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^ortl; Carolina ^tnte dolkge 




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J^unt anb purfeett'g ^sriculture 




Dean of the College of Agriculture, and Director of the Agricultural 
Experiment Station of the University of California 

Formerly Assistant in Agriculture, University of Illinois ; Professor of Agriculta;e 

and Dean of College of Agriculture and Domestic Science, Ohio State 

University ; P'ofessor of Agronomy, New York State College 

of Agriculture ; and Dean and Director of the School 

of Agriculture and Experiment Station, 

Pennsylvania State College 


Editor of American Agriculturist 

Formerly Assistant in Agriculture, Ohio State University; Professor of Agriculture and 
Agriculturist of Experiment Station in the New Hampshire State College of 
Agriculture and the Mechanic Arts ; Professor of Auriculture and 
Agriculturist of the Experiment Station in the North 
Carolina College of Agriculture and Mechanic 
Arts ; and Director of the Kansas Agri- 
cultural Experiment Station 





Copyright, 1914, by 


All Rights Reserved 

Entered at Stationers' Hall 
London, England 

Printed in U. S. A 


In preparing "Farm Animals," the authors have sought 
to treat in detail, not merely the subjects of breeds, breed- 
ing, feeding, sanitation, medication and animal products, 
but to cover the whole field of animal industry. They 
have followed the general plan as developed in "Soils 
and Crops," the initial and companion volume of this 
series. By means of the two books a full teachable course 
covering soils, crops and animals is now available for 
use in the schools. Each of these books is complete in 
itself in its field. No collateral reading has been sug- 
gested for pupils, not because the authors wish to dis- 
courage such independent effort on the part of the pupil, 
but because they believe they have included as much sub- 
ject matter as can be covered wisely in 16 weeks by 
pupils of high school age. 

In the preparation of the subject matter, the attempt 
has been made to adapt it to the high school mind; that is, 
to pupils between the ages of 14 and 18. It has been 
assumed that this book, like "Soils and Crops," will oc- 
cupy 16 full weeks of three recitations each, and that two 
days each week would be devoted to practicums, or one 
day to practicums and one day to review of the work 
of the previous three days. The practicums selected are 
all possible for high school use. The method of con- 
ducting them is clearly explained, and the large number 
provided will enable the teacher to select such as are best 
adapted to the school and circumstances. It is particu- 
larly desirable that considerable time be used for scoring 
and judging work in order that the student may be made 
fully acquainted with the good and bad points of each 
class of animals. 

W7 '^' 


Each lesson contains a note to the teacher and 15 para- 
graphs in which are developed the ideas or set of ideas 
discussed in the lesson text. The authors have endeav- 
ored to lead the pupil from the simple and knov^n to the 
unknov^n and complex. The purpose is to have the con- 
clusions follow logicall}^ from the statements made. This 
is the laboratory method applied to recitations. De- 
veloped in this manner, it does not become a question as 
to what place in the curriculum the book shall occupy, 
but rather if it is adapted to the age of the pupil and to 
the use of the teacher, that an inspiring and hence a suc- 
cessful recitation or practicum may be conducted. The 
authors believe that both ''Soils and Crops" and ''Farm 
Animals" are admirable text books covering the general 
field of agriculture in all high, agricultural, normal and 
other schools in which agriculture is taught. In many 
district schools there are boys and girls between the ages 
of 14 and 18 who spend four or five months each year 
studying arithmetic, grammar, history, physiology and 
descriptive geography. It is believed that these students 
may wisely recite less on these subjects, using the time 
for "Soils and Crops" and for "Farm Animals." 

Acknowledgments. — The greater part of the drawings 
used to illustrate the text have been made by Mr. B. F. 
Williamson, artist of Orange Judd Company, from orig- 
inal subjects and suggestions, or from other sources that 
expressed the ideas to be brought out. A great many 
photographs and drawings were furnished by the pub- 
lishers. The authors acknowledge their thanks to the 
publishers and to the many individuals who have as- 
sisted in supplying illustrations, and their indebtedness 
to other various sources from which they were procured. 
Individual credit, on account of the large number, has 
not l)een attempted. 


Sorting of Animals 1 

Animals Made Useful 11 

Relation of Animals to Man 22 

Plants and Animals 35 

Food Nutrients 43 

Some Scientific Terms in Feeding 52 

How Food Is Digested 66 

Computation of Rations 74 

Getting the A^ost from Feeds 85 

Draft and Speed S6 

How Do Horses Move? 105 

What Shape Should a Horse Be? 115 

Breeds of Horses __ 128 

Feeding Farm Horses ■ 139 

The Ass and the Mule 148 

The Ox and the Cow 159 




Dairy Cattle 169 

Beef Cattle 181 

Concerning Cattle 193 

Feeding Dairy Cattle 203 

Feeding Beef Cattle 212 

Wool and Mutton 225 

Races of Sheep 235 

Feeding Sheep 246 

The Pig and His Products 260 

From Wild Hog to L^seful Breeds 271 

Feeding Hogs 282 

Goats 296 

Bees 306 

Fish for the Farm 316 

Eggs and the Hen 328 

Incubation and Brooding 340 

Breeds of the Domestic Fowl 351 

Flock Management for Eggs and Meat 365 



Ducks and Geese 377 

Turkeys and Guineas 389 

Secretion of Milk 400 

Milk 400 

Milk Products 418 

Dairy Farming 429 

Facing Disease on the Farm 439 

Meaning of Disease 448 

Wounds and Their Treatment 459 

Important Infectious Diseases 466 

Common Ailments Not Infectious 477 

Keeping Animals Healthy 487 

Farm Butchering 499 

Marketing Live Stock and Products 508 


1. Locomotion. 

2. Amoeba. 

3. Sponges. 

4. Hydra. 

5. Corals and jellyfish. 

6. Worms. 

7. Arthropoda. 

8. Mollusca. 

9. Starfish and sea urchin. 

10. Backbone animals. 

11. Fishes. 

12. Toads and frogs. 

13. Reptiles. 

14. Birds. 

15. Mammals. 

Note to the Teacher. — In this lesson are indicated the 
steps in development from the amoeba, the lowest, to mam- 
mals, the highest, forms of animal life. Show in a general 
way how one form differs from the others immediately 
above or below it. The lesson starts with locomotion, a 
power possessed by animals but not by plants or only by 
those of the lowest orders. The first and earliest forms of 
life were one celled; then came two-layered animals : then 
three layered, with a body cavity where traces of the an- 
cestry of the backbone groups are found. Now come the 
fishes, with their gills ; now the amphibia, with gills lost 
in the adults. From here we reach the reptiles, cold 
blooded, with true lungs ; and then the birds, with their 
feathers ; and finally the mammals, with their hair or fur. 



1. Locomotion. — Every living animal eats, breathes, 
moves, feels, and reproduces its kind. The bodies of farm 
animals are complexively formed and because of this are 
able to do various kinds of work. In a modified way plants 
also eat, breathe, feel and reproduce, but they are unable 
to move about. Locomotion is denied them. Their roots 
hold them fast and what growth an individual makes comes 
from the immediate vicinity in which the roots are attached 
for food and sustenance. Animals, on the other hand, can 
and do move from place to place. This advantage is of 
much consequence in the development of the individual and 

2. Amoeba. — Water is the principal home of the simplest 

animals. It is an ideal place, as it is easier to swim than to 

walk. Locomotion starts here. You may not think much 

about the tiny animals of the streams, ponds and seas which 

cannot be seen with the eye, but they exist nevertheless. 

Some of these prefer fresh water; some like best the brine 

of the ocean ; others seek the moist sand of the quiet places, 

and still others attach themselves to the bodies of certain 

animals and from them suck their food. 

These simplest animals are of one cell only. The amceba, for in- 
stance, eats and yet has no stomach ; it moves and has no legs ; it 

feels and has no nerves. 
Indeed, in respect to life as 
an animal, it does every- 
thing that a horse does. In 
performing its life func- 
tions it can take on any 
shape. It is a cell but \vith- 
out fixed outline. If it is 
How AN Amoeba Eats hungry it moves up to an- 


One of the Sim 
PLEST Sponges 

Other microscopic plant or animal and gradually incloses it. 
Thus it is all mouth and all stomach. It keeps growing until it 
reaches a certain limit of size, when it subdivides and becomes two 
individuals, each one of which is exactly one-half the size of the 
original. The two are now the offspring, the parent having disap- 
peared into its progeny. 

3. Sponges. — As we ascend the scale of 
simplest animals we come to where there 
is a community of cells. Animals con- 
sist of either one cell or of many 
cells. Sponges are an example of the 
latter. In their young state they swim 
about, but soon attach themselves to some 
solid substance on the bottom of the 
sea where they grow and develop. Each ani- 
mal is practically a stomach in form, yet each 
cell gathers its own food and assimilates it, 
and each obtains the necessary fresh aii 
from the water circulating about it. The sponges of com- 
merce are gathered by divers, who pull them up from the 
ocean beds by means of mechanical devices. Once re- 
moved from the water they soon die, only the soft skele- 
ton remaining. This now becomes a valuable aid in 
man's work. 

4. Hydra. — Higher in the scale of cellu- 
lar complexity comes the hydra, in which 
there is a division of labor. This simple 
animal has sensitive parts correspondmg to 
nerve cells. A sticky substance is secreted 
which enables the animal to attach itself 
to stone or plant for temporary habitation. 
From tiny projections are thrown out tiny 
threads, which paralyze an animal that it 
uses for food. It has a mouth for introduc- 
ing food into the body; and this food is 

Fresh Water 
a, expanded condi- 
tion: b, contracted. 


acted upon l)y a digestive fluid that prepares it for ab- 
sorption. The cavity in hydra, in which digestion goes 
on, corresponds to the cavity inside of a simple sponge. 

5. Corals and jellyfish. — The structure of the body is 
still more complex in the coral and jellyfish. In these ani- 
mals cells are groii^ed to do special work. Thus, some cells 
serve as muscles, others as nerves, others digest the food, 
and still others ^re distinct reproductive cells. The sponges 
were slightly higher in form than the 
amoeba, the hydra than the sponges, 
the corals and jellyfish than the hydra. 
And while there is still greater diver- 
sity, the same structural and physiologi- 
cal complexity proceeds on up the scale 
through all the higher forms of animal 

6. Worms. — There are many aquatic 
worms that swim. Most worms crawl. 
They do this by means of successive 
contractions of successive parts of the 
muscular wall of the elongated body. 
They have no legs such as caterpillars 
have. The common earthworm, the 
plowman, is one of the higher forms. 

At top, red coral; 
at bottom, mushroom 

"The earthworm not only dwells in the soil, but is in a sense the 
manufacturer of soil, since the fertility of the earth depends greatly 
upon the work of earthworms. They pass the soil through their 
bodies, digesting the organic particles they find in it, and thereby 
loosen the soil, reduce it to a state of fine division, and render it 
more fit to support the growth of plants." 

The tapeworm draws nourishment through the skin, and therefore 
has no need of an alimentary canal. The liver fluke is flat. The 
adult form infests the sheep's liver. There it lays eggs, which after 
a time find their way into water. Unless a certain water snail takes 
them up they die. Housed for a while in these snails, the eggs now 
hatch, escape and finally settle on plants. If eaten by sheep the route 
is repeated. Great damage is done the sheep industry by these worms 


Liver Fluke 

in certain parts of the country. An example of thread worms is the 
dreaded trichinae, which infest pork. Leeches also belong to the 
worm group. In ascending the scale worms are the first great group 
of animal life in which true land animals are found. 

7. Arthropoda. — The Crustacea, or jointed animals of the 
water, breathe by gills. The insects, or jointed animals of 

the land, breathe through tubes in their sides. 
Crabs and lobsters belong to the first group, 
and insects and spiders to the second. True 
spiders have eight legs, whereas the true in- 
sects have six. Spiders dispose of their prey 
by sucking and never swallow solid food. All 
spiders have poison glands, certain varieties 
being very venomous. Scorpions and centi- 
pedes belong to the spider division. The num- 
ber of insects is enormous, some authorities 
placing it at a quarter of a million. Bees, ants, 
beetles, fleas, locusts, weevils, and the various kinds 
known as insect pests, all belong to this group. 

"We owe the bright colors and the sweet honey of flowers to the 
selection exercised by insects ; they carry the pollen of flowers from 
one plant to its neighboring kindred, thus securing cross- 
fertilization for the advantage of the plant, and thereby 
perpetuating any quality, such as color or sweetness, which 
has originally attracted the insect to the flower. While a 
few plants only are fertilized by means of the wind, a vast 
majority depend entirely upon insects for the cross- fertiliza- 
tion which is so necessary for the production of healthy 
seeds. If the earthworm has been the plowman, the insect 
has been the more intelligent gardener, who has filled the 
world with bright flowers. The insect owes its food to the 
plant world ; the plant world owes health and beauty to the 
constant ministration of the insect." 

8. Mollusca. — An insect is covered by a hard- 
ened skin. In the mollusk, or shellfish, a cover- 
ing is secreted which lies outside the skin. Tust as "^^^^ 
our skins pass perspiration out to the surface, so the skin 
of these animals passes to the outside certain substances 
that the bodv has taken in from the sea water. As these 


Snail with Shell 

accumulate the shell is formed. Examples of this group 
are the snails, slugs, mussels and scallops. 

9. Starfish and sea urchin. — These beautiful creatures 

have prickles on their horny 
skins. Sea urchins are some- 
times called "sea hedgehogs" 
because armed in this way. 
The prickles attain their maxi- 
mum in the sea urchin, but they 
are well represented in the star- 
fish. In the sea cucumber, also a representative of this 
group, the shelly needles are greatly reduced. 

10. Backbone animals. — Scientific men speak of ani- 
mals as either having or not having backbones. Hence, 
animals are called J\v'tcbrata or Invcrtcbrata. Careful study 
has disclosed the fact that all animals are related. The 
higher forms are linked by gradual steps back to lower 
forms. There is no aristocracy in creation. Backbone ani- 
mals from the standpoint of origin have come up out of the 
ranks of the common people of the animal world. Xo 
longer are the family secrets of 
the higher forms to be kept 
hidden in the locked closets of 

The creatures that connect the 
backbone animals with the family- 
lines without a backbone are known 
as Ascidiaiis. or the Clwrdata. They 
possess a structure called the Xoto- 
chord, or a rod down the back. This 
rod is like the cord that precedes the 
backbone in the vertebrate embryo. 
The higher forms of Ascidians attach 
themselves without any sensible form 

of support. They possess all the organs of life that the higher water 
forms possess. Their gills are highly developed and contain a spe- 
cial cavity or chamber into which the sea water they breathe is 



"The Notochord as a structure, precedes the formation of the 
spinal column in vertebrates. The spinal column of vertebrates is 
formed to protect the spinal cord. This protection is, however, an 
afterthought, so to speak, of the vertebrate structure ; the lowest of 
all vertebrates is quite without it, and in the lower groups of fishes 
we may trace various steps of its formation. But in these cases 
where the spinal column is absent or incomplete, there is a large and 
well-developed notochord ; and in the embryo of higher vertebrates, 
when the spinal column has not yet begun to be formed, the noto- 
chord is equally a conspicuous feature. It runs from the region 
known as the midbrain, to the end of the tail, and lies throughout 
just beneath the spinal cord. Whatever its original use in the animal 
body may have been, it undoubtedly acts now as a support to the 
spinal cord, and indeed to the whole body. Bones do not exist either 
in the lower vertebrate, or in the early embryo. In the latter they 
are formed by degrees. The spinal cord and the notochord each 
begin to be surrounded by rings of cartilage or gristle, which by 
degrees is changed into bone. The rings surrounding the notochord, 
however, gradually encroach upon it and obliterate it. The place 
where it has been becomes the centrum, or most solid part of each 
vertebra. The notochord at first is continuous, and has no division 
into successive parts ; but when the bony spinal column is developed, 
it consists of a series of successive vertebrae. Each of them is made 
up of several parts, which by degrees become consolidated into the 

11. Fishes. — These are the lowest forms of backbone ani- 
mals. All fishes have gills for breathing, both the lowest 
fish order and the true fishes. The true fishes have scales. 

limbs and teeth. In some, such 
as sharks, rays and dogfishes, 
the skeleton is gristle and does 
not transform into bone. In 
nearly all of the familiar fishes 
the skeleton develops into bone. 
The kinds of fishes are legion 

Head of Trout, Showing Gills and the shapeS, COlors, habitS 

and character of many varieties. 

The truth about the matter is this : All the higher forms of ani- 
rnals have gills for a time. In the highest vertebrates, such as rep- 
tiles, birds and mammals, the gills are never put to use. They exist 
in the early stages of embryo life, but afterwards disappear, other 
structures taking their place. 

12. Toads and frogs. — Between the fishes and the reptiles 



are the Amphibia, a class of animals that includes, among 
others, the toads, frogs and salamanders. In amphibia, the 

body, except in the toads and 
frogs, is fishlike, though limbs 
and lungs are present. Toads 
and frogs undergo a metamor- 
phosis ; the young, called tad- 
poles, breathing by external 
gills, and at first being without 
legs. They are adapted both 
to water and land life. Fishes, 
you know, are water dwellers, 
breathing by gills ; while rep- 
tiles, birds and mammals are 
air breathers, never possessing 
gills, except for a short time 
during the embryo stage. 

Toads and frogs, even 
though adapted to water, are 
obliged to come to the surface 
to breathe. 

13. Reptiles. — These occupy 
the place between the amphib- 
ians and the birds. They are 
cold-blooded and breathe by 
lungs. They include serpents, 
lizards, tortoises and croco- 
diles. With the exception of 
tortoises, the reptiles are elon- 
gated in form, the body cylin- 
development of a Toad in a ^rical, which usually termi- 

Single deason -^ 

nates in a long tail. Limbs are 
not found in serpents or in some of the lizards. In other 



lizards, rudimentary limbs are observed. The tortoises 
and crocodiles have limbs fully developed. A peculiarity 

of reptiles is the shedding of the 
teeth ; but new ones form as fast 
as the old ones drop out. 

Crocodile The reptiles are enormous and 

swallow their pre}'^ whole. Serpents, 
as a general rule, affect moist places 
in the neighborhood of water, although some are inhabitants of dry 
sandy deserts. Lizards, for the most part, live in sandy portions of 
hot and tropical regions. They either burrow in the ground or live 
in holes of trees or walls. The largest kinds of reptiles are found 
in the warmer parts of the globe. 

14. Birds. — The step between reptiles and birds is not 
as great as it may seem. The earliest forms of birds had 
teeth in their jaws and possessed jointed 
tails. The reptiles of early times were 
able to fly. Some birds have claws on 
their wings, and these suggest another 
purpose than for use in flying. Birds are 
warm blooded, more so than any other 
of the vertebrates. All the other ani- 
mals below them are cold blooded. Rep- 
tiles are considered ugly ; but birds, as a 
rule, are noted for beauty and adorn- 

Oldest Known Bird 
This ancient bird 
lived ages and ages 
ago. It had teeth and a 
long tail, like reptiles, 
instead of the horny 

ment. Their feathers give birds a dis- J'^^jf ^7^ Jii^^'roS 

birds. This bird, 
known by scientists as 
Archaeopteryx, was a 
little larger than a 

tinction that applies to every variety 
and species. 

15. Mammals. — Animals that suckle 
their young and produce them at birth were formerly 
considered set off to themselves. No connecting link had 
been observed between them and animals that lay eggs, 
such as birds and reptiles. Yet it is now known that 
the lowest form of mammals does lay eggs. This is 
the duck mole, that lives on and burrows in the banks 



of rivers in Australia and Tasmania. This mammal 
lays two eggs at a time. The eggs have a yolk. A kindred 
form, the spiny ant eater, hatches its eggs in a temporary 

pocket that disappears when 
the young grow big enough to 
care for themselves. The step 
from these to the Marsupialia, 
the characteristic mammals of 
southern Asia, the opossum of 
America, and the kangaroo of 
" ~ Australia, is not difficult to 

Duck Mole 
These animals live on worms and COVCr. The mOSt distinctive 
vegetable matter. , ^ c i • , i • 

character oi mammals is their 
mode of development and of nourishment during the 
earliest period of life. They are all brought into the 
world alive. 

The lowest mammals are more closely related to reptiles than to 
birds. Reptiles are also egg layers. 

In the earlier ages man must have attempted to use 
many forms of animal life. The number of species that 
he has succeeded in domesticating either for food, cloth- 
ing or labor has, indeed, been small. Of the numerous 
types described in this lesson man depends almost exclu- 
sively upon animals with backbones and has domesti- 
cated in the true sense only birds and mammals. 


1. Domestic animals. 

2. Life cycle. 

3. Struggle for existence. 

4. Crowd of animals. 

5. Way of the wild. 

6. Natural selection. 

7. Artificial selection. 

8. Heredity. 

9. Variation. 

10. Atavism. 

11. Crossing peas. 

12. Dominant and recessive characters. 

13. Pure-bred races. 

14. Scrub stock. 

15. Improving the herd. 

Note to the Teacher. — In this lesson the contrast of 
living between the wild and tamed animals is indicated. 
Also the fundamental principles of animal improvement, 
both of the breed and the herd, are discussed. An ex- 
cellent opportunity is offered here for assigned readings 
and essays covering the important steps of a race from 
the time of capture in its original haunts to the largest 
development under domestication. Pupils will do well to 
get this chapter in one lesson without outside reading. 



1. Domestic animals. — Dogs, cats, horses, cattle, sheep, 
swine, goats, the ass and the mule, rabbits, poultry, pig- 
eons and the birds of the aviary for centuries have been 
in contact with man. They are grouped in friendly con- 
fidence around his dwelling. 
They live for his use and pleas- 
ure, and are, more or less, under 
his direct supervision, being fed 
and cared for by him. They 
have played an 
important role 
in the civiliza- 
t i o n of the 
human race. 
Without them 
— especially the 
dog, the horse, 

the cow and the sheep — man's develop- 
ment onward and upward would have 
been slow and uncertain. It is a fact that 
in those countries in which the problem 
of domestication did not enter the peo- 
ple ever remained near to barbarism. 

The great drawback of the American 
Indian was his lack of a beast of burden 
for certain kinds of fatiguing work. 

2. Life cycle. — The higher animals 
are born or hatch out of eggs; they 


Their ancestors were 

wild and 



grow and develop ; and then die. As a distinct organism 
an animal begins in an egg. Birth, growth, development 
and maturity all succeed in due time and in due order. 
Death inevitably results, either accidentally during some 
stage of the life cycle, or in the end when maturity is com- 
plete. From tgg to Q:gg is the life cycle. The three in- 
evitable certainties in the life of every animal are birth, 
growth and death. 

3. Struggle for existence. — Between life and death 
there is a constant struggle for existence. This is espe- 
cially true of the wild 
forms. Animals require 
food for satisfying hun- 
ger, drink for appeas- 
ing thirst and abiding 
places for rest or rear- 
ing the young. Their 
food consists of plants 
or of other animals that 


Return of the Forager 

live on plants. Without in the wild, life is a continuous struggle for 
^ 111 existence. 

plants there could be 

no plant-eating animals ; and, without these, flesh-eating 

species would not be able to exist. 

This struggle for existence is observed in two ways: In the 
species, as between the sheep of the fields, the stronger securing the 
best and richest food, the weaker being crowded to the rear or to 
scanty pastures; and as between individuals of different species, as 
the wolf or coyote with the sheep, or the hawk or fox with the 

Another condition in this struggle is to meet the changes of the 
seasons. Vast numbers of wild animals die in winter from cold, 
or starve when the snows cover the food, or die of thirst when the 
streams disappear in summer. Thus the number of animals in the 
wild reaching maturity is but a small part of those that are born. 

4. Crowd of animals. — In nature, therefore, a continu- 
ous crowding of animal life affects not only the species 



but the individuals of the species. As the crowding In- 
creases the warfare, becomes more intense, and this re- 
mains until the natnral balance obtains again. If the 
seasons are unusually severe or the enemies gain in 
strength, some certain species may altogether disappear. 
This always follows if the death rate exceeds the birth 
rate. Only those species increase that are favored by 
strength or environment. 

"It is said that at the time of the discovery of America there were 
no more red men than live today. The severe struggle for food led 
to war and disease, which in turn maintained the balance between 
the consuming population and the production of wild animal life 

Crowding of Animals Leads to Warfare 

At one time immense numbers of American bison inhabited the vast areas of the 
western plains. Why have these animals disappeared? 

available for human food. When the number of Indians in a tribe 
increased, luore animals were slaughtered ; to meet these new de- 
mands it was necessary to search for food at further distances and 
in new territory, often the property of another tribe. War usually 
followed, and in the thinning of the ranks of both contestants, the 
slaughtering of game was lessened, which continued until the sup- 
ply of game or animal life was equal to the ability of plant life to 
support it or until the increase of Indian population again caused 
depletion to the minimum numbers." 


5. Way o£ the wild. — Among the wild there is little 
sympathy or sentiment. The call of food to meet Na- 
ture's demands is always uppermost. Only where wild 
animals have been subjugated to domestication and 
raised under environments of a settled husbandry have 
the higher ideals of civilization prevailed. The ways of 
the wild are entirely different from those of civilized men. 
In the wild every other species is an enemy and every 
individual of the same species a rival or competitor. 
Hence, life is one long battle in which strength, cunning, 
instinct and racial characteristics to defend, outwit or 
escape, are weapons of victory. 

6. Natural selection. — Animals swiftest of foot most 
frequently escape, while the weak or sick are most often 
devoured by the attacking ene- 
mies. The strong and swiftest i^Hfe-^-;^^^^ 
satisfy their hunger by over- r jpy ^T'" 
taking the slowest of the spe- ^^^'^ ^w 
cies trying to escape in flight. _ ^ ^^mJ /^^ 
In the feed lot the weakest are ^^^"^"^^pjr^^ ^«P~^--^- 
always crowded aside by the /^r^^KL-- VlHk "^ 
strong and vigorous. The wild ^^^^m4^ ^^j^9^^ 
boar, through natural selection, '^"^^^^^J^^^^/'^^ 
becomes more fit for wild boar ^"-^.^^^^^v^^i^ 
life, the eagle becomes swifter way of the wild 

and more capable of killing and Eagles endeavoring to capture the 

infant deer. 

tearing his prey, and the wild 

horse fleeter when the dangerous beasts pursue him. 
A species unable to adapt itself to its environment is 
sooner or later crowded out by another species that can 
do so. 

The primitive hog was naturally coarse and ferocious and easily- 
angered, because his protection lay in those directions. He needed 
a long limb, because he could the more easily escape when the foe 



was stronger than himself. The longer his snout, the better he 
could dig for roots ; and worms were good to his palate, and whole- 
some medicine. If his hide was tough and thick, he could better 
withstand the cold, the thorns, or the enemy's tooth ; and the 
stronger his tusk the better able he was to win the tight. 

7. Artificial selection. — Either purposely or uncon- 
sciously man weeds out the unfitted and reserves for 
breeding purposes the strong, hardy, vigorous that best 
perform their work. He chooses the ''best milkers," and 
in time establishes a line or strain that produces a large 
quantity of milk. His horses are heavier or swifter than 
their wild antecedents, because he selected them for work 
or speed. His hogs are finer in fiber, reach maturity 

FOL'R Leading Breeds of Dogs 
Showing how artificial selection has brought about extreme types in form and use. 

more quickly and possess more flesh than their relatives 
of the woods, because by man's selection the more desir- 
able qualities were sought and when obtained were pre- 
served by means of breeding only animals having such 
characteristics. This artificial selection has become a 
most valuable aid in fitting every class of domestic ani- 
mal life for the highest and best service. 

8. Heredity. — ''If the parentage is chosen to a definite 
end, the process of heredity will develop the form de- 
sired by a force as unchanging as that by which a stream 
turns a mill." This is the keynote in breeding and im- 



proving both plants and animals. The law of heredity is 
the basis of breeding success. Its structural principle 
is ''like begets like." Heredity holds, keeps and guards 
the values of the best fitted animals. 

"I would not miss the opportunity to drive home the idea that 
frequently the parent can only be sized up by observing the off- 
spring. A parent frequently transmits qualities it does itself not 
seem to have, at least not to be observed." — Landacre. 

Just Like Peas in a Pod 

Note the striking resemblance of the pigs one to another and to the mother. Here 
is demonstrated the fundamental law of heredity, or "like begets like." 

9. Variation. — Opposed to heredity is the law of 
variation. This force seeks to produce new things ; hered- 
ity preserves uniformity. Variation is the law of change ; 
heredity is satisfied with what exists. Variation goes 
out to explore, to seek new paths and new fields. An 
animal breeder builds upon present heredity, but he 
courts variation and urges it to seek new findings. If 
these are to his liking, he seizes them as his own, attaches 


them to the old heredity, and builds or improves the 
structure to higher and better ends. 

The breeder's work is to fix the new acquisitions and to make 
them a part of the building material ; and all the while he allows 
variation free range that it may gather in new discoveries for fur- 
ther improvement and use. When found, through the law of hered- 
ity, they are transmitted to the betterment of the class or breed. 
In improving a herd or flock it is part of the breeder's work to 
decide which of the new things that variation has found shall be 
held, which shall be cast aside, and at what point a new acquisition 
is to be fixed as a part of the old stock. In this way improvement 
is secured through heredity, variation and selection. 

Striking Variation in Fowls 

These breeds have been evolved from a single ancestry. A, Houdan; h, English 
Game; c. Barred Plymouth Rock; d. White Polish; e, Japanese Bantam; /, Light 
Brahma; g, Aseel; h, Ceylon jungle fowl; /, White Wyandotte. 

10. Atavism. — Often it is observed that there is a re- 
appearance of peculiarities or traits after a lapse of one 
or more generations, either in the lower animals or in 
man. This phenomenon is known as atavism, or "breed- 
ing back." It is simply a reoccurrence to the surface of 
some old trait that had supposedly become eliminated. 

11. Crossing peas. — Gregor Johann Mendel, an Aus- 
trian monk, conducted many experiments with peas. In 
crossing dififerent varieties, and subsequently planting 
their offspring, he observed the inheritance of contrasting 
characters in the hybrids or crosses. He made crosses 
(hybrids he called them) between varieties which differed 
markedly as regards a pair or several pairs of characters, 


i. e., tall or short, with rounded seeds or wrinkled, with 
yellow cotyledons or green cotyledons. 

Varieties differing in stature were used: One a giant of 6 to 7 
feet high, the other a dwarf 9 inches to 18 inches high. "These were 
crossed, and the resulting seeds grew into plants which were all 
tall. The character of tallness which appeared in this cross-bred 
generation to the exclusion of dwarfness was called by Mendel the 
dominant character, the other recessive. The tall cross-bred peas were 
left to self-fertilize, and in their progeny there were tails and 
dwarfs, in the average proportions of 3 :1. When the dwarfs of this 
generation were allowed to self-fertilize, their offspring were all 
dwarfs, and further generations bred from them were also dwarfs. 
In other words, one-fourth of the generation were quite pure as re 
gards dwarfness, and these were called pure recessives. But when 
the tails of the second generation were left to self-fertilize, their 
offspring were of two kinds : (a) plants which produced tails and 
dwarfs in the 3:1 proportion, and (b) similar plants which pro- 
duced tails only, being pure as regards tallness. These "impure 
dominants" and "pure dominants" occur in the ratio of 2 to 1. Thus 
the second generation, resulting from the self-fertilization of the 
cross-bred forms or hybrids, consists of 25 per cent pure dominants, 
50 per cent impure dominants, and 25 per cent pure recessives." 

12. Dominant and recessive characters. — Important 
conclusions in a fundamental way have been reached as 
the result of what is now known as Mendel's law. This 
law applies to certain kinds of hybridization. A hybrid, 
you know, is the resulting offspring when two plants or 
two animals of different varieties or breeds have been 
mated or bred. In such crossings it is supposed that the 
generative cells, or gametes, produced by cross-breds are 
of two kinds, each kind bearing only one of two con- 
trasted or alternative characters which do not blend. 
These characters are known as dominant and recessive. 

"The idea may be better understood by using mice as an illus- 
tration. When what are called waltzing mice are crossed with 
normal mice, in the hybrid waltzing is recessive, the normal is dom- 
inant. When the members of this generation are in-bred, their 
progeny consists of normal mice and waltzing mice in the propor- 
tion 3 :1. The recessive waltzers of this generation are quite pure 
as regards waltzing, and will produce only waltzers for as many 
generations as one likes to breed them. But the dominants of the 
same generation turn out to be two kinds (though they appear to 



be all the same as far as the eye can tell) one-third of them (i^ure 
dominants) when inbred, will yield the normal mice, the other two- 
thirds {impure dominants) will split up again, when inbred, into 
normal mice and waltzing mice in the old proportion of 3:1.'" 

13. Pure-bred races. — Often there is found certain 
characteristics that distinguish a family or variety from 
one or others of that race. These distinctions give rise 

to breeds, into which all of our 
domestic animals have been 
grouped. Thus the Yorkshire 
hog differs from a hog of the 
Poland-China in color, confor- 
mation, bone and in other traits. 
These differences of breed are 
possibly due to climate, food, 
habit and environment. When 
a breed has been under the same 
environment for considerable 
time and has not been crossed 
with hogs of a different environ- 
ment or breed, the race becomes 
established, and individuals are 
pure bred. If a record is kept of 
the ancestry, it is known as its 
pedigree. Pedigrees are re- 
corded by breed associations, the book of such records 
being called a herd book. 

14. Scrub stock. — Farm animals of no known breeding 
or of mongrel and degenerated qualities are called scrub 
stock. As a rule these are unsatisfactory because such 
individuals are not profitable as are those of selected 
strains. Scrub stock is fast being replaced by individuals 
of pure breeding or by those '*bred-up" through the use 
of pure-bred sires. 

Of the Same Ancestry 

Yorkshire at top, Poland-China 
at bottom. Their ancestry traces 
back to the wild boar of the woods. 


15. Improving the herd. — It has become a proverb that 
the sire is half the herd. The sire is even more than that. 
In the first generation he is half; in the second he is 
three-fourths ; in the third, seven-eighths ; in the fourth, 
fifteen-sixteenths, and so on, until, if judicious selection 
be maintained and only pure-bred sires be used, the char- 
acter of the herd will be fixed by the blood introduced 
through the sires alone. Ultimately, such breeding, if 
continued for several generations, will transform the herd 
of mixed breeding into one substantially pure bred. 

How Breeding Up Improves the Stock 

The larger individual at the left is the result in the first generation when a pure- 
bred Berkshire and razorback were crossed. The progeny is inferior to its pure-bred 
dam but greatly superior to its scrub sire, pictured at the right. 

This plan requires the selection of sires belonging to 
one distinct breed, and there must be no change to any 
other breed. This kind of breeding alWays improves the 
herd, but must not be confounded with improvement of 
the breed. To improve the breed or race is a difficult task 
and involves great expense, a long period of time, and the 
careful application of technical details and much scientific 
knowledge to the breeding operations. 


1. A\'hen civilization was young. 

2. Domestication. 

3. Because man was initiative. 

4. A\^hat domestication requires. 

5. Domestication more than taming. 

6. Animals in captivity. 

7. Animals as a prime motor. 

8. Animals as a source of clothing. 

9. Animals as a source of food. 

10. Animals as civilizing agents. 

11. Increase in animal production. 

12. Advantages of keeping live stock. 

13. Disadvantages of keeping live stock. 

14. Alan's contract with animals. 

15. Live stock industry just begun. 

Note to the Teacher. — Domestication is older than his- 
tory. It is older even than human civilization. From the 
earliest times animals have appeared by the side of man, 
both as helpers and companions. Develop the subject 
further by questions. Aim to show how few species have 
been conquered but how immensely important these are 
to the human race. It is very desirable also to teach kind- 
ness to these faithful workers. Kindness to animals not 
only makes their lot more pleasant but helps the doer. 




-: -~ ^^ 







'^' . 



IK\'' ''"^' 




\^r ^ ' 





1. When civilization was young. — The antecedents 
of all species now known as domestic animals were once 
wild and roamed over plains or through forests in search 
of food, water and shelter. In most instances they lived 
in droves, flocks, or herds, staying 
together, more or less, for safety and 
self-protection. Man was as much 
their enemy as the savage beasts 
that constantly preyed on them. 
With few exceptions, the animals 
that have been domesticated belong 
to grass-eating species. While not 
ferociously hostile, they neverthe- 
less fought when occasion arose and 
drove other classes less inclined to 
fight from their midst ; and in case 
of danger or surprise they fled to- 
gether, or fought the attacking foe wild sheep 

until one or the other was vanquished Known also as Big Horn and 

. Mountain Sheep. 

or forced to seek safety m flight. 

2. Domestication. — Man has brought under his control 
several species of birds and mammals. In taming and 
subjecting them to his will, in fitting them to his needs, 
in requiring them to do certain kinds of work, and in 
other ways adapting them to his life and well being, a 
long process was set in operation. Both plants and ani- 
mals have been domesticated. In the realm of animal 
life only a few species have been subdued from a state 



of nature and trained for domestic use. While thousands 
of species have been captured, only a limited few have 
really been domesticated. In the entire list of mammals 
nearly 12,000 kinds have been recorded; and less than a 
score have proven of use as agricultural animals. Of the 
birds less than one species in a thousand has responded 
to a settled life with man. 

3. Because man was initiative. — While many wild spe- 
cies have been captured and tamed, only a few have met 

all the requirements of 
domestication. Hence the 
domestic species that we 
know are the results of fit- 
ness for the various environ- 
ments in which man has 
placed them. In the early 
days man himself had a diffi- 
cult task of establishing his 
own race and interests. Na- 
ture was severe on him. To 
cope with the stern realities 
that tested his endurance 
and that tried his cunning 

Man's initiative led him to devise tools j i -n i- 1.^.^.1- 'J 

and implements for defense and assault, and SKlll, tie SOUght the aiQ 

By means of these he gained domin- (■ mj it j. i i i • A J 

ion over the beasts of the fields and of Wild life tO help him. And 

'^°°'*^" he succeeded. Brought un- 

der control these served as draft animals ; they provided 
clothing, their flesh served as food, and their comradeship 
made for civilization. Hence, back of domestication is 
service to the human race. 

4. What domestication requires. — Unless the animals 
brought under subjugation are able to survive when put 
to their new work, little if any advance is possible. Other- 
wise the process would be a game of continual capture 

Cave Man and Bear 



and taming, requiring more effort than the good in the 
end would justify. To meet the requirements of domesti- 
cation animals must breed in captivity, thrive under the 
artificial conditions imposed, and be of service to man. 

5. Domestication more than taming. — Domestication 
means more than merely to capture and tame. The off- 
spring must show fitness for a domestic life. They must 
have mental capacity for education; plasticity of blood 
and physical nature to change from the old environment 
to the new; and power to acquire new habits, develop 
new characters, assume new shapes, and serve the uses 
and purposes of their captors. Every domestic animal, if 
completely domesticated, is an artificial production. It has 
lost its old ability to care for itself. Under its new en- 
vironment it depends on man for its parents, food, shelter, 
protection and care. 

6. Animals in captivity. — Thousands of species have 
been captured and kept in captivity. But few of them 
give forth offspring; and if offspring result they are as 
intractable and unresponsive in their new environment 
as the parental stock. Elephants, for instance, are not 
difificult to bring under the will of man, but they seldom 
breed in captivity. The problem with the elephant is 
one of capturing and taming, not of domesticating. Of all 

Flair of the Dog 

The marvelous faculty of being able to locate game by scent has been acquired by 
certam dogs through long years of breeding, selection and training. 



the cat kind of animals, 
the domestic cat only 
has been plastic enough 
to meet the severe de- 
mands of man's civiliza- 
tion. Yet enormous 
numbers of closely al- 
lied species have been 
tamed and have pro- 
duced young, but have 
never become domestic. 
Back of this universal 
law is the fact that few 
species are domesticable. 
7. Animals as a prime 
motor. — \\'orking alone 
and unaided, man would 
have a sorry existence. 
His tasks would be too 
great and severe for his 
frail body and erect 
structure. When he 
trained animals to carry 
his burdens and do his 
heavy work he not only 
conserved his own 
strength, but increased 
his productive power. 
This gave an added in- 
centive to advance ; he 
saved time, enabling 
him to think and plan, 
and allowed him to gain 
in substance for protection and future needs. 

Wolves in Captivity 

These animals are trained but not domesti- 


One reason why the early people of America failed to develop 
as did those in the Old World was because there were no domestic 
animals of any consequence on the American continent. True, they 
had the dog, but this animal was of little use in subjugating the 
forces of nature like the horse and ox were for the people of Asia, 
Africa and Europe. 

Not only have animals furnished motive power directly, but they 
have served to furnish this power in other forms. The application 
of oil, gas and coal to mechanical devices, wheeled vehicles and man- 
made motors has come about largely from the ability of domestic 
animals to do certain difficult tasks that man unaided by them would 

Tedding Hay in Switzerland 

Efficiency of labor is one of the most important factors in the progress and pros- 
perity of North America. 

have found impossible of accomplishment, even though his mental 
insight would have indicated a way. Civilization and human de- 
velopment are most due to the animals that have carried burdens 
and moved things. 

8. Animals as a source of clothing. — Animals have en- 
abled man to conquer nature, not only by adding their 
force to his relatively weak body, but they have furnished 
him clothing- which has made it possible to extend his 
habitat. Skins effectively gave him warmth and protec- 
tion before the days of manufacture, and today leather 
is in greater use than ever in our history. Although rela- 
tively less extensively used than formerly, silk and wool, 
both animal products, possess qualities found in no other 


fiber. And cotton, the most extensively used vegetable 
fiber, is possible only from the assistance that horses, 
mules and oxen give in its production. 

9. Animals as a source of food. — Much the larger part 
of the vegetation which grows in the earth's surface is 
unsuited for human consumption. But converted into 
milk, butter, cheese, meat and animal fats, the supply of 
human food is greatly increased. Not only is there more 
of it, but the quality of animal flesh and other products is 

^^■B^K^^^^^Sbs^^^vF ^"^^ 

Taking a Cartload of Sheep Skins to Market 

This photograph was taken at Cette, France, and is typical of the custom of gather- 
ing animal skins in all parts of the world for man to use for one purpose or another. 

superior to an exclusive vegetable diet. Among all the 
food products of man none are more efficient or refined 
than meat and dairy and poultry products. The human 
race has made its greatest progress in regions where 
animal products are an important part of man's regular 

The domestication of animals has added also to human progress 
by increasing the stability of the food supply. Like grain eleva- 
tors in primary markets, domestic animals are storehouses of food 
to be called on when soil products are temporarily liiuited, and al- 
lowed to accumulate gradually when these products are plentiful. 
Where meat raising is a part of the activity of the people, famine 
seldom occurs. 



[ 10. Animals as civilizing agents. — Animals serve an- 
other purpose besides advancing the material welfare of 
the human race. They have not been less important to 
our spiritual welfare. Whether kept merely as pets and 

Flesh from Grass 

Sheep being loaded in cars for shipment to market centers. They have converted 
a very large amount of grass, weeds and grain into substances that can now be used 
for human food. 

companions, or for the production of work, clothing and 
food, they compel habits of care and responsibility and 
inculcate habits of mercy. These habits, together with 
the sympathetic influences involved, in all ages have had 
and still continue to have, an elevating and civilizing 
influence upon the human race. 

"If it be true, as my personal experiences and observations lead 
me firmly to believe is the case, that man's contact with the domes- 
ticated animals is ever to be one of the most effective means 
whereby his sympathetic, his civilized motives may be broadened and 
affirmed, there is clearly reason for giving to this side of life a 
larger share of attention than it has received." — Shaler. 



Free Education 

As much so to the boy as to the dogs, 
learn by doing. 


11. Increase in animal production. — In recent years 
farm animals have not increased in numbers as rapidly 
as have the inhabitancs, but the value of animals has in- 
creased much more rapidly. Much of this is due to in- 
crease in the individual merit of the animals. 

In 1850 the average 
weight of wool was 2.4 
pounds per sheep ; in 1910 
it was 6.9 pounds. Thus, 
while in 50 years sheep 
have not doubled in num- 
bers, the production of 
wool has increased more 
than five times. This is a 
striking example of the 
value of improvement in 
breeding, because the im- 
provement in wool produc- 
tion is due to the influence 
of heredity in far greater 
degree than to the effect of 
improved feeding. 

Beef cattle offer another 
illustration of the way in which animal products have been in- 
creased without increasing the number of animals. Formerly beef 
cattle were matured in their fourth, fifth and sixth year. They are 
now placed in the market in their second and third year. The in- 
crease in the size of horses and the increased production of butter 
fat per cow which have occurred in the past century are hardly less 
important factors in increasing the value of domestic animals and 
their products. 

12. Advantages of keeping live stock. — The most strik- 
ing advantages afifecting the farmer are: (i) Animals 
make it possible to use land that would be w^holly or 
partly unproductive. (2) They make use of farm crops 
which would be entirely or partially wasted ; straw, corn 
stalks, the various hays would not have sufftcient value to 
pay for raising if animals were not kept to convert them 
into useful products. (3) In thus acting as machines in 
manufacturing raw materials into those which are much 
more concentrated, thus making their transportation 



economically possible. (4) In the production of these 
finer products much of the essential materials of plant 
growth are left on the farm ; this means land improve- 
ment. (5) The rearing of live stock makes it possible 
to arrange a better rotation of crops ; and this practice 
helps to maintain the fertility of the soil. (6) Labor is 

Adapting Power to Work Requirements 

European countries have learned to adapt their power to the kind of work to be 
performed. They do not use a ten-horsepower boiler and engine to perform the 
work which can be done by a half horsepower. 

better utilized also, thus securing greater prosperity to 
the community and a higher skill of those operating the 

13. Disadvantages of keeping live stock. — More capital 
is required to operate a given area of land where animals 
are kept than on exclusive grain or other crop farms. 
This investment is in animals, buildings, feed and labor. 
The perishable nature entails also a great risk in the in- 
vestment. Not only the products of a single year, but 
the growth of a number of years, may be suddenly swept 
away by disease. Then, when an animal has been prop- 


erly fattened, he must be sold. If held for any length of 
time, not only is there a constant outlay for food to main- 
tain the animal, but the condition of the animal may actu- 
ally deteriorate. 

Marketable animals cannot be held for better markets like grain 
or merchandise. A rise in price of feeding stuffs often seriously 
affects the profit of animals that are being fitted for the market. It 
requires continual vigilance on the part of the stockman to meet 
these several disadvantages as they arise. 

14- Man's contract with animals. — Since some animals 
have responded to domestication, a sort of contract is 
implied in their consent. In return for the services they 
render to mankind they are entitled to protection from 
cold, heat, storms and annoying enemies ; to suitable food 
for their nourishment ; to sanitary quarters for their 
health and comfort ; and to humane treatment for their 
physical and mental happiness. On farms where these 
attentions are bestowed the best service is rendered the 
owner. On the other hand, if farm animals are abused, 
poorly nourished, or improperly housed, they return less 
wool, less milk, less pork, less beef and less labor than 
on neighboring- farms where these fundamentals are 
neither neglected nor ignored. 

15. Live stock industry just begun. — ]Much as domestic 
animals have done for us, their work is only started. For 
all time they must continue to furnish the human race 
with food, clothing, labor, and other necessities. Our in- 
debtedness to them will continue rather than diminish. 
The work of the future will lie in the direction of better 
care, better feed, and more skillful mating of breeding 
stock. Thus scrubs and mongrels will become more and 
more unprofitable. Substituted for such will come effi- 
cient animals of quality breeding, each class or breed 
adapted to its peculiar purpose and special service, that 
the cheapest meat or milk or wool may be secured. 


1. Observation of Animals. — (a) Each student is to select five 
kinds of wild animals w^ith v^hich he is partially acquainted, and, 
from his observation and experience, enumerate the points at which 
they touch human welfare. Are they, in each instance, to be classed 
as helpful, as harmful, or merely as indifferent? Is their influence 
upon man's interest direct or indirect? 

The student will also select five animals that appeal most to his 
interest. What quality, considering structure, habits, instinct and 
powers, is of most interest? As you study any one quality do you 
not find that it takes you at once into all others? Develop these 
facts into a story or composition paper. 

(b) Are there any domesticated animals whose species is repre- 
sented in the wild state? Compare the habits and general structure 
of some domesticated animal with that of the nearest kin among 
wild species. How many kinds of domestic animals can you enumer- 
ate? Have you ever seen a wild boar or a picture of him? Is it 
true that all our modern breeds have come from this ancestral 
stock? Can you explain how such great changes have been effected? 
What effect have food, care and use on a race or breed? 

2. Animal Characteristics. — (a) What farm animals have 
front teeth on both jaws? One jaw only? 

(b) In what respects (enumerate) and to what degree have you 
ever noticed variation in farm animals? 

(c) Does use or disuse produce changes in the organs of an in- 
dividual? In what way has speed in the race horse and the milk- 
giving function in cows been developed? 

{d) Enumerate some facts of your own observation which illus- 
trate heredity. Are all blackbirds black? Why? Have you ever 
seen a white blackbird? Can you explain? Compare any offspring 
with its parents and note if there are any characters peculiarly 
marked in one of the parents. 

{e) Do animals change in shades of color with the seasons? Is 
color a protection in nature in the wild? 

3. Insect Collections. — To collect and preserve ordinary insects 
the amateur needs only net. killing bottle, phials or pill boxes (for 
living specimens) and insect pins. For butterflies and moths he will 
need a cork-lined collecting box and a phial of chloroform with a 
little brush fitted to the cork. 

(a) The best net has a 12-inch circle of No. 3 wire fitted firmly 
to a lig-ht but strong wooden handle 3^ or 4 feet long. This loop is 



covered first with a strip of sheeting 5 or 6 inches wide to form a 
gathering or shirring. To this strip is sewn a cheesecloth bag with 
a rounded bottom not less than 2 nor more than 3 feet deep. Thus 
insects may be prevented from escaping by turning the handle. 

(b) For the killing bottle choose a straight tube bottle 1 or 1^2 
inches across or a big-mouthed 4 to 6-ounce bottle. In the bottom 
place a piece of cyanide of potassium ■):+ inch square, barely cover with 
water, and immediately add enough plaster of parts to soak up the 
water. This cements the cyanide to the bottom. Leave the bottle 
open in a shady place to dry for an hour, then cork it tight with a 
long cork and label it POISON. No child should be allowed to do 
this work because of the danger of handling the poison. The teacher 
or a druggist should do it. In using it keep the cork out only long 
enough to put insects in. If kept closed tightly it will last for sev- 
eral months. Insects may be left in it overnight without injury. 

Instead of cyanide, a few drops of choloform, sulphuric ether or 
benzine on cotton may be used, but they are not so convenient to 

(c) The cork-lined collecting box is needed for insects too large 
or too delicate to put in the killing bottle. Such specimens must be 
carefully caught to prevent injury and touched with a soft paint 
brush dipped in chloroform, ether or benzine. This kills them in- 
stantly. Then they may be pinned through the thorax (the middle 
section of the body) and placed in the box. Some collectors pinch 
butterflies while the wings are folded above the back and then place 
them in pieces of paper folded to form a sort of three-cornered 
envelope. This is not so good a plan as the other, because there is 
more danger of breakage. 

Pill boxes and phials are useful for holding delicate insects, larvae 
and pupae. Soft-bodied insects, spiders, etc., may be dropped in 

(d) Insect pins are long, very thin, small headed and sharp 
pointed. They are much better for mounting insects than ordinary 


1. How plants grow. 

2. Cells. 

3. Formation of plant compounds. 

4. Starch. 

5. Protein. 

6. Fat or oil. 

7. Ash or mineral material. 

8. Water. 

9. Crude fiber. 

10. Groups of plant constituents. 

11. Plants and animals compared. 

12. Function of protein. 

13. Heat and energy. 

14. What the fat does. 

15. What the carbohydrates do. 

Note to the Teacher. — The relationship of soils, plants 
and animals is quite well illuminated in this lesson. The 
substances composing plants and animals are defined, the 
sources of their formation pointed out, and the work that 
each performs is indicated, so that a clear idea may be 
had concerning food and its ultimate end when admitted 
as digested nutrients into the animal machine. This les- 
son informs us how this living machine operates and per- 
forms its important work. 


1. How plants grow. — Plants secure food from the soil 
and air. An animal frame comprises the essential con- 
stituents of plants, with sodium and chlorine in addition. 
Animals cannot subsist directly on the soil and air. Their 
food consists of plants or of other animals that subsist 
directly or indirectly in plants. Plant life is the founda- 
tion of growth and energy. 

The soil, the plant, and the animal represent the three great fields 
of agricultural activity. They are dependent upon one another, each 
giving to or receiving from the others the things vital to its very 
existence. Without a soil there would be, of course, neither plant 
nor animal life ; without plants there co ild be no animals ; and 
without plants or animals there would be a useless if not a barren 
soil. The first step is plant growth, whereby the elements essential 
to all growth are organized in plant cells, compounds and tissues. 
On this plant tissue the animal feeds. After the animal dies, with 
its decay and decomposition, come the changes of animal tissue back 
to soil and air — back to the original materials such as they were be- 
fore captured by roots and leaves and formed into plants. It is in 
this manner that the plant grows out of soil and air, the animal out 
of plants and air, and the soil out of plants and animals. The animal 
when living contributes active supplies, and when dead both humus 
and mineral ingredients are returned to the soil ; the soil thus re- 
inforced favors the new plants now growing in it; and the new 
plants, now abundantly nourished, more effec- 
tively take care of the animals. From the plant 
is fed the animal ; from the animal is sustained 
the soil ; from the soil is nourished the plant. 

2. Cells. — A plant or animal is 
formed of myriads of cells. These in- 
crease in number as an individual 
grows. Simply stated, the cell is an 
inclosed sac within whose walls are the 
juices and other substances required for 
growth and development. The cell 


How Cells Grow 

Growth of a single cell, 
ending in cell division or 
the production of two 
individual cells. 



walls of plants consist of a wood substance called cellu- 
lose. In green and growing plants this cellulose is thin 
and tender, but as the plant matures it becomes hard and 
woody. The work of building the plant is done within 
the cells. 

3. Formation of plant compounds. — Certain soluble 
compounds are carried from the soil into plants through 
the roots and deposited in the cells. These are met by 
carbon, brought into the plant through the leaves. These 
substances supply the building materials for the manu- 
facture of plant compounds. The master builder is 
protoplasm, tucked away in the cells. No one knows 
just what protoplasm is, but it represents life, without 
which there could be no growth. Every live, active cell 
contains protoplasm, the life principle. Herein is con- 
tained the vital spark that makes all growth possible. 

The various agricultural elements used by plants or animals are : 

O. Oxygen. 
H, Hydrogen. 
N, Nitrogen. 
C, Carbon. 
CI, Chlorine. 
Na, Sodium. 
S, Sulphur. 

P, Phosphorus. 
K, Potassium. 
Mg, Magnesium. 
M, Manganese. 
Fe, Iron. 
Si, Silicon. 
Ca, Calcium. 

4. Starch. — When the soluble 
soil material or plant food has 
been carried up through the 
long channel of cells and reaches 
the leaves, it is brought in con- 
tact with the carbon dioxide that 
has been pulled into the leaf 
through the little mouths on the 
undersides of the leaves. Here these various compounds 
are upset and disintegrated through the action of heat, 
sunlight, protoplasm and chlorophyll, with the result that 

Starch Cells 
This is the way the starch 
cells from potato tubers look 
when seen under the microscope. 



a grain of starch is made out of water and carbonic acid 
gas. Some of these starch grains are changed into sugar, 
which, being readily soluble, is transferred by diffusion 
from cell to cell and left in those cells that need it most. 
5. Protein. — The formation of the protein constituents 
is more complex than that of starch. In a general way it 
may be said that starch or a starch derivative is united 
in the cells with nitrates and sulphur which have been 
brought into the plant from the soil. The living matter, 
or protoplasm, then breaks up the nitrates in the active 
cells, uniting them in some way with starch, with the re- 
sult that a protein compound is formed. 

6. Fat or oil.— Oil 
contains the same 
chemical elements as 
starch. Both starch and 
oil are formed of car- 
bon, hydrogen and oxy- 
gen. In the oil com- 
pounds there is a larger 
number of the carbon 
and hydrogen units in 
proportion to the oxy- 
gen than in the case of 
starch. All plants con- 
tain oil or fat in their 
woody tissue, but the bulk of it is deposited in the seed 
and fruit. Protein differs in composition from oil or 
starch in having nitrogen and sulphur in addition to car- 
bon, hydrogen and oxygen. 

7. Ash or mineral materials. — When plants or animals 
are burned a portion is left as asJi. This consists of the 
mineral materials taken into the plant from the soil. 
A\^hen food is eaten by man or beast the minerals are used 

pt. or lib of Milk 

5oz. of Froteid. 

Beef. 301. 

Protein the Same in All 

Here is shown the weight of food required 
to yield the equivalent of protein in one 
pound of milk. 



for building bone, teeth and other tissue structures of the 
body. In most feeding stuffs sodium and chlorine are 
lacking, but the deficiency is corrected by the artificial 
supply of common salt. Poor teeth and small and weak 
bones result when live stock fail to get euough ash or 
mineral material in their food. A variety of food, includ- 
ing coarse fodders and the legumes, makes it possible to 
supply the mineral matter in abundance. 



5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 





















Growing Plants Contain Much Water 
Several common feeding stuffs are here compared to show the large quantities of 
water they contain. Note the change when harvested and cured as dry forage. 

8. Water. — Often three-fourths or more of the weight 
of young growing plants is water. Do you wonder now 
why water in the soil is so important for the production 
of good crops? The plant not only must have water, but 
the only way it can make use of it is to carry it into the 
plant through the roots. Water serves as a carrier of 
plant food through the roots to every part of the plant. 
It is to the plant what blood is to the animal. One pur- 
pose of the water is to dissolve the plant food of the soil, 
and when in solution to carry it into the plant. 

More than half of the entire weight of the animal is water. It is 


found in all parts of the body and is as essential for the development 
of solid tissue as any of the other ingredients. Young and grow- 
ing animals, like young and growing plants, contain the highest per- 
centage of water. As the animal matures the proportion of water 
diminishes until it reaches about one-half of the total weight. 

9. Crude fiber serves as a framework of the plant. It 
is to the plant what bones and skeleton are to the animal. 
It is made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. These ele- 
ments are the same that form starch. Immature and 
young plants are tender because the crude fiber is tender; 
as the plant matures, the fiber hardens and toughens — as 
found in hay and corn stover and trees. 

10. Groups of plant constituents. — Plants censist of 

many compounds. AMiile there are physical differences, 

the chemical elements are invariably united in definite 

combinations producing definite compounds. For the 

sake of convenience these may be grouped as follows : 

I. Ash. 
II. Water- 
Ill. Protein or compounds containing nitrogen. 
IV. Nitrogen-free compounds,* or compounds containing no nitro- 
gen, such as starch, crude fiber, sugar, gums, etc. 
V. Ether extract, or oil, or fat. 

11. Plants and animals compared. — From the stand- 
point of composition one difference between a plant and 
an animal is in the fact that the former contains carbo- 
hydrates and the latter does not. \\^hen the soil ele- 
ments are taken into the plant they lose their individual 
identity, and, united in various ways, become organized 
compounds. They are no longer carbon, hydrogen and 
oxygen, but starch or sugar or oil ; or, if nitrogen and sul- 
phur are added, they become protein compounds. The 
plant has now fulfilled its destiny and is ready to be used 
as food for the support of animal life. 

*These being derived from the same elements, and having the same fuel value 
when assimilated by an animal, are usually termed carbohydrates. The carbohydrates 
are formed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen; the last in proportion to form water, 
hence the name. 



12. Function of protein. — The protein of a food is used 
primarily to replenish the body wastes of tissues, blood, 
organs, brain and 
nerves, etc. Young ani- 
mals require a larger 
supply than adult and 
aged animals because of 
the requirements of 
growth and enlarge- 
ment. Protein may be 
used also for energy and 
fat, but usually not eco- 
nomically. A very large 
consumption of protein 
may lead to ill health. 

Protein is the "muscle 
maker" of the body. The 
protein of the plant is 
changed into the protein of 

the animal. In the animal this constituent comprises the muscular 
tissues, blood, hair, nerves, internal organs, skin, etc. In addition 
the protein is used in the repair work of the body. Every beat of 
the heart, every circuit of the blood, and every move of a muscle, 
demands that some protein substance be used up. To keep the 
animal machine in good working order these parts must be kept in 
repair through protein. If this supply satisfies the waste, the weight 
of the animal will remain unchanged. When the supply is liberal, 
or exceeds the demands of the system, material may be stored in the 
body as flesh or fat, and the animal will gain in weight. 

13. Heat and energy. — Food is needed to keep animals 
warm. As wood burned in a stove gives off heat, so 
food consumed in the body furnishes heat. This con- 
sumption of fuel food is so well regulated in a healthy 
animal that the temperature remains at the same point 
at all times. Carbohydrates and fats are mainly the 
sources of heat supply. These same ingredients are used 
for the production of fat and muscular energy, and pro- 
tein may also be used for the same purpose. 

Beef Cut Showing Protein 
Observe distribution of large and small 
particles of fat. This improves the quality 
of the meat- 



When Shelter Is Denied 

When farm animals are unsheltered in win- 
ter they often suffer from rain, snow and 

14. What the fat does. — When fat is consumed, it is 
either stored in the body for future use or at once 

burned in the produc- 
Wi\-l ^ " ^ ' ^^\ tion of energy and heat. 

The l)oy given to much 
exercise requires a 
large supply of energy- 
producing foods. W^ork- 
ing animals have a 
leaner appearance than 
those kept quietly in a 
stall. Dairy animals 
give ofif much of their 
flesh and fat stores 
in milk. Only a small amount of oil or fat should be 
daily consumed. If fed too abundantly, digestive disturb- 
ances often result. 

15. What the carbohydrates do. — The sugars, starches 
and similar products are used to produce heat, fat and 
energy. AVhile actually sup- 
plying the same purpose as 
fats, the carbohydrates cannot 
altogether replace them. Ex- 
periments show that at least 
some oil or fat is necessary to 
keep animals in the best of 
health. The carbohydrates 
are bulky and to most animals 

they form the greater part of the food, both in quantity 
and weight. This class of foods is generally the cheapest. 
The greater part of the food supply the world over con- 
sists of feeding stuffs having the carbohydrates in greater 
abundance than of all others combined. 

Self-Feeding Device for Ear Corn 
OR Alfalfa 


1. Nutrients defined. 

2. Most feeding stuffs are unl^alanced. 

3. Dig-estibility defined. 

4. How digestibility of a food is determined. 

5. First step is to obtain composition. 

6. Coefficient of digestibility. 

7. Digestible nutrients. 

8. Correct rations are based on digestibility. 

9. Each constituent is required. 

10. Foods must be appetizing. 

11. Folly of light feeding. 

12. Digestibility little influenced by quantity. 

13. Individual character of the animal. 

14. Digestibility decreases as plants mature. 

15. What most influences digestion. 

Note to the Teacher. — The items brought out in this 
lesson will show how important it is that digestibility of 
a food be clearly understood. An animal fed a mixed 
ration digests only about two-thirds of its food. This 
means that approximately one-third of the food does not 
contribute in any way to the nourishment of the animal. 
Indicate some of the factors that influence digestibility. 
Show the wide ranges of the food nutrients of the more 
common feeding stuffs. 




1. Nutrients defined. — Any substance absorbed into 
the system in the process of digestion or that contributes 
to the support of animal life is a nutrient. Hence, the 
albumen of an egg, the starch of a potato, the salts of an 
apple, the ash of wheat bran, the fiber of pasture grass, 
are all nutrients and as such promote the well-being of 
animals in growth, work, milk, or flesh increase. 

2. Most feeding stuffs are unbalanced. — Only a few 
feeding stuffs furnish alone the required quantities of pro- 
tein, carbohydrates and fat. The most economical and 
best results are secured when two or more are combined. 
By such combinations, if one feed is lacking in protein, 
the deficiency may be met in the ration through the selec- 
tion of another substance possessing the protein element 

Balancing the Ration Improves It 

The two larger pigs at the right have been fed corn and tanliage, while the two 
smaller ones at the left have been fed corn only. This shows why a balanced ration 
is worth while. 




in unusual abundance. In this manner the shortage of 
one is balanced by the abundance of others. 

3. Digestibility defined. — Every feeding stufif contains 
protein, carbohydrates, fat, ash and water. A distinct 
portion of each is absorbed, but the remainder is rejected 
and excreted in the feces. The part so absorbed is spoken 
of as the amount digested. Digestibility refers to the true 
food value of any nutrient. Every food, regardless of 
the balance of its proximate principles, contains both 
digestible and indigestible matter. A feeder must be 
familiar with the digestible nutrients of feeding stuffs if 
he is to use them to best advantage. 

4. How digestibility of a 
food is determined. — The gen- 
eral method of ascertaining 
the digestibility of the various 
constituents of a feeding stuff 
is to supply an animal with 
weighed quantities of food, the 
composition of which is known 
by chemical analysis. During 
the period of experiment the 
solid excrements are collected, 
weighed and analyzed by the 
same chemical methods applied 
previously to the food. In this 
manner the amount of each 
constituent of the food which passes through the animal 
unabsorbed is determined. It is a simple matter now to 
subtract this quantity from the amount found to have 
been present in the food originally. The difference is the 
amount digested and absorbed. 

5. First step is to obtain composition. — Chemists have 

Determining Digestibility 

The steer is harnessed in appa- 
ratus for ascertaining facts about 
the digestibility of food. 



analyzed all the important feeding stuffs. In the table 
following a few common feeding stuff's are used for de- 
termining the real nutritive value of each constituent. 

Composition of Some Common Feedixg Stuffs 

In 100 pounds of fresh substance. 

Feeding Stuffs 






Corn stover, field cured 

Red clover hay 

Timothy hay 











2 5 

Cottonseed hulls 

2 2 

Corn, dent 


\\ heat bran 


Cottonseed meal 

10 1 

Gluten feed 

3 5 



Composition of Cor.n Stover 

Fully one-third of the total digestible nutrients of the corn crop remains in the 
stover after the ears are removed. 



6. Coefficient of digestibility. — Composition includes 
both the digested and unabsorbed materials. But the ab- 
sorbed matter only is of importance as food. Digestion 
trials make known the percentage of each nutrient 
digested. Such figures express the digestion coefficient 
for each constituent. In the table following are given 
the coefficients of digestibility for the constituents of the 
feeding stuff previously mentioned. 

Digestion Coefficients of Some Common Feeding Stuffs 

Percentage digestible 

Feeding stuffs 






Corn stover 










Red clover hay 


Timothy hay 


Cottonseed hulls 




Wheat bran 


Cottonseed meal 


Gluten feed 


7. Digestible nutrients. — When composition and diges- 
tible percentage are known, it is a comparatively simple 
matter to determine the digestible quantity of each con- 
stituent. This is done by multiplying the figures repre- 
senting the total amount of each constituent by the coeffi- 
cien of digestibility, the resulting product being the quan- 
tity digested. 

For example : Corn stover contains 3.8 pounds of protein, 19.7 
pounds of crude fiber, 31.5 pounds of nitrogen-free extract and 1.1 
pounds of fat. By multiplying these amounts by the figures repre- 
senting the digestibility for each constituent respectively, the amount 
of each digestible nutrient will be obtained. This is done as follows : 



Crude fiber, 
Nitrogen-free extract. 

Digestible Digestible 

Composition Coefficient Nutrient 

3.8 X -15 = 1.7 

19.7 X 67 = 13.2 

31.5 X 61 =: 19.2 

1.1 X 62 = 0.7 

The total digestible nutrients have been determined for each feed- 
ing stuff. Crude fiber and nitrogen-free extract, taken together, are 
often expressed as carbohydrates Determine the digestible nutri- 
ents in corn stover, red clover hay, timothy hay, cottonseed hulls, 
corn, wheat bran, cottonseed meal, and gluten feed. 

8. Correct rations are based on digestibil- 
ity. — The importance of basing all feeding 
rations on the digestible matter rather than 
on the total composition is clearly seen. 
Only a portion of the food taken into the 
stomach is assimilated. Hence, in every 
feed a part is lost and wasted. This serves 
no contribution to the nutriment of the body. 

9. Each constituent is required. — No one 
constituent can wholly take the place of an- 
other. Since protein contains nitrogen and 
sulphur in addition to carbon, hydrogen and 
oxygen, it is evident that neither the carbo- 
hydrates nor the fats which contain carbon, 

hydrogen and oxygen only can be substituted for protein. 
Just as the phosphorus or potassium of a fertilizer can- 
not replace nitrogen, so the carbohydrates or the fats 
cannot replace the protein of a food. While protein may 
be substituted for the carbohydrates and fats, it is to a 
limited extent, and only for a limited time. Even though 
the well-being of the animal would permit of this sub- 
stitution the added expense would be against the practice. 
10. Foods must be appetizing. — Plants are most appe- 
tizing when young and tender. They are then agreeable 
to the taste and induce a maximum consumption. At this 

Nearly All is 



Protein Is Very Important 

The larger two were fed skim milk and 
wheat middlings with corn; the smaller two 
were given corn only. 

stao-e of growth little woody tissue has developed, the 
juices are abundant, the substances are freely acted upon 

by the secretions, and 
the largest amount of 
nutriment is absorbed. 
Feeds that are unappe- 
tizing and disagreeable 
to smell or taste will be 
rejected, or if eaten at 
all will be only to satisfy 
hunger. The good feeder 
endeavors to tempt the 
taste and increase the 
appetite of his animals, 
that the largest possible consumption of food may be had 
to secure the quickest and largest returns. 

11. Folly of light feeding. — Since growth can result 
only from food consumed, it follows as an undisputed 
conclusion that light feeding will retard development. 
Hence, not only good food must be provided, but much 
food also. Many a feeder owes his success to his ability 
of placing before his ani- 
mals a bountiful ration 
that is both wholesome 
and nutritious. Hunger 
may make his animals 
partake of almost any 
kind of food, but nothing 
he can do will induce 
these same animals to 
eat a disagreeable or un- 
appetizing food heartily 
enough to get a response much beyond their maintenance 
needs. Growth and production are invariably associated 

Little Feed, Poor Stock 
Little profit in this kind of farming. 



with well-flavored and appetizing food, even though noth- 
ing is added to the nutritive value of the food. 

12. Digestibility little influenced by quantity. — Ordi- 
narily, digestion is but slightly influenced by big appe- 
tites. Heavy eaters are usually the most profitable ani- 
mals. Fed to their full capacity they give as good an 
account of their food as when limited to half feeds. Food 
is digested and assimilated just as completely in full as in 
half-filled stomachs. The most rapid growth, or the larg- 
est milk flow, is to be had when an animal is permitted to 
eat to its full capacity, and this is another reason why the 
ration must be palatable and attractive to taste and smell. 

13. The individual character of the 
animal. — Armsby has found that a 
pure-bred animal of superior breeding 
renders a better account of its food 
than a scrub. This, however, was not 
because the pure-bred animal digested 
a greater percentage of his food, but be- 
cause he requires less food for main- 
tenance. Of two animals supplied with 
the same feed, one will often persist- 
ently digest a larger proportion than 
the other. Often very greedy eaters 
show very poor fattening qualities. In 
young animals the digestive power is 
apparently equal to animals of mature 

14. Digestibility decreases as plants 
mature. — All classes of plants show a 
striking diminution in digestibility as 
they approach maturity, and this is 

Note the square biocky y^^y equally Spread over all the constit- 

type at top and thin an- J l. J l 

uents. The composition varies also, 

Kinds of Feeders 

gular shape at the bet 


and for the same reason. Grass is always more nutri- 
tious than mature hay. The superior fattening quality 
of pasture, as compared with that of the hay made of 
it, is clearly due to the fact that on land continuously 
grazed the animal is fed entirely on young forage, while 
hay will largely consist of the mature or nearly matured 
plants. If hay making is carefully carried out in good 
weather so the finer parts are not lost by bad treatment, 
or the soluble matter is not washed out by rain, the diges- 
tibility will not be diminished considerably. 

15. What most influ- 
ences digestion. — Feed- 
ing farm stock is a gentle 
art. The old adage, ''the 
hand of the master fat- 
tens the flock," is a clear 
expression of the intimate 
relation that should exist ^hamp.on steer 

between the feeder and well bred, but well fed also by a master 

the animals in his charge. ^^^'^' 

Two men may provide the same feed for two lots of live 
stock, similar in kind, and far different results will be 
obtained at the end of a given period. The one studies 
his individual animals, knows each as if by name, takes 
an interest in its progress, endeavors at all times to help 
in case of mishap, and actually encourages, as if to in- 
duce greater endeavor. The other feeds simply the stock 
and lets it go at that. He is a failure as a stockman. 


1. The animal as a machine. 

2. Nutritive ratio. 

3. Reducing fat to car])ohy(lrates. 

4. Determining the nutritive ratio. 

5. Wide or narrow nutritive ratio. 

6. Balanced ration. 

7. Feeding standards. 

8. Maintenance standard. 

9. All nutrients necessary. 

10. Standards for farm animals. • 

11. Wolff-Lehmann feeding standards. 

12. Based on weight. 

13. Feeding standard only a guide. 

14. Size of animal. 

15. Other standards in recent years. 

Note to the Teacher. — The terms used in the discussion 
of foods and feeding rations are explained in this lesson. 
Blackboard drill in determining the nutritive ratio of the 
more common feeds is desirable. Such practice should be 
continued until the arithmetic of the subject is mastered. 
Consult the appendix for the digestible nutrients of all 
common foods. 



1. The animal as a machine. — Considered as a machine, 
the animal body needs two classes of food : One, to fur- 
nish the materials by which the machine may be con- 
structed and kept in repair; and a second, or sustaining 
reserve, to develop heat to keep the body warm and to 
supply energy for the production of internal and external 
work. Water, ash and protein are the essential building 
materials and the fats and carbohydrates the primary fuel 
substances. This distinction gives rise to the grouping 
of feeding stuffs as being either of a building or of a 
fuel nature. All individual foods contain both classes, 
but in varying proportions ; some are heavy carriers of 
the first, others of the second, and still others carry mod- 
erate amounts of both. 

2. Nutritive ratio. — A point of some importance in de- 
termining the suitability of a feeding stuff as an article 
of diet is the proportion between the digestible protein 

Living Machines Eagerly at Work 
They are converting substances unsuitable for human food into meat of splendid 













































Nutritive Ratio of Some Common Feeding Stuffs 



f Carbohydrates 


and the digestible non-protein organic constituents. This 
relation is most conveniently termed the nutritive ratio of 
the food. Simply defined, this term means the ratio which 
exists between the amount of digestible protein to the 
combined digestible carbohydrates and fat. 

The nutritive ratio as a feed is obtained as follows : The fat is 
reduced to its carbohydrate equivalent and added to the digestible 
carbohydrates. The sum of the two, representing the non-protein, 
is then divided by the figure or figures representing the quantity of 
protein. The resulting figure is the second factor, which means 
that for each pound of digestible protein in the feed or ration there 
are so many pounds of digestible non-protein or carbohydrates. 

3. Reducing fat to carbohydrates. — The non-protein 
constituents of a feed — starch, fiber, fats, etc. — are used to 
develop heat, energy and fat in 
the animal body. Their effi- 
ciency for this purpose has been 
ascertained by numerous ex- 
periments, which show that a 
pound of fat will develop as 
much heat energy as 2.3 pounds of starch. Hence this 
more concentrated energy must be taken in consideration 
in combining the carbohydrates and fat as a single unit 
group if a definite, accurate value is to be obtained with 
reference to any feeding stufif. In all calculations from 
now on this higher efficiency of fat will be given its 
proper weight. 

4. Determining the nutritive ratio. — In a previous 
table the digestible nutrients in 100 pounds of corn were 
shown to be as follows : Protein 7.8 pounds, carbohy- 
drates 66.8 pounds and fat 4.3 pounds. The fat first is 
reduced to its carbohydrate equivalent by multiplying the 
number of pounds representing it by the authoritatively 
taken factor 2.3 ; which being done, shows that 4.3 pounds 
of fat equal 9.9 pounds of the carbohydrates in producing 

A pound of fat equals 2.3 
pounds of carbohydrates when 
burned in the body. 


heat and energy. The fat, now having been reduced to a 
carbohydrate basis, can be added to 66.8, the amount of 
carbohydrates in corn, which gLves 76.7 pounds of total 
carbohydrates. This sum, divided by the number repre- 
senting the quantity of protein, which in the case of corn 
is 7.8 pounds, gives the final factor of the ratio, or 9.8. 

In the form of proportion the stages are as follows : 

(1) The amount of protein is to the amount of the carbohydrates 
as 1 is to the factor to be determined. 

(2) Protein : Carbohydrates : : 1 : x. 

(3) 7.8 : (66.8 -f 9.9) : : 1 : x. 

(4) 7.8 : 76.7 : : 1 : 9.8. 

The nutritive ratio of corn is therefore 1 to 9.8, which means that 
in this feeding stuff for every pound of digestible protein there are 
9.8 pounds of digestible carbohydrates and fat equivalent. 

5. Wide or narrow nutritive ratio. — A wide difference 
exists among feeds as to the amount of protein. The oil 
meals and the legumes are rich in protein, roots and straw 
very poor, while cereal grain and their products occupy a 
middle place. These differences give rise to the terms 
Zi'ide and iiarroiv nutritive ratios, which apply to both sin- 
gle feeds and rations. A feed or a ration has a ''narrow" 
nutritive ratio when the digestible protein it contains is 
high in comparison to the carbohydrates and fat, and 
"wide" Avhen the reverse. 

6. Balanced ration. — Since all feeding stufTs, with the 
possible exception of pasture grass, are unfit as single 
food substances, they naturally fall into a class as being 
either wide or narrow. If two or more are combined in 
the proper proportions to furnish all the digestible nutri- 
ents, with no excess or shortage of any nutrient, but in 
just the quantity needed by a certain class of animals fed 
for a distinct purpose, the combination is then satisfac- 
tory, and does provide a balanced ration. 

7. Feeding standards. — For many years investigators 
have been conducting feeding tests to learn the amount 

r^alntcnance Ration* 


of digestible protein, carbohydrates and fat best suited 
to farm animals under average conditions. They have 
studied the results of various foods and varying amounts 
in thousands of animals. The results are embodied in 
what are called feeding standards. These tell the proper 
amounts of the nutrients, or one day's food, for an ani- 
mal of a certain v^eight under ordinary conditions. 

8. Maintenance standard. — Less nutrients are neces- 
sary for animals not doing work, or not giving milk, or 
not fed for fattening 
purposes, than for ani- 
mals actually so en- 
gaged. This knowledge 
has given rise to a after maintenance, milk 

standard for mainten- The first use to which a cow puts her food 

, , . , is for maintenance. That requirement satis- 

ance when the animal fied, any excess may be used for milk or other 

is at rest in the stall. p"''p°^^- 

A dairy cow giving little or no milk does not require 
nearly as much food as one in full flow of milk. Of 
course every farmer knows this ; but he now has available 
a guide that suggests the quantity of digestible protein, 
carbohydrates and fat so as to meet the maintenance needs 
of the dry cow. 

9. All nutrients necessary. — A dry cow does need daily 
a certain amount of each of the food nutrients. She must 
keep her body warm, maintain the regular blood supply, 
repair the broken-down tissues and meet all the require- 
ments of life and health. These things she obtains from 
her food. If more food is provided than necessary to meet 
these daily demands, she will increase in weight. If too 
little food is given, then the reverse will happen, and she 
will lose in weight, becoming thin in flesh, or poor. 

Working from this point, nutrition investigators have carefully 
prepared standards for cows giving various quantities of milk, for 


Steers at different stages of fattening, for horses doing little or much 
work, and for hogs and sheep during various periods of growth 
and fattening. 

10. Standards for farm animals. — Feeding standards 
are guides for indicating the amount of each nutrient for 
different animals and consistent with the purposes for 
which the animals are fed. A cow giving little milk, 
according to the standard, is to be given smaller quanti- 
ties of food than another in heavy milk flow. Likewise 
rations for beeves dififer considerably from those for 
horses or pigs. Feeding standards, though easily under- 
stood, are still very complicated, but they clearly show 
that the practice of feeding is not only an interesting art, 
but one that calls lor much skill and training also. 

Pc^otein Fat . 6 

Horse 3t Moderate Work. | 2.| Carbohijclratcs ll.| | 

Protein Fat^. 8 

'Cow Yielding 27.5 Pounds of Milk.... | 5.3 \ Carbohtidrates I3."~|| 

Pt^otein Fat 7 

Fattening Steer | 5. | Carbohydrates 14.5 \\ 

Prjatein Fat . 6 ' 

Fattening Sheep «, | 3.5 | Carbohtjdrates 14.5 [[ 

P(^otein Fat . 5 

Fattening Hogs | 4. | Carbohydrates 24. \\ 

Digestible Nutrients Required of Rations 

Such food requirements are commonly called feeding standards. Carbohydrates 
are used in greatest abundance and fat in least. 

11. Wolff-Lehmann feeding standards. — The standards 
in most common use are what are known as the Wolff- 
Lehmann standards, named after the two German inves- 
tigators who first suggested the limits to be observed in 
the daily allowance of the nutrients. 



Daily allotment on basis 1.000 pounds live weight. 



Digestible nutrients in 




Milk cows when giving 

11 pounds of milk 

22 pounds of milk 

27.5 pounds of milk 

Fattening cattle 


























Second period 


Third period 



Coarse wool 


Fine wool 


Ewes with lambs 

Fattening sheep 
First period 


Second period 



Light work 


Medium work 


Heavy work 


Brood sows 

Fattening hogs 




12. Based on weight. — These standards are based on 
1,000 pounds Hve weight. For animals weighing less, as 
sheep and swine, the quantity prescribed would be pro- 
portionately decreased. A sheep, for instance, weighing 
100 pounds would be fed one-tenth the quantity called 
for in the standard. An animal weighing more than 1,000 
pounds would require a proportionate increase. 

13. Feeding standard only a guide. — Standards are to 
be taken as guides and varied or modified as circum- 



stances require. In fattening farm stock it is clearly the 
best sense to supply the largest amount of food that can 
be profitably used. In feeding dairy cows, so long as pas- 
ture, hay, fodder, and silage are home-raised and abun- 
dant, the cows may safely be given as much as they can be 
tempted to eat, provided of course, the concentrated feeds 
are not denied a proper place in the ration. Such cows 

When Nature Balances the Ration 

On no kind of feed does animal life better flourish than on rich, luxuriant pasture 
grass. It is the first choice of big and little, old and young animals. 

as respond with heavy milk yields are entitled to the larg- 
est amount of the concentrates, while those that yield lit- 
tle milk will not require much if any grain. 

14. Size of animal. — The size of the animal also affects 
the consumption of food. A part of the demand for food is 
determined by the surface of the animal rather than by 
its weight. With these circumstances in mind as exam- 
ples of various factors that must be considered, the feed- 
ing standard may well be used as a starting point in the 
practical feeding of any class of live stock. 



15. Other standards in recent years. — Since the intro- 
duction of the \\'olff standards other investigators have 
sought simpler means of measuring the nutrient content 
of feeding stufifs. The idea of using energy values ex- 
pressed in terms of starch equivalent in the computation 
of rations for farm animals originated with Dr. Kellner of 
Germany. Following him came Dr. Henry Prentiss 

Armsby of Pennsylvania, who 
measures the energy content by 
the therms of net energy they 
contain. The two methods are 
identical, but neither method 
<7 ^ ^ has been before the public long 

S^S^mM, A^> enough to be well known or to 

be put to practical use. The 
value of any material as a fuel 
substance will naturally depend 
on how much chemical energy 
that material contains. Both the 
quantity and the quality must 
be determined in order to get a 
fair measure of its energy value. 
Quite generally the fuel value of 
feeding stufifs is expressed in 
calories. A calorie is the amount 
of heat required to raise one 
pound of water four degrees 
Fahrenheit. A therm is the 
quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 
1000 kilograms of water one degree centigrade. 

From Milk to Corn 

As the animal grows the ration 


1. Test for Starch. — The materials required for making the test 
below are inexpensive and may be obtained at a drug store. Each 
school should have on hand a few chemicals and glassware as a part 
of its regular laboratory equipment. Moisten some starch with 
diluted iodine. The starch will turn blue. If there is much starch 
present, the change will be a dark blue ; if there is but little, the 
color will be a light blue. 

2. Test for Grape Sugar. — Grape sugar or glucose may be tested 
as follows : Place a little corn syrup in a bottle or a test tube. Pour 
on it concentrated potassium hydrate and a few drops of copper sul- 
phate (blue vitriol) and boil. The mixture will turn green, yellow, 
orange and finally brick red. Test seeds for the presence of glucose. 

3. Test for Cane Sugar. — Add a solution of cobalt hydrate (5 
grains of cobalt nitrate to 100 cubic centimeters of water) to the 
solution to be tested. Add to this a strong solution of sodium 
hydrate. A violet color indicates the presence of cane sugar. This 
test applied to grape sugar results in a blue color, which finally 
changes to green. 

4. Test for Protein. — Reduce any common seeds to powder by 
pounding. Place in a test tube, add a few drops of nitric acid and 
boil. The protein will turn yellow. Add a few drops of ammonia 
and the protein will turn orange. 

Do the same with white of an egg. Chew several kernels of wheat, 
until the gluten becomes separated from the starch. The gluten is 
protein. Apply the same test as above. 

5. Test for Fat or Oil. — Reduce seeds to a powder by pounding. 
Place the powder on a sheet of paper, lay on a piece of tin and heat — 
not enough to burn the paper. If oil is present, a spot will be made 
on the paper. 

6. Bone and Mineral Matter. — Place a slender bone in weak 
muriatic acid and another in a hot fire for a time, and note the 
effects. The acid will dissolve the lime, or mineral matter, out of the 
bone, and the fire will burn all grittle, or animal matter, out of the 
other. The first can be bent or even tied in a knot, while the latter 
is very brittle. 

(a) What gives toughness to bones? (b) What makes them 
hard and rigid? (c) Why may a child fall many times without 
breaking a bone, while an aged person is so apt to break one in 
falling? (d) At what time in life are bones most easily bent and 
made to grow in a wrong shape? (e) Would it injure an old per- 
son as much as it would a young child to sit long in a wrong position? 

7. Determining Nutritive Ratio. — Process: (1) Reduce fat to 
its carbohydrate equivalent, (2) add the carbohydrates, and (3) 



divide this sum by the protein. What is the nutritive ratio of buck- 
wheat containing 8.1 per cert of digestible protein, 48.2 per cent of 
digestible carbohydrates ana 2.4 per cent of digestible fat? 

Determine the nutritive ratio of the followins 

Digestible nutrients in 100 pounds. 

Feeding stuff 





Wheat - 













Cottonseed meal 

Wheat bran 


Timothy hay _ - 

Corn stover 

Clover hay 


9. Make a list of feeds used on your father's farm. Consult 
appendix for digestible nutrients and determine nutritive ratio of 

10. Determine the nutritive ratio of each feeding standard given 
in paragraph 11 on page 60. 

11. Amount of Feed. — Require pupils to make measurements of 
the home storage places. 

1. Corn in crib. — Multiply together the height, width and length 
in feed and multiply this product by 0.45 for old corn, and by 0.4 for 
new corn. The final product will approximate the number of bushels 
of corn in the crib. 

Problems: (a) How many bushels of new corn in a crib 20 feet 
long, 4 feet wide and 10 feet high? 
{h) What is the approximate amount of old corn in 
a crib 30 feet long, 12 feet high and 4 feet 
wide ? 

2. Hay in mow. — Multiply together the height, length and width 
in yards and divide by 15 if the hay be well packed. If the mow be 
shallow and the hay recently placed therein, divide by 18, or by any 
number from 15 to 18, depending upon the character of the packing. 
This gives approximately the number of tons. 

Problems : (a) How many tons in a mow 46 feet long, 18 feet 
high and 35 feet wide, the hay being just 
put in? 


(b) How many tons in a mow 39 feet long, 27 feet 
wide and 18 feet high, the hay being old and 
well packed? 

3. Silage in silo. — Compute the cubic contents of the silo in feet 
and multiply the product by 40, the approximate weight in pounds of 
a cubic foot of silage. Divide the total by 2,000 for the approximate 
amount of silage in tons. The same result may be obtained as fol- 
lows : Compute the cubic contents of the silo in feet and divide by 
50. The quotient is the amount of silage in tons. 

Problems: (a) How many tons of silage in a round silo 34 feet 
high and 18 feet in diameter? 
(&) How many tons in a silo, one-half full, the silo 
being 21 feet in diameter and 36 feet high? 


1. Making ready for digestion. 

2. What is done in the mouth. 

3. From mouth to stomach. 

4. Compartments of cow's stomach. 

5. The stomach churn. 

6. Stomach secretions. 

7. Stomach digestion. 

8. From stomach to intestines. 

9. The two intestines. 

10. Food absorption. 

11. Villi cells. 

12. From intestines to blood. 

13. How food is distributed. 

14. Respiration. 

15. Excretion. 

Note to the Teacher. — In this lesson a splendid oppor- 
tunity is ofifered for linking some of the facts of physi- 
ology with daily life. The processes of nutrition, as here 
outlined, are brought into their proper relationship with 
the various organs of the body and with the functions of 
these organs in their work of growth, life and activity. 


1. Making ready for digestion. — Digestion is more than 
chewing and swallowing. Before the several plant ingre- 
dients can be used as food they must be prepared for 
absorption. This preparation takes place in the mouth, 
oesophagus tube, stomach and intestines. 

2. What is done in the mouth. — When food is taken in- 
to the mouth it is masticated by the teeth. While this is 
being done there are poured into the mouth large quanti- 
ties of saliva which soften and soak the foods and start 
digestion. The active principle of saliva is a soluble fer- 
ment called ptyalin, which converts the starch into sugar. 
One authority states that the saliva of a horse will con- 
vert raw starch into sugar in 15 minutes. 

A large amount of saliva is soaked up by the food. This is often 
as much as one-tenth of the weight of the animal. Colin states that 
84 pounds is secreted by the horse and 112 pounds by the cow in a 
single day. As a matter of fact, the nature of the food gready in- 
fluences the flow, although the control rests with the nervous sys- 

3. From mouth to stomach. — Food, after being ground 
and mixed with the saliva, is forwarded to the stomach. 
Horses, hogs, and humans have a single stomach. Cows, 
sheep, and goats have a different arrangement, embody- 
ing four divisions. With the former the stomach is com- 
paratively simple ; it is a single sac not capable of hold- 
ing a large quantity at one time. In the ruminants, the 
family to which cattle and sheep belong, the stomach is 
large, and capable of considerable extension. The capacity 
of the stomach of the average horse runs from three to 
four gallons, and of the cow up to 50 gallons or more. 




Digestive System or Horse 

1, mouth; 2, pharynx; 3, oesoph- 
agus; 4, diaphragm; 5, spleen; 6, 
stomach; 7, duodenum; 8, liver; 
9, large colon; 10, caecum; 11, 
small intestine; 12, floating colon; 
13, rectum. 

4. The compartments of the cow's stomach are known 
as the nimcn, or paunch, the rccticiilnm, the omasuni, and 
the aboniasunt. The last is the true digestive stomach. 

The others are largely storage 
places for the saliva-mixed food. 
The first of these compartments 
is very decidedly a storing place 
where the food is placed until it 
is thrown back to the mouth for 
further mastication. This act, 
or cud chewing, refers to re- 
chewing the food so as to get it 
finer and better ground for 
digestion. The food, on leav- 
ing the mouth the second time, 
is passed through the rumen 
into the reticulum, then to the omasum and finally into the 
abomasum, or true stomach, where digestion is continued. 

5. The stomach churn. — In the first compartment, or 
rumen, a churning process is carried on continually. 
Some think this division of the stomach is never wholly 
empty. An alkaline fluid is supplied here, as is the case 
also in the second compartment. Food in the third com- 
partment is subjected to a squeeze which dries it, forc- 
ing the extracted juices into the true stomach or fourth 

6. Stomach secretion. — The stomach of every animal is 
lined by two kinds of membrane — one similar in nature 
to the lining of the oesophagus tube, and the other that 
admits of secretion. These do not form a dou])le coat, 
but one blends into the other. The section giving of¥ the 
secretion is known as the villous coat. It extends to the 
posterior end, and to the point where the small intestine 
joins with the stomach. 




Stomach of Cow 
Showing the four compartments. 

7. Stomach digestion. — In the stomach, saliva contin- 
ues the digestion of the starchy matter, and is assisted 
by the gastric juice which pours in from the stomach lin- 
ing. This secretion has three constituents — acid, rcnnin, 
and pepsin. Pepsin is a ferment whose work is to split 
up the protein compounds. Rennin, also a ferment, as- 
sists in the digestion of milk. There is much of this 
secretion in calves. Gastric 

juice converts the protein 
substances into peptones. The 
mucus glands of the stomach 
secrete mucin, a. substance that 
lines the walls of the stomach. 

8. From stomach to intes- 
tines. — The constant churning 
movement in the stomach 
causes the food to travel from 
its entrance to the small intestine. Up to this time there 
has been no absorption into the body ; nor is digestion yet 
complete. When the partly digested material or chyme 
leaves the stomach it passes into the duodenum, one of 
the three parts of the small intestine, and is there sub- 
jected to further action by other digestive juices. Here 
the bile, the pancreatic and intestinal juices are admitted to 
complete the work. The bile, dark green or brownish in 
color, is secreted by the liver and acts in conjunction 
with the pancreatic juice. The pancreatic juice, 
alkaline and watery, is secreted by the pancreas, or 

The bile acts as a bowel regulator when the liver is active and 
healthy. The pancreatic juice has a treble function — it changes 
starch into sugar, protein into peptones, and the oils into fatty acids. 
The intestinal juices perform a similar work. 

9. The two intestines are not only important for stor- 



Blood Plasma 

This shows blood plasma passing 
out of the capillaries to feed the cells. 

age purposes, but in them, particularly in the smaller, the 
real digestive act — the absorption of the nutriment in the 
food by the blood — takes place. Up to this point, al- 
though fluids have been at 
work, there has been little if 
any active absorption of the 
nutrients. The food up to 
now is, in a sense, outside 
the body, and there is no en- 
trance or opening for it into 
the body save through the 
cells that line the intestinal 
section of the digestive tract. 
10. Food absorption. — 
There are no body gates that 
open and close, and through which the digested materials 
can be delivered into the body. Food is admitted by ab- 
sorption. In a way similar to that by which soluble plant 
food is carrie(i into the plant roots through the cell walls, 
so is the digested food, after it has been broken up and 
made soluble, absorbed through the cell walls of the in- 
testines into the blood. 

11. Villi cells. — The digested food in the intestines is 
gathered in by villi cells. The mucous membrane lining 
the small intestines possesses highly differentiated struc- 
tures that appear as minute fingers. These tiny, hairlike 
projectiles reach into the intestinal mass for sugar, pep- 
tones and fatty acids, and transfer them through the cells 
into the absorbent vessels or lymphs that in turn empty 
the assimilated stores of food into larger and still larger 
vessels. This process continues until the whole of the 
nutritive fluid is collected in the circulatory system, later 
to become the very basis of the blood. 

12. From intestines to blood. — When food is absorbed 



it is admitted either to the capillaries or to the lymphatic 

system. If collected by the capillaries the absorbed food 

is carried to the portal vein, 

thence to the liver and finally 

to the heart, into which it is 

poured with the blue blood 

brought in from all parts of 

the body. At this point the 

blood contains both nutriment 

and waste. That part of the 

absorbed food which entered 

into the lymphatic system is 

carried to the thoracic duct, 

and delivered into one of the 

main blood vessels. Lymph 

is blood without the red blood 

corpuscles. It wanders to all 

parts of the body, surrounds 

all the cells of all the tissues 

and carries and leaves with the very kind of food they 

need most. 

13. How food is distributed. — After food enters the cir- 
culatory system it takes the regular course of the blood. 
In impure blood it is carried to the right auricle of the 
heart, then to the right ventricle. This in turn contracts 
and forces the blood into the lungs, where oxygen is 
taken on and carbonic acid gas and other impurities are 
given ofif. From the lungs the blood, now red and pure, 
passes into the left auricle, and thence into the left ven- 
tricle, from which it is forced into the aorta, and dis- 
tributed to all parts of the body. 

14. Respiration. — When the impure blood passes 
through the lungs, carbonic acid gas and other impuri- 
ties are held back and in breathing are exhaled and 

Villi Cells 

Section of intestine showing villi. 
The parts are: a, arteries; b, villi; 
c, villi cut open to show lacteal (/), 
and blood tubes; d, glands; m, 
muscle; v, veins; and w, wall of 



thrown out of the system. At the same time oxygen is 
taken in with great greediness by the cells of the blood, 
which distribute it where needed in all parts of the body. 
When plants are growing, oxygen is released and thrown 
into the air. At the same time, by means of leaves, the 



How THE Blood Circulates Through the Body 

Blood is collected from all parts of the body and delivered into the right auricle, 
which on contracting, forces the blood into the right ventricle; this in turn contracts 
and forces the blood into the lungs, where oxygen is taken on and carbonic acid gas 
and other impurities are thrown off. From the lungs the blood is returned to the 
left side of the heart and distributed through arteries and capillaries to all parts 
of the body. 

carbonic acid gas is drawn in and used in the construction 
of the plant compounds. This was got from the air. An 
animal, in performing its functions and in building tissue, 
inhales oxygen from, and exhales carbon dioxide into, the 
air. Animals in this niannei use what is waste to the 
plant, and the plants what is poison to the animal. 

15. Excretion. — The products resulting from the oxida- 
tion of animal tissues, or of the food consumed, are re- 
moved from the body by the lungs, kidneys and skin. The 
chief products of oxidation in the body are carbonic acid, 
water, urea, and salts. Carbonic acid is removed through 
the lungs, and to a smaller extent by the skin ; urea and 



salts by the kidneys and by perspiration ; water by the 
organs of excretion. Fat and sugar when oxidized yield 
simply water and carbonic acid and are excreted as such 
products. The undigested part of the food is voided as 
solid excrement. 

The powers of digestion differ with the several species 
of animals. Thus hogs are 
not capable of living on hay 
and similar roughage because 
their single small stomach 
does not permit them to digest 
a sufficient proportion of such 
material. A hog will not 
grow fat on grass alone, while 
a steer may. Cattle and sheep 
Avith their four stomachs, 
have the power of efficiently 
changing grass into food, 
clothing and labor. It is this 
power which makes them 
useful to man. Horses have 

the ability of digesting coarse materials in a fairly high 
degree. When severe work, however, is required horses 
must be fed on concentrated and easily digested food for 
the best results. 

Respiratory System of Horse 
1. Cranial cavity; 2, guttural 
pouch; 3, nasal cavity; 4, tongue; 
5, pharyngeal cavity; 6, cavity of 
larynx; 7, epiglottis; 8, trachea; 9, 
oesophagus; 10, section of left 
bronchus; 11, ramifications of right 
bronchus; 12, right lung; 13, left 
lung; 14, sternum; 15, ribs; 16, 
heart; 17, posterior aorta; 18, ante- 
rior aorta. 


1. Why animals use food. 

2. Two kinds of rations. 

3. Mixed foods. 

4. How a ration is made. 

5. First step in making a ration. 

6. Second step in the computation. 

7. Comparing- the trial ration with the standard. 

8. Completing the ration. 

9. Ration is satisfactory. 

10. Feeding for heavy milkers. 

11. Rounding out with grain feeds. 

12. Using the standard in practical work. 

13. What balanced rations accomplish. 

14. What foods to choose. 

15. Cost of the ration. 

Note to the Teacher. — This lesson gives all the details 
of compounding rations for farm animals. To make stu- 
dents thoroughly familiar with ration making require them 
to prepare other rations, using feeds available at their 
homes. Members of the class should be asked to place 
their work on the blackboard, where careful comparisons 
may be made. This will develop into very interesting 
work, particularly if the cost of each food is also in- 
cluded. Calculate the variation in cost for large herds 
covering half-A^ear or yearly periods. 




1. Why animals use food. — An animal uses food for 
five distinct purposes : 

1. To replace waste from all parts of the body. 

2. To produce heat to keep the body warm. 

3. To produce energy so that work may be done. 

4. To provide the building materials for larger growth 
or increase in muscle, fat, flesh and bone. 

5. To have materials in reserve for the formation of 
milk, wool, etc. 

These five purposes develop after the food is absorbed, 
and originate in the digestible nutrients expressed in 
terms of protein, carbohydrates and fat. To provide 
nutrients in the quantity and proportions that they should 
be fed so as to satisfy one or more of the five ends of 
feeding makes necessary the selection and compounding 
of rations. 

2. Two kinds of rations. — Suppose a ration is wanted 
for a herd of dairy cows. What class of food shall be 
placed before the animals? It is possible to furnish a ra- 
tion consisting of roughage food raised on the farm, like 
straw, corn stover, the usual farm hays, and ear corn ; 
on the other hand, a ration might be furnished consist- 
ing largely of grain food or concentrates, with a small al- 
lowance of some cheap roughage. 

In villages, and in herds near large cities, cows are fed largely 
the by-products of certain manufacturing enterprises, or on chop 
feeds and other grain materials that may be purchased often as 
cheaply as hay. The result is, these cows are not fed as they ought 
to be. The cow in the country often is fed too little protein and too 





much carbohydrates and fat; the village cow too much of protein 
and too little of the carbohydrates and fat; and the best results are 
not obtained in either case. The country cow loses in weight; she 
gets poor ; she is forced to take from her own body much protein 
stored in flesh to use for milk and tissue repair. The village cow 
may or may not thin down, but the necessity of using the protein 
in the food for meeting all the functions of the nutrients acts to her 
disadvantage and she is never able to be at her best. 

3. Mixed foods. — Best results are always secured when 
the two methods are 
merged; when the coun- ill 'lyiiijli. 
try cow is given concen- 
trates in addition to the 
farm-raised roughages, 
and the village cow hay 
and stover in addition to 
the feed-store mill feeds. 
It is not enough to se- 
cure grain as concen- 
trates for the country 
cow either; the selection 
must be made on the 
basis of the composition ; 
and. since the country 
cow's ration is already 
out of proportion be- 
cause of the excess of 
carbohydrates and fat, it 
would not help matters 
any by a purchase of a grain food also low in protein. 

In practice many feeders buy corn meal as a dairy concentrate; 
instead of improving the ration this makes things worse, because 
corn meal added to grass hay, corn stover and straw only increases 
the cost without supplying any appreciable increase of protein. The 
way out of this difficulty is to study the available concentrates and 
select one or more that contains protein in greatest abundance, and 
not starch and fat. 


Consumed by each row 
fed the sllafle ration 


Consumed b^eac h cow 
fed the sjiecial grain ration 

Two Dairy Rations 

Two rations for dairy cows have been com- 
pared. From one, 8.9 pounds of butter v.-as 
produced from one dollar's worth of feed, 
while from the other but 5.28 pounds of but- 
ter was obtained from a dollar's worth of 
feed. This shows how two rations may cost 
the same and one may be worth a great deal 
more for final returns. 



4. How a ration is made. — The first step in computing 
rations is to consider the feeding standard for the class of 
animals to be fed. If it is assumed that a ration is wanted 
for a dairy cow yielding 22 pounds of milk daily, the table 
of standards is to be consulted for that class of dairy 
cows. The standard calls for 29 pounds of dry matter, 
2.5 pounds of digestible protein, 13 pounds of digestible 
carbohydrates, and 0.5 pounds of digestible fat. Assum- 
ing that corn stover, corn silage and clover hay are avail- 
able, we will use such quantities of each as have been 
found in practice to be fairly representative of the avail- 
able supply on average farms and about what an animal 
will eat up clean without tiring her appetite. 

5. First step in making a ration. — As a starting point, 
we will use 10 pounds of corn stover, 15 pounds of clover 
hay and 30 pounds of corn silage. The averages of 
digestible nutrients in these feeds are as follows : 

Feeding stuffs 

Corn stover 
Corn silage 
Clover hay 




Digestible nutrients in 
100 pounds 







6. The second step in the computation is to calculate 
the pounds of digestible nutrients in the quantities of each 
of these feeding stuffs. It is clear, for instance, that 10 
pounds of corn stover will contain just one-tenth as much 
protein, carbohydrates and fat as 100 pounds. If each 
of these factors is divided by 100 and multiplied by 10, 
we shall have the amounts of each constituent that 10 
pounds of corn stover will furnish the animal. 


The 100 pounds of corn stover contains : 
59.5 pounds of dry matter 

1.4 pounds of protein 
31.2 pounds of carbohydrates 
0.7 pounds of fat 

If 100 pounds of corn stover contains these quantities of digestible 
nutrients, then 1 pound contains just one one-hundredth as much, or 
the following quantities: 

.595 pounds of dry matter 

.014 pounds of protein 

.324 pounds of carbohydrates 

.007 pounds of fat 

Ten pounds vi^ill contain ten times the quantity of 1 pound, or the 
following : 

5.95 pounds of dry matter 
.14 pounds of protein 
3.24 pounds of carbohydrates 
.07 pounds of fat 

The digestible nutrients in 30 pounds of corn silage are ascer- 
tained in the same manner : In 

In 100 lbs. In 1 lb. 30 lbs. 

Dry matter 20.9 -^ 100 = .209 X 30 = 6.27 

Protein 0.9 -MOO = .009 X 30 = .27 

100 = .126 X 30 = 3.78 
100 = .006 X 30 == .18 

Carbohydrates 12.6 

Fat 0.6 

Making the same computation for each constituent in clover hay, 
we have the following : In 

In 100 lbs. In 1 lb. 30 lbs. 

Dry matter 84.7 ^ 100 = .847 X 15 = 12.70 

Protein 7.1 -^ 100 = .071 X 15 = 1.06 

Carbohydrates 37.8 

Fat 1.8 

100 = .378 X 15 = 5.67 
100 = .18 X 15 = .27 

7. Comparing trial ration with the standard. — If we 

arrange these figures in a table and add the nutrients to- 
gether, we shall have a statement of the quantity of each 
constituent supplied, and will be in a position to compare 
their totals with the standard, to know what nutrients 
are insufficiently provided. This is done as follows : 



Trial Ration Falls Below Standard 



Digestible nutrients 

Feeding stuffs 




10 lbs. corn stover 

30 lbs. corn silage 

15 lbs. clover hay 














Feeding standard 





8. Completing the ration. — Comparing the nutrient.s in 
the feeds used with the standard, it will be seen there is a 
striking deficiency of protein. It will now be necessary 
to introduce into the ration one or more other feeds in 
order to correct the faults so evident in the trial ration. 
Since the greatest deficiency is in the protein, we must 
seek a supply from among such feeding stuffs as are par- 
ticularly rich in protein. The oil and the gluten meals 
are of this kind. Suppose we now try two and three- 
quarter pounds of cottonseed meal. The digestible nu- 
trients are ascertained in the same manner as before, 
and a second trial made. 

Feeding Ration for Dairy Cow Approximates Standard 

Feeding stuffs 





In preceding 

2-}4 lbs. cottonseed meal 

2 55 









Feeding standard 






9. Ration is satisfactory. — In this ration no serious 
faults are noticed. We have the correct amount of protein, 
but an excess in carbohydrates of .28 pounds. The dry 
matter is slightly under the standard. This does not 
matter so long as the quantity does not so greatly over- 
run the standard as to give greater bulk than the average 
cow has room to accommodate. A deficiency in dry 
matter can be evident and still not affect the efficiency of 
the ration. The excess of the fuel foods is so small as 
to be of no importance. Were a pound less of clover hay 
and a quarter of a pound more of cottonseed meal used 
in the ration, the ration would correspond to the standard 
with considerable exactness. 

Ration For 

Ration For 

Extra For 
22 pounds Milk 

Ration For 

Extra For 
27.5 pounds Milk 

Rations Change with Rate of Milk Yield 

Food requirements for maintenance are the same, but more food is necessary in 
proportion as the yield of milk is increased. Heavy milking cows, therefore, re- 
quire the biggest rations. 

10. Feeding for heavy milkers. — Suppose, now, a ration 
is wanted for the same cows at another period when they 
are giving more milk than in the case just cited, say 27.5 
pounds daily. How shall we proceed to adjust this 
ration to the new requirements, using as nearly as pos- 
sible the same feeding stuffs as before? The first step 
is to consult the standard. This we find calls for 32 
pounds of dry matter ; 3.3 pounds of protein ; 13 pounds 
of carbohydrates ; 0.8 pounds of fat. 



Obviously, each cow has a certain limit as to storage and diges- 
tion capacity for bulky feeds. In the preceding ration about all of 
the corn stover, silage and clover hay that the average cow can 
handle was used. Her limit, therefore, was reached as far as the 
roughage foods are concerned. 

11. Rounding out with grain feeds. — Since the ration 
already contains just about all that a cow of this size can 
eat, we will prepare a place in the ration by withdrawing 
three pounds of the clover hay. We will increase the 
cottonseed meal to four pounds and add 2^ pounds of 
gluten feed. This done, we have the following : 


Digestible nutrients 

Feeding stuffs 




10 lbs corn stover 









30 lbs. corn silage 

12 lbs clover hay 


4 lbs. cottonseed meal 

2y2 lbs. gluten feed 











This ration agrees closely with the standard and is assumed to 
satisfy all the requirements for a cow yielding 27.5 pounds of milk 
daily and weighing 1,000 pounds. 

12. Using the standard in practical work. — Many peo- 
ple take feeding standards and balanced rations far too 
seriously. They fail to understand that it is in the spirit 
and not in their literal use that these feeding aids are to 
be adopted. The balanced ration, at best, can be made 
to approach only approximately the food requirements 
for any animal or set of animals. 

The composition of a feeding stuff is always open to considerable 
variation, and what adds still to the uncertainty is the fact that foods 



are not digested with equal facility or completeness by different 
animals, even in the same herd and given the identical feeding 
stuffs. Moreover, it is impracticable to provide a ration for every 
individual in a herd. To do this would require as many different 
rations as there are animals to be fed, and definite weighings of 
every feeding stuff contained in the ration. But all this is unneces- 
sary, and no exponent of the balanced ration asks that it be done. 

13. What balanced rations accomplish. — The aim of 
the balanced ration is to avoid serious faults in the use 
of feeding- stuffs. Used on broad lines, 
the balanced ration enables the stock 
feeder to utilize to the best advantage his 
plant products or feed crops. In case he 
needs an additional supply, a bit of figur- 
ing will fully adv^ise him as to what class 
of available purchased feeds he ought to 
buy in order to secure the greatest ef- 
ficiency from the food. 

14. What foods to choose. — On every 
farm some feeding stuffs are grown that 
possess little commercial value. Corn 
stover, the straws, legume hays, and 
silage are all splendid bulk foods, are 
easily raised on the farm and should be 

used freely in ration making. They will supply also the 
greater part of the carbohydrates and fat. The farm is 
the best factory for the production of these fuel nutrients. 
In the legumes and cereal grains much of the protem may 
be obtained. If a protein shortage exists, it is good busi- 
ness to meet it, even though expensive concentrates must 
be purchased. 

15. Cost of the ration. — The wise farmer will figure the 
cost of foodstuffs very carefully to find out what are most 
profitable to feed. It is often economy to sell some food 
having a wide nutritive ratio, such as timothy, corn, oats 

Feed Did It 

The hogs were 
litter mates. The 
smaller of the two 
lived its little life on 
corn alone. The big 
fellow had corn and 


and wheat, replacing with other foods having a narrow 
nutritive ratio, such as the oil meals, and the factory by- 
products. Very often this exchange is made; and not 
only is the ration improved, thus bringing about better 
results from the animals under feed, but a money profit 
is secured in addition to that obtained because of the 
greater efficiency of the ration. 

Alore milk can be produced from a given herd of cattle 
if the grain is fed in proportion to the milk given than 
if distributed equally among all the cows of the herd. 
Let it be assumed that in addition to what clover hay and 

1 Acre 



4^ Acres 
Timothy Hay 

Increasing the Farm Protein Supply 

The two fields will produce the same amount of protein. This is one reason why 
legume farming pays. 

silage a cow will eat, she should receive 1 pound of 
grain for each 5 pounds of milk. Under these conditions, 
a cow that is producing 20 pounds of milk w^ould require 
4 pounds of grain ; one giving 30 pounds, 6 pounds ; while 
a cow producing 50 pounds of milk would require 10 
pounds of grain. The best results are obtained by the 
skillful feeder who studies the needs of his cows. 


1. Appetite 

2. Pasture grass 

3. Soiling crops 

4. Silage 

5. Roots 

6. Variety in food 

7. Steaming and cooking food 

8. Coarse or roughage feeds 

9. Concentrates 

10. Protein most important 

11. Cutting hay 

12. Shall grain be ground 

13. Double value in feeds 

14. Loss of fertility contained in feed 

15. Profit from feed 

Note to the Teacher. — The opportunity is offered in this 
lesson to summarize the entire subject of feeding, and 
to combine the practical phases with the fundamental 
scientific facts. A ration might be compounded that 
would be balanced in the proper sense, and yet be so 
bulky that it could not be entirely consumed ; or it might 
be so unappetizing as to be largely rejected. Bring the 
student to see the importance of rational feeding, of 
growing the feeds at home, and of using them to the 
very best advantage. 


should weigh as much as 2000 pounds, and the females 
should weigh at least 1600 pounds when mature. 

Characteristics. — These horses have been selected for 
their true and snappy action, excellent conformation and 
quality of feet, pasterns, and Umbs. The best Clydesdales 
have large feet with open hoof heads and liberal width at 
the heels; the pasterns are long and sloping; the cannon 
bones are clean, hard, and supported by strong well-defined 
tendons. The feather or hair that grows back of the can- 
non bones is fine, denoting quahty. The hock joint is 
usually well set and clean, and the knees are large, straight, 
and flat. The thighs and quarters are strong, and the arm 
and forearm are well muscled. They have gently sloping 
shoulders and are high at the withers. 

The body is somewhat rangier than that of the Belgian 
or Percheron. The Clydesdales are excellent draft horses 
and good types sell well ; but they have not met with the 
favor on the market that the Percherons enjoy, because 
they lack compactness of form. American farmers who 
have used the Clydesdale horse object to the hairy legs, 
which gather mud and snow, and are thus hard to keep 
clean ; and the market does not favor pasterns that slope 

In America, they were first imported to Canada in 1842, 
where they are found to-day in greater numbers than in 
the United States. Their continued use has greatly im- 
proved Canadian horses. 

The favorite and commonest color of the Clydesdale is 
bay with perhaps one or more white feet and cannon bones, 
and a white star on the forehead or white strip in the face. 
Black, gray, and chestnut colors are also found, but they 
are not encouraged in fancy breeding. 




The Shire horses are the most popular draft horses in 
England. They have become general in city use in that 
country because of their great weight and strength. 

They have developed and are now bred mostly in the low 
flat lands of England, where the soil is rich, climate moist, 
and vegetation abundant. f, 

Although much valued in England, both in the cities 
and on the farms, and used to a large extent in continental 

Fig. 23. — Shire horse. 

Europe and in Australia, they have not met with general 
favor in America, because of the abundant growth of hair 
on their legs, to which our farmers object. 

Some people have difficulty in distinguishing between 
the Shire and the Clydesdale breeds. While bay is the pre- 



duced from an acre of corn put in the silo than from an 

equal area of similar corn fed when matured and cured 

and used as dry fodder and ear corn. 

Corn is the leading silage crop, although alfalfa, soy beans, clover, 
rye, and other crops may be used for the same purpose. These 
crops, however, do not keep as well in the silo as corn does. 
When crops other than corn are to be siloed, it is better to mix 
them with corn. Soy beans and corn, or alfalfa and corn, are 
excellent combinations. Prepared in this manner, the mixture 
is better balanced and gives maximum results in the stable and 
feed lots. 

5. Roots. — In summer, if pasture is available, animals 
fare very well without silage, soiling or roots. In win- 
ter a succulent food is advis- 
able. Root crops have long 
been popular with sheep, 
cattle and horsemen and with 
breeders of valuable farm 
stock. Roots are not valued 
solely for their nutriment. 
They aid digestion and as- 

^ similation of dry foods and 
'=-' -^rrg^ contribute to healthfulness. 

The leading root crops are car- 
rots, turnips and beets. If silage 
Root Cutter is available, roots may be dispensed 

with. The cost of labor in grow- 
ing has been against their extended use in this country. One rea- 
son why roots are so satisfactory an article of food is because they 
are so completely digestible. 

6. Variety in food. — Animals are less likely to tire of 
their food if it contains several kinds of feeding stufifs. 
Farm stock are like people — they relish variety in their 
food supply. This does not mean frequent changes in 
the ration. If a ration is correct, animals do better if fed 
continuously upon it. Provide variety at the time of 
selecting the feed, but after the proper combination has 



been secured make no changes except for very good rea- 
sons. Under what circumstances is it sometimes advis- 
able to change the ration? 

7. Steaming and cooking food. — A great many devices 

have been placed on the mar- 
ket for the preparation of feed- 
ing stuffs for live stock. The 
labor and expense connected 
with the steaming and cooking 
of food are usually unwarranted 
and uneconomical. 

8. Coarse or roughage feeds. 
— These include the grasses, 
cereals, legumes, roots and 
anything of a bulky nature, 
whether fed green or dry, as 
hay. In all feeding practice, 
the ration should be based on 
one or more of these products. They are home grown 
and are thus produced at less cost than other feeds if 
purchased. The roughage feeds contain more of the 
carbohydrates than of protein. 

9. Concentrates. — The grain by-products and other 
concentrates are relatively rich in protein, but not always 
so. Cottonseed meal, linseed meal and gluten are very 

Device for Cooking Feed for 
Live Stock 


m protein. The 
concentrates are easily 
digestible, and where 
high production is de- 
manded, liberal quanti- 
ties should be used in 
daily rations. In pur- 
chasing concentrates, 

1 30.2 



Selecting for Protein 

Note the much larger amount of protein in 
linseed meal than in corn meal. 



make it a rule to ascertain the amount of total digestible 
nutrients and of digestible protein in a ton. Then select 
the feeding stuff that supplies the protein at the cheapest 
rate to the pound. In this way economical buying of 
feeds is possible. 

10. Protein most important. — In buying concentrates 
choose those feeds that are high in protein and relatively 
low in carbohydrates. For instance, cottonseed meal 
contains nearly six times as much protein as corn meal. 
The dairyman who has a large supply of corn stover, 

Useful Tools for Making Hay 
Our forefathers cut the hay crop by hand. Haying operations are now done largely 
by horse-drawn tools. Farm tools and implements save labor and lessen the cost 
in producing crops. 

silage and grass hay would make a poor purchase if he 
selected corn meal instead of cottonseed meal or gluten 
for dairy cows, even though the corn might cost but 
half as much per ton as cottonseed meal or gluten. 
Getting protein at the cheapest cost a pound is the most 
important thing in buying concentrated feeds. 

11. Cutting hay. — Early cut ha}- is richer in protein 
and contains less crude fiber than late cut. As plants 
ripen, the more nutritious compounds move into the seed, 
and leave the food part of hay less valuable. The best 



time for cutting is between the time of blossoming and 
seed forming. The nutritious compounds at this time 
are distributed throughout the plants, and there is cor- 
respondingly less woody tissue. If cut when the plants 
are in blossom the yield will be less than at a period a 
little later. 

12. Shall grain be ground? — Grain feeds are most 
digestible if ground. Corn, oats, wheat and other grains 
often are so hard that if passed into 
the stomach without mastication the 
digestive juices fail in their duty. 
But it does not follow that it is good 
business management to grind feeds. 
Experiments show that when corn, 
for instance, is ground the returns 
are increased from 8 to 15 per cent ; 
yet the labor of hauling to and from 
the mill or of grinding the grain at 
home may mean a loss in the end. 
The custom of following cattle and 
horses with pigs to pick up the un- 
digested grain or other food is both 
wise and profitable, and satisfactorily meets this condition. 

13. Double value in feeds. — All feeding stufifs have two 
values — feed and fertility. The man who buys concen- 
trated feeds rich in protein gains by the enterprise, but 
the men lose who produce and sell them. By disposing 
of these valuable food products farmers really sell the 
plant food of their lands. When animal products are 
sold the drain on the land is not large, but if grain crops 
are sold much plant food is withdrawn from the soil. 

The farmer who sells a ton of clover hay withdraws from his 
soil $8.72 worth of fertility. This is half as much as he receives. 
If, on the other hand, he sells a ton of pork, he sends from his farm 

Feed Grinder 



but $6.35 worth of fertility, but receives 30 times as much as the 
value of the fertility contained in it. If he sells milk, he receives 
40 times as much as the fertility contained in it; and if he sells 
butter, his returns are 1,000 times as much as is the value of the 
fertility sold in the butter. 

14. Loss of fertility contained in feed. — Due to careless 
methods of handling manure, there is a tremendous loss 
of fertility in the aggregate each year. Much of the nitro- 
gen is lost as fast as the manure is made, through fer- 

Selling Hogs Versus Selling Hay 

Equal amounts of hay and pork are sold. Note the difference in market value and 
quantity of plant food sent from the farm in each. 

mentation and leaching. Much of the potash is lost in 
drainage waters from the stable and the barnyards. This 
loss can l)e greatly lessened by the use of litter in the 
stables, by covered barnyards, and through the addition 
from day to day of a preservative like acid phosphate to 
the excrement. 

There is loss through leaching, not only in barnyards, but wher- 
ever manure is exposed to the influence of the weather. In loose, 
open piles fully one-half of the fertilizing value may disappear in a 
half-year period. If manure is not hauled direct to the field and 
scattered, it may be fairly well preserved in large piles, which should 
be kept moist; or in covered barnyards, where it should be thor- 
oughly compacted, with enough litter provided to absorb the liquid 
and keep the animals clean. Fresh manures that undergo fermenta- 
tion rapidly, such as horse and sheep manures, should be mixed with 
litter immediately, else the nitrogen will be lost. Acid phosphate 
sprinkled on fresh manure has long been a popular preservative. 

15. Profit from feed. — The full value of a feeding stuflf 



for feed and fertilizer is secured only when the feed has 
been properly prepared in the first place, then fed in the 
proper combination with other feeds to farm animals of 
good breeding and selected for the purpose to which they 
are best adapted, and finally so handled as manure that the 
fertilizing materials are not lost through fermentation, 
decomposition and leaching. Such practice is good farm- 
ing and is fundamental for success in feed lot or open field. 
To get the best results 
there must be a proper 
relation (1) between 
the total dry matter and 
the total digestible nu- 
trients and (2) between 
the digestible protein 
and the digestible car- 
bohydrates. For ex- 
ample, from 100 pounds 
of hay a horse may 
digest 40 pounds of nutrients. Twenty-four pounds may 
be burned up in the work of digesting the hay, thus 
leaving but 16 pounds available for labor. From 100 
pounds of oats, a horse may digest 72 pounds, 12 pounds 
of which are consumed in the work of digestion, leaving 
60 pounds for labor. Thus oats may be nearly four times 
as valuable as hay for a horse that must exercise great 
power or speed. An ordinary milk cow will consume 
from 24 to 30 pounds of dry matter, two-thirds of which 
should be digestible, while one-eighth of the digestible 
material should be protein. 

How Not to Store Manure 

This bad practice causes an annual loss of 
millions of dollars. Why will we do it? 


1. Do horses have teeth in front in both jaws? Do cattle? Do 

2. Cost of Nutrients. — (Consult appendix for digestible nu- 
trients in feeding stuffs.) 

(a) When corn is worth $25 a ton, what is the value of a pound 
of digestible protein? Of a pound of total digestible nutrients? 

(b) When cottonseed meal can be bought for $32 a ton, and pro- 
tein only is required for balancing a dairy ration, what is the cost of 
a pound of digestible protein? 

(r) If protein only is needed, in which feeding stuff — cottonseed 
meal at $32, linseed meal at $32, corn meal at $25, or wheat bran at 
$28 a ton — can it be most cheaply purchased? Show by figures. 

3. Ration for D.mry Cows. — Compound a ration for dairy cows, 
averaging 1,000 pounds in weight, and yielding 22 pounds daily, 
using 10 pounds of corn stover, 10 pounds of clover hay, and 40 
pounds of corn silage for the foundation and such amounts of cot- 
tonseed meal, wheat bran and gluten as will be necessary to balance 
the ration. 

4. Rations with Reference to Cost. — (a) Use the following 
feeding stuffs for compounding a ration for a cow weighing 1,000 
pounds and yielding 22 pounds milk daily. Timothy hay worth $20 
a ton, corn stover $5. corn $25, oats $30 and bran $28. What is the 
daily cost of the ration? 

(b) Use the following feeding stuffs for compounding a ration 
for the same cow: Alfalfa hay, worth $15 a ton; clover hay, $12; 
corn silage, $2; cottonseed meal, $32, and gluten, $25. What is the 
cost of the ration? 

(c) What is the difference in cents of the daily cost between 
these two rations? 

(d) Suppose both rations are available for a dairy herd of 40 
cows to be fed six months. What would be the total cost of each 
ration and the saving in cost if the cheapest is used? Is not the 
cheapest ration also the best? 

5. Home Used Ration. — What quantities each of five feeding 
stuffs used at your home may be used in combination so as to fur- 
nish an approximately balanced ration for a dairy cow weighing 
1.000 pounds and yielding 22 pounds of milk? (For digestible nu- 
trients, see appendix.) 

6. Using for the purpose timothy hay, corn, oats and bran, how 
many pounds each will be required for feeding a horse weighing 
1,000 pounds and doing light work? 

7. A farmer fed each of his cows about 10 pounds of timothy hay, 
35 pounds of corn silage and 5 pounds of corn and cob meal daily. 
Suggest some changes that might be made to make this ration better. 

8. Two Dairy Rations Compared. — At the Ohio station two 




rations were compared for feeding dairy cows. Ration A con- 
tained 58 pounds of corn and soy bean silage, 6.8 pounds of mixed 
timothy hay, 2 pounds of linseed meal and 2 pounds of bran. Ration 
B consisted of 4.7 pounds of corn stover, 6.4 pounds of mixed 
timothy hay, 2.5 pounds of linseed meal, 5 pounds of corn meal and 
6 pounds of bran, (a) Compare these two rations as to digestible 
nutrients, (b) Determine nutritive ratio of each ration. 

The value of the feeds was as follows : Corn silage, $2 a ton ; 
corn stover, $5; hay, $12; linseed meal, $34; wheat bran, $30; and 
corn meal, $30. (c) What was the daily cost of Ration A? of 
Ration B? What is the difference in cost of the rations? (d) 
Suppose 40 cows are fed 210 days; what is the difference in cost of 
feeding that number of cows during that time if the cheaper ration 
is used? (The results of this trial showed that Ration A produced 
g6.y pounds of milk for each lOO pounds of food, based on dry mat- 
ter contained in it, and Ration B, 81.3 pounds. Thus Ration A was 
better, but was it also cheaper?) 

9. Two Horse Rations Compared. — Weight of horses, 1,000 
pounds ; kind of work, severe. Feed in Ration A, 10 pounds of 
timothy hay, 14 pounds of oats. Feed in Ration B, 10 pounds 
timothy hay, 2 pounds linseed meal and 9 pounds of corn meal. 

(o) Compare the two rations for digestible nutrients. Value of 
feeds, hay $16 a ton, oats 56 cents a bushel, corn 65 cents a bushel, 
and linseed meal $30 a ton. 

(6) What is the cost of each ration? 

(c) What is the difference in daily cost? 

{d) If six horses are fed for nine months, what would be the 
saving if the cheaper ration were fed? 

{e) Is the cheaper ration less efficient? Why? 

10. Cost of Nutrients. — Complete the following table and cal- 
culate the digestible protein and total digestible nutrients that can 
be procured for $1. In making the calculation use the prices of 
your local or home market. What are the three most expensive 
feeds? The cheapest? 

Comparing Feed Prices 




Nutrients procurable for $1 


Total digestible 


Oats _ _ _ . 

Wheat bran 

Linseed meal 

Gluten meal 

Cottonseed meal-- 

Timothy hay 

Clover hay 


1. Work 

2. Beast labor 

3 Why horses excel 

4. Two types of horses 

5. Draft breeds 

6. Carriage or coach breeds 
. 7. Lighter breeds 

8. Action 

9. Quality 

10. Temperament and disposition 

11. Beauty 

12. Defects 

13. Blemishes 

14. Schooling 

15. Educating the colt 

Note to the Teacher. — In the horse are combined both 
work and speed to greater useful advantage than in any 
other animal. The early wild horses were swift and 
strong, and these two qualities have been still further 
developed since man has taken these beasts into his 
keeping. It is not out of place to honor and caress 
this noble animal, which, sturdier, stronger and fleeter 
than ourselves, is, nevertheless, one of the most service- 
able and devoted of all domestic animals. 



1. Work. — In the early days the work of the world was 
done largely by human beings. Burdens were carried, 
the arts of agriculture performed, and the necessary tasks 
of life were all based on hand labor or on the toil of men 
and women. After a time animals were domesticated, 
captive beasts being forced to perform the sterner and 
more severe kinds of labor and work. 

2. Beast labor. — In our own days the ox and the horse 
were drawn to do this work, but the horse proved to be 
best adaptable and most efficient. This superiority is due 
not entirely to greater strength, but 
to more rapid and graceful move- 
ment. In many parts of the world 
oxen or other cattle are generally 
employed. Oxen have done much 
in subduing the wilderness and the 
prairies of this land. Horses and 
machinery are now the chief mo- 
tive forces in the United States. 
Although steam, gasoline and elec- 
trical power are much used, horses 
are more in demand today and 
command higher prices than ever 
before. The call of cattle for meat has practically ex- 
hausted their supply for labor. 

3. Why horses excel. — Horses are more popular for 
working purposes than other domestic animals, because 

Developed for Work 

Note the heavy muscles and 

substantial frame. 



they are readily educated to their task. They draw 
vehicles, tools and implements at quick speed ; they may 
be ridden or driven at a fast or slow pace, and in all 
other respects they meet the necessities of an active, 

Cattle Used for Plovcing in Gera\any 

While horse labor is generally employed in this country, in Europe ox labor is 
common and efficient. Ox teams were once common on many American farms. 

dependable beast for labor, travel or other work. Their 
racial characteristics have admitted of easy development, 
so much so that they have become among the most use- 
ful and most indispensable of the domestic animals. 

4. Two types of horses. — Horses now existing may be 
divided into two great groups : the heavy, cold-blooded 

Coach Horses of Stylish Action 


horses of western Europe, and the lighter, hot-blooded 
horses of eastern origin. This difference relates to char- 
acter and temperament, the eastern horses being ardent, 
quick, susceptible, courageous, sometimes restive; while 
those of the west are calm, steady, slow and gentle. 
The draft breeds belong to the latter, the roadsters, car- 
riage and speed to the former. 

"A low, heavily built horse, with comparatively large feet and 
limbs, developed and spread over a considerable portion of Europe, 
especially in the northern, low-lying sections; and from this old 
black horse of Europe, or the black horse of Flanders, as it is 
variously called, all of our modern draft horses have been produced 
by selection, careful breeding, and mixture of other strains of blood." 

5. Draft breeds. — The 

principal draft races are 

Percheron, French Draft, 

Belgian Draft, Clydesdale, 

Suffolk and English Shire. 

Horses of this type are 

heavy in body and muscle, 

have broad shoulders and 

backs, thick necks, broad 

loins, strong, compact hips 

and thighs, and clean, 

powerful legs. They are 

large and massive, possess big, heavy bones and are 

powerful in appearance and form. 

6. Carriage or coach breeds.— The Hackney, French 
Coach, German Coach and Cleveland Bav are the leading 
heavy carriage breeds. These horses are less massive 
than the draft breeds. They may be as tall or long, but 
are less muscular and less heavily clothed in flesh. They 
carry less substance and weight. They have been bred 
and selected to move more rapidly on the road than the 
draft breeds, but are not able to draw as heavy loads. 

French Draft 
Typical of the draft type. 



Coach in Harness 

To 1)6 of the most approved fashion they must show 

elegance in movement, grace in bearing and in action, 

move with care and regularity. High knee action is a 

point that is held in high favor. 

7. Lighter breeds. — 
lliis class includes the 
speed horses and road- 
sters, such as the Thor- 
oughbred, trotters, 
pacers and saddle 
horses. They are pri- 
marily used on race 
tracks, and on roads 
for fast and light travel. 
These horses are light 

in body, bone and muscle, and are capable of moving at 

a rapid gait. In appearance they may be as tall as the 

horses of the other breeds, but they weigh much less. 

Their bodies are narrow, their 

necks thin and supple, their 

muscles long and elastic. In 

appearance they are just the 

opposite of the draft breeds, 

both in bulk and strength. 

Their muscular development 

and skeleton framework enable 

them to reach and stretch out 

in rapid action. 

8. Action. — A prime requisite 

of a good horse, regardless of 

breed or class, is action. When 

drawing a load or moving at 

swift travel a horse is expected 

to move along with ease and 



[ • ^ 











w \ ■' 

c ■ 

p} J} 


Dan Patch 

A fine representative of the lighter 
breed type. 



Good Action 

Note the stylish movement in the 
high knee action. 

grace, otherwise its value is lessened and its efficiency 
discounted. Action is most important in the carriage 
and speed horses. Even the walk expresses distinction. 
In the carriage type a snappy, 
stylish movement is observed 
with high knee action. The feet 
should touch and leave the 
ground with trueness and snap. 
The gait of the roadster should 
be regular with less flexing of 
the knee and hocks than required 
of the carriage breeds. Draft 
horses of good action show regu- 
larity and trueness of movement 
and a more powerful, although a 
plainer gait. 

9. Quality. — Without refine- 
ment and fitness there can be no beauty. Quality is the 
indication of refinement in each individual as expressed 
in its breeding. Animals of quality are of pleasing pro- 
portions. Their refinement is expressed in bone, muscle, 
hair, body, legs and feet. The hair should be fine and 
silky, the bones neat, not coarse, the muscles clean, not 
fat or flabby, the body of good form, the legs straight, 
the feet of good texture. In horses of quality clean-cut 
features are noticeable, the veins of the skin are distinct 
and the lines of the face are clearly defined. 

10. Temperament and disposition. — A mean disposition 
is an undesirable character of any horse. Well-bred 
horses, while showing a nervous temperament, need not 
be excitable or vicious ; on the other hand, rather a quiet, 
docile manner is liked. The pleasing and well-bred horse 
is intelligent when worked. Viciousness, excitability 



and untrustworthiness are the result either of bad train- 
ing or inheritance. 

11. Beauty. — What makes a horse beautiful? Is it the 
the color of the hair, the shape of the body or the length 
of the head, neck or legs? Too frequently our thoughts 
of beauty and of the beautiful spring from superficial 
conceptions. The word beautiful applied to the land- 
scape means proper blending of its objects and their 
proper fitness one to the other and in relation to the 

Quiet and Docile, Intelligent and Willing 

These draft mares are of improved breeding and have been thoughtfully fed and 
intelligently trained in their service for labor and work. 

whole. In the horse, beauty is significant of the "perfect 
adaptation of the organ to its function, or of the subject 
to the service for which he is destined. Beauty is, there- 
fore, synonymous with fitness." A beautiful horse is, 
therefore, a good horse — one capable of doing its work 
well and possessed of parts or regions that function in 
the easiest, most graceful and most efficient manner. 

There are two kinds of beauty: the absolute beauties that are 
necessary in all horses and the relative beauties that apply to horses 
bred to a special work or service. Among those of the first class 
that all horses should_p_pssess, are big chests, width between the 



eyes; clear, steady breathing ; powerful attachments of the muscles; 
large articulations of the joints; sound, perfect feet, and sturdy con- 
stitutions. Of the second class, the relative beauties are distinguished 
in respect to the type of the individual for the work he is best fitted 
to do. Thus the draft horse must have a broad, muscular croup for 
heavy work, whereas the trotting horse is much less developed in 
this region. The neck of the draft horse is shorter, the shoulders 
straighter, the arms more heavily muscled and the weight more 
ponderous than horses for the road or speed track. 

12. Defects. — All horses are not born equally good or 
useful. Some at birth possess certain defects which in 
meaning refer to just the opposite 

of beauty or fitness. A defect, there- 
fore, is a disadvantage and the 
animal possessing such a defect is 
less valuable because less can be ex- 
pected when put to general or special 
work. Sometimes a defect is the 
result of accident or is acquired as 
the result of use. A defect observ- 
able at birth is known as congenital. 
Common defects are flat feet, slender 
legs, flat chests, irregular movements 
of the legs, and thin, narrow hocks. 
Defects often acquired are knee- 
sprung forelegs, swayed backs, 
sweenied shoulders, curby hocks, 
and ill-shaped legs and feet. 

13. Blemishes. — Frequently some disfiguring mark that 
mars the beauty of a horse is observed. This may be 
seated in the skin or in the tissues underneath the skin. 
Wherever located or whatever the cause, the injury or 
deformity is a blemish and detracts from the value of the 
animal. While such disfigurement may not in any way 
prevent the animal from doing everything expected of 
it in the performance of its work, the marred condition is 



Knee Spring 

A common defect of 


a recognized flaw that brands imperfection. Common 
blemishes are wire fence cuts, hock enlargements, blis- 
tered surfaces, and scars from improperly healed wounds. 

14. Schooling. — Boys and girls are sent to school to 
learn useful things and to develop their mental capabil- 
ities. Horses, like boys and girls, must be educated and 
trained in order that they may attain the power for them 
to give their best service in any one or more directions. 
A colt should be educated to do its work, but this educa- 
tion should be along the lines of usefulness for which it 
is best fitted by breeding and inheritance. A draft colt 
should not be trained for work on the race track, nor a 
colt of speed breeding for the plow. Yet each should be 
educated to its class, because it is only through such 
training and schooling that a high degree of proficiency 
is attained. 

15. Educating the colt. — The old idea of ''breaking" 
a horse is giving way to educating the colt. Training 
from the early days of colthood is a far better way of 
securing control and subordination than through neglect 
until the age of putting to work. The little foal should 
be petted and haltered early in its life, and in this way 
will not become willful and headstrong. Taken in hand 
early, a colt's education will be continuous, each step in 
training being taken at the proper time. When the time 
comes for driving and working, the final touches will be 
easy of accomplishment. It is of vital importance that 
during: no state of the educational work should the colt 
or young horse be frightened or alarmed. Most of the 
difficulties encountered in way of the vices and faults of 
adult life have their beginnings in fear and distrust aris- 
ing during the training time. 


1. Plants and animals 

2. Crowbar 

3. Bones 

4. Lever 

5. How a horse moves 

6. How a horse stands 

7. The center of gravity 

8. Gaits 

9. The walk 

10. The trot 

11. The pace 

12. The gallop * 

13. Quality 

14. Saddle gaits 

15. Muscles 

Note to the Teacher. — The points brought out in this 
lesson are (1) that the laws of physics apply to the horse 
or other animals just as they do to inanimate machines ; 
(2) the influence of the center of gravity upon the produc- 
tion of force and speed; and (3) the relation that this 
fact has upon the well-known difference in the speed of 
such gaits as the walk, trot, pace and gallop. It is be- 
lieved that considerable time can be spent profitably in 
watching the movement of horses. This lesson can be 
made more useful and interesting if it is possible to have 
a horse present during the recitation period. 



1. Plants and animals. — One important distinction be- 
tween higher plants and animals is that while plants are 
rooted to the ground, animals move freely about through 
a power that exists within them. No such power exists 
in plants. Mankind has taken advantage of this power 
for its own advancement. It exists in the horse in a high 
degree. Without animals man could never have ad- 
vanced beyond the stage of barbarism. America was not 
developed as was Europe because the Lidian did not have 
the horse and the ox to assist him. 

2. Crowbar. — If one wishes to move a large bowlder, 
he places one end of a crowbar under the edge of it and 
then places a small stane under the crowbar. He next 

presses down on the upper end 

of the bar. What happens is 

that he increases his power at 

the expense of speed. If the 

upper end of the crowbar is ten 

times as long as the lower arm, 

ten times as much power will 
Crowbar Increases Power , , » , 

be exerted. At the same tmie, 
the hands of the person moving the bar go ten times as 
far as the stone which he moves. This is an absolute 
law. Increased power cannot be obtained without loss 
of speed and increased speed cannot be obtained without 
a corresponding loss of power. A horse of great speed 
cannot be a horse of great power. Powerful draft horses 
cannot be fast horses. A horse for general utility can 
have both power and speed only in fair degree. 




Lever of the First Class 

3. Bones. — Certain bones, such as those of the head, 
the vertebrae, and the ribs, are useful in protecting the 
organs of the body. For the most part, however, bones 
are a series of crowbars. When the horse moves, these 
bars or levers are operated by the muscles. In no other 
way can a horse move. If any of the movable bones are 
examined, it will be found that they are not smooth bars, 
but that they have m'any irregularities of surface. The 
projections and depressions in the bones are for the at- 
tachment of muscles. When a muscle is attached to a 
small projection, this projection be- 
comes the small arm of a lever. 

4. Lever. — When any object does 
what a crowbar does, it is called a 
Icz'cr. The point where the small 
stone touched the crowbar is called 
the fulcrum. There are three kinds 
of levers, all of which the horse uses. 
They are shown in the diagrams. In 
levers of the first class the fulcrum 
(F) is between the power (P) and 
the resistance (R). In the second 
class, the resistance is between the 
fulcrum and the power, while in the 
third cbcs the power is between the 

fulcrum and the resistance. It will be seen that a lever 
of the third class must always be a lever of speed, be- 
cause the power arm is always shorter than the resistance 
arm. A lever of the second class must always be a lever 
of power, because the resistance arm is shorter than the 
power arm. A lever of the first class, however, may be 
either a lever of speed or a lever of power, depending 
upon whether the resistance arm or the power arm is the 

if the Second Class. 

.ever of the Third ClaSJ 

Kinds of Levers 



longer. In horses, levers of the first class are always 
levers of speed. 

5. How a horse moves. — In the horse, levers of the first 
and third class are levers used for producing motion. A 
simple illustration may be found in the movement of the 
arm about the point of the shoulder. Muscles of the 

shoulder, A D, attached to a projection on 
the arm bone, are enabled by contracting to 
rotate the arm and leg forward. The fulcrum 
is at B. It is a lever of the first class. Mus- 
cles, D C, lift the foot from the ground, pre- 
paratory to being moved forward by the 
muscles, A D. The fulcrum is at B. The 
power arm is represented approximately by 
the line B C, while the resistance arm is ap- 
proximately the line B E. It is, therefore, a 
lever of the third class. The more nearly the 
How A Horse arm A E is at right angles to the shoulder 
Moves g j^^ ^-^^q more powerful the horse will be. 
The greater the angle of shoulder with the arm the 
greater speed will the horse be capable. Horses having 
large joints are powerful horses, because the power arms 
of the levers are longer in proportion to the resist- 
ance arms. 

6. How a horse stands. — It is natural that 
a horse should wish to stand with the least 
possible efi^ort. This is accomplished by using 
a lever of the second class, which is always a 
lever of power. When a horse stands prop- 
erly the weight of the body descends directly 
down the cannon through the fetlock to the 
ground. The fulcrum, F, is in the foot, while 
the power which prevents the fetlock from touching the 
ground and thus sustains the weight of the body is 

How A Horse 


exerted through the muscles and tendons, the latter pass- 
ing back of the fetlock. The power arm is F B, while the 
resistance arm is F A. The straighter and shorter the 
pastern, O F, the easier the animal maintains a standing 
position and the greater the power. The longer and more 
slanting the pastern, the greater the speed. Heavy draft 
horses have short, steep pasterns, while light, running 
and trotting horses have long slanting ones. 

7. The center of gravity. — An object of uniform density 
does not topple over of its own weight, unless its center 
falls outside its base. 

The farther one must 
push an object to cause 
its center to fall out- 
side the base the more 
difficult it is to move it. 
If a horse is near the 
ground, and has its feet 
wide apart, its center of 
gravity does not read- 
ily fall outside its base. center of gravity in horse 

In a horse that is tall ^* '^ evident that the center of gravity is not 

located at similar points in these two horses. 

and has its feet near 

together, this occurs easily. A draft horse is able to pull 
a great load, not alone because he has large muscles, but 
because he is near the ground and has his feet wide apart. 
On the other hand, a horse does not run fast simply 
because he has long legs, but because his body is farther 
from the ground and he is relatively shorter, bringing 
his feet closer together. The reason a boy cannot run 
when leaning backwards is because his center of gravity 
is in the wrong- place. 

8. Gaits. — The horse has four well-defined gaits — the 
walk, trot, pace and gallop. A horse or other animal 



can move only by changing his center of gravity. This 
he does when he starts to walk, by a slight movement of 
the head, throwing the weight of the body on one fore- 
leg before he lifts the other one. The rapidity with 
which he moves depends upon the relative amount of 
time that the center of gravity is outside the base during 
each step. This is the reason that the gallop is faster 
than the pace, the pace a faster gait than the trot, and the 
walk the slowest gait of all. 

How A Horse Walks 

The feet are on the ground longer in the walk than in any other gait. Much 
of the time three feet are in contact with it. As the walk is made faster the 
periods of contact with the ground are shortened in length. 

9. The walk is a slow gait, because during each step 
at least two feet are always upon the ground, while part 
of the time three members furnish support to the body. 
Assuming a horse starts to walk with his left forefoot, 
the walk is accomplished as follows. Left fore member, 
right hind member, right fore member, left hind member 
and then back to the left fore member. The feet reach 
the ground at equal intervals. As one listens to a horse 
walking upon a pavement, there are four equally spaced 
beats to each step. Notice, also, that the hind foot is 
raised before the forefoot on the corresponding side, but 



the latter is lifted in time to allow the hindfoot to be 
placed in its track or even in some cases in advance of it. 

10. The trot. — The trot is a faster gait than the walk 
because, under ordinary conditions, there are only two 
feet upon the ground at any one time, sometimes only 
one and at other times 
none at all. In the 
typical trot one fore- 
foot and the opposite 
hind foot reach the 
ground at the same 
time. There are, there- 
fore, only two Deats to 
each step. Ordinarily 
the hind foot will be 
placed either on the 
track of the front foot 
or ahead of it. In order 
for this to happen the 
front foot must be raised before the hind one comes to 
rest. Hence there must be an interval of time when all 
four feet are off the ground. The longer this interval of 
suspension, the faster is the gait. 

11. The pace. — Since when a horse trots the diagonal 
feet move forward together and are on the ground at the 
same time, it follows that the center of gravity is moving 
in a line between the two points of support. When a 
horse paces, however, the two members on one side go 
forward together. Hence the point of support alternates 
from one side to the other of the line on which the horse 
is moving. The equilibrium is, therefore, less stable. 
This is another way of saying that the pace is a faster 
gait than the trot. 

When a Horse Trots 

forefoot and the opposite hind foot are on 
the ground at the same time. 



12. The gallop. — When a horse gallops, the last foot 
to leave the ground is a front one, and the first one to 
reach the ground is a hind foot. Assuming the horse 
leaves the ground from the left front foot, the first foot 

to reach the ground will 
be the right hind one. 
This is followed by the 
left hind one closely as- 
sociated or simulta- 
neously with the right 
front foot. The left 
front foot then returns 
to the ground while the 
others are preparing to 
leave it. 

When a Horse Paces The horse IS SUS- 

Fore and hind feet of the same side are on the pendcd in the air 3. 
ground in unison. Compare with the trot. ^ 

much larger proportion 
of each step than in the pace or the trot, which accounts 
for its being a more rapid gait. A horse has its feet 
doubled up under it while thus suspended, and not 
stretched out, as often depicted. It is only when the 
horse is on the ground that its feet are extended. 

13. Quality. — Any gait is properly executed when it is 
performed regularly and without due loss of motion. A 
straight line is the shortest distance between two points. 
Other things equal, the nearer that the foot can be car- 
ried from one contact with the ground to another con- 
tact in a straight line, the less will be the loss of motion. 
Therefore when one views the horse in motion, from 
front or rear, the members should swerve neither to the 
right nor to the left. The feet must, of course, be raised 
sufficiently to overcome obstacles, but if the feet are 
raised excessively, it results in loss of speed. In showy, 



carriage horses this is not considered objectionable, be- 
cause speed is not desired so much as appearance of 

14. Saddle gaits. — It is customary to recognize two 
types of saddle horses — one known as the walk, trot and 
canter horses ; and gaited saddle horses, which can exe- 
cute five gaits. In addition to the walk, trot and canter, 
gaited saddle horses must go the rack and either the run- 
ning walk, fox trot or slow pace. The running walk is 

When a Horse Gallops 

It will be observed that the horse leaves the ground from a forefoot and on com- 
pleting the leap reaches the ground with the opposite hind foot. 

the most distinctive of the last three. It lies between 
the trot and the walk. It is a slow gait. The rack, some- 
times called single foot, is a modified pace. Its execution 
lies between the pace and the walk. It is a fast gait. In- 
stead of having two beats, as in the case of the pace, it 
has four, as in the case of the walk. Instead, however, of 
these four beats being equally divided, they are unequally 
associated. Thus, if one hears a single-footer passing 
along the pavement, it will sound something like this — 
peck-a-peck, half-a-peck; peck-a-peck, half-a-peck — re- 
peated rapidly. 

15. Muscles. — Deep, broad horses with bodies close to 
the ground are powerful horses. Tall, slender ones are 



capable of greater speed. These differences are not 
wholly due to shape and weight. It also depends upon the 
muscles, which are the source of all motion. Large mus- 
cles give power. Long muscles give speed. In running 
and driving horses the muscle lies more nearly in the 
same direction as the bones, while in draft horses the 
muscles act more nearly at right angles to the levers. In 
judging a horse, therefore, one considers not only the form 
of the animal, but the character of his muscles. 

Weight as a Source of Power 

This horse is able to pull this great load of alfalfa hay because he is carrying part 
of the weight. The extra weight which he carries not only enables him to pull 
more, but he does not have so much to pull. 


1. Head. 

2. Neck. 

3. Eyes. 

4. Ears. 

5. Front legs. 

6. Shoulders. 

7. Arms. 

8. Body. 

9. Croup. 

10. Hind legs. 

11. Cannons. 

12. Joints. 

13. Hocks. 

14. Feet. 

15. Attitudes. 

Note to the Teacher. — This lesson may be made useful 
in training the powers of observation and judgment, two 
powers very differently developed in different persons. 
The purpose is to give those fundamental conceptions of 
form which apply to all horses for force or speed. Shire 
horses differ from Percheron horses, and Hackney horses 
differ from French Coach horses by virtue of certain char- 
acteristics which are not touched upon in this lesson, but 
must be considered when judging whether a horse is a 
correct representation of a certain breed. 



1. Head. — Measure the length in a straight line from 
the top of the head to the point where the lips come to- 
gether. In an ideal head, this measurement will l)e tw,o- 
fifths the height of the horse at his withers. In draft 
horses, the head tends to be relatively longer, while in 

running horses it may be rela- 
tively shorter. The width of the 
forehead should be more than 
one-third the length of the head. 
The head is twice as long as the 
distance from the forehead to the 
point of the lower jaw. There 
should be good width between 

Good Head 1^1 • i r, 1 . 

the jawbones, because between 
them pass the windpipe (trachea) and the gullet (oesoph- 
agus). If these are restricted, the lung power and the 
digestion may be reduced. Too short a distance from 
eye to ear compared with distance from eye to lips is an 
especially bad feature. It indicates a sullen, morose dis- 
position, probably associated with a lack of intelligence. 
A wide forehead, large nostrils, well-situated eyes, ears 
widely separated and larger space between jawbones go 
together and constitute a good head. 

2. Neck. — Measure the distance from the base of the 
ear to the middle front of the neck where it joins the 
shoulder. Under ideal conditions this length is equal to 
that of the head. The head and neck serve the same pur- 





pose in the movements of the horse as the balancing pole 
does to the movements of the tight-rope walker. They 
help to balance the horse and 
keep him from falling. The 
faster the horse the more agile 
must be the head and neck. A 
light head and a long slender 
neck respond to this require- 
ment. A heavily muscled neck 
is required for great power. 

Under average conditions both the 
head and neck form an angle of 45 
degrees with the ground; thus the 
head and neck form a right angle 
with each other. For trotting and 
running, the neck is held up and the 
head extended horizontally; hence 
the over-draw check. For heavy- 
draft the head is lowered and held 
more vertically. For the slow gallop 
the neck is arched and the head is 
held more vertically than for run- 
ning. These different positions of 
head and neck are for the purpose 
of changing the center of gravity. 

3. Eyes. — From the stand- 
point of soundness there are 
four weak regions in the horse. 
They are the eyes (blindness), 
the hocks (spavin and curb), 
the region below the front 
knees (splints, side bones and 
navicular disease) and the 
flanks (heaves). The best posi- 
tion for examining the eyes is 
with the head in the stable 
doorway facing outward. The 

Typical Necks 

Arched at top; straight at mid- 
1- 1 . •! die; ewe neck at bottom. A ewe 

eyes, eyelids, ears, nostrils, neck is objectionable. 



lips, and mouth constitute the facial expression of the 
horse by which is judged the intelligence, disposition, 
and temperament. Among the beauties of the eye are a 
separation proportionate to forehead and face, a proper 
degree of prominence, perfect equality and freedom from 
blemishes, either of the eye itself or the eyelids. A cer- 
tain vivacity and changeableness of expression is 

4. Ears. — The size, quality, position and movement are 
characteristics of the ear that must be studied. The size 
of the ear should be in proportion to the size of the head, 
neither too small nor too large. Generally speaking, 
horses with small ears are more energetic and courage- 
ous. The texture of the ear should be fine and free from 
coarse hairs. 

To improve the appearance of the ear the internal hairs are some- 
times clipped. This is not a good practice, since these hairs are 
intended to prevent the entrance of insects and other objects. 

The ears should be well placed. A too narrow dis- 
tance between the 
ears is particularly 
objectionable. When 
the head and neck 
are held as stated 
above, a side view 
of the ears should 
be vertical. The ears 
should be vertical, 
also, when viewed 
from the front. Lop- 
eared horses are un- 
sightly. A sluggish 

Skeleton of Horse movement of the 

Observe the bones of the forequarters and of the rr^n^r tnf^an fViaf 

hindquarters. See paragraph 10, page 121. ear may mcaU tnat 


the horse is deaf, or merely that he is lazy. A constant 
movement of the ear may mean that the horse is skittish, 
or it may be that the horse is blind. 

5. The front legs. — The fore members of a horse may 
be somewhat puzzling to one who has never seen the 
skeleton of one. Think of your own arm and then locate 
the corresponding- region in the horse. Place the end of 
your middle finger upon the desk. Your nail corresponds 
to the horse's hoof; the pastern, e f, to your finger; the 
cannon, d e, to the middle bone of your hand ; the fore- 
arm, c d, to your forearm; and the arm, h c, to your arm. 
The shoulder blade is shown at a b. The horse does not 
have a collarbone. His shoulders are attached to the body 
by means of muscles, thus giving greater elasticity to his 

6. Shoulders. — The shoulders of a trotting horse should 
be long and sloping. They should be long because long- 
bones give long muscles. They should be 
sloping, because sloping shoulders give a 
greater elasticity to the movements and be- 
cause they enable the horse to take longer 
steps. They may be steeper in draft horses, 
because, owing to the better position of the 
collar, the horse is enabled to exert a greater 
force. The shoulders should be heavily 
muscled, especially in the draft horse. 

7. Arms. — In a draft horse, the arm should 
be relatively horizontal, while in the trotting bones of the 
horse it should be more vertical. Since the 

arm itself is hidden in a mass of muscle, the position of 
the arm is best determined by examining the position of 
the elbow. The elbow should be relatively high as com- 
pared with the bottom of the chest for draft horses, and 
just the reverse in running and trotting horses. 



The movement of the arm is directly forward and backward. 
Horses cannot rotate their arms as can boys and girls. This is be- 
cause the horse does not hr:ve a collar bone. For the same reason, 
the horse cannot carry food to its mouth as can a squirrel. But the 
horse is fleet because the backward and forward movement of the 
arm prevents lost motion. 

8. Body. — The body varies greatly with the service to 
which the horse is to be put. In the draft horse the body 
is much larger and rounder than in the trotting horse. 
The loin must be wide, short and thick, since all the force 
exerted by the hind meml)ers must pass through the loin. 
In a powerful draft horse the distance from the chest to 
the ground should not be greater than half the height of 
the horse. In trotting and running horses this distance 
may be 2 to 4 inches greater than that from the chest to 
the withers. This is a very important factor in the rela- 
tive power and speed of the horse. All horses should 
have well-sprung ribs, which are wide apart and extend 
well back so as to make the flank narrow and low. The 



1 ■'^, ? -^ 




Three \Vhi-,.-Bub.i.L. L)RAi t H>^.xo^c^. 

Note the width and depth of the bodies. They show great force and power. The 
legs are no longer than the body is deep. 


main point of beauty in the back is that it be straight, 
neither convex (arched) nor concave (sway-backed). 

9. Croup. — The croup is the region above a line from 
the haunch to the point of the buttock. In draft horses 
this region should be wide, relatively steep and, includ- 
ing the buttocks, heavily muscled. Watch a draft horse 
pull, and it will be noticed that he places his croup in a 
relatively vertical position. This is an aid to power. A 
horizontal croup, on the other hand, is better for speed. 
The legs are longer in a horse of the same height. The 
step is longer while the body is projected in a more hori- 
zontal direction. While relatively steep shoulders and 
steep croup are conducive to power, many draft horses 
are so defective in speed that horses with more sloping 
shoulders and horizontal croup are often preferred. 

10. Hind legs. — Can you imagine yourself standing 
upon the end of your middle toe? That is what a horse 
does. Referring to paragraph 5, the pastern ; k corre- 
sponds to the toe; the fetlock, j, to the ball of the foot; 
the hock, j, to the heel ; the leg, h i, to your shin bone ; 
the stifle, h, to the knee ; while the thigh, g h, is hidden 
beneath a mass of muscles. The thigh is attached to the 
croup at p- by a ball and socket 

joint. The hind legs are the great- 
est agent in pulling. This kind of 
a joint enables the animal to exert 
more power than would be possi- 
ble if attached only by muscles, as 
in the case of the shoulders. 

11. Cannons. — The front can- 
nons are 9 to 10 inches long, while 
the hind cannons are about two 

• ^1 I „ TT „ 1 Draft horse with a croup that is 

mcheS longer. Horses whose too steep even for a draft horse. 



knees and hocks are close to the ground are fitted for 
draft, while running horses have their knees and hocks 

relatively high from the 
ground. The principal re- 
quirement of the cannons is 
that they should l)e perfectly 
vertical. This is especially 
true of the front cannons. To 
be kneesprung, or over on 
the knees, is a particularly 
bad fault. 

Draft horse with a good croup 

There is a saying that horses 
should have a flat bone, meaning 
that the cannons should have a 
long diameter from front to back. 
This flatness is not due to the shape of the cannon bone but is due 
to the position of the tendon. The farther the tendons are detached 
from the bone the flatter the cannon appears and the greater the 
ease with which the bone can maintain a standing position. 

12. Joints. — All joints, such as knees, fetlocks, elbows 
and hocks, are like the hinges on the barn door. They 
should be proportionate to the size of the object 
to be moved. The knees and the hocks are made 
up of a collection of bones, some above the others, 
in such a manner as to take up the 
concussion when the animal is mov- 
ing. The larger the area of these 
joints the less the concussion to the 
square inch. In general, rather prom- 
inent, lean, well-defined joints are de- 
sirable. They should be free from 
puffiness, blemishes or other evidence 
of disease. 

13. Hocks. — In many ways the 
most important joint in the horse is front and rear 

^111 -n 'j^ ' j^ j^ 1 ^1 Showing how a horse 

the hock. Because it is apt to be the should stand. 



weakest point in the horse, the ultimate speed and power 
is often dependent upon the shape and soundness of this 
region. One must learn to recognize the shape of a sound 
hock in order to recognize spavin or curb. The angle 
that the leg makes with the cannon is greater in running 
and driving horses than in draft horses. This means that 
the depth of the hock from front to rear is greater in draft 
horses than in those for speed. In like manner the thigh 
of the draft horse is more horizontal than in driving horses. 
Such a condition gives 
greater power, but short- 
ens the step. 

14. Feet. — It is the front 
feet that require the most 
attention. It is seldom 
that there is anything seri- 
ously wrong with the hind 
feet of a horse, except 
through accident. The 
front feet should be round 
and of equal size. The 
horn should be dense in 
texture and dark in color. 
The sole should be con- 
cave, the bars strong, and 
the frog large and elastic. The heel should be one-half 
the length of the toe and approximately vertical. In 
comparison with the front feet, the hind feet should be 
more oval, the bottom more concave, the heels higher 
and more separated. The walls of the foot should be 
more vertical. 

15. Attitudes. — When a boy sits upon a one-legged 
milk stool, he balances with the least effort when the bot- 
tom of the leg is directly under the top. This is equally 

Good and Diseased Hocks 

Normal, healthy hock at left; diseased hock, 
the result of bone spavin, at right. 



true whether the leg happens to be straight or crooked. 
The properly formed horse stands with the least effort 
when each foot is directly under the point of attachment 
with the body. Whether this requirement is met may be 
determined in the following manner: The point of the 
shoulder, the middle of knee and the point of the toe 
should be in a vertical line when viewed from the front. 
The distance between the front feet should then be equal 
to the width of either foot. In heavy horses this distance 
is apt to be greater and in light horses less. Viewed from 

Position of Hind Legs and of Forelegs 

Front and hind legs: 1, as it should be; 2, feet too far under; 3, feet too far out. 
Both 2 and 3 positions are objectionable. 

the side, the center of the elbow, the middle of the knee 
and the pastern should be in a vertical line, which when 
extended passes in the rear of the foot. A plumb line 
dropped from the point of the buttock should just touch 
the hock and extend parallel to the hind cannon. The 
distance part of the hind feet should be about equal to 
the width of the hock. Such a horse is said to have a cor- 
rect attitude. 


1. Age of a Horse Determined by the Teeth. — At eight to 10 
months of age the milk teeth of the foal are complete. The shedding 
of the milk teeth and the beginning of the permanent set occur 
between 2^^ and 3 years of age, the permanent set being complete 
between 4^ and 5 years. Between five and 10 years it is possible 
to determine the age with considerable accuracy from a study of the 
front teeth of the lower and upper jaws. These teeth undergo 
changes due to form and wearing. The determination by years 
may be made as follows : 

a. At three years. — Two or three months under three years, the 
permanent pair of center nippers replaces the milk or baby colt teeth. 
At three years they are ready for use. These teeth are larger dian 
the milk teeth and have deep cups in their middles. 

h. At four years. — Two or three months under four years, the 
next or intermediate pair of permanent nippers replaces ihe inter- 
mediate pair of milk teeth. At four years these are ready for use. 
Some wear is shown on the center pair and the cups are partly worn 

e. At Five Years. — The mouth is full and dentition complete. 

d. At Six Years. — The cups in the center pair in the lower jaw 
have disappeared, or very nearly so. Some wear is shown in the 
corner nippers. 

e. At Seven Years. — The cups in the two teeth next to the center 
pair in the lower jaw have disappeared. Those of the corner teeth 
are quite shallow also. 

f. At Eight Years. — The cups of the six teeth or nippers of the 
lower jaw have disappeared. The cups still show in the upper jaw. 

g. At Nine Years. — The cups of the center teeth in the upper jaw 
have disappeared. 

//. At Ten Years. — The cups of the two teeth next to the center 
pair of the upper jaw have disappeared. 

i. At Eleven Years. — The cups of the corner and remaining teeth 
of the upper jaw have disappeared. No cups now show in any of 
the teeth. 

Note. — Often, due to denser bone, the cups occasionally wear un- 
til the twelfth year or longer. Other ch:;nges in the teeth are taken 
in consideration by experts, but these are too complicated to de- 
scribe here, and are understood only after long experience and 




2. Members. — Place pieces of numbered paper on the various 
regions, such as shoulder, arm, elbow, forearm, knee, cannon, fet- 
lock, pastern and hoof. Require each student to write the name of 
each region and name the corresponding region in his own body. 

3. Relative Weight. — Place the front feet on a pair of scales 
and obtain the weight. Then place the hind feet where the front 
ones were, and vice versa. Be careful to have feet as nearly as 
possible in the same place; then weigh. If carefully done, the com- 




1 ^ ^ 



















1 Lip 

2 Nostril 

3 Forehead 

4 Poll 

5 Cheek 

6 Ear 

7 Mane 

8 Neck 

9 Shoulder 

10 Point of shoulder 

11 Breast 

12 Forearm 

Points of the Horse 

13 Arm 

14 Knee 

15 Cannon 

16 Fetlock 

17 Pastern 

18 Foot 

19 Withers 

20 Back 

21 Side 

22 Underline 

23 Flank 

24 Croup 

25 Tail 

26 Haunch 

27 Thigh 

28 Stifle 

29 Hock 

30 Point of hock 

31 Cannon 

32 Foot 

33 Coronet 

34 Fetlock 

35 Pastern 

bined weights should equal the total weight of the horse. It is 
difficult to get this result exactly becau^.e of the more or less con- 
stant movement of the head and the internal organs. It will be 
sufficiently accurate, however, to show that a horse supports ap- 
proximately five-ninths of its weight through its front members 
and four-ninths through the hind ones. This is one reason why 
more trouble occurs in the front than in the hind feet. 


4. Gaits. — Take one or more horses and cause them to walk, trot 
and gallop. Try to follow the movement of the feet as explained in 
paragraphs 9, 10 and 12 of Lesson XI. Also note the difference 
in the regularity and elasticity with which different horses execute 
the same gait. Observe them from front, side and rear. 

5. Attitudes. — Secure one or more plumb bobs or pieces of lead 
attached to a stout cord 5 feet long. Place the cord at the point 
of the shoulder, and note whether it divides the knee into two halves 
and falls at the point of the toe. Determine whether the distance 
between the two front feet is equal to the width of either foot. 

Drop the plumb line from the center of the elbow, and note whether 
fore arm and cannon are vertical, as indicated by cord bisecting 
knee and fetlock and falling just behind the heel. Measure the dis- 
tance between the point of the shoulder and the front of the elbow. 
Locate a point half way between. The plumb bob dropped from 
this point should be in line with the center of the foot. Drop to 
plumb bob from the point of the fetlock and note whether hock and 
fetlock are adjacent to cord, making cannon vertical. Measure dis- 
tance between hind feet and determine how nearly the measurement 
corresponds to the width of the hock. If the hind feet are too far 
under the horse, too much of the weight is placed upon the hind 
members. This is especially bad for the hocks. If the front feet 
are under too much, weight is thrown upon them, causing them to 
wear out sooner. If a horse stands with his front feet too far 
forward, it may indicate he is lame in one or both front feet. 

6. Form. — There are several regions of the body which in an 
ideal prize-winning animal should be equal to the length of the 
horse's head. Have students take these measurements on one or 
more horses, as follows : 

Length of head . 

Length of neck . 

Length of shoulder . 

From back angle of shoulder to hip . 

From point of hock to ground . 

There are three measurements in the horse that should be the 
same in horses of good conformation, and each two and one-half 
times the length of the head. Have measurements taken as follows : 

Height at withers . 

Height at croup . 

From point of shoulder to buttock . 

In draft horses the tendency is for the length to be greater than 
the height, while in running horses the height may be greater than 
the length. 

7. Selecting Horses. — Secure not less than three nor more than 
five horses of any one type or breed. Have each student place the 
horses in the order of merit for the pu.oose for which they are in- 
tended. Give reasons based upon the discussion in the text. Any 
special defects or unsoundness should be noted. 


1. Ancestry 

2. Early qualities retained 

3. Oriental horses 

4. American trotters 

5. American saddle horses 

6. The Hackney 

7. The French Coach horses 

8. German Coach horses 

9. Cleveland Bays 

10. The Percheron 

11. Clydesdales 

12. Belgian Draft 

13. English Shire 

14. The Suffolk Punch 

15. Ponies 

Note to the Teacher. — Try to see the purpose in breed 
development. The pony is small because of cold, tem- 
pestuous climates and limited food; the draft breeds 
descended from the big horse stock of northern Europe, 
where food was rich and luxuriant and the great out-of- 
doors mild and invigorating; and the lighter breeds from 
the regions wdiere stamina and endurance were most 
highly appreciated. Thus ancestry has been used as 
foundation, and selection, training and purpose as the 
building material for the superstructure of every breed. 



1. Ancestry. — Recently unearthed skeletons reveal the 
fact that at one time horses lived in North America as 
well as Europe and Asia. When America was discovered 
no horses were in existence here. It is from the vast high- 
lands of northern Asia, where the tempests rage and man 
can scarcely live, that the ancestral modern horse has 
come. At first they were sought for food ; then subse- 
quently they we^-e captured alive and herded in inclosures 
like cattle, where they were trained for either riding or 
draft. Mare's milk is now, but was more so in the past, 
prized as food. It is greatly esteemed as cheese or whey 
among the Tartars. 

Wild horses have always been terrorized by wild beasts. They 
early learned to perceive at great distance their natural enemies. 
On approach of such their quick ears pricked, a short neigh sounded, 

Wild Horses Still Kxist 

Here are pictured three wild horses of Central Asia. It is believed that in this 
region the only genuine wild horses are now to be found. In a wild state these 
animals are timid and difficult to approach, but when confined they gradually as- 
sume the confidence of domesticated horses. 



and the horde dashed away with the speed of the wind. Man was 
as much feared by them as other strange life, because their flesh 
made dehghtful dishes for their half-wild people. And here we 
come upon the great natural motive, the hrst cause of the drawing 
together of man and animals— hunger and its satisfying. When the 
horse was ridden for the first time speed was impressed on man so 
firmly that horse and speed soon became synonymous. 

2. Early qualities retained. — Of the principal and best 
qualities of those wild and ancestral horses two still re- 
main — speed and strength. These qualities, which served 
them once for flight, are now employed in the service of 
humanity. A third quality of almost equal importance 
is endurance. The first two, under the guiding hand of 
man in training and breeding, has steadily increased. It 
is possible that, in the freedom from danger and the less 
severe environment under which they are now allowed to 
live, that horses do not possess the endurance they once 
possessed. Yet some of the races are still remarkable in 
this respect. They possess remarkable enduring powers 
and quickly recuperate after even the most fatiguing 

3. Oriental horses. — Every important modern breed 



has been influenced, directly or indirectly, by the blood 
of the original races, especially the Oriental. A few of 
these, known as Arabian blood, were fundamentally used 
in crossing with the native mares of western Europe. 
From these beginnings, with subsequent crosses, various 
breeds were evolved. But the Arabian blood v/as not 
without great influence. As early as the days of the 
Crusades, Arabian horses had been brought to England 
and there used in the improvement of the horse stock. 
The English Thoroughbred is the result of such crosses. 
Although several original races were used to produce the 
Thoroughbred, the Oriental predominates. 

The best known ancestors of the English Thoroughbred are 
Byerly Turk, Darley Arabian and Godolphin Barb, all taken from 
the east to the west. The modern Thoroughbred owes its great- 
ness to English breeders and not to Arab breeders. These horses 
are primarily famous as racers or running horses. Their chief 
qualities are rapid gait and staying power. In form and every 
action a noble origin is revealed. The Thoroughbred has a small, 
refined head ; a delicate, long neck ; keen and intelligent eyes ; skin 
and hair so fine that the veins show through them ; broad chest ; 
long and robust back and straight croup; and long, lean, delicate 
legs with hard tendons and solid hoofs. Although Arabian blood 
did much to improve the Thoroughbred, it has been the blood of 
the pure English breeding that has been sought and used in the 
production of other modern breeds. 

American Trotting Horses 
The horse at the left is Uhlan, the world's fastest trotting horse. 


4. American trotters. — The most remarkable of all 
horses, the Amcrcan trotter, has been improved and de- 
veloped for a special purpose — speed. This breed is a de- 
scendant of the English Thoroughbred. They have long, 
sloping shoulders, strong backs, horizontal croups, clean 
and fine-boned legs and good feet. In color they show 
great variety. The pacers belong to this breed, their dis- 
tinction resting on a style of gait and not in characteris- 
tics. Some individuals of this breed both trot and pace. 
The most notable families among the trotters and pacers 
are the following : Hambletonian, Mambrino, Pilot, Clay 
and Morgan. 

One hundred years ago there was no authentic record of any 
horse going faster than one mile in less time than two and three-quar- 
ters minutes ; today we have records for one mile in both trotting 
and pacing in less than two minutes. Some very distinguished indi- 
viduals of this breed are the following : Maud S, 2.0834 ,* Nancy 
Hanks, 2.04; Cresceus, 2.02^4; The Harvester 2.01; Low Dillon, 
1.58J/2 ; and Uhlan, 1.54, among the trotters. Hal Pointer, 2.05^ ; 
Star Pointer, 1.59>4; Minor Heir, 1.59; and Dan Patch, 1.55^, 
among the pacers. 

5. American saddle horses. — Horses of this breed are 
intended primarily for riding, either for business, exer- 
cise or sport. Their development has occurred largely in 
Kentucky, Virginia and Tennessee. Thoroughbred blood, 

mingled with that of good 
riding stock, has been re- 
sponsible for this race. 
These horses have elegance 
and style, as shown in their 
step and in the carriage of 
head and neck. While no 
uniformity of color is ob- 
served, bay, brown and 
chestnut are most common. 
s.oDL. TYPE All good saddle horses are 



able to walk, trot and canter with ease and distinction. 

In addition to these gaits some riding horses have been 

educated to take the gaits known as the rack, and either 

the running walk, fox trot or slow pace. 

6. The Hackney.— The 
Hackney originated in Eng- 
land from good driving 
mares bred to Thorough- 
bred stallions. The name 
comes from hack, originally 

meanmg any 

horse which 

English Piackney 

is suitable for hauling 
light carriages at a rather 
rapid pace. Modern Hack- 
neys have not been devel- 
oped to go fast, but to serve as heavy harness horses of 
great style. The walking gait, with high knee action, 
is the technical conception of what these horses should 
be. Hackneys are not as angular as Thoroughbreds. 
They are also smoother; the neck is more arched, the 
chest fuller, the back shorter, the thighs better muscled 
than in the case of the Thoroughbred or trotter. The 
striking characteristic of these horses is the leg move- 
ments. They greatly flex 
their legs, the knees and 
hocks being raised to an ex- 
treme height. There is no 
fixed color of the breed, but 
bay, brown and chestnut 
are the most common. 
These horses are used 
chiefly as park animals and 
for driving in boulevards, 
where style and not speed 

is required. French Coach 


7. The French Coach horses. — As the name indicates, 
these horses are a French breed. They have resulted 
from crosses of the English Thoroughbred with the na- 
tive blood that came down from the rule of the Nor- 
mans. The French Coach is primarily a carriage horse, 
and as such enjoys great popularity in the land of his 
l)irth. He possesses all the necessary external qualities — 
height, massiveness and nobility of shape. The French 
government has for a long time encouraged the people 
to breed these horses and has assisted breeders in many 
ways. Chestnut, bay and brown are the leading colors. 

8. German Coach horses. 

^ — Germany is a land of 

^^^Bl many horses. In the south- 

^^^^^g^ ^^^ P^^t of that country the 

^j^^^^^tf^^^^K heavier draft horses pre- 

^^^^^^^I^B dominate, and in the north- 

^W^^^^^^^f ci"^ P^i't lifeht horses for 

m W saddle and harness mostly 

,^^gB|^^^^^^^^^^^. are found. Many of these 

l[|H|PPHHip||||HpP ' latter have been imported to 

our country. They are solid, 

Gera\an Coach . . ^ ' . •, r i i 

weighty animals oi noble 
form for carriage use. The head is well formed, the neck 
and shoulders handsome, the withers high, and the legs 
thickly muscled. They are very docile and fine in action. 
They are usually bay or brown in color. 

9. Cleveland Bays. — The good qualities of this English 
breed, becoming more widely known, led to the intro- 
duction of many of these horses to America. They be- 
long to a very old race, derived, probably, from an an- 
cient mixture of the native horse with Oriental blood. 
Animals of this race are well built, lively, vigorous, with 



Cleveland Bay 

Strong, lean legs. They at one time were much in de- 
mand for carriage and also for work horses. 

10. The Percheron. 

— There are several 
races of heavy horses 
in France, representa- 
tives of which have 
been imported to this 
country. The most 
popular of the heavy 
draft breeds of France 
is the group that takes 
the name from the 
Perche region between 
Normandy and the river Maine. The Percheron has a 
broad head, short and thick neck, with a heavy double 
mane, the withers low, the chest broad, cleft and pend- 
ant, the legs short and strong. These horses are espe- 
cially suited to draw, at a rather quick pace, moderately 
heavy loads, such as carts, trucks and farm tools and 
implements. Their docility, ease of acclimating and quick 
movement have made them the most popular draft breed 
in the United States. There is a constant demand for 
these horses. 

The French breeders have 
co-operated with great care in 
endeavor to develop this breed 
to still greater size. These 
horses are massive, heavily mus- 
cled and stand 16 hands or more 
high. They weigh from 1,600 to 
2,100 pounds. Up to recent 
years gray was the character- 
istic color, but black is now more 
in fashion. Bays and roans are 
not uncommon, and occasionally 
a bay or chestnut is seen. The 





legs are free from the long hairs or "feather," so conspicuous on 
some of the draft breeds. 

11. Clydesdales. — Th:s notable breed originated in the 
Valley of the Clyde in Scotland. The foundation stock 

was the "old black horse" of 
northern Europe. Years of 
selection and careful breed- 
ing under the local environ- 
ments gave rise to this dis- 
tinct breed of horses, weigh- 
ing from 1,600 to 1,800 
pounds. The prevailing col- 
ors are brov^n, bay or black, 
with a star or blaze, or other 
mark on the forehead, and 
they frequently have white feet. The breed produces 
excellent work horses. The hind quarters are well cov- 
ered with muscles and the legs and feet are good. Some 
say they have the best feet of any of the draft breeds. 
Considerable hair grows out from the back of the tendons 
of all four feet. They have a long stride and rapid walk. 

12. Belgian Draft.— 
Belgium is the country 
of the heaviest draft 
horses. Here they 
reach a giant size, 
weighing from 1,700 
to 2,500 pounds. These 
horses are renowned for 
developed muscles, fine 
shape and vast strength. 
The croup is powerfully 
developed, the legs rel- 
atively short, but the 




English Shire 

horses trot with ease. The breed is steadily gaining in 

popularity in the United States, and many fine specimens 

have been imported. The breed is characterized by great 

size, broad chest, short 

but wide back, deep body 

and heavy weight. The 

legs are free from long 

hair. Much variety is 

seen in color, although 

bay, brown, chestnut and 

roan are most in evidence. 

13. English Shire.— On 
the plains and in the fer- 
tile valleys of England 
there have been from time immemorial solid, heavy 
draft horses. The Shire is an ancient animal whose 
own blood has been mixed with that of other heavy races. 
His true cradle is the center of England. The race is dis- 
tinguished by its ponderous conformation, its fine shape, 
especially by the thick hair at the back of the leg, de- 
scending into long locks about the fetlock. They possess 
extraordinary strength, great height and excellent quali- 
ties for draft purposes. They are usually gray, black or 
bay in color. 

14. The Suffolk horse, commonly known as the Suffolk 
Punch, has come down from ancient times in the English 
county of that name. He is equally heavy and stout and 
enjoys great popularity because of his gentleness and the 
ease with which he lends himself to toilsome work, espe- 
cially farming. The Suffolk horse is well rounded, the 
legs are clean and the action brisk. The prevailing color 
is some shade of chestnut or sorrel. These horses vary 
from 1,500 to 2,000 pounds in weight. 


15. Ponies. — A great variety of ponies has been pro- 
duced in the mountainous parts of Great Britain. The 
Shetland ponies, coming from the islands of that name, 
are the most characteristic because they are the smallest. 
These little animals, sometimes less than three feet in 

height, are not only used in 

^^■n^ circuses, and as children's 

^^^^^^^^K^^^ playmates, but also in mines, 

M^^^^^^^^K where they draw the train 

JP^^Hm^F cars. Not infrequently, 

m^ ■ when once taken down in the 

■:M , If mine they never again see the 

Wm0tB^^ V - light of day. Some have lived 

15 years, stabled and fed un- 

5HETLAND Pony -^ ' 

derground. There are several 
other tribes of ponies named for the localities where they 
originate, such as Welsh, Exmoor, Dartmoor and the 
New Forest. 

The broncho ponies of the western plains are of Span- 
ish origin, and therefore are of Oriental blood. The polo 
pony is externally a Thoroughbred and descends from 
one, but by birth he is a half breed. His sire is usually 
a Thoroughbred, and his mother a common mare. 


1. A fundamental principle in horse feeding. 

2. Sound and wholesome food. 

3. Character of food. 

4. Requirements for work. 

5. Quantity may vary. 

6. Giving water. 

7. Order of hay, grain and water. 

8. Regularity in feeding and watering. 

9. Roughage feeds for horses. 

10. Balanced ration. 

11. Mettle of oats. 

12. When corn is fed. 

13. Other concentrates. 

14. Selecting the ration. 

15. Feeding mules. 

Note to the Teacher. — The entire anatomy and physi- 
ology of its digestive apparatus show that the food of the 
horse should be nutritious in quality, supplied frequently, 
and in comparatively small quantities. The amount and 
character of the food must vary with the size and con- 
stitution of the horse, the climate and season, the amount 
and kind of work required, and the section it lives in. 


1. A fundamental principle in horse feeding. — A rela- 
tively smaller quantity of roughage and a correspond- 
ingly larger amount of concentrates is advisable for 
horses than for bovines. The kind of work to which 
horses are put calls for the least possible load on the di- 
gestive organs, which, even in the heavy draft breeds, are 
small, and particularly the stomach. Hence the food of 
the horse should be nutritious in quality, be supplied fre- 
quently and in comparatively small quantities. 

2. Sound and wholesome 
food. — The food — and it may 
include a wide range of feed- 
ing materials — must be clean, 
wholesome and sound ; but be- 
yond this no specific rules can 
be laid down, except that, gen- 
erally speaking, reasonable at- 
tention should be given to the 
digestible nutrients, in that 
they should bear the proper 
proportion one to another. The 
amount and character of the food must vary with the size 
of the horse, the purpose for which it is used, the climate 
and the season, and the section in which it is used. 

3. Character of food. — The horse feeds on a wider 
range of food substances than is popularly supposed. In 
Arabia, where stamina and sinew are famous, the prin- 
cipal food is barley and scant herbage ; in Ireland it is 
dried fish mainlv ; in England hav, oats and beans com- 

Stomach Capacity 

The principal reason why coarse 
foods may be used for cows but 
not for horses. 



prise the food supply largely ; on the continent of Europe, 
rye, barley and inferior wheat make up the grain portion 
of the rations ; while in this country many feeding stuffs, 
covering a wide range of roughage and grain, find their 
way into the feed mangers and satisfactorily keep the 
horse stock in health and vigor. 

It is not so much the kind of food, but the purity and character, 
that count. Moldy hay and grain cause many ills in the horse, and 
imperfect methods of preparation and curing have cast an odor of 
unpopularity on many meritorious feeds that, if properly handled, 
would be eagerly sought because of their ease of production or rela- 
tively less cost when compared with the standard horse feeds of 
each particular section. 

Farm Horses at Work in the Field 

Their feed consisted of corn, bran and oil meal for grain, and timothy and clover 
hay mixed for roughage. 

4. Requirements for work. — Naturally the work de- 
manded of a horse will influence the choice and amount of 
food. The race horse or the roadster, fed on coarse rough- 
age and little grain, will be greatly handicapped if in compe- 
tition with another supplied with nutritious and appetizing 
concentrates and but little of coarse fodder. In winter the 
draft horse can subsist readily on hay or fodder and little or 
no grain, providing the work is light and the hours of labor 



few. But this same horse, when put to hard labor in spring 
and summer, at plow, cultivator or harvester, will demand 
less hay and more grain, 

5. Quantity may vary. — Farm work usually is not of a 
strenuous nature, even in the busy season. On some days 
and during some periods the work is light, and not in- 
frequently there are many days of rest. At such times 
less food should be given, but the feeding should be done 
in such fashion as to keep the horse in good work form 
and in thrifty condition. 

Water at the Roadside 

A thoughtful and humane provision for the horse's com- 
fort that ought to be in greater use than it is. 

6. Giving water. — In a state of nature horses feed upon 
juicy herbage and drink at pleasure only pure water when 
that is available. No animal is more delicate and fas- 
tidious about its drink than the horse. Often these ani- 
mals will suffer agonies of thirst rather than quench it 
with impure, stale or tepid water. Water should be given 
frequently and in small quantities. 

Some horses require more water than others, the quantity varying 
with the nature and amount of the ration, the propensity to Sweat 
and the season of the year. In a test at the New Hampshire station 
the arnount of water drunk by five horses was recorded, showing 
a variation of from 25,895 pounds to 32,997 pounds in the course of 


a year. Stale or foul water from a neglected cistern is unfit for a 
horse and will be refused, except in case of extreme thirst or when 
no other kind is provided. 

The custom of not giving horses a drink during the forenoon or 
the afternoon when working in the field is frequently condemned but 
generally followed. In our larger cities horses are often never given 
water between morning and evening. This is cruel, of course. Good 
horsemen are more thoughtful of these dumb beasts. Not only 
should the horse be permitted to drink his fill at noon, but during 
hot weather, in the dusty fields, a cool drink should be provided 

7. Order of hay, grain and water. — Drinking water 
should be given at least three times a day to horses at 
rest, and more frequently when at work. Small quanti- 
ties of water may be given horses at work, even though 
they are hot and tired. When horses are at heavy work, 
their noon feed should consist largely of grain. After 
being watered, grain is fed and some ha}^ given. For 
the evening meal the grain should come first, and after 
a brief interval the hay. Usually hay and grain are 
given at the same time. A drink of water after feeding 
is both humane and desirable. 

8. Regularity in feeding and watering. — Whatever the 
system of feeding and watering, it should be strictly ad- 
hered to during the season. Habit is part of the ration. 
Water given one day before meals and the following day 
after meals is as unsatisfying to the horse as it would be 
to man. If accustomed to grain before hay at noon, there 
will be dissatisfaction if this procedure is reversed the 
following day. Drink and food should be given at about 
the same time each day. 

Not only does the animal know when to expect its grain and hay, 
but the animal system adjusts itself accordingly, and discomfort 
results if this order is not adhered to. This does not mean that a 
set scheme should be followed throughout the year, but rather fol- 
lowed during certain periods of the year when special work is per- 
formed. During the winter season when farm horses are not called 
to do strenuous or regular work, a different plan may be followed 
than that employed in the summer season, when every minute counts. 
But, winter or summer, a reasonable regularity should be required. 



9. Roughage feeds for horses. — Timothy hay, oats and 
corn are standard articles in horse rations, but many 
other grasses and legumes are equally available and 
equally satisfactory. The red and alsike varieties of 
clover, alfalfa and timothy are all good and may be fed 
in varying amounts. On some farms red clover hay is 
often the sole food of work horses durins: winter. It is 

Fattening Horses for Market 

These grade Percherons are ready for shipment, having been put in proper condi- 
tion for market. 

a balanced food in itself, but somewhat too bulky to be 
used exclusively when these same horses are put to heavv 
farm work. 

In the southern states. Bermuda. timoth\% cowpea hay, corn 
stover, the cereal hays, with or without vetch, and other legumes 
and grasses, admit of considerable choice and variety. Although 
crimson clover is frequently fed to horses, it is not a desirable 
roughage because of the fuzzy condition of the clover head. Fre- 
quently this fuzz curls up into balls, lodges in the intestinal organs, 
and causes digestive disorders and sometimes death. In the western 
states many of the cereal hays, brome grass, alfalfa, prairie hay, corn 
stover, timothy and the clovers are avr.ilable. These allow a wide 
range of roughage materials for horses. In every section millet 
grows well and is frequently fed. If cut and cured just as the first 
blossoms appear, a hay scarcely inferior to timothy is made. Over- 
ripe millet should not be fed to horses. 



10. Balanced ration. — It does not matter very much 
what kind of roughage is fed horses, providing the rough- 
age is well cured and free from dirt, and is wholesome. 
An important thing is to provide concentrates that will 
carry the nutrient or nutrients lacking in the roughage, 
but which are abundantly supplied in the concentrates. 
Thus, if legume hays are fed, the concentrates need not be 
high in protein, and if the roughage is of a carbonaceous 
nature, like timothy or corn stover, some concentrate like 
bran or oil meal should be introduced into the ration. 

11. Mettle of oats.— It 
was formerly thought that 
oats were indispensable for 
horses. There seems to be 
some constituent ' of this 
grain that gives mettle and 
energy. For horses of the 
roadster type and those 
where quick action is de- 
manded, oats should be, and 
no doubt will continue to be, 
a principal part of the ra- 
tion, but for farm work the 
value of oats perhaps has 
been overestimated. Many 
tests have been conducted 
in which various feeding 
stufifs have been compared, 
and the oats theory has been 
overthrown. It is not so much 
the kind of concentrate, but 
rather that the grain portion shall contain the digestible 
nutrients in the best balance, and that they be of an 
easily digestible nature. 

Bulk in Grain Ration 
Each pile contains the same amount 
of digestible nutrients. 1. Corn. 2. 
Corn meal. 3. Oats. 4. Ground oats. 
5. Corn and oats, half and half. 6. 
Corn meal and ground oats, half and 
half. 7. Corn meal, ground oats and 
wheat bran, equal parts. 


12. When corn is fed. — Indian corn shares with oats 
popularity as a horse food. Although a very concen- 
trated food it is deficient in muscle-forming elements. 
If fed in combination with timothy or corn stover, too 
little protein will be provided. Concentrates of a nitrog- 
enous nature, therefore, should be admitted to the 
ration. Oats then may be used, or bran, or the oil meals ; 
indeed, practically any commercial concentrated feed. 
Bran and oil meal are laxative, and are particularly good 
when succulence otherwise is not to be had. These may 
be given in small quantities daily, or fed in larger quanti- 
ties two or three times a week. Both are extremely valu- 
able articles for horses, and may be fed either dry or in 
mashes. When fed as mash once a week, night is the best 
time, preferably before a day of rest. 

13. Other concentrates. — Barley is a principal grain food 
for horses in many parts of the world. In some of the great 
breeding stables barley and oats are ground together in 
proportions varying with the season and fed to stallions 
and mares. Cottonseed meal is similar in its chemical 
composition to linseed meal, but is more highly concen- 
trated and contains more protein. It should be fed with 
caution, one or two pounds a day, and never to exceed 
three or four pounds. This concentrate is coming more 
and more into favor, but some horses seem never to 
learn to like it. It is more often used in rations for 
mules than for horses. 

The carrot is the root crop par excellence for the horse. It 
serves to cool the system and assists in the digestion of other food. 
Only a few roots should be fed at a time and two or three times 
weekly. Salt is wholesome and beneficial for horses, and attention 
should be given to this matter. An occasional feeding of salt is 
not desirable. Salt should be in rock form and placed where the 
horses can get it at all times. 

14. Selecting the ration. — In making up a ration for a 
horse the first point is to find out how much the horse 



will eat, the next is to regulate the ration according to the 

demand to be made upon the animal, whether the work 

is heavy or light, regular or irregular; then consider the 

feeding stuffs that are available ; and finally the season 

and the weather. 

The harder the work and the cokler 

the weather, the greater the propor- 
tion of carbohydrates required in the 
food. Be particular, however, to get 
enough protein, even though it neces- 
sitates the purchase of a concentrate, 
that the horse may get enough to 
meet the needs of the body machine 
and to secure the completest digestion 
of the other substances. 

15. Feeding mules. — There is 
a prevailing notion that mules 
eat less than horses. Riley, 
after a long experience with 
thousands of army mules, main- 
tains that "a mule requires just 
as much as horses of similar dimensions." In fact, at 
hard work, Riley says, ''the mule will eat more than the 
horse will or can." In general, an animal that eats little 
is a poor animal, regardless of its class or kind. The 
mule will manage to get along on poor feed given at 
irregular intervals, but this neglect will be manifested 
in its condition and efficiency. What has been said about 
feeding work horses applies to mules. 

Fine as a Fiddle 

This farm team was fed alfalfa, 
timothy, corn and oats — each a 
home-grown feed. 


1. The wild ass. 

2. Description. 

3. The domestic ass. 

4. Spanish jacks. 

5. Poitou jacks. 

6. Native jacks. 

7. Other breeds. 

8. The burro. 

9. The mule. 

10. Best types. 

11. Uses. 

12. Market classes. 

13. Disease immunity. 

14. Raising. 

15. Choosing- dams. 

Note to the Teacher. — The horse (cqiius caballas), the 
ass (cqiivs asinus), the zebra (cquus zebra) and the 
quagga (cquus quagga) are closely related. Their skele- 
tons when compared are not essentially different, show- 
ing that these four classes of animals are closely related 
and had the same ancestors. The mule is not only a most 
faithful beast, but can be used for certain kinds of work 
for which other work animals are not nearly so well 



1. The wild ass. — The ass and the horse in a wild 
state were not widely different. It is only when the 
domestic relations are reached that a divergence of char- 
acters exists, and these are more external than otherwise. 
In their wild state they live in herds and wander to and 
fro, gathering- their food regardless of quality or scanty 
herbage. Under domestication they submit to the worst 
forms of drudgery, but in a wild state are distinguished 
by an inborn love of freedom. Job excellently describes 
him : 

"Who hath sent out the wild ass free? Or who hath loosed the 
bands of the wild ass? Whose house I have made the wilderness, 
and the barren land his dwellings. He scorneth the multitude 
of the city, neither regardeth he the crying of the driver. The range 
of the mountains is his pasture, and he searcheth after every green 

2. Description. — Compared with the domestic ass, the 
wild ass is taller, more active, is more solidly built, and 
is capable of enduring great fatigue. He drinks salt or fresh 
water, and eats bitter herbs, weeds 

and tough grasses, even when 
other pasturage is available. In 
color, they are grayish. In winter 
the coat gets very heavy and takes 
on a fleecelike appearance which 
changes in summer to soft, silky 
hair. Their sharp eyes and quick, 
keen ears enable them to detect 
the approach of an intruder or 
enemy at great distances away. ^^^^ ^^ j^^^ 




3. The domestic ass. — Under domestication the ass 
has become the donkey drudge of mankind. Although 
obstinate and provoking, he does work that other ani- 
mals would soon perish in 
doing, or in performing cer- 
tain labors that no other 
beast of burden could with 
safety be intrusted. His foot- 
ing is so firm and sure and 
his back so strong and untir- 
ing that he and his kind have 
largely displaced all other 
living carriers in mountain- 
ous countries for the trans- 
portation of merchandise. 

He is also an excellent riding animal. In many parts of 
Europe, Asia and Africa he is held in high favor as a 
driving animal for private carriages and as riding steeds 
for men and women. 

4. Spanish jacks. — The Andalusians come from Spain, 
where the breed originated. The color is gray, frequently 
white. They stand 14 to 15 hands 

high and have fine legs with large 
bone. The Catalonian stands 
about 15 hands and has a good, 
clean bone. They are black in 
color, with white points, and very 
popular because of their fine style 
and action. These qualities give 
the breed a high standing. 

5. Poitou jacks. — This French 
breed has by merit alone taken 
a high place among breeders. The 
head is a little large, the mouth is (..atmoman jack 



small, the tail short, the chest broad and all the joints 
large. The hair generally is fine and silky. Draft mares 
bred to this jack produce excellent mules of striking size 
and quality. 

6. Native jacks. — Many ex- 
perienced breeders prefer the 
native jacks to any of the im- 
ported breeds. This is because 
of the large size, greater weight 
and larger bone that have been 
developed after several genera- 
tions of feeding on blue grass 
and other foods grown on lime- 
stone soils. While all colors are native jack 
found, breeders prefer black with white points. Colts 
from native jacks are stronger, with better body and 
more length than those from imported jacks. 

7. Other breeds. — The Maltese breed comes from the 
island of Malta. The jacks are small, seldom standing 
over 14 hands. They, have good color and fine bone, and 
while much liked for riding and driving, they are too 
small for farm breeding. The Italian jacks are smaller 
than the Maltese, 13 to 14 hands high. They are black 
or gray in color. The Majorca jack is the largest of the 
imported breeds. Mature individuals stand over 16 
hands. They are heavy and rather coarse. The head and 
ears are large. 

8. The burro. — The pony of the jack tribe is the burro, 
a descendant of the jacks brought to this country by 
the earliest Spanish settlers. Its hair is shaggy, usually 
of mouse color, although this may vary from white to 
black. The neck is very thick, and, in proportion to the 
rest of the body, is enormous. These beasts are very 
popular in mountainous regions. They carry large 


loads on their backs, and move slowly and patiently, 
but with great sureness of foot over the narrow, dan- 
gerous, rocky passes. Many of these animals are used 
in mines, where they perform steady service for a great 
many years. 

Burro at Work 

These little beasts, while not in general use on farms, are willing workers and 
never complain at any task to which they may be put. 

9. The mule. — The mule is a hybrid, not a breed. It is 
a mongrel product, having a jack for sire and a mare 
for dam. If the breeding is reversed, the product is 
known as a hinny, but this is always inferior to the first- 
named cross. The mule is tall and strong, corresponding 
to the horse in height and in the shape of the neck, 
shoulders and body, while the form of his head, his long 
ears, his t hin, wiry legs and narrow hoofs are the in- 
heritance of his father, tlie ass. The mule has better style 
and finish and better bone than the hinny and greater 
size. Hinnies, while homelier in appearance, are never- 



Span of Prize Mules 

theless faithful workers and are able to endure work and 
to labor under the most trying hardship. 

10. Best types. — The mules in greatest favor are those 
that most nearly approach the horse type and follow 

closely in all points of 
symmetry of form. 
Compared with the 
horse, the body is more 
cylindrical and smaller. 
The mule markets de- 
mand a fine body on the 
mule, with bigness, but 
not paunchiness. They 
must have fine, hard 
legs and show action 
and power in every 
movement. Smooth, dense bones are desirable, as are also 
prominent tendons and well-developed muscles. Small 
feet are not wanted. 

11. Uses. — First and foremost the mule is a work ani- 
mal. In this respect he stands unsurpassed. He matures 
slowly but lives to great age. Trying heat in hot fields in 
summer affects the mule much less than the horse. These 
creatures stand rough weather better than horses. They 
are noted for their great vigor and little tendency to dis- 
ease. For severe road 
work, and for labor in cot- 
ton and sugar fields and in 
the mines, they are with- 
out a rival. They are con- 
sidered indispensable for 
many kinds of army work. 

12. Market classes. — 
The market grades of farm-rmsed mule 


mules are as follows : (1) Sugar mules, (2) cotton mules, 
(3) lumber mules, (4) general-purpose mules, and (5) 
mine mules. Of these, sugar, cotton and lumber mules 
command the highest prices. They must stand 15 to 17 
hands, be heavy boned, very rugged and have capacity 
for very hard work. Finish in body, good style in action, 
and considerable refinement about head, neck and legs 

Four Big Farm Mules at Work 
These mules have done severe farm work for years. They are as active as ever. 

give an added value. The general-purpose mule is used 
on the roads for heavy hauling, for railroad construction, 
farm work, and dray purposes in towns and cities. This 
class is a regular competitor of the draft horse and by 
many is preferred. The mine mules are small, often no 
more than 10 or 11 hands. They are chunky, hardy, and 
have heavy bone. They must have the capacity for long, 
steady pulls and to bear heavy loads. 

13. Disease immunity. — AMiile mules are subject to 
disease and bone troubles, they are unquestionably har- 



dier and healthier than the horse under adverse condi- 
tions. Many of the common ailments of the horse never 
affect the mule at all ; and when affected v^ith certain ail- 
ments, mules more quickly recover and appear to be less 
disabled during the course of the disease. 

14. Raising. — Mule colts 
are less troublesome in rais- 
ing than horse colts and 
therefore the expense is less. 
It takes less time to prepare 
mule colts than horse colts 
for the market. They are 
also in demand at any 
period. When quality and 
condition are considered, 
mule colts uniformly com- 
mand higher prices than 
ordinary draft colts of the 
same age and quality. There is less risk in bringing a 
mule colt to a salable age than a horse colt. The steps 
in raising are similar to those for raising other colts. 
Nutritious, appetizing food is essential for size and 

15. Choosing dams. 

— The best dams are 
those of good confor- 
mation and otherwise 
sound and in good 
health. The ideal type 
is a draft mare pos- 
sessed of good length 
and well-rounded bar- 
rel. Her head must be ^^^^ colt and dam 

Jack Colt 
Fifteen months old. 


clean and fine, her neck of approved proportions, her 
chest broad, her hips wide. With these must go good 
bearing, finished style and improved breeding. The size 
of the dam influences the size of the mule colt. Large, 
hardy and healthy mares of the draft breeds v^^ill make 
good and satisfactory mule mothers. While color is a 
secondary point, bay, black, brown or chestnut mares are 


1. Judging Draft Horses. — Provide two or more typical draft 
horses. Use the score card below, which contains all important 
points of the draft horse and their relative values in judging work. 

Score Card for Draft Horses 

Scale of Points 

l-c o 


General Appearance: 

Height — estimated ; actual 

Weight — estimated ; actual 

Form — low, blocky, massive 

Quality — fine h^ir and skin 

Action — smooth step; quick movement; regular walk and trot 

Attitude — stands straight and square 

Disposition — docile, friendly 

Temperament — agreeable, no look of stupidity 

Head and Neck: 

Head — lean, wide forehead 

Muzzle— fine, nostrils large, lips thin, teeth sound 

Eyes — intelligent, bright, big 

Ears — short and clean and directed forward 

Neck — well muscled, short, thick, rather horizontal 

Forequarters : 

Shoulders — good length, rather upright 

Knees — clean, wide and deep 

Cannons — straight up, lean and wide, fine tendons 

Fetlocks — wide, thick and free from puffs 

Pasterns — angle 45 degrees, medium length 

Feet — round, even, sole concave; frog large and elastic 


Chest — wide and deep, showing long capacity and strength . . 

Withers — clean, broad 

Breast — broad and muscular 

Ribs — long and round 

Back — straight, short, muscular 

Loin — wide, short, thick, well joined to hips 

Underline — low flank 

Hindquarters : 

Hips — -wide, level, smooth 

Thighs — muscular, thick 

Hocks — clean cut, deep, wide and broad 

Cannons— larger than front legs, otherwise like them 

Fetlocks — as front ones 

Pasterns — straighter than front 

Feet — solid, more oval than front, heels higher 

Tail — carried up, long and full 






2- Judging Driving and Trotting Horses. — Provide two or more 
light horses and use the score card until all the points are fixed in 
mind and their relative values memorized. 

Score Card for Driving Horses 



Scale of Points 





A. General Appearance: 

Weight — estimated; actual 

Height — estimated ; actual 

Form — long, deep chested, lithe and long muscles 

Quality — neat, clean, fine hair, mellow skin, clean bone 

Action — smooth, regular, walk, trot, rapid 

Attitude — stands straight and square 

Disposition — active, but kindly 

Temperament — bright look, intelligent interest 

B. Head and Neck: 

Head — wide forehead, lean 

Muzzle — large nostril, thin lips, sound teeth 

Eyes — bright, big and prominent 

Ears — medium size, alert 

Neck — somewhat long, refined 

C. Forequarters : 

Shoulders — long, smooth and slanting 

Knees — wide in front, deep through and broad 

Cannons — short, straight, fine tendons 

Fetlocks — wide, thick, no puffs 

Pasterns — strong, 45 degrees shank 

Feet, medium size, sloping; frog large and elastic 

D. Body: 

Chest — deep, making large girth 

Withers — muscular, well-set back 

Breast — high and projecting 

Ribs — long and round 

Back — strong and muscular 

Loin — -wide, short, thick, neatly fitted to hips 

Underline — long and well down in flank 

E. Hindquarters : 

H'ps — smooth, rather wide and level 

Thighs — long, muscular, well muscled quarters 

Hocks — wide, deep, broad, clean cut 

Cannons — straight, fine tendons, longer than front 

Fetlocks; — as for front legs 

Pasterns — as for front but straighter up 

Feet — solid, more oval than front, heels higher 

Tail — covered well up, full , 



1. Their contribution. 

2. Two types of cattle. 

3. Milk-yielding function. 

4. Indications of milky tendencies. 

5. Beef cattle different. 

6. The beef type. 

7. Best beef cuts. 

8. As producers of human food. 

9. Two individuals compared. 

10. What influences milk formation. 

11. How often to milk. 

12. What age of cow is best? 

13. Quality of milk. 

14. Quantity of milk. 

15. Cow comfort. 

Note to the Teacher. — As a work animal the cow and 
her kind are no longer of great importance in the United 
States. The demand for beef and dairy products has 
forced each individual to do a specific kind of work and 
to do that work well. All things considered, this race has 
been the most useful of all domesticated animals in man's 
welfare. The battle from now on will be the survival of 
the fittest in the production of mrat or dairy products. 



1. Their contribution. — The cow and her kind con- 
tribute more to man's welfare than any other domestic 
animal. ''She gives us milk, our most important food, 
to drink ; she provides us with butter and cheese, both 
wholesome and rich in food nutriments; her flesh enters 
largely into our dietaries; the leather made of her hide 
covers our feet and provides us with necessities and 
luxuries in other directions ; and finally her bones, blood 
and offal fertilize our gardens and fields." 

In addition to food and protection their labor has made the earth 
to yield forth generous harvests. The first crooked stick used as a 
plow was fastened to the horn of a bull and not to a leather thong 
attached to the shoulder of a horse. Horses when first domesti- 
cated were used to ride, not to work. The cow labored in the fields 
to raise vegetable products, yielded up her milk at night time to give 
drink and when needed submitted her carcass as flesh for food. 

2. Two types of cattle. — Cattle are raised either for the 
milk or the flesh stored up in their bodies as meat. This 

An Odd Team in Germany 


gives rise to two classes — milk cows and beef cattle. The 
milkers may be used after a time for beef, but if long 
used as milk producers little is expected of them as pro- 
ducers of beef. The most generous milkers during their 
careers give out their food forces so abundantly, that 
as old age approaches, there is little lef^, either of nerve 
force or flesh. The cows kept 
for the shambles render their 
service by storing abundant fat 
on their sides and much lean 
meat on their backs and loins. 
This flesh is solid and elastic, 
mellow and yet firm. ^The ten- 
der flesh for meat is 'found on ^^'^^ Versus beef 

,1 J. r ,A . 1 Two kinds of cattle in outline, 

those parts of the steer where contrast the two as to type and 

there was the least movement '^^^''^'^^^''• 

during its life, as, for instance, the loii-^ and the sides. 

The parts of least value are about the head, neck and legs. 

3. Milk-yielding function. — Before men were inter- 
ested in cattle breeding as a primary work there was no 
large production of milk by any single individual. It 
was only expected that a cow yielded milk enough for 
the nourishment of her new-born calf until it might be 
able to support itself. The large production of dairy 
cows today is an artificial development. During the 
lapse of centuries, cows were saved for the dairy because 
of their tendency to give much milk, or to give milk of a 
rich quality. The milk-yielding capacity of breeds was 
not achieved in one generation or in five ; it is the outcome 
of many centuries. Once this quality becomes the habit 
of the breed or the family or the individual, it cannot be 

4. Indications of milky tendencies. — To the practical 
eye there are several indications of the milky tendencies 



Dairy Type 
Contrast with beef type on page 163. 

in dairy cows. These are known to be the wedgelike 
shape of the body when observed from the front, side 
or rear; the wide spacing of the eyes; the fine, narrow 
forequarters and broad, spacious hindquarters; the 

springing ribs, long and 
wide apart ; the refined 
feminine countenances ; 
the hair, silklike and 
smoothly laid on the 
skin, which itself is 
fine, mellow and soft to 
the touch. In addition 
to these characteristics 
the stomach should be 
prominent, the udder 
large and not flabby or fleshy, with medium large teats, 
evenly set ; and extending forward along the abdomen 
should be strong, tortuous milk veins, which, carried in- 
ternally, are admitted by means of large milk wells. The 
dairy cow is angular, lithe, thin ; she gives ofif the nutri- 
ment of her food as milk and does not lay it on her 
skeleton as fat or flesh. She is a dairy philanthropist ; 
she gives away the product she manufactures. 

5. Beef cattle different. — On the other 
hand beef animals are meat misers. They 
hold fast to the assimilated products of 
their food. On the several parts of their 
sturdy frames they store fat and protein 
as if they were providing for rainy days 
or for times when the food years might 
be lean. Unlike their dairy cousins, they 
supply only small quantities of milk, or 
milk with little butter fat in it. The pro- 
duction of milk is onlv an incident: thev »,,„ ^, ^^,,,„ 

' •' KEAR OF STtfcR 


as follows : Protein, 1.1 pounds ; fat, 9.5 ; mineral mat- 
ter, 0.2; or a total of 10.8 pounds. Considering the 
amount of food required to yield 20 pounds of milk daily 
and two pounds of beef increase daily, the dairy cow 
not only supplies more human food each day, but does 
it a great deal more economically. This is one reason 
why dairying as a business is steadily increasing and 
beef production is in some sections on a decline. 

9. Two individuals compared. — At one experiment sta- 
tion the entire body of a fat steer that weighed 1,250 
pounds was analyzed. It contained 700 pounds of 
water, 172 of protein, 333 pounds of fat and 43 pounds 
of mineral matter. The total amount of dry substance 
in the steer was 548 pounds. These facts are particu- 
larly interesting when compared with the dry matter in 
the milk of a dairy cow that yielded 18,405 pounds of 
milk during the course of a year. In the cow's milk 
the following nutrients were determined : 552 pounds 
of protein; 618 pounds of fat; 920 pounds of sugar; and 
128 pounds of mineral matter, or a total of 2,218 pounds. 
This comparison shows that a cow of this production 
yields more than four times as much of the food nu- 
trients as a fat steer weighing 1,250 pounds. As a pro- 
ducer of human food the cow, next to the hen, is the most 
efficient of all domestic animals. 

10. What influences milk formation. — The milk 
formation is hereditary to a certain extent. Certain 
breeds and certain strains of these breeds possess the 
ability to yield much milk and to transmit this character- 
istic to their offspring. Other breeds yield very little 
milk, and no manner of care or feeding will largely in- 
crease the amount or change the character of its quality. 
To the former belongs the dairy races, and to the latter 
the beef races. Cows possessed of beef tendencies are 



of small merit in the dairy herd. In many dairy herds 
there are cows that are useless as milk producers. Their 
production returns in money are less than the cost of 
keeping them. By means of milk scales and the Babcock 
tester incompetent ones may be determined and dis- 

11. How often to milk. — The custom of milking twice 
a day has become fixed, and no marked advantage is 
secured when the number of milkings is increased. Ex- 
perience and repeated tests show that three milkings a 
day increase the amount of milk secured less than 7 per 
cent. Considering the extra labor involved, the extra 
milk obtained by three milkings will not repay the cost 

and trouble. 

12. What age of cow is 
best? — The formation of 
milk is closely associated 
with the birth of the off- 
spring. Milk increases for 
several months after calv- 
ing, and may abruptly or 
gradually decrease, as the 

i ^...uLi Dairy Queen ^ •' ' 

This is Sayda Queen of Vetmore. At 12 ^^^^ may be. As a rulc, 
years of age she gave 11,400 pounds of f^^*. inrrp;i^P'^ <;1icrht1v a«; \\\e 

milk and 809 pounds of butter. ^^^ mcredscs biigntiy as tnc 

lactation period advances. 
The young heifer generally will give increasing amounts 
of milk with each succeeding calf until the sixth or 
seventh year, and remain near that point a few years 
longer; then the milk flow will gradually diminish. 

13. Quality of milk. — So far as the question can be 
decided, the influences that bear most on the quality of 
milk are breed, heredity and inherent functional capacity. 
It used to be thought that the kind of food, the care of 
the cow and her surroundings influenced the quality of 



milk. When put to actual test, that was proved to be 
incorrect. The quality of milk is an individual character 
due to inheritance, and is not influenced by food or treat- 
ment. A cow that yields a rich milk does so because 
it is her nature and inheritance so to do. Another cow 
that yields a thin milk will always yield a thin milk 
regardless of food or care. 

•f'f" i 

A Comfortable Corner in the Barnyard 

The owner of these cows believes that exercise in the open is equally important 
with good food. The rack in the center serves as a manger for hay. The shed at 
the side is a comfortable shelter in bad weather. 

14. Quantity of milk. — On the other hand, the quantity 
of milk may be, and commonly is, influenced by the 
amount and nature of the food, the treatment bestowed 
on the cows and the attention given to all details of dairy 
management. If the mammary gland is small the milk 
yield will be small. Quantity of milk, therefore, is de- 
pendent upon the size and condition of the udder, nature 
and kind of food, and treatment of the cows. 


15. Cow comfort. — Unappetizing and ill-smelling foods 
depress milk secretion^ although they may normally pro- 
vide the nutrients abundantly. The same foods set be- 
fore cows in more appetizing and tempting ways often 
cause an increased flow, although no more provender is 
consumed. The appetite bears a direct connection 
with the udder. Cows that are annoyed by flies and other 
insects, or that are chased about by dogs or other tor- 
mentors, will yield milk less in quantity, and, perhaps, 
poorer in quality, than if they are placed under more ^ 
comfortable and agreeable conditions. Dairymen are 
more and more realizing the importance of these facts in 
practice, and are now giving much attention to the sim- 
ple details of cow comfort. 


1. Milk. 

2. Two classes of dairy cows. 

3. Channel Island cattle. 

4. Demand of butter a controlling factor. 

5. Jersey characteristics. 

6. Guernsey characteristics. 

7. Dairy cattle of the North Sea. 

8. Holstein-Friesian characteristics. 

9. Cattle of Bonnie Scotland. 

10. Ayrshire characteristics. 

11. Brown Swiss cattle. 

12. Two Irish breeds. 

13. Dutch Belted cattle. 

14. Red Polled cattle. 

15. French-Canadian cattle. 

Note to the Teacher. — This lesson teaches how cer- 
tain breeds have been evolved to meet the needs and 
circumstances of the people in the land of their develop- 
ment. The physical character of the soil has had much 
to do with the choice of occupation, and this is reflected 
in the kind of live stock produced by the people. A milk 
or butter breed is not a mere chance result ; it is the out- 
come of a people and a soil. 




1. Milk. — This product of the bovine race is composed 
of a white, opaque substance, in which small globules of 
fat are floating. It is devoid of odor, except for a short 
time after its extraction. It is of slightly sweet taste. 
When it has been allowed to stand for some time, a thick, 
fatty, yellowish-white stratum forms upon its surface. 
This is the cream. Skim milk has a bluish-white tint. 
The milk of some cattle races is of a golden tint and of 
other races of a paler, lighter tone. On standing for some 
hours, exposed to the air, milk exhibits an increasing acid 
reaction, from the formation of lactic acid from the milk 

2. Two classes of dairy cows. — Dairy cattle fall within 
two special classes — one, where the milk yield is of mod- 
erate quantity but the fat propor- 
tionally high ; and a second 
where the quantity of milk is 
large but the fat much lower. To 
the first class belong the Jerseys 
and Guernseys, and to the sec- 
ond the Holsteins and Ayrshires. 
Jerseys and Guernseys are 
known as the ''butter breeds," 
the Holsteins and Ayrshires as 
the "milk and cheese breeds." 
The quantity of milk and its 
quality of any representative 
cow is an individual as well as 

A Dairy Queen 



a breed character. Often milk cows that are otherwise 
equal in conformation and in appearance will show great 
difference in their production of milk. 

While these distinctions are breed characteristics in the main, not 
all of the second class yield more milk than many individuals of 
the first class and not all of the first class yield milk possessing 
higher percentage of fat than individuals of the second class. 

3. Channel Island cattle. — Our magnificent breeds of 
Jersey and Guernsey cattle are the direct descendants of 
cattle imported from the 

Channel Islands or of ^» 

those bred in this coun- 
try. Very likely the orig- 
inal stock was brought to 
the islands from France. 
A near neighbor of these 
people are the cattle lov- 

^ Jersey Bull 

ers of Brittany and Nor- 
mandy, who also have good cattle, their stock being in 
one instance a white, fawn color, and in another, a blacker 
hue. But, regardless of descent, the superior qualities 
of these races are due to the people who developed them, 
to the rigid rules under which they have been bred and 
reared, to the fertile soil that yields good foods, and to 
the balmy climate that admits living the year round out 
of doors. 

4. Demand of butter a controlling factor. — The Chan- 
nel Islands are near to London and other large cities. 
They are of small size. As the population increased it 
was necessary for the young people to seek other fields of 
labor. Having settled in nearby cities, and remembering 
the golden butter their parents made, they naturally sent 
home for this delicious table article. Others learning of 
the sources of this superior product naturally joined in 



the call for larger supplies. In the course of time Jer- 
sey and Guernsey butter became well known. The calls 
for it tried the fullest possibilities of the Island cows and 
people, and set in motion every means of increasing the 
supply and of securing superior cattle to meet the ever 
increasing demands. Here is the controlling factor that 
led the people to carefully breed and select their cattle 
stock and to guard against any change or new blood that 
might in any way injure the improved butter qualities 
or jeopardize the butter trade already built up. 

5. Jersey characteris- 

^^^ tics. — These cows are 

(^|ll^!^P!HH|l^flB| rather small, weighing 

'.f -^ ^^^^n around 850 to 900 

pounds. Some weigh 
much less, not more than 
600 to 700 pounds, and 
others as much as 1,000 or 
1,200 pounds. In color, a 
fawnlike appearance pre- 
dominates. This varies in shade from a deeper yellow to 
a brown, reddish or silvery fawn. White markings are 
common, but no really white individuals are ever seen. 
White and black are identification marks of the tongue 
and switch. Jerseys are a horned race, the horns of no 
particular form or style. A yellow skin secretion in the 
ear and about the udder and thighs is a mark in much 
favor by breeders. It is claimed to be an indication of the 
quality of the milk. Typical Jerseys belong to the ap- 
proved dairy type. As producers of high quality milk 
they are famous the world over. 




Some Notable Jersey Records of Milk and Butter. 

Name of cow 


Butter fat 

Eminent Bess __ 



Sophie 19th of Hood Farm 

Jacoba Irene _ __ ___ 


Lass 38th of Hood Farm 


Olga 4th's Pride 


Adelaide of Beechlands 


Rosaire's Olga 4th's Pride 


Warder's Lady- 


6. Guernsey characteristics. — The Guernsey is slightly 
larger than the Jersey and perhaps a little more robust. 
Both give very rich milk, but the milk of the Guernsey is 
of a more yellow shade. The Guernsey breed is not as 
widely distributed in this country as the Jersey, but is 
still well known and popular. Good individuals are in 
such constant demand that the average selling price is 
always high. In color, the fawn shade predominates and 
is of a brown or reddish or yellow character. White 
markings are common. These cattle, like the Jerseys, 
have horns. The skin secretion is richly yellow and 
abundant. Guernsey 
breeders lay much stress 
on this, giving it weight 
in their scale of points. 
As butter producers these 
cattle have no superiors. 
The fat globules are large, 
very yellow, from which 
is secured a butter of the 
highest excellence. 

Jersey Cow 



Some Notable Guernsey Records of Milk and Butter. 

Name of cow 

May Rilma 

Spotswood Daisy Pearl 

Dairy Maid of Pinehurst _ 

Dolly Dimple 

Imp. Beauty of Park Farm 

Yeksa Sunbeam 

Murne Cowan 

Dolly Bloom 


Butter fat 



















Guernsey Cow 

7. Dairy cattle of the North Sea. — In the days of long 
ago the sturdy settlers of the North Sea held fast to the 

two races of black and white 
cattle that they had brought 
from the old lands they had 
left. The land was very rich 
in some places, and nutri- 
tious vegetation was found 
to thrive luxuriantly. Much 
of this land is below the 
level of the sea and has been 
reclaimed to agricultural use by dikes which keep the 
waters of the sea in check. Being ardent lovers of cattle, 
it was natural that these pioneers should bring to high 
perfection a race of producers that would convert the 
abundant and nutritious provender of that land into dairy 
products of the highest excellence. 

Unlike the farmers of the Channel Islands, there were no nearby 
cities to quickly consume their dairy output if made into butter. 
And butter soon grows rancid, even if kept in cold storage. In the 
days of Holstein cattle development, cold storage was unknown. 
What were these people, then, to do? Make cheese. This they did; 
and cheese could be stored for many months until a market was 
secured or until they themselves had used up their stores for food. 
Since the casein as well as the fat is of great importance in cheese 



making, it Is not surprising that a breed was finally evolved whose 
chief characteristic was a large output of milk. Even if the fat 
content were low it did not matter. These circumstances of soil, 
environment, and people have been prominent in the development 
of the black and white cattle of Holland. In the course of time 
not cheese only, but butter also, has been made a feature of the pro- 
duction of these cattle. 

8. Holstein-Friesian characteristics. — Holstein-Fries- 
ian cattle have long bodies with the loins and shoulders 

well filled out. They are 
of large build, black and 
white in color, and popu- 
lar because of their large 
milk supply. The udder 
of the cow is remarkable 
for size. The demand for 
market milk to supply city 
needs has made these cattle 
the most sought breed at 
the present time. Mature 
cows weigh from 1,200 to 1,800 pounds and mature bulls 
from 1,800 to 2,000 pounds. Many individuals of either 
sex are even larger than these general weights, often 500 
or 600 pounds more. 

These cows take first rank as 
milk producers, and as butter pro- 
ducers they are famous. While the 
fat content of the milk is low, a 
large production is possible be- 
cause of the large yield of milk. 
Their milk runs from 3 to 4 per 
cent in fat, while that of the Jer- 
seys and Guernseys ranges from 
5 to 6 per cent, and even more. The 
fat globules are small and of a 
whiter shade than the Guernseys. Cattle of this breed are often 
rated as beef producers, but they fall short when tested side by side 
with the distinct beef breeds. The young calves make excellent veal, 
and for this purpose are in great demand. 

HoLSTEiN Bull 




Some Notable Holstein Records of Milk and Butter. 

Name of cow 


Butter fat 

Banostine Belle De Kol 



Pontiac Clothilde De Kol, 2d 


High Lawn Hartog De Kol 


Colantha 4th s Johanna 


Daisy Grace De Kol 


Creamelle Vale 


Aralia De Kol 


Caroline Paul Parthenea 


9. Cattle of Bonnie Scotland. — In Scotland, in the 
county of Ayr, in the land of Burns and Tarn o'Shanter, 
a breed of cattle has been developed that has long been 
popular, and long esteemed because of superior merit. 
The Ayrshire cow is not as common as the Jersey or the 
Holstein in this country, but in the land of her evolution 
she is highly esteemed, a quality fast spreading here, and 
particularly true of those who best know her qualities. 
Ideal in many respects she is hardy and robust. In size 
she ranks between the Jersey and the Holstein. Her color 

Ayrshire Cattle: Bull, Cow and Calf 



of red or white, or a mixture of the two, gives her attrac- 
tiveness and distinction. Her high merit as a producer 
of milk and cheese has brought her fame in every land. 

10. Ayrshire character- 
istics. — These cattle are 
quite uniform in many par- 
ticulars. There is greater 
evenness in size, color and 
form than of any other 
dairy breed. The cows av- 
erage 1,000 pounds in 
weight, the bulls 1,500 
pounds. The udders are 
very uniform, their development averaging a higher per- 
fection of outline than those of any other breed. It is not 
often that an imperfect, fore udder is observed, but this is 
a common occurrence in all other breeds. In dairy form 
Ayrshires rank high. Their thin necks, shapely horns, 
lithe shoulders and wedgelike bodies and ample udders 
give these cows a distinction of uniformity that no other 
breed possesses to a like degree. Their capacious abdo- 
mens quite well accommodate the coarse roughages of 
their rations and their vigorous digestive systems quite 

Ayrshire Cow 

Some Notable Ayrshire Records of Milk and Butter 

Name of cow 


Butter fat 

Auchenbrain Brown Kale 4th 

Lily of Willowmoor 




Netherall Brownie 9th 

Gerranton Dora 2d 


Jean Armour 


Rena Ross _ _ 


The Abbess of Torr 

Auchenbrain White Beauty 2d 




well enable them to convert this provender into much 


While the milk is less rich than the Channel Island breeds, it is 
richer in general than the Holsteins ; and while these cows yield 
less milk in quantity than Holsteins, they do surpass in quantity the 
Jerseys and Guernseys. While of average production in both butter 
and milk yield, their robust health and meritorious other qualities 
give them rank as one of the leading four dairy breeds. 

11. Brown Swiss cattle. — These are a secondary dairy 
breed, but they have attracted some attention in the 

United States. The Brown 
Swiss cattle originated in 
Switzerland, They are 
mouse-colored, rugged an- 
imals. Some are good 
milkers, but many are in- 
different when compared 
with the heavy-milking 
Holsteins or abundant but- 
ter-making Jerseys or 
Guernseys. Cows of this breed weigh from 1,250 to 
1,400 pounds, and bulls from 1,500 to 1,800 pounds. 
In butter fat the milk ranges from 3.2 to 3.8 per 
cent. Records of 500 to 600 pounds of butter have 
been made in a year. Fairly good cows often show a 
decided beef tendency, but those having the keeping of 
this race in charge insist that the Brown Swiss should 
be known as a dairy breed. 

12. Two Irish breeds. — From Ireland we get two 
breeds, better known in this country on account of their 
small size than because of numbers. These are the 
Kerry and Dexter. The two breeds have a common 
ancestry. The Kerry is black in color, the Dexter black 
and red. Their small size enables these cattle to forage 
where other breeds would starve. Some are good 

Brown Swiss Cow 



Dutch Belted Cow 

dairy cattle, the milk testing about 4 per cent fat. There 
is a record of a 500-pound Dexter yielding over 8,000 
pounds of milk in one year. These cattle will never have 
a place in money-making herds, but as family cows they 
may in time find a place. 

13. Dutch Belted cattle. — These cattle belong to the 
Holstein class, but are inferior to the parent stock. The 

white belt around the body 
gives distinction, but adds 
nothing to their ability as 
milk producers. Some ex- 
cellent records of milk have 
been reported, but as a dairy 
competitor this breed is out- 
classed. The fancy of the 
breeder will be the sole de- 
pendence of these cattle for perpetuation and popularity. 

14. Red Polled cattle. — As the name indicates, these 
cattle have no horns and are red in color. They orig- 
inated in England, and although bred in this country in 
considerable numbers, they are outranked as dairy 
animals by the primary 

dairy breeds. They give a 
good grade of milk and 
are prized also as beef 

15. French - Canadian 
cattle. — These cattle come 
to us from Canada. Their 
ancestry is represented 
in stock similar to that 
used in the development of the Channel Islands breeds. 
In color the cattle are black or browish fawn. They are 

Red Polled Cow 



of small size, mature cows weighing 600 to 900 pounds 
and mature bulls from 700 to 900 pounds. The milk tests 
about 4 per cent fat. Only a few herds have been estab- 
lished in the United States. 

It is pertinent to point out that while each of the breeds 
have certain characteristics which are uniformly trans- 
mitted, which set it apart from each of the other breeds, 

yet, so far as the leading 
breeds are concerned, each 
produces an equal amount 
of butter fat. The several 
breeds vary in the amount 
of milk given, in the per cent 
and color of the butter fat, 
in their adaptation to differ- 
ent climates, and to their 
ability to consume different 
kinds of feeding stuffs. 
Each breeder should select his breed with reference to 
his conditions and, also, with reference to his own pref- 
erences. The man who likes his animals best is the one 
who succeeds best in rearing them. Other things equal, 
it is best to rear that improved breed which is most 
economic in the neighborhood. 

French-Canadian Cow 


1. Beef. 

2. Baby beef. 

3. General beef production. 

4. Beef cattle. 

5. The popular Shorthorn. 

6. Beef and dairy Shorthorns. 

7. Shorthorn characteristics. 

8. Herefords. 

9. Hereford characteristics. 

10. The Scottish doddies. 

11. Angus characteristics. 

12. The Polled Scots. 

13. Galloway characteristics. 

14. West Highland cattle. 

15. Sussex and Polled Durham. 

Note to the Teacher. — The cow that turns her food into 
milk and butter fat, naturally is unable to convert it at 
the same time into flesh. If, on the other hand, food is 
stored up on the body frame as meat, the milk yield will 
be small. Here is the turning point that leads either to 
dairying or beef production. The beef breeds consist of 
races that have been carried along the beef road; what 
they eat is stored on their backs and not given away as 




1. Beef. — The flesh of the ox may be called the staple 
article of animal food. Certain beef cuts are the most 
esteemed of all meat dishes. In the region of the loins, 
the flesh is tender and juicy, and commands the highest 
prices of any parts of the carcass. Sirloin is said to owe 
its name to Charles II. of England, who, on dining upon 
a loin of beef, and being particularly well pleased with it, 
asked the name of the joint. On being told, he said: 
"For its merit, then, I will knight it, and henceforth it 

shall be called Sir 

2. Baby beef.— 
When calves of good 
breeding and quality 
are brought to a mar- 
ketable condition to 
weigh 1,000 to 1,400 
pounds by the time 
they are 10 to 18 
months of age, they 
are sold as baby beeves. So marketed, they fetch good 
prices, but their raising and fattening are expensive. To 
attain success in baby beef making, an exceptionally high 
grade of breeding stock is required. The calves from 
the day of their birth must be fed much milk and nu- 
tritious concentrates, and each individual must have close 
attention until sold. The raising of baby beeves is a 


Retail Beef Cuts and Weight 
Retail dealers' method of cutting a beef carcass. 


difficult and complicated specialty. No one should en- 
gage in it who is not a skillful judge of cattle. Good 
quality, a strong constitution and right conformation are 
basic essentials behind profit in this business. 

3. General beef production. — Two classes of producers 
are engaged in beef production. One class makes it its 
business to grow the beef stock or ''feeders," the other 
to feed and fatten this stock for market. At one time 
the wide areas of the western plains were more or less 

Baby Bfei 
These are now ready for market. Note the high quality and finish. 

covered with vast hordes of cattle which were tended 
and cared for by ranchers and cowboys. Many of these 
animals were purchased by farmers in the corn-belt sec- 
tions, who fed them corn and grass, thus fitting them 
for market. This feeding stock was full grown in frame 
but thin in condition. The passing of the ranges has 
reduced the output of this kind of cattle. From now on 
beef will be produced largely on farms where other ac- 
tivities also are pursued. Cheap lands no longer being 
available, the production of ''feeder" stock on ranges 
naturally will decline and the cost of producing beef as 
a consequence will advance. 



4. Beef cattle. — The stock from which beef is secured 
the world over is now limited to the few choice breeds of 
Great Britain and the United States. Continental 
Europe has many strains of cattle. Some of these strains 
make excellent beef, but compared wHth the products of 
England, Scotland and the United States, the beef stock 
is inferior. The English have long been a beef-eating 



ft ^f MV^wft «n ^ 

Where Grade Steers Are Fattened in Large Numbers 

Note in the background the large silo which, with clover furnishes the bulk of 
the roughage portion of the ration. Corn and the oil meals are largely used for 
the grain portion. These are western raised steers being fattened in the eastern 
part of corn belt. 

people, and from the earliest until recent times have 
sought to improve their cattle breeds, that not only more 
meat, but meat of a high quality, might be secured. 

5. The popular Shorthorn. — It is not to the discredit 
of other beef breeds that the Shorthorn in the popular 
mind holds first place in the beef world. These cattle 
are of such high merit, and have been with us so long, 
that their fame has become world wide and notable. 



Shorthorn Bull 

They are easily at home under most conditions, are of 

good size, fatten readily and produce meat that is tender, 

juicy and nutritious. 

Among the early English improvers of this breed were the 
Colling Brothers of Ketton, who began their work of improvement 
nearly a century and a half ago ; 
Thomas Bates, a faithful disciple 
of the Collings, who founded 
the famous Princess, Duchess 
and Oxford families; Richard 
Booth, who together with his 
sons, did so much to lengthen 
the hindquarter, to fill up the 
fore flank, and to secure greater 
depth of flesh, thus increasing 
the value of the carcass ; and 
Amos Cruikshank, the father of 
Scotch Shorthorns, who has 
given us a family of Shorthorns 
compact and blocky in build, 
easily fattened, and of superior meat when placed on the block. 

6. Beef and dairy Shorthorns. — Of the beef breeds the 
Shorthorn alone claims merit as a dairy breed. Two 
types are evident — one that adheres to the typical beef 
type, and a second that shows decided dairy tendencies. 
Both distinctions have been accentuated by breeders, 
depending on whether they wanted beef or milk and beef. 
The extreme beef families among Shorthorns are as 
typical of their class as other beef breeds. Some splen- 
did milk and butter records have been made by cows of 
strains. One Shorthorn cow at the Wisconsin station 
produced over 10,000 pounds of milk, from which was 
made 506 pounds of butter in 326 days. Many records 
are reported of dairy Shorthorns yielding 6,000 pounds to 
8,000 pounds of milk and 300 to 400 pounds butter in 
a year. 

7. Shorthorn characteristics. — The Shorthorn is the 
largest beef breed. Average mature cows weigh 1,400 
or 1,500 pounds and mature bulls 1,800 to 2,100 pounds. 




In many instances these weights are greatly exceeded. 
As the name indicates, the horn is short and small, and 
is usually curved forward. The tips bend inward or 
upward. These cattle mature early, equaling any breed 

in this respect. As grazers 

^i^J^^ ^^^ they are just fair. They make 

^^^HK. JgWy*''''||jl good use of their food and lay 
^^^Bfe. •■' '^>' Hi ^" ^ thick coat of fine flesh on 
^w MstmKi^^x li the outside of the frame. Their 
flesh is of excellent quality. In 
grading up common cattle, 
Shorthorns have been widely 
used, with excellent results. In 
color red and white predominate. They may be pure 
white, pure red, red and white, or roan. This breed is 
noted for the high quality of its flesh. The skin is mellow 
and elastic, the hair and bone fine and of good texture. 
8. Herefords. — These white-faced cattle are descend- 
ants of one of the aboriginal breeds of Great Britain, and 
as a distinct breed has a 
long lineage. The presence 
of the white face is an in- 
dication of purity of blood. 
The most notable of the 
early improvers was Ben- 
jamin Tompkins, who died 
in 1790. Like Batewell, 
who did so much for 
sheep, Tompkins improved his animals through the most 
careful selection of his breeding stock. The first authen- 
tic importation of Herefords into this country was made 
by Henry Clay in 1817. Since that time these animals 
have been distri1)uted over all parts of this country. They 
are especially liked on the plains and in the pasture dis- 

Hereford Bull 


tricts of the southwest. Herefords are good "rustlers" 
and have long been popular for their grazing qualities. 
They make their best beef at an early age. 

9. Hereford characteristics. — In size and weight Here- 
fords are slightly under the Shorthorns In color they 

are red and white, the body 
being red with white on the 
face and on the underline 
from the throat along the 
. lower part of the body. 
The tail tip is white. Be- 
cause of their early matur- 
hereford Cow ing qualities, they are ex- 

cellent for the production 
of baby beef, and thousands are annually used as such. As 
meat producers they rank high; as milk producers they are 
inferior to the other breeds. They are sturdy, rugged beasts, 
of distinctly superior quality; the hair is fine, the skin mel- 
low, the fl.esh soft and elastic and the bone of good texture. 

10. The Scottish doddies. — The Aberdeen-Angus has 
only lately been brought from Scotland, but he has al- 
ready become a rival of the 

other beef breeds. His .^^flHRMMM^I^^. 

greatest popularity is found ^^^^^^ ' '-^S^W^^ 

in the middle and western W^^^gK^^mMm^m 

states, although many have l^^r^^BB^^^r 
gone to the south and '^W^^^^^t^^^ 
southwest. These cattle y^ ^^pPW^WWI^^ 
are prized for their earh^ '"" "'- .^- ~ -^ 

maturing qualities. In the aberoehn-angus bull 

economic use of food the Angus is second to no other 
breed. In recent years they have carried away their 
share of prizes at fat stock shows and in block contests. 


The quality of meat is usually recognized as superior to 
that of Shorthorns ^nd Herefords, commanding the 
highest place in this respect. 

11. Angus characteristics. — All specimens of this breed 
are black in color and hornless, blocky in shape, and 

compact, with short legs. 
They are poor milkers, but 
since they are bred only for 
beef, their supporters say 
this does not matter. In size, 
average individuals follow 
closely the Herefords, but 
are slightly smaller than 

Aberdeen-Angus Cow oi ii ' t-'i r • 

Shorthorns. They are fair 
grazers, though probably not as good as the Herefords. 
They ship well, are unsurpassed in crossing or grading, 
and are destined to occupy a commanding position in 
beef production of the future. Many new herds of this 
breed are annually established in the corn-belt districts. 

12. The Polled Scots. — The most common name of this 
Scottish breed is the Galloway. They were brought to 
our country only a few years ago. In his native land 
he was always a good rustler and hustler for food. Some 
say he is the best breed for the open plains. When 
slaughtered, his meat is in the first rank in competition 
with other breeds and always commands the highest price 
in English and American markets. These cattle are 
hornless, possess unusual hardiness, enabling them to 
endure a severe climate. They do not mature quite as 
early as the Shorthorn or Angus, but they take on flesh 
smoothly. The hide is of peculiar value, and may be 
used for robes and fur coats. 

13. Galloway characteristics. — In color they are pure 
black, with a brownish tinge. The head is short and 

Galloway Bull 


wide with a broad forehead. The body, like the Angus, 
is broad, rounded and symmetrical, the skin mellow and 
thick, the hair soft and wavy, with a mossy undercoat. 

In size they are smaller 
than the Angus, Hereford 
or Shorthorn. Represen- 
tative cows weigh 1,200 to 
1,350 pounds and bulls from 
1,800 to 2,000 pounds. 
Yearlings of this breed are 
frequently brought to 
weigh 1,000 to 1,100 
pounds and two-year-olds 1,200 to 1,400 pounds. As 
milkers, the Galloways are inferior, but they yield enough 
to nourish their calves. When crossed on other breeds, 
their black color and hornless condition are transmitted 
almost without exception. 

14. West Highland cattle. — This breed originated in 
Scotland. The horns are large and upturned. The color 
is generally black, red and black, dun or brindle. The 
hide is thick and covered with long, soft hair, even 
longer than the Galloways. 
In hardiness these cat- 
tle are superior over all 
others ; as milkers they are 
poor. Their claim to dis- 
tinction is in their meat, 
which is of the highest qual- 
itv, surpassing that of any 

•" ^ ° . "^ Galloway Cow 

Other breed, and m their 

hardiness, which also surpasses all other breeds. They 
endure not only cold, but wet and damp weather, and can 
secure a satisfactory living on either grass or brush. In 
size they are the smallest of the strictly beef breeds, ma- 


ture cows weighing 850 to 950 pounds and mature bulls 
1,050 to 1,200 pounds. 

15. Sussex and Polled Durham. — The Sussex is an 
English breed of solid red color. In size they range from 

1,700 to 2,000 pounds for 
bulls, and from 1,200 to 1,500 
for cows. They are inferior 
in milking qualities. They 
mature early and are highly 
esteemed as good grazers. 
They are not popular in the 
United States, although many 
excellent herds are in exist- 
ence in this country. 
WEST HIGHLAND BuLL ^hc Pollcd Durham is now 

a distinct breed, growing out 
of the Shorthorn race and owing their distinction to lack 
of horns. Much attention has been given to their milk- 
ing qualities, these animals excelling even the milking 
strains of their parental stock. The breed is steadily 
growing in popularity and numbers. They are very sim- 
ilar to Shorthorns in all physical respects. 


1. Judging Dairy Cows. — Provide one or more typical dairy cows. 
Use the score card below, considering the details outlined in it. Prac- 
tically every dairy point has been mentioned, with a description 
fitting the ideal of a good dairy animal. 

Score Card for Dairy Cows. 

Scale of Points 

■2 8 

A. General Appearance: 

Size — small, medium or large 

Form — wedge shape, from front; side, top and rear angular 

and open 

Quality — hair, fine, silky; skin mellow, loose; secretion yellow 

Temperament — feminine and full nervous force 

Constitution — general healthy appearance 

B. Head and Neck: 

Muzzle — clean cut, with large mouth and nostrils 

Eyes — bright, big, kindly looking 

Face — broad forward ; lean face 

Ears — fine texture; broad, yellow secretion 

Neck — long, thin ; thwart clean ; light dewlap 

C. Forequarters : 

Shoulders — lithe, oblique; withers lean 

Legs — straight, short 

D. Body: 

Chest — deep, large girth; big, well-sprung ribs 

Abdomen— deep, large capacity; light flank 

Back — lean, open, straight 

Loin — broad, level 

E. Hindquarters : 

Hips — far apart, not fleshy 

Tail — slim, long, with fine switch 

Thighs — thin, long, wide apart 

Legs — straight, ohort 

P. Mammary Development: 

Udder — capacious, extending well forward, high up behind, 

full, but not fleshy, mellow; quarters even 

Teats — evenly placed, good size 

Milk veins — large, tortuous, elastic, and entering large milk 



2. Diagram of Cow. — Place pieces of numbered paper on the 
various regions of the cow as indicated in the illustration. Require 
each student to write the name of each region and name the cor- 




responding region in his own body. Each student should be required 
also to make a sketch of a cow and name each part or region on the 
drawing or sketch at the pioper point. Continue this practice until 
each student of the class has learned the regions and is able to name 
the location without referring to his sketch. Definitions of all terms 
should be learned and memorized. 

Diagram of Cow 

1 Head 


Pelvic arch 

30 Side or barrel 

2 Muzzle 



31 Belly 

3 Nostril 



32 Flank 

4 Face 



33 Milk vein 

5 Eye 



34 Fore udder 

6 Forehead 



35 Hind udder 

7 Horn 



36 Teats 

8 Ear 



37 Upper thigh 

9 Cheek 



38 Stifle 

10 Throat 



39 Twist 

11 Neck 



40 Leg or gaskin 

12 Withers 



41 Hock 

13 Back 



42 Shank 

14 Loins 


Heart girth 

43 Dew claw 

15 Hip bone 

3. Dairy Versus Beef Types. — Require each student to make 
drawings of typical dairy and beef cattle, showing differences of 
form and conformation. Important facts to be considered are: 
Wedge shape of body, length and shape of neck, milk veins, size 
and nature of udder, back and underlines, fleshiness of loins and 
thighs. Bring out in the drawings the distinctive characteristics that 
distinguish the dairy from the beef type. 


1. Cattle farming-. 

2. Quality. 

3. Dairy temperament. 

4. Swine after cattle. 

5. Age and yields of milk and meat. 

6. Dishorning. 

7. Co-operative breeding. 

8. Milk records. 

9. Cow shelters. 

10. Milk-testing associations. 

11. Advanced register. 

12. Maintaining the milk flow. 

13. Keeping cattle on the gain. 

14. Live and dressed weight. 

15. Shrinkage. 

Note to the Teacher. — In paragraph 1, the relation of 
cattle raising to soil fertility is clearly indicated. The 
teacher can point out with great profit the depleting 
efifect of grain farming and the restoring effect of cattle 
farming. American agriculture is full of these examples. 
It will be advisable to show the practical bearing that 
each paragraph of this lesson has on handling and caring 
for cattle. 




1. Cattle farming. — Whoever raises cattle improves his 
farm. Grain or cotton or hay depletes the land. With 
cattle a leading feature, the farm becomes a farm factory, 
where crops home grown and farm raised are converted 
into milk or beef. Both are finished products that are 
worth as much or more than the commercial value of 
the crops consumed. In addition their fertilizing ele- 
ments are largely returned to the soil from which they 
were obtained originally. Crops ought to be "marketed 
on the hoof" as milk or butter or beef or pork or mutton. 
Such a system secures larger efficiency, insures better 
profits, improves the land, makes happier the family life. 
_^^_^^__^^^^^__^ 2. Ouality. — In rais- 

coRr, ^ m^^^mmm^^^^^^i^^m^ iiig live stock the aim is 
v^ormwam^m^mK^^mmmmmm^Hmm to secure the highest 
•^"-•^ ■■■^ efficiency in the line of 

PORK ■■■ breeding- undertaken. 

BUTTER I . ^ . 

When a Ton Is Sold Quality IS an exprCS- 

In the sketch are indicated the relative • r f.^^^,^^ Tf Ap_ 

amounts of plant food removed when a ton felOIl Ui llLllCbb. ±L uc 

of product is sold. Live stock products are --.p.^ pnrf-c:trv b'tlPacrp 

much less exhaustive on the land than grain UOteS dncestry, llllCdj^e, 

'^'■^P^- breeding. Animals pos- 

sessing quality manifest the same in fine, silky hair; soft, 
mellow skin ; neat, fine, bone ; prominent veins in the 
skin ; fine features; and in the choice products which they 

3. Dairy temperament. — A cow used for the dairy 
should possess, in addition to proper form and good qual- 
ity, an intangible something commonly known as dairy 




temperament. This is not a physical character but rather 
an outcropping of the nervous nature. It is indicated 
in manners and bearing, but is not capable of being meas- 
ured as are other tangible qualities. Our best dairy cows 
manifest this typical dairy temperament in their general 
appearance, deportment, and disposition. A quiet, docile 
nature, with motherly attributes, and a willingness to 
give her milk to the milker instead of to her calf, typifies 
the spirit of dairy temperament. 

Swine Following Steers in the Feed Lot 

Cattle take their grain from the feed box and the pigs gather up what falls to 
the ground. Usually no additional food is given the pigs other than what they 
gather from the waste and the droppings. 

4. Swine after cattle. — When cattle are fed concen- 
trates or unground grain, such as corn, oats, barley or 
wheat, pigs and shotes should be placed in the feed lots 
or barnyards to pick up the undigested grains in the 
droppings. Often pigs secure the larger part of their sup- 
port in this way. A steer, on fattening rations, particu- 
larly when snapped corn is generously fed, will supply 
in its voidings food enough to support two or three good- 
sized shotes. If fed husked corn, the waste from two 
steers will suffice for three hogs ; if fed shelled corn, a 



pig to the steer; and crushed or ground corn, one shote 
to two or three steers. 

5. Age and yields of milk and meat. — The most eco- 
nomical gains in meat cattle are secured during the earlier 
periods of growth. Calves lay on a pound of increase for 
every pound and a half of food. When maturity has been 
reached from 10 to 12 pounds are necessary for making 
a pound of gain. To produce a pound of butter requires 
about two and one-half times as much food as to produce 
a pound of gain in steers. The cost of milk is greatest in 
the first milking period in heifers. The cost decreases 
steadily until old age. The average dairy cow is at her 
best from the sixth to the tenth year. After the twelfth 
to thirteenth year the decrease in milk is very great. 

Using the Dishorning Clippers 

6. Dishorning. — Removing the horns of cattle is 
humane because it prevents torture and permanent pain 
that certain individuals in every beef or dairy herd inflict 
on their mates. Horns may be removed in two ways. 
In the use of the dishorner, an implement for cutting 
off the horns of growing calves and mature cattle; and 
of caustic potash, a chemical that can be obtained at any 
drug store. The latter method is the simplest and any- 
one can perform the operation. Get a stick of this chem- 



ical, wrap a bit of paper about one end so as to protect 
the fingers, moisten the horn buttons on the week-old 
calf, and rub the stick of potash on the moistened part. 
This will prevent the growth of the horns. 

7. Co-operative breeding. — A community working in 
harmony can accomplish more than individuals alone. 
In co-operative breeding a few choice sires are purchased 
by an organization of interested members and each se- 
cures his proportionate use of these high-grade animals. 
Such an organization may take on many forms, but its 
essential principle is that quality be obtained in a few 
select purchases rather FORM FOR DAILY MILK RECORD, 
than mediocrity in 
many. As good sires 
are bought exchanges 
are made, so that a 
choice animal can be 
kept in the same local- 
ity during the entire 
period of his useful- 
ness. Certain sections 
have become noted the 
world over because 
breeders have been 
working together rais- 
ing a class of stock of 
high quality. 

8. Milk records. — A 
report of the amount 
of milk yielded by each 
and every cow of a 
herd is known as a 
dairy record. Before 
milk is emptied from „ ^ ^ 

^ Making the Cows Tell 














































































the pail in which it is milked it is weighed and then writ- 
ten on a milk sheet. Both the morning and evening milk- 
ings are recorded for each day of the month and for each 
month of the milking period. A milk sheet large enough 
for all the cows should be provided, one for each month. 
By means of this sheet, when the totals are added up, a 
complete record for each cow is available by month and 
year and her worth may be readily calculated. 

Good Cow Shelter at Small Cost 

Posts are set in the ground and covered with rails or boards, on top of which 
straw is stacked at threshing time. 

9. Cow shelters. — Dairy cows require comfortable 
quarters. Steers are able to shift to better advantage, 
since the thick coating of fat just under the hides serves 
as a warm blanket for protection. Dairy cows are not 
thus shielded; they turn their food into milk and butter 
fat, and were they able to reason, would expect their 
keepers to furnish quarters that would protect against 
rain and snow and bad weather. Even for steers and 
other stock, shelters are desirable. These may be built 
of any material and may be of costly or simple construc- 
tion to suit the taste and purse of the owner. In either 
case the important consideration is to protect from rain, 
snow and wind and to provide a dry bed. 



10. Milk-testing associations. — In some places local 
groups of dairymen organize as a body and enter their 
herds for testing both the butter fat and quantity of milk. 
Both morning and night milkings are weighed and set 
down on record sheets. Once a month samples are taken 
to test for butter fat. Such associations are most success- 
ful when enough herds are under test that a trained milk 
tester may go from herd to herd obtaining samples of all 
the individual cows and determining the full measure of 
production. The usual cost for making such tests is from 
$1 to $2 per cow a year. Cow testing associations point 
out the good and poor cows of a community. By elim- 
inating the poor cows and preserving the heifer calves 
of the best cows for milkers, 

a herd can soon be improved. 

11. Advanced register. — 
All of the important dairy 
cattle clubs now maintain 
an advanced registry , in 
which are recorded tested 
cows that meet certain re- 
quirements as to production 
of butter fat and total milk 
yield. Prescribed regula- 
tions are enforced as to 
when a cow may be entered 
and under what conditions 
the tests are to be made. The 
dairy breed associations co- 
operate with the experiment 
stations. Disinterested a* ^ * • u c • .> d 

At Ihe top IS shown Eminent's Bess 
testers are sent from month before beginning her test; at the bottom 

how she looked a year later on com- 

to month to conduct the p'^*'"^. ^^^f *^^*- ^^\ '? ^ world's 

champion Jersey cow, havmg produced 

tests. The testers watch the '^'^^? pounds of miik and 1,133 

pounds of butter m one year. 

Making Yearly Tests 


milking, take the samples, weigh the milk and deter- 
mine the percentage of butter fat. This is done for a 
two-day period each month. Daily milk records are re- 
corded, in addition to the monthly test to ascertain the 
full yields for the lactation period. Entry into the ad- 
vanced registry is a mark of merit. 

12. Maintaining the milk flow. — Once a cow drops in 
her milk yield, it is a difficult matter to restore her pro- 
duction to a high point during that period of lactation. 
Hence good dairymen endeavor to secure, through feed- 
ing, care and management, a steady and even flow; and 

Folly of Light Feeding 

When cattle are underfed ihey lose in weight, and this requires extra feeding 
to replace previous weights. Profit in feeding means keeping the stock steadily 
on the gain. 

when the decrease comes, to have it slight and gradual. 
Anything that checks normal production for any consider- 
able time generally proves disastrous during the lactation 
period. Concentrated foods, succulent forage and appetiz- 
ing provender make hearty appetites and tend to stimulate 
not only an even but the maximum yield of milk. 

13. Keeping cattle on the gain. — It is equally important 
that cattle raised for beef be provided with abundant 



rations in order that they may steadily increase in weight 
and growth. If the ration is insufficient at any time, 
meeting only the needs of the body or forcing the animal 
temporarily to fall back on its reserve forces, a check in 
growth will occur which can be overcome only through 
extra feeding. This kind of feeding, although common, 
is unprofitable in the end. During a period of insufficient 
feeding an animal must be supported and no returns are 
secured from the use of that food. It is advisable under 
most circumstances to feed liberally so as to get a steady 
increase in growth from birth until maturity. 

14. Live and dressed weight. — When steers or other 
cattle are sold on" the hoof, the purchase is made on the 
basis of live zvcight. If first 
slaughtered and then sold, 
it is as dressed carcasses, 
or by dressed zv eight. The 
percentage of dressed 
weight to live weight va- 
ries with the breed, type 
and condition. Old cows 
of the strictly dairy breeds 
may dress as low as 40 per 
cent of their live weight, 
while prime steers of the 
best beef breeds often 
dress 68 to 70 per cent. 

15. Shrinkage. — In ship- 
ping cattle from farms to 
market there is always 
some loss in weight. This 
loss is known as shrinkage 
and varies with distance, 
time on the road, feed and p^,^^ ^^.^^^ ^^^ ^^^ Carcass 


care while en route. The average shrinkage in weight from 
shipping steers on the railroad, as computed from 50,000 
animals, is 43 pounds to an animal. Grass-fed steers when 
shipped shrink more than those fed corn and dry rough- 
age. Much shrinkage will result if steers get "off feed" 
or scour. A day or two before shipping feed largely of 
hay and give little water. "As to feed on the road, noth- 
ing equals good sweet hay, which excels corn or other 
grains because it is easily digested and does not fever 
the animal." As for water for drink, give just enough to 
quench thirst. 


1. Grass. 

2. Pastures ideal for cows. 

3. Feeding grain on pasture. 

4. When pastures are short. 

5. Producing milk economically. 

6. Grain feeding. 

7. Getting cheap food. 

8. Foods that all may grow. 

9. Liberal feeding. 

10. Protein most important. 

11. Grain feeds of first rank. 

12. Grain and quality of butter. 

13. Salt and water. 

14. Testing with tuberculin. 

15. Order of supplying the food. 

Note to the Teacher. — The purpose of feeding dairy 
cows is to secure the largest yield of milk. The rations, 
therefore, will consist of such feeding stufifs as will not 
only supply the milk-producing constituents most satis- 
factorily, but at the same time tend to stimulate milk 
secretion. Practical work in compounding rations should 
be continued until the student becomes proficient in this 




1. Grass. — In early spring cows are usually put on 
pasture as early as there is food enough for support. New 
fresh grass is generally very laxative, and if it alone is 
relied on, a very bad efifect often occurs. This can be 
avoided by feeding only partially en grass, completing 
the ration through the use of both hay and concentrates. 
In a short time cows become accustomed to grass, and 
may then be left to subsist entirely on it 

Condition of Cows Shows the Pasture Is Good 

Remember the old proverb, No grass, no cattle; no cattle, no manure; no manure, 

no crops. 

2. Pastures ideal for cows. — Pasture grass is one of our 
best foods. It is succulent, fresh and appetizing, and 
very nutritious. The splendid results obtained in hav- 
ing cows on pasture is not solely because the food is 
unusually well utilized over winter rations, but because 
it is so rich in nutriment. It ranks with the cereals, and 
everyone knows how effective such feeds are in milk 
production. When cows in milk are on pasture their 
treatment is very simple, and quite in contrast to the 


diligent necessities of the stable during winter. Labor 
is largely dispensed with, except that required for milk- 
ing. Cows are nowhere so well treated as when on 
pasture. They gather their own feed, and even on 
scanty pasture add flesh and vigor for heavy winter 

3. Feeding grain on pasture. — Cows give more milk if 
fed grain on pasture, but the cost of producing the milk 
will thereby be increased and the practice may not be 
economical. Certainly the cows that give but little milk 
do not require concentrates when on good pasture. The 
very heavy milkers may be given grain, the kind depend- 
ing on what is available. Corn is satisfactory if but two 
or three pounds are given ; but, in case more is fed, gluten, 
cottonseed meal or bran should be used in a mixture 
with corn. 

4. When pastures are short. — During the hot days of 
late summer the pastures often become parched, dry and 
scanty. At this time great care is needed in managing 
the dairy herd. Unless some supplementary food is fed, 
the cows will drop ofif in their milk flow, and once down 
it is a difficult task to get them back. 

The short pasture problem mav be overcome by providing soil- 
ing crops, such as green corn, millet, oats and peas, alfalfa, and 

Pasture is short, but soiling crops and grain at the barn keep the cows in Hesh and 
maintain the milk flow. 


corn silage. If a patch of corn be planted on warm land as early in 
the spring as the weather will permit and planted thickly, by July 
a great abundance of green foliage will be available for green feed. 
This may be fed in the field in racks, or on the grass, or in the 
stable mangers. A very large amount of succulent food can be 
provided in this way at no great expense. The barnyard millets 
make excellent green forage. They are usually ready by late July 
or early August. If alfalfa is grown, a good soiling crop is at 
hand when needed. 

5. Producing milk economically. — The production of 
milk economically depends upon high-producing cows 
and cheap home-grown feeds. On most dairy farms the 
food raised is of a roughage character, but just as much 
of this roughage material as the cows will eat up clean 
at all times should be put before them. If the legume 
hays are grown, the demand for concentrates containing 
protein will be much lessened, and consequently the ex- 
pense bills for grain will be much smaller than otherwise 
would be the case. But even with an abundance of 
legumes and silage some grain will be called for, and 
particularly by heavy-yielding cows. Cows yielding 
from 30 to 50 pounds of milk will not usually be able to 
manufacture these quantities from farm roughages, even 
though legumes and silage are included. The bulk is too 
considerable and the stomach capacity of the cow is 
unequal to the demand. 

6. Grain feeding. — Practical dairymen introduce grain 
concentrates freely into rations, basing the quantity on 
the amount of milk produced. To cows yielding 20 or 
more pounds of milk a day one pound of grain is added 
to the daily ration for each three pounds of milk or for 
each pound of butter fat produced a week. If much 
legume roughage is fed, these amounts may be lessened 
to one pound of grain for every four or five pounds of 
milk or butter fat. Cows giving milk low in butter fat will 
need less grain in proportion to the milk yield, and those 



high in butter fat will need more. It is a delicate prob- 
lem, each cow requiring individual attention. 

7. Getting cheap food. — The kind of food for cows in 
milk will be much gov- 
erned by the production 
in any given locality. 
Every farmer can grow 
his own carbohydrates 
and fat; and more and 
more the legumes will 
be introduced into the 
cropping system on 
dairy farms. In this 
way it will be possible 
to grow most of the 
protein at home. Con- 

Famous Cow and What She Did 

Auchenbrain Brown Kate 4th during one 
lactation period gave 23,022 pounds of milk 
containing 918 pounds of butter fat. During 
, , • r J this period she consumed $184 worth of food. 

CentrateS or gram leedS The milk was sold for five cents a quart and 
•f 1 - '^.1 J returned $575 in money. 

are bought either to ^ 

increase the protein or the digestibility of the ration. 

8. Foods that all may grow. — A few foods may be 
looked upon as standard for dairy cows. These include 
plants of the clover family, alfalfa, corn silage, soy 
beans, cowpeas, corn, peas and oats. On every dairy 
farm, if possible, there should be a permanent pasture, 
and this should be intelligently handled, that it may im- 
prove steadily. If the pasture is of limited size, soiling 
crops should be introduced. These may include rye, 
peas and oats, alfalfa, clover, cowpeas, soy beans, green 
corn, millet and other crops of local adaptation. 

9. Liberal feeding. — A liberal supply of these feeds is 
indispensable for milk or butter. On many farms there 
is too frequently a shortage of hay, silage or dry prov- 
ender. When such are grown insufficiently, either the 
cows are denied full rations, or else feed must be pur- 



chased. Ordinarily, the high prices absorb the greater 
part of the profits of the dairy business. On farms 
where the normal supply of roughage is not equal to 
the requirements of the stock, it would be better to dis- 
pose of the least productive cows, bestowing on those 
remaining more care and feed. 

Crop of Corn and Sorghum Sii.age 
The yield on heavy road clay was 15 tons an acre. Formerly this land was in 
rundown condition, but deep tillage, cover crops, thorough cultivation and chemical 
manures made it possible to secure the crop as pictured. 

Next to the legumes no food provides so large a proportion of 
desirable nutrients as corn preserved in the silo. The nutrients in 
silage are very appetizing for winter feeding. Moreover, the suc- 
culence of silage is beneficial ; it aids digestion, and, of course, 
favors milk production. It is undoubtedly true that wherever dairy 
cows are kept, the silo is indispensable, both for economical feeding 
and for the production of milk at a reasonable profit. 

10. Protein most important. — The list of concentrates 
for dairy cows is practically unlimited. The cost, how- 
ever, must be considered. It is not enough that a con- 
centrate be labeled a food for dairy cows; it must pos- 


sess a relatively large amount of protein and a small 
amount of fiber. The less of fat and carbohydrates in 
proportion to the protein, the better, provided the supply 
of home-grown roughage feeds is sufficient to meet the 
demand. In the past too little attention has been paid 
to the chemical composition of concentrates. The cus- 

Corn I 

Coirton Seed Meal. 

Linseed Meal 

Gluten Meal 


Wheat Bran 

Protein in a Ton 

Relative amounts of protein in common feeding stuffs. Compare corn and oats 
with linseed and cottonseed meal. 

torn has too long prevailed of buying these by name, 
whereas the only thing that counts is merit. The only 
sensible rule to follow is to study the composition of 
each feeding stuff, and ascertain which kind or brand 
will give the largest quantity of digestible protein and 
the least quantity of crude fiber. This information will 
be of incalculable value in buying feeds and will be a 
means of saving money. 

11. Grain feeds of first rank. — Among the most useful 
and best liked concentrates are cottonseed meal, linseed 
meal, gluten meal, gluten feed, bran, brewers' grain and 
malt sprouts. The several by-products of starch and 
cereal food factories are extensively advertised, but they 
usually sell for more than they are worth. Cereal grains 


are often fed dairy cows, corn more so than other cereals. 
On farms where alfalfa ^nd clover form the bulk ration, 
corn may be fed if its market value is on a level with 
the best meals and other grains. If corn silage is fed 
in connection with timothy, mixed grasses and corn stover, 
corn would not be a desirable food. There will be wanted 
in this instance, and in others like it, concentrates such as oil 
meal, wheat bran, gluten, distillers' grains or other concen- 
trates having protein as the predominating factor. 

12. Grain and quality of butter. — The character of the 
food frequently influences the quality of the butter. The 
white, hard, tasteless character of winter butter is the 
result of food. Fresh pasture, bright legume hays, corn 
silage and soiling crops give color to milk and to butter. 
Gluten and corn produce a soft butter. Wheat bran 
makes a harder butter than either. If much of gluten 
is introduced into a ration, the butter will be soft, but 
its hardness may be improved by the use of cottonseed 
meal, a feed that makes a very hard butter. By mixing 
the two, a better grade will be obtained than if either 
is used alone. When cows are on pasture, a pound or 
two of cottonseed meal helps to counteract the objection- 
able softness of butter during the pasture season. 

13. Salt and water. — Cows should have salt, either 
added to the rations or furnished in lump form. If added to 
the feed, from a half ounce to an ounce and a half should be 
furnished daily to each cow. One ounce of sulphur added 
to each pound of salt gives good results. Cows do not need 
to have water kept before them continuously, summer or 
winter. They need a liberal supply at all seasons, however ; 
and ice water is not good, since they often will drink really 
less than they need. If comfortably stabled in winter, 
natural water, even if cold, will be satisfactory. 



14. Testing with tuberculin. — There are two methods 
of controlling tuberculosis in cattle. One is the Ostertag 
or German method, which consists in removing from the 
herd only such animals as show physical signs of disease ; 
and the other is the so-called American method of remov- 
ing and slaughtering all animals which react to the tuber- 
culin test. The latter method is considered practical in 
herds which do not contain more than 15 per cent of re- 

15. Order of supplying the food. — Certain foods, like 
cabbage, silage and turnips, wHll be less likely to taint 

Pure Water at All Times 

The dairy herd requires fresh water at all seasons of the year. This herd is never 

in want. 

milk if fed after milking. Grain may be given just be- 
fore or some time previous to milking. In the case of 
hay, there will be less trouble from dust if fed after 
milking. The following order is followed on many up- 
to-date dairy farms : Milking, first ; then the grain feeding ; 
then silage or roots ; stable cleaning while the cows are 
watering; following this work come hay feeding and 
grooming. In winter, if the weather is pleasant, the 
cows may be turned out for exercise and morning air. 


1. Wild cattle are seldom fat. 

2. Younger stock now being fattened. 

3. Two classes of beef animals. 

4. Skim milk calves. 

5. Whole milk calves. 

6. Making veal. 

7. Feed during the first winter. 

8. Finishing beeves under 18 months. 

9. Baby beeves finished on grass. 

10. From calf to steer. 

11. Finishing two-year-olds on grass. 

12. Summer feeding on grass. 

13. Fall feeding on grass. 

14. Older steers are still marketed. 

15. Many kinds of food. 

Note to the Teacher. — Growth and flesh are sought in 
feeding beef cattle ; also the conversion of rough feed 
and green grass into human food. Were it not for meat- 
producing animals a large part of farm products would 
not be utilized at all. The steer occupies a very im- 
portant place in agriculture. How best to feed him in 
order that he may yield much juicy meat is a problem 
worthy of deep thought, close study and careful testing. 



1. Wild cattle are seldom fat. — Animals in a wild state 
are not easily fattened. It has taken many centuries 
of careful selection and breeding to bring the cattle of the 
plains, lowlands or mountains up to a point at which 
they will lay on gains rapidly and at a reasonable cost. 
It has been the work of the breeder to select out of the 
whole those individuals that were most disposed to fatten 
easily and naturally, and use them as foundation stock 
for an ever-improving race of meat animals. 

Breeds have been developed that represent in a high degree this 
tendency or disposition to give rapid growth and to fatten readily. 
A large proportion of the cattle stock is still inferior for any pur- 
pose. Success in the feed lot depends on the class and the in- 
heritance of the animals selected. In fattening cattle, the first task 
is to select the right kind of animals — those that have been bred 
to fatten, that possess hidden quality and that are of the conforma- 
tion which practical experience has shown to be associated with 
rapid increase and tender, juicy meat. 

2. Younger stock now 
being fattened. — In the 

old days cattle were car- 
ried along for four or five 
years and then fattened. 
The new way is to grow 
beef. Young animals 
are now brought to ma- 
turity and finish at as 
early an age as possible. 
If steers can be brought 
by liberal treatment to 
marketable weight at 12 

Feeder of Olden Days 

There is no profit in this kind of stock in 
these days of high labor and costly feeds. 




to 18 months old the amount of food consumed will be 
smaller than if two, three or more years are spent in at- 
taining the same weight. Thus the food that would have 
been consumed for animal heat and energy during the 
longer period can be saved. 

3. Two classes of beef animals. — Lean 
feeding animals that have depended on 
scant pastures require a different ration 
when put in the feed lot than those in 
moderate condition. In the thin stock 
the fibers of the flesh need development 
in order that fat may be stored in be- 
tween and among them. Such animals 
require a feeding period of three or four 
weeks, in which a greater quantity of 
protein will be given than later on. 
After this preliminary feeding the pro- 
New Idea Is to Grow portion of carbohydrates and fats may 
be increased. When more than a 
couple of pounds of digestible fat are consumed, appetite 
and digestion are disturbed. 

4. Skim milk calves. — Corn should be added to the 
skim milk diet of calves while the change from whole to 
skim milk is under way. At first a very small amount 
may be given. This quantity will be increased when 




WEIGHTS I ._gQ 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 


Cheapest Grains Are Made with Young Animals 

As animals advance in age the cost of food for maintenance and increase advances 
also. Compare the four classes of cattle as sketched above. 



whole milk is no longer given, and still further increased 
as the calf grows older and larger. These calves should 
be on pasture, be fed skim milk twice each day, have 
clean water available for drink, and have placed before 
them a mixture of other grains like whole corn, wheat 
bran and oats. 

5. Whole milk calves. — Calves on whole milk will show 
fine flesh at weaning time. If allowed to run with their 
dams on good pasture, 
little additional food 
than the milk will be 
required. It is desir- 
able to encourage 
whole milk calves to 
eat grain as soon as 
they will take it. Equal 
parts by measure is a 
good mixture, say corn 
56 pounds, oats 32 
pounds and bran 14 
pounds. Corn and oats 
are best fed whole. 
Whole milk calves, when separated from their mothers, 
should have the run of a good pasture, and the grain mix- 
ture should be fed in increased quantities right up to wean- 
ing time. After being weaned the calves v/ill hold their 
flesh and keep on gaining steadily. 

6. Making veal. — Much veal is made from feeding skim 
milk and milk-substitute grains, yet the highest quality 
of veal is obtained by exclusive whole milk feeding. The 
calf is either left with its dam or early taught to drink 
milk from a pail. If the latter method is followed, the 
calf may be given all the milk it will consume. If for 

Ready for Their Breakfast 

This simple contrivance is much esteemed 
where many calves are fed and raised. Each 
gets its own ration without fuss, confusion or 


any reason additional food is given, let it be of an easily 
digestible nature and reasonably high in protein. In 
other words, the nearer it resembles milk the better. 

7. Feed during the first winter. — The best food for 
calves depends somewhat upon the age at which they 

are to be marketed. If 

^I^^^^Mj^MH^^^^ they are to be finished 

^^H^^^^^^^^^H late or 

^^^^^^^^^^H^H summer on grass, 

^^^^^^^^^|Bi they should have a very 

V ^M liberal supply with 

steadily increasing 

Jr • ■ 

amounts of grain. 

Best results are secured 
Veal Calf during the first winter if 

alfalfa, clover, cowpea or 
soy bean hay is made the basis of the ration. Let the calves have 
about all they will eat. If corn silage is available, from 10 to 15 
pounds may be fed daily. As for grain, nothing is better than corn, 
and particularly so if a legume hay is fed. From two to four 
pounds may be fed each day. In case grass hays, corn stover and 
corn silage are used for roughage, a protein concentrate will be 
necessary in addition to corn. For this purpose linseed meal, cot- 
tonseed meal, or soy bean meal may be used. A pound or two of 
either, mixed with corn, will meet the requirements. Oats are good, 
but the price usually is against them. 

8. Finishing beeves under 18 months. — When calves 
are to be finished as baby beeves, their ration will include 
more and more of the grain concentrates as winter passes. 
Corn should be fed liberally, from one-half to three- 
quarters of the grain consisting of it. If legumes are 
largely fed, the grain may consist largely of corn, with 
enough oil meal or bran added to give a safe supply of 
protein. In the absence of alfalfa, clover or other legume 
hay, one of the oil meals should be used to the extent of 
20 per cent of the grain. The ration should be gradually 
increased to meet steady growth and weight. 


By spring these calves, now yearlings, should weigh from 800 to 
1,000 pounds and be in such good flesh that they may be marketed 
in a very short time after being put on a finishing ration. If fin- 
ished in a few weeks the roughage may be decreased and concen- 
trates proportionally increased, but consisting of the same or similar 
feeding stuffs as previously fed. 

9. Baby beeves finished on grass. — If pasture is abun- 
dant grain may be fed less heavily during winter and the 
calves finished a few weeks later on grass. Less grain 
will be required during the winter, but on grass an ample 

Calves Ready to Fatten for Baby Beef 
These have been kept steadily on the gain from the very day of their birth. 

supply is desirable. The grain ration should contain 15 
to 20 per cent of linseed meal, cottonseed meal or other 
protein concentrate if the calves are pastured on timothy, 
prairie, Bermuda or blue grass. If the pasture consists 
of mixed grasses, clover and alfalfa, not more than 10 
per cent of the concentrates needs to be of a protein na- 
ture. Calves fed in this manner should weigh from 1,000 
to 1,200 pounds and be ready for market before torment- 
ing insects and hot weather come to annoy them. 

10. From calf to steer. — For growing baby beef, con- 
tinuous grain feeding from birth to finish is necessary. 
While adapted to certain farms, the practice of carrying 



cattle along until in the range of two years of age is still 
the more popular. This custom more nearly meets the 
conditions of the average farm on which beef cattle are 
raised. The steer is, by nature, a good instrument for 
converting large quantities of coarse or bulk food into 
meat. Compared with the pig, the baby beef steer ren- 
ders a less satisfactory account of the grain it consumes. 
For this reason doubtless this pig competitor will limit 
the extent to which baby beef will be produced. 

Young Feeders Selected for Feed Lot 

When calves are fed that they may be ready for market at around 
two years of age their first winter's food should be such as will secure 
favorable growth and keep them steadily on the gain. The manner 
of feeding will depend on the roughage. In the spring these calves 
will go on grass, and if the pasture is good, grain will ordinarily 
not be fed. If hot. dry weather cuts short the pasture, light grain 
feeding will be advisable. The skillful farmer will watch these 
matters as they arise and meet them in accordance with his best 
judgment, which will be influenced very largely by the amount, 
kind, and market value of the grain on hand, and the cost incidental 
to obtaining a supply of commercial feeds. During the second win- 
ter the steers will be fed on hay. stover, and silage if available, and 
grain. The steers should be allowed to eat all the roughage food 
they want. If alfalfa, clover or other legume hay is fed, more corn 


in the grain mixture may be used. In the absence o£ a legume hay- 
then protein concentrates will be necessary. From two to five 
pounds may be fed daily at first. The nature of the hay, the char- 
acter of the cattle, and the market price of feed, must all be con- 
sidered in deciding the kind and amount of each. 

11. Finishing two-year-olds on grass. — In feeding out 
steers that have passed through two winters and are in 
good flesh, pastures are a great help. During the second 
winter grain will be fed rather liberally. By May or 
June such animals ought to be of marketable finish if 
turned on good pasture and fed. heavily on grain. Corn 
is sufficient on alfalfa; but on mixed grasses, at least 10 
per cent of the grain should consist of linseed meal, cot- 
tonseed meal or gluten meal. Steers fed in this way 
should gain two pounds a day. 



I06 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1.000 

1 12 

I ' " '■ 

When the Feeding Period Is Extended 

When fattening steers were fed 56 days, slightly over 700 pounds of food were 
consumed for each 100 pounds of gain. When the feeding period was lengthened 
to 128 days, over 1,000 pounds of grain were necessary to give 100 pounds of 

12. Summer feeding on grass. — On many farms early 
spring pasturing is delayed until grass attains a fine 
growth, and until the sod is dry enough after spring rains 
to prevent injury from tramping. The steers are con- 
tinued in the feed lot and fed silage, hay and grain in 
amounts liberal enough to give a fair rate of increase at 
a reasonable cost. The steers are then turned out on 



pasture, the grain is increased and a market finish ob- 
tained as early in the summer as possible. 

Care should be exercised in changing from dry feed to grass ; 
otherwise shrinkage will certainly result. Steers should be turned 
on the pasture for a short time at first, the grazing period being 
gradually lengthened day by day. This accustoms them to grass. 

13. Fall feeding on grass. — On many farms the older 
beeves are pastured through summer, with little or con- 
siderable grain, and finished on new corn. Corn is hauled 
direct from the cornfield to the pasture and is fed on the 

Shocked Corn for Roughage Food 

In addition to ear corn and stover, cottonseed meal was fed in order to balance 
the ration for cheapest gains. 

Stalk. If little grain had been given previously, only a 
small feed at first is hauled to them. As rapidly as may 
be done safely the corn may be increased, when in a 
month or six weeks the steers will be on full feed. From 
now on they may refuse much of the roughage. Where 
this forage is of value, snapped corn should be substituted 
for half of the ration. 

If the pasture is short at the beginning of winter, shocked corn 
may be used for roughage. When the pasture is no longer avail- 
able, protein feeds must be used, and some shelled or ground corn 
used in connection with them. Pigs should follow the steers, else 
much valuable grain will be wasted. Not only will pigs make steady 
growth, but will practically grow up to marketable finish, thus giv- 
ing a double chance of profit from the grain. 


14. Older steers are still marketed. — In some sections 
cheap lands are still common and more pasture is avail- 
able than could be used economically under the tillage 
system utilized. Under such circumstances older steers 
are preferred. They are bought of neighboring farmers 
at all ages and at small cost and turned on pasture, where 
they are forced to shift for themselves. So placed they 
grow slowly, may or may not keep steadily on a gain, 
but in time attain size and foundation for fattening. 






j«p =v,'';,'i 






Prime Steers Three Years Old 

On many farms it is more profitable to carry the seers to considerable age in 
order to consume the home-raised roughage crops. This is a bunch of prime 

The initial cost is inconsiderable and the outlay for feed is prac- 
tically nothing. During favorable seasons pastures mav be good. 
Then rapid increase will follow as a certainty. Steers raised in this 
manner mature slowly, but they do not cost much. Even if they 
are three years old or more, the total cost is at such a low figure 
that some profit is bound to result. The finishing period may be 
short or long. It will depend somewhat on the condition of the 
animals and the state of the market. Given the run of a good 
pasture, and supplied corn and other concentrates for a short period, 
a reasonable finish and often highly satisfactory money results are 
to be expected. Often steers of this nature are carefully and pains- 
takingly fattened, and when sold bring the highest prices that the 
market pays. 

15. Many kinds of food. — Various hay crops, corn 
stover, fodder corn, and silage are all vakiable at certain 



periods of the steer's growth. They will be used in scant 
or liberal quantities in accordance with the supply and 
the general style of farming. Pastures, either of a tem- 
porary or a permanent nature, will go hand in hand with 
the forage crops grown on the farm. Corn is first in the 
list of grain products. 

Among the supplementary concentrates for steers are cotton- 
seed meal, linseed meal, soy bean meal, wheat bran, the glutens, 
and various by-products of starch and cereal factories. It is un- 
necessary to record the long list of grain products that enter into 
the production of beef. Whether grains shall be ground, crushed 
or fed whole, or whether they shall be fed on pasture or in the feed 
lot, in outside racks or in closed stalls, will depend upon circum- 
stances, the management of the farm and the nature of the man. 
What is most important of all is to grow as much corn as can be 
profitably grown ; to grow as much roughage as the method of farm- 
ing will admit, and to have as much of this of a legume nature as 
possible; to use home-grown corn to feed in connection with this 
roughage; and, finally, to supplement roughage and corn with other 
concentrates purchased outright or secured in exchange for corn 
and fed in such ways as will give balanced rations to meet the ever- 
changing needs, of the steers under feed. 

IB w ixffjum i m^' > ' '^B'.^w^iipiy ' ^ 







"'f? |l«;-«wW 

w ^ 

r '" 


FEEDING Beef Cattle in the Open 
It used to be thought that steers were most profitably fattened when stall fed. 
It has been found that they do even better if cared for in the open. Many cattle 
feeders now provide open sheds for feeding during winter and inclement weather. 


1. Judging Beef Animals.— Provide one or more beef animals 
or steers. Use the score card below. Every important feature is 
scheduled, with a description fitting the ideal beef animal. 

Score Card for Beef Animals 

Scale of Points 




General Appearance: 

Size and Weight — according to age 

Form — top and underline parallel; broad, deep, low set, compact 

and fleshy 

Quality — fine hair, skin pliable and mellow; evenly fleshed 

Constitution — healthy, wide chest, bone strong, thrifty 

Condition — well fleshed, firm flesh, no patches 

Head and Neck: 

Muzzle — nostrils large, mouth large 

Eyes — large, bright and full 

Face — broad and short 

Ears — fine texture, medium 

Neck — short and thick, throat clean ....[........ 

Forequarters : 

Shoulders — compact, covered with flesh 

Brisket, well developed, full heart 

Legs — straight, short, bones smooth 


Chest — wide, deep ; large girth 

Back — broad, straight, evenly fleshed . . 

Loin — thick, broad ] 

Ribs — long, arched, thickly fleshed .\...\. ...... . 

Flanks — full, even with underline 

Hindquarters : 

Hips — smoothly covered, well set in 

Rump — long, level, wide; tail head smooth, not patchy 

Thighs — full, thick, plump, twist 

Legs — short, straight, fine, heavy bone 


2. Removing Horns on Calf.— Calves from one to two weeks 
old preferred. Locate the budding horn and clip away the hair with 
scissors. Rub the horn with the end of a stick of caustic potash 
until the skin or scurf begins to loosen and get red. If properly 
done the broken skin will quickly heal and no horn will ever appear. 
The caustic may be obtained at any drug store. In using wrap with 
paper to protect the fingers, and moisten the end in water before 
placing on the horn button. Avoid rubbing the skin round about the 
budding horn. 



3. Milk Records for Home Practice. — Prepare a milk record for 
each cow of the herd. Rule off 31 spaces for every day of the 
month, beginning with 1, or the first day of the month, and num- 
bering down to 31, the last day. Leave space at the top of the sheet 
for the name of each cow and rule the paper crosswise, with two 
blanks for each cow, for the purpose of recording the weight of 
milk for both morning and evening. Small scales are necessary 
for weighing the milk and the milk pail. By knowing the weight 
of the pail and subtracting this weight from the gross weight of 
milk in pail, the weight of the milk is obtained. The weight of each 
milking is now placed in the space prepared for it for that day and 
both morning and evening milking recorded. See illustration, page 


1. Ancestry. 

2. Qualities in common. 

3. Wool. 

4. Two principal classes of wool. 

5. How wool grows. 

6. Yolk. 

7. Washing and shearing. 

8. Handling wool. 

9. Mutton. 

10. Quality of mutton. 

11. Mutton carcass. 

12. Desirable kind of sheep. 

13. Cuts of mutton. 

14. Hothouse lambs. 

15. Market classes of sheep. 

Note to the Teacher. — From the earliest ages the sheep 
has been a source of profit to mankind, and its keeping 
and rearing an important industry. As civilization pro- 
gressed stage by stage, and the manufacture of garments 
of wool displaced those of skin, careful breeding began 
to improve the fleece, and varieties among sheep became 
fixed in type. Later on, as people became more settled 
in their occupations, cities were built and demands for 
mutton increased, until at the present day it is greater 
than the supply. 




1. Ancestry. — A\^ild sheep are by nature timid, and flee 
at the slightest noise, which they hear at a very great 
distance. Their strength and agility enable them to 
spring among the most inaccessible rocks which they seek 
for safety. In the evolution from wild to domestic life 

Raismj Both 

)R \\i 

:i) A\i TTON 

This group of Oxford sheep is part of a flock owned by a farm boy, who starting 
with a few individuals, steadily enlarged his flock, until now he has so many that 
his entire time is devoted to raising sheep. 

many changes have taken place, but none more striking 
than in personal safety. The domestic sheep has be- 
come so entirely dependent on man that he could not 
exist without his care and protection. 

2. Qualities in common. — Sheep are so easily accli- 
mated, that we find them in the hottest and coldest 
climates. They attain their greatest prosperity in the drier 



regions, and if forced to subsist on wet lands certain ail- 
ments often affect them that seriously interfere with their 
thrift, health and vigor. As for food, they prefer the 
weeds of the fence corners to the luxuriant herbage of rich 
fields, and the short, tender shoots of a closely cropped 
pasture of the hills to the maturer grasses of the lower 
and fertile levels. 

Sheep are very partial to salt, either as a part of their rations or 
as a natural character of the land. Among the domestic animals 
they are the most docile as well as most stupid, and are utterly un- 
able to protect themselves, even if the attacking foes are physically 
their inferiors. 

3. Wool. — The fleecy covering of the sheep is revealed 
by the microscope as composed of cells which overlap 
each other like the scales of a fish, and within is a hollow, 
full of marrow, forming the canal of the coarser kinds of 
wool. In the very fine wools this hollow is absent. This 
change has come as a result of domestication and breed- 
ing. Among the important characteristics, and by which 
wool is judged, are the following: (1) The weight, or 
what each fiber can bear without breaking; (2) the den- 
sity or the number of fibers to the square inch ; (3) the 
length when uncurled and stretched out ; (4) the elasticity, 
or the quality of again curling up after having been 
stretched; and (5) its color and brilliancy. 

4. Two principal classes of wool. — Although of many 
classes, for manufacturing purposes wool is divided into 
two principal groups — combing wool that includes the 
fine and short grades, and the carding wool that includes 
the long and coarse grades. In years past Merino wool 
has been the chief wool on the American market. The 
medium and coarse grades, supplied largely by the mut- 
ton type of sheep, have been offered in very much smaller 
quantities. By far the large proportion of woolen goods 




is manufactured from the finer and shorter wools, but 
for some purposes longer wools are superior, and for one 
purpose or another every grade and length can be used. 

5. How wool grows. — The wool of sheep grows con- 
tinuously throughout the year. If the feed is uniform 

and nutritious, a uniform quality of wool 
will be produced according to the breed 
of sheep. Anything which affects the 
health of the animal also affects the 
quality of the wool. During a period of 
sickness or scant rations, the wool may 
temporarily stop growing. When the 
animal recovers, or when better rations 
are fed, the wool begins growth again. 
However, as a result of this interruption, 
a weak spot is produced in the wool, 
which greatly decreases its strength and 
value for manufacturing purposes. 
Like a chain which is no stronger than its weakest link, 
so the strength of a wool fiber is determined by its weak 

6. Yolk. — By yolk in the wool is meant the natural 
grease or oil secreted by the skin. Under normal con- 
ditions the yolk gives the fleece a kind of creamy ap- 
pearance. In healthy sheep the yolk constitutes about 
one-third of the weight of the fleece. At the factory, the 
fleeces are scoured and the yolk washed out before the 
wool is used in manufacture. The secretion of yolk is 
favored by nitrogenous and fatty foods. The yolk is 
of great importance, as it keeps the fleece soft and com- 
pact, clean and bright on the inside, and is a protection 
to sheep in turning water. Sheep in poor health or un- 
derfed show a lack of yolk, while overfeeding may induce 
an excess. 

EXAN', i\iN'. U OOL FOR 

Length and Density 



7. Washing and shearing. — The washing of sheep in 
creeks is entirely ineffective, and manufacturers now pay 
as good prices for unwashed as for the so-called washed 
wool. Shearing is performed once a year, as a rule, al- 
though in the southwest it is done in both spring and 
autumn. Both hand and power machines are used. On 
small farms where only a few sheep are kept the hand 
shears are commonly used, but in large flocks the clipping 
machine is economical, and on account of shortage of 
labor, indispensable. 

Shearing Shi 

8. Handling wool. — As soon as the fleece is removed, 
it should be spread on a folding box or table, the inside 
being downward. The sides of the fleece are overlapped, 
then the ends in a similar manner in the other direction. 
The fleece is folded up and tied in a neat roll, the smooth 
side of the roll only showing outward. No filth or tags 
should be rolled up with the wool. Such refuse always 
reacts against the seller. When the wool has been rolled 
up, it is next put in sacks awaiting shipment. As the 
fleeces are dropped in the sacks they are tramped down 



until each sack is full. The filled sacks are then stored in 
a dry place until sold. 

9. Mutton. — The flesh of the sheep has long been val- 
ued as food for man. A saddle of any of the leading mut- 
ton breeds, cooked at the proper time, is considered by 
many to be one of the best of all meat dishes. Yet it is 
a surprising fact that mutton has never been a popular 
article of diet in this country. In recent times, however, 
the demand has increased. Now the New York market 







Machine Shearing of Sheep 

A modern tool of great value where many sheep are raised, 
cheaply and quickly done. 

The shearing work is 

alone requires more than a million sheep a year. This 
change in taste and fancy will be helpful to both pro- 
ducer and consumer. It will hold the consumption of 
beef and pork within bounds and enlarge the market for 
mutton. Whoever eats mutton selects an unobjection- 
able flesh, and wherever the sheep's feet tread for any 
length of time the land improves and wealth abounds. 
This domestic friend is the beast of the golden hoof. 
10. Quality of mutton. — In young, well-fed animals the 



Saddle of Mutton 

flesh is of pleasing color and is of finer grain than beef. 
The older the sheep grows the darker and coarser the 
grain becomes. When the older animals are fattened the 
tendency is to deposit the fat about 
the shoulders, loins and at the root of 
the tail. Old mutton is more inclined 
to be tough and stringy than old 
beef. Lamb meat is in more popular 
demand than mutton. 

11. Mutton carcass. — B u t c h e r s 
prefer a short-legged, plump carcass 
of mutton that is full of meat and not 
too fat. The neck 
should be short 
but thick, the body round and the flank 
of small proportion. The shoulders and 
legs should be thick, and full of meat 
right down to the knee or hock. Thick 
loins, moderately fat, are demanded. 
The loin when cut in "chops" are in 
greatest esteem if a "full eye" of lean 
meat is conspicuous. Mutton may be 
placed in cold storage for 
a considerable time, and so 
kept it improves in quality, and on being 
eaten is more tender and tasty. The fact that 
the flesh of the sheep is more free from dis- 
ease than pork or beef should bring this flesh 
article into greater popularity. 

12. Desirable kind of sheep. — Early ma- 
turity is of first importance.. This suits the 
consumer and pays the grower a better profit. 
A strain that deposits the fat uniformly over 
the body and not in patches, is most approved 

Well-Finished Mutton 



by the butcher. Most of the improved mutton breeds 
have been selected to meet these needs ; and the effort 
of breeders and growlers is to surpass their present work 
in these respects. The most useful size is also sought. 
An over-sized lamb, although evenly fleshed and fat, may 
not command near as good a price at market as a smaller 
lamb of even slightly inferior quality. 

Flock of Ewes and Lambs at Pasture 

The sheep have been kept thrifty by wise feeding and careful attention. The ewes 
and lambs are together, and are excellent representatives of the Hampshire breed. 

13. Cuts of mutton. — The two loins joined are called 
a "saddle of mutton." The quarters are usually sold as 
a ''leg of mutton, or lamb," for roasting. If saddle is 
used, it goes as a roast. As a rule, the loins are cut into 
''chops" and broiled. Not infrequently shoulders and 
legs are cut as chops, but only where the demand for 
lamb or mutton chops is greater than the supply. The 
flanks, breasts and other less 
valuable parts are bought as 
stewing meats, or for the pur- 
pose of making soup, or for 
boiling, which may be eaten hot cuts of mutton 

or cold. Often S^Oat meat is sub- Common method of cutting the mut- 
° ton carcass. 

stituted for mutton. The kids 



make a good meat, but detection is easily possible by the 
color, usually a darker shade. This deception is prac- 
ticed because goat meat is not in demand. 

14. Hothouse lambs. — These are lambs born in late 
fall or early winter, and forced in rapid growth for two 
or three months, when they are marketed. 
Their mutton is tender and juicy and always 
in great demand. It fetches the highest 
price of any meat. It is a great delicacy of 
private families, and during the season is 
usually to be found on the menu cards of 
leading hotels. Success in raising hothouse 
lambs is dependent upon early breeding 
strains of ewes ; forced feeding on appetiz- 
ing and nutritious food, much of which 
must be grain ; and pleasant environments. 
During the nursing period a rich, succulent 
ration for the ewes, as will conduce to the largest flow of 
milk, is essential. The lambs are induced to eat grain at 
an early age and provided with rich food until slaughtered. 

Winter Lambs 

Wethers Ready for Market 
Their ration consisted of clover hay, oil meal, ground oats and corn. 


15. Market classes of sheep. — When sold at market 
age, quality and condition play an important part in the 
prices obtained. Mutton sheep are classified as lambs, 
yearlings, wethers and ewes. In each of these classes 
there are a number of grades such as prime, common and 
inferior. Breeding sheep are marketed as ewes and 
bucks, and "feeder" sheep as bucks, stags, lambs, year- 
lings, wethers and ewes. 

Sheep are somewhat unique among domestic animals. 
They make use of food not relished by other animals, the 
goat excepted. They can subsist under conditions of 
food, water and climate that are unsuited to other domes- 
tic animals. Great areas of the world are by them made 
of economic importance. They produce at one time both 
food and clothing. No other fiber can quite take the 
place of wool. 


1. The Merino. 

2. Rambouillet. 

3. The Dorset breed. 

4. Southdown. 

5. Shropshire. 

6. Hampshire. 

7. Oxford Down. 

8. Suffolk. 

9. Cheviot. 

10. Leicester. 

11. Lincohi. 

12. Cotswold. 

13. Romney Marsh. 

14. Black-Faced Highland. 

15. Persian lamb fur. 

Note to the Teacher. — The obvious purpose of this les- 
son is to describe the leading breeds of sheep and to 
point out the leading qualities of each. It is desirable 
that the distinctive characteristics of each breed be 
learned and remembered by the student. The fine wool 
breeds were at one time in most demand, but in recent 
years the mutton types have grown in popularity. Ask 
the members of the class to bring samples of wool to the 
school for purposes of comparison. 




1. The Merino. — These sheep are of such ancient origin 
that their domestic ancestry has become entirely lost. 
In Spain, the land of their early development and im- 
provement, they were prized for w^ool rather than for 
butchering. Ancient breeders paid little attention to 
the conformation of their bodies for meat; the produc- 
tion of fine wool was the only thing they cared about. 
When these sheep were first introduced into the United 
States early in the nineteenth century, it was for the 
purpose of improving our wool-growing industry and 
not our mutton supply. American breeders, however, 
did not undervalue a good carcass, and in time greatly 
changed the type, improved the carcass and made the 
wool longer and finer. The American Merino is the 

The Delaine is one variety of this highly esteemed breed. These 
sheep are larger, possess a better mutton form, carry a longer fleece 

Merino Ram and Ewe 



and have less folds and wrinkles than the parental Merino. Closely 
related to these, but still of the original family, are the Black Top 
Spanish Merino, the Improved Black Top and the Dickinson. All 
Delaine Merinos have horns and more or less folds or wrinkles 
about the neck and breast. The Black Tops have blacker fleeces, 
no wrinkles, and have horns. The Dickinson type is without 
horns or wrinkles and larger in size, with a longer wool. 

For a great many years the Merino in its several varieties has 
been our most popular sheep. They have been used extensively 
in crossing on the western range sheep where the fleece has become 
light and open. When mature the ewes weigh 100 to 160 pounds, 
the rams 140 to^ 190 pounds. The fleece in ewes will weigh nine to 
15 pounds, and in rams from 12 to 20 pounds or more. These sheep 
are hardy, one of the hardiest breeds, and adapt themselves to vari- 
ous conditions of climate, care and food equally as well, if not bet- 
ter, than any other breed. They can be herded in flocks of great 
size, which is not possible of the mutton breeds. They mature 
slowly, are ideal of grazing, but their feeding qualities are inferior 
to the mutton breeds. When crossed with the mutton breeds their 
mutton is more tender and juicy. 

2. Rambouillet. — Years before Spanish Merinos were 
brought to this country others had been taken to France 
and in time were changed and improved into the Ram- 
bouillet. The French breeders were the first to produce 
a Merino combing wool, from which have developed 
some of the most interesting and profitable branches of 
wool manufacturing. Sheep of this particular breeding 
have greatly improved in mutton form, quality of flesh 
and weight. These imorovements have come from within 

Rambouillet E\)/e 

Rambouillet Ram 



the breed, liberal feeding and rigid selection being re- 

These French breeders were able to develop a fleece of fully 
double the weight of the original Spanish stock. The sheep are 
taller, of heavier limb and more rangy than the American Merino. 
The ewes weigh up to nearly 200 pounds, the rams a quarter more. 
They are less wrinkled, the carcass is better and the wool is longer 
than the American Merinos. They more nearly correspond to the 
Delaines than any other sheep. These sheep are hardy, the meat 
is excellent and they hold a firm place as grazers and for cross- 
ing on western range stock. 

3. The Dorset breed. — An English breed of growing 
popularity is the Horned Dorset. Its heavy horns and 
its coarse and horny head suggest still much to do in 
way of improvement. The fine, short wool and the ex- 
traordinary fecundity of the ewes, which may give birth 
twice a year, and at a time when the breeder most de- 
sires them, give this breed a position and a place of great 
advantage. These sheep are much sought after in the 
production of "hothouse" lambs. The ewes are excep- 
tionally good milkers. They are hardy, excellent rustlers, 
mature early and give a carcass of high favor. The rams 
weigh 200 to 220 pounds, the ewes 160 to 175 pounds. 
The fleeces range from six to eight pounds in weight. 

4. Southdown. — This sheep is the generally accepted 
type of the mutton and short wool sheep of England. The 

Horned Dorset Ram 

Horned Dorset Ewe 


breed takes its name from the downs that line the 
southern coast of England. The Southdown has a 
smooth, even body, a round, clear barrel, short legs, fine 
head, and broad loins. The face and feet are brown or 
gray. They are hornless and rather small. The fleece 
is of moderate weight and quality. They are at their 
best on hilly land with a dry soil and not too moist 
herbage. They have been much used in crossing for mutton. 

Pen of Southdown Lambs 

5. Shropshire. — The Shropshire is the most popular 
mutton breed in the United States. It is larger and 
heavier than the Southdown and grows a heavier and 
better wool. It is readily adapted to good or thin pas- 
tures, and the mutton is excellent. The wool covers the 
whole face and scarcely leaves visible the eyes and the 
black tip of the nose ; it also extends down the legs almost 
to the hoofs. The ewes are prolific, many twin lambs ap- 
pearing. The ewes will weigh from 150 to 175 pounds, 
the rams up to 225 pounds. These sheep are especially 
at home under general farm conditions. 




6. Hampshire. — These sheep are without horns and 
have black faces and legs. It is an English breed and 
favors in some respects the Southdown, its chief progeni- 
tor. It is larger than the Southdown, is more prolific, 
yields a heavier fleece and rustles better on grazing lands. 
The body is rather long and not as well proportioned as 
the Southdown or Shropshire. Its head has a rather 
coarse and heavy appearance. Lambs of this breed grow 
rapidly to maturity. For this reason these sheep are ex- 


hi.ocK OF Hampshire Sheep 



cellent for crossing where large and quick-maturing 
lambs are desired. 

7. Oxford Down. — These are a double cross, the blood 

of the Hampshire and Cots- 
wold having been used in 
establishing the breed. 
They are large, meaty and 
much heavier than any of 
the other Down breeds. They 
rank well as farm sheep, 
resembling the Hampshires 
in general form. They are 
not as well adapted to 

broken pastures as the Shropshire or Southdown, but do 
splendidly on lands that grow good pastures. In good 
flesh the ewes weigh up to 225 pounds and the rams from 
250 to 275 pounds. The wool is a bit coarse but weighs 
well — from 10 to 12 pounds unwashed. 

8. Suffolk. — These sheep are lighter in form and color 
than any of the preceding. The head and feet are dark 
brown, and while not so compact in form as the Hamp- 
shire, the Suffolk somewhat resembles it. There is a 
general absence of wool on the head and between the 

Oxford Ewe 

Prize Flock of Suffolk ^hfep 



ears. The wool is of medium quality, and the breed is 
without horns. Compared with other breeds, it is con- 
sidered inferior and is not extensively bred in the United 

9. Cheviot. — Owing to the shape of its head, neck and 
ears the Cheviot forms a group apart from any breed 
heretofore discussed. The head is bald and carried very 
low, so as to seem sunk below the level of its back, but 
the ears stick up boldly above its thin, pale face. These 
sheep come from the Cheviot hills of England and are 
more useful for their supply of wool than of mutton. 
Nevertheless the mutton is of superior quality. The 
Cheviot is of medium size, the ewes weighing up to 150 
pounds and the rams up to 200 pounds. Being a moun- 
tain breed, it is to be expected that they are especially 
at home in our hilly sections, even though the pastures 
are scant and short. 



- ' -^ 

Chf.viot Ham and i^we 



Leicester Ram 

10. Leicester. — These sheep have white faces, big, 
square bodies and are without horns. They grow long 
wool, that hangs in spirals, with fleeces ranging from 10 
to 12 pounds. Mature rams weigh 230 to 260 pounds and 

mature ewes 200 to 225 pounds. 
They are suited to rich lands 
where an abundance of succu- 
lent food is available. Under 
such conditions they are easy 
keepers and mature early. 
These sheep originated in Eng- 
land, the great Batewell being 
one of the earliest improvers. 
11. Lincoln. — English breed- 
ers used the improved and early refined Leicester with 
the coarser and stronger Lincolnshire sheep breeds. 
From this improvement has come the modern Lincoln, 
the most popular of the long-wooled breeds of sheep. 
They are the heaviest of all breeds, mature ewes weigh- 
ing 230 to 260 pounds and mature rams from 270 to 300 
pounds. Unwashed fleeces 
range from 12 to 15 pounds. 
The breed is without horns, 
the face is white, and a tuft 
of wool grows on the fore- 
head. They graze well on 
rich pastures, but their 
meat, although dressing out 
well on the block, is inferior 
in tenderness and flavor. 

12. Cotswold. — This breed, originating in the moun- 
tainous regions of that name, resembles in many ways 
the Leicester and Lincoln. Their legs are longer and 
the body less bulky, a conformation that gives them a 

Lincoln Ewe 



most active appearance. Like the Lincoln, it carries its 
distinguishing tuft on its forehead. And like both the 
Leicester and Lincoln, it fares well only when allowed 
rich pasture or winter provender in abundance. These 
sheep in size and weight are between the Leicesters and 
Lincolns. The rams weigh up to 280 pounds and the 
ewes up to 235 pounds. 


Ra.m and Ewe 

13. Romney Marsh. — These, also called Kent sheep, 
are a product of the plains of Kent in the southeast part 
of England. The head and legs are white. They like a 
good living, fatten well when provided with it, and yield 
a fair grade of mutton. The fleece in weight averages 
about eight pounds. The breed is little known in the 
United States. It is claimed that these sheep are not 
subject to footrot to the extent of other breeds. 

14. Black-Faced Highland. — These came to us from 
Scotland, from the mountain sections where grazing and 
rough weather have combined in making a very hardy 
breed. They have horns, black or black and white faces, 
and no wool beyond the forehead. They yield an ex- 
cellent mutton, but mature slowly. In size, they are 



rather small. Their principal field of usefulness in the 
United States will be limited to the wilder, mountain- 
ous portions. But even there dogs and other enemies 
will greatly injure their chances to prove their worth. 
15. Persian lamb fur. — From time immemorial breed- 
ers in Central Asia have raised a peculiar broad-tailed 
sheep which produce the Per- 
sian lamb fur of commerce. The 
original stock is known as Kar- 
akul, but near kin is the Arebi, 
which has been used in crossing 
to improve the luster and curl 
of the wool. Arebi lambs are 
black when born and have a 
tight, curled fur of wonderful 
luster. As the lambs grow the 
wool turns brown on the outside, but underneath remains 
black. A few Arebi have been imported to this country 
for crossing on Cheviots and Lincolns, the aim being to 
secure a product to take the place of the Persian lamb 
fur of Asia. 

Arebi Ewe 


1. Wool and mutton. 

2. Relative economy of sheep, steers and pigs. 

3. Choosing the feed. 

4. Roots always fine for sheep. 

5. Sheep and water. 

6. When turning to pasture. 

7. Proportion of grain to roughage. 

8. How often to feed sheep. 

9. Rape an excellent sheep feed. 

10. Roughage feeds. 

11. Temporary fences by means of hurdles. 

12. Putting sheep on full grain rations. 

13. Green crops for roughage. 

14. Feeding lambs for market. 

15. Fattening grown sheep. 

Note to the Teacher. — Sheep are dainty feeders, and a 
thorough familiarity with their habits is required to se- 
cure the fullest success from them. They are easily dis- 
turbed and will leave their food if anything excites them. 
Not only good food, but a peculiar kindness or friendli- 
ness is necessary in caring for and looking after them. 




1. Wool and mutton. — Sheep use food for both flesh 
and wool. Hence these animals must meet a double 
requirement. Wool contains much nitrogen, and a 
slightly more liberal supply of protein is demanded than 
for either swine or beeves. Sheep, too, are very active 
creatures; the body surface also is proportionately 
greater than of beeves, and hence they require more 
food, proportionately. 

The larger breeds of sheep require about one pound of digesti- 
ble protein to eight pounds of starch equivalent, the smaller breeds 
slightly more. The wool growth becomes less active as the food 
supply is reduced, but if more food is given than the animal has 
use for, the rate of wool growth will not be increased. 

2. Relative economy of sheep, steers and pigs. — Com- 
pared with swine, the sheep does 
not render quite as good an ac- 
count of its food as does the pig ; 
in fact, it requires nearly twice as 
much digestible organic matter to 
produce 100 pounds of gain. W^hile 
this is true, it is not to be for- 
gotten that much of the sheep's 
provender is in the form of hay or 
other roughage, and of a nature 
that the pig could not use. Pigs demand easily digested 
food, which must be largely in the form of grain. From 
the point of profit, therefore, sheep are not at a disad- 
vantage at all. 


Baa, Baa 



Compared with steers, sheep have slightly the better of it. Nearly 
50 years ago Lawes and Gilbert determined that, covering a whole 
fattening period, a steer, to produce 100 pounds of increase, re- 
quired 3,500 pounds of swedes, 600 pounds of clover hay and 250 
pounds of oil meal. To produce the same increase these investi- 
gators found that sheep required 4,000 pounds of swedes, 300 
pounds of clover hay and 250 pounds of oil meal. The advantage 
as between steers and sheep was slightly with the latter. 

3. Choosing the feed. — While there is wide choice as to 
the variety of food, those foods which furnish abundant 
flesh shoukl be chosen for the growing classes, and those 

Poor Way to Feed Sheep 

On many farms corn is fed to sheep on the ear and 
stalk. This is a disappearing custom. Food is wasted, 
because sheep will not eat what has once been run over. 

rich in starch and oil selected for fattening. If the protein 
supply is not sufficient, the body will not be properly sup- 
ported, the wool growth will be checked, and the readiest, 
digestion of the carbohydrates and fats will not be se- 
cured. This last point must always be kept in mind in 
feeding any class of live stock. Much may be gained 
by varying or mixing the food so as to stimulate the ap- 
petite. A healthy sheep will increase in weight in pro- 
portion to the food consumed only as long as digestion 
and assimilation are of a high order. If a sheep can be 


made to increase its diet by the addition of roots or ap- 
petizing concentrates, a manifest advantage is gained. 

4. Roots always fine for sheep. — Roots are a staple 
sheep food and of the greatest value in winter feeding. 
If fed in excess, the large amount of water they contain 
and their bulkiness tend, especially in winter, to reduce 
the temperature of the animal and otherwise gradually 
to act unfavorably on the health. Watery foods are not 
good for sheep. Sheep need succulence, but roots and 
green crops should be considered as supplements and not 
as the basic portions of the ration. 

The most common roots for sheep are sugar beets, mangels, 
rutabagas and turnips. Each kind is favorable in effect upon the 
quality of the wool. The quantity of roots will depend on the kind 
of sheep. As a safe guide, it may be stated that one bushel of roots 
will be sufficient as a daily allowance for 10 sheep weighing 150 
pounds each, if along with the roots one and one-half pounds of 
hay and one-half pound of meal or bran are given daily to each 

5. Sheep and water. — Sheep in the Nebo national 
forest in Utah go 4}^ months during the grazing season 
without water, except for such moisture as they get from 
dew and juices of forage plants. In the Farghee forest 
in Idaho, sheep get water only twice during the four 
months' summer grazing season. While sheep are able 
to subsist under these conditions, they often suffer, and 
even perish, from lack of water. Heavy dews and succu- 
lent grass enable them to secure water for a time ; but, 
like other animals, they thrive best when they are not en- 
tirely denied Avater as drink. It is an old fallacy that 
sheep never need water. 

6. When turning to pasture. — Change from dry forage 
to fresh pasture gradually. An afternoon is best, when 
no moisture is on the grass. After eating of this pasture 
for a short time return the flock to the yard. Repeat in 




this manner for a few "days, and little if any digestive 
disturbances will arise. After four or five days the sheep 
will become accustomed to green feed. 

7. Proportion of grain to roughage. — Practical feed- 
ers have found no definite rule to follow in this matter. 
If grain is abundant and hay scarce, more grain is fed 






f^ '^. 


1 . 







Sheep Barn Showing Feed Rack 

Portion boarded off in corner is for lambs to get their grain where the older sheep 
cannot bother them. 

than when the opposite condition obtains. For econom- 
ical gains the roughage material will be fed in as large 
quantities as the animals may be induced to eat. Some 
grain, however, is necessary. The amount will vary 
from one and a half pounds to two pounds of roughage 
to one pound of grain. Under average feeding condi- 
tions about 300 pounds of grain and 500 pounds of rough- 
age will be required to yield 100 pounds of increase. If 
on blue grass or rape pasture, about 175 pounds of corn 
should secure 100 pounds of gain. 



8. How often to feed sheep. — Sheep on fattening ra- 
tions are usually fed twice each day. Slightly better re- 
turns have been observed when three feeds are provided. 
The gain is not large, but it is frequently sufficient to 
meet more than the cost in labor and trouble. 

9. Rape an excellent sheep feed. — This splendid for- 
age crop combines well with corn. When corn in the 
field is to be fed off, it is desirable that rape be seeded in 

Farm Flock on Rape Pasture 

the field at the last cultivation. Ordinarily, the sheep 
will blend the two feeds, consuming both corn and rape. 
If rape is seeded separately and sheep turned on it to 
graze, the addition of one to two bushels ot corn a head 
during the fattening period of 100 days is to be com- 

10. Roughage feeds. — Pasture is entitled to the first 
place in the list of good roughage feeds. It may consist 
of alfalfa, clover, mixed grasses, or blue grass. After 



these come the roots and rape. Each has its place. 
Cured as hay, alfalfa and clover naturally fall in the first 
rank, and are always to be preferred in lamb feeding, 
fattening ewes or wethers, or during the lambing season. 
In their absence the mixed hays may be used, but heavier 
grain feeding will be necessary, and particularly at lamb- 
ing time. 

11. Temporary fences by means of hurdles. — In graz- 
ing forage crops, such as peas and rape, temporary fences 

Lambs on Pasture at Weaning Time 

The Iambs have been kept thrifty by wise feeding and careful attention. Having 
been properly raised, there was no setback at weaning time. 

in the form of hurdles may be used. These hurdles are 
moved forward every few days, providing in this way a 
strip of fresh pasture. Otherwise, if given the run of a 
field, much forage will be destroyed and soiled by tramp- 
ing. Move the hurdles before the eaten-over portion has 
been cleaned up. 

12. Putting sheep on full grain rations. — If grain fias 
been fed while sheep are at pasture, it is an easy matter 
to change from pasture to yard and put on fattening ra- 
tions. Beginning with a fourth of a pound of grain daily, 
the amount may gradually be increased by a fourth of a 



pound the second week, and so on. At the end of the 
fourth week the animals should be cleaning up a pound 
or more of grain each day. By the end of two months 
a daily allowance of one and one-half or two pounds may 
be fed. It is seldom advisable to feed more than two 

Sheep in Yards Being Fatten ei 

pounds of grain a head daily. The good shepherd watches 
his sheep and observes the first indication of bad appe- 
tite. When noticed, he corrects the trouble at once. 

13. Green crops for roughage. — Sheep are most at home 
in pasture fields. They not only feed on the tender grass 
blades, but they strip weeds and other foul plants of their 
leaves and branches. They are in truth the plant scav- 
engers of the farm. But kept on the same land in the 
same field year after year without change, the pastures 
become foul, disease lurks in the soil and dangerous para- 
sites accumulate. For these reasons sheep should be 


changed frequently from field to field, from year to year ; 
and except in the case of well-established permanent pas- 
tures, crop rotation should be followed so the fields may 
be clean of disease or parasites and may be ever fresh 
with new-growing grass crops. 

Over a good part of the country timothy and clover, with red 
top and alsike or white clover occasionally mixed, comprise much 
of the pasture land. The prairie grasses of the West and Bermuda 
grass and Japan clover of the South take care of the local needs 
in these parts of the country. Blue grass is the standby of the old 

Flock of Lambs in the Fattening Pen 

At first they had the run of pasture, but are now being finished on clover and 
mixed grain, consisting of cracked corn, oil meal and ground oats. 

grazing sections ; in addition to it other crops may find place and 
may be profitably grown. Rye seeded in August makes a fairly 
good pasture for lambs and old sheep in the fall. It will furnish 
excellent grazing in the spring before the clovers, alfalfa and blue 
grass are available. 

14. Feeding lambs for market. — For most markets the 

feeding process begins late in fall or early winter. In 

addition to late fall pasture, such as rye, rape, new growth 

of blue grass, young clover or alfalfa, lambs will have 

been using in many instances leguminous hays or other 

dry fodder, so that by the time they are actually confined 

in feeding pens and placed upon a fattening ration their 

digestive systems will have become accustomed to dry 



Alfalfa is beyond question tne best forage, but in its absence 
clover, cowpeas or other leguminous forage is a good substitute 
and practically indispensable. If such forage is not at hand, then 
sugar cane, kafir corn, millet or mixed hay cut at the proper period 
and carefully cured, will give good gains, although more grain will 
be necessary. The grain ration will consist largely of corn. Cracked 
corn is usually preferred to whole corn. Small amounts of oil 
meal, ground oats, or both, may be introduced into the ration with 
good effect ; if a leguminous hay is not used, one of them should 
certainly be added. Lambs should weigh about 60 pounds when 
placed in the feed lot. After a feeding period of 60 to 90 days they 
should weigh from 90 to 95 pounds. 

15. Fattening grown sheep. — The feeding of wethers 
or grown ewes for market does not differ much from the 
method employed in fattening lambs. On some farms 
lambs are held over a season to utilize plentiful pasture 
and to secure one or two wool clips. Such sheep also 
weigh more at market time, although they bring a smaller 
price per pound. These older sheep on good pasture in 
summer, in the feed lot in winter, will usually make ex- 
cellent use of grain and hay. They may be marketed dur- 
ing late winter or early spring. 

Concentrated feeds should be used in connection with bright, 
clean leguminous hays and so mixed with the hay as to give a well- 
balanced ration. Corn, bran, ground oats, oil meal and cottonseed 
meal, are all excellent. During early winter, corn silage and alfalfa 
or clover hay may be fed exclusively. In other cases fodder corn 
and mixed hay may be used for roughage, with wheat bran and 
corn for grain, about one-half pound of a mixture of corn and 
bran being given daily to each animal. As they plump up, the grain 
may be increased gradually, until it reaches as much as two or even 
three pounds a day. 

Where alfalfa or clover is used, a pound of corn daily will be 
satisfactory. If alfalfa or clover is freely used and corn is rela- 
tively low in price and hay high, then cut down the allotment of 
hay and feed one or two pounds of corn daily. Where some grass, 
hay or corn stover, shredded or unshredded, is the only source of 
roughage, bran and one of the oil meals should be used in addi- 
tion to the corn. If fed throughout the winter in this manner, a 
heavy wool clip may be secured the following spring before the ani- 
mals are marketed. 


1. Judging Sheep. — Provide one or more sheep of the wool and 
mutton class. Students should familiarize themselves with the de- 
tails of this score card and fix in their minds the relative weights 
of the different regions. If it is possible to have available several 
sheep for scoring so as to place the several individuals in rank from 
best individual down to poorest individual the value of the exercise 
will be increased and more interest will be added to it. 

Score Card for Wool and Mutton Sheep. 

Scale of Points 


2 o 



General Appearance: 

"Weight — according to weight, at six months, 35 pounds. 

Form — blocky, lo>v do»vn, CDm.jact 

Quality — fine bone and wool 

Head and Neck: 

Muzzle — large nostril, thin lips, medium face 

Eyes^big and bright 

Ears — fine and well carried 

Neck — short and thick 

J orequarters : 

Breast — broad and full 

Shoulders — smooth, filled on top 

Chest — wide and deep 

Legs — wide apart and straight 


Back — level, wide, loin wide and thick 

Ribs — well sprung, well covered 

Underline — low and thick 

Hindquarters : 

Hips — smoothly fleshed, wide and level 

Thighs — thick and wide 

Legs — straight, good bone 


Quality — fine, soft, even 

Density — thick all over body 

Length — long, uniform 

Yolk — evenly distributed, not excessive 

Total . 




2. Judging Sheep of Mutton Type. — While every breed of sheep 
is raised for both wool and mutton, certain breeds are bred and fed 
with mutton the leading consideration, just as certain other breeds 
are grown with wool as the leading consideration. The score card 
following applies for the mutton type. Compare this score card 
with the one on the previous page and point out the principal 

Score Card for Mutton Sheep. 

Score of Points 

A. General Appearance: 

Weight — according to age; at six months, 50 pounds. 

Form — blocky, low down, compact 

Quality — fine wool and bone 

Condition — even covering of flesh 

B. Head and Neck: 

Muzzle — large nostril, thin lips, short face 

Eyes — big and bright 

Ears — fine and well carried 

Neck — short and thick 

C. Forequarters : 

Breast — broad and full 

Shoulders — smooth, filled out on top 

Chest — wide and deep 

Legs — wide apart and straight 

D. Body: 

Back — level, wide, broad in loin, and thick 

Ribs — long, curved, well covered 

Underline — low and thick 

E. Hindquarters : 

Hips — smoothly fleshed, wide and level 

Thighs — thick and wide 

Legs— straight, good bone 

F. Wool: 

Quality — soft, fine, uniform 

Density — heavy, dense, somewhat oily 

Condition — good length, even fibers, clean 


3. Diagram of Sheep. — Place pieces of numbered paper on the 
various regions of the sheep as indicated in the illustrations. Re- 
quire each student to write the name of each region and name the 
corresponding region in his own body. Each student should be re- 
quired also to make a sketch of a sheep and name each part or 
region on the drawing or sketch at the proper point. Continue this 
practice until each student of the class has learned the regions and 



is able to name the location without referring to his sketch, 
tions of all terms should be learned and memorized. 










Diagram of Sheep 

1 Head 

11 Back 

21 Ankle 

2 Face 

12 Loins 

22 Claw 

3 Muzzle 

13 Angle of 


23 Girth measure 

4 Nostril 

14 Rump 

24 Side or barrel 

5 Eye 

15 Tail or dock 

25 Belly 

6 Ear 

16 Chest 

26 Flank 

7 Cheek 

17 Shoulder 

27 Hip joint 

8 Neck 

18 Elbow 

28 Stifle joint 

9 Withers 

19 Forearm 

29 Hock joint 

10 Throat 

20 Knee 


1. Pork. 

2. Lard. 

3. Soft pork. 

4. Two types of hogs. 

5. Bacon type. 

6. Lard type. 

7. Weaning pigs. 

8. After weaning. 

9. Fall pigs. 

10. House for dam. 

11. At time of birth. 

12. Selecting breeding stock. 

13. Dipping tanks. 

14. Hogs are single-purpose animals 

15. Marking hogs. 

Note to the Teacher. — Swine flesh, from its ready re- 
ception of salt, is the most easily preserved of all the 
farm animals. It enters largely into farm dietaries be- 
cause of this fact. The ease with which hogs can be 
raised and slaughtered will always cause them to be a 
source of household economy and comfort. Emphasize 
the economy of hogs in the production of meat. 




1. Pork. — The flesh of the pig is known as pork, and is 
used either fresh or cured. The sides when cured and 
treated are sold as bacon. Some breeds of hogs deposit 
so much fat in the region of the sides that a good grade of 
bacon is not possible to obtain. The best breakfast bacon 
is secured from those breeds bred up as bacon hogs and 
so fed as to get a good mixture of lean meat and fat. 
Pork contains a large proportion of fat and is therefore 
difficult to digest compared with beef. The fat is quite 
soft in character. It has been estimated that salted pork 
requires five hours for digestion, roast pork four hours 
and boiled ham three hours. Bacon is the most digestible 
form of all. 

2. Lard. — To obtain 
lard, the tissues con- 
taining the fat are cut 
into small pieces, 
heated in an open ves- 
sel over the fire and 
constantly stirred. The 
heating causes the fat 
cells to burst. After 
this is accomplished the 
liquid fat is poured off 
and is ready for use. 
Lard is a mixture of 
fats, containing palmi- 
tin, olein and stearin. his majesty, the pig 




Aluch of the fat of the hog is formed under the skin and 
round the kidneys. The large layer of fat deposited 
around the kidneys is called leaf lard, and is considered 
the best in quality. Pure lard is white and nearly taste- 
less and odorless. It is principally used in cooking, and 
for making oleo, soap and ointments. 

3. Soft pork. — Of the three principal fats in lard, olein 
is the most prominent. It is also the softest, going to a 

liquid at ordinary tempera- 
tures. It occurs in varying 
amounts, much less in lean pork 
than in fat pork, Pigs fed ex- 
clusively on corn give a lard 
containing over 90 per cent of 
olein, while pigs fattened on a 
more balanced ration, or one consisting of oats, peas, and 
barley, in addition to corn, yield a lard with less than 70 
per cent of olein. The kind of ration, therefore, has most 
to do with producing a soft or firm class of pork or bacon. 

Device for Easy Scalding and 










w^f^t\ >fl^-^^-^^ :^» -A 


One Way to Avoid Soft Pork 

These pigs have the run of a soy bean field, in addition to a daily feed of corn. 
They are balancing Iheir own ration, harvesting a crop and providing a high grade 
product for human food. 


Soft pork makes a poor grade of bacon. From these facts 
it is evident that to secure high grade bacon the hogs 
must be fed a mixed ration in which the protein or lean 
meat elements shall occupy a leading place. 

4. Two types of hogs. — As the outcome of market re- 
quirements and local methods of feeding, two types of 
hogs have resulted. By far the most prominent is the 
fat or lard type, which includes most of the breeds, and par- 
ticularly the larger and best known breeds in the United 
States. These hogs not only yield a large amount of 
fat, but the meat portion of the carcass supplies the 
greater part of the fresh and cured pork consumed at 
home or exported. Corn is the principal grain used in 
fattening. The second class is the bacon type, repre- 
sented by a few breeds of slightly different conforma- 
tion and which supply the demand for a leaner class of 
meat. Hogs that yield this character of meat are called 
"bacon hogs." A mixed diet, with considerable protein 

Fine Example of Typical Bacon Hog 

Note the long body, light shoulder and ham, and moderate length of side. These 
features are characteristic of the ideal bacon hog. 



in the ration, is most suitable as a food for hogs developed 
and fattened for bacon. 

5. Bacon type. — People who eat bacon demand a 
choice article. They want plenty of lean mixed with the 
fat. Hence a hog that will yield the largest amount of 
bacon of high quality must not be expected to yield at 
the same time a maximum quantity of lard or fat. The 
ideal bacon hog is long in body, only moderately deep 
and thick, and light in shoulder and ham. The back, 
if wide, will carry too much fat for a good grade of bacon. 
A full, strong loin well packed with flesh, is required. A 
flat, straight side is the result of the bacon rib that springs 
out boldly from the backbone, and after making a sharp 
turn, drops down evenly and straight. Length of side is 
always held in high favor. The flesh of the good bacon 
hog is always firm and the bones heavy. 

6. Lard type. — On the other hand, the lard hog is com- 
pact and blocky, rather than long and open. Depth and 
thickness in the region of shoulders, hams, back and 
loin are among the first points considered in this type. 
Packers demand as much meat and lard as the frame will 
carry. A high percentage of dressed product in pro- 

GooD Rhprksentatives of the Lard Type 

The lard hog consumes less dry food to produce a given increase than either the 
sheep or steer. They are, therefore, the best meat maimers. 


portion to live weight commands a premium in the mar- 
ket places. Hogs of this type may be fattened to the 
limit, and a ration that produces fat with a moderate 
amount of lean is acceptable. For this reason corn has 
become the most popular hog food, and the fat hog 
industry a profitable business in the corn states. The 
limit in fattening is more a matter of profit than of 
nature of product. The lard type of hogs may be fed 
to weigh 250 pounds and up, but the bacon trade demands 
a hog weighing 190 pounds and under. 

Ready to be Weaned 

These pigs were early induced to eat slop and pasture. The weaning period will, 
therefore, not interfere with their steady growth and development. 

7. Weaning pigs. — The weaning season is more or less 
critical with young swine. Loss in growth always fol- 
lows a setback at this time. When young pigs have 
learned to take slop freely, made of shorts or middlings 
and skim milk, they are ready for weaning without a 
serious check to their growth. Pigs may be weaned 
at the age of eight weeks. If they cannot be given 


skim milk, it is better that such pigs remain on the dam 
until, say, 10 or 11 weeks old. In no case should they be 
weaned until they can take food freely. Much care 
should be exercised to furnish those kinds of foods that 
promote good growth. Slop food is best. Corn meal, 
linseed meal and middlings or shorts make an ideal com- 

8. After weaning. — As soon as young pigs are weaned, 
they must be kept entirely away from the dam until 
she ceases to secrete milk, but not necessarily for a 
longer period. Give them access to a good pasture in 
the day, and a grain slop in addition, morning and night, 
until the time of fattening. The amount of slop or 
meal will depend, to some extent, upon the character of 
the pasture, but it should be nitrogenous in character. 
When fed in connection with skim milk, a less quantity 
can be given, and the meal can be more of a carbonaceous 
nature, like corn. 

Pasture may consist of alfalfa, clover, green cereals, 
cowpeas, or mixed grasses. In addition to pastures, 
green crops may be grown with advantage for store 
pigs, such as field peas, sweet corn, squashes, man- 
gels, rye, cowpeas and soy beans. These are to be fed 
to supplement pastures and also the meal part of the 
ration. Store pigs will make a substantial growth when 
gleaning among wheat stubbles, providing they be given 
access to the stubble soon after the wheat has been cut. If 
clover has been sown in the spring, no grain will be required. 

9. Fall pigs. — When store pigs are to be reared in 
winter, the aim should be to have them farrowed early 
in the season, in order to be considerably advanced in 
growth when winter sets in. The pens must be warm, 
well lighted and dry, and the pigs must be allowed exer- 
cise. The food may be essentially the same as that 



given in summer, except that roots, milk, clover or 
alfalfa may be given in lieu of the green food of sum- 
mer. The pigs usually bring a better price when sold 
before the seasqn for grass pasturing. For various rea- 
sons there is more hazard in rearing autumn than spring 
litters, but w^ith due preparation and due care such litters 
may be profitably reared. 

10. House for dam. — Young sows should be mated 
10 months to a year old, 
according to growth. An 
individual hog house for 
shelter should be pro- 
vided. This house may 
be of any form and style. 
but one A-shaped in con- 
struction is becoming 
very popular. These are 
built on runners and can 
be drawn to any part of 
the lot or field. Change 
of location insures clean- 
liness and does away 
with filth and mud at the 



/ / 



l^ffr i 




Mrs. Porker at Home 

Houses of this sort are easily built and 
may be moved from place to place in the 
fields or hog lots. They make sanitation a 
simple matter. 

If the period of birth oc- 
curs in winter, the house can- 
not be made too warm. A 

lantern hung inside at the top of the house is excellent protection 
at farrowing and when the pigs are very small. Always have a 
yard for the sow outside the pen; or what is better, give her the 
run of a pasture field. Such attention not only gives her content- 
ment, but exercise, thereby preventing the accumulation of flesh, 
which is a detriment to the coming brood. Exercise also develops 
bone and muscle and imparts to the offspring vigorous constitutions. 

11. At time of birth. — Feed at this period light, tasty 
food, such as middlings, bran, alfalfa, or clover hay and 



a bit of corn. Give just enough bedding to lie upon. 
It is a good plan to chop it up. At least add fresh straw 
some time before farrowing, in order that it may be 
broken up. Otherwise, after the little fellows arrive, 
they may be crushed if covered up in the litter. Feed 
moderately for two or three days, when the milk will 
come in full flow. Then gradually increase the ration, 
giving a variety of feed, and let the dam have about all 
she will eat. Whole corn at this time will be relished, 
but let the milk-making foods be given in greatest 

12. Selecting breeding stock. — The more important 
considerations in selecting breeding stock include lineage, 

general individual quali- 
ties, characteristics as to 
form, and constitutional 
vigor. In respect to type, 
the aim should be to get 
individuals with short 
heads, dished in the fore- 
head and having good 
width between the eyes ; 
fine muzzles, with a short 
snout; strong, bright 
eyes ; drooping or up- 
right ears, not thick or coarse ; soft, mellow skin, with 
fine silky hair, somewhat abundant, but without bristles ; 
short, well-knit, and straight legs, standing well on small, 
strong feet; full, long body, square and broad, with a 
straight back and underline. Hogs of such conformation 
are certain to be of good breeding and to possess early- 
maturing qualities. 

13. Dipping tanks. — Swine of all ages should be kept 
free from lice and other vermin. Otherwise the best 

Pigs Selected for Breeding 
Note uniformity and fine quality. 


growth is not possible, nor can the best thrift be ex- 
pected. The dipping tank offers an easy method of 
treatment. This may be made of concrete, or purchased 
ready made of galvanized iron. A homemade device 
for use except during v^^inter is a shallow vat about 10 
inches deep and 10 to 12 feet square. It may be built of 
concrete or timber. It should be placed conveniently to 
the well or other watering place. The vat is partially 
filled with water and a quart of one of the coal tar dips 
added. The hogs will do their own dipping. The dip 

Doing Their Own Dipping 

Home-made wallows like this may be constructed of boards or cement. If small 
quantities of disinfectants are added from time to time there will be no trouble 
from lice or skin diseases. 

is renewed once or twice a month and the water sup- 
plied as needed. No harm will result if the hogs drink 
some of the liquid. Occasionally, the mud, as it settles at 
the bottom of the vat, should be removed. 

14. Hogs are single-purpose animals. — Cattle furnish 
meat, milk, hides for clothing and sometimes labor. 
Sheep furnish meat, wool, hides and sometimes milk. 
Hogs, however, furnish only meat, lard and bristles. 
Hogs are, therefore, a single-purpose animal. The rea- 
son they can compete with other domestic animals is due 
to their prolificacy, to their ability to convert efficiently 



food, often waste products, into human food, and to the 
ease with which these products can be preserved. Before 
the days of cold storage pork was the only meat that 
would stand long shipments. 
15. Marking hogs. — The best means of identifying 

pure-bred hogs is by means of 
permanent ear tags inserted 
in the ears. These may be 
purchased of dealers, with a 
number on each tag. In the 
absence of tags, markings may 
be made in the ears, the posi- 
tion being- the governing fac- 
tor. The small numbers are 
represented by the right ear, 
the larger numbers by the left. The corner of each ear 
is marked, and two other incisions are made on both the 
lower and upper edges. A hole punched in the center 
may be used in case a number of hogs are to be identified 
or recorded. 

Method of Marking Hogs 


1. In native haunts. 

2. Pigs early used as food. 

3. Berkshire. 

4. Poland-China. 

5. Duroc-Jersey. 

6. Chester White. 

7. Ohio Improved Chester. 

8. Large Yorkshire. 

9. Small Yorkshire. 

10. Mulefoot. 

11. Hampshire. 

12. Tamworth. 

13. Cheshire. 

14. Essex. 

15. Other minor breeds. 

Note to the Teacher. — From the coarse, rough and 
savage wild hogs of the woods have been evolved the 
gentle, meat-making swine breeds of the cultivated 
fields. It took centuries to accomplish this task and 
thousands of earnest minds have been devoted to the 
work. Students should know the leading breeds and 
what their important and distinguishing characteristics 
are. The obvious purpose of this lesson is to bring these 
facts out. Such study ought to create a strong interest 
in hog raising and in growing only well-bred stock. 




1. In native haunts. — All of our important breeds have 
come from the wild hog that once roamed over Europe, 
Asia and Africa. Active and pow^erful, the original pro- 
genitor was also coarse, rough, fleet, and a vicious 


His head 
and bony, his 

"/ ^ 

large and bony, his jaw 
strong and well provided 
with tusks that inflicted 
severe wounds, his neck 
long and muscular, and the 
back and loins broad and 
strong. In his wild habi- 
tat he selects places that 
are moist, rather well con- 
cealed by forest growth, 
where he may feed upon 
plants, fruits and roots, 
though when hunger af- 
fects him he greedily ap- 
peases his appetite on worms, snakes and flesh of any 
kind. The twilight, early dawn and night time seem by 
choice his favorite periods for seeking food, sport, ad- 
venture and exercise. 

Sense of smell has been developed to such a marked degree in 
the wild hog that he is al)le to detect the presence of food, though 
it be covered in the ground. In his earl}^ life he prefers the 
society of his kind, Init when age on he strolls about much 
to himself, never seeking danger, but when it comes not avoiding it. 
Thirty to 40 years is not an infrequent age for some of these wild 
animals to attain. 


Wild Boars 

Ancestors of all modern breeds of 



2. Pigs early used as food. — As meat, hog flesh has 

long been esteemed. It is not strange that the wild boar 

was sought in all ages to meet a table want. The hog 

entered largely into the diet of the Romans, and all 

sorts of practices were employed to impart delicate flavor 

to the flesh. 

"Pliny informs us that old dried figs, drenched with honey and 
wine, were employed as a means of enlarging the liver, so choice a 
dish was it considered by Roman palates. It has been said that the 
Romans often served hogs whole, one side being roasted and the 
other side being boiled. Further still was this carried by stuffing 
the dressed animal with larks and nightingales and delicacies of all 
sorts, and serving with wine and rich gravies." We can imagine 
how delicious this dish must have been by comparing it with the 

Brunswick stews and bar- 
])ecues so well known in 
many rural sections, and 
which possess rich and 
delicate flavors never 
equaled by other domestic 

The wild hog pos- 
sessed a courage and 
fierceness that have 
made him a favorite 
sport with all classes 
and conditions of so- 
ciety. When Rome was at the hight of her greatness, he 
entered into their sports and fights, and in recent times 
both the English and German people have made much 
of these qualities in their hunting expeditions. 

3. Berkshire. — T h e s e 
hogs are of English origin, 
sharing popularity with 
the Duroc-Jersey, next to 
the Poland-China, in the 
United States. They are 

black hogs with white boar 

Berkshire Sow 



points on the feet, face and tip of tail. Formerly the 
breed was reddish with black points, but breeding and 
selection have brought a change. The face is short and 
dished, ears small and erect, and slightly inclined forward, 
the neck short, the back arched and broad. In England 
this is a bacon breed, but here in the land of cor" clover 
and alfalfa, the lard and pork characteristics have been 
intensified and developed. 

Hogs of this breed readily attain a weight of 500 or 600 pounds 
at maturity, and if fattened, at age of eight or nine months, reach 
225 pounds and up. They possess excellent grazing qualities, reach 
maturity at an early age, and fit in with varying conditions. They 
are popular in all sections, and the carcass they give is universally 

4. Poland-China. — This hog originated in the Miami 

Valley of Ohio and has 
come to be the most popu- 
lar American hog. His 
fame and place are due to 
his great qualities as a pork 
and lard hog. His greatest 
domain is in the corn and 
clover sections. In color the 
Poland-China is spotted, 
black and white; in size and form he is similar to the 
Berkshire, except that the frame averages a bit larger 
and stronger ; the ear falls over the eye, while in the Berk- 
shire it is short pointed and straight. These hogs are 
characterized by early ma- 
turity, compact, blocky 
forms, and ease of making 
meat and lard. They may 
be finished for the market 
under ordinary farm con- 
ditions in eight or nine ' ' boar 

Poland-China Sow 



months, and at maturity the breeding stock attains a 
weight of 500 to 600 pounds and over. The boars are 

/larger and heavier than the brood sows. 
I I 5. Duroc-Jersey. — In form these hogs resemble the 
(Toland-China, but are red in color. The standard is 
cherry red, without spots. Their origin is not clearly 
defined, but their development as a breed has been solely 
in this country. They are very prolific, grow rapidly, 
and make pork and lard cheapl}^ In recent years they 
have advanced to the front rank in the corn states as a 
pork and lard hog. They are quiet and good feeders, 
take well to grazing and corn and produce a carcass of 
rich flavor, with a fair proportion of lean meat. 

At public sales ver}^ high prices are paid for popular family 
strains. These hogs are found everywhere, but the place of greatest 
popularity is in those sections where corn, clover and alfalfa are 
most at home. Here they reach under fattening conditions 250 to 
275 pounds at an age of eight or nine months and of 500 to 700 
pounds at maturity. 

6. Chester White. — Chester County, Pennsylvania, is 

A Trio of Duroc-Jersey Hogs 



Chester White Sow 

the place of origin of this good breed. The hair is white 
and thin, the frames la*-ge, the meat excellent. At i,na- 
turity they average 600 to 700 pounds. Under normal 
fattening conditions they are comparable with the Berk- 
shire or Poland-China. This breed possesses good graz- 
ing qualities, the hogs are docile and they fatten readily. 

They have never been popu- 
,,. - lar in the South on account 

of their tendency to sun- 
scald. The very lengthy 
body is well liked by many, 
Ijut the long snout and slight 
tendencies to coarseness 
have been considered objec- 

7. Ohio Improved Chester. 
— In Ohio certain breeders sought to improve what bv some 
were considered defects of the Chester White by refin- 
ing the rougher points and still holding fast to the large 
size, solid frame and fine length. The Improved Ches- 
ter is the result. These hogs retain all of the fundamen- 
tal characteristics of the old 
Chester, but the bone is 
smaller, the snout shorter, 
the face more dished. The 
result of this breeding is a 
splendid big hog of the true 
lard type that feeds well, 
carries a big, broad back, 
and gives a choice ham. 

8. Large Yorkshire. — This breed is typical of the bacon 
class. The hogs are noted for great length, being longer 
in form than any other breed. They are of similar 
weights to the Chester Whites but are not as broad of 

Chester White Boar 



back. Their sides are deep and smooth, ideal in this 
respect for bacon. They have good strong legs are ex- 
cellent rustlers, very hardy and prolific. They do not 
mature as early as the Poland-China or the Duroc- 

Jersey. They graze 
well and develop the 
carcass to cut out 
much bacon of the 
richest and best 
quality. Their bacon 
qualities and great 
p r o 1 i fi c a cy have 
given this breed 
chief place among all breeds throughout the world. 

9. Small Yorkshire. — As the name indicates, this breed 
is of the same original breeding, but, due to different 
crossing and different ideals, a smaller size has resulted. 
At the same time these hogs are finer in quality than the 

Ohio Improved Chester Boar 

Large Yorkshire Sow and Boar 

large Yorkshire, present greater symmetry and more 
compactness. They mature early and give a small car- 
cass, fat and round. At maturity they seldom go above 
225 pounds in weight. At the present time this breed 
is not popular and few herds remain in this country. 



Saiall Yorkshire Sow and Litter 

10. Mulefoot. — This is a very old breed, but only in 
recent years has it come into prominence. It gets the 
name from the foot — the hoof being solid and somewhat 
like a mule in shape. The hogs are black in color, of 
very large size and very prolific. They attain very heavy 
weights at maturity, averaging with the heaviest of the 
pork and lard breeds. The meat is in high favor, because 
of the excellent quality. In shape and form the Mule- 
foot resembles the Duroc-Jersey. The carcass cuts out 
fine hams and very choice bacon. The breed is still lack- 
ing in refined development, but its merits are of such 
high order that notable improvements are fast occurring 
Then hogs are in the first 
rank as 

litters of fine, sturdy young- 
sters have done much also to 
give the breed popularity. 

grazers, fatten easily 
mature early. The big 

11. Hampshire. — This 

Mulefoot Sow 



breed is characterized by a white band of hair 4 to 12 
inches in width encircling the body and including the 
front legs. The rest of the body is black. The head is 


small, broad back of rather striking uniformity and fairly 
heavy bones. The legs are rather long. The breed is 
still in process of development, the tendency being to 
change what once was a hog of bacon tendency into one 
more nearly of the lard type. The hogs are esteemed as 
grazers, and feed out well, but are a bit lacking in early 

maturing qualities. Mature 
boars weigh up to 500 
pounds and mature sows 
up to 350 pounds. 

12. Tamworth. — This 
breed i^ of extreme bacon 
type and of English origin. 
In color the hogs are red, in 
light and dark shades. They are raised especially for 
bacon and do not fatten rapidly. They do attain good 

Tamworth Sow 



Tamworth Boar 

size, boars ranging up to 600 pounds at maturity and 
sows up to 450 pounds. The head is very long and 

straight, the ear large and 
coarse, the body narrow, the 
legs long. The carcass 
shows a large amount of 
lean meat in proportion to 
the fat. They are very pro- 
lific, and graze well. Due to 
the small numbers raised, 
these hogs are rated as a 
minor breed. 

13. Cheshire. — This white breed originated in New 
York. While not raised on many farms, the hogs possess 
much merit. They mature early, make good use of 
forage crops, and pasture 
and fatten easily. They are 
medium in size and farrow 
larger litters than are averaged 
by the major breeds. The ears 
are small and erect, and point 
slightly forward in old animals. 

14. Essex. — This is another 

of the smaller breeds, black in color and of English origin. 

Considerable variation of type is observed, also of size. 

While mature hogs average around 250 pounds, not in- 
frequently others range up 
to 400 pounds. The head is 
small and fine, the nose short 
and the face beautifully 
dished. The legs are fine, firm 
and short. The larger breeds 
have gradually replaced the 
popularity these hogs once 

Cheshire So\)/ 

Essex Boar 



Essex Sow 

enjoyed, although they were never bred to any great ex- 
tent in the United States. 

15. Other minor breeds. — The American Suffolk is lit- 
tle known. It is a white breed, yellowish in shade. It 

stands wide and deep in body, 
on short, fine legs. The body 
is of just moderate length. Its 
principal merit is in its early 
maturing qualities under lim- 
ited confinement, with little or 
no range for forage. It is, 
therefore, most popular under 
a very intensive system and where few hogs are raised. 
The Victoria is white in color and a hog small in size. 
It is often seen at fairs and shows, but is not raised to any 
extent for either bacon or pork. It has more characteris- 
tics of the lard than of the bacon type. It does not occupy 
any important place of usefulness. 

The razorback breed, if 
it may be called such, is 
long snouted, long legged, 
long bodied. These hogs 
are unimproved as to 
breeding, but are hardy, 
prolific and exceedingly 
good foragers. They are 
found mostly in the open 

country of the southern states, where they feed on mast, 
grass and roots. The improved breeds are fast displac- 
ing them. 

Victoria Boar 


1. Meat producers compared. 

2. Most meat from hogs. 

'J. Fastest gains during early growth. 

4. What weight limit is best? 

5. Early feeding*. 

6. Creeps for little pigs. 

7. Mineral matter and charcoal. 

8. Making a slop. 

9. Pasture for pigs. 

10. Grazing runs for hogs. 

11. Forage for cheap grain. 

12. Fattening hogs. 

Ti Last stage of fattening. 

14. Making good bacon. 

15. Hogs as corn harvesters. 

Note to the Teacher. — It is desirable to emphasize the 
importance of the ideas brought out in the first four para- 
graphs of this lesson. Bear in mind that in hog raising 
the largest production of pork at the least cost a pound 
is a factor of fundamental consideration. In fattening 
hogs often the cost of a pound of gain is much greater 
than the value of that gain when the animal is sold. 
Young hogs of a moderate weight are more profitable 
to raise for market than aged hogs of enormous weight. 



1. Meat producers compared. — When compared with 
other meat producers the hog consumes less food for 
what he gives than any 
other meat-making animal. 
He works faster. It is due 
in part to his digestive ap- 
paratus, to the kind of food 
he relishes, and to the fact 
that he uses less food than 
the other animals for work 
and body heat. On the 
basis of 1,000 pounds live 
weight the hog uses about 
275 pounds of dry food to 
160 for the sheep and 125 
for steers a week. Of this 
he will digest 230 pounds, 
while the sheep will digest 
but 120 pounds and the 
steer but 88 pounds. 

2. Most meat from hogs. 
— To produce 100 pounds 
of increase the steer will 
consume 1,100 pounds of 
dry food, the sheep 910 and 
the hog 420. The increase 
in live weight for food con- 
sumed, on the basis of one 

Modern Meat Makers 



point for steers, will be 1.5 for sheep and 5,8 for hogs. 
From this it is clear that in proportion to its weight the 
sheep eats more food than the steer and yields a greater 
increase in consequence ; but the pig, by eating more 
heartily, consumes more food and yields more meat or in- 
crease than either. 

3. Fastest gains during early growth. — It used to be 
that hogs were kept as stockers on grass until they had 
reached a year or two in age, and then were fed until they 
weighed from 300 to 500 pounds. When slaughtered or 
sold they, of course, showed great returns, but the cost of 


100 200 300 400 500 600 700 


Food Consumed by Hogs During Fattening Period 

During a 10-\veek fattening period, with hogs, the food consumption increases 
more than 50 per cent to produce 100 pounds of increase. There is a limit to 
which hogs may be profitably fed. 

bringing them up to such weights was not considered. 
When put to the test it was soon realized that while such 
hogs in the feed lot would take on large increase, the cost 
of the increase was far above the returns in money. In 
other words, large hogs will steadily take on increase, but 
they do so only with great consumption of food. 

4. What weight limit is best? — A pig of proper age and 
weighing under 100 pounds will require less than 300 
pounds of feed to yield 100 pounds of increase, while a 
mature hog weighing 300 pounds will demand over 
500 pounds of feed to yield 100 pounds of increase. 
There is, therefore, a decided economy in feeding hogs 


only up to a certain point. This point ranges from 175 
to 250 pounds, depending on circumstances — the market 
price of hogs, and the sale value of feed. In these days 
few hogs are fed until they attain a weight of 400 or 
500 pounds. If they are so fed every pound of gain 
costs twice as much as it fetches in the market. 

5. Early feeding. — The first food of the pig is milk ; and 
milk is a narrow ration. Soon after birth additional food 
is demanded that will admit the gradual introduction of 

Making Hogs of Themselves 

the carbohydrate ingredients. Middlings, shelled corn, 
or corn meal may each be profitably used If skim milk 
is available, it will supply abundant protein, but corn 
meal, middlings or shorts should be added also. This 
combination is easily furnished as "slop," which may 
be continued even until the beginning of the fattening 

6. Creeps for little pigs. — Young pigs during their 
suckling days will do best if fed additional slop in a sep- 



arate pen and away from the mother and the larger pigs. 
Runs in which are grown green grasses, the clovers and 
other forage crops are indispensable if pork is to be made 
at profitable returns. Provided for in this manner, pigs 
will widen their ration in accordance with their needs. 

The ration, which at first was very narrow, will now 
widen until spread to one part of protein to five or six 
parts of carbohydrates and fat. When the finish of the 
fattening period is reached the ration will be near one of 



i— ^!*|| 




■■^' li^ 





: ^^::t 


Enjoying the Charcoal Box 

One reason why thrift is frequently wanting is due to an insufficient supply of 
protein and mineral elements in the hog ration. A charcoal box in which may be 
placed charcoal, soft coal, ground bone, salt and oil meal meets the situation. 

protein to eight or nine of the heat and fat-producing in- 
gredients. The great fattening food is corn ; its nutritive 
ratio is one to nine plus. Thus the food changes in char- 
acter from milk to corn or other similar foods, and the 
ration is gradually widened to meet the increasing re- 
quirements for fat production. 

7. Mineral matter and charcoal. — If the ration consists 
largely of corn and the young hogs are on pasture they 
will fare better than young pigs in the dry feed lot. Pigs 
grow rapidly if fed well. If the food supply is deficient 


in mineral elements the lack is told in smaller bones and 
slower gains. Ground bone or bonemeal can be intro- 
duced advantageously into the ration, either when the 
hogs are in the feed lot or on pasture. Soft coal, char- 
coal and salt, either in mixture or given separately, should 
be kept before the animals at all times. 

8. Making a slop. — When pigs are young, food in the 
form of slop is most easily and safely fed. At first it 
should be quite thin. The nearer it approaches the con- 
sistency of buttermilk the better for the pigs. As the 

Slopping the Hogs 

Different lots are fed in accordance with their requirements. The attendants pass 
from pen to pen, mixing the slop as needed and in accordance with size and num- 
ber of animals in each pen. 

pigs grow it is a mistake to continue to feed a very thin 
slop. An over-supply of water in slop is harmful ; fat 
production is retarded. If food is given in slop continu- 
ously the water is to be lessened as the animals increase 
in size. When a weight of 100 pounds or so has been 
reached, the pigs now being five or six months old, the 
slop should be so made as to have a consistency some- 
what like mush. If the pigs demand more water than 
this food supplies, let it be available as drink. 


9. Pasture for pigs. — The great opportunity for mak- 
ing a profit out of pigs, especially when prices are low 
and grain products high, is to depend on the use of clover, 
cowpeas, soy beans, alfalfa and rape pastures. As the 
subject of pig feeding is studied, more conclusive be- 
comes the evidence that pasture crops go hand in hand 
with pork production. It should be the swine raiser's 
aim as much to grow these forage crops as it is to grow 
the hog itself. Particularly is this true of the legume 

l.i',' ■■■.! P--t: kr^ Ideal for Pigs 

For growing pigs, alfalfa, clover and other legumes are excellent forage crops. 
If these are not available, tender mixed grasses will serve. Corn or slop or both is 
advisable in addition to the green forage. 

crops. Alfalfa naturally comes first because of its highly 

digestible nutrients, its vigorous growth and consequent 

heavy yields, its long cycle of life and its land-improving 

benefits. In time alfalfa will be commonly grown in all 


Hogs may be turned into an alfalfa or a clover field early in the 
spring and kept there through the season until frost, provided the 
acreage is large in proportion to the number of animals. The 
tramping will not hurt the crop, and the grazing of the swine will 
not impair the feeding quality of the alfalfa when made into hay. 
When a large field is pastured a portion may be cut. to be fol- 
lowed a week or so later by another portion, and so until the field 



has been cut over. In this way there will be a new growth of al- 
falfa at all times, giving the pigs just the sort of pasture they de- 
sire. Alfalfa IS rich in protein; hence the addition of corn to the 
ration while the animals are running on the pasture is advisable, es- 
pecially if early maturity is sought. Young pigs on alfalfa, sup- 
plied with a light feeding of corn daily, within seven or eight 
months will weigh 250 pounds. 

10. Grazing runs for hogs.— Where large fields are 
not available small runs may be resorted to. These solve 
the problem very satisfactorily on many farms. The 
small run lots may 
be of any size from 
a half acre to five 
acres. The number 
of hogs to be kept 
will decide as to size 
and number of runs. 
An average size is 
about an acre. One 
or two of these 
lots may be per- 
manent pasture of 
either clover or blue grass, a temporary pasture of 
timothy and clover, or a permanent pasture of 
alfalfa. The other lots may be used in rotation. 
Several of them may be seeded to rye in the 
fall, and as they are pastured ofif in turn during the 
winter and spring, they may be seeded with other forage 
plants. The one first grazed down may be plowed and 
seeded early to peas and oats, the next one to corn or 
sorghum or a mixture of the two, a third to cowpeas, 
and the others to soy beans, rape, peanuts, or sweet 

11. Forage for cheap grain. — Any growing crop is 
helpful in producing cheap pork. In sections where a 
temporary pasture like timothy and clover is available 

Grazing Runs for Hogs 

The hogs are shifted each month to a fresh pas- 
ture in which one of the best crops of the season 
is available as food. 


Spring pigs may be given the range of the fields. Thus 
they will gather a considerable portion of their food. 
But they should not be denied additional food in the way 
of slops or of dpy grain. Corn or corn and oil meal, or 
corn and tankage, may be used in combination to insure 
steady growth. Spring pigs thus raised, b}^ July will be 
of fair growth. From this time they should be pushed 
somewhat in order that they may be fat by late fall or 
early winter. 

The feeding of green corn on pasture is common and has much 
in its favor. Practically all of the plant but the coarse stalk is con- 
sumed. The kinds of forage cover a wide range. The fact is, 
anything green that is appetizing is good for hogs. 

12. Fattening hogs. — The aim should be to get flesh 
growth rather than an overburden of fat. At the begin- 
ning of the fattening period hogs will eat 40 to 50 
pounds of dry matter per 100 pounds of live weight. 
This diminishes to 25 or 30 pounds as the fattening 
period advances. Hogs will get fat when on corn. 
Their best development is obtained when other feeds 
containing more protein are provided in addition. 
Tankage, peas, or beans are excellent. Use one part of 
either to eight or ten parts of corn at the beginning of 
the finishing period. 

The most intensive fattening is secured on easily digestible ma- 
terial. Corn is the universal food and enters most largely into the 
grain combination. All other grain feeds are to be used as supple- 
ments and as balancing foods with corn. During the beginning pe- 
riod of fattening when clover, alfalfa, or other pasture is available. 

Topping Off on Corn 



corn is the only grain necessary. Fattening hogs can be kept on 
such pastures ahnost up to the finish. 

13. Last stage of fattening.— Hogs very heavy with fat 
should not be required to roam about for food. Hence, 
during the final stage of fattening, the smaller the pasture 
or feed lot the less the loss because of this needless ex- 
penditure of energy. A great many of the most success- 
ful feeders take the fattening hogs from pasture to the 
feed lot. In most cases corn is the exclusive feed. Wa- 
ter should be at hand at all times, or available at fre- 
quent intervals. Rations containing one part of tankage 
or meat meal or soy bean meal to eight or ten parts of 
corn, unless corn is low in value, will produce a more 
rapid and cheaper growth than corn will alone. 

14. Making good bacon. — Feeding stuffs greatly influ- 
ence the quality of bacon. Oily grains have the 
strongest effect. To get good bacon, these oily grains 

Choice Bacon 

These pigs average 180 pounds. They were fed a ration consisting of corn, 
wheat middlings and tankage. They will make choice bacon because they are not 
too fat, and their food contained considerable protein. 


should be reduced to a half or a third of the whole ra- 
tion. Corn is the principal food for both lard and bacon 
hogs, and may compose as much as 75 or 80 per cent of 
the ration in bacon production. Middlings and tankage 
may be used for the balance. In Canada, where bacon 
is in much favor, barley is a common food for hogs. It 
is fed both ground and soaked. Other foods used in 
combination are skim milk, peas, oats and middlings. If 
oats are used they should be crushed. The most profit 
from bacon is secured when clover, alfalfa, cowpeas or 
rape are provided as forage. 

Hogging Off the Corn 

Hogs are here harvesting the corn crop. They not only eat all of the ears, but 
consume the greater part of the stalks. When the fat hogs are removed, brood 
sows and pigs should be turned into the field to clean up. 

15. Hogs as corn harvesters. — Not only may hogs 
produce more with less grain in hogging ofT, but they 
often -mature in less time than when pen fed. It is not 
unusual to save at least a quarter of the fattening period 
where this method is followed. Young hogs weighing 
80 to 125 pounds are best in the green cornfield. At 
this size they have good frames, are mature enough, and 
carry enough flesh to fatten in a few weeks and be ready 
for market. Brood sows also will make good use of 


green corn. When thin from suckling pigs, or are un- 
thrifty from any cause, they will quickly flesh up and 
improve and be ready for market in from 30 to 50 days. 
While corn may be hogged off at any period, it is best 
to let it mature somewhat. Then you get all there is in the 
crop. If the ordinary summer pasture is short give some 
additional feed, like shorts and middlings, in slop, to tide 
along until the corn is fairly well developed. When it 
passes the milk stage, and is somewhat dented, the hogs 
may be turned into the field. The entire field is usually 
given over to the hogs, when labor is high, the soil not 
wet, and the herd and the field not large in size. Use old 
hogs, stock hogs and brood sows for cleaning up after 
the fattening bunch has been taken away. Not much 
will be left, but still there will be some ; if this were not 
so, the fattening hogs would have been fed rather un- 
wisely for the last week or two. 


1. Judging Swine. — Provide two or more hogs of the pork and 
lard t>-pe. Students should familiarize themselves with the details 
of this score card and fix in their minds the relative weights of the 
different regions. If it is possible to have available several hogs for 
scoring so as to place the several individuals in rank from best in- 
dividual down to poorest individual the value of the exercise will be 
increased and increased interest will be added to it. 

Score Carp for Lard Hogs 

Scale of Points 

A. General Appea-ance: 

Weight — according to age 

Form — deep, low, compact, square on legs 

Oiiality — skin and hair fine; bone fine; flesh smooth, mellow 
Condition — deep and even covering of flesh ; flesh firm 

B. Head and Neck: 

Snout — medium, not coarse 

Eyes — big and bright 

Ears — soft, medium size 

Jowl — short and broad 

Neck — thick, medium length 

C. Forequarters : 

Shoulder — ^broad. deep, full, on top compact 

Breast — wide 

Legs — straight, short; bone clean; upright pasterns 

D. Body: 

Chest — deep and broad with large girth 

Sides — deep, long, full: well-sprung ribs 

Back — ^broad, straight, thick, evenly fleshed 

Loin — wide, thick ... - 

Underline — even and straight 

E. Hindquarters: 

Hips — smooth and wide apart 

Rtimp — straight, wide, long, evenly fleshed 

Ham — fleshed heavily ; full and plump ; deep ; wide 

Thighs — fleshed close up to hocfc 

Legs — straight, short; txjne clean; upright pasterns 

Total 100 




2. Score Card for Bacox Hogs. — As with lard hogs, have avail- 
able two or more individuals of the bacon type for judging. If 
bacon hogs are not raised in the community, the exercise may be 
given over to judging lard hogs, using the previous score card. It is 
advisable to compare the two score cards, indicating the principal 
differences between the two classes. Every student should be able 
to distinguish the bacon type from the lard type, and to know a good 
bacon hog when he sees it. 

Score Card for Bacon Hogs 

Scale of Points 

3 O 


General Appearance: 

Weight — according to age; for market 180 to 220 pounds. . . 

Form — long body, smooth, level, deep sides 

Quality — skin and hair fine; bone fine; flesh smooth, mellow 

Condition — deep and even covering of flesh ; flesh firm 

Head and Neck: 

Snout — medium, not coarse 

Eyes — big and bright 

Ears — soft, medium size 

Jowl — light, trim 

Xeck — light, of medium length and muscular 


Shoulders . smooth, even with back 

Breast — full, moderately wide 

Legs — straight, longer than lard hogs; bone clean; upright 



Chest — deep with full girth 

Sides — long, smooth, level; long, well-sprung ribs 

Back — uniform and even in width; smooth 

Loin — even with back 

Underline — even and straight 

Hindquarters : 

Hips — smooth, wide, blend with rest of body 

Rump — even and long; uniform with back 

Ham — firm, not flabby; tapering to hock 

Thigh — fleshed low down 

Legs — straight; longer than lard hogs; strong pasterns 

Total 100 


1. In ancient times. 

2. Uses. 

3. Goats' milk. 

4. Milk goats. 

5. Milking- qualities. 

6. Cashmere goats. 

7. Angora goats. 

8. Feeding. 

9. Housing. 

10. Fencing. 

11. Milking. 

12. Breeding. 

13. P'lock management. 

14. Protection for sheep. 

15. Around the house. 

Note to the Teacher. — In the popular mind the goat is 
a creature of ridicule found only in dirty city alleys and 
subsisting on old paper or on such refuse as may be 
picked up along neglected roadsides. The wonderful 
usefulness of these hardy creatures and their steadily 
increasing numbers, because of merit of fleece and 
milk, are giving them a place and reputation among 
our most useful animals. In Europe the goat enjoys 
its greatest popularity, and there in numbers it totals 
up into the millions. Point out the many ways that the 
goat may be used in this country. 




1. In ancient times. — The goat, closely related to the 
sheep and the deer, likes 
warmth and dryness and is 
most at home in hot cli- 
mates. Originally it chose 
mountainous regions for its 
home. From time imme- 
morial the goat has been a 
domestic animal. Its cra- 
dle seems to have been in 
central Asia, from which it 
has spread to Europe, Af- 
rica, America and to other 
parts of the world. A fair 
estimate places the number 
of goats in Europe at 20 millions and in the United 
States at over two millions. 

2. Uses. — In some communities goat meat is rel- 
ished. When kept in sanitary quarters and fed clean 
and fresh forage the meat is considered good, especially 
of the young. Sometimes it passes as mutton. Ma- 
ture goat meat is strong, and of nasty flavor. A great 
field is open for breeding flavor and quality in good 
flesh. The milk of goats has for a long time been 
greatly prized and is approved for infants and invalids. 
The skin of goats is used in our day for the manufac- 
ture of kid for gloves, morocco and other fine leathers, 
and also for parchment. The hair is very useful in the 


As Fine as Silk 



manufacture of brushes. Mohair comes from Angora 
goats and is in constant demand at good prices. Mo- 
hair skins are frequently tanned and dyed and used as 
rugs and coverings. 

3. Goats' milk. — In Europe goats are largely kept for 
their milk. Goats' milk is very nourishing on account 
of the great quantity of fat and albumen which it con- 

iMPORTED Goats of the Milk Class 

Here are excellent representatives of goats raised primarily for milk. They be- 
long to the Saanen breed, a very popular race of the milk class from Switzerland. 

tains, and also because it is easy to digest, and comes 
from an animal relatively free from disease. Goats are 
less troubled by the ravages of disease than cattle, and 
their milk seems to present no danger to those that use 
it. If the milk has a bitter taste it is because of the food. 
The goat eats with satisfaction what other animals re- 
ject ; it will eat wild berries, bushes, bark of trees, weeds 
or anything it can get. It is truly the scavenger of the 

4. Milk goats. — A few flocks of milk goats have been 



established in this country. The demand for these is 
great both here and abroad, causing the prices of healthy 
specimens of dairy qualities to be rather high. Impor- 
tations from milk goat regions in Europe are made by 
American importers and 
breeders. The future of this 
line is full of promise for a new 
industry of bounded limits. 
The Swiss goat of Saanen is 
the chief species of central 
Europe. It comes from the 
valleys of the Saanen and the 
Simmen and is characterized 
by its color, which is wholly 
white, by the absence of 
horns and especially by its 
great production of milk. 

The Toggenburg, also a 
Swiss breed, and the Maltese, 
from the island of Malta, are 
noteworthy breeds of the milk 
goat. The Toggenburg is of 
a medmm brownish color, but 
the Maltese is white. The 
hair of these breeds is usually 
short and rough, the beard 
long and heavy. The race 
has delicate heads, slender 
necks, long bodies, straight 
backs, thin legs and large, 
tender, hairless udders in the 
ewes. The bucks readily reach 
three feet in height. 

5. Milking qualities. — With 

Milk Goats 

Saanen goats at top and bottom: 
Toggenburg goat in the middle. 


good food, production in some instances reaches six to 
eight quarts a day, but three to five quarts is more the 
rule. Goats are milked about six months and then are 
dried off. The production will run from 500 to 1,000 
quarts of milk during a lactation period. One ewe in 
Europe is reported to have produced 3,000 quarts during 
a single year. 

6. Cashmere goats. — At one time the making of cash- 
mere shawls was a great industry in Cashmere. That 

old industry, however, has 
i'"^^^ ^^^^ some of its glory and 

importance. These animals 
f originally flourished in Cash- 
{ mere and Tibet. The wool 

'■■ enables the goats to bear 

the severe cold of the moun- 
\ tainous climate of these re- 
gions, although only a pound 
'" to a pound and a half is 

Angora Goat , , ^ i • <t^, 

sheared at a clip. these 
animals have a double coat — a covering of outer hair, 
long, fine, straight and stiff; and beneath this is the fine, 
soft and fleecy wool that has made the breed so famous. 
The goats are of medium size; they have rather large 
heads and pendent ears, and long spiral horns that curve 
obliquely backward. 

7. Angora goats. — These goats are natives of Asia 
Minor, and since their introduction have steadily grown 
in popularity. The bucks have long, flat, finely curved 
horns, but those of the ewes are smaller and simpler. In 
addition to their service in yielding a clip of valuable 
mohair, their flesh is more and more coming to be used 
for human food. It is often sold as mutton, and if the 
animals are properly fed and slaughtered while young, 



the mutton is very good. Another use to which Angoras 
are put is for clearing land. They eat the bark of trees, 
various kinds of underbrush and weeds and soon kill out 
bushes. Many Angora enthusiasts claim they are worth 
a great deal for this purpose. 

"Mohair comes from the Angora goat. That of the finest quality 
is sheared from kids a year old. It gradually deteriorates until the 
sixth year, when it is of practically no value. The wool is abun- 
dant, thick, long, soft, shining, silky and slightly curled. The color 
is white. An average chp is three pounds. Mohair is extensively 
used in the manufacture of plush and certain kinds of dress goods. 
Sometimes the skins are tanned, either in natural color or dyed and 
used for rugs and robes." 

Angora Goats at Pasture 
They are cleaning the hillside of weeds and brush. 

8. Feeding. — Goats like to browse around in fence cor- 
ners, thickets and on broken areas. Wherever they 
browse on brush they so completely destroy the rubbish 
that grass invariably springs up. This is because the 
undergrowth is destroyed and grass is given an oppor- 
tunity to thrive. They take to grass also, but not so 
readily as to brushwood. When on pasture, the coarser 
grasses are preferred. In winter they will pick over corn 
stover, eat straw and grain. Sheaf oats, alfalfa, cowpea 



and clover hay are all excellent coarse food for them, and 
they eat these readily and with great relish. Milk goats 
require heavier feeding than those kept solely for mohair 
or as scavengers. They should be fed liberally and 
treated as other milk producers. The legume hays for 
roughage ; kitchen refuse such as potatoes, carrots and 
turnips ; bran and linseed meal, make an ideal ration. 
Oats, barley, corn, and similar feeds may also be used to 
secure change and variety. 

9. Housing. — Give goats clean quarters. If they belong 
to the milk varieties, let them be treated and housed simi- 

"Mr. Billy" Leading the Flock to PAsruRi 

lar to dairy cows. This means a warm barn or shed, dry 
stalls, and an abundance of fresh air. Goats are par- 
ticularly sensitive to moisture. They should have shelter 
in rainy weather. They should be provided with a rack 
in which their coarse fodder is placed, and given fresh 
bedding like other farm animals for cleanliness and com- 
fort. Salt in rock form may be kept before them at all 
times. Their drinking water should be fresh and pure. 
10. Fencing. — In summer it is expected that these ani- 
mals will have grazing facilities as do other kinds of live 



stock. In winter a paddock or small lot for exercise is 
desirable. In either case substantial fences are needed. 
Goats are great climbers as well as great creepers. They 
go over and under things if the opportunity is offered. 
By nature they are climbers ; unless trained to do so, they 
will not jump. The fences should be high and of such 
construction as to prevent climbing. 

11. Milking. — Milk goats are milked two or three times 
daily. Regularity is as important with these animals as 
with cows. Gentleness and kindness at all times have 
their value. It is a good rule to wipe the teats and udder 
before drawing any milk. The udder is then stripped a 
few times from above, downward. The milking should not 
be done in the stall on account of odors that tend to con- 
taminate its flavor. 

Each milking should be 
weighed and a record of 
its weight kept for fu- 
ture reference and as an 
aid in determining the 
value of each individual. 

12. Breeding. — As a 
rule goats are very pro- 
lific. From two to four 
kids are dropped at a 
time, depending on the 
breed or race. Angora 
goats breed once a year, 
but other goats breed 
very soon after kidding. 
Maturity is reached in 
from 15 CO 18 months. 
If bred before this time, 
the offspring- are neither ^P""- ^^ «i'^^" ^''°^^' ^^^ operation is less 

i^ , o tiresome. 

One Way of Milking 

In Europe goats are commonly milked 
from the rear. By placing the goat on a 



strong, nor do they show sturdy development. An- 
goras are at their best at from two to six years, and 
are not worth much after that time. Milk goats may 
be kept longer, especially if they produce offspring of 
exceptional merit. The average life of these animals 
is about 12 years. Owing to the delicate nature of the 
kids, the breeding period should be timed so that the 
young may be dropped after the warm days have come. 

13. Flock management. — Start with a few individuals 
at first and learn by experience. Don't make the mis- 
take of getting inferior quality. A few good specimens 
will prove a great deal more profitable than double the 

Angora Flock Raised for Wool and Meat 

number of poor or mongrel stock. When kids are four 
to five months old, they may be weaned. Watch the feet. 
When the toes grow out and turn up, they should be 
trimmed — otherwise they become a nuisance to the 
animal, or they may get sore and cause much pain. On 
rocky land trimming is not always necessary. Footrot 
often results if goats are kept on land that is wet much 
of the time. In case of infection change to new pas- 
ture after treating with sulphate of copper or other anti- 



septic wash. While goats are subject to a variety of 
diseases, they are not so much so as sheep. 

14. Protection for sheep. — There is some truth in the 
statement that a goat running with sheep will keep off 
the dogs. But this means the protecting buck must be 
trained to fight the dogs. Being fighters naturally, their 
pugnacious disposition is easily developed; and if so de- 
veloped when dogs visit the flock, the buck will at once 
lead in the attack, and thus in many cases save the 
sheep. A few goats will stay with a flock of sheep, but 
when in considerable number they prefer to graze off to 
themselves, and the protection thus desired is not se- 
cured. Where protection is wanted one or two fight- 
ing bucks are greatly to be preferred to a dozen. 

15. Around the house. — As pets for children the goat 
has long been popular. They are troublesome only 
when teased and an- 
noyed. They show 
much intelligence and 
are easily trained. 
Children have no dif- 
ficulty in controlling 
them when harnessed 
to carts, and driven. 
Common goats have 
been used mostly for 
these purposes, but the 
Angora is equally sat- 
isfactory. Angoras are 
freer from the "goat 
odor" than common 
goats and their beau- 
ty makes them very 
desirable as pets. 

Billy at Work 


1. Honey. 

2. Young bees. 

3. Nurses. 

4. From grub to bee. 

5. Queens. 

6. Two kinds of eggs. 

7. Why bees swarm. 

8. Division of labor. 

9. Honeycomb. 

10. Hives. 

11. Feeding bees. 

12. Three kinds of honey. 

13. Wintering bees. 

14. Kinds of bees. 

15. Bee diseases. 

Note to the Teacher. — No story is more interesting 
than how bees live and gather honey. The lesson 
teaches the essential facts about these useful busybodies. 
As a matter of general culture every student ought to 
have a thorough understanding of the honeybee — how 
it lives, how it works, and what it does. No where in 
the animal kingdom is mutual help and community co- 
operation more strikingly demonstrated than in the case 
of the honeybee. 




1. Honey. — When plants are in flower they secrete a 
substance (nectar), which, when worked over by bees, 
is known as honey. The working or neuter bees are 
able to suck the nectar out of the flowers by means 
of lapping mouth parts. They then swallow this fluid, 
passing it into the dilation of the oesophagus called 
the crop or honey bag. On arrival at the hive the honey 
is disgorged into the cells of the comb. The nectar is 
probably altered by admixture with the secretion of the 
crop. At first this sub- 
stance is very much of a 
fluid consistency, but it 
is readily thickened by 
the workers who vibrate 
their wings so violently 
over the cells into which 
the deposit was placed 
that the surplus water is 
evaporated. The p r o d - 
uct thus gathered and 
stored in the comb is used 
by the bees as food. 

2. Young bees. — Not all 
of the cells of the comb 
are filled with honey. In 
some, eggs are deposited 
by the queen bee. The 
queen bee is 

Examining the Hive 

Beekeepers must look after their bees 
as carefully as the stock breeder looks 
the mother ^f*^"" his herds, if he would have them 
thrifty and profitable producers. 



of the colony. She moves about at laying time, leav- 
ing one egg in a cell. Three days later, from the eggs 
are hatched the young bees; these are small, soft and 
white — and helpless, v^ithout feet or wings. 

3. Nurses. — Unless carefully looked after, these help- 
less creatures would surely die. Fortunately for them, 
they have nurses, whose special duty is to feed and care 
for them. The nurse bees stay in the hive, attend to 
these struggling offspring, and until their charges are 
more mature never go forth in search of nectar as do 
the other workers. These nurses are, as a rule, the 
younger members of the brood. When the new arrivals 
are old enough to take their places they join the other 
workers in gathering food for the community. One of 
the duties of the nurse bees is to prepare the bee bread 
for the little ones. They make this in their stomachs 
and disgorge and feed to the grubs or larvse. The food 
is highly nutritious, but after two or three days of such 
feeding ordinary honey and nectar are substituted for it. 

4. From grub to bee. — When the grubs or infant bees 
are well started forth a small amount of food, all in a 
lump, is placed in the cell and the cell sealed up with 
wax. The grub or larva consumes the allotment in the 
course of two or three days and then changes into its 
pupal state. It now goes to sleep for 13 days, after 
which time it throws off its cover and emerges as a 
mature bee. To break open the waxed-up cell is its 
next task; this done, the new bee comes out, joins its kin 
and goes to work with the rest of tlie inhabitants of the 

5. Queens. — The nurse bees are ever mindful of the 
welfare of the colony. Anarchy would reign in the com- 
munity were a queen bee not on hand to preserve quiet 



and peace, and to lay the eggs. Hence, the nurses al- 
ways provide for this contingency. When the eggs are 
hatching they select a cell for enlargement. The other 
cells round about the chosen one are torn down, that this 
one may be given royal size. When the 
Qgg is hatched much bee jelly is set be- 
fore the grub. This nutritious food is 
given throughout the larvae days, and 
only to the grub selected to become a 
queen bee. Honey is good enough for the 
other infant bees; not so, however, with 
this one on whom so great care was be- 
stowed to provide a birthplace of greater 
splendor. When this particular individ- 
ual comes out of its pupa form it is not 
an ordinary worker or a drone bee, but a 
queen of royal size and character. 

6. Two kinds of eggs. — Queen bees 
hatch from eggs of the same character as 
the eggs from which come worker bees. 
The queen bee owes her superiority to the 
nurses for their attention in providing a 
larger cell and more nutritious food. Had 
it not been for a big cell and much bee 
jelly the queen would have issued from 
the pupa a regular worker or a drone, 
reaches maturity without mishap and enjoys the obei- 
sance of her followers, she in due course of time lays 
eggs. It is in her power to lay either fertilized or un- 
fertilized eggs. The male or drone bees are hatched 
from eggs that are fertilized. From the latter class are 
obtained the queens, their existence being dependent 
upon the manner in which nourishment is provided. 

7. Why bees swarm. — Ordinarily there is but one 


Three Kinds cf 

Bees in Every 


If the queen 



queen to the colony. If perchance additional queens ar- 
rive, there is trouble at once. The first thing observed is 
fighting between the new^ queens. They keep it up un- 
til only one of the new queens is left. The old queen, or 
mother of the hive, as if in disgust, issues forth and seeks 
a new abiding place. Many of her loyal attendants fol- 
low her, and finding a suitable branch or crotch they 
mass together in a dense body or swarm. After collect- 
ing their wits they seek out a hol- 
low tree or branch and start a new 
community. In apiaries the bee 
tender is on the lookout for these 
outbreaks, and when they occur 
the swarm is put in a new hive, 
where everything is in nice order 
for vigorous work in filling comb 
cells with honey. Here the bees 
make ready the cells, gather 
honey, bring on new broods, and 
found a new establishment. 

8. Division of labor. — Every 
hive or bee community contains 
three kinds of bees — a queen. 
The duty of laying eggs devolves 
on the queen. The drones are male bees ; they serve the 
community by fertilizing the queen, who fertilizes the 
eggs. To the workers is committed the task of provid- 
ing the material and well-being of the hive or commu- 
nity. They secure the honey, build the combs, feed the 
young and gather the food for all. "And all the work 
done by the workers is strictly work for the whole 
community; in no case does the worker bee work for 
itself alone ; it works for itself only in so far as it is a 
member of the community." 


Swarm of Bees 

drones, and workers. 



9. Honeycomb. — Making wax is one of the duties of 
the worker bees. They manufacture it from their food. 
It is really a secretion from certain glands in the abdo- 
men. The bees arrange wax in slabs and pack hexagonal 
cells all over it. The result is the honeycomb. They 
now have a place to store the honey they gather and tiny 
incubators for the eggs when the queen lays them. 
When the honey cells are filled they 9 re sealed with 
wax. The brood cells are sealed with both nectar and 

The work of bees may be greatly facilitated by providing comb 
foundations in the hives. These are strong sheets of wax with the 
imprint of the base of bee cells upon both sides. Except for wild 
bees, these artificial foundations are now provided for all domestic 
hives. Successful bee keeping is due more largely to the skillful use 
of artificial combs than to any other single factor in the manage- 
ment of the hive. 

Apiary Showing Hives and Their Arrangement 

The beekeeper who owns this apiary devotes his entire time and attention 
to his bees. 

10. Hives. — Various kinds of hives have been provided 
by manufacturers, so that to-day the selection of a type is 
more the result of taste or choice than of merit. Practi- 
cally all modern hives are good. The common require- 
ments are that the hive shall have a movable roof and a 
movable comb frame. Between the combs there should 
be space enough to let two bees pass. Most hives are 


built in two compartments — an upper and a lower story. 
The queen bee is kept in the lower one, and here she lays 
her eggs, and here also the other responsibilities of the 
community are looked after. Modern bee culture has 
added the upper division as storage for honey. A sheet 
of metal usually separates the two compartments; holes 
in this are made just the right size for the workers to pass 
back and forth, but the queen and drones being some- 
what larger are prevented from entering. 

11. Feeding bees. — In good seasons bees not only lay 
up enough honey for their winter food, but provide a 

considerable surplus that goes to the 
bee tender for his profit in caring for 
and looking after the hive. If for any 
reason the season is bad, as it some- 
times happens, the bees will require a 
Box FOR FEEDING bees Hourishiug ratiou, or otherwise many 
will perish during the winter months. 
Good bee men make a practice of feeding their bees when 
misfortune overtakes them with a thick warm syrup made 
from pure cane sugar, or honey, early in the autumn. In 
this way they are enabled to get ready for the hard days 
of winter. 

Sometimes bees are fed in spring also in order to induce early- 
breeding. Early colonies are desirable, because such are almost cer- 
tain to collect surplus stores, whereas the late ones are unable to 
supply enough even for themselves. In the latter case the keeper 
has no honey for his trouble and labor. During the winter season it 
is of especial importance that the hives be wind and water tight. 
Bees can stand much dry cold, but not damp and drafty quarters. 

12. Three kinds of honey. — The trade uses three kinds 
of honey — chunk, section comb, and extracted honey. 
Chunk honey is made in large frames of different sizes, 
holding from three to seven pounds. When ripened by 
the bees it is cut out of the frames in chunks and packed 



in jars. Section-comb honey is made in boxes holding 
about one pound. In these it remains until consumed. 
Such honey is neat and attractive, but tedious to pro- 
duce. It is not the kind for the beginner to attempt. 
Extracted honey is made in 
large frames, just like chunk 
honey. When ready to re- 
move it is draw^n from the 
combs w^ith a machine called 
the honey extractor. The emp- 
ty combs are then returned to 
the hives for refilling by the 

13. Wintering bees. — T v^ o 
methods of w^intering are prac- 
ticed — outdoor and indoor. In 
exceedingly cold climates, vv^here 
there is continuous freezing 
weather between December and 

March without any warm days, the indoor method is 
usually preferred. Where the temperature varies the 
outdoor custom is popular. This region starts within 50 
or 100 miles south of the Great Lakes. It permits the 
bees to fly during warm days, as they occasionally do 
even in midwinter. In its use double-wall hives or 
single-wall hives with winter cases are used. In the 
southern states single-wall hives without outside jackets 
are warm enough for the climate. In indoor wintering 
in the cold climates, double-wall hives or winter cases 
are not necessary; but in the spring, when the hives are 
placed on their summer stands, it is usually necessary to 
provide extra protection. Cellar wintering requires less 
costly hives, but demands more skill than outdoor win- 

Extracting Honey 


In large apiaries special cellars or buildings are provided for 
winter quarters. It is essential that for outdoor wintering the hives 
weigh at least 50 pounds; that is, that they contain 30 pounds or 
more of honey. In indoor wintering much less honey is required, 
since the bees do not need so much food to keep them warm. 

14. Kinds of bees. — The Italian is the most popular bee 
of, commercial importance. It is black and yellow, noted 
for gentleness, ability to work and good health where 
properly bred. The Black or German bee, which the 
Italian is steadily replacing, is the next most popular. 
It is noted for nervousness, excitability, ability to work 
and greater susceptibility than the Italian to disease. The 
Carniolan, considered to be a variety of the black bee, 
swarms very profusely, and is thus undesirable for com- 
mercial purposes. The Caucasian, which resembles the 
Carniolan closely, is a good honey gatherer, but uses bee 
glue too freely to suit the apiarist. The Banat bee re- 
sembles the Caucasian, though there is a yellow variety. 
Tunis or Punic bees are very cross and so inclined to 
daub everything with red bee glue that they are not 
suited to comb honey production. The Egyptian bee, 
cultivated for thousands of years in Egypt, is much 
smaller than the Italian. It is a fast excellent worker, 
but very irritable. It does not mix with other bees. 
Albinos are either "sports" from the Italian or crosses 
between Holy Land and Italian bees. There are also 
Cyprian, Holy Land or Syrian bees that have been im- 
ported into America, but have not become specially pop- 
ular. In India are several species that have not been 
domesticated in other parts of the world. 

15. Bee diseases. — Dysentery, a winter disease, due to 
long, low temperature and bad food, is usually cured by 
free flight in the spring. Paralysis, rather common in 
warm climates, seems to be constitutional and due to the 
queen. A new queen usually proves effective as a cure. 



Section of Comb In- 
fested WITH Foul 

American foul brood, a bacterial disease, reaches healthy 

larvae in infected food. The grubs soften, settle to the 

lower sides of the cells in shapeless, 

yellowish masses, which later turn 

brown, sticky and ill smelling. To 

cure it infected comb and honey must 

be removed in the evening during a 

honey flow and healthy food given. 

The bees must be encouraged to build 

new comb. It is wise to guard against 

robbing by other bees. Brood from 

badly diseased colonies should be burned at once. Combs 

may be melted into wax, hives cleaned and disinfected 

with a gasoline torch inside. 

In European foul brood, also bacterial, the larvae turn yellowish 
or gray, become slightly translucent and usually flatten against the 
bases of the cells. The dead ones appear as moist collapsed masses, 
which become dry, brownish scales. Italian bees are better able to 
resist this disease than any other race; black bees least of all 
Treatment is the same as for American foul brood, but must be 
apphed to the whole apiary at once. The cure is permanent only 
when_ pure-bred Italian queens are introduced in black or hybrid 
colonies. In sacbrood, also bacterial, the larvae decay from the 
inside, leaving the skin tough and in natural shape. Often they 
dry up, become loose in their cells and drop out when the comb is 
inverted. Re-queening with vigorous queens from other apiaries 
often cures the disease. 


1. Pond culture. 

2. Carp. 

3. Care of carp. 

4. Catfish. 

5. Catfish ponds. 

6. Sunfish. 

7. Raising sunfish. 

8. Black bass. 

9. Black bass ponds. 

10. Small bass. 

11. Brook trout. 

12. Raising trout, 

13. Trout ponds. 

14. Feeding fish. 

15. Eggs and hatching. 

Note to the Teacher. — This lesson describes the more 
important kinds of fish that may be used in pond culture, 
The habits and requirements are pointed out and the 
fundamental considerations for raising farm fish are dis- 
cussed. The purpose of the lesson is obviously to indi- 
cate what classes of fish are best adapted to particular 
kinds of water and to particular sections from the stand- 
point of climate and water supply. 



1. Pond culture. — Three fundamental principles are 
involved in the commercial production of fish on the 
farm : (1) A never-failing water supply ; (2) selection 
of fish adapted to the waters available; and (3) a con- 
tinual natural food supply. Any small body of water 
used for the production of pond fishes should produce nat- 
urally a considei-able amount of aquatic food to meet the 
requirements of the fish. One of the provisions of na- 
ture in all primitive bodies of water is the production of 
multitudes of tiny plants and animals that fish feed upon. 
Baby fish depend upon microscopic forms ; and larger fish 
upon these and larger aquatic plants and animal life. 

2. Carp. — Some years ago the German carp was intro- 
duced into the United States from Germany, where it 
had long been cultivated in ponds 

for commercial use. This fish is 
adapted for life in farm ponds where 
there is a muddy bottom and an 
abundance of water weeds. It 

, ., . . , . Carp 

never does well m either sprmg 

ponds or clear streams. The carp lacks the fine flavor 
of the native game fishes, but when kept in ponds free 
from filth and when properly cooked it is highly appre- 
ciated. These fish subsist on mud containing organic 
matter, soft parts of dead plants, aquatic weeds and 
grasses, and all kinds of insect and crustacean life. 



"To prepare carp in the best manner for the table it should be 
both skinned and drawn, soaked in salt water overnight, then boiled 
and finally baked with proper dressing." 

3. Care of carp. — Carp culture does not require ex- 
pensive arrangements, either for rearing the young or 
for raising the old. Where carp have fallen in disfavor 
it has been due largely to insanitary quarters. The 
best authorities claim that the stock ponds should con- 
tain good water and be drained and aired at least once 
a year. For best results three kinds of ponds are de- 
sirable : (1) Spawning pond in which the water is 
shallow and easily warmed by the sun for the spawning 
fish ; (2) rearing pond, to which the little fish are trans- 
ferred until a year or two old ; and (3) the raising pond, 
in which the large fish are kept until fit for market and 
table use, or when they have reached a weight of two 
and a half or three pounds. 

4. Catfish. — The two varieties of catfish that most 
fully respond to pond culture are the common bull- 
head and the yellow catfish. A 

,^ third variety, the spotted catfish, 

\^^^ * .-^^"--^ does not take kindly to domestica- 

''||~^'**^ tion. When transferred to hatch- 

BULLHEAD Catfish ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^^^^ ^^-^ ^^^^^^ ^^ hvQtA, 

even when handled by the greatest experts. On the 
other hand the common bullhead and the yellow catfish 
when transferred readily adapt themselves to their new 
environments and multiply rapidly. This is because of 
the great care the parents exercise during the period of 
^gg incubation and babyhood of the young. These cat- 
fish offer great possibilities in agriculture. Low, wet 
land, fed by springs, drains or creeks can be easily con- 
verted into a catfish pond, thus furnishing an abundant 
supply for table use and market. Under favorable con- 


ditions these fish will be ready for consumption in from 
two to three years. 

5. Catfish ponds. — Where catfish are raised commer- 
cially a single pond hardly suffices. It is advisable to 
use about one-half of the available pond land for breed- 
ing and for the maintenance of fish more than a year 
old. Two or three smaller ponds should be set apart 
for the rearing of young fish. In commercial estab- 
lishments sorting fish into sizes is advisable, otherwise 
the big and strong will feed at the expense of the smaller 
fish. When big and little fish are raised together the 
loss of the young is large, for the reason that the older 
fish prey on the little ones. 

6. Sunfish. — In large or small bodies of fresh water the 
sunfish are generally found. While these fish are small, 
their flesh is sweet, tasty and of 
high flavor. These fish can be 
raised in very small bodies of water 
and yield to farm culture for home 
use or to a more extensive produc- 
tion of commercial importance. 
Eggs may be fertilized artificially, unfish 

but more satisfactory results are obtained from natural 
spawning. The three principal varieties are : Com- 
mon or "pumpkin seed" sunfish, (2) the common long- 
eared sunfish, and (3) the blue gill. In spawning the 
pumpkin seed variety seeks a gravelly spot where the 
water is shallow, the common long-eared locates in 
deeper water, and the blue gill in the deepest spot it can 

7. Raising sunfish. — For best results in pond culture 
the small fry should be separated from the mature fish. 
Otherwise large numbers of the young will be devoured 



Big-Mouthed Bass 

by adults. When thus separated into a rearing pond, 
development is rapid. For farm culture sorting is not 
necessary, but the yield of fish is certain to be much 
smaller than would be the case were sorting done and 
both a rearing and a stock pond maintained. During 
the hatching and nursing period these fish are excellent 
mothers and guard their young with unusual care and 
attention. Intruders are attacked savagely and driven 

8. Black bass. — Of the larger varieties of black 
bass the two of most common importance in pond cul- 
ture are (1) the large-mouthed bass 

and (2) small-mouthed bass. On 

account of their habits and nature, 

they do not lend themselves often to 

pond culture under ordinary farm 

conditions. They are most at home 

in large bodies of water such as artificial reservoirs, 

lakes, rivers and large streams. \\'here pond culture is 

resorted to a relatively large area of ground is necessary. 

9. Black bass ponds. — Success with black bass is de- 
pendent upon a favorable site, properly constructed ponds 
and suitable water. These fish thrive in the same wa- 
ters with carp. The feeding habits, however, are dififer- 
ent ; black bass are carnivorous and depend upon other 

water animals for food. Young 
carp often are propagated in the 
same waters with black bass for the 
purpose of supplying the food. Be- 
cause of large area required and 
close attention to all details of man- 
agement, black bass are not commonly chosen for stock- 
ing small ponds or for use except as a commercial en- 
terprise of large proportions. 

Small-Mouthed Bass 


The large-mouthed bass lives in still water where weeds, flags 
and pond lilies are plentiful. This variety is less valuable as a 
table fish than the small-mouthed bass. The small-mouthed bass 
is partial to pure lake water or river water with rocky bottom. 

10. Small bass. — The rock bass and calico bass are two 
varieties among the smaller fishes that may be selected 

for farm culture. Small ponds may 
be devoted to them, but it is advis- 
a1)le to keep the young and old 
apart. Otherwise, large numbers of 
the baby fish and small fingerlings 
Rock Bass ^^.jj ^^ dcvoured by their elders. 

The rock bass is especially destructive, but the calico bass 
seems to hanker less for the flesh of its kind than either 
the sunfish or the rock variety. Of the two varieties, 
the calico requires much the deeper water for nesting 
purposes. Rock bass and sunfish are often cared for in 
the same pond ,and frequently place their nests close 
without disturbance or annoyance to either. 

11. Brook trout. — These fish abound chiefly in cold, 
swift-running, gravelly brooks, but they thrive in all pure 
cold waters which contain sufticient air. They seem to 
be at home equally well in brooks, ponds, lakes or rivers. 
Unquestiona])ly the}^ stand at the head of the fresh water 
game fishes in the popular estima- 
tion. Furthermore, trout are "pe- 
culiarly suited to domestication, be- 
ing very hardy, easily tamed, con- 
veniently confined, satisfied with gj^^^j^ r^.^^^^ 
plain food, well adapted to artificial 

breeding prolific enough to increase rapidly, and having a 
sufficiently high value as live game or as a table luxury 
to make it worth while to raise them." Rainbow trout 
are also adapted to pond culture. 


12. Raising trout. — Rather extensive arrangements are 
required for best success with trout in artificial ponds. 
What adds to the difficulty is the necessity of using run- 
ning water both for hatching the eggs and rearing the 
young. Spring water is preferred for hatching and 
brook water for raising trout. These requisites limit the 
area in which trout can be raised. Where natural ad- 
vantages prevail in w^ay of water, shelter and lay of land, 
it is much easier to stock a stream with small fingerlings 
raised in a hatchery than to try to raise them in ponds. 
In stocking a stream the young fish should be taken to 
its headwaters, or put into the springs and rivulets which 
empty into it. As they grow larger they will gradually 
settle down stream, and run up again to headwaters in 
the fall and winter to spawn. No brook that has once 
contained trout need be without them, if the waters re- 
main pure and cold. 

13. Trout ponds. — Pure, spring water is the most im- 
portant factor in the construction of a trout pond. The 
spring or springs should have a fall of 2 or 3 feet, and if 
more than one pond is made, a fall of 5 or 6 feet would be 
an advantage. The more the water the less the need for 
a considerable fall. In building a pond it is advisable to 
cover the immediate area over the springs with gravel 
for the fish to spawn on. The borders of the pond should 
be shallow, so that the little fish may run up into the 
shallow water and escape the large fish ; or have the pond 
so arranged that after the fish have spawned the large 
ones m.ay be removed. This plan allows the eggs to 
hatch out and the young to develop without danger of 
being preyed upon by the older fish. After the finger- 
lings have reached a good size they may be removed from 
the spawning section to the rearing section, the old ones 


being returned for another spawning- season. In this 
way a good many fish can be raised without much 

Where Trout Thrive Under Artificial Conditions 

Note the cloth spread across the water to shade the very small trout from the 
sun. The creek itself is not shown in the picture. The pools are provided with 
water from a small dam just above their head. This plant contains 900 feet of 
pools, and is capable of harboring a million trout. 

14. Feeding fish. — In stocking ponds some food in ad- 
dition to what the pond provides in low forms of plant 
and animal life is often necessary. In the list of ap- 
proved foods may be mentioned the following: Heart, 
liver and lungs of slaughtered animals, sour milk curd, 
dry bread, oatmeal, worms and insects and fish flesh. 
These should be finely ground and be given in moderate 
quantities and at regular intervals. Live minnows and 
ground flesh of wornout farm animals may also be used 
for growing fingerlings and mature fish. 

15. Eggs and hatching. — A female fish is capable of 
developing a vast number of tiny eggs. These are 


spawned in the nesting place and if properly fertilized 
and not destroyed by other fish of the eame tribe or by 
other natural enemies a very large family of young fry 
results. After breaking through its shallow shell and 
emerging from the tgg the young fry is still encumbered 
with the yolk sac, which extends all along the abdomen. 
The yolk is the bal^y fish's nourishment and as long as it 
remains no other food is required. The length of time 
the sac remains on the fry varies with different kinds of 
fish. The fall-spawning varieties possess the yolk sacs 
for a month or two, but those varieties that cast their 
spawn in the spring do away with their little nursing bot- 
tles in a few days. Eggs from fish that spawn in the 
spring hatch in a short time and the young are soon able 
to escape and hide from their enemies. Fall spawners, 
like the brook trout, require two or three months for 
hatching and leaving the yolk. It is evident that all 
tribes subject to slow development are most liable to be 
destroyed during their days of infancy and early youth. 

Fish hatcheries. — Most states now support establishments in 
which are artificially hatched many millions of fish eggs for stock- 
ing streams, lakes, rivers and ponds. These meritorious enter- 
prises are supported by public funds. When the small fish have 
reached the proper size they are furnished to the public at cost or 
free. The federal government also hatches vast numbers of dif- 
ferent varieties of fish, which are given to interested persons on 
request. The application for fingerlings for stocking purposes re- 
quires a description of the pond, lake or stream and the kind of 
fish desired. Those in charge give suggestions as to what variety 
is most suitable and directions as to handling, care and culture. 


1. Observing Bees and Their Work.— For this purpose use fresh- 
ly killed specimens, or specimens from alcohol, or pinned specimens, 
(a) Study the number and arrangement of wings. Make a 
drawing of each wing. Study the number and structure of the legs. 
Draw one of each, showing the differences, (b) Note the an- 
tennae cleaner and w^ax pliers in the front pair. Note the pollen 
baskets in the hind pair. If a drone and queen can be obtained, 
note if they each have these features of leg structure. What is 
the function of the hairs on the legs? Examine these under a mi- 
croscope, (c) Study the eyes under a hand lens and under a 
low-power compound microscope. Draw them, enlarged Describe 
them. Are there any single eyes or ocelli? Draw them. Where? 
Show in drawing. (d) Length of antennae. How many parts 
or joints? Where attached? Make enlarged drawings. (Always 
enlarge drawings to a certain definite scale, and state the scale 
of enlargement.) (e) Examine, then describe, the mouth parts. 
Are there any sharp teeth on the maxillae or jaws? Is there any 
sharp point in connection with the proboscis? Note that there are 
no structures in the bee's mouth by which it can cut open or punc- 
ture fruits. Examine the proboscis or tongue under a microscope 
and draw the same. If a live bee can be obtained, feed it honey or 
syrup, or moistened sugar, and see how it feeds. (/) Note the 
hairs on the thorax. Are any foreign particles to be found upon 
them? Scrape or brush the legs and thorax over a glass slide 
and examine the dust with a microscope. Are the particles regu- 
lar (uniform) in shape or size? If any bee can be found with 
material in the pollen baskets of its legs, examine this material un- 
der a microscope. If at a time of year when the bees are col- 
lecting pollen or visiting flowers, be sure to collect some of them 
that are covered with dust and examine the dust. Collect some of 
the flowers they are visiting and examine their parts, and espe- 
cially the flower dust or pollen. What was the material the bees were 
carrying? Bring out the point that the pollen is an essential fer- 
tilizing or fructifying element of the flower, and that it is essential 
for this to be carried to another flower or another plant. This is 
called cross-fertiHzation. Stronger plants arise through this cross- 
ing; also new strains, races, or varieties originate as the product 
of such crossing. (^) What is the fundamental function or pur- 
pose of the bee in nature? If possible kill and cut or break open 
a bee that has been for some time at the flowers. Note the clear 
drop in the sac in the abdomen. What is this? Discuss the 
source of nectar and how it is carried with the bees. Kill, and ex- 
amine the contents of the honey sac of a bee that has just come to 
the flowers and note its si?^ compared with the former. What is 



the relationship of the bee to Uie flower? What does it take, and 
what does it give? Can it injure fruits if they are not first punc- 
tured or opened by some other agency? 

2. Where Bees Work.— \"isit the fields where bees are attend- 
ing flowers, and note the kinds of flowers on which the bees work 
and the kinds on which they do not. (a) Are honey bees found 
on white clover? Are they found on red clover? What is the 
length of the proboscis of a bee? Measure it accurately, (b) 
What is the length of the corolla tube of white clover? What is 
the length of the corolla tube of red clover? Why do bees visit 
the former and not the latter? Make a study of the various flow- 
ers visited by bees in relation to kind, the shape of the blossom, 
length of corolla tube, etc. Do bees visit one kind of flower only 
while on one trip, or do they visit several kinds? 

3. Honey and Its Production. — If honey and comb from hives 
cannot be obtained, a section can be purchased from almost any 
grocery, (a) What is the thickness of honeycomb? How is it 
supported? How is the honey retained? How are the cells of the 
two sides placed in regard to each other? Upon what do these cells 
rest? Measure the exact depth and diameter of a cell. Are they 
all of the same diameter? What is their shape? Are they of the 
same shape? How are they covered? Is there any space between 
the wax capping and the liquid honey? Puncture it and let out the 
air, and turn it with the covering of the cell downward, or press 
it with the finger. What is the difference in appearance? Why 
was it white before and watery afterward? What are the advan- 
tages of hexagonal cells? Note both economy of material and 
strength of structure, (b) Examine the honey under a microscope. 
Melt the wax capping of a cell very gently on a microscopic slide 
by holding a match under it. Keep it warm and melted while ex- 
amining with a microscope; what is to be found? As a rule pollen 
grains will be found mixed with the honey, and always with the 
capping. Are these all of one kind, or of different kinds? 

The teacher should have some blossoms of different plants and 
trees producing honey, even though they are dry and preserved 
in envelopes for this purpose. The anthers can be softened up by 
moisture, and a few pollen grains obtained; and by careful micro- 
scopic study one can determine the kind of plant from which the 
honey was produced by the kind of pollen grains with it. 

The salient points to be brought out are that workers and queens 
are alike in structure and drones different. There are special 
structures by which a bee is able to perform its peculiar functions 
of visiting and pollenizing ce^-tain flowers and gathering nectar. 
This nectar is transformed by the bee into honey, and is stored in 
their waxen cells. The pollen masses are put into other cells as 
bee bread, but accidentally some pollen grains find their way into 
the honey. Pollen grains are used also with the cappings of the 

Bees are unable to bite open fruits, although they may suck them 
after other insects or agencies have opened them. Bees visit cer- 


tain kinds of flowers for nectar or pollen or both, but others they 
do not visit. The latter may be pollenized by other insects or by 
other means. (After Surface.) 

4. Choosing the Best Animals. — Continue the judging of live 
stock, using for material any class of horses, cattle, sheep or swine 
most available and of most importance in the community. If pos- 
sible have four or five animals to score and judge. 

5. Reasons for Choosing. — In case several animals of any one 
class are available, let each student examine all individually and 
place them in accordance, as his judgment indicates. They 
should be ranked as first, second, third, fourth and fifth, etc., so 
as to include all in the exhibit. 

Now write your reasons for so placing the animals. State why 
one was given first place, and in what way it is superior over the 
one placed second. It is important to place animals properly, but it 
is equally important to know why the animals have Ijeen so placed. 
The more drill that it is possible to give in placing animals and in 
stating the reasons for so placing, the greater the interest in the. 
work becomes and the more valuable the work develops to be. A 
great deal of pracdce is required of this sort to become an accom- 
plished judge of live stock. 


1. Purpose. 

2. Character of an Ggg. 

3. Egg shells. 

4. White of an egg. 

5. Yolk. 

6. Germ. 

7. Development of embryo. 

8. Handling incubating eggs. 

9. Eggs for hatching. 

10. Broody hens. 

11. Selecting layers. 

12. Laying type. 

13. La3^ing ability improved 

14. Management of laying flock. 

15. A\'hen hens molt. 

Note to the Teacher. — Literest in poultry raising is 
steadily growing. Poultry products are in greater de- 
mand than ever. The obvious purpose of this lesson, 
however, is not directly to cover these points. It is 
rather to define the meaning of an Qgg, to learn of the 
parts comprising it, and from this information to de- 
duct the proper meaning that the best results in the more 
practical operations of raising fowls for eggs and meat 
may be secured. The composition and nature of the egg 
must be fundamentally considered in order to attain the 
best success with laying flocks. 



*>.- f 


.;^- . 

Six Popular Varieties of Domestic Fowl 

Top row: At left, Rhode Island Red; at right, Black Java. Middle row: At left 
Buff Leghorn; at right, Dominique. Bottom row: At left, Black Minorca: at rietit.' 
Black Orpington. 



Biddy and Her Family 

1. Purpose. — In most kinds of animals reproduction 
takes place by means of eggs. Mammals give birth to 
and suckle their young. Birds and many of the lower 
species produce eggs. Great variation exists as to the 

manner of reaching adult 
life. With some members 
of the animal kingdom many 
changes occur, the little crea- 
ture on hatching being alto- 
gether different than at 
other stages of its existence. 
The life history of a butter- 
fly or moth is a story quite 
different from that of a 
snake or fish, and that of a 
bird from that of a tadpole or lobster. In domestic 
poultry, on hatching from the egg, a baby bird is born, 
identical in every w^ay with its subsequent enlargement. 
The egg is for the purpose of reproduction. It is the be- 
ginning and the end of the life cycle. Birds, according 
to their sex, produce eggs or contribute to their fertiliza- 
tion in order that their species may be perpetuated. Egg 
laying is not to provide a nutritious food for the break- 
fast table. 

2. Character of an egg. — An ordinary good-sized hen's 
egg weighs about two ounces. The weight varies ac- 
cording to the breed, some eggs weighing 2^ ounces. 




Eggs Showing Good Size and 

and others 1^ ounces or less. An egg consists of four 
parts — the outer covering or shell, the yolk or food sup- 
ply of the chick at hatching, the white, or mass of albu- 
men for developing the embryo, and the germ, or life sub- 
stance. The white material comprises about 60 per cent 
of the entire Qgg, the yolk about 30 per cent and the shell 
about 10 per cent. 

3. Egg shells. — The outer covering of an egg is some- 
times brown and sometimes white, the color depending 

in a large measure on the breed 
or variety of the hen. Color is 
due to a pigment developed in 
the shell and is a fixed character 
of the breed. The shell is com- 
posed of carbonate of lime, 
phosphate of lime, and animal 
gluten. It is very porous. It 
has between the particles of lime an innumerable number 
of very small holes, which allow the air to pass freely 
backward and forward during the process of incubation. 
If it were not for these tiny holes the embryo within 
would die for want of oxygen to revive the 
impure blood that it produces. 

Moisture is evaporated through these holes. The 
rapidity will depend on the conditions and the 
temperature under which the egg is kept. The air 
space at the broad end of the egg indicates the 
amount that has been evaporated. The longer an 
egg is kept the larger the air space becomes. This 
is one way to tell the age of an egg. 

4. White of an egg. — The white of an 
egg is a strong solution of albumen in 
water, and while readily mixable with water in its ordi- 
nary state, it becomes insoluble when subjected to heat. 
In 100 parts, the white consists of 80 of water, 15>^ of 

Egg Showing En- 
largement OF 
Air Space Up 
TO 19 Days, 


pure albumen, and 4^ of salts and ash. It is formed in 
three layers, which can be plainly seen when a hard- 
boiled egg is cut in two. 

5. Yolk. — What is known as yolk is a strong solution 
of albumen, through which multitudes of globules of fat 

are suspended, the 
whole being inclosed 
in a sac that floats in 
the white. In 100 
parts, water composes 
5334, all)umen 17^ 
and fat or oil 28^ 

Seven Days of Incubation parts. I he yolk IS 

a, fresh egg; b, weak germ; and c, strong lighter than the white 

and therefore rises to 
the upper side whichever way the tgg is turned. The 
yolk serves as food while the chick is developing inside 
the shell and for the first days after hatching. This ex- 
plains why a chick requires no food for a short period 
after it leaves its shell. 

6. Germ. — Next to the shell, and fastened to the yolk, 
the germ or true tgg is to be found. It is known as the 
blastodefm, the minute 
nucleus of what is after- 
ward to be the chick. 
This word means sprout- 
ing skin. The blasto- 
derm is present whether 
the Q:gg is fertile or not, 
so that it is impos- 

l^wo Fourteen Days of Incubation 

Slble to tell beforehand a, strong, live embryo; b, weak, live embryo; 

whether an egg will '' '^^^^ '"'^'■^°- 

produce a chick. A fertile and infertile egg to the naked 

eye are the same in appearance. The application of a 



few hours' warmth of the required temperature brings 
into activity all the power lying- dormant from the time 
the egg was laid. Afer five or six hours, little finger- 
like processes begin to creep out from the blastoderm and 
gradually distribute them- 
selves over the whole of the 

Eggs raised for commercial pur- 
poses should not be fertilized, and 
they should be stored in a cool place 
during collection for shipment. Fer- 
tile eggs in the hot days of summer 
show signs of incubation very 
quickly. If roosters are kept away 
from the laying flock and a cool 
basement is chosen for the storage 
place, the eggs will remain fresh 
much longer and they can be shipped 
a longer distance. 

7. Development of embryo. 
— A fertile egg incubates very 
rapidly if provided with the 
proper degree of heat. After 
only 18 hours the head of the 
future chick, with eyes enor- 
mously developed, and the 
spinal column, are plainly dis- 
cernible under the microscope. 
After 40 hours there is a com- 
plete blood circulation, the 
heart is formed and beating 
commenced, and the blood ves- 
sels have spread over a consid- 
erable portion of the upper 
yolk. These are of a dual 

Development of Chick 

a, eighteen hours; b, second day 

c, forty hours; d, third day; e 

, , ^ . fourth day; /, fifth day; g, just be 

character; some are arteries, fore hatching; h. at peeping time 

taking blood away from the 

and i, nearly out of she! 



embryo, some are veins bringing the blood back again. 
The heart commences pulsating about the second or third 
day. When blood circulation begins impure air is re- 
vived by the oxygen, obtained from the air that passes 
in and out of the holes of the shells. Were you to coat 
over with wax an incubating Qgg, the embryo would die 
from want of fresh air. 

8. Handling incubating eggs. — Eggs during incubation 
require cautious handling; otherwise the delicate blood 
vessels, which form a perfect maze of tracery over the 
yolk, may be disturbed or injured. The less that eggs 
are moved about, the less danger of damaging the fragile 
and delicate interior. Many dead embryos in the incu- 
bator are the result of careless turning and handling. In 
testing out a hatch to remove the infertile eggs, it is very 
important that the work be done with careful movements 
in order not to shake or twist the sensitive and delicate 
organs inside the egg. 

Eggs to Avoid for Hatching 

Note the ridges and imperfect shape of the shell: avoid such in 
selecting eggs for hatching. 


9. Eggs for hatching. — In selecting eggs for hatching 
use only those of uniform size and color, with smooth, 
strong shells. Abnormal eggs are likely to produce weak 
or crippled chicks. The eggs should be stored in a room 
where the temperature ranges from 40 to 50 degrees. 
Eggs for hatching should be turned two or three times a 
week until the required number *has been collected. 
Never set dirty eggs. If they are dirty, carefully wipe 
with a damp cloth until all spots are removed. Eggs are 
at their best, both as to fertility and vitality, when natural 
hatching is in season. Before this time fertility is poor 


' ^^S^^^'^ 





^ ^^ 

y 'M -^ A 

^4*- i^ -*'""' 'i^|fc--VTiiira^ 

E .iSP^ 

Effective Care for Broody Hens 

It will be observed that there are nothing but roosts, and the hens, therefore, 
cannot sit in a broody position. 

and vitality excellent. In summer, more eggs are fertile, 
but the vitality of the chicks is lower than earlier in the 

10. Broody hens. — Hens kept mainly for producing eggs 
often annoy the poultryman by persistent broodiness. 
These should be culled out and never used for breeders. 
In otherwise normal hens broodiness may be broken 
when necessary. It is usually an advantage to allow the 
hens to hatch broods, since this gives them a rest from 
laying. Hens of the general purpose varieties usually 



lay better during the molt than hens of the noted egg 
breeds. These eg-g layers generally take a long rest, the 
sitters two or three short ones. 

To break up broodiness, a quick way is to confine the hens with 
a reserve male in a pen where there are no nests. While so con- 
fined, the hens should be fed well on an egg ration. Often the hens 
will begin to lay within a week or ten days. Under no condition 
should starving be practiced. It is not only cruel and ineffective, but 
the poultryman who practices it pays the penalty by injuring the 
laying proclivities of the hen. 

11. Selecting layers. — Laying hens are nearly always 
singers. They work and hunt for food 
all day, and are the first oflf of the 
roost and the last to go to roost. They 
are nervous and very active, keeping 
themselves up to the greatest possible 
l)itch. In selecting layers, seek out 
the active, hustling kind and reject 
those dull, lazy and inactive. 

12. Laying type. — The ideal laying 
hen should conform as nearly as pos- 
sible to the following. She must be 
healthy; comb, wattles and face red; 

eye bright and lustrous ; neck not short, but medium to 

long; breast broad and long, slop- 
ing upward ; back, long and 

broad ; abdomen, wide and deeper 

than breast; shanks well spread 

and rather long; V-shaped in 

three ways — on sides from front 

to rear, top and bottom from front 

to rear, and from base of tail, 

downwards; and well-spread tail. 
13. Laying ability improved. — 

Hens should be brought into lay- , ..j.-t^T ?'' . 

o -'^ A White Leghorn hen. 

Selected Barred Plym- 
outh Rock Layer 



ing as early as possible. When hens begin to lay in the 
fall, they are more likely to continue laying than if they 
are expected to start laying some months later. Many 
pullets which begin to lay in the fall are naturally poor 
layers and soon play out. The sooner such fowls are 
taken out of the flock the better. They should not be 
used for breeding. An important thing to remember in 
rearing fowls for winter laying is to have the pullets 
mature between September and November. This can be 
determined by the date of hatching and by the method 
of rearing. 

Fowls Selected for Laying Ability 

These are White Wyandottes and are an excellent type of layers. The trap nests 
have testified as to their laying qualities 

14. Management of laying flock. — So far as egg laying 
is concerned, the tgg farmer's year begins in October. 
Everything should then be put in readiness for egg pro- 
duction. The pullets and hens should be placed in their 
permanent winter quarters and special care taken to pre- 
vent overcrowding. The sooner the flocks are made up, 
the better, as a rule, because they then get accustomed 



to their quarters, and there is less danger of upsetting 
them when they begin to lay. None l)ut mature pullets 
should be selected for laying. All that are puny, under- 
sized, lazy, weak or otherwise undesirable should be 
weeded out and sold for the table. They will not pay 
their board. 

Only such hens as have proved their worthiness in the previous 
season should be kept over for a second or third winter. They 
usually make good breeders and the breeding flock should be 
selected from them rather than from pullets. Too often, however, 
in the farm flock, the reverse practice is followed. The hens that 
are in best condition are sold ; the inferior ones are kept for egg 

Laying Flock Taking Daily Exercise 

These are early hatched birds which began to lay long before the approach of win- 
ter. They are healthy, thrifty, have good appetites and are carefully managed. 

15. When hens molt. — It is just as important to feed 
well for eggs as it is to breed well for them. Contrary 
to popular opinion, hens that are molting should be fed 
well. It does not pay to stint molting hens. However, 
they should not get a ration too rich in nitrogenous mat- 
ter, because they are not, as a rule, laying, and they do 
better when given a ration richer than usual in carbona- 
ceous ingredients. Even if this is a fattening ration, it 
will do no harm. By this it is not meant that the nitrog- 



enous matter should be cut out of the ration altogether. 
Feather production demands protein, which must not be 
fed too sparingly. It is pref- 
erable, as a general rule, to 
have fowls somewhat too fat 
than poor or even in merely 
good condition. By proper 
management many good lay- 
ing hens will lay an occasional 
^gg, even while going through 
molting, but this is not general. 

Pullets can J3e fed more highly 
than hens during the early fall 
months, because they already have 
their feathers and are still growing. 
At this time, they need abundant 
protein, because they are not only 
growing in flesh, but are filling out 
their bones and either preparing for, 
or actually laying. A pullet is by no means fully matured when she 
starts to lay. Ample food is needed to complete the development. 
For best results, however, pullets should not be unduly forced to 
begin laying early. Indeed, it is often advantageous to delay laying 
somewhat by frequently changing the pullets' quarters. This is the 
only method that can be practiced with safety. It will not do to 
withhold food. 

Protected Water Vessel 


1. Hens for hatching. 

2. Artificial incubation. 

3. Incubator essentials. 

4. Placing- the incul)ator. 

5. Eggs for hatching. 

6. Trying out the machine. 

7. Turning the eggs. 

8. Testing the eggs. 

9. Last days of hatch. 

10. Transferring to brooder 

11. First day in brooder. 

12. First week in brooder. 

13. From second to sixth week. 

14. Hen-hatched chicks. 

15. Sanitation. 

Note to the Teacher. — The purpose of this lesson is 
not to compare natural incubation with artificial incuba- 
tion, but rather to define the essential factors that have 
to do with the proper handling of incubators and brood- 
ers. Certain fundamental principles are involved in all 
styles of incubators, and these should be understood as a 
first step in their successful operation. Make plain the 
importance of cleanliness and sanitation in hatching 
chicks regardless of the method of hatching the eggs. 



1. Hens for hatching. — The natural method of incu- 
bating or hatching eggs is by hens. Hens have the nat- 
ural instinct of perpetuating their species, and after lay- 
ing for a time they desire to raise a brood of their kind. 
Before breed specialization became an art and science, 
the hen laid a number of eggs and then was ready to sit 
and hatch them. But this system meant few eggs and 
many mothers. By breeding and selection the egg-lay- 
ing habit has been fostered, and the egg-hatching instinct 
lessened. As a consequence some breeds of fowls have 
been developed in which the mother desire has been 
largely eliminated. This is an advantage where hens are 
raised largely for eggs. Where only a few chicks are 
raised each year, hatching by hens is a popular custom ; 
on farms it is the most common. 

2. Artificial incubation. — When it is necessary to hatch 
on a large scale and as rapidly and as economically as 
possible, the system is very different. To realize good 


W ^^"^'if i 

Common Method of Hatching on the Farm 


profits recourse must be had to an incubator. The incu- 
bator is simply a machine or artificial hen that does for 
the eggs what nature demands. With eggs well fertilized 
a good hen will produce good chickens. A good machine 
well managed will give the same and even better results, 
but more care and attention will be required for machine- 

Taking the Hatch from the Incubator 

Having given close attention to all the details of selecting the eggs and running the 
incubator, this man hatched 93 chicks out of every 100 fertile eggs. 

hatched than hen-hatched chicks. A great deal depends 
upon the incubator used. The closer it approaches na- 
ture in its work the better. Of the two types — hot water 
and hot air — either is satisfactory, providing the machine 
is well built and properly adjusted. 

3. Incubator essentials. — Without proper and well- 
regulated heat there could be no incubation of the eggs. 
Top heat is essential ; otherwise, rising from the bottom, 
it would evaporate the moisture from the eggs too 
quickly. Heat must therefore start not at the bottom of 



the machine under the eggs, but at the top over them. 
This heat must be stable. When a hen is brooding her 
temperature is about 104 degrees. The successful incu- 
bator must be capable of developing a top heat of 104 
degrees to the eggs and keep it steadily at that point. 
While it is true that eggs under a hen vary in tempera- 
ture according to position, they are changed in the nest 


t1 1 ^.: 

Incubator Cellar 
Showing the incubators in place. 

from time to time by the hen, as every farm boy knows, 
thereby, on an average, ranging from 102 to 103 degrees. 
Each machine must also possess sufficient ventila- 
tion. Fresh air is a perpetual necessity. Moisture is 
essential in successful incubation, but a saturated atmos- 
phere is not v^anted. The idea is to replace w^hat has 
been evaporated through the machine. 

Every reputable maker of incubators sends out instructions with 
his machine, and the purchaser should follow these implicitly. If 
he does not, he is running a risk. The instructions sent out with 
any machine are the result of experience with that particular make, 
and as the manufacturer's interest lies in obtaining satisfactory 
hatching, so the directions are to that end and should be valued. 



4. Placing the incubator. — The incubator should be 
placed in a sunless room, or any place where the tem- 
perature is equable day and night, or fairly so. This 
should be airy, but sheltered from currents of air. Thus 
a cellar, an unused room, or a stable, is satisfactory. 
Where the raising of poultry is carried on on a large 
scale, a special incubator cellar or room is built. What- 
ever place is selected, it should not be damp or used as 
a dumping ground of decaying vegetables or filth. The 
whole secret of incubation is to maintain around well- 
fertilized eggs an even temperature and a regular circu- 
lation of sufficient fresh air. The placing of the incuba- 
tor in a well-protected place has much to do with a suc- 
cessful hatch. 

5. Eggs for hatching. — WHiether the hen or the incu- 
bator is used, choose the right kind of eggs. Not only 

must eggs be fresh, but 
they must contain all 
the elements and germs 
that go toward making 
good, strong chicks. 
Unless they are care- 
fully selected from stock 
birds, kept in such a 
manner as to insure a 
certain amount of ani- 
mal vitality, they can- 
not turn out strong, 
lusty chicks. Always 

get eggs from the best sources and use eggs that are from 

pure-bred and selected strains. 

6. Trying out the machine. — Before filling the incu- 
bator after purchase or at the beginning of a season, try 

Good and Bad Stock 

Strong cock at left, but weak, undesirable in- 
dividual at right. 



it out first to see if it runs properly and maintains a stable 
heat. First see that it sets level. Now the lamp is to 
be cleaned and filled with a good grade of kerosene to get 
a steady flame and no smoke. The lamp should be 
lighted and placed in "position, as several hours will be 
required to dry and warm the woodwork thoroughly. 
When the thermometer registers 100 degrees, it will be 
necessary to examine the machine every 15 or 20 minutes 
in order to adjust the thumb screw in the regulator. 
When the thermome- 
ter registers 102 de- 
grees adjust the thumb 
screw so the tin disk 
on the regulator arm 
will be just trembling 
on the rise. The ma- 
chine should be run at 
least 24 hours before 
putting the eggs in. 
After the eggs are 

added the temperature will fall for a time until they have 
been warmed up to the rest of the internal parts. 

7. Turning the eggs. — Punctuality more than science 
is required for cooling and turning the eggs. The turn- 
ing should be done regularly twice a da}^, from the third 
to the eighteenth day, after which the eggs should not 
be turned. The cooling of the eggs requires practice. 
At first it is done simultaneously with the turning, 
but as the hatch progresses the amount of cooling 
must be increased. After the seventh day, at one turn- 
ing each day, the eggs are removed from the machine 
until they become cool to the touch. The time re- 
quired for cooling will vary with the temperature of 
the room and the development of the embryos. The larger 

Turning the Eggs 



Testing Eggs 

the embryos in the eggs the longer the heat is retained. 
Incubator eggs are not cooled after the eighteenth day. 

8. Testing the eggs. — AMien the eggs have been hatch- 
ing seven days they should be tested. The testing of 
eggs is very easy, and after a little experience one should 

experience no difficulty 
in distinguishing the 
good from the bad. 
The proper way to tell 
a fertile egg is to take 
it between the thumb 
and forefinger and 
hold it before a strong 
light. If it is perfectly 
clear within, it is not 

1, common tester; 2, egg properly held; 3, j. .. .j- ,. 

incubator lamp; 4, untested eggs; 5, infertile lertlle ; II, OU tllC COn- 
eggs; 6, good eggs. . , . 

trary, a little black 
speck with red lines is seen to float inside of it, looking 
more or less like a spider in its web, it is certain to be 
fertile. The same examination should be made on the 
fifteenth day. The infertile eggs should be removed and 
kept to feed the chicks later. 

9. Last days of hatch. — After the eighteenth day the 
machine is closed and not disturbed, except to fill and 
trim the lamp until the hatch 
is complete. While the eggs are 
hatching the temperature of the 
machine may go as high as 105, 
or even 107 degrees; this is 
caused by the animal heat 
given off by the chicks, and 
no attempt should be made 
at all to lower the tempera- 
ture if the machine has been ^ , ^ ^ 

Xheir Last Day There 



running properly just previous to the time of hatching. 

As the chicks hatch they find their way into the nursery space or 
drawer of the incubator, which provides them all they need for 36 
to 48 hours. They continue the absorption of the yolk, which serves 
as food, and find that the warmth of 95 to 98 degrees is pleasant and 
agreeable. This slightly lower temperature somewhat hardens their 
bodies and prepares them for the brooder temperature. 

10. Transferring to brooder. — The newly hatched 
chicks should not be fed or watered in the incubator. 
About 24 hours before using the brooder let it be heated, 
making sure of its being dry and warm. The brooder 

lamp is now adjusted 
so as to get an even 
temperature of 95 de- 
grees in the hover-cov- 
ered space of the brood- 
er. This temperature 
will be raised two or 

Day-Old Chicks Ready for Sh.pmhnt ^j^^^^ dcgrCCS after the 

chicks are placed in their new quarters. During the first 
week the temperature is maintained at 96 to 98 degrees ; 
after that time it is gradually lowered to 90 degrees at 
the end of two weeks. From now on a temperature of 
75 degrees in the hover is sufficient. 

11. First day in brooder. — The first meal is due after 
an hour or two in the brooder. 
Nothing is better than a 
mixture of stale bread, rolled 
oats and infertile eggs from the 
incubator. Use for the mixture 
one-third stale bread, one-third 
rolled oats or oatmeal, and one- 
third hard-boiled eggs, shells 
and all, stirred up in milk. A 

• 1 1 r 1 • 1 • •• Interior of 100-Chick Colony 

sprmkle oi chick-size grit or „, . . . u, . 

^ ^ Showing adaptable hover. 



sharp, clean sand on the nursery food is advisable. Feed 
five to six times a day, from two to three hours apart. 
Give what the chicks will eat up clean in a period of 15 
to 20 minutes. See that the backward ones are not 
crowded aside. Pure, clean water must be kept before 
the chicks ; if the weather is cold, use lukewarm water. 
Drinking fountains are preferable to shallow pans be- 
cause they prevent the chicks from getting w^et. 

12. First week in brooder. — After a couple of days the 
nursery food may be dropped for a less expensive ration. 

Many chick feeds are now on 
the market and these are excel- 
lent. Home-made mixtures 
may be secured by using 
ground wheat, ground oats, 
or barley and ground corn, and 
bran. Some green food is de- 
sirable. If green clover, al- 
falfa or grass is not available, 
steamed alfalfa meal, with an equal amount by bulk of 
bran and middlings, serves as an excellent substitute. 
The grain and other seeds comprising the chick feeds 
may be thrown into finely cut grass, hay or clover, or 
other loose material after the chicks are five or six days 
old, so they may get the fun and 
exercise of scratching it out. 

13. From second to sixth 
week. — By the time the chicks 
are seven or eight days old 
they should be allowed to run 
out of doors, especially on 
clear days, even if it is cold 
and raw. It is important that 
they be taught to go to their hover, however, before they 

White Wyandotte Chicks 
Days Old 


Out of Doors 


get chilled. They soon learn to go to the heat when they 
need it. Beginning with the second week meat scrap and 
charcoal ought to be added to the food. Chicks a week 
old crave both, the first for its muscle and ash materials, 
and the second for its aid in digestion. Charcoal pre- 
vents sour crop and bowel trouble. 

A shallow tray containing a mixture of high-grade meat scrap, 
bran and charcoal should be in easy access of all the chicks. From 
the second to the sixth week this manner of feeding will yield 
healthy and vigorous stock, after which time other requirements 
having been met, little trouble should arise. 

Mother and Home 
The old, original fireless brooder — with brains to it. 

14. Hen-hatched chicks. — If chicks are raised by hens, 
dust the mother hen thoroughly and often to destroy lice 
and mites, examine the chicks frequently for head lice, 
and if any are present touch the head with kerosene, and 
feed as outlined above for brooder chicks. When the 
chicks are a week old give the hen her liberty for part of 
the day. As she moves about some food will be secured, 
possibly bugs, insects and worms. There is nothing like 
a sensible mother hen to look after the wants of her 
young. She will scratch faithfully and find just the kind 


of grit, small seeds and grass conducive to the proper 
development of the baby birds. With good foraging 
ground, supplemented w^ith grain or mash at the coop 
and a bit of charcoal and animal meal, it is pleasing to see 
how bright and smart the young chicks become, and how 
they grow day by day. 

15. Sanitation. — Whether reared by hens or by incu- 
bator and brooder, final success will be due in no small 
degree to cleanliness, pure food and clean water. Filth 
in coop or brooder is a sure road to trouble; it invites 
disease germs and insects, and both are disastrous to 

OuT-OF-DooR House and Run 
These may be readily moved, insuring cleanliness and sanitary quarters. 

young chicks. If brooder chicks are fed in deep litter, 
a custom gradually extending, the litter should be re- 
moved at least once a week. The hover space should be 
kept clean at all times and disinfectants used fully to 
keep away germs and other poultry pests. In feeding, 
make sure, first to last, that no musty grain or sour food 
is given. Musty grain causes bowel disorders, and sour 
food diarrhea. Food and water should be kept scrupu- 
lously clean and pure. 


1. Origin. 

2. Classification. 

3. Egg breeds. 

4. Meat breeds. 

5. General-purpose breeds. 

6. American races. 

7. Asiatic. 

8. Mediterranean. 

9. English. 

10. Polish. 

11. Dutch. 

12. French. 

13. Indian. 

14. Game. 

15. Fancy fowls. 

Note to the Teacher. — In this lesson the leading breeds 
of fowls are named and their most important character- 
istics pointed out. With this information in hand, each 
student will be able to select a variety best fitted to his 
own particular needs, and one that best suits his fancy 
and personal tastes. Whatever breed is chosen make 
certain that the foundation stock is well bred and of 
strong vitality. 




1. Origin. — Two wild species are involved in the ances- 
try of the domestic fowl, or chicken, as this class of 
scratching birds is popularly called. 
One is the jungle fowl of India. 
China and the East Indies, and 
still common in those lands. The 
other race, now extinct, was the 
Malay or Aseel fowl. The Aseel 
is thought to have been the first 
fowl domesticated. It was of 
stocky body and broad, and not 
given to flight. On the other 
hand, the jungle fowl is active, cock-a-doodle-do 

slender and flies with ease and pleasure. The early rear- 
ing of these heavier birds was in Oriental lands and of 
the lighter type along the Mediterranean coast. 

Single Comb White Leghorn 



2. Classification.^-In this coun- 
try 104 varieties of the domestic 
fowl have been recognized and de- 
scribed as standard breeds. These 
have been classified in various 
ways. According to whether they 
are fancy or practical ; to their tend- 
ency to produce meat or eggs ; to 
their tendency to be broody ; and 
according to their place of origin. 
Games and bantams are known as 
fancy or ornamental, all the oth- 
ers as practical fowls. 

3. Egg breeds. — Most of the tgg 
breeds are originated in the vicin- 
ity of the Mediterranean Sea. 
They are active birds, largely non- 
sitting, and not inclined often to 
enjoy close confinement in yards 
or runs, although they do well 
when so confined. Their prefer- 
ence is for the open fields where 
they have the chance to gather 
their own food. They are most 
at home in the warmer climates, 
but if proper provision is made for 
winter protection they do excel- 
lently, even where the cold is se- 
vere. In case the combs become 
frozen, they will stop laying for a 
time. They are excitable and 
nervous and fly at the least dis- 
turbance. The egg breeds most in 
favor arc the Leghorns, Minor- 


Egg Breeds 
From top down: White 
Leghorn, Minorca, Hamburg, 
Brown Leghorn. 



cas, Spanish, Andalusian, Hamburg, Houdan and Polish. 
4. Meat breeds. — Fowls of this class are not inclined 
to forage for food. They prefer quiet and ease, and 
therefore bear confinement well, and are not annoyed 
when handled or disturbed. They are great sitters, fly 
unwillingly and lay sparingly. Their phlegmatic nature 
is favorable to meat production when food is generously 
provided. The heavy coat of feathers protects in the 

coldest weather, making them 
at home in regions where the 
climate is severe. Asia is the 
land of their origin, which ex- 
plains why they are called the 
Asiatic breeds. The best known 
meat breeds are the Cochins, 
Brahmas, Langshans. 

5. General-purpose breeds. — A 
middle ground between the egg 
type on the one hand and the 
meat type on the other is oc- 
cupied by the general purpose 
breeds. These are birds of me- 
dium size, and have blocky, 
compact bodies. They yield 
more eggs than the meat 
breeds and nearly as many as 
the egg breeds. Their flesh, 
while less in quantity than the 
meat breeds, is of excellent 
quality and cheaply grown. 
They adjust themselves to con- 
finement or range conditions, 
make good mothers, are less 
persistent in sitting than the 

Meat Fowls 

White Langshans at bottom 
Cochin at top. 




Asiatics, and most nearly meet all the requirements de- 
manded for a general farm fowl. The leading breeds 
of this class are the Plymouth Rocks, Wyandottes, 
Rhode Island Reds, Orpingtons, Javas 

nd Dominiques. 
6. American races. — The general 
purpose breeds are American in origin 
and development, the Orpington, which 
is English, being an exception. The 
six American breeds comprise many va- 
rieties, the Dominique being the earliest 
of origin. In form they are compact 
and deep, cocks averaging eight and 
hens six pounds. Next in antiquity is 
the Java, in two varieties, Black and 
Mottled. They have single combs and 
clean shanks. The Plymouth Rock, the 
most popular American fowl, is of 
mixed origin, the Dominique and Java 
both being a part of the combination. 
This breed contains several varieties — 
the Barred, White, Buff, Silver-Pen- 
ciled and Partridge. The original Wy- 
andotte was the silver variety, but now 
the breed includes White, Buff, Silver- 
Penciled and Goldens. This breed has 
spread over the whole of Europe and 
America. They are hardy in cold 
weather, and their crests and combs 
never freeze. New England furnished 
the Rhode Island Reds. These are 
splendid birds, in three varieties, Single 
Comb, Rose Comb and Buckeyes. 

7. Asiatic. — The Cochin 

General Purpose 

From top down: White 

Orpington, B a r r e d 

Plymouth Rock, White 

China fowls Wyandotte, Rose Comh 


Six Leading General Purpose Breeds 
Top row: At left, Rhode Island Red; at right, Buff Plymouth Rock. Middle row: 
At left, Barred Plymouth Rock; at right. White Plymouth Rock. Bottom row: At 
left, Buff Orpington; at right, Silver Penciled Wyandotte. 




are among the largest of the breeds. The meat is fair, the 
eggs small and few. The cocks attain a weight of 10 to 
12 pounds. The Brahmas, 
also ponderous, are better 
rated as layers. Their keep 
is expensive on account of 
size. The Langshans are 
also fine, large fowls. For- 
merly they were black only, 
but now white and slate col- 
ored are seen. A cock 
weighs 10 to 12 pounds, a 
hen eight. They are fair 
layers, and the flesh is much 

8. Mediterranean. — Among 
the important breeds coming 
from the region of the Medi- 
terranean are Leghorns, 
Minorcas, Spanish and An- 
dalusian. These are all small 
birds and noted for their 
laying qualities. The Leg- 
horns are the best known 
of the group. There are sev- 
eral varieties, of which the 
white, brown and bufif are 
the most common. Their 
combs are either single or 
rose, the single comb on the 
hen falling over to one side. 
All the Leghorns are hardy, 
their feathers lay snugly to Asiatic breeds 

the bodv and thev Weio-h brahmas at top. Cochin hen in center, 
uic uuuy, diiu Lucy wcij^ii ^^^ gj^^^ Langshans at the bottom. 



three to five pounds, depending on sex and development. 
The skin is yellow, the breast prominent, the back of me- 
dium length and breadth. The Minorcas have long bod- 
ies, large combs, single or rose, dark-colored legs and a 

Two Varieties of Leghorn Fowls 
Single Comb White Leghorns at the left; Rose Comb Buff Leghorns at the right. 

pink flesh skin. The back is long and sloping. This 
breed is more docile than Leghorns, but less able to stand 
severe cold. The Spanish breed is black in color, al- 
though a vv^hite variety is propagated. The comb is sin- 
gle. They are good layers, but are not common. They 
suffer in comparison w^ith both Leghorns and Minorcas 
in hardiness. The Andalusians are larger than Leghorns 
and carry a bluish tone in color. They are prized as lay- 
ers, but are not extensivel}^ bred. 

9. English. — One of the best English meat breeds is 
the Dorking, a bird of massive appearance. The body is 
long, deep, w^ide and well rounded. Cocks weigh nine 
pounds, hens six to seven. The predominating colors are 
red, brown and buff. A breed known as Red Caps is 
popular in England for the many eggs they lay and the 
superior quality of their meat. They are smaller than 
the Dorking. The comb is rose and very large. This 



breed is rarely seen in this country. The Orpingtons 
possess many fine qualities. They are to England what 
the Plymouth Rocks are to the United States. They look 
very much like Plymouth Rocks 
and possess the same qualities, 
but differ most in their legs, 
which are reddish or black. The 
color variations are black, buff, 
white, variegated and spangled. 
They are single and rose combed. 
They are classed as a general-pur- 
pose breed and noted for their egg- 
laying and meat qualities. They 
are spreading rapidly and grow- 
ing in popularity for farm use. 
10. Polish. — Eight varieties 
constitute the Polish family, as follows : White-Crested, 
Black, Bearded Golden, Bearded Silver, Bearded White, 

Buff Orpington 

Polish Fowls 




Buff Laced Nonbearded Golden, Nonbearded Silver and 
Nonbearded White. All are docile birds, and are exceed- 
ingly beautiful from the fanciers' standpoint. They lay a 

white Qgg, and if well fed and 
sheltered, give a generous supply. 
On account of their immense 
crests snow and rain are harm- 
ful to them. Hence, confine- 
ment and protection are neces- 
sary for their successful rearing. 
11. Dutch. — In the Dutch 
group the one breed of fame is 
the Hamburg. It has long been 
famous for its laying qualities. 
For years the term "Dutch Ever- 
lasting Layers" has been applied 
to these fowls. In size the 
Hamburg is about equal to the 
Leghorns, and, like them, lays a large white egg. The 
varieties of Hamburg are Golden Spangled, Silver Span- 
gled, Golden Penciled, Silver Penciled, White and Black. 
12. French. — The Houdan is the best-known breed in 
France, and nothing but good 
can be said of it. They are 
esteemed for their nesting 
qualities and lay a great many 
large, white eggs. The enor- 
mous topknots are against 
them in rainy weather because 
of danger from^ disease if fre- 
quently wet. The La Fleche 
breed yields in a way to the 
Houdans. Instead of a top- la fleche 

knot they have two little horns, which give them a com- 





1^ N 'v^^r/^ 

W^ ■ 






ical appearance. 

The usual color is black 

blue occurs 

although steel 

this country — salmon, light and 
black — although in their native 
district all colors are found. 
They weigh from five to nine 
pounds, according to sex. 

13. Indian. — The two varie- 
ties of this family are the Cor- 
nish and White. They are excel- 
lent market birds, the meat be- 
ing of excellent 

but is not 
common. They weigh 
six to eight pounds, ac- 
cording to sex. The 
flesh is white. The Fa- 
verolle has a topknot 
and a little above the 
beak two small horns 
protrude. They are 
hardy, handsome and 
good layers. Only three 
colors are considered in 



Malay Game 

White Laced Red Cornish 

cocks weigh nine 
pounds and the hens six to seven. 
The shanks are yellow, the tail, breast 
and back are black in males and pen- 
ciled black in hens. This breed bears 
a striking resemblance to the old 
Aseel of Indian origin. 

14. Game. — This family, embracing 
both fighting and exhibition fowls, is 
of peculiar formation. The Pit Game 



Red Pit Game 

or English Game is bred for his belligerent qualities. The 
Games bred for exhibition purposes must show height, 

fierceness, strength and an ex- 
tremely upright stature. Cor- 
rect plumage is also of impor- 
tance in winning prizes. 

15. Fancy fowls. — Many dis- 
tinct breeds and types belong 
in this list. The most promi- 
nent are the Bantams, Silkies, 
Sultans and Frizzles. The 
Game fowls belong to the 
fancy classification, as do also 
Polish and Hamburg varieties. 
The Bantams are the smallest, 
and are not only proud little creatures, but handsome also. 
Birds of this class are bred as pets or ornaments and not 
for eggs or meat. 

It must be said, however, that Polish and Hamburg 
varieties while too 
small for the table arc 
excellent layers of fair- 
sized eggs. They are 
almost non-sitters, so 
cannot usually be re- 
lied upon for hatching. 
Polish fowls are unde- 
sirable on the farm be- 
cause their topknots 
prevent their seeing 
hawks. Game fowls are specially good as mothers, be- 


cause they will fight enemies, 
layers but fair table fowls. 

They are rather poor 


1. Parts of Fowls. — Have one or more live fowls for class work. 
Use the diagram in this practicum to locate each part on the fowl. 
Require each student to make sketch, and as the part or region is 
located, mark the name of the part on the sketch at the proper point. 
Continue this practice until each memher of the class has learned 
the regions and is able to name the location without referring to 
his sketch. Definitions of each term should be learned and mem- 

7^5 1. Head 

' '- ' ■^ 2. Beik 

3. Face 

4. Nose 

5. Eye 

6. Comb 

7. Ear 

8. Wattles 

9. Ear lobes 

10. Breast 

11. Wing 

12. Thigh 

13. Body 

14. Leg 

15. Hock 

16. Shank 

17. Foot 

18. Spur 

19. Keel 

20. Toes 

21. Fluff 

22. Tail 

23. Saddle or Cushion 

24. Back 

25. Neck 
Ml 26. Cape 

^ ^ 27. Abdomen 

Parts of Fowl 

2. Egg Structure. — (1) Break an uncooked egg in a plate or 
saucer, separating the shell at the middle, (a) Note the germinal 
disk that lies on the upper surface of the yolk, (b) Note the whitish 
cords at the sides of the yolk toward the ends. These cords consist 
of densely formed albumen that hold the yolk in suspension. 
(c) Note the albuinen or watery fluid, known as the white of the 
egg. (d) Note the shell, its construction, color; if a microscope is 
available, the pores may be clearly detected. 

(2) Break the large end of a hard-boiled egg. Remove the shell 
carefully, not tearing the shell membrane, (a) Note the air space. 
(b) Try to separate the two membranes, at least a portion of each; 
the outer is much tougher and thicker than the inner, (r) Cut the 
egg lengthwise at the middle and observe the yolk layers and colors ; 
also the germinal disk and its location, (d) Make a drawing of the 




longitudinal section of the egg and include all the parts touched 
upon either in the text or in the observations noted above. 

3. Scoring Eggs.— Provide several dozens of eggs. Use the score 
card below. After class practice the eggs may be disposed of by 
the owners in accordance with their custom. Local grocers usually 
will be glad to loan a reasonable number for this exercise. 

Score Card for Eggs. 

Points Considered 


Size — large, weigh two ounces or more 

Shape — uniform 

Color — uniform, according to breed 

Shell — good texture, hard, no wrinkles, even. 

Condition — bright luster, clean 

Air cell — small, enlarges with age 

Contents — opaque ; thick white ; light yolk . . . 



4. Storing Eggs. — Storing eggs when prices are low and holding 
them till prices are high is a form of economy that everyone who 
has a cool cellar can practice. None but newly laid eggs should be 
stored. Preferably these should be laid by hens which have not run 
with a male bird for at least two weeks, because such eggs, being 
infertile, will keep better than fertile ones. Two very satisfactory 
methods have long proven useful. In either case, place the eggs in 
a stoneware crock or a wooden keg and cover with one or the other 
of the following solutions : 

(a) Water glass, siHcate of soda, a syrupy liquid, can be obtained 
at most druggists for 10 to 30 cents a pound. To each quart of it 
add ten parts of pure clean rain water. After mixing pour over and 
cover the eggs. Cover the vessel and keep in a cool place. 

(b) Lime-salt solution. — Slake fresh stone lime with boiling 
water, adding a little at a time until it breaks into small pieces and 
forms a thin paste. Then add salt and more water so the final mix- 
ture will be at the rate of 1 pound lime. Vi pound salt and four 
quarts water. Stir several times after the lime has dissolved, then 
allow to stand overnight. In the morning siphon off the clear liquid 
and pour over the eggs. 

Eggs stored by these methods will keep for 6 to 10 months. Those 
stored in water glass can be used for boiling, but unless those stored 
by the lime process are pricked with a needle they will crack because 
of the lime deposit upon them. For cooking outside the shells they 
should be almost as good as newly laid eggs. 

Require each student to use from one to five dozens of eggs, test- 
ing each method at home. The eggs are to be kept, and after sev- 
eral months used in the home. Report later when eggs are used. 


1. Grit. 

2. Dry mash or wet mash. 

3. Green feed. 

4. Animal feeds. 

5. Exercise. 

6. Fresh air. 

7. Ventilation. 

8. Colony houses. 

9. Permanent houses 

10. Scratching pens. 

11. Nests. 

12. Broilers. 

13. Roasters. 

14. Winter layers. 

15. Feeding the layers. 

Note to the Teacher. — The obvious purpose of this les- 
son is to define the important factors in successful flock 
management, regardless of whether fowls are raised for 
eggs or meat, or both. The first seven paragraphs should 
be made emphatic because success with poultry is de- 
pendent upon good feed, grit, exercise, fresh air and 
cleanliness. More failures are due to disregard of one 
or more of these factors than to other causes. 



1. Grit. — Fowls at liberty usually pick up enough grit, 
except where the land is deficient in sand and gravel. 
Where gravel is scarce grit must be supplied. Besides 
ordinary grit, it is desirable to supply other material for 

Interior of Farm Chicken House 

Note the grit box and feed boxes at the side. They are built just high enough to 
make chicicens reach for food. No dirt can enter. 

forming the egg shells. Grain does not contain sufficient 

lime for great egg layers. Oyster and other sea shells are 

largely used, since they are very readily dissolved in the 


Lack of lime or other shell material in the ration often leads to 
the egg-eating habit among hens. Charcoal is useful as a bowel 
regulator. Many poultry keepers keep it constantly before the 
hens. Salt in moderation aids digestion. An ounce or two daily is 
sufficient for 100 hens. Pepper, which acts as a stimulant, should 
be fed sparingly. Vigorous hens do not need it 



2. Dry mash or wet mash. — Fowls enjoy wet mash more 
than dry, but dry mash saves labor, since enough may be 
put in the hopper to last a week. When fed wet at least 

one feeding must be given daily. 
Since fowls eat wet mash more 
greedily than dry, more care 
must be exercised to avoid over- 
feeding. Where skim milk is 
available the ration may be 
cheapened by using it to wet the 
mash. Bran and middlings 
may be made to take large 
quantities of milk, and thus to 
Range Feed Hopper, with Lm balance and cheapen the ration. 

Open, Showing Divisions -iTiri i -nr n r j . ^ 

When skillfully fed, wet mash 
should give better results in ^gg yield than dry, 

3. Green feed. — Lack of green food is sure to afifect 
Ggg production unfavorably. Flocks at range secure abun- 
dant green food, but flocks in yards and in winter quar- 
ters must be supplied. It may be 
fed without stint at all times. 
Among the best feeds are clover, al- 
falfa, grass, vetches, pea vines, rape, 
rye, mangels, kale, cabbages, sugar 
beets, turnips — in fact, anything 
and everything the hens will eat. 
During the winter cabbage is espe- 
cially useful. Root crops are also 
good. The leaves and broken heads 
from the hay mow may be steamed 
if desired. Alfalfa and clover give 
good flavor and quality to eggs. • 

4. Animal feeds. — Animal food of some sort is desira- 
ble to maintain fowls in vigorous health and productivity. 

Green Feed 

Fastened up as here 
shown is the best way to 
feed coarse green stuff. 


Probably no one thing has done more to increase prof- 
its than feeding animal food. Chickens when at liberty 
during summer secure abundant animal food in the form 
of bugs and worms. Something to take the place of this 
feed is necessary, especially Avhen snow is 
on the ground. Lean meat is the best form 
to feed. It furnishes ample protein. The 
presence of a little fat does no harm and 
may be an advantage. Fresh meat scrap 
from the butcher is an excellent egg maker. 

Skim milk is a good substitute for animal feed if 
given liberall3% but it is not concentrated enough. 
Fish Net When used as a drink hens will not take enough to 
Green feed supply their demand for animal feed. Milk is well 
holder. used for mixing the wet mashes by feeding it clab- 
bered, and best in the form of cottage cheese, which 
is a particularly good form when well made. The most convenient 
form of animal food is beef scrap, a by-product of the packing 
houses. It has been boiled and dried and contains meat and bone 
in varying proportions. It should always be light colored, have a 
meaty flavor and be rather oily to the touch. When boiling water is 
added to it, it should smell like fresh meat. If a putrid odor is 
given off it should not be fed. 

5. Exercise. — A roomy scratching shed covered with 
8 to 12 inches of straw is splendid for exercise. This 
straw should be dry and whole grain should be scattered 
in it. There will be no waste ; the fowls will find the last 
kernel. The aim is to feed enough at a time without 
having to feed too often, so as to keep the hens busy 
most of the day. When too much feed is given at a 
time the fowls soon become satisfied and will stop eat- 
ing. It is not essential to keep fowls scratching all 
the time. The more active breeds do nearly as well when 
fed from hoppers. When given a yard and a floor they 
will take sufficient exercise whether forced to scratch 
or not. For the larger, less active breeds, however, it is 
necessary to force exercise. Idleness ruins both health 



and egg production. No breed of fowls is injured by 
having exercise and most breeds profit decidedly. 

Coming Out for Daily Exercise 

The fowls are permitted to roam about for exercise. At night they return to the 

colony house for food and shelter. 

6. Fresh air. — Properly constructed poultry houses 
will not need special ventilation. But for good egg pro- 
duction there must be abundant fresh, dry air to remove 
dampness given off from the fowls' breath and from 

droppings. No way has 
been found so satisfac- 
tory as to have the house 
rather open on the front 
and tight on all other 
sides and the roof. »The 
opening should be cov- 
ered with burlap or other 
material to check draft 
and keep out snow and 

Ideal Fresh Air Home . 011 

^ , „ . , ram. Such houses may 

Rats cannot enter, and the floor is never damp •' 



be somewhat cooler than houses more tightly closed, but 
the air will be pure, and pure air is far more important 
than warmth. This does not, however, mean that warmth 
is not also good. 

7. Ventilation. — No ventilating system compares in 
good results with one open at the front, but where one 
must be put in, it is best to have the vent near the floor 
with a tight box leading through the upper part of the 
house and through the roof. The inflow of air should 
enter near the bottom on the outside and be conducted 
to the ceiling so that it will be comparatively warm before 
it enters the house. Thus drafts will be reduced to a 
minimum and yet there will be sufficient circulation of 
air to remove moisture and impurities. Under no cir- 
cumstances should a ventilating system be given pref- 
erence over the more natural diffusion system already 
mentioned. The difficulties of making the thing work in- 
crease as the temperatures inside and outside approach 
each other, and also as the openings in the house increase. 

Piano Box Colony Houses at the Farm 

Each of these houses was built of common piano boxes. They are simple, inex- 
pensive and serve the purpose as well as the more expensively constructed buildings. 


8. Colony houses. — Where fowls are kept in consid- 
erable number two plans are common — the colony plan 
and the long-house plan. The colony affords good 
range. The houses are exceedingly convenient for plac- 
ing in orchards and fields, where by the aid of hoppers 
and drinking fountains the flock may be encouraged to 
take care of itself to a large extent. After the chicks 
reach a fair size and the hen has left them, roosts should 
be placed in the house. 

^^^K: , 


'^^'maKmiutHf-Mi ^ • mi^- --^^^"ii^tf ylBfeijBP-- 

L-.^ ..-«_.,•■ -fc- v^ * -ifg^n _ i-^ri:k::l 

- if cjOi .j:-|rjicig 


Long-House Plan of Farm Poultry Buildings 

Permanent buildings of this kind cannot be moved from place to place as can the 
small colony house. 

9. Permanent houses. — These may be built in any 
style and shape. It is best to have the ceiling rather 
low. This favors warmth, because the fowls can keep 
the temperature comfortable if sufficient numbers are 
kept together. For permanent houses foundation walls 
should extend below the frost line and high enough to 
prevent the inflow of water during wet weather. Have 
the foundation rat proof and strong enough to support 
the building economically. Brick, stone, or concrete foun- 
dations are best as a rule. Floors should be smooth, 
hard, easy to clean, dry and durable. Unless ground is 
naturally dry it should be drained. Too much emphasis 



cannot be laid upon securing dryness. A tight wall is 

10. Scratching pens. — The styles and arrangements of 
pens are legion. The open scratching shed is favored by 

Colony House in Two Divisions 

One division may be used for scratching pen in win- 
ter, the other retained for roosting and nests. 

many, since it provides space for the fov^ls to exercise in 
spite of any kind of v^eather. All sorts of modifications 
are found. Its chief advantage is that the fowls may go 
from house to. shed, or the reverse, and thus feel more at 
liberty than if confined closely. They are also less likely 
to become excited if they have a means of escape when 
they want to get away from an attendant. Everything 
that makes for comfort should be secured when possible. 
The scratching pen is 
considered essential to 
good health of the 
fowls because it in- 
sures exercise and the 
fowls are not confined 
in too warm a room 
while they are busy. 

11. Nests. — Nests 
may be made of any trap nests 








kind of material, style or character. Preferably they 
should be darkened and placed in secluded parts of the 
house or yard. A favorite place for them is beneath the 
roosting platform. Where Qgg eating is discovered the 
dark nest is one of the best v^ays to eliminate the habit. 
Trap nests show which hens are the layers and which 
the drones. Where one is breeding for tgg production 
they are a necessity. 

Broilers Properly Fitted for Market 

12. Broilers.— More than 90 per cent of the chickens sold 
as broilers come from poultry produced on Qgg farms, 
fancy yards and general farms where they are a by-prod- 
uct and must be got rid of quickly to prevent loss. 
Cockerels may pay more than the cost of feeding, but 
unless they can have free range they are not likely to 
pay the whole cost of their production, counting the 
value of the eggs, the cost of hatching and the labor and 
the feed, up to the time of their being marketed. Unless 
one has facilities for fattening and thus disposing of his 
cockerels as roasters or capons, it would be more eco- 
nomical to sell the broilers as soon as they are of mar- 
ketable size. 



13. Roasters. — \Miat is known in the market as a 
roaster is a fairly matured fowl large enough, either alone 

Dressed Fowl for the Roaster Trade 

One way of finishing for the roaster market. The fowls are White Wyandotte 
cockerels less than four months old. Such choice individuals are obtainable by 
rational methods of feeding and with general purpose and meat breeds. 

or with another roaster, to supply a family dinner. These 
fowls are most profitably raised by being allowed free 
range of the stubble fields, pastures, 
meadows and orchards, where they 
pick up a large share of their living 
between the time that they can leave 
the brooder or the mother hen and 
the time they are sold. Frequently 
they are fattened for two weeks or 
so before going to market so as to 
add a pound or more to their weight. 
They are more profitable than broil- 
ers raised in the ordinary way on the 

14. Winter layers. — It is a much 
disputed question whether pullets or p^^^^;-- /--"^n 



Sprouting Oats 

hens do best as layers. Many poultrymen claim that 
pullets are superior, and, therefore, the more profitable, 
but there is nothing decided on this subject. Many tgg 
farmers get excellent tgg yields from hens two to four 
years old — fully as good as from pul- 
lets. Because of this fact, it is evident 
there is much in the method of man- 
agement and in the breeding. For 
this reason a hen should not be sold 
so long as she lays well. A hen on 
the nest is worth two pullets in the 

15. Feeding the layers. — In winter 
quarters and fed for eggs three special 
meals a day are desirable. For break- 
fast give a combination of several grains 
scattered deep in a loose litter. At noon give a mash, 
wet or dry, and with or without alfalfa and meat meal. 
For supper give grain in the scratching litter, feeding 
enough so that there will be some left for the fowls to 
begin on in the early morning when they come off the 
roosts. Layers of the tgg type will consume about three 
ounces daily of the grain mixture, or about 18 pounds to 
each 100 fowls. Of 
the noon mash about 
five quarts will be re- 
quired for each 100 
fowls. It will take 
from 15 to 20 minutes 
for that number to 
clean up this quantity. 
If meat scrap is not in- ^en, feed and eggs 

eluded in the mash The hen is the means of changing raw food 
1 • 1 material into a highly concentrated finished 

place m hoppers as a product. 


Steady dish. Some green food should be fed each day. 
A ration recommended by one of the leading poultry 
schools for winter egg production is as follows : For 
grain, a mixture of 100 pounds of cracked corn, 100 
pounds of wheat and 50 pounds of oats fed in deep litter 
sparingly in the morning and freely at night. Mash is 
fed in the afternoon in hoppers. The mash mixture con- 
sists of the following: 60 pounds of wheat middlings, 
60 pounds of corn meal, 50 pounds of beef scrap, 30 
pounds of wheat bran, 10 pounds of alfalfa meal, 10 
pounds of linseed oil meal and a half pound of salt. 


1. Duck growing. 

2. Farm ducks. 

3. Hatching and first care. 

4. Three types of ducks. 

5. Meat breeds. 

6. Indian runner duck. 

7. Marketing ducks. 

8. Raising geese. 

9. Characteristics of geese. 

10. Toulouse geese. 

11. Embden geese. 

12. Chinese geese. 

13. African geese. 

14. Rearing the goslings. 

15. Goose and duck feathers. 

Note to the Teacher. — There is a place for ducks and 
geese on many farms. Ducks may be grown success- 
fully in larger flocks than can any other kind of poultry. 
Geese will utilize waste, marshy land and thus make a 
profit where there would be no income at all. Unless 
the grazing area is ample, geese must be kept in small 




1. Duck growing. — It is easier to raise ducks than 
fowls. They are less sensitive to filth in food, give less 
trouble and are almost completely free from disease. If 
sufficient space is available they lend themselves to rais- 





Brooder House on Duck Farm 
Where thousands of ducks are annually raised. 

ing in very large flocks. Indeed duck rearing is about 
the only branch of poultry culture in which plants of large 
capacity have been successfully established. In a num- 
ber of such establishments 5,000 to 10,000 ducks are an- 
nually produced. In others there is a still larger output, 
from 15,000 to 20,000 being common, and in a few from 
40,000 to 60,000 as the yearly production. 

These large plants call for much capital, la^ge experience and 
great skill and knowledge. Such plants are located on large areas 
where streams or the ocean coast provide natural comfort. In such 




locations the breeding ducks are in their element. Ducks intended 
for market rarely have a chance to swim. They are confined to 
yards and fed special rations until about 10 weeks old. 

2. Farm ducks. — But ducks lend themselves to farm 

culture also. They dislike coops or inclosures; and as 

soon after hatching as it is safe to let them out they 

should be allowed the open fields and orchards, but not 

access to any but drinking water until they are feathered. 

If a running stream is near they will in a large measure 

gather their own food. The farm flock generally takes 

care of itself, but provision of housing so as to secure the 

eggs during the laying season is necessary, else many will 

be lost. Laying ducks usually are confined indoors at 

night and until they have laid in the morning. To have 

well-fertilized eggs from the old ducks not more than six 

to eight should be given to one drake. 


Farm Flock for Eggs, Meat and Feathers 

3. Hatching and first care. — W^hile it is not uncommon 
to allow old ducks to hatch their eggs and to brood the 
young ducklings, the eggs are generally hatched by hens. 
This is because of the better care these false mothers 
give during the early days after hatching. Four weeks 
are required for incubation. After quitting the eggs the 
ducklings are shut up for a few days and fed on soft food 



or moist mashes. Frequently, hard-boiled eggs are mixed 
with the soft food. The first feeds of the soft mash and 

an occasional feed for a 
week or more should 
contain coarse sand or 
small grit. This is not 
only to supply grinding 
substance but also min- 
eral matter. After this 
the ducklings may be 
let out into the yard or 
field. Animal food 
should not now be de- 
nied as it is essential to 
growth ; earthworms, insects or meat meal are excellent. 

A good ration for ducks, and one used by many successful 
smaller duck growers, consists of one part of corn meal and two 

Hen and Ducks 

Muscovy Ducks 



parts of bran. To this is added five per cent beef scrap and a little 
fine grit or coarse gravel. Feed five times a day for the first five 
weeks then three times a day. An occasional feed of green food is 
desired. The birds are fattened by allowing all they will eat 

4. Three types of ducks. — The races of improved ducks 
are of three distinct types : The meat breeds, of which the 
most common are the Pekin, Aylesbury, Muscovy, Rouen 
and Cayuga; the laying breeds, the best representative 
of which is the Indian Runner; and the Ornamental, such 
as crested white and call ducks. 

5. Meat breeds. — The Pekin occupies a foremost place 
in the duck world. It comes originally by way of Eng- 
land from China, is white 

in color, very docile in 
disposition and very 
hardy. Most of the ducks 
raised for market in 
America are of this 
breed. In the special 
duck plants this race 
only is selected. 

The Aylesbury, which 
the uninitiated can sel- 
dom distinguish from the Pekin duck, has also made itself 
a reputation for excellence. In England, the land of its 
development, it is famous, and is preferred over all other 
races. Rouen ducks originated in France, and are prized 
as layers as well as for the high quality of their meat. 
The male is gray to brown with green on head and wings ; 
the female from gray to brown. The Muscovy duck is 
originally from South America. In color they are white, 
or black and white. The Cayuga, a black duck of New 
York origin, is very similar to the other races, 

6. Indian Runner duck. — Not long ago this breed was 

Pen of Pekins 



comparative!}^ unknown. Its fine merits have made for 
it a world-wide reputation. It is one of the most fer- 
tile of ducks, selected strains laying- as many eggs as the 
best laying strains of 
hens. It is also very 
good, though small, for 
the table, its flesh being 
extremely delicate. It is 
very active and can fly 
far. These birds have no 
absolute need of water; 
they prefer to roam the 
pastures and grain fields 
in search of worms, in- 
sects and grain. For the 
reasons mentioned this 
race is fast becoming the most popular and most exten- 
sively farm-raised duck. 

7. Marketing ducks. — Ducks may be kept for layers, or 
meat, or a combination of the two. As such they are 
a side issue and no rule is followed as to the best time 

Indian Runner Ducks 

Raising Market Ducks on a Large Scale 
A plan where fattening ducks is carried on extensively. Here thousands are 
r.ually raised and sent to market. 



of marketing. On many farms ducks are consumed on 
the home table and none are ever sold. A different con- 
dition obtains in the commercial plants, whether large 
or small. The effort is to bring ducks to a marketable 
size at as early an age as possible. Most of the young 
ducks are not kept longer than 12 weeks because they 
are large enough then to sell and have not usually started 
their second crop of pin feathers. For this reason they 
are easier to pluck than when somewhat older. At this 
age they should weigh, dressed, five to six pounds. They 
are sold as "green" ducks. The profit to the grower is in 
this form. Ducks fed and fattened to a maturer age, 
when a greater proportion of the weight is meat, bring 
no more on the market than these soft-fat and cheaply 
produced green ducks. 

8. Raising geese. — Geese are not as generally grown as 
ducks. A considerable de- 
mand for "green goose'* 
gives rise to much activ- 
ity in geese raising in 
some places. Mature 
young geese are relished, 
but their cost is usually 
greater than the returns 
they bring when mar- 
keted. If geese had to be 
fed on grain it would not 
pay to raise them ; the ex- 
pense would be greater 
than the price received. 
Only during the first three or four weeks is it advisable 
to give the goslings a little meal, carefully mixed. As a 
farm race they have their place, not for eggs, for the best 

Popular Toulouse 



Defending the Nest 

At brooding time geese are generally hostile 
and combative. 

breeds will seldom give more than 30 a year, but for the 
tasty meat any of the breeds will provide. 

9. Characteristics of geese. — It is believed that to have 
eeS's well fertilized the geese must live near a pond or 

running water. A gan- 
der over two years of age 
is preferred in breeding. 
Hens are best for hatch- 
ing these eggs. Mature 
geese are strong phys- 
ically and usually mani- 
fest a combative nature. 
The improved races are 
of large size and may be 
kept at no great expense. 
They will thrive on grass alone during the growing sea- 
son. In some parts of Europe vast numbers of geese are 
raised for the city markets. The goose girl goes to the 
fields every morning with 
her flock, returning at 
night to her home where 
her charges are stabled. 

10. Toulouse geese. — 
The giant of all the goose 
races is the Toulouse, a 
native of France. Its or- 
dinary weight is from 15 
to 20 pounds, but many 
specimens have been 
known to reach weights 
from 25 to 30 pounds or 

more. Where range is not ideal, these are probaby the 
best geese for the farm. It is thought to do better with- 
out a swimming area than other breeds. In general ap- 

TouLousE Geese 



pearance it resembles the common farm goose more than 
the other breeds, but is much larger than these scrub 
geese. It is gray, though beneath and behind there are 
white areas in the plumage; the legs and the bill are 
orange. During their first year young geese lay 15 to 
25 eggs. When older they may lay from 25 to 40. The 
breed is very quiet, but in spite of its wide popularity, is 
not ranked very high in the market. 

11. Embden geese.— The Embden is the chief rival of 
the Toulouse. While its 
standard weights are the 
same as for the Tou- 
louse, a smaller propor- 
tion of the birds attain 
these weights. The plum- 
age is white; legs and 
bill yellow. The Embden 
when well bred and 
properly prepared not 
only makes the best 
looking carcass, but is 
superior to other breeds for marketing. One of the chief 
disadvantages in purchasing specimens is that there are 
many poor flocks in this country, poor not only in breed- 
ing, but poor in ability to lay. Intending purchasers 
should be careful in buying for these reasons. 

12. Chinese geese.— Of these there are two varieties — 
Brown and White. Their form and carriage are different 
from the two breeds already mentioned. They stand 
much more erect, have much longer and slenderer necks. 
In the Brown Chinese, at the base of the bill is a peculiar 
dark-colored knob. The standard weights are 14 pounds 
for the adult gander and 12 for the geese. The Brown 
variety is considered the most prolific of all geese. 




Brown China Geese 

Under ordinary management the females will lay 40 to 
50 eggs, or even more, and these eggs are noted for their 


One of the chief disadvantages 
is that the carcasses are exceed ■ 
ingly hard to pluck and. when 
dressed, make the poorest appear- 
ance of all kinds of geese. In the 
White Chinese the plumage is 
white throughout, the bill and 
legs are orange colored and so is 
the knob at the base of the bill. 
While the geese lay as well as 
their brown cousins, their eggs 
are less fertile. White Chinese 
geese rival the Embden geese in 
the market. Their carcasses 
make a far better appearance 
than those of the Brown. 

13. African geese. — These 

are not nearly as common 

as other large varieties. 

Their color is gray, dark above, light below. On the 

back of the neck there is a dark stripe. Their weights 

are the same as for 

Embden and Toulouse. 

The bill is black and has 

the same kind of black 

knob characteristic of 

the Brown Chinese va- 
riety. The eggs are 

orange colored. As a 

rule, the geese lay better 

than the Embden, but 

not so well as* the Tou- 
louse, and the carcasses, 

especially of old birds, 

are hard to make look 

African Geese 



well for the market. The skin is dark, and this unfavor- 
able color is not improved by the presence of down and 
pin feathers which are usually very hard to remove. 

14. Rearing the goslings. — Little goslings are very 
dainty eaters at first. During the first few days bread 
crumbs, soaked in milk or water and squeezed nearly dry 
are very good and are relished. This feed may be given 
three or four times a day with plenty of water to drink. 
The drinking fountain should be arranged so the goslings 
cannot wet more than their bills. During the second 
week a mash of equal parts ground oats, bran and corn 
meal, mixed with hot water, may be fed cold five times a 
day and continued 
until the goslings are 
a month old. After the 
first few days the> 
may have the freedom 
of a small pen where 
there is plenty of 
grass, and when two 
weeks old, their range 
may be extended. Clover and alfalfa are especially good. 

When one month old the same mash may be used 
morning and evening, with perhaps a meal at noon. Some 
breeders prefer to feed the mash at morning and noon 
with cracked wheat at night. Until the goslings are 
fully feathered they should be kept out of water and only 
those intended for breeding should learn to swim. When 
two months old, feeding may be reduced to twice a day 
— soft feed in the morning and cracked corn or wheat, 
or a mixture of these two grains, at night. From this 
time forward the goslings may be allowed to roam at will. 

15. Goose and duck feathers. — There is probably less 

On the Way to the Pond 


waste of geese and duck feathers than of chicken and 
turkey. The prices are considerably higher and the uses 
more numerous; yet it is probable that many bring a 
lower price than they should because of the imperfect 
methods of sorting and curing. The birds should be dry 
picked, to save the animal oils which give the feathers 
their "life." The reduction in grade because of scalding 
is not as great with geese and duck feathers as with tur- 
key and chicken. The birds should be immersed for only 
a very short time and the drying properly attended to. 
The feathers from the two kinds of birds should be kept 
separate, but otherwise the method of handling is simple. 


1. Wild turkeys. 

2. Mammoth Bronze turkeys. 

3. Narragansett turkeys. 

4. Black or Sologne turkeys. 

5. White or Holland turkeys. 

6. Buff and Red turkeys. 

7. Laying season. 

8. Confining the layers. 

9. Breeding stock, 

10. Hatching. 

11. Rearing. 

12. Shooting the red. 

13. Feeding. 

14. Johnnycake. 

15. Guineas. 

Note to the Teacher. — Turkeys and guineas are least 
removed from their natural wild state. For this reason 
emphasize the necessity of somewhat "natural" condi- 
tions for raising them. They have a place on farms 
where such conditions, notably free range after the baby 
stage has been passed. Neither fowl is adapted to "com- 
mercial methods" such as yarding in large flocks. 


1. Wild turkeys. — The wild turkey is a native of 
America. It was taken to Europe by sailors and explor- 
ers and early brought into a domestic state. There are 
villages in France where turkeys are kept at the public 
expense. The birds are individually owned, but the care 
of the village flock is in the charge of a paid employee, 
who takes them to the open fields in the morning and 
returns them to their homes at night. Wild turkeys 
still exist, but their numbers are few. At one time flocks 
of 50 or 100 were common, but the constant spread of 
settlers and the continuous hunting expeditions have scat- 
tered these beautiful wild birds, depleting their ranks 
and destroying their haunts, until their glory has become 
a thing of the past. 

2. Mammoth Bronze turkeys. — Un- 
questionably the best known variety 
of turkeys is the Bronze or Mammoth 
Bronze. This is not only the most 
striking in appearance, but also the 
largest. The adult torn has a standard 
weight of 36 pounds and the hen 20 
pounds. Much greater weights than 
these are often reached. Usually, 
however, these heavy weights are not 
for sale by fanciers. One objection to 
the Bronze variety is that the hens are 
Yum, Yum considered poorer layers than hens of 

the other kinds. In color the sexes are alike, except that in 
males it is more vivid. The feathers are bronze or dull 



black with bands of white across. The bronze tints give 
pleasing color effects. This variety is the domesticated 
type of the wild turkey. Through selection and breed- 
ing the color tones and markings have been made more 

vivid and brilliant. In 
size the domesticated 
variety is also larger. 

3. Narragansett tur- 
keys. — This variety is a 
close second to the 
Bronze in size and 
popularity. Its stand- 
ard weights are 30 
pounds for the males 
and 18 pounds for the 
females. In general, 
the color is gray, 
mixed with black. They 
get their name from 
the bay near which their development as a breed occurred. 

4. Black or Sologne turkeys. — In Europe this breed is 
very popular, and there it is considered unsurpassed by 
any variety. It is a superb animal of brilliant black color 
and often reaches a weight of 30 to 40 pounds. Turkeys 
of this variety in this country are 

known as Norfolk turkeys. 

5. White or Holland turkeys. — This 
is the smallest variety of turkey. Its 
standard weights are 26 pounds for 
toms and 16 pounds for hens. Locally, 
in many places they surpass the Bronze 
variety in popularity. They are reputed 
to be better layers and more home lov- 
ing than some of the other breeds. Holland turkey 

Mammoth Bronze Turkey 



6. Buff and red turkeys. — The turkeys of these varie- 
ties are uniformly colored, as their names imply. They 
weigh 27 and 18 pounds respectively foi cock and hen. 
Though fairly well distributed throughout the country 
they are by no means as popular as either the Bronze or 

"The Bronze turkey is everywhere recognized as altogether the 
best existing type. Considering its qualities collectively, it may be 
doubted whether the type can be improved upon. It is a rugged 
race, growing sometimes to great size, but on the average not up to 
the standards for exhibition weights for other varieties." — Robinson. 

7. Laying season. — As a 

rule turkey hens begin lay- 
ing very early in the spring. 
For best results it is desir- 
able that they be encour- 
aged to lay in places conven- 
ient for gathering the eggs. 
Turkey hens, especially 
voung ones, rarely lay more 
than a dozen eggs before 
becoming broody. They may 
be broken and made to lay 
a second clutch of eggs. Older hens seldom lay more than 
18 for their first litter and not quite as many in the sec- 
ond of the season. The eggs should be collected daily 
and stored in a cool place until they can be set. Eggs 
from specially productive and otherwise desirable hens 
should be marked and set separately, so their progeny 
can be marked when hatched and thus be given preference 
when selection for breeding takes place the following 
autumn. It is a safe precaution to put hens' eggs in the 
turkey nest to keep the turkeys contented when laying. 

8. Confining the layers. — During the laying season, 
many turkey raisers confine their flocks to comparatively 

Bourbon Red Turkey 



small yards, at least until the hens have decided upon a 
place to lay. After the first two or three days of laying, 
the hen turkey will rarely desert her nest, so that when 
the whole flock has begun to lay it may be allowed full 
freedom. As a modification of this plan, breeders keep 
the flock confined until about noon each day, until the 
hens are laying. This practice saves much time which 
otherwise would be needlessly wasted in watching tur- 
keys to find out their nesting places and then walking 
daily from nest to nest to collect the eggs. A score of 

Breeding Flock of Bronze Turkeys 

This farm flock has the run of the feed lots and fields. Ordinarily, best success 
with turkeys is attained when range conditions are resorted to. The eggs hatch 
better and the birds are stronger and more thrifty. 

hens may be kept without difficulty in a yard 75 feet 
square. This inclosure need not be fenced very high. 
Few turkeys will attempt to fly over a woven wire fence 
5 feet high. 

9. Breeding stock. — For best results turkey hens should 
be two years old and cocks three 3^ears old or more. They 
will prove useful for eight or 10 years, or even longer. The 
customary size of a flock is 10 to 12 hens to one tom, 
though often as many as 18 or even 20 hens are used. 


None but the very choicest, quickest growing, and best birds 
in every respect should be selected from each year's young 
flock to replace the old ones that have survived their useful- 
ness. In this way the flock can be steadily improved in size 
of birds, in precocity of development and in stamina. 

It is usual for turkey eggs to be fertile. On this account eggs are 
not often tested out when set. Ordinarily the only test is made 
about the twenty-sixth day. Then the eggs are placed in warm 
water and the infertile ones removed. Live ones can be recognized 
from the fact that they move in the water. 

10. Hatching. — It is generally necessary to let turkey 
hens sit where they wish. They choose their own nests 
and object to being moved. If it becomes necessary to 
change the nest, night is the best time. Supplied with nest 
eggs for a day or two, the hens may be tried out and if satis- 
fied the regular clutch may be given her. Small turkey 
hens will cover 13 to 15 eggs ; large ones 18 or 20. Hatch- 
ing usually commences on the twenty-eighth day, though 
it may last or even not start until the thirtieth day. It is 
just as important to remove the hatchlings as little chicks. 
They should be placed in a box lined with flannel or woolen 
goods and kept in a warm room. 

11. Rearing. — During the first day or two the turkeys 
do not need any food. The mother hen must, however, 
be fed liberally. It is a decided advantage to place the 
coop over the nest if possible so the turkey will feel at 
home and contented. Where this is not possible the 
brood and mother should be moved to desirable quarters; 
a coop with a board bottom should be given preference. 
After the first three days, when the young ones are begin- 
ning to run around, a small yard should be provided. A 
convenient yard may be made of three boards 14 inches 
wide set up on edge in the form of a triangle, with a coop 
in one corner, and the mother turkey allowed her free- 
dom. She will not go far from her brood. The little 



ones may be kept in this kind of inclosure until they are 
large enough to jump up and make their escape. 

12. Shooting the red. — Where the coop cannot be 
placed upon short grass, ample green feed should be sup- 
plied daily. It is also 
important to give plenty 
of grit and charcoal and 
especially necessary to 
fight lice from the very 
start. It is not safe to 
use kerosene on turkeys. 
Insect powder is satis- 
factory and harmless. 
Pens should always be 
situated on dry soil. 
Nothing is so important 
as to maintain cleanli- 
ness and to keep the little ones dry until after their heads 
have become red. Up to this time of "shooting the red" 
is a trying period for poults. After they have passed it 
they are much more hardy. During the development of 
the red itself more animal feed than usual should be 

Rearing Turkeys in the Open 

13. Feeding. — Perhaps the most general favorite for 
turkeys a day old is hard-boiled eggs and stale bread 
soaked in milk but squeezed comparatively dry. Gen- 
erally the egg is fed a day or two before the bread. When 
a week or ten days old, clabber is often used. When 
about two weeks old, many breeders give a mixture of 
equal parts of milk and corn meal, middlings or some 
other meal. This is allowed to swell for several hours 
before being fed, so as to prevent any possible danger 
of swelling after being eaten. About this time cracked 
corn and wheat are often given in the evening. 


Three times a day seems to be enough to feed Httle turkeys until 
they are well grown, especially if allowed more or less range and 
given an opportunity to pick grass and insects. In fact, it is almost 
essential that they have something to pick at all the time. For this 
reason a grass yard should be given the preference to all other 
quarters. Milk may be given instead of drinking water if desired, 
but it seems best to have ample pure water before the brood at all 
times, whether milk is fed or not. It is also essential to have grit. 
Some turkey raisers, especially those who do not have grass runs, 
consider it necessary to feed every two or three hours until the 
birds are ten days or two weeks old. No more should be fed at a 
time than the poults will eat without waste. 

What Will the End Be? 

14. Johnnycake. — Many poultrymen feed johnnycake 
made of cheap flour, preferably of the whole grain and 
corn meal mixed with milk and infertile eggs from the 
incubator, but without soda or baking powder. The in- 
gredients may be of almost any ratio, but preferably 
about equal parts. After mixing to a rather soft batter, the 
cake is thoroughly baked and allowed to become rather dry. 
It is then allowed to become stale before being crumbled for 
feeding. This practice eliminates the danger of swelling 
after being eaten. The swelling takes place in the oven. 

Gradually after the first week small seeds, such as millet, cracked 
wheat and corn, may be added to the daily ration acco ding as the 
poults grow in size. A good mixture of grains for fattening con- 
sists of one bushel each of whole and cracked corn and one-half 



bushel each of kafir corn and oats. Some raisers prefer to feed 
whole corn exclusively three times a day. When fed liberally on 
corn they do not forage as much as usual. In fattening they may 
be confined or not, as the owner prefers. 

15. Guineas. — Since it has been discovered that the 
guinea fowl has a game flavor and can be sold as various 
kinds of more valuable 
flesh, it has been used in 
the large city restau- 
rants as a substitute for 
various kinds of game, 
as well as being sold 
under its own name. 
This fact has encour- 
aged the growing of 
guinea fowls to supply 
the demand. Broiler size guinea fowls are often sold as 
quail on toast, and larger ones for prairie chickens, pheas- 
ants or grouse. Like the turkey, the guinea fowls thrive 
best where there is ample free range, and are probably 
even more exacting in their demands than turkeys. The 
familiar varieties are the Pearl and the White Guinea. 
They are natives of Africa, 

Guineas on Farm Range 


1. Scoring Domestic Fowls. — Provide two or more domestic 
fowls. Use the score card below. Every important feature is sched- 
uled, with a description fitting the ideal of farm fowls for egg 

Score Card for Domestic Fowls 

Scale of Points 



General Appearance: 

Form — compact, symmetrical, neck medium 

Size — showing vigor but not excessive fat growth 

Quality — fine comb, soft but firm flesh and mellow skin 

Temperament — vigorous, active, nervous and energetic 

Head and Neck: 

Head — medium to large and broad 

Eyes — full, prominent, bright 

Comb and wattles — medium to large, bright red 

Neck — medium, with full hackle 


Hindquarters — well developed; V-shaped viewed from front, 

side and top 

■ Breast — full and wide 

Back — wide and deep 

Fluff — fine, abundant, close to body 

Tail — ^high and well spread 

Feathers — soft, close to body 

Wings — well up and close to body 

Leg Bones — pliable, widespread, soft; contracted and hardened 

Shape — straight, widespread 

Length — medium to short 

Color — yellow, flesh or bluish black ' 

Shanks — free from feathers 

Total 100 

2. School Poultry Show. — Much about poultry breeds and varie- 
ties, dressed poultry and eggs, can be learned at a school poultry 
show. Each pupil should exhibit living fowls, preferably of his 
own breeding and rearing; but failing this he should exhibit those 
grown by his parents. To compare with these should be fowls 
grown by the best breeders in the neighborhood. The breeders 
should also be invited to talk to the pupils about the varieties they 
raise, showing what are strong and weak points of the various 
breeds they raise and also the reasons why these breeds are or are 
not widely popular. 


Special departments should be planned for eggs and dressed 
poultry — broilers, roasters, fricassee fowls, etc. These should be 
judged by commercial raisers, who should give talks to teach what 
and why exhibits are good or bad. Such points as cleanliness, uni- 
formity of size and color of eggs and neatness in dressing fowls 
should be emphasized. Preferably a simplified score card should be 
used in judging, and all cards should be placed on the exhibits so 
pupils may learn why this exhibit is good and that one poor. Every 
exhibit of living or dressed poultry, also of eggs, should be con- 
spicuously labeled so everyone may know exactly what he is look- 
ing at. 

Preferably the show should continue more than one day, so par- 
ents and friends may have ample chance to visit it. 


1. Source of milk. 

2. Structure of the udder. 

3. Mammary glands. 

4. How the udder is supported. 

5. Milk veins. 

6. Factors influencing secretion. 

7. Why milk is secreted. 

8. Colostrum. 

9. Length of milking period. 

10. Evil of improper milking. 

11. Regularity of milking. 

12. When cows hold up their milk. 

13. Hard milking cows. 

14. Milking by hand. 

15. Machine milking. 

Note to the Teacher. — A large milk yield is a basic 
principle in profitable dairying. The milk factory is the 
udder. A study of the udder and of milk secretion should 
be useful to every person who expects to own a cow. The 
teacher should emphasize the importance of good udders 
and well-developed milk veins. In judging work these 
points are discussed in detail. Consult the score card on 
page 191. 




1. Source of milk. — Milk is secreted from the blood. 
The change from blood to milk occurs in the udder. The 
blood, therefore, is the source from which all milk is de- 
rived. No matter how perfect the udder, if the blood is 
impoverished because of poor food or 
ill health, a generous flow of milk is 
not possible. A generous yield of 
milk is dependent upon good health 
and rich blood. 

2. Structure of the udder. — The 
udder is both a factory and storehouse. 
It consists of many hollow spaces or 
cavities of varying sizes, muscular 
tissue, cells, veins, arteries, nerves, 
lymphatics and connecting canals. 
The blood is the raw material, the 
cells the manufactory agents, the 

Interior Structure of . . . ^ 

One Quarter of the nervcs the Stimulating force, and 

Udder ° 

the canals the tracks 
of delivery. In nor- 
mal activity these dif- 
ferent creations unite 
in sympathetic rela- 
tion, with the result 
that milk is secreted. 
Taken together, they 

>hinc + er Muscle 

Interior Structure of Udder 




Good Udder 

form a delicate mass, red to gray in color, and spongelike 
in texture. 

3. Mammary glands. — The udder is a structure in 
which is housed the inainniary glands. Located distinctly 

outside of the body cavity, it articulates 
with all that takes place within. The 
mammary gland is the organ of milk secre- 
tion, by means of which the nutrients of 
food, digested, assimilated and changed 
into blood, are converted into casein, fat 
and sugar, which, together with water and 
ash, form milk. In some species the pri- 
mary glands subdivide in more than two, 
or many. In the sheep, goat and horse 
there are but two ; in the cow, four to six ; 
in the cat and dog, eight to ten ; and in the 
hog, ten to fourteen. 

4. How the udder is supported. — The udder is inclosed 
externally in a skin covering. It is held fast to its region 
of attachment by a band of fibrous tissue which issues 
from the flesh substance of the body and extends into and 
through the udder mass. This tender tissue, however, 
does not carry blood to the glands. 

5. Milk veins. — Milk secretion is dependent primarily 
on the amount of blood delivered into the udder. Heavy 
milkers have large milk veins, which means that a large 
supply of blood is kept circulating through the glands. 
If blood circulation is weak or the blood impover- 
ished of its serum and food constituents, the fact will be 
registered in the udder output. Cows that eat much 
food and that have a strong digestive power, will carry 
a rich blood in their arteries. It is this blood that nour- 
ishes the milk glands abundantly and that enables them 
to yield their product in generous quantities. 



In choosing cows with large milk capacity look sharply to the 
extent of the development of the milk veins. These are the chan- 
nels by which the red blood is connected with the organs of milk 
secretion. Large milk veins, therefore, are indicative of a large 
milk yield. 

6. Factors influencing secretion. — The three most im- 
portant things to look for in a good dairy cow are indica- 
tions of robust health, a large digestive capacity and 
proper mammary development. The amount of the 
blood, and its richness, which passes through the udder has 
much to do with milk secre- 
tion. The udder is naturally 
of first importance. It is not 
the size or shape or appear- 
ance that matters most, but 
the internal structure ; and 
this touches on the inherit- 
ance, breeding and training 
of the cow. Hence, the cell 
structure and number and 
size of blood vessels of the 
udder influence in greatest 
measure the yield of milk. 

7. Why milk is secreted. 
— During fetal life an off- 
spring is nourished by its 
mother's blood. At birth 
this consumption of blood 
food is cut of¥ entirely. 
The course of the blood is 
changed and directed into 
the udders. This is a sim- 
ple turn from the arteries 
of fetal nourishment to the 
arteries of milk secretion. 

Milk Veins 

Note the fine development of the 
milk veins along the abdomen and on 
the udder. 


The blood surging through the udder just after the birth 
of an offspring stimulates the cells to great activity and 
milk is secreted. 

8. Colostrum. — The first milk at birth has a rather 
pungent taste and also a peculiar smell. It is known as 
colostruui. It exercises a purgative action in the intes- 
tines, and is a natural medicine for removing the mate- 
rial accumulated in the intestines before birth. On ac- 
count of this a newly born offspring should not be denied 

In Mud Up to Their Knees 

If it is this way outside, it must be just as bad inside the barn, and under such 
conditions big yields over a long milking period cannot be expected. 

its mother's milk during the first two or three days after 
birth. Colostrum contains less water and much more 
albumen than ordinary milk. In the course of four or 
five days albumen normally changes into casein, water 
proportionately increases, and ordinary milk from now on 
is secreted. 

9. Length of milking period. — Before the milk-giving 
tendencies of cows were cultivated by breeding, selection 
and stimulation just enough milk was secreted to nour- 
ish an offspring until it was sufficiently strong to take 
care of itself. Under man's nurture and care the cow 


has been brought to give not only much more milk than 
a calf would require, but to produce it for a very long 
time. Some cows continue to give milk up until even 
another freshening time. Not all cows are of this class. 
Some go *'dry" in five or six months ; others are persist- 
ent milkers for many months. Persistency of the milk 
function can be encouraged by care in management, by 
feeding rich rations and succulent forage. 

10. Evil of improper milking. — One of the easiest and 
surest ways of checking the milk flow is to leave some of 
the milk in the udder. The least bit of milk remaining 
in the udder cavities is certain to check the activity of the 
secreting cells and to make them lazy. It is a very im- 
portant matter, in getting best results from cows, to re- 
move all the milk, even if considerable stripping is neces- 
sary. Clean milking is a positive necessity for extending 
the milking period. 

11. Regularity of milking. — When milk is being drawn 
from the udder, secretion is most active. Milking, there- 
fore, is not solely the removal of the milk 
secreted between milking times, but the 
removal also of what is secreted while 
milking is going on. Mere manipula- 
tion of the udder is inducive of secre- 
tion, although the amount secreted by 

- . , 11 1 , Sanitary Milk Pail 

such operation may be small and not 
warranted in comparison with the value of the time so 
expended. The point of most practical importance is 
regularity in the time of milking. Early milking, morn- 
ing or evening one day, and later milking, morning or 
evening another day, not only lessen the output, but tend 
to disturb functional activity and prevent a maximum 
yield for that lactation period. 


12. When cows hold up their milk. — Cows are able to 
"hold up" their milk by controlling the muscles that guard 
the milk reservoirs. Some cows acquire this habit, and 
at every milking refuse to deliver it for a time. The 
habit is a bad one and the usefulness of cows is often de- 
stroyed by it. Various causes may be responsible, such 
as irregularity of milking or feeding, loud talking, harsh 
treatment, or the presence of strangers, or unfamiliar 
objects. It is of great importance that young heifers be 
carefully and tenderly managed, so that they will early 
learn to give down their milk and continue so to do. 
Some one has said that a cow should be treated as ten- 
derly and lovingly as a lady. 

13. Hard milking cows. — A cow that milks hard is not 
really an individual who does not like the milker. The 

trouble is not with the cow, 
IIJ iL— -> ^ a but with one of the muscles of 

c the teat which closes the teat 

opening tighter than it should. 

Milk Plugs t i. xu r ^.u 

in most cases the use oi the 

a, common teat plug; fc, wooden mi i rr ' 

plug; c, instrument for opening tCat plUg Will bc SUmCient. 

Such plugs may be purchased 
or made at home of rubber or wood. They are placed in 
the teat duct and held fast by a cord or tape. During 
milking the plugs are removed and then replaced when 
milking is finished. This is continued until the opening 
is enlarged. 

In case this treatment is unsuccessful, a simple operation known 
as slitting the teat may be necessary. This is performed by 
passing an instrument with a small concealed knife blade into the 
teat duct, which on being withdrawn cuts the troublesome tightness 
and allows the milk thereafter to be properly delivered. 

14. Milking by hand.— The greater part of all milking 
is done by hand. To milk well, both knack and concen- 



tration of attention are necessary. Milking is an art, but 

many milkers never learn it. On setting- down the stool 

and taking his position the operator should speak gently 

to the cow and put her at ease. The 

teats are then firmly grasped with 

dry hands and pressed tenderly until 

they fill up with milk. In closing 

the hand on the teats the ends of the 

fingers should be placed only part 

of the way around, so that they will 

be in a position to press in unison 

with the palm of the hand. 


It is not the best practice to put the 
lingers wholly around the teats, as many 
do ; less force results and the work is less '^^^ "^''he'^handl ^'^'''"^ 
effective. What is desirable is to imitate 
the calf in sucking; the hand is to be not 

only sharply closed against the teat, but vigorous uphand pressure 
against the udder is to be made at the same time. The hand move- 
ment should be rapid and continuous. It spoils the cow to stop and 
start or otherwise to check in any way the milk flowing from the 
teats. Even if the teats are small, this manner of milking is best. 
First strike up, then down with snap and vigor. It is wrist work, not 
arm movement. As the udder empties let the hand creep upwards, 
with more of the udder inclosed in the hand, and keep doing this 
until the last drop is drawn. It is to be remembered that clean milk- 
ing and quick movements are of first importance in success in 
securing much milk and in maintaining the milk flow for long 

15. Machine milking. — From four to six minutes are 
required by use of the machine milker to milk a cow. 
This rapid as well as steady removal of milk from the 
teats is an advantage, since it is less annoying to the cow 
than much of the hand milking. If the machines are well 
cleaned the sanitary effect naturally is more pronounced 
because there is less opportunity for dirt or germs to get 
into the milk. While, therefore, equal or better sanitary 
results may be obtained by machine milking under ordi- 



nary conditions, the lowest bacterial counts are obtained 
in certified dairies by hand milking. 

Milking Cows with Mechanical Milker 

Three decided objections are advanced against the mechanical 
milker — the initial cost, the necessity of skilled operators, and the 
impracticability for use in small herds. A vacuum system, operated 
by power, is fundamentally connected with the appliance. Teat cups 
attached to the teats are caused to give action as pulsators to force 
the milk out of the udder. This pulsator is a clever mechanical adap- 
tation of the principle a calf follows in taking milk from its mother. 
While the problem of machine milking has not been solved in every 
respect, great progress is being made, and in time perfection will be 
as nearly obtained as with the self binder, corn planter or egg 


1 Composition. 

2. Fat globules. 

3. Casein and albumen. 

4. Sugar. 

5. How milk sours. 

6. Pasteurization. 

7. Cooling. 

8. Cream. 

9. Shallow pan separation. 

10. Deep setting. 

11. Cream separators. 

12. Skim milk. 

13. Market milk. 

14. Grades of milk. 

15. Testing milk. 

Note to the Teacher. — Milk is so cheap and common in 
the country that its food value does not receive the con- 
sideration that it deserves. Compare its nutriment con- 
tent with eggs and meat. Emphasize its effects on thrift 
and growth when fed to young animals. Call attention 
to the ease with which milk absorbs odors. Point out 
the necessity of cleanliness in producing and handling it. 
Why are healthy cows and healthy milkers so important? 
Several practicums are suggested by paragraphs 5, 6, 7 
and 15, and these should be performed by members of 
the class. 



1. Composition. — Milk contains water, casein, albumen, 
fat, sugar and ash. The average composition is as fol- 
lows : Water, 87 per cent ; casein, 2.6 per cent ; albumen, 




Afbumen Sugar 
.1% 5% 


Composition of Normal Cow's Milk 

0.7 per cent ; fat, 4 per cent ; sugar, 5 per cent ; and ash, 
0.7 per cent. The greatest variation is in fat, which fluc- 
tuates in individuals and varies widely with breeds. 
Some breeds yield milk low in fat, and others milk much 
richer in this constituent. In general, about 3 per cent 
is the minimum, and 6 to 7 per cent the normal maximum, 
although some cows, during the close of the lactation 
period, may yield milk containing 8 or 9 per cent of fat. 

2. Fat globules. — Butter fat consists of a number of 
separate and distinct fats which unite into particles, or 
globules. These fats are of two kinds — the volatile and 
non-volatile oils. The former give to milk its distinctive 




flavors, while from the latter are derived its texture and 
physical character. The milk globules occur in different 
sizes, those of some breeds being small and numerous 
and of others large and less in number. In Holstein- 
Friesian milk the globules are small, in Jersey and Guern- 
sey milk they are large. The largest globules are most 
easily brought together in churning. 

Butter of the very highest quality in flavor, color and grain may 
be made from the milk of any breed of cows, regardless of the size 
of the globules, providing proper feed is used and the right kind of 
care exercised in handling the milk and cream. 

o . 
o 'o' 

^■'- • '.6" 

Cream. Milk. Skimmed Milk. 

Fat Globules as Seen Under the Microscope 

3. Casein and albumen. — The tv^o protein bodies of 
milk are casein and albumen. Casein exists in milk in the 
form of tiny gelatinous particles in suspension, v^hile milk 
abumen is in solution. When milk sours, the casein is 
changed into curd ; w^hen rennet is added, the milk co- 
agulates, making it possible to manufacture cheese. Milk 
albumen is neither affected by rennet, nor is it coagulated 
by acids at ordinary temperatures. It is, hov^ever, co- 
agulated by heat. 

4. Sugar. — Milk sugar is the largest single, solid sub- 
stance of ordinary milk. The amount varies from 4 to 6 
per cent. Its importance in dairy v^ork, especially in 
connection with butter and cheese making, comes from 
the ease with which it is converted into lactic acid by 



bacteria. When milk sours, the amount of sugar de- 
creases something more than a quarter of its original 
quantity. The sugar of milk passes largely into whey in 
cheese making and forms over 70 per cent of the solids 
in whey. 

5. How milk sours. — If certain bacteria of air, water 

or barn dust are admitted to 
milk in any manner, they 
grow, multiply and very 
shortly change the sugar of 
milk to an acid. These bac- 
teria are most plentiful in 
sour milk, and they adhere to 
the sides of any vessel in 
which sour milk has been 
stored. When sweet milk is 
poured into such pails or jars 
or cans, the germs are planted 
or seeded in the fresh milk. 

Device for Cooling Milk Where The COnSCquenCC is, this milk 
Ice is Not Obtainable , t^ i -n 

also sours. io keep milk 
from souring, it is necessary to exercise great care in 
milking, to sterilize or scald all utensils used in its stor- 
age, and then to keep it at a low temperature. 

In a few dairies so careful are the attendants in milking and 
handling this milk that they secure a product largely free from any 
germs or bacteria whatsoever. Milk as ordinarily produced con- 
tains tens of thousands and often millions of bacteria in each 
cubic centimeter. A cubic centimeter is only about the size of a 

6. Pasteuiization. — Bacteria are readily destroyed by 
heat. Hence, if milk is warmed to 145 degrees, and the 
temperature is held at that point for 40 or 50 minutes, 
not only the germs that cause milk to sour are destroyed, 
but disease germs, if in the milk, will be killed also. 

MILK 413 

This process is known as pasteurization. A few of the 
larger cities now require all ordinary milk to be pasteur- 
ized before it is permitted to be sold. Several forms of 
apparatus have been devised for this purpose, some of 
which are expensive and complicated and others very 
simple. After milk has been properly heated, for best 
results it should be quickly cooled and held at a tempera- 
ture of 50 degrees or less until it is consumed. 

7. Cooling. — The cooling of milk is 
for the purpose of checking and lessen- 
ing the growth and multiplication of the ,;, 
lactic germs that sour the milk. When ^ 
milk is warm it is in the condition that "^'"■''■' 
most satisfies these tiny creatures. They ^^^^^"^ o^ bacteria 
are less active in milk cooled down to a of bactTrfa * at ^Xr- 
low temperature, and in frozen milk fng zJTouSreachfdot 
they are content to sleep and rest and bacSm"^ a, at"^5o 
wait for better fortune. On farms where 1^,^11^% LgXllTim 
market milk is produced the custom is ^^''^^'■'^• 

to cool the milk with ice immediately after milking. Even 
though the greatest care is exercised in handling milk, 
unless cooled to a low temperature, the milk will not 
keep sweet longer than a day or two. 

8. Cream. — The lighter portion of milk, or that which 
rises to the surface when the milk is allowed to stand, 
or which can be otherwise separated by centrifugal force 
from untreated milk, is the product known as cream. It 
contains a much higher percentage of fat than milk, the 
other constituents being correspondingly lower, due to 
removal of water. In cream the fat globules are in sus- 
pension as in milk. The methods in use to obtain cream 
are shallow pans, deep setting, and centrifugal force or 
cream separators. Cream may be thick or thin, or any 
degree between the two extremes. An average cream 



contains from 18 to 20 per cent of butter fat. A rich 
cream contains 35 to 40 per cent of fat. 

9. Shallow pan separation. — In the shallow pan system 
milk is placed in pans to a depth of 3 or 4 inches. It is 
the oldest method of cream raising in use, and while it 
accomplishes its purpose it does so at the expense of 
much valuable butter fat. Under ordinary conditions 
from 15 to 20 per cent of the fat of milk is never recov- 
ered in the cream at all. If the people who use this sys- 
tem were aware of the extent of the butter fat loss, they 

would quickly abandon 
it for a high grade 
cream separator. 

10. Deep setting. — 
A step in advance in 
creaming over shallow 
pans is the deep setting 
system. Cans about 
20 to 22 inches in height 
are used, the milk is 
cooled to a tempera- 
temperature of 40 de- 
grees, and at that temperature maintained for 24 hours 
or thereabouts. On farms where running cold water 
from springs is available fairly good results are obtained 
by deep setting. In the absence of such natural advan- 
tage ice is necessary if best results are to be secured. 
If these conditions are met, it is possible to save most of 
the fat. At the very best, however, from 5 to 15 per 
cent of the fat of the milk is not recovered in the cream. 
Usually the loss of fat is much greater. 

11. Cream separators. — The perfection of creaming is 
possible in the use of centrifugal force as generated in a 
cream separator. Many such machines are now on the 

Deep Setting of Milk 
Deep cans are set in cold water. 



market, some of which are excellent and skim to the 
merest trace of fat in the skim milk. The first practical 
cream separator was invented in 1879 by Dr. Gustav 
De Laval, a citizen of Sweden, who died in 1913. In the 
process of separation the milk flows into the bowl, 
and, partaking of the centrifugal force, its heavier 
portions are carried into the 
skim milk outlet at the outer 
edge, and the lighter portion into 
the cream outlet at the center. 
The cream separator has revolu- 
tionized the practice of butter 
making in this and other lands. 
On every farm where two or 
more cows are kept the sep- 
arator will prove an economical 
purchase. Other systems of 
cream raising will sooner or later . 
become obsolete, because their use means, a money loss. 

12. Skim milk. — This milk product is a valuable food 
for man and beast, since only fat is largely removed in 
creaming. The other constituents, casein, sugar, ash 
and water, are a right combination for pigs, calves and 
chicks. By substituting corn meal or wheat middlings 
for the butter fat removed in separation, an ideal ration 
is obtained. The best time to use skim milk is immedi- 
ately after it comes from the separator. It is then sweet 
and warm, the milk sugar is not yet destroyed by lactic 
acid germs, and the full feeding value will be secured. 
When milk is fed fresh and sweet, digestive disorders 
seldom occur, 

13. Market milk. — There is no substitute for clean, 
pure milk. It is nutritious, palatable, cheap. Its con- 

Dr. Gustav De Laval 



sumption annually increases, and better methods in pro- 
duction, handling and distribution are constantly being 
devised. Not only should cows be healthy, but the 
milkers should be free from any disease. Milk is a 
sensitive fluid to its surroundings and quickly absorbs 
injurious odors. Hence, sanitary quarters, clean utensils 
and cool storage places are fundamental requisites of 

pure and wholesome milk. 
Fresh milk is readily obtain- 
able on farms and in vil- 
lages and towns. It must be 
shipped by train to the larger 
cities, and often is 24 to 40 
hours old before consumed. 
Some cities now require 
milk intended for table use 
to be pasteurized before 
being offered for sale. 

14. Grades of milk. — For 

commercial purposes several 
grades of milk are now rec- 
ognized. Among these are : 
(1) Certified milk, or milk 
produced under all conditions 
necessary to avoid infection ; (2) inspected, or clean, raw, 
milk from healthy cows as determined by the tuberculin 
test and physical examination, the milk being kept at a 
low temperature and restricted as to the number of 
bacteria it contains; (3) pasteurized milk or milk from 
dairies not able to comply with the requirements of cer- 
tified and inspected milk; the cows must show^ no signs 
of tuberculosis or any other disease; (4) cooking milk, 
or milk not produced under close regulation and not 

Cream Separator 



pasteurized, and which cannot be sold, except for 
cooking purposes. The best grades of milk are sold in 

15. Testing milk. — Whether a dairy cow is profitable 
or not depends as much upon the quality of the milk as 
upon its quantity. The quantity may be determined by 
weighing and recording the amount of milk yielded from 
day to day. The quality of milk may be readily ascer- 
tained by the Babcock tester, a device for separating the 
fat from the rest of the solids in milk, and for measur- 
ing it. By means of this tester and the milk record the 
worth of every animal 
in a herd can be deter- 
mined. Every farmer 
who produces milk or 
butter should own a 
Babcock tester. 

The method of selec- 


tion and breeding of babcock tester outp.t 

dairy cows has been almost revolutionized since the in- 
troduction of the Babcock test. Not only have dairymen 
been able to remove from their herds the cows that are 
unprofitable, but breeders have been able to mate intelli- 
gently only the very best and thus increase the standards 
of the several breeds. 


1. First churn. 

2. Butter. 

3. Cream ripening. 

4. Temperature. 

5. Churning. 

6. Washing the butter. 

7. Working butter. 

8. Salting. 

9. Packing. 

10. Cheese. 

11. Kinds of cheese. 

12. Ice cream. 

13. Condensed milk. 

14. Milk powder. 

15. Other milk products. 

Notes to the Teacher. — It may not always be possible 
to introduce practical exercises covering the topics of 
this lesson, but the teacher is urged to ask the student 
to give attention to the paragraphs relating to butter 
making where the home churning is done. If the school 
is in the neighborhood of a creamery, or good farm dairy, 
a visit to such will be both interesting and instructive. 



1. First churn. — Thousands of years ago, long even 
before the time of Abraham and Isaac and Jacob, cows, 
goats and mares were kept for 
the skins their bodies gave for 
clothing and their flesh and milk 
for food. Milk in those early- 
days was churned into butter or 
made into cheese. The appli- 
ances were few and simple. The 
first churn* was the skin of a 
beast, and, rolled back and forth 
the fat globules were gathered, 
butter resulting. 

2. Butter. — The average com- 
position of butter is : Fat, 85 per 
cent; water, 11 per cent; salt, 4 
per cent; and casein, 1 per cent. 
Its quality is judged upon flavor, 
texture, color and general ap- 
pearance. The true bouquet of 
flavor is impossible of description. 
Texture constitutes the grain, and in butter should carry 
the granular structure of the fat globules of the milk. 
In color, a bright, golden yellow is demanded. On fresh 

*The Arabs first discovered the art of butter making by carrying 
milk in goats' skins on a camel's back. 

Out of Date 




Composition of Butter 

pasture grass the color is ideal, but in winter when cows 
are fed dry provender coloring matter is often necessary. 

Salt is usually demanded, but 

not always. When marketed, 
a clean, neat package of attrac- 
tive appearance commands a 
price above ordinary grades. 

3. Cream ripening. — Before 
milk or cream is churned it 
undergoes a treatment known as ripening. It must not 
only be sour, but so treated as to impart high flavor to 
the cream mass. The rapid production of lactic acid is 
desirable, and to this acid condition of cream is due to 
a great extent the quality of the butter subsequently 
made of it. In factories where large quantities of butter 
are made the cream is ripened by a "starter," which gives 
to all the cream an even ripeness. In making farm butter 
the usual custom is to add a bit of cream from the cream 
crock to the fresh cream which is to be ripened. 

4. Temperature. — If cream is 
held at a very low temperature, it 
will ripen or sour very slowly. 
The ripening germs would develop 
much more rapidly at a high tem- 
perature, but the effect would be 
less desirable on flavor and less 
favorable to the texture of the 
butter. It is recommended that 
cream be ripened at a temperature 
of from 60 to 70 degrees. In case 
only a small amount of starter is available in the begin- 
ning, a higher temperature is advisable; but once the 
inoculation is well under way, the development must be 

Box Churn 



Barrel Churn 

checked by lowering the temperature if the best flavor 

and texture are to be secured. 

5. Churning. — Various types of churns are in use, but 

those that agitate the cream in such manner as to cause 

concussion of the fat particles stand in highest approval. 

The whole purpose of churning is to bring the fat 
globules together in granular masses. 
A rapid agitation is favorable to quick 
churning. The barrel and box types 
of churn are preferable because they 
meet these two conditions. A cold 
cream makes difficult churning, as does 
a cream that has not been fully ripened. 
6. Washing the butter. — When the 
globules have been gathered into par- 
ticles about the size of grains of wheat 

and the buttermilk is blue and watery, the churning 

should be stopped. A dash of cold water to the contents 

of the churn will hasten the rise of the smaller particles 

floating in the buttermilk. The 

buttermilk is now drained out of 

the churn. Cold water is added, 

a quarter less than the amount 

of buttermilk withdrawn, and the 

churning continued gently for a 

few minutes. The water is now 

drained out of the churn and a 

second washing given the butter. 

If the water drained away from the 
second application is clear, the washing 
opcation is ended, but if a milky color 
remains,_ add water a third or even a 
fourth timt as before. 

7. Working butter.— Just two ends are sought in work- 
ing butter — to incorporate the salt and to bring the par- 

Washed and Unworked 
Showing granular condition. 



tides into a compact mass. In working, some of the 
water will leak away, which is desirable. If butter is 
worked too much, the grain may be 
injured. More butter is spoiled by 
being worked too much than too little. 
8. Salting. — When salt is added to 
butter, it helps in a small way to keep 
it sweet, but the real purpose of salt- 
ing is to improve flavor. The amount 
to be used depends on market de- 
mands. Some people like a very salty 
butter, others just a reminder of its 
Working Butter presence. Ordinarily, an ounce is 
used for each pound of churned but- 
ter. Salt is most conveniently added when the butter is 
worked. This operation must be continued until the salt 
has completely dissolved, otherwise streaked butter may 

9. Packing. — When the buttermilk or water has been 
pressed out the salting work is fin- 
ished and the butter is ready for 
packing and storing. A very dry 
butter is preferable for long-time 
storing, but that to be used soon will 
admit of more moisture. Butter to 
be delivered to consumers is more 
attractive if pressed into small prints 
by means of molds made for the pur- 
pose. The prints are wrapped in 
parchment paper and placed in heavy g^^^,^^ g^^^^^ 
cardboard packages of a similar shape 

and size. 

10. Cheese. — This product of the dairy is made by 
coagulating milk with rennet, a ferment of the calf's 



Making Print Butter 

Placing butter in print with paddles at left; finished 
prints at right. 

stomach. Milk that is rich in fat makes more and richer 
cheese. Full cream cheese contains 37 per cent of water.. 

34 per cent of fat, 
24 per cent of 
casein and 5 per 
cent of ash. Nine- 
ty-five per cent of 
the nutrients in 
cheese are digest- 
ed when eaten. 

Cottage cheese is 
largely homemade. 
The most common 
kind of cheese in 
our country is known 
as cheddar, or some 
modified form of it. 
The process of making involves a varied and distinct procedure 
which includes setting or making the milk acid, then coagulating 
with rennet ; cutting, or breaking the curd into little blocks by 
knives ; cooking, or toughening by heat ; cheddaring or matting into 
blocks; grinding, to enable salting and pressing; salting and press- 
ing, to prepare for use ; and curing or ripening, for final consump- 
tion. Many other forms of cheese are made in accordance with 
specific processes and require much experience and great skill to 
secure superior products. 

11. Kinds of cheese. — The varieties or kinds of cheese 
are almost legion. Nearly every 
nation has a favorite, its char- 
acter and quality being due 
to food given in producing the 
milk, but in greater part to the 
differences in the mode of 
treating the milk. 

Rounding Out the Cheese 

One of the final steps in cheese- 
making is pressing the cakes. 
They are now ready for storing and 

Limburger is the result of specific 
fermentation brought into the 
cheese during ripening. Swiss cheese 

is flavored with herbs, and the native pastures and curing fermenta- 
tions give a character and flavor world wide in fame. In France 


the delicious Roquefort is made, the milk of both the sheep and cow 
being used. The cheese is made by mixing clotted milk with mois- 
tened bread. The mixture is pressed into porcelain molds with holes 
at the sides. It is then dried and salted in a peculiar manner and 
placed to mature in caves in the mountains. England makes many- 
cheeses, the most famous being English cheddar, Cheshire and Stil- 
ton. The round Dutch cheeses, colored red, are common in all 
markets and take the name of Edam, from a small Holland town ; 
partly skimmed milk is used. Brie is a soft French cheese, some- 
what like the Camembert, also a French soft cheese of fine flavor. 
In all. more than 150 varieties of cheese are manufactured in vari- 
ous parts of the world. 

12. Ice cream. — As now used, ice cream is a rather 
broad term which applies to all frozen mixtures based on 

milk products. In its restricted mean- 
ing ice cream is cream sweetened, fla- 
vored and frozen. It may be made of 
cream, thin or thick, or of cream and 
milk, or of cream and condensed milk, 
or of plain milk alone. Sometimes 
egg-s, milk powder, and gelatine are 
Ice Cream Freezer added to the milk stock. A great 
many receipts are contained in the 
cook books, some providing for elaborate and fancy mix- 
tures and others for a plainer product. In many cities 
large factories have been built in which ice cream is man- 
ufactured in immense quantities for supplying a local as 
well as a diversified trade. 

13. Milk powder. — There are various methods of pre- 
paring dried milk. The object of drying is to get the 
solids of milk in powder form. This is accomplished by 
evaporation. In a dry form milk may be transported at 
small cost compared with the usual liquid and condensed 
forms. Milk powder is much liked in baking and may 
be used directly with flour or be mixed with water and 
used as ordinary milk. There is much demand for dried 
milk by confectionery establishments. At present most 



Canned ! 

milk powder is manufactured from skim milk since cer- 
tain difficulties are encountered in preserving a product 
containing a large percentage of butter fat. 

14. Condensed milk. — Two kinds of condensed milk 
are prepared — sweetened and unsweetened. The first is 
preserved with cane sugar. In both 

forms milk is heated to about 180 de- 
grees, sterilized with steam under pres- 
sure, and evaporated until a suitable con- 
sistency is reached. Unsweetened con- 
densed milk is not usually concentrated 
to quite the same degree as the sweet- 
ened. It is used mostly in the ice cream 
trade, although to some extent for home 
use. The sweetened forms, if properly manufactured, 
will keep for months or years even and are used largely 
in bakeries, candy factories, steamships or other places 
where fresh milk is not easily obtainable. 

15. Other milk products. — Milk sugar is made by evap- 
orating to a small bulk whey, clarified by boiling and 
treatment with alum or other substances. Buttermilk, 
which so recently was largely used as a food for pigs and 
poultry, is now a fixed product of human dietaries. The 
lactic organisms in milk are utilized ii the preparation 
of various milk drinks which are sold under various 
names, according to the particular organism used to turn 
the milk sour. Some medical authorities claim that the 
lactic milk preparations are healthful and tend to prolong 
human life. 


1. Pastf.urization of Milk. — Secure fresh milk from clean and 
unclean stables, or prepare from the same milk clean and unclean 

Pour in four small clean bottles or test tubes — eight in all — about 
one-half full with milk from each sample. Hold one bottle of each 
class of milk without further treatment at the temoerature of the 
room. Now put the six remaining bottles or test tubes containing 
the milk in a vessel of water previoush' heated to 145 degrees. At 
end of three minutes remove one of each kind; in ten minutes one 
more of each kind ; and at end of 20 minutes the other two, one of 
each kind. Now cool all the samples under test to a temperature 
of 65 to 70 degrees and leave these for future observation. What 
changes do you note in appearance after 24, 48 and 72 hours? 

2. Making the Babcock Test. — 
A simple Babcock testing outfit 
should be included in the regular 
equipment of every school. At 
different times during the school 
year, milk from all the neighborhood 
farms should be tested by the stu- 
dents themselves under the teacher's 
direction. In this way it is possible 
for the school to determine the qual- 
ity of the milk of every cow of the 

(a) Sampling the milk. — Secure a 
sample from each cow of the herd 
as soon as milked. Pour the milk 
from one pail to another three or four times so as to get it thor- 
oughly mixed. Have clean bottles properly labeled with each cow's 
name, one bottle for each cow. When the milk has been drawn and 
mixed, a sample is taken and emptied into the bottle marked for 
that cow. 

(b) Testing sample. — Before the milk in the sample bottle is 
added to the testing bottles, It should be thoroughly mixed again. 
A milk pipette which accompanies the testing outfit is used for 
securing the exact quantity. This amount is 17.6 cubic centimeters, 
and on this pipette is placed a mark showing just how much is to be 
sucked up into the tube. The pipette may be filled and then the 
milk allowed to drop out until the exact quantity is obtained. By 
firmly pressing the tip of the finger upon the top of the pipette the 
milk will be retained in it. Slightly releasing the finger will cause 
the milk to drop out until it reaches the mark indicated on the 
pipette. The point of the pipette is now placed in one of the test 


Filling the Bottle 

Proper position of holding the 



Mixing Milk and Acid 

Bottle should be given a rotary 

bottles and the finger removed to let the milk flow into the bottle. 
Let the pipette drain and then blow in the upper end to expel all 
the milk. 

(c) Adding acid. — The test bottle containing the milk is now 
ready for the acid. The exact amount is 17.5 cubic centimeters. 

The acid may be poured into the 
test bottle by means of an acid meas- 
ure, the exact quantity having been 
measured. The test bottle is held in 
a slightly slanting position and the 
acid poured into it. The acid being 
heavier than the milk, sinks to the 
bottom at once. By gently shaking 
with a rotary motion, the acid and 
milk are now mixed. Continue this 
motion until the material in the test 
bottle is dark brown and quite warm. 
(d) Whirling the bottles. — Th^ 
bottles, mixed with milk and acid, 
are now placed in the tester. An 
even number of bottles should be whirled at the same time and 
placed opposite each other in the tester. When all the samples have 
been placed, the cover of the tester is put on the machine and the 
machine turned at the rate described in the directions accompanying 
the machine. Ordinarily, the bottles should make from 750 to 1,200 
revolutions a minute. The machine should be whirled at this rate 
for about seven minutes. 

(e) Adding hot water. — After whirling the bottles as directed, hot 
water is poured into each test bottle so as to 
bring the mixture up to the bottom of the 
neck. The bottles are then put back into the 
machine and the whirling continued for two 
or three minutes, and then water again is 
added to the test bottle to bring all of the 
fat up into the neck of the bottle where it 
may be measured. As each bottle is taken 
from the tester, it is held in a straight posi- 
tion in front on a level with the eye. The 
division marks on the neck of the bottle in- 
dicate the measures for each per cent of fat. 
Counting the spaces occupied by the yellow 
substance in the neck of the bottle will give 
the total per cent of fat in that sample of 
milk. If, for instance, the yellowish sub- 
stance occupies a space between 1 and 5, that 
would indicate the percentage of fat in that 
sample to be 4. If a sample reads from 1^ to 5^4, then the per 
cent of butter fat would be 4]4.. 

3. More Butter Than Fat. — Since the Babcock tester gives the 

Whirling the Bottles 


amount of butter fat only, in estimating the amount of butter in a 
given sample, it is necessary to add something in addition, to make 
up for the other substances in butter besides butter fat. Butter 
contains, in addition to bucter fat, also moisture, salt and other sub- 
stances. To meet the increase, butter is approximately one-sixth 
more than the butter fat contained in the milk or cream. If, for 
instance, 150 pounds of milk showed a fat test of 4 per cent, 
there would be six pounds of butter fat in that quantity; but since 
butter is one-sixth more, the true amount of butter in the 150 pounds 
of milk would be not 6 pounds, but 6 pounds plus 1 pound, or 7 
pounds in all. 

4. (a) Suppose that by deep setting one-half of one per cent of 
fat is left in the skim milk and the skim milk is 80 per cent of the 
total product, what per cent of the fat of the milk is lost, if the 
original milk contained 3 per cent of fat? If it contained 5 per cent 
of fat? 

(b) Suppose that with a cream separator two-hundredths of one 
per cent of fat is left in the skim milk, which is 90 per cent of the 
total product, what per cent of the total fat of the milk is lost if 
the milk contained 3 per cent of fat? Five per cent of fat? 

(c) Suppose a creamery receives an average of 5.000 pounds of 
milk daily for 300 days, how much butter would be lost during the 
period in each of the four cases? 


1. First steps. 

2. Kind of cows. 

3. The dairy sire. 

4. Grading up. 

5. Hold fast to one breed. 

6. Cattle barns. 

7. Market milk. 

8. Producing market milk. 

9. Farm butter. 

10. Selling cream. 

11. Summer or winter dairying. 

12. Silos are helpful. 

13. Soiling crops. 

14. Dairying a balance wheel. 

15. What a dairyman should be. 

Note to the Teacher. — The business of dairying stead- 
ily gro\"? in importance. How to build up a profitable 
herd of dairy cows is the obvious purpose of this lesson. 
The teacher can use the same steps in applying this les- 
son to other lines of live stock farming. The important 
consideration is the necessity of firm adherence to one 
line of breeding once the start has been made. At the 
same time seek to know what animals are best in the 
herd or flock and use these as foundation stock. 



1. First steps. — Success in dairying calls for special in- 
terest in the business, a location that admits of easy 
access to markets, farm and buildings adapted to the 
needs, and the right kind of dairy stock. A large outlay 
at first is not required. Many dairymen have started 
with small equipment and few animals. Those who have 
succeeded studied their business, enlarged their activities 
as the demand grew, installed conveniences of sanitation 
and followed carefully the recognized methods of clean 
milk production. 

2. Kind of cows. — While the start may be made with 
cows of unknown or mongrel breeding, selected cows of 
a recognized dairy breed should sooner or later be chosen. 
High-grade cows are profitable dairy workers; so, too, 
are well-chosen individuals from pure-bred and recorded 
stock. A herd of pure-bred cows is always worth more 
than a herd of grade cows, but the pure-bred herd is pri- 
marily for the purpose of raising pure-bred sires. A 
young man can start with grades, and also secure one or 
more females of pure breeding; by preserving the heifers 
and using them to replace the least profitable graded cows, 
it is possible to secure a breeding herd at no great outlay 
in first cost. In this manner common cows in a few 
years can be entirely replaced by high-grade and pure- 
bred stock. 

3. The dairy sire. — An old saying is : "The sire is half 
the herd." This is correct, because the blood of the sire 




is a part of the offspring of the whole herd. In practice 
the sire is more than half, since on account of his breed- 
ing he is more prepotent, has 
in his ancestry preponderating 
dairy qualities, and hence 
transmits these qualities to 
the progeny. Only sires of 
pure breeding should be chosen 
to head the herd. No dairy- 
man or other live stock breeder 
ever employs a sire of uncer- 
tain or mongrel breeding if he 
seeks to improve his herd. 
Under no circumstances 
should a grade sire be used in 
breeding. A wise dairyman 
would prefer to sell part of his 
herd and purchase a choice 
dairy animal of pure breeding 
than to use a grade. 

4. Grading up. — The greater 
number of dairy herds are com- 
posed, not of pure stock, but 
of grade stock. Such herds 
can be quickly improved by 
following the plan of "grading 
up." This is a simple matter 
and involves a pure-bred sire 
of the chosen breed. The male 
calves are disposed of as veal 
or raised and fattened as 
butcher stock. The heifer 
calves are reserved for replac- 
ing the aged cows or others 

Four Generations 

The foundation cow was worth 
$100. By breeding up, in the 
fourth generation a cow, with a 
seven-day record of 24 pounds of 
fat was valued at $1,000. 



that are otherwise not profitable. As the herd grows in 
numbers only the female offspring of the very best cows 
should be preserved. The offspring of the less valuable 
cows may now be sold as veal or to others to raise as 
butcher stock. 

5. Hold fast to one breed. — In grading up a herd, new 

sires will be required from time to time in order to avoid 

close or related breeding. When such times arise, the 

mistake of changing breeds should not be made. Cling 

fast to the breed that was used at the start. 

A change in breed or race involves a mixture of blood, and this 
is not only unwise, but destructive. Such changes defeat the very- 
purpose of a fixed plan to establish a herd with a single and uni- 
form line of qualities and characteristics. To admit Holstein blood 
in an improved herd of Jerseys or Ayrshires that has been graded 
and bred up, introduces qualities and characters that are antagonistic 
to the very tilings that the previous breeding had sought to fix and 
make stable. The same happens when Ayrshire or Guernsey or 
Jersey blood is introduced into a herd of Holsteins or other breed. 
After a breed has been chosen and purebred sires of that breed been 
used, one must adhere to that breed and never thereafter choose a 
male from another breed. 

6. Cattle barns. — Let the barn be able to accommodate 
the herd. It may be of costly construction or not, as the 
purse and inclination may decide. Good ventilation, sun- 

IDEAL Cattle Barn for Dairy Herd 
It is light, clean and sanitary 



light, sanitation and comfort are not the result of money 
outlay. The humblest dairyman can procure these sim- 
ple stable requisites. They may call for extra labor, in- 
genuity and enterprise, but his own hands can do the 
work at times when other work is not pressing. 

Fresh air should be at all times admitted ; windows, so placed as to 
let the sun fall on all parts of the stable, should be in generous num- 
bers ; and floors and mangers should be built that they may be 
quickly and frequently cleaned. Finally ample bedding should be 
provided, that the cows may rest in comfort. Remember this : Cows 
respond best when kindly cared for, when fed appetizing and nutri- 
tious food, and when made to feel completely at ease in their stable 

7. Market milk. — The choice of the dairy line will de- 
pend on circumstances and on the personal preference of 
the individual. Dairymen near large milk markets 
usually prefer to sell their product as milk. Some sell 
to their own customers and cater to them. This is 

Receiving Station for Milk Market 

Milk trains gather milk from producing centers and carry it in large cans to the 
milk-consuming centers. As a rule, the milk is received by milk dealers, to whom 
it is consigned, and who make it their business to cool, bottle and deliver to 



usually the most satisfactory way of disposing of milk. 
Certain markets do net admit of this, and the selling 
through or to milk dealers is necessary. The milk traffic 
of our very large cities is handled in this way. 

The concentration of market milk in a few hands has been due to 
several reasons. One is the impossibiUty of producing enough milk 
for dense population from nearby land and the necessity of ever 
reaching out into new territory, often scores of miles away, to keep 
up the supply for constantly increasing demands. In these cases 
milk is brought to the place of consumption by trains. 

8. Producing market milk. — Whether one is in per- 
sonal touch with his customers 

or markets his milk through -'^" 

dealers, he is equally concerned 
in producing a high-grade 
product that is clean, pure and 
wholesome. It is more and 
more the custom of city 
boards of health to set up 
standards that market milk 
must reach if it is disposed of 
in that city. This course has 
brought about many changes 
in the manner of producing, 
supplying and distributing 
milk. As these rules and regu- 
lations become 
their early aggravating features 
disappear and the entire milk traffic assumes a new im- 
portance. Milk of a high grade will always be in de- 
mand, even increase, and in time the interests of both 
producer and consumer will be one of common concern. 

9. Farm butter. — One form of dairying is in mak- 
ing butter on the farm and in disposing of it to private 
customers. Before the days of the creamery, all butter 

No question about it here. The 
ii-nrl«^t-c+r^r^rl pail at the rear contains water for 
unuersiOOU moistening the udder. 



was farm-made. Regular delivery days are observed, 
the customers knowing that they can depend on the qual- 
ity of the product and can rely on fair dealing of the 

Attractive packages contribute much to the ease of finding cus- 
tomers, and if the product is high grade, an energetic dairyman can 
soon build up a very profitable custom trade. Pleased customers 
are a splendid asset of this trade, and they always assist in extending 
the business. Paper boxes of pound capacity or small earthen jars 
may be used in delivering the product. Choose a name for your 
farm and sell the product under such farm trade mark. When 
weekly visits are made for delivering butter to regular customers, it 
is frequently possible to sell eggs, fowls, buttermilk, fruit and other 
products on the same trip and to the same people. 

At the Creamery in the Country 

Milk and cream delivered to creameries for manufac- 
turing butter. Farm butter making has been replaced in 
many parts of the country by factories. 

10. Selling cream. — Many farmers who live some dis- 
tance from regular markets prefer to sell cream rather 
than convert this cream into butter. They own a sep- 
arator, sell the cream and feed the skim milk on the 
farm to calves, pigs and fowls. With many people dairy- 
ing is a side business. A few cows are kept for family 
use, the milk surplus being gathered two or three times 
a week by creamery delivery wagons. This custom is 
not at all general, but where it prevails it saves labor 


and trouble. In some sections milk is separated on the 
farm and the cream delivered to some central point by 
the producer. This is not usually the most economical 
practice, especially if dairying is the chief business of 
the farm. 

11. Summer or winter dairying. — Whether cows shall 
be bred to freshen in the fall, spring, or more or less 
evenly throughout the year, is a point to be decided by 
each individual farmer in accordance with local con- 
ditions and preferences. The man who has an even 
butter trade the year round will want an even produc- 
tion of milk to meet the demands of his steady customers. 
The prudent dairyman will seek to understand the gen- 
eral trend of the market and plan to have his cows 
freshen when milk is in greatest demand. 

As a rule, prices are highest during winter. Cows that freshen 
in fall or winter maintain a steady flow for several months. Their 
daily milk flow will be stimulated when turned on pasture in the 
spring, and thus their annual production will tend to be larger than 
otherwise if they were to freshen in the spring and be subjected to 
dry winter rations during the late fall and winter. Taken from the 
pasture, they naturally quickly shrink in milk yield. 

12. Silos are helpful. — Silage is a superior feed for 
dairy cows. It is an appetizing and nutritious feeding 
stuff and supplies the very necessary succulence that 
other winter foods lack. In successful dairying the silo 
is well nigh indispensable. It is only a matter of time 
when silos will be a part of the equipment of every dairy 
farm. Silage is a cheap and economical food, and when 
made the basis of the rations, dairying products are se- 
cured at the lowest cost a pound. By means of the silo, 
spring and summer conditions are made possible for 
the entire year. 

13. Soiling crops. — In case the pastures are insufficient, 
either because of small area available in proportion to the 



size of the herd, or because of high value of lands, soil- 
ing crops may be resorted to. A much smaller area will 
be required than for pasture ; no fences will be needed ; 
and large quantities of green food can be had. 

Dairy Herd Fed Year Round on Silage 

When feed is high, silage is practically indispensable in dairying. For winter 
feeding it is a fair substitute for summer pasture, since corn ensiled is more appe- 
tizing than if fed dry and in the rough. 

The soiling areas are reasonably heavily manured and then 
seeded to the desired crops. As these reach maturity they are cut 
and fed green from day to day. As fast as these crops are used 
up the land is again plowed, and manured and at once seeded to 
another crop. In this way soiling becomes a substitute for pastures. 
More labor is required, but the large tonnage secured from such 
crops abundantly meets this expenditure. A given acreage will sup- 
port twice as many or even more cows when employed in growing 
soiling crops than if devoted to pasturage. 

14. Dairying a balance wheel. — Most lines of farming 
tend to exhaust the land and impoverish the soil. Dairy- 
ing is an exception. Almost no fertility is removed when 
butter is sold — less than 50 cents of plant food in every 
ton of butter. When milk is sold the loss of plant food 
in a ton of milk is valued at $2.80. Considering the 
consumption of grain and forage in the production of 


that quantity of milk, it is readily apparent that the 
manure resulting balances this loss many times over. 
Dairy farms soon become the most productive of all 
lands if the manure is carefully preserved and properly 
distributed over the land. Instead of exhausting the 

Alfalfa the Wonderful 

From early spring until tiost this queen of the crops is available for all kinds 

of feed. 

land of its fertility, as in the case of grain farming, dairy- 
ing restores the fertility, acting in this w^ay as a real 
balance wheel in preserving the productivity of the land, 
15. What a dairyman should be. — It is trite, but true, 
that in all sorts of farming ''there is more in the man 
than there is in the land." This adage applies particu- 
larly to the dairyman. The dairy farmer must not only 
be a good farmer, but a good judge of cattle; a careful 
and cautious man, he must be habitually regular in his 
habits; endowed with the virtues of patience and per- 
severance, he must possess good, sound, common sense. 
He must be studious and experienced, and able to judge 
wisely as to the points of his business which may be in 
dispute. No less in importance he must be a good busi- 
ness man, a neat, refined gentleman. These character- 
istics are indispensable if success would be attained in 
dairy work. 


1. Physical examination. 

2. Taking the pulse. 

3. Taking the temperature. 

4. Taking the respiration. 

5. Treatment of disease. 

6. Helping the body fight. 

7. Giving medicines in a ball. 

8. Giving medicines in a drench. 

9. Poultices and mustard plasters. 

10. Blistering. 

11. Food and drink. 

12. Post-mortem examination. 

13. Things to do. 

11. Examining internal organs. 
15. Examining the organs. 

Note to the Teacher. — In caring for animals there are 
several simple accomplishments that are of importance 
and value. These are learned by observation and prac- 
tice. No farm youth should neglect the opportunity of 
becoming proficient in taking the pulse, or temperature, 
or in following the movements of breathing in health or 
sickness. The post-mortem examination to locate the 
source of the disorder is always advisable. Each of these 
paragraphs in this lesson is important and should be well 
learned for the subsequent value in later years. 


1. Physical examination. — Every stockman should be 

familiar with the fundamental principles of health and 

of any departure from them that indicates disease. A 

superficial examination of a sick animal is the first step 

in diagnosing the disease. 

Note the general condition of the body. Is there pain? If pos- 
sible determine this point and locate the seat of it. Is the circula- 
tion natural? An examination of the pulse will tell if the blood 
is racing rapidly or gliding slowly, and whether it is regular or 
rough. Is the respiration as it should be? Make a count to see if 
the breathing is normal. On listening to the lungs, heart and blood 
vessels it can be told if the sounds are natural or unusual. Whether 
or not an organ contains air can be determined by percussion. 
Organs, like the lungs in pneumonia, give a different sound than when 
they are in a healthy condition. Air-containing organs — lungs and 
intestines — may thus be distinguished from the solid ones adjoining 
them. In this way their varying size in health and disease may be 

2. Taking the pulse. — Stand at the left side of the horse 

and run the finger along the 
lower jaw until you come to 
the point where the artery 
crosses the jaw on its lower 
edge. This will be found 
about 2 inches forward from 
its angle. Right here is situ- 

PuLSE IN THE HoRSE ^tcd thc largc muscle, and at 

Showing point at which it may be the front edge the pulsations 

may be caught. To get the 
pulse of the cow, stand at the left side, reach over the 
neck and take it from the right jaw. In the horse the 



normal pulse beats are from 35 to 40 a minute, and may 
go to 100 in disease. In the cow the pulsations run from 
45 to 50 in health. The pulse relates a very accurate 
story, and with practice can be constantly used in diag- 
nosing the ailment. 

A soft pulse, one that is easily compressed by the finger, may in- 
dicate bronchitis. A hard pulse, one not easily depressed by the 
finger, indicates acute inflammation. A hard pulse may be quick 
and bounding and forceful. An irregular pulse, one that beats fast 
for a time, then slowly, may indicate a weakened heart condition. A 
slow, full pulse, one that comes up gradually to the finger touch, 
may indicate brain trouble. 

3. Taking the temperature. — While the heat of the 
body may be surmised by touch and feeling, this is not 
a reliable guide as to temperature. A self-registering 
thermometer is the only reliable means for getting this 
desirable information. When the temperature rises, in- 
flammation is indicated. A fall in temperature below 
normal denotes loss of strength, vitality and death. If 
the temperature rises three or four degrees above nor- 
mal, the case is serious, and a rise of five or six is very 
dangerous. Animals seldom survive when the rise 
reaches above 107 or 108 degrees. 

4. Taking the respiration. — In breathing two move- 
ments are observed — the t-^king in and sending out of 
air. In health, respiration 's usually constant, ranging 
from 10 to 14 in horses, and from 15 to 20 in cattle. 
Breathing is faster in young animals. Exercise increases 
the number of respirations to the minute. Any disease 
of the respiratory organs will cause breathing to be 
short, rapid and labored. If the number of respirations 
seem more than normal, a disturbance may be under 
way. If at the same time the pulse runs fast, trouble 
is likely and the cause should be sought at once. 

5. Treatment of disease. — The first effort in treating 


disease is to remove the cause. This sometimes is done 
very easily. Mange and lice are quickly destroyed by 
washes and disinfectants. Bright, fresh, wholesome food 
and pure water easily replace bad food and water, to the 

permanent good of the stock. 
Cattle ticks quickly disappear 
when the grease brush is ap- 
plied. A first aim in fighting 
disease is to find the cause and 
remove it. This done, half of 
the battle is fought. 

^^^^STACBro^DEfELOPMBNr""' If disease germs cannot be killed 

at the moment, it is still possible to 
diminish their number or to modify 
their virulence. Thus, to open an abscess is to remove the pus-pro- 
ducing bacteria, and hence to hasten recovery. To wash a wound 
or open sore with antiseptics is the simplest way to remove, diminish 
and destroy the evil of the sore. 

6. Helping the body fight. — When disease sets in a 
battle begins. One combatant is the disease, the other 
is the body. Medical aid consists in caring for, in nurs- 
ing, and in making the body strong. Medicines are help- 
ful if they diminish the work of the diseased organs, giv- 
ing in this way time for the body cells to bring about a 
cure. Therefore, rest and qinetness are advisable, that 
no organ may be called upor to do any other work than 
normal function and repair. 

A disease of the heart calls for absolute rest; of the intestines, 
for little or no irritating or bulky or hard food ; of the lungs, for 
no exposure. At times it is advisable to check the activity of an 
organ, in which case a drug may be given, like opium, to quiet the 
intestines ; or like aconite, to diminish the rate of the blood flow. 
In the same way external assistance may be rendered ; as, for ex- 
ample, sweating, to throw off poison in the tissue juices; and blanket- 
ing, to maintain an even temperature and to protect from chill 
and draft. 

7. Giving medicines in a ball. — Many nauseous agents, 
as aloes, opium, arsenic, asafetida, may be conveyed to 



the stomach in balls without causing annoyance or dis- 
gust to the patient. The balls are wrapped in paper, 
dough, or gelatin capsules, and may weigh an ounce or 
two. The ball is held between the thumb and first two 
fingers. The tongue is seized at about its middle and 
gently drawn out to the side of the mouth, in such a way 
that the right hand may be inserted into the mouth and 
the ball placed far back on the tongue; the hand is now 
withdrawn, the tongue replaced and the halter or strap 
wrapped around the jaws until the ball is swallowed. 

8. Giving medicines in a 
drench. — The drench is usually 
employed for liquid medicines. 
It is best to dilute the medicines 
with water, milk or oil that they 
may more readily reach the 
stomach and at the same time 
cause no injury to the structures 
through which they pass. In 
giving a drench use as much 
patience as possible. To horses 
it should be given slowly. If 
there is any disposition to 
cough, lower the head and then 
proceed as before. 

9. Poultices and mustard plas- 
ters. — Poultices are made of a variety of things; bread, 
bran and linseed meal being most common. Any sub- 
stance that will hold water and retain heat will serve 
the purpose. Mustard and cold water are best for plas- 
ters. Mix to a thin paste. If the part to which the plas- 
ter is to be applied is covered with thick, long hair, a 
very thin plaster will more quickly soak into the skin. 
This kind of plaster is most commonly applied to the 

Drenching the Horse 
Simple way to hold up the head. 
Note the cloth hoop under nose 


throat, the windpipe, the sides of the chest, the abdomen 
and over the region of the liver. To get the best effect 
on the liver apply on the right side at a point 4 or 5 
inches behind the back ribs. 

10. Blistering. — The first step in 
blistering is the clipping of the 
hair over the diseased part and 
the removal of dirt and scurf at- 
tached to the skin. The blister is 
Easy Method of Applying to be v^orked into the skin, and 

A Poultice to Throat 

usually 10 minutes of rubbing M^ill 
be necessary to produce the desired results. In the 
course of 24 hours blisters w^ill form, and some sv^elling 
in the region is likely to show. On the third day bathe 
the part with warm water and soap. After drying, apply 
vaseline, lard or sweet oil. The blister should be re- 
peated if the results of the first blister do not bring 
about a cure. 

11. Food and drink. — During sickness only an easily 
digestible food Is advisable. Offer something different 
from the ordinary, and let it be prepared in an appetizing 
way. Nothing is better than gruels and mashes. These 
are soft, nourishing, appetizing and easily digested. 
When active nutrition is demanded, milk and eggs can 
be added to the ordinary gruels or mashes. Water should 
be available at all times. Small amounts at frequent 
intervals are better than large amounts at intervals far 
apart. In treating dysentery, diarrhea and diabetes 
water is usually withheld, but in most diseases a free 
use is allowable and desirable. 

12. Post-mortem examination. — A post-mortem ex- 
amination is worth while, if for no other reason than that 
of familiarizing one with the organs of the body. With 



a little experience proficiency can be acquired in examin- 
ing dead animals, and in learning the difference between 
healthy and unhealthy organs, between diseased and 
normal tissues, and the relation of the internal parts 
to the whole body. This examination is to be made as 
soon after death as possible; 
the longer the delay the greater 
the changes due to decomposi- 
tion. Soon after death the stif- 
fening process, or rigor mortis, 
takes place. This may occur 
within an hour after death, and 
again it may rot be complete 
until after 25 or 30 hours. Soon 
after death stiffening, the tissues 
soften and decomposition rapidly 

13. Things to do. — In making 

, , • J.' • Section of Badly Diseased Carcass 

a post-mortem examination, in 

case the animal has not been moved, the position of the 

body is to be observed. Look all about you. 

Is there any evidence of a struggle? Does either the body or the 
ground appear as if spasms had taken place? Now observe the dis- 
charges from nose, mouth and other natural openings of the body. 
External scars and wounds often bear a close relation to the dis- 
ease, and these should be considered in examining the carcass. How 
do the eyes look? Is there a discharge from the ears? Is the 
swelling of the abdomen and the bloating more pronounced or in 
any way different than in ordinary death? Practice will indicate 
the lesson that each of these teach. The skin is now to be removed. 
If the blood be thin or black, with a disagreeable odor, you can ex- 
pect some germ trouble such as blood poisoning or an infectious 
and contagious disease. If the white tissues are yellow, it is reason- 
ably certain that the liver has not done its work. 

In removing the skin and making other observations be cautious 
that you do not prick your fingers with the knife, since you may con- 
vey in this way disease to yourself. If by accident a cut or prick is 
made, cauterize the wound at once, so as to destroy any germs trans- 
mitted in this way to you. 


fARM Animals 

14. Examining internal organs. — Place the animal on 
its side, remove the upper front leg, and the ribs over the 
chest region. The ribs should be removed as near as 
possible to the backbone so as to give an unobstructed 
opening over the important organs. While making this 

opening, observe the w^atery 
fluid as it escapes. If a large 
quantity is present, dropsy or a 
rupture of the bladder is indi- 
cated. If the trouble is due to 
the latter, a peculiar odor v\^ill 
be noticed. When the fluid is 
red, it indicates the presence of 
blood or of some inflammation 
of the abdomen or the bow^els. 
A large amount of water in the 
chest cavity indicates lung trou- 
ble ; this is further indicated by 
the tiny attachments running be- 
tween the lungs and the chest wall inclosing these parts. 

15. Examining the organs. — When the stomach and 
intestines are abnormally red, there has been conges- 
tion. If these are quite dark or purple, inflammation 
is indicated. If the stomach is hard and compact, in- 
digestion may have been the trouble. The intestines 
may be hard and compact or in an otherwise bad con- 
dition. Pass the hands along to see if the intestines are 
knotted at any place or if nails are in the stomach. 
Often hair balls or parasites are found ; either may clog 
the channel and may be the immediate cause of death. 
A very disagreeable odor of the urine indicates disturb- 
ance. Look the lungs over carefully. See if the color 
is natural and if the soft, spongy consistency responds 
to the same touch as does the thoroughly healthy lung. 

Examining the Internal Organs 


In health the lungs are a very light pink color. Inflam- 
mation will be indicated by a dark color and hard den- 
sity. A marble appearance indicates inflammation; and 
hard lumps or tubercles indicate tuberculosis, which, 
when cut open, show pus and a cheeselike material. 
Feel the heart to know if it is natural or not, or to see 
if any of the valves are broken, or if the lining is in- 
flamed. Pink spots about the ribs indicate cholera in 
the hog. 


1. Sickness. 

2. Disease both general and local. 

3. Common causes of disease. 

4. Heredity plays a part. 

5. Germs and parasites. 

6. Immunity by inoculation. 

7. Some animals resistant to disease. 

8. Course of disease. 

9. How disease runs. 

10. Period of incubation. 

11. Period of eruption. 

12. Patient improves. 

13. Getting well. 

14. Learn to recognize disease. 

15. Avoiding danger. 

Note to the Teacher. — The obvious purpose of this 
lesson is to show the nature of physical disturbances of 
the body, their meaning and nature. Impress strongly 
the fact that the greatest mischief in handling farm stock 
comes from improper food, filthy or impure drinking 
water, bad air in stables, overwork, lack of exercise and 
poor sanitation of the quarters in which the animals are 
housed. If close attention is given these things, there 
will be few disease outbreaks. 



1. Sickness. — An animal is in a healthy state when 
each organ or part forms its natural functions. Any 
departure from a normal con- 
dition of health is disease. 
Thus any disturbance of the 
brain or spinal cord is immedi- 
ately manifested in the action 
of the animal ; frequently also 

a disturbance elsewhere may ^-^=fp^' ,i^yr^;:;r^jS2*-~ 
later affect the mental system. ^^^^ ,3 \^^ trouble? 
Disease may result from an ex- 
ternal cause, as from a wound; from food causing 
poison or derangement of the digestive system ; from 
water introducing impurities ; from parasites and bacteria 
which disturb normal functions, disorganize the tissue, 
or produce toxines ; or from other abnormal conditions. 

2. Disease both general and local. — A disease may lead 
to disturbance throughout the entire body. For instance, 
in case pus accumulates at some point, it may get into 
the blood and reach other parts of the body in time, affect- 
ing them also. Diseases with which fever is associated 
are general in nature. The nerve centers are influenced, 
body heat is increased, the body gets weak. Disease 
poisons are fundamentally the cause of fever. 

When the temperature of the body, as a result of fever, rises to 
an extreme height, certain life principles are changed and death 
immediately follows. A temperature of 106 or 107 degrees is very 
high, and, therefore, very dangerous. In treating disease the tem- 
perature is watched, that the course of the fever may be followed. 




Treating a fever helps in the fight against the disease itself. The 
basis of the curative process rests upon the principle of proper cir- 
culation and the excretion of the impure substances. 

3. Common causes of disease. — Poisonous materials 

and poisonous plants cause death to thousands of animals 

annually. Of great im- 






Bad Management Is the Most Common 
Cause of Disease 

portance to the 
interests is the 
destruction of 
harmful products, 
tunately, in the 
sections the most of 
these have been elimi- 
nated. And more has 
been learned about the 
molds that lead to bad 
results when moldy 
forage is fed. In time 
disease will be considerably lessened; and particularly 
will this be the case when only clean, wholesome food is 
placed in the mangers and feed racks. With less disease 
there will be more rapid gains. Disease is largely due to 
causes within control of the man who owns or tends the 

4. Heredity plays a part. — Tuberculosis, once so dread- 
ed in man and beast, is now known not to be handed 
down from parent to progeny ; it is a germ disease, pure 
and simple, and makes its start just as many other ail- 
ments — through breath, or drink, or feed. There are 
hereditary troubles, however, that continue down through 
many generations. The narrow hock of the horse invites 
curb troubles ; the narrow chest is a good breeding ground 
for tuberculosis germs ; straight pasterns are bad for the 
feet ; poor conformation is not consistent with efficiency 


or easy functional activity. Despite, caution and care, 
therefore, health is often disturbed because of hereditary 
influences. Thanks to science, many of the old bugbears 
of the past, however, have become dislodged, and their 
true import set right. 

5. Germs and parasites. — Parasites and bacteria, or 
germs, cause much loss to live stock. Typical illustra- 

Diseased and Normal Lungs 
Diseased lung at left; healthy, normal lung at right. 

tions of such are hog cholera, a germ disease ; tubercu- 
losis, a germ disease ; stomach worms, parasites ; staggers, 
a mold disease; and abortion, a germ disease. These 
and hundreds like them are all due to parasites or germs. 
As disease agents they disturb and destroy, regardless of 
age, class or breed. 

Remedies and treatment are being sought to meet these individual 
diseases as they occur. Nevertheless, the best treatment is preven- 
tion. It is far better to prevent than to cure; and that is the line 



of action especially for this class. Indeed, it is far easier to under- 
stand the simple laws of prevention than complicated curative proc- 
esses. Especially is this true after germs become known and iso- 
lated, and their rapid destruction by air, sunlight and disinfectants 
understood and available. 

6. Immunity by inoculation. — Many diseases are fre- 
quently combated by introducing into the blood a certain 

serum that enables the body to resist attack 
of that disease. Immunity in animals in- 
cludes both natural and acquired powers 
which the body possesses to destroy bac- 
teria and poisons. The serums or inocu- 
lating materials are carefully prepared in 
laboratories by using treated blood of other 
animals; when prepared the desired serum is 
injected under the skin. Thus immunity is 
secured in the animal so treated. A few of 
the many diseases now treated by inocula- 
tion are tetanus, Texas fever, hog cholera, 
black leg, anthrax and diphtheria. Each is 
a very destructive disease, and unless 
treated by inoculation, a large percentage of 
afflicted animals never recover. If, however, animals are 
inoculated before being attacked by the disease, the loss 
from death is relatively small. 

7. Some animals resistant to disease. — An infectious 
or contagious disease may inflict a herd or flock and de- 
stroy few or many of the individuals composing it. Some 
animals are never afifected, although subjected to expo- 
sure and contagion. Such animals are immune and resist 
that particular disease. Others may sufifer a mild attack 
and throw it off with no disastrous consequences ; these 
are strong and their organs ably fortified against any 
injurious inroad from that disease. On the other hand, 
most animals are not able to throw off disease. Their 

Inoculating thh 
Hog with 
s e rum for 
Prevention of 



When Colic Attacks 

A common position assumed during 
the course of this ailment. 

very susceptibility invites attack, and if the infection is 
intensely virulent death may threaten or follow. 

8. Course of disease. — Each disease has its own pecul- 
iar characteristics. These are more or less conspicuous 
in each individual case. Some 

diseases develop quickly and 
end quickly. Others run a 
course of several months or 
even years. The first class is 
acute, the second chronic. In 
both kinds nature always en- 
deavors to eflect a cure ; and, 
unless other complications 
arise from improper food, in- 
sanitary quarters, bad air or 
conditions not conducive to health, recovery in most 
cases will result. 

9. How disease runs. — The course of a disease in a 
general way is known before it makes its attack. Physi- 
cians and veterinarians know when a fever, for instance, 
will begin, how long it will last, when it will be at its 
highest point, and when it will disappear. They know 
these facts even before they begin their treatment. Yet 
no disease invariably runs the same course in all animals. 
The virulence of bacteria has much to do with care in 
treating; mild cases occur usually when the germs are 
weak, and severe cases when the germs are virulent. This 
explains why some attacks of measles or Texas fever or 
hog cholera are more fatal than other attacks in other 
places or at other seasons of the year. 

10. Period of incubation. — In the regular course of an 
Infectious disease, the period of incubation follows infec- 
tion. During this period, no change in the health of the 
animal is observed. It seems well, acts well, and does 


its work well. Nevertheless, the germs are developing, 
multiplying, gaining headway and so intrenching them- 
selves that illness and disorder are sure soon to follow. 
The period of incubation varies in different animals and 
in different diseases. It may take two or three weeks 
for development, or only two or three days. 

11. Period of eruption. — Following the period of incu- 
bation comes the period of eruption. At this stage the 

typical characteristics are ob- 
served. From now on the dis- 
ease approaches and reaches 
its height, the animal being 
,»j^.r'- under its complete dominion. 
Milk Fever at Its Height If properly nursed and treated, 
in most diseases, the animal 
will pass through the period and recover its usual health. 

12. Patient improves. — The final stage of sickness is 
the period of improvement. In the battle between body 
and disease, the germs are destroyed and the body is 
victorious. All that now remains is to clear away the 
debris scattered throughout the system. The veterina- 
rian seeks the repair and recovery of the injured parts or 
organs as near to the original condition as the nature of 
the disease will admit. The period of improvement 
varies in different diseases and in different animals. 
Recovery may occur in a few days, and in other cases 
weeks and months are necessary for restoring health and 
vigor. A change of feed or pasture or work is usually 
desirable for most rapid recovery. In some cases, noth- 
ing but al)S()lute rest will suffice. 

13. Getting well. — After a disease runs its course, the 
body usually is restored to its normal condition. You 
see, there is a limit to what an ordinary, common disease 
can do ; a healthy body may be attacked, but in the end. 



the disease will be overcome. There are some diseases 
that are not readily mastered. Usually, however, nature 
is able to fight off an attack, but care, treatment and 
nursing are all helpful ijri lessening the time and in min- 
imizing the severity. The stage of getting well calls for 
rest, light and nutritious food, pure water, a comfortable 
stable and freedom from annoyance or housing in insani- 
tary quarters. 

Locating Common Troubles 

SoA\E Common Ailments of the Horse 

1. Poll evil 

2. Swelling by bridle pressure 

3. Inflamed parotid gland 

4. Inflamed jugular vein 

5. Caries of the lower jaw 

6. Fistula of parotid duct 

7. Bony excrescence 

8. Fistula of withers 

9. Saddle gall 

10. Tumor caused by collar 

11. Sp'int 

12. Malanders 

13. A tread on the coronet 

14. Sand crack 

15. Quittor 

16. Knee bunch 

17. Clap on back sinews 

18. Ringbone 

19. Foundered foot 

20. Ventral hernia 

21. Rat tail 

22. Spavin 

23. Curb 

24. Quarter crack 

25. Thick leg 

26. Sallenders 

27. Capped hock 

28. Swelled sinews 

29. Grease 

30. Sand crack 

31. Tumor of elbow 

14. Learn to recognize disease. — Every stockman 
should familiarize himself with the common ailments of 
live stock. If experience tells him that his corn or pota- 
toes or cotton is strong, vigorous and healthy or just the 


reverse, observation and experience ought also to tell him 
when his animals are in good health or w^hen they lack 
thrift or are sick and need treatment. He recognizes 
smut when it attacks his wheat or oats; so colic, too, 
ought to be recognized when it attacks his horse. He 
recognizes the common ailments of the peach and apple 
and he should learn to recognize the common ailments 
of the cow and the pig. If ill health and lack of thrift, 
and the causes that induce them, are given the attention 
they deserve, much of the worry and trouble arising from 
disease will be avoided. 

15. Avoiding danger. — Great loss of live stock annu- 
ally occurs because infected animals are not quarantined. 
This explains why a disease may become epidemic. As 
soon as a disturbance from the normal is indicated, that 
animal should be separated from the rest of the flock or 
herd ; in case a serious illness develops, exposure of the 
entire herd will then be less likely. If the disease is con- 
tagious, the wisdom of this action will be readily under- 
stood. Quarantine quarters need not be expensive, and 
they ought to be far enough removed from the healthy 
stock to render infection impossible. When new animals 
are added to a flock or herd, they should first be put in 
quarantine quarters and kept there long enough to deter- 
mine if anything strange or unusual is developing. Such 
precaution is the surest way to avoid the danger of intro- 
ducing a troublesome disease. 


1. Choosing Soiling Crops.— Require each student to prepare a 
table of soiling crops that will afford a succession of green food 
from early spring until late fall. In the table should be included 
the name of the crop, the time of seeding, amount of seed to the 
acre for that crop and the time of cutting for use as feed. 

2. Locating Disease. — Every student of farm animals should be 
familiar with the common diseases and whether they are general or 
local in nature. He should know what regions or parts are affected 
by particular diseases. By means of the illustration on page 455 
point out the diseases that affect each part of the horse. All ani- 
mals being judged should be looked over for blemishes or other 
disease troubles. The student should be able to tell where every 
common disease is located. Often several of these ailments may 
be found in the same horse. Require each student to examine a 
number of horses in the neighborhood so as to become familiar 
with the superficial, regional diseases as they are located on various 
animals of the neighborhood. See illustration on page 455. 

narily, the local veterinarian or physician will gladly co-operate with 
the teacher in a laboratory period to be arranged for. Frequently 
he will be able to provide the necessary material or live specimens 
for an invaluable exercise. Under his direction the places for tak- 
ing the pulse, how to take the temperature and counting the respira- 
tions may be indicated. The facts brought out in previous lessons 
may be gone over and their practical application made interesting 
to the class. The veterinarian often has available cases under way 
that can be discussed and their treatment outlined. Teacher and 
students are urged to get in touch with the local veterinarian for the 
interesting and valuable information and suggestions that he can give. 

4. PosT-MoRTEM Examinations. — Follow paragraphs 12, 13, 14 and 
15 in Lesson Forty-one, if an opportunity is offered for making a 
post-mortem examination. Often it is possible to arrange for such 
a demonstration with the local veterinarian. His advice and instruc- 
tion will prove of invaluable and incalculable good for all years to 
come. On nearly every farm an opportunity is occasionally offered 
for such work. No student of this book should neglect making such 
an examination whenever the occasion arises permitting him to do so. 

5. Pulse of Farm Animals. — The pulse of the horse is felt on 
the lower jawbone; and in the cow on the jaw, inside of the elbow 
and cannon and the base of the tail. Pulse beats vary. In the 
healthy horse the range is from 36 to 40 a minute ; in the cow 45 to 
50 ; in the pig 70 to 80 ; in the sheep 70 to 75. The pulse is slightly 
slower in males than females, and is more rapid in young animals 


than in adult animals. Locate the pulse of the different classes of 
farm animals. If any difficulty is met, ask the local veterinarian or 
family physician. 

6. Number of Respirations. — These will vary with the class of 
animal ; as a rule, the larger the animal the slower the respiration. 
The ratio of heart beats to respiration is from one of the latter to 
four or five heart beats. Count the respirations of several animals 
in health. If sick animals, note the respirations and compare with 
the following normal rate for well animals : Horse, 8 to 10 respira- 
tions per minute ; steer and cow, 12 to 15 ; sheep and goat, 12 to 20 ; 
dog, 15 to 20 ; pig, 10 to 15. Count the pulse and determine the 
ratio of heart beats to respiration. 

7. Examining for Soundness. — Examine one or more horses. 
Starting with the head, examine all regions for defects, blemishes 
and unsoundness. 

(a) Are there cuts or injuries known as blemishes that lessen the 
value but which do not interfere with usefulness? 

(b) Do you observe any unsoundness, such as splints, curbs, ring- 
bones or sidebones? 

(c) Is the eyesight perfect? 

(d) Is the hearing as it should be? 

(e) Do you find poll evil at the top of head? 
(/) Is the shoulder sound or sweenied? 

(g) Do you find a fistula in any region? 

(h) Are the hoofs of good shape and perfect otherwise? 

(i) When made to run fast, how is the "wind" of the horse? 


1. Kinds of wounds. 

2. First step in treating. 

3. Checking blood flow. 

4. Cleansing the wound. 

5. Making the bandage. 

6. Stitching a wound. 

7. Making the stitches. 

8. Pins in emergency. 

9. Antiseptic washes. 

10. Nail puncture. 

11. Treating nail punctures. 

12. Drainage for the wound. 

13. Treating bruises. 

14. Leg wounds. 

15. Maggots in wounds. 

Note to the Teacher. — A neglected wound often leads 
to serious consequences. Show the importance of clean- 
liness and protection of wounds and cuts, even if the 
injury is slight and seemingly unimportant. Ordinary 
wounds are of frequent occurrence, making it possible to 
put in practice some of the suggestions made in this 
lesson. A teacher should never neglect an opportunity 
of putting into practical use useful information of what- 
ever nature it may be and whenever it is possible so to do. 



1. Kinds of wounds. — Wounds fall into four classes : 
(1) clean cut, made by something- sharp; (2) torn or 
lacerated, where ragged edges are left; (3) bruised, the 
result of continued pressure or of a kick or a knock ; and 
(4) punctured, caused by the entrance of a nail, splinter 
or gunshot. 

2. First step in treating. — A flow of blood usually ac- 
companies an ordinary wound. Other than 
a bruised and punctured wound this is al- 
ways true. Frequently a nail puncture does 
not give off blood, or, if it does, it may not 
be noticed. However, blood is present; for, 
from the very nature of the trouble, blood 
rushes to the seat, this being nature's way 
of repair. The first step, therefore, is to 
check excessive blood fjow. 

3. Checking blood flow. — Blood has the 
trick of coagulating or clotting; and this in 
time will check the flow. But you can assist 
in forming the clot very simply by applying some finely 
ground material, that the blood may be held on the spot. 
Absorbent cotton is the best material. In case this is not 
available, use something clean, not stored up with germs. 
Tea is good, as is flour also. Cold water acts favorably, 
and for the slight, ordinary surface wounds water is 
usually sufficient. A few drops ok antiseptic in the water, 
such as carbolic acid, if available, is always advisable, for 
the freshest water carries its full quota of germs, some 





of which may cause trouble. A tiny bit of alum powder 
will be found effective and not painful. 

4. Cleansing the wound. — After the flow of blood has 
been stopped, cleansing the wound is next in order. All 
dirt should be carefully removed, the injured flesh 
cleansed, the torn tissues brought together, and stitched 
if need be, and an antiseptic applied. The water used in 
bathing the wounded flesh should contain an antiseptic, 
that the germs present may be destroyed and no live ones 
admitted by water in cleansing the wound. Any good 
commercial antiseptic will do; or the old common ones, 
such as corrosive sublimate, one part in a thousand parts 
of water; carbolic acid, a teaspoonful in a quart of water; 
or salt water. A powdered antiseptic, such as iodoform, 
is very desirable for dusting into the 


5. Making the bandage. — Unless 
the wound is of little consequence 
it should be covered and bandaged, 
that no foreign elements may be ad- 
mitted and that some pressure may 
be secured to keep the broken parts 
together. To secure this effect ab- 
sorbent cotton, slightly moistened 
with the antiseptic, should be laid 
on the wound, and firmly fastened 
by strips of clean cotton cloth. By 
winding this bandage around and 
about the wound, dressed in this 
careful way, the wound will be pro- 
tected, germs will be kept out, and nature thus reinforced 
will be enabled to make a rapid recovery. Unless the 
bandage is disturbed, there is no need of changing under 

Leg Bandage 

Showing how to place and 


24 or 36 hours. If the bandage is displaced, dress as be- 
fore and bandage again. 

6. Stitching a wound. — When a cut wound is deep or 
large, stitching is sometimes required, that the broken 
parts may be brought together for more rapid healing. 
Nothing is better for doing this than a coarse needle and 
heavy thread. Before stitching, the wound should be 
l)athed as previously described. The needle and thread 
should be soaked in the antiseptic that no germs may be 
introduced by either. 

7. Making the stitches. — In making the stitches place 
the needle about an eighth to a quarter of an inch from 
the edge of the wound and carry across to the opposite 
side. Bring the two ends together and tie, leaving the 
lips of the wound as close together as possible. If more 
than a single stitch is necessary proceed in the same way, 
placing the second stitch about three-quarters of an inch 
from the first one ; continue as with the first stitch if more 
are necessary. 

8. Pins in emergency. — In case needle and thread are 
not available, pins may be used in the emergency. Insert 
the pin through the two edges and bring the lips together, 
making them fast by a thread or cord carried from one 
end to the other several times, alternating to the right 
and left as presented by the figure eight. Sometimes a 
wound enlarges and becomes feverish. In a case of this 
nature, remove the fastenings and bathe the wound very 
gently, using a mild antiseptic wash of tepid water in 
which carbolic acid has been placed. 

9. Antiseptic washes. — Avoid any breaking of the heal- 
ing tissue and do not have the washing solution too 
strong, else it may injure the delicate tissue. A tea- 
spoonful of carbolic acid to a quart of water is strong 


enough. With lacerated wounds the treatment is very 
similar. If the wound becomes inflamed and spongy, 
add a tablespoonful of acetate of lead and a tablespoonful 
of sulphate of zinc to the antiseptic solution and apply 
twice daily. 

10. Nail puncture. — If an animal becomes suddenly 
and severely lame and there is no evidence of an injury 
to any other part of the leg, such as swelling, heat and 
pain upon pressure, it is always well to look for puncture 
in the foot. If the animal stands with the lame foot ex- 
tended, and when walking places the lame foot well for- 
ward and brings the well foot up to it, the evidence of 
puncture is still stronger. To examine the foot prop- 
erly the shoe should be removed. It is not sufficient to 
merely scrape the bottom of the foot clean, for if the nail 
has pulled out and the horn sprung back in position, all 
trace of its entrance may have been obliterated. To ex- 
amine the foot properly, tap the hoof with a hammer or 
knife and the exact spot may be definitely located. If 
the injury is of a few days' standing, additional heat in 
the hoof, and, perhaps, slight swelling 
of the coronet may also be present. 

Locating lameness in the stifle joint is a 
common but inexcusable error, as the action 
resulting from lameness in the two parts is 
entirely di^erent. The so-called gravel, 
which is said to enter the sole of the foot 
and then to work out at the heel, is usually 
the working out of the pus or th'^ matter 
resulting from a nail puncture or a bruise. 

11. Treating nail punctures. — In 

treating hoof wounds, pare away only anatomy of the fo^ 
such parts of the hoof as necessity re- showing the delicate na- 

. . , 1 ^ 'j^ r j^j^ ture of the parts. 

quires and mtroduce a bit oi cotton 

cloth rolled as a string by means of a probe of some kind. 

Both probe and cotton must be treated with the antiseptic 


solution. This solution should be a little stronger than 
for flesh wounds. Make the solution by using a teaspoon- 
ful of carbolic acid to only a pint of water. After the 
cotton has been inserted a few times and withdrawn, each 
time a fresh cord being used and fully saturated, leave the 
last one in for a few hours and then repeat the treatment. 
This should be done three or four times each day. 

12. Drainage for the wound. — The main point in the 
treatment of nail puncture of the foot is to provide free 
exit to all matter that may collect, and to keep the parts 
clean. If this is done, the matter will not be forced to 
work out at the heels, and no separation or loss of hoof 
will occur. Often in case of a very severe wound the treat- 
ment acts slowly. In case proud flesh accumulates it may 
be burned away by a hot iron. After this operation has 
been performed, the cavity may be filled with balsam of 
fir and cotton placed over it, a piece of heavy leather 
fitted to the foot and held fast by the replaced shoe. This 
wnll usually end the difficulty. A veterinarian should be 
called for treatment of severe cases. 

13. Treating bruises. — In treating bruises a dififerent 
procedure is necessary. The broken tissue is concealed 
beneath the skin and usually under the surface muscles. 
Bathing with water and acetate of lead — a quart of water 
and two tablespoonfuls of the acetate — will tend to lessen 
the inflammation. In time it may be necessary to open 
the swelling to let the pus out. After operating inject 
a mild antiseptic wash for cleansing, using one quart of 
water and a tablespoonful of chloride of zinc. If the 
swelling remains, apply twice each month a salve made 
by using a small amount of biniodide of mercury and lard. 
Wash occasionally, using the chloride of zmc solution. 

14 Leg wounds. — Cleanse the wound with a wash 



composed of one tablespoonful of acetate of lead, one 
tablespoonful of sulphate of zinc, four tablespoonfuls of 
tincture of arnica, and one quart of water. Use this wash 
frequently, every hour or so during the first day. After 
that three or four applications will be sufficient. The 
sore should be kept lower than the skin during the heal- 
ing process. If it tends to crowd up, apply a tiny bit — 
as much as you can place on a one-cent piece — of bichlo- 
ride of mercury. This will assist in getting an even heal 
and the skin will grow over, leaving no blemish or 

15. Maggots in wounds. — If a wound has been treated 
as heretofore suggested, there is no possibility of any 
trouble from maggots. These come from a lack of clean- 
liness, and neglect. Of course an animal is often wounded 
and the owner is not aware of the mishap. When, for any 
cause, maggots are present, they must be got rid of at 
once. A good plan is to use chloroform, either by spray- 
ing or by throwing it in the wound in small drops from 
a sponge. The danger from maggots can usually be 
avoided if a mixture composed of one tablespoonful of 
turpentine, three tablespoonfuls of tar and two table- 
spoonfuls of lard or fish oil are smeared all around the 
border of the wound. 


1. Actinomycosis. 

2. Anthrax. 

3. Blackleg. 

4. Fistulae. 

5. Foot and mouth disease. 

6. Footrot in sheep. 

7. Fowl cholera. 

8. Glanders. 

9. Hog cholera. 

10. Rabies. 

11. Strangles. 

12. Tetanus. 

13. Texas fever. 

14. Tuberculosis. 

15. Control of infectious diseases. 

Note to the Teacher. — The term infection means the 
entrance of living micro-organisms into the body of an 
animal and their multiplication therein. Following such 
infection a local or general diseased condition results that 
may produce death. The general diseases described in 
this lesson will indicate how infections are caused, the 
kind and nature of the invading organisms, and more 
common symptoms that are manifested when animals 
are infected. The teacher will do well to emphasize the 
importance of guarding against infections and of using 
radical measures when such outbreaks occur or are 
prevalent in the community. 



1. Actinomycosis. — Called lumpy jaw, because of the 
frequency of the swelling located on the jaw. It is due 
to the entrance of a fungus into the tissues. Adult cattle 
are most commonly, but occasionally other domestic 
animals and man may be, af- 
fected. The disease is recog- 
nized by the characteristic 
tumor, usually observed on the 
jaw, either of the bone or of the 
soft tissues in that vicinity. It 
may, however, afifect the tongue, ^'^^^^^"^ ^cr'^j^om^clsfs^^''''^ °'' 
or any of the organs of the body. 

Its development is more or less of a slow, constant 
growth, beginning with a very small nodule, but, when 
allowed to run its course, may reach the size of a cocoa- 
nut, or larger. On reaching some size, it usually rup- 
tures, and from it is discharged a thick, yellowish pus. 
If of small size in the soft tissues, it may be cut out, 
by the knife. Veterinarians have a system of treatment 
for advanced cases. 

2. Anthrax. — An acute, infectious disease of plant- 
eating animals, caused by a microbe which enters the 
circulating blood and by multiplication therein causes 
its rapid destruction and the death of the animal. The 
disease is as old as history and exists in all countries. 
Soil is the prime factor in preserving and propagating the 
germs. They may get into the body in breath, food, 
drink, through abraded surfaces on the skin and by bites 



of insects. In combating this disease medical treatment 
is of little value. Fortunately a vaccine has been discov- 
ered that is very effective as a prevention. 

3. Blackleg. — An infectious disease produced by the 
blackleg bacillus, a parasite that lives and propagates in 
the soil of infected districts and in the bodies of diseased 
animals. The disease is characterized in the appearance 
of large swellings on various parts of the body, usually 
on the upper portions of one of the legs, and never below 
the knees. Swellings vary in size and are always formed 
by the presence of gas formed in the tissue just beneath 
the skin. This gas is a product of the germ. A peculiar 
cracking sound is noticed as the hand is passed over the 
swellings. When punctured, these swellings emit a 
bloody fluid of disagreeable and sickening odor. 

Associated with the disease are loss of appetite, high fever and 
lameness. Death follows shortly after time of attack. No medical 
cure for treatment has been discovered. The only safe practice in 

regions where blackleg 
is prevalent is in the use 
of protective inoculation 
or vaccination. Such 
vaccination renders the 
animals immune, and 
even if attacked, there is 
almost no appearance of 
the disease. 

4. Fistulae. — A 

chronic discharge 

from some tubelike 

channel, with no 

tendency to heal 

and most common in 

horses. They may 

be located on the withers (fistulous withers), on the side 

of the face (tooth fistula), on the breast bone (sternal 

fistula), or on the lower jaw (salivary fistula). Fistulous 

Fistula of the Withers 



withers are caused from external injury — the animal 
rolling on a rock, ill-fitting collars, or the saddle press- 
ing on the withers. Tooth fistulse are caused by a de- 
cayed tooth; sternal fistulas by injury in the breast; 
salivary fistulae by an injury to the tube which carries 
the saliva from the gland to the mouth. 

At first a swelling appears, which enlarges and becomes soft. 
The fluid contained in it can be distinctly felt. If left to itself the 
swelling gets larger and softer, and in a month or so breaks and 
discharges the contents. The fluid that comes from the swelling is 
first thin and streaked with blood ; later it con- 
tains yellow-appearing masses or pus. The in- 
closing sac is a hard, firm membrane that keeps 
the wound from healing. The wound may heal 
and there will be no pus discharged for a month, 
then the old opening will be broken and the pus 
will flow out again until the sac is emptied. This 
healing of the wound and then breaking again 
may be kept up for years unless the disease is 
properly treated by a trained veterinarian. 

5. Foot and mouth disease. — This 
malady usually affects ruminants, and 
spreads very rapidly. The virus which 
transmits the disease may be carried by 
railroad cars, bedding, feeds, dairy 
products, small animals and persons. 
In from three to five days after infec- 
tion the animal has a moderate fever. 
The appetite is lost and the mouth is 
closed. There is a dribbling of saliva, 
and in two or three days yellowish white 
spots, the size of hemp seeds, appear on the gums, the 
lower surface of the tongue, lining of the mouth, and on 
the lips. These eventually attain the size of a silver 
dollar. They run together, burst and form painful, foul- 
smelling ulcers. 

Usually, a short time after an appearance of the disease in the 
mouth parts, there is a redness, heat and swelling of the skin at its 
juncture with the hoof, and especially between the toes and upon the 

Foot and Mouth 

Note diseased condi- 
tions of teats and 


soles of the foot. Similar ulcers to those on the mouth appear on 
the feet and soon burst. Owing to the nature of the disease its 
contagion and danger, treatment should be in line of prevention and 
in destruction of infected animals. 

6. Footrot in sheep. — A chronic inflammation of the 
foot, marked by ulceration, softening of the hoof, lame- 
ness and the discharge of a sticky material which has a 
very fetid odor. It is a contagious disease, and is pro- 
duced by a germ that lives in the soil 
and gains entrance to the feet 
through wounds and surfaces chafed 
by barbed grasses and stones, or by 
gritty clay, which becomes lodged 
between the toes and hardens there. 

Mild cases are best treated by making the 
Footrot sheep stand for several minutes daily in a 

trough containing a disinfectant. In bad 
cases and where the hoof is underrun with pus, the horn and all 
overgrowths must be cut away so as to expose the diseased parts to 
the action of the disinfectant. The foot should then be dried, dusted 
with finely powdered burnt alum, and bandaged to keep out the 
dirt. This antiseptic treatment of the feet must be kept up daily 
as long as the disease exists. 

7. Fowl cholera. — A germ disease and contagious, and 
attacking poultry of all kinds. Bad food may aggravate 
the trouble, but the germ introduced either in food or 
drink is the cause. At first the droppings take on a 
whitish color; diarrhea then results. The discharges be- 
come thin and watery, and at times are frothy and green- 
ish. Fowls thus attacked soon lose their appetites, be- 
come stupid, and are of sickly appearance. The head 
drops toward the body, the eyelids fall, and the fowls 
stand around as if doped. Some recover, but unless 
checked the flock will be materially injured. 

Dead fowls must be burned and lime and other disinfectants used 
to keep the disease from spreading. The well birds must be kept 
apart from the infected quarters. Care must be exercised that in- 
fection be not carried either by visitors or attendants from the sick 
to the healthy quarters. 



8. Glanders. — A contagious disease peculiar to the 
horse, ass and mule and may be communicated to human 
beings. The specific organism causing glanders is known 
as bacillus malleus. A discharge from the nose and ulcers 

in the partition dividing the nasal 
cavities are common external 
manifestations of the disease. A 
peculiarity of glanders seems to be 
a tendency for the symptoms to ap- 
pear on the left side. Well-marked 
cases of glanders are not difficult 
of diagnosis ; in cases of doubt a 
test, known as the mallein test, may 
be resorted to. 

Farcy Form of Glanders Farcy is akin to glanders, presenting 

different symptoms in way of farcy "buds" 
or ulcers on the skin. In the acute form, the disease develops rapidly 
and death occurs in a few weeks. In the chronic form, an animal 
may go for months without the disease being suspected ; yet such an 
animal is a source of danger to other horses and to its attendant. 
Glanderous horses should be killed as soon as the disease is diag- 

9. Hog cholera. — This is the most disastrous and 
prevalent disease among hogs. It is due to a germ and 
is extremely contagious. The germ is so small as to be 
invisible to the highest available powers of the best 

The hog coming down f^^T^^'^^PIZ'^] 
with cholera is usually 
sluggish at first, lying 
around in the shade and 
refusing feed. The hair 
may become rough. The 
eyes early show symptoms of inflammation, with a sticky 
discharge. There is usually a suppressed cough. The 
gait may become irregular and uncertain, especially with 

Chronic Hog Cholera, Showing Ulcers in 
Large Intestine 


the hind legs. After these preliminary symptoms have 
been shown for a time, the skin becomes red, changing 
to purple, especially noticeable in white-haired hogs. The 
hog is then usually within a very few days of death. On 
opening the dead carcass small blood clots may be found 
in the fat cut through under the skin. The glands 
along the intestines are intensely inflamed. The mucous 
membrane of the stomach is frequently thickened and 
roughened, and in chronic cases there may be ulcers. 

Treatment consists in prevention and inoculation. The greatest 
care is necessary to prevent the germs being carried from sick hogs 
to healthy herds. The owner of healthy hogs and his family should 
keep away from all pens and yards on other farms, whether sickness 
among hogs prevails or not, if there is any infection in the com- 
munity. Care should be exercised that dogs, stray hogs and other 
animals be kept out of the quarters where the hogs are kept. In 
case of danger, communicate with the state authorities and have 
the herd inoculated. 

10. Rabies, also called mad dog, is an infectious dis- 
ease caused by an invisible organism. The disease is 
transmitted from one animal to another by the bite of 
an animal which is suffering with the disease or by direct 
inoculation. It is more common in the dog than in any 
other animal. 

The dog at first seeks dark places, but is usually restless, and 

after a day or two may go 30 miles 
in a day. He will drink water, eat 
sticks, stones, and bite other dogs, 
horses and cattle, less often man. In 
a few days the dog becomes partly 
paralyzed, is unable to swallow, his 
legs may be affected and he will lie in 
one place, usually dying in a few days 
after. A horse that has been bitten by 
Strangles ^^ ^ "^^^ ^^^S becomes restless, usually 

^, . . . „ ... violent and will kick and bite. He may 

Showmg position of swellmg. ^^^^^ ^-^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^j^^ ^^^^^^^ ^^^ 

oftentimes bites his own flesh at the 
place where he has been bitten by the dog. The symptoms usually de- 
velop in from eight to twenty-eight days, but may not develop for 
§ix months. The disease runs its course in from two to ten days 



with a fatal termination. There is no help after the symptoms have 
developed. In case man is bitten he should take the Pasteur treat- 
ment, which is a preventive, and it should be taken in a very short 
time after being bitten. After the symptoms begin to show it is too late. 

11. Strangles. — This trouble, commonly called colt dis- 
temper, affects horses, and rarely mules and donkeys. It 
is such an infectious disease that nearly all horses con- 
tract the disease when colts, and usually remain immune 
to future exposures. The cause is a very small organism 
or germ, which enters the system when a healthy colt 
comes in contact with a diseased one, or when fed and 
watered in infected vessels. The seat of trouble is largely 
restricted to the respiratory organs. 

The animal eats little, and does not care to take much exercise. 
A little watery discharge frequently appears from the eyes, and about 
the same time a watery discharge from the nostrils, which soon be- 
comes thicker and yellower in color. Usually the glands be- 
tween the lower jawbones become enlarged and undergo suppuration, 
with a rupture of them and free discharge of pus. When no com- 
plications occur, the disease usually runs its course in two weeks. A 
laxative diet, with something green, if possible, should be given, and 
the colt placed in clean, airy, and comfortable quarters, but not in 
a draft. 

12. Tetanus. — An infectious disease in which the body 
muscles are spasmodically contracted or stiffened. The 
muscles that move the jaw are frequently aft'ected and 
the animal is unable to 

open the mouth. The 
spread of the disease 
does not occur through 
healthy animals coming 
in contact with animals 
having tetanus, but by 

The germ of tetanus is " 

present in the soil, manure Tetanus or Lock Jaw 

and dust. It enters the body Note the rigid, tense position of the muscles 

by way of wounds. The 



germs grow and produce a poisonous toxin that is said to be the 
most powerful produced by any bacteria. This toxin acts on the 
nerve centers of the brain and spinal cord, causing extensive spas- 
modic contraction of the body muscles. It may b e largely prevented 
by the careful disinfection of wounds, and the use of anti-tetanic 
serum. In most localities the proper treatment of the wound is a 
sufficient preventive measure, but in localities where the disease is 
common the anti-tetanic serum should be used as soon after the 
injury has occurred as possible. Many boys and girls lose their 
lives from this disease through firecrackers after a Fourth of July 

13. Texas fever. — Caused by an organism which lives 
within and breaks up the red corpuscles of the blood. It 
is transmitted by the cattle tick. The eggs laid on the 

ground by the female 
tick after falling off the 
cattle hatch, and the 
little creatures attach 
themselves, by prefer- 
ence, to the tender skin 
on the escutcheon, the 
inside of the thighs, and 
on the base of the udder. 
When very numerous 

Acute Case of Texas Fever ^^ey may be found OU 

various parts of the body. They remain clinging to the 

cattle until mature, and then fall off and lay their eggs 

and hatch more new ticks. 

The spread of Texas fever can be prevented in two ways : By 
sanitary arrangements and by vaccination. Where the cattle are in- 
fested with the tick, the ticks can be killed by smearing the animals 
with a solution capable of killing the ticks without harrning the 
cattle. In large herds a vat of crude petroleum is used for immers- 
ing the cattle. Vaccination is for the purpose of immunizing cattle 
that are brought from a non-infected district to an infected district. 
Calves are more immune than adult cattle. Immunity is caused by 
introducing the germ into the blood in a weakened form. This may 
be done in two ways — by placing virulent young ticks on the calves 
or by artificial vaccination. 

14. Tuberculosis. — A disease resulting from the growth 



of tubercle bacteria in the tissues of the animal. The 
bacteria, or germs of tuberculosis, gain entrance to the 
organs of the body through air, drink or food. They 
most frequently attack the lungs, bronchial glands, liver, 
kidneys and intestines, but tuberculous areas may be 
found in almost any part of the infested animal. The 
disease is spread by germs escaping from diseased ani- 
mals and getting into the bodies of healthy ones. After 
the germs gain a foothold they will multiply and produce 
the disease, just as the seed of a noxious weed, if blown 
into a new field, will germinate and produce the weed 
there. Tuberculosis spreads from animal to animal on 
the same principle that weeds spread from one field to 

Tuberculous Cow 

Note the emaciated condition, siclcly attitude and coarse 
rough coat. 

another. By using tuberculin, affected animals can 
usually be located. The simplest way to prevent the 
spread of tuberculosis is to prevent healthy animals from 
coming in contact with the diseased ones or eating or 
drinking after them. 

15. Control of infectious diseases. — From time im- 


memorial it has been known that certain diseases were 
transferable from the diseased to the healthy. In many 
cases the older observers believed in the theory that there 
was "something in the air," whereby the maladies were 
communicated, and people or animals got sick. The 
science of bacteriology has since explained the reason. 
We know now that every disease of an infectious nature 
is caused by a specific micro-organism which in one way 
or other, must be introduced into the animal body to 
cause that disease. The principal ways by which such 
infection takes place are : (1) Through the digestive tract, 
in the food or drink. (2) Through the respiratory tract, 
inhaling air containing the disease-producing organisms. 
(3) Through abrasions of the skin, where organisms 
may be admitted in pricks, scratches, cuts or sores. (4) 
Through the bites of insects. All infective diseases are 
due to the presence of the invading organisms either cir- 
culating in the blood or manufacturing toxic material 
at the seat of injury, the poison then circulating in the 
blood. It is obvious that control of such diseases lies 
more in preventive measures than in treatment and cure 
afterwards. This is to be done by keeping unexposed 
animals from the vicinity of infected places ; by keeping 
stock in good health and vigor; by providing pure food 
and drink, and exercise ; and by housing in sanitary quar- 
ters where much sunlight and fresh air at all times are 
admitted. Furthermore, it is necessary to make certain 
that infectious germs are not carried to the flock or herd, 
either by affected stock, or by means of clothing, drink- 
ing vessels, feeding troughs, food, w^ater, dogs, birds, 
bedding or other media by means of which these germs 
may be transmitted from affected individuals to healthy 
herds or flocks. 


1. Bloating 

2. Bog spavin. 

3. Botflies. 

4. Colic. 

5. Curb. 

6. Founder. 

7. Gapes. 

8. Gravel in foot. 

9. Heaves. 

10. Hollow horn. 

11. Lice. 

12. Ringbone. 

13. Scab. 

14. Spavin. 

15. Splints. 

Note to the Teacher. — The purpose of this lesson is to 
acquaint the student with the general characteristics and 
symptoms of the more common diseases of a non-infec- 
tious nature that affect farm stock. The more common 
of such diseases are described in the belief that every 
person concerned with the management of animals should 
know something about the ailments that most frequently 
occur. There is no virtue in ignorance, even if the sub- 
ject is an unimportant disease. 




1. Bloating. — A disease characterized by the distention 
of the paunch or rumen, due to the accumulation of gas. 
Tt most frequently occurs when cattle or sheep are pas- 
tured on clover or alfalfa, especially if moist, and when 
not accustomed to fresh green food. The animal shows 

Case of Bloating 
Where to tap for relief. 

pain, goes off to itself, and breathes with difficulty. 
Unless relief is secured, the gas may continue to form, 
even over the back of the animal, and choking and death 
may result. In mild cases recovery is gradual, but in 
severe cases tapping to release the gas is necessary. 

In tapping with trochar and canula the insertion is made on the 
left side, the instrument being pushed into the rumen or paunch, the 
incision being made half way between the point of the hip and the 
last rib. After the incision is made the trochar is withdrawn and 
the canula left in to furnish an opening through which the gas can 
escape. If this instrument is not available, a pocketknife will answer. 

2. Bog spavin. — A round, smooth tumor at the front 




Bog Spavin 

and on the inside of the hock. Bog spavins result from 
sprains, bruises, or other injuries. When the injuries 
occur, too much joint oil is secreted, 
causing a bulging of the ligament. 
Lameness seldom accompanies a bog 
spavin. If lameness is present other 
structures are certain to be affected, 
pain and heat w^ill be noticed, and the 
joint will be stiff. Treatment consists 
of applications of cold water, liniment 
or blister. 

3. Botflies. — Horses are often 
noticed biting their legs in summer 
when the yellow nit is attached to the 
hair or other parts. The young larva, and even the eggs, 
are thus transferred into the mouth, and swallowed. 
When in the stomach they attach themselves, causing 
annoyance and often digestive 
disorders. Until they have 
completed their development 
bots are hard to dislodge. If 
a rag made wet with kerosene 
is actively rubbed over the 
horse where the nits are at- 
tached the eggs will be de- 
stroyed. Bots usually respond 
to medical treatment. 

The botfly of cattle is taken into 
into the mouth and partly develops 
in the digestive tract. It then bur- 
rows through the tissue until it bo"t" c, magnified head of bot 
reaches the region of the back. 
The best treatment is to destroy the 
grub as it develops under the skin 

The presence of botflies among sheep is easily told by the be- 
havior of the sheep. This fly looks much like a house fly, and it 

Bots in Stomach 

At left, young bots attached to 
stomach wall, a, female botfly; b, the 

These are known as warbles. 



Colic Pains 
A common attitude with colic. 

always attempts to lay its eggs just inside the opening of the nose. 
When the fly succeeds, the larva works its way up the cavity of the 
nose, seeking the small cavities in the head, where development takes 
place. As the grubs enlarge, a discharge from the nostril occurs. 
Treatment may be either preventive or surgical. A mixture of tar 
and lard applied to the nostril with a brush and repeated every 10 

days or two weeks during 
the summer months is a 
good preventive. 

4. Colic. — A very 
common disease in 
horses and occasionally 
in cattle and lambs. It 
begins as an inflamma- 
tion of the bowels, and 
is characterized by a 
spasmodic contraction 
of the intestinal wall. 
Feed and water are controlling factors. Cold water after 
hard work or after eating, or cold water given when the 
animal is hot, or a change of food, may bring on the dis- 
ease. Some horses and cattle are more given to colic 
than others, some individuals never being affected. Two 
kinds are known — spasmodic, or cramps of the bowels ; 
and flatulent, or bloating. AMien the spasms come on 
the horse paws with his forefeet, cringes, turns his head 
around, as if looking at his side, lays on the ground and 
rolls, as if in pain. Then he stands quietly for a while 
and repeats these performances. If the cramps are 
severe he breaks out with sweat. Treatment consists in 
the use of opiates and purges. 

5. Curb. — A sprain or injury to the ligament situated 
on the back part of the hock joint. Anything that puts 
too much stress on this part, such as holding back heavy 
loads, going down hill or backing up too heavy loads, or 
the hind legs slipping too far under the horse's body, may 




cause curb disease. It may be caused also by kicks or 
by the whiffletree striking against the back of the hock 
joint. Sometimes there is swelling and 
heat in the part, and lameness ; some- 
times there is swelling but no lameness. 
Curb is treated by lotions and blisters. 

6. Founder. — An inflammation of the 
sensitive or soft structures between the 
hoof and the bones of the foot. Stiffness 
in the legs and shoulders is but the nat- 
ural results of soreness in the feet. 
Founder may be produced by a change 
of feed or excessive feeding; a change of 
work, or excessive work, which results in 
exhaustion ; large quantities of feed or 
water when warm or fatigued; sudden 
cooling off when sweating and long drives on hard roads. 
It may occur in the fore or hind feet, or in both, but gen- 
erally in the forefeet. 

The position in which the animal stands is characteristic. The 
forefeet will be placed well forward, so that the weight will be 
borne by the heels, while the hind feet are brought well up under 
the body in order to take as much weight off the front feet as pos- 
sible. Treatment consists in removing the shoes and applying mois- 
ture to the feet. The animal may be re- 
quired to stand in water 5 or 6 inches 
deep each day, several hours at a time. 
Or an application of a poultice of wheat 
bran or some such material, or wet cloths 
thoroughly saturated with water, wrapped 
about the feet may be used. An animal 
once foundered often suffers from sub- 
sequent attacks. The disease most com- 
monly affects horses. 

Foundered Foot 

7. Gapes. — Caused by worms in 
the windpipe ; oftenest seen in young chicks and turkeys. 
Birds droop, cough, and lower their wings. A feather 
moistened, but not dripping, with kerosene or oil of tur- 


pentine is the commonest remedy. Cleanliness of food, 
water and quarters is the great preventive. Poultrymen 
who keep their chicks on the ground not used for chick 
raising the previous year, and who insist on strictest 
cleanliness, are seldom if ever troubled with gapes. 

8. Gravel in foot. — A collection of pus, or other fluid, 
containing gravel or dirt. It occurs most frequently in 
the foot, and is associated with the horse and mule almost 
exclusively. The cause may be from a bruise, but more 
frequently it is due to a punctured wound of the foot by 
nail, wire or other pointed object. Nearly always there 
will be dirt carried into the wound with the offending 
object or shortly after its removal. This dirt, infected 
with germs, sets up inflammation of the sensitive struc- 
tures, causing more or less lameness. 

Treatment consists in making or enlarging the opening so that all 
secretions formed in the wound can find a ready escape to the out- 
side. The wound should be thoroughly cleansed, arid washed with 
a mild disinfectant, after which a small quantity of oil of turpentine 
should be injected, and the wound packed with calomel or iodoform 
and covered with a pledget of cotton. If the wound is very deep 
or extensive, a hot bran or flaxseed poultice, applied after thor- 
oughly cleansing the foot, is often beneficial. Use poultice for 
several days and change daily. 

9. Heaves. — An ailment of the horse characterized by 
a double bellows-like action of the abdominal muscles in 
breathing. In bad cases there is a short, suppressed 
cough, usually accompanied by passage of gas, glutton- 
ous appetite, harsh, staring coat of hair, lack of endur- 
ance, sweating, panting or staggering during work, and 
dilated nostrils. The disease begins with indigestion, 
aflfecting in time the pneumogastric nerve of the stomach 
and then the branch nerves running to the lungs. 

The distress may be relieved by treatment, but perfect recovery 
is impossible when the lungs have become badly aff^ected. A sub- 
stitution of wet oat straw for hay in winter and grass for hay in 
summer gives relief. Allow double the usual rest period after a 



meal. Work when stomach is not distended with food. Hay should 
not be fed at noon. Limewater for wetting the food is desirable. 
Once or twice a week raw linseed oil in a bran mash is recommended 
for keeping open the bowels. 

10. Hollow horn. — The horn is not hollow, and never is. 
The old quack method of boring a hole in the horn with 
a gimlet and squirting turpentine into the orifice is both 
cruel and ridiculous. If the temperature of the horn is 
low, it is because of the general poverty of the blood of 
the animal. The most common symptoms are general 
debility, scanty flesh, scurvy coat and coarse hair. The 
appetite is also irregular and at times greedy. Treatment 
is in line of better food to improve and tone up the sys- 
tem. If lice are found they must be destroyed by disin- 
fectants or washes. 

11. Lice. — Farm animals, especially those housed in 
stables more or less infested with insects and rats, are 
commonly troubled 

with lice. Animals in 
good health resist the 
insects, but those 
already in a non- 
thrifty condition do 
not fare so well. Lice 
annoy farm stock by 
biting the skin, suck- 
ing the blood and 
causing irritation. 

infestation, as a rule, Cattle Bath Tub 

takes place in filthy quar- 
ters, and the best means 
of disinfecting such places 

is by the use of a spray of kerosene. One of the best means 
of applying to hogs consists in rubbing posts, which are con- 
stantly smeared with kerosene and grease. In this way the hogs 
are induced to treat themselves. Infected hogs may also be treated 
by pouring the kerosene directly over the infested parts— the neck, 

Permanent tank used for dipping for treatment 
of lice and mange. 


shoulder and back. Dipping tanks made of cement or wood in the 
run yards containing disinfectant fluid serve as wallows and allow 
the hogs to disinfect themselves. Cattle and horses may be dipped 
or brushed with disinfecting cloths or brushes. Chickens may be 
dipped, but their quarters should be sprayed, and the roosts treated 
with a mixture of grease and disinfectants. 

12. Ringbone. — A growth of bone on the pastern l)one, 
just above the hoof. It causes lameness when it inter- 
feres with the joint or the passage of any 
of the tendons. Some horses are predis- 
posed to bony diseases from the least in- 
jury, while others are not, and in select- 
ing mares for breeding purposes the 
former should be rejected. This disease 
results from strains, bruises, or injuries 

Ringbone to the cartilage of the joints. 

When the membrane of the bone or cartilage 
becomes inflamed there may be much lameness for several months 
before any enlargement takes place. The absence of other diseases 
of the foot, with some heat in the pasterns, and soreness on pres- 
sure or moving the joints, indicates this disease. Medical treat- 
ment, in the nature of ointments and blisters, is often necessary. 

13. Scab. — Scab or itch or mange, is caused by minute 
mites that live upon the surface of the skin, burrowing 
into it. Dififerent kinds afflict animals. Old cattle are 
less troubled, the attacks being more frequent on calves 
and yearlings and two-vear-olds out of condition. In the 
early stages the itching of the skin in the region of the 
neck or shoulders is first noticed. This is indicated by 
the animals digging at the skin with teeth and horns and 
the constant rubbing against posts or barbed wire or 
anything that may give relief at the time. The disease 
gradually spreads along the back, sides and outside of 

In the early stages the coat looks rough and the skin has a scurvy 
appearance. In time, the hair comes off or is rubbed off, presenting 
bald patches of thick, glazed and wrinkled skin. After the hair 
comes off the parasites leave these regions, seeking other quarters, 



and then the hair grows in again. There is a dejected and debiH- 
tated condition in animals thus afflicted, and they fall rapidly in 
flesh. Their appetites are poor, and most of their time is expended 
in scratching themselves. Scab spreads rapidly. As soon as the 
disease is discovered the infected animals should be isolated, and 
both animals and infected quarters and rubbing posts disinfected 
with a solution of carbolic acid or one of the commercial dips. 

14. Spavin. — Any condition which favors sprains, as 
fast driving over hard and uneven roads, bad shoeing, 
severe labor in early life, bruises or an injury to tendons 
or joints, may cause spavin. If not checked, the hock 
joint enlarges and free movement of the limbs is im- 
paired. Preventive treatment consists in keeping the 
feet trimmed properly, not overworking colts while 
young, careful driving on hard or uneven roads, and 
avoiding all injuries that are liable to strain tendons, 
ligaments or joints of the limbs. 

Even after a spavin has developed it may be cured by proper 
treatment of the feet, and applying a fly blister. If 
blistering fails to cure the spavin, point-firing may be 
resorted to. But this should be done by a veterinary 

15. Splints. — Any enlargement of the bone 
occurring on the inside of the leg between 
the knee and fetlock, comes under the name 
of splint. The usual cause is travel on hard 
roads, blows, a twisting strain, or faulty con- 
formation. If taken in time, a splint can 
be cured. The first thing is to give the ani- 
mal rest and place in quarters where there 
is a soft floor, preferably the ground. 

Applications of cold water bandages act well. If 
the disease does not respond to this treatment, a blister splint 

mav be necessary. 

Dr. Williams of Cornell University believes that spavin, splints, 
ringbone and other bone troubles are either hereditary or due to soil 
conditions. Soils free from limestone, for example, may be a con- 
tributing cause. He points out that horses in fire departments are 
not more subject to bone troubles than other horses. 


1. Dressing Wounds. — An excellent exercise will be possible if 
the local veterinarian or physician is asked to show the class how to 
treat a wound, how to make stitches with needle and thread, and 
how to use pins for making stitches in emergencies. Here is a 
splendid opportunity to drive home the virtue of cleanliness and 
the use of pure antiseptics to prevent further infection. After a 
wound is cleaned and washed in the proper manner the next step 
is to dress it for comfort, safety and protection. The importance 
of dressing wounds should be emphasized, and as opportunity arises 
on the home farm, each student should be influenced to put in prac- 
tice what he has learned about the cleanly care of wounds. 

2. Animal Diseases. — Each member of the class is to take an 
assignment of a leading disease of the community. Require the 
preparation of an essay on this disease, describing its symptoms, 
how it is spread, means of prevention, methods of control and treat- 
ment, and estimate the annual loss to the community. In what ways 
may the neighborhood co-operate to eradicate the disease and what 
precautions are necessary to prevent further epidemics and out- 

3. Observation of Animals. — (a) Have each student choose a 
class of live stock for observation at home, lim.iting the choice to 
horses, cattle, sheep or swine. The object is to learn as much about 
habits, movements, likes and dislikes, and other characteristics as 
possible. For instance, how do animals of that class walk? Are 
they suspicious? Why do they move their ears? How do they eat? 
Lie down? Get up? In eating grass how is the head moved? Is it 
the same for other classes? Do cows ever "roll" like horses? How 
does a horse roll anyway? In galloping, does the horse leave the 
ground from one of its hind feet or from a front foot? Which? 
Do cattle ever gallop? Do hogs? Watch an anirnal and nate its 
movements, ways of eating, ways of locomotion, resting and of other 
points that come under your observation. 

(b) What is the most common disease that affects this class of 
farm animals? Is the disease contagious? How is it most generally 
spread? What methods may be employed to prevent infection? 
If an outbreak occurs, what is to be done to keep the disease in 
check? Now write an essay on your subject — telling in detail all 
the observations you have made. Make this as complete as possible. 



1. Health. 

2. Fresh air. 

3. Exercise. 

4. Sunlight. 

5. Water. 

6. Disinfection. 

7. Filth. 

8. Damp quarters. 

9. Ventilation. 

10. Systems of ventilation. 

11. Stalls. 

12. Shelter. 

13. Grooming animals. 

14. House ventilation. 

15. Outside sleeping rooms. 

Note to the Teacher. — The object of this lesson is obvi- 
ously to emphasize the importance of health and thrift 
in farm animals. Fresh air, exercise and sanitary quar- 
ters are fundamental factors of live stock success. When 
it is realized that an enormous loss of farm. stock annu- 
ally occurs, due to conditions easily w^ithin the control of 
the owners, the practical value of a clear understanding 
of how to keep animals healthy is apparent. 



1. Health. — Under normal conditions health is natural. 
And unless health is generally maintained, it will be im- 
possible to succeed in any branch of live stock. The 
object of every stockman should be to keep his animals 
in such vigorous condition that they will thrive and pro- 
duce their marketable products with the greatest profit. 
The majority of failures in stock raising is due to neglect 
or disobedience of those natural laws upon which normal 
conditions of health depend. 

It is more important to understand the laws of thrift and vigor 
than to know about dopes and remedies. Our greatest stockmen 
seldom have to deal with disease in their establishments, except at 
times of community affliction and epidemics. Even then the fault 
is usually due to a thoughtless outsider, to dogs, birds, water, or to 
some other condition not under the control of the victims. Animals 
may be considered to be in health when they have smooth, glossy 
coats, are quick and active in their movements, have good appetite.-, 
do their regular work without difficulty or distress and when the 
organs of the body act in a normal way. 

2. Fresh air. — Until costly and tightly closed barns 
were built by thoughtless and ignorant men of wealth, 

Free Exercise in the Open Air of the Pasture 


tuberculosis was not a serious ailment of dairy cattle. 
These men, attracted to the pleasure of breeding dairy 
stock, sought elegance in stables, and provided what is 
now known as badly devised comfort in way of warmth 
in winter. They assembled many famous cows, some of 
which were affected with tuberculosis, from all parts of 
the world. Their method of barn construction actually 
excluded fresh air. The infected cows, in close contact 
with others, gave the disease to healthy cows. Bringing 
together infected cattle, however, had more to do with the 
spread of tuberculosis than the kind of buildings. In this 
way the disease was bred and spread, and a most serious 
menace introduced to the cattle industry when breeding 
stock from these stables was sold and distributed to other 
farms. It was in this manner that tuberculosis was 
spread, which in time became not only the most serious 
dairy disease, but the source of an immense expense to 
eradicate it. No flock or herd is wisely managed if fresh 
air is improperly supplied to barns and stables, or if 
impure air, arising from breath, odors, or skin exudations, 
is not constantly removed. It is better to have cold 
shelters in winter with a generous supply of fresh, pure 
air than warmth without it. 

3. Exercise. — Closely akin to fresh air is exercise. 
Lack of exercise is productive of many disorders. When 
farm stock are on free range in pastures and feed lots, 
other factors of health being provided, they keep 
active and robust. Exercise may be arranged for 
at little expense. Winter is the season it ordinarily 
is most often denied ; but the scratching pen 
suffices for chickens, the open or covered barnyard for 
cattle, common winter work for horses, the sod fields 
for the sheep and hogs. Under whatever circumstances 



farm animals are kept, a reasonable amount of exercise 
should be required. Even work for boys and girls is not a 
hardship, but a blessing, that remains as long as life exists. 

4. Sunlight. — Sunlight is a great stimulant to the skin 
and acts as a tonic to the red blood corpuscles. Men 
and beasts that live in darkness or dark quarters become 
debilitated and finally become victims of disease. Just 
as the plant obtains its green color only from sunlight, 
so does the healthy, red blood of animals form only 
through the influence of sunlight. Sunlight is a neces- 
sity to the healthy as it is to the sick. City people w^ho 
work in dark shops or live in dark dwellings, and animals 
that are stabled in dark barns, live under unhealthy con- 
ditions. Sunny, large and airy buildings are important 
requirements for both people and live stock. Sunlight 
is not only of great importance to health in a direct man- 
ner, but it is the very best disinfectant. Disease germs 
cannot live where the direct rays of the sun strike. Every 


' hpr^^Si^Bi^tfu 

|PW»'*«^#t ■' ' . ,; , 1 

Where Sunlight Hits Every Nook and Corner 

In quarters like this there is no place for vermin to hide or for disease germs 

to breed. 



room where a boy or girl sleeps and every stall where 
an animal is quartered should be reached in every corner 
by sunlight during some part of the day. It is an old 
saying that ''where the sun does not enter, the phvsician 

5. Water. — Sixty per cent or more of the weight of the 
animal body consists of water; and this quantity must be 
maintained by a large 

Permanent Watering Trough 

daily consumption if 
good health is to be 
preserved. The action 
of water is mechanical, 
chemical and thermal. 
Mechanically, it dis- 
tends the stomach, in- 
testines and other or- 
gans; chemically, it 
dissolves certain inju- 
rious substances cir- 
culating in the body; and thermally, it reduces the pulse 
and lowers the temperature. 

Drinking water should be absolutely pure, or it may become a men- 
ace to health. Many disastrous outbreaks of disease often are due to 
water contamination, as. for instance, typhoid fever and hog cholera. 
Farm animals are entitled to a better water supply than they fre- 
quently get. Wells, springs, cisterns and cool streams are satisfac- 
tory, providing they do not become contaminated in any manner by 
disease germs. It is also important that live stock be watered at 
regular intervals, that they be given water in abundance, and be 
allowed to drink in their own way, with plenty of time to do it. 

6. Disinfection. — The best way of reducing the pos- 
sibilities of contagion is by destroying offending germs. 
Such practice is not only absolutely necessary during 
and after an outbreak of disease, but during other periods 
when danger is not even suspected. On farms where 
disinfection is freely indulged in, and where stock are 



raised under good sanitary conditions otherwise, disease 
among live stock is not at all common. Premises, 
stables, stalls, chicken coops or houses may be disinfected 
by steam, boiling water, and chemical substances. For- 
malin is the best disinfectant for closed rooms and farm- 
houses. The stables and outbuildings may be sprayed 
or washed with solutions containing carbolic acid, kero- 
sene or the now common coal-tar preparations. The 
method is first to remove all litter, dust or other obstruc- 
tion and then freely to spray until every part of the 
quarters is made thoroughly wet. 

7. Filth. — Disinfection must go hand in hand with 
cleanliness. Little is gained by using disinfectants, even 
though that be done very freely, if filthy quarters for live 
stock are permitted to exist. A maintenance of cleanli- 
ness precludes the necessity for much disinfection. Peo- 


The bacterial count of the milk produced in this barn is sure to be high. 



pie who seek to avert disease by disinfection and still 
allow filth to accumulate are penny wise and pound fool- 
ish, for they must sooner or later pay the penalty. Suc- 
cessful farmers keep their farms clean and insist on 
cleanliness in every place where the farm animals are 
housed or permitted to live. In filth, flies, germs, ver- 
min and other terrors are propagated and from such 
places they spread far and near. 

8. Damp quarters. — Bacteria require moisture and 
darkness for their propagation. They rarely survive 
when dried or exposed to light. Hence, in damp houses 
and barns the occupants are not only constantly sub- 
jected to distress, but also to danger. The only thing 
to do with damp quarters is to correct the trouble. A 
drain pipe at the side of a barn often will make dry a 
stable floor. If the walls are damp, the fault may be with 
the form of construction or to lack of window space, or 
to a lack of fresh air. Whatever the source of trouble, 
let nothing delay its early correction. Good health is 
not often associated with damp 


9. Ventilation. — Fresh air is 
not a fad. It is neither a luxury 
for humans nor a fancy for 
beasts, but a necessity. It is 
lung food for both, and should 
be pure and abundant. Every 
house should supply 800 cubic 
feet of air for each occupant, and 
every stable 1,500 cubic feet for 
each mature cow or horse, and 
this should be removed fre- 

,, ,, ., . . . .- Stable Window 

quently. Ventilation is primarily ^ ^ . . ^ . , , 

^ -^ f ./ Fresh air is admitted from the top. 



for two purposes : to admit oxygen, and to dilute and re- 
move impurities. It is to come as near as possible to 
getting outside conditions in the house or stable. Pro- 
vision for ventilation is always made when houses and 
barns are constructed, but too often, when winter comes, 
the door and windows are closed and the health of the 
occupants is imperiled. Yet it is an easy matter to ven- 
tilate a farm building. An opening 1 foot square will 
admit 15,800 cubic feet when air is passing at as slow 
a rate as three miles an hour. 

10. Systems of ventilation. — In small barns window 

ventilation will suffice. 
The windows may be 
hinged at the bottom, 
allowing the top to open 
inward. At the sides, 
boards are placed, the 
width corresponding 
from top to bottom with 
the opened distance of 
the window. By this 
plan air is admitted at 
the top and not directly 
on the animals. If 
opened on the side away 
from the wind and ac- 
cording to the severity of the weather, fresh air will be 
provided and without serious drafts being caused. 

The King system of ventilation consists essentially of 
air intakes and air outlets, in the form of flues, and tight 
inclosures. The intakes admit the fresh air near the 
ceiling where the air is warm, and where also the fresh 
air is warmed, and the outlets remove the old air at the 


King System of Ventilation 

Showing intakes and outlets. A, ventila- 
ting shaft, through which stable air is carried 
out of doors; B, intakes for admission of 
outside air to the stable; C, ceiling register 
in the ventilating shaft; D, outside air. 



bottom where it is colder and possessed of the impuri- 
ties. For best success the intakes should be small but 
numerous, one, say, for every three cows; and outlets 
large, and carried up and out of the roof. The outlets 
should be airtight. One difficulty with this system is 
that the moisture given off by the lungs and skin of 
animals is partially condensed and is apt to cause a moist 
condition of the stable. When this occurs, the air should 
be allowed to escape at C shown in the diagram. 

11. Stalls. — Naturally less space is required for small 
animals than for large, and less for cows than for horses. 
Pigs and sheep do not require individual stalls, but pens 
of varying sizes are provided in accordance to needs, and 
whether one or more or many are to be accommodated. 
The size of such pens is a matter of choice. From 6 to 8 
feet is about as small as they are made. Cattle stalls 
vary in length and width, 3 feet being the usual width 
and 4}^ to 5 feet the usual length for small cows, and 

Simple Stall Arrangement for Dairy Cows 

This dairy stable is quite sanitary and built to endure. There are no partitions 
to catch dust and filth. Note the rather wide, shallow gutter, the cement flooring 
and open mangers. Each cow knows her place, and on coming into the stable 
goes direct to it. 



4 feet the usual width and 5^ to 6 feet the usual length 
for large cows. Horses require a stall 5 to 6 feet in 
width and 9 to 10 feet in length. Box stalls may be 
built 6 or 8 feet by 10 feet in size for cattle and 10 feet 
square or 12 feet square for horses. These sizes are, of 
course, subject to modification. 

12. Shelter. — Even in a mild or warm climate shelter 
of some kind is desirable for the farm stock. Large or 
commodious buildings are not required, but protection 
against rain or snow or icy blasts or cold weather is of 
vital importance. Dairy cattle and work horses are best 
cared for in stalls in the stable. Sheep and hogs may be 

Yard and Shelter for Feeding Steers 

These steers are on a fattening ration and live out in the open. The cut hay and 
grain are fed in troughs. To the rear is seen an open shed under which the animals 
may rest during disagreeable weather. It should be absolutely tight on all sides 
except one. 

reared in the open, but shelter for them during parturi- 
tion and at seasons of inclement weather is not only 
desirable, but dry sleeping quarters are well nigh indis- 
pensable. Repeated trials with fattening cattle indicate 
that they may be fed to advantage and with better results 
in growth and increase in feed lots in which open sheds 
are available than when fed and housed in stalls in in- 
closed barns. 



13. Grooming animals. — Not only are well-groomed 
animals more handsome in appearance, but they are 
healthier than similar animals not so treated. Dirt and 
dust in the hair or on the skin are conducive of uncleanli- 
ness, and uncleanliness means an inroad to disease. 
When animals are groomed, the pores of the skin are 
kept open, making it more easy for the skin to perform 
its excretory work. Grooming is not always necessary, 
but if horses and cows are stabled in winter the daily 
use of the curr3^comb and brush helps the animal and 
saves some feed. 

14. House ventilation. — In building farmhouses win- 
dows are never overlooked, and usually are provided in 
sufficient numbers. The great trouble is, they are not 
used enough. In winter in some houses windows are 
seldom if ever opened, and too frequently the shades are 
kept drawn down to protect carpets and furnishings. 
This prevents sunshine from getting in. It is a bad cus- 

Farmhouse with Outside Sleeping Rooms 

Outside sleeping and living rooms have been added on to this old farmhouse. 
These rooms are protected from insects by fine bronze screening. Canvas and 
bamboo curtains may be let down during bad weather. 


torn to keep both doors and windows closed for any 
length of time if several people are in a room. One 
should never sleep in a room with every window closed. 
On retiring-, open the window, even if only slightly, and 
during the day open the windows wide for purposes of 
airing. An open fireplace in the living room is an excel- 
lent outlet for impure air. 

15. Outside sleeping rooms. — The outside sleeping 
room may be built at any side of the house, over a piazza, 
a projection or a one-story room. One or more sides may 
be protected by the siding of the house, as the case may 
be. Canvas or wood shades are desirable also to pro- 
tect against storms of rain and snow. An open sleeping 
room should be protected also against flies and insects 
by wire screening of small mesh. The roof may be made 
of canvas and painted frequently, or of tin, shingles or 
prepared roofing. In building a room of this kind it is 
important that outside architectural features be observed, 
and this addition be made to blend with other outside 
features of the house. And it should be absolutely tight 
on all sides except one. 


1. Kind of animals slaughtered. 

2. Condition and quality. 

3. Making ready. 

4. Producing death. 

5. Sticking. 

6. Dressing the steer. 

7. Scalding hogs. 

8. Dressing hogs. 

9. Cutting up. 

10. Sausage. 

11. Curing. 

12. Sugar-cured hams and bacon. 

13. Smoking meats. 

14. How much to smoke. 

15. Storing. 

Note to the Teacher. — The art of killing and dressing 
animals and of curing meat is an accomplishment that 
should be more appreciated than it is. It is both useful 
and necessary. The farm meat supply will quite gen- 
erally come from home slaughtering. Hence, any study 
of the principles and practices in vogue in butchering 
farm stock should be encouraged in order that the quality 
and reputation of the farm-cured meats may be main- 
tained, both to the profit and enjoyment of the husband- 
man, and to the delight of the town and city consumer. 


1. Kind of animals slaughtered. — Many classes of meat 
animals are used for providing meat for use on the farm. 
Poultry, veal, lamb, mutton and beef are largely used 
as fresh meat. The flesh of the pig is most commonly 
devoted to various curing processes for preservation 
and use at seasons of the year following its preparation. 
The progressive farmer should not only provide his own 
fresh and cured pork' for family use, but also should be 
able to supply at remunerative prices other persons in his 
neighborhood who are appreciative of the excellence and 
general merit of country or homemade pork products. 

2. Condition and quality. — Animals selected for meat 
should be fed until reasonably fat. The meat of a fat 
animal is juicy and rich in flavor. It is nicely "marbled," 
that is, the fat and lean are well mixed together, giving 

mm Jp i^^s^Hwl 

BM K Jh| a'-^% |M| «| ^m ^K ^H ^m 

HoG-KiLLiNG Time on the Farm 



a product of good texture and tempting tenderness. Lean 
animals are always rather tough in meat, even though of 
good breeding. Farm butcher stock are ready to be 
butchered when they cease to give a good account of the 
food they constime. That means when they are fat, but 
not overfat or overripe. 

3. Making ready. — Two or three days before butcher- 
ing, just enough food to ap- 
pease the appetite should be 
given the animals to be slaugh- 
tered. Let them have all the 
water they may want. During 
the last 18 or 20 hours no food 
should be given at all. This 
checking of food will enable 
the blood to empty its supply 

of nutrients, the stomach and intestines will be less 
gorged and the carcass will handle better. So treated, 
better bleeding will result and no taint will affect the 

4. Producing death. — Most animals are stunned be- 

CuT FROM Champion Carcass 

Showing good marbling without 
wasteful fat covering on outside. 

Manner of Bleeding a Hog 


fore the knife is inserted for bleeding. The steer must 
first be fastened to a post or tree in order to avoid excite- 
ment and danger. Often the rifle is used to kill both 
steers and hogs. Unless the rifleman is a crack shot, 
this practice is cruel ; another objection results in the 
penetration of the cartridge into the meat, often causing 
taint or trouble in curing. The stunning ax is a more 
humane way and is just as effective. The blow should 
be directed at the center of the face, midway between 

the eyes. 

5. Sticking. — When 
the animal drops as the 
result of the stunning 
blow, a sharp sticking 
knife is inserted at once 
in front of the breast 
bone. In cattle the skin 
along the lower region 
STICKING A STEER ^f ^eck is cut ' f or a dis- 

tance of 15 inches or so. 
This gives an opportunity to plunge the knife to a depth 
of 5 or 6 inches on either side of the windpipe and to 
sever the arteries leading from and the jugular vein lead- 
ing to the heart. If this operation has been properly 
performed, the blood will flow freely and drain out from 
all parts of the body. In killing hogs, whether or not 
they are first stunned by ax or bullet or simply caught 
and bled, the knife should be inserted at the front of the 
breast bone and guided direct to the arteries. 

6. Dressing the steer. — The first act is to skin the face 
and head. The tongue is next removed and cleaned in 
water with the knife. The head may be removed next 
and the skin taken from the front and hind legs. The 
rest of the carcass is left in the skin until raised by rope 



and pulley. When properly elevated, the skin is opened 
along the belly from the rectum to the breast. Now fol- 
low the opening of the carcass, the 
moval of the entrails and the com- 
pletion of the skinning. The final 
work is to sponge off the blood, both 
inside and out, and leave the car- 
cass to cool and harden. 

7. Scalding hogs. — When a hog 
no longer bleeds or moves he is 
ready for the scalding vat. A hogs- 
head or large barrel is commonly 
used. The best temperature for the 
DRESSING THE steer scaldlug watcr is about 25 degrees 
below the boiling point. If the 
water is too hot, the hair is hard to remove and the skin 
is injured by the cooking that the hot water gives. If 
hard wood ashes are put in the water, they serve to clean 
and brighten up the skin. Many farmers use ashes or 
common lye. Once in the water 
the hog is moved up and down, 
turned over and ends transferred, 
after which it is placed on the clean- 
ing board and thoroughly scraped 
and cleaned. The carcass is now 
ready for dressing. 

Before butchering day, have everything 
in readiness. For heating scalding water 
and rendering lard, when one has no ket- 
tles or caldrons ready to set in brick or 
stone, a simple method is to put down two 
forked stakes and lay in them a pole to 
support the kettles, and build a wood fire 

around them on the ground. In scalding keep the hog in motion by 
turning it about in water and occasionally try the bristles to see if 
they will come out readily. 

Scalding Hog 



8. Dressing hogs. — Various devices are used for hang- 
ing up the hogs. The rope and pulley is a simple arrange- 
ment and saves additional help. When hung, the carcass 
is opened along the mid- 
line of the belly, the 
breast bone and pelvic 
arch are split apart, and 
the entrails removed. 
The leaf lard or kidney 
fat should not be dis- 
turbed, but left to cool 
in the carcass. After the 
removal of internal or- 
gans, cold water may be 
dashed over the interior, 
and the carcass left to 
cool and set. 

9. Cutting up. — When 
cool, the carcass is 
placed on a table or 
block and cut in pieces after the approved fashion for the 
kind of animal slaughtered. Beeves are usually halved 
but hogs may be halved or cut into parts, the two sides 

remaining together. Both 
/sHouLD£f?f -■^'' x— BArt I — ^ mcthods are followed. 

If the carcass has not 
been halved, it is placed 
on the block, the head is 
removed, the shoulders 
separated from the body, 
and the hams cut from 
the rear about 2 inches 

D.vm.NG THE HOG Carcass '^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^^^ p^lyic 

Showing the two most common methods of i i-m 

cutting up hogs. bones. Ihese parts are 

Cooling Off 



Meat Cuttings 

Trimmed and untrimmed hams. The 
trimmings are used for sausage. 

now divided and each properly trimmed for its particu- 
lar use. A handsome trim requires practice, but skillful 
work is desirable. A shaggy shoulder or ham may make 
a good meat, but it never looks as well as a neat trim. 

10. Sausage. — The cut- 
tings from trimmings are 
used for sausage, with such 
additional portions of lean 
as the owner may desire. 
Usually the trimmings are 
so fat that it is necessary to 
throw the fatter portions 
into the lard vat. A pound 
of fat to three pounds of lean 
makes good sausage. The 
fineness of grinding sausage 
meat varies with the wishes 

of different people. On some farms sausage is put 
through the grinder twice. In seasoning use an ounce 
of fine salt and a half ounce of black pepper to each four 
pounds of meat. If sage is liked» it is customary to use 
a half ounce of leaf-sage with the salt and pepper. Pre- 
pared casings are now so cheap that they are largely re- 
placing the home-prepared kind. 

11. Curing. — Meat should be salted as soon as the heat 
is out. It may be dry cured or brine cured. In dry 
curing for every 100 pounds of meat, five pounds of salt, 
two pounds of granulated sugar, and two ounces of salt- 
peter are mixed and a third of the mixture is rubbed on 
the meat every third day, the meat being packed in a 
box or barrel. After the third rubbing the meat is packed 
and left for 10 days, after which time it is ready for 
smoking. In brine curing meat is placed in a barrel and 



the brine poured over it. On removal from the brine 

the meat is ready foi' smoking. 

12. Sugar-cured hams and bacon. — 
Each piece should be rubbed with salt 
and allowed to drain overnight. The 
next morning pack in a barrel, using 
for the preservative eight pounds of 
salt, two pounds of brown sugar, and 
two ounces of saltpeter for each 100 
pounds of meat. This amount of pre- 
servative is dissolved in four gallons 
of water, and the mixture is poured 
into the barrel on the meat. In pack- 
ing, place the larger pieces first in the 
barrel and use the bacon strips and 

Cured Side of Bacon Small piccCS for filling in and tO USC 

OF FINE QUALITY ^^^ ^^^^ ^j^^ ^^^^^ ^^^.-p^ ^^^^^^ ^^ 

kept in the brine five or six weeks, and the hams and 
shoulders seven or eight weeks, depending on their size 
and thickness. 

13. Smoking meats. — Smoke properly applied aids in 
preserving, and gives 
flavor to any kind of 
cured or pickled meat. 
The smoke must come 
into direct contact, but 
if the fire is close to the 
meat the heat will in- 
jure it. Often the fire 
box is built outside the 
smoke house and the 
smoke conducted into 
the smoking room by smoking meat 

flue or chimnev An ^ simple contrivance for use when but a small 

y ' amount of meat is cured. 


iron kettle may be used within the smoke house to con- 
tain the fire, but the heat should be kept away from the 
meat by some sort of iron protection. The best fuel is 
green hickory or maple, but any kind of hard wood will 
do. Corn cobs are much liked. An interval of two or 
three days is desirable between taking from the brine 
and smoking. Frequently it will be necessary to wash 
the meat in warm water to remove the coat of salt when 
taken from the brine. 

14. How much to smoke. — If the fire is kept going all 
the time 30 to 40 hours will give sufficient smoking. If 
the fire is made only during the day a larger total of 
hours will be required, for the reason that the work is less 
effective. The meat must be warmed each day before 
the smoke penetrates it. In case the meat freezes over- 
night smoke will not enter the meat until it thaws out 
again. In moderate weather a light fire each day for 
10 days or two weeks will give the desired color and pro- 
duce the same effect as continuous smoking for a day 
and a half. 

15. Storing. — After smoking it is desirable to place 
each piece in a canvas bag for protec- 
tion. In case insects are troublesome 
dip the canvased meat in hot lime of 
about the consistency of ordinary white- 
wash. Use a whitewash brush to get 
the limewater all over the canvas. The 
meat is now ready for hanging in the 
storing place, which should be cool and 

Smoked Ham dark. Meat is uot always bagged, and 
frequently is hung on pegs in the smoke 
house or other storage place. 


1. Market end. 

2. Classes of animal products. 

3. Methods of shipment. 

4. Cars. 

5. On the road. 

6. Live stock centers. 

7. Selling exchange. 

8. Cost of marketing. 

9. Buyers and sellers. 

10. Grading. 

11. Weighing when sold. 

12. Inspection. 

13. Quarantine. 

14. Live stock products. 

15. Selling by retail. 

Note to the Teacher. — While farm animals are largely 
sold "on the hoof" at the market centers, it is desirable 
that the teacher lay stress on selling by retail wherever 
it is possible so to do. In this case the producer slaugh- 
ters his own animals and disposes of their products direct 
to his customers in his nearby town or city. By dealing 
direct he is able to sell at the highest prices, and thus to 
secure the best profits. 


1. Market end. — The stockman's work is to raise 
products for sale. The substances with which he works 
are the raw material of the fields, the tools by which he 
builds and manufactures are his animals, and the finished 
articles are the products yielded by them in their keep 
or growth. He cares for his animals, thinks in their 
interest, works for their comfort, and labors for their 
highest and best development, not because he seeks a 
congenial employment only, but primarily to market the 
products obtained for the financial reward these animals 
command, and to meet the food and other necessities of 
town and city inhabitants. Raising live stock is a fine 
business and worthy of the best minds and hearts of 
the land. 

2. Classes of animal products. — There are two classes 
of animal products : the animals themselves and the prod- 
ucts derived from them. The dairy cow yields milk, 
butter and cheese, the steer meat and by-products ob- 
tained at his slaughter, the sheep mutton and wool, the 
poultry tribe eggs, feathers, and meat, and the hog his 
flesh and fat. The problem of marketing the farm stock 
of the country and their products requires the combined 
effort of thousands of people and of millions of dollars 
of capital. On an average the animals sold from the 
farm and the animals slaughtered on it together number 
about 111,000,000 head each year. The farm value of 
the dairy products is $830,000,000 annually. The wool 



clip amounts to 318,550,000 pounds and is worth $56,000,- 
000. The total value of the farm animals and their prod- 
ucts each year is approximately $3,400,000,000. 

Packing Plant Adjacent to Stock Yards 
In the foreground are storing and selling pens. 

3. Methods of shipment. — Animal products are shipped 
by freight and express and sent either direct to consumers 
or reach them through middlemen. Animals are mar- 
keted "on foot," that is, alive ; or as dressed meat, that is, 
slaughtered on the farm. The greater part of live stock, 
however, is sold live and shipped in freight cars to large 
cities, where the slaughtering is done in huge establish- 
ments intended for that purpose only. So large has the 
business of shipping live stock grown to be, that special 
freight cars have been built to take care of this traffic. 
Thousands of these cars are used for practically no other 

4. Cars. — For short shipments ordinary box cars are 
often used, but for long distances regulation stock cars 
are provided. These contain feed racks and watering 
troughs. The regulation live stock cars are of two kinds 


of construction — open or slats, and closed. The closed 
cars have doors at either side with proper provision for 
ventilation. The open cars have provision for a second 
floor about 3^ feet above the bottom. In these, the 
smaller classes of live stock, such as veal calves, hogs 
and sheep, are shipped. These are called ''double deck- 
ers," and vsrill accommodate 100 to 150 hogs or 200 to 250 
sheep. In the single floor cars but half of that number 
can be shipped. The animals are able to lie dow^n. Cattle 
and horses are placed in cars and so packed that they 
cannot move about or lie down. The palace stock cars 
contain stalls, feed racks and watering troughs and are 
used largely in shipping the better classes of horses and 

5. On the road. — On long hauls, it is a requirement of 
law and regulation that stock be fed and watered. Hay 
is the common food for horses, cattle and sheep, and ear 
corn for hogs. At different points along the way the 
cars are stopped and water is put into the troughs. 
Heavy feeding or watering is not advisable. In case 
only a few animals are shipped, the food and water may 
be carried at one end of the car, the water in a barrel, and 
both may be given more frequently, but still in moderate 
quantities. In shipping by express the hay and grain are 
commonly tied on the top of the crate or inclosure, the 
station agent giving the water and feeding as directed by 
the instructions attached to the crate. 

6. Live stock centers. — The greater part of the farm- 
raised meat animals are shipped to a few large live stock 
centers, where huge establishments, known as stock yards, 
are maintained. As a rule, near to these stock yards are 
other establishments, known as slaughtering or packing 
houses, where the stock is slaughtered and prepared for 
human consumption. Starting out in the small districts, 



a car or more is picked up here and there, and combined 
with other consignments, when all are hauled to their des- 
tination. On arrival, these cars, or often a full train load, 
are sent to the stock yards, where the unloading and 
placing in pens take place. In each of such yards there 
are vast numbers of unloading chutes, connected with 
alleyways and pens, where each individual shipment is 
stored until sold. 

Stock Yards, Showing Unloading Chutes 

7. Selling exchange. — Were there not reasonable or- 
ganization of the unloading and distributing end of this 
stock traffic, disorder and trouble would certainly result. 
This is provided against by the closest sort of attention 
to detail and regulation. An organization, known as a 
live stock exchange, and composed of live stock commis- 



slon men, is an important feature of every stock yard. 
These men seek to promote square dealing- and uniformity 
in buying and selling, settle disputes v^hen such arise, 
and do v^hatever is necessary to facilitate the marketing 
end of the live stock traffic. 

8. Cost of marketing. — In addition to the charges for 
freight, certain costs must be paid for the privilege of 
using the stock yards. Water is furnished free, but hay 

In the Pen 

Car of cattle waiting to be sold. 

and grain must be purchased. The rates charged are 
usually considerably more than the market price of these 
feeds. A fee for "yardage," as it is called, or for w^eighing, 
varies from 10 to 25 cents for cattle and from 5 to 10 cents 
for hogs, sheep and calves. 

9. Buyers and sellers. — The greater part of the buying 
and selling in the stock yards is done by commission men, 
v^ho make this w^ork their business. In such transactions, 
a commission man acts as the agent of the man v^ho 
makes the shipment. It is his duty and business to obtain 



the best possible price that the stock will bring. The 
shipment may be sold during- the day of arrival, or it may 
be held until the market would seem to advance. It is the 
custom to pay these commission men, for cattle, 50 cents 
a head or $12 a load ; for hogs and sheep, 15 cents a head 
in small lots, $10 a ''double decker" load and $6 for a 
single deck. The charge for calves is 25 cents each. 













1^ JC^'ba 





^^H^ '^^1 


[ '^^1 











These cattle were consigned to a commission firm and held in their care until sold. 

10. Grading. — When live stock is marketed it is graded 
in accordance with its quality and kind. The price ob- 
tained depends naturally upon the grade to which the 
shipment belongs. Cattle, for instance, are graded as (a) 
beef cattle, (^)butcher stock, (c) cutters and canners, (d) 
stockers and feeders, and (e) veal calves. Each of these 
classes is further graded as prime, choice, good, medium, 
common and inferior. Other grades of a special nature 
are also made, such as Texas and western range cattle, 
baby beef, export cattle and stags. Sheep, hogs and 



horses are given a different classification. Look over 
your agricultural paper for the different classes of live 
stock at the leading market centers. 

11. Weighing when sold. — When a pen of stock is sold, 
the v^^eighing usually follows at 
once. At each scales is a weigh- 
master, whose business it is to 
see that the weighing is accu- 
rately made. Weigh tickets, 
made in duplicate, are given to 
both the buyer and the seller. 
and the weights with the neces- 
sary data are entered in the rec- 
ord book. 

F^Ri.MK Beef Steer 

Medium Canners 

12. Inspection. — The federal 
government, in the interest of 
the public health, maintains a 
large inspection force to inspect 
both live and slaughtered ani- 
mals. This inspection work is 
done by trained veterinarians 

who make their examination in stock yards, packing 
houses and ports of entry. At each packing establish- 
ment every carcass is inspected and tagged with the gov- 
ernment label of inspection. Diseased meat is con- 
demned and not allowed to be sold for human food. 

13. Quarantine. — In order to prevent spread of con- 
tagious diseases, quarantine regulations are prescribed 
by federal and state laws. Thus when an outbreak oc- 
curs in any state or section, quarantine regulations pre- 
vent shipments from the affected districts to other parts 
of the state or country. Such quarantine is kept in force 
until not only the disease is under control, but in many 



instances until every evidence of its existence has been 
completely stamped out. In some stat-^s laws have been 
enacted that prevent the shipment of cattle into that state 
unless accompanied by a certificate of health. 

14. Live stock products. — In marketing live stock 
products a fundamental factor is cleanliness and purity. 
This is much more than mere neatness of package or 
mere tidiness in manner of delivery. Consumers have 
been taught much about food, and they will not be satis- 


fied unless they know that it is pure as well as clean. 
The farmer who makes it his business to prepare the 
products he offers for sale in accordance with the simple 
laws of sanitation will not only secure a better price for 
them, but will be able to extend his trade out to the full 
limits of what he is able to handle. There is a constant 
demand for clean milk, pure farm butter, fresh eggs, 
fresh poultry, farm sausage, cured pork and other animal 
products. While all farmers will not be able to dispose 
of their products to consumers direct, a large number, 



because of location, ingenuity, initiative and enterprise, 
will be able to do this and to their own financial advan- 

15. Selling by retail. — In the retail market better prices 
are paid than in the wholesale market. If one can do so 
he usually can sell at higher prices if he caters to an 
individual home trade than by selling through middle- 
men. An advertisement in the home or a nearby news- 

Neat Packages for Farm Animal Products 

paper will assist in building up a trade. A customer well 
pleased will remain a customer and in one way or an- 
other will cause other people to try the same method of 
purchase. With the enlargement in scope of the parcel 
post, it will be possible to market many kinds of animal 
products by that system. The secret of success in reach- 
ing consumers direct is square dealing, clean products 
and true weights and measures. 


1. Plan of Cattle Barn. — Draw a floor plan of a cow stable with 
room for 10 to 50 cows, the plan being worked out accordingly. The 
drawing should show inside and outside dimensions of stable, ar- 
rangement of stalls, feed room and milk room. The plan may be for 
a simple stable or for a cow barn of greater completeness. 

2. Plan of Horse Barn. — Make a similar plan for horses. 

3. Plan of Hog Barn. — Make a plan for hogs, including outside 
runs and sleeping quarters. 

4. Plan of Poultry House. — Draw a plan for a simple pou'try 
house, showing interior arrangements, such as nest boxes, roosts, 
feed hoppers, scratching pens or accommodations, etc. In this plan 
indicate windows and their kind, height of building, doors and size 
of rooms if more than one room is planned. 

5. In many localities farm butchering is practiced. Teacher would 
find it desirable to arrange with neighboring farmer to have class 
present. Study not only the process of butchering, but the various 
internal organs so as to become acquainted wnth normal conditions. 
If arrangements cannot be made to assist in farm butchering visit 
where possible the local slaughterhouse. See the butcher in ad- 
vance and explain the purpose of your visit. Ask the butcher to 
demonstrate to your pupils the methods of cutting up animals. 



Table I. Feeding Standards for Farm Animals. 
The Wolff-Lehman Standards for feeding farm animals are shown 
in the table below. They indicate the amount of food required daily 
per 1,000 pounds live weight. 


Digestible nutrients 






Sum of 


1. Oxen 

At rest in stall 

At light work 

At medium work 

At heavy work 

2. Fattening cattle 

First period 

Second period 

Third period 

3. Milch cows 

When yielding daily: 
ILO pounds of milk. 
16.6 pounds of milk . 
22.0 pounds of milk . 
27.5 pounds of milk . 

4. Sheep 

Coarse wool 

Fine wool 

5. Breeding ewes 

With lambs 

6. Fattening sheep 

First period 

Second period 

7. Horses 

Light work 

Medium work 

Heavy work 

8. Brood sows 

9. Fattening swine 

First period , 

Second period 

Third period 




























































Table I. Feeding Standards for Growing 

Animals — Continued. 

Per day 

per 1,000 lbs. live weight 






Sum of 













10. Growing cattle 

Dairy breeds 

Age in Average live weight 

months per head, lbs. 







2- 3 150 







3- 6 300 







6-12 500 







12-18 700 


18-24 900 







11. Growing cattle 

Beef breeds 

2- 3 160 







3- 6 330 







6-12 550 







12-18 750 







18-24 950 







12. Growing sheep 

Wool breeds 

4-6 60 







6-8 75 







8-11 80 







11-15 90 







15-20 100 







1 3. Growing sheep 

Mutton breeds 

4-6 60 







6-8 80 







8-11 100 







11-15 120 







15-20 150 







14. Growing swine 

Breeding stock 

2-3 SO 







3- 5 100 







5- 6 120 







6- 8 200 







8-12 250 







15. Growing, fattening swine 

2-3 50 







3- 5 100 







5- 6 150 







6- 8 200 







9-12 300 









Table II. Nutrients and Fertilizer Constituents of Common 
Feeding Stuffs. 

The tables giving the average digestible nutrients and the fertiliz- 
ing constituents in the following American feeding stuffs have been 
adapted from Henry's "Feeds and Feeding." 


Digestible nutrients 
in 100 pounds 

Fertilizing constitu- 
ents in 1,000 pounds 

Name of feed 









Grains, seeds and their parts 














































































5 7 

Flmt corn 

Sweet corn .- 



Com-and-cob meal 

4 7 


Gluten feed 


Feed chop 





High-grade flour 



Wheat middlings 


Wheat bran (all analyses) 

15 2 

Wheat feed 


Wheat screenings 


Rye flour 


Rye middlings 


Rye feed 


Emmer (speltz) 



Oat middlings 


Oat feed 

7 2 

Oat hulls 



Buckwheat flour 




Buckwheat feed 


Buckwheat hulls 



Rice polish 

Rice bran 

Rice hulls 

Canada field pea 




Table II. Nutrients and Fertilizer Constituents of Common 
Feeding Stuffs. — Continued. 


Digestible nutrients 
in 100 pounds 

Fertilizing constitu- 
ents in 1 ,000 pounds 

Name of feed 






Grains, seeds and'their parts — Cont. 

Canada field pea meal 

Canada field pea bran 




































































Soy bean 



Kafir corn . ... 

Sorghum seed 

Broom corn seed 

Millet seed 


Hungarian grass seed 


Linseed meal (old process) 



Linseed meal (new process) 


Cottonseed meal 


Cottonseed hulls 



Cocoanut cake 


Sunflower seed 


Sunflower seed cake . . 


Peanut kernels (without hulls) 


Rapeseed cake 


Factory by-products 

Dried brewers' grains 

Wet brewers' grains 

Malt sprouts 

Dried distillers' grains 

Apple pomace 




Starch refuse 


Wet starch feed 


Potato pomace 

Wet beet pulp . . 




Sugar beet molasses 


Porto Rico molasses 


Molasses grains 

Cow's milk 




Table II. Nutrients and Fertilizer Constituents of Common 
Feeding Stuffs. — Continued. 

Name of feed 



Digestible nutrients 
in 100 pounds 


U ft 


Fertilizing constitu- 
ents in 1,000 pounds 

Factory by-products — Continued 

Cow's milk (colostrom) 

Skim milk 



Meat scrap 

Meat and bone meal. . . .- 

Dried blood 


Dried fish 

Dried roughage 
Fodder corn (ears, if any, remaining) 

Corn stover (ears removed) 

English hay 

Hay for mixed grasses 

Timothy (all analyses) 

Timothy (cut in full bloom) 

Timothy (cut soon after bloom) .... 

Timothy (cut nearly ripe) 

Meadow foxtail 

Orchard grass 

Red top 

White top 

Meadow fescue 

Kentucky blue grass 

Tall oat 

Italian rye grass 

Perennial rye grass 

Rowen hay 

Bermuda grass 

Johnson grass 

Macaroni wheat 



Emmer (speltz) 

Barnyard millet 

Hungarian grass 

Wild oat grass 

Prairie grass 

Buffalo grass 

Gama grass 

Texas blue grass 

Salt marsh grass 

Ox-eye daisy 

Australian salt bush 







85 / 
89 6 
89 7 



































































Table II. Nutrients and Fertilizer Constituents of Common 
Feeding Stuffs. — Continued. 

Name of feed 



Digestible nutrients 
in 100 pounds 

Fertilizing constitu- 
ents in 1 ,000 pounds 

U a 

O 0$ 
JD 1-1 

Dried roughage — Continued 

Red clover 

Red clover in bloom 

Mammoth red clover 

Alsike clover 

White clover 

Crimson clover 

Japan clover 

Sweet clover 

Soy bean 



Alfalfa leaves 

Bur clover 

Hairy (winter) vetch 

Peanut vine 

Velvet bean 

Beggar weed 


Wheat and vetch 

Oat and pea 

Oat and vetch 

Mixed grasses and clover 

Mixed rowen 

Straw and chaff 







Field bean 

Soy bean 

Wheat chaff 

Oat chaff 

Fresh green roughage 
Fodder com (all varieties) .... 

Dent varieties 

Dent (kernels glazed) 

Flint varieties 

Flint (kernels glazed) 

Sweet varieties 

Sweet corn without ears) 

P ed kafir com 

White kafir corn 


Yellow milo maize 





































































































































































Table II. Nutrients and Fertilizer Constituents of Common 
Feeding Stuffs. — Continued. 



Digestible nutrients 
in 100 pounds 

Fertilizing constitu- 
ents in 1,000 pounds 

Name of feed 







Fresh green roughage — Continued 
Sorghum fodder 





































































Fresh green hay- 


Kentucky blue grass 


Orchard grass 

Red top (in bloom) 

Wheat forage .... 




Oat forage (in milk) 

Oat forage (in bloom) 

Barley forage .... 


Meadow fescue 

Italian rye grass 


Tall oat grass 

Johnson grass 

Bermuda grass 

Hungarian grass 

Japanese millet 

Barnyard millet 

Pearl millet 


Common millet 



Mammoth red clover 


Crimson clover 








Hairy vetch (in bloom) 

Soy bean .... 


Velvet bean 


Canada field pea (in bud) 

Canada field pea (in bloom) 

Canada field pea (in pod) 


Rarlpv and npa.'? 




Table II. Nutrients and Fertilizer Constituents of Common 
Feeding Stuffs. — Continued. 



TO — 


Digestible nutrients 
in 100 pounds 

Fertilizing constitu- 
ents in 1 ,000 pounds 

Name of feed 







Fresh green hay — Continued 





































1 3 























Wheat and vetch 

Mixed grasses and clover 

Roots and tubers 

• 5.8 


Sugar beet 






Sweet potato 





Dwarf Essex rape 






Field pumpkin 



Com (early analyses) 

Com (recent analyses) 


Corn (ears removed) 




Red clover 


Canada field pea 


Cowpea vine 


Brewers' grains 

Apple pomace 

Com cannery refuse (husk) 

Com cannery refuse (cobs) 

Pea cannery refuse 

Cowpea and soy bean 

Com and soy bean 

Barnyard millet and soy bean 






Aberdeen Angus cattle 188 

Aberdeen Angus cattle, character- 
istics 188 

Absorption of food 70 

Action, in horses 100 

Actinomycosis 467 

Advanced register 199 

African geese 386 

Age of horse 125 

Air, fresh 488 

Albumen 411 

Alfalfa, for lambs 256 

American saddle horses 132 

American trotters 132 

Amoeba 2 

Angora goats 300 

Animal, a machine 53 

Animal characteristics 33 

Animal feeds, for poultry 367 

Animal production, increase in.... 30 

Animal products, classes of 509 

Animal, size of 61 

Animals and plants, compared 40 

Animals, artificial selection of . . . . 16 

Animals as a source of clothing... 27 

Animals as a source of food 28 

Animals as civilizing agents 29 

Animals as prime motors 26 

Animals, backbone 6 

Animals, cars for shipping 510 

Animals, crowd of 13 

Animals, domestic 12 

Animals, grooming 497 

Animals in captivity 25 

Animals, man's contract with 32 

Animals, natural selection of 15 

Animals, observation of 33 

Animals, selection, artificial 16 

Animals, selection natural 15 

Animals, shipping of 510 

Animals, shrinkage of 201 

Animals, slaughtering 500 

Animals, sorting 2 

Animals, standards for 59 

Animals, way of wild 15 

Anthrax 467 

Antiseptics 462 

Appetite 86 

Arebi sheep 245 

Arthropoda 5 

Artificial incubation 341 

Aseel fowl 352 

Ass 149 

Ass, domestic 150 


Atavism 18 

Attitudes 123 

Ayrshire cattle 176 

Ayrshire characteristics 177 

Ayrshire, famous cows 177 


Babcock test 417, 426 

Baby beeves, finished on grass 217 

Backbone, animals 6 

Bacon hogs 263 

Bacon, making good 291 

Bacon, sugar cured 506 

Bacteria 451 

Bacteria in milk 413 

Balanced ration 56, 63 

Barns, cattle 432 

Barns, plan of 518 

Bass 320 

Bass, small 32 1 

Beauty 102 

Beef, age of steer 196 

Beef animals, two classes of 214 

Beef, baby 182 

Beef cattle 181 

Beef cuts 164 

Beef, feeding of 213 

Beef production 183 

Beef, score card for 223 

Beef type 163 

Bee swarming 309 

Bee wintering 313 

Bees 307 

Bees, diseases of 314 

Bees, feeding 312 

Bees, grubs 308 

Bee hives 311 

Bees, kinds of 314 

Bees, young 307 

Beeves, two-year-olds 219 

Beeves, under 18 months 216 

Belgian draft horses 136 

Berkshires . 273 

Birds 9 

Bison, American 14 

Black bass 320 

Black bass ponds 320 

Blackleg 468 

Blemishes 103 

Blistering 444 

Bloating 478 

Blood 70 

Boars, wild 272 

Body of horse 120 

Bog spavin 478 





Bones, uses of 107 

Botflies 479 

Brahma fowls 357 

Breeding, co-operative 197 

Breeds, changing of 432 

Breeds of horses 99 

Broilers 373 

Broncho ponies 138 

Bronze turkeys 390 

Broodiness, to break up 336 

Brooding 341 

Broody hens 335 

Brook trout 221 

Brown Swiss cattle 178 

Bruises, treating 464 

Buff turkeys 392 

Burro 151 

Butchering, producing death 501 

Butter 419 

Butter affected by feed 210 

Butter, churning for 421 

Butter farm 434 

Butter, packages 435 

Butter, quality of 411 

Butter, salting and packing 422 

Butter, washing 42 1 

Butter, working 421 

Calf, removing horns 

Calf, from, to steer 

Calves, skim milk 

Calves, whole milk 

Cannons, of horse 

Carbohydrates, function of 


Carp, care of 

Cars for shipping live stock 


Cashmere goats 


Cattle as producers 

Cattle barns 

Cattle, beef 162, 182, 184, 

Cattle, best beef cuts 

Cattle, characteristics of 

Cattle, comparing individuals . . . . 

Cattle farming 

Cattle followed by swine 

Cattle, keeping on gain 

Cattle, plans of barns 

Cattle, two types of 

Cattle, wild, seldom fat 


Cells, villi 

Channel Island cattle 


Cheese, kinds of 


Chester Whites 


Chickens, exercise for 

Chickens, flock management 

Chickens, fresh air for 

Chickens, grit for 



Chickens, hen-hatched 349 

Chickens in brooder 347 

Chickens, managing for eggs 366 

Chickens, mash for 367 

Chinese geese 385 

Cholera, fowl 470 

Cholera, hog 471 

Churning 421 

Churn, first 419 

Civilization, when young 23 

Cleveland Bays 134 

Clydesdales 136 

Co-efficient of digestibility 47 

Colic 480 

Colony houses 371 

Colostrum 404 

Colt, educating 104 

Computation of rations 75 

Concentrates 89 

Concentrates for horses 146 

Condensed milk 425 

Cooking food 89 

Co-operative breeding 197 

Coral 4 

Corn, for horses 146 

Corn stover 46 

Cotswolds 243 

Cow, age of 166 

Cow comforts 168 

Cow, diagram of 192 

Cows, age and milk 196 

Cows, cheap food for 207 

Cows, feeding grain to 206 

Cows, grading up 431 

Cows, grain on pasture 205 

Cows, hard milking 406 

Cows, holding up milk 406 

Cows, kind of, for dairying 430 

Cows, liberal feeding of 207 

Cows, milky tendencies 161 

Cows, pastures ideal for 204 

Cows, score card for dairy 191 

Cows, shelters 198 

Cream 413 

Cream, deep setting 414 

Cream, ice 424 

Cream, ripening 420 

Cream separator 414 

Cream, selling 435 

Cream, temperature of 420 

Creeps for little pigs 285 

Crops, soiling 86 

Croup of horse 121 

Crowbar, action of 106 

Crude fiber 40 

Curb 480 

Curing meat 505 

Cutting hay 90 


Dairy cattle, feeding of 204 

Dairy cows, score card for 191 

Dairy cows, two classes 170 

Dairy farming 430 

Dairy temperament 194 




Dairying, a balance wheel 437 

Dairying, summer or winter 436 

Dairyman, what he should be 438 

Death 445 

Defects 103 

Digestible nutrients 47 

Digestibility, co-efficient 47 

Digestibility defined 45 

Digesibility, determination of 45 

Digestibility, how influenced 51 

Digesting food 67 

Digestion, intestinal 69 

Digestion, making ready G7 

Digestion, powers of 73 

Digestion, stomach 67 

Digestive system 68 

Dipping tanks 283 

Disease, animals resistant to 452 

Disease, avoiding 456 

Disease, common ailments 455 

Disease, common causes of 450 

Disease, control of infectious 475 

Disease, course of 453 

Disease, eruption period 454 

Disease, general and local 449 

Disease, heredity in 450 

Disease, infectious 467 

Disease, learn to recognize 456 

Disease, locating 457 

Disease, meaning of 449 

Disease, not infectious 478 

Disease on the farm 440 

Disease, period of incubation 453 

Disease, treatment of 441 

Diseases of bees „ 314 

Dishorning 196 

Disinfection 49 1 

Domestic animals 12 

Domestic ass 150 

Domestic fowls 352 

Domestication 23 

Domestication more than taming. . . 25 

Domestication, what it requires.... 24 

Dominant characters 19 

Dorsets 238 

Draft 97 

Dressing hogs 504 

Duck feathers 3b'7 

Duck growing 378 

Duck, Indian Runner 381 

Duck mole 10 

Ducks, farm 379 

Ducks, hatching 379 

Ducks, marketing of 382 

Ducks, meat breeds of 3S1 

Ducks, types of 381 

Duroc-Jersey 275 

Dutch Belted cattle 179 


Earthworm 4 

Egg breeds 353 

Egg, character of 330 

Egg, embryo 333 

Egg, germ of 332 


Egg shells 331 

Egg, yolk 332 

Egg, white of 331 

Eggs, for hatching 335 

Eggs, handling incubating 334 

Eggs, in water glass 364 

Eggs, purpose of 330 

Eggs, scoring 364 

Eggs, storing 364 

Eggs, testing of 346 

Eggs, turning 345 

Embden geese 385 

Embryo, development of 333 

Energy 41 

English Shire 137 

Essex 2S0 

Examination, physical 440 

Examination, post-mortem 444 

Excretion 72 

Exercise 489 

Exercise for chickens 568 


Fall pigs 256 

Fancy fowls 362 

Farcy 471 

Farm butchering 500 

Farm butter 434 

Fat 38 

Fat, function of 42 

Fat globules 410 

Fat, test for 63 

Fattening hogs 290 

Fattening sheep 256 

Feathers, goose and duck 387 

Feed, fertility in 92 

Feed, profit from 92 

Feeding beef cattle 212 

Feeding dairy cattle 203 

Feeding for heavy milkers 81 

Feeding hogs 282 

Feeding lambs 255 

Feeding layers '375 

Feeding light, folly of 49 

Feeding mules 147 

Feeding standards 56 

Feeding standards in practical work 82 

Feeding stuffs mostly unbalanced.. 44 

Feeding terms 53 

Feeds, double value in 91 

Feeds for sheep 252 

Feeds, getting most from 86 

Feeds, roughage 89 

Feet 123 

Fertility in feed 92 

Filth 492 

Fish 317 

Fish, eggs and hatching 323 

Fish, feeding of 323 

Fish hatcheries 324 

Fistula 468 

Flock, laying, management of 337 

Fluke, liver 5 

Food, absorption 70 

Food, distribution 71 




Food of horses 140 

Food, steaming and cooking 89 

Food, variety in 88 

Foods, appetizing 48 

Foods, mixed 77 

Foods to choose S3 

Foot and mouth disease 469 

Footrot in sheep 470 

Founder 481 

Fowls, American races 555 

Fowls, Asiatic 355 

Fowls, breeds of 351 

Fowls, cholera 470 

Fowls, Dutch races 360 

Fowls, English races 558 

Fowls, French races 360 

Fowls, Mediterranean races 357 

Fowls, parts of 363 

Fowls, Polish races 359 

Fowls, scoring of 398 

Fowls, varieties 353 

French-Canadian cattle 179 

French Coach horses 134 

Fresh air 488 

Fresh air for chickens 369 

Frogs 7 


Gaits 109 

Gaits, quality of 112 

Gaits, saddle 113 

Gallop 112 

Galloway cattle 188 

Galloway cattle characteristics 188 

Gapes 481 

Geese 383 

Geese, African 383 

Geese, Chinese 385 

Geese, Embden 385 

General-purpose breeds of fowls. . 354 

German Coach horses 134 

Germ of eggs 332 

Germs 451 

Glanders 471 

Glands, mammary 402 

Globules of milk. 410 

Goose, characteristics of 384 

Goose feathers 387 

Goose, Toulouse 384 

Goslings, rearing of 387 

Goats 297 

Goats, Angora 300 

Goats, Cashmere 300 

Goats, feeding 301 

Goats for pets 305 

Goats, housing 302 

Goats, managing 304 

Goats, milk 298 

Goats, milking 303 

Goats, milking qualities of 299 

Goats, protection for sheep 305 

Grain, ground 91 

Grain on pasture 205 

Grass, pasture 86 

Gravel in foot 482 


Gravity, center of 109 

Green feed for chickens 367 

Green feed for cows 209 

Grit for chickens 366 

Grooming animals 497 

Guernseys 170 

Guernseys, characteristics 173 

Guernseys, famous cows 174 

Guineas 397 


Hackneys 133 

Hamburg 360 

Hams, sugar-cured 506 

Hatcheries, fish 324 

Hatching eggs 335 

Hay, cutting 90 

Health 488 

Heaves 482 

Heat and energy 41 

Hen-hatched eggs 349 

Hens, broody 335 

Hens for hatching 341 

Hens, nests for 372 

Hens, when molting 338 

Herd, improving the 21 

Heredity 16 

Heredity in disease 450 

Herefords 186 

Herefords, characteristics 187 

Hinny 152 

Hives for bees 311 

Hocks 122 

Hog barn, plan of 518 

Hog cholera 471 

Hog serum 452 

Hog house for dam 267 

Hogging off the corn 292 

Hogs as corn harvesters 292 

Hogs, bacon type 264 

Hogs, compared with steers 283 

Hogs, cutting up 504 

Hogs, dressing 504 

Hogs, fastest gains of 284 

Hogs, fattening 290 

Hogs, feeding 282 

Hogs, grazing runs for 289 

Hogs, lard type 264 

Hogs, marking 270 

Hogs, Mulefoot 278 

Hogs, scalding 5C3 

Hogs, selecting breeding stock.... 268 

Hogs, single-purpose animals 269 

Hogs, two types of 263 

Hogs, weight limit 284 

Holland turkeys 391 

Hollow horn 483 

Holstein cattle 174 

Holstein characteristics 175 

Holstein famous cows 176 

Honey 307 

Honey, three kinds of 312 

Honeycomb 311 

Horned Dorsets 238 

Horns, removing 223 




Horses, action in 100 

Horse, age of 125 

Horse, ancestry 129 

Horse barn, plan of 518 

Horse, blemishes of 103 

Horse, breeds of 128 

Horse, coach breeds 99 

Horse, concentrates for 146 

Horse, defects in 103 

Horse, draft breeds 99 

Horse drench 443 

Horse, early qualities retained 130 

Horse, ears 118 

Horse, feeding corn to 146 

Horse, food of 140 

Horse, gaits of 109 

Horse, how moves 106, 108 

Horse, judging 157 

Horse, pace of Ill 

Horse, Percheron 135 

Horse, quality of 101 

Horse, roughage feeds !44 

Horse, schooling of. 104 

Horse, shape of 116 

Horse, skeleton of 118 

Horse, how stands 108 

Horse, two types of 98 

Horse, why they excel 97 

Horse, work 97 

Hothouse lambs 233 

Houdan 360 

House ventilation 497 

Hydra 3 

Hydrophobia 472 


Ice cream 424 

Immunity by inoculation 452 

Incubating eggs, handling 334 

Incubation 340 

Incubation, artificial 341 

Incubator cellar 343 

Incubator essentials 342 

Incubator, placing 344 

Incubator, trying out 344 

Indian fowls 361 

Indian Runner ducks 381 

Infectious diseases 466 

Infectious diseases, control of 475 

Inoculation, immunity by 452 

Insects 5 

Insects, making collections of 33 

Internal organs, examining 446 


Jacks, native 151 

Jacks, Spanish 150 

Jellyfish 4 

Jerseys 1 70 

Johnnycake for turkeys 396 

Judgmg sheep 258 


Kerry cattle 178 

Labor, beast 97 

Lambs, feed for 255 

Lambs, hothouse 233 

Langshan fowls 357 

Lard 261 

Lard hogs 264 

Large Yorkshire 277 

Laying ability improved 336 

Laying flock, management of 337 

Laying type 336 

Layers, feeding the 375 

Layers, selecting 336 

Layers, winter 374 

Leaf lard 262 

Leghorn 357 

Lever 107 

Lice 483 

Life, cycle of 12 

Liver fluke 5 

Live stock, advantages of keeping. 30 

Live stock, buyers and sellers 513 

Live stock centers 511 

Live stock, cost of marketing 513 

Live stock, disadvantages of keeping 31 

Live stock, grading 514 

Live stock industry 32 

Live stock, inspection of 515 

Live stock marketing 509 

Live stock products 516 

Live stock, quarantine of 515 

Live stock, selling by retail 517 

Live stock selling exchange 512 

Lockjaw 473 

Locomotion 2 

Lumpy jaw 467 


Machine milking 407 

Mad dog 472 

Maggots in wounds 465 

Maintenance standard 57 

Mange 484 

Man, initiative 24 

Marking hogs 270 

Mammals 9 

Mammary glands 402 

Marketing live stock 509 

Marketing meats 508 

Market milk 415, 433, 434 

Market milk producing 434 

Mash, dry or wet for poultry 367 

Meat breeds of fowls 354 

Meat, curing 505 

Meat, live and dressed weight.... 201 

Meats, marketing 508 

Meats, storing of 507 

Medicines, giving in a ball 442 

Medicines, giving in a drench 443 

Mendel's Law 18 




Merinos 236 

Milk 170 

Milk, composition of 4'0 

Milk, condensed 425 

Milk, cooling 413 

Milk drinks 425 

Milk, economically produced 206 

Milk, factors influencing secretion. 403 

Milk, formation of 165 

Milk, goats' 298 

Milk, grades of 416 

Milk, held up 406 

Milk, how it sours 412 

Milk, how often to 166 

Milk, market 415, 433 

Milk, pasteurization 412, 426 

Milk powder 424 

Milk, quality of 166 

Milk, quantity of 167 

Milk record 197 

Milk, secretion of 400 

Milk, shallow pan separation 414 

Milk, skim 415 

Milk sugar 411, 425 

Milk, tendencies in cows 161 

Milk-testing associations 199 

Milk, testing of 417 

Milk veins 402 

Milk-yielding function 161 

Milking by hand 406 

Milking by machine 407 

Milking period 404 

Milking, regularity in 405 

Milkers, feeding heaxy 81 

Milk flow, maintaining 200 

Milking, improper 405 

Mineral materials 38 

Minorcas 357 

Mollusca 5 

Molting of hens 338 

Mule 149 

Mules, best types 153 

Mules, feeding of 147 

Mules, market classes 154 

Mules, raising . . . ^ 155 

Mules, use of 153 

Muscles 113 

Mutton 230 

Mutton and wool 247 

Mutton, carcass 231 

Mutton, cuts of 232 

Mutton, quality of 231 


Nail punctures 463 

Nail punctures, treating 463 

Narragansett turkeys 301 

Native jacks 151 

Neck 116 

Notochord 7 

Nutrients, all necessary 57 

Nutrients, defined 44 

Nutrients, digestible 47 

Nutritive ratio 53 

Nutritive ratio, determining 55 


Oats for horses 145 

Organs, examining internal 446 

Oriental horses 130 

Outside sleeping rooms 498 

Oxen, their contribution 160 


Parasites 451 

Pasteurization 412 

Pastures for cows 204 

Pasture grass 86 

Pedigree 20 

Persian lamb fur 245 

Physical examination 440 

Pigs, after weaning 266 

Pigs, at birth 267 

Pigs, charcoal box for 286 

Pigs, creeps for 285 

Pigs, pasture for 288 

Pigs, slop for 287 

Pigs, weaning 265 

Plant compounds, formation of. ... 37 

Plant constituents 40 

Plants and animals compared 40 

Plants, how they grow 36 

Plasters 443 

Plymouth Rocks 355 

Poitou jack 150 

Poland China 274 

Polo ponies 138 

Ponies 138 

Pork 261 

Pork, soft 262 

Post-mortem examination 444 

Poultices 443 

Poultry, animal feeds for 367 

Poultry, green feed for 367 

Poultry house, plan of 518 

Poultry houses 371 

Poultry house ventilation 370 

Poultry rations 376 

Poultry, scratching pens for 372 

Poultry show 398 

Protein 38 

Protein, function of 41 

Protein most important 90, 208 

Protein supply 84 

Protein, test for 63 

Protoplasm 37 

Pullets, feeding 339 

Pulse, taking 440 

Pure-bred races 20 


Quality in horses 101 

Quality of butter 210 

Quarters, damp 493 

Queen bees 308 




Rabies 472 

Races, pure-.bred 20 

Rambouillet 237 

Rape for sheep 252 

Ration, balanced 56 

Ration, balanced for horses 145 

Ration, cost of the 83 

Ration, for chickens 376 

Ration, for horses 146 

Ration, how made : . 78 

Rations, computation of 75 

Rations, two kinds of 75 

Razorback hog 281 

Recessive characters 19 

Red Polled cattle 179 

Reptiles _^8 

Respiration 71 

Respiration, taking 441 

Rhode Island Reds 355 

Ringbone 484 

Roasters 374 

Romney Marsh 244 

Root cutter 88 

Roots 88 

Roots for sheep 249 


Saddle gaits 113 

Saddle horses 132 

Saliva 67 

Salt for cows 210 

Sanitation of brooder 350 

Sausage 505 

Scab 484 

Scalding hogs 503 

Schooling of horses 104 

Scoring eggs 364 

Scratching pens 372 

Scrub stock 20 

Sea urchin 6 

Selecting layers 336 

Sheep, ancestry 226 

Sheep and water 249 

Sheep, desirable kind 231 

Sheep, diagram of 259 

Sheep, fattening 256 

Sheep, feed for 248 

Sheep, for pasture 249 

Sheep, green crops for 254 

Sheep, how often to feed 252 

Sheep, judging 257-258 

Sheep, market classes 234 

Sheep on full grain 253 

Sheep protected by goats 305 

Sheep, qualities in common 226 

Sheep, races of 235 

Sheep, relative economy of 247 

Sheep, roots for 249 

Shelter 496 

Shetland ponies 138 

Shires 137 

Shorthorns 184 

Shorthorns, beef and dairy 185 


Shorthorns, characteristics 185 

Shoulders 119 

Shropshires 239 

Sickness 444 

Silage 87, 436 

Silos 436 

Sire, dairy 430 

Skim milk 415 

Skim milk calves 214 

Sleeping, outside 498 

Slop for pigs 287 

Small bass 321 

Small Yorkshire 277 

Soiling crops 86, 436 

Soiling crops, choosing 457 

Sorting of animals 2 

Southdown 238 

Spanish jacks 150 

Spavin 485 

Spavin, bog 478 

Speed 96 

Splints 485 

Sponges 3 

Stalls 495 

Standards for farm animals 59 

Standards in practical work 82 

Starch 37 

Starch, test for 63 

Starfish 6 

Steaming food 89 

Steers, age 221 

Steers, dressing of 502 

Steers, foods for 221 

Stomach churn 68 

Stomach, digestion 69 

Stomach of cow 68 

Storing eggs 364 

Strangles 473 

Struggle for existence 13 

Suffolk, American 281 

Suffolk horse 137 

Suffolk sheep 241 

Sugar-cured hams and bacon 506 

Sugar, milk 411 

Sugar, test for 63 

Summer dairying 436 

Sunfish 319 

Sunfish, raising 319 

Sunlight 490 

Sussex cattle 190 

Swine after cattle 195 

Swine, dipping tanks for 268 


Tapeworm 4 

Temperatures, taking 441 

Testing milk 417 

Tetanus 473 

Texas fever 474 

Toads 7 

Toulouse geese 384 

Trot Ill 

Trotters, American 132 

Trotting horses 158 

Trout 321 




Trout ponds 322 

Trout raising 322 

Tuberculin for cows 211 

Tuberculosis 474 

Turkeys 390 

Turkeys, breeding stock 393 

Turkeys, buff and red 392 

Turkeys, confining 392 

Turkeys, feeding 395 

Turkeys, hatching 394 

Turkeys, Holland 391 

Turkeys, laying season 392 

Turkeys, Mammoth Bronze 390 

Turkeys, Narragansett 391 

Turkeys, rearing 394 

Turkeys, shooting the red 395 


Udder, how supported 402 

Udder, structure of 401 


Variation 17 

Veal 215 

Ventilation 493 

Ventilation, house 497 

Ventilation in poultry houses 370 

Ventilation, systems of 494 

Victoria boar 281 

Villi cells 70 


Walk, horse, 110 

Water 49 1 


Water for horses 142 

Water for sheep 249 

Water glass, for eggs 364 

Watering cows 210 

Water in plants 39 

Weaning pigs 265 

West Highland cattle 1S9 

Whole milk calves 215 

Wild ass 149 

Wild hogs 272 

Winter dairying 436 

Winter layers 374 

Wolff -Lehmann feeding standards.. 59 

Wool 227 

Wool and mutton 247 

Wool, classes of 227 

Wool, handling 229 

Wool, how grows 228 

Wool, washing and shearing 229 

Wool, yolk 228 

Worms 4 

Wounds, bandaging 461 

Wounds, cleansing 461 

Wounds, kinds of 460 

Wounds, leg 464 

Wounds, maggots in 465 

Wounds, stitching 462 

Wounds, treating 460 

Wyandotte 355 


Yolk of egg 332 

Yorkshire, large 276 

Yorkshire, small 277 

Yolk of wool 228