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FAMILY NAMES 
AND THEIR STORY 



BY 

S. BARING-GOULD, M.A. 

AUTHOR OF "THE TRAGEDY OF THE C^SARS " "CLIFF CASTLES AND CAVE 

DWELLINGS OF EUROPE," " CURIOUS MYTHS OF THE MIDDLE AGES," 

Sfc. 



" I do beseech you 

(Chiefly that I may set it in my prayers) 
What is your name ?" 

Tempest, Act III., Sc. 



NEW EDITION 



LONDON 
SEELEY, SERVICE & CO. LIMITED 

38 GREAT RUSSELL STREET 
1913 



PREFACE 

MR. M. A. LOWER was the first in modern times to break 
ground in the domain of family nomenclaturein 1842, when 
he published his first edition of " English Surnames." There 
were in it many mistakes, and the work was tentative. A 
better book of his was " Patronymica Britannica," a dictionary 
of family names that appeared in 1860. 

But the share of scientific research first entered the soil 
with Canon Isaac Taylor's " Words and Places," 1864. 

Since then there have been various works on the subject, 
some good, some bad, some instructive, others misleading ; 
there have been treatises on Irish and Scottish, and on 
particular county names. Mr. R. Ferguson, in his " English 
Surnames and their Place in the Teutonic Family," 1858, 
and "Surnames as a Science," 1883, and "The Teutonic 
Name-System applied to Familv Names in France, England, 
and Germany," 1864, went too far in deriving most surnames 
from Teutonic roots, led thereto by Forstemann's "Alt- 
deutsches Namenbuch " (Nordhausen, 1856), a vast work that 
has been condensed by Heintze in " Die Deutschen Familien- 
namen " (Halle, I882). 1 Mr. Bardsley, in his " English Sur- 
names," dealt almost wholly with those found in the 

1 There is also Dr. F. Tetzner's "Namenbuch" (Leipzig, 1893). The 
most exhaustive German work on names is Pott, " Personennamen,', 
(Leipzig, 1859). 



vn 



PREFACE 

Hundred Rolls, 1273, and other documents of the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries. Dr. Barber, in " British Family 
Names " (London, 1894), gives perhaps excessive pre- 
eminence to Scandinavian and Flemish names, to such 
an extent that he derives the family name Bevan from the 
Flemish Bevenot, whereas it stands for Ap Evan. Carter, 
according to him, comes from the Norse Kottr, and Child from 
skjoldr, a shield. Shepherd he cannot deduce from a sheep-herd, 
but derives it from a place called Chebbard. The book has, 
therefore, to be used with caution. " Ludus Patronymicus ; or, 
The Etymology of Curious Surnames," by Richard Stephen 
Charnock, 1868, as the author is a scholar, may be consulted 
with advantage. 

" Homes of Family Names in Great Britain," by H. Bing- 
ham Guppy, M.B., 1890, is a scholarly work, the result of 
much research, and evincing a wide knowledge of names, if 
not of their meanings. Its great value is in the location of 
family names. There are many other books whose titles and 
the names of their authors I refrain from giving, as they are 
often misleading the blind leading the blind into pitfalls. 

In treading the mazes of English nomenclature, one is 
surrounded by such pitfalls ; it is like the road to Plessis 
Castle, according to Scott in " Quentin Durward " : " Every 
yard of this ground is rendered dangerous by snares and 
traps and caltrops, and pitfalls deep enough to bury you in 
for ever." One has to walk warily. It is noticeable enough 
where others have slipped and fallen in or been caught ; and 
I cannot flatter myself that I have myself wholly escaped. 
But it must be borne in mind that some names may have 
distinct derivations, though identical in sound and spelling. 
For instance, Tozer signifies one who dresses cloth in a fulling- 
mill with teazles, to bring up the nap. But at the Revocation 

viii 



PREFACE 

of the Edict of Nantes, a family of Thorzeau, Huguenots, 
settled in Plymouth, let fall the r out of their name, and 
accommodated it to Tozer. The Dacres no doubt in some 
cases derive from a crusading ancestor who won distinction at 
Acre, but in most instances take their name from a village near 
Penrith so-called ; and a Ranulph de Dacre, co. Cumberland, 
who figures in the " Placita quo Waranto," in the reign of 
Edward I., certainly was designated after this village. 

What is the true origin of the surname Kaye ? Sir Kay 
was one of the Knights of the Round Table, and King 
Arthur's Seneschal ; and the romances of the Middle Ages 
furnished names adopted by people in England and in 
France. But John del Kai, Sheriff of London in 1207, 
obviously took his name from the Quay, near which he lived. 
And Kay is a common pronunciation of Key, and a man who 
had a key for his shop-sign may have by this means acquired 
his name. How can we decide whether the family of Kewe 
derives from the parish of that name or from a Cook ? The 
same individual is described in the Parliamentary Writs for 
1301 and 1302 as William le Keu and William Cocus. 

Some names are supposed to be derived from seasons, as 
Noel, Pask, Lammas ; it may be so in some cases, but Noel 
may come from Noailles, or be a form of Nigel ; and when 
one finds the same man registered in 1273 as Richard 
Lammesse, and Richard de Lammesse, and when one knows 
that there is a parish of Lammas in Norfolk, one is disposed 
to doubt the temporal derivation of some of these names. 
But a good many such season-names were given to found- 
lings. A Leach is unquestionably a physician, and the 
horrible creature that was formerly supplied to suck one's 
blood was so named because it served as a useful doctor in 
cases of inflammation. But the surname Blackleach does not 

ix 



PREFACE 

derive from one of these. Such an entry in the Hundred 
Rolls for 1273 as that of William le Leche undoubtedly 
describes a physician. But Henry del Lache, in 1397, 
indicates that Henry lived by a Lache, or lake, or pool ; and 
Blackleach means the man living at or by Blackpool. 

" What variety of herbs soever are shuffled together in the 
dish," says Montaigne, " yet the whole mass is swallowed up 
in one name of a salad. In like manner, under the con- 
sideration of names, I will make a hodge-podge of differing 
articles." 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER I'AGE 

I. INTRODUCTORY - 13 

II. THE TATTOO AND TRIBAL NAME - 28 

III. SIRE-NAMES - - 38 

IV. TOTEMISM AND NAMES - 74 

V. THE CASTLE AND THE MANOR - 99 

VI. THE VILLAGE - - 114 

VII. THE TOWN: TRADE-NAMES - -126 

VIII. PLACE-NAMES - -154 

IX. ANGLO-SAXON NAMES : DOMESDAY - 184 

X. SCANDINAVIAN NAMES I THE ''LIBER VIT^E " - - 19! 

XI. THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY - - 199 

XII. FRENCH NAMES : I. EARLY - - 248 

xiii. FRENCH NAMES: n. THE HUGUENOT REFUGEES - 277 

XIV. NICK- AND DESCRIPTIVE NAMES - 295 

XV. PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES - 318 

XVI. NAME STORIES- - 328 

XVII. THE EVOLUTION AND DISINTEGRATION OF SURNAMES - 345 

XVIII. SCOTTISH AND IRISH SURNAMES - 370 

XIX. CHANGED NAMES 39O 

XX. COMPOUND NAMES 402 

xi 



xii CONTENTS 

PAGE 

APPENDIX TO CHAPTER IX. : ANGLO-SAXON AND DANISH NAMES 

IN DOMESDAY - - 408 

APPENDIX I. TO CHAPTER X. : SCANDINAVIAN NAMES- - 4IO 

APPENDIX II. TO CHAPTER X. I SURNAMES OF THE FIFTEENTH 

CENTURY IN THE "LIBER VHVE " - 412 

APPENDIX TO CHAPTER XI. : LIST OF THOSE WHO ATTENDED 
WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR TO ENGLAND, ACCORDING TO 

THE "ROMAN DE ROU"- - 412 

APPENDIX TO CHAPTER XII. : HUGUENOT IMMIGRANTS* SUB- 
SCRIPTIONS TO A LOYAL ADDRESS, 1744 - - 414 



FAMILY NAMES 

AND THEIR STORY 



CHAPTER I 

INTRODUCTORY 

WE cannot deduce our English surnames from the nomen- 
clature of any single people, for the English of to-day are an 
amalgam of many races that have been fused into one. We 
have among us British names as Wynne (white) ; Hoel, that 
has become Howell ; Caradog, now Craddock ; Morgan, 
Madoc, now Madox ; Gruffydd, that has become Griffith ; 
and perhaps Coel, that is now Cole. 

There are Saxon names as well Algar; Joll ; Eadmund, 
become Edmunds ; Godwin, now Goodwin ; Godric, now 
Goodridge. 

Mr. R. Ferguson wrote three books on the subject of Anglo- 
Saxon names, and their survival in English nomenclature. 
But a great gap intervenes between the use of Anglo-Saxon 
names before the Conquest and the adoption of surnames 
by the conquered; and Anglo-Saxon Christian names, as 
shall be shown later on, died almost completely out before 
the assumption of family nomenclature became general ; and 
their existence among us is due to a cause to be noted in the 
sequel. 

Scandinavian surnames based upon' personal designations 
are more numerous in England, but these come nearly all, if 
not all, from ancient Northumbria, which included Yorkshire. 

'3 



INTRODUCTORY 

There the descendants of the old Danish and Norse settlers 
clung to their ancient nomenclature later than elsewhere 
indeed, till the fashion of adopting surnames prevailed. We 
have such names. Bard has become Barth, unless it be a 
contraction, as is probable, of Bartholomew ; Jokull yields 
Jekyll, Halfdan is now Haldane, Sweyn is Swayne, Olafr 
yields Oliver but this comes to us through Normandy. 
Ragnar is now Rayner, and this, again, comes in a roundabout 
fashion through the Regnier of the Conqueror. HavarS 
is Howard, HjorvarS is Harvey, Steinarr we recognize in 
Stoner, Ketill is Kettle, Grimm is Grymes, Hamund is 
Hammond, FrrSestan is Featherstone, Thorfin is Turpin. 
But it is in Yorkshire, East Anglia, Durham, and Northum- 
berland, that these are mainly found. Elsewhere, if we 
trace them, it will usually be found that the families bearing 
these names have at some time come into other parts of 
England from the ancient Northumbria or from Lincoln. 
We have, indeed, elsewhere names that came originally from 
Norway, but they have somewhat altered their form by 
transmission through Normandy. These latter names are 
numerous, for it was with the Conqueror that family nomen- 
clature may be said to have had its beginning in our land. 
Of such I shall have to say more hereafter. 

Then, again, we have Flemish names, not only the surnames 
Fleming or Flamank, but also such as Catt ; Phayre, which 
is still common in Belgium ; Bowdler and Buller, both 
derived from Boulers or Boilers, one of the principal fiefs in 
Flanders. Baldwin de Boilers received from Henry I. the 
barony of Montgomery and the hand of his niece, Sybilla de 
Falaise. But most Flemish names are of late introduction, 
not earlier than the sixteenth century. In Pembrokeshire, 
where was planted a colony in the reign of Henry I., there 
are none. Flinders is from Flanders, Clutterbuck is Cloeter- 
boeke, and Cobbledick may be from Koppeldijck, Mossop from 
the Dutch Masdorp, Vandeleur is undoubtedly Van de Laer, 
and Fullalove is from Vollenhove. But the Dutch and 
Flemish names are not numerous. 

There are also among us Germans and Jews. In fact, we 



INTRODUCTORY 

have in our island a vast heap of names, and it is no easy 
matter to sort them out according to their various origins. 

Let us take the largest county in England, the old Deira, 
Yorkshire. 

The original population were Celtic, and even after the 
Angle Conquest the kingdom of Elmet remained to the 
Britons, seated among the Western Hills, and stretching as 
far as Leeds. Yorkshire and the whole country to the north, 
to the Firth of Forth, the Scottish Lowlands, were sub- 
jugated by the Angles from Schleswig, a people one in blood 
with the Danes of Zealand, with only slight dialectic differ- 
ences in their speech. Scandinavian Saga asserts that the 
Kings of Zealand claimed suzerainty and exacted taxes from 
Northumbria from an early period, and that there was a 
constant influx of Danes into it during many generations. 
But it was not till 790 that Yorkshire was invaded in hostile 
form from Denmark. In 876 King Halfdan settled the 
country, apportioning the land among his Danish followers. 
The Danes, moreover, spread into Mercia that is, the Mid- 
lands and numerous place-names there show that they not 
only conquered it temporarily, but that they also settled 
down there permanently. Lincolnshire also was peopled by 
Danish settlers, and they not only gave names to places, but 
retained their Scandinavian personal designations, to transmit 
them to the present day. 

The population of Yorkshire underwent great changes 
during the twelfth century. " As the various industries grew 
up, they invited skilled workmen from different parts. Not 
only the Normans, but Flemings in the twelfth century and 
Germans in the fourteenth, came into the country. The 
mines at Alston were worked about 1350 by a party from 
Cologne, under Tillman, and the great German colony under 
Hochstetten, in the time of Elizabeth, made a notable 
addition to the Lake District population. Even in the four- 
teenth century, as can be seen from the poll-tax returns of 
Yorkshire, names suggest immigration from various parts of 
England, from Scotland and Ireland, and from France." 1 
1 Collingwood, "Scandinavian England." S.P.C.K., 1909. 

'5 



INTRODUCTORY 

What was true of Yorkshire was true of the rest of 
England. 

When the Jutes, Saxons, and Angles, invaded and subjugated 
the land, they did not come to light their own fires and clean 
their own boots, but to take their ease as masters, and turn 
the natives into hewers of wood, drawers of water, and tillers of 
the soil, for their advantage. Nowhere, save at Anderida, can 
there have been wholesale extermination of the inhabitants. 
Conquerors would no more think of wiping out the working 
population than they would of killing all the sheep and oxen. 
The fighting man was not so eager to lay aside spear and 
sword for plough and oxgoad, as to deprive himself of the 
men who could drive the plough and the oxen for him, while 
he lounged and caroused at home. 

At the Norman Conquest there was even less loss of life 
among the natives. Only in Northumbria was there devas- 
tation and wholesale slaughter, for there only was the rest- 
lessness deemed to be otherwise incurable. Elsewhere the 
old freeholders were dispossessed of their freeholds, but 
suffered in many cases to remain on as tenant farmers. 
When a great Baron had 100 or 170 manors given to 
him, he could neither occupy them himself nor place his 
retainers in them at once, for he needed his Norman men- 
at-arms about him in his castle to watch and keep in 
control the subjugated English. He could not afford to 
disperse them over the country. He was compelled to 
leave in the several manors men who understood the soil, 
the ways of the country, and who would pay him an annual 
rent. 

In time, however, he would establish his superannuated 
servants in these manors and farms, as he filled their places 
about his person with younger men from abroad, and by 
this manner much Norman blood, carrying with it Norman 
nomenclature, was dispersed over the land. Where we 
encounter a Peters and a Pierce, a James and a Jacques, 
we know that the first descend from an English and the latter 
from a French ancestor. 

Many of the Norman names which have been foisted into 

16 



INTRODUCTORY 

the Roll of Battle Abbey are those of men that never fought 
at Hastings, but came over later to better their fortunes 
under Henry I., or still later under the Angevin Kings. 

Indeed, during 300 years of English grip on Normandy, 
Maine, Anjou, and Guienne, there was incessant flux and 
reflux between England and France, and many a knight and 
man-at-arms of French blood, who had served under the 
banners of English nobles during the wars in France, was 
rewarded with a grant of land in England, and a little 
homestead in which he could hang up his battered arms and 
rest his grey head. 

Isabella of France, the wife of Edward II., introduced in 
her train many persons bearing surnames hitherto unknown 
in England. 

And they came to stay. 

Even at the time of the Conquest there were Flemings in 
England. Later on an eruption of the sea compelled them 
to abandon their dwellings, now covered by " the deep and 
rolling Zuyder Zee," and many wanderers sought refuge in 
England and were allowed to inhabit the Scottish border- 
lands. Not long afterwards, about 1107-08, Henry I. 
removed the colony to the Welsh south coast, and gave up to 
them the fertile district since called " Little England beyond 
Wales," which had been wrested from the Cymri. "And so 
it was," says Florence of Worcester, " that these strangers 
settled there as loyal men to the King ; and he placed 
English among them to teach them the English language, 
and they are now English, and the plague of Dyved and 
South Wales on account of their deceit and lies, in which they 
exceed any settlers in any other part of the island of Britain." 

Two other settlements of Flemings were made in Norfolk 
and Suffolk one by Henry I., the other under the direction 
of Edward III. and this made of East Anglia for centuries 
the great cloth-weaving district of England. " Worsted " or 
" Lindsey-wolsey," " Kerseymere," and " Bocking," derive 
their names from the several villages that became flourishing 
weaving centres in Eastern England. 

Many Hollanders were also invited over to assist in the 

17 B 



INTRODUCTORY 

dyking, draining, and embanking, of the low watery lands in 
Cambridgeshire and Lincolnshire and in Holderness, and 
settled there. 

During the persecution of Alva a great flight of harassed 
Flemings came over the sea, and many settled in Spitalftelds 
and Clerkenwell, others in Devon and Cornwall, and in 
Yorkshire, near the wolds and moors where were the sheep- 
runs. 

When Richmond came over and landed in Milford Haven, 
he was accompanied by a considerable body of recruits from 
Brittany 

" A sort of vagabonds, rascals and runaways, 
A scum of Bretagnes, and base lackey peasants, 
Whom their o'ercloyed country vomits forth, 
To desperate ventures." 

King Richard HI., V. Hi. 

After Bosworth these soldiers of fortune had to be rewarded 
for their services, and the cheapest way of so doing was to 
dispossess the adherents of Richard, and install in their 
places those who had come over with Henry. 

It was principally at this time that the name of Britten or 
Le Breton as a surname came among us, and to the same 
period we owe some of the Morleys (from Morlaix), though 
others had arrived earlier with the Conqueror. The name 
Lempole also came in, a corruption of Lamballe, Kimber of 
Quimper, and Pimple of Paimpol. 1 During the reign of 
Elizabeth many Germans arrived to show the English 
better methods of mining and smelting of ores, and some 
went, as already intimated, to Yorkshire, but most to Devon 
and Cornwall, the stannary counties. It is stated that 
many, if not most, of the technical terms employed in tin- 
mining in Cornwall are German. Thus we meet with Mullers, 
Wagners, Bomgartners, and Aikebaums. 

After the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685, a 
stream of fugitive Huguenots flowed into England. Some- 

1 But there was an earlier settler from Paimpol, for in 1360 Stephen de 
Penpel, or Pempel, was Archdeacon of Exeter. 

18 



INTRODUCTORY 

thing like 70,000 are said to have settled in the United 
Kingdom. The crypt of Canterbury Cathedral was sur- 
rendered to them for their religious meetings. Till the end 
of the eighteenth century, in some parish churches in Essex, 
Divine service was held in French for their convenience. 

In London they settled about Soho and St. Giles ; 2,576 
went over to Ireland. In Essex at the present day remain 
many of their descendants bearing French names, as Pertwee 
for Pertuis, Cockrell for Coquerell; Melonie, a coal-merchant 
at Colchester ; and Deval, a plumber there. 

Many settled in Plymouth. Such names still found there as 
Gruyelien and Lamoureux (a seed-merchant) are easily identi- 
fied, but others have undergone some amount of anglicizing. 
Thus, Cherri has become Cherry, Pare is Park, Benoit is 
Benoi ; Tardieu, Tardew ; Viall has become Vile, Condi is 
Cundy, Guillard is Jillard; Jourdain, Jordan. 1 I knew a 
schoolmistress who wrote her name Blampy. She came 
from Dittisham, on the Dart, where, as I had studied the 
parish registers, I knew that her ancestor was a Huguenot 
refugee named Blancpied. Some of the same family migrated 
to America, where the name has become Blompay. 

In 1709 a multitude 8,844 poor wretches arrived from 
the Bavarian Palatinate, where their homes, farms, crops, 
even churches, had been wasted and utterly destroyed by 
order of Louis XIV. A great camp for them was established 
at Hampstead, and Queen Anne and the noble ladies and 
gentlemen and the citizens of London visited and relieved 
the unfortunates. The able-bodied men were drafted into 
the army, married, and founded families that thenceforth 
bore German names ; some were sent to Ireland, others 
deported to Yorkshire and other parts of England. 

The accession to the throne of William of Orange was an 
inducement to a number of Netherlanders to come over and 
feather their nests at our expense. Much bitter feeling was 
aroused by the favour that William accorded to his country- 
men. To him we owe the Bentincks, Keppels, the Vansittarts, 
and that soldier of fortune from Germany, Schomberg. 
1 But there were earlier and English Jordans. 

19 B 2 



INTRODUCTORY 

So also, with the promotion to the English throne of the 
Hanoverian dynasty, the natural result was a swarming over 
of North Germans. 

And what can be said of the inflow of representatives of all 
nationalities since the French Revolution ? 

We have Swedes and Poles naturalized among us so 
much so that in the clergy list may be found the names 
of Swedes and Poles who have become incumbents to English 
livings. Swiss have found homes here as well, as clock- 
makers and opticians, as cooks and confectioners. 

Germans have arrived in shoals to escape compulsory 
military service. We have but to look at the names over 
the shops in Oxford Street to see how these foreigners 
are elbowing out our native tradesmen. The Italians have 
monopolized the restaurants, and the old English chop-house 
exists no longer. 

In the mercantile offices the foreigner proves a useful clerk, 
and in nine cases out of ten remains, and his family becomes 
entirely English : only the name proclaims whence he came. 
The English commercial traveller is also being displaced by 
the foreigner. German Jews are naturalized, many become 
Christians or drop their Mosaic peculiarities, and they all 
contribute names to the general stock, not only Levi, Samuel, 
Nathan, and Cohen, but also Goschen, Holzapfel, Cassel, Wolf, 
Rothschild y 1 also Spanish and Portuguese Jews, as Montefiore 
and Lopes. 

1 The Rothschild family was from Frankfort, where Mayer Anselm 
Rothschild was a small money-lender, born 1743. The Landgraves of 
Hesse-Cassel disposed of their male subjects to England as mercenaries, 
and Amschel (Anselm) acted as intermediary. In 1775 as many as 
12,800 Hessians were thus sold to the British Government to be sent to 
fight in America, and the number was afterwards swelled to 19,400, or 
one-twentieth part of the entire population of Hesse-Cassel. Huzars 
were despatched to patrol the frontiers and drive back the wretched 
peasants who attempted to escape. The subsidies passed through the 
hands of Amschel, and a good deal of English gold adhered to his fingers 
(Vehse, " Geschichte d. deutschen Hofe," vol. xxvii., pp. 174-6, 226). 
J. Scherr, in " Der rothe Quartal," says, after mentioning the fortune 
amassed: "To think that one family should have acquired such vast, 
almost wicked, wealth out of blood-money, when those fathers of their 

20 



INTRODUCTORY 

It is not possible to fix a date when surnames became 
hereditary. There are surnames given that were personal, 
and such there have ever been, but these ceased to be used 
with the decease of the bearer. But when at what date a 
to-name was transmitted to a man's posterity cannot be said 
with any confidence. Hereditary surnames stole into use 
by slow degrees and imperceptibly. They began with the 
assumption of territorial designation by the Normans at the 
Conquest, as shall be shown in another chapter, but did not 
become general among the middle classes till the fifteenth 
century. 

Of surnames in Germany it has been said : " Family 
names did not come into general employ until late in the 
Middle Ages. First of all, the nobility in the twelfth century 
called themselves after their ancestral seats, as Conrad von 
Wettin, Rudolf von Habsburg ; then among the citizens 
they were adopted in the fourteenth century, but did not 
become general till the sixteenth century." 

What is true of German surnames is true also of such as 
we find in England, only that the acquisition of family names 
with us came in somewhat earlier than in Germany. 

Mr. Bardsley says of nicknames and such other to-names 
as were given in Anglo-Saxon and early Norman times : 
" They were but expressions of popular feeling to individual 
persons by means of which that individuality was increased, 
and passed away with the lives of their owners. The son, in 
due course of time, got a sobriquet of his own, by which he 

people, Charles I., William VIII., Frederick II., and William IX., sold 
their subjects by thousands and tens of thousands to various war-loving 
potentates, and en gros to the English during the War of Emancipation 
in America ! This family treasure, to which more curses clung than to 
the Nibelungen-hort, came in the Napoleonic age to be further swollen 
by old Amschel, the founder of the Rothschild dynasty ; and he knew so 
well how to turn money over that his son became, so to speak, the grand- 
master of European jobbery." But, after all, the real iniquity lay, not 
with the Rothschilds, but with the Landgraves who trafficked in their 
subjects, and not much less with the British Government which entered 
into and encouraged such a scandalous negotiation. 

21 



INTRODUCTORY 

was familiarly known ; but that, too, was but personal and 
temporary. It was no more hereditary than had been his 
father's before him, and even, so far as himself was concerned, 
might be again changed, according to the humour or caprice 
of his neighbours and acquaintances. And this went on for 
several more centuries ; only, as population increased, these 
sobriquets became more and more common. 

" In the eleventh and twelfth centuries, however, a change 
took place. By a silent and unpremeditated movement over 
the whole of the more populated and civilized European 
societies, nomenclature began to assume a solid, lasting 
basis. It was the result, in fact, of an insensibly growing 
necessity. Population was on the increase, commerce was 
spreading, and society was fast becoming corporate; with 
all this arose difficulties of individualization. It was im- 
possible, without some further distinction, to maintain a 
current identity. Hence, what had been but an occasional 
and irregular custom became a fixed and general practice 
the distinguishing sobriquet, not, as I say, of premeditation, 
but by a silent compact, became part and parcel of a man's 
property, and passed on with his other possessions to his 
direct descendants." 1 

There were, however, instances, few and far between, in 
which a nickname extended to children beyond the father 
to whom first applied, and that before the Conquest. Mr. 
Lower quotes from a document among the Cottonian MSS. 
in the British Museum that, though bearing no date, is 
certainly earlier than 1066. It states that 

" Hwitta Hatte was a keeper of bees at Haethnfelda, and 
Tate Hatte, his daughter, was the mother of Wulsige, the 
shooter; and Lulle Hatte, the sister of Wulsige, Helstan 
had for wife in Wealadune. Wifus and Dunne and Seolce 
were born in Haethnfelda. Duding Hatte, the son of Wifus, 
is settled at Wealadene ; and Ceolmund Hatte, the son of 
Dunne, is also settled there ; and Aetheleah Hatte, the son 
of Seolce, is also there ; and Tate Hatte, the sister of Cen- 
wald, Moeg hath for his wife at Weligan ; also Ealdelm, the 
1 Bardsley, "English Surnames." London, 1889. 

22 



INTRODUCTORY 

son of Herethrythe, married the daughter of Tate. Werlaff 
Hatte, the father of Werstan, was the rightful owner of 
Haethnfelda." 

Here we have four generations of Hattes, and the females 
keep their names of Hatte ; but apparently these all derive 
it from Heathfield, which is Hattes-field, being owned by 
Werlaff Hatte. It is quite possible that those who drifted 
away from Haethnfield ceased to bear the to-name. The 
document is curious, as it shows that before the Conquest 
the tendency to assume surnames had already spasmodically 
manifested itself; but we have no authority to say that it 
had done more than manifest itself. 

In the great confusion of names, the alteration, the modi- 
fication, the corruption, they have undergone, it is not easy 
for every man to discover whence he came, how he got 
his name, to what race he pertains. Yet every man 
must desire to " look to the rock whence he is hewn, and 
to the hole of the pit whence he is digged." It is hoped 
that this book may serve him in some fashion to discover 
his origin. 

But continually we hear men make the most incredible 
assertions relative to their families and the family name, 
unconscious that documentary evidence could demolish 
what was assuredly put forward. I can find space for two 
instances only. 

Some fifty years ago there lived an old gentleman of 
the name of Gill in a country town. He was a pompous 
man who wore two waistcoats, a high cravat, and a beaver 
curled up at the sides, after the fashion of the Count 
d'Orsay. What filled him with pride was the conviction 
the absolute conviction that the blood of Kings circulated 
in his veins. The sole foundation for this belief was that his 
surname was Gill, and that once upon a time there had been 
a Norwegian King of the name of Harald Gill. 

Now, in the first place, Harald Gill reigned from 1130 to 
1136, and at that time hereditary surnames were unknown in 
Scandinavia. In the next place, we know what became of 
all the race of this King that it was blotted out in blood, 

23 



INTRODUCTORY 

In the third place, he was hardly one to be looked back upon 
as a glory to the family. 

Now hear his story: In the year 1129 there arrived in 
Norway an Irishman named Gillchrist, who presented him- 
self before King Sigurd the Crusader, and declared that he 
was his half-brother, the son of Magnus Barefeet, who had 
been killed in battle in Ireland in 1103. He was a tall, lanky 
fellow, with a long face and neck, and, unlike a Scandinavian, 
had black eyes and hair. He spoke Norwegian but brokenly. 
He pretended that King Magnus had had an intrigue with 
an Irish girl, and it was said that in the battle in which he 
fell the King had sung this stave : 

" In Dublin town my hopes reside, 

No more are Norway's maids my cheer. 
Them I'll not see till autumn-tide, 
I love my Irish wench so dear." 

Gillchrist brought his mother with him, but no other 
evidence to establish his assertion. King Sigurd was subject 
to fits of insanity, and, against the advice of his Council, 
accepted the claim, and made Gillchrist, or Harald, as he 
now called himself, swear that he would not contest the 
kingdom, after his death, with Magnus, his son and sole 
male issue. Harald took the required oath, and broke it so 
soon as the King was dead. 

Norway at the time was not a compact nationality, and a 
strong hostility existed between the men of the North and 
those of the South. The Northerners, or Drontheimers, at 
once accepted Harald as their King, whilst those of the 
South proclaimed Magnus so soon as Sigurd was no more. 
Harald succeeded in getting Magnus into his hands, where- 
upon he blinded him, cut off one of his feet, and otherwise 
mutilated him. 

Harald Gill, or Gillchrist, " was one of the most unworthy 
Kings that ever disgraced the throne of Norway," says the 
historian Boyesen. He left behind him but one legitimate 
son, Ingi, who was deformed, hunchbacked, and with a 
withered leg. He died without issue. But Harald left three 
bastard sons and as many baseborn daughters. Not one 



INTRODUCTORY 

of the brood inherited the name of Gill. One of them was 
called Sigurd Mund, from his ugly mouth, and he left issue 
by his mistresses. His eldest son was born of a slave-girl 
when he himself was aged but fifteen. A more disreputable 
set than the spawn of Harald Gill can hardly be conceived. 
They fought and killed each other, and of those that re- 
mained, King Magnus Erlingsson, or, rather, his father 
Erling, set to work to exterminate them root and branch. 
But when he supposed that not one of Gill's race remained, 
there suddenly started up a new claimant, Swerrir, from the 
Faroe Isles, who pretended that he was the bastard of 
Sigurd Mund by his cook, who was the wife of a comb- 
maker named Uni, though Swerrir had been born after Uni 
had married her. The faction of the Drontheimers was 
quite ready to admit his claim, though totally unsubstan- 
tiated by any evidence, and in a battle fought in 1184 
Magnus Erlingsson was killed. Now, Swerrir did have sons 
by the daughter of Roe, the Bishop of the Faroe Isles, but 
it is very doubtful whether he were married to her, and we 
know what became of his sons and grandsons. But Swerrir 
himself, by his own showing, was the illegitimate son of a 
bastard of Harald Gill, who was himself, as he pretended, 
an illegitimate son of King Magnus Barefeet. 1 But that was 
not the end of the farcical tragedy. A man turned up a 
little fellow with an ugly face, named Eric who also pre- 
tended to be the son of Sigurd Mouth, on no other grounds 
than that when in Palestine he had prayed that, should he 
be a King's son, he might be able to wade or swim across 
Jordan with a lighted candle in his hand. He does not seem 
to have known who was his mother. But his son died with- 
out issue. All the sons, or pretended sons, and grandsons 
of Harald Gill bore nicknames, but not one called himself 
Gill. 

Harald's original name was Gillchrist that is to say, the 
servant of Christ. It was customary among the Irish and 
Scots to call themselves servants of Christ or of some saint, 

1 The male line, but only through another bastard, came totally to an 
end with Hakon Longlegs in 1319. 

25 



INTRODUCTORY 

and some of the noblest in the land were Gillmichael, Gill- 
patrick Gillbridget, etc. But the name was unknown in 
Norway before the arrival of Harald, and it perished there 
with him. So much for this claim put forward to give a 
false gloss to a name in itself ancient. 

Now, Gill was a highly honourable name, taken by some 
of the men of highest rank in Scotland, Cornwall, and 
Ireland, coupling with it the name of Saint ; but it was not 
Norwegian. 

Now for another instance. In the Western Morning News 
for June 10, 1909, is an account of the millenary service of 
the anniversary of the foundation of the See of Crediton, and 
also in memory of the martyrdom of Wynfrith (St. Boniface), 
who was born in Crediton in 680. The newspaper says : 
" At yesterday's service conspicuous places were occupied by 
the Rev. A. Winnifrith (Rector of Mariansleigh) and Rev. 
D. P. Winnifrith (Rector of Igham), father and son, who 
claim to be descendants of the great St. Boniface." 

Now, neither the father nor any brothers of St. Boniface 
bore the name of Wynfrith ; nor, of course, being a monk 
and an Archbishop, did he himself leave issue. Moreover, 
hereditary family names did not come into existence in 
England at all events, among the English people till some 
500 years after the death of Wynfrith of Crediton. 

I give these two instances of the mistakes into which people 
may fall by making claims as to the antiquity and origin 
of their names, without having investigated whether any 
basis exists on which they could be established. 

From the moment we come into the world we have, as our 
very own, our names and our shadows. The latter attend us 
only when the sun shines, but the former cling to us night 
and day. We are sensitive about our names : we resent their 
being misspelt or mispronounced; we fire up at any dis- 
paraging remark passed upon them. But otherwise we do 
not concern ourselves about them. We do not ask when 
these names came into existence, what their signification is, 
and what is their history. And yet they deserve more con- 
sideration than has been accorded to them ; they are heirlooms 

26 



INTRODUCTORY 

of the past heirlooms to be kept unblemished, to be passed 
on without a stain to our children. And they are historical 
records when rightly read. They inform us to what nation 
our ancestor belonged, or what was his occupation, what his 
principal physical or moral characteristics. That man who 
first had a surname which he transmitted to his children was 
the Adam of the family. Of all who went before we know 
nothing ; of those who followed we may, perhaps, know 
nothing till the time of our grandfather; but he, the Name- 
Father, stands out as the family progenitor, and if we desire 
to know something about him we must question our surname. 
Our surnames are at the least 300 years old, many from 500 
to 600 years old. Language changes it is in constant flux ; 
but the name, after it has been adopted as a hereditary sur- 
name and fixed in registers, is petrified. Spelling was tentative 
and capricious, and Smith, for instance, was, when enregis- 
tered, rung through all changes of Smeeth, Smythe, Smeyt, 
Smyth, etc. ; and Faber, the blacksmith, became Fever, 
Feures, Ferron, Fieron, etc. Because of the arbitrary manner 
in which names were enrolled, so many are to us unintelligible 
at the present day. 

This year (1909) I have had difficulties relative to applicants 
for old-age pensions, because the same person had his sur- 
name spelled in one way when baptized, in another way when 
married, and in a third when he made application. The 
arbitrary way in which the owners of some of the best of our 
family names treat them as to pronunciation shows what 
confusion and mistakes must have been made in registration. 
Mainwaring is pronounced Mannering, Leveson-Gower becomes 
Lewson-Gore, Marjoribanks is Marchbanks, Cholmondeley is 
Chumley. It was largely due to such mispronunciation, or 
to caprice, that so many apparently vulgar and opprobrious 
nicknames are to be found among us. Originally they were 
not nicknames at all, as we shall presently see. 



27 



CHAPTER II 

THE TATTOO AND TRIBAL NAME 

THE flight of the hermit from the society of his fellow-men to 
bury himself in the desert, the bitterness expressed by Timon 
when he said : 

" Be abhorred 

All feasts, societies and throngs of men ! 

His semblable, yea, himself, Timon disdains " 

these are products of an exhausted, dying civilization. The 
primitive man finds his pleasure, his ratio vivendi, in associa- 
tion. He cannot think outside his community. He cannot 
understand the possibility of man living as a unit, not as a 
digit in a sum. The most extreme condemnation that could 
be passed on a Norseman was to proclaim him an outcast, 
a " wolf" 1 who might not lie under the same roof with, nor 
speak with, a fellow-man. As one outside the commonwealth, 
every man's hand was against him. He might be killed 
with impunity. And the horror with which excommunication 
was regarded by a man in the Middle Ages was due, not to 
dread of deprivation of the Sacraments, so much as to dis- 
sociation from fellow-men who might not house and converse 
with him. When the Popes excommunicated whole peoples 
it lost its force, and sectaries were willing cheerily to excom- 
municate themselves, for they went forth from the Church 
in bodies. When Innocent III. excommunicated King Sverrir 
of Norway, and laid the land under an interdict, it was 

1 So also to be proclaimed a " wolf's-head " in England. Cant. Pil- 
grims : "The Coke's Tale." 

28 



THE TATTOO AND TRIBAL NAME 

generally disregarded, and no one was a penny the worse, 
though the ban lasted from 1194 to I2O2. 1 Everywhere and 
at all times do we come upon men living in community, 
meshes in one net, their habitations clustered together as 
cells in a honeycomb, living in communal houses, as the 
Bornean Dyaks, where each house constitutes a village, or 
as the North American cliff-dwellers. The family was un- 
questionably the egg out of which the tribe was hatched, 
and out of the tribe, but long after, grew the nation. But 
the tribe itself in time ramified into subdivisions or septs. 

The original idea certainly was that all members of a 
tribe were of one blood, and it was on this account that 
such strict rules existed against intermarriage between the 
members. But in process of time this ceased to be strictly 
true, as by adoption individuals pertaining to one tribe 
might be taken into another, and a clan which was reduced 
in numbers through war or plague was glad to recuperate by 
this means. 

So homogeneous was a tribe, that a crime committed by 
one member of it was resented against the whole ; and when 
a murder had been committed outside it, retaliation was 
made, not necessarily on the murderer, but on any innocent 
and innocuous member of the murderer's tribe. We have 
excellent opportunity for seeing this in operation in the early 
history of Iceland, where families were established in their 
several homesteads, but had not as yet multiplied sufficiently 
to constitute clans ; or in Borneo, where this system of 
vendetta prevails to the present day. 

From a very early period indeed, from the very time 
when a tribe was formed it became essential to place some 
mark upon each member, so that he might be recognized by 
friend and foe as belonging to it. This is the signification 
of all the mutilations and disfigurements that are found 
among men in a primitive state of civilization. It continued 
even under later conditions. Circumcision among the Jews 

1 Remarkably enough, from the moment that the ban was fulminated 
Providence blessed Sverrir, and his fortunes assumed a favourable turn. 
He was one of the best Kings Norway ever had. 

29 



THE TATTOO AND TRIBAL NAME 

was the placing a mark upon the Beni Israel, whereby they 
might be distinguished from the Gentile nations around. 
And circumcision has the same significance among the 
Mohammedans only that with them it is the badge, not 
of uniqueness in blood, but of oneness in faith. 

Among the ancient Irish, the Druids wore a particular 
tonsure, indicative of their pertaining to the sacred, in 
contradistinction to the secular tribe. The Christian mis- 
sionaries adopted another kind of tonsure. They shaved 
the head from ear to ear in front, and the native Irish called 
them " adze-heads " because this gave to their faces the shape 
of the weapon we commonly call a " celt." 

The Normans who followed William the Bastard to 
England, to distinguish themselves from the Anglo-Saxons, 
shaved the backs of their heads from ear to ear, as we may 
see them depicted in the Bayeux Tapestry. 

The Romanist tonsure of the priest and the monk has the 
same significance the indication by an outward mark that 
those so disfigured belong to a sacred caste. 

Many savage races flatten the head, pierce the cartilage of 
the nose and insert rings, knock out one or more of the 
teeth or file them to sharp points, draw forth the nether 
lip, pierce it, and insert a stick; or else tattoo the face, 
or face and body together. All these disfigurements had 
originally, and have still, the object of marking a man or 
woman as a member of a particular tribe. 

When a female marries out of her tribe, then she is re- 
quired to have additional flourishes tattooed upon her ; 
and anyone acquainted with native ways can read upon her 
body the history of her life that she was born into one tribe, 
but was taken by marriage into another. 

On the Congo, says Frobenius, every group, even every 
village, bears, so to say, visibly on its head its own coat of 
arms. Nor is this custom confined to the region of the 
Congo, but prevails beyond Africa over a great part of the 
world, especially in the region of the Pacific Ocean and the 
lands bordering on it. 

When Julius Caesar first landed in Britain, he noted that 

30 



THE TATTOO AND TRIBAL NAME 

the natives were dyed with woad. What he saw was the 
painting or tattooing that indicated the distinctions of tribes 
ranged against him. 

Long after tattooing had ceased to prevail in Europe, 
down to our own times, every village distinguished itself, in 
France, Germany, and elsewhere, from every other by some 
peculiarity of costume. Costume is now rapidly disappear- 
ing, but fifty years ago it prevailed. In 1847, when my 
father drove through France from St. Malo to Pau, I 
sketched the head-dresses of the women. Not only was 
there a difference between those of the different provinces, 
but there was distinction between those in the several 
villages. In the National Museum at Munich is a hall given 
up to the costumes worn by men and women alike in the 
kingdom. There is, or were, precisely the same differences 
there. At the present day, in the market at Quimper in 
Brittany, one may distinguish at a glance a Bigauden from 
any other peasantess by the hair tightly drawn back from 
the face, and collected in a black box-cap at the back of the 
head. The Bigauden is believed to be of a different race from 
the Breton, and to have Mongolian characteristics. She 
proclaims the difference by her coiffure. 

The author already quoted tells the story of a young 
French trader who in 1895 started for the Congo, and 
reached Lake Leopold, where he did so good a business 
that he resolved on establishing a permanent station there. 
" But scarcely was the axe applied to the first tree, when 
one hand of the village chief's was laid on the woodman's 
shoulder, while the other indicated with unmistakable 
emphasis that the business must proceed no further. So a 
palaver was held, and the gentle Mongols insisted that the 
trader must become a member of the tribe, without which 
he might not settle. He was rejoiced. He nodded his 
assent, and through his interpreter asked how this was to 
be done. * You must receive the tribal scars,' was the reply. 
He pulled a long face, but there was no help for it. On all 
sides, right and left, ivory and rubber were to be had in 
abundance, and all at the cost of a few gashes. 



THE TATTOO AND TRIBAL NAME 

" Next morning the ganga that is, the priest of the tribe 
introduced himself. On a leather cloth he spread out all 
sorts of little objects a couple of horns, black ashes, red 
dyes, a few small iron implements, and four little wooden 
figures tied up in a bundle. 

" The white brother of the tribe was first manipulated on 
the temples, a black mixture was rubbed in, and his head 
scarred with various red lines. Even that did not suffice. 
Inflammation set in with the wounds, which festered. . . . 
After four weeks the ganga presented himself again. The 
scorings were repeated. Again he fell ill, lost all patience, 
and in a few days returned to Europe. The affair had a 
sad ending. The poor fellow never recovered, and died in 
the hands of a surgeon, trying to get the hateful disfigure- 
ments removed from his temples." 1 

That in time men should revolt against the tortures and 
mutilations to which they were subjected, in order to ear- 
mark them as members of their tribe, may well be supposed. 
The tartan, the costume, the various modifications of 
the plaiting of the hair, are substitutes, in the interests of 
humanity, for the bodily disfigurements. But another sub- 
stitute was found in the registration of the tribesmen. 

In all probability, among the Celts generally, and among 
the Irish and Welsh certainly, the bard was instituted as 
the genealogist of the tribe. It was his obligation, for which 
he was liberally paid, to know and recite the pedigree and 
position and achievements of every individual of the tribe. 

The man who founded a family had a personal name, and 
imposed that name on his descendants. The sons of Adam 
were Adamim. But as families multiplied, and became 
detached more or less from the parent stock, the head of 
each branch became in turn an ancestor, giving his name 
to the sept. Yet, as in the subclans of the Highlands of 
Scotland, the original filiation was never wholly forgotten. 

In Genesis we read : " Now these are the generations of 

the sons of Noah : Shem, Ham, and Japheth ; and unto them 

were sons born after the flood. The sons of Japheth : 

1 Frobenius, "The Childhood of Man." London, 1908. 

32 



THE TATTOO AND TRIBAL NAME 

Gomer and Magog, and Madai and Javan, and Tubal and 
Meshech and Tiras. And the sons of Javan : Elishah and 
Tarshish, Kittim and Dodanim. By these were the isles of 
the Gentiles divided in their lands : every one after his tongue, 
after their families, in their nations." 

The sacred writer goes on in like manner to give the sons 
and grandsons of Ham and of Shem. He clearly notes that 
the tribes and races of whom he had knowledge claimed or 
were accorded descent from certain named ancestors, but 
they did not all take the name of the remotest forefather, 
but of that one which formed the radiating sept. 

This fissiparous formation of tribes may go on for a long 
time, but it must come to an end eventually, so far as reten- 
tion of relation with the parent stock and with the collateral 
branches goes ; and then in the general welter and confusion 
of relations the idea of the nation rises to the surface. 

Among the Norsemen, the Royal Family was that of the 
Ynglings, deriving from a mythical ancestor, Ingvi. The 
Saxon and Angle Kings all traced back to heroic ancestors, 
and the Saxon Chronicle is careful to record the pedigrees. 
The Danish Royal Family was that of the Skjoldungs, 
descended from an ancestor Skjold, of whom this story is 
told : One day a skiff arrived on the coast of the Baltic with 
a little boy asleep within it on a shield. He was reared 
among the people, and became their King. Because he 
slept on a shield he was called Skjold, and because he was 
found in a boat he was fabled to be the son of Skiff. Simeon 
of Durham, in his history of St. Cuthbert, calls Halfdan and 
his brother, the two Danish Kings of Northumbria, Scaldingi 
i.e., Skjoldungs. 

But the royal Danish race of this stock expired in the 
male line with the extinction of the family of Canute the 
Great, and the crown passed to the son of an Earl Ulf 
whom Canute had murdered, and who had married his 
sister. Thenceforth the Danish royal race was entitled the 
Ulfungs. But among the Northmen there were as well the 
Bjornings, sons of the Bear ; Hundings, sons of a dog ; 
Arnungs, issue of an eagle ; Nifflungs, children of the mist, 

33 C 



THE TATTOO AND TRIBAL NAME 

But no member bore the name Bjorning, Skjoldung, Hunding, 
Arnung, etc., as a surname ; only the family generally was so 
designated. It was a tribal name, but it did not adhere as 
yet to the personal name. 

In the Scandinavian stock, the tribal formation had broken 
down or been dissolved, and descent from the heroic ancestor 
was attributed to the Royal Family alone. The dissolution 
of the tribe was largely due to the conformation of the land, 
which threw people together about the fjords, and forced 
them to adopt a territorial rather than a tribal organization. 

The ancient social organization of the Romans was tribal. 
The tribe, or rather house, was called a gens, and the idea 
was that all members of a gens were of one blood. The 
most ancient gentes were all patrician the Ramni, Titii, 
and Luceri. But as they died out other gentes were formed. 
After the reign of Servius Tullius arose plebeian gentes. In 
some cases in the same gens existed at the same time patrician 
and plebeian families. Such was the case with the gentes 
Claudia, Cornelia, and Junia. This arose through a plebeian 
family being elevated into being patrician, whilst the others 
remained in their former position. Or else a patrician by a 
marriage out of his order might found a family that became 
plebeian. Each gens had particular rights. There existed 
mutual protection ; property could not be passed by bequest 
or sale out of the tribe ; and each gens had its own sanctuary 
and a common burial-place. Every Roman had three names 
one personal, one designating the family to which he 
belonged, and one indicated his gens. 

The title of " gentleman " originally signified one belonging 
to a gens, or tribe, in contradistinction to the rabble without, 
who pertained to none. 

Among the Celts it was much the same as among the 
Romans. In the Highlands of Scotland, theoretically all 
Campbells, Ogilvies, Camerons, Farquhars, were regarded as 
of one blood, when they bore the same clan name. But, as we 
shall see in the sequel, this was theoretical only. The Irish 
had the Fine, consisting in the first place of the children, 
brethren, and other relatives, of the Flath, or chieftain ; but 

34 



THE TATTOO AND TRIBAL NAME 

it actually comprised as well all who were under his pro- 
tection and paid him rents. Each of the smaller clans 
comprised in a great clan gradually assumed a distinctive 
surname, though they often continued to be regarded, and to 
regard themselves as included, under the great clan name. 
The clan names of O'Brian, O'Neill, O'Donovan, O'Sullivan, 
O'Donnell, like the Greek Homerids in Chaios, the Codrids, 
the Butids, the Roman ^Emilii, Julii, or Fabii, were originally 
family organizations, swelled later on by adoption from with- 
out into the clan. 

Like the Roman gentes, the Irish tribes had their tribal 
cemeteries. Indeed, those mysterious people, who strewed 
so many lands with their megalithic monuments, had 
unquestionably a tribal organization also as certainly 
tribal names, for their great dolmens and sepulchral 
chambers were clan mausoleums, and it was only on the 
dissolution of the tribal formation that the small kistvaen, 
containing but a single interment, came into use. It is 
interesting to note that the old clan feeling survives 
among us relative to our dead. Families like to have their 
mausoleums and vaults, in which may be gathered together 
all of the same blood and name. 

Sir Henry Maine says : " It would be a very simple 
explanation of the origin of society if we could base a 
general conclusion on the hint furnished us by Scripture, 
that communities began to exist wherever a family held 
together instead of separating at the death of its patriarchal 
chieftain. In most of the Greek States and in Rome there 
long remained the vestiges of an ascending series of groups out 
of which the State was first constituted. The family, house, 
and tribe, of the Romans may be taken as the type of them, 
and they are so described to us that we can scarcely help 
conceiving them as a system of concentric circles which have 
gradually expanded from the same point. The elementary 
group is the family, connected by common subjection to 
the highest male ascendant. The aggregation of families 
forms the gens or house. The aggregation of tribes consti- 
tutes the commonwealth." 1 

1 Maine, "Ancient Law," p. 128. London, 1885. 

35 C2 



THE TATTOO AND TRIBAL NAME 

All in the tribe had one name ; but with the division of the 
tribe into the gens, house, or clan, a new name was taken 
from the new founder. The original idea was that first the 
tribe, then the clan or gens, constituted men of one blood. 
But this ceased to be true when adoption took place, and 
this took place on a large scale ; nevertheless, those adopted 
assumed the tribal or clan name. Not all the Fabii were of 
Fabian blood, nor all the O'Brians descendants of Brian, 
nor all the Camerons of the original crooked-nosed ancestor 
(Cam-rhon). "The family," says Maine, "is the type of an 
archaic society in all its modifications which it was capable 
of meaning ; but the family here spoken of is not exactly the 
family as understood by a modern. In order to reach the 
ancient conception, we must give to our modern ideas an 
important extension and an important limitation. We 
must look on the family as constantly enlarged by the 
absorption of strangers within its circle, and we must try to 
regard the fiction of adoption as so closely simulating the 
reality of kinship that neither law nor opinion makes the 
slightest difference between a real and an adoptive con- 
nection." 1 

We shall see, in the chapter on Scottish and Irish Names, 
that the adoption of a clan name in a vast number of cases 
implies no blood relationship whatever. 

Tribal organization was a stage in the development of 
mankind, useful and beneficial for a time, but for a time 
only, after which it became obstructive to the formation of 
the greater and nobler conception of nationality. 

Tribal organization must inevitably come to an end in 
time, with the multiplication of families, and instead of asking 
how it came to an end, the question to be asked is : How did it 
manage to continue so long as it did in Wales and Scotland ? 
And the answer in both cases is : Constant wars with the 
English, with each other, and with the Lowlanders, kept the 
tribal organization from falling to pieces. 

With the extinction of tribal differentiation through the 
melting of all the members of the several septs into one 
1 Maine, "Ancient Law," p. 133. 
36 



THE TATTOO AND TRIBAL NAME 

race, the tribal name falls away or adheres to the King 
alone, and each member of the race is left with his personal 
name only ; and this is how we find our forefathers in 
England Celtic, Anglo-Saxon or Danish with singular 
names, or personal names, to which were attached descriptive 
appellations that perished with the bearer, because such de- 
signations were not applicable to his sons. 

The sequence in the formation of hereditary nomenclature 
was this : 

1. The tribe was at first distinguished by bodily mutila- 
tions. 

2. Mutilations were abandoned for costume, differentiating 
tribes. 

3. The tribal name fell away, and the personal name 
alone was left. 

4. Personal names were found to be insufficient for differ- 
entiating man from man. 

5. Consequent introduction of descriptive appellations. 
These were personal, and expired with the bearer. 

6. Finally surnames become hereditary. 



37 



CHAPTER III 

SIRE-NAMES 

A TIME was when, by a sudden cataclysm, the climate of 
Northern Asia was changed. One day it was temperate if 
not tropical ; then came a wave of glacial cold, and the 
temperature of Siberia was altered for ever. At once, in one 
day, all the mammoths that had browsed on the luxuriant 
vegetation fell, and were congealed and embedded in ice, 
that preserved them flesh, skin, and hair, even the un- 
digested food in their paunches revealing what was the 
vegetation once found on what are now the frozen tundras 
that grow nothing but grey moss. 

We do not know when this event took place ; we know 
only that it did take place, because these frozen monsters 
strew the lands that fringe the Polar Circle. 

In like fashion, at some time, we know not precisely when, 
but certainly not simultaneously, all the Toms, Jacks, Wills, 
Peters, and Harrys, in England, went down and were frozen 
so far as their names were concerned. If the original Tom 
could be exhumed from a block of frozen rubble, what a rush 
would be made from all quarters of the English-speaking 
globe of the Tomsons, Thompsons, Thomassons, Thorns, 
and Tomkins to have a look at the ancestor from whom 
they derive ! He would be an object of greater interest than 
the red-haired, mummified, primeval Egyptian in the glass 
case in the British Museum. But actually all the Tomsons, 
Thompsons, Thomassons, Thorns, and Tomkins, do not 
descend from an unique Tom. There was no sole Tom 

38 



SIRE-NAMES 

among men, the Adam from whose loins issued all these 
families that bear his name, as the rivers that watered the 
Garden of Eden issued from a single fount. There were Toms 
many dotted over the counties of England, who spawned in 
all directions about the same period, when the blast of 
fashion swept over the country and fixed them for all time as 
ancestors, bequeathing their name to generations yet unborn. 

There was an ancestral Tom, of course, to every family of 
Tomson, Thompson, Thomasson, Thorns, and Tomkins, but 
not the same Tom to all. It would be highly instructive to 
be able to dig each out and study him scientifically. One 
may conjecture that he was a Tom of Titanic stature, of 
superhuman beauty, or of prodigious intellect, so that all his 
issue were eager to arrogate to themselves his name, and to 
insure that it should be known to all the world that they 
had sprung from him. Some, overcome with modesty, feel- 
ing their unworthiness to be ranked even as his sons, measur- 
ing their littleness against his greatness, were content to call 
themselves, and to be called, Tomkins or Tomlins, with a 
diminutive ending. 

But in all probability the ancestral Tom was not more 
than a shrewd, worthy man, perhaps broader in beam, 
stronger in grip, louder in voice, more potent in swallowing 
tankards of ale, or could draw a straighter furrow, than any 
other ploughman in the hamlet ; and his sons desired that 
his mantle might rest on them all, just as, in Memling's 
painting, that of St. Ursula envelops the 11,000 virgins that 
bear her company. The fashion or the need of having a 
to-name determined the adoption. 

Among the Hebrews there were no family names. Joshua 
was the son of Nun, Caleb the son of Jephunneh, David the 
son of Jesse, Isaiah the son of Amos. Not till the reign of 
Joseph II., Emperor, were the Jews in Germany constrained 
to adopt surnames. 

In the twelfth century was drawn up the Domesday Book 
of Iceland, recording the land-taking of all the early settlers, 
with their pedigrees. Not a single family name occurs, and 
to this day there does not exist a family name in the island 

39 



SIRE-NAMES 

pertaining to a native. Every man is known by his personal 
designation, and as the son of his father. 

When I returned from Iceland in 1861, on the boat with 
me was Eric Magnusson. He became a teacher of the 
Scandinavian languages and literature in Oxford, and there 
he was known as Mr. Magnusson. But his son, in Iceland, 
would not be Magnusson, but Eric's son ; only if he remained 
in England would he be called Magnusson. 

Among the Angles, Saxons, and Norsemen, the system of 
nomenclature was the same, and among ourselves the sur- 
names Johnson, Thomson, Dickson, Wilson, and the like, 
are mainly Northumbrian in origin that is to say, proceed 
from families in the land north of the Humber up to the 
Tweed; for this was largely colonized from Denmark, and 
patronymics clung to usage among them more than among 
the Anglo-Saxons. " A Cumberland deed of 1397 mentions 
Richard Thomson, showing the true patronymic as still used 
in Iceland. . . . Many more examples might be given from 
Yorkshire and Cumberland. It has been thought that the 
termination son is a mark of Scandinavian origin, and, 
without pressing this too far, it may be said that such 
surnames are more common in the old Danelaw than 
elsewhere." 1 

Among the Picts the descent was through the mother. 
Almost certainly the matriarchate indicates a low moral 
condition, such as did not exist among the Germanic and 
Scandinavian peoples. 

The Welsh were very late in adopting patronymics as 
hereditary surnames. Some of the principal landowners did 
so in the reign of Henry VIII. by the King's desire, but tbp 
commonalty did not follow their example till much later. 
Every man among them was known by his Christian name, 
followed by ap and that of his father. 

Cheese has thus been described as 

" Adam's own cousin by its birth, 
Ap Curd, ap Milk, ap Cow, ap Grass, ap Earth." 

1 Collingwood, " Scandinavian Britain," 1909. 

40 



SIRE-NAMES 

M. A. Lower tells the following story: "An Englishman, 
riding one dark night among the mountains, heard a cry of 
distress proceeding from a man who had fallen into a ravine 
near the highway, and, on listening more attentively, he heard 
the words, ' Help, master, help !' in a voice truly Cambrian. 
' Help ! What are you ?' inquired the traveller. ' Jenkin- 
ap-Griffith-ap-Robin-ap-William-ap-Rees-ap-Evan,' was the 
response. * Lazy fellows that ye be,' replied the Englishman, 
setting spurs to his horse, * to lie rolling in that hole, half a 
dozen of ye ! Why, in the name of common sense, don't ye 
help one another out ?' " 

In 1387 Ladislas Jagellon, King of Poland and Duke of 
Lithuania, required all his subjects to be baptized. The men 
were divided for the purpose into two companies ; those in 
the first were named Peter, those in the second Paul. In 
like manner the women were ranged in two batches ; all in 
the first were christened under the name of Catherine, all 
in the second under that of Margaret. Conceive the bewilder- 
ment in a village when there were, let us say, a hundred 
Peters and as many Pauls ! How difficult nay, how impos- 
sible it would have been in it to establish a case of breach of 
promise of marriage, when the gay defaulter could dive in 
and out among the Catherines and Margarets, and perplex a 
Judge's mind past drawing a conclusion of guilt ! It would 
be absolutely, imperiously necessary for all the Peters and 
Pauls to assume each a surname for the purpose of identifi- 
cation. Indeed, it would be necessary for the Prince to insist 
upon it, otherwise what evasion and subterfuge would be 
resorted to in order to escape taxation or shirk military 
duty! 

To the present day, in the western hills of Yorkshire, the 
people know themselves, and are known among their com- 
rades, by their descent. A man is John a' Jake's a' Hal's, 
and a woman is Mary a' Tom's a' Bill's. Should there have 
been a moral slip, it is not forgotten ; it is duly represented 
as Joe a' Tom's a' Katie's. The people employ their surnames 
for registration alone, and, were it not for being enrolled at 
school, most children would be ignorant of the fact that they 

41 



SIRE-NAMES 

possessed a surname. Indeed, it would seem that the people 
themselves a few generations ago had none, and arbitrarily 
assumed any that entered their heads when it came to the 
matter of a marriage or a christening. At Hebden Bridge 
nearly everyone called himself Greenwood. 

Masses of rock, angular and rugged, that have fallen into 
a torrent, by the time that they have reached the plain have 
lost their asperities, and have been converted into smooth 
and rounded pebbles. 

Names also, since their first adoption, have been abraded 
almost past recognition in rolling down the stream of 
time, before they became fixed in registers and legal docu- 
ments. 

1. A sire-name is simple enough when it is plain Thom- 
son, Tompson, Johnson, Jackson, Wilson, and the like. But 
even here there has been some loss, for the original form was 
Thomas-his-son, John-his-son, William-his-son. The pro- 
noun has been elided, and even the 's of the genitive case 
in some cases, as Williamson. 

2. A further abbreviation took place when the son fell 
away, and the name remained as Thorns, Johns, Jacks, or 
Wills. Here the mark of the genitive case remained. But 
where the employment of the final s was uneuphonious, 
because the paternal name ended in that letter, and a dupli- 
cation of it would be intolerable to the ear, it was dropped. 
Thus we have Francis, Denys, James, Charles, Nicholas, in 
place of Franciss, Deniss, Jamess, Charless, Nicholass. 

3. A termination expressive of sonship or descent, in use 
among the Anglo-Saxons and Scandinavians, was ing. In 
the pedigree of the West Saxon Kings it is used system- 
atically. Edgar is Edmunding, Edmund is Edwarding, 
Edward is Alfreding, Alfred is Alfwolding, and so on. But 
ing was also broadly applied, much as O' in Irish and " the 
son of" in Scripture, to signify descent from an ancestor 
more remote than an immediate parent. Moreover, we 
cannot assure ourselves that all names that end in ing are 
patronymics, for the same termination is employed in a 
variety of ways, as shall be shown in another chapter. 

42 



SIRE-NAMES 

4. Ap, as already stated, signifies " the son of" in Welsh. 
It is a contraction of Mob. This has gone through corrup- 
tion, in being anglicized, as Prodger for Ap Roger, Bowen 
for Ap Owen, Beaven for Ap Ewan. 

5. Mac or Me in Scotland stands for "the son of," and 
is the Gaelic form of the Brythonic Map. It is applied to 
clansmen, although not necessarily blood relations of the 
chief. Me A lister is the son of Alexander, MacCheyne or 
MacShane is the son of John, Macgraih or Macreath is the 
Weaver's son, Macdermot is the son of Diarmidh, MacPherson 
is the Parson's son. 

6. 0' has much the same significance among the Irish 
as has Mac. But it is employed as grandfather, or some 
remoter progenitor. It was said : 

" Per Mac atque O, tu veros cognoscis Hibernos. 
His duobus demptis, nullus Hibernus adest." 

That may be rendered : 

" By Mac and O you the Irishman may always know. 
Take both away and no Irishman remains." 

7. Another word for " son " is the Norman- French Fitz, 
for fits. When Henry I. desired to marry the wealthy heiress 
of the Baron FitzHamon to his illegitimate son, Robert of 
Gloucester, she scornfully replied : 

" It were to me a mighty shame 
To have a lord withouten his two name." 

Thereupon Henry gave him the sur or sire name of Fitzroy. 

The Duke of Berwick was named Fitzjames as being 
the illegitimate son of James II. The Duke of Grafton 
is Fitzroy, as descended from a bastard of Charles II. by 
Nell Gwynn. 

But Fitz by no means originally indicated bastardy. We 
find in the Roll of Battle Abbey and in Domesday a con- 
siderable number of Normans who were known only as Fitz 
this or that, and these did not acquire an hereditary surname 
till a long time after. Godric de Clairfait, supposed to have 
been the son of Ketilbern or Chatelber, named in Domesday, 
lived in Yorkshire during the reign of Henry I. His son 

43 



SIRE-NAMES 

called himself William FitzGodric, and William's son desig- 
nated himself William Fitz William. Next came a Thomas 
FitzWilliam, and then a William FitzThomas, and so on 
till the latter part of the fourteenth century, when a Sir John 
called himself FitzWilliam, and settled that this name 
should be hereditary. 

Some I may say almost all personal names have gone 
through sad corruption. I need here only instance Batt 
for Bartholomew, Taffy for David, Kitt for Christopher, Bill 
for William. 

These corrupted personal names have been taken up into 
the composition of family names. 

Herodotus informs us that in Scythia existed a people 
addicted to eating their parents. When a father became 
venerable he was set to climb a tree, and made to hang on 
to a branch. The children then shook the trunk, and if the 
parent clung successfully he was pronounced to be not fully 
ripe. If, however, he dropped, his offspring considered him 
to be in prime condition, and devoured him with avidity. 
It was regarded as the highest compliment that could be 
paid to him, to be devoured, for it showed an appreciation 
of his qualities, mental, moral, and physical, in which his 
children desired to participate, and that could only be 
acquired in the manner described. This is no fable of the 
Father of History. 

On the same principle all cannibal races devour their 
enemies. The most heroic and able-bodied foe is esteemed 
the choicest morsel. Lunholtz says of the Queenslanders 
of Australia that they are cannibals. " The most delicate 
portion is the fat about the kidneys. By eating this they 
believe that they acquire a portion of the strength of the 
person slain, and, so far as I could understand, this was 
even more true of the kidneys themselves; for, according 
to a widespread Australian belief, the kidneys are the 
centre of life." 

In South Guinea the natives devour by preference the 
brain of some highly respected member of their own tribe, 
in order to acquire his admirable qualities. Indeed, the 

44 



SIRE-NAMES 

more gifted in every way a man is, the more eagerly are 
eyes fixed on him, and mouths water to enjoy him as a meal. 
The custom assumes an even more repulsive form when the 
deceased man's relatives consume the maggots bred out of 
his decaying body. To them these maggots appear to be 
the life of the dead man escaping from his carcass in another 
form, and by this means they are able to possess themselves 
of his estimable qualities in a concentrated extract. 

With this practice is closely associated the horrible custom 
of pressing out and swallowing the moisture of the moulder- 
ing corpse. This custom is by no means rare among the 
natives of the East Indian Archipelago, of Western Africa, 
and of North-Eastern Brazil. Among the Indians of North- 
West America exists a class of hametses, or medicine-men, 
held in high esteem. To become one of the number requires 
long preparation as long as four years. Part of the ceremony 
of investiture consists in biting pieces of flesh out of living 
members of the tribe. Jacobson says : " The hamets's 
highest privilege consists in his right to feed on the corpses 
of his dead associates, since his mere partaking of these 
meals raises him in the opinion of his fellow-tribesmen to the 
highest pinnacle of worth and holiness. In the deep recesses 
of the forest the hametses gather together for their cannibal 
banquet, which no outsider may approach, and at which 
they produce a body from either one of the wooden boxes 
suspended to the trees, or from one of the raised wooden 
platforms where it has been dried by the action of the wind 
Then they soften this mummified corpse in water, after which 
they bite off and swallow large pieces of this loathsome fare. 
When the bodies are old enough that is, belong to persons 
who have been dead at least one or two years such food 
appears to be not unwholesome. On the other hand, it 
has repeatedly happened that hametses have died of blood- 
poisoning." 

A less revolting method of acquiring the virtues and 
abilities of the deceased is practised in one part of New 
Guinea. A redoubted chief who has fallen is placed in a 
bed of chalk and left to decay therein, and the chalk imbibes 

45 



SIRE-NAMES 

the moisture that distils from the body. When thoroughly 
saturated, the chalk is used by the natives to rub into their 
foreheads, under the impression that in this way the soul of 
the departed warrior will pass into their own brain-pans. 

An Icelandic saga relates a story of one Bodvar at the 
Court of Rolf Krake. He there saw a poor timid boy who 
was brutally ill-treated by the King's bodyguard. He took 
compassion on him, and gave him to drink of the blood of a 
redoubted enemy. Thereby the frightened lad was trans- 
formed into a daring warrior. 

Gilbert's ballad, " The Yarn of the Nancy Bell," may be 
recalled. I give some verses to relieve a subject that is 
gruesome and unsavoury : 

" 'Twas on the shores that round our coast 

From Deal to Ramsgate span, 
That I found alone on a piece of stone 
An elderly naval man." 

And this man ever murmured : 

" * Oh, I am a cook and a captain bold, 

And the mate of the Nancy brig, 
And a bo'sun tight, and a midshipmite, 
And the crew of the captain's gig.' 

" ' Oh, elderly man, it's little I know 
Of the duties of men of the sea ; 
But I'll eat my head if I understand 
However you can be 

" * At once a cook and a captain bold, 
And the mate of the Nancy brig, 
And a bo'sun tight, and a midshipmite, 
And the crew of the captain's gig.' " 

The elderly man explains that the good ship Nancy Bell 
sailed to the Indian Sea, but ran on a reef and was wrecked. 
Whereupon the ten survivors escaped in a boat : 

" * For a month we'd neither wittles nor drink, 

Till a-hungry we did feel ; 
So we drawed a lot, and accordin' shot 
The captain for our meal.' " 
46 



SIRE-NAMES 

Next to be eaten were the mate and the midshipman. 

" ' And then we murdered the bo'sun tight, 

And he much resembled pig ; 
Then we wittled free, did the cook and me, 
On the crew of the captain's gig.' " 

Then all left were the elderly man and the cook, who 
contended amicably as to which was to eat the other. 

" Says he : ' Dear James, to murder me 

Were a foolish thing to do ; 
For don't you see that you can't cook me, 
While I can, and will, cook you.' " 

So he filled a copper and put in the necessary ingredients. 

" ' And he stirred it round and round and round, 

And he sniffed at the foaming froth ; 
When I ups with his heels and smothers his squeals 
In the scum of the boiling broth. 

" ' And I eat that cook in a week or two, 

And, as I eating be 

The last of his chops, why I almost drops, 
For a wessel in sight I see. 

" ' And I never larf, and I never smile, 

And I never lark nor play ; 
But sit and croak, and a single joke 
I have, which is to say : 

* Oh, I am a cook and a captain bold, 

And the mate of the Nancy brig, 
And a bo'sun tight, and a midshipmite, 

And the crew of the captain's gig.' " 

What is Gilbert's nonsense is to the unsophisticated man 
sheer common sense. He desires to sum in himself the 
personal beauty of A, the success in affaires de cceur of B, the 
eloquence in a pow-wow of C, the heroism in war of D, and 
the acquisitiveness in scalps or skulls of E ; and accordingly 
he eats A, B, C, D, and E, fondly supposing that he has 
thereby concentrated all their abilities and luck and good 
looks in himself. On the Congo, if a native has his hair cut, 
he eats what has been shorn, lest another man, possessing 

47 



SIRE-NAMES 

himself of it and consuming it, should absorb therewith his 
power. 

Among primitive peoples a man's name is regarded as of 
the highest importance ; it not merely belongs to him, but it 
is to some extent inseparable from him. He who gets hold 
of his name acquires a powerful but undefined control over 
the man himself. So strongly is this felt that the name is 
kept concealed from enemies ; it is never uttered. He is 
spoken of by a nickname ; he is alluded to in an oblique 
manner. His true name is kept from all but his nearest of 
kin. Just as a savage is afraid of having his portrait taken, 
lest by this means the artist should obtain control over him, 
so does he shrink from allowing any person to get hold of 
his real name. 

The medieval witch made a figure of wax, called over it 
the name of a person she sought to injure, and then stabbed 
it with needles, inflicting thereby on the person in whose 
name the figure was moulded the most excruciating pains. 
Into the Cursing Well of St. Elian, in North Wales, till the 
end of the eighteenth century, were dropped pieces of lead 
inscribed with the names of such individuals as the envious 
and malignant sought to destroy ; and so strong was the 
conviction that by so doing sickness and death were pro- 
duced, that those who believed that their names had been so 
plunged would have recourse to the keeper of the well, and 
bribe him to draw their names out. 

In the folk-tale of Rumpelstiltskin we have preserved the 
universal belief that, if a person's name became known, his 
power was broken. 

By incantation with the name of a demon, the necromancer 
obtained control over that devil, and was able to convert him 
into a veritable lackey. By invocation of a saint by name, 
that saint is almost compelled to listen to and answer the 
prayer put up. 

We have seen how costume and the tartan took the place 
of disfigurement and tattoo. In like manner the use of a 
man's name took the place of eating him. By the application 
to another of the name of an ancestor or of a hero, that 

48 



SIRE-NAMES 

other became a possessor of the qualities of him whose name 
he bore. But this is not all. Among many primitive peoples 
exists the belief in reincarnation. After death the soul 
escapes to the spirit-world, where for a while it leads a 
flighty and vacuous existence, and then returns to earth into 
a fruit, a herb, or a fungus. 

Should a man eat of any one of these in which is lodged 
the spirit of the departed, the spirit lies latent in him till his 
next son is born, when it is reincarnate in the child. Should 
a beast devour the disguised soul, there is still hope for it if 
that beast be a wild-pig or a deer ; for should a hunter kill it 
and eat the flesh, he absorbs into his system the ancient 
soul, which will come to new birth in his next offspring. 
But should the spirit in its vegetable envelope perish uneaten, 
the soul within it is extinguished for ever. 

The system is open to objections, as savage men readily 
perceived. For either by this means all the brilliant qualities 
of an ancestor might be totally lost to the family, or else pass 
into the possession of a warrior of a hostile tribe, who had 
chanced to consume the imprisoned spirit. And no per- 
spicuity would avail a man to distinguish the dear lineaments 
or admired moral qualities of a parent when hidden in a 
banana or a potato. He accordingly puzzled his brains to 
discover a remedy. This he found by securing the name of 
the deceased and applying it to his son or grandson, By 
laying hold of either the name or the shadow of a man, that 
man was secured soul and body by the captor, as certainly 
as you master a monkey by laying hold of his tail, or a cat 
by clinging to the scruff of his neck. The shadow was of a 
nature too elusive to be caught ; moreover, that of a full-grown 
man would hardly accommodate itself to a new-born infant. 
But with the name it was otherwise, and by imposing that 
of a heroic ancestor on a child the child became his reincar- 
nation, and acquired all his qualities as surely as if that 
ancestor had been distilled into its feeding-bottle. 

The name of the father was not given to a son unless it 
were posthumous ; that was an invariable rule, for naturally 
enough no parent chose, whilst alive, to transmit his identity 

49 D 



SIRE-NAMES 

to his child, and himself thereby fall back into nonentity. 
The rule was strictly observed among the Scandinavians, 
even after they had emerged from a condition of belief in the 
transmigration of souls. 

However absurd these convictions and practices may seem 
to us, they were matters of serious belief and conduct among 
primitive peoples, and even after our forefathers became 
Christians traces of them remain. 

It will be remembered with what astonishment the relatives 
of Zachariah and Elizabeth heard that the name of the child 
was to be John. " They said unto her [Elizabeth], There is 
none of thy kindred that is called by this name/' 

One spring night in 1024 a boy was born to Olaf 
Haraldsson, King of Norway. It was so frail in appearance, 
and seemed so likely to die, that the priest, Sighvat, hastened 
to baptize it without holding communication with the 
King, who had left strict injunctions not to be disturbed in 
his sleep. Beating about for a name, the thought of Charle- 
magne occurred to him, and he christened the child Magnus. 
This name had not been previously employed in Scandinavia. 
Next day Olaf heard of the event, and was furious. He 
asked Sighvat how he had dared to christen the boy without 
consulting him, and to give him such an outlandish name. 
The priest told him his reason, that he had called the infant 
after the greatest of all Emperors. Then Olaf was pleased, 
for he thought that the luck in war, and genius, and spirit, of 
the great Charlemagne would follow the name and adhere 
to his son. 

This feeling, in a modified form, exists among us still. 
When John Jobson calls his son Percy, he trusts that some 
of the radiance of the great Northumbrian house will surround 
the boy, and that any flashes of petulance he may exhibit 
will be attributed to a spiritual filiation from Hotspur. 

We like to name a child after some honoured member of 
the family long ago passed to the majority, with a hope that 
he may resemble him. And I have heard it often remarked, 
as something more than a coincidence, that a resemblance in 
features or in character does go along with the name. In 

50 



SIRE-NAMES 

my own family I called one of my daughters Diana Amelia, 
after my grandmother, and she, and she alone among my 
fourteen children, resembled her, to a remarkable degree, in 
face. I named a son William Drake, after my grandfather's 
grandfather, whose portrait hangs in our dining-room. And it 
has been repeatedly noticed how curiously my son resembles 
his namesake of the eighteenth century. I was visiting a 
friend, and saw in his hall a portrait, as I supposed, of his 
wife. I remarked to him what an excellent likeness it was. 
He replied laughingly : " That is the picture of her great- 
great-grandmother, and, curiously enough, she bears the same 
Christian name. Moreover, none of her sisters in the 
slightest degree resemble the old lady." 

One of my daughters, named Margaret, was so called 
after the daughter of the before-mentioned William Drake 
Gould. One night, at a ball in North Devon, my daughter 
was dancing with a gentleman whom she had not previously 
met, when he said abruptly : " How like you are to your 
great-great-grandmother !" 

"Why," said my daughter, "did you ever meet her? I 
think you can be hardly old enough for that." 

" No," he replied, " but I have her portrait in my house, 
and you really look to me as though you were she who had 
stepped out of the frame to dance with me this evening." 

Of course these are coincidences, and coincidences only ; 
but such coincidences may have occurred in other families, 
and have helped to confirm the supposition that the giving 
a name to a child conveys to that child a something a like- 
ness in face or in character to the individual after whom it 
is called. 

Among Roman Catholics the name of a saint is conferred 
on an infant, and it is devoutly held that thenceforth the 
saint takes particular care of his or her namesake, is its 
patron, protector, and advocate. When a Pope, on his 
elevation to the chair of St. Peter, adopts a name, it is that 
of a predecessor whose policy he purposes following, and 
whose spirit he trusts will rest upon him. It was so with 
the present Pope, Pius X., who desired with the name to 

51 D 2 



SIRE-NAMES 

tread in the footsteps of that most obscurantist and retro- 
gressive of all Popes, Pius IX. 

The princely family of Reuss has long laid great stress on 
the name Henry. The first so called died in the year 1162. 
Henry II. had three sons, every one named Henry. With- 
out a break the line of Henrys has continued to the present 
day. Henry XVI. had three sons ; each was a Henry. Of 
one branch of the family, Henry LV. died without issue in 
1636. Henry XLII. of another line had three sons ; each 
was a Henry. Of the junior Reuss line, Henry LXXIII. died 
in 1855 ; of the elder line, Henry LXIX. was born in 1792 ; of 
another branch Henry LXXIV. was born in 1856. In fact, 
in this family, in all its branches, every son is baptized 
Henry. Since 1162 there have been in the Reuss family 
over 168 Henrys, and not a single son bearing another 
Christian name. Surely it must be held that fortune and 
continuance in the Reuss family depend on its male repre- 
sentatives being every one a Henry. 

The idea that lay at the root of taking the name of a 
grandfather or of a more remote ancestor was long for- 
gotten when patronymics became hereditary, but a custom 
survives the reason why adopted. The first step after the 
eating of a grandparent had become an antiquated custom 
was the assumption of the grandfather's name. This was 
when personal names were single. If not that of a grand- 
father, then that of an heroic ancestor, who became thereby 
reincarnate in the child, or, if not actually reincarnate, con- 
tributed with his name some of his qualities to the child. 

That some names are fortunate, others ill-omened 
" fausta nomina," as Tacitus calls the former has always 
been held. After the murder of Prince Arthur by King John, 
for long no Arthurs occur among English Christian names. 

" * Now, my dear brother,' said Mr. Shandy, ' had my 
child arrived safe into the world, unmartyred in that precious 
part of him fanciful and extravagant as I may appear to 
the world in my opinion of Christian names and of that 
magic bias which good or bad names irresistibly impress 
upon our characters and conducts Heaven is witness that 

52 



SIRE-NAMES 

in the warmest transports of my wishes for the prosperity 
of my child I never once wished to crown his head with 
more glory and honour than what George or Edward 
would have spread around it. But, alas ! as the greatest 
evil has befallen him I must counteract and undo it with 
the greatest good. He shall be christened Trismegistus, 
brother.' ' I wish it may answer,' replied my uncle Toby, 
rising up." 1 

The practice of reproducing a favourite name in a family 
lasted for many generations after the idea of reincarnation 
had been abandoned. The father's or the grandfather's 
name was given to the child out of affection to the former 
possessor, and perhaps for no other reason ; but it continued 
to be given. In my own family there has been an almost 
unbroken chain of Edwards from the beginning of the 
seventeenth century. 

It is quite possible that, when the patronymic of Thomson, 
for instance, was adopted as hereditary, it was not that those 
who assumed it were the actual sons of Thomas, but that 
they regarded Thomas as the prevailing and dominant name 
in their family. They may have been sons of a John, son of 
Thomas, but had acquired a poor opinion of the abilities 
and character of their parent. He may have outlived his 
vigour, and the infirmities of temper or body may have 
become vexatious to his offspring, and as their estimation 
of their father went down, that of Thomas, their grandfather, 
went up ; and when it came to the adoption of a patronymic 
as a fixture, they elected to be known, and their posterity to 
be known, as Thomsons instead of Johnsons. 

I will now subjoin a list, not by any means exhaustive, of 
the Christian names of men that have been adopted in the 
formation of patronymics, many of them in a so contracted 
and corrupted form as at first glance to be unrecognizable : 

ADAM ; whence come Adams, A damson, A dye, Adcock, Ad- 
dyman (servant of Adam), Addison, Adkins, Atkinson. 

AGILWARD ; whence come Aylward, Allardson, Alardice, 
A Iward. 

1 "Tristram Shandy," 1760, iv., p. 8. 
53 



SIRE-NAMES 

AILBRED ; whence come Aubrey, Aubrison, Brison (if not 
from Brice). 

ALAN ; whence come Alanson, Hallet (or from Hal Henry), 
Alkin (when not from Elias), Allen. 

ALDRED ; whence comes A Iderson. 

ALEXANDER; whence come Saunderson, Saunders, Alkey, 
Sandercock, Me A lister, Palister (ap Alister). 

ANDREW; whence come Anderson, Anson, Andrews, Hen- 
derson, Henson, Anderton. 

ANTHONY ; whence come Tonson f Tennison (or from Dennis), 
Townson, Tonkins, Toney, Tonks. 

ANSELM; whence come Ansell (or from Ancelot, contrac- 
tion of Lancelot). 

ARCHIBALD; whence come Archison, Aicheson, Balderson, 
Archbutt. 

ARTHUR ; whence come Atty, McArthur, Earth (ap Arthur), 
but not always. 

BALDWIN ; whence come Balderson (or from Archibald), 
Bawson, Body, Budd, Baldock, Bodkin, Bawcock, Bawkin, 
B aw den. 

BARNABAS ; whence come Burnaby, Barnby, A bby ; but 
Barnby is also a place-name. 

BARTHOLOMEW ; whence come Bartlett, Letts, Letson, 
Baits, Bates, Battey, Batson, Bettison, Badcock, Bartle, Tolley, 
Tolson, Bartley. 

BENEDICT; whence come Bennett, Benson, Bennie, Benn, 
Bennetson, Benison. 

BENJAMIN ; whence come, perhaps, some of the above ; 
but Benjamin was never as favourite a name as Benedict. 

BERNARD ; whence come Bernardson, Burnard, Barnes, 
possibly. 

BRICE; whence come Bryson, Bryce, but generally for 
Ap Rice. 

C^SAR ; whence come Keysar, Cayzer. 

CHARLES ; whence come Charley, Caroll, O'Caroll (or from 
Cearbhoil), Kelson (but Kelson may come from Nicholson). 

CHRISTOPHER ; whence come Christopher son, Christison, 
Christie, Kitts, Kitson, Keates, Kitto. 

54 



SIRE-NAMES 

CLEMENT ; whence come Clements, Clemo, Clemson, Climp- 
son, Clymo. 

CONSTANTINE; whence come Custance, Cust, Custerson, 
Custison, Cossentine. 

CRISPIN ; whence come Cripps, Crisp, Crespin. 

CUTHBERT; whence come Cuthbertson, Cutbeard, Cutts, 
Hubbard, Cobbet, Cobett, Crewdson (with an intrusive r). 

DAVID; whence come Davidson, Dayson, Davis, Davies, 
Davey, Dawe, Dawkins, Dawes, Davidge, Duffy, Dakins, 
Davitt, Dawson, Dawkes, Dowson. 

DANIEL ; whence come Dancet, Dance, Danson, Tancock. 

DENNIS ; whence come Dennison, Tennyson (or from 
Anthony's son), Denson, Dyson, Denny, Dyatt, Dyett. 

DIGORY ; whence come Digges, Diggins, Dickens (when not 
from Dick), Digginson, Dickenson, Dickory, Diggman. 

DODA (old Saxon) ; whence come Dodds, Dodson, Dodd. 

DONALD ; whence come Donaldson, Donkin. 

EDWARD; whence come Edwardes, Edkins, Edes, Beddoe 
(ap Edward), Eddison. 

EDMUND ; whence come Edmunds, Edmundson, Emson, 
Empson. 

EDWIN ; whence come Winson, Winston. 

ELIAS ; whence come Ellis, Ellison, Elliot, Elliotson, Ellet, 
Elkins, Ellicock, Elliott, Eales, Eeles. 

EUSTACE ; whence come Stace, Stacey. 

FRANCIS ; whence come Franks, Franson. 

FULK; whence come Fookes, Fawkes, Vaux (when not 
from De Vaux), Faucett, Fawson, Yokes, Foulkes, sometimes 
Fox. 

GABRIEL ; whence come Gabb, Gabell, Gabelson, Gable. 

GEOFREY; whence come Jeffson, Jefferson, Jeffs, Jeffries, 
Jepson, Jefcock, Goff, Guthrie. 

GEORGE; whence come Georges, Jorris, perhaps Jury, 
Jorrock. 

GERARD ; whence come Garrod, Garrett, Garrick, Jarred, 
Jerold, Jarratt. 

GILBERT ; whence come Gilbertson, Gibson, Gibbs, Gibbings, 
Gibbon, Gilbard, Gilpin (from Gibb-kin). 

55 



SIRE-NAMES 

GILES ; whence come Gilson, Gillot, Gillett, Gilcock, Jelly, 
Jellicock. 

GODBERT; whence come Gotobed, Gobbett, perhaps, or 
from Godbald. 

GODARD (GOTHARD) ; whence comes Goddard. 

GODBER ; whence comes Goodyear. 

GODESCHALK ; whence come Goodchild, Godshall. 

GODFREY ; whence come Godkin, Goad, Freyson. 

GODRICK ; whence come Goodrich, Godrich, Goodridge. 

GODWIN 1 ; whence come Goodwin, Godden, Godding, 
Godon. 

GREGORY; whence come Gregson, Greyson, Gregg, Griggs, 
Gresson. 

GUTHLAC ; whence come Goodlake, Goodluck. 

HALBERT ; whence come Robbie (see " The Black Dwarf"), 
Hobbs, Hobson. 

HAMON or AYMON ; whence come Hamond, Hampson, 
Hammett, Hammick, also as diminutive Hamlyn, Hamley. 

HENRY ; whence come Harrison, Harris, Hawson, Hawkins, 
Halse, Hawes, Hallet, Halket, Racket, Allcock, Parry, Harri- 
man (servant of Harry), Hall. 

HILARY ; whence come Larkins, Hilson. 

HUBERT ; whence comes Hubbard. 

HUGH ; whence come Hughes, Hewson, Pugh, Hutchins, 
Huggins, Hodgkins, Hoskinson, Higgins, Hickes, Hickson, 
Higginson, Hewett, Howett, Hudson, Higman. 

ISAAC ; whence come Isaacson, and possibly Hicks, Higgs, 
Higgins. However, Langland writes of " Hikke, the hackney- 
man, and Hugh, the nedlere." 

Ivo and IVAR ; whence come Ivison, Ivers, Maclver. 

JAMES ; whence come Jameson, Jimson, Jeames, Jacox, 
Jacks, Jaq^les, Jackson, Jacobs, Jacobson, Jimpson, Cobb. 

JOB ; whence come Jobson, Jope, Jopling (unless from 
Jublains), Jupp. 

1 Many of our surnames beginning with " Good " come from the Anglo- 
Saxon name beginning with " God." Goodchild\^, Godeschild (the shield of 
God), or else a Godchild ; Goodbody is God's bothie or habitation ; Gatt- 
acre is really God's acre ; Goodfellow is God's fellow or friend. 

56 



SIRE-NAMES 

JOEL ; whence come Joule, Jowle, Yole (a Norman form 
was Judual), Jewel. 

JOHN ; whence come Johnson, Jonson, Jenkins, Evans, 
Heavens, Jennings, Hanson, Hancock, Bevan, Hawkinson, 
lans, Jevons, Joynes. 

JORDAN ; whence come Judd, Judson, Juxon (or else from 
Jude), Judkin, Jukes. 

JOSEPH ; whence come Josephs, Joskin, Jose, Jephson, Jessop 
(Giuseppe). 

JUDE; whence come Judd, Judson. See above under 
"Jordan." 

JULIAN ; whence come Jolland, Jillson, Gotland, Jule, 
Gilson. 

KENNETH ; whence come Kennedy and McKenzie. 

LAMBERT ; whence come Lampson, Lambkin, Lambett 
(whence Labett), Lampert. 

LAURENCE; whence come Larkin, Lawes, Law, Laurie, 
Ranely, Lawson. 

LUKE ; whence come Lukis, Lukin, Luxon, Lukitt, Locock. 

LEVI ; whence come Levison, Lawson, Lewson, Leeson, 
Lewis, as if for Louis. 

MAGNUS ; whence comes Manson. 

MARK; whence come Marks, Marson, Markin, Marcock, 
Marcheson, Marcet. 

MATTHEW ; whence come Matheson, Mathews, Matson, 
Maddison, Mahew (French Maheu), May, for Maheu, Matkin, 
Makin. 

MAURICE ; whence come Morris, Morrison, Mawson, Moxon, 
Morson, Morse. 

MICHAEL ; whence come Mitchell, Mitcheson, Kilson. 

MILO ; whence come Miles, Mil-son, Millet, Milsom (" som " 
for " son "). 

NICHOLAS ; whence come Nichols, Nicholson, Nixon, Coles, 
Collis, Collison, Collins, Colson, Collin, Collett, Close, Clowes, 
Glascock. 

NIGEL; whence come Neale, Neilson, Nelson, O'Neil, 
McNeal, Nihill. 

OLIVER ; whence come Nollikins, Knollys, Knowles. 

57 



SIRE-NAMES 

OSBALD, OSBERT, OsBORN, OSMUND, all have their modern 
representatives in surnames. 

OWEN ; whence comes Bowen. 

PATRICK ; whence come Patrickson, Padson, Pattison, 
Gilpatrick, Kilpatrick, Patterson, Patton, Patey, Petherick, 
Pethick. But these two last from PETROC. 

PAUL; whence come Paull, Paulson, Powlson, Pawson, 
Porson, Paulett, Powlett, Palk (for Paulkin). 

PETER ; whence come Peterson, Peters, Pier son, Pierce, 
Perks, Perkins, Purkis, Parkinson, Parr, Parsons, Perrin, Perrot, 
Pether, Peer. 1 

PHILIP ; whence come Phillips, Philipson, Phipson, Phipps, 
Lipson, Lipton, Filson, Philpott, Phillpots, Philkin, Phippen. 

RALPH ; whence come Rawlins, Rawlinson, Rowe, Rapson, 
Rawson, Raffson, Rawes, Rolfe, Rawkins, Rawle, Rolle, Roley. 

RANDOLF ; whence come Randals, Ranson, Rankin, Randall. 

REGINALD ; whence come Reynolds, Reynell, Rennell, Rennie, 
Renson. 

REGINHARD (REYNARD) ; whence come Reynard, Reynard- 
son, Reyner, Reynerson. 

RICHARD ; whence come Richards, Richardson, Dicks, Dixie, 
Dickson, Dixon, Dickens (when not from Digory), Dickenson, 
Hitchens, Hitchcock, Pritchard (ap Richard) , Richards, Ricketts, 
Rickson. 

ROBERT : whence come Robbins, Robertson, Robson, Dobbs, 
Dobson, Dobie, Hobbs, Hobson, Hopkins, Roberts, Robartes, 
Hopkinson, Probert (ap Robert), Probyn (ap Robin), Hobbins, 
Hobbes. 

ROGER; whence come Rogers, Rogerson, Hodge, Hodges, 
Hodgson, Hodgkins, Hosking, Hoskinson, Hodgman, Dodge, 
Prodger, Dodson, Dudgeon. 

ROLAND and ROLLO ; whence come Rowlandson, Rollson, 
Rowlett, Rolle, Rawlins, Rawlinson. 

RUDOLF ; whence come Rudall, Ruddle, Rolf. 

SAMSON ; whence come Sampson, Sansom, Samms. 

SAMUEL ; whence come Samuelson, Samwell, Smollett. 
1 In the Guardian, No. 82, p. 1713, is a memoir of William Peer, the 
actor, who died of a broken heart because he was growing fat. 

58, 



SIRE-NAMES 

SEBRIGHT (for Sigbert) ; whence comes Seabright. 

SERLO ; whence come Searle, Serell, Sarell, Serlson. 

SIBALD ; whence come Sibbald, Sibbaldson, Sibbson. 

SIMON ; whence come Simonds, Symonds, Simmens, Sims, 
Symes, Simson, Simpkin, Simkinson, Simcoe, Simcox. 

SIWARD and SIGGEIR ; whence come Seaward, Seward, 
Sayer, Seager, Seeker, Sears, Sugar, Siggers, Syer. 

SOLOMON ; whence come Salman, Salmon, Sammonds. 

STEPHEN ; whence come Stephens, Stevens, Stephenson, 
Stevenson, Stimson, Stibbs, Stebbing, Stepkin, Stiff. 

SWEYN ; whence come Swaine, Swanson, Swinson, Swaynson. 

THEOBALD ; whence come Tibbald, Tibbs, Tippet, Tipkin, 
Tebbets. 

THEODORIC ; whence come Theed, Terry. 

THOMAS ; whence come Thorns, Toms, Thompson, Tompson, 
Tomson, Tomlyn, Tomlinson, Tomkin, Tomkinson, Thompsett, 
Tombling, Tapson, Tapling. 

THOROLD ; whence come Thoroldson, Tyrell, Terrell. 

THURGOD ; whence come Thoroughgood, Toogood, Tuggett. 

THURKELL ; whence come Thurrel, Thurkill ; in some 
cases Killson. 

TIMOTHY ; whence come Timms, Timbs, Timson, Timmins, 
Timcock. 

TOBIT ; whence come Tubbes, Betson, Beatson, Tobyn, Tobey 
(changed to Sobey). 

WALERAN ; whence comes Walrond. 

WALTER; whence come Walters, Watts, Watson, Watkins, 
Vautier, Goodyear (from French Gautier), Waterson, Wat- 
kinson. 

WARIN (for Guarin) ; whence come Warren, Waring, Wari- 
son, War son. 

WILLIAM ; whence come Williams, Williamson, Wilson, 
Wills, Wilkins, Wylie, Willett, Gillott, Wellings, Bill, Bilson. 

WUNEBALD ; whence comes Wimbold. 

To this list of patronymics must be added one of metro- 
nymics. These naturally lead us to suspect that such as bore 
their mothers' names, and not those of their fathers, were 

59 



SIRE-NAMES 

baseborn ; and although, no doubt, this is so in a good number 
of cases, yet it is not invariably so. Sweyn, King of Denmark, 
was called Estrithson, after his mother, who was the sister 
of Canute the Great, though married to Earl Ulf, because it 
was through her that he obtained his right to the throne. 
In a good many instances the metronymic name was taken 
in like manner, because the mother was of higher birth than 
the father, and through her the son inherited some land. 
Henry II. was entitled FitzEmpress because through her he 
had his claim to the throne of England. The mother, again, 
may have been a widow, and the son born after the death of 
his father. It seems hardly credible that a man should accept 
and transmit to his descendants a name proclaiming his 
bastardy, unless it were unavoidable. It is true that among 
the Normans no idea of disgrace attached to bastardy, but 
surnames were not assumed by the generality of the people 
till long after the Conquest, when opinion on this matter had 
become more healthy. 

Again, it is often a mistake to assume that the name 
proclaims illegitimacy because it derives, apparently, from a 
female, for many personal names had a male as well as 
a female form, as Julian. Only in the eighteenth century 
did the name become Juliana in the feminine. Gilson may 
well be the son of a male Julian. There was a Jocosus as 
well as a Jocosa, a Joyeux as well as a Joyeuse, to furnish 
the family name of Joyce. Letson and Letts are not necessarily 
descended from Laeticia or Lettice, as shall be shown pre- 
sently. Nor are Nelsons the illegitimate sons of a Nelly, but 
the legitimate offspring of Nigel. 

Mr. Bardsley gives a long list of metronymics, which, if 
accepted, point to a state of demoralization in England, at 
the time when surnames were assumed, that is truly appalling ; 
not only so, but to the indifference English people showed to 
being proclaimed bastards, and to handing on such a name 
to the end of time, to children yet unborn. I do not, how- 
ever, believe that there was such a condition of affairs as 
would be implied were we to accept Mr. Bardsley's list. I 
will give some of what he calls metronymics, and shall, I 

60 



SIRE-NAMES . 

trust, be able to show that in a good many cases he has 
misinterpreted them : 

Allison, son of Alice. I would say, of Alexander. 

Amelot, Amye, Aimes, son of Amy. Why not of Amias ? 

Anson, son of Anne. I suppose same as Hanson, son 
of John, or may be of Anthony. But Annott may indicate 
bastardy. 

Aplin, son of Apolonia. It is the same as Ablin, from Abel. 

Ansty, Anstice, from Anastasia. Anastasius was a man's 
name. 

Aveling, son of Evelina. But it may stand for Abeling, 
diminutive of Abel. 

A vis, A vison, son of Avicia. 

Awdrey and Audrey, son of Ethelreda. But why may not 
the name of St. Ethelreda have been assumed by some 
resident in the Isle of Ely, out of devotion to the saint ? 

Babb and Barbe, for Barbara. Possibly enough, rather 
from St. Barbe, a Norman place-name. 

Beaton, Bettison, Belts, Betson, Beatie, etc., the illegitimate 
issue of a Beatrice. Beaton is from Bethune ; so Beatie and 
Beits and Betson are mere softenings of Batt and Batson, for 
Bartholomew. 

Bell, Bellot, Bellison, Izod, Ibbott, Ebbott, Bibby, Ibsen, 
Empson, Epps, Isbel, Libby, Nibbs, Knibb, are all supposed to 
represent the offspring of Isabella or Isolt, its diminutive. 
Bell and Bellot may more probably come from the shop or 
tavern sign. 

Cass, the son of Cassandra. It is another form of Case. 

Catlin, from Catherine, a North Country form. 

Cecil, the illegitimate son of Cicely. Probably a place- 
name Chessel, in Essex. 

Claridge, son of Clarice. 

Custance, Cosens, Custeson, sons of Constance. It is true 
that Chaucer uses Custance and Constance as forms of the 
same name, but Custance actually stands for Coutance. 

Deuce, son of Dionisia. The name, which is common in 
Yorkshire, is also spelled Dewis, and means son of Dewi or 
David. 

61 



SIRE-NAMES 

Dowse and Dowson, from Dulcitia. Probably same as 
Dewis and Daw son. 

Dye, Dyson, Dyot, Dight, all from Dionisia, just as rightly 
derive from Dennis or Dionis. 

Eames, Emmott, Imeson, Empson, from a mother Emma. 
Eames is a maternal uncle; Empson, a cousin through the 
mother's uncle. 

Ede, Eden, Eade, Eddison, Etty, from a feminine name 
Eade. But why not from Edward, contracted to Eddy ? 
There is also a place-name Ide, pronounced Ede, near 
Exeter. 

Elwes, the son of Heloise. Quite as likely, son of Aldwy. 

Eves, Eave, Eveson, Evett, sons of Eve. Why not of 
Ivo? 

Florance, Florry, and Flurry, sons of Florence. Florence 
was a man's as well as a woman's Christian name, as for 
instance in the famous Geste of Florence and Blanchefleur. 
Moreover, these names most probably were given to Floren- 
tine merchants, settlers in England. 

Gallon, derived from Julian, a man's as well as a woman's 
name. So also Gilott, Gillow, Gillson, cannot be accepted as 
the brood of a Juliana. 

Gossett, Jose, Goss, are assumed to derive from Joyce. Jose 
may be from Joseph. Goss means a goose, and Gossett a little 
goose. 

Grundy, from Gundreda. But Gundred may have been a 
male form. 

Helling, from Ellen. Very doubtful. 

Idson, Ide, sons of Ida. As already said, Ide is a place- 
name, and Idson is a corruption of Judson. 

Izzard Mr. Bardsley derives from Ysolt. As a fact, it 
comes from Les Essards, in Normandy. 

Jillot, Gellot, Gilson, Jowett, Joll, are supposed to be derived 
from Juliet and Juliana ; but, as above said, Julian is not 
exclusively a female name, and Joll was a name in Cornwall 
before the Conquest, and before the introduction into 
England of Juliana and Juliet. 

Letts, Letson, come from Letitia. But Letson is a corrup- 

62 



SIRE-NAMES 

tion of Ledsham, near Pontefract ; and Letts, as already said, 
is from Bartlett. 

Mabb, Mabley, Maberley, Mabbot, Mapleson, are the sons 
of Mabel. Maberley is the same as Moberley, a parish in 
Cheshire. 

Maddison is not the son of Maude, but of Matthew, and is 
the same as Mattheson. 

Maggs, Margeson, Margetson, Poggson, are the sons of 
Margaret. 

Mallinson, Mallison, Marriott, Maryatt, Mayson, Moxon, 
Moggs, all signify the sons of Mary. As to Marriott and 
Mayyatt, it is possible enough that they are place-names 
Merriott in Somersetshire. May, moreover, comes from 
Maheu, the French for Matthew. 

Maude and Mawson, from Matilda. More likely from the 
English name Maldred or from Morris. Maude is also Le 
Maudit (see Battle Abbey Roll). 

Parnell and Pernell come from Petronella, and the word was 
used to describe a light-charactered wench. 

Sisson, from Cicely. Very doubtful. 

Tagg, Taggett, from Agnes. Tegg, however, is from Teague, 
and Tagg, is its diminutive. 

Tillett and Tillotson, from Matilda. 

It will be seen that, although apparently a good number 
of names appear to be metronymics, it is quite possible 
that they may be so in appearance only. Son is an easy 
alteration from ston as the end of a name. I possess a manor 
that was called in Domesday Waddleston ; it is now called 
and spelled Warson. I should be most reluctant to suppose, 
unless constrained by evidence so to do, that all the apparent 
metronymics are actually the unblushing acceptance by 
English people of names proclaiming the taint of bastardy. 
Some unfortunates could not escape. When the Act of 1538 
was passed, rendering registration compulsory in country 
parishes, doubtless there were " love-children " whose origin 
was so well known that they could not escape having 
their names recorded as fatherless. But we may well be 

63 



SIRE-NAMES 

mistaken if we rush to the conclusion that all these names 
are reminiscent of a scandal. No man, as I have said, would 
register his surname if he thought it smacked of that. 

There was another reason above those already mentioned 
that may have led to the use of a name derived from a 
female. Among the Northern people and the Normans, 
though Frenchified and Christian, had their ancestral beliefs 
and superstitions uneradicated there existed a conviction 
that men without hair on their faces changed sex every 
ninth day. That which caused the burning of the worthy 
Njall his wife and sons, in their house, was the taunt of a 
certain Skarpedin, who threw a pair of breeches at a certain 
Flossi and bade him wear them, as he was a woman every 
ninth day. This was an insult that could be expunged only 
with blood or fire. In the Gullathing laws is one condemning 
to outlawry any man who charged another with change of 
sex, or with having given birth to a child. When Thorvald 
the Wide-travelled went round Iceland with a German 
missionary Bishop named Frederick, preaching the Gospel, 
the smooth face and long petticoats, and perhaps the portly 
paunch of the prelate, gave rise to bitter jests. A local 
poet sang : 

" Nine bairns born 

The Bishop hath, 

And of all and eke 

Is Thorvald father." 

This was more than Thorvald could endure, and he hewed 
down the scald with his battle-axe. 

It is quite possible that some beardless father of a family 
may have been nicknamed Little Mary (Marriott) or the 
Girl (Piggot). Gilbert Folliott may have been designated 
Filliot from his shaven and effeminate face, and he preferred 
to be known as Folliot (the Little Fool) to Filliot (the Little 
Girl). 

Curiously enough, relationships have formed surnames a 
thing not easy of explanation. Neames signifies uncle (the 
Old English is "neme" 1 ), and N eaves is nephew. "Neve, 

1 Neames was the name of one of the knights in the popular romance 
of " The Four Sons of Aymon." 

64 



SIRE-NAMES 

Sony's sone, neptis," says the " Promptuarium Parvulorum." 
Eame is in A.S. a maternal uncle, hence Fames. Cousins 
we have many, also Brothers and Freres, as surnames ; but 
these latter may be due to the bearers at first having been 
friars who had quitted their convents. Nevins stands for 
Nevinson, the great-nephew. Beaufrere, becoming Beaufere, 
and then Buffer, gave a surname, as also its equivalent Fair- 
brother ; but Mauf was the Old English for a brother-in-law, 
and this remains in the rare surname Whatmough i.e., Wat's 
brother-in-law. Maeg was a sister-in-law, and just possibly 
may have originated some of our Meeks. Sometimes we 
have " son " attached to a trade-name. That is explicable 
enough. When a man had to be enregistered who had no 
surname, nor his father either, it was simple enough to enroll 
him as Clerkson or Cookson, Smithson, or Ritson (for wright's 
son) ; or, again, Saggerson, as the son of the sagar, or sawyer. 
Why Sackerson should have been a name applied to a bear 
is not apparent (" Merry Wives," I. i.), but possibly it was 
due to the up-and-down movements of Bruin. 

Christian names when adopted as surnames underwent 
alteration. Alban is transformed into Allbone, the German 
Albrecht into Allbright; Wulferic became Woolridge, the 
name of a little blacksmith from whom I derived many 
traditional ballads a man so small that one could hardly 
imagine him descended from a sturdy Saxon stock. The 
Norse Arnkettil in Yorkshire became Arkle, and then settled 
down to Artie, which was the name of the cook at Horbury 
Vicarage some thirty years ago. Baldwin has become 
Bawden, and Alberic Aubrey. A sire-name may be so altered 
as to look like a place-name. An example in point is Baynham. 
As it happens, we know its pedigree. The Heralds' Visitation 
of Gloucestershire of 1623 tells us that Robert ap Einion had 
a son Robert, who changed ap Einion into Baynham, and 
settled at Chorewell, in the Forest of Dean. Bedward is not 
a to-name that looks back to a Lord of a Bedchamber to a 
King, but derives from Ap-Edward. 

A great change took place in English Christian names 
after the Conquest. Before that, those borne by men and 

6 5 E 



SIRE-NAMES 

women were of very ancient character, formed out of the 
Anglo-Saxon or Scandinavian tongues. But after that event 
came in names of saints and such as were Norman. 

For the history of nomenclature Domesday is of especial 
value, for it gives us both Anglo-Saxon names at a period 
before to-names had begun to become hereditary, and also 
Norman names when on their way to become surnames. It 
shows us many of our invaders who were known only as 
sons of such and such a father, precisely as were Saxon 
thegns ; and others who had Christian names, and nothing 
else. Others, again, had nicknames, and many men were 
designated after their castles in Normandy. Previous to the 
Conquest, Scriptural and saintly names were rarely em- 
ployed by the Anglo-Saxons, but with the advent of the 
Normans they came in with a flood. " The great mass of 
our Old English names," says Freeman, " were gradually 
driven out. The change began at once. The Norman 
names became the fashion. The Englishman's child was 
held at the font by a Norman gossip. The Englishman who 
was on friendly terms with his Norman lord or his Norman 
neighbour nay, the Englishman who simply thought it fine 
to call his children after the reigning King or Queen now 
cast aside his own name and the names of his parents to 
give his sons and daughters names after the new foreign 
pattern. The child of Godric and Godgifu was no longer 
Godwine and Eadgyth, but William and Matilda. ... In 
every list of names throughout the eleventh and twelfth 
centuries we find the habit spreading. The name of the 
father is English ; the name of the son is Norman. This 
is a point of far more importance than anything in the mere 
history of nomenclature. It helps to disguise one side of 
the fusion between Norman and English. Many a man who 
bears a Norman name many a Richard or Gilbert whose 
parentage does not happen to be recorded must have been 
as good an Englishman as if he had been called Ealdred or 
Aethelbert. 

" When this fashion set in, it took root. The Norman 
names gradually spread themselves through all classes, till 

66 



SIRE-NAMES 



even a villain was more commonly called by a Norman name 
than by an English name. The great mass of English names 
went out of use, a few only excepted, which were favoured 
by accidental circumstances." 

We see something of the same thing taking place at the 
present day, when labourers' sons and the children of colliers 
are christened Percy, Vane, Vere, Granville, and are given 
half the aristocratic names in the peerage. 

The romances of chivalry exercised a great influence on 
nomenclature, at first only on members of the Norman- 
French families, but mediately on the English. The fable 
of King Arthur and the Round Table was vastly popular, 
and supplied us with our Launcelots, Tristans, Percivals, and 
some of our Kayes. The following fanciful pedigree of the 
romances relative to Ogier the Dane, Godfrey de Bouillon, 
and the Four Sons of Aymon, will show how these names 
were taken up, and eventually became surnames. These I 
have italicized. 





Doolin 


of Mayence (Dolling). 






1 

Godfrey, Bevis, 
King of of Aigi 
Denmark. 

Ogier the 


Count 
emont. 


\ 
Aymon, Count of 
Dordogne and Duke 
of Ardennes 
(Hay man). 


Doolin. 


Dane | j 
(Odger). Vivian. Maugis 
(M auger 
Mervin. and 

1 Major}. 
Oriant. 


\ \ \ 
Reynald Richard. Allard. 
of Mon- 
tauban. 


Guichard 
(Wishart). 



Helias, Knight of the 
Swan (Ellis). 



'odfrey Bald\ 



Godfrey 
de Bouillon. 



'win. Eustace* 



All these names, with the exception of Oriant, were taken 
up. Not only so, but also that of Bayard (Baird), the name 
of the horse that was ridden by the Four Sons of Aymon. 

67 E 2 



SIRE-NAMES 

The story of the Four Sons of Aymon is now forgotten, 
although at one time most popular; and, indeed, it is a 
touching tale. The Four Sons of Aymon were at feud with 
Charlemagne, and all four rode on the back of their great 
horse Bayard. At last, through the intercession of their 
mother, the great King agreed to receive the Four Sons of 
Aymon into favour again, on condition that they surrendered 
to him their horse Bayard. This was agreed to, and 
Reynald gave up the steed to Charlemagne, who had two 
millstones attached to Bayard's neck, and the horse was 
then precipitated into the water. Bayard managed to dis- 
engage himself from the load, and rose to the surface, saw his 
master Reynald, and swam to him and laid his head on his 
shoulder. When the King saw this he demanded the horse 
again, and Reynald gave it up. Charles the Great now had 
a millstone attached to each foot of the horse and two to its 
neck, and again it was cast into the water. But once more 
Bayard managed to free himself, and swam up to Reynald 
and looked at him piteously, as much as to say : " Why 
have you done this to me, your true friend?" Reynald 
caressed the poor beast, and trusted that the Emperor now 
would waive his determination to have it destroyed. But 
Charles once more insisted, and against the will of his 
brothers, who to save the faithful beast would have renewed 
their feud with the Emperor, he gave Bayard up for the 
third time, but as he parted with it he said : " Oh, old 
friend, how hardly am I repaying all your trusty service to 
us brothers!" Then Charlemagne had millstones attached 
as before, and he bade Reynald turn his head away, and not 
look at the horse, should it again reach the surface. Again 
was Bayard flung into the river ; again the horse rose and 
turned its eyes towards its master. But Reynald had his 
head directed elsewhere, and when Bayard could not meet 
his master's eyes it sank to rise no more. 

The surname Bayard occurs repeatedly in English records 
from 1273 down. It has even travelled to America with 
our colonists. It does not come from the knight sans 
peur et sans reproche, who died in 1524, as it occurs many 

68 



SIRE-NAMES 

centuries earlier. Bayard undoubtedly means " the bay- 
coloured." But it was the romance that gave the name its 
popularity. 

To the romances are also due such female names as Gwene- 
ver, that remains to this day in Cornwall as Jenefer ; and 
Iseult, that became in English mouths Isolt ; also Ellaine, 
that became Ellen. Firebrace is a surname derived from the 
romance of Fierabras. A family of Amadys appears in the 
Heralds' Visitation of Devon in 1620. The pedigree does 
not go back before the reign of Henry VIII. The family of 
Amadys was one of merchants at Plymouth, never of much 
consideration nor of landed estate. When the Adam of the 
family, William, was pricked to serve Henry VIII. in arms, 
he cast about for a surname, and thought he could not do 
better than assume that of the famous champion, Amadys of 
Gaul. The names of Miles and Ames, or A wye, doubtless 
derived from the romance of the story of Milles and Amys, 
les nobles et vaillants chevaliers. Perhaps also some of our 
Mills may hence derive. When William rode to the battle 
in which the destinies of England were determined, Wace 
informs us : 

" Taillifer qui moult bien chantait 

Sur un cheval qui tost alloit, 

Devant eus alloit chantant 

De 1'Allemaigne et de Rollant, 

Et d'Olivet et de Vassaux, 

Qui moururent a Rainchevaux." 

From that day the famous song of Roland was dear to 
the hearts of the Norman French, and gave occasion to the 
spread of the names of Oliver and Roland, and so to their 
being adopted as surnames. Not all Courteneys are lineal 
descendants of the grand William de Courtney, Duke of 
Aquitaine. Even the female name of the patient Grizzel 
was assumed, and became a family appellation as Griselle. 
Although the surname Turpin it is borne by a carrier of 
Plymouth, and was made famous by a highwayman derives 
from Thorfinn, yet it is so but mediately as a family name. 
It owes its introduction to the popularity of the fictitious 

69 



SIRE-NAMES 

Turpin, Archbishop of Rheims, who was the reputed author 
of the romantic " History of Charlemagne." Waring as a 
surname comes from Guerin de Montglave, another famous 
hero of romance. In the Hundred Rolls of 1273 are two 
entries John le Ape, of Oxfordshire, and Alured Ape, of 
Norfolk. I do not suppose that the name of Ape was given 
or assumed out of anything simian in the appearance or 
conduct of John and Alured, but was due to the romance 
of Milles and Amys, above mentioned. Milles and Amys 
went on pilgrimage to Jerusalem, and the former left his 
two children in their cradle to the guardianship of a trusty 
ape. Lubiane, the wife of Amys, resolved on their destruc- 
tion, and had them thrown into the sea. The ape swam after 
them till two angels carried them off. The ape floundered 
about disconsolate, and was picked up by a merchant vessel. 
On landing he searched everywhere for the lost children, 
subsisting the while on herbs and water, although habitually 
addicted to the pleasures of the table. Finding his search 
in vain, he proceeded to Clermont, the paternal inheritance 
of his wards, where he was received with acclamations by 
the populace ; but he declined the honours of an entertain- 
ment, as he felt his spirits depressed on account of the loss 
of the children. Meanwhile Lubiane had set out for the 
Court of Charlemagne to obtain a grant of the county of 
Clermont, on pretence that the race of Milles was extinct. 
The ape got wind of this, had a letter composed, narrating 
how matters really stood, and hastened to Paris with it. 
But, on account of the badness of the roads and want of 
relays, he did not reach the Court of the Emperor till some 
days after Lubiane. He made his first appearance at Court 
in his travelling dress during a great festival, and signalized 
his arrival by assaulting the Countess and rending her 
garments. He then respectfully presented the letter to 
Charlemagne, who ordered that the case should be decided 
by single combat. Lubiane readily procured a champion, 
and the ape met him in the lists and defeated him. 
Lubiane's champion was obliged to confess himself defeated, 
in order to avoid being torn piecemeal. According to the 

70 



SIRE-NAMES 

established custom, he was hanged, and Lubiane was burnt 
alive. 

The story of the faithful ape was so popular that it was 
represented in painting on the walls of the great hall of the 
Hotel de Ville in Paris, and, according to Monmerque", was 
a favourite subject for tapestry hangings. Now, as the 
horse of the Sons of Aymon furnished a surname, it is quite 
possible that the ape of Milles did so as well, as a symbol of 
fidelity. At the present day the novels so assiduously read 
furnish numerous Christian names, and the romances and 
ballads that were the delight of our medieval forefathers in 
like manner supplied both Christian names and surnames. 
We must figure to ourselves our ancestors called on, perhaps 
suddenly, to give their surnames. They had none, and, 
being constrained at a push to call themselves something, 
laid hold of the name of the preux chevalier, or even the ape, 
whose exploits they had just heard sung by a strolling 
jongleur, or which were familiar to them through the hangings 
of their tapestried chamber. Such, I can have little doubt, 
was the origin of some of these. But besides the introduction 
of Biblical, saintly, and romantic names, through fashion or 
imitation of the Normans, surnames began to become general. 
As they were beginning to be assumed by the conquerors, 
they began to be assumed also by the conquered. Among 
these latter the process was slow. It took something like 
500 years to become general. It worked downward from the 
Norman Baron to the English serf. 

I will again quote Mr. Freeman : 

" Besides this change in personal nomenclature, this intro- 
duction of a new set of Christian names, the Norman 
Conquest also brought with it the novelty of family nomen- 
clature that is to say, the use of hereditary surnames. . . . 
Among many men of the same name within the same gens, 
one needs to be distinguished from another by some epithet 
marking him out from his namesake. He may be marked 
out from them by the name of his father, by the name of his 
calling, or by some peculiarity of person or manner. The 
distinctive epithet may be sportive or serious; it may be 



SIRE-NAMES 

given in contempt or in reverence. In all these cases its 
nature is essentially the same. In all cases it is in strictness 
a surname. Surnames of this kind are common in all times 
and places ; they were as common in England before the 
Conquest as anywhere else. . . . Beside the patronymics, 
the local surnames, the surnames descriptive of the bearer's 
person, there are others which are not so intelligible 
surnames which are mere pet-names or nicknames, whether 
given in scorn or affection, or in caprice. 

" But in England before the Conquest there is no ascer- 
tained case of a strictly hereditary surname. A surname 
cannot be looked on as strictly hereditary till it has ceased to 
be personally descriptive. The line is drawn when the surname 
of the father passes to the son as a matter of course, though 
it may no longer be really applicable to him. In the older 
state of things we may be sure that Wulfred the Black was 
really a swarthy man ; that Sired, Alfred's son, was really 
the son of an Alfred ; that Godred at Fecham really lived 
at Fecham. When hereditary surnames are established, 
the surname of Black may be borne by a pale man, that of 
Alfred's son by one whose father was not named Alfred, 
that of Fecham by one who neither lived at Fecham nor 
owned any land there. If the Norman Conquest had never 
happened, it is almost certain that we should have found for 
ourselves a system of hereditary surnames. Still, as a matter 
of fact, the use of hereditary surnames begins in England 
with the Norman Conquest, and it may be set down as one 
of its results. 

" At the time of the invasion of England, the practice of 
hereditary surnames seems still to have been a novelty in 
Normandy, but a novelty which was fast taking root. 
Numbers of the great Norman Barons already bore surnames, 
sometimes territorial, sometimes patronymic, of which the 
former class easily became hereditary. 

" But the patronymic surname did not so readily become 
hereditary as the local surname. When a man takes his 
surname from the actual place of possession or residence, it 
is very hard to say at what particular point the personal 

72 



SIRE-NAMES 

description passes into hereditary surname. The stages are 
therefore more easily marked in names of the other class. 
When Thomas, the son of John, the son of Richard, calls 
himself, not Fitzjohn or Johnson, but FitzRichard or 
Richardson, the change is a rather violent one. But when, 
on the other hand, a Norman who bore the name of his 
birthplace or possessions in Normandy Robert of Bruce or 
William of Percy found himself the possessor of far greater 
estates in England than in Normandy, when his main 
interests were no longer Norman, but English, the surname 
ceased to be really descriptive. It became a mere arbitrary 
hereditary surname. It no longer suggested the original 
Norman holding ; it remained in use even if the Norman 
holding passed away from the family. When a Bruce or a 
Percy had lost his original connection with the place Bruce 
or Percy, when the name no longer suggested a thought of 
the place, Bruce and Percy became strict surnames in the 
modern sense. There is nothing like this in England before 
the Norman Conquest ; the change is strictly one of the 
results of that event. And the like process would take place 
with those landowners, whether of Norman or of English 
birth, who took their surnames from places in England. 
With them, too, the local description gradually passed into 
the hereditary surname." 1 

This is a long quotation, but it is too important, as bearing 
on the subject of English nomenclature, not to be given. 
Moreover, the authority of Mr. Freeman is so great that 
I am glad to invoke it to show that the practice of using 
hereditary surnames in England began with the latter half of 
the eleventh century, and that there was nothing of the sort 
before in England. 

1 " Norman Conquest," vol. v., p. 563 et seq. 



73 






CHAPTER IV 

TOTEMISM AND NAMES 

SOME of the most delightful of nursery tales are those that 
relate to transformation of Princes into beasts, and their 
release through woman's love, as The Frog Prince, and 
Beauty and the Beast ; or the reverse, where the woman is 
transformed, as The White Cat. 

Similar stories abound in folklore everywhere. A damsel 
finds a serpent lying stark with cold on the house doorstep, 
and takes it within. It pleads to lie outside her chamber 
door ; she allows this. Then it asks to be admitted to her 
bed ; she again consents, whereupon it is transformed into a 
beautiful youth. 

In a cave lives a monster like an overgrown toad. It can 
be released on one condition only that a fair maid shall kiss 
it on the lips. A peasant girl does so, and it at once becomes 
a nobleman and marries her. 

The Greeks also had their metamorphoses. Zeus, for the 
love he bore to Europa, became a bull ; for the sake of Leda, 
a swan. 

The following tale is told by the Bosjemen of South 
Africa. A girl dreamed that a baboon came to carry her off 
and make her his wife. Alarmed at the prospect, she fled to 
a certain Owanciguacha, who lived in the river as a water- 
snake, but at night came ashore, divested himself of his 
skin, became human, and slept on a mat. The damsel 
obtained a magic herb, and watched hidden among the reeds 
till Owanciguacha emerged from the water and retired to 
his mat, whereupon she obtained possession of the cast skin, 

74 



TOTEMISM AND NAMES 

burnt it, and thrust the herb into the sleeper's mouth, where- 
upon he remained a man, made her his wife, and through 
her became the ancestor of a tribe. 1 

The Scandinavians have a tale that the Valkyrie are 
maidens who fly about in the form of swans, but occasion- 
ally lay aside their feather dresses to bathe, and appear as 
women. A man once observed them alight, concealed him- 
self, and got possession of one of the swan robes. When 
the Valkyrie left the water, all reassumed their bird-forms 
save one, and he secured her, made her his wife and mother 
of his children. But one day she opened a chest and found 
in it her feather dress. She at once put it on and flew away, 
never again to return. The descendants of this man and 
the swan wife would be denominated Alptings. 

In Aurora Island in the Pacific the natives tell a similar 
tale. Once some women came down from heaven to earth 
to bathe, and before entering the water divested themselves 
of their wings. A certain Quat saw them, and stole one of the 
pinions. When the maidens came out of the water, all flew 
away save one, who could not, because her wing was stolen. 

Quat took her home with him and married her, and she 
became the mother of his children. He had concealed the 
wing under a post of the house, under ground. Quat's 
mother proved unkind to the wife, and she leaned against 
the post and wept, till her tears made a hole in the soil and 
disclosed the wing. Thereupon she put it on and flew away, 
deserting her husband and children for ever. 2 

Here is another tale from Celebes. Utahagi, with six 
other nymphs, her sisters, flew down from heaven to bathe 
in a pool. At that time a man named Kasimbaha was there 
among the reeds, and saw them. He stole one of their 
feather dresses. By this means Kasimbaha secured posses- 
sion of that one, Utahagi, whose dress he had obtained. He 
made her his wife, and she bore him a son whom he named 
Tambaga. Utahagi had a white hair on her head, and she 
warned her husband on no account to pluck it out. Dis- 
regarding her caution, he did so, and she at once fled back to 

1 Frobenius, "The Childhood of Man," p. 118. 2 Ibid., p. 305. 

75 



TOTEMISM AND NAMES 

heaven, and no more returned to earth. But her son Tam- 
baga remained, and became the ancestor of a tribe. 1 

Now, how comes it that peoples divided by vast tracts of 
ocean, and who have no racial affinities, should possess 
similar, even identical, stories ? The reason is that among 
these peoples there are tribes that regard themselves as 
descended from swans, have the swan as their totem, and 
have excogitated myths to explain the origin of the totem 
and tribal name. 

The following story is found in an Icelandic saga, and is 
also given in brief by Norman- English writers as the origin 
of the family of Earl Ulf, who married the sister of Canute 
the Great, and by her became the ancestor of the Royal 
Family of Denmark, the Ulfungs. But he himself was a 
Bjorning, a Bear's son. 

Bjorn was the son of King Ring of the Uplands in 
Norway. A jealous stepmother transformed him into a bear, 
and bade him ravage his father's flocks and herds. Bjorn 
loved a small bonder's daughter named Bera, 2 and he carried 
her off to his den among the rocks, and when the sun set he 
reverted to the form of a man. One night he told Bera that 
his mind presaged trouble or death, and he bade her, in the 
event of his being killed on the morrow, on no account to 
allow herself to be induced to taste his roast flesh. It fell 
out as he foresaw. Next day King Ring's hunters killed 
him, and at night his roasted flesh was served in the hall. 
The wicked Queen endeavoured to induce Bera to eat of it, 
but she refused. She clenched her teeth, yet by force the 
Queen succeeded in thrusting a small portion between her 
lips. Soon after Bera gave birth to three sons, and, because 
some of the bear's flesh had been in her mouth, two of them 
were deformed, and the third, Bodvar, could change himself 
at pleasure into the form of a bear. He married the daughter 
of Hrolf Krake, King of Leidre, or Denmark, and, in the 
great battle in which Hrolf fell, Bodvar fought at one time 
in the shape of a bear, at another in human form. 

1 Frobenius, "The Childhood of Man," p. 312. 

2 Bera means "bear" as well as bjorn. 

76 



TOTEMISM AND NAMES 

Now, one interesting point in this tale is that in which 
Bera is reluctantly obliged to admit some of the flesh of the 
bear into her mouth. 

One of the murderers of Thomas a Becket was Sir 
Reginald Fitzllrse. The family was descended from Ursus, 
the Bear, who in the time of William the Conqueror held 
lands in Wiltshire, of the Abbey of Glastonbury. There can 
exist little doubt that this Bear descended from the stock of 
the Bjornings, of which the story has just been told. So also 
did the Orsini of Italy. One legend of their origin is that 
they derive from the son of a Gothic chieftain named Aldvin, 
who was suckled by a bear. Another story is that Aldvin 
was of a Saxon family, Lords of Ballenstedt and Ascania in 
the Hartz Mountains, and that he was a younger son. Albert, 
the Bear of the Ascanian house, was born in noo, and 
became Margrave of Brandenburg, and ancestor of the 
present Emperor of Germany. The Ballenstedt arms are a 
black bear hugging a chessboard. The possible origin of 
this is that Earl Ulf, the Bear's son, was playing chess one 
day with King Canute. After they had played together 
awhile, the King made a false move, at which the Earl took 
a knight from the King ; but Canute set the piece again 
upon the board, and bade the Earl make another move. 
Ulf, being incensed, threw the chessboard on the floor with 
all the men, and stalked away. The King shouted after 
him : " Run away, Ulf the Timorous !" whereat the Earl 
replied : " Thou wouldst have run away in a certain battle 
had not I come to thine aid." 

Next morning Canute sent his Chamberlain to kill Ulf. 
The man found him in the church, and there ran him 
through with his sword whilst he was engaged in prayer. 
The early pedigree of Albert the Bear is not to be found, but 
it is conceivable that he may have derived from Earl Ulf's 
second son Bjorn (the Bear). Ulf was killed in 1028, and 
the story of the chessboard may have given rise to the 
representation on the arms of the Ballenstedt family, now 
represented by the Duke of Anhalt 

But to return to that point of the story that concerns 

77 



TOTEMISM AND NAMES 

Bera having partaken of a particle of the flesh of the bear. 
The persistence of the Queen to force her to eat, and the 
struggle of the young wife not to receive the food, stamp 
the story as one of a totem-taboo. 

Among primitive people everywhere, wheresoever totemism 
exists, there the partaking of the flesh of the beast, bird, or 
fish, from which the tribe derives, is strictly forbidden. In 
totemistic families the people look upon it as the worst of 
crimes to taste of the flesh of the animal whose name they 
bear. We do not know the story of the origin of the Chatti 
the modern Hessians but certainly they looked to a cat 
as their progenitor ; and the Count of Katzenellenbogen had 
doubtless a legend concerning a cat to account for his 
remarkable name. 

One of the oldest of the Highland clans was the Clan 
Chattan Children of the Cat and the younger clans bore 
animals on their banners. The Clan Alpine had a boar as 
its totem. 

The Picts the name is a Latin rendering of Cruithni, 
the painted or tattooed men certainly had symbolic animals 
figured on their bodies. Caesar speaks of the Britons as 
dyed with woad, but Solinus is more explicit. He says that 
they were figured over with forms of divers animals in fact, 
distinguishing tattooes marking off the several tribes, each 
tribe having had an animal ancestor. 

In all likelihood Romulus and Remus, in the earliest form 
of the story, were the actual offspring of the wolf, and it was 
a rationalizing of the myth to make them to have been 
merely suckled by her. 

One of the greatest families in Norway one that came to 
the front and played a conspicuous part in its history was 
that of the Arnungs, or Eaglings. 

It was related of its origin that the ancestor was found in 
an eagle's nest wrapped in silk. None knew whence it came, 
whether laid there by human hands or hatched out of an 
eagle's egg. 1 

1 The Stanley family pretended to a similar derivation. Its crest is an 
oak-tree supporting a nest containing a swaddled babe, above which is an 

78 



TOTEMISM AND NAMES 

This ancestor was named Finnvid, the Foundling, and his 
son was Thorarin (Thor's Eagle), and his grandson Arnvid 
(Eaglewood), the father of Earl Arnmod (Eaglemood). 
Arnmod's son was again Arne, who had sons Arnbjorn and 
Arne, so that the family clung to the eagle ancestry, per- 
petuating the name of Arne from generation to generation. 
One of Arne's granddaughters married Malcolm Caenmore, 
King of Scotland, and so brought the eagle blood into that 
race. 

We can hardly doubt that in the primitive form of the 
legend the ancestor of the Arnungs was actually an eagle, 
and that Finnvid was hatched out of her egg. But the story 
was modified to suit the views of a later and more sceptical 
generation. 

We do not know for certain, but we may suspect, that 
Hengist and Horsa, if not the symbols of the Saxon tribes, 
looked to an equine ancestor. The white horse of the Saxons 
was their totem, and it is open to question whether Hengist 
and Horsa really existed. Hengist means a stallion, and it 
is supposed that the leaders were merely representatives of 
families deriving traditionally from totemistic horses. 

Our present Royal Family is that of the Guelfs. And, 
indeed, the Guelfs were widely represented on princely and 
electoral thrones in Germany. The story of the origin of 
the race is this : A certain Countess of Querfurt bore at 
a birth nine sons. Ashamed of this, she committed them to 
her maid to drown. As the servant was on her way to the 
river with the infants in a basket, she met the Count, who 
asked her what she bore. She replied : " Only some whelps 
to be drowned." " I want a young whelp," said he, and 
opened the basket ; and so the truth came out. He had 
them secretly brought up, and did not reveal that they were 
his sons till they were of age. Thence came all the branches 
of the Guelf family. 

eagle. King Alfred found the child, reared it, and named it Nesting. 
The story is in the "Vita Stae. Wulfhildae" in Capgrave, "Nova 
Legenda Angliae." 

79 



TOTEMISM AND NAMES 

The same story is told of Isenhardt of Altorp and his wife 
Irmentrude, sister-in-law of Charlemagne. Thence came 
the Swabian Counts of Zollen, who bore on their shield, 
quartered black and white, a dog's head. 

The Hund family also derives from one of nine whelps, 
and in commemoration of this have as their crest nine pinks, 
representing the nine sons, and on their arms a hound. 

One of the Hunds of Wenckenheim it was who carried 
off Luther when he was returning from Worms, and conveyed 
him to the Wartburg. From the Guelfs also came the 
Princes of Scala at Verona. They changed their name to 
Scala or Scaliger, but retained on their arms two dogs, in 
commemoration of their origin. 

Another noble family, again, was that of Ruden, that has 
the same tale told of its origin, but with this difference : In 
this case the ancestor of the family scoffed at a beggar 
woman because she had three rosy-cheeked boys born at a 
birth. Incensed at his mockery, she prayed that he might 
be the father of four times as many boys, that they might 
have the appetites of dogs, and reduce him to mendicancy. 
In process of time he did have twelve sons, who were so 
voracious that they were called Ruden that is to say, dogs 
and they ate their father out of house and home, so that he 
was driven to beg his daily bread. The Ruden wear on 
their crest and in their arms a dog's head. 

Everyone, through the opera of " Lohengrin,'* has been 
made familiar with the mythical origin of the Dukes of 
Cleves. In the story a mysterious knight arrives at the 
castle, drawn up the Rhine in a boat by a swan. He fights 
for the heiress, and marries her. She is forbidden to ask the 
name of her deliverer, yet one day puts to him the fatal 
question, whereupon the boat and swan reappear, and he 
leaves to go, none know whither. Thenceforth the swan 
remained the badge of the House of Cleves ; and our taverns 
that bear the swan as their sign date from the arrival of 
Anne of Cleves in England to be the wife of Henry VIII., 
and testify to a certain amount of sympathy for her, enter- 
tained in the country at the time. 

80 



TOTEMISM AND NAMES 

Judging from the name, we may conjecture that the 
Merewings, the royal Frank family, derived from a mythical 
merow or merman. 

The Lusignans certainly took their name from a half-fish 
ancestress, Melusina. A gallant knight passing a spring 
surprised and captured a transcendently beautiful nymph, 
and induced her to become his wife. She consented on 
one condition only that on every Saturday she should be 
allowed to retire to her bathroom and remain there for a 
whole day invisible. She became a mother, and ancestress 
of a splendid race that wore the crowns of Jerusalem and 
Cyprus. One day, overcome by curiosity, the husband 
peered through a chink in the bathroom door, and saw, to 
his dismay, his wife transformed from the waist downwards 
into a fish. Somewhat later, in some domestic tiff, he 
sneered at her as a merow, whereupon, with a cry, she fled 
out of the window. 

But whenever ill-luck is to befall a Lusignan, or a death to 
occur, Melusina is to be seen hovering about the castle 
wailing and wringing her hands. It was due to this mythical 
origin that the mermaid formed the crest of every Lusignan, 
waved on their banner, and creaked on the vanes of the 
castle towers. Here again we have a totem story. 

There are indications that in an early state of development 
the Romans derived their families from animal ancestors. 
They had their Asinian, Aquillian, Porcian, Caninian gentes, 
and often fantastic stories were invented to account for these 
names. The Tremellian family obtained the title of Scropha, 
or Sow, according to the tale, in a peculiarly discreditable 
manner, as we should think, but by an exhibition of justifiable 
cleverness, as was considered at the time. A sow having 
strayed from a neighbour's yard into that of the Tremellii, 
the servants of the latter killed her. The master caused the 
carcass to be placed in his wife's bed, and when the neighbour 
came to claim his strayed sow, the Tremellian gentleman 
swore by all that was holy that there was no sow on his 
premises save that lying in the bed, and his neighbour 
concluded that the allusion was to the lady herself. 

81 F 



TOTEMISM AND NAMES 

One of the Fabian families was named after a buzzard 
Buteo and the fable was invented, to account for it, that a 
bird of this species had lighted on the vessel of a Fabian 
when he was on a voyage. 

Corvinus was the name of another Roman family, so called 
after a crow. The name of Casar was from an elephant. 

The children of Israel were in tribes, and each had its 
banner : the lion of the tribe of Judah, the ass of Issachar, 
the wolf of Benjamin, the serpent of Dan. 

The name of Lovell is still current among us. It signifies 
a young wolf. A story is told as to its origin. Count Ascelin 
de Perceval obtained it on account of his violent temper. 
" By ill-usage and torture," says Sir Francis Palgrave, " he 
compelled his liege lord (William de Breteuil) to grant him 
his daughter Isabel, with 3,000 of Dreux currency. During 
three months Breteuil was kept in duress, ironed, chained, 
plagued, and starved, without yielding, till at length the 
livres and the lady were extorted by an ingenious mode of 
torture. In the depth of winter Ascelin fastened him to the 
grating at the bleak top of a tower, unclothed save by a poor 
thin shirt ; he was thus exposed to the biting, whistling 
winds, while water was poured upon him abundantly and 
continually, till he was sheeted with ice. This anguish 
Breteuil could not resist ; he consented to the terms pro- 
posed, endowed Isabel in the church porch, and gave her 
away." 

Ascelin appears in Domesday as Gouel, intended for Lovel 
or Louvel. His son William inherited his father's ferocity 
of character, and with it his name of Young Wolf. But 
there is some reason for suspecting that the family considered 
itself to be descended from a wolf to be Ulfings. 

In fact, we may generally take it for granted that, where 
at an early period families bear animal names, they were 
held to descend from a bestial ancestor. 

The sons of Lodbrog, who harried the coasts of England 
in the ninth century, brought with them from Denmark a 
raven banner, embroidered by their sisters. It had this 
virtue, that before the battle it spread and flapped its wings. 

82 



TOTEMISM AND NAMES 

Now, this raven banner had its significance. The Lodbrog 
sons were the descendants, not the actual sons, of one 
Ragnar Lodbrog, who died about the year 794. He left no 
legitimate issue. His posterity, the royal race of Sweden 
and Denmark, descended from a concubine named Kraka, 
"the Crow." Either the family substituted a raven for a 
crow, or, what is more probable, the English chroniclers 
mistook a crow for a raven. But this seems to show that 
the descendants of Lodbrog looked to an ancestral crow as 
the source of the family. Moreover, Ragnar's death-song 
(not that of the first, but the second Ragnar) is called " The 
Song of the Crow." We may suspect that the story of 
Kraka is really a rechauffe of an earlier tale in which the 
ancestress was represented as an actual crow. 

The Corbyns and the Corbetts (Corbeaux) came over to 
England with the Conqueror, and, we may suspect, were of 
the Lodbrog stock, descendants of Kraka, as the younger 
Ragnar thrust up the Seine and took Paris in 845, and his 
son Bjorn ravaged in Normandy and other parts of France 
in 843 and 857, and another son, Sigurd, and a nephew, 
Guthrod, were there also in 891 ; so that it is far from 
unlikely that they left some descendants behind them in 
Normandy. 

There were other Norman families that bore the names of 
animals. Indeed, Hugh, who was created Earl of Chester, 
went by the name of Lupus, the Wolf. There was among 
the Conqueror's attendants an Asinus, VAne, and we can 
hardly conceive of a noble family accepting such an appella- 
tion unless there was some story to dignify it. The De Mods 
bore mules on their arms and as their crest. The Oliphants 
were named, like the Caesars, after an elephant. 

Le Grize was a swine, with a swine's head as crest. Griis 
is a pig in Danish to this day. Le Goz was a goose. De la 
Vache was another animal name, and Thoreau was another. 
Although the Lyons are supposed to have derived their 
name from the Forest of Lyon in Normandy, we cannot be 
confident that they did not impose their name upon 
their hunting-ground, and fable a descent from the king 

83 F 2 



TOTEMISM AND NAMES 

of the beasts, that figured on their helms and shields and 
banners. 

Mr. Bardsley gives a list of beast, bird, and fish names 
of 'individuals found in the Hundred Rolls, Post-Mortem 
Inquisitions, and other medieval documents. His idea is 
that these names were accorded by neighbours, descriptive or 
expressive of the moral or physical character of the indi- 
vidual. If so, then they were mere nicknames that would 
die out with those who bore them. This was no doubt the 
case with some such names, not necessarily bestial, that are 
recorded in the Hundred Rolls and elsewhere. Some are 
names that no man with any self-respect would carry, and 
certainly his sons would repudiate their transmission. Such 
are " Milksop," " Drinkedregges," "Sourale," "Sparewater," 
" Pinsemaille," " Pickcheese." Those who drew up the 
registers were not always particular to take the name by 
which a man himself chose to be known, and accepted any 
that his neighbours gave him. This may possibly enough 
account for such nicknames as " Rat," " Mouse," " Calf," 
" Smelt," " Shark," " Whale," that have found their way in. 
But in some cases the names exhibit a misapprehension. 
" Whale " was probably Welsh ; " Hawke " may stand for 
Hawker ; " Kite " may have been written for Kitt Chris- 
topher. " Otter " may not have anything to do with the 
animal, and represent Othere, of which the German form is 
Otto or Otho. " Palfrey " stands for le Balafre, the scarred ; 
and " Salmon " is a shortening of Solomon. 

But where an animal name is handed down from genera- 
tion to generation it stands otherwise ; in that case the 
name cannot be a mere nickname, applied to one member of 
a family and carried forward for no reason whatever to later 
generations. There must have been a significance in the 
name a significance accepted by the family. 

There are several explanations of the acceptance by a 
family of a hereditary plant or animal name. Either 

(1) That name indicated its mythical origin; 

(2) It was due to some incident in the family history, the 

memory of which it desired to perpetuate ; 
84 



TOTEMISM AND NAMES 

(3) It represented the arms of the master under whom 

the bearer had served ; or 

(4) It was derived from a sign over a shop or a tavern 

where the family had long been. 

1. I have said enough about the totems of noble families ; 
but it is quite possible that, among those who had belonged 
to the manor or been among the retainers of a great family, 
there may have been an impression that they pertained to it 
in blood, and had a right to the same totem. This took a 
peculiar form after the tribal organization came to an end. 
Among the Scandinavians it was a common thing to say of 
a man that he was not " einhamr " i.e., not one-shaped. 
It was supposed that he could at will change into some other 
form not any form, but one particular shape in which he 
could range the country : a bear, a wolf, a fox, an eagle, a 
dolphin, or, with a woman, a swan, a she-wolf, a hare, or a cat. 

In the Manchester Directory for 1861 appeared the name 
Hell-cat, and the name occurs in Northumbria in the 
Middle Ages. The name was accepted without compunc- 
tion by the family, because it supposed that some, at all 
events, among the womenkind were able to change shape 
into cats at night. The conviction that this transformation 
was possible remained rooted in the minds of men through- 
out the Middle Ages, and gave rise to the many stories of 
werewolves and of human bears, and of witches running 
about in the shape of hares and bitches and vixens. 

Indeed, the belief is not extinct at the present day in the 
East of Europe, and is only so in comparatively recent times 
in France and Germany. 

Accordingly, a family that at a remote period believed 
that it was descended from a totemistic beast or bird or 
reptile or fish, at a later period held that some among its 
members possessed the faculty, at will, of transformation 
into the beast, bird, fish, or reptile, whose name it bare ; and 
it was proud to retain this name, as giving to it a distinction 
above others in the same village, and one that imposed on 
the neighbours a certain respect and awe. 

2. It is also possible enough that some incident connected 

85 



TOTEMISM AND NAMES 

with an animal of some sort may have become a hereditary 
family story, and so may have given occasion to the per- 
petuation of the name. And this would apply to other 
objects as well as animals. 

In the twelfth century a Mansfeld was in the Battle of 
Wolfshitze, fought in 1115, and was almost the only one on 
his side who escaped with his life ; he was taken prisoner by 
the Emperor Lothair. Angry at his lot, which he regarded 
as dishonourable, he exclaimed, " I'm like a fly-away goose," 
and he ever after bore the name of Gans (Goose), and 
transmitted it to his posterity, that bears the name to the 
present day. 

Now, if these things happened and gave names to historic 
families, why may not events of moment in domestic annals 
have been the occasion of fixing names on families not in the 
highest ranks ? 

3. Many an old retainer or man-at-arms of a noble or 
gentle family, who had marched under its banner, followed 
its crest, borne its cognizance on his surcoat, married and 
settled down on a little farm of his master, when past 
service ; and his old surcoat, with the lion, or the bear, or the 
lox, the badger or the hart, was hung up over his mantel- 
shelf, and was pointed to with great pride by the ancient 
trooper. If he wanted a surname, what better could he take 
than that of the cognizance he had so bravely borne for many 
a year on the fields of Guyenne or Normandy ? 

" This day is call'd the feast of Crispian : 
He that outlives this day, and comes safe home, 
Will stand a tip-toe when this day is nam'd, 
And rouse him at the name of Crispian. 
He that shall see this day, and live old age, 
Will yearly on the vigil feast his neighbours, 
And say, " To-morrovv is Saint Crispian :" 
Then will he strip his sleeve and show his scars. . . . 
Old men forget ; yea, all shall be forgot, 
But he'll remember with advantages 
What feats he did that day. . . . 
This story shall the good man teach his son ; 
And Crispin Crispian shall ne'er go by, 
86 



TOTEMISM AND NAMES 

From this day to the ending of the world, 
But we in it shall be remembered ; 
We few, we happy few, we band of brothers ; 
For he to-day that sheds his blood with me 
Shall be my brother ; be he ne'er so vile, 
This day shall gentle his condition." 

And what surname would the soldier adopt, when his posi- 
tion was made gentle, but one from the banner under which 
he had fought ? 

Moreover, every serving-man bore on his arm the badge 
of the house where he served ; and we may well suppose 
that, when retiring to his cottage after years spent in his 
master's hall, at his master's table, or running as a page in 
early days by his master's horse, he would be proud to name 
himself after the badge in silver that had so long and so 
honourably adorned his arm. 

4. We come now to the signs that were suspended in the 
streets above shops, and such as swung before alehouses. In 
the Hundred Rolls are entries "at Roebuck," " at the Cock," 
"de Whitehorse," etc., indicative of signs. 

A good many of our families, though not the majority of 
them, draw their descent from the class of tradesmen who 
adopted signs for their shops. Houses were not numbered, 
and were distinguished by some device that swung in the 
street. Taverns, moreover, have retained their signs. These 
usually followed the heraldry of the noble or gentle families 
that held the manor. In former days it was not always 
possible for the mansion to receive all the retinue of a 
visitor, and they were sent to the manor inn, placed under 
the arms of the lord. 

Camden, in his " Remaines," says : " Many names that 
seem unfitting for men, as bruitish beasts, etc., come from 
the very signs of the houses where they inhabited; for I 
have heard of them which say they spake of knowledge, 
that some of late time dwelling at the signe of the Dolphin, 
Bull, White Horse, Racket, Peacock, etc., were commonly 
called Thomas at the Dolphin, Will at the Bull, George at 
the White Horse, Robin at the Racket, which names, as 

8? 



TOTEMISM AND NAMES 

many others of like sort, with omitting at, became after- 
wards hereditary to their children." 

Pasquin, in his " Nightcap," published in 1612, gives the 
following lines, that show how in the seventeenth century 
persons were individualized by their shop signs : 

" First there is Master Peter at the Bell, 
A Linendraper and a wealthy man. 
Then Master Thomas that doth stockings sell, 
And George the Grocer at the Frying Pan. 
And Master Timothie, the Woollendraper, 
And Master Saloman, the Leatherscraper, 
And Frank the Goldsmith at the Rose, 
And Master Philip with the fiery nose. 
And Master Miles, the mercer at the Harrow, 
And Master Nicke, the Silkman at the Plow. 
And Master Giles, the Salter at the Sparrow, 
And Master Dike, the Vintner at the Cow. 
And Harry Haberdasher at the Home. 
And Oliver, the Dyer, at the Thome. 
And Bernard, Barber-surgeon, at the Fiddle, 
And Moses, Merchant-tailor, at the Needle? 

One can see that in a very short time those occupying 
such shops would acquire the name either of their trade or 
of the sign under which it was conducted. Peter would be 
known either as Dyer or as Bell, Frank as Goldsmith or as 
Rose, Miles as Mercer or as Harrow. And, indeed, every 
one of the above signs, excepting only the Frying-pan, has 
become subsequently a surname. 

In the Spectator, No. 28, 1711, is this : " Our streets are 
filled with blue Boars, black Swans, and red Lions ; not to 
mention flying Pigs, and Hogs in Armour, with many other 
Creatures more extraordinary than any in the Desarts of 
Africk. . . . The Bell and the Neat's-Tongue, the Dog and 
the Gridiron, the Fox and Goose, may suppose to have met, 
but what has the Fox and the Seven Stars to do together ? 
And when did the Lamb and the Dolphin ever meet, except 
upon a signpost ? As for the Cat and Fiddle, there is a 
conceit in it ; and therefore I do not intend that anything 
I have here said should affect it. I must, however, observe 
to you upon this subject, that it is usual for a young Trades- 

88 



TOTEMISM AND NAMES 

man, at his first setting up, to add to his own Sign that of 
the Master whom he served ; as the Husband after Marriage 
gives a place to his Mistress's Arms in his own Coat. This 
I take to have given Rise to many of those Absurdities which 
are committed over our Heads ; and, as I am informed, first 
occasioned the three Nuns and a Hare, which we see so 
frequently joined together. I would therefore establish 
certain Rules, for the determining how far one Tradesman 
may give the Sign of another, and in what Cases he may be 
allowed to quarter it with his own : I would enjoin every 
Shop to make use of a sign which bears some Affinity to the 
Wares in which it deals. What can be more inconsistent 
than to see a Taylor at the Lion ? A Cook should not live 
at the Boot, nor a Shoemaker at the roasted Pig ; and yet, 
for want of this Regulation, I have seen a Goat set up before 
the Door of a Perfumer, and the French King's Head at a 
Sword-Cutler's." 1 

It must be remembered that the same family, perhaps for 
several generations, carried on the same trade under the same 
sign, so that the family became as identified with its sign as 
a gentle race was with its heraldic crest or coat. Not only 
so, but it acquired a respect for and love of the weather- 
beaten sign that had swung over the shop from year to year, 
under father and grandfather and great-grandfather, and 
which was a symbol as well of honesty and just dealing. 

The following is a list of some of the shop signs that have 
contributed names to English nomenclature not, of course, 
complete, for a complete list, if obtainable, would occupy too 
much space. 

BADGER. The Old English name is Brock, and both occur 
as surnames. The brock was a cognizance of the De Brooke 
family, and so may have been a tavern sign. 

BEE. This occurs but rarely as a surname, yet the busy bee 
must assuredly have served as a sign. The bee was perhaps 
obscured by the hive. A beille is the French for a bee, whence 
the names A ble and A beillard, condensed into Ballard. 

BULL is a common name, and was a tavern sign and also 
1 There is another paper on Signs in the Tatler, No. 18, 1709, 

89 



TOTEMISM AND NAMES 

a shop sign. It occurs in the Hundred Rolls and in Post- 
mortem Inquisitions. Other cognate names are Steer, Calf, 
Stot, or Bullock. Calf is a rare surname. Veale occurs in the 
Hundred Rolls as Le Veale, but represents Le Viel, the old 
man. 

CAT. Although a sign, the name of Catt probably comes 
from the Low Countries. A Christopher Catt kept a coffee- 
house at which assembled a club of wits in Queen Anne's time. 
The members resolved to be painted by Sir Godfrey Kneller, 
all of a size, three-quarter length, and this originated the 
designation of " kit-cat " for the dimension of canvas. There 
was a famous designer of emblems named Catt, whose book 
is now much sought after. 

CRANE, a shop sign. 

DOG. The Talbot was a heraldic cognizance. The name 
Kenn is perhaps from Chien. 

DRAKE, a dragon. The drake gules was the cognizance 
of the ancient family of Drake of Ashe, near Axminster. In 
this instance it is probable that the armorial bearing was 
occasioned by the name, and that some legend lay behind 
the name. Sir Francis Drake, the navigator, assumed the 
arms, though he could establish no relationship, and a 
contest of words ensued in the presence of Queen Elizabeth 
between Sir Bernard Drake of Ashe and the sailor. 

" Well," said the Queen, " I will settle the dispute. Sir 
Francis shall bear on his coat a ship carrying reversed on 
its flag the wyvern gules." 

Eventually, unwilling to mortify so worthy a man as Sir 
Bernard, she granted to Sir Francis an entirely different coat. 

DOVE, as a sacred symbol, was certain to appear on a 
signboard. Dove was the name of the great clothier of 
Exeter, commemorated by Delony in his prose romance of 
"Tom of Reading," circa 1590. Of this Dove the jingle ran : 

" Welcome to town, Tom Dove, Tom Dove, 

The merriest man alive ; 
Thy company we do love, love, love : 
God grant thee well to thrive." 

Pigeon also is a surname ; Columb as well. Columbarium 

90 



TOTEMISM AND NAMES 

became contracted to Culverhouse, a pigeonry, and thence 
came the surname Claverhouse. 

DUCK. Shovellers and other water-birds appear on so 
many coats of arms, and are vulgarly all called ducks, that 
we might be sure to find Duck as a surname. I have seen it 
spelled in registers Doke, and the surname Duke is actually a 
substitution for Duck. The name appears variously spelled 
in the Hundred Rolls and elsewhere. 

Among some of the ducks that appear on coats of arms 
are coots, the bearing of the Coode family. But this name 
does not come from the bird, but from the Celtic for a wood, 
coet, it being a Cornish family. 

EAGLE. The king of the birds, we know was a sign. The 
two-headed eagle was an armorial bearing ; it was the symbol 
of the Habsburg Emperors. When the Archduke John was 
shooting in Tyrol, he one day brought down an eagle. On 
contemplating it he expressed his astonishment. " Why," 
he exclaimed, " it has one head only !" Gilbert de la Hegle 
appears in the Hundred Rolls ; so also does Custance le 
Egle. But the usual name for an eagle was an erne. " Eagle " 
was from the French an imported word. 

FALCON. This is still an inn sign. The bird was variously 
described from the sign as a Kite and a Hawk, a Sparrow- 
hawk or Sparke, and a Glede. This last name is found in 
Gledhill and Gledstone. 

FINCH, probably the sign of a birdseller, or B^^rder. The 
training and sale of bullfinches was the occupation of a 
special tradesman, also called a Fincher. The story is told 
of a certain damsel, that she once dreamed of finding a nest 
containing seven young finches, which in course of time was 
realized by her becoming the wife of a Mr. Finch and mother 
of seven children. From one of these nestlings is descended 
the present Earl of Winchelsea, who is a Finch. Probably, 
however, Finch is but a contraction of Fincher. 

FISH, the sign hanging over a fishmonger's shop. 1 The 

1 But in the register of Bishop Stafford of Exeter, 1395-1419, the same 
man, Edward Fysch, is called elsewhere Edward Fyshacre, showing how 
names got clipped. 

91 



TOTEMISM AND NAMES 

name is found in early records as Fyshe or Fyske. A good 
many fish have contributed surnames. Dolphin is from a 
sign or an heraldic cognizance. A Dolphin is named in 
Domesday. Herring is not uncommon. 

" Of all the fish in the sea that swim, 
There is none better than Herring the King." 

Codd, Mackerel, Whiting, Keeling, Crabbe, Chubb, Tench, 
Pike, and Spratt, are names, but we cannot be at all sure 
that they originally were used in the sense of fish-names. A 
Codner was a cordwainer, and Codd may be but the shortening 
of this name. Whiting may be, and probably is, a whitinger 
or whitster. Crabbe is probably after the crab-tree. Chubb 
is probably a contraction of Cuthbert or of Job. Pike is a 
pikeman, and Spratt is St. Privat, or St. Pratt, a French 
place-name. 

FOWL is either the sign of a poulterer, or a contraction of 
Fowler, or stands for the Welsh foel (bald). 

Fox. The Fox and Grapes and the Fox and Hounds are 
common tavern signs. But Fox is also a corruption of 
Fawkes, itself a rendering in the vernacular of Folko or 
Foulques, a Norman name. We have also the name Tod 
(a male fox), Renaud or Renard or Reynard ; but these latter 
are alterations of the Norman name that came from Regin- 
hard, and had nothing to do with foxes. 

GOAT. An entry in the Parliamentary writs, "John att 
Gote," points to the sign of the Goat hanging over his shop. 
Under the French form, Chevre, we get the name Chivers. 
Kidd is not from a kid, but from Christopher, that became 
Kitt, and then Kidd. 

GOOSE, a very likely sign for a shop where feathers and 
down were sold for beds and pillows. We have the name 
among us under the old form of Goss. Gosling is not the 
young of a goose in nomenclature, but Gauscelin or Joscelyn. 

GULL. I doubt if it ever were a sign. The surname is 
from Goelo, a district in Brittany whence followers came 
who attended William the Conqueror. The name is also 
found as Gully. 

92 



TOTEMISM AND NAMES 

HART, as certainly a sign as it was a crest. There were 
Buck and Stag, Doe and Roe ; but Buck may stand for buck- 
master, Stag in the West of England means a cock, and Roe 
may be a Danish name or a corruption of Ralph. H art is the 
name from a sign, or from a knightly crest that has found 
much favour in England. 

HERON, or Herne, and Hernshaw (a young heron), are 
names that occur, and we can well imagine the Heron as 
a sign. Tihel de Heroun came over with the Conqueror, 
and is supposed to have taken his name from a place ; but 
undoubtedly he would take a heron as his cognizance. 

HOG was a family name, as Hogg. A man so called was 
being tried before Judge Bacon on a capital charge. He 
pleaded to be dealt with mercifully on account of the relation- 
ship implied by his name. " No, my friend," said the Chief 
Justice, "not till you are hanged." Richard III. assumed 
as his symbol the boar, and inns with this sign date from his 
reign. It was said : 

" The Rat, the Cat, and Lovel the Dog, 
Rule all England under the Hog." 

The Rat was Radcliffe, and the Cat was Catesby. Other 
names for a hog are, as already given, Gryse, also Gait; both 
have contributed to our nomenclature. Sug was a sow, 
and comes into the name Sugden. Pig is also a surname ; 
Christopher Pigg was Lord Mayor of Lyme Regis in 1742. 
The name Piggott, or little pig, came in with the Conquest ; 
it occurs several times in Domesday ; but the derivation is 
probably from pigge, a little girl. 

HORSE. The White Horse figured as a sign, and there 
is an entry " Walter de Whitehorse " in the Calendar of 
Patent Rolls in the Tower. There were also the Colt, the 
Palfrey, and the Charger. But the horse has not contributed 
much to our nomenclature directly, except under the French 
form, Cheval, which in English became Capel. Chaucer uses 
the word " and gave him caples to his cart." A quarryman 
on Dartmoor, from whom I took down many folk airs, was 
named Nankivell i.e., the Valley of the Horse (Cornish). 

93 



TOTEMISM AND NAMES 

His mates called him " Old Capel." From Capel (Caballus) 
comes the surname Cable. 

HOWLET, an owl. Hence, possibly, the name Hollet, then 
Rollick. 

JAY and POPINJAY certainly would be signs. Walter le 
Jay occurs among Inquisitiones Post-Mortem. The popinjay 
was a stuffed bird adorned with ribbons, that served as a 
mark for shooters with bow and crossbow. From its gay 
colours it gave a title to the parrot. The name occurs in 
Norfolk as a to-name in 1371. Among the privy purse 
expenses of Elizabeth of York, 1502, is the entry: "To a 
servant of William ap Howell for bringing of a popynjay to 
the Queene to Windesore xiiis. mid." Hence the names 
Popjoy and Popgay, also Jaye. 

LAMB. The Lamb and Flag was a Church alehouse sign 
a symbol of the Resurrection. A brother-in-law of John 
Wesley bore the name of Whitelamb. 

LARK or LAVROCK. Hamo Larke appears in the Hundred 
Rolls. Larkins does not come from the lark, but is a diminu- 
tive of Laurence. 

LION, that figures blue, red, gold, and green on so many 
signs, has certainly contributed some lion surnames. 

LUCE, the Old English name for a pike, but also for a lily 
(the fleur de luce), has given a name to the Lucy family at 
Guy's Cliff and to others elsewhere. The wife of one of my 
farmers was a Luce. Shakespeare got into trouble with 
Squire Luce, or Lucy, J.P., for poaching, and he revenged 
himself on him by drawing him as Justice Shallow : 

" Slender. A dozen white luces in their coat. 
Shallow. It is an old coat." 

Actually, the Lucy family bore as arms three pikes naiant ; 
but as Lily and Lilley it exists as a surname, taken from the 
sign for the Annunciation. 

PARROT. Of this as a surname we cannot be sure that it 
is not a form of Pierrot. 

PARTRIDGE is not, as a surname, from a bird, but is a 
corruption of Patrick. The transitive form of the name is 
Partrick. 

94 



TOTEMISM AND NAMES 

PEACOCK, a sign of an inn or of a shop. There was an 
Icelander, Olaf, who was nicknamed Pa, or the Peacock, 
because he dressed gaily, but the name died with him ; and 
so, if given in England to a man for his gay attire, it would 
expire with him. But it would remain to a family that 
carried on business for several generations at the sign of the 
Peacock. But some Peacocks may derive from Peter the 
Cook. 

PYE or MAGPIE, an inn sign; probably a shop sign as 
well. 

RAM. The entry " Thomas atte Ram " among the muni- 
ments in the London Guildhall shows that the Ram was a 
sign. 

RAVEN, again a sign, the armorial bearing of the Corbetts. 
But Rafn, the Old Norse for a raven, remained in Northumbria 
as a personal name till late. 

ROOK, also a sign ; hence the surname Rooke. 

SWAN. This bird naturally, from its beauty, commended 
itself as a sign, and was also used as a crest. 

WOLF has been already dealt with. As Lupus, Louve, it 
has undergone a strange alteration into Love. 

WOODPECKER, commonly called in the country the 
Woodwall i.e. t Woodcall. This has furnished surnames 
Woodwall, Woodwale, and Hoodwall. 

WOODCOCK appears as a surname, not likely to be taken 
from a sign. It is a corruption of Woodcott. 

The sign of the Angel was by no means infrequent, and it 
has contributed a name to our family nomenclature. The 
Lily for the symbol of the Annunciation has been already 
alluded to. Various symbols of saints have also served as 
signs, as the Cross Keys for St. Peter, and this has given us 
the name. 

Key and Keyes are names : Key was a sign of a locksmith, 
but Keyes refers to those of St. Peter. The Cross and the 
Crucifix have also given us surnames. So also the Leg x (a 

1 The name of the Earl of Dartmouth's family, Legge, may be a 
corruption of Liege. 

95 



TOTEMISM AND NAMES 

Golden Leg having been a sign) ; so also a Foot, for a hosier 
and a shoemaker. The red Hand for a glover has likewise 
furnished us with many Hands. The Head as well, either as 
the sign of a hatter or as an armorial bearing, has given us 
not only Heads, but also Tetes, as Tait and Tate, unless this 
name comes from the Norse Teitr. Morshead is from the 
swaying sign of the Blackamore's Head. In some cases, 
though not in all, Chalice may derive from the sign of the 
gold cup with a serpent issuing from it, the symbol of John 
the Divine ; but it also represents the Christian name 
Calixtus. Beauflower, now Boutflower, and corrupted to 
Buffler, represents the sign of the Beaupot with flower-bunch 
in it. Our Flowers, however, are a corruption of Floyers. 
There is a shop at Plymouth under the two names of Dainty 
and Dilly the former from the French dente, and the latter 
name comes, perhaps, from the sign of the Daffy-down-dilly. 
The Rose was the usual badge of a goldsmith. The sur- 
name Nation may be a mutilation of Carnation, and the sign 
of the Planta genista originated the surname of Broom. The 
bunch of Savory, the token of the shop of a herbalist, probably 
gave its name to a family of some note in Devon, one of 
whom was an inventor of the steam-engine unless Savory 
be a corruption of St. Ebrard. Lavender as a surname does 
not come from the herb, but signifies a washerman. The 
Primrose remains as a surname ; it is that of Lord Rosebery, 
whose remote ancestor chose 

" Pale primroses 

That die unmarried, ere they can behold 
Bright Phoebus in his strength," 

by a happy inspiration, as the sign of his shop. 

Some of the many Kings who are found among us derive 
their name from the King's Head or the Three Kings that 
swung over the ancestral shop. So also our Greens look back 
to the Green Man, or Jack-in-the-Green, of May Day, a 
common and popular sign. The name of Savage, also, refers 
to the sign of the Wild Man, which has contributed a name 
in that form, oftenest shortened into Wilde or Wylde. The 

96 



TOTEMISM AND NAMES 

Barber's Pole probably gave its appellation to the family 
of De-la-Pole, that rose from an ignoble stock rapidly into 
power and pride. Snake is a rare surname, but it exists. 
William and Robert Snake were ancient Provosts of Bristol. 
The name comes from the sign of the rod of ^sculapius 
with the intertwined serpents, that indicated the shop of 
the apothecary. Pepper comes from the peppercorn, that 
betokened the place where the spicer had his counter ; but 
Onion is the Welsh Einion, and Garlick in some cases from 
the German Gerlach, but may be in others from the sign of 
the garlick-seller. The Bell, the Hammer, the Harrow, the 
Image, the Plough, the Rainbow, the Gauntlet, the Shield, the 
Buckler, and many more signs, have contributed to English 
nomenclature. 

It seems strange at first sight that the sign of the Sun 
should not have contributed names to families, as the Blazing 
Orb or the Rising Sun was a common sign. But the reason 
was that Son and Sun were interchangeable, and son entered 
in composition into so many names. Edward of York says : 

" Henceforward will I bear 
Upon my target three fair-shining suns. 

Richard. Nay, bear three daughters : by your 

leave I speak it, 
You love the breeder better than the male." 

Henry VI., Part III., II. I. 

The Moon occurs, but it is a corruption, at least in Devon- 
shire, of Mohun. 

Starre, for Star, we do possess, as also the German impor- 
tation of Stern or Sterne, the surname of the famous Laurence, 
author of " Tristram Shandy." 

The little town of Sterzing, on the Brenner Pass, was once 
far more flourishing than it is at present, owing to the silver- 
mines in the neighbourhood, once extensively worked, but 
now fallen into decay. It consists of one long street of 
medieval houses, with a gateway at each end. Every house 
has its sign the Bear, the Lion, the Swan, the Stork, the 
Golden Sun, the Star of the Magi, the Crown, the Spurs, the 

97 G 



TOTEMISM AND NAMES 

Pine, the Talbot, and the Eagle, all in lively colours and 
blazing with goldleaf. One can form a judgment from this 
street, with the projecting elaborate and delicate ironwork 
supports and the depending painted boards, what must have 
been the picturesque aspect of an English town thoroughfare 
in medieval days, even in those of Elizabeth. 

Macaulay, in his account of London in the reign of 
Charles II., says : " The houses were not numbered. There 
would, indeed, have been little advantage in numbering them ; 
for of the coachmen, chairmen, porters, and errand boys, of 
London, a very small proportion could read. It was neces- 
sary to use marks which the most ignorant could understand. 
The shops were therefore distinguished by painted signs, 
which gave a gay and grotesque aspect to the streets. The 
walk from Charing Cross to Whitechapel lay through an 
endless succession of Saracen's Heads, Royal Oaks, Blue 
Boars, and Golden Lambs, which disappeared when they 
were no longer required for the common people." 

They disappeared indeed as signs, but remained in family 
nomenclature. 



98 



CHAPTER V 

THE CASTLE AND THE MANOR 

THE Conquest and resettlement of England by William the 
Bastard caused as great a change in the social condition as 
did the Revolution in France, but in an inverse manner. 

Previously the land had been in the possession of free- 
holders thegns and haulds and smaller men with their 
well-defined rights to so much acreage, pasture, common, 
and vert. The Crown appointed the Sheriff, but the minor 
officers were elected by the people, and were responsible to 
them for the proper discharge of their duties. But after 
the Conquest all this was changed. The land throughout 
England was claimed as the property of the Crown, to be 
distributed among foreign favourites under feudal tenure. 

"There can be little doubt," says Freeman, "that it was 
to the great transfer of lands from Englishmen to strangers 
that the Norman Conquest of England owes its distinguish- 
ing character. This was the cause, more than any one cause, 
which made the Norman Conquest so thorough and lasting 
if we look at it from one point of view, so transitory if we 
look at it from another. . . . William's foreign knights and 
men-at-arms were changed into English landowners, holding 
the soil of England according to English law. He had his 
garrisons in every corner of the land, but his garrison was 
formed of the chief lords of the soil and the chief tenants 
who held under them." 1 

After the coronation of William no man could hold an 
acre by an ante-Norman title. All were obliged to obtain a 

1 " Norman Conquest," vol. iv., p. 54. 

99 G 2 



THE CASTLE AND THE MANOR 

regrant from the King, and it was exceptional that a thegn 
of the time of King Edward should retain his possessions 
under King William. Dispossessed, he must sink to be a 
tenant-farmer or a villein. The freeholder of his allodial 
land had become extinct, and a network of officials was cast 
over England, holding the people involved in its toils. 

Some of the Barons held a great number of manors. They 
could not reside on them all, and were constrained to place 
subtenants in them. Many of these were men of foreign 
race Normans, Bretons, Flemings ; but some were native 
Englishmen. These latter could not, however, reckon on 
permanency of tenure, for they were always liable to be 
displaced, to make way for a superannuated dependent of 
the lord, for whom a home had to be found, that his place 
might be rilled by one younger and more active. 

We read in the Buckinghamshire Domesday: " Ailric 
holds four hides of William Fitzansculf [the new Norman 
lord] . . . the same held it in the time of King Edward ; 
and he now holds it at farm of William under heavy circum- 
stances and miserably." 

This case was not unique. Thus : " Leofwin holds of the 
Earl Bure in Herefordshire. This land the same Leofwin 
held of King Edward, and he could sell it. Now he holds it 
as farm of the Earl." These passages illustrate the remark 
of Bracton that there were before the Conquest freemen who 
held their lands by free service, but who, after they had been 
ousted by more powerful men, took back the same tenements 
to be held in villeinage. Some who were fortunate secured 
the freehold of a scrap of their former estate. 

The ordinary arrangement in every manor was this : It 
was divided into two parts. One portion was the great 
home-farm about the seigneurial manor-house, held distinct 
from that of the tenants. The rest of the manor, called the 
tenantry part, was divided into small copyholdings, of about 
nearly equal value, and enjoying equal rights of commonage. 
There was, however, a constant pressure brought to bear upon 
the tenantry to reduce their privileges, and the functionaries 
of the lord were on the alert to pare down their rights. 

100 



THE CASTLE AND THE MANOR 

Here is a list of the ten largest holders of land after the 
Conquest : 

1. The King held as many as - 1,422 manors. 

2. The Earl of Mortaine held - - 793 

3. Alan, Earl of Brittany, held - - 442 

4. Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, held - 439 

5. Gosfrid, Bishop of Coutance, held 280 

6. Roger de Busle held - - 174 

7. Ilbert de Laci held ... 164 

8. William Peverel held - - 162 

9. Robert de Stradford held - 150 
10. Roger de Laci held - 116 

As may well be conceived, the great Barons must have em- 
ployed numerous officials, not only about their own persons, 
but in supervision of their many and scattered estates ; and 
thus there arose a whole class of functionaries, who had 
to be maintained out of the land, so that the unfortunate 
under-tenants and copyholders were oppressed with the 
burden, not only of the King's taxes, but also of rent to the 
overlord, and dues for the support of the swarm of officials. 

The Norman Conquest introduced into England Bumble- 
dom and Flunkey ism. 

Every great owner of manors must have his bailiff, his 
steward, his reves, his rangers, his foresters, beside the many 
officials about his person. And these latter were men of 
consideration, who had to be well paid, naturally at the cost 
of the tenants. 

Charles the Great had instituted the order of Ministrales. 
About his sacred person were grouped functionaries who 
were hereditary servers at his table butlers, shoers of his 
horses, dispensers of the provisions in his household. His 
Court was " crowded with officers of every rank ; some of 
the most eminent of them exercised functions about the 
royal person which would have been thought fit only for 
slaves in the palace of Augustus or Antonine. To carry his 
banner or his lance, lead his array, to be his marshal, or 
constable, or sewer, or carver ; to do, in fact, such services, 

101 



THE CASTLE AND THE MANOR 

trivial or otherwise, as his lord might have done for himself 
in proper person, had it so pleased him this was the position 
coveted by youths of birth and distinction at such a period 
as this." 

From the Court of the Emperor the system descended to 
that of Dukes and Earls. William the Conqueror had his 
Marshal and his Despenser. And these offices were by no 
means sinecures, as may be gathered from the story of the 
transfer of that of High Steward to the Conqueror from 
William FitzOsbern to Eudo de Rie. At dinner one day 
FitzOsbern with his own hands had placed before the King 
a crane that was but half roasted ; whereat William raised 
his fist to strike him in the face, but Eudo warded off the 
blow. FitzOsbern, very angry, asked to be relieved of his 
function, and it was given to Eudo. 

The Stuarts were the hereditary Stewards of the Crown of 
Scotland. The Marshalls, whom the Conqueror elevated to 
become Earls of Pembroke, were his stable-keepers, and saw 
to the curry-combing of his horses, and the pitchforking 
out every day of their dung to the heap. The Despensers 
were royal officials placed in charge of the buttery, or 
" spence," where the store of meat and bread was kept ; 
such was the origin of the family of Spencer, Duke of 
Marlborough. The ancestor of the Grosvenors, Dukes of 
Westminster, was the chief huntsman of the Duke of 
Normandy. 

The modest Le Boteler was the proto-parent of the family 
of Butler. James Butler, Duke of Ormond, derived in lineal 
descent from a grave individual, bottle in hand, who stood 
behind some Prince, or perhaps only petty squire, and said 
deferentially, in the corresponding terms of the day : " Port 
or sherry, sir ?" Earl Ferrers, who shot his valet for showing 
lack of proper respect, might with advantage have looked 
back to the founder of his family in a leather apron, shoeing 
the Bastard's horse before the Battle of Hastings. 

The Chamberlaynes derive also from the race of Ministrales, 
of whom Boyet and Malvolio are the types, pacing back- 
ward, making legs, kissing the hand, cap lowered, an eternal 

102 



THE CASTLE AND THE MANOR 

smile on the face, proud of their chain of office, that was 
also a badge of servitude. Lord Napier of Magdala derives 
his descent from the functionary in charge of the napery, 
sheets, pillow-cases, table-linen the man with a towel over 
his arm, like the modern gar$on or kellner, ready to wipe his 
master's ringers after he had washed them in the ewer, 
having finished tearing his food with his hands. And con- 
sider the family motto, implying that the race was with 
" na-na-peer " ! What dexterity in wiping gravied fingers 
and a dirty mouth it must have displayed, or in ironing and 
folding bed-linen, that it could boast of having no equal ! 

The Earl of Morley is a Parker, and the office of the 
parker was to see to the palings of the seigneurial park, lest 
they should rot and allow the deer to break forth the same 
office as that held by the Pallisers. 

After all, it may be thought that the more honourable 
ancestry is that of a freeborn, honest, independent yeoman, 
rather than that of one of the flunkeys who capered attend- 
ance on the great. 

The official life of feudal times has left its existing record 
in our family nomenclature. It is a record that will never 
be effaced, and it is one that tells its own tale. 

The higher feudatories in England, as elsewhere, imitated 
the example set them by the Court of the Kings, and the 
lower Barons followed suif as a matter of course, and were 
copied eventually by every manorial lord or squire as far as 
his means allowed. Consequently, household officers sprang 
up on all sides thick as toadstools. 

But the names pertaining to these offices did not become 
hereditary unless the offices themselves became hereditary, 
and then adhered solely to the tenant of the office, and not 
to all his sons, and to none of his brothers. 

The hereditary principle became such a recognized institu- 
tion in feudal Europe that the son of a chamberlain or 
forester might expect as his due to enter upon his father's 
functions when that father died or retired, and his lord 
would recognize the claim as just and admissible. 

Suppose that John the Chamberlain had three sons Tom, 

103 



THE CASTLE AND THE MANOR 

Dick, and Harry. Tom, as the eldest, remained with his 
father, and acquired aptitude in all the functions of a 
chamberlain. But Dickon would have to suit himself with 
a situation elsewhere, and would be accommodated, let us 
say, with that of forester, whilst his brother Harry would 
be happy to enter on that of bailiff. Then the two younger 
sons of John Chamberlain would be Dickon the Forester and 
Harry the Bailie. Tom Chamberlain in turn would be the 
father of Robert, Gregory, and Walter. Robert would 
succeed to the office and title of Chamberlain ; but Gregory, 
may be, would migrate to a town and become a mercer; 
and Walter, having a capacity that way, would become a 
cook. Neither would carry away with him the title of 
Chamberlain. No man steps into his father's shoes unless 
they fit him. 

Only after a particular office had been held for several 
generations in lineal descent, till the period when surnames 
became general, would the title of the bearer of the office be 
applied to all his family, although not exercising his func- 
tions, and so become a hereditary surname. 

In feudal tenure there was a graduated scale from the 
highest to the lowest functionary, but below him a line was 
drawn that was for some time difficult to pass. From the 
lord down to the lowest official, all were of foreign blood ; 
their home was in the castle or the manorial hall, and their 
language was French. But below the line of feudatories and 
retainers were the villeins, boors, cotters, coliberts, socmen, 
and churls. The only intervening class was that of the 
Vavasours, suspended, like Mahomet's coffin, between the 
heaven of the Norman castle and the earth of the villein 
hamlet. 

In this chapter we will deal only with the official class, 
and that, moreover, which belongs mainly to the land, and 
not to the town. 

In the next we will step out of the castle into the village, 
from the chatter of French tongues to the grave speech of 
the English farmer and peasant in the field. It will be 

104 



THE CASTLE AND THE MANOR 

seen that both have contributed to the formation of English 
surnames. 

ACHATOUR, the purveyor of the castle or hall, purchasing 
the necessary food, and handing it over to the steward. 
Hence our surnames of Cator, Chater, Astor, and Caterer. 
Chaucer remarks of the manciple who was so "nise in buying 
of victuals " that of him " Achatour mighten take example." 
Among Oxford University accounts for 1459 mention is made 
of the " catours." 

ARMIGER, the esquire who carried the knight's shield. 
Robert Shallow Esquire, Slender says, is " a gentleman born, 
who writes himself armigero in any bill, warrant, quittance, 
or obligation armigero." " Shallow. Ay, that I do, and have 
done any time these three hundred years." We retain the 
word as a family name in Armiger. 

ASSAYER, a taster, to assure the lord at table that the food 
and drink had not been poisoned. The word is used as well 
for a tester of metals. The names Sayer, Sayers, Saer, come 
hence. 

ASTRINGER, the functionary entrusted with the charge of 
the goshawk, or "oster." "The gentle Astringer" is intro- 
duced in "All's Well that Ends Well." As a surname we 
have Stringer and A ustringer. 

AVENER, the official whose charge it was to supply hay 
avoine for the stables. Hence comes Venners. 

BAILIFF, the same as reve or steward. Wicklyffe, in Luke 
xvi. 2, has, " Yelde rekenying of thi Baylye, for thou myght 
not now be baylyf," where in the Authorized Version we 
have this officer rendered " steward." 

BEDALL. The official is mentioned in Domesday Book. 
He was the functionary who executed processes in the courts 
of the manor, or in a forest, or any other court. The sur- 
name remains as Beadell, Beadle, Beadall, and contracted to 
Biddle, also Bedell. 

BERNER. The berner was a special houndsman who stood 
with fresh relays of dogs, ready to unleash them if the chase 
grew long and the hounds out showed signs of being 

105 



THE CASTLE AND THE MANOR 

spent. In the Parliamentary Rolls he is termed a "yeoman- 
berner." 

BERWARD or BEARWARD. Some nobles kept bears for the 
amusement of having them baited. The man who baited them 
was the Bateman ; he in charge of the brutes was the Bear- 
ward or B carman, often spelled B or man. In the household 
expenses of the Earl of Northumberland in 1511 is "6s. 8d. 
to the Kings and Queenes Barward, if they have one, when 
they come to the Earl." In the Parliamentary Rolls mention 
is made of the " Beremaster of the Forest of Peake." 

Bears were taken about from town to town, to be baited 
for public amusement. Bear-baiting was not forbidden by 
Act of Parliament till 1835. Slender says: "Be there bears 
in the town?" "Anne. I think there are, sir. I heard them 
talked of." Surnames of Barman and Berman remain ; also 
Bates for the Bater's-man. 

BLOWER or HORNBLOWER, the man who at a chase 
called the dogs together. Both forms remain, but Blower 
is often contracted to Blore and Blow ; also the surname 
Horniman. 

BOWER and BOWERS, an indoor servant, attendant on 
the ladies. Also Bowerman and Burman. 

BUCKMASTER, an officer of the chase ; shortened to Buck. 

CARVER, the servant who carved the meat. Same as 
Dresser. 

CASTELLAN, the keeper of a castle. As a surname, con- 
tracted to Castle. 

CELLARER. The name remains as a surname in the form 
of Sellars, unless this be from the salt-makers. 

CHAMBERLAIN, one of the most intimate servants in a 
seigneurial house, and one who had charge of the accounts. 
The surname from the office is sometimes shortened to 
Chambers. 

CHANCELLOR, keeper of records. 

CLAVINGER, the keeper of the keys ; also a mace-bearer. 
As a surname, Cleaver and Claver. 

CONSTABLE. The office ranged from one very high, as 
that of a Constable of France, to the constable of a village. 

106 



THE CASTLE AND THE MANOR 

In " The Man of Law's Tale " Chaucer speaks of the 
Constable of the Castle. 

COOK or LE Cog, a very important functionary. His 
name enters into numerous combinations, as Badcock (Bar- 
tholomew le coq), Wilcox (Will le coq), Hancock (John le coq). 
Mr. Lower and Mr. Bardsley think " cock " is a diminutive 
only. But it is always found after a Christian name that 
is already in the diminutive, and I consider that it means 
" the cook." Beside the French termination le Coq, whence 
Coxe, we have the English surname Cooke. But that cock 
and cox so frequently end names indicates that the Norman 
lords did not trust to having Englishmen in their kitchen to 
prepare their food. The name is sometimes spelled Cooke. 
We have also the names Cookson, Cookman, and Cokeman. 
The entry "Robert, fil. Coci" in the Hundred Rolls shows 
that some Cooks' sons were so designated whose fathers had 
no recognized surnames. Also Kitchen and Kitchener. 

DEERMAN, a warder to look after the wild animals in 
a park. 

DESPENSER, the officer in charge of the victuals in the 
buttery. Hence the surnames Spenser and Spencer. " Adam, 
that was the Spencer" ("The Coke's Tale" in the "Canter- 
bury Pilgrims"). 

DRESSER, the official who dressed the table for a meal, 
described in the " Promptuarium Parvulorum." Our word 
"dresser," for a side-table on which the meat is placed and 
cut up, comes hence. 

ENGINEER, the officer in charge of catapults and other 
engines of war. The Hundred Rolls give William le Engynur 
and Wallis le Ginnur. Hence come our surnames Ginners, 
Jenners, and Ginns. 

ESKRIMIGER, attendant on a knight or a noble to instruct 
the youths in the art of employing their weapons. Such a 
mock-fight was a skrimmage. The word comes from the 
French eskrimer, to fence. Hence the fencing-master has 
furnished us with the surnames Skrimiger and Skrimshire. 

ESQUIRE. The place of shield-bearer and attendant on a 
noble or knight was much sought after by the sons of men 

107 



THE CASTLE AND THE MANOR 

in good position, as it was an admirable apprenticeship for 
war. By the time of Henry VI. the word was adopted by 
the heirs of gentle houses. From it come our Squires, 
Squeers of Dotheboys Hall, and Swiers. These names were 
acquired by such as did not proceed to knighthood. 

ESPIGURNEL, the official in charge of the lord's seal. 
Hence the surname Spurnell. 

FALCONER. In Domesday four tenants-in-chief are given 
the title of Falconers. Until the reign of King John it was 
unlawful for any but those of the highest rank to keep hawks. 
By a statute passed in the reign of Edward IV., anyone who 
found a strayed falcon was bound to bring it to the Sheriff 
of the county, who made thereupon proclamation for the 
owner to claim it. If the finder concealed the bird, he was 
liable to two years' imprisonment. We have the surnames 
Falconer, Falkner, Faulconer, Fauconer, and Faukner. 

FEUTERER or VAULTRIER was the man who unleashed 
the hounds. The surnames of Future and Futurer come from 
this functionary. 

FORESTER, a very important officer charged with the 
supervision of the royal forests. There were, of course, 
many under-foresters. From these officers, when the offices 
became hereditary, came the surnames of Forester, Forster, 
Foster. 

FORSET (Old Norse forseti, a judge) has given surname to 
Forset, Fawcett. The title was used only in Northumbria, 
and the office was changed and lost its Scandinavian desig- 
nation after the complete reduction of the North by William. 
It occurs in Domesday. 

GARDENER. The name is French ; we may conclude, 
therefore, that the Anglo-Saxons had no gardens, only 
orchards. The surname is often spelled Gardiner and Gardner, 
also Jar dine. 

GAOLER, a French name, showing that no Englishman 
could be trusted by a Norman with the keys of the prison. 
The surnames from the office are Gayler, Gale, and Jelly, 
perhaps. 

GRANGER, one who occupied the grange of the lord, 

108 



THE CASTLE AND THE MANOR 

secular or ecclesiastical, in which the corn " grain " was 
stored. 

GRIEVE, the Gerefa or Reeve, the manorial bailiff. The 
" Boke of Curtasye " says : 

" Gray vis and baylys and parkers 
Shall come to accountes every yere 
Byfore the auditours of the lorde." 

As a surname the title is still with us, either as Grieves or 
Greaves or Greeves. We have also Grierson, the son of the 
Grieve. 

GUNNER, the officer in charge of the guns. Our surname 
contracted to Gunn. In Northumbria, however, from Old 
Norse Gunnar. 

HARBORER, the functionary who had charge of the guests 
to see them properly disposed of ; or an officer who preceded 
his lord when he progressed looking out for lodgings for the 
night for him and his retinue. In the " Canterbury Tales " 
we have : 

" The fame anon throughout the town is borne, 
Here Alia King shall come on pilgrimage, 
By harbergeours that wenten him before." 

The modern German is herberger. The several Coldharbours 
found in England express that there were comfortless shelters 
for travellers. The surname Arbour or Arber comes from 
this officer. 

HARAUD, the herald. In the metrical romance of " Torrent 
of Portygale," circa 1435, spelled Haraud. Everyone in 
London knows Harrod's Stores, but not one in a thousand 
has any idea that the ancestor was a herald in tabard, and 
held in high honour; unless, indeed, the name be from 
Harrold, near Bedford. 

HARPER. Most large castles had in them the harper. The 
surname remains. 

HARTMAN, the officer who looked after the harts in the 
chase. The surname from it may be Hardman, 1 and some- 
times only Hart. 

1 But Hardman may be the serving-man of Hardy. 
109 



THE CASTLE AND THE MANOR 

HASTLER, the turnspit. From hasta, a spear, to which the 
spit bore some resemblance. Surnames : Hasler, Haseler, 
Haysler. 

HAUBERGER and HAUMER, those entrusted with the 
habergeon and the hawlm, or helmet. The latter has 
supplied the surname Homer. 

The FURBISHER or FROBISHER kept the armour polished. 

HENCHMAN, a messenger. Surnames: Hinksman, Hinch- 
man. 

HIND, the man who looked after his master's affairs in the 
home-farm. Hence the surnames Hynde and Hyne. 

HOARDER, the English name for the cellarer. From it we 
have the surnames Horder, Horden, Hoadener, Herder. 

HOBBLER was a tenant holding his tenure on the obliga- 
tion of coming out on a hobby, or farm-horse, when called 
upon by his lord. An ordinance of Edward III. speaks of 
men-at-arms, hobblers, and archers. 

HUNTSMAN. As Hunter the name of the office remains a 
surname. Shortened also to Hunt. 

KNIGHT by no means invariably means one who has 
received knighthood. A knight is a knecht, a servant. The 
surname Midnight, perhaps, means the mead-cniht, the man 
who poured out the mead. 

JACKMAN, a man-at-arms in a coat of mail or jacket, and 
wearing jack-boots. 

MARSHALL, originally the horse-groom. He rose into 
consideration and became a regulator of ceremonies. The 
" Boke of Curtasye " says : 

"In halle marshalle alle men shalle sette 
After their degree, withouten lett." 

MESSENGER, a servant much needed when there was no 
post. Every great house had to keep its messenger. As a 
surname, sometimes Massenger. But the Old English word 
was Sandiman or Sandman. 

MILLER. The mill belonged to the lord of the manor, and 
the tenants were not allowed to grind their corn at any other. 
HenceMilner andMilward (Anglo-Saxon for a miller), Millman. 

no 



THE CASTLE AND THE MANOR 

NAPPER, the servant who attended to the napery. Hence 
Napier, and perhaps Knapper. 

PAGE ; of this PAGET is the diminutive. 

PALFREYMAN, the keeper of the ladies' palfreys. 

PANTLER, the servant in charge of the pantry. 

PARKER, the official in charge of the deer-park. Hence 
Parkman, Parkes. 

PENNIGER, the man who bore his lord's banner. Some of 
the Pennys we meet with may take their name from Penniger. 
Pfeniger is still a surname in Germany. In Scotland the 
corresponding officer was called Bannerman. 

PIKEMAN. From him, by contraction, comes the name 
Pyke. 

PORTER, the gatekeeper. The family of Porter of Saltash 
is one of hereditary gatekeepers of Trematon Castle. The 
English of Porter is Durward. 

POTTINGER, the gardener of potherbs for the kitchen. 

POYNDER, a bailiff. 

PRICKMAN, the man whose duty it was to look after the 
prickets. Cf. " Love's Labour Lost," IV. n. Also Prickett ; 
but Prickard is Ap Richard. 

PROCURATOR, an attorney. Hence Procter, Procktor. 

RANGER, a keeper. 

REVE, from Gerefa. There were reeves of various kinds, 
looking after the manorial rights : Woodkeepers, whence the 
surnames Woodward and Woodrow ; fenreeves, to look after 
the rights to turbary ; hythereeves, taking harbour dues ; 
portreeves, in coast towns. 

RIDER. The Barons maintained German mercenaries as 
horsemen. These were the Reiter, or, as the English called 
them, Reuters. They soon, however, changed Reuter into 
Rider and Ryder. An old song begins : 

" Rutterkyn is come into oure towne 
In a cloke withoute cote or gowne, 
Save a ragged hood to cover his crowne 
Like a rutter hoyda." 

All our Ryders may with confidence look back to a German 
or Brabant origin, when the ancestor came over "withoute 

in 



THE CASTLE AND THE MANOR 

cote or gowne " to take the King's or some Earl's or Baron's 
money as a mercenary, but saw a pretty English wench, 
married, and settled down among his wife's people. 

RYMER, a reciter of poems and ballads. 

SCRIVENER. In the castle or hall the illiterate noble or 
Lord of the Manor was obliged to employ a writer, to put 
down his accounts, arrange contracts in writing with his 
tenants, and do for him his general correspondence. As a 
surname we have both Scrivener and Scribner. 

SENESCHAL. In Latin Dapifer, and so found in Domesday. 
The schalk that we have here and in Marshall, and in the 
old word for a porter, Gateschall, from which the surname 
Gattishill, is the Anglo-Saxon schalk, a servant. In German 
Schalk now means a rogue. In an old poem we have : 

" Then the schalkes sharply shift their horses, 
To show them seemly in their sheen weeds." 

From this word schalk comes the surname Chalk. 

SEWER is simply a server, a waiter. The " Boke of 
Servynge " says : " The server must serve, and from the 
borde convey all manner of pottages, metes, and sauces." 
As a surname it has become Sour and Shower. 

SEIGNEUR, a lord, has become the surname Senior. 

SHERIFF, a royal officer in the county, and only inserted 
here because the great noble was often nominated to be a 
Sheriff. Probably the surname Sheriff comes from some 
Sheriffs officer. 

SQUILLER, one who washed up the escuelles, porringers, 
and bowls. Hence our words "scullery" and "scullion." 
Robert of Brunne says : 

" And the squyler of the kitchen 
Piers, that hath woned [dwelt] here yn." 

The " Promptuarium Parvulorum" defines "Swyllare: 
Dysche weschowr." Hence the surname Quiller. 
STABLER, an ostler. 
STALLER, much the same. 
STEWARD. Hence Stewart and Stuart. 
TODMAN, the man employed to destroy foxes (tods), as 

112 



THE CASTLE AND THE MANOR 

keeping down the game. Todhunter and Tadman, for Tod- 
man, are still surnames among us. 
TROTTER, a running footman. 

USHER, from the French huissier. The " Boke of 
Curtasye " says : 

" Usher before the dore 
In outer chamber lies on the floor." 

The learned Archbishop of Armagh spelled his name Ussher. 
In Scotland the name is Wischart. 1 In England, Hazard. 
There is, however, a place-name Ushaw in Durham. 

VENOUR, the hunter ; whence Fenner. 

VEUTER, one who tracks deer by the fuite ; hence the sur- 
name Future. 

VYLER, the player on the viols ; hence Fyler. 

WARDEN or GUARD, a keeper. Warden, Warde, Garde, and 
Garden for Warden. 

WAGEOUR, a hired soldier. Surname, Wager. 

WARDROPER, the keeper of the wardrobe. 

WARRENER, the official in charge of the warren. Con- 
tracted to Warne. 

1 Unless from Guiscard ; but Guiscard itself is Huissier, with the 
common Norman-French ending ard. 



CHAPTER VI 

THE VILLAGE 

IN 1085-86 the great inquest was made into the tenure of 
land in England, and into the amount of land that was 
taxable. Commissioners were sent into the shires, who took 
evidence on oath from the Sheriffs, the parish priests, the 
reeves, and the men generally, French and English alike, in 
every lordship. They were to report who had held the land 
in the time of Edward the Confessor, and who held it then ; 
also as to how many lived on it, what was their quality and 
what was the value of the soil, and whether there was any 
prospect of the value being raised. 

The Chronicle says : " He sent over all England, into 
every shire, his men to find out how many hundred hides 
were in the shire, and what the King himself had of land 
and cattle in the land. Also what rights he ought to have 
in the twelve months in the shire. Also he let enquire how 
much land his Archbishops had, and his Bishops, and his 
Abbots, and his Earls, and though I tell it at more length, 
what and how much every man had that was a land-holder 
in England, in land or in cattle, and how much fee it was 
worth. So very narrowly did he let the investigation be 
carried out, that there was not a single hide, nor a yard of 
land, not so much as it is a shame to tell it, and he thought 
it no shame to do it not an ox nor a cow, nor a swine, was 
left that was not set in his writ. And all the writs were 
brought to him." 

The taking of this inquisition roused great dissatisfaction 
that broke out in tumults, and some blood was shed. 

114 



THE VILLAGE 

Hitherto the land-holders, with a little shuffling and some 
bribing, had been able to assess their lands lower than their 
actual value. This would now be impossible, and they 
looked to the hard hand of the tax-gatherer coming down 
on them, and remorselessly squeezing out the due for every 
acre, whether in cultivation or fallow. From Domesday we 
learn what were the several classes among the English who 
were now under the heel of the Norman. 

The old THEGNS were no longer great men ; they had to 
bow their necks under the yoke, and see their land taken 
from them and their influence and authority gone. Some, 
luckily, remained on as tenants on the land where they had 
been freeholders, and in remembrance of the past still called 
themselves Thegns or Theins, and continued to be so called. 
Hence it comes that we have the surname of Thynne. 

The FREEMEN, freeholders, held their land after the 
Conquest no longer as freemen, but subject to military 
service, and were taxable. Their representatives later were 
the yeomen. They have contributed to our nomenclature 
the names Freeman and Free. Freebody signified a freeholder 
of a little wooden cot. Fry as a surname comes thence 
as well. 

RADMEN were socmen, possessed of a greater amount of 
freedom than others. Hence the surname Redman. 

SOCMEN, inferior landowners who held their lands in the 
soc, or franchise, of a great lord. Hence Suckerman, Suckman. 

FRANKLYN was much the same as the Freeman. From 
Chaucer's account, he would seem to have been a house- 
holder in a comfortable position, a well-to-do yeoman : 

" Withouten bake-mete never was his house, 
Of fish and flesh, and that so plenteous. 
It snowed in his hous of mete and drinke 
Of all deinties that men coud thinke. 
After the sondry seasons of the yere 
So changed he his mete and his soupere." 

As a surname the appellation occurs frequently in the 
Hundred Rolls and Inquisitiones Post- Mortem, as Frankly n, 
Franckon, for Franch-homme, or simply as Franks. Our 
Francombs and Frankhams have the same origin. 

115 H 2 



THE VILLAGE 

BONDER. The old Norse bonder was the man in highest 
position under the Earl. He was the freeholder, responsible 
to none save the Earl. It was because Harald Fairhair 
resolved on introducing the feudal tenure of land into 
Norway that a great exodus of the Bonders took place, 
and they migrated to and colonized Iceland and the Faroe 
Isles. In parts of England the name of Bonder seems to 
have been used in place of Franklyn and Freeman notably 
in Northumbria and East Anglia that were occupied by 
Danes and Northmen. Hence the surname Bond. And yet 
sometimes the word was employed for the serf: 

" Of all men in lande 
Most toileth the bonde." 

In Domesday, Freemen, Franklyns, and Bonders, are all 
included under the heading Liberi. 

BURS or GEBURS were workmen giving a certain number 
of days' work in the fields, and a small money payment to 
the Lord of the Manor. In return, a Bur received two men 
villeins as his labourers, and one cow, seven acres of tillage 
land, and his house full furnished. As a surname we have 
Burr. 

BORDARS, a poor but numerous class, tenants of lands 
which their lord kept expressly for the maintenance of his 
table, the rental being paid in kind. Hence the old English 
law-books speak of board-service and board-land. We still 
have a reminiscence of this class in the surname Boardman 
and Boarder. 

COTTARS and COTTRELS, also COTMENS, COSCETS. The 
cottar could hold nothing of his own, nor acquire anything 
without the consent of his lord. The Cottrel was in no 
better position. Shakespeare employs the word coystril, a 
corruption of cottrel, as descriptive of a very poor peasant. 
Hence our Cotter els, Cottrels, Cotmans, Cottars, Coatmans, 
and Coates. The coscet was a cottar paying a small rent for 
a very small piece of land. Guscot is the coscet's cottage. 

VILLEINS were men in the servitude of the Lord of the 
Manor, who held the folkland, by which they supported 

116 



THE VILLAGE 

themselves and their families. They stood somewhat higher 
than the serfs. They were also designated as knaves. The 
odium attaching to a class so low has stood in the way of 
the name passing into our family nomenclature, at all events 
in its Norman- French form. But it remains as Churl for 
Ceorl. The constellation of the Great Bear is commonly 
called Charles's Wain, and in this instance Charles stands 
for Ceorl. In the Edda of Ssemund the churl is repre- 
sented by no means as a villein or thrall, but as a freeman. 
In Anglo-Saxon the ceorl is almost, if not quite, indistin- 
guishable from the serf. In the Edda the churl is repre- 
sented, indeed, as the offspring of different parents from the 
noble and from the thrall, but he occupies the position of 
the free bonder. 1 Carl signified a man generally. Charles is 
rarely found as a Christian name in England before the time 
of Charles I. The surnames Charles, Charley, and Car oil, 
from the Latin form Carohts, remain with us the last in the 
United States. 

CENSORS are named in Domesday. They were villeins 
who paid a censum, a kind of relief, by which they redeemed 
their estates. Being in a transitional state, they have left no 
trace in our nomenclature. 

SERF, the poor wretch who owned nothing of his own 
but his wife and his children, is only recognizable in family 
names as Server, Sewer. Servant became Sergeant, and rose 
to be an official. 

THRALL was given the surname Thrale. 

AKERMAN occurs repeatedly in the Hundred Rolls, and 
seems to mean a ploughman. 

MAN, in Latin homo, occurs in almost every page of the 

1 The parents of Jarl, the noble, were named Father and Mother. 
"Light was his hair, bright his cheeks, his eyes piercing as a young 
serpent's." Those of Churl were Afi and Amma. " He grew up and 
well throve ; learned to tame oxen, and make a plough, houses to build, 
and barns to construct, and make carts, and drive the plough." The 
parents of Thrall are Ai and Edda. " Of his hands the skin was 
shrivelled, the knuckles knotty, and the fingers thick. A hideous 
countenance he had, a bowed back, and protruding heels." Rig-mal. 
The three classes are the noble, the free farmer, and the serf. 

117 



THE VILLAGE 

Domesday Survey, and included every kind of feudatory 
tenant. One of his most important privileges was that his 
person and case could be tried only in the court of his lord, 
to whom he was bound by submission. Hence the word 
homage. A Newman was a man who came into the juris- 
diction of the lord from some other manor. Also described 
as a Newcomen. The surname of Man would be puzzling 
if we did not know its origin as a term designating a par- 
ticular class. 

COLIBERTS were tenants of a middle class who do not 
seem to have had an enduring tenure in England. 

Such were the classes on the land. Now let us turn to 
the occupations. But before proceeding any farther in this 
division it will be as well to explain the entry of ANGLI i.e., 
ENGLISH in Domesday, which would be as inexplicable as 
Man did we not know its origin. These Angli or Anglici 
were certain English subtenants on the Welsh frontier. At 
the time of taking the Survey, those of Shrewsbury paid the 
whole of the local geld for the support of the State. Probably 
at that time the majority of the inhabitants were of Welsh 
origin, and those of Saxon were distinguished as English. 

ASHBURNER, the man employed on the production of 
potash. Till soap was invented, ashes were employed as a 
detergent. Also Ashman. 

BADGER, properly a Bagger. " Up to the seventeenth 
century an ordinary term for one who had a special licence 
to purchase corn from farmers at the provincial markets and 
fairs, and then dispose of it again elsewhere, without the 
penalties of engrossing" (Bardsley). 

BARKER, the man who barks for the tanner ; Barkis is " at 
the Bark-house." 

BERCHER or BERGER, a shepherd. A Norman-French 
name little used, yet surviving as a surname. 

BEEMASTER. Occurs in Domesday as Apium Gustos. An im- 
portant man before the introduction of sugar, as honey was 
employed not only for the making of honey-cakes, but also 
in the brewing of metheglin or hydromel, and the wax was 

118 



THE VILLAGE 

needed for candles. We have the Beemaster contributing 
to nomenclature in Beamster and Honeyman, or simply as 
Honey. 

BEECHER, a spademan ; from the Norman-French beche. 

BOLTER, the bolter of flour, a servant of the miller. Sur- 
name Boult. 

BULLMAN, the bull-herdsman. Hence Pullman; also 
in some cases Buller. 

BUSKER, the man employed to cut down and clear away 
bushes or undergrowth for the accommodation of the hunter, 
and also to serve the ashburner. Hence the name Bush. 

BUZICARL, a seaman. The name occurs in Domesday, and 
was the title of a noble in Northumbria, as head of the fleet 
of merchant vessels ; but as a surname I know it only in 
France as Buscarlet. 

CALFHERD, now turned into the surname of Calvert. 

CARPENTER, in country and town alike. In Domesday 
Carpentaria. 

CARTER comes to us in many forms as a surname e.g., 
Carter, Cartman. 

CARTWRIGHT, the maker of carts. 

CARTERET, a small carter i.e., not a little man in size, but 
one who drove a small cart. But Carteret is also a Norman 
place-name. 

CATCHPOLE, a village as well as a town officer ; an under- 
sergeant who obtained his name from catching his victim by 
the head by means of a long wooden forceps that nipped by the 
throat the delinquent who was wanted. The name was borne 
by Margaret Catchpole, the horse-thief who was sentenced 
to be hanged at Ipswich, but was transported, in 1841. 
We have the name also as Catchpool. In " Piers Plowman's 
Vision " we are told, of the two thieves crucified on Calvary, 

" A Catchpole came forth 
And cracked both their legges." 

CHALKER, the marl-digger or chalk-quarryman, who pro- 
vided the chalk-marl for the fields, or the chalk for the 
lime-burner, or the clunch for the carver or sculptor. The 

119 



THE VILLAGE 

chaucer, or shoemaker, will be dealt with in the list of town 
tradesmen. 

CHURCHWARDEN. This officer, from the function being 
discharged from generation to generation in one family, 
became finally a surname, and survives as Churchward, also 
corrupted to Churchyard. 

CLAYER or CLAYMAN, the marl-digger. To this day, in the 
Fens of Cambridge, the fields are dressed by digging down 
below the vegetable mould to the greasy marl beneath, and 
this is spread as manure over the soil. But the clayer also 
dug the clay for kneading with straw for the building of cob- 
walls. As a surname, Claye. 

COCKER, an owner of fighting-cocks ; also Cockman. The 
author of the " Townley Mysteries" puts him in bad 
company : 

" These dysars [dicers] and these hullars, 
These cokkers and these bullars [bull -wards], 
And all purse cuttars, 
Be well ware of these men." 

Our name of Cockerel may come from Cotterel, and not signify 
a petty cockfighter ; but a Coker and Cooker refer to the man 
who supplied entertainment by keeping a cockpit. 

COLTHERD, the herdsman in charge of the colts ; now, as a 
surname, Colthard. 

COWHERD, the herdsman of the cows ; hence Coward. 

CRAMER or CREAMER, a huckster ; hence Cranmer. 

CRUDE, a wheelbarrow; hence, probably, Cruden for 
Crudener. 

DIGGER, DITCHER, and DYKER, all much the same the 
man who attended to the dykes. The surname Digges may 
come from this or from Digory ; but Dykes is certainly hence, 
as also Ditcher. 

DEYMAN or DAYMAN, a day-labourer ; as surname often 
Daye. A deie (Old Norse deigja) is a dairy- woman ; so in 
' Promptuarium Parvulorum"; see also " Love's Labour 
Lost," I. n. 

DYKEWARD, the man appointed on the East Coast to 

120 



THE VILLAGE 

watch the embankments. As a surname it has become 
Duckworth. 

DRIVER, the driftman ; on moors the man employed to 
sweep together colts and horses and cattle and sheep sent 
out on the commons, to a centre where the owners may 
claim them, and such as have no right to send their beasts 
on the commons are fined. He has still his function on 
Dartmoor, and a drift there is a lively scene. No notice is 
given beforehand, except to the moormen or drivers. Horns 
are blown, and horses employed to drive the beasts. 

DUDMAN, a man who sold coarse, common cloth garments, 
generally second-hand and patched. The name remains as 
Dodman and Deadman. A schoolmaster of the latter name 
was at Stowford in Devon ; he fell down the Lydford 
Waterfall rocks, 70 feet, but was not killed. It was reported 
of him that he went down a dead man, and came up at the 
bottom a live man. The contraction of Dodds remains. 

EWART or EWEHERD. As surname also Youart. John 
Eweherd, 1379, Yorkshire Poll-Tax. 

FANNER, the winnower of corn. Also, among tin-miners, 
the fanner tossed the pounded stone into the air, fanning it, 
and the wind blew away the light dust and left the tin ore 
on his fanning shovel. The surnames Fenner and Vanner may 
derive hence. 

FARMER remains on the land, and has contributed to our 
nomenclature. Also Fermor. 

FARRAR and FARRIER, the man who shoes horses. Fearon 
is a smith ; also Ferrier. 

FINCHER, the bird-catcher who provided finches that were 
in great favour with our forefathers as cage-birds. The 
surnames Fincher and Finch remain. 

FOWLER is a common surname, and explains its origin. This 
is sometimes contracted to Fowles and Fowle ; also as Vowler. 

GATEHERD is probably only Goatherd. It has contributed 
the surnames Gather d and Gateard; and GOATHERD has given 
us Goddart and Goatman ; but Goddart may, and probably 
does, in most cases derive through the German Gothardt. 

GELDER, the gelder of hogs, etc. ; hence Geldart. 

121 



THE VILLAGE 

GOOSEHERD, the man who takes charge of the geese of a 
village. The office is still general in Germany, but is now 
given to a girl. " Barfussle " is the story by Auerbach of a 
little goose-girl. The surname from it is Gozzard. 

GRAVER, a digger of graves i.e., fall-pits for catching wild 
beasts ; also of ditches. So Gravesend is at the end of a long 
dyke. The surnames hence are Graves and Greaves. A 
greave is also a woodland avenue, graved out of the forest. 
Hargreave is a trapper of hares by pitfalls. 

HACKMAN is a hatchetman, a chopper of wood for the 
hearth or the furnace. The designation remains as a 
surname. 

HAYMAN l or HAYWARD was the village official whose duty 
it was to guard the cattle that grazed on the village common, 
that they did not trespass on the ground where was the grass 
grown for hay during the winter. Until hedges became 
common, the hayward had to keep a sharp lookout on the 
cattle committed to his charge. In " Piers Plowman " we 
have: 

" I have a home and be a Hayward, 

And liggen out at nyghtes, 
' And kepe my corne and my croft 
From pykers and theves." 

In an old song descriptive of summer and autumn it is said 
that "The hayward bloweth merry his home." For his 
services it would seem that he was not only paid a few 
pence, but was also given by the parish a cottage and a 
croft. The surname now sometimes Heyman ; also as Hay- 
biddel (i.e., hay-beadle) and Hayter. 

HERDMAN. His duties much the same as those of the 
hayman ; hence Hurd, Heard, Hird, Hardman. 

HAWKER, or Huckster, much the same as an itinerant 
pedlar. Huxter, Hawkes. 

HEDGER and HEDGEMAN, he who made up the hedges. 

HEWER, a woodcutter. But a hewer on the coast is a man 
who is stationed on the cliffs, to give notice when a shoal 

1 But some Hay mans may be from Aymon. 
122 



THE VILLAGE 

of pilchards or herrings is in sight. From the Norman- 
French hue. 

HOGGARD or HOGWARD (whence the surname Hogarth), 
the village hog-keeper. The artist's name was originally 
Hoggart ; he altered the spelling. 

HONEYMAN. See BEEMASTER. 

HUSBAND, the man who cultivated the portion of soil 
which derived from him the name of husband-land, a measure 
known in the Merse and Lothian. Hence the surname 
Younghusband i.e., (John) Young the Husband (land-holder). 

KIDDER and KIDNER, the man who wove kitts, or rush 
baskets. A butterkitt was one of those in which butter was 
carried to market. Our word "junket " comes from the curd 
being sold wrapped up, as it still is in France, in rushes 
(jonc). A kidder was also a huckster. Hence the surname 
Kidd when not a contraction of Christopher. 

KILNER, a lime-burner. 

MADER or MATHER, a mower. On August 16, 1417, was 
served a writ to the Sheriff of Lancashire to arrest Mathew le 
Madder, husbandman. Cotton Mather must have descended 
from a mower. 

NUTTARD, probably NEATHERD. 

OYSELER, a professional bird-catcher ; hence Whistler and 
Oseler. 

PADMAN, PEDLAR, PEDDAR, all mean the same as Packman, 
of whom Autolycus is the type. Packman has been corrupted 
into Paxman. The packman was, however, a superior pedlar, 
as he had a horse, or even more than one, that carried his 
packs. 

PEARMAN, PERRIMAN, PERRIER, are the names of growers 
of pears for making perry. 

PIGMAN, the village pig-driver ; whence the surname 
Pickman, when not a pikeman. He was also a LARDER, 
a fattener of pigs on acorns and beechnuts ; also a PORKER, 
hence our surname Porcher. How speedily the servitors 
began to rise from the lowest rank may be seen by a monu- 
ment, in Upton Pyne Church, of Edmund Larder in armour. 
The date is 1520, and yet certainly but a few centuries 

123 



THE VILLAGE 

before, even if so much as a few, his ancestor was a fattener 
of pigs. Also the surname Lardner. 

PLOUGHMAN, hence Flower and Plows. 

RUSHMAN, the collector and strewer of rushes on the 
church floor and the floor of halls ; hence the surname Rush. 

SAWYER, also Sagar and Sayer. 

SHEPHERD, spelled as a surname also Shephard and 
Sheppard. 

SLATER or SCLATER gives also Slatter as a surname. 

STALLARD is, properly, the man who let out stalls at a fair 
or market. 

STEADMAN or STEDMAN, a farmer occupying a homestead. 

STODDART, the keeper of the village stots, or bullocks. 

STUBBARD, the keeper of the parish bull. The old word 
for a bull was a stubb. Hence the surname Stobbart. 

SWINEHERD explains itself. 

TABORER or TABERNER, the village player on the tabor, 
or small drum, at dances, etc. The surname remained also 
as Tabor. 

TAVERNER, the innkeeper; also found, but much more 
rarely, as Innman. 

THRESHER, also TASKER, the flailman. 

THACKER, the thatcher ; also Reader and Reeder. 

TILER or TYLER, the tile-maker ; also Tilewright. 

TILLY, a common labourer. In full he was called eord- 
tilie, earth-tiller. So in Lagamon's " Brut," circa 1275, and 
in the " Ancren Riwle," circa 1225. Thence the surname 
Tilly, when not a place-name. 

TRANTER, the man who peddles and hawks from place to 
place. The name remains as Trant. 

WAGGONER, usually WAINMAN ; hence Wenman. 

WOODMAN, WOODREVE, as a surname Woodrow, Wood- 
ward, Woodyer. 

WRIGHT, either a wainwright or a wheelwright the former 
synonymous with a Cartwright. 

YEATMAN, the man in charge of the heifers. 

WYEMAN, probably the man who had charge of the 
two-year-old heifers. 

124 






THE VILLAGE 

WYSEMAN was the name given to the juggler or conjurer 
at markets or fairs. Often contracted to Wyse and Wise. 
But probably Cardinal Wiseman derived his name from 
some individual of good counsel, and not from a showman 
by profession. Sometimes, no doubt, the wiseman was the 
male witch, as the wisewoman was the female dealer in the 
lighter forms of soothsaying and charming away of ills. The 
wiseman and wisewoman emphatically protested against 
having any dealings with the Evil One. There are such 
exercising their profession as white-witches still in Devon- 
shire, and deriving a revenue from it. 



125 



CHAPTER VII 

THE TOWN : TRADE-NAMES 

SHOULD any man desire to acquire a conception of what the 
trade guilds were in medieval Europe, he should attend one 
of the great Church festivals at Ghent, Bruges, or Malines. 
There he would see the masters of each trade in their several 
guilds, marching in procession, each confraternity preceded 
by a banner and by a wonderfully carved and gilt pole sur- 
mounted by a figure of the patron saint of the trade Crispin 
for the shoemakers, Blaize for the woolcombers, Barbara for 
the armourers, and so on between two flickering tapers. 

Almost every guild has its own band, each its chapel in the 
great church, its guildhall, its special coffer, and its particular 
charities. In each hall hangs suspended an elaborately 
wrought symbol of the trade, surmounted by a wreath. The 
crown is expressive of the high esteem in which the trade is 
held by the workers : it considers itself ennobled by its toil ; 
it holds that it merits its coronet as truly as does any Baron 
or Earl. 

Our London City guilds have lost most of their significance, 
but it is not so in Belgium. It was not so in Germany till a 
comparatively recent date. 

In Munich the insignia, the coffers, and the banners, even 
the painted candles, of the guilds, are collected in the National 
Museum in one chamber. They are no more required, for the 
old guilds, if not disbanded, have lost their purpose. Among 
the relics there gathered is a coach-wheel, the meister-stiick of 
a wright named Gnettmann, of Lechhausen-near-Augsburg, 
who on July 20, 1709, made the wheel and trundled it up to 
Munich, thirty-eight miles, all in one day. 

126 



THE TOWN : TRADE-NAMES 

Formerly the masters in each guild met in the council- 
hall to consider the cost of the raw material, to determine 
the price to be put on the manufactured goods ; also to test 
the quality of what had been worked up. They decided the 
number of apprentices each master was justified in employing, 
and what was the remuneration each should receive. The 
masters likewise required of an apprentice a test production 
before he could be admitted into the confraternity of masters, 
and it put a stamp guaranteeing the quality of every piece of 
goods turned out by a member, just as still, with us, the Gold- 
smiths' Company places its stamp, guaranteeing the quality 
of silver and gold plate. Any master whose work was bad, 
who sold vamped goods, or sold at a price higher than that 
determined by the guild as just, was evicted from the com- 
pany, as among us a dishonest lawyer is struck off the roll. 
Our Apothecaries' Company still maintains a right to license 
men to act in the trade. Every member of a guild who fell 
sick or met with an accident was provided for out of the 
common chest. There was no climbing over the wall into 
any trade; it could be entered only through the door of 
worthy apprenticeship. 

Moreover, in order that the trade might not get into a 
groove and not progress with the times, the apprentices were 
required to go out into the world to travel for three years 
so as to observe what was done elsewhere, enlarge their 
minds, and gain experience. Every apprentice thus sent 
forth carried with him a certificate from the master whom 
he had served. But that was not all. A certificate might be 
stolen and fraudulently employed. As a guarantee against 
this, every town had its Wahrzeichen, certain peculiar tokens : 
a horseshoe nailed against the city gate ; a cock carved on 
the keystone of the bridge ; a St. Christopher of gigantic size 
painted on the wall of a tower ; a face under a clock that 
rolled its eyes and lolled its tongue at the stroke of the hour ; 
a fountain surmounted by a stork with a baby in its beak ; 
and so on, infinitely varied. When a wandering apprentice 
presented his written credentials, the master, before receiving 
him, catechized him on the particular tokens of the town 

127 



THE TOWN : TRADE-NAMES 

whence he came, and if he could answer correctly to these 
questions he was given work. 

The young fellows, arnie Reisender or wandernde Burschen, 
were, not so many years ago, familiar objects in Germany. 
I can recall them, when I was a boy, on all the roads, staff 
in hand, in light blouses girded about the waist with a 
leather belt, singing cheerily, with dusty feet and sweat- 
bedewed brows. They were always poor, and were allowed 
free admission to show-places. They were kindly received 
into houses when they solicited food and a shake-down, and 
they were almost invariably as well-conducted as they were 
light-hearted. Now one sees them no more; universal 
military service has put an end to the Wanderjahre. Most, 
if not all, of these youths were the sons of master tradesmen. 
They had but a single ambition to qualify themselves for 
the trade, so that in course of time they also might become 
masters. 

These men were as proud of the Golden Boot, the Yellow 
Saddle, the Blacksmith's Pincers, as any knight could be 
of the Green Dragon, the Fireballs, or the Talbot, on his 
shield. 

A point that I desire to impress upon the reader is the 
high esteem in which every member of a trade held his 
particular trade. But there is another point to be borne in 
mind that the several trades were to a large extent in the 
hands of particular families. In former days, except for the 
wild-bloods who elected a profession of arms and attached 
themselves to knights, and the tame-spirited who chose 
servitude in a gentleman's family, the sons of, say, the village 
smith became in their turn smiths, and the sons of a tailor 
grew up to sit cross-legged and ply the needle ; consequently 
the name of the trade carried on for some generations by a 
certain family adhered to it. Verstegan says : " It is not to 
be doubted but that their ancestors have gotten them [these 
trade-names] by using trades, and the children of such 
parents being contented to take them upon them, after- 
coming posterity could hardly avoid them." 

Mr. M. A. Lower says : " There was much greater propriety 

128 



THE TOWN : TRADE-NAMES 

in making the names of occupations stationary family names 
than appeared at first sight; for the same trade was often 
pursued for many generations by the descendants of the 
individual who in the first instance used it. Sometimes a 
particular trade is retained by most of the male branches of 
a family even for centuries. Thus, the family of Oxley, in 
Sussex, were nearly all smiths or iron-founders during the 
long period of 280 years. Most of the Ades of the same 
county have been farmers for a still longer period. The 
trade of weaving has been carried on by another Sussex 
family, named Webb (weaver), as far back as the traditions 
of the family extend, and it is not improbable that the 
business has been exercised by them ever since the first 
assumption of the term as a surname by some fabricator of 
cloth in the thirteenth or fourteenth century." Harry the 
Smith's sons John, Joe, and Phil all swung the hammer 
and wore the leathern apron ; all were Smiths. But Harry 
may have had a son Ralph, who, wearied of plying the 
bellows, went off to the wars, and he would be called Ralph 
Smithson, instead of Ralph Smith. 

To the present day, in many of our villages, a man is 
spoken of by his trade, as Millard, Carpenter, Mason, 
Cobbler, with the Christian name attached and the surname 
ignored, as John Millard, Joe Carpenter, Mason Bill, and 
Cobbler Dick. 

I give a list of the principal trades pursued in a town 
during the period when surnames were becoming hereditary, 
and which contributed to their formation. 

A good many of these trades are now obsolete, and we 
have to look into the books of old writers to discover of 
what nature they were. One point strikes the student in so 
doing, and that is, the differentiation of the trades. There 
would seem in the Middle Ages to have been no Jack-of-all- 
trades, who could turn his hand to anything. Trade was 
too serious to be treated with levity. 

" Four distinct classes of artisans were engaged on the 
structure of the arrow, and, as we might expect, all are 
familiar names of to-day. John le Arowsmyth we may set 

129 i 



THE TOWN : TRADE-NAMES 

first. He confined himself to the manufacture of the arrow- 
head. Thus we find the following statement made in an Act 
passed in 1405 : ' Item, because the Arrowsmyths do make 
many faulty heads for arrows and quarrels, it is ordained 
and established that all heads of arrows and quarrels, after 
this time to be made, shall be well boiled or braised, and 
hardened at the points with steel.' ' Clement le Settere ' 
or ' Alexander le Settere ' was busied in affixing these to the 
shaft, and ' John le Tippere ' or ' William le Tippere ' in 
pointing them off. Nor is this all ; there is yet the feather, 
the origin of such medieval folk as ' Robert le Flecher ' or 
'Ada le Flecher' (Bardsley). The fletcher, or fledger, in 
fact, was he who gave wings to the arrow. Mr. Bardsley 
might have added a fifth trade that of the shafter. 

The dressing of a man in a good cloth suit demanded the 
co-operation of many and various workers. 

In the first place, when a farmer had wool to sell, the 
Packer was sent for, to fasten it up in bales of a determined 
size and weight. These were then consigned to the Stapler, 
who classed or sorted the wool. One fleece will frequently 
contain half a dozen qualities or sorts. The greater part 
would be wool adapted for combing, but the bellies and 
shorter portions would be thrown out for carding. After 
the sorting, the wool goes to the manufacturer. When in 
his hands it is thoroughly scoured and dried. The combing 
portion is committed to the Comber, and on leaving him is 
ready for the Spinner, who in turn passes the spun wool, or 
worsted, to the Warper, to be made into suitable lengths, 
and the required number of threads wide for the fabric 
desired to be produced. The warp is then ready for the 
Weaver or Webber or Webster, who has it put into his loom 
on a beam, from whence it is passed through the slay or 
harness to receive the weft. 

The short wool is taken from the sorter to the willay, a 
machine which thoroughly shakes it, getting out all the dust, 
and it is then oiled and given to the Carder, who combs it. 
It leaves his hands in the form of a rope, and passes to the 
Mule-spinner, who brings it to the exact size required, and 

130 



THE TOWN : TRADE-NAMES 

at the same time winds it on a bobbin, which fits into the 
shuttle of the weaver, who is supplied with the weft for his 
cloth. On being cut out of the loom, the cloth is first burled, 
which is a process for ridding it of imperfections, and this 
burling is done by the Fuller, who washes it with soap and 
places it in the stocks, where it is hammered till it shrinks 
to the required length and width. This was formerly done 
by trampling on the cloth with the feet ; the treading up 
and down on it was done by the Walker. 

But fuller and walker were often synonymous terms, as 
the same man often fulled and walked the same piece of 
cloth. This process made the serges get both narrower and 
thicker. The cloth then passed to the Dyer, and from him 
went to the Tenter, who stretched it to the width required. 
A Lister was a comber. 

In the case of linen-weaving, the Whitster was the man 
who saw to the bleaching. 

Another name for a fuller was a Tucker, and fulling-mills 
often went by the name of " tucking-mills." The Tozer or 
Towzer was he who brought up the nap by going over it with 
teazles. 

But the cloth on reaching the Tailor, or, as the English 
called him, the Shaper, went through the hands of the 
Cutter. Then it was taken up by the Seamer and run to- 
gether. Seamer is the Anglo-Saxon word for a tailor. The 
name was displaced by the French tailleur, as the " inn " has 
now become an " hotel." In the fashionable French tailor's 
shop the English seamer fell into a subordinate position. 

But even when fitted and adjusted the garment was not 
complete. The Trimmer had to be called in to supply the 
ornamental laces, and the Pointer to furnish the fashionable 
points without which no gentleman's dress was complete. 



LIST OF TRADES FURNISHING SURNAMES. 

ADAM, a gaoler (" Comedy of Errors," IV. in.). 
ANCERER or ANCELER, from the vessel in which provisions 
were weighed before they could be sold in the market. The 

131 I 2 



THE TOWN : TRADE-NAMES 

surname Ansell may derive hence, if not from Anselm. But 
also anceler is a handle-maker. 

APOTHECARY, now found as Pothicary. A pottinger was 
another name for the apothecary, and this has become a 
surname. 1 

ARBALASTER, a man who works a catapult for hurling 
stones in time of war. Now found as Alabaster or Ballister. 

ARCHER, a bowman. Every town, every village, had its 
archer. And the Butts were outside the town for common 
practice. The Butts as well as the Archer have provided 
family names. 

ARKWRIGHT, the chest-maker, maker of those coffers that 
were intended to preserve linen and tapestries, curtains, etc. 
Such as were made of cypress wood were called spruce- 
chests. 

ARMOURER, an important man. The name has been 
shortened into Armour as a surname. 

ARROWSMITH, the maker of arrow-heads. 

BAKER. The feminine form is Bagster or Baxter. The 
French Boulanger furnished the surnames Bullinger and 
Pullinger. We hear of French bread being consumed in 
England during the Middle Ages. The French word Four- 
nier has also furnished the surname Furner. 

BALANCER. The ancerer and the balancer were both 
scalemakers. The manufacturer of such is mentioned in 
" Cocke Lorelle's Bote": 

"Arowe-heders, maltemen and cornemongers, 
Balancers, tynne-casters and skryvenors." 

BANISTER, the keeper of a bath ; from the French "bain. 
BARBER. Till the year 1745 every surgeon was a member 
of the Barbers' Company. The surname of Surgeon is not 
often met with, but that of Barber is very common. Mr. 
Camden Hotten, in his book on " Signboards," quotes these 
lines : 

" His pole with pewter basons hung, 
Black, rotten teeth in order strung, 

1 The pottinger was originally the man who grew pot-herbs and 
medicinal herbs as well ; then the town herbalist. 

132 



THE TOWN : TRADE-NAMES 

Rang'd cups that in the window stood, 

Lined with red rags to look like blood, 

Did well his threefold trade explain, 

Who shaved, drew teeth, and breathed a vein." 

From the barber we get Barbour and Barbor. 

BEADMAKER, who made paternosters. The word has been 
compressed into Bedmaker. 

BEATER, woollen-beater, engaged on one of the processes 
in the manufacture of cloth. 

BELLMAN, the crier. 

BELLSETTER. The " Promptuarium Parvulorum " gives 
Bellezeter as the then usual name for the bell-caster. It got 
corrupted to Belleyeter> and then to Billiter. 

BIDDER, one sent out to summon to a wedding or a 
church-ale. In Germany, among the peasantry, the bidder 
is still a person of office and importance. 

BENCHER, a banker. 

BIGGER, a builder. 

BILLMAN, he who carries a bill or pike, as official atten- 
dant on a Sheriff or constable. 

BINDER of books. In the York pageant of 1415 the 
Parchmenters and Bookbinders marched together. 

BLACKSMITH. This trade has constituted the surnames 
Black and Smith, Smyth, Smeyt, Smijth, as well as Faber, 
Fabricius, Ferrier, Ferrers, Fervottr, Fearon. 

BLACKSTER, a bleacher of linen. Also Blacker. Hence we 
have the names Blaxter t Blackister, Blake, for Blaker. The 
same as the Whitster. Anglo-Saxon blac is white, but 
blaec is black. 

BLADEMAKER or BLADESMITH, the same as our modern 
cutler. As a surname it has been condensed into Blades 
and Blaydes. 

BLOCKER, he who made blocks for hats. From the block 
came the slang " bloke " and " blockhead." 

BLOOMER, a man who runs iron into moulds. 

BLOWER, the man employed to work the bellows in a 
furnace or smelting-house ; often corrupted into Blore or 
Blow. The architect of the first name and the musician of 



THE TOWN : TRADE-NAMES 

the second must each have descended from a very humble 
ancestor. But some Blowers are Hornblowers. 

BOTELLER, a leather-bottle-maker. The name has been 
absorbed by that of Butler. 

BOUCHER is the French boucher; we have it in the form 
of Botcher as well as Bouchier. Labouchere is no other than 
the female butcher. 

BOURDER, a jester. Hence Burder. But a byrder was a 
catcher of finches. 

BOWYER, the bowmaker. As a surname we have it in 
Bower and Boyer. 

BOWDLER, a puddler in iron. 

BOWLER, a maker of wooden bowls. Also Bolister. 

BRACEGIRDLER, a maker of braces. " Brace " is from the 
French brayles. Sir John Mandeville, in his " Travels," 
speaks of a breek-girdle. The name is found still as Brayler. 

BRAZIER, BREWER, or BREWSTER. It was not till the 
close of the fifteenth century that the hop was introduced 
into England by the Flemings. 

" Hops, Reformation, baize and beer, 
Came to England all in one year." 

Previously ale had been brewed with other ingredients, as 
wormwood. Mead, or metheglin, was largely drunk. Hence 
Browse i.e., at the brewhouse. Chamier is from the 
medieval Latin cambarius, a brewer. 

BRIDGEMAN and BRIDGER, toll-taker at bridges. 

BROWKER or BROGGER, he who transacted business between 
ourselves and the Dutch in the shipping off of wool, and the 
introduction of cloth from Flemish manufacturers. James I. 
speaks of the broker as one who went " betweene Merchant 
Englishe and Merchant Strangers, and Tradesmen in the 
contrivinge, makinge and concluding Bargaines and Con- 
tractes to be made betweene them concerning their wares 
and merchandises." They seem not to have borne a high 
character, for in " King John " the Bastard speaks of the 

shifty conscience : 

" That sly devil, 
That broker that still breaks the pale of faith." 



THE TOWN : TRADE-NAMES 

BROWNSMITH, a coppersmith. 

BUCKLER, a maker of buckles. 

BURELLER, a weaver of a cheap kind of cloth, brown in 
colour and of everlasting wear, and worn by the poorer 
classes, who came to be designated as " borel-folk." 

The friar in the " Canterbury Tales " thought that it 
accorded not with one of his faculty to have acquaintance 
with lazars, beggars, and " such poraile " i.e. t boraile. The 
surname Burrdl, is tolerably widespread in England, and is 
the family name of Lord Gwydyr. 

BUTTONER, a maker of buttons. The er of the concluding 
syllable is generally omitted in the surname. 

BYRDER, a professional birdcatcher, mainly of finches, 
The surname Bird is merely the abbreviation of Byrder. 
Also Oseler. Osl is Anglo-Saxon for a blackbird. 

CADER, a maker of cades, or casks. Shakespeare repre- 
sents Jack Cade as a clothier, and his father a bricklayer, 
showing that the name from the trade exercised by the 
founder of the family had become hereditary without refer- 
ence to the trade practised. The cader is also called 
Cadman. 

CAIRD, a tinker. 

CALLENDER, one who puts a gloss on linen. 

CALLMAN, the maker of ladies' calls. In the " Wife of 
Bath's Tale," the wife appeals to the Queen's attendants : 

" Let see, which is the proudest of them all, 
That weareth or a kerchief or a calle." 

Sir John Call, Bart., the distinguished engineer in India, 
the son of a Cornish farmer, derived his name from an 
ancestor who made ladies' headgear. 

CALTHROPER or CALCRAFTMAN was the maker of calthrops 
irons with four spikes, so made that, whichever way they 
fell, one point always stood upwards. They were used in 
war, thrown into breaches or placed on bridges, to annoy 
an enemy's horse. A similar instrument with three iron 
spikes was used in hunting the wolf. As a surname, Calthrop. 
But Calcraft is probably Calves-croft. 



THE TOWN : TRADE-NAMES 

CAPPER, the maker of caps. Also the French Chapeller. 
Like so many other trade-names when adopted as a surname, 
the last syllable has been dropped, and the name has become 
Chapell. But Capper remains. 

CARDER or CARDMAKER, maker of cards for weaving. 
Christopher Sly said of himself : " By birth a pedlar, by 
education a cardmaker." 

CARPENTER needs no explanation. 

CARTWRIGHT, maker of carts. 

CATER, a confectioner, maker of cates. 

" Though my cates be mean, take them in good part ; 
Better cheer may you have, but not with better heart." 

Comedy of Errors, III. I. 

CHALLICER, a maker of drinking vessels out of metal ; 
hence the names Challis and Challys, unless named from 
Calais. 

CHALONER, an importer or manufacturer of chalons 
woollen coverlets originally introduced from Chalons- sur- 
Marne. In the " Reve's Tale " we are told of the miller, 
that 

" In his owen chambre he made a bedde 
With shetes, and with chalons fair yspredde." 

Surname Chawner. 

CHANDLER, candle-maker. 

CHANTER, cantor, a singer in church ; hence the surnames 
Chanter and Gaunter. 

CHAPMAN, a travelling merchant. Cheap-Jack takes his 
name from the word, so does Cheapside. Copenhagen is the 
chapman's haven. 

CHAUCER, from chausseur, a shoemaker. 

CHEESEMAN, dealer in cheese. Also called a Fromisher, 
from the French fromage. 

CLERK, one who could read, and plead the benefit of the 
clergy. Hence Clark and Clarke. 

COBBLER, a mender of boots and shoes. 

CODNER, a cordwainer. 

COFFERER has two meanings a coiffeur, or hairdresser, 
and a maker of coffers, boxes, or chests. 

136 



THE TOWN : TRADE-NAMES 

COGGER, a skipper in a small boat ; whence our word 
" coxswain " (coggs-swain). The expression " an old codger " 
is hence derived. But a cogger is also a cheat by loading dice, 
and is so employed by Shakespeare. 

COVERER, the maker of cuves, tubs and vats. 

COLLIER. Although originally a charcoal-burner, the name 
came to be used for the dealer in the town in charcoal and in 
sea-coal. 

COMBER, maker of combs. This has become a surname, 
as Comper, Kemster, Kimber, Kemble. 

CONDER, a partner in a fishing-boat. 

COOK enters into many combinations, as in Norman- 
French Le Coq, Badcock (Bartholomew the Cook), Hancock 
(John the Cook), Wilcox (William le Coq), etc. 

COOPER, a maker of vats and barrels. 

COSTER, a doorkeeper. 

COSTERMONGER, properly Costardmonger, a dealer in 
apples and other fruit. 

COUCHER, a maker of beds. The surname Couch comes 
from hence. 

COWLER, a maker of cowls or calls for ladies ; the same 
as a callman. 

COWPER or COUPER, a maker of cups. Langland speaks of 

" Coupes of clere gold 
And coppes of silrer." 

CROCKER, maker of common earthenware crocks. Wyck- 
liffe in Matt. xv. 7 uses the word. Hence Crocker and 
Croker. 

CRAMMER or CRANMER (German kramer), a packman. 

CROWDER, a player on the crowd, or fiddle ; hence 
Crowther. 

CRYER, the town bellman. 

CURRIER, the curer of skins ; hence Curry. 

CUTTER, a cutter of cloth for the tailor. The cutter is still 
employed by every tailor. 

CUTLER, properly Scutler, a shield-maker, from the Latin 
scutum. 

DANCER, a morris-dancer. 



THE TOWN : TRADE-NAMES 

DEMPSTER, a Deemster, Member of Parliament in the Isle 
of Man and in Scotland. Deemer, Deamer, and with intru- 
sive r, Dearmer. 

DOSER, a stuffer of pillows for the back of seats. 

DRAPER, from the French drap. 

DRESSER, a hemp-dresser, but also one who cuts up the 
meat at a sideboard for the banquet. Chaucer speaks of 
dressing a heritage i.e., of dividing it among the heirs 
(" The Coke's Tale "). 

DUBBER. In the " Liber Albus " we have a Peter le 
Dubbour, whose trade was to furbish up old clothes. But 
a Dauber was the decorator of walls. In " Cocke Lorelle's 
Bote " we have 

" Tylers, bryckeleyers, hardehewers ; 
Paris-plasterers, daubers and lymeborners." 

DYER or DISTER, also Dexter, Dwyer. 

FABER, a smith. 

FARRIER, also Ferrier and Farrar, a shoer of horses. 

FARM AN, a ferryman. 

FARADAY, a travelling merchant. 

FELLMONGER, a seller of skins. Remains as a surname as 
Fell. 

PLANNER, maker of pancakes. 

FLAXMAN, dealer in flax. 

FLESHER, a butcher, or flesh-hewer. 

FLETCHER, an arrowsmith ; French fleche. 

FLOYER, one who skins beasts for the tanyard. Surname 
Flower. 

FORCER, a maker of small caskets delicately carved, for the 
keeping of jewellery. 

FRIEZEMAKER, contracted as a surname to Frieze; unless 
a Frieslander. 

FRUITERER, a greengrocer. 

FULLER, already described. 

FURRIER, also as PELTER. 

FUSTER or FEWSTER was the joiner employed on the 
wooden fabric of a saddle. It is derived from the Old French 

138 



THE TOWN : TRADE-NAMES 

fust, wood. Sir Jenner Fust's ancestor must have been a 
saddler. 

GAGER or GAUGER. " His office was to attend to the 
King's revenue at the seaports, and with the measurement 
of all liquids, such as oil, wine, and honey. The tun, the 
pipe, the tierce, the puncheon, casks and barrels of a specified 
size these came under his immediate supervision, and the 
royal fee was accordingly" (Bardsley). The surname Gage 
comes from this officer. 

GAUNTER, a glover. Gunter unless from the German 
Gunther. 

GIRDLER, a maker of girdles. 

GLAZIER needs no explanation. 

GLOVER, same as Gaunter. 

GROCER, a rare and late word ; properly an engrosser, one 
who took into his own hands several different branches of 
trade, as those of the spicer, drug-merchant, pepper-dealer. 
A statute of Edward III. in 1363 speaks of " Merchauntz 
money-Grossers," so termed because they " engrossent totes 
maners de marchandises vendables." The surname Grosser 
exists. 

HABERDASHER, a seller of hats and small wares. One was 
in the party of Canterbury pilgrims. 

HAMPERS or HANAPERS, basket-makers. 

HARNESS-MAKERS, as a surname contracted to Harness. 

HELLIER, a slater. " To hell " is to cover in. In the West 
of England slates are hellens. As a surname, Hillyard and 
Hellyer. 

HOLDER, an upholsterer, or stuffer of mattresses, beds, and 
cushions. 

HOOKER, a maker of crooks. 

HOOPER, a maker of hoops for casks. 

HORNER, a maker of cups and other articles out of horn 
also of children's horn-books and lanterns glazed with horn. 
In the " Franklin's Tale," descriptive of winter, it is said : 

"James sits by the fire with double berd 
And drinketh of the bugle horn the wine." 

This refers to the double use of the bugle. It had a metal 

'39 



THE TOWN : TRADE-NAMES 

plug to stop the mouthpiece, so as, if required, to serve as a 
drinking horn. In the second part of " Henry VI." we have 
Thomas Homer, an armourer, showing that the man had 
drifted into another profession from that which furnished 
him with his surname. 

HOSIER, seller of long stockings, in wool or silk. Surname 
Hozier. 

HURRER, seller of a peculiar sort of hairy hat. All kinds 
of hoods and caps came under his hands, so that he was 
what we now call a hatter. Hurell for Hurreller. 

IRONMONGER, usually Iremonger. To the present day in 
the West of England " iron " is pronounced " ire." A band 
of ire, not of iron. Hence the surname Irons. 

JOINER, a maker of chairs and tables, etc. 

JESSMAKER, maker of jesses for hawks; hence the sur- 
name Jesse. 

KISSER, maker of " cuisses " (greaves). 

KITCHENER, from cuisinier, a French or Norman name for 
a cook. 

KINCH, a worker in the bleaching-fields. 

LACER, maker of laces (not lace), the strings of twisted or 
plaited wool or silk for fastening portions of the dress 
together. 

LANER, a dealer in wool lain. 

LARDINER or LARDNER, if not a fattener of hogs, is a 
dealer in lard and bacon. 

LATINER, altered to Latimer, an interpreter. 

LATONER, a maker of latten, a mixture of lead and tin in 
fact, a pewterer. 

LAUNDER or LAVENDER, a washerman. We have a trace 
of the word in " laundress " and in a " launder " that brings 
water. Hence the surnames Launder and Landor. Beatrice 
ap Rice, who washed for the Princess Mary, daughter of 
Henry VIII., is always set down in the accounts as Mistress 
Launder. Sir Hugh Evans, in " The Merry Wives of 
Windsor," calls Mistress Quickly the " dry-nurse, or cook, 
or laundry, or washer, or wringer," of Dr. Caius. 

LAYMAN, lagman or lawyer. 

140 



THE TOWN : TRADE-NAMES 

LEADBEATER, the maker of leaden vessels and the lead 
for roofs. The word has been corrupted to Ledbitter and 
Liberty. 

LEADER, a drawer and carrier of water in a town properly, 
a water-leader. The surname of Loder is the same as 
Leader. 

LEAPER. A " leap " was a sort of basket made of rush. In 
Wyckliffe's version, Moses is placed in a " leap of segg" 
i.e., basket of sedge. So also Matt. viii. 8 : " And thei eeten 
and weren fulfilled, and thei taken up that that left sevene 
leepis." Hence the names Lipman, Leapman, Lipper. Has 
nothing to do with " lepper." l 

LEECH or LEACH, a surgeon, so called because he ministers 
to the health of the lych, or body. 

LIMMER, an artist who decorates manuscripts. 

LISTER, engaged in one part of clothweaving. 

LOCKSMITH or LOCKIER, hence Lockyer and Locke. 

LYNER, a dealer in linen. The surname remains as Line 
and Lyne. 

LORIMER, maker of straps, bits, and girths. 

LYTEMAN, probably the torch or link bearer. The surname 
Lyte comes from it. Also SPELTMAN, that has become Spell- 
man (Anglo-Saxon speld, a torch). 

MAILER, a maker of mails or leather portmanteaus. 
Perhaps the surname of Mellor may in some instances derive 
hence. 

MALSTER, for Maltster. 

MARINER. The name of sailor is very uncommon ; the 
usual word descriptive of one who lived on the sea was 
" mariner " hence Marner. 

MASON, also Waller and Walster. 

MAUNDER, a maker of maunds, or hampers, and then a 
beggar who collected food given to him in a maund. 

MAZERER, a turner of mazer bowls in maplewood. " It 
was the favourite bowl of all classes of society. By the rich 
it was valued according as it was made from the knotted 

1 But the Dutch loeper, German laufer^ is a running footman. Cf. 
Pott, " Personnennamen," p. 632. 

141 



THE TOWN : TRADE-NAMES 

grain, or chased and rimmed with gold and silver and 
precious stones " (Bardsley). We are told of Sir Thopas, that 

" They fetched him first the swete win, 
And made eke in a maselin, 
And real spicere." 

Mazerer was also Mazeliner hence the name of the famous 
conjurer, Maskelyne. 

MERCER, a dealer in silks. 

MERCHANT, also Marchant, from the French, in place of 
the English " monger." 

MITCHENER, a pastrycook ; maker of mitchkin, a cake or 
small loaf. 

MONIER, maker of current coins minted in many towns. 
Also Minter, Monyer, and Money, if this last do not stand for 
De Mauney. 

MUSTARDER, seller of mustard. As a surname reduced to 
Mustard. 

NEEDLER, needlemaker. As surname, Neelder. Aguillier, 
a French form, gives Aguillar and Gillard. 

ORFEVER, a goldsmith ; hence our modern surnames of 
Offerer and Off or, if this last be not a place-name. 

OSTLER, hence Oastler and Hostler; but OSELER, as already 
said, is a birdcatcher. 

PACKER, a woolpacker ; also Pack as a surname. 

PAINTER, often as a surname Paynter. 

PARCHMENTER, preparer of parchment and vellum. 

PARGITER, a plasterer. 

PARMINTER, for parmentier, a tailor a French fashionable 
tailor, doubtless. 

PATTENER, maker of pattens. Surname Patner. 

PELTER, a furrier. 

PEPPERER, a seller of pepper ; name remains as Pepper. 

PESSONER, a fishmonger. 

PEWTERER, also Powter. 

PILCHER, a maker of warm garments lined with fur ; 
much the same as a pelter. 

PINNER, a pinmaker. 

PLASTERER, as a surname Plaister. 

142 



THE TOWN : TRADE-NAMES 

PLATNER, a maker of dishes and plates. Surname Plait. 

PLAYER, an actor by profession. 

PLUMBER remains in surnames as Plumer and Plummer. 

POINTER, one who made " points," tags to dresses by 
which laces were fastened together often made of silver. 
Surname Poynter. 

POTTER, maker of common pots. The name remains 
both as Potter and Potts. 

POUCHER, maker of pouches. A poacher is so called 
because he carries a pouch for the game he secures. 

POULTERER. The surname remains as Poulter and Pulter. 

POYSER, a weigher, a scalemaker. 

PURSER or BURSER, a pursemaker. 

PYEBAKER, shortened into Pye. 

QUILLER, also KeeleYy the dresser of quilled ruffs and 
collars, such as were worn in the reign of Elizabeth. Mr. 
Quiller- Couch has in his name references to two trades 
the starcher who quilled collars, and the coucher who 
stuffed beds, etc. 

QUILTER, the liner of garments and coverlets. 

RAFFMAN, also RAFFLER, the dealer in rags and rubbish. 

RECORDER, a player on the record, a musical instrument ; 
hence the surname Corder. 

RIDLER, a maker of sieves and riddles, 

ROCKSTER, a maker of rocks or spindles ; hence the 
surname Rockstro, and sometimes also Rock ; also Rooker 
and Rooke and Rookard. Mr. Bardsley strangely makes of 
the last a rookward, or keeper of rooks. 

ROPER and RAPER, a cordwainer, a ropemaker. Cordery 
is the man at the ropewalk. 

RUNCIMAN, a dealer in an inferior kind of horses. The 
shipman among the Canterbury pilgrims rode upon a 
" rouncy." 

SACKER, a maker of sacks. Archbishop Seeker derived, 
doubtless, from a sackmaker. 

SADLER, also SELLER, from the French sellier. We have 
both as surnames. 

SALTER, also SALTMAN, a salt-boiler. 



THE TOWN : TRADE-NAMES 

SAWYER, self-explanatory. 

SHIPMAN, a merchant sea-captain. One was among the 
Canterbury pilgrims : " The hoote somer hadde maad his 
hew at broun, and certlinly he was a good felawe." 

SEALER, a seal-cutter. In some cases may have originated 
the surname Scale. 

SEAMER and the feminine SEMESTER, a maker of seams 
for the tailor. 

SEXTON, also as Saxton, for Sacristan. 

SHEARMAN, one who shaves or shears worsted and 
fustians. Sherman, Shears. 

SHAILER, a maker of ladders (echelles). As a surname, 
Shayler and Shelter. 

SHOEMAKER, curiously enough, rare as a surname. The 
Old English name (from the French) was Corser, but also 
Souter = Chausseur ; hence Chaucer. 

SILKMAN, a mercer. The surname remains as Silke and 
Sylke. 

SINGER, a professional chanter, a ballad-singer or minstrel. 
Sangster. 

SKINNER, one who prepared skins for the tanyard. As a 
surname, Skynner. 

SLAYER or SLAYWRIGHT, one who makes slays for weaving. 

SLAUGHTERER, the man who kills for the butcher. A late 
Government School Inspector was Colonel Slaughter. 1 

SLOPER, a maker of slops, a loose upper garment. In the 
" Chanon Yemannes Tale " it is said that 

" His overest sloppe is not worth a mite." 

SMITH, a general term. There were Whitesmiths, i.e., 
Tinmen, Goldsmiths, Brownsmiths, Blacksmiths, Arrow- 
smiths, Spearsmiths, Nailsmiths, etc. 

SOAPER, a soap-boiler. Soper. 

SOUTER, a shoemaker. The surname Shutter is from Shoester. 

SPICER, from the French Spicier. 

SPILLER, a maker of spills or spindles. 

SPINNER. The feminine form is SPINSTER. 

1 There are, however, two villages so named in Gloucestershire. 

144 



THE TOWN : TRADE-NAMES 

SPOONER, maker of spoons in wood and horn. 
SPURRIER, maker of spurs. 

STAMPER, the official who put the stamp either on tin or 
on the nobler metals. It has been corrupted into Stammer. 

STARCHER, important in Elizabethan times and in that of 
James L, when yellow starch came in. Perhaps the origin 
of Starke and Starkie. 

STAPLER, the merchant who bought wool en gros. As a 
surname it exists as Staples. 

STEYNER, the maker of steenes, or stone jars, out of white 
clay. The surname remains as Steyner or Stayner. 

STRAKER, a twine-spinner. 

SUMMONER or SUMNER, one who conveys legal summons. 
Sumner was an Archbishop of Canterbury. According to 
Chaucer, the summoner was not a man of high character. 

SURGEON, a chirurgeon, was merged in the barber and 
apothecary. If it ever became a surname, it has been over- 
whelmed by Sergeant. 

TAILOR, variously spelled as a surname, in the vain hope 
to disguise its humble and somewhat despised origin. A 
taizler was the same as a tozer, a man who brought up 
the nap on cloth with teasels, and it is possible that some 
Taizler s may have become Tayleurs. The Old English name 
for a tailor was a schepper or shaper. Possibly enough some 
Sheppards may derive thence. 

TANNER needs no explanation. 

TAPISER, a tapistry worker, contracted to Tapster, and so 
goes along with the tavern assistant. 

TABURNER, one who played on the tambourine. 

TAWER, a skinner or leather-dresser; hence Tower and 
Tuer. 

TENTOR, one who stretches cloth. 

TESTER, same as Assay 'er. 

TELLER or TELLWRIGHT, a tentmaker. Old English for 
a tent was teld. 

THROWER, a silkwinder ; hence Trower. 

TINNER, a whitesmith usually tinker and tinkler. There 
is an old ballad still sung by the Devonshire peasants of 

145 K 



THE TOWN : TRADE-NAMES 

" The Maid and the Box." She was serving in London, but 
desired to return to see her parents in Falmouth. 

" Her master paid her wages, and 
Her wages were five pound. 
She put the money in a box 
With flowers flourished round. 

" She put the money in the box, 
She put in that her clothes ; 
She set it all upon her head, 
And nimbly forth she goes. 

" She had not walked very far, 
The space was scarce a mile, 
Before a tinkler she espied 
Was lying at a stile." 

The tinkler requires her to set down the box, that he may 
examine its contents, and to hand him the key. She does 
this ; but as he lays aside his stick and budget, that he may 
open the box, she 

" Seized the walking-stick 
And struck him sharp a knock. 

" She struck the tinkler on the head, 
She struck him strokes full three, 
And ne'er a word he spoke or stirred ; 
The tinkler still lay he." 

Of her further adventures, and of how she married the 
Squire, I have not space to tell, the ballad consisting of 
sixteen double verses. A surname is Tingler. 

TIREMAN, a maker of ladies' tires, or headgear. 

TOLLER (Anglo-Saxon), the official who received the royal 
tolls at fairs and in harbours. As a surname it remains, 
also as Towler ; but possibly the latter may be a corruption 
of Toulousier, an adventurer from Toulouse. 

TOZER, or TOWZER, or TAIZLER. See under Tailor. 

TRIMMER, the provider of laces for garnishing the dresses 
of ladies and gentlemen. 

TUBMAN or TUBBER, a maker of tubs, a step in the social 
scale below the cooper ; hence the surnames Tupman and 
Tubbs. 

146 



THE TOWN : TRADE-NAMES 

TUCKER, one engaged in part of the process of woolmaking 
into cloth. Tucking mills were introduced in all wool dis 
tricts. The name takes the form of Toker, Tooker, and 
Towker. 

TURNER, spelled as a surname also Tumour. 1 

TYLER, tilemaker ; sometimes Tittler. 

VINTNER, sometimes as Vyner. 

WADMAN, a dealer in woad for dyeing. Wadster. 

WAINWRIGHT, a maker of carts or waggons. As a surname 
spelled Waynwright. 

WALKER. Cloth before the introduction of the roller had 
to be trodden underfoot. In Wyckliffe's version of the Trans- 
figuration he describes Christ's raiment as shining so as no 
" fullers or walkers of cloth " could whiten. Langland, in 
describing the process of cloth manufacture, says : 

" Cloth that cometh fro the wevyng 
Is nought comely to wear 
Till it be fulled under foot, 
Or in fullying stokkes, 
Washen well with water. 
And with taseles craccked 
Y-ton-ked and y-teynted, 
And under tailleurs hands." 

WATERER or WATERMAN, a boatman on the Thames. 

WAYMAN, a driver of wains. 

WAYTE, a watchman (Old French, guet) ; hence the sur- 
names Wade, Gates, Yates, and Wakeman. 

WEAVER, same as Webber and Webster ; sometimes Webbe. 

WHEELER, a wheelwright. 

WHITSTER, a bleacher of linen. Mrs. Ford says : " John 
and Robin . . . take this basket on your shoulders. That 
done, trudge with it in all haste, and carry it among the 
whitsters in Datchet mead." 

WHIFFLER, a piper. 

1 Some Turners pretend that the name derives from some imaginary 
Tour Noire. In early entries we have always le Tourneur, never de la 
Tour Noire. There was, however, a " Sire de le Tourneur " at 
Hastings. 

147 K i 



THE TOWN : TRADE-NAMES 

WHITTIER, a white Tawier ; one who prepares the finer 
skins for gloves, whitening them. Wheatman, Wightman. 

WIRER, a wire-drawer. 

WOOLER, a wool-monger, a collector of fleeces from 
farmers and yeomen. Also Woolner. 

It is remarkable, and admirable as well, to see how many 
of the descendants of quite humble tradesmen are now 
represented in the House of Lords. 

The Duke of Northumberland is actually no Percy, but a 
Smithson, and must recognize that his ancestor wielded the 
hammer at the anvil. Little can the nominal ancestor, " his 
brow wet with honest sweat," have imagined that his descen- 
dant would reign in Alnwick Castle. 

The viscounty of Strangford is now extinct, but that was 
held by a Smith disguised as Smythe ; but Earl Carrington is 
a Smith, though apparently not descended from a blacksmith, 
but from a goldsmith. The family seems to have pursued 
this trade and banking and money-lending till the middle 
of the eighteenth century. 

Lord Gwydyr is a Burvell, and his ancestor, judging from 
his name, was a weaver of coarse cloth, such as was sold 
only to labouring men. The ancestor of Lord Alverstone was 
a webster or weaver. Lord Ribblesdale's family ancestor 
a Lister must have been a wool-worker. That of the Mar- 
quess of Headfort, a tailor sitting cross-legged on a table, 
and no disguise of Tailor into Tayleur can obscure the fact. 
Earl Winterton is a Turner, dignified into Tumour, and the 
ancestor of Lord Castlemaine must have been a John the 
Cook in some nobleman's or squire's house, for the family 
name is Handcock. Earl Cowper derives his family and 
titular name from a tradesman who made drinking-mugs, 
and Lord Monkswell from a collier, who carried sacks of 
coals over his shoulder. If Sturt comes from the Anglo- 
Saxon Steort, then Baron Alington's family must have come 
literally from the plough-tail. 1 

A There is, however, a place called Stert near Devizes, and entries in 

the Hundred Rolls, etc., confirm the derivation from a place William 
de la Sturte, 1273. 

148 



THE TOWN : TRADE-NAMES 

As might have been anticipated, many domestic and other 
servants have climbed up their masters' backs, stepped over 
their shoulders, and installed themselves in their places. 

Baron Forrester and Viscount Massereene derive from 
salaried attendants who ministered to the pleasures of their 
masters in the chase. Barons Gardner and Burghclere 
derive from some worthy working man who, when engaged 
in the potting-shed or in manuring the soil, had no notion 
that a descendant would wear a coronet. Lord Bateman 
deduces, as the name implies, from the bear-warder in some 
castle, where he fed the brutes that were to be baited for his 
master's amusement. The Earl of Morley, as a Parker, 
must have had as ancestor one who looked to his lord's park 
and kept the palings in order ; so also the Earl of Maccles- 
field. The Earl of Harrowby, as a Ryder, had as an 
ancestor some German renter, who sold his sword for his 
entertainment and some plunder ; and Barons Napier and 
Ettrick and Napier of Magdala derive, as already said, from 
the official who looked after the linen for bed and table in a 
noble house. The ancestors of the Earls of Carrick, Glen- 
gall, Lanesborough, of the Marquess of Ormonde, of Viscount 
Mountgarret, and of Baron Dunboyne, were all butlers. 

Baron Calthorpe is descended from a maker of balls with 
spikes, used in war. Earl Summers had as his nominal 
ancestor a Sompner : 

" A Sompnour was ther with us in that place, 
That hadd a fyr-reed cherubyns face, 
For saweeflem [pimply] he was, with eyghen [eyes] 

narwe [narrow] 
As hoot he was, and leecherous, as a sparwe [sparrow]." 

So Chaucer describes the sompner, or summoner. The 
ancestor of the Earls of Leicester, judging from the name, 
was a Cook, whose place was not by any means in the House 
of Lords, but in the kitchen ; and that of the Earl of Shaftes- 
bury was a Cooper. 

Lord Teynham, being a Roper, must have drawn his 
family from one who was a cord-wainer, pacing hourly back- 
wards and dealing out the hemp that was being spun and 

149 



THE TOWN : TRADE-NAMES 

twisted, a monotonous toil from dawn to sunset, unlightened 
by a glimpse of the future in which a descendant would wear 
the six pearls and have as crest a lion rampant bearing a 
ducal crown. 

Baron Newland's ancestor was a hosier, who from behind 
his counter sold silk stockings to ladies and gents, and 
worsted stockings to farmers and domestics. 

If we chose to look among the Baronets, what a string of 
trade-names should we find ! 

There are six Smiths, one affecting the spelling Smyth, and 
one Smythe ; as many Walkers ; a Webster ; a Quitter ; a Poyn- 
der, a Poynter, both having the same meaning, a maker of 
points to hold the garments together we use buttons instead : 

" Fals. Their points being broken. 
Poins. Down fell their hose." 

King Henry IV., Part II., XI. IV. 

a Runciman ; a Spicer ; a Chapman ; a Tupper a hog and 
ram gelder ; a Naesmyth i.e., nailsmith ; a. Fender, or pindar ; 
a Loder, or water-carrier. Half a dozen hail from the Mill. 
Two Jardines derive from French gardeners. There are 
Forsters, Fosters, contractions from Forester ; a Fowler and 
a Falkener ; a Dyer ; two Cooks ; four Coopers, and one 
Couper ; an A shman, who prepared ashes for the soap-boiler ; 
and one Farmer. 

No pedigree of any of these families goes back to the 
original Smith or Tailor, Webster or Runciman, Cooper or 
Miller, but the name is an indelible stamp of a trade origin. 
Why any man should be ashamed of this I fail to see. The 
honest tradesman was a far worthier man than the loafer 
about the Court, and the hotspur who " kills me some six or 
seven dozen of Scots at a breakfast, washes his hands, and 
says to his wife : ' Fye upon this quiet life !' ' Yet I pre- 
sume there is some dislike of the fact, for the arms chosen 
never bear any reference to the trade of the name-founder of 
the family, and in a good many cases, where there is a trade- 
name, it is either wriggled out of or smothered by the 
addition of some more aristocratic and resonant name. 

And yet anyone who can be shown to have borne, or his 

150 



THE TOWN : TRADE-NAMES 

forbears to have borne, a name connected with a trade most 
certainly did spring from the shop or the factory. There 
can be no mistake about it. The name may be twisted or 
tinkered into Smijthe, Tayleure, Cuttlare, or what you will : 
it makes no difference. The Adam of each wielded a 
hammer, or patched the knees and seat of old breeches, or 
fashioned scissors or shield. In Germany no man is 
esteemed to be adel that is to say, can write himself 
armiger, a gentleman who has not a von before his name, 
and the old historic families can always be recognized by a 
territorial name preceded by von. We know, without con- 
sulting a peerage, that a Von Falkenstein or a Von Rabeneck 
has a pedigree of over eight descents, and had his seat in 
former days in a castle Falkenstein or Rabeneck, now in 
ruins. However, during last century a considerable number 
of Webers, Dreschlers, Gartners, and Schmidts were en- 
nobled ; but their names remain as permanent testimonies to 
their burger descent from a weaver, a turner, a gardener, 
and a smith. 

And they have no reason to be other than proud of the 
fact. Whilst the Vons were ravaging the country, and 
rendering the roads insecure for peaceful traders, the citizens 
within the walls of the towns were building up the prosperity 
of their country. 

" William the Conqueror divided England among the 
commanders of his army," writes an American, 1 " and con- 
ferred about twenty earldoms. Not one of them exists 
to-day. Nor do any of the honours conferred by William 
Rufus, 1087-1100; Henry I, 1100-1135; Stephen, 1135- 
1154; Henry II., 1154-1189; Richard I., 1189-1199; or 
John, 1199-1216. 

" All the dukedoms created from the institution of 
Edward III., 1327-1377, down to the commencement of 
the reign of Charles II., 1649, except Norfolk and Somerset 
and Cornwall the title held by the Prince of Wales have 
perished. Winchester and Worcester the latter merged 
in the dukedom of Beaufort are the only marquisates older 

1 " England and the English, "Scribner*s Magazine^ February, 1909. 



THE TOWN : TRADE-NAMES 

than George III. (1760-1820). Of all earldoms conferred 
by the Normans, Plantagenets, and Tudors, only eleven 
remain, and six of these are merged in higher honours. 
The House of Lords to-day does not number a single male 
descendant of any of the Barons who were chosen to enforce 
Magna Charta. The House of Lords does not contain a 
single male descendant of the Peers who fought at Agincourt. 
There is only one single family in all the realm Wrottesley 
which can boast of a male descendant from the date of 
the institution of the Garter (1349). In a word, the present 
House of Lords is conspicuously and predominantly a 
democratic body, chosen from the successful of the land. 
Seventy of the Peers were ennobled on account of distinction 
in the practice of the law alone. The Dukes of Leeds trace 
back to a cloth-worker ; the Earls of Craven to a tailor ; the 
families of Dartmouth, Ducie, Pomfret, Tankerville, Dormer, 
Romney, Dudley, Fitzwilliam, Cowper, Leigh, Darnley, 
Hill, Normanby, all sprang from London shops and counting- 
houses, and that not so very long ago. 

" Ashburton, Carrington, Helper, Overstone, Mount- 
Stephen, Hindlip, Burton, Battersea, Glenesk, Aldenham, 
Cheylesmore, Lister, Avebury, Burnham, Biddulph, North- 
cliffe, Nunburnholme, Winterstoke, Rothschild, Brassey, 
Revelstoke, Strathcona and Mount Royal, Michelham, and 
others too many to mention, have taken their places among 
the Peers by force of long purses gained in trade. 

" Lord Belper, for example, created in 1856, is the grand- 
son of Jedidiah Strutt, who was the son of a small farmer, 
and made wonderful ribbed stockings. 

" Wealth, however got, in England makes 
Lords of mechanics, gentlemen of rakes. 
Antiquity and birth are needless here ; 
'Tis impudence and money makes the Peer. 

* * * * 

Great families of yesterday we show, 
And Lords whose parents were the Lord knows who." 

In the names given before this quotation I have relied 
solely on the testimony of the family appellation, and have 
left on one side altogether such noble families as can be 

152 



THE TOWN : TRADE-NAMES 

proved by reliable pedigrees to have issued from the com- 
mercial class. If we were to add those known historically to 
have so risen to those known to have risen by the evidence 
of their names, it would be found that they make up the 
overwhelming majority of the aristocracy of the land. 

The prophet saw in vision the House of Israel as a boiling 
pot set upon live coals, and sending its scum to the surface. 
He was thinking of the " smart set " of the time. But 
England from the middle of the eleventh century has also 
been set on the coals ; but, unlike the House of Israel, it has 
sent its very best to the top, and often from the very bottom, 
and has brought down from above that which was worthless, 
there perhaps to recover and again to mount aloft. I have 
taken pains to show in the chapter on Battle Abbey Roll, 
and also in that on French Names, that there has been such 
a descent. There is nothing stationary in the social caldron 
all is in revolution, not violent, but gentle, natural, healthy. 
And be it further remembered that most of our humble 
tradesmen of old, those who gave their trade-names to their 
families, issued originally from the class of manumitted serfs 
and villeins men of English blood probably and then we 
can see for ourselves how that the down-trampled native of 
our isle has succeeded in reversing the condition of affairs : 
he is at the top, and the bearer of the Norman name is 
nowhere. 

Hear again what the American an outsider has to say 
on the subject of our nobility : " William the Conqueror 
was a bastard, and his mother was the daughter of a 
humble tanner of Falaise. The mother of the great Queen 
Elizabeth was the daughter of a plain English gentleman. 

" The Englishman would not be what he is, nor would he 
in the least be transmitting his very valuable Saxon heritage, 
if he gave up his democratic custom of an aristocracy of 
power for the feeble Continental custom of an aristocracy of 
birth. What the one and the other is to-day answers the 
question as to the relative merits of the two systems without 
need of discussion. The English, though nowadays many 
of them do not know it themselves, are the most democratic 
of all nations." 



CHAPTER VIII 

PLACE-NAMES 

CAMDEN says : " About the year of our Lord 1000 (that we 
may not minute out the time) surnames began to be taken 
up in France, and in England about the time of the Conquest, 
or else a very little before, under King Edward the Confessor, 
who was all Frenchified. . . . This will seem strange to 
some Englishmen and Scottishmen, which, like the Arcadians, 
think their surnames as ancient as the moone, or at the 
least to reach many an age beyond the Conquest. But they 
which think it most strange (I speak under correction) I 
doubt they will hardly finde any surname which descended 
to posterity before that time ; neither have they scene (I 
feare) any deede or donation before the Conquest, but sub- 
signed with crosses and single names without surnames in 
this manner : >J< Ego Eadredus confirmavi. >J< Ego Sigarius 
conclusi. >J Ego Olfstunus consolidavi, etc." 

This is true so far as that there were no hereditary 
surnames before about 1000 ; but there were nick, or descrip- 
tive, names in use, and appear in charters, but these were 
personal, and did not descend to the sons. 

The Normans who came over with the Conqueror brought 
with them the names of their estates and castles in Normandy 
and Brittany, or else some personal name, which they trans- 
mitted to their posterity ; or they held hereditary offices, as 
stewards, constables, marshals, from which they took their 
names and passed them on. Some had personal names, 
originally Norse, but altered through contact with French. 

" Under the feudal system," says Mr. Lower, " the great 
Barons assumed as surnames the proper names of their 



PLACE-NAMES 

seigniories ; the knights who held under them did the like, 
and those in turn were imitated by all who possessed a 
landed estate, however small. Camden remarks that there 
is not a single village in Normandy that has not surnamed 
some family in England." 

In Britain settlements by the Celtic freeholders took the 
names of the settlers. Tre, or tref, the house of, preceded 
the name of the man who built the house, as Trecarrel, 
Trevanion, Tremadoc. A church also took the name of its 
founder, as Llanaelhaiarn, Llancadoc ; but in far later times, 
when place-names were taken up as surnames, then we shall 
find a Henry de Trecarrel, a John Trevanion, and a David 
Tremadoc ; also the church might give a name to a layman, 
as in Cornwall, de Lanyon i.e., the Church of St. John. 

The Saxons and Angles also called places after their 
names. The English Chronicle is, of course, wrong in 
making Portsmouth derive from a settler named Port ; 
nevertheless, there is abundance of evidence that the new 
colonists did denominate many places after their own 
names. 

Wright, in his "History of Ludlow," says : " Many of the 
names of places, of which the meaning seems most difficult to 
explain, are compounded of those of Anglo-Saxon possessors 
or cultivators, and the original forms of such words are 
readily discovered by a reference to Domesday Book. . . . 
Names of places having ing in the middle are generally 
formed from patronymics, which in Anglo-Saxon had this 
termination. Thus, a son of Alfred was ^Elfreding ; his 
descendants in general were ^Elfredings or yElfredingas. 
These patronymics are generally compounded with ham, tun, 
etc., and whenever we can find the name of a place in pure 
Saxon documents, we have the patronymic in the genitive 
case plural. Thus, Birmingham was Beorm-inge-ham, the 
home or residence of the sons and descendants of Beorm. 
There are not many names of this form in the neighbour- 
hood of Ludlow ; Berrington (Beoringaton) was perhaps the 
enclosure of the sons or family of Beor, and Culmington 
that of the family of Culm." 



PLACE-NAMES 

In Northumbria and East Anglia the Danes had begun to 
settle from the seventh or beginning of the eighth century. 
They were of the same stock as the Angles, derived their 
royal race from the same ancestry, and spoke pretty much 
the same tongue. The Angles came from the modern 
Schleswig, and the home of the Danes was the island of 
Zealand, with the hall of the King and the temple of the 
national god at Leidre. A continual stream of Danes passed 
into the North of England. The Kings of Leidre demanded, 
and indeed exacted, scatt, or tribute, from the Northumbrians. 
At length, in 878, by the peace of Wedmore, the whole of 
the country north of the Watlingstreet the great Roman 
road that ran straight as an arrow from London to Chester 
was ceded to the Danes. In the Saga of Egill Skallagrimson 
we are told that at the time when he was in Northumbria 
i.e. y in the tenth century nearly all the inhabitants were 
Scandinavians on the father's or mother's side, and a very 
great many on both sides. 

The place-names in Yorkshire are largely Scandinavian. 
Baldersby, Thukleby, Grimsthorpe, Ormskirk, Greeta 
(Griot-a), the stony river, and a thousand others, point to 
the continuous occupation by the Danes and Northmen. A 
hundred and sixty-seven places with names ending in by 
have been reckoned in Yorkshire. In the same county are 
ninety-four ending in thorpe; twenty end in with i.e., wood; 
there are numerous royds, clearings in its woods. Lincoln- 
shire was also peopled with Danes. The conquest of the 
whole of England by Cnut, or Canute the Great, tended 
still further to introduce Scandinavian names (personal) into 
the land, but the grip on it was not sufficiently extended to 
affect place-names seriously beyond Northumbria and East 
Anglia. The islands, however, about the coast haunts of 
the Vikings mostly received and retained the names given 
to them by these Scandinavian pirates, as Lundy (Puffin 
Isle), Ramsey, Mersea, Anglesey, Brightlingsea (Brithelm's- 
ey), once all but an island. 

Iceland was colonized from Norway between the years 
872 and 890 by bonders of ancient pedigree and large posses- 

156 



PLACE-NAMES 

sions, who had hitherto held their land as allodial ground, 
and King Harald Fairhair insisted on converting all free- 
holds into tenures from the crown in feof. Rather than 
endure this, these men took their movable goods with them, 
their wives, children, and serfs, and migrated to Iceland, 
which was then uncolonized. 

Happily we have preserved a Landnamabok, or record of 
the settlement of the island, with the names and genealogies 
of all the emigrants, and what concerns us now, the names 
they gave to every place where they planted themselves. 
As the same procedure took place in England when Jutes, 
Angles, Saxons, Danes, and Northmen came into our island 
and settled there, this Landnamabok is to us very instruc- 
tive, and helps us to elucidate the place-names over a large 
portion of England, and through the place-names the sur- 
names derived from these places. 

In Iceland there has been scarcely any infiltration of foreign 
blood ; consequently, what the first settlers called their new 
homes retain the names unaltered to the present day. This 
has not been the case in England, and among us names have 
been altered and degraded almost past recognition. 

We find among the Icelanders that very generally, when 
a colonist planted himself on the soil and built a house, he 
called that new home after his own name. It was to record, 
to the end of time, who had first come there to dwell. But 
this was not invariably the case ; sometimes the settler was 
less ambitious, and gave to his new quarters a descriptive 
appellation. But, whether called after his name or descrip- 
tive, the name is double, the second portion signifying a by, 
or farm, a holding, a tun, town, a bjarg, or fortification. 

The subject of place-names is too wide to be dealt with 
here except generally, and would not be touched on at all 
were it not that so large a proportion of our surnames are 
taken from places. Nor is there need for dealing with such 
with anything like completeness, as Mr. Isaac Taylor has 
investigated the subject, and his books, " Words and Places " 
and " Names and their Histories," are accessible to all. In 
the appendix to the latter is a treatise on " English Village 



PLACE-NAMES 

Names." A few pages may, however, be devoted to place- 
names as affecting surnames, under Mr. Taylor's guidance, 
that those persons bearing such may have some understanding 
as to their significance. 

It is necessary to remember that place-names were in 
ancient times in an oblique case, usually the locative or 
dative, and in course of time names in this case came to be 
regarded as undeclinable nouns, or were themselves declined 
as nominatives. Thus Newton appears in Anglo-Saxon 
charters as Newantune, which is the dative singular, and 
the n has been retained in Newnton in Wiltshire. Elsewhere 
it lingers on in Newington, much disguised. Newanham is 
now Newnham. Heah (high) makes hean in the dative 
singular, and remains perceptible as such in Hampstead for 
Heansted. 

The dative plural ends in um. Thus hus, a house, forms 
husum, " to the houses," and this we have corrupted into 
Housham in Lincolnshire. Newsham is really New-husum, 
and Moorsholm is More-husum. Wothersome is Wode- 
husum, " to or at the Wooden Houses." 

The dative plural of cot is cotum, and gives its name to 
Coatham, near Redcar in Yorkshire, and Cottam in Derby- 
shire ; whence the surname Cotton. 

Botl is a building of boards, a log-hut. The plural is 
bodlum, " at the bottles ": hence Beadlam. H ilium, " at 
the hills," becomes Hillam ; and Wellum, "at the wells," 
becomes Welham. 

Consequently, we cannot always be sure that a place- 
termination in ham has the significance of ham (a home) or 
ham (an enclosure). 

The Anglo-Saxon burh (a fortified place) in the dative 
becomes byrig. Edinburgh is derived from the nominative 
case, but Canterbury from the dative; so also Salisbury, 
Amesbury, Shaftesbury. 

The following list of terminations is by no means exhaus- 
tive, but will be found useful i 1 

1 A.S. = Anglo-Saxon ; C. = Celtic; O.E. = Old English; Gk. = Greek ; 
O.N. = Old Norse ; G. = German; D. = Danish ; Lat. = Latin. 

158 






PLACE-NAMES 

ACRE always meant the cornland, ploughed or sown. It 
enters into many combinations : Goodacre, Oldacre, Longacre, 
Whitacre. Whitaker is a chalky field, or else one in which 
spar is turned up. In Devonshire such spar is called Whit- 
acre stone. 

ANGLE, a corner. Atten-Angle has given us N 'angle. John 
de Angulo, 1273 (Hundred Roll). 

BARROW (A.S. bearw), a wooded hill fit for pasturing swine : 
Mapleborough, Barrow-in-Furness. The dative plural is 
bearwe. In Devonshire it is the origin of many Beres. 
But " barrow " is also employed as a cairn or mound of 
stone, as Eylesbarrow, the Eagles' Cairn (A.S. beorh, a 
hill). 

BECK (A.S. bee), a brook; the German bach. " Beck " is 
still in common use in the North of England, as Kirkbeck, 
Holbeck. " Beckett " is a small beck. Gilbert-a-Becket took 
his name from Bee in Normandy, named from " bee " or 
brook hard by the monastery. 

BENT is an Old English name for a high pasture or 
shelving piece of moorland ; thence the names Broadbent 
and Bentley. 

" Downward on an hil under a bent 
Ther stood the tempul of Marz armypotent." 

Canterbury Pilgrims: " Knight's Tale." 

BERE or BEARE. See above, under " Barrow." 

BOLD, a built house, one of stone, when bothies were in 
general use, and halls of timber : Newbold. 

BOCLE (O.E.), a hill swelling out ; hence the names 
Bickley, Bickle, Buckle (G. bilchel). 

BOTH (A.S.), a booth or wooden house. Also Celtic bodd, 
a settlement, as Bodmin, the monastic settlement ; Freelody, 
and other names ending in bod and body. 

BOTTLE (A.S. boil), a diminutive of both. In the High- 
lands a bothie is so used ; in German we have W olfen-buttel. 
It occurs in Harbottle (the highly-situated bottle), Newbottle. 
Bolton is the tun containing a bottle ; Bothwell and Claypole, 
the bottle in the clay. 

BOTTOM (A.S. botri), the head of a valley. We have it in 



PLACE-NAMES 

composition as Sidebottom, Ramsbottom (the bottom where 
ramson or garlic grows), Winterbottom (the winding head of 
the valley). In Lancashire " hichin " is the mountain-ash, 
whence the name Higginbottom ; Shufflebotham for Sheep- 
pen-bottom. Also Bottome. 

BRIGG, a bridge : Philbrick, where it is altered into brick ; 
Trowbridge, Bridgwater, Bristol, for Brigg-Stowe. 

BURG (A.S. burh, in O.N. bjorg, D. borg, G. burg), a forti- 
fied place ; closely akin to berg, a mountain. It enters into 
many combinations, both in singular and dative, as Edinburgh, 
Newborough, Canterbury, Aldermanbury, and Carrisbrugh, 
corrupted to Carisbrooke. 

BERRY, a further corruption of burh : Roseberry ; found in 
the West of England at Berry Head, Berry Pomeroy Castle, 
and as a surname Berry. 

BREND, a steep declivity. 

BROOK, originally a morass, then a stream, a very common 
name. It occurs over and over again in the Hundred Rolls, 
as Alice de la Broke, Andrew ate Broke, Peter ad le Broke, 
Matilda ad Broke, Sarra de Broke, Reginald behind Broke, 
Richard apud Broke, Reginald del Broke (Bardsley). It 
would be absurd to suppose that all these Brooks belonged 
to one family. It was purely a designation of place where 
some humble individuals dwelt who had no surname as yet. 
Often we have Brooks. 

BUTTS. Near every town and village were the butts, 
where archery was practised. He who lived by it was 
"atten Butts." Some butts had special designation ; hence 
the surname Sowerbutt. Dr. Butts was physician to 
Henry VIII. 

BY (O.N. baer, byr; D. by, a farm), originally a single 
house, then came to be employed of a group of houses. 
Enters into numerous combinations, as Maltby (Malthouse), 
Enderby (Andrew's house) ; sometimes contracted into bee, as 
Aislabee. 

CAR (C. caer), a camp : Caer Caradoc, Carlisle, Car- 
marthen, Carhayes. 

CAR (O.N.), moorland: Redcar. 

160 



PLACE-NAMES 

CARN (C.), a pile of stones, sometimes over a dead man : 
Carnbrea, Carnmarth, Carnaby (the farm by the Carn). 

CASTER, CHESTER (Lat. castrum), as Lancaster, Chester, 
Exeter (Exanceaster), Chester-le-Street (the castrum on the 
Roman road). 

CLIFF, CLEAVE (A.S. clif) : Clifton, Topcliff, Rowcliff ; in 
Devon, Cleave, as Clovelly (Cleave-ley), and Lustleigh and 
Tavy Cleaves. Surnames Cleave, Clive, Cliffe. 

CLOSE, an enclosure. 

CLOUGH, a glen, used in the North ; hence Clowes. 

COMBE (C. cwm), a lateral valley ; very general in the 
West of England, Sussex, and Cumberland. A poet of the 
latter county says : 

" There's Cumwitten, Cumwhinton, Cumranton, 
Cumranger, Cumrew, Cumcatch, 
And many mair Cums in the County, 
But nin wi' Gumdurock can match." 

Coombe is a surname, also Westcoombe, Sutcombe, etc. 

COP (G. kopf), a head. In Wicklyffe's version of 
Luke iv. 29 we have : " And thei . . . ledden him to the 
coppe of the hill on which their cytee was bilded to cast him 
down." Hence the surnames Cope, Copps, Copley, Copeland, 
Cobbe, Cobley, etc. 

COT (A.S.), a thatched cottage, with mud walls. Draycott 
is the dry cottage. Woodmancott explains itself. Coatham 
and Cotton are from the dative plural. A Cotterel in Domes- 
day signifies a small cottage. In the North of England Cot 
assumes the form of Coate. Cot as a suffix sometimes 
becomes " cock," just as " apricot " becomes " apricox." 

CRAG (C. cryg), a rock, lengthened in the North into 
Craig. In the Old Scottish metrical version of Ps. cxxxvii., 
the verse " Blessed shall he be that taketh thy children and 
throweth them against the stones " is rendered : 

" How blessed shall that horseman be, 

That, riding on his naggie, 
Shall take thy bairns within his airms, 
And cast them 'gainst the craggie." 

The surnames Craike, Crayke, derive hence. 

161 L 



PLAGE-NAMES 

CRICK (A.S. eric), a creek ; not usual as a suffix, but 
found as Creech, Evercreech, Cricklade. 

CROFT (A.S.), a small enclosure ; hence the surnames 
Croft, Holcroft, Crofton. Bancroft is a beancroft. Haycroft, 
one hedged about. In the West of England corrupted to 
Crap, Lillicrap, the little croft. 

DALE (O.N. dalr) : Swaledale, Nithsdale, Borowdale. But 
Dalton does not signify the tun in the dale, but the tun 
divided in two by a brook. In one of the Robin Hood 
ballads we have : 

" ( By the faith of my body,' then said the young man, 
' My name it is Allan a Dale.' " 

Dale is often " dall "; Tindall stands for Tyne-dale. Udall is 
the yew-dale. Sometimes Dale is corrupted into " dow " or 
" daw," as Lindow or Lindaw. 

DEN or DEANE (A.S. dene), a wooded valley in which 
cattle might find covert and pasture. Hence the Forest of 
Dean, Ar-den, Rottingdean, Tenterden, Surrenden, Hazle- 
dene, Hawarden, Willesden, Brogden (the badger's den), 
Roden (that of the roe). Hoxton is really Hogsden. We 
have the surnames Deane, Oxenden, Sugden (a sow-den), 
Dearden, Denman (one living in a deane) ; also Denyer, that 
has the same significance. 

DINGLE, a depth of wood. In an Old English homily in the 
I3th century it is used of the sea-bottom. Surname Dingley. 

DUN (C.), a fortress, but also a hill: Dunmere, Furze- 
don, Hambledon. Surname Dunn. 

ECCLES (Gr.), a church : Egloskerry, Egloshayle, Eccles 
in Norfolk and Lancashire, Ecclesfield in Yorkshire, and 
Eccleston. All as prefixes. Eccles was the name of a 
musical composer of Purcell's time, and only second to him. 

EDGE, the brow of a hill, as Edgehill, Audley Edge. 
In names, for euphony, an I is sometimes introduced, as 
C^tmberledge, Depledge ; but it is possible enough that 
" ledge " may have been used as shelf on a hill. 

END. " A certain number of names . . . have arisen 
from a somewhat peculiar colloquial use of the term * end ' 

162 



PLACE-NAMES 

in vogue with our Saxon forefathers. The mode of its 
employment is still common in Lancashire and Yorkshire. 
The poorer classes still speak of a neighbour as dwelling at 
* the street end '; they never by any chance use the fuller 
phrase, ' the end of the street.' Chaucer uses it as a 
familiar mode of expression. The Friar, in the preface to 
his story, says slightingly : 

" ' A Sompnour is a rener up and down 
With mandements for furnication, 
And is beaten at every towne end. ' 

Numerous contributions occur in the Hundred Rolls as 
names: John ate - Bruge - end, Walter - at -Townshende, 
Margaret ate Laneande, Thomas atte Greavesende, etc." 
(Bardsley). 

Much dispute has occurred as to the meaning of the rubric 
directing the Priest at the Communion Service to stand " at 
the North side of the Table." This has been taken as a 
direction that he should be like Cheevy Slyme, " Always 
round the corner, sir." Had the Reformers meant this, 
they would have used the word end. An altar has a middle 
and two sides as well as two ends. We have the surnames 
Townend, Townshend, Towmend, etc. 

EY (O.N.), an island, sometimes a peninsula: Bardsey, 
Ely, Battersey, Mersea, Ramsey, Lundy. The A.S. ig (in 
the dative ige), a watery place, has the same signification. 
Sheppey in A.S. is Sheapig ; Ramsey, Ramsige ; Hinksey is 
Hingestesige (Hengest's island). 

FELL (O.N.fjall), a mountain : Scarfell. 

FIELD is properly a clearing, where trees have been felled. 
This enters into numerous compositions, as Somerfield, the 
field of the Somerlid, or Viking ; Suffield, the south field ; 
Haverfield, the field of oats. 

FLEET (O.N.fljot), a tidal estuary. The Norse, and the 
A.S. fliot, signify alike a place where ships can float. 
Swinefleet, near Goole, and Adlingfleet, a few miles lower 
down at the old mouth of the Don, are inlets which sheltered 
the ships of Sweyn and Edgar Etheling when their host 

163 L 2 



PLACE-NAMES 

marched inland and took York. Fleetwood is a surname ; 
Amphlet is "atten Fleet." 

FORD (C. fordd; A.S. ford), a way; only in a secondary 
sense signifies a ford across a river. The numerous places 
whose names end in " ford " often show how common fords 
were, and how scarce were bridges. Several fords are named 
after the river through which the ford lay. There are fifteen 
Stamfords, Stanfords or Stainforths where were stepping- 
stones. Coggleford was paved with cobbles. Staplefords 
were protected by piles driven into the bed of the stream. 
Twenty-two Sandfords or Samfords indicate sandy bottoms. 
Stratfords point to fords on old Roman roads. It must not, 
however, be lost sight of that a good many places ending in 
" ford " are on no river at all, or on tiny brooks, that could 
be stepped across. Such places take their names from the 
use of the word "ford" as a highway. In the West of 
England "ford" is often altered into ver Vitiver is the 
Whiteford, or white-paved highway leading across Dart- 
moor and above the head of the Webburn. Rediver is the 
Redford, also where is no stream. 

Ford may also be a modernization of the O.N. varftr, a 
place of protection and defence. And it is not possible in 
many cases, without local knowledge, to determine whether 
" ford " stands for road, ford over a river, or place of defence. 

FORTH (O.N. fjord), an arm of the sea; also Firth. 

FYRTH (A.S.), a forest, a retired glen where is to be found 
peace (frid) ; and this use of the word seems to have ex- 
tended farther. In the " Noble Art of Venerie " it is said : 
" There is difference between the fryth and the fell. By 
fells are understood the mountain, valleys and pastures, with 
corne and such like ; the frythes betoken the springs and 
coppyses." And in the " Boke of S. Alban's " we have 

" Wheresoever ye fall by frythe or by fell, 
My dere chylde, take heed how Tristram doth you tell." 

In the Craven dialect the word " frith " is still used to 
describe a tract enclosed by the hills, usually for a plantation. 
Thus we have the place-names : Chapel-le-Frith ; Frith in 

164 



PLACE-NAMES 

the parish of Forest, Durham; Fritham in the New Forest; 
and Frithelstock (a stockade in a frith) in Devonshire. Frith 
is still employed as a surname. 

GARTH (A.S.), an enclosed place ; hence garden, yard. 

GATE may mean a road, as Bishopsgate ; but also a barrier. 
Sometimes corrupted to yat: Ramsgate, Margate, Westgate; 
surnames Gates and Yates, Yeatman (the gatekeeper). 

GILL (O.N.), a ravine: Pickersgill, Fothergill. 

GLYN (C.), a glen, also Lynn : Glyncotty, Lynmouth. 
Used also as a surname. 

GOOLE, a canal. 

GORE, a ravine or narrow strip of land, usually three- 
cornered: Gorell (dim.), Gorham. 

GOTT, a watercourse equivalent to Goyt and Gut. 

GRANGE is given elsewhere ; hence Granger and Grange. 

GRAVE (A.S. graef), a ditch; also a pit for catching wild 
beasts : Stonegrave, Palgrave (a wood-lined pit). Falsgrave 
is the A.S. Wallesgrave. Waldegrave is a pitfall in a wood, 
or a woodsreeve. We have the surnames Greaves and Graves. 

GROVE (A.S. graf) : Broomsgrove, Boxgrove, Nutgrove. 
As a surname, Groves. 

HATCH and RACKET, a gate or bar thrown across a gap. 
A gate turned, but a hatch consisted of bars that had to be 
removed. Many indications of hatches remain in Cornwall 
and Devon notched blocks of stone, in which the bars 
rested. The name Balhatchet signifies the hatchet giving 
access to a bal, or mine. The surnames of Hatch, Hatcher, 
Hatchman, are still here. Hatchard in another form. Hatch 
was originally " atte Hatch." In the Hundred Rolls we have 
De la Hatche. 

HAL and HALE signify a corner. 

HALL and HEAL (A.S.), a slope. Tichenhall is Ticen- 
healh, the slope of the goat. Holton in Somerset is Healhton 
in A.S., the tun on a slope. Heale is a name of a place and 
a surname in Devon. Rushall in Yorkshire is the rushy 
slope. Willenhall is the slope of Willan. Hales signifies 
the slopes. Willingale Spain was Uulingehala, a hill-slope 
on which a soldier of fortune from Spain named Henry de 

165 



PLACE-NAMES 

Ispania settled. But it had an earlier settler called Willa, 
whose family was that of the Willings. Hall, however, is 
the aula of a manor as well, and has given its name to 
families, but probably not so often as the slope; for the 
family in the aula would be well known as manorial owners, 
and have their names, whereas the humble cotter on the hill- 
side would be a William on Healh or Richard Hall. 

HAM (A.S.) has two significations with the a long it 
signifies home ; with the a short it signifies a field enclosed. 
Burnham is the enclosure by the brook. Birmingham, on the 
other hand, was the home of the Beormings. Farnham is 
the field of ferns. Cheltenham is the enclosure on the Chelt. 
When ham is associated with a personal name, then it signi- 
fies the " home of." As we have already seen, it sometimes 
disguises the dative plural in um. Singularly enough, the 
Americans have reverted to the ending. Thus they have 
Barnum for Barnham. Ham is a common surname in 
Devon, and the rich, fertile land below Dartmoor to the sea 
is called the "South Hams." Hampshire is the shire of 
enclosures. 

HANGER is a hill-slope in the West of England, but the 
A.S. is hangra, a meadow : Halshanger in Devon, Birchanger 
in Essex, Clayhanger in three counties, Ostenhanger in 
Kent, Goldhanger in Essex ; also Ongar in Essex, called 
Angra in Domesday. 

HAUGH, pronounced Haff, is low-lying level ground by the 
side of a river. 

HAY, a hedge to an enclosure ; often a small park. 
Chaucer in " Troilus " has 

" But right so as these holtes and these hayes, 
That have in winter dead beene and dry, 
Revesten them in greene when May is ; 
When every lusty beast lusteth to pley." 

From this simple root we have the surnames Hay, Hayes, 
Haigh, and Hawis and Hawes, and in combination Haywood, 
Haworth, Plaughton. As a termination it gets reduced to 
ay, sometimes ey Fotheringay ; H alley, the enclosure on the 
hillside. 

1 66 






PLACE-NAMES 

HEAD, the upper end, becomes sometimes ett : Aikinhead, 
Birkenhead, Blackett for Blackhead, and Beckett, either the 
brook-head or the little brook. 

HEATH explains itself. In Hebburn we have it in com- 
bination a heath-burn. 

HERNE, any nook or corner that has been taken possession 
of by a squatter. Chaucer speaks of 

" Lurking in hearnes and in lanes blind." 

HEUGH, pronounced Heuhh, is a crag, a cliff. This word 
or " haugh " is liable to attract to it the s from the end of 
the foregoing word. Thus Earnshaw is Ernsheugh, the 
Eagles' Cliff. 

HOE (A.S. hoh), high ground : Langenhoe, Wyvenhoe, the 
Hoe, Plymouth. But it is difficult to say whether haugr, a 
cairn, may not have originated some of the heughs and 
hoes ; sometimes changed to " enough," as Goodenough is 
Goodenheugh. 

HYTHE (A.S. hyd), a haven, a wharf; hence the surname 
Hyde. 

HOLM (O.K.), a flat island. Duels were called " holm- 
gongir," because fought on islands. Flat Holme and Steep 
Holme in the Bristol Channel ; Holmes as surname. 

HOLT is the same as the German Holz, a wood or copse : 
Bergholt in Essex. Holt is a surname in Yorkshire. Becomes 
" shot" in composition occasionally, as Aldershot, Sparshot. 

HOPE (O.N. hop), an opening, a small bay ; also a gap in 
the hills or in a forest. " In Yarrow, almost every farmhouse 
is sheltered in a recess or hollow of the hills, and the names 
in ' hope ' are correspondingly numerous as, for instance, 
Kirkhope, Dryhope, Whitehope, etc. more than twenty in 
all. In Upper Weardale, Durham, we find another cluster 
of these names, such as Stanhope, Burnhope, Westenhope, 
Wellhope, Harthope, Swinehope, Rockhope, and Rollehope, 
the meaning of which is most transparent." Also Glossop 
and Heslop in Derbyshire, Worksop in Notts, and to the same 
source may be attributed Hopton. Hartopp is a surname, as 
is Hope. So also Blenkinsop and Widdop. It is also 

167 



PLACE-NAMES 

corrupted into ship. Nettleship is the nettle-overgrown 
opening in the woods. 

HOUSE (A.S. and O.N.), often contracted into us, as Aldus 
(the old house), Malthus (the malt-house), Loftus (the house 
with a loft). The tavern sign Bear and Bachus is a 
corruption of Beer and Bakehouse. Surnames Woodhouse, 
House, etc. 

HUISH (A.S. hiwise), a hide of land. 

HURST (A.S.), a wood, very common in Sussex : Brockle- 
hurst, a badger's wood ; Hazelhurst, one of hazel-trees ; 
Dewhurst, one of deer ; Lindhurst, one of linden-trees, all 
used as surnames. Stony hurst, Hurstpierpoint, are place- 
names. Hurst, alone, exists as a surname. 

INCH or INGE (C. ynys), an island. In Cornwall occurs 
the surname Enys. Hence also the surname Ince. 

ING (O.N. eng), a meadow by a river. It is difficult 
always to say whether the ending refers to a personal name 
or to a field. But in such cases as Ermington, Dartington, 
there can exist no doubt that these were tuns on the ings of 
the Rivers Erm and Dart. 

KELD (A.S. celd), a source of water. Hallkeld in Yorkshire 
is the Holy Spring ; Bapchild, near Sittingbourne, occurs 
in A.S. as Baccancilde, the source of a beck. Kildwick 
in Yorkshire is the village by the source : this has been 
corrupted into the surname Killick. The Anglo-Saxon is 
cognate with the German quelle, and Weldale, in Yorkshire, 
in Domesday appears as Queldale. 

KNAPP (A.S. cnaep), a hill-top ; hence our names Knap- 
man, Knopps, Knapton. 

KNOLL (A.S. cnoll), a small round hill ; hence Knowles, 
Knowlers, Knowlman, and Knollys, when not from Oliver. 

LADE (O.N.), a barn, but in A.S. a path : Ladbrook, Lade, 
Lathe, Laight. 

LANE. On the Hundred Rolls are numerous entries such 
as these : Cecilia in the Lane, Emma a la Lane, John de la 
Lane, Philippa atte Lane, Thomas super Lane ; so that, 
although a Norman family of L'Ane came over with the 
Conqueror, we cannot set down all the Lanes as his 
descendants. 

168 






PLACE-NAMES 

The author of a favourite hymn, " There's a Friend for 
little children above the bright blue sky," was a Mr. 
Midlane. 

LAUND, a grassy sward in a forest. From the O.N. lund, 
that signified a sacred grove. Chaucer says of Theseus : 

"To the Launde he rideth ful right ; 
There was the harte wont to have his flight." 

Hence our surnames Laund, Lands, Lowndes ; also the name 
Lund. 

LAW (A.S. hlewe), a hill : Bassetlaw in the North, Harlow 
in Essex, Oswaldslaw in Worcestershire, Cotteslow in Bucks, 
Bucklaw in Cheshire. But low is also employed of a grave- 
mound. 

LEET, LAKE (A.S.), a lead or channel for water made 
artificially; hence the surname Lake. 

LEE, LEGH, LEIGH, LEY, LEA (A.S. leak, m.), a fallow 
pasturage, but leah, f., signifies a rough woodland pasture. 
Local names being usually in the dative, lea for leak (m.) is 
nominally the source of the suffix ley. This word enters 
into endless compositions, as Stanley, Calverley, Wesley, 
Hadleigh, Berkley, Leyton, etc. It is found as a surname in 
all forms. There is a saying in reference to the extension 
of the name : 

" As many Lees 
As there be fleas." 

Low. See above under Law. 

LYNCH (A.S. Mine, a hill, a boundary) ; perhaps the same 
origin as the Northern links. 

MERE (A.S.), a sheet of water: Wittleseamere, Dosmare 
in Cornwall. Merton is a tun by a mere. Mere is, however, 
also employed as a boundary, so that Merton might also 
mean the tun on a boundary. 

MOOR, a name that explains itself, and gives surnames as 
Moore and More, Muir, Blackmore, Delamore, Morton, Morley, 
Moorhayes. Paramore is an enclosure on the moor (O.K. 
parren, to enclose). 

MOUNTAIN is found as a surname, probably brought in by 
the French emigrants. Also Mount. 

169 



PLACE-NAMES 

ORE (A.S. ofer and ora), the shore of the sea or the bank 
of a river (the German ufer) : Pershore, Edensore. Esher 
is Ase-ore, the ash-tree bank. Wardour, that gives a title to 
Lord Arimdel, is Weard-ora. The same word enters into 
the formation of Windsor. 

OVER (A.S. cfer), as above. An old poem, quoted by 
Halliwell, says : 

" She comes out of Sexlonde, 
And 'rived here at Dovere 
That stands upon the see's overe." 

It denotes the flat lands that lie along low coasts. Over, 
Overman, as surnames. 

NANT (C.), a valley : Pennant, the head of the valley ; 
Nankivel, the valley of the horse. 

PEN (C.), the head : Pendennis, the castle on the head- 
land; Penycomebequick, the village at the head of the 
combe ; Penigent, the white head. 

PITT, a sawpit, coalpit, or pitfall. Woolpit in Suffolk is 
the wolfpit. Fallapit in Devon, the ancient seat of the 
Fortescues, derives its names from a falling-into pit i.e., 
a pitfall for wild beasts. Mr. Lower tells the following 
story of a foundling christened Moses, and surnamed Pitt 
because found in a marl-pit. " Nobody likes you," said this 
crabbed piece of humanity to a neighbour with whom he 
was at strife. " Nor you," replied the other. " Not even 
your mother, who abandoned you." 

PLATT, low-lying ground. Now we speak of a garden 
plot actually plat. This word remains in surnames. 

POL (A.S.pol; C.pwll), a pool. 

" Pol, Tre and Pen 
Are the names of Cornishmen." 

Polwheel, Poldue (black pool). 

RAYNE, a boundary : Raine, Raynes i.e., one living at the 
bounds. 

RIDGE or RIGG (A.S.), generally applied to an old Roman 
road : Ridgeway ; A Idyidge, A Idrich the name At Ridg or At 
Rigg has become Trigg or Triggs ; Beveridge, Kimmeridge, 
A shridge. 

170 



PLACE-NAMES 

Ros (C. rhos), a heath : Roskelly, Penrose, Rosedue. 

ROYD (O.N.), a clearing in a wood ; German rode, as 
Gernerode, or Rente. Much used in Yorkshire: Kebroyd, 
Holroyd, Akenoyd (oak clearing), Ormrod (the clearing made 
by Orme) ; the Yorkshire family of Rhodes. 1 

RYE (A.S., hrycg), a ridge or bank of sand and pebbles. 

RYE (A.S. rith), a mountain stream. Shottery, Leather- 
head, is A.S. Chilla-rith, the stream from the source. 

RUPELL, a coppice : Philip atte Ruple, in Somersetshire, 
temp. Edward I. 

SEALE, SEL, SELE (O.N. sel ; A.S. seale), a residence or 
hall : Seal in Worcestershire, Zeal in Devon, Seale in 
Surrey, Selworthy ; surnames Selborne, Selby, Seale, perhaps 
Seeley ; Ingersoll, Plimsoll. Inger is the Norse Ingvar, a 
settler who called the seal or sel after himself. 

SCALE (O.N. skali), a wooden house : Winterscales in 
Yorkshire. Surname Scales. 

SHELF (A.S. scylfe), a ridge of land, a shelf : Raskelf in 
Yorkshire, a raw shelf above a morass. The saying is : 

" Raskelf without a steeple, 
Rascally church and rascally people." 

Bashall in Yorkshire is Bascelf in Domesday. 

SHAW (O.N. skog) is (i) A small wood or coppice; (2) a 
flat at the foot of a hill; (3) a boggy place by a river: 
Ellershaw, Painshaw ; but see what is said under Heugh, 
corrupted into shot, as Aldershot. 

1 The following passage from the Icelandic Kjalnessinga Saga 
illustrates what took place in the North of England, where the woods 
covered hill and dale : " All the Kjalness was overgrown with wood, so 
that it had to be cleared [royded], and men cleared [royded] for farms 
and ways. Soon much was cleared [royded] to the hills from Hof. 
There Helgi and Andrith cleared [royded] in spring. And when they 
came to the holt, then said Helgi : ' Here, Arnoth, will I give you land, 
and you shall erect a farmhouse [boer]." " Islendinga Sogur," 1847, ii., 
p. 400. The surname Ruddiman may not be descriptive of a florid 
countenance, but indicate a man who royded woodland, cutting down 
trees and stubbing up their roots. Mr. Rudyard Kipling takes his first 
name from a garth that has been so cleared. The Yorkshire Ridings 
designate the clearings effected. 

171 



PLAGE-NAM 

SIDE, employed for a mountain, as Great Wernside, 
Akenside, Garside. 

SLADE (A.S. slad), a steep of greensward between two 
woods or between two breadths of townland : Waterslade in 
Somersetshire, Slaidburn, Slaithwait, and Sledmere. Slade 
is a not uncommon Northern surname ; also Greenslade, 
Whiteslade. 

SKROGG, brushwood. The word occurs in the " Morte 
d'Arthur." Hence the surname Scroggs. A village in Dum- 
fries is so called. 

SLEIGH or SLEY (O.N. slethr), level land. The surname 
Slee may come from it. Sleeman is the occupant of a hold- 
ing on the Sley. 

STAPLE, a market : Barnstaple, Huxtable. 

SHORE and SANDS have furnished names to those dwelling 
by the sea. 

SOLE, a pond, a Kentish term : Peter atte Sole, Co. 
Kent, 1273 (Hundred Rolls). Surname Soley. 

STEAD (A.S.), a home : Hampstead, Ringstead, Green- 
stead, Felsted, Wellstead. Stedman is a farmer ; Westhead is 
the western stead. 

STREET, the paved highway. 

SYKE, a stagnant piece of water that soaks away and has 
no flow in it. Sykes is a surname. 

STOKE, STOWE (A.S.), a stockade : Tavistock, Basing- 
stoke, Stokesley, Stocton, Felixstowe, Bristowe (now Bristol) 
the stockade at the bridge. 

THORPE (A.S. ; D. torp ; G. dorf), a hamlet : Sibthorpe 
is Sigbert's village ; Langthorpe, Kettlethorpe. Thorpe 
is a common surname in the Danish districts of York- 
shire and Lincolnshire. In " The Clerke's Tale " we 
are told : 

" Naught far fro thir palace honourable, 
There stood a thorpe of sight delitable, 
In which the poor folk of the village 
Hadden their bestes and their harborage." 

Hence the surnames Thrupp, Winthrop or Winterthorp, 
Gawthorp, Calthrop, etc. Kirkup stands for Kirkthorp. 

172 



PLACE-NAMES 

THWAITE, the O.N. thveit, signifies an outlying paddock. 
Thwaites are mostly found in Cumberland, mainly on high 
ground, and seem to denote clearings. The compounds 
are numerous: Brathwaite (the broad thwaite), ThwaiUs, 
Applethwaite, Crossthwaite, Micklethwaite, Longthwaite, etc. 
Lily white is probably a corruption of Littlethwaite. 

TOFT (D.), an enclosed field near a farmhouse. The name 
is found in Iceland Toptavellir, the fields in the plains. 
As an ending corrupted to toe, as Shillitoe or Sillitoe. 

TOWN. See Tun. 

TRAVERSE, a cross-roads ; hence Travers and Travis. 1 

TREE (A.S. treow). Places are called after some peculiarly 
old and perhaps sacred tree. Thus we have Tiptree, Heavi- 
tree, Wavertree, Pichtree, Harptree, Plymtree. Till within 
the memory of old men in many places in Devon, there were 
" dancing trees " in villages, peculiarly cut at the head, on 
the top of which a platform was erected, upon which, on 
the occasion of the village revel, dancing took place, and 
about which the elders of the parish assembled to converse. 
This was a survival of religious homage paid to the sacred 
tree. In some names the treow has gone through corruption. 
Austey in Warwickshire was in Anglo-Saxon A dulfstreow , 
Eadulf s tree. Tree in an abraded form is found in Coventry, 
Oswestry perhaps but in this probably the Welsh tref is to 
be found. Sometimes " tree " becomes der, as in Mappowder, 
the maple-tree ; Langtree is the long tree. In Ireland, Kil- 
dare is the church of the oak. The Celtic tre or tref, " the 
homestead of," precedes the name of the owner, and rarely 
occurs as a suffix, as Trelawney, Trefry. 

TUN (O.N.), the enclosure about a farm, enters into many 
combinations, as ton and town. Brighton is Brighthelms- 
ton, Wolverhampton is Wolfardes-home-field. Chaucer 
says : 

" Then saw I but a large field, 
As farre as ever I might see, 
Without toune, house or tree." 

1 But there is a TreVieres in Normandy. 
173 



PLAGE-NAMES 

And Wyckliffe in his Bible, for " one went to his farm, 
another to his merchandise," has " one into his toune," and 
in the story of the Prodigal Son the citizen " sente him 
into his toun to feed swyn." In Iceland the tun is the field 
about the house, enclosed and manured. In Scotland it 
still has this meaning, and it had the same in Devonshire. 

TYE is a piece of common pasture. Surnames Tye, Tighe. 
Hugh de la Tye and Peter at Tye are met with ; hence 
Attye. 

WADE or WATH, a ford. 

WELL, a spring or source, enters into many combinations : 
Cholwell; Pinwell, from the custom of dropping pins into 
it; Halwell, the Holy Well; Loddiswell, Our Lady's Well; 
Greenwell ; Kettlewell, and its equivalent, Wherwell (A.S. 
hvor, a ewer) ; Cromwell, the crooked well ; Gulwell, St. 
Wolvella's well. In Devonshire a well is in the vernacular 
a willis. 

WICK, WYKE, WEEK (Lat. vicus), a settlement : War- 
wick, Greenwich, Berwick, Germansweek, Week St. Mary, 
Hardwick, Norwich, and many others. The surnames 
Weeks, Wykes, Quick, are from this. 

WHISTLE (O.N. kvisl), a small side-stream joining another : 
Birdwhistle, Entwhistle. 

WITH (O.N. vtti), a wood : Beckwith, Skipwith. 

WOLD, high open ground ; but WEALD, cognate with the 
German wald, is forest-land : Cotswold, Easingwold, The 
Weald of Sussex. 

WOOD becomes sometimes in combination Hood, some- 
times Good, as Thoroughgood is Thorolf s-wood. 

WORTH, WORTHY (O.N. varftr), a fortified enclosure or a 
small estate, as Beaworthy, Wolfardisworthy ; also Hepworth, 
Wigglesworth, Tarn worth. Charlesworth is the churl's worth ; 
it was looked upon as something insolent and out of place 
that a churl should fortify his hovel. Wordsworth is a 
reduplication a worth within a worth. 

WRAY, a corner set apart, as Thackeray, the place apart 
for storing thatch ; also Wroe. 

WYCH and WYKE (O.N. vik), a bay of the sea, or even a 



PLACE-NAMES 

tidal river. Thus Sandwich, Ipswich, and Droitwich (because 
of its salt springs). 

YAT, for Gate, a still common pronunciation ; hence the 
surname Yates. Byatt stands for By-yat, and Woodyat for 
Wood-gate. 

In " The Clerke's Tale " we are told that Griselda went 
"With glad chere to iheyate." 

And Piers Plowman says that our Lord came into the 
upper chamber through 

" Both dore and yates 
To Peter and to the Apostles." 

In the " Townley Mysteries " we have both forms. Jacob in 
his vision is represented as saying : 

" And now is there none other gate, 
But Codes howse and heven's yate." 

Those persons who took their names from places, prefixed 
to the place-name at, by, or of, that in documents are 
rendered in Latin or French ad, de, or apud, a la, de la, del. 

In the " Coventry Mysteries " we hear mention made of 

" Tom Tynker and Bettys Belle, 
Peyrs Potter and Watt at the Well:' 

And Piers Plowman represents Covetousness as saying : 

" For some Tyme I served 
Symme atte Style 
And was his prentice." 

Atten, really the plural form, got attached to the sub- 
stantive, as A ttenborough ; and then the A tie drops away, but 
leaves the n attached to the thing or place which is described. 
Thus Nokes is Atten-oaks, Atten-ey becomes Nye, and Atten- 
ash Nash. But more common is the retention of At. This 
gives us such names as Atwell, Atwood, Athill, Ethridge for 
At-ridge, Atterbury, Alley for At-lea, Atworth; sometimes 
reduced to t, and Atwell becomes Twells, and Atwyche is 
reduced to Twigge. 1 

1 Some of the many surnames formed with the prefix Atten or At are 
Abdey, at the Abbey ; Agate, at the Gate ; Amphlet, at the Tidal Fleet, or 

175 



PLACE-NAMES 

By remains as Bygrove, By wood, By field, By den. 1 

O/was once common. Clim of the Clough was a famous 
archer ; he soon became Clim Clough. Or else Of slid into A. 

The site of a man's cot was indicated by Under or Over, or 
Upper, Middle, and Lower or Nether. Thus we get the names 
Underhill, Underwood, Overbury, Overton, Uppcott, Upton, 
Upwood, Middleton, Medlicott, Middlemas, Netherton. Lower- 
moor changed to Levermore. 

But I shall have more to say on this subject in another 
chapter. 

The colour of wood, moor, lea, and well, etc., has given us 
the names Blackwood, Blackmore, Blakely, Blackwell, Black- 
burn, Blackall, Blackstone ; also Whitwood, Whitmore, Whitby, 
Whitwell, Whitburn, Whitstone ; also Redcliff, Redhill, Rugby, 
Radmore, Greenhill and Greenwell, Greenwood and Greendon, 
contracted to Grindon. 

Size comparative is also marked, as Micklethwaite and 
Littleton; also relative age, as Aldborough and Oldcastle, 
Newton and Newcastle. 

The points of the compass also enter into composition of 
place-names. But of these, also, something shall be said 
farther on. As England has been a place of refuge for all 
sorts of people, good and bad, who could not get on happily 
in their own country ; or else of peoples who came to oust 
the natives and take the land to themselves ; or, again, of 
mercenaries who arrived to serve our great Barons and 
Earls, and settled down on the land ; or else of merchants 
from abroad, who planted themselves to make money among 

River ; Afford, Achurch, and Atkirkj Atock, at the Oak ; At/end, at the 
Fen ; Attfield, Attwood, Attivater, Attivell, Atwick, Atworth, Attley, 
Atthill, Attridge, Attmore; Armitage, at the Hermitage. Besides these, 
At is to be understood in many names, as Ackroyd, at the Oak-clearing; 
Ackland, Appleyard, Ashe, Barnes, Barr; Birkett, at the Birch woodhead ; 
Browse, at the Brewhouse ; Backhouse, at the Bakehouse ; Hatch, at the 
Wicket ; Haives, at the Hawe ; and many more. 

1 By remains as well in Byford; Bidlake, by the Lake or Leet ; Byatt, by 
the Gate ; By ass, by the House i.e., the Great House ; Barkiss, at or by 
the Barkhouse ; Bythesea, Bywater; Biffen, by the Fen ; and it remains 
understood in many names as does At. 

176 



PLACE-NAMES 

us, such persons came to be designated by their nationality, 
probably as having no surnames of their own, or as having 
them unpronounceable by English mouths. Foreign mer- 
chants arrived in large numbers, and opened their shops in 
nearly every town. French, Flemings, Germans, English, 
jostled each other in the streets and knelt together in the 
same churches. It was not as at an earlier period, when, as 
in Exeter and at Colchester, there were two towns side by 
side, the one occupied by the native population, the other by 
the conquerors. The French especially began to form a per- 
manent element in the population of the town, and the 
fusion of races began to take effect at an early time, becoming 
more rapid and thorough during the reign of the Plantagenet 
Kings. 

Throughout the country the haggling at market and fair 
must have been carried on in English that was rapidly 
becoming spiced with foreign words. In the country places 
as well the French and Brabant soldiery mingled with the 
people, flirted with the pretty fair-haired, fresh-complexioned 
English girls, necessarily in broken English. Every 
Christmas, with its message of peace and goodwill, the Yule 
festival, with boar's head bedecked with holly and rosemary, 
the mummers and rapier-dancers, tended to bring together 
the native and the foreigner, and to make the latter forget 
much of his French tongue, and the former to acquire 
many foreign words. And with this the outlandish soldier 
and merchant came to feel very much at home in England, 
and, settling there, their children retained no smack of their 
alien origin, save the permanent surname only, indicative of 
whence they came. 

The following is a list of the principal surnames, more of 
these will be given in another chapter : 

ALMAIN, ALMAYNE, DALMAIN, from Allemagne (Germany). 
We have also as surnames from this source Lalleman, 
perhaps Dolman. 

BEAMISH is Boemish, Bohemian. 

BRIDGES, often from Bruges. Briggs occasionally ; also 



Burgess. 



177 



PLACE-NAMES 

BULLEN, from Boulogne. 

BRABANT, BRABAZON, from Brabant. 

BRAME, from Bremen. 

BRETT, BRETON, BRITTON, from Brittany. 

BURGOYNE, BURGAN, from Burgundy. 

CANDY, from Crete or Candia. 

CHAMPNEY, from Champagne. 

CHILDERS may perhaps come from Gueldres. 

CORNISH, CORNWALLIS, from Cornweales, Cornwall; 
acquired after the West Welsh were suffered to creep back 
over the Tamar, beyond which Athelstan had banned them. 

CULLEN, from Cologne. 

DANES, DENMAN, DENNIS, from Denmark. In deeds 
and Hundred Rolls we have So-and-so described as Le 
Danois. 

DOUGH, for Dutch. Skelton, in his " Parrot," says that 
besides " French, Lattyn, Ebrew, 

" With Douch, with Spanysh, my tong can agree." 

Hence the surnames Dowch, and perhaps also Douce, when 
not from the French. 

EASTERLING, corrupted into Stradling, a native of one of 
the Hanseatic towns. The pure coinage introduced by these 
in the reign of Richard I. gave rise to the expression Easter- 
ling or Sterling money. Hence our names Easterman, Oyster- 
man, and Easte. 

ESPAGNOL has become Aspinall. 

ENGLISH, in Scotch Inglis, a designation acquired, as 
already explained, in Shewsbury and on the Welsh border, 
also in Scotland. 

FLEMING. In Cornwall the French pronunciation of Fla- 
mand has produced Flamank as a surname. 

FRENCH needs no explanation. 

GALE is Gael, an Irish Scott. 

GANT, GAUNT, GENT, a man of Ghent. 

GASCOIGNE and GASKIN, from Gascony. 

GERMAINE, from Germany, corrupted to Jarman; but some 
Germains may derive from the name of the saint. 

178 



PLACE-NAMES 

GOTT, a native of Gothland, when not from a watercourse, 
or from Gautr. 

HANSARD, from one of the Hanseatic towns. 

HANWAY, HANNAH, from Hainault. 

HOLLAND explains itself. 

HOLSTEINER became Stayner and Hoist. 

JANWAY, from Genoa. An old poem, alluding to Brabant 
as a general mart, says : 

" Englysshe and French, Lumbardes, Jannoyes, 
Cathalones, theder they take their wayes." 

The Genoese coin was called a "jane," and hence may per- 
haps come our surnames Jayne and Jane, but also from Jean, 
John. Hall, in his Chronicles, speaking of the Duke of 
Clarence ravaging the French coast in the reign of Henry IV., 
says : " In his retournying he encountred with two great 
Carickes of Jeane laden with rych merchandise." 

LEGGE, a merchant from Lie"ge. 

LOREYN, LORING, from Loraine. 

LUBBARD, a Lombard. 

LUBBOCK, a merchant of Lubeck. 

MAYNE, from the province of Maine. 

NORMAN and NORREYS, a Northman ; but N orris is some- 
times la nourrice, the nurse. 

PAVEY, from Pavia. 

PICKARD, from Pickardy. 

POITEVIN, changed to Portwine and Peto, from Poitou. 

POLAND, POLLOCK, a native of Poland. 

' He smote the sledded Polack on the ice." 

Hamlet. 

POINTZ is from Pontoise. 
PROVINCE, from Provence. 
PRUSS, from Prussia ; now Prust, also Prosser. 
Russ, a Russian, possibly in some cases has become Rush 
and Rouse. 

SARSON, a Saracen. Skelton addresses one thus : 
" I say, ye solem Sarson, all blake is your ble." 

But the surname may come from the sign of the Saracen's 
Head. It is probable enough that some Saracen captives 

179 M 2 



PLAGE-NAMES 

may have been brought to England, but I am much more 
disposed to consider the surname as derived from the tavern 
sign. 

VENESS, a Venetian. There is a pretty English folk-song 
found on broadsides, but still sung by our peasantry, that 
plays on the interchangeableness of Venus and Veness. 1 

Such names as Scott, Spain, Welsh, Wallis, Wight, need 
no elucidation. I have not included in the above list the 
Norman place-names, or many that are French, because 
these will be dealt with later on. 

In the heart of Dartmoor lives, and has lived since the 
earliest records of the Duchy of Cornwall allow us to trace 
the family, one of the name of French. There can exist but 
little doubt that the founder of that family was a French- 
man. How came he into those inhospitable, treeless wilds ? 
Probably he was brought there by one of the Earls of Corn- 
wall to act as inspector of the tin-smelting at King's Oven, 
where the tin was run out of the ore and stamped, and the 
blocks counted for the revenue of the Earls, afterwards 
Dukes, of Cornwall. And it is near the King's Oven that 
the French family is still to be found, hale and vigorous, 
though the oven itself has been destroyed. 

I can remember a long-established firm of drapers named 
Flamank, an instance, probably, of the continuation in one 
family of the trade of the first Fleming who settled as a 
clothier in Cornwall. 

There are names that strike one as peculiarly grotesque, 
which are reducible to place-names. Such is that of Toplady, 
the author of the hymn " Rock of Ages." It is a com- 
pound name, made up of " toft " and " lade," and signifies 
the barnfield. Our Wagstaffe and Bickerstaffe have had 
nothing to do with staves, so far as to give them their 

1 " She was named the Virgin Dove, 

With a lading all of love, 

And she signall'd that for Venus [Venice] she was bound. 
But a pilot who should steer, 
She required for sore her fear, 
Lest without one she should chance to run aground.' 
1 80 



PLACE-NAMES 

names. Staff is a corruption of steth, or stead, a farm, and 
these 1 are Cumberland place-names. 

Goodbody and Truebody derive from a bothy, a wooden 
house or shanty. Sealy, Silly, Silliman, imply no idiocy. 
The names come either from the Scilly Isles, or from a 
" sell," or hall. 

Surnames ending in love have nothing amatory in their 
origin, but derive from some " lowe," hill or tumulus. It is 
very unjust to hold that all Lemans derive from a light wench, 
when the true derivation is from Le Mans in Normandy. 

Tothill has been derived from a totiller, a whisperer of 
secrets, but it is obviously a place-name ; and Drinkwater 
does not necessarily imply that the man who gave that name 
to his descendants was conspicuously temperate, but that he 
lived by a place where the river or stream was contracted 
to a dring. 2 The surname of Welcome is not descriptive of 
hospitality, but derives from the village of Well-combe in 
Devon, where the holy well that gives its water to flow 
down the combe is still the main supply of the village. 

There are names of counties borne by families that have 
migrated from one to another, as Essex, Devonshire, Yorkshire, 
etc., and very often a surname is none other than the name 
of the township, village, or hamlet, where a family resided or 
from which it had moved away to some other locality. 

Some place-names get corrupted when they become sur- 
names, as Adnam for Addingham, Swetnam for Swettenham, 
Debnam for Debenham, Putnam for Puttenham. But, 
indeed, such contractions are common everywhere where 
a place-name is long; as Lanson for Launceston, Daintry 
for Daventry, Brumigem for Birmingham, Brighton for 
Brightelmston, Kirton for Crediton, and even Lunnon for 
London. 

The name Affleck is really Auchinleck. Sir Edmund 
Affleck, created Baronet in 1782, was sixth in descent from 
Sir John Auchinleck. 

1 Falstaff, however, is an alteration of Fastolf. 

2 So we have the name Dringwell and the surname Thring. The 
German is dringen, and we have " to throng." 

181 



PLACE-NAMES 

Vowels get altered or permuted. Thus Annesley, a place 
in Nottinghamshire, as a surname has become Ainsley. 
Beaumont has been changed to Beeman and Beamont. 
Alchorne in Sussex gave its name to a family that has 
modified it to Oldcorn. Consonants get altered and aspirates 
dropped out or added. Ampthill has become Antill. Names 
whose suffix is cliff are liable to lose the c, as Antliffe for 
Arncliff, Cudliffe for Cutcliff. Broomhall has become Bram- 
mel, and then has degenerated to Bramble. Broomhill, an 
estate near Bude, has given a name to Brimmel, a photo- 
grapher in Launceston. Sometimes a letter is intruded, as 
Broadripp, from Bawdrip, near Bridgwater. One of the 
most curious alterations is Bon-enfant, that has become 
Bullivant. It is a change that we might well question had 
we not documentary evidence to prove it. This is not, how- 
ever, a place-name, but it illustrates the manner in which 
/ and n get permuted. 

In 1619 Sir Robert Mansell erected some glassworks at 
Newcastle, and brought to them foreign workmen. Among 
these was one named Teswicke. The surname has spread 
with surprising rapidity, and has assumed the form of 
Tyzack. 

Burghill in Herefordshire gives as a surname Berrill and 
BerylL There can be little doubt about it, as Robert de 
Berhulle appears in the reign of Edward I. Godalming has 
become Godliman. 

In dealing with surnames we must be careful to look 
through the old rolls and lists and registers, and note what 
was the prefix to a name at the period when surnames were 
in the process of formation. Where we find a de before 
a name, we may be quite sure that that name belongs to 
a place, although we may not be able at once to find the 
locality on the map, not knowing in which county to look 
for it. But when the name is preceded by le, then we know 
for certain that it indicates a trade or profession, or is 
descriptive. 

When we find in the Court Rolls of Edward III. Henry 
del Mosse, and in a Yorkshire poll-tax of 1379 Robert de 

182 




PLACE-NAMES 

Mos, we know that these men took their surnames from some 
moss or moor ; but otherwise we may assume that Moss is 
a contraction for Moses, adopted by those of Jewish lineage. 1 
If we find a Thomas de Motlawe in 1379, we know that 
there must be somewhere, though we cannot put our finger 
on the spot, a place called Motlawe or Motley ; but if we 
come across a Gilbert le Motley, we know that he was a 
jester. In the first year of Edward III. we notice an entry 
of Robert de Mutone among the Post-Mortem Inquisitions, 
and we know that there was a place called Muton, whence 
Robert came ; but when in the same Inquisitions we light on 
Philip le Mutton, we know that he was called after a sheep. 
We might have confidently assumed that the Allansons 
were descended from an Allan, but in some cases the name 
stands for Alengon. We meet with a John de Alen9on in 
the reign of Richard I., a Robert de Alenson in 1220, and 
Hubert de Alezon was Sheriff of Norfolk in the reign of 
Henry III. 

1 Mosse fil. Jacobi, the Jew (Hundred Rolls, 1273). 



183 



CHAPTER IX 

ANGLO-SAXON NAMES : DOMESDAY 

A SENSE of sadness steals over the mind as we note the 
disappearance of the spring flowers, and the appearance in 
their room of the monotonous summer blooms, mostly 
yellow, and none with the charm of those that gladdened 
heart and eye in May. There is a banality in their forms 
and colours. And it is with some feeling akin to this that 
we observe how after the Conquest the rich and varied 
crop of Anglo-Saxon names disappears, and makes way for 
Toms and Dicks and Harrys in wearisome iteration. I have 
already quoted Mr. Freeman on this theme ; I will now 
quote Mr. Bardsley : 

" Throughout all the records and rolls of the twelfth and 
thirteenth centuries we find, with but the rarest exceptions, 
all our personal names are Norman. The Saxon seems to 
have become wellnigh extinct. There might have been a 
war of extermination against them. In an unbroken 
succession we meet with such names as John or Richard, 
Robert and Henry, Thomas and Ralph, Geoffrey and 
Jordan, Stephen and Martin, Joscelyn and Almaric, Benedict 
and Laurence, Reginald and Gilbert, Roger and Walter, 
Eustace and Baldwin, Francis and Maurice no Harold even, 
saving in very isolated cases. It is the same with female 
names. While Mabel and Matilda, Mirabella and Avelina, 
Amabilla and Idonia, Sibilla and Ida, Letitia and Agnes, 
Petronilla or Parnel and Lucy, Alicia and Avice, Alienara 
and Anora, Dowsabelle, Clarice and Muriel, Martha and 
Rosamund, Felicia and Adelina, Julia and Blanche, Isolda 

184 



ANGLO-SAXON NAMES 

and Amelia or Emelia, Beatrix and Euphemia, Annabel and 
Theophania, Constance and Joanna abound, Ethelreda, Edith, 
and Ermentrude are of the rarest occurrence, and are the 
only names which may breathe to us of purely Saxon times. 
In the case of several, however, a special effort was made 
later on, when the policy of allaying the jealous feeling of 
the popular class was resorted to. For a considerable time 
the royal and baronial families had, in their pride, sought 
names for their children from the Norman category mainly. 
After the lapse of a century, however, rinding the Saxon 
spirit still chafed and uneasy under a foreign thrall, several 
names of a popular character were introduced into the royal 
nursery. Thus it was with Edward and Edmund. The 
former of these appellations was represented by Edward I., 
the latter by his brother Edmund, Earl of Lancaster." 1 

It was not all at once throughout Europe that the old 
names were abandoned and a fresh series adopted, either 
from the calendar or from those employed by the ruling 
caste. 

In 991, at Rheims, assembled Bishops and Archbishops in 
council : Guido de Soissons, Adalbero of Laon, Herveius 
of Beauvais, Godesmann of Amiens, Radbod of Noyon, Odo 
of Senlis, Archbishop Adalbert of Bourges, Walter of Autun, 
Bruno of Langres, Milo of Macon, Archbishop Siguin of 
Sens, with his suffragans, Arnulf of Orleans and Hubert of 
Auxerre. Among these thirteen Bishops there is not to be 
found one who does not bear a Teutonic name. Guido is 
Wido and Herveius is Heriwig, both latinized that is all. 

But now mark the difference. At Christmas, 1171, Henry 
Courthose, son of Henry II., held his Court at Bayeux. 
It occurred to two Williams, the Seneschal of Brittany and 
the Governor of Normandy, to exclude from the outer hall 
every guest who was not named William, and they were 
able to admit 117 knights of that name, and this was in 
addition to the Williams who sat at table with the young 
King. This showed how popular a single name had become, 

1 "English Surnames," pp. 18, 19. 
185 



ANGLO-SAXON NAMES 

and how men had got to follow a cut-and-dried system and 
abandon the creative name period. 

To give anything like a complete list of Anglo-Saxon 
names would take up too much space, 1 but I will give in the 
Appendix a list of the tenants in the time of Edward the 
Confessor not, indeed, complete, for some have to be 
omitted in order to keep it within reasonable limits but 
sufficient to afford an idea of what Anglo-Saxon nomenclature 
was ; and it is of interest to us, as in it we are able to trace 
the germs of a good many of our modern surnames. 

But it must be borne in mind, in examining the list, that 
the scribes were not English, but were Normans, following a 
phonetic and arbitrary, and by no means an etymological, 
rule. The Sbern repeatedly entered shows that they did not 
catch the letter o with which the name began, as Osbern, 
because lightly sounded. Biga occurring as a name several 
times is not a name at all, but signifies a cart, and describes 
the man as a carrier. The Cocus is a cook ; a Croc indicates 
the man as a hunchback. Among the Normans we have 
a Radulf de Curva Spina. 

Some other entries as names are not personal names at 
all, as the numerous Bonds, but descriptive of their tenure of 
land as freeholders. Gamel and Gamelcarle describe old men 
as such, without giving any personal name. The numerous 
Blacks and Whites are descriptive of appearance. 

Felaga, found in Essex, signifies a companion, a fellow, 
and the numerous Dons are Domini (Masters). So-and-so 
was known to those who appeared before the Commissioners 
as Masters ; they were spoken of as Masters. If they had any 
personal names, such were not known to those who gave 
evidence. Certain of the names that will be noticed in the 
list are recognizable at the present day as surnames. But, 
as already said, it is hard to account for this, as such an 
interval exists between Domesday and the taking of hereditary 
surnames by the middle and still more by the lower classes 
of the English people, unless we accept the theory that 

1 A complete list is given by Dr. Barber in "British Surnames"; 
another list is in W. De Gray Birch's " Domesday Book," S.P.C.K., 1887. 

1 86 



ANGLO-SAXON NAMES 

these came from place-names, with the termination allowed 
to slip out, such as denoted residence at the place, as 
Thorlogaboe would give Thorlogsby and then Thurlock. In 
Cornwall, at the time of Edward the Confessor, was an 
under-tenant named Jaul, and Joll is a family name in the 
county to this day. Aluric may possibly remain, altered 
into Aldrich, though this latter more probably derives from 
residence beside an old ridgeway, or road. Alward continues 
among us as Aylward. Ardgrip is found several centuries 
later in Parliamentary writs as Hardgripe. Aseloc is a 
mistake for Havelock. Baco we have in many Bacons 1 , and 
Bar as Bear, variously spelt : perhaps it stood for Beere. 
Bill is still present, and Boda as Body, and Bou as Bow, 
Brodo as Brodie, Cava as Cave. Celcott was the ancestor 
of the Chilcotts, Clac of the Clacks, Couta of the Courts, 
Doda of the Dodds, Don of the Donnes maybe. Epy may 
have given his surname to Uriah Heep ; Felaga certainly 
has to Fellowes. Gamel is still represented in Yorkshire. 
Gos was the name now Goss. Gribol had his representa- 
tives in my time in a grocer at Tavistock named Gribble. 
Jalf was the forbear of the Jelfs. Juin or Juing, which 
was the Norman scribe's rendering of the reverse of 
Gamel, was the Young of his day. Kee is now Kaye. 
Lewin carries his name unaltered from the time of Edward 
the Confessor to that of Edward VII. It is the French 
way of writing Leofwin. Finns and Phinns are here still, 
so are the Rocks, and the Salmons, from Salomon, and the 
Osborns and the Seawards, for Syward. Snellinc in 
Domesday was the nominal ancestor of the Snellings of 
to-day, Ster or Stere of the Steeres, Thorlog of the 
Thurlows, Wadelo of the Waddiloves, Whelp of the Helps. 
Tor, who was in Yorkshire before the days of the Conquest, 
is there still as Torre. Tovi, found in Hampshire, has his 
representative now in Toovy, also in Dovey. Col and Cole 
have supplied us with plenty of Coles. Ulward gives us 
Willard, and Cruk is the ancestor of many Crookes. 

1 But this is a Norman, not a Saxon, name. Edward the Confessor 
drew many Normans to his Court, and gave them land in England. 

187 



ANGLO-SAXON NAMES 

Among those whose names are given in Domesday is a 
Brand among under-tenants, and a Brand now furnishes us 
with his extract of beef. A Radmore was in Devon before 
William showed his face in England, and I knew a coach- 
man of that name in Devon a couple of years ago. The 
Bolle found in Hampshire is the father of the name of the 
present family of Bowles, and Dolfin of Derbyshire of the 
modern Dolphins. 

Now, it is quite true, as Mr. Bardsley says, that Christian 
names after the Conquest were no longer Saxon, but 
Norman. Yet there must have been a clinging by men of 
English blood to the old names borne by their forefathers, 
and, although they might no longer give them at the font to 
their little ones, and they no more appear in registers and 
deeds, yet possibly they were preserved as pet names or used as 
Christian names, treasured as family relics, some to come forth 
and be assumed when the time arrived when the assumption 
of hereditary family names became customary. With what 
tenacity Northern people held to a nomenclature to which 
they were familiar may be gathered from the Dane Guth- 
rum, who was baptized in England in 878 by the name of 
Athelstan. He received that name at the font, and speedily 
shed it ; he was never after known by other than his old pagan 
designation of the Divine Serpent. Another instance may 
be taken from the occasion of a revolt of the Swedes against 
their King Eric, in 1018, when they elected his son Jacob 
to be their King in his father's room, but absolutely refused 
to allow him to bear his baptismal name, and insisted on his 
calling himself, and being called, Oenund. That the 
English people were quite as unwilling to abandon wholly a 
class of names endeared to them by tradition, and to adopt 
others that pertained to the Latin races and to the Hebrews, 
we can well believe. They had their children baptized with 
a Norman or ecclesiastical name, but in the depths of their 
hearts, in the treasure-house of their memories, lay the old 
name of the dear ancestor who was evicted from his hall, 
and robbed of his acres, and degraded from being a Thegn 
or a Hauld to being a tenant-farmer. I remember once a 

1 88 



ANGLO-SAXON NAMES 

small lodging-house keeper in Shepherd's Bush showing me 
a miniature of her grandfather, who had been a naval Lieu- 
tenant. He was a gentleman, she said, and had married a real 
lady. But misfortune had fallen on their offspring, and now 
his descendant had her meals in the kitchen with the servant 
down the area ; but every day she looked at the miniature of 
the grandfather " who was a gentleman," and showed it to 
every visitor with a flutter of colour in her cheek. And so 
with the dispossessed Anglo-Saxons. They stored in their 
memories the names of the freeholders who were driven out, 
but whose ancestors for many generations had been free- 
holders before them. And by degrees, as time went on, the 
name was produced, and when the Anglo-Norman lord flour- 
ished his name, taken from a poky little castle in Normandy, 
where now he owned not a chair to sit on, the tenant-farmer 
held up his head, and said : " And I, too, have a name and 
a name to be proud of the name of the last Childe, or 
Wake, or Hauld, or Bonder, or Thegn, who had none above 
him but the King." 

And I suppose that this is the explanation of the fact 
that a certain number of Saxon names do remain amidst us 
as hereditary surnames ; and prouder should those be who 
bear them than such as flourish the names of the Norman 
conquerors, for these last are representatives of a violated 
right, and the former represent the victims of outrage and 
robbery. But, in addition to personal names adopted as 
family names, we have among us such as represent condi- 
tions of life and tenure of land among the Anglo-Saxons 
that came to an end with the Conquest. 

An honoured name among us is that of Childe that of the 
great banker. 

The title of Childe was held by the eldest sons of Thegns, 
and represented them as heirs to their father's honours and 
possessions. Then came the Conquest, and the Childes of 
1066 were smitten out of their rights, and lost all their 
expectations glad, indeed, if suffered to build a cottage on 
some untilled portion of what was once their ancestral 
domain. The old Thegn had died, either on the field of 

189 



ANGLO-SAXON NAMES 

Senlac or of a broken heart at seeing the ruin of his family. 
Generation followed generation, and his descendants looked 
on the hall that had been theirs, on the lands that had 
belonged to them, on the serfs that had once done their 
bidding, and they called themselves either after the dis- 
possessed Thegn or the Childe who had reared the new 
habitation, and begun to break up the moorland accorded to 
him by the Norman intruder. Thus we have our Thynnes 1 
and Childes ; thus also our Bonds. The Haulds, also free- 
holders, have given us Olds and Holds ; and the Lagman, who 
of old sat in the Witenagemot, has left his titular name to 
the Layman of to-day. 2 There is, I take it, something 
pathetic in this picture of a family looking back to, and 
clinging to, the memory of its ancient dignities, of which it 
had been despoiled. 

1 The Thynnes of Longleat have, however, a different origin, accord- 
ing to the story, true or false probably the latter. 

2 The Lagman was one with a knowledge of the laws, but in the reign 
of Swerrir of Norway (1182-1202) Lagman became a title equivalent to 
Judge, Justiciary. 



190 



CHAPTER X 



THE " Book of Life " of Durham Minster is of exceptional 
value for the study of the development of surnames. It is a 
catalogue that was kept from the ninth century, of benefac- 
tors to the Church of Durham, ending only with the 
Reformation and Dissolution. 

A writer in 1672 on " The Ancient Rites and Monuments 
of the Monastical and Cathedral Church of Durham " thus 
describes the book : " There did lie on the High Altar an 
excellent fine book, very richly covered with gold and silver, 
containing the names of all the benefactors towards St. Cuth- 
bert's Church, from the very original foundation thereof, 
the very letters of the book being, for the most part, all 
gilt ; as is apparent in the said book to this day. The laying 
that book on the High Altar did show how highly they 
esteemed their founders and benefactors, and the quotidian 
remembrance thus had of them in the time of Mass and 
divine service. And thus did appear, not only their gratitude, 
but also a most divine and charitable affection to the souls 
of their benefactors, as well dead as living ; which book 
is still extant, declaring the said use in the inscriptions 
thereof." 

The volume is described on the title as the " Liber Vitse " 
of the Church of Durham. The fact of the benefactors' 
names being recorded in the book was coupled with the 
hope and the prayer that the same might at the last find 

191 



SCANDINAVIAN NAMES 

a place in the " Book of Life," in which are recorded those 
who shall be entitled to eternal salvation. 1 

The manuscript itsalf is one of peculiar interest, from the 
manner in which it is written. From the commencement, 
at folio 12 to folio 42 it is executed in alternate lines of gold 
and silver, written in a handwriting of peculiar elegance, the 
precise age of which it is not easy to decide, but which may 
probably be referred to the ninth century. From that 
period downwards to the Dissolution it is continued in 
various hands, each less elegant than that which pre- 
ceded it. When the volume was commenced, it was so 
prepared as to admit the names of benefactors being arranged 
according to rank ; but at a subsequent period, as un- 
occupied parchment grew scarcer in the volume, the scribes 
from time to time took advantage of any blank spaces that 
might occur, and entered there the names of those bene- 
factors who were far more recent. Hence the list is not 
chronologically sequent, and to read it aright demands 
that these additions should be distinguished from the text of 
the earlier writer. This, however, can be done, because the 
style of writing in the different centuries varied considerably. 

The earlier names are almost all either Angle or Scandi- 
navian, with a sprinkling of Celtic. A recent student has 
examined the list, and has sought to discriminate between 
those that are Anglo-Saxon, those that are Danish, and such 
as are Norwegian. Those which are Celtic can at once be 
detected, but it is very doubtful whether it is possible so 
nicely to separate such as are Norse from such as are 
Danish. 

After the Norman Conquest occur occasional Norman 
names, and these become more frequent as time goes on. 
These latter are the sole that can be called surnames till a 
much later period. In the earlier centuries the names are single 
and simple, and with great rarity does a man bear a Biblical 
name or one derived from the calendar of the Church. 
Even monks and clergy clung to the old names, so easily 

1 "Liber Vita Ecclesiae Dunelmensis " (Surtees Society publication), 
1841. 

192 



SCANDINAVIAN NAMES 

and so richly formed out of the native tongue, and shrank 
from the banality of turning to the calendar for the nomen- 
clature of their children. Here, for instance, is the list of 
the anchorites in priest's orders : 

(Edillwald, Vermund, Baldhelm, Peligeld, Wigbert, Haemgils, Eadwald, 
Herebert, Boisil, Herefrid, ^Ethwin, Eadhelm, Balthere, Tilwin, Fronka, 
Aldbert, Echha, Tilfrith, Alhaeth, Augustinus, Bilfrith, Hadured, Wil- 
thegn, Garwulf (/.*., Werewolf), Cuthred, Wulfsig, Hadumund, Wigbert. 
But a single saintly name amongst them Augustinus. 1 

Among the Abbots in priest's orders are given sixty-seven 
names ; one alone among them is Scriptural Elias ; none 
from the calendar. 

If this were so among monks and clergy, it may well be 
supposed that the laity clung to their traditional vernacular 
names. 

On folio 246 we have sixty-three pure Angle or Scan- 
dinavian names, and then come these : Osbert son of 
William, Matthild, Robert and Hugo, Isabel, Thomas, 
Emma, John, Ulard, Cecilia, John, Richard, Alice, Walter, 
Robert, Nicolas, Thomas. We know at once that these 
belong to a later period ; in fact, they are an insertion of 
the thirteenth century. 

Observe that among all these even then there is no trace 
of a surname. 

When in the list of benefactors of the twelfth century we 
find that Biblical and French Christian names are creeping 
in and displacing those that are more ancient and vernacular, 
then also we see that the germs of surnames appear. 
Here is the list of assistant monks (fol. 52) : 

Wido, Robert, three Williams, Henry of Addington, Galfrid, William 
Benignus and Eva his wife (this a monk !), Edward, John, Adam, Henry, 
Robert, Richard, Margaret (how comes she en cette gattre .?), Sweyn, Olaf, 
Hedbald, William de Grenville, Walter Carvi, Patric of Paxton and 
Patric of Hoveden, Richard, Gamel (priest of Coldingham), Walter of 
Querendon, Robert the Provost, Brother yElward, Thomas of Bishopton, 
Albert of Mandeviile, Robert of Bollesdon, Ulkill, Colban, Hyun, Henry 
the Sewer, Adam, Alfin, Richard Gur', Gilebert Halsard, William the 
Pistor, Augustine, Hugh, Roger, David, Stephen the Medicine Man, etc. 

1 I have slightly modernized the spelling of the names. 
193 N 



SCANDINAVIAN NAMES 

We have three Williams, entered one after the other, 
without any distinction. We have also several Roberts. 
Clearly, it was expedient to give them distinguishing names, 
either nicknames or surnames. 

On folio 53 are 193 names, and the writing is of the 
thirteenth century, with some exceptions, to be noted 
presently, that are of the fifteenth. Among all these there 
are forty-three described as "of" such and such a place, 
but some of these are only " Priors of," and two are 
" de Brus " i.e., de Breos or Bruce. There are some 
entered as sons of So-and-so, but there is no indication that 
such was a surname. But there are a few surnames Roger 
Muref, William Walais (i.e., Wallace), Roger Pauper (Poor), 
Hugh Bard, Robert Watkynson, Bartholomew Peck, Master 
John Abegeis, William, Earl Marshall, and Alexander and 
Gilbert Marshall, Roger Gernet of Hawton and Roger 
Kernet of Burch, William Tredweuge, Alan, Matilda, Henry 
and John Colstan, William Faber (the smith), William 
Halywell, and William Warcworth. In this same list in 
which the family of Colstan appears, with a distinct sur- 
name attaching to each member, occur three Johns without 
anything to particularize them, one after the other. Four- 
teen genuine surnames among 193 individuals without. 

Let us next take folio 56, which is of the thirteenth and 
fourteenth centuries. Here we progress somewhat. We 
get these : Thomas Henknoll, Hugh Muchante (is this a 
misprint for " merchante " ?), William Rodum, Robert Butt, 
Thomas the Ditcher (" fossor "), Thomas Keylgarn, Thomas 
Launcel, Henry Lovechild (i.e., bastard), Thomas Daylle, 
Robert Johnson, Richard Atkynson, Robert Hughalt, 
Gilbert Hansard, Osbert Giffard, William Deu, Ulkill the 
Fuller, Geoffrey Picot, John Cutler, John Billerby, and 
John Thirlwath. These three last are additions of the 
fifteenth century. Now here we have Johnson and Atkynson 
become surnames, distinct from the entries of " films." In 
this series the number of references to places whence the 
benefactors came is largely increased, but there still remains 
a residue of Johns and Henries, of Nicolases and Williams, 

without individualization. 

194 






SCANDINAVIAN NAMES 

When, however, we arrive at the fifteenth century, the 
number of surnames has vastly increased. Here is a scrap 
of that period in the register : John Blyet and his wife, 
William and his wife Margaret Blyet, Francis Foster, John 
Blythe, Robert Bluett, Robert Rousse, Bryan Teller, Thomas 
Fenwyke, Robert Ballard. 

In a hand of the thirteenth or, more probably, the four- 
teenth century appears the entry : " William Chepe, cocus de 
Coldingham;" a wise cook, to enter the kitchen already pro- 
vided with a surname, and so escape being called Wilcox. 

Here are more entries of the fifteenth century: "John 
Palfreyman, Arstulf Hillerby, Thomas Westmoreland, 
William Parlour, William Smith and Alice his wife, 
Thomas Elwyke, John Euke, Thomas Warwick, Thomas 
Schele, Joanna Brown and Master William Browne and 
Antony Browne, Bernard Bailey." Surnames were becoming 
common in the fifteenth century, at least among persons of 
some substance, so as to be regarded as liberal benefactors 
to the Church of Durham. 

And now let us turn to the end of the book, to the list of 
names that preceded the Dissolution, and we shall find that 
everyone has a surname. I will not give this list here, 
because too lengthy. 

What took place in Durham took place all over England, 
but the Durham practice was somewhat behind that of the 
South and the Midlands, and York was probably not much 
more in advance than Durham. 

What the " Liber Vitae " teaches us is that men were 
specialized by the place whence they came, irrespective of 
the fact that they were not landholders there, or else they 
were distinguished by being described as being the sons of 
such and such fathers. The adhesion of a place-name did 
not take place so as to constitute a family name till the 
fifteenth century, except among the Barons and families of 
Norman descent. Patronymics such as Johnson, Thomson, 
A tkinson, came in very sporadically in the fourteenth century, 
and became permanent only in the fifteenth. Not till this 
latter century does Smith appear as a family name ; for 

195 N 2 



SCANDINAVIAN NAMES 

although we have seen Faber given earlier, this is descriptive 
of the trade pursued by the bearer, and was not a surname. 
In the fourteenth century the de and of before the place- 
name had not fallen away. When it did, then the name of 
the locality attached itself permanently to the man and his 
posterity. 

One feature of the lists in the " Liber Vitae " must not be 
overlooked the extreme scarcity of names descriptive of 
personal appearance and indicative of natural defects, and 
of vulgar nicknames. This leads one to suspect that, when 
such names occur in the secular lists, as the Hundred Rolls, 
Feet of Fines, etc., they were inscribed without the consent 
of those so designated, for the convenience of identification 
and without regard to the feelings of the men so described. 
But also it leads to the conviction that, where such designa- 
tions were accepted, they bore a very different signification 
to what they bear on the surface. If this were not the case, 
such names would have been repudiated as an outrage. 

Some domestic officials are entered in the book as donors, 
a " butelair," a sewe*, and a dapifer, but singularly few 
tradesmen a merchant, a smith, a taverner, a fuller, and 
that is about all. The tradesmen of Durham seem to have 
buttoned up their pockets, or else the smallness of their 
donations did not entitle them to commendation in the 
Book of Life. 

On the flyleaf of a tenth-century manuscript book of the 
Gospels in the library of York Minster is a list of the 
" festermen " at the election of Archbishop ^Elfric of York, 
1023. It has been published by Dr. Jon Stefanson (" Saga- 
book of the Viking Club," 1908). The names are mostly 
Norse and Danish. 

I give in the Appendix a list of Scandinavian names 
that may be recognized as surnames at the present day. 
Those that have come to us in a circuitous way through the 
Normans have been excluded. Some surnames may come 
from the Anglo-Saxon or from the Norse and Danish, and, as 
happens in other cases, some names now not uncommon 
among us may have a double derivation in Northumbria 

196 



SCANDINAVIAN NAMES 

from a Norse origin, in other parts of England from another 
quite different. Thus, Eagle may be derived from a tavern 
sign, or, when encountered in East Anglia, from Egill. 
Atlay when met with in the North of England may derive 
from Atli, elsewhere from Atte-legh. 

A name that occurs still, and which has a romantic or 
mythical origin, is that of Wayland, sometimes reduced to 
Wetland. Wayland Smith's Cave, a dolmen near Lam- 
bourne, has been utilized by Sir Walter Scott in his "Wood- 
stock " ; but he made a mistake in treating of Wayland the 
Smith as a man living in this dolmen in the seventeenth 
century. The story of Wayland, or Viglund, is found in the 
Elder Edda, and is one of the most ancient monuments of 
Scandinavian poetry. The Edda was put together in the 
eleventh century by Sremund to preserve these ancient 
poems from loss, as, being redolent with paganism, they 
were falling into disrepute and oblivion. 

There was a King in Sweden named Nidud, who had two 
sons, and a daughter whose name was Bodvild. There was 
at the time a famous smith named Velund, who excelled all 
other smiths. King Nidud ordered him to be seized and 
hamstrung, and a gold ring that Velund had fashioned to be 
given to his daughter. Then he placed Velund on a small 
island, and set him to make all kinds of precious things. No 
one was suffered to go near the island save the King alone. 

Velund knew that Bodvild wore the gold ring stolen from 
him, and both on this account and on that of his being 
lamed he resolved on revenge. 

One day the two Princes secretly visited the isle and asked 
to be shown the gold necklaces and rings that Velund made. 
The smith took the occasion to kill both. He cut off their 
heads, cleared the skulls of flesh and set them in silver as 
drinking-bowls, and sent them to Nidud, who received them 
without the least suspicion that they were the heads of 
his sons. 

Some time after Bodvild broke her ring, and, without tell- 
ing her father or mother, privily went to the smithy to have 
it mended. Velund seized on the occasion to outrage her. 

197 



SCANDINAVIAN NAMES 

After that he laboured to fashion for himself a pair of wings, 
and when these were perfected he flew away ; but before 
quitting the place for ever he flew to where he could com- 
municate with the King and Queen, and to them he shouted 
how he had avenged himself. 

The story was well known to the Anglo-Saxons, and a 
fragment of an Anglo-Saxon poem exists containing the 
lamentations of Bodvild. The old poem of Beowulf also 
alludes to Velund. Higelac boasts that the best of his 
armour had been fashioned by Weland. King Alfred also 
mentions the famous smith in his paraphrase of Boetius : 
" Where are now the bones of Weland, that was the most 
famous of goldsmiths ?" In the metrical romance of King 
Horn is another allusion. Of swords brought to Horn is one 
" the make of Miming : of all swordes it is king, and Weland 
it wrought." Even Geoffrey of Monmouth, in a poem of the 
twelfth century, mentions the smith Guieland, who made 
cups richly sculptured. 

Wayland or Welland was, accordingly, one well remem- 
bered in England in early days, and we cannot be surprised 
that he gave his name to two villages and to a river. It is 
from one or other of these villages that the families of 
Welland and Wayland take their name. 

Thomas de Weylaund appears in Suffolk in 1273, and 
William de Welond in Gloucestershire in the same year. 

That these villages should derive from some well I think 
improbable, for no village was without a well of some kind. 
More likely each was a stead or tun of a Velund. 



198 



CHAPTER XI 

THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

ON the morrow of the Battle of Hastings, William, Duke of 
Normandy, summoned to him a clerk who had enrolled the 
names of all those who had accompanied him to England, 
and bade him read it aloud, that he might learn who had 
fallen and who were still alive. After that he bade Odo, 
Bishop of Bayeux, sing Mass for the souls of such as 
were dead. 

Later, William founded Battle Abbey on the site, not only 
as a memorial of his victory, but to serve as a chantry for 
the slain, and the names of his companions-in-arms enshrined 
in this bede-roll were to be read out in church on special 
occasions, and notably on the day of commemoration of the 
battle the Feast of St. Calixtus. 

This roll was accordingly preserved in the abbey. It was 
on parchment, and bore a Latin superscription that may be 
thus translated : " This place is named Battle, on account of 
a battle fought here, in which the English were defeated and 
left dead upon the field. They fell on the festival of Calixtus, 
Christ's martyr. In the year 1066 the English fell, when a 
comet appeared." 

In 1538 the abbey was dissolved, and it, with its lands, 
was granted by Henry VIII. to Sir Anthony Browne, Master 
of Horse to the King. He commenced building a manor- 
house there out of the stones of the abbey, which was com- 
pleted by his son, Viscount Montague, but was seldom 
occupied by his descendants, who preferred to it their noble 
residence at Cowdray, in the same county. 

199 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

The story goes that, as Sir Anthony Browne was pulling 
down the abbey for the erection of his mansion, one of the 
dispossessed monks approached, and pronounced a solemn 
curse on him and his family, that it should perish by water 
and by fire. 

The eighth Viscount Montague was drowned in the Rhine 
in September, 1793, when only twenty-four years of age. He 
was on a boating expedition with his friend, Mr. Sedley 
Burdett, and made a foolhardy attempt to shoot the rapids 
at Laufenburg. They had been cautioned of the danger of 
the venture, and entreated not to risk it, but in vain. At the 
last moment, as they were stepping into the boat, Lord 
Montague's servant clutched his collar, saying : " My lord, 
the curse of water !" But he wrenched himself away and 
sprang out of his reach. The boat capsized in the rapids, 
and the two gentlemen, with their dog, were seen swimming 
gallantly through the surges, till all disappeared. 

At that same time, on the night of September 24, 1793, 
Cowdray House, with its magnificent collection of paintings, 
tapestry, carvings, and furniture, was burnt to the ground. 

By flood and fire the family of Sir Anthony, in the male 
line, had come to an end, and Cowdray and Battle passed to 
the sister of the last Viscount, who married Stephen Poyntz, 
of Midgeham in Berkshire, in 1794, and by him had two 
sons and three daughters. In the summer of 1813 Mr. and 
Mrs. Poyntz were staying with the children at Bognor, and 
two Misses Parry were on a visit to them. One fine day 
Mr. Poyntz took out his sons and the Misses Parry on a 
boating expedition, but Mrs. Poyntz, who had a superstitious 
dread of the water, refused to be one of the party. 

As evening drew on Mrs. Poyntz seated herself at a 
window to watch their return. They were close to shore, 
when a sudden squall struck the sail and upset the boat, and 
the wretched mother saw her two sons drowned before her 
eyes. For some time they clung to their father's coat, who 
had managed to lay hold of the capsized boat ; but their 
strength failed them, and they dropped back into the sea. 
This took place on July 7, 1815. Mr. Poyntz was saved, 
but the two Misses Parry were drowned. 

200 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

It is not known for certain what became of the Battle 
Abbey Roll, but in all probability it was taken by Sir Anthony 
Browne to Cowdray, and perished by fire when that house 
was burnt. Consequently we have not the original roll to 
refer to for the list of those who came over with the 
Conqueror. 

But, before the Dissolution, Leland the antiquary visited 
Battle, and made a very careful copy of the roll. So careful 
was he that he noted the gaps left in it, and the dots that 
were marked between the lines in the gaps. The names 
were not arranged alphabetically, but were strung together 
in rude rhymes, and were 495 in 257 lines, each line contain- 
ing two names, with the solitary exception of one that con- 
tains three, and those on each line begin with the same 
initial letter. Some names are duplicated. 

The list as given by Leland is unquestionably the best, if 
not the only authentic, copy that exists of the famous Battle 
Abbey Roll. It is published in his " Collectanea," vol. i., 
p. 206. 

Holinshed, in his " Chronicle," 1577, gives another, but this 
does not pretend to be an exact transcript, as he arranges 
the names alphabetically. Moreover, he gives as many as 
629 names, 134 more than were transcribed by Leland, so 
that he cannot have copied from the original roll, but from 
some faked copy of it. 

But the original roll that Leland transcribed was not 
faultless. It also had been " faked," and the gaps left in the 
roll were left so as to be filled in with the names of such 
families as were disposed to pay a price for insertion. Had 
we the original roll, we should be able to detect the inser- 
tions by the handwriting; but as it is, we can do so only by 
what we know of families that rose to the surface at a later 
period, and by striking out such as are not named in Domes- 
day or in the " Roman de Rou," by Wace. 

Dugdale detected the interpolations. He wrote : " Such 
hath been the subtilty of some Monks of old, that finding it 
acceptable unto most to be reputed descendants to those who 
were Companions with Duke William in that memorable 

201 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

Expedition, whereby he became Conqueror of this Realm, as 
that, to gratify them (but not without their own advantage), 
they inserted their Names into that ancient Catalogue." 

Camden also speaks of these interpolations : " Whosoever 
considers well shall find them always to be forged, and those 
names inserted which the time in every age favoured, and 
were never mentioned in that authenticated record." 

Sir Egerton Brydges stigmatizes the roll as an imposture, 
because of " the insertion of families who did not come to 
England till a subsequent period, and of surnames which 
were not adopted for some ages after the Conquest, of which 
the greater part of the list is composed. If the Roll of 
Battle Abbey had been genuine, it must have received con- 
firmation from that authentic record of the reign of 
Henry II., the * Liber Niger Sacarii,' but no two registers 
can less agree." This, however, is an overstatement. 

Freeman speaks of the roll as " a source of falsehood " 
and " a transparent fiction." Mr. Ferguson endeavoured to 
restore the credit in a measure in his " Surnames as a 
Science," but with little success. The author of " The 
Norman People" conjectured from the spelling of the names 
that it had been compiled in the reign of Edward I., but 
some of the spelling is of a still later date. 

We cannot doubt that there was such a roll at Battle, 
but at first it was a roll containing only the names of the 
dead, whose obits had to be observed, and who had to be 
prayed for by name. But in process of time other names 
were added, successively, as paid for. 

It contains such obvious interpolations as Audley, Gray, 
Hastings, Hawley, Howard, Gower, and Berry. 

There are in the lists of Leland and of Holinshed several 
duplications Blundel, Avenell, Barry, Bernevile, De la 
Laund, FitzAleyn, FitzRobert, Filiot, Morley, Peverel, 
Pikard, Vernon ; but these may be explained and justified 
when two of the same family came with the Conqueror, or, 
in the cases of FitzAleyne and FitzRobert, there may have 
been two quite unrelated personages, sons of Robert and 
Aleyne. Filiot is a nickname, and means the same as 
" sonny," that might be applied to any youngster. 

202 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

In some cases the interpolations are very obvious, as in 
the line " Soucheville, Coudray et Colleville." It is the 
sole line in which are three names. Moreover, almost 
invariably the purpose was to tack together in pairs names 
beginning with the same letter. There had been gaps left to 
be filled in as folk paid for insertion, as before mentioned, 
and these had to be thrust in anywhere. 

The list is remarkable for omissions. If we compare it 
with that of Wace we notice this. Leland, moreover, does 
not give us Arundell, Bagott, Berners, Lutterel, Marmion, 
Montgomery, Mainwaring, Marny, and many others. 

But it must be remembered that names were in a condition 
of flux. Thus, Roger de Montgomerie, who came over with 
the Conqueror, had five sons Robert de Belesmes, Hugh 
le Preux (Earl of Shrewsbury), Roger de Poitou, Philip le 
Clerk, and Arnulph Carew, the holder of Carew Castle in 
Pembrokeshire, and supposed ancestor of the Carews. A 
son was not justified in assuming the place-name borne by 
his father during his father's life, and whilst his father lived 
he was called after some other castle or manor belonging to 
his parent. Moreover, only the eldest son succeeded to the 
parental territorial name. This has, of course, led to con- 
siderable confusion. 

Then, again, the spelling of names was not fixed ; it was 
very arbitrary till several centuries later, and the Battle 
Abbey Roll, from which copies were made, was certainly 
not that originally drawn up, but a transcript with additions, 
and the copyist made blunders. In the original, two names 
beginning with the same letter were inscribed in the same 
line ; but the transcriber copied " Constable et Tally " for 
" Constable et Cally," " Graunson et Tracy " for " Graun- 
son et Gracy." 

The letter u is often interchanged with n t and w with m, 
and the long s with /, and the short s with r. The copyist 
has occasionally inverted the order of the letters. 

To the errors of the copyist we must also add those of 
the printer. And consequently the identification of those 
named is not always easy, and is occasionally conjectural. 

203 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

Properly, the study of the families that are represented in 
the roll and in Domesday and in Wace demand a much 
more profound and searching investigation than has been 
given to the subject, and much apocryphal matter has to 
be winnowed out. I do not pretend to have done more in 
the following list than give the result of such researches as 
have been already made. 

Still there remains this objection that Leland did not 
specify the list he gives as having been transcribed by him 
from the Roll of Battle Abbey. It is, however, certain that 
he visited Battle Abbey previous to its sequestration, for he 
gives a catalogue of the books contained in the library. He 
was, moreover, so accurate and painstaking a student that 
it is hardly possible to conceive that he should have omitted 
to transcribe so valuable a record as the roll. 

Leland also gives another list, " Un role de ceux queux 
veignent en Angleterre avesque roy William le Conquerour," 
containing eighty names, but this is simply a transcript 
from the list in the " Roman de Rou." 

There were other lists of those who accompanied the 
Conqueror, but none are to be trusted. In itself the Roll 
of Battle Abbey is discredited, and we must go to genuine 
documents for the list of those who really came over with 
William, and were enfeofTed by him in England in reward for 
their services. We do not lack these. There is, above all, 
the Domesday Book, and then Wace's metrical chronicle, 
the " Roman de Rou." 

That after the Conquest many needy adventurers trooped 
over to England, tendering their services to William, to 
Rums, and to Henry Beauclerk, we need not doubt, and the 
"Liber Niger Sacarii" gives us a trustworthy list of all 
the Normans and French settled in England in the reign of 
Henry II. 

But as the Roll of Battle Abbey is so often appealed to as 
an authority for the antiquity of a family, it will be well to 
look at the names that occur in it. 

The Duchess of Cleveland in 1889 published in three 
volumes *' The Battle Abbey Roll ; with Some Account of 

204 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

the Norman Lineages." The book must have had 
considerable labour expended on it. But it is not critical. 
The Duchess takes Holinshed's list as a basis for work, 
one of the most adulterated of all copies, and she lays 
some stress on the almost worthless " Dives Roll," as she 
calls it a list drawn up by M. Leopold Delisle for the pur- 
pose of glorifying the French Norman gentry, and of no 
authority whatever. 

The roll has been illustrated by Planche*, 1 by the author 
of " The Norman People," and by Sir Bernard Burke. 

Wace was born in Jersey about the year noo. " His 
traditions of the Conquest, though not put into writing till 
after the middle of the twelfth century, practically date from 
his early years the years of his boyhood at Caen. He 
indulges in no rhetorical embellishments; in the historical 
parts of his greatest work he refuses to set down anything 
for which he has not authority ; and when his authorities 
differ, he frequently gives two alternative versions " (D.N.B.). 

Wace names about 115 nobles, but, curiously enough, 
omits Richard d'Evreux and his son William, and he makes 
a few slips in the Christian names. 

He does not profess to have recorded all who attended 
William to Hastings. He says : 

" Ne sai nomer toz les barons, 
Ne de tos dire les sornoms, 
De Normandie e de Bretagne, 
Que li due ont en sa campagne." 

The best edition of Wace's " Roman de Rou " is that by 
Andreson, Heilbronn, 1879. The list begins about the line 
8,440, and ends 8,728. 

Wace's list can be in part substantiated by Ordericus 
Vitalis and William of Poitiers who was chaplain to the 
Conqueror on his expedition to England, by William de 
Jumieges, in whose work lib. vii. is by Robert de Torignie, 
and by others. 

1 "Companions of the Conqueror," London, 1874; "The Norman 
People," London, 1874 ; Sir Bernard Burke, "The Roll of Battle Abbey,' 
London, 1848. 

205 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

It is worth observing how loosely territorial surnames 
hung on the bearers. 

Stephen d'Aumale was the son of Odo de Champagne 
and Adelaide, sister of the Conqueror. 

Roger de Beaumont is the same as Roger de Vielles. He 
was the son of Humphrey de Vielles. 

Richard de Bienfaite is the same as Richard d'Orbec. 
His brother was Baldwin de Meulles, and they were the 
sons of Gislbert de Brionne. 

Walter Giffard de Longueville was the son of Osbert 
de Bolbec. 

Again, Nicolas de Bacqueville married a niece of the 
Duchess Gunnor, and their son is held to have been that 
William Malet who appears prominently in the history of 
the Conqueror. Baldwin le Sap and Baldwin de Meulles is 
one and the same person. 

Robert de Mortain and Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, were 
sons of Herluin de Couteville, who married Arietta, the 
cast-off mistress of Duke Robert, and therefore half-brothers 
of the Conqueror. 

Roger de Mortemer was the son of Hugh Aimeric de 
Thouars. 

All this shows how very unformed was the nomencla- 
ture in Normandy at the time of the Conquest. It was 
beginning to be fixed, but beginning only. 

The following is the list of names in Leland's copy of the 
roll, with a few included that pertained to representatives 
who were at Hastings unquestionably, but who were not 
included in the roll, possibly enough, because the fee was 
not forthcoming, as later in the case of Heralds' Visitations, 
from which families of undoubted antiquity and with right 
to bear arms were excluded, because they did not care to 
pay for insertion. 

ADRYELLE, not identifiable. 

AIGUILLON in Leland, Aungeloun ; an interpolation. 
From Aguilon in Guienne. The name came in with the 
Hundred Years' War. 

206 






THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

AIMERIS, a personal name, Amauri, now Emery and 
Amory and Amery. 

AINCOURT in Leland, Deyncourt ; from a fief in the 
Norman Vezin. Walter d'Aincourt held sixty manors, 
mainly in Lincolnshire (Domesday). In 1835 a Lincoln- 
shire gentleman named Tennyson assumed the arms and 
name of D'Eyncourt, as descended in a zigzag fashion 
through a succession of spindles from Lady Anne Leke, 
daughter of the first Earl of Scarsdale, Baron D'Eyncourt. 
AMAY in Leland, Damay. Not in Domesday, nor found 
before the end of the twelfth century. An interpolation. 
Now Dames. 

ANGEVIN. Two brothers appear in Domesday as estated 
in Essex and Norfolk. But the name is not a surname ; it 
is descriptive of the province whence they came. The 
descendants of the second brother called themselves Thorpe. 
AQUINEY in Leland, Dakeny. From Acquigny, near 
Louviers. Not in Domesday ; does not occur in England 
earlier than the thirteenth century. The origin of the 
names Dakins, Dakeyne. But Dakin may be Davidkin. 

ARCY in Leland, Darcy. From Arci in Normandy. 
Norman d'Arci held thirty-three manors in Lincoln from 
the Conqueror (Domesday). The name remained as Darcy. 
ARGENTAN in Leland, Argenteyn. From a castle in 
Berry. David d'Argentun held lands in Cambridgeshire 
and Bedfordshire (Domesday). Modern surname, Argent. 

ARUNDELL, not in Leland. In Domesday, Roger Arun- 
dell held a barony of twenty-eight manors. Name not taken 
from Arundel in Sussex. 

AUBIGNY or DE ALBINI, appears in ^Domesday as holding 
a great barony in the counties of Buckingham, Leicester, 
Bedford, and Warwick. Now Albany and Daubeny. Aubigny 
is near Periers, in the Cotentin. 

AUDEL an interpolation. It is Audley, the name of a 
manor in Staffordshire. In Domesday, Aldidelege. 

AUMALE in Leland, Aumerill. This became in England 
Albemarle. From Aumale, on the River Bresle, at the point 
where it divides Normandy from Picardy. The Sire d'Aumale 

207 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

fought at the Conqueror's side. He married William's sister, 
Adeliza. 

AUNAY, not in Leland which is strange, as the Sire 
d'Alneto was certainly at Hastings. He was one of the 
five knights who challenged Harold to come forth. The 
name is from Aunou-le-Faucon, near Argenton. The name 
Dawnay is that of Viscount Downe. 

AVENEL, occurs twice in Leland. The name is also in 
Wace. The Avenels were Lords of Les Biards, in the 
arrondissement of Mortain. 

AVESNES in Leland, Aveneries. From a place of that 
name in Normandy. 

AVRANCHES in Leland, Davrenches. The family bore 
the surname of Le Gotz, Goes, or Goz. Richard Le Gotz 
married Emma, daughter of Arietta the washerwoman, 
mother of the Conqueror. His son Lupus went over with 
William, and was created Earl of Chester. 

BALADON in Leland, Bealun. From a place of the name 
in Normandy. Three of the Baladons came over with the 
Conqueror. One was given large estates in Cornwall and 
Wales. The name survives as Bayldon. 

BALDWIN, twice in Leland as Baudewyn and Baudyn. 
Baldwin the Sheriff was largely rewarded by the Conqueror 
for his assistance. The name is personal. 

BALIOL in Leland, Bailoff. Perhaps from Bailleul, near 
Argenton. 

BANISTER, from Banastree now Beneter, near Estampes. 
Robert Banastre, who came over with William, held 
Prestatyn in Flintshire under Robert de Ruelent. 

BARBE D'OR, probably the Hugo Barbatus of Domesday. 
A descriptive name and not a surname. 

BARDOLF, a personal name. 

BARNEVALE, from a castle near Carteret. The family 
settled in the Scottish Lowlands and in Ireland. 

BARRY, in Leland as Barry and Barray. From de Barre, 
in the Cotentin, possibly. But probably an interpolation, 
named later from Barrey Isle, near Cardiff. But perhaps a 
mistake for Barrett, which is a name found in Domesday. 

208 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

BASSET, an interpolation. Ordericus Vitalis says of Ralph 
Basset, Justiciary under Henry I. : " He was issued from 
an ignoble stock, and was accorded great power over both 
nobles and citizens." The Justiciary, in fact, made the 
family, and the insertion in the Battle Roll was paid for. 
There is no evidence that the Bassets of Cornwall derive 
from the Justiciary, but that there was such descent is most 
probable. 

BAVENT, from a place of that name on the Dive, near 
Varaville. Bavent held a knight's fee, under William d'Albini, 
in Norfolk. 

BASKERVILLE. Martels de Basqueville was in the Battle 
of Hastings, yet the name does not occur in Domesday. 
Possibly he may have fallen in the battle. "At the beginning 
of the thirteenth century there were Baskervilles in Here- 
fordshire, Nottinghamshire, and Shropshire; in Warwick- 
shire, Norfolk, Buckinghamshire, Wiltshire, and possibly 
other counties" (Eyton, "Shropshire."). The most eminent 
branch was that of Eardesley. One single branch is now 
represented in the male line, and that has changed its name 
to Glegg. There are two others, but through the spindle, 
who have assumed the name of Baskerville. It is not 
uncommon among the peasantry of Devon. 

BASTARD, not in Leland. Robert the Bastard was an 
illegitimate son of the Conqueror, and received from his 
father a barony in Devonshire. The family is still repre- 
sented there. 

BAYEUX, in Leland, Baius. Backwell - Bayouse in 
Somerset takes the name from this family. The name has 
been corrupted into Beyouse, Bayes> and Bewes, if not for Bevis. 

BEACHAMP. In Domesday, Belchamp held a large barony 
in Hertfordshire, Buckinghamshire, and Bedfordshire. Not 
a single male representative remains of this historic house. 
Earl Beauchamp's family name is now Lygon, but that is 
an assumption for Pyndar. 

BEAUFORD, de Bello Fago. The name comes from 
Beaufer, near Pont 1'Eveque. In Leland, corrupted to 
Bifford. Robert le Sire de Belfore is in Wace's list. 

209 o 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

William de Beaufoi held many manors in Norfolk (Domes- 
day). But Byford may stand for By-the-Ford. 

BEAUMONT. Roger de Vielles was also called de Beaumont. 
He was lord of Belmont-le-Rogier. He furnished the Con- 
queror with sixty vessels, and fought at Hastings, as did also 
his son. He received a great barony of ninety manors in 
Warwickshire, Leicestershire, Wiltshire, and Northampton- 
shire. 

BECARD, not found earlier than 1202 ; probably an 
interpolation. 

BELLEW, from Belleau or Bella Aqua in Normandy. 
Not in Domesday or in Wace. First heard of in the 
twelfth century. An interpolation. Fellow and Pellew are 
corruptions. 

BELVILLE, from a place of that name, near Dieppe. 
Jean de Belleville took part in the Third Crusade. This old 
Norman house is now represented by the Marquis de 
Belleville. Nicholas de Belville held lands in Devon (Testa 
de Nevill), and the family is still represented there as 
Belfield. 

BERNEVILLE, in Domesday, Berneville; a Baron. It is 
difficult, if not impossible, to distinguish Berneville from 
Barneville. Some Barnfields derive hence. 

BENNY, from Beaunai, a fief in Normandy. 

BERTIN, not in Domesday or Wace. Not heard of till 
the second half of the twelfth century. An interpolation. 

BERTRAM, the Hunchback, is mentioned by Wace. "A 
younger branch, from whom came the Mitfords, formed 
establishments, though not of much account, in England, 
and it is probably descended from William (younger brother 
of the Crookback), or from another William who stands in 
Domesday as a small holder in Hampshire" (I.Taylor). 
Nothing can really be concluded as to the connection of the 
Mitfords with the Bertram of the Conquest, as Bertram is a 
personal name and not a surname. 

BEYERS. Hugh de Beverde was an under-tenant in Suffolk 
(Domesday), but the name meant is almost certainly 
Bouvery, from La Beuviere, near Bethune. Drogo de la 
Boveres was married to a cousin of the Conqueror, and 

210 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

received the whole of Holderness, eighty-seven manors, and 
twenty-four in Lincolnshire. 

BIARD, a seigneurie of the Avenells. 

BIGOT or WIGOT. " He served the Duke in his house as 
one of his Seneschals, which office he held in fee. He had 
with him a large troop, and was a noble vassal. He was 
small of body, but very brave and bold, and assailed 
the English with great gallantry." Robert Bigot was 
apparently the first of his name ; his father was Roger. But 
Wace says: "L'anceste Hue le Bigot qui avait terre a 
Maletot." It has been said that he took his nickname from 
the oath he had frequently in his mouth, "By God!" but 
it is possible that he was a Bigaud, of the neighbourhood of 
Quimper. He held 117 manors in Suffolk, besides other 
lands in Norfolk and Essex (Domesday). 

BIRON, from Beuron, near Mantes. Erneis de Buron 
appears in Domesday as a great landholder in Yorkshire. 
Ancestor of the Byrons. 

BLUETT. This family gave its name to Brineville-la- 
Bluette in Normandy. The Bluetts long resided in 
Devonshire. 

BLEYN, or DE BLOIN, held five manors in Cornwall 
(Domesday). Name now, Elaine and Bloyne. 

BLOUNT or BLUNT, descriptive, le Blond, the fair-haired. 
Two named in Domesday, sons of the Sieur de Guisnes. 

BLONDELL came to England with the Conqueror. The 
name is descriptive and diminutive "the little fair-haired 
fellow." The family was long estated in Lancashire, but, 
being Roman Catholic, was cruelly oppressed and robbed in 
the reign of Elizabeth. Blundell, a merchant, founded a 
school at Tiverton. 

BODIN, in Leland, Biden ; held a large estate in York- 
shire (Domesday). 

BOHUN, in Leland, Boown. Two villages near Carentan are 
St. Georges and St. Andre-de-Bohun. Humphrey de Bohun 
received the Manor of Talesford in Norfolk (Domesday). 
The Bohuns acquired the earldoms of Hereford, Essex, and 
Northampton. The name is still extant as Bone and Boone. 

211 o 2 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

Bois or Du Bois. There were five families that bore the 
name. Boys is still found as a surname. 

BENETT, a personal name. 

BONVILLE, from the castle of Bonneville in Normandy. 
Leland gives Bondeville. The family became great. Sir 
William was created Lord Bonville in 1466. " He and his 
house perished in the Wars of the Roses. Within the space 
of less that two months the last male heirs were swept 
away. His son and grandson were killed in the Battle of 
Wakefield, 1460, on the last day of the year, and his own 
grey head fell on the scaffold in the ensuing February. One 
little great-granddaughter, a child of two years old, remained 
as representative of the family. She married Thomas Grey, 
Marquess of Dorset, and was the great-grandmother of Lady 
Jane Grey." 

BOSKERVILLE, from Boscherville, between Pont-Audemer 
and Honfleur. Not in Domesday or Wace, but probably 
came over with the Conqueror, as the name occurs early in 
the twelfth century. 

BOTELER. The name is entered thrice in Domesday. It 
by no means follows that every Butler is a descendant of Hugo 
Pincernus, who came over with the Conqueror, as every 
nobleman, as well as William I., kept his butler. 

BOURNAVILLE, in Leland, Bromevile. William de Bourna- 
ville held lands in Norfolk and Suffolk (Domesday). 

BOUTEVILAIN. He was at Hastings. He is named by Wace. 

BOYVILLE, from Beuville, near Caen. Two of the nameoccur 
in Domesday, in Herefordshire and Suffolk. Hence Bevill. 

BRABAZON, in Leland, Brabasoun ; a Brabant family 
Jacques Brabancon followed the Conqueror, and was given 
lands at Betchworth, in Surrey ; but the family reached 
distinction in Ireland, where it is still represented. 

BRACY. William de Braceio appears in a charter of 1080 
as holding Wistaton in Cheshire. The name became Brescie. 
Lord Brassey might suppose that he derives from the Sieur 
de Bra$y. Possibly Samson and Sally Brass may have done 
the same. 

BRAUND. William Brant was an under-tenant in Norfolk 

212 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

(Domesday). No evidence that Brand or Braund was not a 
Saxon. 

BRAY does not occur in Domesday, but the men of Bray 
marched with the Conqueror. They came from Bray, near 
Evreux. No Sieur de Bray is mentioned. Bray is not 
uncommon as a surname in Cornwall, possibly descendants 
of some of these " men of Bray." 

BRETTEVILLE is given twice by Leland. It stands for 
Breteville, a barony near Caen. Gilbert de Bretteville was 
a Domesday Baron, holding lands in Hampshire, Wiltshire, 
Oxfordshire, and Berkshire. 

BREBCEUF, in Leland, Baybot ; appears in Domesday as 
holding Watringbury, in Kent. 

BRETON. No less than nine Bretons appear in Domesday. 
Not a surname, but a designation of sundry Breton adven- 
turers who followed Alan Fergeant. The name is still found, 
also as Brett. 

BRIANCON in Leland, Briansoun. None from Brian9on 
in Dauphiny can have been with William at the Conquest, 
and the name does not occur in England till 1189. Possibly 
the roll may have meant the son of de Brionne. 

BRICOURT or BRIENCOURT. The name does not occur in 
England till the reign of Henry II. Wace mentions "those 
of Briencourt." 

BRIONNE, in Leland, Brian. Baldum de Brionne was 
Viscount of Devon in the Conqueror's time, and Wido de 
Brionne acquired a seigneury in Wales. Hence the Bryans 
and Briants in England. 

BROWNE, in Leland, Boroun ; in interpolation. 

BROY. From Broyes, in the Pays de Brie. Apparently 
the same as Bardolf, who is said to have been grandson of 
Renart, Sieur de Broyes. 

BRUYS. Leland gives his name twice once, as we suppose, 
for Braosse, and the other for Brix. William de Braosse 
was one of the most powerful Barons following the Con- 
queror, and was by him richly rewarded. 

BRUYS for Brix or Bruce. Named from the castle of 
Bruys, now Brix, near Cherbourg. Robert de Bruys held a 

213 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

barony of ninety-four manors in Yorkshire (Domesday). 
He was the ancestor of the Scottish Bruces. 

BURDON, a name found shortly after the Conquest, in 
Durham. But "burdon " signifies a pilgrim's staff, and there 
may have been many Burdens throughout the county. 

BURGH. Serlo de Burgh came over with the Conqueror, 
but left no issue. His nephew succeeded. An apocryphal 
pedigree of the de Burghs appeared in the eighteenth 
century, giving the family an imperial Carlovingian descent. 
It has not a shadow of foundation. The family has become 
Burke in Ireland. 

Some surprising omissions as Bee, Belvoir, and Bagott; 
but these two last come in under Todeni, as we shall see 
later on. There are some not many, and perhaps not of 
much importance named by Wace that do not occur in 
Leland's copy of the roll. 

CAILLEY. This is printed in the old edition of Leland 
" Constable et Tally," where the second name should begin 
with C. We may, I think, equate this with Quilly or 
Cuilly, near Falaise, a part of the possessions of the Burdetts. 
In fact, Robert Bordett, or Burdett, who came to England 
at the Conquest, was Sieur de Cailly. The surname in time 
degenerated into Cully. 

CAMEVILLE or CAMPVILLE. From a place near Coutance. 
Richard de Camville, surnamed Poignant (the fighter), had 
a barony in Oxfordshire, and his brother William held 
Godington under the King (Domesday). 

CAMOYS, not known anything of before the reign of King 
John ; an interpolation. 

CANTELOUP, in Leland, Canntilow : from Chanteloup, 
near Cherbourg. Not mentioned in Domesday or by Wace. 
But the name occurs in the reign of Henry II., when one Ralph 
de Canteloup held two knights^fees under William de Romara. 

CHALLONS, not in Wace or Domesday, but it may stand 
for Calna or Chawn, a name that occurs, not at the time of 
the Conquest, but in 1200. 

CHALLYS, for Schalliers or Escaliers ; an interpolation. 
The name is not found in Normandy till the reign of Philip 
Augustus. However, as Scales it became important in 

214 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

England, but can have been introduced only during the 
English occupation of Guienne. Besides the form Scales, 
the name remains as Challys and Challis. A professor of 
astronomy at Cambridge bore that name ; so did a gardener 
of mine. 1 

CHAMBERLAIN. An official title and not at the time a 
surname. 

CHAMPERNOWN. De Campo Arnulphi. A knightly family 
of great possessions in Devonshire. The present Champer- 
nownes are really Harringtons. 

CHAMPNEY. From Champigny, in Normandy. Not found 
in Domesday or in Wace ; nor is the name found earlier 
than 1165. 

CHANCEUX. Perhaps from St. Quesney, near St. Saens. 
In Wace we have Cahagnes ; either a place of that name 
in the arrondissement of Vire, or another of the same name 
in that of the Andelys. The name has gone through many 
changes, as Keynes, Chesney, Cheyney. 

CHANDUIT. Ralph de Chenduit or Chanuit held lands 
afterwards included in the barony of Chenduit. 

CHANDOS in Leland, Chaundoys. Robert de Candos 
was a companion-in-arms of the Conqueror, and he won 
with his sword a large domain in Wales. 

CHAMBERAY in Leland, Combrai or Coubrai. Combrai 
is near Falaise. The Sire de Combrai, according to Wace, 
was one of the knights who challenged King Harold to 
come forth. Godfrey de Combrai held lands in capite in 
Leicestershire (Domesday). 

CHAPES, from Chappes, in Normandy. Osbern de Capis 
is mentioned in 1079 by Ordericus, but it is doubtful 
whether he was in the Battle of Hastings. Hence Capes. 

CHARTRES. Ralph Carnotensis, or de Chartres, held 
estates in Leicestershire (Domesday). The name is found 
in Scotland as Charteris. It is found also as Chayter. 

CHAUMONT, not in Wace or Domesday, but early seated 
in Cornwall. The name became diamond. 

CHAUNEY, from Canci, near Amiens ; not in Domesday. 
Now Chownes and Chowen, the name of my land agent. 

1 Challis may also come from Calais, and also from a chalice-maker. 

215 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

CHAVENT, not identified. First comes into notice in the 
reign of Edward I. 

CHAWORTH is supposed to come from Cadurcis (Cahors), 
in the South of France. Peter de Cadurcis was seated in 
Gloucestershire towards the end of the Conqueror's reign. 
He must have been a soldier of fortune. Leland gives the 
name Chaward. 

CHENIL, from Quesnel in Normandy. Not met with 
in England before the reign of Henry III. Probably an 
interpolation. 

CHERCOURT or CHEVRCOURT. Thorold of Chavercourt was 
enfeoffed of Wyforaby in Leicester, and Carleton in Notts, 
in 1085. 

CLARELL, not found till the thirteenth century ; probably 
an interpolation. 

CLAIRVALS, from a castle in Anjou. Hamon de Clairvaux 
is said to have come over to England in the train of Alan of 
Brittany, but evidence for the assertion lacks. Croft, near 
Darlington, was the seat of the family for about 350 years. 
" A humble race of cadets occurs at Darlington long after 
the broad lands of their parent tree passed into another name, 
and they seem to have gradually sunk into utter pauperism. 
The pedigree will show these to have been nearly related to 
the main branch, as the Chayters had to buy out any claim 
they had on Clerveaux Castle " (Longstaffe, " Darlington "). 
COIGNIERS, the ancestor of the Conyers family, long 
seated in Yorkshire. Wace mentions the Sire de Coignieres 
as one of those who attended the Conqueror in the invasion 
of England. 

COLEVILLE. William de Colville held lands in Yorkshire 
(Domesday). A descendant of that most furious knight and 
valorous enemy, "Sir John Coleville of the Dale," is intro- 
duced by Shakespeare as taken prisoner by Falstaff 
(Henry IV., Part II., IV. HI.). 

COLOMBIERS, from a place of that name near Bayeux. 
William de Colombiers is mentioned by Wace. Ralph de 
Colombiers, or Colombers, in Domesday, held lands in Kent 
and elsewhere in capite. The name remains as Columbell 
and Columb. 

216 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

COMINES, from Comines in Flanders. Robert de Comines 
was created Earl of Northumberland by the Conqueror, but 
on account of his insolence and violence, was killed by the 
people of Durham in 1069. He must, however, have left 
kinsmen in the North, for the name was continued as 
historical in Scotland; but forms of it are found in all 
parts of England, as Comings, Cummins, Cooming, Comyns. 

CORBETT, spoken of by Ordericus as " the faithful and 
very valiant men," i.e., Corbett and his two sons, who were 
employed by Roger de Montgomerie in the government of 
his new earldom of Shrewsbury. 

CORBYN in Leland's list, " Corby et Corbet." Four of 
the names are entered in Domesday, all of them under- 
tenants. 

COUBRAY. Coubray is near Thury Harcourt. Wace 
mentions the Sire de Coubrai. 

COURSON, a branch in Norfolk and Suffolk (Domesday). 
Now Cur z on. 

COURTENAY, an interpolation. Reginald de Courtenay 
did not come to England till the reign of Henry II., in 
consequence of his marriage with the heiress of Robert 
d'Avranches, Viscount of Devon. 

COURTEVILLE. 

CREVECCEUR, from a place near Lisieux. The Sire de 
Crevecoeur is mentioned in the " Roman de Rou." 

CRESSY in Leland, Crescy; a seigneury between Dieppe 
and Rouen. No trace of the family till the middle of the 
twelfth century. Now Creasy. 

CRIQUET in Leland as Griketot. Ansgar de Criquetot 
held lands in Suffolk from Mandeville in 1086. Criquetot 
has become Cricket and Crytoft. 

DABERNON. From Abernon, near Lisieux. A subtenant 
of Richard de Clare in Suffolk and Surrey ; he received the 
Manor of Stoke in the latter county. 

DAMOT, actually D'Amiot. The name of Damote occurs 
in Oxfordshire in the reign of Henry I. 

DAUBENY. The descendants of Robert de Toeni bore 
this name. The son of Robert assumed the name of 

217 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

De Albini, and was styled " Brito " to distinguish him from 
the Albini, the pincerna, Earl of Arundel. 

DARELL, from Arel, on the River Vire ; obtained lands in 
Yorkshire. 

DAUTRE, as abbreviation of De Haute Rive or De Alta 
Ripa ; from Haute Rive in Normandy. Very doubtful if a 
De Haute Rive attended the Conqueror. Not named in 
Domesday. Now Dawtrey. 

DE LA HAY, named by Wace. Niel, son of Humphry de 
la Haye, is named in a deed of 1060. From La Haye-du- 
Puits, in the arrondissement of Coutance. Hence the family 
name of Hay and Haye. 

DE LA HUSEE, from Le Houssel, north of Rouen. In 
Domesday William Husee or Hisatus held Charecomb in 
Somersetshire ; of Bath Abbey, as well as other manors in 
the county. Hence Hussey. 

DE LA LANDE. William Patric is twice mentioned by 
Wace. La Lande Patric is in the arrondissement of Dom- 
front. Leland gives the name twice. Leland's name is 
derived from this family. 

DE LA MARCHE. The name first appears at the end of the 
thirteenth century. 

DE LA MARE, from the fief of La Mare, in Autretot, 
Normandy. The lake is still called Grande-mare. Four of 
the sons of Norman de la Mare came to England. William 
FitzNorman held of the King in chief in Gloucester and 
Hereford. The name has become Delaware, Delamore, and 
Delmar. 

DE LA POLE, an interpolation. The first of the name 
known was William de la Pole, a merchant of Hull in the 
reign of Edward III., whose son Nicholas also was a 
merchant, and was the father of Michael, created Earl of 
Suffolk by Richard II. 

DE LA VALET, from Lanvalle, opposite Dinan. At the 
beginning of the reign of Henry II. William de Lanvallee 
held a barony in Essex. 

DE LA WARDE, or LAVARDE. Ingelram de Warde is men- 
tioned in Northamptonshire in 1130 ; but Ward or Guard 

218 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

are names descriptive of office. Leland gives the name 
again as Warde. 

DE L'ISLE, from Lisle in Normandy. Humphry de Pile 
held twenty-seven manors in Wiltshire (Domesday). Hence 
the name Lisle, Lesley, and Lilly. 

DENNIS or DACUS (the Dane). Not certain, not even 
probable, that one came over with the Conqueror. An 
interpolation. 

D'EVREUX in Leland, Deveroys. Richard, Count of 
Evreux and Archbishop of Rouen, son of Richard I. of 
Normandy and his mistress, the washerwoman Arietta, had 
by a concubine three sons Richard, Count of Evreux : 
Ralph, Sieur de Gaci, whose son Robert died without issue ; 
and William d'Evreux. The eldest of these brothers, 
Richard, and his son William fought by the Conqueror's 
side at Hastings. He died the following year, and William 
appears in Domesday as holding a great barony in Hamp- 
shire, Berkshire, and Oxfordshire. The name remains as 
Devereux. 

DE LA VACHE in Leland, De Wake ; not encountered 
earlier than 1272. An interpolation. 

DE VAUX, de Vallibus. Two brothers, Robert and Aitard 
de Vaux, appear in Domesday as holding lands in Norfolk. 
The name remains as Vaux. The title of Lord Vaux is held 
by a Mostyn. 

DAVERANGES is a duplicate for D'Avranches. 

DAYVILLE, repeated as Deville ; from Daiville in Nor- 
mandy. Walter de Daiville accompanied the Conqueror, 
and had grants from Roger de Musbray, in Yorkshire, with 
the title of Seneschal. The name remains, but as Deville 
has an unpleasing signification ; it has been altered to 
Eville. 

DEVERELL, for D'Evrolles. Name found in Sussex in 
1165. The Deverells became a Wiltshire family. 

DISART. The name we meet with as Izzard. No earlier 
settler ot the name is met with than the time of Henry I. 
(1114-15). The Scottish Dysart is from a different origin. 

DISNEY or D'ISENEY, from Isigny, near Bayeux. The 
name is still extant. 

219 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

DISPENSER, a title of office as a steward, whence Spenser, 
Spencer. 

DORENY, perhaps for D'Orenge. 

DOYNELL, not in Domesday, but found in Essex forty or 
fifty years after the Conquest. 

DRUELL or DE RUELLES, from Ruelles, near Vernon, in 
Normandy. Does not occur in England before 1130. 

DUYLY or D'OYLEY, from Ouilly-le-Basset, in the arron- 
dissement of Falaise. They were a branch of the Bassets. 
Robert D'Oily became through the Conqueror's favour one 
of the most potent Barons in the country. He was made 
Baron of Oxford, where he built the castle. A John D'Oyley 
was created a baronet in 1821, but left no issue male. Hence 
the name Doyle. 

DURANT, not a surname, but a personal name, that occurs 
frequently in Domesday. 

ESTOTEVILLE. This is given twice in Leland in the 
second place as Soucheville. Wace mentions the name as 
Esteville. The man who accompanied the Conqueror was 
Front-de-Boeuf, who was Sire d'Estoville according to some 
authorities. There are two places in Normandy that bear 
the name. The name does not appear in Domesday. 

ESTRANGER, probably of Breton origin. The name 
occurs in the reign of Henry I. The name is still in 
England as L' Estrange, also as Stranger, which is that of a 
draper in Tavistock. 

ESTOURNAY. Richard and Ralph came over with the 
Conqueror, and were given lands in Hampshire, Wilts, and 
Surrey. The name became Stormey, Sturmer, and Sturmyn. 
EUSTACE stands for Eustace, a personal name ; and Fitz 
Eustace also occurs ; now Stacy. 

FANCOURT, printed Fovecourt, from a place near Beauvais. 
Not in Domesday, but occurs early. Spelt also Vancort 
and Pencourt. 

FERRERS, from Ferrieres St. Hilaire, near Bernai. 
William and Henry, sons of Walkelin de Ferrieres, were 
with William ; also another of the name Hermerus. 
William and Hermerus are among the Domesday Barons. 

220 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

FINERE in Leland, Feniers. Not mentioned in Domes- 
day or by Wace, and first comes into notice much later 
than the Conquest. Hence the Finmore, Filmer, and 
Phillimore names. 

FERMBAUD, not named elsewhere till much later, in Bed- 
fordshire. 

FICHENT for Fecamp. Remigius, chaplain of Fecamp, " a 
man of small stature, but of lofty soul," was the first 
Norman ever appointed to an English see, and became 
Bishop of Dorchester in 1067. He translated the see to 
Lincoln. Some of his needy relatives probably came over, 
for we find the name among landowners later ; or, what is as 
likely, there were other natives of Fecamp settled here, who 
were called after the place whence they came. 

FIENNES in Leland, Fenes; a baronial family from 
Fiennes, in the county of Guines. The family was seated 
in Kent at an early date, and held the office of hereditary 
castellans of Dover. 

FILLIOL. Ralph de Filliol was one of the benefactors of 
Battle Abbey. The name signifies "little son" or "god- 
son," but whose godson he was is not known. 

FITZALAN, FixzBRiAN, etc. As these names are patro- 
nymic, and did not necessarily pass into surnames, we may 
pass them over. 

FOLLEVILLE, from the name of a place in Picardy. The 
family was seated in Leicestershire in the reign of King 
Stephen. Probably Folev and Folly come from that name. 
The ancestor of Lord Foley was but a common workman, 
yet he may have been descended from the Sieur de Folleville. 

FRESSEL, a family of Touraine. Simon Fressel came to 
England with the Conqueror, He was the ancestor of the 
Scottish Frazer family. 

FREYVILLE, held land in Cambridgeshire. Sir Anselm de 
Fraeville, son of the De Freyville who came over with the 
Conqueror, was a benefactor to Battle Abbey. His son 
Roger took a fancy to a dog, and the father gave him the dog 
on condition that he agreed to surrender an acre of meadow- 
land to the abbey. 

221 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

FRISSON. This name implies no more than that a Frisian 
adventurer shared in the exploit of the Conqueror. From it 
comes the name Prize, the name of a shoemaker and post- 
man at Lew Down. 

FURNEAUX, from a place of the name near Coutance. 
Odo de Furnell held lands in Somerset (Domesday). 

FURNIVEL, an interpolation. The first of the name in 
England was Gerard de Furnival, who went to the Holy 
Land with Richard Cceur de Lion. 

GALOFER. William Gulafre had great estates in Suffolk 
(Domesday). Hence Guliver. 

GARRE. Probably the same as De la War. 

GAUSY, from Gau9y, near L'Aigle, in Normandy. The 
Gausy barony was created in Northumberland. The name 
has become Gaze. 

GAUNT, from Ghent, but perhaps a misprint for Graunt. 

GERNOUN. Robert Guernon held a great barony in Essex 
(Domesday). 

GIFFARD. Three brothers of this name are entered as 
holding baronies in England after the Conquest. They 
were the sons of Osbern, Baron of Bolbec. 

GLANCOURT, not in Wace or Domesday. Perhaps, how- 
ever, Grancourt, which does appear in the Survey. 

GOBAUD, not in Domesday, but the name occurs in the 
reign of Henry I., in which a Robert FitzGubold is named. 

GORGES, from Gaurges, in the Cotentin. The family 
became famous, but there is no evidence that it was repre- 
sented at the Conquest. 

GOWER. This is very suspicious. It seems to be taken 
from the district of Gower in South Wales. Gower occurs 
in the " Annales Cambriae " under date 954, and is men- 
tioned in the " Book of Llan Dav" in 1150. 

GILEBOT, from Quillebceuf in Normandy. The family 
won lands in Brecon, but ruined itself by extravagance. 
The name became Walbeoffe, and still more recently Gilby. 

GRACY. In the printed Leland, " Grauncon et Tracy," where 
the T is apparently a misprint for G. It stands for Grancey, 
on the confines of Champagne and Burgundy, and gave its 

222 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

name to a great Burgundian family. There is no evidence 
that any Grancy was present at the Conquest. The modern 
form of the name is possibly Grace. 

GRANDISON, Leland's Grauncon ; an interpolation. The 
Grandisons were a Burgundian family. William de Grandi- 
son was the first to come to England, in the reign of 
Edward I. John de Grandison was Bishop of Exeter in 

1327- 

GRAY, perhaps an interpolation. It is true that an 
Architel de Grey is mentioned in Domesday, but it was not 
till the marriage of Edward IV. with Elizabeth Woodville 
that the Grays became important people, and then efforts 
were made to concoct for them a specious pedigree. Grey 
or Gray was a descriptive name, and we cannot be sure that 
all Greys or Grays belonged to the descendants of Architel 
de Grey. 

GRAUNT or GRANT, from Le Grand. They may be traced 
back in Normandy till 985, but such pedigrees are suspicious, 
as the name is descriptive of height of stature, and was not 
a surname. There is no mention of a Grant in Domesday, 
unless that of Hugo Grando de Scoca, an under-tenant in 
Berkshire, be taken as one ; but Grent de Everwick is found 
in the reign of Henry I. In the printed edition of Leland 
the name is Gaunt. 

GRANDYN, no other than Grendon ; an interpolation, from 
Grendon in Warwickshire. 

GRESLEY in Leland, Greilly ; from Gresile in Anjou. 
Albert Greslet occurs in Domesday as Baron of Manchester. 
The name has assumed the form of Gredley and Greely. 

GRENVILLE in Leland, G[r]enevile ; from Grenneville 
in the Cotentin. This illustrious house is descended from 
Robert de Grenville, who accompanied the Conqueror to 
England, and received three knight's-fees in the county of 
Buckingham. 

GREVILLE is disguised in Leland as Gruyele. It comes 
from a castle of the name in the Cotentin ; but the existing 
Greville family is thought to be a branch of the Grenvilles. 

GURDON, from a town of that name in the department of 

223 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

Lot, on the limestone Gausses. How a Gurdon drifted north 
to join the expedition is hard to say, and almost certainly 
the name is an interpolation. The first Gurdon of whom we 
know received a grant of half a knight's-fee in Selbourn 
from Richard Coeur de Lion, and this is intelligible enough, 
as all the district of Cahors and the South was then under 
the English Crown. 

GUBBION. Guido Gobio witnessed a charter of Geoffrey of 
Dinan in 1070, and was one of his knights ; as the latter 
came to England with the Conqueror, Gobio doubtless 
accompanied him. Hugh Gubion is found in Hampshire in 
1130. What induced Shakespeare to adopt the name for the 
two Gobbos we do not know. The name has become Gibbon 
and Gubbins. 

GURNEY, from Gournai-en-Bray. The name is of note in 
the history of the Conquest. It is one that is now widely 
spread in England. 

HAMELIN, a personal name, and not a surname. Several are 
named in Domesday. In Cornwall, Hamelin held twenty- 
two manors under the Earl of Mortaine. He is supposed to 
have been the ancestor of the Trelawney family ; but the 
name Hamlyn remains in Devon and Cornwall. 

HANSARD, not mentioned in Domesday; but the Hansards 
appear as Barons in the palatinate of Durham in the twelfth 
century. This is probably an interpolation. 

HARCOURT. Enguerand de Harcourt was in the Conqueror's 
army at Hastings. The family was largely rewarded in later 
times. But the name is not in Domesday. We find a Har- 
court among the dependents of Henry I. in 1123. 

HAREVILLE, not heard of before the reign of Edward III. 
The name of Harivel means actually a dealer in harins, an 
inferior sort of horse, at fairs. An interpolation. 

HASTINGS. Robert de Venoix was the first Mareschal or 
Portreeve of Hastings. He came from Venoix, near Caen. 
Robert is named in Domesday as FitzRalph and de Hastings 
and le Mareschal. It must not hastily be concluded that 
everyone bearing the name of Hastings is descended from 

224 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

Robert de Venoix ; many a man was so named simply because 
a native of that place. 

HAWARD, or HAYWARD, as Leland has it. This is not a 
Norman-French name ; it is from the Norse Havard, and 
has the same origin as Howard. 

HAULEY, from La Haulle in Normandy. We do not find 
the name before the twelfth century, when Warin de Haulla 
held a barony of eight fees in Devon. In Dartmouth Church 
is a brass of a Hawley, a merchant (1408), possibly the origin 
of the name Holley. 

HAUTENEY in Leland, Hauteyn. Godwin Haldein held 
in Norfolk (Domesday), but his personal name is Saxon, 
and Haldein stands for Halfdan. He held the lordship of 
Gratyngton in the time of the Conqueror, and was not only 
permitted to retain it, but received a grant of three other 
manors after the Conquest. This looks much as if Godwin 
had been a traitor to his King and country, and had fought 
under the banner of the Bastard adventurer. It is curious to 
note the transformation of the name Halfdan or Haldane 
into Hautein and Hauteney by a Norman scribe. The name 
is now represented by Haldane : the Norman scribe supposed 
it meant a turn-up nose. 

HAUTEVILLE. In Domesday, Ralph de Hauteville held a 
barony in Wilts. 

HERNOUR, not heard of before 1324. 

HERCY, from Hericy in Normandy; not noticed in 
Domesday. 

HERON, from a place of that name near Rouen. Tihel de 
Heroun held lands in Essex (Domesday). The name survives 
both in the original form of Heron and as Herne. I remember 
a nurse of the latter name. 

HERYCE. The family of Herice is supposed to descend 
from a son of the Count of Vendome, but no evidence is 
forthcoming other than the bearing of his allusive arms, 
three "herissons," or hedgehogs, which still appear in the 
coats of the Earls of Malmesbury and Lord Herries. But 
the Earls of Malmesbury derived from a William Harris, an 
inhabitant of Salisbury in 1469. I dare say a good many 

22:; p 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

Harrises would like to be supposed to derive from the com- 
panion of the Conqueror, Robert, named in Domesday. The 
name has become Hersee, Herries. 

HOWELL, a possible companion of Alan the Red, Duke of 
Brittany, but probably the same as the family of Le Tourneur, 
near Vire. 

HURELL. The name Haurell or Harell is found in Nor- 
mandy, but not in England, before the latter part of the 
twelfth century. 

JARDINE. The first of that name on record is found in 
Scotland before 1153. In England there have been Gardens 
from the end of the twelfth century. 

JAY or GAI, not in Domesday, but the name is found in 
the first half of the twelfth century. Probably a descriptive 
appellation. The modern form of the name is Gaye and 
Jaye. 

KANCEIS in Leland's list is really Chauncy, from Canci, 
near Amiens. An Anschar de Canci is found to have 
flourished in the reign of Henry I. The name has continued 
not only as Chawncey, but also as Chance. 

REVELERS, from Cauville, in Seine- Inferieure. 

KYRIEL stands for Criol. Robert, youngest son of Robert, 
Count of Eu, obtained from him Criol, near Eu. He held 
Ashburnham of his kinsman, the Count of Eu. The name 
became Creale and Crole, Curlle and Kyrle. 

LACY, from Lassy, in the arrondissement of Vire. Walter 
and Ilbert de Lassi took part in the Conquest of England. 
Roger de Lassi, son of Walter, held 100 manors in five 
counties. 

LASSELS in Leland, Lascels. Picot Lascels was a vassal 
of Alan Fergeant, Duke of Brittany and Earl of Richmond, 
and he held lands under the Earl in Yorkshire. 

LATYMER, an interpreter ; not uncommon. 

LA MUILE in Leland is none other than Moels or Meules. 
Baldwin de Moels from Meulles, near Orbec, arrondisse- 
ment of Lisieux had estates in Devonshire filling eleven 
columns in Domesday. A hairdresser in Launceston bears 
the name of Mules. 

226 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

LEVETOT in Leland, Levecote. From Levetot in Lower 
Normandy. Not in Domesday, but shortly after. 

LIFFARD, a misreading for Oliffard. 

LIOF ET LIMERS, another misreading or misprint. Liof 
was a Saxon who held under Edward the Confessor. 

LISOURS, from the Lisiere, or verge of the Forest of Lyons, 
a favourite hunting ground for the Dukes of Normandy. 
Fulk de Lisours attended William to England, and was 
given Sprotburgh. 

LONGCHAMP, not in Domesday, but appears under 
Henry I., when Hugh de Longchamps was granted the 
Manor of Wilton in Herefordshire. An interpolation. 

LONGESPEE. Longsword held in Norfolk (Domesday). 
A mere nickname ; possibly enough an interpolation for 
the bastard son of Henry II. and the fair Rosamond. 

LONGVAL and LONGVILLE, perhaps the same, a branch 
of the House of Giffard, Barons of Longueville and Bolbec, 
near Dieppe. The name Longville still exists in England. 
Leland gives also Longvillers. 

LORING, for Lorraine ; a native of that province. The 
name Lovering exists. I had a cook so named. 

LOVEDAY, from Louday, near Toulouse. An interpolation, 
as the family can have come to England only at the time of 
the English occupation of Aquitaine. It is also not heard of 
before the thirteenth century in England. 

LOVELL, a name, "the Wolfing," given to Aseline de 
Breherval, who became Lord of Castle Gary in England. 
He received the nickname on account of his ferocious 
character. 

LOUVAIN in Leland, Lovein. An adventurer from Louvain 
in Flanders. Twice in Leland ; possibly from Louveny, or 
Louvigny, near Bernay. 

LOVERAC held an estate in Wiltshire after the Conquest ; 
changed to Loveries. 

LOWNEY, from Launai in Normandy. Not found in 
England till about the reign of Edward III. Modern form 
of the name, Luny t that of a charming seascape-painter in 
Devonshire. 

227 p 2 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

LUCY, from a place of that name near Rouen. The 
Lucys performed the office of Castle Guard at Dover for 
seven knight's-fees in Kent, Norfolk, and Suffolk. The 
name remains in its original form, and as Luce, a. yeoman 
name in Devon. 

LYMESAY, from a place of that name in the Pays de Caux, 
near Pasilly. The ancestor of the Lindsays. 

MALHERMER should be Monthermer. An interpolation. 
The name first occurs in 1296, when Ralph de Monthermer, 
" a plain esquire," made a love-match with Joan, daughter 
of Edward I. He was summoned to Parliament as Earl of 
Gloucester and Hereford jure uxoris in 1299. 

MAINARD, an under-tenant in Essex and Lincolnshire, 
but the name occurs as holding in Wilts, Hants, and Norfolk, 
in the reign of Edward the Confessor. It is a Teutonic 
name, Meginhard, and he has no right to appear as one of 
William's assistants at Hastings, unless, indeed, he were a 
traitor. Now Maynard. 

MAINGUN is a misreading for Mayenne. Judael de 
Mayenne had a vast barony in Devon (Domesday) ; Geoffrey 
de Mayenne is named by Wace. Now Maine and Mayne. 

MALEBURGH, for Merleberge. A great Baron in 1086 ; had 
been a landowner in England previous to the Conquest. 
He was certainly one of Edward the Confessor's Norman 
favourites, and after the Conquest he was not dispossessed, 
but was given lands that had belonged to Harold. The 
name became Maleberg and Malborough. 

MALEBOUCHE, a nickname for a foul-mouthed fellow. 
There are plenty of the kind now, but not descendants. 

MALEBYS, a nickname for Mal-bte. In Latin it is Mala 
bestia. The name occurs in England in 1142. Richard 
Malbysse, or " Ricardus vero agnomine Mala Bestia," says 
William of Newburgh, bears the blame of having, with two 
others, instigated the massacre of the Jews of York in 1189. 
The name became Malby. 

MALET, a great favourite with the Conqueror, who 
appointed William Malet to hold his newly-built castle in 

York. 

228 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

MALCAKE. The name occurs as Maletoc in r^ 11 ? 8 *" He 
King Stephen. 1ft ss than 

MALMAYNE, a bad-hand ; a nickname. s anc * 

MALVILLE, from a barony in the Pays de Caux. Willil an 
de Malavilla appears in Domesday as holding lands in 
Suffolk. Hence the Scottish Melville. 

MANGEL, a native of Le Mans. Wace mentions a con- 
tingent thence. 

MANDEVILLE, for Magnaville, from a place near Creuilly. 
Geoffrey, Sire de Magnaville, is mentioned by Wace, and was 
given estates in many counties. Hence Manville. 

MANGYSIR, for Mont Gissart. Nothing known of the 
family. 

MANNERS, properly Myners, from Mesnieres, near Rouen. 
Richard de Manieres came to England with the Conqueror, 
and held under Odo, Bishop of Bayeux, land in Kent and 
Surrey (Domesday). 

MARNY, formerly De Marreiny, from a fief in Normandy. 
The first mentioned is William de Marney, in 1166, who 
held a knight's-fee in Essex. 

MARTIN, Sire of Tour, near Bayeux. Came over with 
the Bastard in 1066, and conquered the territory of Kemys 
in Pembrokeshire, which was erected into a palatine 
barony. 

MASEY, from May, near Coutances. In 1086 Hugh de 
Maci held lands in Huntingdonshire (Domesday), and Hamo 
de Maci nine manors of Hugh Lupus in Cheshire. The 
name remains as Massey. 

MAULE, from a town of that name in the Vexin Fra^ais. 
Guarin de Maule came over with the Conqueror, and 
received the Manor of Hatton and some other lands in 
Cleveland. 1 The name remains not only in its original 
form, but perhaps also as Moll. 

MAULAY, de Malo Lacu. The first who came over to 
England was Peter de Maulay, a Poitevin, brought here by 
King John, who employed him to murder his nephew 
Arthur. In reward for this he was given in marriage the 

1 Ordericus Vitalis gives an account of this family (v. 19). 
229 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

,. J Doncaster, who brought him the barony of 

JLU CYj 

Luc y?jCLERK, MAUCOVENANT, MAUFE, MAULOVEL, MAURE- 
5e X&DE (for regarde), MAUTALENT, MAUVOISIN, are all nick- 
names the bad clerk, the bad covenant, bad faith, the bad 
young wolf, the evil eye, bad talent, bad neighbour not 
likely to be passed on as surnames. De Mauney is, however, 
not bad nose, but a place-name ; more of this presently. 

MAUDIT might have been supposed to have been the name 
given to one excommunicated, but it was not so ; it was from 
a place, Mauduit, near Nantes. Geoffrey Maudet held lands 
in Wiltshire, and his brother William also in Hampshire 
(Domesday). The name has been shortened into Maude. 

MAULEVRIER or MALEVRIER, from a place near Rouen. 
Helto de Mauleverer held lands in Kent (Domesday). 

MENYLE, for Menesville, or Mesnil, near Grandmesnil, in 
the arrondissement of Lisieux. Hugh de Grand-Mesnil 
fought bravely at Hastings, says Wace. He " was that day 
in great peril ; his horse ran away with him so that he was 
near falling, for in leaping over a bank the bridle-rein broke, 
and the horse plunged forward. The English, seeing him, 
ran to meet him with their axes raised, but the horse took 
fright, and, turning quickly round, brought him safe back 
again." He was created Count of Leicestershire and 
Hampshire. The name remains as Meynell. 

MERKINGFEL, not a Norman name, nor heard of till 1309, 
and then in Yorkshire. 

MOWBRAY, from the Castle of Molbrai, near St. L6, in the 
Cotentin. Three of the family were in the Conqueror's 
train. Robert, Earl of Northumberland, was the son of 
one of these ; he was thrown into a dungeon by William 
Rufus, where he lingered for thirty-four years, and his 
newly- wedded wife, Maud de 1'Aigle, was married to Nigel 
de Albini ; and Nigel's eldest son, Roger, by King Henry's 
command, assumed the name of Mowbray, and from him 
the later Mowbrays are descended. 

MOHUN in Leland Mooun. From Moion, near St. L6 in 
Normandy. Wace tells us that "Old William de Moion had 

230 






THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

with him many companions at the Battle of Hastings." He 
was rewarded for his services by the grant of not less than 
fifty-five manors in Somerset, besides two in Wilts and 
Dorset. The name remains nearer to the early spelling than 
Mohun, as Moon, which is that of a music-seller in Plymouth. 

MONCEAUX, " le Sire de Monceals " of Wace. The place 
is south-east of Bayeux. Became a famous family in Sussex, 
and gave benefactions to Battle Abbey ; the name remains 
corrupted into Monseer. In Leland the name is Monceus. 

MONTAIGUE, from a place of the name in the arrondisse- 
ment of Coutances. Two of the name appear in Domesday, 
both richly endowed, but of these one left no heir. Drogo 
de Montaigue came in the train of the Earl of Mortaine. 

MONTBURGH, from Montebourg, in the Cotentin, which at 
the time of the Conquest was held by Duke William himself. 

MONTFEY, for Montbrai, arrondissement of St. L6. Giffard 
de Montbrai attended the Conqueror to England. Name is 
not in Domesday. Now Mumfey. 

MONTFICHET, from Montfiquet, arrondissement of Bayeux. 
Not in Domesday as such, but as Robert Guernon, Baron 
of Montfiquet, who held a barony in Essex in 1086. The 
name is found in later times as Fichett, and I notice in a 
newspaper of January 22, 1909, the death of a Mrs. Amelia 
Fidgett, of Mistley, Essex, who died in her I04th year. 

MONTFORT, from a place on the Rille, near Brionne, 
arrondissement of Pont Audemer. Hugh, says Wace, 
was one of the four knights who mutilated the body of 
Harold after the battle ; he received a barony of 113 
English manors. The name remained on as Mountford and 
Mmnford. 

MONTCHESNEY. Hubert de Monte Canisi held a barony in 
Suffolk (Domesday). The name may remain as Chesney. 

MONTIGNY, not in Domesday, but Robert de Mounteney is 
found estated in Norfolk in 1161. 

MONTPINSON, from Montpingon near Evreux. Ralph de 
Montpin9on was " Dapifer " to the Conqueror, as Ordericus 
tells us. The name became in England Mompesson. 1 
1 Ordericus gives an account of this family (v. 17). 
231 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

MONTREVEL, not in Domesday ; from Montreuil. 

MONTSOREL, from Montsoreau on the Loire. The name 
first occurs in 1165. There is a Mountsorel in Leicester- 
shire that had estates in it that belonged to the Earl of 
Chester. Perhaps Mounsell. 

MONTRAVERS or MALTRAVERS, not named in Domesday, 
but occurs in the reign of Henry I. The name has been 
made odious through John, Lord Maltravers, who murdered 
Edward II. with terrible cruelty. We have the name still 
as Maltravers. 

MORLEY. The name does not occur till the reign of 
Henry I. ; probably from Morlaix in Brittany, and the first 
who came over was a retainer of Alan Fergeant. The name 
is given again by Leland as Merley. 

MORTAINE. Robert, Earl of Mortaine, was the son of 
Herluin de Couteville, who married Harleva, the cast-off 
mistress of Duke Robert, and consequently was uterine 
brother of the Conqueror. When William became Duke of 
Normandy, he lost no opportunity of raising his kinsfolk 
from their humble estate, to the disgust and indignation of 
his nobles, and above all of his relatives on the side of his 
father. Robert was rewarded for his services in the Conquest 
of England by being given the whole of Cornwall, comprising 
248 manors, 52 in Sussex, 75 in Devon, 10 in Suffolk, 29 in 
Buckinghamshire, 99 in Northamptonshire, 196 in Yorkshire, 
besides others in other counties. The name in England has 
become Morton, but all Mortons do not derive from him, as 
there are places named Morton in England that have given 
appellations to individuals issuing from them. 

MORRICE, a Christian name. 

MORTIMER, de Mortuo Mari. From Mortemer, in the Pays 
de Caux. Roger de Mortemer furnished forty vessels for the 
invading fleet. He was too old himself to join the expedi- 
tion, but he sent his son Ralph, the founder of the splendid 
English lineage that conveyed to the House of York its title 
to the Crown. The name still continues. I had an under- 
mason working for me some years ago, a singularly handsome 
man, of the name of Mortimer. 

232 






THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

MORTIVAUX or MORTIVAL. The name does not occur 
before the reign of King John. The name has gone through 
various forms, one being Morteville. 

MORVILLE, from a castle of that name in the Cotentin. 
The first named is Hugh de Morville, the founder of the 
English house in 1158. He was one of the four knights 
who went from Normandy to slay Thomas a Becket. The 
family obtained a high position in the North. It became 
of great account in Scotland. This is certainly an inter- 
polation. The name in Scotland became Marvell. 

MOUNCY, from Monchy, near Arras. Drogo de Money 
came to England in 1066, and was in Palestine in 1096. 
In 1299 Walter de Money was summoned to Parliament as 
a Baron. The name remains as Mounce. Some of the name 
occupied a cottage belonging to my father. They were 
notorious poachers, and lived on what they caught, and stole 
their firing. At last one of them, a youth, was caught 
"robbing hen-roosts," like some of his betters,'and was con- 
victed and sent to prison. On leaving, he came to my 
father with the request that as a magistrate he would send 
him back to prison, as " it was the only place where he had 
been treated as a gentleman." Was he a descendant of the 
Crusader ? Also Mounsey. 

MOYNE, in Leland's copy Maoun (i.e., Monk). The family 
is found at Owers in Dorset in the reign of Henry I. The 
Monks, ancestors of the Duke of Albemarle, are found seated 
at Potheridge in Devonshire as early as the reign of 
Edward I. Monk is still a name not uncommon in Devon. 
There is a baker and confectioner so called at Tavistock. 

MOVET, MAUFE. The name does not occur before 1165. 

MUSARD. Asculphus Musard held a great barony. Enisard 
and Hugh Musard are also named in Domesday. A nick- 
name signifying a loafer or loiterer. It has become in later 
times Mussard. 

MUSE. The name does not occur in England till the end 
of the twelfth century. It is probably a nickname from an 
expression used in hunting. 

MUSSET, a name from the bag-pipes the man played. 

233 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

Leland gives Muschet. Not mentioned in Domesday. Prob- 
ably only the piper that played before William. The name 
remains. 

MUSTEYS, for Moutiers. Robert de Mosters was a tenant 
of Earl Alan, of Richmond and Brittany, in Yorkshire in 
1086. There are several Moutiers or monasteries in Nor- 
mandy, whence the name may have come. The name 
remains as Musters. 

MUSEGROS, from Mucegros, near Ecouen, was a tenant-in- 
chief in Herefordshire (Domesday). The ancestor of the 
Musgraves, Musgroves. 

MYRIEL does not occur till the end of the twelfth century. 
The name is probably an interpolation. Now Murrell. 

NAIRMERE, perhaps for Nemours Hubert de Nemors 
was a tenant in Dorset, and William de Nemors an under- 
tenant in Suffolk (Domesday). 

NENERS. In the reign of Henry I., Robert Nernoit is 
met with. The name also occurs as Nermitz. 

NEREVILLE in Leland seems to be a copyist's mistake 
for Oirval, south-west of Coutances, the men of which place 
are mentioned as being at Hastings. 

NEVILLE, from Neuville-sur-Touque. The first who came 
to England was Gilbert de Nevill, but he is not named in 
Domesday. The family was early estated in Lincoln, but 
by marriage with an heiress moved into the North. This 
line died out sans male issue, and the lands of the heiress 
passed to a Saxon husband, and with the lands the Norman 
name was assumed. 

NEWBET or NERBET. The name occurs first in Gloucester- 
shire, where William de Nerbert in 1165 held four knight's- 
fees of the Earl of Gloucester. The name has become Newbert. 

NEWBURGH, from Neufbourg in Normandy. Henry de 
Newburgh obtained the earldom of Warwick, his brother 
Robert that of Leicester. The name became Newburrow. 

NEWMARCH, from the castle of Neumarche in Normandy. 
Bernard Newmarch was one of the Conqueror's companions- 
at-arms, and obtained as his share of the spoil a Welsh 
principality won by his own good sword. 

234 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

NOVERS, for Noyers. William de Noiers, or Nuers, was 
an under-tenant in Norfolk (Domesday), where he had the 
custody of thirty-three of the Conqueror's manors. 

OLIFARD, not heard of before 1130, when two, Hugh and 
William, occur in Hampshire and Northamptonshire. It 
appears in Scotland under David I., 1165. The name there 
becomes Oliphant. Possibly Lifford derives from Olifard. 

ONATULLE is probably a misreading of Osseville, from 
Osseville in Normandy. The name does not occur till 
after 1190. 

PAGANEL or PAINELL, a great baronial family in Nor- 
mandy. The name was probably given to the original 
Norman founder of the family, who came over with Rollo 
and obstinately refused to be baptized. So he was called 
the Pagan, and possibly his sons and grandsons were poor 
Christians, if Christians at all, so that the name of Pagan 
adhered to the family. It still remains as Payne and 
Pennell. Other derivations shall be mentioned later. 

PAIFRER appears in Domesday as Paisfor, Paisforere, and 
Pastforcire, once a considerable name in Kent. 

PAITENY. The name does not occur till the reign of 
Edward I. 

PAVILLY, from a place near Rouen; not in Domesday. 
Name occurs in the reign of Henry I. The family died out 
in the tenth century. 

PAVILLON, from Pavelion, near Mantes. Appears as 
Papelion, witness to the charter of William the Conqueror 
to the Church of Durham, and was present at a Council at 
Westminster in 1082. Now Papillon, but this is a later 
Huguenot importation. 

PECHE. This nickname of a " man of sin " occurs in 
Domesday. William Pecatum was an under-tenant in 
Norfolk, Suffolk, and Essex. The name may have been 
altered to Beach and Beachy. It has also been found as 
Peach and Peachy. 

PERCY, from Perci, a fief near Villedieu near Caen. 
William de Perci was a tenant of the Duke of Normandy. 
He and Serlo de Perci came over in the time of the 

235 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

Conqueror, but neither of them is mentioned as having been 
present at Hastings. 

PERECHAY. Ralph de Perechaie is named as a tenant-in- 
chief in Berkshire (Domesday). The name comes very near 
to Percy. I knew some few years ago a taverner on Dart- 
moor whose name as spelled over his door was Purcay. 

PEROT, for Pierrot, Peterkin. Peret the Forester occurs 
in Domesday as a Hampshire Baron, but nothing can be 
concluded from this. Sir John Perrott, Deputy-Governor of 
Ireland, was an illegitimate son of Henry VIII. He got 
into trouble with Elizabeth, whom he treated with imperti- 
nence. The name still exists. It is that of the well-known 
family of guides to Dartmoor, living at Chagford. 

PERRERS, from Periers, near Evreux. Not in Domesday, 
but the name found in 1156. Alice Perrers of this family 
was mistress of, and then wife to, Edward III. She after- 
wards married Lord Windsor. Another family of entirely 
different origin, derived from Periers in Brittany, is now 
represented by Perry in Devonshire. It was seated in Devon 
in 1307. Now a worthy yeoman family. 

PERERIS is probably a mistake for Praeres, or Praers now 
Preaux. There was a barony of the name in the arron- 
dissement of Rouen. Probably some Priors and Pryors 
derive hence, and not from a Prior who abandoned his 
vocation. 

PEVERELL, given twice in the list. The name is not 
territorial. It is rendered in Latin Piperellus. William 
Peverell was reputed to be the son of the Conqueror by a 
Saxon lady, daughter of Ingelric, whom he gave in marriage 
to Ralph Peverell. Both Ralph and William Peverell are 
found as chief tenants in Domesday. William had a barony 
of 1 60 manors. The complaisant Ralph was rewarded with 
sixty-four knight's fees. 

PICARD, from Picardy, occurs twice. 

PIERREPONT, from a place of that name near St. Sauveur, 
in the Cotentin. Three brothers of that name occur as 
under-tenants in Domesday. 

PINKNEY, from Pincquigny, a town in Picardy, not far 

236 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

from Amiens. Ansculph was created Viscount of Surrey, 
and his son was William Ansculph, one of the great land- 
owners of Domesday. From two passages in that record 
we learn that their name was de Pinchingi. 

PLACY, an interpolation. The family descends from John 
de Placetis, a domestic servant of Henry III., who obtained 
the favour of his weak master, and became Earl of Warwick 
on marrying Margaret de Newburgh, much against her will, 
but at the command of the King. 

PLAYCE or Du PLAIZ. The family was enfeoffed after the 
Conquest by Earl Warren. The name remains as Place 
and Plaice. 

PLUNKET, from Plouquenet, near Rennes. Not in Domes- 
day, but occurs in 1158. 

POWER, from Poher in Brittany, a county of which 
Carhaix was capital ; properly Poucaer. Pou is the Latin 
Pagus. A branch settled in Devon in 1066 with Alured de 
Mayenne. 

POINZ or DE PONS, the ancestor of the Cliffords ; from 
Pons, in the Saintonge. Pons had four sons who went to 
England, of whom Drogo FitzPonce and Walter Fitz- 
Ponce held important baronies (Domesday). The younger 
brothers were ancestors of the Veseys and Burghs. The 
name is still to be found as Bounce and Bunce. I remember 
a poor, humble-minded servant-lad of that name, who for 
aught one knows may have been as true a descendant of the 
Lords of Pons as any Clifford, de Burgh, or Vesey. 

PUNCHARDON, from Pontcardon in Normandy. Robert 
de Pontcardon held lands in Devon in 1080. William de 
Pontcardon held six fees in Somerset and Devon in 1165. 
Now Punchard, Pinchard. 

PUGOYS, a probable interpolation. It has been pretended 
that Ogier de Pugoys came over with the Conqueror, and 
was given the Manor of Bedingfield in Suffolk, and that his 
descendants assumed the name of Bedingfield. Mr. Free- 
man throws discredit on this descent. " It is patched up 
by a deed of which I have a copy before me, and which is 
plainly one of a class of deeds which were invented to make 

23? 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

out a pedigree." The name is from Puchay, near Evreux. 
In England it became Poggis and Boggis. 

PUTEREL. One of the charters of Hugh Lupus, Earl of 
Chester, names Robert Putrel. Possibly the name may 
have become Botrell. 

PYGOT or PIGGOT. The name Picot occurs seven times in 
Domesday. It was a personal or nickname. The name is 
a diminutive of Pygge, a girl. 

QUERRU, probably for Carew, and consequently an inter- 
polation. 

QUINCY, from Quinci in Maine. Richard de Quincy was 
companion-in-arms of the Conqueror, and received from him 
Bushby in Northamptonshire. 

REYNEVILLE, a mistake, either of copyist or of printer, for 
Roudeville, now Rouville, near Gisors. Not in Domesday, 
nor does the name occur in England till the thirteenth 
century. 

RIDELL, descended from the Counts of Angoulme. The 
surname was first assumed by Geoffrey, the second son of 
Count Geoffrey, in 1048. He had two sons ; the second, of 
the same name as himself, came to England along with 
William Bigod. He is mentioned in Domesday as receiving 
large grants of land, and he also succeeded to his father's 
barony in Guienne. The next in succession was drowned in 
the White Ship, leaving only a daughter, who married Richard 
Basset ; and their son Geoffrey retained the name of Basset, 
but the second continued that of Ridell. Not to be con- 
founded with the Ridells, descended from the De Ridales, so 
called from a district in Yorkshire. 

RIPERE, from Rupierre, near Caen. William de Rupierre, 
who came to England with the Conqueror, is mentioned by 
Ordericus. The name has become Rooper, Roope, and Roper, 
when this latter does not signify a cordwainer. 

RIVERS, from Reviers, near Creulli, in the arrondissement 
of Caen, named by Wace. Richard de Reviers held a barony 
in Dorset in 1086 (Domesday). He was granted the Castle 
of Plympton, and was created Earl of Devon. Usually 
called Redvers. 

238 






THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

ROCHELLE, called by Leland " Rokel "; from Rochelle, in 
the Cotentin. Not in Domesday, nor heard of before the 
reign of Henry II. 

Ros. Five of the name are entered in Domesday, deriving 
their name from the parish of Ros, two miles from Caen. 
The name has become Rose. 

ROSCELYN, not in Domesday. 

ROSEL, for Russell; from the lordship of Rosel, in the 
Cotentin. In Domesday, Hugh de Rosel appears as holding 
lands in Dorset as Marshal of the Buttery in England, so 
that he was one of the flunkey nobles. The fortunes of the 
family were made under Henry VIII., whom the then 
Russell served unscrupulously, and was nicknamed the 
King's Firescreen. He was richly rewarded with Church 
lands. 

RUGETIUS, not to be identified. 

RYE, from a place of that name north of Bayeux. Herbert 
de Rie in 1047 saved the life of William, the future Conquerer 
of England, when flying from the conspirators of the Cotentin. 
He died before 1066, but his sons are entered in Domesday. 
The name remains. 

RYVEL, for Rouville or Runeville. Goisrfed de Ryvel held 
lands in Herts in 1086 (Domesday). 

RYSERS, for Richer. The name does not occur before the 
end of the thirteenth century. 

ST. AMANDE, in the Cotentin. Not in Domesday. Almeric 
de St. Amande witnessed a charter of Henry II. in 1172. 

ST. AMARY, not identified, but probably a mistake for 
Amaury. 

ST. BARBE. In Normandy a town and two villages bear 
the name of St. Barbara. Not in Domesday. William de 
St. Barbe was Dean of York, and elected Bishop of Durham 
in 1143. A family of Saintbarbe was in Somerset, tenants 
of Glastonbury, in the thirteenth century. 

ST. CLERE, from a place of that name in the arrondisse- 
ment of Pont 1'Eveque. " This Norman village has bestowed 
its name upon a Scottish family, an English town, an Irish 
county, a Cambridge college, a royal dukedom, and a King- 

239 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

at-Arms " (I. Taylor). The Sieur de St. Clair is named by 
Wace as at the Battle of Hastings. This was Richard de 
St. Clair, who had lands in Suffolk (Domesday). His 
brother Britel held lands in Somerset (ibid.). Now Sinclere 
or Sinclair. 

SALAWYN. Joceus le Flamangh i.e., the Fleming came 
to England with the Conqueror, and held a third part of a 
knight's-fee in Cukeney, Nottinghamshire, and two plough- 
lands of the King by the service of shoeing the King's 
palfrey; in fact, he was a farrier. His brother, Ralph le 
Silvan of Woodhouse, was ancestor of the Silvans or Salvins 
of Woodhouse. They took the name from the fact of living 
in Sherwood Forest. The name remains as Salvin and 
Salvyn. 

SANDFORD. Gerard de Tornai i.e., Tournay held Sand- 
ford in Shropshire, under Earl Roger, and the family took 
the name from the place. 

SAUVAY, not met with till the reign of Edward I. 

SAUNZAVER or SANS- AVOIR, the poverty-stricken. Matthew 
Paris mentions a Walter Sansavoir in the annals of 1096. 
But the first Sansaver met with in England is in Devon in 
1165. 

SANSPEUR or SAUNSPOUR, a nickname. 

SAGEVILLE, from a place of that name in the Isle de 
France. Richard de Sacheville occurs as holding lands in 
Essex in 1086. Sackville is the modern form. 

SAYE, mentioned by Wace. From Say, nine miles to the 
west of Eximes, the chief place of the viscounty of Roger de 
Montgomery in Normandy. Picot de Say is named in 
Domesday. 

SESSE, from Seez, on the Arne, in Normandy. The name 
not met with before 1130. 

SENGRYN or SEGUIN, not in Domesday, and not met with 
before the reign of Edward I. In 1273 it became Segin, 
now Seekins and Sequin. 

SOLERS, from Soliers, near Caen. Two of the family are 
met with in Domesday. 

SOMEROY, entered twice by Leland. From Someneri, 

240 






THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

near Rouen. William de Someri held lands in Sussex in 
the reign of Henry I. The name got in time contracted to 
Somers. 

SORELL, not met with before the reign of Henry II. 
Now Sarell and Serle and Searle, the Norman Serlo, a 
personal name. 

SUYLLY. Raymond de Sully in the time of William Rufus 
went with Robert FitzHamon to the conquest of Glamorgan, 
and was one of the twelve knights that shared the territory 
they had helped to win. The name is now met with as 
Soley. I see Sulky on many coal-trucks. 

SOULES, from a place of that name near St. L6. The 
men of Sole are mentioned by Wace at Hastings, " striking 
at close quarters, and holding their shields over their heads 
so as to receive the blows of the hatchet." The family was 
in early times powerful in Scotland, where it gave its name 
to the barony of Soulistown, now Saltoun, in East Lothian. 

SOVERENY, not accounted for. 

SURDEVAL. Richard de Surdeval in 1086 was one of the 
tenants of the Earl of Mortaine in Yorkshire, holding of him 
180 manors. Now Sordwell. 

TAKEL or TACHEL, first heard of in 1165, when Simon 
Tachel held a knight's-fee of Roger de Moubray in York- 
shire. Now Tackle. 

TALBOT. William Talbot came to England in 1066, and 
had two sons, Richard and Godfrey, who are mentioned as 
under-tenants in Essex and Bedfordshire (Domesday). A 
nickname. 

TALLY perhaps stands for Tilly. From the castle and 
barony of Tilly, near Caen. Ralph de Tilly held lands in 
Devon (Domesday). The name of Tilly remains, but it also 
signified a labourer. 

TANY, from Tani in Normandy. Robert de Tani held 
a barony in Essex (Domesday). 

TAY and THAYS are probably the same. Derived from a 
certain Baldric Teutonicus. He was called later De Tyas, 
and was seated in Yorkshire, Essex, and many other 
counties. The motto of the family was Tays en temps 

241 Q 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

(Know when to hold your tongue). Robert Tay, who was 
engaged in the Wars of the Roses, had a variant of this : 
" Not to be hanged for talking." 

TARTERAY in Leland's list is a misreading or a misprint 
for Carteray, the ancestor of the Carterets. 

THORNY, from Tornai in Normandy. Giraud de Torni 
received eighteen manors from Earl Roger de Montgomeri. 

TIBOL, probably for Tilliol, from a place so named near 
Rouen. Humfrey de Tilleul was the first castellan of the 
new castle erected at Hastings. 

TINGEY, not to be identified. 

TINEL. Thurstan Tinel and his wife appear in Domesday 
as under-tenants in Kent. 

TIPITOT, from Thiboutot, in the Pays de Caux. The name 
does not occur in England till 1165. It got corrupted to 
Tiptoft. 

TISOUN, a nickname. From tison, a badger ; now Tyson. 
The family was so called from the knack they had of laying 
hold with their claws of all that came in their way and 
appropriating it. Gilbert Tison, or Tesson, had a barony in 
York, Notts, and Lincoln (Domesday). 

TOURYS. Odo de Turri had large possessions in Warwick- 
shire in the reign of Henry I., at Thoresby. This is curious, 
that he should have settled at a place with a name so 
similar to his own. The name Torre is still extant in 
Yorkshire. 

TREGOZ, from a castle of that name in the arrondissement 
of St. L6. A Tregoz was in the Conqueror's host, and is 
praised by Wace for his bravery : " He killed two English- 
men, smiting the one through with his lance and braining 
the other with his sword." No mention of the family in 
Domesday, and not as of much possessions till the reign of 
King Stephen. 

TRACY. It is uncertain whether Tracy is intended in the 
entry in Leland. He gives " Graunson et Tracy," and, in 
accordance with the system adopted in the roll, the name 
should be Gracy. The Sire de Traci was, however, accord- 
ing to Wace, in the Battle of Hastings. The family does 

242 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

not appear to have been of much importance in England 
before the time of Stephen, who bestowed upon Henry de 
Tracy the Honour of Barnstaple. William de Tracy, one of 
the murderers of Thomas a Becket, had extensive estates in 
Devonshire and Gloucestershire. 

TRAVILLE, not identified. 

TREVILLE, same as Treilly, from a castle in Manche. 
The name occurs in England in the twelfth century. Now 
Treble. 

TRUSSEL. The name does not occur in England till the 
twelfth century. 

ST. CLOYES, not identified. 

ST. JOHN, from St. Jean-le-Thomas, near Avranches. The 
men of St. Johan are spoken of at Hastings by Wace. Not 
named in Domesday, but in the reign of William Rufus 
John de St. John was one of the twelve knights that invaded 
Glamorgan along with Robert FitzHamon. The name 
remains. 

ST. JORY, not identified ; perhaps now Jury, unless from 
residence in the Jewry, or Jews' quarter, in a town. 

ST. LEGER, from a place of that name near Avranches. 
Robert de St. Leger was estated in Sussex (Domesday). 

ST. LEO or ST. L6, from a place near Coutances ; a barony. 
Simon de St. Laud had grants at the Conquest. 

ST. MARTIN, not in Domesday, but Roger de St. Martin 
was Lord of Hampton, Norfolk, in the reign of Henry I. 

ST. MAUR, from a place of that name near Avranches. 
Wido de St. Maur came to England in 1066, but died before 
Domesday was compiled. His son, William FitzWido, held 
a barony in Somerset, Wiltshire, and Gloucestershire, and 
ten manors in Somerset. The name became Seamore and 
Seymour. But see what is said on that name in the chapter 
on Trade-names. 

ST. OMER, in Leland's list St. Thomer. A branch of the 
house of the Barons of Bethune. Not in Domesday, but 
William castellan of St. Omer is mentioned in the reign of 
Henry I. The name is found now as Stomer. 

ST. PHILIBERT in Leland, Felebert. From St. Philibert, 

243 Q 2 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

in the arrondisement of Pont Audemer. Not in Domesday, 
but occurs in 1213 ; a baronial family. 

ST. QUINTIN, from a place so called near Coutances. Hugh 
de St. Quintin accompanied the Conqueror to England, and 
received lands in Essex and Dorset (Domesday). Whether 
the name of Quintin now found points to a descent from the 
Norman St. Quintin family cannot be said. 

ST. TES, for Saintes, capital of the Saintonge. An inter- 
polation, as the bearer of that name must have come during 
the English occupation of Guienne. 

TURLEY, for Torlai or Thorley. Not named before 1272. 
It may be doubted whether the Thorleys of the Middle Ages 
were one quarter as well known in England as is the name 
of Thorley now for providing " food for cattle." 

TUCHET, from Notre Dame de Touchet, near Mortaine 
in Normandy. The family was seated at Buglawton and 
Tattenhall shortly after the Conquest. Sir John Touchet 
married the eldest daughter and coheiress of Lord Audley 
in the reign of Edward III., and the barony descended to 
Sir John's son. The name is now Tuckett. There is a con- 
fectioner of that name at Plymouth. 

TYRELL, printed in Leland " Tyriet," but certainly a mistake 
for "Tyrell." Fulk, Sieur de Guernaville and Dean of Evreux, 
married a lady named Onelda, and had by her two children, 
of whom the youngest Walter assumed the name of 
Tyrell. He is entered in Domesday as Walter Tirelde, 
tenant of Richard FitzGilbert, Lord of Clare, of whom he 
held Langdon in Sussex. 

UMFRAVILLE, from Amfreville, near Evreux. Robert 
Umfraville, with the Beard, Lord of Tour and Vian in Nor- 
mandy, had a grant from the Conqueror of the barony of 
Prudhoe and the lordship of Redesdale. The name still exists. 

VALENCE, from a place of that name in Normandy. 

VALLONIS, for Valognes, in the Cotentin. Peter de 
Valognes, or Vallonis, received from the Conqueror fifty- 
seven manors, and was created Viscount of Essex. 

VAVASOUR. A vavasour is the vassal of a vassal, or the 
holder under a mesne-lord. But the baronial Vavasours were 

244 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

descended from Sir Mauger de Vavasour, porter to William 
the Conqueror. He is not to be found in Domesday, but his 
grandson was a landowner in Yorkshire. 

VAUX or DE VALLIBUS. Robert of that name was a sub- 
tenant in Domesday, as was also Richard de Vaux. The 
family rose to great distinction. 

VAVILLE, properly Wiville or Guideville, held in Nor- 
mandy under the Toenis. Hugh de Guidville came to 
England in 1066, and held lands in Northamptonshire and 
Leicester (Domesday). The name has gone through several 
changes. The Woodvilles derived from this Hugh de Guid- 
ville. But the name continued in the form of Wyville or 
Wyvill in Yorkshire and in Cornwall. I have working for 
me an under-carpenter of that name, whose son was my boot- 
boy and knife-cleaner. Twice in Leland. 

VENABLES, from a place between St. Pierre and Vernon 
on the Seine. It was the seat of the Veneurs, or Hereditary 
Huntsmen, of the Norman Dukes. Gilbert de Venables, or 
Venator, was one of the Palatine Barons in Cheshire under 
Hugh Lupus. 

VENOUR, also a huntsman. The Grosvenour, or head- 
huntsman, was the ancestor of the Grosvenor family. There 
were seven Venatores mentioned in Domesday, some bearing 
Saxon names ; but the ancestor of the Grosvenors was Ralph 
Venator, one of the attendant Barons on Hugh Lupus, who 
held Stapleford under the Earl. 

VERBOIS, from a place near Rouen. The family gave 
its name as Warboys to a village between Huntingdon and 
Ramsey. 

VERDERS, from verdier. The Verdier, or verderer, was a 
judge of petty offences against the forest laws. In England 
his office was to take care of the vert, a word applying to 
everything that bears a green leaf within the forest that may 
cover and hide a deer. 

VERDON, from a fief in the arrondissement of Avranches. 
Bertram de Verdon, the founder of the English house, had 
Farnham Royal in Buckinghamshire of the King (Domes- 
day). 

245 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

VERB, from Ver, between Bayeux and Caen. Alberic de 
Vere was one of the great landowners of Domesday, who 
had his castle at Hedingham in Essex. His successor and 
namesake was Viscount under Henry I. in no less than 
eleven different counties. 

VERNON, from Vernon in the arrondissement of Evreux. 
Richard and Walter appear in Domesday. Richard was 
one of the Barons of the palatinate of Hugh Lupus in 
Cheshire, and had a castle at Shipbrook on the Wever. 

VESEY, from Vassey, a fief in the Val de Vire, mentioned 
by Wace as at the Battle of Hastings, under the name of 
Waacee. Robert and Ivo were there present. Robert 
received a great barony in Northants, Warwick, Lincoln, 
and Leicester. The name remains as Vasey, Facey, Veysey, 
and Voysey. In the latter form I had a labourer working for 
me many years who could neither read nor write. 

VEYLAND cannot be a Norman name ; it is Wayland, the 
English form of the Norse Viglund. 

VILLAIN. Hugh de Villana held land at Taunton under 
the Bishop of Winchester. The name assumed the forms 
of Villane, Velayne, and Willon. 

VINON, for Vivonne, a seigneurie in Poitou. We do not 
hear of the family till 1240. 

VIPONT, from Vieuxpont-en-Auge, near Caen. Robert, 
Lord of Vieupont, was at Hastings, and William is also 
mentioned by Wace. William died the year before the 
compilation of Domesday, but his son is mentioned in it, 
who held Hardingstone in Northamptonshire. The name 
has become Fippen and Fippon. 

VUASTENEYS or GASTiNAYS, from the Gastinois, south of 
Paris and east of Orleans. Goisfrid, described as "homo 
Roberti de Stafford," who held large tracts of land in the 
great Stafford barony, was the founder of the De Wastineys 
in England. 

WAGE, shall be dealt with elsewhere. 

WACELAY, not traced. 

WALANGAY, not traced. 

WALOYS, variously spelt Le Walleys, Wallais, and 

246 



THE ROLL OF BATTLE ABBEY 

Latinized Wallonis, means "the Welshman"; now Walsh 
and Welsh, also Wallace. 

WAMERVILLE, for Wannerville; not heard of before the 
second half of the twelfth century. 

WARDE, already mentioned under De la Ward. 

WARENNE. William de Warenne, or de Garenne, fought 
at Hastings, and few of the Duke's followers were as 
munificently dealt with. He held the great baronies of 
Castle Aire in Norfolk, Lewes in Sussex, and Coningsburgh 
in Yorkshire. The last Earl Warren had during the lifetime 
of his wife lived in open concubinage with Maud de Nerefort, 
by whom he had a son who bore his arms and was knighted, 
and inherited through his wife the Cheshire barony of 
Stockport, and their descendants remained in the county 
for fourteen generations. It would be unwise to assume 
that all Warrens are descendants of William de Warenne. 
Most, doubtless, derive their name from some warren, of 
which the ancestor was warrener. 

WARLEY stands for Verlai in Normandy. In 1066 
Thurold de Verlai held thirteen lordships in Salop from 
Earl Roger, of which Chetwynd appears to have been the 
chief. But Leland enters Werlay as well as Warley. By 
this Werlay he means Vesli. Humfrey de Vesli was a 
vassal of Ilbert de Lacy in Yorkshire in 1086. 

WATERVILLE is a mistake for Vateville on the Seine. 
Three de Vatevilles are entered in Domesday : William, 
who held of the King in Essex and Suffolk, etc. ; Robert, 
who held in capite in Surrey with five manors in other 
counties; and Richard, an under-tenant in Surrey. Now 
Waterfield. 

WAUNCY, for Vancy, from Vanci or Wanchy, near Neuf- 
chatel in Normandy. Hugh and Osbern "de Wanceo " 
each held fiefs in Suffolk in 1086. 

WEMERLAY, not traced, but probably the English 
Wamersley and Walmsley ; an interpolation. 



247 



CHAPTER XII 

FRENCH NAMES : I. EARLY 

THAT Whitsuntide wedding of 1152 when Henry Plantagenet 
took to wife Eleanor of Guienne, the divorced wife of 
Louis VII., was an event full of disaster to both England 
and France. Henry II. was Lord of Anjou, Touraine, and 
Maine, as well as of Normandy, with suzerainty over 
Brittany; he was, moreover, King of England. By this 
marriage his empire stretched from the Flemish border to 
the Pyrenees, commanding the entire coast of France, with 
the exception of that on the Mediterranean, which belonged 
to Provence and Toulouse, covering more than half the soil 
whose nominal lord paramount was Louis VII. 1 

Eleanor was the daughter and heiress of William X., 
Duke of Aquitaine and Poitou. She had gone with her 
husband on Crusade to the Holy Land in 1146; but there 
scandal had it that she carried on an intrigue with her 
uncle, Raymond I., Prince of Antioch, the handsomest man 
among the soldiers of the Cross. A Council was held at 
Beaugency in 1152, March 21, when the marriage with 
Louis was dissolved on the convenient plea of consanguinity, 
and in the ensuing May she married Henry. 

A disastrous marriage to England and France alike, for 
by it the kingdom of France was cut off from the ocean, 
contracted within narrow bounds, and with a stricture on the 
arteries of commerce. By it, for 300 years, English wealth 
and English blood were drained away to be squandered on 
a foreign soil. 

1 Louis IX. was obliged to buy Aigues Mortes as a port on the 
Mediterranean for his fleet, when in 1244 he resolved on a Crusade. 

248 



EARLY FRENCH NAMES 

The broken soldiers of fortune from the French possessions 
of England drifted to our island in quest of offices about the 
Court, or came in the service of noblemen, to be rewarded 
by being settled into farms and lodges on English soil. 
Cooks and scullions, minstrels and porters, chamberlains 
and jesters, marshals and foresters, trooped from a land 
devastated and depopulated, to settle down in the green 
pastures and among the flowering orchards of England. 

But the tenure of all the ports of France on the Channel 
and the Atlantic served to enrich England, by bringing to it 
the commerce of the mainland, and merchants arrived to 
display their wares, at first in booths at fairs, then to settle 
permanently into shops open all the year round. 

Thus it came about that into England were introduced 
foreign designations of officers in Court and manor, as also 
those of merchants and traders. Thus it is that side by side 
we have foreign as well as English names, as Seamer and 
Tailor, Fletcher and Arrowsmith, Seller and Sadler, Porcher 
and Swineherd. 

Undoubtedly, after Hastings, a considerable number of 
cautious men, who had waited to see what would be the 
results of William's venture, crossed over from Normandy 
with offers of assistance to keep down the English. Those 
who had come across with him were but a handful, so that 
he and his successors the Red King and Henry Beauclerk 
were ready enough to accept such aid, and secure such 
services, without inquiring too closely as to why they had 
not thrown themselves into the arms of the Bastard when 
he first planned his invasion. 

The inflow must have continued with little diminution 
under the House of Anjou. But the caution must be made 
not to assume that those arrivals bearing place-names were 
Sieurs with territorial estates, or even knights. Many took 
their names from the places where they had been born. 

I shall add more concerning this at the close of the 
chapter ; but I will now deal briefly with the French names 
that have become rooted among us and have been Anglicized. 
These fall into four categories : those that are personal 

249 



EARLY FRENCH NAMES 

names adopted as patronymics ; those that are descriptive or 
an office or a trade ; those that are personally descriptive ; 
and, lastly, such as are place-names. The same four cate- 
gories are found everywhere in Europe. 

i. PERSONAL NAMES. In a good number perhaps the 
majority of cases where a personal name became a family 
name, it had begun as a Fitz So-and-so. But Fitz was all 
very well and understandable among the Norman and French 
speaking nobles and their retainers, but not among the 
English dwellers on the land; and when an old servant 
FitzHameln retired to a little farm or a forest lodge, and 
exchanged his associates from those of the castle for those on 
the land, he now shed his Fitz, and was known as Hameln. 
My hind is named Hamley, and is doubtless a descendant 
from such a pensioned-off retainer, who began life as French 
Monsieur FitzHamelin, and ended it as Master Hamlyn. 

Hammond is from Hamon, a Norman form of the Old Norse 
Hamundr. Hamo Dentatus, " with the Teeth," had a son 
Hamo de Crevecceur, " the Break-heart." The Haymans 
of Somerfield, extinct Baronets, claimed descent from the 
toothed Hamo. Whether they could prove it is another 
matter, for Heyman or Hayman signifies a parish servant 
for keeping the cattle from straying over the grass " heamed 
up " for hay. 

Jordan is from the Norman Jourdain, a Christian name 
adopted after the Crusades had begun, and Crusaders re- 
turned with a bottle of Jordan water, wherewith their sons 
were baptized, and at the same time were called after the 
river. I had a gardener once of this name perhaps, judging 
by it, of Norman descent. 

Drew is from the Norman name Drogo, but in some cases, 
perhaps, from Dreux. Drogo, the Norman who came over 
with William, was given large estates in Devonshire, where 
the name remains to this day. 

Emery is from Amaury, as also Merick. Oates is a name 
made hateful through the iniquities of Titus Oates. The 
name is from Odo. FitzOdo came over with the Conqueror. 
Odo is the same as Otho or Otto, and takes as well the form 

250 



EARLY FRENCH NAMES 

of Eudes. Odo has likewise become Ody and Hood. Robin 
Hood is supposed to have been descended from FitzOtes. 
There was a family named Hody (from Odo) owning much 
land in Devon. Just outside the parish of Lew Trenchard 
is a block of cottages on which was painted up " Little 
White Spit." On consulting the map, it appeared that at 
some distance was " Great White Spit." The names were 
corruptions of Little Hody's Bit and Great Hody's Bit, as 
those patches of land had belonged to the Hody family. 

Mrs. Bar dell of " Pickwick " fame descended from a 
Bardolf. Ours, the Bear, must have been accepted as 
a personal name, for there was a Fitzurse, one of the 
murderers of Thomas a Becket. This name has descended 
to Fitzoor, then Fyshour, and to Fisher. Goatcher is from 
Gautier, the French form of Walter ; Gwillim is Guillaume, 
or William; Wilmot is Guillaumot, Little Billy. I had a 
gardener in Yorkshire called Jaques, a French form of James. 
Rolle is from Raoul, the Norman French for Rolf unless 
Rolle be a place-name, De Ruelles. Ingram is Enguerand. 
Fookes and Yokes and Folkes are from Folko ; Eustace and 
Stacey from Eustacy ; Reynald and Rennell are Reynaud 
or Reginald. Pierre has furnished us with our Pierces and 
Pearces. Oger has become Odger. Lias and Lyass come from 
Elias, not an uncommon name among the Normans. Arnoul 
has become Arnold, and Ivo is Ivey. Raymond and Gilbert 
we derive from Normandy. Gerard remains unaltered. 
Mauger has been transformed into Major. In Georgeham 
Church, Devon, are the monumental efBgies of Sir Mauger 
de St. Albino and his lady ; he is in armour. The villagers 
say that this is the tomb of Major St. Aubyn and his 
" missus." Milo has become Miles. Perhaps from Guido 
we have the surname Giddy. Alured is turned into Aldred. 
From Thibault come the Tibbets and Tippets. There is, 
however, a place named Thiboutot in the Pays de Caux, but 
this place apparently takes its name from a Thibault. The 
name Tibbald is not uncommon among labourers in the 
neighbourhood of Colchester. Willett is from Guillot, a 
diminutive of Guillaume, but we have it unaltered as the 

251 



EARLY FRENCH NAMES 

name of one of the first manufacturers of steel pens. Aubrey 
is the English of Alberic ; Fra^ois has given us Francis and 
Franks; and Walkelin has supplied us with Wakling. 

2. OFFICIAL AND TRADE NAMES. These have been largely 
dealt with in preceding chapters, and need not here delay us 
and demand repetition. 

There are, however, a few that have not been included in 
them that may receive notice here. Wade and Wayte may 
come from Guet as well as from a ford, 1 or be employed for 
a watchman ; and Way may come from gue, a ford. Baynes 
and Baines may be a name given to a man in charge of a 
bath, or it may come from one of the French places named 
Bagnes. The Baines family has adopted canting arms 
crossbones but this is a mistaken derivation. Over the 
cemetery entrance in a certain place was inscribed in large 
letters, " De mortuis nil nisi bonum." A father walking that 
way with his son, fresh from college, asked him the meaning 
of the sentence. " Oh," answered the youth, " Of the dead 
nothing remains but bones." 

It is interesting to note side by side men of different 
nationalities pursuing the same trade, yet called by different 
names, as though the Normans had employed men of their 
nationality, and the English had given their custom to men 
of their own. N orris is sometimes from nourice, nurse. 
Lord N orris was unquestionably descended from Richard 
de Norreys, the favourite cook of Eleanor de Provence, wife 
of Henry III. But he may have been the son of a nurse. 
And beside the French Norris we have also the English sur- 
name Nourse. Salt- workers employed by the Norman French 
were Sauniers whence the surname Sawner whereas the 
English got the condiment from native Salters. 

It would appear as if in some instances the Normans 
brought their serfs over with them, perhaps for the nonce to 
serve as fighting men, and then rewarded them with a farm, 
and they retained the designation of the office they held in 
Normandy. So can one explain the presence among us of 
Porchers : a swineherd would be a Swineherd to the English 

1 William atte Wayte was Vicar of Shebbeare, 1356. 
252 



EARLY FRENCH NAMES 

villagers ; set down in their midst as a small farmer, called 
by his fellow- Nor mans " Jean le Porcher," he would acquire 
among the natives the name of Jan Porcher. 

To what a large extent the foreigner must have usurped 
the higher branches of trade and commerce may be seen by 
the introduction of the word and name of Merchant, and the 
sinking of that of Monger. It is only the ironmonger, and 
the costermonger who hawks his wares from door to door, 
and the fishmonger, and a few other smaller tradesmen, who 
retain the good old Saxon designation. All the higher class 
of tradesmen, in deeds and in registers, write themselves 
" merchants." The greatest term of contempt that can be 
given to a dog is that it is a mongrel a small tradesman, 
a half-breed. 

3. PERSONALLY DESCRIPTIVE NAMES. These can have 
been accepted by the family only if complimentary, or be- 
cause misunderstood, when an old foreign retainer or man-at- 
arms went to end his days in the village among farmers and 
villeins, talking to them in broken English. They had heard 
him spoken of at the hall as Phillipot, or as Fouille-au-pot. 
It mattered nothing to them whether he were called by his 
fellow Frenchmen Little Phil, or the scullion, and they 
called him and his family Philpotts. From the same source 
we have Willard, or gueulard, a brawler ; Mordaunt, one 
biting or sarcastic ; Mutton, a sheep ; Patey, from pateux, an 
adhesive person one such as was Benedict, according to 
Beatrice : " He will hang upon him like a disease ; he is 
sooner caught than the pestilence, and the taker presently 
runs mad." Prouse, or Prouze, from preux, chivalrous ; Sale, 
dirty j 1 Capron and Capern, one wearing a short cloak. An 
old servant who had set up a tavern outside a town called 
it his " Guinguette," and thence obtained the surname of 
Wingate. 

Racket is either the man with the little axe, or else the 
name comes from a residence near a wicket-gate. Le Neveu 
became Le Neave, and then Neave. Le Beaufils was shortened 

1 But the surname Sayles may signify one living by the sqy/es, or 
palisading, of a park: Robert a la Sale, 1273, Hundred Rolls. 

253 



EARLY FRENCH NAMES 

into Buffets. Timble was the name acquired by the French- 
man who played on the timbal, the kettledrum. Grice is 
from Le Gris, the Grey-haired unless from griis, a pig. 
Rouse is from Le Roux, and Morell from a dusky com- 
plexion. Grant is from Le Grand, and Petty from Le Petit. 
Trist is from trisie, and, on the other hand, Joyce from Le 
Joyeux. Douce may be significative of a gentle disposition, 
but may also signify a Dutch ancestry. A man in my parish 
who picks up a small livelihood by going round on Saturday, 
selling penny papers, is surnamed Curtis, Le Courtois ; and I 
knew a little farmer named Poley, from Le Polis, the polished 
and refined. A Fyers comes from Le Fier, and Gent from 
Le Gentil. 

The trees meet us in double form English and French 
in our surnames. We have the Norman Fail, or Fayle, and 
the English Beech ; also Frein and Freyne, the name coming 
mediately through Fresne in Calvados. I had a cook once 
called Freyne ; this signifies an ash. The hazel-tree we 
encounter in Coudray, the name of a place in Calvados, and 
also in Kent. Tallis, our English composer, took his name 
from Taillis in Seine-Inf6rieure, that means underwood. 
Wood is with us as Boys, and the Norman-French Bosc is 
recognizable in our family name Busk. But we have also 
Tallboys, or woodcutter. 

Names expressive of deformity are to be accepted with 
great hesitation, and only to be explained as above stated, 
on the assumption that their meaning was not understood 
by the English. Chase may in some instances come from 
chassieux, blear-eyed ; but Cammoys did come from cammus, 
flat-nosed, and Courteney from short nose. Peggotty, of " David 
Copperfield " fame, unquestionably is the Norman-French 
picote, smallpox-marked. Comper may derive from Compere ; 
Benbow has no relation to archery it is a rendering of 
bambouche, a puppet. Bunyan has been erroneously de- 
duced from Bon- Jean it is really Ap-Einion ; and Mytton 
in like manner has been derived from miton, a spoiled child, 
whereas it is from Mitton (Mid(de)-Town) in Yorkshire. 

4. PLACE-NAMES. By far the most numerous French 

254 



EARLY FRENCH NAMES 

names taken into our family nomenclature come from places 
in Normandy or other portions of the possessions of the 
Anjou dynasty. A good number of these has been given in 
the chapter on the Roll of Battle Abbey ; but I add some 
others here, without pretending to give an exhaustive list : 

AGNEW does not necessarily come from agneau, a lamb, 
but may also be a place-name, Agneaux, in the department 
of Manche. 

AINGER is Angers, capital of Maine-et-Loire. 

ANWYLL, a name now found in Wales, is derived from 
Anseville. 

ARCH, the name of a peasant agitator in Essex, is from 
Arques in Seine-Infe'rieure ; but there are several other 
localities of that name. 

AVERY is from Evreux. 

BARBEY, from Barbey, in Seine-et-Marne. 

BARWISE, from Barvaix. 

BATTEN and BEATON derive from Bethune in Pas-de- 
Calais ; and BAVE, from Bavey, in the department of Nord. 

BAVENT is from a place of that name near Caen. 

BARWELL is from Berville in Eure. 

BEAVER is not from the beast, but from Beauvoir ; and 
BELCHER from Bellecourt. 

Some of the BEARDS do not take their name from "valour's 
excrement," as Bassanio called it, but from Les Biards, or 
Biard, as it was formerly, in the arrondissement of Mortaine, 
near Joigny, the fief of the Avenels. 

" Des Biars i fu Avenals," 

says Wace. The Avenels joined the Conqueror with a con- 
tingent of lusty men, and doubtless planted some of them 
in farms and homesteads about their castle at the Peak, and on 
other lands in their possession. Such would not call them- 
selves Avenels, but Biards, after the place whence they 
came, and thence Beards. 

BELLCHAMBERS is from Belencombre, near Dieppe. 

BLOMFIELD is from Blonville, near Pont l'Evque. 

BELLASIS is from a place so called near Coulommieres. 

255 



EARLY FRENCH NAMES 

BISSET is from Bissey in Cote-d'Or ; and BOFFIN from 
Bouvignes on the Meuse, nearly over against Dinant, an 
ancient town commanded by a stately castle. 

BLOYE is deducible from Blois. 

BONVILL, from Bonneville, near Rouen. 

BOOSEY, the music publisher, derives his name from 
Boussey in Cote-d'Or. 

BONNEY, from Bony, near Peronne. 

BOSWELL derives from Bosville, in Seine-Infe'rieure. 

BOUTELL, the name of an authority on brasses and on 
heraldry, has naught to do with bottles, but derives from 
Boutailles in Dordogne. A migrant during the Hundred 
Years' War and the Plantagenet possession of Guienne. 

BOVEY, when not from Bovey in Devon, is from Bouffay 
in Eure. 

BRAINE may derive from Brain in Cote-d'Or, or from 
Braine in Oise. 

BREWER does not necessarily imply that the ancestor of 
the Brewers was one who brewed a peck of malt, for it 
comes from Bruyeres in Seine-et-Oise. 

BRUDENELL hails from one of the many Brettignolles. 
One is in Maine. 

Although the London BUCKETS came from a German of 
Heidelberg early in the seventeenth century, whose son 
became an Alderman of London in 1634, all earlier Buckets 
deduce their name from Buquet, near St. Malo. 

BURDETT is from Bourdet. 

BURT is from Bourth in Eure. 

Mr. Hall CAINE, the novelist, derives his name remotely 
from Cahaignes, in the department of Eure ; and CAMMIDGE 
is the same as Gamidge, from Gamaches in Somme. 

CANN is from Caen ; and CHAFFERS, the great authority 
on hall-marks for plate and on china, draws his name from 
Caffiers in Pas-de-Calais. 

CHAMLEY is Chamilly, Saone-et- Loire ; and CHANTRELL 
is Chanterelle in Cantal. 

CAUSE is from the Pays de Caux. 

CARRINGTON drew his name from Charenton, in the 

256 



EARLY FRENCH NAMES 

department of Seine ; and CAYLEY from Cailly in Seine- 
Inferieure. 

CHAWNEY is from Chauny, on the Oise ; and CHAWNES 
from Chaulnes. 

CHERWELL, from Carville. 

CHESNEY, from Chesnais ; a widely-spread name. 

CHEYNELL is from Quesnel ; and CHURCHILL perhaps in 
some instances may be an anglicizing of Courcelle in Seine- 
et-Oise. 

CLAVELL is from Claville, near Evreux ; and CONDY, that 
supplies a name to the disinfecting fluid, permanganate of 
potash, as well as CUNDY, come from Conde, in Somme, 
Eure, and other departments. We cannot count the patentee 
of Condy's Fluid as a descendant of the great Conde", only 
as partaking with him in a place-name. 

CONQUEST is from Conques in Aveyron a most interest- 
ing place, with a church treasure of almost unsurpassed 
value, happily saved during the Revolution. English 
authority extended over this part of the South of France 
fitfully and disputedly, and the Conquest who came to 
England must have been one who had thrown in his lot with 
the losing side. 

Sir Roger de COVERLEY'S ancestor came from Coveliers. 

The CRESSYS and CREASYS deduce from Cregy, the scene 
of the great victory of Henry V. 

A good old nurse, one of the faithful of the past generation, 
was a CROCKET of ancient Norman extraction, doubtless 
from Criquetot in Normandy. 

CROLEY is from Creuilly. 

CUFF and COFFEE, from Coiffy, in Haute Marne. 

CUSTANCE, from Coutances. The Bishop of that see came 
to England with the Conqueror. Godfrid was his name, and 
he was richly rewarded with manors. He plundered his 
estates in England to obtain the money wherewith to build 
the glorious cathedral of Coutances. Doubtless the distance 
family derives from some retainer of the Bishop who remained 
in England looking after his interests, but certainly not those 
of his tenants and villeins. 

257 R 



EARLY FRENCH NAMES 

DAMPIERRE is a place-name in Seine-Inferieure. 

DAVERS is De Havre. 

DARK is from D'Arques in Normandy. I know a labour- 
ing man so named. 

DIMOND derives from Dimont in Nord ; and DINHAM 
from Dinan. 

DIPROSE is from De Pre"aux. 

DOMVILLE is from Donville in Manche. 

DAY and TOYE, from Douay ; and DRUCE, from Dreux. 

DUCIE is from Du9y, near Avranches. 

DUDNEY may be Dieudonne" (the " gift of God ") or a 
place-name in Oise. 

DUFFY is D'Auffai. 1 

Dame DURDON, who kept three serving-men, was of 
Norman ancestry, from Dourdan in Seine-et-Oise. I have 
a tenant of the name in a cottage, a labouring man. 2 

EVILL is from Yville in Normandy. At first the name 
was D'Eville, but the d was dropped because Devil was the 
inevitable corruption. Indeed, even then the name did not 
escape. My uncle had a white-haired curate of the name of 
Evill, but he went throughout the neighbourhood by the 
name of " the Old Devil," though a more innocent and gentle 
soul did not exist. 

EYRE is a place-name in Normandy. 

FANCOURT is a corruption of Vandelicourt. 

FILBERT or FILLBIRD is St. Philibert in Calvados. 

FOULGER is from Fougeres in Ille-et-Vilaine. 

FOLLETT may not be from Folliott, but be a place-name 
De Veulette. 

FOWELL deduces from Fauvel or Vauvelle in Normandy. 

FURSE is the De Forz in some copies of the Battle Abbey 
Roll, and it occurs in Domesday as Fursa ; but it is doubtful 
if it be a Norman name, and not Saxon. A tenant of one of 
my farms bore this appellation. 

1 Ordericus gives an account of this family (vi. 8). 

2 There is, however, a Dearden near Edenfield, in Lancashire. But 
Durdon was the famous fortress of the Duke of Ardennes, according to 
the medieval romance of the Seven Sons of Aymon. 

258 



EARLY FRENCH NAMES 

GAYLORD is from Chateau Galliard, on the Seine. 

GILBEY, the great wine-merchant, whose crest a dragon 
issuing from a tower is on every bottle he sells, may derive 
from Quilleboeuf in Normandy. There is, however, a 
Kilby in Leicestershire; and in the Oxford University 
Register for 1571 is the entry of Richard Gilbye or Kelby of 
Lincolnshire. 

GOAD and GOOD are from Goude ; and GORMAN, when 
not from the Norse Gormundr, is from Gourmont, and this 
is the more probable as it is a name still widespread in 
Normandy. Gorman was the name of a policeman in my 
district in Devon. 

GOSLING is Joscelin in Brittany. 

GUINNESS, the brewer, derives his name from Guines, near 
Calais. 

HANSOM, the inventor of the cab that takes his name, 
derives his from Anceaumville in Seine-Infe'rieure ; and 
HERRICK, the poet, could look back to an ancestor from 
Heric in Loire-Inferieure. 

HOLMES is not always descriptive of one living on a low 
island, but comes from La Houlme in Seine-Inferieure. 

INGHAM might be supposed to be the ham or hame on the 
ing or eng, a' field by a river-side. It is not this, however, 
but is the anglicized form of Engaine ; and IVORY derives 
from Ivry. I remember a baker of that name. Rudolf d'lvry 
the uncle of Duke Richard the Good, was the son of a miller 
who had complaisantly married the cast-off mistress of Duke 
William Longsword. " No Princes were more lax as to 
marriage than the Norman Dukes. Both William Longsword 
and Richard the Fearless were the offspring of unions which 
were very doubtful in the eye of the Church ; and Richard 
the Good and other children of Richard the Fearless were 
legitimatized only after the marriage of their parents" 
(" Encyclopaedia Britannica "). So the Ivry family rose from 
a mill to great splendour and rank, and now is represented 
by a baker. 

JOBLING is from Jublains in Mayenne. 

KISSACK and CUSSACK, from Quissac in Lot arrivals and 

259 R 2 



EARLY FRENCH NAMES 

settlers in England when our arms were being driven out of 
the South of France. There the petty nobles and knights 
passed from one side to another without scruple, according 
to the pay offered, or to the chance of plunder, or to revenge 
a slight. Some, who had too deeply compromised them- 
selves on the English side, were obliged to abandon their 
paternal acres and castles built in and out of the limestone 
rocks, and take ship at Bordeaux and retire to England. 
The condition of misery in which the people were during the 
Hundred Years War cannot be realized by those who have 
not visited the Gausses, and seen how the unhappy peasants 
were constrained to make their houses on the face of a preci- 
pice, and at night haul up their cattle to their rock fastnesses. 1 

KNOWLES, if not the short of OLIVER, may be from Noailles. 

The names of LILLEY, LYALL, and LISLE, come from 
Lille, in the department of Nord. 

LINE and LYNE are from Luynes in Indre-et-Loire ; and 
LINTOTT from a place of that name in Seine- Inferieure. 

LONGFELLOW, the poet, derives a mutilated name from 
Longueville in Calvados ; and LONGSHANKS is a barbarous 
alteration of Longchamps, in the department of Seine. As 
I have said before, it by no means follows that all those who 
bear a place-name had lands and a castle in that place. The 
De Longchamps were a great baronial race ; but William 
de Longchamps, the Chancellor of Coeur de Lion, did not 
pertain to it. He and his brother, the Sheriff of York, 
Norfolk, and Suffolk, were the grandsons of a serf in the 
Diocese of Beauvais. William, who was Bishop of Ely, 
bought the chancellorship of Richard for 3,000 marks. "And 
had he continued in office," said his enemies, " the kingdom 
would have been wholly exhausted not a girdle would have 
remained to the man, nor a bracelet to the woman, nor a gem 
to a Jew." At his fall he was obliged to make his escape in 
the disguise of a woman. 

LOWRY is from Lowry in Loiret. 

MAGNAC, from a place of that name in Haute Vienne. 

MAGNAY and MAGNAL, whose dreadful and useless ques- 
1 See my " Deserts of Central France " for these rock refuges. 

260 



EARLY FRENCH NAMES 

tions were the plague of one's childhood, came from Magny 
in Calvados. 

MAINWARING is from Mont Guerin, and MATCHAM from 
Muschamp in Normandy. 

MANWELL, from Mandeville in Calvados, which gave its 
name to the great traveller Sir John. 

MANSELL is from Le Mans. Wace tells us that many of 
these went to help in the invasion of England. The existing 
family, however, derives from John Mansell, in the reign of 
King Henry III. He was one of the grossest pluralists 
known in England, for he held 700 livings at one and the 
same time. He was also Provost of Beverley, Treasurer of 
York, Chief Justice of England, one of the Privy Council, 
Chaplain to the King, and his Ambassador to Spain. He 
had a wife, an heiress (Joan de Beauchamp, daughter of 
Simon, Baron of Bedford), and left a son (Sir Thomas 
Mansell), who was a banneret. He feasted at his house at 
Tothill two Kings and their Queens, with their dependents, 
and 700 messes of meat scarce served for the first dinner. 
A Sir Thomas Mansell, a lineal descendant, was created 
Lord Mansell by Queen Anne in 1711. 

MANT also is from Mantes or from Le Mans. 

MARVELL is from Merville, near Caen. Andrew Marvell, 
the poet, must have derived thence. 

MAUDE is drawn from Monthaut, a hill in Flintshire on 
which Robert de la Mare built a castle, now called Mola. 
But the name has been supposed to derive from Le Mauduit, 
the excommunicated or accursed one, who came over with 
the Conqueror. 

MAIRE and MAYOR are not necessarily names derived from 
office, but may come from La Mare. 

MAYBRICK derives from Makebranche, that was altered 
first into Malebrank and then into Maybrick. 

MERRIT, and the commoner name MERRY, are due to 
Merey in Eure ; and Sir Thomas MALLORY, who wrote his 
delightful " Morte d' Arthur " that was printed by Caxton, 
drew his name from Meilleray in Seine-et-Marne probably, 
but the name is found in other departments as well. 

261 



EARLY FRENCH NAMES 

All MILLERS do not necessarily come from the mill, for 
there was a Norman family De Meslieres. A William de 
Meslieres witnessed Richard Builli's foundation charter of 
Roche Abbey, Yorkshire, in 1146, as well as that of Box- 
grove in Sussex. 

MONEY is a corruption of De Mauny. Sir Walter Manny 
or Mauny, afterwards Lord de Manny, and founder of the 
Charterhouse, was one of the ablest of the soldiers of 
fortune under Edward III. His father was Jean le Borgne, 
or the One- Eyed, Lord of Mauny, near Valenciennes, who 
was killed in a private quarrel in the English camp before 
La Reole, on the Garonne, in 1327. Walter came to England 
in the train of Queen Philippa, who made him one of her 
Esquires, and he was given the governorship of Merioneth, 
and the keepership of Harlech Castle. He married Mar- 
garet, daughter and heiress of Thomas of Brotherton, second 
son of Edward I., but his only son fell down a well and was 
drowned in his father's lifetime. He had but one legitimate 
daughter, who married John Hastings, Earl of Pembroke ; 
but he had two others that were illegitimate, of whom he 
cannot have been proud, as he gave them the names, the 
one of Maloisel (a bad bird) and the other of Malplesant 
(disagreeable). The English Moneys consequently cannot 
derive from Walter de Manny, but almost surely from some 
of his attendants, natives of Mauny, who followed him in 
war and were settled by him on his estates in England. He 
died in January, 1372. 

MOON or MOHUN is from Moyon in Manche. 

Some of our MONDAYS and MUNDYS may derive from 
Mondaye in Calvados, and not from the first day of the week. 

MORTICE, from Mortaise in Calvados. 

MOTT is from La Motte, a very common name of place 
and of family in France. 

MULLINS is Des Moulins. 

NEVILL and NEWELL are from Neville in Manche, and 
NOEL from Noailles in Oise. 

NEWERS and NOYES are derived from Noyers in Eure, 
and NUGENT from Nogent in Seine. 

262 



EARLY FRENCH NAMES 

OTLEY is from Otteville. In " Testa de Neville " the name 
is spelt Ottele. 

PEROWNE is from Peronne, in the department of Nord. 
Poor, humble-minded Tom PINCH may have had a Norman 
ancestry and come from Penchard in Seine-et-Marne, whence 
certainly came the PINCHARDS. 

PINKERTON is from Pontchardon. 

PINKNEY, from Piquigny, near Amiens, and PLACE and 
PLAICE from either Plagy in Calvados or Plage in Mayenne. 

The not very beautiful name of PUDSEY comes from 
Puisay, in the Orleanois. This place gave its name to one 
of the chief nobles of France, Everard de Puisay, whose 
daughter Adelais was the second wife of Roger de Mont- 
gomery, Earl of Shrewsbury. She came to England in 
1083. During her voyage she was overtaken by a storm, 
and all despaired of reaching land. However, a priest 
had a dream in which the Magdalen appeared to him 
and bade him tell Adelais to build a church in her honour 
at the spot where she should meet her husband for the 
first time, and where grew a hollow oak beside a pig-sty. 
The Countess, obedient to the vision, on reaching the spot 
vowed to build a church, which is Quatford in Shropshire. 
Hugh de Pudsey was elected Prince-Bishop of Durham in 
^SS* when he was Treasurer of York. He had three 
bastards: Henry became a soldier, Burchard was made 
Archdeacon of Durham, and Hugh was created Count of 
Bar-sur-Seine. It is probably from the eldest Henry that 
the Pudseys of Durham have descended, unless the Arch- 
deacon followed his father's example. They remained in the 
palatinate till the seventeenth century, and then spread over 
Yorkshire. I have known Pudseys who kept a lodging- 
house. 

The PUSEYS probably took their name from Peise or 
Pesci, the manor held by them, and named in Domes- 
day. 

The PLUNKET family draws its name from Plonquenet, 
near Rennes. 

Ralph PINEL in 1086 held a barony in Essex and Sussex. 

263 



EARLY FRENCH NAMES 

The name came from Normandy, where remained for long 
branches of the family, and gave the name of Le Bois-Pinel 
to a place near Rennes. There were three Seigneuries of 
the name in the Cotentin. In England we recognize the 
name as Pennell, unless we derive this from its more 
probable source, Paganel. 

PENLEE, that sounds like a combination of Welsh and 
Saxon, is no such thing ; it comes from Penly, between 
Tre"port and Dieppe. 

POYSEY is from Poissy in Seine-et-Oise. 

PUNSHON and PUNCHEON come from Ponchon in Oise. 

PURSEY, a distinct name from Percy, is from Pourcy 
in Marne. 

RAW is Re*au, Seine-et-Marne. 

RAYNES is from Rennes. 

REVELL, from Reville in Manche. 

RICHFIELD, from Richeville in Eure. 

RICKETTS from Ricquier. 

ROMILLY is in Normandy. 

ROMER is Romare. 

ROSCOE, from Roscoff in Brittany. 

ROWE is De Rohaut. The four sons of Rohaut, a Breton 
noble living in 1000, accompanied the Conqueror to England, 
and one of these, Ruald Fitz Rohaut, held three lordships in 
capite in Devon in 1086. His son Ruald, or Rohaut, was 
father of Alan FitzRohaut, who married Lady Alicia de 
Dodbrooke, and acquired additional estates by her in Devon. 
The Rowes or Rohauts have remained to this day in Devon. 
One branch at Staverton is extinct, but the other at Lamer- 
ton, near Tavistock, flourishes. 

ROYE, from a town in Somme. 

RUGGLES is from Rugles in Eure. 

RULE, from Ruelle in Seine-et-Oise. 

RUMBELOW and RUMBOLD are from Rambouillet in Seine- 
et-Oise. 

SACE, from Sassey, in Calvados, or Sace in Mayenne. 

SCOFIELD and SHOVELL are all English forms of Escoville 
in Calvados. 

264 






EARLY FRENCH NAMES 

SEELEY may possibly hail from Sille in Sarthe. 

SERVICE is from St. Servais in Cotes du Nord. 

SHAND, SHANDY, and CHANDOS, from Chandai in Orne. 

STUTFIELD is Estoteville in Seine-Inferieure. 

SUMMERFIELD and SUMMERVALE derive from Somerville, 
now Sommervieux, near Caen. Roger de Somerville was 
summoned to Parliament as a Baron, and died in 1327. 
Roger's son was the Sir Philip to whom John of Gaunt 
granted an estate on condition that he should keep a flitch 
of bacon hanging in his hall at Wichnor at all times of the 
year except in Lent, to be given to any man who could take 
oath that he had not repented after having been married a 
year and a day, and could bring with him a couple of wit- 
nesses to confirm his words. " Of the few that have ventured 
to claim the prize, three couple only have obtained it, one 
of which, having quarrelled about the mode of preserving it, 
were adjudged to return it. The other two couples were a 
sea-officer and his wife, who had not seen each other from 
the day of their marriage till they met in Wichnor Hall; 
and a simple couple in the neighbourhood, the husband a 
good-tempered man and the wife dumb." So little prospect 
is there of the flitch being claimed that it is now made of 
wood and hung up in the lodge. 

STAPLES, from Estaples. 

TEALE is Le Thel in Seine-Inferieure. 

Mr. TOOTS, of " Dombey and Son " notoriety, derived his 
name from Totes. Look at his picture by Phiz, and think 
of him as a descendant of a Norman man-at-arms. 

TORRENS comes from a citizen of Torigny in Manche. 

TOWERS is an anglicizing of Thouars. 

TRAVERS comes from Te"vieres, between Bayeux and 
Caen. In the days of the Conqueror, Robert de Travers, 
or D' Estovers, Baron of Burgh-upon-Sands, married the 
daughter of Randulf de Meschines, Lord of Cumberland. 
He became hereditary forester of Inglewood. " The badge 
of his office the jagged branch is over and over again intro- 
duced in the chapel of Naworth Castle, which is so rich with 
arms and cognizances; and where this jagged branch is, in 

265 



EARLY FRENCH NAMES 



some places, even thrown across the Dacre's arms fesswise. 
The forestship of Inglewood was so honourable, and gave 
great command, that there is no wonder that the family 
should wish by every means to set forth their claim to it" 
(Hutchinson's " Cumberland "). 

TWOPENNY, perhaps, comes from Tupigny in Flanders. 

TURNEY, from Tournai in Orne, or in Belgium. 

UDALL is from Oudalle in Seine-Inferieure. 

VARVILL and FARWELL and FAREWELL, even FARFIELD, 
are all from Varaville in Calvados. 

VERDON and VERDANT derive from Verdon in Meuse. 

VERE, from Verin, in Calvados, or another Ver in 
Manche. 

VERNEY is from Vernai, near Bayeux. 

VILLIERS is the name of a place in Manche. 

VILLEDIEU has given us the surname Filldew or Pill- 
dew. 

VIZARD is from Visart. 

WYLIE is no crafty rogue, but deduces from Vesli. 

WORNALL comes from Verneuil. 

WYON is from Vian ; spelled Wiun, as one holding lands 
in Lincoln in the twelfth century. 

VAWDRY is from a place of that name in Calvados. 

VOWLES and VOALES is from Veules in Seine-Inferieure, 
and WATERFIELD very probably from Vatierville, in the same 
department. 

I have left to the last all the corruptions of names of saints. 
SIMBARBE is Ste. Barbe. SACHEVEREL comes from St. 
Cheverol. SLODGER is St. Ledger. SLOW is St. L6; in 
Latin Laudus, that gives us the surname of the Archbishop, 
Laud. SMART comes from Ste. Marte or Martha. STOMER, 
from St. Omer. SIMPER, from St. Pierre. SIMPOLE, from 
St. Pol de Leon. SAVILLE, from St. Ville or Vitalis. 

If we want nowadays to find the descendants of the 
Normans, even of those who held vast baronies under the 
Conqueror and his successors, we look in vain into the 
modern peerage; only here and there do we find them in 

266 



- 

80 



EARLY FRENCH NAMES 

Burke's " Landed Gentry." For the most part the repre- 
sentatives of the conquering Normans are found in the 
lower walks of life, among labourers and artisans, or, at 
best, among tradesmen. Here and there, indeed, among the 
titled of the land we may find an ancient Norman name, 
but it is assumed, either on the grounds of a doubtful pedi- 
gree or of a descent in broken falls through the spindle. How 
great families may decline I will show by a few instances. 

I will begin with a notable family that of the Gr en- 
miles of Stowe, whence came the great Sir Bevil and 
Sir Richard. One branch so sank and that in the very 
parish wherein was the splendid mansion of the Grenvilles 
that two of them were in receipt of parish relief, and one of 
them was twice pricked for High Sheriff whilst a pauper. 

The Glanvilles were of Norman descent. A branch 
settled near Tavistock and became tanners. From the tan- 
pits rose one who became a great Elizabethan Judge, and 
built a noble mansion at Kilworthy. One of the last of the 
Glanvilles was huntsman to Squire Kelly of Kelly, and an- 
other was a ferryman at Saltash, whose wife Anne was a 
famous rower, and was one of the crew of women who beat 
the French boatmen in a race at Havre in 1850. Anne was 
stroke. The women were dressed in black skirts, long white 
bedgowns, and nightcaps. One of them Mrs. House was 
so elated at the victory that on reaching the committee-boat 
she plunged into the water, dived under the vessel, and came 
up with dripping and drooping nightcap on the opposite side. 
The Glanvilles declined in station, and with the declension 
the name became degraded to Gloyne. In the Sourton parish 
registers is the entry of the death of Matthew Glanville, 
alias Gloyne February 24, 1777. 

There was not a prouder name amongst those who came 
over with the Conqueror than the De Pomeroys. The 
family issued from La Pomeraye in Normandy, and a frag- 
ment of their stronghold remains at Cinglais, not far from 
Falaise. Here was the original pommerai, or orchard, that 
gave its name to the place and family. Ralph de Pomeraye 
is mentioned in Domesday as holding sixty manors in capite, 

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EARLY FRENCH NAMES 

all but two in Devonshire, where Berry Pomeroy became 
the seat of the barony. Ralph built the castle whose ruins 
now tower above the woods that clothe the hill it crowns. 
Henry de Pomeroy, unhappily for himself, took sides with 
John during the absence of Coeur de Lion, and garrisoned 
St. Michael's Mount for John. But soon arrived the news 
of the enlargement of Richard from prison, and the story 
goes, as Fuller relates, " that a sergeant-at-arms of the King's 
came to the castle of Berry Pomeroy, and there received 
kind entertainment for certain days together, and at his 
departure was gratified with a liberal reward. In counter- 
change whereof he then, and no sooner, revealing his long- 
concealed errand, flatly arrested his host, to make his im- 
mediate appearance before the King, to answer a capital 
crime. Which unexpected and ill-carried message the gentle- 
man took in such despight that with his dagger he stabbed 
the messenger to the heart. Then, despairing of pardon in so 
superlative an offence, he abandoned his house and gat him- 
self to his sister, then abiding in the Island of Mount Michael 
in Cornwall. Next he bequeathed a large portion of his land 
to the religious people dwelling there, to pray for the redeem- 
ing of his soul ; and, lastly (that the remainder of his estate 
might descend to his heirs), he caused himself to be let bleed 
to death." 

But the misfortunes of the De Pomeroys did not end here. 
In the reign of Edward VI. Sir Thomas Pomeroy wrought 
the utter downfall of his family by engaging in the Devon- 
shire rebellion of 1549 against the violent changes in religion. 
He was involved in ruin. His life indeed was spared, 
but that was all ; the grasping hand of the Seymours was 
laid on his estate, and his beautiful and noble mansion of 
Berry passed away from the family for ever. 

And now where are the Pomeroys ? Our school com- 
mittee paid five shillings to a Mrs. Pomeroy to clean out the 
schoolroom, and as I write I have before me a bill for a 
suit of clothes from Pomeroye, tailor, at Tavistock. 1 

1 I quote the following from the Daily Express, February 23, 1909 : 
" Paris, February 22. The Countess de la Pomiere was found dying in a 

268 



EARLY FRENCH NAMES 

No more splendid family existed in England of the Norman 
invaders and conquerors than that of the De Toeni. Raoul 
of that family bore at Hastings the consecrated banner that 
the Pope had sent to William with his blessing to consecrate 
the wicked invasion. It was a race that mixed its blood 
with the Plantagenets. They became Earls of Stafford and 
Dukes of Buckingham. Henry, the second Duke, " made 
his boast that he had as many liveries of Stafford knots as 
Richard Nevill, the late great Earl of Warwick, had of 
ragged staves." He, as may be remembered, was executed 
at Salisbury in 1483. His son Edward was restored by 
Henry VIII. to the dukedom and other honours, and was 
appointed Lord High Constable of England ; but he also 
was to end his life on the scaffold. He had quarrelled with 
Wolsey. It is said that at a great Court ceremonial, when 
the Duke was holding a basin to the King, no sooner had 
His Majesty washed than Wolsey dipped his own hands 
into the water, and Buckingham, stung at this indignity, 
"flung the contents of the ewer into the Churchman's 
shoes." Wolsey swore to be revenged, and how he accom- 
plished his end may be read in Shakespeare's "Henry VIII." 
With the fall of his head under the axe in 1522 the princely 
house of Stafford fell to rise no more. His only son, stripped 
of lands and dignities alike, received back but a scanty 
portion of the splendid possessions of his family, and was 
allowed the title of Baron. Edward, fourth Lord Stafford, 
married his mother's chambermaid, and was succeeded by 
his grandson Henry, with whom the direct line terminated 
in 1637 ; and the claim of the last remaining heir, Roger, 
was rejected by the House of Lords on account of his 

miserable garret in Senlis this morning. She had not been seen for 
some days, and when the neighbours forced their way into her room they 
found her calling feebly for help. She was lying on a heap of straw in 
the middle of the room, fighting as well as she could with rats for a 
crust of bread and a piece of cheese, which she clutched to her breast. 
Lying all about the floor of the room were bank-notes, bonds, and shares 
worth more than 6,000. The rats had eaten away portions of the 
paper. The Countess has been taken to a home at Clermont, but there 
is little hope of her recovery." 

269 



EARLY FRENCH NAMES 

extreme poverty. The unfortunate man, de jure Lord 
Stafford, the great-grandson of the last Duke, was then aged 
sixty-five, and had sunk into so abject a condition that, 
ashamed to bear his true name, he called himself Floyd, 
after one of his uncle's servants who had brought him up 
and been kind to him. He was compelled to surrender his 
claim to the barony into the hands of Charles I., and died in 
1640, unmarried. His only sister, Jane, married a joiner, 
and had a son who earned a livelihood as a cobbler in 1637 
at Newport in Shropshire. As Banks says : " The most 
zealous advocate for equality must surely here be highly 
gratified when he is told that the great-granddaughter of 
Margaret, daughter and heir of George, Duke of Clarence, 
brother to King Edward IV., was the wife of a common 
joiner, and her son the mender of old shoes." 

The Conyers were one of the noblest families in the North 
of England. Roger Conyers was made Constable of Durham 
Castle by William the Conqueror. Surtees enumerates all 
the defunct families that had sprung from the parent stock 
viz., " Conyers of Hornby Castle, whose peerage is vested by 
heirs-general in the Duke of Leeds; Conyers of Bowlby, 
Danby-Wiske, Hutton-Wiske, Thormandby, Pinchinthorpe, 
Marshe, and High Dinsdale, in Yorkshire ; Wynyard, 
Layton, Horden, Coltham, Conyers, in Co. Durham ; and 
Hopper in Northumberland." The Duchess of Cleveland 
says : " One by one, some later and some earlier, each of 
the remaining branches of this famous house had died out. 
The fair domain of Stockburn went with the heiress of 
William Conyers to Francis Talbot, eleventh Earl of 
Shrewsbury, in 1635, and passed through their daughter to 
the Stonors. Coatham-Conyers, first brought by Scolastica 
de Coatham in the time of Edward I., was forfeited by 
Roger Conyers, who joined the rising of the Northern Earls 
in 1569. Wynyard had been transferred to the Claxtons in 
the previous century. The line of Layton ended in 1748. 
Hutton passed to the Mallorys, and Danby to the Scropes, 
who now hold it. Their possessions dwindled and dis- 
appeared year by year. Manor after manor was lost to its 

270 



EARLY FRENCH NAMES 

ancient lords, estate after estate alienated or carried away 
by heiresses, till at length they were bereft of all, and in 
1810 Surtees found Sir Thomas Conyers, the last of this 
race, in the workhouse of Chester-le-Street. No other 
earthly refuge was left him save the pauper's grave. A 
subscription, proposed by Surtees, and headed by Bishop 
Barrington, was set on foot to rescue him from his unhappy 
position, and enough money was raised to remove him to a 
more fitting abode. The old man only lived, however, a 
few months afterwards, and with him expired the proud 
name that had shone in the county annals for the better 
part of 800 years." 

And is this an altogether exceptional case ? Has it not 
been the same thing with many an ancient family that from 
one cause or another has gone under ? 

The Umfravilles derived from Amfreville, near Evreux. 
The first of the name who came to England was Robert 
with the Beard, Lord of Tour and Vian in Normandy, and 
had a grant from the Conqueror of the barony of Prudhoe. 
Gilbert III. of Umfraville inherited from his mother, the 
Countess of Angers, and was created Baron Umfraville by 
Edward I. in 1295, and Governor of the whole territory of 
Angers. He was then created Earl of Angers. But the 
family sank lower and lower, till towards the end of the 
eighteenth century the last of the baronial race was a 
chandler in Newcastle-upon-Tyne. He left several daughters 
and one son, born in 1784, who after the death of the father, 
were supported by the industry of their mother. The then 
Duke of Northumberland, whose ancestor had obtained 
Prudhoe from the Umfravilles, took interest in the lad, then 
aged fourteen, and provided for him in the navy. He served 
under Lord Exmouth in the East Indies, eventually rose to 
the rank of a Captain, retired on half-pay, and died of drink. 
He still possessed a sword given by Henry V. to his ancestor, 
which after the death of Mrs. Umfraville was sent to Alnwick 
Castle. 

The Duchess of Cleveland says of the Vieux-ponts, or 
Viponts, named by Wace as taking part in the Battle of 

271 



EARLY FRENCH NAMES 

Hastings, and afterwards advanced to honour : " This great 
name, like many others presumed to be extinct, has most 
likely simply merged into obscurity. In 1880 I saw Vipond 
inscribed over the door of a grocer's shop in Middleton in 
Teesdale, within a dozen miles of the county in which the 
De Viponts once reigned supreme." 

De Vesci was a famous name. It was like the tree in the 
vision that had its boughs wide extended, and the birds of 
the air lodged in the branches of it. It stretched into 
Scotland. It is represented at the present day by Messrs. 
Veitch, the nursery gardeners and seed merchants. 

" Little Miss Muffet 
Sat on a tuffet, 

Eating curds and whey ; 
When by came a spider 
And sat down beside her, 
Which frightened Miss Muffet away." 

In Miss Muffet we recognize the name, but not the 
ancestral heroism, of her ancestor, De Maufet or Mauf, 
who fought at Hastings. Her arms: Argent, a lion rampant, 
sable, between nine escallops, gules. A lion rampant, and 
sable, too, and to be frightened by a spider ! 

Lysons is from Lisons in Calvados. 

Memoray is a singular name that appears in Holinshed's 
list of the warriors who came over with the Conqueror. 
John de Murmuru was granted half a knight's-fee in 
Gloucestershire. The family never rose to any distinction. 
A Brixham fisherman bears the name of Memory. 

Holinshed includes Totelles among those in the Roll of 
Battle Abbey. I believe that the Tootles of to-day do not 
occupy a very distinguished place in the social order. At an 
evening party the butler announced : " Mr. Tootles, Mrs. 
Tootles, and the two Misses Tootles, too." 

Such, the broadside ballad printer, takes his name from 
Zouche. 

Rudeville, now Ruville, is a place near Gisors, and, 
according to Holinshed's list, a De Rudeville came over 
with the Conqueror. The name in England became Rudall 

272 



EARLY FRENCH NAMES 

or Ruddle. Daniel Defoe published an account of the laying 
of a ghost by the Rev. Samuel Ruddle. Vicar of Launceston, 
1720. He had a family, the living was poor, and his children 
settled down into humble life in the neighbourhood. A 
descendant is now a gamekeeper. 

There was a worthy carrier between Lew Down and 
Tavistock, now dead, who could neither read nor write, but 
never forgot a commission. His name was Tooke. Tooke 
or Touques is a place in the arrondissement of Pont 1'Eveque. 
The Sieur de Touques appeared in the list of those who 
fought under William the Conqueror. Henry Tooke served 
Edward I. in his Scottish wars, and obtained from him a 
grant of lands. Sir Brian Tuke, Treasurer under Henry VIII., 
was one of those drawn by Holbein. " Nicholas Toke of 
Godington, usually called Captain Toke," says Hasted, 
" Sheriff of Kent in 1663, dying in 1680, was buried in the 
chancel with his five wives. His portrait, at full length, is 
in the hall there, and that of Diana, his fifth wife, daughter 
of the Earl of Winchelsea. There is an anecdote of him in 
the family, that at the age of ninety-three, having been left 
a widower, he walked from hence to London to pay his 
addresses to a sixth wife ; but, being taken ill, he presently 
died. Leaving no male issue by any of his wives, he devised 
the seat of Godington, with the rest of his estate, to his 
nephew and heir-at-law, Nicholas Toke of Wye." 

Godington Hall is a fine Elizabethan mansion. " In the 
windows of the staircase are collected all the arms, quarter- 
ings, and matches, of the family, in painted glass. The 
drawing-room upstairs is curiously wainscoted with oak." 
So in the East of England is a Toke or Tooke estated, with 
the armorial bearings of his family shining down on his 
head through the painted glass ; and in the West lies, in my 
churchyard, Tooke or Toke, the illiterate carrier, without a 
headstone to mark his grave, and he may have been as lineal 
a descendant of the Sieur de Touques as is the Squire of 
Godington. 

Toustain was the Norman equivalent of the Saxon Tostig. 
Toustain FitzRou i.e., son of Rolf was standard-bearer at 

273 s 



EARLY FRENCH NAMES 

Hastings. When Raoul de Conches, to whom this honour 
belonged by hereditary right, and Walter Giffard, to whom 
it had been offered, both declined the honour on various 
excuses, the Duke looked about him for a worthy substitute. 
" Then," says Wace, " he called to him a knight whom he 
had heard much praised, Tostan FitzRou le Blanc by name, 
whose abode was at Bec-en-Caux. To. him he delivered 
the gonfanon ; and Tostan accepted it right cheerfully, and 
bowed low to him in thanks, and bore it gallantly and with 
a good heart, high aloft in the breeze, and rode by the Duke, 
going wherever he went. Wherever the Duke turned, he 
turned also ; and wheresoever he stayed his course, there 
he rested as well. His kindred still have the quittance of 
all service for their inheritance ; on that account they and 
their heirs are entitled to hold their inheritance for ever." 
" For ever," writes Wace, and for ever the grant was made 
by William the Conqueror. Where now are the acres of the 
Tostans ? Where the descendants of the standard-bearer at 
Hastings ? What has become of the barony, including land 
in two different counties, granted to the standard-bearer ? 

The name, if not the blood, remains, and I have little 
doubt that the blood follows the name made so famous at 
Hastings. It is now Dustan. 1 One of that name is now a 
coachman, son of the village tailor. He married a dress- 
maker of the name of Gerry, from the adjoining parish. 
Now, this also is a Norman name, and that also of one that 
fought at Hastings. He was, indeed, a clerk, and was given 
a canonry in St. Paul's and lands at Twyford. Either he 
married and had a considerable family, or his brothers and 
cousins followed him, as we find the name of Gueri or Gerry 
all over the county of Devon in the succeeding reign. 

What a palace of delights is Gamage's shop to children ! 
What hours of happiness has not Mr. Gamage given to the 
little ones ! Among some copies of the Roll of Battle Abbey 
occurs the name. If the Sieur did not come over in 1066, 
he did soon after, drawing his name from the Chateau de 

1 But another derivation of the name may be dy stain (Welsh), a 
steward. Dustun (Cornish) is a witness. 

274 



EARLY FRENCH NAMES 

Gamaches, and his pedigree from Protadius, Mayor of the 
Palace to Theodoric, King of Orleans, in 604. What peer 
in his ermine and wearing his coronet can show such an 
ancestry as the owner of the toy-shop ? 

William de Valence was a Lusignan, with a water-nymph 
as ancestress. He was Earl of Pembroke, and half-brother 
of Henry III. through his mother, Isabella d'Angouleme, 
widow of King John, who remarried Hugh de Valence or 
de Lusignan, Count de la Marche. A curse was believed to 
rest on the family of Aymer de Valence, whose beautiful 
monument is in Westminster Abbey, because he sat in 
judgment on his cousin, Thomas of Lancaster, at Pontefract, 
and condemned him, unheard, to death. His own violent 
death two years later was held to be a retribution for his 
" mercenary and time-serving act of infamy." But the 
fatality did not end with him, for " it was observed that, 
after that judgment was given, none of the succeeding Earls 
of Pembroke -ever saw his father, nor any father of them took 
delight in seeing his son." 

The name lingered on. A squire of the name had lands 
in Sennen at the very Land's End. But these lands are 
gone now, and the last Valence I have met was a small 
tenant-farmer in an adjoining parish. 

I have shown in another chapter that from household 
domestics, and from, those engaged in the forests and in 
the stables, that also from the booths and workshops of the 
traders, that even from among the labourers on the land, 
men have risen to the surface and have flushed our nobility 
with new and vigorous life. Tailors have cast aside their 
shears, and ceased to sit cross-legged on the table. Smiths 
have quitted the bellows and the anvil ; coopers have ceased 
to hammer and tighten the staves of casks; cooks have 
doffed their white aprons and wiped the gravy from their 
fingers, to assume the ermine and the coronet. And the 
butlers have slipped from behind their master's chairs, and 
the obsequious chamberlains have ceased to cringe, and the 
forester and the parker to stand, bonnet in hand, and bow 
before their lords, to step forward and thrust these great 

275 S 2 



EARLY FRENCH NAMES 






seigneurs into the background, and require the namesakes 
of their lords probably their descendants in blood to 
clean the boots and serve behind the counter, to the great- 
grandsons of the servants of the haughty possessors of castle 
and manor. 

" Robert of Sicily, brother of Pope Urbane 
And Valmond, Emperor of Allemaine, 
Apparelled in magnificent attire, 
With retinue of many a knight and squire, 
On St. John's Eve, at vespers, proudly sat, 
And heard the priests chant the Magnificat. 
And as he listened, o'er and o'er again 
Repeated, like a burden or refrain, 
He caught the words * Deposuit potentes 
De sede, et exaltavit humiles? 
And slowly lifting up his kingly head, 
He to a learned clerk beside him said : 

* What mean these words ?' The clerk made answer 

meet: 

* He has put down the mighty from their seat, 
And has exalted them of low degree.' 
Thereat King Robert muttered scornfully : 

' J Tis well that such seditious words are sung 
Only by priests and in the Latin tongue : 
For unto priests and people be it known, 
There is no power can push me from my throne.' " 

And so must have thought the great nobles of Norman 
extraction in the early Middle Ages. But the words of Mary 
uttered 1,900 years ago proclaimed a great social fact that 
has prevailed for ever in the world, and ever will prevail. 
It is a law that the mother impresses on her infant, when 
she sways it, now to the ceiling, then to the floor, in her 
hands, and sings : 

" Now we go up, up, up, 
And now we go down, down, down !" 

The great human pot must boil, and if it did not do so 
there would be stagnation : 

" And thus the whirligig of Time brings in his revenges." 



276 



CHAPTER XIII 

FRENCH NAMES : II. THE HUGUENOT REFUGEES 

IT is unnecessary to relate the story of the civil wars of 
religion in France, and the attempts made by the Crown to 
crush out Calvinism, that had pervaded the South even 
more than the North. The refugees from persecution began 
to come over in the reign of Edward VI., the flow was 
considerable in that of Elizabeth and of James I., but 
the great bulk arrived after the Revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes by Louis XIV. in 1685. The Calvinists it is a 
mistake to call them Protestants, for they strongly dissented 
from the Augsburg Confession, the adherents to which were 
the true Protestants, and obtained their designation from it 
the Calvinists, I say, had obtained liberty from 1577 to 
build meeting-houses ("temples "). But in 1661 the death 
of Cardinal Mazarin was the signal for evading the permission 
hitherto accorded, and between that year and 1673 half 
their conventicles had been taken from the Huguenots. 

They came over in troops. The crypt of Canterbury 
Cathedral was given up to them for haranguing and psalm- 
singing ; they had places of worship in Austin Friars and 
Threadneedle Street, London. Before 1685 they had their 
conventicles in Canterbury, Canvey Island, Colchester, 
Dover, Faversham, Glastonbury, Ipswich, Maidstone, Nor- 
wich, Rye, Sandtoft, Sandwich, Southampton, Stamford, 
Thetford, Thorne Abbey, Whittlesea, Winchester, Yarmouth ; 
in and after 1685 at Barnstaple, Bideford, Bristol, Chelsea, 
Dartmouth, Exeter, Greenwich, Hammersmith, Plymouth, 
Stonehouse, and Thorpe. 

Considerable reluctance was felt by the English Govern- 

277 



THE HUGUENOT REFUGEES 

ment in granting letters of naturalization to these foreigners. 
It was thought that the great influx of needy strangers 
would throw many of our own people out of employ. Any 
Bill to allow them a share of the Englishman's right was 
unpopular with the City of London, and with all boroughs 
and corporations; and naturalization was doled out re- 
luctantly to individuals only, by letters patent and by private 
Acts of Parliament. In 1681 naturalization was accorded to 
eleven men only and six women, but to as many as thirty-eight 
with their wives and children in one day, March 21, 1682. 
A royal bounty was accorded to the refugees, consisting of 
money raised throughout the kingdom, but these Huguenots 
speedily settled into trades. There were, however, some 
persons of quality who were unable or unwilling to work 
with their hands, and these had to be provided for out of 
the alms gathered through the land. Large sums had been 
subscribed in 1681, and in the two or three ensuing years, 
for it appears that in 1685 there remained a balance of 
17,950 undistributed. In 1686 another collection was 
made, and something like 40,000 was raised. 

The funds were faithfully administered. To this, one of 
the refugees, Misson, bore witness in 1697. He wrote : 
" The sums of money that have been collected have always 
been deposited in the hands of four or five noblemen, who 
have referred the division and administration thereof to a 
chosen set of men picked out from among the refugees 
themselves. Nothing can be more laudable than the charity, 
equity, moderation, compassion, fidelity, and diligence, with 
which these gentlemen acquit themselves of the employ- 
ment which their goodness induced them to accept. It is 
impossible to express the sentiments of acknowledgment, 
esteem, and love, which all the poor, and all the refugees in 
general, have in their hearts for these good and pious 
administrators." In 1696 the House of Commons voted an 
annual grant of 16,000 for the distressed French Calvinists, 
of which 14,000 was for the laity and 3,000 for their 
ministers. 

In 1711 Harley and Bolingbroke stopped the annuity. 

278 



THE HUGUENOT REFUGEES 

They thought and perhaps thought justly that these 
French had received quite enough English money, and 
had had time to learn to shift for themselves. But on the 
accession of George I. the payments were resumed, and 
they continued at the same rate until the death of Sir Robert 
Walpole. The sum of 1,718 43. per annum is still paid 
without diminution to the French pastors in England. 

In 1694 a Bill for naturalizing all Protestant "strangers 
came up for a second reading in the House of Commons, 
but was dropped, so strong a feeling against it was enter- 
tained in the country. It was hoped that these immigrants 
had come to remain for a while only, till the tyranny was 
overpast, and would then return to their own country ; and, 
in fact, a good many of the refugees entertained the expecta- 
tion of going back to their old homes. 

Sir John Knight, M.P. for Bristol, published an elaborate 
oration in 1694 relative to the Bill : " That the sergeant be 
commanded to open the doors, and let us first kick the Bill 
out of the House, and then foreigners out of the kingdom." 
One of the reasons given for the introduction of the Bill 
was that England was in need of husbandmen to till the 
ground. On this Sir John wrote : " Of the 40,000 French 
come into England, how many ... at this time follow the 
ploughtail ? It's my firm opinion, that not only the French, 
but any other nation this Bill will let in upon us, will never 
transplant themselves for the benefit of going to the plough. 
They will contentedly leave the English the sole monopoly 
of that slavery." 

William of Orange, who had a special dislike for the 
doctrines of the Anglican Church and Episcopal order, en- 
couraged the influx to the utmost, especially of Dutch, who 
had no need to escape, and he desired to leaven the British 
population with Calvinism. This the Tory and High Church 
party resented. 

However, a Bill for the Naturalization of Foreign Prot- 
estants was brought into the House of Commons on 
February 14, 1709, and passed on March 23. The qualifica- 
tion was the taking of the usual oaths, and there was also 

279 



THE HUGUENOT REFUGEES 

a proviso : " That no person shall be naturalized, etc., unless 
he shall have received the Sacrament in some Protestant or 
Reformed congregation within the kingdom." 

Bishop Bur net says hereon : " An Act passed this session 
that was much desired, and had been often attempted, but 
had been laid aside in so many former Parliaments, that 
there was scarce any hope left to encourage a new attempt. 
It was for naturalizing all foreign Protestants upon their 
taking the oaths to the Government, and their receiving 
the Sacrament in any Protestant church. Those who were 
against the Act soon perceived that they could have no 
strength if they should set themselves directly to oppose it, 
so they studied to limit strangers in the receiving of the 
Sacrament to the way of the Church of England. This 
probably would not have hindered many who were other- 
wise disposed to come among us ; for the much greater part 
of the French came into the way of our Church. But it 
was thought best to cast the door as wide open as possible 
for the encouragement of strangers. And therefore, since, 
upon their first coming over, some might choose the way to 
which they had been accustomed beyond the sea, it seemed 
the more inviting method to admit of all who were in any 
Protestant communion. This was carried in the House of 
Commons with a great majority. But all those who appeared 
for this large and comprehensive way were first reproached 
for their coldness and indifference to the concerns of the 
Church, and in that I had a large share, as I spoke copiously 
for it when it was brought up to the Lords. The Bishop of 
Chester (Sir William Dawes) spoke as zealously against it, 
for he seemed resolved to distinguish himself as a zealot for 
that which was called the High Church. The Bill passed 
with very little opposition." 

A good many of the merchants and manufacturers who 
came over brought their money with them. Those immi- 
grants who were of noble family were younger sons, and 
fortune-hunters, who looked out for rich widows and 
heiresses in England, and with their French manners and 
flattering tongues soon wheedled themselves into their affec- 

280 




THE HUGUENOT REFUGEES 

tions and married them. On the whole, the refugees did 
very well in England, and managed to feather their nests 
comfortably. The pastors did uncommonly well, what with 
the grants made to them and their chances with amorous 
and rich widows of citizens ; and they took good care to 
have their sons brought up in the faith of the English 
Church, so as to qualify them for plump livings and still 
higher preferments. 

The Marquis de Rouvigny was created Earl of Gal way 
by William III. Jean Louis Ligonier was raised to the 
peerage as a Viscount Ligonier of Enniskillen in 1757, and 
Earl in 1776 ; Edward Ligonier was created Earl Ligonier 
in 1776. He was the son of Francis Ligonier. Lord de 
Blaquiere is descended from a refugee, Jean de Blaquiere, 
who took up his abode in England in 1685. Baron de 
Tessier comes from a refugee, Jacques, who came to England 
in 1712 and founded a wealthy merchant-house. Claude 
Armand was naturalized in 1698. His son George was 
created a Baronet in 1764. A French refugee named De 
Bailleu settled in Cambridgeshire before the Revocation, 
and was the ancestor of Sir John Bayley, Bart., 1834. 
Another refugee, Boileau, was the ancestor of Sir John 
Peter Boileau, Bart. Elie Bouhe"rau, son of a pastor at 
La Rochelle, founded the family of Borough, Baronets. 
De Crespigny is another Baronet of Huguenot ancestry ; 
also Lambert, Baronet ; also Larpent ; also Pechell. Earl 
Clancarty is a Trench descended from the Huguenot family 
of Trenche. 1 The Earl of Radnor is a Bouverie, whose 
ancestor was Laurent des Bouveries, a silk-manufacturer, 
who fled to England from French Flanders. Sir John 
Houblon, Lord Mayor of London in 1695, and a Lord of 
the Admiralty, was also of Huguenot extraction. In 1689 
was naturalized that soldier of fortune, Count Schomberg, 
whom William III. at once elevated to the English peerage, 

1 In the Patent Rolls, March 17, 1715, George I. declares : "We are 
graciously pleased to allow for and towards the maintenance of the late 
Countess of Clancarty's children, and for their education in the 
Protestant religion, the annuity or yearly pension of ^1,000." 

281 



THE HUGUENOT REFUGEES 

with the titles of Baron of Teyes, Earl of Brentford, Marquis 
of Harwich, and Duke of Schomberg. His son Charles, 
naturalized in 1691, was created Duke of Leinster, and after- 
wards succeeded to his father's English dukedom. 

Frederick William de Roy, de la Rochefoucauld, who was 
naturalized in 1694, was created Earl of Lifford. Armand 
de Liremont, a second son, was given the title of Earl of 
Faversham by Charles II. Swift says that he was " a very 
dull old fellow "; and Burnet : " Both his brothers changing 
their religion, though he continued himself a Protestant, 
made that his religion was not much trusted to. He was an 
honest, brave, and good-natured man, but weak to a degree, 
not easy to be conceived." However, he knew on which side 
his bread was buttered. 

Cavalier, the Camisard, a baker's boy, was given a com- 
mission in the British army as Major-General, and made 
Governor of Jersey. Tassin d'Allonne was made Secretary 
to Queen Mary, and granted the lands, manors, and lordship, 
of Pickering, and the manor and lordship of Scalby, for 
ninety-nine years after the death of the Queen. A good 
many of the pastors were provided for to serve the refugee 
congregations in London, Plymouth, Colchester, Norwich, 
and elsewhere ; and with the 200 per annum granted them 
out of the Royal Bounty Fund, and the money that flowed 
in from their flock, they were in pretty comfortable circum- 
stances, far better off than they had been in their own land, 
and infinitely better than many a poor English curate. 

Where a pastor could not find a congregation of refugees, 
he swallowed his scruples, signed the Thirty-nine Articles, 
submitted to ordination, and was given a cure in England 
or Ireland, which he had no hesitation in accepting, though 
unable to speak the language of the people to whom he was 
supposed to minister. Daniel Lombard was given the 
rectories of Lanteglos and Advent in Cornwall, with the 
borough town of Camelford in it, a mile and a half from 
the parish church, worth at the present day 385 per annum. 
He rode to take possession of his living, but, being unable to 
make himself understood when he asked his way, rode on to 

282 



THE HUGUENOT REFUGEES 

the Land's End, and there had to turn and ride back to the 
eastern confines of the county. Jacques Abbadie was 
made Dean of Killaloe, and, not content with that, 
clamoured for the deanery of St. Patrick's. Charles 
Bertheau, pastor of the French chapel in Threadneedle 
Street, left 1,000 to his nephew and 4,000 to the poor. 
Jacques Pineton de Chambrun was made domestic chaplain 
to William of Orange, and Canon of Windsor. The pastor 
Eland Grosteste de la Motte feathered his nest so well in 
England, that in 1713 he was able to bequeath to his 
brother-in-law Robethon 1,200, another 1,200 to his 
brother Jacques, 500 to a godson, and all the rest of 
his money to his wife. De Montandre was made Master of 
the Ordnance in Ireland, and Field-Marshal. Josias de 
Champagne married Lady Jane Forbes, daughter of the 
Earl of Granard, and his son was given the deanery of Clon- 
macnois ; his grandson became a Lieutenant-General ; 
another grandson, Rector of Twickenham and Canon of 
Windsor ; another became General Sir Josias Champagne. 
The refugee Jean Crommelin left to his three sons 10,000 
apiece. Louis Crommelin became Director of the Royal 
Linen Manufactory, with a patent, and petitioned for a 
pension of 500 a year, " having lost his only son, who 
managed all his affairs," and he would have to pay an 
assistant to do the work for him. 

From the pastor Aufere the family of Aufere of Hoveton 
and Foulsham Old Hall descends in direct succession. 
The pastor's second son, George Rene", had one child 
Sophia, the ancestress of the Earls of Yarborough. The 
following notice appeared in the Scots Magazine : Died ist 
September, 1804, Mrs. Aufere, mother-in-law of Lord Yar- 
borough. By the death of this venerable lady his lordship 
will come into possession of 50,000 ready money, and one 
of the finest collections of paintings in this country. The 
late Sir Joshua Reynolds frequently said that it contained a 
greater variety of pieces by the first masters of the Italian, 
Dutch, French, and Flemish schools than any other private 
collection in England, and estimated it at 200,000. It is 

283 



THE HUGUENOT REFUGEES 

supposed that the deceased, in conformity with her promises 
frequently repeated, has besides left a legacy of 10,000 to 
each of his lordship's daughters. His lordship's two sons, it 
is also supposed, will enjoy 20,000 each beside the Chelsea 
estate." This lady was a Miss Bate. George Rene* was the 
second son of the Calvinist minister Israel Antoine Aufere. 
Pretty well done for the second son of a runaway Huguenot 
pastor, it must be allowed ! 

The Portals were refugees. Henri Portal become a paper- 
manufacturer, and was granted the privilege of making the 
notes of the Bank of England, which his descendants 
inherited. Jean Frangois Portal's son, Guillaume, was given 
the rectory of Fanebridge, Essex, and Clowne, in the county 
of Derby, and was made tutor to Prince George, afterwards 
George III. The family is now well estated in Hampshire, 
and represented by Melville Portal of Laverstoke, M.P. for 
North Hants in 1849-1851, and High Sheriff in 1863. 

Louis Paul, son of a refugee druggist, was ancestor of the 
Baronets of that name. Elie Bouhereau, son of a pastor at 
La Rochelle, was ordained and made Chanter of St. Patrick's 
Cathedral, Dublin, and Librarian. The descendants call 
themselves Borough. Sir John Chardin, the traveller, was 
another refugee. He was knighted in 1681 ; the daughter, 
Julia, married Sir Christopher Musgrave, Bart., of Hartley 
Castle. Henri Justel, on coming to England in 1681, was 
made Keeper of the King's Library in St. James's Palace, 
with a salary of 200 per annum. 

James and Peter Auriole were refugees. James became a 
wealthy merchant in Lisbon, whence he went from London. 
His eldest son, James Peter, as well as his brother, obtained 
lucrative appointments in India. The second, Charles, 
became a General in the royal service. James Peter was the 
father of Edward Auriol, Rector of St. Dunstan, in the West 
of London, and Prebendary of St. Paul's. Peter Auriol was 
the father of Henrietta Auriol, ancestress of the Earls of 
Kinnoull, whose marriage is thus recorded in the Gentleman's 
Magazine : " Married, 3ist January, 1719, the Right Rev. 
Robert Drummond, Bishop of St. Asaph, to the eldest 

284 



THE HUGUENOT REFUGEES 

daughter of Mr. Auriol, merchant, in Coleman Street." With 
her, as dowry, 30,000 went to the Bishop. 

This prelate was by birth the Hon. Robert Hay, second 
son of the seventh Earl of Kinnoull. He assumed the name 
of Drummond in 1739, on succeeding to the estates of the 
first Viscount Strathallan. From being Bishop of St. Asaph in 
1748, he was promoted to be Bishop of Salisbury in 1761, and 
in the same year was made Archbishop of York. He had six 
sons by his wife. The eldest became ninth Earl of Kinnoull. 

M. David de Montolieu was made General of Foot in the 
English army. He left 1,500 to his only daughter. Louis 
Jacques Puissard, the refugee, was granted several forfeited 
estates in 1697, yielding 607 per annum. Gabriel de 
Quesne was made Commissioner of Fortifications in the 
British service at Port Royal, and his son Thomas Roger 
was given the vicarage of East Tuddenham and made 
Prebendary of Ely. Mathieu Hullin de Gastine was another 
refugee. He left to his son 3,666 75. gd. Jacques de 
Gastigny, a Huguenot refugee from Holland, was created 
Master of the Buckhounds to the Prince of Orange. He 
followed him to England, and died in 1708, He must have 
done pretty well for himself, as he left 500 to the pesthouse, 
500 for the hospital, and numerous legacies. 

In the Gentleman's Magazine the death is recorded of 
Paul Dufour, a Huguenot refugee, " Treasurer of the French 
Hospital, to which he left 10,000." There were other 
numerous and large bequests. 

David Bosanquet came to England from Lyons in 1685. 
His son Samuel married the heiress of William Dunster, and 
his grandson, also named Samuel, became Director of the Bank 
of England and Deputy-Governor of the Levant Company. 
James Whatonau Bosanquet married the only daughter and 
heiress of the Lord Chief Justice Sir Nicolas Conyngham 
Tindal, and his descendants are the Tindal-Bosanquets. 

The family of Esdaile of Cothelestone claims descent from 
a Huguenot refugee. Sir James Esdaile, Kt., was the father 
of William Esdaile, a London banker. Zacharie Fonnereau 
was another who escaped to England at the Revocation, and 

285 



THE HUGUENOT REFUGEES 

his son Claude died a merchant-prince in 1740, leaving to 
his eldest son, Thomas, 40,000, and to three other sons, 
Abel, Philip, and Peter, 20,000 apiece, and to another son, 
the Rev. Claude, 25,000, and to his four daughters, each 
10,000. To his widow 400 per annum. Nicholas Gam- 
bier came to England at the same time. His son James 
became a barrister in good practice, whose daughter Susan 
married Sir Samuel Cornish, Bart., and Margaret, Sir Charles 
Middleton, Bart., created Lord Barham. The son James 
became an Admiral. 

Augustine Prevost came to England from Geneva, where 
was no persecution whatever, and became a Major-General 
in the British army. He was the father of Sir George 
Provost, created Baronet, Governor-General, and Com- 
mander-in-Chief of the Forces in North America, where he 
disgraced himself at Saratoga, and had to be recalled, and 
only by his death escaped a court-martial. 

Sir Samuel Romilly was the son of a Huguenot jeweller 
refugee. Sir Samuel's eldest son was called to the Upper 
House as Baron Romilly of Barry. 

Baron de Tessier was descended from Jacques, who took 
refuge in Switzerland, but whose son of the same name 
thought he could better his fortunes by coming to England. 

William III. found means to accommodate a large number 
of the refugees by raising French regiments to serve in Ire- 
land. There was one of cavalry, one of dragoons, and three 
infantry regiments. These were disbanded at the Peace of 
Ryswick, but were reorganized in 1706-07. But that was 
not sufficient. An English infantry regiment was placed 
under Colonel Puissar, and an English regiment of cavalry 
under Sir John Lanier, both Frenchmen. 

De la Roche wrote : " A clergyman well acquainted with 
Isaac Vossius told me that one day he asked that Prebendary 
of Windsor what was become of a certain person. ' He has 
taken Orders,' replied Vossius. ' He has got a living in the 
country sacrificulus decipit populum.' ' 

There is this excuse for the way in which William III. 
and George I. thrust French and Dutch pastors into English 

286 




THE HUGUENOT REFUGEES 

livings and prebendal stalls after having had them ordained, 
that the main body of the English clergy were Jacobite and 
High Church, even such as had not joined the Nonjuror 
schism. It was the policy of both to flood the English 
Church with Calvinism and Whiggery. That those pre- 
ferred either could not speak English at all, or spoke it with 
such an accent and so broken as not to be " understanded by 
the people," was not a matter that concerned them greatly. 
William was highly incensed at the rejection by Convoca- 
tion of his and Burnet's Bill for the revision of the Liturgy, 
in order to admit Dissenters, by adopting certain alterations 
and making the use of certain ceremonies discretionary. He 
revenged himself on the Church by heaping benefices and 
dignities on the Calvinist foreign refugees. 

Pierre Allix was a Huguenot pastor and the son of a 
pastor. When he came to England he submitted to ordina- 
tion. Woodrow wrote : " Mr. Webster tells me that he had 
an account that, when they were forced out of France in 
1685, Monsieur Allix was the first who submitted to reordina- 
tion in England ; that he was so choaked [shocked] when he 
saw Monsieur Allix reordained, and a declaration made that 
he was [had been] no minister, and the reflection cast on 
the whole ministry of France and the Reformed Churches, 
that he could not bear it, but came to Scotland." 

Allix had several sons. Peter became incumbent of Castle 
Camps in Cambridgeshire, and Chaplain-in-Ordinary to the 
King ; then Dean of Gloucester, and next Dean of Ely. His 
wife was Elizabeth, niece of Admiral Sir Charles Wager, 
and his descendants are the well-estated families of Allix of 
Willoughby Hall and of Swaffham. 

Charles Daubuz, another refugee, became Vicar of Brother- 
ton in Yorkshire. Thophile de 1'Anger was made Vicar 
of Tenterden, Rector of Shargate, and Minister of Good- 
mestone in fact, a pluralist, as was also his son, John 
Maximilian, who obtained the rectories of Danbury and 
Woodhamferrier, and was also Minister of Goodmestone. 
Pierre Dresincourt, whose grandfather was either a shoe- 
maker or soap-boiler, was given the archdeaconry of Leigh- 

287 



THE HUGUENOT REFUGEES 

ton, and the rectory and deanery of Armagh. He be- 
queathed 500 to the French Church in Dublin, 700 to 
a charity school in Wales, 800 to a hospital in Dublin, 
1,000 for charities in Armagh, 2,000 to his own and his 
wife's relations. His only child, Anne, married Viscount 
Primrose. John Armand du Bourdieu was given the rectory 
of Sawtry- All-Saints in Huntingdonshire. 

Jacques Jerome was presented to the vicarages of Mullingar 
and Rathconnell, and then to the rectories of Churchtowne 
and Piercetowne, and finally to the rectories of Clonegan 
and Newtownclenan. Jacques Sartres, a native of Mont- 
pellier, was ordained by the Bishop of London in 1684, and 
in 1688 was made Prebendary of Westminster. Daniel 
Amiard, another French refugee, was accorded the rectory 
of Holdenby, and was given a canonry in Peterborough 
Cathedral. 

Antoine Ligonier, a pastor, became a military chaplain in 
Britain, and retired with a pension of 35. 4d. a day in 1702. 

The Barbaulds were refugees. One of them was the father 
of Theophile Louis, who was presented by George II. to 
the rectory of St. Vedast in London. His son reverted to 
Calvinism, and became a Dissenting preacher. The wife of 
this latter was the at one time famed Anna Lsetitia Barbauld, 
nee Aikin. She visited Geneva in 1785, and saw there 
Calvinist worship as appointed by the founder of the religion : 
" As soon as the text is named, the minister puts on his hat, 
in which he is followed by all the congregation, except those 
whose hats and heads have never any connection (for you 
well know that to put his hat upon his head is the last use 
a well-dressed Frenchman would think of putting it to). 
At proper periods of the discourse the minister stops short 
and turns his back upon you to blow his nose, which is a 
signal for all the congregation to do the same ; and a glorious 
concert it is if the weather is already severe and people have 
got colds. I am told, too, that he takes this time to refresh 
his memory by peeping at his sermon, which lies behind him 
in the pulpit." 

Bernard Majendie was a Calvinist preacher at Orthez. 

288 



THE HUGUENOT REFUGEES 

His son Andre, born in 1601, was pastor at Sauveterre ; the 
brother Jacques came to England and was naturalized in 
1704, and had a son, who was made Canon of Worcester. 
The Canon's son became Bishop of Chester in 1809. James 
Saurin, a descendant of Jean Saurin, Sieur de la Blaquier, 
was made Bishop of Dromore in 1819. The Very Reverend 
Daniel Letabliere, Dean of Tuam, Vicar of Laragh- Brian, a 
Prebendary of Maynooth, who died in 1775, was the son of 
Rene de Lestables, who on the Revocation of the Edict of 
Nantes escaped to Ireland. Dean Gabriel James Mathurin 
was grandson of the pastor Gabriel Maturin, a foundling 
who was picked up in the streets of Paris by the coachman 
of a lady of the name of Maturin. Archdeacon Fleury of 
Waterford, Prebendary of Kilgobenet, was descended from 
the pastor Louis Fleury of Tours. Daniel Augustus Beau- 
fort, Archdeacon of Tuam, was the son of a pastor to French 
congregations in London. Archdeacon Jortin was son of 
Rene* Jortin, a refugee. Isaac Thellusson was a refugee at 
Geneva. His son Peter came to London to better his position. 
He prospered, and purchased the Manor of Broadsworth in 
Yorkshire. His eldest son was created Baron Rendlesham. 
Peter Thellusson, whose will is dated 1796, left 4,500 a 
year in landed property and 60,000 of personal estate. 
Andrew Boevy, a native of Courtrai, came to England, and 
became a merchant in London. His son William, who died 
in 1661, left 30,000 in real estate and personality. James 
Boevy and his brother William in 1647 bought Flaxley Abbey 
in Gloucestershire, now the residence of the Baronet Crawley- 
Boevy. Theodore Janssen was a refugee; he was created 
a Baronet by Queen Anne. He brought with him to England 
20,000, which he improved to 300,000 in 1720, but, being 
involved in the South Sea Company, lost 220,000, nearly 
half of his then real estate. Richard Chenevix, of another 
refugee family, was given the bishoprics of Waterford and 
Lismore, and he at once began to provide in the Irish Church 
for other descendants of refugees. 

A Trenche was created Lord Ashtown ; another was made 
Archbishop of Tuam. 

289 T 



THE HUGUENOT REFUGEES 






Of later beneficed clergy of Huguenot descent it is not 
necessary to write. I may but name Archbishop Chenevix- 
Trench, Huguenot on both sides ; Turton, Bishop of Ely ; 
Lefroy, Dean of Norwich and Bishop of Lahore ; and Dean 
Pigou. 

When, in the reign of Queen Anne,, the Tories came into 
favour, there was a fear entertained by the refugees that they 
would not be favoured and pampered as they had been, and 
a certain number, but not many, returned to their native 
land. But the majority found themselves far too comfortable 
in the positions they had acquired through favour, or by 
their own merits and abilities, and with the accession of 
William of Orange there was another rush of foreign Calvinists 
to England. With George I. there came in many more. 
Industrious and inventive, they did much to enhance the 
manufacturing and mercantile prosperity of England, and 
although at first they ousted many of our native men of 
business and workmen from their places, eventually they 
proved of material and intellectual advantage to the country 
of their adoption. 

Numerous well-to-do county families derive from Huguenot 
refugee ancestors. Beside those already mentioned are 
Layard, Barclay, Pigou, Chamier, Carpenter - Gamier, 
Garrett, Jeune, Papillon, Blanchard, Blondell, Boileau, 
Bourdillon, Boyer, Brocas, Bulmer, Champion, Courtauld, 
Cramer, Daubney, Cazenove, Riviere, Gambier - Parry, 
Hassard, La Touche, Le Fanu, Luard, Martineau, Morrell, 
Ouvry, Sperling, Lefevre, Houblon, and many more names 
known in banks, manufactures, and trades. 

During the reign of William III. many Dutch were 
naturalized who were not in any way refugees from persecu- 
tion ; they came to make their fortunes in England. In 
France, moreover, persecution had come to an end about 
1688, but Huguenots continued to drift over in considerable 
numbers, hearing that their kinsmen and coreligionists were 
having " a good time " in England, and settling in green 
pastures. In fact, in one day July 3, 1701 as many as 
303 persons were naturalized. 

290 



THE HUGUENOT REFUGEES 

For complete lists of refugees and naturalized foreigners, 
see the Camden Society volume, " Lists of Foreign Pro- 
testants and Aliens resident in England, 1618-1688 " (London, 
1862) ; Agnew (D.), " Protestant Exiles from France in the 
Reign of Louis XIV." (London, 1871-1874); Burn (J. S.), 
" History of French, Walloon, Dutch, and other Foreign 
Protestant Refugees settled in England " (London, 1846) ; 
and the third volume of Weiss's " Histoire des ReTugies 
Protestants de France " (1854). 

In looking through these lists, one is struck with a number 
of names included in them, such as Lambert, Godfrey, Gilbert, 
Gervase, Michael, Martin, Roger, Charles, and the like, 
that would become English at once without any alteration. 
But there are others with which we are familiar : Percy 
occurs ; Roussell repeatedly. Dherby, an immigrant in 1684, 
would drop the h and become Derby. There are several 
Smiths in the lists, presumably arriving from the Netherlands. 
The old Norman name of Houssaye comes in several times ; 
so do Hardy, More, Hayes, Faulconier, Rose, Mercer, 
Marchant, Courtis, Carr, Emery, Nisbet, Neel, Ogelby, 
Paget, Paulet, Boyd, Blondell, Cooke, Pratt, Pain, Lee, King, 
Wildgoose, Johnson, Stockey, Jay, Davies, Best, Kemp, 
Wilkins, Pryor, Dove, Fox, Hudshon (soon to shed the h), 
White, Bush, Greenwood, Highstreet, etc. 

Langue would speedily become Lang, and Boreau become 
Borough ; Gr angler be converted into Granger, and Goudron 
into Gordon; Guillard would become Gillard, and Blond be 
written and pronounced Blunt. How some of the names 
given above that seem to be distinctly English, as Green- 
wood and Highstreet, come into the lists is puzzling, and 
we can only suppose that the immigrants translated their 
French names into the corresponding English, as Boisvert 
into Greenwood, and Hauterue into Highstreet. 

A large number of names of the refugees still remain 
among us, recognizable ; nevertheless, a large percentage has 
disappeared. Either these fugitives translated or anglicized 
their names, or else dropped them altogether and assumed 
such as were purely English. Some, again, have become so 

291 T 2 




THE HUGUENOT REFUGEES 

corrupted that there is no discovering what they originally 
were without reference to parochial registers, in which the 
modification and final transformation may be traced. On 
the whole, we may be thankful for the infusion of vigorous 
Huguenot blood. The Conquest had brought some fresh- 
ness into what was dull Saxon life, and this new importation 
helped further to salt the soup. Although a good many of 
those who came to England bore territorial names, with 
De this or that, and accounted themselves to be nobles, we 
must bear in mind that a French noble, unless of the highest 
class, was on a level with an English squire. Not even that 
always. There were in France, as also in Germany, two 
classes, the noblesse and the bourgeoisie, beside the peasants. 
Only the noblesse had any right to a coat of arms, and every 
son, grandson, great-grandson, of some petty De considered 
himself, and was considered, a member of the class of nobles. 
In England it was always quite different. The wars in which 
France was constantly engaged killed off a host of the junior 
scions of nobility ; but for that, they would have swarmed 
like flies. For these needy offshoots of scrubby plants con- 
sidered themselves too good to soil their fingers with trade 
or commerce. There were but three professions open to 
them as gentlemen the Army, the Law, and the Church. 

" The unfortunate custom in France," says White in his 
" History of France," " which made all the members of a 
family as noble as its chief, so that a simple Viscount with 
ten stalwart and penniless sons gave ten stalwart and penni- 
less Viscounts to the aristocracy of his country, had filled 
the whole land with a race of men proud of their origin, 
filled with reckless courage, careless of life, and despising all 
the honest means of employment by which their fortunes 
might have been improved. Mounted on a sorry horse, and 
begirt with a sword of good steel, the young cavalier took 
his way from the miserable castle on a rock, where his noble 
father tried to keep up the appearance of daily dinners and 
wondered how in the world all his remaining sons and 
daughters were to be clothed and fed, and made his way 
to Paris. There he pushed his future, fighting, bullying, 

292 



THE HUGUENOT REFUGEES 

gambling, and was probably stabbed by some drunken com- 
panion and flung into the Seine." 

We must not be dazzled by the pretensions of some of 
the Huguenot pastors to be members of noble families. 
That meant very little no more than that they were not 
descendants of honest tradesmen. Some needy second, third, 
or fourth son of a starved, ragged Count or Viscount, or even 
Marquis, found that he could still remain a gentleman if he 
became a pastor, which suited him better than to be a cure, 
debarred from marriage. The titled class in France did not 
by any means represent the corresponding class in England. 
After the time of Louis XI. the representatives of the old 
feudal aristocracy were few and far between. They were left 
like pillars in an almost universal inundation, and were 
themselves finally sapped and overthrown by the force of 
the prevailing tide. A second aristocracy arose among the 
descendants and survivors of the English and Italian wars. 
They claimed their rank as proprietors of petty estates. 
Three thousand acres of sandy soil or barren limestone were 
ample to invest the owner with the title of Marquis. A third 
aristocracy also came up, the creation of Court favour 
possessors of a nominal rank without lands, and without 
corresponding duties. 

Enriched tax-gatherers, or others who had fattened on the 
royal favour, ascended above their original position by the 
purchase of lands that were recognized or assumed as carrying 
with them a title, and this became so general that at last an 
edict was passed to deprive them of a pre-eminence derived 
solely from the purchase of these lands. 

Among the " nobles " who came over there were very few 
indeed who left behind them anything of any value, and the 
merchants managed to sell their businesses, as appears from 
the large sums of money they brought over with them ; and 
they had previously well-established relations with substantial 
firms in England. 

In the end of February, 1744 (N.S.), the merchants of the 
City of London presented a loyal address to the King in 
consequence of His Majesty's message to the Houses of 

293 



THE HUGUENOT REFUGEES 

Parliament regarding designs " in favour of a Popish pre- 
tender to disturb the peace and quiet of your Majesty's 
kingdom," declaring themselves resolved to hazard their 
lives and fortunes " in defence of your Majesty's sacred 
person and government, and for the security of the Pro- 
testant succession in your Royal Family." Among the 542 
signatures are those of ninety-four French names, chiefly 
Huguenot. I give these, as of interest, in the Appendix. 



294 



CHAPTER XIV 

NICK- AND DESCRIPTIVE NAMES 

ALMOST invariably in the nursery a child is given by brothers 
and sisters some name which, if not a contraction of the 
baptismal name, bears no relation to it. Margaret is indeed 
crumpled into Maggie, Mary reduced to May, Elizabeth to 
Bett'y or Lizzie, Catherine to Kate ; William is contracted 
and altered to Bill, Harry to Hal, Richard to Dick, and 
Robert to Bob. But often the names given are capricious 
and unaccountable, as Bunchy, Pirn, Stubbly, Topsy, Dott, 
Tittums. If they escape this in the nursery, they do not do so 
at school, where personalities often rule the giving of a name, 
as Ginger, Carrots, from the hair ; Snout, Beak, Nosey, from 
the nose ; Goggles, from the eyes ; Bat, from the projecting 
ears ; Frowsky, from indifference to outdoor sports. 

Moreover, it is not easy to get rid of such a name. A girl 
known at home to parents, as well as to brothers and sisters 
and cousins, by a pet name carries it with her to her husband's 
house, and the boy leaving school and entering the army is 
saluted with his nickname at the regimental mess. A Colonel 
Smith was spending a winter in a certain German town. He 
possessed a daughter who went in the family by the name of 
Jack Spratt. This she acquired as a little child by her revul- 
sion against fat with her meat ; and as the nursery rhyme 
avers : 

"Jack Spratt could eat no fat, 

His wife could eat no lean ; 

And so between them both 

They licked the platter clean." 

295 



NICK- AND DESCRIPTIVE NAMES 

She grew up to woman's estate, and neither parents nor 
brothers and sisters had shaken off the habit of calling her 
Jack Spratt, although her Christian name was Isabella. 

When aged twenty-three she became engaged to a gentle- 
man who was visiting in the aforesaid German town. On his 
return to England he wrote to her ; and as lovers fall into 
strange lunes, he addressed his letter to her Miss Jack Spratt ! 

Two days later a messenger arrived at Colonel Smith's 
door with a summons to attend at the post-office next morn- 
ing, between 8 a.m. and noon. He obeyed, and found that 
it concerned the letter. Who was Jack Spratt ? How long 
had he been an inmate of the Colonel's house ? No intima- 
tion of such a person had been sent to the police, and, accord- 
ing to law, no stranger could reside for over three days in the 
town without legitimation by the police. The Colonel in 
broken German explained that his daughter was familiarly 
known as Jack Spratt. He was requested to take a seat 
whilst the police were communicated with. Half an hour 
later the head of the police arrived, and the matter was dis- 
cussed between him and the postmaster. The former then, 
turning to the Colonel, stated that he had the paper of 
legitimation of Miss Isabella Smith, but not of Jack Spratt. 
In vain did Colonel Smith reiterate his statement that this 
was a joke. German officials do not comprehend jokes, and 
it was finally concluded that the letter must be opened to 
ascertain to whom it actually was addressed. An interpreter 
was introduced. The letter was opened, and began : 

" MY DEAR JACK, 

" You are a regular ripper " 

When this was translated, the face of the Oberpolizei 
became grave. 

" Der wahrhaftige Aufschneider !" he exclaimed. "We 
have at last obtained a clue to the discovery of the criminal 
who a few years ago committed such atrocious acts in 
London, and who has been the author of similar cases 
recently in Berlin." 

The Colonel explained that ripper was a term of admira- 

296 



NICK- AND DESCRIPTIVE NAMES 

tion and endearment much affected by lovers and young 
ladies. 

The police-officer assumed a still sterner expression. 

" Herr Oberst," said he, " this passes everything that a 
person calling himself a gentleman should address to a lady 
delicately brought up a disgusting and horrible epithet 
derived from the acts of Jack the Ripper as a term of endear- 
ment and commendation. Herr Oberst, you must under- 
stand that, under the circumstances, your house must be 
subjected to a domiciliary visit !" 

The employment of nicknames is so common among 
navvies that they know each other solely by them. It is the 
same with colliers. 

An attorney's clerk was employed to serve a process on a 
collier. After a great deal of inquiry as to the whereabouts 
of the fellow, he was about to abandon the search as hope- 
less, when a young woman who had witnessed his labour 
volunteered to assist him. 

" Oy say, Bull'yed," cried she to the first person they met, 
" does thee know a man named Adam Green ?" 

The bull-head was shaken in token of ignorance. 

" Loy-a-bed, dost thee ?" 

Lie-a-bed's opportunities of making acquaintances had 
been limited, and she could not resolve the difficulty. 

Stumpy (a man with a wooden leg), Cowskin, Spindle- 
shanks, Cockeye, and Pigtail were severally invoked, but in 
vain, and the querist fell into a brown study, in which she 
remained for some time. At length, however, her eyes 
suddenly brightened, and, slapping one of her companions 
on the shoulder, she exclaimed triumphantly : 

" Dash my wig! whoy, he means my feyther !" And then, 
turning to the gentleman, added : " Ye should 'a ax'd for Ole 
Blackbird." 

A correspondent of Knight's Quarterly Magazine wrote : 
" I knew an apothecary in the collieries who, as a matter of 
decorum, always entered the paternal names of his patients 
in his books that is, when he could ascertain them. But 
they stood there only for ornament; for use he found it 

297 



NICK- AND DESCRIPTIVE NAMES 

necessary to append the sobriquet, which he did with true 
medical formality, as, for instance, * Thomas Williams, vulgo 
diet. Old Puff.' " 

Precisely the same is found elsewhere. A writer in Black- 
wood's Magazine in 1842 gives the following account of the 
peculiarities of nomenclature among Scottish fisherfolk : "The 
fishers are generally in want of surnames. There are seldom 
more than two or three surnames in a fish-town. The 
grocers, in * booking ' their fisher customers, invariably insert 
the nickname, or/^-name, and, in the case of married men, 
write down the wife's along with the husband's name. Un- 
married debtors have the names of their parents inserted 
with their own. In the town register of Peterhead these 
signatures occur ; Elizabeth Taylor, spouse to John Thom- 
son, ' Souples ' ; Agnes Farquhar, spouse to W. Findlater, 
* Stonttie.' It is amusing enough to turn over the leaves of 
a grocer's ledger and see the fee-names as they come up : 
Buckie, Beauty, Barn, Biggelugs, Collop, Hilldom, the King, the 
Provost, Rockie, Stoatie, Sillerton, the Smack, Snipe, Snuffers, 
Toothie, Todlowrie. Among the twenty-five George Cowies 
in Buckie there are George Cowie ' Doodle,' George Cowie 
' Carrot,' and George Cowie * Nap.' " 

In 1844 J onn Geddes, alias Jock Jack, was indicted at 
the assizes in spring at Aberdeen for assaulting John Cowie, 
alias Pum. Some of the witnesses were Margaret Cowie 
" Pum," daughter of the person assaulted ; John Reid, alias 
Joccles ; James Green, alias Rovie ; John Geddes, alias Jack- 
son ; Alexander, alias Duke, and John Reid, alias Dey all 
described as fishermen. The only trace in this list of a nick- 
name developing into a surname is in the case of Margaret 
Cowie, who was called " Pum," as well as her father. 

Among primitive peoples, as already said, nicknames were 
employed to conceal the real name of a person, lest an 
enemy, by getting hold of it, should work mischief on the 
owner of the name by magical arts. 

But this fear of the name being misused must have soon 
died away, whereas the notion remained that by invoking 
the name, not of a saint only, but of some man of renown, 

298 



NICK- AND DESCRIPTIVE NAMES 

help would come from the person so called on. There are 
several such instances in the Icelandic sagas as when, in a 
storm, an Icelander invoked King Olaf, who was still alive ; 
then Olaf responded by appearing and tendering his 
assistance. 

Among the Kings nicknames were common, as Ethelred 
the Unready, Edmund Ironside, Harold Harefoot, Henry 
Beauclerk, Richard Coeur de Lion, John Lackland, Edward 
Longshanks, Richard Crookback. The Welsh Princes, 
moreover, had descriptive epithets attached to their names, 
as Calcfynedd the Whitewasher, Lauhir Longhand, Mynfaur 
the Courteous. Sometimes a nickname displaced a baptismal 
mame. Thus, Brendon the Voyager was christened Mobi ; 
but, because there was an auroral display at his birth, he 
was known through life as Brenain. St. Patrick had four 
names, of which Succat, Cothraigh, and Magonius were the 
others. Cadoc's real name was Cathmael. 

Roger de Amandeville, Seneschal of Remigius, Bishop of 
Lincoln (one of the compilers of Domesday), and by him 
endowed with four Lincolnshire manors, for some unaccount- 
able reason called himself Humfine, and the head of the 
family was so named for several generations. What the 
meaning and how it originated we cannot tell. 

Hugh d'Avranches, the Earl of Chester, went generally by 
the name of Hugh Lupus (the Wolf), and bore on his banner 
a wolf's head arg. on a blue field. 

Richard d'Avranches, the father of Hugh Lupus, went by 
the name of Le Goz or Le Gotz, a name borne by the family 
long after its significance had been forgotten. It was 
actually a name designating the ancestor, who had come 
over with Rollo, as a Gothlander, a native of that southern 
portion of Sweden which lies as a belt across it, and included 
the Wener and Wetter lakes. Rollo's companions were 
otherwise Norwegians. But although the family spoke of 
themselves as Gotzes, they do not seem to have assumed 
this designation as a fixed surname. 

Among the Scandinavians descriptive names were common. 
A Danish King was Harald Bluetooth ; another Harald was 

299 



NICK- AND DESCRIPTIVE NAMES 

called Wartusk ; another, called Ivar, was known as Wide- 
fathom, from the stretch of his extended arms. 

Harald of Norway vowed that he would not suffer his hair 
to be clipped or combed till he had forced all the petty Kings 
in the land to fly the country, or had killed them. At the 
time he went by the designation of Shockhead ; but when he 
had brought the whole of Norway under his sway, he sub- 
jected his poll to a treatment become, on would suppose, 
indispensable and thenceforth, from the beauty of his 
golden locks, was named Fairhair. 

Harald II. had his Court near the sea, where was a haven. 
One day a vessel belonging to some chapmen came to harbour 
from England, laden with grey felt cloth, very stout and 
serviceable, but not showy. No one would buy, so the chap- 
men complained to the King. " I will soon satisfy you," he 
said, and went to the vessel and purchased a sufficient 
supply of the cloth to make several suits for himself. At 
once the fashion was set ; the courtiers hastened to buy, 
and the vessel was cleared of its burden. Thenceforth 
Harald was known as Greyfell. 

His brother Eric, who became for a short while King of 
Northumbria, was called Bloodaxe. He burned his half- 
brother, Bjorn the Chapman, and all his company in a 
wooden house, because he coveted his petty realm. Bjorn 
was the only one of the brothers who pursued a quiet life, 
and, because he traded, acquired the name of Chapman. 

Among the Swedes nicknames were also given. One King 
was Illrede, one Eric the Victorious ; another Eric was 
named Windhat. 

Usually, when a nickname was given, it was customary 
for the giver to make a present to the man thus furnished, as 
a " name-fastener." 

Hrolf, son of Helgi, was sent to the Court of the Swedish 
King to demand certain dues that were in arrears, claimed 
by the King of Zealand. The mission was perilous, and 
Hrolf, on reaching Upsala, drew his hood over his face. As 
he sat in the royal hall, a man came up to him, and, noticing 
his dark face under the shadow of the hood and his pro- 

300 



NICK- AND DESCRIPTIVE NAMES 

truding nose, exclaimed : " Whom have we here a crow ?" 
" You have given me a nickname ; give me also a name- 
fastener," said Hrolf. 

" Alas !" replied the man, " I am poor as a rat ; but what 
I will give you is my promise that, should you die a violent 
death, I will avenge you." 

" I accept that with the name," said Hrolf, and thence- 
forth he was known as Kraki. Nobly and faithfully did the 
man fulfil his undertaking. 

But none of these nicknames were hereditary : they died 
along with the men who bore them. The sole instance to 
the contrary with which I am acquainted is that of Ragnar 
Lodbrog and his descendants. 

Ragnar acquired the descriptive epithet of Shaggy- 
brogues, from his having fashioned for himself a pair of 
gaiters of coarse wadmal, sopped in pitch, and hardened. 
He died in or about the year 794. He had sons with 
nicknames Bjorn Ironside, Sigurd Worm-i'-th'-eye, Ivar the 
Boneless, and Whitesark, all known as Lodbrog's sons. But 
some seventy to eighty years later we know, from the 
English and Norman Chronicles, that Lodbrog's sons were 
harrying the coasts. Two of them, Hingvar and Hubba, 
put Edmund, King of the East Angles, to a cruel death in 
870, and Ingvar, or Ivar, became King of Dublin, and ruled 
from 871 to 873. It is, of course, impossible that these can 
have been the sons of the original Lodbrog, and we are driven 
to the conclusion that the name of Shaggy-brogues had 
become hereditary. 

We see in early characters that nicknames were common 
in England, but not that they were hereditary. Among 
those who came over with the Conqueror, several bore 
nicknames, as Humfrid Vis-de-lew (Wolfs-face), Rudolf 
Tortemains (Twisted-hands), Roger Deus-salvet-dominas 
(God-save-the-ladies). There was Front-de-bosuf (Oxbrow) 
and Peche" (the Man-of-sin). Pinel, who obtained a great 
barony from William I., we may suppose shed his name of 
Pinel that signifies one devoid of means when it ceased 
to apply. 

301 



NICK- AND DESCRIPTIVE NAMES 

"The naked file 

Distinguishes the swift, the slow, the subtle, 
The housekeeper, hunter, everyone, 
According to the gift, which bounteous Nature 
Hath in him closed, whereby he does receive 
Particular addition from the bill 
That writes them all alike." 

Macbeth, II. I. 

These descriptive names applied to the individual only, 
and in rare instances descended to their sons and grandsons. 
One Anglo-Saxon instance of Hatte has, however, been given 
in the first chapter, and we have instanced one of Hairy- 
brogues among the Scandinavians. Some also, as that of 
Louvel, became hereditary among the Norman settlers in 
England. Whether all the Fennels derive from the Baron 
Pinel, or whether the description of " needy men " was 
applied all round to several who were impecunious, we 
cannot say. 

In the Peterborough Chronicle we read : " Ronald, 
monk, had made his brother Hugh a monk when he was 
a boy. This Hugh had suffered from a bloody flux when a 
child, and he was consequently called Hugh White, because 
he was so pale and good-looking." 1 

When Archbishop Henry de Londres took possession of 
the See of Dublin, he called together the tenants of the 
see to show the nature of their tenures ; and after they had 
produced their evidences, he ordered the charters of the 
villeins to be burnt. Thereupon he acquired the nickname 
of Scorch-villeins. 

Among those who made grants to Battle Abbey occur 
such names as these : Walter le Boeuf, John God-me-fetch, 
Bartholomew le Swan, Roger le Bunch. 

Naturally, many nicknames are unintelligible to us, as we 
know nothing of the circumstances which induced their 
application. They were given out of mere caprice, out of 
scorn, or were pet-names. 

In " Cocke-Lorell's Bote," a satirical poem printed by 
Wynkyn de Worde, we have this : 

1 Leland, "Collectanea," i., p. 15. 
302 



NICK- AND DESCRIPTIVE NAMES 

" The Pardoner sayd, I will rede my roll, 
And ye shall here the names poll by poll. 
* * * * * 

Pers Potter of Brydgewater, 

Saunders Sely, the Mustard-maker, 

With Jenkyn Jangler. 

Here is Jenkyne Berward of Barwyke, 

And Tom Tombler of Warwick, 

With Phylypp Fletcher of Ffernam [Farnham]. 

Here is Wyll Wyly the Millpecker, 

And Patrycke Pevysshe Beerbeter, 

And lusty Harry Hangeman. 

Also Matthew Toothe-drawer of London, 

And Sybby Sole, milkwyfe of Islington, 

With Davy Drawelacke of Rockyngam." 

There are many more lines to that effect. Although these 
are the names of imaginary persons, they are framed in the 
mould of nomenclature then in process of shaping ; but 
there is no evidence that they passed from father to son. In 
most of the registers in which offensive nicknames occur 
such names were entered for identification by the scribe, and 
were probably not accepted by the bearer. If we look into 
the episcopal registers of the Middle Ages for the names of 
ordinands and of clergy inducted into livings, we encounter 
none of these nicknames, for the very good reason that the 
parsons there enrolled named themselves, and were not 
named by others. In these registers the clergy are usually 
designated by the place of their birth, or as the son of 
So-and-so. 

When the beasts were brought before Adam, he gave 
them names, from the characteristics observable in each. 
And there is something of the Adam in every man. He is 
not disposed to call one of his fellows by that name which 
he gives himself, but to invent and apply one of his own 
devising. Caius Caesar was known to his dying day as 
Caligula (Little Boots), the name given to him by the 
soldiers at Cologne. 

Daniel Finch, Earl of Nottingham, had such a dark com- 
plexion and so solemn a face that he went by the name of 
Don Dismallo. John Sheffield, Earl of Mulgrave, was 
commonly spoken of as Lord Allpride. 

303 



NICK- AND DESCRIPTIVE NAMES 

When and how nicknames as well as other names became 
fixed and hereditary must now be considered. In 1538 
King Henry VIII. ordered that in every parish should be 
kept a register of the births, deaths, and marriages that took 
place therein, with the Christian name and the surname of the 
parties. The result must have been a precipitation of names 
hitherto fluid and in suspense. Now let us suppose cases 
that must have occurred in every parish throughout the 
length and breadth of the land : 

John, a humble rural village labourer, required the parish 
priest to baptize his child and call it Philip. As the god- 
parents and nurse are about to leave the church, the parson 
recalls them. 

" There is a new law published : we have to enter every 
baptism, and give the father's Christian name and surname." 

The peasant scratches his head. 

" I don't reckon I have any other than John, sir." 

" But by the law you must have one. You are an honest 
man. What say you to being called Goodman ?" 

" As your reverence wishes. I don't understand about 
these matters." 

So Philip, the son of John Goodman, is registered, and 
thence come all those of that name in England. 

Peter and Margery appear before the altar to be married. 
All goes smoothly enough in the service : " I, Peter, take 
thee, Margery, to my wedded wife, to have and to hold from 
this day forward, for better for worse, for richer for poorer, 
in sickness and in health, till death us do part." But when 
they retire to the vestry, and the new book, with parchment 
leaves, bound in calfskin, is produced, along with the ink- 
horn, then the difficulties begin. Neither bridegroom nor 
bride has a surname. " They do call me sometimes Snout," 
says the former, colouring, " because I have a big nose, 
but I shouldn't like that to be written down in the book." 

"Then, what am I to call you ?" 

Both are at a nonplus. The priest endeavours to help 
them out of their difficulty. 

" Peter, your father is the village blacksmith, and 

304 



NICK- AND DESCRIPTIVE NAMES 

Margery, you are the daughter of the tinman or whitesmith. 
Suppose that I enter you, Peter, as son of James Black- 
smith, and Margery as daughter of Simon Whitesmith ?" 

"Aren't the names a bit long ?" protests the bridegroom. 

" Perhaps so. Well, we will cut them down to Black 
and White." 

Digory the fuller has just buried his father. He is 
summoned by the parson to have his old parent duly 
registered : 

" What was his name ?" 

" Roger, your reverence." 

" I mean his surname." 

" He had none." 

"Then, what was your grandfather's name ?" 

" Digory." 

" Shall I enter him as Roger Digoryson or Digges ?" 

" That will not do, axing your pardon, as it will seem as 
though you had buried my son Roger instead of the old 
man ; and my Roger is bad with the thrush, and giving my 
wife a deal of trouble just now, but will pull through all 
right." 

" Then, what shall I call him ?" 

A dead silence and much pondering. Presently Digory 
brightens up, and says : 

" My wife always did say that dad was an old penny fat her 
[screw]." 

" Very well, I have registered him as Roger Pennyfather. 
Now, mind you, Digory, any child you may have in future 
will have to be recorded as that of Digory Pennyfather ; and 
when you are buried, it will be under that name." 

" Lord ha' mercy on my soul ! I don't want that. Can't 
I change it and call my father by the trade Fuller ?" 

But the parson is a martinet. " What I have written I 
have written. Pennyfather you remain till the Judgment 
Day." 

Some such scenes must have occurred again and again on 
the first introduction of parish registers. Maybe, in a careless 
mood, some man put down his not very complimentary nick- 

305 u 



NICK- AND DESCRIPTIVE NAMES 

name, without a thought that thereby he was riveting it 
upon generations yet unborn. Some dull minds were 
content to be called after their fathers as Thomson and 
Johnson and some after their place of residence as Leigh 
or Coombe and others, again, after their trade or after the 
sign that swung over their shop. 

In the eighteenth century the Emperor Joseph II. 
required all Jews throughout the Empire to assume surnames. 
Hitherto they had had none, and were so slippery that, 
when the law desired to lay hold of a Hebrew, he generally 
succeeded in gliding away. At once throughout Germany 
the Israelites had to give themselves surnames, so as to 
be enrolled upon a certain day. Some, with florid imagina- 
tions, adopted such names as Rothschild (Red Shield), 
Lilienthal (Vale of Lilies), Rosenberg (Mountain of Roses), 
or such as pertained to heraldic beasts Hirsch, Lowe, Wolf. 
Others, less ambitious and less rich in fancy, contented 
themselves with being stereotyped as Lazarus, Levi, and 
Samuel. Others, again, took appellations from their places 
of residence, as Bamberger, Augsburger, Feldberger ; and a 
few from their trade, as Goldschmidt. 

What took place in Germany in 1782 was much like 
what had taken place in England in 1538. In the latter 
country, however, the process had begun some time before. 

But nevertheless there remained a good deal of un- 
certainty in family names. Some bore two simultaneously, 
as Jones alias Vallence and Gilbert alias Webber. At the 
present day is to be found, in the parish of Cheriton Bishop 
in Devon, an ancient yeoman family named Lambert alias 
Gorwyn. 

The original name of the family to which John Hooker 
(d. 1601), the first Chamberlain of Exeter, and his famous 
nephew, Richard, "the judicious Hooker," belonged, was 
Vowell ; but in the fifteenth century members of it called 
themselves Vowell alias Hooker, or Hoker, and in the 
sixteenth century the original name was gradually dropped. 
John Veysey, or Voysey (d. 1554), alias Harman, adopted 
the name of Veysey, but he was actually the son of 

306 



NICK- AND DESCRIPTIVE NAMES 

Richard Harman. Anthony A Wood asserts that this was 
done in compliment to a member of the Veysey family 
who had educated him. 

A writer in Devon Notes and Queries observes that in 
the registers of Parkham a family is entered as Tenant 
alias Penington. Other such names were Mortimer alias 
Tanner, Uphill alias Helman, Combe alias Bidlake. 

Some four or five centuries ago persons did change 
their family names without a grant from the crown, if no 
property were involved, and the law regarded such a pro- 
ceeding with complacency. Lord Coke says : " It is required 
that a purchaser be named by the name of baptism and his 
surname, and that special heed be taken to the name of 
baptism, as he may have divers surnames." And again : " It 
is holden in our ancient books that a man may have divers 
names at divers times, not divers Christian names." 

The following anecdote, given by Mr. Lower from the 
life of Lackington, will serve to show how easily, even in 
modern times, a nickname may usurp the place of the family 
name : " The parish clerk of Langford, near Wellington, 
was called Red Cock for many years before his death for 
having one Sunday slept in church, and dreaming that he 
was at a cock-fighting, he bawled out, * A shilling upon the 
Red Cock ! ' * And behold,' says Lackington, ' the family are 
called Red Cock to this day.' " 

Considerable caution has to be observed in fixing, as such, 
names that appear to be nicknames, for not infrequently 
they are so in appearance only. Thus, as shown above, 
White and Black are not necessarily to be taken as expressive 
of the colour of the person, nor is Brown ; for these are con- 
tractions of Whitesmith, Blacksmith, and Copper- or 
Brownsmith. Hoare, or Hore, is not indicative of a grizzled 
head ; it may come from the Norse hdr, tall. A man was 
not Green because so named, but because he was wont to 
represent the Jack-in-the-Green on May Day, or because he 
was the taverner under the sign of the Green Man. Tallboys 
was a name not given to a family of gaunt brothers. The 
name is from taillebois, woodcutting, which was their 

307 u 2 



NICK- AND DESCRIPTIVE NAMES 

trade. The Hansoms do not take their name from great 
personal beauty ; it is a corruption of a Norman place-name. 
Nor were the Thynnes remarkable for their meagreness of 
aspect ; they derive, so it is said, from John de Botteville, in 
the reign of Edward IV., who studied in one of the Inns of 
Court, and acquired thence the designation of John-o'-th'- 
Inne, or John Thynn. The Quicks were not necessarily 
lively individuals, rapid in their movements. Quick is but 
a form of* wick," from the Latin vicus, and its equivalents are 
Wyke and Weekes. Nor was a man named Fleet because 
swift of foot, but because he lived at Fleet, on a tidal river. 
Mr. Lower supposes Dmnmerel or Dumbril to signify a silent 
person, but it is really an anglicizing of D'Aumerle. On the 
other hand, there are names that are expressive of bodily or 
mental characteristics, that have lost their signification in 
English, or at all events in Modern English. Thus, Wace is 
from the Norse hvasi, and signifies keen or quick. Who 
would have supposed that Bishop Bonner derived his name 
from Le Bonair, kind or gracious. The Cornish name 
Bolitho signifies Big Belly, and Eldridge is Oldish. Some 
Welsh expletives have formed names on the marches, as 
Gam, crooked, Goch, red, Gwyn, white, and Danish terms 
have attached themselves to persons in Northumbria and 
East Anglia, as Gamel and Bloed, foolish, the origin, probably, 
of the name of Blood. So from the French : Blount is 
Le Blond, Camoys is one with a turned-up nose, Courtenay is 
Short Nose. Allfraye is Le Balafre, the scarred. Bright 
does not signify a lively personage, but is a title (A.S. brytta, 
from breotan), the man who dispensed the bread and other 
food among the thralls, and he was a headman over them. 1 
Arberh&s no connection with an arbour ; it signifies an heir, 
from the A.S. arb, Gothic arbi. 

As I have pointed out elsewhere, in entries made by men 
themselves, as in lists of ordinands and clerics instituted to 
livings, nick- and descriptive names are conspicuously absent. 
In probably nine cases out of ten, where a surname seems to 
be descriptive of personal characteristics, it is a corruption 
that is to say, when it has become hereditary. 
1 Munch, "Der Norskefolks Historic," iii. 965. 
308 




NICK- AND DESCRIPTIVE NAMES 

Strange and ill-understood names, and even ordinary 
words, get altered. Asparagus is rendered Sparrow Grass, 
Cucumber is rendered Cowcumber. I have heard Chocolat 
Me"nier spoken of as Chocolate Manure. 

A servant-girl got a fortune left her. In high exultation 
she exclaimed : " Now I shall have a house with indecent 
[incandescent] lights, and a damnation [Dalmatian] dog, and 
a cloak lined with vermin [ermine]. But " her face fell " I 
fear I shall not live long to enjoy it all, for I get the brown- 
titus [bronchitis] every winter, I have an ulster [ulcer] in my 
stomach, and the doctor said I had slugs in my liver [a 
sluggish liver]. However, I intend to enjoy life while I have 
it, and eat blue mange [blancmange] every day." 

An old woman received a letter from a son in the tropics, 
in which he complained of the mosquitoes. "Dear life!" 
she exclaimed, " how forward young women are in foreign 
parts ! My Tom has to shut his windows every night against 
the Miss Kitties who try to get in to him." 

I had an illiterate gardener, who informed me he was 
getting up a lot of lumbago [plumbago]. " I wish, gardener, 
you would give it to my worst enemy/' " I'm rearing, also, 
a lot of citizens [cytisus]," he added. "Bless me !" said I, 
" how shocking! I was unaware that you were married." 

Surnames have been treated in precisely the same manner, 
and have been adapted to something understood by the 
people; and as those who bore these names were often 
illiterate and uneducated themselves, they have accepted the 
alteration without compunction. 

We will now take some of the principal character- 
istics of man physical, moral, and mental that may have 
given to some their surnames. 

We find such as Long and Short and Shorter, but we 
cannot predicate that Long or Short are not contractions of 
some place-names, such as Longacre and Shortridge. Dark 
is formed from D'Arcques ; but we have .F^V, that stands for 
Phayre and Motley ; but this latter may be due to the first 
who assumed the name legally having been a clown : 

" Motley is the only wear." 
309 



NICK- AND DESCRIPTIVE NAMES 

The jester has contributed other surnames, as Patch, from 
his patchwork garment : 

" The patch is kind enough." 

Also Pye, from his pied suit. 

Rottx, le Roux, Redman, and in some cases Ruddiman, 
Redhead, come from the colour of the hair or complexion. 
Reid, Reed, Read, are all forms of Red. Chaucer speaks of 
" houses both white and rede." Scarlett perhaps is from the 
habit usually worn. Blakelock is not a black-headed man, but a 
black and lock smith. Longman probably means tallness, 
or long-hand. Snell is the Norse snjall, the quick; King 
Halfdan was so designated. Basset signifies a man of stunted 
growth. Fairfax is one fair-headed. Giffard is a ready 
giver. Trottman is a man of trust, and not a trotter. 1 We 
have also Brightman, Goodman, Goodchild, Goodfellow, All- 
good, Best, Goodenough, Toogood,Joliffe, joyous, and Doughty. 
Hussey is no good-for-nothing girl ; the name comes from 
Houssaye in Normandy, and is found in the Roll of Battle 
Abbey. Crookshanks, Sheepshanks, denote infirmity. Cockayne 
is the French coquin, a rascal. Kennard is the French 
caignard, "you hound !" a sordid rogue. Penny father is, as 
already said, a miser. Moody may be Le Maudit, the accursed 
or excommunicated one. A good many names come from the 
upper ranks of society, given to men whose ancestors never 
enjoyed any place so high as that of a tradesman, as King, 
Duke, Earl, Baron, Knight, Squire ; also Pope, Bishop, and 
Parson. 

When names had to be registered, and poor country folk 
beat about for some by which to call themselves, we may 
well suppose that some men would be inclined to indemnify 
themselves for their humble position in life by assuming a 
name indicative of a high position in the State, in Society, or in 
the Church. How else are we to account for the multitude 
of Kings we come across everywhere ? Or some pompous 
fellow, full of bluff in the alehouse, may have acquired 

1 From the same source come Troyte, Trott, Trout, possibly Trood, 
unless this comes from Atte Rood, one living by the Cross. 

310 






NICK- AND DESCRIPTIVE NAMES 

among his fellows the sobriquet of the Duke or the Squire, 
and, when he came to register his son, was but too pleased 
to adopt the name accorded to him in the parish. Another 
source of these names was the morality plays, when strolling 
actors assumed the parts of Kings, Dukes, and Angels ; and 
when obliged to record their full appellations, Christian name 
and surname, the whole company, instead of entering them- 
selves as John and Harry, Bill and Timothy, Player, adopted 
the titles of their parts, and wrote themselves down as John 
King, Harry Duke, Bill Earl, and Timothy Angel. 

The acting in mysteries belonged largely to certain 
families, and parts were probably hereditary, just as in 
Oxfordshire and the Midlands to this day remain certain 
families of hereditary morris-dancers, whose ancestors have 
bedizened themselves and capered for some four or five 
hundred years ; and much as in Ober-Ammergau and other 
Alpine villages special parts in miracle plays remain in 
certain families. 

That the term Bastard should have been accepted without 
demur as a surname is not so surprising as might appear. 
William the Conqueror in his charters did not shrink from 
describing himself as William the Bastard. The name has 
been borne by an ancient and honourable family in the 
West of England. Lie/child is a love-child, a provincialism 
for one that is illegitimate. Parish was a name often given 
to a child that was a foundling, and brought up by the 
community in a village. Parsons may designate the child of 
the parish priest before the marriage of the clergy was 
suffered, or even when it was a new thing, and not relished 
by the people. But in most cases it is a corruption of 
Pierson, or Peter's son, The name Burrell comes from the 
Old English word employed by Chaucer for a layman. But 
why one layman out of all the parish should assume this 
title to himself is due to this: that Burrell is a contraction for 
Borelclerk, a lay clerk in a cathedral or collegiate church. 

Child, as already said, was a title applied to the eldest son 
of a King, or noble, or knight ; thus we have " the child of 
Elle." On Dartmoor is a cross of granite called Childe's 



NICK- AND DESCRIPTIVE NAMES 

grave. At some time that is uncertain, a Childe of Plym- 
stock was hunting on the moor, where he was overtaken by 
a snowstorm ; and unable to find his way to habitable country, 
and suffering from the cold, he cut open his horse, crept 
inside, and, with his finger dipped in blood, scribbled on 

a stone : 

" He who finds and brings me to my grave, 
My lands of Plymstock he shall have." 

When the monks of Buckland and those of Tavistock 
heard of this, each sent forth a party to secure the body. 
Those of Tavistock were successful, and till the Dissolu- 
tion Plymstock was a priory attached to the Abbey of 
Tavistock. 

Some names bearing on social relations came out oddly 
enough. Mr. Lower quotes the following from the news- 
paper : 

" Died on Tuesday week, Mr. Young of Newton, 
aged 97. 

" Died on the loth instant, Miss Bridget Younghusband, 
spinster, aged 84. 

" Birth. Mrs. A. Batchelor, of a son, being her thir- 
teenth." 

Some names that seem plain enough do not really mean 
what they seem. Thus, Summer or Summers is from Somner, 
as already stated, and Winter is perhaps a vintner, a 
publican. Day, as already pointed out, is used of a dairy- 
maid. So Dull says of Jacquenetta : " For this damsel, I 
must keep her at the park. She is allowed for a day-woman." 
Gaunt is not descriptive of a rawboned figure ; it signifies " of 
Ghent." I know a carrier whose name is Death. This does 
not describe him as one who conveys man to his long 
home. It is really De Ath. And we cannot be sure that a 
Leeman derives from a female of light character, as the name 
may come from Le Mans. When men were suddenly called 
upon to find a surname for themselves, in their perplexity 
they laid hold of the days of the week, or the month, or the 
seasons of the Church, and this has given rise in some cases 
but these are not certain to the Mondays, or Mundays, and 

312 



NICK- AND DESCRIPTIVE NAMES 

Simdays, to the names of Noel or Christmas, Paschal, Easter, 
and Middlemas, or Michaelmas, and to Holiday and Hockaday. 
Crabbe, in his " Parish Register," says that foundlings 
were named after the day of the week in which they were 
picked up. After agreeing that the child should be christened 
Richard, the vestry 

" Next enquired the day when, passing by, 
Th' unlucky peasant heard the stranger cry. 
This known, how food and raiment they might give 
Was next debated, for the rogue would live. 
Back to their homes the prudent vestry went, 
And Richard Monday to the workhouse sent." 

In Iceland, one of the first to embrace Christianity was 
Thorkell Krabla. He was a foundling, and he received his 
nickname of Krabla from this circumstance: that when 
picked up as a babe he had scrabbled the linen cloth over 
his face above his mouth, so that his screams became audible 
for a long way round. But Thorkell Krabla did not pass 
on his nickname to his children, whereas Richard Monday 
would do so. 

Mr. Lower says : " There resided in 1849, a * no g rea -t 
distance from Lewes, a farmer whose family name was 
Brookes, to which the odd dissyllable of Napkin was prefixed 
as a Christian name. Both these names he inherited from 
his grandfather, a foundling, who was exposed at some place 
in Surrey, tied up in a napkin, and laid on the margin of a 
brook, and who, as no traces of his individual parents could 
be found, received the very appropriate though somewhat 
cacophonous name of Napkin Brookes." 

A family in Sussex bears the name of By the Sea, because, 
according to tradition, the first of it was discovered as an 
infant lying on the beach. 

How names were given that were purely applied to one 
person appears from the case of William Faber. He had 
been in the service of William, Duke of Normandy, and he 
acquired the name of Faber (the Smith) from this circum- 
stance : As he was one day hunting with the Duke, the party 
fell short of arrows, and thereupon recourse was had for 



NICK- AND DESCRIPTIVE NAMES 

more to the nearest smith, who proved to be unacquainted 
with this branch of his trade. William, the attendant, there- 
upon seized the tools, and presently made an arrow, where- 
upon he was named Faber. Afterwards, changing his pro- 
fession, he became a monk of Marmoutier; but it is quite 
possible, had he remained in the world, and married, and left 
a posterity, that the posterity would have continued to bear 
the name of Faber given to the ancestor by Duke William. 

One might suppose that the Loveday forefather was so 
designated from his being a child of light. But it was not so ; 
he came from Loudet, in Haute Garonne, during the English 
domination of Guienne. 

Bacon is not of the pig, piggy, but comes from Bascoin, the 
amily name of the Seigneurs of Molai. Anchetel Bascoin 
before the Conquest made grants of his lordship of Molai to 
Ste. Barbe-en-Auge ; and William Bacon, Lord of Molai, in 
1082 founded Holy Trinity, Caen; in 1154 Rogier Bacon 
is mentioned as of Ville-en-Molai, who held as well estates in 
Wiltshire. 

In Domesday are many nicknames among the English 
tenants, but such names perished with the bearer, they were 
never handed on to his descendants. 

The Magni Rotuli Saccarii Normanniae (twelfth century) 
contain numerous nicknames. Men are noted for their good 
looks, and doubtless were gratified to be called Belhomme, Bel- 
teste, Bellejamb, De Bella Visa, Le Merveilleux, and he with 
the handsome beard, Bellebarbe (we have already had among 
those who were at Hastings Barbe d'Or, the golden-bearded 
man). On the other hand, there were men named for their 
ugliness : Vis de Chien ; Vis de Loup ; the badly shaped 
man, Maltaille ; the pushing man, Tireavant ; the solemn 
man, " Qui non Ridet "; the short man, Petitsire, Courte- 
cuisse ; the man who cocked his cap, Tortchapel ; the man 
with twisted neck, Tortcol, or hands, Tortemains ; the man 
of doubtful lineage, Sansmesle ; the grasping man, Prens- 
tout. Moral characters are named as Preuxhomme, Le 
Malvenu, Sanschef (Brainless). OEil de Larun was a thief; 
others are CEil de Boeuf, Bat les Boes (Beat the Oxen), 

3M 



NICK- AND DESCRIPTIVE NAMES 

Folenfant (Foolish Child), Peu de Lit, Ammerherbe (Bitter- 
herb), Embrasse Terre, Bailleabien, Escorcheboeuf (Skin- 
flint, doubtless), and many more. 

Sir Robert Umfraville, Knight of the Garter and Vice- 
Admiral of England, had a nickname, as Stowe tells us " he 
bought such plenty of clothes and corn and other valuable 
commodities from Scotland that he was called Robin Mend- 
market. Other writers say that he sold the Scots round 
pennyworths of their own goods taken in plunder." 

Can we doubt that Miss Mowcher derived her name from 
an ancestor who created great amazement in his village by 
breaking away from the primitive method of blowing his 
nose with his fingers, and using instead a mouchoir ? 

Duncalf is a corruption of Duncroft ; Goodlad of Good 
Lathe i.e., a good barn. Monkey stands for Monkhaugh, 
and Giltpen is a miswritten and misunderstood Gilpin. Half- 
naked is derived from Half-an-acre, tenanted by the nominal 
ancestor, who went by the name of the Half-an-acred, 
whence the transition was easy. Greatraikes, or Greatrex, 
and Raikes, by no means indicate that the founder of the 
family was a scamp ; it is from " raik," a cutting or sheep- 
track in the fells in the North of England. The surname 
Graygoose is an anglicizing of Gregoise. My father had a 
coachman named Pengelly, whom we took with us when 
driving to the South of France. The French invariably 
gallicized his name to Pain-au-lait, and in like manner we 
have altered French names. 

Godliman is a corruption of Godalming. Golightly, also 
found as Gelatley, has nothing to do with a trippant toe, but 
signifies the ley of some Geljat. Midwinter probably means 
a mead-vintner, and Midnight a mead-knecht, or servant who 
served out the mead. A Medlar is not an obtrusive person, 
but one who came from a township of that name in Kirkham, 
Lancashire. Luckman does not imply peculiar good fortune 
the name signifies the serving-man of Luke ; and Littleboys is 
the French Lillebois, as pronounced by English tongues. 
Spittle is the name of one who had a house at the spital, or 
hospital. 



NICK- AND DESCRIPTIVE NAMES 

The habit of leering at the ladies was not hereditary in the 
family of the Ogles; it comes from the Norse Ogvaldr. 

John de Grandisson was Bishop of Exeter between the 
years 1327 and 1369. During his tenure of the see there 
were 1420 incumbents in this diocese in Devon. Of these 
the vast majority bore place-names. They give de this place 
or that, or atte some other place, or else bore a simple place- 
name without a prefix. A few a very few had trade 
names, as Baker or Pistor, that has the same meaning, or 
Carpenter, Bolter, Farman, Gardiner, Hawker, Page, Piper, 
Ridler, Sumpter, Ward, Warriner, Woodman, but nicknames 
are most rare. The few that exist in the record are Coup- 
gorge, Besta (that is doubtful), Dieudonne, Foot, Fox, Gambon, 
Kene, Maidgood, Malay set, Merrey, Peticrue, Rake, Short, Swift, 
Tryst, Whitehead, Wolf, and Young. 

In the Cornish portion of the diocese there were 597 
institutions. Almost all instituted bore place-names; the 
few exceptions were a Tailor, a Taverner, a Le Soor, a Le 
Conk. The sole nicknames are Mackerel, Fox, and one 
William Jaime de Trebursy, appointed Dean of Crantock 
1348 ; a Truwe, a Strong, a Rover, and a Prechour. If we 
look among the patrons of livings in Devon and Cornwall in 
the same Bishop's tenure of the see, the only nicknames that 
appear are Taundefer for Dent-de-fer, Prouz, Gambon, and 
Inkepenne; but as this last is preceded by a de, it must be a 
place-name. And such it is : Inkpen is a parish in Berk- 
shire. 

Everything goes to show that we must be very cautious in 
accepting the face signification of a name that looks and 
sounds as a nickname. 

At the same time it is impossible to deny that such names 
did get taken up and became accepted hereditary family 
appellations. Such were Barfoot, Crookshanks, Sheep- 
shanks, Halfpenny, etc. ; but many were French sobriquets 
applied by French men-at-arms and domestics to English- 
men with whom they were brought in contact, and accepted 
without any comprehension as to the meaning. Thus we 
have the surname of Bunker from Boncreur, Bunting from 

316 



NICK- AND DESCRIPTIVE NAMES 

Bonnetin ; Pettifer is Pied-de-fer, and Firebrace is Ferrebras. 
Joseph Centlivre was cook to Queen Anne; but the name, 
translated into Hundredpounds, occurs in 1417, when a William 
of that name was Mayor of Lynn. Possibly enough the 
original name Centlivre was a mistake for St. Livaire, who 
is venerated at Metz. We should look to every other 
source for the interpretation of a grotesque surname before 
accepting it as a genuine nickname. 



CHAPTER XV 

PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES 

A NAME without a prefix is like a cup without a handle at 
least, it is so in general estimation but a suffix, instead of 
enhancing the worth of a name, generally derogates from its 
value, and is often, accordingly, dropped or disguised. 

Prefixes were introduced by the Normans, but they were 
of a simple description, and consisted of de or le. The 
article had, indeed, been employed in Anglo-Saxon nick- 
names, but had never been handed down with the to-name 
to a son. 

De always preceded the name of a place whence the Nor- 
man came, and where he had a castle or an earthwork 
crowned by a wooden structure, in which he and his family 
lived. At the time of the Conquest very few nobles and 
knights had stone dwellings. It sufficed him to throw up 
a tump in French motte and to crown it with a house 
built of wood, reached by a ladder, little better than a hen- 
roost. It accommodated himself and his wife and children 
no more and his men-at-arms lived in hutches below in 
the basse-court hutches not much superior to pigsties. 
But when these ruffians came over with William, they 
swaggered as great nobles, and called themselves De This 
and De That, after those fowl-houses perched on top of a 
mound ; and the simple English whom they trampled on 
supposed that the places after which their masters called 
themselves were like the stone castles William and his 
Barons set to work to build on English soil so as to keep the 
natives down. 

318 



PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES 

A good many, but not all, of these adventurers, De Pierre- 
pont, De Mortaigne, D'Evreux, or from wherever they came, 
on obtaining estates in England, assumed the names of their 
English estates, with the De prefixed, as De Newmarch 
(Newmarket), De Ford, De Ashburnham, De Newton, 
for on them they were able to cut a very different figure from 
that they had borne in the mouldy burghs in Normandy, 
Flanders, and Bretagne. 

After a while, when these foreigners bearing such names 
had become thoroughly anglicized and spoke English, they 
let slip the De, and called themselves simply Ford, Ash- 
burnham, and Newton. 

But of late years it has become the fashion to reassume the 
De, sometimes where it does not pertain. We may instance 
De Foe. 1 Such a use of the De is an affectation, and is 
absurd, unless prefixed to a place-name. The Frenchman 
would make a fool of himself by calling himself De Grosjean 
or De Rouge. It is otherwise in Germany, with the ennobling 
of burghers, so that we there do meet with a Von Schneider, 
Von Schaffer, and a Von Schornsteinfeger Of Tailor, Of 
Shepherd, Of Chimney-sweep. Of a Von Falkenstein or a 
Von Rabeneck, one may predicate that they can boast that 
their names have been inscribed in history, probably in 
letters of blood ; but of a Herr von Pumpernickel nothing is 
known save that his forbears ate black bread from the days 
of Arminius, and were honest peasants, plundered and mal- 
treated by the Vons periodically. 

In cases where the place-name began with a vowel, the 
De adhered to it so closely as to defy being ripped away, 
and thus we have Danvers (D'Anvers), Devreux, Daubigny, 
Darcy, and Dawney. 

A man was often named after his place of birth, irrespec- 
tive of his having any land there. Thus, William of Wyke- 
ham's father was surnamed Long, and William Waynflete 
was the son of Richard Fallen, also called the Barber. 

So of late years, when the painter Schnorr made himself 
a name in Germany as a clever limner, he elected to sub- 
scribe himself Schnorr von Carolsfeld. 

1 Daniel Defoe was the son of James Foe, a butcher. 



PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES 

There was a certain linden-tree at Seckendorf under which 
the villagers met and watched the youngsters at their sports. 
In 950 the Emperor Otto arrived there on his return from 
Italy, seated himself beneath the tree, and watched the 
young villagers disporting themselves. The day was hot 
and the flies troublesome, so Otto asked for a branch where- 
with to fan his face and brush the insects away. At once 
a young peasant climbed the tree and returned to the 
Emperor with a bough, which he tendered with such grace, 
and with a speech so well turned, that Otto said : " I dare 
be sworn that you are as ready with your hand as you are 
glib with your tongue. I will take you into my service !" 
Such was the origin of the illustrious family of Seckendorf, 
that bore the name of the native village of the founder, who 
owned not so much soil in it as he could put his foot upon 
and call it his freehold. 

The Le introduced by the Normans was the prefix before 
a descriptive name of a trade or else of a functionary, or 
expressing some personal characteristic : Le Roux, he of 
the ruddy complexion or with red hair ; Le Portier, the 
doorward. L'Estranger has suffered, like the White Cat, 
with the loss of its head ; it has become Stranger. With its 
tail cut off it is L' Estrange. Le also preceded the designa- 
tion of a man from foreign parts, as Le Brabazon, Le Breton. 
The prefix still remains in some names, as Le Neveu, Legard, 
Lenoir, Legatt. Sometimes it has fallen away, like Brune 
for Le Brun and Neeves for Le Neveu. 

In England generally the took the place of le, and a trades- 
man was called John the Smith, William the Cook, Hal the 
Baker. But the definite article was speedily dispensed with. 
In the second part of " Henry IV." we have Justice Shallow 
say to his steward Davy : " A couple of short-legged hens, a 
joint of mutton, and any pretty little tiny kickshaws, tell 
William Cook." 

In 1479 Robert Ricart was elected Town Clerk of Bristol, 
and, at the instance of the Mayor, William Spencer wrote a 
Chronicle or Mayor's Kalendar of Bristol. 1 He gives a list 

1 " The Maire of Bristowe is Kalender," ed. Camden Society, 1872. 

320 



PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES 

of the Mayors, Provosts, and Sheriffs of the town from 1217, 
and this list is of interest, as it shows us the formation, 
modification, and transformation of surnames. At first the 
majority are either at, de, a, le : Adam le Page, Philip le 
Cok (Cook), Thomas le Spycer, Thomas le Chalnere 
(Chaloner), Henry le Cheynere (chain-maker) ; also David le 
Wight (White), John le Longe, Thomas le Roux, Robert le 
Bele (le Bel, the Good-looking) ; also Walter le Fraunceis 
and Henry le Walleys (the Welshman). But de prevails : 
Richard de Bury, William de Chiltone, Elyas de Axbridge, 
and many more. We have also Richard atte Ok (at the 
Oak), Radulph atte Slupe, John at Wall, John at Knolle, 
Robert at Woode, Robert at Welle. But sometimes the at 
is omitted, as Thomas Upditch, Hugh Upwell ; and also the 
le occasionally falls away, as William Clerk, Robert Par- 
menter, Galfredus Ussher. 

But what is especially interesting with regard to the de 
and le is that both totally disappear after 1355, when 
Richard le Spycer was Mayor, and Richard de Dene was 
Bailiff. After that date we have Reynold French, Walter 
Derby, Robert Chedder, John Slow, John Kene, Richard 
Spicer, William Draper, John Fisher, Richard Hatter, and 
the like. 

The episcopal registers of the thirteenth century show 
us that the clergy who were ordained, and those inducted 
into livings, were known by the villages and manors whence 
they came. Almost invariably they bore place-names. It 
was with extreme rarity that they bore such names as were 
indicative of trade. Not but that many of them may have 
been the sons of tradesmen or of officials, but that trade and 
official names had not become surnames to those who were 
not in trade or office. The register of Bishop Brondescombe 
of Exeter (1257-1280) contains one name only indicative of 
an office in a couple of pages of entries : it is that of Le 
Botillere. Farther on we get one of a trade, almost an 
unique instance Le Teinturier (the Dyer), Prior of Laun- 
ceston and no nicknames whatsoever ; but what it does 
reveal to us is that many names that now appear to us as 

321 x 



PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES 

nicknames are actually corruptions, usually of place-names. 
They ceased to be generally understood, and were assimi- 
lated to some name more or less phonetically equivalent, as 
Greenhorn for Grenoven, a place near Tavistock ; Parrott for 
Pierrot ; Loveless for Lovelace ; Vairshield became Fairchild. 
Vair is an heraldic tincture. 

Now we pass on to the close of the fourteenth and 
beginning of the fifteenth century, to the register of Stafford, 
Bishop of Exeter (1395-1419). We shall find that the 
condition of affairs as touching surnames is completely 
changed. De and le have fallen away altogether, and there 
are fewer place-names and a considerable number of trade- 
names. 

In like manner the de falls away, but atte lingers on. 
Atte Ford, Atte Haye, Atte Mill, Atte Stone, Atte Water, 
Atte Well, Atte Wood, soon, however, to be incorporated 
into the name, as Atwell, Atwood, and Aston, or to fall away 
altogether, and leave Ford, Haye, Stone as surnames. 

Some demur has been raised relative to the termination 
"cock" and "cox," as signifying "the cook." Mr. Lower 
and after him Dr. Barber will have it that this is a 
diminutive ; according to the latter, brought in by the 
Flemings. 1 

But le Coq occurs at the time of the Conqueror, and 
wherever the termination does occur, it is conjoined to an 
abbreviated Christian name, as Willcox, Hancock (John), 
Badcock (Bartholomew), Sander cock Alexander), Simcox and 
Simcoe (Simon the Cook). 

Indeed, William Bitton, Bishop of Exeter, who died in 
1307, in his will leaves a bequest " Symoni Coco " ; and 
Richard de Gravesend, Bishop of London, who died in 1303, 
makes a bequest to " Magistro Johano Coco." Stephen le 
Cokke was Provost of Bristol in 1261, and James Cokkys 

1 Pott (" Personen-namen ") does not recognize "cock" as a diminu- 
tive in the Germanic languages. Quoting Ehrentraut's "Frisische 
Archaeologie," i. 3, he points out that many Dutch surnames are 
trade-names, and that the article has fallen away, as Hinrek Kok. The 
numerous Koks found in the Netherlands are descendants of cooks 
(pp. 547, 548). 

322 



PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES 

Bailiff in 1407. We can hardly doubt that Symon Coc 
would become Simcox, and James Cokkis be turned into 
Jacocks. 1 Chaucer spells " Cook " as Cok. Le Coq is still 
a surname in Normandy and Brittany ; indeed, it is the 
name of a banker at Dinan. In a nobleman's house the 
official in the kitchen was William le Coq, but that of the 
English squire was William the Cook ; so we get both names, 
Willcock and William Cook. 

But the termination cox or cock does not always represent 
a professor of the culinary art, for it is occasionally used in 
place of cott. Glasscock is from Glascote, in Tamworth 
parish. Woodcock is really Woodcott. Cottswold as a 
surname has become Coxwold, and Cottswell is turned into 
CoxwelL Geoffrey le Coq has left us his name in both 
forms, Jeff cot and Jeffcock. 

I have spoken elsewhere of the prefixes O' and Mac, and 
will say no more about them, or of the Welsh ap, that has 
given us such names as Bunyan (ap Einion), Price (ap Rice), 
Bevan (ap Ewan), Bowen (ap Owen), etc. 

Sometimes, where the original name began with th, it has 
been altered by the employment instead of st, as Sturgess for 
Thurgis i.e., Thorgisl, the hostage of Thor. But, on the 
other hand, the s initial letter has more frequently fallen 
away. Spigurnell has become Pickernell, and Pillsbury 
stands for Spillsbury. 

Ph has taken the place of /, or the reverse. Physick stands 
for Fish wick, and Philbrick for Felbrigg in Norfolk. Filpott 
stands for Phillipot, and Phillimore for Finmoor. 

Ch has taken the place of j. Thus Job has become first 
Jubb, and then Chubb and Chope. Choice is another form of 
Joyce, and Challandof Jalland ; that also is found in Yelland. 
V and / are interchangeable in the West of England, as 
Facey for Vesci, Vowell for Powell, and Vowler for Fowler. 
Indeed, among the Devonshire peasantry no distinction is 
made between the letters. Yokes is the same as Foulkes, and 

1 When we get such an entry as Joannes Alcokson, 1379, it certainly 
looks as though John were the son of Allen the Cook. So also William 
Wilkocson, 1379, is William the son of Will the Cook. 

323 X 2 



PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES 

Venner as Fenner. At and atten, as prefixes, have been 
spoken of sufficiently. The suffix ot has also been mentioned 
as a diminutive brought from Normandy. Jeanot signifies 
Little John ; Mariot is Little Mary. Shakespeare uses Carlot 
as a diminutive of Churl. Some difficulty has been found 
in discovering the origin of the name Piggot. It has been 
supposed to stand for picote,*one small pox-marked. The 
famous family of Pegotty, no doubt, did thence derive its 
name, but we cannot suppose that so early as the Conquest 
the final syllable of picote had already fallen away. It is 
more probable that the surname was derived from pigge, the 
Scandinavian for a girl, and that the family descended from 
some captive wench, the prey of a Norse settler. 

From Margot, the diminutive of Margaret, comes M argot- 
son. The termination ot is a common French diminutive : 
archerot is a small archer, augelot a little ditch. Baggot may 
be a diminutive of bague, and designate the man with the 
small gold ring. 

Another diminutive is the termination et. We speak of a 
leaflet, a hamlet, a ringlet. And Harriett is the feminine, 
but actually the diminutive, of Henry. So Hamlet is that of 
Hamo, and Paulett of Paul. But of this more presently. 

The Normans affected changing an ending in elle into eau, 
and al into aux. Isabelle became Isabeau, and this was 
turned in English into Isbet and Ebbet, whence our surname 
Ibbotson. 

The ot is sometimes softened down to y. Thus Polliot 
becomes Pawley, Lancelot is reduced to Lancey, and Hallet to 
Halley. 

Another diminutive is et. Thus Corbett from corbeau, and 
we have the name Hewett for Little Hugh, and Marcett for 
Little Mark. 

The suffix ing signifies "the son of" or "descendants 
of." This fact has been pretty well worked to death by 
Mr. Kemble and Mr. Ferguson. The former makes out some 
220 tribes to have colonized England, solely deducing this 
from the termination ing or ingas found scattered over the 
country. But Glaestingabyrg (Glastonbury) does not 
draw its name from any imaginary Saxon family of 

324 






PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES 

Glaestingas, but from Glasynys, the British for " Green 
Island." Carlingham, Fotheringay, Warrington, Pockling- 
ton, may very possibly derive from the settlements of the 
sons of Carl, Fothere, Ware, and Folko ; but ing as a termina- 
tion often enough has the signification of " dwellers at." 

Again, ing takes the place of win. Golding replaces Gold- 
win, Gunning stands for Gunnwin, Harding for Hardwin, 
Browning for Brunwin. So that we must not be peremptory 
in grouping all the names ending in ing as tribal designa- 
tions. But this has been already shown. 

The termination ey or y often signifies an island; but 
not always. It is occasionally a softening of eg, edge. 
Anstey is Atten-steg, at the stile. The y or ie, again, is a 
diminutive, as Baby for Babe, Brandy for Brand (burnt 
wine). In Scotland the ie takes the place of the English y. 
Dick becomes Dixie ; in English it would be Dicky. Hankey 
is the diminutive of Hans, or John, and Sankey of Alexander. 
Wilkie is the same of William. In nine cases out of ten in 
place-names, ey and ay as an ending represents hey or hay, a 
hedge, as Fotheringay, Goldingay. 

Lin or lyn is equivalent to the German lein, and 
becomes ling at the end of a name. Hamelin is a diminutive 
of Hamo. Wakeling stands for Wakelin, Little Wake. Kin 
or kyn corresponds to the German chen. Peterkin is Small 
Peter, and a pipkin is a little pot. In an old poem entitled 
" A Litol soth Sormun " it is said of the maiden Malekyn 
(Little Male or Mary) and Janekyn : 

" Masses and matins 
Ne kepeth they nouht, 
But Wilekyn and Watekyn 
Be in their thouht." 

Kin as a termination has nothing to do with kindred. 
Kin and kins often get abbreviated to iss and es. Hence 
Perkins becomes Perkiss, and finally Perks ; Tonkins is re- 
duced to Tonks, Dawkins to Dawkes. In Anglo-Saxon there 
were two endings for the genitive case. When a name 
ended in a or e, it took w, and became an or en in the posses- 
sive ; otherwise it took s. Thus Puttenham and Tottenham were 
the homes of Putta and Totta. But we cannot say that 

325 



PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES 

Sydenham was the home of Syd, or even that it was a 
southern homestead, for sid is the Anglo-Saxon for un- 
enclosed land, and a Sydenham is a Newtake. 

The termination by, for a farm or dwelling, in Normandy 
became bceuf, as Elbceuf, in English rendered Elbow, the 
name of one of Shakespeare's foolish constables. Volney, 
the French traveller, had for his real name Chassebceuf, but 
was so afraid lest it should be said of him that he was 
descended from a bullock-driver, that, like a snob, he altered 
his name. The termination el is found in German diminu- 
tives, as Handel, Mendel, Hirschell ; but the ending does not 
always imply a German origin, as in Coterell and Cockrell. 

The termination ard is usually Norman-French, as 
Camisard, pillard. Hence we have Hansard, Collard, 
Ballard, Cowlard. Another termination is iff. Some French 
names ending in val become vau, and van in English 
becomes iff. Joliff stands for Jollivau. We might suppose 
Stiff was a corruption of Estivau, if we did not hold it to be 
an abbreviation of Stephen. 

Sop is a corruption of " hope," as Blenkinsop for Blenkin's- 
hope, or hill. This I have already shown. Allsopp for Ellis 
(or Elias) hope. Skog (forest) is often reduced to scoe, as Briscoe 
and Jellicoe, for the scog of Giolla and of Brice. 

Ship, again, is a corruption of hope, as Nettleship for 
Nettlehope. 

White also is a corruption of Thwaite, Applewhite. We 
have both forms Hebblethwaite and Hebblewhite, denoting 
a clearing for apples. Musslewhite is Musslethwaite, the same 
as Micklethwaite. 

Thorpe, as already pointed out, becomes throp or thrup 
Winthrop for Winthorpe. Thrupp is no other than Thorpe. 

The suffix man has four or five distinct meanings : 

i. Usually it is given as the equivalent of " servant." 1 
Thus, Higman is the serving-man of Hick, or Richard ; 
Merriman is the servant of Mary ; Pulman, that of Paul ; 

1 In some cases merely devotional surnames, formed like Gill-Christ, 
Gill-Patrick. He who assumed the name was by no means necessarily a 
domestic servant, but one who placed himself under the protection of 
a saint. 

326 



PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES 

Houseman is a house domestic. Kingsman or Kinsman is 
the King's servant. 

2. It signifies also the dweller at a certain place : Heath- 
man is the dweller on the heath ; Woodman may be either 
he who lives in the wood or he who is a woodcutter by his 
trade ; Bridgeman may be the man who lives by the bridge 
or the toll-taker on the bridge ; Yeatman is he who occupies 
a cottage by the gate. 

3. It also represents an occupation, as Cheeseman, a cheese- 
monger ; Portman, the gatekeeper or porter ; Palfreyman, 
the stableman in charge of the ladies' palfreys ; Stoneman, 
the stonecutter ; Bateman, the bear-baiter. 

4. It is as well a corruption of the termination ham in 
place-names. Tottman stands for Tottenham ; Packman 
alike for the packer by trade and for him who comes from 
Pakenham ; Gillman may well be a corruption of Gillingham. 
Heyman is either the man who looked after the hay or is a 
corruption of Highnam in Gloucestershire. High is very 
generally pronounced by countryfolk hey, as Hightor is 
called Hey tor. Lyman is Lyneham. 

5. It stands as a modification of mond in personal names, 
as Gorman for Gormund, Wyman for Wymond. Again, it is 
not infrequently a corruption of ham. Deadman may stand 
equally for a corruption of Debenham and for a dudman 
(old clothes man). 

Hewer as a suffix resolves itself intojy. Woody er is properly 
wood-hewer. Sometimes even that letter falls away, as 
Stoner for Stone-hewer, and Flesher for Flesh-hewer, a 
butcher. But y is often introduced for euphony, as Lockyer 
for Locker, Sawyer for Sawer, Bowyer for Bower. 

Wright occasionally gets altered into rich y as Woodrich for 
Woodwright ; Kenwright is changed into Kendrick. 

Son as a termination has sometimes displaced ston or 
stone, thus converting a local into a personal name, as 
Baldison for Balderston or Balderstone, Shillson for Shil- 
ston, and Kilson for Kelston. Shakerley has become a 
personal name Shakelady. S is occasionally added to a 
monosyllabic place-name, as Stokes for " of Stoke." 

327 



CHAPTER XVI 

NAME STORIES 

A GENTLEMAN attending service at St. Andrews, Wells 
Street, London, for the first time, at the conclusion inquired 
of the churchwarden what was the name of the preacher. 

" Mr. Stonewig." 

" And of the clergyman who sang the Office ?" 

" Mr. Griffinhoof." 

" Sir," said the stranger, flushing red, " I asked for in- 
formation, and not to be insulted." 

Actually these were the names of two curates at that time. 
Griffinhoof was an English rendering of the name Greifen- 
clau, borne by a noble and distinguished family in Germany, 
derived from the possession by it of a narwhal's tooth, which 
it fondly believed to be the claw of a griffin slain by an an- 
cestor in deadly conflict. A member of this house settling 
in England had translated its name into corresponding 
English. Stonewig is probably also a version of the German 
Steinveg, which would be more properly rendered Stoneway 
or Stanway. 

At a great Court ball given in Vienna, where all were 
masked, appeared a stately and graceful youth, who danced 
several times with one of the Princesses. The Emperor, 
marvelling who he was, bade him unmask, when he was 
recognized as the hangman's son. " You have come to 
Court as a rascal, and as a rascal dared to dance with my 
daughter," said the Kaiser, " and the name of a rascal you 
shall bear ! Kneel down. It ill behoves a Princess to have 

328 



NAME STORIES 

a common citizen as partner. I ennoble you as Schelm 
[rascal] of Bergen." The family died out in the male line 
in 1844. 

A considerable number of family names have legends 
attaching to them that attempt to explain their origin. The 
name is due to some incident in the story of the founder, 
or else is a clumsy fabrication to account for the device on 
the crest or coat of arms. There are comparatively few 
English families that have stories connected with their 
names ; but this is not the case with the Scotch, and such 
tales are common enough on the Continent. In a few in- 
stances the traditions may have a substantial basis. For 
instance, as Elizabeth of Hungary was on her way to 
Thuringia to be married to the Margrave Louis, one day 
the cavalcade passed a pale, half-starved woman, with a babe 
at her breast and a lean boy at her side. She begged for 
food, but the knights swept by, disregarding her appeal, and 
all the squires exhibited a like indifference, save one, who 
gave to the beggar-woman his day's portion of bread and 
wine. Elizabeth was so pleased that she called him to her 
side, knighted him on the spot, and bade him thenceforth be 
Schenk (butler) at the Wartburg. 

She further favoured him by obtaining from Louis of 
Thuringia a grant of land, and Schenk became the progenitor 
of a knightly family that assumed the title of " butler " as a 
surname and occupied the castle of Schweinsburg. 

Snooks, it must be admitted, is not a beautiful name, yet 
it has a sufficiently respectable origin. A male child was 
found deserted by his mother at Sevenoaks. It was taken 
up by kindly people, who reared it, and eventually put 
it out in life, after having it baptized with the name of 
William, and called it Sevenoaks, after the place where 
found. William de Sevenoaks became Lord Mayor of 
London in the sixth year of Henry V., was knighted, and 
died in 1432. He left benefactions to his native place, that 
were doubtless misused, as was his name when degenerated to 
Snooks. 

In the county of Devon, on the Exe, lived for many 

329 



NAME STORIES 

generations a yeoman family of the name of Suckbitch. It 
has but recently become extinct in the male line. A story 
accounts for this remarkable name. 

A West Saxon chief was hunting in the forest one day 
when he discovered a male child in the wood, with none near 
it save a large bitch, that was suckling it. The parents could 
not be discovered. The chieftain accordingly adopted the 
child and gave it the name of Suckbitch, which it and all its 
descendants were to bear, and he further conferred upon it 
an estate near the Exe where it was found. 

Before it became extinct some of the family altered the 
designation to Suckbury. 

Many a legend explaining the derivation of a name is an 
afterthought. A story has been invented to account for what 
seemed peculiar. 

Thus the story of the origin of the name Napier is dis- 
tinctly a fabrication. Napier comes, as already said, from a 
napper, the official at Court who looked after the nappery, 
or table-linen. But this did not please the family, so the 
following tale was invented and promulgated : 

" One of the ancient Earls of Lennox in Scotland had 
issue three sons : the eldest succeeded him in the earldom ; 
the second, whose name was Donald ; and the third named 
Sillchrist (probably Gilchrist). The then King of Scots, 
having wars, did convocate his lieges to the battle. Amongst 
them that were commanded was the Earl of Lennox, who, 
keeping his eldest son at home, sent his second son to serve 
for him with the forces under his command. The battle 
went hard with the Scots, for the enemy, pressing furiously 
upon them, forced them to lose ground, until at last they 
fell to flat running away, which, being perceived by Donald, 
he pulled his father's standard from the bearer thereof, and, 
valiantly encountering the foe (being well followed up by the 
Earl of Lennox's men), he repulsed the enemy, and changed 
the fortune of the day, whereby a great victory was got. 
After the battle, as the manner is, everyone advancing and 
setting forth his own acts, the King said unto them : ' Ye 
have all done valiantly, but there is one amongst you that 

330 



NAME STORIES 

hath na pier /' [no equal] ; and calling Donald into his 
presence, commanded him, in regard of his worth, service, 
and augmentation of his honour, to change his name from 
Lennox to Napier, and gave him lands in Fife and the lands 
of Goffurd, and made him his own servant." This story is 
as old as the reign of Charles I., for it occurs in a manuscript 
written by Sir W. Segar, Garter King-of-Arms. 

Equally fabulous is the legend of the origin of the name 
of Hay, borne by the Earl of Errol. It is related that the 
founder of that family, with his two sons, held successfully 
the pass of Lancarty against the Danes in 942 by shouting 
as he smote the invaders, " Hay ! hay ! hay !" Actually, the 
name came from a hedged-in enclosure. 

The tale circulates that once upon a time a Yorkshire 
gentleman, being about to let slip a brace of greyhounds to 
run after a hare, held them so unskilfully as to strangle the 
hounds ; whence he obtained the sobriquet of Maleverer 
in Latin, Malus Leporarius, the bad hare-hunter, whereas 
actually the name comes from Malus Operarius, the bad 
workman. It occurs in Domesday in Essex: "Terra Adamis 
filii Dusandi de Malis Operibus " (Durand of bad deeds ; in 
fact, a ne'er-do-weel). 

Of the great family of the Corvini in Rome it was related 
that on a certain occasion a Tribune, Marcus Valerius, was 
challenged by a Gaul to single combat. He accepted the 
challenge. At the moment of conflict a crow appeared and 
attacked the eyes of the Gaul, and so distracted him that 
he fell an easy prey to the Roman. The story was invented 
to explain the fact that the crow was a totem of a family in 
the Valerian gens. 

A very important family among the first settlers in Iceland 
was that descended from Kveldulf (the evening wolf). How 
he got that designation is explained by a legend. He was 
said, as soon as the sun set, to change his character from 
one of good-humour to that of wolfish ferocity. On one 
occasion, in the evening, his son, a mere child, offended him, 
and he rushed to slaughter him, when the nurse interposed, 
and old Kveldulf literally tore her to pieces. 



NAME STORIES 

The legendary explanation of the origin of the family 
name of Ayre, or Eyre, is altogether absurd. 

" The first of the family was named Truelove, but at the 
Battle of Hastings, October 14, 1066, William was flung 
from his horse and his helmet beaten into his face, which 
Truelove observing, pulled it off and horsed him again. The 
Duke told him : ' Thou shalt hereafter from Truelove be 
called Eyre [or Air], because thou hast given me the air I 
breathe.' After the battle the Duke, on inquiry respecting 
him, found him severely wounded (his leg and thigh having 
been struck off), and ordered him the utmost care, and on 
his recovery gave him lands in Derby in reward for his 
services, and the leg and thigh in armour cut off for his crest, 
an honorary badge still worn by all the Eyres in England." 1 

The story is obviously apocryphal. There is no Truelove, 
an English and not a Norman name, in the Roll of Battle 
Abbey, and the tale supposes William the Bastard to have 
spoken English, a language of which he understood not one 
word. The tale has been made up to account for the name 
and the crest. 

Very different is the story of the origin of the name 
Lockhart. This may be true : that a follower of James, 
Lord Douglas, who accompanied him to the Holy Land, 
was requested by his master, who died in the Crusade, to 
convey his heart back to Scotland, and this the retainer did 
in a locked casket. In consequence of this, the family bears 
as its arms a heart clasped by a padlock. That the story is 
possibly true is due to the fact that at the period of the 
Crusades it was by no means unusual for the hearts of 
knights and nobles dying abroad to be conveyed home. 
There are not a few " heart-stones " in the churches of 
England ; there is one at Molland in Devon, containing the 
heart of a Courtenay, and the heart of Richard Coeur de 
Lion is preserved at Rouen in the museum. 

Fabulous is the story of the Osbornes. This name is 

Scandinavian, and signifies the Bear of the Aesir, the Divine 

ancestors of the Norse race. But all knowledge of the 

1 Thorpe, " Catalogue of the Deeds of Battle Abbey." 

332 



NAME STORIES 

signification was lost in the days when Christianity had 
been accepted, and a story was invented to explain the 
origin of the name. Walter, a Norman knight, playing at 
chess with William the Bastard one summer evenihg on the 
banks of the Ouse, succeeded in every game. The King 
threw down the board, saying that he had no more stakes to 
risk. "Sir," said Sir Walter, "here is land." "There is 
so," said William, "and if thou beatest me in this game 
also, thine shall be all the land on this side of the burn 
which thou canst see from the seat on which thou art now 
seated." Sir Walter again defeated the Conqueror, and 
William, clapping him on the shoulder, said : " Henceforth 
thou shalt be called Ouseburne." 

This story labours under the same defect as that which 
accounts for the origin of the name of Eyre. 

The Thirlwalls are said to be so called from an ancestor, 
a Saxon chief named Wade, who built a fort upon the 
Roman wall which he thirled or broke through. 

A legendary tale is attached to the name of Montmorris : 
that it was borne by a Moor who lived in the mountains 
the Atlas, we suppose and that he joined Charlemagne and 
became a good Christian and a paladin. This is nonsense. 
The name comes from Mont St. Maurice. St. Maurice was 
an exceedingly popular saint among knights, as he was a 
soldier martyr. 

The story of the origin of the name of Field-Marshal 
Blucher is this : His ancestor, serving under Prince Borwin 
of Mecklenburg against the pagan Wends, on one occasion 
single-handed defended a chapel against them when they 
sought to desecrate it. When succour arrived, he was found 
covered with blood, and he handed the keys of the chapel to 
the Prince, who thereupon bade him assume the name of 
Blutiger, or the Bloody, and adopt the keys as crest and 
coat of arms. Blutiger has been corrupted to Blucher. 

The noble family of Bojanowsky in Poland was originally 
called Baran (sheep), but it changed its name to Jundisza 
(bridegroom). One day a Baran was going to the altar with 
his bride when he received summons to attend his Prince 

333 



NAME STORIES 

immediately. He at once obeyed, leaving his bride in the 
church. In commemoration of this prompt obedience, his 
name was changed from Sheep to Bridegroom. 

The family of Turnbull is supposed to derive from an 
ancestor Ruel, who saved Robert Bruce from being gored 
in Stirling Park by catching the bull by its horns and turning 
it about. Actually Turnbull comes from the Anglo-Saxon 
Trumbold. 

In 1003 the family of Wrschowcen in Bohemia formed a 
plot to murder the reigning Duke, so as to win the ducal 
throne for one of themselves. To attain this object some of 
the brothers lured the young Duke Jaromir into the forest to 
hunt, and drawing him from his retinue, bound him to an 
oak, and were proceeding to shoot him, when a common 
forester, named Howorra, emerged from the bushes. The 
brothers at once seized and bound him to a lime-tree, to kill 
him also, lest he should betray them. Before his arm was 
fastened he begged to be suffered to sound his horn. This 
was granted. He blew so loud a blast that the Duke's 
retainers came up before the brothers had put their plot into 
complete execution. The Duke and the huntsman were 
released and the brothers slain. In reward for what he had 
done, Jaromir ennobled the man, who had two sons, and one 
was named Duba (an oak) and the other Lippa, or Laba (a 
lime-tree), and they bore on their shield two boughs crossed 
the one of an oak, the other of a lime. 

Equally fabulous is the story of the origin of the name of 
Purseglove. In one of the commotions in the North of 
England a gentleman deemed it advisable to fly his country, 
and he did so with such precipitation that he took no money 
with him. He would have fared badly but that he managed 
to pick up on the highway a purse in a glove. This he took 
to himself, and settled in the South, and there founded a 
family. Deeming it well to keep his original name a secret, 
he called himself thenceforth Purseglove. There was a 
Thomas Pursglove, or Purslow, Bishop of Hull. Purslow is 
in Shropshire, and Purslow is probably the correct form of 
the name, the low being the tumulus of one Brusi. 

334 



NAME STORIES 

Camden relates that a certain Frenchman who had 
craftily smuggled one Crioll, a feudal lord in Kent, out of 
France in the reign of Edward II., when he was in great danger 
of imprisonment, if not of his life, and brought him over the 
Channel into his own county, received from the nobleman in 
return for his services the estate of Swinfield, and on account 
of the finesse displayed by him on this occasion, he adopted 
the surname of Finesse, originating that of Fynnes. 

Between the Waag and the Moldau, Prince Pirwina was 
hunting and lost his way. A poor bird-snarer gave him 
shelter for the night and food. Next day the Prince granted 
him the land on which stood his hut as far as to the bank of 
the Moldau, and dubbed him knight. As the fellow, whose 
name was Welen, was going about his acquired estate, he 
climbed a hill, on which he thought he might build a castle. 
He was barefooted, and struck his toe against a stone, and it 
bled. " Ha !" thought he, " henceforth I need go no longer 
barefoot " (go nedger boskowice). Thenceforth he took Bos- 
kowice, or Barefoot, as his family name. 

The Crivelli family pretend that in the reign of Augustus 
an ancestress was a vestal virgin at Rome. She was accused 
of having broken her vows. She offered to prove her inno- 
cence by carrying water from the Tiber in a sieve. She 
performed this feat. Afterwards, when her time as a vestal 
had expired, she married and founded the Crivelli family, 
which in its name (Ital., crivallo, a sieve) and in its arms 
recalls the story of its origin. 

The following story may possibly be true : 

In the disturbances in Bohemia in 1212, when the Chan- 
cellor Scornir was driven out of the country, the people 
raged against his family, burnt his castle, and massacred his 
sons. One of these latter alone was saved, a little boy, whom 
his nurse concealed in a hole that is still shown in the 
chimney of the castle of Chudenitz. When the rioters had 
departed he was drawn forth, and was so covered with soot 
that he was passed off as Czerny (black), because it was 
still unsafe for it to be known that he was a Scornir. As 

335 



NAME STORIES 

this latter name long remained hateful in the land, the 
descendants of this lad elected to call themselves Czerny. 

The name of Fortescue is said to have been bestowed on 
Sir Richard le Fort, one of those who attended William the 
Bastard to England. In the Battle of Hastings he pro- 
tected his chief from the arrows of the English archers by 
extending his shield before him, whereupon the Conqueror 
said : " Forte scutum salus Ducum " (a strong shield is the 
safety of commanders), and the family has preserved this as 
their motto, and call themselves no longer Le Fort, but 
Fortescue. 

Not one of those who record the history of the battle 
mentions such an incident. Moreover, in Normandy there 
were two noble families, quite distinct one Le Fort, the 
other Fortescue. The story is mere fable. 

The German noble family of Kalkreuth had its origin from 
this : A nobleman suspected his wife of being too fond of his 
page, and he determined to have him put out of the way. 
So he went to his limekilns, and bade the burner throw in 
the first of his lord's servants who arrived and asked whether 
he had done his duty. Then he bade the page go with this 
question to the kilns. Before leaving, the Countess required 
the youth to enter a chapel on the way and pray for her son, 
who was ill of a fever. 

The Count next despatched another servant, the man who 
had maligned the page to his master. He passed the chapel 
whilst the other was engaged in prayer. 

Presently the page rose from his knees, went to the kiln, 
and asked whether his master's commands had been obeyed. 
The lime-burner pointed to the kiln and laughed. " He is 
there," said he. On his return the Count recognized the 
hand of God in this. The page was knighted and assumed 
the name of Limekiln, or Kalkreuth, and for crest a kilner 
holding a lime-rake in his hand. 

The name of Lepell is not unknown in England, as one of 
a family that came over with George I. from Hanover ; and 
there is a song on a great beauty of that name, which was 
once in great vogue ; she married Lord Hervey : 

336 



NAME STORIES 

" Had I Hanover, Bremen, and Yarding, 
And likewise the Duchy of Zell, 
I would part with them all for a farthing, 
To win my sweet Molly Lepell. 
Were I but the King of Great Britain, 
I'd govern the Ministry well : 
To support the great throne that I sit in, 
I'd have none but my Molly Lepell." 

The family originated in Pomerania. In a battle the nine 
brothers perished. Then, at the request of the Sovereign, 
the Pope released the sisters from their vows in the convent 
where they had been placed, and they married ; but in com- 
memoration of their brothers they assumed as the family 
crest a damsel with a hat, in the band of which are stuck 
nine spoons (Loffel, or, in the vulgar tongue, Leppel). 

A Slavonic knight went to serve in Spain with a Moorish 
Prince. One day the Moorish Princess asked him to play 
chess with her. " What is to be the reward of the winner ?" 
he asked. 

" To smash the board on the head of the defeated," 
said she. 

The Slavonic knight won, and, taking the board, banged 
the Princess on the head and made it bleed, so that she was 
obliged to bind it up with a kerchief. 

After that the knight thought it best to get back to his 
native land, where he assumed the name of Bretwitz, or the 
witty chessboard-player, and the chessboard as his arms, 
and as his crest the Moorish Princess with bound head. 

Among the Anglo-Saxon families who resisted the domina- 
tion of William was that of Bulstrode. The head of the 
family was despoiled of his estate by the victorious Norman, 
who presented it to one of his own followers, and furnished 
him with a body of men to seize it by force. 

The Saxon called in the aid of some neighbours to 
defend his ancestral acres, and entrenched himself within an 
earthwork. The besieged had no horses, so they were fain 
to bestride certain bulls which they had brought into the 
enclosure, and thus mounted they made a sally and routed 
the Norman assailants. William, on hearing of this exploit, 

337 Y 



NAME STORIES 

invited the brave Saxon to visit him ; so the chief and his 
seven sons once more bestrode their bulls and proceeded to 
Court. William was so pleased that he bade them remain 
in undisturbed possession of their land, and ever after bear 
the name of Buktrode. 

In 1192, at the Battle of Ascalon, a young knight of the 
House of Arundel, clad all in white, fought with such gallantry 
that when he came out of the battle his maiden armour was 
bespattered with Saracen blood. Richard Cceur de Lion 
granted him as arms a lion gules in a field argent, between 
six crosslets of the first, and for motto, Tinctus cmore 
Saraceno. His descendants thence assumed the surname of 
Tynte (tincti), and settled in Somerset. 

The La Scala family derive both name and arms from an 
achievement in scaling a tower ; the La Saca from an 
ancestor who always went into battle with a sack of pro- 
visions over his shoulder. " I cannot fight," said he, " unless 
I eat. Fighting is hungry work." 

A Bavarian noble family is that of Notschaft. A knight of 
Wernberg went to the Crusades, and was absent twelve 
years. When he returned he was a wayworn, ragged, and 
grey pilgrim, and none recognized him save his old dog, that 
wagged its tail and fawned on him. In commemoration of 
this he assumed the dog's head as his crest, and because of 
the need he had endured he took the name of Notschaft. 

The German family of Fleming is not content with the 
reasonable derivation of the name from immigrants from 
Flanders, but pretends that their ancestors were Flaminii, 
who went to Britain when the Romans held the isle, and 
remained there. One branch passed over to the land of the 
Teutons, but other of the Flaminii hung on in England, and 
their descendants are the English family of Flemings. 

The name of Knott is common enough in the North of 
England. It is the English form of the Danish Knut or 
Knud, that has been Latinized into Canute. The story 
concerns a King of Jutland. Gorm the Bairnless found ale 
such as the Northmen drank somewhat heady, and he had 
acquired a liking for the light wines of the Rhine. Accord- 

338 



NAME STORIES 

ingly he sent some thralls into Holstein to purchase for him 
a supply. They were on their way back to Jutland with a 
train of horses laden with wine-kegs, when they were over- 
taken by night in the Forest of Mirkwood. 

Unable to proceed farther, they camped out under the 
trees, lighted a fire, and cast themselves down to sleep, after 
having tethered their horses. The moon shone and smote 
through the foliage, forming patches of silver on the sward. 
The owls hooted and the night-jars cried, but what disturbed 
the men most was the incessant wailing of a child, and they 
found that under the circumstances sleep was impossible. 
Next morning they went in quest of the babe. The under- 
growth was dense, and they had to hack their way through 
thorns, sloe-bushes, and brambles, till they reached the spot 
whence came the sobbing. There they found a babe wrapped 
in fine linen, that was fastened in a knot over the breast, and 
in untying this out fell three gold rings. Moreover, the child 
was folded about with a silken mantle. 

The little creature stretched out its arms, and its cheeks 
were beblubbered with tears. When one of the men took it 
up, and the babe laid hold of his nose and sucked vigorously, 
his heart became so soft that he protested the infant must 
not be left to perish. So the thralls took the child with 
them, and conveyed it to King Gorm. 

To him they excused themselves for being so late by the 
fact that they had been delayed on account of the babe. 
They had been obliged to feed it with milk. It had a 
ravenous appetite, and, being unprovided with the natural 
apparatus for nourishing an infant, they had been constrained 
to dip their fingers in milk, and feed the child by this slow 
and unsatisfactory method. 

King Gorm took the child on his lap, liked its appearance, 
poured water over it, and gave it the name of Knut, or " the 
knot," because of the knotted linen on its breast that had 
contained the gold rings. 

The fact of Gorm taking the child on his knee constituted 
legal adoption. He now passed over the little foundling to 
women to be nursed, better adapted in every way to this end 

339 Y2 



NAME STORIES 

than rough thralls, or even than a King upon his throne. Gorm 
had the child brought to him every day, and became vastly 
attached to it. " One may be sure," said he, " that he comes 
of a good family he is so beautiful, and has in his face a 
look of true nobility. Moreover, the rings and silk found on 
him are tokens that he is the issue of no common folk." 

As the little Knut grew up he became more handsome and 
intelligent, and wormed his way into the innermost heart of 
old King Gorm. At length the King fell sick, so he called 
his counsellors about him, and said that, as he was childless, 
it was his intention to set over Jutland a King to succeed 
him, who would be generally acceptable to his people ; and 
as to the Overking of Sweden and Denmark, so long as the 
customary tribute was paid, he cared not who was lord in the 
land. Then he named Knut the foundling. The people 
assented, and when Gorm died Knut was accepted without 
demur. 

One of the first acts of King Knut was to summon a Thing, 
or assembly, of the people, and announce his intention to 
reward liberally any man who could enlighten him as to who 
were his parents. This was rumoured far and wide. 

One evening two Saxon men arrived at the King's hall, 
and asked to be presented before King Knut, as they had 
important information to communicate. When introduced, 
they said : " Is it true, sire, that you have promised rewards 
to those who shall inform you whence you are sprung ?" 

The King replied that it was so. 

Then said they : " Will you observe your promise to any, 
whether they be thralls or freemen ?" 

Knut assured them that their condition would make no 
difference. 

Then the spokesman said : " In the first place, King, I 
must inform you that I and my comrade are thralls to an 
Earl in Saxon land; and, in the next place, that we are in a 
position to afford you all the information you desire to obtain." 

Then he told a tale : Knut was the son of Earl Arngrim 
of Holstein, but a scandal was attached to his birth, and to 
conceal this the Earl had bidden his two most trusted thralls 

34o 



NAME STORIES 

to carry the child away ; but before parting with it he had 
wrapped it in silk and fine linen, and three gold rings were 
knotted in the wrap upon its breast. They had taken the 
infant to Mirkwood, and had deposited it there, hoping that 
some good folk might find and foster it. Then they described 
the rings and the place where they had laid the infant. On 
investigation it was found that this account tallied with that 
told by the thralls who had rescued Knut. 

Then the King gave the men money wherewith to purchase 
their freedom, and bade them return to him. A few weeks 
later they reappeared, and the King was as good as his word. 
He conferred on them dignities, and they speedily became 
rich men. 

It was by this means that the name of Knut came into the 
Danish Royal Family ; and as Knut the Great became King 
of England, the name of Knott entered the island with him , 
and is with us even unto this day, indicating an unmistakable 
Danish origin. 

There was a noble family in France the De Levis who 
pretended that they were of the family of the Virgin Mary, 
descended from the elder branch, and of the tribe of Levi. 
They produced a pedigree to establish the descent, complete 
in every stage. That Our Lady did not pertain to the tribe 
of Levi was a small matter. An old painting still extant 
in the Chateau of Mirepois represents the ancestor of the 
family, the kinsman of St. Mary, taking off his hat to the 
Queen of Heaven as she sits enthroned in the clouds. 
" Couvrez vous, mon cousin," says she. " C'est pour ma 
commodity, ma cousine," replies the De Levis, desirous to 
be courteous, but careful not to compromise his dignity. As 
a matter of sober fact, the De Levis do not draw their name 
from any Jewish Levi, but from a Chateau de Levis, near 
Chevreusse. 

The story of the origin of the name I' Estrange is this : 
William Peverel advertised through many lands a tourna- 
ment to be held at his castle in the Peak, whereat he who 
acquitted himself best should have to wife his youngest 
niece, Meletta, and with her the lordship of Whittingdon in 

34i 



NAME STORIES 

Shropshire. To this tournament came Gharin of Louvain 
and the ten sons of John, Duke of Brittany. The knight of 
Louvain won his bride ; but one the sons of the Duke John, 
Guy by name, who called himself " the Stranger," remained 
in England, and obtained many lordships by his sword ; 
and of his issue are the 1' Estranges. The story is utterly 
fabulous. There never was a Duke John of Brittany. They 
actually derive from a FitzAlan early in the reign of Henry I. 

A story, not older than the seventeenth century, accounts 
for the origin of the name Fraser as follows : A certain 
Jules de Berri presented a dish of strawberries to Charles 
the Simple, King of France, who thereupon bade him change 
his name from Berry to Strawberry i.e., Praises and to 
assume strawberry flowers on his arms. As it happens, the 
Erasers derive from the family of Fresel in Normandy, and 
Simon Fresel settled in Scotland in the middle of the twelfth 
century, going thither out of England. 

Norton Malreward is in Somersetshire. It was, as its 
name implies, the seat of the family of Mauregard (Evil 
Eye). But the real significance of the name did not please 
them, and a story was devised to give it a different significa- 
tion. Sir John Hauteville was a great favourite of King 
Edward I. He was a man of prodigious strength. The 
King having one day expressed a desire to see the full extent 
of his power, the knight undertook to carry three of his 
lustiest men-at-arms to the top of Norton Church tower. 
This he effected by taking one under each arm, and the third 
he sustained by his teeth. Those under his arms kicked and 
resisted, whereupon Sir John squeezed the breath out of 
their bodies, but the third was conveyed safely to the top. 

For this feat of strength the King gave Sir John all the 
estate lying in the parish of Norton, observing at the same 
time that it was a mat-reward for so great an achievement. 
Thenceforth the knight changed his name from Hauteville 
to Malreward. The trifling circumstance that two of his 
stoutest men-at-arms had been squeezed to death in the 
process does not seem to have occurred to the mind of King 
Edward as a matter of moment. 

342 



NAME STORIES 

Once upon a time a German Emperor of the House of 
Austria proclaimed a tilting at the ring, and whoever proved 
most successful was to be rewarded with the hand of his 
daughter. A knight without heraldic cognizance proved the 
victor. He carried off six rings. When he came to demand 
his reward, it was found that he was the imperial keeper of 
the falcons, MusegrafF. So he was ennobled and given the 
Princess, and for arms six golden annulets. He came to 
England and founded the family of the Musgroves. Un- 
happily for the story, the Musgroves derive from Muse Gros, 
near Ecouen, and came over with the Conqueror, and the 
annulets refer to the arms of the De Viponts, Barons and 
hereditary Sheriffs of Westmorland, under whom they held 
lands. 

The Skenes are said to derive their name from the follow- 
ing incident : The first of the clan was a Robertson of 
Struan, who killed a gigantic wolf, that threatened the life 
of Malcolm III. in the royal forest of Stocket, with his skene 
(dagger). Hence the family arms are : Gules, three dirks or 
skenes, supported by three wolves' heads. The motto is, 
Virtutis regia merces. 

The story of the Dalzieh is this : A friend of one of the 
Scottish Kings was caught in a border raid and promptly 
hanged by his captors. The King was sore distressed, and 
exclaimed : " Who will dare to recover for me my friend's 
body, that it may be given Christian burial ?" Whereupon 
one of his guard exclaimed: "I dare!" He crossed the 
border, and cut down the body from the gallows, flung it 
across the pommel of his saddle, and brought it to Scotland. 
Hence the motto of the Dalziels is "I dare!" and their 
coat of arms a naked corpse suspended from a gallows-tree. 
Of late years, however, the gibbet has been discarded. Ac- 
cording to the common version of the story, Dalziel signifies 
in Gaelic "I dare!" As a matter of fact it does nothing 
of the sort ; it means " the yellow field." Dal signify " a 
part" originally, then " a field." Dalhousie is Dalchoisne, the 
corner field, and Dalmahoi the field of the north. 

The story of the origin of the name Forbes is that an 

343 



NAME STORIES 

ancestor slew a mighty bear that was a terror of the neigh- 
bourhood, and so he was nicknamed For-beast, as he " went 
for " the Bruin. 

The Guthries were so called from gutting three haddocks 
for King David II., his entertainment when he landed 
hungry on the Brae of Bervie after his French voyage. 
Whereupon the King said : 

"Gut three 
Thy name shall be !" 



344 



CHAPTER XVII 

THE EVOLUTION AND DISINTEGRATION OF SURNAMES 

I SHALL have in this chapter to go over some ground already 
trodden to pick up threads and sum up what has been dis- 
cussed. When Hop-o'-my-Thumb went forth he strewed 
behind him white pebbles, and as he came home in the 
evening he picked them up again, and by them returned to 
the point whence he had started. 

If we look over the mapped-out period of history to that 
beyond enveloped in blue haze, and without a hedge and a 
cultivated patch, and consider the Aryan stock before it 
broke away from its Asiatic primeval seat and moved west, 
dividing as it sped into diverse streams, we note that 
one system of nomenclature prevailed before the migration 
began, for that same system is found to exist in all the 
branches of this remarkable people. 

The system was this : The name given to a person was 
formed out of two words perhaps two nouns substantive 
glued together, perhaps a noun substantive with a qualifying 
adjective. Thus, in Greek we have Stratonikos (Lord 
Victor) ; in Welsh, Cadwaladr (Lord in Battle), Aelhaiarn 
(Iron Brow); in Norse, Arinbjorn (Eagle-Bear); in German, 
Friedrich (King Peace) ; in Old Gallic, Devagnata (Daughter 
of God) ; in Serb, Bratogub (Brother Dear) ; in Sanskrit, 
Devadathas (Gift of God) ; in Anglo-Saxon, Eadward 
(Defender of his Possessions). 

But the length of some of these names led to their being 
curtailed, at least in common use ; in most cases this was 
done by retaining one member only of the original name, as 

345 



THE EVOLUTION AND 

Zeuxis, the famous painter, from Zeuxippos (the Horse of 
Zeus). So in Teutonic nomenclature, names were clipped 
for convenience. Ulf was used for Arnulf; in Anglo- 
Saxon, Edi for Eadward ; and in Welsh, Cattwg for 
Cathmail. Another method for avoiding the entire mouth- 
filling name was to take one member and tack on to it a 
diminutive, as Wulfila (the Little Wolf) for Wulfhild. The 
other portion of the name, having fallen away, had been 
forgotten. The Irish Moaedan become Madoc. At the pre- 
sent day, in Germany, Margaretta is contracted into Gretli 
or Gretchen, and with us into Maggy. The principle of a 
component name did not last after a people had become to 
some extent civilized ; it was a stage at the beginning of the 
history of nomenclature. 

A common but not an invariable rule among the 
Greeks, Germans, and Scandinavians, was to give to a child 
one of the parts of the father's name, coupling with it some 
other expletive, so as to make it resemble, and yet be 
different. Dinokrates was the son of Dinokles ; Andronikos, 
the son of Nikokles. In German, Waldbert and Wolfbert 
were the sons of Humbert ; Winegaud was the son of 
Winaburgis. In Norse, Arnmod was the son of Arnvid ; 
Vigfus was the son of Viga-Glum, in this latter case the son 
taking the nickname of his father into composition. This 
breaking up of the paternal name, and the coupling it 
with some other word, often led to the new compound 
having an incongruous meaning, as Wolf dag (Wolf day) and 
Fridigund (Peace- War). 

Early Greek names expressed some quality held in high 
estimation, or bore some reference to a god whose protection 
was solicited, as Callimachus (Exultant Fighter), Apollodorus 
(Gift of Apollo). 

The Romans in prehistoric times followed the Indo- 
Germanic principle of nomenclature. Originally every man 
had his personal distinctive name, and no other ; but 
already in the time of the Republic each man was pro- 
vided with three. The nomen was that of the gens, or clan, to 
which he belonged, and which almost invariably ended in 

346 






DISINTEGRATION OF SURNAMES 

ius, as Publius, Fabricius. The prcenomen went before this, 
and indicated the family in the tribe to which the individual 
belonged. Lastly came his own individual name. Thus we 
have Caius (prcenomen) Julius (nomen) Caesar (cognomen), or 
Marcus Tullius Cicero. 

Roman names were less ambitious and far less poetical 
than those of the Greeks. Agricola (a husbandman), Fabius 
(a bean), Lentullus (the slow), Cicero (a vetch), Porcius (a 
pig-breeder), Assinius (asinine). From appearance they 
were named Niger, Rufus, Flavius, Livius, Longus, Paullus, 
Crassus, Macer, Calvus, Naso, Paetus, Balbus, Claudius, and 
Plautus (flat-footed). Parents, in the barrenness of their 
imaginations, descended to numerals, and a father labelled 
his sons as No. 2, No. 3, etc. : Secundus, Tertius, Quartus, 
Quintus, and Sextus. Roman nomenclature exhibits the 
utmost poverty of invention when compared with that of the 
Germans and Scandinavians. An additional name, agnomen, 
was sometimes tacked on in commemoration of an heroic 
achievement or of some military expedition, as Coriolanus, 
Germanicus, Africanus. 

Among the Angles, Saxons, Teutons of Germany, and 
Scandinavians, an almost unlimited variety of personal 
names existed. These could be formed with facility by 
combinations, in which the designations of gods, beasts, and 
birds, even of inanimate objects, could be made use of, with 
expletives added. 

The deities from whom they drew their origin, who 
reigned in Valhalla, who ruled the course of events, were 
the ^Esir, the singular of which is As. Hence came such 
names as Asbjorn, Osborn (the Divine Bear) ; Asmund, 
Osmund (the Hand of the God) ; Aswald, Oswald (the Power 
of the As) ; Oswin (the Friend of the Ancestral Deity). 

Or, again, a special deity was honoured, as Thorr, the 
Thunderer ; Thorfrid is the Peace of Thor ; Thorbjorn, the 
Bear of Thor. An Archbishop of York who died in 1140 
was Thurstan the Sacrifical Stone of Thor, across which 
the spine of the victim was snapped. 

In the temples and at religious feasts a caldron was 

347 



THE EVOLUTION AND 

employed, filled with blood, that was splashed over the 
image, and which was used as well for boiling the horseflesh 
for the sacrificial feast. This was the kettil, and hence we 
have Thorketill and Osketill. 1 

Frey was another god. Freymund was the Hand of God, 
and Freystan still among us as a surname, Freestone the 
Stone of Frey. 

Gud was a name employed before Christianity was finally 
accepted, as a name of God, without any very fixed idea 
being attached to it ; but when the English were converted it 
entered into numerous combinations, as Guthfrid (the Peace 
of God), Guthric (the Power of God), Godwin (the Friend of 
God). 

Arn, the Eagle into which, according to myth, Wuotan 
had transformed himself, gave names, as Arnor (the Eagle 
Arrow), Arnvid (the Eagle Wood), Arnkill (the sacrifical 
kettle of Odin the Eagle). The Finns, from whom tribute 
was taken by the Norwegian Kings, were regarded with not 
a little awe as necromancers, but marriages were entered 
into with them, and the name of Finn penetrated into the 

1 The following passage from the Saga of King Hakon the God is of 
interest : " It was an old custom that, when there was to be a sacrifice, all 
the bonders should come to the spot where the temple stood, and bring with 
them all that they required while the festival of the sacrifice lasted. To this 
festival all the men brought ale ; and all kinds of cattle, as well as horses, 
were slaughtered, and all the blood that came from them was called 
tout, and the vessels in which it was collected were called laut- vessels. 
Laut-branches were cut, like sprinkling-brushes, with which the whole of 
the altars and the temple walls, both outside and inside, were splashed 
over, and also the people were sprinkled with the blood ; but the flesh 
was boiled into savoury meat for those present. The fire was in the 
midst of the floor of the temple, and over it hung the kettles, and the full 
goblets were handed across the fire ; and he who made the feast, and 
was a chief, blessed the full goblets and all the meat of the sacrifice. 
And first Odin's goblet was emptied for victory and power to the King ;; 
thereafter Niord's and Frey's goblets, for peace and for a good season. 
Then it was the custom of many to empty the Braga-goblet ; and then 
the guests emptied a goblet to the memory of departed friends, called 
the remembrance-bowl" (Heiniskrtngla, saga iv., c. 16). Customs die 
hard. This was the origin of drinking healths. 

348 



DISINTEGRATION OF SURNAMES 

nomenclature of the offspring, as Finnlog, Thorfin ; or the 
name Halfdan was employed, indicative of mixed blood. 

Qualities also entered into the composition of names, 
as Ethelburg (the noble stronghold), Ethelred (the noble 
counsellor), Eadward (the defender of his property). The 
list might be greatly extended, but this must suffice. 

Among the Christian Anglo-Saxons and Scandinavians, 
no scruple whatever was felt in the employment of names 
redolent of paganism, any more than there was hesitation in 
retaining the pagan designations of the days of the week. 
And as such a wide field existed for the formation of personal 
names, the necessity for surnames was not immediately felt. 
Individuals might have, and did have, nicknames applied to 
them, but these were ephemeral. 

But with the advent of the Normans the conditions 
changed. It must be borne in mind that the invasion of 
England by William the Conqueror was a crusade carried 
out in the name of religion against a people whom Rome 
regarded as faulty in the faith. As Freeman says : " Eng- 
land's crime in the eyes of Rome the crime to punish which 
the crusade of William was approved and blessed was the 
independence still retained by the island Church and nation. 
. . . Rome was watchful, ever mindful, had not forgotten 
the note of insular defiance, when the heart of England 
spoke by the mouth of Tostig, and threatened the Pontiff on 
his throne." A Bull was published by Alexander II. author- 
izing the invasion of England. "The cause of the 
invasion was blessed, and precious gifts were sent as visible 
exponents of the blessing among others a consecrated 
banner to hallow the cause of fraud and usurpation and a 
crusade preached against England." l 

Thenceforth the Church was Latinized, and all that spoke 

of independence was hushed, all that recalled the past of 

England was frowned down as tainted with heresy. Even 

the names of children suffered. The clergy pointed out the 

duty, the necessity, of every Christian being given a patron 

in heaven, and such a patron could be acquired by his being 

1 " Norman Conquest," ii. 458. 

349 



THE EVOLUTION AND 

furnished with the name of a saint in the calendar. One 
concession was made : the application to an English child of 
the name of a Norman master. He must have a patron some- 
where, either in heaven or in the hall. In a canon attributed, 
but falsely, to the Council of Nicaea, but at all events very 
ancient for it is mentioned by Theodoret and alluded to by 
St. John Chrysostom parents were forbidden to give to their 
children the names of their forefathers, and were required to 
call them after saints. The Roman Rituale orders : " Let 
the parish priest take care that to a child shall be given no 
name that is obscene, fabulous, or ridiculous; nor one 
smacking of the vanity of the gods or the impieties of the 
heathen ; but rather, as far as can be enforced, the names of 
saints by whose example they may be stirred to live, and 
that they may obtain their patronage." 

Each diocese had its own calendar, and such were scantily 
provided with names. It was not then, as now, that the 
Roman Calendar and Martyrology were universally accepted, 
stuffed as they are with names, two, three, a dozen, for each 
day in the year. The old English calendars were not more 
richly provided than is that of the Anglican Church of the 
present day. In the Sherborne Calendar are but nine names 
in February, and seven in March. Consequently parents, 
when naming their children, had a limited range, and Johns 
and Peters, Philips and Thomases, became thick as black- 
berries, dense in a parish as sparrows in a bush. For the 
simple life of the early centuries, so long as life was limited 
within a narrow compass, one name sufficed a person. 
Population was stationary, and to a large extent rooted to 
the soil. The serf, the villein, could not leave it ; he was 
adscriptus glebce. But so also was the Lord of the Manor, for 
thence he drew all his revenue. Everyone knew his neigh- 
bour, held his nose over his neighbour's chimney-top and 
knew when he fried a rasher, and who sat round the table 
to eat it. There was little migration from one district to 
another ; the only strangers who penetrated to it were the 
wandering pedlars and gleemen. Trade was insignificant, as 
most people had small requirements, and such as they had 



DISINTEGRATION OF SURNAMES 

they were able to supply themselves with at home. They 
grew their own kail and corn, wove their own cloth, and 
made their own pots. A second name was as little required 
in a village among peasants as in a palace among Princes. 
But conditions altered, though not rapidly. The population 
became dense, and at the same time acquired fluidity. The 
Crusades and the French wars created a different condition 
of affairs. Properties changed hands. 

" Oh, many 

Have broke their backs with laying manors on them 
For this great journey." 

Merchants, lawyers, Churchmen, bought the lands the knights 
sold to furnish themselves for war. Trade and commerce 
increased, and contracts had to be drawn and registers to be 
kept. The single name no longer sufficed. This was espe- 
cially the case in towns, the centres of life and activity. 
There the necessity for some more particularizing of the 
persons dealt with in commercial transactions became 
imperious. Among the minstrales of the Archbishop of 
Cologne in 1141, consisting of fifty-nine individuals, there 
were twelve Hermans. How could the Elector summon one 
to his presence without giving him some particular epithet 
to distinguish him from the other eleven ? 

In England, even if in a village, a parent gave to his son 
a Norman in place of a saintly name ; the number of such 
names at his choice cannot have been great. He was 
acquainted with only such foreign Christian names as were 
to be found among his lord's children and servants. Thus, 
as said above, a parish swarmed with men of the same name, 
and the action of the Church in treading out the old English 
nomenclature, and forcing Scriptural and foreign names on 
the people, tended largely to the adoption of surnames. 

In "The Chronicle of Battle Abbey " l we have a list of the 
tenants of the Abbey whilst it was building, and this list is 
very instructive, for it shows us a great number of Saxon 
names, but also along with them Norman names, not of 

1 Lower, M. A., " The Chronicle of Battle Abbey," London, 1851. 



THE EVOLUTION AND 



knights and nobles, but of plain common tradesmen, and 
among these latter is a Russell. 

" The Leuga being brought into the possession of the 
abbey, and the building of the abbey meanwhile going 
forward, a goodly number of men were brought hither out 
of the neighbouring counties, and some even from foreign 
countries. And to each of these the brethren who managed 
the building allotted a dwelling-place of certain dimensions 
around the circuit of the abbey, and these still remain as 
they were then first apportioned with their customary rent 
or service." 

The order of the messuages is as follows (I do not give 
particulars in full) : 



1. Brihtwin, who had been 20. 

Bedell. 21. 

2. Reinbald de Beche (Bee 22. 

in Normandy) to pay 23. 

yd. per annum, and 24, 

find a man for one day 26. 

only, to make hay in 27. 

the meadows of Bode- 28. 

ham. 29. 

3. Wulmer, also yd. and 30. 

like obligation. 31. 

4. Malgar the Smith. 32, 

5. ^Ifric Dot. 34. 

6. William the Shoemaker. 

7. Edward Gotcild (God- 35. 

child). 

8. Ralph Ducg. 36. 

9. Gilbert the Weaver. 37. 
10. Dering Pionius. 38. 
n. Legard. 

12. Elf win Trewa. 39. 

13. Godieve. 40. 

14. Godwin, son of Colsuein. 41. 

15. Godwin the Cook. 42. 

16. Edward the Scourer. 43. 

17. Robert the Miller. 44, 

18. Robert de Havena. 46. 

19. Selaf the Herdsman. 47. 

352 



Wulric the Goldsmith. 
William Pinel. 
Lambert the Shoemaker. 
Orderic the Swineherd. 
25. Sevugel Cochec. 
Blackeni the Cowherd. 
William Grei (Grey). 
Robert, the son of Siflet. 
Seward Gris (the Pig). 
^Elfric the Steward. 
Wulfin Hert (Hart). 
33. Lefwi Nuc. 
Gilbert the Stranger 

(P Estrange). 
^Elfric de Dengemareis 

(Dengemarsh). 
Bennet the Sewer. 
Maurice. 
Mdric, who cast the 

bells. 
Gunnild. 

Burnulf the Carpenter. 
JElfric Cild (Child). 
^Eilnod the Shoemaker. 
Francefant. 

45. Mldwin the Cook. 
Emma. 
^Elstrild Nonna(the Nun). 



DISINTEGRATION OF SURNAMES 



48. Peter the Baker. 

49, 50. Sewin. 

51. Robert de Cirisi. 

52. Mathelgar Ruff. 

53. Si ward Stigerop( Stirrup). 

54. Goldwin. 

55. Edwin the Smith. 

56. 57. Sevugel (Sea-fowl). 

58. Gotseln (Joscelyn). 

59. Russell. 

60. Lambert. 

61. Ailric the Baker. 

62. ^Eilnod, the son of 

Fareman. 

63. Gilbert the Clerk. 

64. Lefwin the Baker. 

65. Herod. 

66. Orgar. 

67. Chebel (Keble). 

68. Bering. 

69. Leffelm. 

70. Benwold Gest (Guest) 

71. Wulfric the Swineherd. 

72. Emma. 

73. Slote. 

74. Gosfrid the Cook. 

75. Godfrey. 

76. Lefwin Hunger. 

77. Edwin Knight 

78. Goldstan. 

79. Wulbald Winnoc. 

80. Brembel. 

81. Robert Barate (Barret). 

82. Lefflet Lounge (Long). 

83. EdildaTipa. 

84. 85. Golding. 

86. ^Elfric Curlebasse. 

87. Wulfwin Scot. 

The list is very instructive, and deserves to be analyzed. 
It must be borne in mind that, when the Conqueror came 
over, his knights and nobles brought with them their 

353 z 



88. Hugh the Secretary. 

89. Humfrey the Priest. 

90. Pagan Peche. 

91. Durand. 

92. Juliot Wolf. 

93. ^Elfwin Abbat. 

94. Siward Crull. 

95. Sevugel Cannarius (the 

Dog-trainer). 

96. Brictric the Gardener. 

97. ^Elwin the Secretary. 

98. Cheneward (the Dog- 

keeper) . 

99. Baldwin the Shoemaker. 

100. Osbert Pechet. 

101. Cochard. 

102. ^Elfwin Hachet. 

103. ^Eilnoth Heca. 

104. Blacheman of Bodeher- 

stegate. 

105. Reinbald Genester. 

106. ^IfricCorveiser (the 

man employed in 
forced labour). 

107. Brictric Barke (for 

Barker). 

108. ^Elfwin Turpin. 

109. Roger Braceur (for 

Brassourthe Brewer), 
no. Walter Ruff (le Roux 

the Red), 
in. Humfrey Genester. 

112. Godwin Gisard (perhaps 

the Lie-a-bed). 

113. Siward Crull. 

114. Brunreve. 

115. Wulfwin the Carpenter. 



THE EVOLUTION AND 

contingents of men-at-arms, and that these men could not 
be dispensed with and sent back to their homes in Normandy 
and Brittany and Flanders. They were needed to control 
the restless English. They were employed to conquer 
Wales and to devastate Northumbria. They were retained 
as garrisons in all the fortresses dotted over the land. Not 
one of these men brought with him a hereditary surname. 
Their masters were only beginning to learn the advantage of 
having a family to-name. But William had to do more than 
lodge fighting men throughout the land. He had to bring 
over masons and builders to erect castles and churches, for 
the English knew nothing of building fortresses of stone, and 
their efforts at church-building were rudimentary. 

That the nobles and knights should bring as well their 
stewards, butlers, and porters and huntsmen, we can well 
understand. But we were not prepared to learn, as we do 
from the above list, that various petty tradesmen also came 
over and settled in England. Out of the four shoemakers 
enumerated, one alone was English. There were three 
cooks, but one of these was Norman. The baker, the 
brewer, the smith, the weaver, the miller, were all Norman- 
French. 

Out of 115 householders in Battle, there were 39 Normans. 
But that is not all. Some of these men, working at the 
building of this abbey or supplying the needs of the workers, 
bear the names of their noble and knightly masters with 
whom they had come over, as William Pinel, Paganus Peche, 
Osbert Pechet, Gilbert 1'Estrange, Madelgar Ruff (le Roux), 
Russell, Robert Barret, Walter Ruff. And, what is still more 
curious, Siward twice occurs with the to-name of Crull i.e., 
Criol, a famous name among the nobles of William's retinue. 
Yet Siward is a Danish name, and he seems to have accom- 
modated himself with a French surname, so as to identify 
himself with the winning party. 

Some of the foreign settlers at Battle were known after 
the place whence they came, as Robert de Havena, Robert 
de Cerise ; but one of the oddest assumptions is that of 
Ralph, who called himself Ducq, or the Duke, perhaps 

354 



DISINTEGRATION OF SURNAMES 

because he came over in the immediate retinue of William 
the Bastard. Some designate themselves, or are designated, 
as " son of " ; but of these there are three only, as Battle was 
a newly-constructed village, and, of the settlers in it, few 
knew the parentage of their fellow-settlers. 

One thing this list teaches us that we are not to suppose 
that all the bearers in this day of Norman names were blood 
descendants of the Barons who first assumed them ; they 
may be the issue of their humble retainers who adopted their 
masters' names. 

So as not to be tedious, I will refer to only a few lists of 
benefactors, etc., to show how gradually surnames crept 
into general use. 

Here is a list of those who contributed to the building of 
the Franciscan convent at Newgate, London, between the 
years 1225 and 1327. 

John Ewin, citizen of London, first founder ; William 
Joyner built the choir, 1225 > Henry Walleis built the nave ; 
Alderman William Porter founded the chapter-house ; 
Gregory Bokesley made the dormitory ; Bartholomew de 
Castello made the refectory; Peter de Helliland erected the 
infirmary ; Bogo Bond, the herald King-at-Arms, built the 
museum (sic). Then comes in a bevy of noble names. Next 
William Taylor, " sutor regis Henrici III.," gave the water- 
supply. Then, later, Richard Whittington of cat celebrity 
founded the library in 1429. 

Observe in the list that William, King Henry's tailor, 
adopts Taylor as his surname. 

The Feet of Fines are profitable reading for the pur- 
pose of elucidating the progress of nomenclature. If I take 
those for the county of Devon in 1238, it will suffice to show 
us how the process of acquisition of surnames was in pro- 
gression during the first half of the thirteenth century. 
There are several instructive features in this catalogue. The 
first names are those of the plaintiffs, generally landowners, 
and the defendants are tenants. 

In several cases these landowners have no surnames at all, 
but are described as "son of" or " daughter of" the father 
who had a Christian name alone. 

355 z 2 



THE EVOLUTION AND 

In the next place, the tenant in a great number of in- 
stances is described as " de " his farm, for which he paid rent, 
and from which he might be evicted, and this becomes a 
surname. 

Another peculiar feature is that already in the first half of 
the thirteenth century some of the best surnames are found 
among the tenants. In one case John le English is master 
of the land, and William Peverel, with a good Norman 
name, is tenant ; and again is this the case with John de 
Langefurlong, probably ancestor of the Furlong family, and 
Geoffrey de Dynant, a descendant of one of those who came 
over with the Conqueror. In both cases and there are 
others like them the old lords of the land are parting with 
portions of their estates to English yeomen, and dropping 
into the position of tenants. In the case of Michael, son of 
Godfrey without a surname, he acquires lands in Lew 
Trenchard of William Trenchard, whose ancestors had held 
the land as a knight's-fee from the Conquest, " and for this 
Michael gave to William one sore sparrow hawk." So the 
land went. 

In the list are few surnames that indicate professions. 
There is a Cryer, a Mason, and also a Dispenser, the latter 
as a tenant, and only one that may be taken as a nickname 
" Youngknight." Any number of documents might be 
quoted, but they would all tell the same story the slow 
progress made in the adoption of surnames. 

It is worthy of note that the thirty-four first Archbishops 
of Canterbury had no surnames. Ralph d'Escures in 1114 
is the first to whom a second or to-name is accorded, and 
even later there were four, of whom Boniface, in 1246, was 
the last to remain undistinguished by an addition to his 
Christian name. 

The first thirty-three Bishops of London had no to-names. 
The first to be designated as "of" a place is Hugh de 
Orivalle, in 1075 ; his successor had but his baptismal name, 
but after that double names became the rule. And yet we 
cannot say of them for some time that they were properly 
family surnames. 

356 



DISINTEGRATION OF SURNAMES 

Further, in the English Book of Common Prayer there is 
no recognition of such a thing as a surname in either the 
Baptismal or the Marriage Service, or the Catechism. So 
far as the Church is concerned, the person is possessed of 
none. 

On February 25, 1909, a woman applied to the North 
London Police Court in great perplexity. On the pre- 
ceding day she had been married, and the man had given in 
registration a false surname. Was the marriage valid ? she 
inquired. " Certainly," replied the magistrate. " You are 
wedded to the man, and not to the name. His Christian 
name remains immutable ; but as to his surname, he may 
change it at pleasure. It is a luxury and not a necessity." 

And he was right according to law. Law and liturgy 
date from a period when surnames were unfixed. 

Now let us suppose the case and it was a case that 
occurred repeatedly, almost universally of there being 
Johns many and Toms many in the same parish. If not 
distinguished by their trades, as John the Smith and John 
the Baker, Tom the Brewer and Tom the Mason, they 
would probably be differentiated by the place of their 
residence John of the Townsend, Tom at the Well, John 
under the Wood, and Tom at the Ridgeway, becoming in 
time Townsend, Atwell, Underwood, and Ridgeway. Now 
let us suppose that the families of these respective Johns 
and Toms lived on for several generations at the Town's 
End, at the Well, under the Wood, and by the Old Roman 
Road or Ridgeway. The personal names John and Tom 
would be replaced by others, and gradually the place-name 
would adhere to the family ; and although the descendant of 
John at the Town's End might move his residence into the 
middle of the town, he would carry with him the name of 
Townsend. So the great-grandson of Tom at the Well may 
have set up shop in the town, but he would have come to 
call himself Atwell. 

There is a spur of highland running into the valley in 
which I live; it was once, and to some extent it is now, 
covered with heather ; and when this is in flame in the glow 

357 



THE EVOLUTION AND 

of the evening sun, the whole tongue of land is crimson. 
Even when the heather is out of flower, its dry branches are 
russet, and the hill-spur has still a red glow ; this is the more 
noteworthy as it stands out against green woods clothing 
the other hills. Hence this ridge has the name of Raddon. 
On it are three farms one Upper, one Middle, and the 
third Lower, or Nether. 

When the first settling in the land by the Saxons took 
place, one boor planted himself at the upper end of a spur 
of land, another in the middle, and a third lower down ; each 
built his habitation of wood, and enclosed a patch of land 
about it with a wall, and this patch of land was manured 
plentifully from his stalls, and produced richer and greener 
grass than any of his meadow-land. This he called his tun ; 
and so came into existence three farms an Upperton, 
Middleton, and a Netherton. But if, instead of a man of 
some consequence, with servants under him, it was a poor 
villein who planted his humble lodge, then there would 
spring up an Upcot, a Middlecot or Medlicott, and a 
Nethercot. 

Or perhaps in level land there were four settlements 
roughly taken at the points of the compass. One would be 
a Norton or a Northcot, another a Southton or Sutton, or 
a Southcot, a third an Easton or Eastcot, and the fourth a 
Weston or Westcot, according to who made the settlement, 
a freeman or a serf. In time the families living in these 
farms or cottages would come to appropriate to themselves 
the names of their habitations, or, rather, these names would 
be given to them by their fellow-parishioners, as a simple 
and intelligible way of describing the families so situated. 

The late Mr. Robert Ferguson, when he mounted a hobby, 
rode it to death. He wrote books to prove that the majority 
of English surnames were of Saxon origin. In our sim- 
plicity we believed that Seamore and Seymour were derived 
from either the Old English Seamer, a tailor, or from the 
Norman St. Maur. But no ; according to Mr. Ferguson, it 
is derived from the Teutonic Sigimar ; and so pleased is he 
with this derivation that he gives it in five different places. 

358 



DISINTEGRATION OF SURNAMES 

There are undoubtedly some Saxon names that have 
lingered on ; others are of late introduction from Germany 
and Flanders. A good many Scandinavian names have 
filtered in, much altered through the Normans; other 
Scandinavian names remain little changed in the land north 
of the Humber. 

But what vitiates his argument is this : it presupposes 
that surnames and those Saxon were assumed and con- 
tinued from the time of the Conquest to the present day, 
whereas nothing of the sort took place. 

That there are Saxon and Norse names that have become 
surnames is not to be doubted, but it has usually taken place 
in a roundabout manner. A Saxon or a Scandinavian gave 
his name to a place ; then, when surnames began to come in, 
the family living in this place assumed or were accorded the 
place-name. By no means infrequently the latter portion, 
signifying that it was the thorp, or by, or ton, or cot, of the 
original settler, fell away, and the name of the more modern 
possessor reverted to that of the original settler. But there 
was no blood relationship in nine hundred and ninety-nine 
out of a thousand cases. 

yEgelweard was the name of a Saxon who gave his name 
to a tun, and from yEgelweardestun came Aylwardston, and 
then, the place-name becoming a surname, it was contracted 
to Aylward. Coton gave his name to a clearing in the forest, 
Cotonesfeld, and thence came Cottonsfield, and finally the 
surname Cottonsfield was reduced to Cotton. Lidgeard 
built a fortress, Lidgeardesbeork, and thence came Ledgards- 
boro, and at last, by shortening, Ledgard. 

When the Scandinavians Ormr, Thoroldr, and Viglundr, 
came to Northumbria, there was a fine threatening vibration 
of the tongue over the final letter, that was sounded like the 
rattle of a snake ; but hardly had they settled themselves on 
English ground than they shed the rough r at the end of 
their names, and became Orme, Thorold, and Wayland. Yet, 
strange to say, Olafr retained the r, but was softened to 
Oliver or Olver. But this name has wheeled about and 
come over through Normandy. 

359 



THE EVOLUTION AND 

Such an ending as ig as Copsig, Sigtrygg the English 
ear disliked. Such names, whether they came through 
the Norse or through the Danes, were scraped and smoothed 
down. 

Near Launceston is a farm that stands on a rocky scarp, 
and bore the name of Carig; this means rock. It was the 
nursery of a family that spread far and wide, carrying with 
it as its name that of its nursery, as a newly hatched chicken 
bears off part of the shell upon its back. But the name was 
softened into Carey and Carew. The story goes that two of 
the name appeared before Queen Elizabeth, members of 
widely parted branches of the same stock, and disputed 
before Her Majesty as to the correct pronunciation of the 
name. Then said the Queen to one : " Carey you shall be, 
and what care I ?" and to the other : " Carew shall you be, 
and what care you?" 

And now see the caprice there is in the pronunciation of 
names. The present Sir Reginald Pole Carew pronounces 
his name Poole Carey. Wulfsig in time became Wohey. 
Strange alterations have been made in names by the English 
tongue, that has a tendency, it must be admitted, to vulgarize 
them. Stigand was a ferocious Scandinavian Viking, who 
after rapine and murder settled down in England, was bap- 
tized, and beat his sword into a ploughshare. His name- 
sake perhaps a grandson was Canute's priest at Assan- 
dune, and then Archbishop of Canterbury, where his sturdy 
independence and contemptuous refusal to obey citations to 
Rome caused his excommunication by five successive Popes, 
and William declined to be crowned by him, and deposed 
him in 1070. 

Brother Stiggins, whose head Sam Weller held under the 
pump, was his nominal descendant. But, oh, what a falling- 
off was there ! I can recall, some fifty years ago, a London 
sexton, the living prototype of Mr. Snawley in Phiz's picture 
in " Nicholas Nickleby." Discussing the man's name, Holy- 
bone, with a friend, he conjectured that his ancestor had been 
the guardian of some relic- shrine. But Holybone was a 
corruption, in fact, of Hallbjorn, the r having dropped away. 

360 



DISINTEGRATION OF SURNAMES 

The ancestor of this mild individual in semi-clerical costume, 
with pompous manners and a hand curved for the reception 
of tips, had come to England in a dragon-ship, with white 
sail swelling, and oars flashing, and the gilded figure-head 
flaring in the sun, to plunder and burn churches and massacre 
priests. 

I have already mentioned Thustan, the Conqueror's stan- 
dard-bearer. The name signifies the stone heaved and 
" put " by a Thus or Thurs, a Northern giant. The stone 
was lost in the lapse of ages, and the name degenerated to 
Dust. A story is told of a Miss Deeks, who against the 
wishes of the family married a man of the name of Dust ; he 
turned out to be a good-for-naught, and she repented of her 
folly. At two o'clock in the morning she returned to her 
home, and knocked at the door, soliciting reception. Old 
Mr. Deeks protruded his head from the bedroom window and 
refused to open. " No, no ! Dust thou art, and unto Dust 
shalt thou return." 

Mr. Ferguson mentions another instance of the elision of 
the letter r. It occurred in a name of Norse origin, Bed- 
bjorg, that became first Bedburg; and then the English or 
American tongue let the r slip, and it resolved itself into 
Bedbug. Now, in America every beetle is a bug, but there 
can be no disguising the objectionable character of one that 
is a bedbug, and the possessor of the name changed it. 

In Wyckliffe's Bible the verse of the psalm, "The pesti- 
lence that walketh in darkness, nor for the sickness that de- 
stroyeth in the noonday," is rendered in the first part " the 
bug that walketh in darkness." " Bug " remains as " bogie." 
It is the Sclavonic word for God, and the man who can call 
himself by the surname of Bugg can boast that he is of 
Divine origin as much as any Angle or Saxon King. 

If the English tongue be a rasp roughening some names, 
it is a smoothing iron passed over others. The name 
Nagle has been turned to Nayle. Wighardt, dropping the r, 
is Wyatt, and Radbod (the ferocious) is tamed into Rabbit. 
Sigebert we meet with in Sibthorpe, the thorp of Sigebert. I 
see, in an advertisement of the Church Lads' Brigade, Lewis 

361 



THE EVOLUTION AND 

Wigram as hon. treasurer. The object of the institution is 
the training of lads under military discipline. Salt of the 
past must remain in the treasurer. Wigram signifies "strong 
in war." Honey bun comes from Honeyburn, the r being 
again omitted. Letters also are transposed to enable a name 
to slide past the lips the readier. Sir John Fastolf is altered 
by Shakespeare into Falstaff, and the Anglo-Saxon Trum- 
bald, as already mentioned, has become Turnbull. In some 
names ending in ulf, the wolf has been banished in name 
as in reality, and Godenulf, the Divine Wolf, is now the 
innocuous Goodenough, and Ricenulf, the Strong Wolf, is 
what no man will admit that he is, Richenough. 

The De Poers, a family that issued from the county of 
Poher in Brittany, of which Carhaix is the capital, did not 
relish having their name, when in England, Latinized into 
Pauper and Pauperculus, and so took to calling themselves 
Power. 

The Malebys (Mala-bestia), bad beasts, preferred to be 
regarded as issuing from a malt-house than to be considered 
evil beasts, and so entitled themselves Maltby. The noble 
name of Douglas, on this side of the Tyne, has been 
vulgarized into Diggles. Ap Odger is now Podger, and Ap 
Roger Prodger. St. Ethelreda is turned into Audrey and 
Taudry ; and Renshaw, the wood of the Norse Ragnar, into 
Wrencher. Beautiful Bruges has given us Mr. Briggs, the 
butt of many of Leech's humorous sketches in Punch. 

Mountjoie was a name given to a height whence the first 
sight of Jerusalem burst on the Crusaders. Then it became 
a surname. I sent my boots once to be resoled and heeled 
by a Mungay, a cobbler. As I paid him, I looked hard in 
his face, and tried to think back from this man to the 
ancestor on the height, crying " Joie ! joie !" when the roofs 
of Jerusalem burst on his view, and he threw up the visor 
of his helmet to obtain a good sight of the object of his long 
journey. Who would not suppose that the name Physick 
was due to an ancestor having been a physician ? Yet this 
name is actually the corruption of Fishacre. An ancient 
house and estate on the borders of Dartmoor is called 

362 



DISINTEGRATION OF SURNAMES 

Colovin ; by corruption it would seem to have become the 
family name of Coffin. 

De la Chambre has become in English mouths Deal- 
chamber, and Troublefield represents De Tourbeville, and 
Chaddlehanger near Tavistock gives Challinger. 

In Tavistock, at the time of the siege of Plymouth by the 
Royalists, Sir Richard Grenville " Rascal " Grenville had 
his headquarters. Ever since then there have been Green- 
fields in the town. One now prints the Tavistock Gazette. 
Lord Lyttleton and Earl Temple had a dispute relative to 
the antiquity of their several families. " Little-town," said 
Lord Lyttleton, " must have preceded Grande-ville. But if 
you choose to call yourself Greenfield, I allow you greater 
antiquity." The name Mummery is a corruption of the Norman 
De Momerie. If I remember aright, a few years ago a Mr. 
Mummery wrote strongly against Ritualism. The list might 
be indefinitely extended. The English tongue is impatient of 
foreign sounds, and insists on rounding or roughing them 
into some semblance to a known English word, as Shovell 
out of Escoville. But even good plain English names are 
not left alone. Thus, Caldwell has been resolved into Caudle, 
Comberford to Comfort. 

Tricks have been played with the letter H. Othere, the 
traveller, appeared before King Alfred, and gave him an 
accurate account of Norway and Finland and the White 
Sea. Othere has branched on the one side into Otter, and 
on the other side into Hodder, the name of an eminent 
publisher. 

How names may be assumed is shown by the instance 
of an Italian cabin-boy named Benito, who among the 
English sailors acquired the name of Ben Eaton. He 
accepted the change, was sent to school in America, was 
entered as Benjamin Eaton, married and settled in the 
States, and now his descendants come to England and look 
with fond admiration at the towers of Eaton Hall, the 
supposed ancestral home of the family. 

It does not by any means follow that individuals found in 
humble walks of life, bearing good names, such as Courteney, 

363 



THE EVOLUTION AND 

Neville, Howard, Champernowne, are descendants in blood 
of these ancient families, though I am far from denying that 
in a good many cases they are such. But it must be 
remembered that it was not unusual for servants, having no 
family names of their own, to adopt those of their masters. 
The case will at once occur to the memory of the reader of 
Shakespeare, when Christopher Sly called Cicely, " the maid 
of the house " to Marian Racket, the fat alewife of Wincot, 
by her mistress's name, Cicely Racket. 
But it is at the same time most true that 

" Ebbing men, indeed, 
Most often do so near the bottom run 
By their own fear or sloth " 

either through their own fault or through misfortune many 
an ancient and honourable name has been brought very low. 
There is a certain good humour noticeable in the English 
genius. It disguises the origin of names that reek with 
paganism, so as to escape the censure of the clergy. What 
parson could object to a Thorogood? And yet the origin of 
the name is Thorgautr, the hog of Thor the Thunderer, that 
drew his car through the storm as he hurled his flaming 
bolts. It must have been with a qualm of conscience that a 
priest baptized a child by the name of Paganus, when 
making a Christian of it, and it is perhaps due to refusal 
to give this as a Christian name that we have it as a 
surname in the form of Payne. 

At the Restoration the name of Cromwell was odious, and 
it underwent a slight change so as to disguise it. But what 
a descent there is from Thomas Cromwell, Earl of Essex, 
and Oliver, the Lord Protector, to Mr. Vincent Crummels, in 
whose company Nicholas Nickleby acted Romeo. 

A series of Cumberland names end in staff, as Langstaff, 
Wagstaff, Everstaff. They have, however, nothing to do 
with quarter-staves (pace Twisden in The Tatler, No. n, 
1709). A more primitive form remains in Bickersteth, and 
the last syllable is the Scandinavian sta the th has in 
many cases become ff. A sta in German stadt is the 

364 



DISINTEGRATION OF SURNAMES 

Old English stead, a place of abode, a farm, a settlement. 
Wagstaff is the watch or lookout station, and Bickersteth is 
the stede or stead of Beck or Bako, a name that occurs in 
the Durham " Liber Vitse," and Everstaff is that of Ever. 

We have seen how the ending th has become ff in Cum- 
berland, but the ff becomes p in some cases. In North 
Devon lived a family named Ciitcliff, named from a cleve 
that was cut as with an axe, where it resided. But a 
member of the family moved south, and enclosed land and 
made a tun near Tavistock, on the edge of Dartmoor, and 
called the place Cutcliffton. In process of time this became 
Cudliptown. Anyone might suppose at first glance that 
Cudlip, a name now pretty widely distributed in the neigh- 
bourhood, was given as a nickname to some man owing to a 
malformation of the mouth in fact, to a harelip did we 
not know its real origin. Lipton, again, is Cliffton. We must 
always observe great caution in deriving surnames from 
nicknames of merely personal application, due to some 
peculiarity of appearance, for such are most unlikely to 
adhere to the posterity of the man so marked. Usually such 
a name is a corruption of a place-name. I have said this 
before, and I repeat it. The double / in Cliff in the midst 
of a name may be altered into b, and the preceding vowel 
changed. Thus Cliffbury has become Clobbury. The well- 
known publishing firm of Lippincott, in Philadelphia, derives 
from an immigrant to America called Luffincott, from a 
small parish in Devon. In German, our word " cliff "is 
clippe. Metcalf is the Middle Cliff. 

The name of Lamprey does not derive from the fish, 
through overeating of which Henry I. died, but from Land- 
frith (the Peace of the Land), and there was probably a 
Landfrithstead ; but a family living at one time at this stede 
or stead left the paternal acres, and in drifting about dropped 
the stead, and reverted to the name of the founder of the 
settlement. Vowels get strangely altered. Clutterbuck is 
the same name as the German Lauterbach i.e., the clear 
(A.S. hlutter) beck or brook. It is of Dutch importation. 

In the West of England the ear cannot endure a harsh 

365 



THE EVOLUTION AND 

conjunction of consonants, and in place-names a is inserted 
to soften the sound ; thus, Blackbrook becomes Blackabrook, 
Woolstone is more pleasant when pronounced Woolaston, 
and Woolcombe is the name of one family, and Wollacombe of 
another, both deriving from the same combe and both 
bearing the same arms. 

I have already mentioned the word " hope," employed mainly 
in the North as an opening in a wood or in a range of hills. 
Indeed, I have been directed thus : " You go straight along 
the edge of the wood till you come to an ope : turn up there." 
Hence the name Hopwood, but also Hopgood, which is not 
Hopegood or Goodhope, but the same as Hopwood, an ope 
in the wood. A consonant is often misplaced for the sake 
of smoothness in pronunciation. Thus Crossford, Crosswell, 
Crosslake, become Kersford, Kerswell, and Kerslake. A lake 
is not a sheet of water but a lead or leat a channel for 
bringing water to a house or a mine or a mill. 

Some names must always remain uncertain as to the 
germ from which they have evolved. Sternhold has been 
supposed to be a corruption of St. Arnold, but it may also be 
Stjorn (Star), the hauld ; or landholder. A " hold," or Norse 
hauld, was a superior yeoman holding allodial land. 1 In 
ancient Norway the churchyards were divided into four 
circles. The innermost was reserved for the lender-men, the 
next for the haulds, the third for the freemen, the fourth 
next to the outer wall for the thralls. Our surname Old 
may derive from a Hold, and may not be descriptive of the 
age of any one member of a family. 

There is a village in Oxfordshire of the name of Finmore. 
The name has gone through changes, as Fynemore, 
Phinnemore, Phillimore. The Kentish family of Filmer is 
clearly of the same stock. 

The name of Shakespeare has probably nothing to do 

with a spear. The name is derived from Schalkesboer, the 

knave's farm. Neither schalk nor knave originally implied 

anything but what was honourable. Schalk was a servant, 

and enters into the names Godshalk, God's servant. 

1 Harald Harf. Saga, c. 62. 

366 



DISINTEGRATION OF SURNAMES 

Indeed, the Anglo-Saxon scealc was used as a designation 
of a warrior. Adrian IV. or Nicolas Breakspeare, as he was 
called before his elevation to the Papacy took his name 
from Bragi's-bosr, the farm of Bragi. 

On one side of the Tamar lived the family of Monk, with 
a pedigree more or less fictitious, worked out by the heralds 
when George Monk became Duke of Albemarle. On the 
other side of the Tamar was a poor tinminer named Lemon. 
In the second generation after George, Duke of Albemarle, 
the Monk house went down like a pack of cards. A century 
later the miner's family had risen to affluence, and Sir 
Charles Lemon was created a Baronet. But Lemon is 
Le Moine, the Monk. The ancestor of each was a truant 
from his monastery, who had trampled on his cowl, taken 
to himself a wife, and founded a family. 

Landseer is not a surveyor, but is TAnsier, the handle- 
maker to mugs and pots. While the potter moulded the 
vessel on the wheel, the ansier was engaged on shaping the 
handles to be affixed to them. 

Peascod is a surname met with occasionally, but is not 
common. But the surname Peascod has nothing in its 
origin to do with the vegetable kingdom. It is from the 
Welsh Pys-coed. The ancient name of Tenby was Dinbych- 
y-Pyscoed. 

Caprices of spelling have given occasion to divergencies 
from a common origin. Some of these have arisen un- 
consciously ; others are modern affectations. Into what 
contortions the name Smith has been thrown ! In the 
register of the University of Oxford is entered in 1556 
George Guldeford, or Gilford, or Kifford. How readily 
would Kifford become Giffard, and a descendant pose as of 
the Norman family of GifTards. 

Dr. Barker, quoting from the register of the parish of 
Pechletin, Leicester, gives the variations of the name 
Weewall between 1735 an d 1750. It appears as Whewaugh, 
Whewvaugh, Wheeraw, Weway, Weewa, Wheewhal, 
Whewwhaw, Whealwhal, Weewall, Wheewall. And these 
are all forms of the name Whewell borne by a former 
very pompous Master of Trinity College, Cambridge. 

367 



THE EVOLUTION AND 

An affectation is to employ the letter y in place of i, or 
as an interpolation. Smith is made into Smythe, White into 
Whyte, Sands into Sandys, Light into Lyte. And another 
affectation has been the use of the double f as Ffinch, 
Ffoukes, Ffrench. 

A pile of fossils is placed before a geologist, and he sets to 
work to sort them into several heaps, according to the strata 
to which they pertain. Here go those of the Chalk, there 
such as belong to the Greensand. This collection represents 
the Lias, and that the Oolite, and another the Red Sand- 
stone, and this small accumulation those of the Silurian 
beds. 

In like manner, out of the great heap of our English 
nomenclature, it is possible to distinguish the names that 
belong to the different historic strata. We can put in 
one pile all the Anglo-Saxon names, heap up those that are 
Norman and Angevin-French and this accumulation is 
considerable then the few that are Celtic, mostly intro- 
ductions from Ireland and the Highlands of Scotland, and 
from Cornwall and Wales. Next comes a small accumula- 
tion of Flemish names, then a whole heap of Huguenot 
French importations, many that are German, and a 
promiscuous pile of odds and ends from Sweden, Poland, 
Italy, etc. And we can give an approximate date for the 
formation of these names or their introduction into England, 
for we have our series of records from Domesday, through 
the Rotuli Normannorum, the Hundred Rolls, the Feet of 
Fines, the charters, and innumerable other documents, by 
means of which we can see when these names first appear, 
and can follow them in their permutations. 

But the geologist does more than determine the age and 
succession of the fossils in the various strata : he arranges 
those in each into distinct groups, according to their kind or 
genus. And we do the same with nomenclature. There are 
the four main classifications into Sire-names, Place-names, 
Trade-names, and Nick-names. We can tell whether a 
sire-name be of Norman or English origin ; in place-names, 
whether that place be in England or abroad. In trade- 

368 



DISINTEGRATION OF SURNAMES 

names he can point out that some represent importations 
from France or Germany, and others are English, as Tailor 
and Marchant are French, whereas Seamer and Chapman are 
English. 

But when all this sorting and arrangement has been 
accomplished, there still remains a great heap of names that 
he cannot classify. In the New Red Sandstone are beds of 
crushed, split, and pinched pebbles. Pressure, if it has not 
broken these rolled stones, has squeezed them out of shape. 
And in English nomenclature there is a deposit of these 
crushed, splintered, and pinched names, the origin and 
original shape of which is most difficult to determine. But 
from these rubble beds of the Red Sandstone patient 
research has been able to track every stone to the mountain 
whence it was wrenched, and far from which it has been rolled, 
and so it is possible by patient and persevering study to 
trace back every eccentric and distorted surname to its 
origin. But that is not a task to be undertaken in such 
a volume as this, which aims only at accounting for the 
bulk of English names falling under the four categories, 
and such as are uncommon and strange must be left to 
elucidation by special research. 



369 AA 



CHAPTER XVIII 

SCOTTISH AND IRISH SURNAMES 

MOST tragic has been the fate of the great Celtic race that 
at one time occupied the greater part of Western Europe 
France, the British Isles, Southern Germany, Spain, the 
Alps, and Upper Italy and which even established ^itself in 
Asia Minor. Everywhere, with a few marked exceptions, it 
has abandoned its native tongue. The only places in which 
it lingers are Wales, Brittany, Ireland, the Isle of Man, and 
the Highlands of Scotland ; and year by year it is being 
driven back still farther, and the doom of final extinction 
hangs over it, overwhelmed in Brittany by French, and else- 
where by English. In Asia Minor the separate existence of 
the intrusive Gauls in Galatia has been locally forgotten. 

The language is not all that it has lost. Other national 
characteristics have gone as well. Its tribal organization, 
so similar to that of the Early Romans, has failed to develop 
into a higher form. The tribal condition is, and always has 
been, a stage in the course of social and political development 
that all peoples have gone through that have reached the 
nobler and more perfect organization of the nation. But 
the Celts have had their natural social and political growth 
arrested, and the organization went to pieces at once, and 
they have been constrained to accept from outside what they 
were not suffered to reach from within by an orderly and 
natural process. 

The organization of the people, whether in Ireland, Wales, 
or Scotland, was substantially identical. The highest virtue 
demanded of a tribesman was loyalty to the chief, for whom 

37o 



SCOTTISH AND IRISH SURNAMES 

life and everything precious in life was to be sacrificed when 
required. 

The chief was no arbitrary despot. He was controlled by 
a council of elders. His place of residence was not his own 
exclusively : it belonged to the tribe or clan. He could not 
shut himself within and bar the door. Every clansman had 
a right of access and of speech with the chief. 

A race in Gaelic is slioch or siol, and the people comprising 
it, supposed to be of one blood, are termed cineal, tuath, or 
fine, without there being any very fixed distinction drawn 
between these terms. A siol was divided into clans. Clan 
signifies literally "offspring, children" in Irish eland, in 
Welsh plant. Latin writers, when describing clans, employ 
the word filii, as Filii Gadran, Filii ^Edan. 

Duncan Forbes, in " Culloden Papers," says : " A High- 
land clan is a set of men, all having the same surname, and 
believing themselves to be related the one to the other, and 
to be descendants from the same common ancestor." 

Thus the clan is supposed to be the expansion of the 
family. Each male member of the clan was called Mac, 
son of the reputed ancestor. Each member of, say, the 
clan MacLeod was a MacLeod, of the clan Aulay was 
MacAulay. But to distinguish man from man his Christian 
name was employed. But even that did not suffice, as there 
might well be several lans in the same clan. Accordingly, 
some characteristic was added, as the colour of his hair, or 
the name of his father, and perhaps also the name of the 
grandfather was brought in. 

But simple and beautiful as the system of the clan was, it 
produced many difficulties in practice. As a tribe increased 
in numbers, it inevitably broke up into septs. A great chief 
had, let us say, three sons, and each gathered about him a 
set of followers, ravaged a neighbour's lands, and planted 
his followers on the soil from which he had expelled the 
former holders. Then each son became a new head, giving 
his name to his followers and to his descendants, and the 
original clan was broken up into three, at a later period to 
undergo further division. 

371 AA 2 



SCOTTISH AND IRISH SURNAMES 

Thus the clan Alpine consisted of seven subclans : the 
MacGregors, Grants, Macintosh, MacNab, MacPhies, 
MacGarries, and MacAulays. The ancient clan Chattan 
comprised as many as sixteen, of which the principal were 
the Camerons, with their subsection clan MacBean, the 
clans Farquharson, and MacDuff. The clan Campbell 
has its Argyll, Breadalbane, Cawdor, and Loudon branches, 
and also the MacArthurs. 

Burt, in his " Letters from a Gentleman " in 1726, says : 
" The Highlanders are divided into tribes or clans, under 
chiefs or chieftains, as they are called in the laws of Scotland ; 
and each clan, again, is divided into branches from the main 
stock, who have chieftains over them. These are subdivided 
into smaller branches, of fifty to sixty men, who deduce 
their original from their particular chieftains, and rely upon 
them as their more immediate protectors and defenders." 

But the notion that the clan consisted wholly of those 
related in blood was a fiction. An inner ring was indeed 
so composed. But there existed an outer circle, made up of 
captives taken in war, thralls, and runaways from other 
clans "broken men," as they were termed, who had been 
excluded from their own clan for some offence, and had 
solicited and obtained admission into another. The Macraes 
of Glensheals were thralls under the MacLeods ; but after 
a battle, in which most of the men of the MacLeods had 
fallen, their widows and daughters took to them husbands 
of the Macraes, so as to fill up once more the depleted tribe. 
But that all in the clan were connected by blood, as they 
were by name, was a fiction that could impose on few. An 
Earl made a grant of land to a favourite tenant. Where- 
upon that servant invented a tartan, obliged all who lived 
on his land to assume it, and call themselves his sons. The 
ancestor of the Colquhouns was Humphry Kirkpatrick, who 
was granted the lands of Colquhoun in the reign of 
Alexander II. The first to assume the name of Colquhoun 
was his successor Ingram. In this case and this is only 
one among several the clansmen, who wore his badge, the 
dogberry, and assumed the tartan, had not a drop of Kirk- 
patrick blood in their veins. 

372 



SCOTTISH AND IRISH SURNAMES 

Siol Fhinian is the name of the clan MacLennan. It 
was founded by the son of Gillie Gorm of the Logans, in 
Ross-shire, in the thirteenth century. He was deformed, 
and was educated for the ecclesiastical profession, took 
priest's orders, and had several sons, whom he called Gillie 
Fhinian, and from them came the clan MacGillelnain, 
now corrupted to MacLennan, but we cannot suppose that 
the entire clan is the fruit of his loins. 

The MacNabs form a clan descended from the Abbot of 
Glendockart, who lived between 1150 and 1180. All his 
lands plundered from the abbey were in the valley of that 
name. He had sons, and they constituted, with the retainers 
poached from the Church, the clan of MacNab i.e., sons of 
the Abbot. 

Ewan, grandson of the chief of the clan Chattan, in the 
reign of David I. became Abbot of Kingussie, till 1153, when 
his elder brother died without issue, whereupon he obtained 
a dispensation from the Pope, married, and had two sons. 
From him rose the clan MacPherson, or Sons of the Parson, 
that is divided into two branches, that of Cluny and that of 
Invereshie, to which latter belong the Gillieses and the 
Gillespies. But that is not all. The heads of some sixteen 
or seventeen clans are descended from Norman-French or 
Scandinavian founders. But of this more hereafter. 

Further, owing to subdivision, many of the clans cannot 
trace back to a remote antiquity. They came into being in 
the twelfth or thirteenth century, some even later than that. 
The MacQueens were founded as a clan in the fifteenth 
century. The clan Matheson originates with John Matheson, 
a man believed to have been of foreign extraction, who was 
killed in 1587. 

The chief in his dun was surrounded by functionaries, and, 
as Sir John Carr wrote in his " Caledonian Sketches," 1809 : 
" When a chief undertook a journey, he used to be attended 
by the following officers and servants : the Henchman ; Bard ; 
Piper's Gilly, who carried the pipe ; Peadier, the spokesman ; 
Gillimore, the broadsword-bearer ; Gilli-astflue, to carry the 
chieftain, when on foot, over the ford ; Gilli-constraine, leader 

373 



SCOTTISH AND IRISH SURNAMES 

of the horse in rough and dangerous ways ; Gilli-trushan- 
urich, baggage-man." 

The Highlanders bore an implacable hatred towards the 
Lowlanders, whom they regarded as Sassenachs, who had 
dispossessed them of their richest lands, and in former days 
one of their main resources in hard times was to issue from 
their passes and raid the Lowlands. 

But Sassenachs the Lowlanders were not ; the whole of 
Bernicia, that extended from the Firth of Forth, had been 
conquered and colonized by the Angles, and after that there 
had been an infusion among them of Danish and Norse 
blood. The old kingdom of Scotland was of very limited 
extent. It stretched from the Firth of Forth to the Moray 
Firth in the north ; all the west was Gaelic peopled from 
the North-West of Ireland ; and all Caithness, Sutherland, 
Argyll, and the Western Isles, together with Orkney and the 
Shetlands, were held by Scandinavians. 

As might be expected, in the Lowlands surnames are 
formed in the same way as those in England, and resemble 
such as are common in Northumberland and Durham ; but 
in the Highlands, where Gaelic prevails, it is otherwise. 

How widely through Scotland foreign blood has flowed, 
and penetrated into even Gaelic veins, may be seen when we 
look at some of the principal families, and even clans, in 
Scotland. Let us take some. The Grant clan is purely 
Celtic, a branch of the very ancient clan MacAlpine, and 
carried the badge of that clan. But the name is unmistak- 
ably Norman Le Grand. Gervase of Tilbury, in his " Otia 
Imperialia," tells us that Grant or Graunt was the English 
name for a giant or monster. The story is told of an old 
Earl of Seafield who desired to establish beyond dispute the 
antiquity of his family, and accordingly altered in the family 
Bible one letter in Gen. vi. 4, so that it read, "There were 
Grants in the earth in those days "before the Flood. " But," 
said a sceptical friend, " the Deluge came and swept them all 
away." The Earl fixed on him a stony glance, and replied 
haughtily : " That verse has been misplaced, and should 
have come after the Flood." 

374 



SCOTTISH AND IRISH SURNAMES 

Cummin is from De Comines. William the Conqueror 
sent Robert de Comines to be Earl of Northumbria, but he 
was killed by the people of Durham in 1069. A kinsman 
went north beyond the Tweed, and his descendants have 
constituted a powerful clan, and wear the cummin as their 
badge and have their own tartan. 

Frazer is really De Frezel, a family of Touraine. Rene 
Frezel's second son came to England with the Conqueror. 
A descendant found favour and land with David I., who was 
a great importer of Anglo-Norman blood. The Frazers have 
their tartan and their badge, the yew. 

The Kerrs, again, are of similar origin. Two brothers 
settled in Scotland in the thirteenth century. None knew 
which was the elder of the two, and neither would yield 
superiority to the other, and this led to such bitter animosity 
that in 1590 Robert Kerr of Cessford killed William Kerr of 
Ancrum in a dispute as to precedence. 

The Lindsays, also, are not of Scottish ancestors ; they were 
originally De Limesay from the Pays de Caux, near Pavilly, 
north of Rouen. Radolf de Limesay, thought to have been 
sister's son to the Conqueror, was the first of the stock to 
settle in England. David I. brought them to Scotland. 

The Melvilles derive their name from Malaville, in the Pays 
de Caux, whence a William de Malaville is reported to have 
come to England with the Conqueror. Galfrid de Maleville 
settled in Scotland under David L, and was the first 
Justiciary of Scotland on record. 

Oliphant is also an Anglo-Norman name. The first to go 
to Scotland was David, who had served in the army of King 
Stephen against the Empress Maud in 1141. 

Bruce is Norman, from Bruys or Brix. Wace tells how 
"they of Bruys" accompanied the Conqueror to England. 

Balliol is from Bailleul, near Argentan in Normandy. 

Gordon is De Gourdon, from a small town on the Lime- 
stone Causses in Quercy. The Gourdons must have come to 
England at the time of the English occupation of Guienne. 
They did wisely to abandon the sterile plateau for the lush 
plains of England. The first heard of is Adam de Gourdon, 

375 



SCOTTISH AND IRISH SURNAMES 

"the King's servant" under Richard I. The Scottish 
Gordons, however, assert that they derive from another 
Anglo-Norman family seated at Gordon in Berwickshire. 
But Adam has been for generations a Christian name in both 
Gordon families, that in Scotland and that seated in Suffolk. 
Richard was Baron of Gordon in the Merse in the middle of 
the twelfth century. The Gordons have their tartan and 
their badge, rock-ivy. 

The Stuarts, or Stewarts, derive from a Norman Alan, Lord 
of Oswestry. His son Walter was one of the importations 
into Scotland by David I. in the twelfth century, and the 
King granted him by charter the burgh and lands of 
Renfrew, and Malcolm IV. made the office of High Steward 
hereditary in the family. Alan Dapifer's son Walter was 
content to call himself Walter FitzAlan, and Walter's son was 
called Alan FitzWalter, with the addition of Seneschallus 
(Scotice, Steward), from his hereditary office, which soon 
became the fixed surname of the descendants. 1 Although 
the family was not of Scottish origin, almost immediately 
after its settlement in Scotland it became completely 
identified with the nationality of the new country, to such an 
extent that Scotland has accepted the Stuart badge, the 
thistle, as its national emblem. " No Scotchman," says 
Sir Bernard Burke, " should ever forget the title to honour 
and respect which the family of Stewart acquired before 
they began to reign, by their undeviating and zealous defence 
of their native land against the wanton aggressions of the 
English. Wherever the banner of freedom was unfurled, it 
was sure to be bravely defended by the Lord High Steward 
and all the nobles of his race." 

Leslie is descended from a chief of Norman descent, a 
De 1'Isle. The first of the name heard of in Scotland is in 
the reign of William the Lion (1165-1214). 

Maitland is actually Mautalent, " Little-wit," or ; to be more 
exact, Bad-wit. 

1 The arms assumed by the Stuarts two generations after their settle- 
ment in Scotland were the fess chequy (the checquer, used for computing 
before the introduction of Arabic numerals), in allusion to their office at 
the Exchequer table. 

376 






SCOTTISH AND IRISH SURNAMES 

Hay is also a Norman name, from La Haye-de-Puits in 
Manche. " Hence came the great Eudo Dapifer," says 
Sir Francis Palgrave, "who acquired, whether by force or 
favour, the largest proportions by robbery, called Conquest, 
in the counties of Sussex, Essex, and Suffolk." William 
de la Hay settled in Lothian in the middle of the twelfth 
century, and was Chief Butler of Scotland in the reigns of 
Malcolm IV. and William the Lion. 

Ross is, again, most probably Norman. Five of the name 
Le Roux are entered in Domesday. The origin of the clan 
is, however, attributed to one Paul Mactire, who was granted 
lands in Gairloch in 1366 by William, Earl of Ross and 
Lord of Skye. 

Campbell is supposed to be De Campobello, or Beauchamp, 
but this is very doubtful. The clan rose upon the ruin of 
the MacDonalds, and its whole policy for ages was to 
supplant and ruin that race, leading to the massacre of 
Glencoe, that has left an indelible stain on its badge of the 
wild-myrtle. 

The clan first appears on record at the end of the 
thirteenth century. The name occurs at the same time 
as a good many other Anglo-Norman importations into 
Scotland. The Campbells were allied with the Norman 
Bruce, and there can exist very little doubt that they are of 
Anglo-Norman descent. 

Chisholm. The chieftain of this clan is also asserted to be 
of foreign origin. An old chief of the clan was wont to say 
that there were but three persons in the world entitled to be 
called the the King, the Pope, and the Chisholm. 

The Drummonds, according to tradition, descend from 
Maurice, grandson of Andrew, King of Hungary, who, it is 
pretended, accompanied Edgar Etheling into Scotland, and 
received a grant of the lands of Drummond in Stirlingshire 
from Malcolm III. This is probably not true, but points to 
the belief that the headship of the clan was in a family of 
foreign origin. 

Dundas. The family descends from one Serlo, in the time 
of William the Lion. The name Serlo indicates a Norman 
origin. 

377 



SCOTTISH AND IRISH SURNAMES 

Gunn. This clan is probably derived from a Norse chief 
of the name of Gunnar, in Caithness, which was entirely in 
the hands of the Scandinavian Earls of Orkney. 

MacDougal. A clan that descends from Somerled of the 
Isles. Somerled is a Norse name, and signifies a Viking 
harrying in the summer. He died in 1164. He married the 
granddaughter of Godred Crovan, a Norse King of Man. 
Olaf Bitling, his father, had spent his youth at the Court of 
Henry I. of England; he married the daughter of Fergus, 
Lord of Galloway, a granddaughter of Henry I. Somerled 
was the Scandinavian Lord of Argyll. 

The MacLeods also form a clan subdivided into two sub- 
clans, issuing from two Norsemen Thorkell and Thormod. 

The Menzies, pronounced " Menies," derive from the Nor- 
man family of Menieres, Sieurs de la Gaudiniere. In England, 
Gilbert de Menieres held three parts of a knight's-fee of the 
Archbishop of York in the reign of Henry II. In Scotland 
we find Alexander de Meyners, son of Robert, the Chancellor 
of Scotland, holding the lands of Durrosdeer in Annandale 
in 1248 ; he was of the retinue of the Queen of Scotland. It 
was not till the reign of Malcolm III. that surnames were 
introduced into Scotland, and that of Menzies was among 
the first that were adopted. 

The noble family of Lion of Strathmore is of Norman 
extraction ; so are the Maules. 

Maccus was the name of one of David I.'s foreign favour- 
ites probably Anglo-Norman and he was given large 
possessions. He called his chief place of residence Maccus- 
ville, and this became Maxwell}- 

Sinclair is also a family and name of Norman origin. The 
Sire de St. Claire is named in the " Roman de Rou " as having 
been present at the Battle of Hastings. This was Richard 
de St. Clair. His brother was Britel, and it was in all 
probability William Britel's son who received the grant of 
Rosslyn in Midlothian from David I. From him are 
descended the Sinclairs, Earls of Orkney and Caithness. 

1 A Maccus was one of the gallant three who defended the bridge at 
Maldon in 991. 

378 



SCOTTISH AND IRISH SURNAMES 

Besides William, another of the family sought his fortunes 
in Scotland, Henry de St. Clair, who was made Constable of 
Scotland in 1160, and was the founder of the House of 
Herdmanston, now represented by Lord Sinclair. 

Elliott, moreover, is a Franco-Norman name, a diminutive 
of Elli or Elias, as we have Henriot, Philipot, etc. 

The Hamiltons, again, are of Norman descent, and derive 
from Walter FitzGilbert. The power and consequence of 
the Hamiltons were of comparatively late date, not before 
the royal marriage by which they acquired the earldom of 
Arran. 

Barclay is De Berkelai. Cheyne is Le Chesne. Mowat is 
De Mont haut (De Monte alto), Muschets is Montfichet (De 
Monte fixo), Veitch is De Vesci, and Weir De Vere. 

But if Scotland has been invaded by foreigners, and its 
very clans headed by or named after chieftains not of 
Scottish race, Scotland has known how to repay the world. 
Where are not Scotchmen now to be found ? Half the noble 
families in Sweden are of Scottish ancestry. In India, in 
South Africa, in America, they are everywhere, and every- 
where to the fore. But perhaps the oddest of all instances 
is that of Mogador in Morocco, if the story be true. 

It is said that a venturesome Macdonald from the Land of 
Cakes settled at that, the most southern point of Morocco, 
and, not finding any great difference in creed between the 
fatalism of the Koran and the predestination of the Lesser 
Catechism, accommodated himself to his surroundings, and 
lived to be accounted a saint by the Moors. When he died 
he was canonized, and a shrine (kouba) was built over his 
body. He was called Sid Mogdoul, or Mogdour ; pil- 
grimages were made to it, and prayers offered to him ; and 
thus arose the town of Mogador. 1 

The clans were by no means early in assuming uniform 

fixed surnames instead of fluctuating patronymics. The 

MacDonalds and others had no recognized general surname 

till the eighteenth century. Moreover, as may be guessed 

from what has been said above, the settlement of a powerful 

1 Chambers^ Edinburgh Journal, March, 1909. 

379 



SCOTTISH AND IRISH SURNAMES 

Southern or foreign family in the Highlands was followed by 
the sudden spread of their name throughout the dwellers in the 
neighbouring glens, although not in the smallest degree akin 
in blood ; but the native inhabitants, having no surnames of 
their own, and being desirous of placing themselves under the 
protection of these foreign newcomers, readily adopted the 
name of their lords. Even after surnames had become 
common in the Highlands, we find that clans or groups of 
natives made petition to assume such names. Some small 
clans of the Braes of Angus by this means acquired the sur- 
name otLyon. Many more in Argyll and the Isles abandoned 
their name of Awe, and called themselves Maccallummore. 
The Anglo-French family of Gordon was hardly settled in 
Strathbolgy before the whole country round swarmed with 
men who called themselves Gordons. 1 

The Camerons, or Crooked Noses, are undoubtedly a sept of 
the ancient clan Chattan. The clan Dhaibhidh, or David- 
sons^ are almost certainly of Gaelic origin ; so also the Douglas 
family and the Farquharsons issued from the clan Chattan ; 
probably also the Grahams, and certainly the Lomonds. The 
MacAlisters are descended from Alister Mor, Lord of the Isles 
and Kintyre in 1284. The Mac Alpine clan is, along with the 
clan Chattan, the most ancient that exist, but both are broken 
up into subclans. The old Gaelic saying, " Cnuic is willt 
is Ailpeanaich," intimates that the clan is as venerable as the 
hills. The crest of the MacAlpines was a boar's head 
couped, dripping blood, with the motto in Gaelic, " Remem- 
ber the death of Alpin," referring to the murder of King 
Alpin by Brude, King of the Picts, in 834, but looks farther 
back to the totem of the tribe, a boar. 

The MacBeans form a clan that is a sept of the Camerons. 
The name has been anglicized into Baynes. 

The MacDonald clan is of high antiquity, and descends from 
Gille Brude, a Pict. There are branches, those of Glencoe, 
of Clanronald, of Glengarry, of the Isles and Sleat ; also there 
are Macdonalds of Staffa. Their badge is the common heath. 

1 Innes, Cosmo, " Concerning some Scotch Surnames." Edinburgh, 
1860. 

380 



SCOTTISH AND IRISH SURNAMES 

The Macduff clan is formed out of the clan Chattan. Its 
badge is a sprig of box. 

Macfarlane is a clan occupying the western bank of Loch 
Lomond. The name signifies Son of Bartholomew, and 
derives from one so called, grandson of Duncan MacGilchrist, 
a younger brother of Malduin, Earl of Lennox. The badge 
is the cranberry. 

Macintosh, a branch of the clan Chattan. 

Machines, the clan of the sons of Angus, hereditary bow- 
men to the chiefs of MacKinnon. Maclntyre is a branch of 
the MacDonalds. 

Mackay. Siol Mhorgain was the ancient name of the 
Mackays, a Celtic stock that retreated into the mountains 
before the invading Northmen. The badge is a bulrush. 

MacKenzie, the clan of the sons of Kenneth. 

MacKinlay, the sons of Fionnladh, anglicized into Finlay. 

MacKinnon, a sept of MacAlpine. MacLachlan, in Argyll- 
shire, in Strathlachlan ; their badge is a sprig of ash. 

Maclaren. This clan is of Celtic origin, and occupied a 
narrow strip of country extending from Lochearnhead to 
the lands of the MacGregor of Glengyle. These latter are of 
the MacAlpine stock. 

MacLean (actually Mac-giolla-Ean), signifies the son of 
the servant of John. The badge is the same as that of 
the Mackenzies a sprig of holly indicating a common 
origin. The clan is said to have originated with the sons of 
Gill-ian, " with the battle-axe," a Celtic chief whose date is 
undetermined. The lands of the clan are in the Isle of 
Mull. So also are those of the MacLaines, which issues from 
Hector Reganach, brother of Lauchlan Labanach, from 
whom sprang the MacLeans of Duast. The MacMillans were 
dependents on the clan Cameron. 

MacNaughten. This clan descends from Nectan, a Pictish 
King. The lands were in the Isle of Lorn, and its badge 
the trailing wild-azalea. 

The MacNeils, divided into two septs, occupying the western 
isles of Gigha and Barra, have the same badge as the Laments, 
the clover or trefoil, and probably have the same origin. 

The clan MacQiiarrie is very ancient, and is descended 

381 



SCOTTISH AND IRISH SURNAMES 

from the Dalriadic Scottish Princes. It is a branch of the clan 
MacAlpine. Munro is an ancient clan, planted on the north 
side of the Cromarty Firth. The badge is the club-moss. 
Murray also is an ancient Celtic clan, its badge the 
butcherVbroon. Robertson, a clan in Perthshire, called in 
the Highlands the clan Domnachie, is descended from the 
House of Athole. Rose is the clan Na Rosaich of Kilravoch, 
the badge a sprig of rosemary. Skene is a Celtic clan in 
Aberdeenshire. The Sutherland clan is made up of refugees 
from the depredations of the Norsemen. Urquhart is a clan 
so called from the district of that name in Inverness. Its 
badge is the wallflower. 

Indeed, a considerable number of Scottish surnames are 
derived from places. Such are Crawford, Dundas, Cunning - 
hame (the home of the King), Dunbar, Wemyss, and Mon~ 
crieff. 

Gill is the Celtic for " servant," and Gilder oy is the King's 
servant, Gillchrist the servant of our Lord, Gillpatrick the 
servant of Patrick, Gilmory the servant of Mary, Gillescop 
or Gillespie the Bishop's servant, Gilmore the head-servant. 
Gillie. is really Gill- Jesus. 

Another word was in use to describe one in subjection, 
and that was Gwaeth or Gwas. This we have in Gospatrick. 
This meant that the person so named was placed under the 
special patronage of the saint whose name he bore. We 
have a corruption of Gwas in Gossoon. Mael in composition 
signifies the bald or shaven devotee of a saint. Malcolm 
means the servant of Columba. A word that enters into 
several Scottish surnames, as Dalhousie, Dalrymple, Dalziel, 
is Dal. This signified first of all a portion, and is akin to 
the German theil. It came later to designate a field, as 
something taken out of the common. 

By an Act of the Scottish Privy Council, April 3, 1603, 
the name of MacGregor was expressly abolished, and those 
who had hitherto borne it were commanded to change it for 
other surnames, the pain of death being denounced against 
those who should call themselves Gregor or MacGregor, their 
clan names. By a subsequent Act of Council, June 24, 1613, 

382 






SCOTTISH AND IRISH SURNAMES 

death was denounced against any person of the clan found 
still bearing either of these names. Again, by an Act of 
Parliament, 1617, these laws were reinforced and extended 
to the rising generation, inasmuch as great numbers of the 
children of those against whom the Acts of the Privy Council 
had been directed were stated to be then approaching to 
maturity, who, if permitted to resume the name of their 
parents, would render the clan as strong as it was before. 
On the Restoration, King Charles II., in the first Scottish 
Parliament of his reign (1661), annulled the various Acts 
against the clan MacGregor, and restored the members to 
the full use of the name. 

We will now turn to Ireland. There there were large 
tribes. In the South, for instance, were the Hy Faelain, 
Hy Failghe, Hy Bairche, Hy Cinnselach, Hy Liadhain, 
Hy Fiachach, Corca Laighe, Corca Duibhne, Hy Cearb- 
hail, Hy Fidgeinte, etc. But in Ireland as in Scotland every 
tribe was broken up into septs. What the sept was to the 
tribe, that the homestead was to the sept. The head of a 
tribe, or tuath, was called rig. The head of a clan, or fine, 
was entitled ceanfine, and the head of a household was an 
aire. But an aire whose family had occupied the same house 
and land for three generations was entitled to be called a 
flaith, or lord, and was ripe to become the head of a fresh 
segregation of children and followers in a subclan. 

The flaiths of the different septs were vassals of the rig, 
and performed certain functions for him, which in course of 
time became hereditary. 

I have already referred to the word dal as signifying a part 
or portion. The word was applied to that division of the clan 
Riada that migrated from Ireland into Alba, as it was then 
called. 1 Then it was that most of Scotland fell under the 
domination of the Irish Gaels, the Dalriadic Scots who 
conferred the name of Scotland on North Britain. 

In Ireland the head of a tribe gave his name to his de- 
scendants and followers, who called themselves by his name, 
preceded by hua or hy, meaning grandson ; and this has been 
1 Bede, " Hist. Eccl.," i. i. 
383 



SCOTTISH AND IRISH SURNAMES 

anglicized into O', as O'Neal, for Hua Nial. Hua Concha- 
bair has become in English O'Connor, and Hua Suilleabhain 
is & Sullivan. 

The ancient Irish, like the Gaelic Highlanders, had their 
personal names, and that of the sept to which they be- 
longed. Should there be need for discrimination between 
those of the same Christian name, the same mode of dis- 
tinguishing one from another was pursued in Ireland as in 
the Scottish Highlands. 

In the tenth century King Brian Boru is said to have 
issued an edict that the descendants of the heads of tribes 
and families then in power should take name from them, 
either from the fathers or grandfathers, and that these names 
should become hereditary and fixed for ever. In compliance 
with this mandate, the O'Brians of Thomond took their 
name from the monarch Brian Boru himself, who was slain 
in the Battle of Clontarf in the year 1014. Other family 
names were formed either from the name of the chieftains 
who had fought in the battle or from those of their sons or 
fathers. Thus, the O'Mahonys of Desmond are named from 
Mahon, the son of Kian, King of Desmond, who fought in 
that battle ; the O'Donohues from Donogh, whose father 
Donnell was the second in command over the Eugenian 
forces in the same battle; the 0' Donovans from Donovan, 
whose son Cathel commanded the Hy Caibre in the same 
battle; the O'Dugans of Fermoy from Dugan, whose son 
Gevenagh commanded the sept of the Druid Mogh Roth in the 
same battle ; the O'Faelans or Phelans, of the Desiis, derived 
from Faolan, whose son Mothla commanded the Desii of 
Munster in the same memorable battle ; the MacMurroughs 
of Leinster deduced their descent from Murrough, whose son 
Mael Mordha, King of Leinster, assisted the Danes against 
the Irish monarch. The MacCarthys of Desmond are named 
after Carthach, who is mentioned in the Irish annals as 
having fought in the Battle of Maelkenny in 1043 ; the 
O'Conors of Connaught from Conor, or Concowar, who died 
in 971 ; the O'Melaghlins of Meath, the chief of the Southern 
Hy Nial race, from Maelseachlainn, or Malachy II., monarch 

384 



SCOTTISH AND IRISH SURNAMES 

of Ireland, who died in the year 1022 ; the Mogillapatricks, 
or Fitzpatricks, of Ossory, from Gillapatrick, chief of Ossory, 
who was killed in the year 995 ; etc. 

It does not at all follow in Ireland, any more than in 
Scotland, that those who bear the tribal name have any 
blood of the family in their veins, as there existed from a 
very early period a system of adoption into a tribe. Run- 
aways could obtain absorption if they had committed a 
murder or some other crime that would bring on them either 
death or a heavy fine. 

Irish names went through great fluctuations subsequent 
to their first introduction, and names that have been borne 
for two or more generations were exchanged for others. 
Thus the O'Malbrogi of Moybrugh became MacDermot, and 
O'Laughlin, head of the Northern Hy Niall, MacLaughlin. 

Families, when assuming a surname went back many 
generations, so as to be able to call themselves after the 
most illustrious name in the race. Thus the O'Neills and 
the MacNeills derive from Niall of the Nine Hostages, who 
received St. Patrick, and died in 405. 

Mr. O'Donovan, quoted by Lower, mentions an instance of a 
John Mageoghan of Galway who applied to King George IV. 
for licence to reject the surname which his family had borne 
for eight centuries, derived from the illustrious King Eoghain, 
in order that he might adopt a new name from a still more 
ancient and illustrious ancestor to wit, that same Niall of the 
Nine Hostages who lived in the fourth and fifth centuries, and 
his son and successor wrote himself John Augustus O'Neill. 
In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, when the Irish 
families had increased, and their territories underwent sub- 
division among branches of the same sept, each chieftain for 
distinction's sake adopted some addition to the family name 
as a means of distinction. Thus there was the MacDermot, 
the head of the race, and the branch-lines of MacDermot 
Roe (the Red), and MacDermot Gull (the anglicized) ; 
again, MacCarthy Mor (the Great), and MacCarthy Reagh 
(the Swarthy), and MacCarthy Muscreragh (of Muskerry, 
the place of his residence) ; and, again, O'Connor Roe (the 

385 BB 



SCOTTISH AND IRISH SURNAMES 

Red-haired) and O'Connor Don (the Brown-haired). All 
these additional names were perpetuated by the representa- 
tives of each branch for a long period, and even now are not 
extinct. Mr. O'Donovan says : " After the murder in 1333 
of William de Burgo, third Earl of Ulster of that name, and 
the lessening of the English power which resulted from it, 
many, if not all, the Anglo-Norman families located in 
Connaught became Hibernicized Hibernis ipsis Hiberniores 
spoke the Irish language, and assumed surnames in imita- 
tion of the Irish by prefixing ' Mac ' to the Christian names 
of their ancestors. Thus the De Burgos took the name of 
Mac William from their ancestor William de Burgo, ' from 
whom sprang many offshoots, who took other names from 
their respective ancestors.' Thus originated the Mac- 
Davids, MacShoneens (from John, and now changed to 
Jennings), MacGibbons, MacAndrew, and many others, 
the very plebeian name of MacPhaudeen from an ancestor 
called Paudeen, or Little Patrick. The De Exeters assumed 
the name of Macjordan from Jordan de Exeter, the founder 
of that family, and the N angles that of MacCostello ; . . . a 
branch of the Butlers took the name MacPierce, and the 
Powers or Poers that of MacShere. 

" On the other hand, the Irish families who lived within 
the English pale and in its vicinity gradually conformed to 
the English custom and assumed English surnames, and 
their doing so was deemed to be of such political importance 
that it was thought worthy of consideration by Parliament." 

In 1485 an Act was passed entitled " An Act that the 
Irishmen dwelling in the counties of Dublin, Myeth, Wriall, 
and Kildare, shall gae apparelled like English men, and 
ware their heads after the English maner, sweare allegiance, 
and take English surnames." This Act directed every 
Irishman whom it concerned to " take to him an English 
surname of one towne, as Sutton, Chester, Trym, Skryne, 
Corke, Kinsale, or colour as White, Blacke, Browne; and 
that he and his issue shall use this name under payne of 
forfeiting of his goods yearly till the premises be done." 

Thus constrained, the Mac- and O' Go wans became Smiths ; 

386 



SCOTTISH AND IRISH SURNAMES 

the Shonachs, Foxes; the Maclntires, Carpenters; the Mac- 
Cogrys, I'Estranges ; and the MacKillies, Cocks. 

The process of anglicizing Irish surnames has gone on 
since then to our own times. After the Battles of Aughrim 
and the Boyne, and the complete overthrow of James II., 
numerous families of all ranks assimilated their names to the 
English by the rejection of their old characteristic prefixes, 
and by an accommodated orthography. One Felim O'Neill, 
a gentleman, changed his name to Felix Neele. O'Marachain 
became Markham, and O'Beirne has been altered into Byron, 
O'Dulaine to Delany. 

Other families Gallicized their names, as O'Ducy to 
D'Arcy, O'Malley to Du Maillet, O'Melaville to Lavelle, 
O'Dowling to Du Laing. 

Old names have gone through abrasion. MacGennis 
is now Guinness, Conry is short for O'Mulconry, Kilkenny for 
MacGillakenny. The process of assimilation has extended 
to Christian names. Conor has been supplanted by Cor- 
nelius, Eoghain by Eugene, Aidan by Hugh, Donogh by 
Denis, Moriartagh by Mortimer, Donnell by Daniel, Ardgal 
by Arnold, Ferdorogh by Ferdinand, and Mogue by Moses. 

Some Irish names were simply translated into English. 
Thus Shannach became Fox, and MacChoghree became 
Kingstone. From Joscelin de Angelo came the surname of 
N angle, and from MacGostelin that of Costello. Sir Odo, 
the Archdeacon, had a son MacOdo, which has been 
vulgarized into Cody. 

To such an extent have names been altered in Ireland 
that in some cases it is only possible by a reference to parish 
registers and to wills to discover to what race a family 
belongs, whether Irish or English. 

A large number of Scotchmen and some English entered, 
the service of Gustavus Adolphus in the Thirty Years' War. 
The Marquis of Hamilton raised a troop in 1631 for the 
Swedish service, under the guidance of his maternal relative 
Alexander Leslie. Many of these remained in Sweden, and 
were there enrolled. But there had been levies long before 
that. Scottish soldiers formed part of the army of Sweden 

387 BB 2 



SCOTTISH AND IRISH SURNAMES 






as early as 1563. On July 30 King Eric XIV. wrote to 
a Master Marten to raise 2,000 men in Scotland. The 
officers of this first levy were William Colquhoun whom 
the Swedes called Kahun James Henderson, William 
Ruthven, Thomas Buchan, and Robert Crichton. But in 
1566 we hear of others of the names of Stuart, Wallace, 
Fullerton, Murray, Monraff (? Monroe), Young, Greig, Bisset, 
Lockhart, Galloway, and Kerr. 

In 1573 was another levy of Scottish soldiers; in 1591 
there was a third ; and in 1595 we find the following Scottish 
names of officers in Swedish pay : Williamson, Johnston, 
King, Cunninghame called by the Swedes Kunnigam 
Allan, Wetterson, and Robinson. In 1598 we meet also 
with a Keith and a Neafre, whom the Swedes entitled 
Naf. He belonged to an ancient family in Forfar, now 
extinct. 

Gustavus Adolphus in 1612 had more Scottish mercenaries 
fighting under his banner, commanded by Colonel Ruther- 
ford, Captain Learmouth, Waucorse, and Greig. King 
James and the Council forbade this levying of recruits in 
Scotland ; but the service was lucrative, and many managed 
to escape. In the fall of the year 1612 a party of these, to 
the number of 300, under Colonel Ramsay and Captains 
Hay and Sinclair, landed in Norway, but were massacred 
by the peasants. The site is still marked and pointed out 
to travellers. Brook, in his " Travels through Sweden and 
Norway" (1823), gives an illustration representing the 
monument on the site of the tragedy. 

In 1630 the Marquis of Hamilton brought over 1,000 
Scots to fight under "the Lion of the North." There were 
further levies in 1636 and 1638. Charles XII. was accom- 
panied on his campaigns by a large number of Scottish 
officers mostly scions of families whose members had 
served his father and grandfather, or even won laurels under 
the great Gustavus. Among them we meet with the 
Douglases, Hamiltons, Macdougals who in Sweden figured 
as Duwalls Ramsays, Spensers, and Sinclairs. But it was 
not only in the army that Scots appeared in Sweden ; they 

388 



SCOTTISH AND IRISH SURNAMES 

came and settled there as merchants as well, and there 
amassed large fortunes. 

Scottish names, however, became curiously disguised in 
the families they founded, and, indeed, in the contemporary 
army lists. Robsahm stands for Robson or Robinson ; 
Sinckler for Sinclair ; Wudd for Wood ; Forbus is Forbes ; 
Boij is Boyes ; Bothwell becomes Bossveld ; Bruce is spelled 
Brux and Bryssz ; Colquhoun is rendered not only Kahun, 
but also Canonhjelm ; Douglas becomes Duglitz, and Findlay 
is rendered Finlaij ; Greig expands into Greiggenschildt ; 
and some entirely changed their names. 

An interesting account of " The Scots in Sweden " is by 
Th. A. Fischer (Edinburgh, 1907). A list of those there 
ennobled is to be found in Horace Marryatt's "One Year 
in Sweden " (London, 1862, vol. ii., appendix). 

But Scots also settled extensively in Poland and Eastern 
Prussia as tradesmen and merchants, married, and there 
founded families. Their names are to be found in the town 
registers of Warsaw, Cracow, Danzig, Tilsit, Memel, Posen, 
etc. Strangely altered some of them are in spelling, as 
Agnitz for Agnew, Bethon for Beaton, Kaubrun for Cock- 
burn, Gloch for Gloag, Erdthur for Arthur. For a full 
account of " The Scots in Germany," see a work bearing 
that title by Fischer (Edinburgh, 1902). 

Nor must it be forgotten that the Scottish Guard had a 
glorious career in France. He who desires information on 
this interesting subject must consult Michel (F.), " Les 
Ecossais en France, et les Frangais en 6cosse " (London, 
1862) ; and Burton (J. H.), " The Scot Abroad " (Edinburgh, 
1898, vol. i.). 



389 



CHAPTER XIX 

CHANGED NAMES 

THE great family of Mowbray was really De Albini. In 
1095 Robert de Mowbray, Earl of Northumberland, rebelled 
against William Rufus, and was captured at Tynemouth 
and brought to Windsor, where he was confined in a sub- 
terranean dungeon for thirty-four miserable years. He had 
but recently married Maude de 1'Aigle, but the Pope's licence 
was purchased and her marriage dissolved, and she was then 
married to Nigel de Albini; and her son, Robert, by this 
second husband, born whilst the first husband was still alive 
and languishing in a dungeon, assumed the name of Mowbray 
along with his father by order of Henry I. 

Nigel, bow-bearer to William Rufus and Henry L, had 
dismounted Robert, Duke of .Normandy, in the Battle of 
Tenchbray, and had brought him prisoner to the King, his 
brother. It was in reward for this achievement that Henry 
granted him, in 1106, the lands of the attainted Mowbray as 
well as the name of the unfortunate man. This name of 
Mowbray the De Albinis retained as long as the issue male 
continued, which determined in John Mowbray, Duke of 
Norfolk, in the time of King Edward IV., and his heiresses 
married into the families of Howard and Berkley. There 
is this to be said in excuse for the change of name that 
Nigel d'Albini's mother had been a Mowbray. 

In the reign of Edward I., one of the nobles of his Court, 
holding hereditary honours and lands, had no surname at all. 
Each successor to his father was known as itz So-and-so. 
This noble was John FitzRobert, but, on account of the 
bewilderment caused by the continuous change of designa- 

390 



CHANGED NAMES 

tion, Edward required him thenceforth to bear the name of 
his barony, Clavering ; this he did accordingly, and thence- 
forth was known as John de Clavering. 

Richard Williams, a gentleman of Wales, who had married 
a sister of Thomas Cromwell, whom Henry VIII. created 
Earl of Essex just before cutting off his head for having 
saddled him with Anne of Cleves for a wife, was ordered by 
the King to assume the name of Cromwell ; he did so, and 
became an ancestor of the Protector. 

These instances show that the Crown claimed as a privilege 
the right to give or to change a name. At the same time, it 
is quite certain that it was a claim not enforced, and that 
the vast majority of people called themselves by whatever 
names they liked. Sir Charles Somerset, bastard son of 
Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, assumed his father's surname 
of Beaufort ; but, on the other hand, the original Beaufort, 
illegitimate son of John of Gaunt, was not suffered to call 
himself Plantagenet. Yet another bastard, the Viscount de 
1'Isle, was allowed by the Crown to name himself Plantagenet. 
The surname of Stuart was vetoed to the Dukes of Rich- 
mond, Grafton, St. Albans, and Monmouth, all base slips of 
Charles II., and they were constrained to call themselves 
Lennox, Fitzroy, Beauclerk. 

A considerable number of our nobility have changed their 
surnames, or have pieced on an additional name to that 
which is theirs by lineal descent on the paternal side. 

The great Duke of Wellington was not a Wellesley, but a 
Colley. His grandfather, Richard Colley, assumed the name 
of a relative Wesley, but expanded it to Wellesley. Another 
branch of the family still retains the name of Colley, but 
altered into Cowley, as less reminiscent of the nursery rhyme 
of " Colley, my Cow." 

"A story, a story, I'll tell you just now, 

It's all about killing of Colly, my cow ; 

Ah ! my pretty Colly, poor Colly, my cow ! 

Poor Colly will give no more milk to me now, 
And that is the way my fortune doth go." 

The Duke of Northumberland is not a Percy, but a Smithson, 
his ancestor, Sir Hugh Smithson, having acquired the 



CHANGED NAMES 

honours of the House of Percy through his grandmother. 
Lord Clarendon is not a Hyde, but a Villiers ; the Duke of 
Marlborough not a Churchill, but a Spencer. Lord Dacre 
is not a Trevor, but a Brand. Lord Wilton is not an 
Egerton, but a Grosvenor ; Lord de Tabley not a Warren, 
but a Leicester. Earl Nelson is a Bolton ; his grandfather 
was Thomas Bolton, who married the sister of the great 
Admiral. 

The late Lord Anglesea was not a Paget, but a Bayley. 
Viscount Clifden, Lord Robartes, is not a Robartes, but an 
Agar ; but the great estates in Cornwall come through the 
Robartes family, properly Roberts. The Earl of Haddington 
is not a Hamilton, but an Arden ; Viscount Montmorency is 
not a Montmorency, but a Morres ; the Earl of Shrewsbury 
is not a Talbot, but a Chetwynd. 

The Sieur de Monceaux came over with the Conqueror, 
and was given large estates in Sussex. His family ended in 
a distaff, and the heiress married a country squire named 
Hurst, who assumed her surname on coming into the exten- 
sive possessions of the Monceaux, and built the mansion which 
combined their names Hurst-Monceaux. But in the reign 
of Edward III. this new line ended in an heiress again, and 
she carried all into the family of Fiennes. 

Geoffrey Nevill married Emma, the heiress of a great 
Norman Baron, Bertram de Bulmer. Their son died without 
issue, and their daughter Isabel married Robert, son of 
Maldred, of the Anglian race of Earls of Northumbria. 
This son was Geoffrey, who assumed the name of Nevill, 
though properly FitzMaldred, and is the true ancestor of 
the existing family of Neville. 

The Cavendishes were Guernons, a branch of the family 
of Montfichet. Alured Guernon, brother of William de 
Montfichet, was given estates in Essex and Middlesex in 
1130. He had a grandson, Ralph, father of William 
Guernon, whose son Geoffrey assumed the surname of 
Cavendish from his residence of the name in Suffolk. This 
Geoffrey was the grandfather of Sir John Cavendish, Chief 
Justice in the reign of Richard II. 

392 



CHANGED NAMES 

Lord Herries is not a Herries, but a Constable. In 1758 
William Hagerston Constable married the heiress of Herries 
and assumed her name. 

The Viscounts Doneraile are not St. Leger, but Aldworth. 
The last St. Leger, Viscount Doneraile, died without issue in 
1767, whereupon his estates devolved on his sister Elizabeth, 
the wife of Richard Aldworth, who assumed the surname of 
St. Leger, and was created Viscount Doneraile in 1785. She 
is said to have been the only woman in the world who 
became a Freemason. Her father, a zealous Mason, some- 
times opened the lodge at Doneraile. His daughter, curious 
to witness the rite of initiation, hid herself in a clock-case in 
the room. After witnessing the first two steps in the cere- 
mony, she became frightened and tried to escape, but was 
caught. According to the story, the Masons were for putting 
her to death, but were induced to spare her life at the entreaty 
of her brother, on condition of her going through the two 
steps she had already seen. The diploma that she received 
is carefully preserved, and her portrait, with a glass case 
containing the apron and jewel she was wont to wear, 
remain in the lodge-room at Cork. 

The De Traffords were De Villiers. Alan de Villiers, 
second son of the Baron of Warrington, was enfeoffed by his 
father in Trafford in the time of Henry I., whereupon his 
descendants have borne the name of Trafford to this day. 
The crest of the family is a labouring man with a flail in his 
hand, thrashing, and the motto is " Now thus." The story 
goes that the ancestor fought in the army of Harold against 
the Normans, but after fled the rout, and, disguising himself, 
went into his barn, and was thrashing corn when the pursuers 
entered. Being suspected by some of them, he was asked 
why he so abased himself, and he replied : " Now thus." 
The story is mythical, for the De Villiers was a Norman. 

Lord Saye and Sele is not a Fiennes, but a Twistleton. The 
eighth Viscount and last male heir of the Fiennes family 
died out in 1781, when his barony was claimed by Thomas 
Twistleton, as representative of his great-great-grandmother, 
Elizabeth Fiennes, eldest daughter of the second Viscount, 

393 



CHANGED NAMES 

who had married John Twistleton. The name was there- 
upon assumed. 

The Mainwarings of Over Peover in Cheshire are not 
Mainwarings, have not one drop of Mainwaring blood in 
their veins. The Mainwarings descended from Mesnil- 
Garin, a Norman house. But in 1797 Sir Henry Main- 
waring, Bart., the last of his race, left all the family estates 
and the mansion to his half-brother, Thomas Wetenhall, 
son of his mother by a former marriage, who on succeeding 
assumed the name of Mainwaring, and a baronetcy followed 
in the next generation. 

Lord Mostyn is not a Mostyn, but a Lloyd. Sir Edward 
Pry ce- Lloyd, Bart, married the sister and co-heir of Sir 
Thomas Mostyn, Bart., and was created Baron Mostyn, and 
assumed his wife's name in addition to his own. 

Charles Stewart Vane-Tempest, Marquis of London- 
derry, is in reality a Stewart. The third Marquis for his 
second wife married, in 1819, the only daughter and heir 
of Sir Harry Vane-Tempest, and on his marriage assumed, 
in 1829, the surname of Vane-Tempest. Sir Godfrey Charles 
Morgan, Viscount Tredegar, is not a Morgan, but a Gould. 
Sir Charles Gould, created Baronet in 1792, assumed the 
name and arms of Morgan only, having married the 
daughter and heiress of Thomas Morgan of Tredegar. 

Bastardy is liberally represented in the Gilded Chamber. 
The Dukes of Beaufort descend through a double bastardy. 
A glance through an illustrated Peerage will show how many 
coats of arms are debruised by the bar sinister, or have the 
bordure compone" azure and argent. There are other peers 
besides Dukes that originate out of bastard slips, and not from 
royalty alone. The heralds of the last century were more 
complaisant to disguise the badge than were those of the 
reign of Charles II. 

Vanity was the occasion of the change of a good number 
of names in Germany in the sixteenth century. 

Writers, dissatisfied with their humble names, and not 
being entitled to call themselves von, altered them into 
equivalents in Greek or Latin. Melanchthon, the Reformer, 

394 






CHANGED NAMES 

was ashamed of his father's name of Schwarzerde, and 
(Ecolampadius was equally put to the blush by being 
designated, as was his father, Hausschein. A Schmidt 
became a Faber or Fabricius, a Schneider flourished as 
Sartorius, Didier became Erasmus. 

Fuchs transformed his name into Vulpius ; Lehman, mis- 
taking the derivation of his name, called himself Argilander. 
Holzmann became Xylander ; Bienemann, Melinander ; and 
Mitscherlich extended his name to Midsscherliex. A certain 
Bienenwitz, a mathematician, born at Leising in Saxony in 
1495, Latinized his name into Apionius. He was highly 
esteemed by the Emperor Charles V. After the Battle of 
Miihlberg, April 21, 1547, Ferdinand, the Emperor's brother, 
went to Leising, and, as the citizens had maltreated some of 
the Spanish mercenaries in the imperial army, he ordered 
the place to be given over to pillage. Happily, one of his 
officers saw above the door of a house the shield bearing 
bees as a cognizance of Apionius, and learned that Peter 
Bienenwitz had been born there, and also possessed the 
house as his paternal inheritance. 

The order for general pillage was rescinded. 

Towards the middle of the fifteenth century it was the fancy 
of the wits and learned men of Italy to change their baptismal 
names for such as were classical. Samazarius, for instance, 
altered his own plain Jacopo to Actius Syncerus. Numbers 
did the same ; and among the rest Platina, the historian of the 
Popes, who, not without solemn ceremonial, took the name of 
Callimachus instead of Philip. Paul II., who occupied the 
sessorial chair at the time, was suspicious, illiterate, and dull 
of comprehension. He had no idea that persons other than 
Popes could wish to alter their names unless they had some 
bad design, and he did not scruple to employ imprisonment 
and the rack to discover the fancied mystery. Platina was 
cruelly tortured on this frivolous account. He had nothing 
to confess, so the Pope, after endeavouring in vain to convict 
him of heresy, sedition, etc., released him after a long 
imprisonment. 

395 



CHANGED NAMES 

The surnames were also sometimes altered, but generally 
sufficed when given a Latin termination. 

In England it is easy for anyone to change the surname. 
Burglars and shoplifters have many an alias. But others 
can do the same without a royal licence. There is a story 
in an Icelandic saga of some Vikings who had plundered a 
shrine in Bjarmaland, by the White Sea, then escaped to 
their ships by strewing wood-ashes behind them, so that even 
bloodhounds lost all scent. When the settlers in America 
broke their tie to the mother-country, they burnt the records 
of their family that told of their connection with their old 
home, and now many an American family would pay 
thousands of dollars to recover the records proving their link 
with the old land. So there are foolish people who, by 
changing their names, because these are not well-sounding 
and aristocratic, and assuming others more resonant, think 
that they have acquired a better station, or may be able to 
pose as persons of greater consequence. Vin Ordinaire is 
not to be converted to Old Port by change of label. But it 
is a grievous mistake. They are obliterating the traces 
whereby in future times their filiation might be followed, 
and some of the plainest and most vulgar names may be, 
and often are, the most ancient and most reputable. 

Sir Joseph Jekyll, in the case of Barlow versus Bateman, 
said : " I am satisfied the usage of passing Acts of Parlia- 
ment for the taking upon one a surname is but modern, and 
that anyone may take upon him what surname and as many 
surnames as he pleases, without an Act of Parliament." 
But this decision was reversed by the House of Lords. The 
Peers said, upon deciding the matter, " that the individual 
ought to have inherited by birth, or have obtained an 
authority for using the same." Nevertheless, it is now an 
established fact that simple notification in the newspapers of 
purpose to change a name is deemed sufficient. A Bugg, 
not relishing his ancient and honourable designation, 
announced in the papers his intention thenceforth to assume 
the name of Norfolk Howard ; a Todd has become a De Vere, 
and a Catt a Clifford. 

396 



CHANGED NAMES 

Lord Byron, desirous of linking his name on to the French 
ducal house of Biron, affected to change they into *'. Napo- 
leon the Great, to disguise to French eyes his Italian origin, 
altered Buonaparte to Bonaparte. 

The Italian Tyrolese name Tunicoto, from a short tunic, 
became in German Thunichtgut (Do-no-good). As this did 
not please, it was again altered to Thugut (Do-good) ; but 
when one so called became Minister to Maria Theresa, he 
flourished as Von Thugut. A certain Mr. Walker, afflicted 
with a squint, assuredly made a mistake when he changed 
his name to Izod. 

In America there has been a considerable assumption of 
good names. There is one who for his name how procured 
we do not know a Guise, claims descent from the Dukes of 
that name, and who owns a county newspaper at Amity ville, 
Long Island. A Tell pretending to trace his descent from 
the apocryphal William is a blacksmith at Broadripple, 
Ind. At Brownville, Pa., is a Lafayette, as to whose 
connection with the family of the Count at his chateau, 
Haute Loire, that family is supremely ignorant. A few 
years ago I remember Frau von Hillern, the authoress, whose 
husband was Chamberlain to the Grand Duke of Baden, and 
a Judge, was very wroth because a Miss von Hillern was 
advertised as walking for a wager against any man in the 
States. No relation the name was assumed as that of a 
distinguished authoress and as well-sounding. My own 
name was used of late by a vendor of quack medicines for 
rheumatism, who had no right to it whatever. 

" Why, this is flat knavery," says Petruchio, " to take on 
you another man's name." 

Foundlings were sometimes given very good names. 
Brownlow, in his " Chronicles of the Foundling Hospital," 
says : " It has been the practice of the Governors from the 
earliest period to the present time to name the children at 
their own will and pleasure whether their parents should 
have been known or not. At the baptism of the children 
first taken into the hospital, which was on March 29, 1741, 
it is recorded that ' there was at the ceremony a fine appear- 

397 



CHANGED NAMES 

ance of persons of quality and distinction ; his Grace the 
Duke of Bedford, our president, their graces the Duke and 
Duchess of Richmond, the Countess of Pembroke, and 
several others, honouring the children with their names and 
being their sponsors.' Thus the register of the period 
presents the courtly names of Abercorn, Bedford, Bentinck, 
Montague, Marlborough, Newcastle, Norfolk, Pomfret, Pem- 
broke, Richmond, Vernon, etc., as well as those of numerous 
other living individuals, great and small, who at that time 
took an interest in the establishment. When these names 
were exhausted, the authorities stole those of eminent 
deceased personages, their first attack being upon the 
Church. Hence we have a Wickliffe, Huss, Ridley, Latimer, 
Laud, Sancroft, Tillotson, Tennison, Sherlock, etc. Then 
came the mighty dead of the poetical race, viz. : Geoffrey 
Chaucer, William Shakespeare, John Milton, etc. Of the 
philosophers, Francis Bacon stands pre-eminently con- 
spicuous. As they proceeded, the Governors who were 
warlike in their notions brought from their graves Philip 
Sidney, Francis Drake, Oliver Cromwell, John Hampden, 
Admiral Benbow, and Cloudesley Shovel. A more peaceful 
list followed this, viz. : Peter Paul Rubens, Anthony Van- 
dyke, Michael Angelo, and Godfrey Kneller, William Hogarth 
and Jane his wife, of course, not being forgotten. Another 
class was borrowed from popular novels of the day, which 
accounts for Charles Allworthy, Tom Jones, Sophia Western, 
and Clarissa Harlowe. The gentle Izaak stands alone. So 
long as the admission of children was confined within reason- 
able bounds, it was an easy matter to find names for them ; 
but during the Parliamentary era of the hospital, when the 
gates were thrown open to all comers, and each day brought 
its regiment of infantry to the establishment, the Governors 
were sometimes in difficulties ; and when this was the case 
they took a zoological view of the subject, and named 
them after the creeping things and beasts of the earth, or 
created a nomenclature from various handicrafts or trades. 
In 1801 the hero of the Nile and some of his friends 
honoured the establishment with a visit, and stood sponsors 

398 



CHANGED NAMES 

for several of the children. The names given on this 
occasion were Baltic Nelson, William and Emma Hamilton, 
Hyde Parker, etc. Up to a very late period the Governors 
were sometimes in the habit of naming the children after 
themselves and their friends, but it was found to be an 
inconvenient and objectionable course, inasmuch as, when 
they grew to man- or womanhood, they were apt to lay claim 
to some affinity of blood with their nomenclators." 

Vanity has had a good deal to do with the alteration of 
names. Swift in the Examiner (No. 40, 1711) says: "I 
know a citizen who adds or alters a letter in his name with 
every plum he acquires ; he now wants only the change of 
a vowel to be allied to a sovereign prince in Italy, and that 
perhaps he may contrive to be done by a mistake of the 
graver upon his tombstone." This was Sir Henry Furnese, 
whose real name was Furnace, which he altered into Furnice, 
Furnise, Furness, and Furnese ; with an a in place of u, it 
would become Farnese. 

Mr. Cosmo Innes has the following story : " A Dublin 
citizen (I think a dealer in snuff and tobacco), about the end 
of last century, had lived to a good age and in good repute, 
under the name of Halfpenny. He throve in trade, and his 
children prevailed on him in his latter years to change his 
name, which they thought undignified, and this he did by 
simply dropping the last letter. He died, and was buried 
as Mr. Hal/pen. The fortune of the family did not recede, 
and the son of our citizen thought proper to renounce retail 
dealing, and at the same time looked about for an euphonious 
change of name. He made no scruple of dropping the 
unnecessary h ; and that being done, it was easy to go into 
the Celtic rage which Sir Walter Scott and ' The Lady of the 
Lake' had just raised to a great height, and he who had run 
the streets as little Kenny Halfpenny came out (in full Rob 
Roy tartan, I trust) at the levees of the day as Kenneth 
MacA Ipin, the descendant of a hundred Kings." 1 

In Scotland formerly, the false assumption of a name was 

1 * Concerning Some Scotch Surnames." Edinburgh, 1860. 
399 



CHANGED NAMES 

held to be equal to the false assumption of coat-armour, and 
was punished as a forgery. 

In Prussia the law enacts : " Whoever, even without 
illegal intention, assumes a family name, or arms, without 
right, shall be forbidden the assumption under pain of an 
arbitrary but limited fine." A decree of October 30, 1816, 
enacts : " Since experience has taught us that the bearing 
of assumed or invented names is injurious to the security of 
civil intercourse, as well as to the efficiency of police regula- 
tion, we hereby order the following : (i) That no one shall, 
under the pain of a fine of from five to fifty thalers or a 
proportionate imprisonment, make use of a name which does 
not belong to him. (2) That if the assumption or invention 
of a name take place with intent to deceive, the regulations 
of the general penal laws come into effect." 

In France, as in Germany, every individual is registered 
by his true name, and he cannot possibly alter it in any 
legal transaction without having received from the State 
authority to do so. 

In the South of France many of the old castles have been 
restored and fitted up, and have become the residences 
during the summer of bourgeois, rich wine-merchants or 
manufacturers, who during the summer flourish as M. le 
Marquis du Pontlevis, M. le Baron de Roque-fiche", M. le 
Comte de Valdieu, but when they have to register their 
children's births or transact any legal business are forced to 
subscribe their genuine names of Pons, Brouet, Bazin, or 
Grosjean. Jacques Le Roy, the soldier who served so 
well the purposes of Louis Napoleon in shooting down the 
people in the streets of Paris, and was created a Marshal of 
the Second Empire, who was associated with Lord Raglan 
in the Crimea, wrote himself, and was allowed to call him- 
self, Achille de St. Arnaud. " He impersonated," as King- 
lake says, "with singular exactness the idea which our 
forefathers had in their minds when they spoke of what they 
called ' a Frenchman '; for although (by cowing the rich 
and filling the poor with envy) the great French Revolution 
had thrown a lasting gloom on the national character, it left 

400 



CHANGED NAMES 

this man untouched. He was bold, gay, reckless, and vain ; 
but beneath the mere glitter of the surface there was a great 
capacity for administrative business, and a more than 
common willingness to take away human life." In the 
United States there have been wilful alteration of names : 
Berners has been changed to Barnes, Renault to Reno, and 
St. Jean to Session. There may be cases, in which some 
horrible scandal is attached to a name, where it is advisable 
and justifiable to change it, to hide the stain from genera- 
tions yet to come ; but where the name is simply homely, 
and has been borne by honest labourers or worthy trades- 
men, there it is an outrage on their memories to be so 
ashamed of it as to abandon it for one to which no real 
claim can be laid, and to parade, like the jackdaw of the 
fable, in borrowed plumes. That they are borrowed every- 
one knows, and everyone laughs behind the bearer's back. 

" Nil me pceniteat sanum patris hujus : eoque 
Non, ut magna dolo factum negat esse suo pars, 
Quod non ingenues habeat clarosque parentes, 
Sic me defendam. Longe mea discrepat istis 
Et vox et ratio. Nam si natura juberet 
A certis annis aevum remeare peractum 
Atque alios legere ad fastum quoscumque parentes, 
Optaret sibi quisque ; meis contentus honestosi 
Fascibus et sellis nollem mihi sumere." 

HORACE : Sat. i. 6. 



401 cc 



CHAPTER XX 

COMPOUND NAMES 

DURING the last quarter of a century a fashion has set in for 
double names. Double names are legitimate where property 
is represented that has descended through an heiress, and it 
is right that the family that for several generations held the 
estate should be remembered in the name of the present pro- 
prietor. Such a double name is a record. But such have 
the warrant of royal licence. No objection can be raised 
to such double names as Agar-Robartes, Prideaux-Brune, 
Godolphin - Osborne, Spencer - Churchill, because each 
surname represents a fact in the history of the family the 
extinction of one family and the devolution of its estate on 
another. 

But the majority of double names have no such warrant. 
In some cases the Christian name is linked on to the surname, 
where that Christian name happens to be a surname derived 
from some marriage in the family, or godfather, or some 
supposed connection with a titled race. 

In such cases the first member would naturally fall away 
when the bearer of the Christian name died ; but, as a 
matter of fact, it does not always do so. 

It not infrequently happens that the added name has no 
authority whatever to back it. It is assumed, it is not even 
a Christian name of the assumer. 

There is, however, some justification or excuse for these 
additions when the true surname is common or insipid. It 
is sought to fortify it. In nomenclature we add whisky to 
water, never water to whisky. 

When a number of Smiths, Bakers, Thomsons, Halls, 

402 



COMPOUND NAMES 

Johnsons, jostle in a country town, it is but according to 
precedent that the bearers of the same name should seek to 
distinguish themselves and family from their namesakes. In 
former days this was done by the tacking on of a nickname 
after the personal name ; now it is done by prefixing another 
family name. Thus such combinations as Bourcher-Smith, 
Cadwalader-Jones, Neville-Browne, and Gordon-Charles- 
worth (assumed by an impostor who has made some noise). 
In many cases the name prefixed has got the slenderest or 
no justification for its assumption. I know a family that 
always calls itself Godolphin-Browne, the sole reason for the 
taking up of the former name being that Lord Godolphin 
was one of two godfathers to a great-grandfather. I know 
another that hyphens an ancient Norman name to its actual 
surname, which latter is common, because in the seventeenth 
century one of this family married into the other ; but, as he 
had no issue, not a drop of the Norman blood through this 
channel flows in the veins of those who flourish the name at 
present. Again, a third family supposes that at some date 
unspecified it was allied to a noble family, that of the Lord 
Knowswho, and accordingly writes itself Knowswho- Butcher. 

In like manner some people wear titles, as Duke-Coleridge, 
Baron- Lethbridge, Squire-Bancroft; and there is a menagerie 
travels the country under a proprietor styled Lord George 
Sanger. In the first instance this was due to a marriage 
with one of the family of Duke of Otterton ; and as the 
Coleridges rose from a very obscure origin, they were glad 
to engraft on their name that of an ancient county family. 
In the second, the name of Baron was that of the old estated 
family of Tregeare in Cornwall, whose heiress married a 
Lethbridge, and the duplicate name is justly held. 

When a resonant Norman name is linked to one that is 
English and dull of sound, the effect is somewhat like that 
described and ridiculed by Horace : 

" Humano capiti cervicem pictor equinam 
Jungere si velit, et varias inducere plumas 
Undique collatis membris, ut turpiter atrum 
Desinat in piscem mulier formosa superne, 
Spectatum admissi risum teneatis amici ?" 

403 CC 2 



COMPOUND NAMES 

And yet, possibly enough, the English name may be the 
better of the two, and the conjunction illustrates the final 
triumph over the invader by the subjugated native Saxon. 

The English custom was formerly for the surname of the 
godfather and godmother to be given at baptism to the child, 
and this has led to its assumption and grafting on to the 
true surname. 

" I tell you I have a presentiment that it must be a girl," 
said Miss Betsey Trotwood to Mrs. Copperfield, when that 
lady was in an interesting condition. " Don't contradict ! 
From the moment of this girl's birth I intend to be her 
friend. I intend to be her godmother, and I beg you'll call 
her Betsey Trotwood Copperfield." But when the expected 
arrived, it proved to be a boy, whereupon Miss Betsey put 
on her bonnet and departed. But when in after-years little 
David, neglected and maltreated, flies for refuge to the aunt, 
she adopts him. " Mr. Dick," says she, " I have been 
thinking that I might call him Trotwood." 

" Certainly, certainly ! Call him Trotwood, certainly !" 
said Mr. Dick. " David's son's Trotwood." 

" Trotwood Copperfield, you mean," returned the aunt. 

" Yes, to be sure Trotwood Copperfield," said Mr. Dick, 
a little abashed. 

" My aunt took so kindly to the notion that some ready- 
made clothes, which were purchased for me that afternoon, 
were marked Trotwood Copperfield in her own handwriting, 
and in indelible marking-ink." And if David had a family 
and descendants, the name thenceforth would be Trotwood- 
Copperfield. And this would be justifiable, for it would be 
a record of the kind old lady who found him " naked and 
she clothed him." 

If we look through the Peerage, what a host of compound 
names do we find ! 

Baillie-Hamilton-Arden is the conjunction of names borne 
by the Earl of Haddington. Viscount Galway is a Monckton- 
Arundell. The Duke of Atholl is a Stewart- Murray. Gius- 
tiniani-Bandini is the name of the Earl of Newburgh. 
De-la- Poer-Beresford is that of the Marquis of Waterford, 

404 



COMPOUND NAMES 

Fitzhardinge-Berkeley that of Baron Fitzhardinge, Went- 
worth - Fitzwilliam that of Earl Fitzwilliam. Pleydell- 
Bouverie is the family name of the Earl of Radnor. 

Baron Thurlow bears a number of names, Hovell-Thurlow- 
Cumming-Bruce. The family of Thurlow descends from a 
country parson in Suffolk who married an Elizabeth Smith, 
daughter of a Robert Smith, who had been a Hovell ; so the 
Smith was dropped and the Hovell assumed in 1814. The fifth 
Baron, having married Lady Elma Bruce, daughter of James, 
Earl of Elgin, by his first wife, Elizabeth Mary Cumming- 
Bruce, assumed the additional names and surnames of his 
wife's mother in 1874. Verily the family has gone far afield 
to scrape together names to tack on to Thurlow, which was 
respectable enough by itself. 

Lord Churston is a Yarde-Buller, the Earl of Shewsbury 
a Chetwynd-Talbot, the Duke of Newcastle a Pelham- 
Clinton. Earl Somers is a Somers- Cocks, the Earl of 
Shaftesbury an Ashley-Cooper. Earl Belmore is a Lowry- 
Correy, Lord Teynham a Roper -Curzon, the Earl of 
Portarlington a Dawson-Damer. The Duke of Hamilton 
is a Douglas -Hamilton, Lord Braye a Vernon-Cave. 
Viscount Clifden is an Agar-Robartes ; Baron Saye and 
Sele is a Twistleton-Wykeham-Fiennes ; Lord Carbery is an 
Evans- Freke. Leveson-Gower is the family name of Earl 
Granville and of the Duke of Sutherland. The Earl of Buck- 
inghamshire rejoices in four surnames, Hobart-Hampden- 
Mercer- Henderson, whereof the penultimate points back to 
a silk-mercer behind his counter, and the last to a progenitor 
so insignificant as to have no surname, and to have been 
known as Andrew's son only. 

Lord Vernon is a Venables-Vernon. The Archbishop of 
York of that family assumed the additional surname of 
Harcourt on inheriting the estates of the last Earl Harcourt 
in 1831. George John, the fifth Baron, however, dropped 
the Venables-Vernon, and assumed the surname and arms 
of Warren only in 1837, but the sixth Baron resumed them. 
Charles Vernon, who died in 1874, married the daughter of 
Nathaniel Evans of Oldtown, co. Cork, and she assumed 

405 



COMPOUND NAMES 

the name of Gore. Her daughter, Ellen Caroline, married 
Sir Gustavus Hume, and by royal licence adopted the sur- 
name of Gore in addition to Hume. Henry Charles Edward 
Ligonier Hamilton Vernon in 1800 changed his name to 
Graham, but tired of it, and shifted back to Vernon in 1838. 
Frederick William Thomas Vernon assumed the additional 
surname of Wentworth in 1804 ; George Vernon took on 
him the name of Venables, in addition to Vernon, in 1728. 
Henry, third Baron Vernon, having married the illegitimate 
daughter of that disreputable Baronet, Sir Charles Sedley, 
actually assumed the surname and arms of Sedley in 1779. 
There has been, accordingly, an astonishing shifting of names 
in this family. 

Earl Cranbrooke is a Gathorne-Hardy ; the Earl of 
Kingston is a King-Tenison. James, fifth Earl of Loudon, 
was a Campbell. His only child Flora married Francis 
Rawdon Hastings, Earl of Moira, who was created Viscount 
Loudon and Marquis of Hastings in 1816. His son George 
Augustus Francis, second Marquis, married Barbara Yelver- 
ton, daughter of Edward Gould, twentieth Lord Grey de 
Ruthyn. She remarried Sir Hastings Reginald Henry, who 
assumed the name of Yelverton in 1849. Her second son as 
well as her first died without issue, whereupon her daughter, 
Edith Maud Hastings, became Countess of Loudon. She 
married Charles Frederick Abney-Hastings, created Lord 
Donington, and had by him the present Earl, Charles 
Edward Hastings Abney-Hastings. 

The Earl of Winchelsea is a Finch-Hatton ; the Earl of 
Donoughmore is a Hely-Hutchinson. Lord Muskerry is a 
Deane-Morgan, the Duke of Leeds a Godolphin-Osborne. 
The Earl of Plymouth is a Windsor-Clive. Lord Penrhyn 
is a Douglas- Pennant, the Earl of Yarborough an Anderson- 
Pelham properly Anderson, but the name of Pelham was 
assumed by Charles Anderson as heir to his great-uncle, 
Charles Pelham, Recorder of Grimsby in 1786. Lord 
Bolton is an Orde-Powlett ; Viscount Boyne is a Hamilton- 
Russell, and Baron Brabourne a Knatchbull-Hugessen. The 
Duke of Portland is a Cavendish-Bentinck. The Earl of 

406 



COMPOUND NAMES 

Ilchester's family name is Fox-Strangeways. Viscount 
Canterbury is a Manners-Sutton, Lord Londonderry a 
Vane-Tempest, Lord Eversley a Shaw-Lefevre, Lord Sudeley 
a Hanbury- Leigh, Lord Wentworth a Noel-Milbanke. 

The list might be greatly extended. In almost every case 
there is historic justification for the linking together of two 
or more family names. But, as already said, this cannot 
be always said of such double names as are flourished daily 
around us, where the additional name has not been assumed 
by royal licence, and is simply due to personal vanity or 
caprice. 

Sometimes we obtain very odd combinations, as Hunt- 
Grubb, Pyne-Coffin, Beerbohm-Tree for Beerbaum, a berry- 
bearing shrub, Corny-Grains. A witness at a Poplar inquest 
on July 14, 1909, was named John North East West. A 
clergyman, with the deciduous name of Field-Flowers-Goe, 
was chosen to be a Bishop in Australia. Bubb-Dodington was 
a well-known man in his day, who hid the quaint combination 
under a title as Lord Melcombe. 

In a recent clergy list occur such double names as these : 
Dimond-Hogg, Forrest-Bell, Gabe-Jones, Golding-Bird, Haire- 
Forster, Hughes-Death, Keys-Wells, Master- Whitaker, Nunn- 
Rivers, Roosmale-Cocq, Teed-Heaver, Teignmouth-Shore, White- 
Bell. 

And now I must close. The subject is one so interesting 
and with so many ramifications that it might be dealt with 
lengthily, but not exhaustively. I have attempted no more 
than to give indications of the road by which some with 
names difficult to riddle out, or giving a wrong idea of their 
signification on the surface, may be traced to their true 
origin ; and also to point out some of the pitfalls that be- 
set the path of the unwary, some of the blind alleys in 
which they may wander, in that wood of errors, Family 
Nomenclature. 

" Claudite jam rivos, pueri, sat prata biberunt." 



407 



APPENDIX TO CHAPTER IX 

ANGLO-SAXON AND DANISH NAMES IN DOMESDAY 



ABEN (Lines), Abo (Yorks). 

Achi (Wilts, Chesh., Suff., etc.), 

Acum (Lines), Acun (Yorks). 
ALdric Grim (Suff.). 
^Elfag (Notts), Elfag (Derb.). 
ALrgrim (Salop). 

Ailm (Corn.), Ailmar melc (Ess.). 
Aki (Suff.). 
Aldene tope (Lines). 
Algrim (Yorks). 
Alii (Bucks, Beds). 
Alnod Grutt (Herts). 
Alric (Bucks, Suff., Beds). 
Alsi Bolla (Ess.). 
Alured biga (Kent). 
Aluric (Herts, Cambs, Dev., Oxf., 

Ess., Suff, Herts). 
Alward (many counties). 
Alwin (many counties). 
Amod,fem. (Suff.). 
Andrac (Hants). 
Anunt dacus (Ess.), properly 

" Onund the Dane." 
Ape (Somers.), Appe (Wilts). 
Archilbar (Lines). 
Ardegrip (Lines, Yorks). 
Aregrim (Chesh.), properly Arn- 

grim. 

Aschilbar (Lines). 
Aseloc (Notts). 
Auti (several counties). 
Azor (several counties). 
Baco (Lines). 
Bar (Yorks. Suff, Middx, Norf.), 

also Ber (Yorks). 
Basin (Yorks). 
Biga (Suss.). 
Bil (Glouc.). 



Boda (Hants), Bode (Wilts), Bod- 

dus (Ess.). 
Bou (Norf.), Bu (Yorks), Boui 

(several counties). 
Bricstoward (Somers.). 
Brictuar Bubba (Suff). 
Brihtuold (Suff). 
Bunda, Bonde, Bondi, Bundi, 

Bondo, etc. (in various counties). 
Caflo (Somers.). 

Cava, Cave, Cavo, Cavus (Suss.). 
Celcott (Suff). 
Cheteber (Yorks), Chetelber (Lines, 

and several other counties). 
Chetelbern (Notts, Lines, Norf.), 

properly Ketilbjorn. 
Clac (Lines). 
Col (Lines), Cola (Suss.), Cole 

(Suss., Derb.), Colle (Dev.), Colo 

(many counties), Coole (Wilts). 
Couta (Suff). 
Crin (Yorks.). 
Dedol (Chesh.), Doda, Dode, Dodo 

(various counties). 
Don, Done, Donne, Donnus, etc. 

(various counties). 
Edlouedief (Dev.). 
Edmer (Herts, Middx., Bucks, 

Dev.). 

Edric (in numerous counties). 
Edwin (Leics, Heref.) 
Edward wit (Beds). 
Eldille (Dev.). 
Elsi jillinge (Notts), a native of 

Jutland. 
Epy (Bucks). 
Ergrim (Heref.). 
Esberbiga (Kent), properly Osbern. 



408 



APPENDIX TO CHAPTER IX 



Eurewacre (Dev.) 

Felaga (Ess.). 

Fot (Chesh., Kent). 

Fuglo (Beds). 

Gam ^ Yorks), Game (Leics, Yorks), 

Gamel (in various counties). 
Gamelcarl (Yorks), Gamilbar, 

Gumelbar, Gamiltorf (Yorks). 
Gethne (Salop). 
Gilepatric (Yorks). 
Glunier (Yorks). 
Godtovi (Surr.) 
Goleathegn (Dev.) 
Gold (Cambs). 
Golnil (Bucks). 
Gos (Hunts). 
Gribol (Lines). 
Grimulf (Warw.). 
Haltor, Heltor (Yorks). 
Huna, Hunus (Suff.), Hunc (Yorks), 

Huni, Hunic, Hunni, Hunnet, 

etc. (Salop). 
Jalf (Lines). 
Jaul (Cornw.). 

Juin (Dev ), Juing (Somers.). 
Kee (Norf.). 
Kettelbern, Kettelbert (Wore.). 

See above, Cheteber. 
Lambecarl (Lines). 
Leswin croc (Suff.). 
Lewric coccus (Suff.). 
Lewin calvus (Suff.). 
Lure (Suff.). 
Maban (Yorks). 
Mannius swert (Suff.). Magno 

Suert (Surr.). 
Moithar (Norf.). 
Offa (Surr., Suff.). 
Osbert masculus (Suff.). 
Oslac albus (Northants). 
Phin (Suff., Ess.), Phin dacus (Ess.), 

Pin (Glouc.). Properly, Finn 

dacus signifies "the Dane." 
Ram (Yorks), Ramechil (Yorks). 



Roc (Suff.). 

Rozo (Wilts), a Norman, Le Roux. 

Saloman (Yorks). 

Salpus (Suff.). 

Sbern (many counties). Should be 

Osbern. 

Scheit, Scett (Norf.). 
Scotcol (Yorks). 
Seiar, Seiard bar (Norf., Glouc.), 

Siward Bar (Yorks and Lines). 
Siward barn, for Bjorn, (Warw., 

Norf., Lines). 
Sessi (Salop). 
Sindi (Yorks). 
Snellinc (Cambs). 
Snode, Snot (Dev.). 
Sol (Heref.). 
Spirites and Spirtes(many counties), 

Spert (Yorks). 
Stam (Yorks). 
Stanker (Suff.). 
Ster, Sterr, Sterre, Stur, Strui 

(many counties). 
Suartcol (Yorks). 
Swenus Suart (Ess.), a Dane. 
Thol, Thole, Tholi, Tol, Toli 

(various counties). 
Thor (Northants), Tor (Yorks, 

Lines, Norf.). 
Tou, Toul, Tovi, Towi (various 

counties). 
Turloga (Yorks), properly " Thor- 

laug." 

Ulward wit (Dors). 
Unfac (Notts). 
Wadel (Kent, Derb., Cornwall) ; 

Wadels (Derb.), Wadhel (Corn- 
wall), Wadelo (Derb.). 
Welp (Yorks). 
Wilegrip (Suff., Salop). 
Wit (as a surname repeatedly in 

many counties). 
Wlward Levet (Beds). 
Wardrou (Derb.). 



409 



APPENDIX I. TO CHAPTER X 



APPENDIX I. TO CHAPTER X 



SCANDINAVIAN NAMES 

[It does not follow that these surnames certainly derive from the Norse 
or Danish. Some are common to the Anglo-Saxons. But also, 
some of our (family names may derive from the Scandinavian, when 
encountered in ancient Northumbria, whereas the same name may 
have a different origin elsewhere. Hozier may derive from a hosier, 
or from Ozzur, and Brusi may have originated some Bruces, as well 
as the Norman place-name Bruix. Some Burns may deduce their 
name from Bjorn, others from a brook. Freeman may in some 
cases be an anglicizing of Freimund, in others describes the quality 
is a Franklin. The terminal letter r in a Norse name was shed at 
once on English soil] 



Alford 


from 


Hallvarbr. 


Alstone 


)) 


Hallstein. 


Alt 


)) 


Hjalti. 


Airey 


53 


Eyarr. 


Algarl 
Ager J 
Arkell 


33 
)) 


Alfgar. 
Arnketill. 


Arnott 


53 


Arnobr. 


Askell \ 
Haskell / 


5) 


Askulfr. 


Askew 


5) 


Hoskuldr. 


Atlay 


31 


Atli. 


Barth 


)) 


Barbr. 


Beale 


)} 


Bjolli. 


Bligh \ 
Blythe J 


55 


Bligr. 


Blund 


33 


Blundr. 


Boddy 


35 


Bobi. 1 


Bowles 


53 


Bolli. 


Brand 


tt 


Brandr. 


Broad 


33 


Broddi. 


Bruce 


55 


Brusi. 


Burk 


33 


Borkr. 2 


Burn 


33 


Bjorn. 


Carr 


35 


Karr. 


Colburn 


5) 


Kolbjorn. 


Cole and 






Colley 


j, 


Kolli and Kollr. 


Curtain 


JJ 


Kjartan. 



Day from 


Dagr. 


Eagle 


>5 


Egill. 


Elgar 


33 


Alfgarr. 


Ewins 


55 


Eyvind. 


Easton 


3J 


Eystein. 


Featherstone 


55 


Fribestan. 


Freeman 


33 


Freimundr. 


Freestone 


55 


Freysteinn. 


Froude 


33 


Frobi. 


Gait 


n 


Galti. 


Gamell 


5) 


Gamel. 


Gayer \ 
Geer, Gerry J 


33 


Geirr. 


Cell 


33 


Gellir. 


Goodly 


3? 


Gubleifr. 


Goodlake 


3} 


Gubleikr. 


Goodman 


3) 


Gubmundr. 


Gorman 


5) 


Gormundr. 


Goodrich 


)} 


Gubrekr. 


Grundy 


33 


Grundi or Gun- 






drod. 


Grymes 


)3 


Grfmr. 


Grain 


3) 


Grdni. 


Guest 


33 


Gestr. 


Gunn 


33 


Gunnar. 


Gunstone 


33 


Gunnsteinn. 


Guthrie 


33 


Gubrodr. 


Hake 


3} 


Haki. 


Haldane 


3) 


Hlfdan. 



1 A messenger, Ivarr Boddi, occurs in 1215, Fornmanna Sogur. 

2 The Irish Burks are from de Burgh. 

410 



APPENDIX I. TO CHAPTER X 



Hall from Hallr. 
Hammond Hdmundr. 


Ronald ) 
Reynolds/ 


from 


Rognvaldr. 


Harvey 


)) 


HaVarbr. 


Salmon 


)3 


Salmundr. 


Hassel 


)) 


Asculfr. 


Scholey 





Skuli, a son ot 


Halford 


55 


Hallvarbr. 






Earl Tostig. 


Hemming 


33 


Hemmingr. 


Scorey 


)) 


Skari. 


Herman 


33 


Hermundr. 


Seaward 


3) 


SigurSr. 


Holker 


33 


Hallkarr. 


Smaley \ 




/Smali (a shep- 


Holybone 


5) 


Hallbjorn. 


Smale J 


J) 


\ herd.) 


Hozier 


J) 


Ozzur. 


Snell 


J) 


Snjall. 


Hyde 


5} 


Hide. 1 


Soley 


)} 


Solvi. 


Humphry 


J) 


Holmfrib. 


Stiggins 


55 


Stigandi. 


Inchbald 


33 


Ingibaldr. 


Stone 


33 


Steinn. 


Ingle 


33 


Ingolfr. 


Stoner 


3) 


Steinarr. 


Ingledew 


33 


Ingjaldr. 


Somerley 


)J 


Somerlib. 


Ingram 


)) 


Ingiramr. 


Steer 


35 


Styrr. 


Jekyll 


33 


Jokull. 


Sturgess 


5) 


Thorgisl. 


Jelf 


| 


Jolfr. 


Symonds 


3) 


Sigmundr. 


Kettle \ 




TT^fill 


Swinburn 


3) 


Sveinbjorn. 


Kiddle/ 


35 


iveiiii. 


Swayne 


3) 


Svein. 


Knott, Nott 


33 


Knutr. 


Taite 


J3 


Teitr. 


Lamb 


31 


Lambi. 


Th orb urn 


3) 


Thorbjorn. 


Leefe, Lever 


)) 


Leifr. 


Thorley 


35 


Thorleifr. 


Lover 


J3 


Hlobver. 


Thurkell 


53 


Thorkell. 


Luard 


33 


Lavard. 


Thorold 


33 


Thorvaldr. 


Magnus 


33 


Magnus. 


Thurstan 


3? 


Thorsteinn. 


Maule\ 




rMaull, Dan. Moll 


Tooke, Toke 


Toki. 


Moll / 


J 


\ occurs 1209. 


Triggs 


3) 


Tryggvi. 


Odger 


35 


Oddgeir. 


Turpin 


37 


Thorfinn. 


Orme 


}) 


Ormr. 


Uhtred 


)J 


Utryggr. 


Osborne 


?3 


A^bjorn. 


Ussher 


5> 


Ozzur. 


Osegood 


31 


Asgautr. 


Vickary 


3? 


Vfkarri. 


Osmund 


) 


Asmundr. 


Wayburn 


3? 


Vdbjorn. 


Oswald 




Asvaldr. 


Wrath \ 




T> t 


Raven 


55 


Hrafn. 


Wroth/ 


33 


Raubr. 


Rayner 


3) 


Ragnar. 


Waymand 


33 


Vemundr. 


Rayne 


33 


Hrani. 


Wavland 


33 


Viglundr. 


Rolf 


)> 


Hrolfr. 


Wyvill 


3) 


Vifill. 



1 The name of the half-brother of King Sverrir ; he fell in 1191. 
Another Hide was a captain in Sverrir's army, 1201. 



411 



APPENDIX II. TO CHAPTER X 



APPENDIX II. TO CHAPTER X 

SURNAMES OF THE FIFTEENTH CENTURY IN THE 
" LIBER VITM " 



Dominus Edwardus Hymmers. 
Jacobus Dukket. 
Willelmus Pykryng. 
Johannes Baylay. 
Thomas Baylay. 
Willelmus Foster. 



Dominus Thomas Burrelle. 
Richardus Murtone. 
Radulphus Blaxtone. 
Christopherus Wyllye. 
Johannes Cartelle. 
Christopherus Hemyn- 
borogh. 

Roger Bill, Cuthbert Dowffe, Johannes Tod, Willelmus Hakfurthe, 
Johannes Belle, Thomas Sperke, J. Blunt, Johannes Ellnett, Johannes 
Burghe, Edwardus Hardynk, Willelmus Clyltone, Willelmus Bennet, 
Georgius Corfurthe, Nicholas Wynter, Thomas and John Wynter, magis- 
ter Johannes Clerke, Johannes Manneres, Juliana, Margaret, Katerina and 
Elizabeth Clerke, Dominus Thomas Jonson, Ricardus Poole, feretrarius 
(the shrineward), Henricus Wylom, Willelmus Dynshburne, Johannes 
Hudrynsen, Christopherus Wardell, Willelmus Huchenson, Alyson, 
Edmundus et Thomas, Willelmus Burton, Christopherus Ryffhley, 
Willelmus Tode, Willm. Brantyngham, Nicholas Rychardson, Robertus 
Hychesson, Johanna Rychardson, Johannes Rychardson, John Payrnell 
et Kateryna et Thomas, Helena Mayre, Thomas Coky et Thos., junior, 
Wyllms et Genett Coky, Thorn. Bryntlay. 

The rest of the surnames I will give without the Christian names ; they 
are : Richardson, Belle, Weldon, Felton, Peyrson (Pierson), Thomson, 
Browelle, Morley, Heppell, Nicholl, Hogyln, Scott, Swanston, Kethe 
(Keith), Heryngton (Harrington), Coode, Todd, Foster, Skipton, Hymers, 
Hawkwell, Durham, Worlay, Trumpwhett, Brune, Edwarde, Blunt, 
Eland, Yonge, Cane, Babyngton, Eysdon, Stroder, Carr, Wylem, Barnes, 
Pule, Kendall, Home, Rawe, Duckett, Robinson, Hegington, Hebburne, 
Caly, Wardale, Cuthbert, Gray, Hylton, Emerson, Hale, Lawson. 



APPENDIX TO CHAPTER XI 

LIST OF THOSE WHO ATTENDED WILLIAM THE CONQUEROR 
TO ENGLAND, ACCORDING TO WAGE, " ROMAN DE ROU " 

The numbers refer to the line in the edition of Anderson. 



Abbeville, Eustache d', 8453. 
Alan Fergant, Duke of Brittany, 

7679, 8715, 8721. 
Anisi, the men of, 8442. 
Annebault, Sire d', 8643. 
Argentan, the men of, 8441. 



Asnieres, Gilbert d', 8557. 
Aubigny, Sire d' (Daubeny), 8494. 
Aumale, Stephen, Sire d' (Albe- 

marle), 8443. 

Aunay, Sire d' (Dawney), 8669. 
Aunou, Sire d', 8450. 



412 



APPENDIX TO CHAPTER XI 



Auvillars, Sire d', 8642. 
Avenel of Les Biards, Sire d', 8523. 
Avranches. Richard, Sire d', 8491. 
Bagueville, Martel de (Baskerville), 

8545- 
Beaufou, Robert de (Beaufort), 

8449. 
Beaumont, Roger (mistaken for 

Richard) de, 8353, 8356. 
Bertram, Richard, 8525. 
Bienfaite, Richard de, 8560. 
Bigot, Roger, 8571. 
Biards, Les (same as Avenel), 8492. 
Bohun, Humfrey de, 8474. 
Bolbec, Hugh de, 8559. 
Bonnebosq, Sire de, 8561. 
Boutevilain, 8605. 
Bray, the men of, 8480. 
B renal, Sire de, 8536. 
Breteuil, the men of, 8531. 
Brix, or Bruis (Bruce), the men of, 

8667 

Caen, men of, 8440. 
Cahagnes, Sire de, 8558. 
Cailly, Sire de (Cailey), 8543. 
Carteret, Humfrey and M auger de, 

8475- 

Caux, knights of, 8625. 
Cayle, Ingulf de, 8483. 
Coisnieres, Sirede (Conyers), 8558. 
Cinglars, Rodulf de, 8513. 
Cintheaux, Sire de, 8547. 
Colombiers, William de, 8556. 
Combray, Sire de, 8669. 
Cotentin, Barons of, 8378, 8379, 

8517. 

Conches, Radolf de, 7602. 
Courcy, Sire de (mistake for Torcy), 

8505, 8550. 

Crevecceur, Sire de, 8666. 
Epinay (for Pins), or Espines, 8504. 
Estouteville, 8452. 
Eu, Robert, Count of, 8726. 
Falaise, men of, 8441. 
Ferte, La, Sire de, 8601. 
Fitz Erneis, Robert, 8645. 
Fitz Osbern, 7511, 7673. 
Fontenay, Sire de, 8670. 
Fougeres, Sire de, 8387. 
Gace, Chevalier de, 8552. 
Gael, Rudolf de, 6393, 8518. 



Glos, Sire de, 8562. 
Gournai, Hugh de, 8479. 
Gouvix, Sire de, 8547. 
Grandmesnil, Sire de, or de 

Lisieux, 8461. 
Haie La, Sire de, 8595. 
Harcourt, Sire de, 8663. 
Hommet, Le, the men of, 8537. 
Jort, Sire de, 8505. 
L' Aigle, Ingulf de, 8483. 
La Lande, William Patric de, 8609, 

8623. 

Lassy, Chevalier de (Lacy), 8551. 
Lithaire, Sire de, 8445. 
Lucy, Sire de, 8495. 
Magneville, Sire de (Mandeville), 

8454. 

Mayenne, Geoffrey de, 8473. 
Mallet, William, 8363, 8375. 
Mare, La, Sire de, 8446. 
Marmion, Roger, 8514. 
Mathieu, the men of, 8442. 
Monceaux, Sire de, 8548. 
Montfray, Giffard, Sire de, 8600. 
Montfiquet, Sire de, 8569. 
Montfort, Hugh de, 8370. 
Montgomerie, Roger de, 8306, 

8727. 

Morlai, Sire de, 8671. 
Mortain, Robert, Count of, 8659, 

10514. 
Mortemer, Hugh (Christian name 

wrong), 8641. 

Moulins, William de (Mullins),8457. 
Moyon, William de (Mohun), 8511. 
Nehou, Sire de, 8447. 
Orval, the men of, 8535. 
Ouilly, Chevalier de (D'Oiley), 

8553- 

Pacy, Sire de (Pace), 8549. 
Paisnel des Moutiers Humbert 

(Paganel), 8524. 
Peeleit, de (Bellet), 6391. 
Pins, Sire des (same as 1'Epines), 

8458. 

Pirou, Chevalier de, 8448. 
Port, Sire de, 8504. 
Preaux, Sire de, 8546. 
Presles, Sire de, 8555. 
Taison, Rudolf de, or de Cinglais, 

8513- 



413 



APPENDIX TO CHAPTER XII 



Reviers, Sire de, Richard, 8507. 
Rollo (Rou le Blanc), father of 

Thustan, the standard - bearer 

of William, 7657, 8698. 
Rouen, citizens of, 8439. 
Roubercy, Sire De, 8671. 
Roumare, William de, 8447. 
Sacy, De, Chevalier, 8553. 
Sai, Sire de, 8600. 
Saint Clair, Sire de (Sinclair), 

8643. 

Saint Jean, De, 8536. 
Saint Martin, Sire de, 8456. 
Saint Saens, Sire de, 8543. 
Saint Valery, Sire de, 8725. 
Sap, Le Sire de, 8562. 
Semilly, Sire de, 8544. 
Sole, men of, 8535. 
Subligny, Sire of, 8493. 



Tancarville, Sire de, 8453. 

Tellieres, Gilbert Crispin, com- 
mander of, 8390. 

Touques, Sire de, 8446. 

Tourneur Le, Sire de, 8555. 

Tracy, Sire de, 8496. 

Trougots, Sire de, 8563. 

Troussebot, 8605. 

Thurstin, or Thustan, standard- 
bearer, 7657, 8698, 8701. 

Urine, Sire de (Origny), 8599. 

Valdaire, Sire de, 8496. 

Varenne, de, William, 8477. 

Vassy, Sire de (Veysey), 8534. 

Vaudreuil,thecrossbowmenof,8529. 

Viez Molei, Sire de, William 
Bacon, 8548. 

Vitre, Sire de, 8495. 

Vieux Pont, William de, 8371 



APPENDIX TO CHAPTER XII 
HUGUENOT IMMIGRANTS' SUBSCRIPTIONS TO A LOYAL 

ADDRESS, 1744 



Jacob Albert. 
Gilbert Allix. 
George Aymand. 
Claude Aubert. 
George Aufere. 
J. Auriol. 

Nathaniel Bassnet. 
Allard Belin. 
Claude Bennet. 

. Lewis Berchere. 

. David Billon. 

ohn Blaquiere. 

. Beter. 

Thomos Le Blanc. 
Henry Blommart. 
Charles de Blon. 
John Boitier. 
Samuel Bosanquet. 
John Boucher. 
James Bourdieu. 
Stephen Cabibel. 
Peter Challifies. 
James Caulet. 
James Chalie. 



Honore Combauld. 
Peter Cuisserat. 
Daniel Crespin. 
Peter Devisme. 
Peter Des Champs. 
Peter Du Cane. 
C. Desmaretz. 
Andrew Devesne. 
Philip Devesne. 
William Dobree. 
John Dorrien. 
Samuel Dutresnay. 
J. Dulamont. 
Charles Duroure. 
Alexander Eynard. 
Willm. Fauquier. 
Am. Faure. 
Abel Fonnereau. 
Zac. Phil. Fonnereau. 
Isaac Fiput de Gabay. 
Peter Gaussen. 
Francis Gaussen. 
James Guinard. 
Henry Guinard. 



414 



APPENDIX TO CHAPTER XII 



Stephen Guion. 

William Hollier. 

John Jamineau. 

Stephen Theodore Janssen. 

John Lagiere Lamotte. 

P. Lebefure. 

Gideon Leglize. 

Caesar Le Maistre. 

David Le Quesne. 

Benj. Longuet, 

Samuel Longuet. 

John Louis Loubier. 

Henry Loubier. 

Charles Loubier. 

Jo. L. Loubier. 

J. Aut. Loubier. 

Peter Luard. 

Gabriel de Limage. 

Willm. Minet. 

Wm. Morin. 



Pulerand Mourgrue. 
Francis Noguier. 
Peter Nouaille. 
Ph. Jacob de Neufville. 
Joseph de Pontieu. 
Francis Perier. 
Pearson Pettit. 
John Pettit. 
Joseph Ponchon. 
Philip Rigail. 
Cypre Rondeau. 
Stephen Teissier. 
Matt. Testas. 
Thomas Tryon. 
Aut. Vazeille. 
Dan. Vernezobre. 
Dan. Vialers. 
Thomas Vigne. 
Willm. Vigor. 
Peter Waldo. 



415 



INDEX 



Many surnames that end in s are formed from the name of the father. Watts is the son 
of Walter, but Watt is Walter himself. Lawes is the equivalent to Lawson. 

Many names taken from animals, etc., have an e added. Thus, Lambe for Lamb, Crosse 
for Cross, Locke for Lock. 



ABBADIE, 283 
Abby, 54 
Abdey, 175 
Abeillard, 89 
Abel, 61 
Able, 89 
Ablin, 61 
Achurch, 176 
Ackland, 176 
Adam, 131 
Adams, 53 
Adamson, 53 
Adcock, 53 
Addison, 53 
Adkyns, 53 
Adye, 53 
Adyman, 53 
Affleck, 181-2 
Agar, 392 
Agate, 175 
Ager, 410 
Agnew, 255 
Aicheson, 54 
Aikebaum, 18 
Aikenhead, 167 
Aincourt, 207 
Ainger, 255 
Ainsley, 182 
Airey, 410 
Alabaster, 132 
Alanson, 54 
Alardice, 53 
Albany, 207 
Albemarle, 207 
Aldborough, 176 
Aldershot, 167 
Alderson, 54 
Aldrich, 170, 187 
Aldridge, 170 
Aldus, 1 68 
Aldworth, 393 
Alexander, 54 
Alford, 410 
Algar, 13, 410 
Alkey, 54 
Allan, 54 
Allanson, 54 
Allard, 65 



Allbone, 54 


Ark wright, 132 


Allbright, 54 


Armand, 281 


Allcock, 54 


Armiger, 105 


Allen, 53 


Armitage, 176 


Allgood, 310 


Armour, 132 


Allfraye, 308 


Arnold, 251, 387 


Allison, 6 1 


Arnott, 416 


Allix, 287 


Arrowsmith, 129, 132, 249 


Allonne, 283 


Arthur, 54 


Allsopp, 326 


Artie, 54 


Alstone, 410 


Arundell, 207 


Alward, 53 


Ashburner, 118 


Amadys, 65 


Ashe, 176 


Amelot, 65 


Ashman, 118, 150 


Amery, 206 
Amiard, 287 


Ashridge, 170 
Askell, 410 


Amory, 206 


Askew, 410 


Amphlet, 164, 175 


Aspinall, 178 


Amye, 61, 69 
Anderson, 54 


Astor, 105 
Atford, 176 


Andrew, 54 


Atkins, 53 


Andrews, 54 


Atkinson, 53 


Angell, 95, 311 


Atkirk, 176 


Anger, 287 


Atkynson, 195 


Anniott, 6r 


Atley, 410 


Ansell, 54, 132, 182 


Atock, 176 


Anson, 54, 61 


Attenborough, 176 


Anstice, 61 


Attfield, 176 


Ansty, 61 


Atthill, 176 


Anthony, 54 


Attley, 176, 410 


Antliffe, 182 


Attmore, 176 


Anwyll, 255 


Attridge, 176 


Ape, 70-1 


Attwood, 176 


Aplin, 6 1 


Atty, 54 


Applethwaite, 172 
Appleyard, 176 


Attye, 174 
Atwell, 357 


Arber, 308 


Atworth, 176 


Arbor, 109 


Aubrey, 54, 65 


Arbour, 109 


Aubrison, 54 


Arch, 258 


Audley, 202, 207 


Archbutt, 54 


Audrey, 362 


Archer, 132 


Aufere, 283 


Archeson, 54 


Augsburger, 306 


Archibald, 54 


Auriol, 284 


Arden, 392 


Austringer, 105 


Argent, 207 
Arkell, 410 


Avenell, 202, 208 
A very, 255 


Arkle, 54 


Avis, 6 1 


417 DD 



INDEX 



Avison, 6 1 
Awdry, 61 


Bayard, 67-8 
Bayes, 209 


Berry, 160, 202 
Beryll, 182 


Aylward, 53, 187 


Bayldon, 208 


Bertheau, 283 


Ayre, 331 


Bayley, 281, 392 


Bertram, 210 




Baylie, 105 


Best, 310 


Babb, 61 


Bayne, 380 


Betson, 61 


Backhouse, 176 


Baynes, 252 


Bettison, 61 


Bacon, 107, 187, 314 


Baynham, 65 


Betts, 61 


Badcock, 54, 107 


Bayouse, 209 


Betty, 61 


Badger, 89, 118 


Beach, 235 


Bevan, 57, 323 


Baggot, 324 


Beacham, 209 


Beveridge, 170 


Bagster, 132 


Beachy, 235 


Bevers, 210 


Bailleu, 281 


Beadale, 105 


Bevill, 212 


Baird, 67 


Beadell, 105 


Bevis, 67 


Baker, 132, 316, 357 


Beale, 440 


Beyouse, 209 


Balancer, 132 


Beamish, 177 


Bewes, 209 


Balderson, 54 


Beamsley, 118 


Bickerstaffe, 180, 365 


Baldison, 327 


Bearman, 106 


Bickersteth, 365 


Baldock, 54 


Beard, 255 


Bickle, 159 


Baldwin, 54, 67, 208 


Beare, 159 


Bickley, 159 


Balhatchet, 165 


Beater, 133 


Bidder, 133 


Baliol, 208, 375 


Beatie, 61 


Biddle, 105 


Ballard, 89, 362 


Beaton, 61, 255 


Bidlake, 176, 307 


Balliol, 375 


Beauclerk, 391 j Biffen, 176 


Ballister, 132 


Beaufort, 2079, 289, 391 


Biford, 209 


Bamberger, 306 


Beaumont, 182, 210 


Bigger, 133 


Bamfield, 210 
Bancroft, 163 


Beavan, 43 
Beaver, 255 


Bigott, 211 
Bill, 59 


Banister, 132, 208 
Barbauld, 288 


Beck, 159 
Beckett, 159, 167 


Billet, 61 
Billiter, 132 


Barbe, 61 


Beckwith, 174 


Billman, 133 


Barber, 132 


Bedbug, 361 


Bilson, 59 


Barbey, 255 


Bedburg, 361 


Binder, 133 


Barbor, 133 


Beddingneld, 237 


Bird, 135 


Barbour, 133 


Bedell, 105 


Birdwhistle, 174 


Barclay, 290, 379 


Bedmaker, 133 


Biron, 211 


Bardell, 251 
Bardolf, 208 


Bedoe, 55 
Bedward, 65 


Bishop ,310 
Bisset, 256 


Bardsay, 163 


Beeman, 182 


Black, 133, 186, 305, 307, 


Barkiss, 176 


Beere, 187 


386 


Barman, 106 


Belcher, 255 


Blackall, 176 


Barnby, 54 


Belfield, 210 


Blackburn, 176 


Barnes, 54, 252 
Barnfield, 210 


Bell, 61, 88, 97, 187 
Bellasis, 255 


Blacker, 133 
Blackett, 167 


Barnstaple, 172 


Bellchamber, 255 


Blackister, 133 


Barnum, 166 i Bellew, 210 


Blackleach, ix 


Baron, 310, 402 


Bellman, 61, 133 


Blackmore, 169 


Barr, 176 
Barrett, 208 


Bellsetter, 133 
Benbow, 254 


Blacksmith, 133 
Blackstone, 176 


Barrow, 159 


Bencher, 133 


Blackwell, 176 


Barry, 202, 208 


Benison, 54 


Blackwood, 176 


Earth, 14, 54, 410 
Bartholomew, 54 


Benjamin, 54 
Benn, 54 


Blades, 133 
Bladesmith, 133 


Bartle, 54 


Bennett, 54, 212 


Elaine, 211 


Bartlett, 54 


Bennetson, 54 


Blake, 133 


Bartley, 54 
Barwell, 255 


Benny, 210 
Benoi, 19 


Blakeley, 176 
Blakelock, 310 


Bar wise, 255 
Baskerville, 209 
Basset, 208, 310 


Benson, 55 
Bent, 159 
Bentinck, 19 


Blampy, 19 
Blanchard, 290 
Blaquiere, 281 


Bastard, 209, 311 


Bentley, 159 


Blaydes, 133 


Bateman, 106, 327 


Bercher, 118 


Blayne, 211 


Bates, 54, 106 


Bere, 159 


Blaxter, 133 


Batson, 54 


Berger, 118 


Blenkinsopp, 167, 326 


Battey, 54 


Berham, 210 


Blewett, 211 


Bave, 255 


Berkley, 167 


Bligh, 410 


Bavent, 209, 255 


Berman, 106 


Blocker, 133 


Bawcock, 54 


Bernard, 54 


Blomfield, 255 


Bawden, 54, 65 


Bernardson, 54 


Blompay, 19 


Bawkin, 54 


Berners, 105 


Blondell, 211, 290 


Bawson, 54 


Berneville, 202 


Blood, 307 


Baxter, 132 


Berrill, 182 


Bloomer, 133 


4 I8 



INDEX 



Blore, 133 


Brassey, 212 Burdon, 214 


Blount, 211, 308 


Brathwaite, 173 ! Burgen, 178 


Blow, 106, 133 


Braund, 212 


Burgh, 1 60, 214 


Blower, 133 


Bray, 213 


Burgoyne, 178 


Bloye, 256 


Brayler, 134 


Burman, 106 


Bloyne, 211 


Brazier, 134 


Burnard, 54 


Blucher, 333 


Breakspeare, 367 


Burrell, 214, 410 


Bluett, 211 


Brend, 160 


Burke, 214, 410 


Blund, 410 


Breton, 178, 213 


Burne, 410 


Blunt, 211 i Brett, 178, 219 


Burr, 115 


Blythe, 410 


Bretwitz, 337 


Burt, 265 


Boarder, 116 


Brewer, 134, 256, 357 


Bush, 119, 254 


Boardman, 116 


Brewster, 134 


Butcher, 138 


Bodkin, 54 


Briant, 213 


Butler, 102, 134, 149, 212 


Body, 54, 159, 187, 410 


Brice, 54 


Button, 135 


Boevy, 289 


Bridgeman, 134, 327 


Butts, 132, 1 60 


Boggis, 238 


Bridger, 134 


Byatt, 176 


Boileau, 281, 284 


Bridges, 177 


Byatts, 176 


Bold, 159 
Bokerley, 355 


Bridgwater, 160 
Briggs, 60, 177, 362 


Byden, 176 
Byfield, 176 


Bolitho, 308 


Bright, 308 


Byford, 176, 209 


Bolter, 119 


Brightman, 310 


Bygrove, 176 


Bolton, 159, 392 


Brimmel, 182 


Bythesea, 176, 313 


Bomgartner, 18 


Briscoe, 326 


By wood, 135 


Bonaparte, 397 


Brison, 54 


Byrd, 135 


Bond, 1 1 6, 1 86, 190 


Bristol, 1 60, 172 


Byrder, 135 


Bone, 211 


Broadbent, 159 


Byron, 211, 287, 397 


Bonner, 308 


Brocas, 290 


Bywater, 176 


Bonney, 256 


Brock, 89 




Bonville, 212, 256 


Brockhurst, 167 


Cable, 94 


Boone, 211 


Brodie, 187 


Cade, 135 


Boosey, 256 


Brogger, 134 


Cader, 135 


Borman, 106 


Bromsgrove, 165 


Cadman, 135 


Borough, 281, 284 


Brooke, 160 


Caesar, 54, 82 


Bosanquet, 285 


Brookes, 313 


Cailley, 214 


Boswell, 256 


Broom, 96 


Caine, 256 


Botcher, 134 


Brothers, 65 


Caird, 135 


Boteller, 134, 212 


Browker, 134 


Calcraft, 135 


Bothwell, 159 


Browne, 213, 307, 386 


Calf, 90 


Botwell, 238 
Bottle, 159 


Browning, 325 
Brownsmith, 135 


Call, 135 
Callender, 135 


Bottome, 160 


Browse, 176, 213 Callman, 135 


Boucher, 134 


Bruce, 73, 213, 375, 410 


Calthrop, 135, 149, 172 


Boult, 119 


Brune, 320 


Calverley, 169 


Bounce, 237 


Bryan, 213 


Calvert, 119 


Bourder, 134 
Bourdes, 134 


Bryant, 313 
Bryce, 54 


Cameron, 36, 380 
Cammoys, 254, 308 


Bourdieu, 280 
Bourdillon, 290 


Bryson, 54 
Bubb, 407 


Campbell, 377 
Candy, 178 


Boutell, 256 


Buck, 93, 106 


Cann, 256 


Boutereau, 281, 284 


Buckett, 256 


Cassel, 93 


Boutflower, 96 


Buckle, 135, 159 


Capern, 253 


Bouverie, 210, 281 


Buckler, 97 


Capper, 136 


Bovey, 256 


Budd, 54 


Capes, 215 


Bow, 187 


Buffer, 65 


Capron, 253 


Bowdler, 14 


Buffler, 96 


Carder, 136 


Bower, 134 


Buffets, 254 


Cardmaker, 136 


Bowen, 43, 58, 323 
Bower man, 134 


Bugg, 361 
Bull, 90 


Carew, 360 
Carey, 360 


Bowles, 134, 187, 410 


Bullen, 178 


Caroll, 117 


Bowyer, 134, 327 


Buller, 14, 119 


Carnaby, 161 


Boyer, 134, 290 


Bullinger, 132 


Carpenter, 119, 136, 29^ 


Boys, 211, 254 


Bullivant, 182 


387 


Brabant, 178 


Bullock, 90 


Carr, 160, 410 


Brabazon, 178, 212 
Bracegirdle, 134 


Bulmer, 290 
Bulstrod, 337 


Carrington, 256 
Carter, 119 


Braine, 256 


Bunce, 237 


Carteret, 119, 242 


Bramble, 182 


Bunker, 316 


Cartwright, 119, 124, 136 


Brame, 178 


Bunting, 370 


Carver, 106 


Brammel, i8a 


Bunyon, 254, 323 


Cass, 61 


Brand, 188, 212, 392, 410 Burder, 134 


Cassell, 20 


Brass, 212 Burdett, 256 


Castello, 355 


419 DD 2 



INDEX 



Castle, 106 


Chowen, 215 


Comings, 217 


Catchpole, 119 


Christie, 54 


Comyns, 217 


Catchpool, 119 


Christison, 54 


Conder, 137, 143 


Cater, 105, 136 


Christmass, 213 


Condy, 257 


Catlin, 61 


Christopher, 54 


Conquest, 257 


Catt, 90, 396 


Christopher son, 54 


Constable, 106, 393 


Caudle, 363 


Chubb, 92, 323 


Constantine, 55 


Caunter, 136 


Churchill, 257, 392 


Conry, 387 


Cause, 256 


Churchward, 120 


Conyers, 216, 270 


Cavalier, 282 


Churchyard, 120 


Coode, 91 


Cave, 187 


Clack, 187 


Cooke, Cook, 107, 137, 149, 


Cavendish, 392 


Claridge, 61 


150, 323 


Cayley, 257 


Clarke, Clark, 136 


Cookson, 65, 107 


Cayzer, 54 


Clavell, 257 


Coomtng, 217 


Cazenove, 290 


Claver, 106 


Cooper, 137, 149, 150 


Cecil, 61 


Claverhouse, 91 


Cope, 161 


Centlivre, 317 


Claye, 120 


Copeland, 161 


Chalk, 112 


Clayer, 120 


Copley, 161 


Chalker, 119 


dayman, 120 


Copperfield, 404 


Challand, 323 


Cleave, 161 


Copps, 161 


Challinger, 363 
Challis, Challice, 136 


Cleaver, 106 
Clements, 55 


Corbett, 83, 217 
Corbyn, 83, 217 


Challoner, 136 


Clemo, 55 


Corder, 137, 143 


Challys, 136, 214, 215 


Clerkson, 65 


Cordery, 143 


Chamberlaine, -layne, 102, 


Cliff e, 161 


Cornelius, 387 


103-4, 106, 215 


Clifford, 396 


Corney, 407 


Chambers, 106 


Climpson, 55 


Cornish, 178 


Chamier, 134, 290 


Clive, 161 


Cornwallis, 178 


Chamley, 256 


Clobbury, 365 


Corser, 141 


Chamond, 215 


Close, 57, 161 


Cork, 386 


Champagne, 283 


Clowes, 57, 161 


Cosens, 61, 65 


Champernowne, 215 


Clutterbuck, 14, 375 


Cossentine, 55 


Champion, 290 


Clymo, 55 


Costello, 387 


Champney, 178, 215 


Coates, 167 


Coster, 137 


Chance, 226 


Coatman, 116 


Cotter, 116 


Chancellor, 106 


Coaker, 130 


Cotterell, 116, 170, 326 


Chandos, 215 


Cobb, 38, 161 


Couch, 137 


Chanter, 136 


Cobbett, 55 


Coudray, 254 


Chantrell, 356 


Cobbler, 136 


Couper, 150, 254 


Chapell, 136 


Cobett, 55 


Coutts, 187 


Chapman, 136, 150 


Cobley, 161 


Coverer, 137 


Chardon, 284 


Cock, 107 


Coverley, 257 


Charger, 93 
Charles, 54, 116 


Cocker, 130 
Cockayne, 310 


Coward, 120 
Cowlard, 326 


Charlesworth, 174 


Cocks, Cox, 107, 323, 387 


Cowley, 137, 391 


Charley, 54, 117 


Cockrell, 19, 120, 326 


Cowper, 137, 148 


Charter, 105 


Codd, 92 


Cox, 107, 323, 387 


Charteris, 215 
Chase, 254 


Codner, 92 
Cody, 38 


Coxwell, 327 
Coxwold, 327 


Chaucer, 120, 136, 144 


Coffee, 257 


Crabbe, 92 


Chauncy, 226 


Coffin, 363 


Craddock, 13 


Chawnes, 136, 215, 257 


Cogger, 137 


Craig, 161 


Chawney, 257 


Cohen, 20 


Craike, 161 


Cheeseman, 136, 327 


Cokeman, 107 


Crane, 90 


Chenevix, 289, 290 


Cole, 13, 57, 187, 410 


Cranmer, 120 


Cherry, 19 


Colburn, 410 


Crawford, 382 


Cherwell, 257 


Coleville, 216 


Crayke, 161 


Chesney, 215, 231 


Collard, 326 


Creale, 226 


Chester, 161, 386 


Collett, 57 


Creamer, 120 


Chaworth, 216 
Chetwynd, 392 


Colley, 391, 410 
Collier, 137 


Creasy, 257 '< 
Creech, 162 


Cheyne, 379 


Collins, 57 


Crespigny, 281 


Cheynell, 257 
Cheyney, 215 


Collis, 57 
Colson, 57 


Cressy,257 
Crevelh, 335 


Chilcott, 187 


Colt, 93 


Crewdson, 55 


Child, Childe, 189, 190, 311 


Colthard, 120 


Cricket, 217 


Childers, 178 


Columb, 90, 216 


Cricklade, 162 


Chisholm, 377 
Chivers, 92 


Colquhoun, 372 
Columbell. 216 


Crisp, 55 
Crispin, 55 


Choice, 323 Combe, 161. 307 


Cripps, 55 


Cholmondely, 27 


Comfort, 363 1 Croft, 163 


Chope, 323 


Comper, 137 1 Crofton, 163 


42O 



INDEX 



Crocker, 137 
Crockett, 137 


Dawney, 208, 319 
Dawson, 55 


Doyle, 220 
Domville, 258 


Croker, 137 


Dawtrey, 218 


Donald, 55 


Crole, 226 


Day, Daye, 120, 258, 312, 


Donaldson, 58 


Crommelin, 283 


410 


Donkin, 55 


Cromwell, 174, 364 


Dayman, 120 


Donne, 187 


Crook es, 187 


Dayson, 55 


Doser, 138 


Crookshanks, 310 


Deadman, 121, 327 


Douce, 178, 254 


Cross, 95 
Crosskeys, 95 


Dealchamber, 363 
Deamer, 138 


Doughty, 310 
Dove, 90 


Crossthwaite, 173 


Deane, 163 


Dovey, 187 


Crosswell, 174 


Dearden, 163 


Dowch, 178 


Cruden, 120 


Dearmer, 138 


Dowse, 62 


Crudener, 120 


Death, 312 


Dowson, 62 


Cry toft, 217 


Deeman, 107 


Drake, 90 


Cudliffe, 182 


Deemster, 138 


Draper, 138 


Cudlip, 365 


De la Laund, 202, 218 


Dresser, 106, 107, 138 


Cuff, 257 
Cullen, 178 


Delany, 387 
Dela Pole, 97, 218 


Dressincourt, 287 
Drew, 250 


Cully, 214 


Delmar, Delainare, 169, 


Drinkwater, 181 


Cumberledge, 163 


218 


Driver, 121 


Cummins, 217, 375 


Dempster, 138 


Druce, 258 


Cundy, 257 


Denis, Dennis, 55, 178, 219, 


Drummond, 377, 407 


Cunninghame, 382 


387 


Dubber, 138 


Curie, 226 


Denman, 163, 178 


Ducie, 258 


Curtain, 410 


Dennison, 55 


Duck, 91 


Curtis, 254 


Denny, 55 


Duckworth, 121 


Curzon, 217 


Denyer, 163 


Dudgen, 58 


Cussack, 259 


Depledge, 163 


Dudman, 121 


Custance, 257 


Despenser, 102, 107 


Dudney, 258 


Cutbeard, 55 


De Trafford, 393 


Duffy, 258 


Cutcliff, 182, 365 


Deuce, 62 


Dufour, 285 


Cuthbert, 55 


Deval, 19, 


Duke, 310, 403 


Cuthbertson, 55 


De Vere, 396 


Du Laing, 387 


Cutts, 55 


Deverell, 219 


Du Maillet, 387 


Czerny, 325 


Devereux, 219, 319 


Dummerel, 308 


Dabernon, 217 
Dacre, ix 


Deville, 219 
De Villiers, 393 
Devonshire, 181 


Dunbar, 382 
Dun calf, 315 
Dundas, 382 


Dainty, 96 


Dewhurst, 168 


Dunn, 163, 187 


Dakins, Dakeyne, 55, 207 


Deyman, 120 


Durant, 220 


Dale, 162 


D'Eyncourt, 207 


Durdon, 258 


Dalhousie, 343, 382 


Dick, Dicks, 58 


Durward, in 


Dalmahoi, 343 
Dal ton, 162 


Dickens, 55, 58 
Dickenson, Dickson, 57 


Dust, 361 
Dustan, 274 


Dalziel, 343, 382 


Dickman, 58 


Dyatt, 55 


Dames, 207 


Diggenson, 55 


Dye, 62 


Dampierre, 258 


Digges, 55, 120 


Dyer, 88, 131, 150 


Dance, 55 


Diggles, 362 


Dyett, 55 


Dancer, 137 


Diggons, 55 


Dykes, 120 


Dancet, 55 


Digman, 55 


Dyot, 62 


Danes, 178 


Digory, 55 


Dyson, 58 


Daniel, 55, 287 


Dilly, 96 




Danson, 55 


Dimond, 258, 407 


Eagle, 91, 410 


Danvers, 319 


Dingle, Dingley, 163 


Eales, 67 


Darcy, 207, 319, 387 


Dinham, 258 


Eames, 62, 65 


Darell, 218 


Diprose, 258 


Easton, 410 


Darke, 258, 309 
Daubeny, -igny, 207, 217, 


Disney, 219 
Ditcher, 120 


Eaton, 363 
Earl, Earle, 178, 310 


290, 319 


Dixie, Dixon, 58 


Easterling, 178 


Dauber, 138 


Dobbs, 58 


Eave, 62 


Daubuz, 287 


Dobie, 58 


Ebbott, 6 1 


Davers, 258 


Dobson, 58 


Eccles, Eckles, 144, 163 


David, 55 


Dodd, Dodds, 55, 121, 


Eden, 62 


Davitt, 55 


187 


Edes, 62 


Davey, Davie, 55 


Dodge, Doidge, 58 


Edkins, 62 


Davis, Davies, 55 
Davison, Davidson, 55, 380 


Dodson, 55, 58 
Doke, 90 


Eddison, 62 
Edmunds, 62, 63 


Dawe, 55 


Dolling, 67 


Edmundson, 62 


Dawes, 55 


D'Oiley, 220 


Edwards, Edwardes, 55 


Dawkes, 55 


Dolman, 177 


Eeles, 67 


Dawkins, 55 


Dolphin, 92, 1 88 


Egerton, 392 


4 2I 



INDEX 



Elbow, 326 


Fenner, 121 Fowell, 258 


Eldrich, 308 


Fermor, 121 Fowle, 92, 121 


Elgar, 410 


Ferrar, Ferrers, Ferrier, 27, j Fowler, 92, 121, 150 


Elias, 55 


121, 133 Fox, 55, 92, 387 


Ellet, 67 
Ellicock, 67 


Ferron, Fearon, Fieron, i Francis, 55, 252 
Farren, 27, 121, 153 j Francombe, Frankham, 115 


Ellicott, 67 
Elliot, Eliott. 67. 319 


Fervour, 133 
Feures, 27 


Franklyn, 115 
Franks, 55, 115, 252 


Ellis, 67 


Fewster, 138 


Franson, 55 


Ellison, 67 


Ffinch, 368 


Frayle, 254 


Elkins, 67 


Ffrench, 368 


Frazer, 221, 275 


Elwes, 62 


Ffoukes, 368 


Free, 113 


Ely, 163 


Fichett, 231 


Freebody, 113, 159 


Erne, 91 


Fiddle, 88 


Freeman, 113, 410 


Emery, 206, 250 
Emmott 62 


Fidgett, 231 
Field, 163 


Freestone, 410 
French, 178, 180 


Empson, 61 
Emson, 61, 62 


Field-Flowers-Goe, 407 
Fiennes, 221, 393 


Frere, 65 
Freyne, Freine, 254 


Enderby, 160 


Filberd, Filbert, 258 


Freyson, 56 


English, 1 1 8, 178 


Filliol, 221 


Frieze, 130, 222 


Entwhistle, 174 


Filliot, Filiot, 64, 202 


Frobisher, no 


Enys, 1 68 


Fillpot, Filpotts, 323 


Fromisher, 136 


Epps, 61 
Ernshaw, 167 
Esdaile, 285 


Filmer, 221, 366 
Filson, 58 
Finch, 91, 121 


Froude, 410 
Fry, 113 
Fuller, 131, 138 


Essex, 181 


Fincher, 91 


Furneaux, 212 


Etchells, 144 


Finmore, 221 


Furness, 399 


Etty, 62 


Finn, 187 


Furnivall, 222 


Eugene, 387 


Fippen, Fippon, 246 


Furrier, 138 


Eustace 55, 67, 220, 251 


Firebrace, 67, 317 


Furse, 258 


Evercreech, 162 


Firth, 165 


Fust, 139 


Everstaff. 365 


Fish, 91 


Fuster, 139 


Eves, 62 


Fishacre, 362 


Future, 108, 113 


Eveson, 62 


Fisher, 251 


Futurer, 108 


Evett, 62 


FitzAlan, 221 


Fyers, 254 


Eville, 219, 258 


FitzAleyn, 202 


Fyler, 113 


Ewart, 121 


FitzBrian, 221 


Fynnes (see also Fiennes), 


Ewin, Ewins, 255, 410 
Eyre, 258, 382 


Fitz James, 43 
FitzPatrick, 385 


335 
Fysh, 02 


FitzRobert, 202 | Fyshour, 251 


Faber, 27, 133, 138, 313 FitzRoy, 43, 391 




Fabricius, 133 FitzUrse, 77, 251 


Gabb, 55 


Facey, 246, 323 j FitzWilliam, 44 


Gabe, 407 


Fair, 309 1 Flamank, 14, 178, 180 


Gabel, 55 


Fairbrotner, 65 


Planner, 138 


Gable, 55 


Fairchild, 322 


Flaxman, 138 


Gabriel, 55 


Fairfax, 310 


Fleet, 163, 308 


Gage, 139, 222 


Falcon, 91 


Fleetwood, 164 


Gager, 139 


Falconer, Faukner, etc., 108, 


Fleming, 14, 178, 338 


Gale, 108, 178 


150 


Flesher, 138, 327 


Galightley, 515 


Fancourt, 220, 258 


Fletcher, 138, 249 


Galland, 57 


Fanner, 121 


Flinders, 14 


Gallon, 62 


Faraday, 138 


Fleury, 289 


Gait, 93, 410 


Farewell, Farwell, 266 


Florence, 62 


Gam, 308 


Farfield, 266 


Flowers, 96, 138 


Gamage, 174-5 


Farman, 138, 316 


Floyer, 138 


Gambier, 286, 290 


Farmer, 121, 150 


Flurry, Flory, 62 


Gamell, Gammel, 186, 187, 


Farquharson, 372, 380 


Foley, 221 


308, 410 


Farrer, Farrar, Farrier, 121, 


Follett, 258 


Gamelcarle, 186 


132, 138 


Folliot, 64 


Cans, 86 


Farren, Fearon, Fiaron, 27, 


Fonnereau, 284 


Gant, 178 


133 

Faucett, Fawcett, 55, 108 


Fookes, Foulkes, 55, 251, 326 
Foote, 96 


Garde, 113, 218 
Garden, Gardener, Gardner, 


Fawkes, 55, 92 


Forbes, 343 


108, 113, 149 


Fawson, 55 


Force, Forcer, 138 


Garrett, 53 


Fayle, Faile, 254 


Ford, 164 


Garrick, 53 


Fearon, Fieron, Farren, 27, 


Forester, Forster, Forestier, 


Garrod, 53 


121, 133 


Forrest, 108, 149, 150 


Garlick, 97 


Featherstone, 14, 410 


Forrest-Bell, 407 


Garth, 165 


Feldberger, 300 
Fell, 133, 138 


Fortescue, 336 
Foster Forster, 108, 150 


Gascoyne, 178 
Gaskin, 178 


Fell owes, 187 


Fotheringay, 166 


Gastigny, 285 


4 22 



INDEX 



Gates, 147, 165 
Gatacre, Gattacre, 156, 159 
Gatishill, 112 
Gatherd, Gateard, 121 


Godrich, 59 ! Greyson, 56 
Godwin, Goodwin, 13, 59 Gribble, 187 
Goff, 55 Grice, 254 
Golding, 407 Grierson, 109 


Gaud, 
Gaunt, 178, 222, 312 


Goldring, 325 1 Grieve, 109 
Goldschmidt, 306 ! Griffinhoof, 328 


Gaunter, 139 


Goldsmith, 88 ; Griffith. i* 


Gauntlet, 97 


Golightly, 315 


Griggs, 56 


Gawthorpe, 172 


Golland, Goland, 57 


Grindon, 176 


Gay, 226 


Gooch. See Goch 


Grize, le, 83, 93 


Gayer, 410 


Good, 259 


Grocer, 139 


Gaylord, 259 


Goodacre, 159 


Grosser, 139 


Gaze, 222 


Goodbody, 56, 181 


Grosteste, 283 


Geer, 410 


Goodchild, 59, 310 


Grosvenor, 102, 392 


Geldart, 121 


Goodenough, 167, 310, 362 


Groves, 165 


Gellot, 62 


Goodfellow, 56, 310 


Grundy, 62, 410 


Gent, 178, 254 
Geoffrey, 55 
George, Georges, 55 
Gerard, 55, 251 


Goodlad, 315 
Goodlake, 56, 410 
Goodly, 410 
Goodluck, 56 


Gruyelien, 19 
| Grymes, 14, 410 
j Gubbins, 224 
t Guelf, 7Q 


German, 178, 259 


Goodman, 304, 310, 410 ! Guest, 410 


Gerry, 274, 410 


Goodrich, 13, 59, 410 Guiness, 259, 387 


Gibbings, 55 
Gibbons, 55, 224 


Goodridge, 59 
Goodwin, Godwin, 13, 59 


Guise, 397 
Guliver, 222 


Gibbs, 55 


Goodyear, 59 Gull, 02 


Gibson, 55 


Gordon, 375, 329 


Gulley, 92 


Giddy, 251 


Gore, 165 


Gunn, 109, 378, 450 


Giffard, 222, 310, 367 
Gilbard, 55 


Gorell, 1 68 
Gorges, 222 


Gunning, 325 
Gunstone, 410 


Gilbert, 55, 251, 306 


Gorham, 165 


Gurdon, 223-4 


Gilbertson, 55 


Gorman, 327, 410 


Gurney, 224 


Gilbey, 222, 259 


Gorwyn, 306 


Guscott, 116 


Gilcock, 56 


Goschen, 20 


Guthrie, 344, 410 


Giles, 56 


Gosling, 92, 259 


Gwyllim, 251 


Gill, 23-6, 165, 382, 410 


Gospa trick, 382 




Gillard, 142 


Goss, 62, 92, 187 


Hacket, 56, 253, 364 


Gillchrist, 382 


Gossett, 82 


Hackman, 122 


Gillespie, 382 


Gotobed, 56 


Hadleigh, 169 


Gillett, 56 


Gott, 165, 179 


Haigh, 1 66 


Gillie, 382 


Gould, 394, 466 


Haire- Fowler, 407 


Gillott, Gillot, 56, 59, 62 


Gower, 222 


Hake, 410 


Gillow, 62 


Goz, le, 83, 299 


Halbert, 5-6 


Gilpatrick, 382 


Gozzard, 122 


Haldane, 14, 225, 410 


Gilpin, 56 


Grace, 223 


Hales, 265 


Gillman, 327 


Graham, 380 


Half naked, 315 


Gilson, 57, 62 


Grandisson, 223 


Halford, 411 


Giltpen, 315 


Granger, 108, 165 


Halfpenny, 399 


Girdler, 139 


Graine, 410 


Halket, 56 " 


Ginn, 107 


Grant, 223, 254, 374 


Hall, 56, 165-6, 411 


Ginner, 107 


Granville, 276 


Hallet, 54, 56 


Glanville, 267 


Graunt, 223 


Halley, 166, 324 


Glascock, Glasscock, 57, 323 


Graves, 122, 165 


Halse, 56 


Glazier, 139 


Gray, 223 


Halwell, 174 


Glede, 91 
Gledhill, 91 


Greatrakes, 31^5 
Greave and Greaves, 109, 


Ham, 1 66 
Hamilton, 379, 392 


Gledstane, 91 


122, 165 


Hamley, 56, 250 


Glover, 139 


Green, 96, 307 


Hamlyn, 56, 224 


Gloyne, 267 
Glyn, 165 


Greendon, 176 
Greenfield, 363 


Hammet, 56 
Hamper, 139 


Goad, 59, 259 


Greenhill, 176 


Hampson, 56 


Goatcher, 251 


Greenslade, 172 


Hand, 96 


Goatherd, 121 


Greenwell, 174, 176 


Hancock, 57, 107 


Gobbett, 56 


Greenwood, 42, 176, 291 


Handcock, 148 


Gobbo, 224 


Gregory, 56 


Handel, 326 


Goch, 308 


Greely, 223 


Hanger, 165 


Godard, Goddard, 56, 59, | Grendon, 223 


Hankey, 325 


121 

Godden, 59 


Grenville, 223 
Gresley, 223 


Hannah, 179 
Hansard, 179, 224, 326 


Godfrey, 56, 67 


Gresson, 56 


Hansom, 57, 61 


Godkin, 59 


Greville, 223 


Han way, 179 


Godliman, 182, 315 


Grey, 223 


Harbottle, 159 


Godon, 59 


Greygoose, 315 


Harcourt, 224 


423 



INDEX 



Hardgripe, 187 


Herries, 226, 393 


Hornblower, 134 


Harding, 325 


Herring, 92 


Home, 139 


Hardman, 109, 122 


Hersee, 226 


Horneman, 106 


Hardy, 109 


Hewer, 122 


Homer, 139 


Hargreave, 122 


Hewett, 56 


Hosier, 140 


Harman, 306 


Heyman, 327 


Hostler, 142 " 4: 


Harness, 139 


Hickes, 56 


Houblon, 281, 290 


Harper, 109 
Harriman, 56 


Hickson, 56 
Hide. See Hyde 


House, 1 68 
Houseman, 327 ; 


Harris, 56, 225 


Higgs, 56 


Howard, 202, 225 


Harrison, 56 


Higgins, 56 


Howell, 13, 226 


Harrow, 88 


Higginson, 56 


Howett, 56 


Hart, 93, 109 


Highstreet, 291 


Hozier, 90, 140, 411 


Hartman, 109 


Higman, 56 


Hubbard, 56 


Hartopp, 167, 172 


Hilary, 56 


Hubert, 56 


Harvey, 14, 411 


Hilson, 56 


Hudson, 56 


Haseler, no 


Hinchman, no 


Huggins, 56 


Haskell, 410 


Hinksman, no 


Hugh, 56, 387 


Hassell, 411 


Hird, 172 


Hughes, 56 


Hastings, 202, 224 


Hirschell, 326 


Hughes-Death, 407 


Hassard, Hazzard, 290 
Hatch, 165, 176 


Hiskison, Hiskinson, 56 
Hitchcock, 58 


Huish, 1 68 
Hullin, 285 


Hatchard, 165 


Kitchens, 58 


Humfine, 299 


Hatchman, 165 


Hoarder, no 


Humphrey, 411 


Hatte, 22-3 


Hoare, 307 


Hund, 80 


Haughton, 166 
Haverfield, 163 


Hobbes, 58 
Hobbie, 56 


Hundredpounds, 307 
Hunt, 1 10 


Hawes, Hawis, 56, 166, 176 
Hawk, 91 


Hobbins, 58 
Hobbler, no 


Hunter, no 
Hunt-Grubb, 407 


Hawker, 122 


Hobbs, 58, 58 


Hurd, 122 


Hawkes, 122 


Hobbson, Hobson, 56, 58 


Hurst, 1 68, 392 


Hawkins, 56 


Hockaday, 313 


Husband, 123 


Hawkinson, 57 


Hodder, 363 


Hussey, 218, 310 


Hawley, 202, 225 


Hodge, 58 


Hutchins, 56 


Hawson, 56 


Hodges, 58 


Huxter, 122 


Hay, Haye, 166, 218, 331, 


Hodgkin, 58 


Hyde, 167, 392, 411 


377 


Hodgman, 58 


Hynde, no 


Haybiddle, 122 


Hodgson, 58 


Hyne, 110 


Hayes, 166 


Hody, 257 




Hayman, 67, 122 


Hogarth, 123 


lans, 57 


Maysler, no 


Hogg, 93 


Ibbott, 61 


ayward, 122, 225 


Hoggart, 123 


Ibsen, 61 


Hayter, 122 


Holcroft, 161 


Ide, 67 


Hazlehurst, 168 


Hold, 190, 366 


Idson, 62 


Hazzard, Hassard, 13, 290 


Holder, 139 


Image, 97 


Head, 90, 167 


Holiday 313 


Ince, 168 


Heale, 165 


Holker, 411 


Inchbald, 411 


Heard, 122 


Holland, 179 


Ingersoll, 171 


Heath, 167 


Holmes, 167, 259 


Ingham, 259 


Heathman, 327 
Hebblethwaite, 226 
Hebblewhite, 226 


Hollet, 74 
Hollick, 74 
Holroyd, 171 


Ingle, 411 
Ingledew, 411 
Inglis, 178 


Hebburn, 167 


Hoist, 179 


Ingram, 251, 411 


Hedgeman, 122 


Holybone, 360, 411 


Inkpen, 316 


Hedger, 122 


Holzapfel, 20 


Innman, 124 


Hellcat, 85 


Homer, 116 


Iremonger, 130 


Hellier, Helyer, 139 


Honey, 119 


Irons, 130 


Helliland, 355 


Honeybun, 362 


Isaac, 56 


Help, 187 


Honeyman, 119, 123 


Isaacson, 56 


Helps, 187 


Hood, 251 


Isbel, 61 


Hemming, 411 


Hoodwall, 251 


Ivers, 56 


Henderson, 54 


Hooker, 139, 306 


Ivey, 251 


Henry, 56 


Hooper, 139 


Ivison, 56 


Henson, 54 
Hepworth, 174 


Hope, 167 
Hopgood, 366 


Izzard, 62, 219 


Herder, no 


Hopkins, 58 


Izod, 61, 397 


Herice, 225 


Hopkinson, 58 




Hermon, 411 


Hop ton, 167 


ackman, no 


Heron, 93, 225 


Hopwood, 366 


acks, 56 


Herne, 93, 167, 225 


Horden, no 


ackson, 86 


Hernshaw, 93 


Horder, no 


acobs, 56 


Herrick, 226, 258 


Hore, 307 


acobson, 56 


424 



INDEX 



acox, 56 


Kalkreuth, 336 


Lambert, 57, 281, 306 


ames, 56 


Kaye, ix, 187 


Lambet, 57 


ameson, 56 


Keates, 54 


Lambson, 57 


ane, 179 


Kebroyd, 171 


Lambkin, 57 


anssen, 289 
an way, 179 


Keeler, 143 
Keep- Wells, 407 


Lammas, ix 
Lamoureux, 19 


acques, 56, 251 
ardine, 108, 150 


Kelson, 54 
Kemble, 137 


Lampert, 57 
Lamprey, 365 


arman, 178 


Kerns ter, 137 


Lancey, 344 


arratt, 55 


Kendrick, 327 


Landseer, 367 


arred, 55 


Kenn, 90 


Landor, 140 


aye, 225 


Kennard, 310 


Lands, 169 


ayne, 179 


Kennedy, 57 


Lane, 168 


eames, 56 


Kenneth, 57 


Laner, 140 


efcott, 322 


Keppel, 19 


Langstaffe, 364 


efcock, 55, 322 


Kerr, 375 


Langtree, 173 


efferson, 55 


Kersford, 366 


Larder, 123 


effrey, 55 


Kerslake, 366 


Lardiner, 140 


effries, 55 


Kerswell, 366 


Lardner, 124, 140 


effs, 55 


KetUe, 14, 411 


Larke, 94 


effson, 55 


Kettlewell, 174 


Larkin, 56, 57, 94 


ekyll, 14, 411 


Kewe, ix 


Larpent, 281 


elf, 187, 411 


Ke 7 95 


La Saca, 338 


elly, 56, 108 
ellicock, 56 


Keyes, 95 
Keysar, 54 


La Scala, 338 
Lassels, 226 


ellicoe, 326 


Kidd, 92, 123 


Lathe, 168 


enkins, 57 


Kidder, 123 


La Touche, 290 


enner, 107 


Kiddle, 411 


Latimer, 140, 226 


ennings, 57 


Kidner, 123 


Latoner, 140 


ephson, 57 


Kildare, 173 


Laud, 266 


epson, 55 


Kilkenny, 387 


Laund, 169 


erold, 55 


Killick, 1 68 


Launder, 140 


erome, 288 


Kilner, 123 


Laurence, 57 


esse, 140 


Kilson, 57, 327 


Laurie, 57 


essop, 57 


Kimber, 18, 137 


Lavelle, 387 


eune, 290 


Kimmeridge, 170 


Lavender, 96, 140 


evens, 57 


Kinch, 140 


Law, 57, 169 


ewell, 57 


King, 96, 310 


Lawes, 57 


illard, 19 


Kingstone, 387 


Lawson, 57 


impson, 56 
imson, 56 


Kinsman, 327 
Kirkupp, 172 


Layman, 140, 190 
Lea, 169 


obling, 259 
obson, 56 


Kissack, 259 
Kisser, 140 


Leach, ix, 141 
Leadbeater, 141 


ohns, 57 


Kitchen, 107 


Leader, 141 


ohnson, 57, 195 


Kitchener, 107, 140 


Leaper, 141 


oiner, 140 


Kite, 91 


Leapman, 141 


oliflEe, 310, 326 


Kitson, 57 


Leason, 57 


oil, 13, 62, 187 


Kitts, 54, 92 


Le Breton, 18 


ones, 306 


Kitto, 54 


Ledbitter, 141 


onson, 57 


Knapman, 168 


Lee, 169 


ope, 56 


Knapper, in 


Leech, 141 


opling, 56 
ordan, 19, 57, 250 


Knapton, 168 
Knibb, 61 


Leef, Liefe, 141 
Le Fanu, 290 


ortin, 289 
se, 57, 62 


Knight, no, 310 
Knoll ys, 57, 168 


Lefevre, 290 
Lefroy, 290 


osephs, 57 


Knopps, 1 68 


Legard, 320 


oskin, 57 


Knott, 338, 411 


Legatt, 320 


oule, 57 


Knowles, 57, 168, 260 


Legge, 95, 179 


owett, 62 


Knowlman, 168 


Legh, 169 


owle, 57 


Kyrle, 226 


Le Goz, 83, 299 


oyce, 60, 254 




Leicester, 392 


oynes, 57 


Labett, 57 


Leigh, 169 


ubb, 322 


Labouchere, 154 


Leman, 181 


udd, 57 


Lacer, 140 


Lemon, 367 


udkin, 57 


Lacey, 226 


Lempole, 18 


udson, 57 


Ladbrook, 168 


Le Neveu, 320 


ukes, 57 


Lade, 168 


Lennox, 391 


ule, 57 


Lafayette, 397 


Le Noir, 320 


ulian, 57 


Laight, 1 68 


Lepell, 336 


ury, 55, 243 


Lake, 169 


Le Roy, 400 


ustel, 284 


Lalleman, 177 


Leslie, 219, 376 


iixon, 57 


Lamb, Lambe, 94, 411 


L'Estrange, 220, 320, 387 


425 



INDEX 



Le Tablier, 209 


Luckman, 315 


Makin, 63 


Letts, 54, 62 


Lucy, 94, 228 


Malberg, 228 


Lettson, 54, 62 


Luke, 57 


Malby, 228, 362 


Levermore, 176 


Lukin, 57 


Malborough, 228 


Levi, 20, 57 


Lukiss, 57 


Malet, 228 


Levison-Gower, 27 


Lukitt, 57 


Malevrier, 230, 331 


Lewis, 57 


Lund, 169 


Mallison, 63 


Lewson, 57 


Luny, 228 


Mallory, 261 


Lewin, 187 


Luxon, Luxton, 57 Maloysel, 316 


Ley, 169 


Lyas, 251 ! Malster, 141 


Leyton, 169 


Lynch, 169 


Maltby, 160 


Liall, 260 


Lyne, 141, 260 


Malthus, 1 68 


Lias, 351 


Lynn, 165 


Maltravers, 232 


Liberty, 141 


Lysons, 272 


Mandeville, 229 


Libby, 61 


Lyte, 141, 368 


Mann, 117, 118 


Liefchild, 311 


Lyteman, 141 


Manners, 229 


Liffard, 227 


Lyttleton, 363 


Manney, 230, 262 


Ligonier, 281, 288 
Lilienthal, 306 


Mabb, 62 


Mansell, 229 
Manson, 57 


Lilley, Lilly, Lily, 94, 95 


Mabbot, 63 


Mant, 261 


219, 260 


Maberley, 63 


Manville, 229 


Lillicrap, 163 
Lily white, 173 


Mably, 63 
MacAlister, 43, 54, 380 


Man well, 261 
Mapleson, 63 


Limmer, 141 


MacAlpine, 380, 399 


Mappowder, 173 


Lindau, Lindow, 162 


MacAulay, 372 


Marcett, 57, 324 


Lindhurst, 168 


MacBean, 372, 380 


Marchant, 142, 252 


Lindsay, 228, 375 
Line, Lyne, 141, 260 
Linsale, 386 


MacCalummore, 380 
MacCarthy, 384, 385 
MacCheyne, 43 


Mar cock, 57 
Marcheson, 57 
Margetson, 63 


Lintott, 260 


MacDermot, 43, 385 


Margotson, 324 


Lion, Lyon, 83, 94, 380 
Lipman, 141 
Lipson, 58 
Lipton, 58, 365 


MacDonald, 377 
MacDougall, 378 
MacDuff, 372, 381 
MacFarlane, 381 


Mariner, 141, 229 
Mariott, Marriot, 63 
Marjoribanks, 27 


Liremont, 282 


MacGarry, 372 


Markham, 387 


Lisle, 219, 260 


MacGrath, 43 


Markson, 57 


Lister, 141, 148 


MacGregor, 372, 381-2 


Marney, 141, 229 


Littleboys, 315 
Lloyd, 393 


Maclnlay, 381 
Macintosh, 372 


Marshall, 233, 261 
Martin, 57, 229 


Locke, 141 


Maclver, 56 


Martin eau, 290 


Lockhart, 332 
Lockyer, 141 
Locock, 57 


MacKaye, 381 
MacKenzie, 57, 381 
MacKinlay, 381 


Marvell, 233, 261 
Mason, 141, 357 
Maskelyne, 142 


Loder, 141 


MacKinnon, 381 Massenger, no 


Loftus, 1 68 


MacLachlan, 381 i Massey, 229 


Lombard, 283 


MacLaine, 381 Master-Whittaker, 407 


Lomond, 280 


MacLean, 381 


Mather, 123 


Long, 309, 319 
Longfellow, 260 


MacLennan, 373 
MacLeod, 372, 378 


Matheson, 57, 373 
Mathews, 57 


Longman, 315 
Longshanks, 260 


MacMillan, 381 
MacMurrough, 384 


Matson, 57 
Maturin, 289 


Longthwaite, 173 


MacNab, 372-3 


Maude, 63, 230, 261 


Longville, 227 


MacNaughten, 381 


Mauger, 67 


Lopes, 20 


MacNeU, 57, 381, 385 


Maule, 229, 378, 411 


Loreyne, 179 


MacPherson, 43, 37^ 


Maulay, 229 


Lorimer, 141 


MacPhie, 372 


Maunder, 141 


Loring, 179 


MacQuarrie, 281 


Maunney, 230, 262 ' 


Louvain, 227 


MacQueen, 373 


Mauregard, 342 


Love, 95 


MacShane, 43 


Maurice, 57 


Loveday, 227 


Maddison, 57 


Mawson, 57 


Lovelace, 322 
Loveless, 322 


Magnag, 260 
Magnall, 260 


May, 63 
Maybrick, 261 


Lovell, 82, 227 


Magnus, 57, 411 


Maynard, 228 


Lover, 411 
Loveries, 227 


Mahew, 57 
Maidgood, 316 


Mayne, Maine, 179, 228 
Maxwell, 378 


Levering, 227 


Mailer, 141 


Medlar, 315 


Lowndes, 169 


Maine, 179, 228 


Medlicott, 176, 358 


Lowrie, 260 


Mainwaring, 27, 261, 394 


Meek, 65 


Luard, 290, 411 


Maire, 261 


Mellor, 141 


Lubbard, 179 


Maitland, 376 


Melonie, 19 


Lubbock, 179 


Majendie, 288 


Melville, 229, 375 


Luce, 94, 228 


Major, 67, 251 


Memory, 272 


426 



INDEX 



Mendel, 326 Mortimer, 2<n. 3O7, 387 


Nichols, 57 


Menzies, 378 


Morton, 169, 232 


Nicholson, 57 


Mercer, 88, 142 


Moses, 183 


Nihil, 57 " 


Merchant, 142, 252 


Moss, 183 


Nixon, 57 


Merrick, 250 


Mossop, 14 


Noel, ix, 213, 262 


Merriman, 63, 327 
Merrit, 261 


Mostyn, 394 
Motlawe, 183 


Nollekin, 57 
Norfolk-Howard, 396 


Merry, 261 


Motley, 183, 309 


Norman, 179 


Merton, 169 
Metcalf, 365 


Mott, 262 
Mounce, 233 


Norrice, 179, 252 
Norries, 179 


Meynell, 230 
Michael, 57 


Mounsell, 232 
Mounseer, 231 


Norton, 358 
Notschaft, 338 


Michaelmass, 313 


Mounsey, 233 


Nott, 411 


Micklethwaite, 173, 326 


Mount, 169 


Nourse, 252 


Middlemas, 176, 313 
Middleton, 176, 358 


Mountain, 169 
Mountford. 231 


Nugent, 262 
Nurse, 252 


Midlane, 169 Mountfort, 231 


Nurse- Rivers, 411 


Midnight, no, 315 Mowat, 270 




Midwinter, 315 


Mowbray, 230, 390 


Oastler, 142 


Miles, 57, 69, 251 


Mowcher, 315 


Gates, 250-1 


Mill, Mills, 69, 150 


Moyne, 233 


O'Brian, 36, 384 


Miller, 262 


Moxon, 57, 63 


O'Caroll, 54 


Millet, 57 


Muffet, 272 


O'Connor, 384, 385 


Milman, no 


Mules, 226 


Odger, 67, 251, 411 


Milner, no 


Mullens, 262 


O'Donohue, 384 


Milsom, 57 


Mumfey, 231 


O'Donovan, 384 


Milson, 57 


Mummery, 363 


O'Dugan, 384 


Milward, no 


Munday, 262, 313 


Ody, 257 


Minter, 142 
Mitchell, 57 


Mungay, 362 
Murray, 382 


O'Faelan, 284 
Offer, Offerer, 142 


Mitchener, 142 
Mitch eson, 57 


Murrell, 233 
Muschet, 379 


Ogle, 316 
O'Laughlin, 385 


Moggs, 62 


Musgrave, 233 


Oldcastle, 176 


Moggsson, 63 


Musgrove, 233, 343 


Oldcorne, 182 


Mogillapatrick, 385 
Mohun, 97, 230, 262 


Mussard, 233 
Musset, 233 


Olde, 190, 366 
Oliphant, 63, 235, 375 


Moll, 229, 411 


Musselwhite, 326 


Oliver, 57, 69 


Mompeson, 231 
Monceaux, 231, 392 


Mustard, 142 
Musters, 233 


O'Mahony, 384 
O'MalbroRi, 385 


Moncrieff, 382 
Monday, 262, 313 


Mutton, 183, 253 
Mytton, 254 


O'Melaghlin, 384 
O'Neil, 57, 384-5 


Money, 142, 262 




Onion, 97 


Monier, 142 


Naesmyth, 150 


Ore, 170 


Monk, 233, 367 
Monkey, 315 


Nangle, 159, 387 
Nankivel, 93, 170 


Or me, 411 
Ormrod, 171 


Monro, 282 


Napier, 103, in, 149, 330 


Ormroyd, 171 


Montague, 231 


Nathan, 20 


Orsini, 77 


Montandre, 283 


Nation, 96 


Osbald, 58 


Montceau, 231, 392 


Nayle, 361 


Osbert, 58 


Montnchet, 231 
Montgomery, 203, 283 


Neale, 57 
Neames, 64 


Osborne, 58, 187, 332, 411 
Osegood, 411 


Montmorency, 392 


Neaves, 64, 253 


Oseler, 123, 135 


Montmorris, 333 


Neelder, 142 


Osmund, 58, 411 


Montolieu, 288 


Neeves, 320 


Ostler, 142 


Monyer, 142 


Neilson, 57 


Oswald, 411 


Moody, 310 


Nelson, 57, 392 


Otley, 336 


Moon, 197, 231, 262 


Netherton, 176, 358 


Otter, 363 


Moore, 169 


Nettleship, 160, 326 


Ouvry, 290 


Moorhayes, 169 


Neville, Nevill, 234, 262, 392 


Over, 170 


Mordaunt, 253 


Nevins, 65 


Overbury, 176 


More, 169 


Nevinson, 65 


Overman, 170 


Morgan, 13 


Newbert, 234 


Overton, 176 


Morell, 254 


Newbottle, 159 


Owen, 58 


Morley, 18, 169, 222 


Newburrow, 234 


Oxenden, 163 


Morrell, 290 


Newcastle, 176 


Oysterman, 178 


Moires, 92 


Newcome, Newcomen, 118 




Morris, 57, 232 


Newell, 262 


Pack, 142 


Morse, 57 


Newers, 262 


Packer, 142 


Morshead, 96 


Newman. 118 


Packman, 123, 327 


Morson, 57 ! Newmarch, 234 


Padman, 123 


Morteville, 233 Nibbs, 61 


Padson, 58 


Mortice, 262 ; Nicholas, 57 


Page, in, 316 


427 



INDEX 



Paget, in, 392 i Perrier, 123 


Polwheel, 170 


Painter, 142 


Perrin, 58 


Pomeroy, 267-8 


Palfrey, 93 


Perrott, 38, 236 


Pope, 310 


Palfreyman, in, 327 
Palgrave, 165 


Perriman, 123 
Perry, 236 


Popgay, 94 
Popjoy, 94 


Palk, 58 


Pertwee, 19 


Porcher, 249, 252 


Pallen, 319 


Peterkin, 325 


Person, 58 


Palliser, Paliser, 54, 10' 


Peters, 58 


Portal, 284 


Pan tier, in Peterson, 58 


Porter, in, 355 


Papillon, 235, 290 Petherick, 58 


Portman, 327 


Paramore, 169 


Pethick, 58 


Portwine, 179 


Pargiter, 147 


Peto, 179 


Pothecary, 132 


Parish, 311 


Pettifer, 317 


Potter, 143 


Parke, Parkes, 19, in, 149 


Pettit, 290 


Pottinger, in 


Parker, 103, in, 149 


Pessoner, 142 


Potts, 143 


Parkinson, 58 


Phayre, 14 


Poulter, 143 


Parkman, in 


Phelan, 384 


Power, 237, 362 


Parminter, 142 
Parnell, 63 


Phelps, 58 
Philbrick, 58, 1 60, 323 


Powlett, 58 
Powlson, 58 


Parr, 58 
Parrot, 94, 322 


Philipson, 58 
Phillimore, 221, 323, 366 


Powter, 143 
Poynder, in, 150 


Parry, 56 


Phillips, 58 


Poyser, 143, 264 


Parsons, 58, 311 


Phillipson, 58 


Prevost, 286 


Partrick, 94 


Philpott, Phillpots, 58, 253 


Price, 323 


Partridge, 94 


Phinn, 187 


Prickard, in 


Pask, ix ' 


Phipson, 58 


Prickett, 111 


Patey, 58, 253 


Physick, 362 


Prickman, in 


Patner, 142 


Pickard, 179 


Primrose, 96 


Patrick, 58 


PickersgUl, 323 


Prior, Pryor, 236 


Patrickson, 58 


Pickman, 123 


Probert, 58 


Patterson, 58 


Pierce, 58, 251 


Probyn, 58 


Pattison, 58 


Pierrepont, 236 


Procter, Prockter, in 


Patton, 58 


Pierson, 58 


Prodger, 43, 361 


Paul, Paull, 58, 284 


Pigeon, 90 


Prosser, 179 


Paulet, 58 


Pigg. 93 


Prouze, Prouse, 253 


Paulson, 58 


Piggot, Pigott, 64, 93, 238, 


Province, 179 


Pavey, 179 


324 


Pruss, 179 


Pawley, 324 


Pigman, 123 


Prust, 179 


Pawson, 58 


Pigou, 296 


Pudsey, 263 


Paxman, 123 


Pike, Pyke, 92 


Pugh, 56 


Payne, 235 


Pilcher, 142 


Puissard, 285 


Paynter, 142 


Pillsbury, 323 


Pulman, Pullman, 119, 327 


Peach, 235 


Pimple, 1 8 


Punchard, 237 


Peachy, 235 
Peacock, 75 


Pinch, 263 
Pinchard, 237, 263 


Puncheon, Punshone, 264 
Pulter, 143 


Pearce, 251 


Pinel, 263 


Purcay, 236 


Peascod, 377 


Pineton, 283 


Purkis, 58 


Pear man, 123 


Pinker ton, 263 


Purser, 143 


Pechill, 281 


Pinkney, 236, 263 


Purseglove, 334 


Peddar, 123 


Piper, 316 


Pursey, 264 


Pedlar, 123 


Pitt, 170 


Pusey, 263 


Peer, 50 


Place, Plaice, 237, 263 


Puttenham, 325 


Peggoty, 254, 324 
Pellew, Pellow, 210 


Plaister, 142 
Plantagenet, 96 




Petter, 138, 142 


Plainer, 143 


Quesne, 285 


Pempol, 1 8 
Pendennis, 170 
Pender, 150 


Platt, 143, 170 
Player, 143, 311 
Plimsoll, 171 


Quiller, 112, 143 
Quilter, 143, 150 


Penington, 307 


Plough, 88, 97 


Quintin, 244 


Penlee, 150 


Plower, 124 




Pennant, 170 


Plowes, 124 


Radman, 115, 143 


Pennell, 235, 264, 302 


Plumer, Plummer, 143 


Radmore, 176, 188 


Penninger, in 


Plunket, 237, 263 


Raffles, 143 


Penny, in 


Podger, 363 Raff son, sS 


Pennyfather, 305, 310 


Poggis, 238 


Raflfman, 143 


Penrose, 171 


Pointer, 131, 150 


Raikes, 315 


Pepper, 58, 97, 142 


Poins, Pointz, 179, 237 


Rainbow, 97 


Percy, 73, 391 


Poitevin, 179 


Raine, Rayne, 170 


Perkins, 58, 325 


Poland, 174 


Ralph, 58 


Perks, 58, 325 


Poldue, 170 


Ram. 95 


Pernell, Parnell, 63 


Poley, 254 


Ram bottom, 160 


Perowne, 263 


Pollock, 179 


Ram. jy, 163 


428 



INDEX 



Randal, 58 Ronald, 411 Sandiman, no 


Randers, 58 Rooke, 95, 142 ; Sandman, no 


Ranson, Ransome, 58 Rookard, 143 Sands, 172, 368 


Raper, 143 ' Rooker, 143 


Sandvs. 168 


Rapson, 58 


Roope, Roupe, 238 Sanger, 403 


Raven, 411 


Rooper, 238 Sangster, 144 


Rawes, Rawe, 58, 264 


Roosmale-Cocq, 407 


Sankey, 325 


Rawkins, 58 


Roper, 143, 149, 238 


Sanson, 58 


Rawle, 58 


Roscoe, 264 


Sarell. Sard. so. 241 


Rawlins, Rawlings, 58 


Rose, 88, 96, 239, 382 Sarson, 179 ' " 


Rawlinson, 58 


Rosenberg, 306 Sartres. 288 


Rawson, 58 
Rayne, Rayncs, 170 


Roskelly, 171 
Rothschild, 28, 306 


Saunders, 54 
Saunderson, 54 


Rayner, 14, 264, 411 


Rouse, Rowse, 179, 239, 254, ; Saurin, 289 


Read, 310 


261 ! Savage, 96 


Reader, 124 


Rouvigny, 281 ' Saville, 266 


Redcliff, 176 


Rowe, 264 i Savory, 96 


Redcock, 307 


Rowlandson, 58 Sawner, 252 


Redhead, 310 


Rowlett, 58 Sawyer, 144, 327 


Redhill, 176 


Roye, Roy, 246, 282 Saye, 240 


Redman, 115 


Rudall, 58, 272 Sayer, 59, 105, 124 


Redstone, 176 


Ruddiman, 171 Sayler, 253 


Reed, 310 


Ruddle, Rudell, 58, 273 Saxton, 144 


Reeder, 129 


Rudyard, 171 ! Scales, 171 


Regnard, 92 


Rugby, 176 i Scales, 171, 214 


Reid, 310 i Rugeley, 176 j Schelm, 329 


Renaud, 92 ; Ruggles, 264 Schenk, 329 


Rennell, 58, 92, 251 


Rule, 264 Scholey, 264, 411 


Rennie, 58 


Rumbelow, 264 


Schomberg, 19, 281 


Renshaw, 362 


Rumbold, 264 


Sclater, 124 


Renson, 58 


Runciman, 143, 150 


Scofield, 264 


Reuse, 52 


Rupell, 171 


Scorey, 411 


Reve, in 


Rush, 124, 179 


Scribncr, 112 


Reynolds, 411 


Rushman, 124 


Scrivener, 112 


Rhodes, 171 


Russell, 239, 353, 354 


Scroggs, 172 


Richard, 58, 67 


Ryder, 149 


Scott, 1 80 


Richardson, 58 


Rye, 171, 239 


Seabright, 59 


Richenough, 362 


Rymer, 112 


Seager, 59 


Richfield, 264 




Scale, 144, 171 


Rickards, 58 


Sacheverel, 260 


Sealey, 171, 181 


Ricketts, 58, 264 
Rickson, 58 


Sacker, 143 
Sackville, 240 


Seamer, 131, 144, 243, 249 
Seamore, 258 


Ridell, 238 


Sadler, 143 


Searle, 59, 241 


Ridler, 316 
Ridge, 170 
Ridgeway, 170, 357 


Sagar, 124 
Saggerson, 65 
St. Amary, 239 


Sears, 59 
Seaward, 59, 187, 411 
Seeker, 59, 143 


Rigge, 170 


St. Armand, 400 


Seeley, 171, 181, 265 


Ritson, 65 


Ste. Barbe, 239 


Seguin, 240 


Rivers, 238 


St. Chevrol, 266 


Selby, 171 


Riviere, 290 


St. Clere, 239 


Sellars, 106, 143 


Robartes, 58, 392 St. John, 243 
Robbins, 58 " St. Leger, 266, 393 


Senior, 121 
Sergeant, 145 


Roberts, 58 ' St. Lo, 266 


Serle, 59, 241 


Robertson, 58, 382 St. Marte, 266 


Serleson, 59 


Robethon, 283 | St. Ville, 266 


Service, 265 


Robins, 58 Sales, 253 


Seward, 59 


Robinson, 58 


Salmon, 59, 411 


Seymour, 243, 358 


Robson, 58 


Salmons, 187 


Sexton, 144 


Rock, 143 


Salt, 143 


Shailer, 144 


Rockster, 143 


Salter, 143, 253 


Shakelady, 327 


Rockstro, 143 


Saltman, 143 


Shakespeare, 366 


Roe, 93 


Salvin, 240 


Shand, Shandy, 265 


Rogers, 58 


Salwyn, 240 


Shaper, 145 


Rogerson, 58 


Samms, 58 


Shayler, 144 


Rohaut, 264 


Sampson, 58 


Sheepshanks, 320 


Roland, 58, 69 


Samson, 58 


Sheller, 144 


Roley, 58 


Samuel, 20, 58 


Shepherd, 124 


Rolf, 58, 411 


Samuelson, 58 


Sheppard, 124. 145 


Rolle, 58, 251 


Sandercock, 54 


Shield, 97 


Rollson, 58 


Sanders, 54 


Shillitoe, 173 


Romer, 264 


Sanderson, 54. 


Shillson, 527 


Romilly, 284, 286 i Sandford, 240 i Shipman, 144 


429 



INDEX 



Shore, 172 


Sparshot, 167 


Sutton, 358, 386 


Short, 309 
Shorter, 309 


Spencer, 102, 107, 220, 392 
Spenser, 108, 220 


Swan, 98 
Swaine, Swayne, 59, 411 


Shovel, 264, 363 


Sperling, 290 


Swainson, 59 


Shower, 112 


Spicer, 144, 150 


Swayneson, 59 


Shufflebottom, 160 


Spiller, 144 


Swier, 108 


Shutter, 174 


Spillman, 141 


Swinburn, 411 


Sibbald, 59 


Spittle, 315 


Swinherd, 124 


Sibbaldson, 59 


Spooner, 145 


Sydenham, 326 


Sibbson, 59 


Spratt, 92 


Syer, 59 


Sibthorpe, 172, 361 


Spurrell, 108 


Sykes, 172 


Sidebottom, 160 


Spurrier, 145 


Symes, 59 


Siggers, 59 
Silke, 144 


Squeers, 108 
Squire, 108, 310 


Symonds, 411 


Silliman, 181 


Squire-Bancroft, 403 


Taberner, 124 


SiUitoe, 173 


Stabler, 112 


Tabor, Taborer, 124 


Simbarbe, 266 


Stace, Stacey, 55, 220, 251 


Taburner, 145 


Simcoe, 59 


Stag, 93 Tackle, 241 


Simcox, 59 


Stallard, 124 ! Tadman, 113 


Simkin, 59 


Staller, 112 Tagg, 63 


Simmens, 59 


Stammers, 145 Taggett, 63 


Simonds, Symonds, 59 
Sims, 59 
Simper, 266 


Stamper, 145 ! Tahel, 241 
Stanhope, 167 1 Tailor, Taylor, 131, 145, 249 
Stanley, 169 Tait, Tate, 96 


Simple, Simpole, 266 
Simpson, 59 


Staples, 145, 265 Talbot, 241 
Starke, Starkie, 145 | Tallboys, 254, 307 


Simson, 59 


Starre, 97 Tallis, 254 


Sinclair, 240, 378 


Stayner, 14, 179 Tancock, 53 


Sinclere, 240 


Stead, 172 Tanner, 145 


Singer, 144 


Steadman, Stedman, 172 Tapling, 59 


Sison, 63 


Stebbing, 59 Tapson, 59 


Skene, 343, 382 


Stenson, 59 Tapster, 145 


Skinner, 144 


Stephens, 59 Tardew, 19 


Skrimmiger, 107 
Skrimshire, 107 


Stephenson, 59 
Sterne, 97 


Tasker, 124 
Taverner, 124 


Skryne, 386 


Sternhold, 366 Tays, 241-2 


Slade, 172 


Stevens, 59 Teale, 265 


Slater, 124 


Stevenson, 59 Tebbits, 59 


Slatter, 124 


Stewart, 112 Tegg, 63 


Slaughter, 144 


Steyner, 145 


Tenant, 307 


Slayer, 144 


Stibbs, 59 


Tennison, Tennyson, 54, 55 


Slee, 172 


Stier, Steer, 187, 411 Tentor. i4S 


Sleeman, 172 


Stiff, 57, 326 


Terell, 59 


Slodger, 266 
Sloper, 144 


Stiggins, 360, 411 
Stomer, 243 


Terry, 59 
Tessier, 281, 286 


Slow, 266 


Stone, 172, 307, 411 


Tester, 145 


Smale, 411 


Stoneman, 327 


Thacker, 124 


Smaley, 411 


Stoner, 14, 307, 411 


Thackeray, 174 


Smart, 266 


Stonewig, 328 


Theed, 59 


Smith, Smythe, etc., 27, 133, 


Stormey, 220 


Thellusson, 289 


144, 148, 150, 195, 368 


Stowe, 172 


Theobald, 59 


Smithson, 65, 148, 391 
Smollett, 58 


Straker, 148 
Stranger, 220, 320 


Thirlwall, 333 
Thorns, Thomson, Thomp- 


Snake, 97 


Street, 172 


son, 38-9, 196 


Snell, 310, 411 


Strutt, 152 


Thorburn, 411 


Snooks, 329 


Stuart, 102, 112, 376 


Thoreau, 83 


Soaper, 144 


Sturgess, 323, 411 


Thorley, 244, 411 


Sobey, 59 


Sturmer, 220 


Thorne, 88 


Soley, 172, 241, 411 
Somerfield, 163 


Sturt, 148 
Stutfield, 265 


Thorney, 242 
Thorold, 59, 411 


Somerlid, 411 


Such, 272 


Thoroldson, 59 


Somers, 241 


Suckbitch, 329 


Thoroughgood, 59, 174 


Soper, 144 


Suckerman, 113 


Thorpe, 172, 207, 326 


Sordwell, 241 


Suckman, 113 


Thorzeau, ix 


Soules, 241 


Sumeld, 163 


Thrale, 117 


Souter, 144 


Sugden, 93, 163 


Thresher, 124 


Southcott, 358 


Sugg, 93 


Thrupp, 326 


Sower, 112 
Sower butt, 160 


Sulley, 241 
Summers, Soraers, 149, 312 


Thurell, 59 
Thurkell, 59, 411 


Spain, 1 80 


Sumner, 145 


Thurlow, 115, 187 


Sparrow, 88 


Sunday, 313 


Thynne, 115, 190, 308 


Spark e, 91 


Sutherland, 382 1 Thwaites, 173 


430 



INDEX 



Tibbald, 59, 254 , Trotter, 113 


Wade, 174, 252 


Tibbets, 251 


Trower, 145 


Wadman, 147 


Tibbs, 59 


Truebody, 181 


Wadster, 147 


Tighe, 174 


Tubbs, 59, 146 


Wager, 113 


Tiler, Tileman, 124 


Tucker, 131, 147 


Waggoner, 124 


Tilewright, 124 
Tillett, 63 


Tuckett, 244 
Tuer, 148 


Wagner, 18 
Wagstaff, 1 80, 365 


Tillotson, 63 


Tuggett, 59 


Wakeman, 147 


TUlie, TiUy, 124, 241 


Tuke, 273 


Wakling, 252 


Timble, 254 


Tupman, 146 


Waldegrave, 165 


Timbs, 59 


Tupper, 146, 150 


Walker, 147, 150 


Timcock, 59 


Turnbull, 334 


Wallace, 247 


Timkins, 59 


Turner, Tourneur, 147 


Waller, 141 


Timson, 59 
Tindall, 163 


Turney, 266 
Turpin, 14, 69, 411 


Wallis, Walleis, 180, 355 
Walmsley, 247 


Tingler, 146 


Turton, 290 


Walrond, 59 


Tinker, 145-6 


Twopenny, 266 


Walters, 59 


Tipkin, 59 


Tye, 174 


Ward, 113, 218-9, 247 


Tippets, 59, 251 


Tyler, 124, 147 


Warder, 113 


Tiptoft, 242 


Tyrell, 59, 244 


Wardroper, 113 


Tireman, 146 


Tyson, 242 


Waring, 59, 70 


Tittler, 147 


Tyzack, 182 


Warley, 247 


Toby, Tobey, 59 




Warne, 113 


Todhunter, 113 


Udall, 266 


Warson, 59 


Todman, 112 
Toeni, 217, 269 
Toft, 173 


Uhtred, 411 
UmfraviUe, 244, 271 
Underwood, 357 


Warren, 59, 247, 392 
Warren er, 113 
Waterer, 147 


Toller, 148 


Upcott, 358 


Waterfield, 247 


Tomkins, 39 
Tomling, Tomlyn, 39, 59 


Uphill, 307 
Upperton, 358 


Waterman, 147 
Wath, 174 


Toms, 59 


Urquhar*-, 382 


Watkins, 59 


Tomson, 54 


UsshT, 113, 411 


Watson, 59 


Toney, 54 




Watts, 59 


Tonkin, 54 


Vache, la, 83 


Way, 252 


Tonkinson, 325 


Valence, 244, 275, 306 


Wayburn, 411 


Tonks, 54, 325 


Vandeleur, 14 


Wayland, 197-8, 246, 411 


Tonson, 54 Vansittart, IQ 


Wayman, 124, 147 


Toogood, 59, 310 
Tooke, 273, 411 


Varville, 266 
Vaudrey, 266 


Waymund, 411 
Waynwright, 147 


Tootle, 272 


Vautier, 59 


Wayte, 147, 252 


Toots, 265 


Vaux, 55, 219, 245 


Weaver, 130, 147 


Toovy, 187 
Toplady, 180 


Vavasour, 104, 244 
Vaville, 245 


Webbe, 130 
Webber, 130, 147, 306 


Torre, 187, 242 


Veale, 105 


Webster, 130, 147, 150 


Torrens, 265 
Totman, 327 


Veitch, 272 
Velayne, 246 


Weekes, 174 
Weewall, 367 


Tottenham, 325 


Venables, 245, 266 


Weir, 379 


Totthill, 181 


Veness, 180 


Welcombe, 181 


Tower, 145 


Venner, 105, 245 


Welland, 197 


Towers, 265 


Verdant, 266 


Wellesley, 391 


Towler, 145 


Verderer, 245 


Wellings, 59 


Townend, 163 
Townsend, Townshend, 163 


Verdon, 245, 266 
Vere, 246, 266 


Wellstead, 172 
Welsh, 1 80, 247 


Towzer, 131, 146 


Verney, 266 


Wemys, 382 


Toye, 258 Vernier, 105 


Wenman, 124 


Tozer, ix, 131, 145 Veysey, 306 


Westcombe, 161 


Tracy, 242 
Trant, Tranter, 124 


Vickary, 411 
Vile, 19 


Westcott, 358 
Westhead, 172 


Travers, 173, 263 


Villane, 246 


Wesley, 169, 391 


Travis, 173 


Villiers, 266 


Weston, 358 


Treble, 243 


Vipont, 271 


Wheatman, 148 


Tree, 173 
Trefry, 173 


Vivian, 67 
Vizard, 266 


Wheeler, 147 
Whewell, 367 


Tregoz, 242 


Vokes, 55, 323 


Whiffler, 147 


Trelawney, 173 < Vowell, 306, 323 


Whistler, 123 


Trench, 281, 289 


Vowler, 323 


White, Whyte, 305, 307, 368, 


Treville, 243 


Vowles, 266 


386 


Triggs, 170, 411 


Voysey, 246 


White-Bell, 407 


Trimmer, 131, 146 


Vyner, 147 


Whitelamb, 94 


Trist, 254 
Trowbridge, 160 
Trotman, 310 


Wace, 246, 308 
Waddilove, 187 


Whiteslade, 172 
Whitburn, 176 
Whitby, 176 


431 



INDEX 



Whiting, 92 
Whitmore, 176 
Whitstone, 176 
Whitster, 147 
Whitwell, 176 
Whitwood, 176 
Whittier, 148 
Whittington, 355 
Wicks, 174 
Widdop, 167 
Wigglesworth, 174 
Wight, 1 80 
Wightman, 140 
Wigram, 363 
Wilcox, 107 
Wilde, 96 
Wilkie, 325 

Wilkinson, Wilkins, 59 
Willard, 252 
Willett, 59, 251 
Williams, 59 
Williamson, 59 
Willon, 116, 246 
Wilmot, 251 



Wilson,' 59 
nbold, 59 



Wiml 



Windsor, 170 
Wingate, 253 
Winnifrith, 26 
Winterbottom, 160 
Winthrop, 172, 326 
Winson, Winston, 55 
Wirer, 148 
Wiseman, 125 
Wishart, 113 
Wolfe, 20, 95 
Wollacombe, 366 
Wood, 174, 254, 357 
Woodcock, 95, 323 
Woodhouse, 168 
Woodman, 124, 327 
Woodreve, 124 
Woodrich, 327 
Woodrow, in, 124 
Woodville, 245 
Woodwall, 95 
Woodward, in 
Woodyat, 175 
Woody er, 124, 327 
Woolaston, 366 
Woolcombe, 366 
Wooller. 148 



Woolner, 148 
Wordsworth, 174 
Wormall, 266 
Worth, Worthey, 174 
Wrath, 411 
Wrenches, 362 
Wright, 124 
Wroe, 764 
Wroth, 411 
Wyatt, 361 
Wyeman, 124, 327 
Wyke, 174, 266 
Wyld, 96 
Wylie, 59 
Wynne. 13 
Wyon, 266 
Wyvill, 245,411 



Yates, 147, 165, 175 
Yeatman, 124, 165, 327 
Yelland, 323 
Yole, 57 
Yorkshire, 181 
Young, 187 
Younghusband, 123 



THE END 



KILLING AND SONS, LTD., PRINTERS, GUILOKORD 



A Catalogue of Books on Art 
History, and General Literature 
Published by Seeley ftf Co Ltd 
38 Great Russell Street, London 



Some of the Contents 

Elzevir Library ...... 5 

Events of Our Own Times Series . . 6 

Miniature Library of Devotion . . .10 

Miniature Portfolio Monographs . .10 

Portfolio Monographs . . . .12 

Science of To-Day Series . . . 14 

Seeley's Illustrated Pocket Library . 14 

Seeley 's Standard Library . . . 15 

"Things Seen" Series . . . .16 



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CATALOGUE OF BOOKS 

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ABBOTT, Rev. E. A., D.D. 

Hints on Home Teaching. Crown 8vo, 35. 

How to Parse. An English Grammar. Fcap. 8vo, 35. 6d. 

How to Tell the Parts of Speech. An Introduction to English 

Grammar. Fcap. 8vo, as. 

How to Write Clearly. Rulesand Exercises on English Composition, is. 6d. 

Latin Gate, The. A First Latin Translation Book. Crown 8vo, 35. 6d. 

Via Latina. A First Latin Grammar. Crown 8vo, 35. 6d. 
ABBOTT, Rev. E. A., and Sir J. R. SEELEY. 

English Lessons for English People. Crown 8vo, 45. 6d. 
ADY, Mrs. See CARTWRIGHT, JULIA. 
A KEMPIS, THpMAS. 

Of the Imitation of Christ. With Illuminated Frontispiece and Title 

Page, and Illuminated Sub-Titles to each book. IB white or blue cloth, with inset minia- 
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" It may well be questioned whether the great work of Thomas a Kempis has 
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ALLDRIDGE, T. J. 

A Transformed Colony. Sierra Leone as it was and as it is. With 

Sixty-six Illustrations and a Map. Demy 8vo, i6s. nett. 

ANDERSON, Prof. W. 

Japanese Wood Engravings. Coloured Illustrations. Super-royal 8vo, 

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ARMSTRONG, Sir WALTER. 

The Art of Velazquez. Illustrated. Super-royal 8vo, 33. 6d. nett. 
The Life of Velazquez. Illustrated. Super-royal 8vo, 35. 6d. nett. 
Velazquez. A Study of his Life and Art. With Eight Copper Plates and 
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Thomas Gainsborough. Illustrated. Super-royal 8vo, half-linen, 35. 6d. 

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The Peel Collection and the Dutch School of Painting. With many 

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W. Q. Orchardson. Super-royal 8vo, sewed, 2s. 6d. ; half-linen, 35. 6d. nett. 
AUGUSTINE, S. 

Confessions of S. Augustine. With Illuminated pages. In white or 

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BARING-GOULD, Rev. S. 

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BENHAM, Rev. Canon D. D., F.S.A. 

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Family Prayers for Six Weeks. Crown 8vo, 35. 6d. 

A Companion to the Holy Communion. 32010, cloth, is. 
BINYON, LAURENCE. 

Thomas Girtin : His Life and Works. An Essay. With Twenty-one 

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An Exposition of Psalm CXIX. Crown 8vo, 55. 
BUTCHER, E. L. 

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CAMERON, D. Y. 

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Madame : Memoirs of Henrietta, daughter of Charles I. and Duchess of 
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CESARESCO, The Countess MARTINENGO. 

The Liberation of Italy. With Portraits on Copper. Crown 8vo, 53. 
CHITTY, J. R. 

Things Seen in China. With Fifty Illustrations. Small 4to ; cloth, 2s. ; 

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CHORAL SERVICE-BOOK FOR PARISH CHURCHES, THE. 

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The Ferial and Festal Responses and the Litany. Arranged by 

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The Chemistry of Paints and Painting Third Edition. Crown 8vo, 6s. 

CHURCH, Rev. A. J. 

Nicias, and the Sicilian Expedition. Crown 8vo, is. 6d. 

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CLARK, J. W., M.A. 

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CODY, Rev. H. A. 

An Apostle of the North. The Biography of the late Bishop BOMPAS, 

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COLVIN, Sir AUCKLAND, K.C.S.I., K.C.M.G. 

The Making of Modern Egypt. Fourth Edition. With Portraits and 

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CORNISH, C. J. 

Animals at Work and Play: Their Activities and Emotions. With 

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Animals of To-day : Their Life and Conversation. With Illustrations 
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CUST, LIONEL. 

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DAVIES, RANDALL, F.S.A. 

English Society of the Eighteenth Century in Contemporary Art. 

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DAWSON, Rev. E. C. 

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DE LA BERE, K. BAGHOT. 

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