruit is the part used ; it is sent over to 
"US dried in the manner of a prune. It used to be 
a constant ingredient in decoctions for roughs, 
and disorders of the lungs, Ijut it is now dis- 
regarded. 

Selv !ir/.L Prunnclla. 

A LITTLE wild plant common about way sides, 
with dark green leaves, and shoit t'lfts of blue 
iluwers. It grows six inches high ; the stalk is 



FAMILY HERBAL. 309 

squire, and a little hairy ; the leaves R'and in pairs 
^:i)iMi it, but there are sel(';>m tncre than two gr 
tiiicc pair, the great (juaiiiitv oi' them rise imme- 
dia;oiy tvonx tiic roi^t ; thoy aro cblong-, broad, 
hliini at the p^^int, aad liot at a;! itidcnted at the 
( ';^'>. The i];A^c!s arc stiiall ; ihcy stand in h 
kind of siiort spikes or heads: the cups of them 
are often pLir[jhsh. The root is small and creep- 
iiii;", and full of fibres. The juice of self- lie;:! 
is astriniiXMit ; it is o'ood aiminst puririn"'s, witii 
very sharp or bloody tools, and against overflow- 
ings of the menses. The dried herb made into 
an infuss'ou aiul t>vyeatcncd v/ith honey, is cood 
ag'uinst a sore throat, and ulceis of the mouth. 

Sena Shruh. Sena, 

A LITTLE shrub, three or four feet high, 
native of the East. The trunk is covered vvitli a 
Avhitish and rough bark ; the leaves are compo.sed 
cacli of three pair of smaller, disposed on a com- 
mon rib, with an odd one at the end : tliey are 
oblong, narrow, and sharp pointed, of a smooth 
surface, a thick substance, of a pale green colour, 
and not indented at ihe. Qih^('<. The flowers are 
like a pea bloi^som in shape, but they are veliow, 
inarkcfl with ]varj)le veins. The pods are short 
and llat. and the seed- aie small and brown. 

AVe have the dried le- t's from t!;e East, the 
druggists keep them. T'ey are glsen in infusion, 
ar.d are an excellent pur::.'% !)ut as tlicy are a{)t to 
g,Tipe in the working', the common method is to 
tl^.row in a few cardamom s. eds, or some other 
v.arm medicine into the water. 



310 FAMILY HERBAL. 

Basiard Sena. Colutea 

A coMMo>i shrub kept for ornament in our 
gardens. The trunk is not very robust, but it 
keeps upright, and is covered with a whitish rough 
bark. Tiio leaves are composed each of several 
pairs of smaller, set on a common rib^ with an 
odd leaf at the end ; hut they are rounder and 
broader in proportion to their lenii,ih than those 
of the true sena. The flowers are yellow : they 
are but small, but they hang- in long branches, 
and ape succeeded by pods^ which look like blad- 
ders of a greenish colour. 

The leaves are used : some e:ive an infusion of 
them as u purge, but they are very rough : th.ey 
work both upwards and downwards, and are only 
fit for very robu>t constitutions. For such as can 
bear them, they are good against rheumatic pains. 

Senega Tree. Saiica. 

A TREE iVcqucnt in tlie East, and named from 
a gum whic'i it atVords, and which is brought in 
great quantities into Europe. The tree is large 
and spreading ; its trunk is covered w ith a rough 
bark, its branches with a smoother, of a pale brown, 
and they are verv full of thorns. 

The leaves are 1 nge, and they are composed of 
many smaller, set in pairs, very beautifully and 
evenlv about a common rib, with an odd one at the 
end of each rib : they are oblong, and of a beauti- 
ful green. The llowers arc wliiie, and of the 
shape of a pea blossom ; tiie fruit is a large and 
flat pod, jointed or divided into several parts, 
witli seeds in them ; the tree is of (ho acacia kind, 
in many things verv like that wliicli j>ro(Iuces the 



FAMILY HERBAL. SI I 

^uin tirahic, and the gum which is obtained from 
it is ill tiie same mannei' very like that. 

Tiiis gum is the only product of the tree heard 
of in medicine^ and this is not much. It is brought 
over, however^ in great quantities, for the dyers 
use a great dc ul of it. It is in laige lumps, of the 
bigness c.[ an egg ; rough on the surface, but 
glossy and smooth Vrlien broken, ar.d of a pale 
brown colour. It is as easily p.nd entirely dis.solv- 
ed in water as gum arable, and has the same vir- 
tues. It is very seldom called for by name in 
medicine, but it is nevertheless often used, for 
the druggists have a way of breaking the lumps 
to pieces, and putting them among the gum 
arable ; they may be distinguished by their brown 
colour, the true gum arable being white, or yel- 
lowish, if coloured at all, and never having any 
brown in it : some pick these brown pieces out ; 
but, upon a separate trial, ihey are found to be 
&o perfectly of the same nature, that it is a needless 
trou])le. 

OiGiiT Service Tree. Sorbus legltima. 

A TREE wild in some parts of this kingdom^ 
but not known in others, nor even in many of our 
gardens. It grows twenty feet high or more, and 
the branches stand very irregularly. The leaves 
ate each composed of several pairs of smaller, 
set on a common rib, with an odd one at the end 
these are long, narrow, and ficrrated, so that they 
have souic reseiti!)li}nce of the a«ili tree. The 
flowei-s are not large ; they are white, and stand 
in clusters. Each is succeeded by a fruit of the 
shape of a pear, and of the bigtiess of some pears 
of the smaller kind ; these are green, except wherft 



312 FAMILY HERBAL. 

they have been exposed to the sun, where they art 
somelimes reddish ; the taste is very pleasant when 
they are ripe. 

The unripe fruit is ased ; tluy press the juice, 
and give it again?! purgings, but i.^ httle kn)\vn. 

Common Seiivk i. Tiu:?:. Sorbuo vul^^aricj. 

A L.iiiGE tree aiul \er-. i.c^iutifn], its grov/ti;. 
being regular^ and thr ieavc> of an elegant shape ; 
the bark of (lie irvv^i is gicyisii^ and tolerably 
smooth ; on ti.c l)ranchcs it is brown : the leaves arc 
sin":le, larjie. and of a rounded ns^nrc, but divided 
into five, six, or seven parts, pretty dt eply, and 
serrated round the edges ; they are of a bright green 
on the u'jpcr part and whitish underneath. The 
llow-ers are httle and yellowish, and tliey grow in 
cluster:* ; the fruit is small and brown when ripe. 
It gro'ws in bunches. 

Tlic unripe fruit of this service is excelleiit 
against purgings, but it can only be had recourse to 
when in season, tor there is no way of preserving 
tiie virtue in theui all the year. 

SirzriiERD's Pu?.sB. Bursa Paslori^. 

^Vnv. most common ahnost of all v/ild plants^ 
over-running our garden-beds, and eomt-yards. 
The leaves spread up/on the ground, and are long 
somewhat broad, and more or less indented at the 
edges, for in this there is great variation : the stalks 
are round, upright, and (Mght or ten ii.ches high, 
Ihey have few leaves on them. The flow( r:^ stand 
at the tops in little clusters, and they are small and 
white: below there is commonly ' a kiud of sjiike 
».>f the seed-vessels : these are short, broad, and o( 



FAMILY HERBAL. SIS 

he fif^ure of a bap;, or pouch, and ore divided a 
little at the end. Tke seeds are small and yellow- 
ish, and the roots %vhite. 

The juice of Shepherd's pur,-c is coolint^' and 
asirinij^ent ; it is j;x)od against parsing's, wiih siiarp 
and bloody stools ; ai>;air5st the bleedir.i^' of the piles, 
and the overilowinp," of the menses. 

SKiuriET. Sisarum. 

A prvNT kept in our kitclien p^ardens. It 
grows three or four feet high. Tiie stalk is I'ound, 
hollow, striated, ai;d somewhat branched : the leaves 
ai'e each composed of three or live smaller, two or 
four set 0])posilc and one at the end ; they are ob- 
long, serrated at the edges, ;nid sharp pointed ; the 
end leaf is longer ilian the others. I'he flowers are 
liftlc : tiiey stand in round clusters on the tops of 
tiiC branches. The ro(»t is of a singular form ; it 
is con»posed of several long parts like carrots, i hey 
are of a good taste, and some people eat them at 
tiieir tvibles. 

A decoetion of thern works by urine, and is good 
ajxainst the gravel. The roots boiled in milk, are 
an exeellejit reslon-tive to people who have sull'ered 
long illnesses. 

Sloe Tree. Primus si/lveslris. 

T\iT. common low shrub in our hedges, which 
we call the blackthorn , It is a plum-tree in 
miniature. It gr')vvsf]ve or six feet h]p;U ; the trunk 
and branches are '.dl covered with a dark pnr{)lish or 
blacliislj bnrk. The leaves are r&uridish, and of a 
good green, elegantly dentated about tlie edges. 
^J'ise (lowers are small and white. 7'lie fruit is a 

s s 



3ii FAi\]lLY HERBAL. 

iiule plum, of a very aiislere taste when unripe, but 
pkasaut when mellow. 

The juif e expressed from unripe sloes, is a very 
£^()0f! remedy for Huxes of the belly. It may be 
boiled (hnvn to a firm consistence, and will so keep 
the wlioie year. We used to find this dried juice 
kept by druggists under the name of German acacia, 
but thcv neajlect it. 

S.MALLAGE. JpilU)!. 

A COMMON wild j}lant, about ditch sides, 
with the appearance of celery. These are very 
numerous arid lnrfi;e. The stalk rises two feet and 
a half in heifi,ht, and is round, smooth, striated, and 
branched. The leaves on it are like those from the 
root, composed of many small parts, which are 
broad and indented, biit they are smaller. The 
flowers stand in little umbels at the divisions of the 
biaru hes : they are small and of a yellowish white, 
Tiie seeds are small and striated, 'i'he roots arc 
long:, not verv thick, white, and of a strong, but not 
disajxreeable Uistc. 

I'he roots are most.uPcd; a strong' infusion of 
them tresh gnthered, works hrisk'y by urine. It is 
goo;! against the gravel, and in 'aundiees i." d other 
dis».;ise.> .'^rising from obs:)uc tions in the liver and 
*i[d('en. 'i'lic si'eds dried are good against the colic, 
and <!rrngtiien the stomach. 

CoLVMINi: WOOD. 01' SsAKJ-.-WMOO Tfl K. 

I.i'^nv.ni co'iiih! tiinnt. 

A Tu L trr.^ of the (''.;i>f. irii^gnlar in \{f g:t;vvth, 
b.ut nol v.illioiit rranfv. Tiu> bark i-' rough and 
blown; t!ie icavo^; aif i,ifge. bro;id in tiic middle. 



FAMILY HEHBAL. 315 

oblong and sharp at the point. They are of a deep 
green €(»lour^ and iirro substance : the Howers are 
small, they ii'row in c'uslers iij^on the hranches^ jiot 
at their extremities^ but in (lillcrent parts of theni. 
The fruit is larg-e, and inu'.!? of the shape of a 
Avahuit. It k yellow vhcn ripe, and contains a 
g'reat many round tlat seeds. Tiu^se tire e.xactly of 
the shape and form of what we cdl nux vomica, 
but they are not half so big. Some have, for this 
reason, supposed the real nux votniea to be the 
fruit of this tree ; hut it i.s produced by another of 
the same genus. The wood of the smaller branches 
is used : this is what we called lidnum colubrinum, 
adder- wood, and snake-wood. It is famous in the 
East for curing- fevers and destroying worms ; 
they id^o say it is a remedy against the bites of 
serpents, and hence comes its name. We have been 
tempted to give it in some cases ; but it seems better 
suited to the eonjrtitntions of the ])e<>ple an?ong 
whom it grows than to ours : it tnings on con- 
vulsions, if given in too large a dose, or if too fresh. 
It loses its sti^Migth by degrees in keeping ; but 
I don't know how it can be p.-.v^ible to determine 
>vhat dose to give of Hiich a medicine. 

Sneezewout. Plarmica , 

A VERY pretty wild plant with daisy-like 
flowers, and a nonow dentated leaves. It grows 
two feet high. The stalk is round, hrm, upiight, 
and ])at little branched. The leaves are very 
nun.ieroiis, and they stand irregularly ; they are 
an ip.ch or more in length, and very narrow, rough 
to the touch, and of a bright green. The llowers 
stand at the tops of the stalks, so that they form 
a kind of round head : they are less than daises 
aiid their leaves broader. 



316 FAraiLY HERBAL. 

Tlie IcHvcs of sncezoworl, dried and powderod, 
tai;en In way of snuir, are excellent ni^^-Jiinst the 
liead-acli. The roots dried are almost as fiery 
as |)illi((»rv of Siiain, and they cure the tooth-arii 
in the baino ini.r'.ner. A piece held in the n\ouih^ 
fdls it wiUi liieuin in a minute. 

Solomon's Seal. Pol^'^onatuni. 

A PRETTY plant, wild in some places, and 
frequent in i^'arder.s. It g-rows a foot and half 
])i<;iK The stnlk is round, striated,, and of a pale 
piecn ; naked half way up, and from thence to 
V)o tt'j) f^inamentcd "vvilh larofe oval leaves of a 
])Hle L-roen, hhmt, smooth, ribbed, and not at all 
tiulciiUMi at the ed^es. The flowers han.!;' from 
tii(^ under ])jnt of the sf^lk ; they arc small and 
V. !-,iie ; the fiuit is a berry as iiin- ;is a pea, and 
• >!,,' k \^hen ripe. Tlic root is while, obrouf:;, 
irrcmii ir. uiul creeps under tiie sr.rlace of the 
inniaui 

'i he root is Ihe part used : if is conniiended 
t:xti'eu!eiv for an outward application ag;ainst 
bniises. 'J !:e root dried and powdered is ^ood 
ai;;!i):-! pnrLviiu^'s with bloody stools ; and the fres!\ 
r^.')( hcit np iiito a conserve with sugar, agaubt 
the \". lutes. 

SoPEWORT. Sapojiaria. 

A WILD ])lant, ])iit not very common. It is 
two fe(;t liii:']i. Th.e stalk is round, thiclx. ioli'.;r;l, 
and of a p;:le p;r('en ; Ihe knots ai'e l.icue 'fii" 
Kaxes stand two at each j"int ; they ar^* <d an 
oval fii^ui- . e.nd dark urcce. <-<'!ovh\ siu<»()(h, Tsot 
dcnlnted ;.! ;'i;e cdi^Ts, and lull of l;ir<;-e nb"^. The 
li(»\\eiv :-',i. = J iii a kind of < lusters at the tie.is ; 



FAMILY HERBAL. Sll 

they are Avhite or reddish, and not very large ; 
the root is knobbed and Has great many fibres 
running from it : it is of a disagreeable mawkish 
taste. 

The root is nsed ; and it should be fresh taken 
up ; a decoction of it opens obstructions, and pro- 
motes urine and perspiration. It is an excellent 
sweetener of the blood. 

Sorrel. Acdosa. 

A COMMON plant in our meadows, with 
broad and oblong leaves, striated stalks, and red- 
dish tufts of flowers. It is a foot and half high. 
The stalk is round, not very firm, upright and a 
little branched. The leaves are of a deep green, 
angulafed at the base, bhinl at the point, and not 
at a!! indented about the edges. I'e.e flowers stand 
on (lie tops of tlie stalks, in the maniierof those of 
(locks, of wiiich sorrel is indeed a small kind. 
Tiiev are reddish nnd hui^kv ; the root is small 
and fibious ; the whole plant has a sour taste. 

The leaves eaten as a salkid, or the juice taken, 
are excellent against the scurvy. The seeds are 
astringent, and may be i;-iven in powder for fluxes. 
The r(»ot dried an.d powdered, is idso good against 
pm-gings, the overllowing of the menses, and 
l)lt'edings. 

There are two other kinds of soriel, nearly of 
k'.n to this, and of t'le same virtue : one small, 
called sheep's sorrel, corninon on dry banks ; the 
other kiigv. with broad leaves, called garden 
sorrel, or round-kaved sorrel ; this is rather pre- 
ferable to the common kind. Frsidcs tb.ese, there 
is a plant called in English a soirel. so different 
from them all, that it must be described sepa- 
rately. 



318 FAMILY HERBAL. 

Wood Sobuel. Luiula. 

A VERY pretty little plant, common about our 
wood sides^ and disting^uished by its bright green 
elegant leaves, and pretty flowers. The leaves rise 
in considerable number from the same root ; they 
stand three together upon separate, long, and very 
slender foot-stalks, of a reddish colour ; each is of a 
heart-like shape, the broad and indented part hang- 
ing downwards, and the three smaller ends meeting 
on the summit of the stalk. The flowers are 
■whitish, tinged with purple, very bright and de- 
licate ; they stand also on single stalks, and rise im- 
mediately on the root. The seed-vessels are large, 
and when ripe, they burst asunder with the least 
touch, and the seeds fly about. The root is small 
and irregular. 

The leaves are used ; they are to be fresh g-ather- 
ed ; their roots arc very agreeably acid, and the juice 
of tiicm makes a pretty syrup. Tiii' leaves also beat 
up with three timts their weight ol" sugar, make an 
rxcellciit conserve. They are u'ood to rjuencii tliirsts 
in fevers, and they have the same virLue with the 
otiuT ;!.i;,v,hist the scurvy and in sweetening the 
blood, 

SoLTiiEKNvvooD. Abrotanu'iii mas. 

A siiiM im;v plant, na(ive of niniiy parts of 
Eiiiopc. but kept ill our gardens The stem is 
woody, and ti^'.igii, and is rovejed with a brown 
bark. Tiie le.ves are divided into fine slender 
])ar(s, and are of a pale green, whitisli colour, and 
stnjiig s'vuH. The flowers are small and yellowish ; 
they grow in great nmiibers on tlie top of the stalk, 
and arp n;ik.d and of a rojigh appearance. The 
and iA a pale brown. 



FAMILY HERBAL. 319 

The tops of the young branches are used ; a 
decoction of them is good against worms, but it is 
a very disagreeable medicine. Beaten into a con- 
serve with three times their weight of sugar, they 
are not very unpleasant, and they are in this form 
good against nervous disorders, and in all hysteric 
complaints. 

SowTHisTLE. So7ichus aspcr. 

A COMMON weed in our gardens, and about 
our houses. It is three feet high ; the stalk is 
round, thick, green, and upright. The leaves are 
long, and not very broad ; they are indented at the 
edges, and prickly between the indentings. When 
any part of the plant is broken, there runs out a 
milky juice. The flowers are large, and yellow : 
they are somewhat like those of dandelion, and 
stand in a kind of scaly cup. The seeds ^'ave 
down affixed to them. The root is long and 
white. 

The leaves are to be used fresh gathered ; a strong 
infusion of them works by urine, and opens obstruc- 
tions. Some eat them in sallads, but the infusion 
has more power. There arc three or four other 
kinds of sowthistle, common in some places with this, 
and they have all the same virtues, but this has them 
most in perfection. 

Speedwell. I eronica mas 

A COMMON little plant in our dry pastures, 
and on heaths. The stalks are six or eight inches 
long ; the leaves are short, and of an oval figure. 
The stalks are not upright : they trail along the 
ground, only rising at thin upper parts. Tiic 
W*,\iiv, are of a pale green colour, a little hairy. 



3^ FAMILY HERBAL. 

and dentated at the cdg-es : the flowers are small 
and bkie ; they grow in slender spikes, arising 
from the bosoms of the leaves ; the root is small 
and fibrous. 

The whole herb is nsedy and it is best fresh, An 
infusion of it drank in quantities, works by urine, 
and opens all obstructions : it promotes the menses. 
There was an opinion lately that lliis p\y,\-i would 
cure the gout, ilie dried leaves picked from the 
stalks, were sold ui ouv PKukcts, and people made a 
tea of them. The opinion was so prev;.lent, that 
the plant was in a manner destroyed ior many 
miles ab^ut London, br.l like ail (jther things, 
that want the trulii icr tlicir fourdaiion, it came to 
nothing'. 

Sprignel. il Inim. 

A WILD plant not alt(v.:;Tther unlike fennel. 
It grows two or three feet high. The stalks are 
round, rtriatod, and briinciied. The leaves are 
kirge, and divided like ll.ose of feimel, but into 
narrower and finer ]nitts, and tliey are of a very 
dark giei-n colour. The {lowers are little and 
Avhile, but they stand in clusters at the tops of the 
stalks, and are conspicious by their number. The 
root is long and broNvn, and there are always a 
quantity of filaments at tlie head of it like hairs: 
these ■Air (tie fii)re=; of (he si;dks of forme)" leaves. 

'i'he ro;)t is used, and it is best fresh taken up. 
An infusion of it is excellent medicine in the gravel ; 
it also ()))ens obstructions, and })romotes the menses. 
The root dried and given in powder strengthens the 
stomach, creates an appetite, and is good against 
the colic. 



FAMILY HERBAL. 321 

Spinag e . Sp ina ch ia . 

A COMMON herb in our kitcl^en gardens. It grows 
Xwo feet high ; the stalk is rounds thick, and juicy ; 
the leaves are broad and cleft at the bases, so that 
they resemble a broad arrow head : the flowers are 
iticonsiderable ; the seeds grow on other plants of 
tiie same kind;, and are rough and pritkly : the root 
h white and oblong. 

The leaves are eaten at our tables ; but their 
juice may very well l)e recomn^.ended as a medi- 
cine. It works by urine, and is good jjgainst the 
gravel. I'hc leaves e;ilen frequently, keep the body 
open. 

Spleenwort. yh-plcii han . 

A SINGULAR plant, of the nature of tlic ferns, 
but not unlike any of them in form. The root 
is fibrous. From this tlie leaves rise in great num- 
bers togetlier, each being a distinct and separate 
plant ; they are narrow, and five inches long, deeply 
indented on each side, but very irregularly, and 
covered on the under part with small seeds. When 
they first grow from the root, they are folded in- 
ward, so that only the under part appears ; and they 
have a very peculiar aspect, more like some insect 
than the leaf of a [)lant. It grows on old walls, 
and is green all the winter, but \l has most virtue in 
spring. 

The whole plant is used. It is best given in in- 
fusion, and must be continued for some time ; it 
opens all obstructions of (he liver and spleen, and is 
excellent in disorders arising from that cause. They 
say (he powder of the dried leaves cures the ricket«, 
hut this wants proof, 

T t 



322 FAMILY HERBAL. 

Indian SriiiENARD. Nardus Indiea. 

An East Ind'um plants of the ^rass kind, with 
triangular stalks, and yellowish flowers. It re- 
sembles not a little that common yellow tufted grass, 
which is frequent in our meadows in spring*. It is 
six or eight inches high. The leaves are long, 
narrow, and of a pale green ; they are very numer- 
ous, and stand in a thick tuft almost growing together 
at the bases. The stalks rise among these ; they are 
naked, triangular, and of a pale, green colour ; the 
flowers stand in tufts, of the bigness of an horse- 
bean, on the tops of the stalks ; they are blackish, 
but ornamented with yellow threads, which give the 
whole a yellowish appearance. This is the plant, 
some samples of which have been of late brought 
over as the Indian spikenard, and there is reason 
and authority for supposing they are so. The tops 
of the roots have that sort of tuft of hairy matter, 
which we call Indian spikenard, growing to them ; 
and it is of the nature of the hairy top of the spignel 
root, owing to the fibres of decayed leaves. Breynius 
also calls the plant which affords the Indian spikenard, 
a kind of cyperus grass. 

The tuft of fibres at the tops of the root of thisr 
plant, is what we call Indian spikenard ; they are 
l)rown, flattishj matted together, and of a pleasant 
smell : they are good in disorders of I he nerves, and 
hysteric cases ; but so many better medicines are at 
hand, that it is rarely used. 

Sponge. Spojii^-ia. 

A SEA plant of a very singular kind and form. 
It has neither leaves, stalks, nor branches, nor has 
it the colour or aspect of our ordinary plants. 
It more u{-]}n>achc:» l() tlie nature of the mushrooms. 



FAMILY HERBAL. 323 

than of any other of the vegetable kinds. It grows 
to the rocks, and swells out to an irregularly shaped 
mass of matter, full of holes, of a yellowish colour, 
and retaining a great deal of water, which is easily 
pressed out, and is received again on dipping 
it again in the wet. It is of a roundish figure, 
and sometimes hollow. Sponge in the shape of 
a funnel is frequently seen, and has been described 
as a particular species ; but this is only an accident 
in the growth. 

It would be very imprudent to swallow sponge 
in its natural form ; but calcined, it is of excellent 
service to sweeten the blood, and is g-ood a»:ainst the 
scurvy, and the evil : great care is to be taken in 
the burning it. It must be made brittle and fit for 
powdering, but if it be calcined too long, all the 
volatile parts will be driven off, and it will be worth 
nothing. 

Great Spurge. Esula major 

We have many kinds of spurge wild in England, 
and some of them large enough ; but this used in 
medicine is a different species. It is native of 
Germany, and is kept in our gardens. It grows a 
yard high ; the stalk is round, thick, reddish, and 
divided into branches. The louvcs are numerous, 
and stand irregularly ; they are narrow and of a 
pale green, and are broadest at the end. The flowers 
are little, and of a pale yellow, but the seed-vessels 
are large, and make a conspicuous figure on the 
tops of the branches. The root is very thick and 
long ; it consists of a firm heart covered with a thick 
rind. The whole plant, when broken, affords a 
milky acrid juice. 

The bark of the root is used dry ; and even in 
that state is very rough in its operation. It worku 



321 FAMILY HERBAL. 

by stool and vomit, and is g-ood in the rheumatism 
and dropsy ; but it is not every constitution that can 
bear the use of such remedies. 

Lesser Spuiige. Esula minor. 

A LESSER plant tiian the former, but suflieicntiv 
To!)ust ; it is a native of the same })art of the world, 
but is common in our f:^arden3. It is a foot I)ig!). 
The leaves are Ionii;ish and very narrow, but 
rounded at the end : the stalks are thick, round, and 
red ; the flowers are small and \ellovv ; and the seed- 
vessels lar^^e and three cornered. The whole plant 
is full of a sharp milky juice, but most oi all the 
root. 

The bark of the root is \\),q.{\. It works })y \onnr 
and stool as the former ; but though with less violence, 
yet too rough for most constitutions. It is g'ood iu 
the rheumatism. 

SQLiLL. S cilia. 

A VERY common plant by the sea side in Italy 
and other parts of Europe, but not niitive of 
this country. It grows a yard high, and when 
in flower, k very beautiful ; the stalk is thicks 
round, fleshy, and green, or else reddish. The 
flowers are white ; tiiey arc small but they have 
their beauty. 'J'hey stand in a long spike down 
a diird part of die stalk ; the leaves are very large 
and long ; they are of a deep green colour, nnd 
grow iuunediately from the root ; tlu; root is 
round, and of a pomul weight ; it is' comp(vsed 
lil'fj an onion of many coats one ov^r another. 
a\ul is full of an iierid slimy juice. The colour 
i>s white or red, and they call it the while ur red 
squill. 




V /,'^/.*',fv 



FAMILY HERBAL. S25 

The root is used dried, or infused in vinep^ar or 
vf'ine, and that atterwards made into a syrup with 
honey. These three preparations are called the 
wine of squills, vine^i^'ar of squills, and oxymel 
of squills ; they are all good against asthmas, 
and difficulty of ])reathing. 'I'lie oxymel is most 
given for this purpose ; the vinegar causes vomit- 
ing, and cleanses (lie stonyach ; the wine of squills 
works by urine, and is irood against the jaundice and 
dropsy. 

S'i A [iwo RT. Aster a 'icus 

A COMMON wild plant, in many parts of Europe 
and in the Grecian islands, but not here : we 
liave it in gardens. It is a foot and half high. 
The stalk is round, hairy, and branched ; the 
leaves are oblong, moderately broad, and rounded 
at the ends, and of a dusky green. The fiovvcrs 
are yellow and large ; they resemble die marigold ; 
it is singular that there stand some leaves under 
this flower disposed into rays like a star ; the root is 
Jong. 

The fresh' leaves are used ; and that only ext(;r- 
nally. Bruised, and laid on as a pultice, they are a 
<ine for buboes, and other hard swellings. The plant 
is called also ingunialis, from its peculiar effect in dis- 
sipating buboes of the groin. 

Star Thistle. Calcitj^apa. 

A WILD plant on our heaths, but not verv 
common. It is two feet high, and extremely 
branched ; the stalks are round, hard, and whitish, 
'^riie princi{)al leaves rise from the root, and are 
disposed in a circular manner on the ground. 
'I'liey are O))tong, and divided along the sides 



3^ FAMILY HERBAL. 

quite to the middle rib : there are some smaller 
on the stalkj but few. The flowers are numerous : 
they are red, and of the form of the flowers of thistles. 
They grow out of a scaly and thorny head. The 
seeds are winged with down. The root is 
oblong. 

The root is used ; a strong infusion of it is ex- 
cellent against the gravel, and is good also in the 
jaundice. It opens obstructions, and works by 
urine. 

Starry Headed Anise Tree. Anisum Stel- 
la tian. 

A TALL and very beautiful tree, native of the 
East, and much esteemed tiiere. The trunk is 
covered with a thick bark : the branches are 
irregular and spreading. The leaves are very 
large and beautiful ; they are composed each of 
ten or twelve pair of others set on a common rib, 
with an odd one at the end ; they are longish, 
broad, serrated at the edges, and pointed at the 
ends, and are of a beautiful pale green colour, 
and of a fragrant smell when bruised, such as that 
we perceive in the young leaves of the walnut 
tree, but with a mixt\u*e of somewhat aromatic. 
The flowers stand at the tops of the branches, on 
divided pedicles ; they are white and very fra- 
grant. The fruit is of a singular figure, of the 
shape of a star, and of a woody substance ; it is 
composed of five or more rays, and in each is a 
single, smooth, brown seed. They have the smell 
of aniseed, and thence have been called by the 
name, for there is not the least resemblance be- 
tween the plants which produce the two ; one 
being a small herb, and the other a large and fine 
tree. 



FAMILY HERBAL. 321 

The fruit is only used, and we sometimes sec it at 
the drui^gists ; if the present practice encourag-ed 
it we mi^lit have it common enough : and it is one 
of those drugs which we neglect, while we are 
fond of such as do not deserve the distinction. It is 
an excellent medicine against coldness of the stomach, 
colics, and those head-achs which arise from indi- 
gestion. It also works powerfully hy urine ; and with 
it possesses all the virtues of aniseed and many 
others ; and even in a very superior degree : it has 
not its disagreeable flavour. An oil drawn 
from it by distillation, is sweet and excellent ; it has 
all the virtues of our oil of aniseed, but not its dis- 
agreeable taste, and it does not congeal like it in cold 
weather. 

Staves-Acre. Staphis agria. 

A VERY pretty plant, native of Italy, and kept 
in our gardens. It is two feet and a half high. 
The stalk is round, thick, firm, and upright, and 
a little hairy. The leaves are of a roundish figure 
but divided deeply into seven parts, and these serrated 
at the edges ; they are large, and of a deep green, 
and stand on long foot-stalks. The flowers are of a 
deep blue, large^ and very like the flowers of 
lark -spur : they grow in a spike at the tops of the 
stalks ; the seed-vessels arc notched, and the seeds 
rough. 

The seeds are used. Some venture te give them 
inwardly in small doses against the rheumatism, and 
the venereal disease. They operate by vomit and 
stool, and bring a great cpiantity of water from the 
mouth. The powder of them is most used to kill 
vermin, by sprinkling it on children's heads that have 
been kept uncleanly. 



328 FAMILY HERBAL. 

Golden SroECiiis. Stcechas citrina. 

A PREiTY plant, nntive in the warmer parts of 
Europe, and kept in our gardens. It is a shrubby 
herb^ two i'cet high, and keeps its leaves all the year. 
The stem is woody ; the leaves stand thick on the 
Io\ver branches, and they are longish, narrow, and 
vvhiiisli, especially on the under side. The llowers 
are yellow, and stand at the tops of the stalks ; they 
are dry and chatfy, and may be kept for a long time. 
The whole plant has an agreeable smell, when rubbed 
between the fingers. 

The leafy stalks are used ; their tops are best, and 
those fresh gathered : an infusion of them works by 
urine, and oj)ens obstructions. It is good in jaun- 
dices, and obstructions of the menses. 

There is another plant called Arabian stoechas, or 
French lavender. It has been described already under 
the head of lavender, to ^^hicil it belongs, for it is 
altogether dilierent from this plant. 

Stokax TiiEK. Sljjrax arbor. 

A SMALL tree, native of the East, and some 
parts of Europe ; but in Europe it yields none of 
the resin we call slorax. We have it in some 
gardens. It is twenty feet hig'i ; the trunk is 
covered with a brown bark : that (m the branches 
is greyi.sli ; the leaves are of a brownish or a dusky 
green on the upper side, and whitish underneath : (lie 
llowiMs are white and large ; the fruit is like a nut, 
rfimidi::li and h'itie, and is c(»vered with a woolly coat ; 
three of tlie llnwers grow together usually, and arc 
succeeded by three of these. 

We use no part of the tree, but a resinous sub- 
stance, whirli is j)ro(!nred from it. This is kept 
it till.' (!riiL;-i>t-. aiid is re'IdUlt aiid vX a fragrant 



FAMILY HERBAL. 329 

smell but very foul. It is sjood in all diseases of the 
breast and lungs, being an excellent balsani. It is 
also good in all nervous and hysteric ^complaints, and 
it promotes the menses. 

Si'RAwru'MiY Plant. Fragaria. 

A \Y.\\\' common little plant, both in our ^voods 
and gardens. The leaves stand three up^M each 
stalk, and they are large, broad, sliarp at the point, 
and serrated about the edges ; the stalks trail upon 
tlie ground, and take root at the joints : the (lowers 
are wliite ; they stand lour or five together upon a 
long stalk rising from the root and without any 
veins : they are white, and moderately large ; the 
fruit is well known. When ripe it is red, and of an 
agreeable taste. 

The fresh leaves are used ; an infusion of them is 
good liquor to wash a sore mouth or throat ; taken 
in large quantities, it works by urine, and is g'ood 
against the jaundice. 

Sl'Ccorv. diicJiorcum. 

A COMMON plant in our garc--iu'^. It is near 
a vard high, but of no great beauty. The stalk 
is round, striated, thick, green and strong. The 
pi incipal leaves grow from the rout ; they are long, 
narrow, and deeply indented, and are of a bluish 
green, and hairy ; those on the stalks are smaller, 
and have no foot-stalks. The flowers are of the 
.shape of those of dandelion, but they are blue : 
the seed is winged with down. The flowers grow 
to the sides of the stulks, not at the lops, as in 
dandelion. The root is long and brown on the 
surface ; it is full of a milky juice, and white 
within. 



23Q FAMILY HERBAL. 

The root Is used ; an infusion of it opens oh- 
«tmcfjoiKs ; it is i^ood ai2;ainst the jaundice. A de- 
coction cf the whole pliint, fresh i^athered, works 
powerfully by urine, and is f^ood against the graveh 
It also gently promotes the menses. 

Sugar Ca>:e Arundo saccharifera. 

A KIND of reed, native of the East and West 
Indies, of the Canary islands, and of some other 
places ; and cultivated in all our plantations. It 
is eight or ten \'itiii high. The stalk is rounds 
hollow, hard, jointed^ and upright ; it is very like 
thiit of a common reed, only so much thicker. 
The leaves arc like those of the reed, but vastly 
larger ; and the flowers arc in the same manner, dry, 
brown, and chatYy, but the cluster of tlieui is a 
yard long ; the roots are long, creeping, and jointed 
in the manner of the stalk. In very hot countries 
the sugar will sweat out at the cracks of (lie stalks, 
and stand in form of a bright powder ; tliis is nntive 
sugar, and is what the antients meant when they 
talked of honey growing upon reeds. We press out 
the juice, and boil it to the consistence of brown 
sugar, which is afterwards refined, and becomes the 
white powder or ioaf-sugar. 

'It were idle to talk of the virtues of sugar, its 
uses are sufliciently known, and are very great. 

Su.M.4CH RJiUS, 

A SHRUB, native of warmer countries, but 
common in our gardens. It ia of a singular ap- 
pearance. It doses not grov/ more than ten or 
twelve feet high ; the wood is brittle, and t!ie bark 
is brown. The leaves are long and very beautiful, 
each consists of a great many pairs of smaller 



FXMll.Y IIERDAf. 331 

leave?, "wilh an odd one st ihc end ; thc>? are sin£-Iy, 
oblong", and of a dark green, and serratcrd at the 
edges. The flowers are %vhite ; ihey groM- in very 
large., thick, and long clusters, and are succeeded 
by flat seeds, hairy and roundish and of an austere 
astringent taste, Tliere are several other kinds of 
sumach in the gardens of curious people, some of 
them much more beautifui^ hut tliis is the kind that 
is to be preferred for its medicinal virtues. 

The seeds, dried and powdered, stop purgings, 
and the overflowings of ihe menses. The fresh 
tops have also great effect in strengthening the sto- 
mach and bowels ; they are best taken in infusion. 
The ])ark of the loot has the same virtue ; but the 
seeds have it in the greatest degree. 

S WALLOW- wo RT. ^4sclepias. 

A COMMON plant in gardens, but native of 
the warmer climates. It is two feet high. Tiie 
stalks are round, slender, of a dark colour, and 
jointed ; the leaves are large and longi'-h, and of 
a deep green ; they stand tv,'o at each joint. The 
flowers are ^mall and white^ and each is succeeded 
by two pods growing together ; the root is fibrous 
and spreading. 

The root is u?ed ; an infusion of it fresli is good 
against f.he jaundice ; it works by urir.e and opens 
obstructions. Dried and given in powder, it ope- 
?alr<. •■} 5\-r;'t, and is good in IV-ver:-. 



TACA:.;.i;i\f- Tni-;?:. j'acc;:riahaca. 

A T '.nc-F, ^]}i] beautiful tree, nztive of the 
East, and of Ain erica. It i-; fifty or sixty feev 



S32 FAMILY HERBAL. 

high. The hark is brown on the trunk, and j^rcy- 
ish on the brunches. The leaves are large and 
long'ish^ sharp-pointed, and dcntated at the edg'es ; 
tliey are of a dusky green on the upper side, and 
brownish underneath. The flowers are incon- 
sideiable and }eil:)wish. The fruit is small and 
round, l^he buds of the tree are very fragrant ; 
a brown kind of resin issu<>w from them, which 
sticks to the lingers^ and this has that pleasant 
smell. 

We use no part ol' the tree, but a resin wliich is 
produced fiom it. The druggists keep this. It is 
brown ; souse of it is in grains^ and some in a 
mass, it is n cd oidy externally ; a plaister luiide 
of it, spread on leat'ser. is applied to (he foiv- 
}ie:;d tig.iiisst tlie head-ach ; and to the nfivcl in 
Ii\stc;ic cuics^ but it does not seem to have much 
eihcacv 

TAMARl>r, TliEL. T<ni!Cr}U:IuS 

A X KRv pretty tree, native both of the Enst 
;;nd VV^est huiies, and kept in many of our gardens. 
The trunk is covered with a pale coloured rough 
bark ; the blanches Avith a smootlicr. The leaves 
;uc eiich com})osed of a great many pairs of smaller, 
disj)osed on a common rib, with no odd one at the 
end. They are small, oval, and of a pale or 
\\!»!tish green. The flowers are large, an.d very 
I)rettv ; they are part vel'.ow, and ])art white ; the 
white leaves of them stainid often AAithrcvl. Tliey 
stiuid in cinsters, half a dozen together. The fruit 
is a ili.t ])od, l>road, brown, and hard ; these contain 
a pul{)v su!)st<nicc, and the seeds a stringy maitei 
with lliem. 'i'iie pulp, strings, and i^ri'ih aie 
})r()Uglit over to a-;, Jii'd tlie paip i-~ separated for 
use : it is of a plea -ant acid taste, and is a gent'c 



FAMILY HERBAL. 333 

and excellent purge ; it works also by urine. It is 
good in the jaundice. The pulp is useful also to cool 
the mouth, and quench thirst in fevers. It is not 
much used singly as a purge. 

Tamarisk. Taiiiarisciis. 

A LITTLE tree, frequeiU wild in France, and kept 
in our gardens : it grows, however, nnich larger in 
its .native ciiuiate tht-n licre, T!io bark is brown on 
the trunk, and paler on the branches, and the young 
shoot' are red and very slehdcr. The leaves are 
very beautiful ; thcv are of a fnic l)rig!it green, 
delicately divided into small parts, and regular. 
The flowers a)e very small and red ; init they stand 
in spikes, and verv close together ; aiid :is four or five 
of these splke< also often stand togethicr, they are very 
conspicuous ; the seeds are small, atui lodged in a 
downy substance. 

The bark is used dried, and the tops of the 
branches fresh ; both have the same viitne ; the 
<^tne is l)est in decoction, the other in a light in- 
iiision, made in the marmer of lea. l^ither is good 
to open obstiuctions. Tiiev ])ronio(e the menses, 
are uood in iV.c jaundice, and it is said against the 
ji(kets. 

Tan:-;y. Tarari Inm. 

\ COMMON plant in our garcitns. It is a 
\'A\<\ hii'!i : the stalks are round, finn, uj)]'ight, 
and of a pale green ; the leaves are r,(rg<% oV^iong, 
broad, and very beautifully formed ; tliey are each 
com})osed of several pairs of smaller, set mi each 
'-ide of a conmion ril), with an odd leaf at the end. 
'I'hese are narrow, long, ])oin;ed, and serrated at 
the edges. The llowers stand in large chisler-; at 



531 FAMILY HERBAL. 

the tops of the stalks, and they are roundish, 
yellow, and naked. The root is a cluster of large 
creepini^ fibres. The whole plant has a strong^ 
snicM. 

The Iciivcs are to be usqd fresh feathered ; a strong 
infui^ion of them opens obstructions ; it works pow- 
erfully by urine, and gently promotes the menses. 
The llowers dried, powdered, and mixed with treacle, 
are a common medicine for worms, and they visibly 
destroy them. 

Wild Tansv. Argoituia. 

A com::on wild plant about oar way aldch^ 
and a girat ornament to them. It rises to no. 
height. The stalks creep upon the ground, and 
take root at the joints ; but it is easily distinguish- 
ed by its silvery leaves and yellow flowers. The 
stalks are round and reddish. The leaves rise 
from these ; they are very large, and each com- 
po5>cd of a great many pair of smaller set on both 
sides cf a common rib, with an odd one at the 
end. They are of the shape, and much of the 
s.izc of the leaves of tansy ; and the smaller leaves of 
'^\hich they are composed, ;nv oblong, narrow, and 
serrated ; but th»-y arc of a most beautiful colour ; 
•■i fine jjiivcry grecii on ('no upj)cr side, and a 
pel fcrt silvery wiiile on (he under. The flowers 
'Aiiud on .short foot s(al!\^, and are lar,'ve and yellow, 
somewhat like the flov.crs of the crow-foots, but 
n)ore beautiful. 

'I'he leaves are u.sed ; a strong infusion of them 
is given willi suree-^s against the bleeding of the 
piles, and bloi.dv stools : and made less strong and 
sweetened a liltle with honey, it is excellent for a sore 
tiiroat. 'i'he women nsc it, also to take away freckle^, 
but this seems idle. 



FAMILY HERBAL, 23^ 

Tarrago.n. Dracimcidus. 

A COMMON plant in our gardens. It is two 
feet high. The stalk is round, upright, firm, and 
green ; the leaves are very numerous, and stand 
irregularly. They are longish and very narrow, 
and of a deep green colour ; the flowers are 
little and greenish, in form like those of wormwood : 
they stand in spikes at the tops of the stalks. The 
whole plant has a strong smell, somewhat like 
fennel. 

An infusion of the fresh tops v.orks by urine, and 
gently promotes the menses. 

Tea. Thea. 

A «[iRUB, native of tb.e East, and cherished there 
with great care, II is six or seven feet high ; the 
branches are •*lender ; the leaves are numerous, 
oblong, serrated round Ihe edges, and sharp pointed. 
The flowers are as big as onir.ge flowers, and white ; 
they stand in a very small tup : the fruit is dry, and 
of the bigness of a nut, containing one, two, or three 
cells. 

All the kinds of tea are the leaves of this shrub ; 
they only differ as ihey are gatl'.ered in ditferent 
states : thebohea tea i.- gritl.ered vvhen the leaves are 
in the bud, and more heat is used in drying it. 
The several soils of green are got from the young 
shoots or older branches, in spring, in summer, or ia 
autumn, and dried with different degrees of care, ac- 
cording to their value. 

Good green tea, drank moderately, strengthens 
the stomach, and assists digestion ; it is good 
again.st sicknesses, aiid will prevent the coiic : but 
when bad tea is drank, and a great deal of it, 
»othing is more pernicious. Bohea tea is more 



33a FAMILY HERBAL. 

astrino'cnt, and it is restorative and strcngllieniiig' ; 
this should be drank with cream^ but with only a 
moderate quantity of suij^ar. 

Teazle. Dipsacus sj/lvcstris. 

A TALL and ftatcly plant, common bv road 
Bides, with large bur-like lieads, and little red 
flowers growing out of them. It is six feet high : 
the stalk is single, thick, white, and very strong*. 
The leiucs grow two t>)gether, enroinpa!:>sing the 
stalk at their base, and make a holl;)w there which 
"will hold water : tliey are prickly on the under part 
along the rib. Tiie heads are as big as an apple, 
and somewhat o'olong : they are of a pale colour. 
The root is long. 

The root is used ; it is bitter, and given in infu- 
sion, strengthens tliC stomach and creates an appetite. 
It is also good against obsiruclions of the liver, and 
the jaundice ; people have an o})inion of the water 
that stands ia the hollow of tlie leaves being good to 
take away freckles 

There is anol'ier kiud of teazle, called the ma- 
nured teazle. Hje hvnds are used in dressing of 
cloth ; the virtues are Mie sa-ne, and they dillcr very 
little in their gtnerai form. 

Ble^-'EO 'r:;.,-;r!;. ( ardiiu.^ bcnaUctus. 

A plant r.ii.'i' in gicat (\sleem, ar.d at present 
not altogetl.)'!' r.;^;;; i-i.c'tl. U is a native of the 
warmer coiiri'nc ;. and is r;;i ><'{l with ns in gardens. 
It is tv.(t feel l;igh ; liie sUdk i.s reddish, slender, 
and weak ; v< r\ mucli branched, auil scarce able 
to keep ejjriglit. under the weight of leaves and 
heads. Tlu" haves are long, narrow, cut in oi\ 
both sid'.'s, and of an obscure green. The tlow- 



FAMILY HERBAL, 337 

crs are yellow ; they stand in a kind of green leafy 
heads : the little leaves composing these heads 
are prickly ; and each of the cups cf the flowers 
ends in a long brown spine, dented on both ^ides. 

It is bitter and stomachic. An infusion of it 
l^ken in large quantities, will excite vomiting : 
in smaller draughts, it is good to create an appe^ 
tile, and prevents sicknesses and Teachings. The 
leaves, dried and powdered, are good against worms. 
it was at one time suppossed to possess very great 
virtues against fevers of all kinds : but that is 
now* disregarded. 

Milk Thistle, Carduus maH(S 

A VERY beautiful plant, common by road- 
sides, but wanting only to have been a native of 
Greece, or the Indies, to be esteemed one of the 
most elcgaat vegetables in the world. The leaves 
rising from the root are two feet long, and more 
than a ftiot broad, of a beautiful deep green, varie- 
gated all over witli irregular lines of a milk white, 
dentated deeply at the edges, and prickly. They 
spread tliemselves into a round of more than a yard 
diameter, and when they grow out of the way of 
dust, make a most charming appearance. A single 
stalk rises in the midst of these. It is five feet 
high, round, thick, veiy fiim, upriglit, and divided 
•/it the top into a few branches. Tlie leaves on it 
are like those from the root, and variegated with 
white in the same manner. At the tops stand the 
ilovvers, which are of the nature of those of other 
thistles, but twice as big, and vastly more beau- 
tiful. Tlic flowery part is of a deep and fine pur- 
ple ; the head itself is composed of beautiful scales 
-irranged with great regularity, and each termi- 

21 % 



338 FAMILY HERBAL. 

nating in a single and very strong prickle ; the root 
is long- and thick ; the seeds are winged with down. 

The root and seeds are ii^rd. An infusion of 
the fre?h root removes obstructions, and works by 
urine ; it is g-ood against the jaundice. The seeds 
beaten up into an emulsion with barley-water are 
good in pleurisies. The young leaves with the 
prickles cut off, nre excellent boiled in the way of 
cabbage ; they are very wholesome^ and exceed all 
Other greens in taste. 

Thorn Afple. Stramoniurti. 

A VERr beautiful plant, native of warmer 
climates, but frequent m our gardens ; we some- 
times meet with it, as it is called, wild ; but it is no 
native of our country. Seeds have been scattered 
from gaidens. 

It is three feet high ; th.e stalk is rotind, thick, 
and divided into many branches. The leaves arc 
very large, oblong, broad, and of a bright green : 
dividcti at tlie edges, and of a pretty appearance, 
but a very ill smell. I'he flowers are very large, 
and white ; th«\y are hollow, and long ; open, and 
r.ngulatcd at tiic brin\ The fruit is as big as a 
lurire walnut, and is covered with prickles ; the 
root is very long and thick, white, and of an ill 
smell. 

The leaves are used externalh* ; the countrv 
peoj)lc lay them upon burns and inflammations ; but 
this is not always saf?. The root and seeds are 
"f :i sleepy quality ; but they arc not though.t wife 
iv) 'jc given inwardly. Opium is a less dangerou* 
medicine, so they are not used. 



FAMLIY HERBAL. ^ 



Goat's TiioRN. Tragacantha.. 

A LITTLE white looking prickly shrub, native 
of the East, but kept in our gardens. It is not 
above two or three feet high, very spreading and 
full of branches. The stem is of a tougli and very 
firm substance, covered with a whitish rough bark, 
the branches are as tough, and the bark is pale 
but smoother. The leaves are long and narrow ; 
they are each compo.-^cd of a great many pairs of 
smaller set o:i a middle rib, which is continued 
into a thorn, and when these leaves fall olT, remains 
u white thorn of that leu2;th. The fiowers arc 
white and small ; they are of the shape of a pea 
blossom, but flatter ; the pods which follow are 
sliort and flat. 

JNo part of the shrub itself is used, but we have 
a gum produced by it, and called by its name in 
the shops ; this is what they also call gum dragant, 
it is white and tough and is in long twisted piece>i ; 
it sweats out of the bottom of the trunk in the heat 
of summer. It is good in coughs arising *'rom a 
sharp humour : and in sharpness of urine, and 
sharp stools, but it is a disagreeable medicine ; it 
is very difficultly powdered, and the solutioa is npt 
pleasant. 

TnoRouGiiw.vx. Pcrfoliata, 

A VERY beautiful wild plant among our corn, 
di.'^linguished by the stalk growing through the 
leaves. It is three feet high. The stalk i.^ 
round, firm, upright, whitish, and toward the top 
divided into some branches. The leaves arc broaa 
r?nd evaj • the stem runs thrpugl^ them tywafi tht 



340 FAMILY HERBAL. 

bottom, for tliey liavc no foot stalks, and the}' sur- 
round it in their largest part, ending in a blunt 
])oint. They are of a bluish green colour^ and 
not dented at the edges. The flowers are little and 
yellow, they stand in cluf^ter.'^, or a kind of umbels 
af the tops of the branclics, with a parcel of small 
leaves placed undej: them. The root is white, oblong, 
and slender. 

''I'he leaves are ii«ed by the country y'cople 
against wounds and bruises externally, the seeds are 
given inwardly, to prevent the ill effects of interna! 
hurts. 

TrTYML, Thjjmus. 

A COMMON plant in our kitchen gardens, 
■with hard and woody stalks, small leaves, and pale 
red flowers. The height i« eight or ten inches ; 
tlie blanches are numerous. The leaves stand two 
at each joint, and arc of a dusky green ; the flow- 
ers are disposed in a kind of shoyi't spikes at the tops 
of the stalks ; the whole plant has a strong smell, 
and an aromatic taste. 

A tea made of the fresh tops of thyme, is good 
in asthmas, and stuffings of the lungs ; it is recom- 
mended against nervous complaints ; but for this 
purpose (he wild thyme, called motlier of thyme, is 
preferable. There is an oil made from tlivnie that 
cures ihe tooth-ach, a drop or two of it being put 
unon lint and apjdied to the tooth : this is com- 
monly called oil of origanum. 

Toad Flax. lAnaria. 

A COMMON wild plant, with narro.-/ btuish 
Vavcs, and thick spikes of yellow flowers It grows 



FAMILY HERBAL. 341 

on dry banks, and is a foot and half high. The stalk 
is round and thick, firm, upright, and single. The 
leaves stand irregularly ; they are oblong", narrow, 
smooth, not dented at the edges, and pointed at 
the ends : the flowei^ stand in a short and tiiick spike ; 
they ai«e large, and many of them are generally open 
together ; they have a spur behind, and their forepart 
is of two yellows, a darker in the middle, and a paler 
on each side. 

The tops are used fresh gathered, or the whole 
herb dried. An infusion of them is excellent 
against the jaundice, and all inward obstructions ; 
it gently promotes the menses, and works by urine. 
A fine cooling ointment is made by boiling the fresh 
plant chopped to pieces in lard, till it be crisp ; the 
lard is then to be strained off, and is of a fine green 
colour. 

Tobacco. Nlcotlana, 

A TALL and beautiful plant, native of the Wo^t 
Indies, but kept in our gardens. It is five feet 
high ; the stalk is round, thick, upright, single, and 
a little hairy. It has a clammy dampness about it, 
by which it sticks to the hands in touching. The 
leaves are very large, oblong, and pointed at the 
ends. They are of a dusky green colour, and feel 
also clammy like the stalk. The ilowcrs are red 
and large ; they are long, hollow, and open at the 
mouth. The seed-vessel is oval, and the seeds arc 
small. 

The leaves are good fresh or dried. A slight 
infusion of them fres^h gathered is a powerful 
vomit ; it is apt to work too roughly, but for con- 
stitutions that will bear it, is a good medicine 
against rheumatic pains. An ointment made of the 
fresh ones with lard, is good against the inilam- 



343 FAMILY HERBAL. 

nmtion of the plles^ the distilled oil is sometimes 
dropped on cotton to cure the tooth-ach, applying 
it to the tooth ; the powder kills all kinds of vermin. 
As to the custom of chcwint^ and taking it as snuff, 
little can be said for them, from practice, and nothing" 
fi"om reason : nor much for smokinij-. If these ens- 
t«^ms had any good tendency, it would be taken off by 
the constant practice. 

Tiicre is a lesser, greener kmd of tobacco, called 
English tobacco. It has the same virtues with the 
oilier, but in a more remiss degree. The leaves are 
o[['.m sold for those of the other. 

ToRMENTiL. Tormenlilla. 

A VERY common wild plant, but very prett;\ 
snd of r>reat virtue. The stalks are eij?-ht inches 
loiig, but they don't c;t:ind ui>tigiit. They are very 
sic'iider, round, and of a brownish colour. Tlic 
jcaves stand sevcii or thereabout togeiher at a joint, 
sii filing from one base ; they are narrovv, longish, 
pointed at the ends, and :-errated at the edges, and 
of a {.itii-p green. The llowers are small, but of a 
beautiful shining yeilorv' : they grow on slender 
f(»Ot .stalks, and are of die shape and colour of the 
crow-f(K»t flowers, only more beautiful ; and much 
less. ''J'hc roots are large, thick, and crooked, brown 
en llic outside, and reddish within, and of an austere 
t<;:,fe. 

'j lie v<:>oi is the part used, and it is best dried ; it 
may he given in powder, or decoction. The pow- 
der is excflienf against the bleeding of the piles, 
l)!ooflv stools, and the overflowings of the menses. 
Two ounces of the n^ot added to a quart of hartw- 
lior\i driiik in the boiling, gives it a pretty colour, 
ST.d .ulfls to its vii'tue ; tiie root is cordial as well as 
astringL'nt, and operated a little by sweat : this dc- 



FAMILY HERBAL. 243 

cflction is therefore very serviceable in fevers, attended 
with parsings. It checks this moderately, and is 
good against the fever at the same time. 

Tree of Life. Arbor vltcs 

A SMALL tree of irregnlnr growth, a native of 
America, but common in ('Ur gardens. The 
trunk is covered with a rough brown baik : the 
brandies are numerous, ajul irregular ; the young 
twigs are flatted and tb.e leaves of them are very 
flat, and of a scaly texture ; they are of a bright 
•green, narrow, and somevvhat like the leaves of 
cypru?, only not pricklv ; tlie flowers are wliitish,, 
small, and inconsiderable : they stand towards the 
tops of the branches, '^i'he whole tree lias a strong 
and not agreeable smell, it brir.gs into one's mind 
old bad cheese. 

The young shoots and tops of the branches, are 
used fresh. An infusion of them is good against ob- 
structions of the lungs, but it must be slight, and the 
use continued. 

Gum Anime Trie. Ani?7}e crlor, 

A LARGE and beautiful tree, native of Am.erica, 
Its trunk is covered with a rough brown bark ; 
the leaves are large and oblong ; thev r.rc not un- 
like those of the common bay-tree in tbrm, and 
they always grow two at a joint, one opposite to 
the other. They are very nuRierous ; and the 
branches of the tree spread a great way ; they are 
not all naked, but the head seem.s at a distance a 
solid mass : the leaves are of a jfiraj lexiurQ, but 
when held up to the light, innumerable lioics are 
seen in them, as they are in the leaves of St. John's- 
iS'ort, The flowers are shaped like pea blossoms ; 



S4i FAMILY HERBAL. 

they are of a purple colour, and stand at the t«ps of 
the branches. The fruit is a large pod. 

The only substance we ovv« to this tree, is what 
we commonly call gum anime, but that is a very ill 
name, it is properly a resin. It is whitish, brittle, 
and very fragrant. We sometimes also see at the 
tlruggists a greenish, brownish, or reddish resin, 
called gum animc ; this comes from the East, and 
is what was originaHy known by that name ; but 
at present the other only is used. It is a fine bal- 
sam, good in consumptions, and against the whites : 
and it is put into some ointments, for old ulcers, with 
great advantage. 

Trefoil. TrifoUum Purpiircum. 

A COMMON wiki plant in our meadows. It i» 
eight inches high ; the stalk is round, and not very 
upright ; the prnicipal leaves rise immediately from 
the root ; thev stand three together upon long fool- 
stalks, and arc of an oval figure, but pointed ; of 
a pale green colour, a little hairy, and have gene- 
rally a white spot in the centre of each. The leaves 
on the stalks, are of the same form, but little : the 
llovvers stand at the tops, in a kind of short, thick, 
spikes ; they are small and red, and are followed by 
little Hat pods. 

The llowers are used ; they are best fresh 
gathered, and given in infusion. I^hey are good 
against the bleeding of the piles ; and while they 
are Iralsamic and astringent in the bowels, they work 
by urine. 

Tl'Rmeric. Curcuma. 

A NATIVE of the East Indies, and a very sin 
giihir pliint. The leaves ri.se immediately from 



FAMILY HERBAL. 345 

the rout, and are long-, broad^ pointed at the 
ends, not dented at the edg'es, and of a very deep 
«'reen colour. On other parts of the root stand 
the stalks, ^vhich bear the flowers ; these are a 
foot hiii;h, and of the thickness of a o-oose quill. 
They have only a kind of hltns instead of leaves ; 
the flowers stand in short thick spikes, and are 
of a red colour, lon<;-i>h and slender ; they look 
very pretty in the spil^e, but do not jast long- ; 
the rout is oblon-x, thick, and of an irre<2:ular 
fig-ure, winlish on the outside, and of a deep 
yellow within ; it creeps under the surface of the 
g-round. 

Our druggists keep these roots dry. Tliey are 
g'ood against tlie jaundice; they open all obstruc- 
tions, and promote the menses, and work by 
urine. 

T L" RP?.TH , Tu rp 'dli uui 

.'-. PLANT of the bind-weed kind, native of the 
Ea^L Indies. It grows to twelve feet in lenr,!]), but 
the stalk is slender and weak, and cannot support 
itsrlf upright. The leaves ar oblong, bread, and 
obtusely pointed. The flo\\ers a'e Nvh'te, and 
large ; they very much resenil^le tliose of tise com- 
mon great bind-weed, and tl'e seed-vessel i- large 
arid full of little seeds ; the loot is very long- and 
slender. 

The ly.'ik of the root is sent u- dry. It is 
^)ro]ierly indeed the whole root, u. '• the hard 
i.oody part taken out of its centre. It is kept 
])y our druggists ; it is a l)risk purj;-e s^iven in a 
})ropcr dose, but it is very rarely used at this 
lime, 

V V 



34:6 FAMILY HERBAL. 

TuiiMP. Eapum. 

A PLANT too coi-iimou 111 our g'ardens to require 
a curious description. The root \i round and 
wiiito, or purplish. Tlie leaves are hirp;-e, lonj^, 
lough, and of a deep j^reen ; they are deeply 
cut at the edges, and large and round at the ends : 
the stalks are a yard high, round, smooth, firm, 
upright, a\id branched ; the leaves on them are 
small and smooth ; the tlowers arc little and yellow, 
and they stand in a kind ol' long spikes ; they are 
foiioued l.'y long pods. 

The roots are so frequentlv eaten, that few 
would think of tlicir pcssessing any mechcinal 
virtues, out being cut 'm\o slices, and stewed with 
sugtir, till their juic.* wiih the sugar, becomes a 
svruo : this is a vi-rv i:" r-od medicine aiijainst a 
c(;i'.^:h 

TuPvPemim: Tr! ;.. Tcrchintlui^. 

A TALL tree in the !vast, ■where it is native : 
we have it in g'anier.s, but it never arises to any 
grci'.l height here. 'Jlie bark is brown and rough : 
the blanches are numerous and stand irregularly ; 
ihe leaves are each composed of a double row 
of smaller set on a connnon rib, with an odd 
one at tjie end. '^Fljese are oval, and of a deep 
shining green. The ili.nvers are small and pur- 
ple ; thev u])pe;ir in form of clusters of threads 
beiV.re the iraves ; the fruit is long, but with a kernel 
of a resijious ti'.sle. T.i.; wh )le shrub lias also a 
resinous smell. 

We use no part of the tree but the fine Chio tur- 
})entine, tiu' moil est{>cmed of all those balsam.s, is 
obtained frttiu it ; in the island whence it lia» 
its name. It is a pleas'iut and an excellent mcdi^ 



FAMILY HERBAL. 347 

cine ; it works by uriv^.e, and is an universal bals-am. 
It is good in conghs and ail other disorders of the 
lung's ; and it stops the whites, and the weaknesses 
after venereal coniplniiifs. 

There arc several otlier kinds of turpentine in 
use in the shops protiuced from tlie diilerent trees ; 
the Venice turpentine is In m the larch tree ; the 
Strasburg turpentine from the yev*-leaved fir ; 
and tlic common turpentine from the wild pine. 
'I'hey al! have been mentioned already, under 
the names of the several trees which produce them ; 
but ti:is is the hnest kind. What is called Cyprus 
turpentine is obtaiived trorn the same tree with 
the Chio turpentine, the rieht turpentine tree,, but it 
is cofirsTr and l)rownerj oLiicrwise tlie same with the 
Cifio. 

T UTS AN. ^^ndroGii 771 u ;;? , 

A VERY singular and boautiful plant, and o( 
great virtues. It grow.-; in our woo(!-^, a;ul under 
licdges, but not very consuion : it is kept in many 
gardens. It grows two feci in hcigiit. The 
stalks are firm and sruoc'h, of a reddish colour 
tolerably uj)right, and not at all branched, ex- 
cept for some young slioots near the top. Tlie 
leaves stand two at each joint ojiposite to one 
another, and at no great distance ; lliey are \cr\- 
large, and of a sliape approaching to ova!. Tlicir 
colour is a broTrnish green ; they are smxioth and 
not serra'ed at ti»e edges. The flowers are not 
very large, but of a beautiful yellow ; {\]q\ re- 
«?emb!e those of St. John's wort, and are Hke tl'.ein 
full of yellow threads, Avliich, when rubbed, stain 
the hands red 1 iie friiit is a kiad of bcrry^ 
black when ripe, and containing a great q-.van- 
tity of small seeds, ^Fhe wlu)Ie plant in autvuiig 



S4S FAMILY HERBAL. 

frequently appear;-: of a blood red colour, vei'y singular 
and beautikil. The root is small, reddish^ and ir- 
regular ; it creeps under the surface. 

The leaves are an cAcelient cure for fresh wounds. 
Scarce any tiling' is equal to tlicm. The young 
and tender ones at tlie tops of the branches are to 
be chosen ; they are to be bound upon the wou nd^ 
and they stop the lil'- -('na," and ])crform a very 
speedy cure. I have had very iate and very singular 
instances of the elVects of this herb. iNlany of the 
common plants are celebrated for this virtue, but the 
effect of this is surprising. 

TwY ]jl\i>e. IJifo/ium. 

A VERY singular and pretty plant, couunon in 
our meadows in ♦ii' .' ginninii; of summer. It 
is a foot high ; tiie stall; is round, green, tender, 
and upriglit ; it has only two le-.ives on it, and they 
grow from the root, ''j'hey uvi' very large, broad, 
of an oval figure, and siand opposite to one another, 
about the middle of the stalk or somewhat l(»wer. 
Tile flowers are small ann green ; ti.ey are of 
an uncommon fi^tire, .somewhat like that of the 
orchis, and they sland in a long spike ; the seeds 
are very small, and the root is snrall, slender, and 
white. 

I^'iw fresh gathered plant Is used ; an infusion of 
if made sti'ong, i'< good against the bleeding of the 
piles, and tlieiu;(e is reconiniendi'd to be applied to 
them exicrnaliy. 

V. 

(iAui)i-.N \AM:r,i\N }'({]( r'uina Iitjrfnisi^:.. 
A T.iLL and beautiful plants native of the 



FAIMILY HERBAL. 319 

moiintaiiiou'-; parts of li-ilv, and common In our 
gardens. It is tiiree Icet lii^h. Tl;e stalk is 
upiight, round, striated, and liollow. Tlie leaves 
which gr<nv from the root, are long' and somewhat 
broad ; t^omc of these rue divided decjdy on each 
side, others are entire ; all have a broad and round 
end. ''I'hose on the stalks are snraiici-, and they 
are all deeply divided, 'i he ilov.ers st'ririd in large 
tufts, in the form of umbels, at ihe tops of the 
sta^ks and branches ; they are small and white. 
The root is lonp,', i rr<^ i>ular, and moderately thick ; 
it creeps under the surface of tlie g-round, and has a 
strong- smell ; its colour is brown, and it is full of 
fibres. 

Tliis root is used dry ; tlie dru2:gists call it phii : 
it is good in fevcis and supj)rcssions of the menses, 
for it is diaj)oret!e, and good against all obstruc- 
tions. It works also by urine, and it is warm up- 
on the stomach, and good a"ainst disorders of the 
nerves. 

AViLD Valerian. ]\ileriana sijlvcstris. 

A TALL and handsome plant, frequent in our 
woods and upon heaths, not unlike the garden 
valerian in its form and manner of growtli, and 
of i?:iTatcr virtues it is a ^;';rd h.igh. The 
stalks are round, striated, iu)rigbt, hollow, and 
of a pale green. '\\u\ leaves are large end beauti- 
fid ; they aiv each composed of several pairs of 
Miraller set on a connnon rib. arid with an odd 
one at tlie eiid. These are long, irarrow, dcw- 
taled at tiie ('dii'cs, ol a faint i;i\nMi colour, and 
a little luiirv. The ilowers stand in large tufts 
like uir.'.jcis at the (ops of the stalks, and are 
final] and whit<' with a \A\iA\ of reddish. The 
root is of u v,!;iiish colonr, and is composed of 



SbO FAMILY HERBAL. 

a great many thick fibres. It is of a ver}' strong- and 
disagreeable smell. 

The root is used ; it is best dried and given in 
powder, or in infusion .1 It is an excellent medicine 
in nervous disorders. It is said that it will cure the 
falling sickness, but lU good effects against head- 
achs, low-spiritedness, and tremblings of the limbs, 
are well known. 

Vanilla Plant. Vanilla. 

A climbing plant, native of America. If 
grows to thirty feet or more in length, but the 
stalk is slender and weak, and climbs upon trees to 
support it. It is round, striated, green, and tough 
The leaves are numerous and placed irregular! v ,- 
they are a foot long, considerably broad, and like 
those of the common plantain, of a dusky green, 
and have high ribs. The flowers are small in shape 
like a pea blossom, but of a greenish white colour. 
The pods are long and flatted, of a brown colour, of 
a very fragrant smell, and fuH of exceedingly small 
seeds. 

This pod is the part uf^ed ; it is a cordial and 
restorative ; it opens obstructions, and promotes the 
menses ; it operates by urine, and by sweat, but it is 
not much used. Some put them into chocolate, 
to give it a flavour, and to make it more cordial and 
restorative ; this is done in the grinding up the nuts 
to the cake, and we bi-y it by ihe name of Vanilla 
chocolate. 

VEiiVAiN. Verbena. 

A COMMON wild plant, about onr path-ways, 
with slender spikes, and a few little flowers. It is 
two feet high ; the stalks arc numerous^ square, very 



FAMILY HERBAL. 351 

«trong, a little hairy, and often purplish. The 
leaves grow two at each joint ; they are oblong', nar- 
row, notched at the edges, of a dusky green, and of 
a wrinkled and rough surface. The flowers are white, 
with a tinge of purplish : there is a long spike of 
their buds, and of the remaining cups, but only two 
or three flowers are open at a time. 

The fresh gathered tops are used ; an infusion 
of them is good against obstructions of the liver and 
spleen : it is warm upon the stomach, and a 
continued use of it will remove nervous com- 
plaints. 

Vine, ritls. 

A WEAK sluub, too familiar in our gardens to 
need much descri[)iio'i. The trunk is covered with 
a rough bark ; the branches arc loog, weak, and 
straggling ; the ieaves are roundish in the whole 
figure, but indeiifeci deeply into five or seven di- 
visions, the lower are inconsiderable : the fruit 
is round, or oblong, juicy, and produced in great 
bunches. 

We use no part of the common vine, as it grows 
with us ; but not to mention the several kinds of 
wine that arc useful on diflerent occasions, the 
dried fruit in the form of what we call raisins and 
currants, is in constant repute. Raisins of the sun, 
Malaga raisins, and currants all have the same virtue ; 
they are good in coughs, and soreness of the lungs, 
and in consumptions. 

Vinegar is also a product of the grape : it is 
wine become sour, and spirit of wine and brandy 
of the very best kinds, are made from wine also by 
distillation. Tiie substance cafled tartar, of which 
the cream of tartar is made, is only a salt of the 
grape^ which sticks to the wine casks. So that we 



352 FAMILY HERBAL. 

owe to the p;rape, more medicines than to any one 
simple whatsoever. 

V'lOLLT. Viola 

A COMMON wild plant in our woods and hedg-es, 
but of a i'rag'i'ance superior to all tlu'.t we re- 
ceived from the ricli East. It is a little, low,, 
creepiu!^ plant, obscure even when in flower ; the 
fttalks are round, g'reen, and creeping ; they do 
not rise np, but spread tlieniselves alonj^- tlic g-round, 
tnkin;;- root at t'lie joints ; the leaves rise from 
these rooted par's ; iliey are larg'e a!ul stand each 
on a lonii' foot stalk, 'rhey are of a lieart like 
shape, and csMed rv)unfl the cd'j,es, and of a decj) 
^reen. The ilowcrs are .-nail ai.d of a deep and 
beautiful purple ; they stand snigiv on short foot 
stalks arisini}^ amonc; the leave::;, and covered bv 
them. 

riie ilowcrs are the ])art U'cd ; bollino- water 
is to be jyoured npon them j'.bt i i!0UL?,h to cover 
them, and it is to stand all nij;iii ; wlicn it is 
straiiied clear otV, the suL';ar !•: to be addi^l to it, 
at the rate of two pounds to each i)'rit, and it is to 
be nielted over the fire ; this i.i;;kes svrnp of 
violets, an excellent jj,'entle p/i!i'.;e for children. 
The leaves are dried also, uml nvc used in the de- 
coctions for clysters. An inrusioii of them works by 
urine. 

\ li'F.u's (iUA>s. S( or'.oncra 

A T\i.i, and handsonn* id-uit, native of the 
warmer |/ai(s of Europe, hu! kept in our i;ardens. 
It is three leet hii!;h ; the slalk is round, thick, 
upright, and hrm ; tlie Iciives are numerous and 
stand irregularly ; they are long-, narrow, of a 



FA:MILY HERRAL. S5S 

p;ile green, sharp pointed, and not dentatcd at the 
f'dges. Those from the root are long and narrovf 
also, hut they are considerahly larger. The lluw^ 
crs grow at the top of the branches ; they are 
large like dandelion flowers in shape, and of a 
most beautiful pale yellow ; the seed has a white 
down annexed to it. The root is long, thick, 
and brown. 

The root is the part rised, and it is best fresh 
taken up. It is given in infusion, and it is cor- 
dial, and operates by sweat ; it is good in fevers^ 
but little used. 

Viper's Bucloss. Echium. 

A COMMON wild plant, about our path ways, 
und on ditch-banks, known by its spotted stalks> 
and fine blue flowers. It ia a foot and half high; 
the stalk is round, thick, firm, hairy, and upright; 
it is of a whitish, colour stained with spots and 
lines of blue, red, and purple. The leares are 
longish and narrow ; they arc rough, and of a 
deep dusky green, broad and blunt at the point, 
and have no foot stalks. The flowers arc large, 
and of a beautiful blue, with a red stamina in 
the middle. 

The leaves are used ; those growing from the 
root arc best ; an infusion of them is cordial, 
aiid operates by sweat ; it is good in fevers, and 
against hcaj-achs, and all nervous complaints 

Tlie VjiiGiNiAN Snakeroot Plant. Scj'pciita'- 
ria Vir^iniana. 

A LITTLE plant of the birthwort kind, but 
different from the several sorts of that phmt, des- 
cribed already \i\ their j)lacc8^ iu its roots, and 

z 1 



354 FAMILY HERBAL/ 

in its manner of growing. It is two feet higb, 
"when it grows in a favourable soil, and has 
bushes or any thing else to support it. The stalka 
are weak and green ; the leaves stand irregularlj 
on thenij and they are oblong, narrow^ and auri-^ 
culated at the bottom. The flowers are small, 
hollow, and of a deep dusky purplish colour. 
The root is composed of a vast quantity of strings, 
which are of a dusky olive colour, and of a 
atrong smell and aromatic taste. The roots of 
this plant were the first that came into use, under 
the name of Virginian snakeroot, but there arc 
upon the spot two other plants of the same kind, 
though different specie^, which have thready roots 
of the same form, and they are indifferently taken 
lip for use; they all seem to have the same vir- 
tue, so that there is no harm in the mixture. 
There is sometimes another root mixed among 
them ; but that is easily distinguished, for it is 
black, and these are all of the same dusky olive 
colour. This last adulteration should be avoided. 
The Virginian snnkeroot is an excellent medi- 
cine in fevers ; it operates by urine and by sweat, 
and will often take off inveterate head-achs. 
It is also given by some as a remedy against 
worms ; and it was originally famous against the 
poison of the rattle-snake, and was a remedy we 
icarnt from the Indians, It is good against 
worms in children, and may be given in small 
doses for a continuance of time. Scarce any 
thing is more effectual. 

The VoMic Nut Trek. Nux vomica^ 

A TALL and spreading tree of the East, very 
like that which affords the wood called snake- 
•Wood in the shops, and by »oinc supposed th« 



FAMILY HERBAL. 355 

tame Willi ii, but that is an error : ihe kcr«el> of 
the fruit oT that tr<*e, are indeed of tJie shape 
of the vomic nin.^, but they are not half so big. 
The tree is larg-e and spreading : the branches 
are numerous^ and the leaves are large : they stand 
in pairs opposite to one another ; and are oblong-, 
jbroadest in the middle, and rounded or bidnt at 
the end, and of a very bitter taste ; the flowers 
are small, and stand iu clusters at certain parts 
of the young branches : the fruit is of the big- 
nesi of an apple, and is yellow when ripe. The 
kernels in this are what wc call nux vomica ; 
there arc fifteen of them in each fruit, and they 
are lodged in three divisions. 

These kernels arc the only part used ; our drug- 
gists keep them ; they are round, flat, and of a 
w^hitish colour, very firm, and tough. They 
have been used as poison to dogs, cats, and other 
animals ; but there are those who give them to 
the human species, in small doses, without mischief, 
and with very good effect. Quartan agues that 
have stood it against the bark, have been cured 
by them ; but if the dose be too large, they 
bring on convulsions, and there is great reason to be- 
lieve, that in very large ones they would kill. 
At present we have choice of so many medicines 
for every disorder, that it is almost unpardonable 
to give such as arc suspicious. Some people 
have ventured to give even ratsbane, as a medi- 
eine, mixed with other things, and in the twenti- 
eth part of a grain for a dose ; but reason con- 
demns this rash way of practice, and doubly, as 
there is no necessity to authorize it. 



356 FAMILY HERBAL. 

W. 

The Walnut Tree. Juglans. 

A COMMON tree m our gardens ; it growi 
to a great bigness, and is very much branched. 
The leaves are very large and long ; each is com- 
posed of a double row of smaller, and has an odd 
one at the end. These are each of an oval figure 
and jelloM'ish green colour, and of a pleasant 
smell. The llowcrs are little ; they are yellow- 
ish, and arranged in loose catkins. The fruit is 
covered with a green thick coat, and has with- 
in a kernel divided into parts, and of an uneven 
surface. 

The bai k of the walnut tree is a good emetic ; 
it may be given in infusion, or dried and powder- 
ed ; it vomits easily and plentifully. The skin 
that covers the kernel is good against fluxes. 

Wall- F lower . Leucoium. 

A COMMON wild plant, but. not without 
beauty ; it is frequent on old walls, and has yel- 
low and sweet-scented flowers. The stalks urft 
■woody, and a foot and half high ; the leaves are 
very numerous, longish, narrow, and of a dead 
green. Tl;e flowers stand in a kind of spikes, at 
the tops of the stalks, and are yellow and mode- 
rately large. The seeds are contained in long 
pods. 

Tlie flowers are used ; and an infusion of them 
fre.sh is good against the head-ach, and in all nerv- 
ous disorders. They are also good to steep in oil, 
to whicli they give a cordial warmth, and make 
it good against pains in the limbs. Rut they are 
pot either way much used at present. 



"../.^ . '/ 




FAMILY herbal; 557 

Water Arrow Head. Sagitta aquatica. 

A VERY pretty plant, common in our ditche§, 
with leaves like the bearded heads of arrows, 
and witii prettj white flowers. It is two feet 
and a half high, but generally the greatest part 
of the stalk is buried in water, verj little appear- 
ing above, except the spike of flowers. The 
leaves stand «ach upon a pedicle, which is round, 
thick, and very long ; they are of a beautiful 
green, and are broad, and bearded at the base, 
and sharp at the point ; the flowers are white, to- 
lerably large, and very bright ; and the stalk, 
on which they are supported, is also round and 
thick. 

The common people in many places have a cus- 
tom of applying these leaves bruised to inflamma- 
tions ; they cool and give ease^ but it is not al- 
ways right. 

Water Plantain. Planiago aquatica. 

A VERY common tall plant in ditches, and 
having not the least resemblance of any kind of 
plantain, except in the leaves ; from which, how- 
ever, it has received its name. The root is com- 
posed of a great quantity of fibres. From this, 
there rise in spring a number of leaves, oblong, 
broad, smooth, and of a beautiful green colour, 
and having in shape, though not at all in colour 
or consistence, some slight resemblance of plan- 
tain: they are perfectly smooth, of a glossy sur- 
face, and brittle. These stand for many months 
without tlie stalk ; and doubtless in this state it 
got the name. The stalk is two feet or more 
in height ; round, firm, and upright ; and at 
the top it sends out a vast number of braachea. 



S58 FAMILY HIilRBAL. 

^hich send out other smaller ; and even these last 
arc again divided. On the tops of the last di- 
•visions stand the flowers with their buds, and 
the seed-vessels ; so that the whole has the ap- 
pearance of a cone. The flowers are little and 
white, and consist of three leaves each ; they 
stand but a little time, and only a few are seen 
together. 

The seed is the part used : the plant is to be 
suffered to stand, till this is thoroughly ripe, and 
then cut up gently, and laid to dry two or 
three days upon a tabic : a smart stroke or two, 
will dislodge a great quantity ot the seeds ; they 
are very good against the overflowing of the 
menses, riiid all other bleedings ; and are giv- 
en in powder, in electuaries, small doses be- 
ing to be taken at a time, and often repeated. 

RuE-LEAVED Whitlow-Grass. Puront/chiit 
rutacco folio, 

A COMMON little plant, early in spring, on 
our walls and houses, and of a very singular as- 
pect ; it is red, and has pretty white flowers. 
It is not more than four inches high ; the stalks 
are round, upright, and a little hairy ; and they 
are covered with an unctuous clamminess, which 
makes them stick to tlie fingers in handling. The 
leaves are little, and also red ; they are each 
divided into tlirce parts at the extremity, in the 
way of fingers : they stand irregularly on the 
Ktalks, and they are thick, fleshy, and clammy 
in handling. The flowers stand at the tops of 
the branches ; they are little, but of a very bright 
wliite, and look very conspicuous. The whole 
plant dies away as soon as if has ripened the seed, 
find is not to be seen again till the uext tpri^g. 



FAMILY HERBAL. 359 

The fresh gatlierc'd plaiit is to be used entire : 
a strong infusion of it is a very great sweetoncr 
of the blood. It is excellent against the scurvy 
in whatever form ; and there arc accounts of its 
curing" the king's evilj that sceui very well attested. 
A syrup may be made of its juice, or of a very strong 
infusion of it ; or a conserve of the leaves : for 
the dried plant has very little virtue, and it ii 
to be had froeh only a very small part of the 
year. 

The White Wiitow. Salix vulgaris alia. 

A VERY common tree in wet places, and this 
which is used in mediciu« is the most common of 
all the several kinds of it. It is also the largest. 
It grows to be a tall tree : the bark is whitish, and 
rougli upon the trunk, and grey upon the branches ; 
the leaves are oblong, narrow, and whitish, es- 
pecially on the under side : they stand irregularly 
on the branches, and are a little serrated at the 
edges, and pointed at the ends. The tlowcrs are 
very inconsiderable, but they are arranged several 
t<y^ethcr, in what are called catkins or palms. 
The seeds are small ; they stand in the same catking, 
mixed with fine white down. 

The bark of the branches is used, and it is beat 
dried , it is good ag-ainst piirgings, and the over- 
llowiiiirs of tlie menses, and is most convenientlv 
givtn ii) powder, half a dram for a dose. 

Winter Gheen. Pyrola, 

AN EXTREMELY pretty plar;t, wild in ?nnie 
parts of Euglaiid, but not comrijori. The stalk is 
round, thick, upright, and ten inches hitj'n. Tl;e 
Jeavei uU grow fium ihi root; for the stalk h siaked. 



350 FAMILY HERBAL, 

llicy are broad, roundish, and of a decpgreen colour ; 
tht;.y are of a fleshy substance, and stand each on 
a separate foot-stalk cf three or four inches long. 
The flowers arc small, and of a very bright white; 
they stand in a kind of loose spike on the tops of 
the stalks. The root is composed of a quantity ot 
thick whitish fibres. 

The leaves are used. A decoction of them with 
a piece of cinnamon, and a little red wine, is giver 
against the overflowings of the menses, bloody stools, 
and all ha^moirhag'cs, and against ulcers in the 
urinary passages^ and bloody urine. 

WoAD. Glastum, ^ 

A PLANT cultivated in fields, in many parts 
©f England, for the use of the dyers, and com- 
monly met with in places near those where it was 
sown, as if a wild plant ; but it is not properly a 
native of our country. It is a tall, erect, and hand- 
gome plant ; the stalk is round, thick, firm, upright, 
and foiir feet high ; but it is usually so covered 
with the leaves, that scarce any part of it is to be 
fcen naked. The leaves arc long and of a consider- 
able breadth. They are large at the base, where 
they grow to the stalk, without any foot-stalks; 
and narrower all the way to the point. They arc 
of a bluish green colour, and the whole plant is 
covered with them, so the top has a pretty aspect. 
The flowers arc little and yellow ; they si and in 
great numbers about the tops of the stalks, which 
are divided into a multitude of small branches; 
and they are succeeded by small seed vessels. The 
root is lon^r and thick. 

Although the dvers arc the people who pay 
most regard to woad, and for whose use it is cul- 
tivated, it has virtues that demand for it a great 



.^..^.> 





4< "^ ' 



FAMILY HERBAL, 3^1 

deal of respect in medicine. Tlie top of the stalks, 
before tlie ilowers appear, contaia the greatest vir- 
tue^ and they are hest fresh. They are to be given iti 
infusioM, and they are excellent airiiiast obstructions 
of tlie liver and spleen ; they work by urine, and 
so take effect; the use of this infusion must be 
continued a considerable time : these are disorders 
that come on slowly, and are to be slowly re° 
moved. 

WooDRUFFE. Asperula. 

A COMMON little wild plant, in our woods 
and thickets : it is ten inches h'gh. The stalk 
is square, slender, weak, and not able to support 
itself perfectly 'j'uight. The leaves ^^tand several 
at each joint, encon. passing the stalk in the man- 
ner of a star ; they are oblong, broad, and of a 
deep green. In their form and manner of growth 
they much resemble those of common cleavers, 
but they are larger, though the plant is so mucli 
less, and they are not rough as in that plant, but 
nearly smooth. The flowers stand at the topa 
of the stalks in little clusters ; they are small and 
white ; the seeds stand two together in a glol>ular 
form. The roots are little and fibrous. 

The fresh herb is used, and is best given in a 
strong decoction ; it opens obstructions of the 
liver and spleen, and is a cordial, and stomachic^ 
It is good in the jaundice. 

The WoRMSEED Plant. Absinthium soiitonicum. 

A KIND of wormwood, native of the East, 
and not knovv'n so much as in our gardens. The 
plant ii two feet high. The leaves are very fine- 

3 A 



36^ FAMILY HER HAL, 

Ij divided^ like tliose of the true Roman worm 
wood, aud of a pale green on the upper sidc;, and 
a silvery Avliite bt'low. The stalks arc stitf, linn, 
woody, and branched; they are of a whitish 
colour, and have a loose downy skin upon (hem : 
the flowers are small and brownish ; they resem- 
ble those of wormwood, and stand in a kind of 
loose spikes at the tops of the stalks. 

The seeds are used : our druggists keep them ; 
and very often tlie unripe buds of the flowers in 
their place, arc mixed with them. They arc good 
against worms in children ; the good women give 
them mixed with treacle : and few medicines 
for this purpose have better eflcct. For people 
of nicer palates, they may be powdered, and made 
into boluses 

Treacle Wormseed. Camelina, 

TUTS is Dot the plant^ \^hich produces what 
the drugirists sell under the name of wormseed ; 
that is the produce of an Egyptian kind of 
wormwood, just described. This is an English 
herb of llie podded kind, and very distinct in its 
whole appearance from that, and all of its sort. 
It is two i'cet high. The stalks are round, up- 
right, firm, and toward the top divided into 
branches ; the leaves are very numerous, and 
stand irregnlarlv. They are longish, narrow, 
pointed at the ends, not at all dented at the edges, 
and of a dusky grern colour. Tb.e flowers are 
little and yellow ; tliev stand in snutll clusters at 
the tops of the branches, and under them is a kind 
of spike of pods ; these arc long and slender, 
«:reen at first, b;it of a kind of brown colour when 
iipe ; and i:) r;ich is a. great number of seeds ; 



FAMILY HERBAL. S6^ 

tlieae are round, small^ raid of an extremely bit- 
ter taste, niuth more biUer than the common 
worn) seed. 

This seed i''^ the part used. The good women 
bruise if, and Uiixing it with treacle, give it to 
the children of robust, constitutions against worms. 
It operates powerfully, by stool, and^ if given in 
too large a quantity by vomit. It is therefore 
to be used with discretion ; but it will answer the 
purpose, and is preferable, for many reasons, to 
those mercurial medicines, which it is the fashion 
of the times to give to people for those disorders ; 
especially in the country, where there seldom is 
skill enough in the practitioner to manage, as he 
ought, medicinesj, w hich may be the occasion of 
%o much mischief. 

Common Wormwood. Ahsyntliium vulgar e. 

A WILD plant frequent by "^^.y sides, and on 
ditclj-banks. It is a yard high. The stalks are 
round, striated, white, firm, and branched. The 
leaves are large, but they are divided into a grtat 
jiumlx r ol' small parts. They are of a pale whit- 
isb gree:), nnd stand irregularly on the stalks ; 
many larj^er^ but of ^ho^ same kind, rise from the 
root. The ilov.ers staiid in a kind of loose spikes 
at tiie tops of the stalks ; they are small and 
brown. The whole plant is of a very bitter 
taste. 

The tops of the plant are to be uced fresh gather- 
ed ; a verv slight infusion of tliem is excellent for 
all disorders of the stomach, and will prevent 
sickness after meals, and croaJe an appetite ; but 
if it be made strong, it will not only be disagree- 
able to tlie taste, but will disgust the stomach 

The tops with the flowers on them dried and 



35i FAMILY HERBAL. 

powdf^red;, are good against agues, and have (h« 
game virtue with wormseed in killing worms ; 
indeed they are much hetter than the vvormseed 
tliat is commonly to be met with, which is genc^ 
rally too much decayed. The juice of the large 
leaves of wormwood, which grow from the root 
before the stalk appears, is good against the dropsy 
and jaundice, for it opens obstructions, and works 
by urine powerfully. 

Sea 'Wormwood. Ahsynthium seriphium, 

A PLANT common in our salt-marshes, and 
about ditches, where salt water comes. It has 
somewhat the aspect of wormwood, but the leaves 
are much narrower in the divisions, and the whole 
plant is smaller. The stalks arc woody, firm, up- 
right, very much branched, and afoot and a half 
high. The loaves arc whitish and small. The flow- 
ers stand in loose spikes at the tops of the stalks ; 
tncy are little and brown ; and they very much, 
resemble those of the common wormwood, except 
for the size. The whole plant has a bitter taste 
but not disagreeable, and it has a pleasant aroma- 
tic smell. 

The tops fresh gathered, and the whole plant 
dry, are used. They call it Roman wormwood 
at the markets and in the shops ; and it is used 
for the other : it has the s;ime general virtues. 
Ail the three kinds indeed possess them in com- 
mon ; but the common wormwood is the most dis- 
agreeable to the taste, and sifs worst upon the 
stomach : this is better than that, bnt if is much 
more disagreeable than the true Roman worm- 
wood. It is very strengthening to the stomach; 
it assists digestion, and prevents wind. Jt is com- 
monly an ingredient in the bitter infusions, aid 



FAMILY HERBAL. 365 

tinchires of the shops, but it docs very well alone ; 
boiling water poured upon it, and suflcrcd to 
stand till it is cold then btrained off, is an excel- 
lent medicine to cause an appetite. Put into white 
wine, it also gives a pleasant bitter flavour, with 
the same virtues. 

Roman Wormwood. Absynthium Romanum. 

A VERY delicate plant of the wormwood kind, 
nativt^ of the warmer parts of Europe, but kept 
in our gardens. It is two feet and a half high ; 
the stalk is round, smooth, hard, uj)right, of 
a browish colour, and somewhat woody. Tiie 
leaves stand irregularly on it, and they are small 
and divided into very fine segments : they are 
more like the leaves of the common southern- 
wood in figure, than those of either of the other 
wormwoods. The flowers are little and brown, 
like those of common wormwood;, but vastly 
smaller ; they are very numerous, and stand at 
the tops of the stalks in a kind of long and thick 
B[)ikcs. The root is creeping and spreading, and 
composed of fibres. The whole plant has a bitter 
taste, but not at all like that of wormwood, ex- 
frcme^ly aromatic and pleasing. The flowers are 
very bitter, and have little of this aromatic fla- 
vour. 

The fresh tops are used, and the whole plant 
dried. It is excellent to strengthen the stomach ; 
hut that is not all its virtue. The juice of the fresh 
tops is good against obstructions of the liver 
and spleen, and has been known singly to cure the 
jaundice. 



565 FAMILY HERBAL. 

Y. 

Y A. R 11 G w . J'JUlcfolt u m . 

A COMP/ION plant in our pastures, ar,d hj 
way sJJrs. It is two or tlirec ^vni high ; the stalk 
is rour<d, upright, firm and striated : the leaves 
are long-, and not very broad, and they are the 
most btautifuHv divided of those of any known 
plant. 

Iheir colour is a ^^€\i green, and the parts 
into \vhicJ] they are divided are exceedingly fine, 
slender, and regularly arranged : the flowers stand 
at the tops of the branches, in the manner of 
umbels, in round and large tufts ; they are white, 
but tl)cy often have a blush of red. The root 
is -white and creeping, and the seeds are -white, 
broad, and flat. 

The -.yhole plant is used fresh gathered, but 
the best part is the tops of the shoots ; these are 
to be boiled in water, and tlie decoction s-v\eeUn- 
cd with fine sugar ; it is excellent against the 
bleedings of the piles, and bloody fluxes, and 
the overflowing of the incnsrs. It is also heal- 
ing and good in ulcerations of tlie ureters : and 
li operates gently by urine, 

z. 

The Zedoarv Plant. Zcfloaria, 

AN Ka stern plant, very singular, and verj 
beautiful. The ri)ot creeps under tlic surface, 
and h.as many tuberous lumi)s, «oine long, and 
some round ; but the long are {)referred. I'he 
round have by many been called zerumbcth ; 
thoLigli the '/orunibeth is properly p.nother root, 




I^h ... 




FAMILY HERBAL, 367 

to be I'cscrlbed in \t^ place. Ihe leaves of tlie 
zoiioAry plant ;^.e l.irgo, very broad, and not 
vastly loiif^ ; they st;uid in clusters, encircling 
one anotlier at the l)ast3s : the ilov/ers stand oa 
separate stalks : these iire only eic^ht or ten inches 
liii^h. They are small, of an irregular shape, 
aiid purplish. 

Tiie rort is the only part used ; our drug- 
s^ifts keep it dry ; it is a warm cordial, aiid 
sfoiuadiii: uiediciru; : it strengthens the stomach, 
assists digestion, and expels wind. It is good 
al'o in all iiervoas complaints, such as lowness of 
i})irit!>, fainting'!, tremblings of the limbs, and 
rostlessaess. An ounce of zcdoary, sliced thin^ 
a;i(i put i:!.?o a quart oi wine, makes an excellent 
tincture for Iheae p^irposes, and is very good 
taken in the quantity of a small gla?s, on going 
into a damp, or v.h:it i^. suspected to ba a taint- 
ed air. 

The ZEHL-^fBETH Plant. ZcriimoeiJta. 

THE zenimbetli phrnt ia some rc^p^'cts ro- 
scmbies thzt which aiTords tlie zcvloary, but it 
i§ larger. It is a native of t'he Erist, and ha§ 
not been yet got into our gardens. The leaves grow 
together in such a niansicr as in f")rni a kind" of 
stalk; this is six fe;'t high or more ; but it is 
only formed of their lower parts wrapped round 
one anothiu', m tue manner of the leaves of our 
flags. The loose part of each leaf is long, nar- 
row, and of a bluis^li green. Th.e flowers stand 
upon separate stalks ; t!ic»e rise about a foot 
high, and arc of a brownish colour : they have 
only a iort of films upon them in the place of 
le-tives. The flowers stand in a short and thick 
ipike, at the tops of these, they are oblong. 



3^8 FAMILY HliRBM.. 

hollow, nr-jfloratt'ly larg-o, r.rid of a beautiful 
scarlat. The root is long tiv.d irregular. 

The root is used ; cut driiy^^isis keep it : it is 
■^vann and good in all nervous cases. Its virtues 
are very ijcarly the same with tliosc of zedoary ; 
&v.d in g'cncral the round rents of zedoary arc sold 
under its name, thougli iu reality it is a nuich 
longer, as well as larger root, ttaa the zedoary 
itself. 



NDIX. 



Concerning the virlue,s of plants zchich have iiotyct 
bcc*^ tried. 

AS the intent of this work is truly to be of use to 
mankind, the author who is dosiious of making 
that utihty as extensive as possihk\ cannot close it 
without observins^, that, notwitiislandiiiG: the great 
deal tliat is known of the virtues of Eng-Jish plants, 
tliere is certainlv a j.i;reat deal nM)re unknown ; and 
there is room for threat discoveiies. 

The plants mentioned in this work are only four 
or tive hundred, and not all these of English 
growth ; if they were, they would yet be but a 
very small number in proportion to tlie whole. 
The catalogue of those native of our own country, 
as ])ublished by Mr. Kay, amounting to many 
thousands ; great numbers therefore remain yet 
untried. 

To what purpose can a man devote the hours 
of his leisure better, than to the discovering among 
the number to the unregarded, virtues which may 
farther supply the catalogue of our own remedies, 
and make the roots and seeds brought from re- 
mote countries less necessary ? What encourage- 
ment to the attempt, that there are such mul- 
titude of objects for the trial ! and that the dis- 
covering lint one remetly amonn- them all for 



370 APPENDIX. 

a disease we knew not how so well to cure before^ 
is a source of more true honour, than can be de- 
rived from all the useless kiiowledij^e in the 
world. 

If any su|)))osc the trial dang-croas, they mis- 
lead themselves ; and to encourage so laudible an 
iindrnakiiip-. I sliail observe how little is the 
hazard, and how considerable the advantages, 
from wh.at \vc know already. 

If a nian were to be turned loose upon an island 
where no person had set foot before, he might 
dread to taste of any plant he saw, because he 
miglit not know, but every one he saw was fatal : 
and supposing him to have got over this fear, 
the ignorance of the virtues of ail would keep 
him backward : but this is not at all the case with 
him, wiio shall at this time set about incjuiring 
into the virtues of plants in England. The 
poisonous plants, native of our soil, are luirdly a 
dozen and these are charactered even to the c\e, 
by something singular or dismal in tlie uspett. 
They are well known ; and he has nothing to do 
but to avoid them. Vov the rest, he has so many, 
whose uses and ([traiitios are already perfectly 
kwown, dial lie lias a great foundation to go upon 
i.i ll'.e sr.rrel!, because he can compare those he 
(Iocs not know with them. Their taste will go 
a great w;;v toward informing him ; but this is 
not all, tlieir very outward figures will direct him : 
for in general those plants which agree in the 
exten^a! aspect, agree likewise in their virtues. 

't'o ;;i .0 an inslancc in the mar.^hmallow. Ft U 
' I'.r.vn ii> woik by urine, and to be good against 
t.i' :iavel. ^Ve will suppose no more known 
< ■. cMiiing this kind. A per.son desirous of ex- 

.: mg this useful knowledge, finds that by the 
..IMC of the r;)(i(, which is insipid, and its mu- 



APPENDIX. 371 

rilugiuous quality, he niioht liave guessed this to 
be its virtue, from what he liefore knew of medi- 
cine. The next plant he meets, we will suppose 
is the common mallow, and afterwards the ylittle 
white llowered mallow, which lies upon the 
gTound ; lie tastes the ro;)t of these, and he fnids 
they are like the other; he will therefore guess, 
that thcv have the same virtues and upon trial, 
he will find it is so. 

But this is not all : if he had examined the 
flower of the marshmallow, in what manner it 
was constructetl, and how tlie little tlireads grew 
within it, he would have found that the (loweis 
of these other twt) mallows were, in all respects, 
!i!:e those of the other ; and farther, he would 
have found, that the seeds of these two ki:uls 
were in llie same manner disposed in circular bo- 
dies : IV(sP:i this he niight, without tastiny; tlieir 
r(!ots, h.avc been led to guess that their virtues 
\yevc the same ; or having guessed so much from 
this, he might have been thence led to taste tb.em, 
and by that have been confirmed in it : but he 
might be carried farther ; he would find the same 
sort of nmnd clusters of seeds in the hollyoak 
in his garden ; and upon examining the single 
tlowers, he would see they were also alike : and 
hence he would discov(-r that it was of this kind ; 
and he would rightly judge that the liollvoak, also 
possessed the same virtues. 

This is a method by which many of tlie plants 
mentioned in this book, have been found to have 
virtues which others neglected ; for there are 
many named in the preceding pages, and named 
with great praise, of which others have made 
little account : these are the means by which the 
first guesses have been made about their virtues ; 
and experiments have alwavs confirmed iheni. 



372 APl'ENDIX 

It has not always happened that the virtues of a 
plant thus tried, have been in a denree worth 
netting- in a light of consequence ; they have been 
sometimes slig-ht, and the plant has been disregard- 
ed ; but they have scarce ever missed to be found 
of the same nature. 

llicse experiments, I have always thought ho- 
nesty retjuired me to make upon myselfj and I 
never found harm from the trials. 1 had no riglit 
to brinn- into the least possible danger, the health 
of others ; as: to mv own there was no ])robabihty 
Oi \vdv\T: ; but if it had h; ppcncd, (h.e intent would 
Iriv;: siinctiiied llie accident, and I should have 
been coniented. 

Tiierc is this groat use in oamining other plants 
Avhich iiavc the same sort of flowers and fruits 
with those which we know to have virtues, that 
we may in tlii.s way discover pkin(s at hoiiie, to 
supply the ])]ace of those ^^e liavc from other 
countries. It is ccriviin the sun in warmer climates 
does ri{)en th.e juices of vcg<Mables Inrlher than 
in ours, but yet we fnid (he |>iunts of tiie same 
kind from whatever part o'.' the ^vorld they come, 
to possess nearly tlie same kind of virtues ; gene- 
rally indeed th(^y are tiie same, onlv dillering in 
degiec. Tlius all the mallows of Spain arid Italy, 
to bring the trial to the before-named instance, 
possess the same virtues Avith the marsh-mallow, 
mallow, and hollyoak of England ; and the case 
is the same with those whicli arc truly mallows 
of the East and West Indies ; (hough this does 
not hold good with I'cspect to some of the 
plants of (hose conntries wliich have been brought 
hither under that name. 

^rhus also, that root which was at one time 
about (() he brouii'it verv mucli info use, under 
the name of the Senegal rattle-snrake root, hut 



APPENDIX. S:3 

of which liule iP.ei\ti(»u Iiiis been nuide here, be- 
cause tlie alteiiticu Suss n.ot been turned upon novel- 
ty, but use, betn^' umad in belong- to a kind of milk- 
wort;, or polyg-ahi. The roots of the common 
milkwort of our pastures being tried, have been 
found to possess the same virtues, though in a 
less degree. Tiiis plant would not have been re- 
gardedj if the other ii^id not been found to be of 
the same kind ; but to i-hat we owe the knowledge of 
its virtues. 

There is a great reason for seeking in our own 
climate, pianls of the same nature, and form, and 
kind, with those uhich in other countries alVord 
lis remedies; that they are generally of the same 
kind, and nray be litter for our constitutions. This 
is certain, thatas the sun ri])ens the juices of plants in 
hotter countries to mere, virtue than \vith us, so it 
make men's constitutions more able to bear llieir 
cfteets. 

The Chinese will s\^allow such doses as are 
poison to one of us. 'ibis we know in many in- 
stances, and it ought to encourage us in the pre- 
sent research ; because, if ihe same doses which 
agree with tliem, are too miu h for \\s ; we may 
also find, that other medicines, of the same kind 
of virtues, though in a less degree, may also 
be found to agree better ^vith our constitutions. 
I would not carry so far as some have done, that 
opinion of nature's having provided in every 
country the remedies for the diseases of that coun- 
try : Ciod is the author of nature, and he know- 
ing there would be connnerce among mankind, 
kuv'w tiiat would not be necessary. i]ut not- 
^^ithstan(li:lg that it may be necessary in s(!n)C 
cases, and convenient in many, for us to have drn.gs 
from abroad, yet in genci'al it will be better for us 
to be cured by those herbs we nray hud at home ; 



Sn APPENDIX. 

and they \\\\\ be found uyxni triu! more aiiiiicuMit 
for that purposC;, than \ve al present iina<i,ine. Tlie 
means are at hand, bat vvc have made very little use 
of them, proportioned to their number and their. 
value. 

The observation already made, that the exter- 
nal form of plants may very >vcli g'ive the hint 
for a conjecture about their virtues, is much more 
g-eneral than mig-ht be imagined. Almost al! 
the plants of the sariie kinds are of the same vir- 
tues. I]ut that is not all : for in j2;eneral, those 
of the same class possess the same finalities ; thoup,h 
(litferent in deg-ree : ; nd this is a i)rodig'ious help 
to him, who shall set out upon (he <i,iMierous and 
useful plan of adding- to the nuuiber of the useful 
plants. It is also singular, that what might appear 
objections in this case, being brought to the trial, 
\\ ill often be found conlh-mations of the truth there is 
in the observation. 

I'hus su})pose a man, observing that lettuce is 
capable, should inquire into all the ))lants like 
lettuce, which are those that have flowers com- 
p.osed of many parts, and have the seeds winged 
with a white dcnvny matter, to hnd whether they 
were eatable ; let us examine how he would su<n 
ceed. The plants of this class native of Knglaud. 
are the sowthistle. tiie hawkwceds, the dandelions, 
goats -beards, succory, and endive, all eatablo. 
The hawkweeds are less agreeable in the taste. 
but Avholesome ; and as to the wild lettuces, those 
who would bring the opiate (juality of the prin- 
cipal of them as an objection, strengthen the ob- 
servation ; for the garden lettuce also has an opi- 
ate quality. This wild one possesses it in a great- 
er degree, but still in such degree, that it is an 
excellent medicine, not at all dangerous. lis 
biltcr taste W(;uld prevent j)(oplc"s eatn;g it;, lor 



APPENDIX. 375 

it is (l;sai2;rcra])le ; but its virtues arc tlie same 
with those ot lettuce, only g-reater. There are 
.some kinds of hawlcwccd also, whicli have a bitter 
miiky juice, altogether hkc tliat of this lettuce ; 
aiul thev, al<o, have this opiate quality. I have 
tried n:any of them, but as they are none of them, 
♦ Hj'ial to the great wild lettuce in this respect,- it 
would have been idle to have spent many words 
a!)out them. 

l"hi^« iicucral observation mav be carried a "Teat 
ileal farlher ; but it were the business of a vclume, 
rui! of a short ap'jicndix, to explain it at large. In 
g<ner'!.!, the seeds of umbelliferous p'lants, that is, 
t!i<i. e which liavc little (lowers in rounded clusters, 
c-ich succeeded by two seeds, are good against 
ct'lics ; those of caraua}', anise, cummin, corian- 
der, and all of that kind, arc j)r,)duced by plants 
of this fignre. In the same manner, tlie vcrlic-il- 
late plants, as thev are called, that i^, those which 
have the llowcrs surrounding (lie strlks, as in mint 
and thyme, arc of a warm nature ; and hov.ever 
they dilVer in degree and circum'^iriace, they have 
the same general virtues. Fnrth( f, such ])la;Us 
as are insipid to the taste and sir.ell. h.ave generahy 
little virtues; and, on the coniarv, those which 
fiave the most fragrant smell, and sluu pest taste, have 
the; greatest viri\ies. of whatever kind. 

In general also, those plants whirh ha\e a Siion^j- 
but an agreeable taste, are most worlhv to be 
t^xamined with respe;;t to tie.'ir virtues ; for ih.ey 
are generally the most valuable ; ami on the con- 
trary, when a very strong taste is also a very 0\-- 
agrecable one ; or, in the same manner, v. hen !'■> 
strong smell of a plant has alsr» something heavv. 
di.sagreeable, aiid ovcrpowei-iiig in it, there i- 
mischief in the herb, rather tlran anv useful qualify. 
The poi'-oiiou.- plants of this cuuntrv are Very few ; 



3/6 APPENDIX. 

but they arc for the most part characterized after this 
manner : so that they are known as it were at sight, 
or hy the first ofler of a trial. » 

Thus we see lio^-"' very htllc can be tlic danger of 
inquiring ("arther into the virtues of our own plants, 
by experiments ; and how useful such an inquiry 
may be to niankiiul is sufficiently ])roved by tlie matter 
of the preceding volume. 

What 1 have written, is with intent to encourage 
some wiio have opportunities to make tlie trial ; and 
for my own part, I shall not be wanting*. \\ hat I 
have already di^^covered in this way, I am pleased to 
see makes no inconsiderable addition to the ])reseiit 
publiccition ; what I shall discover fartlier, or Icjiin 
from i.lie experience of others, shall have its place in 
the succcedioii" editions. 



FLVIS. 



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