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Full text of "Famous First Facts A Record Of First Happenings, Discoveries And Inventions In The United States"



A Record of First Happenings, 

Discoveries and Inventions 

in the United States 





Copyright 1933, 1935, 195O 

rights reserved. No part of this book: may he repro- 
duced in any form without perixiission in writing from tlie 
copyright o\vner, except by a revie^ver who may quote brief 
passages in a revie\v to be printed in a nia/^avinc or ne^vspaper. 

I'ublisliecl March 1O.SO 



The subject of ''firsts'* has received much local, national and 
international attention since the publication of "Famous First 
Facts" in 1933. Seventeen years of additional research have 
brought to light many "firsts" buried in obscurity. And, during 
this time, new "firsts" have occurred. This edition contains the 
material in "Famous First Facts" and "More First Facts" revised 
and enlarged with a corresponding amount of supplemental data. 
The "firsts" apply to the United States only. 

Statements contain full names, complete dates, places and 
events to enable this book to guide those contemplating more 
detailed study. The facts were compiled from thousands of 
original letters, advertising literature, circulars, catalogs, histori- 
cal documents and other source material in my library and in 
specialized collections. A listing of all the books, periodicals and 
reports consulted, from which bits of information were gleaned, 
would take several volumes. Often a score or more of news- 
papers, historical surveys and documents were examined to obtain 
a simple factual statement. Since many of them are inaccessible 
to the general investigator, ;; suggested list of ready material for 
further study has been added in italics to the entries. 

The facts in the text are arranged alphabetically by subject, 
similar items being grouped together. Cross references have been 
liberally used so that the items may be readily found in their 
alphabetical order. This edition contains four indexes: a geo- 
graphical index showing the city in which the event took place; 
a chronological index in which the events are listed by years; a 
index by days of the month showing the happenings on specific 
clays of each month; and a biographical index listing the names 
of persons connected with the various events. These indexes refer 
to the topic in the main body of the book \Jicre the full entry 
may be found. 

Many statements have been made in direct contradiction to 
the claims of zealous descendants, service clubs and business in- 
stitutions. The facts speak for themselves. 

January 23, 195O 




Preface 5 

Famous First Pacts 9 

Index by Years <(93 

Index by Days of the Month 6O3 

Index to Personal l^James 7O5 

Geographical Index 785 



cal operation 


for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully 
Held in Bondage" formed April 14, 1775 at 
Philadelphia, Pa. The first president was John 
Baldwin. It was reorganized in 17cS4 and a 
new constitution drawn up in 1787. It was 
incorporated in 1789 as the "Pennsylvania So- 
ciety for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery 
for the Relief of Free Negroes Unlawfully 
Held in Bondage and for Improving the Con- 
dition of the African Race." (Pennsylvania 
Magazine of History and Biography. Vol. 36, 
No! 1. January 19120 

ABRASIVE for commercial use, to perform 
work that previously was possible only with 
diamond dust, was boron carbide whose chem- 
ical formula is B.C. It is lighter than alum- 
inum and its density is 2.52 grams per cu cm 
It was produced by the Research Laboratories 
of the Norton Company, Worcester, Mass., and 
introduced to the world through a technical 
paper read before the Electrochemical Society 
in New York on September 27, l f J34. 


tion law 

THE U.S. Sec Visiting Celebrities 

ACADEMY was "The Academy and College 
of Philadelphia" founded by Benjamin Frank- 
lin in 1749 in Philadelphia, Pa. Franklin 
drew up the constitution for the academy and 
on November 13, 1749 was appointed its presi- 
dent. The academy opened August 13, 1751. 
Seven men graduated May 17, 1757 at the first 
commencement, six as Bachelors of Arts and 
one as Master of Arts. State legislation 
enacted September 13, 1791 united the Uni- 
versity of the State of Pennsylvania with the 
College Academy and Charitable School of 
Philadelphia under the name of the Trustees 
of the University of Pennsylvania. The first 
meeting was held November 8, 1791 at Inde- 
pendence Hall, Philadelphia, Pa. Inasmuch as 
most of the academies were elementary schools 
and the title "academy" was used indiscrimin- 
ately, there is considerable conflict as to which 
was the first academy. (Ellwood Patterson 
Cubberley The History of Education) 

ACADEMY OF ART. See Art organiza- 



Sec Arts and letters society 


Sec Arts and science society 


CIAL SCIENCE. Sec Political and social 

science society 

science society; Scientific society 

ACCIDENT (Automobile). See Automo- 
bile accident 

ACCIDENT (Railroad). See Railroad ac- 



Industrial accident reports required from 
employers were demanded by Massachusetts, 
under the Employers' Liability Act, Chapter 
270 of the Acts of 1X87 passed May 14, 1887 
effective September 1, 1887, entitled "An act 
lo extend and regulate the liability of em- 
plojers to make compensation for personal in- 
juries suffered by employees in their service " 
Section 3 of the act relates to the filing of 

ACCORDION PATENT was issued Jan- 
uary 13, 1854 to Anthony Faas of Philadel- 
phia, Pa, and bore patent No. 11,062. 


ACCOUNTANCY LAW (State) was Chap- 
ter 312, "an act to regulate the profession 
of public accountant 1 -' 1 signed April 17, 18% 
by Governor Levi Parsons Morton of New 
York Charles Waldo Ilaskins was appointed 
the first chairman of the New York Board of 
Certified Public Accountant Examiners. 

ACCOUNTANT to be made a certified pub- 
lic accountant was Frank Broaker of New 
York City who received certificate No. 1 on 
December 1, 18% from the New York State 
Board of Certified Public Accountant Exam- 
iners. His name was first on the alphabetical 
list of thirty accountants certified on that date. 

stitute of Accountants and Bookkeepers or- 
ganized July 28, 1882 at New York Ciiy. The 
name was changed on June 23, 1886 to the 
Institute of Accounts. 





Accountants' society formed by a state 
group was the New York State Society of 
Certified Public Accountants which was or- 
ganized at New York City, March 30, 1897, 
following the passage of the New York State 
Certified Public Account Law of April 17, 
1896 (Chapter 312). Charles Waldo Raskins 
was the first president. It was incorporated 
January 25, 1897. 

Accountants' society to become a national 
organization was the American Association 
of Public Accountants formed in New York 
City on December 22, 1886, although it was 
not incorporated until August 20, 1887. The 
first president was James Yalden. 

"ACE". See Aviation Aviator American 
ace of aces 

ACETYLENE or carbide gas was made May 
4, 1892, by Thomas Leopold Willson of the 
Willson Aluminum Company at Spray, N.C. He 
was experimenting to produce metallic calcium 
by fusing lime and coal tar in an electric fur- 
nace. The experiment was unsuccessful and 
when the molten slag-like mass was dumped into 
a nearby stream, it was seen that a gas was 
liberated. The gas which the carbide liberated 
on contact with water was recognized as acety- 
lene. Shortly afterwards acetylene was manu- 
factured on a commercial scale. Acetylene had 
been made previously, however, on a laboratory 
scale. (The Story of Carbide National Car- 
bide Sales Corp.) 


GOVERNMENT. See Territorial expansion 


Actor of American birth was John Martin 
who appeared at the Old Southwark Theatre, 
Philadelphia, Pa., March 13, 1790 as Young 
Norval in a play entitled "Douglas." (Charles 
Durang History of the Philadelphia Stage) 

Actor to have an exclusive contract. See 

Moving picture actor 

Actor to receive curtain applause was Ed- 
mund Keene who appeared in a group of 
special performances in Boston, Mass., in 1821. 
(Eugene Tompkins History of the Boston 

American actor to appear abroad was 

James Henry Hackett who made his English 
debut on April 5, 1827, at Covent Garden, 
London, England. His first appearance on the 
stage was in a small role in Newark, N.J., 
in 1816 when he was sixteen years of age, but 
his professional debut was March 1, 1826, when 
he appeared as Judge Woodcock in "Love in a 
Village" at the Park Theatre, New York City. 
(Montr ose Jonas Moses Famous Actor Fam- 
ilies in America) 


English actor of note to perform in the 
United States was George Frederick Cooke 
of Covent Garden, London, England, who left 
Liverpool, England, October 4, 1810. He ar- 
rived at New York City, November 16, 1810 
arid made his debut November 21, 1810 as 
"Richard The Third" in the play of the same 
name at the Park Theatre, New York City, 
before two thousand people. His manager, 
Thomas Apthorpe Cooper, paid him $12? a 
week for ten months, a traveling fee of 25# 
per mile and expenses. Cooke died at New 
York City, September 26, 1812. (William Dun- 
lap Memoirs of George Frederick Cooke) 

Matinee idol was John Henry, an Irish 
actor, who made his debut at Covent Garden, 
London, England, in 1762. His American 
debut was made in Philadelphia, Pa., October 
6, 1766 as Publius Horatius in "The Roman 
Father." (Arthur Hornblow History of 
American Theatre) 


Actors' union 

UNION. See Actors' union 

ACTORS' UNION was the Actors' National 

Protective Union, New York City chartered 
by the American Federation of Labor, January 
4, 1896. It combined with the White Rats 
(established June 1900) and the Actors Equity 
Association (organized May 26, 1913) to form 
the Associated Actors and Artistes of America 
(chartered August 28, 1919). A strike was 
called August 7, 1919 in thirteen theaters in 
New York City which spread to other cities 
and was settled in their favor September 6, 
1919. (George Fuller Golden My Lady 
Vaudeville and Her White Rats) 


Adding machine absolutely accurate at all 
times was the "Comptometer" which was in- 
vented by Dorr Eugene Felt of Chicago, 111. 
The model was constructed in November 1884, 
at Chicago, 111. A patent was applied for in 
March 1887 and issued on October 11, 1887 
(No. 371,496). Felt entered into partnership 
with Robert Tarrant on November 28, 1887. 
This firm was later incorporated on January 
25, 1889, as the Felt & Tarrant Company. Up 
to 1902 this machine was the only multiple 
order key-driven calculator on the market. 
(J. A. F. Turck Origin of Modern Calculat- 
ing Machines) 

Adding machine successfully marketed was 

invented by William Seward Burroughs of St. 
Louis, Mo., who obtained patent No. 388,118 on 
August 21, 1888 for which he applied Janu- 
ary 10, 1885. In January 1886, he incorpo- 
rated the business as the American Arith- 
mometer Corporation of St. Louis, Mo., with 
an authorized capitalization of $100,000. This 
company was acquired on January 16, 1905 
by the Burroughs Adding Machine Company 




organized under the laws of Michigan with a 
capital stock of $5,000,000. (Burroughs Bul- 
letin. March 9, 1929) 

Adding machine to employ depressible 
keys was made by Du Bois D. Parmelee of 
New Paltz, N.Y., who received patent No. 
7,074 on February 5, 1850. He called his ma- 
chine a "calculator." It was neither practical 
nor generally used. (/. A. V. Turck Origin 
of Modern Calculating Machines) 

Adding machine to print totals and sub- 
totals was made in 1872 by Edmund D, 
Barbour of Boston, Mass., who obtained patent 
No. 133,188 on November 19, 1872. His 
machine, which was called a "calculating 
machine," was not practical. 

ADDRESSOGRAPH was invented in 1892 
by Joseph Smith Duncan of Sioux City, Iowa. 
The first model consisted of a hexagonal wood 
block upon which was glued rubber type torn 
from rubber stamps. The block revolved, ad- 
vancing a new name and address to the print- 
ing point and inking the type simultaneously at 
each operation. This model was never mar- 
keted. The model "Baby 'O' " was put into 
production on July 26, 1893 in one small back 
room in the old Caxton Building on Dearborn 
Street, Chicago, 111. Duncan obtained patent 
No. 558,936, April 28, 1896, on an "addressing 


Adhesive and medicated plaster used in 
the treatment of fractures was reported in 
Anatomy, Physiology and Diseases of the 
Bones and Joints, by Samuel David Gross, pub- 
lished in 1830 at Philadelphia, Pa. (American 
Journal of Medical Science. June 1897) 

Adhesive and medicated plaster was in- 
vented by Dr. John Parker Maynard of Ded- 
ham, Mass., who announced his discovery March 
27, 1848 to the Boston Society of Medical Im- 
provement. He dissolved gun cotton in sul- 
phuric ether and obtained a fluid which was 
applied to the skin with a brush and then cov- 
ered with cotton strips. (John Parker May- 
nard History of the Discovery and Mode of 
Application of the New Liquid Adhesive Plas- 

Adhesive and medicated plaster patent 
was No. 3965 issued March 26, 1845 to Dr. 
Horace Harrel Day of Jersey City, N.J., and 
Dr. William H. Shecut. They dissolved rub- 
ber in a solvent, such as benzine, turpentine 
and bisulphide of carbon which they spread 
with a brush on fabric. They sold the proc- 
ess to Dr. Thomas Allcock who introduced 
Allcock's Porous Plaster. (American Journal 
of Pharmacy. Vol. 82. 1910) 

Adhesive and medicated plaster with a 
rubber base to be successfully manufactured 
was produced by Robert Wood Johnson and 
George J. Seabury in 1874 at East Orange, 
NJ. In 1886 Johnson separated from Sea- 


bury and formed Johnson & Johnson, New 
Brunswick, N.J., which introduced a full line 
of pharmaceutical plasters with an India rub- 
ber base. 

ADHESIVE STAMP. See Postage stamp 
ADJUTANT GENERAL. See Army officer 
ADMIRAL. See Naval officer 


See Coast guard 

RINE. See Merchant marine 


Naval officer 


See Army officer 

ADVENTIST. See Seventh Day Adventist 


Advertisement appeared May 1-8, 1704 in 
the Boston News-Letter. Three ads occupied 
four inches in a single column. The only 
display was a two-line initial letter in the 
text and the word "Advertisement" above 
them. One offered "At Oysterbay on Long 
Island in the Province of New York there is 
a very good Fulling Mill to be Let or Sold, 
as also a Plantation, having on it a large new 
Brick house, and other good house by it for a 
Kitchin and workhouse, etc." One offered a 
reward for the capture of a thief and the re- 
turn of certain wearing apparel, and the other 
was a notice of the loss of two anvils. In the 
first issue April 17-24, 1704, an announcement 
was made that advertisements would be pub- 
lished. (James Melvin Lee History of Ameri- 
can Journalism) 

Advertisement to occupy a half-page ap- 
peared on July 18, 1743 in the New York 
Weekly Journal, the first newspaper in America 
established by a political faction. It advertised 
a "curious musical machine" imported from 
England which was exhibited for a fee at Mr. 
Pacheco's at Petticoat Lane. 

Advertising or commercial radio broadcast. 
See Radio broadcast 

Automobile advertisement in a national 
magazine appeared in the March 31, 1900, Sat- 
urday Evening Post, Philadelphia, Pa. The 
W. E. Roach Company, Philadelphia, Pa., fea- 
tured their slogan, "Automobiles That Give 

Magician's advertisement appeared March 
18, 1734 in the New York Weekly Journal 
and announced that, on March 18th, Joseph 
Broome would "perform Wonders of the World 
by Dexterity of Hand" at the home of Charles 
Sleigh, on Duke Street, New York, and invited 
"all to be Spectators of his Ingenuity." The 





admission fees were Is, 9d and 6d (25c, 18c 
and 12c). (John Mulholland Quicker Than 
the Eye) 

Newspaper with perfumed advertising 
page. Sec Newspaper 

Radio broadcasting contract for F.M. 
broadcasting. See Radio advertising 

Volney B. Palmer in Philadelphia, Pa., in 1841. 
for the reception of advertisements. He thus 
became the first commercial advertising agent. 
(V. K. Palmer's Business Men's Almanac 

lege course 

Advertising legislation (state) was "an act 

to regulate the sale of merchandise and to pre- 
vent misleading and dishonest representations 
in connection therewith," chapter 657 of the 
Laws of New York passed April 30, 1898. 
Those whose advertisements are "intended to 
have the appearance of an advantageous offer, 
which is untrue or calculated to mislead, shall 
be guilty of a misdemeanor." 

Outdoor advertising legislation (state) 

was passed by New York March 28, 1865, 
which amended Chapter 573 Laws of 1853 
entitled "an act for the more effectual pre- 
vention of wanton and malicious mischief 
and to prevent the defacement of natural 
scenery." Painting and printing upon stones, 
rocks, trees and the defacement of natural 
scenery in certain localities constituted a mis- 
demeanor punishable by a fine not exceeding 
$250, or six months imprisonment, or both. 
(Chap. 222 Laws of 1865.) 


Advertising Agency Circular, a monthly 
founded by George Presbury Rowel 1 and pub- 
lished by George P. Rowcll & Co., New York 
City. It was issued from 1865 until Decem- 
ber 1866 when the name was changed to the 
Advertiser's Gazette. On Thursday, April 1, 
1875, it was first issued as a weekly. (Adver- 
tiser's Gazette. April 1, 1875. Vol. 9, No. 7) 


combat business abuses by advancing truth and 
fair practice in business was the Vigilance 
Committee of the Advertising Club of New 
York, New York City, organized at a meeting 
called December 1911 by Lewellyn E. Pratt, 
program committee chairman. Investigation 
work commenced March 1912. On May 19, 
1912, the Associated Advertising Clubs of 
America in convention at Dallas, Tex., formed 
a national committee with Harry D. Robbins 
as chairman. (Hurnard Jay Kenner The Fight 
for Truth in Advertising) 


See Billboard standardization 


NAUTICS (National). See Aviation 





ation airplane moving picture show 




See Aviation License 

POSITION. Sec Aviation Expositions and 


COURSE. See Aviation School 

AERONAUTICS. See Aviation 

ITY (U.S.) See Civilian Aeronautics Au- 
thority (U.S.) 

AFRICAN CHURCH was the Bethel Afri- 
can Methodist Episcopal Church founded in 
1793 by Richard Allen, a Negro, at Sixth and 
Lombard Streets, Philadelphia, Pa. It was 
opened for public worship July 17, 1794 and 
dedicated July 29, 1794 by Bishop Francis As- 
bury. On October 12, 1794 the Reverend Rob- 
ert Blackwcll announced from the pulpit that 
the congregation was received in full fellow- 
ship in the Methodist Episcopal Church. It was 
incorporated March 28, 1796 as the "Minister, 
Church, Wardens and Vestrymen of the Afri- 
can Episcopal Church of St. Thomas in the 
City of Philadelphia. (Carter Godwin Wood- 
son History of the Negro Church) 

CHURCH. See Methodist Episcopal church 


AGENCY (Advertising). See Advertising 


MINISTRATION was authorized by act of 
Congress (H.R. 3835-73d Congress) "to re- 
lieve the existing national economic emer- 
gency by increasing purchasing power." The 
act, approved May 12, 1933 (48 Stat.L.31) 
was known as the Agricultural Adjustment 
Act. The first administrator was Henry 
Agard Wallace, Secretary of Agriculture. 





a state for carrying out extension training 
work along agricultural lines was made by 
New York, May 12, 1894, when Governor 
Roswell Pettibone Flower signed the act 
"to amend the agricultural law in relatior 
to agricultural experiment stations within 
this state, and to make an appropriation 
therefore," chapter 675. The appropriation 
was $16,000. 


provided for in New York State by a law 
passed April 7, 1819, but was not actually 
organized until January 20, 1820. It was 
made up wholly of agricultural society dele- 
gates, and was a quasi-public organization. 
(Edward Wiest Agricultural Organization in 
the U. S.) 

AGRICULTURAL BOOK distinctly Amer- 
ican was Essays upon Field Husbandry in New 
England by Jared Eliot. It consisted of six 
essays, originally printed separately, which were 
printed and sold by Edes and Gill at Boston, 
Mass., in 1760. The first essay appeared in 
1748, the second in 1749, the third in 1751, 
the fourth in 1753, the fifth in 1754 and the 
sixth in 1759. (Franklin Bozvditch Dexter- 
Biographical Notices of the Graduates of Yale 
College 1701-1745) 


Anthony Florian Madinger Willich's The Do- 
mestic Encyclopedia, or A Dictionary of 
Facts, and useful knowledge, comprehending a 
concise view of the latest discoveries, inven- 
tions and improvements, chiefly applicable to 
rural and domestic economy .... a five- vol- 
ume set, published at Philadelphia, Pa., in 1804 
by William Young Birch and Abraham Small. 
It originally appeared in England. (Percy Wells 
Bidwell and John Ironside Falconer History 
of Agriculture in Northern United States) 


Agricultural experiment farm was ten 
acres set aside by Savannah, Georgia in 1735. 
A skillful botanist was appointed "to collect 
the seeds of drugs and dying-stuffs in other 
countries in the same climate, in order to cul- 
tivate such of them as shall be found to thrive 
well in Georgia." (Collections of Georgia His- 
torical Society 1840 Vol. 1) 

State agricultural experiment station was 
the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Sta- 
tion established in Connecticut by Act approved 
July 20, 1875. Orange Judd, editor and pro- 
prietor of the American Agriculturist, offered 
$1,000 and the trustees of Wesleyan University 
at Middleton, Conn., offered the free use of the 
chemical laboratory of Orange Judd Hall on 
condition that the legislature appropriate $2,800 
per annum for two years. The appropriation 
was made October 1, 1875 and work begun Jan- 
uary 1, 1876. Professor Wilbur Olin Atwater 
was made the first director of this first regu- 
larly organized state experiment station and 


served until April 9, 1877. (Bulletin SO. Office 
of Experimental Stations US. Dept. of 



Harrow; Reaper 


Agricultural Museum, a sixteen-page octavo 
issued July 4, 1810 under the sponsorship of 
the Columbian Agricultural Society. It was 
edited by Rev. David Wiley and printed by 
W. A. Rind at Georgetown, B.C. The first 
volume was semi-monthly, but beginning with 
volume two it was issued monthly. Subscrip- 
tion was $2.50 for 24 numbers. Publication 
ceased May 1812. (Agricultural History. April 
1928. Vol. 2 No. 2) 

Agricultural journal to attain prominence 

was the American Farmer, an eight-page quarto 
size weekly, which was founded in Baltimore, 
Md., April 2, 1819, by John Stuart Skinner. 
It flourished under various names until 1897. 
(William Edward Ogilvie Pioneer Agricul- 
tural Journalists) 

posal was made by Justin Smith Morrill. He 
advocated giving each state an allotment of 
land, the income from which should be used to 
support at least one agricultural college in each 
state. The bill was vetoed by President James 
Buchanan in 1857, but was signed by President 
Abraham Lincoln on July 2, 1862 (12 Stat.L. 
503), after certain modifications had been made. 
It was known as the Morrill Act, and its full 
title was an "Act donating public lands to the 
several states and territories which may pro- 
vide colleges for the benefit of agriculture and 
the mechanic arts." (George Washington 
Atherton The Legislative Career of Justin S. 


Agricultural College (State) was provided 
for April 13, 1854 by the legislature of Penn- 
sylvania. The Pennsylvania State College, State 
College, Pa., also called the Agricultural Col- 
lege of Pennsylvania, opened February 16, 1859. 
The first agricultural college to open, however, 
was the Michigan State Agricultural College, 
Lansing, Mich., which was authorized February 
12, 1855. Its faculty of six offered instruction 
to seventy-three students on May 13, 1857. 
(Survey of Land Colleges and Universities 
Dept. of Educ. Bull. No. 9. 1930) 

Vocational agricultural school with dor- 
mitory facilities which was a department of a 
state university was the School of Agriculture 
of the University of Minnesota, established 
October 18, 1888 at St. Anthony Park, St. 
Paul, Minn. The first principal was William 
Wirt Pendergast. 

TION (National) was undertaken in 1836-37 
by the Commissioner of Patents, Henry 




TION Continued 

Leavitt Ellsworth at his own expense and 
without Congressional authorization. In 1838, 
the cost of agricultural statistics and seeds 
was $126.40. In 1839, about 30,000 packets 
were distributed, the expense being about 
$1,000. Seed distribution was discontinued 
June 30, 1923. 


Agricultural society on the American con- 
tinent was the Philadelphia Society for the 
Promotion of Agriculture which was organ- 
ized on March 1, 1785. Meetings were sched- 
uled every two months. The promotion of 
agriculture was undertaken as one of the func- 
tions of the New Jersey Society for Promoting 
Agriculture, Commerce and Arts established in 
1781. A meeting was held September 7, 1781 
at Trenton, NJ. Samuel Witham Stockton 
was secretary. (Early Development of Agri- 
cultural Societies in the US. Agric. Hist. Soc. 

Agricultural society for dairymen was the 

Vermont Dairymen's Association, organized 
October 27, 1869 at Montpelier Vt., "to improve 
the dairy interests of Vermont, and all sub- 
sidiary interests." (Annual Report 1875 Ver- 
mont Department of Agriculture) 

Agricultural society of national impor- 
tance was the National Grange of the Patrons 
of Husbandry which was organized in Wash- 
ington, D.C, December 4, 1867, with William 
Saunders of the Department of Agriculture as 
master, and Oliver Hudson Kelley, a native of 
Boston, Mass., as secretary. This was the 
first important cooperation undertaken by 
farmers. The movements and meetings of the 
society were carried on in secret. (Solon Justus 
Buck The Granger Movement) 


of importance was the International Congress 
of Soil Science which met in Washington, 
D.C., from June 13 to 22, 1917. Delegates were 
present from over twenty countries. (Interna- 
tional Congress of Soil Science Proceedings 
and Papers of the First International Con- 

See Agricultural school 

cultural experiment station 


See also Federal Crop Insurance Corporation; 
Grain Stabilization Corporation 

Crop limitation law was passed October 
16, 1629 by the Virginia General Assembly. 
Act five limited the planting of tobacco. (Wil- 
liam Wallace Hening Statutes at Large. 
Vol. 1) 


Crop surplus destruction was ordered 
January 6, 1639 by the Virginia General As- 
sembly. "Tobacco by reason excessive quan- 
tities made, being so low that the planters could 
not subsist by it or be enabled to raise more 
staple commodities or pay their debts, enacted 
that the tobacco of that year be viewed by 
sworn viewers and the rotten and unmerchant- 
able, and half the goods to be burned, so the 
whole quantities would come to 1,500,000 
without stripping and smoothing." (William 
Wallace Hening Statutes at Large. Vol. 1) 

section of the Patent Office) was made a sep- 
arate entity on May 15, 1862 by an act "to 
establish a Department of Agriculture" (12 
Stat.L.387) and was administered by a Com- 
missioner of Agriculture until February 9, 1889 
(25 Stat.L.659) when it was made the eighth 
executive department in the federal govern- 
ment. The first Superintendent of Agriculture 
under the Department of the Interior was 
Thomas Green Clemson who served from 
February 3, 1860 to March 4, 1861. Isaac New- 
ton was appointed Commissioner of Agricul- 
ture by President Abraham Lincoln on July 1, 
1862 and served until June 19, 1867. (Records 
in Bureau of Plant Industry Dept. of Agric. 
Wash. D.C.) 

Agriculture bureau scientific publication 
was A Report on the Chemical Analysis of 
Grapes, a four-page leaflet, by Charles Mayer 
Wetherill, Ph.D., M.D., dated October 15, 1862 
printed by the Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. (Edgar Fahs Smith-- 
Charles Mayer Wetherill) 


Office of Markets was created May 16, 
1913 by the Secretary of Agriculture under 
authority of March 4, 1913 (37 Stat.L.854) 
which appropriated $50,000 for its operation. 
The first chief was Charles John Brand who 
served from May 16, 1913 to June 30, 1919. 
In the appropriation act of June 30, 1914 (38 
Stat.L.440) a similar paragraph was headed 
"Office of Markets" and the amount increased 
to $200,000. The Office of Markets and the 
Office of Rural Organization were combined 
on July 1, 1914 and the resulting unit was 
called the Office of Markets and Rural Organi- 
zation. It was changed to the Bureau of Mar- 
kets by the act of March 4, 1917 (39 Stat.L. 

Secretary of the Department of Agricul- 
ture was Norman Jay Colman of Missouri 
who was appointed February 13, 1889 by 
President Grover Cleveland and served until 
March 5, 1889. Previously, he served as Com- 
missioner of Agriculture from April 4, 1885 to 
February 12, 1889. (William Lawrence Wan- 
las US. Dept. of Agric. Wash. D.C.) 

lege was Samuel Latham Mitchill, who was 
appointed by Columbia College, New York City, 
on July 9, 1792, as Professor of Natural His- 




tory, Chemistry, Agriculture, and the other 
related sciences. Part of his course included 
the "theory of vegetation and application of its 
principles to practical agriculture, nutrition and 
food of plants, with the history of manures, 
multiplication, dissemination and habitations of 
plants. Chemical history of various vegetable 
products, Sap, Gum, Resin, Farina, etc., with 
their preparation and application to the uses 
of man. Vegetable colors, vegetable poisons, 
baking, brewing, tanning, etc." (Alfred 
Charles True History of Agricultural Educa- 
tion in the U. S.) 

AIR (compressed) for tunnel construction 
was employed in 1879. This method was 
introduced by Dewitt Clinton Haskin and was 
used in the construction of the famous Hudson 
River tunnel between Hoboken, N.J., and Mor- 
ton Street, New York City. The tunnel plans 
called for two tubes, each sixteen feet wide 
and eighteen feet high. During the construc- 
tion, on July 21, 1880, the compressed air blew 
a hole through the soft silt of the roof about 
360 feet from the Hoboken shaft, flooding the 
tubes and drowning twenty workmen. Work 
was discontinued and the tunnel was not com- 
pleted and opened until February 25, 1908. 
(Archibald Black The Story of Tunnels) 

AIR (liquid) was economically produced in 
1895 by Charles Eastman Tripler of the Tripler 
Liquid Air Company, New York City whose 
invention reduced the cost of production from 
$500 a pint to $4 a gallon. As gas is com- 
pressed a large amount of heat results and 
when gas expands owing to the absorption of 
heat necessary to drive molecules apart, the 
result is the lowering of the temperature of 
the gas. (New Hampshire Medical Society. 
Transactions. May 25, 1899 "Liquid air" /. 
Milnor Coit) 

ICE. See Aviation Airplane 

AIR BRAKE was invented by George West- 
inghouse, Jr., of Schenectady, N.Y., who re- 
ceived patent No. 88,929 on April 13, 1869 on a 
"steam power brake." It was used on an 
experimental train carrying officials of the 
Panhandle Railroad. It immediately demon- 
strated its value. Inasmuch as it took longer 
for the air to reach the last cars of a train, 
each car stopped at a different time. A "triple 
air brake" which corrected this fault was pat- 
ented by Westinghouse (No. 124,405) on March 
5, 1872. He invented an automatic brake fifteen 
years later. (Bulletins -Westinghouse Air 
Brake Co.) 

AIR BRUSH PATENT was No. 248,579 
which was granted to Leslie L. Curtis of Cape 
Elizabeth, Me., on October 25, 1881, for his 
"atomizer for coloring pictures." 






ING. See Building 







See Aviation 


created February 26, 1940, with Headquarters 
at Mitchel Field, Long Island, N.Y., pursuant 
to War Department Orders, dated February 
26, 1940, for defense against air attack through 
the practical application of the coordinated 
effort of aviation, anti-aircraft artillery and 
aircraft warning agencies, including fixed mil- 
itary and civilian installations. It was charged 
with the development of a system for unified 
air defense of an area and the determination 
of tasks within the capabilities of the various 
combinations of tactical units which might be 
assembled for the air defense of cities, con- 
tinental bases, manufacturing and industrial 
areas or of armies in the field. The first Com- 
mander was Brigadier General James Eugene 


Air mail contractor (domestic) was the 
Varney Air Line which operated a single- 
engined Swallow biplane on April 6, 1926 be- 
tween Pasco, Wash., and Elko, Nev., where 
connections were made with the Post Office 
Department's transcontinental line. The fol- 
lowing year, the transcontinental line was 
turned over to contractors. The Varney Line 
was subsequently merged with the United Air 
Lines, along with the Boeing Air Transport, 
National Air Transport and Pacific Transport. 

Air mail experimental route was flown 
May 15, 1918, between Washington, D.C., Phil- 
adelphia, Pa., and New York City by planes and 
pilots supplied by the War Department. Lieu- 
tenant Torrey H. Webb in a Curtiss JN-4 left 
Belmpnt Field, Long Island, with two sacks 
containing 2,457 pieces of mail and flew to 
Philadelphia. Lieutenant James Clark Edgerton 
resumed the trip to Potomac Field, Washington, 
D.C. in a relief plane., The 218 miles were 
covered in 3 hours and 20 minutes. A similar 
service started from Washington by Lieutenant 
George L. Boyle flying east. A broken propeller 
forced his descent at Waldorf, Md. The mail 
was carried to Philadelphia, then flown to New 
York City by Lieutenant Paul Culver. 

Air mail flyer's medal of honor. See Medal 

Air mail long-distance night service was 
established on July 1, 1925, from New York 
City to Chicago, 111., over a 774-mile course. 
The first plane, from Hadley Field, New 
Brunswick, NJ. (the New York area) was 




piloted by D. C. Smith. It was followed by a 
second plane piloted by J. D. Hill. The first 
plane eastward was simultaneously dispatched 
from Chicago, and was piloted by Shirley 
Short, which was likewise followed by a sec- 
ond plane carrying the surplus mail. 

Air mail pilot was Earl Lewis Ovington 
who was sworn in on September 23, 1911 at 
Garden City, Long Island, N.Y., as "air mail 
pilot number one." In his Bleript monoplane, 
"Dragonfly," he delivered air mail from Post- 
master General Frank Harris Hitchcock at 
Garden City, to Postmaster William McCarthy 
at Mineola, L.I., n distance of six miles, in- 
augurating the first official air mail service 
authorized by the Post Office Department. The 
first mail consisted of 640 letters and 1,280 post- 
cards. This was not a regular scheduled flight 
as the service was performed without expense 
to the Post Office Department. (Records in 
Division of Main Service. Post Office Dept. 
Wash. D.C.) 

Air mail regular service was established 
August 12, 1918, by the Post Office Department 
between New York City and Washington, D.C. 
Ben B. Lipsner was the first superintendent of 
air mail. The pilots were Ed. V. Gardner, 
Maurice Newton, Max Miller and Robert F. 

Air mail service between North and 
South America was inaugurated May 14, 
1929, from Miami, Fla. 

Air mail service from ship to shore was 
inaugurated August 13, 1928, by the Trans- 
Atlantic Aerial Company when an amphibian 
was launched from the "He de France," 400 
miles at sea. Three sacks of mail, including 
two packages of films, were delivered at New 
York City fifteen hours before the ship docked. 
Service was discontinued September 28, 1928. 

Air mail service to a steamer at sea was 
made August 14, 1919, when an Acromarine fly- 
ing boat piloted by Cyrus Johnston Zirnmer- 
mann dropped a bag of mail on the forward 
deck of the White Star liner "Adriatic," an 
hour and a half after she had left her pier in 
New York City. 

Air mail stamp. See Postage stamp 

Air mail transcontinental flight was from 
San Francisco, Calif., to New York City. The 
plane left San Francisco, at 4:30 A.M., Febru- 
ary 22, 1921 and arrived at Hazlehurst Field, 
Long Island, N.Y., at 4:50 P.M. on February 
23, 1921, 33 hours and 20 minutes later. The 
actual flying time was 25 hours and 16 minutes, 
average speed for the 2.629 miles was 104 miles 
an hour. 

Air mail transcontinental service (combi- 
nation airplane-railroad) commenced Sep- 
tember 8, 1920, when 16,000 letters reached the 
west coast in 22 hours less than the best train 
time. The mail was carried by planes during 
the day and by trains at night, a service of 63 


hours for the flight west and 78J4 hours for 
the eastward flight. The various sections and 
the date of first service were: New York City 
to Cleveland, July 1, 1919; Cleveland to Chi- 
cago, May 15, 1919; Chicago to Omaha, May 
15, 1920, and from Omaha to San Francisco, 
September 8, 1920. 

Air mail transcontinental through regular 
service was established July 1, 1924, between 
New York City and San Francisco, Calif., when 
the air mail-railroad service was discontinued. 
The first westward flight of this service was 
made by Wesley L. Smith who flew from New 
York City to 'Cleveland, Ohio, and the first 
eastward flight by Claire K. Vance who flew 
from San Francisco, Calif., to Reno, Nev. The 
service was daily including Sunday, with four- 
teen stops en route. 

Airplane mail pick-up by which planes 
snatch mail from the ground without landing, 
was demonstrated on October 1, 1929, by Penn- 
sylvania-Central Airlines at Washington, D.C. 
Despite rain, 253 successful pick-ups were made 
in 255 attempts. The pick-up device was au- 
thorized by the Post Office Department for use 
on PCA, now known as the Capital Airlines, 
and was used on regular schedules at Beaver 
Falls and Newcastle, Pa., and Youngstown, 
Ohio, on the Pittsburgh-Cleveland route. 

Autogiro mail delivery direct to a post 
office took place May 25, 1935 at Philadelphia, 
Pa. Pilot Louis Levy landed an autogiro on 
the roof of the Market Street Post Office and 
handed a sack of mail from the Central Airport, 
Camden, N.J., to Postmaster General James 
Aloysius Farley. A few minutes later, pilot 
James Gar ret t Ray swooped down in another 
autogiro, took a sack of mail and followed 
Levy back to the airport. 

Autogiro mail delivery regular service 

began July 6, 1939 when Captain John Mac- 
Donald Miller flew an Eastern Air Line auto- 
giro from the roof of the Philadelphia Post 
Office, to the Central Airport, Camden, N.J., 
six miles away, in six minutes. The autogiro 
made the round trip to its starting place in 
fourteen minutes. 

Helicopter air mail delivery by commercial 
helicopter was made July 5, 1946 between the 
Bridgeport, Conn., post office and the airport. 
The pilot was D. D. "Jimmy" Viner, Chief 
pilot of Sikorsky Aircraft, Bridgeport, Conn. 

Helicopter air mail experimental tests were 
made July 8, 1946, from the Lockheed Airport, 
Burbank, Calif., by the Post Office Department 
and the Army Air Forces. For three weeks, 
two weekly trips were made to Long Beach, 
Calif, to the north, and to Santa Ana to the 
south, serving twenty-four post offices en route. 

Helicopter regularly authorized mail route 

was Route 84 in the Los Angeles, Calif., 
area which was inaugurated October 1, 1947. 
Pilots on the first flight were Boyd Kesselering 
and John De Blauw. 




International air mail was inaugurated 
March 3, 1919, between Seattle, Wash., and 
Victoria, British Columbia, 74 miles, by Ed- 
ward Hubbard of the Hubbard Air Service 
who piloted a Boeing Type C open cockpit 
biplane with pontoons. William Edward Boe- 
ing was a passenger on the flight. Regular 
service under contract commenced October 14. 
1920, and continued under successive contracts 
until June 30, 1937. 

Jet propelled airplane to transport mail 
was a P-80 "Shooting Star" which carried a 
letter addressed to President Harry S. Truman. 
It was piloted by Captain Robert Atkinson 
Baird in of Clarksdale, Miss., who left the 
Schenectady County Airport, Schenectady, 
N.Y., on June 22, 1946 and arrived at the 
National Airport, Washington, D.C., (370 
miles) in 49 minutes. Another jet propelled 
P-80 piloted by Major Kenneth Oscar Chil- 
strom of Elmhurst, 111., left for Dayton, Ohio, 
with a letter for Orville Wright and, after a 
stopover at Wright Field, arrived at Chicago, 
111., in 2 hours and 2 minutes. 

Letter to encircle the world by commer- 
cial flight. See Postal service 

Pacific air mail flight and the first air cross- 
ing from California to the Philippines was 
made by the "China Clipper" of the Pan Amer- 
ican Airways, Inc., commanded by Edwin 
Charles Musick. The plane left San Francisco, 
Calif., November 22, 1935, at 3 :46 P.M. Pacific 
Standard Time and arrived at Honolulu, No- 
vember 23, 1035 at 12:51 P.M.; left Honolulu 
November 24lh at 9:05 A.M. and arrived at 
Midway 6:01 P.M.; left Midway November 
25th at 10:12 A.M. and arrived at Wake Island 
6:40 P.M.; left Wake Island November 26th, 
11:04 A.M. and arrived at Guam 9:07 P.M.; 
left Guam November 28th, 12:06 P M. and 
arrived at Manila, P.I. at 11:31 P.M. The 
return trip was made December 1, 1935 from 
Manila and the trip completed December 6th 
at 10:37 A.M. at San Francisco, Calif. (Wil- 
liam Stephen Grouch Prom Crate to Clipper) 

Rocket air mail flight was made February 
23, 1936, at Greenwood Lake, N.Y., in the 
"Gloria," an eleven-foot rocket with a fifteen- 
foot wing spread. The fuel was liquid oxygen 
and alcohol. The inventors of the rocket were 
Willy Ley, Louis Goodman, and Hugh Franklin 
Pierce. The flight was sponsored by Frido 
W. Kessler. The rocket carried 4,323 letters 
and 1,826 postcards. Each cover was franked 
with special rocket stamps in addition to the 
regular postage stamps. 

Woman aviator to pilot an air-mail trans- 
port. See Aviation Aviator 

AIR MAIL STAMP. See Postage stamp 
AIR MEDAL. See Medal 

AIR MEET. See Aviation Expositions and 


STATION. See Aviation 

AIR PATROL (U.S.) (Civil). See Civil 
air patrol (U.S.) 

AIR RACE, INTER-CITY. See Aviation- 

AIR RAID SHELTER was built by Howard 
Mover Gounder at Fleetwood, Pa., R.F.D. #1, 
and completed November 1, 1940. Stone walls 
eighteen inches thick set in concrete with 
eighteen-inch retaining walls built alongside a 
mountain boulder supported an eight -inch re- 
inforced concrete roof, weather conditioned 
with asphalt tar. Movable bunks on one wall 
accommodated six people. The floors were made 
of cement. Heavy double doors, one opening 
inward, the other outward, contained small 
windows. Electric wiring encased in iron pipes 
supplied illumination A stove provided heating 
and cooking facilities, while ventilation was 
afforded by a protected chimney in the rear. 



AIR RIGHTS LEASE was made by the 
New York Central Railroad Company in Feb- 
ruary 1910 to the Grand Central Palace, New 
York City for $30,000 a year. The Palace was 
permitted to build its structure over the New 
York Central Railroad tracks. The air rights 
idea was originated by Ira A. Place. 

AIR SERVICE (U.S.). See Aviation 
AIR SQUADRON. See Aviation 



AIR TERMINAL. Sec Aviation 


See Traffic regulation course 


Aviation School 

MANDER. See Naval officer 



See Insurance 

SERVICE. Sec Forest service 

AIRPLANE. See Aviation Airplane 

TION. Sec Automobile 


Aviation School 






See Aviation License 

tion Legislation 


mail service 


See Aviation Passenger 



Postage stamp 

AIRPLANE RACE. Sec Aviation Races 
AIRPLANE SALE. See Aviation Airplane 


Aviation Races 


PASSENGER (WOMAN). See Aviation- 


Aviation Passenger 


Aviation Airport 

AIRPORT HOTEL. See Aviation Air- 

Aviation Airport 

AIRSHIP. See AviationAirship 

AIRSHIP BOMBING. See Aviation Air- 



AIRSHIP (U.S. NAVY). See Aviation- 


ALARM. See Burglar alarm 

ALBANY REGENCY. See Political ma- 




Power-alcohol plant was established by the 
Bailor Manufacturing Company, Atchison, 
Kans., which sold power alcohol October 2, 
1936. Five per cent of the total output was 
butyl alcohol and acetone which were blended 
with ethyl alcohol, which in turn was blended 
with gasoline. Raw materials used were rye, 
oats, sweet potatoes, barley, milo, kafir corn, 
molasses and rice. 

TION. See Federal alcohol control admin- 

ALFALFA is supposed to have been intro- 
duced into California in 1854 from Chile, but 
John Spurrier, in his hook, The Practical 
Farmer, dedicated to Thomas Jefferson, pub- 
lished at Wilmington, Del., in 1793, described 
alfalfa which he called "lucerne." (Joseph 
Elwyn WingAlfalfa Farming in America) 

ALGEBRA BOOK was Arithmetic, or the 
art of ciphering, according to the coins, meas- 
ures and weights of Neiv York, together with a 
short treatise on algebra, (Arithmetica of 
Cyffer-Konst, Volgens de Munten Maten en 
Gewigten, te New York, gebruykelyk als mede 
een kort ontwerp van de Algebra), a Dutch text 
book by Pieter Venima printed by Peter Zen- 
ger in 1730 at New York City. (Lao Geneyra 
Simons Bibliography of Early American 
Textbooks on Algebra) 

Algebra book by a native American was 

Nicholas Pike's A Neiv and Complete System 
of Arithmetic, composed for the use of the citi- 
zens of the United States, published 1788 by 
John Mycall, Newburyport, Mass. It contained 
512 pages of which 39 were devoted to algebra. 
(Lao Genevra SimonsBibliography of Early 
American Textbooks on Algebra) See also 



the "act respecting aliens" passed July 6, 
1798 (1 Stat.L.577) which required that 
aliens "not actually naturalized shall be 
liable to he apprehended, restrained, res- 
cued and removed as alien enemies." See also 



See Aviation Flights 

TURE. See Building 




ALLERGY MAGAZINE. See Medical pe- 




ALLIGATOR FARM was established in 1892 
at Anastasia Island, St. Johns County, Fla., 
by George Reddington. 


Almanac was "An Almanak for the Year 
of Our Lord, 1639, Calculated for New Eng- 
land" by William Peirce, printed in 1638 at 
Cambridge, Mass., by Stephen Dave's Cam- 
bridge Press. The months began with March. 
(Clarence Sounders Brigham An Account of 
American Almanacks) 

Almanac bibliography was A Preliminary 
Check List of American Almanacs 1639-1800, 
160 pages, by Hugh Alexander Morrison of 
the Library of Congress which was published 
in 1907 by the Government Printing Office, 
Washington, D.C. The entries were arranged 
geographically by states. 

Nautical almanac was Samuel Stearns' 
The Universal Kalendar, Comprehending the 
Landsman's and Seaman's Almanack for the 
Year 1783, published December 29, 1782, at 
Boston, Mass., by Benjamin Edes and Son. 

Patent medicine almanac was Bristol's 
Free Almanac for 1844 being bissextile or leap 
year and of American Independence, the 68th 
containing astronomical calculations and other 
useful and entertaining matter, calculated by 
Lucas Seaver and published at Batavia, N.Y., 
in 1843. It contained 24 pages, including 10 
of testimonials, and was issued by C. C. Bristol, 
manufacturer of Bristol's Sarsaparilla, Buffalo, 

PLANT. See Electric power plant 

TRANSMISSION. See Electric transmis- 

tric alternator 

ALUMINUM was produced in commercial 
quantities in November 1888 by the Pittsburgh 
Reduction Company (which later developed into 
the Aluminum Company of America). It was 
based upon the invention of Charles Martin 
Hall completed on February 23, 1886. Hall 
applied for a patent on July 9, 1886 which he 
obtained on April 2, 1889, No. 400,766, on 
reducing aluminum by electrolysis. Hall pro- 
duced aluminum electrically instead of chemi- 
cally, greatly reducing its cost. He dissolved 
alumina in a bath of cryolite (the double 
fluoride of aluminum and sodium) and passed 
an electric current through the solution. (Jo- 
seph William Richards Aluminum) 

Aluminum used commercially in a trans- 
mission conductor was employed November 
30, 1899 by the Hartford Electric Light Com- 
pany of Hartford, Conn., on a transmission 
from its water power plant at Tariffville, Conn., 
to Hartford. Conn. 




See College alumni association 



AMBASSADOR. Sec Diplomatic service 

anese ambassador 

lomatic service 


Hospital ambulance service was introduced 
by the Commercial Hospital (now the General 
Hospital) Cincinnati, Ohio prior to 1865. The 
list of employees for the year ending February 
28, 1866 names James A. Jackson, employee 
No.27 as "driver of ambulance" at an annual 
salary of $360. A similar service was started 
in June 1869 by Bellevue Hospital, New York 
City under the direction of Dr. Edward Barry 

Incubator ambulance service maintained 
for transportation of premature infants was 
instituted by Chicago, 111. The ambulance was 
ordered February 26, 1935, and made its first 
run March 21, 1935. 



Army ambulance corps 



Sec Constitutional amendment 

AMERICA (as a geographical designation) 
was first used by Martin H. Waldseemuller, 
also called Ilacomilus or Hylacomylus, in his 
Cosmographiae Introductio published in April 
1507, at St. Die in the Vosges mountains of 
Alsace. The first delineation of the New 
World was made in 1506 by Giovanni Matteo 
Contarini, an Italian, and the map was en- 
graved by Francesco Roselli of Florence, Italy. 
(Geographical Review. October 1930) 

"AMERICA" (the song) was first publicly 
sung July 4, 1832 in the Park Street Church, 
Boston, Mass., by the school children of Boston. 
The song was written on a scrap of paper in 
half an hour by Dr. Samuel Francis Smith, a 
Baptist minister. The original manuscript is 
in the Harvard University Library. 

AMERICAN (as an adjective) to be used 
instead of "United States," was officially rec- 
ommended by Secretary of State John Hay, 
who instructed American diplomatic and con- 
sular officers under date of August 3, 1904, to 
use "American" instead of "United States" as 




AMERICAN Continued 
an adjective. In strictly formal documents and 
in notarial acts performed by consular officers, 
the adjective form of designation is not used 
but the full name of the country is given as, for 
example, "Government of the United States of 
America," "Embassy of the United States of 
America," etc. 

LETTERS. Sec Arts and letters society 

SCIENCES. See Arts and science society 

ical and social science society 

AMERICAN "ACE." See Aviation Avia- 


See Historical society 

CIETY. See Anti-vivisection society 


Atheism society 

Science association 

LIC ACCOUNTANTS. See Accountant's 


See Bankers association 


CIATION. See Bird banding society 


See Bowling tournament 


Trade association 


Chemical society 


See Medical society 


See Dental society 


Dental society 

TION. See Economic association 


to leave the United States (since the Mexican 
war) and the first to leave for a destination 
beyond the western hemisphere sailed May 25, 


1898 from San Francisco, Calif., in the "Aus- 
tralia," "City of Pekin" and "City of Sydney" 
bound for Manila, Philippines, a distance of 
6,220 miles. The expeditionary force consisted 
of 115 officers and 2,386 enlisted men, com- 
manded by General Wesley Merritt. They ar- 
rived off Manila, June 30, 1898 and landed 
July 1, 1898. Admiral George Dewey and 
General Merritt demanded the surrender of 
Manila, August 7, 1898, but the city did not 
comply until August 13, 1898. 

American expeditionary force to land in 
Africa. See World war 11 

American expeditionary force to land on 
the European continent. See World war II 
See also under specific wars 

BOR. See Labor union 


TION. See Forestry society 


See Geological society 

CLUB. See Cattle club 

TION. Sec Historical society 


History instruction 


See Humane society 


See Cattle club 


Book on Americanisms was John Picker- 
ing's "A vocabulary, or collection of words 
and phrases which have been supposed to be 
peculiar to the United States of America; to 
which is prefixed an essay on the present state 
of the English language in the United States" 
a 206-page book published in 1816 by Cum- 
mings and Milliard, Boston, Mass. 



AMERICAN LEGION. See War Veterans' 



See Library society 


Luthern church 


See Medical society 

AMERICAN PARTY or "Know-Nothing 
Party" was organized about 1854. The first 
national convention was held June 5, 1855 at 
Philadelphia, Pa. The party was really a se- 




cret organization rather than a political party. 
Membership was divided into three degrees. 
The first included members who were Ameri- 
can-born and were wholly unconnected with 
the Roman Catholic Church. They were obliged 
to vote as the society determined. The second 
degree included members who were permitted 
to hold office inside the organization while the 
third degree was composed of members who 
were eligible for office outside the organization 
On February 18, 1856, a convention held at 
Philadelphia, Pa., abolished the secret character 
of the organization and made presidential nomi- 
nations Millard Killmore of New York for 
President and Andrew Jackson Donelsori of 
Tennessee for Vice President. Fill more re- 
ceived only eight electoral votes. The name 
American Party was used by organizations in 
1874 and 1887, but each was a distinct and 
separate party. 

SOCIATION. Sec Pharmacy society 

CIATION. Sec Philological society 

ETY. See Science association 

ETY. See Physiological society 

SOCIATION. Sec Political science society 

CIATION. See Psychological society 

AMERICAN RED CROSS was organized 
in Washington, D.C., on May 21, 1881 by Miss 
Clara Barton, who became its first president. 
The constitution was adopted May 21, 1881 and 
the society was incorporated July 1, 1881 under 
the laws of the District of Columbia and re- 
incorporated April 17, 1893 and again by act 
of Congress June 6, 1900 as the American Na- 
tional Red Cross (31 Stat.L.277) and January 
5, 1905 (33 Stat.L.599). Jean Henri Dunant 
proposed a Red Cross organization agreed to 
by sixteen nations at a preliminary conference 
October 26-29, 1863 and at a convention August 
22, 1864 which was held at Geneva, Switzer- 
land. The treaty was ratified March 16, 1882 
(22 Stat.L.940) by the U.S. Senate making the 
United States the thirty-second nation to join. 
(Mabel Thorp Boardman Under the Red 
Cross Flag) 

ENCE. See Conference of American repub- 

CATION. See Social science society 

MALS. See Humane society 


GINEERS. See Engineering society 


See Music society 

SURGEONS. See Dental society 

CAL ENGINEERS. See Engineering so- 

CIETY. Sec Sociological society 

TION. See Statistical society 

CIETY. See Theosophical society 

TION. Sec Unitarian society 

AMMUNITION. See Ordnance 

AMNESTY proclamation to citizens was is- 
sued by President Abraham Lincoln on Decem- 
ber 8, 1863. lie also issued another similar 
proclamation, March 26, 1864. President An- 
drew Johnson issued supplementary proclama- 
tions May 29, 1865, September 7, 1867, July 4, 
1868 and December 25, 1868. (Henry Jarvis 
Raymond Lincoln, His Life and Times) 


operated amphibious vehicle 

Ferris wheel; Switchback railroad 


Anaesthetic (general) was sul-ether, used 
by Dr. Crawford Williamson Long of Jeffer- 
son, Ga., in December 1841 and January 1842. 
He removed a cystic tumor about half an inch 
in diameter from the back of the neck of James 
M. Vcnable on March 30, 1842, applying ether 
under a towel. His bill for the operation 
amounted to $2.25 ; for sulphuric ether 250 and 
for excising the tumor $2. This discovery 
antedates that of Morton by four years and 
that of Wells by two years. It was not re- 
ported, however, until 1852 when the Georgia 
State Medical Society was notified. (Francis 
Randolph Packard History of Medicine in the 

Anaesthetic in dentistry was used by Dr. 
Horace Wells, a dentist of Hartford, Conn., 
who discovered the anaesthetic property of 
nitrous oxide (laughing) gas. On December 11, 
1844 while under the influence of gas he had 
one of his teeth extracted by Dr. John M. 
Riggs. The use of the gas was not successful, 
as he did not know it had to be combined with 
oxygen, a discovery which was not made until 
twenty-four years later. (Yale Journal of Biol- 
ogy and Medicine. May 1933) 





Ether administrated in childbirth was em- 
ployed December 27, 1845 by Dr. Crawford 
Williamson Long during the delivery of his 
second child Fanny (Long) Taylor, at Jeffer- 
son, Ga. 

Painless surgery demonstration was given 
on October 16, 1846, at the Massachusetts Gen- 
eral Hospital, Boston, Mass. Dr. John Col- 
lins Warren operated on Gilbert Abbott, who 
had a swelling on the right side of his jaw, and 
removed a tumor, using the drug of William 
Thomas Green Morton of Charleston, Mass. 
Morton was refused admission to hospitals until 
he divulged the name of the secret drug. Al- 
though he is credited with the discovery of 
anaesthetics, eight or ten others have also 
claimed the honor. 

Spinal anaesthesia report was "The Grow- 
ing Importance and Value of Local and Re- 
gional Anesthesia in Minor and Major Sur- 
gery" by Dr. Rudolph Matas of New Orleans, 
La., which was published in 1900 in the Journal 
of the Louisiana State Medical Society. On 
November 10, 1899, he anesthetized a patient by 
"spinal subarachnoid method." (New Orleans 
Medical and Surgical Journal. February 1928) 

ANARCHIST was Josiah Warren who was 
known as the "father of anarchy." He was of 
the intellectual type and was not an advocate 
of violence. In 1827 he opened a "time store" 
in Cincinnati, Ohio, to vindicate his theory of 
"labor for labor." He sold merchandise at cost, 
plus 7 per cent for handling and a labor charge 
for the clerk's hire. He advocated the trans- 
ference of government activities to private 
persons. (William Bailie Josiah Warren, The 
First American Anarchist) 

ANATOMY BOOK. See Medical book 

ANATOMY LECTURES (Scientific). See 
Medical instruction. 


See Research institute 

CHAIR. See History instruction 

See Freemasons 

CRUCIS, the Rosicrucian order, often abbre- 
viated AMORC, a non-sectarian fraternity 
devoted to the investigation and study of the 
higher principles of life as found expressed in 
man and nature, was first established in Amer- 
ica in 1694 by Magister Kelpius, appointed in 
England to become the first master of the 
order in America. The first lodge, temple and 
laboratories of the order were erected in 1694 
in what is now Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, 
Pa. The national headquarters of the Grand 
Lodge of the Rosicrucian Order of the North 
and South Jurisdiction is located at Rosicrucian 


Park, San Jose, Calif. Each jurisdiction is 
under the direction of an Imperator who has a 
Supreme Council as an advisory board which 
charters lodges and chapters. 

ANESTHESIA. See Anaesthesia 

ANGINA OPERATION. See Surgical op- 


ANGLING BOOK was "A discourse utter'd 
in Part at Ammaukecg-Falls, in the fishing- 
season 1739" printed in 1743 at Boston, Mass., 
for Samuel Kneeland and Timonthy Green. 
(Charles Eliot Goodspeed Angling in Amer- 

See also Fishing treatise 


See also Horse breeding society 

Artificial animal breeding cooperative so- 
ciety was the Artificial Breeding Unit No. 1 of 
the New Jersey Holstein-Friesian Cooperative 
Association, organized May 16, 1938 in Hunter- 
don, Somerset and Warren Counties, N.J. Dr. 
James Arnold Henderson was in charge. The 
original membership consisted of 102 dairymen 
who entered 1,050 Holslein cows. 


ANIMAL HOSPITAL. See Veterinary hos- 

Animal husbandry federal appropriation. 

Sec Animal industry bureau 

Animal husbandry professor was John 
Alexander Craig of the Wisconsin Agricultural 
Experiment Station, University of Wisconsin, 
Madison, Wis., who served from 1890 to 1897. 
His specialty was sheep husbandry. 

Animal husbandry federal appropriation 

was approved April 23, 1904 (33 Stat.L.281), 
an "act making appropriations for the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture for the calendar year end- 
ing June 30, 1905." For experiments in animal 
breeding and feeding in cooperation with state 
agricultural stations, $25,000 was appropriated, 
part of an appropriation of $1,362,880 to the 
Bureau of Animal Industry. The first expen- 
diture was July 1, 1904. 

Bureau of Animal Industry of the United 
States Department of Agriculture was estab- 
lished by act of Congress, May 29, 1884 (23 
Stat.L.31). The first chief of the Bureau of 
Animal Industry was Dr. Daniel Elmer Salmon 
who served from May 31, 1884 to October 31, 

Dairy division of the Bureau of Animal 
Industry was organized July 1, 1895. Major 
Henry Elijah Alvord was appointed first chief. 




His original staff consisted of one assistant and 
two clerks. (Ulysses Grant Hoitck Bureau of 
Animal Industry) 

Pathological division of the Bureau of 
Animal Industry was established April 1, 1891. 
Dr. Theobald Smith was appointed the first 
chief. (Ulysses Grant Houck Bureau of Ani- 
mal Industry) 

ANIMAL POUND. See Pound (enclosure 
for animals) 

section society; Vivisection 


Animal awarded a Distinguished Service 
Cross. See Medal 

Bear (white) brought to the United States 
was Ursa Major, or the Great Bear, a nine 
months old cub, caught in Davis Strait, on 
the western coast of Greenland, which was ex- 
hibited January 18, 1733 at Clark's Wharf, 
North End of Boston. It was brought by Cap- 
tain Atkins from Greenland and kept in a 
large cage. It was shipped to London on Feb- 
ruary 27, 1734. (Boston Weekly Nezvs Letter. 
January 18, 1733) 

Camels were imported for commercial pur- 
poses on May 14, 1856 to Indianola, Tex., a 
town about one hundred arid twenty miles south 
of Galveston. The shipment consisted of thirty- 
four camels which were brought over on the 
S.S. "Supply." The Boston Gazette of Oc- 
tober 2, 1721, announced that an "African 
camel . .7 feet high and 12 feet long" was on 
exhibition in Boston, Mass. (May Humphreys 
Stacey- Uncle Sam's Camels) 

Cattle (Aberdeen-Angus) importation was 

made in 1873 by George Grant, Victoria, Kans., 
who imported four bulls, two of which were 
exhibited the same year at Kansas City, Mo. 
The bulls were crossed with native longhorn 
Texas cattle. 

Cattle (Africander cattle) arrived Decem- 
ber 11, 1931 at New York City. Sixteen bulls 
and thirteen cows and heifers left Capetown, 
South Africa, November 14, 1931 and were 
held in quarantine from December 12, 1931 to 
March 9, 1932 at the United States Department 
of Agriculture, Animal Quarantine Station, 
Clifton, N.J. William Henry Black, in charge 
of Beef Cattle Investigations, Bureau of Ani- 
mal Industry, selected the cattle and had com- 
plete supervision until arrival at final destina- 
tion, March 14, 1932, at King Ranch, Kings- 
ville, Texas. 

Cattle club. See Cattle club 

Cattle exportation was made from Savan- 
nah, Ga. A shipment of 16 steers was exported 
in 1755, and in 1770, 28 steers and cows. In 
1772, 136 steers and cows were shipped from 
that port, probably to the West Indies. It is 
possible that prior shipments were made, but 
there is no known record of them. 


Cattle exportation to Great Britain is be- 
lieved to have been made in 1868 by Nelson 
Morris who shipped a few live cattle from 
Chicago, 111., to London and Glasgow. The 
first large shipment was made in October 1876 
by William Cqlwell, a cattle dealer of Boston, 
Mass., who shipped a cargo of 450 live cattle 
to Liverpool on the steamship "Istrian" of the 
Leyland Line. (Rudolf Alexander Clemen > 
The American Livestock and Meat Industry) 

Cattle (Guernsey cattle) imported were 
one bull and two heifers which arrived at Bos- 
ton, Mass., in 1831. They were taken to the 
farm of General Moody Adams Pillsbury at 
Guernsey Island, Lake Winnepesaukee, N.H. 

Cattle importation law (U.S.) prohibiting 
the importation of diseased cattle from foreign 
countries was the "act to prevent the spread of 
foreign diseases among the cattle of the United 
States" passed December 18, 1865 (14 Stat.L.l). 
The first prohibition was July 31, 1875, when 
meat, cattle, and hides from Spain were ex- 
cluded on account of the presence of the foot- 
and-mouth disease in that country. 

Cattle importation of pure-bred short- 
horns was effected by the Ohio Company for 
Importing English Cattle which was organized 
at Chillicothe, Ohio, on November 2, 1833. 
The company issued 92 shares at $100 each, 
which were held by 48 persons, 28 of whom 
held one share each. To further purebred 
strains, the society sent Felix Renick to Eng- 
land to buy purebreds. On May 20, 1834, he 
purchased 7 bulls and 12 cows, which were 
shipped to Philadelphia, Pa., and driven over- 
land to Chillicothe, Ohio, where they arrived 
in June 1834. Although cattle had been im- 
ported since 1624, this was the first society 
organized for importing pure-bred stock. (Ohio 
Archaeological and Historical Quarterly. Vol. 
33. January 1924) 

Cattle (shorthorn) public auction sale was 

held October 29, 1836 at Felix Renick's Indian 
Creek Farm, Chillicothe, Ohio, when forty- 
three head sold for $34,540, an average of 
$803.25 apiece. 

Cattle tuberculosis test was made March 
3, 1892 on a herd of cattle belonging to Dr. 
J. E. Gillingham, Claremont Farms, Villa 
Nova. Pa. The herd was tested with tuber- 
culin brought from Europe by Dr. Leonard 
Pearson, Dean of the Veterinary Depart- 
ment of the University of Pennsylvania, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Chinchilla farm that was successful was 
established February 22, 1923 at Los Angeles, 
Calif., by Mathias Farrell Chapman with eleven 
chinchillas imported from Peru and Chile. The 
farm was later moved to Inglewood, Calif., 
and contained about 1,300 animals. 

Cow flown in an airplane was Elm Farm 
Ollie, a Guernsey, which went aloft on Febru- 
ary 18, 1930, with a corps of reporters. She 




ANIMALS Cow/tm^ 

was milked during the flight and the milk was 
sealed in paper containers and parachuted over 
St. Louis, Mo. 

Cows were imported from Devon, England, 
in March 1624 by Edward Winslow who on 
January 1, 1633, became governor of the Plym- 
outh Colony (Mass.). In 1632 "no farmer was 
satisfied to do without a cow; and there was in 
New England, not only a domestic, but an ex- 
port, demand from the West Indies, which led 
to breeding for sale. But the market was soon 
overstocked, and the price of cattle went down 
from fifteen pounds and twenty pounds to five 
pounds; and milk was a penny a quart." Cows 
were raised principally for their hides; second- 
ly, for meat, and only very incidentally for 
their milk. (Albert Sidney Bolles Industrial 
History of the United States) 

Dog race. See Dog race 
Dog show. See Dog show 

Dogs trained to guide the blind were 
taught at "The Seeing Eye," Nashville, Tenn., 
in 1928. "The Seeing Eye" was incorporated 
January 9, 1929, under the laws of Tennessee 
as an association not for pecuniary profit. Mrs. 
Harrison Eustis was the first president. The 
organization moved to Morristown, N.J., in 
May 1929 and was incorporated on April 30, 
1932, under the laws of New Jersey. "Buddy," 
the first Seeing Eye dog to guide a blind man, 
was a shepherd dog brought over from Vevey, 
Switzerland, in June 1928 by Morris S. Frank 
to whom it had been presented on April 25, 

Elephant arrived on the "America" April 13, 
1796 at New York City from Bengal, India 
She was two years old, six and a half feet 
high and was exhibited by Jacob Crowninshicld 
at the corner of Beaver Street and Broadway. 
"It eats thirty pounds of rice besides hay arid 
straw drinks all kinds of wine and spirituous 
liquors, and eats every sort of vegetable ; it 
will also draw a cork from a bottle with its 
trunk." (New York Argus. April 23, 1796) 

Fur bearing animals raised commercially 
were minks reared in Oneida County, N.Y., in 
1866 by H. Ressegue. Prices of skins were 
high, and live animals for breeding stock- 
brought $30 a pair. 

Giant panda was Su-Lin, imported from 
China by Mrs. William H. Harkness, Jr., on the 
"President McKinley." It weighed about five 
pounds when it arrived at San Francisco, Calif., 
December 18, 1936. The giant panda was dis- 
covered on November 9, 1936. It is a cross 
between a bear and a racoon and ranges in 
bamboo jungles on mountainous land between 
China and Thibet. Its head and neck arc 
white. Splotchy black fur encircles its eyes, 
and its tiny ears are grayish black. Forelegs, 
chest, shoulders and hind legs are black. Gray- 
ish white fur covers its back and sides. It 
eats shoots and roots of bamboo, grows to a 


weight of three hundred pounds, length of five 
feet and height of three feet. Su-Lin died 
April 1, 1938 in the Brookfield Zoo, Chicago, 
111., which had purchased it for $8,750.44. 
(Ruth Harkness The Lady and the Panda) 

Goat show. See Goat show 

Horse farm operated by the United States 
Government was the United States Morgan 
Horse Farm, Middlebury, Vt., established in 
1907 on four hundred acres donated by Colonel 
Joseph Battell of Middlebury, Vt. The first 
270 acres of land were deeded to the United 
States by Mr. Battell, February 1, 1907. Horse 
breeding under the Bureau of Animal Industry 
began in December 1904, a cooperative enter- 
prise with the Colorado Experiment Station 
to develop an American utility horse. (U.S. 
Dcpt. of Agriculture The Preservation of 
Our Native Types of Horses Circular 137) 

Horse (Morgan horse) was named after 
its owner Justin Morgan. It was foaled in 
1789 at Randolph, Vt, and got by True Briton, 
also known as Beautiful Bay. It died in 1821. 
(Joseph Jhittell The Morgan Horse and Reg- 

Horse (Percheron horse) importation was 

attempted by Edward Harris of Moorestown, 
N.J., in 1839. Four horses were obtained from 
France, but only a mare survived the trip. Two 
stallions and two mares were subsequently im- 
ported, one of the stallions (Diligence) being 
credited with 400 foals. (Ellis McFarland 
Brief History of the Percheron Horse) 

Horse race. See Horse race 
Horse show. See Horse show 

Horse (thoroughbred) is claimed to be 
Bulle Rock who was imported into Virginia 
in 1730. lie was foaled in 1717 and was a son 
of Darley Arabian and the mare, Byerly Turk. 
It is also claimed that the first thoroughbred 
horse was Spark who was presented to Lord 
Baltimore by the Prince of Wales, the father 
of (k-ori^e III. Lord Baltimore gave Spark 
to Governor Samuel Ogle of Maryland about 
1750. (John Gilmcr Speed The Horse in 

Horse to pace better than 2.00 was Star 

Pointer in harness at Readville, Mass., on Au- 
gust 28, 1897. The time was one mile in 
1.59^4 minutes. (Hamilton Busbey The Trot- 
ting and the Pacing Horse in America) 

Horse to trot a mile in less than two 

minutes was Lou Dillon, who established a 
record of 1 :58^ on August 24, 1903 at Read- 
ville, Mass. She was driven by Millard F. 
Sanders at a paced trial with a pacemaker in 
front. (Henry Troth Coates A Short History 
of the American Trotting and Pacing Horse) 

Horse to win the triple crown, the "Big 
Three," for three-year-olds, was Sir Barton 
which in 1919 won $57,275; May 1, $20,825, 




the Kentucky Derby, Churchill Downs, Ky., 
May 14, $24,500, the Preakness, Pimlico, Md., 
and June 11, 1919, $11,950, the Belmont Stakes, 
Belmont Park, Long Island, N.Y., when a new 
track record was set for the mile and three fur- 
longs course. 

Horse (trotting horse) was Messenger, a 
gray horse 15 hands 3 inches high, foaled in 
1780. He was imported from England and 
arrived at Philadelphia, Pa., in May 1788. He 
was buried with military honors January 28, 
1808. (John Hervey Messenger, The Great 

Horse whose total purses exceeded 
$100,000 was "Miss Woodford," foaled 1880, 
who won 37 of 48 races between 1882 and 1886 
for a purse of $118,270.00. The mare was the 
entry of the Dwyer Brothers (Michael and 

Horses were imported about April 17, 
1629, by the Massachusetts Bay Colony. The 
importation was made by Matthewe Cradock, 
first governor of the company, whose agree- 
ment required that "such cattle, both horss, 
mares, cowcs, bulls, and goatcs, as arc shipped 
by Mr. Cradock, are to bee devyded in equal 1 
halfes twixt him & the Compame." (Nathaniel 
Bradstreet Shurtlcff Records of the Gover- 
nor and Company of the Massachusetts Bay in 
New England. 'Vol. 7) 

Leopard was exhibited February 2, 1802 
by Othello Pollard, near the Columbian Mu- 
seum, Boston, Mass. An admission fee of 
twenty-five cents was charged to see the "im- 
port from Bengal." (Boston Independent 
ChronicleFebruary 8, 1802. No. 2177) 

Lion was exhibited November 26, 1716 at 
Boston, Mass., by "Captain Arthur Savage, at 
his house in Brattle Street, where is to be 
shewn by William Nichols, a Lyon of Bar- 
hary, with many other rarities, the like never 
before in America." (Boston Gazette-- Novem- 
ber-December 26-Dcccmber 3, 1716) 

Monkey trained to perform was "a crea- 
ture called a Japanese, of about two feet high, 
his body resembling a human body in all parts 
except the feet and tail" exhibited February 
25, 1751 at the house of Mr. Edward Willet, 
New York City. Admission of a shilling was 
charged to see the monkey walk a tightrope, 
exercise a firelock (gun) and dance. 

Mule was bred through efforts of Presi- 
dent George Washington. The exportation of 
full-blooded jacks from Spain was prohibited, 
but Charles III of Spain, learning of Wash- 
ington's interest, sent him two jacks which 
arrived in Boston, Mass., on October 26, 1785. 
These were the first jacks to arrive in the 
United States. (Paul Iceland Ilaworlh 
George Washington, Country Gentleman) 

Okapi was imported August 4, 1937 at 
New York City. It was 21 months old, 
weighed 235 pounds and was 49 inches tall at 


the shoulder. It resembled a cross between a 
zebra and a giraffe, and had a mahogany red 
body with white stripes on its buttocks and 
upper legs. It consumed 8 bananas, 4 heads 
of cabbage, 3 bunches of carrots and 6 liters 
of condensed milk and water daily. It was 
captured in the Belgian Congo and shipped 
July 22, 1937 on the Red Star liner "Penn- 
land" under the personal care of Dr. William 
Reid Blair, director of the Bronx Zoo, New 
York City, to which it was delivered. 

Platypus (duck-billed) (ornithorhynchus 
anatinus) was publicly exhibited July 15, 1922 
by the New York Zoological Society at Bronx 
Park, New York City. It was a fur-bearing an- 
imal with a beak and laid eggs. It arrived at 
San Francisco, Calif., from Australia. 

Pronghorn antelope bred and reared in 
captivity was born in the City Park Zoo, 
Denver, Colo., in 1903. Alfred Hill, zoo direc- 
tor, was congratulated by Theodore Roosevelt. 

Reindeer born in the United States was a 
jet black calf born on May 31, 1929 at Lodge- 
pole Ranch, the estate of Otis Emerson Dun- 
ham at North Beverly, Mass. 

Rhinoceros was exhibited September 13, 
1826 at 1 Vale's Museum and Gallery of the 
Fine Arts, New York City. Advertisements 
stated "its body and limbs are covered with a 
skin so hard and impervious that he fears 
neither the claws of the tiger nor the probos- 
cis of the elephant; it will turn the edge of a 
scimitar and even resist the force of a musket 
ball " The exhibit scheduled to close October 
13th was extended to November 25th. 

Sheep were imported into America in 1609 
when the London Company brought over a 
shipment to Jamestown, Va. 

Sheep (Karakul fur sheep) imported were 
five rams and ten ewes which arrived at New 
York City in 1908 from Russia on the S.S. 
"Fsthonia." They were placed in quarantine at 
Athenia, N.J., preparatory to shipment to the 
ranch of Dr. C. C. Young at Holliday, Texas. 
(US. Dcpt. of Agriculture Yearbook. 1915) 

Sheep (Merino sheep) were imported in 
1802 by Colonel David Humphreys, United 
States Minister to Spain, who shipped 100 of 
them from Lisbon to Derby, Conn. In 1809 
they were valued at $1,500 each. It is also 
recorded that three merino sheep were smug- 
gled in in 1793 by William Foster, but were 
eaten, their value being unknown at the time. 
'Francis Little Early American Textiles) 

Sheep (Merino sheep) exhibition was in 

1807 at Pittsfield, Mass, by Elkanah Watson, 
a native of Plymouth, Mass. Two sheep were 
on display "under the great elm tree in the 
public sqiiarc of Pittsfield." (Louis George 
Connor A Brief History of the Sheep Indus- 
try in the United States) 





ANIMATED CARTOON. See Moving pic- 

SIGN. See Electric sign 


See Cartoon school 

TURE PROJECTION. See Moving pic- 


Territorial expansion 

ANNUAL was Le Souvenir, or Picturesque 
Pocket Diary, Containing an Almanack, Ruled 
Pages for Memoranda, Literary Selections and 
a Variety of Useful Information for 1825 pub- 
lished at Philadelphia, Pa., by A. R. Poole in 
1825. It was 24-mo. and contained 108 pages, 
including a calendar for 1826. It was issued 
in a cardboard slip case. It preceded the At- 
lantic Souvenir Christmas and New Year's 
Offering 1826, copyrighted October 3, 1825, 
edited by Henry D. Gilpin, published by 
[H. C] Carey and [I.] Lea, Philadelphia, Pa. 
(Ralph Thompson American Literary Annals 
and Gift Books) 

ANNUNCIATOR was invented by Seth 
Fuller of Boston, Mass., who obtained a patent 
on December 26, 1833. It was installed at the 
Tremont House, Boston, Mass., and was known 
as "hanging bells." There were 140 bells which 
occupied a space 57 feet long, 6 feet high and 
1 foot deep. A small hammer hitting a gong 
caused the sound and vibrated a card showing a 
number corresponding with the room number. 
Each bell was in a glass enclosed box. They 
were placed in operation when the hotel opened, 
October 16, 1829. 



ANTELOPE (Pronghorn). See Animals 
ANTHEM (National). See National anthem 

ANTHOLOGY (American) was American 
Poems, Selected and Original, 304 pages, com- 
piled by Elihu Hubbard Smith, published in 
1793 at Litchfield, Conn., by [Thomas] Col- 
lier and [David] Buel. It contained poems by 
Mrs. Morton, J. Allen, Barlow, W. Dunlap, 
Dwight, Freneau, Hopkins, Hopkinson, Liv- 
ingston, Trumbull, and others. 



the Laboratory of Anthropology which was 
formally opened to the public on September 1. 
1931 at Santa Fe, N.M. It was in charge of 
Jesse Logan Nusbaum. Dr. Alfred Vincent 
Kidder was chairman of the board of trustees. 
(Am. Civic Annual. Vol. 3. 1931} 


law (state) 

ANTI-MASONIC PARTY was formed in 
1827 in western New York, a short time after 
the death of William Morgan. The first na- 
tional convention was held at Philadelphia, Pa. 
in September 1830 and was attended by 96 
delegates from 10 states. On September 26, 
1831, 113 delegates from 13 states attended a 
convention at Baltimore, Md. at which they 
voted for their first presidential candidates. 
William Wirt of Maryland was nominated for 
president and Amps Ellsmaker of Pennsyl- 
vania for vice president. In the 1832 elections 
Wirt received 7 electoral votes as compared 
with 219 cast for the Democratic nominee, An- 
drew Jackson. 

May 14, 1884 at a convention held in Chicago, 
111., as "The Anti-Monopoly Organization of 
the United States." Their existence was of 
short duration as they joined the People's 
Party. General Benjamin Franklin Butler of 
Massachusetts was nominated for the presi- 
dency and General Absolom Madden West of 
Mississippi as the vice presidential candidate; 
both were also nominated by the Greenback 
Labor Party at their national convention. They 
received 175,000 votes as compared with 4,900,- 
000 cast for Grover Cleveland of New York, 
the Democratic candidate in the election of 
November 4, 1884. 


See Price regulation law 


Book store (Antiquarian) 

cal society 

tian). See Egyptian antiquities collection 

ance society 

TION. See Strike 

ANTI-SLAVERY PARTY was the Liberty 
Party which held its first convention in War- 
saw, New York, November 13, 1839. James 
Gillespie Birney of Kentucky was nominated 
as presidential candidate, and Francis J. Le- 
moyne as vice presidential candidate. The nom- 
inations were confirmed on April 1, 1840 despite 
the unwillingness of the candidates to accept, 
and in the Harrison- Van Buren election they 
polled 7,069 votes. The first National Conven- 
tion of the Liberty Party was held in New 
York City on May 12, 1841. (Theodore Clarke 
Smith The Liberty and Free Soil Parties in 
the Northwest) 





lished in September 1894, by the New York 
City Department of Health. Dr. William Hal- 
lock Park was in charge. This was also the first 
antitoxin laboratory in the world established 
by a public health organization and the first to 
provide for the free distribution of antitoxin 
to the poor. (Wade Wright Oliver The Man 
Who Lived for Tomorrow) 






American Anti- Vivisection Society organized 
February 23, 1883 at Philadelphia, Pa. Its ob- 
ject according to its charter was "the restric- 
tion of the practice of vivisection within proper 
limits, and the prevention of the injudicious and 
needless infliction of suffering upon animals 
under the pretense of medical and scientific re- 
search." The founder of the society was Mrs. 
Caroline Earle White. The first president was 
Dr. Thomas George Morion. The first annual 
meeting was held January 30, 1884 at Phila- 
delphia, Pa. (Anti-Vivisection Society An- 
nual Report 1884) 
See also Vivisection 



Catholic Apostolic delegate 

APOTHECARY. See Druggist 

APPENDECTOMY. See Surgical opera- 
tion appendicitis operation 

gical operation 

APPLE PARER was invented on February 
14, 1803 by Moses Coats, a mechanic of Down- 
ington, Pa. 

APPLES were imported from England in 
1629 by John Winthrop, colonial governor of 
Massachusetts. The first apples grown in this 
country were probably obtained from trees 
planted at Boston, Mass., from which "ten 
fair pippins" were plucked on October 10, 1639. 
Governor John Endicott planted the first nurs- 
ery of young fruit trees at Danvers, Mass. 
(George Kirby Holmes Progress of Agricul- 
ture in the United States 1899 Yearbook 
Dept. of Agric.) 

SHIP. See Chemistry professor 

APPORTIONMENT (Congressional). See 

Congressional apportionment 

SCHOOL. See Continuation school 



Aquarium for monsters of the deep was 

Marineland, eighteen miles south of St. Au- 
gustine, Fla., built at an approximate cost of 
$500,000. Ground was broken May 15, 1937 
and the dedication and formal opening was 
June 23, 1938. The marine studios consisted 
of two adjacent open-air steel and concrete 
tanks (one rectangular 100 by 40 feet, depth 
18 feet; the other circular, 75 feet in diameter, 
and 11 feet deep) with 200 portholes. 

Aquarium (Inland Salt Water) was in- 
stalled in Chicago, 111., for the 1893 Columbian 
Exposition by Marshall McDonald. Medals 
were conferred upon him by Belgium, England, 
France, Germany and Russia for his efforts in 
increasing and bettering the hatching and prop- 
agation of fish. 


AQUEDUCT BRIDGE. See Bridge wire 
cable suspension aqueduct bridge 



ARABIC MAGAZINE was "The Star of 
America," "Kowkab America'' a weekly, edited 
by Abraham Mitrie Rihbany, which was pub- 
lished at New York City in 1892. (Abraham 
Mitre Rihbany A Far Journey) 


Arbitration proceeding in the Hague 
Permanent Court of Arbitration was the Pious 
Fund Case between the United States and 
Mexico. The protocol of agreement was signed 
May 22, 1902, and the award of the court was 
made October 14, 1902. The issue was whether 
the claim of the United States for indemnity 
in behalf of the Roman Catholic Archbishop of 
San Francisco and the Bishop of Monterey 
was governed by the principle of res judicata, 
by virtue of the arbital sentence of Sir Edward 
Thornton of November 11, 1875. The conten- 
tion of the United States that the claim should 
be so governed was sustained by a unanimous 
court. ( Charles Cheney Hyde International 

Arbitration tribunal was established by the 
Chamber of Commerce of the State of New 
York on May 3, 1768 and consisted of seven 
members for "adjusting any differences between 
parties agreeing to leave such disputes to this 
Chamber." A different committee was ap- 
pointed for each meeting. (Joseph Bucklin 
Bishop A Chronicle of One Hundred and 
Fifty Years The Chamber of Commerce of 
the State of New York, 1768-1918) 

Colonial arbitration law was "an act for 

the more easy and effectually finishing of con- 
troversies by arbitration" passed at the legisla- 
tive session from October 11, 1753 to November 
2, 1753 held at New Haven, Conn. Each side 
appointed an arbitrator and the court appointed 
one. The court was granted power to levy and 




collect the awards. (Charles Jeremy lioadly 
The Public Records of the Colony of Connect- 
icut from May 1751 to February 1757.) 

Federal arbitration law was "an act to 
make valid and enforceable written provisions 
or agreements for arbitration of disputes aris- 
ing out of contracts, maritime transactions or 
commerce among the States or Territories or 
with foreign nations" (43 Stat.L.883) approved 
February 12, 1925 to take effect January 1, 

Federal Board of Mediation and Concilia- 
tion (labor relations only) was the United 
States Board of Mediation and Conciliation au- 
thorized by the act of March 4, 1913 (37 Stat. 
L.739) that "the secretary of labor shall have 
power to act as mediator and to appoint com- 
missioners of conciliation in labor disputes 
whenever in his judgment the interests of in- 
dustrial peace may require it." 

Interstate carrier arbitration law was the 
act of October 1, 1888 (25 Stat.L.501) "an 
act to create boards of arbitration or commis- 
sion for settling controversies and differences 
between railroad corporations and other com- 
mon carriers engaged in interstate and territori- 
al transportation of property or passengers and 
their employees". It provided for two methods 
of settling disputes, namely, voluntary arbitra- 
tion [not used in ten years] and investigation 
[applied only once, ineffectively, in the Pullman 
strike of 1894]. 

National mediation board. See Labor 

State arbitration law was Chapter 21 "An 
act for amending and declaring the law in the 
cases therein mentioned" passed December 15, 
1778 by the General Assembly of Maryland, at 
Annapolis, Md. which ruled "it shall be lawful 
to and for such court to give judgment upon 
the award of the person or persons to whom 
such submission and reference shall be made." 
(Clement Dorsey "The General Public Statu- 
tory Laws and Public Local Lazv of the State 
of Maryland from the year 1692 to 1939 in- 
clusive with annotations thereto and a copious 

State arbitration law (modern), under 
which an agreement to arbitrate controversies 
which may arise from a contract is recognized 
as valid and enforceable, was the "Arbitration 
Law" of New York, an "act in relation to 
arbitration constituting chapter seventy-two of 
the consolidated laws," Chapter 275 of the Laws 
of 1920, New York, which became effective 
April 19, 1920, the date when it was signed by 
Governor Alfred Emanuel Smith. However, 
many laws were passed between 1886 and 1920 
by several states but they were not effective. 

State Board of Mediation and Arbitration 
was the New York Board of Mediation and 
Arbitration organized June 1, 1886 under au- 
thority of act of May 18, 1886. The commis- 


sioners were William Purcell, Gilbert Robert- 
son, Jr., and Florence F. Donovan. On June 2, 
1886, Massachusetts authorized a state arbitra- 
tion board "for the settlement of differences 
between employers and their employees/" 

Strike settlement. See Strike 


Arbitration association devoted exclusively 
to advancing principle and practice in this field 
was the Arbitration Society of America, Inc., 
formed at New York City on May 15, 1922. On 
January 29, 1926, the American Arbitration As- 
sociation was formed by a merger of the Arbi- 
tration Society of America, Inc., the Arbitra- 
tion Foundation, Inc., and the Arbitration Con- 
ference. The first officers of the American 
Arbitration Association were Anson W. Bur- 
chard, president; Lucius Root Eastman and 
Frances Keller, vice presidents; and J. Noble 
Braden, executive secretary. 

ARBOR DAY. See Holiday 

ARC LIGHT. See Electric lighting 

ARCADE was the Philadelphia Arcade which 
extended from Chestnut Street through to 
Carpenter Street between Sixth and Seventh 
Streets, Philadelphia, Pa. It was erected by 
the Arcade Company of which John Haviland 
was architect. The cornerstone was laid on 
May 3, 1826 and the building finished in Sep- 
tember 1827. The cost of construction was 
$112,000; $42,500 was paid for the land. 

ARCH BRIDGE (Steel). See Bridge 


Archaeological national society was the 

Archaeological Institute of America which was 
founded May 10, 1879 at Boston, Mass. The 
constitution was adopted May 17, 1879. The 
first annual meeting was held May 15, 1880 at 
Boston, Mass. It was incorporated by act of 
Congress, May 26, 1906. Its purpose was to 
promote and direct archaeological research. The 
first president was Charles Eliot Norton. (First 
Annual Report of the Executive Committee of 
the Archaeological Institute of America) 

Archery association (national) was the 

National Archery Association formed January 
23, 1879 at Crawfordsville, Ind., by representa- 
tives of eight archery clubs. The first president 
was Maurice Thompson. The first grand annual 
meeting and the first tournament were held Au- 
gust 12th to 14th at Chicago, 111. at which 
twenty ladies and sixty-nine men competed. High 
score was made by Will H. Thompson who 
won with 172 hits and a score of 624. (Robert 
Potter Elmer American Archery) 

Archery club was the United Bowmen 
of Philadelphia founded in 1825 by Franklin 
Peale, Titian Ramsey Peale, Robert E. Griffith, 
M.D., Samuel P. Griffith, Jr., Jacob M. Morris 




and Thomas Sully. The club was not formally 
organized until 1828 when membership was lim- 
ited to twenty-five. Members dressed in frock 
coats of Lincoln green, ornamented with gold 
braid, and wore broad straw hats with three 
black ostrich plumes. 


Landscape architect was John Reid, gar- 
dener to Sir George Mackenzie of Rose- 
baugh, Lord Advocate under Charles II, 
who left Aberdeen, Scotland, August 28, 1683, 
on the "Exchange" accompanied by his wife 
and three daughters. He landed at Staten Is- 
land, N.Y. December 19, 1683. (New Jersey 
Historical Society Proceedings January 1937} 

Woman architect to enter the architectural 
profession was Louise Blanchard Bethune who 
opened an independent office in 1881 in Buffalo, 
N.Y. She was the first woman member of the 
American Institute of Architects, elected to 
full membership on September 15, 1890. 

American was "The Country Builders' As- 
sistant; containing a collection of nc^v designs 
of carpentry and architecture" by A slier Ben- 
jamin. It contained 30 plates and \\as printed 
in 1797 by Thomas Dickman, Greenfield, Mass 

Architectural book printed in America was 

Abraham Swan's "British Architect; or the 
Builders Treasury of Staircases" published 
in 1775 by Rfobert] Bell at Philadelphia, Pa., 
for J. Norman. It was a reprint of the edition 
published in London, England, in 1745. 

ate rank was established February 20, 1865, 
by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 
Boston, Mass., which opened a Department of 
Architecture. William Robert Ware was the 
first head of the department and received the 
title of professor. 

Landscape architecture course for women 
was offered September 15, 1901 by the Low- 
thorpe School of Architecture, Groton, Mass. 
The director of the school was Mrs. Edward 
Gilchrist Low. Degrees were not conferred, 
but certificates were given. First certificates 
were awarded June 10, 1903 to three students. 

prehensive program for training of archivists 
was offered September 25, 1940 by the School 
of Public Affairs, American University, Wash- 
ington, D.C. John Clarke Patterson was Di- 
rector of the Graduate School and the School 
of Public Affairs. 

ARCHIVAL COURSE was "Archives and 
Historical Manuscripts" offered September 29, 
1938 by Columbia University, New York City, 
under Dr. Solon Justus Buck, director of publi- 
cations, National Archives, Washington, D.C. 

STATES was Robert Digges Wimberly Con- 
nor appointed October 10, 1934. The position 


was created by act of Congress (48 Stat.L. 
1122) "act to establish a National Archives 
of the United States Government" approved 
June 19, 1934 by President Franklin Delano 
Roosevelt, which established the Archives Bu- 
reau. The archivist has an official seal and 
is chairman of a National Publications Commit- 

"ARCTICS." See "Arties" 

ARITHMETIC to be printed in the col- 
onies was James Hodder's Arithmetick; or that 
necessary art made most easy. Being explained 
in a way familiar to the capacity of any that 
desire to learn it in a little time, printed by J. 
Franklin, Boston, Mass., in 1719 for S. Phil- 
lips. (Louis Charles Karpinski Bibliography 
of Mathematical Works Printed in America 
Through 1850) 

American Arithmetic by a native Ameri- 
can was Isaac Greenwood's Arithmetick Vul- 
gar and Decimal with the Application Thereof 
to a Variety of Cases in Trade and Commerce 
which was published in 1729 at Boston, Mass., 
by S. Kneeland arid T. Green for T. Hancock 
at the Sign of the Bible and Three Crowns 
in Ann Street. It contained 158 pages, 4 pages 
of index and 4 pages of advertisements. (David 
Huyene Smith and Jekuthiel Ginsburg History 
of Mathematics m America Before 1900) 

See also Algebra book 


STATES NAVY) was awarded to the 
Bethlehem Iron Company, South Bethlehem, 
Pa, on June 1, 1887. Six thousand seven hun- 
dred tons uere ordered at $536 a ton for the 
battleships "Maine" and "Texas" and the mon- 
itors "Puritan," "Amphitrite," "Monadnock" 
and "Terror." (American Iron and Steel As- 
sociation History of the Manufacture of Ar- 
mor Plate for the United States Navy) 


ARMORED CAR. See Army armored car 



UP. See Automobile robbery 

ARMORED TANK. See Army armored 

ARMORY. See Arsenal 


American army division to cross the Rhine. 

Sec World war I 

Army aviator. See Aviation Aviator 




ARMY Continued 

Army Engineering Department of the 
Continental Army was authorized by the Con- 
tinental Congress, June 16, 1775. It estab- 
lished a separate engineering department in the 
army composed of one chief engineer who re- 
ceived $60 a month and two assistant engineers 
at $20 a month. The first chief engineer was Col- 
onel Richard Gridley who was appointed in June 
1775 under the resolve of the Continental 
Congress of June 16, 1775. A formal "Corps 
of Engineers" was established March 11, 1779 
but was disbanded November 3, 1783, upon the 
dissolution of the Revolutionary Army. 

Army expeditionary force. See American 
expeditionary force 

Battle fought by U.S. troops. Sec Wai- 
Brevet was authorized by the Continental 
Congress on July 20, 1776, for Jacques Antoine 
de Franchessin, a Knight of the Order of St. 
Louis, an experienced officer in the service of 
France, who received a brevet commission of 
lieutenant colonel. 

Brevet conferred upon an American was 

authorized November 19, 1777, by the Con- 
tinental Congress which granted the rank of 
lieutenant colonel, and a sword valued at 
$100 to Major Walter Stewart. (James Barnet 
FryThe History and Legal Effect of Brevets 
in the Armies of Great Britain and the United 

Cavalry unit was the Regiment of Dra- 
goons, later known as the 1st Regiment of 
Dragoons, organized at Jefferson Barracks, 
Mo., in August 1833. Colonel Henry Dodge 
assumed command August 29, 1833. The des- 
ignation of this organization was changed to 
the 1st Cavalry by Act of Congress of August 
3, 1861 (12 Stat.L.287). Four regiments of 
cavalry, howeverj were authorized January 1, 
1781 by the Continental Army and on March 5, 
1792 (1 Stat.L.287) Congress gave the Presi- 
dent power to raise a squadron of cavalry at his 
discretion to serve for three years. (Records in 
Adjutant General's Office, War Dept., Wash- 
ington, D.C.) 

Confederate general killed in Civil war. 
See Civil war 

Dental corps of the U.S. Army. Sec Den- 
tal corps (military) 

Engineer corps of the United States Army 
was established by Act of March 16, 1802 
(2 Stat.L.132), "fixing the military peace es- 
tablishments of the United States." The corps 
consisted of one engineer (major), two as- 
sistant engineers (captains), two other assist- 
ants (second lieutenants) and ten cadets. The 
first engineer in charge was Major Jonathan 
Williams, appointed April 13, 1802. (Jonathan 
Williams Plan of Jonathan Williams for For- 
tifying the Narrows) 


Gas regiment of the United States Army, 
authorized August 15, 1917 by General Order 
108, was organized by Colonel Earl James At- 
kisson. The first year it was known as the 
Thirtieth Engineers, and later named the First 
Gas Regiment. The first battalion was organ- 
ized October 16, 1917. The first independent 
action took place June 18, 1918, against the 
Germans in the Toul sector, France. 

Law (federal) authorizing military serv- 
ice for Negroes was introduced July 16, 1862, 
by Senator Henry Wilson of Massachusetts 
and signed July 17, 1862, by President Abra- 
ham Lincoln. It empowered the President to 
accept "persons of African descent, for the 
purpose of constructing intrenchments or per- 
forming camp competent." (George Washing- 
ton Williams A History of the Negro Troops 
in the War of the Rebellion) 

Law (state) conferring military privileges 
and duties on the Negro was chapter 24 of 
the Public Acts of Tennessee passed June 28, 
1861. The governor was authorized to re- 
ceive "all male free persons of color between 
the ages of 15 and 50 ... to do all such 
menial service for the relief of the volunteers." 

Medical corps of the United States Army 
is generally claimed to have been organized by 
the Reorganization Act of April 14, 1818 (end 
section 3 Stat.L.426) under which Joseph 
Lovell was appointed surgeon general. Medical 
officers previously were generally appointed for 
special regiments. Richard Allison of Penn- 
sylvania was appointed surgeon of a corps of 
700 rank and file which the first Congress au- 
thorized on September 29, 1789. From this 
date to 1798, medical officers were appointed 
for regiments as they were authorized by Con- 
gress. The Act of May 28, 1798 (1 Stat.L.558) 
provided for the appointment of a physician 
general, for which post James Craik of Vir- 
ginia was selected. The Act of March 3, 1813 
(2 Stat.L.819) authorized the appointment of 
a physician and surgeon general. Dr. James 
Tilton of Delaware was appointed physician 
and surgeon general and Francis Le Baron of 
Massachusetts was appointed apothecary 

Military airplane. See Aviation airplane 
in actual military operation 

Military leader of the Puritan settlers. See 

Military leader 

Moving picture for training soldiers. See 

Moving picture 

Railroad to carry troops. See Railroad 

Reserve Officers Training Corps was au- 
thorized by the National Defense Act of June 
3, 1916 (39 Stat.L.191) "act for making further 
and more effectual provision for the national 
defense and for other purposes." Men were 
accepted for military training in times of peace 
to take the place of officers in time of war. 




Reserve Officers Training Corps Units 
were infantry units established, under authority 
of War Department Bulletin No. 44, October 
21, 1916, at the University of Arkansas, Fay- 
etteville, Ark.; University of Maine, Orono, 
Me.; St. John's College, Annapolis, Md. ; Ag- 
ricultural and Mechanical College of Texas, 
College Station, Tex.; College of St. Thomas, 
St. Paul, Minn, and the Citadel, Charleston, 
S.C. (John Dickinson The Building of an 

Signal Corps was authorized as a separate 
branch of the army by act of Congress March 
3, 1863 (12 Stat.L.753). The corps was estab- 
lished under act of* June 1, 1860 (12 Stat.L.66) 
which appropriated $2,000 "for the manufacture 
or purchase of apparatus and equipment for 
field signals" and the appointment of one signal 
officer. On June 27, 1860, Assistant Surgeon 
Albert James Myer was appointed Signal Of- 
ficer with the rank of major. 

Soldier to receive seven decorations at 
once. See Medal 

Soldier to win the three highest ranking 
decorations. See Medal 

Woman member of the Women's Army 
Corps. See Army Auxiliary Corps 

lished August 2, 1862 by Major General George 
Brinton McClellan who issued General Order 
No. 147 authorizing one captain to each army 
corps as the Commandant of the Ambulance 
Corps, a first lieutenant for a division, a second 
lieutenant for a brigade, arid a sergeant for each 
regiment. The members of the corps wore a 
green band on the cap, a green half chevron 
two inches broad on each arm above the elbow. 
(Medical and Surgical History of the War of 
the Rebellion Volume 2. Surqical History 
Part 3) 

Army Ambulance Corps established by 
congressional action was authorized by the 
"Act to Establish a Uniform System of Ambu- 
lances in the Armies of the United States," 
approved March 11, 1864 (13 Stat.L.20), which 
provided each army corps with two-horse am- 
bulances in accord with their strength. Infan- 
try regiments of from 200 to 500 men were en- 
titled to two ambulances, while those of over 500 
men were entitled to three. Cavalry regiments 
of less than 500 men were entitled to one 
ambulance while those of over 500 were en- 
titled to two. 

United States Army was Troop A, 1st 
Armored Car Squadron, which was organized 
at Fort George G. Meade, Md., in 1928. It 
was commanded by Captain Harold G. Holt. 

United States troops in the United States Army 
was the French Renault tank used in the Battle 
of St. Mihiel on September 12, 1918. The 
first Chief of the Tank Corps was Brigadier 


General Samuel Dickerson Rockenbach, ap- 
pointed June 1919. No American -built tanks 
were used in World War I. (Records in 
Office of the Chief of InfantryWar Dept.) 

See also Ordnance Tank 


Legion of merit medal awarded a Wom- 
en's Army Corps member. See Medal 

Woman member of the Women's Army 
Corps, Regular Army, was Technician Third 
Grade Vietta B. Bates of Camden, N J., who was 
sworn in July 8, 1948 at Washington, D.C, 
by General Omar Nelson Bradley, Army Chief 
of Staff. The ceremony was televised. 

Women's Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) 

was authorized May 14, 1942 (56 Stat.L.278) 
an "act to establish a Women's Army Auxiliary 
Corps for service with the Army of the United 
States," in charge of a director who was to 
receive $3,000 annually plus allowances. The 
director was Oveta Culp Hobby (Mrs. William 
Pettus Hobby) appointed May 15, 1942, who 
assumed command the following day when she 
was sworn in by Secretary of War, Henry 
Lewis Stimson. On September 30, 1943, the 
Women's Army Auxiliary Corps became the 
Women's Army Corps (WAC). 

Women's Army Auxiliary Corps (WAAC) 
training course commenced July 20, 1942 at 
Fort DCS Moines, Des Moines, Iowa, and con- 
cluded August 29, 1942 when 346 women were 
commissioned third officers. 

ARMY AVIATOR. See Aviation Aviator 

States Army was the Balloon (Aeronautic) 
Corps, of five balloons and fifty men under 
the command of Thaddcus Sobieski Coulincourt 
Lowe, formed October 1, 1861. Four balloons 
were ready for service on November 10, 1861. 
(Official Records of the Union and Confederate 
Armies, Series 7) 

lished on April 6, 1917 by Major Albert Bond 
Lambert on ground leased at Grand and Mera- 
mec Streets, St. Louis, Mo. When the first 
class of twelve graduated, May 15, 1917, the 
entire equipment was offered without compen- 
sation to the War Department, which operated 
it until November 1917 when winter quarters 
were opened at San Antonio, Tex. In May 
1918, the school was transferred to Camp John 
Wise at San Antonio. 


Army camp for "limited service" selec- 
tees was opened at Camp McCoy, Wis. Com- 
pany No. 1 consisting of eighty-five enlisted 
men was activated July 19, J942. The com- 
manding officer was Major William Lutz Krig- 

Army Camp for training Negro Officers 

was established June 15, 1917 at Fort Des 
Moines, Des Moines, Iowa, and was known as 
the 17th Provisional Training Regiment. On 




ARMY 'CAMP Continued 
October 15, 1917, the first commissions were 
granted, 106 Negroes being commissioned as 
second lieutenants. 

Army Citizens' Military Training Camp 

was established in 1921 with an enrollment of 
10,299. The camps were authorized by the 
amendment to the National Defense Act of 
June 4, 1920 (41 Stat.L.759) 

corps (Military) 

ARMY DENTIST. See Dental corps 

ARMY "E" AWARD. See Navy "E" 

penalty for excluding soldiers in uniform from 
public places was Chapter 1562 passed May 5, 
1908 by Rhode Island. The bill was sponsored 
by Theodore Francis Green. This act was 
amended from section 32 of Chapter 283 of the 
General Laws of 1896. 

ARMY EXECUTION in the American 
Army occurred on June 27, 1776. A treacher- 
ous guard, Thomas Hickey, plotted with others 
to capture George Washington and deliver him 
to Sir William Howe. Hickey was tried, con- 
victed, and formally executed in New York 
City. All the officers and men off duty belong- 
ing to the brigades of Spencer, Heath, Sterling 
and Scott assembled under arms at their respec- 
tive barracks and at 10 o'clock marched to the 
grounds, a field near the Bowery Lane. Hickey 
was hanged in the presence of twenty thousand 


ARMY FIELD RANGE, or "Moving Kitch- 
en," was drawn by horses and introduced by 
Captain Daniel Frank Craig, 4th Field Artil- 
lery, on a 21 -day march in May 1908, while 
serving on the staff of Colonel Alexander 
Brydie Dyer at Vancouver, Wash. It was 
mounted on a two-wheeled truck or trailer 
and was drawn behind a rations wagon. It was 
never officially adopted by the War Depart- 
ment, although extensively used. 

ARMY HOSPITAL. See Hospital 


Chevrons for non-commissioned army uni- 
forms were authorized by General Regulations 
for the Army of the United States, 1847, which 
provided three bars and an arc for sergeant- 
major, three bars and a tie for quartermaster 
sergeant, three bars and a lozenge for first 
sergeant, three bars for a sergeant and two 
bars for a corporal. (Henry Loomis Nelson 
The Army of the United States) 

Shoulder sleeve insignia, known as a 
"shoulder patch," depicted a wildcat in a circle 
and was authorized October 19, 1918 for the 


Eighty-first Division, nicknamed the "Stone- 
wall Jackson Division," the "Bobcat Division," 
and the "Wildcat Division." 

Shoulder sleeve insignia issued to an inde- 
pendent air unit was authorized July 20, 1937 
for the General Headquarters Air Force. It 
consisted of an ultramarine blue three-bladed 
propeller outlined against an orange disk. An 
independent air unit is one directly under the 
command of the War Department, not under a 
commander who in turn is under the War De- 

Special insignia or marking to designate 
regiments was instituted by the Massachusetts 
Provincial Congress on July 5, 1775, which 
"resolved that thirteen thousand coats be pro- 
vided. . . .and one thereof given to each non- 
commissioned officer and soldier in the Massa- 
chusetts Forces. . . . and that the Committee of 
Supplies. . . .are to cause all the coats to be 
buttoned with pewter buttons, and that the coats 
for each regiment, respectively, have buttons of 
the same number stamped on the face of them." 

masons military masonic lodge 



Football game 


established as a permanent organization of the 
army by section 19, Act of February 2, 1901 
(31 Stat.L.753) to consist of one superin- 
tendent ($1,800 annual compensation) and 
nurses and reserve nurses who received $40 a 
month within the continental limits of the 
United States and $50 a month when on foreign 
service, transportation and necessary travel- 
ing expenses when traveling under orders. 
Quarters, subsistence and medical attendance 
when ill were also provided. The first super- 
intendent was Mrs. Dita H. Kinney who was 
appointed March 15, 1901 and resigned July 
31, 1909. Anita Newcomb McGee, Acting As- 
sistant Surgeon, United States Army, appointed 
August 29, 1898, organized the nurses who re- 
mained with the Army after the Spanish 
American War into a corps under the Surgeon 
General. She served until December 31, 1900. 
(Julia Catherine Stimson History and Manual 
of the Army Nurse Corps) 

Sec also Army Officer woman 


Adjutant General in the Continental 

Army was Horatio Gates whose commission 
was signed June 19, 1775 by John Hancock, 
He received $125 a month and the rank of 
brigadier general. The resolution to establish 
this office was passed June 16, 1775. Gates was 
chosen June 17, 1775 and on May 16, 1776 be- 
came a major general. He had a hectic mil- 
itary career, resigned from service, re-entered 
it, was suspended and later reinstated. (Sam- 
uel White Patterson Horatio Gates) 




American general missing in action in 
World War II. See World war II 

Army dental corps major general. See 

Dental corps (military) 

Brigadier General (Negro) was Benjamin 
Oliver Davis, commanding officer of Harlem's 
369th Coast Artillery (National Guard) ap- 
pointed October 25, 1940, to command a brigade 
in the 2nd Cavalry Division at Fort Riley, 

Chaplain (Catholic) appointed by the 
President was the Rev. Francis Edward Boyle 
of the District of Columbia. He was appointed 
June 13, 1862, accepted June 16, 1862 and was 
assigned to Stone Hospital, Washington, D.C. 

Chaplain (Catholic) of the Continental 
Army was the Rev. Louis Eustace Lotbiniere, 
appointed January 26, 1776 by General Benedict 
Arnold, to act as chaplain to the regiment of 
Colonel James Livingston. (Peter Force 
American Archives. I'ol. 1) 

Chaplain (Catholic) of the United States 
Army was the Rev. Samuel H Milley who 
served as Post Chaplain at Monterey, Calif., 
from September 28, 1840 to February 1850. 
(Aidan Henry Germain Catholic Military and 
Naval Chaplains) 

Chaplain (Chief) of the United States 
Army was John Thomas Axton, a clergyman 
of the Congregational Church appointed July 
15, 1920 with tbe rank, pay and allowance of 
colonel. He retired April 6, 1928. The office 
of Chief of Chaplains was established pursuant 
to Section 15 of an Act of Congress approved 
June 4, 1920 (41 Stat.L.769). Other chaplains 
who served as Chiefs of Service were Chaplain 
Edmund P. Kstcrhrook, Methodist Episcopal, 
April 7, 1928 to December 22, 1929; Chaplain 
Julian Emmet Yates, Baptist, December 23, 
1929 to December 22, 1933; Chaplain Alva Jen- 
nings Brasted, Baptist, December 23, 1933 to 
December 22, 1937 ; and Chaplain William 
Richard Arnold, Catholic, appointed December 
23, 1937. 

Chaplain (Jewish) of the United States 
Army was the Rev. Jacob Frankel of Phila- 
delphia, I 'a., appointed September 10, 1862, ac- 
cepted September 18, 1862. This appointment 
expired by constitutional limitation, March 4, 
1863. He was re-appointed April 22, 1863, to 
the United States Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa., 
and \\as honorably mustered out of service July 
1, 1865. Michael Mitchell Allen was regimen- 
tal chaplain of the 65th regiment of the Fifth 
Pennsylvania Cavalry, resigning Scptcmber^ 26, 
1861, but lie was not a "regularly ordained 
c1crg\ man." ([fV/r Department Records of 
Chaplains Commissioned in 1862) 

Chaplain (Negro) of the United States 
Army was Henry McNeal Turner, pastor of the 
Israel African Methodist Episcopal Church, 
Washington, D.C. He was commissioned chap- 
lain of the United States Colored Troops by 


President Abraham Lincoln in 1863. Turner 
enlisted in the First United States Colored In- 
fantry otherwise known as the First Dis- 
trict Regiment of Columbia, and was pres- 
ent and active in all its military engage- 
ments. He was mustered out of service in 
September 1865, and was appointed a chaplain 
in the regular army by President Andrew John- 
son. (Richard Robert Wright Centennial En- 
cyclopedia of the African Methodist Episcopal 

Chaplain of the United States Army was 

the Reverend John Hurt who was appointed 
March 4, 1791, and resigned April 30, 1794. 
He served during the Revolution as chaplain of 
the Sixth Virginia Infantry beginning October 
1, 1776. He become brigade chaplain on Au- 
gust 18, 1778, and served as such to the close 
of the war. (Trancis Bernard Hcitman Of- 
ficers of the Continental Army, 1775-1783) 

Chemical Warfare Chief was Brigadier 
General Amos Alfred Fries who served from 
July 16, 1920, to March 4, 1921, and from 
March 28, 1921, to March 27, 1929. On Feb- 
ruary 24, 1925, he was advanced to Major Gen- 

Chief engineer of the Continental Army was 
Colonel Richard Gridley who served from June 
17, 1775 to August 5, 1776. On June 16, 1775, 
the Continental Congress authorized one chief 
engineer at $60 a month, and two assistants at 
$20. (Andreiv Atkinson Humphreys His- 
torical Sketch of the Corps of Engineers) 

General appointed from civilian rank w r as 
William Signius Knudsen, director general of 
Office of Priority Management, appointed a 
lieutenant general on January 16, 1942, by 
President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. 

General (Continental Army) was George 
Washington, appointed June 15, 1775 by the 
Second Continental Congress assembled at the 
State House, Philadelphia, Pa. Congress re- 
solved "that five hundred dollars per month be 
allowed for the pay and expenses of the gen- 
eral." Washington was made general and com- 
mander-in-chief: of the army of the United 
Colonies and served without pay. 

General killed in World War II. Sec 
World war 11 

General of the Armies of the United States 

was General John Joseph Pershing whose ap- 
pointment was unanimously confirmed by the 
U.S. Senate on September 4, 1919. The posi- 
tion was created by "act relating to the crea- 
tion of the orifice of General of the Armies of 
the United States" (41 Stat.L.283) approved 
September 3, 1919. Pcrshing's was the only ap- 
pointment under the act. 

General of the United States Army was 

Ulysses Simpson Grant appointed July 25, 1866. 
He served until March 4, 1869 when he was 
inaugurated President of the United States. 




General to be consecrated a bishop was 

Major General William Richard Arnold, former 
chief of chaplains of the United States Army, 
in active service as a major general in the 
Inspector General's office when consecrated 
Titular Bishop of Phocaea on October 11, 1945, 
in St. Patrick's Cathedral, New York City, by 
Archbishop Francis Joseph Spellman. 

General to become a rear admiral was 

Samuel Powhatan Carter who organized the 
Tennessee Brigade and became a Brigadier 
General of Volunteers May 1, 1862. He was 
breveted Major General March 13, 1865 for 
gallantry and meritorious service and was mus- 
tered out of volunteer service January 15, 1866. 
On June 23, 1865, he was a Lieutenant Com- 
mander in charge of the gunboat "Monocacy" 
on the Asiatic station. He was appointed Rear 
Admiral May 16, 1882, and retired August 6, 

General wounded in action in World War 
II. See World war II 

Generals to wear the five-star insignia as 
Generals of the Army were Henry Harley 
Arnold, David Dwight Eisenhower, Douglas 
MacArthur and George Catlett Marshall whose 
appointments were ratified December 15, 1944 
by the Senate. The grade of General of the 
Army was established by Public Law No. 482, 
approved by Act of Congress, December 14, 
1944 (58 Stat.L.802). 

Judge Advocate of the Continental Army 
was lieutenant colonel William Tudor who 
served from July 29, 1775 to April 9, 1778. 
On August 10, 1776, he was made lieutenant 

Major (Negro) was Martin Robinson De- 
lany who received his commission on February 
8, 1865. On April 5, 1865, he was ordered to 
report to Charleston, S.C. (Alrutheus Am- 
bush Taylor The Negro in South Carolina 
During me Reconstruction) 

Major General of the Continental Army, 
next in rank to George Washington, was Ar- 
temas Ward who was appointed on June 17, 
1775, by an Act of the Continental Congress, 
and served until April 23, 1776, when he 
resigned with the rank of major general. 
(Charles MartynThe Life of Artemas Ward) 

Paymaster of the United States Army was 
Caleb Swan appointed May 9, 1792. His office 
was authorized by act of May 8, 1792 
(1 Stat.L.271). He resigned June 30, 1808. 
He received $60 a month and was required "to 
reside near the headquarters of the troops of 
the United States." The first Pay Department, 
by that name, was organized under the Act of 
April 24, 1816 (3 Stat.L,297). 

Paymaster General of the Continental 
Army was James Warren of Massachusetts, 
appointed June 27, 1775. On June 16, 1775, 
the Continental Congress established a separate 


department in the army to take care of pay- 
ments to troops. The department consisted of 
the paymaster general who received $100 a 
month and a deputy at $50 a month. Warren 
resigned April 19, 1776. (Massachusetts His- 
torical Society Warren-Adams Letters) 

Quartermaster of the Continental Army 
was Major Thomas Mifflin who served from 
August 14, 1775 to November 7, 1777. (Lan- 
caster County Historical Society Papers, 1899) 

Regimental Jewish chaplain was Rabbi 
Elkan Cohen Voorsanger commissioned as 
chaplain first lieutenant November 15, 1917 at 
Paris, France. He served with the American 
Expeditionary Forces and was promoted to the 
grade of captain on February 22, 1919. The 
act of June 3, 1916 (39 Stat.L.176) authorized 
the appointment of one chaplain for each regi- 
ment of cavalry, infantry, field artillery and 
engineers and 1200 of coast artillery. The act 
of October 6, 1917 (40 Stat.L.394) authorized 
the appointment of twenty chaplains-at-large. 

Surgeon General of the Continental Army 
was Benjamin Church who served from July 
27, 1775, to October 16, 1775. He held the 
position of Director General and Chief Physi- 
cian and received $4 a day compensation. On 
November 1, 1775, he was jailed for treason. 
(Allen French General Gage's Informers) 

Surgeon General of the United States 
Army to whom the title was officially applied 
was James Tilton of Delaware who was Physi- 
cian and Surgeon General of the United States 
Army from June 11, 1813 until June 15, 1815, 
when he was honorably discharged. His office 
was established by act of March 3, 1813 (2 
Stat.L.819). Tilton, in 1813, wrote "Economical 
Observations on Military Hospitals," which 
was published at Wilmington, Del., by J. Wil- 
son. The first medical officer to fill the posi- 
tion now known as Surgeon General of the 
Army was Joseph Lovell who served from 
April 18, 1818, until his death, October 17, 
1836. (Francis Bernard Heitman Historical 
Register and Dictionary of the US. Army) 

Woman army officer (other than those in 
the medical department) to be sworn in in the 
regular United States Army was Colonel Mary 
A. Hallaren who took the oath of office De- 
cember 3, 1948. After the oath, Secretary of 
the Army Kenneth Claiburne Royall announced 
her selection as director of the Women's Army 
Corps, Regular Army. The ceremony took 
place in the office of General Omar Nelson 
Bradley, Army Chief of Staff, the oath being 
administered by Major General Edward Fuller 
Witsell, Adjutant General. 

See also Army Nurses (Female) Corps 

Woman assistant army surgeon was Dr. 
Mary Edwards Walker who served as a con- 
tract surgeon from March 11 to August 23, 

1864, and from September 22, 1864, to June 15, 

1865. She wore male attire. The Congres- 
sional Medal of Honor awarded her, January 




24, 1866, was, by adverse action of the Board 
of Medal Awards, stricken from the list Feb- 
ruary 15, 1917, nothing having been found in 
the records to show the specific act or acts for 
which the decoration was originally awarded. 

Woman with rank corresponding to col- 
onel in the United States Army was Julia 
Otteson Flikke, Army Nurse Corps, who re- 
ceived the relative rank of Colonel, Army of 
the United States, on March 13, 1942. She 
was appointed to the Army Nurse Corps, 
March 8, 1918. 

Woman with rank corresponding to major 

in the United States Army was Julia Catherine 
Stimson, superintendent of the Army Nurses 
Corps. Relative rank was conferred by Act 
of Congress, June 4, 1920 (41 Stat.L.767). 

of a test platoon of 2 officers and 48 men from 
the 29th Infantry who started training July 1, 
1940. The first United States Army Parachute 
Battalion was the 501st, organized October 1, 
1940 at Fort Benning, Ga., under the command 
of Major William Maynadier Miley. 

ARMY RADIO CAR. See Radio car (mil- 

ARMY SCHOOL was the Military Acad- 
emy of the United States, established at West 
Point, N.Y., by Act of Congress (2 Stat.L.132) 
of March 16, 1802, for the purpose of edu- 
cating and training young men in the theory 
and practice of military science. The first 
superintendent was Jonathan Williams who 
served from April 15, 1802, to June 20, 1803, 
with the rank of major. He resigned, but 
at the request of President Thomas Jeffer- 
son returned to the same position on April 19, 
1805 and served as lieutenant colonel until 
July 31, 1812, when he resigned. During the 
interim following his first resignation, the 
senior officers assumed command of the Acad- 

Army school graduate (Negro) was 
Henry Ossian Flipper. He was appointed a 
second lieutenant in the 10th Cavalry on June 
15, 1877, and remained in service until June 30, 
1882, when he was dismissed for conduct unbe- 
coming an officer and a gentleman. He was a 
cadet from May 20, 1873, to June 14, 1877. 
The first Negro admitted to the Army 
School was James Webster Smith who was 
appointed by Congressman Solomon Lafay- 
ette Hoge and reported on May 31, 1870. 
(Henry Ossian Flipper The Colored Cadet at 
West Point). 

Army school graduate killed in military 
action was George Ronan. In the War of 
1812 with Great Britain, he was engaged in 
Captain Nathan Heald's desperate battle near 
Ft. Chicago, 111., August 15, 1812, against a 
vastly superior force of savages when he was 
struck down, not, however, before killing two 
savages in a hand-to-hand fight and continuing 
to struggle on his knees from loss of blood until 


the last moment. (George Washington Cullum 
Biographical Register of the Officers and 
Graduates of the US. Military Academy) 

Army school graduates were Joseph 
Gardner Swift of Massachusetts and Simon 
Magruder Levy of Maryland. Both graduated 
from the Military Academy at West Point, 
N.Y., October 11, 1802 and were appointed sec- 
ond lieutenants the following day. Levy re- 
signed September 30, 1805. Swift was made a 
brigadier general on February 19, 1814 for 
meritorious service in the defense of New York. 
They were the only graduates of the original 
class of ten : five from Massachusetts, and one 
each from Connecticut, Maryland, Missouri, 
New York, and Virginia, (deorge Washing- 
ton Cullum Biographical Register of the Of- 
ficers and Graduates of the US. Military 

Army training school to teach security 
troops, federal and state, was the First Corps 
Area Tactical School opened June 13, 1942, 
at Concord, Mass., under General Sherman 
Miles, commander of the First Corps Area. 
The instructors included army officers, scouting 
experts and Bert "Yank" Levy, author of 
Guerilla Warfare. 


See Chaplains' school 


Nursing school 


was inaugurated in 1861 by President Abraham 
Lincoln who appointed Allan Pinkerton in 
charge. The identity of Pinkerton who was 
the first chief of this bureau was not revealed 
and he served as Major Allan. He was at- 
tached to the staff of General George Brinton 

ARMY SURGEON. See Army officer 

ARMY UNIFORM was standardized by 
order of the Continental Army in October 
1779, when Washington, as the commander- 
in-chief prescribed a uniform through a 
general order. The coat was blue. The 
facings for the infantry were varied white, 
buff, red and blue; the artillery and artificers' 
coats were faced with scarlet with scarlet 
linings; and the light dragoons' coats faced 
with white with white buttons and linings. 

ARMY VOTE was tabulated in 1864. The 
soldiers in the field were allowed to vote in 
the election of November 8, 1864. Of a total 
of 150,635 votes cast by the soldiers, 116,887 
were for Abraham Lincoln, Republican, and 
33,748 for George Brinton McClellan, Demo- 

ARMY WAR COLLEGE was authorized by 
War Department general orders No. 155 on 
November 27, 1901, to furnish advanced mili- 




tary instruction to regularly commissioned 
army officers ; $20,000 was authorized by Con- 
gress, May 26, 1900 (31 Stat.L.209). The first 
class of sixteen officers was convened Novem- 
ber 1, 1904 and terminated May 31, 1905. The 
first president was Major General Samuel 
Baldwin Marks Young. The cornerstone of the 
War College, Washington, D.C., was laid Feb- 
ruary 21, 1903, and the building opened June 
20, 1907. Quarters were rented until the build- 
ing was completed. 

ARSENAL was the Springfield Armory, 
Springfield, Mass, (originally established in 
April 1778 as a laboratory for the preparation 
of all kinds of ammunition) established April 
2, 1794 (1 Slat.L.352) as a National Armory 
for the manufacture of small arms. The man- 
ufacture of small arms began in 1795. The first 
superintendent was David Ames and the mas- 
ter armorer was Robert Orr. The first gun- 
lock was filed by hand by Alexander Crawford 
after a struggle of three days. It took a month 
to complete twenty muskets. Only 245 were 
completed the first year. (Moses King 
Handbook of Springfield) 

STORE. See Business 

ART COMMISSION (Public) and the first 
important commission to contain more than 
one character was "The Last Supper," an oil 
on canvas, 117 ' J /2 inches wide and 35 inches 
high, by Guslavus Hesselius, ordered painted 
September 5, 1721 by the Vestry of St. Barna- 
bas' Church, Queen Anne's Parish, Prince 
George's County, Md. It was put in place as 
an altar piece on November 26, 1722. Hesselius 
was paid "17 currt. money" for the painting 
and installation. (Philadelphia Museum of 
ArtGitstaviis Hesselius. 1682-1755) 

ART COURSE in true fresco painting was 
offered September 14, 1936 by the Department 
of Fine Art, Louisiana State University, Uni- 
versity, La. Two courses, "Mural Painting" 
and "Advanced Mural Painting" were offered 
by Conrad Albrizio. Students were required 
to mix and put up their own plaster. 

Industrial camouflage course met October 
15, 1940 at Kansas City Art Institute, Kansas 
City, Mo. The instructor was Keith Martin. 
No points or credit were given for the twelve- 
week course. 


See Fine arts department 

ART GALLERY (W.P.A.). See Works 
progress administration 

ART ORGANIZATION of importance was 
the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts which 
was established in Philadelphia, Pa., on De- 
cember 26, 1805, "to promote the cultivation 
of the Fine Arts in the United States of Amer- 
ica, by introducing correct and elegant copies 
from works of the first masters in sculpture 


and painting." It was incorporated March 28, 
1806. The first president of the Academy was 
George Clymer. 

Artists' society of importance was the New 
York Drawing Association, organized Novem- 
ber 8, 1825, in New York City. On January 18, 
1826, fifteen of the membership were empow- 
ered to select fifteen other artists to form the 
National Academy of Design, which was in- 
corporated April 5, 1828. Samuel Finley Breese 
Morse was elected president and Thomas Seir 
Cummings, treasurer, both of whom served 
from January 18, 1826 to May 14, 1845. On 
April 7, 1906, the Society of American Artists 
merged with the academy, their members auto- 
matically becoming members of the academy. 
(Thomas Seir Cummings Historic Annals of 
the National Academy of Design) 

adopted November 15, 1777, and were formally 
engrossed, July 9, 1778, at Philadelphia, Pa. 
South Carolina was the first state to ratify 
them, February 5, 1778, and Maryland was the 
last of the thirteen states to accept them, Janu- 
ary 30, 1781. The articles as ratified by the 
thirteen states were formally announced to the 
public on March 1, 1781. (Merrill Jensen 
The Articles of Confederation) 

"ARTICS" were patented on February 2, 1858 
by Thomas Crane Wales of Dorchester, Mass., 
who obtained patent No. 19,269 on waterproof- 
ing boots and gaiters. They were originally 
known as "Wales Patent Artie Gaiter." They 
were made then as now, of rubber and cloth 
and were both waterproof and coldproof. 

breeding society 



ARTIFICIAL HEART was a spirally 
coiled glass tube and pump invented in 1935 by 
Dr. Alexis Carrel, assisted by Colonel Charles 
Augustus Lindbergh. The apparatus consisted 
of a culture chamber and the electrically oper- 
ated glass pump. An extirpated organ was 
suspended in the culture chamber and the main 
artery and vein connected with the glass tubes 
of the pump, which circulated a nutritive fluid 
through the organ and kept it alive. The ex- 
periments were carried on in Rockefeller Insti- 
tute in New York City. (Science Magazine 
Vol. 81. June 21, 1935) 



ARTIFICIAL LEG. See Leg (artificial) 

lighting; Gas 

ning (artificial) 





ARTIFICIAL TEETH (Patent). See Den- 
tistry. Patent 


See also 

Engraver Painter 

Etcher Pastellist 


American artist of importance was John 
Singleton Copley who sailed from Boston, 
Mass., in 1774 for England, where he painted 
the portraits of the King and Queen. The 
"Death of Chatham" is his most widely known 
work. He is credited with more than 269 oil 
paintings, 35 crayons, and 14 miniatures. 
(Augustus Thorndike Perkins A Sketch of 
the Life and Some of the Works of John 
Singleton Copley, R. A.) 

American artist to win distinction was 
Benjamin West, who on March 24, 1792 be- 
came president of the Royal Academy of Lon- 
don, succeeding Sir Joshua Reynolds. His first 
discourse to the students of the Royal Academy 
was delivered December 10, 1792. He was born 
October 10, 1738, near Swarthmorc, Pa.; went 
to Rome, Italy, where he arrived July 10, 1760. 
He studied there three years after which he 
spent his remaining years on the continent. 
(Henry Esekiel Jackson Benjamin West, His 
Life and Work). 

Artist to arrive in America was Jacques Le 
Moyne dc Morgues, who accompanied the 
French expedition to Florida in 1564 under 
Laudonniere. They sailed from Havre de 
Grace, France, April 20, 1564 and reached 
Florida (New France) June 22, 1564 where 
they remained until September 25, 1565. His 
work consisted principally of scenic and his- 
torical views. (Narrative of Le Moyne. Trans- 
lated by Fred B. Perkins from the Latin of De 
Bry and printed for William Appleion Boston. 

Artist successful in commercial art was 

Matthew Pratt, who painted signboards in 
Philadelphia, Pa., in 1768. He sailed from 
Philadelphia, Pa., for London on June 24, 1764 
and studied under Benjamin West. On March 
20, 1768, he sailed from Bristol, England, and 
returned to Philadelphia. (William Sawitsky 
Matthew Pratt. 1734-1805, A Study of His 

English artist in territory now a part of the 
United States was John White, Governor of 
Sir Walter Raleigh's Virginia Colony, and 
grandfather of Virginia Dare, the first white 
child born in America. His drawings were 
made in Virginia and Florida from 1585 to 
1590. (Theodore de Bry America) 

Woman painter (and the first pastellist in 
America) was Henrietta Johnston. She worked 
with colored chalk, producing most of her 
oaintings between 1707 and 1720. Her subjects 


were mostly women of South Carolina, but 
her best work is a likeness of "His Excellency 
Robert Johnson, Captain General, Governor and 
Commander-in-Chief in and over His Majesty's 
Province of Carolina," which was made in 
1718. (The Antiquarian, Sept. 1928) 

Arts and letters national society was the 

American Academy of Arts and Letters founded 
April 23, 1904 (incorporated April 17, 1916) 
(39 Stat.L.51) as a section of the National 
Institute of Arts and Letters. The latter organ- 
ization was founded in September 1898 (incor- 
ported February 4, 1913) (37 Stat.L.660). 
The first membership of the American Academy 
of Arts and Letters consisted of William Dean 
Howells, Augustus Saint-Gaudens, Edmund 
Clarence Stedman, John La Farge, Samuel 
LanRhorne Clemens, John Hay and Edward 
MacDowell. The first member added to the 
original group was Henry James, January 7, 
1905. (American Academy of Arts and Let- 
ters Proceedings in Commemoration of the 
Twenty-Fifth Anniversary) 

National institute of Arts and Letters 
gold medal. See Medal 

Negro member of the National Institute 
of Arts and Letters was Dr. William Ed- 
ward Burghardt Du Bois, head of the Depart- 
ment of Sociology of Atlanta University, At- 
lanta, Ga., who was elected to membership on 
December 22, 1943. 

Woman elected to the American Academy 
of Arts and Letters was Julia Ward Howe, 
on January 28, 1908. (Laura Elizabeth Rich- 
ards and Maud Howe Elliott Julia Ward 
Hoive, 1819-1910) 

Woman elected to the National Institute 
of Arts and Letters was Julia Ward Howe, 
author of the "Battle Hymn of the Republic," 
who was elected January 25, 1907. 


Arts and science national society was the 

American Academy of Arts and Sciences 
founded at Boston, Mass., and chartered on 
May 4, 1780. "to cultivate every art and science 
which may tend to advance the interest, dignity, 
honor and happiness of a free, independent and 
virtuous people." The first president was 
James Bowdoin, who served from 1780 to 1790. 
(Centennial Volume. Memoirs VII) 

Woman elected to the American Academy 
of Arts and Sciences was Maria Mitchell, 
elected unanimously May 30, 1848. At Nan- 
tucket, Mass., she had discovered a telescopic 
comet on October 1, 1847, for which King 
Frederic VI of Denmark had also presented 
her with a gold medal. (Proceedings American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences. May 1890) 

TION. See Jewish congregation 





AL) was authorized March 3, 1853 (10 Stat. 
L.212), and erected on Wall Street, New York 
City, in 1854. The first assayer in charge was 
John Torrey. An assay office was opened in 
Philadelphia, Pa., in 1828 as a department of 
the Mint and not as a separate institution (4 
Stat.L.278). The assay offices of the govern- 
ment were placed under the Bureau of the 
Mint when the Bureau was authorized (12 
Stat.L.424), on February 12, 1873, to control 
all the mints and assay offices. The first direc- 
tor of the Mint was Henry Linderman. (Jesse 
Paul Watson The Bureau of the Mint) 

lative assembly 



MENT OF SCIENCE. See Science associa- 


Astronomer of note in the American 
colonies was John Winthrop of Cambridge, 
Mass., who made sunspot observations on 
April 19, 20 and 22, 173. No observations 
were made on the 21st as it was cloudy. The 
observations consist of one-page reports in the 
University Archives, Harvard University Li- 
brary, and have never been published. 

Astronomer to acquire fame after the 
Revolution was Nathaniel Bowditch who in 
1802 wrote The New American Practical Navi- 
gator, being an epitome of navigation, contain- 
ing all the tables necessary to be used with the 
nautical almanac in determining the latitude 
and the longitude by lunar observations, and 
keeping a complete reckoning at sea which was 
published at Newburyport, Mass. This book 
corrected over 8,000 errors and was adopted by 
the United States Navy Department as the 
standard authority on navigation. (Henry 
Ing er soil Bowditch Sketch of the Life and 
Character of Nathaniel Bowditch) 

Astronomer to measure the size of a fixed 
star was Dr. Francis Gladheim Pease who on 
December 13, 1920 at Mount Wilson Observa- 
tory, Mount Wilson, Calif., measured Betel- 
geuse, the bright red star in the right shoulder 
of Orion, by means of an inferometer de- 
signed by Professor Albert Abraham Michel- 
son. He found the star to be 260,000,000 miles 
in diameter. (Astro physical Journal Vol. 53. 


Woman astronomer employed in the 
United States Naval Observatory was Elea- 
nor Annie Lamson, a graduate of George Wash- 
ington University, Washington, D.C., who was 
employed on July 20, 1900, and served until her 
sudden death, July 27, 1932. She computed 
all the results for gravity determination made 
by Dr. Felix Andries Vening-Meinesz's obser- 


vations on his submarine cruise to the West 
Indies and was working on the reports of his 
second expedition, the East Indian cruise, at the 
time of her death. 

cord an eclipse of the sun consisted of Profes- 
sors Samuel Williams, Stephen Sewall, James 
Winthrop, Fortesque Vernon and six students 
who were sent, October 9, 1780, from Harvard 
College, Cambridge, Mass. The Commonwealth 
of Massachusetts supplied a boat. Although 
the country was at war with England, the Brit- 
ish officer at Penobscot Bay permitted the 
expedition to land and observe the eclipse of 
October 27, 1780 which lasted from 11:11 A.M. 
to 1 :50 P.M. (Memoirs American Academy 
of Arts and Sciences. 1785) 

BOOK was James Melville Gilliss' Astro- 
nomical Observations made at the Naval Ob- 
servatory, Washington, under Orders of the 
Honorable Secretary of the Navy, Dated Au- 
gust 13, 1838. It consisted of 671 pages and 
was a catalogue of 1248 stars. It was printed 
at Washington, D.C. (Biographical Memoirs 
National Academy of Science. Vol. 1) 


Observatory ; Planetarium 


Meteoric display ("shooting stars") on rec- 
ord was observed by Andrew Ellicott on 
November 12, 1799, off the Florida Keys. The 
"whole heaven appeared as if illuminated with 
sky rockets, flying in an infinity of directions, 
and I was in constant expectation of some of 
them falling on the vessel. They continued 
until put out by the light of the sun after day 
break." (Andrew Ellicott The Journal of 
Andrew Ellicott) 

Moving picture of an eclipse of the sun 
taken from a dirigible. See Moving picture 

Planet found beyond Neptune was Pluto, 
discovered at the Lowell Observatory, Flag- 
staff, Ariz., February 18, 1930 by Clyde Wil- 
liam Tombaugh, on plates made in a systematic 
long-continued search begun under the direc- 
tion of the late Dr. Percival Lowell who had 
mathematically predicted and located the planet 
many years before, almost exactly in the posi- 
tion where found. The announcement was with- 
held even after it had been observed many 
times and completely checked, until March 13, 
1930, the anniversary of Lowell's birth (and of 
Herschel's discovery of Uranus). (Scientific 
Monthly. Vol. 34. January 1932) 

Planet (asteroid) named for an Ameri- 
can president was Hooveria. It was discovered 
in March 1920 by Professor Johann Palisan of 
the University of Vienna, Austria, and named 
for Herbert Hoover, who at that time was 
engaged in feeding the distressed European 




popular exposition of astronomy was The 
Sidereal Messenger, published by Ormsby Mc- 
Knight Mitchel, editor and director of the Cin- 
cinnati Observatory. It cost $3 a year. The 
first issue was published July 1846 by Derby 
Bradley & Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, and 
consisted of eight pages. Publication ceased 
October 1848. 


Atheism society of importance was the 
American Association for the Advancement 
of Atheism, the first society in the United 
States to use the word "Atheism" or any of 
its forms as a title. The society was organ- 
ized in New York City in October 1925, and 
was incorporated November 16, 1925 in New 
York State. The charter was at first denied by 
the Supreme Court. The first president of f the 
Association was Charles Smith. (American 
Association for the Advancement of Atheism 
Annual Report. Vol. 1) 

OLYMPIC GAMES. See Olympic games 

collegiate athletic association; Sports 



Sports; see also under specific headings 

ATHLETIC GAMES. See Sports ; see also 
under specific headings 

ical education 



Radio broadcast 

tion Flights 

ATLANTIC OCEAN (100 Plane Flight). 

See Aviation Aviator 

SHIP SERVICE. See Aviation Flights 

ATLAS issued by a state was The Atlas of 
the State of South Carolina, made under the 
authority of the Legislature; prefaced with a 
geographical statistical and historical map of 
the state. It was prepared under the direction 
of Robert Mills and printed for the state in 
1825 by John D. Toy, Baltimore, Md. It con- 
tained a map of the state of South Carolina 
and twenty-eight district maps scaled twenty- 
one miles to the inch which were engraved by 
H. S. Tanner and assistants. The atlas was 
eighteen by twenty-four inches and included 
the location of the roads, rivers, bridges, fer- 
ries, factories, taverns, many of the plantations, 


ATOMIC BOMB explosion occurred at 
5:30 A.M., July 16, 1945, in a desert area in 
New Mexico in a test of the bomb's effective- 
ness. The first atomic bomb dropped over 
enemy territory was released August 6, 1945, 
over Hiroshima, Japan, from the "Enola Gay," 
a B-29 airplane. The pilot was Colonel Paul 
W. Tibbets, Jr., of Miami, Fla., and the 
bombardier was Major Thomas W. Ferebee of 
Mocksville, N.C. (William Leonard Laurence 
Dawn Over Zero, The Story of the Atomic 


Self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction dem- 
onstration was made December 2, 1942, at 
Chicago, 111., before approximately forty per- 
sons, when energy of the atom was released 
and controlled. Atomic particles, known as 
neutrons, spontaneously released by atoms of 
metallic uranium or uranium oxide, embedded 
in a suitable pattern throughout a block of 
graphite, were permitted to collide with neigh- 
boring atoms of uranium or uranium oxide, 
causing these neighboring uranium atoms to 
split. The uranium atoms thus split released 
additional neutrons, which caused further simi- 
lar reactions with still other uranium atoms, 
and so on at a rapidly increasing rate. 

ATTACH6 (NAVAL). See Naval officer 


Assistant attorney general (state) who 
was a woman was Ella Louise Knowles 
[Haskell] who was admitted to the Montana bar 
on December 28, 1889. In 1892 she was a can- 
didate for Attorney General on the Populist 
ticket. She ran 5,000 votes ahead of her ticket 
in a state casting only 50,000 votes. Her Re- 
publican opponent, Henry Joseph Haskell, who 
won the election and whom she later married, 
appointed her assistant attorney general. 

Attorney General of the United States 
was Edmund Jennings Randolph who was 
appointed by President Washington on 
September 26, 1789, and entered on his duties 
on February 2, 1790, and served till January 1, 
1794. The office was created by act of Con- 
gress September 24, 1789 (1 Stat.L.73), an "act 
to establish the Judicial Courts of the United 
States." His salary was $1,500 a year. (Albert 
George Langeluttig Dept. of Justice) 

Attorney General's (United States) opin- 
ion was rendered by Edmund Randolph to the 
Secretary of the Treasury on August 21, 1791, 
the government at that time being in Philadel- 
phia, Pa. The opinion held that interest on cer- 
tificates issued pursuant to the Act of Congress 
passed August 4, 1790 was not allowable and 
the courts would embarrass a system of finance 
by a determination in favor of interest for the 
year 1791. (US. Justice Department Digest 
of the Official Opinions of the Attorneys Gen- 
eral of the US. 1885) 


was Samuel Sherburne, Jr. of New Hampshire 
who was appointed United States Attorney in 





and for the New Hampshire District on Sep- 
tember 26, 1789. Twelve other attorneys, one 
for each state district, were appointed on the 
same date. 

AUCTION (Book). See Book auction 

(Duplicate) was held July 9, 1914 at the Lake 
Placid Club, Lake Placid, N.Y. The four-rnan 
team of the New York Bridge Whist Club 
defeated the team of the Knickerbocker Whist 
Club of New York City by seven tricks on 
forty-eight boards to win the American Whist 
League's Hamilton Trophy, symbolical of the 
whist championship of the United States and 

See also Bridge whist organization 


CAST. See Television 

AUDION TUBE. See Radio tube 

AUGER (Screw auger) was manufactured in 
1810 by Walter French at Seymour, Conn. He 
was also the first to put a screw point on them. 
Previously, only pod augers without screws 
had been used and a gouge was required to 
start the hole before an auger could be made 
to work. (Connecticut Magazine July 1900) 

AUREOMYCIN was obtained in 1948 by 
Dr. Benjamin Minge Duggar working in the 
Lederle Laboratories at Pearl River, N.Y. 
This antibiotic (streptomyces aurepfaciens) was 
produced by isolating 3,400 strains from 600 
samples of soil. It was first placed on sale 
December 1, 1948. 

AURORA BOREALIS display recorded in 
America took place in New England on Decem- 
ber 11, 1719. "This evening, about eight 
o'clock, there arose a bright and red light in 
the E.N.E. like the light which arises from an 
house when on fire (as I am told by several 
credible persons who saw it, when it first 
arose) which soon spread itself through the 
heavens from east to west, reaching about 43 
or 44 degrees in height, and was equally broad." 
(Mass. Hist. Soc. Collections. Vol. II) 


Election law 

AUTHOR whose livelihood was obtained ex- 
clusively by writing was Charles Brockden 
Brown of New York and Philadelphia. His 
first book was Alcuin, A Dialogue, one of the 
earliest, known works by an American cham- 
pioning the rights of women. It was published 
anonymously and was first announced April 28, 
1798 by T. & J. Swords, New York City. His 
first novel was Wieland, or the Transformation 
which was published in New York City in 1798. 


The scenes were set on the banks of the 
Schuylkill, and the complications were mainly 
created by ventriloquism, then a new marvel. 

Sports writer was Henry William Herbert 
who used the noni de plume "Frank Forester," 
and acquired fame in 1834 as an authority on 
outdoor sports. (David Wright Judd Life and 
Writings of Frank Forester) 

Successful woman serial writer was Anna 
Sophia Winterbolham Stephens whose poems 
"The Tradesman's Boast" and " The Polish 
Boy", published in 1834, brought her fame. She 
edited Peterson's Magazine and Godey's Lady's 
Book, and was the author of thirty books, 
many of which appeared as serials. 

Woman author in America is claimed to be 
Anne (Dudley) Bradstrcet whose poems were 
printed in 1640 in a volume entitled Several 
Poems, compiled with great variety of Wit and 
Learning, full of delight; wherein especially 
is contained a compleat Discourse and Descrip- 
tion of the Four Elements, Constitutions, Ages 
of Man, and Seasons of the Year, together 
with an exact Epitome of the Three first Mon- 
archies, viz; The Assyrian, Persian, and Gre- 
cian; and the beginning of the Roman Com- 
monwealth to the end of their last King, with 
divers other pleasant and serious Poems; by a 
Gentlewoman of New England. She was the 
daughter of Governor Thomas Dudley and 
wife of Governor Simon Bradstrcet, both of 
Massachusetts. (Samuel Eliot Morison Build- 
ers of the Day Colony) 

Woman author to make writing a pro- 
fession was Hannah Adams. Her income 
from this source was very limited. Tn 1784 her 
first book appeared, Alphabetical Compendium 
of the Various Sects which Have Appeared 
from the Beginning of the Christian Era to the 
Present Day. (Dedham Historical Register. 
July 1896) 

"AUTO BANK." See Bank 


Autogiro flown was at Pitcairn Field, Wil- 
low Grove, Philadelphia, on December 19, 1928. 
It was brought to this country by Harold Fred- 
erick Pitcairn who formed the Pitcairn-Cierva 
Autogiro Company of America for licensing 
the manufacture of the autogiro in this country. 
On January 19, 1931, the name of the company 
became the "Autogiro Company of America." 
(The Autogiro Pitcairn-Cierva Autogiro Co. 
of America} 

Autogiro mail delivery. See Air mail service 

Autogiro manufactured with a closed 
cabin was the Kellett Convertible K2 model, 
powered with a 165 h.p. Continental engine, 
which was flown October 21, 1931 at the Phila- 
delphia Municipal Airport, Philadelphia, Pa. 
It had a door which opened part of the roof, 
and a window on the pilot's side. It seated 
two passengers and could be transformed into 
an open model at will. 




Autogiro rotary wing aircraft fellowship 

was the De La Cierya Fellowship established 
at the College of Engineering, New York Uni- 
versity. The first recipient of the fellowship 
was Samuel B. Sherwin of New York City, 
who enrolled September 8, 1939. 

Autogiro to land packages on a moving 
ship was piloted by James Garrett Ray of the 
Pitcairn Company, Philadelphia, Pa. He low- 
ered several rolls of film to the "He de France" 
on April 30, 1931, as the departing steamer left 
New York City for Europe. 

Autogiro to loop the loop publicly was 

demonstrated by John MacDonald Miller at 
the National Air Races, Cleveland, Ohio, Au- 
gust 27, 1932. 

Autogiro to tow a glider was piloted by 
John MacDonald Miller at Valley Stream, 
Long Island, N.Y., on May 23, 1933. The 
glider was piloted by Jack O'Meara. 

Autogiro (wingless direct control) for 

military purposes was the KD-1, a two-place 
open cockpit tandem type with dual controls, 
manufactured by the Kelletl Autogiro Corpora- 
tion, Philadelphia, Pa., in 1934. Control is ac- 
complished by means of the rotor system, which 
is inclined by moving the control stick in con- 
ventional manner. The autogiro has a gross 
weight of 2,050 pounds and has a cruising 
range of 3^ hours 361 miles. It was first flown 
December 9, 1 ( >34, at the Philadelphia Airport, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Autogiro with side-by-side seating ar- 
rangement was a Kellett Autogiro K2 model 
with a 165 h.p Continental engine. The design 
was planned January 13, 1931, and the ship 
was completed and tested April 17, 1931, at 
the Philadelphia Municipal Airport, Philadel- 
phia, Pa. 

Parachute jump from an autogiro. See 
Aviation Parachute 

Transcontinental autogiro flight was made 
by John MacDonald Miller who left Pitcairn 
Field, Willow Grove, Philadelphia, Pa., May 
14, 1931. Many stops were made en route to 
California to exhibit the machine. The auto- 
giro landed May 28, 1931 at the Nortli Island 
Naval Air Station, San Diego, Calif. 


Time recorder 



Sec Ordnance 




Parking meter (automatic) 




See Telephone 

AUTOMATON was imported from England 
on May 3, 1743 and was exhibited by Mr. Pa- 
cheep of New York City who charged one 
shilling admission. It performed "several 
strange and diverting motions to the admiration 
of the spectators" and was advertised in the 
New York Weekly Journal of July 18, 1743. 


Armored car was designed by Colonel 
Royal Page Davidson in May 1898. A Colt 
automatic machine gun was mounted on the 
car, which was intended for military use. 
The automobile was manufactured by the 
Duryea Automobile Company of Peoria, 111., 
and was used by the Northwestern Military 
and Naval Academy of Lake Geneva, Wis. 

Armored commercial car was employed 
by Brink's Incorporated, Chicago, 111., in 1918. 
It had one thickness of armor-plate steel, but 
was not all-steel construction throughout. 

Armored commercial car completely pro- 
tected was put in service February 1, 1920, 
by Michael Francis Sweeney of the Sweeney 
Detective Bureau, Inc., St. Paul, Minn. Con- 
struction was commenced March 1919 by the 
Boyd Auto Shops, Minneapolis, Minn. The 
side walls and roof were steel, welded-steel 
construction ; no wooden walls or roof supports 
were used. The glass was "polished plate wired 
glass." Hinged steel plates were placed over 
the windshield and window glass. They were 
so arranged that by tripping a catch, the steel 
plate covered the glass windows and windshield. 

Army armored car. See Army armored 
car unit; Army armored tank 

Automobile (gasoline-electric combina- 
tion) was placed in service about 1910. 
It was equipped with the Owen magnetic 
drive and a generator in a combined unit. 

Automobile (new type gasoline-electric 
combination) was delivered on August 30, 
1929 to Colonel Edward Rowland Robinson 
Green by the General Electric Company of 
Schenectady, N.Y. It was capable of develop- 
ing 60 h.p. and had no clutch or gear-shifting 
device. There were only two foot pedals, one 
at the left for the brake and the other at the 
right for acceleration. To start the car the 
driver stepped on the starting button and then 
fed the engine gas. 

Automobile-airplane combination was the 

Arrowbile built by the Waterman Arrowplane 
Corporation, Santa Monica, Calif., completed 
for testing February 20, 1937. Delivery of five 
Arrowbiles was made August 15, 1937, to the 
Studebaker Corporation, South Bend, Ind. In 
the air, its top speed was 120 miles an hour 
and its cruising speed 105 miles an hour. It 
had a six-cylinder Studebaker engine which 
developed 100 h.p. 




Automobile exhibited at a circus. See Cir- 

Automobile regularly made for sale was 
manufactured by the Duryea Motor Wagon 
Company, which was organized in Springfield, 
Mass., in 1895. Charles Edgar Duryea, Amer- 
ica's pioneer automobile manufacturer, began 
building his automobile in August 1891. It was 
completed at his shop, 47 Taylor Street, 
Springfield, Mass., and successfully operated 
April 19, 1892. 

Automobile slung beneath airplane fuse- 
lage in flight. See Aviation Flights 

Automobile snow cruiser. See Snow 
cruiser (automobile) 

Automobile to exceed 100 miles an hour 

was a Napier driven by Arthur G. MacDonald 
on January 31, 1905, at Ormond (now Daytona 
Beach), Fla. The speed was one mile in 34^ 
seconds for 104.65 miles. 

Automobile to exceed the speed of a mile 
a minute was driven on November 16, 1901 
by A. C. Bostwick on a straightaway course 
at Ocean Parkway, Brooklyn, N.Y., in a race 
sponsored by the Long Island Automobile Club. 
He covered the distance in 56^ seconds. This 
record was held only a few minutes as Henry 
Fournier lowered it to 51 $i seconds in a 
40 h.p. gasoline automobile and by Foxhall 
Keene in 54$i seconds, both of whom raced in 
French automobiles. Bostwick used a 40 h.p. 
Winton. (Smithsonian Institution Smithsonian 
Report for 1901) 

Automobile to exceed the speed of 200 
miles an hour was a 1000 horsepower "Mys- 
tery Sunbeam" driven by Major Henry O'Neil 
de Hane Segrave on March 29, 1927 at Daytona 
Beach, Fla., at an average speed of 203.79 miles 
both ways. (Henry O'Neil de Hane Segrave 
The Lure of Speed) 

Automobile to exceed 300 miles an hour 
was a Bluebird Special driven by Sir Malcolm 
Campbell, who on September 3, 1935, at Bonne- 
ville Salt Flats, Utah, drove a mile at the rate 
of 304.331 miles an hour, and made a return 
run at 298.013 miles an hour, an average speed 
of 301.1292 miles an hour. 

Automobile with a circulating lubrication 
system was the Autocar model of 1904, manu- 
factured at Ardmore, Pa. 

Automobile with left-hand steering was 

the Northern four-cylinder car of 1907, manu- 
factured by the Northern Motor Car Company 
of Detroit, Mich. The automobile was also 
equipped with air brakes. The designer of 
these improvements was Charles Brady King, 
one of America's pioneer automobile inventors. 

Automobiles ordered for the United States 
War Department were purchased in 1899 
from the Woods Motor Vehicle Company of 


Chicago, 111. "The automobiles were provided 
for ordinary horse transportation when they 
serve to furnish electrical power in the field 
for use of telegraphy, telephony, signal lights, 
etc., while, when circumstances permit, the 
same power is available for transportation it- 

Collection and delivery of mail in automo- 
biles. See Postal service 

Diesel engine automobile. See Diesel en- 

Electric storage battery automobile was 

designed by William Morrison and built by 
Morrison & Schmidt, Des Moines, Iowa, in 
the summer of 1891. It was powered by twen- 
ty-four storage-battery cells, placed under the 
seats, which took ten hours to charge, and 
could run continuously for thirteen hours. It 
carried twelve people, had a 4-horsepower mo- 
tor and was capable of a speed of fourteen 
miles an hour. It was sold to J. B. McDonald, 
president of the American Battery Company of 
Chicago, in 1892. (Scientific American. Jan- 
uary 9, 1892) 

Electric taxicabs were introduced in New 
York City in the spring of 1897 by the Electric 
Vehicle Company whose office and garage were 
located at 1684 Broadway, New York City. 
(Horseless Age. Vol. 3. No. 7. October 1898) 

Field hospital automobile with X-ray 
equipment was designed at Lake Geneva, 
Wis., by Colonel Royal Page Davidson and 
was first used in May 1915 at the Northwestern 
Military Academy, Lake Geneva, Wis. The 
necessary electric current was generated by 
the automobile motor. 

Foreign automobile exhibited was dis- 
played at the World's Fair in Chicago in 1893 
by Karl Benz of Germany. It was built by 
Gottlieb Daimler of Germany and was named 
after his daughter, Mercedes. 

Mobile telephone conversation. See Tele- 

Plastic automobile was manufactured by 
the Ford Motor Company, Dearborn, Mich., 
in August 1941. Fourteen plastic panels were 
mounted on a tubular welded frame, windows 
and windshield were of acrylic sheets, which 
resulted in approximately a 30 per cent de- 
crease in weight. On January 13, 1942, patent 
No. 2,269,451 was obtained by Henry Ford, 
Dearborn, Mich., on an automobile body con- 
struction, an auto body chassis frame made 
from steel tubes or pipes designed for use 
with automobiles made from plastics. (Mod- 
ern Plastics. September, 1941) 

President to ride in an automobile. See 

Radio car (military). See Radio car (mili- 




Sedan type automobile was the 1913 Hud- 
son Sedan, manufactured by the Hudson Mo- 
tor Car Company, Detroit, Mich. It was of- 
ficially shown January 11, 1913, at the Thir- 
teenth National Automobile Show, New York 
City. It carried all accessories as standard 

Shaft driven automobile was constructed 
in 1901 by the Autocar Company of Ardmore, 
Pa. It was driven from Ardmore to the Madi- 
son Square Garden, New York City, in six 
hours and fifteen minutes, where it was ex- 
hibited in the New York Automobile Show of 
December 1901. The first eight hundred cars 
were equipped with steering levers, but the 
later ones were equipped with steering wheels. 
(Autocar Messenger. Vol. XIII. No. 10) 

Steam automobile was invented in 1866 by 
Henry Alonzo House. It was driven through 
the streets of Bridgeport, Conn., and surround- 
ing towns for several months. On October 6, 
1866, House and his brother, James A. House, 
co-inventor, drove the car to Stratford, Conn., 
taking a party of men to a vessel-launching. 

Steam-operated amphibious vehicle. See 

Steam-operated amphibious vehicle 

Two-way radio in an automobile. See Ra- 
dio telephone 

New York City, May 30, 1896, when Henry 
Wells of Springfield, Mass., in a Duryea Motor 
Wagon, collided with Evylyn Thomas, a bi- 
cycle rider, who was taken to the Manhattan 
Hospital. Her leg was fractured and Wells 
spent the night in jail awaiting the report as 
to the extent of the injuries. (New York 
Daily Tribune. May 31, 1896) 



TION. See Automobile 


Automobilist jailed for speeding was sen- 
tenced August 28, 1904, to five days in the 
Newport County Jail, Newport, R.I., by 
Darius Baker, justice of the First District 
Court. This was a second offense as the 
speeder had been fined $15 and costs on 
August 21, 1904, for running his automobile 
between 15 and 20 miles an hour. (Horseless 
Age Dec. 14, 1904) 

AUTOMOBILE BRAKE (four wheels) 
was invented by Otto Zachow and William Bes- 
serdich of Clintonville, Wis., who obtained 
patent No. 907,940, December 29, 1908 on 
"power applying mechanism." 


Bus night coach was built by the Pickwick 
Corporation in Los Angeles, Calif., and placed 
in service in July 1929 between Los Angeles 
and San Francisco, Calif. The car was of 


metal construction, chiefly of duralumin, and 
provided sleeping and seating accommodation 
for twenty-six people. The bus had two lava- 
tories, a kitchen and pantry and carried a crew 
of three: pilot, steward and porter. 

Bus operated by a railroad for the trans- 
portation of passengers was used by the Spo- 
kane, Portland and Seattle Railway Company. 
It organized the Spokane, Portland and Seattle 
Transportation Company, which was incorpo- 
rated on July 23, 1924, and commenced its high- 
way operations on August 25, 1924. (Automo- 
tive Transportation and Railroads Commis- 
sion on Commerce and Marine. American 
Bankers Assn.) 

Bus with a double deck was imported from 
France and introduced on Fifth Avenue, New 
York City by the Fifth Avenue Coach Com- 
pany in 1906. The Di Dion Bouton type bus 
was used. An experimental model propelled by 
electricity supplied by a battery was tested in 
1904. (Motor Coach. June- July, 1924) 

Bus with a double-deck body and chassis 
made in the United States was constructed 
in 1915 by the Fifth Avenue Coach Company 
of New York City. 

Bus with cross seats was introduced by 
the Fifth Avenue Coach Company, New York 
City. The double-deck buses were fitted with 
cross seats on March 14, 1914, and the single- 
deck buses on August 27, 1915. All seats had 
been longitudinal before that. The single-deck 
buses seated 16 people, the double-deck 44. 
(Motor Coach. July 1928) 

Coast to coast through bus line was the 

"Yelloway Bus Line" which commenced service 
on September 11, 1928, from Los Angeles, 
Calif., to New York City. Three 26-passenger 
buses departed daily from each terminal cov- 
ering 3,433 miles in 5 days and 14 hours. 

Two-way radio equipped bus. See Radio 

sheet four-page circular, issued in 1895 by the 
Duryea Motor Wagon Company of 285 Main 
Street, Springfield, Mass. The retail price for 
a "two-seater" automobile was $1,000, for a 
"four-seater," $2,000. The automobile was de- 
scribed as follows: "It has two actual 3 horse- 
power motors. ... It uses ordinary stove gaso- 
line and costs less than l /3 cent per mile. ... It 
has 34 inch front and 38 inch rear wheels. . . . 
It weighs 700 pounds or about 300 pounds more 
than a similar common wagon. ... It is steered 
by a sidewise motion of the lever and speeded 
by a vertical motion. . . ." 

AUTOMOBILE CLUB was the American 
Motor League, which held its preliminary meet- 
ing November 1, 1895, at Chicago, 111., with 
sixty members. On November 29, 1895, a 
constitution was adopted and officers elected. 
No president was selected but four vice presi- 
dents, Charles Edgar Duryea of Illinois, Hiram 




Percy Maxim of Connecticut, Henry Gurney 
Morris ^of Philadelphia, and H. D. Emerson 
of Cincinnati, Ohio were elected. Dr. Joseph 
Allan Hornsby was elected secretary and 
Charles Brady King, treasurer. 

was the Duryea Motor Wagon Company of 
Springfield, Mass., incorporated September 21, 
1895, under the laws of Maine. 


a high school, including both classroom work 
and behind-the-wheel training, was offered at 
State College High School, State College, Pa., 
from February 17, 1934, to June 11, 1934. The 
first instructor was Amos Earl Neyhart, Stu- 
dents who completed the course received Penn- 
sylvania automobile operators' licenses. 
See also Automobile school 

STARTER, applied commercially to an au- 
tomobile, was offered to the public in May 1911 
by the Cadillac Motor Car Company of Detroit, 
Mich. The self-starter was patented by Charles 
Franklin Kettering who obtained patent No. 
1,150,523 on August 17, 1915, on an "engine 
starting device." 

Automobile electric self-starter patent was 

No. 745,157 which was granted on November 
24, 1903 to Clyde Jay Coleman of New York 
City. He invented the self-starter in 1899, but 
the invention was impractical. The license 
was purchased by the Delco Company, which 
was taken over by the General Motors Corpora- 


was the Bankers Commercial Corporation, New 
York City, organized February 1915, an affiliate 
of the Commercial Security Company, Inc. 
(formerly the Fidelity Contract Company), 
Chicago, 111. 


TEST was sponsored by the Automobile Club 
of America and held September 9, 1901, at 
Nelson Hill, just outside of Peekskill, N.Y., 
as one of the feature events in the 500-mile 
test run from New York to Buffalo, N.Y. The 
Class A race was won by the Grout Brothers, 
automobile manufacturers of Orange, Mass., 
who entered a steam-propelled open Stan- 
hope automobile of their own manufacture. 
The car weighed 920 pounds and seated two 
people, including the driver. The climb took 
2 minutes, 45 seconds. The hill was 226 feet 
high and 2,372 feet long with a slant varying 
from 12 to 17 degrees, (Automobile Cluo of 
America Five Hundred Mile Endurance Con- 




Federal motor carrier legislation was the 
act of August 9, 1935 (49 Stat.L.543) "to 
amend the Interstate Commerce Act, as 
amended, by providing for the regulation of 
the transportation of passengers and property 
by motor carriers operating in interstate or for- 
eign commerce." (Parker McCollester Fed- 
eral Motor Carrier Legislation) 

State motor car legislation was passed by 
the General Assembly of Connecticut, "An act 
regulating the speed of motor vehicles," ap- 
proved May 21, 1901. Robert W9odruff of 
the town of Orange, a representative in the 
Connecticut Assembly, presented the bill which 
provided that the speed of all motor vehicles 
should not exceed twelve miles an hour on 
country highways and eight miles an hour upon 
highways within the limits of the city. A sub- 
stitute bill was presented however which pro- 
vided that "no motor vehicle shall run on any 
highway or public place outside the limits of 
the city at a speed to exceed fifteen miles an 
hour ... or within the limits of the city to 
exceed twelve miles an hour. A person having 
charge of a powerful vehicle shall have such 
vehicle under their control and shall reduce the 
speed of such vehicle until said crossing of 
such street or road shall have been passed. 
Upon meeting or passing any vehicle drawn by 
a horse, the person having charge of the power 
of the vehicle shall reduce the speed and if the 
horse drawing such vehicle appears to be fright- 
ened the person in charge of said motor vehicle 
shall stop." 


Common Carrier License issued by the 
Interstate Commerce Commission was MC- 
60785 granted December 22, 1936 to Rodger's 
Motor Lines, Inc., Scranton, Pa., to become 
effective January 21, 1937. 

Contract Carrier License issued by the 
Interstate Commerce Commission was MC- 
81,751 issued December 29, 1936, to Howard 
W. Juett, Cartersville, Ga., effective as of De- 
cember 29, 1936. This permit authorized oper- 
ations as a contract carrier of certain specified 
commodities to and from Cincinnati, Ohio, to 
points in the State of Florida, as specified 


the Board of Examiners of Operators of Au- 
tomobiles authorized July 6, 1899 by Chicago, 
111. It consisted of Edward Beach Ellicott, 
City Electrician, chairman; Dr. Arthur Rowley 
Reynolds, Commissioner of Health; John Eric- 
son, City Engineer; and James Furlong, sec- 
retary, appointed to ascertain the qualifications 
of persons seeking licenses. 

were required by New York State in 1901. 
"An act to amend the highway law, in relation 
to the use of highways by automobiles or 
motor vehicles and requiring the owners of 
such vehicles to register with the Secretary of 




State." The Act became a law April 25, 1901 
and took effect immediately. Registration was 
required within thirty days. Owners of auto- 
mobiles were obliged to register their names 
and addresses and a description of their ma- 
chines. The registration fee was $1. In 1901, 
fees totaling $954 were received and in 1902, 
$1,082. The licenses bore the owners' initials 
and were required to be over three inches in 

Permanent license plates were issued by 
Connecticut and became effective March 1, 1937. 
The plates were made of aluminum with black 
letters against a natural background. The 
annual number was located directly in the 
middle and at the bottom of the plate. The 
colored insert is designed so that it may 
be easily removed and changed each year. 

Plastic license plate tabs were issued De- 
cember 15, 1942, by the Massachusetts Depart- 
ment of Public Utilities for 1943 truck regis- 
trations. They were made of a laminated 
phenolic compound by the General Electric 
Company, Schenectady, N.Y. Printed resin- 
impregnated sheets of paper, backed by a suit- 
able filler, covered by a translucent sheet, were 
bonded together under approximately 250 
Fahrenheit temperature and 1500 pounds 

Horseless Age published November 1895 in 
New York City by Edward P. Ingersoll 


Postal service 

pecially for mail collection service was 
constructed by the Winton Motor Vehicle 
Company of Cleveland, Ohio, in 1899. A 
test was made in Cleveland over a tw.enty- 
two mile route, when mail was collected 
from one hundred and twenty boxes. Al- 
though the test was made in a severe snow 
storm under adverse conditions, the trip took 
two hours and twenty-seven minutes whereas 
the horse and wagon trip required six hours. 
The test was authorized by Mr. Dewston, 
Cleveland's postmaster. (Automobile Maga- 
zine. Vol. 1. No. 5. February 1900) 

Newport, R.I., September 7, 1899. The aris- 
tocracy of Boston, New York and Philadelphia 
participated. The vehicles were all profusely 
decorated with flowers and flags. A prize was 
awarded to Mrs. Hermann Oclrichs whose 
automobile was overhung with wisteria. Upon 
the radiator was a flock of pure white doves 
that appeared to be drawing the carriage. 
Nineteen cars were in the line. (Automobile 
Magazine. October 1899) 


See Parking meter (automatic) 


AUTOMOBILE PATENT was No. 549,160, 
filed on May 8, 1879 by George Baldwin 

Selden, an attorney of Rochester, N.Y. It was 
granted to him on November 5, 1895 and em- 
bodied his claims to the original application of 
the internal combustion hydro-carbon motor to 
a road vehicle. 

WAGON was designed by Frank Fowler 
Loomis of Akron, Ohio, and was placed in 
service by the Akron Police Department in June 
1899. It had three speeds and made sixteen 
miles an hour. It was operated by electric 
power and weighed 5,500 pounds, including the 
batteries. (Automobile Magazine. May 1900) 


Automobile race was held on November 
28 (Thanksgiving Day), 1895, over snowy 
roads from Chicago to Waukegan, 111., a dis- 
tance of approximately 52 miles. Of the eighty- 
odd entries, only six could start : three foreign 
cars, two electric cars and one American-made 
gasoline car. The race and the $2,000 prize 
offered by the Chicago Times-Herald were won 
by James Franklin Duryea, who drove an auto- 
mobile invented by his brother, Charles Edgar 
Duryea. Arthur M. White, umpire, rode with 
him. Only one other entry finished, an Ameri- 
can rebuilt Benz electric which was pushed 
many miles. The Duryea entry had a water- 
cooled gasoline engine with water pump, a 
bevel-gear transmission with three speeds for- 
ward and reverse, and electric ignition. It was 
equipped with a rigid front axle with steering 
knuckles at the ends. It was steered by a 
tiller handle, the up-and-down motion of wnich 
changed the speed. The average speed in the 
race WHS 7^ miles an hour. 

Automobile race around the world started 
February 12, 1908, from Times Square, New 
York City. Six automobiles were entered; 
three French cars, one Italian, one German and 
one American car. The race was won by 
George Schuster, driver, George J. Miller, 
mechanic, and Montague Roberts, assistant 
mechanic, in a car made by the E. R. Thomas 
Motor Company, Buffalo, N.Y. The route was 
via Seattle, Yokohama and Paris. The elapsed 
time was 170 days, of which 88 were spent 
in actual driving. The average daily run was 
152 miles; the longest daily run 420 miles. It 
was not necessary for the same mechanic or 
helpers to accompany the cars throughout the 
trip. The Thomas car returned to New York 
City on August 1, 1908. 

Automobile race (long distance) was held 
September 9-14, 1901, under the auspices of the 
Automobile Club of America, which sponsored 
a 500-mile race from its club house, Fifth 
Avenue and 58th Street, New York City, to 
Buffalo, N.Y. The race was won by David 
Wolfe Bishop, who drove a Panhard automo- 
bile manufactured by Panhard-Levassor of 
Paris, France. The car carried one passenger 
and driver and was operated with gasoline. It 
weighed 2,800 pounds when fully equipped. The. 




average speed was 15 miles an hour. There 
were 87 entries in the race with 80 starters. 
The race was not a speed or endurance test 
but a reliability test. The exact mileage was 
464.2 miles, divided into day trips with stops at 
Poughkeepsie, Albany, Herkimer, Syracuse, 
Rochester and Buffalo. (Automobile Club of 
America Five Hundred Mile Endurance Con- 

Automobile race on a track was held Sep- 
tember 7, 1896 at Narragansett Park, Cranston, 
R.I., as a feature of the Rhode Island State 
Fair and was witnessed by 40,000 spectators. 
Five gasoline and two electric automobiles 
raced, the winner being an electric Riker, whose 
speed was 2.47 -minutes for the mile. The race 
was for five heats of five miles each, on a 
one-mile dirt track, one heat to be raced each 
afternoon of the Fair week. The prize offered 
was $1,000 each day. 

Automobile race on a track (long distance) 

took place May 30, 1911, at the Indianapolis 
Speedway, Indianapolis, Ind., and was won by 
Ray Harroun, who drove a 16-cylinder Marmpn 
"Wasp." The course was 2$4 miles, the dis- 
tance totalled 500 miles. Only 38 of the 44 cars 
entered completed the race. Harroun's time 
was 6 hours, 42 minutes and 8 seconds, an 
average of 74.59 miles per hour. 

Transcontinental automobile race started 
June 1, 1909 from New York City and ended 
June 22, 1909 at Seattle, Wash., scene of the 
Alaska- Yukon Pacific Exposition. Mayor 
George Brinton McClellan fired the starting 
gun. There were six entrants; an Acme, an 
Itala, a Shawmut, a Stearns and two model T 
Fords. The Stearns failed to start. The race 
was won by Bert W. Scott and C. James Smith 
who drove one of the Ford cars and received a 
silver prize and a $2,000 award from M. Robert 

Transcontinental automobile race (for a 
time record) was won by D wight B. Huss of 
Detroit, Mich., who left New York City, May 8, 
1905, in "Old Scout," an Oldsmobile run- 
about, and arrived at Portland, Ore., on 
June 21, 1905. He was accompanied by 
Milford Wigle of Detroit. (Olds Motor 
Works From Hell Gate to Portland) 

Vanderbilt Cup Race started at Hicks- 
ville, Long Island, N.Y., October 8, 1904 on a 
ten-lap course over a 30 mile circuit. Five 
Mercedes cars, three Panhards, two Fiats, two 
Pppe-Toledos and one each of Renault, De 
Dietrich, Clement-Bayard, Simplex, Packard 
and Royal Tourist were entered. The race 
was concluded when two cars finished. The 
winner was George Heath in a Panhard whose 
average speed was 52.2 miles. The first Amer- 
ican winner of the Vanderbilt Cup Race was 
George H. Robertson in a 90 h.p. Locomobile 
on October 24, 1908, over a 23.46 mile circuit 
(distance 11 rounds, 258.06 miles) at the Motor 
Parkway, Long Island, N.Y. His average 
speed was 64.3 miles, time 4 hours, 48 >i seconds. 


Automobile race track (asphalt covered) 

was opened September 18, 1915, at the Narra- 
gansett Speedway, Cranston, R.I., when two 
world records were broken. 

Automobile speedway (board track) was 

the Los Angeles Motordrome, near Playa del 
Rey, Calif., started January 30, 1910. It was 
made of wood, "pie pan" in shape, with a cir- 
cumference of 5,281 feet and was under the 
direction of Fred Evans Moskovics. The 
motordrome was opened April 7, 1910, although 
trial races were held March 23, 1910. 

AUTOMOBILE RIM. See Automobile 


Armored commercial car hold-up was 

March 11, 1927 by the "Flatheads" gang, about 
seven miles from Pittsburgh, Pa., on the Bethel 
Road on the way to Coverdale. An armored 
truck carrying a $104,250 payroll of the Pitts- 
burg Terminal Coal Company was dynamited 
while passing over a mine placed under the 
roadbed by the bandits. Five guards were 
badly injured. 

AUTOMOBILE SCHOOL was established 
in 1903 by the Department of Education of the 
Young Men's Christian Association, Boston, 
Mass., to train chauffeurs, mechanics and pros- 
pective owners of cars. The courses consisted 
of lectures on the construction and operation of 
cars together with laboratory, machine shop 
and repair work. Enrollment the first year was 
approximately 250 students. See also Automo- 
bile Driving Course. 

See also Automobile driving course 

AUTOMOBILE SHOW was held at Mad- 
ison Square Garden, New York City, Novem- 
ber 3, 1900, under the auspices of the Automo- 
bile Club of America. There were fifty-one 
exhibitors, thirty-one of whom showed cars, 
the others, accessories. A ramp was built to 
show the hill-climbing ability of the cars and 
barrels were placed on the floor to show their 
steerability. Braking (stopping) contests and 
starting contests were held. 


Balloon tire production was regularly in- 
troduced April 5, 1923 by the Firestone Tire 
and Rubber Company of Akron, Ohio. Prior 
to this time, on several occasions large-section, 
thin-walled tires with small bead diameters 
were used experimentally or for special pur- 
poses. No prior commercial use, however, 
was made. (India Rubber Review. February 

Clincher tire was manufactured in 1899 by 
B. F. Goodrich Company of Akron, Ohio, in 
sizes ranging from 28 x 2 l / 2 inches to 36 x 3 
inches. The tire was of 19-ply construction. 

Cord tire for commercial use was manufac- 
tured in 1910 by the B. F. Goodrich Company 
of Akron, Ohio. 




Demountable tire-carrying rim was in- 
vented by Louis Henry Perlman of New York 
City, who applied for a patent May 21, 1906. 
Patent No. 1,052,270 was granted February 4, 
1913. (James Rood DoolittleThe Romance 
of the Automobile Industry) 

Non-skid tire of the modern type was pat- 
ented by Stacy G. CarkhufT of the Firestone 
Tire and Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio. The 
patent was applied for on September 4, 1908 
and granted on April 14, 1914 as No. 1,093,310. 
The angle formation of the edges of the raised 
portions molded on the tire provided against 
skidding in all directions. The tires were 
manufactured in Akron, Ohio. (Cycle and 
Trade Journal. November 1, 1908) 

Pneumatic tire was made in 1895 by the 
Hartford Rubber Works, Hartford, Conn., 
owned by the Pope Manufacturing Company, 
now a subsidiary of the United States Rubber 
Company. It was used in March 1895 on 
the Duryea automobile that won the "Times- 
Herald" race November 28, 1895. (Henry 
Clemens Pearson Pneumatic Tires) 

Pneumatic tire patent was No. 488,494 
awarded December 20, 1892, to Alexander T. 
Brown and George F. Stillman of Syracuse, 


Rubber tire patent. See Rubber 

Synthetic rubber tire was commercially 
marketed by the B F. Goodrich Company, 
Akron, Ohio, which exhibited passenger car 
tires, on June 5, 1940, made of butadiene from 
soap, gas, petroleum and air. These tires were 
trade-marked "Ameripol." 

race track 


Diesel engine tractor with an American 
built engine was assembled May 1930 by the 
Cummins Engine Company, Columbus, Ind. A 
Cummins model U4-cylinder, 4^2 by 6 inch bore 
and stroke Diesel engine which developed 50 h.p. 
at 1000 revolutions per minute and weighed 
1400 pounds, was placed in an Allis-Chalmers 
Track Type Tractor. 

Diesel powered tractor offered on the 
market was the "Caterpillar" Diesel Tractor, 
manufactured by the Caterpillar Tractor Co., 
Peoria, 111. It was a track-type, weighed 
24,390 pounds, and developed 68 maximum 
drawbar horsepower. It was powered with a 
four-cylinder four-cycle Diesel engine, the first 
of which was delivered in October 1931. 
(Caterpillar Tractor Company , Peoria, III.) 

Endless chain tractor was invented by 
Charles Dinsmoor of Warren, Pa., who ob- 
tained patent No. 351,749 November 2, 1886, on 
a "vehicle." The endless chain tractor, or 
track-type tractor, did not become a commercial 
and practical reality until Benjamin Holt of 
the Holt Manufacturing Company of Stockton, 


Calif., produced such a tractor in 1906 and pro- 
ceeded to build and sell them in quantities. 
(Scientific American. December 18, 1886) 

Gasoline tractor was manufactured in 1892, 
by John Froelich, at Froelich, Iowa, who 
shipped one of his tractors to Langford, S.D., 
on September 6, 1892, where it was employed 
from September 24, 1892, to November 16, 
1892, in threshing. It had a Van Duzen ver- 
tical single-cylinder gasoline engine mounted 
on wooden beams to operate a J. I. Case 
threshing machine. Frpelich formed the Wa- 
terloo Gasoline Traction Engine Company, 
Waterloo, Iowa, January 10, 1893, incorporated 
for $50,000, and later acquired by the John 
Deere Plow Company. 

Steam tractor was made by Daniel Best of 
San Leandro, Calif., in 1886. One of his 
"Best" tractors was loaded on a car at San 
Leandro, February 8, 1889. 


Automobile transcontinental group tour 
was begun June 26, 1911, when ten Premier 

automobiles with forty occupants, a pilot car 
and a truck, left Atlantic City, N.J., on an 
"ocean to ocean" tour. They arrived at Los 
Angeles, Calif., on August 10, 1911, and con- 
cluded the trip August 13, 1911, at Venice, 
Calif., covering 4,617.6 miles. 

Automobile transcontinental trip was made 
by E. P. (Tom) Fetch and Marcus Krarup 
in a Packard car, the "Old Pacific," a one- 
cylinder car of nine horsepower. They 
started from San Francisco on June 18, 1903 
and arrived in New York City, August 21, 
1003, via Sacramento, Carson City, Wads- 
worth, Ogden, Salt Lake City, Grand Junc- 
t : on, Lcadville, Colorado Springs, Denver, 
Jewelsburg, Omaha, Des Moines, Clinton, Chi- 
cago, South Bend, Toledo, Cleveland, Erie, 
Buffalo, Syracuse and Albany. 

Successful transcontinental automobile 
trip, by a non-professional driver in his own 

car, was made by Dr. Horatio Nelson Jackson, 
a Vermont physician, with Sewall K. Crocker 
as his mechanic. They left San Francisco, 
Calif., in a Winton automobile on May 23, 
1903, and arrived in New York City on July 
26, 1903. The average daily run was 125 miles. 
The trip consumed 63 days, of which 44 were 
spent traveling and 19 awaiting supplies. 
(Motor World. July 23, 1903) 

AUTOMOBILE TRUCK was designed and 
built in Pittsburgh in 1898 and 1899 by Louis 
S. Clarke and his associates. They organized 
as the Pittsburgh Motor Vehicle Company and 
later incorporated as the Autocar Company. 
The first truck was pictured and described in 
the Autocar's 1899 catalog as "a delivery wagon 
which can be made of any size or design, that 
will be fitted with five to eight horsepower 
motors. Complete with motors it will weigh 
from 900 to 1400 pounds so simple in con- 




struction that any driver of ordinary intelli- 
gence can operate it with more safety than he 
could drive a horse." (Twenty-Fifth Anni- 
versary Autocar Co.) 

Automobile truck completely streamlined 

from the ground up was introduced by the 
White Motor Company, Cleveland, Ohio, on 
September 4, 1935. 


by railroad motor coaches was inaugurated on 
January 8, 1923 by the Baltimore, Chesapeake 
and Atlantic Railway between Cambridge, 
Salisbury and Tyaskin, Md., and served six 

Automobile inter-city trucking service 

commenced October 29, 1904, when William B. 
Chcnovveth placed a six-cylinder motor truck 
in service between Colorado City, Colo., and 
Snyder, Tex. 


Radio telephone 


See Woman 

AUTOPSY is recorded to have taken place 
at Salem, Mass., in September 1639. "This 
boy was ill-disposed, and his master gave him 
unreasonable correction and used him ill in his 
diet. After the boy gate a bruise on his head, 
so as there appeared a fracture in his skull, 
being dissected after his death." Marmaduke 
Perry of Salem, Mass., was arraigned for the 
death of his apprentice. (John Winthrop His- 
tory of New England) 

Autopsy and verdict of a coroner's jury 

was recorded in Maryland on September 24, 
1657. The surgeon received his fee of "one 
hogshrad of tobacco" for "dissecting and view- 
ing the corpse" of a negro supposed to have 
been murdered by his master. 


See also 

Air mail service 

Aviation Airplane 
Aviation Airplane 


Aviation Airport 
Aviation Airship 
Aviation Aviator 
Aviation Exposi- 
tions and Meets 
Aviation Flights 
Aviation Flights 

Aviation Flights 

Aviation Flights 

Aviation Flights 


Aviation License 
Aviation Maga/ine 
Aviation Parachute 
Aviation Passenger 
Aviation Races 
Aviation School 

"Ace." See Aviation Aviator 


Admiral in uniform to ride in an airplane. 

See Aviation Passenger 

Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (Na- 
tional) was established by act of Congress 
(U.S.C. title 50, sec. 151), approved March 3, 
1915. The membership, appointed by the Presi- 
dent, consisted of two representatives each from 
the aviation sections of the War and Navy 
Departments, and one each from the Smith- 
sonian Institution, Weather Bureau, Bureau of 
Standards and eight others "acquainted with 
the needs of aeronautical science, either civil 
or military, or skilled in aeronautical engineer- 
ing or its allied sciences." The first chairman 
was Brigadier General George Pcrcival Scriven. 
Naval Constructor H olden Chester Richardson 
was secretary. The committee was appointed 
April 2, 1915 and the organization meeting held 
April 23, 1915. (National Advisory Committee 
for US. Aeronautics Annual Report 1915) 

Aerial photography. See Photography 
Aerial policeman. See Police 

Aeronautic international exposition. See 

Aviation Expositions and meets 

Aeronautical Division of the United 
States War Department was authorized Au- 
gust 1, 1 ( X)7, by Brigadier General James Allen, 
Chief Signal Officer of the Army. Captain 
Charles De Forest Chandler headed the divi- 

Aeronautical patent was granted October 
28, 1799, to Moses McFarland of Massachu- 
setts on a "federal balloon." 

Aeronautical stowaway was William Bal- 
lantuie, a rigger, a member of the original 
crew of the R34. He and two other men were 
laid off as it was necessary to lighten the load 
for the transatlantic crossing. He stowed 
away on the flight to America. The R34 left 
East Fortune, Scotland, 2 A.M., July 2, 1919, 
and arrived 9:54 A.M. at Hazlehurst Field, 
Long Island, N.Y., July 6, 1919. 

Aeronautical trophy was awarded by the 
Scientific American, in New York City in 
1908. It was valued at $2,500. It was to be- 
come the property of the flyer taking it three 
years in succession, the conditions for winning 
to be changed each year according to the 
progress of aviation. Flights were to be made 
before official witnesses at a pre-announced 
time and place. Glenn Hammond Curtiss was 
the first trophy winner. His first flight was 
made for the trophy on July 4, 1908, at Ham- 
mondsport, N.Y., at 7 :30 P.M. in his "June 
Bug" at a speed of forty miles an hour. The 
"June Bug" was equipped with an eight-cylin- 
der air-cooled Curtiss engine with a six-foot 
propeller on the rear of its crankshaft. (Scien- 
tific American. July 18, 1908) 

Air combat of an American organization 
in World War I. See World war I 




Air control municipal board was the San 
Diego, Calif., Board of Air Control which was 
created by Municipal Ordinance No. 11,485 on 
December 19, 1927. Prior to its formation 
aircraft operations were controlled by Munici- 
pal Ordinance No. 10,035 adopted June 25, 1925. 

Air defense command. See Air defense 
command (U.S.) 

Air mail stamps. See Postage stamp 

Air passenger international station was 

established at Meacham Field, Key West, 
Fla., the first flight being made by the Pan 
American World Airways on October 28, 
1927, to Havana, Cuba. The airport 
facilities consisted of a small frame build- 
ing that served as the station. Maintenance 
facilities were housed in an old fort nearby 
and in a small frame structure that served 
as a radio shack. Federal Health, Customs 
and Immigration officials came to the sta- 
tion when notified of the arrival or departure 
of a plane. 

Air-rail passenger transcontinental service 

was inaugurated on June 14, 192 f ) by the New 
York Central Lines in cooperation with the 
Universal Air Lines and the Santa Fe Rail- 
road. Planes were used only across the level 
Midwest, from Cleveland, Ohio, to Garden 
City, Kan, a distance of 1181 miles. 

Air service of the United States Army 

originally came into being on July 18, 1914, 
when the aviation section was created within 
the signal corps with an allotted strength of 
60 officers and 260 men The entire equipment 
consisted of six planes. War Department Gen- 
eral Order 75 of December 14, 1913 prescribed 
a provisional aero squadron with 20 officers and 
90 enlisted men. 

Air squadron of the United States Army 
in World war I was Squadron No. 1 as- 
signed to the front on April 8, 1918, for ob- 
servation duty. The first combat action took 
place on April 12, 1918, when the First Aero 
Squadron was attacked while on a reconnais- 
sance mission. 

Air squadron (complete) of American 
D.H.4 planes with Liberty motors crossed the 
German lines on an independent mission on 
August 7, 1918. All the planes returned safely. 
The first American built De Haviland airplane 
with a Liberty motor took to the air in France 
on May 17, 1918. 

Air stewardess was Ellen Church who 

made her flight May 15, 1930, between San 

Francisco, Calif, and Cheyenne, Wyo., on the 
United Air Lines. 

Air terminal (not located at an airport) 

was opened January 27, 1941, at New York 
City, for American Airlines, Eastern Airlines, 
Pan American Airways System, Transconti- 
nental & Western Air, Inc., and United Air- 


Airboat commercial line service started 
January 1, 1914 between St. Petersburg, Fla., 
and Tampa, Fla. The planes were built by the 
Benoist Aircraft Company and were operated 
by the St. Petersburg-Tampa Airboat Line. 
The first plane was piloted by Anthony (Tony) 
Jannus. Mayor Abram Cump Pheil of St. 
Petersburg, Fla., paid $400 for the first round 
trip. Noel Mitchell paid $175 for the second 
trip. Two round trip flights were made daily. 
The regular round trip fare was $10. 

Airboat commercial line service (interna- 
tional) was established by Aeromarine Air- 
ways, Inc., on November 1, 1920 from Key 
West, Fla., to Havana, Cuba. They em- 
ployed two three-plane flying boats. The 
fare was $50. Mail was also carried. 

Aircraft owned by the Forest service. See 

Forest service 

Airplane commutation tickets were placed 
on sale May 1, 1929, by the Colonial Division 
of American Airways which inaugurated com- 
mutation tickets on the Newark-Boston line. 
These commutation tickets were for ten and 
fifty trips. 

Airplane Diesel engine was manufactured 
by the Packard Motor Car Company of De- 
troit, Mich., in 1928. The engine was of 225 
horsepower and weighed 510 pounds. It was 
used in a Stinson Detroiter airplane and made 
its first flight September 19, 1928. 

Airplane fatality occurred on September 17, 
1908 at Fort Myer, Arlington Heights, Va., 
when a propeller blade struck an overhead 
wire, due to the wearing through of a fitting 
to which the guy wire was attached. Thomas 
Etholen Selfndge, United States Army, was 
killed and Orville Wright was injured. 

Airplane "fly-it-yourself" system was 

started by the Saunders Drive It Yourself 
Company on September 15, 1929 at the Fairfax 
Airport, Kansas City, Kan. The idea was not 
profitable and operations ceased on May 15, 

Airplane high-speed tank to test airplanes 

was designed in 1929 and completed May 1931 
by the National Advisory Committee for Aero- 
nautics, Washington, D.C. It was the first 
towing tank in which the towing carriage ran 
with pneumatic wheels on steel rails, and in 
which very large models could be tested at 
relatively high speeds. The dimensions were 
2,020 feet in length, 24 feet in width and 12 
feet in depth. Towing speeds up to 50 miles 
an hour could be obtained. 

Airplane human pick-up was accomplished 
September 5, 1943, when the pilot, Captain 
Norman Rintoul, picked up Paratrooper First 
Lieutenant Alexis Doster of Washington, D.C., 
with an airplane from which a hook was sus- 
pended from a 185-foot half-inch nylon rope, 
at the Clinton County Army Air Base at Wil- 




AVIATION Continued 

mington, Ohio. An electric reeling motor 

weighing 200 pounds was used to hoist the 


Airplane in actual military operation by 

the United States Army was used in March 
1916 when the 1st Aero Squadron, composed of 
eleven officers, eighty-two enlisted men, one 
civilian mechanic and eight JN airplanes, was 
ordered to proceed to Casas Grandes, Mexico, 
for active duty with the Punitive Expedition 
under General John Joseph Pershing. Air- 
planes were previously used, however, in Feb- 
ruary 1913 when the Army Aviation School, 
then at Augusta, Ga., was transferred to Texas 
City, Tex., for the purpose of providing avia- 
tion for ground troops stationed on the Mexi- 
can border to prevent disorders. (Records in 
Office of the Chief of the Air Corps, War 
Dept. Washington, D.C.) 

Airplane merchandise shipment was de- 
livered to the Morehouse-Martens Company of 
Columbus, Ohio, by Pilot Philip Parmelee. Five 
bolts of "Rajah" silk manufactured by Rogers 
and Thompson of New York City, valued at 
$600, were shipped from New York City to 
Dayton and brought from there to Columbus 
by the plane which landed at the old Columbus 
Driving Park. The silk was cut up and 
stamped, "This silk is a piece of the first mer- 
chandise ever carried in an airplane Dayton 
to Columbus, November 7, 1910." The distance 
of sixty miles was made in fifty-six minutes. 
The delivery was a publicity stunt for which 
$5,000 was paid. The shipping rate was $71.42 
a pound. 

Airplane moving picture show was given 
on October 8, 1929, by Transcontinental Air 
Transport, Inc. in a Ford transport plane 5,000 
feet in the air. A current newsreel and two 
cartoon comedies were shown with the cooper- 
ation of the Universal Newsreel Company and 
the Duograph Company. The machine was in- 
stalled by J. Frankenberg, its originator. The 
projector weighed about eight pounds, the entire 
apparatus together with batteries less than 
thirty- four pounds. A delicate filament lamp 
specially designed to operate on low voltage was 
unaffected by the vibration of the motors. 

Airplane rescue at sea was effected Janu- 
ary 30, 1911, by the destroyer "Terry" which 
picked up James A. D. McCurdy within four 
minutes after his 50 m.p.h. biplane en route 
from Key West, Fla., to Camp Columbia, Ha- 
vana, Cuba, landed on the sea ten miles from 
Havana, Cuba, due to a faulty oil connection. 
Its pontoons kept it afloat. He had been in the 
air 2 hours and 8 minutes and had made the 
first sea flight out of sight of land. 

Airplane sleeping berths were introduced 
by the American Airways, Inc. of Chicago, 111., 
in March 1933. The berths were made by 
folding two of the plane's chairs to form a cot. 
The first airplane with non-convertible sleeping 
berths was placed in service October 5, 1933, by 


the Eastern Air Transport, Inc. between At- 
lanta, Ga., and New York City. The plane was 
a Curtiss-Wright "Condor" and was designed 
to contain eight berths and five seats, but on the 
initial trip only two berths were installed, an 
upper and a lower. The berths were six feet 
five inches long and two feet four inches wide. 
The first passengers to occupy the berths were 
Captain Edward Vernon Rickenbacker and 
Alexander Strong. The plane was equipped in 
the company's shops at the Atlanta Municipal 
Airport where the first trip started. 

Airplane tank discharger was patented by 
John Hays Hammond, Jr., Gloucester, Mass., 
who received patent No.2,038,998, April 28, 1936, 
on a "gas tank discharger for airplanes." A 
cylinder of compressed carbon dioxide cut off 
the supply of gasoline to the carburetor and 
dumped it into space. 

Airways illumination was attempted Au- 
gust 21, 1923, when forty-two landing fields on 
the Chicago-Iowa City-Omaha-North Platte 
and Cheyenne route were lit by thirty six-inch 
electric arc beacons which revolved completely 
around three times a minute. The lights were 
of 5,300,000 candle power and were visible for 
fifty miles. 

Ambulance air service to transport sick 
people by airplane to hospitals was organized 
on October 21, 1929 by the Colonial Flying 
Service and the Scully Walton Ambulance 
Company of New York. 

Atlantic ocean scheduled air service was 

inaugurated by the Pan American Airways, 
Inc., on May 20, 1939, when the "Yankee Clip 
per", a 4-engine 41*4-ton flying boat took off 
from Manhasset Bay, Port Washington, Long 
Island, N.Y., and arrived at Lisbon, Portugal, 
in 2&/2 hours (20 hours 16 minutes actual 
flying time). It was commanded by Captain 
Arthur Earl La Porte and carried a crew of 
14, 3 PAA employees, and 1,680 pounds of 

Automatic pilot, an instrument which can 
he set to take over and relieve the pilot in 
flying modern aircraft, was developed by Wil- 
liam Green and used on a Gates-Day Standard 
J5 airplane on October 8, 1929, at Cleveland, 
Ohio in a Pennsylvania-Central Airlines (now 
Capital Airlines) plane flown by Captain Trow 
Sebree from Cleveland to Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Aviation gasoline. See Gasoline 

Aviation trainer was the Link Trainer, an 
aircraft-like mechanical-electrical device com- 
plete with hooded cockpit, controls, and a full 
complement of flight instruments. The trainer 
behaves like an airplane but does not leave the 
ground. It was invented by Edwin Albert Link. 
The first sale was made in 1929 to the Link 
Flying School, Binghamton, N.Y. It was 
adopted by the U.S. Navy in 1931, and by the 
U.S. Army Air Corps in 1934. 




Battleship sunk by an airplane was the 

"Ostfriesland," a former German battleship, 
which was sunk July 21, 1921 near Hampton 
Roads, Va., in a bombing demonstration con- 
ducted by General William Mitchell. Three 
direct hits were made out of five bombs, each 
weighing 1,000 pounds. Later, the Martin 
bombers dropped seven 2,000 pound bombs, 
and sank the battleship within twenty-one 
minutes after the attack. Near misses were 
preferred to direct hits to shake open the 
seams and cause the battleship to topple. 
These seven bombs caused the dreadnaught 
to turn on her port side and sink stern first. 

Caterpillar club. See Caterpillar club 

Civil air patrol (U.S.). See Civil air patrol 

Coast Guard air station was established 
March 24, 1920, at Morehead City, N.C. It 
operated until July 1, 1921 when it was de- 
commissioned due to lack of funds. 

Coast Guard aviation unit was formed 
under Act of Congress August 29, 1916 (39 
Stat.L.601) which authorized the Secretary of 
the Treasury "to establish, equip, and maintain 
aviation stations, not exceeding ten in number, 
for the purpose of saving life and property 
along the coasts of the United States and at 
sea contiguous thereto." 

Floating seaplane ramp (municipally 
owned) was launched August 15, 1934, at the 
Brooklyn Navy Yard, N.Y. It was formally 
dedicated September 5, 1934, by Bernard Sey- 
mour Deutsch, president of the Board of 
Aldermen of the City of New York. The 
New York and Suburban Airlines, Inc., a sub- 
sidiary of the National Aviation Corporation, 
operated the Bellanca Airbus on floats furnish- 
ing a commuting service between the down- 
town area and Oyster Bay and adjacent points 
on Long Island, and week-end service to 
Martha's Vineyard and Nantucket, Mass. The 
first passenger flight was made July 16, 1934, 
from Oyster Bay to the foot of Wall Street 
in nineteen and a half minutes. The landing 
was made at an improvised float. 

Flying medical clinic. See Medical clinic 

Forest service aerial patrol. See Forest 

Gyroscope automatic stabilization for air- 
craft that was successful was demonstrated by 
Lawrence B. Sperry and Lieutenant Patrick 
Nelson Lynch Bellinger in August 1913 at 
Lake Keuka, Hammondsport, N.Y., in a Cur- 
tiss-F boat. Stabilization was longitudinal and 

Loop the loop. See AviationFlights 

Physiological research laboratory of the 
United States Army Air Corps was com- 
pleted January 1, 1937, at the Air Corps Mate- 
riel Division, Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio. Its 


purpose was to investigate and devise means 
to alleviate the distressing symptoms occur- 
ring during air travel and to furnish informa- 
tion to the engineer which would enable him 
to provide conditions aloft most favorable 
for the efficient functioning of the pilot and 
observer. (Aviation Medicine. June 1937) 

Propeller blade of hollow steel made from 
a single piece of steel tubing was placed in mass 
production by the American Propeller Corpora- 
tion, Toledo, Ohio, in June 1942. The process 
was developed at the Lycoming Division The 
Aviation Corporation, Williamsport, Pa. Over 
80,000 hollow steel propeller blades were made 
from tubing in three years. 

Radio telephone conversation between the 
ground and an airplane. See Radio telephone 

Refueling attempt in mid air was made at 
Rockwell Field, Coronado, Calif., on June 27, 
1923, at 4:43 A.M. in a Dellaviland plane 
piloted by Captain Lowell Herbert Smith, 
Air Corps, with Lieutenant John Paul Richter, 
Air Corps, as receiver of fuel. A 40-foot steel- 
wire encased hose was lowered to the fuel re- 
ceiving plane. They refueled in flight and re- 
mained aloft 37 hours, 15 minutes and 145^ 
seconds. (Records in Headquarters Rockwell 
Field, Office of the Commanding Officer. Cor- 
onado, Calif.) 

Round-the-world civil air service com- 
menced June 17, 1947, when a Pan American 
airplane, captained by Hugh Gordon, left La 
Guardia field, New York City, with twenty 
passengers and a crew of nine. The route, 
22,170 miles, was via Gander, London, Istanbul, 
Karachi, Manila, Bangkok, Calcutta, Shanghai, 
Tokyo, Guam, Wake, Honolulu, and San Fran- 
cisco. The first trip took 309 hours and 21 
minutes, with 93 hours and 10 minutes actual 
flying time. Round-trip fare for the world 
flight was $1,700. 

Secretary of Air (U.S.) See National de- 
fense department (U.S.) 

Telegram dispatched from an aerial sta- 
tion. See Telegram 

Transatlantic regular commercial airplane 
service, flying the "southern route" was 
undertaken by the 41^ ton "Dixie Clipper" of 
the Pan American Airways, Inc., commanded 
by Captain Robert Oliver Daniel Sullivan, 
which left Port Washington, Long Island, 
N.Y., June 28, 1939 at 1 :59 P.M. with nine 
crew members and twenty-one passengers. It 
was powered by four 1500-horsepower Wright 
Cyclone engines. Stops were made at Horta 
and Lisbon. The plane landed at Marseilles, 
France, June 30, 1939 at 8:21 A.M. The fare 
was $375. 

Transcontinental commercial overnight 
transport service was inaugurated August 1, 
1934 by the Transcontinental and Western Air, 




AVIATION Continued 

Inc. A twin-motored Douglas monoplane, the 
"Sky Chief," piloted by Otis Frank Bryan, took 
off from the Newark Airport, Newark, N.J., 
August 1, 1934, at 5:24 P.M. and arrived at 
Kansas City, Mo. Here the passengers trans- 
ferred to a plane piloted by M. O. Brown which 
flew them to the Glendale Airport, Los Angeles, 
Calif., where they arrived at 7:13 A.M. August 
2, 1934. 

Transcontinental regularly scheduled 
through air service was opened October 25, 
1930, simultaneously from New York City and 
Los Angeles, Calif., by Transcontinental & 
Western Air, Inc., a merger of TAT-Maddux 
Airlines and Western Air Express. The west- 
ward flight required thirty-nine hours, of which 
twenty-five hours and thirty-three minutes were 
in actual flight. Ground time was consumed in 
stops at Philadelphia, Harrisburg, Pittsburgh, 
Columbus, Indianapolis, St. Louis, an overnight 
stop at Kansas City, thence to Wichita, Amaril- 
lo, Albuquerque, Winslow and Los Angeles. 
The eastbound flight operating on the same 
schedule of stations, including the overnight 
stop at Kansas City, required a total of thirty- 
four hours and eighteen minutes. Actual time 
aloft was twenty-three hours and forty-three 
minutes. The one-way fare was $200. 

War night-flying scout group was the 

185th Pursuit Squadron which went to the 

front on October 5, 1918, assigned to the 
Meuse-Argonne sector in France. 

Wedding in an airplane. See Wedding 

Women's Auxiliary Ferrying Squadron 
(WAFS, later WASPS) to ferry training and 
liaison aircraft from factory to domestic air- 
fields was under the supervision of Mrs. Nancy 
Harkness Love of Newcastle, Del., whose ap- 
pointment was announced September 10, 1942, 
by Lieutenant General Henry Harley Arnold. 
The pilots received Civil Service status and 
$3,000 a year. 


See also 

Autogiro Glider 

Aviation Airship Helicopter 

Aeronautical stowaway. See Aviation 
Aeronautical trophy. See Aviation 
Airplane commutation ticket. See Aviation 

Airplane equipped with radio to cross the 
Atlantic ocean was the Tri-motpred Fokker 
monoplane "The America" which took off 
from Roosevelt Field, N.Y., at 5.24 A.M. on 
June 29, 1927 with a four-man crew, Com- 
mander Richard Evelyn Byrd, pilots Bert 
Acosta and Lieutenant Bernt Balchen and 
radioman Lieutenant George O. Noville. It 
landed July 1, 1927 near the shore at Ver- 
sur-Mer, France, after a 4,200 mile flight in 
43 hours and 21 minutes. 

Airplane fatality. See Aviation 

Airplane heavier-than-air to make any long 
sustained flight under its own power was 
Samuel Pierpont Langley's model No.5, which 
was tested May 6, 1896, on the shores of the 
Potomac River. This unmanned model "aero- 
drome" weighed twenty-six pounds, was sixteen 
feet in length and had four cambered single- 
tier wings, each about fourteen feet from tip 
to tip. It was driven by a one-horsepower 
steam engine. It was catapulted from a plat- 
form twenty feet above the water and flew a 
distance of about three fourths of a mile re- 
maining aloft one and a half minutes during 
one of its flights. As the fuel was used up, 
it descended gently to the water. It was picked 
up, dried off, refueled and relaunched the same 
afternoon. Langley predicted that airplanes 
would be used to carry men, but his friends and 
the press scoffed. (Nature May 28, 1896) 

Airplane outfitted with a machine gun was 

a Wright biplane flown at College Park, Md., 
May 7, 1912 by pilot Lieutenant Thomas de 
Witt Milling. Charles de Forest Chandler of 
the Army Signal Corps was in charge of a 
Lewis machine gun. (Scientific American. July 
6, 1912) 

Airplane post office. See Post office 

Airplane purchased by the United States 
Government was a Wright biplane which was 
given its first official flight on July 30, 1909 and 
accepted from Orville and Wilbur Wright of 
Dayton, Ohio, on August 2, 1909. The pur- 
chase price was $25,000, but a bonus of $5,000 
was given because the specified speed, forty 
miles an hour in still air, was exceeded. The 
plane, built at Dayton, Ohio, was powered by 
a 25 horse-power motor and averaged a frac- 
tion over forty-two miles an hour. It was 
known at "Miss Columbia." Lieutenant Frank 
Purdy Lahm and Wilbur Wright made the 
first flight under government ownership at Col- 
lege Park, Md., on October 8, 1909. 

Airplane smokescreen. See Smokescreen 

Airplane sold commercially was the "Gold 
Bug" delivered by Glenn Hammond Curtiss 
June 16, 1909 to the New York Aeronautical 
Society at Hammondsport, N.Y., for $5,000. 
Flying instructions were given to two members. 
(Chelsea Curtis Fraser Famous American 

Airplane (commercial) stabilized was the 

Curtiss Condor No. 5, built in 1931 by the Curtiss 
Aeroplane and Motor Company in their factory 
at Garden City, Long Island, N.Y. It was 
powered by two liquid-cooled twelve-cylinder 
engines, 650 horsepower, and was equipped with 
both a Sperry stabilizer and an automatic pilot 
which were placed in a box under the pilot's 
seat. The airplane carried eighteen passengers, 
two pilots and a hostess and was operated by 
the Eastern Air Transport air lines between 
New York City and Miami, Fla. 



Airplane telecast. See Television 

Airplane to receive national acclaim was 

constructed by the Wright Brothers. On De- 
cember 17, 1903 at Kitty Hawk, N.C., with 
Oryille Wright at the controls, this machine 
"raised itself into the air in full flight, sailed 
forward without reduction in speed, and finally 
landed at a point as high as that from which 
it started." The plane with the 179-pound 
four-cylinder engine weighed 745 pounds. The 
engine made 1200 r.p.m. and developed 12 h.p. 
The plane was launched from a monorail after 
a 35 to 40-foot run. Four flights were made 
against a 21 -mile wind. The average speed 
developed was 31 miles. The longest flight was 
852 feet in 59 seconds. (Century Magazine. 

Airplane "train". See Aviation Flights 

Airplane used by a newspaper was a 

Canadian Curtiss seventy-five-mi-le-an-hour bi- 
plane, piloted by Lieutenant William D. Tipton, 
which was placed in service by the Evening 
Sun of Baltimore, Md., on September 1, 1920, 
when it covered a railroad wreck at Back River. 
Two days later it flew out to sea and located 
the submarine S-5 in trouble off the Delaware 

Bomber (all-wing jet) was the Northrop 
Flying Wing YB-49 which had its taxi trial, 
October 21, 1947, at Northrop Field, Haw- 
thorne, Calif. It had a span of 172 feet and 
weighed in excess of 88,000 pounds. The eight- 
jet YB developed thrust equivalent to 32,000 
horsepower. "Clean" design obtained by elim- 
inating the drag-producing tail surfaces and 
fuselage boosts the YB-49's speed and range 
over that of a comparable conventional model. 

Bomber with the Flying Wing design was 

the Northrop XB35 built by Northrop Air- 
craft, Inc. which took off from Northrop Field, 
Hawthorne, Calif., on June 25, 1946 and made 
a successful flight of eighty-five miles to the 
U.S. Army Air Force Base at Muroc, Calif. 
It weighs 209,000 pounds in gross overload 
condition and has a 172- foot wing span with 
a 53- foot overall length. It has an operational 
range of about 10,000 miles and can carry 
56,000 pounds of bombs. 

Catapulted airplane. See Aviation Flights 
Child born in an airplane. See Births 
Cow flown in an airplane. See Animals 
Dirigible. See Aviation Airship 

Fighter airplane was the "Kirkham Fight- 
er" designed by Charles Kirkham, manufac- 
tured by the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor 
Company, Garden City, Long Island, N.Y., and 
tested August 19, 1918, at Garden City, when it 
attained a speed of 162 miles an hour. It es- 
tablished a world's record on October 11, 1918, 
when it made a ceiling climb of 26,300 feet. 


Fighter airplane carrying a cannon was the 

P-39 (Airacobra) tested by pilot Jimmy Taylor 
at Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio, on April 6, 
1938. It was built by the Bell Aircraft Cor- 
poration at the Niagara Falls Airport, Niagara 
Falls, N.Y. The armament consisted of a 
37mm. cannon located on the fuselage center- 
line, the gun barrel projecting through the 
reduction gear box and propeller hub; two 
.50 calibre machine guns in the forward fuse- 
lage and four .30 calibre free firing machine 
guns installed in pairs in each outer wing 
panel. (Aviation. May 1943) 

Gas turbine propeller-driven airplane was 

the XP-81, a fighter, designed and produced 
by the Vultec Field, Downey, Calif., division 
of Consolidated Vultee Aircraft Corporation 
and first flight tested February 11, 1945 at 
an Army Air Force base in Muroc, Calif. Its 
wing span is 50 feet 6 inches and its fuselage 
is 44 feet 8 inches long. It weighs 19,500 
pounds and travels at a speed greater than 500 
miles an hour. In the nose is a propeller drive 
gas turbine type TG-100, built by the General 
Electric Company. Between the cockpit and 
the tail is a 1-40 jet engine, also built by the 
General Electric Company. 

Hydroplane of stainless steel built for 
commercial purposes was the "Sea Bird" de- 
signed and constructed by Fleetwings, Inc., 
Bristol, Pa., with welding apparatus especially 
designed by them. It was first flown experi- 
mentally by Daniel Johnson Brimm, test pilot, 
off the Delaware River at Bristol, Pa., on Sep- 
tember 4, 1936. It weighed 2,320 pounds empty 
(gross load 3,425 pounds) and had a cruising 
speed of 135 m.p.h. (The Edward G. Budd 
Manufacturing Company of Philadelphia, Pa., 
had built an experimental stainless steel plane 
in 1931 duplicating a Savois Marchetti design 
already existent in wood.) 

Hydroplane that was successful was the 
"Flying Fish" which was flown by its inventor, 
Glenn Hammond Curtiss, at San Diego, Calif., 
on January 26, 1911. On September 29 1909, 
Wilbur Wright flew from Governors Island, 
N.Y., to and around the Statue of Liberty and 
return, nineteen and a half miles, in an airplane 
that carried a canoe. 

Hydroplane with a multi-engine was the 

"America" financed by Rodman Wanamaker, 
christened June 22, 1914 at Hammondsport, 
N.Y. It had a speed of 65 miles per hour. 
It had two Curtiss 1250 r.p.m., 90 h.p. 
engines. The "America" weighed 3,000 pounds 
empty, 5,200 pounds fully loaded and had five 
watertight compartments. Length overall was 
34 feet. The upper wing span was 74 feet, 
lower wing span 46 feet. A third motor was 
added in July but was rejected. 

Jet propelled airplane designed and built 
in the United States was the XP-59, an "Aira- 
comet," built by the Bell Aircraft Corporation, 
Buffalo, N.Y., and flown for the first time 
October 1, 1942 at a secret testing base in 




Muroc, Calif., by Robert Morris Stanley. It 
was rated over 400 miles and in excess of 
40,000 feet. The higher the altitude (up to a 
certain maximum altitude) the faster it flew. 
It employed two turbo-jet engines built by 
General Electric Company, Lynn, Mass^ from 
designs of the British inventor, Group Captain 
Frank Whittle. The fuel was generally kero- 
sene, although anything that burns could be 
used. There was no propeller. 

Jet propelled fighter plane to be accepted 
by the United States Army Air Forces for 
combat purposes was the P-80, the "Shooting 
Star," designed by Clarence L. Johnson, and 
constructed in 143 days by the Lockheed Air- 
craft Corporation, Burbank, Calif. It had a 
wing span of 38 feet W l /2 inches, an overall 
length of 34 feet 6 inches, and a height of 11 
feet 4 inches. The first flight was made Jan- 
uary 1944, and on February 1945, it was an- 
nounced by the army as perfected for actual 

Jet propelled fighter plane (four-engine) 

for the United States Army was the Curtiss 
XP-47 built by the Curtiss-Wright Corpora- 
tion, Columbus, Ohio, and tested September 15, 
1947. It had a sixty-foot wing span and an 
approximate overall length of sixty-five feet. 
The engines, built by the Westinghouse Elec- 
tric Corporation, were placed in pairs in hous- 
ings built into the wings. 

Jet propelled landing on an aircraft carrier 
was made November 6, 1945 by Ensign Jake 
C. West in an FR-1 Fireball on the escort 
carrier "Wake Island" off San Diego, Calif. 
The "Fireball," a Ryan-built Navy fighter plane, 
was powered by both a turbo-jet and a con- 
ventional reciprocating engine, which normally 
uses its reciprocating power plant for take-off 
and landing, switching over to the jet as either 
an exclusive or supplementary propulsive force 
once it is in the air. As West was landing, 
the reciprocating engine power failed and he 
landed using jet power. 

Jet propulsion four-engine bomber was the 

XB-45 built by North American Aviation, 
Inc., Los Angeles, Calif., which made its test 
flight March 6, 1947 at Muroc, Calif. It was 
flown by George Krebs. It had a wing span 
of 89J4 feet and was 74 feet long and 25 feet 
high from ground to tail top. The engines 
were arranged in pairs in single nacelles in 
each wing. 

Letter to encircle the world by commer- 
cial air mail. See Postal service 

Molded plywood airplane was the "Whis- 
tling Bill," a two-place fighter, built in 1918 
by the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company, 
Garden City, Long Island, N.Y. The fuselage 
was made of four 3/32nd-inch longitudinal 
sheets of Haskelite, three-ply birch plywood, 
steamed and formed to contour in a concrete 
die. The wings were not of plywood. The 


cooling radiators were of the tubular type, lo- 
cated on the sides of the fuselage. It was of 
400 horsepower, carried two 30-caliber machine 
guns and had a sea-level speed of 170 miles per 
hour. It was designed by Charles Kirkham. 

Monoplane (American) was the Walden 
III invented by Dr. Henry W. Walden which 
was test-flown at Mineola, Long Island, N.Y., 
in December 1909. It was equipped with a 
1909 Anzani three-cylinder motor which devel- 
oped twenty-two horsepower and flew at the 
speed of fifty-two miles an hour. (U. S. Naval 
Institute Proceedings. March 1934) 

Naval airplane was the Curtiss Amphibian 
Triad delivered July 1911. It was equipped 
with dual controls permitting two pilots to 
operate them in flight. It was tested at Lake 
Keuka, Hammondsport, N.Y. The first naval 
pilots were lieutenants Theodore Gordon 
Ellyson and John Henry Towers. Funds 
were obtained from a $25,000 congressional 
appropriation passed March 4, 1911 (36 Stat. 
L.1268) "for experimental work in the 
development of aviation for naval purposes." 

Naval patrol bomber launched like a ship 
was the 140,000-pound Glenn L. Martin Com- 
pany's "XPB2M-1" christened "Mars" Novem- 
ber 8, 1941, at Baltimore, Md., by Mrs. Artemus 
Lamb Gates, wife of the Assistant Secretary 
for the Navy for Air. The keel was laid Au- 
gust 22, 1940. It had a two-hundred-foot wing 
span and four engines each of two thousand 
horsepower. It was the first flying boat ac- 
corded Navy keel-laying and launching cere- 

Navy fighter airplane powered exclusively 
by jet engines to land on a ship was the 

"FD-1 Phantom" piloted by Lieutenant Com- 
mander James J. Davison which landed July 21, 
1946 on the deck of the carrier "Franklin D. 
Roosevelt," 60 miles east of Cape Henry, Va. 
It was designed and built by the McDonnell 
Aircraft Corporation of St. Louis, Mo., and 
had a service ceiling over seven miles and a 
top speed in excess of 500 miles an hour. It 
is a single-seat, low-wing monoplane of con- 
ventional monocoque design with twin axial- 
flow Westinghouse turbo-jet engines built into 
the wing roots. Total weight with full combat 
load is less than 10,000 pounds. The wings 
fold electrically and when rigged for stowage 
the plane is 16 feet wide. 

Photograph from an airplane. See Photo- 

Plastic bonded airplane to be awarded a 
Type certificate by the Civil Aeronautics Ad- 
ministration, was an open two-place tan- 
dem low-wing full cantilever type monoplane 
built by the Timm Aircraft Corporation, Van 
Nuys, Calif., in July 1940. It was approved 
April 5, 1941. It was a training plane, the 
fuselage, wings and all control surfaces of 
which were fabricated from a special material 
formed by binding several laminations of ply- 




wood with liquid plastic, and pressing in a 
precision mold to the exact contour and size 
desired. The entire airplane structure con- 
tained less than 7 per cent of aluminum. 

Postage stamp to picture an airplane. See 
Postage stamp 

Radio message sent from an airplane. See 
Radio Broadcast 

Rocket airplane (Military) was the MX-324, 
built by the Northrop Aircraft, Inc., Haw- 
thorne, Calif., and flown July 5, 1944 by Harry 
Crosby, pilot. It had a prone cockpit in which 
the pilot lay flat to withstand the pull. An 
Aerojet XCAL-200 rocket motor was used 
with monocthylaniline as fuel. It was known 
as the "Rocket Ram". It was originally tested 
as a glider on October 2, 1943 by John Myers. 

Rocket plane built in the United States 
designed for supersonic flight to carry a human 
was the Army Rocket Plane XS-1, manufac- 
tured by the Bell Aircraft Corporation, Buf- 
falo, N.Y. The plane made its first powered 
flight on December 8, 1946 when it remained 
aloft nineteen minutes, seven of which were 
under power. It was flown by Chalmers 
("Slick") Goodlin, a test pilot, who landed it 
at Muroc Army Air Field, Calif. Its fuel in- 
corporated oxygen. A series of glide tests 
had been made previously. 

Skywriting. See Skywriting 

Symphony to call for an airplane propeller. 

See Symphony 

Telecast from an airplane. See Television 

Telephone conversation between the 
ground and a plane. See Radio telephone 

Three-motor airplane was an eight-pas- 
senger Curtiss Eagle which made its first public 
flight on July 24, 1919, at Garden City, L. I., 
N.Y., when it developed a speed of ninety-nine 
miles an hour. It had three 150 h.p. K-6 en- 
gines, a wing span of 61 feet 4 inches and a 
wing area of 770 square feet. Its gross weight 
was 7450 pounds. On October 29, 1919 at 
Washington, D.C., this machine made 82 flights 
and carried 496 people, mostly prominent gov- 
ernment officials. 

Transatlantic robot pilotless airplane was 

the Skymaster, a U.S. Army C-54, four-engine 
military transport which took off from 
Stephensville, Newfoundland, on September 22, 
1947 and arrived 10 hours and 15 minutes later 
at Brise Norton, four miles from London, Eng- 
land (2,400 miles). The robot piloting device 
was not touched after the throttles were opened 
to start the airplane. The plane carried fourteen 
persons including Colonel James Milligan Gil- 
lespie, the pilot and commander. 


Transport airplane designed especially for 
trans-oceanic service was the Pan American 
Clipper, a 19-ton flying boat powered by four 
Hornet air-cooled, geared and super-charged en- 
gines, each developing 700 horsepower. It was 
an all-metal monoplane, 67 feet, 8 inches long, 
with a wing spread of 114 feet. It carried 
within its hull and in the wings and pontoons 
a fuel load of more than Sy 2 tons, adequate 
for a flight range of 3,500 miles. Under the 
command of Captain Edwin C. Musick. the 
first Clipper took off April 16, 1935, at 6:50 
P.M. from San Francisco, Calif., and arrived 
12:59 P.M. on April 17, 1935, at Pearl Harbor, 
Honolulu, covering 2,301 air miles in 18 hours, 
39 minutes. The return trip was begun April 
22, 1935 at 8:59 P.M. from Pearl Harbor, and 
the transport landed at Alameda Airport, Calif., 
April 23, 1935, at 5:59 P.M. 

Twin-engine pressurized airplane was the 

Convair Liner, 300-mile-an-hour, 40-passenger 
airliner, equipped with two 2,400 h.p. Pratt and 
Whitney engines. Its wing span is 91 feet 9 
inches ; its length, 74 feet 8 inches ; its height, 
26 feet 11 inches. Com/air's jet exhaust propul- 
sion principle is used for added speed. The 
plane was produced at the Consolidated Vultee 
Aircraft Corporation's San Diego, Calif., plant. 
It was first test-flown on March 16, 1947. 

Two-way conversation between a glider 
and the land. See Radio telephone 

Two-way conversation between planes. 
See Telephone 


See also World war II (American bombing 

Airplane bombing experiment was made 
July 1, 1910 by Glenn Hammond Curtiss at 
Hammondsport, N.Y., who released lead mis- 
siles attached to colored streamers from a 
height of 50 feet upon a target 500 feet by 90 
feet. He scored ten hits and four misses. 
(Aeronautics. August 1910) 

Airplane bombing experiment with explo- 
sives was carried out by Philip O. Parmelee 
and Lieutenant Myron Sidney Crissy on Janu- 
ary 7-25, 1911, upon a test range at San Fran- 
cisco, Calif. 

Airplane bombing in the United States 

occurred on November 12, 1926, during a 
feud between rival beer and rum factions, the 
Sheltons and the Birgers in Williamson County, 
111., wherein lies the city called "Bloody Her- 
rin." A plane swooped low and dropped three 
bombs over the farmhouse of Charles Birger, 
but as they were crudely made, they failed to 
explode, which probably saved the lives of 
Birger and his companions, for the markman- 
ship of the flyer was unusually good. 

Airplane bombing raid by an American air 
unit was made by the 96th Bombardment 
Squadron. The unit left the airdrome at 
Amanty, in Breguet airplanes on June 12, 1918, 
and bombed the railroad yards at Dommary 






Baroncourt, twenty-four miles northwest of 
Metz. (Records in Office of the Chief of the 
Air Corps, War Dept. Washington, D.C.) 


See also Aviation (Air terminal) 

Airport (Federally owned and operated) 

(not Army) was the Washington National Air- 
port, Washington, D.C, opened for regular 
traffic June 16, 1941. The cornerstone of the 
Terminal Building was laid by President Frank- 
lin Delano Roosevelt, September 28, 1Q40. The 
Civil Aeronautics Administration was in charge, 
and John Groves was the manager. 

Airport hotel was the Oakland Airport 
Inn at Oakland, Calif., built by the Board of 
Port Commissioners. It was opened July 15, 
1929, and operated by the Interstate Company. 

Airport manager (woman) was Laurette 
Schimmoler, appointed May 28, 1932, at Port 
Bticyrus, Ohio, at a salary of $510 a year. 
(Charles E. Planck Women With Wings) 

Airport municipal legislation was enacted 
at Modesto, Calif., July 8, 1910 (Article 3 
Section 6) and ratified September 14, 1910 at 
a special election which authorized the city 
to acquire "aviation landings." An airfield was 
not erected within the city limits until 1918. 
(California Laws. 39 Session. 1911) 

Airport municipally owned was the Tucson 
Municipal Airport east of Tucson, Ariz. The 
first plane landed on November 20, 1919, and 
was piloted by "Swede" Myerhofer. (Arizona 
Yearbook. 1930) 

Airport to receive an Al-A rating from the 
Department of Commerce was the Pontiac, 
Mich., Municipal Airport which obtained it on 
February 11, 1930. The field covers 240 acres. 

Airplane catapulted from a dirigible. See 

Aviation Flights 

Airship bombing was suggested by John 
Wise, an aeronaut, who petitioned Congress in 
1851 for funds with which to carry out his 
plan. He wrote A System of Aeronautics 
published at Philadelphia, Pa., in 1850. 

Airship disaster occurred on May 23, 1908, 
at Berkeley, Calif., when the 450-foot cigar- 
shaped balloon invented by John A. Morrell 
collapsed and exploded injuring the inventor 
and fifteen passengers. It was 46 feet in 
diameter at the center, and contained six gaso- 
line engines which generated 200 horsepower 

Airship (lighter-than-air) was the British 
dirigible R-34. It was under the command of 
Major George Herbert Scott who left East 
Fortune, Scotland, on July 2, 1919 and arrived 
at Roosevelt Field, New York, on July 6th, 


having flown 3,130 nautical miles in 108 hours, 
12 minutes. It returned to Pulham, England, 
a few days later flying 3,200 miles in 74 hours 
and 56 minutes. (Edward M ait land M ait land 
The Log of H.M.A. R-34 Journey to Amer- 
ica and Back) 

Airship of the United States Navy was 
the DN1, a twin-engine non-rigid 115,000- 
cubic-foot dirigible. The envelope was built 
at New Haven, Conn., and the car at Boston, 
Mass. It was acquired under contract of 
June 1, 1915, as a cost of $45,636.25. It was 
too overweight to leave the ground and the 
twin-engine was replaced with a single engine. 
The first flight was made at Pensacola, Fla., 
April 1917. Only three flights were made as 
the airship was damaged in handling and did 
not justify repairing. 

Airship of the United States Navy that 
was successful was the Fl built to United 
States Navy specifications under contract 
dated March 14, 1917, by the Goodyear Tire 
and Rubber Co., Akron, Ohio. The ship was 
assembled at a Chicago, 111., amusement park 
and the first flight made from Chicago to 
Wingfoot Lake, near Akron, Ohio, May 30, 

Airship to land on a roof was the A4, a 
160-foot dirigible with a 95,000-cubic-foot gas 
capacity, which took off from the Wingfoot 
Lake Naval Air Station, near Akron, Ohio, 
and landed on a 30-by-30-foot platform on the 
roof of the Statler Hotel, Cleveland, Ohio, on 
May 23, 1919. Two of the five passengers 
alighted, one of whom was Ralph Hazlett 
Upson, designer of the dirigible. The pilot 
was James Shade. 

Airship with an enclosed cabin was the 

non-ripid dirigible "Pilgrim," a 51,000-cubic- 
foot airship built by the Goodyear Tire and 
Rubber Co., Akron, Ohio. The first flight was 
made June 3, 1925, with John Maloney Yolton 
as pilot. 

Atlantic Ocean regular commercial airship 
service was inaugurated by the "Hinden- 

burg" of the German Zeppelin Transport Com- 
pany which departed from Friedrichshafen, 
Germany, at 9:30 P.M. (Central European 
Time) on May 6, 1936, and landed May 9, 
1936, at the United States Naval Air Station, 
Lakehurst, N.J., at 6:08 A.M. (Eastern Stand- 
ard Time) completing the voyage of approxi- 
mately 4,000 miles in 61 hours and 38 minutes, 
an average speed of 65 miles an hour. Fifty- 
one passengers and fifty-six officers and crew 
made the flight. The ship was in command of 
Captain Ernest August Lehmann, under the 
general direction of Dr. Hugo Eckener. (Ernest 
August Lehmann Zeppelin, The Story of 
Lighter-than-air Craft.) 

Balloon. See Balloon 

Catholic holy mass in an airship over the 
ocean. See Catholic holy mass 




Dirigible was designed and built by Caesar 
Spiegler. The flight was scheduled for July 
3, 1878, with John Wise of Lancaster, Pa., as 
the pilot. The dirigible was of the cigar shape 
and supported a wicker-cage partition with a 
door and window. 

Dirigible (American-built rigid) and the 
first of the Zeppelin type to use helium gas, 
the ZR1, was christened '"Shenandoah" 
"daughter of the stars" by Mrs. Edwin Den- 
by on October 10, 1923. Commanded by 
Lieutenant Commander Zachary Lansdowne, 
it was destroyed in a storm on September 3, 
1925 over Caldwell, Ohio. Lansdowne and 
fourteen members of the crew were killed. 
It was launched August 20, 1923, and tested 
in flight September 4, 1923, at Lakehurst, N.J. 
(diaries Emery Rosendahl Up Ship) 

Dirigible balloon contracted for by the 
United States Government was built by 
Captain Thomas Scott Baldwin. It was 96 feet 
long, and equipped with an engine of 20 horse- 
power designed and built by Glenn Curtiss. 
It was demonstrated to the Government rep- 
resentatives at Fort Myer, Va., in August 1908, 
Baldwin acting as pilot and Curtiss as engi- 
neer. It was subsequently purchased from 
Captain Baldwin and used by the Signal Corps 
at Omaha, Neb., for several years. The en- 
gine, the first water-cooled engine which 
Curtiss made, is now in the National Museum. 
It averaged 19.61 miles per hour, stayed aloft 
two hours, and was sold for $5,737.50. 

Dirigible for private commercial opera- 
tion was delivered on May 22, 1930, by the 
Goodyear Zeppelin Corporation of Akron, 
Ohio, to the New England Airship Company of 
Bedford, Mass. It was chartered by Bird & 
Son, Inc., of East Walpole, Mass., and as a 
good-will messenger made 1,380 flights, carry- 
ing more than 6,000 passengers in less than five 

Dirigible landing and taking off from an 
ocean-going steamship was the non-rigid 
dirigible "Mayflower," a blimp of the Goodyear 
fleet. On July 31, 1930 as the S.S. "Bremen" 
reached New York City, the "Mayflower" 
lowered itself to the deck which was eighty- 
five feet long by thirty-six feet wide, and 
picked up a passenger, Paul Weeks Litchfield, 
President of the Goodyear Tire and Rubber 
Company. The railings of the ship were 
covered with mattresses to prevent puncturing 
the sides of the dirigible. The "Mayflower" 
was one hundred and twenty-eight feet long 
and thirty-seven feet wide and contained eighty- 
six thousand cubic feet of gas. 

Dirigible made of all metal was the ZMC-2 

which was constructed by the Detroit Air- 
craft Corporation, Detroit, Mich. It was 
tested at Grosse He Airport, Mich., August 
19, 1929, and was manned by Captain Wil- 
liam E. Kepner and a crew of four who 
stayed aloft 49 minutes and 55 seconds. The 
ship was 149 feet 5 inches long, 52 feet 8 


inches in diameter and had a displacement 
of 202,200 cubic feet of helium gas. Its 
weight, empty, was 9,115 Ibs. It carried a 
total load of 12,242 pounds. On June 24, 
1926, President Calvin Coolidge signed 
House Resolution Q690 appropriating $300,000 
towards its construction. The contract with 
the Navy was signed on August 18, 1926 
under the administration of first Assistant 
Secretary of Navy for Aeronautics, Hon. 
Edward Pearson Warner. (The Metalclad 
Airship Detroit Aircraft Corp.) 

Dirigible merchandise shipment sent to 
the United States by air was a shipment of toys 
brought over in 1924 by the German dirigible 
ZR3 (later the "Los Angeles") which flew from 
Friedrichsbafen, Germany, on October 12, to 
Lakeliurst, N.J., wbere it arrived on October 
15, 1924. It was manned by a crew of 33 
men and made the 50,000-mile trip in 81 
hours and 17 minutes. 

Dirigible passenger transfer to an airplane. 
See Aviation Passenger 

Dirigible transfer of mail to a train was 
effected on June 15, 1928 by an Air Corps 
blimp piloted by Lieutenant Karl S. Axtater 
and Lieutenant Edward H. White who flew di- 
rectly over an Illinois Central train near Scott 
Field, Belleville, 111., and dipped low enough 
to permit the railway mail clerk to reach the 
sack of mail which was suspended by means 
of a rope. The blimp was a "C" type dirig- 
ible, 210 feet long with a crew of six. 

Flights. Sec Aviation Flights (Trans- 
atlantic); Aviation Flights (Transcon- 
tinental); Aviation Flights (Transpacific); 
Aviation Flights (World) 

Stock order from a Zeppelin. See Broker- 

Zeppelin woman passenger. Sec Aviation 


American ace under American colors was 

Lieutenant Douglas Campbell, who shot down 
a German aviator on April 14, 1918. His fifth 
victory, which qualified him as an "ace," was 
May 31, 1918. 

American Ace of Aces was Captain Ed- 
ward Vernon Rickenbackcr, of Columbus, Ohio, 
who was credited with twenty-five victories 
(twenty-one airplanes and four balloons). His 
first victory was at Baussant Region, in the 
Torn 1 sector, France, April 29, 1918. (Sender 
Garlin The Real Rickenbacker) 

American aviator killed while a pilot in the 
Lafayette Escadrille, an American flying 

squadron in the service of France, was Victor 
Emmanuel Chapman who was shot down June 
23, 1916, northeast of Douamont in the Verdun 
sector. From August 1914 to August 1915 he 
was in the Foreign Legion. (Bert Hall One 
Man's War, The Story of the Lafayette 




American aviator shot down in World 

War I was H. Clyde Balsley of the Lafayette 
Escadrille who was attacked by a German 
squadron at a height of ten thousand feet 
before Verdun, France, on June 18, 1916. Al- 
though wounded, he managed to land his air- 
plane within the Allies' lines. He received 
the Military Medal and the War Cross for his 
bravery. (Edwin C. Parsons The Great Ad- 
venture; the Story of the Lafayette Escadrille) 

Army aviator to win a victory over an 
enemy airplane was First Lieutenant Stephen 
W. Thompson, First Aero Squadron, whose 
victory is recorded as of February 5, 1918 at 
Saarbrucken, Germany, when he downed an 
Albatross pursuit plane. 

American aviator to score a victory over 
a German seaplane was Ensign Stephen 
Potter, U.S.N.R., who, while flying an Amer- 
ican airplane protecting British Royal Air 
Force flying boats, attacked and shot down a 
German seaplane on March 19, 1918. 

American bombardier over German occu- 
pied territory. See World War II 

American pilot to shoot down a German 
fighter plane. See World War II 

Aviator to fire a gun from an airplane 

was Lieutenant Jacob Earl Fickel of the 29th 
Infantry who fired rifle shots at a target on 
August 20, 1910, at the Sheepshead Bay Race 
Track, New York City, from a single-seater 
Curtiss plane piloted by Glenn Hammond Cur- 

Aviator to fly to a height of one mile 
was Walter Richard Brookins who attained a 
height of 6,175 feet in a flight of 1 hour, 2 
minutes and 35 seconds in a Wright biplane 
at Atlantic City, N.J., on July 9, 1910. For 
this achievement he won the Atlantic City Aero 
Club prize of $5,000. 

Aviator to fly one hundred times across 
the Atlantic ocean was Captain Robert Oliver 
Daniel Sullivan who completed his hun- 
dredth trip on December 28, 1942, from New 
York to Lisbon, Portugal. His first flight 
across the Atlantic was January 28-29, 1938, 
from New York to Marseilles, France. 

Marine aviator. See Marines 

Naval ace in World War I was David Sin- 
ton Ingalls of the United States Naval Avia- 
tion Forces, who while attached to the 213th 
Squadron of the Royal Air Force (England) 
"alone and in conjunction with other pilots shot 
down at least four enemy aeroplanes and one 
or more enemy balloons." He was awarded the 
Distineuished Flying Cross by the British Gov- 
ernment on October 25, 1918, and the Distin- 
guished Service Medal by the United States on 
November 11, 1920. He served as Assistant 


Secretary of the Navy for Aeronautics from 
March 16. 1929, to March 15, 1932. 

Naval ace in World War II was Lieu- 
tenant Edward Henry O'Hare who, alone and 
single-handed, attacked nine twin-engined Jap- 
anese heavy bombers, shot down five, and 
damaged a sixth on February 20, 1942, in the 
southwest Pacific in an action of about five 
minutes duration. 

Pilot to receive the Congressional Medal 
of Honor, granted by the President with the 
approval of Congress, was awarded to Lieu- 
tenant Frank Luke for extraordinary heroism 
in action near St. Mihiel, France, September 
12-15, 1918. It was awarded April 14, 1918 
for destroying eight enemy balloons in four 
days and was posthumously presented at Phoe- 
nix, Ariz., on May 29, 1919 to his father, 
Frank Luke, Sr. Luke was a member of the 
27th Squadron when he was killed in action. 
He is officially credited with eighteen victories, 
a record that was surpassed in World War I 
only by Captain Edward Vernon Rickenbacker 
who was credited with twenty-five victories and 
who later also received the Medal of Honor. 
(Norman Shannon Hall The Balloon Buster, 
Frank Luke of Arizona) 

Woman aviator to fly across the Atlantic 
ocean east to west was Amy Johnson Molli- 
son who, accompanied by her husband James 
Allan Mollison, left Pendine, Wales, July 22, 
1933, at 7 A.M. in the "Seafarer" on a non-stop 
flight. They crashed July 23, 1933, at 9:30 P.M. 
at Stratford, Conn., about 55 miles from their 
ultimate goal. They flew 3,190 miles in 38# 

Woman aviator to fly solo across the Pa- 
cific Ocean was Amelia Earhart Putnam. She 
left Wheeler Field, Honolulu, at 10:15 P.M. 
Friday, January 11, 1935, and arrived at the 
Oakland Airport, Oakland, Calif., at 4:31 P.M. 
Saturday, covering 2,408 miles in 18 hours 16 
minutes at an average speed of 133 miles an 
hour. (George Palmer Putnam Soaring 
Wings, A Biography of Amelia Earhart) 

Woman aviator to make a public flight 

was Blanche Stuart Scott, a pupil of Glenn 
Hammond Curtiss, who made a solo flight Oc- 
tober 23, 1910, at the Driving Park, Fort 
Wayne, Ind. She used an Ely machine and rose 
to a height of twelve feet and sailed across the 
field. After the flight, she stated, "I believe T 
could have turned and circled the track, but 
Mr. Curtiss has absolutely forbidden me at- 
tempting the turns until I have mastered the 
straightway flights." (Fort Wayne Journal 
Gazette. Oct. 24, 1910) 

Woman aviator to pilot an air-mail trans- 
port on a regular schedule was Miss Helen 
Richey who flew from Washington, D.C., to 
Detroit, Mich., via Pittsburgh and Cleveland, on 
December 31, 1934. She was appointed a co- 
pilot by the Central Airlines, Inc. and flew a 
Tri-Motored Ford 12-passenger transport. 




Woman test pilot to test standard production 
aircraft was Miss Alma Heflin who made her 
first production test flight November 12, 1941, 
for the Piper Aircraft Corporation, Lock 
Haven, Pa. 




Aeronautic international exposition was 

held in New York City from May 9th to May 
18th, 1912, at the Grand Central Palace under 
the auspices of the Aero Club of America. An 
invitation to attend was extended to Rear 
Admiral Hugo Osterhaus on the opening day 
by Robert Joseph Collier, president of the Aero 
Club of America, who flew from Keyport, 
N.J., to the U.S.S. "Washington" moored in 
the Hudson River. (Aero Club of America--- 
First Annual International Aeronautical Exhi- 

Aviation meet was held at Los Angeles, 
Calif., January 10-20, 1910. American planes 
had an opportunity of proving their power in 
competition with foreign planes. Two Farman 
biplanes and two Bleriot monoplanes were for- 
eign exhibits. Three Curtiss biplanes of Amer- 
ican manufacture were shown which were 
piloted by Glenn Hammond Curtiss, Charles 
Keeney Hamilton and Charles Foster Willard. 
At the meet Louis Paulhan broke the altitude 
record of the world with a flight to 4,165 feet. 

Intercollegiate air meet was held May 7, 
1920, at Mitchel Field, Long Island, N.Y., 
under the auspices of the Intercollegiate Flying 
Association, the United States Air Service and 
the American Flying Club. The Air Service 
loaned the flyers Curtiss JN-4 planes. Yale 
University won with nine points, Williams was 
second with six points and Princeton and 
Columbia tied for third place with five points 
each. The other college entries were Cornell, 
Harvard, Lehigh, Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh, 
Rutgers, Wesleyan. 


Airplane catapulted successfully was a 
Curtiss hydro-airplane catapulted from the 
Washington Navy Yard, Washington, D.C., on 
November 12, 1912. The catapult was built 
under the direction of Captain Washington 
Irving Chambers assisted by Naval Construc- 
tor Holden Chester Richardson and Admiral 
Nathan Crook Twining of the Bureau of 
Ordnance. The airplane was piloted by Lieu- 
tenant Theodore Gordon Ellyson. Similar at- 
tempts were made previously at Annapolis, 
Md., but were not successful. (Az^ation Mag- 
azine. February 28, 1921) 

Airplane catapulted from a dirigible was 

a Vought two-seater observation plane which 
was released on May 20, 1930, from the airship 
"Los Angeles." It was piloted by Lieutenant 
Commander Charles Ambrose Nicholson who 
flew it to the carrier "Saratoga." 


Airplane flight was made August 14, 1901, 
near Bridgeport, Conn., by Gustave Whitehead 
who made four flights, one of which was a 
mile and a half, in his airplane "No. 21." 
(Stella Randolph Lost Flights of Gustave 

Airplane flight commercially scheduled 
over a single route linking four continents 
was made by the 4254 -ton "Dixie Clipper," with 
ten passengers and eleven in the crew, com- 
manded by Captain Harold Edwin Gray, which 
left La Guardia Field, Long Island, N.Y., Feb- 
ruary 1, 1941 on a 11,348-mile trip. Stops were 
made at Bermuda; Lisbon, Portugal; Bola- 
ma, Portuguese Guinea; Port of Spain, 
Trinidad; and San Juan, Puerto Rico, return- 
ing to the starting field February 9, 1941. This 
was also the first airplane of commercial 
United States registry to put into an African 

Airplane flight from a ship was made on 
November 14, 1910, when Eugene Ely, a 
civilian pilot of the Curtiss Company, took 
off from the deck of the scout cruiser 
"Birmingham" at Hampton Roads and flew 
two miles through fog and rain to Norfolk, 
Va. The runway was eighty-three feet long 
with a five-degree slope, allowing only a 
twenty-six-foot take off as the length of 
the plane was fifty-seven feet. On January 
18, 1911, he flew thirteen miles from Camp 
Selfridge, Calif., and alighted safely upon the 
platform built on the deck of the United States 
Cruiser "Pennsylvania" in San Francisco 

Airplane flight of one hour duration was 

made September 9, 1908, by Orville Wright 
who flew a Wright airplane with a Wright mo- 
tor at Fort Myer, Va., for one hour two min- 
utes and fifteen seconds. 

Airplane flight with an auto slung be- 
neath the fuselage was made February 11, 
1935, from Floyd Bennett Field, N.Y., with 
Lou Reichers at the controls. An Uppercu- 
Burnelli transport with a cabin twelve feet 
wide supported a Ford roadster fastened and 
braced with struts between the wheels of the 
landing gear. The test was made to demon- 
strate the quick starting ability of a branded 
gasoline but was valuable because it demon- 
strated the possibility of transporting tanks 
behind the enemy lines in battle. 

Airplane loop the loop was made by 
Lincoln Beachy at North Island, San Diego, 
Calif., on November 18, 1913. At a 1000-foot 
level, he brought his machine up with a swoop 
and a moment later was flying head downward. 
The loop was completed at a 300-foot level. 
On November 28, 1913, he made a triple loop. 

Airplane night scheduled passenger flight 
was made April 1, 1927, when a three-engine 
Fokker of the Colonial Air Transport Com- 
pany took off for Boston, Mass., from Hadley 
Field, N.J., then the only lighted airway. 





Airplane round trip, made in one day 
between two large cities, was made on June 
13, 1910, when Charles Keeney Hamilton fly- 
ing in a Curtiss biplane equipped with a 
Curtiss motor made the round trip between 
Governors Island, N.Y., and Philadelphia, Pa. 
He left Governors Island at 7 :36 A.M. and 
arrived at Front Street and Erie Avenue, 
Philadelphia, at 9 :26 A.M. The average speed 
for his one-hour-and-fifty-minute flight was 
46.92 miles an hour. He left Philadelphia 
11 :33 A.M. and, after a detour, landed at South 
Amboy, N.J., at 12:54 A.M., in a swamp in- 
stead of on a green. He repaired a broken 
spark plug and reascended at 6:17 P.M. and 
landed at Governors Island, at 6 :40. The fly- 
ing time for the round trip was three hours 
and thirty-four minutes. For this accom- 
plishment, he won a $10,000 prize offered by 
the New York Times and the Philadelphia 
Ledger. (Lyman J. Seely Flying Pioneers 
at Hammondsport) 

Airplane to exceed the speed of 650 miles 
an hour was a United States Navy jet-pro- 
pelled D-558, a Douglass Skystreak, which was 
flown August 25, 1947 at Muroc, Calif., at the 
speed of 650.6 miles an hour by Major Marion 
E. Carl of Woodburn, Calif, pn August 27, 
1947, he received a gold star in lieu of a second 
Distinguished Flying Cross from John Nicho- 
las Brown, Assistant Secretary of the Navy 
for Air. 

Airplane to travel faster than the speed of 
sound was the XS-1, a United States Army 
rocket airplane, flown October 14, 1947, at 
Muroc, Calif., by Captain Charles E. Yeager 
of Harnlin, W.Va. Announcement of this 
supersonic flight was made June 10, 1948, by 
Air Secretary William Stuart Symington. 
Alcohol and liquid oxygen were used as 
fuel which was forced into the burners by 
gaseous nitrogen. (At sea level, the speed 
of sound is 760 miles an hour). 

"Airplane train" soared from Floyd Ben- 
nett Field, N.Y., August 2, 1934, 10:44 A.M. It 
consisted of a Wright-Eaglerock airplane 
piloted by Elwood Keim which towed three 
gliders, piloted by Jack O'Meara, Dr. Ros- 
well Earl Franklin and Stanley Smith, which 
were to be released from the train at Phila- 
delphia, Baltimore and Washington. The 
flight was arranged by the Lustig Sky Train 
Corporation and each glider carried about 
seventy-five pounds of mail. Due to heavy 
winds, the air train was forced down at Phila- 
delphia at 1 :20 P.M. 

All blind cross-country test of instrument 
or "blind" flying and landing was on March 
21, 1933 from College Park, Md., to Newark, 
N.J., by James Kinney, pilot, accompanied by 
Harry Diamond, United States Bureau of 
Standards scientist, who helped develop the 
instrument landing system, and William La 
Violette, radio technician. 


All blind distance flight by the United 
States Army was made April 6, 1940, by 
Major Carl B. McDaniel, assisted by Captain 
William A. Matheny, Lieutenant William P. 
Ragsdale and four enlisted men, in a four- 
motored 22^-ton craft from Mitchel Field, 
Long Island, N.Y., to Langley Field, Va. Two 
civilian passengers were carried in the two- 
hour-and-two-minute flight. 

All blind flight was made September 24, 
1929, at Mitchel Field, Long Island, N.Y., 
by Lieutenant James Harold Doolittle in a 
Consolidated-Wright biplane. He made a 
complete flight in an enclosed cockpit with- 
out seeing the ground or any part of the 
airplane except an illuminated instrument 
board. He was guided by a radio beacon. 
Lieutenant Benjamin Kelsey accompanied 
him in the event of an emergency. 

All blind solo flight by the United States 
Army was made May 7, 1932, by Captain 
Albert Francis Hegenberger at Patterson 
Field, Dayton, Ohio, in an Army Douglas 
BT-2 plane equipped with standard Air Corps 
instruments. He took off and landed the plane 
completely inclosed in the hooded cock-pit, 
with no external vision from start to finish. 
(US. Air Forces. July 1932) 

California-Hawaii flight was made on June 
28-29, 1927, by Lieutenants Lester J. Maitland 
and Albert Francis Hegenberger who flew in a 
triple-engine Fokker monoplane from Oakland, 
Calif., to Wheeler Field, Oahu Island, Hawaii, 
2,400 miles in 25 hours and 50 minutes. ( Lester 
J. Maitland Knights of the Air) 

Cross country airplane flight by a United 
States officer was made July 30, 1909, by Lieu- 
tenant Benjamin Delahauf Foulois who flew 
with Orville Wright as the pilot from Fort 
Myer, Va., to Alexandria, Va. They traveled 
ten miles at an altitude of six hundred feet 
averaging forty-two miles an hour, thereby es- 
tablishing three world's records for distance, 
speed and altitude. 

Glider flight. Sec Glider 
Helicopter flight. See Helicopter 

Honolulu squadron flight was made by six 
United States Navy seaplanes under the com- 
mand of Lieutenant Commander Knefler Mc- 
Ginnis. The planes with 30 aviators left San 
Francisco, Calif., January 10, 1934, 2:22 P.M. 
and arrived at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, 2,408 
miles distant, 24 hours and 56 minutes later, 
crossing the ocean at an average speed of 100 
miles an hour. 

Hydroplane flight to and from a ship was 

made by Glenn Curtiss to the U.S.S. "Penn- 
sylvania" in the Pacific ocean on February 
17, 1911, from North Island, San Diego, 
Calif. He landed alongside the ship and 
was hoisted abroad. Then the procedure 




was reversed. He received the Robert F. 
Collier Trophy in 1912 for outstanding con- 
tributions to American aviation. 

New York-Alaska flight, 4,345 miles each 
way, was made by four United States planes 
of the Alaskan Flying Expedition which left 
Mitchel Field, Long Island, N.Y., July 15, 1920, 
and arrived at Nome, Alaska, August 25, 1920. 
The expedition left Nome, August 29, 1920, and 
returned to Mitchel Field, October 20, 1920, 
making sixteen stops en route. The average 
flying speed of the trip was 80 miles an hour. 
The crew consisted of Captain St. Clair Streett, 
in command, First Lieutenant Clifford Cameron 
Nutt, Second Lieutenants Ross C. Kirkpatrick, 
Erik Henning Nelson and Clarence E. Cruin- 
rine, Sergeants James Long and Joseph E. 
English, and Captain Howard Douglas, advance 

New York-Bermuda flight was made on 
April 1, 1930, by Captain Lewis Alonzo Yan- 
cey, navigator, William Alexander, pilot, and 
Zeh Bouck, radio operator, in the Stinson mon- 
oplane "Pilot" equipped with a Wright Whirl- 
wind motor. They landed 60 miles from their 
goal on the ocean where they floated overnight. 
They resumed flight and arrived at Hamilton, 
Bermuda on Apiil 2, 1030 Kadi member of 
the crew received $1000 from the Bermuda 
Board of Trade. 

New York-Chicago non-stop flight was 

made by Captain E. F. White, April 19, 1919, 
piloting a DC IIaviland-4 army biplane. lie 
covered the 727 miles in 6 hours, 50 minutes 
flying time, an average speed of 106 miles an 

New York-Panama non-stop flight was 

made by Captain Roy W. Ammel of Chicago 
in his Lockheed-Sirius monoplane, the "Blue- 
flash." He made the 3,189-mile trip from Floyd 
Bennett Field, Brooklyn, N.Y., to France Field, 
Panama, on November 9, 1930, in 24 hours, 34 

North Pole flight was made by Lieutenant 
Commander Richard Evelyn Byrd, U.S.N. re- 
tired, and Floyd Bennett on May 9, 1926. In 
the "Josephine Ford," a triple engine Fokker 
monoplane, they flew from King's Bay, Spitz- 
bergcn, to the role and back, without stopping, 
covering 1,545 miles in 15 hours and 30 min- 
utes. (Richard Evelyn Byrd Skyward) 

Over-water round-trip flight was made 
by Glenn Luther Martin in a biplane pusher 
type, on May 10, 1912. The trip was made in 
thirty-seven minutes at an altitude in excess of 
two thousand feet for an approximate distance 
of thirty-one miles over the Pacific Ocean from 
Newport Bay to Avalon, Catalina Island, Calif. 
The return was from Catalina Island via San 
Pedro and down the coast to Newport Bay, 
covering forty-five miles in fifty-one minutes. 
An inflated tire tube on the fuselage served as 
a life preserver. 


Sky-train international round-trip flight 
took place from Key West, Fla., May 14, 1935, 
at 1 :40 P.M. to Havana, Cuba, arriving one 
hour and forty-five minutes later, averaging 
sixty-four miles an hour. The sky-train con- 
sisted of an airplane, piloted by Elwood Keim 
of New York City, which towed two gliders 
piloted by E. Paul du Pont, Jr., of Wilming- 
ton, Del., and Jack O'Meara of New York 
City. The return flight was made from 
Havana, May 19, 1935. 

South Pole flight was made on November 
28, 1929 by Lieutenant Commander Richard 
Evelyn Byrd, U. S. N. retired, from his 
base, Little America, in the Antarctic. The 
crew consisted of Bernt Balchen, pilot; Harold 
I. June, radio operator ; and Captain Ashley C. 
McKinley, photographer. They reported that 
they reached the pole about 8:55 A.M. (New 
York time) on November 29, 1929 and dropped 
a United States flag there. (Richard Evelyn 
Byrd Little America) 

Stratoliner commercial flight was made 
July 8, 1940, by Transcontinental & Western 
Air, Inc., with a Boeing 307-B four-engine 
plane. It flew normally four miles above the 
earth. This was the first commercial flight 
to use supercharged cabins. It was a 33- 
passeriger plane by day and a 25-passenger 
plane at night. The cabin was designed with 
nine individual seats and four compartments, 
each of six-passenger capacity. At night, these 
compartments were converted into sleepers 
of four berths each. The first eastbound com- 
mercial flight was made in 12 hours and 22 
minutes (11 hours and 55 minutes flying time) 
and the westbound trip in 14 hours and 17 
minutes (14 hours flying time). Stops were 
made at Kansas City. The terminals were 
La Guardia Airport, Long Island, N.Y., and 
the Lockheed Air Terminal, Burbank, Calif. 


Atlantic ocean air service. See Aviation 

Transatlantic airship service. See Aviation 

Transatlantic dirigible flight was at- 
tempted by Walter Wellman on October 15, 
1910 when he and his companions left Atlan- 
tic City, N.J., in a non-rigid dirigible "The 
America" cnroute to Ireland. The dirigible 
was 228 feet long with a 52 foot diameter. 
They were forced down after 7\ l /2 hours of 
flight due to storms and fogs after having 
flown 1,008 miles. The entire crew was 
rescued about 375 miles east of Cape Hat- 
teras, N.C. 

Transatlantic foreign squadron flight to 
the United States was led by General Italo 
Balbo, Italian Air Minister, who was in com- 
mand of a squadron of 24 Italian seaplanes 
manned by 98 men. The flight cost was ap- 
proximately $3,000,000 including an estimated 
value of $56,000 for each plane. The planes 
covered 6,100 miles in 47 hours and 52 min- 




AVIATIONFLIGHTS (Transatlantic) 


utes. The squadron left Orbetello, Italy, Sun- 
day, July 2, 1933, 12:40 A.M. and flew to 
Amsterdam, Holland ; Londonderry, North 
Ireland; Reykjavik, Iceland; Cartwright, Lab- 
rador; Shediac, New Brunswick; Montreal, 
Canada and landed at Chicago, 111., July 15, 
1933 at 7 P.M. (Italo BalboMy Air Ar- 

Transatlantic hydroplane flight was made 
by Americans but not in a single flight. The 
NC 4, commanded by Lieutenant Commander 
Albert Gushing Read, left Rockaway, Long Is- 
land, N.Y., on May 8, 1919, in company with 
the NC 1 and NC 3, but was the only plane 
to finish the trip. The first stop was at Tre- 
passey, N.F., on May 16th, the next stop at 
Horta in the Azores; the third after a 1,380- 
mile hop was Ponta Delgada, then to Lisbon, a 
distance of 891 miles. The final destination, 
Plymouth, England, was "reached on May 31st, 
a total of 4,500 miles. Read's crew was com- 
posed of Lieutenants Elmer Fowler Stone, 
Walter Hinton and James Lawrence Breese, 
Ensign Herbert Charles Rodd and Chief Ma- 
chinist's Mate Eugene Saylor Rhoads. (George 
Conrad Westervelt The Triumph of the 

Transatlantic non-stop flight from Amer- 
ica was made in a Vickers "Vimy" Bomber, 
a bimotored Rolls Rpyce airplane with four- 
bladed propellers which was piloted by Cap- 
tain John Alcock and navigated by Lieutenant 
Arthur Whitten Brown. They left St. John's, 
N.F., Saturday, June 14, 1919, and arrived in 
Clifton, Ireland, sixteen hours and twelve 
minutes later, covering a distance of 1,960 
miles at the average speed of 120 miles an 
hour. (Arthur Whitten Brown Flying the 
Atlantic in- Sixteen Hours} 

Transatlantic non-stop flight from Europe 
to the United States and the first flight 
from Europe to tlie mainland of North 
America was made by Captain Dieudonne 
Coste and his mechanic, Maurice Bellonte, 
in a red sesquiplane, "The Question Mark." 
They arrived at Valley Stream, N.Y., at 7:12 
P.M. on September 2, 1930, completing the first 
non-stop flight from France to the United 
States, a trip which consumed 37 hours, 
18^ minutes. This trip was the fourteenth 
conquest of the North Atlantic by airplane 
and the fifth westward flight. (Dieudonne- 
Coste Paris-New York) 

Transatlantic non-stop round trip flight 
to the United States was made by Maurice 
Rossi and Paul Codos of France. In their 
westward flight, they left New York, August 
8, 1933, and landed at the Rayack Airport, 
Syria, 55 hours and 29 minutes later, covering 
5,900 miles. On their eastward flight they left 
Le Bourget field, Paris, France, May 27, 1934, 
at 12:10 A.M. in the "Joseph Le Brix" and 
flew westward, arriving at Floyd Bennett Field, 
New York City, May 28, 1934, at 2:37 P.M., 


making the 3,610 mile trip in 38 hours and 
27 minutes. 

Transatlantic round trip flight was made 
in the "Lady Peace" by Richard Merrill and 
Harry Richman who left Floyd Bennett Field, 
New York, September 2, 1936, at 4:37 A.M., 
and arrived September 3, 1936 about 10:30 
A.M., in a forced landing at Llwyncelyn, Car- 
marthenshire, Wales, one hundred and seventy- 
five miles from the Croyden Airdrome. The 
return trip was made from Southport, England, 
September 13, 1936 and they crash-landed at 
Musgrave Harbor, N.F., about one hundred 
miles from Harbor Grace, N.F., returning to 
New York City a week later. 

Transatlantic solo flight was made by 
Charles Augustus Lindbergh on May 20, 1927 
from New York to Paris. He flew about 3,610 
miles in 33 hours 32 minutes, in the "Spirit 
of St. Louis," a Ryan monoplane equipped with 
a single 225 h.p. Wright Whirlwind motor. He 
left Roosevelt Field at 7:52 A.M. on May 20, 
1927 and arrived at 5:24 P.M. New York time 
the following day at Le Bourget field, Paris. 
(Charles Augustus Lindbergh We) 

Transatlantic solo flight by a woman was 

made by Mrs. Amelia Earhart Putnam who 
left Harbor Grace, N.F., at 5 :50 P.M. Friday, 
May 20, 1932 and arrived at Londonderry, Ire- 
land, at 8:46 A.M. Saturday May 21, 1932. 
Her flight was made exactly five years after 
Lindbergh's flight. Lindbergh flew 3,610 miles 
in 33 hours and 32 minutes while Mrs. Putnam 
flew 2,026 miles in 14 hours and 56 minutes. 
(Amelia Earhart Fun of It) 

Transatlantic solo westward flight was 

made by James Allen Mollison. He left Port- 
marnock, Ireland, August 18, 1932, 6:33 A.M. 
and landed at 12:45 A.M. August 19, 1932, at 
Pennfield Ridge, N.B. He made the trip in 
'The Heart's Content," a De Haviland "Puss 
Moth" with a Gipsy III inverted engine. Ac- 
companied by his wife, Amy Mollison, he made 
another east-west flight across the Atlantic 
ocean, thus becoming the first man to have twice 
crossed the Atlantic in a westward flight. He 
took off from Wales, July 22, 1933, in the 
"Seafarer," a De Haviland Dragon plane, and 
landed July 23, 1933 at Stratford, Conn., where 
they crashed. (James Allan Mollison Death 
Cometh Soon or Late) 

Air mail transcontinental service. See Air 

mail service 

Transcontinental airplane flight (east- 
bound) was made by Robert Grant Fowler, 
who left Los Angeles, Calif., on October 19, 
1911, in a model B Wright biplane equipped 
with a 30-horsepower four cylinder Wright 
engine. He made 65 landings en route in Cali- 
fornia, Arizona, New Mexico, Texas, Louisi- 
ana, Alabama, Georgia, and Florida and landed 
at Jacksonville, Fla., on February 8, 1912. 




Transcontinental airplane flight by a wo- 
man was made by Ruth Nichols, who took 
off from Mineola, L.I., N.Y., in a Lockheed- 
Vega airplane on November 24, 1930, and 
arrived at Burbank, Calif., on December 1. 
The total flying time was 16 hours, 59 minutes 
and 30 seconds. 

Transcontinental airship voyage was made 
by the "Shenandoah," which left Lakehurst, 
N.J., October 7, 1924, under the command of 
Lieutenant Commander Zachary Lansdowne, 
and arrived at San Diego, Calif., October 11, 
1924. The "Shenandoah" made the return 
flight and arrived at Lakehurst, October 25, 
1924. The airship was originally the "ZR1." 
It made its maiden trip September 4, 1923 and 
was christened the "Shenandoah," October 10, 
1923 at Lakehurst, NJ. It crashed at Cald- 
well, Ohio, September 3, 1925. 

Transcontinental dirigible flight (non-rigid 
dirigible) was made by the C2 which left 
Langley Field, Newport News, Va., on Sep- 
tember 14, 1922, and arrived at Ross Field, 
Arcadia, Calif., on September 23, 1922. The 
dirigible was 192 feet long, 64 feet wide, 67 
feet high and contained 172,000 cubic feel of 
hydrogen gas. It was powered by two 150- 
horse power Wright motors and commanded 
by Major Harold A. Strauss and Captain 
George W. McEnlirc. On its return trip on 
October 17, 1922, the bag ripped while being 
towed out of the hangar at San Antonio, Tex., 
causing an explosion which injured seven of 
the eight-man crew. 

Transcontinental flight was made by Cal- 
braith Perry Rogers who left Sheepshead Bay, 
N.Y., September 17, 1911 in his Burgess- 
Wright biplane and was 49 clays en route to 
California, arriving in Pasadena on November 
5, 1911. The distance was 3,417 miles (2,567 
air-line miles) which he covered in 70 hops. 
His actual flying time was 3 days, 10 hours and 
4 minutes. His best day's work was 231 miles, 
and his best single flight was 133 miles from 
Stovall to Imperial Junction. Weather was 
responsible for the loss of 11 days, and 13^ 
days were consumed in making repairs. On 
November 12 at Compton, Calif., he crashed in 
his plane and was badly injured, but on De- 
cember 10 he continued his journey to the 

Transcontinental flight (dawn-to-dusk) 
was made June 23, 1924 by Lieutenant Russell 
Lowell Maugham of the Army Air Service in 
a twelve-cylinder Curtiss PW8 pursuit plane 
equipped with a 430 h.p. engine. The airplane 
weighed 2,230 pounds, a total weight of 3,599 
pounds. The start was made at 3:00 A.M., 
E.S.T., from Mitchel Field, Long Island, N.Y., 
and concluded at Crissy Field, San Francisco, 
Calif., 2670 miles, at 9:48 P.M., P.T. Stops 
were made to refuel at Dayton, Ohio; St. Jo- 
seph, Mo.; North Platte, Nebr. ; Cheyenne, 
Wyo. ; and Salduro, Utah. The elapsed time 
was 21 hours 48 minutes and the total flying 
time 18 hours 52 minutes. 


Transcontinental flight in 24-hours flying 

time was by Lt. William Devoe Coney of the 
91st Aero Squadron who took off from Rock- 
well Field, San Diego, Calif., at 7:00 P.M., 
February 21, 1921. He was forced down at 
Bronte, Texas, by a snowstorm. He com- 
pleted his flight at Pablo Beach, Jacksonville, 
Fla., on February 24, 1921, at 7:27 A M. He 
covered 2,079 miles in 36 hours 27 minutes 
elapsed time and 22 hours 27 minutes flying 

Transcontinental flight made by Negroes 
in their own plane was made by Charles 
Alfred Anderson of Bryn Mawr, Pa., holder 
of a transport license, and Dr. Albert Krnest 
Forsylhe of Atlantic City, privately licensed 
pilot. They took off from Bader Airport, At- 
lantic City, NJ., July 17, 1933 at 2:49 A.M. 
arid arrived at Los Angeles, Calif., July 19, 
1933 at 5:30 P.M. 

Transcontinental non-stop east-west flight 
by a woman was made by Laura Ingalls 
in a Wasp-powered Lockheed Orion monoplane, 
the "Auto da Fe," which left Floyd Bennett 
field, Brooklyn, N.Y., July 10, 1935 and ar- 
rived at Burbank, Calif., 18 hours and 19^ 
minutes later. 

Transcontinental non-stop flight was made 
by Lieutenants Oakley G. Kelly and John A. 
Macready, of the Air Service, U S.N. On 
May 2, 1923, the aviators, piloting a Fokker T2 
monoplane, equipped with a Liberty engine, 
took off from Roosevelt Field, New York at 
11:36 P.M., and arrived at Rockwell Field, 
Coronado Beach, Calif., at 12:26 P.M., the 
next day, covering a distance of 2,700 miles in 
26 hours and 50 minutes. 

Transcontinental non-stop flight by a 
woman was accomplished by Amelia Earhart 
Putnam. She took off from Los Angeles, 
Calif., August 24, 1932 at 4:26 P.M. Eastern 
daylight-saving time, in her red Wasp-powered 
Lockheed airplane, and arrived at the Newark, 
N.J., Metropolitan Airport, 11:32 A.M. day- 
light time. She flew approximately 2600 miles 
in 19 hours and 5 minutes. 

Transcontinental one-day one-stop flight 

was made by Lt. James Harold Doolittle, 
U.S. Army Air Service, September 5, 1922. 
He left Pablo Beach, Jacksonville, Fla., and 
Hew to Rockwell Field, San Diego, Calif., 
with one stop at San Antonio, Texas, to re- 
fuel. The elapsed time was 22 hours 35 min- 
utes; the actual flying time was 21 hours 20 

Transcontinental round-trip airplane flight 
within one day was made June 13, 1946, 
when a jet-propelled P-80 "Shooting Star" 
fighter plane piloted by Colonel Leon Gray of 
Casa Grande, Ariz., Major Robin Olds of 
Beverly Hills, Calif., and Lieutenant Jack 
Richardson of Oklahoma City, Okla., left 
March Field, Calif., and arrived at Andrews 
Field, Md., in 5 hours and 31 minutes with a 




AVIATION FLIGHTS (Transcontinen- 
tal) Continued 

34-minute stop at Oklahoma City to refuel. 
They returned in 6 hours and 45 minutes with 
stops to refuel at Scott Field, 111., and Mid- 
land, Tex. The trip of approximately 4,540 
miles was made in 12 hours and 15 minutes. 
Total elapsed time, including a drive to Wash- 
ington, D.C., for luncheon and return to the 
field was 14 hours and 51 minutes. 

Transcontinental service. See Aviation 


Pacific air mail. See Air mail service 

Transpacific non-stop flight was made by 
Clyde Pangborn and Hugh Herndon, Jr. who 
landed at Wenatchee, Wash., October 5, 1931, 
having covered the 4,458-statute-mile hop from 
Sabushiro, Japan, in 41 hours and 13 minutes 
in a single-motored 425 h.p. Bellanca mono- 
plane . This was the last lap of their round- 
the-world trip. 

Round-the-world civil air service. See 


Round-the-world non-stop airplane flight 
was made in 94 hours and 1 minute by a 
B-50 superfortress, "Lucky Lady II", in 
command of Captain James Gallagher, which 
left Carswell Air Force base, Fort Worth, 
Texas, on February 26, 1949, at 11:21 A.M. 
It carried a crew of 14, averaged 249 miles 
an hour on its 23,452 mile trip. It was re- 
fueled four times in the air by B-29 tanker 
planes arid landed March 2, 1949 at 9:22 A.M. 

World flight was made May 16, 1924 
from Attu Island to Paranushiru Island by 
three of the planes that took part in the round- 
the-world flight of the U.S. Army Service: 
the "Chicago" piloted by Lieutenant Lowell 
Herbert Smith; the "Boston" piloted by Lieu- 
tenant Leigh Wade; and the "New Orleans" 
piloted by Lieutenant Erik Henning Nelson. 
The "Chicago" and the "New Orleans" crossed 
the Atlantic from Kirkwall, Scotland, to In- 
dian Harbor, Labrador, stopping at Iceland and 
Greenland, completing the first round of the 
world flight. The flight began at Seattle, 
Wash., April 6, 1924, and ended there on Sep- 
tember 28, 1924. The "Boston" was forced 
down near Faroe Islands in the north Atlantic. 
This trip also resulted in the first crossing of 
the China Sea and the first crossing of the 
Atlantic via Iceland and Greenland. The 
flight was made in 57 hops, averaging 483 miles 
each, and in circumnavigating the globe the avi- 
ators touched or traversed 21 countries, 25 
states and 1 territory of the United States. 
The distance flown was 26,103 miles, the total 
time 175 days, flying time 351 hours and 11 
minutes. (Lowell Jackson Thomas The First 
World Flight} 


World flight by a commercial airplane 

was made by the "Pacific Clipper," Pan Ameri- 
can Airways, Inc., which left San Francisco, 
Calif., December 2, 1941, under Captain Robert 
Ford and a ten-man crew, and returned to New 
York City, January 6, 1942, covering 31,500 
miles in 209^4 hours flying time. The return 
trip from New Zealand, due to war conditions, 
was over the Coral Sea, Netherlands East In- 
dies, Indian Ocean, Java Sea, Bay of Bengal, 
Arabian Sea, Persian Gulf, Red Sea, the Nile 
and Congo rivers, thence overland to West 
Africa, to Brazil, to New York. 

World solo airplane flight was made by 
Wiley Hardeman Post in a Lockheed Vega 
monoplane, the "Winnie Mae." He took 
off from Floyd Bennett Field, New York 
City, Saturday, July 15, 1933, at 5:10 A.M. 
and landed in Berlin, Germany, at 6 :55 
A.M. the following day (25 hours and 45 min- 
utes). Other stops were at Kocnigsberg, Mos- 
cow, Novosibirsk, Irkutsk, Rukhlovo, Khaba- 
rovsk, Flat, Fairbanks and Edmonton. He re- 
turned to Floyd Bennett Field, Saturday, July 
22, 1933, 11:59# P.M. making the round-the- 
world circuit of 15,596 miles in 7 days, 18 
hours and 49 minutes of which 115 hours, 36 
minutes and 30 seconds was flying time. His 
airplane was equipped with a Sperry automatic 
pilot and a directional radio. Accompanied by 
Harold Gatty, Post made a round-the-world 
flight in the "Winnie Alae" from Roosevelt 
Field, N.Y. on June 23, 1931. They covered 
a tola! of 15,474 miles at an average speed of 
145.8 miles an hour. They returned July 1, 
1931, after an elapsed time of 8 days, 15 hours 
and 51 minutes. This trip was 21 hours and 
2 minutes longer than his solo flight. Post is 
the first man to fly around the world twice. 
(Wiley Post Around The World in Eight 


Airport municipal legislation. See Avia- 
tion Airport 

Aviation legislation (national) dealing 
with the operation of civil aircraft was the 

Air Commerce Act of 1926 (44 Stat.L.568) 
approved May 20, 1926, "to encourage and reg- 
ulate the use of aircraft in commerce, and for 
other purposes." It was the basis for the for- 
mation of the Aeronautics Branch of the De- 
partment of Commerce. Legislation dealing 
with the Army Air Corps and Naval Aeronau- 
tics was passed prior to 1926. 

Aviation legislation (state) was passed by 
Connecticut, June 8, 1911 (page 1348, Chapter 
86, Public Acts of 1911), The act "concerning 
the registration, numbering, and use of air 
ships and the licensing of operators thereof" 
was recommended by Governor Simeon Eben 
Baldwin. It required all airships to be regis- 
tered ($5 fee) and all applicants for a pilot's 
license to be tested (fee not over $25). A li- 
cense to operate and direct airships was re- 
quired by each pilot ($2 fee). The law also 
provided as penalty for non-observance a $100 




fine and six months imprisonment. Tennessee, 
however, in 1905 passed an act in statutory 
form which authorized a tax on aircraft, but 
it did not attempt to regulate or control air- 
craft. On May 10, 1927, the Legislature of 
Connecticut authorized the organization of the 
Connecticut Department of Aviation, the first 
independent state department for the control 
and regulation of aeronautics in the United 
States (Chapter 324). Offices were opened July 
1, 1927 at Brainard Field, Hartford, Conn. 
The first commissioner of aeronautics was 
Clarence Moore Knox who served from May 
7. 1927 to March 1931. 


Airplane instructor's license issued under 
the Civil Aeronautics Authority created by the 
Civil Aeronautics Act approved June 23, 1938 
(52 Stat.L.973) was a re-rated license issued 
to Arthur J. Banks, Atlanta, Ga., September 
27, 1939. The first woman licensed was Evelyn 
Pinckert Kilgore, San Bernandino, Calif., Oc- 
tober 13, 1939. In the early days, "instructor" 
could be written on a private pilot's license 
after two hundred hours of flight. 

Cargo airlines licensed by the Civil Aero- 
nautics Board were the Flying Tiger Line, 
Inc.; Slick Airways, Inc., United States 
Airlines and Airnevvs, Inc., which were is- 
sued licenses on April 29, 1949, effective 
June 24, 1<H9. 

Civilian Aeronautics Administration hon- 
orary license was awarded to Orville Wright 
on August 19, 1940, under authority of act of 
Congress passed June 13, 1940 (54 Stat.L.1283). 
It authorized the issuance to Orville Wright 
of "honorary aircraft pilot's certiiicate num- 
bered one in recognition of the outstanding 
service rendered by him in advancing the sci- 
ence of aeronautics." 

Glider license issued by the National Aero- 
nautic Association was awarded to Leonard A. 
Wiggins, Akron, Ohio, on October 7, 1930. He 
was the first to receive both the "A" license 
(flight of one minute duration with two "S" 
curves and normal landing) and the "B" license 
(a starting, 360-degree turn both to the left 
and the right). 

Glider license awarded a woman by the 

National Aeronautic Association was No. 10 
Class "A" issued to Maxine Dunlap [Bennett] 
on February 5, 1931. Requirements were a 
flight of one minute duration with two "S" 
curves and a normal landing. 

Glider license Class "C" issued by the Na- 
tional Aeronautic Association (a flight above 
the starting point of at least five minutes or a 
flight of at least five minutes without loss 
of altitude recorded by a barograph) was li- 
cense No. 1 issued February 5, 1931 to Com- 
mander Ralph Stantpn Barnaby, U.S.N. The 
first woman to receive the license was Mrs. 
Hattie Meyer Barnaby, Washington, D.C., 
awarded license No. 37, August 12, 1931. 


Glider pilot's license was No. 1 which was 
issued to Clarence Marshall Young, Assistant 
Secretary of Commerce for Aeronautics, on 
November 7, 1929. Licenses were issued for 
student, commercial and non-commercial class- 
es. (Records in Aeronautics Branch, Dept. of 
Commerce, W ash. D.C.) 

Pilot's license issued by the Aero Club of 
America, the first society officially recognized 
by the Federation Aeronautique Internationale, 
was license No. 1 which was awarded to Glenn 
Hammond Curtiss on June 8, 1911. 

Pilot's license issued by the Dept. of 
Commerce was Private Pilot's License No. 1 
awarded on April 6, 1927 to William Patterson 
MacCracken, Jr., former Assistant Secretary 
of Commerce for Aeronautics. (Records in 
Aeronautics Branch, Dept. of Commerce. 
Wash. D.C.) 

Pilot's license granted to a woman by the 
Dept. of Commerce was issued to Mrs. 
Phoebe Fairgrave Omlie, who, on June 30, 
1927, obtained Transport License No. 199. 
(Records in Aeronautics Branch, Dept. of 
Commerce. Wash. D.C.) 

Woman aviator to pass the test of the 
Aero Club of America was Miss Harriet 
Quimby of New York who on August 1, 1911, 
successfully passed her license test. (F.A.I. Li- 
cense #37). She was also the first woman to 
cross the English channel in a plane. 

AVIATION MAGAZINE was Aeronautics 
published from October 1893 to September 1894 
by the American Engineer and Railroad Jour- 
nal, New York City. It was edited by Matthias 
Nace Forney, and contained reports and articles 
about airplanes, gliders and balloons. It con- 
tained sixteen pages and sold for ten cents a 
copy, a dollar a year. 


See also Moving picture actor stunt 

Nylon parachute jump was made June 6, 
1942, from an airplane at Brainard Field, 
Hartford, Conn., by Miss Adeline Gray, para- 
chute rigger of the Pioneer Parachute Com- 
pany, Manchester, Conn. 

Parachute known as the "free parachute" 
the type where the operator jumps and then 
pulls the rip cord was developed by the Army 
Air Corps under the direction of Major Ed- 
ward L. Hoffman. The first person to jump 
with the Army chute was Leslie Le Roy jrvin 
at McCook Field, Dayton, Ohio, on April 28, 
1919. (Records in Air Corps Materiel Divi- 
sion. Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio) 

Parachute jump from a balloon was made 
by Charles Guille who ascended August 2, 1819, 
from Vauxhall Gardens, New York City, in a 
wicker basket decorated with flowers suspended 
from a 25,000-cubic-foot prepared-silk balloon 
which cost $3,000. Avoiding a squall, he 




jumped from a height of two miles with an 
umbrella-shaped parachute and fell three hun- 
dred feet before it expanded. He drifted 
across the East River and in fifteen minutes 
was out of sight, landing at New Bushwick, 
Long Island, four miles from the city. He car- 
ried two phials of hartshorne and cologne water 
to counteract dizziness. 

Parachute jump from an airplane was 

made March 1912 by Captain Albert Berry 
from a Benoist Pusher plane, piloted by Tony 
Jannus, at Jefferson Barracks, Mo., from an 
altitude of 1500 feet while the plane was travel- 
ing 50 miles an hour. 

Parachute jump from an autogiro was 

made November 15, 1931, by Frankie Ham- 
mond, a parachute jumper of West Paterson, 
NJ., from a Pitcairn Autogiro at an air circus 
at Caldwell, NJ. The airshow was for the 
benefit of the family of Victor Brooks, Keyport 
aviator, who was killed November 1, 1931, when 
his plane crashed during a race at Stanhope, 

Parachute tower for training parachute 
jumpers was a free-drop tower built April 
1935, at Hightstown, NJ., by the Safe Para- 
chute Jump Company, Hightstown, NJ. The 
tower was 125 feet high, with a horizontal arm 
at the top capable of being rotated 360 degrees. 

Parachute wedding. See Wedding 


Admiral in uniform to ride in an airplane 
was Rear Admiral Bradley Allen Fiske, 
U.S.N., who flew over the Hudson River and 
New York City on May 10, 1912 in a plane 
piloted by Walter Brookins and Robert Joseph 
Collier. (Bradley Allen Fiske From Mid- 
shipman to Rear Admiral} 

Airplane official passenger was Lieutenant 
Frank Purdy Lahm, who flew six minutes and 
twenty-six seconds at Fort Myer, Va., on Sep- 
tember 9, 1908 in a Wright plane piloted by 
Orville Wright. The first passenger to fly was 
Charles W. Furnas who went aloft May 14, 
1908, with Wilbur Wright at the controls. 

Dirigible passenger transfer to an airplane 

was effected on August 29, 1929 at the Cleve- 
land, Ohio, Air Show. Lieutenant Adolphus 
W. Gorton of the United States Navy attached 
a hawser, stretched between two uprights on 
the top wing of his plane, to a hook attached 
to a ladder of metal girders lowered from the 
keel of the dirigible "Los Angeles." Lieutenant 
Calvin Bolster then descended to the plane. 

Woman airplane passenger was the wife 
of Captain Ralph Henry Van Deman of the 
General Staff of the United States Army who 
made a four-minute flight October 27, 1909 at 
College Park, Md., with Wilbur Wright at the 


Woman airplane passenger to cross the 
Atlantic Ocean was Miss Amelia Earhart who 
rode as the passenger of Wilmer Stultz, the 
pilot, and Louis Gordon, the mechanic, in the 
"Friendship," a tri-motored Fokker airplane. 
They left Trepassy, N.F., on June 17, 1928, 
and in 20 hours and 40 minutes arrived at 
Burry Port, Wales. Miss Earhart was the first 
American aviatrix to whom the International 
Aeronautic Federation awarded a pilot's li- 
cense. The award was made in 1923. (Amelia 
Earhart Twenty Hours Forty Minutes) 

Woman airplane passenger (transcontinen- 
tal) was Mrs. Lillian Gatlin of Santa Ana, 
Calif., who in a United States Post Office De 
Haviland mail plane equipped with a 400 h.p. 
Liberty motor, left San Francisco, Calif., 
October 5, 1922. Stops were made at Reno, 
Salt Lake City, Rock Springs, Cheyenne, North 
Platte, Omaha, Iowa City, Chicago and Cleve- 
land, covering 2,680 miles in 27 hours and 11 
minutes flying time. The final lap from Cleve- 
land, Ohio, to Mineola, N.Y., was made by 
Pilot Elmer C. Leonhardt who landed at Curtiss 
Field, October 8, 1922. 

Woman flown in a U.S. Army plane from 
one country to another was Senora Herminia 
Davila, wife of Carlos Davila, former Presi- 
dent of Chile. She was ill and was taken on 
board on a stretcher December 7, 1939, at 
Mitchel Field, Long Island, N.Y., and arrived 
at Santiago, Chile, on December 9, 1939. 

Woman to fly entirely around the world 
by commercial heavier-than-air plane was 

Marjorie Shuler (Mrs. Felix Charles) who 
left Southampton, England, on June 4, 1938, 
and flew across Europe, down into Africa, 
across Asia, to Australia, back to Bangkok, 
Hongkong and across the Pacific, and from 
San Francisco, Calif., to New York City. She 
took off from Port Washington, Long Island, 
N.Y., June 17, 1939, and completed her trip 
at Marseilles, France, June 19, 1939, covering 
the last leg of her flight from New York to 
Marseilles, 4,650 miles in 42 hours and 28 
minutes. (Mar forte Shuler A Passenger to 

Woman Zeppelin passenger (paying) 

was Mrs. Clara Adams of Tannersville, Pa., 
who left Lakehurst, N.J., on Monday, Octo- 
ber 29, 1928, in the Graf Zeppelin on its east- 
ward return flight to Germany. 


Airplane passenger race around the world 

to test commercial flying routes started Sep- 
tember 30, 1936, from Lakehurst, NJ. Three 
reporters, Dorothy Kilgallen, Herbert Roslyn 
Ekins and Leo Kiernan, made the trip by dif- 
ferent routes. The race was won by Ekins of 
the New York W or Id Telegram who returned 
to Lakehurst, October 19, 1936, covering 25,654 
miles in 18 days, 11 hours, 14 minutes and 33 
seconds. The average speed was 127 miles an 
hour. The total flying time was 8 days, 10 
hours and 6 minutes. (Dorothy Kilgallen 
Girl Around The World) 




Airplane race (of importance) in which 
both men and women were contestants was 

the National Air Race, August 30-31, 1931, 
from Los Angeles, Calif., to Cleveland, Otiio, 
in which 36 men and 16 women competed. It 
was a handicap derby scored on the basis of 
comparative power of motor and speed of plane. 
It was won by Mrs. Phoebe Fairgrave Omlie of 
Memphis, Tenn., to whom an award was given 
on August 31, 1931. She also won the grand 
prize and the prize for the women's division. 

Airplane race won by an American in Eu- 
rope was the First International Air Race 
held at Rheims, France, during the week of 
August 22, 1909. The fastest time on the 20- 
kilometer course was 15 minutes, 50 6/10 sec- 
onds. The race was won by Glenn Hammond 
Curtiss, who was also the first to win the 
James Gordon Bennett trophy in aeronautics. 

Airplane to race a train was piloted by 
Glenn Hammond Curtiss, who took off May 
29, 1910 from Van Rensselaer Island, Albany, 
N.Y., at 7:02 A.M. At 8:30 A.M. he landed 
at Poughkeepsie, N.Y., where he refueled the 
plane with eight gallons of gasoline and one 
and a half gallons of oil. Another stop was 
made at 214th Street, New York City, before 
the landing at Governors Island, N.Y. The 
distance of 150 miles was covered in 4 hours 
and 57 minutes, of which 2 hours and 46 min- 
utes was flying time. The plane weighed 
1,000 pounds and had a 30- foot length and a 
30-foot wing spread. It was powered by an 
8-cylinder, 40 horsepower V engine built by 
the Elbridge Engine Company, Rochester, N.Y. 
Curtiss won a $10,000 prize offered by the 
New York World. Although this event had 
been scheduled as a race, the train really 
served as an observation train. (Clara Studer 
Sky Storming Yankee) 

Inter-city airplane race was held August 
5, 1911, between New York City and Phila- 
delphia, Pa. Three Curtiss machines with 
Curtiss engines left Governors Island, N.Y. 
The race was won by Lincoln Beachey, who 
covered the 83 miles in 1 hour and 50 minutes 
time. Hugh Robinson completed the trip in 2 
hours, 8 minutes, 47 seconds, while Eugene 
Ely was forced to land at Princeton, NJ. 

Transcontinental air race was held Oc- 
tober 8, 1919. Fifteen planes left San Fran- 
cisco, Calif., and forty-eight left Roosevelt 
Field, Mineola, N.Y., in a 5400-mile race across 
the continent and back in the aerial derby spon- 
sored by the American Flying Club of New 
York. Lieutenant Belvin W. Maynard, in a 
De Haviland-4 with a Liberty motor, crossed 
the continent in 24 hours, 59 minutes, 48^2 
seconds actual flying time. He left Mineola, 
October 8, 1919, 9:24 A.M. and landed at the 
Presidio, San Francisco, October 11, in the 
elapsed time of 3 days, 6 hours, 4 minutes. He 
left the Presidio, October 14, 1:19 P.M. and 
arrived in Roosevelt Field, October 19, in the 
elapsed time of 3 days, 21 hours, 31 minutes. 


Maynard won by elapsed time but the time he 
was actually flying was eclipsed by three 


Aeronautical engineering (complete col- 
lege course) was given in 1913-14 under the 
Department of Naval Architecture and Marine 
Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology, Cambridge, Mass. Lectures in aero- 
nautics were given in 1912 and 1913. The first 
regular instructor in aeronautical engineering 
was appointed in 1913. The aerodynamic labora- 
tory was placed in operation and a graduate 
course was established leading to the degree of 
Master of Science in Aeronautical Engineering 
in 1914. 

Airplane flying school was opened by the 
Curtiss Exhibition Company in September 1910. 
It gave military officers free instruction in fly- 
ing at the field at Lake Keuka, Hammondsport, 
N.Y. Glenn Hammond Curtiss was the instruc- 
tor. The first officer of the U.S. Army assigned 
to these courses was Captain Paul N. Beck who 
became the first "military aviator." The Navy 
Department also sent officers for instruction in 

Airplane flying school operated by a 
woman was the Stinson School of Flying, San 
Antonio, Texas, owned and opened in 1914 by 
Mrs. Emma B. Stinson (mother of Jack, Eddie 
and Katherine). On January 20, 1916, a field 
of about 200 acres was leased from the City of 
San Antonio for $5 a year. 

High school aviation course was instituted 
by the Haaren High School, New York City, 
in September 1929 with eleven students under 
the direction of William Arnheim. In Septem- 
ber 1931 an aviation annex was organized and 
the 833 boys enrolled in the aviation course 
were transferred to this building. In 1944, 
3,500 students were enrolled. 

Naval air training school was the U.S. 

Navy Aeronautic Station, Pensacola, Fla., 
opened December 1, 1914 under the command 
of Captain I Fenry Croskey Mustin. The first 
staff consisted of three instructors and a dozen 
mechanics. The name was later changed to 
the U.S. Naval Air Station. From 1911 to 
1914, flight training was given at a camp at 
Grcensbury Point, near Annapolis, Md. 

AVOCADO was imported by Henry Perrine 
in 1833 and planted at Santa Barbara, Calif. 
(Wilson Poppenoe Manual of Tropical and 
Subtropical Fruits) 

AXE manufacturing plant was erected in 1800 

at Johnstown, N.Y., by William Mann. The 
business was continued by his family at various 
locations and was sold in 18% to the American 
Axe and Tool Co. 

power loom 





BABY CARRIAGE was made by Charles 
Burton in 1848 in New York City. Protests 
were heard because the people wheeling them 
showed a tendency to hit pedestrians. Burton 
moved to England where he opened a factory 
and obtained orders for his "perambulator" 
from Queen Victoria, Queen Isabella II of 
Spain and the Pasha of Egypt. (Chronicles of 
a Baby Carriage F. A. Whitney Carriage 

fully operated was started in 1858 in Leomins- 
ter, Mass., under the firm name of F. W. & 
F. A. Whitney. This later became the F. A. 
Whitney Carriage Company. The carriages 
had two wheels, with a long tongue and sup- 
porting standard in front, and were made of 
wood. The first year only seventy-five car- 
riages were built. 

BABY SHOW was held at Springfield, Ohio, 
October 5, 1854 more in a spirit of jest than 
with a serious object. It met with instant favor 
and 127 babies were entered, the prize baby 
being the 10-mpnths old daughter of William 
Ronemus of Vienna, Ohio, who was awarded 
a silver plate service including a large salver 
worth $300. Three other prizes were awarded. 





Medical instruction 

Bacteriology diagnostic laboratory, as an 

integral part of the work of a health depart- 
ment, was the Division of Pathology, Bacteriol- 
ogy and Disinfection, established by the De- 
partment of Health of New York City in 1892. 
The first director of the laboratory was Dr. 
Herman Michael Biggs who served from Sep- 
tember 14, 1892 to February 3, 1902. (Wade 
Wright Oliver The Man Who Lived For 

Bacteriology laboratory was the Hoagland 
Laboratory, 335 Henry Street, Brooklyn, N.Y., 
incorporated February 21, 1887 and opened for 
experimentation in February 1889. The first 
"Director of Laboratory and Department of 
Bacteriology" was Dr. George Miller Stern- 
berg, who demonstrated the microbe of pneu- 
monia in saliva. The laboratory is a privately 
endowed institution and retains its corporate 
identity although affiliated with the Long Is- 
land College of Medicine, Brooklyn, N.Y. 
Private bacteriology laboratories had been 
established earlier by individual physicians. 


Medical instruction 



Medical book 

BAGS (PAPER). See Paper bag manufac- 
turing machine 


was Benjamin Talbert Babbitt whose Star 
Yeast Powder was introduced to the public in 

BAKING SODA (bicarbonate of soda) com- 
mercial production was undertaken by John 
Dwight and Dr. Austin Church in 1846, in 
New York City. In 1847, they organized John 
Dwight & Company. 

BALL BEARING commercial installation 

was made October 30, 1794, on the weathervane 
topping the steeple of the Evangelical Lutheran 
Church of the Holy Trinity, Lancaster, Pa. 
The brick portion of the tower rises 86 feet 
and includes the bell chamber, above which 
rises a spire from an octagonal base to a 
height of 195 feet, on top of which is the 
weather vane. The bearings were of the anti- 
friction roller type with a pin through them. 

BALLET was presented February 7, 1827, in 
"The Deserter" al the Bowery Theatre, New 
York City. The danseuse, Madame Francisquy 
Hutin who introduced the modern ballet, wore 
a dress of gauze, and "a sort of subdued ex- 
pression of fear and terror simultaneously rose 
from the ladies present, and at the next instant, 
as if inspired by one idea, they fled from the 
house." (New York Clipper, November 23, 


See also Aviation Airship 

Balloon Atlantic crossing attempt was 

made by the 300,000-cubic foot "Daily Graphic" 
which was launched on October 6, 1873 in 
Capitoline Gardens, Brooklyn, N.Y. Instead of 
a basket, a life boat supported by two slings 
was used. The crew consisted of Captain 
Washington Harrison Donaldson, George Ash- 
ton Lunt, and a newspaper man, Alfred Ford. 
The balloon left the earth at 9:19 A.M., but 
ran into a storm and the crew jumped near 
New Canaan, Conn., at 1:15 P.M. (Wash- 
ington Harrison Donaldson History of Don- 
aldson's Balloon Ascensions) 

Balloon carrier. See Ship 

Balloon circular flight was made by the 
"California Arrow" constructed by Captain 
Thomas Scott Baldwin and equipped with a 
Curtiss motor. It made its first circular flight 
on August 3, 1904 at Oakland, Calif. 

Balloon corps (army). See Army balloon 

Balloon destroyed by enemy gun fire was 

shot down by the Spaniards July 1, 1898, at 
Santiago, Cuba. It was piloted by Colonel 
George Derby of the Army Engineer Depart- 




ment who advised the army as to the enemy's 
movements. As the balloon was above the 
American troops, the soldiers were glad that it 
was brought down, as it drew fire in their 

Balloon filled with helium gas as a sub- 
stitute for hydrogen was the C-7, a non-rigid 
United States Navy dirigible. On December 
1, 1921, it sailed from the naval air station at 
Hampton Roads, Va., to Washington, D.C., and 
returned. It contained 181,000 cubic feet of 

Balloon flight was made by Edward War- 
ren, thirteen years old, on June 23, 1784, at 
Baltimore, Md., in Peter Games' balloon, thirty- 
five feet in diameter and thirty feel high, made 
of silk of various colors. The air was rarefied 
by a cylindrical stove of iron suspended under 
the balloon. Carnes attempted a flight on July 
17, 1784, at Philadelphia, Pa., but the balloon 
burst into flames. (Maryland Joitnial and Bal- 
timore Advertiser. June 24, 1784) 

Balloon flight by a native-born American 

in the United States was made by Charles 
Person Durarit, the first to make aeronautics a 
profession. On September 9, 1830, at Castle 
Garden, New York City, he gave an exhibition 
in a balloon which he constructed at his own 
home and flew to Perth Arnboy, NJ. Durant 
was the first person to land on board a ship, a 
feat which he performed in Chesapeake Bay 
on the "Independence." For his accomplish- 
ment he was awarded a gold medal in 1836 by 
the American Institute. (Eric Adolphus Dime 
Charles Person Durant America's First 

Balloon flight carrying mail was made by 
John Wise on August 17, 1859 from Lafayette, 
Ind. He carried 123 letters and 23 circulars 
in a pouch. His destination was New York 
City, but instead he landed at Crawfordsville, 
Ind., about twenty-seven miles south of the 

Balloon flight in which a presidential order 
was carried was a 40-minute flight made by 
Jean Pierre Blanchard of France, who left 
Philadelphia, Pa., at 10.16 A.M., January 9, 
1793, in the presence of President George 
Washington and other officials. He was per- 
mitted the use of the courtyard of the prison 
at Gcrrnantown, Philadelphia, and the roar of 
artillery announced the moment of his de- 
parture. President Washington presented him 
with an order "To all to whom these presents 
shall come" directing that he be allowed "to 
pass in such direction and to descend in such 
places as circumstances may render most con- 
venient." He landed in Dcptford township, 
Gloucester County, N.J., about fifteen miles 
away. (Jean Pierre Blanchard Journal of 
My 45th Ascension, Being the First Performed 
in America) 

Balloon marriage ceremony. See Wedding 


Balloon parachute descent. See Aviation 

Dirigible. See Aviation Airship 


Balloon cup race for the James Gordon 
Bennett Aeronautic Cup was won by Lieu- 
tenant Frank Purdy Lahm, pilot of the balloon 
"United States," who on September 30, 1906, 
with Major Henry Blanchard Hersey, flew from 
Paris, France, to Whitby, England, covering 
410 miles in 22 hours and 17 minutes. 

Dirigible balloon race was held at St. 
Louis, Mo., October 4-9, 1909, at which time 
four dirigibles, all the existing dirigibles in 
the United States, flew from Forest Park and 
Clayton Road to Kingshighway and Lindell 
Avenues and return. The first prize of $1,000 
was won by Lincoln Beachy. Roy Kriabenshue 
and Captain Thomas Baldwin were close run- 
ners-up. Cornwall Dixon using foot power was 
carried over the city and landed in East St. 
Louis. The four dirigibles were housed in 
improvised tents and were filled with hydrogen 
produced by a slow process with sulphuric acid 
and iron filings. 

balloon school 

BALLOON TIRE. See Automobile tire 
BALLOT. See Election printed ballot 

BALLOT SYSTEM (Australian). See 

Election law 

in 1804 when the schooner "Reynard" brought 
thirty bundles of bananas from Cuba. (Philip 
Keep Reynolds The Banana) 

BAND SAWMILL. See Sawmill 

BAND WAGON utilized for the distribution 
of samples and advertising matter was em- 
ployed in 1871 by Benjamin Talbert Babbitt, 
who used eight imported white Arabian stal- 
lions to transport it. The band was seated on 
top of the wagon. His slogan "For All Na- 
tions," appearing in advertising cards over the 
doors of the Broadway stages, was prominently 
featured. This gave Babbitt the distinction of 
being one of the first to advertise in cars and 
buses. (John William Leonard History of 
the City of New York) 

BANDING (Bird). See Bird banding 


"Autobank" complete service was insti- 
tuted November 12, 1946 by the Exchange Na- 
tional Bank of Chicago. Ten tellers' windows 
protected by heavy bullet-proof glass and 
impregnable corrugated steel were equipped 
with automatic slide-out drawers to enable 
motorists to transact business without leaving 
their automobiles. 




BANK Continued 
Bank chartered by Congress was the 

Bunk of North America in Philadelphia, Pa., 
which was organized on November 1, 1781. It 
commenced business on January 7, 1782 with a 
total capital of $400,000 of which amount the 
government subscribed $250,000. Thomas Will- 
ing was elected president and Tench Francis, 
cashier. Later it entered the National Banking 
System. (Laurence Lewis A History of the 
Batik of North America, the First Bank Char- 
tered in the U.S.) 

Bank established in a foreign country by 

a United States bank was opened November 10, 
1914, by the National City Bank of New York 
in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The Federal Re- 
serve Act (38 Stat.L.251) approved December 
23, 1913, permitted American banks to estab- 
lish branches abroad. 

Bank for Negroes operated by Negroes 

was the sayings bank of the Grand Fountain 
of the United Order of True Reformers, a 
special order founded by William W. Browne, 
which was incorporated in 1881 at Richmond, 
Va. The bank, chartered in March 2, 1888, 
began operations April 3, 1889, with a paid up 
capital of $4,000. The first day's deposits were 
$1,268.69. The Freedman's Savings and Trust 
established in 1865, was operated by whites a>nd 
was not a Negro bank, but a bank operated for 
Negroes. The board of directors was elected 
by the society. (New England Magazine. 
]\>l.32. 1905.) 

Bank for Negroes privately operated by 
Negroes and independent of fraternal con- 
nections was the Capitol Savings Bank of 
Washington, D.C., organized October 17, 1888 
with a capital of $6,000.00. (Association for 
the Study of Negro Life and History, Inc. 
Arnett G. Lindsay, J. PL Harmon, and Carter 
Godwin Woodson The Negro as a Business 

Bank of the United States was sponsored 
by the Federalist Party and was chartered 
February 25, 1791, "an act to incorporate the 
subscribers to the Bank of the United States" 
(1 Stat.L.191) in Philadelphia, Pa. Although 
the charter made no specific provision for 
the deposit of government funds, the Secretary 
of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton, used 
the bank as a fiscal agent. The charter expired 
in 1811 and was not renewed by Congress be- 
cause of the opposition of the Democratic- 
Republicans. This was partly responsible for 
the panic of 1814. The second Bank of the 
United States was authorized on April 10, 1816 
(3 Stat.L.266) and was opened on January 7, 
1817. It ceased functioning as a national in- 
stitution in March 1836. (Louis Carroll Root 
The First US Bank) 

Bank open day and night was the Night 
and Day Bank, New York City, opened May 
1, 1906, with a capital of $200,000, a surplus of 
$200,000, and a reserve of $100,000. Oakleigh 
Thorne was the first president. The idea was 


originated by Thomas Benedict Clarke. The 
bank closed at midnight June 5, 1910. It later 
became the Harriman National Bank. 

Bank payments to depositors of a closed 
insured bank were made by the Federal De- 
posit Insurance Company on July 3, 1934, to 
the depositors in the Fon du Lac State Bank, 
East Peoria, 111., which suspended business 
May 28, 1934 and went into receivership June 
25, 1934. The insured deposits were approxi- 
mately $104,000. 

Bank president (Negro woman) was Mrs. 
Maggie Lena Walker, who founded the Saint 
Luke Penny Savings Bank, Richmond, Va., 
incorporated July 28, 1903. It had a paid-in 
capital of $25,000. The first day's deposits 
exceeded $8,000. (Sadie lola DanielWoman 

Checkmaster plan (checking account serv- 
ice with no minimum balance requirements) 
was introduced June 27, 1935, by the National 
Safety Bank and Trust Company, New York 
City. A charge of five cents was made for 
each check drawn and each item deposited. 

Christmas savings club was originated by 

Merkel Landis, treasurer of the Carlisle Trust 
Company, Carlisle, Pa., in 1909 and placed in 
operation by that bank the same year. The first 
payment was received December 1, 1909. 

Clearing house was the New York Clearing 
House, organized August 23, 1853 by sixteen 
presidents, one vice president and twenty-one 
cashiers representing thirty-eight banks, at the 
Merchants Bank, New York City. The plan 
was presented August 31, 1853, and was 
adopted September 13, 1853. The exchange 
was opened October 11, 1843, at 14 Wall 
Street. Total clearings the first day were 
$22,648,109.87 and the balances $1,290,572.38. 
The New York Clearing House Association 
charter, drawn by George Curtis, was adopted 
June 6, 1854. (James Sloan Gibbons The 
Banks of New York) 

Export-Import Bank of Washington, D.C., 
was organized February 8, 1934 pursuant 
to Executive Order No.6581 dated February 2, 
1934, "to aid in financing and to facilitate ex- 
ports and imports and the exchange of commod- 
ities between the United States," its territories, 
insular possessions, and any foreign country or 
its agencies or nationals. The bank is a Dis- 
trict of Columbia corporation, the certificate of 
which was filed February 12, 1934. Officers were 
elected February 13, 1934. The first president 
was George Nelson Peek; the first secretary 
Warren Lee Pierson. The capital stock of the 
corporation was $1,000,000 par value of common 
stock and $10,000,000 par value of preferred 

Federal reserve system was placed in op- 
eration on November 16, 1914, when the twelve 
Federal Reserve Banks were formally opened. 
The Federal Reserve Act was approved Decem- 




her 23, 1913, (38 Stat.L.251) "act to provide 
for the establishment of Federal Reserve 
Banks, to furnish an elastic currency ... to es- 
tablish a more effective supervision of banking 
in the United States." 

Freedmen's bank was the Freedman's Sav- 
ings and Trust Company, for the Negro, char- 
tered by Congress (13 Stat.L.510) March 3, 
1865. A central bank was established at Wash- 
ington, D.C., with branches in 34 cities. The 
bank was in operation about eight years during 
which time it received deposits amounting to 
$57,000,000. The depreciation in security val- 
ues due to the panic of 1873 caused the trustees 
to vote to close the bank, the affairs of which 
were placed in the hands of three commission- 

Joint stock land bank chartered was the 
Iowa Joint Stock Land Bank of Sioux City, 
Iowa. It was chartered April 24, 1917, and au- 
thorized to do business in the states of Iowa 
and South Dakota. The charter was granted 
under the Federal Farm Loan Act of July 17, 
1916 (39 Stat.L.360). 

National bank under the national banking 
law of February 25, 1863 (12 StatL.665) "act 
to provide a national currency" was the first 
National Bank of Davenport, Iowa, now the 
Union Savings Bank and Trust Company. The 
application for the charter was mailed from 
Davenport, Iowa, on February 24, 1863, one 
day prior to President Abraham Lincoln's 
signing the bill. Charters were numbered in 
the order in which they were received at Wash- 
ington, D.C. Davenport, being located some 
distance from Washington received charter 
No. 15, dated June 22, 1863. Subscription 
books were opened on May 25th and in three 
days the capital stock of $100,000 had been 
subscribed. The first stockholders' meeting 
was held Saturday, May 30th, and the first 
directors were elected June 6, 1863, to serve 
until January 12, 1864. The first president 
was Austin Corbin. The bank was opened 
on June 29, 1863. For two days the bank was 
the only national bank in operation under the 
new act. 

National bank branch legally operated 

was the Pascagoula National Bank of Moss 
Point, Miss., Charter No. 8,593. This bank 
was a conversion of the Bank of Moss Point, a 
state association, with a branch at Scranton, 
Miss, (now known at Pascagoula). This 
branch was retained and operated by the Pas- 
cagoula National Bank of Moss Point under 
authority conferred by the Act of March 3, 
1865 (13 Stat.L.484) which provided that any 
bank or banking association organized under 
state laws, and having branches, the capital 
being joint and assigned to and used by the 
mother bank and branches in definite propor- 
tions, may, if it becomes a national banking as- 
sociation in conformity with existing laws, 
retain and keep in operation its branches, or 
such one or more of them as it may elect to 


retain. The Pascagoula National Bank of 
Moss Point was chartered on March 14, 1907 
and is still in operation, together with the 
branch at Pascagoula, Miss. The branch ?t 
Pascagoula has operated continually since the 
opening of the parent bank at Moss Point. 

National bank chartered was the First 
National Bank of Philadelphia, Pa., Charter 
No. 1. This bank, chartered on June 20, 1863 
was no conversion of a state bank into the na- 
tional system, but a primary organization. It 
opened for business July 11, 1863. 

National bank failure was the First Na- 
tional Bank of Attica, N.Y., placed in receiver- 
ship April 14, 1865. The failure was due to 
injudicious banking and failure of large debt- 
ors. The receivership was terminated January 
2, 1867. 

National bank woman president was Mrs. 
Frances Estelle (Mason) Moulton who was 
elected January 11, 1938, as president of the 
Limerick National Bank, Limerick, Me , to fill 
the vacancy caused by the death of her father, 
Jeremiah Miller Mason 

Postal savings bank was authorized by 
President William Howard Taft on June 25, 
1910, (36 Stat.L.814) when he signed "the "act 
to establish postal savings depositories for 
depositing savings at interest" introduced by 
Senator Thomas Henry Carter of Montana on 
January 26, 1910, which created a board of 
trustees consisting of the Postmaster General, 
the Secretary of the Treasury, and the Attor- 
ney General, severally, acting ex officio, for 
the control, supervision and administration of 
the postal savings system. Postal savings 
service was established initially at forty-eight 
second-class post offices, one in each state, on 
January 3, 1911. The service was gradually 
extended to other post offices. Attention was 
first directed to this form of saving by Post- 
master General James Creswell in 1871 but 
no action was taken despite the fact that 
eighty such bills were introduced into Congress 
between 1873 and 1910. 

Savings bank was the Bank for Savings in 
the City of New York which was conceived on 
November 29, 1816, but the charter was not 
granted until March 26, 1819. The bank opened 
for business on July 3, 1819. The deposits on 
the first day amounted to $2,807 which were 
received from eighty depositors. The first six- 
months statement showed a loss of $27 suffered 
by accepting counterfeit money and a short 
change loss of $23.92. (Emerson Willard 
Kcyes History of Savings Banks) 

Savings bank actually to receive money 
on deposit was the Philadelphia Saving Fund 
Society, Seventh arid Walnut Streets, Philadel- 
phia, Pa., which opened for business on Decem- 
ber 2, 1816, in the office of George Billington, 
the secretary-treasurer, on the west side of 
Sixth Street. Billington received a salary of 
$250 a year. The affairs of the bank were con- 




BANK Continued 

ducted by twelve managers, Andrew Bayard 
was the first president. The bank was chartered 
February 25, 1819. 

Savings bank to become a corporation 

was the Provident Institution for Savings in 
the town of Boston, which was chartered De- 
cember 13, 1816, and opened for business on 
February 19, 1817. It paid interest at the rate 
of 5 per cent per annum and was under 
the management of one president, twelve vice 
presidents and twenty- four other trustees who 
had the power to elect a treasurer and other 
officers. (Edward Levi Robinson One Hun- 
dred Years of Savings Banking) 

Savings bank with a half-billion dollar 
deposit was the Bowery Savings Bank of New 
York which, according to its statement of 
March 31, 1932, had more than $502,000,000 
which was owned by 378,000 depositors. 

Savings group to teach children to save 
their money in a methodical manner was started 
March 16, 1885 by Professor John Henry Thiry 
of Long Island City, N.Y., who established a 
system of fund collections in schools and a 
school savings bank. (Edward Lez'i Robinson 
One Hundred Years of Savings Banking) 

Travelers' check. See Check- 
Trust company permitted to do a trust 
business was the Farmer's Fire Insurance and 
Loan Company of New York City which was 
incorporated February 28, 1822. It is now the 
City Bank Farmer's Trust Company. The 
first company to use "Trust Company" as part 
of its title was the New York Life Insurance 
and Trust Company of New York City. The 
company was chartered on March 9, 1830, with 
an authorized capital of $1,000,000. The or- 
ganization meeting was held on April 12, 1830, 
and William Bard was chosen the first presi- 
dent. In 1922 it merged with the Bank of 
New York and National Banking Association, 
forming the Bank of New York and Trust 
Company. The first company organized to do 
a trust business exclusively was the United 
States Trust Company of New York which 
was incorporated on April 12, 1853. The first 
president was Joseph Lawrence. (Study Course 
American Institute of Banking) 

World bank was the International Bank for 
Reconst ruction and Development, which entered 
into force on December 27, 1945, when it was 
subscribed to by 21 countries, whose subscrip- 
tion amounted to $7,173,000,000. The United 
States subscription was $3,175,000,000. The 
first loan was made on May 9, 1947 to France, 
a thirty-year loan of $250,000,000 at $%% in- 
terest rate, plus \% commission. The first 
bond issue was $100,000,000 at 2^% and 
$150,000,000 at 3% 

BANK (Blood). See Blood bank 



Bank guaranty legislation was the Glass- 
Steagall Act, the "Banking Act of 1933," which 
was passed by Congress, June 16, 1933, (48 
Stat.L.162) to provide for the safer and more 
effective use of the assets of banks, to regulate 
interbank control, to prevent the undue diver- 
sion of funds into speculative operation, effec- 
tive January 1, 1934. It insured deposits up to 
$2,500 each in all Federal Reserve banks and, 
on July 1, 1934, deposits in approved banks, 
100 per cent up to $10,000; 75 per cent from 
$10,000 to $50,000; 50 per cent over $50,000. 
"An act to provide for the sound, effective and 
uninterrupted operation of the banking system, 
and for other purposes" (49 (Stat.L.684) ap- 
proved August 23, 1935, limited the insurance 
to $5,000 for any one depositor. 

Bank legislation (state) to insure deposi- 
tors was the Safety Fund Banking Law of 
New York, chapter 94, "an act to create a fund 
for the benefit of the creditors of certain mon- 
ied corporations," enacted April 2, 1829. Bank- 
ing organizations were assessed one-half of one 
per cent of the capital stock, until three per 
cent was set aside for a bank fund. Three 
commissioners, known as Bank Commissioners 
of the State of New York, were appointed for 
two year terms at an annual salary of $1500. 
Banks, their officers and servants were required 
to be examined under oath, at least once every 
four months. 

National banking system was created by 
statute on February 25, 1863. This act pro- 
vided for a Comptroller of Currency under the 
Treasury Department. The first incumbent 
was Hugh McCtilloch, who served from May 
9, 1863, to March 8, 1865. (Amos Kidder Fiske 
The Modern Bank) 

BANK ROBBERY of note took place at 
the National Bank of Concord, Mass., on Sep- 
tember 25, 1865. The robbery was planned by 
Langdon W. Moore who escaped with $310,000 
in cash and negotiable securities. 


Bankers association formed by a state 
group was the Texas Bankers' Association 
which was organized July 23, 1885 at Lampasas, 
Tex., with an initial membership of thirty-one. 
The first president was James Francis Miller 
and the first secretary Frank R. Malone. 

National bankers association was the 

American Bankers Association which was or- 
ganized on May 24, 1875. The first national 
convention was held at Saratoga, N.Y., July 20- 
22, 1875, at which Charles Bingley Hall was 
elected president. The objects of the associa- 
tion were self-protection against frauds, stand- 
ardization of rules and bettering of conditions 
between the banks and their clients. (Banker's 
Magazine. August 1875) 

BANKRUPTCY ACT was the act of April 
4, 1800 (2 Stat.L.20) "to establish a uniform 
system of bankruptcy in the United States." 




It contained 64 sections and applied to "any 
merchant or other person residing within the 
United States, actually using the trade of mer- 
chandise, by buying and selling in gross, or by 
retail, or dealing in exchange as a banker, 
broker, factor, underwriter or marine insurer." 
It was repealed in December 1803. It did not 
permit voluntary bankruptcy and applied to 
traders only. (Charles Warren Bankruptcy 
in United States History) 

BAPTISM occurred in March 1540. Two 
Indian guides called Peter and Mark were bap- 
tized in the Ocmulgee River near Macon, Ga. 
(John C. Butler Historical Record of Macon 
and Central Georgia) 

BAPTIST CHURCH in America was prob- 
ably established by Roger Williams, "The 
Apostle of Religious Liberty," in Providence, 
R.I., in 1639. The First Baptist Church of 
Newport, R.I., founded by Dr. John Clarke, its 
first pastor, now the First Baptist John Clarke 
Memorial Church, was definitely called a Bap- 
tist Church in 1644. A church and a meeting 
house, however, arc believed to have been erect- 
ed as early as 1638. (Edivard Francis Rincs 
Old Historic Churches of America) 

Baptist Church (Negro) was established in 
1773 by a Mr. Palmer at Silver Bluff, S.C., a 
small settlement opposite Augusta on the Sa- 
vannah River. George Galphin became a 
patron and permitted David George to be 
ordained for this special work after having 
formerly allowed George Ltele to preach there. 
(Carter Godwin Woodson- -History of the 
Negro Church) 

German Baptists (also known as Dunkards, 
Dunkers and Tunkers) held their first immer- 
sion December 25, 1723 at Wissahickon Creek, 
Germantown, Philadelphia, Pa. The first chosen 
elder was Peter Becker and the first congrega- 
tion was the Coventry Congregation which met 
September 7, 1724. (Martin Grove Brumbaugh 
History of the German Baptist Brethren in 
Europe and America) 

Seventh Day Baptist Church was organ- 
ized at Newport, R.T., in 1671 by Stephen 
Mumford, an English Sabbatarian Baptist. The 
first deacon was William Weeden. (Albert 
Henry Newman History of the Baptist 
Churches in the United States) 

BAR ASSOCIATION. See Lawyers' as- 

BARGE (concrete). See Ship 
BARLESS ZOO. See Zoological garden 
BARRAGE (mine). See Mine barrage 

BASEBALL (Yellow) was used April 27, 
1938, in the Columbia-Fordham game, New 
York City. It was a regulation National 
League ball dyed yellow, with red stitches, and 
was developed by Frederic Rahr. 


ING CAGE was built at Yale University, New 
Haven, Conn., in the fall of 1885 by Captain 
Philip Battell Stewart. The candidates for the 
team worked there during the winter of 1886. 
The building was about seventy feet long and 
twenty feet wide and had skylights protected 
by wire. It was the forerunner of the expen- 
sive cages and field houses so common in Amer- 
ican colleges and universities. 

BASEBALL BOOK was Robin Carver's 
The Book of Sports published in 1834 at Bos- 
ton, Mass., by Lilly, Wait, Colman and Holden. 
It was based on an English edition of the Boy's 
Own Book. Similar rules applied to the game 
of rounders published in 1829. 

vented by Frederick Winthrop Thayer of 
Wayerly, Mass., captain of the Harvard Uni- 
versity Baseball Club, who obtained Patent No. 
200,358 on February 12, 1878, on a "face guard 
or safety mask." It was made by a Cambridge, 
Mass., tinsmith and tried out in the gymnasium 
in the winter of 1876-1877 and used by James 
Alexander Tyng in a game with the Live Oaks 
at Lynn, Mass., April 12, 1877. Louis Trausch- 
ke, catcher of the Foster Baseball Club, Law- 
rence, Mass., who was hurt by a pitched ball, 
adopted the mask. It was manufactured by 
Peck & Snyder, New York City. (// Book of 
Harvard Athletics) 

saw Mountain Landis, elected November 12, 
1920, for a seven-year term to serve from 1921 
to 1928. He received $42,500 a year and 
$10,000 expenses to rule the sixteen American 
and National League Baseball Clubs. He was 
re-elected in 1925, 1935 and 1942. He died 
November 24, 1944 and was succeeded by 
Senator Albert Benjamin "Happy" Chandler of 
Kentucky, elected April 24, 1945 for a seven- 
year period at $50,000 a year. 


Baseball is attributed to Colonel Abner 
Doubleday who later became a general in the 
United States Army. In 1839, he laid out the 
first regular baseball diamond at Cooperstown, 
N.Y., and formulated the rules of play. 

Baseball game at night was played June 2, 
1883, at League Park, Fort Wayne, Ind., be- 
tween a club of boys known as the M.E. Col- 
lege and the Quincey professionals. The score 
was Quincey 19, College 11. The field was 
illuminated by 17 lights of 4,000 candlepower 
each. Only seven innings were played. The game 
was witnessed by two thousand people. A pre- 
liminary test was made May 29, 1883, using 
11 of the 16 lights then set up. (Fort Wayne 
Journal-Gazette. June 3, 1883) 

Baseball game at night by a regular 
league team took place at Grand Rapids, Mich., 
on July 8, 1909. It was played between the 
Grand Rapids and Zanesville teams in the Cen- 
tral League. Grand Rapids won 11 to 10. 




Baseball game at night by major league 
teams was played May 24, 1935, at Crosley 
Field, Cincinnati, Ohio, when the Cincinnati 
"Reds" defeated the Philadelphia "Phillies" 
2 to 1 before a paid attendance of 20,422. 
President Franklin Delano Roosevelt at Wash- 
ington, D.C., pressed a button which turned 
on 363 lights (1,000 kilowatts) on 8 giant 
towers for this National League game. 

Baseball game broadcast. See Radio broad- 
cast (World series) 

Baseball game telecast. See Television 

Baseball no-run nine-inning game was 
played June 19, 1875 at Chicago, 111., between 
the Hartford, Conn., "Dark Blues" and the 
Chicago, 111., "Whites." An additional inning 
also resulted in a scoreless tie. In the eleventh 
inning, Chicago made one run and won. 

Baseball playoff series for a national 
league pennant took place October 1, 1946, at 
St. Louis, Mo., and October 3, 1946, at Brook- 
lyn, N.Y., when the Brooklyn "Dodgers" and 
the St. Louis "Cardinals" tied on September 
20, 1946, both teams having won 96 and lost 
58 games for a .623 average in the National 
League. The "Cardinals" won the first two 
of the two-out-of-three series by the score of 
4 to 2 and 8 to 4, winning the National League 
pennant and the right to play the Boston 
"Red Sox" of the American League for the 
world series. The series opened October 6, 
1946 at St. Louis, Mo. The "Cardinals" won 
four games of the seven-game series. 

Baseball series was played July 20th, Au- 
gust 17th and September 10th, 1858, at the 
Fashion Race Course, Long Island, N.Y., be- 
tween teams representing Brooklyn and New 
York. New York won two of the three games 
with the Brooklyn "Atlantics". The first time 
spectators were charged admission to see a 
baseball game was July 20, 1859, on which 
date 1,500 people paid a fifty-cent admission 
fee. The players did not receive remuneration 
until 1858 when they received a share of the 
gate receipts. (Seymour Roberts Church 
Baseball. The History, Statistics and Romance 
of the American National Game from its incep- 
tion to the present) 

Baseball series world's championship was 

won by the "Providence" National League 
team in 1884, which won three out of a series 
of five games. The opposing team was the 
"Metropolitans" of the American Association. 
Providence won 6-0, 3-1, and 12-2. (Francis 
C. Richter History and Records of Baseball) 

Double no-hit nine-inning baseball game 

in the major leagues was played May 2, 1917, 
at Weeghman Park, Chicago, 111., by the Chi- 
cago "Cubs" (Jim Vaughn, pitcher) and the 
Cincinnati "Reds" (Fred Toney, pitcher). Both 
players pitched a full nine-inning game without 


allowing a hit. In the tenth inning, the Cincin- 
nati team brought in a run. The score was 
Cincinnati 1, Chicago 0. 

Intercollegiate baseball game was played 
on July 1, 1859, between Amherst and Williams 
Colleges at Pittsfield, Mass. Amherst won by 
a score of 66 to 32. Each team had thirteen 
players and the game lasted twenty-six innings. 
The captain of Amherst was James Fitzgerald 
damn, while Williams' captain was Humphrey 
S. Anderson. (Statistics of Intercollegiate 
Contests Athletic Council, Williams College) 

No-hit baseball game was pitched at St. 
Louis, Mo. by George Washington Bradley of 
St. Louis against Hartford (National League 
game) on July 15, 1876. Jt came as the climax 
to his four straight shutouts in four consecu- 
tive days. He did not allow a hit and passed 
only one man. The score was St. Louis 2, 
Hartford 0. 

President to pitch a ball to open the base- 
ball season. See President 

Triple play unassisted by a player in or- 
ganized baseball was made May 8, 1878 by Paul 
Ilines playing in center field on the Providence 
team. The game was played at Providence, 
R.I. between Providence and Boston, the for- 
mer winning 3 to 2. 

Triple play unassisted in a world series 

was made October 10, 1920, in the fifth game 
of the series, at Cleveland, Ohio by William 
"Bill" Wambsganss, second baseman of the 
Cleveland American League team, in a game 
with the Brooklyn National League team. 

World series baseball broadcast. See Radio 

World series baseball games to gross a 
million dollars were played October 10-15, 
1923, at New York City between the New 
York "Yankees" of the American League 
(Miller J. Huggins, manager) and the New 
York "Giants" of the National League (John 
Joseph McGraw, manager). Receipts were 
$1,063,815, of which the players' share was 
$368,783.04. The Yankees won 4-2. (Frank 
Graham The New York Yankees) 

BASEBALL GLOVE was worn by Charles 
C. Waite, first baseman of Boston, in 1875. It 
was flesh color so as not to be conspicuous and 
had a large round opening at the back for ven- 
tilation. (Albert Goodwill Spalding Amer- 
ica's National Game) 

of Fame 


American League was organized on January 
29, 1900, at Philadelphia, and originally con- 
sisted of eight teams, Buffalo, Chicago, 
Cleveland, Detroit, Indianapolis, Kansas 
City, Milwaukee and Minneapolis. The first 




president of the league was Byron Bancroft 
("Ban"') Johnson who served from 1900 to 

National League was formed on February 
2, 1876 and consisted of eight baseball teams, 
Boston, Chicago, Cincinnati, Hartford, Louis- 
ville, New York, Philadelphia and St. Louis. 
The first president was Morgan Gardner Bulke- 
ley who served from February 2, 1876 to De- 
cember 7, 1876. 


Baseball "Home Run King*' to achieve 
twenty-five home runs in one season was John 
"Bucky" Freeman, outfielder of the Washing- 
ton club of the National League, who hit 
twenty-five homers and twenty-seven triples 
in 1899. 

Baseball "pinch hitter" was John Joseph 
Doyle, a substitute catcher, ordered to bat in 
the ninth inning by Pat Tebeau of the Cleve- 
land "Spiders" in a game played June 7, 1892, 
at Brooklyn, N.Y., against the Brooklyn 
"Ward's Wonders." He made a single, ad- 
vancing Jack O'Connor from first to third base. 
The 1891 rules allowed substitutions anywhere 
at any time during a game. 

Baseball pitcher to curve a ball is reported 
to be Arthur Cummings who introduced this 
innovation in 1866. He played with the Excel- 
sior Junior Nine and the Stars of Brooklyn. 
A similar claim is made for Fred Goldsmith of 
the Chicago "White Stockings." 

Baseball player to catch a ball dropped 
from the Washington Monument, Washing- 
ton, D.C., (five-lnmdrcd-foot level) was Billy 
"Pop" Schriver of the Chicago club of the 
National League who accomplished this feat 
on August 29, 1892, and again on August 25, 
1895. Charles "Gabby" Street, catcher of the 
Washington club of the American League, 
caught a baseball dropped from the top of the 
monument on August 21, 1908. 

Major league baseball player to pitch two 
successive no-hit no-run games in a season 
was Johnny Vander Meer of the Cincinnati 
"Reds," who on June 10, 1938 and June 15, 
1938 shut out the Boston "Bees" and the 
Brooklyn "Dodgers" at the National League 
games played respectively at Cincinnati, Ohio, 
and New York City. 

Negro major league baseball player was 

Jackie Robinson of the Brooklyn (N.Y.) 
"Dodgers" of the National League, who played 
in an exhibition game on April 11, 1947, 
against the New York "Yankees". He played 
at first base in the exhibition game and during 
the season. 

Woman baseball pitcher engaged by an 
organized male baseball team was Virne Bea- 
trice "Jackie" Mitchell, nineteen, who on April 
1, 1931, was engaged by the Chattanooga 
(Tenn.) Baseball Club of the Southern Asso- 



Baseball rule code was adopted September 
23, 1845, by the Knickerbocker Club of Hobo- 
ken. NJ. (/. Austin Fynes Athletic Sports 
in America) 

Baseball rules standardizing the game were 
adopted May 1858, at New York City by the 
National Baseball Association which provided 
that the bat was not to exceed two and a half 
inches in diameter and the ball ten and a half 
inches in circumference, the latter to weigh six 
and a half ounces. The game was to be nine 
innings or the first to win twenty-one runs 
Previously each team had played under its own 
set of rules. Three delegates from each of the 
following clubs attended the meeting: At- 
lantic, Baltic, Bedford, Continental, Ragle, 
Empire, Excelsior, Eckford, Gotham, Har- 
mony, Knickerbocker, Nassau, Olympic, Put- 
nam and Un ; on. 

BASEBALL TEAM was the Knickerbocker 
Club of New York, organized September 23, 
1845 by Alexander Joy Cartwright, which 
played the New York Baseball Club at the 
Elysian Field at Hoboken, N.J., on June 19, 
1846. Duncan F. Curry was the first president 
The game lasted four innings and was won 
by the New York Baseball Club with the score 
of 23 to 1. At this dale, there was no standard 
baseball and as each home club supplied the 
ball it often varied in size, elasticity and con- 
tent. Three seasons later the Knickerbockers 
adopted a blue and white uniform and were 
the first team uniformly outfitted. (By-Laws, 
Regulations and Rules of the Knickerbocker 
Base Ball Club of New York) 

Baseball team (Negro professional) was 

the "Cuban Giants" organized at New York 
City in 1885. S. K. Govern was manager. The 
players received expenses and weekly salaries 
according to positions ; pitchers and catchers 
$18, infielders $15, and outfielders $12. (Sol 
WhiteHistory of Colored Baseball) 

Baseball team to receive a regular salary 

for its services was the "Red Stockings of Cin- 
cinnati," led by Harry and George Wright, 
which traveled in 1869 to various cities, engag- 
ing local teams. Through 1869 and up to June 
1870, they played without losing a game. The 
total yearly salary for the ten-man team was 
$8,500 of which $1,400 went to George Wright. 

Baseball team to tour was the Brooklyn, 
N.Y., "Excelsiors" under the management of 
Captain Joseph B. Leggett, which left June 30, 
1860, for Albany, N.Y. They played at Troy, 
Buffalo, and cities in the west and south. 

Baseball team to travel beyond the con- 
fines of the U.S. was the Boston (red stock- 
ings) and Athletic (Philadelphia blue stock- 
ings) teams of the National League which 
played a series of fifteen exhibition games from 
July 30, 1874, to August 27, 1874, in England 
and Ireland. (Henry Chadunck De H'itt's, 
Base-Ball Guide for 1875) 





Baseball teams to go on a world tour 
were the Chicago and All America teams. 
They started their world tour October 20, 1888, 
and returned April 20, 1889. They played fifty- 
three games of four innings and over, in Aus- 
tralia, Ceylon, Egypt, Italy, France, England 
and the United States of which twenty-eight 
were won by the All America team, twenty- 
two by the Chicago team, and three were tied. 
The first game abroad was December 10, 
1888 at Auckland, New Zealand. (Henry Clay 
Palmer Athletic Sports in America) 

Professional league baseball team to win 
three pennants in succession was the Chi- 
cago "Cubs" of the National League who won 
pennants in 1880, 1881, and 1882. In 1880 they 
won 67 games, lost 17; 1881 won 56 games, 
lost 28; 1882 won 55 games, lost 29. Adrian 
Constantine Anson was the manager. (Adrian 
Constantine Anson A Ball Player's Career) 

Professional league baseball team to win 
three world series in succession was the New 
York "Yankees" of the American League which 
won pennants October 6, 1936, October 9, 1937 
and October 9, 1938. 

BASILICA. See Catholic church 


Basketball was invented in 1892 by James 
Naismith who introduced the game in the 
International Young Men's Christian Associ- 
ation Training School at Springfield, Mass. 
As the game was originally played it was 
necessary to use a ladder to get up and 
remove the ball from the basket. (James Nai- 
smith and Luther Gulick Basket Ball) 

Basketball game telecast. See Television 

Basketball team (college) was formed at 
Mount Union College, Alliance, Ohio. H. S. 
Jones introduced basketball as a collegiate 
game at the Morgan Gymnasium at Mount 
Union College in December 1892 and it was 
accepted as an intercollegiate sport. 

Olympic games basketball championship. 

See Olympic games 


Basketball rule book was Rules for Basket- 
ball by James Naismith, instructor in the 
International Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion Training School, Springfield, Mass., pub- 
lished in 1892 by the Springfield Printing and 
Binding Company, Springfield, Mass. (James 
Naismith Basketball, Its Origin and Develop- 

Basketball rules were published in the 
Triangle Magazine, Springfield, Mass., January 



Bathhouses owned and operated by a mu- 
nicipality were the L Street baths of Boston, 
Mass., built in 1865. They were first opened 


to the general public in 1866 and were under 
the supervision of the Board of Bath Commis- 
sioners who had charge of all baths and gym- 
nasiums up to 1913. (John Koren Boston 
1822 to 1922. The Story of Its Government 
and Principal Activities During One Hundred 

Legislation concerning public baths which 
provided for the establishment of free pub- 
lic baths in cities, villages and towns of 
50,000 or over, in such number as determined 
necessary by local health boards, was Chapter 
351, "An act to promote the public health and 
to amend chapter 473 of the laws of 1892 en- 
titled 'An act to establish free public baths in 
cities, villages and towns' " passed by New 
York State, April 18, 1895. It required the 
baths to be kept open not less than fourteen 
hours a day and to be provided with hot and 
cold water. This law was mandatory whereas 
Chapter 473 of the laws of 1892 permitted 
cities to erect free public baths if they desired 
to do so. (William Paul Gerhard On Bathing 
and Different Forms of Baths) 

Public bath and washhouse was opened 
January 1, 1852, by the New York Association 
for Improving the Condition of the Poor in 
Mott Street, near Grand Street, New York 
City, now the Community Service Society. The 
first year 80,375 bathers and 10,038 washers 
availed themselves of the advantages. 

Public baths with showers were the Peo- 
ple's Hath, New York City, formally opened 
August 17, 1891. It cost $25,922 and was 
operated by the Association for Improving 
the Condition of the Poor (now Community 
Service Society). There was a charge of 
five cents tor the use of a shower, including 
soap arid towel The first thirteen and a half 
months, there were 69,944 bathers. 

Steam baths for curing disease were 
advocated by Samuel Thomson, who in 1796 
experimented with steam in the treatment of his 
daughter whom physicians were unable to cure. 
He traveled on horseback through New Hamp- 
shire, Maine, Vermont and Massachusetts ad- 
vocating treatment by steam as well as by the 
use of herbs. (Samuel Thomson A Narrative 
of the Life and Medical Discoveries of Samuel 

Turkish bath was opened October 6, 1863, 
by Dr. Charles H. Shepard at 81 Columbia 
Heights, Brooklyn, N.Y. It was known as 
"The Hainman," the name used in the East. 
Admission was a dollar. Only one bather came 
the first day and only fifty the first month. 
(Journal American Medical Association. March 
10, 1900) 

(Baseball). See Baseball batting and field- 
ing cage 

BATTLE. See under names of various wars, 
e.g., Civil war 




PLANE. See Aviation 

BAUXITE was discovered in 1887 at a point 
a few miles northeast of Rome, Floyd County, 
Ga. A few fragments of the unknown mineral 
were picked up on the Holland lot, two miles 
north of the Ridge Valley Iron Company's fur- 
nace at Hermitage, Ga. Bauxite mining began 
in April 1888, when the deposits on the Holland 
property, lot 61, 23rd district of Floyd County, 
were first opened and worked. The first ship- 
ments of the ore were made in May 1888 to the 
Pennsylvania Salt Company at Natrona, Pa., 
and to Greenwich Point, Pa. This ore is said 
to have hcen used for the manufacture of hoth 
alum and metallic aluminum. (Geological Sur- 
vey of Georgia. Bulletin No. 11) 


BEACON. See Lighthouse 
BEACONS (radio). See Radio beacons 
BEADS (glass). Sec Glass bead 
BEAR. See Animals 

BEATIFICATION (Catholic). See Cath- 
olic beatification 


Box spring was imported from France in 
1857 by James Boyle, Chatham Square, New 
York City, a manufacturer of bedding. Made 
reversible, it was about twelve inches deep. The 
frame was made in eight sections, 1J4 inch 
lumber joined together with strips of ticking. 
The center of the spiral was attached to the 
center of the frame, then came the usual ties 
of twine. 

"Concealed bed" was manufactured by the 
Murphy Door Bed Company in San Francisco, 
Calif., in 1900. They were known as "In-a- 
door" beds, operated on a pivot, and could be 
swung out of sight behind doors or in closets. 

Folding bed manufacturing was success- 
fully accomplished in 1875-1876 at Sixth and 
Filbert^ Streets, Philadelphia, Pa., by the Hale 
and Kilburn Manufacturing Company, now 
known as Hale and Kilburn Company. The 
folding bed was invented by a man in their 
employ named Everett and was improved upon 
by H. S. Hale. The bed was designed because 
of the then beginning apartment house idea and 
the necessity of economy in space. The beds 
were equipped with a "flexible spring" which 
afterwards developed into what was called a 
"sectional spring bed," or the ordinary bed- 
spring divided into three sections, lengthwise, 
each being filled with springs and enclosed in 
a canvas covering. This spring developed into 
the box spring now in use. 




Beer was brewed at the Roanoke Colony 
(Virginia) of Sir Walter Raleigh in 1587. "We 
made of the same (corn or pagatowr) in the 
country some Malt, whereof was brewed as 
good Ale as was to be desired. So likewise by 
the help of Hops, thereof may be made as 
good Beere". (Thomas Harriot Narrative of 
the First English Plantation of Virginia) 

Lager beer was manufactured at Philadel- 
phia, Pa., in 1840 by John Wagner who had an 
eight-barrel kettle in his home. It was stored 
in a cellar under the brewhouse. 

BEER (root). See Root beer 
BEET SUGAR. See Sugar 
BELL. See Electric bell 
BELLS. See Chimes; Carillon 

BELT (cartridge belt). See Cartridge belt 

by Oliver Evans in his book, The Young 
Millwright and Millers Guide published in 
Philadelphia, Pa., in 1795. It illustrated a 
flat belt receiving material on its upper run and 
discharging it over the end, on a broad endless 
strap of thin pliant leather or canvas revolving 
over two pulleys in a case or trough. (Greville 
Bathe and Dorothy Bathe Oliver Evans, A 
Chronicle of Early American Engineering) 

BELTING sold to manufacturers is re- 
corded in the account books of Pliny Jewell, 
a leather dealer of Hartford, Conn. There is 
an entry in 1826 of the sale of a leather belt 
three inches wide. Manufacturers who re- 
quired belting usually bought skins, cut them to 
the desired thickness, and by nailing the ends 
of the pieces to the floor when wet, and driving 
wedges between the leather and floor, half-way 
between the ends, stretched them taut. 

BELTS OF LEATHER for transmitting 
power from shaft to shaft were devised by Paul 
Moody who used them in the Appleton cotton 
mill in Lowell, Mass., in 1828. Up to this time 
all transmissions had been by means of iron 
gears. Belting, however, had previously been 
used in some mills to carry power from shafts 
which in turn were driven by gears from a 
water wheel. ( Louis W. Arny Nat. Assn. of 
Leather Belting Mfgrs. Report. November 20, 


OF ELKS was organized February 16, 1868, 
in New York City from an older social and 
benevolent organization, "The Jolly Corks." 
The presiding officer of the Jolly Corks at the 
time of adopting the B.P.O.E. title was Charles 
A. S. Vivian. The first exalted B.P.O.E. 
ruler was George W. Thompson. The Grand 
Lodge was incorporated on March 10, 1871 
in New York and the first Grand Exalted 




OF ELKS Continued 

Ruler was George J. Green. (Charles Edward 
EllisAn Authentic History of the Benevolent 
and Protective Order of Elks} 



"BEST SELLER". See Book 

BETATRON was built at the University of 
Illinois, Urbana, 111., by Professor Donald 
William Kerst and placed in operation July 15, 
1940. It had an output energy of 2.3 million 
(2,300,000) electron volts. The betatron is a 
machine to accelerate electrons by use of a 
magnetic field and can produce either a sharp 
beam of high-energy x-rays or a free beam 
of high-energy electrons. 

Mobile betatron was placed in operation 
on November 12, 1948, at the United States 
Naval Ordnance Laboratory, White Oak, 
Md. It was built by the General Engineer- 
ing and Consulting Laboratory of the Gen- 
eral Electric Company at Schenectady, N.Y., 
and was a ten million volt X-ray generator 
capable of penetrating 16 inches of steel. 

Photograph of high-volt X-rays. See 



Bible for the blind in embossed form, the 

old line letter system, was issued in 1835 by 
the American Bible Society, New York City. 
This society was also the first to supply the 
blind with the Bible in New York Point, and 
in the more recent Braille. 

Bible in folio size to be illustrated was 

The Holy Bible, containing the Old and New 
Testaments: With the Apocrypha. Translated 
out of the original tongues and with the former 
translations diligently compared and revised 
by the special command of King James I of 
England, published in 1791 by I[saiah] Thom- 
as, Worcester, Mass. It contained 1012 pages 
and SO plates. 

Bible in the Indian language translation 
was finished in 1661 by John Eliot, "The Apos- 
tle to the North American Indians." It was 
entitled "The New Testament of Our Lord and 
Saviour Jesus Christ/' and was dedicated in 
English to Charles II. It contained 130 printed 
leaves without pagination and contained two 
title pages, one in English and the other in In- 
dian. The text was in double columns with 
marginal references. In 1663, "The Holy Bible, 
Containing the Old Testament and the New f 
Translated into the Indian Language" was 
printed in quarto size. From Genesis to the 
end of the Old Testament, it contained 414 
leaves, and from St. Matthew to the end of the 
New Testament, 126 leaves. Both Bibles were 
"ordered to be printed by the Commissioners 
of the United Colonies in New England, at the 
charge and with the consent of the corporation 
in England for the propagation of the gospel 


amongst the Indians in New England" and 
were printed at Cambridge, Mass., by Samuel 
Green and Marmaduke Johnson. (Samuel Eliot 
M orison Builders of the Bay Colony) 

Bible printed in English was printed by 
Robert Aitken of Philadelphia, Pa., in 1782. 
The frontispiece read, "The Holy Bible, con- 
taining the Old and New Testaments newly 
translated out of the original tongues; and with 
the former translations diligently compared and 
revised. Printed and sold by R. Aitken, at 
Pope's Head, Three doors above the Coffee 
House, in Market Street, Philadelphia, Pa., 
1782." It was a duodecimo of 353 pages with- 
out pagination. The venture, though author- 
ized by Congress, September 21, 1782, was un- 
successful financially. The New Testament was 
printed in 1781 by Aitken. (Robert Rowland 
Dearden and Douglas Shane Watson The 
Bible of the American Revolution) 

Bible printed in German was printed by 
Christoph [Saur] [Sower] Sauer, German- 
town, Pa., in 1743 from the text of the 32nd 
Halle edition with type obtained from Frank- 
furt, Germany. Its title was Biblia Das ist; 
Die Heilige Schrift Altes und Neues Testa- 
ments^ Nach der Deutschen Uebersetsung D. 
Martin Luthers, mit jedes Capitels Kurtzen 
Summarien, auch Beygefugten vielen und rich- 
tigen parallelen; nebst dem gewohnlichen an- 
hang des dritten und vierten buchs Esra und 
dcs dritten Bucks der Maccabaer. 

Bibles in hotel rooms were placed there 
in October 1908, in the Superior Hotel, Iron 
Mountain (now Superior), Mont., by the 
Gideons, the Christian Commercial Traveling 
Men's Association. The organization was 
founded in 1899 at Boscobel, Wis. The finn 
president was Samuel Eugene Hill. This work 
has grown until at the present time more than 
2,000,000 Bibles have been distributed to hotels, 
hospitals, penal institutions and public schools. 

Greek Testament was The New Testament 
in Greek, 478 pages, 16 mo. printed in 1800 by 
Isaias (sic) Thomas, Worcester, Mass. 

Hebrew Bible published in America was 
Biblia Hebraica printed in 1814 by Thomas 
Dobson, Philadelphia, Pa., from type imported 
from Amsterdam, Holland. (Publications 
Jewish Historical Society 1926) 

BIBLE CONCORDANCE was a reprint of 
an edition published in London in 1643. It was 
published at Cambridge, Mass., in 1683 and 
1720 as the Cambridge Concordance by Sam- 
uel Newman who came to America in 1638. 


Bible society was the Bible Society of 
Philadelphia organized December 12 1808, at 
Philadelphia, Pa. The name was changed to 
the Pennsylvania Bible Society in 1840. The 
Reverend William White, D.D., was the first 
president and B. B. Hopkins, the first secre- 
tary. The society was governed by twenty- 
four managers from whom were selected a 




president, four vice presidents, two secretaries 
and a treasurer. The initiation fee was five 
dollars and the dues two dollars a year. Life 
membership was fifty dollars. (An Address of 
the Bible Society Established at Philadelphia 
to which is subjoined the constitution of said 
society and the names of the managers) 

Bible society national organization was the 
American Bible Society formed by delegates 
from thirty-five Bible societies for the sole 
purpose of increasing the circulation of the 
Holy Scriptures. The delegates met May 8, 
1816 in New York City and organized the 
society on May 11, 1816. The first president 
was Elias Boudinot who served from 1816 to 
1821. In the first year, 6,140 Bibles were dis- 
tributed. (American Bible Society Bible So- 
ciety Manual) 

RAPHY. See Bibliography 

FERENCE was organized by Dwight Ly- 
man Moody July 7, 1886 at the Mount Hermon 
School, Northfield, Mass. It comprised two 
hundred and fifty students from eighty-five 
colleges in twenty-two states and marked the 
beginning of the Student Volunteer movement 
which has sent thousands of missionaries into 
all parts of the world. It devoted its time to 
a study of the Bible and to methods of 
evangelical work. (William Revell Moody 
The Life of D. L. Moody) 

1878 by the University of Michigan, at Ann 
Arbor. Raymond Cazallis Davis, the librarian, 
gave a lecture once a week during November 
and December. ( University of Michigan Cata- 
logue 1878-79) 

BIBLIOGRAPHY of theological and bib- 
lical literature was Cotton Mather's Manu- 
ductio Ad Ministerium; directions for a candi- 
date of the ministry, wherein first, a right 
foundation is laid for his future improvement, 
and, then, rules are offered for such a manage- 
ment of his academical and preparatory studies, 
and thereupon, for such a conduct after his ap- 
pearance in the world, as may render him a 
skilful and useful minister of the gospel printed 
in 1726 for Thomas Hancock and sold at his 
shop in Ann Street, Boston, Mass. It con- 
tained 151 pages, and a catalog for a young 
student's library. 


was the Bibliographical Society of America 
organized October 18, 1904, at St. Louis, Mo., 
"to promote bibliographical research and to is- 
sue bibliographical publications." The first of- 
ficers were William Coolidge Lane, president; 
Herbert Putnam, first vice president; Reuben 
Gold Thwaites, second vice president ; and Wil- 
ber force Eames, librarian. 




Bicycle velocipedes or "Swift Walkers" as 
they were then called were imported in 1819. 
The first one in New York City made its ap- 
pearance on May 21, 1819. The Common 
Council met on August 19, 1819, and in solemn 
session passed a law "to prevent the use of 
velocipedes in the public places and on the side- 
walks of the city of New York." 

Bicycle with a back pedal brake was pat- 
ented on December 24, 1889 by Daniel C. 
Stover and William A. Hance of Freeport, 111., 
who received patent No. 418,142. 

Bicycle with a rotary crank was patented 
(No. 59,915) on November 20, 1866, by Pierre 
Lallemont of Paris, France. It was known as 
a "bone shaker." He rode on it from Ansonia, 
Conn., to New Haven, Conn. The fore wheel 
was axled to the jaws of a depending bar, 
which was pivoted in the frame, and turned by 
a horizontal lever bar, which was revolved by a 
treadle crank. 

BICYCLE FACTORY was established in 
1877 by Colonel Albert Augustus Pope who 
organized the Pope Manufacturing Company. 
His first machines were manufactured by the 
Weed Sewing Machine Company of Hartford, 
Conn. The first order was in 1878 for fifty 
"Columbia" bicycle. (Herbert Alfred Garratt 
The Modern Safety Bicycle) 

BICYCLE MAGAZINE was The American 
Bicycling Journal published December 22, 1877 
at Boston, Mass. It contained sixteen pages 
and cost ten cents a copy. It appeared every 
other Saturday. Frank William Weston was 
the editor. 

ganized in 1894 by Colonel Royal Page 
Davidson and was made up of cadets in 
the Northwestern Military Academy, Lake 
Geneva, Wis. It was composed of sixteen bi- 
cycles each equipped with special clips for 
carrying rifles, etc. One of the feats of the 
corps was for the riders to put themselves and 
their bicycles, which with their military equip- 
ment weighed fifty-four pounds each, over a 
sixteen-foot wall in two minutes and forty- 
eight seconds. Numerous long cross-country 
trips were made. On June 7, 1897, eleven cadets 
left Chicago, 111., carrying a message from 
Major General John R. Brooks of Fort Sheri- 
dan, 111., over the mountains and the National 
Pike to Washington, D.C., where it was de- 
livered to Russell Alexander Alger, Secretary 
of War, on June 26, 1897. (Bicycle World- 
July 2, 1897) 


Bicycle patent was granted to William 
K. Clarkson, Jr., of New York City on 
June 26, 1819 for an "improved curricle." Bicy- 
cles were then known as "curricles" and "ve- 





Water velocipede patent was No. 95,531, 
granted on October 5, 1869, to F. A. Spofford 
and Matthew G. Raffington of Columbus, Ohio. 

Bicycle race to be paced by a motorcycle. 

See Motorcycle race 

International six-day bicycle race was 

held in Madison Square Garden, New York 
City, from midnight Sunday, October 18, 1891, 
to midnight Sattirday, October 24, 1891, and 
was won by William Martin who rode a "high 
wheeler" bicycle. There were forty contestants 
but only six finished. Martin covered 1,466 miles 
and four laps and won a $2,000 prize. Ten 
laps constituted a mile. The first two-man 
team event was held from February 12, 1899 to 
February 17, 1899 and was won by Miller and 
Waller who rode a combined total of 2,733.4 

Paired six-day bicycle race was held at 
Madison Square Garden, New York City, De- 
cember 9-14, 1901. The winners of the $1,500 
team prize were Robert Walthour of Atlanta, 
Ga., and Archie McEachern of Toronto, Can- 
ada, who pedaled 2,555 miles. Sixteen profes- 
sional riders from nine nations competed. 
Paired races were instituted as the law pro- 
hibited one man from being on the track more 
than twelve hours a day. 

Women's six-day bicycle race was held at 
Madison Square Garden, New York City, Jan- 
uary 6th to llth, 1896. It was promoted by 
William Madden and David Holland. Frankie 
Nelson, closely followed by Helen Baldwin, 
covered 418 miles. About four thousand spec- 
tators attended the final session. 


was built by the Bay City Club, San Fran- 
cisco, Calif., and placed in use July 1, 1893. 
The outer edges of the track were built on an 

BICYCLE RACER to attain the speed of a 
mile a minute was Charles Minthorn Murphy, 
known as Mile-A-Minute-Murphy, who on June 
30, 1899 rode a mile in fifty-seven and four-fifth 
seconds, riding behind a Long Island Railroad 
train from Farmingdale, Long Island, to May- 
wood, Long Island, N.Y., on a three-mile 
measured track. He followed the train which 
was equipped with an extension top and sides 
so that he raced in a comparative vacuum. 

BICYCLE SCHOOL for velocipede riding 
was opened in New York City on Decem- 
ber 5, 1868, at 932 Broadway, by Pearsall 


Bicycle club was the Boston Bicycle Club 
formed February 11, 1878 at Boston, Mass., 
by fourteen members. George B. Woodward 
was president; Thatcher Goddard was captain 
and Harry S. Mann was secretary and treas- 


urer. The uniform was a grey jacket, shirt, 
breeches and stockings and a blue Glengarry 
Scotch cap with a small visor in front. 

Bicycle society national organization was 
the League of American Wheelmen formed 
May 31, 1880 at Newport, R.I., by 128 mem- 
bers representing 28 cycling clubs. The first 
officers were president Charles Ed Pratt of 
Boston, Mass. ; vice president T. K. Longstreth 
of Philadelphia, Pa., and Commander C. K. 
Munroe of New York City. 


Bicycle tire (cord) was invented by John 
F. Palmer of Chicago, III., who obtained 
patent No. 476,680 on June 7, 1892. The patent 
covered a self-healing tire in which the tread 
portion of the rubber was placed under com- 
pression, so that a puncture would tend to close 
rather than gape open. The tire was manu- 
factured in 1892 by the B. F. Goodrich Com- 
pany of Akron, Ohio, and was first exhibited 
at the Philadelphia Cycle Show in February, 

Bicycle tire (pneumatic) was made in the 
tire factory of George R. Bidwell Cycle Com- 
pany of New York City in April 1891 for use 
on his bicycles. (William Chauncey Geer 
Reign of Rubber) 

Rubber tire patent. See Rubber 

Racine, Wis., June 18, 1936, under authority of 
Grover Cleveland Ltitter, Chief of Police. The 
judges of the court were Sergeant Wilbur 
Hansen and Officer Alphonse Costabile of the 
Racine Police Department. Sessions were held 
Saturday mornings. Section 12.71 of Code of 
the General Ordinance of the City of Racine 
passed by Common Council May 4, 1937, ap- 
proved May 8, 1937, required all bicycles to be 
registered with the police department. 

WORLD was made by Thomas Stevens who 
started from San Francisco, Calif., on April 
22, 1884, on a 50-inch bicycle (diameter of the 
large front wheel). lie pedaled across the 
United States, arriving August 24, 1884, at 
Boston, Mass., whence he left for Europe by 
boat. He visited England, France, Germany, 
Austria-Hungary, Servia, Bulgaria, Turkey, 
Persia, India, China and Japan. On December 
17, 1886, he landed at Yokohama, Japan, having 
actually wheeled about 13,500 miles. He left 
Yokohama on the "City of Peking" and ar- 
rived at San Francisco January 4, 1887. 
(Thomas Stevens Around the World on a 

BIFOCALS. See Eyeglass 
BILL. See Money 

BILL OF RIGHTS. See Constitutional 




vertising law 


attempted in 1891 by the owners of outdoor 
advertising services who reorganized and 
formed the Associated Bill Posters and Dis- 
tributors of the United States and Canada on 
July 15, 1891, at Chicago, III. At a meeting 
held at Kansas City, Mo., October 16-20, 1925, 
the name was changed to Outdoor Advertising 
Association of America, Inc., by virtue of the 
absorption of the Painted Display Advertising 
Association. Billboards were usually from 50 
to 100 feet in length. In 1912, the boards were 
divided into sections 25 feet long. The posters 
were all of the same height, 8 feet 10 inches, 
but their length varied. The 8, 12, 16 and 24 
sheet posters were in general use. The 24- 
sheet poster was 19 feet 8 inches long. The 
difference between the size of the poster and 
the billboard allowed for the use of a white 
border which tended to intensify the pictorial 
poster. At later dates the height of the bill- 
board was changed until it was as high as fif- 
teen feet from the ground line, three feet of 
which at the base was a lattice apron border. 

BILLIARD BALL of composition material 
resembling ivory was invented by John Wes- 
ley Hyatt, the winner of a $10,000 prize offered 
by Phelan and Collender of New York City 
for the best substitute for an ivory ball. Hyatt 
obtained patent No. 50,359, October 10, 1865, on 
a billiard ball; patent No. 76,765, April 14, 
1868, on a compound for billiard balls; patent 
No. 88:634, April 6, 1869, on a method of coat- 
ing and painting; and patent No. 105,338, July 
12, 1870, on celluloid. (Journal of Industrial 
and Engineering Chemistry. Vol. 6. No. 2) 


Billiard match of importance was played 
May 13, 1854, for a $200 stake at Mal- 
colm Hall, Syracuse, N.Y., by Joseph N. 
White of New York City and George Smith 
of Watertown, N.Y. It was a four-ball carom 
game, 500 points up, on a six-by-twelve four- 
pocket table. White won by a score of 500 to 
484. The score of runs and averages was not 
kept. (Michael Phelan American Billiard 

Billiard match to attain international 
prominence was played in Detroit, Mich., on 
April 12, 1859, between Michael Phelan of 
New York City and John Seereiter of Detroit 
for the championship of the world and a 
$15,000 purse. Phelan, known as the "father 
of billiards," won the championship by a score 
of 2,000 against his competitor's 1,904. The 
best run made by Phelan was 129 points. The 
game was played on a six-by-twelve four- 
pocket table with four balls. Pushing and 
crotching were allowed. 

Billiard three-ball match on a six-by- 
twelve carom table was played for a $500 
stake April 30, 1855, at San Francisco, Calif., 
between Michael Phelan of San Francisco and 


Monsieur Damon of Paris, France. Phelan 
conceded his opponent twenty points in a hun- 
dred, and won two out of three games. (Brook- 
lyn Daily Eagle Almanac 1887) 

Intercollegiate billiard match was played 
July 25, 1860, at Worcester, Mass., when 
freshmen of Harvard and Yale engaged in a 
"grand trial of skill." A six-pocket, 6 x 12 
foot table, was used. Four balls, 2^ inches, 
white, spotted, light red and dark red, were 
used. Pushing and crotching were allowed. 
Benjamin Thompson Frothingham and Wil- 
liam Stackpole of Harvard won with 800 points 
against 720 for George St. John Sheffield and 
Theodore C. Bacon of Yale. The best run 
was 45, made by Bacon. (Michael Phelan 
American Billiard Record) 

BILLIARDS were brought to America by 
the Spaniards who settled in St. Augustine, 
Fla., in 1565. 

BINDER (book). See Book binder 

gence test 


Biography department in a college was 
established at Carleton College, Northfield, 
Minn., in the college year 1919-20. It was or- 
ganized by Dr. Ambrose White Vernon as a 
separate department of the college. 


Biology general course offered in a col- 
lege was conducted by Professor Edmund 
Beecher Wilson, professor of biology, at Bryn 
Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pa., beginning 
September 23, 1885. Five lectures were given 
weekly with eight hours of laboratory practice. 
The students examined the structure of typical 
animals and plants; first of familiar species, 
then of unicellular organisms, working thence 
progressively upwards, and taking the higher 
animals and plants, ending with the embryo- 
logical development of the chick. An advanced 
class was engaged in the study of animal 
morphology. Lectures on specific phases of 
biology had, however, been given earlier. 

Biology instruction. See Physiological 


Bird banding was done at Mill Grove 
Farm, Montgomery County, twenty-four miles 
northwest of Philadelphia, Pa., in 1803 by John 
James Audubon who used silver wire to band 
a brood of phoebes (Sayornis phoebe) and 
was fortunate in obtaining two returns. 

Bird banding by federal authorities was 
done by the United States Biological Sur- 
vey. Bands were attached to different species 
of ducks and other water birds during the 
summer of 1914 by Dr. Alexander Wetmore 
who was making investigations of the duck 





sickness at the Bear River marshes, Utah. 

(US. Agricultural Bulletin No. 1145. May 


ican Bird Banding Association formed at 
New York City by thirty charter members 
on December 8, 1909. The society was dis- 
solved in 1920 when records and effects 
were turned over to the Bureau of Biologi- 
cal Survey of the United States Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, Washington, D.C. 
(The Auk. Vol. 38, 1921) 

BIRD LEGISLATION (International) was 

the Migratory Bird Treaty for the protection 
of migratory birds in the United States and 
Canada signed August 16, 1916, by the United 
States and Great Britain at Washington, D.C. 
(39 Stat.L.1702). It was ratified by Presi- 
dent Woodrow Wilson, September 1, 1916, rati- 
fied by Great Britain October 20, 1916. Ratifi- 
cations were exchanged at Washington, D.C., 
December 7, 1916, and the treaty proclaimed 
December 8, 1916. 

BIRD MONUMENT. See Monument 

eral) was begun on July 1, 1885, as a section 
of Economic Ornithology, Division of Entomol- 
ogy, Department of Agriculture. It became 
the Bureau of Biological Survey on July 1, 
1905, was transferred to the Department of 
Interior on July 1, 1939, and consolidated with 
the Bureau of Fisheries on June 30, 1940, to 
form the present Fish and Wildlife Service. 

BIRD REFUGE authorized by a state was 

established at Lake Merritt, Oakland, Calif., by 
authority of Chapter 109, Act of February 14, 


was established by Executive Order of Presi- 
dent Theodore Roosevelt on March 14, 1903, at 
Pelican Island, situated in the Indian River 
near Sebastian, Fla. The refuge was enlarged 
by Executive Order of January 26, 1909, to 
include adjacent mangrove and other islands. 
(Records in Bureau of Biological Survey, Dept. 
of Agriculture. Washington, D.C.) 

BIRD SANCTUARY for wild birds was the 
Hawk Mountain Sanctuary, Drehersville, Pa., 
which received options on the area, August 29, 


Bird for which a definite crossing of the 
Atlantic has been recorded is that of a com- 
mon tern (Sterna hirundo) that was banded at 
Eastern Egg Rock, 'Me., on July 3, 1913 and 
found dead in August 1917 at the mouth of the 
Niger River, West Africa. (Frederick Charles 
Lincoln Migration of American Birds) 

Eagle depicted on a postage stamp. See 

Postage stamp 


Ostrich farm was established at South Pasa- 
dena, Calif., by Edwin Cawston in 1886. He 
imported fifty ostriches from Africa, eighteen 
of which survived the trip and were landed at 
Galvestori, Tex., in 1886. In order to discour- 
age the exportation of ostriches from Africa, 
an export tax of $500 was placed on each 
ostrich and $25 on each egg, but his shipment 
escaped the tax as the boat sailed from Africa 
a few hours before the tax became effective. 

Partridge propagation was encouraged in 
1790 when Richard Bache, son-in-law of Ben- 
jamin Franklin, stocked his plantation at Bev- 
erly, N.J. Four years previously, General La- 
fayette had sent a few partridges to George 
Washington. (Technical Bulletin No. 61- 
United States Department of Agriculture) 

Ptarmigan (Eskimo chicken) hatched and 
reared in captivity was hatched July 24, 1934, 
at Ithaca, N.Y., from one of ten eggs obtained 
from Churchill, Manitoba, Canada, by Arthur 
Augustus Allen, Professor of Ornithology, 
Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. The ptarmi- 
gan was 110 days old when it died of entero- 
hepatitis (commonly called blackhead). 

Quetzal bird (adult) (pharomacrus costa- 
ricensis) was imported October 4, 1940 by Dr. 
Victor Wolfgang Von Hagen, New York City, 
who had captured it. It was acquired by the 
St. Louis Zoo, St. Louis, Mo., but was exhib- 
ited until October 7, 1940 at the Bronx Zoo, 
New York City. It was a male, three years old, 
pigeon size, with a crimson breast. The back 
and head were emerald green with a gold trim. 
The wings were jet black and the tail black and 
white over which was a green train about a 
yard long, and four additional feathers. Dr. 
Von Hagen also brought back nine young quet- 
zals in 1937 which were shown at the Bronx 
Zoo, New York City until April 1939 when the 
last one died. (Victor Wolfgang Von Hagen 
Jungle In The Clouds) 

Snow goose bred in captivity was hatched 
in 1934 in the City Park Zoo, Denver, Colo. 
This gosling was the first seen anywhere. Three 
eggs were laid ; one hatched, one was destroyed ; 
one was given to the Colorado Museum of 
Natural History, in the City Park Zoo, Denver, 
Colo. Clyde E. Hill was the director of the 

Sparrows were imported under the auspices 
of Nicholas Pike and other directors of the 
Brooklyn Institute in 1850 for the purpose of 
protecting shade trees from foliage-eating cat- 
erpillars. Eight pairs of English sparrows 
were imported. (Frederick William Evans 
English Sparrows) 

BIRLING. See Log rolling (biding) na- 
tional championship 







was passed by the State of Georgia, 
December 19, 1823. It required the "clerks of 
the court of ordinary, in each county respec- 
tively to enter and register in a book" the dates 
of births of all persons upon due proof made 
by affidavit or oath. The clerk was entitled to 
charge twenty-five cents for each registration. 
(Georgia Law, Extract General Appropriation 
Bill, Page 192, Approved December 19, 1823) 

Birth registration uniform system for the 
numbering of birth certificates was adopted 
March 18, 1948, by the American Associa- 
tion of Registration Executives. The Council 
on Vital Records and Vital Statistics ap- 
proved this resolution of the registration 
executives at a meeting on August 20, 1948. 
The system was inaugurated January 1, 1949. 
Each state was assigned a number: 101 for 
Alabama, 102 for Arizona, 103 for Arkansas, 
etc. A second number refers to the year, 
and a third number to the order of the birth 
in the state's record. The lowest number in 
the classification was awarded to Leonard 
Blake Gunnells of Prattville, Ala., whose 
name was the first on the role of the first 
county in Alabama's alphabetical county list. 
His number was 101-49-000001. 


Child born in an airplane was the daughter 
of Mr. and Mrs. T. W. Evans, born on Octo- 
ber 28, 1929, in a transport plane over the city 
of Miami, Fla. 

Child born in the White House, Wash- 
ington, D.C., was James Madison Randolph, 
the son of Thomas Mann Randolph and Martha 
(Jefferson) Randolph, the daughter of Presi- 
dent Thomas Jefferson, born January 17, 1806. 
He died January 23, 1834. The Randolphs were 
married February 23, 1790. (Robert Isham 
Randolph The Randolphs of Virginia) 

Child born in the White House, Wash- 
ington, D.C., the offspring of a President, 

was Esther Cleveland, born September 9, 1893. 
She was the second child of President Grover 
Cleveland and Frances Folsom Cleveland, who 
were married June 2, 1886, in the Blue Room 
of the White House, Washington, D.C. (Gib- 
son Willets Inside History of the White 

Child born of English parents in America 
was Virginia Dare. She was born at Roanoke 
Island, North Carolina, on August 18, 1587, and 
was the daughter of Ananias Dare and Eleanor 
(White) Dare, and granddaughter of John 
White, governor of the colony sent out from 
England by Sir Walter Raleigh on May 8, 1587. 
Only the first nine days of her life are known 
to history. On May 8, 1587, three vessels left 
England with 150 colonists, 25 women and 
children. They landed at Cape Hatteras on 
July 22, cruised up what is now Pamlico Sound 
to the "iland called Roanoac." Two vessels 
returned immediately and the third with John 


White sailed on August 27th for more supplies. 
When he returned four years later, the colo- 
nists were all gone and the fort was in ruins. 
(North Carolina Booklet Vol. 1. #1 May 10, 
1901 Major Graham Daves Virginia Dare) 

Child born of European parents on Amer- 
ican soil was Snorro, the son of Thorfinn 
Karlsefni and Gudrid, the widow of Thorstein 
Ericsson (Leif Ericsson's brother). Accom- 
panied by 160 volunteers they arrived in Amer- 
ica in 1007 to form a settlement in Vinland 
which may have been Nova Scotia or the coast 
of Maine. Snorro returned to Iceland and 
look an important part in its government. 

Child born on a vessel passing through 
the Panama Canal was the child of Mr. and 
Mrs. M. Niezes of Panama. The baby was 
born on June 2, 1930 on the Dutch steamship 
"Baralt," passing through Gatun locks. 

Quadruplets delivered by Caesarian oper- 
ation were Maureen, Kathleen, Eileen and 
Michael Cirminello born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Joseph Cirminello on November 1, 1944, at 
Philadelphia, Pa. The Caesarian section was 
performed under spinal anesthesia. The ob- 
stetrician in charge was Dr. John Calvin Ullery 
of Upper Darby, Pa. 

Quintuplets were born April 29, 1896, at 
Mayfield Ky., to Mr. and Elizabeth Lyon. 
They were all boys, Matthew, Mark, Luke, 
John and Paul, and died within four to fourteen 

White child of French Protestant parent- 
age was born in 1565 in the French settle- 
ment of Fort Caroline, Fla., established in 1564 
by Rene Goulaine de Laudonniere, a Huguenot. 
In August 1565, reinforcements, women and 
children, agricultural implements, etc, arrived 
with Captain Jean Ribaut's expedition. (Thomas 
Frederick Davis Historic St. Johns Bluff, 
near Jacksonville, Fla.) 

World war baby was born on June 7, 1918 
to Mrs. Kate Lewis who married a soldier of 
the American Expeditionary Force in London, 
England, on July 14, 1917. 

BISHOP (Catholic). See Catholic bishop 
BISHOP (general). See Army officer 




Blackout lighting demonstration was May 
14, 1941, when twelve specially designed 
blackout luminaries spaced one hundred feet 
apart along Parkland Avenue, Lynn, Mass., 
were illuminated. The lamps used a two-and-a- 
half watt Argon (gaseous) lamp and gave off 
invisible light in the form of ultraviolet rays 
invisible to planes at a height of twenty- 
thousand feet. 




BLACKOUT Continued 

Blackout outdoor light control was in- 
stituted by Seattle, Wash., May 11, 1942, which 
required all outside types of lighting to be con- 
trolled by manual control, master control wire, 
photoelectric cell or radio switch, and subject 
to permit. 


Blanket factory was the Burleigh Blanket 
Mills, established by Captain John H. Burleigh 
in 1854 on the Piscataqua River, Me. The 
factory was located on the site originally 
selected by Ferdinando Gorges in 1620 for a 
grist mill, at what is now South Berwick, Me. 

Blanket robe and carriage lap robe busi- 
ness was successfully undertaken at Sanford, 
Me., in 1867 by Thomas Goodall. (William 
Morrell Emery History of Sanford, Me.) 

Electronic blanket was manufactured by 
Simmons Company on October 9, 1946 at 
Petersburg, Va. Temperature was regulated by 
an "electronic" thermostatic control. It sold 
for $39.50. 

Horseblankets were manufactured by 
Thomas Goodall at Troy, N.H., in 1852. 
The only horseblankets then in use were im- 
ported and were square in shape. Goodall cut 
them to fit and put on buckles. He sold out 
his interest in 1865 to a group of financiers 
from Keene, N.H. (M. T. Stone Historical 
Sketch of the Town of Troy, N.H.) 

BLASTING (SAND). See Sand blasting 

Bible for the blind. See Bible 

Book for the blind. See Book 

Correspondence school for the blind to 
offer instruction in the Braille system of 

embossed print was the Hadley Correspondence 
School for the Blind, Winnetka, 111., which 
offered courses, in August 1921, in English 
grammar, business correspondence, the study of 
scriptures and instruction in learning the Braille 
system. The school founded by William Aaron 
Hadley was incorporated in Illinois, January 2, 

Dogs trained to guide the blind. See Ani- 

Kindergarten for the blind. See Kinder- 

Magazine for the blind. See Periodical 

Music magazine published in Braille. See 
Music magazine 

School for the blind was the New England 
Asylum for the Blind, Boston, Mass., incor- 
porated March 2, 1829. The school was founded 
by Dr. John Dix Fisher and opened under Dr. 
Samuel Gridley Howe in August 1832 with six 
pupils. The institution was re-christened April 
1, 1839, the Perkins Institution and Massachu- 
setts Asylum in honor of Thomas Handasyd 


Perkins, who in 1833 offered his Boston home 
with open grounds around it for a school build- 
ing. (The word asylum was changed to 
"school" October 3, 1877). This school, now lo- 
cated at Watertown, Mass., is in its second 
century of service. (Paul Monroe Cyclopedia 
of Education) 

School for the blind to adopt the Braille 
system was the Missouri School for the Blind, 
St. Louis, Mo. In 1859, Dr. Simon Pollak, a 
trustee of the school, introduced it direct from 
Paris, France. Three letters were changed 
and it was used in music, spelling, etymology, 

School for the Negro blind was the State 
School for the Blind and the Deaf opened in 
Raleigh, N.C., on January 4, 1869, with 26 
pupils. (Seventieth Anniversary of the State 
School for the Blind and the Deaf. Raleigh, 
N.C. Nov. 4, 1915) 

State school for the blind was the Ohio In- 
stitution for the Blind authorized April 3, 
1837, and opened July 4, 1837 with five pupils 
in the Presbyterian Church, Columbus, Ohio, 
in the presence of nine hundred people. Anson 
W. Penniman was the first teacher. The first 
superintendent was William Chapin who served 
from May 1, 1840, to October 1, 1846. On 
April 25, 1902, a law was enacted to change 
the name to the Ohio State School for the 

Talking book. See Talking book 


Aviation Flights 


See Railroad signal system 


BLOCKADE was effected in April 30, 1778 
from West Point, N.Y., to Constitution Island, 
N.Y. A huge chain was forged at the Sterling 
Iron Works, Orange County, N.Y., from ore 
mined in the same county and was carried in 
sections to West Point, where it was joined and 
stretched across the Hudson to prevent British 
boats from passing. The chain weighed 180 
tons, was 1,700 feet long, each link 2]/ 2 inches 
wide and 30 inches long. It was placed in 
position April 16th and on April 30, 1778, was 
secured at both ends. In the summer of 1776, 
a chain of chevaux de frise and sunken ships 
extended between Fort Washington and Fort 
Lee, but the British passed it October 9, 1776, 
without firing a gun. (Macgrane Coxe The 
Sterling Furnace and the West Point Chain) 


Blood bank to preserve by refrigeration 
blood for transfusions was established March 
15, 1937, by the Cook County Hospital, Chicago, 
111. (Journal of the American Medical Asso- 
ciation. July 10, 1937) 




Blood serum (human) (dried) was pre- 
pared by Dr. Earl William Flosdorf and Dr. 
Stuart Mudd of the School of Medicine, Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa., on 
December 21, 1933, with glass apparatus made 
by them. The powdered dried blood serum 
was used successfully for transfusions for 
the prevention and treatment of children's 
diseases at a hospital at Philadelphia, Pa. 
The method was first described at a meet- 
ing of the American Chemical Society at St. 
Petersburg, Fla., in April 1934. More recently, 
the applications and uses of the dried blood 
serum have been greatly extended. 

cal legislation 

BLOOD SERUM (dried). See Blood bank 


See Civil war 

BLOOMERS were introduced at the First 
Woman's Rights Convention at Seneca Falls, 
N.Y., which met at Lyceum Hall on July 19, 
1848, the name being derived from their spon- 
sor, Miss Amelia Jenks Bloomer. The cos- 
tume is supposed to have been devised by Mrs. 
Elizabeth Smith Miller. {Dexter Chamberlain 
Bloomer Life and Writings of Amelia 

BLOTTING PAPER was made in New 
Haven, Conn., by Joseph Parker & Son Com- 
pany in 1856 at the West Rock Paper Mill on 
a Fourdrinier machine. Until this time only 
small quantities had been imported from Eng- 
land as sand-boxes were in general use. (Pa- 
per World August 1881) 

BLOWPIPE was invented in 1801 by Pro- 
fessor Robert Hare of Philadelphia, Pa., who 
called it a "hydrostatic blowpipe." He reported 
his discovery to the Chemical Society of Phila- 
delphia, "A Memoir of the Supply and Applica- 
tion of the Blow-Pipe, Containing an Account 
of the neiv method of supplying the Blow-Pipe 
either with common air or oxygen gas; and also 
of the effects of the intense heat produced by 
the combustion of the hydrogen and oxygen 
gases." (Edgar Pahs Smith Life of Robert 


Blue law was enacted by the first legisla- 
tive body assembled in America, the Virginia 
House of Burgesses, at its first session in 1619. 
They provided that "all persons whatsoever 
upon the Sabbath days shall frequent divine 
service and sermons, both forenoon and after- 
noon." The Anglican church was established 
by law and the creed of the church was the 
rule of the colony. (Gustavus Myers Ye 
Olden Blue Laws) 

Blue law regulating gambling was passed 
in 1624 by the Virginia Assembly. It specified 
that "Mynisters shall not give themselves to 
excesse in drinking or yette spend their tyme 
idelie by day or by night, playing at dice, cards 


or any unlawful game." (Catherine Perry Har- 
graveHistory of Playing Cards) 

Gambling legislation (colonial). See Gam- 
bling legislation 

BLUE SKY LAW. See Trust 




See Indian school 

BOARDWALK in the world was erected in 
1870 at Atlantic City, NJ. To finance it 
$5,000 was obtained by a sale of scrip at 10 per 
cent discount which could be used to pay taxes. 
It was completed on June 26, 1870. It rested 
on the sand and was eight feet wide. 

BOAT. See Ship 

BOAT CLUB was the Knickerbocker Boat 
Club of New York organized in 1811. They 
had a white boat, with green gunwales and 
gilt stripes, named the "Knickerbocker," built 
by John Baptist. John Palmerton was cox- 
swain, William Cracker, John Burt, Thomas 
Dixon and Thomas Palmerton were the oars- 
men. The "Knickerbocker" raced the "Invin- 
cible," built by John and William Chambers 
from Harsimus, N.J., to the Battery, New 
York City. The crew of the "Invincible" was 
William Chambers, coxswain, John Chambers, 
James Rush, Peter Snider and John Swinburn, 
oarsmen. The club disbanded in 1812. (New 
York "Mirror" July 15, 1837) 

Boat club association of amateur clubs 
was the Castle Garden Amateur Boat Club 
Association which operated a boathouse at Cas- 
tle Garden, N.Y., from 1834 to 1842. Annual 
regattas around Bedloe Island and back were 
held, the last one on July 4, 1842. Some of 
the boats entered were the "Wave," "Gull," 
"Gazelle," "Pearl," "Cleopatra," "Halcyon," 
"Ariel," "Minerva," and "Gondola." (Robert 
P. Kdley Amateur Roiving) 


See also Rowing; Yacht race 
Fisherman's boat race was held May 1, 
1886, over a triangular course. The start was 
off the Boston Light, to and around Davis 
Ledge buoy off Minot's Ledge, thence to and 
around Half Way Rock off the Marbleh 
shore, and back to Boston Light. The 
H. McManus" won the first prize of $1,5 
finishing two miles ahead of the "Sarahj, 
Prior" which was a few minutes ahead pjt i 
"Gertie S. Windsor." The pilot scho< 
"Hesper" won the race and the cup, but not 
the prize money as it was not truly a fisher- 
man's boat. (Wesley George Pierce Coin* 

Intercollegiate boat race, in eight-oared 
boats, took place August 3, 1852, between Yale 
and Harvard on a two-mile course on Lake 




BOAT RACE Continued 
Winnepesaukee, Centre Harbor, N.H. Har- 
vard's lone entry, the "Oneida," a thirty-eight 
foot boat captained by Joseph Mansfield Brown, 
won by two lengths over Yale's "Shawmut" 
followed by Yale's "Undine" and "Atlanta/' 
(James Wellman Story of the Harvard-Yale 
Race 1852-1912) 

Intercollegiate regatta was held July 26, 
1859, at Lake Quinsigamond, Worcester, Mass. 
Harvard defeated both Yale and Brown over a 
three-mile course. A regatta was scheduled 
July 23, 1858, at Springfield, Mass., but was 
postponed as a member of the Yale crew had 
drowned the day before. 

International boat race was held August 
17, 1869, on the Putney-Mortlake course on the 
Thames, London, England. An Oxford crew 
of four beat the Harvard crew by three clear 

International lifeboat race was held Sep- 
tember 7, 1927 from the Statute of Liberty to 
Pier A, New York City, under the auspices of 
the Neptune Association. Eleven boats of 
different sizes, shapes and weights from seven 
different nations competed. A prize cup was 
presented to Captain John F. Milliken of the 
M.S. "Segundo" of Norway whose team of 
eight men covered the course in 15 minutes, 
27 seconds. Second honors went to the crew 
of the M.S. "Titania" of Norway (16 minutes, 
27 seconds) and third place to the crew of the 
"De Grasse" of France (17 minutes, 7 seconds). 
Later races developed uniform conditions. 

Motor boat race under organized rules 

was held June 23-24, 1904, under the jurisdic- 
tion of the Columbia Yacht Club, 86th Street 
and Hudson River, New York City. A thirty- 
two mile race was held for the Gold Cup of 
the Challenge Cup Series, from the clubhouse 
to a point sixteen miles north and return. The 
trophy was won by C. C. Riotte in the "Stand- 
ard," 100 h.p., 59 feet long, average speed 22.57 
statute miles (19.67 nautical miles per hour). 
The contest was decided by a point system and 
the rules were formulated on April 22, 1903, 
by the American Power Boat Association 
which was organized by seven yacht clubs on 
January 20, 1903. (American Power Boat 
Association Story of Its Origin and Its De- 

TS. See Catamaran; Ferryboat; Life 
Motor boat; Ship 

^Four-man bob-team competition was held 
February 14-15, 1932, at the Third Olympic 
Winter Games at Lake Placid, N.Y., when 
thirteen teams from six nations competed. 
First place was won by the United States 
team of William L. Fiske, driver, and Ed- 
ward F. Eagan, Clifford B. Gray, and Jay 
O'Brien, brakeman which covered the four 
heats in a total time of 7 minutes, 53.68 seconds. 


Two-man bob-team competition was held 
February 9-10, 1932, at the Third Olympic 
Winter Games at Lake Placid, N.Y., when fif- 
teen teams from eight nations were entered in 
competition. First place was won by the United 
States (J. Hubert Stevens, driver, and Curtis 
Stevens, brakeman) in 8 minutes, 14.74 seconds 
for the four heats. 

BOBSLED RUN of international specifica- 
tions was the Mt. Van Hoevenberg bobsled run 
at North Elba, N.Y., on the highway between 
Lake Placid and Elizabethtown, N.Y., designed 
by Stanislaus Zentzytzki. Work was begun 
August 4, 1930, and the run was open to the 
public December 25, 1930. 


St. John Nepomnk Church, St. Louis, Mo., 
opened April 20, 1855, by the first pastor, Rev- 
erend Henry Lipowsky, a former lieutenant in 
the Austrian Army. The first solemn High 
Mass was sung by Father de Smet, the famous 
Jesuit missionary among the Indians, on May 
16, 1855, the patronal feast. 

ARY. See Dictionary 





BOILER LEGISLATION was the state boil- 
er inspection law, approved July 9, 1864, by Con- 
necticut. Chapter 67 authorized the governor 
to appoint an "Inspector of Boilers" to check 
every steam boiler used for manufacturing or 
mechanical purposes. 

BOILER PLATES were made between 
1816 and 1825 by Dr. Charles Lukens' mill, the 
"Brandywine Mill" at Coatesville, Pa. The 
mill was originally started at Rokeby, Pa., by 
Isaac Pennock in 1790 and was known as the 
Federal Slitting Mill. Charcoal iron slabs 
were heated in an open charcoal fire, rolled out 
into plates, and then slit up into rods for 
general blacksmiths' use. In 1810 Pennock 
purchased a sawmill at Brandywine, which he 
converted into the Brandywine Iron Mill. The 
organization has remained in the hands of his 
descendants, and is now known as the Lukens 
Steel Company, one of the world's largest plate 

BOLL WEEVIL. See Cottonball weevil 

BOLT FACTORY. See Nut and bolt fac- 

BOLT MACHINE. See Nut and bolt 

BOMB EXPLOSION (atomic). See Atom- 
ic bomb 

BOMBER. See Aviation Airplane 





World war TI 

ICAN SOIL. See World War II 


Bonds of the United States Government 
were the interest-bearing obligations which 
were authorized by the Act of August 4, 1790 
(1 Stat.L.138) f for the refunding of the domes- 
tic debt and that part of the state debt which 
was assumed by the Federal Government. The 
total issue amounted to $64,456,963.90 ; $30,088,- 
397.75 drew interest at 6 per cent; $19,719,237.39 
at 3 per cent ; and $14,649,328.76 drew interest 
at 6 per cent after 1800. Practically the entire 
issue was retired by 1836. (Liquidating the 
Revolutionary War Commissioner of the Pub- 
lic Debt. Treasury Dept.) 

Bonds payable specifically in United 
States gold coins were issued under authority 
of the financial bill, an "act to define and fix 
the standard of value, to maintain the parity 
of all forms of money issued or coined by the 
United States, to refund the public debt," 
March 14, 1900 (31 Stat.L. 45). 

Liberty bond. See Loan 

Treasury notes (interest-bearing) were 
authorized by the act of June 30, 1812 (2. 
Stat.L.766). The President was authorized to 
issue treasury notes to an amount not exceed- 
ing $5,000,000, "That the said treasury notes 
shall be reimbursed by the United States, at 
such places, respectively, as may be expressed 
on the face of the said notes, one year, respec- 
tively after the day on which the same shall 
have been issued ; from which day of issue they 
shall bear interest at the rate of five and two- 
fifths per centum a year, payable to the owner 
or owners of such notes, at the treasury, or by 
the proper commissioner of loans, at the places 
and times respectively designated on the face 
of said notes for the payment of principal." 
(John Jay Knox United States Notes, A His- 
tory of the Various Issues of Paper Money by 
the Government of the United States) 

War bond. See War bond 


BONDING LAW (state). See Insurance 
BOOBY TRAP. See Land mine 


See also under specific type of book or 
subject, e.g. 

Agricultural book Novel 
Almanac Pharmacopoeia 

Bible Social Register 


Best seller novel was Charlotte, A Tale of 
Truth by Mrs f Susanna Haswell] Rowson, an 
actress at the New Theatre, Philadelphia, Pa., 
and author of Victoria, The Inquisitor, Fille de 
Chambre & Co., etc. It was published in two 
volumes at Philadelphia, Pa., in 1794 and was 
an American edition of a work presumably 
published at London, England in 1791. Later 
it was entitled Charlotte Temple. About 200 
editions of it have been printed. (American 
Antiquarian Society Proceedings. Vol. 42. 
April 1932) 

Best seller other than a text or purely 
theological work was In His Steps by Rev. 
Charles Monroe Sheldon, a Utopian fantasy of 
what the world might be like if people lived 
literally according to Christ's teachings. It was 
published in 1899 by Hurst and Company, New 
York City, and had an estimated sale of 8,000,- 
000 copies in various editions by different pub- 
lishers. (Charles Monroe Sheldon Charles 
M Sheldon His Life Story) 

Book containing a color plate was The 

Magic Lantern; or, Amusing and Instructive 
Exhibitions for Young People published at 
Philadelphia, Pa , in 1807 by Benjamin John- 
son. It contained ten stories, each preceded 
by a tipped-in hand-colored plate. 

Book entered for copyright was The Phil- 
adelphia Spelling Book which was registered in 
the clerk's office of the first district of Penn- 
sylvania, June 9, 1790, by John Barry, the 
author. It was printed at Philadelphia, Pa., in 
1790 by Carey, Stewart and Co. (Washington 
Post. April 10, 1891) 

Book for the blind was the Gospel of 
St. Mark, published in 1833 at Philadelphia, 
Pa., by the Pennsylvania Institution for the 
Instruction of the Blind. It was printed in 
embossed roman letters, upper and lower case. 
Jacob Snider, Jr., recording secretary of the 
Pennsylvania Institute proposed the publica- 
tion and the funds were donated by Nathan 
Dunn and Edward Coleman. (Pennsylvania 
Institution for the Instruction of the Blind 
Second Annual Report March 2, 1835) 

Book (full size) published in the Colonies 
was Stephen Day's (Steeven Daye's) The 
Whole Booke of Psalmes, Faithfully Trans- 
lated into English Metre ivhereunto is prefixed 
a Discourse declaring not only the lawfulness, 
but also the necessity of the heavenly ordinance 
of singing scripture psalmes in the Churches 
of God, 296 pages, published July 1640 by the 
Cambridge Press, Cambridge, Mass. It was 
a new metrical version of the psalms, a revi- 
sion of those of Sternhold and Hopkins. Sev- 
enteen hundred copies were printed and sold 
for twenty pence each, netting a profit of al- 
most 80. (George Emery Little field The 
Early Massachusetts Press) 




"BOOK Continued 

Book list. See Book index 

Book of Common Prayer in use in what 
is now the United States was the one used by 
the Reverend Francis Fletcher, chaplain and 
chronicler of Drake's ship the "Golden Hind," 
June 24, 1579. A great stone cross in Golden 
Gate Park, San Francisco, Calif., commemo- 
rates the event. 

Book of folio size, other than laws, was 
Samuel Willard's A Compleat Body of Divin- 
ity in Two Hundred and Fifty Expository Lec- 
tures on the Assembly's Shorter Catechism 
wherein the doctrines of the Christian religion 
are unfolded, their truth confirm d . . . etc., pub- 
lished in 1726 at Boston, Mass., by [Barthol- 
omew] Green and [Samuel] Kneeland. It 
was published posthumously, and contained 
1,000 pages, two columns. There is an error 
in pagination as the work was printed by two 

Book (of size) completed entirely by one 

man was Old Papermaking by Dr. Dard 
Hunter, published in 1923 by the author at 
Chillicothe, Ohio. It consisted of 140 pages, 
size 9 x 115^2 inches, printed on handmade paper 
from linen and cotton cloth. Dr. Hunter not 
only was the author, but he manufactured the 
paper, designed, cut and cast the type, printed 
the book, etc. 

Book on cornstalk paper was Farm Prod- 
ucts in Industry by George McCullough Rom- 
rnel which was printed in June 1928 by Rae 
D. Henkle Co. Inc., New York City. 

Book on vellum was George Allen's The 
Life of Philidor, Musician and Chess Player, 
published in 1863 by E. H. Butler & Co., Phil- 
adelphia, Pa. Only two copies of the regular 
edition were printed on vellum. 

Book (pamphlet) on vellum was The First 
Plymouth Patent, Granted June 1, 1621, a 
small quarto, of sixteen pages. It was edited 
by Charles Deane and published in 1854 at 
Cambridge, Mass. Only four copies were 
printed. It was bound in full brown levant 
morocco with a gilt border and fillets en- 
closing an ornamental inside border on the 

Book privately printed was John Eliot's 
Communion of Churches; or, The Divine Man- 
agement of Gospel-Churches by the Ordinance 
of Councils, Constituted in Order According to 
the Scriptures] printed in 1665 by Marmaduke 
Johnson, Cambridge, Mass. It contained forty 
pages. It was not for general sale. (Charles 
Evans American Bibliography) 

Book review telecast. See Television 


Book set by linotype was The Tribune 
Book of Open Air Sports, edited by Henry 
Hall and published in 1887 by the Tribune As- 
sociation, New York City. The foreword 
states, "This book is printed without type being 
the first product in book form of the Mergen- 
thaler machine which wholly supersedes the use 
of movable type." 

Hymn book. See Music book 

Map made in the U.S. published in a 
book. See Map 

Profane poetry published translation pre- 
pared in the United States was George 
Sandys' translation of Ovid's Metamorphoses 
which was published in 1626 at London, Eng- 
land as Ovid's Metamorphoses Englished^ 
Mytholized and Represented in Figures. A 
second edition was published in 1632 to which 
was added a translation of Virgil's ALneid. 
Sandys was treasurer of the Virginia Company. 
(Rev. Richard Hooper The Poetical Works 
of George Sandys) 

Stereotyped book was The Larger Cate- 
chism which bore on the title page "The first 
book ever stereotyped in America. Stereotyped 
and printed by J. Watts and Co., New York, 
June 1813". The process was introduced by 
John Watts and was a combination of the 
systems of Firmin Didot and Charles Mahon, 
Earl of Stanhope. (George Adolf Kubler A 
New History of Stereotyping) 

Translated classics published was The Cato 
Major; or A Treatise on Old Age, by M. 
Tullius Cicero with explanatory notes from the 
Roman History which was published February 
29, 1743/44 by Benjamin Franklin at Philadel- 
phia, Pa. The translation was the work of 
James Logan, President of the Council and 
Chief Justice of the Province of Philadelphia. 

Typewritten book manuscript. See Type- 
written book manuscript 

BOOK AUCTION was authorized April 18, 
1662, by the Court of Burgomasters and 
Schcpens of New Amsterdam. "Anna Claas 
Croezens, widow of Daniel Litschoe, deceased, 
requests by petition to be allowed to sell by the 
Baliff some books which she has belonging to 
Sir Henry Moedy, as according to obligation 
she has a claim on him for a considerable sum." 
(Records of New Amsterdam from 1653 to 
1674. Vol. 4. p. 64) 


Book auction catalog was announced in the 
Boston News Letter Monday, May 18, 1713 
#475. "On Thursday next, the 28th current 
being the day after the election, there will be 
exposed to sale by public vendue or outcry at 
the house of Mr. Ambrose Vincent, silk dyer 
in Wingsolane, Boston, a good collection of 
books, to be seen at the said house two days 
before the sale, etc. Catalogues will be posted 
at public places." (Clarence Saunders Bngham 
History of Book Auctions in America.) 




Book auction printed catalog was A Cata- 
log of Curious and Valuable Books Belonging 
to the Late Reverend and Learned Mr. Ebene- 
zer Pemberton, Consisting of Divinity, Philos- 
ophy, History, Poetry and Generally Well 
Bound, which described the books "to be 
sold by auction at the Brown Coffee House in 
Boston, Mass." on July 2, 1717, at 3 P.M. 
The catalog was printed by B. Green in 1717 
and was obtainable gratis at the shop of Sam- 
uel Gerrish, bookseller. (George Leslie Mc- 
Kay American Book Auction Catalogues 

BOOK BINDER in America was John Rat- 
liffe who in 1663 was commissioned to bind 
Eliot's "Indian Bible" and "take care of the 
binding of 200 of them strongly and as speedily 
as may bee with leather, or as may bee most 
serviceable for the Indians." On August 30, 
1664 he sent a letter to the Commissioners of 
New England stating that he was not well sat- 
isfied with the prices paid him for binding, and 
that 3s 4d or 3s 6d was the lowest price at 
which he could bind books. 


Book-of-the-month club was established 
in New York City, April 1926 by Harry 

Sclierman, with Robert Haas as president. 
The original book judges were Dorothy Can- 
field, Heywood Broun, Henry Seidcl Canby, 
William Allen White and Christopher Morley. 
On April 16, 1926, the first book selection, 
Lolly Wilhwes, or the loving huntsman by 
Sylvia Townscnd Warner published by Viking 
Press was distributed to 4,750 members. 

BOOK COURSE was given in a college by 
Dr. Edwin Osgood Grover, Professor of Rooks, 
appointed in the fall of 1926 by President 
Hamilton Holt of Rollins College, Winter 
Park, Fla. The first instruction was given 
September 22, 1926. The idea of a "profes- 
sorship of books" was suggested by Ralph 
Waldo Emerson in his essay on "Books" 
(Jan. 1858 Vol. 1, #3. Atlantic Monthly) and 
was advocated by the United States Department 
of Education in 1876 but no college accepted 
the idea until 1926. 

BOOK FAIR was held in the Coffee House 
on Beaver Street, New York City, on June 1, 
1802, to display offerings of publishers and 
booksellers. Hugh Gaines was chairman and 
Mathew Carey of Philadelphia was secretary. 
This literary fair was attended by forty-six 
booksellers, and proved so successful that the 
following year a similar one was held at Phila- 
delphia, Pa., after which they alternated be- 
tween those cities. 

BOOK INDEX was the American Book Cir- 
cular, published in 1843 by Wiley and Putnam. 
New York City. It contained 64 pages of 
which 55 were devoted to a list of 1172 original 
works in 2474 volumes. It classified "some of 
the most important and recent American publi- 


General catalog of books was The Cata- 
logue of All the Books Printed in the United 
States, with the prices and places where pub- 
lished. ... It was printed January 1804 for 
the booksellers of Boston, Mass., and contained 
80 pages. It sold for ten cents. The books 
were classified according to subjects; law, 
physic, divinity, Bibles, miscellanies, school 
books and singing books. 

Government Publications Index. See In- 
dex of government publications. 

Monthly cumulative index of books was 

the "Cumulative Book Index" published Feb- 
ruary 1898 by Morris & Wilson, Minneapolis, 
Minn. It listed nine pages of books pub- 
lished during January 1898. The cumulative 
feature was begun a few months later, when 
all the books listed in previous issues were 
cumulated in one alphabet. 

BOOK LIST. See Book index 
BOOK, MATCH. See Match 

BOOK PLATE by an American engraver of 
which there is any record was made by Na- 
thaniel Hnrd of Boston, Mass., in 1740 for 
Thomas Dering. (David McNeely Stauffer- 
Amcrican Engravers upon Copper and Steel) 

BOOK PUBLISHER of denominational 
books was The Methodist Book Concern, 

organized at a conference in the John Street 
Methodist Episcopal Church, New York City, 
May 1789. The Reverend John Dickins ad- 
vanced the capital, $600, from his private 
savings and started publishing at Philadelphia, 
Pa. The first book issued was The Christian's 
Pattern, Wesley's version of Thomas A Kern- 
pis' Imitation of Christ. (Henry C. Jennings 
The Methodist Book Concern, A Romance 
of History) 

Margaret Fuller Ossoli who was hired 
December 1844 by Horace Greeley for his 
New York Tribune. In addition to her 
salary, the contract provided her a home 
with his family and allowed her the privilege 
of writing when she desired. She wrote 
under the name of Margaret Fuller and 
served until August 1846 when she made a 
trip to Europe. (Sarah Margaret Fuller 
Ossoli -Memoirs of Margaret Fuller Ossoli) 

BOOK STORE (Antiquarian) was estab- 
lished in 1830 at Boston, Mass., by Sam- 
uel Gardner Drake who specialized in writing 
about aboriginal Indians. (Patters' American 
Monthly. Oct. J875) 


Book trade magazine was the Bookseller's 
Advertiser & Monthly Chronicle of Literary 
Enterprises also known as the "Bookseller's 
Advertiser & Monthly Register of New Publi- 
cations" which appeared January 1, 1834 (pub- 
lished by West & Trow, New York City), and 
contained eight printed quarto pages. Sub- 




scription was $1 yearly. It listed 275 "Original 
American Works published in 1833" and Ameri- 
can reprints of foreign works. 

Successful book trade magazine was the 

American Publishers' Circular and Literary 
Gazette, a weekly for booksellers and libraries, 
issued September 1, 1855, by the New York 
Book Publishers' Association of which William 
Henry Appleton was president, Alfred Smith 
Barnes, vice president, and George Palmer 
Putnam, secretary. It was absorbed by Pub- 
lishers' Weekly. 

BOOK WAGON. See Library 
BOOKKEEPER. See Accountant 


Postage stamp 

BOOKSELLER of importance in the colo- 
nies was Hezekiah Usher who started in busi- 
ness at Cambridge, Mass., in 1639. He later 
had a monopoly on printing the laws of the 
General Court of Massachusetts and superin- 
tended the publications of the London Society 
for the Propagation of the Gospel Among the 
Indians. (Isaiah Thomas History of Printing) 


American Company of Booksellers organized 
June 7, 1801 at New York City "to improve 
quality, to avoid interference, to discontinue 
importations, to favor a literary fair, to rec- 
ommend correspondence and to promote the 
general interest." The first president was 
Mathew Carey of Philadelphia, Pa. (Adolph 
GrowollBook Trade Bibliography in the U.S. 
in the Nineteenth Century) 

American editions of American authors was 
Catalogue of First Editions of American Au- 
thors, Poets, Philosophers, Historians, States- 
men, Essayists, Dramatists, Novelists, Travel- 
lers, Humorists, etc., published in 1885 by Leon 
and Brother, booksellers, of New York City. 
It consisted of fifty-eight pages and listed the 
various American authors in alphabetical order 
and the current prices for first editions of their 
works. In addition to the regularly issued cat- 
alog, there were also interleaved copies on 
hand-made paper. 

BOOSTER (locomotive). See Locomotive 

BORAX was discovered by Dr. John A. 
Veatch, January 8, 1856, in mineral water from 
Tuscan Springs, Tehama County, Calif. Com- 
mercial production began at Borax Lake, Lake 
County, Calif., in 1864 when pure crystals were 
refined by immersion in solution and permitted 
to crystallize out again, thus disposing of an 
apparently very minute amount of impurities. 
This deposit supplied the United States until 
1868 when larger deposits were found in Ne- 
vada. (John Randolph Spears Illustrated 
Sketches of Death Valley and other Borax 
Deserts of the Pacific Coast) 


BOREALIS. See Aurora borealis 

BORON CARBIDE. See Abrasive 


Border patrol organization under the Im- 
migration and Naturalization Service was es- 
tablished June 1, 1924, under authority of an 
act of May 28, 1924 (43 Stat.L.240). It orig- 
inally consisted of 427 men. William Walter 
Husband was Commissioner General of Immi- 
gration, but there was no officer directly in 
charge of all the border patrol units as they 
operated under the supervision of the various 
district heads. 

Border patrolman was Jefferson Davis 
Milton, United States Immigration and Natu- 
ralization Service, who served from April 13, 
1904, to June 30, 1932. He was appointed under 
authority of annual appropriation acts before 
the border patrol was formally established by 
Act of Congress on May 28, 1924, and patrolled 
the border to prevent smuggling Orientals 
across the Mexico border. 

BOTANIC GARDEN was planned and made 
by John Bartram who laid out about five or 
six acres with his own hands in 1728. The 
garden is located at 43d and Eastwick Streets, 
Philadelphia, Pa., on the banks of the Schuyl- 
kill River. Bart ram at one time acted as bot- 
anist to George III. He corresponded with 
Linnaeus who considered him the "greatest 
natural botanist in the world." (William Jay 
Youmans Pioneers of Science in America) 


to study and classify botanical species was 
made in the New England area by Manasseh 
Cutler who set out from Ipswich, Mass., on 
July 19, 1784, for Mt. Washington, N.H. He 
examined 350 species and classified them ac- 
cording to the Linnaean method. (William 
Parker Cutler and Julia Perkins Cutler Life, 
Journals and Correspondence of Rev. Manasseh 


Botanist to become a prominent landscape 
gardener was Andrew Jackson Downing of 
Newburgh, N.Y. In 1841 we wrote A Treatise 
on the Theory and Practice of Landscape Gar- 
dening Adapted to North America, the first 
serious discussion on the subject. (Knicker- 
bocker Magazine. Oct. 1852) 

Woman botanist to distinguish herself in 
America was Jane Golden, daughter of Cad- 
wallader Golden. She manifested her interest 
in botany in 1728, at the age of 4; and at the 
age of 34, in 1758, had described 400 plants 
According to the Linnaean method, using Eng- 
lish terms. (William Darlington Memorials 
of John Bartram and Humphry Marshall) 

Botany book elementary work was The 

Elements of Botany, or Outlines of the Natu- 
ral History of Vegetables, by Benjamin Smith 
Barton. It was illustrated with thirty plates. It 




was originally printed at Philadelphia, Pa. f in 
1803 and reprinted in 1804 at London, England. 
Barton was appointed Professor of Natural 
History and Botany in the College of Phila- 
delphia, Philadelphia, Pa., 1789. 

Botany book strictly American and the 

first treatise on American plants written by 
a native American and printed in this country 
was "Arbustrum Americanum; The American 
Grove, or an alphabetical catalogue of forest 
trees and shrubs, natives of the American 
United States. . .also some hints of their uses 
in medicines, dyes and domestic economy", 174 
pages, by Humphry Marshall of Chester 
County, Pa., published in 1785 by Joseph 
Crukshank, Philadelphia, Pa. (William Dar- 
lington Memorials of John Bartram and Hum- 
phry Marshall) 

who was appointed in January 1768 by the 
Philadelphia College, Philadelphia, Pa., which 
post he occupied for twenty-one years. His 
schooling was obtained in Sweden under Lin- 
naeus. (Eclectic Repertory. April 1818) 


Bottle blown in America was made in a 
factory set up in the woods one mile from 
Jamestown, Va., in 1608, twelve years before 
the landing of the Pilgrims. The common glass 
bottle bears the distinction of being the first 
manufactured product exported from this coun- 
try. This factory, the first glass factory in 
America, was destroyed in 1622 by the Indians 
who massacred the inhabitants of Jamestown. 
(Fifty Years of Achievement Illinois Glass 

Screw cap bottle with a pour lip was 

patented May 5, 1936, by Edward A. Ravens- 
croft, Glencoe, 111., who received patent No. 
2,039,345. The bottles were manufactured by 
the Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, 111. 

BOTTLE CAP with the crown cork was 
invented in 1892, by William Painter, founder 
of the Crown Cork and Seal Co., Baltimore, 
Md. t who obtained U.S. Patent No. 468,226 on 
February 2, 1892. The crown cork is a simple 
bit of tin with a corrugated rim or skirt into 
which is inserted a disc of natural or composi- 
tion cork. 


Elie Magloire Durand who also invented a 
machine for bottling it under pressure. Durand 
opened a drug store in 1825 at the corner of 
Sixth and Chestnut Streets, Philadelphia, Pa., 
(Thomas Meehan Proceedings Academy of 
Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 1873) 

BOUNTY was granted under authority of 
Act 5 of the General Assembly held at James 
City, Va., October 5, 1646. It was signed by 
Sir William Berkeley, Knight Governor, and 
provided that "what person soever shall after 
publication hereof kill a wolfe and bring in 
the head to any commissioner, upon certificate 
of said communication to the county court, he 


or they shall receive one hundred pounds of 
tobacco for so doing to be raised out of the 
country where the wplfe is killed." William 
Waller Hening Virginia Statutes at Large) 

BOWIE KNIFE, which is shorter than the 
regular sword, was invented by Colonel James 
Bowie in Texas about 1835. It is variously 
claimed that he made the first knife out of a 
file ; that the weapon was originally used by the 
Mexicans, and that in an encounter with Mexi- 
cans his original sword broke to within twenty 
inches of the hilt, leaving the balance of the 
sword, which was the first Bowie knife, easier 
to handle. The knife had but one edge and a 
curved point which necessitated its being 
carried in a sheath. (Evelyn Brogan James 
Bowie, a Hero of the Alamo) 

issued August 9, 1893, at New York City. It 
was originally printed in German. On May 19, 
1894, it became the Bowlers' Journal. 


was undertaken November 13, 1875 when 
twenty-seven delegates met at Germania Hall, 
New York City and organized a National 
Bowling Association. It soon went out of 
existence, however, as did the American Ama- 
teur Bowling Union which was organized in 
1890. The first important bowling convention 
to standardize rules was held by the Ameri- 
can Bowling Congress, when it organized Sep- 
tember 9, 1895 at New York City. (American 
Bowling Congress 1895-1945 Just Fifty Years) 


Bowling convention of importance was the 
American Bowling Congress held in New 
York City September 9, 1895. 

Bowling match recorded is that of January 
1, 1840, played at the Knickerbocker Alleys, 
New York City. 

Bowling tournament for women was held 
in St. Louis, Mo., March 17, 1917, under the 
auspices of the Women's International Bowling 
Congress organized November 29, 1916 (incor- 
porated October 20, 1919). Eight five-woman 
teams, sixteen two-woman teams and twenty- 
four individuals participated. The individual 
high score was won by Mrs. M. Koester with 
an average of 162. 

Bowling tournament held under the 
American Bowling Congress convened in 

Chicago, 111., January 8-11, 1901. Forty-one five- 
man teams, seventy-nine two-man teams and 
one hundred and fifteen individuals participated 
in the contest. The prize money was $2500 
The individual winner was Frank "Pop" Breill 
[Brill] of Chicago, 111., with a score of 648. 

Gold medal award to a perfect-score 
bowler by the American Bowling Congress 
was made in 1909. Three perfect scores were 
entered: Al Rothwell of St. Louis on Feb- 
ruary 26, 1908, whose claim was rejected as 





his league was not sanctioned; Homer San- 
ders of St. Louis on April 4, 1908, and A. 
C. Jellison on December 15, 1908. A roll 
for the medal was held March 11, 1909 at 
Pittsburgh, Pa., and was won by Jellison 
who recieved a gold medal while Sanders 
received a silver medal. The awards were 
not for perfect scores, but high scores. P. 
J. Phelps of Chicago had high score in 1907 
with 298. 

BOXING. See Prize fight 

zation for boys from nine years upwards, 
was incorporated in the District of Columbia, 
on February 8, 1910, and was granted a federal 
charter by an Act of Congress of June 15, 
1916. The motto of the organization is "Be 

Boy Scout uniformed troop was Troop 
No. 1, organized at the Central Y.M.C.A., 
Troy, N.Y., in the fall of 1911. The uniform 
was designed by Charles M. Connally of Troy 
and has since become standard equipment. 
(Rutherford Hayner History of Troy and 
Rensselaer County) 

BOYCOTT LAW was passed September 26, 
1903, by Alabama (Chapter 176). It declared 
it a misdemeanor for two or more persons to 
conspire to prevent persons from carrying on 
a lawful business, to print or circulate stickers, 
cards, etc., and to use threats. The fine was 
not less than $50 nor more than $500, or im- 
prisonment of not more than 60 days at hard 
labor. (Code of Alabama 1903) 

BOYS CAMP. See Camp for boys 

Braille Bible. See Bible 

Braille magazine. See Periodicals 

Braille music magazine. See Music maga- 

Braille schools. See Blind 
BRAKE. See Air brake; Automobile brake 


Brake patent was granted August 29, 
1828 to Robert Turner of Ward, Mass., on a 
"self-regulating wagon brake." 

Railroad brake patent was issued September 
19, 1838 to Ephraim Morris of Bloomfield, 
N.Y., on "eccentric brakes for cars." 

February 5, 1644 by Connecticut. It provided 
that all cattle and swine (except horses) older 
than six months be earmarked or branded be- 
fore May 1, 1644, and that the marks be regis- 
tered. The penalty for violation was five shil- 
lings a head, two of which were paid to in- 


BRASS was rolled in 1802 by Abel Por- 
ter & Company of Waterbury, Conn. The fac- 
tory was owned by Abel Porter and Levi Por- 
ter, who were also the first to make brass by 
the direct fusion of copper and zinc. (Joseph 
Anderson Town and City of Waterbury. Vol. 

TUBES were manufactured in 1851 by the 
American Tube Works at Somerville, Mass. 
The process was introduced by Joseph Fox. 
Previously strips of rounded metal with 
brazed edges were used. Brass Pipe -80th 
Anniversary American Tube Works) 

ica was opened at Lynn, Mass., in 1645, by 
Joseph Jencks (Jenks) who manufactured the 
first kitchen utensils, tools and machines in the 
new world. 


BRASS KETTLES were made in 1834 in 
Wolcottville, now Torrington, Conn., by Israel 
Coe who organized the Coe Brass Company. 
They used the so-called battery process. 

BRASS ROD was drawn in 1873 by the Coe 
Brass Company of Torrington, Conn. 

BRASS SPINNING was invented by Hiram 
Washington Hayden of Waterbury, Conn., who 
obtained patent No. 8589 on December 16, 1851, 
for machinery making kettles and articles of 
like character from discs of metal. A disc 
was mounted in a chuck which was rotated at a 
uniform speed. A tool was then pressed against 
the metal which was thus shaped to the die. 
The process was first attempted at Wolcottville, 
now Torrington, Conn., and was later sold to 
the Waterbury Brass Company. (William 
Gilbert Lathrop The Brass Industry in the 


MAKING MACHINERY was imported in 
1831 from England by Israel Holmes for his 
firm, Holmes and Hotchkiss, established in 1830 
at Waterbury, Conn. 

BRAWL IN CONGRESS. See Congress of 
the United States House of Representatives 

tuted June 14, 1623, in the Virginia Council of 
State, Charles City County, Va. The Reverend 
Greville Pooley brought suit against Cicely 
(Sysley) Jordan, the widow of Captain Samuel 
Jordan, who jilted him in favor of William 
Ferrar (Farrar). The penalty for a third 
offense was either corporal punishment, or fine, 
or otherwise. (Alexander Brown The First 
Republic in America) 


Bread made from unbolted flour, which 
later became known as graham bread, was in- 
vented and introduced by Svlvester Graham in 




1847. Bakers disliked the product and started 
riots, threatening Graham's life if he per- 
sisted in its manufacture. (Franklin Bowditch 
Dexter Biographical Sketches of the Gradu- 
ates of Yale College) 

Completely automatic bread plant was in- 
stalled and opened July 1, 1910, by the Ward 
Baking Company, Chicago. The dough was 
not touched nor the bread handled except to 
place it on the wrapping machine. 


Breakfast foods (ready to eat) were 
introduced principally by Charles William Post 
who produced "Grape Nuts" in 1897. He 
manufactured "Post Toasties" in 1915 and 
"Post's Bran" in 1922. (Products of General 
Foods General Foods Corp.) 

Shredded wheat biscuits were made by 
Henry D. Perky, and William H. Ford of 
Watertown, N.Y., who obtained patent No.502,- 
378 on August 1, 1893, on a machine for mak- 
ing the shreds or filaments of wheat. The 
Cereal Machine Company, Denver, Colo., was 
formed in 1893 to manufacture them. 




Animal breeding society 

BREVET. See Army officer 

BREWERY to attain an age of two hun- 
dred years was that of the Francis Perot's 
Sons Malting Company of Philadelphia. The 
original concern was established in 1687 by An- 
thony Morris, 2d, in Philadelphia, Pa., on the 
east side of Front Street, below Walnut, facing 
the Delaware River, and was incorporated in 
1887. The concern is still in business having 
descended from father to son for eight genera- 
tions. It is the oldest brewery firm with a con- 
tinuous existence. (Historical Sketch of the 
Oldest Business House in America) 


Brick building. See Building 

Brick insulating was supplied to the trade 
by the Armstrong Cork Company of Lancaster, 
Pa., in June 1913 under the trade name Non- 
pareil Insulating Brick. This brick is used in 
high temperature equipment such as industrial 
furnaces, ovens, oil stills, blast furnaces, stoves, 
and similar apparatus. Diatomaceous earth is 
pulverized, mixed with finely ground cork and 
a small quantity of clay added for a binder. It 
is moulded into brick form and then fired. The 
cork is consumed leaving the finished brick 
terra cotta in color and extremely cellular in 
structure. Because of the many small voids left 
when the particles of cork are burned out, and 
because of a large amount of non-circulating 
air, the ability of the brick to hold heat is 
exceptionally high. 


Brick pavement. See Road 
Brick roofing tile. See Tile 

Fire brick was made by the Salamander 
Works of Woodbridge, N.J., in 1825. Although 
definite records are not obtainable, it is believed 
an attempt was made to manufacture fire bricks 
in 1812. (Heinrick Ries and Henry Leighton 
History of Clay Working Industry in US.) 

Fire brick to withstand high heat was 

manufactured in 1841 by the "Mount Savage" 
Fire Brick Works of Mount Savage, Md., now 
the Union Mining Company of Allegheny 
County, Md. 

Light-weight brick was developed in 1927 
by Charles Frederick Burgess of the C. F. 
Burgess Laboratories, Inc., Madison, Wis. It 
is porous, one fifth the weight of ordinary 
brick and yet resistant to the entrance of wa- 
ter. It floats in water and has adequate com- 
pressive strength for use in all types of build- 
ings for load-bearing walls. 

Terra cotta was manufactured by James 
Renwick in 1853 at New York City. He con- 
ceived the idea of introducing terra cotta as a 
building material and substitute for cut stone 
work. (W alter Geer Story of Terra Cotta) 

Terra cotta factory to be successful was 
established by J. N. Glover at Louisville, Ky., 
in 1867. After a series of successive changes 
of locale and management it gradually devel- 
oped into the Northwestern Terra Cotta Co., 
Chicago, 111. 

BRICK KILN in America was established at 
Salem, Mass., in 1629. 

BRICK MACHINE for the production of 
soft mud bricks was designed and built by 
Henry Martin in 1857 and installed at Hart- 
ford, Conn. The clay was pushed from the 
press box through a die or jack mold into 
sanded wooden molds similar to the method 
of pressing the clay by hand into wood or steel 


Aerial ferry was put in operation April 9, 
1905, over the ship canal from Lake Avenue, 
Duluth, to Minnesota Point, Minn. The car 
was suspended in the air from a superstructure 
which had a clear height over Lake Superior 
of 135 feet. The truss in the center was 51 
feet making a total height at the highest part 
of the superstructure of 186 feet above water 
level. The width, center to center of trusses, 
was 34 feet, and the clear span was 393.75 
feet in length. The car platform was 34 x 50 
feet, room enough to accomodate six auto- 
mobiles and two glassed-in cabins, each 7 x 30 
feet, for passengers, with a carrying capacity 
of 125,000 pounds. The platform was 12 feet 
above the water line. The round trip could be 
made in ten minutes. {Henry Grattan Tyrrell 
Transporter Bridges) 




BRIDGE Continued 

Bridge was erected in 1634 over the Nepon- 
set river from Milton to Dorchester, Mass., 
by Israel Stoughton. Authority to build a 
bridge and a mill was extended April 1, 1634 by 
the Massachusetts General Court. (Albert 
Kendall Teele History of Milton) 

Bridge with open mesh steel flooring was 

the University Bridge, Seattle, Wash., opened 
for traffic April 7, 1933. The flooring, 80 per 
cent open, self-cleaning and self-draining, was 
originated by Walter Edward Irving of the 
Irving Subway Grating Company, Inc., Long 
Island City, N.Y., who obtained patent No. 
1,991,154 on February 12. 1935. 

Bridge with piers sunk in the open sea was 

the Golden Gate suspension span at San Fran- 
cisco, Calif. Actual construction was officially 
commenced January 5, 1933. Joseph Baermann 
Strauss was appointed chief engineer. The 
length of the main structure of the bridge is 
8,940 feet, with towers 746 feet above water 
and a minimum clearance of 220 feet. The 
Golden Gate bridge was the first built across 
the outer mouth of a major ocean harbor. 

Cantilever bridge was designed by Charles 
Shaler Smith for the Cincinnati Southern Rail- 
road to cross the Kentucky River. It was built 
in 1876-77, near Harrodsburg (Mercer county) 
Ky. A contract for an iron truss bridge was 
let to the Baltimore Bridge Company on July 9, 
1875 for $377,500. It was commenced October 
12, 1876, completed February 20, 1877 and 
tested April 20, 1877. It had three spans, each 
375 feet long. 

Cast iron bridge was built in 1835 over 
Dunlap's Creek at Brownsville, Pa., by John 
Snowdon from the design of and under the 
direction of his foreman, John Herbertson. It 
has five tubular arch ribs of 85 -foot span 
and is 25 feet wide. (Engineering Record. 
June 6, 1908) 

Cast iron girder bridge was built by Earl 
Trumbull over the Erie Canal in 1840 at Frank- 
fort, N.Y. It had a span of 77 feet. (Wrought 
Iron Record. Vol 1. No. 3 Wrought Iron 
Research Assn.) 

Concrete arch highway bridge was de- 
signed by Carl A. Trik, Superintendent of 
Bridges, Bureau of Highways, Philadelphia, 
Pa., and erected in 1893 to carry Pine Road 
over Pennypack Creek, Philadelphia. It con- 
sisted of two arched spans, each 25 feet, 4-)4 
inches wide, with a rise of 6 feet, 6 inches, 
supported by concrete abutments and a con- 
crete pier, built on a light skew. It is 34 feet 
wide and carries a 26- foot wide macadam road- 
way with two granite-paved gutters on concrete 
foundations. The entire bridge, including the 
appurtenances and the thorough renovation of 
the retaining walls on both approaches cost 
$9,288.12 (Report of 1893 Philadelphia Super- 
intendent of Bridges) 


Concrete cantilever bridge was erected 
over Indian Creek at Marion, Iowa, in 1905 for 
the Marion Street Railway Company. It had 
three 50- foot spans with two longitudinal ribs 
twelve inches wide supported on concrete 
columns and floor slabs on transverse beams. 

Double-deck bridge of importance was 
the Queensboro Bridge, over the East River, 
New York City, which was opened to traffic on 
March 30, 1909. The Manhattan Suspension 
Bridge, also a double-deck bridge over the East 
River, was opened to traffic on December 31, 
1909. The total cost of the land and construc- 
tion of the Queensboro Bridge was approxi- 
mately $17,000,000 and of the Manhattan Sus- 
pension Bridge about $31,000,000. (Records in 
Dept. of Plants and Structures. New York 

Hanging railroad bridge was built in 1879 
at a location several miles east of Canon City, 
Colo., where the Royal Gorge of the Arkansas 
River was only thirty feet wide and entirely 
filled by the river. Sheer rock cliffs rose for 
more than a thousand feet on each side. The 
bridge was built parallel to the river, one side 
imbedded in the rock cliff and the other sus- 
pended over the stream by means of overhead 
V-type beams. It was designed by Charles 
Shaler Smith. 

Iron truss bridge with parallel chords and 
open web was designed by Richard Osborne, 
chief engineer of the Reading Company. Con- 
struction of trusses began January 1845 at 
Pottstown, Pa., and were finished March 1845. 
It had a 34. 2- foot span, with a 4- foot space 
between tracks, and was erected a half mile 
east of Flat Rock Tunnel, north of West 
Manayunk station. Erection was commenced 
Saturday night, May 3, 1845, and the bridge 
was finished Sunday, May 4, 1845. It remained 
until 1901 on the main line of the Philadelphia 
and Reading Railroad Company, now the Read- 
ing Company. (Henry Gratton Tyrrell His- 
tory of Bridge Engineering) 

Iron wire suspension bridge was the 

Schuylkill River bridge at Philadelphia, Pa., 
designed and constructed by Erskine Hazard 
and Captain Josiah White. It was 408 feet long 
with a board floor 18 inches wide. It had a 
33 -foot sag and could not support more than 
six or eight persons at a time. It weighed 4,702 
pounds, cost $125, and was opened to traffic 
June 1816. A toll of a cent a person was 
charged until the tolls defrayed the cost. (En- 
gineering News March 16 , 1905) 

Pile bridge was designed and constructed by 
Major Samuel Sewall and built across the 
York River at York, Me., in 1761. Thirteen 
bands of piles were hammered upright, the ends 
protruding above the water, upon which a 270- 
foot wooden bridge was erected. ( George Alex 
Emery Ancient City of Gorgeana) 

Pontoon bridge was floated into place at 
Collins' Pond, Lynn, Mass., in 1804. The Board 
of Directors authorized Captain Moses Brown 




to bridge the pond, which was of great depth. 
The pond had a soft, peaty bottom which did 
not permit the use of any feasible means of 
constructing bridge piers. The pontoon bridge 
was 511 feet in length and 28 feet wide. It 
consisted of five layers of pine timber, each at 
right angles to the one below it. The lower 
course was of logs hewn on one side and the 
next three courses were about a foot square. 
The whole mass was secured together by three- 
inch dowels. Including the top planking it was 
about five and one-half feet thick. (Historical 
Collection of the Essex Institute. Vol. 36. 
"The Floating Bridge at Lynn" Charles 
Jeptha Hill Woodbury) 

Pontoon bridge of reenforced concrete 
was the Lake Washington Floating Bridge, 
Seattle, Wash., commenced December 29, 1938, 
and dedicated July 2, 1940. It was composed 
of twenty-five pontoons bolted together, each 
having two or more sixty-five-ton anchors. Its 
total length was 34,021 feet. It was financed by 
a PWA grant of $3,794,000 and a bond issue of 
$5,500,000 to be repaid by toll charges. 

Railway all-steel bridge was the Glasgow 
Bridge, a 2,700-foot structure built by the Chi- 
cago and Alton Railroad Company over the 
Missouri River at Glasgow, Mo. The contract 
for steel was dated October 12, 1878, and the 
bridge was placed in service about November 1, 
1879. (Archibald BlackThe Story of 

Railway bridge across the Mississippi 
River was the Rock Island Railroad Bridge, 
between Rock Island, 111., and Davenport, Iowa, 
built of wood resting on stone piers. The piers 
were completed June 1854. The bridge was 
fully completed and a locomotive crossed it on 
April 21, 1856. On April 22, 1856, a train 
consisting of three locomotives and eight pas- 
senger cars crossed as a test. 

Railway suspension bridge was the Niagara 
Falls Suspension bridge over the gorge at Ni- 
agara which was completed in 1854. It had a 
span of 825 feet and two decks, the lower one 
carrying a highway 15 feet wide, partially en- 
closed at the side by timber stiffening trusses. 
The upper deck, 24 feet wide and 245 feet 
above high water, had a single railway track in 
the center artd was floored over, separating it 
from the highway below. The bridge was 
started in 1853 by Charles Ellet, who withdrew 
from the work. It was completed by John Au- 
gustus Roebling. The first train crossed the 
bridge March 8, 1855. (John Augustus Roeb- 
ling Memoir of the Niagara Falls and Inter- 
national Suspension Bridge) 

Rolling lift bridge was the Van Buren 
Street bridge located over the Chicago River, 
Chicago, 111., which was opened to traffic Feb- 
ruary 4, 1895. It consists of two arms meeting 
at the center of the river which when open pro- 
vide a clear channel 82 feet in width, measured 
along the line of the stream. Each arm con- 
sists of three trusses which carry two road- 


ways, each 18 feet in width and two sidewalks, 
each 8 feet wide. The bridge is operated by 
two 50-horsepower electric motors on each side 
of the river. The total construction cost was 
$169,700. The bridge's construction was pat- 
ented by William Scherzer of Chicago, 111. 

Steel arch bridge was built across the Mis- 
sissippi River at St. Louis, Mo., by James Bu- 
chanan Eads. It was started in 1869 and 
opened July 4, 1874. It had a center span of 
520 feet and two side spans of 502 feet each. 
(Henry Grattan Tyrrell History of Bridge 

Stone arch railroad bridge in the world 
was the Carrollton Viaduct of the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad, spanning Gwynn's Falls at 
Baltimore, Md. It was named after Charles 
Carroll who laid the last stone in the bridge 
several weeks prior to its official opening and 
inspection by the president and board of direc- 
tors on December 21, 1829. It is 300 feet long 
and 70 feet high and has two arches a large 
80- foot span over the stream and a small arch 
through which, originally, a wagon road passed. 
The bridge was built by James Lloyd and is 
still in use supporting a double-track line. The 
heaviest freight trains of the Baltimore and 
Ohio Railroad pass over it at undiminished 
speed. (Joseph Gurn Carroll of Carrollton) 

Stone bridge in America was built in 1697- 
98 at Pcnnepecka, near Germantown, Pa. Wil- 
liam Penn wrote from Pennsburg on June 22, 
1700, to "urge the justices about the bridge at 
Pennepecka and Poquessin forthwith for a 
carriage or I cannot come down" to attend a 
local meeting. (Site and Relic of German- 
town Reports) 

Suspension bridge was erected in 1796 by 
James Finley across Jacob's Creek, Westmore- 
land County, Pa. It had a 70- foot span and 
cost $6,000. He patented his design in 1801. 
The bridge was on the turnpike between Union- 
town, Pa., and Greensburg, Pa. 

Suspension bridge of importance having 
steel towers instead of the customary masonry 
towers was the Williamsburg Bridge, connect- 
ing Brooklyn and Manhattan, New York, which 
was opened on December 19, 1903. The cost 
was $24,100,000 for land and construction. 
(Records in Dept. of Plants and Structures. 
New York City) 

Timber trestle pier lattice construction 

was started in June 1840 at the Long Hollow 
Crossing, Shuman's Station, Pa., and was orig- 
inally on the Little Schuylkill and Susquehanna 
Railroad, later the Catawissa Branch of the 
Reading Company. The pier was designed by 
James F. Smith and was 740 feet long and 122 
feet high. The timber piers were later replaced 
with stone masonry; then the trusses with 
wooden trestles, then the wood trestles with 
iron and steel viaducts and finally all were re- 
placed with concrete bridges and fill. (Cata- 
wissa Railroad Company Annual Report) 




BRIDGE Continued 

Toll bridge was erected by Richard Thur- 
low in 1654 over the Newbury River at Rowley, 
Mass. He built the bridge at his own cost and 
on May 3, 1654, the General Court of Massa- 
chusetts fixed a rate of toll for animals. Pas- 
sengers were permitted free passage. The 
bridge remained a toll bridge until 1680. Thur- 
low is variously spelled Thorla, Thorlo and 
Thurley. (Joshua Coffin. History of New- 

Tubular plate girder bridge was built in 
1841 by James Millholand for the Baltimore 
and Ohio Railroad Company near Bolton 
Depot, Md. The bridge had a 50-foot span. 
The sides and botttom were wholly of 
wrought iron, but the flange was reinforced 
with 12"xl2* f timbers. The plates were 38 
inches wide and 6 feet long. The whole 
bridge weighed 14 tons and cost approxi- 
mately $2,200. (Henry Grattan Tyrrell His- 
tory of Bridge Engineering) 

Wire cable suspension aqueduct bridge 
was built in Pittsburgh, Pa., across the Alle- 
ghany River by John Augustus Roebling. There 
were seven spans of 162 feet each, consisting 
of a wooden trunk to hold water, and supported 
by a continuous wire cable on each side, 
seven inches in diameter. The length of the 
aqueduct without extensions was 1,140 feet, the 
cables 1,175 feet and the total weight of the 
water in the aqueduct was 2,100 tons. The cost 
of construction and removal of the old wooden 
bridge was $62,000. The bridge was completed 
in May 1845. (Charles Beebe Stuart Lives 
and Works of Civil and Military Engineers) 

Wire suspension bridge for general traffic 
was erected over the Schuylkill River at Fair- 
mount, Pa., by Charles Ellet. The bridge was 
opened on January 2, 1842. It cost $35,000 and 
had a 358-foot span. It was supported by wire 
cables, five at each side, and had a width of 
25 feet. 

Wooden railroad bridge of a purely truss 
type was built in 1838 by Benjamin Henry 
Latrobe for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad 
Company across the Patapsco River at Elys- 
ville (now Alberton), Md. It consisted of two 
spans, each about 150 feet in length. The 
bridge was completed in 1839 and was replaced 
in 1852 by iron Bollman trusses. (William 
Hubert Burr and Myron Samuel Folk Design 
and Construction of Metallic Bridges) 

Wrought iron lattice girder railroad 
bridge in the United States was built by the 
New York Central across the Mohawk River 
at Schenectady, N.Y., in 1859. Howard Car- 
roll was the engineer in charge. (Wrought 
Iron Record. Vol. 1. No. 3) 

"Y" bridge was authorized by the General 
Assembly of Zanesville, Ohio, on January 21, 
1812. The bridge in the form of the letter "Y" 
spanned the Licking and Muskingum Rivers 


and was opened for traffic in 1814. The pres- 
ent concrete bridge is the fourth structure to 
have occupied the site. (The Sohioan. August 

BRIDGE TABLE. See Electric bridge table 

BRIDGE WHIST official code was issued 
by the New York Whist Club, New York City, 
in the summer of 1894. The dealer had the 
privilege of declaring the trump. 


importance was the American Whist League 
which convened at the Athenaeum, Milwaukee, 
Wis., from April 14th to 17th, 1891, in response 
to a call made by Cassius M. Paine, president 
of the Milwaukee Whist Club. Thirty-six clubs 
represented by eighty-three delegates standard- 
ized the rules and adopted a sixty-one section 
code. The first president was Eugene S. Elliot 
of the Milwaukee Whist Club and Robert Fred- 
erick Foster of the Manhattan Club of New 
York City was secretary. (John T. Mitchell 
Duplicate Whist, Its Rules and Methods of 

See also Auction bridge championship 


Army officer 

BRITANNIA WARE was manufactured in 
1824 at Taunton, Mass., by Isaac Babbitt and 
William Grossman. On July 17, 1839, Isaac 
Babbitt of Boston, Mass., obtained patent 
No. 1,252 on a "wheel box with anti-friction 
rollers." An act of Congress of August 29, 
1842 (5 Stat.L.547) authorized the Secretary 
of the Navy to pay $20,000 for the "right to 
use Babbitt's anti-attrition metal." (George 
Sweet Gibb The Whitesmiths of Taunton) 

BROADCASTING. See Radio broadcast 

BROADCLOTH was produced at Pittsfield, 
Mass., in 1793 from fleeces of the merino sheep 
of Arthur and John Scholfield. Soon after 1793 
they manufactured 24^2 yards of broadcloth, 
which was sold for 16 pounds and 16 shillings. 
Twenty yards of mixed broadcloth were sold 
for 12 pounds. (Joseph Edward Adams Smith 
History of Pittsfield) 

BROADSIDE. See Newspaper 




Clearing house for stocks and bonds was 

the Philadelphia Clearing House which was 
organized at Philadelphia, Pa., in August 1870 
as an adjunct of the Board of Brokers, Phila- 
delphia stock exchange. 

Curb exchange in history to transact more 
business in a day than the Stock Exchange 
was the New York Curb, on June 15, 1929, 
when the volume for the Curb was 1,287,900 
shares as compared with 1,260,400 for the Stock 




Exchange to specialize in mining securi- 
ties was formed under the name of the San 
Francisco Slock and Exchange Board, Septem- 
ber 11, 1862. It has been in continuous opera- 
tion since its inception, but its name was twice 
changed to San FYancisco Stock Exchange 
and then to San Francisco Mining Exchange. 
It was organized by a group of thirty-seven 
independent brokers determined to establish 
fixed positive prices for shares of the Comstock 
mining companies. The Corns! ock Lode in 
Nevada in 1859 produced $680,000,000, enough to 
pay the entire cost of the Civil War. It issued 
shares which were widely traded at prices 
raiiKiMn from $1,000 to $2000 each. 

Financial "corner" took place in New Am- 
sterdam (New York) in 1666. Frederick 
Phillipse cornered the market in wampum by 
creating a shortage. He buried several hogs- 
heads of it in order to force those who had to 
use this medium of exchange to purchase wam- 
pum from huii at a higher price. 

Investment trust is claimed to have been the 
New York Stock Trust, a general portfolio 
statutory trust, winch was organized at New 
York City in 18X9. (John 1'rancis Fowler, Jr. 
American Investment Trusts) 

Ocean-going brokerage office was opened 
on the French liner "Ik- do Fr.mce" on August 
15, 1929, orders being taken as the boat left 
Havre A special \\ircless station, independent 
of the ship's wireless equipment \\as installed 
in a space adjoining the board room. Three 
radio channels, one to receive continuous quota- 
tions, the second to transmit orders to New 
York and the third to receive executions were 
available for use. 

Stock exchange was the New York Stock 
Exchange, the outgrowth of an agreement 
signed on May 17, 1792, by twenty-four brok- 
ers to fix the rates of commission on stocks and 
bonds. The first meeting was held at the Mer- 
chants Coffee i louse, 2nd and Cold Streets, 
New York City. The first president was Mat- 
thew MrConnc'll This protective league ex- 
isted until 1817 when the New York Stock 
Exchange, organized on its present lines. (Ild- 
tnund ( 'hirence Stcdman History of the Stock 

Stock order from a Zeppelin was radioed 
on A i, iv ist 8, 1930, from the (iraf Zeppelin. 
The radio message was picked up at Tucker- 
town, N J , and the order sent to Portland, 
Me, by telegraph The order was sent by 
Alexander (lodfrey of Boston, Mass. 

Telegraph ticker used by a brokerage 
concern. See Telegraph 

Woman brokerage office owner was Vic- 
toria Claflin Woodhull, who, with her sister 
Tennessee Celeste Clafbn, opened offices in I860 
in the Hoffman House, New York City. Their 
company, Woodhull, Claflin & Co., showed a 
net profit of $750,000 for the first six weeks. 
A newspaper cartoon depicted thorn driving a 


chariot drawn by two bullocks and two bears, 
with the heads of the largest financiers of 
the time. Tennessee v\as holding the reins 
while Victoria was whipping from right to left. 
The wheels of the chariot were crushing fi- 
nanciers while others embodied as ducks, with 
crutches under their wings, were trying to fly 
away. (Theodore Til ton Biographical Sketch 
of rictoria C. ll'oodhull) 

Woman stock exchange member (com- 
modity exchange) was Miss C.rctchen B. 
Schocnleber of the Ambrosia Chocolate Com- 
pany, Milwaukee, Wis., who was admitted Sep- 
tember 3, 1935, to membership in the New York 
Cocoa Exchange, Inc., New York City. 

Woman to sell securities on the floor of 
the New York Curb Exchange, New York 
City, was motion picture actress Linda Darnell 
who occupied Post 29 on November 19, 1941, 
to sell U.S. Defense Bonds and stamps. 





BRONZE STATUE (full length) was exe- 
cuted b\ Ball Hughes in 1817 and placed in 
the ccmetcrs at Mount Auburn, Cambridge, 
Mass It represented the astronomer Dr Na- 
thaniel Bowditch seated holding a cop\ of Ins 
translated work, La J Mace's Mccaniquc Celeste 
with a globe and a quadrant beside him The 
statue was imperfect and was recast by 
(mict Jne Fondcur of Paris, France, in 
1XX6 ( 7n>.s/<m touner I uuc 16, 1817} 

BRUSHES were manufactured at Mcdfield, 
Mass, in 1X08 by Artemas Woodward in a shop 
that stood near the present site of the Orthodox 
parsonage (ll'illiam Smith Tilden IJisiorv 
of the Town of Med field) 

BUDDHIST TEMPLE was established July 
15, 1904, at Los Angeles, Calif, in a meeting 
room. The first Bishop was Rinban Ixumeda. 
Most of the congregation belonged to the Shin- 
shu Sect of Buddhism, a brand i of the home 
Hompa Hongwanji Buddhist Temple. 

BUDGET BUREAU (United States) was 

created by Act of Congress (42 Stat L.22) ap- 
proved June 10, 1921. The Bureau is part of 
the Treasury Department, but under the imme- 
diate direction of the President. The first di- 
rector of the budget was Brigadier (General 
Charles Gates Dawes who served until luly 1 
1 922. ( 1 1 T illiam Franklin W ill on ghby Na- 
tional Budget System) 

(woman). Sec Woman 



Air-conditioned factory. See Factory 




BUILDING Continued 
Air-conditioned office building was the 

Milam Building, San Antonio, Tex., which 
opened January 1, 1928. The building is 21 
stories high, contains nearly 3,000,000 cubic feet 
and has 247,779 square feet of gross floor area. 
It was the first air-conditioned office building in 
the world with the air conditioning a part of 
the original construction. 

All-glass windowless structure was the 
Owens-Illinois Glass Company's packaging lab- 
oratory, Toledo, Ohio, completed January 15, 
1936. Eighty thousand translucent water-clear 
hollow glass blocks weighing about a hundred 
and fifty tons were used in the two-story build- 
ing which had thirty-nine rooms and an aggre- 
gate floor space of twenty thousand square feet. 
The blocks were manufactured at their Muncie, 
Ind., plant and were a part of the structural 
strength of the building. 

Apartment house with a modern lay-out 

was erected in New York City in 1869. It was 
known as the "Stuyvesant Apartments" and 
was located at 152 East 18th Street. It con- 
tained "four distinct suites of apartments" on 
each of the four floors while the fifth and top 
floor was arranged for artists' studios. The 
annual rental for the apartments varied from 
$1,200 to $1,800 each, while $200 was charged 
for the studios. The architect was Richard 
Morris Hunt and the owner Rutherford Stuy- 
vesant. (Annual Report of the Superintendent 
of Buildings, New York 1862-1869} 

Brick building was erected in 1633 at New 
Amsterdam (New York City) as a residence 
for Wouter Van Twiller, the fifth Dutch 
Governor. Several other brick structures 
were likewise erected within the fort. The 
bricks were imported from Holland. 
(Charles Thomas Davis Practical Treatise on 
the Manufacture of Bricks, Tiles and Terra 

Building built inside a factory completely 
ready for occupancy, and the first building 
floated across a river, was a 41 -ton five-room 
house and garage (32 by 42 feet) fully equip- 
ped with furnace, cooling system, laundry, 
plumbing and partly furnished, built by 
R[obert] G[ilmore] Le Tourneau, Inc., Peoria, 
111. It was towed across the Illinois River 
on its own bottom from Peoria, 111., to the Le 
Tourneau test farm in East Peoria, 111., on 
September 17, 1938. 

Building constructed wholly of cast iron 

was a factory five stories high which was built 
by James Bogardus at the corner of Centre and 
Duane Streets in New York City in May 1848. 
(John W. Thomson Cast Iron Buildings; 
Their Construction and Advantages) 

Building devoted entirely to highway traf- 
fic was erected by the Eno Foundation for 
Highway Traffic Control, Inc., at Sauga- 
tuck, Conn. Ground was broken July 18, 1938, 
the cornerstone laid August 29, 1938, and 


the building completed July 1, 1939. The or- 
ganization was incorporated April 22, 1921, and 
affiliated with Yale University, New Haven, 
Conn., February 15, 1933. 

Building erected by the Government in 
Washington, D.C. was the Executive Man- 
sion. It was modeled after the palace of the 
Duke of Leinster in Ireland and was designed 
by James Hoban. The cornerstone was laid 
October 13, 1792. The Executive Mansion was 
first occupied by President John Adams in 
1800, and the first New Year's reception was 
held there on January 1, 1801. The Executive 
Mansion was burned by the British in 1814 and 
only the four walls were left standing. It was 
restored in 1818 and in order to obliterate the 
marks of fire, the stones were painted white. 
Since that time the Executive Mansion has 
been known as the White House. When Adams 
first took occupancy there was only a path 
through an elder swamp leading from the presi- 
dent's house to the capitol. (Charles Hurd 
The White House, A Biography) 

Building erected in the United States for 
public use, under the authority of the Federal 
Government, was a structure for the United 
States Mint. This was a plain brick edifice, 
on the east side of Seventh Street, near Arch, 
in Philadelphia, Pa. The mint was established 
by the Act of April 2, 1792, (1 Stat.L.246) "act 
establishing a mint and regulating the coins of 
the United States." The corner stone was laid 
by David Rittenhouse, Director of the Mint, 
on July 31, 1792. 

Building heated by steam was the Eastern 
Hotel of Boston, Mass., erected in 1845. Small 
wrought iron pipes conveyed the steam and the 
heat was diffused by coils of pipe. 

Building in all-Gothic architecture was 

Trinity Episcopal Church, New Haven, Conn., 
designed by Ithicl Town of New Haven in 
1814. It had scam-faced Iraprook with brown- 
stone trim. (Roger Hale Neivton Town and 
Davis, Architects) 

Building in which wrought iron beams 
were used was erected for Harper & Brothers 

in New York City in 1854. Wrought iron 
beams were rolled for the first time in the 
United States in 1854 at the Trenton, N.J., Iron 
Works, of which Peter Cooper was the prin- 
cipal owner. These beams were intended for 
the Cooper Union building, but they were not 
ready in time as it took two years to prepare 
them. They were seven inches deep, weighed 
eighty-one pounds per yard and were of the 
type known as deck beams. Previously cast- 
iron beams had been used in construction 
work. (More Than One Hundred Years of 
Publishing Harper & Bros) 

Building known as a Quonset Hut was 

built in September 1941 at Quonset Point air 
station, Greenwich, R.T., for the United States 
Navy by the Great Lakes Steel Corporation 
Stran-Steel Division, Detroit, Mich. They 




were built around a framework of Stran- Steel 
members, a light steel building material dis- 
tinguished by a patented groove into which 
nails can be driven. They are officially desig- 
nated by the United States Navy as U.S. Navy 
Arch-Rib Huts. 

Building known as a skyscraper was a 

ten-story steel-skeleton building erected by the 
Home Insurance Company of New York at La 
Salle and Adams Streets, Chicago, 111. De- 
signed by Major William Le Baron Jenney, it 
was started on May 1, 1884, and completed in 
the fall of 1885. It was constructed of marble 
and flanked by four columns of polished granite 
supporting a marble balcony. Two additional 
stories were added to it later. A steel frame 
supported the entire weight of the walls in- 
stead of the walls themselves carrying the 
weight of the building. (William Aiken S tar- 
re tt Skyscrapers and the Men W ho Build 

Building of fireproof construction was the 

Fireproof Building which was designed and 
built by Robert Mills in 1822-23 on Meeting 
Street between Queen and Broad Street, 
Charleston, S.C. It was built for the preser- 
vation of the County Records and was a stone 
and iron structure. Even the window sashes 
were made of iron. The building is still in 
use. (Charleston Courier. March 30, 1822) 

Building of pressed structural steel was a 

twoslory fourtmi-room building designed and 
built in June 1907 by the Taft-Howell Co., of 
Cornwall Landing, N.Y., for the Tuxedo Park 
Association, Tuxedo Park, N.Y. The pressed 
steel known by the trade name, Metal Lumber, 
was developed by Harry Merrill Naugle, chief 
engineer of the Berger Manufacturing Com- 
pany, Canton, Ohio. It had structural mem- 
bers substituting in every detail what nor- 
mally would be wood studs and joists in bal- 
loon frame construction for dwellings. 

Building to employ brick in various colors 
for the entire exterior was the Roerich Mu- 
seum Apartments, 310 Riverside Drive, New 
York City, which also houses the Roerich Mu- 
seum, the International Art Center, and an 
auditorium with seating capacity for 500 per- 
sons, and is 24 stories high. The building 
opened October 17, 1929. The bricks in the 
base and lower stories are a deep purple. 
Through a series of delicate gradations, the 
bricks grow lighter in color as they rise. At the 
top of the building a faint lavender blends into 

Building with a high steeple was Trin- 
ity Church, New York City, which was com- 
menced October 17, 1839, and dedicated May 
21, 1846, Ascension Day. Visitors to New 
York paid a shilling each to climb the 308 steps 
to the Trinity steeple "with suitable resting 
places provided" to a point 34 feet below the 
peak. The steeple was 284 feet above Broad- 
way, and was the highest point until 1893 when 


the Manhattan Life Insurance Company erected 
its seventeen-story building and tower, which 
thrust its pinnacle 60 feet above the Trinity 

Building with prefabricated walls of mo- 
saic concrete was completed in February 1935. 
It is located on the Colesville Pike, north of 
Washington, D.C., and was built by the Earley 
Process Corporation, Washington, D.C. The 
walls of the house consisted of thirty-two 
panels, two inches thick, approximately nine 
feet high and from four to ten feet wide, 
heavily reinforced with electrically welded steel 
mesh, fireproof, weatherproof, and waterproof. 
Color and texture were determined by the 
color of the crushed quartz and quartz sand 
used in the concrete. 

Capitol building. See Capitol 
Fraternity house. See Fraternity 

House completely sunheated was built at 
Dover, Mass., and occupied on December 
24, 1948. The house traps the sun's energy 
through a unit consisting of a black sheet- 
metal collector behind two panes of glass. 
The solar heat is stored in a "heat bin" 
containing an inexpensive sodium compound. 
Flectric fans blow the stored heat through 
vents as desired. The experiments were 
sponsored by Amelia Peabody. The house 
was designed by Eleanor Raymond and the 
heating system was developed by Dr. Maria 

Library building. See Library 

Marble building. See Marble building 

Monolithic concrete building was the Mil- 
ton House, Milton, Wis., a hotel built in 1845 
by Joseph Goodrich on the corduroy road be- 
tween Chicago, 111., and Madison, Wis. It 
replaced a log house built in 1837 and a frame 
building of 1839. The walls were eighteen 
inches thick. A hexagonal tower three stories 
high served as a lookout for Indians; the re- 
maining portion was two stories high. (Con- 
crete Age. August 1924) 

Penitentiary building. See Prison 

Post office building (U.S.). See Post office 

Presidential mansion. See Presidential 

Steam-heated factory. Sec Factory 

Tenement house was built in New York 
City in 1833 on Water Street, on a site now 
within the limits of Corlears Park. It was 
four stories high with arrangements for one 
family on each floor. This was the beginning 
of the system of grouping many homes under 
one roof. 

Theater. See Theater 




BUILDING Continued 
"White House of the Confederacy" was 

used as a residence by Jefferson Davis from 
February 18, 1861, to May 22, 1861. It is lo- 
cated at 626 Washington Street, Montgomery, 
Ala. Davis arrived at Montgomery on Febru- 
ary 16, 1861, and remained at a local hotel for 
a few days. 

Windowless factory. See Factory 

Woman to have her name placed on the 
cornerstone of a U.S. Government building. 

See Woman 


was the Oxford Provident Building Associa- 
tion which was organized on January 3, 1831, 
in Thomas Sidebot ham's Tavern, 4219 Frank- 
ford Avenue, Frank ford, Pa. The organizers 
were Jesse Castor, secretary, Samuel Pilling, 
treasurer, and Jeremiah Horrocks. The com- 
pany was succeeded by the Decatur Building 
Association The first loan was $500, made on 
April 11, 1831, to Mr. Conily Rich. (Robert 
Rieyel The D nil ding and Loan Association) 

BUNTING manufacture was undertaken in 
1838 by Michael Hodge Simpson at the New 
England Worsted Company, Saxonville, Mass. 

TIC COMMERCE. Sec Commerce depart- 
ment (U.S ) 



GERY (NAVAL) See Navy 

gation bureau (U S.) 

ards bureau 


Burglar alarm was installed by Edwin 
Thomas Holmes on February 21, 1858, at Bos- 
ton, Mass. The releasing of a spring by open- 
ing a door or window made a contact which 
caused a short circuit of the wires. (Edivin 
Thomas Holmes A Wonderful Fifty Years) 

Burglar alarm system in which the pro- 
tected premises were connected by wire to a 
central office system which was immediately 
apprised of entry was installed by the Holmes 
Burglar Alarm Company, New York City, in 
1872. The alarms served safe cabinets and 
bank vaults specifically instead of the general 
protection of stores and houses. 

BURIAL PLOT (Jewish). See Cemetery 
"BUS." See Automobile bus 



Chain store organization is ascribed to 
many, but the first of the existing chain stores 
is the Great Atlantic and Pacific Tea Company. 
George lluntington Hartford was in the hide 
and leather business in New York City in 1857 
and in 1859 added tea. In 1864 he originated 
the Great American Tea Company which in 
1869 developed into the Great Atlantic and 
Pacific Tea Company, the presidency of which 
he kept until his death, August 29, 1Q17. De- 
spite the name, the first store on the Pacific 
coast was not opened until January 1930 

Commercial rating agency was established 
in New York City on August 1, 1841, as 
The Mercantile Agency, by Lewis Tappan who 
founded the Journal of Commerce in 1828. The 
first place of business of the agency was at the 
corner of Hanover Street and Exchange Place, 
New York City Branch houses were later 
opened, the first in Boston, Mass., in February 
1843. On May 1, 1859, the firm was taken 
over by R G. Dun & Company. 

Department store was the Zion's Co- 
operative Mercantile Institution created by 
Brighum Young in 1868 in Salt Lake City, 
Utah. In the beginning, each department was 
housed in its own store One handled dry 
goods and carpets, another men's clothing. 
Groceries were carried in a different store, 
while another was a drug store. The following 
year, they were all housed under the same roof. 

Department store to hold a public art 
auction was Gimbcl Brothers, New York City, 
on November 14 and 15, 1941, when 303 items 
were auctioned by the Kende Galleries, Inc. 
The sales totaled $12,066. 

Five-cent store was opened in Utica, NY., 
on February 22, 1870, 1> } Frank Winfield Wool- 
worth. The store was a great disappointment 
as its sales after a fev\ weeks were as Km as 
$2.50 a day. He moved Ins store in June 1879 
to Lancaster, Pa, \\herc it proved a success 
His idea was developed on September 24, 1878 
at Watcrtown, N Y., when (luring the week 
of the country fair he originated a "five-cent 
table" in the store of Moore and Smith. The 
first joint venture of the Wool worth brothers 
at Harrisburg, Pa., was called "Great 5 Cent 
Store." (Fijty Years of IVoohvorthF. W . 
Woo/worth Co ) 

"Food-O-Mat" was installed in the Grand 
Union Company store, Carlstadt, N.J., on 
May 24, 1945. It was invented by Lansing 
Peter Shield. The patented merchandise dis- 
play fixture operates on a gravity feed, rear- 
load principle. Stockmen working behind 
the unit place cans, jars and packages, label 
upright, in inclined runways. The items 
reach the shopper brand name uppermost. 
As the customer picks out an item, another 
slides in place by gravity. 

Instalment finance company to purchase 
instalment contracts from retail dealers was the 
Fidelity Contract Company, Rochester, N.Y., 




which held its first directors' meeting April 7, 
1904. The company, organized by Lee Rich- 
mond, Frederick Zoller, and George Gale Fos- 
ter, became the Bankers Commercial Corpora- 
tion of New York City. 

Keedoozle store was opened at Memphis, 
Tenn., on May 15, 1937, by the Keedoozle Cor- 
poration of Memphis, Term., of which Clarence 
Saunders was president. Sample merchandise 
was displayed behind rows of tiny glass win- 
dows. The customer made purchases by insert- 
ing a notched rod into a keyhole beside the 
items desired. The mechanism automatically 
recorded the selections. The merchandise was 
automatically collected and wrapped when the 
key was inserted in a final slot which released 
the contents to a conveyor for wrapping. 
"Keedoozle" is a coined word for "key-does- 

Mail-order house \vas established by 
Aaron Montgomery Ward in 1872 in a 12x14 
foot room al 825 North Clark Street, Chicago, 
111, uith $2,400 capit.il, one third of which 
was advanced by George R Thome. The first 
catalog consisted of a single-slid'! price list, 
8x12 inches, without illustrations Afterwards, 
catalogs \\ith descriptive pictures were issued 
and a fifteen-cent charge made for them The 
first free catalogs, more than 3,000,000 weighing 
four pounds each, were mailed in 1904. (His- 
tory and Progress of Montgomery Ward and 
Co. Montgomery Ward and Co.) 

Nurse employed by an industrial organiza- 
tion. ,S<v Nurse 

BUSINESS MACHINES. Sec under .spe- 
cific kinds of machine, e^ 
Adding machine Postage meter 

Cash register Telautograph 

the title "Commerce, Political Economy and 
Statistics'' was established by the University of 
Louisiana (now Tul.me University), New Or- 
leans, La., in 1849; and \\as conducted by Pro- 
fessor James 1 Hmwoody Brownson De Bow. 


Isidor Straus Professorship of Business His- 
tory, established in 1923 by the Graduate School 
of Business Administration, Harvard Univer- 
sity, Cambridge, Mass. The first incumbent 
was Norman Scott Brien Gras appointed in 

BUSINESS MANUAL was John Hill's The 
Young Secretary's Guide; or a speedy help to 
learning., printed by Bartholomew] Green and 
J[ohn] Allen for S. Phillips in 1703 at Bos- 
ton, Mass. It was based on an English work, 
contained 192 pages of instructions on writing 
business and social letters, punctuation rules, a 
dictionary of "hard words," examples of bonds, 
bills, letters of attorney, deeds of sale, mort- 
gage forms, warrants of attorney, deeds of gift, 
bills of sale, bills of exchange, assignments, etc. 


(Louis Charles Karpinski Bibliography oj 
Mathematical Works Printed in America 
Through 1850) 

York Prices Current, a weekly started in New 
York City in 1795 by James Oram. The date 
of the earliest known existing copy of this pub- 
lication is January 2, 1797. 


Business collegiate school was the Whar 
ton School of Commerce and Finance at Phila- 
delphia, Pa., established in 1881 by the Uni- 
versity of Pennsylvania through a $100,000 gift 
of Joseph Wharton, at Philadelphia, Pa. 
(Thomas Harrison Montgomery A History of 
the University of Pennsylvania) 

Business high school was the Washington 
Business High School, Washington, D.C., au- 
thorized June 11, 1889, by the Board of Educa- 
tion. Tt opened September 22, 1890, in a 
disused grade school building of seven rooms. 
Allan Davis was the first principal. (Reports 
of the Board of Trustees of the Public Schools 
in Washington, D.C. 1885-1900) 

Business school was opened in Rochester, 
N Y., in 1842 by George Washington Eastman, 
and was known as the Hast man Commercial 

Commercial high school. S\v Commercial 
high school 


Buttons of fresh water pearl were manu- 
factured in Muscatine, Iowa, in 1890 by John F. 
Boepple, assisted by William Molis and R. 
Kerr. The pearl was obtained from domestic 
fresh w r ater clam shells. (US. Bureau of Fish- 
eries. Vol 36. 1917-18) 

Cloth-covered buttons were made by hand 
at Easthampton, Mass., in 1826 by Mrs. Samuel 
Williston who was the first to commercially 
introduce their use in the United States. Her 
husband formed a partnership with Joel Hay- 
den who invented the first machine for making 
covered buttons. The partnership lasted until 
1848 when Williston bought out his partner and 
conducted the business alone. 

Gilt buttons to be commercially manufac- 
tured were produced in 1802 by Abel Porter 
& Company of Waterbury, Conn. The faces 
were all gilded and gold was extensively used 
in their manufacture. This concern later de- 
veloped into the Scovill Manufacturing Com- 
pany of Waterbury, Conn. (Henry Bronson 
History of Waterbury) 

Pewter or block tin buttons were manu- 
factured in 1790 in Waterbury, Conn., by 
Henry, Silas and Samuel Grilley, three broth- 
ers who established a small factory on Bunker 
Hill. The buttons were cast in molds. The 
eyes were originally cast of the same material. 
Later, wire eyes were used. (Henry Bronson 
History of Waterbury) 




See Sewing machine 

CAB LOCOMOTIVE. See Locomotive 
CABIN AIRSHIP. See AviationAirship 

Cabinet was appointed by President George 
Washington during his first term, April 30, 
1789, to March 3, 1793. Members of the cabi- 
net were Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, Secre- 
tary of State; Alexander Hamilton of New 
York, Secretary of the Treasury; Henry Knox 
of Massachusetts, Secretary of War; Samuel 
Osgood of Massachusetts, Postmaster General; 
and Edmund Jennings Randolph of Virginia, 
Attorney General. The seat of the Federal 
Government at that time was New York City. 
(Henry Barrett Learned The President's 

Cabinet appointee rejected by the Senate 

was Roger Brooke Taney of Maryland nomi- 
nated by President Andrew Jackson June 24, 
1834 as Secretary of the Treasury. (William 
Henry Smith History of the Cabinet of the 
US. of A.) 

Cabinet member convicted of a crime 

while a member of a President's cabinet was 
Albert Bacon Fall after a trial in the District 
of Columbia Supreme Court. He was found 
guilty by Justice William Hitz on October 25, 
1929, of receiving and accepting a bribe of 
$100,000 from Edward Laurence Doheny in 
connection with the Elk Hills Naval Oil Re- 
serve, given with a view to influencing Fall as 
Secretary of the Interior to grant valuable oil 
leases to Doheny's Pan-American Petroleum 
and Transport Company. On November 1, 
1929, Fall was sentenced to one year in prison 
and a $100,000 fine. 

Cabinet member who was Jewish was Os- 
car Solomon Straus of New York who was 
Secretary of Commerce and Labor during Pres- 
ident Theodore Roosevelt's second administra- 
tion. He was appointed on December 12, 1906, 
and served from December 17, 1906 to March 
3, 1909. (Oscar Solomon Straus Under Four 
Administrations from Cleveland to Taft) 

Cabinet officer to address a joint session 
of Congress was Secretary of State Cordell 
Hull who reported on November 18, 1943, 
that the tripartite conference at Moscow 
pointed towards the maintenance of peace 
and security in the postwar world. The two 
houses, being in recess, assembled to hear 
him, but technically it was not a "joint 

Woman cabinet member was Frances 
Perkins (Mrs. Paul Wilson), who was ap- 
pointed Secretary of Labor by President Frank- 
lin Delano Roosevelt. She served from 
March 4, 1933 to June 30, 1945. She had been 
Industrial Commissioner for New York prior 
to this appointment. (US. Dept. of Labor- 
Frances Perkins, A Bibliographical List} 


Woman sub-cabinet member was Annette 
Abbott Adams who was appointed Assistant 
Attorney General on June 26, 1920 by President 
Woodrow Wilson. She resigned August 15, 
1921. (Arthur J. Dodge Origin and Develop- 
ment of the Office of the Attorney General) 

CABLE (Telegraph) 

Cable was an insulated copper wire laid 
October 18, 1842, by Samuel Finley Breese 
Morse in New York Harbor between the Bat- 
tery and Governors Island. On the following 
day while transmitting signals, the cable ceased 
to work because a vessel in raising its anchor 
had caught and wrecked two hundred feet of the 
cable. Another cable was laid in New York 
Harbor for commercial use in 1843 by Samuel 
Colt. It was insulated with cotton yarn, bees- 
wax and asphaltum encased in a lead pipe, and 
connected New York City with both Fire and 
Coney Islands. (Edzvard Wright Byrn Prog- 
ress of Invention in the Nineteenth Century) 
(Samuel Irenaeus PrimeLife of S. F. B. 

Cable across the Atlantic Ocean was com- 
pleted on August 5, 1858, due to the efforts of 
Cyrus West Field. Two unsuccessful attempts 
had been made previously. On July 28, 1858, a 
splice was made in mid-occ;m, and on the fol- 
lowing day four ships belonging to England 
and the United Slates, paying out the cable 
sailed for home, the "Agamemnon" and "Valor- 
ous" bound for Valentia, Ireland, and the "Ni- 
agara" and the "Gorgon" for Trinity Bay, New 
Foundland, which were to be the terminals. 
The cable was 1,950 statute miles long and 
over two thirds of it was laid more than two 
miles deep. Introductory and complimentary 
messages were exchanged by President James 
Buchanan and Queen Victoria on August 16, 
1858. The cable was weak and the current in- 
sufficient and service suspended September 1, 
1858. (Isabella Field Juds on Cyrus W. Field, 
His Life and Work) 

Cable across the Atlantic Ocean was paid 

out on August 6, 1857. The American frigate 
"Niagara" and the British warship "Agamem- 
non" attempted the task, but the cable broke 
and it was impossible to mend the break or 
complete the cable. (Henry Martyn Field 
History of the Atlantic Telegraph) 

Cable across the Pacific Ocean was paid 
out on December 14, 1902, between San Fran- 
cisco, Calif., and Honolulu, Hawaii, a distance 
of 2,277 nautical miles (2,620 miles) by the 
cableship "Silverton" and was landed on the 
beach near Honolulu, January 1, 1903. The 
first message was sent at 11:03 P.M. San 
Francisco time on that day. This cable was 
opened for public use on January 5, 1903. 

Cable across the Pacific Ocean between 
Honolulu, Midway, Guam and Manila was 

completed and spliced at Manila on July 3, 
1903. After testing, the first official message 
was sent by President Theodore Roosevelt 
from his home at Oyster Bay, N.Y., at 10:50 
A.M., July 4, 1903, to Governor William How- 




ard Taft at Manila, who immediately answered 
it. Another message was sent westward 
across the Pacific and around the world to 
Clarence Hungerford Mackay who was with 
President Roosevelt at his home. The trans- 
mission time of the message was eleven minutes. 
The message was answered by Mr. Mackay, his 
message going eastward to London and over 
the system of the Eastern Telegraph Company 
to Manila, thence over the new Pacific cable 
and back to Oyster Bay, transmission time of 
this message being nine minutes. The cable 
from San Francisco, Calif., to Manila via Hon- 
olulu was 7,876 nautical miles (9,060 miles). 
On account of changes in time, the message 
starting around the world reached the west 
before the time it was dispatched. 

News dispatch by cable was received Au- 
gust 26, 1858, and was published in the New 
York Sun, August 27, 1858. It stated that a 
treaty of peace had been concluded by China 
in which England and France obtained all their 
demands including the establishment of em- 
bassies at Peking and indemnification for the 
expenses of the war. 

Submarine cable plow. See Plow 

Submarine telegraph cable that was prac- 
tical was laid by Ezra Cornell, an associate of 
Samuel Finley Breese Morse. In 1845 he laid 
twelve miles of cable enclosed in lead pipes 
across the Hudson River connecting Fort Lee, 
N J., with New York City. This cable was car- 
ried away by the ice in 18-16 High masts were 
erected and an overhead wire was stretched 
across the river. Before the cable was installed, 
messages for Philadelphia, Pa., arid Washing- 
ton, D.C., were carried across the Hudson by 
messengers in boats. (Alonzo B. Cornell 
True and Firm, Biography of Ezra Cornell) 

Submarine telegraph cable to be insulated 
with gutta percha, was made by Samuel T. 
Armstrong and Lorenzo Higgms at a factory 
at Water "Street, Brookljn, NY., in May 1848. 
ft was laid across the North (Hudson) River 
for the Magnetic Telegraph Co. (Transactions 
American Institute, 1847) 


operation; Births 

CAFETERIA was opened in 1895 in Chicago, 
111., on Adams Street between Clark and La 
Salle Streets by Ernest Kimball. In 1899 he 
moved it to the basement of the New York Life 
Building where it was located until 1925. 
Sec also Restaurants 


CALICO printcry was established at Boston, 
Mass., by George Leason and Thomas Webber, 
who advertised in the Boston Neivs Letter, 
April 21-28, 1712 that they had "set up a Cal- 
lender-Mill and Dye House in Cambridge 
Street, Boston, near the Bowling Green where 


all gentlemen, Merchants, and others may have 
all sorts of Linnens, callicoes, stuffs or Silks 
Calendered: Prints all sorts of Linnens." 

service Consul to California 


Aviation Flights 

and blessed by Father Junipero Serra on July 
16, 1769. After High Mass, the royal standard 
of Spain was unfurled over the Mission which 
was named in honor of San Diego de Alcala, 
The mission was the first of a chain of twenty- 
one which were erected. It is located in what 
is now San Diego, Calif. (Trowbridge Hall 
California Trails) 

CALIPER (screw) was constructed by John 
Edson Sweet in 1874 in the shops of Sibley 
College (Cornell University), Ithaca, N.Y. 
The screw of the machine had sixteen threads 
per inch and its divided circle had six hundred 
and twenty-five readings, the calibration read- 
ing was thus to one thousandth of an inch. The 
machine stood on three legs. (Frederick Ar- 
thur Halsey Methods of Machine Shop Work) 


CALLIOPE was invented by Joshua C 
Stoddard of Worcester, Mass., who on October 
9, 1855 received United States patent No. 13,368. 
He formed the American Steam Music Com- 
pany in 1855. The first marine exhibition was 
August 6, 1856, on the large side-wheel tugboat 
"Union." (John Harrison Morrison History 
of American Steam Navigation) 


CAMEL race took place April 7, 1864, at 
Agricultural Park, Sacramento, Calif. The 
proceeds obtained from the sale of tickets were 
used to aid the poor. (May Humphreys Stacey 
Uncle Sam's Camels) 

CAMELS. See Animals 

Aerial camera (nine-lens) for large-scale 

mapping was designed by personnel of the 
United States Coast and Geodetic Survey in 
1934 under the direction of Lieutenant Oliver 
Scott Reading and built under contract by the 
Fairchild Aerial Camera and Instrument Com- 
pany, Jamaica, N.Y., in 1935. It was placed 
in operation in 1936. It was 29 inches wide, 
27 inches fore and aft, 31 inches high, and 
weighed 306 pounds net. Gross weight with all 
equipment for photography was 750 pounds. 
The nine lenses photographed the terrain simul- 
taneously on one piece of film. The camera 
was loaded with a strip of film 23 inches wide 
and 200 feet long, and could take 100 exposures 
without reloading. When flown at a height of 
13,750 feet, the camera photographed 121 square 
miles at one exposure at a scale of one inch 
to 1,667 feet. 




CAMERA Continued 

Moving picture camera (portable) was the 
Victor Cine Camera manufactured by the Vic- 
tor Animatograph Company, Inc., Davenport, 
Iowa, in 1923. It was three by six by eight 
inches, weighed five pounds and cost fifty-five 
dollars. It was advertised August 12, 1923. 

Roll film camera, which did not require 
a table or tripod for support, was Kodak No.l, 
a fixed- focus box camera, announced June 
1888 by George Eastman at Rochester, N.Y. 
It weighed twenty-two ounces and had a lens 
fast enough to make instantaneous exposures. 
It used a roll of film of a hundred exposures 
and took a round picture two and a half inches 
in diameter. It was covered by patent No. 388,- 
850 dated September 4, 1888, and the name 
"Kodak" was registered on the same date. 

Tin-type camera was patented by Professor 
Hamilton Lamphere Smith, professor of nat- 
ural sciences, Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio, 
who obtained patent No. 14,300, on February 
19, 1856, on "photographic pictures on japanned 
surfaces." The photographs were collodion 
positives on black or chocolate colored iron 
plates. (Robert Taft Photography and the 
American Scene) 



CAMOUFLAGE was undertaken as a scien- 
tific study by Abbott Henderson Thayer who 
presented a valuable treatise on protective col- 
oration entitled "The Law Which Underlies 
Protective Coloration" which appeared in the 
April 1896 issue of The Auk, an ornithological 
journal, published at New York City. 

CAMP (ARMY). See Army camp 

CAMP FIRE GIRLS organization was de- 
veloped by Mrs Luther Halsey Gulick at her 
camp at Lake Sebago, Maine. The name and 
ranks were suggested by W. C. Langdon. The 
society, an organization for young girls, was 
made public March 17, 1912. The watchword 
is "Wohelo," made from the first two letters 
of each of the words, Work, Health and Love. 
(Luther Halsey Gulick Camp fire Girls oj 

CAMP FOR BOYS' outdoor recreation was 
Camp Comfort, Welch's Point, Milford, Conn., 
established in August 1861, when Frederick 
William Gunn, founder of the Gunnery School, 
took fifty boys on a two- weeks camping trip 
to old Milford on the sound near New Haven, 
Conn. The camp was repeated in August 
1863 and in August 1865. In 1867, Gunn started 
another camp at Point Beautiful on Lake 
Waramaug, Washington, Conn., which was 
opened for a two- weeks period in August for 
twelve successive years. 

TORS. See Conscientious objectors camp 


CAMP MEETING was held in 1803 by 
James M'Gcary, William McGee (Presbyteri- 
an) and John McGee (Methodist) in a little 
log church on the Gaspar River in Logan 
County, Ky. (Rev. B. W . Gorhani Camp 
Meeting Manual) 


CAMPAIGN (political) TELECAST. Sec 


CAN (tin) with a key opener was invented 
by J Ohterhoudt of New York City who 
obtained Patent No. 58,554 on October 2, 
1866, for an "improved method of opening tin 
cans." It had a projecting lip and key 
See also Canning 


Canal was built around the falls of the 
Connecticut River at South Hadlcy Falls, Mass., 
in 1793. Tt was chartered by "The Proprietors 
of the Upper Locks and Canals on the Connect- 
icut River in the County of Hampshire" The 
canal was two miles long and was opened to 
traffic in 1794. Benjamin Prescott was the en- 
gineer. Boats were run into movable caissons 
filled with water and were hauled by cables 
operated by water pov\er. It had two 
levels, connected by an incline, up and down 
which boats were raised or lowered in a tank of 
water and propelled by cables operated by water 
wheels. (Alonco Barton Hepburn Artificial 
Waterways and Commercial Development) 

Canal for creating water power was dug 

by English settlers in 1639-40 at Dedham, 
Mass., at Mill Creek, or Mother Brook as it is 
commonly called, and was used to run a mill. 
It conveyed water from the Charles River into 
the Neponset River The order for the con- 
struction of the canal follows. "The 25th of 
ye 1 month, Comonly Called March. 1639. As- 
sembled whose names are vnderwrittcn viz*. 
. . Ordered y l a Pitch shalbe made at a 
Comon Charge through purchased Medowe 
vnto y East brooke. y* may both be a pi icon 
fence in y 1 ' same; as also may sei ve for a 
Course vnto a water mill " (Early Records of 
the Town of Dedham, Mass. Dedham Histori- 
cal Register. ] 7 ol 6 No 4) 

Canal of importance was the Erie Canal 
which connected the waters of Lake Erie at 
Buffalo with the waters of the Hudson at Al- 
bany, N.Y. Lake Erie lies 550 feet above 
the level of tide water in the Hudson. The 
canal was 360 miles in length, 40 feet wide at 
the top and 28 feet wide at the bottom and 
four feet deep. The canal was authorized on 
July 4, 1817, and was opened for traffic on 
October 26, 1825. The original cost was ap- 
proximately $9,000,000. (Historical Catechism. 
8th ed. Utica. 1835) 

Great-Lakes-to-the-Gulf waterway become 
an accomplished fact on June 21, 1933, upon 
arrival at Chicago, 111., of the first low from 
New Orleans, La. On June 1, 1933, the Eed- 




eral Barge Line steamer "Vicksburg" with 
barges laden with coffee, sisal and general 
merchandise left New Orleans, La. The tow 
was transferred to the "Hoover" at Memphis, 
Tenn ; to the "Sawyer" plying on the Illinois 
River; and to the "Warner" at Ottawa, Til., 
which brought it to Chicago. The completion 
of the Lakes-to-the-Ciiilf Waterway was offi- 
cially celebrated at Chicago, June 22, 1Q-33. 

CANAL LOCKS made of concrete were built 
by the United States Government for the Illi- 
nois and Mississippi Canal (the Hennepin 
canal) which connected Lake Michigan at 
Chicago, 111., with the Mississippi River, south 
of Rock Island, 111. Excavation work com- 
menced July 182 and the first section, the 
Milan section, was opened to traffic on April 
17, 18Q5. (Illinois and Mississippi Canal 
Annual Report of the Chief Engineer 1908) 

CANCER CLINIC. Sec Medical clinic 



CANCER LABORATORY, exclusively for 
the study of cancer, \\as the New York State 
Pathological Laboratory for the Stnd\ of Can- 
cer established in Ma\ 18 ( >8 under "a $10,000 
appropi lation made 1 b\ the New York State 
legislature on April 20, 180K, Chapter 606," for 
the faculty of the medical department of the 
UnivcrsilN of BulTalo for the equipment and 
maintenance ol a laboratory to be devoted to 
an investigation into the causes, nature, mortal- 
ity rate and the treatment of cancer " Ur 
Roswell Park \\as the first director and l)r 
Harvey Russell (lav lord, associate (7'ir.s/ An- 
nual Report oj the Direilor of the AY<v }'ork 
Slate Pathological laboratory- 1899) 

CANCER RESEARCH fund was the Collis 
P. Hunlington Fund for ( ancer Research estab- 
lished in 1 ( H)2 h> Mrs Collis Totter Hunting- 
ton The fund amounting to $100,000 was used 
by the New York lancer Hospital, New York 
City It enabled them to administer x-ray 
treatments and install new equipment (Re- 
ports oj the Collis I* Hitntin<jton Fund for 
Cancer Re^carili of the (ietieral Manorial Hos- 

CANDLE FACTORY for making sper- 
maceti candles was established by Benjamin 
Crabb at Newport, R.I. in 1748. It was de- 
stroyed by fire in 1750. 

CANE SUGAR. Sec Sugar 


Canning was introduced in 1810 by Ezra 
Daggett, and his nephew, Thomas Kensctt, 
who canned salmon, oysters and lobsters in 
New York City. They were originally known 
as "preservers." On January 19, 1825 they 
obtained a patent to "preserve animal substances 
in tin." They used cans in 1825, but the real 
development of the canning industry did not 
start until after the Civil war. (Henry Meech 
Loomis The Canning of Foods) 


Salmon cannery was erected in 1864 at 
Washington, Yolo County, Calif., on the banks 
of the Sacramento River by Hapgood, Hume 
and Company. The firm consisted of Andrew 
S. Hapgood, George W. Hume and William 
flume. About two thousand cases of salmon 
were canned the first year. Approximately 50 
per cent of the first production spoiled because 
the cans were not hermetically sealed. (R. D. 
Hume The Salmon of the Pacific Coast) 

Sardine cannery that was successful was 
established in 1876 in Eastport, Me., by 
Julius Wolff of Wolff and Reesing, New 
York City. The cans, as originally used, 
were made of three pieces, top, bottom and 
side which were soldered together. (Frederick 
Clarence Weber TJie Maine Sardine Industry. 
US. Department of Agriculture, Bulletin 
No. 90S) 

CANNING BOOK was a translation of 
Francois Appert's "L'Art de Conserver, pen- 
dant plusiers annees, toutcs les substances ani- 
males et vegetates," published in 1812 by [Da- 
vid] Longworlh, New York City. 

CANNON. See Ordnance 


Aviation -Airplane 

CANOE ASSpCIATION was the American 
Canoe Association formed August 3, 1880, by 
twenty-five canoeists at Crosbyside Park, 
Lake George, N.Y. The first commodore was 
William Livingston Alden and the first secre- 
tary Nathaniel Holmes Bishop (American 
Canoe Association Yearbook 1895) 

CANOE CLUB was the New York Canoe 
Club founded m New York City in 1870 A 
clubhouse was built in 1879 during which year 
a regatta was held The club was dissolved 
August 3, 1880 (C Bowyer l r an.r Canoe 

CANS. See Catholic Canonization of North 

CAP (Bottle). See Bottle cap 

Capital punishment authorized by Federal 

law made the killing of a federal officer 
a mandatory capital offense. The law was 
enacted May 18, 1934 (48 Stat.L.780) and 
the first trial was United States vs. John Paul 
Chase. On March 25, 1935, Chase was con- 
victed of first -degree murder for the killing of 
Samuel Cowley, Department of Justice agent, 
on November 27, 1934, at Barrington, 111. Judge 
Philip Sullivan sentenced him to life imprison- 
ment on March 28, 1935, as the jury did not 
recommend the death penalty since he was not 
the principal in the matter. The first execu- 




tion was that of George W. Barrett tried 
August 16, 1935, for the murder of Federal 
Agent Nelson Bernard Klein at College Cor- 
ner, Ind., on August 15, 1935. He was tried 
before U.S. District Judge Robert C. Baltzell, 
convicted December 7, 1935, and hanged March 
24, 1936, at the Marion County Jail, Marion, 

Death penalty was first abolished by 

Michigan law, enacted May 4, 1846, effec- 
tive March 1, 1847. The gallows were 
still retained, however, for treason against the 
state. On April 22, 1794, Pennsylvania had 
abolished the death penalty except for murder 
in the first degree. (Michigan History Mag- 
azine. Vol. 29 #1) 

Woman judge to sentence a man to death. 

See Judge 

CAPITOL was a statehouse on Duke of 
Gloucester Street, Williamsburg, Va., in which 
the General Assembly met. The building was 
erected in 1698 by Governor Francis Nicholson 
who was the first person to apply the term 
"capitol" to a government building. 

CAPITOL (of the United States) was de- 
signed by Dr. William Thornton whose 
plan was accepted as the most suitable submitted 
in a national contest. The cornerstone of the 
Capitol was laid in Washington, D.C. on Sep- 
tember 18, 1793. George Washington delivered 
an oration and the Grand Master of the Mary- 
land Masons an appropriate address. After the 
laying of the cornerstone, the assembly retired 
to an extensive booth where they enjoyed a 
barbecue feast. George Washington laid the 
cornerstone on the southeast corner of the 
central (oldest) section. The central section is 
of Virginia sandstone painted white to make it 
harmonize with the Massachusetts marble of 
the two wings. (Rufus Rockwell Wilson 
Washington, The Capitol City) 

CAPTAIN. See Naval officer 


Air-conditioned car was tried by the New 
York and Erie Railroad in 1854 which installed 
a funnel-shaped opening at the top and sides 
of a railroad car to catch the air which was 
then passed through a water tank underneath 
the car to the car. In winter, the air was 
heated by a stove. An opening in the rear of 
the car enabled the air to escape. (Scientific 
American Vol. 9, No. 28 March 25, J854) 

Air-conditioned cars were installed by the 
Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway Com- 
pany in fifteen new dining cars built in 1914, 
cars No. 1441 to No. 1455, in service in the 
"California Limited" between Chicago, 111., and 
Los Angeles, Calif. The system was known as 
the Duntley Air Washer and consisted of a 
motor-driven spray wheel partially submerged 
in ice water. Fresh air was drawn through the 
spray and delivered into the car by means of a 


fan and air ducts along the deck of the car. 
This system was successful inasmuch as it 
washed the air and lowered the temperature of 
the cars a few degrees, but the capacity was in- 

Aluminum street car in which the metal 
was used not only for the body and under- frame 
but also for the trucks was placed in service 
December 2, 1926, by the Cleveland Railway 
Company. The total weight for the car was 
30,300 pounds of which amount 6,647 pounds 
was aluminum. The first use of aluminum in 
street car construction was on October 27, 
1904, when the Intcrborough Rapid Transit 
Company of New York City used aluminum in 
300 subway motor cars and trailers on interior 
finish work, moldings, window panels, etc. 
(Electric Railroad Journal. April 1930) 

Cable car was invented by Elcazer A. Gard- 
ner of Philadelphia, Pa., who obtained patent 
No. 19,736, March 23, 1858, on an "improve- 
ment in tracks for city railways." An under- 
ground tunnel, having a series of pulleys inside, 
housed the cable. 

Cable street car put into service in the 
world was August 1, 1873 on Clay Street Hill, 
San Francisco, Calif. The car was invented 
by Andrew Smith Hallidie, who obtained pat- 
ent No. 110,971 January 17, 1871, on an 
"endless-wire rope way." (Edgar Myron 
Kahn Cable Car Days in San Francisco) 

Car with fluorescent lighting was New 

York Central coach 1472, placed in service Sep- 
tember 2, 1938. The Twentieth Century Lim- 
ited streamliner used the first fluorescent tail 
sign June 15, 1938. 

Chapel car was the "Evangel" dedicated 
May 23, 1891, at Cincinnati, Ohio. The dedi- 
catory address was delivered by Dr. Wayland 
Hoyt. The car was fitted out for religious 
services and was used on the Northern Pacific 
Railroad's tracks. Experimental services were 
held at St. Paul and Minneapolis, Minn., and 
after several months of prospecting work, the 
car was committed for the winter to the Rev. 
and Mrs. E. G. Wheeler who conducted serv- 
ices in it on the Pacific coast. 

Coal cars with roller bearings were placed 
in service on the Wheeling and Lake Erie Rail- 
road in December 1925. There were two 
fifty-ton hopper cars, the trucks of which were 
placed under the existing car bodies by the 
Timken Roller Bearing Company. The cars 
were placed in coal service operating between 
mines in Ohio and Lake Erie. (William C. 
Sanders Railway Roller Bearings) 

Complete train of coal cars with roller 
bearings was placed in service during the early 
part of January 1930 by the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road Company and consisted of one hundred 
hopper cars of seventy tons capacity each. The 
cars were used between the Cresson Division 
and the eastern seaboard. The trucks, made by 
the Timken Roller Bearing Company, were 
placed under the regular standard cars. 




Dining car ever operated in the world 
was the "Delmonico," built in 1868 by the Pull- 
man Palace Car Company, Pullman, 111., and 
placed in service between Chicago, 111 , and St. 
Louis, Mo., by the Chicago & Alton Railroad 
Company. The Philadelphia, Wilmington and 
Baltimore Railroad in 1863 operated two re- 
modeled day refreshment coaches, fifty feet 
long, fitted with an eating bar, steam box, etc., 
on the Philadelphia-Baltimore run. Food pre- 
pared at the terminals was sold. (First In Ail 
Travel Conveniences Chicago & Alton Traffic 

Double-deck railroad coaches were built 
by Richard Tmlay in August 1830 and used on 
the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. The "Im- 
proved Passenger Cars" accomodated twelve 
passengers while outside seats at the end re- 
ceived six passengers including the driver. On 
top of the carriages was a double sofa which 
accommodated twelve additional passengers. 
An iron frame-work supported an awning 
which protected those on the upper deck. 
They were placed in service between Balti- 
more, Md. and Ellicott's Mill, Md. 

Double-deck street car was operated July 
4, 1892 on a trial trip at San Diego, Calif. 
The upper deck, reached by a winding stairway 
on each end of the car, was on the roof, with 
longitudinal seats facing outward, accommo- 
dating twelve on each side, and roofed over 
by a canopy. There were no sides or en- 
closures on the upper deck other than a 

Electric street car successfully run with 
current generated by a stationary dynamo 

was invented by Stephen Dudley Field of New 
York City in 1874. In this system the current 
was carried by one of the rails to a wheel of 
the car, and thence to the motor. From this 
it flowed back through the other wheel which 
was insulated from the first one, to the other 
rail, and thence returned to the dynamo. Field 
filed a caveat on May 21, 1879 and obtained 
patent No. 229,991, July 13, 1880, on "propelling 
railway cars by electro-magnetism." It covered 
his claim for an electric tramway motor, the 
current to be supplied by a stationary source 
of power and connected with the rails. 

Gasoline powered street car was No. 13 

(later changed to No. 85) which operated in 
1873 at Providence, R.I. from the car barns to 
Olneyville Square. Henry Thompson was the 
conductor. It had a gas and air engine, com- 
pressed by separate pumps, designed by George 
B. Brayton of Boston, Mass., who obtained 
patent No. 125,166 on April 2, 1872, on "a 
pumping engine for condensing air and gas, 
and a reservoir for containing such agents." 

Glass lined tank car for transporting milk 
was built in 1910 by the Pflaudler Company, 
Rochester, N.Y., for the Whiting Milk Com- 
pany, Boston, Mass. It was used on the Bos- 
ton and Maine Railroad to collect milk from the 
country for city consumption. 


Light-weight one-man street car was de- 
signed by Charles 0. Birney and built by the 
American Car Company of St. Louis, Mo. The 
first one-man Birney cars were placed in opera- 
tion in Fort Worth, Tex., November 1916. The 
safety features included a single front door for 
both entrance and exit, and a controller which 
required the operator to have his hand con- 
stantly in place or the power was thrown off, 
sand automatically applied to the tracks and the 
brakes set. The doors could not be opened or 
the step lowered until the brakes were set. 

Mail car (steel) was built by the Standard 
Steel Car Company, Pittsburgh, Pa., and ex- 
hibited May 4-13, 1905, at the International 
Railway Congress, Washington, D.C. It was 
lighted with acetylene gas and lined with fire- 
proof composite board. The inside length was 
65 feet 2 inches. It was framed of steel posts 
and girders, covered with steel plates and in- 
sulated with hair felt. It was placed in service 
June 7, 1905, by the New York, Salamanca and 
Chicago Railroad Company. (Erie Railroad 
Employes' Magazine. July 1905) 

Oil tank cars. See Oil 

Parlor car was the "Maritana" built by 
George Mortimer Pullman and placed in opera- 
tion in 1875 The chairs were "richly uphol- 
stered," fitted with adjustable backs, and re- 
volved on a swivel 

Private railroad car was outfitted for Jenny 
Maria Lind Golclsclimidt (The Swedish Night- 
ingale) who made her first appearance Septem- 
ber 11, 1850, at Castle Garden, New York City. 
The car was used on her tour of the country. 

Pullman sleeping car. See Sleeping car 

Pullman train completely equipped with 
roller bearings was the "Pioneer Limited" 
of the Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pa- 
cific Railroad. Regular service commenced 
May 21, 1927, between Chicago, 111., and St. 
Paul-Minneapolis, Minn., a distance of 421 
miles. (The Military Engineer Sept. 1930) 

Railroad car with a center aisle was "The 

Columbus" introduced July 4, 1831, by the 
Baltimore and Ohio Railroad Company. It was 
designed by Ross Winans and built at Balti- 
more, Md. It was feared that it would become 
one long spittoon. (William Henry Brown 
History of the First Locomotive in America) 

Railroad car with an observation dome 

was placed in service July 23, 1945 by the Chi- 
cago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad. It was a 
standard Budd stainless steel coach into which 
a "Vista Dome" was built at the Burlington's 
Aurora, 111., shops. The Vista Dome car had 
three decks, an upper deck in the center with 
a curved double glass roof, an intermediate 
deck at the usual floor level, and a lower deck 
beneath the dome section. The Vista Dome 
section is 19# feet long, the full width of the 
car, and seats 24 passengers so that heads 
and shoulders are above the normal roofline 
of the train. 




CAR Continued 

Railroad coach modeled after those in use 
in England was built at the Old Colony South 
Boston (Boston, Mass.) shops for the Fall 
River Line, and placed in service on May 19, 

Refrigerating car patent was No. 71,423, 
granted to J. B. Sutherland of Detroit, Mich., 
November 26, 1867, and covered an insulated 
car construction with ice bunkers in each end, 
ventilated by air admission above the ice and 
gravity circulation, controlled by "hanging 
flaps," which created and maintained a constant 
air circulation in the car by means of differ- 
ences of temperature in the air. The air was 
admitted at the top, passed through the ice 
chamber and was discharged into the cooling 
room near the bottom to reduce its temperature. 
("Railway Refrigeration." Ice a>id Refrigera- 
tion. September 1891) 

Sleeping car. See Sleeping car 

Steel passenger railroad coach was built 
in 1902 by the Pennsylvania Railroad Company 
in their shop at Altoona, Pa. It was completed 
December 1903 and had a steel under frame and 
superstructure. It had a composite roof, 
wooden window frames and sills, etc. On 
December 23, 1907, they completed the first 
all-steel passenger railroad coach. 

Street car was the "John Mason," accom- 
modating thirty passengers, designed, con- 
structed and built in 1832 by John Stephenson 
at Philadelphia, Pa. It was divided into three 
non-connecting compartments, seating ten in 
each, the doors opening outward. Upon the 
panel of the first door appeared "New York/' 
upon the second "Yorkville," and upon the third 
"Harlaem." The car was horse-drawn ; Lank 
O'Dell was the first driver. The route was on 
Fourth Avenue from Prince to Fourteenth 
Street. It was operated by the New York and 
Harlem Railway. Service began November 26, 
1832. The fare was 12^ cents and the cars 
ran every fifteen minutes. A double track was 
completed November 1835 to Yorkville. 

Train with fluorescent lights was the "Gen- 
eral Pershing Zephyr," a stainless steel stream- 
lined train operated by the Chicago Burlington 
and Quincy Railroad. Its first run was April 
30, 1939, between St. Louis, Mo., and Kansas 
City, Mo. The coaches, parlor-lounge, dining 
car, rear car, dressing rooms and lavatories 
were all equipped with fluorescent lights. 
(Railway Age. April 29, 1939) 

CAR CATCHER (locomotive). See Loco- 
motive car catcher 

CAR COMPANY (Street) was the New 

York and Harlem Railway, Inc., New York 
City, incorporated April 25, 1831, "to construct 
a single or double railroad." It was capitalized 
for $350,000 and received a thirty-year fran- 
chise December 22, 1831, from the Common 
Council. The first secretary was John Mason 
who later became president. 


CARBIDE BORON. See Abrasive 

CARBIDE FACTORY to manufacture com- 
mercial quantities of carbide was established 
in 1894 by Thomas Leopold Willson at Spray, 
N.C He obtained United States patents No. 
541,137 and No. 541,138 on June 18, 1895, on 
carbide (calcium carbide), a compound of cal- 
cium and carbide He produced it by fusing 
calcium or lime with coke at a very high tem- 
perature. (The Story of Carbide National 
Carbide Sales Corp ) 

CARBIDE GAS. See Acetylene 



was manufactured by Charles Ernest Acker 
who introduced his process in 1908. He also 
invented the Acker process of manufacturing 
caustic soda by the electrolysis of molten salt 
in 1896 for which he recehed the Klliott Cres- 
son Gold Medal of the Franklin Institute in 
1902. lie was also the first to produce carbon 
and tin tctrachlunde on a comineinal scale. 

"CARBORUNDUM/ 1 a trade-marked abra- 
sive, to be used in place of emer\, corundum 
and other similar materials, was invented by 
Edward (ioodrieli Aeheson in 1K ( )1 in Monon- 
gahela City, Pa By running a current of 
electricity through a mixture of silica and 
carbon, he obtained a material hard enough for 
rough-polishing diamonds, rubies, sapphires and 
other precious and semi-precious stones. He 
obtained patent No 402,767 February 28, 1803, 
on the production of artificial cnslallme car- 
bonaceous materials The first sale of this 
material was for ten carats at the rate of forty 
cents a carat or $880 a pound (The Story oj 
Carborundum The Carborundum Co ) 


CARDINAL (Catholic). Sec Catholic priest 
Catholic priest to be elevated to the canhnal- 

CARDING MACHINE. See Spinning, card- 
ing and roping machines ; Wool 

CARDS (Christmas). See Christmas cards 
CARDS (Postal). Sec Postal card 

CARICATURE was Nathaniel Hurd's "The 
True Profile of the Notorious Doctor Seth 
Hudson," published 1762 at Boston, Mass. It 
depicted Dr. Hudson in pillory and Howe, his 
assistant, at the whipping post in punishment 
for forging the provinces' paper money. (Wil- 
liam Mnrrell A History of American Graphic 

See also Cartoon 





Carillon was installed in the belfry of the 
Old North Church (now Christ Church), Bos- 
ton, Mass., in 1745. Eight bells were ordered 
from Ahell Ruclhall's foundry, Gloucester, 
England, by Thomas ("junter in 1744 who put 
up a bond to guarantee payment. They were 
shipped on the S.S. "Two Friends" on March 
9, 1745, the total cost being 560 4s l()d. 
(New England Historical and Genealogical 
Register 1904 Vol.58) 

Carillon (modern) was installed in the 
Church of Our Lady of Good Voyage, Glouces- 
ter, Mass, and blessed by His Eminence 
Cardinal O'Connell on July 2, 1922. The bells 
and apparatus, weighing 28,000 pounds, were 
made and installed by John Taylor & Co., 
Lougbborough, England, and consisted of 31 
bells, the largest weighing 2,826 pounds. They 
were played for the first time by carillonneur 
George B. Stevens (William Gorham Rice 
Carillon Music and Singmy Towers of the Old 
World and the New) 

SION \vas established by Andrew Carnegie on 
March 12, 190 1, who transferred to the Com- 
mission five million dollars of first collateral 
five per cent bonds of the United States Steel 
Corporation The first award was a bronze 
medal which was presented to Louis A. Bau- 
mann, Jr, aged seventeen, laborer, who saved 
Charles Stevick, aged sixteen, laborer, from 
drowning, near Wilkinsburg, Pa., Inly 17, 1904. 
Bnum.'inn dived into Sulphur Pond, m water ten 
feet deep, and after three attempts, rescued 
Stevick, who was panic-stricken. 


Carpet mill was founded in 1791 by Wil- 
liam Peter Sprague in North Second Street, 
Philadelphia, Pa He manu fad tired Axminsler 
carpets on handlooms, .md one of Ins earliest 
designs represenled the arms and achievements 
of the new republic of (be United States 

Carpet mill to make ingrain carpets was 

established in 1810 by George M Conrad t at 
Frederick City, Md. The carpets were made 
on handlooms on a drum having rows of pegs, 
arid were of two or three ply, the warp being 
worsted or cotton with a wool filling. 


Carpet power loom was invented by Eras- 
tus Brigbam Bigelow of West Boylston, 
Mass., who obtained patent No. 169 on April 
20, 1837. In was employed by the Lowell Man- 
ufacturing Company of Lowell, Mass., in the 
weaving of carpets and coachlace. 

Carpet power loom to weave ingrain car- 
pets was used by the Lowell Manufacturing 
Company of Lowell, Mass. In 1841 they 
adopted the power machinery invented by 
Erastus Brigbam Bigelow, and within two 
years they had hundreds of them in operation. 


Carpet power loom to weave Axminster 
carpets was invented in 1876 by Halcyon Skin- 
ner employed by the Alexander Smith & Sons 
Carpet Company of Yonkers, N.Y. Axminster 
carpets have a fluffy thick pile with a linen or 
hemp warp and chenille filling. Skinner obtained 
patent No. 186,374 on January 16, 1877, jointly 
with Alexander Smith. 

CARPET SWEEPER that was practical was 
invented in 1876 by Melville Reuben Bissell of 
Grand Rapids, Mich., who obtained patent No. 
182,346 September 19, 1876. Although the idea 
had been introduced earlier no practical sweeper 
was invented until be devised the "broom- 
action" principle by which, through variable 
pressure on the handle, a sweeper could be 
made responsive to the different grades of floor 
coverings Bissell organi/ed the Bissell Carpet 
Sweeper Company at Cirand Rapids, Mich. 

CARPETING (VELVET) and tapestry 
were manufactured in Newark, N.J., in 1855 
by John Johnson. 

CARRIAGE (baby). See Bab\ carriage 
CARRIER (aircraft). See Ship 

CARRIER (electric power line commercial). 

Sec Klet 1 nc transmission 

CARRIER SYSTEM. Sec Cash carrier sys- 


Carrousel patent was No. 11 7, 336, granted 
on July 25, 1871 to Willhelm Schneider of 
Davenport, Iowa. It was a two-story carrousel 
and not very successful 01 practical. 

Carrousel with the jumping horse mech- 
anism was inwnled In Charles \\allace Parker 
of the C \V Parker \miiscment Company, 
Leaxenworth, Kansas He started manutacUn- 
ing it in 18% and completed it in April 1808 
at Abilene, Kan^ The first one was sold to 
bis l^rotber. William T Parker 

Portable carrousel was a "Carry-Us-All" 

manufactured in 18% nt Abilene. Kans., by the 
C. W Parker Amusement Company. It 
weighed twenty tons arid was made up in six- 
teen sections 

CARTEL. See Trust 


See also 
Newspaper Newspiper Sunda\ comic section 

Democratic cartoon, in which the emblem 
o"f the party was represented as a donkev, 
appeared in Harper's Weekly, New York 
City, January 15, 1870. The drawing, by 
Thomas Nast, was entitled "A Live Jackass 
Kicking a Dead Lion." The jackass was 
tagged "Copperhead papers" and the dead 
lion represented Kdwm McMasters Stanton, 
Lincoln's Secretary of War. The background 




CARTOON Continued 

showed an eagle perched on a rock and in the 
far background, the United States Capitol. (Al- 
bert Bigelow Paine "Th. Nast") 

Newspaper cartoon was "Join or Die" 
designed by Benjamin Franklin and published 
at Philadelphia, Pa., in his newspaper, the 
Pennsylvania Gazette, on May 9, 1754. It was 
printed in the first column of the second page 
and was 2% by 2 inches. It depicted a snake 
cut up into segments, each representing a col- 
ony. (James Melvin Lee History of Ameri- 
can Journalism) 

Republican cartoon, in which the emblem 
of the party was represented as an elephant, 
appeared in Harper's Weekly, New York City, 
November 7, 1874. The drawing by Thomas 
Nast was entitled "The Third-Term Panic" 
and referred to the possibility that Grant might 
seek a third term. It depicted an ass, labeled 
"N.Y. Herald" in a lion's skin labeled "Caesar- 
ism," frightening numerous timid animals la- 
beled "N.Y. Times," "N.Y. Trib.," etc., while a 
berserk elephant labeled "Republican vote" about 
to fall into "Chaos," tossed platform planks to 
right and left. The quotation, "An Ass having 
put on the Lion's skin, roamed about the Forest, 
and amused himself by frightening all the fool- 
ish Animals ho met with in his wanderings," 
accompanied the title. 

Uncle Sam cartoon appeared in the New 
York Lantern, a comic weekly, on March 
13, 1852. It was called "Raising the Wind" 
and depicted the struggle between a United 
States shipowner and the Cunard Company, 
with John Bull actively helping his line while 
Uncle Sam was an onlooker. The cartoonist 
was Frank Henry Temple Bellew. The orig- 
inal "Uncle Sam" was Samuel Wilson of New 
Hampshire who was the official inspector in 
Troy, N.Y., of provisions purchased for the 
United States troops in the War of 1812. All 
shipments as inspected were branded "U.S." 
by Wilson, whose nickname was "Uncle Sam." 
The coincidence of initials suggested the ap- 
plication of the nickname to the government. 

tric sign 

CARTOON SCHOOL for animated car- 
toons was the Hastings School of Animation, 
New York City, organized February 1938. 
Instruction began April 1938. 

CARTRIDGE. See Ordnance 

CARTRIDGE BELT patent was No.67,898 
granted on August 20, 1867 to Anson Mills, 
Brevet Lieutenant Colonel, United States Army, 
Fort Bridger, Utah. Moisture had previously 
affected the cartridge belts. He invented a 
woven cartridge belt, and the machinery for 
making it, which was adopted by both the 
Army and Navy. (Anson Mills My Story) 


See Ordnance 


CASEIN FIBER was produced December 
1935 by Earle Ovando Whittier and Stephen 
Philip Gould of Washington, D.C., who ob- 
tained patent No. 2,140,274 on December 13, 
1938, and dedicated itj'to the free use of the 
people of the United States of America." 

by David Brown of Lebanon, N.J., who ob- 
tained patent No. 165,473 on July 13, 1875, on 
"an apparatus for transmission of goods, pack- 
ages, etc." It had a wire rail with endless rope 
pulleys. William Stickney Lamson installed it 
in his ladies' furnishing store at Lowell, Mass., 
in February 1879. By means of two overhead 
wires, a small basket was conveyed from the 
salesman to the cashier. In the spring of 1881, 
he organized the Lamson Consolidated Store 
Service Company to manufacture these carriers 
for others and in January 1882 incorporated the 
Lamson Cash Railway Company. (Frank 
Pierce Hill Lowell Illustrated) 

CASH REGISTER was invented in 1879 by 
James J. (Jake) Ritty, a business man of Day- 
ton, Ohio, who while on a trip to Europe ob- 
served the workings of a recording device on 
the steamship which marked the revolutions of 
the ship's propeller and gave to its officers each 
day a complete and accurate record of the 
speed of the boat. He returned to the United 
States and invented a machine for registering 
receipts of cash and totalling them, which he 
manufactured in Dayton, Ohio, but it was not 
accurate, and in the following year, 1880, he 
produced a machine that gave some evidence of 
being practical. James Ritty and John Ritty 
of Dayton, Ohio, obtained patent No.221,- 
360 on a "cash register and indicator" on 
November 4, 1879. In 1884 the National Cash 
Register Company took over the business, which 
in five years' time had gone through three 
changes, and developed from a plant with 
twenty workmen to an organization with a staff 
of more than 15,000 persons. (Brief History 
of the Cash Register National Cash Register 


CAST IRON PIPES (city water works). 
See Iron 

CAST STEEL. See Steel 

CASTER for furniture was patented by Philos 
Blake, Eli Whitney Blake and John A. Blake, 
of New Haven, Conn. They were awarded 
patent No. 821 on June 30, 1838, on a "mode 
of constructing casters and applying them to 

CATALOG (automobile). See Automobile 

CATALOG (fraternity). See Fraternity cat- 




CATALOG (stamp). See Postage stamp cat- 

GRESS. See Library catalog 

TION. Sec Gasoline Aviation gasoline 

CATAMARAN, a jointed boat, used princi- 
pally by life guards at public beaches, was pat- 
ented by Nathanael Greene Herreshoff of Prov- 
idence, R.I., who received patent No.189,459 on 
April 10, 1877 on two parallel hulls. 


CATCHER'S MASK. See Baseball catcher's 


Caterpillar Club member was John Boett- 
ner, pilot of the "Wing Foot" balloon of the 
Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Akron, 
Ohio, who parachuted 1200 feet to safety on 
July 21, 1919, while his balloon crashed into a 
building at La Salle Street and Jackson Boule- 
vard, Chicago, 111. The crash resulted in the 
death of three persons and injuries to twenty- 
eight. {Office of the Chief of the Air Corps 
Roster of the Caterpillar Club) 

Father and son Caterpillar Club members 
were Paul Fisk Collins who jumped November 
19, 1928, north of Brookville, Pa. ; and Lieuten- 
and Paul Liske Collins who jumped on Febru- 
ary 11, 1944, fifty miles south of Fairbanks, 

Woman Caterpillar Club member was 

Mrs. Irene MacFarland, forced to jump from 
her plane June 28, 1925, over Grissard Field, 
Cincinnati, Ohio. She wore a parachute, fas- 
tened directly to the plane, which was packed 
in a container so that when she jumped her 
weight would cause it to break and permit the 
parachute to slip and blow out. Officials also 
required her to use an army parachute. She 
jumped and her parachute jammed, suspending 
her under the fuselage swinging back and forth 
like a pendulum. She could not release herself 
and Lieutenant Watson, her pilot, could not 
land. He motioned her 1o release the army 
parachute, which she did, Ihe force breaking the 
cords which held her tied to the airplane. Had 
the original parachute worked Mrs. MacFar- 
land would not have been eligible to the Cater- 
pillar Club, membership in which is confined 
to those obliged to jump to save their lives. 

CATHEDRAL was the Catholic cathedral in 
Baltimore, Md. The cornerstone was laid July 
7, 1806, the building dedicated May 31, 1821. 
and completed in 1851. It was designed by 
Benjamin Henry Latrobe who also designed the 
National Capitol, Washington, D.C. 

CATHEDRAL (Serbian orthodox). Sec 

Serbian Orthodox cathedral 



(permanent) was Monsignor Francesco Sa- 
tolli, representative of Pope Leo XIII, who 
arrived January 24, 1893, at Washington, D.C 
He was created Cardinal November 29, 1895, 
with the title of Santa Maria in Ara Coeli. 
(Catholic University Bulletin. Vol. 16 #2 
Feb. 1910} 


Catholic beatification of an American citi- 
zen was held November 13, 1938, at St. Peter's 
Basilica, Rome, Italy, when Mother Frances 
Xavier Cabrini, founder of the Institute of the 
Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart, was 

Catholic beatification of an American In- 
dian was on May 9, 1939 when the Cardinals 
of the Congregation of Rites at Rome, Italy, 
recommended the beatification of Kateri Tekak- 
witha, "the lily of the Mohawks," who was 
born in 1656 at Ossernenon, near Auriesville, 
N.Y. Their decision was sanctioned by Pope 
Pius XII on May 19, 1939. 


Catholic bishop appointed to serve in the 
United States was the Right Reverend John 
Carroll, "Superior of the Missions in the thir- 
teen United States of North America." A 
petition for appointment of a bishop was sent 
to Pope Pius VI on March 12, 1788, which was 
acted upon favorably June 23, 1788. Bishop 
Carroll received twenty-four of the twenty-five 
votes, and the result was confirmed by the Pope 
on November 6, 1789. The Right Reverend 
Charles Walmesley (Bishop of Rama and Vicar 
Apostolic of the Western District, England), 
consecrated John Carroll bishop August 15, 
1790, in the chapel of Lulworth Castle, Dorset, 
England. On April 8, 1808, he became an 
archbishop. (An Account of the Consecration 
by One Bishop of the First Romish Bishop in 
the United States) 

Catholic bishop to exercise episcopal func- 
tions was Frai Juan Cabezas de Altumirano, 
son of Juan Cabezas and Dona Ana Calzado, 
appointed Bishop of Santiago de Cuba in 1603. 
He visited the Provinces of Florida in 1607 
and at St. Augustine administered the Sacra- 
ment of Confirmation to many Spaniards and 
converted Indians. 

Catholic bishop (Colored) was Bishop 
James Healy, consecrated 1875 as Bishop of 
Portland, Me. He was ordained priest in 1854 
in Paris, and was assigned to St. James' Church 
(white), Boston, Mass., in 1866. 

Native bishops of the South were the 
Right Reverend Domenic Manucy, Bishop of 
Mobile, and his cousin Anthony Domenic Am- 
brose Pellicier, Bishop of San Antonio, who 
were ordained August 15, 1850 at Mobile, Ala. 
They were born in St. Augustine and educated 
at Spring Hill College, Ala. (Francis Xavier 
Reuss Biographical Cyclopedia of the Catho- 
lic Hierarchy) 




Americans was in a three-day celebration com- 
mencing June 30, 1930. Each was credited with 
having performed two miracles and having met 
a heroic death. The laymen were Rene Goupil 
and John Lalande. The Jesuit priests were 
Isaac Jogues, John De Brebeuf, Noel Chabanel, 
Anthony Daniel, Gabriel Lalemant and Charles 
Gamier. The Pontifical Mass was celebrated 
at the Vatican by Archbishop Forbes of Otta- 
wa, Canada. 


Sec Army oiiicer 


Catholic church raised to the dignity of a 
Basilica was the Sanctuary of Our Lady of 
Victory, Laekawanna, in the Diocese of Buf- 
falo, N.Y. It was dedicated and consecrated 
on May 25, l-26, as Our Lady of Victory 
Shrine, and on July 28th by Apostolic Decree 
of Tope Pius XI it was dignified with the 
title of "Basilica of Our Blessed Lady of 

Catholic church to conduct services in a 
foreign language other than Latin was the 

Church of the Holy Trinity, Philadelphia, Pa , 
which offered services in German in 178-. 

Catholic parish church for Negroes was 
St. Francis Xavirr's, Baltimore, Md., purchased 
October 10, 1863, and dedicated February 21, 


CATHOLIC DIOCESE was the Diocese of 
Baltimore, Md., established April 6, 1789, and 
raised to the dignity of the first Archdiocese 
in the United S fates", April 8, 1808. By a de- 
cree of I he Sacred Congregation of the Propa- 
ganda, July 10, 1858, approved by His Holiness 
Pius [\, July 5, 1858, prerogative of place was 
conferred on the Archdiocese of Baltimore, so 
that it is known as "The Premier Sec" of the 


Catholic funeral attended by the U.S. Con- 
tinental Congress was that of Philip Charles 
Jean Baptiste Trouson Du Coudray, French 
officer. On September 15, 1777, while cross- 
ing the Schuykill River at Middle Ferry 
on a ferry to join Washington's army, his horse 
became frightened and plunged overboard car- 
rying Du Coudray with him. Du Coudray who 
had assumed the post of inspector-general of 
the American Army was drowned. Congress 
resolved that he should be buried with military 
honors and that the members of Congress 
should attend his funeral which was held in 
Philadelphia, Pa., September 17, 1777. (John 
Thomas Scharf and Thompson Westcott His- 
tory of Philadelphia) 


CATHOLIC HOLY MASS was celebrated 
June 1526 in the present territory of the United 
States by the Dominican Fathers Antonio Mon- 
tesino and Anthony dc Cervantes, for the sev- 
eral hundred colonists under the leadership of 
Lucas Vasquez de Ayllon on the Atlantic coast 
north of Virginia 

stitute this service as church la\\ did not permit 
mass before sunrise. 

Catholic Mass in an airship over the 
ocean was conducted in the Zeppelin "Hm- 
denburg" May 7, 1036, the Feast of the Appa- 
rition of St. Michael the Archangel, by Father 
Paul Schultc of the Ohlates of Mary Immacu- 

Catholic Mass in an airship over the ocean 
by an American priest was conducted in the 
Zeppelin "Hindeiihurft" on August 0, 1030 by 
Father James R Co\ of St Patrick's Church, 
Pittsburgh, Pa 

ferred by Don Gabriel Dia/ Vara Calderon, 
Bishop of Santiago de ( uha, on a visit to Si 
Augustine, Fla August 24, 1(>75 Minor or- 
ders were conferred on sex en candidates 

CATHOLIC MAGAZINE was the weekly 
journal Courier de Boston which appeared 
on April 23, 1780, and continued publication 
weekly for si\ months It was published in 
French at Boston, Mass , and Avas edited by 
Paul Joseph Gurranl de Nancrede, instructor 
in French at Harvard University. (ApoUinans 
William Ba.tmgartner Catholic Journalism) 

Catholic magazine in English was the 

Michigan Jistay or Impartial Observer, a week- 
ly, \\luch was issued August 31, 1800. It was 
printed and published at Detroit, Mich, by 
James M. Miller ,and only semi-Catholic in 
scope The idea was advocated by the Rev 
Gabriel Richard of Detroit The weekly con- 
sisted of four pages, 0*4 x In inches, of which 
a small part was printed in French The rates 
were: $5 a year for subscribers living in the 
cit\ ; $450 in upper Canada; and $4 a year in 
distant points (Paul J. l : mk Pioneer Catho- 
lic Journalism) 




Sec also (.'on vent 

Catholic nuns (Cloistered Community) 

were the Magdalen Sisters at the Con- 
vent of the Good Shepherd, Baltimore Md 
founded April 24, 1022. 

Catholic nuns (Colored Community) 

were the Oblate Sisters of Providence, founded 
by Jacques Hector Nicholas Joubert de la Mu- 




raille on July 2, 1829, at Baltimore, Md. Pope 
Gregory XVI approved the order October 2, 

Nun ordained in the United States was 
Sister St. Stanislas Hachard of the Ursuline 
Convent, New Orleans, La., who took her holy 
vows March 15, 1729. The formula of her holy 
vows was signed hy Marie Magdeleine Hachard 
de St. Stanislas; N.J. de Beuubois, Je. ; Sr. Ma. 
de St. Augustin, s. ; Sr. M de St. jean L. ; and 
Sr. R. de Ste Marie. (The Ursulines in New 
Orleans and Our Lady oj Prompt Succor) 

Nun who was born in the United States 

was Mary Turpin of Illinois, born in 1731, who 
entered the Ursuline Convent, New Orleans, 
La, in 1748 She began her novitiate July 2, 
1749, and made her Profession of Failh Janu- 
ary 31, 1752 She died November 20, 1761, at 
the age of thirty. 

CATHOLIC PARISH was the Parish of 
St. Augustine, Fla., founded September 8, 1565, 
on the day of the Feast of the Nativity of the 
Blessed Virgin, by Don Pedro Menendez de 
Toiles. The first parish register is also owned 
by this church and consists of fifteen volumes 
beginning January 1, 1594, and continuing down 
to the tune of the hnghsh occupation of Florida 
m 1763, The first parish priest was Don 
Alar tin Francisco Lope/ de Alcndo/o (jrajales 

INEE. See Presidential candidate 


Catholic priest ordained in the United 
States was Father Stephen Theodore Badm 
ordained Mn\ 25, 1793 b\ Bishop John Carroll 
at the Cathedral of St. Peter, Baltimore, Md 
lie was appointed to [he Mission of Kentuck) 
and held his first Mass in Kentucky on the 
first Sunday of Advent, 1793, in the house of 
Dennis Met. arth) at Lexington, Ky. (Bene- 
dict Joseph ll'cbh C eiiteiiary of (\ith olici'y 
in Kentucky) 

Catholic priest to be elevated to the car- 
dinalate was John McCloskey who was prc- 
conized cardinal in the C ousiMorv of A/Jarch 
15, 1875, The investiture was made in the 
cathedral at Alott Street, New York City on 
April 27, 1875 Me v\as made a cardinal under 
the title of "Santa Maria supra Mmervam." 

Catholic priest to receive his full theologi- 
cal training in the United States was Deme- 
trius Augustine (ialhtzin (Dmitri Augustin 
Golitzyn) who was ordained a Catholic bishop 
by Bishop John Can oil on March 18, 1795 at 
Baltimore, Aid. (SaraJi 1\1 Krowiison Life of 
Demetrius Augustine Gallitzin) 

Native Catholic priest was Father Francis 
de Florenda who joined the Jesuit order in 
1643. lie was born at St. Augustine, Fla., in 
1620. (Prancisco de 1'lorcncia Or'ujcn de Los 
Dos Celebes Sand'arios de la Nuei'a-Galicia 
Obispado de Guadalajara en la America Sep- 


Negro Catholic priest ordained to work in 
the United States was the Rev. Augustus Tol- 
ton. He was ordained at the College of Propa- 
ganda, Rome, Italy, on April 24, 1886, and 
opened a mission at Quincy, 111., in the Diocese 
of Springfield (111.) (Rev. John Thomas Gil- 
lard The Catholic Church and the American 

Negro Catholic priest ordained in the 
United States was Charles Randolph Uncles 
who was ordained in the Baltimore Cathedral, 
Baltimore, Aid., December 19, 1891, by Car- 
dinal ( ii boons. 


of the Roman Catholic Church convened in 
Baltimore, Md., October 4, 1829, and consisted 
of five prelates. Four bishops were unable to 
attend. The council enacted twenty-eight de- 
crees. The first Plenary Session of the Na- 
tional Council assembled at Baltimore, Md., 
May 10, 1852, and consisted of six archbishops, 
twenty-three bishops, forty theologians and 
eighteen other ecclesiastics. (Henry Stanislaus 
S pal ding - -Catholic Colonial Maryland) 

CATHOLIC SAINT. See Saint (Catholic) 

CATHOLIC SEMINARY for the educa- 
tion of Negro priests was opened by the Mis- 
sionaries of the Society of the Divine Word, 
at Bay St Louis, Miss., and \\as dedicated 
September 16, 1923 

15o5 at St Augustine, Fla., where a Catholic 
congregation was founded. Mass was said as 
early as 1524 in Alanhattan Island for Veraz- 
/ano, and probably earlier services had been 
held by the explorers from (irccnland. 

CATHOLIC STUDENT to seek admission 
m the pontifical college, "The American Col- 
lege of the Roman Catholic Church of the 
United States," which \\as founded in Rome, 
Italy, on December 8, 1859, \vas Michael Au- 
gustine Corngan. lie was consecrated Alay 
4, 1873, in St. Patrick's Cathedral, Newark, 
N.J., as Bishop of Newark. He was later 
made an archbishop, the palladium being con- 
ferred on him on Alarch 4, 1881. 

CATHOLIC WORK written by an Ameri- 
can Catholic was published at Annapolis, Md., 
m 1784. The author was John Carroll whose 
article was entitled "An Address from the 
Roman Catholics of the United States of North 
America" and answered an attack made by an 
ex-Jesuit. (Daniel Brent Biographical Sketch 
of. . John Carroll, 1'irst Archbishop of Bal- 

CATTLE. See Animals 

LATION. See Branding legislation 





See also Dairy Breed Organization 

Cattle club (Guernsey cattle) was the 

American Guernsey Cattle Club formed March 
1, 1876, at the home of Augustus Ward, Far- 
mington, Conn. A permanent organization was 
effected February 7, 1877, when eleven men 
from five states met at New York City. The 
first annual meeting was held December 19, 

Cattle club (Jersey cattle) was the Ameri- 
can Jersey Cattle Club, formed July 1868, at 
Newport, R.I., by forty-three dairymen who 
signed a tentative constitution. The first an- 
nual meeting was held April 5, 1869, at the 
Astor House, New York City. It was incor- 
porated May 25, 1880. Its object was to re- 
cord and perpetuate the breed of Jersey cattle. 
The first president was Samuel J. Sharpless 
of Philadelphia, Pa. Colonel George E. War- 
ing was secretary, and Thomas J. Hand, treas- 
urer. (Robert M. GowThe Jersey) 

CAUCUS (Congressional). 

sional caucus 

See Congres- 



CELLOPHANE was made in the early part 
of 1924 by the Du Pont Cellophane Company 
at their plant at Buffalo, N.Y., using ma- 
chinery manufactured in their own shops in 
this country. Tt originally sold for $2.65 a 
pound. (Du Pont Magazine. Fall, 1925} 

CELLULOID was invented by John Wesley 
Hyatt of Albany, N.Y., and Isaiah Smith Hyatt 
of Rockford, 111., who obtained patent No. 
91,341 on Tune 15, 1869. This invention won 
a $10,000 prize offered by Phelan Collender 
of New York City for a substitute for ivory 
in billiard balls. They dissolved pyroxyline and 
camphor in alcohol, then subjected the mixture 
to heat and pressure in molds. They began 
manufacturing it in 1872, organized ihe Newark 
Celluloid Manufacturing Company, and ob- 
tained United States trade-mark registration 
No. 1102 on January 14, 1873, on the word 
"celluloid" which they derived from the combi- 
nation of cellulose and "oid" meaning "like." 
(Edward Chauncey W or den Nitro-Cellulose 


See Photographic film 


No. 4,874, issued to Christian Frederick 
Schoenhein of Basle, Switzerland, on December 
5, 1846. It covered the use of cotton wool 
in an explosive compound. He obtained an Eng- 
lish patent on October 8, 1846. 

CEMENT was introduced into the United 
States from England about 1870. Because of 
its weight it was brought over as ballast. Amer- 
ican portland cement was invented by David 


O. Saylor of Allenlown, Pa., who perfected a 
process for making hydraulic cement from 
argillo-magnesium and argillo calcareous lime- 
stone and received patent No. 119,413 on Sep- 
tember 26, 1871. European cement was re- 
garded as superior and it was not until 1897 
that the use of American cement exceeded im- 
portations from Europe. (Cement and Con- 
cretc Portland Cement Assn.) 

Natural cement rock was discovered in 
1818 by Canvas White near Fayetteville, Onon- 
daga County, N.Y. He obtained a patent on a 
cement manufacturing process which he sold 
to New York State for $10,000. (Robert 
Whitman Lesley History of the Portland Ce- 
ment Industry in the US.) 



Congressional cemetery was established 
at Washington, D C., in a section of Christ 
Church known as the Washington Parish Buri- 
al Ground. Records show that burials were 
made early in 1804 but the dale of the deed 
which is recorded is March 31, 1812. The 
cemetery at 18th and K Streets, S E., is more 
familiarly known as the Congressional Ceme- 
tery and occupies thirty acres alongside the 
Anacostia River. 

Federal cemetery in the United States to 
contain graves of both Union and Confeder- 
ate soldiers was opened in Springfield, Mo., 
by act of Congress dated March 3, 1911 (36 
StatL.1077). The Confederate cemetery which 
was maintained by the state of Missouri prior 
to 1911 was deeded to the Federal Government 
on June 21, 1911. A stone wall separates the 
graves of the Confederate troops from the 
Union soldiers. The cemetery contains over 
3,100 graves. (Jonathan Fairbanks and Clyde 
Edwin Tuck- Past and Present of Greene 
County, Mo.) 

Foreign service women interred in the 
Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington, Va., 
were Section Officer Monica M. Daventry of 
Worcester, England, and Section Officer Ruth 
P. Watson of Ilampstead, England, members 
of the British Women's Auxiliary Air Force, 
interred November 19, 1942. Returning from 
duty, they were killed in an automobile acci- 
dent. American soldiers served as pallbearers 
arid twelve Waves as honorary pallbearers. 

Jewish burial plot was established by Con- 
gregation Shcarith Israel in 1656. The plot 
occupied a piece of ground in the section now 
known as Chatham Square, New York City. 
(American Jewish Historical Society Publi- 
cations. Vol. 18) 

National cemeteries as they exist today 
were authorized by the Act of July 17, 1862 (12 
Stat.L.596). Prior to this act a number of 
cemeteries had been established for the burial 
of military dead, although it was not until later 
that they were designated "national cemeteries." 
Among these are the following: Mexico City 




(Mexico) National Cemetery, 1851 ; Ft. Leaven- 
worth (Kansas) National Cemetery, 1861; 
Louclon Park (Baltimore, Mel.) National Cem- 
etery, 1861 ; Lexington (Ky.) National Cem- 
etery, 1861 ; Soldiers' Home (Washington, 
D.C.) National Cemetery, 1861 ; and Cypress 
Hills (Brooklyn, N.Y.) National Cemetery, 
1862. The national cemetery in Mexico City 
was established in 1851 although it was not 
designated as a national cemetery until the 
Act of July 17, 1862. (Records in Office of 
the Quartermaster General, War Dept. Wash- 
ington, D.C.) 

President buried in the National Cemetery 

at Arlington, Va. See President 

CENSORSHIP BOARD (moving pictures). 

See Moving picture censorship 


Census in which the population of the 
United States exceeded 10,000,000 was the 
fifth census, the census of 1830, which showed 
a population of 12,866,620. The tenth census, 
the census of 1880, listed the population as 
50,155,783, the first over the 50,000,000 mark. 

Census of the United States was author- 
ized by act of March 1, 1790, (1 Slat.L.101), 
"providing for the enumeration of the inhabi- 
tants of the United States." The census com- 
pilation cost $44,377 and utilized the services 
of 17 marshals and 650 assistants. The enu- 
meration, as of August 1, 1790, showed a popu- 
lation of 3,939,214 located in 16 states and the 
Ohio territory. Pennsylvania with 434,373 was 
the most populous state, while Tennessee had 
the least with 35,691. New York City had a 
population of 33,131, Philadelphia 28,522 and 
Boston 18,320. (Bureau of the Census Story 
of the Census} 

Census which included the deaf, dumb 
and blind was taken in 1830. Previously, those 
so afflicted were not enumerated at all. The 1830 
census showed a population of 12,866,020 lo- 
cated in 28 states. 

City to exceed a million in population was 

New York City whose population according to 
the census of 1880 was 1,206,299, not including 
Brooklyn. New York City was also the first 
whose population exceeded 5,000,000. The pop- 
ulation of the five boroughs of New York City 
was 5,620,048 in 1920. 

State to exceed 5,000,000 in population was 

New York State whose population according 
to the census of 1880 was 5,082,871. According 
to the 1920 census, New York State with 
10,385,227 was the first to exceed the 10,000,000 

States to exceed a million in population 
were New York State, 1,372,812; Virginia, 
1,065,366; and Pennsylvania, 1,049,456 accord- 
ing to the 1820 census. 



CENTRAL HEATING. See Heating system 

(U.S.) was created by Executive Order No. 
6225, dated July 27, 1933, under authority 
vested in the President by the National Indus- 
trial Recovery Act "to formulate standards for 
and to effect coordination of the statistical serv- 
ices of the Federal Government incident to the 
purposes .... of the National Industrial Re- 
covery Act." It was organized August 9, 1933 
and was originally composed of eight members. 
The first chairman was Winfield William Ricfler. 
(US. Budget Bureau Statistical Standards 
Division Report for the Period July 27, 1933- 
February 12, 1934) 

RAILWAY. See Loop the loop centrifugal 


See Cream separator 

CERAMICS SCHOOL was started by Ohio 
State University, Columbus, Ohio, in 1894 
under the guidance and direction of Profes- 
sor Edward Orton, Jr. (Heinrich Ries and 
Henry Leighton History of the Clay Working 
Industries in the United States) 



See Accountant 


See Sewing Machine 





Dental chair. See Dental chair 

Folding theatre chair was invented by 
Aaron H Allen of Boston, Mass., who obtained 
patent No. 12,017 December 5, 1854, on an 
"improvement in seats for public buildings." 

Rocking chair is believed to have been 
invented by Benjamin Franklin about 1760. This 
date is not verified and no authentic instance 
of a prior rocker has come to light. (Walter 
Alden Dyer and Esther Stevens Fraser The 
Rocking Chair, An American Institution) 

Steamer chair or deck chair was intro- 
duced in 1891 by Heinrich Conried, impresario 
of the Metropolitan Opera House, New York 
City. He built five hundred chairs and formed 
the Ocean Comfort Company to distribute and 
rent them. At one time five thousand chairs 
were on rental to steamship companies which 
did not provide their own chairs for the decks. 
The first rental contract was signed with Al- 
bert Ballin, general director of the Hamburg- 
American lines. (Montrose Jonas Moses 
Life of Heinrich Conried) 




CHAIR FACTORY was established by Lam- 
bert Hitchcock at Hitchcockyille (now River- 
ton) Conn., in 1818. The chairs were generally 
hand-painted on the back. They were shipped 
"knocked-down" and sold extensively in the 


See Music 


Chamber of Commerce (state) was the 

New York Chamber of Commerce formed 
April 5, 1768, by twenty merchants at a meet- 
ing at Fraunces Tavern, New York City. John 
Cruger was the first president, and Anthony 
Van Dam the first secretary. The preamble 
to a resolution adopted at that time reads: 
"Whereas Mercantile Societies have been 
found very useful in trading cities for pro- 
moting and encouraging commerce, supporting 
industry, adjusting disputes relative to trade 
and navigation, and procuring such laws and 
regulations as may be found necessary for the 
benefit of trade in general, etc. . ." The Cham- 
ber of Commerce was incorporated March 13, 
1770, under a royal charter from King George 
III. Its motto was "Non Nobis Nate Solum" 
(Not born for ourselves alone). (Joseph Buck- 
lin Bishop A Chronicle of One Hundred and 
Fifty Years} 

Chamber of Commerce of the United 
States of America was founded in 1912 by 
approximately five hundred representatives of 
commercial organizations, trade associations 
and individual establishments who were invited 
to participate in a series of discussions by 
President William Howard Taft and Secretary 
of Commerce and Labor Charles Nagel. The 
headquarters of the Chamber of Commerce of 
the United States, one of the finest buildings 
in Washington, D.C., was dedicated May 20, 

BORN). See Woman 

CHANDELIER. See Glass crystal chandelier 
CHAPEL CAR. See Railroad 
CHAPLAIN. See Army officer; Naval officer 


Army school for chaplains was the Army 
Chaplain School, Fort Monroe, Va., organized 
February 9, 1918. It was moved to Camp 
Taylor, Ky., on April 9, 1918. 

Naval chaplains' school conducted by the 
U.S. Navy was the Chaplains' School, Naval 
Operating Base, Norfolk, Va., which held its 
first session February 23, 1942. 

CHARITY BOARD (State) was the Massa- 
chusetts State Board of Charities established 
April 29, 1863 (Chapter 240 Acts of 1863). 
Five members and a general agent were sworn 


in October 7, 1863. Otis Norcross was the 
first chairman. The only compensation re- 
ceived was traveling expenses. 


formed August 4, 1874, by the first Sunday 
School Teachers Assembly at a meeting held 
at Fair Point, N.Y., at the suggestion of John 
Hryl Vincent and Lewis Miller. On August 
10, 1878, home study courses were offered and 
the name Chautauqua Literary and Scientific 
Circle adopted. (Rebecca Richmond Chau- 
tauqua, An American Place) 

See also Home study course 


Check sent by radio across the Atlantic. 

See Radio facsimile transmission 

Travelers' checks were devised in 1891 by 
Marcellus Fleming Berry who was then Gen- 
eral Agent of the American Express Company. 
Tn the first year only 248 checks amounting to 
$9,120 were sold 


was the Checkograph invented by George 
Lewis McC.'irthy who received patent No. 
1,748,480, February 25, 19-30. Commercial 
manufacture was undertaken May 1, 1927, by 
the Kastman Kodak Company, Rochester, N.Y., 
who marketed the device as the "Recordak" 
and made the first installation May 1, 1928, at 
the Empire Trust Company, New York City. 
The machine photographs checks on 16 mm 
motion picture film The first application of 
the machine, other than by banking institu- 
tions, was made in 1929 by the United States 
Treasury. The first application in libraries 
was made in 1935 when the New York Times 
and the New York Public Library cooperated 
in photographing copies of the New York 
Times of World War I period on microfilm. 

CHECK PROTECTORS were manufac- 
tured in 1870 and consisted of punches which 
perforated figure holes in paper, but were not 
certain proof against forgeries. In June 1899, 
Libnnns McLouth Todd completed the model 
of a check protector in a woodshed at 384 
Gregory Street, Rochester, N.Y. He filed his 
application August 8, 1899, and placed the 
machine which he called a "Protectograph" on 
the market in the fall of that year. The ma- 
chine forced ink into the paper under pressure 
making it part of the fibre of the document. He 
obtained patent No. 766,853, August 9, 1904. 
(Jack W . Spearc Protecting the Nation's 



Pineapple cheese was made in 1808 by Lewis 
Mills Norton of Troy, Pa. On April 17, 1810, 
he obtained a patent on a "vat for forming 
pineapple cheese." 


Cheese factory cooperative was established 
by farmers of Cheshire, Mass., in 1801. On 




July 20, 1801 a cheese was pressed at the farm 
of Elisha Brown, Jr., which on August 20th 
weighed 1235 pounds. Tt was placed on a 
wagon drawn by six horses and on January 1, 
1802 presented to President Thomas Jefferson 
at the White House. (Agricultural History 
Vol. 18 No.4) 

Cheese factory of consequence was estab- 
lished in Rome, N.Y., by Jesse Williams 
in 1851. It is referred to as the first perma- 
nent system of associated dairying in the Unit- 
ed States. The first shipment of milk was re- 
ceived May 10, 1851. (Benjamin Davis Gil- 
bert The Cheese Industry of the State of 
New York) 

CHEMICAL element to be isolated in the 
U.S. was protactinium oxide accomplished Au- 
gust 1934 by Aristid von Grosse of the Kent 
Chemical Laboratory, Chicago, 111. From ra- 
dium residues, lie isolated one tenth of a gram 
of pure protactinium oxide (Pa 2 O&) the long- 
est lived isotope of element 91. (Proceedings 
of the Royal Society of London Series A 
No 870 Vol. 150. June 1935) 

tion in chemical analyses and chemistry as ap- 
plied to the arts was established in Philadelphia 
in 1836 by James Curtis Booth. Charles 
Thomas Jackson opened a similar laboratory in 
Boston in 1836 for instruction and research in 
analytical chemistry, but it did not last long. 

Chemical laboratory in a collegiate insti- 
tution where instruction was offered to un- 
dergraduates was opened at Boylston Hall, 
Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass., in 1858. 
Josiab (Joseph) Parsons Cookc, author of nu- 
merous chemical books, was in charge of 


was James Woodhouse's Young Chemist's 
Pocket Companion, a 56-page book which con- 
tained about a hundred experiments. It was 
published in 1797 at Philadelphia, Pa. (Edgar 
Pahs Smith James Woodhouse, A Pioneer in 


Chemical society in the world was the 
Chemical Society of Philadelphia founded 
in 1792 by James Woodhouse. (Edgar Fahs 
Smith James Woodhouse, A Pioneer in Chem- 

Chemical society (national) was the Amer- 
ican Chemical S9ciety organized April 20, 1876 
in New York City although many meetings to 
form the society had been held previous to that 
date. The first president was John William 
Draper. The society was chartered November 
9, 1877 as a non-profit, non-stock corporation 
of the State of New York "for the advance- 
ment of chemistry and the promotion of chem- 
ical research." (Henry Carrington Bolton 
Chemical Societies of the Nineteenth Century) 


Rush's Syllabus of a Course of Lectures on 
Chemistry published in 1770 at Philadelphia, 
Pa. (Harry Gchman Good Benjamin Rush 
and His Services to American Education) 


Army officer 


See Nobel prize 

chemistry only, in a regularly appointed position 
in an educational institution of recognized 
standing was Benjamin Rush, one of the sign- 
ers of the Declaration of Independence. He 
gave lectures in chemistry in the Philadelphia 
Medical School, Philadelphia, Pa , as early as 
1769 (Lyman Churchill Newell Chemical 
Education in America from the Earliest Days 
to 1820. Journal of Chemical Education. VoL 9. 
April 1932) 

Professorship of applied chemistry was 

granted by Yale University, New Haven, 
Conn., to Benjamin Silliman, Jr., in 1846 al- 
though the Yale Analytical Laboratory did not 
open its doors to students until 1847. The 
Yale Analytical Laboratory was afterwards re- 
named the Sheffield Scientific School in honor 
of Joseph Earl Sheffield in recognition of his 
benefactions to the institution. (P orris Jcwctt 
Moore A History of Chemistry) 

CHINE was made by William Canter of New 
York City who obtained U.S patent No. 37,415 
on January 13, 1863. 

CHESS BOOK was Chess Made Easy New 
Comprehensive Rules For Playing the Game 
of Chess u'ith Examples from Philidor, Cun- 
ningham, r/r to which is prefixed a pleasing 
account of its origin; some interesting anec- 
dotes of several exalted personages who have 
been admirers of it; and the Morals of Chess 
written by 1hr ingenious Dr 1'ranklin Tt 
consisted of 106 pages including eight pages 
of advertisements and a frontispiece, and was 
printed and sold in 1802 by James Humphreys 
of Philadelphia, Pa. Evidently, it was a 
reprint of an English edition. (Alfred C. 
Klahre Early Chess in America) 

CHESS CHAMPION of the world (Ameri- 
can-born) was Paul Charles Morphy, twenty 
years old, of New Orleans, La., who won first 
place at the First Chess Congress held at New 
York City from October 6, 1857 to November 
10, 1857. He visited Europe and won the 
Grand Tournament of the First National Chess 
Association in England and France held from 
July 19 to August 22, 1858. He returned to 
New York City, May 11, 1859. 

CHESS TOURNAMENT of importance was 
held October 6, 1857, by the American Chess 
Congress at the Descoule's Rooms, 764 Broad- 
way, New York City, under the sponsorship 
of the New York Chess Club. The victor of 




the Grand Tournament was Paul Morphy who 
received the first prize, a silver service consist- 
ing of a pitcher, four goblets and a salver. A 
national organization, the American Chess As- 
sociation, was formed October 10, 1857, at New 
York City. A. B. Meek was elected president 
of the Congress and Daniel Willard Fiske the 
secretary. (Daniel Willard Fiske Book of 
the First American Chess Congress) 

CHEVRON. See Army insignia 

CHEWING GUM was the "State of Maine 
Pure Spruce Gum," manufactured at Bangor, 
Me., in 1848 by John Curtis and his brother on a 
Franklin stove. In 1850, they moved to Port- 
land, Me., and made paraffin gums under the 
brands of "Licorice Lulu," "Four-in-Hand," 
"Sugar Cream," "Biggest and Best," and 
"White Mountain" ; also spruce gums, "Yankee 
Spruce," "American Flag," "Trunk Spruce" 
and "200 Lump Spruce." (George Thotnas Little 
Genealogical and Family History of the State 
of Maine. Vol. 2) 

Chewing gum patent was No. 98,304 issued 
on December 28, 1869 to William F. Scmple 
of Mount Vernon, Ohio, who claimed the 
"combination of rubber with other articles, in 
any proportions adapted to the formation of 
an acceptable chewing gum." 

CHICKEN SHOW. See Poultry show 

CHIEF ENGINEER (Continental army). 

See Army officer 

CHIEF JUSTICE. See Supreme Court of 
the U.S. 

CHILD BORN. See Births 

CHILD DELINQUENCY law (state) was 

passed April 28, 1909, by Colorado. It de- 
fined as guilty, persons "who shall en- 
courage, cause or contribute to the de- 
pendency, neglect or delinquency of a child." 

lished August 1908 in New York City with 
Dr. Sara Josephine Baker as director. It was 
"the first organization established under mu- 
nicipal control to deal with the health of chil- 
dren from birth to legal working age, in so 
far as a municipal Health Department may reg- 
ulate and control the conditions of child life 
and health." 


See also Education Compulsory education 

Child labor law (federal) was passed Sep- 
tember 1, 1916, (39 Stat.L.675), "an act to 
prevent interstate commerce in the products of 
child labor," the provisions of which were to 
be administered by the Children's Bureau. The 
government did not have the power to legislate 
directly in the field of labor so the attempt 
was made to regulate child labor through its 


power to legislate on interstate commerce. The 
act became effective September 1, 1917, but on 
June 3, 1918, it was declared unconstitutional 
by the Supreme Court as the act was an inva- 
sion of state's rights. 

Child labor law regulating hours of em- 
ployment was Chapter 60 of the laws of 1842 
of Massachusetts, approved by Governor John 
Davis on March 3, 1842. Massachusetts pro- 
hibited children under twelve years of age from 
working more than ten hours a day. Con- 
necticut enacted a similar law which prohibited 
children under fourteen years of age working 
more than ten hours a day. (Massachusetts 
Acts and Resolves. 1842) 

Child labor law restricting the age of the 
worker was Pamphlet Law No. 278, approved 
March 28, 1848, by Governor Francis Rawn 
Shunk of Pennsylvania. The law prohibited 
children under twelve years of age from en- 
gaging in commercial labor. In 1849, the age 
limit was raised to thirteen years. Similar leg- 
islation was enacted in 1853 by Rhode Island, 
in 1855 by Connecticut, and in 1866 by Massa- 
chusetts with age limits respectively of twelve, 
nine and ten years. 

Child labor law to include educational 
provision was Chapter 245 passed by Massa- 
chusetts April 16, 1836, effective April 1, 1837. 
It required all children to attend school at 
least three months of the year, until they came 
to the age of fifteen. Manufacturers were not 
allowed to hire children in their mills for more 
than nine months a year, but the children were 
conveniently transferred from mill to mill so 
that this legislation was not effective. (Miriam 
Elisabeth Loughran Historical Development 
of Child Labor Legislation in the US.) 


Children's welfare congress 

CHILDREN'S BOOK was John Cotton's 
catechism "Milk for Babes, Drawn out of the 
Breasts of Both Testaments, Chiefly for the 
Spiritual Nourishment of Boston Babes in 
either England : But may be of like use for any 
children" printed by Stephen Daye at Cam- 
bridge, Mass., 1641-45. No first edition has 
been located and the reprints (one printed in 
London, England, in 1646; and one printed for 
Hezekiah Usher at Boston, Mass., by S[amuel] 
G[reen], Cambridge Mass.) vary and appear 
with different subtitles. (Paul Leicester Ford 
The New England Primer) 

CHILDREN'S BUREAU (U.S.) was estab- 
lished in the Department of Commerce and 
Labor, now Department of Labor, by Act of 
Congress, April 9, 1912 (37 Stat.L.79) "to in- 
vestigate and report . . . upon all matters per- 
taining to welfare of children and child life 
among all classes of our people." The first 
chief, Julia Clifford Lathrop, was appointed 
June 4, 1912, by President Woodrow Wilson 
and confirmed by the Senate. (James Alner 
Tobey The Children's Bureau) 




CHILDREN'S CLINIC. See Medical clinic 

MENT. Sec Library 


ground for children 

(International) was the International Congress 
in America for the Welfare of the Child, held 
March 10-17, 1908, at Washington, B.C., under 
the auspices of the National Congress of 
Mothers. President Theodore Roosevelt ad- 
dressed the congress. 

CHIMES and bells as well as the first tower 
clocks were manufactured by Benjamin Hanks, 
who came to America in 1699, settling in Flym- 
an's club 

CHINA WARE for restaurant use was 
made by the Greenwood Pottery Company 
of Trenton, N.J. in 1862. It embraced the 
best qualities of both porcelain and earthen- 

Dishes (complete set) made in America 
for the Executive Mansion, Washington, D.C., 
were ordered by President Woodrow Wilson 
and delivered July 31, 1918. The set, consist- 
ing of 1,700 pieces bearing the seal of the Pres- 
ident of the United States, was manufactured 
by Walter Scott Lenox of Lenox Incorporated, 
Trenton, N.J. 


CHINESE BROADCAST. See Radio broad- 

CER. See Marines 

CHINESE EMBASSY was under the juris- 
diction of Chen Lan-Pin, who presented his 
papers as Envoy Extraordinary and Minister 
Plenipotentiary to President Rutherford Birch- 
ard Hayes, October 4, 1878, at Washington, 
D.C. Yung Wing was the Associate Minister, 
a title which has since been abolished. Accom- 
panied by thirty-four persons, he landed at 
San Francisco, Calif., on July 25, 1878. 


See Citizenship 



ACT. See Immigration 



TURE LECTURESHIP was created by 
Yale University, New Haven, Conn., in 1877. 
Samuel Wells Williams, who was secretary 
and interpreter in Japan for Commodore Oliver 
Hazard Perry, was the lecturer. 




lic school 

CHINESE STUDENTS were brought to 
the United States by the Rev. Samuel Robbins 
Brown, head of the Morrison School, the first 
English school in China. Three Chinese ar- 
rived April 12, 1847, at New York City and 
entered the Monson Academy, Monson, Mass. 
One of them, Yung Wing, entered Yale Uni- 
versity, New Haven, Conn., in 1850 and gradu- 
ated in 1854 with the B.A. degree, becoming 
the first Chinese to graduate in the United 
States. (Yung Wing My Life in China and 


See Telephone 


ANCE. See Play 


an's club 

CHIROPODIST was Nehemiah Kenison, 
who was assisted by his brother and a cousin. 
They opened an office in 1840 directly opposite 
the Old South Church on Washington Street, 
Boston, Mass. They developed instruments and 
protective dressings which greatly aided in the 
relief of the pain caused by troublesome corns, 

CHIROPODY BOOK. See Medical book 

CHIROPODY LAW. See Medical legisla- 

CHIROPODY SCHOOL of note was the 
New York School of Chiropody organized in 
1910 by members of the Pedic Society of the 
State of New York, incorporated June 3, 1895. 
On January 1, 1913, it became the First Insti- 
tute of Podiatry with Dr. Maurice J. Lewi 
as president. Its first graduating class in 1913 
consisted of thirteen men and one woman. On 
November 16, 1939, it became affiliated with 
Long Island University, awarding the degree 
of Pod.D. (Doctor of Podiatry). 

Chiropody school as a regular division of 
a university opened September 20, 1915, a\ 
Temple University, Philadelphia. Pa. The 
chiropody clinic at the Garretson Hospital, an 
annex to Temple Hospital, opened April 6, 




1915. Four students completed the thirty-four 
weeks' course June 1916 and received the de- 
gree of M. Cp. The course now covers four 
years and leads to the degree of D.S.C. (Doc- 
tor of Surgical Chiropody). Dr. Frank Adoni- 
ram Thompson was the first dean of the school, 
and Dr. W. Ashlon Kennedy and Dr. James 
Richardson Bennie were the first professors of 
chiropody. (Pcdic Items. May 1915) 

er School of Chiropractic, Davenport, Iowa 
which opened in 1900. It was established by 
Daniel David 1 'aimer who gave his first adjust- 
ment treatment of the vertebrae on September 
18, 1805. 

CHIROPRACTOR was Daniel David Palm- 
er who gave the first adjustment treatment of 
vertebrae on September 18, 1895 to Harvey 
Lillard at Davenport, Iowa. (Bar tic tt Joshua 
Palmer Science of Chiropractic) 


Sec Water purification 

CHLOROFORM was distilled in 1831 by Dr. 
Samuel (hithrie at Sackets Harbor, N.Y. 
He called it "Chloric ether," and obtained it by 
distilling chloride of lime with alcohol in a 
copper still He described it in "A New Mode 
of Preparing a Spirituous Solution of Chloric 
Kther." Jt is a colorless liquid known chemi- 
cally as tru hloronielhane (CHCli). (Edgar 
l ; ahs S mil h Chemistry in America) 

CHOCOLATE MILL was erected beside the 
Neponset River at Dorchester, Mass., in 1765 
and was operated by John Hannan. In 1780, 
Dr. James Baker purchased the mill, originat- 
ing the present Walter Baker and Co. 


CHOP SUEY was concocted in New York 
City on August 29, 1896, by Li Hung-Chang's 
chef who devised this dish to appeal to both 
American and Oriental taste. Chop suey was 
unknown in China, at the time. Li Hung-Chang 
and his suite of eighteen, attended by twenty- 
two servants, five valets, three cooks and a 
barber, arrived in New York City, August 28, 
1896. lie was greeted by President Grover 
Cleveland. (Eng Ying Gong Tong War) 

CHRISTIAN SCIENCE church was found- 
ed by Mary Baker Kddy at Boston, Mass., in 
1879 following her discover) 1 of this religion, 
and her issuing of its textbook Science and 
Health With Key to the Scriptures in 1875. 

CHRISTMAS CARDS were engraved by 
Louis Prang at Roxbury, Mass., in 1874 for 
export to' England. They were not introduced 
to American trade until 1875. (Museum of the 
City of New York Bulletin Vol. 2Dec. 



CHRISTMAS TREE, designated as the "Na- 
tion's Christmas Tree," was the General Grant 
Tree, in General Grant National Park, Calif., 
dedicated May 1, 1926, by Mayor Henry Leon- 
ard Suderman of Sanger, Calif., although a 
Christmas ceremony had been held at high noon 
Christinas Day 1925. The greatest horizontal 
diameter of the tree was 40.3 feet at the base 
and at 200 feet above the ground, its diameter 
was about 12 feet. The tree is 267 feet high 
and 3,500-4,000 years old. 

MENT. See Monument 


CHROMO was made by John Banvard from 
a painting of St. Eustace entitled "The Orison" 
in New York City in 1861. The chromo was 
16 by 24 inches. 1 'roofs were $10, prints 
$5. (South Dakota Historical Collections 
19-12. Vol. XXI) 


See also under names of religious organiza- 
tions or sects, e.g. Buddhist Temple, Catholic 
Church, Federal Council of Churches, Mormon 
Temple, etc. ; also Cathedral 

Children's church built to scale and operated 
by children, was the Children's Church (Uni- 
tarian), Milton, Mass., dedicated November 
14, 1937, b} the Rev. Vivian Towsc Pomcroj, 
pastor of the First Parish Unitarian Church, 
Milton, Mass. The miniature church was 18 
feet by 32 feet, complete with steeple, belfry, 
organ, spire and pews two feet right inches in 
height, and cost in excess of $5,000. The first 
pasior v\iis the Rev. Mrs. Dorothy Pomeroy. 

Church for the deaf. Sec Deaf Church 

Church without theology, creed or dog- 
ma was organized by Richard Wolfe of Den- 
ver, Colo., in 1912. The First Liberal Church 
of Denver, the first of the new sect, was or- 
ganized in 1922. Wolfe became the first bishop 
of the Liberal Church of America. 

Floating church was moored in the East 
River at the foot of Pike Street, New York 
City. It was constructed in 1843 and known as 
the Floating Church of Our Saviour. The 
church was organized by the Young Men's 
Church Missionary Society, an auxiliary to 
the City Mission Society. The society dis- 
solved in 1844 and deeded the church to the 
Protestant Episcopal Church Missionary Soci- 
ety for Seamen in the City and Port of New 
York which emanated from it. The first 
clergyman was the Reverend Benjamin Clarke 
Cutler Parker who was called by the title of 
"missionary" rather than clergyman. In 1906 
the corporate title was changed to Seamen's 
Church Institute of New York. The work is 
now conducted in a large building at 25 South 
Street, New York City. 




General Council of Congregational and 
Christian Churches was formed as the result 
of a merger of the National Council of Con- 
gregational Churches and the General Con- 
vention of Christian Churches held at Seat- 
tle, Wash., June 25-July 3, 1931. The first 
executive secretaries were the Reverend 
Charles Emerson Burton of New York City 
and the Reverend Warren Hathaway Den- 
nison of Dayton, Ohio. 

General Council of Congregational and 
Christian Churches woman moderator was 

Helen Kern-on of New York City who was 
elected June 17, 1948, at Oberlin, Ohio. 

Mariners' church was built June 4, 1820 by 
the New York Port Society, as a non-sectarian, 
interdenominational church The society was 
organized in May 1818 and was chartered, 
April 13, 1819, as the Society for Promoting 
the fiospcl Among Seamen in the Port of New 
York. The first pastor was the Reverend Ward 
Stafford who preached from 1818 to 1821. The 
society is still active. Its address is listed as 
166-1 08 Eleventh Avenue, between 22d and 23d 
Streets, New York ( il\, Latitude 40 44' 54" 
North; Longitude 70 00' 27" West 


Military School 

CHURCH OF ENGLAND organized in 
New England was King's Chapel at the corner 
of Tremont and School Streets, Boston, built in 
1686 The first minister was James Freeman, 
ordained No\ ember 17, 1785 (Henry ll'ildcr 
I'oote- -Annals of King's Chapel Prom the 
Puritan Age of New England to the Present 

American bishop to become bishop of a 
British Church of England diocese was the 
Right Reverend Spence Burton, who was en- 
throned Bishop of the Church of England, 
diocese of Nassau, Haiti, November 1, 1942, at 
Christ Church Cathedral, Nassau. He was 
suffragan bishop of Haiti, a missionary district 
of the Episcopal Church from May 3, 1939 to 
September 1, 1942. 

TER DAY SAINTS, more familiarly known 
as the Mormon Church, was organized on April 
6, 1830, at Manchester, N.Y., with thirty mem- 
bers. Joseph Smith, its main organizer, de- 
clared that an angel of God brought him the 
law. (History of the Church oj Jesus Christ- 
Church of Jesus Christ) 

REN IN CHRIST was formed on Pentecost 
Sunday, May 18, 1766, at a meeting in Isaac 
Long's barn, Lancaster, Pa., by the Reverend 
Martin Boelim and Reverend Philip William 
Otterbein. The first conference was held in 1789 
at Otterbein's home at Baltimore, Md. Otterbein 
and Boehm were elected to the office of bishop 
in September 1800 at a conference. The first 
general conference at which delegates were 


regularly elected was held June 6, 1815 at 

Mount Pleasant, Pa (Rev Daniel Berger 

History of the Church oj the United Brethren 
in Christ) 

CHUTE. Sec Postal Service 

CIDER MILL was patented by Isaac Quin- 
tard of Slanfield, Conn , who obtained a patent 
April 5, 1806, on a cider and bark mill. 

CIGAR FACTORY of importance was estab- 
lished by Simeon Viets in 1810 at West Sumeld, 
Conn. lie employed fifteen women and a 
foreman. Ills popular brands were "Windsor-/* 
and "Long Nines." (General l'..recntivc Com- 
mittee Celebration of the 250th Anniversary 
of the Settlement of Suffield, Conn.} 


121,049, granted to Moses F. C.ale of New York 
City on November 21, 1871. 

practical) was invented by Oscar llammerstein 
of New York City who obtained patent No. 
272,958 on February 27, 1883. 

CHINE was the Hook machine which was 
invented by Albert H Hook of New York City 
in 1872, but did not come into practical com- 
mercial use until 1882 As late as 1875 only 
fifty million cigarettes were made, according 
to revenue collection figures The Hook ma- 
chine \\as granted patent No 184, 207 on No- 
vember 7, 1876. It produced a continuous* 
cigarette of indefinite length, to be cut into 
separate cigarettes, in which tobacco was fed 
to a ribbon of paper as it was drawn from a 
spool, the edges passing over a gummed wheel. 

CIGARETTE TAX was levied by the Gov- 
ernment under the Act of June 30, 1864 (13 
Stat.L.302) but the system of placing stamps 
on each package was not inaugurated until 
ordered by the Act of Tuly 20, 1868 (15 Stat L. 

Cigarette tax by a state was levied on 
April 11, l c )21, when Iowa enacted a tax ap- 
plicable only to cigarettes, cigarette papers and 
cigarette tubes The tax on cigarettes was one 
mill on each cigarette ($1 per thousand) and 
was effective July 4, 1 ( ^21. This act repealed 
the then existing law prohibiting the sale of 
cigarettes in that slate (Alfred Crether Bueh- 
Icr General Sales Taxation, Its History and 


See Judge 



See Newspaper audit 





See also Equestrian exhibition; Flea 

Circus was owned by John Bill Ricketts and 
known as Ricketts' Circus. A building was 
erected especially for his use at 12th and Mar- 
ket Streets, Philadelphia, Pa., where he gave 
exhibitions as early as 1792. President George 
Washington attended Ricketts' Circus, April 
22, 1793. Ricketts erected a larger building 
called the Art Pantheon and Amphitheatre 
which opened to the public, October 19, 1795, 
and in 1797 he built an Amphitheatre on 
Greenwich Street in New York. In 1797 he 
exhibited in other towns as far north as Albany, 
N.Y. (American Antiquarian Society Pro- 
cee dings April 1933) 

Circus telecast. See Television 

Circus to feature an automobile as an at- 
traction was the Wheeler, Hatch & Hitch- 
cock's Circus and Royal Hippodrome which 
toured New York, Massachusetts, Connecticut, 
and Rhode Island, in 1864. It exhibited a 
"tremendous novelty, never seen before, of an 
ordinary road carriage driven over the com- 
mon high-ways without the aid of horses or 
other draught animals, being beyond doubt the 
most simple, useful and ingenious piece of 
mechanism ever put into practical use." 

CIRCUS TIGHTS. See Tights (circus) 

CAMP. See Army camp 


Also see Immigration 

Chinese granted citizenship, after the re- 
peal of the Chinese exclusion act, was Edward 
Bing Kan of Chicago, 111., interpreter of the 
United States Immigration and Naturalization 
Service, who filed his application December 
18, 1943, and was naturalized January 18, 1944, 
at Chicago, 111. On December 17, 1943, Presi- 
dent Franklin Delano Roosevelt signed the Chi- 
nese Act (57 Stat.L.600) "to repeal the Chi- 
nese exclusion acts, to establish quotas." This 
made Chinese residents eligible for naturaliza- 
tion and permitted the annual immigration 
of a quota of 105 Chinese. (Department of 
Justice, Immigration and Naturalisation Serv- 
ice Monthly Review. Vol. 1 No. 10. April 

Citizenship (colonial) conferred by special 
grant was awarded by the General Assembly 
of Maryland at the session held November 1, 
1784, to January 22, 1785, at Annapolis, Md. 
It provided that "the Marquis de la Fayette and 
his heirs male for ever, shall be, and they and 
each of them are hereby deemed, adjudged, and 
taken to be, natural born citizens of this state, 
and shall henceforth be entitled to all the im- 
munities, rights and privileges, of natural born 
citizens thereof." (Maryland Acts of 1784 
Chapter XII November session. William Paca, 


Citizenship granted to an alien on foreign 
soil was conferred December 4, 1942, at the 
Panama Canal Zone by Thomas Buckman 
Shoemaker, Assistant Commissioner of the 
Immigration and Naturalization Service, on 
Irish-born Private James Alexander Finnell 
Hoey. The Second War Powers Act of March 
27, 1942 (56 Stat.L.176) authorized the Com- 
missioner of Immigration and Naturalization to 
designate a representative who shall have power 
to naturalize "any person entitled to natural- 
ization, who while serving honorably in the 
military or naval forces of the United States 
is not within the jurisdiction of any court au- 
thorized to naturalize aliens." 

Japanese granted citizenship was Joseph 
ITeco, naturalized June 30, 1858, in the United 
States District Court, Baltimore, Md., before 
the Hon. William Fell Giles. His witnesses 
were Beverly C. Saunders and Thomas Spiccr, 
Clerk of the Court. (Joseph Heco The Nar- 
rative of a Japanese) 

Naturalization act in the American colo- 
nies was provided for on March 12, 1664 in the 
letters patent of Charles II to James, the Duke 

of York, who was permitted to bring in sub- 
jects of the realm as well as "any other sub- 
jects who would become subjects." (Joseph 
Willard -Naturalization in the American Col- 

SCHOOL was opened October 3, 1924, by 
Syracuse University, Syracuse, N.Y., through 
the generosity of George Holmes Maxwell. The 
first dean was William Eugene Mosher. 

CITRON fruit grown commercially in any 
large quantity was raised by Edwin Giles Hart, 
who planted six thousand trees at La Habra, 
Calif., in 1925. 

CITY (incorporated) in the colonies was 
Georgeana, now York, Me. Sir Ferdinando 
Gorges on December 2, 1631 received a grant 
of 24,000 acres on both sides of the Agamenti- 
cus, or York, River and founded a town named 
after the river on April 10, 1641. It subse- 
quently changed its name to Georgeana when it 
was incorporated on March 1, 1642. The name 
was later changed to York, Me. The charter 
embraced a territory of twenty-one square miles 
and inhabitants were formed into a body politic. 
This was the first English charter for a city in 
America. Kittery, Me., was the first and 
oldest town in the state, whereas Georgeana 
was a city incorporate and not a town. (George 
Alexander Emery Ancient City of Georgeana 
and Modern Town of York, Me.) 

CITY (Lilliputian city) was built under the 
direction of William H. Johnson upon a care- 
fully prepared townsite of five acres, with 
avenues, electric lights, and water mains, all 
to a scale of one inch to a foot, in Grant 
Beach Park, Springfield, Mo., June 6, 1925. 
Ten thousand school children helped in build- 
ing Tiny Town which had 1,200 miniature 




structures, covering every angle of a mod- 
ern city. The town was conducted under 
the manager-commission form of government, 
the officers being school children. Conceived 
and constructed as an incentive to building, 
Tiny Town boosted building permits from $280 
daily average for the 90 days preceding its 
exhibition to $1,843 per day for the 90 days 
immediately following. Six years before the 
townsite was selected, a miniature village was 
exhibited by Mr. Johnson on the floor of the 
convention hall in Springfield. 

CITY COLLEGE. See College 
CITY DIRECTORY. See Directory 

CITY MANAGER was appointed by Staun- 
ton, Va., in 1908. The first city manager was 
Charles E. Ashburner. (Virginia Municipal 
Review. Vol. 5. No. 3) 

CITY MANAGER PLAN of government 
was adopted by Sumter, S.C. In June 1912 
through a regular election the voters adopted 
the Commission city manager form of govern- 
ment. The Commission is composed of a mayor 
and two councilman, all elected at large. The 
Commission employs a city manager, and active 
administration of the affairs of the city is 
entrusted to him. He is, however, accountable 
to the Commission which is the final authority. 

CITY MAP. See Map 


offered in 1909 by Harvard University, Cam- 
bridge, Mass., under James Sturgis Pray, Pro- 
fessor of Landscape Architecture. Registra- 
tion commenced September 30, 1909. In the 
fall of 1929, the Charles Dyer Norton Chair 
of Regional Planning was founded by a gift 
from James F. Curtis, and a separate School 
of City Planning was set up requiring a bach- 
elor's degree for entrance and giving a "Mas- 
ter of City Planning" degree. The first degrees 
of Master in Landscape Architecture were con- 
ferred on June 18, 1925, and the first degrees 
of Master in City Planning on June 18, 1931. 

CIVIC DESIGN CHAIR in a university 
was established by the University of Illinois, 
Urbana, 111., in 1912 as part of the landscape 
development program inaugurated in 1897 by 
Joseph Cullen Blair, in charge of the Depart- 
ment of Horticulture. The first incumbent of 
the chair was Professor Charles Mulford Rob- 
inson who served as Professor of Civic Design 
from September 1, 1913 until his death, De- 
cember 30, 1917. 

CIVIL AIR PATROL (U.S.) was organized 
as a division of the Office of Civilian Defense 
on December 1, 1941. The first national com- 
mander was Major General John Francis 
Curry appointed December 10, 1941. On April 
29, 1943, it was transferred to the War Depart- 
ment by presidential order and became an aux- 
iliary of the Army Air Forces. It was the 
only civilian organization permitted to wear 
"U.S." on its insignia and the letters appear 


on a shoulder emblem to identify the corps 
as prisoners of war, if captured, instead of 


Engineering college 

CIETY. See Engineering society 


was the Watauga Commonwealth, an indepen- 
dent civil government. By the treaty of Fort 
Stanwix in 1768 the Six Nations agreed to 
surrender all the lands between the Ohio and 
Tennessee rivers to the English. Inasmuch as 
there was some misunderstanding due to the 
fact that the Iroquois ceded land to which they 
had no legal right, the settlers organized a civil 
government in May 1772 and drew the "Articles 
of the Watauga Association," the first written 
constitution ever adopted by a community of 
American-born freemen. The settlers elected 
a representative assembly of thirteen men, 
which in turn elected a committee of five, John 
Sevier, James Robertson, Charles Robertson, 
Zachariah Isbell, and John Carter, vested with 
judicial and executive authority. This was 
the first free and independent community es- 
tablished on the American continent. The area 
was in North Carolina and the mountains of 
Tennessee. (Samuel Cole Williams History 
of Lost State of Franklin) 

CIVIL RIGHTS CHAIR was established at 
Lafayette College, Easton, Pa., through the 
gift of Fred Morgan Kirby. The first lectures 
were given in February 1921 by Professor Her- 
bert Adams Gibbons. (David Bishop Skill- 
man The Biography of A College) 

pointed by President Ulysses S. Grant in March 
1871 and consisted of George William Curtis, 
Alexander Gilmore Cattell, Joseph Medill, D. 
A. Walker, E. B. Elliott, Joseph H. Blackfan 
and David C. Cox. An Act of Congress of 
March 3, 1871 (16 Stat.L.514) authorized the 
President to prescribe regulations for admis- 
sions of persons into the Civil Service. It 
became effective January 1, 1872. Congress re- 
fused to make any further appropriations and 
despite two direct appeals from President 
Grant, Civil Service was abandoned in 1874. 
The Pendlcton bill reestablishing Civil Service 
was approved by President Chester A. Arthur, 
January 16, 1883 (22 Stat.L.403). (Carl Rus- 
sell Fish The Civil Service and the Patron- 

(WOMAN) was Helen Hamilton Gardiner. 
She was appointed by President Woodrow Wil- 
son on April 13, 1920. 


Act that marked the inauguration of the 
War of 1861-1865 was the firing upon the 
"Star of the West," a staunch merchant steam 
vessel chartered by the government to convey 




CIVIL WAR Continued 
supplies and men to reinforce Major Robert 
Anderson, at Fort Sumter, Charleston Harbor, 
although the announced destination was Sa- 
vannah, Ga., and New Orleans, La. She left 
New York harbor, January 5, 1861, and when 
within two miles of Forts Sumter and Moultrie 
was fired upon from a detachment at Morris 
Island on January 9, 1861. Captain John Mc- 
Gowan retired from the scene after seventeen 
shots had been fired at his ship, only two of 
which took effect. Major Stevens ordered 
Cadet G. E. Haynesworth of Sumter, S.C., to 
pull the lanyard and fire the first shot. (John 
Peyre Thomas- Historical Sketch of the South 
Carolina Military Academy 1783-1892) 

Attack in the Civil War was made on Fort 
Sumter, S.C. The first gun was fired on the 
morning of April 12, 1861 by Edmund Rufrin, 
a Virginian seventy-five years of age. There 
were no casualties. (Chronological Record of 
the Great Civil W ar Cox ton Press) 

Bloodshed in the Civil War was on April 
10, 1861. When President Abraham Lincoln 
issued his state of insurrection proclamation 
and call for militia on April 15, 1861, Gov. 
John Albion Andrew of Massachusetts sent 
five regiments of infantry, a battalion of 
riflemen and a battery of artillery to Wash- 
ington. While passing through Baltimore, 
they \\ere stoned and fired upon by a mob of 
citizens. Four Union soldiers were killed and 
twenty injured Nine casualties were reported 
among the mob. 

Bloodshed north of the Mason-Dixon line 

in the Civil War was in the battle of Hanover, 
Pa., June 30, 1863, between Brigadier General 
Judson Kilpatrick's Third Cavalry Division, 
Army of the Potomac, and Major General 
James Ewell Brown Stuart's Cavalry Division, 
Army of Northern Virginia. About eleven 
thousand troops were in this cavalry and artil- 
lery engagement in which the casualties were 
more than three hundred. This battle was one 
of the determining factors that enabled the 
North to win at Gettysburg, Pa. 

Call for Union Troops in the Civil War 

was made by President Abraham Lincoln, for 
75,000 volunteers on April 15, 1861, the day 
after the surrender of Fort Sumter, S.C. 

Confederate cruiser to raid Union com- 
merce. Sec Ship 

Confederate general killed in the Civil 

War was Albert Sidney Johnston of Texas 
who fell at Shiloh, Tenn., April 6, 1862. (Rob- 
ert Crooke Wood Confederate Handbook) 

Conflict between iron-clad vessels in the 
Civil War was that of the "Merrimac" and 
"Monitor" at Hampton Roads, Va., March 9, 
1862, which was won by the Union's "Monitor."' 
(Le Grand Bout on Cannon Records of the 
Ironclads Monitor and Merrimac and Inci- 
dents of the Fight) 


Naval engagement in the Civil War took 
place September 14, 1861, at Pensacola, Fla. 
Lieutenant John Henry Russell with a detach- 
ment of the crew of the U.S.S. "Colorado" 
descended upon the navy yard at Pensacola at 
2:00 A.M. The steamer ""Judah" (five guns) 
lying at anchor was burned and the only gun in 
the yard spiked. There were no Confederate 
casualties. Three of the Union troops were 
killed and four wounded. (Union Army Fed- 
eral Publishing Co.) 

Negro regiment in the Civil War was the 

First Regiment, South Carolina Volunteers, or- 
ganized in July and August 1862 by Major 
General David Hunter. There being no au- 
thority at that time for its muster into Federal 
Service, it was disbanded, then reorganized in 
October 1862 and mustered into Federal Serv- 
ice at Buford, S.C., January 31, 1863. Its des- 
ignation was changed February 8, 1864, to the 
33d United States Colored Infantry. (Records 
in Adjutant General's Office. War Dept.) 

Regiment to respond to President Abra- 
ham Lincoln's proclamation of April 15, 
1861, was the Ringgold Light Artillery of 
Reading, Pa., known as "The First Defenders," 
commanded by Dr. John Keys. They reported 
to Governor Eli Slifer at Harrisburg, Pa., 
April 16, 1861. Their first engagement was 
September 24, 1861, at Hanging Rocks, W.Va. 
The other Pennsylvania regiments did not 
arrive in Harrisburg until April 17, 1861. 
Pennsylvania regiments were the first to arrive 
at Washington, D.C. (Samuel Clarke Farrar 
The 22nd Pennsylvania Cavalry and the 
Ringgold Battalion) 

Serious engagement in the Civil War was 

on Bull Run Creek, Va., July 21, 1861. The 
Confederate forces under General Joseph EC 
cleston Johnston defeated the Union forces un 
der General Jrvin McDowell. (James Ford 
Rhodes History of the U.S. from the Com- 
promise oj 1850 to the Final Restoration oj 
Home Rule at the South in 1877) 

Skirmish in the Civil War took place on 
June 1, 1861, at Fairfax Court House, Va. 
Fifty men of Company B, 2d LInited States 
Cavalry, under Lieutenant Charles H. Tomp- 
kins, were sent out to reconnoiter. They dis- 
covered a force much larger than their own 
and retreated. By exceeding his specific orders 
Tompkins frustrated a much larger movement 
which had been planned. One Union soldk.r 
was killed and four injured, while the Con- 
federates suffered one killed and fourteen 
wounded. The action at Phihppi, W.Va., which 
has often been regarded as the first Civil War 
land battle occurred June 3, 1861. The United 
States forces under Brigadier General Thomas 
Armstrong Morris routed the Confederate 
forces under Colonel George A. Porterfield. 
(Union Army Federal Publishing Co.) 

Union soldier killed by enemy action in 
the Civil War was Thornsberry Daily 
Brown. On May 22, 1861, while engaged in 




obtaining recruits he was fired upon by Con- 
federate pickets at Fetterman, near Grafton, 
W.Va. He was given a military funeral and 
buried in a temporary cemetery on upper Maple 
Avenue In 1900, Reno Post No. 7, G.A.R., 
erected a shaft to Brown's memory on the left 
of Pearl Street, and in 1928 the Betsy Ross 
Tent Daughters of the Union Veterans erected 
a monument at Fetterrnan at the spot where 
Brown fell. 



(U.S.) was established November 9, 1033, with 
an allocation of $400,000,000. The first admin- 
istrator was Harry Lloyd Hopkins. (U.S. 
Federal Civil Works Administration Rules 
and Regulations 1933) 

TY (U.S.) was created by act of Congress 
passed June 23, 1938 (52 Stat.L.973), "to 
create a Civil Aeronautics Authority and to 
promote the development and safety, and to 
provide for the regulation of civil aeronautics." 


A vial iun License 


(U.S.) v\ r as authorized by Art of Congress 
(48 Stat.L22) "an act for the relief of un- 
employment through the performance of useful 
public work, and fur other purposes," signed 
by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt, March 
3l, 1933. On April 5, 1933, Robert Eeclmcr of 
Boston was appointed first director. Enroll- 
ment began on April 5th and the first camp 
was set up April 10, 1933. By July 4th, the 
enrollment of all units, including veterans, was 
complete. The peak registration for the first 
period was 311,230 The first camp was Camp 
Roosevelt, near Luray, Ya., opened April 17, 


CLARINET made exclusively of metal was 
manufactured by Charles ( Jerard Conn at Elk- 
hart, Ind., who obtained patent No. 410,072 on 
August 27, 1889, on a "clarionet." Previously, 
clarinets were made of wood. Conn's clarinet 
was made with double metal walls in the old 
Albert system. 



BONDS). See Brokerage 

ert De Courcy Ward, appointed in 1910 by 
Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass. He 
was assistant in Meteorology 1892-95 ; instruc- 


tor 1895-96; instructor in Climatology 1896- 
1900; assistant professor 1900-10; and profes- 
sor of Climatology 1910-31. 

CLINCHER TIRE. See Automobile tire 
CLINIC. See Medical clinic 

cal instruction 


manufactured by George Henry Coates of 
Worcester, Mass., in 1876. His product was 
so superior to those imported from England 
and France that he received an initial manu- 
facturing order for five thousand clippers. 


CLIPPING BUREAU. See Press clipping 


Alarm clock was made by Levi Hutchins 
of Concord, N.H., in 1787. It was 29 inches 
high, 14 inches wide and had a pine case with 
a mirror in the door. The alarm rang at a 
specified time and could not be set or altered. 

Banjo clock patent was obtained by Simon 
Willard of Boston, Mass., on February 8, 1802 
for "an improvement in a time-piece." 

Brass clock works were invented in 1837 by 
Chaimce\ Jerome of the Jerome Clock Com- 
pany, Bristol, Conn (later the New Haven 
Clock Company) whose production of standard- 
ized parts of pierced brass plates from steel 
dies enabled him to sell an eight-day metal 
clock lor $4 whereas one-day wooden clocks 
sold for $12. 

Clock (one-day back-wind alarm clock) in 

a metal case was made in 1876 by the Seth 
Thomas Clock Company of Thomaston, Conn, 
and was the first production of such a clock 
in this country. The clock case was patented 
October 24, 1876, No. 183,725 by Seth E. 
Thomas of New York City. 

Clock patent was granted to Eli Terry of 
East Windsor, Conn., on November 17, 1797, 
on an equation clock. The clock had two min- 
ute hands, one of which showed the mean or 
true time while the "other together with the 
striking part and hour hand showed the ap- 
parent time, as divided by the sun according to 
the table of the variation of the sun and clock 
for each day of the year." (Penrose Robin- 
son Hoopes Connecticut Clockmakers of the 
Eighteenth Century} 

Clock to strike the hours was constructed 
in 1754 by Benjamin Banneker, a Negro, at 
Elkridge Landing, near Baltimore, Md. At 
the age of twenty-three, without tools and using 
only a jack-knife, and without having ever seen 
anything similar but a sun dial and a watch, he 
constructed this clock which kept time for more 
than twenty years. It was made of wood. 




CLOCK Continued 

Banneker later became distinguished as a sci- 
entist. (Journal of Negro History Vol.3 
April 1918) 

Self-winding clock was made by Benjamin 
Hanks of Litchfield, Conn., who made a "clock 
or machine that winds itself up by help of the 
air and will continue to do so without any 
other aid or assistance." On October 6, 1783, 
he applied for a fourteen-year exclusive patent 
right from Connecticut. 

Watch (eight day) was manufactured in 
1850 by Aaron Lufkin Dennison. It was re- 
garded, however, as impractical and inferior to 
the one-day watch. It was made in the factory 
of the American Horologe Company of Rox- 
bury, Mass., now the Waltham Watch Com- 
pany, Waltham, Mass. (Charles Walden Moore 
Timing A Century, History of the Waltham 
Watch Company) 

Watch made by machinery was placed on 
the market in 1838 by James and Henry Pitkin 
of Hartford, Conn., the manufacturers. The 
movements were three-quarter plate, slow train 
and about the diameter of the modern 16-size. 
The factory was moved to New York, but in 
1841 was closed down, being unable to meet the 
competition of the imported Swiss watches. 

Watch maker was Luther Goddard who in 
1809 opened a shop in Shrewsbury, Mass., his 
birthplace. He was aided by a law which for- 
bade the importation of clocks and watches, and 
so was able to develop a small business. In 
reality, he assembled more watches from im- 
ported parts than he actually constructed. The 
real beginning of the watch industry was in 
1849 when the American Horologe Company 
was formed at Roxbury, Mass., by three men, 
Aaron L. Dennison of Boston who was an 
experienced watchmaker, Edward Howard of 
Bingham, Mass., who was skilled in making 
machinery for watches, and Samuel Curtis who 
financed the enterprise, which later became the 
Waltham Watch Company. (Henry G. Abbott 
History of the Watch Factories of America) 

Watch movement to be electrically 
wound and synchronized was made by H. 
Chester Pond in Chicago in the fall of 1885. 
In the summer of 1886 fifty of these movements 
were made and set up in New York City as a 
system. A high-grade master clock trans- 
mitted an hourly signal to the various self- 
winding or "subsidiary" clocks, correcting 
them hourly, and thereby maintaining in each 
clock location the same high degree of time 
accuracy that was inherent in the master clock. 

CLOCK-LOCK. See Lock "clock" 


Moving picture 


Cloth mill was built in 1638 by John 
Pearson in Rowley, Mass. According to Cap- 
tain Edward Johnson's book, Wonder- Working 


Providences of Sion's Savior in New England, 
published in London in 1654, "The Lord 
brought over the zealous affected and judicious 
servant of His, Master Ezekiel Rogers, with 
an holy and humble people, made his progress 
to the northeastward and erected a town about 
six miles from Ipswich, called Rowley they 
were the first people that set upon making 
cloth in this western world." 

Gingham factory. See Gingham factory 
Hair cloth. See Hair Cloth 

Jeans, fustians, everlastings and coatings 

were made commercially by Samuel Wetherill, 
Jr., of Philadelphia, Pa. Prior to April 3, 
1782, his products were sold at his dwelling 
house and factory on what was then South 
Alley, between Market and Arch Streets. 

Sail cloth factory was the Boston Sail 
Cloth Factory, Boston, Mass., established in 
1788. It was two stories high and 180 feet 
long. In 1789, thirty women and girls worked 
26 looms and turned out 40 yards each a week. 



See Congress Senate 

CLUB WOMAN was Anne Hutchinson, the 
founder of the Antinomian party in the New 
England colonies. She left England and ar- 
rived at Boston, Mass., on September 18, 1634. 
She organized groups of women who met at 
her house and led them in the discussion of 
secular and theological questions. Her influ- 
ence became so great and her views so pro- 
nounced that she was brought to trial on No- 
vember 17, 1637, at Cambridge and was ban- 
ished from the territory of Massachusetts. She 
left for Rhode Island in March 1638 accom- 
panied by seventy followers. (Edith Roelker 
Curtis Anne Hutchinson) 

CLUBS. See Societies; also specific heading, 
as Canoe club, Tennis club, etc. 

COACH (railroad). 3ee Car 

COACH (professional trainer). See Sports 

COACH SERVICE. See Stage coach inter- 
city service 

COACHING as a pastime was brought to 
the United States in 1875 by Colonel Delancey 
Astor Kane. A tally-ho was built by Holland 
and Holland of London, England and imported 
to New York. The first trip, May 1, 1876, was 
from Hotel Brunswick, Fifth Avenue and 26th 
Street, New York City, to the Arcubarius Ho- 
tel at Pelham, N.Y. The interest in the tally- 
ho lasted thirty-five years. Some coaches had 
been imported earlier. 

COACHING CLUB to encourage four-in- 
hand driving was the Coaching Club formed by 
nine men December 3, 1875, at the Knicker- 




bocker Club, New York City. The officers 
were William Jay, president; James Gordon 
Bennett, vice president and William P. Douglas, 
secretary and treasurer. The first meet was 
held April 22, 1876, when six coaches partici- 
pated. (Reginald William Rives The Coach- 
ing Club) 

COAL is claimed to have been discovered by 
Father Louis Hennepin in 1673-80 while on his 
exploration trips. It is claimed that he noticed 
coal on the bluffs of the Illinois River not far 
from Ottawa and La Salle, 111. (Louis Henne- 
pin A Discovery of a Large Rich and Plenti- 
ful Country in the North America) 

Anthracite coal was accidentally discovered 
in 1791 by Philip Ginter, a hunter, near Sharp 
Mountain, Carbon County, Pa. It was re- 
garded as a species of black stone. Its value 
was not appreciated fully as the coal was dif- 
ficult to kindle and produced such a high heat 
that it endangered the old-time boilers which 
were designed principally for burning wood. 
(Fred Brenckman History of Carbon County, 

Anthracite coal was burned experimen- 
tally by Judge Jesse Fell in his home at 
Wilkc^-Rarre, Pa.; February 11, 1808, much to 
the surprise of the populace \vlio regarded the 
coal as valueless. (Wilkcs-Barre The Dia- 
mond City) 

Anthracite coal was used commercially 
and was successfully burned in 1812 in a heat- 
ing furnace at White and Hazard's Fairmount 
Nail and Wire Works near Philadelphia, Pa. 
The coal was supplied by Colonel George Shoe- 
maker of Pottsyille, Pa., who loaded nine 
wagons from his mine at Centreville, Pa. 
Another load was sold to Mellon & Bishop of 
the Delaware County Rolling Mill, the remain- 
ing seven being given away because no one 
would buy hard coal. (William Jasper Nicolls 
Story of American Coals) 

Anthracite coal was used in smelting iron 
ore in a furnace in 1837 by the Lehigh Coal and 
Navigation Company at Mauch Chunk, Pa. The 
anthracite coal used was approximately 80 per 
cent of the fuel consumed. On August 27, 1838, 
another blast furnace was erected in which an- 
thracite was used exclusively. (Walter Rogers 
Johnson Notes on the Use of Anthracite) 





COAL MINE designed for 100 per cent me- 
chanical operation was the Butler Consolidated 
Coal Company's Wildwood mine, Wildwood, 
Pa., which opened in October 1930. The drill- 
ing, crushing, loading, screening of sizes, 
mechanical cleaning, dumping and transporta- 
tion were accomplished mechanically. Rubber 
conveyor belts carried the coal. 


COURSE. See Correspondence school 

COAL OIL FACTORY to manufacture coal 
oil from coal tar was started in 1853 by the 
U.S. Chemical Manufacturing Company at 
Waltham, Mass. The light fractions from this 
coal oil distillation was called "coal oil" and 
was used for illuminating purposes It was 
marie in connection with picric acid, benzol, 
and other products from coal tar, and was 
named "Coup Oil" by Luther Atwood, the 
inventor. When Drake demonstrated that pe- 
troleum could be secured by drilling, the coal 
oil industry died a natural death. (Samuel 
Dana Hayes History and Manufacture of Pe- 
troleum Products) 

COALING STATION (naval). See Navy 


Coast Guard (United States) was cre- 
ated on January 28^1915 (38 Stat.L.800), "an 
act to create the Coast Guard by combining 
therein the existing Life Saving Service and the 
Revenue Cutter Service." The Revenue Cutter 
Service had been organized August 4, 1790 
(1 Stat.L.145) "an act to provide more ef- 
fectually for the collection of the duties imposed 
by law on goods, wares and merchandise im- 
ported into the U S. and on the tonnage of ships 
and vessels." The Life Saving Service had 
been authorized June 18, 1878 (20 Stat L.163) 
"an act to organize the Life Saving Service." 
The motto of the Coast Guard is Semper 
Paratus (Always Ready). 

Coast Guard air station. See Aviation 
Coast Guard aviation unit. See Aviation 

Coast Guard Commandant was Alexan- 
der V. Frascr who served the Revenue Cutter 
Service from February 1, 1842, to November 
15, 1848. He became a second lieutenant on 
the "Alert" in 1832 and served until 1836 when 
he obtained a leave of absence to command the 
"Himmaleh" bound for Japan, China and the 
Malayan Archipelago. In 1837, he returned to 
the Coast Guard. John Canficld Spencer, Sec- 
retary of the Treasury, appointed him Com- 
mandant. His first report was submitted 
January 9, 1844. 

Coast Guard officers' training school was 

established July 31, 1876, by the Revenue Cut- 
ter Service aboard the schooner "Dobbin" based 
at New Bedford, Mass. Its complement was 
three officers, a surgeon, six warrant officers, 
seventeen men and eight cadets. 

Coast Guard Woman's Auxiliary (called 
"Spars" from the initials of the Coast Guard 
motto, "Semper Paratus Always Ready") was 
authorized November 23, 142, and placed 
under the command of Lieutenant Commander 
Dorothy Constance Stratton. She assumed of- 
fice November 24, 1942, became commander on 
January 1, 1944, and captain on February 1, 




COAST GUARD (U.S.) Continued 
1944. The first recruit was Dorothy Edith 
Lome Tuttle who enlisted on December 7, 1942, 
as a yeoman third class. 

Inland U.S. Coast Guard station was 
opened November 3, 1881 when four surf men 
were employed on Station No 10 of the Ninth 
Life Saving District (embracing Lake Erie 
and Ontario) at Louisville, Ky., near the falls 
of the Ohio River. The station was com- 
manded by Captain William M. Devan. The 
first rescue was made November 7, 1881, when 
the Io03-ton steamer "City of Baton Rouge" 
of St. Louis, Mo., valued at $125,000, with 26 
persons on board stranded on the left-hand 
reef of the falls. The vessel was finally floated 
off the rocks on November 24, 1881. 

Navy Cross to a Coast Guard Officer. See 

Vice Admiral in the Coast Guard was 

Russell Randolph Waesche, Commandant of 
the United States Coast Guard, who was ap- 
pointed Vice Admiral on March 24, 1942. 

Lawrence Furlong's "The American Coast 
Pilot, containing the courses and distance from 
Boston to all the principal harbours, capes and 
headlands included between Passamaquady and 
the Capes of Virginia with directions for sail- 
ing into, and out of, all the principal ports and 
harbours, with the sounding on the coast. . . ." 
121 pages, printed March 1796 at Newburyport, 
Mass., by [Edward March] Blunt and [An- 
gier] March. 


was Ferdinand Rudolph Hasslcr who was for- 
mally appointed August 3, 1816, by Alexander 
James Dallas, Secretary of the Treasury. 
Hassler received $3,000 a year and $2,000 for 
personal expenses in the field. The U.S. Coast 
Survey was authorized February 10, 1807, but 
the first appropriation was made July 10, 1832 
(4 Stat.L.570) an "act to carry into effect the 
act to provide for a survey of the coast of the 
U.S." The appropriation was not to exceed 
$20,000. (Centennial Celebration of the U. S. 
Coast and Geodetic Survey) 




Tuxedo coat is claimed to have been in- 
troduced from England by Griswold Lorillard 
who wore a tailless dress coat and waistcoat 
of scarlet satin at the Tuxedo Club, Tuxedo 
Park, N.Y., on October 10, 1886. (Edwin 
Clark KentStory of Tuxedo Park) 

See Nickel and 


cobalt refinery 

COCKTAIL is claimed to have been served 
in 1776 by Betsy Flanagan, a barmaid at Halls 
Corners, Elmsford, N.Y., who decorated the 


bar with tail feathers. An inebriate called for 
a glass of "those cocktails," so she prepared a 
mixed drink, and inserted one of the feathers. 

COCKTAIL (Oyster). See Oyster cocktail 

COD LIVER OIL was described in Thomas 
Morton's New English Canaan in 1635. A 
"great store of traine oyle is mayd of the livers 
of the Codd, and is a commodity that without 
question will enrich the inhabitants of New 
England quicly and is therefore a principall 
commodity." His report was published in 1637 
in a book printed by Jacob Frederick Stani at 
Amsterdam, Holland. 

CODEBALL was played May 11, 1929, at 
the Lake Shore Athletic Club, Chicago, 111. The 
game is a combination of golf and soccer foot- 
ball and was invented by Dr. William Edward 
Code of Chicago, HI. A six-inch ball, weigh- 
ing twelve ounces, capable of withstanding a 
six-hundred-pound pressure is used. Codeball- 
in-the-court is plau'd in an enclosed court and 
codeball-on-t he-green is played in the open. 
Both games were adopted by the Amateur 
Athletic Union of the United States at St. 
Louis, Mo., on November 18, 1929. 


was created by act of June 19, 1937, (50 
Stat.T-.304) "an act to amend the Federal Reg- 
ister Act (49 Stat.LSOO) approved July 26, 
1935." Its purpose was "to supervise and co- 
ordinate the form, style, arrangement and in- 
dexing of codifications to be prepared by each 
agency of the administrative branch of the Fed- 
eral Government which is empowered by Con- 
gress to exercise rule-making power." The 
board consisted of six members. The first 
chairman was Major Bernard Keilly Kennedy 
appointed June 19, 1937. The first codification 
was filed July 1, 1938. 


SCHOOL. Sec Medical school 

April 3, 1829, to James Carrington, Walling- 
ford, Conn. 


No. 51,741 granted to James H. Nason of 
Franklin, Mass., on December 26, 1865. 

COG RAILROAD. Sec Railroad 
COIL STAMPS. See Postage stamp 
COIN. Sec Money 

COIN BOX for street cars was invented 
about 1870 by Thomas Loftin Johnson at Louis- 
ville, Ky. He rose from clerk to owner of a 
street railway in Indianapolis and a large stock- 
holder in railroad companies in New York, 
Cleveland and Detroit. (Thomas Loftin John- 
son My Story) 




tal service 

CHINE. See Vending machine 

COKE used successfully as a blast-furnace 
fuel was demonstrated in 1835 by William 
Firmstone at tbe Mary Ann Furnace in Hunt- 
ingdon County, Pa. 

mechanical refrigeration was opened in 1881 
by the Mechanical Refrigerating Company at 
Boston, Mass. (Dcpt. of Agric. Yearbook. 
1900. "The Influence of Refrigeration on the 
Fruit Industry/' William A, Taylor) 


COLLAR (detached) was made in 1825 at 
Troy, N.Y., by Hannah Lord Montague, 
who, tired of washing her husband's shirts 
merely because the collar was dirty, took 
scissors and performed the amputation, which 
created a new style in men's apparel, {Ruther- 
ford Hayner Troy and Renssclaer County, 

Paper collar was invented by Walter 
Hunt of New York City who obtained patent 
No. ] 1,376, July 25, 1854. He used a thin 
white cotton muslin and coated both sides with 
a very llun white paper, a layer of paste 
interposed between them. The collars were 
then varnished with a colorless bleached shellac 
which made them proof against perspiration; 
they could be wiped clean with a damp cloth. 

COLLAR FACTORY for the manufacture 
of men's linen collars and shirt bosoms as a 
special business was established by Orlando 
Montague and Austin Granger, under the firm 
name of Alontague and Granger, at Troy, N.Y., 
in 1833. (Arthur James Weise Troy's One 
Hundred Years. J789-18S9) 

able collars was Ebcnezer Brown who started 
in Troy, N.Y., in 1829. He hired a number 
of women to make, wash and iron the collars, 
giving in payment merchandise from his retail 
store, located at 285 River Street. These collars, 
which were known as "string collars" because 
they were tied about the neck with a string, 
were placed in paper boxes sixteen or more 
inches in length, and were sold in his store. 
(Arthur James Wcisc Troy's One Hundred 
Years. 1789-1889) 


For C 'hairs, Courses, Departments, Profes- 
sorships, Special colleges, and the like, see 
under name of specific subject or profession or 
type of school, e g., Agricultural school, Biog- 
raphy course, Language instruction, Law school, 
Normal school, Political Economy chair, etc. 

For college sports, see under name of game 
or sport, e.g., Baseball, Boat race, etc, 


Catholic college was Georgetown College, 
Washington, D.C., established January 23, 1789 
and opened November 15, 1791. The first stu- 
dent to register was William Gaston of New- 
berne, N.C. Authority to grant degrees was 
authorized by act of Congress of March 1, 
1815 (6 Stal.L.152). (Coleman N evils Minia- 
tures of Georgetown) 

City college was the College of Charleston, 
Charleston, S.C., which was founded in 1770, 
chartered March 19, 1785 and opened in 1790. 
The Rev. Robert Smith was the first principal 
and served until 1797. On December 20, 1837, 
it became a municipal university under munici- 
pal control and opened April 1, 1838 with six- 
teen students. The first president was Rev. Dr. 
William Theophilus Brantley, pastor of the 
Baptist Church, who was appointed February 
2, 1838 ami served until his death in 1845. 
(Roscoc Huhn Eckclbcrry History of the 
Municipal University) 

Coeducational college was Oberlin Col- 
legiate Institute, Oberlin, Ohio, which opened 
December 3, 1833, with 44 students, 29 men and 
15 women. It was incorporated February 2, 
1834. The first commencement was October 29, 
1834. Equal status was not granted to women, 
however, until September 6, 1837, when four 
women, Elizabeth Smith Prall of New York 
City, Caroline Mary Rudd of Huntington, 
Conn., Mary llosford of Oberlin, Ohio, Mary 
Fletcher Kellogg of Jamestown, N.Y., and 
thirty men matriculated. In 1841, the first 
three of these women graduated with the B.A. 
degree having pursued a classical course equiv- 
alent to that at Yale. On March 21, 1850, the 
name was changed to Oberlin College. It was 
the first school to advocate the abolition of 
slavery and to accept colored men and women 
on equal terms with the white race. 

College was Harvard College established 
in 1636. On September 8, 1636 the General 
Court of Massachusetts Bay appropriated 400 
and in 1637 appointed twelve of the principal 
men of the colony "to take orders for a 
college at New Towne," and the name Cam- 
bridge was adopted. Rev. John Harvard who 
died September 24, 1638, left the college about 
800 and 300 books and the name of the col- 
lege was changed in his honor. The first build- 
ing, erected in 1637, was known as "The In- 
dian Collidge." The first commencement was 
held September 23, 1642. Nathaniel Eaton 
was appointed the first Master of the College. 
The first president was Henry Dtmster who 
served from August 27, 1640, to October 24, 
1654. (Samuel Atkins Eliot A Sketch of the 
History of Harvard College) 

College charter granted by a governor or 
acting governor with only the assent of his 
council was issued October 22, 1746, to 
twelve trustees of the College of New Jersey 
(now Princeton University) Princeton, N.J., 
by Governor John Hamilton, President of His 
Majesty's Council. The college opened the 
fourth week of May 1747. The first com- 




COLLEGE Continued 

mencement was November 9, 1748. Rev. Jona- 
than Dickinson was the first president. (John 
Maclean History of the College of New 

College charter granted by the Crown 

under the Seal of the Privy Council was 
"their Majesties Royal College of William 
and Mary" the charter for which was granted 
February 6, 1693. The first president of the 
college was Dr. James Blair, who was "created 
and established the first president during his 
natural life." (Bulletin College of William 
and Mary. No. 3. June 1930) 

College classes to combat the influence of 
communism were instituted December 4, 
1935, by St. Joseph's College, Philadelphia, Pa. 
More than twelve hundred students registered 
for the courses, the only charge being a regis- 
tration fee of one dollar. College credits were 
not given but certificates of completion were 
issued. The president of the college was the 
Very Reverend Thomas Joseph Higgins. 

College comprehensive senior examination 
program was adopted on May 26, 1913, by 
the faculty of Whitman College, Walla Walla, 
Wash. Beginning with the class of 1914 every 
student who has graduated from Whitman 
College has passed successfully an examination, 
oral, or oral and written, given by a committee 
of the faculty in his department and covering 
the entire field of study in his major subject. 
The written examinations run from six to ten 
hours and the orals from one to three. (Ed- 
ward Safford Jones Comprehensive Examina- 
tions in American Colleges) 

College cooperative. See Cooperative 

College course without Greek or Latin 

was established in 1824 by Geneva College (now 
Hobart College) Geneva, N.Y. The course 
known as the "English Course" was designed 
"for the practical business of life by which the 
Agriculturist, the Merchant and the Mechanic 
may receive a practical knowledge of what 
genius and experience have discovered, without 
passing through a tedious course of Classical 
studies." The first course diploma, in Knglish, 
was awarded in 1827 to Henry Smith Attwater. 
(Journal of Higher Education. October 1933) 

College daily. See Newspaper 
College degree. See Degrees 

College entrance "certified school plan" 

in which admission was based upon the exami- 
nation of preparatory schools rather than upon 
the individual was "the Michigan System" 
originated by Henry Simmons Frieze and in- 
troduced in September 1871 at the University 
of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. A student 
who graduated from a regularly approved 
school was admitted without the necessity of 
taking individual entrance examinations. 


College entrance requirement, other than 
Greek, Latin and arithmetic, was geog- 
raphy which was required in 1807 for admission 
to Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass. (Clar- 
ence Frank Birdseye Individual Training in 
Our Colleges) 

College extension courses granting college 
credits were offered January 1, 1893, by the 
University Extension Division in the Class- 
Study Department of the University of Chi- 
cago, Chicago, 111. "Full credit was given in 
the books of the University to properly quali- 
fied students who completed any course of 
instruction." Twenty-five academic or secondary 
school courses and forty college courses were 
given. Admission requirements were the same 
as those to other parts of the university. The 
first director of the Extension Division was 
George Henderson. (Thomas Wake field Good- 
speed History of the University of Chicago) 

College for women was Mount Holyoke 
Seminary, South Hadley, Mass., chartered Feb- 
ruary 11, 1836 and opened November 8, 1837 
as the Mount Holyoke Female Seminary with 
80 students who paid $64 a year for tuition and 
board. They were required to do cooperative 
household tasks. The first principal was Mary 
Lyon who served until 1849. Eunice Caldwell 
was the associate principal and Mary W. Smith 
and Amanda A. Hodgman were the teachers. 
The first graduation was on August 23, 1838. 
The four girls who graduated were Martha A. 
Abbott, Sarah Brigham, Abigail Moore and 
Persis C. Woods. In 1893, the name was 
changed to Mount Holyoke College. 

College for women to affiliate with a uni- 
versity was the H. Sophie Newcomb Memo- 
rial College, established October 11, 1886. at 
New Orleans, La. Dr. Brandt Van Blarcom 
Dixon was the first dean and served from 
October 11, 1886, until he retired at the end of 
the 1918-1919 session. The college affiliated 
with Tulane University, New Orleans, La., in 
October 1887. 

College library building. See Library 
College magazine. See Periodical 
College museum. See Museum 
College medical clinic. See Medical clinic 

College named after George Washington 

was Washington College of Washington 
College, Tenn. It was founded in 1780 by the 
Rev. Samuel Doak, and on April 24, 1783, it 
was chartered as Martin Academy by North 
Carolina, as Tennessee was then a part of 
North Carolina. A second charter was received 
March 31, 1785, from the "Lost State of Frank- 
lin." A third charter, its present one, was re- 
ceived July 8, 1795, which changed the name 
to Washington College. The Rev. Dr. Doak 
was the first president of the new institution 
and served until 1818. The name, Washington 
College, was proposed to the legislature of the 




"Territory of the United States South of the 
River Ohio" by General John Sevier. (Howard 
Ernest Carr Washington College) 

College orchestra. See Orchestra 

College principally for war veterans 
(G.I.'s) was Champlain College, Plattsburg, 
N.Y., opened September 16, 1946. It is oper- 
ated by the Associated Colleges of Upper New 
York, a corporation created by legislative act 
effective April 1, 1946. Two other colleges of 
the corporation were established, Mohawk Col- 
lege, Utica, N.Y., opened October 16, 1946 and 
Sampson College, Sampson, N.Y., opened Oc- 
tober 23, 1946. The president was Asa Smal- 
lidge Knowles. The deans of faculty were 
Dr. William H. Tenney of Champlain, Dr. 
Robert G. Dawes of Mohawk and Dr. C. M. 
Louttit of Sampson. 

College proposed was the College of Wil- 
liam and Mary in 1617. In 1618, the London 
Company set aside 10,000 acres and on July 
31, 1619, the General Assembly at Virginia 
petitioned them to send workmen for "erecting 
of the university and college" at Hcnrico, Va. 
However it was not incorporated as the Col- 
lege of William and Mary, Williamsburg, Va., 
until February 6, 1693, and instruction was 
begun about 1696. The first graduation exer- 
cises were held in 1700. James Blair was the 
first president. The college was second to 
Harvard College in actual operation. 

College summer school was established at 
Mount Union College, Alliance, Ohio. Lewis 
Miller of Akron, Ohio, presented the idea to 
the faculty in February 1870 and the summer 
school was started as a part of a four-term 
system in June 1870. 

College to confer medals as prizes was 

the College of William and Mary at Williams- 
burg, Va. In 1770 Lord Botetourt, Governor 
of Virginia, presented two gold medals, one to 
be awarded to the best student in philosophy, 
the other in classics. 

College to dispense with the system of 
credits, hours, points, grades, etc., was Olivet 
College, Olivet, Mich. A new system was pro- 
posed by its president, Joseph Brewer, and was 
put in operation October 1, 1934. The college 
is divided into a Junior and a Senior Division. 
Candidates for the degree of Bachelor of Arts 
are required to pass both a preliminary exami- 
nation and a final examination and to have had 
at least three years of instruction. Lectures 
are at all times open to all members of the 
college without distinction. Although tutors 
are assigned to guide the student's course, the 
responsibility for acquiring an education is 
placed squarely on the shoulders of the student. 
This was the first collegiate attempt to human- 
ize education by the elimination of an anti- 
quated rating system. 

College to grant women absolutely equal 
rights with men was Mount Union College, 
Alliance, Ohio, a Methodist Episcopal school, 


founded by Rev. Orville Nelson Hartshorn on 
October 20, 1846, as Mount Union Seminary. 
Women were granted degrees and permitted to 
stand on the platform on commencement day, 
a privilege not generally accorded elsewhere. 
The first non-sectarian college of high rank 
to grant equal privileges was Antioch College, 
Yellow Springs, Ohio, chartered May 14, 1852 
and opened October 5, 1853. Its first graduat- 
ing class, July 1, 1857, had three women. 
Horace Mann was the first president. (Herald 
of Gospel Liberty Feb. 10, 1916) 

College to have a full faculty consisting of 
a president, six professors, usher and writing 
master was the College of William and Mary, 
Williamsburg, Va. On February 27, 1729 the 
college realty was transferred from the trustees 
to the faculty. 

College to receive a coat-of-arms from the 
College of Heralds was the College of Wil- 
liam and Mary at Williamsburg, Va., which 
was granted the seal May 14, 1694. 

Dean of men was Benjamin Harrison 
Brown, Professor of Physics and Chemistry at 
Whitman College, Walla Walla, Wash., who 
was appointed in 1901. At the same time, 
Doctor Louis Francis Anderson, Professor of 
Greek, was appointed Dean of Women. 
(Stephen Beasley Linnard Penrose H 7 hitman) 

"Dean of the faculty" was Martha Carey 
Thom.is, one of the four women Ph.D.'s in the 
world at that time, appointed at the January 
1884 meeting of the trustees of Bryn Mawr 
College, Bryn Mawr, Pa. 

Educational institution exclusively for 
women, that offered courses and granted de- 
grees equivalent to those in the best colleges 
for men, was Flmira College of Flmira, N.Y. 
It was originally chartered in 1852 as Auburn 
Female University, hut opened in 1855 as the 
Elmira Female College. The first class of sev- 
enteen graduated with the A.B. degree in 1859. 
From the first, Elmira was "subject to the visi- 
tation of the Regents of the University of the 
State of New York, in the same manner and 
to the same extent as the other colleges of the 
state." The first chairman of the executive 
committee was Samuel Robbins Brown. The 
first president was Dr. Augustus Woodruff 
Cowles who served for thirty-five years. (Ad- 
dresses Made upon the Occasion of the Seventy- 
Fifth Anniversary June 6, 1930 of the 
Founding of Elmira College) . . 

Elective system of study was introduced 
by the College of William and Mary, Williams- 
burg, Va. In 1779 students were permitted to 
choose the subjects which they cared to pursue. 
(Bulletin of the College of William and Mary 
in Virginia) 

Graduate school for women was Bryn 
Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pa., which was or- 
ganized in 1884. The formal opening of the 
college was October 23, 1885. From the first 
Bryn Mawr has offered graduate work leading 




COLLEGE Continued 

to M.A. and Ph.D. degrees. The first president 
was James Evans Rhoads. The first class grad- 
uated June 6, 1889, and consisted of twenty-four 
candidates for bachelor's degrees. 

Group insurance for college students. See 


Honor examination system. See Honor 

Honors course offered by a university was 
held September 1882 at the University of Mich- 
igan, Ann Arbor, Mich. The courses enabled 
students to take required work for two years 
and then under faculty committee direction to 
proceed within a limited range of subjects in 
a sort of specialized course. Students who 
exhibited a thorough knowledge in their special 
fields were given bachelor's degrees or master's 
degrees upon passing a cumulative examination 
and the completion of a thesis. 

Inter-collegiate Amateur Athletes of 
America. See Intercollegiate athletic asso- 

Inter-continental system of study was in- 
troduced by Boston University, Boston, Mass 
which entered into reciprocal agreement on 
February 11, 1875 with the National Univer- 
sity, Athens, Greece and the Royal University, 
Rome, Italy. Students could attend these uni- 
versities without paying tuition and have their 
credits applied towards degrees at Boston Uni- 
versity. (Bostonia. Vol. 13) 

Italian instruction at a college. See Lan- 
guage instruction 

"Junior Year Abroad" was instituted by 
the University of Delaware, Newark, Del. On 
July 7, 1923, Professor Raymond Watson Kirk- 
bride took a group of eight students to France 
for work at the University of Paris. The 
courses were given by professors from the 

Letterman's club. See Letterman's club 

Masonic college was the Masonic College 
of Missouri, opened for enrollment May 12, 
1844, near Philadelphia, Marion County, Mo. 
Tuition in the college was $15 a session ($10 
for the preparatory department) ; board and 
washing $25. Two sessions of five months 
each were offered. The maximum cost was not 
to exceed $85 a year for the college and $75 
a year fur the preparatory department. From 
1847 to the close of the college year 1859, the 
college was located at Lexington, Mo. The first 
president was J. Worthington Smith, A.M., 
who was also professor of moral philosophy. 
(First Annual Catalogue Masonic College of 
Missouri Sept. 30,1845) 

Negro Land Grant College was the Alcorn 
Agricultural and Mechanical College which was 
established by the state of Mississippi in 1871 
at Rodney, Miss. Its original name was Al- 


corn University. Mississippi received scrip 
for 210,000 acres under the Morrill Act of 
1862 which it disposed of for $188,928. Three 
fifths of the sum went to Alcorn University 
and the remaining two fifths towards the sup- 
port of the University of Mississippi. (Sur- 
vey of Land Colleges and Universities De- 
partment of Education. Bull. No. 9. 1930) 

Negro university was Lincoln University 
which was chartered by act of the Legislature 
of Pennsylvania April 29, 1854 as Ashmun 
Institute in Chester County, Pa., to give theo- 
logical, classical and scientific training to Ne- 
groes. It was named after Jehudi Ashmun, 
the reorganizer of the colony of Liberia, It 
opened January 1, 1857. The first president 
was John Pym Carter who served three years. 
The charter was amended April 4, 1866 chang- 
ing the name to Lincoln University. (Survey 
of Negro Colleges and Universities Dept. of 
Education. Bull. no. 7. 1928) 

Negro university (Catholic) was Xavier 

University, New Orleans, La., which conferred 
five A.B. degrees on June 6, 1928. It opened 
September 27, 1915, as a high school and the 
first diplomas were issued June 15, 1917. A 
two-year normal department was opened Sep- 
tember 24, 1917, the first diplomas being 
awarded June 20, 1919, to eleven graduates. 
The college department opened September 13, 
1925, with Sister Mary Frances as the first 
dean. The first president was Rev. Edward 
Brunner, S.SJ. 

Negro university to establish undergrad- 
uate, graduate and professional schools was 

Howard University, Washington, D.C., 
founded November 20, 1866, as the Howard 
Theological Seminary. On January 8, 1867, 
the name was changed to Howard University. 
On May 1, 1867, the normal department and 
the preparatory department opened in a leased 
frame structure with five students, children 
of the trustees. It was incorporated March 2, 
1867 (14 Stat.L.438) by act of Congress 
which authorized the establishment of the 
normal and preparatory, the collegiate, the 
theological, the medical, the law and the agri- 
cultural departments. The first president wa.s 
Reverend Charles Brandon Boynlon who was 
elected January 8, 1867 and served until Au- 

Bist 27, 1867. The first Negro president was 
r. Mordecai Wyatt Johnson of Charleston, 
W.Va. f who took office July 1926. (Walter 
Dyson Howard University) 

Non-denominational college was Blount 
College, Knoxville, Term, (now the University 
of Tennessee) chartered September 10, 1794. 
The charter provided that "they shall take ef- 
fectual care that students of all denominations 
may and shall be admitted to the equal advan- 
tages of a liberal education and to the emolu- 
ments and honors of the college, so that they 
shall receive a like, fair, generous and equal 
treatment during their residence therein." The 
first president was Samuel Carrick. The next 
non-denominational college was Union College, 




Schenectady, N.Y., chartered February 25, 1795. 
The majority of the twenty- four trustees of 
Union College "shall not at any time be com- 
posed of persons of the same religious sect or 
denomination." Rev. John Blair Smith assumed 
office as the first president on December 8, 1795. 

School for the higher education of women 
was started by Emma Hart Willard in 1814 in 
her home in Middlebury, Vt, as the Middle- 
bury Female Seminary. In 1819 she moved to 
Waterford, N.Y., and established the Waterford 
Academy. She had hoped for state aid but no 
funds were appropriated. However the citizens 
of Troy, N.Y., provided funds for a building 
and in 1821 she moved to Troy and opened the 
Troy Female Seminary. The name was later 
changed and the school is now known as the 
Emma Willard School. Prior to the opening of 
Emma Willard's first school, girls were taught 
the merest rudiments of reading and writing, 
and the accomplishments such as painting, em- 
broidery, French, and singing. 

State college for women was established at 
Columbus, Miss., by act of the Mississippi legis- 
lature, March 12, 1884. The original name of 
the college was the Mississippi Industrial Insti- 
tute and College. The name was changed by act 
of the legislature in 1920 to the Mississippi 
State College for Women, since the word "in- 
dustrial" was misleading. The first session be- 
gan October 22, 1885; the first graduation ex- 
ercises took place in June 1889, at which time 
ten A.B. degrees were conferred. The first 
president was Dr. Richard Watson Jones. 

State university chartered was the Univer- 
sity of Georgia at Athens, Ga. Although it 
was chartered on January 27, 1785, it was not 
opened to students until 1801. The first state 
university actually opened was the University 
of North Carolina (Chapel Hill, N.C.) on 
February 13, 1795. (Ehvood Patterson Cub- 
berley & Edward Charles Elliot State and 
County School Administration) 

State university supported by a direct 
property tax was the University of Mich- 
igan, Ann Arbor, Mich. Act No. 59, Laws of 
Michigan, approved March 15, 1867, assessed 
all taxable property one twentieth of a mill 
on each dollar of taxable property, for the use, 
aid and maintenance of the University of Mich- 
igan. The funds paid to the university in 1867 
were $15,398.30. 

State university to grant equal privileges 
to women was Indiana University, Bloom- 
mgton, Ind. Sarah Parke Morrison, who was 
graduated in 1869, was the first woman to enter 
the school and the first to receive a degree 
from it. (Samuel Bannister HardingIndiana 
University 1820-1904) 

Technical college for women was Simmons 
College of Boston, Mass., which was chartered 
in 1899 by the provisions of the will of John 
bimmons, a Boston merchant who died in 1870 
The college opened in 1902 and the first class 


graduated June 13, 1906. Thirty-two B S. de- 
grees were conferred. The first president was 
Henry Lefavour. 

"Unit Cost Plan" was adopted by Rollins 
College at Winter Park, Fla. The plan, by 
which the operating expenses of the college 
are divided by the estimated number of students 
in order to ascertain the individual cost for each 
student, was recommended by President Hamil- 
ton Holt and was adopted in September 1933. 
Each student was required to pay $1,350 which 
included board, room and tuition expenses for 
the year. 

University extension summer meeting was 
held by the Society for the Extension of Uni- 
versity Teaching at the University of Pennsyl- 
vania, Philadelphia, Pa., from July 5, 1893 to 
August 2, 1893. Edward T. Devine was direc- 
tor. Courses were offered in American history, 
European history, botany, biology, English lit- 
erature, pedagogy, sanitation, harmony, sociol- 
ogy, political economy and university extension 
organization. (University Extension October 

University founded by a federal land grant 

was Ohio University. Athens, Ohio, which was 
chartered February 18, 1804, and opened [une 
1, 1808, with three students. Governor Edward 
Tiffin presided at the first trustees' meeting. 
The first president was the Rev. Jacob Lind- 
ley. A contract dated October 27, 1787, be- 
tween the Ohio Company of Associates and the 
Federal Government provided that the rental 
derived from two townships of land should 
be set aside for the support of a university. 

University on the Pacific coast was Willa- 
mette University, Salem, Ore., organized with 
the election of a board of trustees on Febru- 
ary 1, 1842. The constitution was adopted 
March 15, 1842. It opened August 13, 1844, 
with five students as the Oregon Institute 
offering only elementary work. It was char- 
tered January 12, 1853, as a university by the 
Oregon Territorial Legislature. The first offi- 
cers under the new charter were elected March 
19, 1853. It continued the Oregon Institute 
as a preparatory school. (Willamette Univer- 
sity Alumnus January 1927) 

University to adopt the preceptorial sys- 
tem was Princeton University, Princeton 
N.J., which originated the system in 1905 under 
President Woodrow Wilson. Forty-seven new 
men were added to the staff with "the rank of 
assistant professor and the special function of 
preceptor. (Varnum Lansing CollinsPrince- 

University west of the Alleghany Moun- 
tains was the Transylvania Seminary which 
was chartered in 1783 and located near Dan- 
ville, Ky. The first classes were held at the 
home of the Rev. David Rice. It was moved 
in 1789 to Lexington, Ky., and consolidated 
with the Kentucky Academy. In 1915 its name 
was changed from Transylvania University to 




COLLEGE Continued 

Transylvania College. (The Register of the 
Kentucky State Historical Society Vol. 33. 
No. 105. Oct. 1935) 

Woman's college (chartered) to confer on 
women "all such honors, degrees, and licenses 
as arc usaully conferred in colleges and univer- 
sities" was Wesleyan College in Macon, Ga. 
The charter, 1836, called the new college "The 
Georgia Female College." The first class grad- 
uated in 1840. The name was changed in 1843 
to Wesleyan Female College; later to Wesleyan 
College. The first president was George Foster 
Pierce. The first graduate (alphabetically) was 
Miss Catherine E. Brewer. The first class was 
examined for graduation by the president of 
Emory College and by the governor of the state. 
( Thomas Woody A History of Woman's Edu- 
cation in the United States) 

Woman college president was Frances 
Elizabeth Willard, professor of science at the 
Northwestern Female College, Evanston, 111. 
When the reorganization took place and the 
name was changed to the Evanston College for 
Ladies in February 1871, she became its presi- 
dent. It had an entire female faculty and all 
female trustees. On June 25, 1873, the Col- 
lege for Ladies became the Woman's College 
of Northwestern University and Miss Willard 
became the dean of the Woman's College, which 
post she occupied until June 16, 1874. (Lydia 
Jones Trowbridge Frances Willard of Evans- 

Woman college professor, accorded the 

same privileges as men professors, was Rebecca 
Mann Fennel 1, Professor of Physical Geogra- 
phy, Drawing, Natural History, Civil History 
and Didactics, appointed in September 1852 by 
Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio. She 
conducted classes when the college opened on 
October 5, 1853. In other institutions, women 
were not permitted to attend faculty meetings 
at that time. 

Woman dean of a graduate school was Dr. 

Frieda Wunderlich elected January 4, 1939, as 
Dean of the Graduate Faculty of Political and 
Social Science organized under the New School 
for Social Research, New York City. Her 
term of office began September 15, 1939. 

Woman professor at a first-class medical 
school was Dr. Florence Rena Sabin who 
served at Johns Hopkins University School of 
Medicine, Baltimore, Md., as Special Fellow 
in Anatomy 1901-1902, Assistant in Anatomy 
1902-1903, Associate in Anatomy 1903-1905, As- 
sociate Professor of Anatomy 1905-1917, and 
Professor of Histology 1917-1925. She was the 
first woman to teach there and was the first 
woman member of the National Academy of 

STANDARDIZATION was advocated by 
Gardner Cotrell Leonard of Albany, N.Y., in 
an article "The Cap and Gown in America," 


in the December 1893 issue of University Mag- 
azine. On May 16, 1895, a commission com- 
posed of representatives from colleges and 
universities assembled at Columbia University, 
New York City, and drew up a code, now 
subscribed to by 95 per cent of the colleges 
and universities. A Bureau of Academic Cos- 
tume was chartered July 2, 1902 at Albany, 
N.Y., by the Regents of the University of the 
State of New York "to maintain a register of 
statutes, codes, and usages, designs and descrip- 
tions of the articles of academic costume and 
regalia with their correct color, materials, 
qualities, sizes, proportions and the arrange- 
ment thereof. . ." 

tablished for any considerable period without 
suspending operations was the Society of Alum- 
ni of Williams College, Williamstown, Mass., 
formed September 1821. The first president was 
Dr. Asa Burbank of the class of 1797 and the 
first secretary was Charles Augustus Dewey 
of the class of 1811. 

College alumni association secretary (full 
time paid position) was established June 30, 
1897 by the University of Michigan, Ann Ar- 
bor, Mich., to foster service on the part of the 
alumni for the university. This office was sup- 
ported by the regular alumni organization. The 
first secretary was Ralph C. McAllister. 


sports was established January 29, 1904 at the 
University of Chicago, Chicago, 111., by Amos 
Alonzo Stagg. It was known as the "order of 
the 'C'." Since then practically all colleges and 
high schools have established similar organiza- 
tions. The practice of awarding blankets to let- 
termen, who had completed their competition, 
was initiated by Amos Alonzo Stagg at the 
University of Chicago following the football 
season of 1904. This practice has also been 
widely copied. 


the Cliosophic Society founded at Princeton 
University, Princeton, N.J., in 1765. (Charles 
Richard Williams The Cliosophic Society, 
Princeton University) 

College literary society (coeducational) 

was the Alethezetean Society of Antioch Col- 
lege, Yellow Springs, Ohio, founded in Decem- 
ber 1853. The society was disbanded in 
1855 by vote of the faculty. 



GANIZATION was the Bryn Mawr Self- 
Government Association chartered February 23, 
1892, by the trustees subjecting student con- 
duct outside the classrooms at Bryn Mawr, Pa., 
to student rulings. 







Colonial council in America was held in 
Virginia on May 13, 1607, and consisted of 
Bartholomew Gosnold, Edward Maria Wing- 
field, Christopher Newport, John Smith, John 
Ratcliffe, John Martin and George Kendall. 
Edward Wingfield was chosen the first presi- 
dent for a year. King James placed the names 
of the officers in a sealed box which was not 
to be opened until the colonists arrived in 
America. (Rev. Edward Lewis Goodwin 
Colonial Church in Virginia) 

Colonial government union was the United 
Colonies of New England organized May 10, 
1643, at Boston, Mass., by the colonies of 
Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Haven and 
Plymouth for "a firm and perpetual league of 
friendship and amity for offence and defence, 
mutual advice and succor, upon all occasions, 
both for preserving and propagating the truth 
and liberties of the gospel, and for their own 
mutual safety and welfare." A board of eight 
commissioners, two from each colony, formed 
the "consociation " Issues could be referred to 
the general courts for appeal, if not approved 
by six votes. John Winthrop of Massachusetts 
was the first president. Massachusetts, the 
largest colony, gradually withdrew since it 
did not have proportional representation. (Her- 
bert Leii Osgood American Colonies in the 
Seventeenth Century) 

Government on the Pacific coast was 

authorized by the people of Willamette Valley 
at Champoeg, Ore., May 2, 1843, when Amer- 
icans and Canadians met in a field to consider 
the report of the Committee of Twelve on Or- 
ganizations, appointed February 2, 1843. A 
committee of nine was chosen on July 5, 1843, 
to report a plan of civil government. An ex- 
ecutive committee of three, Alanson Beers, 
David Hill and Joseph Gale, was appointed for 
the year ending May 14, 1844. (A second 
executive committee, P. G. Stewart, Osborne 
Russell and W. J. Bailey, served from May 14, 
1844 to June 12, 1845.) The first governor was 
George Abernethy who served from June 12, 
1845, to March 3, 1849, when the United States 
took over jurisdiction of the Oregon territory. 
(John B. Homer Oregon, Her History, Her 
Great Men and Her Literature) 

Independent government in any of the 
American colonies was formed in March 
1776 in Charles Town, S.C. John Rutledge 
was elected President, Henry Laurens, Vice 
President and William Henry Drayton, Chief 
Justice. An army and navy were created, privy 
council and assembly were elected and the 
issue of six hundred thousand dollars of paper 
money was authorized as well as the issue of 
coin. (The Centennial of the Incorporation of 
Charleston, S.C.) 



See Missionary society 




See Postmaster 






Colonial white settlement (north of Flor- 
ida) was on Neutral Island at Calais, Me., 
on the St. Croix River at the head of Passa- 
maquoddy Bay. It was founded in 1604 by 
Sieur de Monto, the French explorer. (Isaac 
Case Knowlton Annals of Calais, Me.) 

Colonists to reach the Pacific coast left 
New York City on September 6, 1810, on the 
S.S. "Tonquin," a two-hundred-and-ninety ton 
vessel captained by Jonathan Thorn. They 
rounded Cape Horn, Dec. 25, 1810 and landed 
on April 12, 1811, at Cape Disappointment, 
Wash., a promontory at the mouth of the Co- 
lumbia River. The enterprise was sponsored 
by John Jacob Astor. (Elizabeth Louisa Geb- 
hard Life and Ventures of the Original John 
Jacob Astor) 

English settlement in America was estab- 
lished by the colonists sent out by the London 
Company who arrived at Jamestown, Va., on 
May 13, 1607. One hundred and five colonists 
arrived on the "Sarah Constant," the "Good- 
speed," and the "Discovery." (Thomas Jeffer- 
son Wertenbaker The First Americans) 

English settlement in New England was 

established by Pilgrims who came over on 
the "Mayflower," December 21, 1620, the first 
name in alphabetical order being John Alden. 
For fifty years he was a magistrate of the 
Plymouth colony. They arrived at Plymouth, 
Mass. The first Mayflower Pilgrim to die in 
America was William Butteridge on December 
21, 1620. (Asel Ames The Mayflower and 
Its Log) 

Permanent white settlement in America 

was founded on September 8, 1565 by Don 
Pedro Menendez, at St. Augustine, Fla. (Her- 
bert Eugene Bolton The Spanish Border- 

Women to cross the continent were Nar- 
cissa Preritiss Whitman and Eliza Hart Spal- 
ding, who crossed the continental divide, South 
Pass, Wyoming on July 4, 1836. They reached 
Fort Walla Walla, Wash., September 1, 1836, 




COLONIST Continued 
accompanied by their husbands, Marcus Whit- 
man, M.D., and the Reverend Henry Harmon 
Spalding, Presbyterian missionaries sent by the 
American Board of Commissioners for Foreign 
Missions. (Washington Historical Quarterly 
January, 1917) 


simile transmission 






NUNS. See Catholic Nuns 

MENT. See Newspaper 

COLORSCOPE public demonstration was 
made in New York City June 5, 1930. The 
colorscope, invented by Harold Horton Sheldon 
of New York University, and Dr. Walter Ar- 
thur Schneider, is a photoelectric cell whose re- 
action to colored light beams makes it give off 
infinitesimal electric currents capable of operat- 
ing relays, which will start or stop machinery, 
operate graph needles, or perform other labo- 
ratory or shop service. It matches colors more 
exactly than is possible by the human eye. 


COMB of ivory was made at Centerbrook, 
Conn., by Andrew Lord in 1789. He cut the 
plates and teeth with a handsaw. 

vented by Phineas Pratt of Connecticut who 
received a patent April 12, 1799, on a "machine 
for making combs." Phineas Pratt and Abel 
Pratt cut the plates with handsaws and the 
teeth with circular saws operated by a windmill 
and waterpower at Ivoryton, Conn. The firm is 
now Pratt, Read & Company. (Perry Walton 
Comb Making in America) 

COMB FACTORY on a commercial scale 
was undertaken by Enoch Noyes of West 
Newbury, Mass., in 1759. His combs were 
made from animal horns flattened out with 
their original color untouched. (Perry Walton 
Comb Making in America) 





Sec Monument 



COMIC SECTION (Newspaper). See 


COMIC WEEKLY. See Periodical 

CONTINENTAL NAVY. See Naval officer 




See Postage stamp 

MENT (U.S.) was authorized by act of Feb- 
ruary 14, 1903 (32 Stat.L.825) "act to estab- 
lish the Department of Commerce and Labor," 
the first incumbent being George Bruce Cortel- 
yoti of New York appointed February 16, 1903. 
The act of March 4, 1913, (37 Stat.L.782) 
created the Department of Labor and changed 
the name of the Department of Commerce and 
Labor to the Department of Commerce. The 
Secretary of Commerce and Labor, William 
Cox Rcdfield, became the Secretary of Com- 
merce and served until March 5, 1921. William 
Bauchop Wilson was made Secretary of Labor 
and served until November 1, 1919. 

See also Commerce Department (U.S.) 

COMMERCE CASE decided under the Con- 
stitution by the Supreme Court was the case of 
Thomas Gibbons vs Aaron Ogden, the opinion 
on which was written by Chief Justice John 
Marshall in February 1824. The decision de- 
termined that navigation from one state to 
another was interstate commerce and ruled, 
"This court is therefore of opinion that the 
decree of the Court of New York for the trial 
of Impeachments and the Correction of Errors, 
affirming the decree of the Chancellor of that 
State, which perpetually enjoins the said Thom- 
as Gibbons, the appellant, from navigating the 
waters of the State of New York with the 
steam boats the "Stoudinger" and the "Bel- 
lona," by steam or fire, is erroneous, and ought 
to be reversed, and the same is hereby re- 
versed." (Henry Wheaton Reports of Cases 
Argued and Adjudged in the Supreme Court of 
the United States, February Term. 1824) 



established on March 4, 1913, by act of Con- 
gress which authorized the division of the De- 
partment of Commerce and Labor into two de- 
partments. The Secretary of Commerce and 
Labor, William Cox Redfield, became the first 
Secretary of Commerce on March 5, 1913 and 
served till March 5, 1921. 

See also Commerce and Labor Depart- 
ment (U.S.) 

Foreign and Domestic Commerce Bureau 

was created by the act of August 23, 1912 (37 
Stat.L.409) which provided that all duties of 
the Bureau of Manufactures and the Bureau of 
Statistics should be exercised by the Bureau 
of Foreign and Domestic Commerce. 








Commercial high school was established 
in Pittsburgh, Pa., in 1868, graduating a class 
of fourteen in 1869. The annual school report 
for the period 1869-1873 contains the following 
statement: "In August 1868, the Central Board 
decided to try the experiment of extending the 
usefulness of the school by creating a Normal 
Department and a Commercial Department. In 
the Commercial School the course of study 
embraces the same studies as are pursued in 
the best Commercial Colleges, and a diploma 
is issued to those who sustain a satisfactory 


COMMITTEE, composed of representa- 
tives of the various departments, agencies and 
commissions of the government which are 
particularly concerned with trade relations with 
other countries, was organized November 21, 
1933. George Nelson Peek, Agricultural Ad- 
justment Administrator, was designated head 
this committee as special assistant to the Presi- 
dent on American trade policy. 



MENT originated in Galveston, Tex., in 1901 
as an emergency measure following the flood. 
The Legislature granted Galveston a charter 
on April 19, 1901, and the system went into 
operation on September 18, 1901. Under this 
form, large powers both legislative and execu- 
tive are vested in a single group of officers, 
elected by the whole body of voters within the 
city without regard to political party. (Ernest 
Smith Bradford Commission Government in 
American Cities) 

TION (U.S.) was created by Executive Order 
No. 6340 dated October 16, 1933, in order 
to carry out efficiently and effectively the pro- 
visions of the emergency legislation approved 
and passed by Congress during 1932 and 1933. 
The Board of Directors consisted of eight 
members with Lynn Porter Talley, president. 
The corporation has authority to buy, sell, and 
deal in agricultural and other commodities and 
to loan and borrow thereon; to assist in crop 
reduction and marketing programs; and to 
store, handle and process commodities of all 
kinds in connection with relief plans. 


Automobile license (federal) 



Individual communion cups to replace the 
single chalice were introduced May 1894 by 


the Central Presbyterian Church, Rochester, 
N.Y. One of the elders, Dr. Charles Forbes, 
instigated its adoption. 

AMERICA was formed August 31, 1919, at 
Chicago, 111., to stand by the principles laid 
down by the Third Internationale formed at 
Moscow, Russia. They adopted the emblem, a 
scythe and hammer surrounded by a wreath of 
wheat, and motto "Workers of the World." 
On September 1, 1919, they held a convention 
at Chicago which was attended by 140 dele- 
gates representing 58,000 party members. 


was formed September 2, 1919, at Chicago, 111. 
They adopted as an emblem, the figure of earth 
in the center in white with gold lines and a 
red flag across the face bearing the inscription 
"All power to the workers." Their program 
was the conquest of political power, the over- 
throw of capitalism and destruction of the 
bourgeois state. 

tic group established in the colony of Ephrata, 
eight miles from Lancaster, Pa., in 1733 by 
Johann Conrad Beissel. A convent for sisters 
was similarly established. (Julius Friedrich 
Sachse The German Sectarians of Pennsyl- 

Communistic non-religious settlement was 

made at New Harmony, Ind., by Robert Owen 
and his associates in 1825, who purchased for 
approximately $150,000 the development of 
George Rapp and his Rappites. It had about 
one thousand members and existed until May 
1827. (Jacob Schneck and Richard Owen 
The History of New Harmony, Ind.) 


COMMUNITY TRUST was the Cleveland 
Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, established Janu- 
ary 2, 1914, by resolution passed by the board 
of directors of the Cleveland Trust Company, 
Cleveland, Ohio. A temporary survey com- 
mittee was formed in February 1914 which 
served until 1917 conducting certain important 
community surveys. The first distribution 
committee of the foundation was appointed in 
May 1917 with Dr. James De Long William- 
son as chairman. The first director of the 
Cleveland Foundation was Dr. Raymond Moley 
serving under the Distribution Committee from 
1919 to 1923. The community trust plan was 
conceived by Frederick Harris Goflf, then 
president of the Cleveland Trust Company. 



See Philology chair 

COMPASS. See Gyro compass; Radio com- 

See Insurance 





Workman's compensation 

COMPOSER. See Musician 

ERA. See Opera 

ERS ASSOCIATION. See Music society 

COMPOTPYE was designed and patented 
on October 20, 1925, by Clifton Chisholm of 
Cleveland, Ohio who obtained patent No. 1.557,- 
754 on an "embossing machine." He as- 
signed the patent to the Multigraph Sales Com- 
pany of Cleveland, Ohio. It produces printed 
material from an aluminum strip by embossing 
the characters on this strip. 


COMPRESSED AIR. See Air (compressed) 


Shells of the United States 1 ' which was pub- 
lished at Philadelphia, Pa., in 1817 in an Amer- 
ican edition of William Nicholson's British 
Encyclopedia, or Dictionary of Arts and 
Sciences, It consisted of fifteen pages and four 
plates which were published in the second vol- 
ume, and reprinted separately. (Harry 
Bischoff Weiss and Grace M. Ziegler Thomas 



Bible concordance 


ING. See Building 



See Musician 

COMPTOMETER. See Adding machine CQNE (ice cream) <^ Icc cream 


Comptroller of the Currency was Hugh 
McCulloch who served from May 9, 1863, 
to March 8, 1865, when he resigned to 

accept the appointment as Secretary of the 
Treasury. 11 is office was authorized February 
25, 1863 (12 Stat.L.665). The term was five 
years at $5,000 a year. (Thomas P. Kane- 
The Romance and Tragedy of Banking) 

Comptroller of the United States Treas- 
ury was Nicholas Eveleigh of South Carolina 
who served from September 11, 1789, to April 
16, 1791. The office was authorized September 
2, 1789 (1 Slat.L.65). 

ed States was John Raymond McCarl appointed 
by President Warren Gamaliel Harding on 
June 27, 1921. He served from July 1, 1921, 
to June 30, 1936. His office was authorized by 
act of June 10, 1921 (42 Stat.L.23). The term 
was fifteen years without eligibility for reap- 
pointmcnt and the salary was $10,000 per 


See Education 



CONCERT. See Music 

to appear in the United States was Thomas 
Say's "Descriptions of Land and Fresh-Water 

ing "suckers," more familiarly known by the 
trade name "lollipops," supposed to be an 
exclusive name used by the Bradley- Smith 
Company of New Haven, Conn., was manufac- 
tured by the Racine Confectioners' Machinery 
Company, Racine, Wis., in 1908. Its capacity 
at that time was forty lollipops a minute, which 
manufacturers felt would make more suckers in 
a week than they could sell in a year. 






See Civil war 


See Congress of the Confederate states 

TION. See Constitution of the Confederate 

DENT. See President of the Confederate 



HOUSE. See Building 


Conference df American Republics was 

the General Congress of South American 
States assembled March 14, 1826, at Panama, 




Convoked by Simon Bolivar who sent invita- 
tions in December 1824, it was attended by 
delegates from Mexico, Colombia, Peru and 
Central America. Richard Clough Anderson 
and John Sargeant were appointed delegates 
from" the United States in July 1825, but their 
appointment was not confirmed until December 
6, 1825, and the conference adjourned before 
they reached it. 

Conference of great powers to be held on 
American soil and affecting American interests 
was the Conference on the Limitation of Arma- 
ments which assembled in Washington, D.C., 
November 12, 1921 to February 6, 1922 at 
Memorial Continental Hall. Nine nations took 
part in the Conference: United States, Great 
Britain, France, Italy, Japan, China, Holland, 
Belgium and Portugal. The American delega- 
tion consisted of Secretary of State Charles 
Fvans Hughes, Senators Oscar Wilder Under- 
wood and Henry Cabot Lodge, and Elihu 

Interstate legislative conference. See Legis- 
lative conference 

Pan American Conference in the U.S. 
opened at Washington, D.C., on October 2, 
1889. It was called the First International 
Conference of American States and was initi- 
ated by James Gillespie Elaine, Secretary of 
Slate under President Benjamin Harrison Ten 
nations signed an arbitration treaty. (Russell 
Herman Conivcll Life and Public Service of 
James G. Blaine) 

CONGREGATION (Jewish). See Jewish 


founded in 1620 by 102 Pilgrim Separatists 
under the leadership of William Brewster, 
William Bradford and Fdward Winslow, upon 
their arrival at Plymouth, Mass., in 1620. 
Ralph Smith was the first pastor. (Albert 
Elijah Dunning Congregationalists in Amer- 

Congregational Church council or synod 
met at Mr. Shepard's church, Cambridge 
(Newtowne) Mass., August 30, 1637, to con- 
demn the preachings of Anne Hutchinson's 
party. Eight-two exceptions were found. It 
adjourned September 22, 1637. (Williston 
Walker American Church History) 

Congregational woman minister. See Wom- 

CONGRESS (Continental). See Continen- 
tal Congress 

CONGRESS of the Confederate states held 
its first provisional session at Montgomery, 
Ala., from February 4, 1861, to March 16, 1861. 
The President of the Senate was Alexander 
Hamilton Stephens of Georgia, the president 
pro tempore Robert Mercer Taliaferro Hunter 
of Virginia, and the Secretary of the Senate, 
James H. Nash of South Carolina. The 


House of Representatives under the permanent 
constitution met at Richmond, Va., February 
18, 1862, when Emmet Dixon of Georgia was 
elected clerk, and Thomas Salem Bocock of 
Virginia as speaker. The session adjourned 
April 21, 1862. 


Cabinet officer to address a joint session 

of Congress. See Cabinet of the United States 

Congress of the United States was held in 
New York City from March 4, 1789, to Sep- 
tember 29, 1789. The thirteen stales were rep- 
resented by Iwenty-six senators and sixty-five 
representatives. The largest number of rep- 
resentatives from any state was ten from Vir- 
ginia. The first quorum of the House of Rep- 
resentatives met April 1, 1879, when thirty 
members were present, and the first Senate 
quorum assembled on April 6, 1789. Subse- 
quently Philadelphia, Pa., was the meeting 
place, until November 17, 1800. when the ses- 
sions were held at Washington, D.C., com- 
mencing with the Second Session of the Sixth 

Congress to appropriate a billion dollars 

\\as the 52nd Congress (March 4, 1891 to 
March 3, 1803) \\liich appropriated $507,376,- 
397.52 in the first session for the fiscal year 
1893 and $519,535,29331 in the second session 
for the fiscal year 1894. The first session was 
from December 7, 189], to August 5, 1892 
(251 da\s) and the second session was from 
December 5, 1892, to March 3, 1893 (89 days). 
The appropriations included appropriations for 
the postal service, payable from postal revenues 
and estimated permanent annual appropriations 
including sinking-fund requirements. 

Congressional act was "An Act to regu- 
late the Time and Manner of administering cer- 
tain Oaths" which was approved by President 
George Washington on June 1, 1789 (1 Stat.L. 

Congressional act declared unconstitu- 
tional by the Supreme Court of the United 
States was the Act of September 24, 1789 
(1 Stat.L.80, sec.13). This section authorized 
the Supreme Court to issue writs of mandamus 
"in cases warranted by the principles and usages 
of law, to any courts appointed, or persons 
holding office, under the authority of the United 
States." In a suit for a mandamus to the Sec- 
retary of State, the Court held that it had no 
jurisdiction, since the statute purported to ex- 
tend it to cases not named in the Constitution. 

Congressional hearing woman witness. See 

Congressional opening session to be tele- 
cast. See Television 

Congressional Proceedings. See Senate 

Joint meeting of the Senate and the 
House of Representatives was held Monday, 




April 6, 1789, in the Senate Chamber, New 
York City. The House of Representatives at- 
tended the opening and the counting by the 
Senate of the electoral votes for President. The 
electoral votes were cast as follows: George 
Washington 69, John Adams 34, Samuel Hunt- 
ingdon 2, John Jay 9, John Hancock 4, Robert 
H. Harrison 6, George Clinton 3, John Rut- 
ledge 6, John Milton 2, James Armstrong 1, 
Edward Tel fair 1, and Benjamin Lincoln 1. 
Only ten states voted. Rhode Island, North 
Carolina and New York did not vote. The first 
presidential election was held Wednesday, Jan- 
uary 7, 1789, and on Wednesday, February 4, 
1789, the electors elected President and Vice 

Officer to preside over both of the 
branches of Congress was Schuyler Colfax of 
Indiana who served as Speaker of the House of 
Representatives in the 38th, 39th and 40th Con- 
gresses (March 4, 1863 to March 3, 1869) and 
who as Vice President under President Ulysses 
Simpson Grant (March 4, 1869 to March 3, 
1873) presided over the Senate. 

Nullification proceedings. See Nullification 

Prime Minister of England to address the 
Congress of the United States was Ramsay 
MacDonald who delivered a short talk before 
the Senate on October 7, 1929. 

Special session was held May 15, 1797, at 
Philadelphia, Pa. President John Adams is- 
sued a proclamation March 25,1797, for conven- 
ing the Senate and the House of Representa- 
tives to consider the difficulty with France. 
(Annals of Congress Volume 7) 

President elected by the House of Repre- 
sentatives. See President 

Woman lobbyist. See Woman 

Woman witness at Congressional hearing. 

See Woman 


Brawl in the House of Representatives took 
place in Washington, D.C., January 30, 1798, 
during the presidential administration of John 
Adams. Matthew Lyon of Vermont had an 
argument with Roger Griswold of Connecticut 
and spat in Griswold's face. A resolution was 
introduced to expel Lyon. Lyon acted as his 
own attorney and defended himself in the pro- 
ceedings which lasted from January 30 to Feb- 
ruary 12, 1798, and occupied practically all the 
attention of the House. The resolution was car- 
ried, 52 to 44, but Lyon was not expelled, the 
measure requiring a two-thirds vote. (Annals 
of Congress, 5 Cong. I Sess) 

Committee of the House of Representa- 
tives was the Committee on Elections, a stand- 
ing committee, appointed April 2, 1789, to 
determine the eligibility and rights of admis- 


sion of those who had been elected. It was re- 
solved "that a committee be appointed to pre- 
pare and report such standing rules and or- 
ders of proceedings as may be proper to be ob- 
served." (Chester Harvey Kowell A His- 
torical and Legal Digest of all the Contested 
Election Cases in the House of Representa- 

Congressional committee (woman chair- 
man) was Maria Teresa Norton of Jersey 
City, N.J., who was elected chairman of 
District of Columbia Affairs on December 15, 
1931 and served until June 22, 1937 when she 
was elected chairman of the House Committee 
on Labor. 

Congressional standing committee headed 
by a Negro was the Committee on Expendi- 
tures in the Executive Departments to which 
William Levi Dawson of Chicago was ap- 
pointed on January 18, 1940. 

Congressman. Sec Congressman (U.S.) 

Contested election in the House of Repre- 
sentatives was between David Ramsay and Wil- 
liam Loughton Smith of South Carolina. Smith 
took his seat April 13, 1789. On April 15, 1789, 
Ramsay presented a petition that Smith was 
ineligible, on the ground that Smith had not 
been "seven years a citizen of the United 
States" as he had studied abroad during that 
period. The dispute was referred to the Com- 
mittee on Elections on April 18, 1789, which 
ruled that Smith was entitled to his seat. (Mat- 
thew St. Clair Clarke and David A. Hall 
Cases on Contested Elections in Congress, 
published by the House of Representatives, 

Filibuster of "dilatory tactics" occurred 
June 11, 1790, when Elbridge Gerry of Massa- 
chusetts and William Loughton Smith of South 
Carolina made long speeches in the House of 
Representatives during consideration of the 
resolution to change the seat of government. 
(Annals of Congress First Congress, Second 

Foreign clergyman to open the House of 
Representatives with prayer was the Rev. 

Abraham de Sola, D.D., LL.D., Professor of 
Oriental History, McGill University, Montreal, 
Canada, who delivered the invocation January 
9, 1872. 

Gag rule was adopted May 26, 1836, by the 
House of Representatives which voted 117 to 
68 that "And, whereas it is extremely impor- 
tant and desirable that the agitation of this sub- 
ject should be finally arrested, for the purpose 
of restoring tranquility to the public mind, your 
committee respectfully recommend the adop- 
tion of the following additional resolution: 
Resolved that all petitions, memorials, resolu- 
tions, propositions, or papers, relating in any 
way, or to any extent whatever, to the subject 
of slavery, or the abolition of slavery, shall 
without being either printed or referred, be laid 




upon the table, and that no further action what- 
ever shall he had thereon." (Register of De- 
bates in Congress. Vol. 12) 

Girl page was Gene Cox, age 13, daughter 
of Congressman Edward Eugene Cox of Geor- 
gia, who served on the first day of the 76th 
Congress convening January 3, 1939, and re- 
ceived a check for $4 for her services. 

House of Representatives met in New York 
City, Wednesday, March 4, 1789, and was at- 
tended by four delegates from Massachusetts, 
three from Connecticut, four from Pennsyl- 
vania, one from Virginia and one from South 
Carolina. Meetings were constantly called and 
adjourned inasmuch as no quorum was present. 
The first quorum gathered Wednesday, April 
1, 1789, and the first business transacted was 
the balloting for speaker of the house. Fred- 
erick Augustus Conrad Muhlenberg of Pennsyl- 
vania was elected John Bcckley was elected 
clerk The first session of Congress held at 
Washington, DC, was from November 17, 
1800 In March 3, 1801, ihc second session of 
the Sixth Congress 

Jewish rabbi to open the House of Rep- 
resentatives with prayer was Rabbi Mor- 
ris Jacob Raphall, rabbi of Congregation B'nai 
Jcshurun, New York City, who delivered the 
invocation on February 1, 1860 (first session 
of the thirty-sixth Congress). (Congressional 
Globe. Feb. 2, 1860 p. 648) 

Joint meeting of the Senate and the House 
of Representatives. See Congress of the 
United States 

Officer to preside over both of the 
branches of Congress. See Congress of the 
United States 

President elected by the House of Repre- 
sentatives. See President 

Negro preacher to deliver a sermon in 
the House of Representatives was the Rev. 

Dr. Henry Highland Garnet, pastor of the 15th 
Street Presbyterian Church, Washington, D.C. 
The Chaplain of the House, the Rev. William 
Henry Channing, extended him an invitation to 
preach a sermon in memorial of the triumph 
of the Union Army arid the deliverance of the 
country from chattel slavery. Dr. Garnet de- 
livered his sermon, Sunday, February 12, 1865, 
to a crowded chamber. Incidentally, he was 
the first Negro allowed in the House, as pre- 
viously Negroes were forbidden to enter the 
grounds. (James McCune Smith Sketch of 
the Life and Labors of the Rev. Henry High- 
land Garnet) 

Senate cloture resolution was proposed by 
Senator Thomas Staples Martin of Virginia 
and passed March 8, 1917 by a vote of 76 to 3. 
"If at any time a motion, signed by sixteen 
senators, to bring to a close the debate upon 
any pending measure is presented to the Senate, 
the presiding officer shall at once state the mo- 
tion to the Senate, and one hour after the 


Senate meets on the following calendar day 
but one, he shall lay the motion before the Sen- 
ate. . . ." If passed, by a two-thirds vote, the 
debate is limited to one hour per individual. 
It was first invoked November 15, 1919 by a 
vote of 78 to 16 on the Versailles Treaty dis- 
cussion. (U.S. Senate Journal 64th Congress 
2nd Session) 

Speaker of the house of the first Con- 
gress 1789-1791 was Frederick Augustus Con- 
rad Muhlenberg. (Hubert Bruce Fuller- 
Speakers of the House) 


Contested election in the Senate was that 
of Abraham Alfonse Albert Gallatin of Penn- 
sylvania, lie presented his credentials as sena- 
tor-elect on February 28, 1793. No action was 
taken during the Second Congress, but on De- 
cember 2, 1793 a petition was presented alleg- 
ing that he had not been a citizen of the United 
States for the nine years required by the Con- 
stitution. The case commenced February 20, 
1794, and on February 28, 1794, the Federalist 
Senate declared his election void. (John Austin 
Stevens Albert Gallatin) 

Loud speaker in the Senate, Washington, 
D.C., was installed for the impeachment pro- 
ceedings of Federal Judge Harold Louclerback, 
Judge of the United States District Court for 
the northern district of California, held in the 
Senate from May 15, 1933 to May 24, 1933. 
He was acquitted. 

Officer to preside over both of the 
branches of Congress. See Congress of the 
United States 

President pro tempore of the United States 
Senate was John Langdon of New Hampshire 
who held office on April 6, 1789 to count the 
vote for President and Vice President, a quorum 
of the Senate then appearing for the first time. 
John Adams, Vice President, appeared on April 
21, 1789, and took his seat as President of the 
Senate. (Clara Hannah Kerr The Origin and 
Development of the U.S. Senate) 

Senate met at New York City, March 4, 
1789. The only members present were Sen- 
ators John Langdon and Paine Wingate of 
New Hampshire; William Samuel Johnson 
and Oliver Ellsworth of Connecticut; Wil- 
liam Maclay and Robert Morris of Pennsyl- 
vania; Caleb Strong of Massachusetts and 
William Few of Georgia. Various sessions were 
called but adjourned as no quorum was present. 
The first session of the Senate at which a 
quorum attended was held April 6, 1789 at 
which meeting John Langdon of New Hamp- 
shire was elected president pro tempore. 

Senate hearing in which women, other 
than members of Congress, were permitted 
on the floor was held on November 22, 1929. 
Two women employes of the Tariff Commis- 
sion, Ruth Peterson and Evelyn Southwortli, 
testified as experts during the tariff debate on 




Senate session to which the public was 
admitted was the trial of Abraham Alfonse 
Albert Gallatin, senator from Pennsylvania. It 
was claimed he had not been a citizen of the 
United States for the required nine years. On 
February 11, 1794, it was resolved "that the 
doors of the Senate be opened, and continue 
open, during the discussion upon the contested 
election of Albert Gallatin." A motion was 
passed February 20, 1794, during the second 
session of the third Congress that the Senate 
chamber be provided with galleries which shall 
be permitted to be open every morning so long 
as the Senate shall be engaged in their legis- 
lative capacity, unless in such cases as may in 
the opinion the Senate require secrecy. 
(Henry H. GUfry--Prcccdents. Decision ^ on 
points of order, with phraseology, in the United 
States Senate) 

Senate special session was held for one 
day, March 4, 1791, at the Senate Chamber, 
Philadelphia, Pa., and was summoned by Presi- 
dent George Washington to nominate the sev- 
eral officers necessary to put the federal gov- 
ernment into operation in the newly admitted 
state of Vermont, the supervisors of the several 
districts within the United States, and the offi- 
cers for an additional military establishment 
of the United States. (Annals of Congress 
Volume 2) 


under the Constitution was authorized April 14, 
1792 (1 Stat.L.253), "act for apportioning rep- 
resentatives among the several states according 
to the first enumeration." The first apportion- 
ment was made in 1793 based on the first dicen- 
nial census (1790) and provided for 106 rep- 
resentatives, one for every 33,000 of population. 
The first congress consisted of 65 representa- 
tives, one for every 30,000. 


Congressional caucus was held secretly 
in 1800 by the Federalist party at the instiga- 
tion of Alexander Hamilton who desired the 
re-election of President John Adams. The 
Democratic-Republicans later held a caucus 
and nominated Thomas Jefferson. Adams and 
Jefferson each received 73 electoral votes, 
whereupon the election was turned over to the 
House of Representatives which, after 37 
ballots between February 11 and 17, 1801, 
elected Thomas Jefferson of Virginia as Presi- 
dent and Aaron Burr of New York as Vice 
President. (Theodore W ells Cousens Politics 
and Political Organizations in America) 

Congressional caucus (open, not secret) 

was held February 29, 1804, by the Democratic- 
Republicans when Thomas Jefferson of Vir- 
ginia was nominated for President. Jefferson 
was elected, receiving 162 of the 176 electoral 
votes. George Clinton was elected Vice Presi- 




lished by the United States Government was 
authorized by act of February 14, 1865 (13 
Stat.L.568) and published in 1865 for the first 
session of the 39th Congress. It was compiled 
by Benjamin Perley Poore and contained, in 
addition to a roster of Congressmen, informa- 
tion about Washington banks, insurance com- 
panies, hotels, express offices, churches, rail- 
roads, steamboats, mails, etc. It contained fifty- 
seven pages. (Benjamin Perley Poore Per- 
ley's Reminiscences) 

NESS (woman). See Woman 



Catholic congressman was Thomas Fitz- 
Simons of Pennsylvania who was elected as a 
Federalist to the First, Second and Third Con- 
gresses. He served from March 4, 1789 to 
March 3, 1795. Charles Carroll of Maryland 
who was a Catholic also served in the First 
Congress. (American Catholic Historical So- 
ciety of Philadelphia Records 1889 Vol. 2) 

Congressman who had been a President 
of the United States was John Quincy Adams. 
He served as President from March 4, 1825, to 
March 3, 1829, and represented the Plymouth, 
Mass., district in Congress as a Whig from 
March 4, 1831, to February 23, 1848, when he 
died. He served in the 22nd and the eight suc- 
ceeding congresses, 17 years less 10 days. 
(John Quincy Adams The Diary of John 
Quincy Adams) 

Congressmen (brothers) to serve simul- 
taneously were the Washburn brothers, 
each representing a different state: Israel 
Washburn, Jr., of Maine (Whig 32nd-33rd 
Congresses, Republican 34th-35th-36th Con- 
gresses, March 4, 1851, to Jan. 1, 1861); Elihu 
Benjamin Washburne of Illinois, (spelled with 
an "e") (Whig 33rd and eight suceeding Con- 
gresses, March 4, 1853, to March 6, 1869) ; and 
Cadwallader Colden Washburn of Wisconsin 
(Republican 34th-35th-36th Congresses, March 
4, 1855, to March 3, 1861). The three brothers 
served simultaneously as Congressmen from 
March 4, 1855 to Jan. 1, 1861. Another brother, 
William Drew Washburn of Minnesota (Re- 
publican 46th-47th-48th Congresses) served 
from March 4, 1879 to March 3, 1885. 

Congresswoman elected to the United 
States House of Representatives was Jean- 
nette Rankin. She was elected as a Republican 
by Montana and served from March 4, 1917, 
to March 4, 1919, and from January 3, 1941, to 
January 3, 1943. She was the first Representa- 
tive to vote twice against entry into war, on 
April 6, 1917 and December 8, 1941. (Annabel 
Pax ton Women in Congress) 




Congresswoman elected to serve in the 
place of her husband was Mae Ella Nolan of 
the Fifth District, California. She was a Re- 
publican and filled the vacancy in the House of 
Representatives caused by the death of her hus- 
band, John Ignatius Nolan. She served from 
January 23, 1923 to March 3, 1925. 

Congresswoman to preside over the 
House of Representatives was Mrs. Alice 
Mary Robertson of Oklahoma. At a special 
session of the 67th Congress on June 20, 
1921, Representative David Walsh of Massa- 
chusetts asked her to take the chair. She only 
announced the vote which was 209 yeas and 42 
nays on an appropriation of $15,000 for a com- 
mission to represent the United States at the 
Peruvian Centennial of Independence exhibition. 
(Chronicles of Oklahoma Vol. 10) 

Congresswoman to vote twice against the 
entry of the United States into war was Mrs. 
Jeannette Rankin of Montana whose votes were 
cast April 6, 1917 and December 8, 1941. 

Duel between congressmen. See Duel 

Jewish congressman was Israel Jacobs 
who was elected by Pennsylvania to sit in the 
Second Congress. He served from March 4, 
1791, to March 3, 1793. As there were two 
Israel Jacobs of Pennsylvania, this statement 
may be open to contradiction. The next Jewish 
congressman was Lewis Charles Levin, repre- 
sentative from Pennsylvania, elected as a can- 
didate of the American Party to the 29th, 30th 
and 31st Congresses. He served from March 
4, 1846, to March 3, 1851. 

Negro congressman in the House of Rep- 
resentatives was Joseph Hayne Rainey of 
Georgetown, S.C. He was sworn in De- 
cember 12, 1870, to fill the vacancy caused by 
the action of the House of Representatives in 
declaring the seat of Benjamin Franklin 
Whittemore vacant, and served ten years in- 
cluding the 41st to the 45th Congresses, to 
March 3, 1879. 

Socialist congressman was Victor Louis 
Berger of Wisconsin who served from March 
4, 1911, to March 3, 1913, in the 62nd Con- 
gress. He was elected to the 66th and 67th 
Congresses but was not permitted to hold a 
seat therein. He was elected to the 68th, 69th 
and 70th Congresses and served from March 
4, 1923, to March 3, 1929. (Victor L. Berger 
Voice and Pen of Victor L. Berger) 


Negro congressman (state) to represent a 
constituency where the majority were white was 
Bishop Benjamin William Arnett of the Af- 
rican Methodist Episcopal Church, Greene 
County, Ohio who served in the lower house of 
the Ohio State Legislature from 1885 to 1887. 
He served in the sixty-sixth session which con- 
vened January 6, 1885, and adjourned May 4, 
1885, and the sixty- seventh which convened 


January 4, 1886, and adjourned May 19, 1886. 
(Booker Taliafcrro Washington The Story 
of the Negro) 

Negro congressmen to sit in any state 
legislature were Edwin Garrison Walker and 
Charles Lewis Mitchell of Boston Mass., who 
in 1866 were elected to the Massachusetts 
House of Representatives. 

Negro woman state legislator was Miss 
Crystal Bird Fauset of Philadelphia, Pa., 
elected November 8, 1938 to the Pennsylvania 
House of Representatives. Her term of office 
commenced December 1, 1938 and she was 
sworn in and assumed her seat January 3, 

Woman speaker of a state House of Rep- 
resentatives was Mrs. Minnie Davenport 
Craig of Esmond, N.D. On January 3, 1933, 
she was elected Speaker of the North Dakota 
House of Representatives. She was a Repub- 
lican and served for one session from Jan- 
uary 3, 1933, to March 31, 1933. 

CONSCIENCE FUND was started in 1811 
during President James Madison's administra- 
tion by an unknown person who claimed to have 
defrauded the Government and the Treasury of 
$5. Other deposits in that year increased the 
total to $250. No further deposits were re- 
ceived until 1827 when $6 was forwarded. 
Nothing was received in 1848. The largest 
amount received was in 1916 when $54,923.15 
was sent in. For statistical and accounting pur- 
poses, funds are listed as "Miscellaneous Re- 



fuse to aid the country in time of war were led 
by Ann Lee. She and eight of her sect of 
Shakers left Liverpool, England, on the "Ma- 
riah," May 19, 1774, arrived in New York City, 
August 6, 1774, and settled at Watervliet, N.Y., 
in 1776. Because of religious reasons, she and 
a group of Shakers refused to aid the colonies 
in the War for Independence with the result 
that they were accused of treason and impris- 
oned in the old Fort at Albany, N.Y. Her 
disciples were released from prison on Decem- 
ber 20, 1780. They were placed in jail without 
the formality of a trial. Ann Lee was trans- 
ferred to the Poughkeepsie, N.Y., jail and was 
released shortly thereafter. (The Life and 
Gospel Experience of (Mother) Ann Lee. Can- 
terbury, Md.) 

See also Shakers 


(class IV-3) was the Patapsco Camp-Civilian 
Public Service Camp, Relay Post Office, Md., 
opened May 15, 1941, when twenty-six men of 
various faiths and beliefs arrived. The direc- 
tor was Dr. Ernest Atkins Wildman, professor 
of chemistry, Earlham College, Richmond, Ind. 
Members worked in the neighboring Patapsco 






State Park and in the State Forestry Nursery. 
Similar camps were later opened by the Na- 
tional Service Board for Religious Objectors. 


Conscription was authorized by the act 
of May 8, 1792 (1 Stat.L.270) "effectually to 
provide for the National Defense by establish- 
ing a uniform militia throughout the United 
States." Every free able-bodied white male 
citizen between the ages of eighteen and forty- 
five was required to be enrolled in the militia of 
the United States. . .and to supply himself with 
a gun and not less than twenty-four cartridges 
suited to the bore of his musket. There was no 
penalty for non-observance. This law left the 
militia in command of the states. 

Peacetime conscription bill was passed 
September 14, 1940 (Senate 47 for, 35 against; 
House 232 for, 124 against) and called for a 
total of 900,000 selectees to be trained in any 
given year. Registration was required of all 
men who attained the age of 21 and who had 
not reached the age of 36 on October 16, 1940. 
The drawing of numbers was made October 29, 
1940, at Washington, B.C. The call for the 
first 75,000 men was made November 15, 1940. 
Dr. Clarence Addison Dykstra was confirmed 
as director of the draft on October 15, 1940. 
The first number, No. 158, was drawn by Sec- 
rectory of War Henry Lewis Stimson. 

Wartime conscription bill was passed 
March 3, 1863 (12 Slat.L.731) "an act for 
enrolling and calling out the national forces, 
and for other purposes." It required men 20 to 
45 years of age to be enrolled April 1, 1863, by 
Provost Marshals. Exemptions could be bought 
for three hundred dollars. The first draft call 
was July 7, 1863. A conscription bill had been 
passed November 10, 1814, by the Senate and 
another on December 9, 1814, by the House, 
but no compromise bill was enacted as the 
Treaty of Peace at Ghent, Belgium, signed De- 
cember 24, 1814, terminated the war. 

conservation corps (U.S.) 

CONSTITUTION to state "the foundation 
of authority is in the free consent of the 
people" was the "fundamental orders," the first 
constitution of Connecticut, drawn by Roger 
Ludlow and adopted January 14, 1639, at Hart- 
ford, Conn., by representatives of Wethers- 
field, Windsor, and Hartford. Ludlow was in- 
fluenced by a sermon delivered May 31, 1638, by 
Thomas Hooker at Center Church, Hartford, 
Conn. (James Hammond Trumbull Public 
Records of the Colony of Connecticut prior to 
the union with the New Haven Colony) 

State constitution. See State 

March 11, 1861, contained this preamble, "We, 
the people of the Confederate States, each 


State acting in its sovereign and independent 
character, in order to form a permanent federal 
government, establish justice, insure domestic 
tranquility, and secure the blessings of liberty 
to ourselves and our posterity invoking the 
favor and guidance of Almighty God do or- 
dain and establish this constitution for the Con- 
federate States of America." It was adopted at 
Montgomery, Ala. (Confederate States of 
America The Statutes at Large of the Provi- 
sional Government of the Confederate States 
of America. . .) 


Constitution of the United States was first 
published in a newspaper in the September 

19, 1787, Pennsylvania Packet and Daily Ad- 
vertiser, Philadelphia, Pa., published by [John] 
Dunlap and [David C] Claypoole. 

Printed copies of the Constitution of the 

United States of America, consisting of a 
preamble and seven articles, were printed from 
plates engraved by Jacob Shall us, assistant 
clerk of the Pennsylvania Assembly, who re- 
ceived $30 for the work. Sixty proof sheets 
were printed August 1-3, 1787, and laid before 
the Constitutional Convention on August 6, 
1787. The constitution was adopted September 
17, 1787, and ratified by the necessary nine 
states by June 21, 1788, but was not declared in 
effect until March 4, 1789. 

State to ratify the federal constitution. See 


(United States) 

See also Declaration of rights 

Constitutional amendment (U.S.) submit- 
ted to the states for repeal was offered by 
the Blaine repeal resolution to void the 
Eighteenth amendment. The bill was passed 
by the Senate, February 16, 1933, by a vote 
of 63 to 23 and by the House on February 

20, 1933, which concurred by 289 to 121. The 
amendment was proposed to conventions of the 
states by the 72nd Congress on February 20, 
1933. The first state to ratify was Michigan, 
April 10, 1933. The amendment was declared 
ratified December 5, 1933, by a proclamation of 
the Secretary of State, after the thirty-sixth 
state had ratified it. 

Constitutional amendments, known as the 
"Bill of Rights," were drawn up by James 
Madison and were declared in force on Decem- 
ber 15, 1791, having been passed by both 
Houses and ratified by the required number of 
states. Originally twelve amendments were 
passed by both houses, but two of them failed 
to secure the requisite number of state ratifica- 
tions. The first of the ten amendments estab- 
lished religious freedom, freedom of speech and 
press, and the right to assemble and to petition. 
The amendments were submitted to the states 
by the first Congress on September 25, 1789. 
The first state to ratify was New Jersey which 




acted on November 20, 1789. (Francis Newton 
Thorpe Constitutional History of the Ameri- 
can People) 

Income tax amendment to the constitution. 
See Tax 

State to ratify the twentieth (lame duck) 
amendment. See State 

Woman suffrage amendment. See Woman 


was organized May 9, 1860, at a convention 
held at Baltimore, Md., when the party may be 
said to have been definitely organized. This 
was the first and only convention. The plat- 
form declared for "The Constitution of the 
Country, the Union of the States and the En- 
forcement of the Laws." They nominated John 
Bell of Tennessee as the presidential candidate 
and Edward Everett of Massachusetts for vice 
president. They received twelve electoral votes 
as compared to 180 cast for Abraham Lincoln, 
the Republican nominee, in the election of No- 
vember 6, 1860. 


(U.S) was authorized June 16, 1933 (48 
Stat.L.195) under the National Industrial 
Recovery Act. It was organized June 26, 1933. 
The first chairman was Mrs. Charles Cary 

ETY. Sec Cooperative 


ihorized June 16, 1933, under the Agricultural 
Adjustment Act. Frederic Clemson Howe was 
appointed the first counsel 




See Novel course 


See Congress House of Representatives; 
Congress Senate 


Continental Congress assembled at Car- 
penter's Hall, Philadelphia, Pa., on Monday, 
September 5, 1774, and consisted of forty-four 
delegates from eleven states. Delegates from 
Georgia and North Carolina did not attend 
until later sessions. (Journals of the American 
Congress from 1744 to 1788) 

Continental Congress to be opened with 
prayer was held on September 7, 1774. 
The Rev. Jacob Duche, an Episcopalian, rector 
of Christ Church, appeared in his canonicals 
attended by his clerk. The morning service of 


the Episcopal Church was read, the clerk mak- 
ing the responses. The Psalter for the Seventh 
day of the ^ month includes the 35th Psalm 
wherein David prays for protection against his 
enemies. "Plead my cause, O Lord, with them 
that strive with me; fight against them that 
fight against me." He concluded with an appeal 
so heartfelt that Congress gave him a vote of 
thanks. The session opened at 9. A.M. at Car- 
penter's Hall, Philadelphia, Pa. (Thatcher's 
Military Journal) 

TERY. See Lottery 


See Medal 

ACT. See Pension 

DENT. See President of the Continental 



See Naval officer 


Apprentice continuation school supported 
by a board of education from public funds was 
established at Cincinnati, Ohio, on August 30, 
1909. Classes were conducted in the third 
story of a building at Twelfth and Jackson 
Streets. Tool apprentices were given the op- 
portunity of a technical education along prac- 
tical lines. 

Continuation school established by state 
law was the Racine Continuation School, 
Racine, Wis., which opened November 3, 1911. 
to offer instruction in evenings to adults ana 
to children from fourteen to sixteen years of 
age who had permits to work. It was author- 
ized under Chapter 616 approved ^July 7, 1911, 
"an act relating to education in industrial, 
commercial, continuation and evening schools." 

cal clinic 


Automobile license (federal) 

QUENCY LAW. See Child delinquency 

CONVENT permanently established was in 
New Orleans, La., in a two-story frame build- 
ing, with six apartments on each floor, occupied 
August 6, 1727 by the Ursulines. On August 
9, 1727, the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass was 
offered for the first time. The Superioress 
was Mother Marie (Tranchepain) of St. Au- 
gustine. (Rev. Henry Churchill Semple-The 
Ursulines in New Orleans and Our Lady of 
Prompt Succor) 




CONVENT Continued 

Catholic convent to admit colored women 
as sisters was the Sisters of Loretto, Lo- 
retto, Ky. The Rev. Charles Nerinck in 

May 1824 admitted five Negresses to the no- 
vitiate who followed the same community ex- 
ercises as the other sisters, but they lived apart 
from the white sisters. 

See Radio broadcast 


See Television 

veyor system 


COOK BOOK was The Compleat House- 
wife: or Accomplished Gentlewoman's Com- 
panion. Being a collection of upwards of Five 
Hundred of the most approved Receipts fit 
either for private Families, or such Pub lie k- 
Spirited Gentlewomen as would be beneficent 
to their poor Neighbours. It was modeled after 
one printed by Mrs. E. Smith in England. 
It was published in 1742 at Williamsburg, Va., 
by William Parks. (Lawrence Counselman 
Wroth William Parks) 

Cook book of American authorship was 

Amelia Simmons' American Cookery, or the 
Art of Dressing Viands, Fish, Poultry and 
Vegetables, and the Best Modes of Making 
Puff-Pastes, Pics t Tarts, Puddings, Custards 
and Preserves, and all Kinds of Cakes, From 
the Imperial Plumb to Plain Cake Adapted to 
This Country, and All Grades of Life. It was 
printed by Hudson and Goodwin at Hartford, 
Conn., in 1796 for the author and contained 
forty-six pages. 


Electric cooking experiment 

COOKING SCHOOL was the New York 
Cooking School which was opened in November 
1876 by Juliet Corson at her residence in St. 
Mark's Place, New York City. In 1875, she 
gave cooking instruction in the Ladies Cooking 
Class of the free Training School for Women, 
New York City. 


College Cooperative store was the Har- 
vard Co-operative Society, Cambridge, Mass., 
whose constitution was presented February 28, 
1882. On March 15, 1882, it had four hundred 
subscribers. The plan was proposed by Charles 
Hayden Kip. Frank Bolles was the first presi- 
dent. Merchandise was sold below prevailing 
retail prices to members. The store was man- 
aged by students of the university. (Norman 
Scott Brien Gras Harvard Co-operative So- 
cietyPast and Present 1892-1942} 

Consumers Cooperative society was or- 
ganized in 1830 at New York City by William 
Bryan, treasurer of a cooperative at Brighton, 
England. He established a store in New York 


City which sold articles to members at prices 
generally below those prevailing at retail out- 

Cooperative cheese factory. See Cheese 


Cooperative entirely operated by women 

was the Montgomery Farm Women's Coopera- 
tive Market, Bethesda, Md., incorporated Aug- 
ust 1932 by twenty -nine women. The following 
year, they built a market valued at about 
$50,000, the mortgage on which was paid off in 
January 1945. 

Cooperative state law was an "act to 
authorize the formation of mechanics' and 
laboring men's cooperative associations," Act 
No. 288 of Michigan, approved and effective 
March 20, 1865, which allowed "any ten or 
more persons, who shall be desirous of uniting 
as mechanics and laboring men, in any coopera- 
tive association" to incorporate. 

Group hospital-medical cooperative. See 



held at Springfield, 111., from September 25 to 
27, 1918 under the auspices of the Co-operative 
League of America. Dr. James Peter War- 
basse, president of the league, presided over 
the 185 delegates. (Report of the Proceedings 
of the First American Co-operative Convention 
held at Springfield, III., September 25, c6, 27, 
1918, under the auspices of the Co-operative 
League of America) 


COPPER MINE known to have been worked 
was the Simsbury mine at Granby, Conn., 
whose history dates back to 1705. A company 
to mine the ore was formed in 1709 by John 
Winthrop, the younger, and was the first min- 
ing company chartered. The mine was also 
known as the Granby mine and was worked for 
several years by convicts in the Newgate prison 
established there. In 1737 the copper obtained 
from this mine was used in the manufacture 
of the "Granby coppers," among the earliest 
colonial coins minted. The mine was worked 
spasmodically until 1773. (Charles Burr Todd 
In Olde Connecticut) 


operate by the use of gaseous fuel) was con- 
structed in 1878 by William Franklin Durfee 
for the Wheeler and Wilson Company at An- 
sonia, Conn. 

COPPER TUBE. See Brass and copper 
seamless tube 

COPYRIGHT LAW securing benefit of copy- 
right was passed May 15, 1672 by the General 
Court of Massachusetts assembled at Boston, 
Mass., which granted John Usher, a book seller, 
the privilege of publishing on his own account 




a revised edition of "The General Laws and 
Liberties of the Massachusetts Colony." It was 
ordered "that for at least seven years, unless he 
shall have sold them all before that time, there 
shall be no other or further impression made 
by any person thereof in this jurisdiction." The 
penalty for violation of the copyright was 
treble the whole charges of printing and paper. 

Copyright law of the United States was 
(1 Stat.L.124) "an act for the encouragement 
of learning by securing the copies of maps, 
charts and books to the authors and proprietors 
of such copies during the times therein men- 
tioned." The bill was signed by the Speaker 
and the President of the Senate, May 25, 1790, 
and was laid before President George Wash- 
ington on May 27, 1790, who signed it May 31, 
1790. Rights were granted only to citizens 
of the United States, a policy which continued 
until 1891. Protection was extended over a 
fourteen-year period, renewal rights being 
granted only if the author were still alive. 

Copyright law (state) was "an act for the 

encouragement of literature and genius," passed 
during the session of the General Court of 
Assembly of the Governor and Company of the 
State of Connecticut, held at Hartford, Conn., 
January 8th to February 7th, 1783. It gave 
authors sole right of publication for fourteen 
years with power of renewal. Massachusetts 
passed a law March 17, 1783, for a twenty-one 
year period. Both laws extended rights only to 
other states having reciprocal legislation. 
(Richard Rogers Bowker Copyright, Its His- 
tory and Its Laiv) 

International copyright agreement was 

the Platt-Simonds Copyright Act passed March 
4, 1891 (26 Stat.L.1107), effective July 1, 1891. 
Citizens of Switzerland, France, Belgium and 
Great Britain were thus enabled to obtain copy- 
right protection in the United States. The 
United States was represented by Boyd Win- 
chester at the Berne International Copyright 
Convention, September 9, 1886, but did not 
become a signatory to the convention. (Thor- 
vald Solberg The United States and Interna- 
tional Copyright) 


U.S. was Thorvald Solberg who served from 
July 1, 1897, to April 22, 1930. 

CONDUIT. See Water conduit 

CORAL REEF BARRIER of importance on 
exhibition was installed in the American Mu- 
seum of Natural History, New York City, 
under the direction of Dr. Roy Waldo Miner. 
Its construction occupied five years and the 
reef, weighing forty tons, was completed in 
July 1934. 

CORD TIRE. See Automobile tire; Bicycle 


CORK for steam pipe covering was manu- 
factured in the United States in 18Q4 by Stone 
& Duryea of Brooklyn, N.Y. They moved to 
Bridgeport, Conn., in 1896 and the following 
year produced cork covering for cold pipe lines. 
They were succeeded by the Nonpareil Cork 
Manufacturing Company which in turn was 
purchased by the Armstrong Cork Company in 

CORK JACKET. See Life preserver 

CORK manufacturer is claimed to be Wil- 
liam King who opened a factory in Brook- 
lyn, N.Y., where he produced cork products 
from 1850 to 1860. 


made in 1900 by the Armstrong Cork Company 
of Pittsburgh, Pa. It was produced in a spe- 
cially constructed plant at Beaver Falls, Pa. 
The business grew rapidly until the "composi- 
tion" corkboard gave way entirely to pure 
corkboard insulation. 

CORKBOARD PATENT to be issued on 
pure corkboard was No. 456,068 granted to 
John T. Smith of Brooklyn, N.Y., on July 14, 
1891. Manufacture was begun in Brooklyn, in 
1894 by Messrs. Stone and Duryea. Cork cov- 
ering was produced first, and then the manu- 
facture of pure corkboard followed within a 
very few years. (Pearl Edwin Thomas Cork 

CORKSCREW PATENT, No. 27,615, was 
granted on March 27, 1860, to M. L. Byrn of 
New York City. It covered a gimlet screw 
with a "T" handle. 


Shipment of hybrid seed corn was sold 
to Samuel Ramsay, Jacobsburg, Ohio, on 
April 13, 1916, by Funk Brothers Seed 
Co., Bloomington, 111. The price was $15 a 


CONTEST (National) was held December 
1, 1924, on a farm near Alleman, Polk County, 
Iowa. There were six contestants. The winner 
was Fred Stanek of Webster County, Iowa, who 
husked 1,891 pounds, a net of 1,705 pounds, or 
24.3 bushels, in 80 minutes. 



Starch made commercially from Indian 
corn was made by Thomas Kingsford who 
produced a small quantity in 1842 at Jersey 
City, NJ. In 1846, he and his son, Thomas, 
erected a small cornstarch plant at Bergen, 
NJ., and a larger one at Oswego, N.Y., in 

Cornstarch patent was No. 2,000 issued 
March 22, 1841, to Orlando Jones of City 
Road, England, "for operating on farinaceous 





matters to obtain starch and other products," 

especially flour or powder produced from rice. 

CORNSTONE, or Maizolith, a product 
harder than the hardest wood and several times 
stronger than the strongest wood was first made 
at the Towa State College, Ames, Iowa, in 1922. 
It is made principally from corncobs or corn- 
stalks by means of specially designed machin- 
ery. It ranges in color from golden tan to 
ebony and is used principally as a structural 
material where great strength as compared to 
weight is desired, and where great abrasion and 
impact are desired. It has a specific gravity of 
1.5 and modulus of rupture of about 35,000 


Commercial corporation was the New 

York Fishing Company, which was chartered 
January 8, 1675 by the Governor and Council 
of New York acting for the Duke of York 
"for settlcing a fishery in these parts." Shares 
of the capital stock were 10 each. (New 
York Council Minutes III, part 2:10} 

Corporate body of more than temporary 
duration, excluding town incorporations, was 
the President and Fellows of Harvard College, 
Cambridge, Mass., chartered May 30, 1650. It 
consisted of seven persons, Henry Dunster, 
president ; five fellows, Samuel Mather, Samuel 
Danford, Jonathan Michell, Comfort Starr and 
Samuel Eaton ; and Thomas Danford, treasurer. 
(Nathaniel Bradstrcet Shiirtleff Records of 
the Governor and Company of the Massachu- 
setts Bay in New England. Vol. 4) 


Industrial corporation course was entitled 
"Private Corporations; Origin, history and 
present status of joint stock concerns, includ- 
ing railroads." It was offered by Dr. Amos 
Griswold Warner, lecturer on Political and 
Economic Science, at the University of Ne- 
braska, Lincoln, Nebr., in 1888-89. 
See also College 


distinction was started through the initiative of 
Thomas Jefferson Foster, proprietor and editor 
of the Shenandoah Herald, who issued a Course 
in Coal Mining as a means of educating work- 
men and safeguarding lives through a knowl- 
edge of the fundamentals of mine developing 
and operating. The first student of this or- 
ganization, which is now known as the Inter- 
national Correspondence Schools with head- 
quarters at Scrantpn, Pa., was enrolled October 
16, 1891. Instruction is now offered in a great 
variety of subjects. (International Corre- 
spondence Schools Field Staff Training Course 
International Textbook Press) 

See also Forestry correspondence course; 
Home study courses; Blind correspondence 




LAW. See Election law 

CORSET manufactured by a factory as a 
health item rather than a fashion article was 
made July 1874 by Warner Brothers, McGraw, 
N.Y., a partnership of Dr. Ira DcVer Warner 
and Dr. Lticicn Calvin Warner. The corset 
combined three garments in one, a corset, a 
skirt supporter and self-adjusting pads, and 
had shoulder straps. (Lucicn T. Warner 
Always Starting Things Through Seventy 
Eventful Years) 

COSMIC RAY was discovered in 1925 by 
Robert Andrews Millikan at the California In- 
stitute of Technology, Pasadena, Calif. The 
formal announcement of the discovery was 
made on November 11, 1925, before the Na- 
tional Academy of Sciences assembled in con- 
vention at Madison, \Vis. (Robert Andrews 
Millikan Cosmic Rays) 



Cotton acreage reduction payment was 

made July 28, 1933, to William E. Morris of 
Nticccs county, Tex., who was presented with 
a check of $517 by President Franklin Delano 
Roosevelt for having plowed under forty-seven 
acres of his cotton crop In addition, he was 
given an option on 23 J^ bales of cotton at six 
cents a pound. 

Cotton crop commercially produced en- 
tirely by machinery, from planting to baling, 
with the exception of a few incidental hours 
of hand labor, was grown during the year 1944 
on 28 acres owned by Hopson Planting Com- 
pany of Clarksdale, Miss. The soil was pre- 
pared, crop seeded and cultivated by machines, 
weeds eradicated by flame, and the crop har- 
vested with a mechanical picker. 

Cotton exported to England consisted of 

eight bales from Charleston, S.C., which were 
seized by the custom house in England in 1764 
on the grounds that the American colony could 
not have produced so much. 

Cotton fabric used on a road. See Road 

Cotton goods to be trade-marked were 
made by the Beverly Cotton Manufactory, 
Beverly, Mass. On June 6, 1788 it was 
enacted "that all goods which may be man- 
ufactured by the said corporation, shall have 
a label of lead affixed to one end thereof, 
which shall have the same impression as the 
seal of the corporation, and that if any person 
shall knowingly use a like seal or label with 
that used by said corporation, by annexing same 
to any cotton or cotton and linen goods, not 
manufactured by said corporation with a view 
of vending or distributing thereof, as the proper 




manufacture of said corporation, every person 
so offending shall forfeit and pay treble the 
value of said goods to be sued for and recov- 
ered for the use of said corporation, by action 
of debt, in any court of record proper to try 
the same." 

vented by Frederick Cook of New Orleans, 
La., who obtained patent No. 19.490, March 2, 
1858, on "a friction clasp or buckle for attach- 
ing the ends of iron ties or hoops for fasten- 
ing cotton bales and other packages so that 
the ties are prevented from slipping by the 
friction against a certain portion of the buckle." 

been so destructive to cotton crops, was in- 
troduced into the United States from Central 
America about 1892, probably through Browns- 
ville, Tex. The weevil is a species of beetle 
and because of its small size and immunity to 
most inscc tides has become a serious problem. 

COTTON GIN, which separated the seed 
from the cotton, was invented by Kli Whitney 
of Mulberry Grove, (near Savannah), Ga. f in 
1792 who applied for a patent on June 20, 1793. 
His model was stolen and was manufactured 
by dishonest interests, before Whitney re- 
ceived a patent on March 14, 1794, on "a 
machine for ginning cotton." Whitney 
formed a partnership with Phineas Miller and 
manufactured cotton gins. The invention was 
so valuable that redress was unobtainable, and 
his patent was not renewed due to the power 
exerted by those who had been enriched by his 
invention. (Denison Olmsted Memoir of Eli 
Whitney, Esq.) 

COTTON MILL (see rival claim next 
paragraph) was established in Beverly, Mass., 
between August 1788 and July 1789 by a com- 
pany of proprietors known as the Beverly Cot- 
ton Manufactory. The company was incor- 
porated on February 3, 1789, and was visited 
the same year by George Washington. The 
spinning jenny spun sixty threads at one time 
and the carding machine carded forty pounds 
of cotton a day. (Edwin Martin Stone His- 
tory of Beverly) 

Cotton mill was established on James Is- 
land, near Charleston, S.C. by Mrs. Frances 
Ramage, widow of a South Carolina planter, in 
1789. It was used in the weaving and spinning 
of cotton or linen yarns. An account of the 
mill is contained in the City Gazette or Daily 
Advertiser of Charleston, S.C. of February 24, 
1789. (South Carolina Historical and Genea- 
logical Magazine. Vol. VIII and IX) 

Cotton mill in the world where the whole 
process of cotton manufacturing from spin- 
ning to weaving was carried on by power 

was that of the Boston Manufacturing Com- 
pany, Waltham, Mass., incorporated February 
23, 1813 with a capital of $100,000. A mill was 
erected later the same year at Waltham, from 
whence it took its better known name, The 


Waltham Company. Labor was paid a fixed 
wage and various groups were departmentalized. 
Nathan Appleton, Francis Cabot Lowell and 
Patrick Tracy Jackson were the prime spon- 
sors of this organization. The machinery was 
constructed by Paul Moody. (Edmund Lincoln 
Sanderson Waltham as a Precinct of Water- 
town and as a Town) 

Cotton mill to spin cotton yarn success- 
fully was started on December 20, 1790 by 
Samuel Slater at Pawtucket, R.I. It was 40 
feet long, 26 feet wide and two stories high 
with an attic. Power was obtained from the 
old fulling mill watcrwhecl in Kzekicl Carpen- 
ter's clothier shop on the east bank of the 
Blackstone River at the Southwest abutment of 
Pawtucket Bridge. Alexander Hamilton in his 
report as Secretary of the Treasury made on 
December 5, 1791 said, "The manufactory at 
Providence has the merit of being the first in 
introducing into the United States the cele- 
brated cotton mill, which not only furnishes 
materials for the manufactory itself but for the 
supply of private families, for household manu- 
facturing." (Frederick Lewis Lewton Samuel 
Slater and the Oldest Cotton Machinery in 

COTTON PICKER (mechanical) of im- 
portance was the Rust Cotton Picker, a horse- 
drawn picker, built by John Rust at Weather- 
ford, Tex., in 1928. in 1929 it was rebuilt 
into a self-propelled model powered by a model 
"T" motor; in 1935, a tractor model was built 
and tested; and in 1937 an improved model 
picked thirteen bales of cotton in one day. 


into operation by Daniel Jackson, a copper- 
smith, of Providence, R.I., in 1786. At first it 
was set up in a private house, but was after- 
ward removed to the upper room in the Market 
House where it was operated. (Edward Field 
History of Rhode Island and Providence 

COTTON THREAD was made in Paw- 
tucket, R.I., in 1793 by Hannah Wilkinson 
(Mrs. Slater) who conceived the idea of twist- 
ing fine Surinam cotton yarn on spinning 
wheels. She manufactured No. 20 two-ply 
thread which proved superior to the linen 
thread then in use. 

lished in 1839 by Jacob Sloat of Sloatsburg, 
N.Y. The mill was opened in 1815 and pro- 
duced cloth until 1839. Sloat invented a dress- 
ing and produced as much as 6,000 pounds a 
week of cotton twine in 1839. 


was invented by John Lineback of Salem, N.C., 
and patented by him on March 31, 1814. 

COTTONSEED OIL was produced in 1768 
through the efforts of Dr. Otto, a Moravian, 
of Bethlehem, Pa. He was able to get nine 
pints of oil from a bushel and a half of cotton 




COTTONSEED OIL MILL was established 
in Petersburg, Va., in 1829 by Francis Follet. 

COUNCIL (Colonial). See Colonial gov- 


American woman to become a countess 
was Sarah Thompson whose father, Benjamin 
Thompson, an American physicist, born at 
North Wobtirn, Mass., was created a count of 
the Holy Roman Empire in 1791 by Charles 
Philip Frederick, Duke of Bavaria. The daugh- 
ter was received as the Countess of Rumford 
with the privilege of residing in any country 
in which she might choose and receiving half 
of her father's pension of 2000 florins. (George 
Edward EllisMemoir of Sir Benjamin 
Thompson, Count Rumford, With Notices of 
His Daughter) 


Country club to attain an age of sixty 
years was the Country Club of Brookline, 
Mass., organized September 13, 1882, and in- 
corporated November 7, 1882. Its purpose was 
the encouragement of athletic exercise and the 
establishment and maintenance of places for 
reading rooms and social meetings. In 1882, 
Clyde Park, the estate of Francis E. Bacon, 
was leased for five years, and in 1887 it was 
purchased. In 1883, the Myopia Club, organ- 
ized at Winchester in 1879, was absorbed by 
the Country Club. (Frederic Haincs Curtiss & 
John HeardThe Country Club, 1882-1932) 

try School for Boys of Baltimore, a private 
school (now the Oilman Country School for 
Boys, Roland Park, Baltimore, Md.) which was 
opened September 1897. The first headmaster 
was Frederick Winsor. 


COUPLER (Railroad). See Railroad coup- 


Bicycle traffic court. See Bicycle traffic 

Commerce court (United States) was es- 
tablished by Act of Congress, June 18, 1910 
(36 Stat.L.539). A presiding judge and five 
associates were appointed by President William 
Howard Taft for terms that extended from one 
to five years. The court was organized Feb- 
ruary 8, 1911, and opened February 15, 1911, at 
Washington, D.C. Appeal of its decisions 
could only be made to the Supreme Court. Due 
to various abuses, the court was abolished De- 
cember 31, 1913. (Walker Downer Mines 
United States Commerce Court) 

Conciliation tribunal for small claims was 

the Conciliation Branch of the Municipal Court 
of Cleveland established March 15, 1913, at 
Cleveland, Ohio. The first case was filed 
March 17, 1913, and was heard by Judge Dan 
B. Cull on March 24, 1913. The complainant 


cannot be represented by counsel, and must 
present his own case. Strict rules of evidence 
and procedure are waived. The judgment 
rendered has the same force and effect, and is 
as binding, as a judgment rendered in any 
court of record. (American Judicature Society 
Bulletin No. 8. April 1915) 

Court of claims was established by an act 
"to establish a court for the investigation of 
claims against the United States" (10 Stat.L. 
612), signed February 24, 1855, by President 
Franklin Pierce. It required the appointment 
of three judges with life tenure by the Presi- 
dent with the consent of the Senate. President 
Pierce appointed Isaac Blackford of Indiana 
and John James Gilchrist of New Hampshire 
on March 3, 1855, and George P. Scarborough 
of Virginia on May 8, 1855, who received 
$4,000 annually. The court was organized May 
11, 1855, with Judge Gilchrist as presiding 
judge. It was reorganized by act of March 
3, 1863 (12 Stat.L765). Until March 3, 1887, 
it was the only court in which cases could be 
prosecuted against the government. 

Domestic relations court was established 
in Buffalo, N.Y., in 1909 by the Hon. Simon 
Augustine Nash, Judge of Police Court, who 
privately heard domestic relations cases in his 
chambers instead of in open court. Chapter 
570, Laws of New York State, approved May 
29, 1909, established the City Court of Buf- 
falo, and the domestic relations division was 
opened January 1, 1910. (Station Probation 
Commission, Buffalo. 1928) 

Juvenile court in the world was the Juve- 
nile Court of Cook County, known as the Chi- 
cago juvenile Court, authorized April 21, 1899, 
opened July 1, 1899, with Richard Stanley Tut- 
hill as judge. On March 3, 1913, cases in- 
volving girls were tried by a woman judge, 
Mary Margaret Bartelme. The first year about 
2,300 children's cases were heard. (Timothy 
David Hurley Origin of Illinois Court Law) 

Night court in the world was opened in 
New York City on September 1, 1907. The 
first night session of a magistrates' court, the 
Jefferson Market Court at Ninth Street and 
Sixth Avenue, was presided over by Hon. 
Charles Nathan Harris. Sessions were held 
from 8 P.M. to 3 A.M. until September 1, 1910, 
when cases against men were transferred to 
Yorkville Court, 153 East 57th Street. Cases 
against women were held in the same build- 
ing as before. On June 28, 1911, the closing 
hour of both sessions was fixed at one o'clock 
in the morning. On April 21, 1919, the ses- 
sions of the Women's Court were changed to 
day sessions. (Records in City Magistrates' 
Courts. New York City) 

Small debtors' court established by state 
law was authorized March 15, 1913, by 
Chapter 20, Laws of Kansas, to take effect 
April 30, 1913. Plaintiffs and defendants ap- 
peared without legal representation. Judges 
served without fee, pay or award and were 




not required to be lawyers. Appeals could be 
taken to the district court. Cases were tried 
involving not more than $20. The first court 
was at Topeka, Kan., with W. H. Kemper as 
judge. (William Franklin Willoughby Prin- 
ciples of Judicial Administration) 

State Supreme Court composed entirely of 
women was the Special Supreme Court of 
Texas appointed by Governor Pat Morris Neff 
on January 8, 1925. When an application for 
writ of error in the case of W. T. Johnson, 
et al. vs. J. M. Darr, et al., from El Paso 
County (a Woodman of the World case) 
reached the Supreme Court of Texas, the three 
members thereof found themselves disqualified 
to consider it and immediately certified their 
disqualifications to the governor as required by 
law. Thereupon, the governor appointed Mrs. 
Hortense Ward of Houston, Special Chief Jus- 
tice, and Miss Hattie L. Henenberg of Dallas 
and Miss Ruth Brazzil of Galveston as Special 
Associate Justices to hear and determine the 
cause of action. They were sworn in January 
8, 1925. The case was finally decided by the 
Special Supreme Court on May 23, 1925, af- 
firming the judgment of the Court of Civil 

Supreme court. See Supreme court of the 
United States 

August 24, 1676, at Newport, R.I., by Gov- 
ernor Walter Clarke, Deputy Governor John 
Crayton, and assistants. Edmund Calverly was 
the Attorney General. Quanpen, an Indian 
sachem also known as Sowagonish, was found 
guilty and ordered shot on August 26th. Others 
who participated in King Phillip's War were 
sentenced to various penalties. (Record of a 
Court Martial held at Newport, R.L, in August 
and September 1676 for the Trial of Indians 
charged with being engaged in Phillip's de- 

Court martial trial at which enlisted men 
were allowed to sit as members of the court 

was convened at 8 \SO A.M. on February 1, 
194 ( ), al Heidelberg, Germany. The first trial 
in the United States was convened February 3, 
1949, at Fort Uragg, N.C. Governors Island, 
N.Y., also hold a courtniprtial on February 3, 
1949. Article of War 4, as amended by 
Title n, Selective Service Act of 1948 (Public 
Law 759, 80th Congress), effective February 
1, 1949, provided in pertinent part that enlisted 
men shall be eligible to sit as members of the 
court at the trials of enlisted men by special 
and general courts-martial when requested in 
writing by the accused at any time prior to the 
convening of the court. 

Military court martial commenced Jan- 
uary 20, 1778, at Cambridge, Mass., when 
Colonel David Henley, commanding officer of 
the American troops at Cambridge, Mass., was 
accused "of a general tenor of language and 
conduct heinously criminal as an officer, and 
unbecoming a man, of the most indecent, vio- 


lent, vindictive severity against unarmed men, 
and of intentional murder." The trial was 
concluded on February 25, 1778, when Henley 
was found not guilty. Brigadier General John 
Glover was the presiding officer at the trial. 
(Proceedings of a General Court-Martial, held 
at Cambridge, on Tuesday the 20th of January 
and continued by several adjournments to Wed- 
nesday, the 25th of February 1778; upon the 
trial of Colonel David Henley) 


COW. See Animals 

COXWAIN (Woman). See Woman 

danger signal 

CRACKER (sweet) of American manufac- 
ture was introduced to the public in 1865 by 
Belcher & Larrabee of Albany, N.Y., in compe- 
tition with the English varieties which were 
imported in .increasing quantities. These 
crackers were of the sweetened variety. Soda 
crackers and salt crackers had been made pre- 

Hard water crackers were made by hand 
in 1801 by Josiah Bent in his home in Milton, 
Mass. They were made from the best winter 
wheat and pure cold water and baked in ovens 
heated by bundles of hardwood fagots. Bent 
peddled them around the country and in 1827 
sold his business which became Bent & Com- 
pany. (Albert Kendall Teele The History of 
Milton, Mass.) 

CRACKER BAKERY was that of Theodore 
Pearson of Newburyport, Mass., which started 
in 1792. His products appealed chiefly because 
they kept better than bread. 


tempted about 1820 by Captain Henry Hall of 
Dennis, Barnstable County, Mass. Cranberries 

grew wild and, most likely, were eaten by the 

wood's A Complete Manual for the Culture of 
the Cranberry, with a description of the best 
varieties, published in 1856 by C. M. Saxton & 
Co., New York City. It contained 120 pages and 
described the location of patches, preparation 
of soils, planting vines, diseases, picking, etc. 

CRANE was manufactured by the Yale and 
Towne Manufacturing Company, Stamford, 
Conn., in 1833 for the Pittsburgh Bessemer 
Steel Company. This machine was a two-ton 
full-revolving, self-propelling steam crane 
mounted on a four-wheel standard gage truck. 

Wrecking crane was built by the Indus- 
trial Brownhoist Corporation, Bay City, Mich., 
in 1883. It had a capacity of twenty tons, was 
mounted on a non-propelling car to operate on 




CRANE Continued 

a standard gage track. In 1886, the adaption 
of the revolving crane was made. This was a 
fifteen-ton steam railway type crane in which 
the crane proper was mounted at one end of the 
car and the boiler at the other. 

CRAPS was introduced at New Orleans, La., 
about 1813 by Bernard Xavier Philippe de 
Marigny de Mandcville who had seen the game 
played in France as "Hazards." As the nick- 
name for a Creole was Johnny Crapaud, the 
game became known as Crnpaud's game which 
later was abbreviated to Craps. Marigny lost 
a fortune playing the game. lie owned con- 
siderable property through which he was 
obliged to cut a street and sell lots on both 
sides to obtain funds to pay his debts. Maps 
show this street named Craps Street, later 
changed to Burgundy Street. (Edzvard La- 
rocque Tinker The Palingenesis of Craps) 


Centrifugal cream separator was made in 
1879 by David M. Weston and Edward 
Burnett of Boston, Mass., whose experience 
was obtained with sugar centrifugals. The 
first machine was used on the Deerfoot Farm, 
Southboro, Mass. It made 1,600 revolutions a 
minute and had a 26-inch bowl. The machine 
had to be stopped to draw off the cream and 
skim milk after separation. 

Centrifugal cream separator patent was 

No. 195,515 granted September 25, 1877, to 
Wilhelm C. L. Lefeldt and Carl G. O. Lentsch 
of Schoeningen, Germany, on an "improvement 
in centrifugal machines for creaming milk." 
It consisted of an electric rotator which forced 
the heavy milk to the base of the pan. 

Continuous flow centrifugal cream separa- 
tor was invented by Carl Gustaf Patrik de 
Laval of Stockholm, Sweden, who applied for 
a patent on July 31, 1879, which was granted 
October 4, 1881, No. 247,804. The first machine 
of this type used in the United States was put 
in operation in 1881 by Theodore Augustus 
Havemeyer, sugar refiner and Jersey stock 
breeder, on his farm at Mahwah, N.J. 

CREAMERY was established by Alanson 
Slaughter at Wallkill, N.Y., in 1861. 



Merchant's Vigilance Association formed in 
1842 by importers and commission houses in 
New York City. They distributed reports pre- 
pared by Sheldon P. Church. William C. Du- 
senbury, who later formed the Mercantile 
Agency of Woodward & Dusenbury, was the 

CREDIT REPORT BOOK was prepared by 
Sheldon P. Church and published anonymously 
in 1844 at New York City. It was distributed 
to subscribers only and contained commercial 
information about merchants in southern and 
mid- western states. 


CREDIT UNION ACT. See Federal credit 
union act 


founded by Alphonse Desjardins at Manchester, 
N.H., on December 16, 1908. It was known 
as "La Caisse Populaire Ste. Marie" and was 
chartered April 6, 1909. Ninety-nine per cent 
of the depositors were French. (Edson Leone 
Whitney Cooperative Credit Societies, Credit 
Unions in American and Foreign Countries) 

CREDIT UNION LAW was sponsored by 
Pierre Jay, first bank commissioner of Massa- 
chusetts, and was passed by the Massachusetts 
legislature. It was approved May 21, 1909, by 
Governor Eben Sumner Draper. (Chapter 419 
Acts of 1909 Massachusetts) 

CREMATION was that of Henry Laurens 
who was born in Charleston, S.C., in 1724 and 
died on December 8, 1792. He was a staunch 
patriot, and after the Revolutionary War be- 
came one of the ministers to make arrange- 
ments for peace. His will read as follows : "I 
solemnly enjoin it upon my son as an indis- 
pensable duty that, as soon as he conveniently 
can after my decease, he cause my body to be 
wrapped in twelve yards of tow cloth, and 
burnt until it is entirely consumed, and then, 
collecting my ashes, deposit them wherever he 
may see proper." (Cobb Quarter Century of 
Cremation in North America) 

CREMATORY was erected by Francis 
Julius Lc Moyne on his own grounds at Wash- 
ington, Pa., in 1876. It was the first and the 
only crematory in the United States until 1884. 
The first incineration was of the body of Baron 
Joseph Henry Louis de Palm on December 6, 
1876. Le Moyne died of diabetes on October 14, 
1879, and two days later was cremated in his 
own crematory. (Howard Atwood Kelly & 
Walter Lincoln Burrage Dictionary of Ameri- 
can Medical Biographies) 

Crematory (state) was authorized by Chap- 
ter 341 of New York State on May 21, 1888, 
when $20,000 was appropriated to build and 
equip a crematory on Swinburne Island in New 
York harbor. It was built by Dr. Miles Lewis 
Davis of Lancaster, Pa. In 1889, those buried 
at the Quarantine cemetery (Scquine's Point) 
were disinterred and cremated. (New York 
Quarantine Commissioners Annual Report 

CREPE was produced in France in 1912 
and was introduced into New York City in 
the same year by Haas Bros., who registered 
the name "Crepe Georgette" in the United 
States Patent Office on December 30th, 1913, 
and commenced its production in the United 


Cricket club was the Boston Cricket Club 

founded in 1809 at Boston, Mass. The first 
president was Andrew Allen. 




Cricket club to own its own clubhouse 

was the Germantown Cricket Club which in 
1854 occupied "Belfield," the home of William 
Wister, at Germantown, Pa. (Site and Relic 
Society of Germantowwn Reports) 

Cricket game played by a college team is 

claimed to have been at Haverford College, 
Haverford, Pa. The game was introduced in 
1836 by William Carvill, the gardener. The 
bats and balls were of home manufacture. 

Cricket match was held in New York City, 
on the site of Fulton Market, on May 1, 1751, 
between the Londoners and the New Yorkers. 
The New Yorkers made 80 and 86 and the 
Londoners 43 and 47. Cricket was played at 
the same site five years earlier between local 
teams. (William Rotch Wister Some Rem- 
iniscences of Cricket in Philadelphia Before 

International cricket tournament was held 
October 3, 4, 5, 1859 at Iloboken, N.J., between 
the All-England team, captained by George 
Parr, arid the St. George's Cricket Club of 
New York, captained by J. Wisden. The 
American team was weak at bat and the Eng- 
lish team won in one inning and sixty-four 
runs A second game was played October 10, 
1859, at Philadelphia, Pa., the English winning 
by seven wickets. The English team played 
two games in the United States and two in 
Canada. (Henry Chadwick American Cricket 


Crime prevention commission for inter- 
state cooperation was the New Jersey Com- 
mission on Interstate Cooperation established 
by Senate Joint Resolution No. 3 introduced 
and sponsored by Senator Joseph Gustave Wol- 
ber. The joint resolution was passed and signed 
March 12, 1035, by Governor Harold Giles 
Hoffman and the commission was immediately 
organized with Judge Richard Hartshorne as 
the first chairman. The commission consisted 
of fifteen members, five each appointed by the 
Senate, the Assembly, and the Governor. The 
commission was responsible for developing co- 
operation between states on various problems 
such as crime control, motor vehicles, conflict- 
ing taxation, labor problems, agriculture, etc. 

Interstate crime pact was effected between 
New York and New Jersey and signed Sep- 
tember 16, 1833, at New York City by Ben- 
jamin Franklin Butler, Peter Augustus Jay, 
Henry Seymour, Theodore Frelinghuysen, 
James Parker and Lucius Quintius Cincinnatus 
Elmer. Article six related to criminal process 
for New Jersey and article seven for New 
York. The New Jersey legislature ratified 
the pact on February 26, 1834, and New York 
on February 5, 1834. The pact was ratified 
by act of Congress, June 28, 1834. (U.S. Laws 
1834-Chapter 126) 


National conference on crime was held 
October 11-12, 1935, at Trenton, N.J., with a 
roster of official delegates from forty-one 
states and from the Federal Government. Its 
purpose was to develop reciprocal legislation and 
interstate compacts between states and to curb 
crime throughout the country. The conference 
developed a permanent organization composed 
of one official representative from each state 
in the union and one from the Federal Gov- 
ernment for the purpose of carrying out the 
recommendations of the conference. 


Hospital for crippled children. See Hospi- 

Kindergarten for crippled children was 

opened at the Alta Settlement House, Cleve- 
land, Ohio in 1900. 

Orthopaedic hospital. Sec Hospital 

Private school for cripples was planned in 
1861 by Miss Cornelia and Dr. James Knight 
It was opened May 1, 1863, at the Hospital for 
the Rupinred and Crippled, New York City, 
under the auspices of the New York Society 
for the Relief of the Ruptured and Crippled, 
incorporated March 27, 1863. (Fenwick 
Bcekman Hospital for the Ruptured and Crip- 

Public school for cripples was the Tilden 
School, Chicago, 111., opened in 1900 with Mrs. 
Kimna Tla^kell as teacher. A horsedrawn 
wagon was used to transport the children. 

CROPS. See Agriculture 

CROQUET LEAGUE was the National 
Croquet League, organized February 12, 1880, 
at Philadelphia, Pa. The first president was 
George Washington Johnson of the Lemon 
Hill Croquet Club. David Kvans of the Penn- 
sylvania Croquet Club was elected secretary and 
treasurer. Representatives from eighteen clubs 
attended to standardise the game. Wickets 
were reduced in size and the balls reduced in 

CROSSING GATE (railroad). See Railroad 

crossing gale patent 

CROSSWORD PUZZLE was prepared by 
Arthur Winn and was published in the supple- 
ment of the New York (Sunday) World of 
December 21, 1013. 


Plaza Cross Word Puzzle Book published by 
Simon and Schuster, Inc., New York City, No- 
vember 5, 1024. It was edited by Albert (Pros- 
per) Buranclli and H. V. Crosby and contained 
fifty puzzles. 

CROUP REPORT. See Medical book 
CRUSHER (stone). See Stone crusher 




tionary to enable any two persons to maintain 
a correspondence with a secrecy, which is im- 
possible for any other person to discover, a 
48-page pamphlet published anonymously in 
1805 at Hartford, Conn. (James D. Volts and 
David Shulman A Bibliography of Cryptog- 


Wouves' A Syllabical and Stegano graphical 
Table, a chart 27 x 19% inches, with a list of 
syllables and words in English and French in- 
tended for secret correspondence. It contained 
62 alphabetical columns, 6138 two-letter com- 
binations, numbered from 1 to 99 so that words 
could be converted into numerical figures. It 
had two title pages, one in English and one 
in French and was published in 1797 by Ben- 
jamin Franklin Bache at Philadelphia, Pa. 

tal chandelier 

LY. See Book index 

CURB EXCHANGE. See Brokerage 

CURFEW BELL was introduced by Wil- 
helm Kieft, the third governor of New Neth- 
erlands (New York). Tn 1638 he instituted 
the custom of ringing the church bell nightly 
at nine o'clock to announce the hour of rest- 
ing; also every morning and evening to call 
persons to and from labor, and on Thursdays 
to summon prisoners to court. (Edmund Bailey 
O'Callaghan History of New Netherland, or 
New York Under the Dutch) 

CURLING CLUB was the Orchard Lake 
Curling Club organized in the winter of 1831- 
32, near the present site of Pontiac, Mich. 
Lacking genuine curling stones, improvised 
wooden blocks sawed from hickory and shaped 
with axe and chisel were used. (7. William- 
son Curling in Detroit and Vicinity) 


Indoors curling rink devoted exclusively 
to curling was the Country Club, Brookline, 
Mass., opened December 19, 1920. (Frederic 
Curtiss and John Heard The Country Club 




CUSTOMHOUSE in colonial America was 
established in Yorktown, Va. It was built about 
1706 by Richard Ambler who occupied it as 
"Collector of Ports for Yorktown in 1720." 
At this period Yorktown was the port of entry 
for New York, Philadelphia and other north- 
ern cities. A tombstone in Hampton, Va., badly 
obliterated but decipherable reads "Peter Hey- 
man, Collector of his Majesty's custom, died 
April 29, 1700." He is presumed to have been 
one of the early collectors of customs at York- 


town. (Records in Bureau of Customs. Treas- 
ury Dept. Wash, D.C.) 



CUT GLASS. See Glass 


Cutlery factory of importance was the 
Green River Works of John Russell and 
Company, Greenfield, Mass., established about 
1833 for the manufacture of chisels and table 
cutlery. It developed into the J. Russell Cut- 
lery Company and had a branch office in New 
York City in 1840. (Francis McGce Thomp- 
son History of Greenfield, Mass.) 

Cutlery factory for the manufacture of 
pocket cutlery was started at Lakeville, 
Conn., by the Holley Manufacturing Com- 
pany in 1845. 

CUTLERY SHEARS were made at 
Elizabethport, N.J. in 1825 by Rochus Heinisch. 

CYANAMIDE commercial production was 
undertaken by the American Cyanamid Com- 
pany of New York City, at their factory at 
Niagara Falls, Ontario, Canada, on August 16, 

CYCLOTRON. See Physics 

CHINE. See Paper machinery 


Printing press 

COLOR. See Photograph 



DAGUERREOTYPE. See Photograph 

dustry bureau (U.S.) 

DAIRY LEGISLATION (state) was en- 
acted by Massachusetts, "an act to punish 
fraud by the sale of adulterated milk," chap- 
ter 222, signed May 30, 1856, by Governor 
Henry Joseph Gardner. 

DAIRY SCHOOL of collegiate rank with an 
organized course was offered by the College of 
Agriculture, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 
Wis., opened January 3, 1890, to supplement 
courses in testing milk and farm churning. The 
first instructor in charge of dairying was Pro- 
fessor John Wright Decker. The first year 
the organized course was attended by only two 
students, while the following year seventy reg- 
istered from nine states and Canada. Dairy 




certificates were awarded to those who passed 
the full course and had been in practical charge 
of a creamery or cheese factory for two sea- 
sons of not less than seven months each, one 
of which must follow the period of completing 
the course. 

ricultural society 


Needle-type dam was constructed in 1900 
under the supervision of B. F. Thomas at 
Louisa, Ky. It is located on the Levisa Fork 
of the Big Sandy River, just below the junc- 
tion of Tug River. This needle dam was built 
from the West Virginia side to the Kentucky 
side and creates a pool some forty miles long. 

Rock-filled dam was built at Castlewood, 
Colo., for the Denver Land and Water Com- 
pany, and opened in November 1890. The up- 
stream and downstream faces of the dam were 
built of dry or mortar rubble masonry. The 
core of the dam consisted of loosely dumped 
rock. The maximum height of the dam above 
the valley floor was about 70 feet, and the 
length about 600 feet. There was a spillway, 
located near the center of the darn, consisting 
of an opening 4 feet deep and 100 feet long. 
The outlets through the structure consisted of 
8 twelve-inch castiron pipes, placed in pairs, 
at four different elevations, with valves in a 
chamber built inside the dam. The reservoir 
capacity was about 3,400 acre feet. 

Steel dam was the Ash Fork Dam in John- 
son Canyon, four miles east of Ash Fork, 
Ariz., built in 1898 by the Atchison, Topeka 
and Santa Fe Railway Company. It is built of 
steel with masonry abutments. The west 
abutment is 84 feet long, 16 feet high. The 
steel portion is 184 feet long. Height of the 
spillway crest above present reservoir bottom 
is 30 feet; lowest bedrock to spillway crest is 
46 feet ; width of canyon at stream bed is 40 
feet; top of dam (exclusive of spillway) is 
300 feet. Water spills over the crest of the 
dam are designed as an overflow weir. The 
capacity of this reservoir at spillway crest is 
96.7 acre feet. Area of surface at spillway 
crest is 7.1 acres. This canyon drains about 
thirty square miles, water flow is intermittent 
in the stream bed. (Edward Wegmann The 
Design and Construction of Dams) 

DANCE COURSE with collegiate credit was 
approved November 11, 1926, by the Board of 
Regents, and offered in the Department of 
Physical Education of Women, University of 
Wisconsin, Madison, Wis. Miss Margaret 
Newell H'Doubler (Mrs. Wayne Claxton) was 
appointed chairman of the course known as the 
dance major. The department offered work in 
the dance in the summer of 1917 without colle- 
giate credit. 

DANGER SIGNAL (C.Q.D.). See Radio 
danger signal 

nis match 


DAYLIGHT SAVING, sponsored by the 
National Daylight Saving Association, was put 
into operation in the United States on Easter 
Sunday, March 31, 1918, when clocks were set 
one hour ahead. The measure was introduced 
by Senator William Musgravc Calder of New 
York on April 17, 1917 but was defeated. It 
was later passed without a roll call on June 27, 



National social organization for the hard 
of hearing was the American Association 
for the Hard of Hearing formed February 27, 

1919, at New York City. The first annual 
meeting was held at New York City March 12, 

1920. The name was changed to the American 
Society for the Hard of Hearing on June 5, 
1935, at a meeting held in Cincinnati, Ohio. 


Church services for the deaf were held by 
Reverend Thomas Gallaudet, an Episcopal 
priest, October 3, 1852, in the small chapel of 
New York University, New York City. Oral 
services were held in the morning, sign serv- 
ices in the afternoon. On September 11, 1854, 
St. Ann's Church for Deaf-Mutes was incorpo- 
rated and property purchased in 1859. The first 
services in the new church building were held 
August 7, 1859. {Thomas Gallaudet Sermon 
preached at the 25th Anniversary Oct. 7, 

Ordained deaf clergyman was the Rever- 
end Henry Winter Syle, a deacon in 1876 and 
a priest in 1883. He founded All Soul's Church 
for the Deaf, Philadelphia, Pa., in 1885. 

Prayers in the sign language of the deaf 

were offered in 1817 at the American Institut- 
ion for the Deaf, Hartford, Conn., by Rever- 
end Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, a Congrega- 
tional clergyman. 


Electrical hearing aid produced commer- 
cially was the Acousticon, invented by Miller 
Reese Hutchinson of New York City in 1901. 
On April 27, 1880, Francis D. Clarke and M. 
G Foster secured patent No. 226,902 on a 
"device for aiding the deaf to hear" which 
made its own electricity and operated by bone 

Hearing aid of interest other than ear 
trumpets was the Audiphone, a fan-like device 
held against the teeth, patented September 23, 
1879, by Richard S. Rhodes of River Park, 
111. (No. 219,828). 

MENT). See Lip reading tournament 


Institution in the world for the higher 
education of the deaf was the National Deaf 
Mute College, Washington, D.C., a department 




DE AFSC H O OL Continued 
of the Columbia Institution for the Instruc- 
tion of the Deaf, Dumb, and Blind, incorpor- 
ated February 16, 1857 (11 Stat.L.161). On 
April 8, 1864 (13 Stat.L.45) the Columbia In- 
stitution for the Deaf was authorized by a spe- 
cial act of Congress to confer degrees. The 
first degree was an honorary Master of Arts 
conferred June 1864. The first graduate re- 
ceived his diploma in 1866. The name of the 
institution was changed to the Columbia In- 
stitution for the Deaf, as the education of the 
blind was transferred elsewhere. The name of 
the advanced department was changed in 1894 
to Gallaudet College in honor of Thomas Hop- 
kins Gallaudet, who was the first principal of 
the first school for the deaf in America. Dr. 
Edward Miner Gallaudet served as president 
of Gallaudet College from 1864 to 1910. (Henry 
Winter Syle a Biographical Sketch of Thomas 
Hopkins Gallaudet) 

Instruction for the deaf was given by the 
Rev. John Stanford, Chaplain to the Humane 
and Criminal Institutions, in 1807 in the Alms- 
house, New York City. This continued for 
about a year. Ten years later a meeting was 
held at his home to organize the New York 
Institution for the Deaf, now the New York 
School for the Deaf, which opened in 1818. 
(Fred de Land The Story of Lip Reading) 

Lip reading instruction for the deaf was 

given by Sarah Warren Keeler, a teacher at the 
Institution for the Improved Instruction of 
Deaf Mutes, at New York City, who adver- 
tised lip-reading lessons for adults in 1882. 
She lectured on the subject in 1884 and pub- 
lished her method in 1894. 

Lip reading school for adults (successful) 
was established by Lillie Eginton Warren 
in 1890 at New York City. In 1895, she 
published Defective Speech and Deafness, a 
116-page book, and on April 28, 1903, ob- 
tained patent No. 726,484 on a "means for 
teaching of the facial expressions which oc- 
cur in speaking." 

Lip reading tournament. See Lip reading 

Lip reading was first referred to in print 
in Dr. William Thornton's essay On the Mode 
of Teaching the Deaf, or Surd, and Conse- 
quently Dumb, to Speak which appeared in 
the Transactions of the American Philosoph- 
ical Society, Philadelphia, 1793. 

Oral instruction for the deaf (known as 
Visible Speech) was used by the Horace Mann 
School in Boston, Mass., in 1871. Alexander 
Graham Bell instructed the teachers of this 
school in the system which his father Alex- 
ander Melville Bell, was advocating. Visible 
speech was phonetic writing invented by Alex- 
ander Melville Bell to show graphically any 
sound made by the human voice, and used to 
facilitate pronunciation of foreign languages. 
Oral instruction was used in England in the 
eighteenth century. In appreciation of his 


services the Boston School Committee provided 
a fund of $500 to pay for the services of 
Alexander Graham Bell during the spring of 

Oral school for the deaf (still existing) 

was the Clarke School for the Deaf which 
was founded in 1867 at Northampton, Mass. 
The nucleus of this school was a small ex- 
perimental school at Chelmsford, Mass., found- 
ed by Miss Harriet Rogers in 1865. Miss 
Rogers was appointed principal. John Clarke, 
philanthropist gave $50,000. An oral school was 
started at Cobbs, Chesterfield County, Va., in 
1815 by Colonel William Boiling with John 
Braidwood as instructor, but it lasted only two 

School for the deaf (permanent) was the 
Connecticut Asylum for the Education and 
Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons, Hart- 
ford, Conn., which opened April 15, 1817, with 
seven pupils. It was incorporated May 1816. 
A grant of $5,000 was made by the Connecti- 
cut legislature October 1816. On May 5, 1819, 
the name was changed to the American Asy- 
lum. The school was financed through the 
generosity of a few men, one of whom, Dr. 
Mason Fitch Cogswell, had a deaf daughter, 
Alice. Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet, the first 
principal, inaugurated the system of teaching 
with the collaboration of the Frenchman, Lau- 
rent Gere. The sign language and finger 
spelling were the only means of communica- 
tion. (Henry Winter Sylc- -A Biographical 
Sketch of Rm. Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet) 


Magazine for deaf students was the Deaf 
Mute Casket, a four-page monthly printed in 
a school for the deaf by the deaf and edited 
by William D. Cooke. It was published in 
1851 by the State School for the Blind and 
the Deaf at Raleigh, N.C. 


Visible and oral communication by the 
deaf over distance was accomplished Octo- 
ber 13, 1040, when Miss Bertha O'Donnell and 
Miss Adele Costa conversed in sign language 
through two-way television sets at W2USA, 
World's Fair Amateur Television Booth and 
W2IIID, 220 Fast 42nd Street, New York City, 
eight miles away. 

DEAN OF MEN. See College 


SCHOOL. See College 

DEATH PENALTY. See Capital punish- 

PING. See Kidnapping 

DEBATE (radio). See Radio broadcast 





Public debt of the United States to ex- 
ceed $100,000,000 was $127,334,933.74 on Jan- 
uary 1, 1816. The first to exceed $500,000,000 
was $524,176,412.13 on Tuly 1, 1862. The first 
to exceed $1,000,000,000 was $1,119,772,138.63 
on July 1, 1863. (Treasury Department-Bu- 
reau of Statistics-Public Debt of the United 
States 1791-1896) 

empting debtors from prison on processes 
issuing from a Unifcd States court amounting 
to less than thirty dollars was "an act for the 
relief of persons imprisoned for debt" passed 
May 28, 1796 (1 Stat.L482). On February 
28, 1839 (5 Stall, 321), an act of Congress 
prohibited imprisonment for debt by a United 
States court in states where imprisonment for 
debt had been abolished. 


DEBTORS PRISON to be abolished by 
law was in Kentucky which passed "an act to 
abolish imprisonment for debt" passed Decem- 
ber 17, 1821 by Kentucky. It repealed all laws 
authorizing capias ad satisfaciendum. (Chapter 
229 Acts passed at first session thirtieth Gen- 
eral Assembly, Frankfort, Ky.) 

DECALCOMANIAS or transfer papers 
were imported in 1862 and used as playthings. 
The first commercial production for decorating 
buggies, sleighs, bicycles, sewing machines, etc. 
was undertaken at Philadelphia, Pa., in 1890 
by Thomas Burke who established the National 
Decalcomania Company. The company was 
incorporated in 1922 and is still manufacturing 
on the original site. 




Declaration of Independence by a colony 

was made on April 12, 1776, when the Provin- 
cial Congress in session at Halifax, N.C., by 
unanimous action empowered the delegates to 
the Continental Congress to concur with dele- 
gates of other provinces to declare indepen- 
dence from Great Britain. The Mecklenburg 
(N.C.) Declaration of Independence had been 
previously adopted on May 20, 1775 at Char- 
lotte, Mecklenburg County, N.C., by citizens 
who formally declared independence from Great 
Britain. Less drastic actions of similar nature 
were advocated by Patrick Henry and others. 
(William Henry Hoy I The Mecklenburg Dec- 
laration of Independence. Also see conflicting 
statement by James Hall Moore Defense of 
the Mecklenburg Declaration of Independence) 

Declaration of Independence was for- 
mally made on July 12, 1774, in the First 
Presbyterian Church at Carlisle, Pa., at a meet- 
ing of freeholders and freemen from the sev- 
eral townships. Various resolutions were passed. 


Rev. John Montgomery presided. (Conway 
Phelps Wing History of the First Presby- 
terian Church of Carlisle) 

Declaration of Independence was first or- 
dered "to be fairly engrossed on parch- 
ment" on July 19, 1776, and was signed in 
Philadelphia on August 2, 1776, by fifty mem- 
bers of the original fifty-six who voted for 
its adoption. The other six signed at various 
later times. The last signer was Thomas Mc- 
Kean, who originally voted for it, but had left 
Philadelphia to join the army and was per- 
mitted to sign as late as 1781. 

Declaration of independence was first 
published in a newspaper on July 6, 1776. 
It was reprinted in Vol. IT, no.228, of the 
Pennsylvania Evening Post of Philadelphia, 

Declaration of Independence was first 
read publicly on July 8, 1776, when Colonel 
John Nixon, delegated by the High Sheriff of 
Philadelphia, read it in the old State House 
yard (Independence Square). The "Liberty 
Bell" with the prophetic inscription "Proclaim 
liberty throughout all the land unto all the in- 
habitants thereof" was rung to call the citizens 
together to hear the reading. (Harold Donald- 
son Eberlein and Cortland Van Dyke Hubbard 
Diary of Independence Hall) 

Declaration of Independence was signed 

first by John Hancock of Massachusetts, 
President of the Continental Congress, on 
July 4, 1776, in Philadelphia, Pa. It was also 
signed by Charles Thomson, secretary. (John 
Sanderson Biography of the Signers of the 
Declaration of Independence) 

on October 14, 1774, and was known as the 
"Declaration and Resolves of the First Conti- 
nental Congress." It agreed, "That they are 
entitled to life, liberty and property; and they 
have never ceded to any foreign power whatso- 
ever a right to dispose of either without their 
consent." It was enacted at Philadelphia, Pa. 
(Journals of the Continental Congress 1774- 



defense command (U.S.) 


American awarded honorary degrees from 
three of England's leading universities was 

Ambassador Robert Worth Bingham, recipient 
of an honorary LL.D. (Doctor of Laws) from 
London University on November 25, 1933, and 
from Cambridge University on October 22, 
1934; and an honorary Litt.D. (Doctor of 
Literature) from Oxford University on No- 
vember 21, 1936. 




DEGREES Academic and Honorary- 
Co ntinued 

Bachelor of Music degree was granted 
June 7, 1876 by Boston University, Boston, 
Mass., to Charles Henry Morse who completed 
a course designed to "afford to graduates of 
existing musical conservatories and schools, the 
advantages of higher courses of instruction and 
training extending thru periods of from three 
to five years." (Boston University Fourth 
Annual Report) 

Degree awarded a dummy was conferred 
August 28, 1938, by the School of Speech of 
Northwestern University, Evanslon, 111., on 
Charlie McCarthy during the regular Edgar 
Bergen-Charlie McCarthy hour in the Chicago 
studios of the National Broadcasting Company. 
The degree of "Master of Innuendo and Snap- 
py Comeback" was conferred by the dean, 
Ralph Dennis. 

Degree conferred by radio was granted 
June 9, 1925, by the State University of Iowa, 
Iowa City, Iowa, to Clifford L. Licleen of Bur- 
lington, Iowa, which broadcast the conferring 
of his B.A. degree. He was forced to leave the 
university in 1922 because of illness and com- 
pleted his work through broadcasts given by 
Station WOT, Ames, Iowa. 

Doctor of Laws honorary degree was 

awarded July 21, 1773, by Harvard College, 
Cambridge, Mass., to John Winthrop, Doctor 
of Laws pro mcritas (Henry Herbert Edes 
John Winthrop, the first recipient from Har- 
vard College of the Degree of Doctor of 

Doctor of Medicine. See Physician 

Doctor of Military Science degree was 

created by New York University, New York 
City, and conferred upon General John Joseph 
Pershing, April 11, 1930, the first recipient of 
such a degree in the United States. 

Doctor of Music degree was conferred 
July 24, 1849 by Georgetown University, 
Washington, B.C., on Professor Henry Diel- 
man of Mount St. Mary's, Emmittsburg, Md. 
The degree was awarded "Honoris Causa" at 
exercises attended by President Zachary Taylor. 
(John Gilmary Shea Memorial of the First 
Centenary of the Georgetown College) 

Doctor of Philosophy degree was awarded 
in 1861 by Yale University, New Haven, Conn., 
to three graduates, Eugene Schuyler, James 
Morris Whiton and Arthur Williams Wright. 
(Paul MonroeCyclopedia of Education) 

Doctor of Philosophy degree awarded to 
a Negro was granted to Edward Alexander 
Bouchet by Yale University, New Haven, 
Conn., in 1876. He was also the first Negro to 
be elected to Phi Beta Kappa, the national scho- 
lastic fraternity. He was graduated from Yale 
in 1874. His thesis was Measuring Refractive 


Doctor of Philosophy degree awarded to 
a woman was granted by Boston University, 
Boston, Mass., in 1877 to Helen Magill (Mrs. 
Andrew Jackson White). She received her 
A.B. degree in 1875 from Swarthmore. (In- 
stitute of Women's Professional Relations. 
Greensboro, N.C.) 

Doctor of Philosophy in Accounting de- 
gree was conferred June 12, 1939, on John 
Wood McMahan at the annual commencement 
of the University of Illinois, Urbana, 111. 

Doctor of Sacred Theology degree was 

granted to Increase Mather in 1692 by Har- 
vard College, Cambridge, Mass. Two tutors 
were awarded the Bachelor of Sacred Theology 
degree. _A! 

Honorary degree awarded a Negress by a 

southern white college was a Doctor of Hu- 
manities awarded Mrs. Mary McLeod Bethune 
on February 21, 1949, by Rollins College, Win- 
ter Park, Fia. 

Honorary degree granted George Wash- 
ington was "Doctor of Laws, the Law of 
Nature and Nations, and the Civil Law" con- 
ferred by the Governing Board of Harvard 
College, A.pril 3, 1776, at Cambridge, Mass. 
(Publications. Colonial Society of Massachu- 
setts. Vol. 7) 

Husband and wife awarded honorary de- 
grees by an American university were Mr. 
and Mrs. John Nance Garner, recipients 
of Doctor of Laws degrees from Baylor Uni- 
versity, Waco, Tex., on November 21, 1936. 

Law degree of LL.M. was conferred June 
29, 1864, at the 110th annual commencement 
of Columbia University, held at the Acad- 
emy of Music, New York City. It was also 
granted in 1865, but not again (by Colum- 
bia University) until 1894 after which it was 
conferred at intervals. During the last few 
years, however, it has been conferred regu- 
larly. (Alfred Z ant singer Reed Training 
for the Public Profession of Law) 

Master of Hebrew Literature degree 
awarded a woman was granted May 28, 1939, 

by the Jewish Institute of Religion, New York 
City, to Helen Hadassah Levinthal, the first 
Jewish woman to graduate from a recognized 
theological college, having completed the full 
rabbinical course. 





TION was held in May 1832 at Baltimore, 
Md., under the name, "Republican Delegates 
from the Several States." While the present 




Democratic Party was officially known at that 
time as the "Republican Party" a name which 
had come down from the time of Jefferson 
it was becoming popularly known as the Demo- 
cratic Republican Party. In the early national 
conventions "Democrat" and "Republican" were 
often used interchangeably but in 1840 the 
word "Republican" was dropped entirely and 
the official title became the "Democratic Na- 
tional Convention," although even then speak- 
ers employed the name "Republican" when re- 
ferring to what is now the Democratic Party. 
(Frank Richardson Kent The Democratic 

Woman state committee chairman. See 

Woman woman state committee chairman 


De MOLAY, ORDER OF. See Freemasons 

RIM. See Automobile tire 


Book for dental hygienists (text) was 

Month Hygiene compiled and edited by Dr. 
Alfred Civilion Fones and associate editors, 
Robert Hallock Wright Strang and Edward 
Cameron Kirk. It was a course of instruction 
for dental hygienists and consisted of 530 
pages with 278 illustrations and 7 plates. It 
was published by Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia 
and New York, in 1916 

Book on dental surgery was Dr. James 
Edmund Garretson's, A Treatise on the Dis- 
eases and Surgery of the Mouth, Jaws and 
Associate Parts, a 700-page book published 
in 1869 by J. B. Lippincott & Co., Philadelphia, 

Book on dental technic of value was The 
Manual of Operative Technics A Practical 
Treatise On the Elements of Operative Den- 
tistry published in Chicago, 111., in 1894 by 
Thomas Edwin Weeks, Professor of Opera- 
tive Dentistry and Dental Anatomy in the Col- 
lege of Dentistry, University of Minnesota, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 

Book on dentistry strictly American, was 
Richard Cort Skinner's A Treatise on the 
Human Teeth, concisely ex-plaining their struc- 
ture and cause of disease and decay, published 
in 1801 by Johnson and Stryker, New York- 
City. It contained twenty-six pages and sold 
for thirty cents. (Fielding Hudson Garrison 
An Introduction to the History of Medicine) 

Book on dentistry to become popular was 

Josiah Foster Flagg's The Family Dentist; 
containing a Brief Description of the structure, 
formation, diseases and treatment of the human 
teeth, printed and published in 1822 at Boston, 
Mass., by Joseph W. Ingraham. It contained 
82 pages. 


Dental textbook was The Dental Art, A 
Practical Treatise on Denial Surgery, 384 
pages, by Chapin Aaron Harris published in 
1839 by Armstrong and Berry, Baltimore, Md. 
It was "revised, modified and greatly enlarged" 
and published in 1845 by Lindsay and Blakiston, 
Philadelphia, Pa., as Principles and Practice of 
Dentistry. Many editions were later published. 

Orthodontia treatise to be printed was An 
Essay On The Importance of Regulating the 
Teeth of Children Before the Fourteenth Year; 
or the Period of Life when the Second Set of 
Teeth Become Perfectly Developed by Soly- 
man Brown, M.D. which was printed in 1841 
in New York City. (Bernhard Wolf Wein- 
berger Orthodontics) 

DENTAL CHAIR which provided such nec- 
essary conveniences as a head rest, changes 
in height and position of the seat and back, 
was designed by M. Waldo Hanchett of Syra- 
cuse, N.Y., who received patent No. 5, 711, 
on August 15, 1848. (History of Denial and 
Oral Science in America) 

posed July 28, 1865 by Dr. John Allen at the 
Fifth Annual Convention of the American 
Dental Association held at Chicago, 111. 

DENTAL CORPS (Military) 

Admiral in the Dental Corps (U.S. Navy) 

was Dr. Alexander Gordon Lyle appointed a 
rear admiral on March 13, 1943. 

Army Dental Corps Major General was 

Major General Robert H. Mills, Director of 
the Dental Division, whose appointment was 
made possible by War Department, Special Or- 
ders No.280, October 7, 1943. The date of 
his rank was September 17, 1943. 

Dental Corps of the U.S. Army was au- 
thorized by the Army Reorganization Act, Feb- 
ruary 2, 1901 (31 Stat.L.752), "an act to in- 
crease the efficiency of the permanent military 
establishments of the United States". It 
authorized the employment of contract dental 
surgeons "not to exceed one to every 30,000 
of said army, and not to exceed 30 in all." The 
first three contract dental surgeons were Drs. 
John Sayre Marshall, Robert T. Oliver and 
Robert W. Morgan, named by the Surgeon 
General on February 11, 1901. 

Dental corps commissions were authorized 
by act of Congress of March 3, 1911 (36 Stat. 
L.1054) which limited commissions to first 
lieutenant. The act of June 3, 1916 (39 Stat. 
L.I 73) permitted the ranks of captain and 
major; the act of October 6, 1917 (40 Stat.L. 
397) the rank of lieutenant-colonel and colonel; 
the act of January 29, 1938 (52 Stat.L.8) the 
rank of brigadier general for the Director of 
the Dental Division, one of the assistants to 
the Surgeon General. 

Dentist officially employed in the U.S. 
Army was Dr. W. H. Ware, an enlisted man 




DENTAL CORPS (Military) -Continued 
in the Medical Department, who was utilized 
as a dental surgeon by the U.S. Army in the 
Philippine Islands in 1898. 


Dental Dispensary was the City Dispen- 
sary for the Medical Relief of the Poor, New 
York City, which opened February 1, 1791, 
It was incorporated April 8, 1795. Isaac 
Roosevelt was the first president. From Feb- 
ruary 1, 1791, to November 23, 1791, three 
hundred and ten patients were admitted. The 
fee for extractions, filling cavities with silver 
or lead foil was fifty cents; filling cavities 
with gold or a good set of front teeth cost 
a dollar. 


Legislation (state) regarding dental hy- 
gienists was the Public Acts of the State 
of Connecticut passed by the January 1915 
session, Chapter 316, Section 12, and ap- 
proved May 19, 1915. The first examination 
for dental hygienists was given by the State 
Board in June 1918 as no hygienists had ap- 
plied for license prior to that date. 

Legislation (state) regarding dental sur- 
gery was passed December 31, 1841 by Ala- 
bama. It provided that from and after the 
first Monday of December 1842, there should 
be "medical boards of the state to examine 
and to issue a license to applicants to practice 
dental surgery under the same rules and regu- 
lations, and subject to the same restrictions as 
those who apply for license to practice medi- 


Dental journal to be published was The 
American Journal of Dental Science, devoted 
to original articles, reviews of dental publica- 
tions, etc., 24 pages, which made its appearance 
July 1839. The publishing committee consisted 
of Dr. Eleazar Parmly, Dr. Elisha Baker and 
Dr. Solyman Brown. Dr. Chapin Aaron Har- 
ris was the first editor. It was published in 
New York City. 

Orthodontia magazine was the Internation- 
al Journal of Orthodontia edited by Dr. Martin 
Dewey. The first issue was published Janu- 
ary 1915 at St. Louis, Mo., and contained forty- 
four pages. The title was changed to the 
American Journal of Orthodontics and Oral 
Surgery on January 1938. 

Dental assistants and nurses course was 

held by the Ohio College of Dental Surgery, 
Cincinnati, Ohio, from October 3, 1910 to 
May 1, 1911. The tuition fee was $75. The 
course was introduced by Henry Tomlinson 
Smith, the dean. (Ohio College of Dental 
Surgery, 1911-1912 Annual Announcement) 

Dental college was the Baltimore College 
of Dental Surgery, organized at Baltimore, 
Md., 1839 with Chapin Aaron Harris, Horace 
Henry Hayden, Henry Willis Baxley, and 


others on the faculty. The college was incor- 
porated February 1, 1840, and the first degrees 
were conferred March 9, 1841 on Robert Ar- 
thur and R. Covington Mackall. 

Dental hygienists course was inaugurated 
by Dr. Alfred Civilion Fones who established 
the Fones Clinic, Bridgeport, Conn. The 
course started November 17, 1913, with 33 
women, 27 of whom graduated June 5, 1914. 

Dental school permanently established by 
a university, and the first associated with a 
medical school, was the Harvard School of 
Dental Medicine, Boston, Mass., established 
July 17, 1867. The first commencement exer- 
cises were held March 10, 1869. Dr. Nathan 
Cooley Keep was the first dean. 


Dental society of importance was the 
American Society of Dental Surgeons organized 
August 18, 1840 at a meeting held at the Amer- 
ican Hotel, New York City. The first officers 
were Dr. Horace Henry Hayden of Baltimore, 
Md., president; Dr. Josiah Foster Flagg of 
Boston, Mass., Dr. Eleazar Parmly of New 
York City and Dr. Emile B. Gardette, vice 
presidents. The society disbanded in 1856. 
(Journal American Dental Assn. Vol. 27. 
March 1940) 

Dental society (local) was the Society of Sur- 
geon-Dentists of the City and State of New 
York, which was formed December 3, 1834 with 
Dr. Eleazar Parmly as the first president and 
Dr. Solyman Brown as the first corresponding 
secretary. This was a local society as was the 
Dental Association of Western New York. 
(American Journal of Dental Science. Vol. 1) 

Orthodontists society was the American 
Society of Orthodontists founded June 1900 at 
St. Louis, Mo. The first annual meeting wa% 
held June 11, 12, 13, 1<X)1 at St. Louis. Mo.' 
The constitution was adopted June 15, 1901. 
The first president was Dr. Edward Hartley 
Angle of St. Louis, Mo. The society was in- 
corporated February 23, 1917 in Pennsylvania 
and the name changed April 21, 1^37 to the 
American Association of Orthodontists. 


Dentist who was a native-born American 
was Josiah Flagg who, at the age of eight- 
een, practiced dentistry in 1782 in Boston, 
Mass. In 1785 he advertised as follows, "Dr. 
Flagg transplants teeth, cures ulcers and 
eases them from pain without drawing; fas- 
tens those that are loose; mends teeth with 
foil or gold to be as lasting and useful as 
the sound teeth . . . sells, by wholesale and 
retail, dentifrices, tinctures, chew-sticks, 
mastics, teeth and gum brushes, suitable for 
every age, complaint and climate, with direc- 
tions for their use." (Charles Rudolph Ed- 
ward Koch History of Dental Surgery) 

Woman dentist to maintain a dental office 
independently was Dr. Emeline Roberts Jones 
who commenced practice in Danielsonville 




(now Danielson), Conn., in May 1855 as an 
assistant to her husband, Dr. Daniel Albion 
Jones. In 1859, she became his partner and 
in 1864 carried on independently when her hus- 
band died. (James McManns Record of 
Connecticut Dentists) 

Woman dentist to obtain a D.D.S. degree 

from a dental college was Lucy B. Hobbs 
(Taylor) who graduated February 21, 1866, 
from the Ohio College of Dental Surgery, 
Cincinnati, Ohio. She was only required to 
attend one college session because of credits 
allowed for previous practice. (Licenses to 
practice dentistry were not compulsory). She 
was elected a member of the Iowa State Den- 
tal Society on July 1865, the first woman mem- 
ber of a dental society. (Dental Cosmos 
November 1910). 


Amalgam for filling teeth was introduced 
by Messrs. Crawcour and Sons who advertised 
it in the August 12, 1834, New York Com- 
mercial Advertiser as "Royal Mineral Suc- 
cedaneum for filling decayed teeth without the 
slightest pain, heat or pressure." They paid 
little attention to caries and rilled all cavities 
without treatment. Their work was unsatis- 
factory and they were obliged to flee the coun- 

Anaesthetics in dentistry. See Anaesthesia 

Dental assistants and nurses course. See 
Dental school 

Dental association. See Dental Society 
Dental hygienists book. See Dental book 

Dental hygienists course. See Dental 

Gold crown tooth was made by Dr. Wil- 
liam Newton Morrison, corresponding secretary 
of the Missouri State Dental Association, who 
described his process in the May 1869 issue of 
the Missouri Dental Journal. 

Gold inlay was described by William H. 
Taggart, a Chicago dentist, before the New 
York Odontological Society, January 15, 1907. 
He invented the method of casting gold inlays 
by the inverted pattern procedure using the 
ancient principle of the "disappearing core." 
(Dental Cosmos. November 1907) 

Gold used for the filling of dental cavities 
was advocated by Dr. Robert Arthur. In 
1855 he discovered the cohesive property of 
annealed gold foil which practically revolu- 
tionized the dental profession. He described 
it in an article "Sponge Gold" in the Dental 
News Letter of October 1854 published at 
Philadelphia, Pa., and in an 86-page book, A 
Treatise on the Use of Adhesive Gold Foil, 
published in 1857 at Philadelphia. 

Patent for a gold crown was No. 144,182 
granted November 4, 1873, to Dr. John B. 
Beers of San Francisco, Calif., on "artificial 


crowns for teeth." The technique of prepar- 
ing the hollow metal crown or shell is described 
in the September 1880, Denial Cosmos pub- 
lished by S. S. White Dental Manufacturing 
Company, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Patent for artificial teeth was granted on 
March 9, 1822 to Charles M. Graham of New 

Porcelain teeth were introduced about 1785, 
due principally to the efforts of Dr. John 
Greenwood of New York City. He advertised 
"artificial teeth set in so firm (without drawing 
stumps or causing the least pain) as to eat with 
them, and so exact as not to be distinguished 
from natural." Greenwood also invented the 
foot-power drill. One of his patients was 
George Washington. (Dental Items of Interest 
Nov. 1943) 


Education department 

FAIRS. See State department (U.S.) 

ice department 



See Postage stamp 

DEPORTATION was effected by the Plym- 
outh Colony. Thomas Morton, residing at 
Mare Mount, Mass., with a licentious group, 
was deported to England, June 9, 1628, in the 
custody of John Oldham. In addition to a 
general disapproval of his actions, he \\as ac- 
cused of trading guns to the Indians. (Massa- 
chusetts Historical Collections. III. Governor 
Bradford's Letter Book) 


TION. See Federal deposit insurance cor- 



ical book 

DESK with roll top was invented about 
1850 by Abner Cutler who formed the Cutler 
Desk Company of Buffalo, N Y The original 
patent showed the top very similar to the roll 
top of today. Flexible wooden curiums had 
been used previously. Cutler improved upon 
their manufacture by using a strong fabric 
held between an outer row of mouldings and 
an inner row of soft wood sla's, which made 
it possible to operate rolls six feet long and 
four feet wide. 




DESK TELEPHONE. See Telephone 
DETECTIVE. See Police 

DETECTIVE STORY to achieve popularity 
was Edgar Allan Foe's "The Murders in the 
Rue Morgue" published April 1841 in Graham's 
Magazine, Philadelphia, Pa. (Graham's Maga- 
zine. Vol. 18. No. 4) 

DEUTERIUM. See Water heavy water 

ORATORY. See Bacteriology laboratory 



Diamonds in a meteorite were found in 
June 1891 by Dr. George Augustus Koenig, 
professor of mineralogy and geology at the 
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pa., 
while cutting a meteorite found at Canon 
Diablo, Arizona. In various cavities, he found 
small black diamonds of little commercial value 
which cut through polished corundum. (Sci- 
ence July 8, 1892) 

Diamonds in actual rock, peridotite, were 
found in the United States in the matrix at 
Murfreesboro, Pike County, Ark., in 1906. 
(American Institute of Mining Engineers 
Transactions 1909 Vol. 39. George Frederick 
Kunz Diamonds in Arkansas) 

DIATHERMY MACHINE for medical use, 
that was practical, was constructed by Dr. 
Willis Rodney Whitney, director of research 
for the General Electric Company, Schenectady, 
N.Y, in December 1928 Albert B. Page first 
used the set February 19, 1929, at the Ellis 
Hospital, Schenectady, N.Y., and the first pa- 
tient was treated February 23, 1929, by Dr. 
Charles Milton Carpenter. (Science. May 2, 

DICE. See Craps 



Bohemian-American dictionary was the 

Dictionary of Bohemian and English Lan- 
guages, compiled by Karel Jonas and published 
at Racine, Wis., in 1876. It contained 626 
pages. (Fanny S. Stone Racine , Belle City 
of the Lakes} 

Dictionary compiled by a woman was 

The Language of Fashion, edited by Mary 
Brooks Picken, published February 2, 1940, 
in New York City. It contained 8,000 terms 
and 600 illustrations relating to wearing ap- 


Dictionary published in the United States 

was The Royal Standard English Dictionary; 
The First American Dictionary, Carefully Re- 
vised and Corrected, from the Fourth British 
Edition, by William Perry, lecturer in the 
Academy at Edinburgh which was printed in 
1788 at Worcester, Mass., by and for Isaiah 
Thomas. It sold for seven shillings and con- 
tained 596 pages of which p. 73-359 contained 
the dictionary proper and an appendix of 
"Scripture Proper Names." There were 38 
lines to a page, double column, and the defini- 
tions usually consisted of only one line, the 
same line as the word itself. It was dedicated 
to the American Academy of Arts and Sci- 
ences. (The Worcester Magazine. February 

Hebrew dictionary was Clement Clarke 
Moore's A Compendious Lexicon of the He- 
brew Language in two volumes; volume 1, 
containing an explanation of every word which 
occurs in the Psalms with notes; volume 2, 
being a lexicon and grammar of the ^vhole 
language, printed and sold in 1809 by [Isaac] 
Collins and Perkins, New York City. 

Indian-English dictionary A Key into 

the Language of America, or an help to the 
language of the natives in that part of America 
called New England; together with brief e ob- 
servations of the customes, manners and wor- 
ships, etc., of the aforesaid natives, by "Roger 
Williams of Providence in New England." He 
prepared it on shipboard en route to Southamp- 
ton, England, and it was published by Gregory 
Dexter, London, England, in 1643. (James 
Ilrnsl-Roger Williams) 

Law dictionary. See Law dictionary 

Military dictionary was A Military Diction- 
ary, or explanation of the several systems of 
Discipline of different kinds of troops, infan- 
try, artillery and cavalry, the principles of 
fortification and all the modern improvements 
in the science of tactics . . . . , by William 
Duanc, a retired Lieutenant Colonel, published 
in 1810 at Philadelphia, Pa. It contained 748 

Phonetic dictionary was the Phonetic Dic- 
tionary of the English Language adapted to 
the present state of literature and science, with 
pronouncing vocabularies of classical, scrip- 
tural and geographical names, 776 pages, com- 
piled by Daniel S. Smalley and published by 
Longley Brothers, phonetic publishers, Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, in 1855. 

Rhyming dictionary was A Rhyming Dic- 
tionary, containing all the perfect rhymes of 
a different orthography, and allowable rhymes 
of a different sound, throughout the language, 
ivith authorities for the usage of them from 
our best poets, published in 1823 by F. & R. 
Lockwopd, New York City. It was an Amer- 
ican edition of John Walker's A Dictionary 
of the English language answering at once the 




purposes of rhyming, spelling and pronouncing 
on a plan not hitherto attempted, first pub- 
lished in London, England, in 1775. 


Didactics course in a college was offered 
in 1853 as an elective to the sophomore course 
at Antioch College, Yellow Springs, Ohio. The 
college was opened October 5, 1853. Professor 
Rebecca Mann Penncll, in charge of the course, 
was elected to professorship September IS, 


MOTIVE. See Locomotive 




See also 

Aviation Locomotive 

Engine Railroad 

Diesel engine automobile trip was made by 
Clcssie Lyle Cummins of the Cummins Engine 
Company, Columbus, Ind , \vilh a stock model 
engine weighing 1,200 pounds, delivering 50 
h.p. at 1000 r.p.m. with four cyclinders of 
4j/2 x 6 inch bore, installed in a seven-passen- 
ger Packard sedan. He left Indianapolis, Ind., 
January 3, 1030, and arrived at New York City 
January 6, 1930, covering 792 miles at a total 
fuel cost of $1.38. 

Diesel engine speed record (official) was 

made March 20, 1930, by Clessie Lyle Cum- 
mins of the Cummins Engine Company, Co- 
lumbus, Ind., in a Packard roadster chassis 
equipped with a four-cyclinder marine-type 
Diesel engine with a bore and stroke of 4 J / 2 by 
6 inches and piston displacement of 381 5 cubic 
inches. The car was stripped of fenders, wind- 
shield and spare tires and fitted with a fabric 
cover over the driver's compartment. Cum- 
mins averaged 80.398 miles per hour in the 
test at Daytona Beach, Fla 

mobile tractor 

DIME. See Money silver coins 


DIOCESE (Catholic). Sec Catholic diocese 



Ambassador, according to the records of 
the Department of State, was Thomas Francis 
Bayard, who was appointed ambassador ex- 
traordinary and plenipotentiary to Great Brit- 
ain on March 30, 1893. His letter of credence 
was dated April 14, 1893, and he arrived at his 
post on June 10, 1893 and presented his cre- 


dentials on June 22, 1893. He left his post on 
March 17, 1897, and his letter of recall dated 
March 31, 1897 was presented by his suc- 
cessor on April 22, 1897. (Charles Callan Tan- 
sill The Foreign Policy of Thomas F. Bay- 

Ambassador to England was John Adams 
who on June 1, 1785, was introduced by the 
Marquis of Carmarthen to the King of Eng- 
land as ambassador extraordinary from the 
United Slates of America to the Court of Lon- 
don. The first minister plenipotentiary to Eng- 
land was Thomas Pinckney of South Carolina 
who was appointed on January 12, 1792. (Sam- 
uel IVillard John Adams, A Character Sketch) 

Ambassador to the Union of Soviet Social- 
ist Republics was William Christian Bullitt 
who served from November 21, 1933 until Au- 
gust 25, 1936. The first Soviet representative 
to the United States was Alexander Antono- 
vich Tro>anovsky who was accredited as Rus- 
sian ambassador from January 8, 1934 to June 
22, 1938 Recognition of the U.S S.R. was 
effected November 16, 1933 between President 
Franklin Delano Roosevelt and Maksim Mak- 
simovich Litvmov, the People's Commissar for 
Foreign Affairs 

American legation in which a woman as- 
sumed charge was the American Legation 
at Stockholm, Sweden. Miss Frances Eliza- 
beth Willis, Third Secretary of the American 
Legation at Stockholm, assumed charge while 
Minister John Motley Mordiead was on fur- 
lough She became ex-officio American Charge 
d' Affaires ad interim October 12, 1 Q 32, until 
October 29, ]932 Edwin S Crocker, 2d, Sec- 
ond Secretary of the Legation, who had also 
been absent from Stockholm, returned on Octo- 
ber 29, 1 ( >32, and succeeded Miss Willis as 
Charge d' Affaires ad interim 

Chief executive-elect of a foreign country 

to serve in a diplomatic position at Washing- 
ton, D C., was Dr. Enrique Olaya Hererra who 
arrived April 20, 1930 lie was sworn in Au- 
gust 7, 1930 as President of Colombia. Pre- 
viously, he had served as Colombian Ambas- 
sador to the United States. 

Consul general was appointed by authority 
of the Act of August 18, 1856 (11 StatL.57), 
which passed the House on August 15th and 
the Senate on August 16th The act went into 
effect August 18, 1856. 

Consul to California was Thomas Oliver 
Larkm who was appointed consul to Monterey, 
Calif., on May 1. 1843 and was appointed 
special agent on October 17, 1845. Mis resig- 
nation from the position of consul was dated 
August 17, 1846 His successor as special 
agent was appointed on August 2, 1849. (Reu- 
ben Lukens Underhill--From Cowhides to 
Golden Fleece) 

Consul under the Department of State 

was Major Samuel Shaw of Massachusetts. 





Having been appointed Consul to Canton, 

China on January 1, 1786, prior to the ratifica- 
tion of the Constitution, he was nominated on 
February 9, 1700, and confirmed the following 
day as consul uf the United States of America 
at Canton, China. (Tracy Hollingsworth Lay 
--The Poreign Service of the U.S.) 

Consul to die in service was Colonel Wil- 
liam Palfrey, Paymaster General of the Con- 
lineuial Armies, who was elected consul at 
Paris, France, on November 4, 1780, by the 
Continental Congress at a salary of $1,500 a 
year. He received his commission November 
0, 1780. lie sailed for his post in France on 
the "Shillala," an armed ship of sixteen guns, 
which stopped en route at the port of Wil- 
mington, Del., on December 23, 1780, and was 
lost at sea after it passed the Delaware capes. 
(Jarcd Sparks -The Library of American Bi- 
ography, Vol. 7- -2nd Scries) 

Consular officer detailed for duty in the 
Department of Foreign Affairs of the Conti- 
nental government was Thomas Barclay of 
Pennsylvania who was appointed vice consul 
to Paris, France, on January 21, 1781, at a 
salary of $1,000 a year. Upon the formation 
of the United States government, President 
George Washington appointed him consul to 
Morocco on March 31, 1791. (American For- 
eign Service Journal-- -April 1929) 

Consuls of the United States appointed 
after the adoption of the constitution were 

Joseph Femvick of Maryland; Nathaniel Bar- 
rett, Sylvanus Bourne, Burrell Carries and Wil- 
liam Knox of Massachusetts; John Marsden 
Pintard of New York; and James Maury and 
Fulwar Skipwith of Virginia, all of whom 
were appointed June 7, 1790. 

Foreign service committee was formed 
November 29, 1775, when the Continental Con- 
gress voted "that a committee of five be ap- 
pointed for the sole purpose of corresponding 

with our friends in Tire.it Britain, Ireland and 
oilier parts of the world." The members of 
this secret Committee of Correspondence were 
William Samuel Johnson of Connecticut, John 
Jay of New York, John Dickinson of Pennsyl- 
vania, Benjamin Harrison of Virginia and 
Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania, who was 
the chairman. (Secret Journal $ of the Acts and 
Proceedings of Congress Vol 2) 

Foreign Service of the United States was 

created on fuly 1, 1924, by the Rogers bill ap- 
proved May 24, 1924 (43 Stat.L.140), when 
the diplomatic and consular services were 
merged into one under the Department of 

Jewish ambassador was Oscar Solomon 
Straus who was appointed Envoy Extraor- 
dinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to Turkey 
on March 24, 1887. He presented his letter 
of recall, June 16, 1889. He was reappointed 


June 3, 1898, left on leave of absence, De- 
cember 20, 1899, and his letter of recall was 
presented by his successor March 29, 1901. On 
May 17, 1909, he was appointed Ambassadoi 
Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to Turkey 
and left the post in September 1910. His 
successor presented his letter of recall on Au- 
gust 28, 1911. (William Willard Howards^ 
Oscar S. Straus in Turkey) 

Jewish diplomatic representative was Man- 
uel Mordecai Noah who represented the United 
States as Consul to Tunis from 1813 to 1816. 
He was a consul with diplomatic powers. 
Isaac Goldberg Major Noah, American- 
Jewish Pioneer) 

Minister plenipotentiary was Dr. Benjamin 
Franklin who was elected by the Continental 
Congress on September 14, 1778, to the court 
of France The Department of State accredits 
Thomas Jefferson of Virginia who was ap- 
pointed on March 10, 1785, as the first minister 
plenipotentiary after the Revolutionary War. 
lie sailed July 5, 1785, on the "Ceres" and 
served until October 1789. He left Yarmouth, 
England, October 22, 1789, and arrived at 
Norfolk, Va., November 23, 1789 (Journals 
of the Continental Congress Vol. 12) 

Ministers plenipotentiary to South and 
Central America were appointed on January 
27, 1823, by President James Monroe. His 
appointments were Caesar Augustus Rodney of 
Delaware to Argentina, Herman Allen of Ver- 
mont to Chile, and Richard Clough Anderson 
of Kentucky to Colombia. (Records in Dept. 
of State. Wash. D.C.) 

Naval attache. See Naval officer 

Negro consul was Ebenezer Don Carlos 
Bassett wbo was made Consul General to Haiti 
where he served from April 16, 1869, to No- 
vember 27, 1877. 

Pan American delegates (American) were 

Caesar Augustus Rodney, Theodore Bland and 
John Graham wbo were appointed in July 1817 
by President James Monroe "to obtain informa- 
tion of the actual condition and political pros- 
pects of the Spanish provinces which were con- 
tending for independence." They served at 
Buenos Aires, Argentina, from February 1818 
until April 30, 1818. (House Document 2, 15th 
Congress 2nd Session) 

Representative of a foreign country to the 
United States was Conrad Alexandre Gerard 
of France who arrived in July 1778. He was 
styled Minister Plenipotentiary and also bore 
a commission as Consul General. (Maryland 
Historical Magazine 1920 Vol. 15) 

Woman ambassador from a foreign coun- 
try was Her Excellency Shrimati Vijaya 
Lakshmi Pandit, ambassador of India, who 
presented her Letter of Credence to President 
Harry S. Truman on May 12, 1949. 




Woman diplomat to represent the United 
States in the capacity of a Minister was Ruth 
Bryan Owen who was appointed by President 
Franklin Delano Roosevelt on April 12, 1933, as 
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipoten- 
tiary to Denmark and Iceland. Her nomination 
was confirmed by the Senate on April 12, 1933, 
without even the customary formality of refer- 
ence to a committee. Mrs. Owen is the eldest 
daughter of the late William Jennings Bryan. 
(Ruth Bryan Oiven Leaves from a Greenland 

Woman legation secretary was Miss Lucille 
Atcherson of Columbus, Ohio. She was ap- 
pointed on December 4, 1922, and was recom- 
missioned as Foreign Service Officer of Class 8 
on July 1, 1924, serving thereafter as Secretary 
of Legation at Berne, Switzerland, and at 
Panama, R.P. On May 24, 1924, the diplomatic 
and consular services were amalgamated into 
the American Foreign Service. 

Woman vice consul in the American For- 
eign Service was Miss Pattie Hockaday Field 
of Denver, Colo. She was appointed Foreign 
Service Officer unclassified on March 20, 1925 
and as American Vice Consul. She was as- 
signed to Amsterdam, Holland, September 2, 
1925. She resigned June 27, 1Q29. 

DIRECTORY (city) was Macpherson's Di- 
rectory For The City and Suburbs of Philadel- 
phia Extending to Prime Street, Southivard; 
and Maiden Street, Northward; and From the 
River Delaware to Tenth Street Westward, 
published October 1, 1785, by John Macpher- 
son. It was printed by Francis Bailey at 
Loick's Head, 65 Market Street, Philadelphia, 
Pa., and contained 6,250 names of which 686 
were subscribers. William Bradford of Phila- 
delphia also published a directory of that city 
the same year. It contained 83 pages, 43 names 
to the page, making a total of 3,5o9 names. 
(Americana Collector. August 1926) 

See also Congressional directory; Postal 
directory; Telephone directory 

DIRIGIBLE. See Aviation airship 

loon race 


DISCIPLES OF CHRIST (church) were 
organized August 17, 1809, at Washington, Pa., 
when a group of Presbyterians headed by 
Thomas Campbell formed themselves into a 
religious association, The Christian Association 
of Washington. On May 4, 1811, a church 
was established at Brush Run, Pa., with 
Thomas Campbell as elder Alexander Camp- 
bell, his son, was licensed to preach the gospel. 
John Dawson, George Sharp, John Foster and 
William Gilchrist were chosen as deacons. No 
attempt at forming a separate and distinct 
denomination was made until 1823 when Alex- 
ander Campbell and several members of the 
Brush Run Church founded a church at Wells- 


burg, W Va. The first convention of the 
Disciples of Christ was August 1827, when 
the Mahoning Association met at New Lisbon, 
Ohio, and appointed Walter Scott as the gen- 
eral evangelist to go into Ohio to preach and 
establish churches. The first general convention 
was held at Cincinnati, Ohio, October 24, 1849, 
at which time the American Christian Mission- 
ary Society was organized. (Walter Wilson 
Jennings Origin ami Early History of the 
Disciples of Christ) 


Discovery of Antarctica was made Novem- 
ber 18, 1820 by Captain Nathaniel Brown 
Palmer in the "Hero," a sloop of 44 tons, 
with a crew of six men including the captain 
and the mate. He sailed from Stonington, 
Conn., July 25, 1820, and returned May 8, 1821. 
His discovery was made at a point near lati- 
tude 64 S and longitude 60 W. (John Ran- 
dolph Spears Captain Nathaniel Brown 
Palmer. An Old Time Sailor of the Sea) 

Discovery of land on the United States 
Pacific Coast by actual contact with it, was 
made by Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo who landed 
September 28, 154 2, at what is now known as 
Ballast Point, San Diego, Calif. He left 
Navidad, Mexico, on June 27, 1542. The 
Pacific Ocean had been discovered by Euro- 
peans previously, however Balboa and Magel- 
lan, among others. (George Montague Wheeler 
Report upon U.S. Geographical Surveys West 
of the 100th Meridian) 

Discovery of New England by an Eng- 
lishman was made by Captain Bartholomew 
Gosnold, who with his crew of 31, landed at 
South Dartmouth, near New Bedford, Mass., 
on May 15, 1602. (iosnold township, Mass, 
comprising the Eli/ahelh Islands, was named 
in his honor. Gosnold left Falmouth, Eng- 
land, on March 26, 1602 in the "Concord" and 
landed on the southern Maine coast, near Cape 
Porpoise (Massachusetts Historical Society 
Collections. Vol. nil. 1843) 

Discovery of the Mississippi River by a 
European was made hv Hernando De Soto 
who in May 1541 with his crew of adventurous 
Spaniards, arrived at a village called Chisca, 
where they erected a huge cross. Shortly 
afterwards De Soto died and was buried in 
the "Father of Waters," the first European 
to be buried in the Mississippi. fAlonso] 
Alvarez de Pineda who was sent out by Fran- 
cisco dc Garay, governor of Jamaica, entered 
the mouth of the river in 1519 which he called 
the Rio de Espiritu Santo. (John Dawson 
Gihnary Shea Discovery ami Exploration of 
the Mississippi Valley) 

Discovery of the North Pole was made 
on April 6, 1900, by Robert Edwin Peary ac- 
companied by Matthew Alexander Henson, a 
Negro assistant, and four Eskimos who reached 
90 N. 

clusion law 





Labor law 



Alien discriminatory law 

DISCUS THROWING as a competitive 
event was revived in 1896 at the Olympic 
Games at Athens, Greece. Robert Garrett of 
Princeton University, representing the United 
States, won with a record throw of 95 feet 
7y* inches. (The Olympic Games 776 B.C.- 
1896 A.D. Official Report) 

DISEASE (distinctly American) was 

tularemia, an epizootic of wild rabbits and 
other animals, which was recognized in 1910 
in ground squirrels of Tulare County, Calif., 
by Dr. George Walter McCoy. He and Dr. 
Charles Willard Chapin named the organism 
Bacterium tularense. Dr. Edward Francis of 
the U.S. Public Health Service was awarded a 
gold medal by the American Medical Associa- 
tion for his research in this disease. (Journal 
of American Medical Association. April 25, 

DISHES. See China ware 
DISPENSARY. See Hospital 

DISPENSARY (Dental). 5V* Dental dis- 

DISPENSATORY. See Medical book 
DISSECTION ESSAY. See Medical book 

DISTILLING BOOK was Michael August 
Krafft's American Distiller, or The Theory 
and Practice of Distilling, ace or ding ^ to the 
latest discoveries and improvements, including 
its most important methods of constructing 
stills and of rectification, dedicated to Thomas 
Jefferson. It contained 219 pages and 6 plates 
and was printed in 1804 by Thomas Dobson, 
Philadelphia, Pa. The preface was dated May 
25, 1804, Bristol, Pa. 




See Medal 


See Medal 

MEDAL. See Medal 

DISTRESS SIGNAL. See Radio danger sig- 




DIVING SUIT (practical) for submarine 
diving was invented by Leonard Norcross of 
Dixfield, Me., who obtained a United States 
patent on June 14, 1834 on a "water-dress." 
It embraced an airtight rubber dress to which 
was attached a brass cap or helmet resting on 
the shoulders. The cap was connected to an 
air pump on the boat by means of a rubber 
hose. The feet were weighted with heavy lead 
shot. (Niles Register, September 27, 1834) 


Wigglesworth appointed January 24, 1722 to 
the Thomas Ilollis Professorship of Divinity 
at Harvard College, Cambridge, Mass. lie 
served until his death, January 16, 1765. 

DIVINITY SCHOOL. See Theological 

"DIXIE," one of the Confederate war songs, 
was composed and sung for the first time on 
September 19, 1859, by Daniel Decatur Em- 
mett, a black-face minstrel actor, at the thea- 
tre of Bryant's Minstrels, 472 Broadway, New 
York City. The song was sung at the inau- 
guration of Jefferson Davis as President of 
the Confederate States on February 18, 1861, 
at Montgomery, Ala. It is claimed that Emmett 
did not write the song, but introduced it and 
made it popular. 


State-owned docks were acquired by Cali- 
fornia by act approved April 24, 1863, chapter 
306, "an act to provide for the improvement 
and protection of the wharves, docks and water 
front in the city and count)' of San Francisco." 
Three commissioners, one elected by the state, 
one by San Francisco and one by the Senate 
and Assembly at a joint session, formed the 
Board of State Harbor Commissioners "to 
construct new wharves, to keep in good repair 
sea-walls, embankments, wharves, piers, land- 
ings and thoroughfares for the advancement 
of commerce." The first meeting was Novem- 
ber 4, 1863, at San Francisco, Calif. Robert 
E. C. Stearns was the first secretary. 

DOCTOR (Navy). See Naval officer 
DOCUMENT (Printed). See Printing 

government publications 


Dog license law (state) was "an act for 

the better protection of lost and strayed ani- 
mals and for securing the rights of the owners 
thereof," passed March 8, 1894 by New York 
State, Chapter 115. It authorized the Ameri- 
can Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to 
Animals to carry out the provisions of the law 
and collect a $2 annual fee for dogs in cities 
with populations over 1,200,000. Unlicensed 




dogs were to be destroyed if not redeemed 
within forty-eight hours. Nonresidents and 
exhibitors were not required to obtain licenses 
for their dogs. 


Sec also Greyhound raring association 
Dog-sled race on an Olympic demonstra- 
tion program was held February 6-7, 1932, 
when the United States and Canada entered 
thirteen teams. Contestants were required to 
cover the course of 25.1 miles on two consecu- 
tive days. First place was won by Emile St. 
Goddard of Canada, but the United States 
teams won seven of the twelve points. The race 
was held at Lake Placid, N.Y. 

DOG RACE TRACK on which an imitation 
rabbit was used was erected by Owen P. 
Smith at Emeryville, Calif., and opened Feb- 
ruary 22, 1920. Tt was about 300 yards around 
and was designed by R. S. Hawley. A car was 
run through a housing which covered the 
trolley arid track with a slot on the track side 
through which the arm carrying the rabbit 

DOG SHOW of importance was held at the 
Hippodrome (Gilmorc's Garden), 26th Street 
and Madison Avenue, New York City, May 8, 
1877, under the auspices of the Westminster 
Kennel Bench Show. It was known as the 
New York Bench Show of Dogs. Charles 
Lincoln was superintendent of this show; there 
were 1101 entries. Dog shows were often held 
as features at fairs and circuses. A successful 
dog show was held May 12, 1862 at Barnum's 
American Museum, New York City. 

DOG SLED MAIL. See Postal service 

BLIND. See Animals 

DOLLAR. Sec Money 

DOLLAR MARKS to be made in type were 
cast in 1797 by [Archibald] Binny & [James] 
Ronaldson, type-founders of Philadelphia, who 
started in business on November 1, 1796. 
(Daniel Berkeley Updike Printing Types) 


See Air mail service 



DOOR (revolving) was invented by Theo- 
philus Van Kannel of Philadelphia, Pa., who 
obtained patent No. 387,571 on August 7, 1888, 
on a "storm door structure." 





DOUGHNUT CUTTER was invented by 
John F. Blondel of Thomaston, Me., who ob- 
tained patent No. 128,783 on July 9, 1872. A 
spring pushed the dough out of a center tube 
to provide the hole. 


DRAMA. See Play; Theatre 


Theatrical school 

tions 3 and 4 of the Tariff Act of July 4, 1789 
(1 Stat.L.26) which became effective August 
1, 1789. Dutiable merchandise imported into 
the United States which was re-exported within 
a year was entitled to a refund of 99 per cent 
of the duty paid. In lieu of a drawback of 
the duties imposed on the importation of salt 
employed and expended in the fish industry, 
an allowance of five cents was granted on the 
exportation of every quintal of dried fish, and 
on every barrel of pickled fish or salted provi- 
sion. From August 1, 1789, to December 31, 
1790, drawback to the amount of $10,582 was 
allowed on dried and pickled fish. 

DREDGE. See Ship 

DRESS (spun glass). See Glass dress 
DRIED BLOOD SERUM. See Blood bank 

DRILL (percussion rock drill) was pat- 
ented March 27, 1849, by Joseph James Couch 
who received patent No. 6,237 on "improved 
machinery for drilling rocks." The drill was 
driven by steam-power and acted independently 
of gravity. The machine was stationary and 
the drill was thrown against the rock, the tool 
being seized at the end of the blow by means 
of friction-grips. 

DRILL MANUAL. See Military drill man- 


DRIVE-IN THEATRE. See Moving pic- 
ture theater 

DRIVING COURSE. See Automobile driv- 
ing course 

DROUGHT recorded occurred in New Eng- 
land in 1727. After the first week of April, 
with the exception of two showers in May, 
rain did not fall until June. (Sidney Per ley- 
Historic Storms of New England) 


DRUG MILL was established in 1812 at 
Philadelphia, Pa., by Charles V. Hagner who 
used water power for grinding, performing in 




DRUG MILL Continued 

one day work which previously would have re- 
quired months of hand powdering in mortars. 
His first task of importance was the grinding 
of several tons of cream of tartar for which 
Dr. Ilaral, a druggist, paid him three cents a 
pound. (Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and 
Science- -The First Century of the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy) 

DRUGGIST to fill prescriptions other than 
his own was Jonathan Roberts who served from 
May 1754 to May 19, 1755, as apothecary in the 
Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa. Pre- 
viously apothecaries made up their own reme- 
dies only. (Benjamin Franklin Some Account 
of the "Pennsylvania Hospital From Its First 
Beginning of the Fifth Month, called May, 

DRY GAS METER. See Gas (dry gas) 

DRY ICE. See Ice 


DRYDOCK was constructed by Robert Ful- 
ton in 1805 in front of his foundry on the 
corner of Green and Morgan Streets, at Jersey 
City, N.J. He managed it until his death, 
February 24, 1815. A block of ground was sold 
to him by the Associates of the Jersey Com- 
pany for $1,000 allowing him five years on the 
purchase money without interest. The deed 
was dated November 3, 1804. A drydock had 
been authorized by Charlcstown, Mass., Oc- 
tober 30, 1677, to be constructed by James 
Russell, John Heyman, Samuel Ballard and 
John Phillips. On May 30, 1679, it was voted 
that it "shall be rate free from all country rates 
for thirty years" and that no other drydock 
would be authorized for the same period' pro- 
vided it was kept in "good repair." It was 
never built. (Alexander McClean History of 
Jersey City) 

Drydock authorized for the United States 
Government was approved February 25, 1799 
(1 Stat.L. 622) and provided that "two clocks, 
for the convenience of repairing the public ships 
and vessels, be erected in suitable places, under 
direction of the President of the United States, 
and that the sum of $50,000 be appropriated 
towards effecting this object, to be paid out 
of the monies in the Treasury of the United 
States, not otherwise appropriated." On De- 
cember 15, 1802, an appropriation of $100,000 
was made, but drydocks were not constructed 
as the amount was insufficient. 

Federal drydocks were constructed at Bos- 
ton, Mass., and Norfolk, Va., under authority 
of act of Congress of March 28, 1827 (4 Stat.L. 
243). They were designed by Colonel Loammi 
Baldwin of Boston, Mass , who was hired by 
Secretary of the Navy Samuel Southard. The 
drydocks were founded upon piles and were 
built entirely of stone faced with cut granite. 


The Boston drydock was commenced June 1827, 
cornerstone laid May 21, 1829, and was turned 
over to the commandant September 9, 1833. It 
cost $677,089.98. The Norfolk drydock was 
commenced November 1827, completed March 
15, 1834, and cost $943,676.73. (American So- 
ciety of Civil Engineers Transactions Vol. 
XLI June 1899) 

National ship in a federal drydock was the 

"Delaware" which docked June 17, 1833, at the 
Norfolk Dry Dock, Portsmouth, Va. The 
"Constitution" was received at the Boston Dry 
Dock, June 24, 1833. Both ships docked before 
the drydocks were completed. (Charles Beebe 
Stuart Naval Dry Docks of the United 

Timber dry dock was erected at Buffalo, 
N.Y., in 1840 for Great Lakes ships. The ex- 
cavation was lined entirely with wood secured 
to poles driven in the bottom and upon the 
slopes of the sides, and faced with longitudinal 
timbers forming steps or altars upon the sides. 
The first timber drydock on the Atlantic coast 
was erected in 1854 at Boston, Mass., by J. E. 
Simpson and Co. The first construction cost 
for these drydocks was small, but they did not 
prove practical for long periods as they 
deteriorated rapidly. (American Society of Civil 
Fngineers Transactions Vol. 41 June 1899) 

DRYDOCK PATENT was issued on Decem- 
ber 13, 1816, to John A damson of Boston, 
Mass. A floating drydock was erected a few 
years later in Weehawken Cove, Hobokcn, N.J., 
for the drydocking and repairing of canal boats. 
The patent was extended fourteen years by act 
of Congress, March 2, 1831 (6 ' Stat L.458) 
(Sven Anderson Floating Drydocks) 

DUAL ELEVATOR. See Elevator 

reational ranching course 


Duel of which there is any record took 
place on June 18, 1621, between two serving- 
men, Edward Leister and Edward Dotey, both 
servants of Stephen Hopkins, one of the lead- 
ers of the Plymouth Colony. Governor William 
Bradford's decision was rendered as follows : 
"The Second Offence is the first Duel fought 
in New England, upon a Challenge at Single 
Combat with Sword and Dagger between Ed- 
ward Dotey and Edward Leister, Servants of 
Mr. Hopkins; Both being wounded, the one 
in the Hand, the other in the Thigh; they are 
adjudg'd by the whole Company to have their 
Head and Feet tied together, and so to lie for 
24 hours, without Meat or Drink; which is 
begun to be inflicted, but within an Hour, be- 
cause of their great Pains, at their own and 
their Master's humble request, upon Promise 
of better Carriage, they are Released by the 




Duel between congressmen was held on 
the famous Bladensburg, Md., duelling field in 
1808, when George Washington Campbell of 
Tennessee (October 17, 1803, to March 3, 1809) 
shot Rarent Gardenier of New York (March 
4, 1807, to March 3, 1811) through the body. 
Gardenier had accused Congress of being under 
the influence of France, which Campbell denied, 
at the same time assailing Gardcnier with a 
torrent of personal abuse. Gardenier challenged 
him to a duel, was wounded, and after his 
recovery returned to his attacks with more 
animosity than before. (Edward L. Merrill 
Barent Gardenier) 

Duel in which a future president of the 
United States participated took place on May 
30, 1806, at Harrison's Mills on the Red River, 
Logan County, Ky. Andrew Jackson shot and 
killed Charles Dickinson in a duel, one of a 
hundred duels and brawls in which Jackson is 
said to have participated. They stood twenty- 
four feet apart, pistols downward. Dickinson 
fired first and the shot broke a couple of Jack- 
son's ribs and grazed his breastbone. Despite 
the injury, Jackson fired and killed Dickinson. 
Jackson served as President of the United 
States from March 4, 1829, to March 3, 1837. 


an "act to prevent the evil practice of duelling" 
passed by the Fourth General Assembly held 
at Knoxville, Tenn., and signed November 10, 
1801, by Governor Archibald Roane. (Chapter 
32 Act of Tennessee 1801) 

DUMMY (Football). Sec Football dummy 



DUNKARD. See Baptist church (German 


See Locomotive 


CHAMPIONSHIP. See Auction bridge 
championship (duplicate) 


Reformed Church (Dutch) 

DWARF exhibited was a man, 53 years of 
age, 22 inches high, who was shown at the 
house of Widow Bignall, next door to King's 
Head Tavern, a little above Mr. Hancock's 
wharf at Boston, Mass. Admission was one 
shilling. His appearance was advertised in the 
Massachusetts Spy, August 22, 1771. 

DYNAMITE was manufactured in San 
Francisco, Calif., in 1866, in what is now 
Golden Gate Park, at the approximate location 
of "Portals of the Past," by Julius Bandmann, 
using the Nobel patents, under the name of 
Bandmann Neilson & Company. In 1867 the 
Giant Powder Company grew out of this con- 


cern. (Arthur Pine Van Gclder and Hugo 
Schlattcr History of the Explosives Industry 
in America) 

DYNAMO that was successful was "Jumbo 
No. 1," a direct current steam dynamo, which 
was built in 1881 at the Edison Machine Works, 
Goerck Street, New York City. It weighed 
27 tons, of which the armature weighed 6 tons. 
Its capacity was 700 sixteen-candlepower lamps 
when the armature was air-cooled. (Eric 
Hodgins and Frederick Alexander Magoun 
Behemoth, The Story of Power) 

Dynamo for a direct-current outdoor light- 
ing system was built in 1875 at Cornell Uni- 
versity, Ithaca, N.Y., by Professor William 
Arnold Anthony and a graduate student, George 
S. Moler. It was exhibited at the Philadelphia 
Centennial in 1876 and was made from designs 
of the original Gramme machine. It was used 
to supply the current to light up the Cornell 
campus in 1875. 


EARMUFF was invented in 1873 by 
Chester Greenwood of Farmington, Me., who 
commenced manufacturing them commercially 
the following year. He obtained patent No. 
188,292, March 13, 1877, on his "ear mufflers." 

EARTHQUAKE of consequence was felt 
on August 31, 1886, throughout the eastern part 
of the United States. In Charleston, S.C., 
forty-one lives were lost and property to the 
extent of $5,000,000 damaged The epicenter 
was fifteen miles northwest of Charleston. The 
loss of lives in the entire area was about a 
hundred. In Charleston, 90 per cent of 6,956 
brick buildings were damaged and about 95 per 
cent of 14,000 chimneys were broken off at the 
roof. (Clarence Edward Dutton Ninth An- 
nual Report of the United States Geological 

Earthquake description is contained in 
Governor William Bradford's History of Ihe 
Plymouth Plantation. The earthquake oc- 
curred Friday, June 1, 1638, at 2 P.M. at 
Plymouth, Mass., and is described in part 
as follows, "However, it was very terrible 
for ye time; and as ye men were set talking 
in ye house, some women and others were 
without ye doors, and ye earth shooke with 
ye violence as they could not stand without 
catching hold of ye posts and pails yt stood 
next them, but ye violence lasted not long. 
And about halfe an hower, or less, came an 
other noyse & shaking, but neither so loud 
nor strong as ye former, but quickly passed 
over, and so it ceased." In 1638 several 
Indians described to Roger Williams an 
earthquake which occurred in 1558 at Prov- 
idence. No accurate record exists prior to 
this date, although it is evident that there 
must have been many earthquakes before 
this date. (US. Coast and Geodetic Sur- 
vey Earthquake History of the U.S.) 




TURE. See Moving picture 


American Economic Association, founded Sep- 
tember, 9, 1885, at Saratoga, N.Y. The pur- 
pose of the association was to encourage "eco- 
nomic research and freedom of economic dis- 
cussion." The first president was Francis 
Amasa Walker. (American Economic Associa- 
tion Publication No. 1) 

economics course 

clusively to economics was the Quarterly 
Journal of Economics published in Boston, 
Mass., for Harvard University. The first 
number appeared in October 1886. 




See Newspaper editorial apology 


Chair in education permanently estab- 
lished was created by the University of 
Iowa, Iowa City, in 1873 and was called 
"Philosophy and Education." The Normal 
Department, established 1855, was absorbed 
by the Collegiate Department of Education 
in 1873. A temporary department was cre- 
ated by New York University in New York 
City in 1832. 

Compulsory education law was passed 
by Massachusetts June 14, 1642. It stated: 
"This Court, taking into consideration the 
great neglect of many parents and masters 
in training up their children in learning and 
labor and other impl(o)yments which may 
be profitable to the common wealth, so 
hereupon order and decree, that in every 
towne the chosen men appointed for manag- 
ing the prudentiall aflayers of the same shall 
henceforth stand charged with the care of 
the redresse of this evil .... and for this 
end .... they shall have power to take ac- 
count from time to time of all parents and 
masters, and of their children, concerning 
their calling and impl(o)yment of their 
children." (Records of the Governor and Com- 
pany of Massachusetts Bay. Vol. 2) 

Compulsory school attendance law (state) 
was Chapter 240, Acts of 1852 approved 
May 18, 1852, by Governor George Sewall 
Boutwell of Massachusetts. It prescribed 
that children must attend school "between 
the ages of eight and fourteen years" for 
twelve weeks in the year, six of which must 
be consecutive. 

State board of education was established 
by Massachusetts on April 30, 1837 (Chapter 
241, Section 1, Laws of Massachusetts, 1837). 
The first secretary of the board, later desig- 


nated as commissioner, was Horace Mann. 
He was appointed June 29, 1837, and re- 
ceived $1,000 a year. (Massachusetts Stat- 
utes. General Laws and Resolves Relating 
to Public Instruction) 


Department of Education (U.S.) was cre- 
ated on March 2, 1867 (14 Stat.L.434) "act 
to establish a Department of Education." 
It established an agency "for the purpose 
of collecting such statistics and facts as shall 
show the condition and progress of educa- 
tion in the several states and territories, and 
of diffusing such information respecting the 
organization and management of school 
systems and methods of teaching as shall 
aid the people of the United States in the 
establishment and maintenance of efficient 
school systems and otherwise promote the 
cause of education." The first commissioner 
of education was Henry Barnard, appointed 
March 14, 1867, by President Andrew John- 
son. He served until March 17, 1870. The 
Act of July 28, 1868 (15 Stat.L.106), effec- 
tive June 30, 1869, abolished the Department 
of Education and established the Office of 
Education in the Department of the Interior. 
(Darrell Hevenor Smith Bureau of Educa- 

Educational association (local) was the 

Middlesex County Association for the Im- 
provement of Common Schools organized May 
1799 at Middletown, Conn., by the Rev. Wil- 
liam Woodbridge who served as its first presi- 
dent. (American Journal of Education July 

Educational association (national) was the 

American Institute of Instruction formed at a 
preliminary meeting March 15-19, 1830, and or- 
ganized August 19-21, 1830, at a convention at 
Boston, Mass., attended by delegates from fif- 
teen states. A constitution was adopted August 
24, 1830, and the association was incorporated 
March 4, 1831. The first president was Francis 
Wayland, Jr., president of Brown Univer- 
sity. (The Introductory Discourse and Lee- 
tures Delivered in Boston Before the Con- 
vention of Teachers and Other Friends of 

Read Hall's Lectures to Teachers on School 
Keeping which was published in 1829 in Bos- 
ton, Mass. Ten thousand copies were pur- 
chased by the State of New York. (David 
Brauwrd HallThe Halls of New England) 


America was made by Benjamin Syms (or 
Symmes), "Founder of the first Free School 
in the American Colonies" in 1634. He donated 
"two hundred acres of land on Ppquoson River 
with the milk and increase of eight cows for 
the maintenance of a learned and honest man 
to keep upon the said grounds a free school." 
The school became known as the Syms-Eaton 




Academy, located at Hampton, Va. In 1805 
the name was changed to the Hampton Acade- 
my. (James Luth&r Kib I er Historic Virginia 


Educational magazine was the Juvenile Mir- 
ror or Educational Magazine published at New 
York City. It was edited by Albert Picket and 
John W. Picket. The first issue appeared Au- 
gust 1811. It lasted less than a year. 

Educational magazine to achieve success 

was the Academician, a sixteen-page semi- 
monthly published from February 7, 1818, 
to January 29, 1820, at New York City. It 
was edited by Albert and John W. Picket, 
president and corresponding secretary, respec- 
tively, of the Incorporated Society of Teach- 
ers which published the magazine. It offered 
advice and comments on teaching, and cost 
$3 a year. 

lished by a municipality was created by Bur- 
lington, N.J., in 1682. The Assembly provided 
that a valuable tract of land situated in the 
Delaware River above Burlington, and known 
as Matinicunk Island "remain to and for the 
use of the town of Burlington . . . for the 
maintaining of a school for the education of 
youth." (Francis Bazley Let New Jersey as 
a Colony and a State) 

bator (eggs) patent 

TION was imported in 1835 by Colonel 
Mendes I. Cohen of Baltimore, Md. It was 
not publicly displayed until 1884 when it was 
bequeathed to Johns Hopkins University, Bal- 
timore. (New York Historical Society Quar- 
terly Bulletin. April 1920) 



ELASTIC WEBBING was produced by 
power machinery in the plant of the Russell 
Manufacturing Company of Middletown, 
Conn., in 1841, due to the efforts of Henry 
Griswold Hubbard. The concern was incor- 
porated in 1834 with a capital stock of $40,000, 
nine tenths of which was owned by Samuel 
Russell and Samuel D. Hubbard. Originally 
they manufactured non-elastic webbing which 
was not a profitable venture. The elastic 
proved a very successful undertaking. (Mid- 
diet own, Conn. Mercantile Publishing Co.) 


See also 
Election law 
Voting machine 


Accredited colonial election in America 
was held on May 18, 1631, when John Win- 
throp was elected Governor of Massachusetts. 
It is believed that in 1619 the Virginia As- 
sembly had been selected by means of votes. 

Election day uniformly observed was au- 
thorized January 23, 1845 (5 Stat.L.721), "an 
act to establish a uniform time for holding 
elections for electors of President and Vice 
President in all the states of the Union." 'The 
Tuesday next after the first Monday in the 
month of November of the year in which they 
are to be appointed" was selected. The first 
such election day fell on November 4, 1845. 

Election contested in the House of Rep- 
resentatives. See Congress of the United 
Stales House of Representatives 

Election contested in the Senate. See 

Congress of the United States Senate 

Election in defiance of the Royal Courts 

was held April 11, 1640, at Wethersfield, Conn. * 
Matthew Mitchell was elected recorder. The 
King's Court at Hartford refused to recognize 
the election and penalized Wethersfield five 
pounds and the recorder forty nobles, both 
refusing to pay. 

Federal election in the United States was 
authorized on Saturday, September 13, 1788, 
by the Constitutional Convention which "Re- 
solved that the first Wednesday in January 
next (January 7, 1789) be the day for appoint- 
ing electors in the several states, which, before 
the said day, shall have ratified the said Con- 
stitution, that the first Wednesday in February 
(February 4) next be the day for the electors 
to assemble in their respective states, and vote 
for a President; and that the first Wednesday 
in March next (March 4) be the time, and the 
present seat of Congress (New York City) 
the place for commencing the proceedings 
under the said Constitution." 

Negro to vote. See Election law 
Presidential election. See President 

Printed ballot was authorized by the "act 
to regulate the general elections within this 
commonwealth" enacted February 15, 1799 by 
Pennsylvania. Section ten provided that "every 
elector may deliver written or printed tickets." 
The ballots were prepared by political parties 
and were known as "vest pocket tickets." They 
contained only the names of the issuing party's 
candidates. (Eldon Cobb Evans History of the 
Australian Ballot System in the United States) 

Woman whose vote was recorded. See 



Absentee voting law (state) was enacted 
by Vermont on November 24, 1896. It pro- 
vided that a person, by showing a certificate 
that he was qualified to vote in the state, could 
vote for state officers at any election booth 




in the state. (Helen Mitchell RoccaA Brief 
Digest of the Laws Relating to Absentee Vot- 
ing and Registration) 

Absentee voting law for military person- 
nel. See Army vote 

Australian ballot system was adopted by 
Kentucky in February 1888 and approved by 
Governor Simon Bolivar Buckncr on February 
24, 1888. It applied only to the city of Louis- 
ville. The first state to adopt the Australian 
ballot was Massachusetts which enacted legis- 
lation May 30, 1888. Allen Thorndike Rice 
advocated this system of voting in 1886. (Eldon 
Cobb Evans History of ike Australian Ballot 
System in the US.)' 

Corrupt election practices law /federal) 
was passed January 26, 1907 (34 Stat.L.864). 

It prohibited corporations from contributing 
toward campaign funds in national elections of 
president, vice president, senators and con- 
gressmen. An act passed March 4, 1909 (35 
Stat.L.1088), effective January 1, 1910, further 
prohibited national banks and corporations 
from making financial contributions to cam- 
paign funds in connection with any election to 
any political office. 

Corrupt election practices law (state) was 

passed hy New York State and signed by Gov- 
ernor Theodore Roosevelt on April 4, 1890 
(Chapter 94, New York State Corrupt Prac- 
tices Act of 1899), "an act to amend title five 
of the Penal Code Relating to Crimes Against 
the Elective Franchise." Candidates were re- 
quired to file itemized expense accounts of cam- 
paign expenditures under penalty of imprison- 
ment and loss of office. (James Kern Pollock, 
Jr. Party Campaign Funds) 

Fraudulent election law (colonial) was 
passed May 22, 1649, by the General Court 
at Warwick, R.I., and provided that "no 
one should bring in any votes that he did 
not receive from the voters' own hands, and 
that all votes should be filed by the Recorder 
in the presence of the Assembly." A commit- 
tee of four freemen were authorized to deter- 
mine violations of the law and "to examine 
parties and present to this court what they find 
in the case." (Samuel Greene Arnold His- 
tory of the State of Rhode Island and Provi- 
dence Plantations) 

Fraudulent election law (state) was passed 
by the legislature of California and signed by 
Governor Frederick Low on March 26, 1866. 
It was an "act to protect the elections of vol- 
untary political associations, and to punish 
frauds therein" (Chapter 359 Statutes of Cal- 
ifornia 16th Session). (Charles Edwin Mer- 
riam and Louisa Over ackerPrimary Elec- 

Negro to vote under authority of the 
Fifteenth Amendment (March 30, 1870) 
was Thomas Peterson-Mundy of Perth Amboy, 
N.J., who voted March 31, 1870, at Perth 


Amboy, N.J., in a special election for ratifica- 
tion or rejection of a city charter. The char- 
ter was adopted and he was appointed on the 
committee to revise the charter. 

Preferential ballot system originated in the 
city of Grand Junction, Colo. The charter 
which contained the preferential ballot provi- 
sion was adopted September 14, 1909, and 
the first election held thereunder was on No- 
vember 2, 1909. Opposite the names of each 
candidate were three columns headed "First 
Choice," "Second Choice," and "Third Choice." 
Any person receiving more than half of all the 
votes cast for first choice was elected, other- 
wise the lowest candidate was dropped and 
first and second choices were added together. 
If any remaining candidate received a majority 
of the combined votes, he was elected, but if 
not, then the lowest candidate was again 
dropped, and all choices for each candidate then 
added together, and the person receiving the 
largest total votes was elected. Tn case of a 
tie, priority in choice determined election. 

Primary election law was passed by Min- 
nesota April 20, 1899 (Chapter 349). It applied 
to candidates for city and county offices, judges 
and elective members of school, library and 
park boards in counties haying a population 
of 200,000 or more. Hennepin County was the 
only one that had the required population when 
the law went into effect. (William Watts Fol- 
wcll History of Minnesota) 

Primary election (state-wide) was held 
September 4, 1906, in Wisconsin, The law was 
passed in 1903, Chapter No.451, and published 
June 3, 1903. The first governor nominated 
and elected under the primary system was 
James Ole Davidson. The Minnesota primary 
law of 1899 antedated the Wisconsin primary 
law, but was limited in its application to coun- 
ties of 200,000 population or over. 

Proportional representation was held No- 
vember 2, 1915, at Ashtabula, Ohio. On Au- 
gust 10, 1915, the Hare system was authorized 
under Ashtabula's manager-plan charter adopted 
November 3, 1914. As seven council members 
were to be elected, the votes were so counted 
that each group consisting of one-seventh of 
all the voters secured a representative. (Na- 
tional Municipal Review. January 1916) 

Registration law (state) was enacted by 
Massachusetts (Chapter 74) and signed March 
7, 1801, by Governor Caleb Strong. (Joseph 
Pratt Harris Registration of Voters in the 
United States) 



tial electoral college 

successfully operated was installed in 1896 by 
the Hartford Electric Light Company in their 
station at Hartford, Conn. It was used in con- 
nection with a water-power unit. 





arable) was invented by Harvey Hubbell of 
Bridgeport, Conn., who obtained patent No. 
774,250, November 8, 1904. They were first 
manufactured by Harvey Hubbell, Inc., Bridge- 
port, Conn. 


ELECTRIC BELL was invented by Joseph 
Henry in 1831. He was the first to insulate 
iron for the magnetic coil and the first to work 
out the differing functions of two entirely dif- 
ferent kinds of electro-magnets, the one sur- 
rounded by numerous coils of no great length, 
the other surrounded by a continuous coil of 
very great length. Joseph Henry's invention of 
1831 increased the lifting power of the magnet 
from 9 pounds to 3,500 pounds. Every electri- 
cal dynamo or motor uses the electro-magnet in 
practically the same form in which Henry 
left it. (William Bower Taylor Historical 
Sketch of Henry's Contribution to the Electro- 
Magnetic Telegraph) 


riad signal system 

and deal the cards by electricity was patented 
November 29, 1932, by Laurens Hammond of 
Chicago, Til., who obtained patent No. 1,889,720 
for a "card table with an automatic dealing 
device." The unshuffled cards are placed in a 
sliding drawer which starts the mechanism 
and delivers thirteen cards to each player. 
The entire mechanism is concealed in the table 
The table was manufactured by the Hammond 
Clock Company of Chicago, 111 , which mar- 
keted in 1932 " 

ELECTRIC CAR. See Streetcar 
ELECTRIC CELL. See Photoelectric cell 

ELECTRIC COMPANY was the Edison 
Electric Light Company, 65 Fifth Avenue, New 
York City, incorporated October 15, 1878, and 
organized October 24, 1878. Three thousand 
shares with a par value of one hundred dollars 
each were issued for the express purpose of 
financing Mr. Edison in his efforts to invent the 
incandescent lamp. The Edison Electric Illumi- 
nating Company was incorporated December 17, 
1880, with a capitalization of one million dol- 
lars for the purpose of furnishing electric light 
in New York City. The first president of the 
company was Dr. Norvin Green who was 
chosen December 20, 1880. 

Electric company organized to produce and 
sell electricity was the California Electric Light 
Company, Inc., San Francisco, Calif., organized 
June 30, 1879. In September 1879, it furnished 
current from a central generating station for 
lighting Brush arc light lamps. 


Electric station to supply light and power 

was the Edison Electric Illuminating Company 
of 257 Pearl Street, New York City, which 
opened on Saturday evening, September 4, 1882. 
It had one engine which generated power for 
800 electric light bulbs Within fourteen 
months, the service had 508 subscribers and 
12,732 bulbs. (I' rands Tr eve I van Miller T 
A. Edison) 

Three-phase alternating high frequency 
current transmission for any considerable dis- 
tance by a utility company was operated in 
March 1893 from the Rainbow Hydroelectric 
Station on (he Farmington River to the State 
Street station of the Hartford Electric Light 
Company, Hartford, Conn. The power trans- 
mitted was 300kw. between 4,000 and 5,000 

Three-wire central station incandescent 
electric lighting plant was the Edison Electric 

Illuminating Company, Sunbury, Pa., incor- 
porated April 30, 1883 Operations were com- 
menced Tuly 4, 1883 Tuo 110-voll direct cur- 
rent generators were connected in series raising 
the distribution voltage to 220 volts This in- 
crease in voltage allows more current (am- 
peres) to be transported over a given si/.e of 
wire for a given distance, or allows an equal 
amount of current to be transported over a 
given size of wire for a greater distance than 
is possible where lower voltages are used. Tt 
was constructed by Thomas Alva Edison who 
served in the triple capacity of chief electrical 
engineer, mechanical expert and superintendent 
of construction 


\\as performed by Benjamin Franklin, on the 
banks of the Schu^lkill River, Philadelphia, in 
1749. Tn a letter sent to Peter Collinson he 
stated, "A turkey is to be killed for our dinner 
by the electrical shock and roasted by the elec- 
trical jack, before a fire kindled by the elec- 
trified bottle; when the healths of all the fa- 
mous electricians in England, Holland, France 
and Germany are to be drank in electrified 
bumpers, under the discharge of guns from the 
electrical battery." The letter was dated April 
29, 1749. (/. Bernard Coheir-Benjamin Frank- 
lin's Experiments) 



See Elevated railroad 


STANDARDS. See High jumping standards 

ELECTRIC FAN was invented by Dr, 
Schuyler Skaats Wheeler who in 1882 placed 
a fan or propeller on the shaft of an electric 
motor Tn 1904 the Franklin Institute awarded 
him the John Scott medal for this inventions 




ELECTRIC FLATIRON was invented by 
Henry W. Seely of New York City who 
received patent No. 259,054, on June 6, 1882. 


See Locomotive 


Hydrogen-cooled turbine generator was 
built by the General Electric Company, Sche- 
nectady, N.Y., and installed in the Millers Ford 
station of the Dayton Power and Light Com- 
pany, Ohio. The generator was put into com- 
mercial operation October 12, 1937, and had a 
capacity of 25,000 kilowatts. 

Hydrogen-cooled turbine generator for 
outdoor installation was built by the General 
Electric Company, Schencctady, N.Y. for the 
City of Glendale, Calif., at a cost of $391,669. 
It went into operation April 11, 1941. The 
normal rating of the turbo-generator was 20,000 
kilowatts. The generator unit was located upon 
an open deck and served with a traveling gantry 

Mercury boiler turbine was installed at 
the Dutch Point Station of the Hartford Elec- 
tric Light Company, Hartford, Conn., and 
placed in service September 7, 1923. It gen- 
erated about 1500 kilowatts. 

THORITY, INC., was authorized by Execu- 
tive order No. 6,514, December 19, 1933. It 
was incorporated January 17, 1934, under the 
laws of the State of Delaware with a capital 
of $1,000,000 "to encourage the fullest possible 
utilization of the present productive capacity of 
industries to avoid undue restriction of pro- 
duction." The directors of the corporation 
named in the executive order were Dr. Arthur 
Ernest Morgan, chairman, Dr. Harcourt Alex- 
ander Morgan and David Eli Lilienthal. The 
first sale of electric ranges, refrigerators and 
water heaters, financed by the Electric Home 
and Farm Authority, Inc., was held at Tupelo, 
Miss., May 21, 1934. The corporation was dis- 
solved and a new one incorporated August 1, 
1935, under the laws of the District of Colum- 

PALLY OWNED. See Electric power plant 

chain was patented August 11, 1896 
No. 565,451 by Harvey Hubbell of Bridge- 
port, Conn. The sockets were manufactured 
by Harvey Hubbell, Inc., Bridgeport, Conn. 


Electric arc lights for public street light- 
ing were made by Charles Francis Brush and 
were used in the Public Square, Cleveland, 
Ohio, April 29, 1879. Twelve lamps of the 
carbon variety, two carbon points slightly sep- 
arated, were used. The current jumped from 
carbon to carbon giving off "a dazzling white 
light." The women complained about these 
lamps because they lighted their complexions 


to disadvantage. (Thomas Commerford Mar- 
tin and Stephen Leidy Coles Story of Elec- 

Electric incandescent lamp of practical 
value was invented on October 21, 1879, by 
Thomas Alva Edison of Menlo Park, N.J. 
After thirteen months of experimenting, he 
discovered carbonized cotton filaments and pro- 
duced a light bulb which would burn forty 
hours in a vacuum inside a glass bulb. The 
first demonstration was held on December 20, 
1879. Patent papers on this invention were ap- 
plied for on November 4, 1879 and were 
granted January 27, 1880, No. 223,898. The 
first public demonstration was held December 
31, 1879. The Pennsylvania Railroad Company 
ran special trains to Menlo Park, N.J., to en- 
able the public to view the demonstration. (Wil- 
liam Andrew Durgin Electricity in Its Devel- 

Electric incandescent lamp factory was the 

Edison Lamp Works, Menlo Park, N.T., opened 
October 1, 1880. More than 130,000 bulbs 
were manufactured by April 1, 1882, when the 
factory moved to Harrison, N.J. 

Electric indirect lighting demonstration 

was made in Chicago, Til., on October 1908 by 
Augustus Darwin Curtis before the Illuminat- 
ing Engineering Society and the Ophthalmo- 
logical Society. (Jacob L. Stair The Lighting 

Electric lamp bulb frosted on the inside 

of sufficient strength for commercial handling 
was invented by Marvin Pipkin of the Incan- 
descent Lamp Department of the General Elec- 
tric Company at Nela Park, Ohio. He applied 
for a patent June 29, 1925, which was granted 
October 16, 1928, No. 1,687,510. Inside-frosted 
bulbs have a number of distinct advantages 
over outside-frosted bulbs among which are 
less absorption of light and less collection of 
dust. He found that bulbs frosted by previ- 
ous methods were weak because the etched 
surface was made up of minute sharp-angled 
pits or depressions, and that he could strengthen 
the bulb by changing these into rounded pits 
by treating the bulb with a weaker etching 
solution, or by using the strong solution for a 
shorter period of time. 

Electric light for household illumination 
was probably used by Professor Moses Gerrish 
Farmer at 11 Pearl Street, Salem, Mass. In 
July 1859 he arranged a series of lamps in his 
parlor, the current for which was generated 
by a galvanic battery of some three dozen 
six-gallon jars in his cellar. He invented an 
incandescent lamp which consisted of a strip 
of sheet platinum operating in air. (John 
White Howell and Henry Schroeder The His- 
tory of the Incandescent Lamp) 

Electric light from a power plant in a 
residence was generated by an independent 
plant installed in the home of J. Hood Wright 
at Fort Washington, N.Y., before December, 
1881, Other residences which were equipped 




with local generating power plants were those 
of William Henry Vanderbilt and John Pier- 
pont Morgan of New York City. 

Electric light in a store was installed in 
the Philadelphia, Pa., establishment of John 
Wanamaker on December 26, 1878, in the 
"Grand Depot." Twenty-eight arc lamps were 
used, eight dynamos supplying the current. 

Electric sterilamp was introduced in 
March 1938 by the Lamp Division of the 
Westinghouse Electric and Manufacturing 
Company, Bloomfield, NJ. By bactericidal 
ultraviolet radiation, it is intended to reduce 
the germ population of the air. 

Electrically lighted elevator. See Elevator 
Electrically lighted train. See Railroad 

Glass light bulb machine was invented by 
Benjamin D. Chamberlin of Washington, D.C., 
who received patent No. 1,551,935, September 1, 
1925, for an "apparatus for gathering glass 
and the treatment thereof on blowpipes" as- 
signed to the Hartford-Empire Company, Hart- 
ford, Conn. He filed his application on April 
23, 1909, serial No. 491,812. The first commer- 
cial machine was the result of several individ- 
uals' work and went into regular use about 
1914 at the main plant of the Corning Glass 
Works, Corning, N.Y. 

Hotel to install electric lights. See Hotel 

Klieglight lighting unit for the motion 
picture industry was invented by John Hugh 
Kliegl and Anton Tiberius Kliegl and placed 
in use in 1911. Two 35-ampere arcs operating 
in series were equipped with an automatic arc- 
feed arrangement, using the new white flame 
carbons. It gave four times as much light as 
other available sources. They were first used 
by the Carlton Motion Picture Laboratory, 
Coney Island, N.Y. ; the Lubin Manufacturing 
Co., Philadelphia, Pa., and the Thomas A. 
Edison, Inc., Decatur Avenue Studio, New 
York City. The name was not adopted until 

Mercury vapor lamp was invented by 
Peter Cooper Hewitt of New York City who 
received eight patents on September 17, 1901. 
It consisted of an elongated vacuum glass tube 
having a mercury electrode at one end and an 
iron electrode at the other end, the light being 
obtained from the gas or vapor of the mer- 
cury, through which an electric current passed. 
The lamps lack red rays. The lamps were 
manufactured by the Copper Hewitt Electric 
Company in New York City in December 1902. 
(Electrical World and Engineer April 27, 

Photograph taken by incandescent electric 
light. See Photograph 

School completely irradiated with germici- 
dal lamps. See School 

School to have all classroom lights con- 
trolled by electric eyes. See School 


Sewing machine lamp holder. See Sewing 


Steamer equipped with electric lights. See 


Sodium vapor lamps were installed June 
13, 1933, on the Balltown Road, near Schenec- 
tady, N.Y., by the General Electric Company 
and the New York Power and Light Corpo- 
ration. The lamps were monochromatic and 
glowed in one color giving two and a half 
times the light output of the same wattage 
incandescent lamps. The lamp wattage is about 
80 to 90 watts and the light output about 4,000 
lumens, which is the equivalent of the 400 
candle-power Mazda lamp consuming 215 watts. 

Theater lighted by electric lights. See 



LIGHT. Sec Locomotive headlight 

ELECTRIC MAGNET was invented by 
Joseph Henry who, in June 1828, exhibited one 
closely wound with silk-covered wire about 
one thirtieth of an inch in diameter, before 
the Albany Institute, Albany, N.Y ^ (Ellis H. 
Crap per Electric and Magnetic Circuits) 

ELECTRIC METER, indicating the 
amount of electrical energy dispensed or ap- 
pl'ed, was invented by Oliver B. Shallcnbcrger, 
of Rochester, Fa., who obtained patent 
No. 388,003 on August 14, 1888. Commercial 
production of the meters was started in 
August 1888, by the Westinghouse Electric and 
Manufacturing Company, Pittsburgh, Pa. 


Electric motor (single-phase alternating 
current) of variable speed was first used in 
1901 in mternrhan service. In 1907 the first 
steam railroad adopted it. 

CIAL CARRIER. See Electric transmission 

Alternating current power plant was 

placed in operation at (ireat Harrington, Mass, 
on March 6, 1886, and commercially operated 
on March 20, 1886. The transformers were 
built by William Stanley in the Great Barring- 
ton laboratory and were successfully operated 
for a considerable time, but an accident dis- 
abled the generators and the plant was dis- 
continued. (Charles James Taylor History 
of Great Barring ton) 

Alternating current power plant commer- 
cially successful was built at Buffalo, N.Y., 
in November 1886, by the Westinghouse Elec- 
tric and Manufacturing Company, Pittsburgh, 
Pa The station, located on Wilkeson Street, 





liuffalo, N.Y , was placed in operation on No- 
vember 30, 1886, by tbe Brush Electric Ligbt 
Company. (Kdward Dean Adams Niagara 

Hydro-electric power plant was opened 
September 30, 1882 at Appleton, Wis. A 
single dynamo of 180 lights, each of ten candle 
power, was erected. Incandescent lighting was 
furnished. (Thomas Commerford Martin 
Forty Years of Edison Service) 

Hydro-electric power plant (commercial) 

to furnish arc lighting service was the Grand 
Rapids Klectric Light and Power Co , Grand 
Rapids Mich., organized March 22, 1880, incor- 
porated March 30, 1880 and placed in operation 
July 23, 1880 The first president and organizer 
was William T. Powers. The first generating 
equipment was a 16-arclight Brush generator 
installed in the factory of the Wolverine Chair 
Company which was driven by a waterwheel to 
supply power to the factory. Seven organiza- 
tions were supplied with electric light. In 
September 1880, a larger generator was in- 
stalled at a different site and on August 1, 
1881, a new building was occupied from which 
current was generated to supply street light- 
ing. This plant furnished arc lighting serv- 
ice for the first four years of its operations. 
(Michigan History Magazine 1939) 

Hydro-electric power plant (county- 
owned) was placed in operation by the 
people of Crisp County, Ga., on August 1, 
1930. The plant is fourteen miles south- 
west of Cordele on the Flint River and was 
built under government license. Emmet Stephen 
Killebrcw was the Chief Engineer. Tt has a 
capacity of 14,000 horsepower and produces 
47,000,000 kilowatt hours per annum. 
(America's First County-owned Hydro-electric 
Power Plant Crisp County Power Commis- 

Hydro-electric power plant to use a stor- 
age battery making it possible to supply the 
peak load requirements from waterpower 
that would otherwise have gone to waste 
during- the periods of relatively small de- 
mands was installed by the Hartford Elec- 
tric Light Company, Hartford, Conn., in 

Hydro-electric power plant to use water 
pumped into a reservoir was constructed in 
1927 by the Connecticut Light and Power Com- 
pany, Waterbury, Conn., at Rocky River, Conn. 
The first pumping commenced February 
1928. Two 8,100-horsepower centrifugal 
pumps delivered water into a reservoir, ten 
miles long and one and three quarter miles 
wide at its widest point, which was stored 
and then used for generating electricity as 
needed in a 33,000-horsepower turbine. 
(Transactions American Institute of Electrical 
Engineers-October 1928) 


Mobile electric power plant was de- 
livered January 10, 1944, by the General 
Electric Company, Schenectady, N.Y., to 
the U.S. Navy Bureau of Yards and Docks, 
Navy Yard, Philadelphia, Pa. It consisted 
of six specially built railway cars housing 
a complete steam-turbine generating plant 
as well as the switchgear and transformer 
apparatus for controlling and distributing 
the 10,000 kilowatts of electric power it is 
capable of generating. The boilers are fired 
by oil. The unit has no motive power of 
its own but can be hauled over the rails 
at speeds up to forty miles an hour and 
can be placed in operation within twenty- 
four hours. 

Municipally owned electric power plant 
was purchased in 1882 by Fairfield, Iowa. 
It supplied thirteen street lights and six 
Brush arc lamps of two thousand candle- 
power situated on a 185-foot tower. City 
operation was in charge of Al Rpbb and 
James McQuiston. The illumination cost 
$70 annually per arc. A windstorm blew 
the tower down May 9, 1883. 

Rotary converter power plant was operated 
by the Chicago Edison Company, Chicago, 111., 
on May 16, 1896, for the purpose of inaugu- 
rating a 2,500-volt alternating transmission 
from their station at Harrison Street at the 
river, to their station at 27th Street and Wa- 
bash Ave., Chicago, 111. 

Warship propelled by electricity. See Ship 

Wind turbine to generate energy for an 
alternating current central power system 
was placed in service October 19, 1941, at 
Grandpa's Knob, Vt., when it was phased 
into the Central Vermont Public Service 
Corporation's system. Synchronized opera- 
tion continued for two hours during which 
a maximum output of 800 kilowatts was de- 
livered. The wind velocity indicated by the 
anemometers at this load was twenty-six 
miles an hour. Palmer Cosslet Putnam was 
the inventor. (Power June 1941) 


Printing press 





mobile electric self-starter 


Sewing machine 



Animated-cartoon electric sign was dis- 
played April 28, 1937, by Douglas Leigh on 
the front of a building on Broadway, New 




York City. It contained two thousand bulbs 
and presented a four-minute show depicting 
a cavorting horse, ball-tossing cats, etc. 

Electric sign flasher installed was the 
"Motogram" placed in service November 6, 
1928 on the four sides of the New York 
"Times" building, New York City when elec- 
tion returns were flashed. It was invented by 
Francis E. J. Wilde of Meadowmere Park, 
N.Y., who obtained patent No. 1,626,900 on 
May 3, 1927 on an "electric sign control" de- 
signed "to permit changing of sign without 
interruption." It was installed by the Moto- 
gram Corporation, New York City and was 
360 feet long and 5 feet high. It had 14,800 
lamps, 88,000 soldered connections, 1,386,000 
feet of wire and 39,000 contact brushes which 
created 21,925,664 lamp flashes an hour. 

Neon tube advertising sign was installed 
on a marquee at the Cosmopolitan Theatre, 
Fifty-ninth Street and Columbus Circle, 
New York City, in July 1923. This sign ad- 
vertised the theatrical production "Little Old 
New York" in which Marion Davies played 
the leading role. A United States patent 
on this tube was granted to George Claude 
of Paris. It was applied for on November 
9, 1911 and issued on January 19, 1915, 
No. 1,125,476. 

track) was invented by Clay Puett who in- 
stalled a two-stall working model on May 
8, 1939, at Hollywood Park, Inglewood, 
Calif. The first full-size gate was used at 
Bay Meadows Race Track, San Francisco, 
Calif., October 7, 1939. The gates were 
equipped with a bomb release type of lock 
operated by solenoids. The front doors 
when closed formed a "V" and opened out- 
ward by means of springs. 

TOMOBILE Sec Automobile 

ELECTRIC STOVE was a one-ring spiral 
coiled conductor invented by William S. 
Hadaway, Jr. of New York City who ob- 
tained patent No. 563,032 June 30, 1896. It 
provided a uniform surface distribution of 

See also Electric cooking experiment 







Alternating current power transmission 

installation was made in 1890 at Telluride, 
Colo., by the Westinghouse Electric and Man- 
ufacturing Company. A 100-horsepower, SS l /3 
cycle, single phase, 3,000 volt generator was 


driven by water-power. A three-mile trans- 
mission line was erected and a single-phase 
synchronous motor was installed at the end 
of the line. The motor lacked a starting 
torque, and a necessary adjunct was a starting 
motor to bring the unloaded synchronized mo- 
tor to its normal speed. (Francis Ellington 
Leupp George Westinghouse) 

Electric power line commercial carrier was 
placed in operation December 6, 1922, by the 
Utica Gas and Electric Company, Utica, N.Y. 
The plant was built by the General Electric 
Company, Schenectady, N.Y., and consisted of 
the transmitters, the power lines and the asso- 
ciated receivers. The transmission lines carry 
both voices and power. A single power line 
can carry several different carrier frequencies 
simultaneously making possible distant super- 
visory control of various types of electric 



Voting machine 


Washing machine 


with the Federal government, for electrical 
power was signed by J. P. Nanney, Mayor of 
Tupelo, Miss., and Arthur Ernest Morgan, 
chairman of the Tennessee Valley Authority 
on November 11, 1933, and went into effect 
February 7, 1934. The contract was for twenty 
years, and by it the city agreed to purchase 
electricity from TVA and to sell it to its cus- 
tomers at rates agreed upon with the Ten- 
nessee Valley Authority. The electricity costs 
the City of Tupelo about S l / 2 mills per kilowatt 

COURSE. See Engineering college 


Deaf Hearing aid 


ELECTRICAL SHOW was held at Phila- 
delphia, Pa., September 2-October 11, .1884 and 
was known as the Electrical Exhibition and 
National Conference of Electricians. Tt was 
sponsored by the Franklin Institute and was 
held in the Pennsylvania Railroad Station, 32d 
and Market Streets, Philadelphia, Pa. There 
were 216 exhibitors and 282,779 paid admis- 
sions. (Official Catalogue of the International 
Electrical Exhibition 1884) 


See Ship 


See Clock 




ELECTROBASOGRAPH was invented by 
Dr Russell Plato Schwartz of the University of 
Rochester Medical School, Rochester, N.Y., 
who exhibited it June 12, 1933, at the American 
Medical Association convention, Milwaukee, 
Wis. It was designed "to record the walking 
gait of individuals, to distinguish between 
actual and spurious limps in damage claims 
for injuries." 



sect clectrocutor patent 


See Telegraph 


ELECTRON TUBE to enable man to see 
in the dark was invented by Dr. Vladimir 
Kosma Zworykin and Dr. George Arthur 
Morton and described January 2, 1936, at the 
American Association for the Advancement of 
Science meeting, St. Louis, Mo. The device 
was sensitive to ultra-violet and infra-red rays. 
Light rays from moving pictures were con- 
verted into electrons. 



See Television 

facsimile transmission 

ELECTROTYPE was produced from a 
wood engraving in 1839 in New York City by 
Joseph A. Adams. The electrotype was made 
by an impression taken in an alloy of soft 
metal, bismuth probably being the chief ingre- 
dient. Electrotypes were first published in 
1840 in Mapes Magazine. (Robert Francis 
Salade Handbook of Electrotyping and Stere- 

Electrotype manufacturing for commercial 
purposes was started in 1846 by John W. Wil- 
cox at Boston, Mass. (Robert Francis Salade 
Handbook of Electroplating and Stereotyp- 

ELEPHANT. See Animals 

ELEVATED RAILROAD was opened for 
traffic on July 2, 1867, in New York City. 
Charles T. Harvey received authority for its 
construction and built the first half-mile test 
section on single columns along the curb line 
of Greenwich Street, between Battery Place 
and Dey Street. The speed of the cars was 
from 12 to 15 miles an hour. The line was 
unsuccessful and was sold at a sheriff's sale. 
It was reorganized February 14, 1870, and serv- 
ice was extended as far north as the New 
York Central Railroad Passenger station at 
29th Street and 9th Avenue, and placed in 


operation with steam power. (The Industrial 
Museum of New York. Vol. 1-2 Museum of 
the Peaceful Arts) 

Electric elevated railroad, and the first 
commercial electric line, was operated at the 
Chicago Railway Exposition in June 1883 by 
the Electric Railway Company of the United 
States. "The Judge," a fifteen-horsepower 
electric locomotive hauled the trains on a 
three-foot gauge track around the outer edge 
of a gallery of the main exhibition building, 
curving sharply at either end on a radius of 
56 feet. The total length of the track was 
1,553 feet. The trial trip was made June 2, 
1883, but the line was not permitted to operate 
until June 9th. It ceased operating June 23d 
having run 118^4 hours. It made 1588 trips, 
carried 26,805 passengers, and ran 446.24 miles. 
(Thomas Commerford Martin and Joseph 
WeizlcrThe Electric Motor and Its Appli- 


Double deck elevator was installed Jan- 
uary 1932 by the Otis Elevator Company in 
the Sixty Wall Tower, Inc., building New 
York City. It serves thirty floors and travels 
at a speed of 1,000 feet a minute. 

Dual elevator where two cars are op- 
erated separately in the same shaftway, was 
made and placed in regular service by the 
Wcstinghouse Company in its main office 
building at East Pittsburgh, Pa., in 1931. 
( W es ting ho use News Service) 

Electric elevator successfully operated 

was installed in 1889 by Otis Brothers Com- 
pany for the Demarest Building, Fifth Avenue 
and 33d Street, New York City. 

Electronic signal control elevator com- 
mercial installation was completed by Otis 
Elevator Company during April 1948 at the 
Universal Pictures Building, New York City, 
after several years of experiment and develop- 
ment. Eight elevators, four local and four ex- 
press, serve the building's twenty-two stories. 
When a passenger touches a landing button, 
the call is registered by an electronic tube, the 
light of which indicates that the call is regis- 
tered. The stopping of the cars in response to 
these calls, the cancelling of the calls as they 
are answered and the operation of the cars 
are all controlled by means of electronic cir- 

Elevator was a platform type elevator 
which was made by Henry Waterman in 1850 
in his shop on Duane Street, New York City. 
The elevator was installed in a building owned 
by Hecker and Brother, millers, 203 Cherry 
Street, New York City, who used it to hoist 
barrels upstairs in their mill. 

Elevator in a hotel was installed in the 
six-story Fifth Avenue Hotel, New York City 
on August 23, 1859. It was viewed and in- 
spected by Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, 
upon his visit there in 1860. 




Elevator in an office building was in- 
stalled in the original Equitable Life Assur- 
ance Society building located on lower Broad- 
way, New York City, in 1868. 

Elevator in which an electric light was 
placed was installed in the Blue Mountain 
House, Blue Mountain Lake, N.Y., on July 12, 
1882. The hotel was operated by M. T. Mer- 


Elevator patent, for a vertical-geared hy- 
draulic electric elevator, was No. 123,761, 
granted February 20, 1872 to Cyrus W. Bald- 
win of Boston, Mass. The elevator was in- 
stalled in the Stephens Hotel at llth Street, 
near Broadway, New York City. 

Elevator (suspended) was a steam hoist 
which was installed in 1866 in the St. James 
Hotel, New York City. 

Elevator with completely enclosed car for 

conveying passengers to the upper floor of 
a building was installed in 1857 by Elisha 
Graves Otis in the store of E .V. Haughwout, 
at the corner of Broadway and Broome 
Streets, New York City. 

Elevator with safety devices to prevent 
falling of the car in case the ropes should 
break was made by Elisha Graves Otis in 1853 
and exhibited by him the same year at the 
Crystal Palace Exposition in New York City. 

Grain elevator operated by steam in the 

transfer and storage of grain for commer- 
cial purposes was designed by Robert Dunbar 
and made by Jewett & Root for Joseph Dart, 
Buffalo, N.Y., "in 1842. The first cargo of corn 
was unloaded June 22, 1843, from the "South 
America." (Publications Buffalo Historical So- 
ciety 1879) 

ELKS. See Benevolent and Protective Order 
of Elks 


passed July 2, 1777, by Vermont, which em- 
bodied the following provision in its constitu- 
tion, "No male person, born in this country, 
or brought here from over sea, ought to be 
holdcn by law, to serve any person as a serv- 
ant, slave or apprentice, after he arrives to the 
age of twenty-one years, nor female, in like 
manner, after she arrives and to the age of 
eighteen years, unless they are bound by their 
own consent, after they arrive at such age, or 
bound by law, for the payment of debts, dam- 
ages, fines, costs, or the like." 


(preliminary) was made by President Abra- 
ham Lincoln on September 22, 1862. He issued 
a further proclamation on January 1, 1863, 
freeing the slaves in all states then in rebellion 
except in certain districts in Louisiana and 
Virginia occupied by Federal troops. (Henry 
Watson Wilbur President Lincoln's Attitude 
Toward Slavery and Emancipation) 


EMBALMING BOOK was Professor Au- 

guste Renouard's The Undertakers Manual, 
a Treatise of Useful and Reliable Informa- 
tion; embracing complete and detailed instruc- 
tions for the preservation of bodies, also the 
most approved embalming methods, a 230-page 
book published in 1878 by A. H. Nirdlinger & 
Co., Rochester, N.Y. 

EMBARGO ACT was passed December 
22, 1807 (2 Stat.L.4Sl) by vote of 82 to 44. 
The act, "laying an embargo on all ships and 
vessels in the ports and harbors of the 
United States" required all American ships 
to refrain from international commerce and 
was approved December 22, 1807, by Pres- 
ident Thomas Jefferson. The act was re- 
pealed March 1, 1809. A later act substi- 
tuted non-intercourse with England and 
France. (Annals of Congress. 10 Cong. 1 Ses- 

EMBASSY (Chinese). See Chinese embassy 



tional emergency council (U.S.) 

TION (U.S.) was authorized October 28, 
1933, through the powers delegated to the 
Administrator under the Act of June 16, 
1933, which created the Public Works Ad- 
ministration. The corporation was organ- 
ized November 18, 1933, under Delaware 
laws and was composed of five officers and 
five directors. The president of the cor- 
poration was Harold Loy Ickes, Administra- 
tor of Public Works. The Federal Hous- 
ing Administration was created by the Na- 
tional Housing Act approved June 27, 1934 
(48 Stat.L.1246) "to encourage improvement 
in housing standards and conditions, to pro- 
vide a system of mutual mortgage insur- 
ance." Its first administrator was James An- 
drew MofTett appointed for the four-year term 
at an annual salary of $10,000. 

TION. See Federal emergency relief adminis- 


Time recorder 

ERAL). See Insurance 


Employment service (U.S.) as a distinct 
and separate unit of the Department of 
Labor was inaugurated under an order pro- 
mulgated January 3, 1918, by the Secre- 
tary of Labor in pursuance of an act approved 
October 6, 1917 (40 Stat.L.376). Previous 
thereto the employment service functioned 





under authority of an act to establish a Divi- 
sion of Information in the Bureau of Immi- 
gration (sec. 40 Immigration Act of Feb. 
20, 1907) (34 Stat.L.909) and by the provi- 
sions of the organic act creating the De- 
partment of Labor (March 4, 1913) (37 

Employment service (U.S.E.S.) was cre- 
ated June 6, 1933 (48 Stat.L.113), "to provide 
for the establishment of a national employment 
system and for cooperation with the states in 
the promotion of such a system." The first di- 
rector was William Frank Persons who re- 
ceived $8,500 annually. Within ten weeks, 
3,220 local offices opened which registered nine 
million people. It was, in turn, under the De- 
partment of Labor, the Social Security Board, 
and the War Manpower Commission. 

Municipal employment office was author- 
ized by Seattle, Wash., on March 5, 1894, 
by a vote of 2,058 for and 523 against. John 
Lamb, the first labor commissioner, opened 
an office April 1, 1894, in a rough board 
shanty containing one small room. The fol- 
lowing year larger quarters were obtained in 
the City Hall. (Seventh Annual Report of 
Labor Commissioner Seattle f Wash.) 

State employment service was created 
April 28, 1890, in Ohio by act of legislature 
amending section 308 of the Revised Stat- 
utes. Authorization was given to establish 
public employment offices in cities of the 
first and second class, Cincinnati, Cleveland, 
Columbus, Dayton and Toledo. The first 
office was opened June 4, 1890, in Toledo, 
with Charles W. Murphy as superintendent. 
The Commissioner of Labor Statistics, 
under whom the system of five offices was 
set up during the year 1890, was John Mc- 
Bride. (Ohio Bureau of Labor Statistics 
\S9Q-Fourteenth Annual Report) 

ENCLAVE was established at Fairhope, 
Baldwin County, Ala., by the Fairhope In- 
dustrial Association, Inc., composed of seven 
men who purchased 135 acres in the town 
for $771 on January 5, 1895, and an addi- 
tional 200 acres for $250 at a later date. 
The association was succeeded by the Fair- 
hope Single Tax Corporation, incorporated 
August 9, 1904, which owns about 4,000 
acres, three fourths of which is under lease. 
The association pays all taxes, and lease- 
holders only pay rent for the land. 

Municipal enclave of economic ground 
rent was authorized by the Collierville En- 
clave Act passed by Collierville, Shelby 
County, Tenn. Governor Hill McAlister 
signed ^ the bill April 21, 1933 which took 
effect immediately. The bill was drawn up 
by Abe D. Waldauer, City Attorney for Col- 
lierville, and approved by Mayor J. T. Pat- 
rick. (Chapter 523 Private Acts of the Gen- 
eral Assembly of Tennessee for 1933.) 


ation Airship 




See Pound (enclosure for animals) 


Agricultural encyclopedia. See Agricultur- 
al encyclopedia 

American encyclopedia was the Encyclo- 
pedia Americana edited by Francis Licber. 
The set consisted of thirteen volumes, the 
first of which was issued in 1829 and the 
thirteenth in 1833. It was published in Phila- 
delphia, Pa. 

Encyclopedia printed in the United States 
was a reproduction of the third edition of 
the Encyclopaedia Britannica, originally pub- 
lished in Edinburgh between the years 1788 
and 1797. The American reprint, however, was 
not called "Encyclopaedia Britannica," but "En- 
cyclopaedia; or a Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, 
and Miscellaneous Literature." It consisted of 
eighteen volumes and was completed in 1798 by 
Thomas Dobson at Philadelphia, Pa. The first 
volume appeared in 1790 and contained 799 
pages and 31 plates. 

tomobile tractor 


Lecture series endowed 



Educational endowment 


See Social service endowment 

ENDURANCE RUN (Motorcycle). See 



See also 

Diesel engine Locomotive 

Electric motor Motor 

Eire engine Steam engine 

Gas engine 

Diesel engine built for commercial service 

was a two-cylinder 60 horsepower unit built in 
September 1898 in the plant of the St. Louis 
Iron and Machine Works, St. Louis, Mo. The 
engine, which drove a direct-current generator, 
was erected and operated in the Second Street 
plant of the Anheuser Busch, Inc., brewery and 
was the first diesel engine in the world to be 
placed in commercial service. Adolphtis Busch 
bought Dr. Rudolf Diesel's American patent 
rights in 1897 for a sum of approximately 
$250,000. The next engines were built for thr 
Diesel Motor Company of America, which was 
formed by Mr. Busch. These engines were 
built in the plant of the Hewes and Phillips 




Iron Works, Newark, N.J., about 1900, and 
were of one size. They had an 1 1 x 20 inch 
cylinder which when running 200 revolutions 
per minute was intended to develop 20 horse- 
power. (Lacey Harvey Morrison Diesel En* 

Diesel engine in a submarine was the Vide- 
ers air injection type, four c>cle, four cylinder, 
non-air starting and non-reversing units, which 
were placed in the Submarines E-l and E-2, 
built by the New London Ship and Engine 
Company of Grot on, Conn., and commissioned 
on February 14, 1912. (American Society of 
Naval Engineers Journal. Vol. 37 August 

Internal combustion engine was invented 
by Captain Samuel Morey of Oxford, N.H , 
who received a patent April 1, 1826 "on a gas 
or vapor engine." His engine had two cylinders, 
180-degree cranks, poppet valves, carburetor, 
electric spark and water cooling device. He 
employed the vapor of spirits of turpentine 
and common air. A small tin dish contained 
the spirits, and the only heat he used was from 
a common table lamp. By means of a crank 
and flywheel, a rotary movement was obtained, 
as in the steam engine. ( Katherine Goodwin 
and Charles Edgar Duryea Captain Samuel 

Multi-engine hydroplane. See Aviation 

Outboard motor (commercially success- 
ful) was developed in Milwaukee, Wis., in 
1909 by Ole Evinrude. It was a single cylinder 
two-port two-cycle battery-ignited engine, de- 
veloping one and a half horsepower at about 
one thousand revolutions per minute, and 
weighed forty-six pounds. (Journal of the So- 
ciety of Automotive Engineers January 1931) 

Outboard twin-cylinder motor (light) was 

developed in Milwaukee, Wis , in 1921 by Ole 
Evinrude. This was the two-port two-cycle 
Elto, which developed two and a half horse- 
power at fourteen hundred revolutions per min- 
ute. It weighed forty-seven pounds. 

ENGINEER (ARMY). See Army officer 
ENGINEER (NAVY) See Naval officer 

ENGINEERING BOOK was a translation 
of Louis Andre de la Mamie de Chirac's 
L'Ingenieur de Campagne; or Field Engineer. 
It contained 256 pages and a variety of copper- 
plates. It was translated by Major Lewis Ni- 
cola and was published in 1776 by R[obert] 
Aitken, Philadelphia, Pa. 


Aeronautical engineering. See Aviation 

Civil engineering course in a college was 
given in 1819 at Norwich University, now lo- 
cated at Northfield, Vt. The university was 
founded August 6, 1819, as the American Lit- 


erary, Scientific and Military Academy by Cap- 
tain Alden Partridge, in Norwich, Vt. Courses 
in civil engineering included the construction of 
roads, canals, locks, bridges, and architecture. 
The name was changed November 6, 1834, to 
Norwich University. In March 1866 the build- 
ings were destroyed by fire and the college was 
moved to Northfield, Vt. 

Electrical engineering course in a college 
was established September 21, 1883, by ,the 
College of Engineering, Cornell Univer- 
sity, Ithaca, N.Y. A four-year course was 
given leading to the degree of Bachelor 
of Science. Instruction was given in the 
theory of electricity, the construction and 
testing of telegraph lines, cables and in- 
struments, dynamo machines, civil and mechan- 
ical engineering, etc. Dr. Andrew White 
pledged his own resources for the school. 

Engineering college was the College of 
Science and Engineering established by 
the Rcnsselaer Polytechnic Institute which was 
founded at Troy, N.Y., October 3, 1824. Amos 
Eaton was senior professor and the first di- 
rector. The school opened January 25, 1825, 
in the Farmers' Bank Building. (Ray Palmer 
Baker A Chapter in American Education) 

CHANICAL). See Mechanical engineering 


Civil engineering national society was the 

American Society of Civil Engineers founded 
as the American Society of Civil Engineers and 
Architects, November 5, 1852 at New York 
City for "the advancement of the sciences of 
engineering and architecture in their several 
branches, the professional improvement of its 
members, the encouragement of intercourse be- 
tween men of practical science, and the estab- 
lishment of a central point of reference and 
union for its members." The title was short- 
ened later. The first president was James 
Laurie and the first secretary was Robert Ben- 
nett Gorsuch. 

Engineering society of importance was 
the Boston Society of Civil Engineers or- 
ganized at an informal meeting April 26, 1848, 
at the United States Hotel, Boston, Mass. The 
first regular meeting was July 3, 1848. It was 
incorporated April 24, 1851, for "promoting 
science and instruction in the department of 
civil engineering." The first officers were James 
Fowle Baldwin, president ; George Dexter Mi- 
not, vice president; John Harrison Blake, sec- 
retary; and William Pearce Parrott, treasurer. 
Attempts were made to form engineering socie- 
ties in 1836 by engineers of the Cincinnati & 
Charleston Railroad, in 1839 by engineers at 
Baltimore, Md., and in 1841 at Albany, N.Y., 
but these sporadic attempts were not successful. 

Mechanical engineering national society 

was the American Society of Mechanical En- 
gineers founded February 16, 1880, by forty 
men from eight states who met at the office of 




the American Machinist f New York City and 
elected Alexander Lyman Holley chairman. An 
organization meeting was held April 7, 1880 at 
the Assembly Hall of Stevens Institute of 
Technology, Hoboken, NJ. The first president 
was Robert Henry Thurston. The first annual 
meeting was Nov. 4-5, 1880 at New York City. 
(William Frederick Durand Robert Henry 
Thurston, A Biography) 

Woman elected to the American Society of 
Civil Engineers was Nora Stanton Blatch as 
a Junior on March 6, 1906. The grade of 
Junior was a temporary one, and the first 
woman elected as an Associate Member (which 
is one of the two grades of Corporate Member- 
ship) was Elsie Eaves on March 14, 1927. 







RIVE IN THE U.S. See Ship 

ENGRAVER of record to practice his art 
in the American colonies was Peter Pelham. 
In 1727 he produced the first mezzotint en- 
graving, a picture of Cotton Mather. (David 
McNeely Stauffer American Engravers upon 
Copper and Steel) 

ENGRAVING was a woodcut made about 
April 22, 1669 by John Foster, of the Rev. 
Richard Mather prior to his death. He cut 
away from the surface of a flat wooden block 
those parts which were to appear white in the 
print, leaving the actual design in raised out- 
line on the block. The print was five by six 
inches. (Carl W. Drepperd Early Amer- 
ican Prints) 

Engraving of any artistic merit was a 

copperplate portrait of Increase Mather, made 
in 1701 by Thomas Emmes, which was used 
as a frontispiece to a sermon "The Blessed 
Hope," published at Boston, Mass., in 1701 by 
Timothy Green for Nicholas Boone. (Arthur 
Mayger Hind History of Engraving and 

Half-tone engraving was made by Ste- 
phen Henry Horgan and appeared in the New 
York Daily Graphic, March 4, 1880. It de- 
picted a "Scene in ghantytown, N.Y," A screen 


gradated from transparency to opacity was 
the basis of the invention. (Inland Printer 
March- April 1924) 

Historical print engraved in America was 

A Prospective Plan of the Battle Fought Near 
Lake George, which presented a bird's-eye 
view of the march of troops shown at the left, 
the camp and battle at the right, and Forts 
William Henry and Edward in the upper right 
hand corner. It was an engraving in line, 
colored by hand, by Thomas Johnston after 
Samuel Blodget, and printed by Richard 
Draper, at Boston, Mass., in 1755. 

Wood engraving made with an engraving 
tool, the burin, making use of the intaglio 
"white line" was a tobacco stamp made by 
Alexander Anderson in June 1793 in New 
York City. The following year, he made a 
wood engraving for a book, The Looking 
Glass for the Mind; or Intellectual Mirror by 
William Durell translated from A maud Ber- 
quin's L'ami dcs Enfans. A woodcut is made 
with a knife. Everet Augustus DuyckinckA 
Brief Catalogue of Books illustrated ivith en- 
gravings by Dr. Alexander Anderson with a 
Biographical sketch of the Artist} 

REAU (U.S.) began operations August 28, 
1862. Signatures were to be engraved in fac- 
simile and the seal of the treasury imprinted 
on the notes after they had been delivered to 
the engravers. Certain stamps, notes and bills 
were printed by individuals under contract. 
The act of February 25, 1862 (12 Stat.L.346) 
authorized the Bureau. (Laurence Frederick 
Schmeckebier The Bureau of Engraving and 


Federal entomologist was Town end Glov- 
er commissioned June 14, 1854. He was the 
"expert for collecting statistics and other in- 
formation on seeds, fruits and insects of the 
United States." His first report, which ap- 
peared under the imprint of the Patent Of- 
fice, was Insects Injurious and Beneficial to 
Vegetation printed in 1847. (Charles Richards 
Dodge The Life and Entomological Work of 
the Late Townend Glover) 

State entomologist (not official, but so 
designated) to be appointed was Asa Fitch. 
The New York State Legislature on April 15, 
1854, made an appropriation of $1,000 to pay 
for making an examination and description 
of the insects of New York State, particular- 
ly those injurious to vegetation. The New 
York State Agricultural Society, through its 
executive committee, meeting at the Astor 
House, New York City, on May 4, 1854, 
appointed Asa Fitch to do this work and in- 
structed him at that time to make his first 
report relative to injurious insects affecting 
fruits, which appeared in the Agricultural So- 
ciety Report for 1855. (Journal of the N.Y. 
State Agricultural Society. 1854-1855) 




applied entomology was the Practical Ento- 
mologist, the first issue of which was pub- 
lished at Philadelphia, Pa., in October 1865 by 
the Entomological Society of Philadelphia. 
The original editors were Ezra Townsend 
Cresson, Augustus Radcliffe Grote and James 
W. McAllister. The magazine existed only 
two years. The Entomological Society was 
founded in 1859, incorporated in 1862 and 
changed its name to the American Entomolog- 
ical Society on February 23, 1867. 

mann August Hagcn who served at Harvard 
University, Cambridge, Mass., from 1870 to 


Envelope folding and gumming machine 

was patented on February 8, 1898, No.598,716, 
by John Ames Sherman of Worcester, Mass., 
on a "mechanism for folding and sealing en- 
velopes." It reduced the cost of a completely 
gummed envelop ready for market from sixty 
cents to eight cents a thousand. 

Envelope folding machine that proved 
practical commercially was patented on Janu- 
ary 21, 1853, No. 9812, by Dr. Russell L. Hawes 
of Worcester, Mass. It was not self-gumming 
but nevertheless it enabled three girls to pro- 
duce a finished product of about 25,000 envel- 
opes in ten hours. (U. S. Envelope Co. An 
Early History of the Envelope) 

Envelope machine patent was No. 6,055 
granted on January 23, 1849, to Jesse K. Park 
and Cornelius S. Watson of New York City 
on "an improvement in machines for making 
envelopes." Other patents upon improved ma- 
chines were granted shortly thereafter with the 
result that this patent had but little value. 

Envelope with an outlook or window 

was patented by Americus F. Callahan of Chi- 
cago, 111., who obtained patent No.701,839 on 
June 10, 1902. It was first manufactured in 
July 1902 by the U.S. Envelope Company of 
Springfield, Mass., to whom the patent was 

Stamped envelope (U.S.) See Postage 



Mr. Pierson of New York City who manufac- 
tured them in a little store on Fulton Street 
in 1839. Prior to their manufacture, letters 
were folded and the name and address written 
on the blank side. 


Cholera epidemic occurred in 1832. In- 
dividual cases are claimed to have developed 
in several cities, but the real force of the epi- 
demic was manifested in the larger cities like 
New York, Boston, Philadelphia, etc. The first 
case in New York City appeared June 28, 1832, 
and from July 5, 1832, to August 29, 1832, 


5,835 cases developed of which 2,251 resulted 
in death. On July 21, 1832, New York City 
reported 311 cases and 100 deaths. (Edward 
Warren Sketch of the Progress of the Ma- 
lignant or Epidemic Cholera) 

Influenza epidemic occurred in 1733 and 
was most serious in Philadelphia and New 
York City. About three fourths of the entire 
population was affected. (James Thacher 
American Medical Biography. 1828) 

Poliomyelitis epidemic occurred at Rut- 
land, Vt., when 123 cases appeared at Rutland 
and Wallingford, Vt., between June 17, 1894 
and September 1, 1894. (New York Medical 
Record December 1, 1894) 

Smallpox epidemic of importance oc- 
curred in 1616-1617 and almost swept away the 
New England Indians from the Penobscot to 
Narragansett Bay. Smallpox broke out about 
May 26, 1721 principally affecting Boston, 
Mass., and the larger cities. The death rate 
varied from 12 per cent to 24 per cent of the 
population. (Reginald Fleber Fits Zabdiel 
Boylston, Inoculator and The Epidemic of 
Small Pox in Boston in 1721) 

EPIDEMIOLOGIST was Noah Webster. 
In 1796, he published A Collection of Papers 
on the Subject of Bilious Fevers, Prevalent in 
the United States for a Fezv Years Past, which 
was printed in New York City by Hopkins, 
Webb & Co., and, in 1799, a two-volume work, 
A Brief History of Epidemics and Pestilential 
Diseases; ivith the Principal Phenomena of the 
Physical World, which Precede and Accom- 
pany Them, and Observations Deduced from 
the Facts Stated, which was published by Hud- 
son and Goodwin, Hartford, Conn. 

England; Protestant Episcopal church 

EQUAL RIGHTS PARTY was formed in 
San Francisco, Calif., September 20, 1884, by 
the Woman's Rights Party or Female Suffra- 
gettes at which convention Bclva Ann Bennett 
Lockwood of the District of Columbia was 
nominated as the presidential candidate and 
Marietta Lizzie Bell Stow of California as the 
vice presidential candidate. 

ica was given by John Sharp in Boston, Mass., 
in 1771. He gave other exhibitions at Salem, 
Mass., and other cities. A Mr. Pool was the 
first rider to introduce a clown to the American 
public. He advertised in the Pennsylvania 
Packet on August 15, 1785, that he would mount 
three horses and while standing on the saddles 
would leap a hurdle at full speed. 


See Monument 


See Pencil 




ESCALATOR was manufactured by the 
Otis Elevator Company of New York City in 
1900 and placed on exhibit at the Paris Ex- 
position the same year. It was returned to the 
United States and installed in 1901 in the 
Eighth Street Building of Gimbel Brothers, 
Philadelphia, Pa. The trade-mark "Escalator" 
was registered May 29, 1900 and was renewed 
by the Otis Elevator Company in 1930. 


ESKIMO PIE, a confection containing a 
normally liquid material frozen to a substan- 
tially hard state encased in a chocolate cover- 
ing to maintain its original form during han- 
dling, was invented by Christian K. Nelson of 
Onawa, Iowa, who obtained patent No. 1,404,539 
on January 24, 1922. Subsequent patents have 
also been issued which are controlled by the 
Eskimo Pie Corporation of New York City. 

ESPERANTO, a new universal language, 
was proposed by Dr. Lazaro Ludovico Zamen- 
hof, a Russian physician, in 1887. An attempt 
was made to introduce it into the United States 
but it received little favor. 

Talking picture in Esperanto. See Mov- 
ing picture 

ESPERANTO CLUB was the Esperanto 
Association organized February 16, 1905, 
at Boston, Mass. John Fogg Twombly was 
the first secretary. 

Esperanto club (national organization) 

was the Esperanto Association of North 
America organized September 7, 1908, at 
Chautauqua Lake, N.Y. George Brinton 
McClellan Harvey was the first president. 

Esperanto Congress in the United States 

was the Sixth International Congress of 
Esperantists, held August 14th to 20th, 1910 
at Washington, D.C. It was attended by 
about three hundred delegates from thirty- 
five nations. 

ESPERANTO COURSE carrying college 
credit was offered by Clark University, Wor- 
cester, Mass., on Scptemher 16, 1908. Dr. Rob- 
ert Mowry Bell taught the course which offered 
"a brief outline of the grammar, and some 
practice in reading the new universal language." 

Esperantisto, "a monthly journal of Esperanto, 
the international language," published October 
1906 at Oklahoma City, Okla. It contained six- 
teen pages and cover. Subscription was one 
dollar a year. 


ETCHER of skill was William Dunlap 
whose success in 1830 inspired others to 
practice this art. (William Dunlap History 
of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of De- 
sign in the US.) 



The New York Society for Ethical Culture 
founded at New York City in May 1876 by 
Dr. Felix Adler. Additional groups were 
formed and in 1886 the American Ethical 
Union was organized. (Horace James 
Bridges Aspects of Ethical Religion f Essays 
In Honor of Felix Adler On the Fiftieth Anni- 
versary Of His Founding Of The Ethical 
Movement 1876, By His Colleagues) 

EUTHANASIA SOCIETY was the National 
Society for the Legalization of Euthanasia 
formed January 14, 1938, at New York City 
with Reverend Charles Francis Potter as presi- 
dent, Dr. Harold Hays, secretary, and Charles 
Edward Nixdorff, treasurer. The society was 
incorporated as the Euthanasia Society of 
America on November 30, 1938. 


NATIONAL). See International eucharistic 

CHURCH was organized June 26, 1934 at 
Cleveland, Ohio, by merging the Reformed 
Church in the United States, organized by 
John Philip Boehm, October 15, 1725, at 
Falkner Swamp, Montgomery County, Pa., 
and the Evangelical Synod of North Amer- 
ica organized October 15, 1840, at Mehlville, 
St. Louis County, Mo. The first president 
of the new group was Dr. George Warren 
Richards, president of the Theological Sem- 
inary of the Reformed Church, Lancaster, 

CIL met at the house of John Walter, Bucks 
County, Pa., November 3, 1803, to found a 
separate ecclesiastical organization. The 
fourteen representatives present ordained 
Jacob Albright. 

in 1800 by Jacob Albright. The first an- 
nual conference was held in Lebanon County, 
Pa., in November 1807 at which Albright 
was elected bishop. (Ammon Stapleton 
Flashlights on Evangelical History) 


was the Evangelical Church erected in 1816 
at New Berlin, Pa. It was dedicated March 
2, 1817. Reverend John Dreisbach preached 
the dedicatory sermon. The church was 
34 by 38 feet. 

CONFERENCE convened on the property 
of Abraham Eyer, at the house of Martin 
Dreisbach, at Buffalo Valley in Union 
County, Pa., on October 14-17, 1816, at 
which time the denomination took the name 
Evangelical Association. Twelve delegates 





held at the house of Samuel Becker, Novem- 
ber 15, 1807, at Muhlbach, Dauphin County, 
now Kleinfeltersville, Lebanon County, Pa. 
It was attended by all the officers of the 
church, five itinerant ministers, three local 
preachers and twenty class leaders and ex- 
horters. Jacob Albright was elected Bishop 
and George Miller, and elder. 

CHURCH was formed November 16, 1946 at 
Johnstown, Pa., by approximately 500 dele- 
gates representing 4832 churches who united 
the Church of the United Brethren in Christ 
and the Evangelical Church. There were nine 
active hishops. Bishop Arthur Raymond Clip- 
pinger of Dayton, Ohio was the senior bishop. 


EVOLUTION anti-instruction state law 
was proposed by John Washington Butler, 
passed by the Tennessee legislature, and 
signed March 23, 1925, by Governor Austin 
Peay. It provided that "It shall be unlaw- 
ful for any teacher in any of the universi- 
ties, normal and all other public schools of 
the state which arc supported in whole or 
in part by the public school funds of the 
state to teach any theory that denies the 
story of the Divine creation of man as 
taught in the Bible, and to teach instead 
that man has descended from a lower order 
of animals." The first conviction under the 
act was that of John Thomas Scopes, who 
appealed the decision of the court. The 
Attorney General entered a nolle prossc 
which ended the proceedings. (John Thomas 
Scopes vs. State of Tennessee, 154 Tenn.105 

MISSION. See Securities and exchange 
commission (U.S.) 


EXCHANGE. See Brokerage 

EXCLUSION LAW. See Army exclusion 

EXCURSION RATE. See Railroad ex- 


Army execution. See Army Execution 

Electrocution experiment was performed 
by Benjamin Franklin at Philadelphia, Pa., who 
described his findings in 1773 in a letter to 
Barbeau Dubourg and Thomas Francois Dali- 
bard. Current from six Leyden jars was used 
to electrocute chickens, a ten-pound turkey and 
a lamb. 

Electrocution of a human being was that 
of William Kemmler, alias John Hart, on 
August 6, 1890, at Auburn Prison, Auburn, 
N.Y. This execution was in accordance with 
the law for conviction of first degree murder 


of Matilda Ziegler. The crime was committed 
March 29, 1889. The electric chair was in- 
vented by Dr. Alphonse David Rockwell. An 
autopsy was performed three hours after the 
execution under the direction of Dr. Carlos F. 
Macdonald. (Report of Carlos F. MacDonald, 
M.D. on the Execution by Electricity of Wil- 
liam Kemmler, alias John Hart) 

Execution for treason. See Treason 

Execution in America was that of John 

Billtngton, one of the signers of the Pilgrim's 
compact, who was hanged at Plymouth, Mass., 
September 30, 1630. He was "arraigned, and 
both by grand and petie jurie found guilty of 
willful murder, by plaine and notorious evi- 
dence, and was for the same accordingly 
executed. This, as it was ye first execution 
amongst them, so was it a matter of great 
sadness unto them. He way-laid a young 
man, one John New-comin (about a former 
quarele), and shote him with a gune, where- 
of he dyed." (Joseph Dillaway Sawyer 
History of Pilgrims and Puritans) 

Lethal gas execution was that of a Chinese, 
fice Jon, on February 8, 1924, at Carson Cit>, 
Nev , convicted of killing a rival tong man. 
Lethal gas as a means of execution was adopted 
by Nevada on March 28, 1921. 

Witchcraft execution. See Witchcraft exe- 

COMMITTEE. See Commercial policy ex- 
ecutive committee 

TIAL). See Presidential executive order 



See also Discovery 

Arctic expedition was made by Elisha 
Kent Katie and crew who left New York City, 
May 31, 1853, in the "Advance" They arrived 
at Cape Constitution where they remained for 
twenty-one months, being unable to free the 
boat which had become frozen in the ice pack. 
As disease broke out on board, the crew made 
a thousand-mile trek to the nearest Eskimo vil- 
lage. (IVilliam Elder Biography of Elisha 
Kent Kane) 

Arctic expedition to seek the northwest 
passage, for the 20,000 reward offered by 
Parliament for proofs of its existence, sailed 
March 1753 from Philadelphia, Pa. Captain 
Charles Swaine made a voyage in the "Argo," 
a sixty-ton schooner. He encountered ice off 
Cape Farwell, and entered Hudson's Strait in 
the latter part of June 1753. He returned in 
November 1753. He made a second voyage the 
following year. (Justin Winsor A Narrative 
and Critical History of America) 

Astronomical expedition. See Astronomi- 
cal expedition 





Botanic scientific expedition. See Botanic 
scientific expedition 

Expedition of Englishmen to cross the Alle- 
ghany Mountains began August 27, 1650, from 
Fort Henry at the falls of the Appomattox 
River, Va., and returned September 4, 1650. 
The party consisted of Captain Abraham Wood 
and his servant Henry Newcombe; Edward 
Bland, merchant, and his servant Robert Far- 
mer; Elias Pennant and Sackford Brewster; 
and two guides, Oyeocker, a Nottaway Werro- 
wance, and Pyancha, an Appamattuck war 
captain. (Clarence Walworth Alvord and Lee 
Bidgwood First Explorations of the Trans- 
Alleghany Region by the Virginians) 

Expedition across the continent to the 
Pacific coast was undertaken by Captain 
Meriwether Lewis and William Clark who 
left St. Louis, Mo., May 14, 1804, reached 
the mouth of the Columbia river November 
8, 1805, and returned to St. Louis in September 
23, 1806. The expedition consisted of 9 Ken- 
tucky men, 14 Army men, 2 French voyageurs 
and a Negro servant. (Elliot Cones History 
of the Expedition Under the Command of 
Lewis and Clark) 

Exploration of the Grand Canyon of the 
Colorado by a white man was made by 
Major John Wesley Powell who left Green 
River City, above the head of the Colorado 
proper on May 24, 1869, and emerged 
from the lower end of the Grand Canyon, 
August 29, 1869, with five of the nine 
men who started with him. The follow- 
ing year he was appointed chief of the 
U.S. Topographical and Geological Survey of 
the Colorado River of the West. (The discov- 
ery of the Grand Canyon was reported by 
Spanish explorers in 1540, and described by 
the Sitgreaves expedition in 1851, and in 1858 
by the War Department which explored navi- 
gable waters from the south, but stopped at the 
foot of the canyon. (John Wesley Powell 
First Through The Grand Canyon) 

Naval expedition (colonial). See Navy 

Polar expedition of which a woman was 
a member was the Peary Expedition. 
Josephine Peary, wife of the North Polar ex- 
plorer, sailed with her husband Robert Ed- 
win Peary, June 6, 1891, in the "Kite." This 
expedition did not reach the Pole. The expe- 
dition which left on the "Roosevelt" July 6, 
1908, located the North Pole on April 6, 1909, 
but the discovery was not announced until 
September 6, 1909. Both expeditions started 
from New York City. (Josephine (Diebitsch) 
Peary My Arctic Journal; A Year Among 
Ice Fields and Eskimos) 

Scientific expedition was outfitted by the 
Commonwealth of Massachusetts in 1761. John 
Winthrop, a physicist, went to Newfoundland 
in a vessel in the Provincial Service. His ex- 
penses were defrayed by the colonial govern- 


ment, and he observed for the second time the 
transit of Mercury. (John Winthrop Two 
Letters on the Parallax and Distance of the 

Scientific expedition fitted out by the 
United States Government was authorized by 
Congress May 14, 1836 (5 Stat.L.1836). In- 
structions were received August 11, 1838. It 
left Hampton Roads, Va., August 18, 1838 with 
Lieutenant Charles Wilkes in command to 
explore the South Seas and returned to New 
York City June 10, 1842. They saw the Ant- 
arctic Continent on January 16, 1840. (Charles 
Wilkes Narrative of the U. S. Exploring Ex- 



American expeditionary force 

TURAL). See Agricultural experiment sta- 


See Medal 


Atomic bomb 


See also under specific subjects, e.g., Ani- 
mals, Cotton, Furs, Meat, etc. 

Export report by the Federal Government 
covered the fiscal year ending September 30, 
1791. The exports for the year amounted to 
$19,012,041 of which $18,500"000 was for do- 
mestic merchandise and $512,041 for foreign 
goods. The imports for the same period 
amounted to $29,200,000, an excess of imports 
over exports of $10,187,959. 

Exports from the United States to exceed 
the imports were for the fiscal year ending 
September 30, 1811, and amounted to an excess 
of $7,916,832 over imports. The exports of do- 
mestic merchandise were $45,2^4,042 and 
$16,022,790 for fore'^n merchandise making a 
grand total of exports of $61,316,832 whereas 
the imports amounted to $53,400,000. 

EXPOSITION. Sec under specific type of 
exposition, e ^ , Automobile show, Aviation 
Expositions and Meets, Dog show, Fair, 

EXPOSURE METER. See Photography 

EXPRESS SERVICE was organized Feb- 
ruary 23, 1839, by William Frederick Harnden 
of Boston, Mass., who arranged for delivery 
service between Boston and New York. The 
service was advertised to begin on March 4, 
1839. The first shipment was a few suitcases. 
Shipments were made via the Boston and Provi- 
dence Railway and Long Island Sound Steam- 
boat. (Alexander Lovett Stimson History of 
Express Companies and the Origin of Ameri- 
can Railroads) 







RICULTURE). See Agricultural appropria- 

EXTINGUISHER. See Fire Extinguisher 

EXTRADITION was established by the 
New England Confederation of 1643 which pro- 
vided for the extradition of criminals between 
the provinces of Massachusetts, Connecticut, 
Plymouth and New Haven. 

Extradition treaty with a foreign country 

was the Treaty of Amity, Commerce and Navi- 
gation (8 S tat. L.I 16) popularly known as the 
Jay Treaty, with Great Britain, signed at Lon- 
don, England, November 19, 1794. Article 
XXVII provided for the apprehension and de- 
livery of persons charged with certain crimes. 
The signatory for the United States was John 
Jay, and the Rt. lion. William Wyndham 
Baron Grenville of Wotton, one of His Maj- 
esty's Privy Council and His Majesty's Prin- 
cipal Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs 
for Great Britain. (Treaties and Other In- 
ternational Acts of the United States of Amer- 
ica Document 16) 


Artificial eyes were manufactured by 
Pierre Gougelman in 1851 at Van Dam Street, 
New York City, from glass imported from 
France It was originally believed that artificial 
eyes ofTered their wearers new vision. The 
business is conducted by his descendants under 
the name of Mager & Gougelman, Inc. 

Eye bank was opened May 9, 1944, due to 
the efforts of Dr. Richard Townley Paton of 
the Manhattan Eye, Ear and Throat Hospital 
and Dr. John McLean of the New York Hos- 
pital whose hospitals cooperated to establish the 
joint project at the New York Hospital, New 
York City. Nineteen other hospitals in the 
metropolitan area offered cooperation in obtain- 
ing and sending eyes to the bank. 

Eye conservation class for the education 
of school children with seriously defective vi- 
sion, opened April 3, 1913, at the Thornton 
Street School, Boston, Mass. Miss Helen L. 
Smith was the teacher. 

Identification system, based upon the pat- 
tern formed by the veins and arteries of the 
retina of the human eye, the relation of the 
four veins the superior temporal, the inferior 
temporal, the superior nasal and the inferior 
nasal with their various branches was devised 
by Dr. Isidore Goldstein, Ophthalmic Surgeon 
of Mount Sinai Hospital, New York City, in 
collaboration with Dr. Carleton Simon, former 
Deputy Police Commissioner of New York, 
and presented before the annual convention of 
the International Association of Chiefs of Po- 
lice, July 7, 1935, at Atlantic City, NJ. 


EYE INFIRMARY. See Hospital 

EYEGLASS bifocals were invented by 
Benjamin Franklin, who, annoyed at having to 
carry two pairs of glasses, had one pair split 
in half, each eye having two different lenses. 
On May 23, 1785, from Passy, France, he wrote 
to George Whatley, "I have only to move 
my eyes up and down as I want to see distinct- 
ly far or near." Inasmuch as ordinary spec- 
tacles in the colonies cost as much as $100 
each, his invention did not receive a ready 
popular response. (Nathan Gerson Goodman 
The Ingenious Dr. Franklin) 


facsimile transmission 


Air-conditioned factory was the Gray 
Manufacturing Company, Gastonia, N.C., plant 
erected in the summer of 1905 with an air- 
conditioning outfit manufactured by Stuart W. 
Cramer of Charlotte, N.C. This equipment 
drew in fresh air from out-of-doors, filtered 
and washed it, heated or cooled it, corrected 
any variation in humidity, and completely 
changed the air in the factory about five times 
an hour. 

Factories operated by the United States 
Government in peacetime were a Jersey 
cloth mill formerly operated by the Famb 
Knitting Company and a fairly large hall called 
Forester's Hall at Millville, Mass., in which 
the Federal Emergency Relief Administration 
of Massachusetts established sewing and stock 
rooms. The project was started June 4, 1934, 
by authority of Joseph P. Carney, Emergency 
Relief Administrator of Massachusetts, who 
detailed Thomas E. Wye as factory supervisor 
to organize and start the project. The products 
were not sold but were distributed to different 
welfare divisions of the cities and towns in 

Factory-built building. See Building 

Steam-heated factory was the Burlington 
Woolen Company at Winooski River, Bur- 
lington, Vt. The factory, sold at auction 
October 20, 1852, was described in an ad- 
vertisement in the Burlington Free Press: 
"The factory building and dye houses were 
heated by steam conducted through iron 
pipes in the most modern and approved 
manner. This modern and up to date mill 
was built six years ago." The mill is now 
owned by the American Woolen Company, 

Windowless factory was erected in Fitch- 
burg, Mass., in 1930. The plant, one story 
high consisting of one room, was illuminated 
by hundreds of 1,000-watt electric lamps 
containing a small percentage of healthful 
ultraviolet rays. The walls and ceilings 
were painted orange, blue, green, and white 
to increase visibility while the floors were 
jet black. The building also lacked sky- 
lights. It was ventilated by a system that 




FACTORY Continued 

circulated fresh air of the proper tempera- 
ture which had been washed, heated and 
humidified, throughout the building. Ten 
million cubic feet of air were changed every 
ten minutes The walls were soundproof as 
cork pads were used to reduce the noise 
inside. The building was constructed by 
the Austin Company of Cleveland, Ohio, for 
the Simonds Saw and Steel Company at a 
cost of $1,500,000. 

bor law 



PRODUCTION by the United States Gov- 
ernment was required in 1813, when a con- 
tract specifying interchangeable parts was 
drawn up between the United States Gov- 
ernment (Callender Irvine, Commissary 
General of the United States) and Colonel 
Simeon North of Berlin, Conn., on April 

16, 1813, at Middletown, Conn. The con- 
tract was for 20,000 pistols at $7 each to be 
produced within five years and stipulated 
that "component parts of the pistols are to 
correspond so exactly that any lirnb or part 
of one pistol may be fitted to any other 
pistol of the 20,000." Colonel North estab- 
lished his pistol manufactory in 1810 at 
Staddle Hill, a suburb of Middletown. The 
production was about 10,000 pistols a year. 
(Simeon Newton Dexter North Simeon 
North, First Official Pistol Maker oj the U.S.) 


Agricultural fair was held October 1, 1810, 
at Pittsfield, Mass. It was sponsored by 
Elkanah Watson and known as the Berk- 
shire Cattle Show. (Elkanah Watson His- 
tory of the Rise, Progress and Existing State 
of the Berkshire Agricultural Society) 

Annual fair was authorized by the director 
and council of New Netherlands on September 
30, 1641. They "ordained that henceforth there 
shall be held annually at Fort Amsterdam a 
Cattle Fair on the 15th of October; and a fair 
for Hogs on the 1st of November. Whosoever 
hath any things to sell or lo buy can regulate 
himself accordingly." (Laws and Ordinances of 
New Nether land 1638-1674) 

Industrial exposition of an international 
character was held in New York City in 
1853, modeled after the World's Fair (1851) 
of London, England. On March 11, 1852, the 
"Association for the Exhibition of the Indus- 
try of all Nations" was chartered. On March 

17, 1852, the directors elected Theodore Sedg- 
wick president. The exposition was held at 
Reservoir Square, Fortieth to Forty-Second 
Street between Fifth and Sixth Avenues, New 
York City, in a specially erected two-story 
building which contained 249,691 square feet. 
The exposition was opened by President Frank- 


lin Pierce, July 14, 1853. The building was 
destroyed by fire October 5, 1858. (Illustrated 
Record of the Exposition) 

Manufacturers' fair was held October 24, 
1828, under the auspices of the American 
Institute in the Masonic Hall, New York 
City. The American Institute in the City 
of New York was incorporated May 2, 1829, 
to encourage and promote domestic industry 
in the United Stales in agriculture, com- 
merce, manufacturing and the arts. (New 
York As It Is in 1833) 

Woman's World Fair was held in Chi- 
cago, 111., April 18-25, 1925, at which time 
women's progress was shown in seventy 
industries. At the World's Fair of 1893 in 
Chicago, 111., women's handicraft was fea- 
tured only at the sewing exhibit. The 
Woman's World Fair was officially opened 
by Mrs. Calvin Coolidge. 

MITTEE. See Advertising organization 

FAIR TRADE LAW. See Price regulation 

FAN (ELECTRIC). See Electric fan 

MENT FARM). Sec Agricultural experiment 

FARM BANK. See Bank 

FARM BOARD (Federal) met July 15, 
1929, and consisted of eight members ap- 
pointed by the President and confirmed by 
the Senate, in addition to the Secretary of 
Agriculture, who was an ex officio member. 
It was organized "to protect, control and 
stabilize the currents of interstate and for- 
eign commerce" by minimizing speculation, 
by preventing inefficient and wasteful distri- 
bution, by encouraging farmers' organiza- 
tions, and by preventing surpluses through 
orderly production. The Agricultural Mar- 
keting Act (46 Stat.L.ll) passed by Con- 
gress June 15, 1929, authorized $500,000,000 
to be used as a revolving fund. The board 
was later designated as the Farm Credit 
Administration. (U.S. Federal Farm Board 
First Annual Report) 

FARM BOOK. See Agricultural book 

FARM BUREAU, a department of a city 
chamber of commerce working in combination 
with the cooperative agencies the U.S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, the State college of agri- 
culture, county and local farmers' organizations 
was the Broome County Farm Bureau, es- 
tablished March 20, 1911, at Binghamton, N.Y. 
John H. Barren began work in Broome County, 
N.Y., as an agent of the U.S. Department oi 
Agriculture, cooperating with the State College 
of Agriculture at Cornell University, Bingham- 
ton Chamber of Commerce, and Delaware, 
Lackawanna and Western Railway. The agent 




was given an office with the Chamber of Com- 
merce and made manager of a new department 
of this organization which was called a farm 
bureau. On May 24, 1913, New York State 
passed an act appropriating $25,000 for assist- 
ing the farm bureaus, the first state to pass an 
act of this kind. (William Allison Lloyd- 
Status and Results of County Agent Work) 

(U.S.) was authorized March 27, 1933, by 
executive order of President Franklin Delano 
Roosevelt under power granted by the 73d Con- 
gress, special session "Economy Act." The 
administration "to provide a complete and co- 
ordinated credit system for agriculture by mak- 
ing available to farmers long-term and short- 
term credit" was organized by executive order 
No. 6,084, March 27, 1933, with Henry Morgen- 
thau. Jr., as the first administrator Several 
agencies were grouped under this department. 

FARM JOURNAL. Sec Agricultural journal 


created in the Department of the Treasury to 
administer the Federal Farm Loan Act, ap- 
proved July 17, 1916 (39 Stat.L.360). The first 
federal land bank was chartered March 1, 1917 
and the first national farm loan association 
March 27, 1917. The first farm loan commis- 
sioner was George William Norris who took 
the oath of office August 7, 1916. Executive 
Order No 6084 of March 27, 1933, effective 
May 27, 1933, transferred its functions to the 
Farm Credit Administration. (US Federal 
Loan Bureau First Annual Report From Or- 
ganization to November 30, 1937) 

FARM SOCIETY. See Agricultural society 

FARMER LABOR PARTY was organized 
at a convention assembled June 12, 1920, at 
Chicago, 111 , and emanated from the National 
Labor Party which was formed in 1919. The 
first presidential candidate was Parley Parker 
Christ ensen of Utah and the vice presidential 
candidate, Maximilian Sebastian Hayes of 
Ohio, who received approximately 265,000 votes. 


Farmers* institute held by a land grant 
agricultural college off its campus was spon- 
sored by the Iowa State College, Ames, Iowa, 
at Cedar Falls, Iowa, on December 20, 1870. 
The institute course was five days and consisted 
of day and evening lectures on stock breeding 
and management, fruit culture, farm accounts 
and kindred topics, conducted by George 
William [ones, professor of mathematics; 
James Mathcws, professor of pomology, and 
Adonijah Strong Weach, president of the 
college. Other institutes were held the same 
vcar at Council Bluffs, Washington and 
Muscatine, Iowa (Homestead and Western 
I' arm Journal. 1 December 1870) 

Farmers' institute sponsored by a college 

was held November 14, 1868 by the Kansas 
State Agricultural College, now the Kansas 
State College of Agriculture and Applied Sci- 


ence, at the Riley County Courthouse, Manhat- 
tan, Kans. Local arrangements for the insti- 
tute were made by the Riley County Agricul- 
tural Society. 

Farmers' institute sponsored by a state 

was held by the Massachusetts State Board 
of Agriculture at Springfield, Mass. The insti- 
tute opened December 8, 1863, and continued for 
four days. Lectures and discussions pertaining 
to agriculture occupied the meetings. (Jay 
Broivnlee Davidson A Study of the Extension 

FARRIER'S GUIDE was The Husband- 
Man's Guide, in Four Parts Part first, con- 
taining many excellent rules for setting and 
planting. Part second, choice physical receipts 
for divers dangerous distempers in men, women 
and children. Part third, the experienced far- 
rier. Part fourth containing rare receipts, 
a 107- page book printed in Boston, Mass., in 
1710 by John Allen for Eleazer Phillips. 


Hooks and eyes were successfully manufac- 
tured in 1836 at Waterbury, Conn., by Holmes 
& Hotchkiss. (Henry Bronson History of 

Hookless fastening was invented by Whit- 
comb L. Indson of Chicago, Til., who obtained 
patent No. 557,207 on March 31, 1896 (on a 
fastening for shoes) comprising two metal 
chains which could be fastened together by 
movement of a slider. They were first manu- 
factured in 1893 by the Automatic Hook and 
Eye Company of Meadville, Pa., through the 
efforts of Colonel Lewis Walker. 

Hookless fastening for universal use was 

invented by Gideon Sundback of Hoboken, 
N ) , about 1906 who obtained patent No. 
1,060,378 on April 29, 1913 on "separable 
fasteners." This fastener has been improved 
upon by patents No. 1,219,881 and No. 
1,243,,458 granted to Mr. Sundback on 
March 20, 1917, and October 16, 1917, re- 
spectively, which are controlled by the 
Hookless Fastener Company of Meadville, 
Pa., manufacturers of the Talon Slide Fas- 
tener. (Talon Hookless Fastener Co.) 

FATHERS DAY. See Holiday 

FATHOMETER, a device to measure the 
depth of water, was invented by Herbert 
Grove Dorsey of the U.S. Coast and Geodetic 
Survey, who received patent No. 1,667,540 on 
April 24, 1928. By means of a scries of elec- 
trical sounds and light signals, the depth of 
water was easily ascertained. 


Moving picture Foreign feature film ex- 

MINISTRATION was authorized Decem- 
ber 4, 1933 by executive order No. 6,474 is- 
sued by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. 





Joseph Hodges Choate, Jr., was appointed di- 
rector, Harris Emanuel Willingham, assistant 
director and Edward George Lowry, Jr., coun- 

AND CONCILIATION. See Arbitration 


training school 


MISSION was created by act approved 
June 19, 1934 (48 Stat.L.1064) to provide for 
the regulation of interstate and foreign com- 
merce by wire or radio and to centralize 
these duties and responsibilities with a view 
to more effective supervision of communica- 
tion. A committee of seven was appointed 
July 11, 1034 The first chairman was 
Eugene Octavo Sykes who served until 
March 11, 1935. Successors to the original 
committee were to be appointed for seven 
years, unless appointed to fill an un expired 

Federal Communications Commission 
woman member was Frieda Hennock, named 
by President Harry S. Truman to succeed 
Commissioner Clifford Judkins Durr who re- 
signed. She was sworn in July 6, 1948 at 
Washington, D.C. 

International broadcasting license. See 

Radio license 


was organized in Philadelphia, Pa., December 
2, 1908. The first president of the Council 
was Bishop Eugene Russell Hendrix of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church. The first execu- 
tive secretary was Elias Benjamin Sanford. 
The constitution of the council which had been 
ratified prior to the first meeting by the con- 
stituent denominations provided for approxi- 
mately four hundred official members named 
directly by the cooperating denominations. 
They were appointed to attend the first meet- 
ing held December 2, 1908, at Philadelphia, 
Pa., and were designated as charter members. 
(Elias Benjamin Sanford Origin and History 
of the Federal Council of the Churches of 
Christ in America} 


approved June 26, 1934 (48 Stat.L.1216) "to 
establish a Federal Credit Union System, to 
establish a further market for securities of 
the United States and to make more available 
to people of small means credit for provident 
purposes through a national system of coop- 
erative credit, thereby helping to stabilize the 
credit structure of the United States." Charter 


No.l was granted to the Morris Sheppard 
Federal Credit Union of Texarkana, Texas, 
named in honor of the sponsor of the law, 
which held its organization meeting, October 
1, 1934. 

See also Bank legislation 

PORATION was established by the Fed- 
eral Crop Insurance Act (part of the Agricul- 
tural Adjustment Act of 1938 (52 Stat.L.72) 
approved February 16, 1938) to provide for 
insuring wheat yields against natural hazards 
such as drought, flood, hail, winter-kill, light- 
ning, insect infestation and plant diseases. The 
directors were Milburn Lincoln Wilson, Jesse 
Washington Tapp, and Rudolph Martin 
Evans, while Roy M. Green was manager of 
the corporation. The first application was 
signed May 18, 1938, by M. L. Purvines, Pan- 
handle, Tex., and the first indemnity payment 
was made April 14, 1939, to John F. Biggs, 
Floydada, Floyd County, Tex., of $129.32 to 
compensate him for the total loss of his share 
in a 52-acre wheat crop. 

CORPORATION was created June 16, 1933 
(48 Stat.L.162) by the "Banking Act of 1933" 
"to provide for the safer and more effective 
use of the assets of banks, to regulate inter- 
bank control, to prevent the undue diversion 
of funds into speculative operations." The 
management of the corporation was vested 
in a board of three directors, one of whom 
was the Comptroller of the Currency. The first 
board was composed of chairman Walter 
Joseph Cummings of Chicago, Elbert Glad- 
stone Bennett of Salt Lake City and James 
Francis Thaddeus O'Connor, Comptroller of 
the Currency. The first official meeting of 
the board of directors was held September 11, 
1933. The insurance went into effect January 
1, 1934. The first payment was $125,000 to 
1,789 depositors of the Fond du Lac State 
Bank of East Peoria, 111. The bank sus- 
pended May 28, 1934 and receivership be- 
came final on June 25, 1935. Mrs. Lydia Lob- 
siger, a widow, received the first insurance 
check, July 3, 1934, covering her deposit. 
See also Bank legislation 

MINISTRATION was created by the Fed- 
eral Emergency Relief Act of 1933, (48 Stat. 
L.55) approved May 12, 1933, "to provide for 
cooperation by the Federal Government with 
the several states and territories, and the Dis- 
trict of Columbia in relieving the hardships 
and suffering caused by unemployment." The 
Federal Emergency Relief Administration be- 
came operative ten days after approval of the 
act. The first Federal Emergency Relief Ad- 
ministrator was Harry Lloyd Hopkins, ap- 
pointed by the President with the advice and 
consent of the Senate. He took office May 22, 

board (federal) 





Farm loan board (federal) 



was established July 22, 1932, by the Federal 
Home Loan Bank Act (47 Stat.L.725) for the 
purpose of establishing and supervising the Fed- 
eral Home Loan Banks as a permanent credit 
reserve system for savings and loan associa- 
tions and similar local thrift and home financ- 
ing institutions and for savings banks and 
insurance companies making long-term home 
mortgage loans. The board consisted of five 
members, Franklin William Fort, chairman, Dr. 
John Matthew Gries, William Edward Best, 
Nathan Adams and Morton Bodfish, who took 
the oath of office and held the first meeting 
August 9, 1932. 




Sec Labor Labor Advisory Board (federal) 

LATION. See Automobile legislation 


Sec Narcotic 





Radio commission 





RATION was incorporated under the laws 
of the State of Delaware, October 4, 1933. 
The incorporators were Harry Lloyd Hopkins, 
president, Federal Emergency Relief Adminis- 
trator; Henry Agard Wallace, vice president, 
Secretary of Agriculture; and Harold Lpy 
Ickes, treasurer. Federal Emergency Adminis- 
trator of Public Works. (US. Agriculture 
Department Surplus Marketing Administra- 
tionFirst Report October 4, 1933 to Decem- 
ber 31, 1934) 

into existence September 26, 1914 by Act of 
Congress (38 Stat.L.717) "an act to create a 
Federal Trade Commission, to define its pow- 
ers and duties." The commission was organ- 
ized March 16, 1915, to regulate commerce and 
prohibit unlawful means of obtaining trade 
when five commissioners, George Rublee, Ed- 
ward Nash Hurley, Will H. Parry, Joseph 
Edward Davies and William Julius Harris, 


were appointed at an annual salary of $10.000. 
(Gerald Carl Henderson The Federal Trade 

Federal trade commission trade practice 
conference was held October 3, 1919, at 
Omaha, Neb., for the creamery industry. Rep- 
resentatives from six states met with Com- 
missioner William Byron Colver to discuss 
unfair practice complaints in the creamery in- 


lished by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt 
July 1, 1939, under authority of act of April 
25, 1939 (53 Slat.L.1427) (Reorganization Plan 
No. 1) as a consolidation of five governmental 
public works units, the Public Buildings Ad- 
ministration, the Public Roads Administration, 
the Public Works Administration, the Works 
Projects Administration and the United States 
Housing Authority. The first Federal Works 
Administrator was John Michael Carmody who 
received $12,000 per annum. 


Massachusetts School for the Idiotic and 
Feeblc-Mmded Youth, opened October 1, 1848, 
at Boston, Mass., due to the efforts of Dr. 
Samuel Gridley Howe. It was incorporated 
April 4, 1850. A $5,000 appropriation was 
made April 30, 1851. It later changed its name 
to the Massachusetts School for the Feeble- 
Minded. The same institution is still operated 
today under the title Walter E. Fernald State 
School, named after Dr. Walter Elmorc Fer- 
nald, former principal and an eminent teacher 
of the feeble minded. (Albert Deutsch The 
Mentally III in America} 


Fellowship awarded a woman was the 

Sage Fellowship in Entomology and Botany 
granted June 19, 1884, to Harriet Elizabeth 
Grotecloss by Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. 
The fellowship had a stipend of $400 per year 
payable in six installments and provided free 
tuition for graduate study. 

Fellowship (graduate) awarded by a 
woman's college was offered the graduating 
class of Bryn Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pa. 
The first award was made June 6, 1889, to 
Emily Greene Balch of Boston, Mass., for 
"prosecuting sociological studies." 

Resident fellowship for women awarded 
by a woman's college was offered by Bryn 
Mawr College, Bryn Mawr, Pa , which estab- 
lished five resident fellowships in 1884, prior 
to the actual opening of the college. They 
received free tuition, a furnished room and 
$350, annually. The recipients were Jane M. 
Bancroft in history; Katherine Augusta Gage 
in Greek; Mary Gwinn in English; Effie A. 
Southworth in biology and Ella C. Williams 
in mathematics. 




FELT HAT. See Hat 

FELT manufacturing mechanical process 

was invented by Thomas Robinson Williams 
of Newport, R.I. in 1820. The wool is 
carded and placed in layers until the desired 
thickness is obtained, the outside rolls being 
the finest in texture. The mass is placed be- 
tween rollers, partly immersed in water, and 
is beaten, pressed and given an oscillating move- 
ment at the same time. Dyeing and finishing 
complete the process. 

FENCING BOOK was Edward Blackwell's 
A Compleat System on Fencing; or the art of 
defence, in the use of the small sword; wherein 
the most necessary parts thereof are plainly laid 
doivn; chiefly for gentlemen, promoters and 
lovers of that science in North America, printed 
in 1734 by William Parks, Williamsburg, Va. 
It was based on Henry Blackwell's The English 
Fencing Master published in London in 1705. 
(Robert William Henderson Early American 

FERRIS WHEEL was invented in 1892 by 
George Washington Gale Ferris, stimulated by 
a prize for an attraction like the Eiffel Tower 
of Paris. It was erected on the Midway at the 
Columbian Exposition in Chicago, 111., in 1893. 
It consisted of thirty-six cars, each capable of 
holding sixty passengers. The highest point 
of the wheel was 264 feet. The total weight 
of the wheels and cars was 2,100 tons, of the 
levers and machinery 2,200 tons, and of the 
passengers per trip 150 tons (Cashier's Maga- 
zine. July 1894. "The Ferris and Other Big 


Double-deck ferryboat was launched Octo- 
ber 25, 1888, at the Delmater Iron Works, 
Newburgh, N.Y. It was called the "Bergen" 
and plied across the Hudson River from New 
York City to Hoboken, NJ. It was 203 feet in 
length, 62 feet wide with a 10 foot draft, and 
was first piloted by Captain G. Beckwith. 

Double-deck ferryboat with the propeller- 
type steel hull was the "Hamburg" built in 
1891 by Thomas S. Marvel & Company of New- 
burgh, N.Y. It weighed 1,266 tons gross, 833 
tons net and was 219 feet long, 40 feet wide 
with a 16 foot draft, and cost $180,843.02. Pas- 
sengers could not be taken on or discharged 
from the upper deck. In 1905 the ferry was 
altered so that both the upper and lower levels 
could be used for receiving and discharging 
passengers. The ferry plied between Hobo- 
ken, NJ. and New York City. (Harry J 
Smith and John M. Emery Romance of the 
Hoboken Ferry) 

Ferry (aerial). See Bridge 

Ferryboat built exclusively for motor 
vehicle transportation was the "Governor 
Moore," a Diesel-electric ferry placed in serv- 
ice November 8, 1926. It was built by the New 
York Shipbuilding Company of Camden, N.J., 


from plans conceived by Eads Johnson. Five 
other boats were built in 1926 each with ca- 
pacity for forty-six automobiles. The boats 
which were operated by Electric Ferries, Inc. 
originally plied between 23d Street, New York 
and Edgewater, NJ., and 23d Street, New 
York and Weehawken, NJ. (Motorship. Dec. 

Municipally owned ferryboats were 

placed in operation in New York City, Octo- 
ber 25, 1905, between Whitehall Street, Man- 
hattan and St. George, Statcn Island. They 
were under the jurisdiction of the Department 
of Docks up to Tuly 1, 1918. (Records in Dept. 
of Plants and Structures. N.Y.C.) 

Steam -propelled ferryboat was the "Juli- 
ana" operated October 11, 1811, by John 
Stevens and his son, Robert Livingston Stev- 
ens. It plied between Hoboken, NJ., and New 
York City. 

Steel hull ferryboat was the "Lackawanna" 
built in 1881 at Newburgh, N.Y., by Ward 
Stanton It cost $76,000. It weighed 822 
gross tons, 645 net tons, and was 200 feet long, 
35 feet wide, with a 13-foot draft. This plied 
between Hoboken, N.J., and New York City. 
(Harry J. Smith and John M. Emery The 
Romance of the Hoboken Ferry) 

Streamlined ferryboat was the "Kalakala" 
(the name is taken from Chinook, is pro- 
nounced Kah-lock'ah-lah and means "Flying 
Bird"). She was 276 feet long, had a beam 
of 55 feet 8 inches and a draft of 13 feet 
and was designed to carry 2,000 passengers 
and 110 automobiles. She was 97.75 per 
cent of steel construction and was built at 
the Lake Washington Shipyards at Hough- 
ton, Wash. She was first placed in com- 
mercial operation on July 4, 1935, by the 
Puget Sound Navigation Company, Seattle, 
Wash., between Seattle and Bremerton, 
Wash., on Puget Sound under the command 
of Captain Wallace H. Mangan. 

FERTILIZER (artificial) was developed 
by Professor James Jay Mapes of Newark, 
NJ., who experimented in 1847 with fer- 
tilizers on his t\vt*iity-.u:rc farm at Newark, 
NJ. He applied for a patent in 1849 on a 
superphosphate of lime made from charred 
bone (waste products of sugar refineries) to 
which were added sulphate of ammonia and Pe- 
ruvian guano. Patent No. 26,196 was granted 
November 22, 1859. (Chemical Industries. 
October 1937) 

FERTILIZER LAW (state) was passed 
March 16, 1871 by Delaware. The law was un- 
workable and was amended April 8, 1881 
and several times later. 

CONFERENCE. See Medical congress 


Medical book 





(X RAY) See Automobile 

FIELD RANGE. Sec Army field range 

FIELDING CAGE. See Baseball batting 
and fielding cage 



FIGHT. See Prize fight 

FIGHTER AIRPLANE. Sec Aviation Air- 

FIGURE SKATING. See Skating (ice) 

PION. See Olympic games 

FILE FACTORY (hand cutting) to manu- 
facture files was started by Broadmcadow & 
Company at Pittsburgh, Pa., in 1829. The 
files were made by hand. With this excep- 
tion, file making in the United States was 
practically unknown until 1839. 

File factory (machine cutting) to attain 
success was the Nicholson File Company 
which was organized in Providence, R.T., 
in 1864 to manufacture files by machine. 
This company used a machine for cutting 
files which was patented by William Nichol- 
son of Providence, T\ T , April 5, 1864 (pat- 
ent No. 42,216). 


was invented by Morris B. Belknap in 1812 
at Greenfield, Mass. As far as is known, 
the machine was not a success. 

FILIBUSTER. Sec Congress of the United 
Slates- House of Representatives; Congress of 
the United Stales Senate 

FILM. See Photographic film 
FILM CAMERA. See Camera 




Water purification 

FINANCE COMPANY. See Automobile fi- 
nance company 



News agency 


Fine arts department in a college was the 

School of Fine Arts, Yale University, New 
Haven, Conn., established in 1864. Tn 1869, 
John Ferguson Weir was appointed Professor 
of Painting and Design and the school formally 
opened with four students. Certificates were 
given to those who completed the three-year 
course, until 1891 when upon the fulfillment 
of more advanced requirements the degree of 
Bachelor of Fine Arts (B.F.A.) was con- 
ferred upon Josephine Miles Lewis. 

Fine arts department in a college to 
grant degrees was the College of Fine Arts, 
Syracuse University, Syracuse, N.Y., estab- 
lished June 24, 1873. Dr. George Fisk Com- 
fort was the first dean of the College of Fine 

FINE ARTS SOCIETY. See Art organiza- 


Fingerprint society (International) was 

the International Association for Criminal 
Identification formed October 9, 1915, at Oak- 
land, Calif. Harry Howard Cal dwell of the 
Oakland, Calif., Police Department was the 
first president. A. J. Renoc of Washington, 
D.C , was the first secretary. On June 11-14, 
1918, the word "criminal" was eliminated from 
the title. (Dr Henry I'clouss dc Forest Evo- 
lution oj l)(U lyloscopy in the US.) 


Community to fingerprint its citizens was 
Oskaloosa, Iowa, which acted upon the sug- 
gestion made by Police Chief Howard Ray 
Allgood on May 21, 1934. Although regis- 
tration was not compulsory, a Personal 
Identification Bureau was established 
through which most of the town had their 
fingerprints recorded. 

Federal penitentiary fingerprinting was 

undertaken November 2, 1904, by the Bu- 
reau of Criminal Identification at the United 
States Penitentiary at Leavenworth, Kan. 
This work was carried on until October 1, 
1914, when it was taken over by the Fed- 
eral Bureau of Investigation. 

Fingerprint conviction was obtained by 

the New York Police Department which ar- 
rested Caesar Cella, alias Charles Crispi, for 
burglary on March 8, 1911. Latent finger- 
prints found at the scene of the crime were 
introduced as evidence. He was convicted 
and sentenced to the New York County 
Penitentiary by Judge Otto Alfred Rosalsky 
in General Sessions Court, New York City, 
on May 19, 1911. 

High school to fingerprint its students 
was the Watertown Senior High School, 
Watertown, S.D. The fingerprinting was 
started on October 19, 1936, as an outgrowth 
of a talk by a member of the Federal Bu- 
reau of Investigation. 





International exchange of fingerprints be- 
tween the United States and Europe was 
made July 6, 1905, when the St. Louis 
Metropolitan Police Department of St. 
Louis, Mo., obtained the fingerprints of 
John Walker, alias Captain John Pearson, 
a frequent offender, from New Scotland 
Yard, London SW, England. The prints 
were later forwarded to New Orleans, La., 
and introduced as part of his criminal rec- 

Police department to adopt the finger- 
printing system was the St. Louis (Mo ) Met- 
ropolitan Police Department which on October 
28, 1904, adopted the Henry method to 
fingerprint persons arrested on serious 
charges. John M. Shea was the first to 
qualify as a fingerprint expert connected 
with any police service. He became asso- 
ciated with the St. Louis Metropolitan Po- 
lice Department, May 1, 1899, and was ap- 
pointed Superintendent of the Bertillon 
System, September 14, 1903, and remained 
as such until his death, July 17, 1926. 
(Charles Edward Chapel Finger printing t A 
Manual of Identification) 

State prison to take fingerprints of its 

prisoners was Sing Sing Prison, Ossining, 
N.Y., which commenced taking impressions 
on March 3, 1903. 


Fire in a mine was chronicled by the Rev. 
Charles Beatty in 1765. He reported that a 
fire had been burning at least a year in a coal 
mine known as "Spot Hill," the opening of 
which was somewhere between the Point Bridge 
and the Smithfield Street Bridge, on the south 
side of the Monongahcla river in that part of 
Pittsburgh now known as Mt. Washington. 
(Pittsburgh and The Pittsburgh Spirit~P. C. 
of C.) 

Fire of great destructive force took place 
in New York City on December 16, 1835, when 
six hundred buildings were demolished, entail- 
ing a loss of over $20,000,000. (Martha Joanna 
Readc Lamb History of the City of New 

Fire of serious consequence in America 

occurred on November 27, 1676, when there 
"burned down to the ground 46 dwelling houses, 
besides other buildings, meeting house, etc." in 
Boston, Mass. On August 8, 1679, also in 
Boston, 80 dwellings and 70 commercial build- 
ings were destroyed, the damage amounting to 
almost a million dollars. (Rev. William Hub- 
lard A General History of New England 
from the Discovery to 1680) 

Oil well fire. Sec Oil 

Theater destroyed by fire. See Theater 

FIRE ALARM SYSTEM (electric) was in- 
vented by William Francis Channing of Bos- 
ton, Mass., and Moses Gerrish Farmer of 


Salem, Mass., who on May 19, 1857, received 
patent No. 17,355 for "a magnetic electric fire- 
alarm." The first city to adopt this system was 
Boston which on June 1851 voted $10,000 to 
test the device. 

FIRE BRICK. See Brick 

FIRE DEPARTMENT established by mu- 
nicipal action was organized in 1659 by 
Peter Stuyvesant, governor of New Amster- 
dam, later New York. He distributed 250 
leather buckets and a supply of ladders and 
hooks which he imported from Holland. A 
tax of one guilder for every chimney was im- 
posed for the maintenance of this equipment. 
The fire alarm was given by twirling a rattle 
with the result that the firemen became known 
as the "Rattle Watch." In 1669 the city ap- 
pointed a "Brent-Master" who seems to have 
been the first fire chief in this country. (In- 
dustrial Fire Chief Foamite-Childs Corp.) 

Fire department to be paid was authorized 
in 16 ( >7 by New York City. Two fire wardens 
were authorized for every ward A penalty of 
three shillings was imposed upon owners for 
neglecting to remedy defective flues and 
hearths If a fire resulted after warning, the 
fine was forty shillings. Half of the fee went 
to the wardens and half to the city. 

Fire department to be paid a salary was 

established by Cincinnati, Ohio, on April 1, 
1853, through the efforts of Miles Greenwood. 
Members of the company received $60 a year, 
lieutenants $100, captains $150, pipemen and 
drivers $365. The chief engineer received 
$1,000 a year and assistant engineers $300. 
(Charles Theodore Greve Centennial History 
of Cincinnati and Representative Citizens) 


Fire engine made in this country was 
built in 1654 by Joseph Jenks, an iron 
maker of Lynn, Mass. He made a contract 
with the Selectmen of Boston for an "Ingine" 
to carry water in case of fire. It was a 
clumsy pump worked by relays of men at the 
handles. Its cistern was supplied with water 
by lines of bucket passers. (Arthur Welling- 
ton Brayley History of Boston Fire Dept.) 

Fire engine that was practical was the 

" Uncle Joe Ross," invented by Alexander Bon- 
ner Latta and manufactured by Latta, Shawk 
& Company in 1852 in Cincinnati, in the shops 
of John H. McGowan. It took nine months 
to build, cost $10,000, and was tested on Jan- 
uary 1, 1853, the date it went into service. It 
weighed five tons, was drawn by four horses 
and its own power, and had a square fire-box, 
like that of a locomotive boiler, with a fur- 
nace open at the top, upon which the chimney 
was placed. It ran on three wheels, the front 
one revolving in the center of the car. It threw 
from one to six streams of water. In a single 
stream of \y inches in diameter it threw water 
a distance of 240 feet. Its adoption was due 
principally to the efforts of Miles Greenwood. 
(History of the Cincinnati Fire Department) 




Steam fire engine was designed and built 
by Paul Rapsey Hodge, C.E. and publicly 
tested March 27, 1841, at the City Hall, New 
York. It was fourteen feet long and weighed 
about eight tons. It had two small wheels 
under the boiler in front and two huge wheels 
at the rear. Two horses were required to draw 
it on level ground. It was placed in service by 
Pearl Hose No. 28. It was too heavy and 
abandoned because sparks poured from its 

FIRE ESCAPES for tenements were re- 
quired by New York State, April 17, 1860 
(Laws of N.Y. I860 Chap. 470). A serious 
fire in Elm Street, New York City, February 
2, 1860, in which twenty persons were suffo- 
cated or burned to death showed the necessity 
for this legislation. 

FIRE EXTINGUISHER using vaporized 
chemical was manufactured by the Pyrenc 
Manufacturing Company, Newark, N.J., and 
introduced in 1905. The first model had a 
single action pump, which had to be tilted down 
after each stroke, in order to suck up liquid 
for the next discharge stroke. 


awarded Alanson Crane of Fortress Monroe, 
Va., who obtained United States patent 
No. 37,610, February 10, 1863. 

FIRE HOSE of rubber-lined cotton web 

to replace riveted leather hose was invented 
by James Boyd of Boston, Mass., who obtained 
a patent May 30, 1821, on a "new and useful 
improvement in the mode of manufacturing 
fire engine hose." In 1819, he established 
James Boyd & Sons at Boston, Mass., and 
manufactured Boyd's Patent Double Fire En- 
gine Hose. 

FIRE INSURANCE. See Insurance 


FIRE PATROL was "The Philadelphia So- 
ciety for the Protection of Movable Property 
in Time of Fire" organized in Philadelphia 
in 1819, to prevent theft and to salvage ar- 
ticles in fires. The company had large bas- 
kets in which to place the articles saved and 
had vehicles for carrying the baskets away. 

Fire patrol to receive a salary was or- 
ganized in New York City in 1835 and con- 
sisted of four men, each of whom was paid 
a salary of $250 a year to protect property 
from theft and damage during fires. 

FIREARM. Sec Ordnance; Pistol; Rifle 


Fireboat was used in New York City in 
1800. It was a flat-bottom boat shaped like a 
scow and had a sharp bow and square stern. 
It was powered by twelve men who used oars. 
A hand-operated pump was mounted on the 
boat which was stationed at the foot of Roose- 


velt Street on the East River, and patrolled 
the docks and waterfront of New York City. 
Two fireboats, called "floating engines," were 
imported from England at a cost of $4,000 
each. They arrived in New York City on 
September 28, 1800. They were in charge of 
Thomas Howell and were inspected on No- 
vember 10, 1800. (Our Firemen N.Y. C.) 

Fireboat with two-way radio equipment 

was placed in service in 1925 by Boston, Mass. 
Bids on four transmitting arid receiving radio 
stations, one land station and three on boats, 
were opened August 29, 1923. The boats were 
licensed March 17, 1924, and assigned the call 
letters WEY. (Annual Report of the Fire 
Department and Wire Division of the City of 
Boston for the year ending January 31, 1924) 


by a large city was Section 1 (1557-a) passed 
by Cleveland, Ohio, July 18, 1908. ^ It pro- 
vided that "no person, firm or corporation shall 
within the city, sell, offer for sale or have in 
his or its possession or custody any toy pistol, 
squib, rocket, cracker, Roman candle or fire 
balloon or other combustibles, or fireworks" 
under penalty of a $100 fine or thirty days 
imprisonment, or both. The Board of Pub- 
lic Service may give pyrotechnic displays when 
directed by the Council. 

Fireworks legislation (state) was Act. 
No. 14, Public Laws of 1929, passed March 
2Q, 1929, by Michigan. It prohibited the 
use of fireworks by the general public but 
allowed displays by approved or licensed 
operators. Other states had partially restric- 
tive laws. 

ZATION was the Humane Society of Phila- 
delphia, Philadelphia, Pa., which was organized 
in 17X0 The society was incorporated January 
23, 1793 Its object, according to the charter, 
was the "recovery of drowned persons, and 
of those whose animation may be suspended 
from other causes, as breathing air contam- 
inated by burning charcoal, hanging, ex- 
posure to the choke-damp of wells, drinking 
cold water while warm in summer, strokes 
of the sun, lightning, swallowing laudanum, 

at the annual encampment of the New York 
State militia at Peekskill, N.Y. in 1885^ The 
idea was proposed by George Ryerson Fowler. 
(William Francis Campbell In Memoriam 
Dr. George Ryerson Fowler) 

seller's catalog 




IRISH COMMISSION (state) was author- 
ized by Massachusetts on May 16, 1856, "to 
ascertain, and report to the next General 
Court, such facts respecting the artificial 
propagation of fish, as may tend to show 
the practicability and expediency of introduc- 
ing the same into this Commonwealth, under 
the protection of law." The commission 
consisted of R. A. Chapman, chairman, 
Henry Wheatland and N. E. Atwood. It 
ceased to function when the task was com- 
pleted. (Report of Commissioners appointed 
under Resolve of 1856, Chapter 58, concern- 
ing the artificial propagation of fish) 

ER of the United States was Spencer Fuller- 
Ion Baird who served without pay from Marcli 
8, 1871, to August 17, 1887. An appropriation 
of $5,000 was made March 3, 1871 (16 Slat. 
L.503) for expense in "prosecuting the inquiry 
authorized by law into the cause of the decrease 
of the food fishes of the coast and lakes." The 
first full-time, salaried commissioner was Mar- 
shall McDonald who served from February 18, 
1888, to September 1, 1895. The office was 
known as the United States Fish Commission 
until 1903, when it was made the Bureau of 
Fisheries in the Department of Commerce and 
Labor. In 1913, when the departments were 
separated, the Bureau of Fisheries was placed 
under the jurisdiction of the Department of 

FISH HATCHERY (federal) was estab- 
lished at Bucksport, Me., in 1872 for the 
propagation of Atlantic salmon. It was a 
joint activity, with the cooperation of the 
states of Maine, Massachusetts and Con- 
necticut, and was a continuation of experi- 
ments initiated by these agencies in 1871. 
It was in charge of Charles Grandison At- 
kins and was permanently established at 
East Orland, Me. It has continued in oper- 
ation under the Bureau of Fisheries of the 
Federal Government up to the present time. 
(Records in Bureau of Fisheries. Dept. of 
Commerce. Wash, D.C.) 

Fish hatchery to breed salmon was an ex- 
perimental laboratory established in 1864 
under the supervision of James B. Johnson. 
He imported salmon eggs from Europe 
which were hatched in his New York City 

Fish-hatching steamer (federal). Sec Ship 

Goldfish hatchery successfully operated was 
established in the summer of 1899 by Eugene 
Curtis Shi reman at Martinsville, Ind. Com- 
mencing with 200 goldfish, the hatchery breeds 
about 40,000,000 goldfish annually. It con- 
tains 1500 acres, has over 600 ponds, and 
350 acres under water. It was incorporated in 
1924 as Grassy fork, Inc. 



Fish legislation was an act for "preserv- 
ing fish in fresh water ponds" enacted May 
28, 1734, by New York City. Fishing by 
hoop-net, draw-net, purse-net, catching-net, 
cod-net, bley-net or with any other engine, 
machine, arts, ways and means whatsoever, 
other than by angling with angle-rod, hook 
and line only was subject to a fine of 
twenty shillings. 

Fish protection office (federal) was au- 
thorized by act of February 9, 1871 (16 
Stat.L.594). It empowered President 
Ulysses Simpson Grant to appoint "from 
among the civil officers or employees of the 
Government, one person of proved scientific 
and practical acquaintance with the fishes 
of the coast to be Commissioner of Fish and 
Fisheries to serve without additional salary." 
The first commissioner was Spencer Fuller- 
ton Baird, appointed March 8, 1871. 

FISH WARDEN. See Game warden 


FISHERY (commercial) is believed to have 
been established at Medford, Mass. On 
April 17, 1629, the colonists were given in- 
structions to let the fish "be well saved with 
the said salt, and packed up in hogsheads; 
and send it home by the 'Talbot' or 'Lion's 
Whelpe'." The industry flourished and on 
May 28, 1639 they received "salt, lines, 
hooks, knives, boots, etc., for the fisher- 
men." Fishing, however, was not first at- 
tempted at Medford but by the first colon- 
ists. (Charles Brooks History of the Town 
of Medford) 


Goldfish industry is believed to have had 
its inception in 1878 when Rear Admiral Dan- 
iel Ammen, U.S.N., presented a group of gold- 
fish that had been brought over from Japan 
to the United States Fish Commission, now 
the Bureau of Fisheries. (Bureau of Fisher- 
ies Economic Circular No. 68) 

Porpoise born in captivity was born 
February 14, 1940, at Marineland, Fla. The 
porpoise was born dead 

FISHING BOOK. See Angling book 

FISHING CLUB of more than temporary 
existence was the Schuylkill Fishing Com- 
pany founded in 1732 at Philadelphia, Pa., 
with a limited membership of twenty-five. 
(William Milnor, Jr. An Authentic History 
of the Schuylkill F [shiny Company of the State 
in Schuylkill from its Establishment on that 
Romantic Stream near Philadelphia in the Year 
1732 to the Present Time) 

MENT. See Fly casting tournament 




lished in 1859 at Harlem, New York City, 
by Henry Hall who manufactured linen and 
silk lines. The company moved to Astoria, 
Long Island, N.Y., later operating under 
the trade name Henry Hall and Sons. 
(Forest and Stream Vol.12 Feb. 13, 1879) 

FISHING MAGAZINE was the American 
Angler issued October 15, 1881. It con- 
tained twelve pages, was published at Phila- 
delphia, Pa., and edited by William Charles 
Harris. It was increased to sixteen pages 
and issued monthly up to January 21, 1882. 
On January 28, 1882, it became a weekly. 

FISHING ROD of telescoping steel tubes 

was made by Everett Horton of Bristol, Conn., 
who obtained patent No. 359,153 on March 8, 
1887, on a "fishing rod" in "tubular metallic 

FISHING TREATISE was a 22-page re- 
port A Discourse Utter'd In Part at Ammaus- 
kecfj J'alls in I he Fishing Season 1739 by Joseph 
Seccombe (Fluviatulis Piscator), parish min- 
ister at Kingston, N.H., published in 1743 at 
Boston, Mass., by S. Kneeland and T. Green. 
It was dedicated "to the honourable Theodore 
Atkinson, Esq., and other, the worthy patrons 
of the fishing at Ammauskeeg." 
See also Angling book 

FIVE-CENT STORE. See Business 


See Ship 


American flag was formally adopted by 
Congress on June 14, 1777, as the National 
Standard, and except for the adding of a new 
star for each new state and changes in the 
arrangement of the stars, the flag displayed to- 
day is the same as the first flag. Claims have 
been made that the first flag was made by 
Betsy Ross in her little 1 shop at 239 Arch St., 
Philadelphia, Pa., at the request of George 
Washington, Robert Morris and Colonel George 
Ross, for the Continental Congress. (George 
Henry Preble Our Flag Origin and Process 
of the Flag of the United States of America} 

American flag displayed on a man-of-war 

was made in Portsmouth Harbor, N.H., when a 
group of young ladies made a flag of cloth 
from their own and mothers' gowns which they 
presented to Captain John Paul Jones who 
raised it to the mast of his ship, the "Ranger," 
on July 4, 1777. (Ezra Green Diary of Ezra 
Green, M.D.) 

American flag floated over a fortress of 
the Old World was on April 27, 1805 when 
Lieutenant Presley Neville O'Bannon of the 
U.S. Marines raised the colors over the Tripoli- 
tan fortress at Derne, on the north coast of 
Africa. (James Alfred Moss The Flag of the 


American flag flown in battle was carried 
September 3, 1777, by a detachment of light 
infantry and cavalry under General William 
Maxwell which met an advance guard of Brit- 
ish and Hessian troops under Generals Richard 
Howe, Charles Cornwallis and Wilhelm von 
Knyphausen at Cooch's Bridge, Delaware. 
(The August 3, 1777 Fort Stanwix flag was 
not the stars and stripes). 

American flag flown in battle on the 
Pacific was carried by the frigate "Essex" 
commanded by Captain David Porter. The 
"Essex" sailed around Cape Horn and was 
the first American ship of war in the Pacific. 
She entered the Pacific ocean March 5, 1813 
and docked March 15, 1813 at Valparaiso, 
Chile. Her first prize on this cruise was the 
"Nereyda" a Peruvian cruiser which was cap- 
tured March 25, 1813. The "Nereyda's" arma- 
ment was thrown overboard and she was dis- 
patched to Callao with a letter to the Viceroy 
of Peru. (George Henry Preble First Cruise 
of the U.S. Frigate Essex-) 

American flag flown in World War I 
over a band of fighting Americans was at 

the Perignon Barracks, Toulouse, France, on 
September 30, 1914. Although the United 
States was neutral at the time, the American 
flag was carried by American members of the 
French Foreign Legion who were ready to 
entrain for the front. (Paul Ayres Rockwell 
American Fighters In the Foreign Legion) 

American flag made of American bunting 
to fly over the Capitol, Washington, D.C, 
was hoisted February 24, 1866. It was 21 feet 
by 12 feet and was made by the United States 
Bunting Company, Lowell, Mass. It was 
presented to the Senate by the company. 

American flag on the high seas was car- 
ried by Capt. Thomas Thompson of the Amer- 
ican sloop "Raleigh," who, on September 4, 
1777, was engaged in an encounter with a 
British vessel. 

American flag over a schoolhouse was 

floated in May 1812 over the log schoolhouse 
at Catamount Hill, Col rain, Mass. It was cut 
and made by Rhoda Shippee, Mrs. Lois Ship- 
pee, Mrs. Sophia Willis and Mrs Stephen Hale 
at the home of Captain Amasa Shippee who 
instructed the women how to arrange the stars 
and stripes. (Harlan Hoyt Ho-rner The 
American Flag) 

American flag raised in Japan was flown 
September 4, 1856 at Shimoda, on the southern 
tip of Izu Peninsula, southwest of Yokohama, 
by Townsend Harris, American Consul Gen- 
eral. The treaty of Yedo (Tokyo) July 29, 
1858, opened Japan to the outside world. (Carl 
Crow He Opened the Door of Japan; Town- 
send Harris and the Story of His Amazing 

American flag saluted by a foreign nation 

was flown from the top mast of the "Ranger." 
The "Ranger" sailed for France, November 1, 




FLAG Continued 

1777, with dispatches of Burgoyne's surrender. 
On February 14, 1778, the "Ranger" com- 
manded by Captain John Paul Jones saluted 
the French flag in the Harbor of Quiberon, 
France, with 13 guns, which salute was returned 
by Admiral La Motte Piquet with 9 guns, the 
same salute authorized by the French court to 
be given an admiral of Holland or of any other 
republic. (Henry Ernest Dunnack The Maine 

American flag saluted by a foreigner was 

at St. Eustatius, Dutch West Indies, on No- 
vember 16, 1776, when Governor Johannes de 
Graeff saluted the "Andrea Doria," which was 
flying the Continental Union flag. The brig 
was captained by Nicholas Diddle who had 
been sent to St. Eustatius to transport arms 
and ammunition for the American army. 
(Schuylcr Hamilton History of the National 
Flag of the United States of America) 

Confederate States flag legally estab- 
lished was the "stars and bars" which was 
adopted by the Convention of Confederated 
States at Montgomery, Ala., on March 4, 1861, 
the same day Lincoln became President of the 
United States. It was designed by Major 
Orren Randolph Smith of Louisburg, N.C., 
and was reported to the convention by William 
Porcher Miles, president of North Carolina 
College. The original flag consisted of three 
bars and a field of seven stars, one for each 
of the Confederate States at that time. A star 
was added for each additional seceding state. 
Later this design was changed since it re- 
sembled the national flag. (George Henry 
Preble History of the Flag of the 'US. A.) 

Flag around the world. See Ship 
Flag at the North Pole. See Discovery 

Flag displayed from the right hand of 
the Statue of Liberty in honor of an individ- 
ual was flown on June 13, 1927, known as Lind- 
bergh Day, in honor of Charles Augustus Lind- 
bergh's flight. The flag was hoisted to the peak 
of the right arm of the Statue of Liberty in 
unison with the raising of the Post Flag and 
the discharge of the Morning Gun at Gover- 
nors Island, and was lowered in unison with 
Post Retreat ceremonies. 

Naval ship of the United States to display 
the American flag around Cape Horn. See 


President's flag, with the president's seal 
in bronze upon a blue background and a large 
white star in each corner, was adopted May 29, 
1916, by executive order No. 2390 of President 
Woodrow Wilson. Previously other presidents 
had had flags but they were more or less indi- 
vidual emblems. President Harry S. Truman, 
by executive order No. 9646 of October 25, 
1945, made several further changes and in- 
creased the number of stars to 48, one for each 
state (10 Federal Register 13391). 


Ship to carry the United States flag 
around the world. See Ship 

Vice president's flag was established Feb- 
ruary 7, 1936, by executive order No. 7285. It 
contains the seal of the United States and a 
blue star in each corner, on a field of white. 
The Navy had previously created a flag for 
the vice president, but its use by other depart- 
ments was optional. 

FLAG DAY. See Holiday 


Flag act to officially establish the American 
flag was passed April" 4, 1818 (3 Stat.L.415), 
"an act to establish the flag of the United 
States." It authorized a fl.'ig with thirteen hori- 
zontal stripes, alternate red and white repre- 
senting the thirteen original states,, and a union 
of twenty white stars in a blue field, one star 
to he added to the flag for each new state on 
the Fourth of July succeeding such admission. 

Legislation authorizing changes in the 
American flag was passed by Congress on Janu- 
ary 13, 1794 (1 Stat.L.341) "act making an 
alteration in the flag of the United States" 
and provided "that from and after the first 
day of May 1795, the Flag of the United States 
be fifteen stripes, alternate red and white; and 
that the union be fifteen stars, white, in a blue 
field." The change was made so that Vermont 
and Kentucky should be represented on the 
flag. A law was passed on April 4, 1818 
(3 StatL.415) reducing the number of stripes 
to thirteen to represent the original thirteen 
states as in the first American flag made, and 
providing one star for each state A new star 
was to be added on the Fourth of July follow- 
ing the admission of each new state. 

FLAG MONUMENT. See Monument 


FLASHER. See Electric sign 

FLASHLIGHT was manufactured by the 
American Electric and Novelty Manufacturing 
Company of New York City which started in 
business in 1896. The first flashlight was pro- 
duced about 1898. The model was a crude 
affair, and consisted only of a paper tube with 
metal fittings, a rough brass stamping used 
for a reflector, without any lens, and a spring 
contact switch. The lamp was handmade, as 
Was also the battery. The company later 
changed its name to the American Eveready 
Company and subsequently became a part of 
the National Carbon Company, Inc. 

FLASHLIGHT LAMP. See Photography 

FLEA CIRCUS was an "Extraordinary Ex- 
hibition of the Industrious Fleas" at 187 Broad- 
way, New York City, which opened January 
1835. Admission was fifty cents and perform- 
ances were given from 11 A.M. to 3 P.M. 
and from 5 P.M. to 9 P.M. A cold spell forced 




the exhibit to close to enable the exhibitor "to 
fill up the vacancies that grim death had made." 
It was re-opened January 20, 1835, for one 
week. ( New York Commercial Advertiser. 
January 20, 1835) 

FLEA LABORATORY was opened Jan- 
uary 1, 1939, at the University of California's 
Hooper Foundation for Medical Research, 
San Francisco, Calif. It was a flea-tight, ro- 
dent-light, two-story concrete building, air con- 
ditioned at a constant temperature. The first 
director was Dr. Karl Fricdrich Meyer. 

FLEET (Warship). See Ship 

FLICKER, a scries of successive drawings 
bound together in book form which appeared 
to show animation, was patented by Henry 
Van Hoevcnbergh of Elizabeth, NJ., who 
obtained patent No 258,164, May 16, 1882, on 
an "optical toy." On June 20, 1882, he 
obtained patent No. 259,950 on an improve- 
ment combining two or more series of super- 
posed leaves. Alternate leaves were in- 
dented and cut. 

FLIGHT. See Aviation Flights 








Sec Theater 

FLOOD of which there is any known rec- 
ord was that of the Mississippi River in 1543. 
When Fernando De Soto was making an ex- 
ploration trip, he noted that on March 18, 1543 
the Mississippi commenced overflowing its 
banks and continued until it reached its height 
on April 20, 1543. By the end of May, the 
flood had receded. There may have been 
many previous floods in the United States but 
no records exist of them. (Carcilaso dc la 
Vega La Florida del Inca) 


FLORAL MAGAZINE. Sec Horticultural 

FLORAL SOCIETY. See Horticultural 

FLOUR MILL equipped with elevators, 
conveyors, drills, and a "hopper boy" was de- 
signed by Oliver Evans in 1789. With this 
equipment the mill could be operated by one 
man instead of the four who were needed in 
the old-fashioned mills. (Smithsonian Insti- 


Flour rolling mill was invented by John 
Stevens of Neenah, Wise., whose patent ap- 
plication of December 28, 1877 on a "grain 
crushing mill" was granted March 23, 1880, 
No. 225,770. His method increased produc- 
tion 70 per cent and obtained a superior flour 
which sold for $2 more a barrel. (State His- 
torical Society of Wisconsin 'Proceedings 


Tetraploid flower produced by the use of 
chemicals was publicly exhibited by David 
Burpee of the W. Atlee Burpee Company, 
Philadelphia, Pa., on January 29, 1940, at the 
New York City Flower Show. A marigold 
was treated with colchicine, a chemical ex- 
tracted from the roots of the fall crocus, with 
the result that it was one and a half times as 
large in diameter as the Guinea Gold from 
which it started. 


See Car 

FLUORESCENT mineral exhibit was 

opened April 26, 1929, at the Academy of Nat- 
ural Sciences of Philadelphia, Pa., when car- 
bon arc lamps with Corning filters were used 
by Samuel George Gordon, associate professor 
of minerals, to activate a display of minerals. 


FLUORSPAR commercial mining was at- 
tempted in 1837 at Trumbull, Conn. It was 
used with magnetic iron pyritc in the smelting 
of copper ores and sold for $60 a ton. 
(Charles Upham Shepard A Report on the 
Geological Survey of Connecticut) 


held June 18, 1861, at Utica, N.Y., by the 
New York State Sportsman's Association. The 
"throwing the fly" competition was won by 
George Lennchacker of Utica, N.Y. 

Indoor fly casting tournament was held 
March 15-20, 1897, under the auspices of the 
Sportsmen's Association at Madison Square 
Garden, New York City. Competitions were 
held in casting for distance, fly casting for ac- 
curacy and distance, bass fly casting, etc. 
(Score Book of the First Indoor Fly Cast- 
ing Tournament of the Sportsmen's Associa- 


cal clinic 


FOG DISPOSAL UNIT \vas accepted by 
test on March 20, 1040, by the Los Angeles 
Airport, Los Anodes, Calif It consisted of 
302 oil burners inslnllrd alongside runways. 
During World War 11, the system was used 
in England and known as "FIDO," Fog In- 
vestigation and Disposal Operation. 





FOLDING MACHINE to fold paper for 
books and newspapers was invented by Cyrus 
Chambers, Jr., of Kennet Square, Pa., who 
obtained patent No. 15,842 on October 7, 1856. 
It was for plain three-fold right-angle work 
and delivered a sixteen-page folded signature 
to the packing box. It was installed in the 
Bible printing house of Jasper Harding & Son, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 



"FOOD-O-MAT". Sec Business 

great commercial success was Henry John 
Heinz who in 1869 opened a factory at 
Sharpsburg, Pa. His first product was grated 
and prepared horse-radish. His company, 
known as the H. J. Heinz Company, manu- 
factures several hundred varieties of products. 
(The Romance of the 57 H. J. Heinz Co.} 

FOOTBALL BOOK was American Football, 
by Walter Camp, published in 18 ( M by Harper 
and Brothers, New York City. 


Football club was the Oneida Football 
Club which was organized in 1862 by Gerrit 
Smith Miller at Epes Sargent Dixwell's School 
in Boston, Mass. The members played all 
comers from 1862 to 1865 and never tasted 
defeat nor had their goal line crossed. (Win- 
throp Saltonstall Scudder An Historical 
Sketch of the Oneida Football Club of Bos- 
ton 1862-1865} 

Intercollegiate football association was 

formed at Springfield, Mass. November 23, 
1876 with Columbia, Harvard and Princeton 
as its three charter members. (Frank Presbrey 
Athletics at Princeton) 

FOOTBALL DUMMY for tackling pur- 
poses was improvised by Amos Alonzo Stagg 
at Yale University, New Haven, Conn., in the 
fall of 1889. He used an old gymnasium mat 
for the purpose. (Amos Alonzo Stagg 


Army-Navy football game was played No- 
vember 29, 1890, at West Point, N.Y. The 
Army captain was Dennis Michie '92 and the 
Navy captain was Charles Rulf Emerich '91. 
The score was Navy 24- Army 0. (Dean Hill 
Football Thru The Years) 

Football game at night was played Sep- 
tember 29, 1892 at the Mansfield Fair, Mans- 
field, Pa., between the Mansfield Teachers Col- 
lege and the Wyoming Seminary of Kingston, 
Pa. Twenty electric lights of 2,000 candle 
power were used with a Thompson & Huston 


Dynamo Machine. The game was seventy 
minutes, but only one half was played, neither 
team scoring. 

Football game between Negro colleges 
was played January 1, 1897 at Brisbine Park, 
Atlanta, Ga., between Atlanta University 
and Tuskcgee Normal and Industrial Institute 
Atlanta won 10 to 0. Atlanta's captain was 
George F. Porter and Tuskegee's captain was 
Clarence Matthews. (Atlanta University Bul- 
letin January 1897) 

Football game broadcast. See Radio 

Football game played in the United States 
to be broadcast in England was the Yale 
Harvard game of November 22, 1930, played 
at New Haven, Conn. Harvard won with a 
score of 13-0. The game was broadcast by the 
British Broadcasting Corporation. 

Football game telecast. See Television 

Indoor football game was played by the 
Springfield (Mass.) Young Men's Christian 
Association against the Yale Consolidated 
Team, a team which had five of the Yale var- 
sity players on it. The game was played as 
part of a three-day winter carnival at Madi- 
son Square Ciarden, New York City, after the 
close of the 1891 season. The score was 16-10 
in favor of Yale The Springfield team lead 
10-6 until the end of the game when Hefflinger 
evened the score In the try for goal, the ball 
struck the post, bounding back into the field of 
play. "Josh" Harlwcll caught the ball as then 
allowed and charged to the five-yard line where 
an additional touchdown was made, making 
the score 16-10. (Amos Alonzo Stagg and 
Wesley Winans Stout Touchdown) 

Indoor football game (large) was played 
in the Chicago Coliseum, 63d Street, Chicago, 
111., on Thanksgiving Day, November 26, 1896 
The game was played between teams represent- 
ing the University of Chicago and the Univer- 
sity of Michigan. Chicago won 7 points to 
Michigan's 6. The gate receipts were approxi- 
mately $10,000. (Amos Alonzo Stagg and 
Wesley Winans Stout Touchdown) 

Intercollegiate football championship was 

won in the fall of 1876 by Yale under the 
captaincy of Eugene Voy Baker, 77. Although 
not a member of the Intercollegiate Football 
Association, Yale played and defeated Colum- 
bia, Harvard and Princeton. 

Intercollegiate football contest in the 

world was played at New Brunswick, N.J., on 
November 6, 1869. Captain William Stryker 
Gummere, '70 of Princeton, later Chief Justice 
of New Jersey, challenged Captain William 
Leggett of Rutgers to a friendly game. Each 
team consisted of twenty-five men. Rutgers 
won with a score of six goals to Princeton's 
four. Each goal constituted a game. Six 
games decided the match. 




International football game was played 
December 6, 1873 at New Haven, Conn., when 
the Yale team defeated the Eton, England, 
team to the score of two goals to one. 

Mid-western football team to play on the 
Pacific coast was that of the University of 
Chicago, Chicago, 111. The game was played 
on December 25, 1894 at San Francisco, Calif, 
against Leland Stanford, Jr. University. The 
score was 24 to 4 in favor of the Chicago 

Professional football game was played 
September 3, 1895, at Latrobc, Pa., between 
the Latrobe Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion arid the Jeannette (Pa.) Athletic Club, 
the former winning 12-0. Lat robe's captain 
was Harry Ryan and Jeanne! le's captain was 
"Posie" Flowers. The regular quarterback 
being unable to play, John K. Brallier of In- 
diana, Pa., was paid ten dollars and expenses. 
The following year four men were paid and 
in 1897 the entire team was paid. 

Rugby contest (international) was held 
May 14, 1874 at Jarvis Field, Cambridge, 
Mass., between Harvard and McGill Uni- 
versities. The games were played under the 
Harvard rules and Harvard won three games, 
the first two lasting about five minutes and the 
third about twelve minutes It was con- 
sidered a game under the Harvard rules as 
soon as either team scored. McGill arrived 
with eleven men and Harvard with fifteen, 
four of whom were dropped to equalize the 
teams. A second match was played the fol- 
lowing day and a third match was played in 
the fall at Montreal, Canada. 

the contest between McGill University, Mon- 
treal, Canada, and Harvard University, played 
at Cambridge, Mass., May 14, 1874. At this 
game, admission was charged, the first instance 
where an admission fee was charged to witness 
a collegiate sporting event. The proceeds were 
used for lavishly entertaining the McGill team 

Football goal posts of collapsible folding 
metal were manufactured by Fischer Metal 
Parts Manufacturing Company, New York City, 
and were installed in func 1936 at the Yankee 
Stadium, New York City. 

FOOTBALL RULES were formulated at a 
meeting October 18, 1873 at New York City 
attended by delegates from Columbia, Prince- 
ton, Rutgers and Yale. 


sewn on the players' uniforms to enable the 
spectators easily to distinguish the players, were 
used by the University of Pittsburgh, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa., on December 5, 1908, for the game 
against Washington and IcfTcrson. The score 
was 14-0 in favor of Washington and JefTer- 


(U.S.). See State department (U.S.) 


MERGE BUREAU (U.S.) Sec Commerce 
department (U.S.) 



Missionary society 





FOREIGN SERVICE. See Diplomatic 


School of Comparative Jurisprudence and Di- 
plomacy of George Washington University, 
Washington, D.C., which opened November 15, 
1898. It was discontinued as a separate school 
in 1 ( )13, the courses being given, however, in 
Columbian College until September 1928, when 
training in foreign service and governmental 
theory and administration was reestablished as 
a separate branch under the School of Govern- 


Sec Cemetery 

FLIGHT. See Aviation Flights (Trans- 


Forest fire drenched by man-made rain, 

produced by "seeding" cumulus clouds with dry 
ice, was attacked October 29, 1947 at Concord, 
N.H. "Seeders" of the General Electric Com- 
pany, Schenectady, N.Y., flew over the burning 
area in "rain-making" planes and caused rain 
to fall. The experiment was "Project Cirrus," 
a joint weather research program of the United 
States Army Signal Corps and the Office of 
Naval Research. General rain motivated by 
natural conditions followed, so it was impossible 
to determine the extent of man-made rainfall. 

Forest fire lookout tower was a log cabin 
\\ith Mat roof creeled by M. G Shaw Lumber 
Company, Greeiuille, Maine, on Squaw Moun- 
tain, southwest of Moosehead Lake The first 
watchman was William Hilton of Bangor, 
Maine whose service started June 10, 1905. 

FOREST MANAGEMENT on a profession- 
al scale was begun in 1891 in Asheville, N.C., 
on the Biltmorc estate of George Washington 


Forest reserve (national) was the Yellow- 
stone Park Timberland Reserve which was so 
designated by act of Congress on March 30, 
1891 (26 Slat L 1565) signed by President Ben- 
jamin Harrison. Tt was placed under the ad- 
ministration of the Land Office of the Depart- 




ment of the Interior. (Jenks Cameron The 
Development of Government Forest Control in 
the US.) 

Forest reserve (state) was the New York 
State Forest Preserve, designated May 15, 1885. 
Legislation prohibiting the sale of state lands 
in certain counties in the Adirondack area was 
passed February 6, 1883. Essentially this forest 
reserve is a state park, and as such logging and 
other commercial forms of exploitation are pro- 

Aircraft owned by the Forest Service of 

the Department of Agriculture was placed in 
service August 17, 1938, at the Oakland, Calif., 
airport. It was a 450 horsepower green-coated, 
fire-fighting plane with a cruising speed of 175 
miles an hour and flying range of 700 miles. 
It had a service ceiling of 22,000 feet and 
could carry a full load of 1,250 pounds. 

Federal planting of forests was made in 
1801 in cooperation with private individuals in 
the sand hills of Nebraska when a small planta- 
tion of Jack and Norway pines was established 
four miles west of Swan, Neb., for the pur- 
pose of holding the sand in place by the use of 
shelterbelts. The land was acquired under 
authority of the act of March 3, 1891 (26 Stat. 
L.1095), "an act to repeal timber culture laws, 
and for other purposes." 

Forest commission (state) (permanent) 
was the Hoard of Forestry of California au- 
thori/ed by "act to create a state board of for- 
estry" passed March 3, 1885. The first meeting 
was held April 1, 1885 at San Francisco, Calif., 
when James V. Coleman was elected chairman ; 
Charles M. Chase, treasurer; and Sands W. 
Forman, secretary. Dr. Albert Kellogg was the 
other member of the original board. New 
York State on May 15, 1885, authorized a 
state forestry commission which held its first 
meeting September 23, 1885. 

Forest Service (United States) was or- 
ganized as the Division of Forestry hav- 
ing received permanent statutory recogni- 
tion by the act of June 30, 1886 (24 Stat.L.103). 
Dr. Bernhard Kduard Fernow was the first 
chief and served until 1898. By the act of 
March 2, 1001 (31 Stat.L.929) the Division 
of Forestry became the Bureau of Forestry. 
The act of February 1, 1905 (33 Slat.L.628) 
signed by President Theodore Roosevelt pro- 
vided for the transfer of Forest Reserves 
from the Department of Interior to the De- 
partment of Agriculture, opened natural re- 
sources of the forests to legitimate use and 
stabilized principles of reserving for public 
purposes the federally owned forest lands. The 
Appropriation Act of March 3, 1905 (33 Stat. 
L.8/2) designated the old Bureau of Forestry 
as the Forest Service, which is the present or- 
ganization. (Bernhard Eduard Fernow Divi- 
sion of Forestry Department of Agriculture 
1897 Yearbook) 


Forest service aerial patrol was established 
by the Department of Agriculture on June 1, 
1919. Two patrols a day were operated out 
of March Field, Riverside, Calif. Five routes 
were covered for each of which there was one 
airplane. The expense was borne mainly by 
the army. From June 1st to October 30, the 
airplanes flew 2,457 hours, and covered 202,009 
miles. The patrol was discontinued October 31, 

Forestry state inquiry commission was 

appointed by Wisconsin under act of March 23, 
1867, relating to the growth of forest trees, 
which authorized the state agricultural society 
and the state horticultural society to appoint 
one person, they to appoint a third, who shall 
constitute a committee "to inquire and make 
report in detail" on "increasing the growth and 
preservation of forest and other trees" The 
first commissioners were Increase Allen Lap- 
ham, Joseph (iillet Knapp and Hans Crocker, 
who published a 104-page report in 1867 en- 
titled Report on the Disastrous Effects of the 
Destruction of Forest Trees. 


Colonial forestry legislation was the act 
of March 29, 1626, passed by the Plymouth 
Colony which required the approval of the 
governor and the council Lo sell or transport 
lumber out of the colony. (Jay P. Kinney 
Forest Lcqislation in America Prior to March 
4, 1789) 

Federal forestry legislation was the act 

of February 25, 1799 (1 Stat.L.622) which 
authorized the President to direct a sum "not 
exceeding $200,000 to be laid out in the pur- 
chase of growing or other timber, or of lands 
on which timber was growing, suitable for the 
navy." On December 19, 1799, a tract of 350 
acres on drover's Island, Ga , was purchased 
for $7,500 (Jenks Cameron The Develop- 
ment of Governmental Forest Control in the 
United 'States) 

Federal forestry supervision was at- 
tempted August 15, 1876. An appropriation for 
this purpose had been provided by an amend- 
ment to the act making appropriations for the 
legislative, executive and judicial expenses of 
the government for the year ending June 30, 
1877. The total appropriation for the Division 
of Forestry for the fiscal year 1877, March 3, 
1877 (19 Stat.L.360) was only $10,000 ($2,000 
for salaries and $8,000 for the "purpose of 
enabling the Commissioner of Agriculture to 
experiment and to continue an investigation and 
report upon the subject of forestry and the 
collection and distribution of valuable economic 
forest-tree seeds and plants.") Dr. Franklin 
Benjamin Hough was placed in charge of the 
survey on August 30, 1876. (Michigan Political 
Science Association. Publications. Vol. 5) 


Forestry correspondence course in tree 
surgery was started in 1914 by the Davey 
Tree Expert Company to prepare the men who 




intended joining the Davey Institute of Tree 
Surgery of Kent, Ohio. (The Davey Bulletin. 
Vol. XVII. No. 1A. Jan. 1, 1929) 

Forestry course in a university was estab- 
lished in 1881 by the University of Michigan, 
Ann Arbor, Mich., as one of seven main sub- 
jects given in the curriculum of a newly estab- 
lished School of Political Science. It was given 
for four successive years, then discontinued 
until the reestablishment of the Department of 
Forestry in 1902. Lectures, however, had been 
given on forestry and tree culture at Yale Uni- 
versity in 1873, and at Cornell University in 

Forestry school dealing exclusively with 
problems of forestry was the Biltmore For- 
est School of Biltmore, N.C., a private insti- 
tution, opened by Dr. Carl Alvin Schenck, 
September 1, 1808. Instruction was largely 
given by himself in class, and later with field 
work and extensive tours both to the western 
part of this country and to European countries. 
The school ran until 1912 when Dr. Schenck 
returned to Germany. 

Forestry school of collegiate character 

for training men in forestry was established 
September 19, 1898, at Cornell University, 
Ithaca, N.Y., as the New York Slate College 
of Forestry. It was under the leadership of 
Dr. Bernhard Eduard Fernow as Director and 
Dean. The law under which this school was 
established was signed by Governor Frank 
Swett Black on April 8, 1898. New York 
was therefore the first state to establish a for- 
estry course. The activities of this school were 
suspended in 1903. 

Forestry school to give scientific training 
in the care and preservation of trees was 

a department of the Davey Tree Expert Com- 
pany, Kent, Ohio, incorporated February 9, 
1909. The school technically is not a forestry 
school, but has devoted itself to shade trees 
and the specialized methods of caring for them 
The first president was John Davey who served 
from February 9, 1909, to November 8, 1923. 


National forestry association was the 

American Forestry Association organized Sep- 
tember 10, 1875 at Chicago, 111. The first presi- 
dent was Robert Douglas and the first secretary 
was Professor Henry H. McAfee, professor of 
Horticulture and Forestry, Iowa State College. 
Mr. Douglas immediately resigned and Dr. 
John Aston Warder was elected in his place. 
The American Forestry Congress (organized 
at Cincinnati, Ohio April 25, 1882) merged 
with the American Forestry Association at a 
meeting held June 29, 1882 at Rochester, N.Y. 
It was incorporated January 25, 1897. (Amer- 
ican Forestry Association American Conserva- 

State forestry association was the Minne- 
sota Forestry Association, organized January 
12, 1876, at St. Paul, Minn., to promote the 


planting of forest trees. E. F. Drake was 
president and Leonard B. Hodges, secretary. 
On March 2, 1876, the state appropriated $2,500 
to carry on the work (Chapter 110). 

FORK brought to America was in a leather 
case with a bodkin and knife Governor John 
Winthrop of Massachusetts introduced it into 
this country about 1630, following the style 
which Queen Elizabeth of England had in- 
troduced despite the flaming denunciations of 
many eminent clergymen. 

FOUNDRY (TYPE). See Type foundry 

FOUNTAIN PEN that was practical was 
invented by Lewis Edson Waterman and was 
manufactured in 1884 by the L. E. Waterman 
Company in New York City. The first year 
about two hundred fountain pens were manu- 
factured. They were originally manufactured 
by hand. Waterman also invented the machin- 
ery to produce fountain pens in commercial 
quantities (PensL. E. Waterman Co.) 


on May 20, 1830 to D. Hyde of Reading, Pa. 


CHINE. Sec Paper making machine (Four- 

FOX HUNTING CLUB was the Gloucester 
Fox Hunting Club, composed of residents of 
Philadelphia, Pa., and Gloucester County, N.J, 
A group of 27 dog owners met October 29, 
1766, at Philadelphia, Pa., and decided to hold 
a meeting on December 13, 1766, to formulate 
rules for the club to commence January 1, 1767. 
John Massey, huntsman, was appointed to keep 
the dogs, the club dissolved in 1818. (Wil- 
lunn Milnor, Jr- !\fcnwirs of the Gloucester 
ro.r Hunting Club near Philadelphia) 


Masters of Fox Hounds Association formed 
February 14, 1907, at New York City. The first 
president was W. Austin Wadsworth and the 
first secretary Henry G. Vatighan. 


to become a Master of Foxhounds in England 
was Robert Early Strawbridge of Philadelphia 
who on May 1, 1913, became Master of Fox 
Hounds of the Cotresmore Hounds, Oakham, 
Rutland, England and served until May 1, 1915. 



See Insurance 

in 1830 by the Kappa Alpha Society, founded 
November 26, 1825 at Union College. Schenec- 
tady, N.Y. 





Fraternity house was occupied in 1839 by 
the Williams Chapter (Alpha Chapter of Mas- 
sachusetts) of the Kappa Alpha Society at 
Williams College, Williamstown, Mass The 
chapter was founded October 29, 1833 and 
used various quarters until 1839 when they 
hired a frame structure two stories high, an 
annex to the residence of Captain James 
Meachem. The first floor supplied space for 
the social gatherings and a banquet room. A 
winding stair led to the second story planned 
expressly for the secret meetings. 

Fraternity west of the Alleghenies was 
Beta Theta Pi, founded August 8, 1839 at 
Miami University, Oxford, Ohio. 

Inter-fraternity council was the National 
Interfraternity Conference composed of twenty- 
six fraternities which met November 17, 1909, 
at the University Club, New York City, to 
discuss matters of general interest and welfare. 

Professional fraternity was Theta Xi 
founded April 29, 1864, at the Rcnsselaer Poly- 
technic Institute, Troy, N.Y. Membership was 
confined to students of engineering and science. 
The fraternity was an offspring of Sigma 
Delta, a local society at Rensselacr Polytechnic 
Institute. (William Raimond BairdBaird's 
Manual of American College Fraternities) 

Scholastic fraternity was Phi Beta Kappa, 
founded December 5, 1776, at William and 
Mary College, Williamsburg, Va., with a 
nucleus of fifty members. In December 1779 
it authorized the establishment of branches at 
Yale and Harvard. (Oscar McMurtrie Voor- 
hees History of Phi Beta Kappa). 

Scholastic fraternity Negro member. Sec 
Degrees Doctor of Philosophy degree awarded 
to a Negro 

Social fraternity was Kappa Alpha estab- 
lished November 26, 1825 at Union College, 
Schenectady, N.Y. The first initiation was 
held December 3, 1825, The first presiding 
officer was David White. (Kappa Alpha Rec- 
ordCentennial Edition 1825-1925) 


Fraternity journal which has had a con- 
tinuous existence and possessed the features 
and aims of the current fraternity periodical 
is the Beta Theta Pi. It was a monthly, first 
published December IS, 1872, at Alexandria, 
Va., and edited by the Rev. Charles Duy 
Walker, professor at Virginia Military Insti- 


Election law 


See Postal service 

FREE LUNCH was dispensed by Pierre 
Maspero of the City Exchange, St. Louis 
Street, New Orleans, La., in the fall of 1838. 
(Herbert AsburyThe French Quarter) 



FREE PORT was opened February 1, 1937, 
at Stapleton, Staten Island, N.Y., under au- 
thority of act of Congress, "An act to provide 
for the establishment, operation and mainte- 
nance of foreign-trade zones in ports of entry 
of the United States, to expedite and encour- 
age foreign commerce, and for other purposes," 
approved June 18, 1934 (48 Stat.L.998). It 
embraced an 18-acre tract around New York 
Municipal Piers Nos. 12, 13, 15 and 16, and was 
operated as a public utility by the Department 
of Docks, New York City, under the supervi- 
sion of the U.S. Customs Service. Foreign 
merchandise was admitted in bond without pay- 
ment of import duties. The first superintendent 
was Dock Commissioner John McKenzie. 


FREE SOIL PARTY was organized at the 
National Free Soil Convention at Buffalo, 
N.Y., August 9-10, 1848. In the election of 
1848 their presidential candidate was Martin 
Van Buren of New York and vice presidential 
candidate, Charles Francis Adams of Mas- 
sachusetts. Van Buren received 291,263 popu- 
lar votes as compared with 1,360,099 cast for 
Zachary Taylor, the Whig candidate. 


was in effect from 1775 to 1780, but imports 
were taxed by the various states. Trade was 
free in Massachusetts during 1774-1781, in 
South Carolina 1776-1783, in Maryland and 
Connecticut 1776-1780. Although there were 
no federal restrictions, this period was extreme- 
ly complicated and taxes were different in 
practically every state. (William Hill First 
Stages of the Tariff Policy of the United 
States. American Economic Association Jour- 
nal. November 1893) 



created by act of Congress, March 3, 1865 
(13 Stat.L.507), signed by President Abraham 
Lincoln. Its existence was scheduled to have 
terminated in one year but was extended to 
June 30, 1872. Its object was to establish 
schools and better the conditions of the Negro. 
The first commissioner was General Oliver Otis 
Howard who took office May 15, 1865. His 
salary was $3,000 a year. (Paul S keels Peirce 
Freedmen's Bureau) 



See also Masonry (not Freemasons) 

Ancient Arabic Order of Nobles of the 
Mystic Shrine was established June 16, 1871, 
at Masonic Hall, 114 East 13th St., New York 
City. It was founded by Dr. Walter Millard 
Fleming and Prof. Albert Leighton Rawson. 
The first temple, Mecca, was instituted in New 
York City, September 26, 1872. Only Masons 
are eligible for membership. 




Grotto began in a committee in Hamilton 
Lodge (Masonic) No. 120, Hamilton, N.Y. It 
was formed for frolic, with Le Roy Fairchild 
as its moving spirit. The first formal organ- 
ization was effected September 10, 1889. The 
ritual was written by R. R. Riddell and George 
Beal. A central governing committee known 
as the Supreme Council of the Mystic Order 
of Veiled Prophets of the Enchanted Realm 
was instituted June 13, 1890 at Hamilton, N.Y., 
with Thomas Lemuel James, New York City, 
in the chair as Grand Monarch. The first 
charter was granted June 13, 1890 to Druid 
Grotto No 1, changed July 5, 1890, to Mo- 

Knights Templar Grand Encampment 

was held January 22, 1814, in New York City, 
at which time De Witt Clinton was elected 
Grand Master, a position which he filled until 
1827. The first reference to Knights Templar 
in the United States is found in the Independ- 
ent Journal of New York, December 28, 1785 

Mason known to arrive in America was 
John Skene (or Skeen) of Burlington, N.J. 
He was a member of a Lodge in Aberdeen, 
Scotland, came to New Jersey in 1682, and 
later became Deputy Governor of West Jersey. 

Mason (native born) was Jonathan Bel- 
cher, a citizen of Boston, Mass., who was made 
a Mason in England in 1704 Belcher became 
Royal Governor of the Colony of Massachu- 
setts Bay (1730 to 1741) and Royal Governor 
of New Jersey in 1745. (Massachusetts His- 
torical Society Collections Vol. 6) 

Masonic Grand Lodge was organized at 
Williamsburg, Va., October 13, 1778, when the 
Grand Lodge of Virginia was established with 
Right Worshipful John Blair, Past-Master of 
Williamsburg Lodge No. 6, as the first Grand 
Master. (Mehin Maynard Johnson The Be- 
ginnings of Freemasonry in America) 

Masonic lodge to work under a regular 
charter was St. John's Lodge, established July 
30, 1733, at Boston, Mass. It was organized 
by Henry Price The first written records of 
an American Masonic lodge are found in an 
account book of St. John's Lodge, Philadel- 
phia, Pa., indicating that the lodge existed as 
early as 1730. Such a lodge had no warrant 
as we understand the term today, but was 
merely an assembly of Masons who fore- 
gathered according to ancient custom. 

Military Masonic lodge was formed at 

Crown Point, N Y., under authority granted 
April 13, 1759, by Provincial Grand Master 
Jeremy Gridley of Massachusetts. Abraham 
Savage, master of the first lodge in Boston, 
Mass., served as the first master. 

Negro Mason was initiated on March 6, 
1775, in an Army lodge (No. 441) stationed at 
Castle William under General Thomas Gage in 
or near Boston, Mass. It operated under Irish 
constitutions. When the British evacuated Bos- 
ton, Prince Hall and his fellows were given a 


permit to meet as a lodge. Under it, African 
Lodge No. 1 was formed July 3, 1776. After 
the Revolutionary War, Prince Hall and others 
applied June 30, 1784 to the Grand Lodge of 
England for a warrant which was issued Sep- 
tember 29, 1784, to African Lodge No. 459, 
with Prince Hall as Master. The first meeting 
under the charter was held May 6, 1787, at 
Boston, Mass. The lodge was not recognized 
by American masonry. (Harry E. Davis A 
History of Freemasonry Among Negroes in 

Negro Masonic lodge was the Alpha Lodge 
of New Jersey, No. 116 Free and Accepted 
Masons, the warrant for which was granted 
at the Annual Communication of the Grand 
Lodge in Trenton, N J., January 19, 1871. The 
first retrular communication was held January 
31, 1871. The first Worshipful Master was 
Nathan Mingus (Harold Van Burcn Voorhis 
Negro Masonry in the United States) 

Order of De Molay was founded by Frank 
Sherman Land and nine young men in Kansas 
City, Mo , in 1019 It is an organization for 
boys whose male relatives are Masons The 
seven cardinal precepts of De Molay are Love 
of Parents, Reverence, Patriotism, Cleanliness, 
Courtesy, Comradeship and Fidelity. 

Provincial Grand Master (Masonic) was 

Daniel Coxe who was deputized on June 5, 
1 730 His deputation included New York, New 
Jersey and Pennsylvania He visited the Grand 
Lodge of England, January 29, 1731, and was 
received as the "Provincial Grand Master of 
North America." He was one of the Justices 
of the Supreme Court of the Province of New 


sonic magazine 

FREEZER (ice cream). Sec Tee cream 






Railroad station 

ROAD. See Railroad 








MODULATION. See FURNACE (blast). See Iron 



Radio license 






Angels Camp, Calaveras County, Calif., May 
19-20, 1928. Fifty-one frogs were entered in 
the contest. "The Pride of San Joaquin," a 
frog owned by Louis R. Fischer of Stockton, 
Calif., was the winner with a jump of three 
feet four inches. The affair, an annual one, 
is sponsored by the Angels Boosters Club and 
is held in commemoration of Mark Twain's 
famous story, "The Celebrated Jumping Frog 
of Calaveras County." 

FRONTIER DAY. See Holiday 


Treatise on the Culture and Management of 
Fruit Trees; in which a nay method of pruning 
and training is fully described. Together with 
observations on the diseases, defects and injur- 
ies in all kind of fruit and forest trees by Wil- 
liam Eorsyth published for J. Morgan in 1802 
at Philadelphia, Pa. It also contained An In- 
troduction and Notes Adapting the Rules of the 
Treatise to the Climates and Seasons of the 
United States by William Cobbett. 

FRUIT SPRAYING was clone in 1878 when 
an apple grower in Niagara County, N.Y., 
sprayed his apple trees with Paris green for 
the control of canker worms. (U.S. Depart- 
ment of Agriculture. 1925 Yearbook) 




FULLER'S EARTH was discovered by John 
Olson in 1891 at Benton, Ark. It was used in 
cleansing (fulling) cloth, wool and fur, and 
later in the bleaching, clarifying or filtering of 
fats, greases and oils. It was first used for 
refining edible oils and petroleum in 1878. 
(Charles Lathrop Parsons Fuller's Earth) 


FUNERAL (Catholic). See Catholic 



FUR TRADING POST was established by 
the Pilgrims of Plymouth Colony at Augusta, 
Me., in 1628. Trade was carried on with the 
Norridgewock Indians. The pelts were prin- 
cipally exported to England although some 
were retained for protection against the cold. 
(James William North History of Augusta) 



FURS exported were shipped on the S.S. 
"Fortune" in December 1621. Robert Cushman 
returned to England with a cargo valued at 
$2,450 consisting of furs, sassafras, clapboards 
and wainscot. The boat was captured by the 
French and the cargo seized. (Albert Christo- 
pher Addison The Romantic Story of the 
Mayflower Pilgrims) 


Cordcau-Bickford detonating fuse was in- 

troduced in 1913 by the Ensign-Bickford Com- 
pany, Simsbury, Conn., which commenced to 
manufacture it in 1915. It is a detonating fuse 
consisting of a lead tube carefully drawn to 
a uniform size, filled with trinitrotoluene 
(TNT). It functions at a speed of 17,000 
feet a second. 

Safety fuse was manufactured in 1836 by 
(Richard) Bacon, (William) Bickford. 
(Joseph) Eales & Company at Simsbury, Conn., 
on a spinning bench machine with travel- 
ing jennies which drew and twisted the yarn. 
Powder was fed to the center of the twisting 
strands and the resulting fuse lengths were 
afterwards "countered" and coated with water- 
proof compounds. The machine was imported 
from England. 

Textile wrapped detonating fuse was 

manufactured in 1936 by the Ensign-Bickford 
Company, Simsbury, Conn It was known as 
"Pnmacord" and consisted of a core of pen- 
taerythrite tetranitrate enclosed in textile 
wrappings suitably protected by waterproof 
coverings. It had a velocity of detonation of 
approximately 20,000 feet per second. 

G.I. COLLEGE. See College 

GAG RULE. See Congress of the United 
States House of Representatives 

GAGE. See Wire gage 



was passed March 22, 1630, at Boston, Mass. 
"It is likewise ordered that all persons what- 
soever that have cards, dice or tables in their 
houses, shall make away with them before the 
next court under pain of punishment." Na- 
thaniel Bradstreet Shurtleff "Records of the 
Governor and Company of the Massachusetts 
Bay in New England" 


Game law (colonial) was passed March 
24, 1629, by Virginia and provided that "no . . . 
hides or skins whatever be sent or carried out 
of this colony upon forfeiture of thrice the 
value, whereof the half to the informer and 
the other half to public use." 




Game law (national) was approved May 
19, 1796 (1 Stat.L.470) "to regulate the trade 
and intercourse with the Indian tribes and to 
preserve peace on the frontiers." A fine of 
$100 and six months in jail was the penalty 
for crossing the line to hunt or destroy game 
within Indian territory. A later treaty with 
the Indians signed in 1832 is generally regarded 
as the first national game law. 

Game law (state) was passed hy Massachu- 
setts in 1817. Other states quickly followed 
but as there was some difference regarding 
the hunting seasons and importation of birds, 
feathers, etc., an act was passed by Congress 
on March 4, 1909 (35 Stat.L.1138) prohibiting 
the transportation of birds, parts, etc. On 
March 4, 1913 (37 Stat.L.847) the first law 
regulating the shooting of migratory birds was 
passed, which became known as the McLean 

Hunting license fee (state) was required 
by law of 1864, Chapter 426, passed April 30, 
1864, by New York Deer hunters in Suffolk 
Count) were obliged to pay ten dollars for a 
license which was "paid over to the overseers 
of the poor of such town for the benefit of the 
poor thereof." 


established in August 1933 by the University of 
Wisconsin, Madison, Wis., at which time Aldo 
Leopold was appointed Professor in Game 
Management. The primary aim was to conduct 
graduate research and to act as a clearing 
house for the development of the raising of 
game as a new use for Wisconsin land Al- 
though this was the first chair, it was not the 
first venture in game management by a univer- 
sity. Michigan had established a School of 
Conservation in 1927 and Iowa had set up a 
Director of Game Research in 1932. 


to make games and children's books was the 
McLoughlin Company organi/cd at New York 
City in 1828 by John'McLoughlm. In 1850, his 
sons, John and Edmund, were taken into part- 
nership arid the firm name became McLouglilin 
Brothers. In 1920, the company confined its 
activities to manufacturing books and moved to 
Springfield, Mass. 

GAME PRESERVE was established by 
Judge John Dean Caton of Ottaw r a, 111., about 
I860, on his own estate The preserve was 
well slocked with all kinds and species of 
American native game. 

Game preserve appropriation (federal) 

assisting state wildlife restoration projects 
was "an act to provide that the United States 
shall aid the states in wildlife restoration proj- 
ects" (50 Stat.L.917) passed September 2, 1937. 
A million dollars was appropriated June 16, 
1938 (52 Stat.L.736). The federal government 
pays 75 per cent of the costs and the state 25 
per cent. The first project was Utah's Fish and 
Game Commission's plan to stabilize the water 


levels on some 3,000 acres of land bordering 
Great Salt Lake, approved July 23, 1938 by the 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 


New York Sportsmen's Club founded May 20, 
1844 at New York City. B. J. Meserole was 
president and James McGay, secretary. On 
March 10, 1873, it became the New York Asso- 
ciation for the Protection of Game. (Forest 
and Stream Dec. 26, 1889) 

GAME WARDEN (salaried game and 
fish warden) was William Alden Smith, 
of Grand Rapids, Mich., appointed for a four- 
year term at $1,200 annually and expenses under 
Act No. 28, Public Acts of Michigan, approved 
March 15, 1887, "an act to provide for the 
appointment of a game and fish warden and to 
prescribe his powers and duties to enforce the 
statutes of this state for the preservation of 
moose, wapiti, deer, birds and fish." Wisconsin 
approved Act No. 456 on April 12, 1887, au- 
thorizing appointment of four game wardens 
for two-year terms at an annual salary of $600 
with a maximum of $250 for expenses. Only 
two wardens were appointed by Wisconsin in 

GARAGE (public) was established at Bos- 
ton, Mass, on May 24, 1899, by W. T. Mc- 
Cullongh as the Back Bay Cycle and Motor 
Company lie advertised its opening as a 
"stable for renting, sale, storage and repair 
of motor vehicles." (Horseless Age July 

GARBAGE DISPOSAL. See Incinerator 
GARDEN (botanic). See Botanic garden 

GARDENER'S MANUAL was the Young 
Gardener's Assistant, containing a catalogue of 
garden and flower seeds, with practical direc- 
tions under each head, for tJie cultivation of 
culinary vegetables and flowers, also directions 
for cultivating fruit trees, the grape line, etc., 
by Thomas Bridgeman published in 1835 at 
New York City. 


Gas company was the Gas Light Company 
of Baltimore, incorporated February 5, 1817. 
An ordinance was passed permitting Rembrandt 
Peale and others to manufacture and distribute 
gas "to provide for more effectually lighting 
the streets, squares, lanes and alleys of the 
city of Baltimore " Coal gas was used. The 
first street was lighted on February 17, 1817. 
The first engineer of the company was David 
I 'ugh. (Baltimore Gas and Electric News. 
Feb. 1929) 

Gas light in the White House, Washing- 
ton, B.C., was turned on December 29. 1848, 
during the administration of President James 
Knox Polk. 

Gas lights for display were introduced in 
Philadelphia, Pa., in August 1796. The gas 
was inflammable and was manufactured by 




GAS Continued 

Michael Ambroise & Company on Mulberry 
Street between Eighth and Ninth Streets, 
Philadelphia, Pa. The light showed "a grand 
fire-work by means of light composed of in- 
flammable air." The lights were disposed so 
as to form an Italian parterre, Masonic fig- 
ures and emblems. The jets of light were 
made from orifices in pipes bent into the 
requisite shapes. The gas was not used for 
illuminating purposes. (John Fanning Wat- 
son Annals of Philadelphia) 

Gas lights (street) were installed on Pel- 
ham Street in front of the residence of David 
Melville of Newport, R.I. in 1806. He pa- 
tented his apparatus for making coal gas 
March 18, 1813, about which time several im- 
portant installations were made. (American 
Gas Light Journal VoL 1) 

Gas meter (dry) to record the amount of 
gas used was 11 "gasometer" patented October 
17, 1834 by James Bogardus of New York 
City. It operated on the principle of a bel- 
lows, alternately being filled with gas and 
emptied, the pulsations being counted on a 

Gas ordinance (city) authorized the Gas 
Light Company of Baltimore, Md. f to lay 
pipes in Baltimore. It was approved June 19, 
1816, by Edward Johnson, mayor; and by 
William Patterson and Henry Payson, presi- 
dents of the first and second branch of the 
City Council, respectively. (Gas Age. July 1, 

Gas storage tank (waterless) was com- 
pleted about February 3, 1925, and put into 
service on February 10, 1925, by the Northern 
Indiana Gas and Electric Company at Michi- 
gan City, Ind. It was one hundred five feet 
in diameter, one hundred sixty feet high with 
a capacity of one million cubic feet of gas. 
The top section did not slide up and down as 
a steel piston inside the shell rose and fell as 
the amount of gas varied. The walls of the 
holder were made of steel plates twenty feet 
long and thirty-two inches wide. 

Helium gas. SVr Helium 

Municipal gas plant was acquired by 
Wheeling, W.Va., which appointed a board of 
trustees on June 23, 1871, to operate the gas 
works. It was incorporated March 18, 1850, as 
the Wheeling Gas Company and received a city 
franchise on April 13, 1850. The company had 
been organized May 11, 1851, with a capital 
stock of $50,000, the city subscribing $15,000. 
After considerable litigation, the city acquired 
the gas plant in 1871. (Charles A. Winger ter 
History of Greater Wheeling and Vicinity) 

Natural gas corporation was the Fredonia 
Gas Light & Water Works Company organ- 
ized at Fredonia, N.Y., in 1865. (Brief His- 
tory of the Natural Gas Industry Z wets ch 
Heinselmann 6* Co.) 


Natural gas used as an illuminant was at 

Fredonia, N.Y., in 1824. A pipe line was laid 
from the well to a hall where a reception was 
tendered to Lafayette. The illumination by 
the gas was regarded as a great curiosity. In 
1821 a well, dug to the depth of 27 feet near 
a gas spring, supplied sufficient gas for thirty 
lamps. Jt was later walled up because its odor 
was offensive. 

Natural gas used for manufacturing was 

made at Olean. N.Y., in 1870 and at Tidioute, 
Pa., an oil town. The first use of natural gas in 
iron working was at the Leechburg, Pa., works 
of Rogers and Burchfield Iron Mill where it 
was extensively used in 1873 in both iron and 
puddle mill furnaces. 

Pipe line (long distance) for natural gas 
was a two-inch pipe five miles in length, ex- 
tending from Newton Wells to Titusville, Pa. 
It was completed on August 1, 1872. 

Theater lighted by gas. See Theater 

Water gas plant was built in 1874 at 
Phoenixville, Pa. It was the first apparatus 
of the superheated generator type and was 
covered by three patents granted August 13, 
1872 (Nos. 130, 381; 130, 382; 130, 383, to 
Thaddeus Sobieski Coulincourt Lowe of Nor- 
ristown, Pa. the inventor and originator of 
water-gas production. (Norman Romance of 
the Gas Industry) 

Water gas production which was practical, 
and its first successful commercial use, began 
with Thaddeus Sobieski Coulincourt Lowe of 
Norristown, Pa., who obtained patent No. 

167,847 September 21, 1875 for an "improve- 
ment in processes and apparatus for llie manu- 
facture of illuminating or heating gas." 

GAS (Carbide). See Acetylene 

GAS COMMISSION (state) was estab- 
lished by Massachusetts, Chapter 314 Acts of 
1885 approved June 11, 1885, by Governor 
George Dexter Robinson. In 1885, a commis- 
sion, now the Department of Public Works, 
was established by Massachusetts to regulate 
the industry, to supervise the issue of capital 
stock, to reduce after complaint and hearing 
the price of gas and electricity to consumers, 
and to require these companies to file annual 
returns with the commission. The Department 
of Public Utilities which assumed these duties 
was quasi- judicial in character. 

GAS ENGINE was invented by Stuart 
Perry of New York City who received patent 
No. 3,597, May 25, 1844. He invented both air 
and water-cooled types and used turpentine 
gases as fuel. 

GAS MASK resembling the modern type 
was patented by Lewis Phectic Haslett of 
Louisville, Ky., who received patent No. 6,529 
on June 12, 1849 on an "inhaler or lung pro- 
tector." It had a filterer of woolen fabric or 




other porous substance to purify, dust, etc., 
from the air. 

Gas mask with a self-contained breathing 
apparatus was patented by Benjamin J. Lane 
of Cambridge, Mass., on July 2, 1850, who re- 
ceived patent No. 7,476 on a "respiring ap- 



and gas production course 

GAS REFRIGERATOR. See Refrigerator 

TIVE. Sec Locomotive 

GAS TURBINE propeller drive airplane. 

Sec Aviation Airplane 


Aviation gasoline (100 octane) produced 
commercially by the catalytic cracking method 
was undertaken June 6, 1936, by the Socony- 
Vacuum Oil Company, Inc., at Paulsboro, N.J., 
using the process invented by Eugene Houdry. 

Ethyl gasoline was marketed in Dayton, 
Ohio, February 2, 1U23. Tctraethyl lead, made 
from alcohol and lead, was found to influence 
the combustion rate of gasoline, by Thomas 
Midgley, Jr., of the General Motors Research 
Laboratories, Dayton, Ohio. During the seven 
years of experimenting in the development of 
ethyl gasoline at least 33,000 compounds were 
tested to determine their anti-knock effect. (In- 
formation about Ethyl Gasoline Ethyl Gaso- 
line Corp.) 


TION AUTOMOBILE. See Automobile 



See Car 


GASOLINE TAX (State) was levied Feb- 
ruary 25, 1919 when Oregon placed a 1 per 
cent tax rate on it. (Bulletin of the National 
Tax Assn. Vol. XI. 1926. "Gasoline Taxes in 
the U.S."B. Bailey} 




Medical book 


American gazetteer was compiled by Jedi- 
diah Morse and was printed in 1795 at Boston, 
Mass., by Isaiah Thomas and Ebenezer T. An- 


drews. It was titled American Universal Geog- 
raphy, or a View of the Present State of All 
the Empires, Kingdoms, States and Republics 
in the Known World, and of the United States 
of America in Particular. It contained 7,000 
different subjects, "exhibiting in alphabetical 
order a much more full and accurate account 
than has been given of States, Provinces, 
Counties, Cities, Towns, etc." 

Gazetteer of the world was Lippincott's 
Pronouncing Gazetteer of the World which was 
published in 1854 by Lippinoolt, Grambo and 
Company of Philadelphia, Pa. It contained 
1,364 pages. 

GEM-CUTTING MACHINE (or lapidary) 
was invented by Abel Buell of Killingworth, 

Conn, in 1766. lie claimed that his "method 
of grinding and polishing crystals and other 
stones of great value, all the growth of the 
Colony" would effect a great saving in money. 
(Lawrence Counselman Wroth Abel Buell of 

GENERAL. See Army officer 

CHURCHES. See Church 

GENEALOGY of an American family was 
a 24-page pamphlet published at Hartford, 
Conn., in 1771 by Ebenezer Watson. It was 
the Genealogy of the Family of Mr. Samuel 
Stebbins and Mrs. Hannah Stebbins, His Wife 
From The Year 1707 to 1771 with their names, 
time of their births, marriages, and deaths of 
those that arc deceased. In the Memoirs of 
Captain Roger Clap, 38 pages, published by 
Bartholomew Green at Boston, Mass., in 1731, 
(here was a 10-page supplement by James 
Blake, Jr., containing "a short account of the 
author and his family. Written by one that 
was acquainted therewith." The family con- 
sisted of his wife and their six children. 

Genealogical collective work was Farmer's 
Genealogical Register of the First Settlers of 
New England published in 1829 by John 
Farmer at Lancaster, Mass. 

GEODETIC SURVEY was undertaken by 
Simeon Borden and completed by him in 1841. 
In 1830 he made an apparatus for measuring 
the base line of the trigonometrical survey re- 
quired by Massachusetts. The apparatus was 
fifty feet long and was enclosed in a tube. It 
was also fitted with four compound microscopes, 
everything being adjustable to permit movement 
in any direction. (Am. Philosophical Soc. Pro- 
ceedings. Vol. II. 1841-43) 

STATES was Thomas Hutchins, appointed 
under an ordinance of May 20, 1785. He was 
the first and only incumbent of this office. He 
was in charge of the surveys of the public land 
and was known as the "Geographer of the 
United States." (Thomas Donaldson The 
Public Domain) 




GEOGRAPHY was Jedediah Morse's Geog- 
raphy Made Easy, a 214-page duodecimo pub- 
lished in 1784. It was printed at New Haven, 
Conn., by Meigs, Bowen and Dana. 

Graduate School of Geography, Clark Uni- 
versity, Worcester, Mass., which opened in the 
fall of 1921. Dr. Wallace Walter Atwood, 
President of the University, was appointed Di- 
rector of the Clark Graduate School of Geog- 
raphy and Professor of Physical and Regional 

GEOLOGICAL MAP. See Geology book 

GEOLOGICAL SOCIETY (national) was 

the American Geological Society founded in 
1819 at Yale College, New Haven, Conn. The 
society functioned until 1828. The first presi- 
dent was William Maclure. (fferman Le Roy 
Fair child The Beginning of Geologic Science) 

Geological survey appropriation (U.S.) 

was authorized June 28, 1834 (4 Stat.L.702), 
when Congress appropriated $5,000 to he ap- 
plied to geological and mineralogical survey 
and researches. It was used in making a 
geological survey of the country between the 
Missouri and the Red Rivers. George William 
Featherstonhaugh was in charge of the survey. 

Geological survey director (U.S.) (under 
the Department of Interior) was Clarence 
King, nominated March 21, 1879, confirmed 
April 3, 1879. He entered upon his duties 
May 24, 1879, and received a salary of $6,000 
a year. Piis orh'ce was created by an "act 
making appropriations for sundry civil ex- 
penses of the government for the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1880, and for other purposes," 
approved March 3, 1879 (20 Stat.L.3 ( M). (VS. 
Geological Survey The United States Geologi- 
cal Survey, Its Oriqin, Development, Organi- 
zation and Operations) 

Geological survey (state) completed at 
state expense was undertaken by Edward 
Hitchcock, 1830-1833 for Massachusetts. 
(George Perkins Merrill Contributions to the 
History of American Geology) 


Woman graduate in geology was Miss 
Lou Henry (Mrs. Herbert Hoover) who com- 
pleted the geology course at Leland Stanford, 
Jr., University, Palo Alto, Calif. She received 
her degree in 1898, three years after Herbert 
Hoover received his A.B. degree in geology. 
With her husband she translated Agricola's 
De Re Metallica. 

GEOLOGY BOOK of importance was Ob- 
servations on the Geology of the U.S. which 
was read by William Maclure on January 20, 
1809 before the American Philosophical Society. 
It was published in revised form in 1817 at 
Philadelphia, Pa., and contained the first geo- 


logical map of the Eastern United States, and 
one of the first geological maps in the United 

Geology textbook was The Index to the 
Geology of the Northern States by Amos Eaton 
which was published in 1818 at Leicester, 
Mass. (John Milton Nickles Geological Lit- 
erature on North America 1785-1918) 

MENT. See Monument 

GERMAN BAPTIST. See Baptist church 

German book printed in America was 

Johann Conrad Beissel's Das Buchlein vom 
Sabbath, printed at Philadelphia, Pa., in 1728 by 
Andrew Bradford. (Oswald Seidensticker First 
Century of German Printing in America 1728- 


German book printed in German type in 
America was Der Hoch-Dcutsche Amerika- 
nische Calender, auf das JaJir nach der Gna- 
denreichcn Geburth Unseres Herrn und Ilcy- 
landcs Jcsu Chris ti 1739 . . sum crstcn vial 
heraiisgcgcbcn, published in 1739 by Christoph 
Saur at ( iermantown, Pa. (Philadelphia). It 
contained 36 pages. 

guage instruction 



Sec Swedenborgian 

GIANT exhibited as a theatrical attraction 
was Patrick Magee "just arrived from Ire- 
land" vvho went on exhibition October 6, 1825, 
at 13 Park, Park Exchange, New York City, 
from 7 A.M. until 10 P.M. A charge of 25c 
was made to see the giant "conspicuous for 
the masculine beauty of his form and his sur- 
prising strength." 

GIANT PANDA. See Animals 
GIN (cotton). Sec Cotton gin 

GINGHAM FACTORY was opened in Clin- 
ton, Mass , by Erastus Brigham Bigclow in 
1846. It was named Lancaster Mills and was 
capitalized at $500,000. On April 10, 1845, 
Bigelow received patent No. 3,987 for his in- 
vention of gingham manufacturing machinery. 
Previously, all gingham had been made by hand 
at home. (Andrew Elmer Ford History of the 
Origin of Clinton, Mass. 1653-1865) 

GIRDER BRIDGE (cast iron). See Bridge 

GIRL PAGE. See Congress of the United 
States House of Representatives 




GIRL SCOUTS organization was the "Girl 
Guides" founded March 12, 1912, at Savannah, 
Ga., by Mrs. Juliette Gordon Low They wore 
a bine uniform similar to the English "Girl 
Guides." The name was changed to Girl 
Scouts in 1913 and a khaki uniform adopted. 
On June 10, 1915, it was incorporated under 
the laws of the District of Columbia and the 
First Annual Convention and National Council 
was formed. The first Girl Guide was Mrs. 
Low's niece. Daisy Gordon. (Mildred Mas tin 
Pace J illicit c Low} 

GIRLS HIGH SCHOOL. See Pligh School 


Cut glass made from pressed blanks was 
manufactured in 1902 by Hcnrv Clay Fry who 
organized the TT C. Fry Glass Company, 
Rochester, Pa The glass was pressed into 
a mold, the marks of the iron plunger remain- 
ing on the inside of the glass. Previously, 
cut glass had been blown 

Invisible glass installation was made Sep- 
tember 1935 at Marcus & Co., New York 
Citv The glass \va^ bent at several different 
radius points Mirrors il. inked the window 
opening. The glass was covered by patent 
No 1,911,881 granted May 30, 1933 to Gerald 
P>rown of London, Fnqland, on a "means for 
nullifying or reducing window reflections" and 
patent No. 2,003,735 on Tune 4, 1 ( )35 to Gerald 
Brown and Edward Pollard of London on a 
"display window." 

Photosensitive glass was made in Novem- 
ber 1937 by the Coming Glass Works, Corning, 
N.Y., and announced publicly ten years later, 
on June 1, 1947. Tt is a crystal clear glass in 
which submicroscopic metallic particles can be 
formed by exposure to ultraviolet light and 
subsequent heat treatment. Exposure through 
photographic negatives permits development of 
positive images within the glass in a variety 
of colors. The image is believed to be as per- 
manent as the glass itself. Photosensitive glass 
is believed to be the most durable photographic 
medium extant. 

Plate glass was manufactured about 1853 by 
James N. Richmond in the factory which he 
established in 1850 at Cheshire. Mass, for the 
production of window glass. The plate glass 
was about a half inch in thickness and sold for 
fifty cents a square foot. To make