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FAMOUS VIOLINISTS OF TO-DAY 
AND YESTERDAY 







OLE BULL 




Henry C. Lahee 



jfuthor of "Famous Pianists of To-day and 

Yesterday, " " Famous Singers of To-day 

and Yesterday, " " The Organ 

and Its Masters, " etc. 




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L-C PAGE- ^-COMPANY 
BOSTONS PUBLISHERS 



";-? c.; 



Copyright, 1899 
BY L. C. PAGE & COMPANY 

(INCORPORATED) 



All rights reserved 



Sixth Impression, February, 1906 



COLONIAL PRESS 

Electrotyped and Printed by C. H. Simonds &> Co. 
Boston, U.S.A. 



PREFACE. 

IN " Famous Violinists " the writer has 
endeavoured to follow the same general 
plan as in " Famous Singers," viz., to give 
a "bird's-eye view" of the most celebrated 
violinists from the earliest times to the pres- 
ent day rather than a detailed account of 
a very few. Necessarily, those who have 
been prominently before the public as per- 
formers are selected in preference to those 
who have been more celebrated as teachers. 

It was at first intended to arrange the 
chapters according to "schools," but it soon 
became evident that such a plan would lead 
to inextricable confusion, and it was found 
best to follow the chronological order of 
birth. 



x Preface. 

The " Chronological Table " is compiled 
from the best existing authorities, and is 
not an effort to bring together a large num- 
ber of names. If such were the desire, there 
would be no difficulty in filling up a large 
volume with names of the violinists of good 
capabilities, who are well known in their 
own cities. 

HENRY C. LAHEE. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER PACK 

PREFACE ix 

I. INTRODUCTORY ir 

II. 1650 TO 1750 30 

III. 1750 TO 1800 60 

IV. PAGANINI 104 

V. 1800 TO 1830 135 

VI. OLE BULL 172 

VII. 1830 TO 1850 204 

VIII. JOACHIM 244 

IX. VIOLINISTS OF TO-DAY . . .261 

X. WOMEN AS VIOLINISTS . . . 300 

XI. FAMOUS QUARTETS .... 345 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 



PAGE 

OLE BULL Frontispiece 

ARCANGELO CORELLI 30 

NICOLO PAGANINI 104 

CAMILLO SIVORI 154 

MARTIN PIERRE JOSEPH MARSICK . . 238 

JOSEPH JOACHIM 244 

EMIL SAURET 265 

MAUD POWELL ...... 340 

FRANZ KNEISEL 362 



FAMOUS VIOLINISTS OF TO-DAY 
AND YESTERDAY. 



CHAPTER I. 

INTRODUCTORY. 

THERE is no instrument of music made by 
the hands of man that holds such a powerful 
sway over the emotions of every living thing 
capable of hearing, as the violin. The singu- 
lar powers of this beautiful instrument have 
been eloquently eulogised by Oliver Wendell 
Holmes, in the following words : 

"Violins, too. The sweet old Amati! the 
divine Stradivari ! played on by ancient ma- 
estros until the bow hand lost its power, and 
the flying fingers stiffened. Bequeathed to 



12 Famous Violinists. 

the passionate young enthusiast, who made 
it whisper his hidden love, and cry his in- 
articulate longings, and scream his untold 
agonies, and wail his monotonous despair. 
Passed from his dying hand to the cold 
virtuoso, who let it slumber in its case for 
a generation, till, when his hoard was broken 
up, it came forth once more, and rode the 
stormy symphonies of royal orchestras, be- 
neath the rushing bow of their lord and 
leader. Into lonely prisons with improvi- 
dent artists ; into convents from which arose, 
day and night, the holy hymns with which 
its tones were blended ; and back again to 
orgies, in which it learned to howl and laugh 
as if a legion of devils were shut up in it ; 
then, again, to the gentle dilettante, who 
calmed it down with easy melodies until 
it answered him softly as in the days of 
the old maestros; and so given into our 
hands, its pores all full of music, stained 
like the meerschaum through and through 



Introductory. 1 3 

with the concentrated hue and sweetness of 
all the harmonies which have kindled and 
faded on its strings." 

Such, indeed, has been the history of 
many a noble instrument fashioned years 
and years ago, in the days when violin 
playing did not hold the same respect and 
admiration that it commands at the present 
time. 

The evolution of the violin is a matter 
which can be traced back to the dark ages, 
but the fifteenth century may be considered 
as the period when the art of making instru- 
ments of the viol class took root in Italy. 
It cannot be said, however, that the violin, 
with the modelled back which gives its 
distinctive tone, made its appearance until 
the middle of the sixteenth century. In 
France, England, and Germany, there was 
very little violin making until the beginning 
of the following century. Andrea Amati 
was born in 1520, and he was the founder 



14 Famous Violinists. 

of the great Cremona school of violin makers, 
of which Nicolo Amati, the grandson of 
Andrea, was the most eminent. The art 
of violin making reached its zenith in Italy 
at the time of Antonio Stradivari, who lived 
at Cremona. He was born in 1644, and 
lived until 1737, continuing his labours al- 
most to the day of his death, for an instru- 
ment is in existence made by him in the 
year in which he died. It is an interesting 
fact that the art of violin making in Italy 
developed at the time when the painters 
of Italy displayed their greatest genius, and 
when the fine arts were encouraged by the 
most distinguished patronage. 

As the art of violin making developed, so 
did that of violin playing, but, whereas the 
former reached its climax with Stradivari, 
the latter is still being developed, as new 
writers and players find new difficulties and 
new effects. While there are many proofs 
that orchestras existed, and that violins of 



Introductory. 1 5 

all sizes were used in ecclesiastical music, 
there is still some doubt as to who was 
the first solo violinist of eminence. The 
earliest of whom we have any account 
worthy of mention, was Baltazarini, a native 
of Piedmont, who went to France in 1577 
to superintend the music of Catharine de 
Medici. In 1581 he composed the music for 
the nuptials of the Duke de Joyeuse with 
Mile, de Vaudemont, sister of the queen, 
and this is said to have been the origin of 
the heroic and historical ballet in France. 

The progress of violin playing can also 
be judged somewhat by the compositions 
written for the instrument. Of these the 
earliest known is a " Romanesca per violone 
Solo e Basso se piaci," and some dances, by 
Biagio Marini, published in 1620. This con- 
tains the "shake." Then there is a "Toc- 
cata" for violin solo, by Paolo Quagliati, 
published in 1623, and a collection of violin 
pieces by Carlo Farina, published in 1627 



1 6 Famous Violinists. 

at Dresden, in which the variety of bowing, 
double stopping, and chords shows a great 
advance in the demands upon the execution. 

Farina held the position of solo violinist at 
the Court of Saxony, and has been called the 
founder of the race of violin virtuosi. One 
of his compositions, named " Cappriccio Stra- 
vagante," requires the instrument to imitate 
the braying of an ass, and other sounds 
belonging to the animal kingdom, as well 
as the twanging of guitars and the fife 
and drum of the soldier. 

Eighteen sonatas composed by Giovanni 
Battista Fontana, and published at Venice in 
1641, show a distinct advance in style, and 
Tomasso Antonio Vitali, himself a famous 
violinist, wrote a " Chaconne " of such merit 
that it was played by no less a virtuoso than 
Joachim, at the Monday popular concerts 
in London, in 1870, nearly two hundred 
years after its composition. 

Italy was the home of the violin, of com- 



Introductory, 1 7 

position for the violin, and of violin playing, 
for the first school was the old Italian school, 
and from Italy, by means of her celebrated 
violinists, who travelled and spread through- 
out Europe, the other schools were estab- 
lished. 

Violin playing grew in favour in Italy, 
France, Germany, and England at about 
the same time, but in England it was 
many years before the violinist held a 
position of any dignity. The fiddle, as it 
was called, was regarded by the gentry 
with profound contempt. Butler, in " Hudi- 
bras," refers to one Jackson, who lost a 
leg in the service of the Roundheads, and 
became a professional " fiddler : " 

" A squeaking engine he apply'd 
Unto his neck, on northeast side, 
Just where the hangman does dispose, 
To special friends, the knot or noose ; 
For 'tis great grace, when statesmen 

straight 
Dispatch a friend, let others wait. 



38 Famous Violinists. 

His grisly beard was long and thick, 
With which he strung his fiddle-stick ; 
For he to horse-tail scorned to owe, 
For what on his own chin did grow." 

Many years later Purcell, the composer, 
wrote a catch in which the merits of a violin 
maker named Young, and his son, a violin 
player, are recorded. The words are as 
follows : 

" You scrapers that want a good fiddle, well strung, 
You must go to the man that is old while he's 

Young ; 

But if this same Fiddle, you fain would play bold, 
You must go to his son, who'll be Young when he's 

old. 
There's old Young and young Young, both men of 

renown, 

Old sells and young plays the best Fiddle in town, 
Young and old live together, and may they live 

long, 
Young to play an old Fiddle; old to sell a new 

song." 

In the course of time the English learned 
to esteem all arts more highly, and in no 



Introductory. 19 

country was a great musician more sure of 
a warm welcome. 

Two celebrated violinists were born in the 
year 1630, Thomas Baltzar, and John Banis- 
ter, the former in Germany, at Lubec, and 
the latter in London. 

Baltzar was esteemed the finest performer 
of his time, and is said to have been the first 
to have introduced the practice of " shifting." 
In 1656 Baltzar went to England, where he 
quite eclipsed Davis Mell, a clockmaker, who 
was considered a fine player, and did much 
to give the violin an impetus toward popu- 
larity. The wonder caused by his perform- 
ances in England, shortly after his arrival, is 
best described in the quaint language of 
Anthony Wood, who "did, to his very 
great astonishment, hear him play on the 
violin. He then saw him run up his 
Fingers to the end of the Fingerboard of 
the Violin, and run them back insensibly, 
and all with alacrity, and in very good 



2O Famous Violinists. 

tune, which he nor any in England saw the 
like before." 

At the Restoration Baltzar was appointed 
leader of the king's celebrated band of 
twenty -four violins, but, sad to relate, 
" Being much admired by all lovers of mu- 
sick, his company was therefore desired ; 
and company, especially musical company, 
delighting in drinking, made him drink more 
than ordinary, which brought him to his 
grave." And he was buried in the cloister 
of Westminster Abbey. 

John Banister was taught music by his 
father, one of the ^vaits of the parish of St. 
Giles, and acquiring great proficiency on the 
violin was noticed by King Charles II., who 
sent him to France for improvement. On 
his return he was appointed chief of the 
king's violins. King Charles was an admirer 
of everything French, and he appears, accord- 
ing to Pepys, to have aroused the wrath of 
Banister by giving prominence to a French 



Introductory. 2 1 

fiddler named Grabu, who is said to have 
been an "impudent pretender." Banister 
lost his place for saying, either to or in the 
hearing of the king, that English performers 
on the violin were superior to those of 
France. 

John Banister lived in times when fiddle 
playing was not highly esteemed, if we may 
judge by the following ordinance, made in 
1658: "And be it further enacted by the 
authority aforesaid, that if any person or 
persons, commonly called Fiddlers, or min- 
strels, shall at any time after the said first 
day of July be taken playing, Fiddling, or 
making music in any inn, alehouse, or tavern 
or shall be proffering themselves, or desir- 
ing, or entreating any person or persons to 
hear them play . . . shall be adjudged . . . 
rogues, vagabonds, and sturdy beggars." 

John Banister seems to have been a some- 
what " sturdy beggar," though not exactly 
in the sense meant by the ordinance, for he 



22 Famous Violinists. 

established regular concerts at his house, 
" now called the Musick-school, over against 
the George Tavern in Whitefriars." These 
concerts began in 1672, and continued till 
near his death, which occurred in 1679. He, 
too, was buried in the cloister of Westmin- 
ster Abbey. His son, also, was an excellent 
performer on the violin, and played first vio- 
lin in the Italian opera when it was first 
introduced into England. He was one of the 
musicians of Charles II., James II., William 
and Mary, and of Queen Anne. 

Henry Eccles, who lived about the end 
of the seventeenth century, went to France, 
where he became a member of the king's 
band, and William Corbett, who went to 
Italy to study the violin in 1710, was a player 
of much ability ; but one of the most eminent 
of English violinists was Matthew Dubourg, 
born 1703, who played at a concert when he 
was so small that he was placed on a stool 
in order that he might be seen. At eleven 



Introductory. 23 

years of age he was placed under Geminiani, 
who had recently established himself in Lon- 
don. Dubourg was appointed, in 1728, 
Master and Composer of State-Music in 
Ireland, and on the death of Festing, in 
1752, he became leader of the king's band 
in London, and held both posts until his 
death in 1767. 

An amusing incident is related of Dubourg 
and Handel. The latter visited Dublin and 
presided at a performance of the " Messiah." 
A few evenings later, Dubourg, who was 
leader of the band at the Theatre, had to 
improvise a "close," and wandered about in 
a fit of abstract modulation for so long that 
he forgot the original key. At last, how- 
ever, after a protracted shake, he landed 
safely on the key-note, when Handel called 
out in a voice loud enough to be heard in 
the remotest parts of the theatre, " Welcome 
home, welcome home, Mr. Dubourg." 

Dubourg's name is the first on record in 



24 Famous Violinists. 

connection with the performance of a con- 
certo in an English theatre. 

John Clegg, a pupil of Dubourg, was a 
violinist of great ability, whom Handel placed 
at the head of the opera band, but his facul- 
ties became deranged by intense study and 
practice, and he died at a comparatively early 
age, in 1742, an inmate of Bedlam. 

Another very promising young English 
violinist was Thomas Linley, who exhibited 
great musical powers, and performed a con- 
certo in public when eight years old. He 
was sent to Italy to study under Nardini, and 
through the mediation of that artist he be- 
came acquainted with Mozart, who was about 
the same age. Linley's career was prema- 
turely closed, for at the age of twenty-two 
he was drowned through the capsizing of a 
pleasure-boat. 

This completes the list of English violin- 
ists of note who were born previous to the 
nineteenth century. The later ones we shall 



Introductory. 25 

find in their place in succeeding chapters, 
but there have been very few violinists of 
English birth who have followed the career 
of the "virtuoso." Even Antonio James 
Oury, who made a series of concert tours 
lasting nine years, during which he occasion- 
ally appeared in conjunction with De Beriot 
and Malibran, is hardly known as a "vir- 
tuoso," and was not all English. But there 
are pathetic circumstances in regard to the 
career of Oury. He was the son of an 
Italian of noble descent, who had served as 
an officer in the army of Napoleon, and had 
been taken prisoner by the English. Mak- 
ing the best of his misfortunes the elder 
Oury settled in England, married a Miss 
Hughes, and became a professor of dancing 
and music. 

The son, Antonio, began to learn the violin 
at the age of three, in which he was a year 
or two ahead of the average virtuoso, and 
he made great progress. By and by he 



26 Famous Violinists. 

heard Spohr, and after that his diligence 
increased, for he practised, during seven 
months, not less than fourteen hours a day. 
Even Paganini used to sink exhausted after 
ten hours' practice. In 1820, we are told, 
he went to Paris and studied under Baillot, 
Kreutzer, and Lafont, receiving from each 
two lessons a week for several successive 
winters. With such an imposing array of 
talent at his service much might be expected 
of Mr. Oury, and he actually made his debut 
at the Philharmonic concerts in London. 

There was another unfortunate officer of 
Napoleon who became tutor to the Prin- 
cesses of Bavaria. His name was Belleville. 
Mr. Oury met his daughter, and, there being 
naturally a bond of sympathy between them, 
they married. She was an amiable and ac- 
complished pianist, and together they made 
the nine years' concert tour. 

During the period in which the art of 
violin playing was being perfected on the 



Introductory. 27 

Continent, the English were too fully occu- 
pied with commercial pursuits to foster and 
develop the art. Up to the present day the 
most eminent virtuoso is commonly spoken 
of as a "fiddler." Even Joachim, when he 
went to a barber's shop in High Street, 
Kensington, and declined to accept the 
advice of the tonsorial artist, and have his 
hair cropped short, was warned that " he'd 
look like one o' them there fiddler chaps." 
The barber apparently had no greater esti- 
mation of the violinist's art than the latter 
had of the tonsorial profession, and the situa- 
tion was sufficiently ludicrous to form the 
subject of a picture in Punch, and thus the 
matter assumed a serious aspect. 

England has not been the home of any 
particular school of violin playing, but has 
received her stimulus from Continental 
schools, to which her sons have gone to 
study, and from which many eminent violin- 
ists have been imported. 



28 Famous Violinists, 

The word " school," so frequently used 
in connection with the art of violin playing, 
seems to lead to confusion. The Italian 
school, established by Corelli, appears to 
have been the only original school. Its 
pupils scattered to various parts of Europe, 
and there established other schools. To 
illustrate this statement, we will follow in a 
direct line from Corelli, according to the 
table given in Grove's Dictionary. 

The pupils of Corelli were Somis, Loca- 
telli, Geminiani (Italians), and Anet (a 
Frenchman), whose pupil Senaille was also 
French. The greatest pupil of Somis was 
Pugnani, an Italian, and his greatest pupil 
was Viotti, a Piedmontese, who founded the 
French school, and from him came Rober- 
rechts, his pupil De BeYiot and his pupil 
Vieuxtemps, the two latter Belgians, also 
Baillot, etc., down to Marsick and Sarasate, 
a Spaniard, while through Rode, a French- 
man, we have Bohm (school of Vienna) 



Introductory. 29 

and his pupil Joachim, a Hungarian (school 
of Berlin). 

Several violinists are found under two 
schools, as for instance, Pugnani, who was 
first a pupil of Tartini and later of Somis, 
and Teresa Milanollo, pupil of Lafont and 
of De Beriot, who appear under different 
schools. 

The only conclusion to be drawn is that 
the greatest violinists were really indepen- 
dent of any school, and, by their own genius, 
broke loose from tradition and established 
schools of their own. Some of them, on 
the other hand, had but few pupils, as for 
instance, Paganini, who had but two, and 
Sarasate. Many also were teachers rather 
than performers. We have to deal chiefly 
with the virtuosi. 



CHAPTER II. 

1650 TO I/SO. 

c 

ARCANGELO CORELLI, whose name is recog- 
nised as one of the greatest in the history 
of violin playing and composition, and who 
laid the foundation for all future develop- 
ment of technique, was born in 1653, at 
Fusignano, near Imola, in the territory of 
Bologna. 

He showed an early propensity for the 
violin, and studied under Bassani, a man 
of extensive knowledge and capabilities, 
while Mattel Simonelli was his instructor 
in counterpoint. 

Corelli at one time sought fame away 
from home, and he is said to have visited 
Paris, where Lulli, the chief violinist of 
30 



\RCHAN GE C O RE LLI 
'>a.Fufiqnari OMU If TlawonnGit. Jttcrt it 




1650 to 1750. 31 

that city, exhibited such jealousy and vio- 
lence that the mild-tempered Corelli with- 
drew. In 1680 he went to Germany, where 
he was well received, and entered the ser- 
vice of the Elector of Bavaria, but he soon 
returned to Rome. His proficiency had 
now become so great that his fame extended 
throughout Europe, and pupils flocked to 
him. His playing was characterised by 
refined taste and elegance, and by a firm 
and even tone. 

When the opera was well established in 
Rome, about 1690, Corelli led the band. 
His chief patron in Rome was Cardinal 
Ottoboni, and it was at his house that an 
incident occurred which places Corelli at 
the head of those musicians who have from 
time to time boldly maintained the rights 
of music against conversation. He was 
playing a solo when he noticed the cardinal 
engaged in conversation with another person. 
He immediately laid down his violin, and, 



32 Famous Violinists. 

on being asked the reason, answered that 
"he feared the music might interrupt the 
conversation." 

Corelli was a man of gentle disposition 
and simple habits. His plainness of dress 
and freedom from ostentation gave the 
impression that he was parsimonious, and 
Handel says of him that "he liked nothing 
better than seeing pictures without paying 
for it, and saving money." He was also 
noted for his objection to riding in carriages. 

He lived on terms of intimacy with the 
leading artists of his time, and had a great 
fondness for pictures, of which he had a 
valuable collection. These he left at his 
death to Cardinal Ottoboni. 

It was at Cardinal Ottoboni's that Corelli 
became acquainted with Handel, and at one 
of the musical evenings there a " Serenata," 
written by the latter, was performed. Corelli 
does not seem to have played it according 
to the ideas of the composer, for Handel, 



to '75- 33 

giving way to his impetuous temper, snatched 
the fiddle out of Correlli's hand. Corelli 
mildly remarked, " My dear Saxon, this 
music is in the French style, with which I 
am not acquainted." 

For many years Corelli remained at Rome, 
but at last he yielded to temptation and 
went to Naples, where Scarlatti induced 
him to play some of his concertos before the 
king. This he did in great fear, for he 
had not his own orchestra with him. He 
found Scarlatti's musicians able to play at 
first sight as well as his own did after re- 
hearsals, and, the performance going off well, 
he was again admitted to play, this time 
one of his sonatas, in the royal presence. 
The king found the adagio so long and dry 
that he quitted the room, much to Corelli's 
mortification. But greater trouble was in 
store for the virtuoso. Scarlatti had written 
a masque, which was to be played before 
the king, but owing to the composer's 



34 Famous Violinists. 

limited knowledge of the violin, Corelli's 
part was very awkward and difficult, and 
he failed to execute it, while the Neapolitan 
violinists played it with ease. To make 
matters worse, Corelli made an unfortunate 
mistake in the next piece, which was written 
in the key of C minor, and led off in C 
major. The mistake was repeated, and 
Scarlatti had to call out to him to set him 
right. His mortification was so great that 
he quietly left Naples and returned to Rome. 
He found here a new violinist, Valentini, 
who had won the admiration of the people, 
and he took it so much to heart that his 
health failed, and he died in January, 1713. 

Corelli was buried in princely style in the 
Pantheon, not far from Raphael's tomb, and 
Cardinal Ottoboni erected a monument over 
his grave. During many years after his 
death a solemn service, consisting of selec- 
tions from his own works, was performed in 
the Pantheon on the anniversary of his 



1650 to 7750. 35 

funeral. On this occasion, the works were 
performed in a slow, firm, and distinct man- 
ner, just as they were written, without chang- 
ing the passages in the way of embellishment, 
and this is probably the way in which he 
himself played them. 

Corelli's compositions are remarkable for 
delicate taste and pleasing melodies and har- 
monies. He must be considered as the 
author of the greatest improvement which 
violin music underwent at the beginning of 
the eighteenth century. These compositions 
are regarded as invaluable for the instruction 
of young players, and some of them may be 
frequently heard in the concert-room at the 
present day, two hundred years since they 
were written. Corelli's most celebrated 
pupils, Somis, Locatelli, Geminiani, and Anet, 
settled respectively in Italy, Holland, Eng- 
land, and Poland. 

Giovanni Battista Somis was born in Pied- 
mont, and, after studying under Corelli, he 



36 Famous Violinists. 

went to Venice and studied under Vivaldi. 
He was appointed solo violinist to the king 
at Turin and leader of the royal band, and 
seems scarcely ever to have left Turin after 
these appointments. Little is known of his 
playing or his compositions, but, by the work 
of his pupils, it is evident that he possessed 
originality. He formed a style more brilliant 
and more emotional, and caused a decided 
step forward in the art of violin playing. 
He was the teacher of Leclair, Giardini, and 
Chiabran, as well as Pugnani, and he forms 
a connecting link between the classical 
schools of Italy and France. 

Pietro Locatelli was born at Bergamo, and 
became a pupil of Corelli at a very early age. 
He travelled considerably, and was undoubt- 
edly a great and original virtuoso. He has 
been accused of charlatanism, inasmuch as 
he overstepped all reasonable limits in his 
endeavours to enlarge the powers of execu- 
tion of the violin, and has, on that account, 



1650 to 1750. 37 

been called the grandfather of our modern 
" finger-heroes." 

Locatelli settled in Amsterdam, where he 
died in 1764. There he established regular 
public concerts, and he left a number of com- 
positions, some of which are used at the 
present day. 

Jean Baptiste Lulli, one of the earliest 
violinists in France, is perhaps associated with 
the violin in a manner disproportionate to 
the part he actually played in its progress. 
He was a musician of great ability, and his 
compositions are occasionally heard even to 
this day. Lulli was born near Florence about 
1633. When quite young he was taken to 
France by the Chevalier de Guise, and 
entered the service of Mile, de Montpensier. 
He was employed in the kitchen, where he 
seems to have lightened his burdens by play- 
ing tricks on the cook and tunes on the 
stewpans. He also beguiled his leisure hours 
by playing the violin, in which art he made 



38 Famous Violinists, 

such progress that the princess engaged a 
regular instructor for him. Fortunately, as 
it turned out, his wit led him into composing 
a satirical song on his employer, and he was 
sent off, but shortly afterwards secured a post 
as one of the king's violinists in the cele- 
brated band of the twenty-four violins. Soon 
after this a special band called Les Petits 
Violons was formed with Lulli at their head, 
and under his direction it surpassed the band 
of twenty-four. 

Lulli found great favour at court, and, 
indeed, astonished the world with his ex- 
quisite taste and skill. That he was firmly 
established in the favour of the king is 
shown by the story that, when Corelli came 
to France and played one of his sonatas, 
King Louis listened without showing any 
sign of pleasure, and, sending for one of his 
own violinists, requested him to play an aria 
from Lulli's opera of " Cadmus et Hermione," 
which, he declared, suited his taste. 



to 1750. 39 

There is little doubt that the principles of 
the great Italian school of violin playing 
were, some years later, brought into France 
by Anet, who was born in 1680, and returned 
from Italy about 1700, but owing to the 
jealousies of his colleagues, he found it ad- 
visable to leave France in a short time, and 
he is said to have spent the rest of his life as 
conductor of the private band of a nobleman 
in Poland. 

Lulli is said to have been very avaricious, 
and his wealth included four houses, all in 
the best quarters of Paris, together with 
securities and appointments worth about 
$70,000. His death, in 1687, was caused 
by a peculiar accident. While conducting 
a performance of his orchestra he struck his 
foot with the cane which he used for mark- 
ing the time. The bruise gradually assumed 
such a serious condition that it ended his 
life. 

Jean Baptiste Senaille", who was a pupil of 



40 Famous Violinists. 

Anet, was born in 1687, and turned to the 
Italian school. In 1719 he entered the ser- 
vice of the Duke of Orleans. 

Francesco Geminiani was considered the 
ablest of the pupils of Corelli, and was born 
about 1680. When about twenty-four years 
of age he went to England, where his talent 
secured a great reputation for him, some 
people even declaring him to be superior, as 
a player, to Corelli. He lived to an advanced 
age, and was in Dublin visiting his pupil Du- 
bourg at the time of his death. He was a 
man of unsettled habits, and was frequently 
in dire necessity, caused chiefly by his love 
of pictures, which led him into unwise pur- 
chases, and thus frequently into debt. 

About the year 1650 three violinists were 
born in Italy, who all left their mark upon 
the history of violin playing. 

Tommaso Vitali was born at Bologna, and 
was leader of the orchestra in that city, and 
later in Modena. 



1650 to 7750. 41 

r 

Giuseppe Torelli was leader of a church 

orchestra in Bologna, and afterwards accepted 
the post of leader of the band of the Mark- 
graf of Brandenburg-Anspach, at Anspach, 
in Germany. To him is generally ascribed 
the invention of the " Concerto." 

Antonio Vivaldi was the son of a violin- 
ist, and sought his fortune in Germany, but 
returned to his native city in 1713. He 
wrote extensively for the violin, and is said 
to have added something to the development 
of its technique. An anecdote is told of him 
to the effect that one day during mass a 
theme for a fugue struck him. He immedi- 
ately quitted the altar at which he was offici- 
ating, for he united clerical with musical 
duties, and, hastening to the sacristy to write 
down the theme, afterwards returned and 
finished the mass. For this he was brought 
before the Inquisition, but being considered 
only as a " musician," a term synonymous 
with " madman," the sentence was mild, 



42 Famous Violinists. 

he was forbidden to say mass in the 
future. 

The most illustrious pupil of Vivaldi was 
Francesco Maria Veracini, who was born 
about 1685. He is said to have been a 
teacher of Tartini, who, if he did not actually 
receive instruction from him, at least profited 
by his example. 

Veracini's travels were extensive, for he 
visited London in 1714 and remained there 
two years, during which time he was very 
successful. He then went to Dresden, where 
he was made composer and chamber virtuoso 
to the King of Poland. 

While in Dresden he threw himself out of 
a window and broke his leg, an injury from 
which he never entirely recovered. This act 
is said to have been caused by his mortifica- 
tion at a trick which was played upon him 
for his humiliation by Pisendel, an eminent 
violinist, but this story is discredited by 
some of the best authorities. 



1650 to 1750. 43 

He left Dresden and went to Prague, where 
he entered the service of Count Kinsky. In 
1736 he again visited London, but met with 
little success, owing to the fact that Gemi- 
niani had ingratiated himself with the public. 
In 1847 Veracini returned to Pisa. 

Veracini has been sometimes ranked with 
Tartini as a performer. He was also a com- 
poser of ability. In making a comparison of 
him with Geminiani it has been said that 
Geminiani was the spirit of Corelli much 
diluted, while Veracini was the essence of 
the great master fortified with r eau de vie. 

Veracini was conceited and vainglorious, 
and these traits of his character have given 
rise to a number of rather inconsequential 
stories. He was a most excellent conductor 
of orchestra, and Doctor Burney mentions 
having heard him lead a band in such a bold 
and masterly manner as he had never before 
witnessed. Soon after leaving London Vera- 
cini was shipwrecked, and lost his two Stainer 



44 Famous Violinists. 

violins, which he stated were the best in the 
world. These instruments he named St. 
Peter and St. Paul. 

The name of Giuseppe Tartini will ever 
live as that of one of the greatest performers 
on, and composers for, the violin. Born at 
Pirano, in 1692, his career may be said to 
have commenced with the eighteenth century. 
He was not only one of the greatest violinists 
of all time, and an eminent composer, but he 
was a scientific writer on musical physics, 
and was the first to discover the fact that, 
in playing double stops, their accuracy can 
be determined by the production of a third 
sound. He also wrote a little work on the 
execution and employment of the various 
kinds of shakes, mordents, cadenzas, etc., 
according to the usage of the classical 
Italian school. 

Tartini' s father, who was an elected 
Nobile of Parenzo, being a pious Church 
benefactor, intended his son for the Church, 



1650 to 7750. 45 

and sent him to an ecclesiastical school at 
Capo d'Istria, where he received his first 
instruction in music. Finding himself very 
much averse to an ecclesiastical career, 
Tartini entered the University of Padua to 
study law, but this also proved distasteful 
to him. He was a youth of highly impul- 
sive temperament, and became so much 
enamoured of the art of fencing that he, 
at one time, seriously contemplated adopting 
it as a profession. This very impulsive 
nature caused him to fall in love with a 
niece of the Archbishop of Padua, to whom 
he was secretly married before he was 
twenty years of age. 

The news of this marriage caused Tartini's 
parents to withdraw their support from him, 
and it so enraged the archbishop that the 
bridegroom was obliged to fly from Padua. 
After some wanderings he was received into 
a monastery at Assisi, of which a relative 
was an inmate. Here he resumed his mu- 



46 Famous Violinists. 

sical studies, but though he learned com- 
position of Padre Boemo, the organist of 
the monastery, he was his own teacher on 
the violin. The influence of the quiet monas- 
tic life caused a complete change in his 
character, and he acquired the modesty of 
manner and serenity of mind for which he 
was noted later in life. 

One day, during the service, a gust of 
wind blew aside the curtain behind which 
Tartini was playing, and a Paduan, who 
remembered the archbishop's wrath and 
recognised the object of it, carried the 
news of his discovery to the worthy prelate. 
Time had, however, mollified him, and instead 
of still further persecuting the refugee, he 
gave his consent to the union of the young 
couple, and Tartini and his wife went to 
Venice, where he intended to follow the 
profession of a violinist. 

Here he met and heard Francesco Maria 
Veracini, who was some seven years his 



1650 to 7750. 47 

senior, and whose style of playing made 
such a deep impression on him that he at 
once withdrew to Ancona, to correct the 
errors of his own technique, which, as he 
was self-taught, were not a few. 

After some years of study and retirement, 
he reappeared at Padua, where he was 
appointed solo violinist in the chapel of 
San Antonio, the choir and orchestra of 
which already enjoyed a high reputation. 
It is said that the performance of Veracini 
had an effect upon Tartini beyond that of 
causing him to quit Venice. It made him 
dream, and the dream as told by Tartini 
himself to M. de Lalande is as follows : 

"He dreamed one night (in 1713) that 
he had made a compact with the devil, who 
promised to be at his service on all occa- 
sions ; and, during this vision, everything 
succeeded according to his mind ; his wishes 
were anticipated, and his desires always sur- 
passed, by the assistance of his new servant. 



48 Famous Violinists. 

In short, he imagined that he presented the 
devil with his violin, in order to discover 
what kind of a musician he was, when, to 
his great astonishment, he heard him play 
a solo so singularly beautiful, which he exe- 
cuted with such superior taste and precision, 
that it surpassed all the music he had ever 
heard or conceived in his life. So great was 
his surprise, and so exquisite his delight 
upon this occasion, that it deprived him of 
the power of breathing. He awoke with the 
violence of his sensations, and instantly 
seized his fiddle in hopes of expressing what 
he had just heard ; but in vain. He, how- 
ever, directly composed a piece, which is 
perhaps the best of all his works, and called 
it the ' Devil's Sonata ; ' he knew it, how- 
ever, to be so inferior to what his sleep had 
produced, that he stated he would have 
broken his instrument, and abandoned music 
for ever, if he could have subsisted by 
other means." 



to ij$o. 49 

This composition is said to have secured 
for him the position in the chapel of San 
Antonio, where he remained until 1/23, in 
which year he was invited to play at the 
coronation festivities of Charles VI. at 
Prague. On this occasion he met Count 
Kin sky, a rich and enthusiastic amateur, 
who kept an excellent private orchestra. 
Tartini was engaged as conductor and re- 
mained in that position three years, then 
returning to his old post at Padua, from 
which nothing induced him to part, except 
for brief intervals. At Padua Tartini carried 
on the chief work of his life and established 
the Paduan school of violin playing. His 
ability as a teacher is proved by the large 
number of excellent pupils he formed. 
Nardini, Bini, Manfredi, Ferrari, Graun, and 
Lahoussaye are among the most eminent, 
and were attached to him by bonds of most 
intimate friendship to his life's end. 

Tartini's contemporaries all agree in credit- 



50 Famous Violinists. 

ing him with those qualities which make a 
great player. He had a fine tone, unlimited 
command of fingerboard and bow, enabling 
him to overcome the greatest difficulties 
with remarkable ease, perfect intonation in 
double stops, and a most brilliant shake 
and double-shake, which he executed equally 
well with all fingers. The spirit of rivalry 
had no place in his amiable and gentle dis- 
position. Both as a player and composer 
Tartini was the true successor of Corelli, 
representing in both respects the next step 
in the development of the art. 

Tartini lived until the year 1770. He had, 
as Doctor Burney says, "no other children 
than his scholars, of whom his care was 
constantly paternal." Nardini, his first and 
favourite pupil, came from Leghorn to see 
him in his sickness and attend him in his 
last moments with true filial affection and 
tenderness. He was buried in the Church 
of St. Catharine, a solemn requiem being 



1650 to 7750. 5 1 

held in the chapel of San Antonio, and at a 
later period his memory was honoured by a 
statue which was erected in the Prato della 
Valle, a public walk at Padua, where it may 
be seen among the statues of the most 
eminent men connected with that famous 
university. 

Jean Marie Leclair, a pupil of Somis, 
was a Frenchman, born at Lyons, and he 
began life as a dancer at the Rouen The- 
atre. He went to Turin as ballet master 
and met Somis, who induced him to take 
up the violin and apply himself to serious 
study. On returning to Paris, he was ap- 
pointed ripieno-violinist at the Opera, and 
in 1731 became a member of the royal 
band, but he, although undoubtedly su- 
perior to any violinist in Paris at that 
time, never seems to have made much of a 
success, for he resigned his positions and 
occupied himself exclusively with teaching 
and composition, and it is on the merits of 



5 2 Famous Violinists. 

his works that he occupies a high place 
among the great dassical masters of the 
violin. Leclair was murdered late one night 
close to the door of his own house, shortly 
after his return from Amsterdam, to which 
place he had gone solely for the purpose of 
hearing Locatelli. No motive for the crime 
was ever discovered, nor was the murderer 
found. 

Gaetano Pugnani was a native of Turin, 
and to him more than to any other master 
is due the preservation of the pure, grand 
style of Corelli, Tartini, and Vivaldi, for he 
combined the prominent qualities of style 
and technique of all three. He became 
first violin to the Sardinian court in 1752, 
but travelled extensively. He made long 
stays in Paris and London, where he was 
for a time leader of the opera band, and 
produced an opera of his own, also publish- 
ing a number of his compositions. In 1770 
he was at Turin, where he remained to the 



1650 to 7750. 53 

end of his life as teacher, conductor, and 
composer. 

Felice Giardini, another pupil of Somis, 
was born at Turin and became one of the 
foremost violinists in Europe. In 1750 he 
went to England where he made his first 
appearance at a benefit concert for Cuzzoni, 
the celebrated opera singer, then in the sere 
and yellow leaf of her career. His perform- 
ance was so brilliant that he became estab- 
lished as the best violinist who had yet 
appeared in England, and in 1754 he was 
placed at the head of the opera orches- 
tra, succeeding Festing. Soon afterwards 
he joined with the singer Mingotti in the 
management of opera, but the attempt was 
not a financial success. Notwithstanding his 
excellence as a performer and composer and 
the fine appointment which he held, Giardini 
died in abject poverty at Moscow, to which 
place he had gone after finding himself 
superseded in England by newcomers. 



54 Famous Violinists. 

Among the pupils of Tartini the most 
eminent was Pietro Nardini, who was born 
at Fibiano, a village of Tuscany, in 1722. 
He became solo violinist at the court of 
Stuttgart and remained there fifteen years. 
In 1767 he went to Leghorn for a short 
time, and then returned to Padua, where he 
remained with his old master Tartini until 
the latter' s death, when he was appointed 
director of music to the court of the Duke of 
Tuscany, in whose service he remained many 
years. 

Of his playing, Leopold Mozart, himself 
an eminent violinist, writes : " The beauty, 
purity and equality of his tone, and the taste- 
fulness of his cantabile playing, cannot be 
surpassed ; but he does not execute great 
difficulties." His compositions are marked 
by vivacity, grace, and sweet sentimentality, 
but he has neither the depth of feeling, the 
grand pathos, nor the concentrated energy of 
his master Tartini. 



1650 to 1750. 55 

Antonio Lolli, who was born at Bergamo 
about 1730, appears to have been some- 
what of a charlatan. He was self-taught, 
and, though a performer of a good deal of 
brilliancy, was but a poor musician. He was 
restless, vain, and conceited, and addicted to 
gambling. He is said to have played the 
most difficult double-stops, octaves, tenths, 
double-shakes in thirds and sixths, harmon- 
ics, etc., with the greatest ease and cer- 
tainty. At one time he appeared as a rival 
of Nardini, with whom he is said to have 
had a contest, and whom he is supposed to 
have defeated. According to some accounts, 
he managed to excite such universal admira- 
tion in advance of the contest that Nardini 
withdrew. 

Lolli was so eccentric that he was con- 
sidered by many people to be insane, and 
Doctor Burney, in writing of him, says, 
" I am convinced that in his lucid inter- 
vals, he was in a serious style a very great, 



56 Famous Violinists. 

expressive, and admirable performer ; " but 
Doctor Burney does not mention any lucid 
interval. 

Early in the eighteenth century Franz 
Benda was born in Bohemia at the village of 
Altbenatky, and Benda became the founder 
of a German school of violin playing. In 
his youth he was a chorister at Prague and 
afterward in the Chapel Royal at Dresden. 
At the same time he began to study the 
violin, and soon joined a company of stroll- 
ing musicians who attended fetes, fairs, etc. 
At eighteen years of age Benda abandoned 
this wandering life and returned to Prague, 
going thence to Vienna, where he pursued 
his study of the violin under Graun, a pupil 
of Tartini. After two years he was ap- 
pointed chapel master at Warsaw, and eventu- 
ally he became a member of the Prince Royal 
of Prussia's band, and then concert master 
to the king. 

Benda was a master of all the difficulties 



1650 to 1750. 57 

of violin playing, and the rapidity of his 
execution and the mellow sweetness of his 
highest notes were unequalled. He had 
many pupils and wrote a number of works, 
chiefly exercises and studies for the violin. 

A violinist whose career had a great influ- 
ence on musical life in England was Johann 
Peter Salomon, a pupil of Benda, and it is 
necessary to speak of him because his name 
is so frequently mentioned in connection 
with other artists during the latter half of 
the eighteenth century. 

Salomon was born at Bonn in the same 
house in which Beethoven was born, and of 
Salomon, after his death, Beethoven wrote : 
" Salomon's death grieves me much, for he 
was a noble man, and I remember him ever 
since I was a child." 

Salomon became an expert violinist at an 
early age, and travelled a good deal in Eu- 
rope before he settled in England, which was 
in 1781, when he made his appearance at 



58 Famoiis Violinists. 

Covent Garden Theatre. He was criticised 
thus : " He does not play in the most 
graceful style, it must be confessed, but his 
tone and execution are such as cannot fail 
to secure him a number of admirers in the 
musical world." 

He established a series of subscription 
concerts at the Hanover Square rooms, and 
produced symphonies of Mozart and Haydn. 
In fact, he was connected with almost every 
celebrity who appeared in England for many 
years. He was instrumental in bringing 
Haydn to England, and toward the end of 
his career he was actively interested in the 
foundation of the Philharmonic Society. He 
was noted more as a quartet player than as 
a soloist, and Haydn's last quartets were 
composed especially to suit his style of play- 
ing. He was a man of much cultivation and 
moved in distinguished society. His death 
was caused by a fall from his horse. He 
was the possessor of a Stradivarius violin 



1650 to 7750. 59 

which was said to have belonged to Corelli 
and to have had his name upon it. This he 
bequeathed to Sir Patrick Blake of Bury St. 
Edmunds. 



CHAPTER III. 

I75O TO l8OO. 

GIOVANNI BAPTISTE VIOTTI has been 
called the last great representative of the 
classical Italian school, and it is also stated 
that with Viotti began the modern school of 
the violin. In whatever light he may be 
regarded, he was undoubtedly one of the 
greatest violinists of all. He retained in his 
style of playing and composing the dignified 
simplicity and noble pathos of the great mas- 
ters of the Italian school, treating his instru- 
ment above all as a singing voice, and keeping 
strictly within its natural resources. Accord- 
ing to Baillot, one of his most distinguished 
pupils, his style was " perfection," a word 
which covers a host of virtues. 
60 



1800. 6 1 

Viotti was born in 1753 at Fontanetto, a 
village in Piedmont. His first musical in- 
struction was received from his father, who 
is severally mentioned as a blacksmith and 
as a horn player. His musical talent being 
early noticeable, he was sent to Turin and 
placed by Prince Pozzo de la Cisterna under 
the tutelage of Pugnani, and was soon re- 
ceived into the royal band. In 1780 he 
travelled extensively, visiting Germany, Po- 
land, and Russia, and meeting with great 
success. The Empress Catharine endeav- 
oured to induce him to remain at St. Peters- 
burg, but without success, and he proceeded 
to London, where he soon eclipsed all other 
violinists. In 1782 he went to Paris and 
made his debut at the celebrated Concert 
Spirituels. He was at once acknowledged 
as the greatest living violinist, but soon after 
this he ceased altogether to play in public. 
This decision seems to have been caused by 
the fact that an inferior player once achieved 



62 Famous Violinists. 

a greater success than he. He was evidently 
of a sensitive nature, and there is an anecdote 
told of him which is amusing even if its 
authenticity is open to question. Viotti was 
commanded to play a concerto at the Court 
of Louis XVI., at Versailles, and had pro- 
ceeded through about half of his perform- 
ance, when the attention of the audience 
was diverted by the arrival of a distinguished 
guest. Noise and confusion reigned where 
silence should have been observed, and Viotti, 
in a fit of indignation, removed the music 
from the desk and left the platform. 

In 1783 Viotti returned to Italy for a 
short time, but the following year he was 
back in Paris teaching, composing, and bene- 
fiting the art of music in every way except 
by public performance. He became the 
artistic manager of the Italian Opera, and 
brought together a brilliant number of singers. 
In this business he came in contact with 
Cherubini, the composer, with whom he was 



tO J800. 63 

on great terms of friendship. This enter- 
prise was suddenly stopped by the revolution, 
and Viotti was obliged to leave France, 
having lost almost everything that he pos- 
sessed. 

He went to London and renewed his 
former successes, playing again in public at 
Salomon's concerts, and in the drawing-rooms 
of the aristocracy. But here his ill-luck 
followed him, for London being full of French 
refugees, and the officials being suspicious of 
them all, he was warned to leave England, as 
it was feared that he was connected with 
some political conspiracy. 

This misfortune occurred in 1798, and 
Viotti retired to a small village called Schoen- 
feld, not far from Hamburg, where he lived 
in strict seclusion. During this time he 
was by no means idle, for he composed some 
of his finest works, notably the six duets for 
violins, which he prefaced by these words : 
" This book is the fruit of leisure afforded me 



64 Famous Violinists. 

by misfortune. Some of the pieces were 
dictated by trouble, others by hope." It was 
also during this period of retirement that he 
perfected his pupil Pixis, who, with his father, 
lived at Schoenfeld a whole summer for the 
express purpose of receiving Viotti's instruc- 
tion. 

In 1 80 1 Viotti found himself at liberty to 
visit England once more, but when he re- 
turned he astonished the world by going into 
the wine business, in which he succeeded in 
getting rid of the remainder of his fortune. 
As a man of business the strictest integ- 
rity and honour regulated his transactions, 
and his feelings were kind and benevolent, 
whilst as a musician, he is said never to have 
been surpassed in any of the highest qualities 
of violin playing. 

At the close of his career as a wine mer- 
chant, he returned to Paris to resume his 
regular profession, and was appointed director 
of the Grand Opera, but he failed to rescue 



//jo to 1800. 65 

the opera from its state of decadence, and, 
finding the duties too arduous for one of his 
age and state of health, he retired on a small 
pension. In 1822 he returned once more to 
England, where he passed the remainder of 
his life in quietude. 

While travelling in Switzerland, and enjoy- 
ing the beauties of the scenery, Viotti heard 
for the first time the plaintive notes of the 
Ranz des Vaches given forth by a mountain 
horn, and this melody so impressed him that 
he learned it and frequently played it on his 
violin. The subject was referred to by him 
with great enthusiasm in his letters to his 
friends. 

There are numerous anecdotes about Viotti 
in reference to his ready repartee and to his 
generous nature. One of the most interest- 
ing is that concerning a tin violin. He had 
been strolling one evening on the Champs 
Elysees, in Paris, with a friend (Langle"), when 
his attention was arrested by some harsh, 



66 Famous Violinists. 

discordant sounds, which, on investigation, 
proved to be the tones of a tin riddle, played 
by a blind and aged street musician. Viotti 
offered the man twenty francs for the curious 
instrument, which had been made by the old 
man's nephew, who was a tinker. Viotti 
took the instrument and played upon it, pro- 
ducing some most remarkable effects. The 
performance drew a small crowd, and Langl6, 
with true instinct, took the old man's hat and, 
passing it round, collected a respectable sum, 
which was handed to the aged beggar. 

When Viotti got out his purse to give the 
twenty francs the old man thought better of 
his bargain, for, said he, " I did not know the 
violin was so good. I ought to have at least 
double the amount for it." 

Viotti, pleased with the implied compli- 
ment, did not hesitate to give the forty francs, 
and then walked off with his newly acquired 
curiosity. The nephew, however, who 
now arrived to take the old man home, on 



to 1800. 67 

hearing the story ran after Viotti, and offered 
to supply him with as many as he would like 
for six francs apiece. 

Violin literature owes much to Viotti, for 
his compositions are numerous and contain 
beauties that have never been surpassed. 
His advice was sought by many young musi- 
cians, and among these was Rossini, who was 
destined to become great. De Beriot also 
sought out Viotti and played before him, but 
the old violinist told him that he had already 
acquired an original style which only re- 
quired cultivating to lead to success, and that 
he could do nothing for him. 

Viotti was one of the first to use the 
Tourte bow, and he studied its effects closely, 
so that the sweep of his bow became his 
great characteristic, and was alike the ad- 
miration of his friends and the despair of 
his rivals. He died in 1824, after about 
two years of retirement. 

Among Viotti's most prominent pupils 



68 Famous Violinists. 

were Roberrechts, Pixis, Alday le jeune, 
Cartier, Rode, Mori, Durand, and Baillot, 
also Mile. Gerbini and Madame Paravicini. 
Roberrechts became the teacher of De B6- 
riot, who in turn taught Vieuxtemps, Teresa 
Milanollo, and Lauterbach. Baillot taught 
Habeneck, who taught Alard, Leonard, 
Prume, Cuvillon, and Mazas. From Alard 
we have Sarasate, and from Leonard, Mar- 
sick and Dengremont, while through Rode 
we have Bohm, and from him a large 
number of eminent violinists, including G. 
Hellmesberger, Ernst, Dont, Singer, L. 
Strauss, Joachim,' Rappoldi. Some of them 
we shall refer to at length as great perform- 
ers, others were celebrated more as teachers. 
'Rodolphe Kreutzer, who was born at Ver- 
sailles in 1766, is the third in order of de- 
velopment of the four great representative 
masters of the classical violin school of 
Paris ; the others being Viotti, first, Rode, 
second, and Baillot, fourth. With Baillot he 



1750 to 1800. 69 

compiled the famous " Methode de Violon " 
for the use of the students at the Con- 
servatoire. Kreutzer's first teacher was his 
father, who was a musician in the king's 
chapel, but he was soon placed under Anton 
Stamitz, and at the age of thirteen he 
played a concerto in public, with great suc- 
cess. This is said by some writers to have 
been his own composition, though by others 
it was attributed to his teacher. 

Kreutzer made a tour through the north 
of Italy, Germany, and Holland, during which 
he acquired the reputation of being one of 
the first violinists in Europe. On his return 
to Paris, he turned his attention to dramatic 
music, and composed two grand operas, 
which were performed before the court, and 
secured for him the patronage of Marie 
Antoinette. He also became first violin 
at the Opera Comique, and professor at the 
Conservatoire, where he formed some ex- 
cellent pupils, among them being D'Artot, 



70 Famous Violinists. 

Rovelli, the teacher of Molique, Massart, 
the teacher of Wieniawski and Teresina Tua, 
and Lafont, who also became a pupil of De 
Beriot. On Rode's departure for Russia, 
Kreutzer succeeded him as solo violin at 
the Opera, later becoming Chef d'Orchestre, 
and after fourteen years' service in this 
capacity he was decorated with the insignia 
of the Legion of Honour, and became Gen- 
eral Director of the Music at the Opera. 
In 1826 he resigned his post and retired 
to Geneva, where he died in 1831. Kreut- 
zer was a prolific composer, and his com- 
positions include forty dramatic works and 
a great number of pieces for the violin. 

In 1798, when Kreutzer was at Vienna 
in the service of the French ambassador, 
Bernadotte, he made the acquaintance of 
Beethoven, and was afterwards honoured by 
that great composer with the dedication to 
him of the famous Sonata, Op. 47, which 
was first played by Beethoven and the vio- 



1 75 to fSoo. 71 

linist Bridgetower, at the Augarten, in May, 
1803, either the i/th or the 24th. This 
is the sonata the name of which Count Leo 
Tolstoi took for his famous book, though to 
the vast majority of hearers it will always 
remain a mystery how the classical har- 
monies of the sonata could have aroused the 
passions which form the raison d'etre of 
the book. 

Kreutzer was noted for his style of bow- 
ing, his splendid tone, and the clearness of 
his execution. 

With three such masters as Baillot, Rode, 
and Kreutzer, besides Viotti, who was fre- 
quently in Paris, the French school of violin 
playing had now superseded the Italian. 

Pierre Marie Francois de Sales Baillot, 
who was associated with Rode and Kreut- 
zer in the compilation of the celebrated 
" Methode du Violon," was born at Passy, 
near Paris, in 1771, and became one of the 
most excellent violinists that France ever 



72 Famous Violinists. 

produced. His eminence in his profession 
was not obtained without a long struggle 
against great difficulties, for at the age of 
twelve he lost his father, who had kept a 
school, and became dependent upon friends 
for his education. His musical talent was 
remarkable at an early age, and he re- 
ceived his first instruction from an Italian 
named Polidori. At the age of nine he was 
placed under a French teacher named Sainte- 
Marie, whose training gave him the severe 
state and methodical qualities by which his 
playing was always distinguished. 

His love for his instrument was greatly 
augmented when, at the age of ten, he heard 
Viotti play one of his concertos, and from 
that day the great violinist became his 
model. 

When his father died a year or two later, 
a government official, M. de Boucheporn, 
sent him, with his own children, to Rome, 
where he was placed with Pollani, a pupil of 



to 1800. 73 

Nardini, under whom he made rapid progress, 
and soon began to play in public. He was, 
however, unable to follow directly in the 
path of his profession, and for five years he 
travelled with his benefactor, acting as pri- 
vate secretary, and securing but little time 
for his violin playing. 

In 1791 he returned to Paris, and Viotti 
secured a place for him in the opera orches- 
tra, but on being offered a position in the 
Ministere des Finances, he gave up his 
operatic work, and for some years devoted 
only his leisure to the study of the violin. 
He now had to serve with the army for 
twenty months, at the end of which time he 
once more determined to take up music as 
a profession, and soon appeared in public 
with a concerto of Viotti. This perform- 
ance established his reputation, and he was 
offered a professorship of violin playing at 
the Conservatoire, then recently opened. 

His next appointment was to the private 



74 Famous Violinists. 

band of Napoleon, after which he travelled 
for three years in Russia with the violoncello 
player Lemare, earning great fame. 

Returning to Paris, he established concerts 
for chamber music, which proved successful, 
and built up for him a reputation as an 
unrivalled quartet player. He travelled 
again, visiting Holland, Belgium, and Eng- 
land, and then he became leader of the 
opera band in Paris and of the royal band. 
He made a final tour in Switzerland in 1833, 
and died in 1842. 

Baillot is considered to have been the 
last distinguished representative of the great 
classical school of violin playing in Paris. 
In his " L' Art du Violon " he points out 
the chief distinction between the old and 
the modern style of violin playing to be the 
absence of the dramatic element in the 
former, and its predominance in the latter, 
thus enabling the executive art to follow the 
progress marked out by the composer, and 



I 75 to i8- 75 

to bring out the powerful contrasts and en- 
larged ideas of the modern musical compo- 
sitions. After the time of Baillot and his 
contemporaries the style of Pagan ini be- 
came predominant in Paris, but the influence 
of the Paris school extended to Germany, 
where Spohr must be considered the direct 
descendant artistically of Viotti and Rode. 
Perhaps the most illustrious pupil of 
Viotti was Pierre Rode, who was born at 
Bordeaux in 1774, and exhibited such excep- 
tional talent that at the age of sixteen he 
was one of the violins at the Theatre Fey- 
deau in Paris. He had made his d6but in Paris 
at the Theatre de Monsieur, when he played 
Viotti's thirteenth concerto with complete 
success. In 1794 he began to travel, and 
made a tour through Holland and North 
Germany, visiting England, driven there by 
stress of weather, on his way home. He 
appeared once in London, and then left for 
Holland and Germany again. On his return 



76 Famous Violinists. 

to France he was appointed professor of the 
violin at the Conservatoire, then newly estab- 
lished. In 1799 he made a trip to Spain, 
where he met Boccherini. The following 
year he returned to Paris, where he was made 
solo violinist to the First Consul, and it was 
at this period that he gained his greatest 
success, when he played with Kreutzer a 
duo concertante of the latter's composition. 
After this he went to Russia, where he was 
enthusiastically received, and was appointed 
one of the emperor's musicians. The life in 
Russia, however, overtaxing his strength, 
from that time his powers began to fail, 
and he met with many disappointments. In 
1814 he married, and, although he made an 
unsuccessful attempt to renew his public 
career, he may be said to have retired. He 
died at Bordeaux in 1830. 

Of Rode's playing in his best days we are 
told that he displayed all the best qualities of 
a grand, noble, pure, and thoroughly musical 



T 75 O to f 8 o - 77 

style. His intonation was perfect, his tone 
large and pure, and boldness, vigour, deep 
and tender feeling characterised his per- 
formances. In fact he was no mere virtuoso 
but a true artist. His musical nature shows 
itself in his compositions, which are thor- 
oughly suited to the nature of the violin, and 
have a noble, dignified character and consid- 
erable charm of melody, though they show 
only moderate creative power. He had few 
pupils, but his influence through his example 
during his travels, and through his composi- 
tions, was very great indeed. 

Beethoven wrote for Rode, after hearing 
him play in Vienna, the famous violin Ro- 
mance in F, Op. 50, one of the highest pos- 
sible testimonials to Rode's ability as a 
violinist. It is known, however, that he 
was obliged to seek assistance in scoring his 
own compositions, and therefore lacked an 
important part of a musical education. 

The most celebrated pupil of Baillot was 



78 Famous Violinists. 

Francois Antoine Habeneck, the son of a 
musician in a French regimental band. 
During his early youth Habeneck was 
taught by his father, and at the age of ten 
played concertos in public. He visited many 
places with his father's regiment, which was 
finally stationed at Brest. At the age of 
twenty he went to Paris and entered the 
Conservatoire, where in 1804 ne was awarded 
first prize for violin playing, and became a 
sub-professor. 

The Empress Josephine, on hearing him 
play, was so pleased that she granted him a 
pension of twelve hundred francs. He be- 
came one of the first violins at the Opera, but 
his special forte was as leader of orchestras, 
and he held that post at the Conservatoire, 
on account of his efficiency, until 1815, when 
the advent of the allied armies caused it to 
be closed. 

Habeneck was instrumental in bringing 
forward the great orchestral works of Bee- 



175 to 1800. 79 

thoven. He became director of the Grand 
Ope"ra, and inspector - general of the Con- 
servatoire. 

Habeneck is said to have been greatly 
addicted to taking snuff, and this habit led 
to an amusing episode with Berlioz, which 
the latter regarded in a very unfriendly light. 
At a public performance of the Requiem of 
Berlioz, the composer had arranged with 
Habeneck to conduct the music, Berlioz 
taking his seat close behind the conductor. 
The work was commenced, and had been 
proceeded with some little time, when Habe- 
neck (presumably taking advantage of what 
seemed to him a favourable moment) placed 
his baton on the desk, took out his snuff- 
box, and proceeded to take a pinch. Berlioz, 
aware of the breakers ahead, rushed to the 
helm and saved the wreck of his composition 
by beating time with his arm. Habeneck, 
when the danger was passed, said, "What 
a cold perspiration I was in ! Without you 



8o Famous Violinists. 

we should assuredly have been lost." " Yes," 
said the composer, " I know it well," accom- 
panying his words with an expression of 
countenance betokening suspicion of Habe- 
neck's honesty of purpose. The violinist 
little dreamed that this gratification of his 
weakness for snuff-taking would be regarded 
in the pages of Berlioz's Memoirs as having 
been indulged in from base motives. 

Habeneck died in 1849. He published 
only a few of his compositions. 

One of the most eminent violinists of the 
French school, who flourished during the 
early part of the nineteenth century, was 
Charles Philippe Lafont. Besides brilliant 
technical capabilities he had a sympathetic 
tone and a most elegant style, and these 
qualities gave him a very high position in 
the ranks of performers. 

Lafont was born at Paris, December 7, 
1781, and received his first lessons from his 
mother, who afterward placed him under her 



f 7 5 t 

brother, Berthaume. Under his care he 
made a successful concert tour through 
Germany and other countries as early as 
1792, after which he returned to Paris 
and settled down to study under Rudolf 
Kreutzer. 

For a time his studies were interrupted 
by an attempt to become a singer, and he 
appeared at the Theatre Feydeau, which had 
then been opened by Viotti. This diversion 
being soon at an end, he returned to the vio- 
lin, but on the outbreak of the revolution 
in France he left the country and travelled 
throughout Europe, being absent from Paris, 
with the exception of a short visit in 1805, 
until 1815. 

During his travels he was made chamber 
virtuoso to the Czar Alexander, and on his 
return to France he became first violinist 
of the royal chamber musicians of Louis 
XVIII. , and musical accompanist to the 
Duchesse de Berry. 



82 Famous Violinists. 

Lafont's career came to a sudden end by 
the overturning of a carriage while on a 
concert tour in the south of France in 
1839. 

He was one of the numerous violinists 
who challenged Paganini to an artistic duel, 
in which he got the worst of it, though his 
admirers accounted for his defeat by the fact 
that the contest took place at La Scala, in 
Milan, where the sympathy of the audience 
was in favour of the Italian virtuoso. 

Lafont was a prolific composer, but few of 
his works have survived. He was also the 
owner of a magnificent Guarnerius violin, 
which is now said to be the property of 
Adolf Brodsky. 

As a composer Spohr probably influenced 
the modern style of violin playing even more 
than as a player, for he lifted the concerto to 
the dignity of a work of art, whereas it had 
formerly been simply a show piece, though 
not always without merit. He set a great 



to 1800. 83 

example of purity of style and legitimate 
treatment of the instrument, and is consid- 
ered to have had a more beneficial effect 
on violin playing than Paganini, who was born 
in the same year, 1 784. 

'Louis Spohr was the son of a physician, 
who, two years after Louis was born at 
Brunswick, took up his residence at Seesen, 
where the childhood of the future virtuoso 
was passed. Both father and mother were 
musical, the former playing the flute, while 
the latter was a pianist and singer. It is 
said that young Spohr showed his talents 
remarkably early, and was able to sing duets 
with his mother when only four years of age. 
At five he began to learn the violin and at 
six he could take part in Kalkbrenner's trios. 
He also began to compose music, and under 
his father's methodical guidance acquired the 
habit of finishing everything that he began 
to write, without erasure or alteration. His 
instruction in the art of composition was 



84 Famous Violinists. 

confined to the mere rudiments, and he 
acquired the art chiefly by studying the 
scores of the great composers. 

Spohr's first public appearance was at a 
school concert, and such was his success that 
he was asked to repeat the performance at 
a concert given by the duke's band. More 
study ensued, and then, at the age of four- 
teen, he undertook to make his first artistic 
tcur, and set out for Hamburg, carrying with 
him some letters of introduction. 

It seems that the people of Hamburg did 
not show much enthusiasm over the young 
artist, for he was unable to arrange a hearing, 
and, having exhausted his funds, he returned 
to Brunswick in the time-honoured manner of 
unsuccessful artists, on foot. Spohr's ex- 
perience seems to have produced upon him 
the same effect that many aspiring young 
players have since felt, viz., that he had 
better go on with his studies. He accord- 
ingly presented a petition to the Duke of 



7 75 to I Soo. 85 

Brunswick asking for means to carry out his 
desires. The duke was pleased with him, 
and not only gave him a place in his band, 
but also agreed to pay his expenses while he 
studied with one of the most eminent teach- 
ers of the day. 

Neither Viotti nor Ferdinand Eck could 
receive him as a pupil, but by the advice of 
the latter, young Spohr was placed under his 
brother, Franz Eck, who was then travelling 
in Germany. With Franz Eck an agreement 
was made by the duke, under which Spohr 
should travel with him, and study en route. 
During the continuance of this agreement 
Spohr practised sometimes ten hours a day, 
and being so constantly with his teacher he 
made great progress. On his return to 
Brunswick he was appointed first violinist 
in the duke's band, and the following year he 
once more undertook a concert tour on his 
own account, travelling through Saxony and 
Prussia, and meeting with great enthusiasm. 



86 Famous Violinists. 

While in Russia he met dementi and 
Field, and he was presented with a most 
valuable Guarnerius violin by an enthusiast. 
This instrument he lost while on the way to 
France, where he intended to make a concert 
tour. Just before entering Gottingen the 
portmanteau which contained the violin was 
taken from the coach, and owing to the 
delays of officialism it was never recovered. 
The thieves had been seen with the booty in 
their possession, but in order to arrest them 
it was necessary to travel some nine miles 
for the necessary warrant and officer. In 
the meantime they had disappeared, as 
thieves occasionally do. 

In 1805 Spohr was appointed concert- 
master in the band of the Duke of Gotha, 
and while holding this position he met, 
wooed, and wedded the Fraulein Dorothea 
Scheidler, an excellent harp player, who for 
many years afterwards appeared with him in 
all his concerts, and for whom he wrote 



to fSoo- 87 

many solo pieces as well as some sonatas for 
violin and harp. In view of this important 
step the following description of Spohr's 
personal appearance may be interesting : 
"The front of Jove himself is expressed in 
the expansive forehead, massive, high, and 
broad ; the speaking eyes that glance stead- 
fastly and clearly under the finely pencilled 
arches of the eyebrows, which add a new 
grace to their lustrous fire ; the long, straight 
nose with sharply curved nostrils, imperial 
with the pride of sensibility and spiritual 
power; the firm, handsome mouth, and the 
powerful chin, with its strong outlines melted 
into the utter grace of oval curves. In its 
calmness and repose, in its subdued strength 
and pervading serenity, it is the picture of 
the man's life in little." Spohr seems to 
have been somewhat attractive. 

Another authority tells us, in less flowery 
language, that he was of herculean frame and 
very strong constitution. 



88 Famous Violinists. 

In 1807 he made a tour, with his wife, 
through Germany, and while at Munich the 
king showed his gallantry to Madame Spohr 
in a most gracious manner. The usher had 
neglected to place a chair on the platform 
for her, and the king handed up his own 
gilded throne chair, in spite of her protesta- 
tions. The anecdote would be more satis- 
factory if it stated what the king sat upon 
during the concert, but that is left to the 
imagination. The king had some bad habits, 
and, we are told, was very fond of playing 
cards during the concerts. Spohr was not 
accustomed to having his audiences indulge 
in cards, and so informed the chamberlain, 
absolutely declining to play unless the cards 
were put aside for the time being. It was 
a delicate task that fell to the lot of the 
chamberlain, but he carried it through with 
the greatest diplomacy, each side making 
a slight concession : the king on his part 
promising to abstain from card playing during 



to I8OO. 89 

Spohr's performance on condition that the 
violinist's two pieces should immediately 
follow each other on the program, and Spohr 
withdrawing his embargo from the whole 
concert on condition that the king would 
abstain from his favourite amusement during 
his particular performance. The king, how- 
ever, seems to have put in the last blow, for 
on the conclusion of the violin solos he gave 
no signal for applause, and as it would be 
a breach of court manners for any one to 
applaud without his Majesty's consent, the 
artist was obliged to make his bow and retire 
amidst deathly silence. 

In 1808 Spohr wrote his first opera, but 
although it was accepted for representation, 
it was never performed in public. 

During this year Napoleon held his cele- 
brated congress of princes at Erfurt. Spohr 
was consumed by a burning desire to behold 
Napoleon and the surrounding princes, and 
went to Erfurt. Here he found that a 



90 Famous Violinists. 

French theatrical troupe was performing 
every evening before the august assembly, 
but only the privileged few could by any 
possibility gain admittance to the theatre. 
Spohr's ingenuity was equal to the emer- 
gency, and making friends with the second 
horn player, he induced that artist to allow 
him to substitute for him one night. Spohr 
had never in his life attempted to play the 
horn, but it was now necessary for him to 
acquire the art before night, and he set to 
work with such vim that by the time of the 
performance his lips were swollen and black, 
but he was able to produce the requisite 
tones. The orchestra having received strict 
injunctions to sit with their backs to the 
brilliant assembly, probably to protect their 
eyesight from its dazzling effects, Spohr 
fitted himself out with a small mirror, and 
placing this upon his music-rack, he was 
able to enjoy for a couple of hours the vision 
of the great Napoleon, who, with his most 



to fSoo. 91 

distinguished guests, occupied the front row 
of the stalls. 

Spohr remained at Gotha until 1813, when 
he was offered and accepted the post of the 
leadership at the Theatre an der Wien at 
Vienna, and while here he composed his 
opera of " Faust," which, however, was not 
produced at that time. He also wrote a 
cantata in celebration of the battle of Leip- 
zig, which he did not succeed in producing, 
and not feeling satisfied with his position, 
and having various disagreements with the 
management, the engagement was cancelled 
by mutual consent. During his stay in 
Vienna Spohr was frequently in contact 
with Beethoven, and though he admired that 
great master he criticised some of his com- 
positions very severely, and is said to have 
remarked that " Beethoven was wanting in 
aesthetic culture and sense of beauty," a 
remark difficult to understand in these later 
days. It is the more incomprehensible from 



92 Famous Violinists. 

the fact that Spohr in after years was the 
very first musician of eminence to interest 
himself in Wagner's talent, for he brought 
out at Cassel " Der Fliegende Hollander," 
and continued with " Tannhauser," notwith- 
standing the opposition of the court. He 
considered Wagner to be by far the greatest 
of all dramatic composers living at that time. 

In 1815 he made a concert tour in France 
and Italy, during which he met Rossini and 
Paganini, playing at Venice a sinfonia concer- 
tante of his own composition, with the latter. 

On his return to Germany in 1817 Spohr 
was appointed conductor of the Opera at 
Frankfort - on - the - Main, where his opera 
" Faust " was now produced, also " Zemire 
and Azor." Owing to difficulties with man- 
agers again he left Frankfort after a stay of 
only two years, and his next venture was 
a visit to England, where he appeared at 
the concerts of the Philharmonic Society in 
London. His success was brilliant, for his 



T 75 to fS 00 - 93 

clear style and high artistic capacity, added 
to his reputation as a composer, carried him 
into popularity, and the artistic world vied 
with the public in doing honour to him. At 
his farewell concert, his wife made her last 
appearance as a harp player, for on account 
of ill-health she was obliged to give it up, 
and thereafter she played only the piano- 
forte. 

On his way home from England Spohr 
visited Paris for the first time, and made the 
personal acquaintance of Kreutzer, Viotti, 
Habeneck, Cherubini, and other eminent 
musicians, who received him with the great- 
est cordiality. But the public did not seem 
to appreciate his merits, for his quiet, unpre- 
tentious style was not quite in keeping with 
the taste of the French. 

On his return to Germany Spohr settled 
in Dresden, and remained there until 1822, 
when he became Hofkapellmeister to the 
Elector of Hesse-Cassel, and he remained in 



94 Famous Violinists. 

Cassel for the rest of his life. This position 
he obtained on the advice of Weber. 

In 1831 he completed his great "Violin 
School," which has ever since its publication 
been considered a standard work. The fol- 
lowing year the political disturbances inter- 
fered with the opera performances at Cassel, 
and caused him much annoyance. In 1834 
he lost his wife, but his work of composition 
proceeded with vigour. 

In 1839 he again visited England, where 
his music had become very popular, and 
during the remainder of his career he re- 
peated his visit several times, many of his 
works being produced by the various socie- 
ties. 

His life at Cassel was not free from cares 
and friction, and he was subjected to many 
indignities and annoyances by the elector. 
Perhaps his sympathy with the revolutionists 
of 1848 was the chief cause of these petty 
persecutions. When Spohr married his 



*75 to 1800. 95 

second wife, Marianne Pfeiffer, the elector 
objected, and only gave his reluctant consent 
when Spohr agreed to waive the right of his 
wife to a pension. All his proposals were 
met with opposition. " Tannhauser " was 
produced and well received, but a repetition 
of the performance was not allowed, and 
" Lohengrin " was ordered to be withdrawn 
from rehearsal, for Wagner was one of the 
revolutionists and was obliged to live in 
seclusion. 

America is indebted to this revolution of 
1848 for some excellent musicians, for the 
Germania Orchestra, an organisation of young 
revolutionists, sought these shores, and after 
a prosperous career, begun under great trials 
and discouragements, the various members 
settled in different cities and became identi- 
fied with the musical life of the nation. 

In 1851 the elector refused to sign the 
permit for Spohr' s two months' leave of 
absence, to which he was entitled under his 



g6 Famous Violinists. 

contract, and when the musician departed 
without the permit, a portion of his salary 
was deducted. In 1857 he was pensioned 
off, much against his own wish, and in the 
winter of the same year he had the misfor- 
tune to break his arm, an accident which put 
an end to his violin playing. Nevertheless 
he conducted his opera " Jessonda " at the 
fiftieth anniversary of the Prague Conserva- 
torium in the following year, with all his old- 
time energy. In 1859 he died at Cassel. 

Through all his long career Spohr had 
lived up to the ideal he had conceived in his 
youth. He was a man of strong individu- 
ality, and invariably maintained the dignity 
of his art with unflinching independence. 
Even the mistakes that he made, as for 
instance his criticism of Beethoven, bore the 
strongest testimony to his manly straight- 
forwardness and sincerity in word and deed. 
He was a most prolific composer, leaving 
over two hundred works in all. His violin 



to 1800. 97 

concertos stand foremost among his works, 
and are distinguished as much by noble and 
elevated ideas as by masterly thematic treat- 
ment, yet there is a certain monotony of 
treatment in all, and his style and manner 
are entirely his own. 

As an executant Spohr stands among the 
greatest of all time. In slow movements he 
played with a breadth and beauty of tone, 
and a delicacy and refinement of expression 
almost unequalled. His hands were of ex- 
ceptional size and strength, and enabled him 
to execute the most difficult double stops and 
stretches with the greatest facility. Even in 
quick passages he preserved a broad, full 
tone, and his staccato was brilliant and effect- 
ive. He disliked the use of the " spring- 
ing bow," which came with the modern style 
of playing. 

Spohr had a great many pupils, of whom 
the best known were Ries, Ferd. David, 
Blagrove, Bargheer, Hompel, and Henry 



98 Famous Violinists. 

Holmes. He was also considered one of 
the best conductors of his time, and intro- 
duced into England the custom of conducting 
with a baton. 

Amongst the amusing episodes in the life 
of Spohr was one which took place in Lori- 
don, when a servant brought him a letter 
desiring M. Spohr to " be present at four 
o'clock to-morrow evening at the closet 
of the undersigned." Spohr had not the 
faintest idea as to the identity of "the 
undersigned," nor the least inkling of that 
gentleman's design. He therefore replied 
that he had an engagement at that time. 
To this note he received another polite epistle 
asking him to be good enough to honour 
the " undersigned " with an interview, and 
to choose his own time. He therefore made 
an appointment, which he kept punctually, 
and on arriving at the house to which he was 
directed, he found an old gentleman, who 
was very genial, but who could speak neither 



99 

French nor German. As Spohr spoke no 
English the communication between them 
was of necessity carried on by pantomine. 
The old gentleman led the way into a room, 
the walls of which were literally covered with 
violins, from which Spohr gathered the idea 
that he was to pick out that which he consid- 
ered the best. After trying them all he had 
to decide between the merits of half a dozen, 
and, when he finally gave his opinion, the 
gentleman seemed delighted, and offered him 
a five pound note to compensate him for his 
trouble. This the violinist declined to accept, 
for he had found as much enjoyment as his 
host, and considered it a privilege to be able 
to examine such a fine collection of beautiful 
instruments. The gentleman found a way 
of satisfying his ideas of compensation by 
buying tickets to the value of ten pounds, for 
one of Spohr's concerts. 

Among the most talented violinists of the 
early part of the nineteenth century was 



TOO Famous Violinists, 

Karl Joseph Lipinski, the son of a Polish 
violin player whose gifts were uncultivated. 
He was born in Poland, in 1790, at a small 
town named Radzyn. After learning, with 
the aid of his father, to play the violin, he 
took up the 'cello, and taught himself to play 
that instrument, and in later days he attrib- 
uted his full tone on the violin to the power 
which his 'cello practice gave to his bow 
arm. 

Lipinski seems to have been an energetic 
and original man. He was in the habit of 
appearing at concerts both as violinist and 
'cellist. He was unable to play the piano, 
so when he was conductor of the opera at 
Lemberg he directed with the violin, and 
frequently had to play two parts, which gave 
him great command over his double stops. 
When the fame of Paganini reached him he 
set forth to Italy, that he might profit by 
hearing the great virtuoso, and when the 
opportunity came at Piacenza, he distin- 



1800. 101 

guished himself by being the only person 
in the audience to applaud the first adagio. 
After the concert he was introduced to 
Paganini, and he did not fail to improve the 
acquaintance, frequently visiting Paganini and 
playing with him, sometimes even in his 
concerts. 

Lipinski declined the honour of going on 
a concert tour with Paganini, as he wished 
to return to his home. On stopping at 
Trieste he heard of an old man, over ninety 
years of age, who had once been a pupil of 
Tartini, and sought him out in order to " get 
some points " on Tartini's style. The old 
man, Doctor Mazzurana, declared himself 
too old to play the violin, but suggested that 
if Lipinski would play a Tartini sonata he 
would tell him if his style reminded him of 
the great master. It did not, but Doctor 
Mazzurana brought out of a cupboard a 
volume of Tartini's sonatas having letter- 
press under the music, and this Lipinski was 



IO2 Famous Violinists. 

ordered to read in a loud tone and with all 
possible expression. Then he had to play 
the sonata, and after numerous attempts and 
corrections, the old man began to applaud 
his efforts. Lipinski ever afterwards profited 
by these lessons. 

Later on he met Paganini again at War- 
saw, where they were rivals, for the time 
being, and different factions waxed warm 
over their respective merits. Paganini him- 
self, who is said to have been asked whom 
he considered to be the greatest violinist, 
replied, with conscious modesty, "The second 
greatest is certainly Lipinski." 

Lipinski travelled throughout Europe, 
meeting with great success, until in 1839 
he was appointed concert-meister at the 
Royal Opera in Dresden, where he remained 
for many years. He also organised a string 
quartet, and was considered a most excellent 
performer of chamber-music. He wrote a 
large quantity of music for the violin, but 



r 75 to I ^- IO 3 

little of it was of a lasting quality. In 1861 
he was pensioned, and retired to Urlow, near 
Lemberg, where he had some property, and 
there he died in December of the same 
year. 



CHAPTER IV. 

PAGANINI. 

THE name Paganini stands for the quintes- 
sence of eccentric genius, one of the most 
remarkable types of mankind on record. 
Paganini was able to excite wonder and 
admiration by his marvellous technical skill, 
or to sway the emotions of his hearers by his 
musical genius, while his peculiar habits, 
eccentric doings, and weird aspect caused 
the superstitious to attribute his talent to 
the power of his Satanic Majesty. Yet 
Paganini was not only mortal, but in many 
respects a weak mortal, although the most 
extraordinary and the most renowned violin- 
ist of the nineteenth century. 
104 




NICCOLO PAGANINI 



Paganini. 105 

Nicolo Paganini was the son of a commer- 
cial broker, Antonio Paganini, and was born 
at Genoa, February 18, 1784. He was a 
child of nervous and delicate constitution, 
and the harsh treatment accorded to him 
by his father tended to accentuate and de- 
velop the peculiarities of his character. He 
was a good violinist at the age of six, and 
before he was eight years of age he had out- 
grown, not only his father's instruction, but 
also that of one Servetto, a musician at the 
theatre, and that of Costa, the director of 
music and principal violinist to the churches 
of Genoa. He had also written a sonata for 
violin, which was afterwards lost. At the age 
of nine he appeared in his first concert, given 
by Marchesi and Albertinatti in a large the- 
atre at Genoa. At the age of twelve he was 
taken to Rolla, the celebrated violinist and 
composer at Parma, upon whom he made a 
great impression. When Paganini arrived 
with his father at Rolla's house they found 



106 Famous Violinists. 

him ill in bed, and not at all disposed to 
receive them. Whilst awaiting him, young 
Paganini found on the table a copy of Rolla's 
last concerto, and a violin. Taking up the 
violin, he played the piece off at first 
sight. This brought Rolla out of bed, for 
he would not believe, without seeing, that 
such a feat could be accomplished by so 
young a boy. Rolla said that he could teach 
him nothing, and advised him to go to Paer, 
but Paer was then in Germany, and the boy 
went to Ghiretti. 

Although Paganini denied ever having 
taken lessons with Rolla, he nevertheless 
had frequent discussions with him concern- 
ing the new effects which he was continually 
attempting, and which did not always meet 
with the unqualified approval of the older 
musician. 

The music which he wrote for his instru- 
ment contained so many difficulties that he 
had to practise unremittingly to overcome 



Paganini. 107 

them, often working ten or twelve hours a 
day and being overwhelmed with exhaus- 
tion. 

In 1797 Paganini made his first tour, with 
his father, through the chief towns of Lom- 
bardy, and now he determined to release 
himself, on the first opportunity, from the 
bondage in which he was held by his father. 
This opportunity presented itself when the 
fete of St. Martin was celebrated at Lucca, 
and after much opposition he at last obtained 
the consent of his father to attend the cele- 
bration. Meeting with much success, he went 
on to Pisa, and then to other places, in all of 
which he was well received. Being now free 
from the restraint of his home he fell into 
bad company, and took to gambling and other 
vices, the most natural result of his -father's 
harsh training showing itself in lack of moral 
stamina. 

For a time his careless life had its allure- 
ments, but the young virtuoso was frequently 



io8 Famous Violinists. 

reduced to great straits, and on one occasion, 
if not more, pawned his violin. This hap- 
pened at Leghorn, where he was to play at a 
concert, and it was only through the kindness 
of a French merchant, M. Livron, who lent 
him a beautiful Guarnieri, that he was able 
to appear. When the concert was over, and 
Paganini brought back the instrument, its 
owner was so delighted with what he had 
heard that he refused to receive it. " Never 
will I profane strings which your ringers have 
touched," he said, "the instrument is now 
yours." And Paganini used that violin after- 
wards in all his concerts. 

This violin was, some time later, the means 
by which he was cured of gambling, for hav- 
ing been reduced to extreme poverty, he was 
tempted to sell it. The price offered was a 
large one. At this juncture he won one 
hundred and sixty francs, which saved the 
violin, but the mental agony he endured 
through the affair convinced him that a 



Paganini. 109 

gamester is an object of contempt to all well 
regulated minds. 

Paganini won another violin by his ability 
to read music at sight. Pasini, an eminent 
painter and an amateur violinist, refused to 
believe the wonderful faculty for playing at 
sight, which had been imputed to Paganini, 
and in order to test it brought him a manu- 
script concerto containing some difficulties 
considered as insurmountable. "This in- 
strument shall be yours," said Pasini, plac- 
ing in his hands an excellent Stradivari, " if 
you can play, in a masterly manner, this 
concerto, at first sight." Paganini accepted 
the challenge, threw Pasini into ecstasies, 
and became the owner of the instru- 
ment. 

The severe course of dissipation in which 
Paganini indulged during these days of his 
youth ruined his health, and caused him fre- 
quently to disappear from the public gaze for 
long periods, throughout his career. With 



no Famous Violinists. 

the fair sex he had more than one romantic 
episode. At one time a lady of high rank 
fell in love with him and led him captive to 
her castle in Tuscany. Here the lovers 
solaced themselves with duets on the guitar, 
and the violinist attained a proficiency, on 
that instrument, equal to the expression of 
the tenderest passion. This adventure brought 
retribution in after days, and in a most unex- 
pected manner, for as his genius began to 
excite the wonder of the world, sundry mali- 
cious stories concerning him were invented 
and circulated. One of these stories was to 
the effect that he had been imprisoned for 
stabbing one of his friends, another rumour 
said that he strangled his wife, and that dur- 
ing his imprisonment he had been allowed only 
the solace of playing his violin with but one 
string. This story was told in order to account 
for his wonderful one-stringed performances, 
and it was absolutely untrue, but the time 
allotted by rumour to his supposed imprison- 



Paganini. 1 1 1 

ment coincided with the period which was 
really occupied with this romance. 

At the end of three years he resumed 
his travels and his violin playing, returning 
to Genoa in 1804, where he set to work on 
some compositions. At this time he be- 
came interested in a little girl, Catarina 
Calcagno, to whom he gave lessons on the 
violin. She was then about seven years of 
age, and a few years later she became well 
known as a concert violinist. 

Paganini did not remain long in Genoa, for 
the following year found him wandering 
again, and another love affair in Lucca led 
to the composition of a piece to be played on 
two strings, the first and the fourth : the first 
to express the sentiments of a young girl, and 
the fourth the passionate language of her 
lover. The performance of this extremely 
expressive composition was rewarded by the 
most languishing glances from his lady-love 
in the audience, but the most important 



112 Famous Violinists, 

result was that the Princess Elise Bacchiochi, 
sister of Napoleon, declared to him that he 
had performed impossibilities. "Would not 
a single string suffice for your talent ? " she 
asked. Paganini was delighted, and shortly 
afterward composed his military sonata en- 
titled " Napoleon," which is performed on 
the G string only. 

At Ferrara he once nearly lost his life 
through unwittingly trampling upon the sus- 
ceptibilities of the people, in the following 
manner. It appears that the peasantry in 
the suburbs of Ferrara bore ill-will toward 
the citizens of that town and called them 
"asses." This little pleasantry was mani- 
fested by the suburbanites in " hee-hawing " 
at the citizens when fitting opportunity pre- 
sented itself. Now it happened that Paga- 
nini played at a concert, and some of the 
audience expressed dissatisfaction with the 
singer, Madame Pallerini, and hissed her. 
Paganini decided to have revenge, and when 



Paganini. 113 

about to commence his last solo, he amused 
the public by giving an imitation of the notes 
and cries of various animals. The chirping 
of various birds, the crowing of the chanti- 
cleer, the mewing of cats, the barking of 
dogs were all imitated and the audience was 
delighted. Now was the time to punish the 
reprobates who hissed. Paganini advanced 
to the footlights exclaiming, "This for the 
men who hissed," and gave a vivid imitation 
of the braying of an ass. Instead of exciting 
laughter and thus causing the confusion of 
the enemy as he expected, the whole audi- 
ence rose as one man, scaled the orchestra 
and footlights, and swore they would have 
his blood. Paganini sought safety in flight. 
He was eventually enlightened as to the 
mistake he had made. 

Once, when he was at Naples, Paganini 
was taken ill, and in his desire to secure 
lodgings where the conditions would be fa- 
vourable for his recovery, he made a mistake 



H4 Famous Violinists. 

and soon became worse. It was said that 
he was consumptive, and consumption being 
considered a contagious disease, his landlord 
put him out in the street, with all his posses- 
sions. Here he was found by Ciandelli, the 
violoncellist, who, after giving the landlord a 
practical and emphatic expression of his opin- 
ion by means of a stick, conveyed his friend 
Paganini to a comfortable lodging, where 
he was carefully attended until restored to 
health. 

In 1817 Paganini was urged by Count 
Metternich and by Count de Kannitz, the 
Austrian ambassador to Italy, to visit Vienna, 
but several times he was prevented from 
carrying out his plans by illness, and it was 
not until 1828 that he reached Vienna and 
gave his first concert. His success was pro- 
digious. " He stood before us like a miracu- 
lous apparition in the domain of art," wrote 
one of the critics. The public seemed to 
be intoxicated. Hats, dresses, shoes, every- 



Paganini. 115 

thing bore his name. His portrait was to 
be found everywhere, he was decorated and 
presented with medals and honours. 

He continued his tour through Germany, 
being received everywhere with the utmost 
enthusiasm, and he visited England, after a 
sojourn in Paris, in 1831. 

When he reached home after an absence 
of six years, he was the possessor of a con- 
siderable fortune, part of which he lost by 
injudicious investments. Some friends in- 
duced him to join them in the establishment 
of a casino in a fashionable locality in Paris. 
It was called the Casino Paganini, and was 
intended to be a gambling-house. The au- 
thorities, however, refused to grant a license, 
and it was found impossible to support it by 
concerts only. After some vicissitudes a law- 
suit was established against Paganini, who 
was condemned to pay fifty thousand francs, 
and to be imprisoned until the amount was 
paid, but this decision was not reached until 



n6 Famous Violinists. 

Paganini was in a dying condition, and he 
went, by the advice of his physicians, to 
Marseilles, where he remained but a short 
time. Finding that his health did not im- 
prove, he decided to pass the winter at 
Nice, but the progress of his ailment was 
not checked, and on May 27, 1 840, he expired. 

By his will, made three years previously, 
he left an immense fortune and the title of 
baron, which had been conferred on him in 
Germany, to his son Achille, the fruit of a 
liaison with the singer Antonia Bianchi of 
Como, whose birth had been legitimised 
by deeds of law. His fortune amounted to 
about four hundred thousand dollars, besides 
which he had a valuable collection of musical 
instruments. His large Guarnieri violin he 
bequeathed to the town of Genoa, that no 
artist might possess it after him. 

During his last illness Paganini, not real- 
ising that death was so near, devoted himself 
to music and to arranging for another con- 



Paganini. 117 

cert tour. During his lifetime he had never 
paid much attention to religion and there 
were some doubts as to his belief. Although 
he expressed his adherence to the Roman 
Church, yet he dallied with its formalities, 
and when the priest visited him three days 
before his death to administer the final con- 
solations of religion, the dying man put him 
off on the ground that he was not yet ready, 
and would send for him when the time came. 
Death prevented this, and burial in conse- 
crated ground was therefore denied him. An 
appeal was made to the spiritual tribunal and 
in the meantime the body was embalmed 
and kept in a hall in the palace of the 
Conte di Cessole, whose guest he was during 
his last illness. 

People now began to come from all parts 
of Italy to pay honour to the dead artist, and 
this so angered the bishop and priests that an 
order was obtained for the removal of the 
body. Under military escort the remains of 



n8 Famous Violinists. 

the great violinist were taken to Villafranca 
and placed in a small room, which was then 
sealed up. And now Paganini became a ter- 
ror to the ignorant peasants and fishermen, 
who crossed themselves as they hurried past 
the spot where the excommunicated remains 
lay. It was said that in the dead of night 
the spectre of Paganini appeared and played 
the violin outside his resting-place. 

In the meantime every effort was being 
made to secure Christian burial. The spirit- 
ual tribunal decided that Paganini had died a 
good Catholic. The bishop refused to accept 
the decision, and an appeal to the archbishop 
was unavailing. Eventually the case was 
brought before the Pope himself by the 
friends of the dead man, and the Pope over- 
ruled the decision of the archbishop and 
ordained that Christian burial should be 
accorded to the artist. On the 2ist of 
August, 1843, the Conte di Cessole took 
away the coffin from Villafranca, and interred 



Paganini, 119 

it in the churchyard near Paganini's old 
residence at Villa Gavona, near Parma. 
Thus even after death he was the victim of 
superstition, as he had been during his life- 
time. 

Paganini resolved not to publish his com- 
positions until after he had ceased to travel, 
for he was aware that his performances would 
lose much of their interest if his works were 
available to everybody. He seldom carried 
with him the solo parts, but only the 
orchestral scores of the pieces that he played. 
His studies were pronounced impossible by 
some of the best violinists of the day, so 
great were the difficulties which they con- 
tained, and in his mastery of these difficulties, 
which he himself created, may be found the 
true secret of his success. People accounted 
for it in many ways, one man declaring that 
he saw the devil standing at his elbow, and 
others stating that he was a child of the 
devil, and that he was bewitched. 



I2O Famous Violinists. 

His compositions are remarkable for 
novelty in ideas, elegance of form, richness 
of harmony, and variety in the effects of 
instrumentation. Few compositions ever at- 
tained such fame as the " Streghe," of which 
the theme was taken from the music of 
Siissmayer to the ballet of " II Noce di Bene- 
vento." 

While it may be readily admitted that 
many of the effects with which Paganini 
dazzled the multitude were tainted with char- 
latanism, yet the fact remains that no one 
ever equalled him in surmounting difficulties, 
and it is doubtful if, among all the excellent 
violinists of the present day, any of them 
compares with that remarkable man. 

Some of his studies have been adapted to 
the pianoforte by Schumann and by Liszt, 
and of the collection arranged by Liszt, 
consisting of five numbers from the Caprices, 
Schumann says : " It must be highly interest- 
ing to find the compositions of the greatest 



Paganini. 121 

violin virtuoso of this century in regard to 
bold bravura Paganini illustrated by the 
boldest of modern pianoforte virtuosi 
Liszt." This collection is probably the 
most difficult ever written for the piano- 
forte, as its original is the most difficult work 
that exists for the violin. Paganini knew 
this well, and expressed it in his short 
dedication, " Agli Artisti," that is to say, 
" I am only accessible to artists." 

It is doubtful whether any violinist ever 
lived concerning whom more fantastic stories 
were told. His gruesome aspect, his frequent 
disappearances from public life, his peculiar 
habits, all tended to make him an object of 
interest, and interest is sometimes shown 
in eagerness to hear anything at all about 
the subject. 

He enjoyed conversation when he was in 
the company of a small circle of friends. He 
was cheerful at evening parties, if music 
was not mentioned. He had an excellent 



122 Famotis Violinists. 

memory for features and names of persons 
whom he had met, but it is said that he never 
remembered the names of towns at which he 
had given concerts. He was very severe 
with orchestras, and any mistakes made by 
them would bring forth a tempest of rage, 
though satisfactory work would be rewarded 
with expressions of approval. When he 
came to a pause for the introduction of a 
cadenza, at rehearsal, the musicians would 
frequently rise, eager to watch his perform- 
ance, but Paganini would merely play a few 
notes, and then stopping suddenly would smile 
and say, " Et cetera, messieurs ! " and reserve 
his strength for the public performance. 

His peculiarities were shown strongly in 
his arrangements for personal comfort while 
travelling, for his constant suffering pre- 
cluded the enjoyment of the beauties of 
nature. He was always cold, and even in 
summer kept a large cloak wrapped around 
him, and the windows of the carriage care- 



Paganini. 123 

fully closed. Before starting he took merely 
a basin of soup or a cup of chocolate, and 
though he frequently remained nearly the 
whole day without further refreshment, he 
slept a great deal and thus escaped some 
of the pain which the jolting of the carriage 
caused him. His luggage consisted of a 
small dilapidated trunk, which contained 
his violin, his jewels, his money, and a few 
fine linen articles. Besides this he had only 
a hat-case and a carpet-bag, and frequently 
a napkin would contain his entire wardrobe. 
In a small red pocketbook he kept his ac- 
counts and his papers, which represented an 
immense value, and nobody but himself could 
decipher the hieroglyphics which indicated 
his expenses and receipts. He cared not 
whether his apartment, at the inns on the 
road, was elegantly furnished or a mere 
garret, but he always kept the windows open 
in order to get an " air-bath," contrary to his 
custom while in a carriage. 



124 Famous Violinists. 

While the secret of Paganini's marvellous 
technique was incessant hard work, to which 
he was urged not less by his own ambition 
than by his father's cruelty, yet in later 
years he seldom practised, and his playing 
was chiefly confined to his concerts and 
rehearsals. There are several good stories 
dealing with this peculiarity. One man is 
said to have followed him around for months, 
taking the adjoining room at hotels, in order 
to find the secret of his success by hearing 
him practise. Once, when looking through 
the keyhole, he saw the virtuoso go to the 
violin case, take out the instrument, and 
after seeing that it was in tune, put it 
back again. 

Sir Charles Hall6 tells about seeing Pa- 
ganini in Paris, where he used to spend an 
hour every day sitting in a publisher's shop, 
"a striking, awe-inspiring, ghostlike figure." 
Halle 1 was introduced to him, but conversa- 
tion was difficult, for Paganini sat there taci- 



Paganini. 125 

turn, rigid, hardly ever moving a muscle of 
his face. He made the young pianist play 
for him frequently, indicating his desire by 
pointing at the piano with his long, bony 
hand, without speaking. Halle was dying 
to hear the great violinist play, and one day, 
after they had enjoyed a long silence, Paga- 
nini rose and went to his violin case. He 
took the violin out, and began to tune it 
carefully with his fingers, without using the 
bow. Halle's agitation was becoming intol- 
erable, for he thought that the moment had 
arrived at which his desire was to be grati- 
fied. But when Paganini had satisfied him- 
self that his violin was all right, he carefully 
put it back in the case and shut it up. 

Paganini was notoriously parsimonious, 
and it was related that one evening in 
Florence he left his hotel rather late, jumped 
into a coach and ordered the man to drive 
him to the theatre. The distance was short, 
but he felt that it would not do to keep the 



126 Famous Violinists. 

public waiting. He was to play the prayer 
from " Moses " on one string. On arrival 
at the theatre he asked the driver, " How 
much ? " " For you," replied the Jehu, 
"ten francs." "What? Ten francs? You 
joke," replied the virtuoso. " It is only the 
price of a ticket to your concert," was the 
excuse. Paganini hesitated a moment, and 
then handed to the man what he considered 
to be a fair remuneration, saying, " I will pay 
you ten francs when you drive me on one 
wheel." 

At one time Paganini astonished the world 
by making to Hector Berlioz the magnificent 
present of twenty thousand francs. Berlioz 
was at that time almost in a state of despair. 
His compositions were not appreciated, and 
he was at a loss to know which way to turn. 
He made a final effort and gave a last con- 
cert, at which Paganini was present and 
congratulated him. 

Jules Janin, the celebrated critic and 



Paganini. 127 

writer, went into ecstasies over the affair. 
Paganini, he said, who had been attacked 
for hard-heartedness and avarice, was pres- 
ent at the concert, and at the end prostrated 
himself before Berlioz, and shed tears. Hope 
returned and Berlioz went home in triumph, 
for he had satisfied one great musical critic. 
The next day he received a note from Paga- 
nini enclosing twenty thousand francs, to 
be devoted to three years of repose, study, 
liberty, and happiness. 

In Sir Charles Halle's biography, however, 
this story receives important modifications. 
It appears that Armand Bertin, the wealthy 
proprietor of the Journal des Debates, had 
a high regard for Berlioz, who was on his 
staff, and knew of his struggles, which he 
was anxious to lighten. He resolved, there- 
fore, to make him a present of twenty thou- 
sand francs, and to enhance the moral effect 
of this gift he persuaded Paganini to appear 
as the donor of the money. What would 



128 Famous Violinists. 

have appeared as a simple gratuity from 
a rich and powerful editor toward one of 
his staff, became a significant tribute from 
one genius to another. The secret was well 
kept and was never divulged to Berlioz. It 
was known only to two of Bertin's friends, 
and Halle learned it about seven years later, 
when he had become an intimate friend of 
Madame Bertin, and she had been for years 
one of his best pupils. 

Paganini created the difficulties which he 
performed. He had a style of his own, and 
was most successful in playing his own com- 
positions. In Paris, when, out of respect to 
the Parisians, he played a concerto by Rode, 
and one by Kreutzer, he scarcely rose above 
mediocrity, and he was well aware of his fail- 
ure. He adopted the ideas of his predeces- 
sors, resuscitated forgotten effects and added 
to them, and the chief features of his per- 
formance were, the diversity of tones pro- 
duced, the different methods of tuning his 



Paganini. 1 29 

instrument, the frequent employment of 
double and single harmonics, the simul- 
taneous use of pizzicato and bow passages, 
the use of double and triple notes, the vari- 
ous staccati, and a wonderful facility for 
executing wide intervals with unerring accu- 
racy, together with a great variety of styles 
of bowing. The quality of tone which he 
produced was clear and pure, but not exces- 
sively full, and, according to Fe"tis, he was a 
master of technique and phrasing rather than 
a pathetic player, there was no tenderness 
in his accents. 

It is said that Baillot used to hide his face 
when Paganini played a pizzicato with the 
left hand, harmonics, or a passage in stac- 
cato. Dancla, in his recollections, says : " I 
had noticed in Paganini his large, dry hand, 
of an astonishing elasticity ; his fingers long 
and pointed, which enabled him to make 
enormous stretches, and double and triple 
extensions, with the utmost facility. The 



130 Famous Violinists. 

double and triple harmonics, the successions 
of harmonics in thirds and sixths, so difficult 
for small hands, owing to the stretch they 
require, were to him as child's play. When 
playing an accentuated pizzicato with the left 
hand, while the melody was played by the 
hand of the bow, the fourth finger pinched 
the string with prodigious power even when 
the other three fingers were placed." 

There are anecdotes told of Paganini's 
artistic contests with rival violinists, chief 
among whom were Lafont and Lipinski, both 
of whom he eclipsed, and of his playing a 
concerto in manuscript at sight, with the 
music upside down on the rack. 

Of his appearance we are told, in an 
account of a concert in London : " A tall, 
haggard figure, with long, black hair, 
strangely falling down to his shoulders, slid 
forward like a spectral apparition. There 
was something awful, unearthly in that coun- 
tenance ; but his play ! our pen seems invol- 



Paganini. 131 

untarily to evade the difficult task of giving 
utterance to sensations which are beyond the 
reach of language." After detailing the per- 
formance, the account continues : " These 
excellencies consist in the combination of 
absolute mechanical perfection of every 
imaginable kind, perfection hitherto un- 
known and unthought of, with the higher 
attributes of the human mind, inseparable 
from eminence in the fine arts, intellectual 
superiority, sensibility, deep feeling, poesy, 
genius." 

In regard to this accomplishment of 
playing on one string, a critic said : " To 
effect so much on a single string is truly 
wonderful ; nevertheless any good player 
can extract more from two than from one. 
If Paganini really produces so much effect 
on a single string, he would certainly obtain 
more from two. Then why not employ 
them ? We answer, because he is waxing 
exceedingly wealthy by playing on one." 



132 Famous Violinists. 

Paganini seems to have reasoned from the 
opposite point, viz., that if the retention of 
two strings be regarded with such wonder, 
how much greater the marvel will be if only 
one is used. 

To offset these suggestions of charlatan- 
ism, or perhaps rather to show that, with 
all his charlatanism, Paganini was a marvel, 
we may see what effect his playing had 
upon some men who were not likely to be 
caught by mere trickery. Rossini, upon 
being asked how he liked Paganini, replied : 
" I have wept but three times in my life ; 
the first, on the failure of my earliest opera ; 
the second time, when, in a boat with some 
friends, a turkey stuffed with truffles fell 
overboard ; and thirdly, when I heard Paga- 
nini play for the first time." 

Spohr, after hearing him play, in 1830, 
said : " Paganini came to Cassel and gave 
two concerts, which I heard with great 
interest. His left hand and his constantly 



Paganini. 133 

pure intonation were, to me, astonishing ; 
but in his compositions and his execution I 
found a strange mixture of the highly genial 
and the childishly tasteless, by which one 
felt alternately charmed and disappointed." 

George Hogarth, the musical critic, writes 
about Paganini's " running up and down a 
single string, from the nut to the bridge, 
for ten minutes together, or playing with 
the bow and the fingers of his right hand, 
mingling pizzicato and arcato notes with 
the dexterity of an Indian juggler." It was 
not, however, by such tricks as these, but 
in spite of them, that he gained the suf- 
frages of those who were charmed by his 
truly great qualities, his soul of fire, his 
boundless fancy, his energy, tenderness, and 
passion ; these are the qualities which give 
him a claim to a place among the greatest 
masters of the art. 

Perhaps the finest description of Paganini 
is the one written by Leigh Hunt : 



134 Famous Violinists. 

" So play'd of late to every passing thought 
With finest change (might I but half as well 
So write) the pale magician of the bow, 
Who brought from Italy the tales, made true, 
Of Grecian lyres; and on his sphery hand, 
Loading the air with dumb expectancy, 
Suspended, ere it fell, a nation's breath ; 

" Of witches' dance, ghastly with whinings thin, 
And palsied nods mirth, wicked, sad, and weak ; 
And then with show of skill mechanical, 
Marvellous as witchcraft he would overthrow 
That vision with a show'r of notes like hail ; 
Flashing the sharp tones now, 
In downward leaps like swords ; now rising fine 
Into some utmost tip of minute sound, 
From whence he stepp'd into a higher and higher 
On viewless points, till laugh took leave of him. 

" Then from one chord of his amazing shell 
Would he fetch out the voice of quires, and weight 
Of the built organ ; or some twofold strain 
Moving before him like some sweet-going yoke, 
Ride like an Eastern conqueror, round whose state 
Some light Morisco leaps with his guitar; 
And ever and anon o'er these he'd throw 
Jets of small notes like pearl." 



CHAPTER V. 

I800 TO 1830. 

PAGANINI was an epoch-making artist. 
He revolutionised the art of violin playing, 
and to his influence, or through his example, 
were developed the modern French and 
Belgian schools. While Paganini was a 
genius, a great musician, and a wonderful 
violinist, he combined with these qualities 
that of a trickster, and the exponents of 
the modern French school adopted some 
of the less commendable features of Paga- 
nini' s playing, while the Belgian school fol- 
lowed the more serious lines, and became 
a much sounder school. 

Alard, Dancla, and Maurin were expo- 
nents of the French school, while in that 
135 



136 Famous Violinists. 

of Belgium we have De Beriot, Massart, 

Vieuxtemps, Leonard, Wieniawski. 
t 

Lambert Joseph Massart was born at 
Liege in 1811, and was first taught by an 
amateur named Delavau, who, delighted with 
the remarkable talent displayed by his young 
pupil, succeeded in securing for him, from 
the municipal authorities of Liege, a schol- 
arship which enabled him to go to Paris. 

On his arrival at the Conservatoire, Che- 
rubini, who was splenetive and rash, refused 
him admission without assigning any reason 
for his decision, but Rudolph Kreutzer took 
upon his shoulders the task of forming the 
future artist. 

Notwithstanding Massart's great talent 
and excellent capabilities as an artist, he 
never became a success as a concert player, 
because of his inordinate shyness, but as a 
teacher few have equalled him. 

Sir Charles Halle", in his autobiography, 
tells a good anecdote concerning Massart's 



1 8 oo to iSjo. 137 



shyness and modesty. Massart was to play, 
with Franz Liszt, a program which included 
the Kreutzer sonata. Just as the sonata was 
begun a voice from the audience called out 
" Robert le Diable," referring to Liszt's bril- 
liant fantasia on themes from that opera, 
which he had recently composed, and had 
played several times with immense success. 
The call was taken up by other voices, and 
the sonata was drowned. Liszt rose and 
bowed, and presently, in response to the con- 
tinued applause, he said : " I am always the 
humble servant of the public. But do you 
wish to hear the fantasia before or after the 
sonata ? " 

Renewed cries of " Robert " were the only 
reply, upon which Liszt turned half around to 
Massart and dismissed him with a wave of 
the hand, but without a word of excuse or 
apology. Liszt's performance roused the 
audience to a perfect frenzy, but Massart 
nevertheless most dutifully returned and 



138 Famous Violinists. 

played the Kreutzer sonata, which fell 
entirely flat after the dazzling display of the 
great pianist. 

Few teachers have formed as many distin- 
guished pupils as Massart, for in 1843 he was 
appointed professor of violin at the Paris 
Conservatoire, where his energy, care, exact- 
ness, and thoroughness brought him an im- 
mense reputation. Lotto, Wieniawski, 
Teresina Tua, and a host of other distin- 
guished violinists studied under him : among 
them also was Charles M. Loeffler, of the 
Boston Symphony Orchestra. 

Massart was also an excellent quartet 
player and gave many delightful chamber 
concerts, with his wife, who was a pianist. 
He died in Paris, February 13, 1892. 
' Charles Auguste de Be'riot, who holds a 
position of great importance in the history of 
violin playing and composition, was born in 
1802 at Louvain. He had the misfortune to 
be left an orphan at the age of nine. His 



i8oo to iSjo. 139 

parents were of noble extraction, but at 
their death he was left entirely without 
fortune, and was taken in charge by M. Tiby, 
a professor of music, who had noticed the 
little boy's love of the musical art, and had 
already taught him to such good purpose 
that he was able even at that time to play 
one of Viotti's concertos in public so skilfully 
that he received the hearty applause of the 
audience. He also took lessons of Rober- 
rechts, one of Viotti's most noted pupils. 

De Beriot was a youth of contemplative 
mind and of high moral character. He 
formed the acquaintance of the scholar and 
philosopher Jacotot, who imbued him with 
principles of self-reliance, and exerted an 
influence over him which lasted throughout 
his life. 

De BeViot learned from his guide, philoso- 
pher, and friend that " perseverance triumphs 
over all obstacles," and that "we are not 
willing to do all that we are able to do." 



140 Famous Violinists. 

At the age of nineteen De BeYiot went to 
Paris, taking with him a letter of introduction 
to Viotti, who was then the director of music 
at the Opera, and he succeeded in gratifying 
his greatest ambition, which was to be heard 
by that illustrious violinist. 

Viotti gave him the following advice : 
" You have a fine style. Give yourself up to 
the business of perfecting it. Hear all men 
of talent, profit by everything, but imitate 
nothing." 

De Beriot applied himself assiduously to 
his studies, entering the Paris Conservatoire 
and taking lessons of Baillot. In a few 
months, however, he withdrew from the Con- 
servatoire and relied upon his own resources. 
He soon began to appear in concerts, gener- 
ally playing compositions of his own, which 
won him universal applause by their freshness 
and originality as much as by his finished 
execution and large style of cantabile. 

In 1826 he went to London from Paris, 



i8oo to 1830. 141 

his first appearance taking place on May ist, 
before the Philharmonic Society. Wherever 
he appeared, either in London or the prov- 
inces, he was greeted with enthusiasm, and he 
established a lasting reputation. 

His appearance in England antedated that 
of Paganini by about five years, and it has 
been questioned whether the impression 
which he made would have been less if he 
had appeared after instead of before the great 
Italian. It seems, however that De Be"riot 
continued to meet with success even after the 
advent of Paganini. His playing was distin- 
guished by unfailing accuracy of intonation, 
great neatness and facility of bowing, grace, 
elegance, and piquancy. 

After travelling for some years he returned 
to Belgium, where he was appointed solo vio- 
lin to the King of the Netherlands. He had 
held the position but a short time when the 
revolution of 1830 broke out and deprived 
him of it. 



142 Famous Violinists. 

He returned to Paris, and now began the 
most romantic portion of his life. Madame 
Malibran, whose brilliant career was then at 
its height, was singing in opera, and De 
Beriot became acquainted with her. The 
acquaintance ripened into the most intimate 
friendship, and in 1832 a concert company 
was formed, consisting of Malibran, De 
BeViot, and Luigi Lablache, the celebrated 
and gigantic basso. They made a tour of 
Italy, meeting with the most extraordinary 
success. 

De BeViot and the beautiful Madame Mali- 
bran were now inseparable. Malibran had 
for some years been living apart from her 
husband, an American merchant, who, with 
the view of supporting himself by her talents, 
had married her when on the brink of finan- 
cial collapse. In 1835 sne succeeded in se- 
curing a divorce from him, and then she 
married De B6riot. 

A few months after their marriage Mali- 



1 8 oo to 1 8 jo. 143 

bran was thrown from her horse and sus- 
tained internal injuries of such severity that 
she died after an illness of nine days, and De 
Be*riot became frantic with grief. 

More than a year elapsed before he could 
at all recover from the effects of his irrepara- 
ble loss, and his first appearance in concert, 
after this tragic event, was when Pauline 
Garcia, the sister of Madame Malibran, made 
her first debut in a concert at Brussels given 
for the benefit of the poor. 

In 1841 De Beriot married Mile. Huber, 
daughter of a magistrate of Vienna. He 
returned to Brussels, and became director of 
the violin classes at the Conservatoire, after 
which he ceased giving concerts. He re- 
mained in this position until 1852, when fail- 
ing eyesight caused him to retire, and he 
died at Louvain in 1870. 

Before his acquaintance with Madame 
Malibran, De Be"riot was a suitor for the 
hand of Mile. Sontag, and her rejection of 



144 Famous Violinists. 

him threw him into a state of despondency, 
from which it required the brilliancy and wit 
of Malibran to rouse him. 

De Beriot left a number of compositions 
which abound in pleasing melodies, have a 
certain easy, natural flow, and bring out the 
characteristic effects of the instrument in 
the most brilliant manner. There are seven 
concertos, eleven "airs variees," several 
books of studies, four trios and a number of 
duets for piano and violin. His " Violin 
School" has been published in many lan- 
guages and used a great deal by students. 

Delphin Jean Alard was at one time a 
favourite violinist in France. In 1842 he 
succeeded Baillot as professor of violin at 
the Conservatoire in Paris. He was first 
soloist in the royal band, to which post he 
was appointed in 1858, and he was presented 
with the Cross of the Legion of Honour. 

Alard was born at Bayonne in March, 
1815, and was well taught from his earliest 



i8oo to fSjo. 145 

youth. He appeared in concerts at the age 
of ten, and at twelve entered the Paris Con- 
servatoire, where he became a pupil of Habe- 
neck, while Fe"tis taught him composition. 
He was the winner of numerous prizes, and 
he also wrote a great deal of music for the 
violin. His greatest pupil was Sarasate. 

Alard married the daughter of Vuillaume, 
one of the best violin makers of France, and 
through him became the owner of one of the 
most beautiful Stradivarius violins. Alard 
died in Paris, February 22, 1881. 
' Hubert Leonard was born at Bellaire, near 
Liege, in 1819, but unlike the majority of 
violinists he did not appear in concerts at an 
early age, nor did he enter the Paris Conser- 
vatoire until he was seventeen. At this 
time the wife of a wealthy merchant in 
Brussels took interest in him and provided 
the means necessary for him to go to Paris. 
In 1 844 he appeared at Leipzig, and created 
a deep impression by the beauty of his tone 



146 Famous Violinists. 

and his elegant performance. He travelled 
through Europe and played chiefly his own 
compositions, of which there are a great 
many, but his greatest fame was earned after 
he was appointed professor at the Brussels 
Conservatoire, where he had many pupils, 
of whom the most celebrated is, perhaps, 

Martin Marsick. 

i 

Concerning the merits of Heinrich Wil- 
helm Ernst there seems to be a wide differ- 
ence of opinion between various commenta- 
tors. He was a man of warm, impulsive 
nature, whose playing was distinguished by 
great boldness in the execution of technical 
difficulties of the most hazardous nature. 
His tone had a peculiar charm, and at the 
same time his fiery, impetuous nature and 
uneven disposition led to certain occasional 
errors in technique and faulty intonation. 
Nevertheless, he was one of the most wel- 
come performers in the concert halls of 
Europe for a number of years. He was a 



i8oo to 1830. 147 

thorough musician and a good composer, 
though his works are so full of technical 
difficulties as to be almost impossible of per- 
formance. Indeed it is said that some of 
them contained difficulties which even he 
could not always overcome. 

Born in Moravia at the town of Briinn in 
1814, he entered the Vienna conservatory, 
and in 1830 made his first concert tour 
through Munich and Paris. Paganini was at 
that time travelling in Europe, and Ernst, in 
the desire to learn something from this great 
artist, followed him from town to town, and 
endeavoured to model his own playing upon 
the style of the Italian virtuoso, an effort 
which seems to have brought down upon 
him the censure of some critics, but which 
others have considered highly praiseworthy. 

In 1832 he settled in Paris, where he 
studied hard under De Beriot, and played in 
concerts frequently. After 1844 he lived 
chiefly in England, where he was highly ap- 



148 Famous Violinists. 

predated, until the approach of his fatal dis- 
ease made it necessary for him to give up, 
first, public performances, and then violin 
playing of any kind. He died at Nice 
after eight years of intense suffering, in 
1865. 

When Ernst died the critic of the Athe- 
neum compared him with other players of his 
day in the following words : " Less perfec- 
tion in his polish, less unimpeachable in the 
diamond lustre and clearness of his tone, 
than De Beriot, Ernst had as much elegance 
as that exquisite violinist, with greater depth 
of feeling. Less audaciously inventive and 
extravagant than Paganini, he was sounder 
in taste, and, in his music, with no lack of 
fantasy, more scientific in construction. . . . 
The secret, however, of Ernst's success, 
whether as a composer or a virtuoso, lay in 
his expressive power and accent. There has 
been nothing to exceed these as exhibited by 
him in his best days. The passion was car- 



i8oo to f8jo. 149 

ried to its utmost point, but never torn to 
tatters, the freest use of tempo rubato per- 
mitted, but always within the limits of the 
most just regulation." 

Among the violinists of this period (those 
who were born between 1800 and 1830) will 
be found those who first visited the United 
States. In 1843 Ole Bull found his way to 
these shores, and in the following year both 
Vieuxtemps and Artot were giving concerts 
in New York. A kind of triangular duel 
took place, for the admirers of Artot and 
Vieuxtemps, who were chiefly the French 
residents of the city, endeavoured to belittle 
the capabilities of Ole Bull, who nevertheless 
appears to have been very successful, and if 
anything, to have benefited by the competi- 
tion. Musical culture was, at that time, in a 
very low state in America, and one may judge 
somewhat of its progress by the press criti- 
cisms of the artists who visited the country 
from time to time. It will be seen that those 



1 50 Famous Violinists. 

who, like Ole Bull, Sivori, and Remenyi, ap- 
plied their talents to the elaboration of popu- 
lar airs and operatic themes were able to 
elicit the warmest praise. Vieuxtemps ap- 
pears to have appealed to the cultured 
minority and was understood and appreciated 
by very few. 

Flowery language was used without stint, 
and was frequently misapplied in the most 
ludicrous manner, as will be seen by the fol- 
lowing extract : 

"Since the death of his great master, the weird 
Paganini, Ole Bull had been left without a rival in 
Europe. Herwig, Nagel, Wallace, Artot, and De 
Be"riot can only ' play second fiddle ' to this king of 
the violin. His entrance upon the stage is remark- 
ably modest, and after the Parisian graces of Artot 
seems a little awkward ; a tip of his bow brings a 
crash from the orchestra. He then lays his cheek 
caressingly on the instrument, which gradually awakes, 
and wails, and moans, like an infant broken of its 
slumber. Every tone seems fraught with human 
passion. At one time he introduces a dialogue, in 
which a sweet voice complains so sadly that it makes 
the heart ache with pity, which is answered from 



1 8 oo to 1830. 151 

another string with imprecations so violent and 
threatening that one almost trembles with fear. 
We fancied that a young girl was pleading for the 
life of her lover, and receiving only curses in reply. 
At the close of the first piece, the ' Adagio Maestoso,' 
there was one universal shout of applause, which 
afforded an infinite relief to a most enthusiastic house 
that had held its breath for fifteen minutes. Ole Bull 
came before the curtain and bowed, with his hand 
upon his heart. There is something different in his 
performance from that of any other artist, and yet it 
is difficult to describe the peculiarity of his style, ex- 
cept that he touches all the strings at once, and plays 
a distinct accompaniment with the fingers of his right 
hand. But the charm is in the genius of the man 
and the grandeur of his compositions. He knows 
how to play upon the silver cord of the heart which 
binds us to a world of beauty, and vibrates only when 
touched by a master hand." 

The sentiments and emotions aroused in 
the breast of this critic appear to have been 
those with which Paganini inspired his audi- 
ence, when he played a duet on two strings, 
as related in an earlier chapter. Ole Bull 
was a child of nature, he gave his audience 
a description of the beauties of nature, and 



1 52 Famous Violinists. 

behold ! it is interpreted as a story of human 
passions, a high tribute to descriptive 
music. 

The following criticism seems more in 
keeping with the ideas known to have been 
held by the violinist, and almost leads one to 
imagine that the critic was fortunate enough 
to obtain an interview with the virtuoso be- 
fore writing his account : 

" FEBRUARY, 1844. 

"To what shall we compare Ole Bull's playing? 
Was it like some well-informed individual who has 
seen the world and who spices his tales of men and 
things with song and story now describing the 
beauties of Swiss scenery, now repeating the air 
which he caught up one moonlight night on the 
Bosphorus, and anon relating a stirring joke which 
he gleaned on the Boulevard. Such a man would 
create an impression on any small tea-party, but that 
violin did more the comparison fails. There might 
be to him who chose to give rein to his fancy a 
vision at one moment of the old ivy-covered church 
and the quiet graveyard, the evening sun streaming 
through the rich stained glass, the organ faintly heard 
through the long aisles and the deep chancel, and 
around and about the singing of some bird of late 



i8oo to 1 8 jo. 153 

hours, and the hum of the bee as he flew by, well 
laden, to his storehouse of sweets. 

" Then the clouds flew fearfully, and the wind 
moaned through the boughs of the old oak-tree in its 
winter dishabille, and so down to the seashore, when 
it rushed over cliffs and crags and knocked off the caps 
of the mad waves and sped on like a tyrant, crashing 
everything in its way and rejoicing in its might. And 
so we glided oddly but easily enough into the ball- 
room, where mirth and laughter, bright eyes, fairy 
feet, and all that was good and pleasant to behold 
flitted by. It was not all music that Ole Bull's violin 
gave out. There were old memories and pleasant 
ones, ideas which shaped themselves into all man- 
ners of queer visions ; and the main difference be- 
tween Ole Bull and those I have heard before him 
seemed to me to consist in this that whereas 
many others may excite and hold by the button, as 
it were, the organ of hearing and the mind therewith 
immediately connected, Ole Bull awakens the other 
senses along with it and occupies them in the field of 
imagination." 

In 1 846 came Sivori, and in 1 848 Remenyi, 
both artists whose desire to please their audi- 
ences took them far from the path of the 
highest musical standard. It may be said 
with truth that the country was hardly ready 



154 Famous Violinists. 

for musicianship of the highest quality, and 
even in 1872, when Wieniawski came with 
the great pianist and composer, Rubinstein, 
the two were accepted on their reputation 
rather than on their merits, which were 
understood by a comparatively small propor- 
tion of their audiences. 

Although several violinists endeavoured 
to copy Paganini's style, or at least to learn 
as much as possible from hearing and see- 
ing him play, there was only one, excepting 
Catarina Calcagno, who received direct in- 
struction from him, and on whom his mantle 
was said, by his admirers, to have fallen. 
That one was Camillo Sivori, born at Genoa, 
June 6, 1817. 

The connecting link between Sivori and 
Paganini began very early in the career of 
the former. Indeed it is said that the excite- 
ment of his mother, on hearing Paganini play 
at a concert, caused the premature birth of 
the future disciple of the great artist. Mar- 




CAMILLO SIVORI 



i8oo to 1 8 jo. 155 

vellous stories are told of Sivori's infancy. 
At the age of eighteen months, before he 
had ever seen or heard a violin player, he 
continually amused himself by using two 
pieces of stick after the manner of the violin 
and bow, and singing to himself. It is fair 
to say that similar precocity in other children 
has not always resulted in virtuosity. A 
case might be cited of a very young person 
who amused himself by inverting a small 
chair, and imagining that he was a street 
organist, but he grew to maturity without 
adopting that profession. 

At two years of age, the account con- 
tinues, he cried out lustily for a violin, and 
when his father, reduced to submission by 
the boy's importunity, bought him a child's 
violin, he at once began to apply himself, 
morning, noon, and night, to practising on 
this instrument, and without any aid he was 
able in a short time to play many airs he 
had heard his sisters play or sing. His 



156 Famous Violinists. 

renown spread through Genoa, and he was 
invited everywhere. At concerts and parties 
he was placed upon a table to play, and he 
was frequently called upon to perform before 
the king and the queen-dowager. He must 
have been a most wilful and embarrassing 
child, for the account goes on to say that he 
would not enter a church unless he heard 
music ; but on the other hand, if he did hear 
music he insisted on going in, or else he 
would scream and make a terrible scene. 

These anecdotes, told by an effusive ad- 
mirer, seem rather ridiculous, but when Pa- 
ganini visited Genoa, and Sivori was six 
years old, the virtuoso took a great deal of 
interest in the little fellow and gave him 
lessons. He also wrote a concerto for him, 
and six short sonatas with accompaniment 
for guitar, tenor, and 'cello, and these the 
young artist soon played in public. In six 
months Paganini left Genoa and desired to 
take his young pupil with him, but this was 



i8oo to 1 8 jo. 157 

not allowed by the parents, and Sivori was 
placed under the tuition of Costa. Three 
years later Paganini returned to Genoa, and 
by his advice his protege was placed under 
M. Dellepaine, who taught him taste and 
expression, his lessons with Costa in tech- 
nique continuing. In 1827 Sivori made a 
concert tour with M. Dellepaine, and visited 
Paris, where his playing at the Conservatoire 
won him great applause. He also appeared 
in England, after which he entered upon 
another serious course of study for several 
years, and perfected the tone which enrap- 
tured the world for so long, and at the same 
time he studied composition under Serra. 

In 1839 h^ s concert tours began again, 
and he visited Germany, Russia, Belgium, 
and Paris, where he played at the Conserva- 
toire concerts and received the medal of 
honour. 

Sivori now set out on extensive travels, 
and, after visiting England, proceeded, in 



Famous Violinists. 

1846, to America, travelling through the 
United States, Mexico, and various parts of 
South America, spending eight years in 
these peregrinations, and amassing a con- 
siderable fortune. During this great tour 
he met with many adventures, frequently 
travelling on horseback, and at one time 
being at death's door with yellow fever. On 
his return to Europe he shared the fate of 
many musicians who have achieved financial 
success, and lost his money by unfortunate 
investment, which made it necessary for him 
to resume his travels. He therefore visited 
Great Britain, Switzerland, Germany, Spain, 
Portugal, etc. 

He was, of course, compared to many of 
the great violinists of his time, who all had 
their special merits. One criticism, in which 
Sivori is compared with Spohr, may be inter- 
esting : " Spohr is of colossal stature, and 
looks more like an ancient Roman than a 
Brunswicker ; Sivori is the antithesis of 



1 8 oo to 1 8 jo. 159 

Spohr in stature. Spohr has the severe 
phlegmatic Teutonic aspect ; Sivori has the 
flashing Italian eye and variability of feature. 
Spohr stands firm and still ; Sivori's body is 
all on the swing, he tears the notes, as it 
were, from his instrument. Spohr's refine- 
ment and polish have been the characteris- 
tics of his playing ; in Sivori it is wild energy 
the soul in arms the determination to 
be up and doing the daring impulse of 
youthful genius. Spohr's playing is remark- 
able for its repose and finish ; Sivori electri- 
fies by the most powerful appeals to the 
affections." 

Sivori was a man of generous impulses, 
and was seldom appealed to in vain to assist 
in a good cause. When his teacher, M. 
Dellepaine, was taken ill and was unable 
temporarily to fill his post of first violin at 
the theatre, and of director of the conserva- 
toire at Genoa, Sivori replaced him in both 
and gave him the entire benefit of his ser- 



160 Famous Violinists. 

vices. After two years the teacher died, and 
Sivori still held the two places an entire year 
for the benefit of the widow, until a situation 
was procured for her which enabled her to 
live without further assistance. 

At one time Sivori felt that the instru- 
ment which he played was not so perfect as 
to satisfy him. He asked Paganini to sell 
him one, and the reply was, " I will not sell 
you the violin, but I will present it to you 
in compliment to your high talents." Sivori 
travelled to Nice to receive the instrument 
from his master's own hands. Paganini was 
then it was in 1 840 in a deplorable con- 
dition, and could hardly speak. He signified 
a desire to hear his pupil play once more, 
and Sivori, withdrawing to a room a little 
way off, so that the sound of the instrument 
would not be too loud, played whatever Pa- 
ganini called for. About two weeks later 
Paganini died. 

In 1851 Halle wrote of him as follows: 



1 8 oo to 1830. 161 

" Sivori was here lately, but caused little 
furore ; such rubbish as the man plays now 
I had never heard, and really, as an artist, 
felt ashamed of him." 

Sivori continued to play in public until 
1864, when he visited London and played 
at the Musical Union and elsewhere, but his 
triumph in Paris in 1862 must not be forgot- 
ten. On that occasion he executed Paganini's 
B minor concerto, and aroused immense en- 
thusiasm, although he played immediately 
after Alard, who was at that time a prime 
favourite. During his later years Sivori 
lived in retirement, and he died February 1 8, 
1894. 

He was the first person allowed to play 
on the celebrated violin which Paganini be- 
queathed to the city of Genoa. He was also 
the first to play, with orchestra, Mendels- 
sohn's Violin Concerto in England. This 
performance was at the Philharmonic Society 
concert, June 29, 1846. 



1 62 Famous Violinists. 

Henry Vieuxtemps was one of the great- 
est violinists of his time. He was born at 
Verviers, in Belgium, in 1820, and was 
brought up in a musical atmosphere. So 
early did his talent develop, that he played 
a concerto of Rode in public at the age of six, 
and the following year made a tour with his 
father and his teacher, Lecloux, during which 
he had the good fortune to meet De Beriot, 
before whom he played. During four years 
he remained a pupil of De Beriot, and when 
that artist left Paris, in 1831, Vieuxtemps 
went to Brussels, where he practised hard, 
but without a teacher, until 1833, when he 
again set out on a prolonged concert tour. 

From this time on he seems to have spent 
the greater part of his time in travelling, for 
which he had a passion. He visited all parts 
of Europe and met most of the celebrated 
musicians of the day. Spohr, Molique, 
Schumann, Paganini, Henselt, and Richard 
Wagner were among the celebrities whom 



i8oo to 1 8 jo. 163 

he met, and in his tours he was associated 
with Servais, Thalberg, and other well-known 
artists. 

Not content with Europe as a field for 
conquest, he visited America in 1844, and 
again in 1857 and in 1870. 

He was offered many excellent positions, 
some of which he held for a time and others 
he declined. In 1845 ne married Josephine 
Eder, an eminent pianist of Vienna, and 
shortly after was appointed solo violinist to 
the Emperor of Russia, relinquishing that 
post six years later in order to travel again. 
He was professor at the Brussels conserva- 
toire from 1871 to 1873, and in 1872 he was 
elected a member of the Academic Royale 
of Belgium, on which occasion he read a 
memoir of fitienne Jean Soubre. 

In 1 868 he suffered a double bereavement 
through the deaths, first of his father, and a 
short time later of his wife, and, to divert his 
mind from these troubles, he undertook a tour 



164 Famous Violinists. 

which lasted three years. During 1873 his 
active career was cut short by a stroke of 
paralysis which disabled his left side. He 
now travelled for health's sake, and went to 
Algiers, where he lived quietly for several 
years. His life was brought to an end by 
a drunken Arab, who threw a large stone at 
him while he was riding in his carriage one 
day, striking him on the head. 

As a violinist Vieuxtemps possessed a 
wonderful staccato, both on the up and 
down bow. His intonation was perfect. He 
was fond of strong dramatic accents and 
contrasts. As a composer for the violin he 
had wider success than any one since Spohr, 
but while some of his works contain really 
fine ideas worked out with much skill, others 
are merely show pieces of no particular 
value. 

As a man Vieuxtemps had a gay and 
restless disposition. He was not easily 
depressed by trifles, and he enjoyed the 



i8oo to 1830. 165 

freedom of a life of constant change and 
travel, and it was during his travels that 
most of his best compositions were written. 

During the last few years of his active 
life, after his paralytic stroke had prevented 
his playing, he suffered much from his ina- 
bility to demonstrate to his pupils the way 
in which certain passages should be played. 
Frequent outbursts of rage ensued, of which 
his pupils were obliged to bear the brunt, 
even to being prodded with his iron-shod 
stick. Sometimes scenes more amusing 
would occur, as when some grandees would 
visit the class, and Vieuxtemps would 
change his manner from smiles and affa- 
bility while addressing them, to scowls and 
grimaces while talking to his pupils, the 
latter, of course, being invisible to the vis- 
itors. 

When Vieuxtemps visited America in 
1857, he was associated with Thalberg, the 
pianist, and together they visited many 



1 66 Famous Violinists. 

towns and cities. Amongst the gems of 
American newspaper criticism they no doubt 
took with them several copies of the follow- 
ing, which appeared in the local paper of a 
town in Tennessee, and was headed "Thai- 
berg and Vieuxtemps :" 

" These distinguished individuals are now at Nash- 
ville, giving high pressure concerts, and selling tickets 
at two dollars apiece, when convenient. A stage-load 
and a half or two stage-loads of ladies and gentlemen 
went down from this place to hear them. Thalberg 
is said to be death, in its most horried shape, on the 
piano, and it is probably true ; while Vieuxtemps is 
represented as a fiddler of considerable skill, consid- 
ering his opportunities, which he no doubt is. We 
haven't heard either of them since they were quite 
small, and unless they come out here and reduce the 
price of their tickets to their value, say about sixty- 
two and a half cents a dozen, it is possible that we 
sha'n't hear them any more. When we ride forty 
miles, at an expense of at least ten dollars, extras not 
included, to hear a couple of itinerant Dutchmen tor- 
ture a brace of unoffending instruments into fits, until 
the very spirit of music howls in sympathy, if some 
one will cave in our head with a brickbat, we will 
feel greatly obliged. 

" But seriously, Thalberg and Vieuxtemps have 



i8oo to 1830. 167 

never done us any harm that we know of, and we 
don't suppose they intend to. We wouldn't much 
mind hearing their music, for no doubt it is nearly, 
if not quite, as good as that of the average common 
run of Dutchmen, which, as the latter will tell you, is 
saying a good deal." 

And yet musical culture was said to be in 
its infancy in America at that time ! 

In Boston, Vieuxtemps, after an absence 
of fourteen years, was criticised thus: "We 
cannot see in M. Vieuxtemps the spark of 
genius, but he is a complete musician, and 
the master of his instrument. Tone so rich, 
so pure, so admirably prolonged and nour- 
ished, so literally drawn from the instrument, 
we have scarcely heard before ; nor such 
vigour, certainty, and precision, such nobility 
and truth in every motion and effect. We 
recognise the weakness for sterile difficulties 
of extreme harmonics." 

Vieuxtemps was also subject to compari- 
son with Sivori, rather to the former's dis- 
paragement. "The one plays the violin like 



1 68 Famous Violinists. 

a great musician, the other like a spoiled 
child of nature, who has endowed him with 
the most precious gifts. Intrepid wrestlers, 
both, and masters of their instrument, they 
each employ a different manner. M. Vieux- 
temps never lets you forget that he plays the 
violin, that the wonders of mechanism which 
he accomplishes under your eye are of the 
greatest difficulty and have cost him immense 
pains, whereas M. Sivori has the air of being 
ignorant that he holds in his hands one of 
the most complicated instruments that exists, 
and he sings to you like Malibran. He sings, 
he weeps, he laughs on the violin like a very 
demon." 

The following paragraph is a good sample 
of New York musical journalism in the year 
1844: 

" Vieuxtemps's first concert on Monday night was 
a very stylish jam. He is a small, puny-built man, 
with gold rings in his ears, and a face of genteel 
ugliness, but touchingly lugubrious in its expression. 
With his violin at his shoulder, he has the air of a 



i8oo to 1830. 169 

husband undergoing the nocturnal penance of walk- 
ing the room with 'the child' and performing it, 
too, with unaffected pity. He plays with the purest 
and coldest perfection of art, and is doubtless more 
learned on the violin than either of the rival perform- 
ers [Ole Bull and Artot], but there is a vitreous clear- 
ness and precision in his notes that would make them 
more germane to the humour of before breakfast than 
to the warm abandon of vespertide. His sister travels 
with him (a pretty blonde, very unlike him), and ac- 
companies him on the piano." 

Vieuxtemps also visited America in 1870, 
with the celebrated singer Christine Nilsson. 

Among the celebrated violinists of this 
period must be mentioned Bernhard Mo- 
lique, of whom Sir Charles Halle says that 
he was a good executant, knowing no diffi- 
culties, but his style was polished and cold, 
and he never carried his public with him. 
"Ernst," he continues, "was all passion and 
fire, regulated by reverence for and clear 
understanding of the masterpieces he had 
to interpret. Sainton was extremely elegant 
and finished in his phrasing, but vastly in- 



170 Famous Violinists. 

ferior to the others. Vieuxtemps was an 
admirable violinist and a great musician, 
whose compositions deserve a much higher 
rank than it is the fashion to accord them." 

Molique was the son of a town musician 
of Nuremberg, and became a composer whose 
works have stood the test of time. He was 
a pupil of Kreutzer and of Spohr, and held 
the position of director and first violinist 
of the royal band at Stuttgart. He had a 
number of excellent pupils, of whom John T. 
Carrodus was the best known. He died at 
Stuttgart in 1869. 

'Henry Gamble Blagrove was a musical 
prodigy, who began the study of the violin 
at the age of four, and appeared in public a 
year later. He was born at Nottingham in 
1 8 1 1 , and at six years of age played at 
Drury Lane. He studied abroad with 
Spohr, and appeared in Vienna in 1836, 
but the greater part of his life was spent 
in England, where he was soloist in several 



i8oo to 1830. 171 

of the best orchestras. He was a man of 
refreshing modesty, and was held in high 
esteem. He died in London in 1872. 

Jacob Dont, of Vienna, and Jean Dancla, 
a French violinist, both belong to this period, 
and were teachers of reputation. 



CHAPTER VI. 

OLE BULL. 

" A TYPICAL Norseman, erect of bearing, 
with a commanding presence and mobile, 
kindly face, from which the eyes shone clear 
and fearless as the spirits of old Norway 
hovering over his native mountains. He was 
a man to evoke respect and love under all 
conditions, and, when he stepped before an 
audience, roused an instantaneous throb of 
sympathy, of interest, before the sweep of 
his magical bow enthralled their souls with 
its melodious measures." Such is an excel- 
lent pen picture of Ole Bull, who during the 
middle of the nineteenth century was known 
far and wide as a great violinist. 
172 



Ole Bull. 173 

Among the celebrated musicians of all 
nations, Ole Bull will always remain a strik- 
ing figure. As a musician, none so eminent 
has been so essentially a self-made man, none 
has grown up with so little influence from 
outside, none with a technique so essentially 
self-discovered. As a son of his country, 
none has retained so sturdy a sense of patriot- 
ism ; none has, amid the more brilliant sur- 
roundings of a life spent in the gayest cities 
of the world, refused to be weaned from the 
poor northern, half-dependent state from 
which he issued a penniless lad. 

Olaus Borneman Bull was born at Bergen, 
in Norway, February 5, 1810, and was the 
eldest of ten children. His father was a 
physician and apothecary. He was musical, 
as were several other members of his family, 
and little Ole's love for music was fostered 
to a great degree at home by the Tuesday 
quartet meetings, at which his Uncle Jens 
played the 'cello. 



1/4 Famous Violinists. 

In the early part of the century, the prov- 
erb, "Spare the rod and spoil the child," 
was regarded as the foundation of education 
in most countries, and few children were 
allowed to spoil. All childish desires which 
conflicted with parental ideas were promptly 
suppressed by " the rod," until by sheer 
strength they proved to be unsuppressible. 
Then they became great virtues. It was 
thus with Ole Bull. His first desire to hear 
the quartet music, which he gratified by hid- 
ing under sofas or behind curtains, was 
rewarded with the rod, for he should have 
been in bed. After a time a concession was 
made through the intervention of Uncle Jens, 
and Ole was allowed to become familiar with 
the best music of the day. 

Uncle Jens used to amuse himself with the 
small boy's susceptibility to music, and would 
sometimes shut him up in the 'cello case, 
promising him some candy if he would stay 
there while he (Uncle Jens) played. But 



Ole Bull. 175 

Ole could never endure the ordeal for long. 
He had to come out where he could see and 
hear. 

His first violin was given him by Uncle 
Jens when he was five years old, and he soon 
learned to play it well without any instructor. 
He was not allowed to practise music until 
his study hours were over, and occasional 
breaches of this rule kept " the rod " active. 

Ole Bull's first instructor was a violinist 
named Paulsen, a man of convivial tempera- 
ment, who used to come and enjoy the hospi- 
tality of Ole's father and play "as long as 
there was a drop in the decanter," with a 
view to educating the young artist, as he 
said. But Ole's parents were thinking of 
prohibiting the violin altogether on the plea 
that it interfered too much with his studies, 
when the tide of affairs was changed by the 
following incident. 

One Tuesday evening, Paulsen, who 
played first violin in the quartet, had been so 



176 Famous Violinists. 

convivial that he was unable to continue. In 
this unfortunate dilemma Uncle Jens called 
upon Ole, saying, " Come, my boy, do your 
best, and you shall have a stick of candy." 
Ole quickly accepted the challenge, and as 
the quartet was one which he had several 
times heard, he played each movement cor- 
rectly, much to the astonishment of all 
present. 

This happened on his eighth birthday, and 
the event marked an epoch in his life, for he 
was elected an active member of the Tues- 
day club, and began to take lessons regularly 
of the convivial Paulsen. 

There is a pathetic story of how Ole 
induced his father to buy a new violin for 
him, and, unable to restrain his desire to play 
it, he got up in the night, opened the case, 
and touched the strings. This furtive touch 
merely served to whet his appetite, and he 
tried the bow. Then he began to play very 
softly ; then, carried away with enthusiasm, 



Ole Bull. 177 

he played louder and louder, until suddenly 
he felt the sharp sting of his father's whip 
across his shoulders, and the little violin fell 
to the floor and was broken. 

From 1819 to 1822 Ole Bull received no 
violin instruction, for Paulsen had left Bergen 
without explanation, though it has been 
hinted that Ole Bull had outgrown him, 
and on that account he thought it wise to 
depart. 

In 1822 a Swedish violinist came to Bergen, 
and Ole took lessons of him. His name was 
Lundholm, and he was a pupil of Baillot. 
Lundholm was very strict and would admit of 
no departure from established rules. He 
quite failed to make the boy hold his instru- 
ment according to the accepted method, but 
his custom of making his pupil stand upright, 
with his head and back against the wall while 
playing, no doubt gave to him that repose 
and grace of bearing which was so noticeable 
in later years. Lundholm was, however, 



i/8 Famous Violinists. 

quite unable to control his precocious pupil 
and a coolness soon sprung up between them, 
which appears to have culminated in the 
following incident. 

On a Tuesday evening, at one of the 
regular meetings, Lundholm played Baillot's 
"Caprizzi," but Ole Bull was much dis- 
appointed at the pedantic, phlegmatic manner 
in which he rendered the passionate phrases. 
When the company went to supper Ole 
found on the leader's music-rack a concerto 
of Spohr's, and began to try it over. 
Carried away with the music, he forgot 
himself, and was discovered by Lundholm on 
his return, and scolded for his presumption. 

" What impudence ! " said the violinist. 
" Perhaps you think you could play this at 
sight, boy?" "Yes," was the reply, "I 
think I could." His remark was heard by 
the rest of the company, who were now 
returning, and they all insisted that he 
should try it. He played the allegro, and 



Ole Bull 179 

all applauded except Lundholm, who looked 
angry. " You think you can play anything," 
he said, and, taking a caprice of Paganini's 
from the stand, he added, "Try this." It 
happened that this caprice was a favourite 
of the young violinist, who had learned it 
by heart. He therefore played it in fine 
style, and received the hearty applause of 
the little audience. Lundholm, however, 
instead of raving, was more polite and kind 
than he had ever been before, and told Ole 
that with practice he might hope to equal 
him (Lundholm) some day. 

Years afterwards, when Ole Bull was 
making a concert tour through Norway, and 
was travelling in a sleigh over the snow- 
covered ground, he met another sleigh 
coming from the opposite direction, of which 
the occupant recognised him, and made 
signs to him to stop. It was Lundholm. 
"Well," shouted he, "now that you are a 
famous violinist, remember that when I 



180 Famous Violinists. 

heard you play Paganini I predicted that 
your career would be a remarkable one." 

"Oh," exclaimed Ole Bull, "you were 
mistaken, for I did not read that piece, I 
knew it before." " It makes no difference," 
was the reply, as the sleighs parted. 

As young Ole approached manhood, and 
developed in strength and stature, we find 
him asserting his independence. His father, 
who intended him to be a clergyman, en- 
gaged a private tutor named Musaeus, who, 
when he found that Ole's musical tastes 
conflicted with his studies, forbade him to 
play the violin, so that the boy could only 
indulge at night in an inclination which, 
under restraint, became a passion. Ole and 
his brothers had long and patiently borne 
both with cross words and blows from this 
worthy pedagogue, and at length decided to 
rebel. Accordingly when one morning at 
half-past four the tutor appeared and 
dragged out the youngest from his warm 



Ole Bull. 181 

bed, Ole sprang upon him and a violent 
struggle ensued. The household was 
aroused, and in a few moments the parents 
appeared on the spot in time to see Musasus 
prostrate upon the floor and suing for 
peace. Contrary to his expectations, Ole 
found himself taken more into his father's 
confidence, and as a result he became more 
desirous than ever of carrying out his father's 
wishes. 

In 1828 he went to the university in 
Christiania, where, in spite of the best inten- 
tions, he soon found himself musical director 
of the Philharmonic and Dramatic Societies, 
a position which gave him independence, 
and somewhat consoled him for his failure 
to pass his entrance examinations for the 
university. His father reluctantly forgave 
him, and he was now, in spite of everything, 
fairly launched upon a musical career. 

He was not long contented to remain in 
Christiania. His mind was in a state of 



1 82 Famous Violinists. 

restless agitation, and he determined to go 
to Cassel, and seek out Spohr, whose opinion 
he desired to secure. He accordingly left 
Christiania on May 18, 1829. His departure 
was so hurried that he left his violin behind, 
and it had to be forwarded to him by his 
friends. This suddenness was probably 
caused by the fact that he had taken part 
in the observance of Independence Day on 
May i /th, a celebration which had been 
interdicted by the government. 

On reaching Cassel he went to Spohr, 
who accorded him a cold reception. " I have 
come more than five hundred miles to hear 
you," said Ole Bull, wishing to be polite. 
"Very well," was the reply, "you can now 
go to Nordhausen ; I am to attend a musical 
festival there." Bull therefore went to 
Nordhausen, where he heard a quartet by 
Maurer, of which Spohr played the first 
violin part. He was so overwhelmed with 
disappointment at the manner in which the 



Ole Bull. 183 

quartet was played by the four masters that 
he came to the conclusion that he was de- 
ceived in his aspirations, and had no true 
calling for music. 

Spohr was a most methodical man, and 
had no appreciation for wild genius. He saw 
only the many faults of the self-taught youth, 
and coldly advised him to give up his idea of 
a musical career, declining to accept him as a 
pupil. Some five years later, Bull having in 
the meantime refused to accept this advice, 
which did not coincide with his own inclina- 
tions, Spohr heard him play, and wrote thus 
of him : " His wonderful playing and sureness 
of his left hand are worthy of the highest 
admiration, but, unfortunately, like Paganini, 
he sacrifices what is artistic to something 
that is not quite suitable to the noble instru- 
ment. His tone, too, is bad, and since he 
prefers a bridge that is quite plain, he can 
use A and D strings only in the lower posi- 
tions, and even then pianissimo. This ren- 



184 Famous Violinists. 

ders his playing (when he does not let himself 
loose with some of his own pieces) monoto- 
nous in the extreme. We noticed this par- 
ticularly in two Mozart quartets he played 
at my house. Otherwise he plays with a good 
deal of feeling, but without refined taste." 

After his discouraging interview with 
Spohr, Ole Bull returned to Norway, making, 
on the way, a short visit to Gottingen, where 
he became involved in a duel. 

Feeling that his own capabilities were 
worth nothing, after what he had seen and 
heard in Germany, Ole Bull returned home 
in a despondent state of mind, but, on passing 
through a town where he had once led the 
theatre orchestra, he was recognised, wel- 
comed, and compelled to direct a perform- 
ance, and thus he once more fell under the 
influence of music, and began to apply him- 
self vigorously to improvement. 

In 1831 he went to Paris in order to hear 
Paganini, and if possible to find some oppor- 



Ole Bull, 185 

tunity to improve himself. He failed to 
enter the Conservatoire, but he succeeded 
in hearing Paganini, and this, according to 
his own account, was the turning-point of 
his life. Paganini's playing made an immense 
impression on him, and he threw himself 
with the greatest ardour into his technical 
studies, in order that he might emulate the 
feats performed by the great Italian. 

His stay in Paris was full of adventure. He 
was hampered by poverty, and frequently in 
the depths of despair. At one time he is said 
to have attempted suicide by drowning in 
the Seine. There is also a story told to the 
effect that the notorious detective, Vidocq, 
who lived in the same house with him, and 
knew something of his circumstances, pre- 
vailed upon him to risk five francs in a 
gambling saloon. Vidocq stood by and 
watched the game, and Ole Bull came away 
the winner of eight hundred francs, presum- 
ably because the detective was known, and 



1 86 Famous Violinists, 

the proprietors of the saloon considered dis- 
cretion to be the better part of valour. It 
was a delicate method of making the young 
man a present in a time of difficulty, but one 
of which the moral effect could hardly fail to 
be injurious. 

At one time, when he was ill and homeless, 
he entered a house in the Rue des Martyrs 
in which there were rooms to let. He was 
received and treated kindly, and was nursed 
through a long illness by the landlady and 
her granddaughter. 

He tried to secure a place in the orchestra 
of the Opera Comique, but his arrogance lost 
him the position, for when he was requested 
to play a piece at sight, it seemed to him so 
simple that he asked at which end he should 
begin. This offence caused him to be rejected 
without a hearing. 

Fortune, however, began at last to smile 
upon him when he made the acquaintance of 
M. Lacour, a violin maker, who conceived 



Ole Bull. 187 

the idea of engaging him to show off his 
violins. Ole Bull accordingly played on one of 
them at a soiree given by the Duke of Riario, 
Italian charge d'affaires in Paris. He was 
almost overcome by the smell of assafcetida 
which emanated from the varnish, and which 
was caused by the heat. Neverthless, he 
played finely, and as a result was invited 
to breakfast the next morning by the Duke 
of Montebello, Marshal Ney's son. This 
brought him into contact with Chopin, and 
shortly afterwards he gave his first concert 
under the duke's patronage, and with the 
assistance of Ernst, Chopin, and other cele- 
brated artists. 

He now made a concert tour through 
Switzerland to Italy, and on reaching Milan 
he played at La Scala, where he made an 
immense popular success, but drew from one 
of the journals a scathing criticism, which, 
however humiliating it may have been, struck 
him by its truth. 



1 88 Famous Violinists. 

" M. Bull played compositions by Spohr, May- 
seder, and Paganini without understanding the true 
character of the music, which he marred by adding 
something of his own. It is quite obvious that what 
he adds comes from genuine and original talent, from 
his own musical individuality ; but he is not master 
of himself; he has no style; he is an untrained musi- 
cian. If he be a diamond, he is certainly in the rough 
and unpolished." 

Ole Bull sought out the writer of this criti- 
cism, who gave him valuable advice, and for 
six months he devoted himself to ardent 
study under the guidance of able masters. 
In this way he learned to know himself, the 
nature and limitations of his own talent. 

We now arrive at the point in Ole Bull's 
career at which he became celebrated, and 
this was due to accident. He was at Bologna, 
where De Beriot and Malibran were to appear 
at one of the Philharmonic concerts. By 
chance Malibran heard that De Beriot was to 
receive a smaller sum than that which had 
been agreed upon for her services, and in a 
moment of pique she sent word that she was 



Ole Bull 189 

unable to appear on account of indisposition. 
De Beriot also declared himself to be suffer- 
ing from a sprained thumb. 

It happened that Madame Colbran (Ros- 
sini's first wife) had one day heard Ole Bull 
practising as she passed his window, and now 
she remembered the fact, and advised the 
Marquis Zampieri, who was the director of 
the concerts, to hunt up the young violinist. 
Accordingly, Ole Bull, who had gone to bed 
very early, was roused by a tap on the door, 
and invited to improvise on the spot for 
Zampieri. Bull was then hurried off, with- 
out even time to dress himself suitably for 
the occasion, and placed before a most dis- 
tinguished audience, which contained the 
Duke of Tuscany and other celebrities, 
besides De Beriot, with his arm in a sling. 

His playing charmed and captivated the 
audience, although he was almost overcome 
with exhaustion. After taking some food 
and wine he appeared again, and this time he 



Famous Violinists. 

asked for a theme on which to improvise. 
He was given three, and, instead of making a 
selection, he took all three and interwove 
them in so brilliant a manner that he carried 
the audience by storm. He was at once 
engaged for the next concert, and made such 
success that he was accompanied to his hotel 
by a torchlight procession, and his carriage 
drawn home by the excited people. 

Ole Bull continued his triumphant course 
through Italy. At Lucca he played at the 
duke's residence, where the queen-dowager 
met with a surprise, as Ole refused to begin 
playing until she stopped talking. At Naples 
he experienced the misfortune of having his 
violin stolen, and he was obliged to buy a 
Nicholas Amati, for which he paid a very 
high price. After playing and making a great 
success in Rome, he returned to Paris, where 
he now found the doors of the Grand Ope"ra 
open to him, and he gave several concerts 
there. 



Ole Bull. 191 

In 1836 he married Felicie Villernot, the 
granddaughter of the lady in whose house he 
had met with so much kindness during his 
first stay in Paris. 

Following the advice of Rossini, he went 
to London, where he made his usual success, 
notwithstanding the intrigues of certain 
musicians, who endeavoured to discredit 
him. Such was his popularity in England 
that he received for one concert, at Liverpool, 
the sum of ^800, and in sixteen months' 
time he gave two hundred and seventy-four 
concerts in the United Kingdom. 

He now decided to visit Germany, and on 
his way through Paris he made the acquaint- 
ance of Paganini, who greeted him with the 
utmost cordiality. He went through Ger- 
many giving many concerts, and visited 
Cassel, where he was now received by Spohr 
with every mark of distinction. He played 
in Berlin, where his success was great, not- 
withstanding some adverse criticism. He 



192 Famous Violinists. 

also played in Vienna and Buda-Pesth, and 
so on through Russia. At St. Petersburg he 
gave several concerts before audiences of 
five thousand people. He now went through 
Finland and so on to Sweden and Norway, 
where he was feted. 

Although closely followed by Vieuxtemps 
and Artot, Ole Bull was the first celebrated 
violinist to visit America, and in 1843 ne made 
his first trip, landing in Boston in November 
of that year and proceeding directly to New 
York, playing for the first time on Evacuation 
Day. " John Bull went out on this day," he 
said, "and Ole Bull comes in." He remained 
two years in the United States, during which 
time he played in two hundred concerts and 
met with many remarkable adventures. 
During his sojourn he wrote a piece called 
" Niagara," which he played for the first time 
in New York, and which became very popular. 
He also wrote " The Solitude of the Prairies," 
which won more immediate success. 



Ole Bull. 193 

He travelled during these two years more 
than one hundred thousand miles, and played 
in every city of importance. He is estimated 
to have netted by his trip over $80,000, be- 
sides which he contributed more than $20,000, 
by concerts, to charitable institutions. No 
artist ever visited the United States and 
received so many honours. 

In 1852 he returned to America, and this 
time he was destined to meet with tribulation. 
It was his desire to aid the poor of his coun- 
try by founding a colony. He therefore 
bought a tract of land of 125,000 acres in 
Potter County, Pennsylvania, on the inaugura- 
tion of which he stated his purpose : " We 
are to found a New Norway, consecrated to 
liberty, baptised with independence, and pro- 
tected by the Union's mighty flag." Some 
three hundred houses were built, with a store 
and a church, and a castle on a mountain, 
which was designed for his permanent home. 
Hundreds flocked to the new colony, and 



ig4 Famous Violinists. 

the scheme took nearly the whole of his 
fortune. 

Ole Bull now started on a concert tour 
together with little Adelina Patti, her sister 
Amalia Patti Strakosch, and Mr. Maurice 
Strakosch. Patti was then only eight years 
old, and was already exciting the wonder of 
all who heard her. 

When crossing the Isthmus of Panama his 
violin was stolen by a native porter, and Ole 
Bull was obliged to remain behind to find his 
instrument, while the company went on to 
California. He was now taken down with yel- 
low fever, and owing to a riot in the town he 
was entirely neglected, and was obliged to 
creep off his bed on to the floor in order to 
escape the bullets which were flying about. 
On his recovery he set out for San Francisco, 
but the season was too late for successful con- 
certs. He was miserably weak, and when he 
played his skin would break and bleed as he 
pressed the strings. 



Ole Bull. 195 

He now heard that there was some trouble 
in regard to his title to the land in Pennsyl- 
vania, and, hastening to Philadelphia, he was 
legally notified that he was trespassing. 

It transpired that the man who had sold 
the land to Ole Bull had no claim to it what- 
ever, and had perpetrated a barefaced swindle, 
and now, having the money, he dared his vic- 
tim to do his worst. The actual owner of the 
land, who had come forward to assert his 
rights, became interested in the scheme, and 
was willing to sell the land at a low price, but 
Ole now had no money. He instituted legal 
proceedings against the swindler, who, in 
return, harassed the violinist as much as 
possible, trying to prevent his concerts by 
arrests, and bringing suits against him for 
services supposed to have been rendered. 
It is even stated that an attempt was made 
to poison him, which only failed because the 
state of excitement in which he was at the 
time prevented his desire for food. 



196 Famous Violinists. 

Ole Bull now set to work to retrieve his 
fortunes, but ill luck still followed him, and 
he fell a victim to chills and fever, was aban- 
doned by his manager, and taken to a farm- 
house on a prairie in Illinois, where he 
endured a long illness. For five years he 
continued his struggle against misfortune, 
and during that period he made hosts of 
friends who did much to help him in one 
way and another. Nevertheless, when he 
gave his last concerts in New York, in 1857, 
he was still so ill that he had to be helped on 
and off the stage. 

He now returned to Bergen, where the air 
of his native land soon restored him to health. 
On his arrival, however, he found that the 
report had been circulated that he had been 
speculating at the expense of his countrymen, 
and that they were the only sufferers by his 
misfortunes. 

For a short time he assumed control of 
the National Theatre, but before long he 



Ole Bull. 197 

was again on the road, giving concerts in 
various parts of Europe. While he was 
in Paris, in 1 862, his wife died. 

The year 1867 found him again in the 
United States, and during this tour he met 
at Madison, Wis., Miss Sara C. Thorpe, the 
lady who was to become his second wife. 
He also took part in the Peace Jubilee in 
Boston, in 1869. 

When he sailed for Norway, in April, 1870 
(he was to be married on his arrival), the 
New York Philharmonic Society presented 
him with a beautiful silken flag. This flag 
the Norwegian colours with the star- 
spangled banner inserted in the upper staff 
section was always carried in the seven- 
teenth of May processions in Bergen, and 
floated on the fourth of July. 

The remaining years of Ole Bull's life 
were spent in comparative freedom from 
strife and struggle. He spent much of 
his time in Norway, but also found time for 



icj8 Famous Violinists. 

many concert tours. His sixty-sixth birthday 
was spent in Egypt, and he solemnised the 
occasion by ascending the Pyramid of Cheops 
and playing, on its pinnacle, his " Saeter- 
besog." This performance took place at 
the suggestion of the King of Sweden, to 
whom the account was duly telegraphed the 
next morning from Cairo. 

In Boston Ole Bull was always a great 
favourite and had many friends. He felt 
much interest in the Norsemen's discovery 
of America, and took steps to bring the sub- 
ject before the people of Boston. The result 
of his efforts is to be seen in the statue of 
Lief Ericsson, commemorative of the event, 
which adorns the Public Gardens. 

In March and April, 1880, Ole Bull ap- 
peared at a few concerts in the Eastern cities, 
with Miss Thursby, and in June he sailed, for 
the last time, from America. He was in 
poor health, but, contrary to all hopes, the 
sea voyage did not improve his condition, 



Ole Bull. 199 

and much anxiety was felt until his home 
was reached. A few weeks later he died, 
and, at the funeral, honours more than royal 
were shown. In the city of Bergen all busi- 
ness was suspended, and the whole popula- 
tion of the city stood waiting to pay their 
last respects to the celebrated musician and 
patriot. 

Ole Bull was a man of remarkable charac- 
acter and an artist of undoubted genius. All 
who heard him, or came in contact with him, 
agree that he was far from being an ordinary 
man. Tall, of athletic build, with large blue 
eyes and rich flaxen hair, he was the very 
type of the Norseman, and there was some- 
thing in his personal appearance and conver- 
sation which acted with almost magnetic 
power on those who approached him. He 
was a prince of story-tellers, and his fascina- 
tion in this respect was irresistible to young 
and old alike, and its effect not unlike his 
violin playing. 



2oo Famous Violinists. 

In regard to his playing, his technical pro- 
ficiency was such as very few violinists have 
ever attained to. His double stopping was 
perfect, his staccato, both upward and down- 
ward, of the utmost brilliancy, and though he 
cannot be considered a serious musician in 
the highest sense of the word, he played 
with warm -and poetical, if somewhat senti- 
mental, feeling. He has often been described 
as the "flaxen-haired Paganini," and his style 
was to a great extent influenced by Paganini, 
but only so far as technicalities are concerned. 
In every other respect there was a wide differ- 
ence, for while Paganini's manner was such 
as to induce his hearers to believe that they 
were under the spell of a demon, Ole Bull 
took his hearers to the dreamy moonlit 
regions of the North. It is this power of 
conveying a highly poetic charm which en- 
abled him to fascinate his audiences, and it is 
a power far beyond any mere trickster or char- 
latan. He was frequently condemned by the 



Ole Bull 201 

critics for playing popular airs, which indeed 
formed his greatest attraction for the masses 
of the people. He seldom played the most 
serious music, in fact, he confined himself 
almost entirely to his own compositions, most 
of which were of a nature to meet the de- 
mand of his American audiences. 

When Ole Bull played in Boston in 1852, 
after having been absent for several years, 
during which time other violinists had been 
heard, John S. Dwight wrote of his perform- 
ance thus : " We are wearied and confused 
by any music, however strongly tinged with 
any national or individual spirit, however 
expressive in detail, skilful in execution, and 
original or bold, or intense in feeling, if it does 
not at the same time impress us by its 
unity as a whole, by its development from 
first to last of one or more pregnant themes. 
As compositions, therefore, we do not feel 
reconciled to what Ole Bull seems fond of 
playing. . . . He cannot be judged by the 



202 Famous Violinists. 

usual standards, his genius is exceptional, 
intensely individual in all its forms and 
methods, belongs to the very extreme of the 
romantic as distinguished from the classical 
in art. He makes use of the violin and of 
the orchestra, in short of music, simply and 
mainly to impress his own personal moods, 
his own personal experience, upon the audi- 
ences. You go to hear Ole Bull, rather 
than to hear and feel his music. It is emi- 
nently a personal matter. . . . Considered 
simply as an executive power, he seems, after 
hearing so many good violinists for years 
past, to exceed them all always excepting 
Henri Vieuxtemps." 

It may be said with truth that Ole Bull 
achieved his reputation at a time when it was 
comparatively easy to do so. There was 
very little musical cultivation in this country 
when he first appeared here, as may be easily 
imagined by a glance at the extracts from 
criticisms, given here and there. By his 



Ole Bull. 203 

strong personality, apparent mastery of his 
instrument, and by being practically the sole 
occupant of the field, he became famous and 
popular. He prided himself on the fact 
that his playing was addressed rather to the 
hearts than to the sensitive ears of his audi- 
ences, and during his later years he adopted 
certain mannerisms by way of distracting 
attention from his somewhat imperfect 
performances. He never made any preten- 
sion to being a musician of the modern 
school, nor of any regularly recognised school 
of music, but his concert pieces were his own 
compositions, of no great merit, and he still 
more delighted his audiences by playing 
national airs as no one had ever played them 
before. He was a minstrel rather than a 
musician in the broad sense of the word, but 
he held the hearts of the people as few, if 
any, minstrels had previously done. 



CHAPTER VII. 

1830 TO 1850. 

ONE of the most noticeable features of the 
biography of the violin virtuoso is that he 
invariably displays great talent at an early 
age and plays in public at any time from 
eight to twelve years old. There are doubt- 
less more who do this than are ever heard 
of at a later day, for the idea of the infant 
phenomenon is alluring. The way of the 
violinist is hard. He has many years of 
study and self-denial before him, if he is to 
excel as a musician. Therefore the infant 
who can be exploited in such a manner as to 
make money provides for his future education, 
unless hard work or flattery kill him physi- 
cally or intellectually before he is ripe. Many 
prodigies sink into oblivion, some few rise 
204 



1830 to 1850. 205 

to celebrity. It will be noticed that the vio- 
linists who played in public while very young 
have invariably settled down afterward to 
serious study, and at a more mature age have 
thus been able to take their place in the 
musical world. 

Year by year, too, the demands upon the 
violinist have been greater. A virtuoso is 
judged rather by the standard of Beethoven's 
concerto than by his ability to perform mu- 
sical gymnastics with operatic selections. 
Nevertheless, it is a fact that many of the 
best known violinists were those who catered 
to the taste of the multitude, while many 
better musicians have been comparatively 
unknown. 

Among celebrated violinists few have led 
more romantic or adventurous lives than 
Edouard Remenyi, whose name is not yet for- 
gotten in this country. Born at Hewes, in 
Hungary, in 1830, he possessed the restless 
spirit of his race, fought in the insurrection 



206 Famous Violinists. 

of 1848, escaped to the United States when 
the insurrection was crushed, but was 
received into favour again a few years later, 
on his return to his native land. 

From his twelfth to his fifteenth year he 
studied the violin at the Vienna Conservatoire 
under Bohm, who was also the teacher of 
Joachim. In 1848 he became adjutant to 
the distinguished General Gorgey, and 
fought under Kossuth and Klapka in the war 
with Austria. Then came the flight to 
America, where he made a tour as a virtuoso, 
but in 1853 he visited Weimar, and sought 
out Franz Liszt, who at once recognised his 
genius and became his friend and guide. 

In 1854 he went to London and was ap- 
pointed solo violinist in the queen's band, but 
when in 1860 he obtained his amnesty and re- 
turned to Hungary he was created solo violin- 
ist in the band of the Emperor of Austria. 

His restless disposition would not allow 
him to remain long in one place, and in 1865 



1 8 jo to 1850. 207 

he once more began to travel. He visited 
Paris, where he created a perfect furore, and 
then continued his triumphant course through 
Germany, Holland, and Belgium. After set- 
tling in Paris for about two years, he returned 
in 1877 to London, where he repeated his 
Parisian successes, appearing, as in Paris, 
chiefly in the salons of wealthy patrons. 
During this visit to London he appeared in 
public only once, at Mapleson's benefit at the 
Crystal Palace, when he played a fantasia on 
themes from the " Huguenots." The follow- 
ing year he went once more to the United 
States, and on his way played at the prome- 
nade concerts in London. In America he 
remained for some years, and then proceeded 
in 1887 to the Cape of Good Hope and 
Madagascar. While on this voyage it was 
reported that his ship was wrecked and 
that he was drowned, and numerous obituary 
notices of him appeared in th^ newspapers 
throughout the world. 



208 Famous Violinists. 

In 1891 he was once more in London, and 
played at the house of the ]ate Colonel 
North, "the Nitrate King." He now re- 
turned to the United States, where he passed 
the remainder of his days. His powers were, 
however, failing, and other violinists had 
brought new and perhaps higher interest to 
American audiences. 

When Remenyi visited the United States 
in 1878, he arrived a few weeks after Wil- 
helmj, and notwithstanding the fact that the 
two violinists were widely different in tem- 
perament, ideas, musicianship, in fact in every 
particular, they were frequently made the 
subjects of comparison. At this time 
Remenyi played an " Otello Fantaisie," 
"Suwanee River," "Grandfather's Clock," 
etc. He was well sketched in a journal of 
the time, which said : 

" Remenyi is gifted with a vivacious, generous, 
rather mocking disposition which rebels against mo- 
notony, and whose originality shines through every-. 



i8jo to 1850. 209 

thing, and in spite of everything. He is fluent in 
five or six languages, and entertains with droll con- 
ceits, or with reminiscences of famous artists and 
composers. ... In the wild rhythms of the gypsy 
dance, in the fierce splendour of the patriotic hymn, 
the player and audience alike are fired with excite- 
ment. The passion rises, the tumult waxes furious ; 
a tremendous sweep of the bow brings the music to 
an end ; and then we can say that we have heard 
Remenyi." 

The gypsy dance and the patriotic hymn ! 
And yet he was weighed in the balance with 
Wilhelmj, who played the grandest and best 
music in the most refined, musicianly manner, 
and whose tour in America marked an epoch 
in the musical life of the country. 

In his prime Remenyi was the master of 
an enormous technique, and the possessor 
of a strongly pronounced poetic individuality. 
His whole soul was in his playing, and his 
impulse carried him away with it as he 
warmed to his task, and it carried the audi- 
ence too. His greatest success was in the 



2io Famous Violinists. 

playing of Hungarian music, some of which 
he adapted for his instrument, but the storm- 
ier pieces of Chopin which he arranged for 
the violin were given by him with tremen- 
dous effect. In the more tender pieces, such 
as the nocturnes of Field and of Chopin, he 
played with the utmost dreaminess. 

His individuality showed in his playing. 
He was impulsive and uncertain, a wander- 
ing musician, who, when the whim took him, 
would disappear from public view altogether. 
When he made a success in any place his 
restless nature would not allow him to 
follow it up, so that when his prime was 
past, instead of having formed connec- 
tions which should have lasted him for the 
rest of his life, he was still the wandering 
musician, but without the marvellous powers 
which he had wielded only a few years 
before. 

During his long career he toured Australia 
and almost all the islands of the Pacific, also 



1 8 JO tO 1850, 21 I 

Java, China, and Japan ; in fact, he went where 
few, if any, violinists of his ability had been 
before. 

Once upon a time the representative of a 
London newspaper went to interview Re- 
menyi, and was surprised to find that the vio- 
linist was not only willing to tell him much, 
but even proposed questions which he should 
answer. He said that he had played in the 
6o's before the natives of South Africa, and 
had been shipwrecked, after which he had 
the pleasure of reading some very fine obit- 
uary notices. In New Zealand he found 
the Maoris perfectly reckless in their demand 
for encores, and instead of playing six pieces, 
as announced on his programmes, he fre- 
quently had to play sixteen. 

In South Africa he discovered thirty out of 
his collection of forty-seven old and valuable 
violins. Most of them were probably the 
property of the Huguenots, who after the 
edict of Nantes went to Holland and thence 



212 Famous Violinists. 

to South Africa, to which place they were 
banished by the Dutch government. 

It was related by Remenyi that when he 
was a young man in Hamburg, in 1853, he 
was to appear at a fashionable soiree one 
night, but at the last moment his accom- 
panist was too ill to play. Remenyi went 
to a music store and asked for an accom- 
panist. The proprietor sent Johannes 
Brahms, then a lad of sixteen, who was 
struggling for existence and teaching for 
a very small sum. Remenyi and Brahms 
became so interested in each other that they 
forgot all about the soiree, and sat up till 
four the next morning chatting and playing 
together. Remenyi's negligence of his en- 
gagement resulted in the loss of any further 
business in Hamburg, and together with 
Brahms he set out for Hanover, giving con- 
certs as they went, and thus earning suffi- 
cient funds to carry them on their way. 

At Hanover they called upon Joachim, 



i8jo to 1850. 213 

who arranged for them to play before the 
court. After this they proceeded to the 
Altenburg to see Liszt, who received them 
warmly, and offered them a home. During 
all this time Brahms received little or no 
recognition, in spite of Remenyi's enthusiasm 
in his cause, neither did he find very much 
favour with Liszt, although the latter recog- 
nised his talent. He therefore returned to 
Hanover, where Joachim gave him a letter 
to Schumann, and it was Schumann's enthu- 
siastic welcome and declaration that a new 
genius had arisen that established Brahms's 
reputation in musical circles. 

Remenyi said that Brahms, shortly after 
his arrival at the Altenberg, offended Liszt 
and his pupils by comfortably sleeping during 
one of the famous lessons, which were in the 
nature of a general class. This breach of 
manners Brahms justified on the score of 
being exhausted by his previous journey. 

The death of Remenyi, which occurred on 



214 Famous Violinists. 

May 15, 1898, created a sensation through- 
out the country. He had, after many mis- 
givings, consented to appear in "vaudeville." 
The financial inducement was large, and he 
soothed his artistic conscience with the argu- 
ment that his music would tend to elevate 
the vaudeville rather than that the vaude- 
ville would tend to degrade him. It was ^at 
the Orpheus Theatre in San Francisco, and 
it was his first appearance. He played one 
or two selections, and being tremendously 
applauded, and correspondingly gratified, he 
returned and answered the encore with 
the well-known " Old Glory." He was in 
his best vein, and played as one inspired. 
The audience literally rose with him, leaving 
their seats in their excitement, and the 
applause lasted several minutes. He came 
forward, and in response to another burst 
of applause commenced to play Delibes's 
"Fizzicati." He had played but a few 
measures when he leaned over as if to 



1830 to 1850. 215 

speak to one of the musicians in the orches- 
tra. He paused a moment, and then fell 
slowly forward on his face. One of the musi- 
cians caught him before he touched the stage, 
and thus prevented his rolling off. All was 
over. 

Remenyi left a widow, a son, and a daugh- 
ter, who lived in New York. His health had 
been failing for some time, for in 1896, for 
the first time in thirty years, he had, while 
in Davenport, Iowa, been compelled to can- 
cel all his engagements and rest. It is said 
that Remenyi's real name was Hoffmann. 

The name of Miska Hauser is seldom men- 
tioned in these days, and yet it was once 
known all over the world. No virtuoso of 
his time travelled more extensively, and few 
created more enthusiasm than did Hauser. 
He was born in Pressburg, Hungary, in 1822, 
and became a pupil of Bohm and of Mayse- 
der at Vienna, also of Kreutzer and Sechter. 
He is said to have acquired more of Mayse- 



216 Famous Violinists. 

der's elegant style and incisive tone than of 
the characteristics of his other teachers, but 
his talent was devoted to the acquisition of 
virtuoso effects, which appeal to the majority 
rather than to the most cultivated. 

As a boy of twelve Hauser made an ex- 
tensive and successful concert tour. In 
1840 he toured Europe, and ten years later 
went to London, and thence to the West 
Indies and the United States, where he made 
quite a sensation, and was a member of 
Jenny Lind's company. He afterwards 
visited San Francisco, where he got himself 
into difficulties on account of Lola Montes. 
Then he went to South America, visiting 
Lima, where passionate Creoles languished 
for him, Santiago, where a set of fanatics 
excited the mob against him, declaring that 
he was charmed by the devil, and Valparaiso, 
where he suffered shipwreck. 

He then proceeded to the Sandwich Is- 
lands, where he played before the royal family 



i8jo to 1850. 217 

and all the dusky nobles. They listened 
solemnly, but made no sign of approbation, 
and Hauser felt that he was sinking into a 
mere nothing in their esteem. In despera- 
tion he tore the strings from his violin and 
played, with all his power, several sentimen- 
tal songs on the G string only. Then he 
gave them Paganini's witches' dance. This 
succeeded, and they gave a yell of joy 
and wanted more. They particularly delighted 
in harmonic effects, and before long were 
willing to do anything for the foreigner who 
could pipe on the wood as well as any bird. 
He became a hero at Otaheite, but was 
obliged to continue on his journey. He 
next visited Australia, and while in Sydney 
he made such a success that he was pre- 
sented with the freedom of the city and 
thanked by the government for his playing. 
In 1860 he reached Turkey, where he 
played before the Sultan, who beat time to 
his music and seemed highly delighted. 



2i 8 Famous Violinists. 

Hauser had many amusing stories to tell of 
his travels, and especially of his experiences 
in the Sandwich Islands and Turkey, Cairo 
and Alexandria. His adventures, which 
were numerous and thrilling, were published 
in two volumes, in Vienna. 

Hauser was not the possessor of a great 
technique, but there was something charac- 
teristic and charming in his tone and manner- 
isms, which were especially pleasing to the 
fair sex. He was a man of restless, and, in 
some respects, dissatisfied nature. Some of 
his compositions are still to be found on 
concert programmes, and these he used to 
play exquisitely. Hauser lived in retirement 
in Vienna after concluding his travels, and in 
1 887 he died practically forgotten. 

Few violinists succeeded more completely 
in captivating their audiences than Henri 
Wieniawski, whose impetuous Slavonic tem- 
perament, with its warm and tender feeling, 
gave a colour to his playing, which placed 



i8jo to 1850. 219 

his hearers entirely under his control, went 
straight to their hearts, and enlisted their 
sympathy from the very first note. Both 
fingering and bowing were examples of the 
highest degree of excellence in violin tech- 
nique, and difficulties did not exist for him. 
At times his fiery temperament may have led 
him to exaggeration, and to a step beyond 
the bounds of good taste, but this was lost 
sight of in the peculiar charm of his playing, 
its gracefulness and piquancy. 

Wieniawski's tour in America, which took 
place in 1872, when he accompanied Rubin- 
stein, may be said to mark an era in the 
musical life of this nation. These two great 
artists revealed the possibilities of the musi- 
cal art to a people who, while loving music, 
were still in their infancy as far as musi- 
cal development is concerned. 

Wieniawski, like nearly all the great per- 
formers, showed his talent while very young. 
He was born in 1835 at Lublin, in Poland, 



22O Famous Violinists. 

where his father was a medical man. He 
was taken to Paris by his mother when he 
was only eight years old, and he entered the 
Conservatoire, where he soon joined Mas- 
sart's class, and when only eleven gained the 
first prize for violin playing. 

After this he made a concert tour in 
Poland and Russia, but soon returned to 
Paris to renew his studies, especially com- 
position. In 1850 he went again on the 
road, and with his brother Joseph, a pianist, 
he gave concerts in most of the principal 
towns in the Netherlands, France, England, 
and Germany. In 1860 he was appointed 
solo violinist to the Emperor of Russia, and 
held that position for twelve years, residing 
chiefly at St. Petersburg. 

It was at the conclusion of this engage- 
ment that he made his tour in the United 
States with Rubinstein, who was his intimate 
friend, and when the great pianist returned 
to Europe Wieniawski remained in America 



and succeeded in making a large fortune, trav- 
elling all over the country and creating a 
furore by his performances. This tour was 
cut short toward the end of 1874 by a tele- 
gram from Brussels offering him the position 
of professor of violin at the Conservatoire, 
during the illness of Vieuxtemps. 

He remained in Brussels until 1877, when, 
Vieuxtemps becoming convalescent, Wie- 
niawski set forth once more on his travels. 

At this time his health was failing, and an 
incident took place at Berlin which is well 
worth recording. During a concert he was 
seized with a sudden spasm, and was com- 
pelled to stop in the middle of a concerto. 
Joachim was amongst the audience, and 
came to the rescue, taking up Wieniawski's 
violin and finishing the programme, thus 
showing his friendship for the sufferer and 
earning the enthusiastic applause of an 
appreciative audience. 

Notwithstanding his sufferings, Wieniawski 



222 Famous Violinists. 

continued his tour, but at Odessa he broke 
down altogether. 

It has been stated that he died unknown 
and friendless in the hospital at Moscow, 
and was buried by public charity ; but his son, 
Jules Wieniawski, has contradicted this, and 
states that he died in the house of the Count- 
ess of Meek, and was buried by the Czar 
Alexander III., of whom he was the friend 
as well as the favourite violinist. 

Wieniawski was a man of somewhat enthu- 
siastic nature, and his actions were not always 
tempered by the most perfect wisdom. It 
was said that just before his marriage to Miss 
Hampton he took a run up the Rhine, not, 
like a wise man, waiting until he had some 
one to take proper care of him. The con- 
sequence was that he must just take an hour's 
look into Wiesbaden to see several old 
friends, and this led naturally to passing an 
idle moment looking at the green table doings. 
Here the excitement became too great for 



1830 to 1850. 223 

one of his temperament, and he felt com- 
pelled to stake a small sum. A small sum 
led to a larger amount, and when he left the 
place he was poorer to the tune of forty 
thousand francs, and he came away to his 
bride a sadder and wiser man. 

Although a great gambler, Wieniawski 
owed the loss of a large part of his fortune to 
the failure of a New York banking firm in 
1873, rather than to his favourite propensity. 

The friendship between him and Vieux- 
temps was very strong, in fact it was 
described as being ideal. Once, while Wie- 
niawski was playing at a concert, Vieuxtemps 
was among the audience, and, at the conclu- 
sion of one of the violinist's solos, Vieux- 
temps called, at the top of his voice, " Bravo, 
Wieniawski ! " This drew attention to 
Vieuxtemps, who was immediately recog- 
nised by the audience and enthusiastically 
welcomed. 

Wieniawski's compositions number two and 



224 Famous Violinists. 

twenty. As a proof of the old adage that 
" doctors do not always agree," we are told by 
one excellent authority that his D minor con- 
certo, the two polonaises, and his " Legende " 
will probably never vanish from the violinist's 
repertoire, and by another that Wieniawski's 
compositions are not of much importance. 
Both statements are no doubt true, for there 
are many fascinating concert pieces which, 
from the strictly classical point of view, are 
not important additions to musical literature. 

An American critic wrote of him, after his 
first appearance : " In Wieniawski we have 
the greatest violinist who has yet been heard 
in America. ... Of all now living Joachim 
alone can claim superiority over him." 

This sweeping enthusiasm was not univer- 
sal, for a critic more difficult to please wrote 
as follows: "Wieniawski's playing is as per- 
fect as a faultless technique, artistic culture, 
great aesthetic sensibility, and perfect mastery 
over himself and his instrument can make it 



to l8$0. 22$ 

But with all its perfection we cannot but feel 
that the great original, heaven-and-earth-mov- 
ing master-soul is wanting." 

He was also severely scathed by a critic in 
New York in 1872, who wrote: "Some peo- 
ple like pure, clear tone, others don't. 
Those who admire scratching and false 
stopping, together with sundry other things 
of the same nature, would have experienced 
wild joy upon hearing Beethoven's "Violin 
Concerto " as it was played by Wieniawski ; 
but for those who regard a correct intona- 
tion as a thing of primal importance, it could 
not have been pleasing. Wieniawski belongs 
to that school of which Ole Bull is a promi- 
nent member, whose first article of belief is 
that genuine passion and fervour is signified 
by rasping the strings." 

Other criticisms of the same concert, how- 
ever, were of a very different tenor, and when, 
a week or two later, Wieniawski played the 
same concerto in Boston, John S. Dwight 



226 Famous Violinists. 

praised the performance highly, and took 
occasion to specially record his disagreement 
with the eminent critic in New York. 

While not technically the equal of one or 
two of his contemporaries, Wieniawski played 
with so much fire, and knew so well how to 
reach the heart of his audience by methods 
perfectly legitimate, that he must be ranked 
among the greatest violinists. 

Don Pablo Martin Meliton de Sarasate is a 
name known throughout Europe and America, 
if not throughout the civilised world. Sarasate 
was born in Spain, in Pampeluna, the chief 
city of Navarre. He was a youthful prodigy, 
and played before the court of Madrid at the 
age of ten, when Queen Isabella was so de- 
lighted with him that she presented him with 
a fine Stradivarius violin. 

A couple of years later he was sent to 
Paris, where he entered the Conservatoire, 
and was admitted into Alard's class, while 
M. Lassabathie, who was then administrator 



ftfjo to 1850. 227 

of the institution, took him into his house 
and boarded him. This arrangement con- 
tinued until the death, about ten years later, 
of M. Lassabathie. 

In the course of a year after entering the 
Conservatoire, Sarasate won the first prize 
for violin playing. From the first he 
manifested remarkable facility in mechanical 
execution, and his playing was distinguished 
for elegance and delicacy, though nothing 
indicated that his talent would become 
extraordinary. 

For ten years after gaining the prize Sara- 
sate remained a salon violinist, of amiable dis- 
position, a ladies' virtuoso, with a somewhat 
mincing style, who played only variations 
on opera motives, and who was an entire 
stranger to classical music. 

Then came a complete change ; the char- 
acter of his playing becoming serious, a large 
and noble style replaced the mincing manner 
which he had previously affected, and, instead 



228 Famous Violinists. 

of the showy trifles which had filled his 
repertoire, he took to the works of the great 
masters. By hard work he developed his 
technical ability, so that he reached the limit 
beyond which few, if any, violinists succeed 
in passing. And all this he accomplished 
without losing anything of the elegance of 
his phrasing or of the infinite charm of his 
tone. 

Although Sarasate made Paris his home, 
he began to travel as early as 1859, ar "d in 
1872, when he played in Paris, he was wel- 
comed as a new star. When his prestige 
was well established in Paris his friends 
advised him to go to Germany, but he feared 
that so soon after the Franco-German war he, 
who by long residence was practically a 
Frenchman, would not be welcome. At last, 
however, the entreaties of his friends pre- 
vailed, and when Sarasate appeared at Leip- 
zig he produced an immense sensation. Then 
followed a series of tours in Germany, Russia, 



i8jo to 1850. 229 

Austria, England, and Belgium, which lasted 
three years, and brought him much glory 
and pecuniary gain. 

In Vienna the celebrated critic, Hanslick, 
wrote of him as follows : " There are few 
violinists whose playing gives such unalloyed 
enjoyment as the performance of this Span- 
iard. His tone is incomparable, not power- 
fully or deeply affecting, but of enchanting 
sweetness. The infallible correctness of the 
player contributes greatly to the enjoyment. 
The moment the bow touches the Stradivarius 
a stream of beautiful sound flows toward the 
hearer. A pure tone seems to me the prime 
quality of violin playing unfortunately, 
also, it is a rare quality. Sarasate's virtuosity 
shines and pleases and surprises the audience 
continually. He is distinguished, not because 
he plays great difficulties, but because he 
plays with them." 

Both in France and Germany Sarasate has 
always been a great favourite, and is always 



230 Famous Violinists. 

sure of a large and enthusiastic audience, 
even though he has passed the zenith 
of his powers. He has never taken pupils, 
but has confined himself to concert play- 
ing only, and he has been called the 
highest-priced player in Germany, where it 
was said that he received three thousand 
marks for a concert, while even Joachim 
received only one thousand. He has received 
many valuable gifts during his career, and 
these he has presented to his native city, 
Pampeluna, where they have been placed in 
a museum by the municipal council. The 
collection includes articles of great worth 
from the Emperor William I. of Germany, 
Napoleon III., the Emperor of Brazil, and 
the Queen of Spain, and its value is esti- 
mated at one hundred thousand francs. 

Sarasate has visited the United States 
twice, and won great favour, for his playing 
is of the kind which appeals to the fancy, 
graceful, vivacious, and pure toned, and he 



to 1850. 231 

plays Spanish dances in a manner never to 
be surpassed. 

He has been compared with some of the 
most eminent violinists thus: Vieuxtemps 
was an artist with an ardent mind, and a mag- 
nificent interpreter of Beethoven ; Joachim 
towers aloft in the heights of serene poetry, 
upon the Olympic summits inaccessible to 
the tumults of passion ; Sivori was a daz- 
zling virtuoso ; Sarasate is an incomparable 
charmer. 

There are doubtless many who remember 
the tour of August Wilhelmj, the celebrated 
violinist, who visited the United States about 
twenty years ago. He was considered sec- 
ond to no artist then living in his general 
command over the resources of his instru- 
ment, and he excelled in the purity and vol- 
ume of his tone, no less than in the brilliancy 
of his execution. He did not possess the 
warmth and impulsiveness which constituted 
the charm of Wieniawski, but his perform- 



232 Famous Violinists. 

ances appealed to his audiences in a different 
and more legitimate manner. He was even 
a greater traveller than Remenyi, and visited 
almost, if not quite, every civilised country. 
His travels took him throughout Europe, 
America, Australia, and Asia. He was, in 
1885, invited by the Sultan of Turkey to 
perform in his seraglio, the only violinist to 
whom such a compliment had ever been paid. 
The Sultan on this occasion decorated him 
with the Order of the Medjidie, second class, 
and presented him with some beautiful dia- 
monds. 

/ 

August Wilhelmj was born in 1845 at 

Usingen, in the Duchy of Nassau, and, show- 
ing his aptitude, was placed under Konrad 
Fischer, a violinist of Wiesbaden, at the age 
of six. His progress was so rapid that when 
nine years old he played in a concert in 
Limburg and received great applause. Wil- 
helmj 's father was a lawyer of distinction 
and a wealthy vine-grower, and, in spite of 



1 8 jo to 1850. 233 

the boy's progress, he did not favour the 
idea of allowing him to take to the violin as 
a profession, for he felt that the majority of 
infant prodigies fail as they reach manhood. 
But the boy had received much encourage- 
ment, and persisted in his desire. Henrietta 
Sontag, the celebrated singer, heard him play 
Spohr's ninth concerto and "The Carnival of 
Venice," and was so charmed that she said he 
would become the German Paganini. 

In the course of time Wilhelmj succeeded 
in obtaining a concession from his father : 
he was to get the judgment of a musical 
authority on his capabilities, and, if favour- 
able, no objection should be made to his 
becoming a virtuoso. On the recommenda- 
tion of Prince Emil of Wittgenstein, the 
young violinist went in 1861 to Liszt at 
Weimar, and after playing to him Spohr's 
" Scena Cantante " and the Hungarian fan- 
tasia by Ernst, he was asked to play several 
pieces at sight. At the end of this trial 



234 Famous Violinists. 

Liszt sprang from his seat, calling out in a 
loud voice, " Ay ! indeed you are predesti- 
nated to become a violinist so much so 
that for you the violin must have been in- 
vented if it had not already existed." This 
judgment satisfied the father, and a few days 
later Liszt himself took the boy to Leipzig 
and introduced him to Ferdinand David, say- 
ing, " Let me present to you a future Paga- 
nini. Look well to him ! " For three years 
Wilhelmj was a pupil of David, and at the 
same time studied the theory of music with 
Richter and Hausmann. In due course he 
passed his examinations at the Leipzig Con- 
servatory, playing Joachim's Hungarian 
concerto. 

In 1865 he began his concert tours, travel- 
ling through Switzerland and Holland to 
England, and from this time he seems 
to have been almost continually travelling. 
During 1869, 1870, and 1871 he made a 
long tour in England with Charles Santley, 



1 830 to 1850. 235 

the great singer. In 1876 he led the violins 
at the Nibelungen performance at Bayreuth, 
and the Wagner concerts in London, at the 
Albert Hall, in 1877, were due to his repre- 
sentations. In 1882, after travelling all over 
the globe, he spent some time in Russia, but 
presently returned to Germany and estab- 
lished a violin school at Biberich, which, 
however, he abandoned after a time. 

From time to time he continued to play in 
public, but gradually withdrew and lived 
in retirement at Blasewitz, near Dresden. 
Eventually he went to London, where he was 
appointed professor at the Guildhall School 
of Music. Unfortunately, his powers have 
been on the wane for some years past, but 
though the days of his public performances 
are past, he is known as a most patient and 
painstaking teacher. The high esteem in 
which he has been held was quaintly ex- 
pressed by an eminent musician, who referred 
to his decadence in these words : " Ah, if 



236 Famous Violinists, 

Wilhelmj had not been what he is, Joachim 
would never have been what he is." By 
which one may infer that Wilhelmj was, in 
some respects, a greater man than Joachim. 

In 1894 Wilhelmj married Marcella 
Mausch-Jerret, of Dresden, a distinguished 
pianist. 

Wilhelmj 's first appearance in America took 
place on September 26, 1878, in New York, 
and his playing caused an unusual demonstra- 
tion. He was described in the following 
words : "His figure is stately, his face and 
attitude suggest reserve force and that 
majestic calm which seems to befit great 
power. ... A famous philosopher once said 
that beauty consists of an exact balance be- 
tween the intellect and the imagination. The 
violin performance of Wilhelmj exhibits this 
just proportion more perfectly than the work 
of any other artist of whom we have personal 
knowledge. Wilhelmj himself has said, 
'After all, what the people want is intel- 



i8jo to 1850. 237 

lectual playing,' that is, playing with a clear 
understanding." 

Neither his character nor his playing was 
of such a nature as to appeal to the great 
mass of people in the way in which Remenyi 
and Ole Bull won their hearts. Wilhelmj 
was massive in person and in tone. He 
stood for dignity in his actions, appearance, 
and playing, and was honoured by the more 
cultivated and educated portion of the people. 

He is regarded by musicians as one of the 
greatest violinists who ever visited America, 
and at the present day visiting artists are 
spoken of as "one of the best since Wil- 
helmj," or, " not to be compared with Wil- 
helmj," and by many Ysaye is regarded as 
" the best since Wilhelmj." 

Martin Pierre Joseph Marsick, who was 
born at Jupille, near Liege, on March 9, 1848, 
is one of the foremost solo and quartet violin- 
ists of the day, with a remarkable technique 
and admirable intelligence, power, and fire. 



238 Famous Violinists. 

When eight years of age he was placed at 
the music school at Liege, where in two 
years he gained the first prize in the prepara- 
tory classes. In 1864 he secured the gold 
medal, which is awarded only to pupils of 
extraordinary talent. 

He now entered the Brussels Conserva- 
toire, where his expenses were met by a 
lady who was a musical enthusiast, and he 
studied for two years under Leonard, work- 
ing at the same time in composition under 
Kufferath. In 1868 he went to Paris, where 
he studied for a season under Massart. 

In 1870 Mar sick proceeded to Berlin, 
where, through the instrumentality of a 
government subvention, he was enabled to 
study under Joachim. After that he began 
to travel, and soon acquired a great reputa- 
tion. He was said to equal, if not exceed, 
Sarasate in the wonderful celerity of his 
scales, and in lightness and certainty. His 
tone is not very full, but is sweet and clear. 




MARTIN PIERRE JOSEPH MARSICK 



1830 to 1850. 239 

His playing is also marked by exceptional 
smoothness, scholarly phrasing, and graceful 
accentuation, but, in comparison with some 
of the other great players, he lacks breadth 
and passion. He appeals rather to the edu- 
cated musician than to the general public, 
and for that reason many people were some- 
what disappointed when he played in the 
United States in 1896. He was compared 
with Ysaye, a player of an entirely different 
stamp, and he suffered in popular estimation 
by the comparison. 

To this period also belong a number of 
excellent violinists whose names are seldom 
heard in America,, Edmund Singer, a Hun- 
garian, born in 1831, by $int of hard work 
and talent reached a high position. He 
became celebrated as a teacher, and was for 
years professor of violin at the conservatory 
in Stuttgart. He was also largely instru- 
mental in the establishment of the Musical 
Artists' Society of that place. 



240 Famous Violinists. 

Ferdinand Laub was a virtuoso of high 
rank who was born in Prague in 1832. He 
succeeded Joachim at Weimar, but two years 
later became violin teacher at the Stern-Marx 
conservatory in Berlin, also concert-master 
of the royal orchestra and chamber vir- 
tuoso. 

' Heinrich Karl de Ahna was an excellent 
artist, and was for some years second violin 
in the famous Joachim quartet. At the age 
of fourteen he had already made a success- 
ful concert tour, and become chamber vir- 
tuoso to the Duke of Coburg-Gotha. He 
then abandoned the musical profession and 
entered the army, fighting in the Italian 
campaign as lieutenant. After the war he 
returned to his profession, and became leader 
of the royal band in Berlin and professor 
at the Hochschule. He died in 1892. 

Russia also produced an excellent vio- 

t 
linist, Wasil Wasilewic Besekirskij, who was 

born at Moscow, and after a career as vir- 



1 8 jo to 1850. 241 

tuoso in the west of Europe returned to his 
native city. He is the composer of some 
good violin music and has formed some ex- 
cellent pupils, of whom Gregorowitsch is 
perhaps best known. 

In England, John Tiplady Carrodus and 
the Holmes brothers attained high rank. 
Carrodus was a native of Keighley, York- 
shire. His father was a barber, and it was 
only by the most constant self-denial and 
incessant hard work that the boy succeeded 
in securing his education. He walked with 
his father twelve miles in order to hear 
Vieuxtemps play, and to take his lessons he 
walked each week ten miles to Bradford, 
usually getting a ride back in the carrier's 
cart. He became a pupil of Molique, and 
eventually one of the best known violinists 
of England, where his character as a man was 
always highly respected. 

Alfred Holmes was born in 1837 and his 
brother Henry in 1839. They appeared to- 



242 Famous Violinists. 

gather at the Haymarket Theatre in 1847, 
but immediately withdrew from public life 
and continued their studies for six more 
years. In 1853 they again appeared in 
London, and then made a long concert tour 
through the north of Europe. Finally they 
settled in Paris, where, nine years later, 
Alfred died. Henry Holmes became the 
chief professor of violin at the Royal Col- 
lege of Music in London, and has been also 
active as a composer and editor of violin 
works. 

' Jacob Grlin, too, who was born in 1837 at 
Buda-Pesth, and who, after a career as con- 
cert soloist in Europe, became a teacher in 
the Vienna conservatory, should not be for- 
gotten. Several of his pupils are now hold- 
ing valuable positions in the United States, 
and he is an excellent teacher, besides being 
popular and kind-hearted. 

Eduard Rappoldi, the leader of the Royal 
Court Orchestra at Dresden, has a high 



i8jo to 1850. 243 

reputation as a sound and earnest player 
and excellent teacher. He was born in 
Vienna in 1839, and was at one time a 
teacher in the Hochschule at Berlin, but 
went to Dresden in 1877. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

'JOACHIM. 

JOSEPH JOACHIM is one of the musical 
giants of the nineteenth century. He will 
be remembered as one whose life has been 
interwoven with the lives of the greatest 
musicians of his day, as one of the great- 
est educators in his line who ever lived, and 
as the embodiment of the purest and highest 
ideas in public performance. 

Joachim is called the greatest violinist of 
modern times, and no better words can be 
found to describe his characteristics than 
those of Wasielewski, who says : " Joachim's 
incomparable violin playing is the true chef- 
d'oeuvre, the ideal of a perfect violinist (so 
far as we present-day critics can judge). Less 
244 




JOSEPH JOACHIM 



Joachim. 245 

cannot, dare not, be said, but, at the same 
time, more cannot be said of him or of any 
one, and it is enough. But that which raises 
him above all other contemporary violinists 
and musicians generally is the line he takes 
in his professional life. He is no virtuoso in 
the ordinary sense, for he is far more, before 
all he will be a musician. And that he un- 
questionably is, a magnificent example to 
young people, who are to some extent pos- 
sessed of the demon of vanity, of what they 
should do and what they should leave 
undone. Joachim makes music, and his 
preeminent capabilities are directed toward 
the serving one true, genuine art, and he is 
right." 

Joachim was born on June 28, 1831, in 
the village of Kittsee, in Hungary, within 
the small radius which has produced three 
other great musicians, Haydn, Hummel, 
and Liszt. He began to study the violin 
when he was five years old, and was placed 



246 Famous Violinists. 

under Servaczinski, leader of the opera or- 
chestra at Pesth. In two years he made his 
first public appearance at a concert at Pesth, 
when he played a duet concerto for two vio- 
lins and orchestra with his master, and a solo 
on a theme by Schubert, with variations. He 
was now (1841) sent to Vienna, where he 
entered the conservatoire and studied under 
Bohm for two years. At the end of this time 
he went to Leipzig, where he met with Men- 
delssohn and played in a concert of Madame 
Viardot's. A few months later he appeared 
as a finished artist in a Gewandhaus con- 
cert, and played Ernst's " Otello Fantasie." 
Leipzig was then, under Mendelssohn's 
guidance, in the zenith of its fame, and for 
a boy of twelve to appear in a Gewandhaus 
concert and earn, not only the applause of 
the audience, but also the praise of the critics, 
was something very unusual. But a still 
greater honour was in store for him, the 
following year he took part, in a Gewand- 



Joachim. 247 

haus concert, in a concertante for four vio- 
lins by Maurer, the other performers being 
Ernst, Bazzini, and David, all violinists of 
renown and very much his seniors. 

Joachim remained in Leipzig until 1850, 
studying with Ferdinand David, while Haupt- 
mann gave him instruction in composition, 
though during this time he occasionally trav- 
elled in Germany and elsewhere to play in 
concerts. Thus in 1844 Mendelssohn brought 
him to England, where he played in public 
for the first time at a benefit concert of Mr. 
Bunn's at Drury Lane, in March, 1844, and 
in May of the same year he appeared at the 
fifth Philharmonic concert and played Bee- 
thoven's concerto with very great success. In 
this year two other violinists of note made 
their first appearance at the Philharmonic 
concerts, Ernst and Sainton, also Piatti, 
the great violoncellist. Joachim visited Eng- 
land again in 1847, and since that time so 
frequently that he became one of the regular 



248 Famous Violinists. 

features of musical life in that country, where 
he has been so highly honoured. 

Joachim's first appearance in Paris was 
made in 1849, when he spent two months in 
that city, and began his successes by playing 
in an orchestral concert given by Hector 
Berlioz. About this time Franz Liszt, who 
had heard of Joachim's rapidly increasing 
reputation, invited him to go to Weimar 
and lead the orchestra which he conducted. 
Joachim accepted the invitation and remained 
in Weimar two years. He could never be 
brought to see the beauty of the new school 
of music, and while he recognised the extraor- 
dinary gifts, and admired the personality 
and brilliant qualities of Liszt, he could 
not be prevailed upon to remain in Weimar 
longer than two years. 

In 1854 he accepted the post of conductor 
and solo violinist to the King of Hanover, a 
position which he retained for twelve years, 
during which time he enhanced his reputa- 



Joachim. 249 

tion as a musician, and married Amalia 
Weiss, a celebrated contralto singer. In 
1866 the troubles which enveloped Germany 
brought Joachim's engagement in Hanover to 
an end, but two years later he entered upon 
what has proved to be the most important 
part of his career, when he was appointed 
professor of violin at the Hochschule for 
music in Berlin. This school was a new 
branch of the already existing Academy of 
Arts, and was to be a high school for 
musical execution, as apart from composi- 
tion. 

Joachim threw his whole heart into the 
new work before him, and the branch of 
the school under his direction soon rivalled 
any similar school. Various branches were 
added to the school, in 1871 a class for 
organ, in 1872 classes for brass instruments, 
double-bass, and solo vocalists, in 1873 a 
chorus class. In 1875 the Royal Academy 
of Arts was reorganised and became the 



250 Famous Violinists. 

Royal High School for Music, with Joachim 
as director. 

That Joachim had earned a very high posi- 
tion as early as 1859 is shown by an extract 
from the Musical World of London, in that 
year. 

" So long as virtuosi walked (or galloped) 
in their proper sphere, they amused by their 
mechanical tours de force, charmed by their 
finesse and did no great harm to musical 
taste. They were accepted cum grano salts, 
applauded for their dexterity, and admired 
for the elegance with which they were able 
to elaborate thoughts in themselves of every 
slight artistic worth. But recently our ' vir- 
tuosi ' have been oppressed with a notion 
that, to succeed in this country, they must 
invade and carry by storm the ' classics ' of 
the art, instead of adhering exclusively as 
of old to their own fantasies and jeux de 
marteaux. One composition after another by 
the great masters is seized upon and worried. 



Joachim. 251 

If they were things of flesh and blood, and 
could feel the gripe, be conscious of the 
teeth, and appreciate the fangs of these rapid- 
devouring ' virtuosi,' concertos, sonatas, trios, 
etc., would indeed be in a pitiable condition. 
Happily, being of the spirit, they bleed not, 
but are immortal. 

" One great result attending Herr Joa- 
chim's professional visit to London is, that it 
enables both professors and amateurs oppor- 
tunity after opportunity of studying his man- 
ner of playing the works of the giants of 
music. How Herr Joachim executes these 
compositions how differently from the self- 
styled ' virtuosi,' how purely, how modestly, 
how wholly forgetful of himself in the text he 
considers it an honour being allowed to 
interpret to the crowd we need scarcely 
remind our readers. Not a single eccentri- 
city of carriage or demeanour, not a moment 
of egotistical display, to remind his hearers 
that, although Beethoven is being played, it 



252 Famous Violinists. 

is Joachim who is playing, ever escapes this 
truly admirable and (if words might be al- 
lowed to bear their legitimate signification) 
most accomplished of ' virtuosi.' ' 

As an example of Joachim's conscientious- 
ness, the following little anecdote will serve 
to give an idea. Joachim once introduced 
into the point d'orgue of Beethoven's con- 
certo a cadence terminated by a trait en 
octave, which caused an extraordinary effect. 
People spoke only of this cadence ; it was the 
event of the evening wherever he played. 
This success wounded his feelings of artistic 
probity ; he considered it unbecoming that 
people should be more taken up with the 
skill of the executant than with the beauties 
of the music, and the cadence was sup- 
pressed. 

During the many years of his connection 
with the Hochschule, Joachim's personal 
influence has been exerted upon a large num- 
ber of pupils, in fact almost every well-known 



Joachim. 253 

violin player has been to Berlin to seek his 
advice and instruction, and the players he has 
perfected are almost without number. Many 
anecdotes are told concerning his kindness to 
his pupils, but so greatly is he sought after 
that comparatively few of the hundreds who 
flock to Berlin are able to reach him. 

Joachim's early training and education 
developed his character both as a musician 
and as a man. The influence of Mendels- 
sohn, whose friendship ended only with his 
death, of David, Schumann, Liszt, Berlioz, 
and Brahms, who was largely indebted to 
Joachim for the introduction of many of his 
works to the public, brought out the thor- 
ough uprightness, firmness of character and 
earnestness of purpose, and that intense dis- 
like of all that is artificial or untrue in art, 
which have made him a great moral power in 
the musical world. 

He combines in a unique degree the 
highest executive powers with the most 



254 Famous Violinists. 

excellent musicianship. Unsurpassed as a 
master of the instrument, he uses his powers 
of execution in the services of art, and repre- 
sents the perfection of a pure style and legiti- 
mate school, with breadth and fidelity of 
interpretation. His performances undoubt- 
edly derive their charm and merit from the 
strength of his talent and of his artistic 
character, and are stamped with a striking 
originality of conception ; at the same time 
fidelity to the text, and careful endeavour 
to enter into the spirit and feeling of the 
composer, are the principles of executive art 
which Joachim has invariably practised. 

In the rendering of Bach's solos, Beetho- 
ven's concertos and quartets, he has no 
rival, and for the revival of many great works 
the musical world is indebted to him. Of 
these, one instance may be cited, viz., the vio- 
lin concerto (Op. 61) of Beethoven, which was 
first played by Clement, December 23, 1806. 
This concerto bears evidence of having been 



Joachim. 255 

written in a hurry. Clement played it at 
sight without rehearsal, and, as a conse- 
quence of its being brought forward in such 
a slipshod manner, it was very seldom heard 
until its revival by Joachim. The MS. 
shows that the solo part was the object 
of much thought and alteration by the 
composer, but evidently after the first per- 
formance. 

As a composer, Joachim has contributed 
work of value to the literature of the violin. 
His " Hungarian Concerto " is a creation of 
real grandeur, built up in noble symphonic 
proportions. Most of his works are of a 
grave, somewhat melancholy character, and 
all of them are marked by earnestness of 
purpose and a high ideal. 

The jubilee of Joachim's life as a violin 
player was celebrated in Berlin with great 
ceremony and with unusual honour, and in 
England a demonstration was made in his 
honour by the public, who subscribed a sum 



256 Famous Violinists. 

of about $6,000, with which was purchased 
an instrument of wonderful beauty, a cele- 
brated "Red Strad," which was presented 
to him at a public meeting held at the con- 
clusion of the Monday Popular Concerts, in 
1888. 

This celebration was, however, quite 
eclipsed by that of the sixtieth anniversary 
of his first public appearance, which was 
held at Berlin on April 22, 1899. A grand 
concert was given at the Philharmonie, with 
an orchestra consisting of two hundred per- 
formers. There were ninety violins, thirty 
violas, twenty-one 'celli, and twenty double- 
basses, and of these all except the double- 
basses had been pupils of Joachim, the violas 
and 'celli having been his pupils in chamber 
music. They had come from all over Europe 
to take part in the festival. Nearly half of 
the violins were concert-masters, and many 
of them famous soloists, as Carl Halir, Henri 
Petri, Jeno Hubay, Willy Hess, Gustav Hoi- 



Joachim. 257 

laender, Gabrielle Wietrowitz, Marie Soldat, 
and others. 

Joachim entered the hall at half-past six, 
and was greeted with a deafening fanfare 
played by the combined trumpeters of the 
military bands stationed in Berlin. The 
audience rose in a body and added its cheers 
to the noise of the trumpets. A large arm- 
chair, beautifully decorated with flowers and 
wreaths, was reserved as a seat of honour 
for the great musician. 

The seventh number on the programme 
was left vacant, but when it was reached the 
orchestra began the introduction to Beetho- 
ven's concerto. No soloist was in sight, 
but Gabrielle Wietrowitz and Marie Soldat, 
his most celebrated women pupils, came 
slowly down toward Joachim's chair, one 
carrying a violin and the other a bow, which 
they placed in his hands. Joachim, however, 
did not wish to play, and did not yield ex- 
cept under the force of persuasion, and then 



258 Famous Violinists. 

he said : " I have not had a violin in my 
hands for three days ; I am in no mood to 
play ; moreover, there are many in the or- 
chestra who can play it better than I, but 
I don't want to refuse." So Joachim played 
the great concerto, and received an ovation 
such as had probably never been accorded 
to him before. Then he conducted Bach's 
concerto in G major for strings, which 
was played by sixty-six violins, fifty-seven 
violas, twenty-four 'celli, and twenty double- 
basses, and this brought the concert to a 
close. 

The concert was followed by a banquet 
at which there were eight hundred guests, 
and the festivities lasted until four o'clock 
the next morning. No violinist was ever 
more respected or beloved by his pupils, 
nor did one ever wield a more powerful 
influence in the musical world. To be put 
forward by Joachim gives one a high stand- 
ing in the musical world to begin with, but 



Joachim. 259 

few indeed are those who receive this priv- 
ilege in comparison with those who desire it. 

Joachim is not a builder of technique 
or a teacher of beginners. Pupils who are 
accepted by him must be already proficient 
technicians, and it may be stated that the 
teacher who can prepare pupils for Joachim 
stands high in the profession. Joachim is 
a great adviser, a former of style, and a 
master of interpretation, to whom pupils 
flock two or three years too early, and feel 
aggrieved if they are not at once accepted. 

" What else can you do ? " he once asked 
of a young man who desired to become a 
great violinist, and had sought Joachim's 
advice. 

"I think I would like to study for the 
ministry," was the reply. 

" It is much better to be a good minister 
than a poor violinist," said Joachim, looking 
him full in the face. 

His liberality is proverbial, and after a 



260 Famous Violinists. 

long and successful life, during which he 
has received high salaries, he is not rich. 
He seldom refuses to play gratis for any 
really worthy object, and the anecdotes of 
his kindness toward his pupils are without 
number. 

Few men have shone with such an even, 
steady lustre, through a long life. Others 
have come up, flourished, and sunk into 
oblivion, but the light of Joachim has shone 
steadily for more than sixty years, and as 
an interpreter of the classics he has never 
been excelled, and perhaps never will be. 



CHAPTER IX. 

VIOLINISTS OF TO-DAY. 

IN these latter days the number of good 
violinists seems to have increased greatly. A 
season seldom passes without witnessing the 
de"but of some half-dozen aspirants for public 
approbation, but the great majority of them 
settle down into some special field of labour, 
and do not acquire world-wide fame as vir- 
tuosi. 

Virtuosity to-day depends very largely on 
the art of advertising. In the old days of 
Viotti and Spohr, the violinist would remain 
in a city for months, make acquaintances, 
and gradually acquire a reputation which 
would justify his giving some concerts. A 
261 



262 Famous Violinists. 

tour lasting from three to six years would 
cover a comparatively small amount of 
territory. 

To-day the concert agent searches among 
the new lights for one or two who seem, in 
his judgment, likely to please the audiences 
to whom he caters, and who will justify the 
curiosity roused by the wholesale advertising 
done in their behalf. 

The violinist is rushed from one place to 
another with mechanical precision, and flits 
from Maine to California and from Canada 
to the Gulf in a few short weeks. There 
are more soloists, more concerts, more musi- 
cal organisations than ever before. 

It does not follow by any means that the 
travelling virtuoso is one of the greatest 
violinists of his time. There are, in every 
city of Europe and in many cities of Amer- 
ica, violinists who equal or even excel many 
of those who are exploited as virtuosi. The 
great violinists are not to be found every 



Violinists of To-day. 263 

day. In the past twenty years, perhaps, not 
more than two can be recalled who have 
visited the United States as mature, great 
artists, Wilhelmj and Ysaye. Many vio- 
linists of excellent ability have been heard, 
and to some of them some day the adjective 
great may be applied. The fact that they 
have devoted their energies to concert work, 
and have been favourably received by the 
most important musical organisations, makes 
them celebrated, but the word great can 
apply but to few. 

' Adolf Brodsky, who came to America in 
1892, and who is a violinist of much ability, 
with a beautiful tone, facile and brilliant 
technique, but somewhat lacking in elegance 
and polish, did not come to tour the country 
as a virtuoso. He was engaged by Mr. 
Walter Damrosch as concert-master for 
the New York orchestra, but during his 
stay in this country he appeared in many 
of the most important concerts, and was 



264 Famous Violinists. 

considered one of the best violinists who 
had ever come to live in America. 

Brodsky was born in 1851 at Taganrog, 
in Southern Russia, and was one of those 
who found his profession at the age of four, 
when he bought a violin at a fair, and began 
to pick out Russian folk-tunes. 

For four years he was taught music at 
home, and made good progress. Then a 
wealthy gentleman was attracted by his 
talent, hearing him play at a concert at 
Odessa, and provided the funds necessary 
for him to go to Vienna and study under 
Hellmesberger. He became second violin in 
the celebrated Hellmesberger Quartet, and 
thus gained a great reputation as a quartet 
player. 

After travelling all over Europe for four 
years, he was appointed second professor of 
the violin at the Conservatory of Moscow, 
where he remained another four years. Then 
followed more study and more travel until, 




EMIL SAURET 



Violinists of To-day. 265 

when Schradieck accepted the position of 
violin teacher at the Cincinnati conservatory, 
Brodsky was appointed to fill his place at 
Leipzig. In 1892 he was called to New 
York, but, owing to troubles which arose in 
the musical profession, he returned to Eu- 
rope the following year, and, after a short 
sojourn in Berlin, received the appointment 
of director of the Royal College of Music 
at Manchester, England, where he succeeded 
Sir Charles Halle. 

"Emil Sauret is well known in America, 
for he visited the United States in 1872- 
73, and made a tour which was so suc- 
cessful, that it was repeated in 1874, 
when he travelled with lima di Murska, the 
great singer, and his wife, Teresa Careno, 
the pianist. 

Sauret began his public career at the age 
of eight. He was born at Dun-le-Roi, in the 
department of Cher, in France, in 1852, and 
at the age of six entered the conservatory at 



266 Famous Violinists. 

Strasburg, after some preliminary instruc- 
tion at home. In two years he began his 
travels, and for several years he divided his 
time between study and travel. 

As a boy he was taken up by De BeYiot, 
who was much interested in his welfare. 
He studied under Vieuxtemps in Paris, and 
in 1872 was one of the artists engaged for 
the tour organised by the President of the 
French Republic for the relief of the suf- 
ferers by the Franco-German war. 

In 1879 ne was appointed teacher at the 
Stern Conservatory in Berlin, a post which 
he relinquished on being offered the position 
made vacant in the Royal Academy of Music, 
London, by the death of Sainton. 

M. Sauret is pronounced conservative and 
conscientious to the last degree in handling 
the classics, and, although he has great 
individuality, passion, and fire, he would 
consider it a sacrilege to obtrude his own 
personality upon the listener. He is distin. 



Violinists of To-day. 267 

guished for elegance rather than perfection 
of technique. He may be considered a rep- 
resentative of the extreme French school. 

In temperament he is quick and somewhat 
impatient. He expects much of his pupils, 
and is the very opposite of the painstaking, 
phlegmatic Wilhelmj. 

In 1896 M. Sauret again visited the 
United States, when it was admitted by 
those who had heard him twenty years 
before that he had grown to a consummate 
and astounding virtuoso. His tone was firm, 
pure, and beautiful, though not large. Mar- 
sick and Ondricek had preceded him by a 
few weeks, but Sauret did not suffer by 
comparison. 

One of the most remarkable violinists of 
the present day is Ce'sar Thomson, who was 
born at Liege in 1857. He entered the 
conservatory of his native place, after re- 
ceiving some instruction from his father, 
and had completed the regular course by the 



268 Famous Violinists. 

time he was twelve years of age, after which 
he became a pupil of Leonard. 

At the age of eighteen he made a concert 
tour through Italy, and while there became 
a member of the private orchestra of the 
Baron de Derwies. In 1879 ne became a 
member of the Bilse Orchestra, and in 1882, 
having won distinction at the musical festival 
at Brussels, he was appointed professor of 
the violin in the Liege conservatory. 

Most of his travelling has been done since 
that time, and he has acquired an immense 
reputation in Europe. In Leipzig, at a 
Gewandhaus concert in 1891, he made a 
phenomenal success, and in 1898 at Brussels 
he received five enthusiastic recalls from a 
cold and critical audience, for his magnificent 
performance of the Brahms concerto. 

M. Thomson's command of all the tech- 
nical resources of the violin is so great that 
he can play the most terrific passages with- 
out sacrificing his tone or clearness of phras- 



Violinists of To-day. 269 

ing, and his octave playing almost equals 
that of Paganini himself. Yet he is lacking 
in personal magnetism, and is a player for 
the musically cultivated rather than for the 
multitude, though his technique fills the 
listener with wonder. He visited the United 
States in 1896, and was, like Marsick, com- 
pared with Ysaye, who at that time swept 
everything before him and carried the 
country by storm. 

In 1897 Cesar Thomson left Liege, owing, 
it is said, to disagreements at the Conser- 
vatoire, and made his home at Brussels. 

The greatest of Belgian violinists of to- 
day is Eugene Ysaye, who possesses that 
magnetism which charms alike the musician 
and the amateur, because of his perfect 
musical expression. He possesses the in- 
explicable and inexpressible something which 
takes cold judgment off its feet and leads 
criticism captive. 
* Ysaye was born at Liege in 1858, and, 



2/o Famous Violinists. 

after studying at the conservatories of his 
native town under his father and at Brussels, 
entered that of Paris, where he completed 
the course in 1881, and immediately after- 
ward started on a series of concert tours. 
Ysaye's eminence as a violinist has been 
gained by hard work. He did not burst 
meteor-like upon the world, but he earned 
his position in the violin firmament by ten 
years of concert touring, during which time 
he passed successively through the stages 
of extreme sentimentality until he reached 
the " sea " of real sentiment. 

It was in 1873 that Ysaye, after prepara- 
tion given chiefly by his father, made his 
way to Brussels and sought out Wieniawski, 
then professor at the Conservatoire. Wie- 
niawski was teaching, when a note was 
brought to him marked "private and im- 
portant." The servant was told to show 
the bearer in, and Ysaye, then about fifteen 
years of age, timidly entered the room carry- 



Violinists of To-day. 271 

ing his violin. After a little preliminary 
conversation which allowed the youth to tell 
his history, Wieniawski asked him what he 
would play, and in reply he placed on the 
piano desk a concerto of Vieuxtemps. The 
result of his performance was that he at 
once became a pupil of Wieniawski, with 
whom he remained some three years, during 
the period in which Vieuxtemps was recov- 
ering from his paralytic shock. In 1876 
Vieuxtemps heard him at Antwerp, and 
through his influence the Belgian govern- 
ment was induced to grant Ysaye a stipend 
in order to allow him to pursue his studies 
at Paris. There he was the pupil of Massart, 
who had also been the teacher of Wieniawski, 
Ysaye's master at Brussels. Vieuxtemps 
is said to have expressed the desire, while 
in Algiers during his latter years, to have 
Ysaye stay with him to play his composi- 
tions, but Ysaye was at that time in St. 
Petersburg. When Vieuxtemps died and 



272 Famous Violinists. 

his remains were brought to Verviers, his 
birthplace, Ysaye carried in the procession 
the violin and bow of the virtuoso on a black 
velvet cushion fringed with silver. 

When Ysaye first appeared in America 
he was a mature artist, the recognised leader 
of the Belgian school of violinists, the first 
professor of violin at the Brussels Conser- 
vatoire, and the possessor of many decora- 
tions and honours bestowed upon him by 
various royalties. 

Before he had been in America a month 
he was acknowledged to be the greatest 
violinist who had visited this country for 
many years. 

A man of large and powerful physique, 
he plays with a bold and manly vigour, and 
yet with exquisite delicacy. He is a master 
of phrasing and of all beauties of detail, 
has a wonderfully perfect technique, but 
that quality which places him at the head 
of all rivals is his musical feeling, his tem< 



Violinists of To-day. 273 

perament. He has been compared to Rubin- 
stein and to Paderewski. He inspires his 
hearers, or, as it was once expressed, very 
neatly, "he creeps up under your vest." 
He disarms criticism, and he seems to be 
more completely part of his violin and his 
violin of him than has been the case with 
any other player who has visited these 
shores for some years. He has given the 
greatest performance of the celebrated Bach 
chaconne ever heard in America. He has 
been declared to be not inferior to Joachim 
in his performance of this work, though he 
has not so broad a tone as the latter, nor 
as Wieniawski. He combines Sarasate's 
tenderness of tone and showy technique 
with more manliness and sincerity than 
Sarasate gives. 

The student, perhaps, can learn more from 
Cesar Thomson than from Ysaye, but he will 
receive from the latter the greater inspira- 
tion. 



274 Famous Violinists. 

Ysaye is noted, too, for sincerity of purpose 
and seriousness such as few of the virtuosi 
have possessed. He is free from all traits of 
charlatanism and trickery. Once, when in 
California, he was asked for an autograph 
copy of a few measures of his original ca- 
denza to the Beethoven concerto (an embel- 
lishment which all violinists seem obliged to 
compose), but he declared that he did not 
like the idea of an original cadenza to Bee- 
thoven's work, that it was much better to 
omit it, as it formed no part of the concerto. 
"In original cadenzas by virtuosi," he said, 
"we find too much violin and too little mu- 
sic," for which confession from such an artist 
the world may be truly grateful. 

When Ysaye came to America in 1894 he 
was prepared with a repertoire consisting of 
ninety-one pieces. Of these, fourteen were 
concertos, seventeen sonatas, and eleven were 
compositions of his own. 

He made a second tour in America in 



Violinists of To-day. 275 

1898, when he confirmed the opinions al- 
ready formed as to his wonderful qualities. 

In March, 1899, ne wen t to Berlin, which 
city he had not visited for several years, and 
appeared as soloist of the tenth Nik^ch Phil- 
harmonic concert, when he played the E 
major concerto by Bach, and scored an over- 
whelming success. At the end of the con- 
cert he was recalled some fifteen times, and 
had completely exploded the idea so firmly 
held in Berlin, that the Belgians cannot play 
the classics. 

Of late years M. Ysaye has made his mark 
as a conductor, and has given a series of 
orchestral concerts in Brussels. He organ- 
ised and managed this enterprise entirely by 
himself, without any guarantee fund, and the 
concerts were so successful, financially as 
well as artistically, that at the end of the 
season it was found that they had paid 
all expenses, and this, as all who know 
anything about the financial side of or- 



276 Famous Violinists. 

chestral concerts, is a most remarkable 
showing. 

Few, if any, artists have been made the 
recipients of more ridiculous adulation from 
women. Paderewski perhaps being the only 
exception, and at the conclusion of his con- 
certs scenes have been witnessed which are 
simply nauseating. This fashion is not con- 
fined, by any means, to the United States, for 
there are anecdotes from all countries illustra- 
tive of the manner in which members of the 
fair sex vie with each other in the effort to 
do the silliest things. 

Ysaye has a home near the Palais de Jus- 
tice in Brussels. He is married to the 
daughter of a Belgian army officer, and has 
several children. He is a man of much 
modesty, and is devoted to his family. As 
a violinist he may be considered to rank next 
to Joachim. 

' Carl Halir, who visited America in 1896, 
was born in 1859 at Hohenelbe in Bohemia, 



Violinists of To-day. 277 

and was first taught by his father. He en- 
tered the conservatory at Prague at the age 
of eight, and remained there until he was 
fourteen, studying under Bennewitz, after 
which he went to Berlin and became a 
pupil of Joachim. 

For some time he was a member of the 
Bilse orchestra, and then went to Konigsberg 
as concert-master, after which he held a 
similar position for three years at Mannheim, 
and then at Weimar, where he married the 
well-known singer, Theresa Zerbst. 

On his first appearance, at the Bach festi- 
val at Eisenath, he played with Joachim the 
Bach double concerto, and was very success- 
ful. He has made concert tours throughout 
the greater part of Europe, and while in 
America he was recognised as a broad ar- 
tist. He is no virtuoso in the ordinary sense 
of the word, but a classical, non-sensational, 
well-educated musician, whose playing was 
not dazzling or magnetic, but delighted by its 



278 Famous Violinists. 

intellectuality. He has an even and sympa- 
thetic tone, and inspires the greatest respect 
as an artist and as a man, and, while other 
players may make greater popular successes, 
Halir stands on a high artistic plane which 
few can reach. 

' Franz Ondricek, who visited the United 
States also in 1896, was born at Prague in 
1859, the same year as Halir, but is an artist 
of an entirely different stamp. In his early 
youth he was a member of a dance music 
band, and his father taught him to play the 
violin. It was not until he was fourteen 
years of age that he was able to enter the 
conservatory of his native town. Three 
years later he was sent, through the gen- 
erosity of a wealthy merchant, to Paris, 
where he became a pupil of Massart. He 
shared with Achille Rivarde the honour of 
the first prize at the Conservatoire, since 
which time he has been a wandering star, 
and has never sought any permanent engage- 



Violinists of To-day. 279 

ment. His playing is marked by individuality 
and dash, but he does not show to the best 
advantage in the interpretation of the classics. 

Charles Martin Loeffler, who shares the 
first desk of the first violins in the Boston 
Symphony Orchestra with Mr. Kneisel, is a 
musician of the highest ability. 

He was born in Muhlhausen, Alsace, in 
1 86 1. He enjoyed the advantages of in- 
struction under Joachim, in Berlin, after 
which he continued his studies in Paris, with 
Massart and Leonard, studying composition 
with Guiraud. While in Paris he was a 
member of Pasdeloup's celebrated orchestra, 
and was afterward appointed first violin 
and soloist in the private orchestra of Baron 
Derwies, at Nice, of which orchestra C6sar 
Thomson was also a member. 

In 1 880 Mr. Loeffler crossed the Atlantic, 
and took up his residence in New York, but 
the following year he was engaged as sec- 
ond concert-master and soloist in the Boston 



280 Famous Violinists. 

Symphony Orchestra, a position which he 
has held ever since, and in which he has 
had opportunity to display his exceptional 
talents. 

As a violinist he plays with largeness of 
style, boldness of contrast, and exquisite 
grace. He has a technique equalled by few, 
and his performances have been confined to 
music of the highest class. Mr. Loeffler has 
never made a tour of the country as a virtu- 
oso, but as soloist of the orchestra he has 
been heard under the best conditions in 
most of the large cities of the United States, 
and has shown himself to be a virtuoso in 
the best sense of the word. 

As a composer Mr. Loeffler is distinctly 
original and imaginative. His works are 
both poetical and musical, and they display 
high thought and exceptional knowledge. 
His compositions include a sextet, a quintet, 
and an octet, also a suite for violin and 
orchestra, " Les Veill6es de l'Ukrame;"a 



Violinists of To-day, 281 

concerto for violoncello, which has been 
played by Mr. Alwyn Schroeder ; a diverti- 
mento for violin and orchestra, and a sym- 
phonic poem, " La Mort de Tintagiles." Be- 
sides these large works he has written a 
number of songs, of which five are with 
viola obligate. These works have been per- 
formed by the Kneisel Quartet and the 
Symphony Orchestra, the solo parts of the 
suite and divertimento by the composer him- 
self, and they have gained for him a reputa- 
tion as a gifted and scholarly tone artist. 

One of the most promising young violin- 
ists of the century was a native of Brazil, 
Maurice Dengremont, who was born in Rio 
Janeiro, in 1867. He was the son of a 
French musician who had settled in Brazil, 
and who gave him his first lessons to such 
good effect that, when only eight years of 
age, he gave a concert, and the Brazilian 
orchestra was so delighted with his playing 
that its members presented him with a medal, 



282 Famous Violinists. 

to which the emperor added an imperial 
crown, as a recognition of his talent. 

He now became a pupil of Leonard, and 
after three years' study he appeared in many 
concerts, travelling throughout Europe and 
England, and being received with enthusiasm. 
About 1880 he visited America, but his 
career ended shortly after, as he fell a victim 
to dissipation. 

Dengremont was compared with Sarasate 
and Wilhelmj, but all that could be said 
about him was that he might have developed 
into a player of their rank. As it was, he 
disappointed his admirers, and died while 
still quite young. 

Of the many violinists who have made 
their home in the United States there are 
few whose accomplishments better entitle 
them to a position among celebrated violin- 
ists than Mr. Franz Kneisel. 

Mr. Kneisel was called to Boston to fill 
the position of concert-master of the Boston 



Violinists of To-day. 283 

Symphony Orchestra in 1885, and has held 
that place for fourteen years, during which 
time he has done much toward the cultiva- 
tion of musical taste in America. 

He was born in Roumania, of German 
parents, in 1865, and gained his musical 
education at Bucharest and at Vienna, where 
he studied under Griin and Hellmesberger. 
He then received the appointment of concert- 
master of the H of burg Theatre Orchestra, 
after which he went to Berlin to fill the same 
position in Bilse's orchestra, following Halir, 
Ysaye, and Cesar Thomson. 

When he was called to Boston, at the 
instance of Mr. Gericke, who was then the 
conductor of the Symphony Orchestra, he 
was only twenty years of age. He played, 
on his first appearance as soloist, the Beetho- 
ven concerto, and was at once recognised as 
a violinist of remarkable ability. 

Mr. Kneisel has never toured the country 
as a virtuoso, but has been heard in many of 



284 Famous Violinists. 

the great cities of America, as solo violinist 
with the Symphony Orchestra, and as first 
violin of the Kneisel Quartet. 

He is a master of technique, and sur- 
mounts all difficulties with ease ; his tone is 
pure, and, though not large, is satisfying, and 
in his interpretation of the great works he 
never attempts to enforce his personality 
upon the hearer, in short, he is a true 
artist. As a conductor he has marked ability, 
and as a quartet player he has made a reputa- 
tion which will live in the history of music 
in America, if not in the whole world. 

Charles Gregorowitsch, who visited Amer- 
ica in 1898, has risen in a very short time to 
a place among the leading violinists of the 
world. 

He was born in 1867 at St. Petersburg, 
and, his talent making itself manifest in the 
usual manner, he was taught by his father 
until he was of an age to be sent to Moscow, 
where he studied until his fifteenth year, 



Violinists of To-day. 285 

under Beserkirskij and Wieniawski. From 
Moscow he was sent to Vienna, where he 
became a pupil of Dont, and finally he stud- 
ied under Joachim in Berlin, where he gained 
the Mendelssohn prize. 

Gregorowitsch was the last pupil of Wie- 
niawski, and that master was so impressed 
with the great promise of the boy that on 
first hearing him he offered to take him as 
a pupil gratis. Few violinists have had the 
advantage which has fallen to the lot of 
Gregorowitsch, of receiving instruction from 
so many great teachers. 

Gregorowitsch has travelled extensively 
throughout Europe, has been highly hon- 
oured in Russia, where the Czar granted 
him exemption from military service, and 
decorated by the King of Portugal. In Lon- 
don he made his first appearance in 1897, 
at the Queen's Hall Symphony concerts. 

M. Gregorowitsch is remarkable for a large 
tone, and in the smoothness and finish of his 



286 Famous Violinists. 

playing he has been compared with Sauret 
and with Sarasate. 

A far greater sensation was caused in 
America by Willie Burmester than by 
Gregorowitsch. 

Burmester was born in Hamburg in 1869, 
and received his first instruction from his 
father. He owned his first violin when he 
was four years of age, and it came to him 
from a Christmas tree. This served to show 
the talent which he possessed, and the next 
year he received a better violin, and began 
to study in earnest. 

When he was eight years old his father 
took him to Berlin to consult Joachim, who 
was, and is, regarded as the oracle for vio- 
linists. Joachim gave some encouragement 
to the parent, although he does not seem 
to have given much to the boy, who in con- 
sequence felt somewhat bitter. Four years 
later he was again taken to the Berlin Hoch- 
schule, to pass his entrance examination. 



Violinists of To-day. 287 

On this occasion he received the recognition 
of the jury, and was admitted to the school, 
where he began a rigorous course of techni- 
cal study. At the end of four years' study 
under Joachim he was refused a certificate, 
for some reason not stated, and he went to 
Helsingfors in Finland, where he worked 
according to his own ideas, which were to 
unlearn all he had studied, and begin afresh. 
During this period he worked with the great- 
est perseverance, practising nine or ten hours 
a day, and thus developed the wonderful 
technique which has astonished the world. 
For three years he continued this work, sup- 
porting himself meanwhile with a modest 
appointment which he had obtained. 

Before he left Berlin he had worn down 
the end of his first finger to the nerve. This 
troubled him to such a degree that he had sev- 
eral operations for the purpose of removing 
it, but the result was not wholly satisfactory. 

Emerging from his retirement in 1894, he 



288 Famous Violinists. 

went to Berlin again, and gave a recital in 
which he met with the most remarkable suc- 
cess. It was written at the time : " Mr. 
Burmester comes from an obscure town, 
unheralded, and, in the face of indifference, 
prejudice, and jealousy, conquered the me- 
tropolis off-hand. For nearly half an hour 
recall followed recall." 

The following season he created an equal 
impression in London, and shortly afterward 
in America. 

His technique has been described as " mar- 
vellous, almost diabolical." Difficult pizzicato 
passages and runs in thirds and tenths at top 
speed are but as child's play to him. His 
left hand pizzicato is marvellous, and he 
makes runs in single and artificial harmonics 
as quickly as most violinists can play an 
ordinary scale. He plays harmonics with a 
vibrato (Paganini played a double shake in 
harmonics), and his staccato volante is devel- 
oped to an astounding degree of perfection. 



Violinists of To-day. 289 

When Burmester played in London his 
success was at once attributed to Joachim, 
and he resented it, in view of the fact that 
he had been denied his certificate and had 
narrowly escaped musical suffocation at the 
hands of that great master. He had already 
made the same statement in Berlin, referring 
to the fact of his retirement to Helsingfors, 
and the development which he had acquired 
there in solitude. 

This announcement brought forth a deluge 
of letters from " pupils of Joachim," and in a 
couple of weeks Burmester wrote another 
letter stating that he did not know the Hoch- 
schule had as many pupils as those who had 
claimed Joachim as their teacher, and who 
were all unknown. " If one known pupil of 
Joachim," he wrote, " will appoint a meeting 
to interview me on the subject, I shall be 
glad to continue it." But the one known 
pupil did not come. 

The complaint of Mr. Burmester, that the 



290 Famous Violinists. 

one idea at the Hochschule is technique, 
is not new by any means. In every school 
there are students with great talent, who find 
it difficult to subject themselves to the rigid 
discipline required by the teacher. It is the 
stumbling-block on which many fall. It is, 
nevertheless, a fact that without a solid tech- 
nique the highest perfection in playing cannot 
be reached, and it is usually regarded as a 
hopeless case when the pupil antagonises the 
teacher. Many pupils are apt to try and run 
ahead of their technical ability, and do not 
find out their mistake until it is too late. 
The argument that Paganini was self-taught 
leads many a young violinist into error. 

If Burmester is to be judged by his playing 
of the Beethoven concerto in Boston, good 
musicians will declare that Joachim was right 
in refusing the certificate, for while his tech- 
nique was brilliant it appeared to lack foun- 
dation. Time may justify the stand which 
the young virtuoso has taken in opposition 



Violinists of To-day. 291 

to his teacher, for he is still young and has 
time in which to develop. He has un- 
doubted musical talent and great ability, but 
while he may be a celebrated violinist he can 
hardly yet be considered a great one, not- 
withstanding the furore which he caused in 
Berlin. 

Burmester plays with unassuming simplic- 
ity and without cheap display. He is sin- 
cere, but without authority or distinction of 
style. His tone is warm and pleasing, but 
not large, his intonation is not always sure. 

One of Burmester's earliest musical friends 
was Hans Von Billow, and the friendship 
extended over a period of three and a half 
years, until Von Bulow went to Cairo shortly 
before his death. 

Von Bulow had inaugurated a series of 
orchestral concerts in Berlin, and as they 
interfered with the Philharmonic series every 
effort was made to put a stop to them. 
Musicians were forbidden to play for Von 



292 Famous Violinists. 

Biilow, and many obstacles were placed in 
his way. Von Biilow's temperament was 
such as to intensify the hostility rather than 
succumb to it. Burmester was then only 
sixteen years old, but his sympathy was with 
Von Biilow, and he wrote a letter to him 
offering his services, and expressing his con- 
tempt for the injustice to which he was being 
subjected. Von Biilow invited him to attend 
the rehearsals, and printed the letter which 
he had received. Burmester accepted the 
invitation, and, going to the rehearsal, found 
vacant a seat amongst the first violins, which 
he took. 

The rehearsal was about to commence 
when Von Biilow paused and asked, " Which 
of you gentlemen is Burmester ? " 

The young fellow approached Von Biilow, 
who had motioned him to come. 

" Mr. Burmester," he said, " I have no 
desk in the first row to offer you or it would 
be yours. Gentlemen," he added, turning to 



Violinists of To-day. 293 

the musicians, " I wish to introduce to you 
the guest of honour of my orchestra, Mr. 
Burmester." 

This was the beginning of a friendship, 
through which the young violinist showed 
unswerving loyalty, and it is now one of 
his greatest desires to reach a point of inde- 
pendence which will enable him to build a 
monument to Von Billow's memory. 

In 1893 a sensation was created in 
America by the visit of Henri Marteau, a 
young French violinist whose excellent play- 
ing and charming personality delighted all 
who heard him. Marteau was called "the 
Paderewski of the Catgut," and he met 
with a most cordial reception among musi- 
cians. 

Marteau was born at Reims in 1 874. His 
father was an amateur violinist and president 
of the Philharmonic Society of Reims. His 
mother was an accomplished pianist, a pupil 
of Madame Schumann. He therefore had 



294 Famous Violinists. 

every advantage in his early youth for the 
development of musical taste. When he 
was about five years of age Sivori paid a visit 
to the family, and was so charmed with the 
little fellow that he gave him a violin, and 
persuaded his parents to let him become a 
professional violinist. Marteau now began 
to take lessons of Bunzl, a pupil of Molique, 
but three years later he went to Paris, and 
was placed under Leonard. In 1884, when 
ten years of age, he played in public before 
an audience of 2,500 people, and in the fol- 
lowing year he was selected by Gounod to 
play the obligato of a piece composed for 
the Joan of Arc Centenary celebration at 
Reims, which piece was dedicated to him. 

In 1892 Marteau carried off the first prize 
for violin playing at the Paris Conservatoire, 
and Massenet, the celebrated French com- 
poser, wrote a concerto for him. 

When Marteau played in Boston at the 
Symphony concerts he received twelve re- 



Violinists of To-day. 295 

calls, and immediately became the idol of the 
hour. The concerto selected was that in G 
minor by Bruch, and it was played without a 
rehearsal, a fact which reflects great credit 
on the orchestra, which was at that time con- 
ducted by Mr. Arthur Nikisch. 

In the following year Marteau again vis- 
ited America and brought with him a con- 
certo composed for him by Dubois. This 
was played for the first time by the Colonne 
orchestra, with Marteau as soloist, at Paris, 
on November 28, 1894, and again on the 
following Sunday. It was next given at 
Marseilles on December I2th, and the next 
performances were at Pittsburg, Louisville, 
and Nashville during the second American 
tour. 

Marteau's tone is large, brilliant, and pene- 
trating. His technique is sure, and he plays 
with contagious warmth of sentiment and 
great artistic charm. 

The violin which he used during his 



296 Famous Violinists. 

American tours was a Maggini, which once 
belonged to Maria Theresa of Austria. She 
gave it to a Belgian musician who had 
played chamber music with her in Vienna. 
He took it to Belgium, where at his death it 
became the property of Leonard, who, at his 
death, gave it to Marteau. 

Alexander Petschnikoff, the son of a Rus- 
sian soldier, is the latest violinist who has 
created a furore in Europe. When he was 
quite young his parents moved to Moscow, 
near which city he was born, and one day a 
musician of the Royal Opera House hap- 
pened to hear the boy, who had already 
endeavoured to master the difficulties of the 
instrument, and he used his influence to get 
the lad into the conservatory. Petschnikoff 
now became a pupil of Hrimaly, and devoted 
himself to hard work, earning some money 
by teaching even at the age of ten. 

In due course he won the first prize and 
the gold medal at the conservatory, and was 



Violinists of To-day. 297 

then offered an opportunity to study in Paris, 
which he declined. For a time he earned 
his living by playing in a theatre orchestra, 
but fortune smiled upon him, and he became 
an object of interest to the Princess Ouro- 
soff, who heard him play at a concert. Her 
influence was exerted in his behalf, and he 
was soon noticed and courted by the nobility. 
The princess also made him a present of a 
magnificent violin, which formerly belonged 
to Ferdinand Laub, and is said to be the 
most costly instrument in existence. 

When he made his debut in Berlin, in 
1895, his success was unprecedented, inas- 
much as it covered four points, the artis- 
tic, popular, social, and financial. He has 
created a furore wherever he has appeared, 
and has been recalled as many as sixteen 
times. So great has been his success that 
he is said to have received the highest hon- 
orarium for a single concert ever obtained by 
a violinist in Europe. 



298 Famous Violinists. 

He is described as a man of commonplace 
appearance, with dull, expressionless eyes, 
sluggish movements, and slow, affected man- 
ner of speech. His technique is not aston- 
ishing, but he has a full, penetrating, sympa- 
thetic tone. There is no charlatanism or 
trickery in his playing, nor any virtuoso 
effects, but the charm of it rests in his glow- 
ing temperament, ideal conception, and won- 
derful power of expression. He has been 
regarded as phenomenal, because he can 
move the hearts of his hearers as few other 
violinists are able to do. 

Petschnikoff has been given an introduc- 
tion to America, through Mr. Emil Paur, by 
Theodor Leschetizky, couched in the most 
glowing terms, and is called by him "an 
artist of the very first rank and of inconceiv- 
able versatility." 

One might prolong the list of violinists to 
a tremendous extent, and yet fail to mention 
all those of great merit. In England, John 



Violinists of To-day. 299 

Dunn appears to be acquiring a great repu- 
tation. On the Continent, such names as 
Hubay, Petri, Rose are well known. In 
America, we have Leopold Lichtenberg, a 
good musician of admirable qualifications. 
' Bernhard Listemann, now of Chicago, has 
done much toward forming musical taste in 
America, and was concert-master of the Bos- 
ton Symphony Orchestra during the first few 
years of its existence. But space does not 
permit of a mention of more than has been 
attempted, and a few pages must be given to 
lady violinists and to a few words about 
celebrated quartets. 



CHAPTER X. 

WOMEN AS VIOLINISTS. 

DURING the past forty or fifty years the 
violin has become a fashionable instrument 
for ladies, and has become correspondingly 
popular as a profession for those who are 
obliged to earn a living. 

Formerly, for many years, it seems to have 
been considered improper, or ungraceful, or 
unladylike, the reasons are nowhere satis- 
factorily given, but the fact remains that 
until recently few women played the violin. 

From the year 1610 until 1810 the list 
of those who played in public is extremely 
short, numbering only about twenty, and of 
these several were gambists. 

That women did, once upon a time, play 
300 



Women as Violinists. 301 

on the violin, or the corresponding string and 
bow instruments which were its ancestors, 
there is evidence. 

On the painted roof of Peterborough Cathe- 
dral, in England, which is said to have been 
built in the year 1194 A. D., there is a pic- 
ture of a woman seated, and holding in her 
lap a sort of viol, with four strings and four 
sound-holes. This seems to indicate that in 
very early days ladies sometimes played on 
stringed instruments, if only for their own 
amusement. 

Among the accounts of King Henry VII., 
dated November 2, 1495, is the following 
item, " For a womane that singeth with a 
fiddle, 2 shillings." 

Anne of Cleves after her divorce com- 
forted herself by playing on a viol with six 
strings. Queen Elizabeth, also, amused her- 
self not only with the lute, the virginals, and 
her voice, but also with the violin. 

These, however, were amateurs, and the 



3O2 Famous Violinists. 

earliest professional violinist known was Mrs. 
Sarah Ottey, who was born about 1695, and 
who about 1721-22 performed frequently at 
concerts, giving solos on the harpsichord, vio- 
lin, and bass viol. Previous to her there was 
one Signora Leonora Baroni, born at Mantua 
about 1610, but she played the theorbo and 
the viol di gamba. 

The next is " La Diamantina," born about 
1715, who is referred to by the poet Gray in 
1740, when he was at Rome, as "a famous 
virtuosa, played on the violin divinely, and 
sung angelically." 

Anne Nicholl, born in England about 1728, 
played the violin before the Duke of Cumber- 
land at Huntley in 1746, and her granddaugh- 
ter, Mary Anne Paton, also, who was better 
known as a singer and who became Lady 
Lenox, and afterwards Mrs. Wood, was a 
violinist. 

The celebrated Madame Gertrude Eliza- 
beth Mara, one of the greatest singers of 



Women as Violinists. 303 

her time, was a violinist when young. Her 
father took her to England, hoping by means 
of her playing to get sufficient money to give 
her a thorough musical education. She was 
then a mere child, and as she grew to woman- 
hood her voice developed and she became 
one of the celebrities in the history of song. 
There is no doubt that the training in inter- 
vals which her practice on the violin gave 
her proved invaluable as an aid to her in 
singing. In later days several of the most 
celebrated singers have been also good vio- 
linists, as, for instance, Christine Nilsson and 
Marcella Sembrich. 

Maddalena Lombardi Sirmen, born about 
1735, had an almost European reputation 
toward the end of the eighteenth century. 
She visited France and England about 1760- 
6 1, and was so good a player that she was 
looked upon almost as a rival of Nardini. 
She will always be celebrated in history 
because of the letter which was written to 



304 Famous Violinists. 

her by Tartini, and which is not only one of 
the rarities of musical literature, but consti- 
tutes also a valuable treatise on the use of 
the violin. 

This letter, which has been printed in 
almost every book on the violin, would take 
up rather more space than can be afforded in 
this sketch. It is admirably clear and is 
divided into three parts, the first giving 
advice on bowing, " pressing the bow lightly, 
but steadily, upon the strings in such a 
manner as that it shall seem to breathe 
the first tone it gives, which must proceed 
from the friction of the string, and not from 
percussion, as by a blow given with a hammer 
upon it, if the tone is begun with delicacy, 
there is little danger of rendering it after- 
wards either coarse or harsh." The second 
section of the letter is devoted to the finger- 
board, or the " carriage of the left hand," and 
the last part to the "shake." 

Maddalena Sirmen received her instruc- 



Women as Violinists. 305 

tion first at the conservatory of Mendicant! 
at Venice, after which she took lessons from 
Tartini. She also composed a considerable 
quantity of violin music, much of which was 
published at Amsterdam. About 1782 she, 
emulating the example of Madame Mara, 
appeared as a singer at Dresden, but with 
comparatively small success. 

Regina Sacchi, who married a noted Ger- 
man violoncellist named Schlick, was cele- 
brated for her performances on the violin. 
She was born at Mantua in 1764, and edu- 
cated at the Conservatorio della Pieta at 
Venice. This lady was highly esteemed by 
Mozart, who said of her, " No human being 
can play with more feeling." 

When Mozart was in Vienna, about 1786, 
Madame Schlick was also there, and solicited 
him to write something for the piano and 
violin, which they should play together at 
a concert. Mozart willingly promised to do 
so, and accordingly composed and arranged, 



306 Famous Violinists. 

in his mind, his beautiful sonata in B-flat 
minor, for piano and violin. The time for 
the concert drew near, but not a note was 
put upon paper, and Madame Schlick's anx- 
iety became painful. Eventually, after much 
entreaty, she received the manuscript of the 
violin part the evening before the concert, 
and set herself to work to study it, taking 
scarcely any rest that night. 

The sonata was played before an audience 
consisting of the rank and fashion of Vienna. 
The execution of the two artists was perfect 
and the applause was enthusiastic. It hap- 
pened, however, that the Emperor Joseph 
II., who was seated in a box just above the 
performers, in using his opera-glass to look 
at Mozart, noticed that there was nothing 
on his desk but a sheet of blank paper, and, 
afterward calling the composer to him, said : 
" So, Mozart, you have once again trusted 
to chance," to which Mozart, of course, gra- 
ciously acquiesced, though the emperor did 



Women as Violinists. 307 

not state whether he considered Mozart's 
knowledge of his new composition, or Ma- 
dame Schlick's ability to play with him un- 
rehearsed, constituted the "chance." 

The next virtuosa was a Frenchwoman, 
Louise Gautherot, who was born about 1760, 
and who played in London and made a great 
impression about 1780 to 1790, and about 
the same time Signora Vittoria dall' Occa 
played at the theatre in Milan. Signora 
Paravicini, born about 1769, and Luigia 
Gerbini, about 1770, were pupils of Viotti, 
and earned fame. The former made a sen- 
sation in 1799 by her performance of some 
violin concertos at the Italian Theatre at 
Lisbon, where she played between the acts. 

Signora Paravicini attracted the atten- 
tion of the Empress Josephine, who became 
her patroness and engaged her to teach her 
son, Eugene Beauharnais, and took her to 
Paris. After a time, however, the Empress 
neglected her, and she suffered from poverty. 



308 Famous Violinists. 

Driven to the last resource, and having even 
pawned her clothes, she applied for aid to 
the Italians resident in Paris, and they en- 
abled her to return to Milan, where her 
ability soon gained her both competence and 
credit. She also played at Vienna in 1827, 
and at Bologna in 1832, where she was much 
admired. 

Catarina Calcagno, who has already been 
mentioned as a pupil of Paganini, was a 
native of Genoa, born about 1797, and had 
a short but brilliant career. She disappeared 
from before the public in 1816. 

Madame Krahmer and Miles. Eleanora 
Neumann, and M. Schulz all delighted the 
public in Vienna and Prague. Miss Neu- 
mann came from Moscow, and astonished 
the public when she had scarcely reached 
her tenth year. Other names are Madame. 
Filipowicz, Madame Pollini, Mile. Zerchoff, 
Eliza Wallace, and Rosina Collins, who all 
played publicly and were well known. 



Women as Violinists. 309 

In 1827 Teresa Milanollo was born, and 
in 1832 her sister Marie, and these two 
young ladies played so well, and were in 
such striking contrast to one another, that 
they proved very successful as concert 
players. They were natives of Savigliano, 
in Piedmont, where their father was a manu- 
facturer of silk-spinning machinery. Teresa, 
the elder, was taught by Ferrero, Caldera, 
and Morra, but in 1836 she went to Paris 
and studied under Lafont, and afterwards 
under Habeneck, going still later to Brus- 
sels, where she took lessons of De Beriot, 
and received the finishing touch to her ar- 
tistic education, faultless intonation. Her 
career as a concert player began when she 
was about nine years of age. When Marie 
was old enough to handle a violin Teresa 
began to teach her, and in fact was the 
only teacher Marie ever had. 

The two sisters, who were called, on ac- 
count of their most striking characteristics, 



3io Famous Violinists. 

Mile. Staccato and Mile. Adagio, travelled 
together through France, Holland, Belgium, 
Germany, and England, and were everywhere 
received with the greatest interest. They 
played before Louis Philippe at Neuilly, and 
appeared with Liszt before the King of Prus- 
sia. They also created a furore at Vienna 
and Berlin. 

Marie, the younger, who was of a happy 
and cheerful disposition, was not strong, 
and in 1848 she died in Paris. Teresa, 
the elder, after a long retirement, re- 
sumed her travels, and, having matured 
and improved, she played better and excited 
more interest than before. In 1857 she 
married a French officer, Captain Theodore 
Parmentier, who had seen service in the 
Crimean War, and she abandoned the concert 
stage. 

From 1857 until 1878 she followed the 
fortunes of her husband, who became a gen- 
eral and a " Grand Officier de la Legion 



Women as Violinists. 3 1 1 

d'Honneur," and her public appearances were 
limited to such places as the vicissitudes of 
a military life took her to. Since 1878 
Madame Parmentier has lived quietly in 
Paris, where she is still to be met by a few 
fortunate persons in select musical and social 
circles. 

During the lifetime of Marie, the sisters 
had already put themselves into direct per- 
sonal relations with the poor of Lyons, but 
after Teresa had roused herself from her 
mourning for her sister she established a 
system of " Concerts aux Pauvres," which 
she carried out in nearly all the chief cities 
of France, and part of the receipts of these 
concerts was used for the benefit of the poor. 
Her plan was to follow up the first concert 
with a second, at which the audience con- 
sisted of poor school - children and their 
parents, to whom she played in her most 
fascinating manner, and, at the conclusion 
of her performance, money, food, and cloth- 



312 Famous Violinists, 

ing, purchased with the receipts of the pre- 
vious concerts, were distributed. 

From 1830 there has been a constantly 
increasing number of ladies who have ap- 
peared as concert violinists, but few have 
continued long before the public, or have 
reached such a point of excellence as 
to be numbered amongst the great per- 
formers. 

Mile. Emilia Arditi, Fraulein Hortensia 
Zirges, Miss Hildegard Werner, Miss Bertha 
Brousil, and Madame Rosetta Piercy-Feeny 
were all born during the decade 1830 to 
1 840, and were well known, but in 1 840 and 
1842 two violinists were born who were des- 
tined to hold the stage for many years and 
to exert a great influence in their profession. 
Wilma Neruda, now known as Lady Halle, 
and Camilla Urso are the two ladies in ques- 
tion, the former exerting her influence chiefly 
in England and on the Continent, and the 
latter in America. 



Women as Violinists. 313 

Miss Werner has played an important part 
in advancing the art amongst women, having 
for many years conducted a school of music 
at Newcastle-on-Tyne, in England. She was 
also the first woman ever to address the 
Literary and Philosophical Society, when in 
1880 she delivered an address on the history 
of the violin. There is little doubt, how- 
ever, that the success of Teresa Milanollo 
gave the first great impulse toward the study 
of the violin by women. 

Lady Halle was born at Brimn, March 21, 
1840. Her father was Josef Neruda, a musi- 
cian of good ability, and he gave her the first 
instruction on the violin, and then placed her 
under Leopold Jansa, in Vienna. Wilhelmina 
Maria Franiiska Neruda made her first ap- 
pearance in public in 1846, at which time she 
was not quite seven years old. On this occa- 
sion her sister Amalie, who was a pianist, 
accompanied her, and shortly afterwards her 
father took her, with her sister Amalie and 



314 Famous Violinists. 

one of her brothers, on an extended tour. 
The family consisted of two sons a pianist 
and a 'cellist and two daughters a violin- 
ist and a pianist. 

In 1849 they reached London, where the 
young violinist played a concerto by De 
Beriot, at the seventh Philharmonic concert 
of that season. By the critics at that time 
she was said to be wonderful in bravura 
music, in musical intelligence, and in her 
remarkable accuracy. 

As time went on, and her playing matured, 
she became known throughout Europe. In 
1864 she married Ludwig Norman, conductor 
of the opera at Stockholm, and for a time she 
remained in that city and became a teacher 
at the Royal Music School. 

Before long she was again busy with con- 
cert playing, and in 1869 she again appeared 
in England, where she became a great favour- 
ite, and has appeared there regularly almost, 
if not quite, every season since. Hans von 



Women as Violinists. 315 

Billow spoke of her as Joachim's rival, and 
called her " the violin fairy." 

Joachim has always been a great favourite 
in England, but Madame Norman-Neruda, or 
Lady Halle, as she became later, has fully 
shared his popularity. What Joachim is to 
the sterner sex, just the same is Lady Halle 
to the gentler. 

Joachim was indeed one of the first to 
recognise the fact that he had in Mile. 
Neruda a rival, for in the days when she 
was earning her reputation he heard her at 
some place on the Continent, and remarked 
to Charles Halle, who afterwards became her 
husband, " I recommend this artist to your 
careful consideration. Mark this, when 
people have given her a fair hearing, they 
will think more of her and less of me." 

Ludwig Norman died in 1885, and three 
years later Madame Norman-Neruda married 
the pianist, Charles Halle, who had long been 
identified with all that was best musically in 



316 Famous Violinists. 

England, and who was knighted in recognition 
of his services to the cause of art. 

Sir Charles Halld established a series of 
orchestral concerts at Manchester in 1857, 
and by means of these concerts brought 
before the English public the works of many 
composers who would have remained un- 
known perhaps for years but for his efforts. 
In this work he was ably supported by this 
talented violinist, afterwards his wife, and 
with her he made many tours all over the 
British Isles. 

In 1890 Sir Charles and Lady Halle made 
a tour in Australia, which was highly suc- 
cessful. Five years later they went to South 
Africa, where they met with a flattering 
reception. In his memoirs, Sir Charles 
Halle tells of a curious compliment which 
they received at Pietermaritzburg. The 
mayor invited them to play at a municipal 
concert to be given one Sunday afternoon. 
The concert began, and after an organ solo 



Women as Violinists. 317 

and a song had been given by other musi- 
cians, they played the Kreutzer sonata. At 
the conclusion of the sonata, a member of 
the corporation came forward, and said that 
after the impression just received he thought 
it would be best to omit the remainder of the 
programme, upon which the audience cheered 
and dispersed. 

In 1895, shortly after their return from 
the South African tour, Sir Charles Halle 
died, and Lady Halle" went into retirement. 
At this time her numerous admirers in Eng- 
land presented her with a valuable testimonial 
of their appreciation. 

Throughout her career she has fulfilled 
the prophecies made of her in her youth, for 
her talent and musicianship developed as she 
grew up, and her genius did not burn itself 
out as that of many infant prodigies has 
done. She has never endeavoured to secure 
public applause at the expense of her real 
artistic nature. Her performances are and 



3 1 8 Famous Violinists. 

always have been synonymous with all that 
is good in musical art, and nothing but 
that which is of the best has ever been 
allowed to appear upon her programmes. 

She is celebrated no less as a quartet 
player than as a soloist, and was for many 
years first violin of the Philharmonic Quartet 
in London. 

In 1898, Lady Halle" had the misfortune 
to lose her son, Mr. Norman Neruda, who, 
while scaling a difficult place in the Alps, 
slipped and was killed. 

In the following year she emerged from 
her retirement and visited the United States, 
where her playing was highly appreciated by 
unbiassed critics. There was a feeling, how- 
ever, that she might have made the journey 
many years before, and allowed the American 
public to hear her in her prime, when she 
would have received not only a very warm 
welcome, but would have been judged rather 
by her merits than by her history, and she 



Women as Violinists. 319 

would not have challenged comparison with 
the violinists of the rising generation. 

Camilla Urso has been for many years one 
of the best known violinists in the United 
States. She was born at Nantes, in France, 
in 1 842, of Italian parents. Her father was 
Salvator Urso, a good musician, and son of a 
good musician, so that the young violinist 
inherited some of her talent. In 1852 the 
family crossed the Atlantic and settled in 
the United States, and almost immediately 
the little girl began to appear at concerts. 
Camilla Urso began to study the violin at 
the age of six years, and her choice of that 
instrument was determined by her hearing 
the violin and being fascinated by it during 
a celebration of the Mass of St. Cecilia. She 
was taken to Paris for instruction, for which 
purpose her father abandoned his position at 
Nantes. She entered the Conservatoire and 
became a pupil of Massart. 

She made a tour through Germany, during 



320 Famous Violinists. 

which she met with immense success, and 
then returned to Paris to continue her 
studies. 

She was fresh from Massart's instruction 
when, in October, 1852, she made her first 
appearance in Boston, where her playing and 
her style called forth eulogies from the critics 
of those days. John S. Dvvight wrote to the 
effect that it was one of the most touching 
experiences of his life to see and hear the 
charming little maiden, so natural and child- 
like, so full of sentiment and thought, so self- 
possessed and graceful. Her tone was pure, 
and her intonation faultless, and she played 
with a " fine and caressing delicacy," and 
gave out strong passages in chords with 
thrilling grandeur. 

For three years she continued to travel 
and delight American audiences, and then 
for a period of about five years she retired 
into private life, and did not resume her pro- 
fessional career until 1862, from which time 



Women as Violinists. 321 

she frequently made concert tours in America 
until she returned to Paris. It was about 
the period of these tours that her influence 
upon young women began to be felt, for she 
was at an age when womanly grace becomes 
evident, and her manners and character were 
as fascinating as her playing. 

In Paris she so pleased M. Pasdeloup that 
he begged her not to allow herself to be 
heard in public until she had played at his 
concerts. " You may count upon a splendid 
triumph," he said. " It is /who tell you so. 
Your star is in the ascendant, and soon it 
will shine at the zenith of the artistic 
firmament." 

The result justified the prophecy, and 
Camilla Urso was the recipient of great 
honours in Paris. She was presented by 
the public with a pair of valuable diamond 
earrings, and was treated almost like a prima 
donna. 

In March, 1867, Mile. Urso received a 



322 Famous Violinists. 

testimonial from the musical profession in 
Boston, where a few years later she had 
a curious experience. She was playing a 
Mozart concerto, at a concert, when an 
alarm of fire was given, and caused a good 
deal of excitement. Many of the audience 
left their seats and made for the door, but 
the violinist stood unmoved until the alarm 
was subdued and the audience returned to 
their seats, when she played the interrupted 
movement through from the beginning. 

In 1879 sne m ade a tour to Australia, and 
again in 1894. 

In 1895 she was in South Africa, and 
achieved great triumphs in Cape Town, 
besides giving concerts at such out-of-the- 
way places as Bloemfontein. She has prob- 
ably travelled farther than any other violin 
virtuosa. 

For the past few years she has lived in 
New York, and has practically retired from 
the concert stage. 



Women as Violinists. 323 

? 
Teresina Tua, who was well known in the 

United States about 1887, was born at Turin 
in 1867. As in the case of Wilhelmina 
Neruda and of Camilla Urso, her father was 
a musician, and she received her early 
musical instruction from him. Her first 
appearance in public was made at the age 
of seven, and up to that time she had re- 
ceived no instruction, except that given her 
by her father. During her first tour she 
played at Nice, where a wealthy Russian 
lady, Madame Rosen, became interested in 
her, and provided the means to go to Paris, 
where she was placed under Massart. 

In 1880 Signorina Tua won the first prize 
for violin playing at the Paris Conservatoire, 
and the following year made a concert tour 
which extended through France and Spain 
to Italy. In 1882 she appeared in Vienna, 
and in 1883 in London, where she played 
at the Crystal Palace. Wherever she went 
people of wealth and distinction showed the 



324 Famous Violinists. 

greatest interest in her, and when she came 
to America in 1887 she appeared laden with 
jewelry given her by royalty. Her list of 
jewels was given in the journals of that day, 
"a miniature violin and bow ablaze with 
diamonds, given by the Prince and Princess 
of Wales ; a double star with a solitaire pearl 
in the centre, and each point tipped with 
pearls, from Queen Margherita of Italy." 
Besides these, there were diamonds from 
the Queen of Spain and from the Empress 
of Russia and sundry grand duchesses. No 
lady violinist ever appeared before an Amer- 
ican audience more gorgeously arrayed. 
" Fastened all over the bodice of her soft 
white woollen gown she wore these spark- 
ling jewels, and in her hair were two or 
three diamond stars," said the account in 
Dwight's Journal of Music. Yet with all 
this the criticisms of her playing were some- 
what lukewarm. The expectation of the 
people had been wrought up to an unreas- 



Women as Violinists. 325 

enable pitch, and Signorina Tua, while she 
was acknowledged to be an excellent and 
charming violinist, was not considered great. 
After a time, however, as she became better 
known, she grew in popular estimation, and 
before she left America she had hosts of 
admirers. 

On returning to Europe she made another 
tour, but shortly afterwards she married 
Count Franchi Verney della Valetta, a dis- 
tinguished Italian critic, and retired into pri- 
vate life, though from time to time she was 
heard in concerts in Italy. 

In 1897 she was again on the concert 
stage, and played at St. James's Hall, Lon- 
don, after an absence of eight years, and it 
was considered that her playing had gained 
in breadth, while her technique was as 
perfect as ever. 

Of the three hundred or more pupils of 
Joachim, there have been several ladies who 
have attained celebrity, of whom Miss Emily 



326 Famous Violinists. 

Shinner (now Mrs. A. F. Liddell) has been 
for some years the most prominent in Eng- 
land, while the names of Gabrielle Wietro- 
witz and Marie Soldat are known throughout 
Europe, and Maude Powell and Leonora Jack- 
son are among the brightest lights from the 
United States. 

Miss Emily Shinner has been in many 
respects a pioneer amongst lady violinists, for 
in 1874, when quite young, she went to 
Berlin to study the violin. In those days 
pupils of the fair sex were not admitted to 
the Hochschule, and Miss Shinner began 
to study under Herr Jacobsen. It happened, 
however, that a lady from Silesia arrived at 
Berlin, intending to take lessons of Joachim, 
but unaware of the rules against the admis- 
sion of women to the Hochschule. Joachim 
interested himself in her, and she was exam- 
ined for admission. Miss Shinner at once 
presented herself as a second candidate, and 
the result was that both ladies were accepted 



Women as Violinists. 327 

as probationers. In six months Miss Shin- 
ner was allowed to become a pupil of 
Joachim, and thus gained the distinction of 
being the first girl violinist to study under 
the great professor. 

Again in 1884 Miss Shinner, having ac- 
quired a great reputation in musical circles 
in England, was called upon at very short 
notice to take Madame Neruda's place as 
leader to the " Pop " Quartet, on which occa- 
sion she acquitted herself so well that an 
encore of the second movement of the quar- 
tet was demanded. Since that time she has 
been always before the public, and has taken 
special interest in chamber music and quar- 
tet playing, the Shinner Quartet of ladies 
having acquired a national reputation. 

Her marriage to Capt. A. F. Liddell took 
place in 1889. 

Marie Soldat was born at Gratz in 1863 
or 1864, and was the daughter of a musician, 
who was pianist, organist, and choirmaster, 



328 Famous Violinists. 

and who gave her instruction from her fifth 
year on the piano. Two years later she 
began to learn the organ, and was soon able 
to act as substitute for her father when 
occasion required her services. Until her 
twelfth year she studied music vigorously, 
taking violin lessons with Pleiner at the 
Steier Musical Union at Gratz, and com- 
position with Thierot, the Kapellmeister, at 
the same time keeping on with the piano- 
forte. 

She played the phantasie-caprice by 
Vieuxtemps in a concert at the Musical 
Union when she was ten years of age, and 
at thirteen she went on a tour and played 
Bruch's G minor concerto. 

Soon after this she had the misfortune to 
lose her father, and a little later her violin 
teacher, Pleiner, also died, so that her prog- 
ress received a check. Joachim, however, 
visited Gratz to play at a concert, and the 
young girl went to him and consulted him 



Women as Violinists. 329 

as to her future course. As a result of the 
interview she began to take lessons of August 
Pott, a good violinist at Gratz, and the 
following year (1879) sne again went on 
a concert tour, visiting several cities in 
Austria. 

During this tour, she made the acquaint- 
ance of Johannes Brahms, who took a great 
deal of interest in her, advised her to devote 
all her energies to the violin, and succeeded 
in arranging for another interview with 
Joachim, the result of which was that she 
was enabled to enter the Berlin High School 
for Music. Here she pursued her studies 
until 1882, after which she still continued 
her studies and took private lessons of 
Joachim. 

At the high school she gained the 
Mendelssohn prize, and from that time 
commenced her career as a virtuosa, tour- 
ing extensively throughout Europe. One 
of her greatest triumphs was when, in 1885, 



33 Famous Violinists. 

at Vienna, she played Brahm's violin con- 
certo with Richter's orchestra. 

Her career has been marked by hard 
work and continual practice, which have 
enabled her to overcome many obstacles, 
and have placed her on a level with the very 
best violinists of her sex. 

The Ladies' String Quartet, which she 
formed in Berlin, consisting of herself as first 
violin, with Agnes Tschetchulin, Gabrielle 
Roy, and Lucie Campbell, had a creditable 
career, and appeared in several German 
cities. 

In 1889 Marie Soldat married a lawyer 
named Roger, but did not retire from her 
profession. She is now known as Madame 
Soldat-Roger. 

Gabrielle Wietrowitz was born a few years 
later, in 1866, at Laibach, and was also a 
pupil at the Musical Institute at Gratz. 
Her father was a military bandsman who 
had some knowledge of the violin, which 



Women as Violinists. 331 

enabled him to give his daughter elementary 
instruction on that instrument. 

After a few years he left Laibach to settle 
in Gratz, and Gabrielle took violin lessons 
from A. Geyer (some accounts say Caspar). 
On entering the Musical Union she made 
a sensation by playing brilliantly at a concert 
before a large audience. She was then 
eleven years of age, and from that time she 
made the most rapid progress, taking first 
prize at the annual trial concert. In con- 
sequence of her great promise Count Aichel- 
burg, who was a member of the Directorate 
of the Musical Union, presented her with 
a valuable violin, and the Directorate assigned 
her a yearly salary which enabled her to 
go to Berlin and enter the high school, where 
she became a pupil of Joachim in 1882. 

At the high school her career was as 
brilliant as it had been in Gratz, for at the 
end of her first year she succeeded in cap- 
turing the Mendelssohn prize, which brought 



332 Famous Violinists. 

her 1,500 marks, and at the end of her third 
year she took it for a second time. 

She remained at the high school three 
years, after which she began a splendid 
career by playing the concerto by Brahms 
at the St. Cecilia Festival at Miinster. Then 
followed a series of concert tours, which re- 
sulted in securing her a reputation as one 
of the most brilliant stars amongst women. 

Miss Wietrowitz plays with the most con- 
summate ease the greatest works of the 
modern school. She has a powerful and 
brilliant tone, with sweet tenderness and 
sympathy, which appeal to the soul of the 
listener, and she confines her repertoire to 
the highest class of musical compositions. 
She has recently succeeded Miss Emily 
Shinner as first violin in the quartet which 
that talented lady established in England. 

The most recent star of Europe is Madame 
Saenger-Sethe, whose appearances are invari- 
ably followed by eulogies from the critics. 



Women as Violinists. 333 

In Berlin, when she appeared at the Singa- 
kademie, in November, 1898, where she was 
assisted by the Philharmonic Orchestra, one 
critic declared that no violin playing had 
been heard to compare with it during that 
season, with the exception of Burmester's 
performance of the Beethoven concerto. 
" Such wealth and sensuous beauty of tone, 
such certainty of technique, such mental grasp 
of the work, and at the same time such all- 
conquering temperament have not been heard 
in Berlin at the hands of a female violinist 
during several years." After many recalls, 
she gave, as an encore, a rousing performance 
of a Bach sarabande. 

Mile. Irma Sethe was born on April 28, 
1876, at Brussels, and such was her early 
aptitude for music that at the age of five 
she was placed under a violinist of repute, 
named Jokisch, who in three months from 
the start taught her to play a Mozart sonata. 
Five years of hard study enabled her to 



334 Famous Violinists. 

appear at a concert at Marchiennes, when 
she played a concerto by De Beriot and the 
rondo capriccioso by Saint-Saens. The fol- 
lowing year she played at Aix-la-Chapelle, 
and made such an impression that several 
offers of concert engagements were made, 
but were declined by her mother on the 
score of the child's health, and for three 
years after this she never appeared at a 
concert. 

One summer, during the holidays, she met 
August Wilhelmj, who was charmed with 
her talent, and devoted his mornings for two 
months to giving her lessons daily. At the 
end of that time he emphasised his appreci- 
ation by making her a present of a valuable 
violin. She still continued her regular studies 
with Jokisch, until, acting on the advice of 
her friends, she obtained a hearing from 
Ysaye, and played for him Bach's prelude 
and fugue in G minor. 

Ysaye at once recognised her immense 



Women as Violinists. 335 

ability, and advised her to enter the conser- 
vatoire at Brussels, which she did, with the 
result that in eight months she carried off 
the first prize, being then only fifteen years 
of age. She continued her studies for three 
more years, and was frequently employed as 
a substitute for Ysaye, as professor, to teach 
his classes while he was absent on concert 
tours. 

In 1894 she appeared with him at a num- 
ber of important concerts, and shortly after- 
wards made her first concert tour, visiting 
many of the principal towns of Germany. 
In November, 1895, she made her first ap- 
pearance in London, where she was pro- 
nounced to be, with the exception of Lady 
Halle, the most remarkable lady violinist 
who had ever appeared before the public in 
England, and where her excellent technique, 
perfect intonation, warmth of feeling, and 
musical insight were highly, almost extrava- 
gantly, praised. 



336 Famous Violinists, 

In August, 1898, Mile. Sethe married 
Doctor Saenger, a litterateur, and professor 
of philosophy at Berlin, but she continues 
her career as a violinist, and has made sev- 
eral tours of Europe. She has been com- 
pared to Rubinstein, inasmuch as her 
remarkable musica.1 temperament and irre- 
sistible impulsiveness carry her at times 
almost beyond the limits of her instrument, 
but these are the very qualities by which she 
captivates and carries away her hearers. 

Among other European ladies who have 
made their mark as violinists, and whose 
stars are in the ascendant, may be men- 
tioned Sophie Jaffe, who has been called the 
greatest of all women violinists, and Frida 
Scotta. 

Although many years behind the conti- 
nent of Europe in musical life, and with a 
musical atmosphere not nearly as dense as 
that found in almost any village of Italy, 
France, or Germany, America has contributed 



Women as Violinists. 337 

to the musical world many shining lights 
during the past few years. Mile. Urso 
has been claimed as an American violinist, 
though she was born in Europe and was a 
good violinist before she reached these 
shores, but in 1864, in New York, Arma 
Senkrah was born, who for a few years 
rivalled Teresina Tua. 

The real name of Arma Senkrah was 
Harkness, which for professional purposes 
she " turned end for end," as the sailors 
would say, and dropped an " s." After Miss 
Harkness had been taught the elements of 
music by her mother, she went to Brussels 
to study under Wieniawski, and then to 
Paris, where she became a pupil of Massart. 
She is said also to have taken lessons of 
Vieuxtemps and of Arno Hilf. 

In 1 88 1 she won the first prize at the 
Paris Conservatoire, a feat which always 
stamps the winner "artist." From 1877 to 
1880 Arma Senkrah travelled a great deal 



338 Famous Violinists. 

throughout Europe, and in 1882 she played, 
under her proper name, at the Crystal Pal- 
ace, London. She was created, at Weimar, 
a chamber virtuoso, by the grand duke. 
Here she met and shortly afterwards married 
a lawyer named Hoffman, and disappeared 
from the concert platform. 

New York has contributed other stars to 
the violin firmament, for Nettie Carpenter 
and Geraldine Morgan are names which have 
become well known. 

Miss Carpenter went abroad at an early 
age, though not until she had appeared in 
concerts in her native city, and created 
considerable interest. 

On going to Paris, she was successful in 
passing the entrance examinations for the 
Conservatoire, and in 1884 won the first 
prize for violin playing. In 1882 she ap- 
peared in London at the promenade concerts, 
and again in 1884, when she confirmed the 
reputation which she had made two years 



Women as Violinists. 339 

previously, at the same concerts. From that 
time on she went through the usual routine 
of the concert violinist, with considerable 
success. 

In 1 894 she married Leo Stern, the violon- 
cello player, but the union did not continue 
for long, Mr. Stern becoming about four 
years later the husband of Miss Suzanne 
Adams, the opera singer. 

Miss Geraldine Morgan is the daughter of 
John P. Morgan, who was for some years 
organist of Old Trinity Church, New York. 
She studied in her native city under Leopold 
Damrosch, besides which she received much 
instruction from her father. Then she went 
to Leipzig, where she studied with Schra- 
dieck, after which she was the pupil in Berlin 
of Joachim, under whose guidance she re- 
mained eight years. She was the first 
American who ever gained the Mendelssohn 
prize. 

Miss Morgan has made tours through the 



34O Famous Violinists. 

Continent and Great Britain, and had the 
honour of playing the Bach double concerto 
with Joachim at the Crystal Palace. In 1891 
she appeared in New York under the aus- 
pices of Walter Damrosch. 

A lady who holds a high position among 
the violinists of the world is Miss Maud 
Powell, who was born in Aurora, 111., in 
1868. Her father is American and her 
mother German. She began her musical 
education at the age of four, by taking piano 
lessons. At eight she took up the violin, 
and made such excellent progress that, when 
she was thirteen years old, she was taken to 
Leipzig, where she studied under Schradieck, 
and received her diploma in a year, playing 
also at one of the Gewandhaus concerts. 

She next went to Paris, where she was the 
first selected out of eighty applicants for 
admission to the Conservatoire. In the fol- 
lowing year she accepted an engagement 
for a tour in England, and had the honour 




MAUD POWELL 



Women as Violinists. 341 

of playing before the royal family. While in 
London Joachim heard her, and expressed 
his approval of her capabilities by inviting 
her to go to Berlin and become one of his 
pupils, which she accordingly did, and re- 
mained with him for two years. 

In 1885 she made her de"but in Berlin at 
the Philharmonic concerts, when she played 
the Bruch concerto, which she also played in 
Philadelphia later in the same year. Her 
performance in America brought her much 
praise, and she was declared to be a marvel- 
lously gifted woman, one who in every fea- 
ture of her playing disclosed the instincts 
and gifts of a born artist, though she had 
not yet reached the heights of her ability. 
Since that time she has gained in breadth, 
and has become a mature artist. 

Miss Powell has appeared in the best con- 
certs throughout America, and has gained a 
reputation second to no American violinist. 
By many she is declared to be the equal of 



342 Famous Violinists. 

Soldat and Wietrovvitz in tone, technique, 
and interpretative power. She has an im- 
mense repertoire, and is also a student of 
literature. She also is said to have been 
the first to establish a female quartet in 
America. 

The latest American lady violinist to gain 
honours abroad is Miss Leonora Jackson, 
who won the Mendelssohn state prize at 
Berlin, in 1898, and who has gained a great 
reputation by her performances before the 
most important musical organisations in 
Europe. 

Miss Jackson was fortunate enough to 
attract the attention of Mrs. Grover Cleve- 
land, who admired her talent, and, with Mr. 
George Vanderbilt, sent her abroad. For 
two years she studied in Paris, and then went 
to Berlin, where she became a pupil of 
Joachim. In Berlin she made her debut in 
1896, with the Philharmonic Orchestra, 
which was conducted by Joachim on that 



Women as Violinists. 343 

occasion. Shortly afterwards she was com- 
manded by the Empress of Germany to play 
at the Royal Opera House, in Berlin, and 
she soon earned for herself a position 
amongst the best of the rising violinists of 
the day. 

When she appeared in London, in 1898, 
she surprised and delighted the audience, 
displaying a fine tone, natural musical feel- 
ing, and complete technique. Few violinists 
can play with such quiet, intense sentiment. 
Miss Jackson, though but twenty years of 
age, is already a veteran concert player, for 
she has appeared in many cities of Europe, 
and was already known in America before 
she went to Berlin. She played in July, 
1 899, before the Queen of England at Wind- 
sor Castle, and again in August at Osborne 
House, in the Isle of Wight. 

The time has long since gone by when 
mere showy technique would earn a reputa- 
tion for any violinist, male or female, and 



344 Famous Violinists. 

she who expects to be numbered with the 
great violinists must be first of all a musi- 
cian, capable of interpreting the greatest 
works. If in addition to this she has " the 
divine spark," she will be truly great. 



CHAPTER XL 

FAMOUS QUARTETS. 

QUARTET playing is at once the delight 
and the despair of the amateur, who finds no 
greater pleasure than an evening spent in 
endeavouring to unravel the intricacies of 
chamber music, nor any keener disappoint- 
ment than the realisation that it is capable 
of far better interpretation. 

For the professional there are many influ- 
ences which cause him to hesitate before he 
launches forth upon the quicksands of public 
performance. The first necessity in profes- 
sional quartet playing is the devotion of a 
large amount of time to the acquisition of a 
perfect ensemble. A quartet may be likened 
345 



346 Famous Violinists. 

unto a family, in which the members learn to 
know one another by being brought up to- 
gether, and few are the professionals who can 
sacrifice the time necessary for the acquisition 
of this perfect ensemble. 

Apparently very little was done previous to 
the nineteenth century in the way of quartet 
concerts, but Baillot founded a series of quartet 
concerts in Paris, which were highly spoken 
of, and about the same time Schuppanzigh, 
an excellent violinist and teacher in Vienna, 
established a quartet which became famous. 
In this quartet Mayseder played, in his 
younger days, second violin. Mayseder was 
considered the foremost violinist in Vienna, 
but he never travelled as a virtuoso. 

When Spohr went first to Leipzig and was 
unknown, he had to find a way by which he 
could attract attention to himself, in those 
days the advertising agent was not much 
in evidence, so that he might give a con- 
cert with a reasonable prospect of success. 



Famous Quartets. 347 

The rich merchants, to whom he had brought 
letters of introduction, knew nothing of him 
and received him coldly. " I was very anx- 
ious to be invited to play at one of their 
music parties in order to draw attention to 
myself," Spohr says in his autobiography, 
"and my wish was fulfilled, for I was 
invited to a grand party and asked to play 
something. I chose one of the loveliest of 
the six new quartets of Beethoven, with 
which I had often charmed my hearers in 
Brunswick. But after a few bars I already 
noticed that my accompanists knew not the 
music and were quite incapable of playing it. 
This disturbed me, and my dismay increased 
when I observed that the assembled com- 
pany paid little attention to my playing. 
Conversation became general, and ultimately 
so loud as almost to drown the music. I 
rose in the midst of the music, hurried to my 
violin case without saying a word, and was on 
the point of putting my instrument away. 



348 Famous Violinists. 

This made quite a sensation in the company, 
and the host approached me questioningly. 
I met him with the remark, which could 
be heard everywhere, ' I have always been 
accustomed to be listened to with attention. 
As it has been otherwise here, I thought 
the company would prefer that I should 
stop.' The host did not know at first how 
to reply, and retired somewhat discomfited. 
As I made preparations for leaving, after 
having excused myself to the other musicians, 
the host came up and said, quite amicably : 
' If you could but play something else, some- 
thing more suitable to the taste and capacity 
of the company, you would find them an 
attentive and grateful audience.' It was 
clear to me before that I had chosen the 
wrong music in the first instance for such 
a company, and I was glad enough now to 
have an opportunity to change it. So I took 
up my violin again and played Rode's E flat 
quartet, which the musicians already knew 



Famous Quartets. 349 

and accompanied well enough. This time 
there was perfect silence, and the enthusiasm 
for my playing increased with each move- 
ment. At the end of the quartet so much 
flattery was heaped upon me that I trotted 
out my hobby-horse, the G variations of 
Rode. With this piece I made quite a sen- 
sation, and for the remainder of the evening 
I was the object of the most flattering 
attention." 

This little episode shows that Beethoven 
was not fully appreciated, and it also shows 
that quartet playing was regarded at that 
time in an entirely different light from that 
in which we are accustomed to think of it to- 
day. We do not consider the first violinist a 
soloist and the rest merely his accompani- 
ment, but each member of the quartet is 
practically of equal importance. 

Lambert Joseph Massart, the eminent 
teacher of Paris, is said to have been an ex- 
cellent quartet player, and often, with his 



350 Famous Violinists. 

wife, an admirable pianist, he gave delightful 
chamber concerts. 

Few violinists have been more closely 
associated with quartet playing than Ferdi- 
nand David, in his way one of the most 
celebrated violinists. Little is known of his 
early youth except that he was born at Ham- 
burg in 1 8 10, and was there at the time of the 
French occupation. It has been said that he 
played in a concert at ten years of age and at 
thirteen became a pupil of Spohr at Cassel. 
He made a concert tour with his sister, 
Madame Dulcken, and in 1827 entered the 
orchestra of the Konigstadt Theatre at Berlin. 
Here he became acquainted with Mendels- 
sohn, with whom he was from that time on 
terms of the greatest intimacy. While in 
Berlin he was heard by a wealthy musical 
amateur named Liphart, who lived at Dorpat, 
and who maintained a private quartet. He 
engaged David, who eventually married his 
daughter, to lead this quartet, and for several 



Famous Quartets. 351 

years the young violinist remained in Dorpat, 
though he found opportunity to make some 
concert tours through the north of P^urope. 

When Mendelssohn was appointed con- 
ductor of the Gewandhaus concerts at Leip- 
zig, he sent for David and made him concert 
master, which post he occupied from 1836. 
Seven years later the conservatory was 
founded by Mendelssohn, and David became 
professor of violin, in which position his 
influence became great and beneficial. 

In Leipzig David established a quartet, 
which was one of the best, if not the very 
best, in its day, though it may have been 
surpassed later by the Florentine Quartet 
and those of Joachim, in London and Ber- 
lin, and possibly by Brodsky's later Leipzig 
quartet. 

David died in 1873, beloved and respected, 
and will be remembered as one of the most 
refined musicians and admirable teachers of 
the century. 



352 Famous Violinists. 

Josef Hellmesberger, one of the most 
brilliant violinists and noted teachers of 
Vienna, founded, in 1849, a quartet which 
achieved an immense reputation. His asso- 
ciates were Heissler, Durst, and Schlesinger. 
Hellmesberger made a point of rinding works 
of merit which had sunk into oblivion, but 
which were worthy of a hearing. Hellmes- 
berger spent the whole of his life in Vienna, 
with the exception of a tour in 1847, and 
he held the highest musical office in the 
Austrian Empire, that of director of the 
Imperial Band. 

A story which is told of him bears tes- 
timony to his remarkable musical instinct. 
Teresa Milanollo, in 1840, took a new man- 
uscript by De Beriot to Vienna. She wished 
to keep it for her own use, and did not 
show it to anybody. Hellmesberger heard 
it played at two rehearsals, and then went 
home and wrote out the whole work from 
memory. 



Famous Quartets. 353 

No small portion of the immense influence 
which Joachim has wielded in the musical 
world has been directed toward quartet 
playing, and he has established a quartet 
in London and another one at Berlin, which 
both bear an enviable reputation. His 
chamber music classes, too, at the Berlin 
High School, tend to develop admirable 
quartet players ; thus we find Marie Soldat 
organising a ladies' quartet which had a 
good career, and Gabrielle Wietrowitz taking 
the place of first violin in the excellent 
ladies' quartet formed in England by Miss 
Emily Shinner. 1 Miss Shinner, whose efforts 
in the artistic world have been of great value, 
and whose quartet has an immense reputa- 
tion in England, was also a pupil of Joachim. 

The " Florentine Quartet " was founded 
by Jean Becker, a violinist of excellent ability, 

1 The Shinner Quartet consisted of Miss Emily Shin- 
ner (Mrs. F. Liddell), first violin, Miss Lucy H. Stone, 
second violin, Miss Cecilia Gates, viola, and Miss Flor- 
ence Hemmings, violoncello. 



354 Famous Violinists. 

who made his mark in Europe about the 
middle of the nineteenth century. Becker 
was travelling in Italy in 1865, and settled 
in Florence for a time, during which he 
organised the above-mentioned quartet, with 
Masi, second violin, Chiostri, viola, and Hil- 
pert, violoncello. In Florence there existed 
a society for the performance of chamber 
music, which had been established by a 
wealthy professor named Bazzini, a violinist 
and composer who travelled much, and whose 
influence in Italy, in the cause of German 
music, was of great value. Bazzini was born 
in 1818 and died in 1897. 

From time to time this society gave sub- 
scription concerts, and Becker was invited 
to lead ten such concerts during the winter 
of 1865-66. He consented to do so, but 
found the quartet in a state of dissolution. 
He brought Hilpert with him, and engaged 
Masi as second violin, Chiostro being the 
only member of the original quartet. Masi 



Famous Quartets. 355 

was not accustomed to chamber music, but 
Becker took him in hand and he improved 
rapidly. In order to still enhance his value 
in the quartet, Becker presented him with 
a Stradivarius violin. They remained in 
Florence until their ensemble was absolutely 
perfect, and then began a series of tours 
which took them all over Europe. In Vienna 
the quartet was subjected to comparison with 
those of Hellmesberger and of Joachim, for 
the former had just given six chamber con- 
certs, and the latter three. The first concert 
given by the Florentine Quartet was thinly 
attended, but the report of its excellence 
brought an overflowing audience to the 
second concert, and in all ten were given 
during the remainder of the season. 

About 1875 Hilpert withdrew, and his 
place was filled by Hegyesi, who remained 
with the quartet until it was disbanded in 
1880. 

An excellent series of quartet concerts 



3 56 Famous Violinists. 

was founded in Stuttgart by Edmund Singer, 
who was appointed professor of violin in 
the Conservatorium, leader of the court 
music, and chamber musician, in 1861, after 
a distinguished career of some ten or more 
years as a virtuoso. These concerts met 
with triumphant success. 

Georg J. R. Heckmann founded a quartet 
at Cologne and travelled through Europe, 
but it was surpassed by the Florentine 
Quartet, and did not gain the highest repu- 
ation. 

A quartet which has been pronounced to 
be one of the best in existence is that which 
is led by Jeno Hubay, in Pesth, and in which 
Hegyesi, formerly of the Florentine Quartet, 
is the 'cellist. 

Adolf Brodsky, who for a time resided in 
New York, founded a string quartet at Leip- 
zig, with Hans Becker, son of the founder 
of the Florentine Quartet, Hans Sitt, and 
Julius Klengel, the 'cellist, and this quartet 



Famous Quartets. 357 

was said to have no superior in Europe, and 
not more than one equal, the Joachim 
Quartet of Berlin. In 1891 Brodsky went 
to New York, where he also established a 
quartet, but with little success. The organisa- 
tion was received with respect, owing to Mr. 
Brodsky 's European reputation, but it was 
admitted on all hands that superior organ- 
isations existed in America. Before Mr. 
Brodsky had time to bring his quartet to 
a high degree of proficiency, he returned 
to Europe, and, after a brief stay in Ger- 
many, accepted a position in England, where 
he has established another quartet. 

He was succeeded in the quartet at Leip- 
zig and at the conservatory by Arno Hilf, a 
distinguished violinist with an enormous 
technique, who was born in 1858 and was 
taught by David, Rontgen, and Schradieck. 

Quartet playing in public was established 
in England in 1835, when the admirers of 
Joseph Dando, an excellent violinist, opened 



358 Famous Violinists. 

a subscription for the purpose of giving 
some concerts in which the chamber music, 
and especially the quartets of Haydn, Mozart, 
Beethoven, Spohr, etc., should be performed. 
The first concert was given at the Horn 
Tavern, Doctors'-Commons, in London, on 
September 2$d of that year, and being highly 
successful, a second was given on Octo- 
ber 1 2th, and a third on the 26th, each 
proving more attractive than its predecessor. 
These concerts lasted for two seasons, when 
a new quartet was formed, with H. G. Bla- 
grove and Henry Gattie as first and second 
violins, Mr. Dando, viola, and Mr. Lucas, 
'cello, for the more perfect study and presen- 
tation of quartets and other chamber music. 
These concerts were given at the Hanover 
Square rooms, and on account of the care 
bestowed upon the rehearsals (of which they 
held seven or eight for each concert), they 
threw all previous performances into the 
shade. 



Famous Quartets. 359 

The tide of public favour had now set in, 
and other quartets were formed, but none 
reached such excellence as that headed by 
Blagrove, which was invited to play at the 
Philharmonic concerts, where it produced a 
great sensation. 

About the end of the seventh season 
Blagrove withdrew, but the quartet con- 
tinued in existence for many years, Mr. 
Dando playing first violin, and Mr. Loder, 
the viola, and the concerts were given at 
Crosby Hall in the city, instead of the 
Hanover Square rooms. 

At St. Petersburg a quartet was formed 
by Leopold Auer, an excellent violinist, who 
at the death of Wieniawski was appointed 
professor of violin at the Conservatoire. 
Auer was born in Hungary, and became 
a pupil of Dont at Vienna, after which he 
had a brilliant career as a virtuoso in Europe. 
His St. Petersburg quartet was founded in 
1868, and became one of the leading musical 



360 Famous Violinists. 

organisations of the Russian capital, until the 
death of Davidoff, the violoncellist, who was 
one of its members, in 1890. 

Auer has been very active in the musical 
life of St. Petersburg, and is very highly 
esteemed both as a man and as a musician, 
teacher, and performer. 

A quartet which has gained a great reputa- 
tion in Europe during recent years is the 
Bohemian Quartet, consisting of Carl Hoff- 
mann, first violin, Joseph Suk, second violin, 
Oscar Nedbal, viola, and Hanus Wihom, 
violoncello. They play with a great deal 
of vim and abandon, and the ensemble is 
remarkable. 

At Hanover Richard Sahla has established 
a quartet, with Meneke, Kugler, and Loele- 
berg, and Arnold Rosa's quartet, of Vienna, 
has travelled in Hungary, Italy, and other 
countries, gaining a good reputation. 

In the United States there have been well 
meant efforts to found good quartets, and 



Famous Quartets. 361 

these have all had a beneficial influence. 
In Boston Mr. Bernhard Listemann, some 
twenty years ago, established a quartet which 
gave some very delightful concerts, but the 
past decade has witnessed the rise of an 
organisation which is able to bear comparison 
with any quartet in the world. 

The Kneisel Quartet was organised in 
1885, the year in which Mr. Franz Kneisel 
accepted the position of concert-master to 
the Boston Symphony Orchestra. Mr. Henry 
L. Higginson invited him at the same time 
to organise a quartet, and a series of con- 
certs was given that season in Chickering 
Hall. While the excellence of the quartet 
was apparent from the start, there were com- 
paratively few people in Boston who took 
much interest in chamber music, and the 
audiences were, as a rule, small. Year by 
year they have increased, and for the past 
few years it has been necessary to give the 
concerts in Association Hall, which has a 



362 Famous Violinists. 

seating capacity about twice as large as that 
of the original hall. 

The second violin is Mr. Otto Roth, 1 a 
native of Vienna, who played for three years 
under the baton of Hans Richter, and came 
to Boston to play first violin in the Symphony 
Orchestra. 

Mr. Louis Svecenski, an excellent artist, 
who studied in the Vienna Conservatory, 
under Hellmesberger and Grim, plays the 
viola, and the 'cellist is Alwyn Schroeder, 
an artist, who had achieved a high reputa- 
tion as a 'cello virtuoso, before he came to 
America. 

After a few years the Kneisel Quartet 
began to appear in other cities, and now 
gives regular series of subscription concerts 
in New York, Washington, Baltimore, Hart- 
ford, and Worcester, also Harvard, Yale, 
and Princeton Universities, besides occasional 

1 Mr. Roth retired from the quartet in 1899 and his 
place was filled by Mr. Karl Ondricek. 




FRAXZ KNEISEL 



Famous Quartets. 363 

performances in more remote cities. In 
1896 the quartet had given over eight hun- 
dred concerts since its formation. 

At the end of the Symphony season in Bos- 
ton, in 1896, the Kneisel Quartet made a visit 
to London and gave several concerts. In 
London it was obliged to stand comparison 
with the finest quartets in existence. The 
Joachim Quartet and the Bohemian Quartet 
gave concerts the same season, but the 
unanimous verdict was to the effect that 
none could equal the Kneisel Quartet in 
absolute ensemble and perfection of detail. 
While the Bohemian Quartet played with a 
great deal of abandon and enthusiasm, and 
the Joachim Quartet contained players of 
a greater reputation in Europe, yet the 
Kneisel Quartet simply confirmed the repu- 
tation it had acquired in America. "It 
would, indeed, be impossible to conceive 
greater perfection in the matter of en- 
semble, precision, delicacy, and all the qual- 



364 Famous Violinists. 

ities requisite for the proper interpretation 
of chamber music." 

In the spring of 1 899 the Kneisel Quartet 
made an extended tour in America, and 
found the musical condition of the great 
cities in the United States, as evidenced by 
the appreciation of music, fully equal to that 
of the European centres. Brahms and Bee- 
thoven were played in Denver and in San 
Francisco to audiences who were fully equal 
to the enjoyment of the highest class of 
music, and everywhere the quartet was 
greeted with enthusiasm. 

The success of the Kneisel Quartet is due 
to the long and arduous practice which the 
members have enjoyed together, for perfec- 
tion in quartet playing is only possible 
through long association. 

While virtuosity is not essential for quar- 
tet playing, good musicianship is very neces- 
sary. Patient and self-denying practice are 
absolute requisites. 



Famous Quartets. 365 

The love of chamber music is apparently 
growing in the United States, for in many 
of the large cities quartets have been estab- 
lished by good musicians, and the oppor- 
tunities for hearing fine interpretations of 
the best chamber music are increasing each 
year. It is a branch of musical art which 
appeals only to cultivated taste, for it is 
necessarily free from sensationalism and 
individual display. Therefore, the love 
of quartet playing may be considered to be 
a true index of the growth of musical 
culture. 



THE END. 



CHRONOLOGICAL TABLE OF 
FAMOUS VIOLINISTS. 

" C " indicates that the date given is only approximate. 



NAME. 


Place and Date of 
Birth. 


Place and Date of 
Death. 


Alessandro, Romano . 


Italy 


'53 


? 


? 


Baltazarini .... 


Italy 


'55 


? 


? 


Farina, Carlo 


Italy 


1580 


? 


? 


Alberghi, Paolo . 


Italy 


1600 


i> 


? 


Biber, Henry J. . 


England 


1600 


? 


? 


Cortellini, Camillo 


Italy 


1600 


? 


> 


Madorus, Giovanni 


Venice 


1600 


? 


? 


Manoir, Guillaume 


? 


1600 


? 


? 


Baltzar, Thomas . 


Lubec 


6 3 o 


London 


1663 


Bannister, John . 


England 


1630 


London 


1679 


Lulli, Jean Baptiste de 


Florence 


i633 


Paris 


1687 


Strunck, Nicolas Adam 


Germany 


1640 


j> 


1700 


Laurenti, Bartolomeo G. 


Bologna 


1644 


? 


1726 


Vitali, Tomasso 
Eccles, John .... 


Bologna 
London 


1:1650 
1650 


? 
London 


j> 
'735 


Marini, Carlo Antonio . 


Bergamo 


1:1650 


? 


? 


Corelli, Arcangelo 


Italy 


'653 


Rome 


1713 


Aschenbrunner, Christian H. 


Alstettin 


1654 


Jena 


1732 


Bassani, Giovanni B. . 


Padua 


1657 


Ferrara 


1716 


Vivaldi, Antonio . 


Venice 


ci66o 


? 


'743 


Eccles, Henry 


London 


1660 


London 


? 


Bannister, John, Jr. 


England 


1673 


London 


'735 


Albinoni, Thomas 


Venice 


1674 


Venice 


'745 


Hesse, Ernest Christian 


Germany 


1676 


Darmstadt 


1762 


Somis, Lorenzo 


Piedmont 


1676 


? 


1763 


Aubert, Jacques . 


? 


1678 


Paris 


'753 


Geminiani, Francesco . 


Lucca 


1680 


Dublin 


1762 


Alberti, Guiseppe Matteo . 


Bologna 


1685 


? 


? 


Veracini, Francesco 


Florence 


ri68 5 




1750 


SenailM, Jean Baptiste 


Paris 


:687 


? 


I73> 


Pisendel, Johann Georg 


Karlsburg 


1687 


Dresden 


1755 


Birckenstock, Johann A. 


Hesse 


1687 Eisenach 


1733 



368 



Chronological Table. 



NAMB. 


Place and Date of 
Birth. 


Place and Date ol 
Death. 


Montanari, Francesco . 


Padua ? 


Rome 


1730 


Matheis, Nicola . 


? ? 


? 


'749 


Gentili, Georges . 


Venice 1688 


? 


? 


Valentin!, Guiseppe 


Florence 1690 


> 


? 


Castrucci, Pietro . 


Rome 1690 


London 


1769 


Tartini, Guiseppe . 


Pirano 1692 


Padua 


1770 


Locatelli, Pietro . 


Bergamo 1693 


Amsterdam 


1764 


Rothe, August Friedrich 


Sonderhausen 1696 


? 


1784 


Leclair, Jean Marie 


Lyons 1697 


Paris 


1764 


Graun, Jean G. . . . 


Germany 1698 


Berlin 


1771 


Francoer, Francois 


Paris ' 1698 


? 


1787 


Abaco, Evaristo F. Dall 


Verona 1700 


? 


? 


Anderle, F. J. 


? ^1700 


? 


? 


Birti, Mrtii 


? 1700 


? 


? 


Borghi, L*iji 


? ? 


? 


? 


Brown, Abram 


? ? 


? 


? 


Carbonelli, Stefano 


Rome cijoo 


London 


? 


Dalloglio, Domenico . 


Venice 1700 


Russia 


1764 


Guignon, Jean Pierre . 


Turin 1702 


Versailles 


1775 


Dubourg, Matthew 


England 1703 


London 


1767 


De Croes, Henri Jacques . 


Antwerp 1705 


Brussels 


1786 


Guillemain, Gabriel 


Paris 1705 


> 


1770 


Czarth, Georg C. 


Deutschbrod 1708 


Mannheim 


1774 


Benda, Franz 


Albenatky 1709 


Potsdam 


1786 


Girauek, Fernandino . 


Bohemia 1712 


Dresden 


1761 


Benda, Johann 


Albenatky 1713 


Potsdam 


1752 


D'Auvergne, Antoine 


France '7*3 


Lyons 


1797 


Clegg, John 


Ireland 1714 


? 


CI750 


Hempel, George C. 


Gotha 1715 


Gotha' 


1801 


Fritz, Caspar 


Geneva 1716 


Geneva 


1782 


Giardini, Felice 


Turin 1716 


Moscow 


1796 


Mozart, Leopold . 


Augsburg 1719 


Salzburg 


1787 


Stamitz, Johann Carl . 


Bohemia 1719 


Mannheim 


1761 


Bini, Pasqualino . 


Pesaro 1720 


? 


? 


Morigi, Angelo 


? ? 


Parma 


1788 


Lemiere .... 


? ? 


Paris 


1771 


Pagin, Andre 1 Noel 


Paris 1721 


? 




Abel, Leopold A. . 


Cothen 0700 


? 


j 


Festing, Michael C. 


London 


London 


'752 


Ferran, Domenico . . 


Piacenza ? 


Paris 


1780 


Enderle, Wilhelm G. . 


Bayreuth 1722 


Darmstadt 


'793 


Nardini, Pietro 


Tuscany 1722 


Florence 


'793 


Lefebre, Jacques . 


Prinzlow 1723 


? 


'777 


Van Malder, Pierre 


Brussels 1724 


Brussels 


1768 


Glaser, John Michel 


Erlangen 1725 


? 


? 


Hattasch, Dlsmas 


Hohenmant 1725 


Gotha 


1777 


Gavinies, Pierre . 


Bordeaux 1726 


Paris 


1800 


Gow, Neil .... 


Strathband 1727 


Inver 


1787 


Pugnani, Gaetano 


Turin 1727 


Turin 


1803 


Maniredi, Filippo 


Lucca 1729 


Madrid 


4:1780 



Chronological Table. 



NAME. 


Place and Date of 
Birth. 


Place and Date of 
Death. 


Gallo, Domenico 


Venice 1730 


., ? 


Cannabich, Christian . 


Mannheim 1730 


Frankfort 1798 


LolH, Antonio 
Vachon, Pierre 


Bergamo 1730 
Aries 1731 


Sicily 1802 
Berlin 1802 


Goepfert, Charles F. 
Raimondi, Ignazio 


Weissenstein 1733 
Naples 1733 


Weimar 1798 
London 1802 


Lahoussaye, Pierre 


Paris 1735 


Paris 1818 


Haranc, Louis Andre" . 


Paris 1738 


Paris 1805 


Celestine, Eligio . 


Rome '739 




Weigi, Franz J. . 


Bavaria 1740 


Vienna 1820 


Tomasini, Luigi . 
Godecharle, Eugene C. J. . 


Pesaro 1741 
Brussels 1742 


Hungary 1808 
Brussels 1814 


Miiller, Thomas . 


Bohemia 1744 


Switzerland ? 


Cramer, Wilhelm 


Mannheim 1745 


London '799 


Ernst, Franz Anton 


Bohemia 1745 


Gotha 1805 


Jarnowick, Giovanni M. 


Palermo 1745 


St. Petersburg 1804 


Navoigille, Guillaume J. 


Givet 1745 


Paris 1811 


Paisible .... 


Paris '745 


St. Petersburg 1781 


Salomon, Johann Peter 


Bonn 1745 


London 1815 


Cambini, Giovanni G. . 


Leghorn 1746 


Bicetre 1825 


Gervais, Pierre Noel . 


Mannheim 1746 


Bordeaux 1805 


Stamitz, Carl 


Mannheim 1746 


Jena 1801 


Ghirett, Caspar . 


Naples 1747 


Parma 1827 


Leduc, Simon 


Paris 1748 


Paris 1787 


Mestrino, Niccolo 


Milan 1748 


Paris 1790 


Guerillot, Henri . 


Bordeaux 1749 


Paris 1805 


Navoigille, Herbert J. 


Givet 1749 


> ? 


Obermeyer, Joseph 


Bohemia 1749 


? ? 


Bagatella, Antonio 


Padua 1750 


? t 


Almeyda, C. F. . 


? 175 


? ? 


Fuchs, Peter 


Bohemia 1750 


Vienna 1804 


Henry, Bonaventure 


? ci 7 so 


? ? 


Kriegck, J. J. . 


Bebra 1750 


Meiningen 1813 


Sirmen, Maddalena 


Venice '75 


? ? 


Woldemar, Michael 


Orleans 1750 


Clermont- 






Ferrand 1816 


Barthelemon, Francois H. . 


Bordeaux 1751 


? 1808 


Campagnoli, Bartolomeo 


Cento 1751 


Neustrelitz 1827 


Lamotte, Francois 


Vienna 1751 


Holland 1781 


Berthaume, Isidore 


Paris 1752 


St. Petersburg 1802 


Kasska, Wilhelm 


Ratisbon 1752 


Ratisbon 1806 


Brunetti, Gaetano 


Pisa 1753 


Madrid 1808 


Janitsch, Anton . 


Switzerland 1753 


Westphalia 1812 


Lem, Pierre .... 


Copenhagen 1753 


? ? 


Fiorillo, Federigo 


Brunswick '753 


? ciSoo 


Stamitz, Anton 


Mannheim 1753 


Paris 


Viotti, Giovanni B. 


Piedmont 1753 


London 1824 


Kranz, Johann F. 


Weimar 1754 


Stuttgart 1807 


Mosel, Giovanni F. 


Florence 1754 


? ? 


Leduc, Pierre 


Paris 1755 


Holland 1816 



370 



Chronological Table. 



NAME. 


Place and Date of 
Birth. 


Place and Date of 
Death. 


Fauvel, Andre 1 Joseph . 


Bordeaux 


1756 


? 


? 


Lacroix, Antoine . . 


Remberville 


1756 


Lubeck 


1812 


Wramtzky, Paul . 


Moravia 


1756 


Vienna 


1808 


Haack, Karl 


Potsdam 


1757 


Potsdam 


1819 


Rolla, Alessandro 


Pavia 


1757 


Milan 


1841 


Galeazzi, Francesco 


Turin 


1758 


Rome 


1819 


Liber, Wolfgang . 


Donanworth 


1758 


Ratisbon 


1817 


Weberiin, Jean F. 
Bruni, Antonio B. 


Stuttgart 
Piedmont 


1758 
"759 


Stuttgart 


1825 


Gautherot, Louise 


? 


1760 


? 


? 


Guiliani, Francois 


Florence 


1760 


? 


1819 


Haack, Friedrich 


Potsdam 


1760 


> 


? v 


Krommer, Franz 


Kamenitz 


1760 


Vienna 


1831 


Neubauer, Franz C. 
Jarnewicz, Felix . 


Bohemia 
Wilna 


1760 
1761 


P.iickeburg 
Edinburgh 


'795 
1848 


Wranitzky, Anton 


Moravia 


1761 


Vienna 


1819 


Wessely, Johann . 


Bohemia 


1762 


? 


? 


Bonnet, Jean Baptiste 


Montauban 


7 6 3 


? 


? 


Danzi, Franz 


Mannheim 


1763 


Carlsruhe 


1826 


Peshatschek, Francois 


Bohemia 


1763 


Vienna 


1816 


Alday, P 


Perpignan 


1764 


? 


? 


Lorenziti, Bernado 


Wiirtemburg 


1764 


? 


1813 


Schlick, Regina (Sacchi) 


Mantua 


1764 


? 


? 


Cartier, Jean Baptiste . 


Avignon 


1765 


Paris 


1841 


LaCroix, Antoine . . 


> 


1765 


? 


? 


Hampeln, Karl von 


Mannheim 


1765 


Stuttgart 


>834 


Eck, Johann F. . 


Mannheim 


1766 


Bamberg 


1809 


Hunt, Karl .... 


Dresden 


1766 


> 


? 


Kreutzer, Rudolph 


Versailles 


1766 


Geneva 


1831 


De Voider, Pierre Jean 


Antwerp 


1767 


Brussels 


1841 


Romberg, Andreas 


Vechta 


7767 


Gotha 


1821 


Pauwels, Jean E. 


Brussels 


1768 


Brussels 


1804 


Spagnoletti, P. ... 


Cremona 


1768 


London 


1834 


Valmalete, Louis de . 


Rieux 


1768 


? 


? 


Grasset, Jean J. . 


Paris 


1769 


Paris 


1839 


Paravicini, Signora 


Turin 


1769 


? 


? 


Boucher, Alexandre Jean 


Paris 


1770 


Paris 


1861 


Gerbini, Luigia 


? 


1770 


? 


? 


Girault, August 


Paris 


1770 


Paris 


1806 


Hoffmann, Heinrich Anton . 


Mainz 


1770 


Mainz 


1842 


Baillot, Pierre M. F. de Sales 


Passy 


1771 


Paris 


1842 


Festa, Guiseppe M. 


Naples 


1771 


> 


i39 


Labarre, Louis J. C. . 


Paris 


1771 


? 


? 


Vacher, Pierre Jean 


Paris 


1772 


Paris 


1819 


Lottini, Denis 


Orleans 


'773 


Orleans 


1826 


Vaccaro, Francesco 


Modena 


'771 


Portugal 


1823 


Eck, Franz .... 


Mannheim 


'774 


Strasburg 


1804 


Rode, Pierre 


Bordeaux 


'774 


Loire -et - Ga- 










ronne 


1831 


Eberwen, Traugott M . 


Weimar 


775 


Rudolstadt 


1831 



Chronological Table, 



371 



NAME. 


Place and Date of 
Birth. 


Place and Date of 
Death. 


Libon, Philippe . 


Cadiz 


'775 


Paris 


1838 


Schuppanzigh, Ignace . 


Vienna 


1776 


Vienna 


1830 


Dobrynski, Ignace . 


Volhyna 


1777 


Warsaw 


1841 


Giorgis, Joseph 


Turin 


1777 


? 


? 


Kieserwetter, Cristophe G. . 


Anspach 


1777 


London 


1827 


Moralt, Johann B. 


Mannheim 


'777 


Munich 


1825 


Paravicini, Mme. . 


Milan 


1778 


? 


? 


Blanchard, Henri L. . 


Bordeaux 


1778 


Paris 


1858 


Radical!, Felice A. 


Turin 


1778 


? 


1823 


Weiss, Franz . . 


Silesia 


1778 


? 


? 


Bridgetower, George A. 


Poland 




? 


1850 


Miiller, John Henry 


Konigsberg 


"780 


? 


? 


Habeneck, Francois A. 


Me'zieres 


1781 


Paris 


1849 


Lafont, Charles Philippe 


Paris 


1781 


Tarbes 


1839 


Polledro, Giovanni B. . 


Turin 


178. 


Turin 


'8S3 


Mazas, Jacques F. 


Beziers 


1782 


? 


1849 


Puppo, Felice A. . 


Turin 


1778 


? 


1823 


Bohrer, Anthony . . 


Munich 


1783 


Hanover 


1852 


Linke, Joseph 


Silesia 


1783 


Vienna 


'837 


Paganini, Nicolo . 


Genoa 


1784 


Nice 


1840 


Spohr, Louis .... 


Brunswick 


1784 


Cassel 


'859 


Zocca 


Ferrara 


1784 


? 


? 


Fontaine, Antoine N. M. 


Paris 


1785 


St. Cloud 


1866 




> 


1785 


> 


P 


Eberwen, Karl 


Weimar 


1786 


Weimar 


1868 


Granafond, Eugene 


Compiegne 


1786 


? 


? 


Pixis, Friedrich, Wilhelm . 


Mannheim 


1786 


Prague 


1842 


Cudmore, Richard 


Chichester 


'757 


Manchester 


1841 


Guhr, Charles 


Militsch 


1787 


Frankfurt 


1848 


Berwald, Johann F. 


Stockholm 


1788 


Stockholm 


1861 


Fesca, Friedrich E. 


Magdeburg 


1789 


Carlsruhe 


1826 


Maurer, Ludwig . 


Potsdam 


1789 


St. Petersburg 


1878 


Mayseder, Joseph. 
Wery, Nicolas L. . 


Vienna 

Liege 


1789 
1789 


Vienna 
Luxemburg 


'863 
1867 


Ferny, Francois . 


Ghent 


1790 


? 


? 


Klose J 


London 


1790 


London 


1830 


Lipinski, Karl Joseph . 


Poland 


1790 


Urlow 


1861 


Goetz, Jean N. C. 


Weimar 


1791 


? 


1861 


Benesch, Joseph . 


Batelow 


'793 


? 


? 


Pichatschek, Francois . 


Vienna 


'793 


Carlsruhe 


1840 


Filipowicz, Elizabeth M. 


? 


'794 


? 


? 


Jansa, Leopold 


Bohemia 


'794 


Vienna 


1875 


Krahmer, Mme. Caroline 


? 


'794 


? 


? 


Parmy, Joseph 
Batta, Pierre 


Austria 
Maastricht 


'794 
'795 


Mainz 
Brussels 


'835 
1876 


Bohm, Joseph . 


Pesth 


'795 


Vienna 


1876 


Drin, Finlay .... 


Aberdeen 


'795 


Edinburgh 


'853 


Lacy, Michael R. . 
Giorgetti, Fernandino . 


Bilbao 

Florence 


'795 
1796 


London 
Florence 


1867 
1867 


Mori, Nicolas 


London 


1796 


London 


1839 



372 



Chronological Table. 



NAME. 


Place and Date of 
Birth. 


Place and Date of 
Death. 


Calcagno, Catarina 


Italy 


1797 


? 


? 


Collins, Isaac 


? 


1797 


London 


1871 


Girard, Narcisse . . . 


Nantes 


1797 


Paris 


1860 


Miiller, Karl Friedrich 


Brunswick 


1797 


? 


1873 


Roberrechts, Andre 


Brussels 


1797 


Paris 


1860 


Rolla, Antoine 


Parma 


1797 


Dresden 


1837 


Tolberque, Jean B. J. . 


Belgium 


'797 


Paris 


1869 


Coronini, Paolo 


Vincenza 


1798 


? 


1875 


Batta, Pantaleon . 


Paris 


'799 


Paris 


1870 


Ruderbdorff, J. . 


Amsterdam 


1799 


KSnigsberg 


1866 


Gattie, Henry 


? 


1800 


? 


? 


Hellmesberger, Georg . 


Vienna 


1800 


Newaldegg 


1873 


Meerts, Lambert . 


Brussels 


1800 


Brussels 


1863 


Miiller, Theodore Heinrich . 


Brunswic 


1800 


? 


1855 


Nohr, Christian F. 


Thuringia 


1800 


Meiningen 


'875 


Schulz, Mile. L. . 


? 


1800 


? 


? 


Wanski, Johann N. 


Posen 


n8oo 


? 


? 


Kalliwoda, Johann W. 


Prague 


1801 


Carlsruhe 


1866 


Saint Lubin, Leon de . 


Turin 


1801 


Berlin 


1856 


De BeViot, Charles 


Louvain 


1802 


Brussels 


1870 


Ella, John .... 


England 


1802 


London 


1888 


Labitzky, Joseph . 


Schonfeld 


1802 


Carlsbad 


1 88 1 


Molique, Wilhelm Bernard . 


Nuremburg 


1802 


Stuttgart 


1869 


Ries, Hubert .... 


Bonn 


1802 


Berlin 


1886 


Lomagne, Joseph . 


Perpignan 


1804 


Perpignan 


1868 


Magnien, Victor . 


Epinal 


1804 


Lille 


1885 


Kudelski, Karl Matthias 


Berlin 


1805 


Baden-Baden 


1877 


Pollini, Mme. 


? 


1805 


? 


? 


Dando, Joseph H. B. . 


London 


1806 


? 


1894 


Hartmann, Franz. 


Coblentz 


1807 


Cologne 


1857 


Panofka, Heinrich 


Breslau 


1807 


Florence 


1887 


Sauzay, Moritz 


Moravia 


1808 


Breslau 


1885 


Bessems, Antoine . 


Antwerp 


1809 


Antwerp 


1868 


Miiller, Franz F. G. 


Brunswick 


1809 


? 


? 


Bull, Ole Borneman 


Bergen 


1810 


Bergen 


1880 


David, Ferdinand. 


Hamburg 


1810 


Switzerland 


1873 


Ganz, Leopold 


Mainz 


1810 


Berlin 


1869 


Ghys, Joseph 


Ghent 


1810 


? 


1848 


Blagrove, Henry Gamble 


Nottingham 


iSn 


London 


1872 


Hamm, Johaun V. 


Winterhausen 


1811 


Stuttgart 


1834 


Sainton, Prosper Philippe . 


Toulouse 


1813 


London 


1890 


Ernst, Heinrich Wilhelm 


Briinn 


1814 


Nice 


1865 


Alard, Delphine J. 


Bayonne 


1815 


Paris(?) 


1888 


Artot, Alexandre J. M. 


Brussels 


1815 


Paris 


1845 


Dont, Jacob .... 


Vienna 


1815 


Vienna 


1888 


Sivori, Ernest Camillo . 


Genoa 


1815 


Paris 


1894 


Zerchoff, Mile. 


? 


1815 


? 


? 


Batta, Alexandre . 


Maastricht 


1816 


? 


? 


Prume, Francois Herbert 
Deldevez, Ernest . 


Liege 
Pans 


1816 
1817 


Liege 
Paris 


1849 
1897 



Chronological Table. 



373 



NAME. 


Place and Date of 
Birth. 


Place and Date of 
Death. 


Gobel, Johann Ferdinand . 


Baumgarten 1817 


? 


? 


Bazzini, Antonio . 


Brescia 1818 


Milan 


1897 


Dancla, Jean B. C. 


Bagnieres de 








Bignon 1818 


? 


? 


Kramer, Traugott . 


Coburg 1818 


p 


? 


Eller, Louis .... 


Graz 1819 


Pau 


1862 


Hering, Karl 


Berlin 1819 


? 


1889 


Leonard, Hubert . 


Bellaire 1819 


Paris 


1890 


Batta, Joseph 


Maastricht 1820 






Dreyschock, Raimund . 


Bohemia 1820 


Leipzig 


1869 


Keler-Bela . . 


Hungary 1820 


Wiesbaden 


1882 


Neumann, Louise . 


1820 






Vieuxtemps, Henri 


Verviers 1820 


Algiers 


1881 


Wallace, Eliza . 


England 1820 






Gautier, Karl 


Vaugirard 1822 


Vaugirard 


1878 


Hauser, Miska 


Presburg 1822 


Vienna 


1887 


Dancla, Leopold . 


France 1823 




1895 


Gaertner, Karl 


Stralsund 1823 






Hermann, Constant 


Douai 1823 






Eichberg, Julius . 


DUsseldorf 1824 


Boston 


1893 


Hullweck, Ferdinand . 


Dessau 1824 


Blase witz 


1887 


De Kcntski, Apollinari 


Warsaw 1825 


Warsaw 


1879 


Bott, Jean Joseph 


Cassel 1826 




1895 


Collins, Rosina 


1826 






Hauser, Maurice . 


Berlin 1826 


Konisberg 


1857 


Kundinger, August 


Kitzengen 1827 






Milanollo, Teresa. 


Turin 1827 






Mollenhauer, Edward . 


Erfurt 1827 






Hellmesberger, Georg . 


Vienna 1828 


Hanover 


1853 


Hermann, Frederick 


Frankfort 1828 






Huber, Karl .... 


Varjas 1828 


Pesth 


1885 


Hellmesberger, Joseph 


Vienna 1829 


Vienna 


1893 


Rontgen, Engelbert 


Holland 1829 






Adelburg, August R. Von . 


? 1830 


? 


1873 


Arditi, Emilia 


? 1830 






Garcin, Jules A. S. 


Bourses 1830 


? 


1896 


Hennen, Friedrich 


Heerlen 1830 






Remenyi, Edouard 


Hungary 1830 


San Francisco 


1898 


Zirges, Hortensia . 


1830 






Bargheer, Karl Louis . 


Biickeburg 1831 






Joachim, Joseph . 
Kassmayer, Moritz 
Kompel, August . 
Singer, Edmund . 
Laub, Ferdinand . 


Kitsee 1831 
Vienna 1831 
Bavaria 1831 
Hungary 1831 
Prague 1832 


Vienna 
Weimar 

Tyrol 


1884 
1891 

1875 


Lauterbach, Johann C. 


Bavaria 1832 






Milanollo, Maria . 
Becker, Jean 


Turin 1832 
Mannheim 1833 


Mannheim 


1848 
1884 


Bennewitz, Anton . 


Privat 1833 






Graff, Carl .... 


Hungary 1833 







374 



Chronological Table. 



NAME. 


Place and Date of 
Birth. 


Place and Date of 
Death. 


Filby, Heinrich 


Vienna 1834 




De Ahna, Heinrich K. H. . 


Vienna 1835 


Vienna 1892 


JafM, Moritz. 


Posen 1835 




Monasterio, Jesus 


Poles (Spain) 1835 




Strauss, Ludwig . 


Pressburg 1835 




Wieniawski, Henry 


Poland 1835 


Moscow 1880 


Besekirjsky, Wasil W. . 


Moscow 1836 




Carrodus, John T. 


Keighley 1836 


London 1895 


Holmes, Alfred 


London 1837 


Paris 1876 


Griin, Jacob .... 


Buda-Pesth 1837 




Brousil, Bertha 


? 1838 




Piercy-Feeny, Mme. 
Neruda, Wilhelmina (Lady 


1838 




Halle") .... 


Briinn 1838 




Werner, Hildegard 


1838 




(Holmes, Henry 


London 1839 




Jacobsohn, Simon 


Mittau 1839 




Rappoldi, Edouard 


Vienna 1839 




Bargheer, Adolph 


1840 




David, Peter P. . . . 


Leipzig 1840 




Lotto, Isidor 


Warsaw 1840 




Gobbi, Aloys 


Pesth 1844 




Heermann, Hugo . 


Hulbrbnn 1844 




Sarasate, Pablo de 


Pampeluna 1844 




Auer, Leopold 
Singelee, Louise . 


Hungary 1845 
1845 




Castellan, Mile. . 


1845 




Wilhelmj, August . 


Usingen 1845 




Courvoisier, Carl . 


Basle 1846 




Schradieck, Henry 


Hamburg 1846 




Papini, Guido 


Florence 1847 




Walter, Benno 


Munich 1847 




De Bono, Victoria 


1848 




Heckmann, Georg J. R. 


Mannheim 1848 


Glasgow 1891 


Marsick, Martin P. J. . 


Jupille 1848 




Drechsler-Adamson, Mme. . 


1849 




Gibson, Alfred 


Nottingham 1849 




Drechsler-Woycke, Mme. . 


? 1850 




Brodsky, Adolph . 


Taganrog 1851 




Hagen, Adolph 


Bremen 1851 




Sauret, Emil .... 


Dun-le-Roi 1852 




Boulanger, Mile. . 
Meyer, Waldemar . 


1853 
Berlin 1853 




Zajic, Florian 


Bohemia 1853 




Ferrari, Signora Elvira 


'854 




Hermant, Mile. 


1854 




Drechsler - Hamilton, Mrae. 






Agnes .... 


1855 




Hollander, Gustav 


Silesia 1855 




Sahla, Richard . 


Graz 1855 





Chronological Table. 



375 



NAME. 


Place and Date of 
Birth. 


Place and Date of 
Death. 


Kess, Wilhelm . 


Dordrecht 


1856 




Petri, Henri Wilhelm . 


Utrecht 


1856 




Thomson, Ce'sar . 


Liege 


1857 




Barcevicz, Stanislaus . 


Warsaw 


1858 




Hilf, Arno .... 


Saxony 


1858 




Huber, Eugen (Jeno Hubay) 


Budapest 


1858 




Halir, Karl .... 


Hohenlohe 


1859 




Hess, Willie .... 


Mannheim 


'859 




Ondricek, Franz . 


Prague 


1859 




Ysaye, Eugene 


Liege 


1859 




Loeffler, Charles Martin 


Alsace 


1861 




Rossi, Marcello . 


Vienna 


1862 




Wolff, Johannes . 


Hague 


1862 




Rose, Arnold 


Roumania 


1863 




Soldat, Marie 


Gratz 


1863 




Prill, Carl . 


Berlin 


1864 




Senkrah, Arma 


New York 


1864 




Eissler, Marianne . 


Briinn 


1865 




Kneisel, Franz 


Roumania 


1865 




Carpenter, Nettie . 


New York 


1865 




Dunn, John .... 


Hull 


1866 




Wietrowitz, Gabrielle . 


Laibach 


1866 




Dengremont, Maurice . 
Gregorowitsch, Charles 


Rio Janeiro 
St. Petersburg 


1867 
1867 


? <ri88; 


Tua, Teresina 


Turin 


1867 




Powell, Maud 


Aurora, 111. 


1868 




Sapellnikoff .... 


Odessa 


1868 




Burmester, Willy . . . 


Hamburg 


1869 




Petschnikoff, Alexander 


Moscow 


1873 




Marteau, Henri 


Reims 


1874 




Saenger-Sethe, Irma 


Brussels 


1876 




Jackson, Leonora . 


Boston 


1879 





INDEX. 



Adams, Suzanne, 339. 
Ahna, H. K. de, 240. 
Aichelburg, Count, 331. 
Alard, D., 68, 135, 144, 145, 

161, 226. 
Albertinatti, 105. 
Alday le jeune, 68. 
Alexander, Czar, Si. 
Alexander III., 222. 
Amati, Andrea, 13. 
Amati, Nicolo, 14. 
Anet, B., 28, 35, 39, 40. 
Arditi, Emilia, 312. 
Artot, 149, 150, 169, 192. 
Auer, Leopold, 359, 360. 
Austria, Emperor of, 206. 

Bacchiochi, Princess Elise, 

112. 
Bach, J. S., 254, 275, 277, 

334, 340- 
Baillot, P. M. F. de S., 26, 

68, 7i-75> 12 9. M4, i77> 

34 6 - 

Baltizarini, 15. 
Baltzar, Thomas, 19, 20. 
Banister, John, 19, 20, 21. 



Bargheer, C. L., 97. 

Baroni, Leonora, 302. 
Bassani, G. B., 30. 
Bazzini, 247, 354. 
Beauharnais, Eugene, 307. 
Becker, Hans, 356. 
Becker, Jean, 353, 354, 

355- 

Beethoven, L. von, 57, 77, 
91, 205, 225,231,352,254, 
2 9. 333, 347, 258, 364. 

Benda, Franz, 56, 57. 

Bennewitz, 277. 

Beriot, Charles A. de, 25, 
28, 29, 67, 68, 136, 138- 
144, 147, 148, 150, 162, 
188, 266, 309, 334, 352. 

Berlioz, Hector, 79,80, 126, 
127, 128, 248, 253. 

Berry, Duchesse de, 81. 

Berthaume, 81. 

Bertin, Armand, 127. 

Besekirskij, Wasil W.. 240, 
285. _ 

Bianchi, Antonia, 116. 

Bilse Orchestra, 277, 283. 

Bini, P., 49. 



377 



378 



Index. 



Blagrove, H. G., 97, 170, 

358. 

Boccherini, L., 76. 
Bohemian Quartet, 360, 363. 
Bohm, J., 28, 68, 206, 215. 
Brahms, Johannes, 212, 253, 

329, 332, 364. 
Brazil, Emperor of, 230. 
Brodsky, Adolf, 82, 263-265, 

356, 357- 

Brousil, Bertha, 312. 
Bruch, Max, 295, 328, 341. 
Brunswick, Duke of, 85. 
Bull, Ole, 149, 150, 151, 152, 

I 53 169, 172-203, 225, 

237. 
Biilow, Hans Von, 291, 292, 

293.3I5- 
Bunn, 247. 
Bunzl, 294. 
Burmester, Willy, 286-293, 

333- 
Burney, Doctor, 43, 55, 56. 

Calcagno, Caterina, in, 154, 

308. 

Caldera, 309. 
Campbell, Lucie, 330. 
Careno, Theresa, 265. 
Carpenter, Nettie, 338. 
Carrodus, John T., 170, 241. 
C artier, 68. 

Cessole, Conte di, 117, 118. 
Cherubini, 62, 93, 136. 
Chiabran, F., 36. 
Chiostri, 354. 
Chopin, F., 187, 210. 
Ciandelli, 114. 
Clegg, John, 24. 
Clement, 254, 255. 
Clementi, 86. 



Cleveland, Mrs. G., 342. 
Cleves, Anne of, 301. 
Coburg-Gotha, Duke of, 240. 
Colbran, Madame, 189. 
Collins, Rosina, 308. 
Colonne, 295. 
Corbett, William, 22. 
Corelli, A., 28, 30, 31-35, 36, 

38, 40, 50, 52, 59. 
Costa, G., 105, 157. 
Cumberland, Duke of, 302. 
Cuvillon, 68. 
Cuzzoni, F., 53. 

Damrosch, Leopold, 339. 
Damrosch, Walter, 263, 

340. 

Dancla, C., 129, 135, 171. 
Dando, J., 357, 358, 359. 
D'Artot, 69. 
David, Ferd., 97, 234, 247, 

253. 35, 35 1 * 357- 
Davidoff, 360. 
Delavan, 136. 
Delibes, 214. 
Dellepaine, 157, 159. 
Dengremont, M., 68, 281, 

282. 

Derwies, Baron, 268, 279. 
Diamantina, La, 302. 
Dont, Jacob, 68, 171, 285, 

359- 

Dubois, 295. 

Dubourg, M., 22, 23, 40. 
Dulcken, Madame, 350. 
Dunn, John, 299. 
Durand, 68. 
Durst, 352. 
Dwight, J. S., 201, 225, 320, 

324- 
Eccles, Henry, 22. 



Index. 



379 



Eck, Ferdinand, 85. 
Eck, Franz, 85. 
Eder, Josephine, 163. 
Elizabeth, Queen, 301. 
England, Queen of, 343. 
Ericsson, Lief, 198. 
Ernst, H., 68, 146-149, 169, 
187, 233, 246, 247. 

Farina, Carlo, 15, 16. 
Ferrari, 49. 
Ferrero, 309. 
Festing, M., 53. 
Fetis, 129, 145. 
Field, 86, 210. 
Filipowicz, Madame, 308. 
Fischer, Konrad, 232. 
Florentine Quartet, 353-355, 

356. 
Fontana, Giovanni B., ID. 

Garcia, Pauline, 143. 
Gattie, Henry, 358. 
Gautherst, Louise, 307. 
Geminiani, F., 23, 24, 28, 35, 

40, 43- 

Gerbini, Luigia, 68, 307. 
Gericke, W., 283. 
Germany, Empress of, 343. 
Geyer, A., 331. 
Ghiretti, 106. 
Giardini, F., 36, 53. 
Gdrgey, General, 206. 
Gotha, Duke of, 86. 
Gounod, C., 294. 
Graun, 49, 56. 
Gregorowitsch, C., 241, 284, 

286. 
Grim, Jacob, 242, 283, 

362. 
Guiraud, 279. 



Habeneck, 68, 78-80, 93' 

MS. 39- 
Halir, Carl, 256, 276-278, 

283. 
Halle, Lady (Mme. Norman- 

Nenida), 312-319, 323, 

327, 335- 

Halle, Sir Charles, 124, 125, 
127, 136, 160, 169, 265, 

VS~3 1 7- 

Hampton, Miss, 222. 
Handel, G. F., 23, 32. 
Hanover, King of, 248. 
Hanslick, E., 229. 
Harkness, A., 337. 
Hauptmann, 247. 
Hauser, Miska, 215-218. 
Hausmann, 234. 
Haydn, J., 58, 245, 358. 
Heckmann, G. J. R., 356. 
Hegyesi, 356. 
Heissler, 352. 
Hellmesberger, G., 68. 
Hellmesberger, J., 264, 2831 

35 2 . 355. 362. 
Henry VII., King, 301. 
Henselt, 162. 
Herwig, 150. 
Hess, Willy, 256. 
Higginson, H. L., 361. 
Hilf, A., 357. 
Hilpert, 354. 
Hoffmann, 215, 360. 
Hogarth, G., 133. 
Hollaender, G., 256. 
Holmes, Henry, 98, 241. 
Holmes, Alfred, 241. 
Hrimaly, 296. 
Hubay, J., 256, 299, 356. 
Huber, Mile., 143. 
Hummel, 245. 



380 



Index. 



Hunt, L., 133. 
Isabella, Queen, 226. 

Jackson, 17. 

Jackson, Leonora, 326, 342, 

343- 

Jacobsen, 326. 
Jacotot, 139. 
Jaffe, Sophie, 336. 
Janin, Jules, 126. 
Jansa, L., 313. 
Joachim, J., 16, 27, 29, 68, 

2O6, 212, 213, 224, 231, 
234, 236, 238, 240, 244- 
260, 277, 279, 285, 286, 
287,289,290,315,325,326, 

3 28 . 3 2 9, 33 1 * 34i, 35 1 . 

353. 355- 

Joachim Quartet, 357, 363. 
Jokisch, 334. 

Joseph II., Emperor, 306. 
Josephine, Empress, 78, 307. 

Kalkbrenner, 83. 

Kannitz, Count de, 114. 

Kinsky, Count, 43, 49. 

Klapka, 206. 

Klengel, J., 356. 

Kneisel, F., 279, 282, 361- 

3 6 4- 
Kneisel Quartet, 281, 284, 

361-364. 
Kompel, 97. 
Kossuth, 206. 
Kralmer, Madame, 308. 
Kreutzer, Rodolphe, 26, 68- 

7i, 76, 93. I28 X 3 6 T 7> 

215. 

Kreutzer Sonata, 137, 138. 
Kufferath, 238. 



Kugler, 360. 

Lablache, L., 142. 

Lacour, 186. 

Lafont, C. F., 26, 29, 70, 80- 

82, 130, 309. 
Lahoussaye, 49. 
Lassabathie, M., 226, 227. 
Laub, F., 240, 297. 
Lauterbach, 68. 
Leclair, J. M., 36, 51, 52. 
Lecloux, 162. 
Lenox, Lady, 302. 
Leonard, H., 68, 136, 145, 

238, 268, 282, 294, 296. 
Leschetizky, Th., 298. 
Lichtenberg, L., 299. 
Liddell, Capt. A. F., 327. 
Lind, Jenny, 216. 
Linley, Thomas, 24. 
Liphart, 350. 

Lipinski, K. J., 100-103, 130. 
Listemann, B., 299, 361. 
Liszt, F., 1 20, 137, 206, 213, 

233. 2 34, 245, 248, 253, 

310. 

Livron, M., 108. 
Locatelli, 28, 35, 36. 
Loder, 359. 
Loeffler, C. M., 138, 279- 

281. 

Loeleberg, 360. 
Lolli, A., 55. 
Lotto, I., 138. 
Louis Philippe, 310. 
Lucas, 358. 
Lulli, J. B., 30, 37-39. 
Lundholm, 177, 178, 179. 

Malibran, 25, 142, 143, 144, 
1 68, 188. 



Index. 



Manfredi, 49. 
Mapleson, 207. 
Mara, G. E., 302, 305. 
Marchesi, 105. 
Margherita, Queen, 324. 
Maria Theresa, 296. 
Marini, B., 15. 
Marsick, M., 28, 68, 146, 

2 37-239, 267, 269. 
Marteau, H., 293-296. 
Masi, 354. 
Massart, 70, 136-138, 238, 

278, 3 20 > 323. 349- 
Massenet, 294. 
Maurer, 182, 247. 
Maurin, 135. 
Mausch-Jerret, M., 236. 
Mayseder, 188, 215, 346. 
Mazas, 68. 

Mazzurana, Doctor, 101. 
Meek, Countess of, 222. 
Mell, D., 19. 
Mendelssohn, 161, 246, 247, 

278,279,329,331,342,351. 
Meneke, 360. 
Metternich, Count, 114. 
Milanollo, M., 310. 
Milanollo, T., 29, 68, 309, 

313. 352. 
Mingotti, 53. 
Molique, B. H., 70, 162, 169, 

241, 294. 

Montes, Lola, 216. 
Montebello, Duke of, 187. 
Morgan, Geraldine, 338, 339, 

340. 

Mori, 68. 
Morra, 309. 
Mozart, L., 54. 
Mozart, W., 24, 58, 306, 307, 

322, 323. 358- 



Murska, lima di, 265. 
, 180, 181. 



Nagel, 150. 
Napoleon, 89, 90, 112. 
Napoleon III., 230. 
Nardini, P., 24, 49, 50, 54, 

55. 73. 33- 
Nedbal, 360. 
Neruda, J., 313. 
Neruda, Norman, 318. 
Neumann, E., 308. 
Nicholl, Anne, 302. 
Nickisch, A., 275, 295. 
Nilsson, C., 169, 303. 
Norman, L., 314, 315. 
North, Colonel, 208. 

Occa, Victoria dall', 307. 
Ondricek, F., 267, 278. 
Ottey, Sarah, 302. 
Ottoboni, Cardinal, 31. 
Ouronoff, Princess, 297. 
Oury, A. J., 25. 

Paderewski, L, 273, 276. 

Paer, 106. 

Paganini, Achille, 116. 

Paganini, Antonio, 105. 

Paganini, Nicolo, 26, 29, 75, 
82, 92, 100-134, 135, 141, 
147, 148, 150, 151, 154, 
156, 157, 160, i6i, 162, 
180, 183, 184, 185, 1 88, 
191, 200, 217, 233, 269, 
288, 308. 

Pallerini, Mme., 112. 

Paravicini, Mme., 68, 307. 

Parmentier, Captain, 310. 

Pasdeloup, 280, 321. 

Pasini, 109. 



3 82 



Index. 



Paton, Mary Ann, 302. 

Patti, Adelina, 194. 

Patti, Amalia S., 194. 

Paulsen, 175. 

Paur, Emil, 298. 

Petri, Henri, 236, 299. 

Petschnikoff, A., 296-298. 

Pfeiffer, Marianne, 95. 

Piatti, 247. 

Piercy-Feeny, Mme., 312. 

Pisendel, 42. 

Pixis, 64, 68. 

Pleiner, 328. 

Polidori, 72. 

Pollani, 72. 

Pollini, 308. 

Portugal, King of, 285. 

Pott, A., 329. 

Powell, Maude, 326, 340- 

342. 

Prume, 68. 

Prussia, King of, 310. 
Pugnani, G., 28, 29, 36, 52, 

61. 
Purcell, 1 8. 

Quagliati, P., 15. 

Rappoldi, E., 68, 242. 
Remenyi, E., 150, 154, 205- 

215, 232. 

Riario, Duke of, 187. 
Richter, Hans, 234, 330 

362. 

Rivarde, A., 278. 
Roberrechts, 28, 68, 139. 
Rode, Pierre, 28, 68, 70, 71 

75-77, 120, 162, 348,349- 
Roger, 330. 
Rolla, 105, 1 06. 
Rontgen, 357. 



, A., 299, 360. 
Rossini, 67, 92, 191. 
;<oth, O., 362. 
Rovelli, 70. 
Roy, Gabrielle, 330. 
Rubinstein, Anton, 154, 219, 

220, 273. 

Russia, Czar of, 285. 
Russia, Empress of, 324. 

Sacchi, R. (Schlick), 305, 

306, 307. 

Saenger-Sethe, I., 332-336. 
Sahla, R., 360. 
Saint-Saens, C., 334. 
Sainte-Marie, 72. 
Sainton, C. P., 169, 247. 
Salomon, J. P., 57, 63. 
Santley, C., 234. 
Sarasate, P., 28, 29, 68, 226- 

231, 238. 

Sauret, E., 265-267. 
Scarlatti, A., 33, 34. 
Scheidler, D., 86. 
Schlesinger, 352. 
Schradieck, H., 265, 357. 
Schroeder, A., 281, 362. 
Schubert, F., 246. 
Schulz, M., 308. 
Schumann, 120, 162, 213, 

253- 

Schumann, Mme., 293. 
Schuppanzigh, 346. 
Scotta, Frida, 336. 
Sechter, 215. 
Sembrich, M., 303. 
Senaille, J. B., 28, 39. 
Senkrah, A., 337. 
Servaczinski, 246. 
Servais, 163. 
Servetto, 105. 



Index. 



383 



Shinner, E. (Mrs. Liddell), 

325-327, 332, 353- 
Shinner Quartet, 327, 

353- 

Simonelli, 30. 
Singer, E., 68, 239. 
Sirmen, Maddalena, 303. 
Sitt, Hans, 356. 
Sivori, C., 150, 153, 154-161, 

167, 168, 231, 294. 
Soldat, M., 257, 326, 327- 

33, 342, 353. 
Somis, 28, 29, 35, 51, 53. 
Sontag, II., 143, 233. 
Soubre, E. J., 163. 
Spain, Queen of, 230, 324. 
Spohr, L., 26, 75, 82-99, 158, 

159, 162, 170, 178, 182, 

183, 184, 188, 191, 233, 

261, 346-349, 35 8 - 
Stamitz, A., 69. 
Stern, Leo, 339. 
Stradivari, A., 14. 
Strakosch, M., 194. 
Strauss, L., 68. 
Suk, J., 360. 
Sussmayer, 120. 
Svecenski, L., 362. 
Sweden, King of, 198. 

Tartini, G., 29, 43, 44-51, 

52, 54, 101, 304. 
Thalberg, 163, 165, 166. 
Thierot, 328. 
Thomson, C., 267-269, 273, 

279, 283. 

Thorpe, 8. C., 197. 
Thursby, Emma, 198. 
Tiby, M., 139. 
Torelli, G., 41. 
Tschetchulin, Agnes, 330. 



Tua, Teresina, 70, 138, 323- 

325, 337- 

Turkey, Sultan of, 217, 232. 
Tuscany, Duke of, 189. 

Urso, Camilla, 312,319-322, 

3 2 3> 337- 
Urso, Salvator, 319. 

Valentini, 34. 

Valetta, Count F. V. della, 

325- 

Vanderbilt, G., 342. 
Veracini, F. M., 42, 43, 46, 

47- 

Viardot, Madame, 246. 
Vidocq, 185. 
Vieuxtemps, H., 28, 68, 136, 

149, 162-169, I 9 2 , 202, 

221, 223, 231, 241, 271, 

328, 337- 

Villermot, F., 191. 
Viotti, G. B., 28, 56-68, 72, 

73, 75,81,85,93,140, 261, 

37- 

Vitali, T., 1 6, 40. 
Vivaldi, A., 36, 41, 42, 52. 
Vuillaume, 145. 

Wagner, R., 92, 162. 
Wales, Prince of, 324. 
Wales, Princess of, 324. 
Wallace, 150. 
Wallace, Eliza, 308. 
Wasielewski, 244. 
Weber, 94. 
Weiss, A., 249. 
Werner, H., 312, 313. 
Wieniawski, 70, 136, 138, 

154, 218-226, 231, 270, 

271, 273, 285, 337. 



3^4 



Index. 



Wietrowitz, G., 257, 326, 

33<>-33 2 . 342, 353- 
Wihom, H., 360. 
Wilhelmj, A., 208, 209, 231- 

237, 263, 267, 282, 334. 
William I, Emperor, 230. 
Wittgenstein, Prince Emil 

of, 233. 
Wood, Mrs., 302. 



Young, 1 8. 

Ysaye, 237, 239, 263, 269- 
276, 334. 335- 

Zampieri, Marquis, 189. 
Zerbst, Theresa, 277. 
Zerchoff, Mile., 308. 







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