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^ ORIGINAL 

Y THE 

FARMER'S DICTIONARY: 



A VOCABULARY 



OF TBB TECHUnCAL TERMS RBCBNTLT INTRODUCED IJilTO AGRX« 

CULTURE AND HORTICULTURE FROM TARIOUB SCIENCES, 

AND ALSO A COMPENDIUM OF 



PRACTICAL FARMIIG: 



THE LATTER CHIEFLT FROM THE WORKS OF THE RET. W. L, 
RBAM, LOUDO>r, 4.0W, AND TOUATT, AND THE 

MOST EMINENT 

AME RIC ANUUTHORS. 

BDXTBO BT 

D. P. GARDNER, M.D., 

HOXOBAKT MBMBKB OF SErBBAL AOB^^VLTVBaX SOCIBTIBI. 

* 

WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS. 



NEW YORK: 

HARPBH it SaOTHSaS. PUBLISBSaS, 

389 * 331 PEARL STREET. 

FEANKinr 8QVABK. 

1854. 



< 






r w*) 



s 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1846, by 

Haspbb dc Bbothbrs, 
In the Cleric's Office of the Sentheni District of New- York. 



s> 



^1. K i^ ^ 



A'jrtC 

G- 

4H 



G-2. 



^:Si PREFACE. 



The FARMEs'a Dictionary was undertaken originally for 
the purpose of supplj^ing a want long felt b^ the editor, in 
common with the agricultural community, of'^a short expla- 
nation of the many technical terms introduced into the works 
written on farming. Much opposition has arisen to the use 
of technical words in these productions, and our journals are 
full of complaints, from respectable men, against the innova- 
tion. If, however, words having so precise a meaning, and, 
in many instances, conveying so much iuformation, be dis- 
carded, what shall be substituted in their place? It is obvi- 
ously impossible fbr every writer who has occasion to use 
the terms hybrid, hydrogen, or eremacausis, to explain in de- 
tail what tnese mean ; and if the attempt were made, our 
treatises would present the most tiresome examples of tau- 
tology. Each farmer may satisfy himself with a set of arbi- 
trary terms, which convey all the information he desires ; but 
they will not answer if he wishes to impart that information 
to others. There is, perhaps, no greater drawback to the 
advancement of our art than the indefinite words used amonff 
us — words which are often peculiar to a small district, and 
which are used to designate a variety of objects in different 
parts of the country. We find one writer usin^ the word 
'* withers'' for the shoulders of an animal, another for the 
womb. 

The friends of agricultural improvement, and especially 
our journalists* should use all exertions to establish a suitable 
nomenclature. The art has arrived at that stase that this is 
the greatest object to be accomplished. It will open to the 
practical man the extensive information of the scientific world, 
and will enable the theorist to study his generalizations by 
consulting the works of the true farmer. I have not, in at- 
tempting to carry out my original design of preparing a 
vocabulary, thought it advisable to insert every provincial 
phrase, but have taken only those words in common use 
among fsiraiers, and which have become somewhat fixed by 



'■W» ■■'■"' ••■■■ m^^m^^m^im^mm .-?«P 



ir PREFACE. 

being frequently introduced into essays. I have thought it 
useful, when words were occasionally met with a strange 
sis^nificationt to omit them as an error in language ; nor has 
it appeared conformable with my object to introduce the well- 
known words of our language which have a place in the 
common dictionaries. In this compilation I am necessarily 
under infinite obligations to others, especially to Loudon, 
Rham, Youatt, Stephens, Johnson, Deane, Young, Buel, Arm- 
strong, Ellsworth, Colman, Low, Brande, Clater, <&c., &c., 
and our journalists. My task has not been, however, with- 
out labour; for I could find no vocabulary such as that I 
desired to produce already in existence, to serve me as a 
model ; and if any merit should be awarded me for this un- 
dertaking, it may be claimed on the ground that the Fabm- 
er's Dictionary is the first book of its kind. This will also, 
I trust, avert much of the criticism to which I know the work 
is obnoxious. So much for my design, and the manner in 
which it has been accomplished. 

Ip addition to the vocabulary, my friends have suggested 
the introduction* of short and practical essays on the opera- 
tions of farming; and .these have been introduced the more 
readily, from the facilitv with which they were procured from 
the works of the Rev. \V. L. Rham, one of the best practical 
writers of Britain, and others, as Loudon and Low, of great 
merit, and but little known in the United States. In this part 
of the work, care has been taken to edit the essays so as to 
make them of practical value in this country. To the jour- 
nalists of the United States I am also deeply indebted for the 
matter introduced, and for which I have uniformly given 
them credit. 

To most of the crops raised in the United States, an Ap» 
pendix has been made of the composition of the ashes^ and 
remarks offered on the special manures. This has been 
done in consideration of the existing desire for information 
on the topic, and the impression that the most suitable ma- 
nures for plants are discoverable by a studv of their ashes. 
The best theories of the chemical school of agriculture are 
also introduced. In this part of the work, I am indebted to 
the labours of Chaptal, Davy, Braconnot, Saussure, Berthier, 
Berzelius, Sprengel, Hermbstaed, Payen, Johnston, Boussin- 
gault, Dumas, Thaer, Liebig, Mulder, Fowncs, Frcsenius, 
Will, Hertwig, Kane, Shephard, and other chemists. 

*D. P. GARnmsB. 



THE 



PARMER'S DICTIONARY. 



ABO 

ABATTOIR. A buflding for tbe 
•iaaghterinf of animals. 

ABDOMEN. The region of the 
body containing the stomach, intes- 
tines, liver, spleen, dec. In insects it 
is the third division of the trunk, in 
spiders the second. 

ABIES. The Fir genus of trees. 
See PituLs. 

ABNORMAL. Irregular or una- 
sual: applied to deviations from the 
ordinary development of parts of an- 
imals or plants. 

ABORTION. Miscarriage. In 
Yeterinary surgery, miscarriage, slip- 
ping, slinking, casting, or warping,_all 
meaning the expulsion of the young 
' at so early a period of pregnancy as 
to reDder it impossible tor it to live. 
The immediate causes appear to be 
the death of the fetus, or derange- 
ment in the functions of the womb or 
its dependencies, arising from some 
external cause or causes operating 
on the mother. Among these causes 
may be reckoned too much or too 
little lood, producing luUness or ema- 
ciation; sudden fright or sympathy 
with certain smells or sights, such as 
the smell or sight of blood, of bones, 
of horns, and particularly of the abor- 
ted fetus of another animal. Acci- 
dents, also, such as falls, bruises, 
over- driving, or fatigue, and the like, 
may frequently bring on abortion. 

The signs of approaching abortion 
are. great languor, uneasiness, and 
restlessness, sometimes a discharge 
of bloody matter, and the sudden fill- 
ing of the udder, similar to the signs 
of approaching delivery. 

AiiortioH in the Mare. — Abortions 
Tei7 frequently happen among mares. 
This often arises in consequence of 
over-exertion during th^ latter period 
of pregnancy. Mares are liable, also, 
. very frequently, to various accidents 

• AS 



ABO 

in their pastures, which may be the 
cause of their slipping their foal, such 
as kicks, tumbling into holes and 
ditches, over-exerting themselves to 
get over fences, and the like. On 
this acconnt, when a mare is near 
her time, she should be kept by her- 
self, in some convenient place. But 
there is another, and, we suspect, a 
very general cause of these accidents 
in mares ; we mean a stinting of them 
in their food, either in quantity or 
quality. It appears, indeed, that some 
imagine that the mare, when she is 
in foal, may be turned out almost any- 
where ; but this opinion is ill-found- 
ed ; for, although' she does not require 
to be kept so high in condition as 
when she is at hard work, yet she is 
not to be turned out into a pasture 
where she may be in a manner starv- 
ed : but how often do we see the 
mare in foal on the worst piece of 
ground in the whole farm, exposed, 
during the rigorous winter season, to 
endure the cold, as well as to put up 
with scanty food ! On the other hand, 
when the mare is not worked at all, 
and indulged with too high keep, she 
is almost equally in danger of abor- 
tion, her high condition having a ten- 
dency to cause inflammation and oth- 
er disorders ; and these, deranging the 
reproductive organs, frequently pro- 
duce miscarriage. It would seem, 
then, that moderate exercise and diet 
are best suited as means to avoid the 
misfortune of the premature exclu- 
sion of the foal. 

Abortion in the Cow. — Abortion. oc- 
curs oflener in the cow than in all 
other domestic animals put together. 
Perhaps it is one of the greatest an- 
noyances the proprietor of cows has 
to encounter. The causes are fre- 
quently involved in obscurity ; but it 
may be mentioned that an extremely 

i 



ABO 



ABO 



hot and foal cow-house will now and 
then produce abortion^ uud similar to 
those in mares. Anything whatev- 
er, indeed* that seriously affects the 
health of the animal in general, or 
the state of the reproductive organs 
in particular, may do so. But abortion 
occurs again and again when no such 
causes as those enumerated can be 
traced. The disease, if such it may 
be called, as we think it may, is even 
said to be infectious. No sooner does 
it show itself in one animal than it is 
seen in another and another, till it 
has spread over the most part of the 
cow-house. Some say this is to be 
attributed to the odour arising from 
the things evacuated. Possibly it 
may be so ; there can be no great 
harm, however, in acting as if we 
were assured that the miscliief has its 
origin in the source so commonly sup- 
posed, provided we do not shut our 
eyes to any other which accident or 
investigation may reveal. In the 
mean time, the number of abortions 
may be diminished by carefully avoid- 
ing all those causes which are known 
to be capable of producing it. Let the 
cows be regularly fed ; let their food 
be good, and in proper quantities ; let 
them have water as often as they will 
take it ; avoid sudden exposure to 
cold or heat ; and, above all, let the 
cow-house be well ventilated. Pro- 
hibit all manner of rough usage on 
the part of those who look after the 
cows, whether they be pregnant or 
not. If any of them accumulate flesh 
too rapidly, gradually reduce their al- 
lowance ; and, on the other hand, if 
any become emaciated, discover the 
cause and remedy it, always by slow 
degrees. Sudden changes in the mat- 
ter or mode of feeding should also be 
avoided. The same sort of diet does 
not agree equally well with all the 
cows, and this, in general, is indica- 
ted by undue relaxation or constipa- 
tioir of the bowels ; this should be 
watched, and removed at once. At- 
tention to these, and many other mi- 
nor circumstances, will amply repay 
the proprietor for the little additional 
trouble. 
It is a remarkable feature in the his- 

6 



I tory of this complaint, that those an- 
imals that have once miscarried are 
I particularly liable to do so again at 
the same period of their succeeding 
pregnancy. Greater care is therefore 
requisite to guard against those caus- 
es which do. Or are supposed to excite 
it. The treatment of abortion, when 
it does take place, differs not from 
that adopted in cases of parturition, 
only that the cow which miscarries 
should be removed, with all that be- 
longs to her, from among pregnant 
cows. 

If the signs of approaching abortion 
be discovered early, the accident may 
sometimes be prevented. If the cow 
i3 in good condition, then immediately 
let it be bled to the extent of five or 
six quarts, and the bowels opened 
with half a pound of Epsom salts, two 
ounces of Glauber's, or three or four 
ounces of castor oil, administered in 
a quart of gruel; but if the cow is in 
very poor condition, and the miscar- 
riage is anticipated from her having 
been exposed to cold, avoid bleeding, 
and give her a warm gruel drink, with 
an ounce of laudanum in it. Ifafler 
this abortion does take place, let her 
be kept in a comfortable place by her- 
self; and if the after- birth has not 
passed off, let no injudicious and un- 
necessary administration of violent 
forcing medicines be given. Nature, 
with a little assistance, is generally 
equal to the perfect restoration of the 
animal. 

Abortion in the Sheep. — Ewes are 
subject to abortion, in consequence 
of the numerous accidents they are 
liable to. A pack of hounds in pursuit 
of a hare got among a flock of sheep 
belonging to a farmer, and so hurried 
and alarmed them, that thirty out of a 
flock of two hundred ewes premature- 
ly dropped their lambs. It is the same 
in sheep as in the other cases of do- 
mestic animals ; scarcity of food, and 
exposure to severe cold, having a 
great tendency to make the ewes pre- 
maturely drop their lambs, or produce 
them weakly and crippled at the full 
time ; and although there may be a 
little danger in giving too much food, 
such as allowing them to feed all the 



ABS 



AUV 



vinter on tarnips, the danger is tri- 
fling compared with the starviDg sys- 
tem. — (MiiUr.) 

ABORTIVE. Deficient A com- 
mon term in botany, and signifying 
the absence of stamens or pistils, 
whereby fruit cannot be produced; 
but also used to designate the partial 
or complete obliteration of any other 
organ, as the leaf, petals, carpels, dec. 

ABRAXAS A genus of baUerfly 
(Lepidopterous) insects of the family 
of geometers ; one of which, the A. 
grtutsidariatOy is the well-known goose* 
berry moth, the caterpillar of which 
destroys the leayes of currant and 
gooseberry bashes. 

ABSC£SS. A gathering or tu- 
mour containing pus ; it is the result 
of accidents or impaired health ; and 
is only of moment when it affects 
internal organs or is produced near 
joints. Abscesses in joints, especial- 
ly the hock joint of the horse, oft- 
en produce incurable lameness, and 
those of internal organs destroy life 
by enfeebl'mg the system. SupeHi- 
cial abscesses are to be opened freely 
at their lowest point when the pus is 
well formed ; and poultices are to be 
applied to encourage the discharge : 
the wound must he kept clean, and 
dressed daily. It is advisable to hind- 
er the formation of the abscess by low 
diet, and scarifjring the part with a 
lancet ; but this is only serviceable in 
the first stages. 

ABSORBENTS. In. veterinary 
medicine^ drugs that are given inter- 
nally for the purpose of neutralizing 
any acid which forms in the stomach 
and bowels, in consequence of impair- 
ed digestion. Prepared chalk is gen- 
erally used for this purpose ; or car- 
bonate of soda. Those med icines are 
likewise termed absorbents which 
are applied externally for absorbing 
moisture. Starch, calamine, flour, 
and the like, are employed in this way. 
They are sometimes dusted betweea 
folds of the skin when galled, and raw 
from friction, blisters, or grease. 
They are likewise useful in canker 
of the borse*s foot, foul in the foot of 
cattle, foot-rot in sheep, and sores 
between th6 toes of dogs ; and they 



are beneficial in some forms of 
mange, in staying bleeding, and as- 
sisting the cure of a wounded joint. 

AsBoKBSifTs. In physiology, a 
class of vessels whose office is to 
convey the product of digestion and 
the residue of nutrition into the cir- 
culation, to be mixed with and repair 
the waste of the blood. They are 
divided into lacteals and lymphatics. 
The former are all situated in the cav- 
ity of the abdomen ; and by extreme- 
ly minute months, opening on the in- 
ner surface of the stontach and intes- 
tines, they receive the nutritious por- 
tion of the food, and carry it to a ves- 
sel which runs along the left side of 
the spine, and which, in its turn, 
empties itself into the left jugular 
vein. 

The lymphatics are distributed over 
every portion of the frame . The uses 
of the lymphatics are to remove the 
residue of nutrition ; and, when the 
supply of food is deficient, to remove 
such portions of the body as can be 
spared and converted into blood. The 
lymphatics ultimately empty their 
contents into the same vessel as the 
lacteals, and they foUow, in their dis- 
tribution through the body, the same 
course as the veins. In the horse 
they are liable to a disease termed 
farcy; and in all animals they are 
frequently inflamed in the neighbour 
hood of a sore. 

ABSORBENT SOILS. Soils in 
soch a state of improvement, or of so 
good a quality as to absorb moisture 
from the air. 

ABSORPTION. The imbibition 
of fluids. In ^ants this takes place 
chiefly by the swelling terminations 
of the rootlets (the spongioles). In 
Yery damp weather, leaves and the 
green stems also absorb moisture 
from the air. Fluids and gases only 
can be absorbed, no insoluble matters 
entering plants. Absorption in ani- 
mals is carried on by the lacteals and 
lymphatics. 

ABSTERGENTS. Medicines used 
for resolving tumours. They are usu- 
ally stimulating. 

ABUTMENT. The solid part of a 
pier from which an aixA spnngs. 

7 



ACI 



AGI 



ACACIA. Spinous legmniomis 
trees, with small flowers collected in 
spikes or heads ; they are usoaily of 
amail siie. Two or three insig- 
nificant species belong to the Unit^ 
States. The locast is oiten improp- 
erly called by this name. 

AC ARI. The family of mites. 

ACCIPITRES. The order of birds 
eontaining the hawks, eagles, and 
similar birds of prey. 

ACCLIMATE. To accustom or 
mure animals or vegetables to a par- 
ticular climate. 

ACER. The generic name of the 
maples. 

ACERANS. A family of wingless 
insects withoat antennae. 

ACEROSE. In botany, leaves 
which are thin and sharp, such as 
those of the pine-trees. 

ACETABULUM. In anatomy, 
aeetabtUum signifies the cavity of the 
hip joint. In entomology, it is the 
socket on the trunk in which the leg 
is planted. 

ACETARIOUS PLANTS. Salad 
plants. 

ACETATES. Salts containing 
acetic acid, of which the acetate of 
lead or sugar of lead is the most im- 
portant in the arts. 

ACETIC ACID. See Vintgar. 

ACHENIUM, AKENIUM. A small 
bony fruit, containing a single seed, 
which does not adhere to the shell or 
perirarp, nor open when ripe. 

ACHLAMYDEOUS. Plants which 
have neither calyx nor corolla, and 
whose flowers are consequently des- 
titute o1:'n covering, or naked. 

ACICULAR. Sharif, like a needle. 

ACIDS. For the most part, sharp, 
sour bodies, which redden litmus, and 
combine with metallic oxides or bases 
to form salts. Many are, however, 
destitute of sour taste. They are di- 
vided into organic and inorganic : the 
latter constitute the mineral acids. 
The organic acids are divided into 
vegetable and animal acids. The fol- 
lowing are interesting in agricoltnre : 
Mineral Acida. 

The ■Qlpharie. See Stflp&itr. 
M«ri«tie. See CAIertne. 
Silicio. Sea Bmd., 

8 



VtgttabU Acids. 

Nitric See Ifilrogen, 
Acetic. See Timtg^r. 
CarboLte. See Carbarn, 
Tannic. See IVmiiw. 
Gallic. See Tammim, 
Pronic. See Hydroofrndc acid, 
Hamic See JfH 



Oxalic acid in the free state is found 
in the hairs of the Cicer arietinuni, or 
chick pea. It is very common in com- 
bination with potash, in sorrels, docks, 
rhubarbs, dtc, and with lime in lich- 
ens. It is a very soluble, crystalline, 
colourless solid, of intense sourness, 
and highly poisonous. The composi- 
tion is C2 O3 + HO, the HO (water) 
being replaced by bases. A solution 
is used as a test for lime, which it 
precipitates from its solutions as a 
white, insoluble oxalate of lime. 

Tartaric add. Combined with pot- 
ash, it abounds in the juice of the 
grape, and is also found in tamarinds, 
bilberries, &c. It is a white, crys- 
talline body, of the composition Cg 
H4 O2 + 2 HO, and is bibasic. The 
racemic acid is isomeric. A solu- 
tion precipitates potash in the form 
of the white crystalline bitartrate 
(cream of tartar). 

Benzoic acid gives an aroma to 
many balsams, sweet-scented grass, 
&c. Its formula is C14 Ha O3 + HO, 
and it is considered an hydrated oxyde 
of benzoyl, or Bz. O -{- HO. 

Citric acid. This is the sour prin- 
ciple of lemons, cranberries, cherries, 
gooseberries, 6ui. It is a very solu- 
ble, crystalline solid, of the composi- 
tion Cw Hs On -f 8 HO ; but the crys- 
tals contain I and 2 atoms of water 
of crystallization besides. 

Malic acid is the acid body o( un- 
ripe apples, pears, plums, dec. In the 
insulated condition, it is a deliques- 
cent crystalline substance of intense 
sourness, composed of Cs H4 Os + 
2 HO. 

Besides these, all oily bodies con- 
tain one or more acids. See OUs. 

The animal acida are enumerated 
under that head. The acids in plants 
are, for the most part, combined with 
bases : potash and lime are the most 
common ; but magnesia, soda, alu- 
mina» and iioa are also found. Og- 



AGI7 



AGA 



easionaOy they are united with refe- 
table aUulies. 

As food, the acids are not of much 
moment ; they do, however, serve to 
sustain the heat of the body by fur- 
nishini^ carbon for the respiratory 
function. 

ACINACIFORM. Of a curved fig- 
ure, like the cimeter. 

ACINUS. The small and separate 
carpels of a compound succulent fruit. 

ACONITINE. The poisonous al- 
kaloid of Monk's-hood. 

ACORN. The fruit of the oak. 
That of the Jive oak and other species 
ia sweet and agreeable : it is an ad- 
mirable food for pigs, and in England 
commands 37| cents the bushel. 

ACOTYLEDONS. Plants desti- 
tute of seed-lobes, the ciyptogamia 
of Linneus, including fungi, mosses, 
aea-weeds, ferns. 

ACRE. A standard land roeas- 
nre. The imperial acre is subdivided 
into 

4 roods, each rood 40 perches. 
100 perches, 16 feet and a half 
each. 
4840 square yards, 9 feet each. 

43,560 square feet, 144 inches 
each. 

174,340 squares of six inches each, 
36 inches each. 
6,272,640 inches, or squares of one 
inch each. 

From this table the fhrmer can 
readily discover how many plants can 
be set in the acre, according as they 
are one yard, one foot, dec, apart 
each way. 

ACROGENS The same as cryp- 
togam ia or acotyledons. 

ACRID. A biting, nauseous taste, 
often producing blistering, belonging 
to many poisonous plants. 

acrolein: See Glycerine. 

ACROSPIRE. The young up- 
ward shoot of germinating seeds. 

ACRYDIUM. A genus of locusts. 

ACTINOLITE. A variety of horn- 
blende. 

ACTINOMETER. An instrument 
to measure the intensity of the sun's 
rays. 

ACULEATE. Furnished with 
piicklea. 

B 



ACULEATES. The insects of the 

bee and wasp kind, furnished with 
stings. 

ACUMINATE. Tapering to a 
point. 

ADDUCTORS. Those muscles 
which draw the parts to which they 
are attached together : they are op- 
posed to the abductors. 

ADEP3. Lard- 

ADI ANTUM. A genus of elegant 
ferns: the fructification is in short 
marginal lines. 

ADIPOSE. Fatty, as the adipose 
tissues. 

ADNATE. Adhering, growing, or 
attached to the surface. 

ADVENTITIOUS. Occurring in 
an unusual manner, as when a bud 
arises from the root of a plant. 

ADULARIA. A briUiant crystal- 
line feldspar. 

AERATING. Introducing air or 
gases. 

^ESTIVATION. The manner in 
which the parts of the flower bud are 
folded together. 

JETHEOG AMOUS PLANTS. 
The cryptogamia. 

AETHER See Ether, 

AETIOLOGY. The study of the 
causes of disease. 

AFFINITY. In natural history, 
the close resemblance of animals or 
plants in their organization. 

Affinity. In chemistry, the force 
which combines dissimilar bodies to- 
gether in precise proportions. See 
Atom. 

AFTER-GRASS. The second crop 
of grass from lands mowed the same 
year. 

AFTER-MATH. The second mow- 
ing of permanent meadows the same 
year. It is free from flower stems, 
and often much more nutritious than 
the first crop ; but it is customary to 
feed it off by sheep or cattle instead 
of cutting. 

AGAMOUS. Cryptogamic plants. 

AGARICUS. A genus of mush- 
rooms distinguished by plaits or gills 
under the cap, which are arranged 
nearly parallel. Several are nutritious 
and of a delicate flavour, as A. cam^ 
I pestri${the common mushroom), cAaw- 

9 



AGE 



AIR 



tareUutj delieiosm, cinnamonuus, pra- 
ientiSt vioUceus. The poisonous 
kinds hare usually a narcotic or acrid 
odour. 

AGAVE. The Mexican aloe. The 
juice yields pulque, and a good hemp 
is made from the leaves. 

AGE OF ANIMALS. For that of 
the horse, see Horse. 

Age of Neat Cattle. — The age of 
eowst oxen, and hulls is known by the 
teeth and horns. At the end of about 
two years they shed their first fore- 
teeth, which are replaced by others, 
larger, but not so white ; and before 
five years all the incisive teeth are 
renewed. These teeth are at first 
equal, long, and pretty white ; but as 
the animals advance in years, they 
wear down, become unequal, and 
black. When three years old, neat 
cattle also experience a considerable 
change in the structure of their horns, 
after which period tt\ese appendages, 
Ifte the second or permanent teeth, 
preserve the same character. Du- 
ring the first year of the animal's age, 
two small, smooth, pointed, and neat- 
ly-formed horns make their appear- 
ance, attached to the head by a kind 
of button. This conformation con- 
tinues during the first three years, 
after which the button moves from 
the head, being impelled by a homy 
cylinder. Thus the horns continue 
growing as long as the animal lives, 
as is indicated by the annual joints, 
which are easily distinguished in the 
horn, and by which the age of the 
creature may be easily known, count- 
ing tliree years for the point of the 
born, and one for each of the joints 
or rings. Dishonest dealers some- 
times obliterate these rings by shaving 
or filing the horns, in order to conce^ 
the age of the beast. — {Johnson.) 

Age of Sheep. — ^The age of these 
animals is known by their having, in 
their second year, two broad teeth; 
in their third year, four broad teeth ; 
in their fourth year, six broad teeth ; 
and in their fifth year, eight broad 
teeth before ; after which none can 
tell how old a sheep is while its teeth 
remain, except by their being worn 
down. 

10 



About the end of one year, rams, 
wethers, and all young sheep lose the 
two fore-teeth of the lower jaw ; and 
they are known to want the incisive 
teeth in the upper jaw. At eighteen 
months, the two teeth joining to the 
former also fall out; and at three 
years, being all replaced, they are 
even and pretty white ; but as these 
animals advance in age, the teeth 
become loose, blunt, and afterward 
black. 

AGI, or AGY. Chilian pepper, 
Capsicum baccahtm^ 

AGISTMENT. Payment for pas 
turage on another's lands. 

AGRICULTURE. The whole art 
and science of husbandry. For the 
history, see Loudon's Encyclopedia of 
AgrieiUture. 

AGRIMONY. The genus Agri^ 
monia, perennial, unimportant weeds 
of small size. 

AGRIONID^. The family of in- 
sects called dragon fiies (Libellula, 
Agrion). 

AGRONOMY. The cultivation of 
land, agriculture. 

AGROSTIS. The genus of bent 
grasses. They grow chiefly in wet 
places, and flower late; most are 
perennial, stoloniferous, or creeping, 
and are therefore diflScuIt to extir- 
pate, and unsuited to rotations. The 
Agrostes siricta is the red top, or herd 
grass. A. stofovifcra is Richardson's 
fiorin, and, when grown in rich, wet 
pastures, is very superior. 

AIGRETTE. The down or pap- 
pus of the seeds of composits. 

AIR. Any gas, but usually the at- 
mospherey which see. 

A IRA. The genus of hair grasses. 
They are perennial, usually grow in 
wet places, and are of little moment 
in agriculture. 

AIR CELLS. In plants, enlarged 
cavities in the cellular tissue, to pro- 
duce buoyancy in aquatic plants. In 
birds^ membranous cavities commu- 
nicating with the lungs, and traver^ 
sing all parts of the bird, even to the 
interior of the bones and quills. In 
some insects the air vessels are en- 
larged into cells. 

AIR PLANTS. Those which grow 



AIR 



ALO 




without striking their roots into the 
soil. They usually derive snstenaoce 
from other plants. 

AIR PUMP. A machine for remo- 
▼ing the air out of a vessel. The 
principle of this important philosoph- 
ical instrument is very simple, and 
may be easily comprehended from a 
brief explaoation. The essential part 

of the machine con- 
sists of an exhaust- 
ing syringe (a), 
formed of a tube 
or barrel of brass, 
closed at one end, 
with the exception 
of a small oriAcei to which a valve 
(&), opening inward, is attached. An 
air-tight piston is worked up and 
down in the barrel by a rack and pin- 
ion turned by a winch. The piston 
has also an orifice with a valve (c), 
which opens upward, or in the same 
direction as the valve of the tube. 
The syringe cMnmunicates, by means 
of a small pipe {d) fitted into the open- 
ing at its lower extremity, with a ves- 
sel («) called the receiver, from which 
the air is to be extracted. 

The receiver is placed on a brass 
plate (/, g), over a small hole, into 
which the other end of the pipe is in- 
serted ; and, in order that the contact 
may be air-tight, the edge of the glass 
is previously rubbed with lard or some 
unctuous matter. 

Suppose the piston at the bottom 
of the tube. As it begins to be drawn 
up, the valve c of the piston is imme- 
diately shot by the pressure of the ex- 
terior atmosphere, so that no air can 
enter the barrel, and a perfect vacu- 
um would be left under it, were it not 
that the valve at the bottom of the 
barrel is forced open by the pressure 
of the air in the receiver, which rush- 
es into the barrel till its density he- 
comes the same both in the receiver 
and barrel. When the piston has been 
drawn to the top of the barrel, the 
whole of the air which occupied the 
barrel has been removed, and the re- 
ceiver and barrel are now both filled 
with the air which was previously 
contained in the receiver alone. — 
{Brtmde't Encydapadia.) 



I AIR VESSELS. Spiral vessels^ 
tracheae. 

ALATE (from o/a, a wing). With 
lateral expansions, winged. 

ALBUMEN. One of the important 
azotized principles of animals and 
plants. In the solid state it consti- 
tutes the principal component of 
membranes, and in the fluid form is 
found in the serum of blood and the 
white of egg. The juice of all plants 
contains a small quantity. In the 
moist state it is readily putrescible, 
and coagulates at about 180° Fahren- 
heit ; but when dry it is a transpa- 
rent, brittle substance, which resists 
decay. For its composition, see Pro- 
tein. 

Albuven, in botany, is the fleshy, 
mealy, or horny substance forming 
the substance of the seed, and lying 
between the embryo and testa. 

ALBURNUM. The sap wood. 
The ascending sap rises along its 
pores. It is usually of a different 
colour, and much more perishable 
than the heart wood. 

ALCOHOL, Spirit of wine. It is 
formed during the vinous fermenta- 
tion. The pure spirit has a specific 
gravity of .792, and consists of C^ He 
(\. It is present in brandy, whiskey, 
and strong spirits to the extent of 
fifty per cent., twenty-five per cent, 
in strong wines, ten per cent, in ci- 
der and ales, and six per cent in beer. 
It is of great use in the laboratory as 
a solvent of resins, dec, and for the 
hot flame it produces when burned in 
lamps. 

ALDER. Shrubs of the genus ^^ 
niM, which is closely allied to the 
birch. The common swamp alder is 
the A. serrulata. The A. glauca (black 
alder) is used by dyers for the produc- 
tion of a black. 

ALE. A strong beer made from 
light malt. 

ALE-HOOF. Ground ivy. 

ALEMBIC, A retort with a move- 
able cover or cap. 

ALEXANDERS. An umbellifer- 
ous plant, formerly cultivated like 
celery. 

ALG.£. The family of sea- 
weeds and fresh-water weeds (poti- 

11 



ALL 

/crvtf). They are ceUular and eiypto- 
gamic. 

ALIMENTARY CANAL. The 
passage from the mouth through the 
stomach and intestines. 

ALITRUNCK. ALITRUNCUS. 
In entomology, the posterior segment 
of the thorax of an insect, to which 
the abdomen is affixed, and which 
bears the legs, properly so called, or 
the two posterior pairs, and the 
winffs* 

ALIZARINE. The red colouring 
principle of madder. 

ALKALI, ALCALI. A term ori- 
ginally applied to the ashes of plants, 
now generally used to designate pot- 
ash, soda, lithia, and ammonia, which 
are also termed vegetable, mineraU 
and volatUe alkali. These substan- 
ces have certain properties in com- 
mon, such as neutralizing and form- 
ing salts with the acids, reddening 
aeveral regetable yellows, and chan- 
ging some blues to green, and ready 
solubility in water. Lime, baryU, 
atrontia, and magnesia have been 
called alkaline earths, from their an- 
alogous action on yegetable colours. 
Lithia is also one of the alkalis. A 
singular class of bodies have been dis- 
covered in vegetables, which have 
been termed alkalis, or alkaloids, 
chiefly in consequence of their pow- 
er of saturating, and forming definite 
salts with the acids. Morphia, quin- 
la, &c., are substances of this descrip- 
tion. 

ALKALIMETER. A graduated 
glass tube employed in determining 
the quantity of real alkali in commer^ 
cial potash and soda, by the quantity 
of dilute sulphuric acid of a known 
strength which a certain weight of 
these saturates. 

ALKANET. Anchiua tinetorw. 
The root of this plant, which is a na- 
tive of the warmer parts of Europe, 
contains a red resinous colouring 
matter, which it imparts to alcohol 
and oils; it is used to tinge some 
ointments, especially lip-salves, of a 
red colour. 

ALLANTOIS. A membrane at- 
tached to the extremity of the ali- 
mcntaiy canal in the fetal ealf and 

1% 



AIM 

other animals. It contains the a 
toic fluid. 

ALLSPICE. The pimento. 

ALLUVIUM, ALLUVION. A soU 
formed by the deposites of ancient 
rivers, or washed from hill-sides by 
floods. The character of the soil dif- 
fers with the country through which 
the flood has pass^ ; but it is al- 
ways rich, because it contains matter 
finely divided, and much organic re- 
mains. It is not to be confounded 
with diluvium, which signifies an an^ 
cient gravel. 

ALMOND. Amy f dolus argentea 
and nana. The silver and dwarf al- 
mond ornamental shrubs. 

ALMOND-TREE. Amygdalugrom- 
munis. Varieties : bitter, sweet ten- 
der shell, sweet hard shell, long fruit, 
and peach- almond of large size. Tlie 
tree is of small size, bears an abun- 
dance of flowers, and may be grown 
advantageously south of Maryland. 

Propagation. — All the species and 
varieties are propagated by seeds, 
budding, grafting, layers, and occa- 
sionally they will produce suckers, 
which may be successfully planted 
out When stocks for budding or 
grafting upon are wanted, or new va- 
rieties desired, these are obtained by 
sowing the fttiit stones* though they 
may be budded or grafted on massel- 
plum stocks. 

The stones of the last season's 
produce should be sown in October, 
upon a bed of light, rich soil, about 
three inches apart, and covered four 
inches deep with fine soil. This is 
indispensable ; for when the soil is 
left in lumps, the shoots are often 
forced into a crooked direction, and 
this caases the trunk to be deform- 
ed, and unfit to become a fine tree. 
When the surface of the seed-bed 
has been smoothed, a covering of rot* 
ten tanner*8 bark or leaf mould, to 
the depth of two inches, must be laid 
upon It, which being light, prevents 
the fruit-stones from being damaged 
by any severity of winter. At the be- 
ginning of May this coTering of bark 
or leaves roust be raked clean oflT the 
bed. The stones might be reserved 
till spring, and be sown at the end of 



ALM 



ALU 



Mareb,t>at tbe plants do not cone bo 

certainty as when sown in autumn. 
An additional advantage of an au- 
tumn sowing is, that the plants come 
up about six weeks or two months 
earlier than those sown in spring; 
consequently, the plants become vig- 
orous and well rooted tbe first year, 
and thereby not liable to be thrown 
imt of the ground by thaws succeed- 
ing frost in the following winter. 

During summer, care must be ta- 
ken to pull up all weeds when very 
youngT ^f*' if they be allowed to get 
strong before pulling out, this opera- 
tion is apt to injure tbe roots of the 
almond plants. 

When almond stones have been 
sown in spring, it will be necessary, 
at the approach of the succeeding 
winter, tu have the beds covered 
with rotten tanner's bark, or leaf 
moald, scattering it an inch deep or 
more among the plants : a cover- 
ing which will tend to prevent the 
plants being injured or thrown out 
by frost. 

In the seeond spring a/ler the sow- 
ing» the plants should be taken up, 
carefully preserving all the fibrous 
roots : a care which, as they are but 
sparingly produced, will be essentially 
necessary. The plants must be trans- 
planted in rows, two feet apart row 
from row, and a foot and a half dis- 
tant in the rows. Here they may be 
trained to form standards, half stand- 
ards, or dwarfs, and be regulated and 
prepared either for wall training or 
shrubbery plantations. For both pur- 
poses, attention will be requisite du- 
ring summer and wniter to thin out 
the branches, reserving only a suita- 
ble number for the future limbs of the 
tree, and these so far apart that they 
may not, in any future stage of growth, 
be liable to rub against each other, 
which standard tre^s would be liable 
to ; for if this be not avoided, gum 
would be exuded at such injured 
pttrts, and the speedy decay of the 
tree be the consequence. 

Almond plants intended for train- 
ing against walls should have some 
stakes fixed in the form of a trellis, 
to which the branches should be se- 



cnred m a proper form, so that they 
may be suited to the position of the 
wall on their final removal. — {Millers 
Dictionary.) 

A LO £ S. The dried juice, or an 
extract of numerous species of Aloe^ 
particularly the Aloe spieata. The 
plants inhabit arid countries in the 
tropics, and have long, rather fieshy 
leaves, and a liliaceous inflorescence 
arranged in spikes. 

The drug is a nauseous, bitter, and 
warm purgative. It is administered 
to horses in balls of six to eight 
drachms. 

ALOPECURUS. The genus of 
fox-tail grasses; they resemble the 
cat*s-tail. Many are of great agricul- 
tural value. See Grasses. 

ALPACA, The Llama, or Peru- 
vian sheep. It is cultivated in the 
Andes of Pern for its long fleece, and 
as a beast of burden. The flesh is 
also good. These animals are of the 




same family as the camel, and are ex- 
tremely hardy and abstemious. Their 
wool is largely imported into England 
from Peru. 

ALTERATIVES. Medicines 
which improve the health without 
any active effects. 

ALTERNATE HUSBANDRY 
The system in which one part of the 
farm is in pasture and part arable; 
and these are changed every few 
years. 

ALUDEL. An implement used in 
sublimation, and resembling an alem- 
bic. 

ALUM. The sulphate of alumina 
and potash. The powder is a power- 
ful styptic, and used to arrest bl'^ed- 
ing. In lotion it is astringent and 

It 



m 





AMI 



ANA 



stimulating. When barned» the pow- 
der becomes caustic. 

The f^uion may be made with six to 
eight drachms of alum to a quart of 
water. It is used for grease, cracks 
ID tlic heels of horses, and ulcers 
afler the inflammation is subdued. 

The alum is used by dyers, but the 
solution of acetate of alumina is su- 
perior for most purposes. 

ALUMINA. Pure base of clay, 
argil. It is a sesquioxide of alumi- 
nium, white, insoluble ; but it possess- 
es a great affinity for water. In the 
crystalline state it forms the sap- 
phire and emerald. It is a feeble 
base, uniting with acids. The hy- 
drated silicate of alumina forms the 
bulk of clay, 

ALUMINIUM. The metallic base 
of alumina. 

ALVEOLATE. Covered with lit- 
tle pits ; honey-combed. 

ALVINE. Relating to the bow- 
els. 

AMALGAM. A com pound of mer- 
cury with a metal. 

AMANITA. A genus of poisonous 
mushrooms. 

AMAUROSIS. Total blindness, 
without loss of brilliancy in the eye. 

AMBLE. The same as the pace 
m horsemanship. 

AMBtJSTION. A scald or bum. 

AMELIORATING CROPS. Root 
crops, clovers, and grasses, fed on 
the land. 

AMENDMENTS. Sand, marl, and 
other substances applied in large 
quantities to amend the tilth. 

AMENTUM, The catkin ; a de- 
ciduous spike, such as that of wil- 
lows, poplars, 6lc. Trees Mrith this 
inflorescence are called amentaceous, 
«nd usually contain much potash in 
their ashes. 

AMENTABOLIANS. Insects 
which do not undergo metamorpho- 
ses 

AMERICAN BLIGHT. The wool- 
ly or 4tiealy aphis. Aphis lanigeray 
also called Eriosoma mali : it is very 
destructive to apple and pear trees in 
England. See Imects. 

AMIDOGENE. A theoretical ba- 
sis of ammonia, composed of N H3 : 

U 



its compounds with metals are termr- 
ed amides, or am id ides. 

AMIDINE. The soluble, internal 
portions of the starch globules. 

AMMONIA. Volatile alakli, spir- 
its of hartshorn. See Nitrogen. 

AMMONIACAL GAS. The gas- 
eous state of pure ammonia before it 
is dissolved by water, in which it is 
extremely soluble ; it is also rapidly 
absorbed by charcoal, clays, rust, <Scc. 

AMMONIUM. A hypothetic base 
of ammonia, consisting of N H4. The 
oxide of ammonium is the common 
base, as found in the sails of ammo- 
nia, and consists ol' N H4 O. 

AMNION. The delicate membrane 
which surrounds the fetus in utero : 
it contains the amniotic fluid, or li- 
quor amnios. 

AMNIOS. The fluid within the 
nucleus of the young seed, on which 
the embryo feeds. 

AMORPHOUS. W^ithout regular 
figure or form. 

AMPHIBOLE. A variety of horn- 
blende. 

AMPHITROPAL. In botany, an 
embryo which is turned round in the 
albumen, or curved upon itself in 
such a manner that both its ends are 
presented to the same point. 

AMPLEXICAUL. Claspingor 
embracing the stem. 

AMYGDALUS. The generic name 
of the peach and almond. 

AMYGDALOID. Rocks in which 
other minerals are imbedded, pudding- 
stone. 

AMYGDALIN. A white, sweet- 
ish, soluble matter in bitter almonds, 
changeable into oil of bitter almonds 
by the action of emulsin. 

AMYLACEOUS. Starchy, fuU of 
starch. 

AMYLIN. Pure starch. 

ANAL GLANDS. Glands for the 
secretion of various substances, sit- 
uated near the anus. 

ANALYSIS Ihe separation of 
the components of any substance. It 
is quuntitatine when tlie amount of 
each ingredient is to be known, quaii- 
iative when the nature only. 

Analysis of soils is of no value un- 
less rigorously performed with per- 



ANALYSIS. 



feet means. It is best, however, for 
agricultural purposest to discover the 
presence or absence of a given sub- 
stance, as lime or bone earth, rather 
than enter into the complete solution 
of the substance. The ordinary means 
«f distinguishing the components of 
a soil is given under Soils. The 
following, from Boussingault, is of a 
)iigher character : 

In examining a soil, attention ought 
to be directed, 1st, to the sand ; 2d, to 
the clay ; 3d, to the humus which it 
contains. It would farther be useful 
to inquire particularly in regard to 
certain other principles which exert 
an unquestionable influence upon ve- 
getation, such as certain alkaline and 
earthy salts. 

Vegetable earth dried in the air 
until it becomes quite friable may 
nevertheless still retain a considera- 
ble quantity of water, and which can 
only be dissipated by the assistance 
of a somewhat high temperature. It 
is therefore proper, in the first in- 
stance, to bring all the soils which it 
is proposed to examine comparative- 
ly, to one constant degree of dryness. 
The best and quickest way of drying 
such a substance as a portion of soil, 
is to make use of the oil bath : a quan- 
tity of oil contained in a copper ves- 
sel is readily kept at an almost uni- 
form tempecature by means of a lamp. 
A thermometer plunged in the bath 
shows the degree to which it is heat- 
ed : the substance to be dried is put 
into a glass tube of no great depth, 
and sufficiently wide ; or into a por- 
celain or silver capsule, if the quan 
tity to be operated upon be somewhat 
considerable : these tubes or vessels 
are placed in the oil so as to be im- 
inerBed in it to about two thirds of 
their height. For the desiccation of 
soils, the temperature may be carried 
to 160° or 160° C (334° or 352° F.) 
The weight of the vessel is first ac- 
curately taken, and a given weight of 
the matter to be dried is then thrown 
into it, aAer which it is exposed to 
the action of the bath. If we oper- 
ate upon from 600 to 700 grains, the 
drying mast be continued during two 
or tl^ee hours; the weight of the 



capsule with its contents, ader hav- 
ving been wiped thoroughly clean, is 
then taken. It is placed anew in the 
bath, and its weight is taken a sec- 
ond time after an interval of fiAeen 
or twenty minutes ; if the weight has 
not diminished, it is a proof that the 
drying was complete at the time of 
the first trial. In the contrary case, 
the operation must be continued, and 
no drying must be held terminated un- 
til two consecutive weighings, made 
at an interval of from fifteen to twen- 
ty minutes, show anythingmore than 
a very trifling difference. I)avy points 
out another and much more simple 
method, which, although far from ac- 
curate, may nevertheless suffice in 
many general trials. The soil to be 
dried is put into a porcelain capsule 
heated by a lamp, and a thermome- 
ter, with which the mass may be stir- 
red, is placed in its middle, and shows 
the temperature at each moment. 
Lastly, in many circumstances the 
marine bath may suffice. In drying, 
the main point is to do so at a known 
temperature, and one which may be 
reproduced ; for the absolute desicca- 
tion of a quantity of soil could not be 
accomplished except at a heat close 
upon redness, and this would, of 
course, alter or destroy the organic 
matters it contains. 

The organic matters contained in 
ordinary soils consist in part of pie- 
ces of straw and of roots, which are 
usually separated by sifting the earth 
through a hair sieve ; the gravel and 
stones which the soil contains aro 
separated in the same way. 

The earth sifted is now washed. 
To accomplish this, it is introduced 
into a matrass, with three or four 
times its bulk of hot distilled water ; 
the whole is shaken well for a time, 
the matrass is left to stand for a mo- 
ment, and then the liquid is decanted 
into a wide porcelain capsule. The 
washing is continued, fresh quanti- 
ties of water being added each ttme, 
until the whole of the clay has been 
removed, which is known by the fluid 
becoming clear very speedily; the 
sand which remains is then washed 
out into another capsule. The argil- 

16 



ANALYSIS. 



lacecKis particles, or the day and all 
the matters held in suspension in the 
water, are thrown upon a filter and 
dried ; the desiccation is completed 
by the same process, and under the 
«anie circumstances as that of the 
^oil had been. The sand is, in like 
nanner, dried with the same care. 

If we would ascertain the nature 
and quantity of the soluble salts, the 
whole of the water used in the wash- 
ing must be put together and evapo- 
rated, which may be done upon a 
sand bath. The evaporation is push- 
ed to dryness, and the salts that re- 
main, having been previously weigh- 
ed, are thrown into a small platinum 
capsule, in which they are heated to 
a dull red by means of a spirit-lamp, 
in order to burn out the organic salts, 
and thus distinguish, by means of a 
subsequent weighing* between them 
and the inorganic salts. 

The sand may be silicious or cal- 
careous. The presence of carbonate 
of lime is readily ascertained by treat- 
ing it with an acid which will form 
a soluble salt with lime, such as hy- 
drochloric, nitric, or acetic acid. Ef- 
fervescence shows the presence of 
a carbonate, the quantity of which 
may be estimated by weighing the 
sand dry before and after its treat- 
ment with the acid, particular care 
being, of course, taken to wash the 
remaining sand well before setting it 
to dry. This, however, is an opera- 
tion of little use ; the great object is 
to ascertain the quantity of sandy 
matter. Had we a particular inter- 
est in ascertaining the presence and 
estimating the quantity of the earthy 
carbonates contained in a sample of 
soil, it would be advisable to make a 
special inquiry, inasmuch as the fine- 
ly-divided calcareous earth being car- 
ried off along with the clay in the 
course of the washing, the sand ob- 
tained never contains the whole of 
the carbonate of lime. 

The argillaceous matter procured 
by the washing is far from being pure 
clay ; it contains a quantity of ex- 
tremely fine sand, particles of calca- 
reous earth, and if the soil contain 
humus, U)e more delicate particles 

10 



I of this substance will also be inehi* 
ided. 

I To determine the quantity of hu- 
I mus, recourse is generally had to its 
I destruction by heat. A known weight 
of dried earth is heated to redness in 
a capsule, and constantly stirred for 
a time, and when no more of those 
brilliant points or sparks, which are 
indications of the combustion of car- 
bon, are observed, it is set to cool, 
and then weighed. This is the meth- 
od which has been generally followed 
by Davy and others. It would be 
difficult to find a method more ctm- 
venient than this, but it is, unfortu- 
nately, very inaccurate. Soils dried 
at a temperature at which organie 
matter, such as humus, &c., begins 
to change, still retain a considerable 
quantity of water in union with the 
clay. This water is disengaged at 
the red heat required for the combus- 
tion of the organic matters ; and as 
their quantity is estimated by the loss 
of weight on the subsequent weigh- 
ing, it is obvious that the loss from 
the dissipation of water is added to 
that which proceeds from the de- 
struction of the humus. It is un- 
doubtedly to this cause of error that 
we must ascribe the large proportions 
of humus mentioned in the soils ex- 
amined by Thaer and EinhoflT; it is 
therefore better to restrict the exam- 
ination to the determination of the 
presence or absence of humus than 
to attempt to ascertain its quantity 
by so imperfect a method. 

Priestley and Arttiur Young were 
already aware that a more delicate 
operation was required to determine 
the quantity of humus. Tliey recom- 
mend calcination of the soil in a close 
vessel, and that the gaseous products 
should be collected. This mode of 
proceeding, however, would have but 
slight advantages over that which I 
have just criticised, inasmuch as the 
volume of gas collected varies with 
every difference of heat employed. 

The only method, in my opinion, 
which we have of learning the quan- 
tity of humus, of organic debris, 
which is contained in a soil, is that 
of an elementary analysis. It is by 



ANALYSIS. 



bumtng a Icnown qaantitj of earth 
thoroughly dried by means of the ox- 
yde of copper, aided by a current of 
oxygen, that the carbon and hydrogen 
may be determined. Bat the most 
important point of all is to ascertain 
the amount of azote included in the 
organic remains of the soil ; and we 
have, happily, precise means in our 
elementary analysis of ascertaining 
the quantity of azote from which the 
amount of azotized organic matter 
may be accurately inferred. 

It may be very useful to determine 
the presence or absence of carbonate 
of Ume in a soil; this knowledge 
would, of course, guide us in our ap- 
plications of lime, marl, 4cc. Two 
modes maybe employed for this pur- 
pose ; Ist, the soil may be treated by 
nitric acid slightly diluted with water. 
Any effervescence will denote the 
presence, in all probability, of carbon- 
ate of lime. I say in all probability, 
because the disengagement of car- 
bonic acid gas under such circum- 
stances generally indicates the pres- 
ence of carbonate of lime ; it is not, 
however, a special character, because 
the disengagement may be due to the 
presence of any other carbonate. It 
is well to boil the acid solution upon 
the sample of soil that is analyzed ; 
the part which is not dissolved is 
thrown upon a filter and washed with 
distilled or rainwater boiling bot. 
Into the clear filtered liquor which 
results from all the portions of water 
used in the washing, a little ammonia 
is added ; if any precipitate falls, it 
is collected upon a filter and washed : 
to the new liquors obtained by this 
washing, a solution of oxalate of am- 
monia is added. If there be any lime 
present, it is thrown down in the 
state of oxalate, and the liquor, hav- 
ing been left at rest for five or six 
hours, becomes completely clear ; the 
addition of a few drops of the solu- 
tion of oxalate of ammonia to this 
clear fluid satisfies us whether the 
whole of the lime has been precipita- 
ted or not. The oxalate of lime is 
received upon a filter, washed, and 
dried ; it is then thrown into a plati- 
num capsule along with the piece of 

BS 



filtering paper upon which it was col- 
lected, and is heated to a dull red, un- 
til the paper of the filter is complete- 
ly consumed and no farther trace of 
carbon appears ; the capsule is then 
taken from the fire, or from over the 
spirit lamp, and cooled ; when cold, 
the matter which it contains is moist- 
ened with a concentrated solution ot 
carbonate of ammonia. 

The matter is then dried, great 
care being taken that nothing is lost 
by particles flying out, and the cap- 
sule is again heated to a dull red; 
when cold, it is weighed accurately, 
and the quantity of matter contained 
then becomes known. This matter 
is carbonate of lime, 100 of which 
represents 66-3 of lime and 43-7 of 
carbonic acid. I have said that in 
arable soil other carbonates may be 
met with besides that of lime ; calca* 
reous soils, for example, very com- 
monly contain carbonate of magne- 
sia. If we would ascertain the quan- 
tity of this earth, the mode of pro- 
ceeding which I have just particular- 
ly indicated enables us to do so ; we 
have but to evaporate the liquid from 
which the oxalate of lime was depos- 
ited, and then to calcine the product 
of the evaporation in a platinum cap- 
sule. Any nitrate of magnesia which 
may exist there will be decomposed 
at a dull red heat, as well as any ox- 
alate of ammonia which may have 
resulted from ammonia added in ex- 
cess. By treating the residue of the 
calcination with water, we obtain the 
magnesia, which, being washed, has 
only to be calcined, and its weight 
ascertained by weighing. 

2. If we would be content with a 
simple approximation, we may judge 
of the quantity of calcareous carbon- 
ate contained in a vegetable soil by 
measuring the quantity of carbonic 
acid which we obtain from it. We 
counterpoise upon the scale of a bal- 
ance a vial containing some diluted 
nitric acid ; we weigh a certain quan- 
tity of the earth to be analyzed, and 
this is added by degrees to the acid. 
If the earth contains carbonates, ef- 
fervescence ensues. The liquid is 
shaken with care, and having waited 

n 



ANALYSIS. 



a few minutes in order to let the car- 
bonic acid whicii is mixed with the 
air of the vial escape, the viaJ with 
its contents is again put into the bal- 
ance. If there has been no disen- 
gagement of carbonic acid, it is clear 
that, to restore the equilibrium, it will 
be sufficient to add to the opposite 
scale the weight of the earth which 
was put into the vial ; whatever is 
wanting of this weight represents 
precisely the weight of carbonic acid 
which has been disengaged. Presu- 
ming this acid to have been combi- 
ned with lime, the weight of the cal- 
careous carbonate can be calculated 
exactly. 

Sulphate of lime is an occasional 
constituent of soils ; to ascertain its 
presence and quantity, the following 
is the method of procedure : 

The earth, well pulverized, is first 
roasted for a considerable time in a 
crucible or platinum capsule until all 
the organic matter is completely de- 
stroyed ; it is advisable to operate on 
about 100 grammes, or about 3-2 oun- 
ces troy of soil. ARer this operation, 
the matter is boiled in four or five 
times its weight of distilled water for 
some time, water being added to re- 
place that which is dissipated by 
evaporation ; we then filter, rewasb, 
and having added all the liquors, we 
evaporate in a capsule until the vol- 
ume of the liquid is reduced to a few 
drachms. To the liquid thus concen- 
trated we add its own bulk of alcohol. 
If the solution contains sulphate of 
lime, it will be deposited, and the de- 
posite being received upon a filter 
and washed with weak alcohol, its 
weight is taken ader having been 
dried and calcined This salt is fre- 
quently seen deposited in the form of 
fine colourless needles on the cooling 
of the sufficiently concentrated solu- 
tion ; but the addition of alcohol is 
always useful, because the sulphate 
of lime, which is not very soluble in 
water, is altogether insoluble in weak 
spirits, which, on the contrary, dis- 
solves certain alkaline and earthy 
salts whose presence would interfere 
with the accuracy of the result. 

It may be matter of great momeat 

18 



• to determine the rxij<tpnce and tha 
quantity of phosphates contained in 
a soil destined for cultivation. Al- 
though the searcli for phosphoric acid 
may perhaps require a certain famil* 
iarity with chemical analysis, I shall 
nevertheless indicate the method of 
procedure. It is much to be desired 
that enlightened agriculturists should 
not remain strangers to manipula- 
tions of this kind. 

The soil to be analyzed must be de- 
prived of all organic matters by cal- 
cination. After having reduced it to 
a very fine powder, it is to be boiled 
for about an hour with three or four 
times its weight of nitric or hydro- 
chloric acid. The solution is then 
diluted with distilled water, and filter 
ed ; the matter which remains upon 
the filter is generally silica or alumina 
which has escaped the action of the 
acid. After havmg reduced the wash- 
ings by evaporation, and added them 
to the acid liquor, ammonia in solu- 
tion is poured in. Taking the sim- 
plest instance, the precipitate which 
falls upon the addition of this alkali 
may contain, 1st, phosphoric acid in 
union with the peroxide of iron and 
lime ; 2d, oxide of iron and of man- 
ganese ; 3d, silica. Tliis precipitate, 
which is usually of a gelatinous ap- 
pearance, is received upon a filter, 
well washed and diied, when the pre- 
cipitate is readily detached from the 
filter. It is thrown into a platinum 
capsule which is raised to a white 
heat, after which the weight of the 
residue is taken. The precipitate af- 
ter calcination is thrown into a small 
glass matrass, and dissolved by hot 
hydrochloric acid. If there is any sil- 
ica undissolved, its quantity is merely 
estimated if it be very small ; if it be 
a larger quantity, it is to be collected 
upon a filter and weighed. To the 
new acid solution about three times 
its weight of alcohol is added ; the 
mixture is shaken, and pure sulphuric 
acid is then instilled drop by drop un- 
til there is no longer any precipitate. 
The precipitate is sulphate of lime, 
which is thrown upon a filter, where 
it is washed with diluted alcohol ; it 
ifl thea dried, caicioed, and the weight 



ANALYSIS. 



of the sulphate of lime obtained per- 
uiiUs us to calculate that of the lime 
which formed part of the precipitate 
thrown down by the ammonia in the 
first instance. 100 of sulphate of lime 
are equivalent to 41-5 of pure lime. 
The alcoholic liquor is concentra- 
ted in order to expel the spirit ; as it 
Is acid, it is saturated with ammonia 
until a slight precipitate begins to be 
formed, which is not redissolved upon 
shying the mixture. A few drops 
of the hydrosulphate of ammonia are 
then added, upon which the iron and 
the manganese fall in the state of sul- 
phurets. As a part of the metals has 
been precipitated in the state of ox- 
ide by the ammonia added in the hy- 
drosulphate, it is well to digest for 
eight or ten hours, because the hy- 
drosulphate of ammonia always ends 
by changing the metals present into 
suipburets, which being washed, 
dried, and reduced to the state of 
oxides by calcination in a platinum 
capsule, are weighed. 

If the first ammonlacal precipitate 
did not contain phosphoric acid, its 
weight ought to be reproduced by 
adding that of the lime to that of the 
metallic oxides proceeding from the 
calcination of the sulphurets. Any 
loss which is noted after this, is due, 
if the process has been well conduct- 
ed, to phosphoric acid, which had not 
been collected, but which has remain- 
ed in the state of phosphate of ammo- 
nia in the liquid treated by the hydro- 
sulphate. To determine with pre- 
cision the presence of phosphoric 
acid, the liquid in question must be 
evaporated to dryness, and the resi- 
due heated strongly in a platinum 
capsule. After the dissipation and 
decomposition of the ammoniacal 
salts, there remams watery phos- 
phoric acid, distinguishable by its 
powerful acid reaction, its sirupy con- 
sistence, and its fixity. 

By way of example, I shall give the 
results obtained in an analysis of this 
kind : 

From the Mad liquor, ammonia threw down 
ef: gr*. troy. 

yiMMpbatei and meUlHo oxides . Biili 

rbeee gaTe of eulpfaate of lime 
" inuealtaUmie 




, 8-769 
. 3fti3 



I Hyt2riw(i]phiitf* of emmntiia raiii(>d a pre- 
rtpiiatp, which, calcined, gave of mo* 
laliic oxidee ..... 

Lime and meiuilfc ozidra tognthftr 

DiflTerence due to phosphoric acid 

The analysis for phosphoric acid 
may be simplified by employing a pro- 
cess conceived by M. Berthier, and 
which is founded upon the strong af- 
finity of this acid for the peroxide of 
iron, and the insolubility of the phos- 
phate of the peroxide of iron in dilute 
acetic acid. If to a fluid containing at 
once phosphoric acid, lime, peroxide 
of iron, alumina, and magnesia in so- 
lution, ammonia be added, the precipi- 
tate will contain the whole of the plios- 
phoric acid. The acid will be in greal 
part combined in the state of phos- 
phate of iron, if the peroxide of iron 
be in quantity more than sufficient to 
neutralize it : a condition which must 
be frequently expected in an arable 
soil ; however, to make sure of this 
point, it is well to add a certain quan- 
tity of the peroxide of iron to the soil 
which is to he analyzed. Besides the 
phosphate of iron, the precipitate may 
contain phosphate of lime, phosphate 
of alumina, and certainly ammoniacal 
magnesian phosphate. Finally, with 
these phosphates will be found asso- 
ciated alumina and oxide of iron, the 
latter especially, if it has been intro- 
duced in excess. The precipitate, col- 
lected upon a filter and washed, must 
then be treated with dilute acetic acid, 
which will dissolve the lime, the mag 
nesia, and the excess of the oxides of 
iron and alumina ; and there will re- 
main phosphate of iron or phosphate 
of alumina, because the latter salt is 
as insoluble as the former in acetio 
acid. Whenever the precipitate in 
question, therefore, leaves a residue 
which is insoluble In vinegar, the 
presence of phosphoric acid may be 
inferred ; this residue may consist of 
basic phosphates of iron or alumina, 
or of a mixture of the two salts, and 
no great error will be conunitted if 
one hundred parts of this residue, cal- 
cined, be assumed as representing 
fifty of phosphoric acid. 

The presence of silica in the pre- 
cipitate insoluble in acetic acid inay» 

19 



ANALYSIS. 



however, lead to error. To make 
sure that the precipitate is formed by 
a phospliatCt it must be redissolved in 
hydrochloric acid, and the acid solu- 
tion evaporated to dryness, so as to 
render the silica which may exist in 
it insolable. By treating the resi- 
due with hydrochloric acid again, the 
phosphates alone will be dissolved. 
The presence of phosphoric acid may 
otherwise be determined by treating 
the phosphate of iron in solution in 
the way which I have already indi- 
cated. 

From what precedes, it must be ob- 
vious that the most carefully conduct- 
ed chemical analysis of a soil only 
leads us to the discovery of certain 
principles which exist in very small 
quantity, although their action is un- 
questionably useful to vegetation. As 
to the determination of the relative 
quantities of sand and loam, this rests 
upon simple washing ; and a chemist 
would spend his time to very little 
purpose in seeking, by means of ele- 
mentary analyses, to determine the 
precise composition of these substan- 
ces. The finest part, carried ofT by 
the water, will always show proper- 
ties analogous to those of clay ; the 
Band, which is generally siiicious, will 
exhibit the characters of quartz ; and 
the calcareous fragments which are 
mixed with it will exhibit those that 
belong to carbonate of lime. It will 
be sufficient, then, in connexion with 
the mineral constitution of arable 
soils, to expose very briefly the gen- 
eral properties of clay or loam, of 
quartz, and of carbonate of lime, sub- 
stances, in fact, which form the bases 
of all arable lands. Pure day, com- 
posed of silica, alumina, and water, 
does not contain these substances in 
the state of simple mixture. The in- 
quiries of M. Berthier have satisfac- 
torily shown that clay is a hydrated 
silicate of alumina. When we re- 
move a portion of the alumina from 
clay, for example, by treating it with 
a strong acid, the silica which is set 
at liberty will dissolve in an alkaline 
solution, which would not be the case 
were the silica present in the state 
of quartzy sand, however fine. 

20 



! Pnrc clays are white, tinctoons to 
the touch, stick to the tongue when 
dry, and when breathed upon, give 
out an odour which is well known, 
and is commonly spoken of as the 
argillaceous odour. This property of 
dry clay to adhere to the tongue is 
owing to its avidity for water. It is 
known, in fact, that dry clay, brought 
into contact with water, first swells, 
and finally mixes with it completely. 
Duly moistened, it forms a tough and 
eminently plastic mass. Exposed to 
the air, moist clay, as it dries, shrinks 
considerably ; and if the drying be 
rapid, the mass cracks in all direc- 
tions. It is to an action of this kind 
that we must ascribe the cracks and 
deep fissures which traverse our clay- 
ey soils in all directions during the 
continuance of great droughts. 

The constitutional water of clays 
is retained by a very powerful affin- 
ity, and does not separate under a red 
heat ; pure clay has a specific gravity 
of about 2 '5 ; but the weight is fre- 
quently modified by the presence of 
foreign matter, for it contains sand, 
metallic oxides, carbonate of lime, 
carbonate of magnesia, and frequents 
ly even combustible substances, from 
bitumen to plumbago, all of which ad- 
mixtures of course modify the prop* 
erties which are most highly esteem- 
ed in clays, such as fineness, white^ 
ness, in fusibility, &«. 

Quartz is abundantly distributed 
throughout nature, and is met with in 
very difierent states : in the form of 
transparent colourless crystals, con- 
stituting rock crystals, as sand of dif- 
ferent fineness ; finally, in masses, 
constituting true rocks. Quartz is 
the silica of chemists, and a com- 
pound, according to them, of oxygen 
and silicon, in the proportion, Berze- 
lius says, of 100 of the radical to 108 
of oxygen. 

Silica, in a state of purity, occurs 
in the form of a white powder, and 
having a density of 2-7. It is infusi- 
ble in the most violent furnace ; but 
it not only melts in the intense heat 
which resulto from the combustion 
of a mixture of hydrogen and oxygen 
gas, but it is even dissipated in va- 



ANALYSIS. 



|MMir. As generally obtained, silica 
IS held insofuble in water ; still, when 
in a state of extreme subdivision, it 
is soluble ; and then its insolubility is 
probably not so absolute as is gener- 
ally supposed, for M. Payen has found 
notable quantities in the water of the 
Artesian well of Grenelle, aod in that 
of the Seine. Silica exists especially, 
in very appreciable quantity, in cer- 
tain hot springs, where the presence 
of an alkaline substance favours its 
aolution ; the water of the hot springs 
of Reikum in Iceland contain about 
f^lf^th parts of its weight of st4ca ; 
and the thermal spring of Las Trin- 
cheras, near Puerto Cabeilo, depos- 
ites abundant silicious concretions. 
The water of this latter spring, which 
is at the temperature of 210° Fahren- 
heit, besides silica, contains a quan- 
tity of sulphureted hydrogen gas, and 
traces of nitrogen gas. Rock crystal, 
when colourless and transparent, may 
be regarded as pure silica ; in the va- 
rieties of quarts which mineralogists 
designate as chalcedony, agate, opal, 
6lc., the silica is combined with dif- 
ferent mineral substances, particular- 
ly oxide of iron and of manganese, 
alumina, lime, and water. 

Carbonate of lame, considered as 
rock, belongs to every epoch in the 
geological series, and frequently con- 
stitutes extensive masses. When 
pure, it is composed of lime, 66-3 ; car- 
bonic acid, 43-7 ; and its density is 
then from 2-7 to 2-9. It dissolves 
with effervescence, without leaving 
any residue in hydrochloric or nitric 
acid. Exposed to a red heat, its 
acid is disengaged, and quick-lime re- 
mains. Carbonate of lime is insolu- 
ble in water, but it dissolves in very 
considerable quantity under the influ- 
ence of carbonic acid gas. When 
such a solution is exposed to the air, 
the acid escapes by degrees, and the 
carbonate is deposited, by which 
means those numerous deposites of 
carbonate of lime are produced which 
we see constituting tufas and stalac- 
tites. The solubility of carbonate of 
lime in water acidulated with carbon- 
ic acid enables us to understand how 
plants should meet with this salt in 



the soil, imwmoch as rainwater al- 
ways contains a little carbonic acid. 

llie mineral substances which we 
have now studied, taken isolatedly, 
would form an almost barren soil ; 
but, by mixing them with discretion, 
a soil would be obtained presenting 
all the essential conditions of fertil- 
ity, which depend, as it would seem, 
much less on the chemical constitu- 
tion of the elements of the' soil than 
on their physical properties, such as 
their faculty of imbibition, their den- 
sity, their power of conducting heat, 
dec. It is unquestionably by study- 
ing these various properties that we 
come to form a precise idea of the 
causes which secure or exclude the 
qualities we require in arable soils 
This has been done very ably by M 
Schubler; and his admirable papei 
will remain a model of one applica- 
tion of the sciences to agriculture.* 

The researches of M Schubler were 
directed to the mineral substances 
which are generally found in soils, 
viz. : 1st. Silicious sand ; 2d. Calca- 
reous sand; 3d. A sandy clay con- 
taining about ^ths of sand ; 4th. A 
strong clay containing no more than 
about -Pfths of sand; 5th. A still 
stronger clay containing no more 
than about ^V^h of sand ; 6th. Near 
ly pure clay ; 7th. Chalk, or carbon- 
ate of lime in the pulverulent state ; 
8th. Humus; 9th. Gypsum; 10th. 
Light garden earth, black, friable, 
and fertile, and containing, in 100 
parts, clay 62*4, quartzy sand 36-5, 
calcareous sand 1*8, calcareous earth 
2*0, humus 7'3 ; llth. An arable soil 
composed of clay 51-2, silicious sand 
42*7, calcareous sand 0-4, calcareous 
earth 2-3, humus 3-4 ; and, 12th. An 
arable soil taken from a valley near the 
Jura, containing clay 33-3, silicious 
sand 63-0, calcareous sand 1*2, caica* 
reous earth and humus 1-2, loss 1*3. 

The object of these inquiries was 
to ascertain, Ist. The specific grav- 
ity of soils ; 2d. Their power of re- 
taining water; 3d. Their consist- 
ency; 4th. Their aptitude to dry; 

* Schfiblar, Annala of Fraach AgTicnUoTO« 
voL zl., p. 13S, Sd Miias. 

SI 



mm 



ANA 

Cth. Tlieir disposition to contract 
wliile drying; 6th. Tlieir hygroinetric 
force ; 7th Their power of absorbing 
oxygen ; 8th. Their faculty of retain- 
ing beat ; and, 9th. Their capacity to 
acquire temperatnre when exposed 
to the 8un*s rays. 

SpeciJU Gravity of SaiU. — The 
weight of soils may be compared in 
the dry and pulverulent state, or in 
the humid state ; or the specific grav- 
ity of the particles which enter into 
their composition may be determined. 
This last information is easily obtain- 
ed by the following method : Take 
a common ground stopper bottle ; 
weigh it, stoppered and full of distil- 
led water ; let it then be emptied, in 
order that a known quantity of the 
soil, in the slate of powder and quite 
dry, may be introduced into it. A 
quantity of VTiter is now poured in, 
and the vial is shaken to secure the 
disengagement of all air bubbles ; the 
vial is then filled with distilled water, 
and, when the upper part has become 
clear, the stopper is replaced ; the 
vial is then wiped dry and weighed 
again. The difference between the 
weight of the vial full of water plus 
that of the matter, and the weight of 
the vial containing the matter and 
the water mixed, gives the weight of 
the water displaced by this matter. 
Thus : 

Weight oflhe vial fall of water . . . <IO-0 
Weight of the matter MO 

Weight of the vial cqataiaing the min- 

gleii earth and water 74'4 

Difference of water dieplaned .... 9-6 

which is the weight of the volume of 
water equal to that of the matter in- 
troduced into the vial ; we have, con- 
sequently, for the specific gravity of 
the earth J! J = 2-6, the weight of the 
water havmg been taken as 1. 

This number represents the mean 
specific gravity of the isolated parti- 
cles of the powder whicli has been 
examined ; but we must not, from 
this density, pretend to deduce the 
weight of a particular volume of soil 
— a cubic foot or a cubic yard, for in- 
stance : we should come to far too 
high a number. The weight of a 

22 



ANB 

given volume of earth mast be deter- 
mined immediately by ramming it 
into a mould or measure of a known 
capacity. 

From M. Schubler's experiments 
it appears, 1st. That silicious and cal- 
careous sandy soils are the heaviest 
of any ; 2d. That clayey soils are of 
least density ; 3d. That humus or 
mould is of much lower density than 
clay ; 4th. That a compound soil be- 
ing generally by so much the heavier 
as it contains a larger proportion of 
sand, and so much the lighter as it 
contains a larger quantity of clay, of 
calcareous earth, and of humus, it is 
pos^ib!e, from the density of a soil, 
to infer the nature of the principles 
which prevail in it. In the course of 
his experiments, .M. Schiiblcr found 
that artificial mixtures always gave 
higher densities than those that ought 
to have rcbulted from the several den- 
sities of each of the sorts of substance 
which formed the mixture. 

ANASARCA. A dropsy in the cel- 
lular tissue of the limbs. 

ANASTOMOSING. Growing to- 
gether, uniting. 

ANASTOMOSIS. The interlacing 
and union of small veins or arteries 
pn>ceeding from different parts. 

ANATROPOUS. A very common 
kind of embryo, produced by one side 
of the ovule growing upon itself, 
while the other remains immoveable, 
till, at last, that part of the ovule 
which was originally next the apex 
is brought down to the hilum, the 
base of the nucleus in such cases 
being at the apex of the ovule. The 
common apple, and the greater part 
of plants, offer an example of this. 

ANBURY. In farriery, a spongy, 
sofl tumour, commonly full of blood, 
growing on any part of an animaPs 
body. Substances of this kind may 
be removed either by means of liga- 
tures being passed round their bases, 
or by the knife, and the subsequent 
ap{)lication of some caustic, in order 
to effectually destroy the parts from 
which they arise. 

Anbury, ilm^ury, Club-root : Jlngcrt 
and toes. A swelling formed on the ' 
roots and ground-stems of cabbageBy 



ANB 



ANE 



radishes, turnips, ^c, by the maggot 
of a weevil. 

The maggot found in the turnip an- 
bury is the larva of Cureulio pleuro- 
stigma of Marsbam, and Rhynchanua 
sulcieollis of Gyllenhal. " I have bred 
this species of weevil," says Mr. Kir- 
by, " from the knob-like galls on tur- 
nips, called the anbury, and I have 
luUe doubt that the same insects, or 
a species allied to them, cause the 
clubbing of the roots of cabbages.*' 
Marsham describes the parent as a 
coleopterous insect of a dusky, black 
colour, with the breast spotted with 
white, and the length of the body one 
line and two tbirds. 

The general experience of fanners 
and pirdencrs upon the subject testi- 
fies that the anbury of the turnip and 
cabbage usually attacks these crops 
when grown for successive years on 
the same soil. This is precisely what 
might be expected ; for the parent in- 
sect always deposiles her eggs in 
those situations where her progeny 
will find their appropriate food ; and 
in the fragments of the roots, dtc., of 
preceding crops, some of these em- 
bryo ravagers are to be expected. 
That they never attack the plants 
upon a fresh site is not asserted : 
Mr. Marshall's statement is evidence 
to the contrary. But it is advanced 
that the obnoxious weevil is most 
frequently to be observed in soils 
where the turnip or cabbage has re- 
cently and repeatedly been cultiva- 
ted. Another general result of ex- 
perience is, that the anbury is most 
frequently observed in dry seasons. 
This is also what might be anticipa- 
ted, for insects that inhabit the earth 
just beneath its surface are always 
restricted and checked in their move- 
ments by its abounding in moisture. 
Moreover, the plants actimlly affected 
by the anbury are more able to con- 
tend against the injury inflicted by 
copious supply. In wet periods, also, 
the affected plants show less the 
extent of the injury they have sus- 
tained, for their foliage does not 
flag. 

In considering the best modes of 
p^venting the occurrence of the dis- 



ease and of palliating its attacks, it 
is apparent that any addition to the 
soil that renders it disagreeable to 
the weevil will prevent the visits of 
this insect. The gardener has this 
in his power with but little difficulty, 
for he can keep the vicinity of his cab- 
bage, cauliflower, and broccoli plants 
sprinkled with soot, powdered tobao- 
co, or other oiTensive matters. 

ANCHUSA. See Alkaiut. 

ANCHYLOSIS. A stiflT, immovea- 
ble joint. 

ANCIPITOUS. Having two edges. 

ANDES GRASS. Avena tlatior. 
Tall meadow oat ; a perennial grass ; 
flowers in May, and ripens its seeds in 
July. It is hardy, early, and makes 
good hay. It is difiicult to root out, 
and lasts a long time. A clay loam is 
the best soil. Sow two and a half to 
three bushels with oats. 

ANDROCEUM. The male parts 
of the flower. 

ANDROGYNOUS. Hermaphro- 
dite : a union of l)oth sexes. 

ANDROPORU.M: An elevation in 
the middle of a flower, formed in part 
by the union of the filaments of Che 
stamens. 

ANELLIDES, ANELLATA. The 
class of articulated animals formed 
of ring-like segments, as the eaith- 
worms. 

ANELYTROUS. Without elytra 
or wing cases. 

ANEMOMETER. (Gr. dve/ioj-, the 
unndj and fierpovt measure.) An in- 
strument for measuring the force or 
velocity of the wind ; a wind gauge. 

Dr. Lind's anemometer consists of 
a glass tube, bent into the form of the 
letter U, and open at both extremi- 
ties. One of the extremities, Af ib 
also bent round to the 



1 



n, 



horizontal direction, 
in order that the 
wind may blow into 
it. The tube being 
partially filled with 
water and exposed 
to a current of air, the 
water in the branch 
at which the wind en- 
ters is depressed ; for 
example, to B, and consequently ri- 

9)1 



I 

I . .J 



AN6 



ANN 



868 in tbe other branch to 0; and 
tli€ difference at C, of tbe levels at 
which it staoda in the two branch- 
esi is the height of a column of wa- 
ter, the weight of which forms a 
counterpoise to the force of tbe wind. 
The relative velocities of the wind 
are thus ascertained, the variation of 
the velocity being nearly proportion- 
al to the square root of the resist- 
ance. The bore of the tube is di- 
minished at the bottom to check the 
undulations of the water caused by a 
sadden gust of wind. Various other 
contrivances have been proposed, of 
which one of the simplest is to ex- 
pose a flat board of given dimensions 
to a current of wind, and observe to 
what extent it will force back a spring 
attached to it, and resting against an 
immoveable obstacle.— {Braniftf.) 

ANEMOSCOPE. An instrument 
showing tbe direction of the wind ; a 
Weathercock 

ANEURISM. In farriery, a throb- 
bing tumour, produced by the dilata- 
tion of the coats of an artery in some 
part of the body of an animal Aneu- 
risms in the limbs may be cured by 
making an incision, exposing the ar- 
tery, and tying it above and below 
the tumour with a proper ligature. 

ANGINA. In farriery, a name 
sometimes applied to the qqinsy, or 
what in animals is termed anticor; 
sore throat. 

ANGIOSPERMOUS. Having the 
seeds enclosed within a covering or 
pericarp. 

ANGLE BERRY. In farriery, a 
sort of fleshy excrescence, to which 
cattle and some other animals are 
subject under difllerent circumstan- 
ces, and are supposed to proceed 
from a rupture of the cutaneous ves- 
sels, which give vent to a matter ca- 
pable of forming a 9arcoma^ or fleshy 
excrescence. They frequently ap- 
pear upon the belly and adjacent 
parts, hanging down in a pendulous 
manner. 

ANGUSTATE. Narrow, dimin- 
ishing rapidly in breadth. 

ANGUSTURA BARK. The bark 
of the Cusparia fehrifuga of South 
America : used as a tonic. 

S4 



ANHYDRITE. Aahydioss gyp. 
sum. 

ANHYDROUS. Without water ; 
a chemical term to express the en- 
tire absence of water in a salt or acid 
substance. 

ANIMAL. Any object capable of 
voluntary motion ; a function de- 
pendant on the nervous system, 
which is peculiar to animals and ab- 
sent in plants. 

ANLMAL ACIDS. Acids existing 
in animals, or produced from tbeir 
tissues. The principal are the oily 
acids, choleic, lactic, and uric, which 
see 

ANIMALCULES. Infusorials. 

ANIMAL MANURES. See Urine, 
Manure. 

ANIMAL POISONS. The bites 
of venomous reptiles, rabid dogs, the 
contagious diseases produced by de- 
caying meat, cheese, infected cattle, 
glanders, are all called animal poi- 
sons. They usually produce great 
prostration, and call for the use of 
ammonia and stimulants. 

ANIONS. See EUctrode. 

ANISE SEED. PimpineUaamsum. 
The aromatic seeds of a well-known 
umbelliferous plant. The oil is a 
grateful aromatic to the stomach. 

ANISOTOMIDiE. A family of co- 
leopterous insects, having monili- 
form or beaded antenns, sub-elon- 
gate, slender at tbe base, gradually 
increasing towards the apex, with a 
terminal club-shaped multiarticulate 
joint; palpi various, generally Ali- 
form : head small and ovate ; body 
convex, never linear. 

ANKER. A small wine barrel of 
10 gallons, or 8^ imperial measure. 

ANNOTTA, ARNOTTA. Roucon, 
A red dye, obtained by fermenting the 
pulp of the seeds of the Biza ortUuna^ 
a tree of the West Indies. In the 
dairy a colouring matter is used un- 
der this name, which is manufactured 
from madder or carrots. 

ANNUALS. Plants which perfect 
seeds in one year and die, as wheat, 
rye, &c. 

ANNULUS. An organ resembling 
a ring, as the collar which surrounds 
the stem of some mushrooms. 



ANT 



APH 



ANODE. The way by which elec- 
tricity enters substances through 
which it passes : opposed to cathode, 
the roatl or way by which it goes out. 
ANODYNE. A drug which allays 
pain, as opium, camphor, henbane, 
&c. 

ANONA. The custard apple-trees. 
The cherimnver is of this genus. 

ANTACIDS. Medicim-s which 
neutralize the acid of tlie stomach in 
disease, as chalk, carimnate of soda. 
ANTENNA, Ahtbnn^. The hair- 
like, jointed organs on the heads of 
insects. They are very moveable, 
and are supposed to be organs of sen- 
sation. 

ANTEPECTUS. In insects, the 
under side of the main trunk, in which 
the first pair of legs is inserted 

ANTS. The family Formicidcty 
hymenopterous insects. They are 
injurious to meadows by their hills, 
and also devonr fraits. The anthill 
is readily destro3'ed by digging it up 
in the depth of winter and scattering 
the earth ; the exposure will thus de- 
stroy the entire colony. 

ANTHELMIxNTfCS. Dmgs which 
are used to destroy intestinal worms. 
Turpentine, wormseed oil, pink-root, 
and aloes are the most important. 

ANTHER. The bilobate organ, 
containing pollen, situated at the 
summit of the filament, the two con- 
6titutin<r the male organ, or stamen 
of plants. 

ANTHODIUM. A head of flow- 
ers, as in the thistle or sunflower : 
a capit Ilium. 

ANTHOZANTHU\f . A genus of 
grasses, o( which A. odoratum is the 
sweet-scented vernal grass. See 
Grasses. , It is an annual, and of Ut- 
ile importance. 
ANTIBKACHIUM. The forearm. 
ANTICLINAL AXIS. The hne 
lying between strata which dip in op- 
posite directions. 

ANTICOR. An inflammation uf 
the throat and gullet in horses, at- 
tended with fever and prostration ; a 
kind of quinsy. 

ANTIDOTE. A remedy against 
a poison. 

ANTIMONY The snlphnret ; a 



black metallic drug, used in the dis- 
eases of cattle as an alterative in 
skin diseases. An ounce is given to 
a horse. 

ANTIMONY TARTRATE. See 
Tartar Emetic. 

ANTIPHLOGISTIC. Remedies 
opposed to an inflammatory state. 

ANTISEPTIC S. Substances 
which prevent putrefaction. 

ANTISPASMODICS. Remedies 
which cure spasms or cramps, as 
opium, camphor, asafonida, &c, 

ANTITROPAL. When in a seed 
the radicle of the embryo is turned 
to the end farthest away from the 
hiium. This, although a compara- 
tively unusual position of parts, is 
nevertheless the normal position, if 
the exact nature of the development 
of an ovule is rightly understood. 

ANTRUM. A cavity. 

AORTA. The great arterial ves- 
sel which issues from the left ventri- 
cle of the heart, and by its branches 
distributes blood to every part of the 
body. ' 

APATITE. A greenish, crystal- 
line mineral found in primary rocks, 
consisting of a phosphate and silicate 
of lime. It is found in the Eastern 
and Northern States, but only in small 
quantities. In Spain and Norway 
large quantities are developed. It 
has been spoken of as a manure in 
the place of hones. 

APERIENTS. Gentie purgatives. 

APETALOUS. M^ithout corolla. 

APEX. The summit. 

APH.\NIPTEKA. An order of 
apterous insects, with rudimentary 
elytra, and widergoing a change of 
form. Tho flea (Pulex irritonis) is of 

this kind- 

APNIS, APHIDES (pi). A fami- 
ly of hemipterous insects, common- 
ly called " plant-lice," inhabiting trees 
and plants, and living on their juices ; 
remarkable for the anal saccharine 
secretion, but more especially for a 
peculiarity of their generative econo- 
my, particularly described by Bonnet, 
and which consists in the first fecun- 
dation of the female influencing not 
merely the ova immediately develop- 
ed thrrcafter, but those of the females 

86 



APP 



APP 



resatting from that development, even 
to the ninth gencrntinn, which are 
successively impregnated and pro- 
ductive without any intercourse with 
the male insects. Certain coleopter- 
o.us insects which prey upon and keep 
in check the aphides, are termed aph- 
idiphagi and aphidivora (^ayw, / caty 
voro, / devour). For a figure, see In- 
sects. Aphides are very numerous 
in species, most plants having a dif- 
ferent kind. They are readily de- 
stroyed by fumigations with tobacco, 
Cayenne pepper, or sulphur, a solu- 
tion of whale-oil soap, or water-slack- 
ed lime sprinkled upon them. 

APHYLLUS. Leafless, vnthout 
fully-developed green leaves. 

APIARY. A bee-house. 

APIS. The generic name of the 
bee. 

APOCARPOUS. When the car- 
pels of a fruit do not adhere together. 

APOCRENIC ACID. See Humus. 

APOPLEXY. The staggers. See 
Horse, Sheept Ox. 

APOPHYSIS. A protuberance, 
process, or projection. In anatomy, 
restricted to processes of the osseous 
system. 

APOSEPADINE. A white crys- 
talline body obtained from decayed 
cheese 

APOTHECIUM. The shield of 
lichens. 

APPETITE. Want of appetite 
and voracious appetite are important 
symptoms in t\e diseases of horses 
and cattle ; exerti^e, change of sta- 
ble, ventilation, an^ a new kind of 
food and gentle purgiition should be 
tried for the first; th6 second may 
arise from worms, and should be in- 
vestigated. 

APPLE. The cultivated fruit of 
the Pyrus malus^ or crab ; the tre^ be- 
longs to the natural family Rosacta.. 
The apple, like most other hardy 
trees, may be propagated by seeds, 
cuttings, suckers, layers, or ingraft- 
ing ; by seeds for obtaining new va- 
rieties, and by the other modes for 
extending the number of such as are 
in esteem. 

The following kinds are of dilTer- 
ent values, bot ripen at different 

i6 



times, and represent the best set in 

cultivation. 

Summer Apples, ripening from July 
to September: 

Early H.iBVE5T, Princess Yellow 
Harvest, July Pippin. — Fruit medium 
size; bright straw colour; flavour 
iinc : ripe in July and August. 

Early Rsd Juneatino, JRcd Mar- 
garette. Strawberry. — Ratiier small ; 
very rich and fine : ripe in August. 

Summer Quee^t, Early Queen. — 
Fruit large and oblong ; striped with 
red on a yellow ground ; high fla- 
voured and fine : ripe in August. 

Summer Pearmain, American Sumr 
mer Pearmain, Early Summer Pear- 
main. — Too well known to need any 
description : ripe in August. 

Williams Apple. — A beautiful 
fruit, of medium size aud oUong 
form ; colour deep red ; flavour live- 
ly and very pleasant. First of Au- 
gust. A native of Roxbury, Massa- 
chusetts. 

Maiden's Blush. — One of the hand- 
somest fruits in the country. Size 
large, roundish shape ; skin palo 
greenish-yellow, tinged with a blush ; 
excellent for table use, drying, or 
cooking : ripe in August and Septem- 
ber. 

Autumn Apples. 

Porter Apple. — Fruit large ; ob- 
long shape ; skin bright yellow, with 
a red blusli : ripe in October, and 
commands the highest price in the 
Boston market. 

Fall Pippin, Golden Pippin, Hoi' 
land Pippin, CobhctCs Fall Pippin, 
Vandine. — Of all fall apples, this 
stands at the head of the list. Fruit 
large, and of a roundish oblong form ; 
skin smooth and yellowish- green, tinr 
ged with orange ; flesh tender, with 
rich juice : ripe in October, and keeps 
till January and February. 

Seek-no-farther, JRambo, or Rth 
mtinile. — ^This fruit is much cultiva- 
ted about Philadelphia. Shape flat, 
resembling the Vanderveere, but is a 
better fruit ; skin pale yellow, streak- 
ed with red ; flesh tender and spright- 
ly during the fall : is both a fall and 
winter apple. 



APPLE. 



STROAf, StratU. — A fine fall apple, 
introduced by the Iat« Judge Duel, of 
Albany : in use from September tu 
De<«;nibej-. 

Winter and Spring Apples. 

Esopus Spitzshtburo. — Fruit lar^ 
and oval shape ; colour red, covered 
with light yeUow spots ; flesh of the 
finest flavour for desssen or cooking, 
and keeps till February. 

Baldwin, Baldwin Pippin. — ^In the 
Boston market this fruit has long 
brought the highest prices. Colour 
bright red, tinged with yellow ; flesh 
juicy, rich, swjcet, and most agreea- 
ble flavour: ripe in November, and 
keeps till March. 

BGLL-ruowER. — A beaatiful fruit, 
long celebrated about Piiiladelphia as 
their finest winter fruit ; ripe in Oc- 
tober, and keeps till March. 

Blue Pearmain. — A well-known 
fniit about Boston. Large size ; col- 
our red, covered with a blue bloom ; 
flavour delicious, and keeps till Jan- 
uary. 

HuBBARD8T0^r Nonesuch. — A most 
popular new fruit, lately brought out 
ia Massachusetts, often commanding 
$5 per barrel in the Boston market : 
ripe in November, and keeps till Feb- 
ruary, 

Ladt Apple, Pomme d'Api. — Fruit 
email ; of pale yellow colour, deeply 
tinged with red on one side ; flesh 
crisp and pleasant : ripe in Novem- 
ber, and keeps till April. 

MoNSTRoos Pippin, Gloria Mundi, 
Ox Apple. — Fruit of enormous size, 
sometimes weighing 28 ounces ; of a 
pale yellowish-green colour ; spright- 
ly flavour : ripe in October, and keeps 
till January. 

* Newton Pippin. — Of this most val- 
uable apple there are two varieties, 
the yellow and the green ; no differ- 
ence in quality ; keeps till May, and 
retains its flavour : the most valuable 
variety for shipping to Europe. 

Rhode Island Greening. — Fruit 
large; skin greenish yellow; flesh 
slightly acid and of fine flavour : keeps 
Orom November till April. 

RiBsToN Pippin, also called Formo- 
sa I'ippiu, and G! ::y of York. In 



England esteemed very highly ; me- 
dium size, and globular form ; colour 
yellow, mottled with red next the 
sun : keeps till February. ' 

RoxBUKv RussETiNo. — A flnc old 
native of Massachusetts ; fruit large 
and of a slightly flattened form ; col- 
our brownish-yellow russet, with an 
occasional blush next the sun ; skin 
rough : keeps well till June and July. 
Raised in great quantities near Bos- 
ton for exportation, 4tc. 

SwAAR Apple. — A celebrated win- 
ter fruit in some parts of New-York ; 
of fine flavour; skin greenish-yel- 
low, tinged with a blush : keeps till 
March. 

Wine Apple, Hay's Winter, Large 
Winter Red, Fine Winter. — A beauti- 
ful fruit, highly esteemed in the Phil- 
adelphia market : keeps till February. 

Hollow-cork Pippin. — A new va- 
riety raised in Jefferson county, Ohio. 
It resembles the yellow Newton pip- 
pin in its fine flavour : keeps till April 
and May. 

Ohio Pbaruain. — A new and beau- 
tiful variety in Ohio ; good size ; stri- 
ped red and yellow ; quality excel- 
lent : keeps till May. 

Cider Apples. 

Harrison and Camfield. — Both 
long raised in the neighbourhood of 
Newark, New-Jersey, and Hugh's 
Virginia Crab, much cultivated in 
Pennsylvania and Ohio, are decidedly 
the most valuable varieties for cidei 
to be found in the country. 

In the west and other portions of 
our widely-extended country many 
new varieties of choice apples are 
constantly coming into use. The 
above are varieties found at most of 
the nurseries in the Eastern States. 
I Besides these, there are a large 
! quantity cultivated throughout the 
I country of every shade of merit. The 
Newton pippin, Baldwin, Rhode Isl- 
and greening, and Roxbury rosset- 
ing are the most valuable for expor- 
! tation, both on account of their fla- 
vour and hardihood. They command 
from $9 to $15 the barrel in Eu- 
rope 



Directions for plafUing and mana- 

27 



APPLE, 



fting apple orchards, chiefly from Ken- 
rick : 

•* The seeds of the apple should be 
sown in Autumn in a rich soil. When 
the young plants appear in spring, 
thoy should be carefully thinned to 
the distance of 2 inches asunder, aod 
kept free from weeds till of sufficient 
size to be removed. 

** At I or 2 years of age they are 
taken up, their tap-roots shortened, 
that they may throw out lateral roots ; 
they are transferred to the nursery, 
set in rows about 4 feet asunder, and 
at 1 foot distance from each other in 
the row, in a rich and loamy soil. In 
the summer following they are inoc- 
ulated, or they are ingralled or in- 
oculated the year following. 

" Size and age for tran.'^planting to 
the Orchard. — An apple-tree, when 
finally transplanted to the orchard, 
ought to be at least 6 or 7 feet high, 
with branches in proportion, and full 
2 years from the bud or graft, and 
thrifty. Apple-trees under this size 
belong properly only to the nursery. 

" Distance. — The distance asunder 
to which apple-trees should be finally 
set, when transplanted to the orchard, 
depends upon the nature of the soil, 
and the cultivation to be subsequent- 
ly given. If the soil is by nature ex- 
tremely fertile, 40 feet distance may 
be allowed, and even 45 and 60 feet 
in some very extraordinary situa- 
tions ; for before the trees become 
old, they will completely shade the 
ground. If, however, the soil is not 
very extraordinary by nature, or so 
rendered by art, this distance would 
be too great ; for the trees would be- 
come oM, and their growth would be 
finished before the ground could be 
covered by their shadow : 30 feet only 
may therefore be allowed in land usu- 
ally denominated of good quality, and 
but 20 to 25 feet in land of ordinary 
quality. Bnt where economy of time, 
of land, and of all things else is con- 
sulted, but one half this distance will 
answer for a series of years. 

'♦The quincunx mode is recom- 
mended for close arrangement, and 
short-lived trees may be set in the 
intervals. 

88 



** The period of growth, or the dnrft* 
tion of the apple-tree, is comparative- 
ly limited ; this is sufficiently evident 
from the perishable nature of its tim- 
ber. 

" Sod and Siluation.-^A. rich soil, 
rather moist than dry, is that adapted 
to the apple-tree. 

"On such a soil, whether on the 
plains, or in the valley, or on thB 
sides and summits of our great hills, 
and even in situations the most ex- 
posed, the apple-tree will flourish. 

" Management of the Land. — If the 
ground intended for the orchard can- 
not conveniently be kept wholly in a 
state of cultivation during the first 
years, a portion, at least, ought to be. 

" A strip of land to each row of 8 
or 10 feet in width, well manured, 
may be kept cultivated, and the vege- 
tables which may here be raised will 
amply repay the expense and labour 
bestowed during the first 4 or 5 years. 
After this, if ihe trees have grown 
well, as they probably must have 
done, cultivation at a distance in the 
intervals becomes even more impor- 
tant than within the limited distance 
of a very few feet from the trunk of 
the tree ; for, on examination, it will 
bo found that the small fibres or 
spongclets, by which alone the tree 
derives all the nourishment it re- 
ceives from the earth, are now re- 
mote from the trunk of the tree ; they 
arc now to be found seeking food be- 
yond the limits of its shade, and it 
becomes necessary that the whole 
ground should be kept in a high state 
of cultivation for the 4 or 6 following 
years. After this period it may oc- 
casionally be laid to grass, which, 
however, should be broken up at fre- 
quent intervals, the land being always 
kept in good heart. 

*• Pruning. — If the branches of a 
young tree, issuing at and above the 
requisite height, be made, by pruning, 
to diverge from the trunk in every di- 
rection above the horizontal, and the 
interior of these be carefully kept 
from any interference with each oth- 
er for a few years, little pruning will 
ever afterward be necessary. 

Heavy pruning is scldoju neces 



I* 



APPLE. 



sary or advisable ; bat when, as in 
the case of grafting, or of heading 
down for a new growth, it becomes 
nnavoidable, it should always be per- 
formed in that interval between the 
time the frost is coming out of the 
ground in spring and the opening of 
the leaf. 

•• For that moderate pruning, which 
Hlone is generally needful, June and 
July, and during the longest days of 
summer, is the very best time ; for 
wounds of all kinds heal admirably at 
this period, the wood remaining sound 
and bright ; and even a tree debarked 
at this season recovers a new bark 
immediately. 

*' Trees ought not to be pruned in 
February and March, at the time the 
frost is coming out of the ground. 
This is the season when most trees, 
and particularly the vine and sugar- 
maple, bleed most copiously and in- 
juriously. It causes inveterate cank- 
er, the wounds turn black, and the 
bark, for perhaps several feet below, 
becomes equally black, and perfectly 
dead in consequence' of the bleed- 
ing." 

Mr. Pell, who has an orchard of 
20,000 Newton pippins, has succeed-, 
ed, by the following method, in indu- 
cing the trees to bear crops every 
year : 

" Three years ago in April, 1 
scraped all the rough bark off from 
several thousand trees in my orchard, 
and washed the trunks and limbs 
within reach with soft soap, trimmed 
out all the branches that crossed 
each other early in June, and paint- 
ed the wounded part with white-lead 
to keep out moisture, then split open 
the bark by running a sharp-pomted 
knife from the ground to the first set 
of limbs in the latter part of the 
same month, which prevents the tree 
from becoming bark-bound, and gives 
the inner wood an opportunity of ex- 
panding. In July I placed one peck 
of oyster-shell lime around each tree, 
and left it piled about the trunk un- 
til November, during which three 
months the drought was excessive. 
In November the lime was dug in 
thorooghly. The following year 

C3 



(1842) I cdlected from those trees 
1700 barrels of* fruit, some of which 
was sold in New-York for $4 pei 
barrel, and others in Londoji for $9 
After gathering the fruit in' October 
I manured the same trees with sta- 
ble manure, and covered it imme- 
diately with earth. Strange as it 
may appear, this year they are lit- 
erally bending to the ground with the 
finest fruit I ever saw. The other 
trees in my orchard, not treated as 
above, are barren, next year being 
their bearing year." 

Fruit for exportation and spring 
use must be allowed to ripen well, 
be plucked with the hand, and care- 
fully exposed on the barn floor to dry 
for 15 to 20 days ; they should then 
be placed in clean barrels, and stored 
in a dry cellar not subject to frost. 
In shipping, they should never be 
jolted. They should be placed be- 
tween decks, in an airy situation. 
Fruit grown in dry seasons always 
keeps best. 

The products of the apple-orchard 
are so numerous that there is no lo- 
cality in which it may not be made 
profitable. Not only does the fruit 
command a good price, but cider and 
vinegar are easily obtained, while 
hogs flourish on the fallen fruit, de- 
stroying, at the same time, the fruit 
caterpillar. The pomace, or refuse 
of the cider-mill, is very acceptable 
to cows and swine, or contributes to 
enrich the manure heap. See Culer. 

Indeed, the value of apples as food 
for hoj;s is little appreciated ; but 
there is abundant evidence furnished 
by practical men that they are almost 
as valuable as potatoes. The flesh 
is very firm and fine in swine thus 
fattened. 

InsecU. — Numerous insects affect 
the apple and pear tree, either bo- 
ring the trunk, destroying the young 
leaves, or inhabiting the fruit. The 
fruit caterpillar {Tortriz pomonana) 
causes the fall of many apples before 
the ripening season. The m(»th {/ig- 
j), whose eggs produce the destruc- 
tive worm, is to be seen in the even- 
ings of June and July flying about the 
trees, or on the windows of the house. 

89 



APPLE 



Its ooter wings are marked with 
gray and brown lines anranged in del- 
icate waves, with one large brown 
spot on each, surrounded with a yel- 
low margin ; the head and thorax are 
browiiish-gray, striped ; the under 
win^s and abdomen are of a satin 
orange colour. They deposite an 
egg on several young fruit, and pre- 
fer early varieties. A worm is pro- 
duced In 4 days, which enters the ap- 
ple, eating towards the core, and 
finally through the fruit. In three 
weeks or more the caterpillar (a) es> 



capes, but before this the apple qsq- 

ally falls to the ground, and it seeks 
a shelter among the rough bark of 
the tree or other suitable place to 
spin a cocoon (c). The chrysalis, or 
grub (//), is of a mahogany colour ; it 
remains concealed until the next 
spring before leaving its nest as a 
moth. It is stated by European wri- 
ters that there is another moth, which 
produces two generations annually, 
in the spring and fall. 

Smoking the trees during the ap- 
pearance of the moth with tobacco, 






pitch, and other pungent vapours, is 
used with some success. The col- 
lection of fallen fruit once or twi^e a 
day secures the worm, which may 
be destroyed ; but they instinctively 
leave the apple soon af\er its fail. 
Rags, or straw bands tied around the 
stem, serve as a decoy to the cater- 
pillar to form his cocoon uncter their 
shelter. The figures from Kollar rep- 
resent this troublesome insect, which 
infests pears and other fruits like- 
wise : it is the codling moth of Euro- 
pean writers. 

The caterpillars which exist in 
such large quantities in webs at the 
i unction of the branches, and devour 
the spring foliage of apples and most 
trees, are the larvae of the Clissio- 
campa neustriat Americana, and other 
species ; they are readily destroyed 
by either collecting the nests and 
burning them, or by applying a sponge 
dipped in strong hartshorn, a solution 
of sulphuret of lime, or any other 
powerful poison. They are called 
lackey or tent caterpillars by Euro- 
pean writers. 

The Canker worm, green looper cat- 

30 



crpillar. destructite to the buds of ap- 
ples and other trees, is the larva of 
the Geometra brumata (or Phalana), 
the winter moth. The figure repre- 
sents {a) the male, and {b) the female 





moth. The male is winged, but the 
female crawls only ; she may be seen 
ascending the trunk of trees in the 
fall to deposite her eggs in the. au- 
tumnal buds : and is of an ash-gray 
colour. The caterpillars are at first 
gray, but afterward light green ; they 
devour flowers, leaves, and fruit ; 
and when they take up their abode 
on any part, construct a small web 



k 



APR 

or cell Ibr protection. About May 
they begin to leave the tree, descend- 
inj^ by a thread to the soil ; here they 
bHry themselves to become pappse, 
and reappear as moths from August 
to November. The destruction of 
the fea\a]e moths is attempted by 
fastening strips of paper smeared 
with tar round the trunk, which ar- 
rests their ascent. Kollar recom- 
mends the construction of a box 
around tlie lower part of tlie trunk, 
covered on all sides with a projecting 
top, to be kept smeared with tar. The 
caterpillars are also fumigated with 
tobacco, &c., smoke. O^her geome- 
ters also infest fruit-trees. 

Apple-borer. The Saperda bivit- 
laia^ Say. Sec Borers. 

The Applb-wbkyil, Curculio {Ait' 
Ikonomus) pomorum, is of a grayish 




I lutttfBliiie. 

colour, dcposites her eggs in the 
flower budis in spring; the grub is 
small, white, with a black head, it be- 
coming yellow. The flowers and fruit 
are de'stroyed by them.  The curcu- 
lio may be shaken from the tree in 
spring, and destroyed by chickens. 
The trees are also subject to aphides, 
American blight, other caterpillaxs, 
6lc. 

APRICOT. (Armeniaca vulgaris.) 
The following remarks are by Mr. 
Pell: 

*' This fruit does exceedingly well 
when budded towards the end of Ju- 
ly, on plum stocks two years old. 
The peach answ^ers very well like- 
wise. When three years old, I set 
them out in a very rich black mould. 
I find they- do much better under 
glass Ihan in.the open air. In either 
case they should be disbudded in the 
month of May, and ail the superflu- 
ous shoots taken off In November 
they should be shortened to sixteen 
inches ; by so doing tue trees will be 



ARA 

kept vigorous and healthy. Their 
principal enemies are the carcolios, 
wasps, and flics, which may be kept 
off by means of nets." 

The Moorpark and Turkey are both 
esteemed varieties, as also the fol- 
lowing : breda, gold blotch, musk 
Schuylers, orange, peach, and violet, 
Lindley recommends grafting on the 
mussel plum stock. The position o. 
the tree ought to be sheltered and 
late. It answers admirably in the 
South, where it is grown as a stand- 
ard, but in New- York it requires a 
warm wall. 

APRIL. This is the great month 
for ploughing and scedmg crops in 
the North; the land should be pre- 
pared for potatoes, beets, and root 
crops, as well as corn. Tobacco seed 
is sown early, and farther south the 
young plants of cotton and sugar- 
cane arc hoed and weeded. The gar- 
den and orchard arc to be closely at- 
tended to. 

APTERANS, APTERA. Wing- 
less insects. 

APYREXIA. The cool or quiet 
stage of intermittent fevers. 

AQUA FORTIS. Nitric acid, uau- 
ally dilute. 

AQUA REGIA. A mixture of ni- 
trie and muriatic acids. 

AQUATIC PLANTS. Such as 
gn^vv submerged. 

AQUEOUS HUMOUR. The fluid 
in the anterior chamber of the eye. 

ARABLE LAND, so called from 
the Latin w^ord arare, " to plough," is 
that part of the land which is chiefly 
cultivated by means of the plough. 

Land in general is divided into ara- 
ble, grass land, wood land, common 
pasture, and waste. The lirst of these 
is by far the most important in agri- 
culture. In this article we shall brief- 
ly explain the principles on which are 
founded the most improved methods 
of cultivating arable land, by which 
the natural produce of the soil is great- 
ly increased, and many productions 
arc obtained in perfection which are 
foreign to the soil and climate. 

1. We shall consider the nature and 
properties of various soils. 

2. The best modes of preparing and 

81 



ARABLE LAND. 



improving the natural soil, so as to 
increase its produce. 

3. The most advantageous succes- 
sion of crops, so as to obtain the 
greatest returns with the least dimi- 
nution of fertility. 

1. Soils. — When the surface of the 
earth is penetrated, we generally find 
that the appearance, texture, and col- 
our vary at dilferent depths. There 
is a layer of earth nearest the surface, 
of greater or less thickness, which 
covers the more solid and uniform 
materials which lie below it. This 
may be particularly observed wherev- 
er there are natural or artificial exca- 
vations or pits. A distinct line, near- 
ly parallel to the surface, generally 
marks the depth of the upper soil, and 
separates it from the subsoil. The 
soil is more or less composed of mi- 
nute parts of various kinds of earth, 
mixed with animal and vegetable sub- 
stances in different states of decom- 
position ; and to these, in a great 
measure, it owes its colour, which is 
generally darker than that of the sub- 
soil. Except where iron, peat, coal, 
or slate abound in the soil, a dark 
solour is an indication of correspond- 
ing fertility. The rich soil of gardens 
long cultivated and highly manured is 
nearly black. As the soil is the bed 
in which all vegetable productions are 
to be reared, and in which they are to 
find their proper nourishment, its tex- 
ture and composition become objects 
of great importance to the cultivator ; 
and, without a competent knowledge 
of these, no practical rules can be laid 
down or depended upon. 

All soils are composed of earthy 
and metaUic oxides, saline substan- 
ces, vegetable and animal matter, and 
water. The earths are chiefly clay 
or alumina, flint or silica, and lime. 

Magnesia, barytes, and other earths 
are occasionally met with, but in so 
few instances that they may be omit- 
ted in the list. 

Of the metals, the most abundant 
is iron in the state of peroxide. The 
other metals are rarely found near the 
surface. 

Saline substances form a small part 
of a soU, but an important one. 

83 



Potassa exists in almost every vd- 
getable, soda in a few, and ammonia 
is produced by the decomposition of 
animal matter ; but, from its volatile 
nature, it is not long retained in the 
soil, except when it forms a fixed 
compound with other substances. 

The vegetable acids, as a general 
rule, are perhaps limited to small por- 
tions of acetic acid in combination 
with some base, as lime or potash. 

The mineral acids are found united 
with earths and alkalies, in the state 
of neutral compounds. 

These saline substances have a 
powerful efll^ct on vegetation ; and a 
knowledge of their proportions in the 
soil, and of their various qualities, is 
indispensable in order to modify or 
correct their action by other substan- 
ces for which they have an affinity. 

Water, in a slate of combination, 
or of mere mechanical diffusion, is 
essentia] to the growth of all plants : 
without it and atmospheric air there 
is no life, either animal or vegetable. 

The Earths. — Clay is called alumina 
because it is obtained in its purest 
state from alum, in which it is com- 
bined with the sulphuric acid : it is 
the basis of all strong and heavy soils. 
When clay is minutely divided, it is 
easily suspended in water ; when 
dried slowly, and stirred while^ dry- 
ing, it becomes a fine powder, sofk 
to the feel ; and when kneaded with 
water, a tough, ductile mass, easily 
moulded into hollow vessels which 
retain liquids. This property of being 
impervious to water gives the specific 
character to clay as an ingredient of 
the soil. In a pure and unmixed state 
it is absolutely barren. When clay is 
heated to a great degree it parts with 
the water combined with it ; it is then 
said to be baked, as we see in bricks. 
It is no longer diffusible in water. 

Silica, or the earth of flints, suffers 
no change in waier. It consists of 
crystals, or fragments of very hard 
stone, forming gravel or sand accord- 
ing to their size ; and the finest sili- 
cious sand, when examined with ai 
magnifying glass, has the appearance 
of irregular fragments of sione wjih- 
out any cohesion between them. 



ARABLE LAND. 



SQictons sand holds water in its in- j 
terstices by simple cohesive attrac- 
tion in proportion to its fineness. It 
lets water pass through it rapidly, ei- 
ther by filtration or evaporation. Its 
use in the soil is to keep it open, to 
let the air and water, as well as those 
other substances on which the growth 
of plants depends, circulate through 
it. Unmixed, it dries so rapidly tHat 
no vegetation can continue in it, un- 
less a constant supply of moisture be 
given by irrigation. A small addition 
of clay much improves light sands. 

Limd In its pure state is familiar 
to every one as the feasis of the mor- 
tar used in building. It is produced 
by burning marble, chalk, limestone, 
or shells with a great heat. In the 
stones which are formed principally 
of lime it is combined with some acid, 
most generally carbonic acid, which 
separates from it by the operation of 
burning, in the form of an air or gas, 
hence called jixti, airj from its being 
thus Jixed in a stone. These stones, 
of Yarious degrees of hardness, are 
now all classed under the oame of 
carbonates of iime. 

Lime unites readily with water, 
which it also absorbs from the atmo- 
sphere. It then becomes slacked. By 
uniting with carbonic acid, it returns 
to its former state of carbonate, with 
this difference, that, unless much wa- 
ter be present, it remains a fine im- 
palpable powder. Pure iime is solu- 
ble in water, though sparingly ; a pint 
of water cannot dissolve more than 
about twenty grains : the carbonate 
is not soluble in water. Carbonate of 
lime has a powerful efifect on the fer- 
tility of a soil, and no soil is very pro- 
dnctive without it. It is consequently 
used extensively as an improver of 
the soil, otherwise called a manure ; 
but its use in this respect, and the 
mode in which it acts, will be given 
in the articles Manors and Limb. 

Carbonate of lime, as ah earth, is 
neither bo tenacious as clay nor so 
loose as sand. In proportion to the 
fineness of its particles, it approaches 
the one or the other ; when the parts 
are large and hard, it takes the name 
'»<" limestone or calcareous gravel. 



Its distinguishing feature is its sol 
ubility in acids, which it neutralizes, 
depriving them of their no.Yious qual« 
ities in the soil, A proper mixture 
of these three earths, in a due state 
of mechanical division, forms a soil 
well fitted to the growth of every 
species of plants, especially those 
which are cultivated for food ; and 
nothing mqre is required than a prop- 
er climate as to heat, a proper degree 
of moisture, and sufficient nourish- 
ment, to make all the plants generally 
cuUivated thrive most luxuriantly in 
such a mixture, which is usually call- 
ed a loam. 

But there are some soils which, be- 
sides a proper mechanical texture and 
mixture of earths, contain a large pro- 
portion of a natural manure, which 
renders them extremely fertile. Tliis 
is a substance produced by the slow 
decay of animal and vegetable mat- 
ter. It can be separated from the 
other parts of the soil, and has been 
accurately analyzed and described by 
many of the most experienced chem- 
ists, particularly by Fourcroy, Davy, 
Chaptat, and Theodore do Saussure. 
(See Rcckerches Chimiquea sur la Vi- 
gilatiany Paris, 1804, 8vo.) This 
substance has been called vegetable 
mould ; but, as this is not a very dis- 
tinct term, we shall, after Thaer and 
other eminent writers on agriculture, 
adopt the name of humus when speak- 
ing of it. Humus is a dark, unctuous, 
friable substance, nearly uniform in 
its appearance. It is a compound of 
oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, and nitro- 
gen, which are the elements of all an- 
imal and vegetable substances. It is 
the result of the slow decomposition 
of organic matter in the earth, and is 
found in the greatest abundance in 
rich garden mould, or old, neglected 
dunghills. It varies somewhat in its 
qualities and composition, according 
to the substances from which it has 
been formed and the circumstances 
attending their decay. 

Besides the four essential elements 
in its composition, it also contains 
other substances in smaller quanti- 
ties, viz., phosphoric and sulphuric 
acids combined with some base, and 

33 



ARABLE LAND 



also earths and salts. It aflbrds food 
to plants. It is diminished by the 
process of vegetation, and wasted by 
being carried into the ocean by the 
waters, or it is carried into the atmo- 
sphere by the agency of the oxygen 
of the air, which converts it into gas- 
eous matter, chiefly carbonic acid. 

Humus, in the state in which it is 
usually found in the earth, is not sol- 
uble m water, and we might have 
some difficulty in comprehending how 
it enters into the minute vessels of 
the roots of plants ; but here the ad- 
mirable provision of nature may be 
observed. Humus is insoluble and 
antiseptic ; it resists farther decom- 
position in itself, and in other sub- 
stances in contact with it. It re- 
mains for a long time in the earth un- 
impaired ; but no sooner is it brought 
into contact with the atmosphere by 
the process of cultivation, than an 
action begins. Part of its carbon, 
uniting with the oxygen of the atmo- 
sphere, produces carbonic acid, which 
the green parts of plants readily ab- 
sorb ; while its hydrogen, with the 
same, forms water, without which 
plants cannot live ; and in very warm 
climates, where this process goes on 
more rapidly, the moisture thus produ- 
ced keeps up vegetable life when rains 
and dews fail. The residue becomes 
a soluble extract y and in that state is 
taken up readily by the fibres of the 
roots. Hence we see the great impor- 
tance of frequently stirring the sur- 
face uf the earth between vegeta- 
bles. 

We can now readily understand 
tho great importance of humus, and 
of those rich manures which are 
readily converted into it, when not 
immediately absorbed by plants. But 
it has still another property, highly 
important to fertility : it renders stifiT 
clays porous, and consolidates loose 
sands. It does so more than lime or 
any other earth. Hence a soil with 
a considerable portion of humus is 
much more fertile than the quantity 
of alumina or of sand in its compo- 
sit*'jn would lead one to expect, as 
we shall see when we come to the 
analysis of soils of known fertility ; 
34 



I and we see the great advantage of 
animal and vegetable manures, not 
only as nourishment to vegetables, 
but as mechanical improvers of the 
texture of soils. 

The greatest enemy of humus ia 
stagnant water : it renders it inert 
and astringent, as we see in peat; 
and soils abounding with vegetable 
masters, from which water is not 
properly drained, become soury as is 
very justly said, and produce only 
rushes and other useless and unpal- 
atable plants. The remedy is simple 
and obvious : drain well, and neutral- 
ize the acid with lime or marl; by 
these means abundant fertility will 
be restored. 

In very light soils humus is seldom 
found in any quantity, being loo much 
exposed to the air, and rapidly de- 
composed ; tho extract is washed 
through them by the waters, and, as 
they waste manure rapidly, they are 
called hungry. Such soils are very un- 
profitable until they are improved and 
consolidated by clay or marl, which 
makes them retain their moisture. 

With calcareous earths humus acts 
well, provided they are pulverized 
and of sufficient depth. 

In order to ascertain the probable 
fertility of a soil, it is very useful to 
analyze it, and find out the propor- 
tion of its component parts. To do 
this with great accuracy requires the 
knowledge of an experienced chem- 
ist. See Analysis. 

Mr. Thaer has given a clasfsifica- 
tionof soils of known qualities, which 
we think worthy of notice. Ii is as 
follows : 







•X 


•1 


^1^ 


/•J 








• c 


•i" 


C 2 

E C 




No. 








>- ~ ». 




■a 

> 


1 


1 ( 


74 


10 


•«>» 


iiSt luo 


-i 


. Fir»tcbui«»of»tronj 
f wlirat autla . .' 


Kl 


6 


4 


f>^.' M 


3 


7'.» 


10 


4 


(^>^! M 


4 


1 I 


40 


2J 


2« 


4 


yr 


A 


( Rirh li|^it rand io 
{ nntar.ll fjit»» . ) 


14 


49 


10 


:7 


? 














6 


Fiii Ji \<s\T\ry lunil • 


:o 


•rr 


3 


10 ' 7S 


7 


Onotl wheat Und . 


.«« 


3»i 


« 


4 1 77 


8 


Wbcmt UnJ . 


Mi 


:;o 


Vi 


•i 75 


9 


Do 


•a» 1 r^H 


•^ 


•: i TO 


10 


Do 


+^ I Wl 


t . 


3 ' ti'. 


11 


Do 


(i« w 


h % 


■i 1 '.-O 


12 


Good nnrl4>j land 


.W C/i 


w ^ 


C ' fiO 


13 


Do. Mcoad quJtUtjr 


83 , KV 


ii 

— a 


i 60 


14 


Do 


8« 70 


•i 40 


16 


Oat land . 


Vi% Tft 


t«^ 


\}i\ 30 


16 


Do. . . • 


\m w 


*> 

to 


IK 20 



ARABLE LAND. 



Below this are veiy poor rye lands. 

in all these soiis iUc depth is sup- 
p\/6ed the same, and the quahty uni- 
form to the depth of at least 6 inch- 
es ; the subsoil sound, and neither 
loo wet nor too dry. 

Nos. 1, 2, and 3 are allavial soils, 
and, from the division and the inti- 
mate union of the liumus, are not so 
heavy and stiffas the quantity of clay 
woukl indicate. 

No. 4 is a rich day loam, neither 
too heavy nor too loose : a soil ea- 
sily kept in heart by judicious culti- 
vation. 

No. 6 is very light and rich, and 
best adapted for gardens and or- 
chards, hut not for corn ; hence its 
comparative value can scarcely be 
given. 

Nos. 6, 7, and 8 are good soils ; 
the quantity of carbonate of lime in 
No. 8 compensates for the smaller 
portion of humus. This land requires 
manure, as well as the others below. 
In those from No. 9 downward lime 
or marl would be the greatest im- 
provement. Nos. 15 and 16 are poor 
Lgbt soils, requirinir clay and much 
manure ; but even these lands will 
repay the cost of judicious cultiva- 
tion, and rise in value. 

The last column, of comparative 
value, is the result of several years' 
careful valuation of the returns, after 
labour and seed had been deducted. 

Few old soils contain more than 4 
or 5 per cent, of humus, even when 
in very good heart ; and 2 per cent., 
with a good loamy texture, will ren- 
der a soil fit for corn with judicious 
cultivation. The texture is of most 
importance, as may be seen by com- 
paring Nos. 7 and 8 with No. 6. If 
this is of good quality, dung will soon 
give the proper supply of humus. 

The depth of the soil and the na- 
ture of the subsoil greatly affect its 
value. However rich it may be, if 
there is only a thin layer of good soil 
over a sharp gravel or a wet clay, it 
can never he very productive : in the 
first case, it will be parched in dry 
weather ; and in the latter, convert- 
ed into mud by every continued rain. 
If the subsoil be loam, six inches of 



I good soil will be sufficient. With a 
, foot of good soil, the subsoil is of lit- 
tle consequence, provided it be dry, 
and the water can find a ready outlet 

The exposure, with respect to the 
sun, and the declivity of the ground, 
are very important circumstai)»res, 
and equivalent to an actual differ- 
ence in the climate. A gentle de- 
clivity towards the south, and a shel- 
ter against cold winds, may make as 
great a diflference as several degrees 
of latitude. 

2. Cultivation of tub Soil. — ^The 
better the soil, the loss culiivation it 
requires to produce tolerable crops; 
hence, where the land is very rich, 
we find in general a slovenly culture ; 
where the ground is less productive, 
more labour and skill arc applied to 
compensate for the want ol" natural 
fertility. The simplest cultivation is 
that of the spado, the hoe, and the 
rake, and on a small scale it is the 
best ; but spade husbandry cannot 
be carried to a great extent without 
employing more hands than can be 
spared from other oc('U|)ations. The 
plough, drawn by oxen or horses, is 
the chief instrument of tillage, and 
has been so in all ages and nations 
of which we have any records. Its 
general form is familiar to every one, 
and requires no minute description. 
The various kinds of ploughs in use 
at different times, and the improve- 
ments which have been made and 
are attempted daily, will be noticed 
in a separate article (see Plough). 
Suffice it to say, at present, that a 
plough should, as much as possible, 
imitate the work done with a spade. 
It should cut a slice from the land 
by its coulter vertically, and by the 
share horizontally lift it up, and turn 
it quite over by means of the mould- 
board ; and the art of the ploughman 
consists in doing this perfectly, and 
with such a depth and width as 
suit the soil and the intended pur- 
pose. In tenacious soils the slice 
will be continued without breaking, 
especially if bound by the fibres and 
roots of plants ; the wholo surface 
will be turned over, and the roots 
exposed to the air. It is of great 

Z9' 



ARABLE LAND. 



consequence that each slice be of the 
same width and thickness, and the 
sides of it perfectly straight and par- 
allel. The plane of the coulter must 
be perfectly vertical, and that of ihe 
share horizontal, in order that tlie 
bottom of the furrow may be level, 
without hollows or balks, which are 
irregularities produced by the rising 
T sinking of the plough, or inclining 
i vo either side. There are various 
ii. des of ploughing land, either quite 
flat, or in beds or stitches — that is, 
in portions of greater or less width, 
with a double furrow between them, 
somewhat like beds in a garden. 
Sometimes two ridges are set up 
against each other, which is called 
ridging or boutivg ; the land then is 
entirely laid in hiph ridges and deep 
furrows, by which it is more exposed 
to the influence of the air, and kept 
drier: this is generally done before 
winter, especially in stiff, wet soils. 
Sometimes two or more ridges are 
made on each side, forming narrow 
stitches. When the ground is to be 
ploughed without being laid in stitch- 
es, and all the ridges inclined one 
way, the mould-board of the plough 
is shifted at each turn from one side 
to the other. The double mould- board 
plough of Barnaby and Mooers does 
this effectively. When grass land or 
stubble is ploughed, care must be ta- 
ken to bury the grass and weeds com- 
pletely, and the slice cut off by the 
plough must be turned over entirely, 
which is best done by making the 
width of the furrow greater than the 
depth. When the grass and weeds 
are rotten, and th^ ground is plough- 
ed to pulverize it, a narrow, deep fur- 
row is best ; the c^rth ploughed up 
is laid against the Bide of the prece- 
ding ridge, which forms a small fur- 
row between the tops of'the ridges, 
well adapted for the seed to lodge in 
and to be readily covered with the 
harrow. 

Nothing has ^vided both practical 
and theoretical agriculturists more 
than the question whether the land 
should be ploughed deep or shallow ; 
but a very slight attention to the pur- 
poses for which land is ploughed, and 
36 



to the nature of the soil, will readily 
reconcile these apparently contradic- 
tory opinions. A deep, rich, and siiif 
soil can never be moved too much 
nor too deep : deep ploughing brings 
up rich earth, admits the air and 
water readily, and gives room for 
the roots to shoot, while the rich 
compact soil affords moisture and 
nourishment. Wherever trees are to 
be planted the ground should bestir- 
red as deep as possible, even in a poor 
soil : for grass and corn, this is not 
always prudent ; their roots seldom 
go above three or four inches deep, 
and if they find sufficient moisture 
and humus, they require little more 
depth. 

Whenever the soil below a certain 
depth is of an inferior quality, there 
can be no use in bringing it up ; and 
where the soil is li^ht and porous, 
the bottom had much better not be 
broken. 

The great object in ploughing land 
is to divide it, expose every part of 
it to the influence of the elements, 
and destroy every plant or weed but 
those which are sown in it. To do 
this perfectly requires several plough- 
ings. 

Where the soil is good, with a po- 
rous subsoil, the greatest care should 
be taken not to go too deep ; but 
where the subsoil is compact and im- 
pervious to water, but not wet for 
want of outlet or draining, it is use- 
ful to stir the soil to a great depth, 
but without bringing it to the sur- 
face, which may be done by a plough 
without a mould-board following a 
common plough in the same furrow. 
This is an excellent mode of drain- 
ing, and, at the same time, keeping 
a reservoir of moisture, which in dry 
weather ascends in vapours through 
the soil and refreshes the roots. 

The mode in which the soil is pro- 
pared most perfectly for the recep- 
tion of the seed is best shown by fol- 
lowing the usual operations on fal- 
lows : After the harvest, the plough 
is set to work and the stubble plough- 
ed in. The winter's frost and snow 
mellow it, while the stubble and weeds 
rot below« In spring, as soon as the 



ARABLE LAND. 



weather permits, it is ploughed attain, ' 
the first ridjEres being turned over as 
they were before : this completes the , 
decomposition of the roots and weeds. 
It is then stirred with harrows or oth- 
er instruments, which tear up the 
roots which remained, and sonic of • 
these, not being easily destroyed, are 
carefully gathered and bunied, or put 
in a heap to ferment and rot, a por- 
tion of quicklime being added. An- 
other ploughing and stirring follows, 
at some interval, till the whole ground 
is mellow, pulverized, and free from 
weeds ; manure is put on, if required, 
and immediately spread and ploughed 
in : the land is then prepared for the 
seed. 

Various instruments have been in- 
▼ented to stir the earth and mix it 
without so often using the plough, 
and also to loosen and separate roots 
and weeds ; of these the principal 
are the cultivator or scarifier, which 
enters but a few inches into the 
ground, and moves a great surface 
by means of iron teeth of various 
constructions. 

This instrument divides the soil, 
but does not turn it over ; it is well 
calculated to destroy roots and weeds, 
and let in the air ; but, evidently, is 
only adapted to tolerably loose and 
mellow soils, where there are no 
large stones. 

\Vhen the s^il turned up by the 
plough is in large, hard lumps, a roll- 
er, sometimes with spikes in it, is 
drawn over the land to break the 
clods ; but this is seldom necessary 
e.xrept where very siiffsoils have been 
ploughed when too wet, and the ridges 
have dried, and been plouglied again 
in dry weather. Deep wet clay soils 
should be carefully watched, to know 
when is the proper time to plough 
them. Nothing pulverizes them like 
frost ; and if they are kept from wet 
by careful draining and numerous 
water-furrows in autumn, they will 
be loose and friable in spring ; they 
had better not be touched than work- 
ed when too wet. On light soils the 
plain roller is used to advantage to 
produce firmness, without which the 
plough cannot so well turn the ground 

D 



over completely, but merely pushes 
il to the ri;j:i»t and left. 

Tlie influence of the atnmsphc^re 
on the soil, and the intTca.scd fertili- 
ty produced by pulverizing and stir- 
ring heavy lan<ls, has led to the no- 
lion adopted by Jethro Tull, that la- 
bour might entirely supersede tl." 
necessity of manure ; hence the ori- 
gin of the horse-hoeinj? husbandry, 
which at one lime was so hi;,lily 
thought of as to be called, by way of 
distinction, the new hn.sbandrv. 

There are some soils which are 
so mixed with pebbles and stones 
that the foregoing observations will 
scarcely be applicable, and the in- 
struments must be adapted to their 
texture. The only inconvenience 
found from tlicm in good soils is that 
they occupy the room of better earth, 
and wear out the instruments used, 
which, in consequence, are made 
stronger and blunter. When there 
is a crop to be mown with the scythe, 
the stones must be removed from the 
surface. 

When the land has been duly pre- 
pared, the seed is sown. This is 
done sometimes before the la^t 
ploughing, but then the manure 
should have been ploughed in be- 
fore ; for, except in planting the po 
ta.to, which is not a seed, but a bulb, 
the manure should always be deeper, 
and not in contact with the s<ed. 
When the seed is plougt»cd in, the 
furrow should not be above two or 
three inches deep and eight or nine 
wide ; and it is only in particular 
soils that this mode is to be recom- 
mended. The most common method 
is to sow the seed on the land alter 
the last ploughing, and draw the har- 
rows over to cover it. When the 
land has been well ploughed, the seed 
will mostly fall in the small furrows 
made by two adjoining ridj^es, and 
rise in regular rows ; but by far the 
most perfect way is to sow it at a 
regular depth, by means of a ma- 
chine, and in rows at regular di.-^tan- 
ces. See Drill. 

The proper season for sowinu' each 
kind of grain, the choice of seed, and 
other parti, dars, will be given under 

37 



ARABLE LAND. 



the name of the difl^rent seeds usu- 
ally sown. As a general rule, it may 
be observed, that the smaller the 
seed, the less it must be covered, 
and clover or grass seed is not usu- 
ally harrowed iu, but only pressed in 
with tlje roller. 

3. Succession of Crops, or Rota- 
tions. — It has been found by expe- 
rience that, besides the general ex- 
haustion of humus, each kind of crop 
has a specific effect on the soil, so 
that no care or manure can make the 
same ground produce equal crops of 
the same kind of grain for any length 
of time without the intervention of 
other crops. Whether this be owing 
to any peculiar nourishment neces- 
sary to each particular kind of plants, 
or because plants not indigenous de- 
generate in a foreign soil, the fact is 
certain with respect to most crops 
usually raised, and particularly red 
clover. This points out the advan- 
tage of varying the crops, according 
as they are found to succeed best 
after each other. In general, all 
kinds of grain succeed best aller a 
crop which has been cut before the 
seed has ripened or the stem is dried 
up. Those plants which have a na- 
ked stem with few leaves thrive best 
aAer leguminous plants, which have 
more succulent stems and more 
leaves, and which bear their seeds 
in pods, as pease, beans, tares, or 
vetches ; or after esculent roots, 
which strike deep into the ground, as 
carrots, parsnips, beet-roots, and tur- 
nips. From this circumstance, con- 
firmed by universal experience, the 
different systems of rotation have 
had their origin, taking the nature of 
the soil into consideration. 

The Norfolk rotation is, 1. Tur- 
nips, well manured ; 2. Barley ; 3. 
Clover ; 4. Wheat ; by which a suf- 
ficiency of food for sheep and cattle 
is obtained without natural pastures, 
and the land, manured every fourth 
year at least, is kept in a regular 
state of progressive improvement. 

A very common rotation in Scot- 
land is, fallow, wheat, clover, or 
grass, fed one, two, or three years ; 
then oats, pease, or beans, and wheat 

38 



again, if the land is clean and in goad 

heart ; for there is no rule better es* 
tablished than that of never allowing 
the soil to be exhausted beyond a 
certain point, where manure and til- 
lage can readily recruit it. The 
greenly cultivator is sure to pay dear- 
ly in the end for every crop forced 
from the land unreasonably. 

The Flemish husbandry proceeds 
much on this principle. The great- 
est attention is paid to manuring and 
weeding. Much more manual labour 
is bestowed, and the crops seem 
more certain, varied, and abundant. 
That it is not unprofitable, we may 
conclude from the wealth of the peas- 
ants, the comfort of the labourers, 
and the sleek appearance of the cat- 
tle. From the very interesting ac- 
count of Flemish agriculture in the 
work of Mr. Van Aelbroek, of Ghent, 
we learn with what great care the 
soil is cultivated in Flanders. After 
ploughing lands, every intervening 
furrow is deepened and cleared with 
the spade, the earth being thrown 
over the bed sown. Liquid manure, 
chiefly the urine of animals and drain- 
ings of dunghills, is carefully col- 
lected, and is carried on and distribu- 
ted over the poor light soils by means 
of water-carts, before sowing, and 
again when the crop is come up. By 
this means such lands are made to 
yield crops of rape seed, clover, lu- 
cern, flax, and corn, equal in luxn- 
riance to those on the richest soils. 
Fallows are rendered unnecessary by 
the careful destruction of weeds ; in 
short, it is a garden culture on an ex- 
tended scale. All the land is in till- 
age, except where rivers occasion- 
ally overflow, and render the mead* 
ows rich and profitable. The cattle 
are mostly kept in stables, and fed 
with green food cut and brought tc 
them, by which means one .acre ol 
clover, lucern, or other artificial grass 
will maintain five times as many 
beasts, or more, as an acre of the 
best pasture. But the great object 
is to increase manure, especially in a 
liquid state, which is carefully pre- 
served in reservoirs, without loss or 
waste, till wanted for the land. Thif 



AUB 



ARO 



system is also ftoUowed in Swiizer- 

In Holstein, on moderately good 
soil, ihey adopt the following course : 
1. Oats, on newly broken-up grass 
land ; 2. A fallow to destroy grasses 
and weeds, and accelerate the de- 
composition of their roots; 3. Wheat, 
with or without manure, according 
to the state of the land ; 4. Beans, 
barley, or oats ; 5. Wheat, manured, 
unless it has been done for the beans 
the year before ; 6. Qrass seeds pas- 
tured for three years or more» when 
the rotation begins again. 

W'e have now given a brief outline 
of the manner in which arable land 
may be cultivated and improved. If 
we should be asked whether so much 
attempt ion and labour upon land of a 
proper quality will be repaid by the 
value of the produce, we shall an- 
swer, without any hesitation, in the 
afilrmative, provided the cultivator 
is possessed of knowledge, judgment, 
and experience, and devotes all his 
time to the superintendence of his 
farm — (VV. L. Eham.) 

ARAC.CAR0ID-£. The natural 
family of plants, including the arum, 
Indian turnip, and skunk cabbage. 

ARACHXIDANS, ARACHNIDA. 
A class of apterous, spider-like con- 
dylupes, having the head coufluent 
with the chest, and the body, conse- 
quently, consisting of but two seg- 
ments, with eight legs, smooth eyes, 
and the sexu^ orifices situated on 
the thorax, or anterior part of the 
abdomen. 

ARATION. Ploughing. 
ARBOR. The princip^ spindle or 
axis of a machine. 

ARBORESCENT. Inclining to, 
or becoming woody. 

ARBORICULTURE. The culti- 
valion of trees. 

ARBORETUM. A place for the 
cultivation of trees. 

ARBOR VIT.^. Thuja occidenta- 
lism A well-known coniferous ever- 
green, of small size, but very durable. 
It abounds in the Northern States. 
ap'J has oeen much recommended as 
8 hedge. The plants are best raised 
from seed. There is a species from 



China much admired in the shrub- 

beries of Europe. 

ARBUSTUM. An orchard or vine- 
yard. 

ARBUTUS. A genus of handsome 
evergieea shrubs of the natural fam- 
ily Ericaceae. The fruit is succulent, 
but austere, and in the A. uncdo a 
beautiful object. The Arbutus an- 
drachie is the most admired of this 
genus. The A. uva ursi yields a use- 
ful medicine. They are much cul- 
tivated as shrubbery plants in Eu- 
rope, and belong to the first class for 
beautv 

ARCESTIIIDA. A small succu- 
lent cone, as the juniper berry. 

ARCHIL. A purple dye-stuff pro- 
cured from the Rocella tinctoria and 
fudfarmis, lichens growing on the 
rocks of the Canary Islands. 

ARCHITRAVE. The chief beam 
or structure resting immediately upon 
the columns of an edifice, the lowest 
member of the entablature ; also call- 
ed the epistylium. 

ARCUATE. Bent like a bow. 

ARECA. An East Indian palm, the 
nut of which is chewed with the betel. 

ARENACEOUS. Sandy, relating 
to sand. 

AREOLAE. In entomology, the 
small spaces between the nervures 
of the wings. 

AREOMETER. An instrument for 
taking specific gravities. See Hy' 
dromctcr. 

ARGIL, ARGILLACEOUS. Clay, 
cl&vev 

ARILLA, ARIL, ARIEL. A mem- 
branous prolongation of the placenta 
over a seed, as the mace of the nut- 
meg. 

ARM OF A HORSE. The upper 
part of the fore legs. 

ARMILLA. The coloured circle 
of the lower end of the fore leg, above 
the tarsus of birds. 

ARMY WORM. See Collcm, Dis- 
eases of. 

ARNOTTO. See Armotta. 

AROMA, AROMATIC. A pleas- 
ant spicy odour, usually due to a vol- 
atile oil. 

AROMATIC REED. Aeorus eala- 
mus. Sweet flag, a common indige- 

39 



ARU 

I10U3 water plant, the rhizome of 
whifh is of a 5picy odour. It is the 
Calamus aromaHcns «»f the druggists. 
ARPKNT. Tlie French acre of 
51,6i)l sqare feet. 

AKRACACHA. The South ifracr- 
ican name for an umbelliferous plant, 
the Arracucia cscuUnta of botanists, 
whose fleshy sweet roots are cultiva- 
ted in Columbia and Jamaica, in the 
mountainous parts of those countries, 
in the same way as parsnips and car- 
rots in Europe. The roots are of 
large size, and in quality are, when 
cooked, between a sweet chestnut 
and a parsnip. Attempts to intro- 
duce it into common European cul- 
tivation have uniformly failed. — 
(Brande.) 

ARRACK. A whiskey of unpleas- 
ant odour, obtained by distilling the 
liquor of the fermented mush of rice. 
It is sometimes applied to other spir- 
ituous liquors. . 

A R R O W-G R A S S. The genus 
Triffhchin. They are small marsh 
grasses, perennial, and flowering in 
July; some grow on salt marsh. 
They are eaten by cattle. 

ARROW-HEAD. SagiUaria sa- 
gittifoiia. A common indigenous, 
perennial, tuberose plant, with ar- 
row-shaped leaves, growing in brooks. 
It is cultivated by the Chinese for its 
roots, which are mealy. 

ARROW-ROOT. Maranta arun- 
dtnacea. A herbaceous plant of the 
family Canne, with fleshy perennial 
roots, readily propagated by root-cut- 
tings, which should be set a foot to 
eighteen inches apart, in drills. It is 
cultivated in Bermuda, the West In- 
dies, and P^lorida. The roots are dug 
when a year old, washed, beaten into 
a pulp, then mixed with water, and 
agitated ; the stringy parts are then 
sef>aratcd by the hand. The starch, or 
arrow-root, remains suspended in the 
water ; this is next strained through 
a Imcn clotb, and then allowed to set- 
tle, by which the starch subsides, and 
the water is removed ; it is washed 
a socond time, and dried. Arrow- 
root is a nearly pure starch, of agree- 
able flavour, but little nutrition. Good 
potatoes, rasped into a pulp and treat- 

40 



AKT 

ed the same way, prodoce a starch, 

which is often nscd to adulterate the 
genuine article. 

ARROW- WOOD. Viburnum dtn- 
latum. A small shrub with straight, 
stifl!* branches and blue berries : the 
wood is said to have been used by 
the Aborigines for arrows. 

ARSENIC. Arsenious acid, white 
oxide of arsenic. A violent irritant 
poison, used injudiciously to destroy 
rats, and as an application to ulcers 
The safest antidote is the recently- 
prepared hydrated oxide of iron : by 
precipitating a solution of per^nitrate 
of iron by solution of potash. Lime- 
water is much less certain. 

ARTEMISIA. The genus ol 
wormwoods. 

ARTERIOTOMY. The opening 
of an artery to let blood. 

ARTERY. The vessels which 
convey red blood are so called. 

ARTESIAN WELLS, or fount 
ains, are those springs or wells which 
constantly overflow their summits. 

ARTHRODIC. An articulation of 
bones, in which the head of one is 
received into a shallow cavity of the 
other, so as to permit considerable 
motion. This is the case with the 
upper arm and shoulder. 

ARTICHOKE. Cynara scolymut. 
A plant having the appearance of a 
gigantic thistle, cultivated for the 
flower- head, which is cut before flow- 
ering, boiled, and served with butter. 
They are propagated by seed and ofl*- 
sets. If by the former, sow the seed 
in rows, a foot apart, as soon as the 
frost is out of the ground. Thin the 
plants to a foot apart in the row, 
and, in the fall of the year, put out 
the plants in clumps of four in rows 
three feet apart, and the rows six 
feet asunder. They will produce 
their fruit the next year. When 
winter approaches, earth the roots 
well up, and, before the frost sets in, 
cover all well over with htter from 
the yard or stable. Open at the 
breaking up of the frost ; dig all the 
ground well between the rows ; lev- 
el the earth down from the plants. 
You will find many young ones, or 
oflTsets, growing out from the sides : 



ART 



ASH 



pull these otT, and, if you want a new 
plaatation, put'them out as you did 
the original plants : they will bear, 
though later than the old ones, that 
saioe year. By great care, they may 
be made to bear three years. 

ARTICHOKE, Jerusalem. Hcli- 
anlhus luberusxu. A small sunflower, 
with nutritious tubers. It yields 
from 150 to 200 bushels of roots, less 
in size than potatoes ; the tops, cut 
before flowering, also produce abun- 
dant fodder. Hogs root up the tu- 
bers greedily, and thrive well upon 
them. When steamed or boiled, they 
are palatable. It is one of the plants 
found by Boussingault to draw its 
nitrogen almost entirely from the 
air ; hence it is recommended as an 
ameliorating crop, when turned in 
before the tubers are formed. 

It is usually propagated by sets 
from the roots in April, grows in any 
moi^t soil, especially such as is sandy 
and light : the cultivation is the same 
as for the potato. "When raised for 
its tuber, it is liable to become 
troublesome, from the germinating 
power of even the smallest pieces 
'eft in the soil. Tt keeps in the ground 
adl winter, or may be preserved un- 
der sand. In the Middle States it 
thrives well. It is extensively used 
in France as provender for cattle, 
hogs, (kc, and is equal to potatoes in 
nourishment. 

ARTICULATA, ARTICULATES. 
A term applied by Cuvier to a primary 
division of the animal kingdom, char- 
acicrizcd by an exlernal skclrton in 
the form of a series of rings artic- 
ulated together and surrounding the 
body ; by an internal gangliated ner- 
vous system, the ganglions being ar- 
ranged symmetrically along the mid- 
die line of the body, and by having 
distinct respiratory organs. Insects 
and various worm.s are of this order 
ARTICULATED. Jointed In 
botany it signifies a slight connexion, 
such as tb'it of the leaf with the stem 
in exogens, which allows them to fall 
off when dead. 

ARTICULATION. The connex- 
ion of the bones of the skeleton by 
joints. 

D3 



ARUM. TliC genus of the Indian 
turnip. 

ARUNDO. The reed plants. Sev- 
eral species, growing on sand, bind it 
together : arundinaccous, reed-like, 

ARVICOLA. The genus of liold- 
mice. 

ASAFCETIDA. A fetid gum res- 
in obtained from the root of the Ferula 
asafatida, whence it exudes, by m- 
cision, in the form of a milky juice, 
which, when dried by exposure to 
the sun, acquires a mottled appear- 
ance and pink colour. It is a native 
of the south of Persia, and is used in 
medicine as a stimulant and antispas- 
modic in hysteric and nervous disor- 
ders, and in spasmodic cough, asth- 
ma, and flatulent colic. 

ASCARIS,(pl.)ASCARIDES. In- 
testinal worms. See Worms. 

ASCI. Little membranous bags 
containing sporules. Ascidium, the 
leaf-pitcher. 

ASCITES. Dropsy of the bell v. 

ASH-TREE. Fraxinus exccUior. 
European ash, a hand.sorae tree, with 
valuable timber. The weeping ash 
is a variety. This tree is a native 
of America, but not very abundant. 
The white ash {F. acuminata) is a val- 
uable and common tree of the United 
Slates. A sweet gum {manna) exudes 
from many species, especially from 
the F. ornus of Italy, and commands 
a high price at the druggists as a lax- 
ative medicine. 

ASHES. The incombustible part 
of animal and vegetable subatanfcs. 
In agriculture several varieties are 
used, which will be briefly described. 

Wood ashes are most abundant from 
leaves, bark, and young twigs. The 
composition differs with the tree and 
soil. The following analyses from 
Sprengel will serve as a general guide : 





1<«d 


^ . Si'.lch P.tLli J'liiO. 




Bee<li. 


^''^- Fir. 


CDt^rtliitT.) 


Silica . • . 


5-6J 


W-yj (rjy j 


?mO 


Aluriiiita . . 


':-\:\ ) 




1 




Oxide of Iron . . 


a-77< 


814 


i7<n 


1110 


Oxide ol'M.'uigHne?'o 


3*j) 






-•7'> 


I.ICIM! 


2.".-(«l 


17MI -iriMH 1 


i;w-) 


Magnesia 


fiOO 


IH 


6lU 


4-.l.'> 


FoliLsh . 


aj-ii 


Iti-.'O 


':-i>) 


J4U) 


Sixla . 


3:u 


tlTJ 


2-H 


20-7. > 


Sulphuric Acid . 


7-»>4 


3:i« 


\:i.i 


;ji'. 


Pljojiiilioric AciJ 


ft1J2 


1 ->-' 


•2-7 r, 


0'<0 


ChUiTine 


J-S*4 


2^^ 


«Mll 




Cwbotuc Acid . . 


1H» 


i;:)7 


mi^." 


17..»0 




lOU 


IWJ 


W..0 



41 



ASHES, 



Ashes are used with advantage to 

every crop, but especially as a dress- 
ing tu that intended for gramineous 
plants and the ccrealia ; but turnips, 
potatoes, the white field carrot, and ev- 
ery crop, has been benefited by them. 
The application should differ with 
the object in view ; six bushels are 
enough to advance a clover or lucern 
crop in the spring, but 15 to 20 bush* 
els are sown as a dressing for an an- 
nual crop, as grain, barley, 6cc. Large 
doses should not be applied to the 
land with seed or upon young ^wth, 
as the carbonate of potash present 
sometimes injures them. They tell 
best on land rich in vegetable mat- 
ter, upon which the potash and soda 
acts. On clayey soils ashes general- 
ly produce more rapid effects than 
on lighter kinds. 

I'he action of all ashes is twofold, 
partly due to the soluble portions, 
and partly to the insoluble. The 
chloride of sodium, or common salt, 
the carbonate and sulphate of potash, 
are soluble, and produce immediate 
effects on the crop ; but the phos- 
phates and silicates, as well as car- 
bonate of lime, require time to dis- 
solve and benefit the crop. Hence 
it has been observed that some lands 
are permanently improved by ashes, 
and some crops immediately benefit- 
ed, as Ihe leguminous plants. — (Spren- 
gcl.) In those soils which already 
contain much alkali, as the detritus 
of primitive and transition coun- 
tries, seashores, lands near salt 
springs, the soluble parts of ashes 
will be of little moment ; and the 
leached remains may be altogether 
superior, for few soils contain so 
much phosphoric acid as not to be 
improved by an addition as manure. 

Lcackcdf or Wasfied Wood Ashes. — 
Where wood ashes are washed for 
the manufacture of the pot and pearl 
ash of commerce, this insoluble por- 
tion collects in large quantities. It 
is also present in the refuse of tlie 
soap-makers, where wood ash is em- 
ployed for the manufacture of soft 
soap. The composition of this insol- 
uble matter varies very much, not 
only with the kind of wood from 

42 



which the ash is made, but ateo with 

the temperature it is allowed to attain 
in burning. The former fact is illus- 
trated by the following analysis, made 
by Berthier, of the insoluble matter 
left by the ash of five different spe- 
cies of wood carefully burned by hun- 
self: 



sirtc* 

Lim* 

Oiiile of Iroo 
Uxitle or Man|;miMM« 
Phoftfihonc Acid . 
Cifbonic Acid 
C«rboo . 


1 

3-8 
0-6 

0«f5 
99-6 


1 

61 H 
3-2 
01 
0-<i 

3R-8 
100 


.0 

a 

a 

6-5 

a-o 

0-5 

3-6 

4<J 

31-0 


a. 

13-0 

8T-2 
8-7 

«2-3 
6-ft 
l-» 

Sl-d 

100 


h 

80 

4t> 

44-3 

10-5 

O-I 

0-4 

1-0 

Sli-0 

4-8 


6-8 
4i^ 
7-0 
1« 
4« 
6T 


- : 


SWf. 


1(W 


yy7 


LOU 



The numbers in these several col- 
umns differ very much from each 
other ; but the constitution of the in- 
soluble part of the ash he obtained 
probably differed in every case from 
that which would have been left by 
the ash of the same wood burned on 
the large scale, and in the open air. 
This is to be inferred from the total 
absence of potash and soda in the 
lixiviated ash, while it is well known 
that common lixiviated wood ash con- 
tains a notable quantity of both. This 
arises from the high temperature at 
which wood is commonly burned, 
causing a greater or less portion of 
the potash and soda to combine with 
the silica, and to form insoluble sili- 
cates, which remain behind along 
with the lime and other earthy matter 
when the ash is washed with water. 
It is to these silicates, as well as to 
the large quantity of lime, magnesia, 
and phosphoric acid it contains, that 
common wood ash owes the more 
permanent effects upon the land, which 
it is known to have produced. When 
the rains have washed out, or thu 
crops carried off the more soluble 
part from the soil, these insoluble 
compounds still remain to exercise 
a more slow and enduring infiuence 
upon the after-produce. 

Slill, from the absence of this sol- 
uble portion, the action of lixiviated 
i wood ash is not so ap| arent and en- 
ergetic, and it may therefore be safe- 
ly added to the land in much larger 
quantity. Appliea at the rate of two 



ASHES. 



tons an acre, its effects have been 
ol>servecl to continue for fifteen or 
twenty years. It is most beneficial 
upon clay stuis, and is bald especial- 
ly to promote the growUi of oats. 

Keip is the name given to the ash 
lelt by sea-weecls when burned. As 
a natural mixture, which can be ob- 
tained at a cheap rate, and has been 
pruveU to be useful to vegetation in 
a high degree, it is very desirable 
that accurate experiments should be 
instituted with the view of determin- 
ing the precise extent of its action, 
a^ well as the crops and soils to which 
it can be most advantageously and 
most economically applied. 

Like wood ashes, kelp varies in 
composiiion Witii the species and ago 
of tiie sea- weeds from which it js 
prepared, and like them also, it con- 
sists of a soluble and insoluble por- 
tion. Two samples, analyzed by Dr. 
Ure, consisted of 



Carbonate of fimSvk, with 
Sulphurat <>f SiMJiam 
Suipli.tte of SoJa . 
C<»mnu>n Salt . 
Cblurtiie of Potassium 

buo/tMt Forrton, 

Cartionate oT Lini« 
SU:c<i . . . . 
AJnmiiia and Oxide of j 
Imn . . . ] 

SoTpburaiMi loM 



H«»ker. 



r^~'Normiiod>. 
Gay LuR'^MC. 



8-0 

36-6 



09-0 

S4-0 
8-0 

9-0 



frO 



6-5 
liH) 
37-6 



(W-0 



UXi 






ft-5 

8-6 



UK> 



Besides these constituents, how- 
ever, the soluble portion contains io- 
dide of potassium or sodium in va- 
riable quantity, and the insoluble 
more or less of putash and soda in 
the state of silicates and phosphates. 

Kelp may be applied to the land in 
nearly the same circnmstances as 
wood ash, but for this purpose it 
would probably be better to burn the 
sea*weed at a lower temperature than 
is usually employed. By this means, 
being prevented from inehing, it 
would be obtained at once in the 
state of a fine powder, and would bo 
richer in potash and soda. 

It might lead to important results 
of a practical nature were a series of 
precise experiments made with this 
finely-divided kelp as a manure, es- 
pecially in inland situations ; for 



thoQgh the variable proportion of ita 

con:>tituents will always cause a de- 
gree of uncertainty in regard to the 
I action of the ash of marine plants, 
yet il the quantity of chloride of po- 
tassium It contains be, on an average, 
nearly as great as is stated above in 
the analysis of Gay Lu&sac, kelp will 
really be the cheapest (orm in which 
we can at present apply potash to the 
land. 

Stiaw Ashes. — The ashes obtained 
by burning the straw of oats, barley, • 
wheat, and rye contain a natural 
mixture of saline substances, which 
is exceedingly valuable as a manure 
to almost every crop. The propor- 
tion of the several constituents oi 
this mixture, however, is different, 
according as the one or the other 
kind of straw is burned. Thus, 100 
parts of each variety of ash, in the 
samples analyzed by Sprengel, con- 
sisted of 



PMa»h 
Soda . . 

LiUM . 

Mn»nesia • 

Aliimina . . 
Oxititturiron . 
Oxide of Man^- 

Plii>-»pboric Acid 
ISiilpliuric AchI . 
Cliioritje . . 
CitrlxiiiH' Ac id . 



Out*. Barley. fWhfnt. (Kve.| »L«pt<. 

3-1 
S-1 

«-9 
13-0 
11-4 
11-0 



16-J 

trace 

2-6 

0-4 

KH) 

01 

; trace 

I tract- 
or 
l.-i 

01 



Itr.) 



lUO 



0-0 

08 

erH 

0-9 

81 -S 

4-8 
1-0 
0-*) 



lUO 



1-: 

0-4 
6-4 
0-4 

8i~Z 



0-9 

1« 
6-1 
U-6 



mi ' lui 



The most striking differences in 
the above table are the comparative- 
ly large quantity of potash in the oat 
straw ; of lime in that of barley ; of 
phosphoric acid in that of wheat ; of 
sulphuric acid in that of rye, and 
of all the saline substances in ra{}e 
straw. These differences are not to 
be considered as constant, nor will 
the numbers in any of the above col- 
umns represent correctly the com- 
position of the ash of any variety of 
straw we may happen to burn, but 
they may be safely depended upon as 
showing the general composition of 
such ashes, as well as the general 
differences which may be expected 
to prevail among them. 

'ITiat such ashes should prove use- 
ful to vegetation might bo inferred, 
not only from their containing many 

43 



ASHES. 



aaVine substances which are known 
to act beneficially when applied to 
the land, but from the fact that they 
have actually been obtained from 
Tegetable substances. If inorganic 
matter be neoessary to the growth 
of wheat, then surely the mixture of 
such matters contained in the ash of 
wheat straw is more likely than any 
other we can apply to promote the 
growth of the young wheat plant. A 
question might even be raised wheth- 
er or not, in some soils rich in vege- 
table matter, the ash alone would not 
produce as visible an effect upon the 
coming crop as the direct application 
of the straw, either in the dry state, 
or in the form of rotted farmyard 
manure ; and this question would 
seem to be answered in the affirma- 
tive by the result of many trials of 
straw ashes which have been made 
m England. In that country the ash 
of five tons of straw has been found 
superior in efficacy to ten tons of 
farmyard manure. This is perfectly 
consistent with theory ; yet, as vege- 
table matter appears really essential 
to a fertile soil, and as the quantity 
of this vegetable matter is lessened 
in some degree by every corn crop 
we raise, it cannot be good husband- 
ry to manure for a succession of ro- 
tations with saline substances only. 
The richest soil by this procedure 
must ultimatelv be exhausted. On 
the other hand, where much vegeta- 
ble matter exists, and especially what 
is Usually called irttrt vegetable mat- 
ter, it may be an evidence of great 
skill in the practical farmer to apply, 
fur a time, the ashes only of his straw, 
or some other saline mixture to hie 
land. 

The practice of burning the stubble 
on a windy day has been found in 
Yorkshire to produce better clover, 
and to cause a larger return of wheat : 
for this purpose, however, the stub- 
ble must be left of considerable length. 
In Germany, rape straw — which the 
above table shows to be so rich in 
saline and earthy matter, and there- 
fore exhausting to the land — is spread 
over the field and burned in a similar 
manner. The destruction of weeds 

44 



and insects which attends this prac- 
tice is mentioned as one ol its col- 
lateral advantages. 

It is not advisable, as I have al- 
ready said, wholly to substitute the 
ash for the straw in ordinary soils, 
or in any soils for a length of time ; 
yet that it may be partially so sub- 
stituted with good effect, or that 
straw ashes will alone give a large 
increase of the corn crop, and there- 
fore should never be wasted, is shown 
by the following comparative expcri- 
ments, conducted, as such experi> 
ments should be, during an entire ro- 
tatittn of four years. The quantity 
of manure applied, and the produce 
per imperial acre were as follows : 



1«. Tumipt 



9 

I 



'.i lb*. 



f 4- S 

3 t S 
— • o 



n 



e « 



li\ baali 



h.S, cwt i|««i cwt. 
0«. narley \\4\ t)U*h.;3n^^ butb. :jn>^ bull. 
S«. Clover IHcwt. 118 rwt. la) cwt jai c»rt. 
4*. Oa f. 02 ba»b. jlSboah. J38 biwh^ |40 ba<^h. 

The kind of soil on which this ex- 
periment was made is not stated, but 
it appears to show, as we should ex- 
pect, that the effects of straw ash 
are particularly exerted in promoting 
the growth of the corn plants and 
grasses which contain much siliceous 
matter in their stems ; in short, oi 
plants similar to those from which 
the ash has been derived. 

Theory of I he action of Straw Ash.^^ 
That it should especially promote 
the growth of such [dants appears 
most natural if we consider only the 
source from which it has been ob- 
tained, but it is fully explained by a 
farther chemical examination of the 
ash itself The soluble matter of 
wood ash, in gcneraly contains but a 
small quantity of silica, while that 
part of the straw ash which is taken 
up by water contains very much. 
Thus a wheat ash, analyzed by Ber- 
thier, contained of 

fmttvmXm 

Soluble salts ... 19 

Insoluble matter . . _81 

100 

and that which was dissolved by wa« 

ter consisted of 



Cblorino 
Potaab and soda 
Sulpburic acid . 



100 



Sn that it was a mixture of soluble 
silicates and cblorides with a little 
Biiiphate of potash and soda. These 
soluble silicates will lind an easy ad- 
iDission into ttie roots of jilants, and 
will readily supply to the young alems 
of the cum plants and grasses the 
silica which is indispensable to their 
heallhj growth , 

Turf or peat aiket, obtaiaed by the 
burning of peat or various qualities. 
are also applied with advantage to 
the land in many districts. They con- 
sist of a misliire in which gypBum is 
iiaually the predominating useful in- 
gredient, the alkaline satis heing 
Present in very small proportion, 
lie following table exhibits the com- 
position of some varieties of ashes 
from the peat of Holland and from 
the heath of Luneburg, examined by 
Sprengel : 



In the most nsefi 
these aabea it appears, from tin 
analyses, that lime abounds, partly 
in combination with sulphuric and 
phosphoric acids, forming gypsum 
and phosphate of lime, and partly 
with carbonic acid, forming carbon- 
ate. These compounds of lime, there- 
fore, may be regarded as the 
ingredients of peat ashes. 

Ypt the small quantity nf 



sidered as wholly without effect ; for 
u^ihiL'ii arc olicn applied to the 
1 to Ihe extent of two tons an 
;, a quantity which, even when 
proportion of alkali does not ex- 
1 one per cent., will contain 46 
lbs. of potash or soda, equal to twice 
" ' weight of sulphates or of coiu- 
sall. To the minute quantity 
ilme matters present in them, 
^lore. peal ashes may owe a por- 
tion nt their beneficial influence, and 
he almost total absence of such 
ipounds from the less valuable 
sorts their inferior estimation may. 
have in pari arisen. 

In Holland, when applied to the 
com crops, Ihey are either ploughed 
'~ drilled with the seed, or applied 
a lop-dressing to the young shoots 
aulumn or spring. Lucern, clo- 
', and meadow grass are dressed 
with it in spring at the rale of 16 lo 
IB cwt. per acre, and the latter a 
second lime with an equal quantity 
alter the lirst cutting. In Belgium 
the ashes are applied to clover, rape, 
potatoes, flax, and pease. In Lune- 
burg. the turf ash wliich abounds in 
oxide of iron is applied at the rate of 
4 tons per acre, and by this 
a the physical character of Iha 
clay soils, as well as their chemical 
islitution, is altered and improved. 
.0 England peat is in many places 
burned for the sake of Ihc'Habcs it 
yields. The soil from beneath whicll 
the turf is taken abounds in time, 
and the aahes are said to contain 
from ore fouTlh lo one third of Iheir 
weight of gypsum. They are used 
largely both in Berkshire and Hamp- 
shire, and are chiefly applied lo green 
crops, and especially lo clover, ai iho 
te of 50 bushels. 

Coal athii are a mixture of which 
e composition is very variable ; 
they consist, however, m general, of 
lime, often in the state of gypsum, of 
silica, and of alumina, mixed with a 
quantity of bulky and porous cinders 
or half-burned coal. The ash of a 
coal from St. Etienne, in France, af- 
ter all the carbonacQous malter had 
been hnrncd away, was found by Ber- 



ASI 



ASP 



Alumina, insoluble in acids 
Alumina, soluble 

Lime 

Magnesia 

Oxide of Manganese . 
Oxide and Sulphuret uf Iron 



percent. 

62 
5 
6 
8 
3 

16 

100 
Such a mixture as this would no 
doubt benefit many s^)ils by the alu- 
mina, as well as by ihe lime and mag- 
nesia it contains ; but in coal ashes 
a small quantity of alkaline matter, 
chiefly soda, is generally present. 
The constitution of the ash of our 
best coals, therefore, may be con- 
sidered as very nearly resembling 
that of peat ash, and as susceptible 
of similar applications. When well 
burned, it can, in many cases, be ap- 
plied with good effects as atop-dress- 
ing to grass lands which are over- 
grown with moss, while the admix- 
ture of cinders in the ash of the less 
perfectly burned coal produces a fa- 
vourable physical change upon strong 
clay soils. 

Cane Ashes. — I may allude here to 
the a'lvanta^e which in su/rar-grow- 
ing countries may be obtained from 
the restoration of the cane ash to 
the fields in which the canes have 
grown. After the canes have been 
crushed in the mill, they are usually 
employed as fuel in boiling down the 
sirup, and the ash, which is not un- 
frequently more or less melted, is, I 
believe, almost uniformly neglected ; 
at all events, is seldom applied again 
to the land. According to the prin- 
ciples I have so oflcn illustrated in 
the present lectures, such procedure 
must sooner or later exhaust the soil 
of those saline substances which are 
most essential to the growth of the 
cane plant. If the asU were applied as 
a top-dressing to the young canes, or 
put into the cane holes near the roots 
— having been previously mixed with 
a quantity of wood ash, and crushed if 
it happen to have been melted — this 
exhaustion would necessarily take 
place much more slowly.— (JoAn^an.) 
ASfLUS. A Linnsean genus of 
dipterous insects, in which iTie mouth 
» furnished with a horny, projectingt 

46 



straight, two-valved sucker, and gib- 
bous at the base: antj^nnae filiform, 
approximate, of two articulations . 
body oblong and coni(;aI in shape 
The iiisects of this genus prey on 
other insects, especially those of the 
dipterous and lepidopterous orders. 

ASPAR.AGIN. The white crys- 
talline principle found in the juice of 
the asparagus, supposed to be a di- 
uretic. It is resolved, by bculiiig i;i 
water with magnesia, into ammonia 
and aspartic acid. 

ASPARAGUS. Asparagus officitm 
lis. A perennial plant growing on 
sandy meadows near the sea. The 
young shoots {torus) form an esteem- 
ed vegetable, and are susceptible of 
high cultivation. They may be raised 
from roots or seed. The seed is sown 
in April, in rich soil an inch deep, in 
rows eighteen inches apart, and the 
ground kept clean. In two or three 
seasons the roots will be large enough 
to transplant to permanent beds. The 
new plantation is made in March or 
April ; the ground must be light, deep, 
and rich, and well dug. The beds are 
made six feet wide, with alleys of two 
feet between them ; three rows of 
root-stools are placed in each bed, at 
the depth of six inches and distance 
of a foot. Every spring the bed is 
forked or loosened, and a dressing 
of well-rotted stable manure mixed 
with the upper soil The roots send 
up abundant shoots when kept moist 
with water during the season, if suf- 
ficient rain does not fall. A eprink* 
ling of salt with the manure is a very 
great improvement Indeed, in Spain, 
asparagus is cultivated in beds sub- 
ject to inundations of the sea. All 
animal manures increase the growth. 
To enlarge the size of the shoot, they 
place, in Germany, small flower pots 
or other tubular vessels over the eart h 
as soon as the shoot appears ; it grows 
into these, and, beingdeprived of light, 
remains white and tender, attaining 
the size of the vessel in some cases. 
Sixteen rods of bed will yield 200 to 
300 heads a day during the season. 
The beds last, with management, a 
long term of years ; indeed, some are 
known forty years old. 



ASP 



ASP 



To force Asparagus. — Such plants 
must be inserted in hot-beds as are 
five or six years old, and appear of 
sufficient strength to produce vigor- 
ous shoots ; when, however, any old 
natural ground plantations are intend- 
ed to be broken up at the proper sea- 
son, some of the best plants may be 
selected to be plunged into a hot- bed, 
or any^pare corner of the stove bark- 
beds. The first plantation for forcing 
should be made about the latter end 
of September : the bed, \{ it works 
favourably, will begin to produce in 
the course of four or five weeks, and 
will continue to do so for about three, 
each light producing in that time 300 
or 400 shoots, and affording a gather- 
ing every two or three days. To 
have a regular succession, therefore, 
a fresh bed must be formed every 
three or four weeks, the last crop to 
be planted in March or the early part 
of April : this will continue in pro- 
duction until the arrival of the nat- 
ural ground crops. The last-made 
beds will be in production a fortnight 
sooner than those made about Christ- 
mas. 

The bed must be substantial, and 
proportioned to the size and number 
of the lights, and to the time of year, 
being constructed of stable dung or 
other material. The common mode 
of making a hot-bed is usually follow- 
ed. It is the best practice to plant 
the asparagus in mould laid upon the 
tan, which, or some other porous 
matter, is indispensable for the easy 
admission of the heat from the linings. 
The bed must be topped with six or 
eight inches of light, rich earth. If a 
small family is to be supplied, three 
or four lights will be sufficient at a 
time ; for a larger, six or eight will 
not be too many. Several hundred 
plants may be inserted under each, as 
they may be crowded as close as pos- 
sible together ; from 500 to 900 are 
capable of being inserted under a 
three-light frame, according to their 
size. In planting, a furrow being 
drawn the whole length of the frame, 
against one side of it the first row or 
course i« to be placed, the crowns 
upriglit, and a little earth drawn on 



to the lower ends of the roots ; th^^n 
more plants acrain in the siime nan- 
ner, and so continued ihrou^liuui, it 
being carefully observed to ktep them 
all regularly about an inch below the 
surface : all round on the edjL'e of the 
bed some moist earth must be bank- 
ed close to the outside roots. 

If the bed is extensive, it will 
probably acquire a violent heat : the 
frames must therefore be coniinueii 
off until it has become regular, oth- 
erwise the roots are liable to be de- 
stroyed by being, as it is technical- 
ly termed, scorched or steam-scalded. 
When the heat has become regular, 
the frames may be set on, and more 
earth be applied, by degrees, over the 
crowns of the plants, until it acquires 
a total depth of five or six inches. 
The glasses must be kept open an 
inch or two as long and as often as 
possible, without too great a reduc- 
tion of temperature occurring, so as 
to admit air freely and give vent to 
the vapours, for on this depends tlie 
superiority in flavour and ap[}earanoe 
of the shoots The heat must be kept 
up by linings of hot dung, and by cov- 
ering the glasses every night with 
mats, <Scc. The temperature at ni^'ht 
should never be below 50^, and in 
the day its maximum at 02°. In 
gathering, for which the shoots are 
fit when from two to five inches in 
height, the finger and thumb must be 
thrust down into the earth, and the 
stem broken off at the bottom. This 
excellent vegetable posses.ses some 
diuretic properties. Its juice contains 
a peculiar crystallizable substance, 
which was discovered by Vauqueiin 
and Robiquet, and named by them 
Asparagin. 

ASPARAGUS STONE. A variety 
of apatite. See Apaiite. 

ASPEN. Populus tremula and 
tremuloidesy species of the great ge- 
nus of poplars, remarkable for their 
lightness and shade. The timber is 
white, soft, and readily decays 

ASPERGILLUM. One of the 
commonest mildew plants. See Mil- 
dew. 

ASPIDIOTUS. A genus of insects 
resembling the bark-lice, or scale in- 

47 



ASS 



AST 



sects, and of the same habits asd 
. family. They are found ou the ole- 
ander, rose, bay, cactus, and other 
plants. 

ASPHODELE^. The family of 
plants to which the onion belongs. 

ASS. A well-known and useful do- 
mestic animal, whose services might 
be rendered even still more useful for 
various purposes of husbandry if be 
were properly trained and taken care 
of. 

He is extremely hardy, both with 
regard to the quantity and quality of 
his food, contenting himself with the 
most harsh and disagreeable herbs, 
which other animals will scarcely 
touch. In the choice of water he is, 
however, very nice, drinking only of 
that whidti^ is perfectly clear, and at 
brooks with which ho is acquainted. 

Animals of this sort require very 
little looking aAer, and sustain labour, 
hunger, and thirst beyond most oth- 
ers. They are seldom or never sick, 
and endure longer than most other 
kinds of animals. They may be made 
useful in husbandry to plough light 
lands, to carry burdens, to draw in 
mills, to fetch water, cut chaff, or 
any other similar purposes. They 
are also very serviceable in many 
cases for their milk, which is excel- 
lent for those who have suCercd from 
acute diseases, and are much weak- 
ened. They are used for the purpose 
of breeding mules. 

The structural difference between 
the horse and the ass is trifling: in 
all essential points the organization 
is the same ; and, with the exception 
of the lengthened ears of the ass, 
their form, size, and proportions in a 
wild state, they differ but little ; con- 
sequently, they possess conditions 
more favourable to the multiplication 
of species than those afibrded by any 
otlier nearly allied animals. The ass 
is, properly speaking, a mountain ani- 
mal : bis hoofs are long, and furnish- 
ed with extremely sharp rims, leav- 
ing a hollow in the centre, by which 
means he is enabled to tread with 
more security on the slippery and 
precipitous sides of hills and pre<upi- 
ces. The hoof of the horse, on the 

48 



contrary, is round, and nearly flat 

underneath, and we accordingly lind 
that he is most serviceable in levrl 
countries ; and, indeed, experience 
has taught us that he is altogether 
unfitted for crossing rocky and steep 
mountains. As, however, tne more 
diminutive size of the ass rendered 
him comparatively less important as 
a beast of burden, the ingepuity of 
mankind early devised a means of 
remedying this defect, by crossing 
the horse and ass, and thus procu- 
ring an intermediate animal, uniting 
the size and strength of the one with 
the patience, intelligence, and sure> 
footedness of the other. 

The varieties of the ass, in coun- 
tries favourable to their development, 
are great. In Guinea the asses are 
large, and in shape even excel the 
native horses. The asses of Arabia 
(says Chard in) are perhaps the hand- 
somest animals in the world. Their 
coat is smooth and clean ; they carry 
the head elevated, and have fine and 
well-formed legs, which they throw 
out gracefully in walking or gallop- 
ing. In Persia, also, they are finely 
formed, some being even stately, and 
much used in draught and carrying 
burdens, while others are more light- 
ly proportioned, and used for the sad- 
dle by persons of quality, frequently 
fetching the large sum of 400 livres, 
and, being taught a kind of easy, am- 
bling pace, are richly caparisoned, 
and used only by the rich and luxu- 
rious nobles. With us, on the con- 
trary, the ass, unfortunately, exhibits 
a stunted growth, and appears rather 
to vegetate as a sickly exotic than to 
riot in the luxuriant enjoyment of life 
like the horse. 

The diseases of the ass, as far as 
they are known, bear a general re- 
semblance to those of the horse. As 
he is more exposed, however, and left 
to live in a state more approaching to 
that which nature intended, he has 
few diseases — {Johnson.) 

ASTRINGENT. In farriery, a 
term applied to such remedies as 
have the property of constringing, or 
binding the parts, as oak bark, sugar 
of lead, cVc. 



i 



ATO 

ATMOSPHERE, the bulk ot air 

which surrounds our globe, sapposed 
to reach forty-five miles above its sur- 
face. It is the receptacle of every 
volatile substance rising from the 
earth ; but, in virtue of its peculiar 
composition, vapours and gases dif- 
fuse themselves throughout the mass 
with great rapidity, so that the com- 
position of the whole is maintained 
nearly uniform at all times and places. 
Its chemical composition is 79 parts 
nitrogen, 20 8 oxygen, 4 to 6 parts in 
ten thousand of carbonic acid, about 
one part in sixty thousand of ammo- 
nia, according to Liebig, besides mi- 
nute quantities of various vapours, 
microscopic seeds, and saline mat- 
ters. Water, in the form of vapour, 
is also an important constituent, fluc- 
tuating in quantity with the tempera- 
ture of the air, and increasing as the 
warmth. In the development of plants 
the air is as important as the earth, 
indeed more so, since many vege- 
tables can live suspended, without 
contact witli the earth, while none 
can exist without a full supply of air. 
The loosening of soils is in a great 
measure- beneficial from the intro- 
duction of air. The various ingre- 
dients enumerated have not an equal 
importance in agriculture ; for the ni- 
trogen is almost inactive : the oxy- 
gen is the great agent of destruction 
as regards plants, causing the decom- 
position of all vegetable structures ; 
the carbonic acid ^nd ammonia are 
the great sources of food*, and al- 
though they are present in minute 
proportions, they are abundantly dis- 
tributed for the purposes of vegeta- 
tion. For the history of these gases, 
see them severally. 

ATOM. In chemistry, the ultimate 
particle of a body, which combines 
with other atoms. Theoretically, 
these are of a determinate magni- 
tude In every case. The figure of 
the atom is not worthy of consider- 
ation, some supposing it spherical, 
others elipsnidal. Atoms are simple 
or elementary when they cannot be 
separated by chemical forces, and 
compound when they are liable to de- 
oomposition. Chemical compounds 

£ 



ATO 

ooTOiBt of a definite number of atoms, 
bound together by chemical force or 
affinity ; but the value of this force is 
different in different compounds. In 
consequence, however, of the union 
of atoms in invariable weights, deter- 
mined by experiment, each chemical 
body has attached to it a distinct pro- 
portional weight, termed its atomic 
weighty equhalentf or canUnning ntem- 
her. The study of these is the es- 
sential of all chemical inquiries : it is 
this remarkable adherence to a pre- 
cise weight in all cases of combina- 
tion which gives exactness to our in- 
vestigations, and forms the difference 
between a mere mixture and chem- 
ical union. The foUowing are the 
atomic weights or proportionals of 
the various elementary bodies inter- 
esting to agriculture : 

Hydrogen (H.) . . . . 1- 

Oxygen (0.) 8- 

Nitrogen (N.) 14- 

Carbon (C.) 6- 

Sulphur (S.) 16- 

Phosphorus (P.) .... 31- 
Chlorine (CI.) ..... 36-5 

Silicon (Si.) 22* 

Potassium (K.) . . . . 39- 

Sodium(Na.) 23- 

Calcium (Ca.) 20-6 

Magnesium (Mg.) . . . 12-7 
Alummium (Al.) .... 13-7 

Iron (Fe.) 27- 

Manganese (Mn.) . . . 27-7 

These are on the basis that hydro- 
gen is I', and may be understood by 
the following case : Water is a com- 
pound of one atom of hydrogen and 
one atom of oxygen ; and, supposing 
a given quantity weighs nine grains, 
we know, by the laws of chemical 
combinations, that it contains one 
grain of hydrogen and eight grains 
of oxygen ; or, if the weight of water 
be other than nine grains, these con- 
stituents are united in the rigorous 
proportion of 1 to 8. 

Another scale is constructed on 
the basis of oxygen as 100. In this 
the equivalent numbers are altered, 
but not their proportions. 

Chemical combinations are not, 
however, always in the simple ratio. 

49 



ATO 



Atro 



ui one atom of euch cooiponent, but 
aru ollen in bigUei ratio, as 1 to 2, 3, 
4. 5, 6, 7, or 2 to 3, 6, 7, 6us. These 
are. for tlie most part, less permaneot 
than the simpler compouoas. 

The atomic weight is not only fixed 
for tiie first product of two element- 
ary bodies, but for all other second- 
ary, tertiary, or quaternary com- 
pounds resulting therefrom. Thus, 
anmonia consists of one atom nitro- 
gen (14) and three atoms of hydrogen 
(3), and its equivalent is therefore 17. 
Being a strong alkali, it combines 
with many substances, and always in 
the proportion of 17. 

in the above table, the letters in 
parentheses designate the signs or 
symbols used in chemistry for the va- 
rious bodies against which they are 
86t. Whenever any of theni are used 
alone it always means one atom : 
thus, N, C, H, mean one atom of ni- 
trogen, carbon, hydrogen. In com- 
plicated bodies, as oxidic acid, a for- 
mula is written with the symbols, 
and numbers set against each to des- 
ignate the number of atoms, thus : 
(HO, C« Oa); or, sometimes, (H+O, 
2 C-f-S O), the parentheses indicating 
an intimate union ; or one of the 
components of a complex bodv, thns : 
(2C-f 8 0)4-(Ca-f 0)-|-2(H+0) 
means a compound consisting of ox- 
alic acid, which is the first term, uni- 
ted to lime, which is the second, uni- 
ted to two atoms of water, which is 
the last term, the whole formula rep- 
resenting the exact composition of 
oxalate of lime. Whenever the pa- 
rentheses enclose a formula, and any 
figures are placed without it, the fig- 
ure represents the number of atoms 
of the compound, thus : (S-{-3 O) is 
sulphuric acid ; 2 (S+3 O) is two at- 
oms of sulphuric acid ; 3 (S-|-3 O) 
three atoms, &/0. The use of sym- 
bols greatly reduces the labour of 
writing and reading chemical pro- 
qesses. 

AJPUIC THEORY. The theory 
of Dr. Daitoa, that chemical union 
takes pl^ce only in definite atozns. 

ATOmIc WEIGHT. Tbe«qui¥ap 
lent or cpmbining weight. See Atom. 
60 



ATROPIA. The iioisonons alka- 
loid of the deadly night-slsi: Ic. 

ATROPHY. In farrieo^' a mor- 
bid wasting and emaciation, attended 
with a great loss of strength in ani- 
mals. 

ATTRACTION. In physics, the 
force which draws bodies together ; 
it is usually, if not always, of electri- 
cal origin. Attraction is divided into 
mechanical, as gravity and cohesion ; 
and chemical, as affinity; the first 
being the force tending to unite mass- 
es and similar particles, the latter the 
force producing chemical union. In 
chemistry it is so far supposed to be 
an electrical eflfect, that one of the 
atoms or groups of every compound 
is supposed to be in an opposite state 
of electricity from the other, and they 
are respectively termed the electro- 
negative and electro-positive ele- 
ments or components. Acids, oxy- 
gen, chlorine, are electro-negative 
bodies ; metallic oxides electro-posi- 
tive. Chemical attraction acts only 
at insensible distances, and is assist- 
ed by heat, solution, and minute di- 
vision; it is, indeed, frequently de- 
stroyed by the hardness and insol- 
ubility, as well as gaseous form, of 
bodies. 

AUCHENIA. The region of the 
neck, in mammals, below the nape. 

AUGER, BORING. An implement 
for boring into the soil. An auger of 
the above kind, when made of a large 
size, and with diflf^rent pieces to fix 
on to each other, may be very useful- 
ly applied to try the nature of the 
under soil, the discovering springs, 
and drawing oflf water from lands, 
&c. In order to accomplish the first 
purpose, three augers will be neces- 
sary ; the first of them about three 
feet long, the second six, and the 
third ten. Their diameters should be 
near an inch, and their bits large, 
and capable of bringing up part of 
the soil they pierce. A^ iron handle 
should be fixed crossways to wring it 
into the earth, from whence the in-' 
strument must be drawn up as often 
as it has pierced a now depth of about 
six inches, in order to clean^o the bit 
and pxaiiiine Iht: boil. — {Juhni^un.) 



AUG 



AUG 



AUGER, 1>RAINING. An instro* 
mcnt employed for tlic purpose of 
bonng inio the bottoms of drains or 
other places, in order to discover and 
let oflT water. It is nearly similar to 
that made use of in searching for 
coal or other subterraneous minerals. 
Tlie auger, shell, or wimble, as it is 
Tarioualy called, for excavating the 
earth or strata through which it pass- 
es, is generally from two and a half 
to three and a half inches in diam- 
eter ; the hollow part of it is one foot 
four inches in length, and constract- 
ed nearly in the shape of the wimble 
used by carpenters, only the sides of 
the shell come closer to one another. 
The rods are made in separate pieces 
of lour feet long each, that screw into 
one another to any assignable length, 
one alter another, as the depth of the 
hole requires. The size above the 
auger is about an inch square, unless 
at the joints, where, for the sake of 
strength, they are a quarter of an 
inch more. 

There is also a chisel and punch, 
adapted for screwing on, rn going 
through hard gravel or other metal- 
lic substances, to accelerate the pas- 
sage of the auger, which could not 
otherwise perforate such hard bod- 
ies. The punch is often used, when 
the auger is not applied, to prick or 
open the sand or gravel, and give a 
more easy issue to the water. The 
chisel is an inch and a half or two 
inches broad at the point, and made 
very sharp for cutting stone ; and the 
punch an inch square, like the other 
part of the rods, with the point sharp- 
ened also. 

As it is remarked by Johnstone, in 
his account of £Hcington's mode of 
draining, to judge when to make use 
of the borer is a difficult part of the 
bosiness of draining. Many who have 
not seen it made use of in draining 
have been led into a mistaken no- 
tion, both as to the manner of using 
it and the purposes for which it is ap- 
plied. They think that if, by boring 
indiscriminately through the ground 
to be drained, water is found near 
enough to the surface to be reached 
by the depth of the drain, the proper 



directfen fhr It is along these hotoe 
where water has been found, and thus 
make it the first implement that is 
used. The contrary, however, in 
practice, is the case, and the auger 
is never used till after the drain is 
cut, and then for the purpose of per- 
forating any retentive or impervious 
stratum lying between the bottom of 
the drain and the reservoir or strata 
containing the spring. Thus it gveat- 
ly lessens the trouble and expense 
that would otherwise be requisite in 
cutting the trench to that depth to 
which, in many instances, the level 
of the outlet will not admit. The 
manner of using it is simply thus : In 
working it, two, or, rather, three men 
are necessary ; two stand above, on 
each side of the drain, who turn it 
round by means of the wooden hin- 
dies, and when the auger is full they 
draw it out ; and the man in the bot- 
tom of the trench dears out the earth, 
assists in pulling it out, and directing 
it into the hole ; and he can also as- 
sist in turning with the iron handle 
or key, when the depth and length of 
rods require additional force to per- 
form the operation. The workmen 
should be cautious, in boring, not to 
go deeper at a time, without drawing, 
than the exact length of the shell, 
otherwise the earth, clay, or sand 
through which it is boring, after the 
shell is full, makes it very difficult to 
pull out. For this purpose, the exact 
length of the shell should be regular- 
ly marked on the rods, from the bot- 
tom upward. Two flat boards, with 
a hole cut into the side of one of 
them, and laid alongside of one an- 
other over the drain in the tnne of 
boring, are very useful for directing 
the rods in going down perpendicu- 
larly, for keeping them steady in bo- 
ring, and for the men standing on 
when performing the operation. 

AUGUST. In this month the 
stacking of hay and other crops har- 
vested is to be attended to. Root 
crops have been laid up, and the land 
cleared of weeds. Turnips for an af- 
ter crop may be sown, if the weather 
be not too dry. Budding may be done 
with advantage. Prepara&iona are to 

61 



AVE 

be made for oolleettnff tsotten. The 
tobacco crop begins to ripen by the 
end of the month. Kice is cut. 

AURELIA, AURELIAN. The 
pope or nymph of the higher in- 
Beota. 

AURICLE. The external ear. 
The venona chambera of the heart 

AURICULAR. Appertaining to 
the ear. 

AURICULATE. When the baae 
of a leaf ia iobed on each aide the 
midrib. 

AUSCULTATION. The exami- 
nation of the aounda within the body 
to detect diaeaaea, dec. 

AUTOPSY. Examination by the 
eye. It ia generally uaed to desig- 
nate examinations of the body after 
death, for the discovery of the causes 
of disease. 

AVENA. The generic name of a 
family of greases, of which the A. 
stUivat oatSf and A, tlatior^ Andes 
grass, are best known. Several spe- 
cies, as the A.flaveteens and pubes- 
cent, are found in English meadows, 
and the latter is well worthy of cul- 
tivation ; it is the downy cat graat of 
agriculturists. 

AVENUE. Any broad, gravelled, 
or properly-made road, honored by 
trees. A side road, or approach to 
a house. 

AVERRUNCATOR. In arbori- 
culture, an instrument for cutting off 
the branches of trees, consisting of 
two blades fixed on the end of a rod, 
one of which has a moveable joint, 
which, by meana of a line fixed to it, 
operatea like a pair of scissors. In 
the improved forms of this instru- 
ment, the point on which the moving 
or cutting blade turns, instead of be- 
ing confined to a circular opening, 
worka in a longitudinal one ; in con- 
sequence of which, instead of a crush- 
ing out, like that produced by com- 
mon hedge shears, a draw cat is form- 
ed, which leaves the section from 
which the branch or shoot has been 
amputated as clean as that produced 
by a pruning knife. 

AVERSE, A VERSUS. Turned 
back. 

AVES. See Ormtkciogy. 

63 



BAG 

AVIARY. A place to iBMp liMs 

in. Green-bouses are usoaUy ae- 

lee ted 

AVOIRDUPOIS. A weight hav- 
ing sixteen ounces to the pound, in 
distinction to Troy weight, which has 
only twelve. The following is a tab- 
ular view of this weight : 

16 drams make 1 ounce. 
16 oaneea 1 pound. 

28 pounds 1 quarter. 
4 quarters 1 cwt. 
90 cwt. 1 ton. 

dra. oz». 

16= 1= IbM 

266= 16= 1 qra. 
7.168= 448= «8= 1= cirt. 
28,672= 1,792= 112= 4= 1 ton, 
573,440=35,840=2240=80=20=1 

5760 Troy grains make 1 pound 
Troy, and 7000 Troy grains 1 pound 
Avoirdupois ; hence 175 pounds Troy 
are equal to 144 pounds Avoirdupois. 

AWN. The stiff beard or bristle 
of some grasses, arisfa. 

AWNING. A covering of some 
kind of cloth, to protect plants, du?., 
from sun or rain. 

AXIL, AXILLA. The armpit. 
The angle between a leaf and the 
stem. Buds placed here are termed 
axillary. 

AXIS, AXLE-TREE. The spindle 
or central rod around which parts of 
machinery, dec., revolve or are de- 
veloped. 

AZALEA. A genus of small or- 
namental shrubs with large, trumpet- 
shaped flowers, of the family of the 
honeysuckles. 

AZOREAN FENNEL. Anetkum 
azoricum. A kind of fennel 

AZOTE. Nitrogen. 

B. 

BACCA. A berry. 

BACCIFEROUS. Bearing berries, 
as the currant. 

BACK. The spine. The back of 
a horse shoald be straight, in order 
that it may be strong ; when it is hol- 
low, or what is termed backed, the 
animal is generally weak. 

BACK, SORE. A complaint which 
is very common to young horses when 



BAL 

ftf f first travel. To prerent it, their 
backs should be cooled eTerr time 
Ibaj are baited, and dow and Iben 
wished with warm water and wiped 
dry with a linen cloth. The best cure 
Art a Bore back is  lotion of 1 drachm 
ofsagai of lead with 1 pint of Tioegar 
and water. 

BACK SINEWS, SPRAIN OF 
THE, This is oIleQ occasioned b? 
tt« horse being orerweigbted, and 
then ridden far and fast, especially if 
his pasleraa are long ; but it may oc- 
our from a false siep, or from the 
heels of the aboea being loo much 
lowered. Spre.iD of the hack sinews 
is detected by swelljag and beat at 
the back of the lower part of the leg, 
puffioess along the course of the sm- 
ews, extreme tenderness so far as 
the swelling and beat extend, and 
Teiy great l^jncpess. 

The first abject is to abate the in* 
flammation, and this should be at- 
tempted by bleeding from the plate 
vein, by means of which blood is 
drained from ibe iDdamed part -, next, 
local applicactans should he made to 
the back of tbe leg, in the fonu of 
fomentations of water, sufficiently 
hot, and frequenlly repealed ; at the 
Bamc time, as much strain as possible 
should be taken from tbe sinew, by 
putting a high calkin on the heel of 

BACK-RAKING. An operation 
in farriery, by which hardeoed feces 
are withdrawn from the rectum. 

BACON. See Jfog. 

BAGGING, A mode of reaping 
cora or pulse with a book, in which 
the operator effects his object by stri- 
king the straw, or hauhu, instead of 
drawing the hook tbruagh it ; in oth- 
er words, it is separating the straw, 
or haulm, from the root by chopping, 
instead of by a drawing cut. 

Baking of land. Clayey 
lauds, when plougbed wet, become 
Incrusted or baked : seed cannot 
break Uirougb tbe CTust, and should 
be again sown. 

BALANCE FOR ANALYSIS. 

This important insttument may be 

considered aa conaisting of an inflei' 

lUe rod, or lever, called the beam, 

ES 



fhmished with three axes : one, tha 
fulcrum or centre of motion, situated 
in the middle, upon which the beam 

tremities, and at equal distances from 
the middle ; these last are called the 
points of support, and serre lo sus- 
tain the pans or scales. The points 
of support snd the fulcrum ahouhl bo 
in the same right Ime. The arms of 
the lever being equal, it follows that, 
if eqnnl weights be put into the scales, 
no effect will be produced on the po- 
sition of tbe balance, and the beam 
wil! remain horizontal. 

If a small addition he made to the 
weight in one of the scales, the hori- 
zontalitjof the beam will be disturti- 
ed, and after oscillating for some time, 
it will, on attaining a state of rest, 
form an angle with the horizon, the 
extent of which is a measure of the 
delicacy or sensibility of the bal- 

What we have now staled will 
serve to illustrate the principle of the 
balance. Its mode of construction 
will be best understood by a dia- 




le of the best form is here repre- 
sented. The parts are all so arran- 
ged that it can, at pleasure, be lilted 
off the points of support. This is ef- 
fected by aid of the two uprights, 
which ere elevated by a small lever 
at the bottom. Tbe scale pans are 
made of brass or platlna. 

In order to try the goodness of a 
pair of scales, the scales should bo 
taken off tbe beam toaBcertain if the 



BAL 



BAR 



beam balances without tbam; tbey 
eliould ihen be put on again and afler- 
M'ard reversed, or each scale hung 
on the end of the beam opposite that 
which it before occupied. Equal 
weights should then be put into the 
opposite scales, and these should, in 
like maDner, be reversed or changed ; 
aad if the beam maintains its hori- 
xootal position under all these chan- 
ges, it may be relied on as being good 
and perfect. The pivots or fulcrum 
upon which the beam turns ought to 
be sharp, or knife-edged, as it is termr 
ed, and they should be of steel well 
hardened, as well as the interior of 
the ring in which they move : this 
confines the fulcrum to a minute line, 
and prevents friction. In beams for 
*Bice purposes, the pivots ought not 
to be too much elevated above the 
centre of gravity ; for, although this 
centre will generally be found an inch 
or two below the pivots in strong 
warehouse beams, in order to bring 
them to a speedy equilibrium, by 
which time is saved, yet, for accurate 
weighings the nearer the centre of 
gravity is brought into the straight 
fine that would connect the tops of 
the two scale eyes and the under 
side of the pivot the better, although 
such a beam will occasion great loss 
of time by its vibrating a long time 
before it becomes stationary. 

BALL, or BOLUS. In farriery, a 
well-known form of medicine for 
horses or other animals, which may 
be passed at once into the stomach. 
They should be made of a long, oval 
8hape> and about the size of a small 
egg, being best conveyed over the 
root of the tongue by the hand. This 
method of administering medicines is 
preferable, in most cases, to that of 
drenches. I subjoin the recipes for 
a few of those balls most commonly 
used by the farmer : 

Mild Physic Ball. 

Barbadoes aloes . . 6 drachms. 
Powdered ginger . . 2 " 
Castile soap ... 2 '* 
Oil of cloves ... 20 drops. 
Sirup of buckthorn sufficient to 
form a balL 

54 



Strong Pk^ 


€jMi, 


Barbadoes aloes . 


. 8 drachms. 


Ginger, powdered 


. 2 


Castile soap . . 


. 2 »* 


Oil of cloves . . 


. 20 drops. 



Sirup of buckthorn sufficient to 
form a ball. 

Calomel Ball for a Horse. 
Calomel i dradmi. 



« 



14 



«« 



U 



«( 



Aloes, powdered . . 6 
Ginger, powdered . 8 
Castile soap ... 2 
Oil of Cloves ... 20 drops. 
Sirup of buckthorn sufficient t» 
make into a ball. 

Diureiic BalL 

Castile soap . . . . i ounces. 
Nitre, powdered . . 2 «• 
Spirit of turpentine .4 " 
Anise seed powder and treacle suf> 
ficient to make into aight balls. 

Cordial BalL 

Cummin seed, powdered 4 ounces. 
Anise seed, powdered • 4 
Caraway seed, powdered 4 
Ginger, powdered . . 3 
Honey sufficient to make into balls 
tlie size of a hen*s egg. 

BALM. The plant Melissa offici- 
nalis t of a pleasant aromatic odour ; 
its medicinal virtues are trifling. 

BALSAMS. Exudations from cer- 
tain trees of a resinous nature. 

BANANA. A tall herbaceous, en- 
dogenous plant, the Musa sapientum 
of botanists, having broad convex 
leaves with fine oblique veins, and 
growing in a tuft from the top of a 
stem formed by the union of the broad 
bases of the leaves. The fruit ri* 
pens in succession in large clusters 
weighing many pounds. It is of the 
same nature as the plantain. It is a 
native of the West Indies, where it 
contributes essentially to the food of 
all classes. 

BANKS OF RIVERS. See Em^ 
bankmenl. 

BANNER, VEXILLUM. The op 
per petal of pea flowers. 

BARB. A general name for horses 
imported from Barbary. The barb, 
one of the most celebrated of the AjP* 



BAR 

riean racers, ia to be met with throat- 
out Barbary, Morocco, Fez, Tripoli, 
and Bornou. It seldom exceeds four- 
teen hands and a half in height. The 
countenance of the barb is usually 
indicative of its spirit, and the facial 
line, in direct contradiction to that of 
the Arabian, is often slightly rounded ; 
the eyes are prominent ; the ears, 
though frequently small and pointed, 
are occasionally rather long and 
drooping ; the neck is of sufficient 
length; the crest is generally fine 
and not overladen with mane; the 
shoulders are flat and oblique ; the 
withers pr6minefit, and the chest al- 
most invariably dieep ; the back is 
usually straight t the carcass mod- 
erately rounded only ; the croup long, 
and the tail placed rather high ; the 
arms and thighs being commonly 
niuscQlar and strongly marked ; the 
knee and «hock are broad and low 
placed ; the back sinews singularly 
distinct and well marked from the 
knee downward ; the pasterns rather 
long, and the feet firm, and but mod- 
erately open. 

The barb requires more excitement 
to call out his powers than the Ara- 
bian ; but when sufficiently stimula- 
ted, his qualities of speed and endu- 
rance render him a powerful antago- 
nist, while the superior strength of 
his fore band enables him to carry 
the greater weight of the two. The 
Godolphin barb, which was imported 
from France into England at the con- 
clttstoo of the last century, about 25 
years after the Darley Arabian, was 
one of those most worthy of note. 
The former appears to have rivalled 
the latter in the importance of his 
get. He was the sire of Lath, Cade, 
Babraham, Regulus, Bajazet, Tar- 
quin. Dormouse, Sultan, Blank, Dis- 
mal, and many other horses of racing 
note ; and, without doubt, the English 
blood-breeds were more indebted to 
the Darley Arabian and the Godol- 
phin barb than to all the other East- 
ern horses which had previously en- 
tered the country. — (^Blaim't Encyc. 
Mural Sports, p. 243.) 

BARBERRY BUSH. Berbcrisvul- 
gtait. An indigenous thorny shrub, 



BAR 

bearing bonches of pale yoBow droop* 
ing flowers in May, which are suc- 
ceeded by oblong scarlet berries, ri- 
pening in September. Sharp, three- 
cleft thorns rise at the base of each 
leaf-bud. The barberry makes good 
hedges. It may be propagated by 
seed, or by layers, which should re- 
main two years before they are re- 
moved. The gross shoots, if the 
shrub stands singly, should be pruned 
away, and it will fruit better. The 
berries are gratefully acid, and the 
juice, when diluted with water, may 
be used as lemonade in fevers. The 
fruit, made into conserve, is good. 
It is also excellent as a pickle and 
preserve. 

There is no good reason for sup- 
posing that this bush produces mil- 
dew in wheat. It is very liable to 
rubigo, a parasitical fungus, but not 
the uredo of grain. The root con- 
tains a good yellow dye, and is emetic. 

BARiLLA. The ashes of sea-shore 
plants, containing about 20 per cent, 
of soda. The cheap manufacture of 
soda has nearly destroyed the culti- 
vation of barilla plants. It is jased to 
manufacture hard soaps. See Soda, 

BARK. The rind or covering of 
the woody parts of a tree. The bark 
of trees is composed of three distinct 
layers, of which the outermost is 
called the epidermis, the next the so- 
renchyma, and the innermost, or that 
in contact with the wood, the cortical 
layer. The epidermis is a thin, trans- 
parent, tough membrane ; when rub- 
bed off it is gradually reproduced, and 
in some trees it cracks and decays, 
and a fresh epidermis is formed, push- 
ing outward the old : hence the rea- 
son why fio many aged trees have a 
rough surface. The parenchyma is 
tender, succulent, and of a dark green. 
The cortical layer, or liher, consists 
of thin membranes encircling each 
other, and these seem to increase 
with the age of the plant. The liber, 
or inner bark, is known by its white- 
ness, great flexibility, toughness, and 
durai>ility : the fibres in its structure 
are ligneous tubes. It is the part of 
the stem through which the juices 
descend, and the organ in which the 

65 



BAH 



BAR 



generative eap, ftom vbence aD the 
other parts or(einate, is received from 
the leaves. "Hie bark in its intersti- 
ces contains ceils, which are filled 
with juices of very varying qualities : 
some, like that of the oak, remarka- 
ble for their astringency ; others, like 
the cinnamon, abounding with an es- 
sential oil ; others, as the Jesuits' 
bark, containing an alkali ; some mu- 
cilaginous, many resinous. 

M. Saossure found in 100 parts of 
the ashes of the barks of various trees 
the following substances : 



Soluble Mitt 

Xuthy pbofphfttM 
Bwttiy ewbOMit— 
oiiiCH • • . • 



Oak. 


Haa«L 


Poplar. 


Mm- 

berry. 


Horn- 
beam. 


7- 


12-6 


8- 


7* 


4-6 


3- 


6-ft 


fi-S 


8-5 


4« 


9Sr 


M* 


60* 


46- 


»■ 


1-5 


(Wft 


4- 


1512 


1-5 


S- 


J -76 


1*6 


IIS 


0-W 



From this analysis the farmer will 
see that the earthy and saline ingre- 
dients of the bark of forest trees must 
be considerable fertilizers : it is only 
to the slowness with which refuse 
tanner's bark undergoes putrefaction 
that its neglect by the cultivator must 
be attributed. It might certainly, 
however,' be mixed with farm-yard 
compost with very considerable ad- 
vantage ; and in its half putrefied, or 
even fresh state, it produces on some 
grass lands very excellent efiTects as a 
top dressing ; and in instances where 
carriage is an object, even its ashes 
would be found, from the quantity of 
earthy carbonates and phosphates 
which they contain, a very valuable 
manure. 

The different uses of barks in tan- 
ning and dyeing are numerous and 
important. The strength or fineness 
of their fibres is also of consequence : 
thus woody fibres are often so tough 
as to form cordage, as exemplified in 
the bark of the lime, the willow, and 
the cocoanut ; the liber of some trees, 
as, for example, the lime and the pa- 
per mulberry, is manufactured into 
mats ; and it is scarcely requisite to 
refer to hemp and flax for spinning 
and weaving. The bark of the oak 
is used for affording tannic acid in the 
manufacture of leather. The follow- 
ing table of Davy will show the rela- 
tive value of different kinds of bark 

56 



to the tanner ; it gives the quantity 
of tannic acid afiTorded by 480 lbs. of 
different barks in that chemist's ex- 
periments : 

ATengo from tb« entire bark of UMb 

Middle'siwd o«k, cut in spring . » t9 

, cut m autama . . St 

Elm IS 

ConuBoo willow (laigv) .... 11 

Ask 16 

Beech 10 

Sjrcamora II 

Ltwabmrdf poplar 15 

Birck a 

Blackthorn . .16 

WkJto interior cortical layers of oak bark 7^ 

The difference of seasons makes a 
considerable variation in the produce 
of tannic acid : it is the least in cold 
springs. The tannic acid most abounds 
when the buds are opening, and least 
in the winter ; 4 or 5 lbs. of good oak 
bark, of average quality, are required 
to form 1 lb. of leather. 

Cork is the bark of a species of 
oak (Querctf« suher) Which grows abun- 
dantly in the south of Europe. 

The Quercitron bark is the produc- 
tion of black oak (Quercu* tinctoria). 

BARK CLEANING. Fruit-treea 
sometimes become infested with li- 
chens or moss ; the rough bark offers 
an asylum for ^rubs, eggs, and cater 
pillars, all which injure, and oflen 
destroy the tree. * To prevent these^ 
the bark should be scraped in the 
apriDg with an old hoe or cooper's 
knife, and aAerward washed with 
strong lye, brine, whale oil soap dis- 
solved in water (1 lb. to 3 gallons), 
lime-water, soft soap, &c. 

BARK-BOUND. Trees, the bark 
of which appears stretched over the 
wood, and which does not split off" 
kindly, are said to be bark-bound. 
Cutting a slit through it from the 
branches to the root relieves the 
tree, and, when the wound is kept 
clean from insects, does good. It 
should be done in March or AprO, 
when frosts are over. 

BARKING IRONS. Instruraente 
for removing the bark of oak ana 
other trees. They consist of a blade 
or knife for cutting the bark, while 
yet on the trunk, across at regular 
distances, and of chisels or spatuls, 
of dififerent lengths and breadths, 



15 AH 



BAR 



for separating the baric from the 
wood. 

BARKING OF TREES. The oper- 
ation of stripping off the bark or rind. 
It is common to perform the opera- 
tion of oak-barking in the spring 
months, "when the bark, by the rising 
of the sap, is easily separated from 
the wood. This renders it necessa- 
ry to fell the trees in these months. 
The tool commonly made use of in 
most countries is made of bone or 
iron. If of the former, the thigh or 
shin bone is preferred, which is form- 
ed into a two-handed instrument for 
the stem and larger boughs, with a 
handle of wood fixed at the end. The 
edge being once given by the grind- 
ing stone, or a rasp, it keeps itself 
sharp by wear. 

The cutters shoald be provided with 
ripping saws, widely set, with sharp, 
light luitchets, and with short-handled 
pruning hooks. The barkers are pro- 
vided with light, short-handled ashen 
mallets, the head being about eight 
inches long, three inches diameter in 
the fhce, and the other end blunt, 
somewhat wedge-shaped ; with sharp 
ashen wedges, somewhat spatula- 
shaped, and which may either be 
driven by the mallet, or, being formed 
with a kind of handle, may be pushed 
with the hand. 

The large pieces are set ap on end, 
or they are formed into small pyrami- 
dal stacks. Dae attention must be 
paid to turning the bark according to 
the state of the weather. Good hay 
weather is good barking weather. 
It is chiefly by the high brown colour 
of the inner rind, and by its astrin- 
gent eflbct upon the palate when 
tasted, that the tanner or merchant 
jadges of its value. If these proper- 
ties be lost through neglect, or by the 
vicissitudes of the weather, the inner 
bark becomes blanched, or rendered 
#hite. 

After it is in a proper state, that 
is, completely past fermentation, if it 
cannot conveniently be carried off 
the ground and housed, it must be 
stacked. An experienced husband- 
maa who can stack hay can also stack 
baik ; bal it may be proper to warn 



him against building his stack too 
large, and to caution him to cover it 
well. 

BARK LICE. Scale insects. In- 
sects of the genus Coccus, many of 
which yield a rich dye, as the C. cacHi 
or cochineal of Mexico. They are of 
an oval or roundish form, and small in 
size, rarely exceeding one fourth of 
an inch. They infest the young bark 
commonly, but are also found on the 
leaves and roots of some plants. The 
female undergoes no winged trans- 
formation, but the male does. In the 
spring the lice are found like dead 
shields on the young branches, ar- 
ranged in rows; under these appa- 
rently inanimate bodies the eggs of a 
new generation are concealed,. which 
shortly put on life, and come forth 
of the oval figure of the family ; they 
insert their slender beaks into the 
young bark or leaves, and begin to 
draw the sap with such activity that 
it drops from them and the punctures 
to the ground, attracting ants to as- 
cend the tree. After a season, the 
cocci attach themselves to some spot 
on the bark, and emit downy threads 
to make fast. Here a transformation 
ensues, which gives wings to the 
male, and only a new coat to the fe- 
male. After a time, differing with 
the species, the male comes forth re- 
'duced in size, but the female is sta- 
tionary. Impregnation ensues, her 
body sweBs, the eggs are placed un- 
der her, she dies, and the crust of her 
body forma their winter protection. 
But in some varieties two generations 
appear in one year. The apple-tree 
louse hatches ffom the end of May to 
the middle of June : they are whitish ; 
in ten days they fasten themselves, 
and begin to throw out bluish down ; 
and there appears two broods in the 
year. 

They are destroyed by birds of the 
ttren genus, ichneumon flies, and by 
washing the bark early in June. See 
Bark Cleaning. When they infest the 
roots, applications must be made to 
those parts. 

BARK MILL. See MiU. 

BARK, SPENT, from the tanners, 
forms a good manure when rotted 

57 



irtth fann-TBTd maanre, or nada into 
 cDiApoot witb lime, die. Il is also 
08ed for hoUiede, 

BARK 6T0VE. A glaied bouae 
for tropical [danta, lieated by baik 
bea>. 

fiARI.EY. HtrtlturMtluliekam. It 
is reidit^r distingoi^Ad from otbai 
eratn by iu painted extremitiet, and 
by th* roogli appetmics of its onter 



Ffg.l. 



BAR 

BotaiiBla place bariey ia (be laai- 

ilynfthe G'raminrir. and LmncuBbU 
classed it in the second order of his 
IhinlclBBB ITiianina iigfaUy having 
Ibree Btamina and two styles in the 

Of all the coliivat^d gnum, barlej 
is perhaps thai which comes to pe^ 
feclioD in the gnatetit irarieiy of cli- 
mates, and is. cunaequenClr, found 
over the icreatest extent of ilia habi- 



(kh put at lilt hb] pulled alT Ibi ruJiil. 



potlKlatfllwnritIa 



n the aliurt 
which verge on ilie fngiil aunc. In 
Senial climates iwu crops uf bailey 
aiay be lenped in the same year : one 
in apritig, Inim seed sown llie precc- 
tling autumn, and une in autumn from 
a epring auwrng, 
Apicul 



I general 



bave dlsti<ig;uUb«il the diflereni epe- 
ciea of baiiey, either from the lime 
of sowing them, into winter barley 
end spring barley, or, from the num- 
ber of rows of grains in tlieeara.iniu 
Bii- rowed, four- rowed, and two- row- 
ed or Sal barley. Another distinclion 
may be made between iliose wbicli 
have the corolla alrongly adhering to 
the aeed and those in which it separ- 
ates from it, leaving the seed naked, 
froni which circumstance these arc 
called rmied barieya. There seem, 
in fact, to be only two very distinct 
species of barley generally cultiva- 
ted : one which produces three per- 
fect floweiB, and as many seeds uni- 
ted at the base, at each joint of the 
rathir, or middle of the ear, alternate- 
ly on each aide (fi^. 1)^ and another, 
in which the middle flowrel is perfect 
and the two others barren, funning a 
flat ear, with only one row nf grains 
on each side, as spring barley {Fip. 
3). The first spocies has sometimes 
the middle flowret small or abortive, 
and conse<)uently only four raws of 
grains, giving the ear a square ap- 
pearance -, but that this ia only an 
occasional deviation ii proved by its 
returning to the perfect ear with six 
rows, in rich soils and Doder proper 
cultivation. 

In some vnrtetiea oTboth kinds the 
seeds Bland mor« apart from eac>' 
other, and at a greater 
lacbts; ihs ear it a'' 
ing it the Bppr*~ 

w ence '-_ ^^^ -^^ ^_^^^ BalUedore 
..ley; it is also known by the he 
of Sprat barley. In others the 
ToUa sepaiaica from the seed when 
ripe, and the awns fall off; these are 
the naked barleys, Enpb nf these 
has been.ii\ repute Mt flifleroi't t' — 

Winte'.- barley |j ^•^\\f il•^ 



.Jiththe 



■\* 



».>iKl<( 



lai^nJrpuLlAdoT 



those countrip-, „here the wintera 
"".'.J and the springs dry, as in 
south of France, Italy, and Spain, 
,. -n those where the snow lies deep 
ail the winter, and where the sun ia 
powerful immediately after the melt- 
ing of the snow in spring. In cli- 
mates where the winter consists of 
altBrnalB frost and Ihsws, and Iho 
early part of spring is usually wet. 






D suf- 



fer from these -(icissiiuilea, and Iba 
spring-sown barley gives ^ more 
cerlwn pco^aot of a good crop i but 



Um gnin oT tbe latter U 

beav7 u thai which baa atood the 

Tlie SiUrian baitiy, a TSTJelr "t 
which, with naked seeds, haa been 
highly el to] led by foreign agricultunil 
writers, especially b? Tliaer, under 
the name of Hordatm caUiU, set 
to be a superior sort in rich soils, 
only for ite heavy and nutritious gn 
in which particulars it is said to ap- 
proach to the quality of rye, bat also 
for its Bueculent atems and leaves, 
which make it by far the best sort to 
■ow for the purpoae of green food fa 
cattle and sheep ; and if fed off early 
the roots will, in a rich soil, shoot ou 
■n abundance of fresh stems, and pro 
duce a good crop of grain at harvr.sl 
The barley most commimly cult! 
TBted ia that which haa only two 
rowa. It ia ahnost uni»Drsally so' 
Id spring. 

Particular Tarietiee have been 
Creat repota at diSereot timea, when 
first introduced, and then seem to 
have degeuemted and lost their su' 
periority. Of this kind is the Miidt- 
ctm barley. This barley was much 
sought after some years ago ; 
lately the ChnalitT barley l,Fig. 
Bo called from the gentleman who 
first brought it into notice. It ia said 
that, having obaerved an ear of bar- 
ley in his field greatly superior to Ihe 
rest, he carefully saved, the seed, and 
cultivated it in bis garden till he had 
a sufficient quantity to sow it in a 
field. It has since been extremely 
multiplied and di&^sed through the 
country. Some eminent maltsters 
and brewers have declared that it 
contains more saccharine matter than 
any other sort ; and the trials liitber- 
to made have convinced many agri- 
culturists that it ia not only heavier 
in the grain, but also more produc- 
tive. In 1S3S, Mr. Coke, of Norfolk, 
vrho wa* always foremost in all agri- 
cullursl experiments and imprave- 
ments, sowed a considerable portion 
or land with this barley, and the re- 
salt ii said to have been perfectly 
satisfactory. In tbe year 1S33 the 
writer of this article aowcd two acres 
of Chevalier barley in the same field 
GO 



Kime of the best of the comn^an 
barley. The soil was poor, lifht sand, 
l;;;t in Rood order, and very clean. 
The produce of the whole was nearly 
the Bome, four ijuarters per acre ; but 
the Chevalier barley weighed fiT lbs 
per bushel, while the common weigh- 
ed only 63. This gives the farmer 
an advantage o( nearly ten per cent. 
The sample was very fine, and tbe 
whole that he could spare was eager- 
ly purchased by his neighbours, for 
seed, at bis own price. It is long in 

r and very plump, and the plant* 



tQIer* sorooch.thatbslf KhnshelmB]' 
be saved per acre in ihe seed. This 
is probably owing lo its grsins being 
all perfect, and vegetating rapidly. 
The slraw, liks dat ofUie oCker long- 
eared barleys, appears weak ia pro- 
portion 10 the ear ; It ia aaid also to 
be harder, and not ao palatabhi to cat- 
tle. Theae are circumstances which 
experience alone can ascertain. Tliat 
hitherto it has liad a decided superi- 
ority oTei the common aorta, no one 
ivbo has tried it fairly in w^-pre- 
pared land seems to deny; bul 
less great care be taken in cnl 
ting picked parcels for seed, selecting 
the finest ears and plumpest grain, it 
will probably share the fate of its pred- 
ecessors — degenerate, and lose its 
reputation. Mlgtil not the cnltivation 
of the TartoQs kinds of grain pnrpose- 
ly for seed be more generally prac- 
tised, and form a distinct branch of 
agriculture! Thosthe good qualilies 
of any grain might be perpetuated, 
new Tarietiea might be produced, aad 
the defects corrected by cultivation, 
as is the case with boriicultaral 

The sprat or battledore barley ( Fig. 
iy, alao called Putney barley, from 
haring been once extensiTCly cul- 
tiTated near that place, is in macb 
esteem in Genaany. It is the Hor- 
Awn Zeocrilmi; also called Gennan 
ria, or rict hrria/, not from any re- 
semblance it bears to rice, bat be- 
cause, when deprived of its skin and 
made into pot barley, it swells by 
boihng, and makea a good substitute 
for rice in broths an^ puddings. 

AH kinds of barley require neatly 
the same soil, and, whether they are 
sown before winter or in spring, the 
gronnd must be well prepared, and 
theaoil palrerized by repeated ploogh' 
iiqs and harrow ings, or by the opera- 
lion of those instruments which have 
been invented for this especial pur- 
pose, in order tbat the fibres of the 
roots, which are very minute and del- 
icate, may penetrate the soil easily in 
ssarch of DOurUhment. 

 A pint « mkI I" tilldr whan i< iwikJUM. 
•n*n] lUiiialiaM ItH cmra gf Uh mitutlif 



[Spnl [ot BaUladne) Bukr-] 
The soil can aearcely be too dry 
1 the surface at the time of sowing ; 
and, provided a few showers supply 
the moisture necessary to make tlie 
seed vegetate and spring up, there is 
DO great danger to be apprehended 
from too dry weather. Barley has 
been known to grow and ripen when 
not a single aha wer refreshed the soil 
Irom the day it was sown lo that in 
which it was reaped. 

The iinantity of barley sown for- 
merly was four bushels per acre i 
bnt if the land is duly prepared and 
the seed good, from two lo three 
bushels are an ample allowance, espe- 
lally if sown hy the drilling machine. 
The proper time for sowing barley 

and the 

61 



BARLEY 



state of the land. The best practical 
rule is, to sow as soon in March as 
the ground is dry. The early-sown 
crops are In general the heaviest, es- 
pecially the sorts which ripen later : 
they require less seed, having more 
time to tiller before the hot weather 
draws up the stems. There are, how- 
ever, seasons when the later-sown 
crops are the best. A good rule is to 
sow a quick-growing sort when the 
sowing is unavoidably deferred, and 
in this case more seed must also be 
allowed. 

The depth at which the seed should 
be deposited depends on the nature 
of the soil and on the season. Win- 
ter barley need only be slightly cov- 
ered, and will tiller astonishingly in 
good light soils. But in stiff soils the 
seed, buried deep, may Lave much 
difficulty in genninating, the air not 
having sufficient access, and the first 
shoot not being able to pierce the 
compact soil above it. As a general 
rule, a depth of one inch and a half 
is most likely to enable the seed to 
sprout well, and give a sufficient hold 
of the land by the roots to avoid the 
danger of lodging. After sowing bar- 
ley it is useful to pass a light roller 
over the land, across the beds, i|» 
there are any, to press the earth on 
the seed, and prevent too great evap- 
oration of the moisture. When the 
plants begin to tiller, another rolling, 
and in some cases a slight harrow- 
ing, to loosen the surface and thin 
out the plants where they grow too 
close, are very useful. This also is 
the best time to sow clover and grass 
seeds, if not done with the first roll- 
ing. After this no attention is re- 
quired to the crop till harvest, unless 
some docks or thistles should make 
their appearance, which must then be 
carefully pulled up. 

The practice of sowing clover, rye 
grass, or other seeds wi& the barley, 
is almost universal, and is considered 
as one of the great modern improve- 
ments in agriculture. There is no 
doubt a great advantage in having a 
profitable and improving crop to suc- 
ceed the barley without farther till- 
age; and clover prepares the land 
62 



admirably for wheat. Still there are 

some doubts whether this be profita- 
ble in all cases. There are seasons 
when the clover materially injures 
the barley by its luxuriance ; and in 
wet seasons at harvest it is very dif- 
ficult to dry the straw sufficiently, 
mixed as it is with the succulent 
stenos of the clover, or to prevent its 
heating in the stack. The clover, as 
far as the barley is concerned, may 
be looked upon as a weed, which, like 
aU other weeds, must take a part of 
the nourishment from the crop, and 
check ite tillering. If the clover is 
sown late among the barley, the dan- 
ger is less. It will not be able to 
grow so high as to do much injury, 
but the fear of losing the plant of clo- 
ver makes most farmers prefer sow- 
ing it soon after the barley. 

In Flanders, clover is seldom or 
never sown with barley, but chiefly 
with rye ; but they sow a species (kf 
white carrot instead in the sandy 
soils. These push out very little of 
the green top, but shoot their fibres 
downward, which form the rudiments 
of the carrot. After harvest, tho 
ground is well harrowed, and water- 
ed with liquid manure. The carrots, 
which could scarcely be observed 
above ground, soon spring up, and a 
good crop is secured before winter, 
extremely useful for feeding cattle 
and swine, and greatly increasing the 
urine of cows and bullocks, the fa- 
vourite manure for light soils in that 
countiy. 

As soon as the ears of the barley 
begin to droop and lose their purple 
hue, acquiring a light straw colour, 
before the grain is quite hard, it should 
be reaped. This is usually done by 
mowing it with a scythe, having a 
cradle fixed to it so as to lay the 
swathe regularly ; hut where there ia 
a sufficient supply of labourers, at 
reasonable wa^es, it is far more prof- 
itable to have it reaped with the sick- 
le, or, what is better, with the Hai- 
nauU scythe, a short, broad scythe, 
used with one hand, while a light 
hook is held in the other ^o lay the 
straw even, so as to be readily tto<) 



up into sheaves. A little pr^ 



^tice 



enaUes » man to reap twice as roneh 
corn in the same tim<r with this in- 
strument as with thp reaping hook. 
Binding into sheaves is a great ad- 
vantage ; much le»# <:orn ia shed, 
which, in the common method of ra- 
king into heaps, niten amouatB to 
more than would ruily sow the some 
extent of land The nhesTes set np 
on end arc in less danger from the 
weather, and when the stat^ ia butit 
all the ears may be laid inward and 
much grain saved, which, if or 
oniside, irould soon be the prej of 
birds : smaller stacks may be made, 
and the danger of heating entire- 
Ij aToided. The stacks should be 
built on frames, supported by stone 
or cast-iron pillars, with flat caps on 
them to keep ont vermin ; and. in 
lai^e stacks, it is useful to have a 
kind of open cage in the middle, to 
allow the ailniission of air to the cen- 
tre. This dries the gram better than 
a kiln, and when the stack is proper- 
ly thatched with straw, the crop may 
be considered as safe till it is carried 
into t lie barn to be thrashed. 

Barley requires care in thrashing, 
to break off" all the awns close to the 
grain. A thrashing machine does not 
accomplish this perfectly by only once 
passing the straw through the roll- 
eta ; it is consequeotly usually put 



tinj«, B . 

1 into sbpaves.' It 
., after the barley 
la thrashed, to efi^ct this by another 
operation, which ia called AtimmtCitig, 
for which purpose seTeral dilTereDt 
kinds of iostrumeots are used. A sim- 
ple one consists of a cylinder com- 
posed of small bars of iron, and placed 
on an axis, which is rolled backward 
and forward orer the grain ; or, 
where a thrashing machine is used, 
a plate of iron, perforated [ike a nut- 
meg grater, ia fixed to the ioaide ot 
the drum in which the beatera re- 
Tolre, and the awns are effectually 
bToken oB'bj thia rough surface 

'nediseaaeito which barley is sub- 
ject while growing are those which 
attack all other grain — the smut, Iha 
homed ear. blight, and mildew ; but 
it is leas liable to these than wheat 
The greatest enemy is a wetharvesl. 
It IB BO apt to germinate with ths 
least continuance of moisture, thai, 
ETen before it is reaped, it often ex- 
hibits an ear in full Tegeiatioo. every 
having sprouted (see figure) 
then of little value, and even 
this is checked by dry weather 
he kiln, the grain is su impaired 
be fit only to feed fowls and 
pigs. A strong plant of clover, by 
keeping the wet longer ^out the bar- 



[Pnaatim ftrnfBUicia (f umif butor-l 



i5AK 



BAR 



ley, often contributes to increase this 
evil, as lias been hinted before. 

The principal use of barley In this 
country is to convert it into malt for 
brewing and distilling. The best and 
heaviest grain is chosen for this par- 
pose, and, as it must have its germi- 
nating power unimpaired, the least 
discoloration, from rain or heating in 
the stack, renders it saspected, and 
consequently not so saleable. It is, 
however, stHI fit for being ground 
into meal for feeding cattle and pigs. 

The produce of barley, oft land 
well prepared, is from 80 to 50 bush> 
els and more per acre, weighing from 
45 to 55 lbs. per bushel. It is said 
to contain 65 per cent, of nutritive 
matter ; wheat contains 78 per cent. 
A bushel of barley weighing 00 lbs. 
therefore contains about 32 lbs. of 
nutriment, while a bushel of wheat 
weighing 60 lbs. contains 47 lbs. 
Good oats weighing 40 lbs. contain 
about 24 lbs. of nutritive substance, 
80 that the comparative value of 
wheat, barley, and oats, in feeding 
cattle, may be represented by 47, 32, 
and 24, the measure being the same. 



than tbe vsoal spring pliyslc, as it aa« 
swers the purpose of gently clearing 
the intestines without any risk of ir- 
ritation. For sheep it is more nour- 
ishing than rye, and comes earlier ; 
when fed off quite close in April, it 
will spring up again, and, on good 
land, produce a fair crop of grain. 

M. Theodore de Saussure has care- 
fully analyzed the ashes produced by 
burning barley and its straw, and we 
shall close this article with the re- 
sult of his experiments. — {Rechercku 
ChimiqueM 9ur la Vigetation^ Pahs, 
1804.) 

The grain reduced to ashes imM iu 
•kin gave, out of 100 paits, 16 of ash- 
es, which contained : 

Potass .... 

Phosphate of potass 

Sulphate of potass . 

Muriate of potass . 

Earthy phosphates . 

Earthy carbonates . 

Silica .... 

Metailie oxides . 

Loss .... 



1000 parts of the straw produced 42 



The experiments on which this cal-L^ ^jf ^ . 

cnlation is founded were carefully I potass * 

made by Einhof and confirmed, on a< ' Sulphate of iotass 



large scale, by Thaer, at his estab- 
lishment at Mdgelin, the account of 
the results being accurately kept. 

On all ^ood loamy soils barley is a 
more profitable crop than oats, and 
is supposed to exhaust the soil less. 
On stifiT, cold clays it does not thrive 
so well, and there oats are to be pre- 
ferred. In some districts, where the 
best barley is grown, the farmers sel- 
dom sow oats, and many prefer buy- 
ing them for their own use, with the 
additional expense of market and car- 
riage. 

Barley in its green state makes ex- 
cellent spring food for milch cows ; 
it comes in early, and greatly increas- 
es the milk. It is also very good for 
horses, provided it be given sparing- 
ly at first, as it purges them ; but af- 
ter a little time, when the stomach 
becomes accustomed to it, it increas- 
es their flesh and condition wonder- 
ftally, and la much more wbolesome 



Sulphate of potass 

Muriate of potass 

Earthy phosphates 

Earthy carbonates 

Silica 

Metallic oxides . 

Loss 



18 


92 


15 


026 


82-5 





35-5 


0-25 


2-8 


100 
Kluced i 


16 


35 


05 


775 


125 


57 


05 


225 



100 

These produots no doubt vary in 
diflf^rent soils ; but the proportion of 
silica in the straw and in the skin of 
barley is remarkable. This barley 
grew in a chalky soil. — ( W. L. Rkam,) 

BARLEY, POT. Barley of which 
the outer husk or skin has been re- 
moved. 

BARLEY, PEARL. TliesmaU 
round kernel which remains aAer the 
skin and a considerable portion of the 
barley have been ground off. 

BARLEY GRASSES. Grasses of 
the genus Hordeum. They are coarse, 
and of little moment in agriculture. 

BARM. Leaven, yeast. 



BAKK. 



BARN. A iMilldiiigiA which prod- 
Qoe is stored to protect it from the 
weather and keep it in safety. In all 
ooantries Mrhere the climate does not 
permit the corn to be thrashed in the 
field and immediately put into a gran- 
ary, it 18 necessary to protect it 
from the weather ; and the most ob- 
TioBs method is, to have capacions 
buildings for that purpose. Accord- 
ingly, ail well-appointed farms have 
one or more of these buildingB, which 
formerly were made of such dimen- 
sions as to be capable of containing 
the whole produce of the farm, wheth- 
er hay, Gomt or straw. A great sa- 
ying has been effected by the mode 
of stacking bay and corn in the open 
air, protected only by a alight cover- 
ing of thatch. In consequence of 
this improved practice, modiem barns 
are made of smaller dimensions, and 
their principal use is to contain the 
wheat in the straw which is intended 
to be thrashed out immediately ; so 
that if the ham is capable of contain- 
ing a thrashing floor and as much 
wheat in the sheaf as is usually put in 
a single stack, it answers all the pur- 
poses of a larger bam : and thus the 
expense of the farm buildings is great- 
ly diminished. 

The principal use of a barn being 
to thrash the com in, its construction 
must be adapted to the mode in which 
that operation is performed. As many 
smaller seeds, such as clover and the 
grasses, cannot so well be thrashed 
by a machine, a floor, upon which 
they may be tlirashed with the Hail, 
is an indiapensable appendage to a 
farm ; and the bam is the most con- 
venient place to have it in. This floor 
is eommonly placed in the middle, 
with its length equal to the width of 
the barn. It also allows the wagons 
Or earts, when, loaded with the prod- 
uce of the harvest, or of the corn 
taken from a stack, to be drawn over 
it and unloaded immediately in the 
bam. For this purpose, large double 
gates are placed at each end of the 
floor, of such dimensions as to allow 
a loaded wagon to be drawn in on 
one side, and, when unloaded, taken 
out at the other. When the width 

F8 



of the barn is not snfllcient for the 
length of the floor, a porch is added 
on one side, or both, and in these the 
gates are placed. Those parts of the 
barn which are on one side of the 
thrashing floor are called the bays, 
and in these the corn is placed till it 
is thrashed. Where there are porch- 
es, the roof of the barn is generally 
brought down to the line of the porch ; 
and thus convenient sheds are formed 
OB each side. One of the defects of 
this construction is, that the drawing 
of loaded wagons on the floor mate- 
rially injures it, even where the pre- 
caution is taken of spreading straw 
over it. In consequence of this, many 
barns have been constracted without 
the large gates, and the corn is thrown 
from the wagon outside, through an 
opening called a jnUh hoU, into the 
barn. This has the inconvenience of 
loss of time, and the risk of damaging 
the corn in showery weather. The 
best plan, therefore, is to have a 
passage for the wagons under the 
roof, at the end of the barn, where 
they can with ease and safety be un- 
loaded ; and if a thrashing machine 
is used, a floor raised about seven 
feet above the ground will contain 
the machine at one end, and the un- 
thrashed corn at the other : the low- 
er part may be appropriated to va« 
rious useful purposes ; that part which 
is immediately under the machine 
receives the corn and straw afier 
they are separated, and contains the 
winnowing machine. (See Fig. I.) 
A, the place for unloading the corn ; 
B, a floor seven feet from the ground, 
on whicn the wheat in the straw is 
stored ; C, the place of the thrash- 
ing-machine at the end of the floor ; 
D, a chamber under the floor, into 
which the thrashed corn and the 
straw fall, and the corn is winnowed ; 
£, the shed for the horses to work 
under ; F, a place under the floor, in 
which agricultural implements are 
kept : it may be converted into a sta- 
ble. Double gates at each end of A 
will shut the whole up ; or the end B 
mi^ be closed by a partition with 
double doors in it. The windows arc« 
latticed. 

05 



In this ease the seeds may bf 
thrashed on tlie raised floor, which 
muGt be innde strong and well joint- 
ed, to prevent the dust beating 
through, and steadied by pillars or a 
partition beiuw. In small Tarma. 
where there is no thrashing machine, 
this eonalruction is not so adranta- 
geouB, Ihfi raised floor being unneoc*- 
sary ; still, it would he better not to 
draw the wagons on the floor. The 
thrashing floor may be placed at one 
end or the bam, the wagons unloaded 
at the other, and the corn deposited 
between tbem, 

A common thrashing floor is usu- 
ally from eighteen to twenty feet 
long, and from twelTe lo fourteen 
wide ; the size mast depend on the 
number of men who thrash at the 
same time, this operation being more 
rapidly performed by three or four 
men, beaiin? in regular time, than if 
they worked aeparaiely. 

Thrashing floors are usually made 
of stone, brick, oHh. or tempered 
earth. The first are the most dura- 
ble, and where atone can be obtained 
at a reasonable prioe, they are, in the 
end, the cheapest ; but they are apt 
to braise the corn, and on that ac- 
count are nut so generally adopted. 
Brick floors have the same inconve- 
nience, besides that of readily imbi- 
bing tnoiature, and malting the grain 
feel cold and damp, which diminishes 
the value of tlie sample. Earthen 
floors, when carefully laid, and the 
materials well incorporated, are both 
M 



cheap anil diirnlile. provided the soil 
on which they are laid is dry natural- 
ly or made so artilicially. But earth- 
en flours have always the inconve- 
nience of wearing into dust of a grittf 
natnre, which, mixing with thv iurn, 
deteriorates it, and renders it Icaa fit 
to be ground into fine flour. Hence, 
in spite of the first cost and frequent 
repairs, wood floors are preferred. 
Some nicely is required in laying 
floors, that they may not be subject 
to rapid decay, owm^ to the (wnfiae- 
ment uf moist air below them. Tho 
planks should be two inches and a 
half thick, the edges well joined by 
damlling, or plmfliiiif and tonpviing: 
Dowelli arc pins uf half an inch di- 
ameter and six inches long, driven 
three inches deep into holes of the 
same diameter in the edge of the 
planks, and received into correspond- 
ing holes in the adjoining planks, so 
as to keep them close together uid 
their surfaces even. Plooghing and 
tongueiog is done by means of • 
groove ill each edge, into which a 
slip of latii is driven, half in each 
groove. Thui produces the same ef- 
fect or joining the planks close, be- 
sidea completely preventing any dust 
from passing between the jointa. 
The planks are driven close by n^ana 
of wedges, and are laid on sleepers, 
to which Itii-y ate fautened by a few 
iron spikes driven into each, and 
which rest on a foundalioo of brick- 
work, so that the floor ia eight or tea 
incbea from Uie ground. TbI* iatw. 



▼■1 hka been unMtimei Glled up with 
stones or gravel, under the idea of, 
preventing the neBtliiijc of rata ; hut | 
this is not a good practice. A Tree I 
current of air under the floor ia the i 
only method orsccuTing it from damp, I 
and consequent dry rot. Thisehould 
be provided bj means of openings 
through the vrnUa or under the sills. 
Iron gratings will keep out the rats; 
but even should they find their way 
under the fluor, they must be huuled 
out and destroyed by dogs. 

The outer walla of bams ars. built 
of stone or bcLck, or consist only of 

The roof of a bam should be con- 
structed according to the approved 

rules uf carpentry, so as lo produce 
the greatest strength with the smaU- 
est quantity of timber. This is a 
point seldom attended to by country 
carpenters, who imitate the old rouls, 
in which sttooi; beams, resting on 
the wal)s horizontally, generally bear 
the whole weight of the roof without 
regard to the advantage gained by 
proper triuising. Even in the most 
temporary shed the slrenph may be 
greatly rnereased by using tlic male- 
rialB judiciously. It is usually shin- 
gled. The common covering in Eng- 
land ia thatched straw, which has the 
great inconvenience of affurdiug shel- 
ter for rats, who soon nestle in it, 
and are not easily driven out. 

The more the air circulates the 
better the corn is preserved. Barns 
should, therefore, have numerous 
openings, and the wheat, when put 



them, should not be pressed 
down close to the walls, ss recom- 
mended in many agricultural works, 
hut so plared as to allow the air lo 
circulate freely. In this manner it 
will keep well, wRhout acquiring the 
close and niusiy amoll which so much 
deteriorates that long kept in a barn. 
Hay is now seldom put into a close 
barn. expeMcitce having shown that 
it keeps much better in the open air 
in Ticka. But where a considerable 

Suantity of bay is tied np in trtisses 
]r the market, it is extremely useHil 
to have a building with a roof to pro- 
tect them from the wet. and to Inaij 
the carta under shelter. For this 
purpose, a kind of barn is contrived, 
whicli some call a Dutch barn, but 
which may very properly be called a 
iktltton barn, lieing the frame of a 
barn without the boarding. The an- 
nexed figure will convey a better idea 
of it than any description. At the 
time of haymaking, this barn is ex- 
tremely useful to draw a load n( hay 
in suddenly on the appearance of a 
shower ; and hay put into either side 
wilt be preserved as well as in s slack. 
But for Ihls purpose another building 
is in use in Holland, to which the 
naine of Dutch barn is more appro- 
priate, and of which we also annex a 
figure. This consists of a rouf sup- 
ported by strong poles, libo masts, 
A A, on which it can he raised or 
lowered at will. The usual form is 
that uf a pentagon : tUa poles are at 
the angles, and kept upri;i;ht by means 
of a stroug aLill on a brick fouadation. 



■DdpieceB.B, acting as apurs, framed 
into the polea. Tbe roof La light and 
covered with tbatcli. At each angle 
is a strong block of wood, with s 
round hole in it, aufficienl to let the 

Clea paea through ; these blocks are 
pt at any desired height by means 
of iron pina paaaed throu^ boles 
made in tbe poles, and on which the 
blocka rect. To rsiae the roof, a 
small jack is uaed, an instrument well 
knuwn bj ita uae in raising heai; 
vagona wben the wheela ars taken 
atf. This is placed on an iron pin at 
acme distance below the roof, and the 
comers are raised grailuaily, one after 
the other, at opposite angles, the pina 
being moTcd each time one hole high- 
er. The chief use of this Dutch barn 
ie to contain hay, which may be pla- 
ced in aafety. in any email quantity, 
aa soon as made, the roofbeing raised 
ai the quantity increases, and grad- 
ually lowered as il IB taken off for the 
cattle, which ia always from the top. 
In small dairy fanns in Hcjland, thia 
building is fousd so useful tbal few 



are without one. Four poata ara 
quite enough. 

BARN OWL. This bird is a t^- 
uahle destroyer of rata, mice, and 

BAROMETER. Of all tbe mete- 
orological instruraenta tbe barometer 
ia the most uaeful to the cultivator. 
Although its principal object is to in- 
dicate the pressure of a column of air, 
the Tarialiuns of this same pressure 
are so intimately connected with dl- 
Ters other atmospberic phenomena, 
that one can almost daily recur to ita 
indicaiiona with profit. 

The barometer in ita simplest form 
is a tube curved into a siphon (Fig. I), 
closed al tbe upper end. with a pear- 
shaped enlargement at the lower end, 
completely *oid of air, and partly Ail- 
ed with mercury. When the tube i* 
placed in a perpendicnlar position, the 
metal, after some osciltationa, settles 
itself at B height which represents the 
weight of the atmosphere, and which 
varies more or leas, according as that 
weight augments or diminishes 



BAROMETER. 



» 



By an Ingeni 
TiceJIi adapted Co the siphon barome- 
ter a dial iFig-. 2), upon which a nee- 
dle indicates the movemenCs or the 
tnercur;. This instrument, which ib 
quite common, can nevertheless be 
consulted with sdvaniage. 

The barometer ( Fig . 3) presents thi« 
difference from the preceding, that 
the tube, ioMead of being recurved, 
plunices perpendicttlarly into a basin 
partly Oiled with mercury. It ia fix- 
ed to a scale, graduated on one side 
ID inches and tentha. 

The mercury in the barometer is 
•eldom to be seen ao low as 38 inch- 
ea, or higher than 30i. It indicates 
■s follows : 

niocliu . . V(rrclrr>-«lbfr,l..Tdfrart. 

m . . . . S«ll«l btr, HUM fr»(. 

Ml ... ! Ctu^nbta. 

|»; : : :^«C™i.™w. 

The atraight barometer ia better 
Ihin the weather-glass. In mount- 
ains the meraury never reaches 30i 
Inches, bat mmaina alwaya at a dii- 



, I taooe below, proportionate to the 
heigbi of the place ^wve the [evel of 
tlie sea. In foreleUing changes of 
weather, the act of faUing or rising in 
"le mercury ia better than an inspec- 
tion of its height. The fullawtng rules 
by Mr. Walker are as good as aoy 

1. The baronteter riaing, ma; be 
considered as a general indication that 
the weather, comparatively with the 
stale of it at the time of observation, 
is becoming clearer. 

2. The atmosphere apparently be- 
coming clearer, and the barometer 
above ran, and rising, show a dispo- 
sition in the air for fair weatber. 

3. The atmosphere becoming clear, 
and the barometer above changeable, 
— ' "ising, indicate fair weatber. 

The atmosphere clear, and the 
barorneter near fair, and rising, de- 
ile continued fair weather. 

5. Our prognostic of the weatber 
to be guided relatively, thus : If, 

notwithstanding the sinking of tbe 
barometer, little or no rain follow, and 
' afterward rise, we may eipect con- 
tinued dry weather, 

6. If, during a series of cloudy, 
rainy weatber, the barometer rise 
gradually, though yet below rain, es- 
pecially if tho wind change from the 
south or west towards the north or 
east points, clear and dry weather 
ma; be expected. 

''. Tlie weather for a short period, 
.,from morning uiilil evening, may 
otnonly ba foretold with s consid- 
erable degree of certainty. U tbe ba- 
' las risen during the night, and 
itng, the clouds are high and 
apparently dispersing, and the wind 
calm, eapecially if it be in or about 
the north or east points, a dry day 
be confidently expected. Tbe 
rule applies for predicting tbe 
weather from evening till morning. 
", The barometer should be ob- 
red occasionally thrice in tbe day, 
oftener* when the weather ia 
cbaogeable, in order to notice wheth- 
~ ~ the mercury be stationary, rising, 
sinking; for, from this circom- 
Btaoce, together with the direction of 
the wind and the appareDt atau of 



BAR 



BAR 



the air at the time, is tnformation to 

be collected, and a continuance of the 
same, or a sudden change of the 
weather, to be foreseen. 

Lastly, observe always, the higher 
the mercury shall stand in the scale 
in each instance, and the more regu- 
larly progressive its motion shall be, 
the stronger will be the indication ; 
likewise, the more the wind inclines 
towards the north or east points, the 
greater will be the disposition in the 
air for fair weather. The indications 
of rainy weather will obviously be 
the direct reverse of those rules which 
predict fair weather. Frost is indi- 
cated in winter by the same rules 
that indicate fair weather ; the wind 
being in or about the north or east 
points, and the thermometer sinking 
towards SO. A fall of snow seldom 
comes without a previous frost of 
aoroe duration, and is indicated by 
the sinking of the barometer, espe- 
cially if the mercury be below change- 
abU^ and the thermometer at or near 
the freezing point. When the tem- 
perature of the air is about 35, snow 
and rain sometimes fall together ; at 
a warmer temperature than 85 it sel- 
dom snows, or rains at a colder tem- 
perature. Thunder is presaged by 
the same rules which indicate rain, 
accompanied by sultry heat, the ther- 
mometer being up to 75. Storms, 
hurricanes, and high winds, are indi- 
cated by the barometer falling sud- 
denly, or sinking considerably below 
miich rain. The barometer is known 
to be rising or sinking by the mercu- 
Ty having either a convex or concave 
surface, or by the perceptible rise or 
descent of the mercury, if at the time 
of observation the barometer be gen- 
tly rapped. If at any time the weath- 
er should differ widely from the in- 
dications of the barometer, it may be 
presumed, as it is sometimes known 
to happen, that a particular spot is 
affected by local circumstances. Af- 
ter a long-continued series of wet 
■weather, we may, when the weather 
becomes line, expect an uninterrupt- 
ed continuance of dry weather. If, 
after a long series of wet weather, 
the barometer me aboTe ekangeabU, 
70 



and the wind veer steady to the iKnUi 
or east points, a continued duration of 
fair weather may be expected. Slow 
and progressive variations in the 
barometer, with a fzed and steady 
state of the wind, indicate permanen- 
cy with the change. The barometer 
standing at or above /atr, denotes 
generally fair weather, although the 
atmosphere wear at the time an an- 
favourable aspect. 

The greater coincidence there is of 
the circumstances enumerated in the 
rules above mentioned, the stronger 
may our confidence be in the expec- 
tation of fair weather ; and in the 
continuance of it when present, by 
the barometer, while high, remaining 
stationary, or varying but little, and 
the state of the atmosphere and di- 
rection of the wind disposed to be set- 
tled. In this variable climate there is 
no reliance to be placed on any roles 
beyond those above mentioned, for in- 
dicating the weather for any length of 
time together, or for any distant pe- 
riod. Combined with a careful exam- 
ination of the direction of the wind, 
and the amount of vapour in the air, 
barometrical observations become a 
valuable means of forming an opinion 
on the state of the weather a few 
hours in advance. 

DARKAS. The resin which flows 
from the bark of fir-trees. 

BARREL. An English beer meas- 
ure of thirty- four gallons. In the 
Southern States, a measure of corn 
equal in the ear to ten bushels, or five 
bushels shelled. A barrel of flour con- 
tains 196 pounds. 

BARREiN FLOWERS. Those 
which contain stamens only ; they 
are easily known by the absence of 
the swelling under the {ovarium) flow- 
er. By high cultivation flowers be- 
come barren, and contain no stamens : 
when these bear fruit, it is without 
seeds ; hence the well-known seedless 
varieties of orange, grape, dec. 

BARREN LAND. In agriculture, 
land in which the plants general- 
ly cultivated do not prosper or arrive 
at maturity. This barrenness may 
arise from yarious causes. The tex- 
ture of the soil may be sueh that the 



BARREN LAND. 



moisture essential to vegetation can- 
not be retained, or that the fibres of 
the roots cannot penetrate in search 
of food. The ^rst is the case in loose 
sillcious sands, the second in rocks 
and indurated clays. It is seldom 
that either of these soils can be ren- 
dered productive, so as to repay the 
expense of cultivation, unless under 
particular circumstances. The most 
barren sands will become productive 
by Irrigation, and in that case the la- 
bour applied to Improve their texture, 
by the admixture of more tenacious 
earth, may be occasionally repaid. 
The vine may be made to grow in the 
fissures of the hardest rocks, where 
the climate is favourable ; and ter- 
races may be formed, by which the 
soil brought on may be retained ; but, 
in fjoneral, loose sands and rocks ought 
to be left to their natural state of bar- 
renness. 

We shall endeavour to give, as 
briefly as possible, an outline of the 
yarious means by which even the 
poorest sods may be rendered capa- 
ble of adding something to the gen- 
eral stock of food. The question as 
to the policy of cultivating such lands 
is not here considered. Our object 
is to show how barren lands may be 
improved whenever such improve- 
ment may be deemed expedient. 

Some lands are barren in conse- 
quence of noxious ingredients in the 
soil, which, by their chemical action 
on the food of plants, or on their mi- 
nute fibres, prevent their growth and 
render them sickly and abortive. 
Theae, having been ascertained by 
careful analysis, must be deprived of 
their noxious qualities by chemical 
means, one of the most obvious of 
which is liming. Nature.has supplied 
a general and complete antidote to 
acid combinations, in lime, one of the 
most abandanf mineral productions. 
There are few bad soils which lime 
will Bot improve. The most com- 
moB Bubsfcaoees found in barren soils 
are difiereat eoBabinations of metals, 
priacipaliy iroa, with sulphur and 
acids ; quiaklime either decomposes 
ail these or readers them innocuous. 
Aaotber substance is tannin, ur the 



astringent princijrfe, which is of vege- 
table origin, and, by preventing the 
solubility of vegetable fibres, trans- 
forms them imo an inflammable sub- 
stance well known by the name of 
peat or mo5>s. This, likewise, is 
readily corrected by the same means. 
But the different substances of which 
a soil is composed may be perfectly 
innocuous to vegetation, and yet i!m 
barrenness may not be the less, if tlie 
supply or circulation of moisture be 
deficient or excessive. This must, 
therefore, be the first consideration, 
before any improvement is attemi)t- 
ed ; and if sufficient moisture cannot 
be supplied, or superfluous removed, 
all other attempts will only be lost 
labour. In tropical climates, irri ca- 
tion is the chief source of fertility ; 
and the most expensive works have 
been constructed, both in ancient and 
modem times, to supply the land with 
water as occasion requires. In north- 
em and moister climates, the founda- 
tion of all improvements in the soil is 
a proper outlet to superfluous water. 
These two subjects will be treated 
in the articles Irrigation and Drain- 
ing. 

Supposing, then, that the moisture 
has been regulated, and that the land 
IS to be brought into cultivation, the 
first thing to be done is to remove ob 
slructions and impediments, whelhrr 
they be rocks, stones, trees, or shrubs, 
or only the heath and coarse grasses 
which generally cover waste lands. 
Rocks may be quarried or blown, and 
so may stones too large to be remo- 
ved whole, and the fragments will 
often be useful in building the neces- 
sary farm offices, or making fences to 
divide the land into fields of conve 
nient dimensions, and especially to 
keep off animals from destroying the 
crops. A simple method of getting 
rid of large stones is to dig a deep 
hole by the side of them, as near as 
possible, and roll them in, so that 
they may be buried at least two feet 
below the surface. If the nature of 
the stones is lamellated, and they 
will split, wedges of iron driven into 
holes made in the direction of the 
layers readily divide them into flat 

71 



BARREN LAND. 



pieces extremel; conienient Tot 

A very powerrul wtid^u for llijs , 
puae la au iron cyliniler cut through 
the axis into two pieces, belwe 
which 8 thin iron or steel wedge 
inserted ; a hole is bored in the aio 
of B diameter equal Co that of the 
cylinder, aod when this cylinder and 
wedge are put into it, the wedge is 
driTen in with repeated smart strukes 
of a hammer. Several such wedges, 
placed in a line, will split large mass- 
es of the hardest granite, and, next to 
gunpowder, are the moat efficacious 
a for that purpose. Trees 



luust he grabbed up by the roots ; and 

it suveB laliour lo cut the roots below 
the ground while tbe tree ia standing, 
and draw the tree over by means of 
ropes fixed to tbe top ; the stem be- 
comes a lever, by which the roots 
are more easily drawn out. Useieai 
shrubs are readily cut down, and 
serve for fuel ; their roots are si^Idom 
difficult lo grub up ; a simple and 
powerful instrument for this purpose 
is a very strong iron three-pronged 
fork, havingthe prongs twenty inches 
long, and a strong ashen handle, 
twenty feet long, fixed firmly jtito iti 



to the end of which a rope is fasten- 
ed ; this is driven obliquely under the 
roots, and, by means of a log as a 
fulcrum, it fonns a lever when pulled 
down by the ropes. 

There are two methods by which 
the heath and grass of the surface 
may be got rid of^ by mowing ihem 
close to the ground and ploughing in 
the roots, or by paring tbe surface 
and burning it. Each mode has had 
its strenuous advocates, and has been 
alternately praised and reprobated. 
A little consideration will soon settle 
this point. If the soil coaslsts of clay 
or loam containing the yellow ore of 
iron, and if the ashes, after the sods 
have beea bunted in heaps, are of a 



bright red colour, the effect of burn- 
ing the surface will be generally ad- 
vantageous, even where the soil is 
already deficient in vegetable matter ; 
for the fire will do more good in cor- 
recting the crude qualities of tbe soil 
than ihe small quantity of vegetable 
matter which is dispersed would have 
done had it been decomposed in the 
most favourable manner ; end the 
tough roots which are reduced to 
ashes would have taken a very long 
lime 10 decay, and would have been 
a constant impediment to the plough. 
But if the soil is a sharp sand, asd 
the ashes are white and loose, burn- 
ing destroys the Binall portion of ve- 
getaWe matter in the soil, without 



BARREN LANS. 



OimpensatlnK the losa by anyadran- 
tage, and in Ctiia case hurning the sur- 
face is Jnf^xpedient- The giaaa must 
be ploughed in. nnd nnl loo deep at 
first, that it may soon rot ; a coaling 
of lime ploughed in will accelerate 
the decay of the grass. This kind 
of soil requires Ibe addition of Tege- 
table and animat matter to supply the 
bntnua in vhtch it is deficient, aivd, 



tho principal attention mnat be direel- 

ed to this object. 

When the aurface is very aneTwi, 
W) as to form billocka and hollows, in 
which water ta apl to stagnate, ler- 
elting is a necessary process. If Iho 
Boil is loose and sandy, it may ba 
very expeditiously levelled by an in- 
strument in use in Flanders, which 
they call a nmlltbari. It is a largs 



irooden sboTc!. shod with iron, hav- 
ing a long handle ; about tl)e middle 
of this shovel, which is convex at the 
bollom, are two books, one on each 
tide, to which chains are fixed, which 
anite at the bar to which the tracea 
of H horse ur horses are to be attach' 
ed 1 a rope fixed to the end of the 
handle completes the instrument. A 
man accustomed to the use of it 
raises the handle, and the shovel en- 
ters the ground, and ia filled by the 
horse going on. By depreastng the 
handle, the load is made to slide on 
the rounded bottom of the sbovel till 
it arrives at the place where it is to 
be deposited. By letting the handle 
go. retaining the rope, the whole is 
upset instantly, turning over on the 
edge ; Uie handle strikes on the bar, 
and the load is left behind in a heap. 
By palling the rope the whole instru- 
ment resumes its original position, 
and is brought back to the place from 
which the earth is to be taxeo again, 
without any loss of tin^e or the slight' 
e«t stoppage of the horses. About 
five cwts, of loose earth may be thus 



at each time. By means of 
;binc the small fields in Flan- 
3 raised about two feet or 
the centre, and the ground 
IX, sloping in every direc- 



illbe w 



nolT. 



The land being now enclosed, fen- 
ced, and drained where requisite, ob- 
stacles to the plough removed, and 
in a tolerably level stale, it remains 
only to consider how it may be most 
advantageously cultivated, so as in 
the end to repay the first and great 
outlay. Some lands which have lain 
waste fur ages for want of a proper 
spirit of enterprise are found to con- 
sist of a tolerable depth of moderate- 
ly ferliic earth. These must be treat- 
ed like a garden newly formed, and 
trenched as deep as possible ; mere 
exposure to the air and frost will oft- 
en make them highly productive, and 
in tbis case the only caution neces- 
sary ia not to exhaust them at first. 
It is too common an error with those 
who have made a great outlay to be 
impatient, and expect loo rapid a 
replacement of the capital laid out 
TO 



BARREN LAND. 



This makes them sow grain erops in 
preference to roots and legumes ; and 
as fresh earth is generally very pro- 
ductive, especially in straw, Ihey im- 
agine the land to be of a better qual- 
ity than it really is, and soon exhaust 
it, by which they lose infinitely more 
in the end than if they began with 
roots and green crops, and raised a 
quantity of manure by the stock fed 
on them. Lime excites new land 
wonderfully, and no manure is more 
active, provided there be vegetable 
matter in the soil, or added at the 
same time. Bone-dust will raise a 
better crop of turnips than lime alone, 
and is chiefly of use in raising the 
£rst crop of turnips. It should there- 
fore be used sparingly, unless obtain- 
ed cheap, and only on light loams or 
sands. Mixed with ashes in a heap, 
and allowed to heat, it becomes much 
more efficacious. 

Nothing has so rapid an effect in 
removing sterility as the free use of 
the urine of cattle, and the draining 
of dunghills, collected and allowed to 
ferment in covered tanks ; but this 
can only be obtained by keeping cat- 
tle stalled and fed with provender 
brought to them. This is the great 
secret of the fertility of the once poor 
barren heaths of Flanders. In differ- 
ent situations it may not be practica- 
ble to procure sufficient manure, at 
least at first, and the progress will be 
much slower. In this case the seeds 
of rye, tares, beans, buckwheat, and 
other succulent plants must be sown, 
and the crop ploughed in when in blos- 
som : potatoes and other roots may 
be raised, to be consumed by cattle 
and swine, in sheds built for the pur- 
pose near at hand, and every means 
that ingenuity can devise must be re- 
sorted to in order to make as much 
manure as possible. This is not to be 
applied to the land at once, but mixed 
up in heaps with parings of the sur- 
face, with the ashes of roots burned, 
and with lime, and when thoroughly 
incorporated by frequent turning, mix- 
ing, and repeated watering with li- 
quid manure, a good coat should be put 
on tlie land at once, as far as it Mill 
go ; for one acre brought into a tol- 

74 * 



erably fertile state will repay the* 
better than many imperfcclly impro- 
ved ; and by proceeding gradually in 
this way, more land will be brought 
into a state fit for cultivation at the 
end of a few years, and at less ex- 
pense, than could have been done by 
beginning with too much at first. 

what has been said of poor land, 
or sandy loam, is applicable to every 
kind of unproductive soil, difference 
of composition and texture being kepi 
in view. Poor, wet, stiff lands must 
be divided by deep ditches, ploughed 
in high ridges, and be as much as pos- 
sible exposed to the wind and frost : 
grasses must be sown such as suit 
the soil. Paring and burning the sur- 
face are here generally useful in the 
first instance, and may sometimes he 
repeated with advantage. Such soils, 
in the end, are best calculated for per- 
manent meadows ; but it is essentia] 
to get them into a sound and fertile 
state by tillage and manuring, and by 
clearing them of all the roots and 
seeds of weeds before they be laid 
down with grass seeds, which must 
therefore be done with a first crop 
after a clean fallow, or, which is stiu 
better, without any crop of corn at 
all, and kept free from coarser grasses 
by hand-weeding. Inoculating grass 
is by far the readiest way of produ- 
cing a permanent sward. See Qra^s 
Lend, 

There Is another kind of barren soil, 
which extends over large tracts, well 
known by the name of peat, or moor. 
This, being chiefiy composed of ve- 
getable matter, is too loose in its tex- 
ture for any vigorous vegetation *, but, 
besides, it is of an insoluble, astrin- 
gent nature, highly unfit for the in- 
crease and nourishment of plants. 
Moors being generally situated in val- 
leys between mountains, draining off 
the superfluous water is the first and 
indispensable operation before any 
improvement of them can bo thought 
of. The next thing is to compress 
the soil soil into a more solid state, 
and for this purpose any kind of earth 
or gravel is useful by its mere me- 
chanical pressure. The surface may 
be burned in sods, and the ashes wiU 



BAR 

freatly improve the remainder. Lime, 
tnarl, and shells are the specific cor- 
rectors of the quality and texture. By 
the help of these, the soft mass is 
gradually condensed, and a more com- 
pact soil formed. The great object 
is to prevent the absorption of too 
much moisture by the still unconsol- 
idated mass, which is effected by cut- 
ting numerous and deep ditches in 
every direction, with proper outlets 
kept carefully open, at the same time 
guarding against the opposite extreme 
of drying this spongy substance too 
much. If it is dry at top, and moist, 
but not boggy, a foot below the sur- 
face, it will be in the best state to im- 
prove and consolidate. It is surpri- 
sing how soon a peat moss, of little 
more solidity than a bog, can be ren- 
dered perfectly firm, and bear even 
loaded wagons on its surface. It 
often happens, where there is a com- 
mand of good water which can be 
brought above the level of the old peat 
moss, that it may be converted into 
a most productive water meadow. 
All that is required is, that the upper 
soil, artificially produced, be not bro- 
Ken through, and that the bottom be 
well drained. The great value of the 
peat and muck as a manure is a stim- 
ulus to the ditching. 

We have only given brief hints and 
outlines to those who may be inclin- 
ed to render lands productive which 
have hitherto been barren. The cer- 
tain cost and probable improvement 
must be well calculated and compa- 
red to avoid disappointment and loss. 
As these depend on the peculiar cir- 
cumstances of each case, it is impos- 
sible to give any general idea of them ; 
but, by beginning on a small and ex- 
perimental scale at first, and proceed- 
ing cautiously, new modes of lessen- 
ing the expense of many of the oper- 
ationa will be suggested, errors will 
be avoided, and some certain practi- 
cal ground of calculation will be ob- 
tained.— (W. L. Rham.) 

BARROW. In agriculture, a 
mound of earth, sometimes called 
pies, or camps, under which potatoes 
or other roots are stored for protection 
fio;a itust. They u.w usually made 



BAR 

by excavating the ground, which 
should be high and dry, about one foot 
and a half deep, from four to five 
wide, and of a length proportionate 
to the number of bushels to be stored. 
The earth dug out is thrown evenly 
on both sides the hole. Before sto- 
ring, a layer of straw is put down by 
some farmers ; but this is unnecessa- 
ry : the potatoes, dec, are next piled 
up in a rounded form, with the great- 
est height, of three or four feet, in the 
middle of the mound ; straw is laid 
over them, and the dry earth of the 
excavation piled on from two to two 
and a half feet, and flattened with the 
spade. Round the barrow a ditch is 
dug, deeper than the floor within, to 
drain off water. Whatever is stored 
should be sound, and previously well 
aired. Where the crop is large a 
number of barrows are made. They 
should be placed in a northeastern 
exposure, for it is not frost that is 
injurious to vegetables so much as 
sudden thaws, produced by the direct 
rays of the sun. In taking out pota- 
toes, &c., for the market or use, if 
they be found frozen, thaw in spring 
water before selling. 

{In machines.) Barrows are light 
carriages to be moved by the hand. 
When furnished with a wheel they 
are termed wheelbarrows, and are of 
many forms. 

BARS. In farriery, those portions 
of the crust or hoof of horses that 
are reflected inward, and form the 
arches situated between Uxe heels 
and the frog. 

Bart of a Horse's Mouth. — The 
fleshy rows that run across the upper 
part of the mouth, and reach almost 
to the palate. They form that part 
of the mouth on which the bit should 
rest, and have its effect. 

BAR-SHOE. A particular kind of 
shoe, which is sometimes of necessi- 
ty used to protect a tender frog from 
injury, the hinder part of the shoe be- 
ing thickened and hollowed over the 
frog ; but unless it is made exceed- 
ingly heavy it will soon be flattened 
down, and in the mean time it will 
most injuriously press upon the heels. 

BARYTA. The oxide of barium» 

75 



BAT 



BEA 



an alkaline earth closely resembling 
lime, but not very abundant. Many 
of its salts are isomorphous with those 
of lime. 

BASALT. A rock of great hard- 
ness and volcanic origin, containing 
iron, lime, and sand. It does not dif- 
fer from trap except in colour, and 
occasionally in putting on the colum- 
nar form. The Palisades of the 
Hudson are a range 40 miles long of 
this rock. 

BASE. In chemistry, a term used 
to designate those substances which 
readily combine with acids, as alka- 
lies, metallic oxides, <Scc. In general 
terms, all substances which readily 
combine with others. 

BASE. In architecture, a pedes- 
tal. 

BASIL. A fragrant, aromatic, her- 
baceous plant, the Oeymum basilicum^ 
a natiTO of India, whose leaves are 
much used in cookery for the purpose 
of giving a savoury flavour to dishes. 

BASKET. A vessel made of in- 
terwoven twigs of willow, osier, birch, 
splits of white oak, or of straw, grass, 
or rushes. 

BASS. The inner bark of the lime 
or linden tree (Tilia glabra), used by 
gardeners to bind plants, and, in the 
form of mats, to protect trees, frames, 
dbc. 

BASSORIN. A peculiar gum, re- 
sembling gum tragaeanih; insoluble, 
but swelling in water. It is sometimes 
called Ceeabin. 

BATH. In chemistry, sand, wa- 
ter, or oil heated in a metallic vessel 
for the purpose of communicating a 
steady and regulated heat to chemi- 
cal vessels in distillation, drying, or 
evaporation. 

BATRACHIANS, BATRACHIA. 
(Gr. ftdrpaxoc, a frog.) An order of 
RepHUOf includingthe frogs and toads, 
and all reptiles which, like them, have 
naked skins and external branchie in 
the early stage of existence ; those 
batrachia which retain the gills or gill- 
apertures throughout life are called 
** perennibranchiate," or " amphib- 
ious." 

BATTATAS. A name for the 
sweet potato. 

76 



BATTENS. Slips of wood two to 

four inches broad. 

BAULK. A piece of whole timber 
squared. In ploughing^ strips of un* 
ploughed land between furrows. 

BAUME»S AREOMETER, or HY- 
DROMETER. A hydrometer, the 
of which is pure water at 68** Fahr., 
and the 15^ the density of a mixture 
of 15 parts common salt and 85 parts 
water, by weight. See Hydrometer, 

BAY. The term for a colour in- 
clining to chestnut. In reference to 
a horse, this colour has various shades, 
from the very light bay to the dark 
bay, which approaches nearly to the 
brown ; but it is always more gay 
and shining. There are also coloured 
horses that are called dappled bays. 
Bay horses have black manes, which 
distinguish them from the sorrel, that 
have red or white manes. There are 
light bays and gilded bays, which are 
somewhat of a yellowish colour. The 
chestnut bay is that which comes near- 
est to the colour of the chestnut. 

BAY. A common name for the 
laurels, especially Laurus nobUu, 
Bay-berry is the Myrica cerifera. 

BAY OF A BARN. The place 
where the mow is stored. 

BAY SALT. Salt made by evap- 
orating sea water in the sun. The 
best is from Turk's Island. It is pre- 
ferred for putting up pork and provis- 
ions. 

BEAGLE. The old hare-honnd, 
now becoming superseded by the har- 
rier. 

BEAK. Rostrum, the prolonged or 
sharp termination of a fruit. 

BEAM. A stout, horizontal tim- 
ber used to resist or sustain weight. 

BEAM OF A PLOUGH. The up- 
per shaft to which the irons are fasten- 
ed. It should be of good ash or oak. 

BEAM-TREE. Pyrus aria. A 
small tree with tough wood. 

BEANS. Plants belonging to the 
natural family Leguminota. Two 
genera are commonly included under 
tlus name, Vicia and Phatedus, of 
which several species and numerous 
varieties are cultivated. The genus 
PhatcoluM produces generally run- 
ners, or pole beans, hot this depends 



BEANS. 



nrach on soil, for the Pk. nanu9 is a 
bush bean. Tho Viciafaba is the pa- 
rent of many yarietiea known nnder 
the generaJ title of English dwarfs. 
English dwarfs : Yarieties : 



Early Mszag: 
~ "Vindi 



Gram Nonkpurnl. 

Bone. 

Heligolsnd. 



Bnnd Windaor. 
Sword Long Pod. 

Of these, all but the last two are 
cnltivated in the garden, and the 
horse and Helgoland in the field. 
They are sown as soon as the frost 
is oat of the ground, for the late 
plants are destroyed by heat before 
they bear veil. 

All the varieties thrive best on 
strong clay soils, heavy marls, and 
deep loams of a moist description. 
In such soils the produce is some- 
times 30 to 60 bnshels per acre, but 
an average crop on moderate land is 
about half that quantity. On very 
rich land beans have inroduced extra- 
ordinary crops by being sown broad- 
cast and ve^r thick, the stems beiug 
brought up to a great height in fa- 
vourable seasons. A smsS fi€dd of 
very rich land, in the county of Sus- 
sex, EIngland, was sown in the year 
1832 with four bushels of the small 
tick bean, which came up so thick 
that the proprietor thought of thin- 
ning out the plants by hoeing, but he 
was advised to see what the produce 
would be, and when they were thrash- 
ed out there were eighty-one bushels 
of beans. He had the ground accu- 
rately measured, and it was found to 
be one acre and twenty-nine perches, 
which makes the crop above sixty- 
eight bushels per acre. 

Beans are propagated by seed, 
which may be sown broadcast, drill- 
ed, or dibbled ; if sown broadcast, 
three or four bushels of seed per 
acre will be required, which should 
be ploughed or h&rrowed in ; if drill- 
ed, two or two and a half per acre 
will be sufficient. Beans are tolera- 
bly hardy, and will bear moderate 
dry frosts, but they suffer much from 
alternate frosts and thaws. 

The following, from the late Judge 
Buel's agricultural tracts, gives all the 
necessary information on the culture 
and produce of this valuable crop : 



t< 



F^d Culture of Beans. — Beans 
may be cultivated in drills or in hills. 
They are a valuable crop, and with 
good care are as profitable as a wheat 
crop. They leave the soil in good 
tilth. The China bean, with a red 
eye, is to be preferred. They ripen 
eariy, and are very productive. I 
cultivated beans the last year in three 
different ways, viz., in hills, in drills, 
and sowed broadcast. I need not 
describe the first, which is a well- 
known process. I had an acre in 
drills, which was the best crop I ever 
saw. My management was this : On 
the acre of light ground, where the 
clover had been frozen out the prece- 
ding winter, I spread eight loads of 
long manure, and immediately plough- 
ed and harrowed the ground. Drills 
or furrows were then made with a 
light plough, at the distance of two 
and a half feet, and the beans thrown 
along the furrows about the 25th of 
May, by the hand, at the rate of at 
least a bushel on the acre. I then 
gauged a double mould- board plough, 
which was passed once between the 
rows, and was followed by a light, 
one-horse roller, which flattened the 
ridges. The crop was twice cleaned 
of weeds by the hoe, but not earthed. 
The product was more than forty-eight 
bushels by actual measurement." 

A sprinkling of three or four bush- 
els of gypsum is advantageous. 

The beans are collected with a 
plain scythe or sickle before they are 
fully ripe, but turned yellow. In this 
way loss by scattering seed is avoid- 
ed. The whole is cured by exposure 
in swarth and cock, and made into 
light stacks, until the time serves for 
thrashing. The beans are obtained 
either with the flail, treading out, or 
passing through the thrashing ma- 
chine, set sufficiently coarse for the 
purpose. If the straw, or haulm, be 
well cured, it answers as good coarse 
food for cattle and pigs during the 
winter. 

Beans are also raised in Germany 
for soiling, and cut during the sum- 
mer season when in pod. They are an 
exceedingly acceptable food, and may, 
by proper management in sowing 

n 



BEANS. 



several lots at dltTerent times, be kept 
in cutting order for three months. 
The Heligoland, horse, and English 
tick bean are the favourites for field 
culture. 

Value of Beans. — ^This crop is not 
so extensively cultivated as it de- 
serves. In common with other legu- 
minous crops, it is of advantage in 
opening the soil by its long roots, in 
absorbing much of its food from the 
atmosphere, and leaving the soil in ad- 
mirable tilth, preparatory to a grain or 
tobacco crop ; but these good points 
are insignificant in comparison with 
the great valoe of beans and pease as 
food for horses, ^eep, and, indeed, 
all animals. 

The proportion of nutritive matter 
in beans, compared with other grain, 
is, according to Einhof, 



WhMt 

Ryo 

Barlojr 

Oats 

Beans 

Pease 



By weight. Or tn » Bntbel. 

. 74 per c«nt» about 47 lbs. 

, 70 " " S9 

. 65 " *• S3 

. 58 " •* M 

. 68 «« " 45 

. 75 " " 4» 



tt 



54 



Kidney bean* . 64 

Not only is there so great a propor- 
tion of nutritive matter, bat that pres- 
ent is remarkably rich in the azotized 
or flesh-making ingredients, often as 
much as twenty to thirty per cent, of 
casein being present in seeds grown 
on a rich soil. Yon Thaer, as the 
result of his comparative estimate, 
obtained by (feeding cattle, gives to 
field beans a value equal to one third 
of rich wheat and two thirds of In- 
dian Mom or barley. In feeding, it is 
best to crush or grind the beans and 
pease. 

Kidney beans^ or French beans 
(PkoMeolKS vulgaris). Of the dwarf 
kidney, the varieties are 

Early China. 
Early Cluster. 
Early Dan-oolovred. 
Early Half Moon. 
Early Mohawk. 
Early Rachel. 
Early St. Valentifie 
Early Yellow 
Weeks. 

The pole, or runners, are varieties 
of the PA. limenM and mnUiJtorut. 
They are 

78 



Red Cranberry. 
Warnnffton,or Marrow. 
Refugee, or Thousand 

to One — good for pick- 

linf or laying down in 

salt. 
Rob Roy. 
Six, Large White Kidney, 

or Royal Dwarf. 



Saba, or Camliaa. Red CranberrjN 
Dotch Ca»e Knife. White Cranberry. 
Large White Lima. White Dutch Run- 
Speckled PruliSe Lima, ners. 
Asparagus, or Yard Scarlet Runners. 
Long. Loudon Horticultural. 

A choice new variety, under the 
name of turtle-soup bean, has been 
recently ctdtivated with great suc- 
cess. 

Nearly all of these are confined to 
the garden except the refligee and 
China, the cultivation of which last 
is similar to that already detailed for 
beans. I therefore only introduce 
such observations as belong to garden 
cultiuie. 

The soil for them may be anything 
rather than wet or tenacious ; for in 
such the greater part of the seed tle- 
cays without germinating, while those 
plants which are produced are con- 
tracted in their produce. A very 
light mellow loam, even inclining to 
a sand, is the best for the earliest 
sowings, and one scarcely less sili- 
cious, though moister, is preferable 
for the late summer crops ; but, for 
the later ones, a recurrence must be 
made to a soil as dry as for the early 
insertions. For the early and late 
crops, a sheltered border must al- 
ways be allotted, or in a single row 
about a foot from a south fence, other- 
wise the situation cannot be too open. 

Dwarfs. — The sowing commences 
with the year. They may be sown 
towards the end of January, in pots, 
and placed upon the flues of the hot- 
house, or in rows in the mould of a 
hot-bed, for production in March ; to 
be repeated once every three weeks, 
in similar situations, during Februa- 
ry and March, for supplying the table 
during April, May, and June. At the 
end of March and April a small sow- 
ing may be performed, if fine open 
weather, under a fhone without heat, 
for removal into a sheltered border 
early in May. During May, and thence 
until the first week in .August, sow- 
ings may be made once every three 
weeks. In September, forcing re- 
commences : at first, merely under 
frames without bottom heat, but in 
October, and thence to the close of 
the year, in hot-beds, dtc, as in Jan- 



BEANS. 



oary. Sowings, when a removal is 
intended, should always be perform- 
ed in pots, the plants being less re- 
tarded, as the roots are less injured, 
than ^vhen the seed is inserted in 
patches or rows in the earth of the 
bed. It is a good practice, likewise, 
to repeat each sowing, in the frames 
without beat, after the lapseof a week, 
as the first will often fail, when a sec- 
ond, although after so short a lapse 
of time, wdl perfectly succeed. In 
every instance, the seed is buried one 
and a half or two inches deep. The 
rows of the main crops, if of the 
smaller varieties, may be one and a 
half; if of the larger, two feet apart, 
the seed being inserted, either in 
drills or by the dibble, four inches 
apart ; tlie plants, however, to be 
thinned to twice that distance. 

If any considerable vacancy occurs, 
it may always be filled by plants care- 
fully removed by the trowel from 
where they stood too thick. A gen- 
eral remark, however, may be made, 
that the transplanted beans are nev- 
er so productive or continue so long 
in bearing (altliough sometimes they 
are earlier) as those left where rais- 
ed. The rows of the earlier crops 
ire best ranged north and south. The 
seed inserted daring the hottest pe- 
riod of smnmer should be either 
soaked in water for five or six hours, 
laid in damp mould for a day or two, 
or the drills be well watered previous 
to sowing. The only after-cultiva- 
tion required is the destruction of 
weeds, and earth to be drawn up 
round the stems. 

The pods of both species are al- 
ways to be gathered while young ; 
by thus doing, and care being had not 
to injure the stems in detaching them, 
the plants are rendered as proUfic and 
' loog-lived as possible. 

Runners. — As these are more ten- 
* der, and the seed is more apt to de- 
cay than those of the dwarfs, no 
open ground crop nmst be inserted 
before the close of April, or early in 
May, to be continued at intervals of 
four weeks through June and July, 
which will ensure a supply from the 
middle of this last month, until Octo- 



ber. Some gardeners force them In 
a similar manner to the dwarfs ; they 
certainly require similar treatment; 
but they will endure a higher temper- 
ature by a few degrees. They are so 
prolific, and such permanent bearers, 
that three open-ground sowings of a 
size proportionate to the consump- 
tion will, in almost every instance, be 
si|fficient. 

The runners are inserted in drills, 
either singly, three feet apart, or in 
pairs, ten or twelve inches asunder, 
and each pair four feet distant from 
its neighbour. The seed is buried 
two inches deep and four inches apart 
in the rows, the plants being thinned 
to twice that distance. If grown in 
single rows, a row of poles must be 
set on the south side of each, being 
fixed firmly in the ground ; they may 
be kept together by having a light 
pole tied horizontally along their tops, 
or a post fixed at each end of a row, 
united hy a cross-bar at their tops ; a 
string may be passed from this to 
each of the plants. If the rows are 
in pairs, a row of poles must be placed 
on each side, so fixed in the ground 
that their summits cross, and are tied 
together. They are sometimes sown 
in a single row down the sides of bor- 
ders, or on each side of a walk, hav- 
ing the support of a trellis-work, or 
made to climb poles which are turn- 
ed archwise over it. 

As the plants advance to five or 
six inches in height, they should have 
the earth drawn about their stems. 
Weeds must be constantly cleared 
away as they appear. When they 
throw up their voluble stems, those 
that straggle away should be brought 
back to the poles, and twisted round 
them in a direction contrary to that 
of the sun : nothing will induce them 
to entwine in the contrary direction, 
or from left to right. 

For the production of seed, forty or 
fifty plants of the dwarf species will 
be sufficient for a moderate-sized fam- 
ily, or thirty of the runner. They 
must be raised purposely in May, or 
a like number from the crop in that 
month may be left ungathered from ; 
for the first pods always produce the 

79 



finest aeed, aod ripen more perfect- 

Sr. In autumn, as soon aa the plants 
eca;, tbe; must be pulled, and, wlien 
tboioughly dried, the seed beaten nut 
BDd Btored.— ('!. W. JeAuen'i Kiuh- 
en Gardtn.) 

The bean, as an esculent Tegeta- 
ble, is wholesome and nutritious in a 
IVesh state, and ma; be resdJy pre- 
served for niater store or sea voy- 
ages b; sailing in caaka. For this 
purpose, ibe Isrge, flat-podded, Dutch 



white ninner ia preferred. In Hol- 
land and Germany, where large quan- 
tiliea are salted in almost every fam- 
ily, a machine isused for cutting them 
expedilioualy. which greatly resem- 
bles a turnip- slicer, and may. with 
a slight alteration, be used also for 
slicing cabbages when making the 
national Genoan preparation of sour 
krout (HUfT trnW).- It oousisis of a 
wheel or disk (see ./t^re). A, in which 
two or four knives are aet at a tioall 



an^ with the plane of it, so at to 
abave off a thin slice obliqaely from 
the beans, which are held in a box, C, 
with several partitions, in which Ihey 
are kept upright, so as to alide down 
In propoTtioD as they are cut : thus 
SO 



six or eight beana are sliced at once, 
and very rapitliy, merely by turning 
the handle, 6, and supplying the box 
with beans in succession. A much 
more economical means would be to 
throw the beana into a hopper hold- 



BEA 



fi£E 



ing two or three pecks. The sliced 
heans fall on the table below, and are 
immediately put in a cask with alter- 
nate layers of salt. When the cask 
is full and well pressed down, a board 
and heavy weight are placed on them. 
As the beans ferment, the liquid pro- 
duced is poured off, fresh salt added 
to the surface, and a linen cloth press- 
ed close to keep out air ; afterward 
the top of the cask and its weight are 
returned, and the whole kept for use. 
They are washed in fresh water when 
used, and form a wholesome vegeta- 
ble dish in winter. 

BEANS, DISEASES OF. The dis- 
eases are the mst, or mildew, which 
is a minute fungus that grows on the 
stems of leaves, attributed to cold 
fogs and frequent sudden transitions 
of weather, and the black dolphin or 
fly, also called the eoUier^ an aphis of 
a bluish colour : it is devoured by 
lady-birds {CoecineUa septempunctata, 
and other species). For the mildew 
no remedy has yet been found. When- 
ever it has attacked the plants, gen- 
erally before the pods are filled, the 
best method ia to cut down the crop 
in its green state ; and if it cannot be 
consumed in the farm-yard, to plough 
it into the ground, where it wUl de- 
cay rapidly, and be an excellent ma- 
nure for the succeeding crop of wheat. 
If allowed to stand, the crop will not 
only be unproductive, but the weeds 
will infest the ground, and spoil the 
wheat crop by their seeds and roots, 
which will remain in the soil. When- 
ever the tops of the beans begin to be 
moist and clammy to the feel, it is 
the forerunner of the aphis. They 
should then be immediately cut off, 
and this, if done in time, may save 
the crop from the ravages of the in- 
sets ; but the most effectual way to 
prevent any disease from attacking 
the plants in their growth is to have 
the ground in good heart, and well 
tUled ; to drill the beans at a suffi- 
cient distance between the rows to 
allow the use of the horse-hoe, and 
thus to accelerate the growth of the 
plants, and enable them to outgrow 
the effect of incipient disease, which 
seldom attacks any but weak plants. 



BEANS, SOUTHERN. Several 
varieties are cultivated in Virginia, 
Georgia, and Southern States, under 
the name of pease, as cow pea, corn- 
field pea, Indian pea, Ace. They are 
hardy, grow on stiff lands, and ame- 
liorate their condition ; planted with 
corn, they twine about the stem with- 
out hinderance to it. On rich soils 
they run too much to leaf; but in 
poorish clay may be cultivated as a 
field-crop without support, if in a 
well-drained situation. The yield is 
large, and the bean agreeable to 
horses and all animals. The green 
plant IB occasionally turned in as a 
fallow crop. 

BEAR BERRY. The Arctostaph- 
ylits (arbutus) uva urn. A small ever* 
green shrub of northern America and 
Canada, used as an astringent and 
tonic. 

BEARD. The awn of barley, Ac. 

BEARER. In building, any upright 
which supports timbers. 

BEAR'S FOOT. The hellebore. 

BEASTS. In fanning, neat cattle. 

BEDS. In geology, seams of stra- 
ta, as coal beds. 

BED STRAW. The Galium te- 
runif yellow goose-grass, a perennial 
weed, the juice of which is acid, and 
sometimes used to curdle milk in the 
place of rennet. 

BEECH. Fagus aylvatiea, var. 
Americana^ white beech, and F.fnrU' 
pruoj red beech, are handsome Amer- 
ican trees, especially the latter, which 
is the larger, and more like the Euro- 
pean tree. The wood is firm, but li- 
able to insects ; the bark yields suffi- 
cient tan for leather ; but the mast, 
or nut, is the most valuable, from the 
excellent oil it contains, which is ex- 
pressed in Europe for table use. Hogs 
fatten more rapidly upon beech mast 
than any other common food ; the fat 
is, however, oily. The beech prefers 
rich alluvial soils, and yields a large 
amount of potash in its ashes. The 
timber cut m the sap is said to be the 
most durable. 

BEER. The fermented infusion 
of malt, flavoured with hops. But 
other sweet infusions, treated in the 
same way, or without hops, are also 

81 



tenned been, as pcreimmon beer, sas- 
•arras, liquorice, and aargaparillil root 
fceer 

BEES. Apia meUifira. A familiar 
, insect, much admired for its iniliaDt 



ard industry. fftUural ITatory. 

Tiiere are three orJors of bees in 
each hive ; the queen (a), drone (i), 
and labouring bee (c) ; there ia bat 
one queen, disCinimiahed by a longer 



bodf and greater %\i» than all (he 
other inhabitants ; she is the onlj fe- 
male in the hire, and is, Iherefore, 
watched with ^eat interest b; the 
others, who attend lier in her duties, 
and live only in peaee while assured 
of her presence. The drones are the 
males : they are larger and nearer 
spherical than (he laboorers, and 
without stings. After their duly is 
performed in autumn, the drones are 
expelled from the hive by the labour- 
ers, and killed or driven abroad to die. 
There are from 300 to 1000 drones in 
the hire. The labourers form the 
rest of the inhabitants, and vary in 
number from 6000 to 20.000. They 
are smaller than (he rest, armed wi(h 
a sting, and neuter in sex. or, more 
correctly, they are females in which 
tlie ovaries are undeveloped. The 
neuters divide themselves in compa- 
nies to carry on the business of (lie 
hive ; some collecting honey, others 
building the comb, and another body 
nursing the young. The bees which 
go abroad seek for three distinct kinds 
of matter, viz. : honey, farina or bee 
meat, and propolis. The first, which 
also contains mure or less wax, is 
obtained from flowers, and in part 
converted into wax by ibo insect it- 
self. The farina is stored up in cells 
as food for the young, and is of a 
whitish colour, altogether differing 
from hone-; propolia is a resinoii> 



exudation gathered from diflerent 
trees, as (he black gum, wherew*ith 
the bee closes crevices io the liivo 
and stops the cells of the young. Aa 
soon as flowers begin 10 expand, the 
labourers and queen bee are aroused 
from the lethargy of winter and rC' 
commence the labours of the hive. 
The queen lays ahoul 50 eggs a day, 
for SIX or eight weeks : these are all 
neuters. Having finished (his depos- 
ite. she then lays the eggs of drones, 
and lastly, those for queens. At thii 
season ahe produces but one egg a 
day ; the number of queen eggs va- 
ries from 3 to 30 ; they are deposited 
in large conical cells called royal 
cells. The working community in 
the mean time introduce food into 
each cell, taking care to furnish (ha 
future queens with regal fare. difTer- 
enl from (hat of the neuters. In 
three days the eggs are batched and 
produce a worm, which feeds upon 
(he bee bread stored in its cell, and 
end of a few days spins itself 









s or 



transformations, ending, in 31 days 
from the deposits of the egg, in the 
production of a young bee ; this cats 
its way through the propolis that clo- 
ses its cell, and is nourished by the 

lo enter on the labours of the hive. 



rtnd i 



s the 



BEES. 



M queen perceives evidence of this, 
bhe becomes uneasy, and communi- 
cates lier apprehcnision to the neu- 
ters, many of wliich share in her 
anxiety : thus she collects many faith- 
ful followers, and leaves the hive, 
carrying off the Jirst swarm, which is 
always led by tlie old queen. The 
first young queen now comes forth, 
and quickly discovers the cells of her 
Bisters, wtiich she attempts to de- 
stroy, but is hindered by the bees ; 
whereon she runs to and fro amon^^ 
the hive and succeeds in carrying off 
another swarm. After this, the next 
queen usually succeeds in destroying 
her rivals, and remains in the old hive. 
The first swarm may be known by 
the presence of drones in June, soon- 
er or later, z^cordtng to the season. 
Ttiis is the swarming season, and 
measures are now to be taken to re- 
cover the bees and form new hives. 
The two swarms come out at in- 
tervals of a few days ; occasionally 
there are more, but they are not suf- 
ficiently numerous to form a new 
hive, and should be returned. The 
bees come out in large numbers, and 
make their way to an adjoining bush 
or tree, where they accumulate in a 
dense cluster, usually on one branch. 
The loaded branch is now to be care- 
fully cut without disturbance, and the 
whole swarm laid" upon a white cloth, 
or a table, on the ground, and a hive 
inverted over the bees ; if everything 
is favourable, the swarm enters the 
new hive, and may be removed in a 
few hours to the stands ; but this is 
not always tlie case, for should there 
be more than one queen present, the 
swarm is kept in great turmoil, and 
battles ensue until the number is re- 
duced to one ; but in these conflicts it 
sometimes occurs that all the queens 
are killed, and the young swarm re- 
turns to the parent hive to wait for a 
new sovereign. The skilfbl apiarian, 
therefore, always takes care, before 
hiving a swarm, that the queen is 
present, and only one, removing ev- 
ery other and putting her to death 
instantly. In the swarming season, 
certain ancient practices prevail, of 
beating iron pans, shouting, blowing 



trumpets, and throwing sand into the 
air, intended as a means of frighten- 
ing the bees and hindering them from 
flying too far from the hive ground ; 
but it is unnecessary if sufficient 
shrubs be in the neighbourhood. The 
hive in which the new swarm is re- 
ceived should be provided with cross 
sticks in the upper part, to afford 
them a starting point for their archi- 
tecture ; it should be without chinks 
or crevices, for these have to be fill- 
ed by the colony with propolis, and 
cause a waste of time ; moreover, to 
give them a fair start, they should be 
fed with sirup for a few days. The 
labourers begin at the roof with their 
comb, arranging a nnmber of different 
parallel structures in the direction 
marked out by the slicks introduced. 
The cells have an hexagonal section 
and arc prismatic in form, so arran- 
ged as to admit of the introduction of 
honey until full, when they are sealed 
with wax : in the lower division of 
the hive, the cells for eggs are arran- 
ged ; these are filled with the farina, 
or bee bread. About August, the 
bees of the preceding year die, the 
drones are expelled, and the hive is 
fully under the control of the new 
generation ; honey is stored as long 
as flowers are abundant, and where 
buckwheat and clover abound this 
takes place into October. As soon, 
however, as flowers become scarce, 
the colony begins to consume its own 
sweets, and should be supplied with 
sirup. The position of the apiary 
should be sheltered from the great 
heat of the day, and rapid alternations 
of temperature ; they love plenty of 
free air, but should not be liable to 
chilly winds. In the winter they 
should be removed to a dry cellar, 
lest, being tempted by an occasional 
gleam of sunshine, they leave the 
hive and suffer death. The temper- 
ature should be above the freezing 
point. As then they require less food 
to sustain life, it is advisable, also, to 
keep the hives covered with straw, 
&.C., provided always there be a free 
draught of air, for an entire colony is 
frequently suffocated by stopping up 
the door of the hive. The hives 

83 



B£ES. 



should not be taken out until the 
weather is becomiog settled and flow- 
ers are expanded. 

The quality of the honey made de- 
pends upon the food suppfted. Many 
plants are reputed to yield poisonous 
honey, as the dwarf and great laurel 
(JTa/mia anguetifolia and lalifdia), the 
mounuin laurel {Rhododendron maxi- 
mus), the moor wort (Andromeda ma- 
ritMo), wild honeysuckle {Azalea Ttudi- 
flora)f Jamestown weed {Datura stron 
mottum), 6cc. 

Fruit-trees, the linden, tulip-tree ; 
▼arieties of clover, especially white 
cIoTor; aromatic herbs, as thyme, 
mint, and marjoram ; turnip, mustard, 
and cabbage blossoms, are extremely 
grateful ; buckwheat imparts a harsh 
taste. Water is also relished by these 
insects, so that they prefer a position 
near a limpid rill. It is also advised 
by some to place a vessel of water 
near their hive, into which floating 
sticks should be introduced to serve 
them as standing places to drink from. 

The quantity of honey varies with 
the season and the size of the swarm. 
Thirty pounds is a good yield where 
the bees are not destroyed ; of this, 
from a pound to a pound and a half 
will be wax. 

The honey is removed with or with- 
out the destruction of the insects ; 
the latter method is accomplished by 
suflbcating the colony with the fumes 
of burning sulphur, but is rarely prac- 
tised in the United States, and is, 
moreover, without economy. 

Partial deprivation with the com- 
mon barrel hive is performed about 
the beginning of September. Having 
ascertained the weight of the hive, 
and, consequently, the quantity of 
honey-comb which is to be extracted, 
begin the operation as soon as even- 
ing sets in, by inverting the full hive 
and placing an empty one over it; 
particular care must be taken that 
the two hives are of the same diam- 
eter, for if they differ in their dimen- 
sions it will not be possible to effect 
the driving of the bees. The hives 
being placed on each other, a sheet 
or large table-cloth must be tied round 
them at their junction, in order to 

84 



prevent the bees flrom molesting the 
operator. The hives being thus ar- 
ranged, beat the sides gently with a 
stick or the hand ; but particular cau- 
tion must be used to beat it on those 
parts to which the combs are attach- 
ed, and which will be found parallel 
with the entrance of the hive. The 
ascent of the bees into the upper hive 
will be known by a loud humming 
noise; in a few minutes the whole 
community will have ascended, and 
the hive with the bees in it may be 
placed upon the pedestal from which 
the full hive was removed. The hive 
from which the bees have been driven 
must then be taken into the house, 
and the operation of cutting out the 
honey-comb commenced. Having ex- 
tracted the requisite quantity of comb, 
this opportunity must be embraced of 
inspecting the hive, and of cleaning it 
of any noxious matter. In cutting 
the combs, however, particular atten- 
tion should he paid not to cut into two 
or three combs at once, but, having 
commenced the cutting of one, to pur- 
sue it to the top of the hive ; and this 
caution is necessary for two reasons : 
if you begin the cutting of two or 
three combs at one time, were you 
to abstract the whole of them, you 
would, perhaps, take too much ; and, 
secondly, to stop in the middle of a 
comb would be attended with very 
pernicious consequences, as the hon- 
ey would drop from the cells which 
have been cut in two, and then the 
bees, on being returned to their native 
hive, might be drowned in their own 
sweets. The bees, also, in their re- 
turn to their natural domicil, being 
still under the impression of fear, 
would not give so much attention to 
the honey which flows from the divi- 
ded cells ', and, as it would fall on the 
board, and from that on the ground, 
the bees belonging to the other hives 
would immediately scent the wasted 
treasure, and a general attack on the 
deprivated hive might be the conse- 
quence. The deprivation of the hon- 
ey-comb being efi*ected, the hive may 
be returned to its former position, 
and, reversing the hive which con- 
tains the bees, and placing the depri- 



BEE 

nted hiT« ovet it, tbej miy be lell 

in tliat situation till marniog, when 
tlie bees will be (oanA to have taken 
posaesaioa of tbi^ir native hive, and, 
if the season proves fine, may replen- 
ish what they have lost. 

BEES, DISEASES OF. In the 
sprine they are subject to a dysen- 
tery, known by the abundance of ref- 
use, and an odour uf piitiefaction 
within the hive, which should smell 
like wax. II is said that a little bran- 
dy added to their sirup food cures 
this complaint. They are also at- 
tacked by a louse, which makes them 
irritable, but which may be removed 
from their bodies by bnisbjng them 
with the Teather of a pen. 

BEE HIVE. The dweQing of 
the bees. The simplest form is a 
small barrel of four gallons, or the 
hollowed part of the trunk of a tree, 
or a thimble of rye straw holding 
about three pecks, and of a conical 
figure. Whatever the structure, it 
should be tight, solid, and dry, and so 
arrangad as to admit of inspection 
There is no subject on which so much 
ingenuity has been expended as the 
construction of beehives, the ohjecl 
being the separation of honey willi- 
ouldislurbance tothelabourers. The 
atmeved is as good as any of these 
improved hives, as it has the follow- 
ing tecommendations : 1st. It is ca- 
pable of enlargement or contraction ; 
Sd, May be opened withOut disturb- 
ance, for cleaning, taking honey. &c. 
It is known as the section hive, and 
eonsisiH of two, three, four, or more 
trays of similar size, fitting one above 
the other, as C C D (Fig. 1). These 
Irays maybe fourteen inches square 
and fire deep {Fig. 3). the uppermost 
being provided with a cover to keep 
olTrain. Through the bottom of each 
tray or box, slits, or holes about three 
fourths of an inch large, are perfo 
ted, the number being such that 
bees may pass readily into an upper 
compartment lo manufactare. The 
apertures, C C. represent doors for 
the bees, as welt as windows through 
which lo examine their work, 
should be corered when not used. 
is the entrance first used, until the 

n 



bees are settled in the upper divis- 
ions. The compartments are fasten- 
ed together temporarily by buttons, 
and should be made tight by cement 
or eoarae wax. To use this hive, the 
doors are all closed but the lower- 
most, into which the bees enter ; they 
ascend from tray lo tray, until they 
reach the uppermost, and here begin 
their work upon sticks properly pla- 
ced ; or, instead of making this divis- 
ion open, there are placed over the 
chinks jars, small boxes, or other re- 
ceptacles, into which the honey is to 
be collected : the bees work in these. 
As soon as they are engaged, an upper 
door can be opened for their accom- 
modation, ana the progress of tho 
work can be watched through proper 
openings of glass, and by removing the 
top. AsaoonastheaeboxesarefiUed, 
they can be taken out by passing a 
sharp knife between the lowest edg* 



BEJS 

ftnd the bottom of the dirision. The 
bees are now occupied in the com> 
partment below, and, should the sea- 
son be propitious, may also fill that 
with honey. Under these circum- 
stances, it wiU be advisable to liA up 
the hive, after closing the doors, and 
add another tray beneath. If this 
hive be sufficiently enlarged in spring, 
the young bees can be prevented from 
swarming, or the fresh swarm can 
be separated with the upper divisions, 
and carried to a new stand. The 
hive should be kept perfectly clean, 
and free from insects, and every crev- 
ice tight. 

BEES, INSECTS THAT INJURE. 
They are troubled with a louse (Brau- 
U eaca) of the size of a flea, and re- 
sembling the Hippobosca. These pro- 
duce great uneasiness. They may be 
removed by brushing a feather over 
the bees infested. The most impor- 
tant enemy is, however, the Miller, 
or Honey^comb Moth ( Galleria cereana), 
the caterpillar of which, of a dirty 
white colour {Fig. l) and brown head, 

rig. 1. 




CkterpiUtT OD A piece of lioney-comU 

eats the honey-comb. The caterpillar 
grows to twelve lines* length, protects 
itself from the stings of the bees by a 
tubular web, and eats only at night. 
It is changed to a brown grub in ten 
to twenty-eight days, and the moth in 
fourteen more days, two generations 
occurring in the year. One moth 
appears in the spring, the other gen- 
eration in July. The male {Fig. 2) is 
smaller than the female {Fig. 3) ; he 




BEE 
Fig. 3, 




is of a clay yellow above, and yellow- 
ish brown on the abdomen ; the col- 
our of the upper wings ash-gray ; the 
under wings lighter, and of a brown- 
ish tint. The female has a rusty 
brown back and head; the under 
wings ahnost white ; she lays her 
eggs in the dirt, at the lower part of 
the hive, and in chinks, from whence 
the young crawl into the hive. The 
miller and its caterpillars are to be de- 
stroyed by repeatedly inspecting the 
hives in spring, and clearing them, 
out. Hives are also constructed with 
inclined or wire gauze bottoms, from 
which all the feculent matters of 
the bees fall, so that the miller can- 
not lay her eggs ; for she will not ven- 
ture within the hive. Ants, spiders, 
and wasps are also very destructive 
to hives. 

BEE-STING. The bee leaves its 
sting in the wound. It should be ex- 
tracted, and the part rubbed with soap 
and a little dilute spirit of hartshorn 
(ammonia). 

BEET. A plant of the genus Beta, 
in the natural order Chcnopodea of 
Jussieu. 

There are two distinct species of 
beet commonly cultivated, each con- 
taining several varieties ; tlie one call- 
ed Beta cicla or kortensisy producing 
succulent leaves only ; the other, the 
Beta vulgaris, distinguished by its 
large root. The cicla is chiefly cul- 
tivated in gardens as a culinary ve- 
getable, and forms one of the princi- 
pal vegetables used by agricultural la- 
bourers and small occupiers of land in 
many parts of Germany, France, and 
Switzerland. A variety known by the 
name of Swiss chard produces numer- 
ous large, succulent leaves, which 
have a very solid rib running along 
the middle. The leafy part, being 
stripped oflf and boiled, is used as a 
substitute for greens and spinach, and 



m 



BEET. 



the rib and stalk are dressed like as- 
paragus ; they have a pleasant, sweet 
taste, and are more wholesome than 
the cabbage tribe. In a good soil the 
produce is very abundant ; and if cul- 
tivated on a large scale in the field, 
this species of beet would prove a val- 
uable addition to the plants raised for 
cattle. 

The second species, the Beta vul- 
garisy or beet-root, has been long cul- 
tivated in gardens, especially that va- 
riety called the red beet. It thrives 
best in a rich, light, dry soil, and, from 
the length of its tap-root, requires a 
considerable depth. The white beet 
is an excellent root, and is preferred 
by many to the larger and more com- 
mon intermediate varieties. It has 
been lately in great repute in France 
and Belgium for the manufacture of 
sugar. 

The common field beet for cattle 
has been long known in Germany. 
The German name i9 mangold wttrzeli 
or mangold root, but it is commonly 
pronounced mangel vmrzel. 

The improved variety of this beet, 
which grows to a very large size in 
good soil, has a red skin, and, when 
cut through, appears veined with red 
in concentric circles. The principal 
part of the root rises often a foot 
and more above the ground, and the 
leaves, which are large and succulent, 
spring from the crown of the root. 
There is a limit, however, beyond 
which the root does not improve in 
quality as it increases, and the roots 
of a moderate size contain more sac- 
charine and nutritive matter in the 
same bulk than the larger. This is 
particularly the case with those vari- 
eties iirom which sugar is extracted. 
The soil best adapted for the beet- 
root is a deep, sandy loam, naturally 
rich. The application of liquid ma- 
nure during the growth of the plant 
greatly increases the roots ; but it is 
also said to make them more watery, 
and for the sugar beet it is not recom- 
mended. It has been clearly demon- 
strated that azotized manures dimin- 
ish the sugar of beets. The seed, 
which should be chosen from the 
most perfect plants, is sown in May, 



at four to fire pounds the acre; it 
should be steeped three or more days 
in water before planting. It is found 
by experience that those plants of 
beet which grow (torn seed sown 
where they are to remain have larger 
roots, in general, than those which 
are transplanted ; the seed is there- 
fore nsually drilled, or dibbled, in 
rows, from twenty-four to thirty inch- 
es distant ; the seeds are put in about 
an inch deep, and when they are dib- 
bled the holes are about four inches 
asunder, and two or three seeds are 
put in a hole. After they come up 
and are out of danger or frost or in- 
sects, they are thinned out so as to 
leave the plants a foot asunder. If 
the ground be well prepared there is 
little fear of the plants not coming up, 
or of their being destroyed by the fly, 
as is too often the case with turnips. 
A sprinkling of liquid manure along 
the rows, about the time that the 
plants -first appear above ground, will, 
in general, secure an abundance of 
them; and this may be done with 
much less trouble than would be im- 
agined by those who have never prac- 
tised it. It requires only a water-cart, 
with a large cask and two leathern 
hose, kept at a proper distance from 
each other by a stick between them, 
so that they may pour the liquid ma- 
nure over two rows at once. If the 
Held be not above a mile from the 
tank, a man and horse will water two 
acres in a day ; and if the distance is 
half a mile, four acres ; the expense 
will be amply repaid in the crop. 

On a very large scale this may not 
be so practicable; but wherever a 
field of beets is near the home-stall, it 
should never be omitted ; the evident 
advantage of it will soon remove any 
objection arising from trouble or ex- 
pense. When the plants are three 
inches above ground, and thinned, 
the intervals between the rows may 
be stirred with the plough, grubber, 
or horse-hoe, and the intervals from 
plant to plant in the row with the 
hand-hoe. The groond cannot be 
kept too fine and open, provided the 
soil be not extremely porous, and the 
weather very dry. It is a common 

87 



BBET. 



fmctioe to throw the earth from the 
rows against the roots ; but the most 
experienced cultivators do not ap- 
prove the method ; on the contrary, 
ihey recommend drawing the earth 
from the plants, or at least laying the 
whole ground level. Where the soil 
IS naturally rich and deep, the drills 
may be made on the level ground ; 
but if the soil is shallow, or the sub- 
ooil of a barren nature, it is best to 
raise small ridges, as is done for tur- 
nips, and bury the dung under them, 
by which means the roots have more 
room to strike downward. As soon 
as the outer leaves begin to droop, 
they may be gathered and given to 
cattle, but a tufl should be left in the 
centre to carry on the vegetation, or 
else the roots will not increase. This 
practice of gathering the leaves is 
strongly recommended by some, and 
they assert that the root does not suf- 
fer in the least, although the leaves 
are reproduced ; but here we would 
give this caution, founded on experi- 
ence and observation. The drooping 
leaves, if not gathered, will decay and 
fall off; they have performed their 
office, and therefore to gather them 
before they wither is a real economy ; 
but to strip off fresh and growing 
leaves must iiyure the plant, and the 
juices required to replace them are so 
much taken from the growth of the 
roots. When fodder is very scarce, 
this may be a sacrifice worth making ; 
bat if the object is to reserve the roots 
for winter food, the leaves should re- 
main on the plant as long as they look 
fresh and growing, until near the time 
of taking up the whole crop ; the top 
may then be cut off an inch above the 
crown of the root, and will be excel- 
lent food for the cows and pigs. 

The roots are generally taken np 
and stored for winter some time be- 
fore there is any danger of consider- 
able frost, the top having been remo- 
ved. The roots are then either stack- 
ed in a barn or root-house, with al- 
ternate layers of straw, and the sides 
and top protected from the frost by 
straw placed all round, in which way 
they will keep well and fresh till 
spring ; or they are placed in trench- 

88 



es two feet deep and six feet wide, 
with a layer of straw at the bottom 
and against the sides : they are heap- 
ed up in these trenches to the height 
of three feet above the ground, form- 
ing a ridge at top, and then covered 
all over with straw, over which the 
earth taken out of the trench is spread 
and made smooth, sloping like the 
roof of a house. A small trench is 
dug all round this heap, with a prop- 
er outlet to prevent any water from 
soaking in ; the heaps are made of 
any length, according to the quantity 
of roots to be stored, and the two ends 
are secured with straw and covered 
with earth like the sides. When it 
is required to take out the roots for 
use, an opening is made at the end, 
a sufficient quantity is taken out, and 
the end is secured again with straw 
and earth as before. When the roots 
have been put in dry, and some time 
has been allowed for a slight fermen- 
tation, and the steam produced has 
been allowed to escape before the 
heap was finally covered in, they will 
come out quite fresh and juicy till late 
in spring ; but if the proper precau- 
tions are neglected, they will often rot 
or become musty, and then the cattle 
will not readily eat them. There are 
few crops so valuable for winter food 
for cattle as the beet. 

" Expense of an Acre of Sugar Beets. 

Use of an acre of land well prepftred for 
beets, and xnanured or managed in the 
previoaa crop $1S 00 

PIoa|rliinff ^00 

Cultivating, horse caliiTator and hand, 

2houra 50 

Twice more before aowing . . 1 00 
Seed, $S 9d ; Bowing with a machine, 

75 oenu 8 00 

First hneing 4 00 

Second hoeing, thinning, and transplant- 
ing, to su^ljT defidencles . 4 00 
Hoeing again, and looeeuing the ground 

'wirh machines 3 00 

Harvesting 9 00 

$39 50 

" Make the rows two feet four inch- 
es apart, and then a cultivator can be 
used in hoeing. If the beets stand one 
foot apart in the rows, and weigh two 
and a quarter pounds each, the yield 
wiU be twenty tons. In rich ground, 
at that distance, a great number wiQ 



BEE 



BEE 



«reigh four or five pounds each ; twen- 
ty tons is a good crop, probably a large 
crop, but not extremely large, for in 
some cases twenty-five or thirty tons 
to the acre have been raised in this 
oonntry. At the above expense of 
$39 60 to the acre, with a yield of 
twenty tons, the cost would be two 
dollars per ton. We make this esti- 
mate to show how cheap beets may 
be raised under favourable circum- 
stances, such as good land at a fair 
price, convenient machinery and im- 
plements, and the most prudential 
management in the culture, with la- 
bour at a moderate price, and a fa- 
vourable season."— (Cu/ttvotor.) 

It is said that oows fed entirely 
on beets become too fat, and give 
less milk ; but this would be no objec- 
tion with the cow-keepers, who unite 
the fattening of their cows with the 
mUking, and like to have them ready 
for the butcher as spon as they are 
nearly dry. For bullocks they are 
excellent ; for horses, Swedish tur- 
nips are preferable. The proportion- 
al value of hay, potatoes, Swedish tur- 
nips, and beets, in feeding cattle, ac- 
ci'itling to Einhof, whose statements 
Tnaer haa found to agiee with his ex- 
periments, is as follows : 18 tons of 
mangel wurzel are equal to 15 tons 
of ruta baga, or 7^ tons of potatoes, 
or 3| tons of good meadow hay, each 
quantity containiDg the same nourish- 
ment ; but the roots may be grown 
upon less than an acre, whereas it 
will take two or three acres of good 
meadow land to produce the equiva- 
lent quantity of hay ; and of all these 
root crops, the least exhausting for 
the land is the beet. The white beet 
has been chiefly cultivated for the ex- 
traction of sugar from its juice. It 
is smaller than the mangel wurzel, 
and more compact. We have given 
it to cattle, and are satisfied with the 
resuH ; but we have not made suffi- 
ciently accurate experiments to de- 
cide which sort is the most advanta- 
geous. The crops vary from 600 to 
1200 bushels. The beet, especially 
the white Sicilian, is better than man- 
gel wurzel. They are improved by 
steaming, but must be fed up in two 

H2 • 



or three days, or they ferment. Seed 
plants are set out in May and gather- 
ed in September. It will probably be 
found that the nature of the soil will 
make the scale turn in favour of the 
one or the other ; but for the manu- 
facture of sugar, the smaller beet, of 
which the roots weigh only one or 
two pounds, are preferred by Chap- 
tal, who, besides being a celebrated 
chemist, was also a practical agricul- 
turist, and a manufacturer of sugar 
from beet root. 

BEET SUGAR. This manufac- 
ture sprung up in France, it having 
been found that from the juice of the 
beet root a crystallizable sugar could 
be obtained. We here give a brief 
account of the process : The first op- 
eration is to clean the roots ; some 
effect this by washing, but Chaptal 
prefers scraping and paring them 
with a knife, although by this means 
one sixth part of the root is wasted, 
as the scrapings mixed with earth 
cannot be safely given to cattle, and 
even the pigs eat but little of it ; but 
it adds to the manure, and is there- 
fore not altogether lost. Six tons of 
beet root are thus reduced to five, 
which are next to be rasped and re- 
duced to a pulp. This is done by a 
machine consisting of a cylinder ot 
tinned iron, two feet in diameter, and 
eighteen inches in the axis, on which 
it is turned by machinery. On the 
circumference of this cylinder are 
fixed, by means of screws, ninety 
narrow plates of iron, rising three 
fourths of an inch from the surface 
and parallel to the axis, at equal dis- 
tances all round ; the outer or pro* 
jecting edges of these plates are out 
into teeth like a saw ; a slanting box 
is fixed to the frame on which the 
axis of the cylinder turns, so that the 
roots may be pressed against these 
plates. The cylinder is made to re- 
volve rapidly, and the roots are thus 
scraped, the pulp falling into a vessel, 
lined with lead, placed below. When 
two such cylinders are made to re- 
volve 400 times in a minute by a suf- 
ficient power, whether water, wind, 
or horses, two and a half tons of roots 
are ground down in two houis. It ia 

80 



BEET SUGAR. 



necessary that this oporatioo should 
proceed rapidly, or else the pulp ac- 
quires a dark colour, and aa incipient 
fermentation takes place, which great- 
ly injures the future results. As the 
pulp is ground it is put into strong 
canvass bags, and placed under a 
powerful' press to squeeze out the 
juice. The residue is stirred, and 
subjected to a second and third press- 
ure, if necessary, till every particle 
of juice is extracted. As the liquor 
is pressed out it runs into a copper 
until it is two thirds filled. The 
strength is ascertained by Baume, 
which shows the specific gravity of 
the liquid. The fire is now lighted, 
and, by the tinne the copper is full, 
the heat should be raised to ITS'" of 
Fahrenheit's thermooieter, but no 
higher. 

In the mean time, a mixture of lime 
and water has been prepared by grad- 
ually pouring as much water upon 10 
pounds of quicklime as will make the 
mixture of the consistency of cream. 
This is poured into the copper when 
the heat is steadily at 178^, and is 
well mixed with the juice by stirring 
it. The heat is then increased till 
the mixture boils, when a thick and 
glutinous scum rises to the surface. 
As soon as clear bubbles rise through 
this scum, the fire is suddenly put out 
by water poured on it, or by a proper 
damper. The scum hardens as it 
cools, and the sediment being depos- 
ited, the liquor becomes dear and of 
a light straw colour. The scum is 
then carefully taken ofiT w^ith a skim- 
mer having holes in it, and is put into 
a vessel till such time as the liquor 
remaining in it can be pressed out. 
A cock is now opened about five inch- 
es above the bottom of the boiler, 
and all the clear liquor is drawn oflT. 
Another cock lower down lets out the 
remainder until it begins to appear 
cloudy: what still remains is after- 
ward boiled again with what is ex- 
tracted by pressure from the scum. 
The clear liquor is now subjected to 
evaporation in another boiler, which 
j9 wide and shallow. The bottom is 
wt slightly covered with the juice at 
drst, and it boils rapidly. As the wa- 

90 



ter evaporates, fresh jnioe ie let in. 
When a certain degree of inspissa- 
tion or thickening has taken place, so 
as to show five or six degrees of 
strength on Baume, animal charcoal 
is gradually added till the liquor ar- 
rives at 20^. One hundred weight of 
charcoal is required for the juice of 
two and a half tons of beet, which is 
now reduced to about 400 gallons. 
The evaporation by boiling continues 
till the saccharometer marks 25°, and 
a regular sirup is obtained. This is 
now strained through a linen bag, 
and the liquor is kept flowing by 
means of steam or hot air, and assist- 
ed by pressure. In two or three hours 
all the olear sirup will have run 
through. 

The sirup thus prepared is agaia 
boiled and skiomied until it is suffi- 
ciently concentrated, which is known 
in the following manner : The skim- 
mer is dipped into the sirup and drawn 
out ; some of the thick sirup which 
adheres to it is taken between the 
thumb and forefinger, and held there 
till the heat is reduced to that of the 
skin ; the finger and thumb are sep- 
arated, and if the sirup is of a proper 
strength, a thread will be drawn out, 
which snaps, and has the transparen- 
cy of horn, or, rather, barley sugar : 
this is called the ftoof. The fire is 
then put out and the sirup is carried 
to the cooler, which is a vessel ca- 
pable of containing all the sirup pro- 
duced by four operations or boilings. 
Here the sugar is to crystallize ; as 
soon as this commences, the whole is 
well mixed and stirred, and, before 
it becomes too stifi*, earthen moulds, 
of the well-known sugar-loaf shape, 
and of the size called grtat bastards, 
arc filled with the crystallizing mass, 
of which a little at a time is poured 
into each. When they are full, they 
are carried to the coolest place on 
the premises. As the crystallization 
goes on, the crust formed on the top 
is repeatedly broken, and the whole 
is stirred till the crystals are collected 
in the centre : it is then allowed to go 
on without farther disturbance. In 
three days it is so far advanced, that 
the pegs which were put into the 



BKE 



BEK 



boles at the pohtt of the mooMs may 
be removed and the molasses al- 
lowed to run out. In a week this is 
mostty ran off. White sirup is now 
poured on the top of the moulds, 
whiah filters through the mass and 
carries part of the colouring matter 
with it. The process that follows is 
exactly that in common ase in refi- 
ning West India sugars. 

Although most of the operations 
are nearly the same as those by which 
the juice of the sugar cane is pre- 
pared for ase, much greater skill and 
nicety are required in rendering the 
juice of the bieet root crystal! izable, 
on account of the smaller quantity 
of sugar that it contains. But when 
this sugar is reHned, it is impossible 
for the most experienced jadg-e to 
distinguish it from the other either 
by the taste or appearance. Five 
tons of clean roots produce about 4^ 
cwt. of coarse sugar, which give 
aboat 160 lbs. of double-refined su- 
gar, and 60 lbs. of inferior lump sugar .- 
the rest is molasses. The dry resi- 
due of the roots, aAer expressing the 
juice, consists chiefly of fibre and mu- 
cilage, and amounts to about one 
fourth oftbe weight of the clean roots 
used. It contains nearly all the nu- 
tritive part of the root, with the ex- 
ception of 4 J per cent, of sugar, which 
has been extracted from the juice. 
Two pounds of this dry residue and 
half a pound of good hay are consid< 
ered as sufficient food for a moderate- 
sized sheep for a day, and will keep 
it in good condition, and cattle in 
proportion. 

By allowing the juice of the beet 
root to undergo the vinous fermenta- 
tion, and by distilling it, a more prof- 
itable result will be obtained in a very 
good spirit. A kind of beer may also 
be made of it, which is said to be 
pleasant in warm weather and whole- 
some. 

Another mode of making sugar 
from beet root, practised in some 
parts of Germany, is as follows, and 
is said to make better sugar than the 
other process. The roots, having 
oeen washed, are sliced lengthways, 
Strang on packiluead, and hong op 



to dry. The object of this is to let 
the watery juice evaporate, and the 
sweet juice, being concentrated, is 
taken up by macerating the dry sli- 
ces in water. It is managed so that 
, all the juice shall be extracted by a 
very small quantity of water, which 
saves much of the trou&le of evapo- 
ration. Professor Lampadius obtain- 
ed from 1 10 pounds of roots 4 pounds 
of well-grained white powder sugar, 
and the residuum aflbrded 7 pints of 
spirit. Achard says that about a ton 
of roots produced 100 pounds of raw 
sugar, which gave 55 pounds of re- 
fined sugar and 25 pounds of treacle. 
This result is not very difi[erent from 
that of Chaptal. 

The manufacture of beet sugar in 
the United States cannot be made 
profitable, but may be useful in fami- 
lies, as the remaining mush is so val- 
uable for cattle and pigs. They may 
be cultivated between 39 and 44 de- 
grees north advantageously. 

BEETLE. A common terra used 
to designate the larger CoUoptera^ 
with hard wing cases. See Insects. 

BEETLE. A large mallet used to 
drive stakes, &c. ; it is furnished 
with two or more handles, so as to 
be driven by several persons. 

BELLADONNA. The deadly night 
shade, Atropa belladonna. 

BELT. Trees arranged for shel- 
ter. Belting in the West is the prac- 
tice of chopping away the bark of a 
tree around the stem to the extent of 
some inches. The wound should 
pass freely into the sop wood, other- 
wise the tree will not be killed. 

BELVIDERE. A small place at 
the top of a house for a lookout. 

BEN NUTS. The seeds of an 
Arabian plant called Moringa apiera ; 
they yield an oil called oil of ben, 
and have been employed in syphilitic 
diseases. 

BEN, OIL OF. The expressed 
oil of the nut of the Moringa aptera. 
This oil is remarkable for not becom- 
ing rancid by age ; and as it is per- 
fectly insipid and inodorous, it is used 
for extracting the fragrance of cer- 
tain fiowers, such as jessamin, or- 
ange, &c. The same tree furnishes 

91 



BEN 



BET 



the Lignum nephriticumt supposed to 
be useful in certain afTections of the 
kidneys. 
BENE. The Sesasum orientale. 




An annual plant of the family Big- 
noniaeea. It is successfully cultiva- 
ted south of Pennsylvania. The seeds 
abound in oil, which is readily ex- 
pressed. They are very nutritious, 
and eaten by the Italians roasted, 
boiled, and made into flour resem- 
bling buckwheat. The oil is good, 
and may be substituted for common 
olive oil. The seed is sovirn in drills 
three or four feet apart, in April. The 
plant grows like cotton, and attains 
the height of four or five feet, bearing 
numerous seed-vessels, full of the 
small seed, which is not larger than 
flaxseed. The crop ripens gradually, 
and is taken in September ; 15 to 20 
bushels are given per acre, from which 
40 to 50 gallons of oil may be obtain- 
ed. The oil may be sold for $1 to 
$1 25 the gallon. Negroes are fond 
of the seeds in any form. The ex- 
pressed oil-cake would be admirable 
food for fattening hogs and cattle. 

BENOT. A double mould-board 
plough. 

BENT GRASS. The genus il^To*- 
tUt the stem of which is much bent, 
and inclined to become creeping and 
subterranean. Creeping grasses are 
best exterminated from arable lands 
by heavy liming and the introduction 
of two or three crops of corn, or such 
other plants as are frequently tilled. 
92 



BENTS. Withered grasa stems 
remaining in the pasture after the 
seeds have dropped. 

BENZAMIDE. A compound of 
benzoyl and amidogene. 

BENZOIC ACID. A vegetable acid 
found in balsams and some grasses. 

BENZOIN. The concrete exuda- 
tion of the Styrax benzoin of the East. 
It is a resin combined with benzoic 
acid. 

BENZULE, BENZOYL. The hy- 
pothetical radical of benzoic acid and 
other compounds, formula Cu Hs Og 
=Bz. 

BERBERRY. See Barberry. 

BERGAMOT. The Citrus berga- 
mia. Cultivated in the south of Europe 
for the fragrant oil of the rind of ita 
fruit. The oil is volatile, and consists 
of IOC 8H. It is a species of lemon, 
and might be introduced into Flori- 
da. 

The Mentha citrata, a common spe- 
cies of mint, easily cultivated, yields 
an oil nearly as fragrant as the ber- 
gamot. 

BERMUDA GRASS, DOUB 
GRASS. Cynodon detetylon. A tall, re- 
pent grass, flourishing on sandy lands, 
and an object of cultivation in the 
South. It aflbrds abunda nt pasturage 
for sheep, and binds together the loose 
soil. The levees of the Mississippi are 
planted with it. Many distinguished 
farmers on the south shores of the 
Mississippi speak highly of this grass ; 
it is, however, diflScult to eradicate. 
Mr. Affleck considers it most nutri- 
tious, and in his latitude (Washing- 
ton, Miss.) it yields three cuttings, or 
from *' five to eight tons of hay per 
acre from a moderately good mead- 
ow." It is destroyed by frost and 
IMTopagated by roots, as it does not 
ripen seeds in his locality. 

BERRY, or BAGCA. In botany, 
a fruit filled with pulp, in which the 
seeds are imiiedded, as the currant, 
gooseberry, &c. 

BETEL. The leaf of an acrid nar- 
cotic pepper, chewed by the natives 
in the East Indies. 

BETULA. The generic name of 
the birch family. The pojmlifolia 
(white), exccUa (yellow) rubra (red). 



BIL 



filR 



and ienia (black or cherry), are all 
fine trees, especially the red, the tim- 
ber of which is roach used for cabi- 
net purposes ; and the black or cher- 
ly, which has the colour of mahog- 
any, and is both used here and ex- 
ported to Europe. B. pajfyracea, or 
paper birch» yielded the bark for the 
canoes of the Indians. The wood of 
all is durable, and less affected by 
changes of temperature than most 
timbers. The juice of the European 
B. alba is sweet and easily ferment- 
ed ; it forms their birch wine. Va- 
rioos parts of the plant are put to a 
Tanety of economical uses ; the bark 
forms paper, vessels, dec. ; the twigs, 
brooms and rods, while the leaves 
are considered good fodder. 

BEVEL. An instrument to take 
angles. 

BEVEL GEER. In mechanics, 
a species of wheel-work, in which the 
axles of two wheels working into 
each other are neither parallel nor 
perpendicular, but inclined to one an- 
other in a certain angle. Wheels of 
this kind are also called conical, be- 
cause their teeth may be regarded as 
cut in the frustum of a cone. 

BI. From bU^ twice, a common 
prefix to words meaning two, or 
twice, as bi-partite, bin-oxide. 

BIBULOUS. Absorbent In chem- 
istry, blotting paper is often termed 
bibulous paper. 

BIENNIAL. This term is usual- 
ly applied to plants which grow one 
year and flower the next, alter which 
they perish. Many biennials, if sown 
early in the spring, will flower in au- 
tumn and then perish, thus actually 
becoming annuals. 

filESTINGS. The first mUk after 
calving. 

BIFURCATE. Two-pronged, or 
forked. 

BIGNONIAS. The trumpet flow- 
ers. Bignonia radieam, and other 
•hrubby dimbing plants, belong to 
this handsome genus. 

BIGG. A winter barley. 

BIKH. AconUurtn ferox. A very 
poisonous Eastern monkhood. 

BILABIATE. Two-lipped, or pe- 
talled, api^ed to flowers. 



- BILBERRY. Whortleberry. 

BILE. The secretion of the liver. 
It is intended, according to Liebig, 
to prepare certain portions of matter 
to furnish fuel for the maintenance 
of the animal heat ; any interruption 
in its production is attended with 
great lassitude, sickness, fever, and 
yellowness of the eyes and skin. 
Moist, marshy places, and food rich 
in oil, as butter and fat, produce bil- 
ious attacks. Calomel is the best 
medicine in these cases, 10 grains at 
first, and more if it does not quickly 
relieve. Fall and spring are the sea- 
sons most obnoxious to bilious at- 
tacks in new countries. Sometimes 
biliary calculi or stones are form- 
ed. 

The composition of the bile is very 
complex, according to the analyses of 
some physiologists. Liebig, howev- 
er, regards it as a natural soap, near- 
ly consisting of choleate of soda. 

BILL. A hatchet with a curved 
point. 

BILLET. A small log or block of 
wood. 

BIN. A box for com, oats, 6lc. 

BIND- WEED. A common name 
for most climbing plants, but espe- 
cially directed to the convolvulaceous 
species. 

BINES. Running stems. 

BIOCELLATE. When an insect's 
wing is marked with two eye-like 
dots. 

BIPINNATE. Leaves that are 
doubly pinnate ; in which the second- 
ary stalks or petals are pinnated. 

BIRCH. See Betula. 

BIRD. The preservation of birds 
as a means of destroying insects has 
lately attracted some attention. It 
is proposed to destroy the hawk tribe 
only, leaving crows, ravens, sparrows, 
wrens, bluebirds, and all others ; for, 
although many of these occasionally 
take seed and injure fruit, they, for 
the most part, live on insects and 
small vermin, and the farmer is much 
more assisted by their labours than 
injured by their depredations. Mr. 
Swainson remarks that whereas nu- 
merous crops are devastated by in- 
sectSy no one has ever heard of such 

98 



BIT 

evils being brought about by birds. 
To the apiarian the bee martin is, 
however, an unquestionable source of 
annoyancef although the saoae bird 
and all the genus are destructive to 
other insects. 

BIRDLIME. A glutinous sub- 
atanee extracted by boiling the bark 
of the hoUy-tree ; a similar subsUnce 
may be obtained from mistletoe, from 
the yonng shoots of elder, and some 
other plants. 

. BIRD PEPPER. The small pep- 
per. Capsicum haccatum^ growing on a 
shrub : it yields the hottest Cayenne 
pepper. It is cultivated in Florida 
and the Indies. 

. BIRD^S FOOT TREFOIL, A Eu- 
ropean genus (Lotus) of small clovers, 
growing in pastures, and preserving 
their verdure in the hot weather from 
their long roots. They are inferior to 
clover, and, with the exception of L. 
villomst which is an object of cultiva- 
tion in France upon light soils, are nev- 
er raised artificially. There does not 
appear to be any true species of this 
genus in the United States, and its in- 
feriority to clover does not make it 
desirable to introduce them. 

BIRD'S CHERRY. The Prunus 
fodu*. A small, wild cherry, indige- 
nous in Eiigland. 

BIRD'S MOUTH. In building, an 
interior angle or notch, cut across 
the grain at the extremity of a piece 
of timber for its reception on the 
edge of another piece ; as a raRer, 
for instance, is received on a pole 
plate. Bird's mouth signifies, also, 
the internal angle of a polygon, its 
external angle being called a bull's 
nose. 

BIRD'S NEST. Indian pipe. Jtfo- 
nolropa uniflora. 

BISEXUAL. In plants, having 
stamens and pistils in the same flow- 
er. 

BISIIOPING. A cant word for 
disguising the age of a horse. 
BISON. Bee Bvffalo. 
BISTORT. The Polygonum bit- 
torta. An acrid plant when fresh. 

BISULCATE. With two fissures, 
two-hoofed. 
B I T. The iron part of the bri* 

94 



BLA 

' die, which goes into the month of m 
horse. 

BITTER ALMOND. A variety of 
the almond of a hi iter taste. 

BITTER PRINCIPLE. An obso- 
lete term in chemistry, signifying that 
the dried juice of a plant contained a 
bitter ingredient. The bitterness does 
not depend upon any general princi- 
ple, but upon a particular body, some- 
times present in no other plant, as 
quinine, strychnine, &c 

BITTERN. The residue after 
evaporatmg sea water and removing 
the salt. It contains sulphate of mag- 
nesia and chloride of magnesia, as 
well as small quantities of soda, pot- 
ash, and bromides. It would unques^ 
tionably be a valuable manure, and 
should be tried in small quantities 
wherever the opportunity offers. 

BITTER SPAR. CrysUllized dol- 
omite. Carbonate of lime and mag- 
nesia. 

BITTER SWEET. An extensive 
genus(Sol(umm), the berries of which, 
of a red and dark colour, are veiy 
poisonous. 

BITUMEN. A mineral pitch. Sev- 
eral varieties, as petroleum, asphal- 
tum, mineral tar, and naphtha, are dis- 
tinguished. 

BIX A- The genus yielding the R 
orellana or arnotta. 

BLACK. As a colour for horses, 
this is not preferred : there are said 
to be fewer good animals of this colour 
than any other. It is supposed that 
those of a high gloss and while legs 
are the best kind. 

BLACKBERRY, or BRAMBLE. 
This term is generally used to indi- 
cate the Rubrus villosutt or common 
erect, and R. trivia list creeping dew- 
berry. The fruit is wholesome, and 
commands a good price in cities, so 
that near Boston they are cultivated. 
It makes excellent jam and preserves, 
as well as a good wine. The tail 
bramble is a good adjunct to the com- 
mon rail fence in arable land ; but its 
decaying branches injure meadows. 
In other parts of the field they are a 
serious nuisance, especially the creep* 
ing plant, and require grubbing for ex- 
termination, followed by a su^oieat 



BLA 



BLA 



ploughing to break np the smaller 
roots. The roots are astringcDt. 

BLACKBIRD. Notwithstanding 
bis occasional depredations, he is a 
▼aluable friend to the farmer, by the 
destraction he makes among insects. 
The most common species is the 
Quiscalis versicolor. 

BLACK CANCER. The decayed 
blotches on turnips. 

BLACK DOLPHIN. The dark- 
coloured aphis, which injures beans, 
pease, cabbages, and nume reus garden 
vegetables. Dusting with lime is a 
teiy valuable remedy, as well as cut- 
ting ofi*the infested stems, when it is 
practicable, and burning them. 

BLACK DYES. The substances 
used in dyeing blacks arc logwood, 
weld or woad, fustic, sumacb, gall- 
nuts, and oak apples, with copperas 
or sulphate of iron ; but any other 
astringent may be introduced. The 
linest blacks are first dyed of a deep 
blue. 

BLACK FLY. The smaU black 
beetle {Halticanemarum) which infests 
cruciferous plants, and especially the 
turnip. See InsecU. 

BLACK GUM. Nytta mvltifiora, 
A tree sometimes attaining fifty to 
seventy feet, and twenty inches in di- 
ameter. It grows south of Philadel- 
phia. The wood is solid, and little 
liable to split ; hence it is used for 
oaves or hubs, and in ship-building for 
the caps of masts. The berries are 
dark, and relished by birds. The N. 
aquatica, or tupeio^ is less in size, and 
grows as far as New-Hampshire. It 
is valuable as a dense Wood, and used 
by carriage-builders. 

BLACK LEGS and BLACK MUZ- 
ZLE. See Sheepj JHseasts of. 

BLACK OATS, are more hardy, 
and npen earlier than the common 
grain. They are otherwise inferior. 

BLACK THORN. The European 
sloe {Prunus spinota). Sometimes the 
Cratagus fiava is called by this name 
in America. 

BLACK TWITCH, or COUCH. 
Agrostis alba. Marsh couch grass. 

BLACK W ALN UT. See Walnut, 

BLACK WASH, A loUon of cal- 
omel and Umewater. 



I BLACK WATER. See Sheep. 

BLADE. A shoot or spire of grass, 
wheat, &.C. 

BLADE BONE. The scapula, or 
broad bone of the shoulder. 

BLAIN. In farriery, inflammation 
of the tongue, a disease in cattle, 
which frequently affects them in the 
spring of the year or beginning of 
summer. The disease is neither so 
frequent nor so fatal in the horse 
as it is in cattle ; but it does some- 
times occur, and the nature of it is 
frequently misunderstood. The horse 
will refuse his food, hang his head, 
and a ^considerable quantity of ropy 
fluid will be discharged from the 
mouth. On examining the mouth, 
the tongue wiU be found considerably 
enlarged, and, running along the side 
of it, there will be a reddish or dark- 
ish purple bladder, which sometimes 
protrudes between the teeth. The 
neighbouring salivary glands are en- 
larged, and the discharge of saliva is 
very great, while the soreness of the 
swelled and blistered part causes the 
horse obstinately to resist every mo- 
tion of the jaws. The cure is very 
simple : the bladder must be deeply 
lanced from end to end ; there will 
not be any great flow of blood. This 
will relieve or cure the horse in twen- 
ty-four hours. If he can be spared 
from his work, a dose of physic wiU 
remove the stomach aflTection and any 
slight degree of fever that may have 
existed. If the disease is neglected, 
the swelling will at length burst, and 
corroding ulcers will eat deeply into 
the tongue, and prove very diflicult to 
heal. — ( Clater's Farriery). 

BLANCHING. In gardening, 
the whitening of the stems, stalks, or 
leaves of plants, by tying them togeth- 
er, or earthing them up so as to ex- 
clude the light, an# thus to diminish 
the intensity of their native proper- 
ties and make them sweet. 

BLAST. A flatulent disease of 
sheep. 

BLASTEMA. The embryo. 

BLASTING. The art of removing 
portions of rock by the explosion of 
gunpowder. *For this purpose, a cy- 
iindrkal hole is mad^ i« th<5 roi^k in a 

95 



BLE 



BLE 



direction corresponding with the stra- 
ta, and of greater or less depth, ac- 
cording to the material. The diame- 
ter varies from one to one and a half 
inches, as the rock is harder. Into 
this is next placed a charge of pow- 
der occupying ahout one third of the 
depth, and furnished with a tin tube 
containing the fuse or slow match. 
AAer the powder, small pieces of rock 
or paper are rammed, and then sand 
is driven in, to fill the hole, and the ex- 
tremity of the fuse lighted ; the work- 
man retires to a place of safety, and 
allows the explosion to take place. 
In this way boulders, which impede 
cultivation, and are too large to be 
lifted away, may be broken up, and 
the fragments removed for fences, du;. 
Stumps of large trees may also be 
torn up by blasting, the charge being 
contained in a tin case, and introdu- 
ced beneath the stump ; or the wood 
may be bored with an inch auger, and 
the charge inserted into the wood it- 
self. 

BLATTA. The cockroach genus. 

BLAZE. A white mark 01:. star in 
the face of a horse or other animal. 

BLEACHING. This process con- 
sists in a series of operations, by 
which the natural colours of various 
substances are discharged so as to 
whiten them. It is effected either 
by the action of various solvents, aid- 
ed by exposure to light, air, and moist- 
are, upon the bleaching ground, or by 
the aid of chlorine. Cotton is more 
easily bleached than linen, in conse- 
quence of its being originally whiter, 
and having a less powerful attraction 
for the colouring matter. In bleach- 
ing these goods upon the old princi- 
ple, warm water is first liberally ^p- 
plied to remove the weaver's paste 
or dressing ; they are then bucked, or 
boiled in a weal^ alkaline lye ; and 
after having been well washed, are 
spread out upon the grass, so as to be 
freely exposed to the joint agencies 
of light, air, and moisture ; the buck- 
ing and exposure are alternately re- 
peated, as often as necessary ; the 
goods are soured, that is, immersed in 
water slightly acidulated by sulphuric 
acid ; lastly, they are very thoroughly 
96 



washed and dried. By these opera- 
tions the texture of the goods is, to a 
certain extent, impaired, and much 
time is required to complete the pro- 
cess, which, also, cannot be carried 
on in the winter months. But the 
exposure upon the bleaching ground 
is now, to a great extent, discontinu- 
ed ; and the same eflhct is obtained, 
after the process of bucking, by the 
action of weak solutions of chlorine, 
or of chloride of lime, which, if skil- 
fully used, can scarcely be said to in- 
jure the goods more than the long- 
continued exposure. The theory of 
bleaching has not been satisfactorily 
develop^; but, from such experi- 
ments as have been made in refer- 
ence to it, it appears to be a process 
of oxidation, and to depend upon some 
peculiar influence of nateeni oxygen 
upon the colouring matter. 

The colour of manufactured wool 
depends partly upon its own oil, and 
partly upon the applications made to 
it in the loom. These are got rid of 
in the fulling-mill by the joint action 
of fullers' earth and soap ; the cloth 
is then well washed and dried, and 10 
tolerably white ; if the slight yellow 
tint which it retains is objectionable, 
it is prevented by adding a little stone 
blue to the washing water, or by ex- 
posure to the fumes of burning sul- 
phur ; this latter method, however, 
gives it a harsh feel, and if afterward 
soaped, its yellowishness returns. 

The colour of raw silk depends up- 
on a natural yellow varnish, which is 
got rid of by boiling it in white soap 
and water, and by repeated rinsings. 
Certain articles of wove cotton, such 
as stockings, are bleached as usual, 
and finished liy the action of tulphu* 
rout acid, or the fumes of burning sul- 
phur. Straw is also whitened by a 
similar operation ; and hence bleach- 
ed straw hats are apt to have a disa- 
greeable sulphurous smell. 

BLEACHING POWDER. Chlo- 
ride of lime. 

BLEEDING. An operation fre- 
quently necessary in the disorders of 
dififerent kinds of cattle, particularly 
horses. Such horses as stand much 
in the stable, and are fuK-frd, require 



BLI 

Ueediog mare than those wluch are 
in constant exercise ; but especially 
wbeo their eyes look heavy and dull, 
or red and inflamed ; and when they 
look yellow, and the horse is inflamed 
in his lips and the inside of his mouth ; 
or when he seems hotter than usu- 
al, and mangles his hay. These in- 
dications not only show that bleed- 
ing is required, but likewise lower 
diet. The spring is the common sea- 
aon for bleeding horses ; but period- 
ical bleeding should never be prac- 
tised. In summer it is oflen neces- 
sary, to prevent fevers, always choos- 
ing the cool of the morning for the 
operation, and keeping them cool the 
remaining part of tha day. Some 
Hurriers bleed horses three or four 
times a year, or even oflener, by way 
of prevention, taking only a very 
small quantity at a time, as a pint or 
a pint and a half. There is, howev- 
er, this inconvenience from frequent 
bleeding, that it grows into a habit, 
which, m some cases, cannot be easi- 
ly broken off without hazard; and, 
besides, horses become weak from 
frequent bleeding. The vein in the 
neck is usually opened, but that un- 
der the eye or in the leg is better, 
when Uie inflammation is near those 
paru. 

BLEMISH. In farriery, any kind 
of imperfection in a horse or other 
animal. 

In horses, blemishes consist of bro- 
ken knees, loss of hair in the cutting 
places, mallenders and sallenders, 
cracked heels, false quarters, splents, 
or excrescences which do not occa- 
eion lameness; and wind galls and 
bog spavins, where they prevail to 
any great degree. 

in forestry, the knots on the out- 
side of trees, and shakes internally, 
are termed blemishes. 

BLIGHT. A general term for the 
diseases of trees and crops, whether 
produced by temperature, moisture, 
insects, or parasitic fungi. See Rtut^ 
Mildew. Smui, PUuU lace, &.C. 

BLIGHT, AMERICAN. The Eri. 
ototna (aphis) lardgeroy or woolly plant 
lice ; they infest the apide and pear 
tree occasionally. 

1 



BLI 

BLIND, MOON. Cloudiness of 
the eye, ending in cataract. 

BLINDNESS. A deprivation or 
want of sight, originating from vari- 
ous, causes; a complaint more fr»- 
qiietit in horses than in neat cattle or 
sliecp. 

Blindness tn horses may be discern- 
ed by the walk or step being uncen> 
tain and unequal, so that they dare 
not set down their feet boldly; bat 
when they are mounted by an expert 
horseman, the fear of the spurs will 
frequently make them go resolutely 
and freely, so that their blindness can 
hardly be perceived. Another mark 
by which horses that have lost their 
sight may be known is, that when 
they hear anybody enter the stable^ 
they prick up their ears, and move 
them backward and forward in a par- 
ticular manner. 

Blindness in Sheep. — A complaint 
that sometimes occurs in these ani- 
mals from their being much exposed 
to either great dampness or long-con- 
tinued snows. 

BLINKERS. The leathers attach* 
ed to the bridle of carriage-horses to 
direct their sight forward. 

BLISTERING. In farriery, the 
operation of stimulating the surface 
of some part of the body of an ani- 
mal, by means of acrid applications, 
so as to raise small vesications upon 
it. It is frequently employed for the 
purpose of removing local aflTections 
of difierent kinds, such as hard, indo* 
lent tumours. 

BLISTER FLY. The bright 
green and golden fly usually employ- 
ed is the Cantharis veHcaioria, im- 
ported from Europe; but there are 
several insects indigenous which pos- 
sess equal power, as the potato flies 
(C vitata and einsrea) and the black 
cantharis (C. atraia). 

The potato flies are seen in Au- 
gust, morning and evening, among 
the foliage of the potatoes ; the head 
is red, atid the back black, with a yel- 
low stripe ; and in the cinerea the 
whole is black, with a gray hair, or 
down. The wing cases {elytra) are 
hard. They are shaken 00*1116 vines^ 
killed by being thrown in hot water, 

07 



BLO 



BLU 



and then dried in the eun. When 
well dried, they keep for years in 
dosed bottles. 

BLISTER LIQUID. A liquid com- 
posed by adding a gallon of spirit of tur- 
pentine to a pound of powdered flies, 
and macerating the whole for a month, 
when the clear fluid will form a strong 
liquid blister. If so powerful an ex- 
ternal stimulant be not required, this 
liquid may be diluted with an equal 
part of spermaceti oil. 

BLISTER OINTMENT. One 
ounce of powdered blistering flies; 
four ounces of lard. One ounce of 
this, w^l rubbed in, is sufficient to 
blister a horse's leg. 

BLOOD. The fluid which circu- 
lates through the body, giving nour- 
ishment to all parts. It consists of 
albumen, flbrin, red globules, fatty 
matters, water, and saline substan- 
ces. As a manure, its importance 
depends on the large quantity of am- 
monia it exhales. It is always pref- 
erable to use it in eompost, with ash- 
es, charcoal, fine earth, and vegeta- 
ble matters. Its efi*ects are principal- 
ly stimulant when used alone. The 
composition of blood is nearly identi- 
cal with that of flesh. 

BLOOD-I-iOOT. Sanguinaria Can- 
tuktuis. This root is of a red colour. 

BLOOD-SHOT. In farriery, a pop- 
ular term for that red appearance 
which the eye exhibits when infla- 
med. The best treatment is to bathe 
the eye with a lotion composed of one 
drachm of white vitriol (sulphate of 
sine) dissolved in half a pint of water. 

BLOOD SPAVIN, or BOG SPAV- 
IN. In farriery, a swelling of the 
Tein that runs along the inside of the 
bock of the horse, forming a soft tu- 
mour in the hollow part, ollen attend- 
ed with weakness or lameness of the 
hock. Clater {Farriery, p. 372) says, 
a blister is the proper application. 

BLOOM, or BLOSSOM. The flow- 
er, in the most perfect state, consists 
of an outer green envelope (the calyx)^ 
u the interior of which are the col- 
oured leaflets (petals), surrounding 
a number of thread-like bodies {the 
stamens), and containing a central 
body or pistil. Of these parts, the 
98 



stamens and pisttb are eaaeotial, al- 
though they do not always grow in 
the same flower. The calyx and pe- 
tals {corolla) serve only to protect the 
inner organs from rain, which de- 
stroys their function when excessive. 
Other plants, however, have none of 
the envelopes, but are furnished with 
especial means of preserving the sta- 
mens. The name of a plant is, for 
the most part, known by the figure 
of its blossoms. Large numbers of 
genera possess flowers of the same 
kind, and are constituted into Natii* 
ral families ; as the CaryophyllaoeaB» 
with flowers like the jnnk ; Rosace** 
with flowers like the single rose; 
Crucifers, with flowers like the rad- 
ish; Umbeliifers, with flowers lika 
the parsnip, dec. 

BLOW FLY. The Musca eama- 
ria. It deposites eggs upon meat» 
which in a few hours become mag* 
gets, and hasten the decay rapidly ; 
gauze cloths are used to keep them 
oflT; salt or Cayenne pepper serves 
as a preventive, by indisposing the 
fly to lay eggs on surfaces smeared 
with them. 

BLOWN. In farriery, a diseased 
state of the stomach and bowels of 
cattle, caused by the sudden extrica* 
tion of air in large quantities from 
some of the grosser kinds of green 
food. See Hoten. 

BLUBBER. The cellular sub- 
stance in which whale oil or fat is 
stored. It is often used with advao^ 
tage in composts of ashes and peat, 
and yields ammonia during decay. 

BLUEBIRD. Sjflvasudis. A 
familiar insectivorous bird that should 
be encouraged on farms. 

BLUE DYES. These are indigo, 
Prussian blue, logwood, bilberry, mul- 
berries, elder-berries, privet-berries, 
and some other berries whose juice 
becomes blue by adding a little alkali. 
Indigo, Prussian blue, and logwood 
are principally used, and are prepared 
for tbe purpose. When the berries 
are used, one pound is boiled in water 
and mixed with one ounce of alum, 
of copperas, and of blue vitriol, and 
the stuflb passed through sufficiently 
oAen to acquire a proper colour. 



wn 



BON 



BLUE GRASS. The TBliuUe per- 
ennial Kentucky grass, or Poa vra- 
tensis, is considered the best indige- 
nous grass of the United States. It 
fbrms a thick, dense sward, yielding 
a fair amount of veiy notritious hay. 
It is adapted especially for permanent 
hfllside meadows, growing well in a 
drained soil. Half a bushel of seed 
is sown either with a fhll crop or with 
oats in spring : it is eastomary to mix 
eloTer or timothy with it, which fur- 
nishes grazing sooner, and preserves 
the young grass. In two years it 
takes entire possession, and forms a 
etose mat of delicate herbage. It 
flourishes wrell in New- York State and 
1^ to the oooth. In Kentucky they 
sometimes grow it in wood land as 
well as in open pasture. The wood 
Wue grass is a variety (P. syhcMtris). 
There is another grass {Poa earn- 
jN^ia), ateo called blue grass, and 
flsommon in the Northern States ; but 
it is scanty, and very inferior to the 
rich Kentacky kind. 

BLUE STONE and BLUE VIT- 
RIOL. The sulphate of copper. It 
is used as a caustic to sores, and as 
a steep for wheat, to save it from 
■mot. 

BOG. This term is commonly used 
in agriculture to designate a hole or 
■wrass containing much vegetable 
mud or muck ; often the deposites are 
extensive, and many feet deep. A 
peat bog contains peat chiefly. 

When bogs become ooosolidated 
or oompreswd, they are called peat 
Bioases. See Peat. 

BOG EARTH. This earth oden 
oontains twenty or thirty per cent, of 
▼egeCable matter, aod when well bro- 
ken with lime, and by exposure to air, 
forms a rich soil. 

BOI L, or, commonly, BILE. A 
tomour containing matter, or pus. It 
is the result of local inflammation. 
It should be brought to a head by 
poultices of flour or linseed, and, 
when soft and fluctuating, opened 
freely with a lancet. The wound 
ahonki be kept clean, and closed with 
sticking plaster, or protected by a rag. 
BOILING POINT. The tempera- 
tm« at which fluids boO. Thus, wa- 



ter at S1S«, alcohol ITS^, oU of tur- 
pentine 816°, Kthe^ 96°, mercury 
663° Fahrenheit. 

BOLE, or BOLL. A Scotch meas- 
ure of four bushels. 

BOLE OF TREES. The trunk. 

BOLETUS. Fungi, forming fleshy 
masses, attached to the trunks of 
trees, and filled with holes on the 
lower side. One species, B. bomnut, 
is said to be eaten by cattle. The B. 
ignariut and fimutUaruu, dried and 
prepared with saltpetre, forms th6 
German tinder, or amadou. 

BOLTER. A sieve used to sep* 
arate bran from flour or meal, urged 
by machinery in grist mills. For 
coarse purposes, wire-work is some- 
times used ; but bolting cloths for 
flour are of linen or hair, and of sev* 
eral degrees of fineness. 

BOLT-HEAD. A glass vessel, or 
flask, used in the laboratory. 

BOLTING FOOD. This is a prac- 
tice which brings about indigestion in 
asimals as well as in men, and must 
be hindered by feeding the animal 
separately, and at shorter intervals, 
and using chopped food or meals. 

BOLUS. See BaU. 

BOMBAX. A genus of hirge trees 
producing a short cotton. 

BONES. The frame-work of the 
higher animals. Bones consist of 
fifty-six per cent, mineral, and the 
rest gelatinous and destructible mat- 
ter. The mineral portion contains, 
on an average, fifty per cent, of phos- 
phate of lime, or bone earth ; of this, 
twenty-four per cent, is phosphoric 
acid, and the rest lime. The destrno- 
tible animal matter is partly removed 
by long boiling, and used as a size. 

The value of bones as manure ari- 
ses from the combination of animal 
matter and phosphate, but is chiefly 
due to the latter. They are applied 
usually in coarse powder, ground at 
suitable bone mills, which are now 
to be found near all our large cities. 
The price in Baltimore and New- 
York is forty cents the bushel. Soro(»- 
times, pieces, or broken bones, from 
half an inch to an inch long, are used 
as a permanent dressing. 

The amount of dust to be applied 

9d 



BON 

Ser acre is ten or twenty brohels Ibr 
re years' rotation, or, in composts, 
two or four bushels annaaUy. The 
effects are most remarkable on sandy 
and liffbt soils ; but all lands are im- 
proved by it when the addition is in- 
dicated. The test, when bones are 
necessary, is easily discoTored ; for 
soils which produce defective grain 
are always much benefited by them. 

The value of bone dust arises from 
the fact that all seeds contain a large 
quantity in their ashes, and the soil 
is naturally but poorly supplied. Seed 
crops are well known to exhaust 
lands rapidly, and chiefly because they 
remove the bone earth or phosphates 
of the soil. Those lands which are 
well ftimished with this substance 
naturally produce rich clover and 
wheat : such are marls, some second- 
ary limestones, and stiff clays, and 
show leas the application of bones. 

The dust is to be scattered with 
seed, and not ploughed in deep ; for it 
has a tendency to sink naturally, and 
as it is very slowly dissolved by rain 
water, it should not be placed out of 
the reach of plants. Compared with 
farm-yard manure, one bushel is 
equivalent to three cart loads, wher- 
ever it is well applied. 

AH plants, the shells of lobsters 
and eggs, and the fine shell marl of 
ponds contain bone earth ; and in 
Spain a mineral is extensively found 
consisting of nearly pure phosphate 
of lime ; but the principal source is 
from bones. Guano often contains 
twenty-five per cent, of phosphates. 
The action of this substance, in what* 
ever combination it may exist, is al- 
ways the same. 

Bones which have been boiled be- 
fore grinding are very little inferior 
to the recent, except when applied to 
very poor soils, where the putrescent 
animal matter is required. Recent 
bones are best for turnips, cabbages, 
and similar crops ; but the boiled va- 
riety answers for grass, grains, pease, 
beans, dec, the manure being adapted 
for every crop cultivated for seeds. 

BONES, DISSOLVED. For the 
purpose of obtaining the full action 
of bone dust in the shortest time, it 

100 



BON 

is dissolved in o3 of vitriol (snlphnrio 
acid) or in muriatic acid, llie strong 
acids are nsed ibr this porpose at the 
rate of fifty to sixty poands of aoid 
to two bushels of dost. The aeid 
should be slightly diluted if it biaek* 
ens the bones. They should be stir- 
red with a wooden stick, and the o|>- 
oration conducted in a large onck 
of coarse earthen*ware. llie great 
causticity of the acid renders it a 
nice process. The solution should 
be taken up with fine soil or mould, 
and one half applied to an aere as a 
top dressing, care being always taken 
that before use it has lost its acid 
qualities. 

In this way a soluble phosphate of 
lime and sulphate of lime are formed : 
the latter remains at the bottom of 
the vessel, and is a fine plaster of 
Paris ; it should be stirred up with 
the mixture when the soil is added* 
When freshbones are used, the gel- 
atin also thiokens the solution. This 
preparation of bones is now soperee* 
ding the common application in Eng- 
land and Scotland for turnips. When 
employed, it should be sown with th* 
seed, or used as a top dressing to 
young plants. It will be found an 
admirable ingredient for composts in- 
tended to bring forward seed crope. 

BONE EARTH. Phosphate of 
lime chiefly. 

BONE MILL. The following •<► 
count of a mill for breaking bones inle 
small fragnleots is from Mr. Rham : 

The mill to break and grind bonea 
consists of two iron or steel cyKit* 
ders, with grooves running roand 
their circumference, the projeotiona 
being cut so as to form strong teeth. 
These turn upon one another by 
means of machinery, so that the 
teeth of one run in the groove be- 
tween the teeth of the other, as may 
be seen in the annexed cut. 

The bones put in the hopper, O, are 
sei2ed by the teeth of the two upper 
cylinders, and broken in pieces, which 
fall in between the lower pair, where 
they are reduced to a smaller size. 
From these they fhU on a slanting 
board, D, and slide into the wire cyl- 
inder. All the smaller pieces pass 




through l)ie tnteraticet of the wire ; i can be attached to a water or -wind 
tboM which hsTS n«t ^een sufficient- mill, ot to a gteam-englne, the bones 
\j broken come out at the end, and are broken at a sraall expense ; nbea 
are Tetomed Into the opper hopper, hones are used the expense is greah 
Where a maofaine of this description | er ; and a band mlU can onlj bo or 



Boa 



BOR 



Dse where there is a great 8Q]>er- 
abundance of manual labour, and only 
a small quantity of bones required. 

A A is the frame of a bone mill 
strongly fixed to the floor; B, the 
axis of the machinery, which is turn- 
ed by the lever O C, to which the 
power is applied ; E E is a horizon- 
tal wheel with bevelled teeth moving 
a vertical wheel, F, on the axis of 
which one of the cylinders with 
grooves and teeth is fixed. At the 
other end of the axis is a smaller 
wheel, O, turning a similar one, H, 
on the axis of the other cylinder, ma- 
king the toothed surfaces turn to- 
wards each other, and thus crushing 
between them the bones which the 
hopper, O, supplies. Another pair of 
cylinders, similar to the first, but with 
smaller teeth, are turned by means of 
the intermediate wheel, I, working in 
the wheel, L, fixed to the axis, on 
which is a larger wheel, M, working 
in a pinion which turns the cylindri- 
cal sieve, N. The arrows indicate 
the direction of the motion. 

BONE SPAVIN. A disease of the 
hock joint in horses, brought on by 
over exertion. While forming there 
is continued lameness. Blisters and 
rest sometimes effect a perfect cure. 
Spavined horses are useful for slow 
work ; they are most inconvenienced 
in the act of rising. 

BORAGE. Borago qficinalit. A 
rough weed growing two feet high. 
It is used as a fallow crop in Ger- 
many, and, according to Lampadius, 
contains nitre. It seems to be admi- 
rably adapted for this purpose. 

BORAX. Borate of soda, used as 
a flux in welding steel, 6lo. 

BORDER. In gardening, the edg- 
es of beds. They are frequently well 
trenched and manured, so as to be 
made the richest parts of the garden ; 
hence, when we are directed to plant 
in borders, it is usually meant that 
deep, good soil, and free space are re- 
quired. 

BORECOLE, or KALE. A species 
of winter cabbage with divided leaves 
and open heads. The principal varie- 
ties are, Green Scotch KaU, German 
Curled^ Purple^ Jerusalem, Catarean 

102 



KaU^ and ThauMand^kMiei CMhUg*. 
The last two grow to four feet, and 
yield large numbers of aproats. 

The Med is sown in May ; plants 
are set out in July. They will be 
found best after slight frost, and may 
be kept like cabbages during winter. 
The stocks, in spring, send out abun* 
dant tender shoots. An ounce of 
prime seed will yield neariy foor 
thousand jdants. They are so infe- 
rior to other pUinta of the cabbage 
kind as to be scarcely worth cultiva- 
tion. 

BORERS. Beetles and other in- 
sects, the worms of which burrow 
into the bark, wood, or roots of trees. 
There is a large number of genera 
and species, some peculiar to one tree 
or shrub, others common to several. 
The perfect beetle is usually seen in 
June and July, either about the trunk, 
or searching for food in flowers, dLC 
Their place while buried in the tree 
is known by the holes they leave 
through the bark. They reside often 
two years in this way as worms and 
grubs. Where woodpeckers are en* 
couraged in orchards, the trees are 
kept pretty free from their ravages ; 
but in New-England they do much 
damage, and are sought for, and de- 
stroyed by iron wires, small aagers, 
and other direct means. Catching 
the mature beetle is much more ad- 
vantageous, and tsdcing care to have 
the bark well cleaned, and washed 
with whale oil soap, lime-water, 
pitch, strong lye, dec, at the time 
the eggs are deposited in July. The 
eggs are usually deposited on th« 
trunk near the ground. 

Many of the borers bekmg to the 
Capricorn family, having long anten- 
ne. The fol- 
lowing figures 
represent two 
common bo- 
rers. Af the 
female apple- 
tree borer. 3, 
the peach-tree 
borer. 

The locust, J Apple-tf^ BOW 

and all the vari- (Svrdm bMumuj, 
etiea-of pine and fir trees, are aevexely 




ii 



"!« 



mleated with peonliar borera. These 
alao Jeposite their e^a about Julj. 

BORING. In draining, rodg are 
freqnently thrast into the aubsoil for 
the purpose ofaseertaiDingthe nature 
«f the earth, or the existcDce of wa- 
ter or springs. See Argtr, 

BOS. "ne generic name oframi- 
nating qnadrapeds, faaviag tbe cbu- 
aoters of tbe ox uid buCblo. Tbe or- 
ifia af tbe domestio ox is nnknown. 

BOTANY. That depBrtmeot of 
knowledge which imMtigatea the 
fbnns, Ttrietlna, and functiene of 
plants in a nalu^ state. It is de- 
rfred frtun: ffcrani, an herb. 

StnietQiat botany, or Organogra- 
pby, detaib the Ggnres of the diflbr- 
BDt parts of piants, hoUi internal lad 
eocHumal. We ham from this de- 
pannwBt that ttw iBteriar of vegeta- 
Uee is eiAer made np of rai^ oella, 
Teaembting the oaviUes of the honey- 
comb (eeUularesfv «r eoasist also of 
tafeea and Tmw, aa the fairer plants 
(Tssatlares). The ceUs are destined 
either to atore op starch, wood, rea- 
ins, or otber products of vegetation ; 
tiie tabes to convey sap and fluids. 
In a complete system o( organogra- 
phy, tbe minutest ahodes of dilfHrence 
between leaves, roots, Ac., are detail- 
ed with unialeresting proUxity. 

Pbyaioluglcal botany teaohes the 
vae oftheteaf, root, flower, seed, du;. 
It will be fully illustrated under the 
varioas parts of the plant. 

Poaar^TO boUnj ia that portion 



of the science whidi is devoted to de- 
scribing and reoognwiikg plants. In 
this tbera are two methods of pn>o»> 
dure, the Linnnan and Jussienan : 
thD former is the simplest, the latter 
the most perfect, and will be intro- 
duced in tbe cases of tbe lesding sgri- 
cultural fsmilies, as the bean trUie, 
cabbage tribe, dce- 

To understand LinnKOs's classiS- 
eation, it is necessary lo state that 
psrfect Sowers consist of four psrts : 
Ist, SD external greea or o^onred 
wrapper seen on the bud, called tbe 
cojyi, consisting of one or more leaf- 
lets ; Sd, an inner similar syaten 
of flower petals, called the cvroUa ; 
Sd, a numljer of thread-like bodies 
carrying a bead : these are the < t*- 
nuw, the bead being called the aa- 
tlier ; 4th> a central thread-like body, 
single, or divided into several par^ 
called the pistil, whereof the extrem- 
ity is the stigma. The pistil is only 
the npper part of tbe youog friut, or 
ovarium. In all these points there is 
naueb diversity : sometimes neither 
calyx nor corolla is present; again, 
the stamens, which are also consid- 
ered the male organs of the flower, 
may be in one plant, and the pistii, 
or female organ, in another, or in dif- 
ferent parts of the same plant. It is 
welt known tliat unless the yellowish 
dust, or pollen, given oJT by stamens 
can reach the stigma, no seeds are 
formed, and that frail is only produ- 
ced in female plants, or such as eon- 



BOTANY. 



tiiepislib. Uaomu divided the 
TegetaUe worid aeoonding to the 
number of stameiM and' pistils io the 
flower; so that» to* know to wbat 
tribe a specimen belongs, we have 
only to count theae parts» and search 
for the name io the proper works un- 
der the general division ascertained. 



I. 

n. 

IV. 

V. 

TL 

VII. 

VIII. 

IX. 

X. 

XI. 

XIL 

xnr. 

• XV. 

XVL 

XVII. 

XVIII. 

XIX. 

XX. 

XXi. 

XXU. 

XXilL 

XXIV. 



1 atMBAIl 

ttUmeM Diandrii 



These diviaiens are idao enUed 
classes and orders, the first being 
constructed from the number and po- 
sition of the stamens, the orders by 
the number, dus., of the pistils. Ev- 
ery plant, therefore, belongs to a 
claaa and order, unless it be discious. 
The claases are as follows : 

Mrmmndnm. 



3 
4 
6 

e 

7 
8 
9 
10 



(I 
fi 
It 
<« 
a 
1* 
i« 

M 



Triandrm. 

Totnadria. 

Peaundria. 

HezKndria. 

HepUndria. 

OctMdrift. 

Ennvandrin. 

D«cftndria. 



18 to 19 ■teiBent IXnlecandria. 

iO or mora •tamena, insertad into tha ca)^ leoMmdria. 

to or mare •taroenSi inserted into the raoe|itaela . . . , Potjrandria 

9 long and S ahnrt statnena DiUyuanua. 

4 loof and t than stamens Tetradynamia. 

ataomna tmitad into a tube Monadelphia. 

stamens united into two parcels by filaments Diadeipbia. 

stamens anited by their filaments inui several parcels . . . Pulyadelphia. 

stamens united by their anthers into a tube Syugenesia. 

stanena united with the piatH Cyvandria. 

stamens and pistils in separate flowers, but on the same plant . 
Btamena and pistils in separate flowers and on separate planta, one 

male, the other female 

•tameaa and pistils, separate m aome flowen and united in others, 

either on on* plant or oa two 

stamena and pistils not clearly dereloped 



MoMMia. 

DiBcia. 

Polyganiia. 
Crypli^yamia. 



1 style or ati^pan 


9 a^lea or sUfiaas 


S 


M 


*t 


4 


«• 


M 


ft 


M 


U 


• 


4t 


(1 


7 


li 


il 


8 


l( 


M 





<l 


«( 


10 


u 


«l 


IS 


tt 


i( 



The orders are as follows : 

. MouufKjUM. 
. Difyuia. 
. Tngrynia. 
. Tetragynia. 
. Pentaf ynia. 
. Hexagynia. 
. Heptagynia. 
. Octagynia. 
. Enneagynia. 
. Decagynia. 
. IXxlecagynia. 
More than 19 styles . . Polygynia. 

. Besides these, which are ascertain- 
ed by simple enumeration of the 
styles, Linn»us divided some of the 
classes below the thirteenth into pe- 
culiar orders. Thus, 

The orders of the class Didynamia 
are two : 1st. Gymnogpermiat in which 
the seed vessel or ovary is divided 
into four lobes, each giving one style 
or pistil, and containing one seed ; 
3d. Angiosperma, with a perfect ovary, 
two-celled, and many-seeded. 

In class fifteenth, Tetradynamia, 
the orders are : Ist. SiliquMa^ plants 
with long pods, as the cabbage ; 2d. 
SiUculo$€Bf with short pods. 

104 



Class nineteenth, SyngeneaiSt is 
divided into five orders : 1st. Pdfgm- 
mia aquaiist each flower of the coU 
lection is famished with stamen and 
pistil; 2d. PUygamia twpefjUm^ the 
florets round the circmnference or 
disc hermaphrodite, but the central 
female only ; 3d. PolygmmiafruHnuuM^ 
the disc florets hermaphrodite, the 
central steril; 4th. Polygmmia n«ce#- 
«arta, the florets of the raya or cir- 
cumference male, those of the centre 
female ; 6th. Pdygania tgregaia baa 
several florets, either simple or com- 
pound, but with a proper calyx, in- 
cluded vnthin one general calyx. 

Glass twenty-third, Polygamia, is 
divided into two orders, as the planta 
are monscious or diaocious. 

In Cryptogamia there are five or- 
ders, which are, however, in no way 
connected with the female organs: 
1st. FUiceSf or ferns ; 2d. Musci, or 
mosses ; 3d. Hcpaitca^ or liverworts ; 
4th. Alga, or sea-weeds ; and, 5th. 
Fuiigi, or mushrooms. 

To discover the name of any plant. 



BOT 

Of ueertaiii if It agrees wHh a par- 
ttoater description^ the first step is to 
learn luvw many stamens it contains ; 
tUs gives as the ciass. Under tliis 
head, in tlie Flora {EaUm% Tarrey*^, 
or any eikir dietumary iffplanU)^ we 
find a eertaiB nomber of orders : the 
pisce of the friant among these is 
knowcT by examining the pistils. 
Thus we have reached the class and 
order nnder wfach wiO be arranged 
a deseriplion of all the known or com- 



BOU 

mon genera ; these are to be read 

carefaUy, each point of structure be- 
ing compared with the specimen; 
thus the genns is known, and under 
this the species are found, which usu- 
ally differ in the form of the leaf and 
stem. 

The ibUowing general view of the 
regetable kingdom is an iotrodac- 
tioa to the natural ystem of Jus- 
sieu, improTed by Dr. Lindley and 
others: 



PLANTS. 



AccorSUtf to Uieir FVvU* nd Plowrs. 



f. HftTing Ibwen and Mxet (PAcfMroifa- } ^^ 

MMIfV • . . • • ^ 

(a). LMttBanber cf Mtd lobM (C»- f __ 
ifttJmf) t . . . S 
Clam 1. Dicoifledtmt (2 w«d lubea ftlwayi) or 
9. GymMapernu (■c«ds Baked) or 

(fr). I.«aa» aaoJwr of Mcd^Iobet, 1 | or 

daw a. UmocstvUdmkB (1 M«d lobe) or 

(c). Acefyle^MW ... or 

Claai 4. HMMvdh$ .... or 

n. Haviag neither flowera nor aezei . | or 

CUa* ft. Crypto^ OBMC fZojitt . ur 



. AceoriiAg U ihtir Dtviio fmu i t . 

S Their stemi (axie) iaeivattof tTmnietrioanr 
in denaity and breadUi, aa wau aa in laafu 
(Ploro^eiw). 

I Stem in oonoantrie baiida {Exogtna). 

Veins of Uovta imttsi. 

Veim$ of Ua^ta matted arferhed. 
I Slant a ownfaaed naaa af oallalar tiana and 
i wood. 

Veiiu ^ IcovM paratM, md aal netted. 

Vegetation like moahiooiBa. 

Faufoid floweia. 
I The aCema, or azia, ineraanaf by aimpto 
( elongation, or irregtilar expasaion. 

Aerogens, 



BOTRTOID AL. From fiorpvc, a 
banch of grapes. In botany, any fiow- 
ers, te., dostered together. 

BOTS. A family of two-winged 
or dipteMras inseets, the larv9 or 
maggots of which infest the intes- 
tlaes, wounds, dco., of domestic ani- 
mals. The maggots are whitish and 
conical, of half an inch or more in 
length, sad tOben with great force 
to the maw of horses, dee. They are 
taken into the stomaoh in the form 
of eggs, whieh the insect lays on the 
knees (Gasteroj^tilut eysi) and other 
parts of the anmial, which, being bit- 
ten off; are swallowed, and deretoped 
in the body. The animal attacked 
leases appetite, becomes restless, 
bites his sides,congbs, becomes stiff 
in the neck, staggers, breathes with 
diflkcoltyt and may die in the worst 
stages. 

They are to be hindered by order- 
ing the groom to remove the eggs 
in the fhU, as soon as they are laid. 
It is also SflTisable, as a preventiTe, 
to administer, in the spring, a quart 
of milk with a good dose of molasses, 
aad, shortly alter, a quarter of a pound 



of Glauber salts, by which the hots 
are pretty fredy eracuated. 

Sheep are pestered with a bot fly 
(Cepkalemyui osu), which deposites its 
eggs in the nostrils ; the worms 
hence crawl into the upper parts of 
the nose and produce great irritation. 

BOTTOM. In horsemanship, en- 
durance. 

BOTTOM HEAT. In horticul- 
ture, heat produced by fermenting 
dung, leaves, bark, dto., applied under 
beds of earth, dec., for raising or 
forcing plants requiring a temperatnre 
higher than that of the air. 

BOUND. In veterinary medicine, 
a term applied to the bowels, to indi- 
cate want of natural action ; to the 
skin or hoof, to indicate tiglitness or 
constriction. A tree is said to be 
bark bound when the bark cracks 
and is constricted. 

BOULDER. A massive rock, dis- 
similar from the adjacent rocks in 
mineral character, and supposed to 
hsTO been transported by great floods, 
icebergs, dtc. 

BOUT. In ploughing, one course 
of the plough. 

105 



BRA 

BOWEL DISEASES. Th« most 
prominent are inflammations. These 
are of two kinds, of the interior and 
of the outer membrane of the intes- 
tines. The first is produced bj bad 
food, inattention to diet, and is at- 
tended with a hot skin and pnr^ng ; 
the animal is in some degree weak- 
ened, but may be restored by the use 
of moderate bleeding ; gruel is also 
administered with soothing medi- 
cines and astringents : it is seldom 
fatal. The second kind (peritonitis) 
is extremely violent ; it is brought on 
by sudden application of cold, when 
heated, to the stomach, as in passing 
a small stream in winter, &c. In 
farriery it is called the red colic, and 
is oflen fatal in twenty-four hours. 
Ttie animal paws violently, is ex- 
tremely sensitive over the stomach, 
struggles, groans, lies on his back, is 
costive, the legs and flanks are cold, 
he shivers involuntarily, and sweats. 
These violent symptoms soon sub- 
side, and he becomes so weak and 
anxious as scarcely to stand. As 
soon as the disease appears, copious 
bleeding must be had to produce al- 
most fainting, blistering fluid must 
be well rubbed over the skin of the 
stomach, and Glauber salts given. 
He should be kept quiet, and clothed. 
This treatment will soon show its 
good effects, after which he must be 
fed scantily, and kept warm and quiet. 

BOX DRAIN. A drain with square 
sides, presenting the section of a box : 
it is usually of ules or bricks. 

BOX-TREE. The Buxum umper- 
virent and balearica produce the dense 
yellow wood used by engravers, and 
also for making rules, combs, but- 
tons, flutes, dec. The best wood is 
obtained from Southern countries, as 
Spain and Turkey. The dwarf box 
is a variety of B. semptrvirefu. 

BOX OF WHEELS. tTie iron 
cylinder in which the axis turns. 

BRACCATE. Bracca, breeches. 
In ornithology, when the feet are con- 
cealed by long feathers descending 
from the tibise. 

BRACHALYTRA from Ppaxvc, 
shorif and t^vrpov, sheaih). The name 
of an extensive group of coleopterous 

10(i 



BKA 

insects, inchidifig an Meli asliave the 
elytra so short as not to exceed one 
third the length of the abdenen. 

BRACHINU6. Agennsofooleop- 
teroos insects, now the type of a iiun- 
ily {Braekimda), inelnding those sin- 
gular beetles which, from their defen- 
sive anal explosioiit, an termed 
** bombardiers." • 

BRACHIUM. The lower portion 
or forearm of the fore extremities. 

BRACT. In botany, the small 
leaflet situated under the flower. 
The flowers of grasses, sedges, &c., 
are bracts which receive the names 
of glumes and palee. 

BRAIRD. In Scotch books, the 
starting of young seedlings. 

BRAKE. An implement to bruise 
flax and hemp. The wooden pincers 
used by coopers and others, llie 
snaflle usdtt with horses. A large 
harrow. 

BRAMBLE. The genus Buhnu, 
See Blackberry. 

BRAN. The outer membrane of 
wheat, dec, rubbed oflT in the mill. 
When first used, bran produces a lax- 
ative effect on horses and other aiii« 
mals. For milch cows and calves it is 
an admirable fodder, in consequence 
of the large amount of bone earth it 
contains ; it is fattening, as it yields 
four per cent, of oil. As a genera] 
article of food, Bousaingault makes 
nine pounds equal ten pounds of prime 
hay. The quality of bran will, how- 
ever, difler with the economy of the 
mille'r. From good wheat, well bolt- 
ed, there should not be more than 
seven per cent, of bran. 

BRAND IN CORN. See BumU 
Ear. 

BRANDT. Liquor distilled from 
the dregs of wine : it contains filly per 
cent, alcohol ; the colour is fictitious, 
as the spirit is nearly transparent 
Burned sugar is the usual colouring 
matter. 

BRASSICA. Tlie generic name 
of the cabbage, rape, broccoli family ; 
they belong to the Cruci/ertt of Jua- 
sieu, and Tetradynamia silijuosa of 
Linnteus. 

BRAWN. The salted and pre- 
pared flesh of the wild boar. 



BIt£ 

BREAD. Then an three vsrle- 
tie* axlsnaively used in tbe United 
States, wbeat, con, ind brown or 
Gnham broad. Wheat br«ad is lear- 
ened. or rendered li|^t and apongy by 
yeast, wbtob ia worked jnto the dongh. 
and coounuaicatea to the starch of 
tbe flour, at a teuperatare above 60° 
Fabr., a fermentation ealled the pen- 
ary fermentalioD, in which Micar and 
alcohol are fortned in small qoaDtity, 
and the ghiteo or tiie Socr dinuniahes 
eren to two per eent. Id tlwse ehan- 
gee. carbouio acid gaa is giren off, 
and, riaiDg throegfa the dough, pro- 
dacea the ceHutar testnre. ^Vllen 
th« prooeae gee* on too long, vinegai 
is prodaoed, and the dough becomea 
■our. The heatortbeoTen stops the 
panaryferffleDtation, and hinders ftr- 
ther change. Town balieia, by using 
every expedient to aceuiUDlate gaa in 
Ibelr loaves, prodnee a spongy, taste- 



Cora bread contains IK) glnten, and 
will Bot Tiaewith yeast. It isBiere- 
ly mixed with enough water to be al- 
most as salt as sticking pasta, and 
bttkaiJ at ooee. 

Graium bread ia comnMaly bread 
" — """' — 1 little brae, but 



of w 
■te added. 
BREABFRDIT. Artitarputn 



i salt 



M. A tree of the Euteni Areliipel- 
■go, now cultivated in the West In- 
dies also, the frnit of whinh, cut into , _ 

slicea and roasted, resembles bread, | try in which they _ 

nd is much used as a substitute. I and domettication also produce vi 



BRE 

BREADROOT. The J>*«raJiBM. 

calmttt, and other species, indigenous 
inMisBOuri and throughout the West. 
Ths roots are eaten boiled and raw 
by the Indians. They are of a [coa- 
ciau9, solid stractnre, and insipid. 

BREAKING. The education of 
horses and other snimala. It should 
not commence too young, or they 
want spirit ; or loo lala, or they be- 
come uomanageable, 

BREAKING UP. The ploughing 

BREASTING. Breasting up a 
hedge is cutting the face of it on one 
side, so as to lay bsre the principal 
upridht siems of the plants. 

BREASTPLATE. A strap run- 
nine across the chest of the horae,to 
hold the saddle light. 

BREAST PLOUGH- A Isrge 
spade or ehovel, tbe handle of which 
is furnished with a cross-piece, 
■gainst which a man presses, and 
drives the implement forward through 
peat or turf, cutting off long slicea. 
It is used chiefly in paring turf to be 
honied for im[«0TenieDt. 

BRECCIA. A conglomerate form- 
ed with angular fragments of stones. 
Some are calcareous, others silicioua. 

BREECH WOOL. The coarse 
short wool of the breech of common 

BWXCHINO, or BREECHIN. 
That part of the horse's harness at- 
tached 10 the saddle, and hooked on 
tbe shafts, which enables him to push 
back the cart or other machine to 
which he is hamesaed. 

BREED. A variety among ani- 



The following is 
from Mr. Rham : 

Breeding is the att of mnltiplying 
the domestic aoimala rapidly, and, at 
the same time, improving tbeir quali- 
ties. 

Any breed of animals will perpetn- 
— e itself, provided there Is a aulB- 
ciency of proper food for them ; and 
tike varieties found in a wild state 
most depend in some degree on the 
  -■ products of the ooun- 






BREEBINQ. 



rieties wkicb are lAQch more natefol 
or profitable than the wild breeds ; 
and in the selection of the beat indi* 
Tiduids to propagate a aseful race, 
and in the rearing of the young, con> 
Bist the art of the breeder. 

Without entering into particulars, 
which Tary with every species of 
aoimal, and with the different Tarie- 
ties of the same species, we shall lay 
down certain principles whieh expe- 
rience has proved to be correct, and 
which, being attended to, will greatly 
promote the improvement of all the 
different animals usually bred for the 
use of man, whether for his suste- 
nance or for his pleasure. The first 
thing which is to be kept in view is the 
chief purpose for which the animal is 
reared, whether for labour, strength, 
or for speed ; whether merely for a 
supply of animal food, or to produce 
the raw materials of manufbeture. In 
each of these cases distinct qualities 
are required, and it is seldom that 
two of these objects can be combined 
in the greatest perfection. 

Having then determined the pur- 
pose for which any species of domes- 
tic animal is designed, every quality 
must be attended to which furthers 
this view; and, ezeept under very 
peculiar circumstances, the animals 
intended to keep up the stock by their 
proiluce must be chosen with those 
qualities in the greatest perfection 
wh ich are essential to the end. In all 
animals a perfect conformation of the 
bodily frame isessential to the due per- 
formance of the vital functions. The 
skeleton of the animal should there- 
fore l>e as perfect as possible. The 
capacity of the chest, and the healthy 
nature of the lungs, are points which 
must never be overlooked, whatever 
may be the purpose for which the 
animal is bred ; for although a defect 
may be in some measure counteracts 
ed by a judicious choice of tbe indi- 
vidual e(»upled with the defective an- 
imal, it is only where there is no al- 
ternative or choice that any defect in 
the bodily frame of an animal kept 
for breeding should be overlooked. 
In spite of every care, the defect will 
appear in the ofispring ; sometimes 
108 



not tin after Mveial gMKxattMM. If 
it were possible to find individuals 
without fault or defect, no price wouki 
be too great for them ; and for those 
that have been caiefoUy selected for 
several generations, it is real econo- 
my to give a very liberal price. In 
horses bred for ractng or for the 
chase experience has AiUy proved the 
truth of this rule ; and no one who 
pretends to breed race-horsea would 
breed from a aiare which bad a nat- 
ural defect, or a horse whose whole 
pedigree was not free iromiauU. For 
mere swiftness, the shape of the ani- 
mal, whether horse or greyhound, 
must combine strength with great 
activity. The chest must be deep, 
the lungs free, and the digestive or- 
gans sound but small, to tuld as little 
weight to the body as is consisteut 
with the healthy functions of nature. 
The legs should be long and slender, 
and the bones compact and strong; 
bat the prinoipal thing to be attended 
to is tbe courage, and no quality is 
so hereditary. A horse or hound of 
a good breed, if in health, will die of 
exertion sooner than give up the 
chase. Any defect in courage in an 
animal intended for great occasional 
exertion rendere him unfit to be se- 
lected to continue an improved breed ; 
and, whatever may be his pedigree, 
he has degenerated. 

With respect to animals whose 
strength and endurance are their 
m08t desirable qualities, a greater 
compactness of form is required, a 
greater capacity of the digestive or- 
gans, and, aocording to the climate 
to which they may be exposed, a 
more suitable covering. Whether it 
be to ward ofif cold or great heat, a 
thick covering of hair is equally ser- 
viceable in both cases. Hardiness 
of oonstitution is hereditary, like oth- 
er qualities ; and the manner in which 
the young are reared tends greatly to 
confirm or diminish this. An animal 
of which the breed originally came 
from a warm climate, like a tender 
exotic plant, wants artificial warmth 
for the healthy growth of its limbs ; 
while the indigenous and more hardy 
breeds may be lefl exposed to the 



nSEDINOl 



t^&aXfhUf. An abondaiBoe of whoie- 
eetne fcxid and pore waier is eaaen- 
tial to the healthy «ute of every ani- 
mal, afi well as exercise proportioned 
to its strength. These are circoai- 
stances which it is obTions must he 
carefully attended to. There are 
others, the r^nslt of hmg experience, 
whieh are equally neoessary to be 
known, but; whieh are not so obvioos. 
These vary aooording to the species 
and Tariety of the animals bred, and 
it te eeidoxn that the same breeder is 
equally sueoessful in rearing different 
species of aairaais. 

In the animals selected to breed 
from, there are jtomis, as they are 
caHed, which are peeoliar eoBfonna- 
tions, some of which are connecled 
with the natural formation of the 
skeleton, and others appear to be the 
result of an assotnation derived from 
the known qualities of eeitain indi- 
viduals. That high withers and a 
freely-moving shoulder-blade in a 
horse are connected with his speed, 
is readily peroeived, and that the 
length of Che muscles of the quarter, 
and the manner of their insertion, 
should afllhec his power, is equally 
evident ; but it is not so apparent 
that the manner in which the ears 
are placed on the head, the shape of 
the nose or jaw, and the insertion 
of the tail hi^er or lower, has an im- 
portant effect on the value of the an- 
imal, independently of any aibttrary 
idea of btsauty . A breeder who should 
not attend to these circumstances in 
the animals chosen to perpetuate the 
breed would find, to his cost, that it 
is more than mere taste whieh has 
determined these points. It is the 
result of observation and experience 
that certain breeds are invariably 
distinguished by certain pecuhahties, 
and that these are almost as invaria- 
bly connected with good qualities, ap- 
pareotly quite independent of the 
parts on which these points appear. 
There is an indication of the dispo- 
sition of an animal in the eye, in the 
shape of the head, and in the manner 
in which it is carried, which seldom 
deceives an experienced judge. He 
win not risk introdttoiBg a vicioaa ot 

K 



61^ disposition into his bceed, whieh 
might couDi^rbalance all the good 
qualities the animal might possess, 
and introduce a greater hereditary 
fault than any imperfection of furm. 
But nothing is so (leccitful as the 
prejudices which exist with respect 
to peculiari lies and colou rs. In some 
countries no ox or cow would be 
thought good of its kind that was not 
red or brown without spots ; in oth- 
ers a certain j[>ortion of white is es- 
sential. This IS owing to the common 
colour of the breeds most esteemed 
in each country. The reason of the 
prejudice is the association of the 
colour with some defect, and those 
who breed for profit by sale must be 
ruled by the taste of their customers. 
The rational mode of proceeding is 
to be well acquainted with the anat^ 
omy of the kind of animal which we 
make the subject of our attention ; to 
learo by experience what are the pe- 
culiar qualities of the diflerent breeds, 
distinguished by any particular fea- 
ture, and whether these qualities 
have any apparent connexion with 
the peculiarity in make or colour. 
We may then be guided by the knowl- 
edge thus aoquired in our choice of 
individuals to perpetuate the' breed, 
and not only preserve the useful qual- 
ities which they already possess, but 
gradually improve them. No greater 
mistake can be committed than that 
of making what are called violent 
croeseSf such as coupling a very spir- 
ited male with a sluggish female, an 
animal with large bones with one of 
very slender make, a long-limbed 
animal with a compact one. By such 
crosses the first produce has often 
appeared much improved ; but nature 
is not to be forced, and if the breed 
is continued, innumerable deformi- 
ties and defects are certain to follow. 
The safe way is, to choose the ani- 
mals as nearly alike in their general 
qualities as possible, taking care that 
where there is a defect in one it ex- 
ist not in the other, which would in- 
fallibly perpetuate it. A defect can 
aever be remedied by means of an- 
other of an opposite kind, but, by 
gieat attention* it may be diminished 

109 



v«4.-.» i.l' 



tirely. This reiefs, however, to de^ 
feeiMf not to peculiar qualities. Ctows, 
for example, nuijr produce either milk 
or ftt in abundance from similar food ; 
and a breed of cow which secretes 
too much fat, so as to be deficient in 
the milk necessary to rear the calf, 
may be improved by selecting such 
as give more milk, and by ciossing 
the breed with these ; but we must 
be careflil not to choose individuals 
which difl^r much in shape from the 
breed to be improved. £very at- 
tempt to unite opposite qualities is 
generally attended with a bad re* 
soft. If a breed has too great an 
aptitude to fatten, so as to endanger 
tbe fecundity of the mother or the 
health of the oflbpring, the only rem- 
edy is to diminish the oily nature of 
the food ; and if, on the other hand, | 
a difficulty is found in fattening cows 
which are of a peculiarly good breed 
for the dairy, the loss 00 the old oow 
sold half fat will have been amply 
repaid by the milk she has given; 
and the bull-calves which are not 
wanted to rear for bulls, if they are not 
profitable to fhtten as oxen, must be 
fatted oflT young and sold for veal. 
But it is not a necessary consequence 
of an abundant produce of milk that 
the cow, when dry, will not fatten 
readily, although a great propensity 
to fatten renders the breed less fit 
for the dairy. The Ayrshire, which 
are good milkers, fatten well when 
dry, and the oxen of that breed are 
as kind feeders as any. 

Many breeders have an idea that 
coupling animals which are nearly 
allied in blood produces a weak race ; 
others consider it as a prejudice, and 
among those who held the latter 
opinion was the famous breeder 
DakeweU. Without deciding this 
point, we should recommend avoid- 
ing too near a relationship, provided 
individuals equally perfect can be 
found of the same breed more dis- 
tantly related. Every individual has 
some peculiar defect, and his de- 
scendants have a tendency to this 
defect. If two immediate descend- 
ants are coupled, this deiiBct will 

no 



profcahfrf be eomfinods 
uniting the descendants of difi^reot 
individuals the defect of either of the 
parents mny never break out; but 
sooner than retrograde by coupling 
an inferior animal with one in an im- 
proved state, we should not hesitate 
to risk the consequences supposed to 
arise from what is called breeding in 
and in, that is, coupling animals near- 
ly related in bkMxl. especially if only 
on one side, such as the proiduce of 
the same male by different females, 
or of a female by different sires* 

The qualitiea which distinguish 
animals in which tbe muscles and 
bones ara required to he much exer- 
cised, as dogs, horses, and working 
oxen, are very different from those 
of animals destined to accumulate 
mere tender flesh and fat for human 
food. In the former there roust be 
sphrit, activity, and quiek digestion ; 
in the latter, indolenoe and proneneas 
to sleep are advantageous. In the 
first, the lunge rauat play with ease, 
and the mn^es be strong, and not 
encumbered with fat. In the second, 
the lungs must be sound, as they are 
essential to all the secretions, and 
the digestive power must be good, 
but slow. The food must not he ac- 
celerated through the bowels by ex- 
ercise, but the absorbent vessels of 
the intestines must draw all the nour- 
ishment from the digested food. The 
more the muscles are impeded with 
fat, the better the animal will repay 
the food given him. To chfN>se an 
animal to breed from whose produce 
shall get fat readily, we must attend 
to this part of the constitution, and 
care little about spirit and activity. 
The tendency to secrete bone, and 
those parts which are called offal by 
the butchers, as being of inferior val- 
ue, is a defect. Good flesh and fat 
are the great objects. 

Tbe manner in which the more sol- 
id parts of the body are fonned, and 
the greater consumption of food, in 
proportion to the increase of weight 
which takes place in young animals, 
while bones and horns are growing, 
prove that it ia much more expensive 
to predoce boas than itoshtaad mos- 



BREENNG. 



«flnrti»rt t1i«n ftt. Beaeii It is ev- 
ident that the greater profit is in fat- 
tening animals that have finished their 
growth ; and also that there is a svi- 
perterity in those breeds which have 
small bones and no horns. This is 
an important point to be attended to 
by a breeder, as is also the time when 
the bony secretion is eompleted. A 
breed of antnaals that will eease to 
grow, or have attained their fall sixe 
of bone at an early age, will be mach 
more profitable to the grasier than one 
of alower growth. It is in this respect 
ebielty that eertain toeeds of sheep 
and cattle are so far superior to oth- 
ers. The principles which apply to 
cattle are equally applicable, muttuig 
imuiandut to sheep. In no case are 
strong bones or horns of mnch im- 
portauoe to the sheep in its domestic 
state. The principal objeets are wool 
and tiesh, which appear to be depend* 
aat on distinct add, perhapa, iaoom- 
patible qualities. The attempt to 
imiite the two is perhaps the reason 
why the Spanish breed, which has 
been improved when transported into 
Saxony, has degenerated in England, 
so that even its crosses are not in re- 
pote. It is a matter of mere catcnla- 
tion, whether sheep kept for their 
wool chiefly are more profitable than 
those which give an increase of meat 
at the expense of the quality of the 
wool. A breeder of sheep who at- 
tends only to the quality of the wool 
wfil not have his attention taken off 
from the main object by any deficien- 
cy in the carcass, or tbe disposition 
of the animal to increase in flesh and 
fat. It is possible that mixed breeds 
may be more profitable than the pure. 
Fine wool may not repay the breeder 
and rearer of sheep so well as mod- 
erate wool and good meat. But the 
principle we contend for is that of 
producing the most perfect animal of 
any one variety existing, by correct- 
ing individual defects gradually, and 
avoiding fanciful crosses, which may 
destroy in one generation all the ad- 
Tsatages obtained in a great many. 
Hence it is a matter of great impor- 
tance to oonsider well the qualities of 
the fakUTtthmte with wMehyoa begial 



and to know thai 
these qnalities have existed in their 
progenitors, and are not flaerely aoci- 
dentaL If croaaing appear neoessa- 
ry, let it be dono very gradnaJly and 
cantiooaly. No experienced breeder 
would ever expect to improve the 
fleece of a sheep of the Leicester 
breed or the carcass of the Merino by 
a direct cross between these two 
breeds. The oflbpring would most 
prohaUy lose all the good qualities 
for which each breed is noted, and 
produce a mongrel breed worth little 
in comparison. But a cross of Meri- 
noes with South Downs, or Leicester 
with Costwold, might prodoos new 
and useful breeds, and these, carefully 
selected, as has been done, have pro* 
daeed mixed breeda, which by great 
attention may beeome very valuable. 

When it is detenniaed what breed 
of aaimala you wish to perpetuate and 
improve, the individuals which are to 
be the parents of the stock cannot bo 
too carefoUy selected. The more 
nearly they are aUke in form, ooloar, 
and extorior appearance, the more 
likely they are to produce a distinct 
race. They should neither be above 
nor under tbe usual size. They should 
be of such an age as to have entirely 
ceased growing, and be arrived at 
perfect maturity ; and, whatever may 
be theur good qnalitiea, they shoukl 
not be selected, if they are the prod- 
uce of very aged parents, at least on 
the female si&. 

In horaea and homed cattle many 
breeders prefer a male rather less in 
siie than the female, and pretend that 
the fmtns has more room to develop 
its members in what they term a rMjny 
female. There may be some truth in 
thia, but equality of sise, or rather the 
due proportion estabUahed in nature, 
seems most likely to prodoce a well- 
formed oflbpring. Any considerable 
deviation from this is generally at- 
tended with defect. Nothing is more 
common than for a country gentle- 
man who has a naefel, favourite mare, 
not particularly well bred, when any 
aocideat has rendered her unfit for 
work, to have her covered by aome 
very higbteed sullioa, expecting to 

111 



BRE 

hK9ht^VBrfnpmiorinA. SmnalliiieB 
tya sueceeds, but in general it ends 
ia dieappoiDtment, especially if the 
mare be small. A modi more certain 
way is to choose a half-bred stallion, 
nearly of the siae of the mare, aad 
hating those good points which the 
nare already possesses. In this ease 
there is every probability of rearing a 
well-proportioned and nsefol animal, 
instead of a erauMiutie one, as the 
bleeders call them, probably from the 
very cirenmstanoe of these crosseg not 
siseceeding in general. We advert to 
this as a fact whioh many of our read- 
ers may know from experience. 

To give in a few words the rules 
which result from what we have very 
briedy stated : 

Choose the kind of animal which 
you wish to breed from, having dia- 
tinguishing qualities ; keep these con- 
stantly in view, and reject ali individ- 
uals in which they are not as perfect 
at least as in the parents. Select the 
most perfect forms, and let the- de- 
fects be corrected gradually. Have 
patience and perseverance, and avoid 
all attempts at any sudden alteration 
by bold crosses. If possibte, breed 
two or more families of the same 
kind, keeping them distinct, and only 
occasionally crossing Uie one with the 
other. In this manner a very impro- 
ved breed may be produced. The near- 
er you approach to perfection, the 
more difficult will be the selection, 
and the greater the danger of retro- 
grading. Hence in very highly bred 
stocks it is often almost impossible to 
kMp up the perfection of the breed, 
and a fluctuation in the quality of the 
produce will take place. The more 
improved the breed is, therefore, the 
greater attention must be paid in the 
selection of those which are to con- 
tinue it. And for want of this, al- 
Host every breed, however reputed 
It may have been at one time, grad- 
ually degenerates, and loses its great 
superiority. 

As every farmer and occupier of 
land is more or less a breeder, if he 
be only a breeder of pigs, these ob- 
servations may be useful. In the ar- 
tiolea on each paitionlar apeeiea of 
113 



BRB 

I anfmel, thaao genaMd ptiMiplM «» 
applied, and more pariieiilar diiee« 
tions are given. 

BREEDING IN AND IN. Thie 
is very injurious ultimately both ul 
animals and man. 

BREEDING PONDS. Ponds for 
raising young fish ; they sboald hav» 
shallows with reeds and sedges. Pike 
and pickerel are in the habit oi devoui^ 
ing the spawn when they can rea^ tt« 

BREEZE FLIES. The bot lUea, 

BREWING. The making of beer« 
This consists of the following operar 
tions : 1st. The malt, properly gnaad 
or crushed, is put into a laige tub 
with a false bottom, perforated by nu- 
merous holes, and furnished with a 
faueet. Over the malt, water, heated 
from 170'' to 185°, is poured, and the 
whole well stirred or mMhed together 
for some time. It is then allowed ta 
settle* and the infusion drawn oflT into 
another tub. If two varieties of beer, 
ale and smaU beer, be desiied, this 
first portioii is kept separate, others- 
wise it is mixed with the aeceed 
infusion. The second mash-water 
should be nearly 900'' Fahrenheit 
Four bushels of malt are treated to 
one and a half bazrel, or fifty-one gal- 
looa of water, each aoashing. 'i'he 
second infusion, after standing to set- 
tle, is also drawn off, and the two to* 
gether form the sweet wort. 

9d. The worts, mixed or separate^ 
and even mixed with a third infosion, 
are next transferred to the boiler, and 
hops added. The amount of hops de- 
pends partly on the taste and partly 
on the strength of the beer ; for oonti- 
mon beer four pounds to the four bosh- 
els will answer. For the strongest 
alas as much as twenty-eight pounds 
are used. This mixture is boiled an 
hour and a half or more, until the 
fluid begins to assume a bright colour. 

3d. It is then drawn off into cool^ 
ers^ or at onoe into the fermenting 
tuns. When oooled to about 60*^ 
Fahrenheit, two pounds of fresh yeast 
are added to every thirty-four gallons 
of wort, and the tun kept at the same 
temperature. As soon as iermenta-- 
tion ia ftirly estabhahed, aad its AnI 



BBI 



qaor is fmiislienvd to suitftUe casks, 
ths baof^iole of which is left open ss 
ls0g as yeast is cast up, and aflerwafd 
■acurely fastened. As soon as the 
beer ST ateoholic ferniODtation ceases, 
'vinegar begins to form, and the whole 



^ A wort may be prepared from any 
sweet juice or germinated seed, and, 
treated in the same way, will make 
bMV. The stiength of ales depends 
on the Urge quantity of sugar in the 
wort. Port^n are coloured by brown 
maHy moiasaes, dee. Nomeroos bit- 
ten, floany very injorious* as CveeuUu 
inticuf , are used instead of hops. 

BRICKS. BkKsks of bamed day 
eight inches long, four wide, by two 
and 8 hslf deep. Larger moulds are 
made for particular purposes. Build- 
iiigs have been recently erected of 
unbumed iHrickB, which appear to be 
oheap, substantial, and durable when 
protected on the outside by cement 
or mortar. The following account 
of the method employed in Geneva, 
New- York, gives all the neceesary 
details: 

The materials are two parts day, 
one sand, with straw and water, as in 
ofdinary bride-making. It is well 
trodden or worked by oxen until 
sticky. With the materials for one 
thousand bricka three hundred pounds 
of straw are mixed. The bricks are 
moulded with an ordinary wooden 
IhnBe^ of the sise intended for the 
wall, so as to form it one brick deep. 
For a buiUhng thirty feet in height, 
brtoks eighteen inches square, and six 
deep ; for lower cottages, twelve inch- 
es square will answer. The mould is 
dipped in water, eanded, and then filK 
ed with day, and struck with a pieoe 
of wood. The fresh-made brickshouid 
hesandedifthedayfoehot. They are 
aet flat on the dry ground on boards, 
and towards night the sets are cov- 
ered with boards. The next day they 
are set on end, with spaces between 
the bricks, and after four days of fine 
vreather they are piled up with air 
spaces, and covered with boards. In 
a fovtnigbt they aro ready for use. 

The fooodatioBs are >set in stone or 

KS 



boraed biieks, two feel ab«ve the 
earth, and the lirat oourse of Mocks put 
down in water>Ume. Interior parti* 
tkms are pat upvrith bricks of the ordi- 
nary size. Windows and doors should 
not be fixed permanently at once, bat 
left until the building is well-set. Fix- 
tures to the wall are fastened into 
timbers inttroduoed during the builds 
ing. Ftre-plaeea must be of bnmed 
biiek. The roof must project suffi- 
ciently to keep water from running 
into the materials. 

A coating of water-lime or cement 
completes the building, which is said 
to be warm and perfectly free irom 
dampness, and veiy much cheaper 
than wood. **A house in Geneva, 
New- York, twenty-one by twenty- 
seven feet, sad two stories high, cost 
less, when completed, than four hun« 
dred dollars." For a fuller account, 
see the Home Mit$i(mary for Septem- 
ber, fSii. 

BRICK EARTH. Any stiff day, 
containing fifty to seventy per cent, 
of real day, and the rest sand : the 
latter of these answers also for tiles. 
It is either blue or red. 

BRIDL£. A contrivance made ot 
straps or thongs of leather, and pie- 
ces of iron, in order to keep a horse 
in subjection, and direct him in trav- 
elling. The several parts of a bridle 
are the bit or snaffle ; the bead-stall, 
or leather from the top of the head to 
the ringa of the bit ; the fillet, over 
the forehead and under the fore-top ; 
the throat-band, which buckles from 
the head-band under the throat ; the 
nose-bands, going through the loops 
at the back of the head-stall, and buck- 
led under the cheeks ( the reins, or 
long thongs of leather that come from 
the rings of the bit, and which, be- 
ing east over the horse's head, the ri- 
der holds in his hands. 

BRIMSTONE. Roll sulphur, made 
by melting and casting common su^ 
phur. See Sulphur. 

BRINING GRAIN. Grain and the 
seeds of grasses, (Sec, are often pre- 
pared, before sowing, by being intro- 
duced into a strong brine, which may 
be heated to 160^ Fahrenheit, or even 
higher. The brine is made by adding 

118 



mtf 



eoBimmi eosne or reftase Mit to wa- 
ter until it is Btnmg enoagfa to float 
an egg. The brined seed is aflerward 
dusted with newly-slacked lime, and 
sown. The great benefit is the de- 
struction of the seeds of smut, rust, 
mildew, and other blights : when heat 
is added, the eggs of many inseets 
are also killed. Stale urine is also 
used with great effect in the same 
way, as weU as strong wood-ash lye. 
The plan of brining is extensively 
resorted to throughoat England and 
Scotland with great success ; indeed, 
so beneficial does small doses of salt 
appear, that on the seashore, and on 
farms where refuse salt is used, smut 
is almost unknown. A solution of one 
pound of salt to one gallon of water is 
recommended as a wash or sprinkling 
fbr plants infested by mildew and oth- 
er fungi by the late Mr. Cartwright. It 
is, however, injurious to some vege- 
tables. Brining has been often iS>und 
to save a field from rust and smut 
when all other grain was infested. 

BRISTLES. The stiff hair of hogs. 
Independently of their economical val- 
ue, they constitute a manure as good 
as old woollen rags, containing, in- 
deed, the same substances, and yiehl- 
ing ammonia by decay. Where they 
can be had in sufilcient quantities, 
one half to three fourths of a ton is a 
heavy manuring for five years for hope, 
turnips, cabbages, tobacco, hemp, fiaz, 
wheat, corn, and rich plants gener- 
ally. The same applies to all kinds 
of waste hair or wool. 

BRITISH GUM. Starch heated to 
800° Fahrenheit, by which it becomes 
brown and soluble in cold water. 

BRIITLE HOOF. An affection 
of the horse's hoof, very common, es- 
pecially in summer, in England, from 
bad stable management. A mixture 
of one part of oU of tar and two of 
common fish oil, well rubbed into the 
crust and the hoof, will restore the 
natural pliancy and toughness of the 
horn, and very much contribute to the 
quickness of its growth. — {Youati on 
the Horse.) 

BRIZA. The generic name of 
the quaking grass (B, media). It is a 
poor perennial grass. 



« BI10AIM)A8T SOWSie. Tim 
distribution of seed or maMnes ovev 
land by casting with the hand or by 
a machine. The sower carries a bas- 
ket on the left arm, and throws with 
his right hand as he wa&es along be* 
tween the lands or ridges of the field* 
sowing one half its wklth in goiag^ 
and the other half in returning on the 
other side. Small seeds are uanallf 
cast with some eaitb. It requires ex* 
perienoe and good ploughing to seed 
well, for unless the ri^^es between 
each furrow are well marked, so ae 
to present grooves to receive seed* 
they will not grow in rows ; but wbea 
the furrows are nicely laid the plants 
appear as regularly as if drilled. Of 
late it has been customary to diaper- 
age sowing by broad-cast, in cons»» 
quenoe of the waste of seed, the te»» 
dency to weeds in the ground, and 
the difficulty of exterminating them* 
To avoid these evils, drills are intro- 
duced. The broad'Cast method is oer** 
tainly altogether inapplicable to tor* 
nips or any other crop requiring hoe* 
ing, or liable to destruction from 
weeds, and is now seldom practised in 
such cases ; but wheat, grains, grass- 
es, fallow crops, dec., are thus sown 
most readily and very effectively. 
Machines for broad-casting are of lit- 
tle utility where the farmer has a lit- 
tle experience^ 

BROCCOLI. An improved variety 
of cabbage, the flower buds of which 
are eaten. It differs from the cauU- 
flower only in the looseness of the in- 
florescence. The varieties are nu- 
merous, the early white and white 
cape being best ; but the purple cape 
is the only kind mucli cultivated. The 
seeds of the last are sown towards 
the end of May in the Middle Stetes, 
and later in the South; for winter 
supplies later sowing will be neces- 
sary. An ounce of seed produces 
3000 to 4000 plants. Transplant in 
July, or when the plante are large 
enough, into very rich, dunged, and 
mellow earth ; plant 18 to 24 inches 
apart each way; moisten the earth 
frequently with fluid manure; hoe 
and keep clean during their growth. 
They will be in season in September 



BRO 

nd October. Torwinterkiods^itwill 
be necessary to take plants ap as 
soon as slight frosts appear, lay them 
HI light soiC and place them in frames, 
to ripen during winter and early 
spring. In the Southern States the 
winters are mild enough to allow of 
their growth abroad. 

BROKEN KNBES. See Horse, 
Disetises of. 

BROKEN WIND. Prof. Youatt 
altrihotes this incurable nuisance in 
horses to stuffing them with too much 
coarse provender, and working soon 
after meals. Horses are graoivor- 
oos, and should rest at least one hour 
alter food, be fed tiiree times daily, 
and not once or twice. 

BROMINE An elementary brown 
Huid, of a viie odour (fipoiinc)^ extract- 
ed from salt-water and sea-weeds. 
It is very similar to chlorine in its 
properties ; hitherto used only by Da- 
guerrian artists. Its scarcity makes 
it very expensive. 

BROMIJS. A genus of grasses, of 
which B. seealinust common cheat, or 
chess, is most famous. Many species 
exist in America, but they are not of 
value in permanent meadows. 

BRONCHIA. (Spoyx^c. the throat.) 
The ramifications of the windpipe in 
the loners. 

BRONCHITIS. Inflammation of 
the bronchia. See Hor»e, D\oea»C9 of. 

BRONCHOTOMY. The operation 
of openinff the trachea low down. 

BROOD-MARES. Marcs should 
not breed till three years old. When 
taken care of they bear twenty years. 
They heat in spring, and carry young 
about eleven months. May is the 
best month for covering. 

BROOM. The European shrub 
BjfOTtium Mcopariumy which bears 
briffht-yeUow papilionaceous flowers, 
ana is hence cultivated in shrubber- 
ies. It is used also as a cover for 
game and shelter to young planta- 
tions. 8. juneeum^ Spanish broom, 
is prettier, and fragrant. S. mono- 
tpermum bears white flowers. These 
are eommon, except the last, through- 
cut the United States. 

BROOM-CORN. The Sorffhu'm 
nechartttum. Another plant, the S. 



BRO 

dora, is the Indian mfllet. The eat 
tivation of broom-corn for the manu- 
facture of brooms and for seed is of 
great profit iu the Valley of the Con- 
necticut, Mohawk, and in New-Jer- 
sey. It would be still more profita- 
ble in the South, as in these localities 
the frost sometimes hurts the plants 
before the seed ripens. 

The best variety is the New-Jer* 
sey, which yields upward of 1000 lbs. 
of broom, and mu^h seed, per acre. 
The North River yields 720 lbs. Tho 
pine-tree variety is earliest, hut small 
and thin. The seed crop averages from 
50 to 80 bushels. The best alluvial 
soils are chosen, and well manured. 
The seed is planted in May, at the rate 
of a tea-spoonful to the hill, the hills 
being three feet by eighteen inches 
apart, so as to allow the cultivator to 
run between the rows. The hills are 
dunged with old compost immediate- 
ly before sowing. It is hoed or work- 
ed three times, like com. Seven to 
ten plants are left in the hill; the 
thinning takes place at the first hoe- 
ing. The crop is harvested at the 
first frost. The stems are bent, or 
partly broken 2i feet from the ground, 
and left to dry for a few days ; the 
stalks are next cut, at six or eight 
inches from the brush. The produce 
is next dried in the bam on scaflblds, 
or in any convenient way. The best 
broom is cut when of a yellowish 
green. The seed is removed by pull- 
ing the panicles or brooms through a 
scraper, which tears them off. Mr. 
Allen, of Massachusetts, who has had 
much experience in this matter, reo- 
oDunends the following contrivance : 




The lower board rests on the bara 
floor; the upper is moveable by a 
hinge, and can be set at any height ; it 
is intended to grasp the three upright 
rods, B ; the central is of stout iron, 
the side ones of elastic steel. The 

116 



VBXJ 

piiycleB ara forced down between 
these rods, and then pulled towards 
A i thus the seed is torn off, and slides 
down the upper board into the barn. 

The seeds are worth twenty-five to 
thirty cents the bushel, and are con- 
sidered equal to oats. The broom 
aeUs at from four to six cents the 
pound. It is a very profitable crop, 
and will remain so, from the large 
expor^tions of brooms. The large 
quantity of seed it produces consti> 
tutes it a very exhausting crop. 

BROOM GRASS, or STRAW. 
The genus Andropogon, so called from 
the little tufts of hair or beards on 
their flowers. They are not introdu- 
ced into culture, and have little eco- 
nomical value. 

BROWN DYES. The common- 
est are the decoctions of oak bark, 
common bastard marjoram, walnut 
peels, horse-chestnut peels, and cate- 
chu. Oak bark and walnut (English 
walnut is best) give dyes without 
mordants, but are brightened by al- 
um. Catechu (1 lb.) combined with 
blue vitriol (4 oz.) gives a bronze 
when used in a boiling solution. The 
tints of brown are, however, so nu- 
merous, that it is more common to 
use. madder as a basis for the red 
tints, fustic for the yellows, and use 
solution of iron and copper as mor- 
dants, and even a gall-nut bath after- 
ward, to reach the proper shade. 

BROWSE. The young branches 
of trees, shrubs, dec. (v.) To feed. 

BRUCHUS. A Linn«an genus 
of coleopterous insects, of the tribe 
Rhyneophora, now the type of a fam- 
ily iBmehidiB), with the following 
characters : upper lip distinct ; head 
produced anteriorly into a broad, flat- 
tened snout; palpi filiform ; antenns 
filiform or serrate ; eyes notched ; 
wing-sheaths not covering the ex- 
tremity of the body. The insects of 
this family deposite their eggs in the 
young grains .or seeds of legumin- 
ous plants \ the time of the hatching 
of the eggs is when the seeds have 
approached to maturity, and then the 
larvae begin to feed voraciously upon 
them. One species, the Bruchusgra^ 
narnuj infests our pease ; and the rav- 

116 



ages of this insect and the Bnu3^ 
pisi have been so extensive as to czH 
for legislative interference. 

BRCJCIA. A vegetable alkaloid, 
similar to strychnine, and poisonous. 

BRUMAUS. {Bruma, winter.) Ap- 
pertaining to winter. 

BRYONY. Bryonia dimca. A climb* 
ing herb, of a poisonous nature. 

BUCK. The male of deer, rab- 
bits, &c. 

BUCK-BEAN. Menyanthei tHfoti- 
Ota, A swamp plant, with handsome 
flowers and bitter leaves. The latter 
are used as a substitute for hops, and 
are a mild tonic. 

BUCK-EYE. Two western trees 
bear this name, the Pavta hitea and 
Ohioetuis; they belong to the same 
family as the horse-chestnut. They 
are whoUy ornamental, the wood beh 
ing of no value as timber. 

BUCK-THORN. The JRJkatrmut ea- 
thartictu. A prickly shrub, suitable for 
hedges. It is indigenous in New« 
York, and easily cultivated by seeds, 
slips, or suckers. The berries are ca^ 
thartic and griping. The R. infecto- 
niu, a similar shrub, produces the fa- 
mous French or Persian yellow ber- 
ries used in dyeing. It might be read- 
ily cultivated sooUi of Maryland, as it 
grows in Provence. 

BUCKWHEAT. The grain pro- 
duced by the Polygonum fagopyrum 
(a), tartaricum (6), and a few other 
species. In the United States the 
first only is cultivated ; but it is said 
a new wild Italian species yields more 
abundantly. The seeds are small, 
dark, and angular. From twenty to 
thirty bushels are obtained from the 
common kind per acre. Buckwheat 
is usuaUy sown on rocky places or 
poor soils, of a silicious or calcare- 
ous nature ; but it grows well nearly 
anywhere. It may be sown in May 
for a full crop ; or immediately after 
wheat, rye, or oats, for a fall crop ; or 
still later, to be fallowed in the fall. 
From 1 to 1| bushels are necessary to 
the acre. It soon starts in a dry, 
warm soil ; flowers in July or earlier, 
and continues producing flowers for 
some time. As it is a native of Per- 
sia, the least frost is injurious ; it 



AonM therefore b« eat eaily in Oc- 
tober, or at the end of September. 
Ab the seeds scatter, some recom- 
meDi) polUng by the roots -, but a era- 
dle-ecythe ins were every purpose. In 
coDseqaenee of the Kacculenc« of He 
Btems, it requires to be sweated in 
cock when dried for fodder, and 
sbonid be thresbed ae early as con- 
Tenient. The stalk, well cured, is a 
good rODf h Ibdder, and forms e valu- 
able addition to the catite-jard. 

Antoine has shown, on the most 

thentio data, that it is vety superior 
to common straw, and of half the 
Talue of prime hay. 

As a fallow crop, it is very yatua- 
Ue, from the liie (S feel) it attains 
on poor unds, and the ease with 
which it fermeuta and yields food to 
tbe next crop. Hie flowers are 
Bought by bees, bat form a dark, rath- 
er harsh hooey. It i« also cut in 
f ower for soiling milch cows, and ie 
Very ffood mixed with clover, but too 
moch is apt to produce drowsioeaa 
Ponltry and all cattle eat the seeds oi 
meal It is rather eoperior to oats 
a» the ftdlowing composition shows 

woody Qhre S6 

Slapch BO 

Atbomen, &o hb 

Oil 0* 



lu ashe* somitHiiaa eontain m 
exeass of potash salts, Bomelimea of 
lime, tbeee being isomorphous. 

The eeeds are ground into meil 
for making: buckwheat cakes, which 
are highly relished throoghoui the 
coonlry. In Germany malt is made 
with them, and beer and apirita. 
Birds, especially pheaaants, are verr 
fond of them. The Maine Ihrmer 
recommends the oultiTalion of buck- 
wheat to destroy cooch grass ; the 
first crop is to be ploughed in when 
flowering, snd another seeded upon 
it at once ; from tbe last, grain may 
be collected. 

SooM apeoiee of polygonum yield 
Jtood yellow dyes, as the Siitntiti 
others, as the bUtorta, are acrid and 
poisonooB. 

BUD. The growing point of* 
branch, consisting of young unex- 
panded leafiets or flower petals. 
Winter buds contain a amalt store of 
stsrch and albunten at their base te 
saslain the leaflets in spring. Floaer 
biuU are usually developed on spurs or 
in the axils of leaves, while Utf bada 
are seen on the vigorous shoots. AH 
bade are in eonUct with tbe inner 
bark of trees, and with the young 
wood, from which latter they derive 
sap for development. AdcenlUioua 
or latent budw are such as break out 
from the baA of trees without hav- 
ing any external siffn or eye ; they 
are, however, marked on willows by 
roughnesses on the bark, in other 
trees by knaura. In ell that respects 
elructuro and function, the eyes of 
potatoes, dahlias, the bulbs of tnlips, 
onions, and all seeds are perfect buda, 
these diflferent parts being modifica- 
*''3ns of the same general plan. 
The development of lower buds in 
ees or brunches is readily efTected 
by culling away tbe upper, which, as 
they are more eicitable, usually take 
the finil start, and, using all the sap, 
hinder the growth of the lower eyes. 
BUDDING, The insertion or t». 
oaUation of the buds of one tree into 
the branches or stock of another. 
The buds are lo be taken from the 
shoot about midway, and from 
a healthy, full-hearing tree. The 



time k from Juiy to ^pteoftber, 
•8 80on 88 buds are well formed. 
The xaciskm into the stock is through 
the bark down to the new wood and 
in the fonn of a T; this can be made 
with any knife* but the following is 
called a budding knife : 



E 



I 



z::^ 



The bark must be raised at the an- 
gles, and should separate readily from 
the wood. I'he bud is cut along with 
a h about half an inch of bark 
£i n (^)* ^^^ slightly into the 
J\ II wood, so that the part im- 
"W I ^w mediately below the eye 
1 1 If may be so furnished, and 
1] \ not hollow. The wood re* 
" moved is only to ensure 

the heart of the bud, and as little as 
possible is left in the insertion. The 
part above the eye is then cut straight 
(&), and the bud introduced between 
the lips of the wound on the stock, 
down to the new wood, and pushed 
in firmly, the upper cut part corre- 
sponding very nicely with the hori- 
zontal incision. A bass riband, a 
strip from the shuck of com, or any 
other bandage that does not hold wa- 
ter, is then cast round the stock two 
or three times above the bud, and 
gradually brought round so as to bind 
the insertion tightly, except over the 
eye. The riband must be loosened 
in two or three weeks if the bud 
swells, so as to give room for growth. 
S^ng budding is also practised, the 
winter's bud of a tree being inserted 
at the time of sap rise ; the only dif- 
ference in this case is, that the inci- 
sion is inverted thus i, and care is to 
be taken that the bua has been cut a 
few days, so as to be rather behind 
the vegetation of the stock. 

The stock or branch after budding 
Is to be lopped down by a clean trans- 
verse cut at about three buds above 
the insertion, all the lower buds being 
removed. In spring, or when the in- 
sertion starts, it is to have full room, 
and as it gathers strength, the upper 
natural shoots from the ^ds left are 
to be pruned, and finally cut altogeth- 
er away towards midsummer, if the 
insertion has taken well 

118 



Boddtng 18 praetited to 
choice varieties of fruits, to mix or* 
namental kinds on the same tree, and 
to improve shrubbery. But the pro- 
cess is seldom successful unless the 
stock and variety are of the same 
species or nearly allied. The only 
difllculty in the way is the entrance 
of rain water into the wound of the 
stock ; to hinder this efiectively, it is 
well to add a little cement of udlow 
and wax over the incision, or to use 
bass dipped in such a mixture while 
warm. 

In the dahlia, orange, and some 
other trees cultivated for dwarfs, the 
bud is inserted on a piece of the root 
instead of a stock ; this is, however, 
termed grafting, as it is introduced in 
the cleft fashion. 

BUFFALO. The American bufili^ 
lo or bison {Boa Americanu»\ once in- 
habiting the central portions of the 
United States, are now driven be- 
yond the Mississippi. They are found 
in immense flocks, and are very timid 
and retired, except in the rutting sea- 
son, when the bulls become fierce and 
pugnacious. The animal is remark- 
able for a hump on the back between 
the shoulders, for a long nuine, broad 
chest, and great strength of head aud 
neck. The buffalo breeds readily with 
domestic oxen, but the young of the 
bull buffalo is too large for the pelvis 
of the common cow ; hence the mix- 
ture can only be made by crossing 
the wild cow by the domestic ox. 
Captain Jenkins, of Missouri, has sev- 
eral half-breeds of this kind, which 
promise to be capital draught ani- 
mals, large, heavy, hardy, and easily 
sustained. 

The skin is handsome, black, and 
glossy, and a considerable article of 
trade. The hide, tanned, is said to 
be softer, thicker, and less pervious 
to water than the ox hide. 

BUFFALO BERRIES. The fruit 
of the Shepkardia (or Hippopha) argen* 
tea^ silver-leafed shephardia. A hand- 
some, thorny, small tree of Missouri. 
It is diaecious, the fruit scarlet, of the 
size of currants, in profuse clusters. 
It is said to be rich in flavour, and ex- 
cellent for pies and preserves. 



Bun 



BITS 



BUTFALO GRASS. A Western 

indigenous grass of small size, form- 
ing a delicate mat, and growing on 
dry, gravelly soils. The ^ama grass 
is sometimes called by this name. 

BUG. A common word, meaning 
any insect, but properly applied only 
to the bedbug {Cimex Uctvlarius), 
which is the type- of an extensive 
family of filthy insects which accumu- 
late from neglect of cleanliness and 
laadness. Solutions of corrosive sub- 
Umate in ^ivater, ointments with the 
same poison, and fumigations with 
tobacco are used with success in de- 
stroying these insects. Boiling wa- 
ter poured into the crevices of beds, 
and repeated every week during 
spring, is very efficacious. 

BUHJUSTONE. The mill-stone for 
flouring ; it possesses great hardness 
with little brittleness, is cellular, of a 
bluish gray, and feebly translucent. 
The best kind has a texture nearly 
half cellular, and is entirely silicious ; 
the pieces or panes of rock ara bound 
together by hoops of iron when set 
up for use. The great and valuable 
supply of bubr^tpne is from near Par- 
is in the lacustrine deposite, above the 
gypsum. It is the latest rock forma- 
tipn known. 

Buhr-stone has been discovered in 
Georgia, near the South Carolina 
boundary, about forty miles from the 
sea. It lies above shell limestone. 

BULB (from i3oA6of). A rounded 
body, having the properties of a bud, 
usually growing in the ground, but 
sometimes produced by the flower 
stalk. Bulbs are tunicaud, as the 
onion, and squAmtms or scaly, like the 
Uly. Many bulbs, when cut down 
through the centre, and planted in 
pieces, prodnce several plants. On- 
ions are cultivated in this way in 
Kussia. Th e adjectives buiboiut ^f^ 
hotuMy are formed from bulb. The 
fleshy, solid root^stock of orchis is 
not a bulb, but comuts. 

BULBODIUM. An underground 
stem resembling the root-stock. 

BULL. The excellence of thA*bull 
should be well considered in breeding. 
BULLACE. A wUd plum of a light 
eokMir. 



BURDOCK. Arctium lappa, and 
bordana. Troublesome, long-rooted 
weeds, diflScuU to eradicate. Their 
medicinal qualities are imaginary. 

BURNED CLAY. See Clay. 
^ BURNED EAR. The disease pro- 
duced in grain by the Uredo carbo. It 
resembles smut, but does not attack 
the interior of the seed. It is most 
common on heavily-dunged lands in 
moist situations. Brining^ especial- 
ly in a brine containing a little blue 
vitriol, is efficacious in destroying its 
effects on grain. 

BURNET SALAD. Poiernuniam' 
guiaerba. It grows on the poorest 
calcareous soite, and is perennial. It 
may be propagated by cuttings or 
seeds. The leaves taste and smell 
like cucumbers ; hence its use in 
salads. It is relished by sheep. 

BURNS. A lotion of clear lime- 
water and linseed oil applied with a 
rag, and cautiously guarding from ex« 
posure to air, dust, or to injury, by a 
bandage, is the best treatment. 

BURSA MUCOSA. Small bags 
containing a fatty mucus, situated be 
tween the joints in all animals. 

BUSH. Any shrub which natural- 
ly throws out branches near or under 
ground. Wild bushes are destroyed 
by grubbing, by cutting down during 
summer, or by tearing up with oxen. 
July is the best month for cutting 
them down. 

BUSH DRAINING. Placing bush- 
es in the water-way of drains : the 
tops should be against the current. 
It answers well enough for twelve or 
more years, but is not so permanent 
as other means. 

BUSH HARROWING. l/awing 
a bush attached to a chain over bro- 
ken lands or seeded fields ; or, when 
a weight is used, and thorny branch- 
es, it is sometimes employed to scar- 
ify meadows and prune the grass 
roots. An old gate may be used as 
a frame, or the more suhstantial con-* 
trivance figured on the next pag:e. 

BUSHEL A measure containing 

4 pecks, 8 gallons, or 32 quarts. It 

should contain 80 pounds of water, 

, or 2218-192 cubic inches of capacity, 

i to constitute an iovterial bushel. The 

119 



old WinchBBter bushel contained only 
SieO'dl cubic inchee, 

BUSTARD. Chi* tarda. A Ibt^ 
gallinaceous fowl indigenaus to Eu- 
rope and Alia, oHen weighing twen- 
tj-tive to tnenly-MTeti pounds, and 
of delicioua flavour. It baa not ;M 
been domeatioated. 

BUTTER. The preparation of 
butter ia nn important part of rural 
economy. Butter ia tbe fat or oleagl- 
Dona part of tbe milk of rarioua ani- 
inala, priaclpailj ofthe domestic cow. 
The milk of tbe cow ia oompoeed of 
tbree distinct ingredients : tlie curd, 
tbe whey, end tbe butter ; the two 
first fonn the largest portkin, and tbe 
last tbe moat valuable. Tbe oompar- 
Btiie value of the milk of dilTeretit 
cows, or of the same cows fed on 
different pastures, is eatimaied ofaief- 
ly by the quantity of butter contained 
in it ; and in this reapeot some breeds 
of cows are far superior to others. 
Tbe union of the component parts of 
milk ia chieBy mechanical, aa the; 
■efnraie by subsidenoe according to 
their apecMc gravities, the cream be- 
ing the lighteat, and the curd the 
heaviest ; the curd, however, ro- 
quirea a alight chemical change for 
He separation from the whey, which, 
St the same time, produces a peculiar 
aoid, called the lactic acid. From the 
moment that milk ia drawn fiaia tbe 
cow it begins to be aflkoted by the 
air and obanges of temperatBre, and 
oiroumsiances alnaost hnperceptible 
to our senses will materiaUy aObct 
its quality J bencetbe importance of 
extreme oare and attenlion in every 
step of the process of tbe dairy, ee- 
peoially In making butter. 

The cows should be milked in the 
O0OI of tha uoming and Bveniag; 
IM 



they should rrat be much driven int' 
mediately before milking, and it is 
best to bring them to the piece of 
milking some lime before the opera- 
tion begins. In some situationa it is 
better lo milk them in the paalores, 
and carry the milk home ; in otheia, 
to drive tbe cowa gently to the cow- 
stall. In mountainoiia countriee tha 
first mode is generally adopted, be- 
oanse the cowa are apt to leap down 
Bteep places, and shake the milk in 
their udder more than is done by car- 
rying it in the pail. 

As tbe slightest acidity or potrea- 
eence immediately causes an internal 
chemical action in milk, it is of the 
greatest importance that the place 
where tbe cows are milked, and the 
persons employed, ^ould be of Iba 
' greatest purity and cleanliness. The 
milking house should be paved with 
stone or brick, snd no litter or dnng 
be permitted to rr^msin in it, )t 
should be washed out twice a day, 
immediately before each milking, 
which, besides ensuring cleanliness, 
produces a refreshing; coolness high- 
ly useful to tbe milk. The teals of 
the oows ahoutd be washed clean 
with water and a sponge. The ves- 
sels into which the milk is drawn 
fhim the oowehouhl tie made of very 
dean vrood ; they should be ecaided 
immediately after having been used. 






o the si 



be perfectly dry by the n 
naingthem. Tin vessels sre prefer- 
able to wood, beeacse they are not 
SB easily tainted, and are more easily 
kept clean. Where these are used 
they should slways be kept bright, by 
which means the least apeck of dirt 
is immediately discovered. 
Tbe milk, as noon as it is lNroa|M 



BUTTER. 



Into the dairy, is strained through a 
^ne sieve or cloth, in order to remove 
any extraneous matter, and tt is then 
poured into shallow pans or troughs. 
The best pans are of iron, carefVdly 
tinned. Such pans are cool in sum* 
mer, and in winter allow of the appli- 
eation of heat, which is often very 
useful to maJce the cream rise. When 
ieaden troughs are used, they are 
generally fixed to the wall, and have 
a slight inclination towards one end, 
where there is a hole with a plug in 
it, by drawing which the thin milk is 
allowed to run off slowly, leaving the 
eream behind, which runs last through 
the hole into the pan placed under to 
receive It. The mflk in the pans, or 
troughs^ is generally four or five inch- 
es in deptb> which is found most con- 
ducive to the separation of the cream. 
The place where the milk is set should 
have a thorough draught of air, by 
means of opposite windows. The 
sun should be carefully excluded by 
high buildings or trees, and the floor, 
which should always be of brick or 
stone, should be continually kept 
moist in summer, that the evapora- 
tion may produce an equal, cool tem- 
perature. A small store in winter is 
a great advantage, provided smoke 
and smell be most carefully aToided, 
and the temperature be accurately 
regulated by a thermometer. AU 
these minutis may appear superflu- 
ous to those who have no practical 
knowledge of the dairy ; . and many 
dairymen, who cannot deny the truth 
of what we have stated, may excuse 
their deviation from these rules by 
saying that good butter is made with- 
out so much care and trouble. This 
may be true ; but they cannot ensure 
good butter at all times ; and when 
deanliness and order are brought to a- 
regular system the trouble disappears. 
When the milk has stood twelve 
hours, the finest parts of the cream 
have risen to the surface, and if they 
are then taken ofiT by a skimming 
dish, and immediatelvohumed, a very 
delicate butter is obtained; but, in 
general, it is left twenty-ibor hoars, 
when the cream Is collected by skim* 
ming, or the thin milk let off by ta- 
l- 



king out the plug in the trough. AH 
the cream is put into a deep earthea 
I jar. Stone-ware is the best. More 
cream is added every day, till there is 
a sufficient quantity to chum, which, 
in moderate dairies, is every two 
days. It is usual to stir the cream 
often, to encourage a slight acidity, 
by which the process of churning is 
accelerated. This acidity is some- 
times produced by the addition of 
vinegar or lemon juice ; but, howev- 
er this may facilitate the conversion 
of the cream into butter, we would 
not recommend it, as the quality is 
decidedly injured by it, especmlly 
butter which is to be salted. It has 
been asserted by some authors that 
butter will not separate from the but- 
ter-milk until acidity is produced, and 
no doubt there is more or less of 
lactic acid in all butter-milk ; but per- 
fectly fresh cream, which has stood 
only one night, and is churned early 
next morning, will generally produce 
excellent butter in a quarter of an 
hour or twenty minutes in summer, 
and no acid taste can be discovered 
in the butter^nilk. That the state 
of the atmosphere with respect to 
temperature has a povTerftil influence 
on the making of batter, is a well- 
established fact. 

The common method employed to 
separate the butter from the thihner 
portion of the cream is by strong 
agitation. The eommon instrument 
is the chum, which is a wooden cask 
rather wider at bottom than - at the 
top, covered with a round lid with a 
hole In the centre. Through this 
hole passes a round stick, about four 
feet long, inserted in the centre of a 
round, flat board with holes in it ; 
the diameter of this board is a little 
less than that of the top of the churn. 
Various impi^vements have been 
made on this machine. The cream 
should not fill above two thirds of the 
churn. By means of this stick, held 
in both hands, and moved up and 
down, the eream is violently agitated* 
passing Ukrough the holes in the board 
and round its edge every time the 
stick is raised or depressed, and thus 
every portion is brought into contact 

121 



BUTTER. 



with the air. In the courae of an 
bourns churning, more or less accord- 
ing to circamBtances, amall kernels 
of butter appear, which are soon uni- 
ted by the preaeure of the board 
against the bottom of the churn, and 
Ibrm a mass of solid butter.- The 
butter is collected with the hand, and 
placed in a shallow tub for the next 
operation. The butter-milk is set 
aside for the pigs, or for domestic 
use. The butter is still mixed with 
aome portion of butter-milk ; but much 
of its quality for keeping depends on 
the perfect separation. The most 
luual way is to spread it thin in a 
shallow tub, beating it with a flat 
wooden spoon, and washing it repeat- 
edly with clear spring water until all 
milkiness disappears in the water 
which is poured off*. Some experi- 
enced daiiymen pretend that the but- 
ter is deteriorated by much wash- 
ing, and, therefore, express the but- 
ter-milk by simply beating the butter 
with the hand, kept cool by frequent- 
ly dipping it in cold water, or with a 
moist cloth wrapped in the form of a 
ball, which aoaks up all the butter- 
milk, and leaves the butter quite dry. 
This operation requires the greatest 
attention, especially in warm weath- 
er ; and oo person should work the 
butter who has not a very cool hand. 
The less it is handled the better, and 
therefore a wooden spoon or spatula 
is mnch to be preferred. The pres- 
ence of any eunl renders butter liable 
to putrefaotiont and is, to a great ex- 
tent, the cause of the unpleasant taste 
of that made carelessly in summer. 

The greatest portion of the butter 
that is made, especially at a distance 
ih>m large towns, is immediately salt- 
ed and put into casks, which usual^ 
)y contain fifty-six pounds, and are 
called firkins. The quality of the salt 
used is of great importance ; if it be 
pure, the butter will keep its flavour 
for a long time ; but when it is im- 
pure, and contains bitter and deliques- 
cent salts, the butter soon becomes 
rancid. The Dutch are very particu- 
lar in this point. They use a kind of 
■alt which is made by slow evapora- 
tioBi and perfectly erystallixad. The 

1» 



salt is intimately mixed with the but- 
ter. From three to five pounds are 
sufilcient for a firkin of fifty -six 
pounds. The following mixture has 
been found superior to salt alone in 
curing butter : half an ounce of diy 
salt, pounded fine, two drachms of su- 
gar, and two drachms of saltpetre, for 
every pound of butter. It is used in 
Goshen, Orange county. New- York. 
The casks are made of clean white 
wood. They are carefully washed 
inside with strong brine made hot, 
and rubbed over with salt. The but- 
ter, being quite diy, is pressed close 
into the cask, a small layer of salt 
having been first put on tlie bottom. 
Every addition is carefully incorpora- 
ted with the preceding portion. If 
there is not a sufficient quantity to 
fill the cask at once, the surface is 
made smooth, some salt is put over 
it, and a cloth is pressed close upon 
it to exclude the air. When the re- 
mainder is added at the next churn- 
ing, the cloth is taken off, and the 
salt which had been put on the sur- 
face carefully removed with a spoon. 
The surface is dug into with a small 
wooden spade, and laid rouffh, and 
the newly-salted butter is added and 
incorporated completely. This pre- 
vents a streak which would other- 
wise appear at the place where the 
two portions are joined. When the 
cask is full, some salt is pot over it, 
and the head is put in. If the butter 
is well freed from all the butter-milk, 
and the salt mixed with it quite dry, 
it will not shrink in the cask, and it 
will keep its flavour for a long time. 
Should there be an appearance of 
shrinking, the cask must be opened 
and melted butter poured round it, so 
as to fill up the interstices between 
the butter and the cask ; in this way 
it will not sufifer in its quality. There 
is a mode of preserving butter for do- 
mestic use without salt, in the follow- 
ing manner : the butter is set in a 
clean pan over the fire and melted 
very gently ; it is not allowed to boil, 
but is heated very nearly to the boil- 
ing point. Experience has shown 
this heat to be attained when the re- 
flection of the white of the eye is dis- 



BUTTER. 



Iinctly seen on the surface of the hat- 
ter on looking down into the pan. All 
the watery particles are then evapo- 
rateti, and the curd, of which a por- 
tion always remains in the butter, 
and which is one cause of its becom- 
ing rancid, falls to the bottom. The 
clear butter is poured into an earthen 
▼essel and covered over with paper, 
and a bladder or a piece of leather is 
tied over the jar to exclude the air. 
When it is cooled it much resembles 
hog's lard. It has lost some of its 
flavour, but it is much superior to sail 
butter for culinary purposes, and es- 
pecially for pastry. 

The Devonshire method of making 
butter differs materially from the 
common process which we have de- 
scribed, and is peculiar to that coun- 
ty. The milk, instead of being set 
for the cream to rise, is placed in tin 
or earthen pans holding about eleven 
or twelve quarts each. Twelve hours 
afler milking, these pans are placed 
on a broad iron plate, heated by a 
«n)all furnace. The milk is not al- 
lowed to boil, but a thick scum rises 
to the surface. As soon as small 
bubbles begin to appear where a por- 
tion of this is removed witli a spoon, 
the milk is taken off and allowed to 
cool. The thick part is taken off the 
surface, and this is called clouted 
eream. It is a sweet, pleasant sub- 
stance, more sohd than cream, but 
not so sohd as butter, and is consid- 
ered as a dainty by all those w^ho have 
been early accustomed to it. A very 
slijiht^ agitation converts it into real 
butter, alter which it is treated ex- 
actly as we bave before described. It 
does not keep well. It does not ap- 
pear that there is any pecuUar advan- 
tage in the Devonshire method. 

Another method of making butter, 
which is more generally adopted, is 
to churn the milk and cream together. 
In the Dutch method the milk is put 
into deep jars in a cool place, each 
mtult or portion milked at one time, 
being kept separate. As soon as 
there is a slight appearance of acidi- 
ty, the whole is churned in an upright 
ehurn. which, from the quantity of 
milk, is of very large dimensions. 



The plunger is therefore worked fiy 
machinery moved by a horse, or some- 
times by a dog walking in a wheel, 
which he turns by his weight. When 
the butter begins to form into small 
kernels, the contents of the churn aro 
emptied on a sieve, which lets thr 
butter-milk pass through. The but 
ter is then formed into a mass, as de 
scribed before. This, from Professo 
Trail's experiments, is the most eco 
nomical method, as the quantity of but 
ter is great and the butter-milk rich. 

In Scotland the following metho<f 
is pursued : the milk is allowed to 
cool for six hours, and then put into 
a clean vat. As long as it remains 
sweet, more milk may be added, but 
not after any acidity is produced, it 
is then covered and allowed to get 
sour, till it coagulates at the top ; this 
coagulum is called the lappcr, which 
must not be broken till the butter is 
churned. When the clotted miik is 
put into the churn, warm water is 
added so as to raise the temperature 
to 70° or 80°, the whole being grad- 
ually stirred in. When this is prop- 
erly conducted, the butter-milk will 
be very pleasant and wholesome, with 
a sub-acid taste, the whey and curd 
not being separated from each other 
for some time after. The butter is 
said to be fully equal to that made 
from cream alone. — {Quarterly Jour- 
nal of Agriculiure, Dec, 1834.) 

The quality of the butter depends 
on some very minute circumstances, 
which escape the notice of all super- 
ficial observers. The smallest parti- 
cle of putrescent matter accidentally 
added, and even mere effluvia, give 
a turn to the chemical action going 
on from the moment the milk is ex- 
posed to the air, and they taint the 
cream more or less. The quantity 
of pure cream which rises when the 
milk is set in the pans, as well as its 
quality, is influenced by these circum- 
stances. When the milk curdles be- 
fore the cream is separated, it is al- 
most impossible to prevedt some por- 
tion of the curd being mixed with the 
butter. In its perfectly fresh state 
the taste is not affected by this ; but 
the butter wiU not keep fresh above 

-W8 



BUT 

twenty-four hours, and when salted 
soon becomes rancid. Thus a great- 
er quantity is produced, but of inferior 
quality, when cheese is made of 
the milk from which the cream has 
been taken, it will be found most 
profitable not to attempt to take off 
all the cream by repeated skimming ; 
for more will be gained in the better 
quality of the cheese than by an in- 
crease in the quantity of the butter 
at the expense of the quality. 

It is an acknowledged fact that, 
such are the niceties of the dairy, 
great experience alone can ensure a 
produce of superior quality, and this 
experience would be more readily 
acquired if the circumstances were 
accurately observed and noted. We 
would recommend to those who have 
extensive dairies to mark by the ther- 
mometer the temperature of the milk 
and cream in the different stages of 
the process, occasionally to test the 
acidity of the butter-milk by means of 
alkalies, and to note any peculiarity 
in the atmosphere by an electrome- 
ter. A few observations carefully 
noted, repeated, and compared would 
throw more light on the true causes 
which favour or oppose the produc- 
tion of good butter than all the guess- 
es that have hitherto been made. 

The quality of the butter depends 
materially on the nature of the pas- 
ture. The best is made from cows 
fed in rich, natural meadows. Cer- 
tain plants which grow in poor and 
marshy soils give a disagreeable taste 
to the butter. When cows are fed 
with cut grass in the stable, the but- 
ter is inferior, except in the case of 
some artificial grasses, such as lu- 
cerne. Turnips and other roots given 
to cows in winter communicate more 
or less of a bad taste to butter, which 
is corrected in some degree by means 
of a small quantity of water and salt- 
petre added to the milk ; and also, it 
is said, by giving salt to the cows 
with their food. But there is no but- 
ter made in winter equal to that which 
is made where the cows are fed en- 
tirely with good meadow hay, especial- 
ly of the second crop, called after-math 
hay, which contains few seed stalks. 



BUT 

According to the aoeoants of th« 
produce of butter from different coa»> 
tries and various breeds of cows, we 
may state that, on an average, (bar 
gallons of milk produce sixteen oaa- 
ces of butter ; and to make the feed- 
ing of cows for the dairy a profitable 
employment, a good cow should pro- 
duce six pounds of butter per week 
in summer, and half that quantity in 
winter, allowing from six weeks to 
two months for her being dry before 
calving; that is, one hundred and 
twenty pounds in twenty weeks after 
calving, and eighty pounds in the re- 
mainder of the time till she goes dry ; 
in all, about two hundred pounds In 
the year. If she produces more, she 
may be considered as a superior cow; 
if less, she is below par. To produoe 
this quantity the pasture must be 
good, and we must allow three acres 
to keep a cow in grass and hay for a 
year, which is not very far from the 
mark. 

An inferior kind of butter is made 
in some cheese dairies from the oily 
portion of the milk skimmed from the 
whey, which is set in pans, like milk, 
after the cheese has been made. It 
is totally unfit for salting and keeping. 
It is known by the name ofwheff bm- 
ter.—{W. C.Rkam.) 

BUTTERFLY. Insects of the ge- 
nus Papilio (Lin.) in the imago state. 
Many of them are produced from the 
caterpillars most injurious to culti- 
vated plants and trees, as the goose- 
berry and cabbage butterflies. 

BUTTERNUT. A tree of the wal- 
nut genus, 'Ju^^n« cinerea. It is dif- 
fused throughout the United States. 
The wood is of a reddish colour, 
light, soft, but very durable, and not 
liable to attacks from insects. It is 
highly esteemed for turnings in the 
Eastern States, and is abundantly 
used for panelling for carriages, and 
building generally. The inner bark 
is cathartic, and a decoction is used 
by housewives. 

BUTTERS, VEGETABLE. The 
solid oils of the cocoa, nutmeg, palm, 
chocolate, &c., are so called. 

BUTTON-WOOD. FaJse syea- 
more. Tho Platanut occideTUaliSfVresl' 



CAB 



GAB 



ern ^ne-tree, the largMt, and one of 
the handsomest trees of America. It 
reaches its full dimensions only in the 
rich alluvion of the middle Western 
States, on the banks of the Ohio. 
The wood is soft, and decays rapidly 
when exposed, but is senriceable for 
shsheied carpentry. The tree in the 
Northern States has been mach in- 
jored by early frosts and insects. 

BUTTS. The short ridges which 
are made by the ploagh in the cor- 
ners of irregular fields. 

BUTYRIC ACID. An oily vols- 
tile acid found in rancid butter, and 
having a rancid smell ; it is soluble 
in water, alcohol, and ether : boils at 
9\%9. It ooasists of Os UaH Os HO 
(ch). It is formed by the oxidation 
of the component of butter called 
bntyrine, and yields by distillation 
from hme bntryone, a nentral vola- 
tile )iqttid. 

BUXUS. The generio nuae of the 
hex plants. See Bax-tru. 

BYRE. A cow-shed for feeding, 
&c. 

BYSLINS. The first milk of tJie 
cow after calving. 

BYSSUS. A genera] name for the 
thiead-like monkl of cellars and cav- 
erns of vegetable origin. They be- 
long to many genera, and to the fami- 
ly of fungi. 

C. 

CABBAGE. The varieties of 
cabbage, coleworts, broccoh', are all 
derived, by cultivation, from the 
Brassiea oleraceat a sea-shore plant, 
indigenous to Europe. It belongs 
to the croeiferotls fhmliy of Jussieu, 
and Tetradynamia niiquoaa of Lin- 
naeus. 

In agricolture, they may be divided 
into three classes : 1st. Those that 
form heads. 3d. Those that grew 
erect without forming heads. 8d. 
Those that ate napiform, as Kohl 
robe. 

Of Cabhages which form Heads.— ^ 
These may be divided into early, 
midsummer, and autumn kinds. Of 
the first, the eariy dwarf, early York, 
eariy sugar-loaf, early imperial are 
the best. The midsnmmet kind are 

L2 



the large York, large snger-loaf; Bev* 
gen, drumhead, flat Dutch, and the 
autumn, the late glazed red, and the 
varieties of Savoy. The seeds, ia 
ordinary culture, are sown in April ; 
but for early crops they are sown ia 
September, and covered by a frame 
daring winter ; or in a firame in Feb* 
roaiy, care being taken to supply 
light and air without admitting frost. 
An ounce of seed yields from 3000 to 
4000 plants. In the garden, where a 
succesuon is required, seeds most be 
sown every two weelis from Februa^ 
ry to May. The seeds start in a 
week, and are fit to transplant in six 
or seven weeks. There is, however^ 
no advantage in transplanting too 
soon, as the young plants are very 
liable to be destroyed by the cutworm 
and insects during June and early in 
July. They are set in rows 16 inch- 
es to 2 feet apart, allowing sufficient 
room for hoeing, ploughing, &c. The 
Bergen are set 30 inches apart. It 
is economical to |dace an extra plant 
between each, to be cot for coUards. 
At this rate, the acre contains about 
0000 plants. The soil must be very 
fine, and well dunged, for no vegeta- 
ble is more improved by putrescent 
manures. In planting, it is necessa- 
ry to use a trowel to opea the ground, 
and not a stick to ram a hole. The 
process of dipping the roots in a sem- 
ifluid mass of fine earth and water, 
with half a pound in four gallons of 
crude nitre, and of whale-oil soap, is 
highly recommended as ensuring a 
vigorous start for the plants, and be^ 
Ing very serviceable in keeping ofi* 
worms. A bucket with this mixture 
can be readily carried by the planter* 
The ground must be ploughed, hoed, 
or thoroughly stirred three times da« 
ring their growth, weeds being de- 
stroyed, and the soil kept fine. Do* 
ring a dry season they require water- 
ing, and will be much benefited by 
the use of fluid manures. The soil 
they most relish is a raoistish loam» 
made very rich with putrescent map 
nores. Extensive fields of cabbages 
are cultivated near New- York city ; 
the early kinds and largo Bergen. 
Savoy, and red being most preferred. 

126 



CAB 



GAB 



The ftiOomUtgiB an e«liiiiate of the 
expense, by Mr. Wyckoff, for an acre : 
40 loade street manure, $16 ; labour 
in distributinff, $3; ploughing, bar* 
Fowinp, and hoeing, $9 ; or in all, $S8. 
The field contained 6000 plants, and 
8000 heads sold in market realized 
$60. As soon as frosts set in the 
eabbages must be put up for 'protec- 
tioo. This is done by burying them 
up to the head in a dry, warm situa- 
tion, stripping off decayed or broken 
open leaves, and packing them close- 
ly together, taking care that they are 
free from moisture. A low shed is 
then to be formed over them with 
straw, pine brush, boards, &c., so as 
to keep out the sun and frost, at the 
same time that air circulates freely. 
In the depth of winter it may be neces- 
sary to place straw around the sides 
of the shed ; or, the cabbages being 
out, may be stored in a root cellar. 

Nutritious Value. — Cabbages are 
seldom raised as food for stock in 
the United States, although it is com- 
mon enough to throw to hogs, dec, 
the under leaves which have begun 
to decay. In Germany and France 
they are extensively used as fodders. 
Two general kinds are employed, 
the open-leaved and hearted : of the 
first kind, according to Antoine's ta- 
bles, 541 pounds are equal to 410 of 
green clover, or 100 of grass hay ; 
but the hearted cabbage, according 
10 Boussingaolt, is much more valua- 
ble, 370 pounds being equal to 100 
pounds of hay. The amount of food 
procured from some of the cow cab- 
bages is immense, often amounting 
during the year to upward of 100,000 
pounds of leaves the acre. 

Specific Manure*. — The cabbage 
family are especially improved by 
well-decayed manures and by gyp- 
sum, or particularly by solutions of 
crude nitre and Glauber salts, one 
pound in about four gallons of wa- 
ter, applied by a flowering-pot, when 
transplanted ; and subsequently they 
will be found of the greatest utility. 

Seed*. — ^To obtain fine seeds, put 

out some of the heads which have 

been kept through winter; as soon 

as the weather permits, thin down 

126 



the flower^steon to a few at the i 

Take care to keep the Taneties sep* 
arate, or they become mixed and 
spoiled. 

It should be remarked of the cab* 
bage stems kept over till spring, that, 
if they be set out, numerous eyes will 
develop, which afford early greens» 
and may he kept bearing a long timo 
by hindering them from seeding. 

2<f. Of tkt open4etned Varieties.-^ 
The principal varieties cultivated in 
Europe are the tree, or thousand* 
headed ; the cow cabbage, or Cesa- 
rean cole ; the Jersey cole ; the Wo- 
bum kale, and Poitou cabbage. They 
are sown in autumn in beds, planted 
out from November to February, are 
ready for plucking in April, and con- 
tinue to afibrd leaves for forage di^ 
ring the summer, the stems running 
up to six and more feet. They stand 
the winters of France, and might be 
grown in the Middle and Southern 
States. It may be very questionable 
— when the rich land necessary, and 
the labour of cultivation are considei> 
ed — ^whether they will be ever grown 
in the United States, 

3<2. Of M^/orm Cabbages. — Sev^al 
hybrid varieties t>etween the turnip 
and cabbage have been produced; 
these either have a swollen root and 
cabbage head, as the Kokl rohe, or they 
produce a turnip-like head. They 
are little cultivated, and resemble 
turnips, but are much less infested 
by insects. 

CABBAGE, DISEASES OF. 
Clubbing of the roots arises from 
worms, and is produced by growing 
them too long in one locality. See 
Anbury. Cabbage lice are the same 
as bean lice. See Aphis. They are 
destroyed by infusion of tobacco, 
lime dust, salt. Worms of various 
kinds infest the leaves; the leaves 
should be stripped off and burned, or 
soot, tobacco, lime, dec, used to de- 
stroy them. Cutworms are caught 
before sunrise, and should be de- 
stroyed, or the foregoing noxious 
substances should be worked in about 
the roots wiih a trowel. Slugs are 
to be similarly treated. 

CABBAGE, FREPAAED. Smur 



OAJO 



CAF 



krmu. TIhp is prepared ia the foI« 

lowing manner : the cabbages are 

sliced thin by hand, or by a machine. 

The bottom of a cask, of which the 

head has been taken out, is covered 

with salt, and a layer of thin-sliced 

eabbage, six inches thick, is laid over 

it ; on this a quantity of salt is spread, 

and another layer of cabbage, mixed 

with some janiper berries and whole 

pepper; and thus salt and cabbage 

fdiernately until the cask is filled. A 

rottBd board is then put into the cask, 

so as nearly to fill it, and on this a 

heavy weight of stone or metal is 

laid. As the cabbage ferments and 

sinks, the cask is filled up with fresh 

salt and cabbage. After some time 

the expressed juice is poured off, 

some water, with sak dissolved in it, 

is poured over, and changed until it 

ceases to rise with a scum and fetid 

smell ; the cabbage is then in a fit 

state to be kept. A doth is laid over 

it. and over this the round board and 

weights. When any portion is taken 

cot for use, a sufficient quantity of 

brine is allowed to remain over the 

mass to exclude the air, and the 

cloth, board, and weights are replaced 

as long as any cabbage remains. 

This saner krauiy when washed with 

soft water, and stewed with bacon 

or salted meat, is a very wholesome 

dish, and much relished by those who 

have been early accustomed to it. 

In long voyages it has been found to 

be an admirable preservative against 

the sea- scurvy. 

CABBAGE TREES or PALMS. 
Palm-trees which, like the palmetto, 
form edible buds, which are used as 
food. 

CACHECTIC. A bad state of 
body, bringing aboot boils, skin dis- 
eases, 6ce, 

CACHMERE GOAT. The Cach- 
mere goat is a native of Persia. 
There are many varieties, dtflering 
in colour and in the quality of the 
fleece ; the principal points of the 
most approved breeds are large ears, 
limbs slender, and, above all, the 
wool or hair being straight, silky, and 
white. 
- They have been successfully intro- 



duoed hito Fmiee by M. TtmeaKi» 
and also into En^and by C. T. Tow* 
er, of Essex, who purchased four, 
two males and two females, of M. 
Terneaux, of Paris. The aoU ea 
which they were kept in England was 
moist, and the situation much ex- 
posed ; they have, nevertheless, con* 
tinned in health and multiplied ra^nd- 
ly, his flock increasing from four to 
twenty-seven in six years ; the fe- 
males prodncing every year a kid« 
and sometimes twins. They breed 
very early, often bearing young be- 
fore they are twelve months old. 
They show no impatience of the cold, 
and are very healthy, requiring only 
an occasional shelter in very rough 
weather. In spring, summer, and 
autumn they graze like sheep, and 
during winter are fed with hay and 
refuse vegetables. The shawls mads 
in England from the produce of Mr. 
Tower's goats will, for fineness of 
texture, vie with those brought firont 
Persia. There is no doubt that it 
may be successfully introduced into 
this country. Being remarkably tame, 
they can be kept in flocks at as little 
expense and trouble as the commom 
goat or sheep ; they eat almost every- 
thing, even potato tops, weeds, and 
bushes of all kinds, taking but little 
from the pastures that other animals 
would feed on. We hope some of 
our enterprising farmers will tarn 
their attention to this animal by im- 
porting it, as it can be easily obtain- 
ed, and, no doubt, will bear the trans- 
portation and change of climate with 
very little risk. 

CACTUS. A tribe of fleshy plants, 
some of which are oelebnted for 
their splendid floweiv and pleasant 
acid truit resembling the gooseberry. 

CADUCOUS. Decidnous, faUiog 
off; temporary. 

CiESAREAN OPERATION. The 
removal of a foetus from its mother 
by cutting into the womb. 

CAFFEIN. A slightly bitter, 
white, silky principle obtained from 
coffee, tea, guarana, and pauUinia. 
It is the same as theine. Liebig finds 
it to consist of Cg H» N« O -t-HO. 
He has shown that it may act as (oad 

1S7 



CAL 

jn increasing the amount of bile fona- 
ed, by furniBhiog nitrogen thereto. 
To the same end asparagine and tkeo- 
bromirut analogous principles, are 
also destined. 

CALAMINE. A powdery mineral, 
sold by druggists as an absorbent for 
alcerous sores and extensive boms. 
It is an impure carbonate of zinc, 
I^cpared by roasting. An ointment 
made with lard is sometimes used to 
promote the healing of sores. 

CALANDRA. The genus of wheat 
weevils. See Wkeat. 

CALCARATE <firom adcaryh 
spar). Flowers having a spur like 
the larkspur are so ealled. The spur 
is also called a juetarivm by Linnsus. 

CALCAREOUS. Containing car- 
bonate of lime, as calcareous marl, 
soils, sand, 6cc. See Lime. 

CALCINATION. The burning of 
substances to ashes. 

CALCIUM. The metallic base of 
Itme, which is an oxide of calcium. 
Its equivalent is 20, and therefore 
lime is 28. A few electro-negative 
bodies, as sulphur, chlorine, fluorine, 
form salts directly with the metal, 
and are called sutphuret, chloride, 
floorlde of calcium. See Lime, 

CALC SPAR. Crystallized car- 
bonate of lime. 

CALCULUS. Any solid, stony 
concretion foraaed in the bladder, 
gall-duct, ^cc. 

CALEPACIENT. Medicines that 
produce the sensation of warmth, as 
alcohol, are so ealled. 

CALENDAR. A monthly record. 

CALF. The young of the cow. 
Calves dropped in March and April 
are best for raising. If they are to 
be kept, they should run with the 
cow, in a meadow, for three to six 
weeks, and afterward be fed on but- 
ter-milk with meal, and separated into 
a good meadow. Those which are 
to be siaugiitered are generally re- 
moved from the cow at once, put up 
into a small endosare and feeding 
stall, and supplied with milk and 
messes of meal until fat. The males 
are castrated at thirty days for steers ; 
the operation is very simple, one inci- 
sion being made on each side the bag. 
128 



CAL 

CALF, DISEASES OF., These 
are principally : 

1. Navel III. — The best treatment 
for this dangerous disease is, Ist, to 
administer two or three doses (each 
about a wine-glassful) of castor oil ; 
and, 2dly, cordials, which may be 
made of two drachms of caraway 
seeds, two of coriander seeds, and 
two of powdered gentian ; bruise the 
seeds, and simmer them in beer or 
gruel for a quarter of an hour : give 
these once or twice a day. 

2. CoHstipalion of the Bowels. — For 
this, doses of castor oil, of two or 
three ounces, are the best remedy. 

8. Diarrhaa, or Scouring. — The 
farmer may rely on the following mix- 
ture. Let him keep it always by him , 
it will do for all sucking animals : 

Prepared chalk . . 4 ounces. 

Canella bark, powdered 1 " 

Laudanum .... 1 " 

Water ...... 1 pint. 

Give two or three table-spoonfuls, ao 
cording to the size of the animal, two 
or three times a day. 

4. Hoose, or Catarrh. — Good nurs- 
ing, bleeding, and then a dose of Ep- 
som salts, with half an ounce of gin- 
ger in iL---{ Yauatt on Cattle ) 

CALKERS, or CALKINS. The 
parts of a horseshoe turned down- 
ward. 

CALLUS. When the bone of an 
animal is broken by accident, nature 
restores the union by depositing a 
quantity of bony matter around the 
loose extremities, and thus fixing 
them. This deposite is called a cal- 
lus ; it is absorbed after the limb is 
re-established. 

CALOMEL. The sub-chloride of 
mercury. An admirable medicine, 
producing an increased secretion of 
bile and purgation. In bilious at- 
tacks, a dose of ten grains is one of 
the best medicines. It is a compo- 
nent of many cattle medicines (see 
BaU\ in the dose of one drachm for 
a horse. 

CALORIC. This name is given 
to the cause of heat, which is un- 
known. CaloriJiCf capable of produ- 
cing heat, as the calorific rays uf the 
sun, which are found in the red and 



CA.M 

onnge pvU i^ the speetrnm fonned 
by fliDt glass . 

CALVING. The act of bringing 
forth a calf. The cow Hbould not 
b« disturbed, and bave comrortsble 
quarters. A warm drink ia usual- 
ly given afterward, containing meal. 
She should be kept quiet, and rather 
UDderred for a few days. 

Calx. An old term for any earth; 
body produced by burning, 

CALTCANTHUS FLORIDCS. 
Tba Carolina allspice : a fragrant 
sbrub, with morooD-coloured flowera. 

CALYX (from lalvf, a cup). The 
ouier green ease of flowers. It pro- 
tects the internal parts. It is col- 
oured in plants like tolips, hyacinths, 
&c. 

CAMBIUM. A gummy fluid form- 
ed in spring in our forest. trees. It 
atTunls the materials out of which 
the new wood and bark are partly 
made, and disappears in a short time. 

CAMELLIA.- A. genus of evei^ 
green shmbs, of which the C. j'apOTi- 
. tea produces beauliful flowers, now 
iliTersified by cultiration. It requires 
a green-houac for successful growth, 
but may be grown onl ofdoors, near 
a south walC covered with glass and 
malted during serere weather. It is 
propagated by cuttings, layers, and 
gralla. Flowers from January to 
Slarch in the house. The C. olei/era 
ia much ciiltivaled by the Chinese for 
its oil, obtained by pressing the seeds. 

CAMOMILE. The Anlhtmit no- 
mU furnishes the drug of this name. 
It ia eiotic, but grows readily in the 
Middle States. The plant is peren- 
nial and hardy, yielding three or four 
crops of flowers, which are bitter 
and tonic. It grows on poor, dry 
lands ; ia propagated by seeds, root 
cuttings, and layers. An infttsion is 
Tory nauseous to many insects. 

CAMP. Amouldin which to keep 
potatoes, TOOlB, &c., daring winter. 
See Barrotc. 

CAMPANULATE. Be«-ahaped : 
applied to flowers of that flgure, as 
the Caniethuiy biU, 

CAMPHOR. A solid essential oil, 
consisting of C«, Hn+i HO. It 
Is a nerrons sedative, soothing pain. 



CAt* 

It Is oWaJned in iho crude state br 

distilling the twigs, roots, &c , of 
several plants, chiefly the Lounw 
campftora and Dryahalanopa tmmphord, 
trees of tropical Asia. It is purified 
by Bublimalion in Europe aod Araer* 
ica. Michaux is disposed to believe 
that the Ijoemt camphora, a large 
evergreea, might flonrish in Florida. 
Camphor is peculiarly disagreeaMa 
to the insects which infest cloth and 
woollen goods. The solution in al- 
cohol is the commonest form of the 
medicine. A solution in oil is aa 
admirable embrocation to painfld 
sprains, rheumatisms, &c. 

Camphor is found in numerous 
herbs, especially peppermint, ross- 
mary, thyme, lavender, 6cc. The 
quantity is, however, too minute to 
yield a commercial supply. 

CANADA THISTLE. Carduw or. 
TCKtii. Its perennial roots render it 
a great nuisance. The introdnctioQ 
of two-hoed or worked crops, with 
much tillage, is the most eflectual 
rsmedy. Largo doses (thirty basb- 
els) of salt, or a heavy hming (one 
hundred bushels), oi 
a dean fallow ii 
mDOh reputed e 
means of clea 
lands of weeds and 

NARY A 

ORA58. PhtUariM 

nual grass, yieldmg — 
the canary seeds for 
birds. Ttie seeds are 
sown as soon as the ~« 

frost is oDt of the | 
grounditheyrequiro | 
a good dry loam In | 
September the plants ! 
are fit to cut. The  
heads are exposed to 
the air in heaps for 
some time, to assist 
the thrashing. The 
yield is trofa twen- 
ty-five to forty bush- 
els ; the straw ia 
poor and scanty. 

CANCELLATE. 
the ends of the long 



iS 



Mimnon in cattle. 

CANDLE. The best mature for 
din an.l mould candles is equal parts 
of sheep «iti beef fat. Lard must 

'"cTndleberrt myrtle. 

Mvrica ttrifera. Abounds through 
tlif UnHed StWes. The berrie- — 
boiled ill water, and the wax 
to iho lop : it is eicelient fur — 
dies The labour is said not lo be 
repaid by the profits of their coUec- 

CANIS. The generic Mine of the 

dog species. See Dog. 

CANKER. A disease of the bark 
of old trees, or sncb as are in a 
trad situation. It is sometimes at- 
tended with an exudation of fluid, at 
others not. The bark gradually dies, 
falls off, and the wood becomes dry 
and dead. Judicious pruning, an 
application of resinous grafting ce- 
mcnt to all wounds, and tillage about 
the roots, are necessary. Young 
trees planted in old, cankered or- 
chaida, are soon infected. 

CANKER IN HORSES. The 
separation oflhehooffrom the fleshy 
parts of the leg, attended with a dis- 
eased growth. PressuTB and caus- 
tics are necessary, with real, for a 

CANKER-WORM. The caterpil- 
lars which infest and devour the buds 
of fruit-trees, especially those of the 
Gcamtira trumata. See Apjit Can- 

CANfJABIS SATIVA. Hemp. 
which see. 

CANTER. An artificial pace to 
which horses are broken. It is con- 
sidered much less fatiguing than the 
trot. 

CANTHARIDIS, The blistering 
lly, which see. 

CAOUTCHOUC. Indian rnhber, 

CAPERS. A prioklv shrtib ..f 
southern Krance nnd Italy, the Cap- 
•parit tpinnia. The young hiids arc 



daily stripped off and cast into strong 
vinegar Gtighlly salted, U> produce 
the commercial capers. "Oiey re- 
ceive a greenish tint from the use of 
copper sieves in separating the dif- 
ferent sized pickled buds for sale. 
The plant would grow well south of 
Maryland. It is highly orcBmenial 
for green -ho uses. 

CAPILLARY ATTRACTION. 
Some fluids rise in line glaes tubes 
much higher than their level. This 
eleviitiDn is said to be owing to ca- 
pillary attraction. It occurs to great- 
extents as the tubes are flnpr. and 
an affinity exerted by the sides of 
the glass upon the fluid. The cause 
has been shown lo be electrical, and 
depend upon the electrical condi- 
ns of the tube and fluid. If there 
no affinity, ihe fluid sinks. The 
nute tubes of plants assist in draw- 
ing up the sap by this attraction. 
CAPILLARY VESSELS (from 
ptilm, B Aair). The minute ves- 
sels which exist over every part of 
the bodies of animals and plants. 

CAPITULU-M. That species of 
iuflorescence in which Ihe flowers 
are grouped together into a head, bm 

CAPON. A male bird that has 
been castrated : it is increased in 
size thereby. 
CAPRIFICATION (frwm MpnjS- 
t,amidfig). The practice of prick- 
g the green fig with a piece of 
iek touched with olive oil, to hasten 
(? maturity. It is regulariy observ- 
iii the culture of the I^icvant figs. 



CAR 

CAPROIC ACID. One of the 
rancid acids of butter, having the 
smell of goats. Caphc acid is yery 
similar. 

CAPSICUM. The generic name 
of the Red pepper, which see. 

CAPSULE. In botany, a dry, 
membranous seed-vessel, generally 
splitting spontaneously into several 
parts, or valves. In chemistry, a thin 
porcelain, Wedgewood ware or me- 
tallic basin for evaporating fluids. 

CAPUT MORTUUM. An old term 
designating the dregs left in any 
chemical process. 

CARAWAYS. The seeds of Ca- 
rum carui. They should be free from 
dust, and strongly aromatic. Are 
used in confections and medicine. 
They are grateful to the stomach, 
and slightly stimulant. The seeds 
are sown in drills six inches apart, 
in April. The land must be good, 
rich loam. The plants must be weed- 
ed and hoed when young. They 
flower in June, and the seeds ripen 
in autumn. The roots are perennial, 
and yield well for three years. As 
much as twenty hundred weight of 
seed is taken from an acre in good 
tilth. They are an exhausting crop. 
Near London, coriander, caraways, 
and teazles are sometimes sown to- 
gether, twelve pounds of each being 
used. The coriander is cut in July, 
the caraway in July next year, and 
the teazles in August. 

CARBON. An elementary body, 
Ibund pure in anthracite and the dia- 
mond, and nearly pure in lamp-black 
and charcoal. It combines readily 
with oxygen, and burns, forming car- 
bon ie acid when air is abundant. Its 
equivalent is 6. It forms about half 
of the dry substance of all animal and 
vegetable bodies, and hence the char- 
coal they yield when heated in closed 
vessels. 

CARBONATES. Minerals or salts 
containing carbonic acid. These are 
aU readily known by the efTervesccnce 
they produce when thrown into strong 
acids. The principal native carbon- 
ates are marble, limestone, and ch<ilk, 
which are carbonates of lime. 

CARUONICACID. The gas form- 



CAB 

ed by burning charcoal in the open air. 
It is also given out from fermenting 
beer, dec, and putrefying bodies. It 
is colourless, heavy, incapable of sus- 
taining combustion, suffocating, and 
soluble in water. It is formed of 1 
atom of carbon (6) and 2 of oxygen 
(16), and unites with oxides in the 
proportion of 22. The air contain* 
4 to 6 parts in 10,000. Fertile soils 
containing vegetable matter give ft 
off during its decay. It is one of the 
principle articles of vegetable food : 
from the carbonic acid they obtain the 
carbon of their wood, sugar, and oth- 
er principles. Light decomposes it 
in plants, and a part of its oxygen is 
thrown out by the leaves. 

The dissolved carbonic acid in rain 
and spring water is invaluable in 
the soil, serving to disintegrate hard 
rocks, and dissolve minerals neces- 
sary for plants. It is this gas that 
gives sprightliness to beer, soda wa- 
ter, and Champagne. 

CARBONIC OJCIDE. An inflam- 
mable gas consisting of 1 atom car- 
bon and 1 oxygen. 

CARBONIFEROUS. Relating to 
coal. Coal bearing. 

CARBURETS. Compounds in 
which carbon is united with a metal 
or other body. Plumbago, cast iron, 
are carburets of iron. 

CARBURETTED HYDROGEN. 
Marsh gas, and the gas used foi light- 
ing cities. 

CARCINOMA. A cancerous tu- 
mour. 

CARDAMOMS. Tlie seeds of the 
Alpinia cardamomum of the East In- 
dies. They are aromatic. 

CARDIAC (from Kopdia^ the heart). 
Relating to the heart. 

CARDOON. The Cynara cardun- 
cuius. The stalks of the blanched 
inner leaves aremsed as salad, in 
soups, dec. The seed is sown in 
April, in rich earth ; it requires near- 
ly a month to start ; the plants 
must be thinned to five inches apart. 
Transplant in June, and allow four 
feet each way ; dress each plant like 
celery. As they grow, tie up the 
leaves, and earth up several times ; 
they may thus be obtained two feet 

131 



CAlt 

high. They are to be taken up du- 
ring vinter, like celery. They are 
in perfection from autumn through 
the winter. An ounce of seed pro- 
duces 600 young plants ; for seeds 
protect the plant, without any blanch- 
uig, through the winter, and it will 
flower in the following Jul^. 

CARDUUS. The generic name of 
numerous thistles. 

CAKEX. The genus of sedges and 
rashes. 

CARIES. Mortification or ulcerar 
tion of any hone. It gradually pro- 
duces the destruction of the part, and 
can only be arrested by scraping out 
every diseased portion. 

CARMINATIVE. Any medicine 
that dispels flatulency and relieves 
the uneasiness of the stomach. The 
best are caraways, ginger, anise seed, 
cardamoms, especially as tinctures, 
or dissolved in alcohol. 

CARNIVORA. The race of ani- 
mals that live on animal food. 

CAROB. A tree cultivated in 
Southern France for the pods it pro- 
duces. These contain a reddish pulp 
of a svireet, amylaceous nature, and 
are a foot long. They are used as 
food for men and horses. 

CAROTID ARTERY. The large 
arteries that carry red blood to the 
head. There is one on each side the 
neck, known by its strong pulsa- 
tions. 

CARPEL (from xapir^^, fruit). 
Each division or cell of a fruit is a 
carpel. The number of carpels, or 
carpellary leaves, is as the number of 
divisions in the pistil, which is the 
uppermost part of the carpel. 

CARROT. The DaiMriM carirfa im- 
proved by tillage, of the natural fam- 
ily Umbellifer<g. The carrot requires 
a deep, dry, sandy loam, which should 
be prepared by subsoiling ; they are 
also much improved by humus in the 
soil, and come best after a crop to 
which a heavy manuring has been 
given. The best fleld kinds are the 
white, the long red, the Altringham, 
and the orange ; of these the white 
is most prolific and valuable. The 
amount of seed is three to five pounds 
the acre ; it must be steeped well, or 



CAR 

kept in moist mould until it has ger- 
minated, and sown in drills one inch 
deep and one foot apart. For a full 
crop, April is the time of planting ; 
but a fair yield can be obtained by 
sowing immediately aAer wheat, or in 
June. The plants must be well work- 
ed, weeded, and thinned out to five 
inches ; but it is erroneous to pull the 
leaves for fodder. In October, or 
when the ground is .beginning to 
freeze, they can be raised by turning 
the earth from the roots by a plough, 
and drawing them by hand. They 
are to be topped, and stored in the 
cellar, or a proper barrow or camp ; 
they will keep well till spring. A 
good crop is 600 bushels ; but 400 is 
more common. There is no peculi- 
arity in garden culture, except that 
the early orange must be sown soon- 
er ; the long orange is the best fall 
crop. 

Expense of Cultivation. — Colonel 
Meacham, who succeeded in obtain- 
ing 1000 bushels of carrots per acre 
for several years, estimates the ex- 
pense per acre at ^35. This culture 
adapts the land admirably for wheat 
or barley. 

Value as Food, — ^It is extensively 
used in England, and to some extent 
in the Eastern and Northern States, 
as horse fodder, and is well adapted 
to oxen, hogs, dec The carrots should 
be boiled or steamed, or, if given 
raw, sliced with a vegetable cutter. 
According to Antoine's tables, 276 
pounds equal 100 of hay (see Fodr 
ders) ; they make twice as good fod- 
der as turnips, and nearly equal to 
potatoes. Carrots and hay are a 
good fodder for horses, or, when 
given alone, about fifty pounds pre- 
pared will be necessary each day. 
They are very fattening. 

Special Maimres. — The ashes of the 
carrot are, per cent., potash and so- 
da, 45 ; lime, 10 ; sulphuric acid, 2 7 ; 
phosphoric acid, 6- 14. It is, there- 
fore, remarkable for ita affinity for 
alkalies. Hence, ashes, common salt, 
and gypsum are eminently useful as 
manures. An abundance of well- 
rotted leaves and muck should be 
added. 



I 






CAR 



CAS 



Seeds. — These are procured by set- 
ting out fine roots in the spring. 

CART. Tlie one-horse two-wheel- 
ed carriage of h usbandmen. They are 
considered superior to the wagon by 
Scotch farmers. A cart load is gen- 
erally about thirty to thirty-five bush- 
els of manure. Mr. Rham remarks : 
"For agricultural purposes, various 
kinds of carts have been invented. 
The capacious tumbril for carting 
earth and dung, with broad wheels to 
prevent their sinking in sofl ground, 
is too generally known to require de- 
scription. The best constructed carts 
have iron axles with the ends or arms 
turned smooth, and very slightly con- 
ical. The boxes in the naves of the 
wheels, which receive the arms, are 
made of cast iron, and ground smooth, 
so as to require only a small quantity 
of grease or oil to make the wheels 
run easily, without allowing any play 
or side motion. It is usual to give 
the axle abend at the place where it 
enters the wheel, by which means 
the planes of the wheels are made to 
diverge from each other, and give 
more room for the body of the cart ; 
but this is decidedly wrong. It is 
clearly proved that the draught is 
least when the arms are quite hori- 
zontal ; and if the wheels are slightly 
dished, that is, if the spokes are driv- 
en into the nave obliquely, so as to 
throw the rim a little beyond the per- 
pendicular, the lower part of the 
spokos in each wheel will slightly di- 
verge, and give greater steadiness 
to the whole. When the axle is bent, 
the rim of a broad-wheeled cart must 
be slightly conical, in order that it 
may rest flat on the ground ; and it 
is easily proved that in this case the 
load is dragged on the road at every 
revolution, along a space equal toHhe 
difference between the greater and 
lesser circumference of the rim of 
the wheel, giving unnecessary work 
to the horses, and greatly injuring 
the roads. The light Scotch cart, 
drawn by one horse, is justly consid- 
ered as the most advantageous for 
transporting earth, limr, or dung, es- 
pecially in hilly countries. It is low 
and short, so that the horse draws 

M 



very near the centre of gravity, and 
there is little power lost by obliquity. 
The loads may be so adjusted as to 
bear more or less on the horse, ac- 
cording to the declivity ; and expe- 
rience has proved that more weight 
can be transported by a given number 
of horses, when each is attached to 
a single Scotch cart, than when three 
or four draw together, except it be on 
very level and hard roads, or when 
the horses move at a quick pace. 
The objection made to single-horse 
carts, that each requires a man to 
drive it, is obviated in Scotland, 
where the horses are trained to fol- 
low each other, and one man can at- 
tend to several carts and horses.** 

CARTHAMUS. See Safflower. 

CARTILAGE. The same as gris- 
tie. It is almost identical in compo- 
sition with skin, and yields, when 
perfectly dry, eighteen per cent, of 
nitrogen. Liebig regards it as pro- 
tein, combined with ammonia. 

CARYA. The generic name of 
the Hickory. 

CARYOPHILLOUS. Flowers like 
the pink and dove are so called. 

CASCARILLA BARK. A drug 
having tonic and aromatic qualities. 

CASEOUS. Relating to caseum. 

CASEUM. Pure curd of mUk. It 
is also found in beans, pease, and le- 
guminous plants, and in small quan* 
tity in most seeds. It differs from 
albumen and fibrin only in not being 
coagulated by beat, and containing 
more sulphur. Cheese is caseum, for 
the most part ; like other protein bod- 
ies, it is capable of sustaining life. 
When moist, it decays and putrefies 
like animal matter, but is preserved 
when dry, or prepared with salt. 

CASSAVA. The starch obtained 
from the roots of the Jatropha manikot 
of the West Indies. See Tapioca. 

CASTANEA. The generic nam© 
of the chestnut- tree. 

CASTOR-OIL PLANT. The Ri- 
cinus communist commonly called Pal' 
ma Christi from the leaves. In the 
East Indies it is a tree, but becomes 
an annual in the United States, and 
is cultivated as far north as New- 
Jersey, and abundantly in the West. 

133 



CAT 

Tbe Baeds are sown in hills like corn, 
and hoed until they are two feet high. 
The time of sowing is in April and 
May : the ground must be rich. The 
seeds are enclosed in capsules at the 
sumoiits, and are easily thrashed out. 
The crop is stated at twenty to twen- 
ty-iive bushels the acre. Tbe oil is 
separated in two difTerent ways : 1st. 
By boiling the bruised seeds enclosed 
in a bag, and skimming off the oil as 
it rises, and, finally, pressing tiie bag. 
2d. By heating the seeds in iron trays 
slightly, so as not to char, pressing 
under a screw, collecting tbe oil, 
and boiling in water, taking care to 
separate all the white parts, and re- 
serving the pure limpid oil only. This 
is placed in barrels. The seeds yield 
about one fourth of their weight of 
good oil. The price iluctuates con- 
siderably. 

CASTOR OIL. An admirable 
purge for animals, especially calves : 
four to six ounces is enough for a 
strong ox. It is now used for burn- 
ing and machinery, as well as for can- 
dles, when prepared by the separa- 
tion of the fluid parts from the stearin. 

CATALPA. The BiftnaniacaltUpa, 
a middling-sized tree, nearly fifty feet 
high, growing in the Middle States 
and South, remarkable for its large 
flowers and leaves. The wood is du- 
rable, and makes good posts and fen- 
ces, and is said, by Dr. G. B. Smith 
and others, to be more lasting than 
locust or mulberry. It grows very 
rapidly. 

CATARACT. In farriery, a dis- 
ease in the eyes of horses, in which 
the crystaline humour is rendered 
opaque, and the vision impeded or 
destroyed. The only certain method 
of cure in these complaints is to re- 
move the lens by means of extract- 
ing or couching. By the first-men- 
tioned operation, an incision is made 
into the eye through tbe white mem- 
brane, and the opaque lens taken out ; 
by the second, it is depressed by the 
point of a couching needle thrust into 
the eye, and, being carried to the low- 
er part of the chamber of the eye or 
vitreoQS humour, it is lefl there to be 
absorbed. The first operation is the 

134 



CAT 

more eflfective, but the more haznd- 
ous of the two, owing to the inflam- 
mation which succeeds. The second 
is tedious and sometimes fails, but it 
is less free from the risk of inflam- 
mation. 

CATARRH. A cold. The irrita- 
tion of the mucoos membrane of the 
nostrils. 

CATCH-DRAINS. The lower 
aitches of irrigated lands, which re- 
ceive the water that has flowed over 
their surface, and return it to the 
stream. 

CATECHU. A drug of a very as- 
tringent or binding nature. It is also 
used in dyeing browns and in tanning. 

CATERPILLAR. The worm, or 
larva, which is hatched from the eggs 
of butterflies and moths. They are 
peculiarly obnoxious, from feeding on 
the leaves, fruit, and bark of trees. 
The most effective method of exter- 
minating them is to keep the tree 
regularly cleaned by washing with 
lye, brine, soft soap, and removing 
every appearance of cocoon or net- 
work about the branches. The ap- 
plication of strong hartshorn to the 
caterpillar nests is practised by Mr. 
Pell with great success. Lime is also 
very hurtful to them. Caterpillars, 
after a season, depending on their 
species, either spin a cocoon and re- 
tire therein to change into a grub, or 
burrow into the earth or trees, and 
undergo a transformation therein. 
The grub changes in spring to a but- 
terfly or moth, which lays some five 
hundred eggs, which in a few days 
become caterpillars : thus, in three 
generations, if untouched, thirty mill- 
ion worms are produced. 

CATHARTICS. Medicines pro- 
ducing increased defecation. Aloes, 
castor oil, senna, jalap, Glauber 
salts, Epsom salts, calomel, are the 
principal cathartics. They should be 
used very sparingly, as they produce 
habitual costiveness after a time. 

CATKIN. A pendulous spike of 
flowers, which falls after a seasun, as 
in the willow. Amentum is the more 
common designation. 

CATSUP. Mushroom catsup is 
readily made by placing a bushel or 



L — 



CAT 



CAT 



more ]mme mushrooms in a tub with 
sufficient salt to cover them slightly, 
aod adiling water enough to cover the 
whole. The brine becomes bjack and 
well-flavoured in a week, wnen the 
mushrooms must be thoroughly press- 
ed, and the whole liquor bottled and 
sealed. It is improper to add pepper 
or spices. 

CATS-TAIL GRASS. An Eng- 
lish name for timothy and other grass- 
es of the genus Pkeum. 

CATTLE. In its most extensive 
sense, the word cattle denotes all the 
lar^ger domestic quadrupeds which are 
used for draught or food. In the usu- 
al acceptation of the word, it is confi- 
ned to the ox, or what are called black 
cattle, or horned cattle. But as many 
varieties are not black, and several 
have no horn!?, the name of neat cat- 
tle \B more appropriate. The rearing 
and feeding of cattle are very impor- 
tant branches of agricultural industry. 
Much of the success of a farmer de- 
pends on the judicious management 
of live stock, without which his land 
cannot be maintained in a proper state 
of fertility. The breeding and fatten- 
ing of cattle are generally distinct oc- 
cupations. It is of the greatest im- 
portance to the breeder, as well as to 
the grazier, to ascertain the qualities 
of each different breed of cattle, to de- 
termine which is best suited to his 
purpose, and which will bring him the 
greatest profit. 

The different British and Irish 
breeds have been generally distin- 
guished from each other by the length 
of the horn. The long-horned breed 
is supposed by many to be indigenous. 
Others consider the middle homed as 
the old breed- The former was chief- 
ly found in a district of Yorkshire call- 
ed Craven, and was greatly improved 
by the skill of Robert Bakewell, of 
IHshley Farm, in Leicestershire, and 
hence they are called the Dishley 
breed. The distinguishing characters 
of this breed are, long Lorns growing 
downward from the side of the head, 
and ending in straight points parallel 
to the jaw. In order to give an ade- 
quate idea of the qualities of this im- 
proved breed, we must consider what 



breeders and graziers call the tiaa 
point* of an ox. These are certain 
forms and appearances, which are ei- 
ther anatomically connected with a 
perfect conformation of the body, and 
especially of the organs of respiration 
and of digestion, or which are con- 
stantly associated with the peculiar 
qualities of certain breeds, so as to be 
proofs of their purity. Of the first 
kind are, a wide chest, well-formed 
barrel, strong and straight spine, hip- 
bones well separated, and length of 
quarter, all which can be proved to 
be essential to the perfect functions 
of the body. Small and short bones 
in the legs give firmness without un- 
necessary weight. A thick skin, well 
covered with hair, ensures proper 
warmth, and its soft, loose feel indi- 
cates a good coat of cellular substance 
underneath, which will readily be fill- 
ed with deposited fat. All these are 
indispensable points in an ox which 
is to be profitably fatted, and, what- 
ever be the breed, they will always 
indicate superiority. Other points, 
such as colour, form of the horns, 
shape of the jaw, and setting on of 
the tail, with other particulars, are 
only essential in so far as experience 
has observed them in the best breeds, 
and as they are indications of pure 
blood. The eye is of great imp|or- 
tance ; it should be lively and mild, 
indicating a healthy circulation, with 
a gentle and almost indolent temper. 
An animal that is not easily disturbed 
will fatten rapidly, while one that is 
restless and impatient will never ac- 
quire flesh. Among the ancients, a 
deep dewlap was considered as a 
great beauty in an ox. In some of 
our best breeds there is scarcely any. 
The rump of the Freyburgcows rises 
high towards the tail, while a straight 
back, from the neck to the tail, is in- 
dispensable in a well-bred British ox. 
Having established a breed which 
has many superior qualities, attention 
is paid to maintain its purity ; and to 
those who cannot ascertain the pa- 
rentage, certain marks are satisfacto- 
ry proof of purity of blood. The new 
Leicester oxen were noted for the 
sraallness of the bone and their apti- 

135 



CATTLE. 
Ftf.i. 



tude to fatten {Fig. 1). Their Ueah 
was fine-grained, the fat being well 
Intermixed in the muscles. At the 
time when tiakewell died, about 1795, 
no other breed could be brought into 
compulition with his improved lung- 
horns. But whether hi. 
have not paid the aiiae 
keep up tlie qualitiei of the breed, or 
it hag degcoerated in cmnparison, 
they have aince lost much of Iheir rep- 
utation, and the short-homed breed 
has now the superiority. Good long- 
horned cattle arc, however, occasion- 
klly seen in the midland counties. 
One defect of the breed was, that the 
cows gave but little milk j and this 
may be ttie reason for now preferring 
the shtH't-horns. The Teeswater or 
Holderaess breed of cattle {Fig. S) 
ng.l. 



was produced liy the importation of 
cows froin Holstein or Holland, and 
careful breeding and crossing. Thpy 
now much excel the original einck. 
The principal improver of the Tees- 
walpr breed was Mr. Charles Collins. 
By his care a breed has been produ- 
ced which is unrivalled for the dairy 
and for fattening readily. Alinost e*- 



136 



erygood breed now in existence tra- 
ces its pedigree to his bulls, especial- 
ly one of the fiist he used, called ffui- 
iect. The famous ox exhibited thir- 
ty years ago, under ilie name of the 
Durham ox, was of ihU breed. By 
careful crossing with a Gallowaycow, 
an improved breed was produced, 
which was in snch repute that, at a 
sale of Mr. CoUins's stock of short- 
horns, October 11, )S10, a famous 
bull, called Comci, sold for 1000 guin- 
eas, and 49 lots of bulls, cows, and 
calves realised i7116 17..— (Library 
o/ Uteful KaaaUige, "Cattle," page 
S33.} The short-horned catdc(#V' 3} 



are mostly tiglit coloured, some quite 
white, but most are speckled with red 
and white, without any large:, distinct 
spots. The hornsare veryshori. In 
the cow, the points turn inward tcb 
wards each other. Some oflhe finest 
bulls have merely a lip of a horn 
standing out from each side of the 
forehead. In the carcass they hare 
every point which we have berora 
enumerated as essential to perfection. 
From numeroas importations of 



SnrhamB, this breed is nmr diffused 
iota many parts of the United States, 
eapecially New-Y<»'k, Penrwylvania, 
ud Kentucky. 

Beeidea the two breeds above men- 
tioneil, there are eeveral in great re- 
pute in particalar districts, which al- 
most dispute tbe superiority with the 
ahoit-boms. Of Ibese, the Devon- 
shire breed is the haaiisomeat. The 
oulouT of this breed is invariably r«d, 
nitb a very fioe head, smalt bone, 
aod glassy bide. The men, alihaugti 
Bot SO bea*j as sraue, are Ibe best 
for the plougii on light lands ; they 
walk nearly as fast as horses, and 
will work almost as well in pairs. 
The cows IFig. i) are good milkers, 



any deficiency in quantity being made 
op by the richness of the cream. The 
oxen fatten readily, and th^r flesh is 
Of thebestqiMlity. 

It is supposed that the fine oxen 
of New-England are derived from this 
breed. 



The Sussex breed is only diatin 
guished from the Devon by being 
rather stronger, and not so 6ae in 
the head and horn. 

The Herefordshire breed is larger 
and heavier than either of the prece- 
ding, the horns longer, and more 
turned outward ; the colour is red, 
but the helty aed the face are gensr- 
ally while, and there is often a while 
stripe along the back. This breed has 
many excellent itualities, and fattens 
well; lhecows(F;^.5)areorusefor «■ 



tlie dairy, bat yield only a small qoaii- 
tity ofmilk. The Herefordshire oxen 
are best suited lo the rich pastures 
of their native county, where they 
grow to a great size, and increase 
fast. These are the principal Eng- 
lish breeds. 

The principal indigenous Scotch 
breeds are the Weal Highland, the 
Galloway, the Angus, and the Shet- 
land. There ia a doubt whether the 
Ayrshire (Fig. 6) should be classed 



among the pure Scotch cattle. Their have very good qualities, and are ei 

peal resemblance to the short-horn cellent for the dairy or for slBlling. 

inallbutthesizeleadsonetosnppose A great many cattle are bred i 

that they are a cross of a smaller the various islands which lie on th 

breed by a sUort-horD buU, but they western coast of Scotland, Theyai 

Ms 187 



CATTLE. 



mostly of a small, black breed, oaBed 
Kyloes. They are very hardy, and, 
when brought into good pasture, fat- 
ten rapidly, and produce the finest 
and best-flavoured beef. They are 
found in the greatest perfection in 
the Isle of Skye, and are aent annu- 
aSyin large droves from their native 
islands, and dispersed through Scot- 
land and England. If they do not 
produce so great a weight of beef as 
many other breeds, they always bring 
the highest price in the market, and 
require but a very short time to get 
fat. The Galloway is a peculiar 
breed, which has many good quali- 
ties: it has no horns; the body is 
compact, and the legs short ; and few 
breeds can vie with the Galloway 
oxen and heifers in aptitude to fatten. 
There is a peculiar roundness in all 
the parts of the body, which makes 
the animal look well in flesh even 
when he is lean. The akin is loose, 
and the hair soft and silky to the 
touch. They are mostly black, but 
some are of a dun colour, which shows 
a connexion between this breed and 
the polled Suffolk ; it is only the col- 
our whieh distinguishes them. Many 
of the Galloway heifers are spayed, 
and get very fat at an early age. The 
Galloway cows are not very good 
milkers, in which respect they differ 
from the Suffolk, but their milk is 
very rich. 

The Angu* doddU is also a polled 
breed, and has been long in repute. 
It is probably a variety of the Gallo- 
way, to which it bears a strong re- 
semblance, but it has been found in 
Angus from time immemorial. 

I'hese are the principal breeds of 
cattle in Britain. By selecting those 
which are best suited to each situation 
and pasture, the industrious farm- 
er may add considerably to his prof- 
its, and, at the same time, enrich his 
land with the manure. In purchas- 
ing cattle, it is very necessary that 
the age should be readily ascertained: 
the surest mode of doing this is by 
examining the teeth. A calf has 
usually two front teeth when he is 
dropped, or they will appear a day or 
two after hia birth ; in a fortnight he 

188 



will have fbnr, in three weeks aiZy 
and at the end of a month eight 
After this, these milk-teeth, as they 
are called, gradually wear, and faU 
out. and are replaced by the second 
and permanent teeth. At two years 
old the two middle teeth are replaced ; 
the next year there will be four new 
teeth in all ; at four years there are 
six permanent teeth, and at Ave the 
whole eight are replaced. The milfe* 
teeth do not always fall ont, but are 
sometimes pushed back by the see- 
ond set ; and in this case they should 
be removed with an instrument, a» 
they impede mastication and irritate 
the mouth. After six years old the 
edges of the toeth begin to wear flat, 
and as they wear off the root of the 
tooth is pushed up in the socket, and 
the width of the teeth is diminished, 
leaving interstices between them: 
this begins in the middle teeth, and 
extends gradually to the comers. 
At ten years old the four middle 
teeth are considerably diminished^ 
and the mark worn out of them. Af- 
ter fifteen years of age few cows can 
keep themselves in condition by pas- 
turing, but they may continue to give 
milk, or be fattened by stalling and 
giving them ground food. Horned 
cattle have rings at the root of their 
horns, by which the age may also be 
known. I'he first ring appears at 
three years of age, and a new one is 
formed between it and the scuU ev« 
ery year after. But this mode of 
ascertaining the age is not so sure 
as by the teeth, deception being much 
easier by filing off the rings. 

In order to learn by experience 
what breed of cattle is most profita- 
ble, it is very advantageous to weigh 
them occasionally and note their in- 
crease. Experience has shown the 
proportion between the saleable quar- 
ters and the offal in different states 
of fatness, and tables have been con- 
structed by which the nett weight 
is found by mere inspection. Multi- 
plying the live weight by 605 gives 
a near approximation to the neat 
dead weight in an ox moderately fat 
and of a good breed. When an ox 
is fat, his weight may be very nearly 



CATTLE. 



g]M8B«d bgr meMVring bis nrth im- 
mediately behind the fore legs, and 
the length from the tip of the shoal- 
der to the perpendicular line which 
touches the hinder fiarts, or to a wall 
against which the animal is backed. 
The square of the girth in inches and 
decimals is multiplied by the length, 
and the product multiplied by the de- 
cimal '238. This gives the weight 
of the four quarters in stones of four- 
teen pounds. This rule is founded 
on the supposition that there is a 
oertain proportion between the nett 
weight of the quarters and that of a 
cylinder, the circumference of which 
is the girth, and the axis the length, 
taken as above. The proportion has 
been ascertained by observation and 
repeated comparison. The measure- 
ment will, at all events, indicate the 
proportional increase during the pe- 
riod of fattening. 

Cattle are not subject to many dis- 
eases if they have plenty of food and 
good water, and are kept clean. Air 
is essential to them; and although 
cows will give more milk, and oxen 
will fatten better when kept in warm 
stalls in winter, they are both less 
subject to diseases when they arc 
kept in open yards, with merely a 
shelter from the snow and rain. 

The most economical mode of 
feeding cattle is evidently by allow- 
ing them to seek their food on com- 
mons and uncultivated pastures, but 
it is only in particular situations that 
it is the most advantageous. Cattle 
fed on commons add little to the 
stock of manure, except when they 
are kept in the yards or stalls in win- 
ter; even then their dung is of little 
value if they are merely kept alive 
on straw or coarse hay, as is gener- 
ally the case where the stock is kept 
on commons or mountains in sum- 
pier. When they feed in enclosed 
and rich pastures, their dung falling 
in heaps on the grass does more harm 
than good. The urine fertilizes the 
soil in wet weather when it is dilu- 
ted, but in dry weather it only burns 
np the grass. If we calculate w^hat 
would be the amount of dung collect- 
ed if the cattle were kept in yards or 



staUes, and fed with food cnt for 
them and brought there, and also the 
loss of grass by treading on the pas* 
tures, we shall have no doubt wheth- 
er the additional labour of cutting the 
grass and bringing it home daily is 
not amply repaid by the saving ; but 
if we also take into account the va- 
riety of artificial grasses, pulse, and 
roots which may be grown with ad- 
vantage on land unfit for permanent 
grass, and the quantity of arable land 
which may thus be kept in the high- 
est state of cultivation, we shall be 
convinced that the practice of those 
countries where the cattle are con- 
stantly kept at home is well worthy 
of imitation. It may be of use to the 
health of the animals to be allowed 
to take a few hours* air and exercise 
in a pasture near the stable, but there 
is no advantage in their having any 
grass crop there ; on the contrary, 
the barer of grass the surface is, the 
better. They will relish their food 
better when they are taken in afler a 
few hours' fasting. A bite of fresh, 
short grass might, on the contrary, 
give them a dislike to their staler 
food. When cut grass is given to 
cattle in the stalls, it is best to let it 
lie in a heap for at least twelve hours 
before it is given to them. It heats 
slightly, and the peculiar odour of 
some of the plants, which oxen and 
cows are not fond of, being mixed 
with that of the more fragrant, the 
whole is eaten without waste. Ex- 
perience has shown that many plants 
which cattle refuse in the field, where 
they have a choice, have nutritious 
qualities when eaten mixed with oth- 
ers in the form of hay. There are 
few deleterious plants in good grass 
land or meadows, and these are read- 
ily distinguished and weeded out. 

The amount of hay, or its equiva^ 
lent, necessary to sustain oxen is 
about two per cent, of their weight 
daily ; when fattening, four per cent, 
is often given. The accumulation is 
seldom more than two and a half 
pounds daily in fattening. 

The quantity and quality of the 
dung of cattle which are stalled and 
well fed are so remarkable, that its 

199 



^ 



CAT 

Talae makes a consid^rabld deduc- 
tion from that of the food given, es- 
pecially of green food, such as clover, 
lucern, and every kind of leguminous 
plant : we shall not be far wrong if 
we set it at one fourth. This sup- 
poses a sufficient quantity of straw for 
litter, and an economical collection 
of the liquid parts in proper reser- 
voirs or tanks. In order to make the 
feeding of cattle advantageous, the 
buildings must be conveniently placed 
with respect to the fields from which 
the food is to be brought. Moveable 
sheds, with temporary yards, which 
can be erected in dijfiisrent parts of a 
large farm, according as different 
fields are in grass or roots, are a great 
saving of carriage, both in the bring- 
ing of food to the cattle and carrying 
the dung on the land. A clay bottom 
should be selected, in a dry and rath- 
er high spot, if possible. But if per- 
manent buildings for cattle, con- 
structed of rough materials and 
thatched with straw, were erected 
in the centre of about forty acres of 
arable land, in different parts of a 
large farm, it would probably be a 
great saving in the end. 

Good water is most essential to 
the health of cattle, and that which 
has been some time exposed to the 
air seems the best for them. When, 
they are fatted in stalls on dry food, 
they should always have a trough of 
water within reach. A piece of rock- 
salt to lick, or some salt given vith 
their food, is highly conducive to 
their health, and will restore their 
appetite when it begins to flag. Rub- 
bing the hide with a wisp of straw 
or a strong brush, as is done to hor- 
ses, may appear a useless labour, but 
it is well known that there is no bet- 
ter substitute for that exercise which 
is essential to health. Where labour 
is not regarded, as is always the case 
when the owner of the cattle attends 
upon them himself, the curry-comb 
and the brush are in regular use, and 
the advantage derived from the use 
of them is undeniable. 

Where the farmer distils a spirit 
from his grain, it is a great advan- 
tage to have a distillery attached to 

140 



CAT 

his establishment, especially io a T»* 
mote situation ; and not only is th^ 
fattening of cattle on the refuse of 
the distillation a source of proflt, but 
the manure extends fertility around. 
The produce in spirits and in cattle 
is easily transported to a great dis^ 
tance, and almost the whole of what 
is produced by the land returns to it 
in the shape of manure. The same 
may be said of the manufaetare of 
sugar from beet-root, which has beet 
lately so much extended in the north 
of France. 

CATTLE, DISEASES OF. Se* 
Ox. 

CATTLE, NATIVE. Much dis- 
cussion exists as to the propriety of 
importing cattle from abroad, or un- 
dertaking an improvement of the na- 
tive. The fine steers of New-Eng- 
land are said to be descended from 
the Devon stock, and retain many of 
their traits, while they are improved 
in milking qualities ; but most of the 
other native stock is small, and infb* 
rior to the choice English breeds. 
But the size is probably due to the 
carelessness with which they are 
treated, and argues no inherent de- 
fect, in proof of which it may be sta- 
ted that the New- York butchers pre- 
fer native animals for the shambles ; 
and many instances may be quoted 
of cows yielding as much milk as 
even the Durham breed. The estab- 
lished foreign breeds are already 
brought up to a state of excellencOi 
while our cattle are unimproved, and 
the occasional existence of fine ani- 
mals is enough to guarantee high 
perfection when they shall be regu- 
larly bred. See Breeding'. 

Since, however, so many Durham 
bulls have been introduced into New- 
York, Pennsylvania, and Kentucky, 
it is very useful to obtain a cross 
with the native cow to increase the 
milking and fattening qualities, and 
also to advance in the process of 
improvement by using the best for- 
eign blood ; at the same time, a per- 
manent and extensively diffused 
choice breed cannot be expected un- 
til our own stock are looked to in 
part at least : this is the proper way 



CAU 



CEB 



of securing a race suited to our cli- 
mate and pasture. To attain this ob- 
ject, the prominent agricultural so- 
cieties have ofibred prizes at their 
iairs for improved native stock. 

CAUDATE (from catida, a tail). 
Furnished with a tail-like appendage. 

CAUDEX. The body of a root. 

CAULIFLOWER. An improved 
cabbage, the flowers of which form 
a mass of great delicacy. The va- 
rieties cultivated in the United States 
are the early vhiUf late white j and pur- 
ple. Sow the seed in September in 
clean* rich soil, prick out in five 
weeks, aad set in another bed four 
inches each way. As soon as the 
weatber is cold, set a fVame about 
the seedlings, and in winter protect 
with dung outside, <&c., so as to keep 
out frost, but let in plenty of air and 
light. Early in March set out under 
hand frames, or in pots in the green- 
house. When the weather is set- 
tled, put out, with balls of earth at- 
tached, in the richest spot, two and a 
half feet each way. They must be 
hoed, earthed up, and watered, if ne- 
cessary. Trim off the outer leaves 
as the cauliflower forms ; they will 
be mature in June. This is the best 
way, but plants may be sown in hot- 
beds in Februanr, or even in May, in 
the open air. iTiey are, however, in- 
tolerant of cold and heat, and form 
smsdl hearts during the summer. 
Those planted in May flower in Oc- 
tober. An ounce of good seed yields 
from three to four thoasand plants. 
Cauliflowers left for seed must be 
kept away from any other cabbage 
variety, and the seeds collected as 
rapidly as they ripen. 

CAULIS (from kovXoc). A stem. 
From this word comes cauliferous. 

CAUSTIC. Any application that 
destroys the flesh or skin to which 
it is applied. ' The most powerful 
caustics are hmar caustic (nitrate of 
silver), red precipitate (nitrate of mer- 
cury), catLstic potash: blue stone is 
also used. Sometimes a solution of 
blue stone or lunar caustic is applied 
to stimulate an ulcer or dowly re- 
move excessive growth. Caustics 
are chiefljr used to subdue irregular 



growths of flesh, and to destroy ol* 
cers 

CAUSTIC, LUNAR. Nitrate of 
silver, sold in sticks, ready for use as 
a caustic ; when used in sokitioo, ten 
grains are mixed with an ounce of 
water. 

CAUTERY, or ACTUAL CAU- 
TERY. The application of a red-hot 
iron to a diseased part, as fungous 
growths, dec. It is too often used 
injudiciously. 

CAVIARE. The salted roe of the 
sturgeon, prepared and dried. It is 
an unwholesome food used in Russia. 

CEDAR. There are two species 
of Cupresaus known in the forests of 
the United States under the names 
of black cedar, or cypress (C. disti- 
eha\ and the white cedar (C. thyoide*). 
They both yield good timber. 

The C. ditticha is abundant in the 
swamps of Virginia and the South, 
and forms the only tree in immense 
swamps on the Mississippi. In these 
localities it often rises 130 feet, and 
attains 80 to 40 feet girth at the earth, 
running up like a cone. The wood 
is extremely durable, and in high re- 
pute for shingles and posts. It is fell- 
ed in winter, and allowed to dry thor- 
oughly before being split. The trees, 
which grow, in a great measure, in 
water, have light barks, and are call- 
ed white cypress, while those of drier 
soils are' called black cypress, and yield 
a firmer and more resmous wood. 

The white cypress, C. thyoides, is ev- 
ergreen, grows seldom 70 feet high, 
4ind is alK>ut three feet in diameter. 
It is abundant in New-Jersey, Mary- 
land, and Virginia, but not farther 
south. It inhabits salt and other 
marshes in dense forests. The wood 
is light, soft, of a rosy colour, aromat- 
ic, easily worked, and very durable. It 
is used by turners, and forms the most 
valuable shingles, sometimes called 
juniper shingles, which last 35 years. 

CEDAR OF LEBANON, Aides 
eedrus. A tree of immense dimen- 
sions, value, and beauty, native on 
the Lebanon Mountains. It is natu- 
ralized in Europe, and is a splendid 
ornament in English parks. The 
wood is very durable. It may be coL 

141 



CEL 



CEN 



tivatcd with ease in the United States 
as an oroament. 

CKDAR,KED. The Juniperus Vir- 
ginian* is so called ; it is found on 
the sea-coast from Maine to the Gulf 
of Mexico ; attaining, in the South, 
40 feet, but is small inland. It is ev- 
ergreen and ornamental. The wood 
is very durable, light, and odorous, 
red m colour, hut scarce in quantity : 
the best is from Florida. 

CELERY. The improved small- 
age, or Apium grawderu. Several 
varieties are cultivated; the white 
solid is the best for the table, the red 
solid for cooking ; North's giant, new 
tehUcn lion's paw, and celeriac {A, ra- 
paceum) are also raised ; the last pro- 
duces a root like the turnip, which is 
sliced, and eaten with vinegar. Ear- 
ly celery may be raised from seeds 
sown in a cold bed, like cabbages. 
The general crop is sown in March 
or April, in a rich border, protected 
from great heat. The drill is the best, 
run six inches apart. Transplant, 
when three inches high, into rich 
soil, and after a month into trench- 
es dug one spade deep, ten inches 
wide, and four feet apart. Place at 
the bottom of each trench three inch- 
es of rotten dung, and mix it well 
with the soil ; leave the earth taken 
out piled up between the trenches, to 
be aAerward filled in as the plants 
grow. Trim the roots and side leaves 
of the celery before setting in the 
trench, and pkice them four to six 
inches apart. Sometimes two or 
more rows are planted in one wide 
trench. As the plants grow in the 
trenches, hoe them, and when well 
grown to one foot high begin to earth 
in ; this must be done when the soil 
is dry. Place a board against tiie 
plants, and throw in soil enough to 
reach nearly to the central bud ; do 
this on each side and along the row. 
Earth up every two weeks, as the 
celery grows, taking care to collect 
together the leaves each time. When 
blanched for thirty inches it is fit for 
use. Late winter celery may be put 
in trenches in August, and earthed in 
October. Market gardeners plough 
out their trenches, increasing the du- 
142 



tance between them. One ounce of 
seed yields upward of ten thousand 
plants. The winter store is kept rn 
sand, and covered with straw ; sud- 
den thawing destroys the celejry. If 
the whole root is taken up uncut, 
the stump, after cutting off the head, 
will again sprout in a warm cellar, 
and yield a second supply of small, 
but very sweet and tender celery. 
Seeds are readily obtainedH:>y leaving 
a few plants in the seed-bed, which 
will flower in July, and bear an abun- 
dance of seeds in umbels. 

CELL. In physiology, the mi- 
nute cavities in plants and mem- 
branes : the size differs from the one ' 
thousandth to the one hundredth of 
an inch. It may contain air, or fluids 
and solids. The cell is the first struc- 
ture of all membranes, but subse- 
quently it may be converted into a 
tube. They are originally spherical, 
but become changed by pressare into 
cubes, dodecahedrons, and other fig- 
ures. 

CELLULAR TISSTTE. The mem- 
brane or tissue in plants and ani- 
mals which consists of cells contain- 
ing gas chiefly, as the pith. It exists 
between all muscles, and under the 
skin in animals. 

CEMENT. A Mortar, which see. 

CEMENTATION. A process of 
making steel, by surrounding plates 
of iron with charcoal powder and 
heating to a high point. 

CENTIGRADE. A division into 
one hundredths, as the centigrade 
thermometer. 

CENTIPEDE. Creeping, wing- 
less insects with many feet : they at- 
tack the dead roots of plants. 

CENTRE OF GRAVITY. An 
imaginary point in the centre of any 
mass which has the same weight ot 
matter arranged on at least two sides. 
When any substance is balanced on 
a point, as the finger, the centre of 
gravity lies immediately above that 
point. In falling to the earth, all sub- 
stances take such a path that the 
centre of gravity descends in a 
straight line. No object can remain 
firm except a line drawn from the 
centre of gravity to the earth &U 



CHA 



CHA 



within its base ; the instant it falls 
on the outside the body tumbles over. 

CENTRIFUGAL (from centrum, 
the centre, and fugio, I retreat). Used 
in botany to describe an inflorescence 
in which the uppermost or central 
flowers bloom first. 

CENTRIPETAL (from centrum 
and petro, I seek). That inflorescence 
in which the outermost or luwest 
buds develop first : it is the most 
common. 

CEPHALIC (from ^e^oAjy, a head). 
Relating to the head. 

CERACEOUS (from c«ra, w«:). In 
botany* waxy. 

CERASIN. The gum of the cher- 
ry and other trees, which does not 
dissolve, bat swells in water ; it is 
the same as bassorin. 

CERATE. An ointment contain- 
ing wax. 

CEREALIA. A term applied to 
wheat, barley, rye, oats, corn, millet, 
or grain plants. 

C E R I N. That portion of wax 
which dissolves in boiling alcohol. 

CERUMEN. The wax formed in 
the ears of animals. An accumula- 
tion produces deafness, that may be 
partly cured by syringing the ears 
with tepid water. 

CERUSE. White-Uad, which see. 

CERVICAL (from cervix, the neck). 
Belonging to the neck. 

CESPITOSE, CESPITOSUS 
(from cespest a turf). Producing 
inaoj stems from one root. 

CHAFF. The husks of grain or 
straw cut in small pieces. 

CHAFF ENGINES. The English 
name for Straw-cutters, which see. 

CHALCEDONY. A semi-transpa- 
rent, silicious mineral, usually milky 
and nodular. 

CHALDRON. A measure of 86 
bnshels, heaped. 

CHALK. A geological formation 
abonnding in Europe, but absent in 
the United States. It belongs to the 
uppermost portions of the secondary 
formation, and consists of a large pro- 
portion of carbonate of lime. 

CHALYBEATE. Medicines or 
miaeral waters containing iron : they 
are tDfiie. 



CHAMOMILE. AnthemU nohitU. 
The flowers are used in medicine as 
a bitter; or an extract is made of 
their boiled liquor. See Camomile. 

CHAMPIGNION. The French 
name for mushrooms ; also the Aga- 
rirae orcades, an English sppcies, 
tougher, but more highly flavoured 
than the common mushroom ; it is 
good when dried, and used in powder 
as a condiment, or made into catsup. 

CHANGE OF SEED. Practical 
men have discovered that highly im- 
proved seeds, especially of wheat, 
com, dec, brought from a distance, 
gradually deteriorate if the soil is un- 
suited. Thus, the white May wheat 
becomes red on the red soils of Vir- 
ginia ; the delicate six weeks' corn 
of Canada becomes a three months* 
hard corn in the South. General 
Harmon has shown that many of the 
choicest English wheats produce im- 
perfect grain in New- York ; and it 
must be evident that whatever im- 
provement in plants and seeds has 
been attained by high culture, will be 
lost unless that culture is niaintaiiied. 
Instead, therefore, of changing seed, 
it is best to improve our own, and 
keep the land up to the proper tilth ; 
and if we introduce new varieties, to 
take care to introduce, also, high cul- 
ture. Seeds of the same slate, or a 
similar soil and climate, deteriorate 
less rapidly than foreign grain. By 
changing seed and always buying 
choice kinds, fine grain may be ob- 
tained for one or two seasons, even 
from indiflerent lands. 

CHARCOAL. Vegetable matter 
burned in a place without access of 
air. Near large cities a strong vine- 
gar (pyroligneous acid) is made from 
green wood, by distilling it in iron 
vessels ; flne charcoal remains in the 
vessel, and is thus obtained for com- 
bustion. On the farm, the produc- 
tion of charcoal must be on a cheaper 
and more wholesale scale. Logs of 
wood are piled either horizontally or 
vertically into a dome-shaped mass, 
a chimney being lefl in the centre 
about four or five inches square, and 
the rest covered close with sods and 
earth a foot deep, so that no smoke can 

I4d 



CHA 

escape through it ; a small flue or [ 
channel for air may also be left along 
the ground, under the wood, on ihe 
windward side, and passing to the 
central chimney : this in the simplest 
construction. Sometimes a pit or 
walled space is used, in which the 
wood is laid, flues being sunk to con- 
vey air to the bottom, and a central 
chimney left, the top being covered 
with earth, ashes, or cinders. The 
kiln is fired by placing in the central 
chicftney leaves, straw, or twigs well 
lighted, and allowing the draught to 
remain open until the upper logs of 
wood are well fired, afterward closing 
the under flue. As soon as the flame 
dies away, the wood being red-hot 
above, close the top of the chimney 
and let the fire smoulder. It requires 
from six to ten days to born a kiln, 
and constant attention must be paid. 
Hard wood requires most time. The 
average yield is 16 per cent, of coal, 
but hard woods, well burned, some- 
times furnish 25. Box, lignum vitae, 
mahogany, chestnut, and oak yield 
most. In this process, nearly all the 
carbon of the wood is left, the oxygen 
and hydrogen uniting in combustion 
to form water, and the object in view 
is to keep out atmospheric air, which 
would cause the combustion of the 
carbon also. 

Properties. — Charcoal possesses 
many remarkable properties. 1st. It 
has the power of removing fetid smells 
from water, meats, and manures ; 
hence it is used in disinfecting priv- 
ies and manures. 2d. It removes the 
colour of many fluids, and is used in 
clarifying juices and solutions, espe- 
cially in refining sugar. 3d. It is re- 
markably porous, and absorbs from 
the air and other media, gases: 1 
cubic inch of fresh box-wood was 
found by Saussure to absorb and con- 
dense 90 of ammoniacalga8,86 of car- 
bonic acid, 9i of oxygen, and 7J of 
nitrogen : this property gives it great 
value in putrescent composts, and as 
a manure. 4th. Charcoal is nearly 
unchangeable in common air at the 
ordinary temperature, but burns, 
when heated to redness, into car bon- 
ic actd, if abundance of air be present. 
144 



CHA 

5tb. Being a very bad condnctor of 
heat, it is used to lino refrigerators 
and small ice-houBca. 

A* a Manure. — Charcoal, in smaU 
lumps or coarse powder, has been 
highly recommended of late as a top 
dressing. About 40 bushels the acre, 
over grass lands, or among young 
plants, as turnips, has been known 
to produce a heavy increa.se. Its 
success will, however, depend upon 
the goodness of the soil, and its 
wants. Wherever an increased sup- 
ply of ammonia from the air is want- 
ing, the charcoal does good. The 
fresh- burned article also contains 
much saline matter, soluble in water. 
The best, and perhaps only advisable 
way of using it, is to compost the pow- 
der with night soil, urine, blood, and 
other putrescent bodies -, it tends to 
dry up the fluids, and retains the an^ 
monia formed during their decay. 
Such composts added to the soil, re- 
tain their virtue much longer than 
the bodies when used alone. The 
charcoal yields to roots of plants the 
gases it has absorbed. But it has 
been shown by numerous gardeners 
that charcoal powder, kept moist with 
rain water, is a good soil for many 
flowers, and capable of sustaining 
vigorous vegetation, and that slips 
take root readily in it. Besides its 
absorbent action, charcoal will loosen 
tough soils and increase their warmth 
by its black colour: it adds to the 
tilth by giving greater porousness. 

Great difficulty has been found in 
obtaining powdered charcoal ; this 
is readily obviated by crushing the 
lumps in a rough bark mill, which 
every farmer can set up with an old 
stone, turning around a post and 
pressing on a few flag-stones. See 
MiU. 

CHARCOAL, ANIMAL. BONE 
BLACK, IVORY BLACK. These 
terms are used chiefly to indicate 
bones charred by heat. It is prepa- 
red extensively for sugar refiners, be- 
ing much more valuable in remo- 
ving colours than common charcoal. 
Sometimes it is made by placing 
bones in an open iron vesspl and 
beating until they are suffiuiently 



CHE 



CHE 



kisfdi 4 but ifco movt ccoiiovlBiS wsy 
h to introdaco enished bones into 
von retorts and distiUing; by this 
mesns a strong fetid ammonia is ob- 
tained from tbem, which is verjr val- 
nable in the arts, and the bones 3neld 
move bone Mack. Common animal 
eharcoal contains 80 to 85 per cent, 
of piiospbate of lime and mineral 
aoatter. Tbe relnae of the sugar re- 
ftnera is a irery valaable manore, and, 
mixed with composts, moeh saperior 
to the recent bone blaeic, from the 
Buztore of blood and other pntres- 
•ent matters used. In France it is 
so highly esteemed, that purchases 
are made i«i New- York city for ex- 
portation to Havre, and the refuse 
is imitated by anifieial mixtmvs of 
powdered charcoal and bullocks* 
blood. It is of great service in pro- 
ducing Tigovotts growth, strong plants, 
and fine seeds. From 160 to 300 
pounds, in compost, are sufficient for 
an acre of land in high order : in gar- 
dens more is used. 

CHARD. A variety of Beef, whi6h 
aee. 

CHARLOCK. Several weeds of 
tbe Cruei/eron* family; difficult to 
extirpate except by mowing before 
they flower. They are annuals. 

CHARRING. Burning so aa to 
produce a crust of charcoal. It is a 
good way of preserving the botts of 
poets inserted in the ground or wet 
places. 

CHASE. A TOW of trees or hedge 
plants. 

CHAT POTATOES. A term in 
England ibr the small, imperfect po- 
tatoes, fit oaly for bogs. 

CHEAT, or CHESS. The BromM 
tecaUmu (see Bnmau). Supposed to 
be degenerate wheat by the ignorant. 
Tt is a troublesome grass, only to be 
extirpated by cleaning tbe grain thor- 
ongfaly of the chess seeds. It is 
called Damd occasionally in Eng- 
land. 

CHEESE. In making cheese 
there are oertain general principles 
whieb are essential, but slight varia- 
tions in the process prodace cheeses 
of very diAbrent qualities ; and al- 
though the -roost importaat cireom* 

N 



ataaee is the natm« of the pastmv ott 
which the cows are fed, yet much 
depends on the mode in which the 
different stages of the fabrication are 
managed ; and hence the great sup^ 
riority of the cheeses of particular 
districts or dairies over those of oth« 
ers, without any apparent differenoe 
in the pasture. By skill and great 
attention excellent cheeses are made 
in places where the pastures are not 
.considered so well adapted to pro- 
duce milk of a proper quality ; and in 
those ooantries where the cows are 
chiefly kept tied up in stalls, and are 
fed with a variety of natural and ar- 
tificial grasses, roots and vegetables, 
superior cheese is often made. 

The first process in making cheese 
is to separate the curd from the whey, 
which may be done by allowing the 
milk to become sour ; but the cheese 
is .inferior in quality, and it is diffi- 
cult to stop the. acid fermentation and 
prevent its running into the putrefap- 
uve. VariouB substances added to 
milk will soon separate the curd flrom 
the wiiey. All acids curdle milk. 
Muriatic acid, or spirits of salt, is used 
with snocess for this purpose in Hol- 
land. Some vegetables contain acids 
which readily coagulate milk, such as 
the juice of the fig-tree, and the flow- 
ers of the GaliMm iwnim, or yellow 
lady's bed straw, hence called eheess* 
rennet. Where better rennet cannot 
be procured, they may be substituted 
for the most natural cordler of milk, 
which is the prepared stomach of a 
sucking calf This rapidly coagn* 
lates the milk ; and the only difficul- 
ty is in keeping it from putrefaction, 
which begins fW>m the instant the 
stomach is taken from the calf. The 
preparation of the rennet^ as it is call- 
ed, is a most important part ef the 
process of cheese-making. The fol- 
lowing may be considered as the sim«- 
l^est, and perhaps the best. As soon 
as a sacking calf is killed the stom- 
ach should be taken out, and if the 
calf has sucked lately, it is all the bet- 
ter. Tbe outer skin should be well 
scraped, and all fat and useless mem- 
branes carefully removed. It is only 
(the iraier coat which most be pro- 

146^ 



CHEESE. 



TTifl vrmgtih*^ "*»"f ■^m'M 

be taken oat and ezamined ; and any 
•Qbataaoa besides card loDiid ia it 
ahoald be carefully removed. The 
•enin left in it should be pressed out 
with a doth. It should then be re- 
placed in the stomach with a large 
^aantity of the best salt. Some add 
a little alum and saltpetre ; others 
pat various herhs and spices, with 
the Tiew of giving the cheese a pe- 
ODliar flavour, but the plain, simple 
saltiag is sufficient. The shins, or 
veils, as they are called, are then put 
iato a pan, and covered with a satu- 
fated brine, in which they are soaked 
for some hours ; but there must be 
no more liquor than will well moisten 
the veils. They are afterward hung 
up to dry, a pieee of flat wood being 
pot crosawise into each to stretch 
them out. They should be perfectly 
dried, and look like parchment. In 
this state they may be kept in a dry 
place for any length of time, and are 
always ready for use. In some places, 
at the time of making cheese, a piece 
of a veil is cut oflT and soaked for 
some hoars in water or whey, and 
the whole is added to the warm milk. 
In other places, pieces of veil are put 
into a linen bag and soaked in warm 
water, until the water has acquired 
Bttffictent strength, which is proved 
by trying a portion of it in warm milk. 
The method employed in Switzerland 
ia as follows: A diy veil is taken and 
examined ; it is scraped with a knife, 
and where any veins or pieces of 
tough membrane appear they are re- 
moved. The whole surface is exam- 
ined and washed carefully, if any 
dust or dirt has adhered to it ; but 
otherwise it is only wiped with a 
cloth. A handful of salt is then put 
into It, and the edges of the veil are 
folded over and secured with a wood- 
en skewer stuck through it. In this 
state it forms a ball of about three 
inches* diameter, and is laid to soak 
twenty-four hours in a dish contain- 
ing about a quart of clear whey, which 
has been boiled, and all the curd 
taken out. The next day the veil is 
well squeezed, and put into fresh 
whay* tha fliat inflision being pat 
14e 



Hito a proper iPeseel ; uie aecead wt 
afterward mixed with it and bottled 
for use. Half a pint of this liquor, of 
a proper strength, is sufllcient to cur- 
dle forty gallons of mflk. Experience 
alone enaUea the dairyman to jndge 
ofthe strength of Ids rennet; ibrthis 
purpose he t^es in a flat ladle aome 
milk which haa been heated to about 
d6^ of Fabnenheit, and adds a email 
measure of rennet. By the rapiditf 
with which it curdles, and the form 
of the flakes produced, he knows its 
exact strength, and puta more or leaa 
into the caldron in which the milk ia 
heated for curdling. A simple instru- 
ment mi^t eaatly be iaveated by 
which the exact degree of atrength 
might be ascertaiaea, and a mle giv* 
en to guide the less experienced ; but 
as long as a man feels a superiority 
acquired by experienoe ahme, he ia 
not likely to encourage any contri- 
vance which would place others on a 
level with himself From this caoae 
even the thermometer haa not been 
introduced generally into any great 
dairy, nor have any certain rules been 
given to ascertain the exact heat re- 
quired in the milk, when the rennet 
is added, to form the best curd. 

Inhere are difiRsrent kindaof cheese, 
according to the mode of preparing 
it ; soft and rich cheeses are not in- 
tended to be kept long ; hard and dry 
cheeses are adapted to be kept and 
stored for provisions. Of the first 
kind are all cream cheeses, and those 
soft cheeses called Bath and York- 
shire cheeses, which are wM aa aoen 
as made, and if kept too long become 
soft and putrid. Stilton and Qruyera 
cheeses are intermediate; Parme- 
san, Dutch, Cheshire, Gloucester- 
shire, and aimiiar cheeses are in- 
tended for longer keeping. The 
poorer the cheese, the longer it will 
keep; and all cheese that is well 
cleared from whey and aafllcientlj 
salted will keep for years. The 
small Dutch cheeses called Edam 
cheeses are admirably adapted for 
keeping, and form an important arti- 
cle in the victualling of snips. 

The Gruyeft and Parmeamn cheeses 
only difller in the natore of the milk. 



MBoA m. the degne of 1mm ipven to 

the curd ia di&reoi padrts of Uie inro- 
oesB. Gruyeie cheese is eDitrelf 
made froin new milk, and Parmeaan 
from akumned niiilc In the first no- 
thing is added to give flaTour ; ia the 
latter saflTroa gives both colour and 
ilavoar: the process in both is ex- 
actly similar. A large caldron ia 
the shape of a bell, capable of hold- 
ing tsom 60 ta 120 gallons of raiUt, 
bangs froB an iron crane over a 
hearth where a wood fire is made. 
The milk, having been strained, is 
put into this caldron, and heated to 
nearly blood beat (Od"" to lOO""). It 
ia then turned off the fire, and some 
rennet, prepared as stated above, is 
intimately mixed with the warm milk 
by stirnog it with a fiat wooden 
skimming dish, which is turned round 
in the muk. A oiotb is then laid over 
the caldron, and in half an hour, more 
or less, the coagulum is formed. 
This is ascertain^ by pressing the 
skimming dish on the surface, when 
the whey will appear on Uk& part 
pressed. If it is longer than an hour 
in coagulating, the milk has been too 
cool, or the rennet not stroQg enough. 
The weather has a great infiuenoe on . 
the process of the dairy, and there is 
much yet to be learned by accurate 
observations with meteorological in- 
struments. When the curd is prop 
erly formed, it is cat horixontally in 
thin slices by the same skimming 
ladle. Each slice, as it is taken off, 
is phioed along the side of the cal- 
dron which is neasest to the opera- 
tor : by this means every portion of 
the curtl rises successively to the 
surface, and is sliced thin. The 
whole is then well stirred, and the 
caldron replaeedover the fire. Along 
sta$ with a small knob of hard wood 
at the endt and which has smaller 
cross pieces or sticks passed through 
holes in it at right angles to each 
other near the end, is now used to 
stir and break the curd, and the heat 
is raised to about 1 SS'^. The oaldron 
Is again swung off the fire, and the 
eonfis stirred with the staff; which 
ia moved round with a regular rota- 
lory motion. AAex stirring in tins 



manner neariy jm boon (to c«vd ii 
found divided into small dies about 
the size of a pea, which feel elastie 
and rather tough under the finger. 
The whey, of which a portion is rer 
moved oooastonaily, now floats at 
top, and the curd is collected in the 
bottom by giving a very rapid rota* 
Uury motion to the contents of the 
caldron by means of the staff. A 
doth is now introduced into the bot- 
tom, and all the curd collected over 
it ; it is raised by the four corners, 
and laid on an instrument like a small 
ladder, which is placed across the 
mouth of the caldron. Tlie whejf 
runs out through the doth, which is 
a common cheese-cloth woven with 
wide interstices ; and the curd in the 
cloth is placed in a shape or hoop 
made of a slip of wood four inches 
and a half wide, the two ends of 
which lie over each other, so that 
the diameter can be increased or 
lessened. A cord fixed to one end 
of the hoop is passed with a loop over 
hoops on the outer surface of the 
other end, and prevents the ring from 
opening more than is required. The 
curd is pressed into this ring with the 
hands, and the ends of the doth are 
folded over it. A round board, two 
inches thick, and strengthened by 
cross pieces nailed on it, is placed 
over the cord, and the presalet down 
upon it. 

The cheese-press is a simple long 
board or frame forming a lever, load- 
ed at one end and moving in a frame 
at the other ; it is lilted up by an- 
other lever connected with it, and let 
down on a strong stick, which stands 
with its end on the centra of the 
board last mentioned. The weight 
is thus easily removed or roplaced. 
The hoop containing the cheese is 
placed on a similar board, and from 
it the table of the pzess slopes to* 
wards a wooden trough, which re- 
ceives the whey as it runs out. In 
an hour after this the curd is ex- 
amined i the edges, which aro press- 
ed over the ring, are pared off, and 
the parings are put on the centre of 
the cheese ; a fresh cloth is substi- 
tuted, and Uie whole cheese is turned. 

147 



Th^ vHit, ^HMi o|MM fwdily br m- 
kooki^ the cord, bIIowb the cheese 
W oome out* ami is pvt en again and 
Ughteaed. This is repeated two or 
throe timee ia the day. la the evon- 
faig, a smaM portion of finely powdei^ 
ed salt ia mhhed on each side of the 
cheese, and it remaina hi the press 
tin the next morning. It ia now 
again nibbed with sidt, and placed 
on a shelf with a looee board under 
H. The wooden ring remaina on the 
eheeee for two or three days, and is 
Iben taken olT. This is the whole 
^oess. 

During the next six or eight weeks 
the cheeses are turned and wiped 
every day, and a small quantity of 
line salt is sifted on the snrlhce and 
robbed in with the hand until it will 
take no more. The cheese-room is 
always very cool, and little light is 
Admitted. A free cireulatiott of air 
is essential. The cheeses are in per- 
fection in about six months, and wfll 
keep two years. A quantity of elas- 
tic fluid is disengaged in the ripening, 
and forms those round cells whi^ 
ire a peculiar feature in these chees- 
es. The smaller and rounder the 
eeUs, the better the cheese is reck- 
oned. They should contain a clear 
salt liquor, which is called the tears ; 
when these dry up, the cheese loees 
its flavour. These particulars wiU 

Jive sny one unacquainted with the 
airy a toleraUe notion of the pro- 
cess of cheese-making in generaL 

In Ckuhite the making of cheese 
is carried on in great perfection, and 
the greatest pains are taken to ex- 
tract every paitide of whey. For 
this purpose, the curd is repeatedly 
broken and mixed, the cheeses are 
much pressed, and placed in wooden 
boxes which have holes bored into 
them. Through these holes sharp 
skewers are stuck into the cheese in 
every direction, so that no particle 
of whey can remain in the curd. The 
elastic matter formed also eeoapes 
through these channels, and the en- 
tire cheese is a solid mass without 
holes, which in this cheese would be 
looked upon as a great defect. The 
salt is intimately mixed with the 

MB 



evd, and not uieicfjF ifdihed nn fh# 
outside. This chedcs intemal fei^ 
mentailon, and previentn the Ibnna* 
tlnn of elastic matter. 

uisa ctftltff and Amnc vMttt^ttt eheev* 
es are similariy made, with tills dif* 
fimace, that the curd is not so often 
brAen, or the cheese skewered, and 
a portion of the cream is generally 
abstracted to mdm butter. After 
the curd has been separated ftom the 
whey and is broken fine, warm wafer 
is poured over it for the pmp o se of 
washing out any remaining whey, or 
perhape to dissolve any portion of 
butter which may have separated be- 
fore the rennet had eoagolated the 
milk ; for although cream adds to tha 
richness of cheese, butter tends to 
make it rancid. 

SiUttm cheese is made 1^ adding 
the cream of the preceding evening's 
milk to the morning's mlBcing. tIw 
cream should be intimately hioorpo* 
rated with the new mflk ; great at- 
tention should be paid to the tern* 
perature of both, and mudi of the 
quality of the bheeae depends on this 
part of the proceea. T» make this 
cheese in pisrfeetion, as much de- 
pends on the management of the 
cheese after it is made as on the 
richness of the milk. Each dairy 
has some peculiar method which is 
eonsidered best ; and it is certain that 
fliere is the greateet difibrence be- 
tween cheesee made in eontigueos 
dairiee. The rennet should be yerj 
pure and sweet. MThen the milk is 
coagi^ted, the whole cord is taken 
out, drained on a sieve, and very mod* 
eratdy p ro s po d. It is then pot into 
a shape in the form of a cylinder, 
eight or nine inches in diameter, the 
axis of which is louffsr than the diam- 
eter of the base, when it is sufll- 
ciently firm, a cloth or tape is wonntf 
round it to prevent its breaking, and 
it is set on a shelf. It is occssional- 
ly powdered with flour, and plunged 
into hot water. This hardens the 
outer coat, and fovoors the internal 
formentation, which ripens it 8til» 
ton cheese is generally preferred 
when a green moifld appears in its 
taxtuie. To accelerate this, pieoee 



HMertad iato botes mado fortlie fnuw 
pose by the aetmp ealM a fca«fr, a«4 
wiM or ale ia poared ever for ttie 
nine pwrpoee^ bat tke beat cheeses 
do not reqaure tlua« and are ia per- 
fiBstiao wben the iaaide beeomea soft 
lake batlsv, witboot say appearanee 
ef usuMiDesa. In making very rich 
cheeses, the wbey nnist be allowed 
to run off slowly, beoaoae, if it were 
fbseed rapidly, it might cany off a 
nreatpertioa of the fat ef the cheese. 
This happena more or leas in every 
mode of oiafciag ofaeeae. To coHeet 
this soperabandaot batter, the whey 
is set in shaUow pans, as is done 
with milk when buttc? ia made ; and 
aa inferior kind of batter, called ithey 
huter, is made from the eream or fot 
Aimmed off. 

Cheeses are fie(pientlycolom:ed, a 
practice which probably arose from 
the notion of madcing the cheese look 
rteher ; but now it decelres no one. 
Yet if some oheeoes were not eolenr- 
ed, they wonld not be so msrketaUe, 
vwfi^ to the assooiatMta that sabsists 
between the oolonr and the quality 
ef Ihe cheese. The snbstance need 
ftir o>ionrhig is most commtKily ar- 
notto, whieh is groand line on a 
ttnne, and misced with the milk at 
the time the rennet is pot in. The 
jaiee of the orange carrot and the 
ftower of mangold are also nsed for 
this porpose. Thisiast gtres a more 
aataiai tint than the amotto, which 
ia too red. 

Dutch eh€€9es are made in a very 
sonilar manner to the Okwcester 
eheeaes, bat the milk is generally 
ewpdled by meaaa of mnriatic acid or 
apirita of saft ; and great care is ta- 
ken to prevent fermentation, and to 
extract the whole of the whey. For 
this pnrpoae, the cord is repeatedly 
broken and pressed ; and before it is 
made op into the round shape in 
wtnoh it is usvally sold, the broken 
cnrd is well soaked in a strong solu- 
tfcm of common salt in water. This 
dffihses the salt thronghont the whole 
mass, and effectnal^ checks ferment- 
ation. When the cheeses are finally 
all tte whey which may re- 

N3 



main fa^vaaliod out wftb the briber 
salt is likewise rnbbed over the oot- 
side, and they are set to dry on 
shelves in a cool place. The flavour 
of 4he cheese is perhaps impaired by 
the stoppage of the fermentation; 
bnt it never heaves, and it acquires 
the valoabte quality of keeping well 
even in wann climates. From the 
piaee where this cheese is commonly 
made, it is known by the name of 
£dam oheese. A finer cheese ia 
made at Gouda and other places, by 
imitating the process in making 6rn« 
yere cheese ; but this cheese is al- 
ways fliil of small cavities, and will 
not keep so long as the Edam. The 
little cheeses made from cream and 
folded in paper, called Neufeh&td 
cheeses, can be easily imitated, being 
nothing more than cream thickened 
by heat, and pressed in a smaB moald. 
They undergo a rapid change, first 
becoming sour and then mellow, in 
which state they must be eaten. 

The green Swiss cheese, common* 
ly called Sehabzieger, is made in the 
canton of Glarus, and is by many 
persons highly esteemed. The curd 
is pressed in boxes with holes to let 
the whey run ont ; and when a con- 
siderable quantity has been collected, 
and putrefaction begins, it is worked 
into a paste with a large proportion 
of a certain dried herb reduced to 
powder. This herb, called in the 
country dialect Zieger kraut (cnrd 
herb), is the MelilotuM officinali»y which 
is very common in most countries, 
and has a peculiar aromatic flavour 
in the mountains of Switzerland. The 
paste thus produced is pressed into 
moulds of the shape of a common 
flower-pot, and the putrefaction be- 
ing stopped by the aromatic herb, it 
dries into a solid mass, which keeps 
unchanged for any length of time. 
When Qsed it is rasped or scraped, 
and the powder, mixed with fresh 
butter, is spread upon bread. It is 
either much relished or much dis- 
liked, like all those substances which 
have a peculiar taste and smell. 

When a cheese which has been 
much salted and kept very dry is 
washed several times in soft water> 

140 



CHEfiSJS. 



nd dieB li^ in • <doUi noist«Bed 
with wine or Tioegar, it gfadoaUr 
loses its saUness, and from being 
hard and dry becomes soft and lael* 
low, prorided it be a rich ebeese. 
This simple method of im|V0Ting 
eheese is worth knowing. It is gen- 
eraily practised in Switseriand, and 
cheeses are kept stored there for 
many years ; if they were not veiy 
salt and dry, they would soon be the 
prey of worms and mites. A dry 
Stilton cheese may thus be much im^ 
proTed. 

CHEESE, EXPORTATION OF. 
The exportation of cheese to Eng- 
hud is becoming very heavy ; 179,389 
ewt. were imported into Great Brit- 
ain in 1844, nearly one third being 
from the United States. The cheese 
to imitate is the Cheshire, but if Stil- 
ton coold be produced it would pay 
a heavy profit. 

CHEESE-CLOTH. A coarse open 
doth or towel placed inside the vat ; 
it should be wrung out in boiling wa- 
ter after use, and dried. 

CHEESE, CONNECTICUT. The 
following account from the American 
AgricnUurut gives the process for 
the preparation of a veiy excdlent 
cheese: 

** On a farm capable of supporting 
twelve cows, two cheeses of about 
10 lbs. each may daily be made, in 
the months of May, June, and July. 
The evening's milk is kept untouched 
till the next morning, when the cream 
is taken off* and put to warm in a brass 
kettle, heated in order to bring it to 
the temperature of new milk from the 
cow. The cows being mUked early 
in the morning, the morning's new 
milk and the night's milk prepared 
as above are put into a large tnb to- 
gether, with the cream. Then a por- 
tion of rennet, which has been soak* 
ed in water milk-warm the evenmg 
before, and sufficient to coagulate the 
milk, is put into the tub, after which 
it is covered up warm and left to 
stand about half an hour, or till co- 
agulated, at which time it is turned 
over with a bowl to separate the 
whey from the curd, and broken soon 
after with the hand and bowl in very 

WO 



samfi pedicles; tlwwhey 
arated by standing some time, is ta- 
ken from the eurd, whkdi sinks to the 
bottom. The eurd is then collected 
into a part of the tub, and a board is 
placed thereon whidi weighs from 
60 to 180 lbs., to press oat Che whey. 
When it is getting ioto a more solid 
state, it is cut and turned over in sU* 
oes several times to extract all the 
whey, and then weighted as before. 
These operations may occupy about 
an hoar and a half. It is then taken 
from the tub and broken very small 
by the hand, or cot veiy ^oe hy a 
cheese knife, and put into a cheese 
vat, enlarged in depth by a hoop to 
hold the qoaBtity, it being more thaa 
the bulk when finally put to the press. 
The side is pressed well by haadi and 
with a board well weighted placed at 
the top. The cheese is thus drained 
of its whey, then shifted out of the 
vat, having a cloth first spread on the 
top of it, and reversed on the doth 
into another vat, or even into the 
same, which, however, must be al- 
vrays fresh scalded, and thus made 
waim before the cheese is returned 
into it. The top part is now broken 
down to the middle, has salt mixed 
with it, is reversed as before, thea 
pressed by hand, weighted, and hae 
the remaining whey extracted. This 
done, the cheese is again reversed 
into a scalded warm vat, with a cloth 
beneath the cheese ; a hoop is alao 
put sound the upper edge of the 
cheese and within the sides of the 
vat, the cheese being first enclosed 
in a doth, and the edge of it put with- 
in the vat. Finally, it is put into a 
press of thirteen pounds weight and 
pressed very hard. In four hours it 
is shifted and turned, and after four 
hours again treated in the same man- 
ner. After this it is taken out and 
carried to the drying-room, and turn- 
ed every day until it grows hard.'' 

CHEESE-KEEPING. The ripen- 
ing of cheeses is all important in 
improving their flavour. A constant 
temperature of from 60° to 06° Fah« 
renheit is the proper degree, but this 
ean only be attained in caverns and 
cellars built for the porpose. 



6S no k0pt well nimi^tsovQed witk 
a cotton doth and whitewaahed. 

CHEESE MAGGOT. The larva 
of a dipterous fly {FiojMla eoMt) fooad 
in decaying eheesew 

CHEESE MITES. MiMte, wing- 
less iBseois iAcarut nrc} with eight 
legi. Their introdoction into eheeo* 
es ia very mysteriooa, aa they appear 
when no wounda are to be seen on 
the outside. 

CHEESE, PINEAPPLE. Thefol- 
lowing ia the plan of Mr. Davenport, 
of New-York, who reoerred the priae 
of the American Instttote : 

«' In all eases the milk and rennet 
ahoald be sweet. When the eord is 
properly prodooed, bre^ it up very 
fine, cook it well, but not to overheat. 
Season wHIi dean pure salt. Put 
the cheese or eurd into the presa or 
mould, which is of pineapple shape, 
with a neck, and open in the centre, 
and fastened tugether by clanapa or 



CHE 

ebaps. rathe mould fUI, dso the 
neek, and press with a round follow- 
er to fit the neck. Keep it in ^e 
press twenty*four hours, take the 
eheese out and cut off* the neck, and 
sear it over ; then dip it in hot whey 
to form a hard rind« and draw over 
them tightly a net with interstices of 
a.diamoad shape, which forms the 
indenture. Suspend them from the 
neck, and keep them so for four weeks ; 
then take them out of the nets, and 
set them on trenches on shelves, and 
in three months they are cured and 
fit for market. Pack them in cases 
of ten each, with partitions between 
them." 

CHEESE PRESS. The most 
common kind is described in the ar- 
tiele Chuse. Numerous improved 
machines occur, but the following, by 
Baird, is in all respects equal, if not 
superior, to the rest, and extensively 
used in the English cheese counties. 




t51 



OHB 

''The formdmtaittinf the cnrd to 
put on the bottom plate, a, and the 
top plate, m, ia made to descend and 
press on it. There are two ways of 
doing this : one quick and easy, until 
the resistance becomes great ; and 
the other riower, but more power- 
ful, and used for the condnsion of 
the operation. On the axis, c, of the 
wheel, D, there is a pinion of eight 
teeth (not seen in the engraving) 
which works in the rack, a. On the 
axis, I, there is another pinion of 
ei^t teeth (concealed by the other 
parts), which acts in the wheel, d, of 
twenty-four teeth. This axis, a, may 
be turned by the winch handle, h, 
three turns of which will make the 
rack descend through a space corre- 
sponding to eight of its teeth. In 
this. way the plate, b, may be lower- 
ed to touch the cheese, and to com- 
mence tlie pressure; but when the 
resistance becomes considerable, the 
second method of acting on the rack 
must be resorted to. On the axis, b, 
besides the pinion before mentioned, 
there is a fixed ratchet wheel, r ; the 
lever, i, forked at the end, which 
embraces r, is also placed on this 
axis, but turns freely round it. In 
the forked part of r there is a ratchet 
or click, o (better seen at o *), which, 
turning on the pin, a, may be made 
to engage in the notches of the ratch- 
et wheel, p. By means of this ar- 
rangement, when I is raised up, and 
o engaged in p, the axis, x, and its 
pinion will be turned round with great 
power on depressing the end, i, of the 
lever ; and by alternately raising and 
depressing i, any degree of pressure 
required may be given to the cheese ; 
after which, if it be wished to con- 
tinue the pressure, and to follow 
the gradual shrinking of the cheese, 
the lever is to be raised above the 
horizontal position, and the weight, 
w, hung on, which will cause it to 
descend as the cheese yields. By 
inserting the pin, p, this effect may 
be discontinued, and the farther de- 
scent of B prevented." — {Highland 
Soe. Trans., vol. x., p. 52.) 

CHEIROPTERA (from ;r«P. the 
ha'ndfBXidin'epw,amjigy Aoimaliof 

102 



tbete 

branous, stretched frantbe hand and 
aim to the hind legs and aide of the 
body. Bats are, for the moat part, 
insectivorous, and therelbre worthy 
of preservation by farmers. 

CHELONIANS (from x^Xumf^ m 
tortcite). All tortoises, turtles, dtc, 
which are covered with a double 
shell. 

C HE M I ST R Y (CAtfiRo, Arfc., to 
btam}. The seienee which investi- 
gates the nature of matter, and the 
hiwa which govern the moveraeote 
of its atoms. The inanimate and ani- 
mate world are the scenes of its re- 
searches. The miner, dyer, and man- 
ttfaoturer owe their suceess to chem* 
istry, and the fanner is destined to 
be more benefited by this seieeee 
than other professions. The soil» 
plants, and manures are all topica of 
chemical examination, and, without 
knowing their nature, no person can 
practice agriculture except by guess, 
and in an empirical way. 

It is a subject of nnmense extent, 
and in this work I have confined my- 
self to the practical points. See An- 
aiynsy AJinity, Atomt Oxygen, Cea-bon^ 

CHENOPODIAGEiG. A family of 
plants, of which the Chsntpodium is a 
genus. They are herbaceous, grow- 
ing on very rich lands, have a solita- 
ry carpel, stamens of the same nran* 
bier as the divisions of the calyx, with- 
out bracts or petals. The wormeeed 
(C*A. anthelminiicum) is the only me- 
dicinal species. Beets, spinach, and 
goose foot belong to this family ; the 
leaves, and indeed the whole plant, 
are mucilaginous, and may be eaten 
as food when not unpleasant to the 
palate. 

CHERIMOYA. The fruit of the 
Anona cAmmo/ta, a tree of tropical 
America. 

CHERRY. PrtiHUS eeraeus. The 
tree grows well in the United States, 
and prefers a deep loam in a free ex- 
posure. The Wood is firm, and used 
for cabinet purposes. The stocks 
are raised from seed, and budded or 
grafted : for dwarfs, the morello stock 
is preferred. TThe stock mav be bud- 



CHERRY. 



dedUie Bat 3rear».aQd will bear in the 
fifth. Tbey may be trained as espa- 
liers or left as standards. The fol- 
lowing are select varieties : 

Datkvpobt's Easly "Black, New 
May Duke. — This variety is consid- 
ered as one of the finest and most 
productive of early cherries known. 
The fruit is of medium size, heart- 
shaped, of a dark, glossy black col- 
our; flesh firm, and of a pleasant, 
sub-acid flavour. It ripens a week 
or tea days earlier than the May 
Duke. 

Mat Dukk, Early Duke, Holmaii't 
IhiU, June Duke. — ^Fruit roundish, 
and grows in clusters; skin very 
dark red; flesh soft and juicy : ripe 
in June. 

AjiKKZCAir Ambki, Earhf Amber, 
New Honey. — ^Fruit beautiful, and of 
medium size; dark pink or amber 
colour ; flesh rich, sweet, and flne : 
ripe in June. 

Eltom. — This excellent variety was 
raised by Mr. Knight in 1806 ; the 
tree is very vigorous and productive ; 
the fruit is prelty large, heart-shaped ; 
pale glossy yellow in the shade, bat 
marbled with bright red next the sun ; 
flesh firm, sweet, and rich: ripens 
soon after the May Duke. 

F L o B B N B. — A very fine heart- 
shaped cherry, of a yellow amber col- 
oar, marbled with bright red in the 
shade, bright red next the sun ; flesh 
tolerably form, juicy, rich, and sweet : 
ripe end of June and in July. 

Ambkbb db Choist. — A middle- 
sized, roundish fruit, highly deserving 
of cultivation ; skin transparent, red^ 
mottled with amber ; flesh amber 
coloured, tender, and sweet. It bears 
wen as a standard, and ripens its fruit 
in June. 

Kbiobt's Eablt Black. — Colour 
rich, dark hne ; flesh firm, juicy, and 
sweet : ripe in June. 

Ox H^AMT, Harruon'e Heart, Whiie 
Bigarrtau. — Fruit large, heart-sha- 
ped; colour pale yellow and white, 
mottled with red ; flesh white, firm, 
and well flavoured : ripe in June. 

Manwino's Black Bigarbbau. — A 
new variety from the nursery of the 
late R. Manning, of Salem, Mass. 



Fruit laige, flesh sweet, and of pch 
cuHariy fine flavour : ripe in July. 

Ybllow Spanish, Grmffion, Impt' 
rial. White Orleans, T\trkey Bigar^ 
rMu.-— Fruit very large, beart-sha]^ ; 
amber colour, red next the sun ; flesh 
firm, sweet, and fine flavoured ; one 
of the very best varieties ; tree aa 
abundant bearer : ripe in July. 

Blick Eaolb. — A handsome va- 
rietv ; fruit of globular form ; skin 
dark purple ; flesh tender, rich, and 
of fine flavour : ripe in July. 

Black Tartabun, Black Russian, 
Ronald^s Large Black Heart. ^-haxge, 
heart-shaped, and of very superior 
quality; colour dark shining purple 
or black ; flesh firm, purple, and 
sweet ; tree very productive : ripe in 
June. 

EucHORif, Black Ox Heart, Large 
Black Bigarreau. — Fruit large, and 
heart-shaped ; an excellent variety 
for market: ripe second and third 
weeks in July. 

Archdukb, Eoyal Duke, Portugal 
Duke. — ^A large, globular-formed red 
cherry ; like the May Duke, it grows 
in clusters, but the tree grows more 
vigorously than that variety, and 
yields an abundance of fruit, which 
hangs a long time on the tree, im- 
proving in flavour in July. 

Napolbon Bigabbbau. — One of the 
finest varieties ; fruit white, with red 
spots ; size large, flesh white, solid, 
and sweet : ripe in July. 

Wbitb Bigarbbau. — One of the 
largest and finest varieties. Fruit 
heart-shaped ; skin yellow, with a red 
cheek ; flesh firm and fine flavoured : 
ripe in July. 

Latb Wbitb Hbabt.— Middle size, 
pleasant flavour, valuable as a late 
variety : ripe the last of August, 

Wbitb Tartabun. — An elegant 
fruit; pale yellow, approaching to 
amber next the sun; fine flavour, 
and a good bearer : ripe in July. 

DowNBB*s Latb Rbd, Downer^s Fo- 
vourite. — Fruit large and round ; col- 
our light red, flesh firm and fine : ripe 
after most other varieties are gone. 

MoBBLLO, English MoreUo. — ^Fruit 
of medium size, round ; of a dark- 
red colour, nearly black at maturity ; 

1&3 



CHE 

flesh deep red, tender, juicy, and 
blended with an agreeable acid ; ripe 
in July, and hangs some time on the 
tree. This Tarietv is excellent for 
preserves and for brandy. 

The fruit appears on spurs pro- 
duced on branches two and three 
years old ; the spurs are formed year 
by year along the bearing branches : 
the morello on the last year's shoots, 
and seldom on that three years old. 
Cherry-trees, unless topped, become 
very high, and require 30 to 40 feet 
between them. 

Diseases, — Exudation of gum is 
cured by improving the soil, and pru- 
ning less carelessly. The aphis, of a 
green colour, is often troublesome, 
causing the leaves to curl, and pro- 
ducing, according to some naturalists, 
honey dew. Fumigations with tobac- 
co, sulphur, and pepper are recom- 
mended, as well as washing by a gar- 
den engine, and throwing up tobacco 
infusion. The red spider is removed 
by the same means. |t is, however, 
a healthy tree, and less subject to 
disease than many others. The trunk 
is sometimes attacked by borers. 

CHERRY, WILD. Prunus Vir- 
grimana. This tree is found as far 
north as Maine, but reaches perfec- 
tion in ridi lands in the Middle States, 
especially Pennsylvania ; and also in 
Virginia and Ohio. Trees have been 
measured 100 feet high and 16 in 
girth. The wood is brown, bright, 
and, near branches, well marked. It 
is much used for cabinet purposes, 
and is durable. The fruit is small 
and bitter, but flavoured like ratafia, 
from the presence of oil of bitter al- 
monds, and is sometimes mixed with 
morello cherries for the manufacture 
of cherry brandy and cordials. The 
young tree is an excellent stock for 
budding or grafting. The bark, infu- 
sed in water, forms a popular tonic 
and nervous remedy, ror other va- 
rieties, see Prunus. 

CHERT. A siliciotts mineral re- 
sembling flint. 

CHERVIL. ChasrophyUum sati- 
vum, A potpherb resembling pars- 
ley, used by the French and Dutch in 
soups and as salads. The seeds are 

164 



CHE 

sown in spring, in drills eight inches 
apart, ^e plants thinned to eight inch- 
es apart, and kept free of weeds. It 
flowers in the fall. 

CHESSEL. The cheese vat. It 
is made t>f white oak, bound by iron 
hoops, and perforated with holes to 
allow the whey to drain out. 

CHEST FOUNDER. An irrita 
tion or inflammation of the mem- 
branes in the chest. See Horse. 

CHESTNUT. The American 
chestnut {Castanea AmeHeana) very 
neariy resembles the famous Europe- 
an tree {Castanea vesca), except in its 
altitude and the size of the fruit. The 
European, also called the Spanish or 
Italian chestnut, is of immense site 
and longevity, trees being known 
which liave a girth of 00 feet. The 
wood, except in very old trees, is ad- 
mirable, being more durable than oak 
in moist situations. The bark is also 
used in tanning. It prefers a dry, 
loose soil, abounding in silicious mat- 
ter and potash. 

The European variety is easily rais- 
ed from seed, grows rapidly, and bears 
in seven years. The fruit is five times 
larger than that of ours, and com- 
mands a good price in the market. 
Chestnuts are used boiled, roasted, 
and raw. In Southern France, Italy, 
dec., they constitute the bread of a 
large population. Michaux gives the 
following directions for the cultiva- 
tion of the chestnut : 

** After the ground has been care- 
fully loosened with the ptough and 
harrow, lines are drawn six feet 
apart, in which holes about a foot in 
depth and diameter are formed, at the 
distances of four feet. A chestnut is 
placed in each comer of the hole, 
and covered with about three inches 
of earth. As the soil has been thor- 
oughly subdued, the mits will spring 
and strike root with facility. Early 
in the second year, three of the young 
plants are removed from each hole, 
and only the most thriving is left. 
The third or fourth year, when the 
branches begin to interfere with each 
other, every second tree is suppress- 
ed. To ensure its success, the plan- 
tation should be begun in Marrh or 



April, wttb nots tint hare b««n kept 
in theeellar during the winter, inMnd 
or TCfetable moold, and that bive ftl- 
veady bepin to gennlnale.'' 

CHEWING THE CUD. Ttie an- 
fmals wbieh chew the eti<t are term- 
ed bj natoraltstB Runmanit, and Ie- 
tinde the oi, deer, eatnet, and riteep. 
Thej are fnrnlsbed with four ponchea 
or Btomach* ; the graaa gaihered on 
the field « awallowed and reaches 
the fint p«Hieb. ie moiatened by wa- 
ter rrom the ae«ond, and afterward 
tnooMed into ronnd balls, which are 
throws np into tbe tnonlh and leis- 
tirely chewed, and re-mallowed into 
the third stomach, to be digeated in 
tiie fonrth. Sach animala are esaen- 
tialtj herbiToroDB, and require reat 
do ring rumination. Any interference 
with this prooeee ia a aign of dtseaae. 

CHIASTOLITE. A mineral re- 
■embliag soap-stone. 

CHICA. A red coloar obtained hj 
boiling Iha leaveaaf the Bigvmiaclti- 
ea, Btiaining, and allowing to coo], 
when it settles as an inaolnble red 
■natter. It is pemiRneitl, insoluble 
in water, but snlubfe in oila and lyes. 
The Indians uae it to anoint their bod- 
ies. It may be uacful jd tbe arts. 

CHICKEN. Sen FoaJlrj. 

CHiCK PEA, An excOc-, legu- 
nriiDDus aanaal, resembling the retail : 
tbe Cumiruf»iumt>ri>otaniBts. Tbey 
hare been laiKd in the Middle States 
with BiifKeas- It ia the Gtiriataa of 
fipstn, and PoUcluca of the French, 
and reputed as the most delicious pea. 
Tbe groand dry pea is also Died in 
Boupa, and the roasted grain is aaid 
to bo a good substitate for coffbe. It 
prefers a rich, sandy loain, ia grown 
m rows, does not climb, attains the 
height of about eighteen inches ; tbe 

r]s contain two peas, and tbe yield 
■maU. A B tbey come to most per- 
teexioa in the Soath, they most be 
■own in Jane in tbe Middle States. 

CHICORY. Ciehornim intyhit. 
An indigenoua perennial plant, with 
Sue Une compoaite flowera, {Stt 



'%" 



and saocnlent leares spread out, wftt 
deeply- indented edges. The whole 
plant is bitter and amiDat ic. It ia fre- 
qnently ased aa a salad, espectallT 
when blanched. For this purpose, 
the roots are Inken np in the end oT 
auiamn ; tbey are then placed in sand 
or light mould, in a cellar from which 
the light IS e^icluded, the leaves hav- 
ing been out uffpreriously within half 
irti inch of the crown. Fresh, slender 
learpB soon growont of the root, and, 
being deprived of liglit. they are much 
more delicate and tender than those 
which grow in the open ground. The 
bitlemeas, also, is thus lessened, and 
they fomi a very pleasant winter sal- 
ad, whicb, from the long, slender, and 
matted slate of (he leeTes, the Prendt 
call barbe dt ctyucin (monk's beard). 
It is pleaaanter to the taate than com- 
mon end ire. 

"The luxuriant growth of the teavea 
of the chicory, and their speedy re- 
production alter thoy have been cut, 
suggested the more extensive cnlti- 
vatinn of this plant as food for cattle 
and sheep, who are fond of tbe leBves, 
M. CreltS de Panuel, who cultiTated 
it near Paris in a rich soil, prodnced 
extraordinary croira. The first year 
he cut it only twice, but afterward 
foor and five times in a year : it pro- 
duced mote ^reen food than any oth- 



tbat be 8troim:1y reooguoMiided it to 

the notiee of British agriculturists ; 
and in the queries sent to various 
parts of the country by the Board of 
Agriculture, one was whether chico- 
ry was cultivated in the district as 
green food for cattle. But, notwith- 
standing its abundant produce, it has 
not been found so much superior to 
other green food as to make its culti- 
TatioB general. Some accurate ex- 
periments on a large scale were made 
in France, at the national farm of 
Rambouillet, to ascertain the value 
of chicory compared with lucem and 
other green food. The chicory was 
declared inferior, giving a disagreea- 
ble taste to milk and butter when 
eows are kept upon it. For sheep it 
is very good, and a small portion mix- 
ed with their other food may probably 
be a preservative against the rot. 

" Chicory is now chiefly cultivated 
in Belgium and Germany, for the pur- 
pose of preparing from the root a pow- 
der which can be substituted for oof- 
fee. This has become a very consid- 
erable article of commerce. 

*' To have the roou in perfection, 
the seed should be sown, or, rather, 
drilled* in April, like tbat of the car- 
rot. If sown sooner, they are apt to 
run to seed. The land should be rich, 
deep, and light. The plants should be 
thinned out to six inches in the rows, 
and most carefully weeded. In Sep- 
tember the leaves should be finaUy 
gathered and the roots taken up, 
which may be done with a conunon 
potato-fork. They are then cleaned 
by scraping and washing, split where 
they are thickest, and cut across in 
pieces about two or three inches long. 
These pieces are dried by means of 
a slow oven or a kiln. Some nicety 
is required in drying, to prevent the 
root from being scorched, and to keep 
the proper flavour. In this state it is 
sold to the merchants, packed in bags. 
It is afterward cut or chopped into 
small pieces, roasted exactly as cof- 
fee, and ground in a mill. Chicory is 
said to exhaust the soil, and to require 
fresh ground to prevent its degenera- 
ting. Unless the sou is rich and light, 
the toots will not oome to a good sise 
166 



io one seaeen, asd M roots beeome 

tough and stringy. It is only the young 
roots that are fit to be prepared /or 
conunerce. They lose a great por- 
tion of their weight in drying. The 
best preparation of the land for chic- 
ory is grass or clover. The manure 
should be laid on before it is plough- 
ed up in autumn, which will acceler- 
ate the decomposition of the roots. 
The land should be ploughed veiy 
deep in spring, and laid light ; the sur- 
face harrowed fine, and the chicory 
seed drilled in rows twelve inches 
apart, and rolled. Liquid manure 
spread over the ground will much 
accelerate the growth of the plants, 
which must be thinned out like tur- 
nips or carrots, to six or eight inches 
from plant to plant." 

About thirteen pounds of seed are 
used to the acre. 

CHIGOE, or CHIGGER. An apter- 
ous minute insect, which abounds in 
southern and tropical America. It 
penetrates the skin of the foot, grow- 
ing to some size, and producing in- 
tolerable itching. Unless destroyed 
by tobacco juice, or picked out with 
a needle, it finally brings about ulcer- 
ations. 

CHILIAN CLOVER. The Alfal- 
fa, It is common lucem. 

CHINE. The back bone. 

CHINQUAPIN. Castanea^fmU, 
A small tree and biieh seldom found 
north of Delaware. The ftmt is small 
and like a chestnut. It is seldom 
wood is obtained from the chinqua- 
pin : what there is is very durable. 
In n«»glected new lands in Virginia it 
is a great nuisance. 

CHINTZ, or CHINCK BUG. The 
following is from Mr. Pleasants of 
Virginia : 

** The chinck bog is a much more 
formidable enemy with us than the 
wheat worm, or even the Hessian 
fly. They (the chinck bugs) attack 
both com and wheat crops, the lat- 
ter in May, the former generally in 
the month of June. They continue 
to injure the wheat by extracting the 
sap as long as there is a particle of 
it in the stalk. The consequence is, 
where they are numerous, the grain^ 



CHL 

«|M» harvMted, is imm]^ vcvtUflM 

and the sttaw vastly injured. B> the 
time the wheat is out, the bugs (tbea 
flies) take wing^ and immediately 
spread over the neighbouring corn- 
fields, concealing themselres under 
the blade slips, under the roots, dec., 
where they deposite millions of eggs* 
which are hatched in eight or ten 
days, and continue thxough rapidly 
succeeding generations to prey upon 
the sap as long as anything green re- 
Doaias upon the stalk, finally taking 
shelter for the winter under the bark 
of stumps and logs, under large clods, 
dec., to be ready for the wwk of de- 
struction the next season. When 
first hatched, they are very small, and 
red as gochineal. They grow very 
rapidly, and in a week attain half the 
size of a bedbug ; in a week more, 
they acquire wings, fly, and spread 
themselves over the field, depositing 
their eggs generally. They are, in 
the last state, about twice the size of 
a flea, have white wings, and their 
bodies being dark, have a speckled 
appearance. I have been thus minute 
in describiog these insects, because I 
observe they have never been seen 
in Maryland." Their destruction is 
attempted by running ditches across 
the field, filled with straw, and, as 
soon as the bugs are seen thereon, 
setting fire to it. The bugs come 
from forests, and are destroyed by 
occasionally baminff the dry leaves. 

CHIVES, or CIYE& AUiumtchO' 
iwfTaaum. A small species of onion 
growing in tuAs. It is propagated 
by dividing the roots, set out in May 
and June eight inches apart, and eight 
or ten ofibets together. Keep free 
from weeds. The leaves may be osed 
for soups. In the fall, as soon as the 
tops die, dig the chives and store for 
winter. 

CHLOIUNE (from x^*»P^f great), 
A green - coloured elementary gas, 
produced artificially. It is pungent, 
poisonous, and of great chemiciQ ac- 
tivity. It exists only in combination 
in nature : equivalent 35-45. When 
combined with metals the substances 
are called Chlorideg, as chloride of 
sodium (common salt), chloride ^ h\f* 



|.4n0grM.(an]iatksaeid). The latter is 
a powerful acid, much used in the 
arts, and known under the name of 
spirits of salts. Chlorine also unites 
with lime and soda, forming feeble 
compounds, the chlorides of lime and 
soda; these, especially the former, 
are extensively used in bleaching, 
from the continual escape of the chlo- 
rine. They are also disinfecting for 
the same reason. Chlorides are olV- 
en erroneously called Jlftino/et. Chlo- 
rine unites with five equivalents of 
oxygen, and forms the Chloric Add. 
One of its salts, the chlorate of pot- 
ash, is of great value in the arts 

CHLOJllTE. A mineral of a green- 
ish colour, common in slates, dec. It 
m chiefly a silicate of magnesia and 
iron. 

CHLORO. In chemistry, a prefix 
to substances containing chlorine, as 
chloro-carbonic acid. dec. 

CHLOROPHYL (from x^poc and 
^XAov, s Uaf)» The green colouring 
matter of leaves. It closely resem- 
bles wax, and is converted in the fall . 
into a true yellow lat. The presence 
of chloro{^yl is essential to the 
healthy functions of the leaf, which 
ceases to absorb carbonic acid from 
the air when yellow or red. The au- 
tumnal tints of leaves depend on a 
change of this colouring matter, the 
yellow being called Zanthophyl, and 
the red Erythrophyl. Chlorophyl is 
also called chramule by some authors. 
The tints of many flowers depend 
upon its compounds, which assume 
every variety between reds, yellows, 
and greens. Chlorophyl has been 
very recently shown to be analagous, 
in its physical characters, with indigo. 

CHLORURETS. The old name 
for Chlorides, 

CHOCOLATE. A preparation 
made by triturating the roasted cocoa 
beans at a temperature of 130^ Fah- 
renheit, and mixing with cinnamon, 
doves, vanilla, or <^er spices. 

CHOKE DAMP. The suffocating 
vapour existing in the bottom of weli^, 
cess-pools, and mines of wood coal. 
It is an air containing much carlMnio 
acid, and may destroy life. Free 
exposure to pure air and artificial 

157 



CBU 



010 



warmtli are the meant to be used in 
restoring persons oreroome with this 
Tapoor. 

CHOLESTERINE {frornxoltif W«» 
and ffteapf tuet). A fatty matter re- 
sembling spermaeeti, foond in the bile 
and biliary concretions. 

CHOLEIG ACID. Liebig regards 
the animal matter of the bile as cho- 
leio acid, the secretion being a soap 
formed by its union with soda. Cholic 
and chohidic acids are separated by 
alcohol and other soWents, and are of 
secondary consequence. Redtenha* 
Cher has recently discotered twenty* 
gix per cent, of sulphur in eholeic acid. 

CHONDRINE. Gristle, or carti- 
lage. It consists of protein with wa- 
ter, or, according to Liebig, protein 
-f20, 4-4 water. 

CHORD. A straight line drawn 
between the two extremities of the 
arc of a cunre. The chord of an arch 
is its span. 

CHOROID MEMBRANE. The 
membrane of the eye within the white 
TK>at. 

CHROMATIC (from ;t/^/ia, col- 
our). In optics, relating to colour. 

CHRONIC (from xp^^vo^^ *«^)- 
Diseases which are slow in their prog- 
ress are called chronic. 

CHRYSALIS. The grub or inac- 
tive state of changeable insects. The 
terms pupa and aurealian are synony- 
mous. Some are enclosed in cocoons, 
others are destitute of coTering, and 
buried in the earth or in trees. Moths 
usually have rounded and butterflieB 
angular cbrysales. 

CHURN. The barrel in which the 
butter of milk is separated. The 
common plunging chum is described 
in the article Butter. Another form 
is a barrel with paddles moving upon 
a central axis, which is turned by a 
handle on the outside. Chums are 
moved by horse or dog power, water, 
and even steam-engines. A simple 
plan is to affix the rods of several 
phmging chums to a cross-bar attach- 
ed to a lever, one end of which is fast- 
ened to a wall or tree by a moveable 
joint ; by moving the free end of the 
lever, all the sticks are raised or de- 
pressed together, and thus four or 

158 



noro dmrns aro set is aetloii by 0110 
person. Tlie French use a chum 
made of tin, which being phioed in a 
tnb of warm water, can be warmed 
directly, and be made to yield butter 
in from ten to twelve minntes. 

CHURNING. From a series of 
experiments made for the Highland 
Agricultural Society, it appears that 
temperature of 60^ or U® Fahrenheit 
is the best for the process (with 
cream), and about two hours* work. 
If the churning be continued after the 
formation of butter it becomes soft, 
and sometimes looses its colour. 
When the whole milk is used it should 
be warmed to 66^ Fahrenheit. As 
this point is easily managed in sum- 
mer as well as in winter, it is best to 
use the entire milk. An additional 
argument is, that more butter is ob- 
tained, Mr. Ballantyne having shown 
that more than &ve per cent, is ob- 
tained in annuner from milk than 
cream. 

CHYLE. The mUky fluid result- 
ing from digestion. It is almost iden- 
tical with milk, and owes its white 
colour to tht suspended in it. The 
diyle is carried directly into the veins, 
and serves to repair the blood em- 
ployed in maintaining the fhnctions 
of the body. It is alkaline, and con- 
tains albumen and fibrin. 

CHYLIFICATION. The produc- 
tion of chyle. 

CHYME. The solid parts result- 
ing from digestion, which are first 
white from admixture with chyle, but 
ultimately beeome converted into fec- 
ulent matter. Chyme is slightly acid, 
from the presenoe of lactic acid. 

CICADA. A genus of insects re- 
lated to the grasshopper and locust, 
but inhabiting trees ; they make a 
shrill sound. The dry fly of the 
South is a species (C. eamcuUtris). 
The cieadc, by puncturing trees and 
allowing their sap to exude, do much 
harm ; the C. arm produces, in this 
way, the manna of the druggists, by 
wounding the Fraxinut omue^ or 
manna ash-tree. The seventeen* 
year locust is the C. eeptendedm. 

CICATRIX. The scab of a wound 
in the act of healing. 



cm 

CICHORnTM. The generic name 
of I QombeT ofcomposite plants, of 
which the C. intybat la chicory or 
auccorT. and C. tndimi, endire. 

CIDER. The fermented jaice of 
ipplea. The Harrison, Nevrarit 
Sffeeling, Hugh's Virginia Crab, and 
Granniwinkic are the best elder ap- 
ples ; but any fruit serves that is 
well flavoured and becomes sweet in 
the pomace. The applos shonid be 
ripe, maehed well In a mortar or mill, 
and the crnsbed mass kept an til thor- 
oughly sweet (from two to six days) ; 
it is then placed in a frames urround- 
ed by straw and put ond^the press. 
The jaice shonid be put in barrels, in 
a cool place, to fermeot, and as soon 
aa the fecutenc matter (pulp) contain- 
ed in it haa overQawa (about four 
days), it should be raclced or decant- 
ed into a clean cask furnished with 
a Tent pes, bunged np. and placed in 
a cool cellBr. U is adrisable to se- 
cure the decanted eider from becom- 
ihK sonr and running into linegar, by 
burning a little sulphur in the new 
cask inuoediately before pounng In. 
The Jiqaor will be fit for bottling in 
February. Some persons add sugar 
and spirits to the cider, hut they tend 
only to increase its intoxicating ef- 
fects. Old cider, made without such 
addition, contains from seven to nine 
per cent, of ah^ihol. 

By aUowiDg the juiee to remain io 



the flnt cast it BpeedOy beoomea 

■our, and vinegar ia rapidly formed a* 
long as air finds access. Aa soon aa 
the juice is intensely sour, bung up the 
barrel, or the acetic acid evaponitea, 
and only a flat water is left behind- 

The refnae pomace is sometimea 
moistened with water, and pressed 
again to furm water cider. It is eat- 
en by bogs and cows while fresh ; or, 
if in great excess, may be carried to 
the farm-yard to add to the manars 
heap. Every part of the apparatua 
mnaE be kept clean by wasbioK with 
hot water and sornbbiag. 

CIDER MILL. Sereral contri. 
vancea are used for the purpose of 
cruabingtheapplea; alargetninkof 
a tree, hollowed, serves for a sfoMI 
family, the fruit being beaten by a 
wooden beetle. The following are 
more eflToctive mills : ^g, 1 preaenl* 
companments for varieties of ap- 




ple ; the large millstone, a, is dtawn 
around in the graoTo and crusbea ev. 
ery particle of fruit. Fig. S ia a miB 
of similar construction, but more sub- 
stantial ; i is the awingiog tree. 



Another nQ), flgured nnder the ar- 
ticle CntluTt, is also used for this 
porpose. The mill {Fig. 3) above 
woold be of great service on the rama 
to crush corn, roots, bones, charcoal, 
he., as well as fniiu 



CILIA (from nUiim,(*<<y(lMi(), Mi- A«b eoloared. 



note haira on the margins of leavea, 
angles of the bodies of inaecls, dto- 
Ciliaii is a derivative. 

CIMEX. The general term for in- 
sects resembling the bedbug. 

CINEREOUS (from emu, cfi). 



tu 



cm 



^A 



CINNAMON Launu etnnamd* 
ffwm. This is a small tree, from 
twenty to thirty feet high, indigenous 
to Ceylon and the Eastern islandSi 
but cultivated in Cayenne, Egypt, 
and Brazil. The spice consists of 
the inner bark of the branches ; its 
flavour is due to an essential oil ea- 
sily distilled. 

CINQUEFOIL. Several species 
of PotentiUa with yellow flowers are 
•o called. They are weeds, the roots 
of which are astringent. 

CIRCINNATE. In botany, the 
manner in which the buds of ferns 
and some other plants are folded, re- 
sembling a crosier. 

CIRCULATION. In physiology, 
the route which the fluids or blood 
of animals and plants take through 
the system. It diflfers with the spe- 
cies of animals, but is nearly uniform 
in the highest classes. 

The drculaiion of the blood in man 
and quadmpeds may be said to com- 
mence on the right side of the heart, 
*from whence it is driven along the 
fulmonary arteritM into the structure 
of the lungs ; being here changed by 
the actiun of air, the bright crimson 
blood is conveyed by the jmlmonary 
veins into the left side of the heart, 
and thence driven by its contraction 
along the aorta and throughout the 
body in the system of vessels called 
arteries. The arterial blood ultimate- 
ly reaching the skin and membranes, 
moves through them and becomes of 
a dark colour ; in this state it enters 
the veins, and is conveyed back to the 
heart again to pass through the same 
course. The circulation in the lungs 
is terrand the lesser or pulmonic cir- 
culation ; that through the body, the 
systemic circulation. The object of 
this movement is to supply every part 
with its proper nourishment. The 
force which accomplishes it is the 
chemical action taking place in the 
minute or capiUary vessels. See Dr. 
DrQpst's work on vegetnbU Chemistry, 

CIRCULATION IN PLANTS. 
Fluid entering the roots of phints 
rises by capillary action along the 
cellular tissue or new wood in trees, 
and diflfuses itself over the leaves ; 

MO 



here a chemical change oecmv, and 
it is driven along the under side of the 
leaf to the space between the bark 
and new wood, where the changed 
fluid or sap difitises itself and sup- 
plies the young buds, and also de- 
scends to the roots, forming new 
wood and rootlets in its passage. 
The force producing this circulation 
is, like the former, doe to chemical 
changes in a great measure. 

CIRRUS. A tendril. 

CITRIC ACID. The sour princi- 
ple of lemons. ' See Acids. 

CITRON. A variety of lemon, the 
fruit of whfth is much larger and with 
a thicker rind, used for preserving ; 
the pulp is less, and acid as in the 
lemon. 

CITRUS. The generic name of 
the orange, lemon, and lime tree. 

CLARIFICATION. The procesa 
of clearing or refining fluids, by which 
they are freed from sediment. The 
white of egg, the dear portions of 
blood, clay, and charcoal powder are 
the best clarifiers. 

CLARY. A species of sage (SaU 
tia sclarea). It is seldom cultivated 
In the United States, being inferior 
to that aromatic herb. 

CLASPERS. Tendrils. 

CLASS. A general division of nat- 
ural objects. 

CLA VATE (from eUnxi, a club). 
Club-shaped. A descriptive term in 
botany. 

CLAVICLE. The collar bone. 

CLAY. The earth which is form- 
ed from the decomposition of slates, 
shales, and minerals containing much 
alumina. It is a hydrated silicate of 
alumina, usually coloured red or blue 
by metals, but sometimes, as in pipe 
clay and porcelain clay, of its natural 
white or gray colour. It is very plaa- 
tie, adhestre, and tenacious of water, 
so that in soils containing serenty 
per cent, it is almost impossible to 
produce a good tillage. It also pos- 
sesses the property of forming feeble 
combinations with the ammonia of 
the air or soil* Clay soils, when 
manageable, are usually fertile, from 
the presence of other minerals occur- 
ring in them, so that in practice it is 



CIA 



portioo of this earth. 

ChemicaJiy, the alamiiiais a feeble 
tese, uniting with acids, and is found 
M a phosphate and sulphate, as well 
•B silicate. Clay ean hardly be said 
to furnish food to ptents directly, but 
is of cooseqoenoe in giying texture 
and abeoibeney to soils. 

CLAT, BURNED. Sot Clay SoOs 
and Turf. 

CLAYING 1.ANDS. This is the 
spveading of elay over soils which are 
too sandy. It is an important remedy 
for looee lands ; but the expense is 
too heaTy to justify the practice, ex- 
cept in garden eolture. The clay 
■hould be carried on in the fall, to 
mellow during winter ; 100 or more 
loads to the acre will be necessary 
for a good result : the addition is per- 
manent. If marl can be obtained, it 
is very preferable. 

CLAY SOILS. A elay soil con- 
feists of a large proportion of alumina 
onited to edica of Tahous degrees of 
fineness. When the sand is tery 
ine, and intimately mixed with the 
alumina, the clay, although stiff* in 
appearance, ia fertile in proportion to 
the humus which it contains, or which 
is artificially added to it. It then 
forms that class of rich wheat soils 
which produce many successive abun- 
dant crops without change or manure. 
It has a strong affinity for water, 
which preTents the plants that grow 
in it being injured by drought ; and 
ft has a sufficient degree of porous- 
ness to allow superfluous moisture to 
percolate without making it too soft. 
All that is required for such a soil is 
a porous substratum of rock or grav- 
el; and where this is not the case, 
sufficient under-drains must be made 
to produce the same effect. Clay 
•oils are of a compact nature, which 
retains the water ; hence they require 
expensive draining and manuring to 
Tender them productive. This has 
made lighter soils, which are more 
easily worked, to be generally pre- 
ferred, although naturally less adapt- 
ed to the growth of wlieat ; and the 
mode of cultivation of the light Sf»ils 
has advanced more rapidly towards 

03 



CLA 

pefffoeftiott than that of the days ; jii 

the latter will undoubtedly repay the 
outlay best when once they are 
brou^t to a certain state of improve- 
ment. When clay soils are well 
drained, and when the effect of nox- 
ious salts has been removed by liming, 
burning, and frequent stirring, it will 
be found that a much smaller quantity 
of manure will produce a more cer- 
tain return in grass or com than on 
any light soil. The great difficulty is 
to choose the time when stiff clays 
are to be worked ; and here it may 
be observed that ploughing some- 
times does more harm than good. 
When clay is wet, especially in the 
beginning of summer, and it is plough- 
ed in the regular process of fallow- 
ing, the tough, moist slice cut out by 
the plough is set on edsre, and the 
sun bakes it into a hard mass like 
brick. In this state it is not im- 
proved by exposure to the air, which 
cannot penetrate this hard substance. 
It would be much better to plough 
out deep water-furrows with a plough 
made on purpose, and wait until the 
moisture is reduced by gradual per- 
colation and evaporation, so that the 
plouffh should raise a slijse ready to 
breax and crumble as it is turned 
over. This should be done imme- 
diately before winter, and then the 
frost will so divide and mellow the 
soil that, provided it be kept free 
from superfluous water by under- 
drains and water-furrows, it will have 
the appearance of the finest mould 
when worked with the harrows in 
spring. To plough it again would be 
to spoil all. It should have received 
the necessary manuring in autumn, 
and be ready for the seed to be sown 
on this pulverized surface. The 
horses which draw the harrows or 
the sowing machines should be made 
to walk in the forrows, which should 
afterward be deepened out with a 
plough constructed for the purpose 
A free course and outlet should be 
formed for all surface water ; for no 
maxim is more true than this, that 
stiff clays are never injured by a con- 
tinuance of dry weather, unless they 
were in a wet sute immediately be- 

161 



CLAY SOILS. 



toft. IW 4iyMt otear eonUin 80^ 

ficiont water to supply the roots of 
pUut9 for a loag time ; but wet clay, 
ui drying and shrinkiog, destroys the 
texture o( the roots by mechanical 
pressure. This may be of use when 
weeds are to be eradicated, and in 
that case a different mode of proceed- 
ing may be recommended ; but when 
«KKi seed is sown the clay should be 
m such a state as to crumble under 
the harrows. Experience has taught 
the ploughman that clay soils should 
be laid in round lands or stitches; 
and much of the produce of a field 
depends on the skill with which this 
is done. It is not only the surface 
which should lie in a rounded form, 
hut the bottoms of the furrows should 
lie in a regular curve, without small 
ridges or inequalities between them, 
so that, when heavy rains penetrate 
through the whole thickness which 
the plough has raised, the water may 
find its way into the intervening fur- 
rows without being retained by the 
small ridges left by an unskilful 
ploughman. The slightest inclina- 
tion of the plough to either side 
makes an inclination in the bottom 
of the furrow. An inequality in the 
depth does the same. The usual 
method is to increase the depth of 
the ploughing from the crown of the 
stitch to the outer furrow. If the 
land has been cross-ploughed or drag- 
ged level before the last ploughing, 
this may answer the purpose ; but if 
the stitches are only reversed, and 
the centre of the new stitch is to be 
where the water-furrow was before, 
it requires twice ploughing to bring 
the stitch to its proper form ; and this 
is not always done, for fear of tread- 
ing the land too much. Hence it is 
always preferable, where it can be 
done, to lay the land flat by cross- 
ploughing and harrowing before it is 
raised in stitches. The narrower the 
stitches are the dryer the land will 
lie. The most convenient width is 
five bouts, as it is called, that is, five 
furrows on each side of the centre, 
which, a1h)wing nine inches for each 
furrow, makes seven and a half feet, 
leaving eighteen inches for a water 

162 



funow, wUdi is deepened into a naiw 

row channel in the middle. 

We have been thus particular in 
describing the management of da/ 
land, because it seems not so gener- 
ally understood, and there is great 
room for improvement in the com* 
mon modes of cultivation. Fallow- 
ing for wheat is the old system oa 
clay soils, and continues to be so in 
nine farms out of ten ; but it often 
happens that, in a wet season, the 
whole advantage of the repeated 
ploughings is entirely lost : the land 
sown with wheat is neither enriched 
nor improved by all the tillage be- 
stowed upon it, and it is as AiIl of 
weeds as it was when first broken up 
from the preceding stubble. The bet* 
ter system is to clean the land well 
in summer, afler it has borne a crop, 
and to lay it up high and dry for the 
winter, having given it the proper li< 
ming ; to sow it with oats and grass 
seeds in spring, keep it in grass as 
lon^ as is convenient, and break it 
up m autumn. Wheat may then bo 
sown ; or it may have the benefit of 
another winter's frost, and corn may 
be drilled in spring. Clay land will 
bear a repetition of the same crope 
much oflener than lighter lands ; but 
every scientific agriculturist knows 
the advantage of varying the produce 
as much as possible, making plants 
of different families succeed each 
other. The cereal grasses are of 
one family, which is the reason why 
wheat, barley, oats, rye grass, &c., do 
not succeed so well after each other 
as after leguminous plants or clover, 
and that turnips, besides cleaning the 
land by the repeated hoeings givea 
them, are so good a preparation for 
corn. A good rotation for stiff clays 
is yet a desideratum in agriculture ; 
and although we will not affirm thai 
fallows can be entirely dispensed 
with, we are persuaded that they 
might be separated by much larger 
intervals than is usually done ; and 
if advantage is taken of early sea- 
sons, most lands may be kept clean 
by what is dalled a bastard fallow 
inunediately after harvest, without 
losing a crop. We wUl go ^u'ther* 



CLAT SOUS. 



tfid assert that, instead of thiiee 
crops in four years, which is the com- 
mon method, and an improvement on 
the old system of two crops and a 
fiillow, five might easily be obtained, 
especially if clorers are considered 
as crops. For example : 1. Oats or 
barley ; 3. Clover ; 8. Wheat ; 4. Tri- 
folium cut in May, and succeeded by 
spring rye, cabbages, or potatoes. At 
all events, the trifolium or winter rye 
may always be bad in the year in 
which the land is to be cleaned by 
repeated ploughings, as they may be 
cut early in summer, and leave ample 
time for the operations. 

The most profitable management 
of a stiff, wet clay soil, after thorough 
draining it, is to cultivate it on the 
convertible system, that is, to have 
it three years in grass and three 
years under the plough, unless a per- 
manent and good sward can be ob- 
' tained upon it, in which case it will 
give the surest return by remaining 
in grass. A preliminary course of 
croppiiij^, with ample manuring, will 
so mnch improve the texture of the 
surface that a much better herbage 
wili grow upon it ; and when this is 
well established, it may be left so 
untU it degenerates. 

The effect of burned clay as a ma- 
nure has been highly extolled, and 
not without some reason in particular 
situations. Clay by burning alters its 
nature : it liecomes insoluble in wa- 
ter, and loses its attraction for it ; it 
then resembles silicious sand, and 
may greatly improve a very strong, 
retentive clay, tempering it and ren- 
dering it more porous. To born clay, 
it is dug out in lumps and dried; 
heaps are made of these at regular 
distances in a field, with a small cav- 
ity in the centre, into which dry brush- 
wood is introduced. This being light- 
ed, the fire is allowed to burn very 
slowly, and the smoke kept in by add- 
ing a sod wherever it bursts out. 
When the heap is once burning, more 
clay may be added, even without be- 
ing dry, and the combustion goes on 
without other fuel It must be so 
managed as to bake the day without 
neaiing it too much ; and when the 



heaps are cooled and opened, tlM 
whole should appear pulverized, and 
of a red colour if oxide of iron exists 
in the soil. A coat two or three inch- 
es thick spread over a field, and 
ploughed in, will greatly improve its 
texture ; but sufiicient animal or ve- 
getable manure must be added to 
make it fertile. 

An improved method of burning 
clay has been adopted in Northunv 
berland. Instead of building a kiln, 
gratings or arches of cast iron are 
used to form a vault or funnel for the 
fuel, and over this fonnel the clay is 
built. The grated arches are made 
about two feet and a half long, two 
feet diameter, and about fourteen 
inches high. One grating is to be 
filled with brush-wood, stubble, or 
any other cheap fuel, and the clay, as 
it is dug, built upon it to a convenient 
height, leaving amall vacancies, or 
boring holes, to allow the heat to 
penetrate to the middle and outer 
parts of the clay. When a sufilcient 
quantity is built upon the first gra- 
ting, another is added at either end, 
or at both, filled with similar fuel, and 
the clay built upon them as before. 
This process is continued until ten* 
twelve, or a greater number of the 
gratings have been used, when one 
end is built up or covered with clay» 
and at the other, under the last gra- 
ting, a fire is made of coals or fagot- 
wood. The end at which the fire is 
made should face the wind if possi- 
ble, and if the process has been prop- 
erly conducted the clay will be effeo- 
tu^ly burned. By commencing with 
a centre grating in the form of a cross 
(see Fig.), the workman may build 







163 



OLt 

from fbnr ends in tlie pltoe of two ; 
this contriTance will anbrd a facility 
in the work, and have a draft of ^nd 
at two entrances. 

CLEANING. The iifter-birfli of 
cows, ewes, &c. 

CLEARING LANDS. The remo- 
Tal of obstmctions to tillage. Much 
information on this subject will be 
found' in the article Barren Lands. 
The heavy operation is the removal 
of trees. Two methods are in com- 
mon use : either to cut a ring of bark 
and wood out around the trunk, at a 
fbot or two from the ground, and kill 
the tree, or to cut it down altogether 
during the early summer, and leave 
the trunk to dry on the ground. In 
the first ease, grasses, and, indeed, 
eom can be cultivated among the 
dead trees, and thus the land is made 
to produce sooner ; but there is risk 
from the fall of limbs. The dead for- 
est can be burned during summer, 
the ashes serving to enrich the land 
for some time, when the trees are 
felled they are divided into lengths 
of twelve feet or more, and drawn 
out of the cleared space, or split and 
burned, a suitable amount of fence- 
rails being obtained. In both these 
operations the stumps remain to dis- 
figure the land ; it has therefore been 
proposed to draw the trees down by 
a strong chain made fast to their up- 
per limbs, and pulled by oxen or a 
windlass. This will scarcely answer 
with large trees, unless the roots are 
cut through by an axe. The cultiva- 
tion of cleared lands is necessarily 
very imperfect ; corn, tobacco, hemp, 
and cotton are found the best crops. 

CLEAVAGE OP MINERALS. 
Minerals which have a regular crys- 
talline form can only be split or cleav- 
ed with ease in planes corresponding 
to their sides ; hence, to discover the 
shape of the crystal, the mineral is 
split. 

CLEFT GRAFTING. See Graft- 
ing. 

CLEFTS. In farriery, cracks in 
the heels of horses. 

CLEVIS. The draught iron of the 
plough. 

CLIMATE. Thetemperatareaiid 
164 



GLO 

liabQity to winds, rain, &e., of any 
place. Those pkces always enjoy 
the mildest climates which are situ* 
ated near seas, lakes, or large bodies 
of water ; they also receive most 
rain. Climate exerts the most im- 
portant effects on phints, so that they 
rethse to grow at places very remote 
from their original stations ; hot by 
long-continued attention, and the nse 
of seeds obtained from the highest 
limits, a few have been naturalized 
even far north. One very interesting 
result takes place in the cultivation 
of plants in the extreme limits of 
their zone. They usually bear fruit 
much sooner (in annuals), and the 
fruit is increased in delicacy and pulp. 
This is true of staple crops also, 
which are better in their most north- 
ern positions than in the original 
place of growth, as cotton, hemp, and 
flax. But the rule does not apply to 
oily or saccharine plants ; and many 
annuals become perennials in north- 
ern positions. 

CLINANTHIUM. The flat sur- 
face in which many composite flow- 
ers are arranged, as the sunflower. 

CLINKSTONE. A hard, slaty 
mineral. 

CLOACA. The common cavity 
in which the intestines and urinary 
apparatus terminate in fish, birds, 
reptiles, and some larger animals. 
CLOD-CRUSHERS. See RoUer. 
CLOTHING HORSES. It keepa 
the coat fine, and in northern lati- 
tudes is very useful in preserving 
health. 

CLOUD. A mass of vapour, simi- 
lar to a fog, suspended in the air. The 
height varies with the density, but 
seldom exceeds two miles. Clouds 
difTer in form, transparency, &c., ac- 
cording to the amount of vapour of 
water they contain and the wind 
which drives them. Meteorologists 
divide them into three classes : 1st. 
Cirrus^ which is a light, branching 
cloud ; 2d. Cumulus, a conical mass 
of clouds ; 3d. Stratus^ which consists 
of horizontal layers. Every variety 
occurs, compounded of these primary 
forms. 
Clonds owe their origin to a par 



cut 

ad c awd ww tl aw at- th* vatMor tt 
water, wliiub air Batuntlj' ODDtaiiiB. 
The coBdesMtian ia prodneed b; cold 
and the i^teration of winds blowup 
K directions contrar? to one aootber. 
CLOUTED CREAM. The clout- 
ed ereun of Devonsbire ia a waU- 
kocim dtf icacy. It is loade by heet- 
mg the milk qd the heanh, or by 
meana m( a Blove, lo a degree a little 
below the boUing-poJnt, when tbe 
doBted cream risea to the top like a 
thick BCoBi, and ig taken off when 
eooled. This creaai being merely 
■lirred briskly with tin band or a 



OLO 



batter. ItJ» 
uniTecaalty admitted that the butter 
tbua [irodDoed la ioferior to that 
whiidi is made bom the cream whicb 
lias riaea slowly and aponlaaeously, 
and in all the largest and best dai- 
ries in the Tale or Honiion the cream 
t« Dever cloated, except to be eaten 
in that state as a luxury. 

CLOVER. A name giTCa to dif- 
ferent species of tiifolium. Dutch 
clover is T. refttu;{b) purple clOTer 
is r. vraltjut ,(a) cow Kraas, ot per- 
ennial doTsr, is T. audiiim.(d) 

lia sbuodaot produce, its destrao> 



tiDD of annnal weeds, which it smoth- 
ers by its broad foliage, and especially 
the beauty of the \Yheat sown after 
it, recommend <t as an indispensable 
part of an improTcdrotation of crops. 
Ther« are Tarioos kinds of clorer, 
which all go under the botanical nanM 
of trifolinm, from the three leaves 
which grow together, or, rather, the 
fimn ot the leaf, which has three 
heait-ehaped parts. Tbej' are an- 
nnal, bienoiBl, or perennial plants. 
lite annual cloTers, with the excep- 
tion of the TVi/Mnin nurutmn ( TV4- 
Jb inanua OTfipviteht),le) introduced 
from the south of France, are not so 
geoenlly enltiTated as the biennial, 
ffhich tmidnces a greater crop, and 
being sown along with the spring 



off in quantit7 ; 
and anlesa other 
artificial grass- 
es or perenni- 
al clOTers hare 
been sown a- 
moDg it, to fill 
op the places 
where the bien- 
nial clOTer has 
failed, it is ael- 
dom profitable 

remain on the 
gronnd more 
than one year 
after that in 
which it is sown. It ahotdd be 
ploagbed in in the fall In clay landa 
for a spring crop, bnt if fallowed ear- 
ly, wheat can be grown on the IVesh 

a appiOTed Tailed of tba 




ley. 
Then 



CLOVER. 



Itih^nnfad fAowfk is tlie eomnOQ red 
or broad tAorer {Trifatittm pnUen*e), 
which is usoalfy sown with barley or 
oats, or sometimes among wheat or 
rye in spring, at the rate of ten to 
thirteen pounds of clover seed. Clo- 
▼er is often perennial. The time for 
entting is when the flowers are jost 
expanded ; the hay is more abundant 
and better by upward of ten per cent. 
The first crop is generally mown and 
made into hay. In this process great 
care is taken not to break off the 
tender leaves of the plant in drying ; 
the swarth is not shaken out as is 
done with meadow grass, but merely 
turned over ; and if the cloTer can 
be dried and put in a stack without 
any shaking, it is so much the more 
Taluable. When clover is soaked 
with rain, no hope of an improvement 
in the stack must induce the farmer 
to carry it together so long as the 
least moisture remains. If it be al- 
lowed to stay in the field till perfectly 
dry, even when it has been soaked 
repeatedly and is nearly black, and 
is then trod hard in a rick with a 
sprinkling of salt over each layer, it 
will be readily eaten by cattle in win- 
ter, and be far more nutritious than 
that which, having been stacked in a 
moist state, will infallibly come out 
musty. A very good method in those 
seasons when a continuance of dry 
weather cannot be reckoned upon — 
particularly when the second crop is 
cut in September — ^is to take advan- 
tage of two or three dry days to cot 
the clover, and turn it as soon as the 
dew Ib completely dried off the upper 
side ; the next day do the same, and 
in the evening carry the green, dry 
clover and lay it in alternate layers 
with sweet straw, so as to form a 
moderately-sized stack. A ferment- 
ation will soon arise, but the dry 
straw will prevent all danger from 
too much heating, and, acquiring the 
flavour of the clover, will be eaten 
with avidity by the cattle. To those 
who make doTer bay for the use of 
their own stock in winter, we recom* 
mend this as preferable to the com- 
mon method, even when there is less 
danger flrom the wealher. The niro- 
16e 



cess of cvriag by vwe^aia^ it. vay 
well adapted to clover. 

It is ueiial to sow timothy in a 
small proportion with clover seed, 
especially where clover, having been 
often repeated on the same land, is 
apt to fail. 

The most profitable use of clover 
is to cot it green for horses and cat* 
tie. With a little management, green 
food may be given to all the stock 
from the first day of April to October. . 

The land which has borne clover 
is in a very good state for producing 
corn or wheat. In the regular Nor* 
folk rotation, clover should recoir 
every fourth year: but after a few 
rotations this is found to be too quick 
a recurrence, and other ^ass seeds 
or pulse are substituted. The Fiem-* 
ish do not sow clover again on the 
same ground sooner than in eight or 
ten years. 

The white or Dutch clover (Tri/o- 
Utim reptns) is a perennial, which 
grows rapidly, and forms excellent 
pasture ; but its bulk is iiot sufficient 
to make it profitable to mow for hay. 
It is excellent for sheep, which thrive 
well upon it. A light, calcareous 
soil is best adapted for white clover, 
but it also grows well on heavy land, 
provided the bottom be sound and 
dry. 

Another perennial clover, called 
cow grass {Ttifolium medium)^ is 
found in all rich meadows : it is oft- 
en sown in oonjunction with the 
white clover in laying down arable 
land to grass. The lesser yellow 
trefoil {Tri/olium tninvs) and the hop 
trefoil ( TrifoUumprocumUna) are also 
valuable varieties found in good pas- 
tures. 

The only annual clover which ia 
cultivated is the French clover (Tr«- 
folmm inaumalutn) mentioned be- 
fore. It is a most valuable addition 
to the plants usually sown for fodder, 
from the short time in which it ar- 
rives at perfection if sown in spring ; 
80 that, where clover has failed, t£a 
may be sown to fill up the bare pla- 
ces. Its principal use is to raise 
very early food for ewes and lambs* 
which it doe^wiih very little trouble 



CLO 



CLO 



ff ncpeDM. Immediately after bar- 
vest the 8tabble is scarfed and bar- 
niwed, 80 as to nrise a moold ; the 
trifoliura is sown at the rate of six- 
teen to twenty poands per acre, and 
well rolled in. It springs np and 
stands the winter well, and with the 
first genial weather in spring it grows 
rapidly. It makes excellent hay, and 
what is left prodnees seed most abun- 
dantly in the end of May or beginning 
of Jnne^ bemg off the groond in good 
time to ploo^ the land and cl^in it 
for turnips. It is far superior to stub- 
ble turnips as an intervening crop, 
and more rapid in its growth than 
tares. On light land a crop of buck- 
wheat is readily obtained after it. It 
has the property of smothering an- 
nual weeds by its rapid growth, and 
for this reason is not so well adapt- 
ed for sowing with other crops. The 
Italian rye grass (Xiotium pcrenne) 
may be sovni with it, and will grow 
as rapidly. After the trifoliom has 
been cut, this will continue and give 
an excellent aeeond crop. 

In France and in the United States 
jdaster is considered as a specific ma- 
nmre for clover. It is sown bj hand 
over the plant in spring, and in some 
situations the advantage is evident, 
in others scarcely observable. The 
qnantity used is about one bushel to 
the sere. 

On good land an acre of clover will 
produce as much as three tons and a 
half of dry hay ; that is, two tons 
the first cutting, and one and a half 
the second. Greater crops are ob- 
tained on Tery highly manured land. 
The yaloe of a ton of clover hay to 
feed horses with is abont fifteen or 
twenty per cent, more than good 
meadow bay. 

When clover is intended to be left 
to ripen its seeds, it should be mown 
early, or fed off by sheep in May. 
The first crop is seldom free from 
▼arions seeds of other plants which 
rise among the clover : by feeding it 
«lown or mowing it these are destroy- 
ed, and the clover, whioh grows more 
jrajpidiy than most other plants, ri- 
eee again withoat any mixture of 
wrals. Whan the hloaaom is thor- 



oughly withered, and the seed ia 
nearly ripe, the clover is mown and 
left to dry on the ground without 
much ahaking. In very dry weather 
if may be housed or stacked in a 
week ; but the process is much re- 
tarded by showers. It is well known 
that the subsequent stock suffers if 
the clover is allowed to stand for 
seed. As the calyx of the fiower of 
clover envelops the seed closely, it is 
difficult to separate them. There are 
various madiines for this purpose, 
one of which consists of two fine- 
redded hurdles, made to rub on each 
other while the heads pass between 
them. The principal clover mill for 
separating the seed is by J. Ritten- 
hoose, price sixty dollars. Clover is 
generally thrashed on the floor, but if 
the heads, after being separated from 
the haulm, are put together in a heap 
and pressed, a slight fermentation 
takes place, and this makes the calyx 
brittle, so that it breaks into dust, 
and the seed comes out readily ; it is 
then easUy cleared by the fan. The 
yield is four to five bushels the acre. 

When the seed is not intended for 
the market, the trouble of dearinr it 
from the bosk may be saved, espe 
cially in the TrifoUum ineamatum* 
It will grow as well when sown with 
the husk as when cleaned, and it is 
easy to find tbe proportion required 
to be sown in that state by allowing 
for the weight of the husk. 

CLOVER, VARIETIES. Numer- 
ous plants are more or less cultiva- 
ted resembling clover, hence some 
c<Mifusion has arisen in the popular 
names. Thus, the Ckiiian elooer is 
lucern. Bokhara clover is sweet clo- 
ver {MelUoitu ma^or) ; it is a coarse 
plant, rising to six and ten feet, but 
if cut four or five times in the season, 
when abont two feet high, it yields 
an immense quantity of good herbage 
for soiling. The seed should be sown 
in spring in drills eighteen inches 
apart. It should be kept free ftom 
weeds when young, thinned out by 
the hoe, and cat dose to the ground. 
It iB perennia], and wiU stand the 
winters of Virginia, and probably of 
Pennsylvania. The matuza stems 



clO 



coc 



make good heanp when rotted and 
brokoii. Two pounds or seed the 
acre is abondantly enough. 

*' Mr. James Gowen, who resides at 
Mount Airy, near Philadelphia, has 
been much in the practice of keep- 
ing up a considerable stock of uncom- 
monly fine cattle, and soiling them in 
summer upon laoem, rye, and red 
clover. He has raised patches of the 
melilotos, and from his observation 
says, * there is no grass or plant I 
have yet seen that affords to me such 
promise as the sweet-scented or Bok- 
hara clover/ ''-^CuUivaior, iVbsew 
her, 1843.) 

CLOVER, GIGANTIC. The 
same as Bokhara clover. 

CLOVER, ALSIKE. Tn/oHum Ay 
briduuL A supposed hybrid between 
the white and common red clover. 
It is very hardy, withsunding the 
winters of Sweden, perennial, but 
runs close to the ground, and is only 
fit for pastures, especially for sheep. 
Numerous small species of trifolium, 
medicago, meUlotus, and other legu- 
minous plants are known vulgarly 
under the names of yellow, sweet, 
dtc., clovers, but they are scarcely 
worthy of attention to the cultiva^ 
tor. 

CLOVER, MACHINE FOR 
GATHERING. A simple contri- 
vanee for gathering the seed heads 
is much used, and is figured below. 
It is of wood, bat the teeth may be 
made of Mrrought iron, and the wheels 
removed with advantage. It is drawn 
by one horse, and managed by a boy. 
The hand gatherer (a) is used for 
emptying the barrow, or for coUeet- 
ing pease, beans, Ao, 




CLOVES. The unexpanded blos- 
soms of an Eastern tree, the Eugtnia 
earyopkylltUa. They contain an oil 
highly aromatic, and grateful to the 
stomach in minute quantities. It is 
a tropical production. 



' CLUPEA. The generic name of 
the herring and shad fishes, ancho- 
vies, sprats, dec. : most of the species 
are migratory. 

CLUSTER. A bunch. A rwcems 
in botany. 

COAGULATION. The formation 
of a solid body of a jelly-like charac 
tcr. 

COAL. Numerous varieties ex- 
ist : that of Pennsylvania and Wales 
(Eng.) is anthracite, difficult of com- 
bustion, prodacing no flame, but in- 
tense heat : it in nearly pure csrbon. 
Bitumifunu coal, •«<* as that of Vir- 
ginia and Ohio (Liverpool coal>, con- 
tains hydrogen as well as carbon, 
and gives ofi" gas and flame in bum* 
ing. Wood coal resembles charred 
wood, and shows the marks of vrood • 
it produces much light. 

All coal is of vegetable origin, be- 
ing, indeed, the remains of plants and 
trees. The chief beds of it are ar- 
ranged in a curved form ; hence the 
term coal basins. This variety lies 
above the old red sandstone, and is 
covered with sandstones and ooa- 
glomerates. It is, therefore, a seo* 
ondary foroMtion, and, according to 
the New- York geologists^ does not 
exist in this state. 

COAL TAR. A tary fluid of m 
complicated nature, produced during 
the distillation of bituminous coal for 
gas. It is a cheap and excellent 
paint for iron-ware, railings, dic^ 
and has latterly been used on wood* 
work. It preserves the timber, bat 
it is doubtful whether the colour ma/ 
not prove injurious by causing warp- 
ing. 
COBBLES. SmaU round atonea. 
COOCINELLA. The generic 
name of the lady-bird insects. Tkey 
are ofgruu Mrvico to the farmer and 
orchardista in destroying plant lice 
{Aphidea% on which they prey. 

COOCULUS INDICUS. A poi- 
sonous Eastern berry used in medi- 
cine; it is sometimes employed, to 
cause intozicatioQ, in beer, or throwa 
into fish ponds to stupify fish, which 
can be caught by the hand while su£> 
fering from ita effeets. The poison* 
oua inrinciplfi ia jMcfioftnid. 



coc 



COF 



COCCUM. AdryeltttieMedeoT- 

eriug. 

COCCUS. The bark lice or scale 
insect family. See Bark Lice. 

COCCYX. The teumnation of 
tbe spinal colamn. 

COCHINEAL. The Coeau cacti, 
a Mexican insect. The fine article 
should be of a grayish exterior, and 
tbe lines of the body clearly defined. 
The brilliant scarlet of cochineal is 
fixed in dyeing by a mordant of alu- 
mina and solution of tin, and bright- 
ened by cream of tartar. 

COCHLEATE (from coehUa^a 
aheU). Twisted like some shells. 

COCK-CHAFFER. See Insects. 

COCKLE. Tbe weed Agrostem- 
muLgitkagOy which grows amid wheat, 
and whose black seed impair the col- 
our of flour if not well separated by 
screening. It is an annual, to be de- 
stroyed only by a succession of fbd- 
der crops cut for soiling before flow- 
er, or by clean fallows. 

COCK»S-FOOT GRASS. The or- 
chard gprass. See Grasses. 

COCOA GRASS. Dr. Cartwright 
thus writes in the American Agricul- 
turist : 

** There is a repent plant called the 
cocoa in Louisiana and Mississippi, 
which, instead of running on the sur- 
face of the earth, runs down into it 
to the depth of four or five feet, and 
horizontally a little under the sur- 
face, mole fashion, and at short in- 
tervals throwing up a bunch of thick, 
coarse grass. A better idea of this 
plant can be formed by caHing it a 
subterraneous strawberry. It bears 
nuts under ground the size of straw- 
berries. Their bitter taste distin- 
guishes them from the nut grass, 
called sweet cocoa. The bitter cocoa 
grows so fast, that double the num- 
ber of labourers are required to culti- 
vate the lands infested by it. All 
thos^ who, ignorant of this pernicious 
repent, have purchased oocoa lands, 
have paid dearly for the want of a lit- 
tle practical information, as they are 
nearly all bankrupt. Many have 
wisely abandoned their cocoa planta- 
tions. No means have been discov- 
ered of extirpating this pernicious 



repent when It once gets ilzed in the 
soil." 

It certainly would be exterminated 
by hoed crops, or long-rooted peren- 
nial plants, as clovers. Notwith- 
standing its vivacious nature, it is a 
grass of great value to the grazier 
and sheep raiser. It is sometimes 
called nut grass. 

COCOON. The web which cov- 
ers the chrysalis of an insect. 

CCELIAC (from «oiXoc. hAlow). 
Relating to the belly or abdomen. 

COFFEE. The berries of the 
Coffita Arabica, a tropical shrub. 
The cofl!ee plant thrives between 
the tropics in situations where the 
mean and nearly constant tempera- 
ture is between 22° and 26'' C. (71-6° 
and 80° F.). 

Coflee is rarely sown in a nursery ; 
the seeds are made to germinate still 
surrounded by their natural pulp, and 
wrapped up in leaves of the banana. 
The young plants, after seven or 
eight days of germination, are put 
into the ground. In the Valley d'Ara- 
gua an acre of ground of good quality 
is generally laid out with about 1040 
plants. The coflTee plant flourishes 
in the course of the second year; 
when left to grow unimpeded, it will 
attain a height of from 23 to 26 feet, 
but it is seldom allowed to grow so 
high, its upward progress being check- 
ed by pruning. Tbe planters of Ven- 
eauela generally keep it at a height 
of from five to six feet. The shrub 
receives the care of the planter du- 
ring the first two years ; the ground 
must be kept free from weeds, and 
the growth of parasites must, above 
all, be prevented. To thrive, the co(^ 
fee plant requires frequent rains up 
to the time of flowering. The fruit 
bears a strong resemblance to a small 
cherry, and is ripe when it becomes 
of a red colour, and the pulp is soft 
and very sweet. As the berries nev- 
er ripen simultaneously, tbe coflee 
harvest takes place at diiferent times, 
each requiring at least three visits 
made at intervals of from five to six 
days. A negro will gather from ten 
to twelve gallons of fruit in the course 
of a day. 

lao 



COP 



cor 



Two beans are found in the hite- 
rior of each berry ; in order to free 
theae from the palp which surrounds 
them, they are passed through a kind 
of mill, and the coffee is steeped in 
water for twenty-four hours in order 
to free it from the mucilaginous mat- 
ter which adheres to it : it is then 
dried by being spread out upon a floor 
under a shed. In the coffee p>lanta- 
tions of Venezuela which I visited, I 
saw them proceed in another way : 
the berries were exposed to the sun 
upon a piece of ground somewhat in- 
clined, and spread out to about three 
inches in thickness; the pulp soon 
enters into fermentation, and a very 
distinct vinous odour is exhaled, and 
the juice altered either flows away 
or dries up ; at the end of a fort- 
night or three weeks the berries are 
all dry and shrivelled, and they then 
undergo two triturations, one to ob- 
tain the seeds or beans, the other to 
detach a thin pellicle which surrounds 
them. Three bushels of berries will 
yield from 85 to 90 pounds of mar- 
ketable coffee. 

During the destruction of the sugary 
matter contained in the pulp of the 
berry, a considerable quantity of spir- 
it is produced and dissipated. M. 
Humboldt, struck with the readiness 
with which the berry of the coffee 
plant runs into fermentation, express- 
es bis surprise that no one ever 
thought of obtaining alcohol from it. 
In an old work, however, I find the 
following passage -. " The inhabitants 
of Arabia take the skin which sur- 
rounds the cofi^e bean, and prepare it 
as we do raisins ; they form a drink 
with it for refreshment during the 
summer."* This vinous liquor ap- 
pears to enjoy all the exciting prop- 
erties which are esteemed in the in- 
fusion of coffee. 

The coffee plant continues to pro- 
duce to the age of forty to forty-five 
years ; it bears to a considerable ex- 
tent even in the third year. Some 
shrubs yield from 17 to 93 pounds of 
dry coffee beans ; but this is a very 
large quantity. An acre of land in 
the Valley d'Aragua, planted with 
about 1040 shrubs, will yield about 

170 



940 or 960 pounds, whi^ is at the 
rale of somewhat less than one pound 
per shrub. 

Coffee contains the same active 
principle as tea, coffeine, but in less 
proportion ; the researches of differ- 
ent chemists have also shown the 
presence of a particular acid called 
coffeic acid, of fatty matters, a vola- 
tile oil, a colouring matter, albumen, 
tannin, and alkaline and earthy salts. 
— ( BoussingauU.) 

COFFEE-TREE. The Gymneclo' 
diu Canadensis. A leguminous tree, 
the beans of which have been slight- 
ly used for coffee ; they are nutri- 
tious, but rather sickening, and are 
said to destroy flies with great cer- 
tainty when a decoction is exposed 
in proper places. The foliage of the 
tree is like that of the black walnut. 

The tree oAen attains 60 feet, and 
15 inches diameter ; it has few branch- 
es, and those thick : its presence is 
said to indicate the richest soils. Tho 
wood is rosy, compact, and as dura- 
ble as the locust, and like it, contain- 
ing very little sap wood. 

COFFEK DAM. In architecture 
and bridge-building, a case of piliogr 
water-tight, fixed in the bed of a riv- 
er for the purpose of laying the bot- 
tom dry for a space large enough to 
build the pier on. Coffer dams are 
formed in various ways, either by a 
single enclosure or a double one, 
with clay or chalk rammed in be- 
tween the two to prevent the water 
from coming through the sides. They 
are also m^e either with piles only, 
driven close together, and sometimes 
notched or dovetaileid into one an- 
other ; or, if the water is not very 
deep, by piles driven at a distance of 
five or six feet from each other, and 
grooved in the sides with boards lei 
down between them in the grooves. 
In order to build in coffer dams, a 
very good natural bottom of solid 
earth or day is required ; for though 
the sides be made water-tight, il' the 
bed of the river be of a loose con- 
sistence, the water will ooxe up 
through it in too great a quantity to 

* Mem. or tbe Academjr or Inscriptiuns, toL 
uciii., p. S14. 



COL 



COM 



permit tbe operatiftmi to be 6arfied 
on. It is almost needless to remark 
that the sides most be very strong 
and well braced in the inside to re- 
sist the pressure of the ambient wa- 
\ex.^{HuUon'9 Tracts, vol. i.) 

COPFI N BONE. The bone which 
lies encircied within a horse's hoof. 

COHESION. Tbe force which 
binds together similar particles: it 
is supposed to be electrical. The 
strain which any wood or metal bears 
is a measure of its cohesion. 

" The following is a tabular view 
of the absolute cohesion of the prin- 
cipal kinds of timber employed in 
building and. carpentry, showing the 
load which would rend a prism of an 
inch square, and the length of the 
prism which, if suspended, would be 
torn asunder by its own weight : 

Teak 12,015 lbs. — 36,040 feet 

Oak 11,880 — SS,000 

Srcamore . . . 0.830 —35,800 

Beech 12,825 ~ 38,040 

Ash 14,130 —42,080 

£)m 0,720 —30,050 

Memel6r. . . . 0.540 —40,500 

Norway fir . . . 12.346 —55,500 

Laich 12,240 — 42,160 

**The metals differ more widely from 
each other in their cohesive strength 
than tbe several species of wood or 
vegetable fibres. According to the 
experiments of Mr. George Rennie 
in 1817, the cohesive power of a rod 
an inch square of different metals, in 
pounds avoirdupois, with the corre- 
spooding length in feet, is as fol- 
lows: 

Cant stael . . . 134,250 Iba. — 39,455 faat 
Swedish malleable 

iron 72,004 — 19,740 

English <iitto . . 55,872 — 10,749 
Cast iron .... 19,096 — 6,110 
Caet copper . • . 19,072 — 5,003 
Yellow brasa . . 17,058 — 5,180 
Caattia .... 4,736 — 1,406 
Castlead. . . . 1,834 — 348^ 

{Brtmdt^a Encycl.) 

COKE. The cinder of bituminous 
coals after being heated for gas. 

COLCHICUM. Coiehicum offici- 
nale. Meadow safiVon, a bulbous plant, 
growing freely in moist, sandy loams. 
The bulb and seeds are of the high- 
est value as a medicine in gout and 
rheumatiem. In large dosea it is 
poisonous. 



COLE. See Cdaia, 

COLEOPTERA (from «oA«of, « 
sheaik^ and ?rrrpov, a wing). Insects, 
the outer wings of which are hard or 
horny, the inner wings being large 
and very delicate. Borers, lady-birds, 
curcuUos, &c., belong to this race. 
The hard outer wings are called tly- 
tra. 

COLEWORT. See Cabbage. 

COLIC. In common parlance, an 
irritation of the stomach or intes- 
tines, causing pain, and readily alle- 
viated by a slight purge or by lauda- 
num. 

CO LLAPSE. A loss of strength. 

COLLAR BLADE. The halms. 

COLLEY. The Scotch sheep 
dog. 

COLLIQUATIVE. An excessive 
evacuation, diminishing the strength. 

COLLUM. The point where the 
roots diverge from the stem of plants. 

COLLYRIUM. An eye-wash. 

COLOCYNTH. The pulp of the 
Cucumis colocynthf a plant similar to 
the cucumber, bearing rocmd fruit of 
great bitterness and purgative pow- 
er. The cultivation is similar to that 
of melons. 

COLON. The large intestines. 

COLOPHONY. The dark resin 
remaining after the distillation of the 
spirit from rosin. 

COLT. A young horse, ass, &c. 

COLT'S FOOT. A vile perennial 
weed. 

COLUMBARIUM. Apigeon- 
house. 

COLZA. Two or more varieties 
of plants of the open cabbage kind 
{Brauica arvensi* and campesiris) are 
cultivated under this name in Ger- 
many and France. They are usually 
sown in drills, but sometimes broad 
cast for eating off in the fall. The 
most common object in the cultiva- 
tion of colza is the seed, which yields 
a coarse oil like rape, and is obtained 
by pressure. The cake is very simi- 
lar to that from rape, and used like 
it for fodder and manure. The treat- 
ment is precisely similar to rapct 
which see. 

COMA (from «*«, to He doum). A 
propensity to sleep, amounting to a 

171 



disease or atupiiltly. Comatot a a 

COMBINATION. In chemialry, 
Ibe chemical union of atotna, where- 
bjthe aenaible properties of the com- 
bining parts are altered. It takes 
place in malliematical proportions. 
See Atom. 

COMBUSTION. Burning, The 
chemical cbange of a body, attendeit 
with heat or light. For combustion, 
the body must bs surrounded with a 
medium which enters, in part, into 
the change, such as oxygen, chlorine, 

COMFREY. The Symphylutn ogi- 
eiaait, a rough perenuial plant, with 
coarM, TougQ iKivea and large roots. 



The American Agriculturist tbua 

" We learn by the Portamonlh 
Journal tbat Mr. Robinson is of 
opinion, from an imperfect ezperi- 
ment made by him on a small patch 
of ground, that he will be able next 
year to gather, at two cuttings, eight 
tons of leaves of the comfrey root to 
the acre, which, he saya, is excellent 
food for slock. The root is consid- 
ered very nutritious for man or beast ; 
and Mr. Rich, of Troy, N. H., asserts 
that it can be harresled every two 
or three years, and will yield over 
2000 bushels per acre. We should 
think it adriaable to try the experi' 
ment of a rod or two square of grow- 
ing comfrey in this vicinity. It is 
cultivated by transplanting the roots, 
wliicli grow wild in the fields, to any 
ground deep ploughed and well pul- 
Tcriicd." 



COMWSSUm:. in 

junction or union. 

C O M O S E. Ending in a tuft or 
bruab, like the top of a trse. 

COMPASS. An instniment uaed 
by mariners and surveyors to obtain 
the bearing of any place. The easen- 
tial part is a magnetic needle, which 
playa over a card marked into the 
paints of tbe compass. The follow- 
ing figure gives the full divisions : N 
signifies north, S south, E east, W 
west, and b by or towards. 



C0MP0SIT.41. Plants like the 
aunflower, dandelion, lettuce, &«., 

the flowera of which are grouped to- 
gether on a flattish surface. They 
are very numerous, and fonu the 
iSjm^nieniiorLiinaeus. Few are cul- 
tivated ; most ate valueless weeds ; 
but chamomile, wormwood, and a 
few others yield bitter medicincs- 
Their ashea abound in potash. 

COMPOST. Any compound of 
manures, usually of vegetable matter 
for the most part. See Pat, Lime, 
Vegetablt Matter, dec. 

COMPRESSIBILITY. This qual- 
ity depends on the natural pores of 
bodies, which enable the solid parta 
to approach nearer under great Corca. 

CONCAVE. Having a hollowed 
surface. Concave surlacea in mir- 
rors produce a magnifying effect, and 
condense beat and light. 

CONCEPTACLES. Tbcseed 
cases of ferns, lichens, Ac. 

CONCHOID (from Korxn. i »*e«). 
Like a shell. The name of a curve. 

CONCRETE <from euacwicere. la 
coaletct in aiu rniui). In Rrchitecture 
and engiaeeriiig, a uiaea composed of 



CON 



CON 



ttone cbippings or ballast cemented 
together through the mediam of lime 
and sand, usually employed in ma- 
king foundations where the soil is 
of itself too light or boggy, or other- 
wise insufficient for the reception of 
the walls. The essential quality of 
concrete seems to be, that the mate- 
rials used should be of small dimen- 
sions, so that the cementing medium 
may act in every direction round 
them, and that the latter shonld on 
no account be more in quantity than 
is necessary for that purpose. Ar- 
chitects and engineers have much 
varied the proportions of lime and 
sand used. If the lime, which should 
be fresh and ground to. powder, be 
good stone lime, it will bear three or 
four times its measure by bulk of 
sand. These and the ballast or gal- 
lots, as the stone cbippings are called, 
should be thoroughly turned over and 
mixed together. If the foundations 
be wet, the mixture will want very 
little if any water; indeed, some- 
times the ballast only is wetted, and 
then covered over with the lime and 
sand. It is then Med into the bar- 
rows, and run oo to be dropped from 
a stage into the fonndations. This 
latter operation should be performed 
at as great a height as possiMe above 
the level of the trench, in order that 
the whole of the different particles 
of the composition may be compress- 
ed together so as to occupy the least 
possible space. The stones employ- 
ed should not exceed the size of a 
common hen's egg. The mass very 
quickly sets and becomes extremely 
hard. On the top of it, which is kept 
as level as possible, a tier of stone 
landings is laid, and very often 
tlirooi^oat die length a chain of tim- 
ber is buried in tl^ footings, whose 
durability is requisite only while the 
work m settling; over the landings 
and timber thus laid, the latter, it is 
to be observed, occupying but a very 
small portion of the thickness of the 
ibotings, and quite buried in them, 
the walls are carried up. — (See Davy 
9U Artificial FouiuUuionst and TotUn 
«» Mortar 9, CemenU, &e.) 
CONDENSATION. The render- 
PS 



ing a body more dense, most com- 
monly applied to the conversion of 
vapour into the fluid form. 

CONDENSER. Any machine by 
which the compression of gas, dec., 
can be effected. 

CONDITION. In horsemanship, 
the health and good appearance of a 
horise or other animal. 

CONDUCTOR. In physics, any 
substance which allows the passage 
of heat, light, or electricity is said to 
conduct it. 

CONDYLE (from kov6v, a cup). 
The rounded ends of the long bones. 

CONFERVA. An extensive fam- 
ily of small water weeds, forming the 
green slime on stagnant waters. 
They nourish innumerable insects 
and animalcules. 

CONGELATION. The act of 
passing into the state of ice or other 
solid forms from the fluid. 

CONGESTION. In farriery and 
medicine, an increased accumulation 
of blood or other fluid in any part. 
It is to be relieved by bleeding, cup- 
ping, leeches, or counter irritation. 

CONGLOMERATE. In geology, 
a compound stony mass containing 
pebbles, dec, cemented together by 
iron, calcareous or other matter. 

CONIC. Relating to a cone, small- 
er at one end than the other. 

CONIFER iE. Trees bearing 
cones, as the pines, firs, cedars, dtc. 
The wood of all is useful, and they 
grow usually upon poor soils. 

CONIROSTERS. A tribe of birds 
with strong conical bills, as crows 
and finches. 

CONIUM. The genus containing 
hemloeky which see. 

CONNIVENS. In botany, any 
covering or arrangement by which 
the parts of a plant or flower are hid- 
den ; as the flowers of the fig by the 
connivent receptacle. 

CONSERVATORY. In horticul- 
ture, a glazed structure, in which 
exotic trees and shrubs are grown 
in a bed or floor of soil. It is distin- 
guished from an orangery by its hav- 
ing a glazed roof, while that of the 
latter is opaque ; and from a green- 
house, by the plants being planted m 

178 



CJON 

the free sofl, and thus growing up 
from the floor, while in the green- 
house the plants are grown in pots 
placed on shelves, or on a stage or 
series of shelves rising one aboTe 
another. Above a century ago, for 
example, in the time of Evelyn, the 
term conservatory was applied to 
those garden buildings now called 
orangeries, and in modern horticul- 
ture employed only for the preserva- 
tion of exotic plants, such as orange- 
trees, &c., which are in a dormant 
state during winter. The green- 
house and the modern conservatory 
were then not in existence. They 
are exclusively employed for the 
preservation of plants which are in a 
growing state during the winter. The 
largest conservatory in the world, at 
the present time (1841), is that erect- 
ed at Chatsworth in Derbyshire, for 
pahns and other tropical plants, which 
covers above an acre of ground, and 
is sixty feet high. — {Bramde^g Ency* 
clopedia.) 

CONSTIPATION. Costiveness, 
want of regular evacuations from the 
bowels. 

CONSTITUTION. The general 
strength and liability to disease of 
any person or animal. 

CONSTRICTOR. Any muscle 
which has the power of closing the 
openings of the body. 

CONTRACTION OF THE 
HOOF. In farriery, a distorted 
state of the homy substance of the 
hoof in cattle, producing all the mis- 
chiefs of unnatural and irregular 
pressure on the soft parts contained 
in it, and, consequently, a degree of 
lameness which ean only be cured by 
removing the cause. Contraction of 
the hoof rarely happens, however, 
except to those animals whose hoofs, 
for the convenience of labour, are 
shod. — (Jokfuon.) 

CONVERTIBLE HUSBANDRY, 
or MIXED HUSBANDRY. A term 
implying frequent change in the same 
field from tillage crops to grass, and 
from grass back to tillage crops ; an 
alternation of wheat, rye, &c., with 
root and grass crops. 
CONyOLVULAC&£. A family 
174 



OOP 

of plants, indoding the bind weed, 
sweet potato, and jalap. The stems 
are commonly twining, and the larg« 
roots purgative ; the flowers are oft- 
en beautiful and large. 

CONVULSIONS. An nnnatm^l 
action of the muscular system pro- 
duced by a derangement of nervous 
power. Staggering is a convulsion 
originating in an excess of blood be> 
ing diverted to the head, and is re- 
lieved by bleeding ; the use of Irat 
baths to the lower extremities is also 
useful. Worms frequently produce 
convulsions. 

COOLER. The large vata of brew- 
ers are so called. 

COOMB. A measure of foor 
bushels. 

COOP. A cage for poultry, of baa- 
ket-work or laths. 

COPAL. A resinous body which 
forms an excellent varnish when dis- 
solved in linseed oil, and mixed with 
turpentine. 

COPING. The top course of a 
wall, usually of stone, and wider than 
the wall, to save it from rain. 

COPPER. A red ductile metal, 
remarkable for its conducting power. 
The sulphate, or bloe vitriol, is used 
as a caustic in farriery, in dyeing, and 
sometimes as a steep to kill insects 
and parasites, dec., on wheat and 
grain. A solution of blue viirid, at 
the rate of one ounce to enough wa- 
ter to thoroughly soak a bushel of 
wheat, is esteemed the most oertaiQ 
preventive to smut, rust, and mildew, 
and has been long used in Germany* 
SwitaerUnd, and the northeast of 
France. The black oxide is of great 
service in analysis. 

COPPERAS. Green vitriol, sul- 
phate of iron. Blue copperas is sul- 
phate of copper, or blue stone. 

COPPICE. A young wood. Wood 
cut every few years. 

COPROLITE (from icovrpot, exert- 
ment, and A<0or, a gtane). The fos- 
sils resembling cones, which are 
found in the ancient calcareous for- 
mations, and shown by Profeaaor 
Buckland to be the petrified exore* 
ments of former animals. They have 
been di»oovered ia the green sand of 



COR 



COR 



New-Jeney. Llebig called tkeatten'^i 
tioD of farmers to coproUtee as a ma- 
Dure oontaiDing aiicteen to twenty 
per cent, of bone earth. 

CORALS. The calcareous basis 
of some marine animals. Coral sand 
has been used freely in France in the 
same way and with similar effects as 
marl. It may contain two per cent, 
of bone earth. 

CORDATE. In botany, heart- 
shaped. Like the heart on playing 
cards. 

CORD. A measure for wood, equal 
to four feet high and wide, and eight 
feet long. 

CORD GRASSES. Coarse, salt- 
marsh grasses, of the genus Sjmrtina. 

CORDIAL. A stimulating, sto- 
machic medicine. 

COREOPSIS. A yellow compo- 
site garden flower, the fresh flowers 
of which yield a yellow dye. 

CORIANDER. The Corumirium 
Motvounij an umbelliferoos plant culti- 
vated for its aromatic seeds, which 
are used in confectionery and medi- 
cine. The soil must be dry. *' The 
sowings are generally performed in 
April in driiis eight iocbes apart, and 
half an inch deep ; the plants to re- 
main where sown. The only cultt- 
▼ation required is to thin them to 
e^t inches' distance, and to have 
* them kept clear of weeids throughout 
their growth. They will perfect their 
seed in early autumn, being in flower 
during June.'' 

CORK. The bark of the Spanish 
oak, Mcom^^ue {Qtunut suber). It 
would flourish wherefer the live oak 
grows, but requires a dry granitic soil, 
and might be made a source of great 
profit to the Southern States. The 
tree is evergreen, not very large (six- 
ty-five feetx yields fine sweet acorns, 
wkI begins to supply good cork at 
flnty years. The cork is stripped 
every eight or ten years afterward. 
It is tal^n in July, a perpendicular 
cut being made the leogth of the 
trunk* and a circular one above and 
below, down to the new bark, but not 
into the young wood. The tree of 
100 years famishes from 200 to 400 
pounds of eoik The young oak 



pUntatioBs are set with Tines, whloii 
last for twenty-five years. 

CORMUS. The solid sweUing be- 
neatb the stem of some plants. See 
Bulb. 

CORN. In Europe, wheat, or a. 
mixture of pease^ beans, and oats. 

CORN, BROOM. See Broom Com. 

CORN, INDIAN. Ztamayt. An 
annual cereal plant of great impor- 
tance to American agriculture. 

Fam/tM.— -These may be divided 
into two classes: 1st. Table com. 
2d. Field com. 

The esteemed table corns are. Ear- 
ly Golden Sioux, Canadian, Early 
Tuscarora, and Sweet Corn. The 
White Hominy and Dutton also an- 
swer for late sorts when green. 

Field Corn. — The varieties are 
very numerous, and designated by 
the number of rows, the colour and 
shape of the grain. The clear white 
or yellow is always preferred ; a kmg 
heavy grain. Urge ear, small cob, and 
those of early maturity. The favour- 
ite northern varieties are of the Si- 
oux kind, of a yellow gourd-seed 
grain, the Dutton, and several kinds 
of flint and Canaudlan com. In the 
Middle States the yellow gourd-seed 
and Virginia white gourd-seed, of 
twenty-four to thirty-six rows, are 
chiefly cultivated. 

Other Varieties.-^A small com {Zem 
earagua) is used for parching ; it is 
called pop corn and Valparaiso. 

Badeth or Tree Com. — ^This created 
much attention at first, and is worthy 
of cultivation, but with that care 
whioh was taken in its production. 
Mr. Baden's account is from the New- 
England Farmer, and ia a lesson on 
the improvement of any variety of 
grain or plant. 

«« I have the pleasure to say that I 
have brought this com to its high 
state of perfection by carefully se- 
lecting the best seed in the field for a 
long course of years, having especial 
reference to those stalks which pro- 
duced the most ears. When the corn 
was husked, I made are-selection, ta- 
king only that which appeared sound 
and fully ripe, having a regard to the 
deepest and best colour, as well as to 

170 



CORN, INDIAN 



tlieaiaBeofthecob. lathe sprttig. be- 
fore shelling the com, 1 examined it 
anio, and selected that which was 
tiie best in aU respects. In shelling 
the corn, I omitted to take the irreg- 
ular keniels at both the large and 
small ends. I have carefiilly follow- 
ed this mode of selecting seed com 
for twenty-three years, and still con- 
tinue to do BO. When I first com- 
menced, it was with a common kind of 
corn, for there was no other in this 
part of the con n tiy . If any other per- 
son undertook the same experiment, 
I did not bear of it ; I do not belieye 
others ever exercised the patience to 
bring the experiment to the present 
state of perfection. At first I was 
troubled to find stalks with even two 
good ears on them ; perhaps one good 
ear and one small one, or one good 
ear and a * nubbin.' It was several 
Tears before I oould discover much 
benefit resolting from my efiTorts ; 
however, at length the quality and 
quantity began to improve, and the 
inqHTovement was then very rapid. 
At present I do not pretend to lay up 
any seed without it comes from stalks 
which bear fomr, five, or six ears. I 
have seen stalks bearing eight ears. 
One of my neighbours informed me 
that he had a single stalk with ten 
perfect ears on it, and that he intend- 
ed to send the same to the moseum 
at Baltimore. In addition to the num- 
ber of ears, and, of course, the great 
increase in quantity unshelied, it may 
be mentioned that it yields much 
more than the common corn when 
shelled. Some gentlemen, in whom 
I have fbll confidence, informed me 
that they shelled a barrel (10 bushels 
of ears) of my kind of corn which 
measured a little more than si^ bush- 
els. The common kind of com will 
measure about five bushels only. I 
believe I raise double, or nearly so, 
to what I could with any other corn 
I have ever seen. I^enerally plant 
the com about the first of May, and 
place the hills five feet apart each 
way, and have two stalks in a hill. 

"Early last spring I let George 
Law, Esq., of Baltimore City, have 
■ome of this seed com ; he sent it to 
176 



his friend in Illinois, with instroctions 
how to manage it. A few weeks since 
he informed me that the increase was 
ISO bushels to the acre ; that thera 
was no com in Illinois like it, and 
that it produced more fodder than any 
other kind. I have supplied many 
friends with seed corn, but some of 
them have planted it with other com, 
and will, I fear, find it degenerate. 

" I have lately been inquired of if 
this corn was not later than any oth- 
er kinds. It is rather earlier, cer- 
tainly not later. Com planted in moist 
or wet soils will not ripen so quick as 
that planted on a dry soil. In the for- 
mer there will be found more damp* 
ness in the cob, although the kernel 
may appear ripe in both. In the two 
last years, the wet seasons have in- 
jured much corn that was early loft- 
ed or housed.'' 

Culture of Indum Conty by Judge 
Buel. — " Tke soils adapted to lie culture 
of Indian com are such as are perme- 
able to heat, air, and the roots of the 
plant, and embrace those denomina- 
ted sandy, gravelly, and loamy. Com 
will not succeed well on grounds that 
are stiflT, hard, or wet. The roots 
grow to as great length as the stalks, 
and the soil must be loose to permit 
their free extension. 

*< The manures used are generally 
yard and stable dung, and plaster of 
Paris (sulnkate of lime). The first 
ought to oe abundant, as upon the 
fertility which it induces depends the 
profit of the crop. Long or unfer- 
mented manure is to be preferred. It 
decomposes as the wants of the |dant 
require it; while its mechanical op- 
eration, in rendering the soil light and 
porous, is beneficial to the crop. It 
should be equally spread over the 
whole surface before it is ploughed 
under. It then continues to afford 
fresh pasture to the roots till the corn 
has matured, and is, in its place, to 
benefit the succeeding crop. If put 
into the bills, the roots soon extend 
beyond its influence ; it does not so 
readily decompose, and the subse- 
quent crop is prejudiced ftom its par- 
tial distribution in the soil. In a ro- 
tation of four or five years, in whiob 



CORN» INBIAll. 



6m orop receirea the maDore, twen- 
ty-five or thirty ordinary loads may 
be applied to oiu acre with greater 
profit than to itoo or thre* acres. Ev- 
ery addition tells in the product ; and 
there is scarcely any danger of ma- 
irnriDg too high for this favourite crop. 
Gypsum is applied broad^cast before 
the last ploughing or harrowing, or 
strewed on the hiUs after hoeing. I 
pursued the first method, at the rate 
of a hushel to the acre. 

** Th6 best prtparation for acorn crop 
is a clover i>r other grass lay, or lea, 
well covered with long manure, re- 
cently spread, neatly ploughed, and 
harrowed lengthwise of the furrow. 
A roller may precede the harrow with 
advantage. The time of performing 
these operations depends upon the 
texture of the soil and the quality of 
the sod. If the first is inclining to 
day, or the latter tough or of long 
continuance, the plou^ing may be 
performed the preceding autumn; 
hut where sand or gravel greatly pre* 
ponderate, or the sod is light and ten- 
der, it is best performed in the spring, 
and as near to the planting as conve- 
nient. The harrow, at least, should 
immediately precede planting. All 
seeds do best when put into the fresh- 
stirred mould. Stiff lands are me- 
liorated and hnton down by fall 
plooghing, hot light lands are rather 
prejudiced by it. When corn is pre- 
eeded by a tilled crq)i the ground 
should be furrowed, and the s^sd de- 
posited in the bottoms of the furrows. 
Where there is a sod, the rows should 
be superficijdly marked, and the seed 
planted upon the surface. Where the 
field is flat, or the subsoil retentive 
of moisture, the land should be laid in 
ndges, that the excess of water which 
fiiSs may pass off in the furrows. 

** The timi ^planting' must vary in 
different districts and in different sea- 
sons. The ground should be sufii- 
oiently wanned by venial heat to 
cause a speedy germination. Natu- 
ral vegetation affords the best guide. 
My rule has been to plant when the 
ai^e is borsting its blossom bads, 
whteh has generally been between 
the l2tii aad 20th of May. 



•* Preparation of the 5ee<2.— The en. 
emies to be combated are the wire- 
worm, brown grub, birds, and squir- 
rels. Of these, the first and last two 
prey upon the kernels, and against 
these tar offers a complete protection. 
I soak my seed twelve hours in hot 
water, in which is dissolved a few 
ounces of crude saltpetre. When the 
corn has been thus sosJced, I take for 
each half bushel of seed half a pint of 
tar, put it into an iron vessel with 
water, and heat it till the tar is dis- 
solved, when it is turned upon the 
seed in steep. The mass is well stir- 
red, the com taken out, and as much 
plaster added as will adhere to the 
grain. This impregnates and partial- 
ly coats the seed with the tar. The 
experience of years will warrant me 
in confidently recommending this as 
a protection for the seed. 

** The manner of planting is ordinari- 
ly in hills, from two and a half to sij; 
feet apart, according to the variety 
of com, the strength of the soil, and 
the fancy of the cultivator. The usu- 
al distance in my neighbourhood is 
three feet. Some, however, plant in 
drills of one, two, and three rows, 
by which a greater crop is unques- 
tionably obtained, though the expense 
of culture is somewhat increased. 

<* The quantity f^ seed should be dou- 
ble, and may be quadruple of what is 
required to stand. It is well known 
that a great difference is manifest in 
the appeuranoe of the plants. Some 
appear feeble and sickly, which the 
best nursing will not render produc- 
tive. The expense of seed and the la- 
bour of pulling up all but three or four 
of the strongest plants in a hill, it ia 
believed, will be amply remunerated 
by the increased product. If the seed 
is covered, as it should be, with fine 
mould only, and not too deep, we may 
at least calculate upon every hill or 
drill having its requisite number of 
plants. 

" The after culture consists in keep- 
ing the soil loose and free from weeds, 
which is ordinarily accomplished by 
two dressings, and in thinning the 
I^ants, which latter may be done the 
first hoeing, or partially omitted till 

177 



CORN, INDIAN. 



the last. The practice of ploughing 
among corn and of making large hills 
is justly getting into disrepute ; for 
the plough bruises and cuts the roots 
of the plaiits, turns up the sod and 
manure to waste, and renders the 
crop more liable to suffer by drought. 
The first dressing should be perform- 
ed as soon as the size of the plants 
will permit ; and the best implement 
to precede the hoe is a corn -harrow, 
adapted to the width of the rows, 
which every farmer can make. This 
will destroy most of the weeds and 
pulverize the soil. The second hoe- 
mg should be performed before or as 
soon as the tassels appear, and may 
be preceded by the corn-harrow, a 
shallow furrow of the plough, or, what 
is better than either, by the cultiva- 
tor. A slight earthing is beneficial, 
providing the earth is scraped from 
the surface, and the sod and manure 
not exposed. It wilt be found bene- 
ficial to run the harrow or cultivator 
a third, and even a fourth time, be- 
tween the rows, to destroy weeds and 
loosen the surface, particularly if the 
season is dry. 

" In harvesting the crop, one of three 
modes is adopted, viz. : 1. The com is 
cut at the surface of the ground when 
the grain has become glazed or hard 
upon the outside, put immediately into 
stooks, and, when sufilciently dried, 
the corn and stalks are separated, 
and both secured. 2. The tope are 
taken oflf when the corn has become 
glazed, and the grain permitted to re- 
main till October or November upon 
the butts. Or, 3. Both corn and stalks 
are left standing till the grain has fah 
!y ripened, and the latter become dry, 
when both are secured. There are 
other modes, such as leaving the butts 
or entire stalks in the field after the 
grain is gathered ; but these are so 
Wasteful and slovenly as not to mer- 
it consideration. The stalks, blades, 
and tops of corn, if well secured, are 
an excellent fodder for neat cattle. 
If cut, or cut and steamed, so that 
they can be readily masticated, they 
are superior to hay. Besides, their 
fertilizing properties as a manure are 
greatly augmented by being fed out 
178 



in the cattle-yard, and imbibing the 
urine and liquids which always there 
abound, and which are lost to the 
fUrm, in ordinary yards, without an 
abundance of dry litter to take them 
up. By the first of these methods llie 
crop may be secured before the au- 
tumnal rains ; the value of the fodder 
is increased, and the ground is clear- 
ed in time for a winter crop of wheat 
or rye. The second mode impairs the 
value of the rorage, requires more la- 
bour, and does not increase the quan- 
tity or improve the quality of the 
grain. The third mode requires the 
same labour as the first, may improve 
the quality of the grain, but must in- 
evitably deteriorate the quality of the 
fodder. The corn cannot be husked 
too promptly after it is gathered from 
the field. If permitted to heat, the 
value of the grain is seriously im- 
paired. 

** Sowing Seed. — The fairest and 
soundest ears are either selected in 
the field, or, at the time of husking, a 
few of the husks being left on, braid- 
ed, and preserved in an airy situation 
till wanted for use. 

** In making' choice of sorts, the ob- 
ject should be to obtam the varieties 
which ripen early and afford the great- 
est crop. I think these two proper- 
ties are best combined in a twelve- 
rowed kind which I obtained from 
Vermont some years ago, and which 
I call Dutton corn, from the name of 
the gentleman from whom I received 
it. It is earlier than the common 
eight-rowed yellow, or any other field 
variety I have seen, and, at the same 
time, gives the greatest product. I 
have invariably cut the crop in the 
first fourteen days of September, and 
once in the last week in August. The 
cob is large, but the grain is so conn 
pact upon it that two bushels of sound 
ears have yielded five pecks of shell- 
ed grain, weighing 63 lbs. the bushel. 

**In securing the fodder, precaution 
must be used. The butts become wet 
by standing on the ground, and if pla- 
ced in large stacks or in the barn, the 
moisture which they contain ofieo in- 
duces fermentation and mouldiness. 
To avoid this, I put them first in 



CORN, INBIANl 



stacks so small thai tlie wti<>1e of the 

batts are exposed upon the outer sur- 
face ; and, when thoroughly dry, they 
may be taken to the barn, or left to 
be removed as they are wanted to be 
fed out, merely regarding the propri- 
ety of removing a whole stack at the 
same time. 

* («) Btbmmud KxjKmw* ^ Cvhir-mtlttg am Aert ^Im- 
Man Com. 

On« ploug^liiag (suppose a clover lay) . $2 00 

Harrowivf and plttntin^ . 9 00 

Two hoeings, 4 d&ys aiud hone toam . S 75 

HanrMtiiu^, two day* . . . 1 90 

Cutting and hanresting sUlks 1 50 

Rent 500 

$15 75 

*<(b) The following table exhibits 
the difference in prc^uct of various 
methods of planting, and serves also 
to explain the manner in which large 
crops of this grain have been obtained 
I have assumed in the estimate that 
each stock produces one ear of corn, 
and that the ears average one gill of 
shelled grain. This is estimating the 
product low ; for while I am penning 
this (October), I find that my largest 
ears give two gills, and 100 fair ears 
half a bushel of shelled com. The 
calculation is also predicated upon the 
supposition that there ia no deficien- 
cy in the number of stocks, a contin- 
gency pretty sure on my method of 
planting. 

RiDs. bub. qt*. 
1. An acre rn UHa, 4 fsat apart 

oaek way, will |wodaca . S,793 43 16 
ft. Tho same, Zhjt feet 4,840 75 SO 

3. The same, 3 by 9| feet . 5,806 93 28 

4. The fame, in drillt at 3 feel;, 

piaaM atalka, oae iaah 
apart in the dnUs . . 30,040 113 14 
6. The same in do., 3 rows in 
a drill, Oiaches apart, and 
tha plants 9iBchiM,aad 3 
ieat 9 iaeliea fjrom ceotn 
of dhlls, thus . . 30,970 ISO SI 



A The aene id do., 3 rowa in. 

a drill, aa above, 3 iaet 

from centre of drilla . 43,560 170 
* • * * 



" The Mb mode I have tried. The 
ground was highly manured, the crop 
twice cleaned, and the entire acre 
^thered and weighed accurately the 
same day. The product in ears was 
103 baskets, each 84 lbs. nett, and 65 



lbs. over. The last basket waa shell- 
ed and measured, which showed a 
product on the acre of 118 bushels 10 
quarts. I gathered at the rate of 
more than 100 bushels the acre from 
four rods planted in the third method 
last summer, the result ascertained 
in the most accurate manner. Com 
shrinks about 20 per cent, after it is 
cribbed. The sixth mode is the one 
by which the Messrs. Pratt, of Madi* 
son county, obtained the prodigious 
crop of 170 bushels per acre. These 
gentlemen, I am told, are of opinion 
that the product of an acre may be 
increased to 200 bushels. 
" Cutting the Stalks. — For a few years 
past I have not cut my com-staQu un- 
til the corn was harvested, guessing 
that it was a course preferable to the 
one commonly pursued in this part of 
the country, of topping the stalks 
while in a green state. But for the 
purpose of settling this point more 
clearly, and with as little trouble as 
the case would admit, I selected, 
about the 5th of September, a row of 
corn in a field of about five acres, in** 
tending to take one that would aver- 
age in quality equal to the field 
throughout, that I might, at the same 
time, be able to ascertain, with tol- 
erable certainty, the product of the 
whole field. The manure having been 
spread on the surface of the ground, 
and harrowed in lengthwise of the 
furrows, and the com planted across 
the furrows, made it apparently less 
difficult ^o select an average row. 
Oo ihis row I cut the stalks from half 
the hills ; beginning at one end, and 
cutting the first hill, then leaving the 
next uncut, and so proceeding alter- 
nately, cutting one, and leaving the 
next uncut, through the row. I had 
intended to confine the experiment to 
this row, but finally was led to extend 
it so far as to include four rows ; and, 
numbering them agreeably to the or- 
der in which they were standing In 
the field, this row may be called No. 
2. There were ninety- two hills in 
the row, and the stalks were cut from 
forty-six hills, all of them in the man^ 
ner that is here termed jointing, %• «.» 
cut ofiT between the ear and the first 

179 



CORK, INDUN. 



joint above the ear. I tbongbt they 
were somewhat more ripe than is 
usual at the time of cutting ; a few 
of them were nearly dry. The soil 
was a sandy or gravelly loam, ancient- 
ly covered with pine, oak, and chest- 
nut. In hoeing the corn, no hills 
were made, but some care was taken 
that the surface of the ground should 
remain as level as possible through 
the season. 

** My estimate of the number of hills 
on an acre was made in the following 
manner ; and, if I am wrong in my 
calculations, I shall be corrected by 
some of your readers. 

" In an area of 200 feet square (or 
40,000 square feet), there were sixty- 
two rows, with £hy-four hills in a 
row, making 3348 hills. This is equal 
to 3646 hills per acre, eaoh hill occu- 
pying nearly t wel ve square feet of sur- 
face. There were about four stalks 
of com in a hill. In estimating bush- 
els, I have allowed the lawful weight 
of fifly-six pounds to the bushel. 

" At the time of harvesting, the com 
was husked in the field. U'he forty- 
six hills from which the stalks had 
been cut gave forty-eight and a half 
pounds of ears ; and the forty-six hills 
on which the stalks had not been cut 
gave sixty-two ponnds of ears. The 
number of ears in the two cases was 
about the same ; those from the un- 
cut hills were evidently the best filled 
out and the most hale ; on a large 
proportion of them the kernels were 
80 closely wedged in as 4o make it 
difficult to bend the ear at an ^vriOi. 
out breaking it. There was very lit- 
tle mouldy corn in either case ; a few 
ears were gathered, mostly from the 
cut stalks, but the whole quantity 
was so small as to make it question- 
able whether cutting the stalks had 
much effect in this particular. 

*^ Both parcels were carefully laid 
aside in a dry chamber for about six 
or eight weeks, at the expiration of 
which time they were again weighed, 
and the parcel of ears from the uncut 
hills had lost in drying about two per 
cent, more than the other, affording 
some evidence that the sap continued 
to circulate for a greater length of 
180 



time in the unent than in the eat 
stalks. The nncut hills gave 42 pounds 
8 ounces dry shelled corn, equal to 14 
ounces 12^ grains per hill, or 60 bush- 
els and eight pounds per acre. The 
parcel from the cut hills gave 33 
pounds 7 ounces, equal to 1 1 ounces 
10 grains per hill, or 47 bushels and 
18 pounds per acre, making a loss of 
12 bushels and 46 pounds per acre by 
cutting the stalks ; conclusive evi- 
dence that, while the sap is in circu- 
lation, nature does not assign the 
stalks an unprofitable office. The 
product of this whole row, taken to- 
gether, cut and uncut hilts, was equal 
to 63 bushels and 41 pounds per acre. 

" The product of row No. 3, taken 
by itself (containing ninety-two hills, 
on one half of which the stalks were 
cut on the same day the others were), 
would not show the practice of cut- 
ting stalks quite so destructive in its 
effects as that exhibited in row No. 2. 
Its whole produce was 77 lbs. 9 oz. 
dry corn, equal to 55 bushels and 10 
pounds per acre, or 1 bushel and 25 
ponnds per acre more than row No. 2. 

*' Not satisfied with resting the ex- 
periment here, I gathered the corn 
on rows Nos. 1 and 4, t. c, the rows 
each side next adjoining Nos. 2 and 
3, and on which none of the stalks 
had been cut. These rov^ taken 
together, contained 186 hills, and 
their product of dry shelled corn was 
171 lbs. 13 oz., equal to 14 oz. 12^ 
grs. per hill, or 60 bushels and 8 
pounds per acre, precisely the same 
average yield as that part of row No. 
3 on which the stalks had not been 
cut. This ezaet coincidence, howev- 
er, I think, ixMiy be numbered among 
those cases which rarely haf^n. 

** The difference between the two 
rows on which half the stalks wero 
cut and the two rows on which none 
of the stalks were cut was 5 bushels 
38^ pounds per acre. If this differ- 
ence arose from cutting half the 
stalks (and 1 know of no other rea- 
son), then cutting the whole wonld 
have reduced the crop 1 1 bushels and 
21 pounds per acre, or from 60 bush- 
els and 6 pounds to 48 bushels and 
43 ponnds per acre. 



CORN, INDIAN. 



**T» neapittiliEte, row No. 1, m wUch th* 

«zpcriiB0nt was conunenoed, ukoa by ilaelf, 

M u foUows, viz. : 

461iillfl, on which the Btalln bad 

mot been out, ^re 49 Iba. 8 

oz. dry shalled com, oquaJ to, 

per acr« ... 60 buah. 8 lbs. 

46 hills, ftom which the ctatka 

hod been cot, garo S3 lbs. 7 

OS. dry ahellod coro, eqoal to, 

perura ... 47 " 18 " 



by CQttinflT the stalk*, per 
acre .... 12 " 4« " 

The four raws, taken together, stand as fol- 

Iowa: 

Noe. 1 and i, on which no 
stalks were cot, gave an av- 
erage of, per acre . 00 bosh. 8 Ibe. 

Noe. 3 and S, from which half 
the stalks were cot, gave an 
average of, per acre M " S5| ** 

by cotting one half the 
•talks, per acre, . 9 « 88^ " 

3 



i< 



On eaCtiogaU the atalks, would 
make a loss e<|ual to, per acre 11 " 31 

" Tbe difierence in the result of the 
two cases is 1 basbel aad 25 pounds 
per acre ; or in the two experiments 
(if it may be so termed) theve is an 
average loss, by cutting the stalks, 
of 13 bushels 6^ pounds per acre { a 
loss quite equal to all the expense 
of hoeing and harvesting, especially 
when we consider that in hoeing the 
labour of making^ hills was dispensed 
with. 

<< If I had cut all the stalks, and ob- 
tained a crop of forty-eight bushels to 
the acre, the very fact of having forty- 
eight bushels would, I think, be con- 
sidered by fanners generally, in this 
section of the country, as proof posi- 
tive that the stalks were cut without 
injury to the crop. Or, if I had gone 
one step farther, and made large hills 
at an additional expense of one dollar 
per acre, and thereby reduced the 
crop to forty-five bushels per acre, 
the forty-five bushels would be con- 
sidered sufficient proof that making 
bills (which, by-the-way, are usually 
made equally large and high on wet 
or dry land, without regard to soil or 
situation) was labour well laid out ; 
for although you occasionally give 
us a large com story, swollen a little, 
perfaape, by guesMtng it off in baskeU, 
vet, judging from what we see and 
know about raising corn, we call for- 
ty-five bushels per acre a good crop. 

Q 



'* A measured bushel tram the o«t 
hills weighed 57 lbs. 6 oz., one pound 
less than from the uncut, the shrink- 
age being very near equal to the 
whole loss in weight. 

" If this experiment is a fair test, it 
seems that about twenty per cent., or 
one Jiftk part of the crop, is destroyed 
by cutting the stalks in the way they ara 
usuaUy cut. If farther experiment 
should establish this fact, I think 
there are few farmers that will hesi- 
tate long in deciding which is the 
most valuable, one acre of com or 
five acres of top stalks. But this 
twenty per cent, is not saved at the 
expense of losing the stalks; they 
are worth as much, and, I think, more, 
all things considered, after the corn 
is harvested, than they are gathered 
in the usual way. If, after being 
bunched up in a green state, they heat 
or become mouldy (a case of frequent 
occurrence), they are utterly worth- 
less, except it be for manure ; I know 
of no animal that will eat them. But 
after they have once been dried by 
the frost and wind, a subsequent mod- 
erate degree of nrauldiness seems to 
be no injury. 

" The course which I have pursued 
with them, and fur tbe present 1 know 
of no better, has been as follows : In 
the first place, they are cut off near 
the ground, and for this purpose a 
short scythe is found the most con- 
venient instrument. The expense 
of cutting in this manner, however, 
is but a mere trifle, if any, more than 
cutting the stub stalks in the spring, 
and may, with propriety, be enter^ 
as an item of expense against the 
next crop, for which it is preparing 
the ground. After cutting, they are 
gathered into bunches of suitable 
size for binding, and three good 
sheaves of rye straw, if wet, wilt be 
sufficient to bind a ton. In gather- 
ing them up and laying in bunches, 
an active boy will do as much as a 
man. In this way, the whole ex- 
pense of gathering, binding, and load- 
ing will not exceed 75 cents per ton. 
As they are very bulky, for want of 
bam room, I have them stacked near 
the bam-yard; and I think I may 

181 



COR 

safely say that my cattle eat more 
poands of stalks from an acre gather- 
ed in this way than they would from 
the same acre if gathered in the usual 
way. It may be objected to this, that 
they are not as good and nourishing 
as others: as to that matter, I am 
not able to say ; but, if the cattle are 
good judges in the case (and I think 
they ought to be admitted as such), 
tbey are quite as good and quite as 
nourishing, for they are eaten appa- 
rently with quite as good a reltab. 
In addition to this, they are obtained 
without breaking off ears or breaking 
down hills in hauling out, occurren- 
ces quite frequent in the other case. 
They also furnish more than double 
the quantity of bedding for the yard, 
an item of no small moment in the 
list of 'creature comforts' during 
our cold winters. And last, though 
not least, they make more than double 
the quantity of manure, the value of 
which will be duly appreciated by ev- 
ery good fanner without argument. 
It may be said that the butt stalks 
can be gathered after harvest, and 
furnish the same quantity of litter and 
manure as in this case. That is true ; 
but the expense of gathering both 
parts in that way, from the butts be- 
ing so short and inconvenient to bind, 
would be three times as much as it is 
to gather them whole. Thus, view- 
ing the subject in various points, I 
think this method of managing corn- 
stalks is much better than the old 
one ; and that a little observation and 
experienoe will convince the most 
skeptical that this branch of agricul* 
ture is not yet brought to a state of 
perfection; that there is yet room 
for improvement." — {Farmer'* In- 
9trueter.) 

Much discussion has arisen on the 
Northern and Southern plan of culti- 
vating corn : the first in hills of three 
to five stems, the other in rows five 
feet wide ; and also on the propriety 
of hilling or planting level. The 
Northern method is best, as the yield 
shows, so far as doaer planting is 
concerned ; but the height of the 
plants is very diflferent, so that the 
dose plantinf of tlw North can hard- 

182 



COR 

ly be Imitated. As to tiM t^laattng 

in driUs, with water-furrows between 
them, the propriety of this method 
depends on the nature of the soil, for 
stiff clays must be so managed, oth- 
erwise the heavy rains would destroy 
the crop; but in light soils a level 
surface is most advantageous. 

For the value of maize as food, see 
the articles Fodder and Food, 

CORN FOR SUGAR. The stems 
of corn, as they begin to turn in colour, 
contain, according to some writers, 
twelve to fourteen per cent, of sugar 
in the juice, if the ears have been re- 
moved as fast as they appear. The 
juice is expressed precisely as from 
the cane, and treated in the same 
way ; perhaps it requires more rapid- 
ity of movement. Six per cent, of 
sugar is sometimes obtained from 
the juice, and from 300 to 500 pounds 
the acre. The question of economy 
is the only one which embarrasses 
the public .- this has been settled ad- 
versely, so far as regards the country 
in which the sugar cane grows, by 
Messrs. Tillotson, of Louisiana, but 
is open for the Western and Middle 
States, and in places where corn 
sells at a low price and sugar is at 
eight cents the pound ; we therefore 
introduce Messrs. Webb and Mapes's 
account, from the Hon. H. C. Ells- 
worth's report : 

** Remarks on the Manufacture of Cam 
Sugar, by WiUiam Webb, of Wil- 
minglon, Delaicare. 

*< In common w ith many others, I 
have felt considerable interest in the 
plan for extending the cultivation of 
sugar in temperate climates, and have 
m^e many experiments, first upon 
the beet, and recently upon maize or 
Indian corn, in the hope of discover- 
ing some mode by which the desired 
end might be attained. 

" The results from the latter plant 
have been extremely encouraging. 
The manufacture of sugar from it, 
compared with that from the beet, 
offers many advantages. It is more 
simple, and less liable to failure ; the 
machinery is less expensive, and the 
amount of fuel required is less by one 



CORN FOR SUGAR. 



half The quantity of sngar produced 
on a given space of ground is greater, 
besides being of better quality. An 
ejcamination into the nature and pro- 
ductive powers of these two plants 
wfll show that no other results could 
have been reasonably expected. It 
is a well-established fact, that every 
variety of production found in plants 
is derived from the sap. It is also 
ascertained that the principal sub- 
stance found in the sap or jutoe of 
many vegetables is sugar ; therefore, 
the amount of saccharine matter pro- 
duced by an^ plant of this description 
may be estimated from an analjrsis 
of the fruit, seed, d^c, of such plant, 
when ripe. The grain yielded by 
corn, and the seed from beet, in the 
second summer of its growth, are 
nothing more than this sap or juice 
elaborated by the process of vegeta- 
tion, and presented to our view in 
another form. 

" Now, as it is contrary to the econ- 
omy of nature to suppose that there 
should be any loss of nutritive mat- 
ter in this change of sap into seed or 
grain, does it not follow that there 
most be the same difference in the 
quantity of sugar produced by the two 
[>]ants as there is between the nutri- 
tive properties of beet seed and com 1 
*<The juice of maize containssugar, 
acid, and a gummy, mucilaginous 
matter, which forms the scum. From 
the experiments of Gay Lussac, The- 
nard, Kirchotf, and others, it is pro- 
ved that starch, sugar, and gum are 
extremely similar in composition, and 
may be as readily converted into each 
other by chemical processes as they 
are by the operation of nature. For 
example : starch, boiled in diluted 
Bulpburic acid for thirty-six hours, is 
converted into sugar of greater weight 
than the starch made use of 

*• This result goes to show that ev- 
ery pound of starch found in the seed 
of a plant has required for its produc* 
tion at least one pound of su^ar in 
the form of sap. If it be objected 
that this deduction is too theoretical 
to be admitted, it may be answered, 
that experiment, so far as it has gone, 
has fiillv attested its correctness. 



<< The raw juiee of mftive, when 
cultivated for sugar, raarlcs 10® on the 
saccharometer, while the average of 
cane juioe (as I am informed) is not 
higher than 8°, and beet juice hot 
over 3®. 

" From 9f quarts (dry measure) of 
the former I have obtained 4 pounds 
6 ounces of sirup, concentrated to 
the point suitable for crystallization. 
The proportion of crystaHlcable sugar 
appears to be larger than is obtained 
from cane juice in Looisiana. This 
is accounted for by the fact that our 
climate ripens com perfectly, while it 
but rarely, if ever, happens that cane 
is fully matured. In some cases th0 
sinip has crystallised so completely, 
that less than one sixth part of mo- 
lasses remained. This, however, only 
happened after it had stood from one 
to two months. There is reason to 
believe that, if the plant were fuUy 
ripe, and the process of manufacture 
perfectly performed, the sirup might 
be entirely crystallized without form- 
ing any molasses. 

"This perfection in the manufac- 
ture cannot, however, be attained with 
the ordinary apparatus. Without any 
other means for pressing out the 
juiee than a small band mill, it is im- 
possible to say how great a quantity 
of sugar may be produced on an acre. 

"The experiments have been direct- 
ed more to ascertain the saccharine 
qnality of oom-stalk than the amount 
a given quantity of ground will pro- 
duce ; but the calculations made, from 
trials on a small scale, leave no room 
to doubt that the quantity of sugar 
will be from 800 to 1000 pounds. This 
amount will not appear unreasonable 
when it is considered that the juice 
of corn is as rich as that of cane, and 
the weight of green produce at least 
equal. 

" Mr. Ellsworth, in one of his pub- 
lications, states, as the result of ac- 
tual weighing and measuring, that 
com, sown broad-cast, yielded five 
pounds of green stalks per square 
foot ; this is at the rate of 108^ tons 
to the acre. 

« My attention was first directed to 
maize as a material for sugar by ob- 

188 



CORN FOR SUGAR. 



Berring Ibat, in some stalks, the jaice 
was extremely sweet, while in others 
it was weak and watery. On exam- 
ination, it appeared that the latter 
ha<rb<in)e large and perfect ears of 
grain, while on the former these were 
either small in size or entirely want- 
ing. The natural conclusion from 
this observation was that, if the ears 
were taken off in their emhryo state, 
the whole quantity of saccharine mat- 
ter produced by the process of vege- 
tation would be preserved in th^ stalk, 
from which it might be extracted 
when the plant was matured ; but 
the idea occurred too late in the sea- 
son to test it by expermient. A few 
stalks, however, were found, which, 
from some cause, had borne no grain ; 
these were bruised with a mallet, and 
the juice extracted by a lever press. 
Some lime was then added, and the 
desiccaiioo, evaporation, dec., began 
and finished in a single vessel By 
these simple means sugar of a fair 
quality was produced, which was sent 
to the horticultural exhibition of our 
society in 1840. 

« I have since been informed, by 
Mr. Ellsworth, that Mens. Pallas, of 
France, had discovered, in 1839, that 
the saccharine properties of maize 
were increased by merely taking off 
the ear in its embryo state. An ex- 
periment, however, which I instituted 
to determine the value of this plan 
resulted in disappointment : the quan- 
tity of sugar produced was not large 
enough to render it an object. The 
reasons of this failure will be suf- 
ficiently obvious on stating the cir- 
cumstances. It was found that ta- 
king the ear off a large stalk, such as 
is produced by the common mode of 
cultivation, inflicted a considerable 
wound upon the plant, which injured 
its health, and, of course, lessened 
its productive power. It was also 
^und that the natural disposition to 
form grain was so strong that sev- 
eral successive ears were thrown out, 
by which labour was increased and 
the injuries of the plant multiplied. 
Lastly, it appeared that the juice 
yielded from those plants contained 
a considerable portion of foreign Bvb- 

184 



stance not favourable to the object in 
view. Yet, under all these disadvaa 
tages, from one hundred to two hun 
dred pounds of sugar per acre may be 
obtained. 

" The manifest objeetions detailed 
above suggested another mode of cul- 
tivation, to be employed in eombina- 
tion with the one first proposed ; it 
consists simply in raising a greater 
number of plants on the same space 
of ground. By this plan all the un- 
favourable results above mentioned 
were obviated, a much larger quan- 
tity of sugar was produced, and of 
better quality. The juice produced 
by this mode of cultivation is remark-> 
ably pure and agreeable to the taste. 
Samples of the sugar yielded by it 
are now in the Patent Office, with a 
small hand mill by which the stalks 
were crushed. Some of the same 
kind was exhibited to our agricultu* 
ral society in October, 1841, aocom* 
panied with an answer to an invita* 
tion from its president. Dr. J. W. 
Thompson, to explain the mode of 
culture and process of nuinufacturing 
the sugar. The molasses, after stand- 
ing, as before mentioned, from one to 
two months, became filled with small 
crystals, which, on being drained, ex- 
hibited a peculiar kind of sugar ; the 
grain is small, and somewhat inferior 
in appearance, but still is as sweet 
and agreeable to the taste as can be 
desired. A small sample of this su- 
gar I have brought fur your inspec- 
tion. This product, from what was 
thought to be molasses, is a new and 
unexpected discovery, and disclosea 
an important fact in the investigation 
of this subject. It shows the supe- 
rior degree of perfection attained by 
the com plant, compared with the 
cane, in any part of the Union. It is 
generally understood that the latter 
cannot be fully matured in any except 
a tropical climate, and the proportion 
of molasses obtained from any plant 
is greater or less according to the im- 
maturity or perfection of its growth. 
The sweetness of the corn-stalk is 
a matter of universal observation. 
Our forafathers, in the revolutionary 
stroi^ei resorted to it as a means to 



CORN FOR SUGAR. 



ffimish a sobstitnte for West India 
mgar. They expressed the juice, 
and exerted their ingenoity in efTorts 
to bring it to a crystallized state; 
but we have no accouot of any sue- 
eessfnl operation of the kind. In 
fact, the bitter and nanseous proper- 
ties contained in the joints of large 
stalks render the whole amount of 
juiee from them fit only to produce 
an inferior kind of molasses. I found, 
on experiment, that, by cutting out 
the joints, and crushing the remain- 
ing part of the stalk, sugar might be 
made, but stiU of an inferior quality. 
The m^asses, of which there was a 
large proportion, was bitter and dis- 
agreeable. 

" From one to two feet of the lower 
part of these stalks was full of juice ; 
but the balance, as it approached the 
top, became dryer, and afforded but 
little. From the foregoing experi- 
ments, we see that, in order to ob- 
tain the pnrest juice, and in the great- 
est quantity, we must adopt a mode 
of cultivation which win prevent the 
large and luxuriant growth of the 
Btelk. 

" As we are upon the threshold of 
this inquiry, many other improve- 
ments may be expected in the'mode 
of operation ; for example, it may be 
that cutting olT the tassel as soon as 
it appears on the plant will prevent 
the formation of grain, and prove a 
preferable means for effecting that 
object. 

** On the whole, there appears am- 
ple encouragement for perseverance. 
Eyery step in the investigation has 
Increased the probabilities of success, 
no evidence having been discovered 
why it should not succeed as well, if 
not better, on a large scale, than it 
has done on a smaU one. 

** 1 . In the first place, it has been sat- 
isfactorily proved that sugar of an ex- 
cellent quahty, suitable for common 
use without refining, may be made 
from the stalks of maize. 

"% That the juice of this plant, 
when cultivated in a certain manner, 
contains saccharine matter remark- 
ably free from foreign substances. 
<* a. The quantity of tha juice (even 

Q3 



supposing we had no other eTtdeaea 
about it) is sufficiently demonstrated 
by the great amount of nutritive grain 
which it produces in the natural course 
of vegetation. It is needless to ex- 
patiate on the vast advantages which 
wonld result from the introduction of 
this manufacture into our country. 

" Grain is produced in the West in 
such overflowing abundance that the 
markets become glutted, and induce- 
ments are oUfered to employ the sur- 
plus produce in distiUation . Th \a bu- 
siness is now becoming disreputable. 
The happy conviction is spreading 
rapidly, that the use of alcohol, as a 
beverage, instead of conducing to 
health and strength, is the surest 
means of destroying both. Some oth- 
er production, therefore, will be re- 
quired, in which the powers of our 
soil may be profitably employed . This, 
it is hoped, will be found in the busi- 
ness now proposed. Instead of dis- 
tilleries, converting food into poison, 
we may have sugar-houses, manufac- 
turing at our doors an article of uni- 
versal demand, not merely useful, but 
necessary, fhrnlshing as it does one 
of the most simple, natural, and nu- 
tritions varieties of human suste- 
nance found in the whole range of 
vegetable production. 

" It is said that the general use of 
sugar in Europe has had the effect to 
extinguish the scurvy and many oth- 
er diseases formerly epidemical. It 
may be doubted whether a tropical 
country can ever furnish a great 
amount of exports, except through 
the means of compulsory labour. It 
appears, then, highly probable, that if 
the inhabitants of temperate countries 
wish to continue wheuse of sugar, they 
must find some means to produce it 
themselves. The beet appears to suc- 
ceed well in Europe, and the manu- 
facture from it is extending rapidly ; 
but there is no hazard in making the 
assertion that Indian corn is far bet- 
ter adapted to our purpose. The fol- 
lowing mode of cultivating the plant 
and making the sugar is the best that 
can now be ofif^red. The kind of soil 
best adapted to com is so well under- 
stood, that no directions on this point 

18ft 



CORN FOR SUGAR. 



are necessary, ezceiyt that it should 
be rich — ^the riciier the better ; if not 
naturally fertile, manure must be a|>- 
ptied, either ploughed in or spread 
upon the surface, or used both ways, 
according to the ability of the owner. 
Nothing can form a better preparation 
for the crop than a clover sod well 
turned under and harrowed fine im- 
mediately before planting. 

** Select for seed the largest and best 
ears of any variety of corn not dispo- 
sed to throw np suckers or spread out 
in branches ; that kind most produc- 
tive in the neighbourhood will be gen- 
erally the one best adapted to the pur- 
pose. The planting should be done 
with a drilling machine. One man, 
with a pair of horses and an instru- 
ment of this kind, will plant and cov- 
er, in the most perfect manner, from 
ten to twelve aeres in a day; the 
rows (if practicable, let them run 
north and south) two and a half feet 
apart, and the seed dropped sufficient- 
ly thick in the row to ensure a plant 
every two or three inches. A large 
harrow, made with teeth arranged so 
as not to injure the corn, may be used 
to advantage soon after it is up. The 
after culture is performed with a cul- 
tivator, and here will be perceived 
one of the great advantages of drill- 
ing : the plants ail growing in lines, 
perfectly regular and straight with 
each other, the horse-hoe stirs the 
earth and cuts up the weeds close by 
every one, so that no band hoeing 
will be required in any part of the cul- 
tivation. * It is part of the system 
of cane-planting in Louisiana, to raise 
as full a stand of cane upon the ground 
as possible, experience having proved 
that the most sugar is obtained from 
the land in this way.' As far as my 
experience has gone, the same thing 
is true of corn. This point must 
therefore be attended to, and the de- 
ficiencies, if any occur, made up by 
timely replanting. 

*' The next operation is taking ofTthe 
ears. Many stalks will not produce 
any ; but, whenever they appear, they 
must be removed. It is not best to 
undertake this work too early, as, 
when the ears first appear, they are 



tender, and cannot be taken off* with* 
out breaking, which increases the 
trouble. Any time before the forma- 
tion of grain upon them will be sooa 
enough. 

" Nothing fhrther is necessary to be 
done until the crop is ready to cut for 
grinding. In our latitude, the cutting^ 
may commence with the earlier va- 
rieties about the middle of August. 
The later kinds will be ripe in Se|>- 
tember, and continue in season until 
cut offhy the frost. The stalks should 
be topped and bladed while standing 
in the field. They are then cot, tied 
in bundles, and taken to the miH. 
The top and blades, when properly 
cured, make an excellent fodder, rath- 
er better, it is believed, than any hith- 
erto used ; and the residunm, after 
passing the rollers, may easily be dried 
and used in the same way : another 
advantage over the cane, which, af- 
ter the juice is expressed, is usually 
burned. 

*< The mills should be made on the 
same general principle employed in 
constructing those intended for grind- 
ing cane. An important difference, 
however, will be found both in the 
original cost and in the expense of 
working them. Judging from the 
comparative hardness of the cane and 
oorn-stalk, it is believed that one 
fourth part of the strength necessary 
in the construction of a oane mill will 
be amply sufficient for corn, and less 
than one fourth part of the power will 
move it with the same vekx;ity. It 
may be made with three upright wood- 
en rollers, from twenty to forty inch- 
es in length, turned so as to run true, 
and fitted into a strong frame^work, 
consisting of two horizontal pieces, 
sustained by uprights. These pieces 
are mortised to admit wedges on each 
side the pivots of the two outside roll- 
ers, by which their distances from the 
middle one may be regulated. The 
power is applied to the middle roller, 
and the others are moved from it by 
means of cogs. In grinding, the stalks 
paw through on the right side of the 
middle cylinder, and come in contact 
with a piece of frame-work called the 
dumb returner, which directs them 



CORN FOR 8UOAIC 



backward* so that they i»8s tbroogh 
the rollers again, on the opposite side 
of the iQiddle one. The modern im- 
proved machine is made entirely of 
iron, three horizontal rollers, arran- 
ged in a triangular form, one above 
and two below ; the cane or stalk 
passes directly through, receiving two 
pressures before it escapes. The low- 
er cylindeni are contained in a small 
cistern which receives the juice. The 
latter machine is the most complete ; 
the former the least expensive. These 
mills may be moved by cattle ; but, 
for large operations, steam or water 
power is preferable. When the ver- 
tical cylinders are turned by cattle, 
the aus of the middle one has long 
levers fixed across it, extending from 
ten to fifteen feet from the centre. 
To render the arms firm, the axis of 
this roller is carried up to a consid- 
erable height, and oblique braces of 
wood, by which the oxen or horses 
draw, are extended from the top of 
the vertical axis to the extremities of 
each of the amis. When horizontal 
cylindeni are propelled by animal 
power, the upper roller is turned by 
the cogs at one end, which are caught 
by cogs on a vertical shall. It is said 
that, in the West Indies, the purest 
eane juice will ferment in twenty 
minutes after it enters the receiver. 
Com juice has been kept for one hour 
before boiling without any apparent 
injury resuHing ; hut so much delay 
18 not desirable, as it may be attend- 
ed with bad effects. 

** The process which has been em- 
ployed in the manufacture of maize 
sugar is as follows : The juice, after 
coming from the mill, stood for a short 
time to deposite some of its coarser 
impurities. It was then poured off, 
and passed through a flannel strainer, 
in order to get rid of such matters as 
oould be separated in this way. Lime- 
water, called milk of lime, was then 
added, in the proportion of one or two 
table-spoonfulla to the gallon. It is 
said by sugar manufacturers that 
knowledge on this point can only be 
acquired by experience ; but I have 
Aever failed in making sugar from 
^DOfiloyiDg too much or too little of 



the lime. A certain portion of this 

substance, however, is undoubtedly 
necessary, and mure or less than this 
will be injurious, but no precise di- 
rections can be given about it. The 
juice was then placed over the fire, 
and brought nearly to the boiling 
point, when it was carefully skim- 
med, taking care to complete this op- 
eration before ebullition coomienced. 
It was then boiled down rapidly, re- 
moving the scum as it rose. The 
juice was examined from time to 
time, and if there was any appear- 
ance of feculent particles, which 
would not rise to the surface, it was 
again passed through a flannel strain- 
er. In judging when the sirup is suf- 
ficiently boiled, a, portion was taken 
between the thumb and finger, and 
if, when moderately cool, a thread 
half an inch lung could be drawn, it 
was considered to be done, and pour- 
ed into broad, shallow vessels to crys- 
tallize. In some cases, crystallization 
commenced in twelve hours ; in oth- 
ers, not till after several days ; and 
in no case was this process so far 
completed as to allow the sugar to be 
drained in less than three weeks from 
the time of boiling. The reason why 
so great a length of time was re- 
quired I have not yet been able to 
discover. There is no doubt that 
an improved process of manufacture 
will oause it to granulate as quickly 
as any other. 

** Enough has been said to enable 
any one so disposed to manufacture 
sugar from maize. 

" As to the profits of the business, 
I shall make no positive assertions ; 
experience on the subject is yet too 
limited to warrant them ; and, as all 
the facts in relation to it are now be- 
fore the public, every one interested 
can draw bis own conclusions. It is 
said, by those acquainted with the 
cultivation of the cane, that that bu- 
siness cannot be carried on profitably 
on less than one hundred acres in 
crop, and that attempts on a small 
scale will he certain to fail, with a 
great loss of time and labour. How 
far this may be applicable to corn re- 
mains to be seen. 

187 



CORN FOR mJOXBL 



<^Som6 ooBBfttnaon between the 
cultivation of cane and that of corn 
may perhaps be interesting. 

*' The cane lands in Louisiana are 
redeemed to agriculture by strong 
embankments along the river, and by 
numerous ditches, which extend back 
into the swamp to a considerable dis- 
tance beyond the line of cultivation. 
The ground is still farther divided, by 
smaller ditches, into lots of from one 
to two acres in extent. It is ex- 
tremely rich and productive, but the 
expense of draining and keeping up 
the embankments must be consider- 
able ; this forms the first difference to 
be noted in the culture of the two 
plants under consideration. 

*' The best season for planting cane 
in Louisiana is in the fall» which is 
also the time of harvest, when labour 
is the most valuable, and the greatest 
exertions are required to secure the 
crop before it is destroyed by frost. 

** But the most striking difierence 
will be found in the cost of seed, and 
in the labour of planting. The cane 
is propagated by layers; these are 
partly furnished from the tops of the 
plants when cut for grinding, but are 
principally ratoons. Of the latter, it 
requires the produce of one acre to 
plant three. The grain from one acre 
of com wiU be sufficient for planting 
forty acres ; therefore, the difference 
in the expense for seed will be as one 
to thirteen. 

*' In planting cane, furrows are 
made with the plough from two and 
a half to tliree feet apart ; in these 
the layers are placed in a double row, 
and the earth drawn over them with 
hoes to the depth of three or four 
inches. 

" In the spring, before the plants are 
up, this covering is partly scraped off, 
80 as to leave them buried from one 
to two inches. From this account, 
it is evident that no more manual la- 
bour will be required to drill fifty 
acres in com than to plant one acre 
in cane. The labour of cultivating 
the latter plant during its growth is 
also greater, but this may be balan- 
ced by the extra work required to 
take off the embryo ears from the 
188 



oom. "Wlien coltivsted in tbe mode 
recommended, the stalk of corn is 
soft, remarkably heavy, and full of 
juice from bottom to top. The 
amount of power required for grind- 
ing tbem must be much less than is 
necessary for cane, or, what is the 
same thing, an equal power will do it 
with greater rapidity. The average 
yield of cane, in JLouisiana, is one 
thousand pounds of sugar and forty- 
five gallons of molasses per acre. 
From the above comparative state- 
ment, it would appear that one half 
this amount of crop from corn would 
be equally, if not more profitable. 

" I will only add, in conclusion, that 
whether or not the sugar from the 
corn-stalk may soon become an arti- 
cle of profitable export, its manufac- 
ture in the simplest form will enable 
every family to supply themselves 
with this article for common use, 
now become so much a necessaiy of 
life, and thus save a considerable bill 
of expense yearly paid for foreign 
sugars." 

Mr. Mapes^M Account. — **you re- 
quest to know the best method of 
crystallizing com sirup, and I know 
of no more ready method to afford 
the information required than to de- 
tail the entire mode which should be 
pursued for its manufacture : 

'^ 1st. To cut the cane as ripe as pos- 
sible, but before any acetic acid is 
formed ; litmus paper, touched to 
the fresh-cut cane, wiU turn red if 
acid. 

" 2d. Express the juice without loss 
of time, as every moment alter cut- 
ting will deteriorate its quality. 

'' 3d. A small quantity of clear lime- 
water (say one quart to a hundred 
gallons of juice) should be added the 
moment it is expressed, unless the 
juice shows acidity with litmus pa- 
per ; in that case, no lime should be 
used, but a solution of sal soda, or 
soda ash, should be added, until it is 
precisely neutral. 

** 4th. When the juice is neutral (free 
from excess of acid or alkali) it should 
be evaporated in such an apparatus 
as would finish its charge in 30 min- 
utes ; if the boiUng power is too small, 



good fTjrstaHizatioa caimot possibly 
be obtained. 

" The whole time occupied from the 
CQtting of the cane to finishing its 
boilinff should not exceed one hour. 

" 5u. To know token the hoiline isjin- 
ished, place a thermometer in tne ket- 
tle, and continue to OTsporate until 
it stands at S30^ Fahrenheit. If, 
when placed to run off after cooling, 
It should be found too freely boiled, 
the next time boil to 240®, or, if too 
light to run off, to 238°, and so on. 

** 6th. The kettle or boiler should be 
so arranged that the moment it is 
done its charge should be thrown 
into a cooler capable of holding a 
number of charges. The first charge 
should be left in the cooler, with stir- 
ring, until the second charge is thrown 
in ; then with an oar scrape the crys- 
tals found on the side and bottom of 
the cooler loose, and gently stir the 
whole mass together (Uie less stirred 
the better) ; so continue, at the let- 
ting in of each charge, to stir gently ; 
and when all is in the cooler, let the 
whole stand until it cools down to 
176° ; then fill out into sugar moulds 
of a capacity not less than 14 gal- 
lons. When cooled in the mould 
sufficient (say fourteen hours), pull 
the plug out of the bottom of the 
moukl, and insert a sharp point near- 
ly as large as the hole, some six inch- 
es *, withdraw the point, and stand 
the mould on a pot to drip. 

" 7th. If the sugar is intended to be 
brown, leaying it standing on the spot 
for a sufficient length of time, in a 
temperature of 80°, will run off its 
molasses, and leaye it in a merchant- 
able shape; it will probably require 
twenty days ; it can then be thrown 
out of the moulds, and will be fit for 
use. When moulds cannot be ob- 
tained, conical Teasels of wood or 
metal, with a hole at the apex, will 
answer equally wen. 

** The aboTe description will be suf- 
ficient for any operator if strictly fol- 
lowed ; but should any of your friends 
wish to make the experiment on a 
large scale, or to produce white in- 
stead of brown sugar at a single op- 
eration, they had better see me per- 



COE 

sonally before conunencing, as the 
kind of kettle, and many other minor 
particulars, will be important. The 
above description, however, is fully 
sufficient for the use of the fanner. 
If the juice of corn-stalks be manu- 
factured with the rapidity named in 
the former part of this letter, no clari- 
fication will be necessary, and scum, 
which may rise during the boiling, 
can be taken off with a skimmer ; 
but in the large v>ay both clarifica- 
tion and filtration would be requisite, 
as in large operations evejry part of 
the kettle cannot be got at to skim. 
Since I last saw you I have made 
some experiments on the corn-stalk ; 
and if your statements are correct as 
to the quantity of juice which can be 
obtained from the acre, then there 
can be no doubt of its entire supe- 
riority over the sugar-cane. I fear, 
however, that the enthusiasm of those 
who made the experiments you spoke 
of has led them into errors. It is 
true that the juice of the corn-stalk, 
grown with a view to sugar making, 
wiU yield a juice at 10° Beaumd. I 
have arrangements to try the experi- 
ments fully in the coming summer, 
and when done will communicate the 
result '* 

CORN FOR SOILING, or HAY. 
Com sown broad-cast or in close 
drills has been much used of late for 
soiling ; it is cut from four to six 
weeks old, and is relished by cattle 
when mixed with other fodders. It 
should be gradually introduced into 
their food, lest it produce scouring. 
An acre thickly set produces upward 
of six tons of dry fodder, and much 
more, according to some farmers. It 
is readily cured for hay by sweating 
in cocks, but cannot be dried enough 
by spreading in swarth only. As hay, 
it is nearly equal to fine grass, and 
readily eaten. 

Corn is remarkably free from de- 
structive diseases ; the smut masses 
which affect the stems are seldom 
sufficiently abundant to destroy the 
crop ; the caterpillars that prey on 
the leaves occasionally destroy a 
few young plants ; the cutworm, in 
rich soils, is the severest enemy. 



eoR 

The yooDg ttems wre occasionaUy 
infested with a caterpillar of a yel- 
lowish colour, with a black head and 
smooth, the larva of the Gortyna sea, 
or spiiKlle-worm : they destroy the 
plants which they intest, but the 
numbers are usually limited. 

CORN. SPECIAL MANURES. 
Poudrette, guano, and stable ma- 
nure, composted with lime and bone 
dust, are the great fertilizers for this 
grain. It pre-eminently requires •pu- 
trescent matter and bone earth, with- 
out which last the seeds are imper- 
fect. The ash of Indian corn shows 
how much phosphoric acid it con- 
tains. {Analyzed by LeieUter.) 
Potash and soda . . . , 80-8 
Lime and magnesia . . . 18 3 

Phosphoric acid 501 

SUica, dec 8 



1000 

A special mixture or compost of 
poudrette or stable manure, bone 
earth, and ashes would be very val- 
uable. 

CORN, MEASURING THE 
BULK. The foUowmg rule for this 
purpose is given by William Murray. 
It is not to be regarded as strictly ac- 
curate, but an approximation : 

** Having previously levelled the 
com in the house, so that it will be of 
equal depth throughout, ascertain the 
length, breadth, and depth of the 
bulk ; multiply these dimensions to- 
gether, and their products by 4 ; then 
cut off <me figure from the right of this 
last product. This will give so many 
bushels, and a decimal of a bushel of 
shelled corn. If it be required to find 
tbe quantity of ear com, substitute 8 
for 4, and cut oiTone figure as before." 

CORN LAWS. The exportation 
of grains to England having much in- 
creased, the following tables of the 
tariff will be useful to many farmers : 

"According to the English Corn 
Law Act existing in 1842, com in- 
spectors are appointed in 287 tow^ns, 
to transmit returns to the Board of 
Trade, who compute the average 
weekly price of each description of 
grain, and tbe aggregate average price 
for the previous six weeks, and trans- 
mit a certified copy to the collectors 
190 



of customs at the dHTerent ontports. 

The aggregate average regulates ttM 
duty on importation according lo the 
following scale : 

'* If imported from any Foreign CourUry. 

" Wheat. — Whenever the average 
price of wheat, made up and publish- 
ed in the manner required by law, 
shall be for every quarter 

£. $. i, 

under 91«., the doty ■hall be for eveiy 

qaaner 100 

5I«. and ander53« 19 • 

5S«. ~ §5s Q-W 9 

56«. — 56« 17 

56«. — 57s IS 

ft7«. — 58# 15 • 

58«. -^ S»s 14 

69*. — 60». 13 

60«. — 0]« 13 

6I«. ~ t/U II 

63«. — 63«. ...... 10 • 

63«. — 64« S 

64«. ~ 65« 8 

65«. — 66« 7 

66«. — 6ttf e 

60«. -- 7U* 6 

70«. — 71« ..040 

71#, — 72* S 

7«*. — 73*. 9 

73#. and upward 10 

" Barley. — Whenever the average 
price of Imrley, made up and publisli- 
ed in the manner required by law, 
shall be for every quarter 

£. 9. d. 
Under 36«., tbe duty sball be for every 

quarter II 

S6t. and under S7« 10 

37«. — S0«. .000 

30«. — 3U 8 

31*. — 3S* 7 

3S*. >• 83* 

83*. ~ 34* 5 

34*. — 33* ..040 

SS*. -> 36* 3 

Mm. — 87*. t 

87*. «nd upvard 15 

** Ckus. — Whenever the average 
price of oats, made up and published 
in the manner required by law, shall 
be for every quarter 

£. «. d. 

Under 10*., the doty ebali be for every 

quarter 060 

19*. and under SO* 7 

SO*. -> 83* 

Sa*^ — S4* 5 

S4*. — S5* 4 

S5*. ^ 26* 3 

SIS*. — S7* S 

S7*. and upward 10 

•* J?ye, Pease, and Beans. — Whenev- 
er the average price of rye, or of pease, 
or of beans, made op and published 



Gcm 



eoR 



in the manner required by law, shall 

be for every qaarter 

£ t.d. 

Under 30s. , Um duty slall be far wvcj 

qaarter 11 fl 

iO«.eBd«ad0rSSt 10 6 

n$. ~ M« 9 6 

U*, — a5# 8 6 

35«. — 36* 7 6 

a«f. — THs 6 6 

37». — 38r. 5 6 

Um. — S0« 4 6 

39t. — 40# 3 6 

40<. — 4I» t 6 

iU. — 42ff 16 

4S«. maA vftwttid 10 

" Wheat Meml and Flour. — ^For every 
bacrel, being 106 )bs., a duty equal in 
imoont to the duty payable oa 38} 
gallona of wheat. 

" OiUmeaL — For every quantity of 
181^ lbs., a duty equal in amount to 
tbe duty payable on a quarter of oats. 

"Maize or Indian Coniy Buckwheat ^ 
Bear or Bigg. — ^For every quarter, a 
duty equal injunouot to the duty pay- 
able on a quarter of barley." — {John- 
901C9 Enevclovitdia.) 

CORN, EGYPTIAN. See E^yp- 
iitm Com. 

CORN MOTHS. See Grain 

CORN SALAD. Fediaolitona. 
Lamb lettuce. It ia a nueilafinoas, 
pleasant berb, esteemed for tbe early 
period it is found in market. - Sow 
the seed in drills six inches apart; 
weed carefully. The seeds are small 
and light ; one pound servee for a 
quarter of an acre. They are sown in 
August or September, on dean, rich 
land, covered with straw during cold 
weather, and brought out at tbe ear- 
liest period in spring. It might be 
advantageously cultivated for soiling, 
either sown late for spring or very 
early for summer ; or it may be rai»- 
ed as a summer salad by sowing in 
March. 

CORN-SHELLER. See ShOkr, 

CORNEA. The transparent mem- 
brane in front of tbe eye. Any opa- 
city injures vision ; it should be oare- 
fuUy treated by bleeding and blisters. 

CORNS, IN HORSES' FEET. 
This disease is produced by some hard 
aubstaaoe pressing 00 the sole at the 
qnarters, as from shoes left on till the 
heela beoome buried in the.hopf ; the 



fibrous substance which lies between 
the sensible foot and the absolute 
homy hoof becomes inflamed by the 
pressure, and the inflammation pro- 
duces a hardness of tbe spot, similar, 
if I may so express it, to a knot in a 
piece of soft timber. Palliate the evil 
as well as you can by keeping the 
hoof constantly pared away between 
the corn and the ground, but do not 
wound in your vain endeavours to cot 
it out ; avoid the hot irons, dec. ; let 
a bit of sponge be softly put in, mere- 
ly to keep out gravel and keep the 
spot moist ; and when the season ar 
rives, turn the horse out without any 
shoes into a soft, marshy place, 
where his feet must be in a constant 
moist state for three months at least ; 
by that time the hoof will be altogeth- 
er renewed, the diseased part will 
have grown out, and if there is no 
new injury, there wili be no new 
corns. — {E, Maunsell.) 

COROLLA. The coloured part of 
flowers, usually. If there be no green 
calyx, the coloured envelope is called 
a perianthiam. The corolla is either 
in one piece, or monopetalousy or in 
many, palypetalous. The leaflets or 
parts are also called petaU. Many 
natural families are easily determined 
by tbe figure of the corolla, as the 
Convolvulaceae, Salviacee, Rosacea), 
&c. See Botany. 

CORONET BONE. The second 
of the consolidated phalanges of tbe 
horse's foot. 

CORROSIVE SUBLIMATE. A 
white crystalline salt, the chloride of 
mercury. It is a fearful poison, one 
to tlu^e grains producing death. The 
antidote is, abundance of white of egg 
given internally. A weak solution is 
occasionally used to destroy vermin 
and preserve wood, but it is too dan- 
gerous to be trifled with. 

CORRUGATE. To wrinkle. The 
folds on the skin of some animals are 
called corrugations. 

CORTICAL (from cortex, the 
bark). Relating to the bark. 

CORUNDUM. A daas of extreme- 
ly hard crystalline minerals, compo- 
sed of nearly pure alamina, as tlie 
sapphiiei ruby* and emeiy. 

m 



COT 

CORVITS. The generic name of 
th« crow and niven. They are om- 
nivorous or carnivorous. 

CDRVMB. A bunch of flowers, 
Ui«> lowest flower stalks of which rise 
«s hi^ as the uppermost. 

CORYZA. A running from the 
DOse. 

COSMOGONY (from Kwrfiof, worlds 
and ytruoc, Hrth). The speculations 
concerning the origin of the earth. 

COSTATE (from eosta, a rib). Rib- 
bed. In botany this term is used to 
designate the bundles of woody fibre 
in leaves, also called nerves and 
veins. The numerals are often prefix- 
ed, as tricosUUe, with three ribs. 

COSTIVENESS. Want of proper 
motion in the bowels. Glauber salts, 
Epsom salts, and aloes are useful 
purges. 

COTTAGE. A small, low resi- 
dence, often highly adorned, or ornie. 
The following from Mr. Ellsworth's 
Reports on building cheap Cottages 
will be valuable : 

** After selecting a suitable spot of 
ground, as near the place of building 
as practicable, let a circle of ten feet 
or more be described. Let the loam 
be removed, and the clay dug up one 
foot thick, or, if clay is not found on 
the spot, let it be carted in to that 
depth. Any ordinary clay will an- 
swer. Tread this clay over with 
cattle, and add some straw cut six 
or eight inches long. After the clay 
is well tempered with working it with 
the cattle, the material is duly pre- 
pared for the making of brick. A 
mould is then formed of plank, of the 
size of the brick deaired. In England 
they are usually made eighteen inch- 
es long, one foot wide, and nine inch- 
es thick. I have found the more 
convenient size to be one foot long, 
seven inches wide, and five inches 
thick. The mould should have a 
bottom. The clay is then placed in 
the moulds in the same manner that 
brick moulds are ordinarily filled. A 
wire or piece of iron hoop will an- 
swer very well for striking off the top. 
One man will mould about as fast as 
another can carry away, two moulds 
being used by him. The brieks are 

I9S 



OOT 

plaeed upon the level ground, whev» 
they are suffered to dry two days, 
turning them up edgewise the sec- 
ond day, and then packed up in a 
pile, protected from the rain, and left 
to dry ten or twelve days, during 
which time the foundation of the 
building can be prepared. If a ceUar 
is desired, this must be formed of 
stone or brick, one foot above the 
surface of the ground. For cheap 
buildings on the prairie, wood silla, 
twelve or fourteen inches wide, may 
be laid on piles or stones. This will 
form a good superstructure. Where 
lime and small stones abound, grout 
made of those materials (lime and 
stones) will answer very well. 

**In all cases, however, before 
commencing the walls for the first 
story, it is very desirable, as well in 
this case as in walls of brick, to Unf 
a Mingle course of slate ; this will in- 
tercept the dampness so often rising 
in the walls of brick houses. The 
wall is laid by placing the brick lengtJi- 
wise^ thus making the wall one foot 
thick. Ordinary clay, such as is used 
for clay mortar, will suffice, though 
a weak mortar of sand and lime, 
when these artides are cheap, is rec« 
ommended as forming a more adhe- 
sive material for the plaster. The 
wall may safely be carried up one 
story, or two or three stories; the 
division walls may be seven inches, 
just the width of the brick. The 
door and window frames being in- 
serted as the wall proceeds, the build- 
ing is soon raised. The roof may 
be shingles or thatch : in either case 
it shouU project over the sides of tka 
house, and also oter the two ends, ett 
least two feet, to guard the wails from 
vertital rains. The exterior wall ia 
plastered with good lime mortar, and 
then with a second coat pebble- 
dashed. The inside is plastered with- 
out dashing. The floor may be laid 
with oak boards, slit, five or six inch- 
es wide, and laid down without joint- 
ing or planing, if they are rubbed over 
with a rough stone after the rooms 
are finished. Doors of a cheap and 
neat appearance may be made by ta- 
king two single boards of the lebgtb 



COTTAGE. 



or width of the doors ; placing these 
verticatly, they wiJl fill the space. 
Put a wide batten on the bottom and 
a narrow one on the top, with strips 
on the side, and a strip in the middle. 
This door will be a batten door, but 
presenting two long panels on one 
side and a smooth surface on the 
other. If a parch or veranda is 
wanted, it may t>« roofed with boards 
laid with light joints and covered 
with a thick paper dipped in tar, and 
then adding a good coat, after sprink- 
ling it with saad from a sand-box or 
other dish with small holes. 

** Houses bttilt in this way are diy, 
warm in winter and cool in summer, 
and furnish no retreat for vermin. 
Such houses can be made by com- 
mon Jabourers* if a little carpenter's 
Work is excepted, in a very short 
time, with a small outlay for mate- 
rials, exclusive of floors, windows, 
doors, and roof. 

*' The question wiU naturally arise, 
"WiU the wall stand against the rain 
and frost I I answer. They have 
stood well in Europe, and the Hon. 
Mr. Poinsett remarked to me that be 
had seen them in South America, af- 
ter having been erected three hun- 
dred years. Whoever has noticed 
the rapid absorption of water by a 
brick that has been burned, will not 
wonder why brick walls are damp. 
.The burning makes the brick porous, 
while the unburned brick is less ab- 
sorbent ; but it is not proposed to 
present the unburned brick to the 
weather. Whoever has erected a 
baildiug with merchantable brick will 
at once perceive the large number of 
soft and yellow brick, partially burn- 
ed, that It contains, brick that would 
soon yield to the mouldering in- 
fluence of frost and storms. Such 
brick are, however, placed within, 
beyond the reach of rain, and always 
kept dry. A good cabin is made by 
a single room twenty feet square. A 
better one is eighteen feet wide and 
tweoty-four feet long, cutting off 
eight feet on one end for two small 
rooms, eight feet by nine each. 

" How easily could a settler erect 
such a cabia on the Western prairie, 



where clay is usaaUy fonnd about fif> 
teen inches below the surface, and 
where stone and lime are often both 
very cheap. The article of brick for 
chimneys is found to be quite an 
item of expense in wooden hoiises. 
In these mud houses no brick is 
needed, except for the top of the 
chimneys, the oven, and casing of 
the fire-place, though this last might 
be well dispened with. A cement, 
to put around the chimneys, or to fill 
any other crack, is easily made by a 
mixture of one part of sand, two of 
ashes, and three of clay. This soon 
hardens, and will resist the weather. 
A little lard or oil may be added, to 
make the composition still harder. 

*' Such a cottage will be as cheap 
as a log cabin, less expensive than 
pine buildings, and durable for cen- 
turies. I have tried the experiment 
in this city by erecting a building 
eighteen by fifty-four feet, two sto- 
ries high, adopting the diflerent sug- 
gestions now made. Although many 
doubted the success of the underta- 
king, all now admit that it has been 
very successful, and presents a con- 
venient and comfortable building, 
that appears well to public view, and 
ofiers a residence combining as many 
advantages as a stone, brick, or wood- 
en house presents. I will add what 
Loudon says in his most excellent 
work, the Encyclopedia of AgricuUuret 
p. 74 and 75 : 

" ' The great art in building an 
economical cottage is to employ the 
kind of materials and labour which 
are cheapest in the given locality. 
In almost every part of the world the 
cheapest article of which the walls 
can be made will be found to be the 
earth on which the cottage stands, 
and to make good wails from the 
earth is the principal art of the rus- 
tic or primitive builder. Soils, with 
reference to building, may be divided 
into two classes : clays, loams, and 
all such soils as can neither be called 
gravels nor sands, and sands and 
gravels. The former, whether they 
are stifl" or free, rich or poor, mixed 
with stones, or free from stones, may 
be formed into walls in one of these 



COT 



COT 



modes, viz., In the pise manner, by 
lumps moulded in boxes, and by 
compressed blocks. Sandy and grav- 
elly soils may be always made into 
excellent wails, by forming a frame 
of boards, leaving a space between 
the boards of the intended thickness 
of the wall, and filling this with grav- 
el mixed with lime mortar, or, if this 
cannot be got, with mortar made of 
clay and straw. 

" * In all cases, when walls, either 
of this class or the former, are built, 
the foundations should be of stone or 
brick, and they should be carried up 
at least a foot above the upper sur- 
face of the platform. 

" *We shall here commence by giv- 
ing one of the simplest modes of 
construction, from a work of a very 
excellent and highly estimable indi- 
vidual, Mr. Denson, of Waterbeach, 
Cambridgeshire, the author of the 
Peasant's Voice, who built his own 
cottage in the manner described be- 
low: 

*• ' Mode of building the Mud Walls 
of Cottages in Cambridgeshire. — After 
a labourer has dug a sufficient quan- 
tity of clay for his purpose, he works 
it up with straw ; he is then provided 
with a frame eighteen inches in 
length, six dtiep, and from nine to 
tw^elve inches in diameter. In this 
frame he forms his lumps, in the 
same manner that a brickmaker forms 
his bricks ; they arc then packed up 
to dry by the weather; that done, 
they are fit for use, as a substitute for 
bricks. On laying the foundation of 
a cottage, a few layers of brick are 
necessary, to prevent the lumps from 
contracting a damp from the earth. 
The fire-place is lined and the oven 
is built with bricks. . I have known 
cottagers, where they could get the 
grant of a piece of ground to build on 
for themselves, erect a cottage of 
this description at a cost of from £15 
to £30. I examined one that was 
nearly completed, of a superior or- 
der: it contained two good lower 
rooms and a chamber, and was neat- 
ly thatched with straw. It is a warm, 
firm, and comfortable building, far 
superior to the one I live in ; and 

104 



my opinion is that it will last for 

centuries. The lumps are laid with 
mortar, they are then plastered, and, 
on the outside, once roughcast, which 
is done by throwing a mixture of 
water, lime, and small stones against 
the walls before the plaster is dry, 
which gives them a very handsome 
appearance. The cottage I exam- 
ined cost £33, and took nearly on» 
thousand lumps to complete it. A 
labourer will make that number in 
two days. The roofs of cottages of 
this description are precisely the 
same as -when built with bricks or 
with a wooden frame. Cow-house 
sheds, garden walls, and partition 
fence are formed with the same ma- 
terials ; but in all cases the tops are 
covered with straw, which thethatch- 
ers pcrfonn in a very neat manner."* 

COTTON. The hairs surrounding 
the seeds of several varieties of Gos- 
sypium^ which are cultivated for the 
staple in the Southern States of 
America and elsewhere. 

Varieties. — The most common is 
the green seed {G. herbaceum) or up- 
land cotton. The black seed, or Sea- 
Island, is of longer and finer -staple, 
and supposed to be a variety of G. 
arborcvm; it rises often to eighteen 
feet, and bears well for four or five 
years. The Kafikin is the variety 
suited for the manufacture of the im- 
itation nankin. The Mexican and 
Pettit Gulf are also upland kinds, 
and in great favour, especially the 
last ; they are varieties of G. hirsU' 
turn. Aldridge or Okra cotton is a 
new Alabama variety, growing with 
very short stalks, tall, and yieldifi|; 
largely. ^ 

Cultivation. — The following by Dr. 
Philips, from the American Agricul- 
turist, gives a full account of the 
management of the upland cotton : 

*• If the land was in corn or cotton 
the previous year, I run off the rows 
in the old water furrow with a short 
plough, this year using two horses to 
it, and running deep. With a turn- 
ing plough I then throw to this two 
furrows, one from each side, intend- 
ing to reverse the last beds. 

" I leave the ground in this condition 



COTTON. 



QBta a day or two belbre I wiab to 
plant, and then break out the entire 
surface between the rows and the 
balk ; my reason for so doing is, that 
the cotton plant grows off* faster on a 
bed of some firniaess; the radicle, or 
future root, will die oftener oa a light 
surface than when on hard earth, if 
not 80 hard that it cannot penetrate ; 
and by breaUng oat the middle late it 
leaves the bed fresh, except a narrow 
strip on the top, which is cleaned off* 
by planting, which gives the plant an 
even start with grass and weeds. 

*' 1 begin to plant during the first 
fine weather aAer the 20th of March, 
though usually not before early in 
April, some of my neighbours even 
earlier than the 20th some seasons ; 
I prefer to be a few days later, and 
have all business well up, than to 
haste in planting, and probably get a 
bad stand from cold, and part of the 
ploughing to be jumped over. 

** I direct the cotton seed to be haul- 
ed out, and dropped in two or three 
heap-rows across the rows, at con- 
venient distances, and in sufficient 
parcels ; practice gives the hands a 
pretty, correct idea how much is re- 
quired. I usnally measure enough 
fbr the first row, or an acre, seldom 
planting over two bushels myself, and 
often not over one, especially if the 
seeds be bought. If the first furrows 
have been settled by heavy rains, are 
rough, or have many cotton stalks 
on the row, an iron tooth barrow 
should be run over them, drawn by 
one horse, and with the row ; this 
cleans off the row, and leaves it in 
fine condition for planting. 

'' I strike out the farrow for planting 
with an opener. I am very particular 
to open the fbrrows as straight as 
possible, if on level land ; or a regu- 
lar curve, if on liUy or rolling land. 
The sower now follows with seed in 
an apron, and scatters them along in 
the narrow furrow by shaking the 
hand, so as to cause each seed to fall 
separate, if possible. This furrow be* 
iag from one half to three quarters 
of an inch deep, cannot be covered 
deep, which would be an injury, seed 
coming up with more certainty if 



lightly oovwed, the natare of the 
seed requiring the leaves, which are 
folded or rolled up with the radicle, 
or root, in the centre, to rise up be- 
fore the plume or future stalk can 
start. The seed is well covered. 

** I prefer planting about one haU 
the cotton crop some ten days before 
the remainder, that too much neces- 
sary work will not be required at the 
same time ; if a rainy spell of weath- 
er now, or any other backset should 
cause detention in working over the 
first time, grass and weeds will have 
taken such hold, that the farmer will 
find as hard work as in fighting fire ; 
but if only the one half be planted 
first, the last half will not be pressing. 
I plant upland at four feet apart be- 
tween the rows; 2d low ground at 
five feet distance. Any farmer will 
find there is very much to be gained 
by putting his land in fine order be- 
fore he plants ; even if a few days 
later planting than his careless neigh- 
bour, he will soon overtake him in 
cleaning his crop ; besides, his crop is 
not checked in growth ; and he would 
do well to so pitch his crop that his 
com could get one workiiiig before 
his cotton would require it. 

'* Before giving you the cultivation 
of the plant, I will describe the seed 
that I have found to be the best, not 
only in producing, but in gathering 
the largest weights per hand. The 
seed is covered with a short, perfectly 
white furze, called Mexican ; when 
fresh it is small, but, after being cul- 
tivated in the United States, it be- 
comes longer, gradually losing the 
white fibres, or changing to a germ. 
The Pettit Gulf seed is the same, only 
it is carefully selected and kept pure 
by the planters in the vicinity of the 
gulf hills near Rodney, this part of 
the Mississippi River being called 
Pettit Gulf. This cotton not only 
produces more, but the bowls (that 
contain the cotton and seed) open 
out wider, and it is therefore easier 
gathered and picked. 

"Many persons, in circling their 
hilly land, do it a greater injury than 
in ploughing up and down the hillsi 
because their furrows being inclined, 

195 



OOITON, 



the water has only a loofer distanoe 
to flow, thus aocumulatinif in qaan- 
ttty, velocity, and force ; whereas, if 
they were correctly run off, the wa- 
ter should lie in the furrow as on 
level land. In doing this, the curve 
should be as regular as the nature of 
the land will permit, for the purpose 
of admitting the ploughs to be run 
oiose up to the plant, which could 
not be if in a zigzag course. 

** If the cotton seed be moistened 
and rotted with ashes and earth, so 
that the lint or furze be compressed, 
the moisture of the earth being thus 
brought directly in contact with the 
hull or seed, it will vegetate earlier, 
and will require less seed per acre. 

** I throw up my cotton bed as flat 
as I can to break out deep, and leave 
the water furrow well open, thus 
permitting the superfluous water to 
steep from the bed, and the earth 
to become warmer, this being ne- 
cessary to the quick growth of the 
plant. 

'* CuUhaiion. — Implements, '-^Seror 
ping cotton (it is termed ehating by 
tobacco growers) is mer^y taking off 
with a hoe the surface of the hill or 
bed, so as to leave a clean surface ; 
tinless tbis be done well, whether 
grass or weeds be in sight or not, 
there will be a quantity of them before 
the crop can be worked over again. 

** A hvM-Umgue plough is about four 
inches wide, shaped somewhat like 
the shovel plough^ and used on the 
same stock. I use a narrow ekaoel 
about six inches wide, ateo a shovel 
of the usual width ; the first is used 
when the crop is young, likewise the 
bull-tongue. The harrow is a triangu- 
lar frame of white oak, three by four 
stuff, with nine iron teeth, straight, 
twelve inches long, and made of three 
fourth inch square bars. 

** The eweep is the same described 
by Dr. Cloud, though I prefer the sem- 
icircular shape, thus, because it is not 




^^K 



196 



Cottoa 8ww|» 



80 liable, in striking a eott<m«sta]k or 

stick, to glance off and injure the cot- 
ton ; it should be made with cutting 
edge level, and laid with steel, the 
back edge raised, so that when the 
earth falls over, it falls to pieces ; the 
ploughman should carry a file, and be 
required to keep the sweep sharp. 

*' The dmMt shovel is a plough with 
two moulds ; I prefer the moulds ot 
a parallelogram shape, and twisted 
so as to throw the earth all one way : 
see a cut of the stocking of one in 
voL ii., old series, of the American 
Farmer, for Sept. 1, 1820. 

*' Hie scraper is an implement I have 
tried to have constructed, so as to 
shave off the bed each side of the cot- 
ton plant, leaving four inches or less 
of the former surface for the hoe 
hands to clean. I think the difficulty 
in those formerly used was, want of 
weight to steady them. 

**Our usual scraping is after the 
plough, then a turning plough goes 
ahead with the bar next to the row, 
throwing the earth from the plant to 
the middle of the row, and in conse- 
quence of having to run two or three 
inches deep, we dare not run near 
the plant, owing to the bed crumbling 
down, and the danger of covering the 
plant by the earth falling from the 
plough. I am as particidar in this 
part of our labour as is possible, su- 
perintend it in person all the day, re- 
quiring of the hands to chop through 
the row, leaving one or more stalks, 
and cleaning the side of the plants 
next to hand, then another stand, of 
a stalk or more, and so on, thus leav- 
ing cotton plants about the width of 
the hoe apart; if the same hand 
cleans the whole row, he will come 
back on the other side, cutting up all 
but one stalk in each bunch, and 
cleaning the row next him as before. 
I usually put two on a row, the best 
hand chops through the row on his 
side, the other reduces to a stand a 
single stalk, and cleans the remain- 
ing side ; I have now really a double 
stand, that is, twice as many stalks 
as I design to remain, thinking it 
prudent not to reduce to a stand, aa 
casualties and carelcssn' a.i may by 



COTTON. 



diance destroy a stalk or two ; and 
being not over two or three inches 
high, and ten to twelve inches apart, 
they do not injure each other. When 
I use the scraper, there is so little 
hoe work, that e*ach hand is required 
to clean the row at one time by chop- 
ping through to himself, sweeping off 
the side of ttie plants, then with a 
push of the hoe he cleans the oppo- 
site side of the stalks, and reduces 
to a single stalk at the same motion. 
Our usual work is three quarters of 
an acre per band ; but with the scra- 
per, and earth in the same condition, 
from one to one and a quarter of an 
acre is as easily done ; this is when 
the crop is got into in due time, which 
I make a point of doing as soon as I 
have what I consider a full stand up, 
sever waiting for height or age of it, 
and only when too cold. On referring 
to my farm-book, I find I commence 
reaping from fifteen to twenty days af- 
ter sowing, owing to the season, and 
whether earlier or later sown ; if the 
seed be sown early, it is the longer 
period, the earth being cool, and the 
sun not powerful enough at this sea- 
son to warm it. 

" As soon as I can return for other 
business, say in ten to fifteen days 
at the outside, I throw earth to the 
plant with the bull-tongue plough, run- 
ning near and deep, and with any or- 
dinary attention fne plant is moulded 
well wiih fine, light earth ; the soon- 
er this can be done the better, the 
light earth serving to protect the 
stem of the plant, the furrow to drain 
off moisture and loosen the earth, 
and to give warmth. The plant be- 
ing thus stimulated, if the weather 
be not too cold, will resume its green 
colour if it has turned yellowish, and 
commences growing ; the last half 
of cotton requiring working, and if 
rain falls about this time, it may not 
be possible to get into it earlier than 
ten days, but at all events we should 
do so some five days before hoe 
bands go into it to clean with the hoe. 
The hoe follows this moulding with 
the bull-tongue, levels the earth 
around the plant, and cuts up what 
grass and weeds there may be pres- 



ent. This working will take as into 
May, when our heavy rains are over, 
and when the plant begins to grow 
off; if I find the earth to crack or be 
hard, I follow the hoes, in a few days, 
with the shovel-plough ; if the plant 
will bear it, the large shovel, if not, 
the small one, next to the plant, and 
break out the entire middle deep an^ 
thoroughly. This is the only time I ev- 
er plough deeper, probably, than two 
inches after pitching my crop, and 1 
do not use the turning-plough aftei 
barring off. If the earth be light and 
mellow, I use the double shovel- 
plough, three furrows moulding the 
plant and sweeping the entire middle. 

** At this second working I reduce 
to a stand, leaving the stalks about 
twenty to twenty-four inches in ordi- 
nary land ; on the richer land, from 
two feet to thirty or even thirty-six 
inches. After this working I keep 
the earth stirred with a cultivator, or 
sweep, or double shovel, or harrow, 
keeping the bed of the row or drill 
free from weeds and grass, throwing 
a little earth at each working to the 
plant, but not enough to be called a 
ridge. 

** I give the crop as many and as 
frequent stirrings as I am able, sel- 
dom less than three or four, with the 
hoe and plough each, making it a 
point to keep the ploughs in advance, 
unless an unfavourable season, when 
the earth is rather wet to plough, or 
grass has grown too fast ; I then re- 
verse it. The object in keeping 
ploughs and hoes several days apart 
is to give a chance for, grass to die, 
so that what has not been killed or 
covered 'by ploughs can be cut out 
with hoes. 

" I endeavour to have my land in 
good order before planting; plough 
as deep as my horses can pull the 
plough, and commence to clean my 
crop before grass has got started, 
and by frequent stirring I^ep the crop 
eivtirely under my control. I have 
tried all the plans (except Dr. Cloud*s, 
and intend to give that a trial) of 
planting and cultivating cotton, and 
think I can make as much on the 
aamw [and With those implements that 

107 



COTTON. 



merely stir the surface as others do 
with the turning or shovel plough^ 
and can, with the same labour, cer- 
tainly cultivate more. I cannot per- 
ceive that any labour will be saved 
on the same space of land by manu- 
ring, as the same acre will require 
the same work ; but the plant, by be- 
ing warmed with the manure, will 
grow off faster, and if the crop can 
be ever doubled on an acre, it will re- 
quire only half the number of acres 
for cultivation. 

" I may err, as we all are subject 
to error, especially in being wedded 
to our peculiar mode of practice; but 
I think all practical planters will agree 
with me that the first, and often 
the second working of cotton, must 
be slow and tedious, even should the 
planting be in May. It is impossible 
that the plant should grow off untU 
the fine roots or spongioles have 
formed around the top roots to nour- 
ish the plant ; in the mean time the 
fibrous rooted plants are growing ; 
we must therefore work early, and 
every one who has followed hands 
knows there is little dependance on 
covering grass ; it must be cut up. I 
therefore think we must scrape. 

**My hoes are home-made, the 
blade entirely steel; I have some 
here that have been used for the past 
four years, and they have been used 
for cutting down sprouts as well as 
cutting up grass and weeds. My fore- 
man of the crop is furnished with a 
flat file, and is required to keep the 
hoes sharp. 

*' I now sum up, commence clean- 
ing the cotton early, clean it well, re- 
turn as soon as possible, throw earth 
or mould to the young plant ; if the 
earth be hard, give a thorough plough- 
ing; keep the earth light and mel- 
low, and the planto clear of grass and 
weeds. 

" Gathering and Drying. — After my 
crop has grown so large as to meet 
in the row, or to be injured by the 
plough, I have the grass chopped out 
with the hoe, especially if there has 
been rain, for then there springs up 
a grass called by the opposite names 
of sour or saltpetre grass ; not that 
198 



I fear any injury to the crop, oiriy as 
furnishing more trash to get into the 
cotton when gathering, or keeping 
the earth wet in the mornings b]f 
dews. I forthwith prepare for gath- 
ering cotton any leisure time, such 
as making baskets, sacSs, cleaning 
up gin-house, dec. 

*' In all this country each hand has 
a cotton sack and cotton basket for 
picking ; the first made out of stout, 
yard-wide Lowell goods, by cutting 
off one and a third to one and a half 
yards, doubling, and sew^ing one side 
and end. On the open end attach a 
strip of cotton doubled, long enough, 
when over the shoulder, to keep the 
sack off the ground when standing 
erect, this is sewed on on.ch side, so 
as when the right arm and head are 
passed through, similar to the belt 
of the bayonet or broadsword, the 
weight rests on the left shoulder, and 
the sack against the right hip. M^en 
picking, tlie cotton is placed in this 
sack until full, which will weigh from 
fifteen to twenty pounds, and then 
emptied into the hamper or basket, 
placed in a central part of the day*s 
picking. This is made of young 
white oak, some three to five or six 
inches in diameter, growing in low 
ground, by cutting off a piece about 
seven feet long, quartering, and then 
splitting into splits about three quar- 
ters to an inch widt^ and as thick as 
a case-knife blade, and ribs somewhat 
thicker. Take, according to size of 
basket wanted, some 
fifteen to twenty-two or 
twenty-three of these 
ribs, and lay them on 
the ground crossing 
each other thus, and 
commence weaving in the splits as 
near to the central point as possible, 
by fastening to the bottom rib first, 
running over and under until all 
round ; insert an odd rib, for fifteen 
or twenty will give an even number 
of ribs, each long one making, in fact, 
two, and, if an even number, the 
splits will round all alike ; but by hav- 
ing an odd one, the rib that was out- 
side comes next inside, <&.c. After 
the bottom is filled up the size want- 




COTTON. 



ed, doable the ribs over cm the bot- 
tom, press on them with the foot all 
round until they will assume, more 
or less, an erect position, then con- 
tinue around until the proper height. 
Now double down the rib so as to en- 
close the last split, and run the end 
down into splits, so as to make fiast. 
Get oot now two pieces of the white 
oak, about one third of an inch thick, 
take off the comers with a drawing 
knife, put one on the inside, the oth- 
er outside of the last split around the 
top of the basket, and wrap it well 
with thin, narrow splits, over and un- 
der the last split. This basket should 
do for two seasons ; the bottom of 
my largest is about twenty-seven 
inches across, and about two feci? 
bigb, will hold about 150 pounds of 
cotton, or three bushels of shelled 
corn in the ear. 

** The next thing is eotton-scafiblds 
for sunning the cotton ; I only use 
the shed attached to my gin-house, 
sixty-two feet long and twelve wide. 
The best made use of by our neatest 
planters are made of plank, attached 
with hinges (like a foldiog-leaf table 
reversed), and resting on a frame- 
work, so that at night, or a rain threat- 
ening, the leaves can be folded up 
and shelter the cotton. The first of 
these was described to me ten years 
ago by the late Mr. William Bacon, 
who was at that time the most sys- 
tematic cotton planter I knew, a Nor- 
therner. Other kinds of scaffolds are 
made by cutting cane about five to 
six feet long, and weaving together 
with lion bark, of a tree called here' 
linn or wahoo, and laid crosswise on 
stakes and poles. Others split out 
boards. 

" The gin-house now undergoes a 
rigid examination. The gin-stand 
should be sent off to the gin-wright, 
if necessary ; the band be put in or- 
der, which should have been well 
greased and hung up out of the way 
in the winter ; the running gear train- 
ed, piummed, and levelled, and the 
bouse again thoroughly cleaned out, 
as it is presumed it was done when 
the last season's ginning was done. 
I use a sixty-saw gin-stand ; a light | 



draiDgbt for foor mules^ the numing 
gear being Philadelphia castings for 
a twelve-foot wheel, fastened to a 
wooden wheel by bolts and nuts. I 
could give you a minute description 
of number of cogs in wheel, and in 
spur or trundle-head, mze of band- 
wheel, and speed of the saws ; but, 
as I purpose to' make an examination 
into this matter the ensuing month 
among my intelligent brethren in the 
southwest part of this state, I will 
postpone and communicate to you 
hereafter in the East. 

** To make fine cotton, there is cer- 
tainly much depending on the gin- 
stand, the speed, dec, in aid of which 
there are a variety of improvements, 
as the flue, false grates, and a thrash- 
er, though of tliese hereafter *, for the 
present, I think the flue will entirely 
supersede all others. As I think of 
concluding with my last article, and 
have yet only given you two pages, I 
will offer some views I have on the 
handling of cotton, though their cor- 
rectness is questioned by many ; 
yet, as account sales are * stubborn 
things,' I may be allowed to hold on 
until there is a demonstration to the 
contrary. 

*' Cotton should be gathered from 
the field as clean as possible, taken 
to the scaffolds, and dried until the 
seed will crack when pressed be- 
tween the teeth, not crush or mash, 
but crack with some noise. It 
should be frequently turned over and 
stirred (all the trash and rotten pods 
taken out while this is being done), 
so as to ensure its drying earlier. 

*' If seeds are wanted for planting, 
gin the cotton immediately, and 
spread the seed over the floor some 
five inches thick, until perfectly dry. 
If the cotton seed be not wanted, 
pack the seed cotton away into the 
house, to remain until a gentle heat 
is discovered, or until siufficient for 
ginning ; after it has heated until a 
feeling of warmth to the hand, and it 
looks as if pressed together, open out 
and scatter to cool. This cotton will 
gin faster, have a softer feel, is not 
so brittle, therefore not so liable to 
break by rapidity of gin, and has a 

199 



COTTON. 



ereamj colour; the wool has im- 
bibed a part of the oil that has ex- 
uded by the warmth of seed, and 
is, in fact, restored to the original 
colour ; for the oil being Tegetable, 
it is dissipated by sun and air, and 
the colour by moisture (of rain and 
dews) and light. I haye known of a 
DumfaNer of sides made of this descrip- 
tion of cotton, and even those who 
are most strenuous against the heat- 
ing admit it bore a better price. No 
one supposes if cotton be put up wet, 
dirty, trashy, with rotton pods, that 
it is benefited. Having all things 
ready for picking cotton, I com- 
mence, as usual, early, as soon as 
the hands can gather even twenty 
pounds each. This is advisable, not 
only in saving a portion of that from 
being destroyed if rains shoukl fall, 
which often do at this season (about 
the middle of August), but for anoth- 
er reason : passing through the cotton 
has a tendency to open out to sun 
and air the limbs that have interlock- 
ed across the rows, and hastens the 
early opening. On low grounds, es- 
pecially, much loss is incurred in 
some seasons from the want of the 
HUD to cause an expansion of the 
lib re within the bowl, so as to cause 
it to open. The bowl is composed 
of five divisions, in each of which 
there is a parcel of cotton wool sur- 
rounding each seed, there being sev- 
eral in each lock of cotton. When 
green, these fibres lie close to the 
seed, and as it ripens, the fibres be- 
come elastic, the bowl becoming hard 
and brownish. The Sea Island has 
only three divisions, as also the Egyp- 
tian, which is only the Sea Island of 
the best variety, with black seed, 
smooth, and a yellowish tuft of fibres 
on the small end ; they are both from 
Pernambuco. Some of the cotton 
we plant has only four divisions, hut 
I think five generally. 

" There is a peculiar art in gathering 
the cotton from the bowl, which, like 
handling stock, can only be acquired 
by practice ; many gather equally fast 
with either hand. The left hand 
seizes the stem near the open bowl, 
or the bowl between the two mid- 

9A0 



die fingers, the palm of the haoa 
up ; the fingers of the right hand are 
inserted tolerably low down in the 
bowl, a finger on each lock of cotton ; 
then, as the fingers grasp it, there is 
a slight twisting motion, and a quick 
pull, which, if done well, will extract 
the •contents, the bowl being open, 
and the bottom of the locks not eum- 
my to adhere. There is a vast dtfifer- 
ence in hands, not the quickest ma- 
king the best pickers ; a steady, clock- 
like motion, with some quickness, is 
necessary to gather fast. A neigh- 
bour of mine, when a young man, 
some ten years since, gathered 400 
lbs., which was at that time the best 
I had known ; this has been beaten 
since, by aiding the hand in emptying 
his sacks, and almost feeding and 
watering him while at work. 

*• After weighing, if the weather be 
fair, the cotton is consigned to the 
scatfold, to the care of those who pick 
out what trash and rotten parts are 
left. After being dried as said, it is 
taken into the upper part of the house, 
and placed over the gin-stand, ready 
to be turned into the hopper that leads 
from this place to the gin-stand. My 
gin-house is 3S by 62, framed, with 
two floors. Below the first floor is 
the running gear, where the horses 
'work ; in the second story we weigh ; 
on a level is the shed for sunning, 
fronting the south, in which is the 
gin-stand at one end, at the other the 
press. In the garret is carried the 
seed ; cotton over the gin-stand, and 
the ginned cotton over the press. 

•* I never pick cotton if wet with 
rain, but attend to other matters. 
When the weather is good, I strive to 
keep every one busy that can gather 
anything like even a half hand's work. 
All go out after daylight, but not long, 
I assure you. 

"When I commence ginning, there 
is a small boy to drive each team, 
there being four horses or mules, to 
work in pairs ; one hand at the gin- 
stand, who is kept pretty busy in put- 
ting the seed-cotton on to the saws ; 
another hand is required to push the 
cotton back fh)ra the flue of the gin- 
stand, rake cotton into the hopper, 



COTTON. 



and dear out seed and motes after 
the gin drops them. With my gin- 
stand, I have myself ginned four bales 
per day, and averaged over three bales 
for a week together ; but it requires 
constant attention. Though the la- 
bour is light, yet it requires a good 
haod to perform it. There is much 
loss-work in this business ; frequent- 
ly a part of the saws are running 
through seed, while others are almost 
choked; again, the roll is not full; 
again too full. In this way my gin* 
ner, though an excellent servant, and 
named after Cyrus of 3rore, is some- 
times busy ginning out two bales, or 
even less per day, while I, though 
naturally lazy, and not disposed to 
thwart natttre in that prerogative, 
never gin under three bales. The 
plan is to keep the team steady, and 
shake the cotton regularly over the 
roil, so as to keep the roll regularly 
full. I call the reli the cotton in the 
gin-stand that is turned over and over 
by the motion of the saws, from which 
the saws pnll oft the artide known in 
oommeroe as cotton. 

** The next and last thing is balin^t 
which I do by cutting off several pie- 
ces from a bolt of bagging, about 4 
feet 6 to 8 inches long, the length of 
the bale being 4 feet 6 inches ; I then 
cut out the bed-doth, so as to have 
the heading of eadi end on it, with- 
out wasting, which is done by split- 
ting the first end long enough for 
head, say 2 feet 9 inches to 8 feet, 
and cut off one piece ; then measure 
the length of the bale, cut half across, 
, and epib the same distance as their 
end, and cut one end from the bolt 
(leaving one half attached to the 
bolt), so as to have both heads on the 
same side of the doth» thus : I then 



cJ 



t 



1^ 



I 



split in two one of the first-named 
pieces, and sew on to the side from a 
to h; this gives the bed-cloth; the 
two pieces each side of the long mid- 
dle piece, when cotton is pressed 
down, serve as half the sides of the 
bale ; tlie first-named doth being pla- 



ced on top of the cotton before press* 
ing, and turned down, is met by these 
hiilif sides, and, when sewed up, cov- 
ers the bale; the bed-doth is laid 
smooth and even on the bed-block, 
and the doors of the press fastened 
over it, when the press is full ; one 
of the first cloths cut, called top-doth, 
is stretched under follower and on 
cotton. My press is a single-screw, 
inside press ; the horse walking ad- 
joining to the walk of the teams woric* 
ing the running-gear of the gin-stand. 
The bale is pressed above them on 
the first floor, and the cotton is put 
in the press on the upper floor. Four 
hands, or, rather, three hands and a 
youngster do the pressing, two get- 
ting in the box and tramping the cot- 
ton down, while the youngster Uirows 
in the cotton, and the fourth sews in 
the head, and prepares a bed-cloth. 
We press 9 to 10 bales a day, aver- 
aging generally 436 lbs., preferring 
about that weight to any other. 

** After running the press down, one 
hand is employed in tying, while the 
two others wind up the rope on a 
windlass, to make it tight round the 
bale, having grooves in the bed-block 
and follower large enough for rope 
to pass through easily ; one hand has 
a needle three feet long, either of 
white oak or Iron wire, through the 
eye of which is passed a piece of 
twine, the ends tied together ; a loop 
is formed, the rope passed through, 
and made fast ; the needle is then 
passed through the upper groove by 
one hand, another pulls through the 
opposite side ; he then returns it be- 
low ; the hand that ties pulls throns^, 
releases the twine, makes a knot in 
the end of the rope, passes it over 
the rope attached to the coil, and 
makes a single knot ; the long end 
then is passed over a pin in the shaft 
to which the windlass is attached, 
then this is tosned over and over un- 
til tight, the rope cut, and passed un- 
der the rope on the bale, sometimes 
tied, as if knitting a line on to a fish- 
ing-hook, and so on until the ropes 
are all tied. Mine are eight in num- 
ber ; seven, however, are an abun- 
dance." 

201 



COTTON. 



Some planters top the oottOD in 
August. 

Cultivation of Sea-Uland. — ^Tbe fol- 
lowing is by Mr. Spalding, of Sapelo, 
from tho Amtrican AgrieuUurist : 

" The Sea-Island cotton was intro- 
duced into Georgia from the Baha- 
mas ; the seed was from a small isl- 
and near St. Domingo, known as Ar- 
guilla, then producing the best cotton 
of the Western world. It in no way 
resembles the Brazil cotton, which 
is the kidney-seed kind, introduced 
some years later, and which, after 
trial, was rejected in Georgia. This 
seed came in small parcels from the 
Bahamas in the winter of 1785. It 
gradually and slowly made its way 
along the coast of Georgia, and pass- 
ed into Carolina, from the year 1790 
to 1792. The winter of 1786 in 
Georgia was a mild one, and al- 
thou^ the plants of the Sea-Island 
cotton that year had not ripened their 
seed — ^it being a perennial, and sub- 
ject only to be killed by frost— it stall- 
ed the next season (1787) ih>m the 
roots of the previous year, its seed 
ripened, and the plants became accli- 
mated. Many changes have come 
over this seed since that time, from 
difference of soil, of culture, and lo- 
cal position ; and, above all, from 
careful selection of seed. But it re- 
quires to be discovered that what is 
gained in fineness of wool is lost in 
the quality and weight of the prod- 
uct ; for, in spite of a zeal and intel- 
ligence brought to act upon the sub- 
ject without parallel, the crops are 
yearly diminishing, until to grow Sea- 
Island cotton is one of the most prof- 
itless pursuits within the limits of 
the United States. 

**The Cie/tere. — When the Sea- 
Island cotton seed was introduced in 
1786, it was planted in hills prepared 
upon the level field, at five feet each 
way ; but it was soo» learned that 
of all plants that erow, it is, in its 
first vegetation and early stage, the 
most tender, liable to suffer by storms, 
by wind, by drought, and by excess 
of rain. The quantity of seed was 
therefore increased, and the plants 
multiplied, untili as in most other 
202 



cases, <Hie extreme prodooed another. 
For many years, however, among 
experienced planters, the course is 
to divide their enclosed fields into 
two portions, the one at rest, the 
other in culture. 

*' Preparing the Land for the Crop, 
— Early in February, any hands not 
engaged in preparing the previous 
crop for- market are employed in 
cleaning up the rested fields, and 
either in burning off the fennel weeds 
and grass of the previous year, or in 
listing them in at five feet apart, to 
serve as the base of the future ridg- 
es or bed. There is much difference 
of opinion upon the subject of burn- 
ing or listing in ; for myself, I am in- 
clined to take the first opinion, be- 
lieving that the light dressing of 
ashes the field receives from burning 
off is more beneficial to the soil than 
the decay of the vegetable matter, 
and renders it less liable to produce 
what is a growing evil, the rust, a 
species of blight much resembling 
the rust or bhght upon wheat, and 
which takes place about the same, 
period, just as the plant is putting 
out and preparing to ripen its fruit. 

" Ridging, — ^The land being listed 
in short lines across the entire field, 
at five'feet apart, the operation of 
ridging is commenced about the first 
of March. The ridges occupy the 
entire surface ; that is, the foot of 
one ridge commencing where the 
other ridge ends, and rising about 
eight inches above the natural level 
of the land, thus presenting a sur- 
face almost as smooth, and almost as 
deeply worked as a garden-bed. This 
ridging is carried on but a few days 
ahead of the planting. The ridge, if 
the operation has been carefully done» 
IB from two to two and a half feet 
broad at top ; it is then trenched on 
the upper surface with the hoe, six 
inches wide, and from three to six 
inches deep, depending upon the pe- 
riod of planting. 

** Planting. — In the beginning, if 
the seed is covered more than two 
inches, the soil will not feel the in- 
fluence of the sun, and the seed will 
not vegetate later ; that is, in April, 



COTTON. 



up to the first of May, you most give 
from three to four inches of covering 
to preserve the moisture, or there, 
too, you fail fVom an opposite cause, 
the wind and burning influence of 
the stin diying the soil too much for 
vegetation. In most countries, after 
sowing the seed the roller is applied ; 
but m cotton planting, in our ridge 
husbandry, the foot, in covering the 
seed and pressing down the earth, 
well supplies its place. 

" Quaniily of Seed per Acre. — A 
bushel of seed is generally sown to the 
acre ; I believe half a bushel is bet- 
ter ; for where the evil comes, wheth- 
er the worm, or wind, or drought, or 
wet, there is no security in the many ; 
hot, on the contrary, where they 
come up thin, they soon grow out of 
the way of injury from any enemy. 

"j4//«r Culture, — The cultivation 
of Sea-Island cotton is carried on by 
the hand hoe, and the quantity al- 
ways limited to four acres to the la- 
bourer. The operation of weeding 
commences as soon as we finish 
planting, because, in our flat and 
sandy soils, the grass seed springs 
with the first growth of the cotton, 
and by the time we finish planting, 
say the first of May, what we plant- 
ed in March requires the hoe. The 
land is kept in the operation of hoe- 
ing and weeding, as far as may be, 
at its original level, the beds neither 
increased nor diminished, that rains, 
which generally fall with beating 
power and in redundant quantity in 
the month of August, may as little 
as possible injure the growing plants, 
which are then in full bearing. The 
young cotton is thinned out slowly 
at from six to twelve inches apart on 
the ridge by the 10th of June. As 
soon as the rains commence, which 
is about this last of July, it is wise to 
leave nature to herself, and no longer 
disturb the soil ; four hoeings, if well 
done, and the grass well picked at 
each hoeing, is enough, nor does any 
aAer-growth of grass do injury. 

" Manures emd Soiling Slock. — For 
ten years past great eflbrts have been 
made by the Sea-Island planters in 
mamuing. Muoh of the allavion of 



our salt rivers has been collected, 
and sometimes placed directly in 
heaps through the fields at rest, at 
other times placed in cattle pens, on 
which cotton seed and all waste ma- 
terials are strewn, and the cattle 
pounded upon it. But what is pre- 
ferred is to pen our cattle near the 
river at night, and cut salt grass, 
which covers these alluvion lands, 
and which is as nutritious as so much 
clover. Many planters now employ 
labourers to cut the grass for horses 
and cattle from the first of May till 
the last of November ; the task re- 
quired is generally a cord of grass to 
the hand, and this quantity will an- 
swer for ten horses, or fifteen head 
of cattle, for the night. Benefit has 
resulted from this course in the ratio 
of the extent to which it has been 
persevered in. The last year, Mr. 
Iluifin discovered that all South Car- 
olina was underlayed by shell marl, 
at various depths : from my own ob- 
servation, and inquiries from others, 
I find the same thing exists in Geor- 
gia. Great benefits will result from 
this, I have no doubt, hereafter, de- 
pending much upon the discretion 
that is used in the quantity applied, 
which had better be too little, I think, 
than too much. 

** Amount of Crop per Acre, and 
Picking. — It has been stated already 
that five hundred pounds to the acre 
are about the medium crop, which, at 
twenty cents per pound (more than 
the actual price for the last three 
years), is to the planter 9100 for gross 
crop ; and from this hundred dollars 
is to be subtracted bagging, freight, 
expenses of sale, clothing for his peo- 
ple, medical attention, and too often 
provisions. Is this man to be envied 1 

*' In picking the Sea-Island cotton 
from the field, the same disproportion 
exists with his interior brethren as 
in the other operations on the crop. 
From the exposure to sea- wind, and 
the necessity of guarding against ev- 
ery possible injury to the staple, the 
fields have to be picked over every 
two weeks, commencing in August 
and ending in December; so that 
few planters receive from their peo- 

203 



COTTON. 



pie more than twenty-five pounds of 
cotton per day during the picking 

season. 

*^ preparation for the Market. — The 
Sea-Island cotton is now almost ex- 
clusively separated from its seed by 
the foot-gin: two wooden rollers, 
placed the one over the other in a 
frame. The rollers are one inch in 
diameter, about a foot long, and are 
inserted in an iron journal supported 
by the frame ; upon this journal a 
fly-wheel thirty inches in diameter is 
placed ; the journal, after passing 
through the fly-wheel, has a crank, 
to which the treadle worked by the 
foot is attached : the fly-wheel is to 
give a circular motion by the tread 
of tlie foot. This gin generally sep- 
arates twenty-five pounds of cotton 
per day to one hand. The whole la- 
bour of preparing a bag of three hun- 
dred pounds of cotton, in sorting the 
cotton for the gin, in ginning, and in 
moting atler the gin, in again exam- 
ining it, and in packing, my friend 
Mr. Seabrook, of South Carolina, puts 
down at fifty-four days* work. I 
have estimated it at sixty. Thus a 
bale of cotton worth 960 has cost, 
after the cotton has been gathered 
mto the house, sixty days' labour. 

" Locality of Sea-Island Cotton^ Ori- 
ginal Growth of the Lands ^ and Abori- 
gines. — The Sea-Island cotton of the 
best quality is grown upon islands 
bounded by the sea on one side, and 
to the west by salt rivers and salt 
marsh. These islands extend from 
Charleston, in South Carolina, to the 
River St. John's, in Florida, including 
the whole coast of Georgia. This 
space may be considered two hun^ 
dred and fifty miles, between which 
points there is a safe navigation for 
open boats, and for dragging vessels 
of one hundred tons' capacity. These 
islands were originally almost exclu- 
sively covered with live oak, and from 
them the navy of the United States 
has been entirely built. These live 
oak groves once swarmed with Indian 
tribes, who communed with Sir Wal- 
ter Raleigh and General Oglethorpe 
with confidence and friendship. Ev- 
erywhere you find barrens scattered 

204 



j through the cotton fields, constructed 
exclusively of oyster shells. Indian 
bones and Indian pottery, and other 
remains, tell distinctly here, in ages 
passed, that the red man lived and 
died. 

** Healthiness of Climate. — Volney, 
in his American tour, says that * the 
climate of this coast is the best in 
the United States, from Rhode Isl- 
and south,* and this my own expe- 
rience confirms ; carrying more men 
into old age than any other I know 
of Here, too, has been little change 
of inhabitants for one hundred years 
past, the son clinging to the home of 
his childhood and to the grave of his 
father." 

The Gin and Whipper are concisely 
described by Mr. Spalding. 

»* The whipper, which is a very ne- 
cessary instrument in the well pre- 
paring of cotton, is made of wood, is 
a long barrel composed of slats or 
reeds (or it would be better made of 
wire) six or eight feet in length, and 
two feet in diameter, with one end 
closed and the other open, and is 8up> 
ported at the two ends by feet of dif- 
ferent lengths, so that the barrel, in 
its horizontal position, declines about 
one foot at the lower end ; a hopper 
containing about a bushel rests upon 
the upper side of the barrel, at the 
upper enclosed end of it. This hop- 
per lets the cotton that is to be clean- 
ed fall into the barrel, through which 
runs in its whole length a shaft, 
which is turned by the hand by a 
crank attached to the shaft at one 
end. This shaft is intersected by 
rods which reach to within an inch 
of the barrel. The cotton, as it faUs 
from the hopper, is whirled round by 
these rods until it escapes at the low- 
er end of the barrel, by which time 
any sand, or dirt, or leaves, or other 
matter attached to the cotton lias es- 
caped through the spaces intention- 
ally left between the slats or reeds, 
which constitute the external rim of 
this barrel or whipper. This whip- 
ping was formerly performed as well 
upon the cotton in the seed as after 
it was separated from the seed ; nut 
the second operation of the whir/<»r 



COTTON. 



has lately beeo diseontiDued iroder a 
belief that it produced a stringy ap- 
pearance in the cotton wool. 

" The whipping of cotton at its first 
gathering, and while attached to the 
seed, is really beneficial, and should 
sever be omitted. When these op- 
erations are completed, the harvest 
may be considered as closed, and the 
preparation of the cottoii for market 
really bej^ins. Many machines have 
been designed, and many forms of 
the same machine adopted, for sep- 
arating the seed from the Sea- Island 
cotton, but all of them at last resolve 
themselves into two wooden rollers 
turning by opposite movements upon 
each other. The rollers are from 
half an inch to an inch in diameter, 
and revolve from 100 to 500 times 
in a minute ; the whole resolving 
itself into this simple role, that the 
smaller the rollers, and the slower 
they revolve, the cleaner will be the 
ootion separated from the seed, be- 
cause, if the rollers are an inch in di- 
ameter, and, above all, if they revolve 
with a high velocity, they will take 
in soft seeds, small seeds, and false 
seeds, or motes, as they are called, 
and in crushing them in their passage 
through the rollers will stain and in* 
jure the cotto*n in its appearance. 

'* Much money has been spent upon 
costly machines propelled by horses, 
by water, or by wind, first in the Ba- 
hama Islands, and for many years in 
Georgia and Carolina, but, at last, 
most of the growers of Sea-Island 
cotton have returned to their first 
and most simple machine, to wit, two 
wooden rollers, kept together by a 
wooden frame and a square shall, 
upon which is fixed a wooden or iron 
fly>wfaeel from two to three feet in 
diameter. The iron cranks which 
turn the rollers are connected by 
■tripe of wood, with a treadle work- 
ed by the foot ; this treadle runs un- 
der the machine, and is connected at 
the farther end of the floor of the 
house by sockets, within which it re- 
volves ; the man stands, therefore, 
in the front of the rollers, with a 
board between him and the rollers, 
upon which he holds a large handful 
S 



(f^iiM «f i;otton, which he presents 
from timd 4b time to the rollers that 
are kept in motion by the pressure ol 
the foot upon the treadle ; this la- 
bour, from habit, becomes easy, as 
the feet are often changed in the op- 
eration. The task expected from 
the labourer with the machine (which 
costs, when new and complete, ten 
American dollars) is from twenty-five 
to thirty pounds per day. Women, 
from their careful attention in keep- 
ing the rollers, while they revolve 
upon each other, well supplied with 
seed cotton, were unquestionably the 
best ginners, as they are called from 
the term gin applied to the machine ; 
but in process of time it began to be 
believed that the continued motion of 
the feet produced a relaxed system 
in women, which was likely to lead, 
in the end, to abortion or miscar- 
riage : men have, consequently, been 
substituted for this work, one which, 
being within doors, and exercising 
both hands and feet without very 
much labour, is preferred by them to 
any other in the winter. To prepare 
the cotton for this ginning, or separa- 
tion from the seed, when taken from 
the house where it was put from the 
field, it is carefully looked over and 
separated, or sorted, as it is called ; 
the yellow cotton, the motes, any 
hard cotton that may have passed 
through the whipper, are separated 
from the white ; this is a work of 
care and attention, and the future 
appearance of the cotton much de- 
pends upon the manner in which the 
work is done. Women are employ- 
ed in this operation seated upon 
benches, with tables before them ; the 
seed cotton is spread in small par- 
cels, taken out of one basket, exam- 
ined, and turned over to another, into 
which the person puts the entire of 
her day*s labour. The quantity re- 
quired to be thus examined and 
cleaned in the day by each one is 
from sixty to one hundred pounds, 
according to the care bestowed upon 
the cotton by the grower ; after this 
sorting it is exposed lightly and short- 
ly to the sun, that it may take off 
any dampness the cotton may have 

306 



COTTON. 



acquired in the house; il is 
passed from this drying iimnediately 
to the gin, or machine that separates 
the seed from the wool ; after going 
through the gin, and being separated 
from the seed, it is again turned over 
to the women, who are generally in 
a large room, well lighted with glass 
windows. They sit with small ta- 
bles before them, made either with 
open slats, reeds, or wire, when any 
crushed seeds, and cotton burned or 
blackened by the former machine, or 
motes that have escaped the former 
searches, are removed ; and to have 
this work well done, thirty pounds is 
all that is required per day from each 
woman. After this third operation 
it is considered ready to be bagged 
for market. 

" As soon as the attention of the 
Southern States was called to the 
profitable cultivation of cotton by a 
few persons along the shores of Geor- 
gia and Carolina, the cultivation be- 
gan to be extended into the interior. 
The small quantity of cotton that had 
been grown for domestic uses was 
exchanged for larger quantities, to 
be prepared for sale. But the great 
difficulty to be overcome in the prog- 
ress to extension was to find out any 
instrument by which the cotton wool 
could be separated from the seed. 

**By this time various machines 
had been introduced for ginning the 
Sea-Island cotton, but all of them end- 
ed at last in two rollers revolving 
upon each other, either longer or 
shorter, and moving with, some more, 
some less velocity. Those rollers 
were but badly adapted to the hairy 
cotton, or second variety, which soon 
began to obtain the preference, in the 
interior of Georgia and South Caro- 
lina, over the first or smooth-leaved 
variety, and merited to obtain that 
preference, as giving, when separa- 
ted from its downy seed, a finer and 
stronger, although shorter fibre, and 
as perfecting its fruit sooner, but 
which it was almost impossible to 
separate with the rollers, because the 
down or fur upon the seed retained 
the seed hanging upon the roller, and 
denied admission to the ToUers of the 

S06 



fresh cotton in the seed ttiat was of- 
fered. Many plans were suggested, 
many substitutes for the rollers de* 
signed. All succeeded in part, bat 
still they went on slow. Something^ 
was desired to do much in a short 
time ; something that was strong 
enough to travel about without being 
broken to pieces, and light enough to 
move with its moving master. At 
last such a thing was found in Miller 
and Whitney's gin, probably not the 
best machine that could have been 
designed, but so operative to its end, 
so efficient to its purpose, that it took 
possession of the whole ground. 
From thence forward no other ma- 
chine was sought for, and Miller and 
Whitney's gin is employed to separ- 
ate the cotton seed from Virginia to 
Louisiana, save where the roller gin 
is used, and its use is now altogether 
confined to the Sea -Island cotton, 
whose superior value is supposed to 
warrant the great increase of labour 
necessary in that mode of ginning. 
Miller and Whitney's gin was design- 
ed by Mr. Whitney, and executed at 
the plantation of Mr. Miller, sixteen 
miles above Savannah, about the year 
1795, and it seems to be derived from 
two machines already used upon cot- 
ton, a kind of cylindrical whipper, and 
the circular cards, before that time 
introduced in manufacturing cotton, 
a wooden shaft or roller enclosed 
within a wooden box. This roller or 
shaft has, at every inch of its length, 
a steel blade or saw about a foot in 
diameter ; above these saws is a box 
containing the cotton in the seed. 
The box has the bottom of metal slits, 
through which the saws pass about 
an inch, and pulling ofiT the cotton, 
but sometimes cutting the fibres as 
it pusses. This revolving of the saws 
carries the cotton in the box gradual- 
ly round, until the seeds contained in 
the box are freed of the wool attach- 
ed to them, when it is emptied of th6 
seed and refilled with fresh cotton : 
it too often leaves some of the fibre 
behind it, which diminishes the quan- 
tity as well as injures the quality, so 
much so that the estimated ditierence 
of the products in these two modes of 



\ 



COT 



COT 



giamiig are, with rollers, 300 pounds 
to the 1000, aod 250 pounds to the 
1000 with Miller and Whitney's gin. 
This gin having, at last, given a cheap 
and expeditions mode of taking the 
wool from the hairy American cotton 
(for a gin that costs ten pounds ster- 
ling will clean a bale a day with a 
single horse acting upon the gin, with 
a band wheel which any man can 
make for himself), the cultivation of 
this description of cotton diverged in 
all directions around Georgia as the 
' common centre ; it went north into 
the two Carolinas i it went west into 
the hill country of all the Southern 
States ; it was found capable of ad- 
jaeting itself to the soil and climate 
of the interior country, which the An- 
guiiia cotton had not been adapted 
to; still the fibre of the hairy or short 
staple cotton is better near the sea 
than in the interior." 

Diseas€» of the PlatU. — Wet soils 
are peculiarly injurious, producing 
rot and nut. 

The rot commences with a black or 
brown spot on the bowl, which, in- 
creasing, produces a putrefaction of 
the whole. It is thought to be a fun- 

fos, and to prevail in old varieties 
uring raioy seasons. 

Ruft is a disease of the leaves and 
stalk. Spots or blotches of a brown 
colour appear, which cause the parts 
to dry up and almost crumble away. 
It is produced by the Uredo gotsypn, 
according to Dr. Leitner. 

The sore shin is a disease of very 
youi^ plants in Upper Mississippi, by 
which the stems are very much inju- 
red. 

The lousSf or Aphis, is often very 
destructive ; sprinkling with slacked 
lime and topping would be serviceable. 

The green aUeijfiUar eats into the 
bowl, destroying the staple. 

The army worm is another very de- 
structive insect, of a brown colour 
striped with white, and devouring the 
leaves. 

The cotton crop is rendered by 
these causes very uncertain, and pe- 
coliariy liable to destruction during 
wet w^eather. The introduction of 
liming is perhaps the best prevent- 



ive, bat the large worms can only be 
destroyed by burning up the bowls or 
plants infested, so as to hinder the 
propagation of the creatures. Not- 
withstanding all these enemies, two 
million bales were raised in 1844. 

COTTON SEED. The seeds 
abound in a mild oO, and are very 
nutritious. A bushel weighs thirty 
pounds, and yields two and one third 
quarts of oil and twelve and a half 
pounds fine meal. They are used as 
food in the Levant and East. The 
proportion of oil is great, and readily 
obtained by pressure ; the cake can 
afterward be used with success in 
fattening, aod as a manure for new 
crops. To some extent, the whole 
seed is used for cows and fattening 
in the South, and is said to afibrd 
well-fiavoured milk. 

COTTON. SPECIAL MANURES. 
The application of calcareous marls 
in South Carolina has revived worn 
lands ; salt, also, in moderate quanti- 
ties, improves the culture, but bone 
earth will be the most serviceable. 
Rich lands, or those well manured, 
yield the heaviest supplies. By Dr. 
Shephard's analysis cotton wool con- 
tains one per cent., and the seed 3-85 
per cent, of ashes thus constituted -. 

V^ooL Seed. 

Lime and Mapneila . . SO'Sl — 29*79 

Potaah sad (Soda 7) . .31-09 — 19 40 

Phoaphorio acid . . . 13-30 — 45*35 

Sulphuric acid . , . 1-22 — 116 

64-93 9570 

COTTON DYEING. Cotton and 
linen have nearly the same affinity 
for dyes, and wiU be introduced to- 
gether here. Having been bleached, 
the first step is to prepare them to 
receive a good stain. Few colours 
unite at once to form a permanent 
dye, aod madder fret with oil is the 
most permanent. There are fivo 
methods by which cloths are prepa- 
red to retain colours. 

1st. GaUiTig. — Gall nuts or sumacht 
or a mixture, is prepared for this pur- 
pose. Two or three ounces of galls 
to one pound of cotton are coarsely 
powdered, put into a copper contain- 
ing thirty gallons of water for one 
hundred pounds of cotton, and boiled 
until the pieces of gall nut feel pasty. 

807 



COT 

The fire is removed, and the liquor 
l>assed through a hair sieve when 
moderately cool. A portion of the li- 
quor is then drawn into a bath, the 
yarn or cloth well soaked, wrung or 
pressed out, and spread to dry. Some 
fresh liquor is then added to the bath, 
and fresh cotton used. 

When sumach is used, doable the 
weight is added, and the liquor is 
merely infused in hot water, and not 
boiled. Where a mixture is used, 
the galls and sumach are prepared 
separately and the liquors mixed. 

2d. Aluming. — This preparation 
serves for very many colours. Four 
ounces of clean alum are used for 
every pound of cotton ; the solution 
is made in a copper of thirty gallons, 
at 122^ Fahrenheit, that amount of 
water serving for one hundred pounds 
of cotton. The cotton is introduced 
into the liquor when, at 98® Fahren- 
heit, well worked, taken out, and 
wrung or pressed, being placed to 
dry in the shade. Cotton usually re- 
quires a second, and even third im- 
mersion .before it is fully prepared ; 
it should be kept moist for twelve 
hours, and dipped only after two or 
three days from the preceding pro- 
cess. It must be well washed before 
colouring to remove any uncombined 
alum. This is so common a prepar- 
ation that dyers keep the solution in 
tuns to be drawn off and warmed 
when wanted. The mordant is some- 
times prepared for delicate colours by 
adding one ounce of carbonate of soda 
for every pound of the alum. Ace- 
tate of alumina prepared with sugar of 
lead, alum, and a little potash, is used 
to produce fine madder reds, weld 
yellows, and other brilliant colours : 
it is used cold, and at 4° BaumA. 

8d. Mordants. — These are solu- 
ble mineral bodies which possess a 
twofold affinity for the staple and the 
colour. Acetate of alunxina, and iron, 
and solution of tin are the most im- 
portant. They are applied to certain 
parts of the cloth to produce peculiar 
colours, and are also employed in 
different degrees of strength in solu- 
tion for the production of light or 
deep tints. Thus acetate of iron 

208 



COT 

with madder brings out every shade 
from pale violet to black. Henoe 
mordants are not only added by bath, 
but mixed in a paste with stareh or 
gum to hinder them from spreading 
over the surface of the web. In this 
way more is used than stains the 
cloth, and steps are to be taken afler 
the preparation is fixed to remove 
any part of the mordant that is on- 
combined ; this is done by scouring 
in a bath containing fresh cow-dung, 
which takes off the iron or alumina 
without allowing it to mix with oth- 
er parts of the web. The process is 
called dunging. 

4th. Dye baths are of two kinds.— 
Colour baths, which are used to ex- 
tract the colour, except in the case 
of madder, which is used in powder. 
Dye baths are the solutions in which 
the web or yam is pressed to attain 
a stain ; they usually require a heat 
of 90® to 100® Fahrenheit, although 
some are used cold. See the CbI- 
ours. 

5th. Washtngr after Dyeing. — ^This 
is a delicate operation, as the uni- 
formity of tint depends on it. ««A 
well -planned dye-house should be 
an oblong gallery, with a stream of 
water flowing in an open conduit in 
the middle, a series of dash wheels 
arranged against the wall at one side, 
and of dyeing coppers, furnished with 
self-acting winces or reels, against 
the other. The washing may be done 
by hand, by the rinsing machine, or 
dash wheel, according to the stufiT; 
and they may be stripped of the wft- 
ter either by the jack and pin, by the 
squeezing roller, or by the press. 
Wooden pins are placed in some dye- 
houses on each side the wash cistern 
or pool. They are somewhat coni- 
cal, one foot and ft half high, three 
inches and a half in diameter at the 
base, one inch and a half at the top, 
and fixed firmly upright, and at a lev- 
el of about three feet above the bot- 
tom of the cistern, so as to be handy." 
— ( Ure*s Encychpadia.) 

COTTON GRASS. Several spe- 
cies of Eriophorum have a small cot- 
tony tuft from their summits. They 
are of trifling importance. 



cow 



cow 



COTTON, WILD. The siBc weed 
{AMclepia* Syriaea). 

COTTOW WOOD. The Populvs 
Canadensis. See Pojdar. 

COTYLEDON. The seed lobes. 
jQssiea's followers divide the vegeta- 
ble kingdom according to the number 
of parts or cotyledons in any seed. 
Thus dicotyledons, or plants with two 
seed lobes, are the ordinary inhabi- 
tants of the temperate zone. Mono- 
cotyiedoHs are the palms, grasses, &o. , 
which are most luxuriant in tropical 
regions, and possess bnt one seed 
lobe. AcoiyUdons are the same with 
cryptogamic plants, and contain no 
apparent cotyledons. 

COUCH GRASS. Several varie- 
ties of repent grasses, with perennial 
stems, are so called, as Triticum re- 
fens, AgrosHs repensy dec. There is 
out one way to destroy them .* hoed 
crops, thorough ploughing, with a har- 
row to collect the fragments, and 
heavy liming or salting. 

COUGH. Horses and cattle troub- 
led with cough should be sheltered, 
bran and linc«ed oil administered, or 
the bowels moved : bleeding is occa- 
sionally necessary. 

COULTER. The knife of a plough. 
It is also a corruption of cultivator, 
and used to designate a one-pronged 
cultivator nsed in the South. 

COUNTER. The breast of a 
horse. 

COUPLES. Ewes and lambs are 
counted by couples. 

COUPLINGS. Thongs of leather 
to fasten two bodies together. 

COURT PLASTER. Silk, usual- 
ly of a black colour, rendered adhe- 
sive by the following mixture : one 
oonce of isinglass dissolved in the 
smallest quantity of water, and half 
an ounce of benzoin dissolved in al- 
eobol. This is brushed over ten or 
twelve times until a sufficient coat is 
1^. 

COVER. Any sheltered place in 
which g^po can lie hid. 

COVEY. A gang of partridges or 
other game. 

COW. «* One of the most useful of 
the domestic animals : her milk is 
peeuliaiiy ada^ited to nourish infants 

83 



and invalids, and requires no prepar- 
ation to make it palatable or whole- 
some. In the article Cattle we have 
given an enumeration of the various 
breeds of cows, and under Butter and 
Cheese an account of their principal 
produce. We shall here confine our- 
•selves to the proper management of 
a cow, so as to make her most pro- 
ductive, and to the most common dis- 
eases to which this animal is subject. 
" Where only one or two cows are 
kept, especially where they are to be 
maintained on a limited portion of 
pasture, it is of great importance that 
a good choice be made when they are 
purchased or reared. Some breeds, 
no doubt, are much superior to oth- 
ers ; but, as a general nile, there is a 
better chance of having a profitable 
cow, if she be reared on the land on 
which she is to be kept. When the 
common breed of the country is de- 
cidedly inferior, it may be profitable 
to bring a cow from a distance, in 
which case it should be from some 
district of which the pasture is rath- 
er inferior to that to which she is 
brought, or, at least, not better. The 
best breeds are found in the richest 
pastures, but they do not thrive on 
worse. On poor land a small active 
cow will pick her food and keep in 
condition, where a fine large cow 
would starve, or, at least, fall oflT rap- 
idly. This is particularly the case in 
the mountains, near the tops of which 
no domestic animal will live bnt the 
goat, and next to it the smallest breed 
of cows. Where the pastures are poor 
but extensive, cows give little milk, 
and the number which can be kept 
must make up for the produce of 
each. Where, on the other hand, 
cows are stalled, and fed on artificial 
food brought to them in sufficient 
quantity, large bulky cows give the 
best return for the food ; at least, this 
seems to be the opinion of the Flem- 
ish farmers in general. Where cows 
pick up the herbage growing by the 
road-side, in forests, or are teth- 
ered on a small portion of clover or 
lucem, a small lean cow is preferred ; 
and in general the cows commonly 
met with, and whi^di are bred in each 

209 



cow 

district, seem the best adapted for 
the mode in which they are fed. 
Whatever be the breed or quality of 
a cow, she should always have plen- 
ty of food, without which no consid- 
erable produce in milk can be expect- 
ed. This food should be succulent 
as well as nourishing, or else fat w^ill 
be produced instead of milk. A cow 
well fed may be safely milked till 
within a month of her calving. It is 
better that she should be diy before 
the new miJk begins to spring in her 
udder. A little attention wiU readi- 
ly prevent her becoming dry too soon, 
or being milked too long. Heifers 
with their first calf should be allow- 
ed to go dry sooner than older cows, 
because their growth would be impe- 
ded by the double drain of the milk 
and the calC It is best to let a heif- 
er go to the bull when nature prompts 
her to it, provided she be not less 
than fiAeen or eighteen months old ; 
for if they are thwarted in their first 
heat, they are apt to become irregu- 
lar ever after; and it is advanta- 
geous for a cow to calve regularly at 
the same season of the year. The 
best time is May, when the grass be- 
gins to be succulent. In populous 
places, where veal is considered a lux- 
ury, the calves are kept and fattened 
by letting them suck the cows, or by 
giving them warm milk to drink. 
Near large towns this is a profitable 
mode of employing the milk, when it 
cannot be sold for immediate con- 
sumption. 

" Her food must be raised in regu- 
lar succession, and cut for her. The 
earliest green food is rye, then clo- 
ver, which may be made so to suc- 
ceed each other as to give an ample 
supply. Cabbages, beet root, pars- 
nips, potatoes, and turnips will con- 
tinue the supply during winter, and 
the dung and urine of the cow, care- 
fully collected, will be sufficient to 
keep the land in condition. 

*• Where cows are allowed to be in 
the open air, with proper shelter in 
case of stormy and wet weather, 
they are subject to few diseases. 
Tboy must be carefully looked to at 
the time of calving, but except in ur- 
SIO 



OOW 

gent cases nature must be allowed 
to perform her own office. A little 
common sense and experience will 
soon teach the possessor of a cow to 
assist nature, if absolutely necessa- 
ry ; and in case of difficulties the 
safest way is to call in an experien- 
ced person. Brinks and medicine 
should be avoided ; a litUe warm wa- 
ter, with some barley or bean meal 
mixed with it, is the most comforta- 
ble drink for a cow after calving. 
The calf, and not the cow, should 
have the first milk, which nature has 
intended to purge its intestines of a 
glutinous substance which is always 
found in the new-born calf. A very 
common disease with cows is a dis- 
ordered function of the liver, pro- 
ducing a yellowish tint in the eyes, 
and sometimes in the skin. A gen- 
tle purge, consisting of half a pound 
of Glauber salts, an ounce of ginger, 
and two ounces of treacle, with two 
quarts of boiling water poured over 
them, may be given when it is milk- 
warm, and repeated every other day ; 
keeping the cow warm, if it be in 
winter, by a cloth over the loins, and 
in a shed. This will in general re- 
store her health. The symptoms of 
a diseased liver or lungs in a cow are 
leanness, with a staring coat, a husky 
cough with loss of appetite, a difficul- 
ty of breathing, and a great diminu- 
tion in the secretion of the milk. In 
accidents or acute diseases the at- 
tendance of the clever veterinary 
practitioner is indispensable. 

"Attention to food and exercise, 
giving the first regularly and in mod- 
erate quantities at a time, and allow- 
ing the cow to use her own judgment 
as to the latter, are the great secrets 
of health ; and a healthy young cow 
reared at home, or purchased of a 
conscientious dealer, will probably 
live to old age without ever having 
had any disease. A cow is old and 
unprofitable when she reaches twelve 
or fourteen years." 

C W A GE. The Dolichos pruricns, 
the pods of which are set with small 
bristles, which produce great irrita- 
tion on the skin. It is an exploded 
remedy for worms, and exotic. 



COWISH.orBlSCUITROOT. A 
kind of potato foiiDd on the Colum- 
bia River. 

COW PEA, The Soutbern bean. 

COWPOX. In faniery, a dis- 
ease aSecting tbe teata of cowa. 
Thia disease appears in the form of 
bidbU blDiab vesicles surrounded by 
indainniatioii, elevated at the edge 
and depreased in the centre, and cnn- 
taioing a licapid fluid. By the use of 
the viruB«rihia diseaae baa origina- 
ted the pressnt excelleat system of 



COW-TIE. A provincial term ap- 
plied ro a eiicit. thick hair rope, with 
a wooden nut at one end and an eye 
in tbe other, being used for tying the 
hind legs of the cows while milking. 
, COW WHEAT. A very inferior 
herbage plant of Flanders (Melaaipii- 
nim prtitiut), witti light yellow flow- 
ers (•06 fignTty 



CRAB. Ttie Earopean crab-apple 
la the /'yru malut ; it is larger and 
tarter than ours, which is the P. co- 
rmoria, an ornamental tree of fifteen 
or eighteen feot. The American crab 
fumishea good Blocks for dwarfs, and 
the fruit makes cidei. It would alao 
fumieb new varieties if cultivated. 

CRACKS IN THE HEELS OF 
HORSES. See Hone. 

CRADLE. A frame oooBiating of 
five or BMie long airipB of wood, prop- 



CRA 

erly curved aad bound together, to ba 
affixed to a scythe for cutting wheal, 
&c. The labourer cuts with a cradle 
live or six times more than wilh a 

CRANBERRY. The Oi^rocnu 
macrocarjnu, a bog plant in the North 
and West, yielding a large, acid, red 
berry, containing lualate of lime. In 
preserves and tarts it ia highly es- 
teemed, and there is an immenao de- 
mand for Bhipping and exportation. 
They are readily cultivated by Iraiia- 
planting, in spring, the cranberry sods, 
or selecting plants and iranaferriog 
Lhemloaligblsoil.rathermoigl. The 
mnners can be laytrei, or seed sown 
in spring. They grow rapidly, cover- 
ing nearly everything, and are but liu 
tie subject to the atucks of rnsecla. 
The plants are set about IB inches 
" lart, in rows, and kept clean at first. 
The yield mcreases for several 
years, snd becomes aa great as 400 
bushels the acre in live years, al- 
though 300 are a good average. The 
fruit 13 gathered by rakes, which serve 
to prune the plants at the same time. 
When the berries are intended for 
keeping, they should be rolled over a 
gently inclined plane of wood, to re- 
move such as are aoll or rotle^. 
They keep well for a year in tight 
casks, filled wilh water and headed 
close. A barrel of four bushels in 
England sells readily for 930. The 
freah fruit cammanda 81 SO tbe bush- 
el in New- York. 

Several variclics of tall cranbeny 
are found in tlis United States ; as 
the Viburnum axycoccui, and the Pom- 
h'lu Of Oregon ; but they are not cul- 
tivated, the first being unlit for the 
Uble. 

The English Oxycoccat paluttrii is 
said by Nicol to be aupiirior to the 
icrican ; it is readily cultivated on 
margins of ponds, and might be in- 
troduced into the United States. 
CRANK. " A mechanical contri- 
ince for changing a revolring into 
I alternate motion. An iron axis la 
^nt in some part of its length out of 
its rectilinear direction. Aa the axia 
turns, the bent part describes the cir- 
cumferenoe of a circle, and gives a 
311 



ORE 

reciprocating motion to a piston or 
rod attached to it." 

CRASSAMENTUM. The clot of 
blood ; fibrin, with red globules. 

CREAM. The oleaginous part of 
milk, mixed with some casein. 

CREASOTE (from KpeacJUshy <ru- 
^o, / gave). A colomrless, spiritu- 
ous, and oily liquid obtained from 
wood tar. It is singularly antiseptic, 
imparting that propert}r to smoke, 
wood tar, &c. It is of great price, 
and used chiefly to subdue toothache. 

CREMOCARPIUM. Atwotofive 
celled inferior fruit, cells one-seeded, 
indehiscent, dry. When dry, separa- 
ting from a common axis, as in the 
Umbellifera. 

CRENATE. The edges of leaves, 
which are divided into curved notch- 
es, are called crenate. 

CREPITUS. A crackling noise 
produced by pressing cellular tissue 
containing air. 

CRESS. Lepidium gativum. A 
small salad herb similar to mustard. 
It is sown thickly in drills and cot in 
the first leaf. For* a supply, sow 
every week in good, clean ground. 

CRESS, INDIAN. Tropaolumtna^ 
juM; Common nasturtium. A brill- 
iant yellow-flowered climbing plant, 
the fruit of which resembles capers. 
Sow in April, in good, strong soil and 
open situation ; put out in rows, al- 
lowing three inches between each : 
set sticks for them to climb. They 
flower in June and July. The fruit, 
which is admirable for pickling, is ta- 
ken when full sized, but green, about 
August. They are put in vinegar or 
a suitable pickle as soon as gathered. 
They require little attention when 
once fairly started. 

CRESS, WATER. NoMturtvumof- 
ficinale. A creeping, amphibious per- 
ennial, indigenous in England. It is 
of an agreeable flavour, and relish- 
ed for breakfast. It is cultivated on 
clear streams one or two inches deep, 
with a sandy or gravelly bed. The 
plants are set along the stream in 
TOWS about 18 inches apart. They 
grow readily, and bear cutting very 
often. If planted near a spring head, 
they live through winter and remain 

218 



CRO 

for many years, affbrdiilg a great 
quantity of salad. 

CRETACEOUS (from ereta, ekM), 
Of the nature of chalk. 

CRIB. A feeding-stall, or store- 
house for com. 

CRIB BITING. A habit in horws 
proceeding from derangement of the 
stomach usually. Straps are used 
to hinder it, but if the top of the man^ 
ger be furnished with a ri^er turn- 
ing on its axis, they will not be able 
to bite much of it away. 

CRICK. A common term signify- 
ing inability to move the musc&s of 
the part, as the neck. 

CRICKET. A family of insects 
reeembling grasshoppers, bnt with 
less perfect wings. The Gryllotalpa 
brevipennU burrows like a mole, and, 
with other kinds, lives on the tender 
roots of grasses, dtc. They do injury 
to melons, pumpkins, dus., and some- 
times accumulate in old meadows so 
as to require extermination. Several 
Achetat as the A. nigra and ahhnma^ 
toj are abundant, dwelling among 
grass. They are only to be destroyed 
by liming, fallows, and hoed crops. 

CRINOIDEANS. A nearly extinct 
race of crustaceous sea animals re- 
sembling a lily. The fossils abound in 
some limestones, as that of Lockport. 

CRISTATE (from «ep«f, a horn). 
Having the appearance of a horn, or 
crest. 

CROP OUT. In geology, the ex- 
posure of rocks above the surface. 

CROPPING. Gathering a crop. 
Cutting the ears of animals, as dog^. 

CROP, ROTATION OF. See Jto- 
tation. 

CROPS. The produce of the field. 

CROSS BREED. The young of 
animals of diflferent breeds. Some- 
times called a eros9. 

CROSS FURROW. A water-fur- 
row running across the ridges or 
lands. It is often deepened with a 
spade, and opened with a double- 
mould-board plough. 

CROTALUS. A genus of snakes, 
including the C. horridusi or rattle- 
snake. They are all furnished with 
a rattle, and their wounds are ex- 
tremely dangerous. An instant ex- 



CBO 

oision of the part is the most certain 

remedy. Spirits of hartshorn and 
wine are necessary to saye the pa- 
tient from sinking. 

CROTON OIL. An extremely ac- 
tive purge, obtained from the seeds of 
the CroUm tigUum, an Eastern shrab. 

CROUP. An acute inflammation 
of the throat and windpipe, attended 
with a BhriU wheezing and suffoca- 
tion, occanin^ in chiAren. It runs 
its coarse rapidly, and must be treat- 
ed with decision. Bleeding, leeches, 
external irritations, and large doses 
ofcalomel are most successful. Hogs 
are subject to this disease, and are 
to be tieated similarly, blood being 
drawn freely from the neck, by cut- 
ting to the jngular vein. 

CROW. Conms corane. Too well 
known to require description. The 
crow is a remarkably intelligent and 
suspicious bird, but easily domestica- 
ted, and may be rendered useful on 
the farm. He destroys insects, mice, 
rats, and small vermin, but, unfor- 
tunately, also delights in chickens, 
eggs, and com. His suspicious na- 
ture renders it an easy matter to keep 
him from fields by scarecrows and 
moveable objects. Com steeped in 
stupifyiog drags, as hellebore, or in 
tar and nitre, either destroy him or 
are rejected. Martins are well known 
to annoy the crow. Bufibn prescribes 
two carious methods of destroying 
them : Ist. By wrapping a piece of 
paper in the form of a long cone, 
smearing the interior with birdlime, 
and placing a piece of meat in the 
bottom : the crow, reaching after it, 
fits the cone to his head, ana becomes 
blinded ; in this dilemma he flies 
straight upward into the air, until, 
becoming fatigued, he alights nearly 
at the spot whence he had flown, 
and may be shot. The second meth- 
od is that of pinning a live crow to 
the ground by the wings, stretched 
out on his back, and retained in this 
posture by two sharp, forked sticks. 
In this situation, his loud cries at- 
tract other crows, who come sweep- 
ing down to the prostrate prisoner, 
and are grappled in his claws. In 
this way each successive prisoner 



CRU 

may be made the innocent means of 
capturing his companions. 

CROWSFOOT. Several species 
of ranunculast which are acrid and 
poisonous. 

CROWS' NET. A net made of fine 
packthread, used chiefly for catching 
wild fowl, but which may be employ- 
ed on newly-sown fields to entrap 
crows, pigeons, and other birds that 
destroy grain, or in stubble, where 
this is sufliciently long to conceal 
the network. 

CROWN OF A LAND. Thecen- 
tral part of the ridge. 

CRUCIBLE. A chemical vessel 
used to expose bodies to a strong 
heat. For coarse purposes, the Hes- 
sian cracible, made of sand and clay, 
is used. Porcelain crucibles are ne- 
cessary for finer work, and where 
the platinum will not answer, but are 
'destroyed by fixed alkalies. The 
platinum cmcible is the finest, from 
the ease with which it may be clean- 
ed and managed, but is unfit for the 
treatment of lead, arsenic, mercury, 
and a few other metals which alloy 
with platinum. A black-lead cmcible 
is used for coarse work, and resists 
a stronger heat than the Hessian. 

In delicate operations the platinum 
cracible is placed within another of 
coarse porcelain, or in a muflle. 

CRUCIFORM, or CRUCIFER^ 
OUS PLANTS. Crucifera (from 
crvx, a cross). Plants which have a 
flower consisting of four petals, ar- 
ranged as a Maltese cross, as the 
cabbage, cress, turnip, mustard, rad- 
ish, dtc. They require rich land, are 
wholesome, abound in pungent oil, 
and when grown for seed are ex- 
tremely exhausting. They are es- 
sentially sulphur and potash, or soda 
plants. 

CRUOR. The clot of blood. 

CRUPPER The horse's rump; 
the leather harness which passes un- 
der the tail. 

CRURAL (from crus, the thighy 
Belonging to the thigh or leg. 

CRUSHERS FOR GRAIN, &c. 
Mortars, mills on the same prinoi' 
pie as the coffee mill, bark mills, and 
grooved rollers running into one an- 

213 



otbCT (I'lg-), are Tariously used ta 
crash corn, corn cobe, and ntots, 

CRUSTACEANS {from cmitit. a 
hard a/ctring). A tribe of Bnimals 
like crabs, lobslere,&c. , with a crust, 
anddestitute of Tertebrre, Thecruat 
contains fourteen per cent, of phos- 
phate of lime; the rest, carbonate of 
lime and animal matter. 

CRYPTOGAMIA (from upvtniK, 
conccalid, and ™jo(, tiuirriagc). An 
immense tribe of plants, which have 
no flowers or apparent sexual organs, 
but produce Mpinvin or minute seeds 
in cases on their sides, backs, or on 
atalks. Ferns, mosses, fungi, sea- 
weeds, licheDB, and the minute para- 
sites which infest plants and dead 
wood, as rnst, mildew, rnbigo, &c., 
are of tliis tribe. 

CRYSTAL (from .pvarrO-loc. ice). 
Any trsnaparent solid with a natural 
and regular geometrical figure. 

CRYSTALLINE LENS. The 
lens of the eye. which refracts light. 
BO as to produce clear vision, it is 
Bitnated intemall)'. behind the aque- 
ous humour. 

CUCUMBER. Cw™™* #o(i»u». 
A pleasant but indigestible edible. 
The varieties are numerous, but the 
early frame, early green cluster, long 
prickly, and long green are most cul- 
tivated. The West Indian gherkin 
is another species. 



As the cacumber grows so freely 
in the United States, the process of 
forcmg is much more attended to for 
early supplies than in Eumpe. 

Forcing. — Begin ten weeks befoTO 
the fruit is warned. The short prick- 
ly, long green, and white-spined are 
preferred. Seed should be two or 
three years old. Suw in pots placed 
over a warm bed. Water with tepid 
water, and take care that chilled air 
does not enter the frame. When Iha 
second leaves are expanded, trans- 
plant into larger pots ; place three 
together.- Carry, when one month 
old, to the fraiting-bed. The fruiting- 
bed is made on a dry spot, with fresh 
dung, well turned and forked, end 
four feet high. As soon as the bed 
is settled, and in regular fermenta- 
tion, add six inches of fine mould, 
and if it reinBins mellow ii wilt an- 
swer, hut if flre-fnnged or caked, 
more will be necessary. Hill the 
mould to within eight inches of ihe 
glass frame, and set three plants from 
the pots in it, transplanting with the 
ball of earth : these are enough for 
one frame. Water with wanned wa- 
ter, and darken until they are well 
rooted. The temperature is kept 
from TO" to 80" Fahrenheit, the steam 
being allowed to escape when it riace. 
As the heat lessens, add Oesh dung 
outside, cutting away the old. Fonu 



cue 



CUL 



a bank two feet wide and a foot hfgh 
against the back of the frame. Give 
the plants air whenever an opportu- 
nity offers. Water in the morning. 
Sometimes water in which guano or 
bird dang has been steeped is used. 
As the roots enlarge, add fresh, good 
mould. 

Stop the growth of the stems by 
pinching off the buds at two joints, 
and in this way keep stopping the 
lateral shoots ; this strengthens the 
plant and causes it to perfect fruit 
early. Mind that some female flow- 
ers are left, or such as have solid 
swellings under the blossom, for these 
only bear fruit. Abercrombie thinks 
it advisable to pluck the made blos- 
som and shake it over the female, for 
the purpose of securing' a fall of pol- 
len or farina. The fruit is fit to cut 
16 to SO days after setting, and by 
care may be obtained in succession 
for two months. 

Common Cultivation. — Sow in May 
in slight hollows, four feet apart ; 
manure the seed beds well with rot- 
ten dung : eight or nine seed to the 
hill. Leave three plants in the hill ; 
hoe and earth up ; cut away weeds ; 
a iittle water m dry weather does 
good. ' The soil should be light and 
mellow. Pickling cucumbers may be 
planted in July. Select the finest for 
seed^ The fmit is sometimes made 
to grow in cylindrical moulds of pot- 
xery. 

Insecta injurious to the Cueumbery 
Melon, ^^.^—The Mtriped bug'. Gale- 
ruca vilata. It eats the young foliage 
and flowers ; it is yellow, striped with 
black. 

The Flea Beetle. Haltiea pubescent. 
A small, black, active coleopterous in- 
sect, which destroys the small plants. 
Xke Squash Bug. Coreua tristis. A 
large angular hemipterous insect with 
brown upper wings and orange belly, 
collecting in groups under the fruit, 
and destroying the leaves and fruit 
of ail the cultivated cucurbitaeete. 

The black Worm. The larva of a 
coccinella ; it cuts down the young 
plants, and can only be caught in the 
morning, as it retires into the earth 
daring the heat of the day. 



Several species of aphis annoy the 
plants. The large insects must be 
caught in nets or with the hand ; soot, 
tobacco water, solution of ivhale oil 
soap ; infusion of wormwood. May- 
weed, pennyroyal ; and slacked lime, 
are all used with advantage. Placing 
hens or turkeys with young broods in 
a coop, and allowing the chickens to 
run among the vines, is an admirable 
expedient. All the foregoing insects 
infest melons, cucumbers, and squash- 
es also. 

CUCUMBER-TREE. Some mag- 
nolias are so called. 

CUCUMIS. The generic name of 
the cucumber, melon, dec. 

CUCURBITACE^. A family of 
plants^ mostly vines, rooncecious, with 
inferior fruit, inhabiting warm coun- 
tries. The melon, pumpkin, cucum- 
ber, gourd, squash, colocynth, and bry- 
ony are common examples. 

CUD. In cattle, the food in the 
first stomach, which is to be chewed 
over again and passed into the third 
to be digested. 

CULEX. A genus of insects in- 
cluding the gnat (C. pipiens) and sim- 
ilar creatures : it is the type of the 
Culicidee, which contains moscheloee, 

CULINARY VEGETABLES. 
Plants cultivated in gardens, and 
sometimes in fields, for culinary pur- 
poses. They may be classed as leaf 
plants, such as the cabbage tribe, spi- 
naceous plants, salads, pot and sweet 
herbs ; stalk plants, such as aspara- 
gus, tart rhubarb, sea kale, 6cc. ; 
roots, such as the turnip, carrot, po- 
tato, &c. ; seeds, such as the pea and 
bean; fruit, such as the cucumber, 
pumpkins, squashes, dec. ; and the 
entire plants, such as the onion, leek, 
mushroom, dtc. They may be other- 
wise arranged, as the cabbage fami- 
ly ; the leguminous family ; esculent 
roots ; spinaceous plants ; alliaceous 
plants; asparaginous plants; aceta- 
rious plants ; pot herbs, sweet herbs, 
plants used in tarts and confection- 
ery, and edible fungi. 

GULLET. Pounded glass. It is 
used in glass-making, for scouring pa- 
per, and as a manure. It consists of 

816 



CUL 

ailicato of BOda aad lead, and is piob- 
abl7 oTBr-eatimated aa a maiiuru. 

CULM. Stems which, like the 
•trawof grain. Buslatn the flower* at 
a dtBtanee rrom ihe leaves. It is also 
luied as a syaonyaie for anthracite in 
Enetand. 

CULMIFEROUS PLANTS. Tha 
cerealia and grasBea. 

CULTIVATOR, The same as a 
horao hoe. CultiTaiors consiat of 
oae hoe or tine, or many. They are 
used to loosen the BOil in drill hua- 
baodTT, end pasa where the plousli 
would be too cumbrous. They alao 
destroy weeda by aeraping Ihem from 
the BUTface and cutting tbeir roots. 
The tinea are of every forai, either 
curved forward like a daw, made 



CCL 

liko a doable niould-baui] ia ntfoia- 

luro, long and aharp, or like aharp' 

farmer. The frame on which they 
are faatened ia like a triangular bar- 
row, and capable of being widened 
at pleasure. The several kinds of 
tinea should be purchased with the 
frame, ao as to be inserted into tbe 
mortices when wanted. 

Bemtal't and Van Btrgem't culti- 
vators are well known in the Nor- 
thern States. In Virginia, a strong 
one-line, or coulter, ia used to prepare 
new land. Tlie following figotee rep- 
resent simple hoes aud the moat im- 
proved : they are all without patent, 
being English or Scotch implements. 

In F^. 1 the hoe is intended for 




pai«- 1 of the hoe. Fig. 3 is ased to scraps 



 wide surface, and ia valuable in 
weeding ; the iron blade {h) inclines 
downward, so aa to cut the soil. 
Theae can be made in any village. 

Fig-. 3 represents Wnr'» admirable 
cnltivalor of nine coulters, or haea : 
it may be used to stir the soil or to 
opm drills. Tbe beam (a) moves on 
the soj^Tt (c), so as to regulate the 
depth of the hoea. 

WilkU't horse hoe and drill har- 
row {Fig. 4) is alBo a favourite im- 
plementj the Grat three hoes are so 
Gzed aa ta open drills, and the tines 
SIS 



fbeel. 

Finlayton'i cleaning cultivator or 
harrow {Fig. 6) ia entirely of iron ; it 
has the following advantages : 

"1. From the position in which 
the tinea arc Rxed, their points (9, a, 
a, a. a) hanging nearly on a parallel 
to the surface of tbe land, it follows 
that this implement is drawn with the 
leaat possible waste of power. 3. 
From tha curved form of the tinea, 
all stubble, couch, &c., that the tines 



CULTIVATOR. 




w mail; adjusted to work at aay i by moring tb4 ngalaior (<) upward 
depthreqniradTendenit oT treat Tal- or downward between the lateral 
ue 1 tbia is done aa quick nt (liought i spring (d, t) ; and by each a 



CUL 



CUP 



upward into the openings (J, g, A, t, k) 
the fore tines (/, /, /, will be allow- 
ed to enter the soil about an inch and 
a half deeper by each movement into 
the different spaces, until the regu- 
lator is thrown up to e, when the 
harrow is given its greatest power, 
and will then be working at the depth 
of eight or nine inches. Also, the 
axletree of the hind wheels is moved 
between o and p, a space of seven or 
eight inches, by a screw through the 
axletree, which is turned by a small 
handle (9), so that the hind part of 
the harrow, by this simple mode, is 
also regulated to the depth at which 
it is found necessary to work. 4. 
When the harrow is drawn to the 
head or foot lands, the regulator is 
pressed down to i, and the fore wheel 
(m) is then allowed to pass under the 
fore bar (n), by which the nose of 
the harrow is lifted, and the points 
of the fore tines {I, I, /, t) will then 
be taken two or three inches out of 
the soil, which afibrds the means of 
turning the harrow with the greatest 
facility. -6. Being made of malleable 
iron, its durability may be said to be 
endless ; whereas, if made of wood, 
the prime cost would be entirely lost 
at the end of every five or six years. 
Lastly, the mode of working is so 
easy, that any boy of ten or twelve 
years of age is perfectly qualified to 
manage it." 

Cultivators are occasionally called 
grubbers, scarifiers, harrows, &.C., ac- 
cording to the figure of the tines. 

Several broad share cultivators for 
Indian corn, beans, dtc, have been 
recently brought out by Mr. Langdon, 
which clean a large surface, and, at 
the same time, pulverize the soil 
without penetrating deep enough to 
disturb the growing roots. They re- 
semble double mould-board ploughs. 

CULVERT. " An arched channel 
ef maRonry built beneath the bed of 
a canal, for the purpose of conduct- 
ing water under the canal. If the 
water to be conveyed has nearly the 
same level as the canal, the culvert 
is bttiH in the form of an inverted si- 
phon, and acts on the principle of a 
water pipe. This word also signifies 

218 



any arched channel for water under 
ground." 

CUMIN. CunUftum cyminum. A 
plant cultivated in Sicily for its bitter 
aromatic seeds : used in confections^ 
and to flavour cheese. It is umbel- 
liferous ; requires a dry, rich soil ; 
bears the second year, and does not 
differ in its management from cori- 
ander. 

CUNEATE, CUNEIFORM (from 
cunetu, a tpedge). Used in botany, 
to describe any surface which is an* 
gular, with the length considerably 
exceeding the width. 

CUPEL. " A shallow earthen ves- 
sel, somewhat of a cup shape, gener- 
ally made of bone earth. It is used 
in the assays of the precious metals, 
which are fused upon a cupel with 
lead. Cupellation means the refining 
of gold or silver upon a cupel." 

CUPPING. In this operation a 
cup-shaped glass is used, mto which 
the large flame of a spirit lamp is 
momentarily introduced, so as to ex- 
pel a great part of its air by dilata- 
tion ; it is then instantly applied to 
some part of the body, which is for- 
ced into it by the external pressure ; 
and on removing the glass a circular 
red mark is left, from the propulsion 
of the blood in the small vessels of 
the part : this is called dry cupping. 
It is generally followed up by making 
a number of incisions in the part by 
means of an instrument called a sear 
ijicatorf from which the blood oozes» 
and from which a considerable por- 
tion may be drawn by again applying 
the cupping glass. Cupping, when 
well performed, is not a very painful 
or disagreeable operation, and is an 
excellent mode of local blood-letting. 
When the operator is not dexterous* 
it is not only painful, but often dan- 
gerous in its consequences. The 
bleeding may generally be easily stop- 
ped by a piece of lint or soft rag ; 
but this should be looked after. — 
{Brande's Encyclopedia.) 

CUPULIFERiE {from cupa, a cup). 
A natural order of arborescent or 
shrubby exogenous plants, inhabiting 
aU temperate and some hot climates. 
They are distinguished by thehr amen- 



CUR 



CUT 



taceons flowers and peculiarly veined 
leaves from all European trees ; and 
from other plants by their apetalous 
cilvx, fruit enclosed in a busk or cup ; 
and by their nuts, which contain but 
one cell and one or two seeds. This 
order comprehends the oak, hazel, 
beech, chestnut, and hornbeam, well- 
hiown valuable forest trees. 

CURACOA. A liqueur which de- 
rives its name from the island of Cu- 
ncoa : it is prepared in great per- 
fection by the Dutch. It derives its 
ilavuar from Seville orange pe^, with 
a small quantity of cinnamon and 
mace. 

CURCULTO. A general term in 
the United States for the coleopter- 
ous insects which devour fruits, or the 
^rvas of which do so. They are par- 
ticularly destructive to plums, apri- 
cots, aqd peaches, as well as nuts. 
Tue introduction of poultry into the 
orchard, especially hens in coops with 
broods, hogs, paving the ground, sha- 
king the trees, and other expedients, 
are used. Destroying every fruit 
which they cause to ^1 is useful. 
3ut suitable attention to the trees, 
scraping, cleaning with suds, solution 
of soft soap and whale oil soap, are 
quite effective. See Insecu. 

CURD. The coagulum of milk. 

CURL. ^ disease of potatoes, 
which see. ^ 

CURRANT. The white and red 
are improved varieties of Ribes ru- 
hrum, the blacks from R. nigrum. 
The most esteemed kinds are the 
Dutch red and white, white crystal. 
Champagne, and black Naples. It is 
propagated by slips, layers, suckers, 
grailiog, and seeds. A warm, loamy, 
rich soU is best ; they thrive in free 
exposures. They bear on two and 
three years' spurs ; in pruning, cut 
down new shoots U> within three 
eyes of the starting place. They 
should be kept open, suckers remo- 
ld, and not be allowed to branch 
too low: four feet apart is a good 
distance for bearing shrubs. The 
ourrant is very healthy, but subject 
to many caterpillars, aphides, &c., 
which must be destroyed by slacked 
lime, and keeping the branches clean 



by a syringe. The fruit makes admi- 
rable jelly, wine, and is readily kept. 

CURRYING. The preparation ot 
leather by which it is polished and 
rendered soft. See Tanning. 

CUSCUTA. The generic name of 
the dodders. 

CUSPIDATE (from cuspU, apoini). 
Pointed, a term used in descriptive 
botany. 

CUSTARD APPLE. A West In- 
dian fruit, the Anona reticulata. 

CUT. An incision, best treated 
with sticking-plaster oidy. 

CUTANEOUS (from etuis, the 
tkin\ Relating to the skin. 

CUTICLE. The external delicate 
membrane of the trae skin ; the epi- 
dermis of plants. 

CUT WORM. This name is ap- 
plied to any caterpillar dwelling m 
the earth, which eats or cuts away 
young plants of cabbage, corn, beans, 
dec. They are naked, of a greasy 
appearance, and ashy green ; are only 
seen above ground before sunrise or 
in cloudy weather. They abound in 
lands which are rich, and h^ve re- 
mained in grass or clover for a long 
time, and are referred chiefly to the 
genus Agro9ti$, especially A, ntffusa, 
latau, Uafera, but are also the worms 
of other genera. The moths are 
large, and of various shades of pink 
and brown : they are formed in July 
and August. 

Means of destroying them. — Soak 
ing seeds does no good in this case, 
lurking soot, tobacco, ashes, lime, 
and other noxious substances into 
the soil around the plants answers 
on a smalt scale. Picking them be- 
fore sunrise is recommended, but is 
very tedious ; young chickens would 
assist. Wrapping the leaves of oth- 
er plants about young cabbages, <Scjc., 
has also answered. But when the 
soil is Infested With these creatures, 
it is best to add a good salting of 15 
or 20 bushels the acre, or 60 bush- 
els of fresh lime ; expose it to frost 
in the fall, and give the worms no 
rest by frequent stirring of the earth. 

CUTTING. When a horse cuts 
or wounds one leg with the opposite 
foot. The best remedy is to put on 

^\9 



CYN 

tbe cutting foot a shoe of even thick- 
ness from heel to toe, not projecting 
in the slightest degree bejond the 
crust, and the crust itself to be rasp- 
ed a little at the quarters. This shoe 
should only have one nail on the in- 
side, and that almost close to the toe. 
—{Library of UtefiU Knowledge.) 

CYANITE (from Kvavoct blue). A 
massive and crystallized mineral It 
has a pearly lustre, is translucent, 
and of yarious shades of blue : it is 
a silicate of alumina, with a trace of 
oxide of iron. Only found in primi- 
tive rocks. 

CYANOGEN (from icvcvor, Mw^, 
and yiyvofuUf I form). A gas which 
burns with a blue flame, the bicarburet 
of nitrogen ; it is a compound radi- 
cal, forming acids with oxygen {cyan- 
ic) and hydrogen {hydrocyanic or jrrus- 
tic). The gas is poisonous : it com- 
bines directly with many metals, 
forming cyanides. 

CYANURIC ACID. A product of 
the action of heat on urea, formu- 
la Ci, Ne Oe. 

CYCADE^ (from CycoM, a genus 
of plants). A small family of dwarf 
palms which are gymnospermous. 
Phe Cyeas circinalis yields sago. 

CY(5lX)SIS (from kvkJloc, a eircU). 
A circulation of the elaborated sap in 
the higher plants in delicate anasta- 
mosing vessels. The latex circula- 
(ion. 

C YDONIA. The generic name of 
the quince-tree. 

CYLINDER (from kvXivSo, I roll). 
A solid, the height of which exceeds 
the diameter, which is constant ; it 
offers a circular section at every part 
when made at right angles to the axis. 
As stacks are often nearly cylindrical, 
their contents may be discovered by 
the formula for a cylinder : the solid 
contents are equal to the height mul- 
tiplied into the area of the base or 
section. 

CYME. An inflorescence: the 
flower stems spring from one part, but 
are afterward variously subdivided. 

CYNARACEiE. Plants like the 
artichoke, thistle, &c., with the flow- 
ers induded in a scaly eapUuluntf also 
called a cynarocephahu. 
220 



DAI 

CYNIPS. A genns of hyiaeno^ 
terous insects without stings. Thefr 
insert their eggs in parts of living 
trees, causing tumours, of which the 
gall nut is a specimen. 

CYNOSURUS. Agenusofgrasi- 
es, of which the C. crittatua is ooi- 
sidered a good sheep grass. S<e 
Grasses. 

CYPERACEiE (from Cypems, I 
^nns). The tribe of plants consist 
mg of rushes, sedges, and other mardb 
grasses without nodes or joints. 
They are of trifling value ; the Cy^ 
rvs esculenhts of Italy furnishes a 
sweet nut or tuber. 

CYPRESS-TREE. Cupressw 
sempervirens. A hardy shrub, a na* 
tive of the Levant, growins from fif 
teen to twenty feet high, whtcb 
throws out yellow blossoms in Ma/. 
Its wood is red, very hard, and swee^ 
scented. It likes a good soil, its 
wood, from being sonorous, is used 
for harps, violins, and other musical 
instruments. Worms never attack 
it.— (FAt/Ztp»* Shrub., vol. i., p. 188; 
M'CuUoch's Com. Diet.) 

CYmESSES, AMERICAN. See 
Cedar. 

CYPSELA (from tcvrffeXn, a bee- 
hive). A one-celled, one-seeded, is* 
dehiscent fruit. An Aehimum. 

CYSTIC (from xiwr <c, a bag or blad- 
der). Appertaining to the bladder. 
Cystic oiuUy a rare ingredient in uri- 
nary calculL 

D. 

DACTYLIS. A genus of grasses, 
of which D. glameraia, orchard or 
cock*s-foot, is the only important spe- 
cies. See Grasses. « 

DAIRY. '* The name Qsnally given 
to the place where the milk of cows 
is kept and converted into butter or 
cheese. 

** A dairy-h^se should be sitnated 
on a dry spot somewhat elevated, on 
the side of a gentle declivity, and on 
a porous soil. It shouki be on the 
west or northwest side of a lull if 
possible, or, at least, sheltered IVom 
the north, east, and south by high 
trees. In some countries where there 
are natural caverns with an opening 



DAIRY. 



to the west, and springs of water at 
haDd, the beat and coolest dairies are 
ihus prepared by nature. Artificial 
excavations in the sides of freestone 
rodu are sometimes formed for the 
purpose of keeping milk. Where no 
such natural advantages exist, the 
requisite coolness in summer, and 
equal temperature in winter, which 
are essential in a good dairy, may be 
obtained by sinking the floor of the 
dairy some feet under ground, and 
forming an arched roof of stone or 
brick. In cold climates floes around 
the dairy are a great advantage in 
winter; and an ice-house in ^rm 
smnmers is equally useful. But these 
are only adapted to those dairies 
which are kept more as a luxury than 
as an object of profit. Coolness is 
also produced bv the evaporation of 
water, an abundant supply of which 
is essential to every daiiy. It is-also 
a great advantage if a pure stream 
eanbe made to pass through the dai- 
ry, with a current of air to carry off 
any effluvia, and keep the air contin- 
nally renewed. 

« As the milk suffers more or less 
from being agitated, or too much 
cooled, before it is set for the cream 
to rise, the cow-house or milking- 
place should be as near as possible 
to the dairy, or, rather, it should be 
under the same roof. The milk may 
then be brought immediately from 
the cows without being exposed to 
the outer air. The dahry-house should 
consist of three distinct apartments 
below, with lofts and cheese-cham- 
bers above. The principal place is 
Uie dairy, properly so called, sunk 
two or three feet below the level of 
the ground, with a stone or brick 
bench or table round three sides of it 
to hold the milk pans. This table 
should be a little below the level 
of the outer soil. Airholes covered 
with wire should be made in the walls 
a little above, and on the opposite 
sides of the dairy ; and they should 
have shutters sliding over them to 
open or shut, according to the weath- 
er. The floor should be of stone or 
paving tiles, sloping gently towards 
a drain to carry off the water. Great 

T 2 



care should be taken that no water 
stagnates in this drain, which must 
be kept as clean as the floor of the 
dairy, and not communicate with any 
sink, bat run out into the open air : a 
declivity from the dairy is essential 
for this purpose. If this cannot be ob- 
tained. It must run into an open tank, 
and the water be regularly pumped 
out. The windows of the dairy should 
be latticed. Glazed windows may be 
added for the winter, but they should 
always be open except in very hot or 
very cold weather. There may be 
shutters to close entirely, but this is 
not essential. If the windows are 
made like Venetian blinds, the light 
will be excluded without excluding 
the air. The utmost purity must be 
maintained in the air of a dairy; 
nothing should enter it that can pro- 
duce the slightest smeU. No cheese 
or rennet should be kept in it ; and 
particularly no meat, dressed or ^in- 
dressed. Even the dairy-maid should 
avoid remaining longer in it than is 
necessary, and should at all times be 
extremely clean in her person. 

" The next important place is a kind 
of wash-house, in which there is a 
chimney where a large copper kettle 
hangs on a crane to heat water in, or 
milk when cheese is made. Where 
wood is scarce, and pit-coal is the 
common fuel, a copper may be set in 
brick- work with a grate under it. In 
this place all the utensils of the dairy 
are kept, and scalded with boiling 
water every day. It should have an 
outer door, which may be to the south, 
and benches outside, on which the 
pails and other utensils may be set 
to dry and be exposed to the air. 
Between the last two apartments 
may be another communicating with 
both« and forming a kind of vestibule, 
where the churning may take place ; 
and over them a cheese-room and 
lofts, or any other useful chambers. 
A veranda round the dairy is very 
convenient, or on three sides at least. 
It shades from the sun, and adds to 
the warmth in winter ; and the uten- 
sils may be dried and aired under it 
even in rainy weather. The follow- 
ing description of a cow-house and 

2X1 



DAIRY. 



daily imder one roof oombines all 
that is useful, with considerable neat- 
ness internally and externally : It is 
a building about sixty feet long by 
thirty wide, with a veranda running 
round three sides of it. The dairy- 
room is sunk below the level of the 
soil, and is paved with brick. The 
sides are covered with tiles, and the 
arched roof with hard cement. The 
coW-house has a broad passage in the 
middle, and the cows stand with their 
heads towards this passage, which is 
paved with clinkers or bricks set on 
edge. Their tails are towards the 
wdl, along which runs a broad gut- 
ter sunk six or eight inches below the 
level of the place on which the cows 
stand. This gutter slopes towards 
a sink covered with an iron grate, 
which communicates by a broad arch- 
ed drain with a vaulted tank, into 
which all the liquid flows. The gut- 
ter is washed clean twice a day be- 
fore the cows are milked. The cows 
stand or lie on a sloping brick floor, 
and have but a small quantity of litter 
allowed them, which is removed every 
day and carried to the dung-heap or 
to the pig-sties, to be more fully con- 
verted into dung. Whenever the lit- 
ter is removed, the bricks are swept 
clean ; and in stunmer they are wash- 
ed with water. The manner in which 
the cows are fastened is worthy of 
notice : Two slight pillars of strong 
wood are placed perpendicularly about 
two feet distant from each other, so 
that the cow can readily pass her 
head between them. On each of 
these is an iron ring, which runs free- 
ly up and down, and has a hook in its 
circumference : two small chains pass 
from these hooks to a leather strap, 
which buckles round the neck of the 
cow. Thus the cow can rise and lie 
down, and move forward to take her 
food, which is placed in a low man- 
ger before the two pillars; but she 
cannot strike her neighbour with her 
horns. The mangers or troughs are 
of wood, or of bricks cemented to- 
gether, and are kept as clean as all 
the rest of the cow-house. In Swit- 
zerland the cow-houses are similar, 
but there is also a rack, the back of 

^22 



which towards the passage shots up 
with a board on hinges. The Dutch 
mode supplies more light and air to 
the middle passage ; and as the food 
is given frequently and in small quaa- 
tities, there is very little waste. The 
following cuts will give a tolerable 
idea of the whole arrangement. The 
food is brought in carts, which are 
driven at once between the cows. 
What is not wanted immediately is 
stored above, whence it is readily 
thrown down before the cows. Tb us 
much trouble is saved, and one maa 
can feed and attend to a great many 
cows. From November till M27 the 
cows never leave the cow-bouse. In 
summer, when the cows are out, if 
they are in adjacent pastures, tliey 
are driven home to be milked'; but 
if the pastures are far oflT, which is 
sometimes the case, they are milked 
there, and the milk is brought home ; 
but this is ]M)t thought so good for 
the butter, which is then always 
churned from the whole milk, with- 
out letting the cream rise. The finest 
and best flavoured butter is always 
made from the cream as fresh as pos- 
sible ; and to make it rise well, the 
milk should be set as soon as it is 
milked, and agitated as little as pos- 
sible. The greatest quantity is seK 
dom obtained when the quality is the 
finest. When great attention is paid 
to the quality, the milk is skimmed 
about six hours after it is set ; and 
the cream taken oflf is churned by it- 
self. The next skimming makes in- 
ferior butter. These particulars are 
mentioned to show the necessity 
there is of having the dairy as near 
as possible to the cow-house. 

*' The utensils of the dairy, such as 
pails, chums, vats, dec, are usiiaUy 
made of white wood, and are easily 
kept clean by scalding and scouring. 
Leaden troughs are used in large dai- 
ries ; and if they are kept very clean 
by careful securing, they answer the 
purpose better than wood. They 
may be so constructed that the milk 
may be let off gently before the cream, 
which is collected by itself. This 
saves all the trouble of skimming. 
Brass pans have the advantage of 




A, i. A. iiMHr* OmaA ih> cuir-liDnH tntl doicr, Mn l«I wMg, vmni (rilk brieki hi m 
If I, a Dutdi dimkHi. Tliefoal ii ticoaglil in iliiapuH|{i is t uiimII an ud diuiibnMdn 

1. pHt^ihambannmigt bIhhiI in wiih di»n,ud fana'ng > nnibnla uiha dtirr- 

C. daiiy-iniin. tB obick i.n]f milk, eniin. and hntur ut krlK. II ■> •link llirH fsn ludar 
i*Wn1<((b« eaH-hDniB, udsuTsml with i, brick aich ; ilbumH Isttind wiodDT. uid HT- 
niV vcBtilUon OB  level with Ibe plpcq on which tK« niilk tsekIi nn Ht. 

D, thq nom where Iha al^iili are vralded, uid when cheeia  nuda : lA ooe contcriift 
n-irin«} wilH ft ItTgt kelllfi or a f»pp*r Ht. 

r, «ir-)Hiia,m which the dim m lied up la Tuifn. ki that ther cannid tun ts lick Ibev 

'ta]chiib«:hlednHindlhnDii;kareKta«n>. U,H, two liiki. wttbiTW ■mi°ie'«">h»> 
> ntck tli( niiu (rum Ih* gullen I, I, which nu aU the lenith ul th* SDW-bouH an w^ ndh 



1 



DAIRY. 

K, Um urine Unk, vaalted over with a door L, to clew it ont, and a poiBp to powp Vf th« liquid 
mairaY«. O^ O, in the section, are places where the green food or roots are deposited for tha 
day's consomptioB. P, a hayloft. 



being readily wanned on a chafing- 
dish in winter. In Devonshire, tin 
or brass pans are frequently used 
instead of earthen-ware. Although 
there is some danger in the use of 
brass utensUs, very little attention 
will obviate it. It only requires that 
they should be kept bright, in which 
ease the smallest speck of oxide or 
verdigris would be perceptible. In 
Holland the milk is invariably carried 
in brass vessels. Cast-iron pans have 
been invented, which are tinned in- 
side. They are economical, but there 
is nothing better or neater than well- 
glazed white crockery- ware, of the 
common oval form. Some recom- 
mend unglazed pans for summer, but 
they are difficult to keep sweet, as 
the milk insinuates itself into the 
pores, and is apt to become sour 
there. 

The most common use of cows is 
to supply butter and cheese (see Bntter 
and Cheese), and sometimes to fatten 
calves for the butcher ; but the most 
profitable dairy is that which supplies 
large towns with milk. In these dai- 
ries the system is diflTerent. The 
cows are mostly kept in stalls, and 
fed with food brought to them. Some 
dairymen possess several hundred 
cows, and the arrangement of their 
establishments is worthy of notice. 
The cows are bought before or aAer 
they have calved. They are seldom 
allowed to go to the bull, but are kept 
as long as they can be made to give 
milk by good feeding. When they 
are dry, they are often already suffi- 
ciently fat for sale, or, at all events, 
they soon fatten, and are sold to the 
butcher. A succession of cows is 
thus kept up, new ones arriving as 
others are sold ofiT. The oows are 
milked twice a day; and as it is 
well known that the last drop of milk 
is the richest, they are sure to be 
milked quite dry, an essential thing 
in a dairy. When there is more milk 
than there is a demand for, it is set, 
and the cream is sold separately, or 
made into butter ; but this is seldom 



fed on every kind of food that can 
increase the milk: brewers' grains 
and distillers' wash are preferred, 
when they can be obtained. The 
grains are kept in large pits, pressed 
close, and covered with earth, under 
which circumstances they will remain 
fresh a long time. Turnips and beet 
root are used in large quantities, but 
hay is given sparingly. The cows 
are generally placed in pairs, with a 
partition between every two pair. 
Each cow is fastened to the corner 
of the stall, where she has a small 
trough with water before her *. thus 
they cannot gore each other with their 
horns. The great dairies are kept 
very clean ; but the liquid manure, 
which would be so valuable for the 
market gardens, is lost, and runs off. 
In Belgium the urine would be con- 
tracted for at the rate often dollars 
per cow per annum, which, in a dairy 
of six hundred cows, would pay a 
good interest for the money expend- 
ed in constructing large vaulted cis- 
terns under each cow-house. 

There is no chance of profit in a 
dairy of which the farmer or his wife 
is not the immediate manager. The 
attention required to minute particu- 
lars can only be expected in those 
whose profit depends upon it. A 
proper attention to keeping correct 
accounts of every expense will con- 
vince any one of this truth. In a 
dairy farm the great difficulty is tu 
feed the cows in winter. It is usu- 
ally so arranged that the cows shall 
be dry at the time when food is roost 
scarce, and they are then kept on in- 
ferior hay, or straw, if it can be pro- 
cured. It is a great improvement in 
a dairy farm if it has as much arable 
land attached to it as will employ 
one plough, especially if the soil be 
light ; but the mode of cultivating 
this farm mUst vary from that of 
other farms, since the food raised for 
the cows must be a principal. obiect. 
Corn is a secondary object ; and the 
cultivation of roots and grasses must 
occupy a great portion of the farm. 



done to any extent. The cows are When the grasses degenerate, a crop 
284 



DAI 



DEC 



or two of com is taken, and the ro- 
tation is chiefly roots, corn, and grass 
cut for hay until it wears oat. If 
the roots are well manured, the land 
keeps in excellent heart. The old 
pastures are kept for sammer feed- 
ing. Where there is no arable land 
near a dairy farm, it deserves mature 
consideration whether it will be ad- 
Tantageous or not to allow some of 
the pasture to be ploughed up. It is 
often a dangerous experiment where 
the soil is naturally heavy. Arable 
land laid down to grass for. the pur- 
pose of the dairy seldom produces 
fine-flavoured butter or good cheese ; 
but clover-hay is excellent for young 
stock, or to fatten ofi* the old cows. 
Lucem is reckoned to make cows 
give very good milk ; nothing, how- 
ever, can equal a rich old pasture, as 
ail dairymen agree." 

The following estimates from Col- 
man's Report on the Agriculture of 
Massachoaetta give the yield, expen- 
8es> and profits of the dairy : 

" In Tyringham, the average yield 
of a cow is reckoned at, new milk 
cheese 883 pounds, and butter at the 
same time 57 pounds. A dairy of 
twenty-eight cows gave 7913 pounds 
of new milk cheese, and 1600 pounds 
of batter. A large amount of pork 
was fattened on this fann, but it is 
difficult to say what portion of it is 
to be credited to the dairy. 

" In Sheflield, the average product 
of tweaty-eight cows was 894 pounds 
of new milk cheese, and 60 pounds 
of butter each. 

** The product of a cow is thus sta- 
ted by the excellent manager : 

" Cow. Cr. 
400 Km. new uilk ehaMe,at 8 eU . $32 00 
C«ir (kJllMl »t 3 dajs oU> . . . . 1 00 

^lU. batter, ftt 10 eta 8 33 

Wheyftnd btittttMailk to make 100 
)lM.poik ........ . 600 

•40 33 

Cow, Dr. 
Winter keapiar .... $13 00 
One acre of land, ooettngr $^, 

will pMtare the oow 8 60 

Sak 85 ete., 3 boah. of bran, $3 3 fi^ 
Interest on the valiie of cuw, 

at $25, 10 per ct. . . . 2 50 
X«aboor of mltkiagf, nakiof 

butter, chaeae, 4m. ... 4 00 25 25 

ia ftnrvnr of oow . . $24 06^ 



DAlVtSON. A small variety of the 
Plum. 

DANDRUFF. Scales of skin, which 
are brushed off readily. 

DAPPLE. Marked with various 
colours. 

DARNEL. Several grasses are 
so called. The Cfuat of the United 
States goes under this name in Eu- 
rope ; but it is principally applied to 
the Xfolium UmuUntumy a trouble- 
some weed. 

DARTARS. In farriery, a sort 
of scab or ulceration taking place on 
the chin, to which lambs are subject. 

DATE. The fruit of a palm ( JPAob- 
niz daetylifera), remarkable for its nu- 
tritiousness, and as affording food to 
entire populations. 

DATURA. The generic name of 
the thorn apple or Jamestown weed, 
a poisonous plant. 

DAUCUS. The generic name of 
the Carrot. 

DEAD TOPS. The dead sum- 
mits or branches of old trees. They 
should be out at a sound place, and 
the wound covered with grafting wax 
or clay. 

DEAFNESS. A defect in hearing. 
It is sometimes remedied by syrin- 
gjng the tube of the ear with tepid 
water, by which a quantity of hard- 
ened wax is washed out. 

DEAL. Pieces of sawed pine or 
fir wood, three inches thick, nine 
wide, and twelve feet long. 

DEBRIS. In geolosy, mineral 
rubbish worn from a rock or forma- 
tion. 

DECAGON (from dexa, ten^ and 
yinna^ an angle). Any solid having 
ten sides and angles. 

DECANDRIA (from 6eKa, ten, imd 
avi7p, a malt). The class of plants 
having ten stamens. 

DECANT, To pour off the clear 
fluid alter a precipitate subsides. 
Hence Vecaniatum. 

DECAPODS (from de«a, Un, and 
frovf, a foot). Crabs with ten feet. 
Animals like the cuttle-fish, with ten 
tentacula, wherewith they walk. 

DECAY. The destruction of or- 
gaoia&ed bodies by natural causes. 
The products depend on the presence 

235 



DEC 

or deficiency of aii% In the fitst case, 
the process is called Eremacausis ; in 
the second, Fermentatiofit which see. 

DECIDUOUS. Parts which fail 
off, such as hairs, horns, leaves, &c. 

DECOCTION. Any mixture which 
has been boiled. 

DECOMPOSITION. In chemis- 
try, the separation of the parts of any 
compound, whether mineral or or- 
ganic. Electricity and heat are the 
principal forces used by chemists for 
this purpose, and they are capable of 
disturbing most combinations. Chem- 
ical affinity, or the attraction which 
one form of matter has for another, 
is also an agent of decomposition. 
Thus oil of vitriol (mlphuric acid) has 
a powerful attraction for water ; if 
it be dropped on the human hand a 
blister is instantly produced, and the 
part blackens. This decomposition 
is owing to the greater affinity of the 
acid for water than the flesh of the 
hand. In the same way some min- 
erals act on each other, producing 
change of composition, or decompo- 
sing them. Decompositions may be 
expected if one of the ingredients is 
of a volatile or gaseous nature, or if 
the agent added forms with one of 
the original components a product 
which is insoluble in water. Thus 
sulphuric and oxalic acid decompose 
every solution of lime, because they 
form insoluble salts with lime. Car- 
bonic acid, in its salts, is decomposed 
by every fixed acid, because it is gas-^ 
eons. Lime, potash, and soda de- 
compose most salts of anmionia, be- 
cause the latter is volatile. 

DECOMPOSITION OF FORCES. 
A problem in physics, in which it is 
desired to know in how many differ- 
ent directions several forces have 
acted to produce a given result. 

DECOMPOSITION OP LIGHT. 
The separation of a beam of light 
by means of a prism of glass, into the 
seven colours, red, orange, yellow, 
green, bhie, indigo, violet, which are 
hence called the primary colours, 
light being the result of their mix- 
ture. 

DECORTICATION (from dejram, 
and cortex, barJt). Taking olBTthe bark. 
SX6 



DEP 

Scraping the bark« and even parllairy 
removing it during the active growth 
(June), has been found to invigorate 
trees. It is often resorted to in bark- 
bound trees which bear little fruit. 
Care must be taken not to wound the 
new wood or expose the eap. 

DECOY. "A device by which 
aquatic birds, chiefly ducks, are enti- 
ced from a river or lake up a narrow^ 
winding canal or ditch, which, grad- 
ually becoming narrower, at last ter- 
minates under a cover of network, of 
several yards in length. The birds 
are enticed by the smoothness of the 
turf on the margin of the canal, 
which tempts them to leave the wa- 
ter, and begin to dress their plumage. 
When so engaged at some distance 
up the canal, they are suddenly sur- 
prised by the decoy man and his dogs, 
who have been concealed behind a 
fence of reeds ; and having again ta- 
ken to the water, they are driven up 
by the dogs till they enter within the 
network which terminates the decoy, 
and are then easily caught" 

DECREPITATION. A chemical 
term signifying cracklings and used 
to describe the sound made by nitre» 
salt, sulphate of potash, and other 
salts, when thrown into the fire. 

DECUMBENT. In boUny, incli* 
ned downward. 

DECURRENT. In botany, a leaf, 
a part of the lamtna of which is at* 
tached to the stalk of the plant. 

DECUSSATE. To cross and in- 
termingle, in anatomy. 

DEER. The common species is 
the Cervus Virginianut of naturalists ; 
it is diffused throughout the United 
States as far north as Canada. The 
moose (C alces) is the largest spe- 
cies of the deer ; it inhabits swamps, 
and is confined to the most northern 
parts of the States, and to Canada. 
The reindeer ( C tarandus) is remark- 
able for its immense horns, its value 
to the inhabitants of the highest lat- 
itudes, docility, and abstemiousness. 
It is rarely seen in the States except 
in Maine. Some other species are 
found far in the northwest. 

DEFLAGRATION. A chemical 
term, meaning very rapid combustion, 



9KT 

as wfaeo nitre ie throwo on Ted-hot 
coals. 

DEFLECTION. A term in optics. 
When a thin opaque body is placed in 
the course of a ray of light, the ray 
is bent out of its straight direction. 
The pbeoomenon is also called dif- 
fraction. 

DEGLUTITION. The act of swal- 
lowing. 

DEHISCENT. A botanical term 
aignifyiog the bursting open, when 
dry, of seed vessels. 

DELIQUESCENT. Saline sub- 
stances which absorb so much moist- 
ure from the air as to become fluid 
are called deiii^uescent. 

DELPHINIA. A vegetable alka- 
loid from Stavesacre, or Delphinium. 

DELPHINIC ACID. An oily acid, 
obtained from wbale oil, having a 
rancid smell. 

DENDROMETER (from devSpw, a 
trte, and furpov, a nuasure). An instni- 
ment like an immense pair of com- 
passes, to measure the height and 
the girth of trees, for estimating the 
amount of timber. 

DENTATE (from dens, a tooth). 
Toothed. 

DENTIROSTERS. Birds having 
a tooth-h'ke notch on each side of the 
upper mandible. They are very ra- 
pacious. 

DEOBSTRUENT. A medicine 
given to remove any obstruction in 
the bowels, &c. 

DERBYSHIRE SPAR. Fluor 
spar, or fluoride of calcium. 
, DESPUMATION. The act of 
skimiming the scum from any heated 
fluid. 

DESTRUCTIVE DISTILLA- 
TION. The beating of bones, wood, 
coal, due., in iron vessels, at a high 
tiemperaiure, to produce peculiar sub- 
stances. From green wood, vinegar 
and wood tar ; from bones, impure 
ammonia ; from coal, gas, coal tar, 
dec. 

DETERGENTS. Medicines vi^liich 
remove impurities and cleanse sores. 

DETONATION. In chemistry, ex- 
plosions on a small scale. 

DETRITUS. The broken and 
pounded remains of rocks. 



D£W 

DEUTOXIDE, BINOXIDE. A 

compound acting as a base, which 
contains two atoms of oxygen. 

DEVON CATTLE. Esteemed for 
draught. See Cattle. 

DEW. The deposite of water from 
the air produced by cold ; it becomes 
frost when the oold is below 33*^ Fah- 
renheit. As soon as the sun sets, the 
heat imparted to the earth begins to 
fall by radiation into space ; if clouds 
be present, the heat is mostly return- 
ed again ; if in a clear sky, it is lost, 
and the earth's surface chilled. The 
cold of the surface chills the air lying 
above it, and caused a deposite of its 
water ; hence the dew. Those bod- 
ies which cool quickest receive most 
dew ; black soils more than light-col- 
oured ; rough surfaces more than pol- 
ished. Dew, therefore, only falls on 
clear nights, and frost observes the 
same rule. When the atmosphere is 
loaded with water, the cooling of a 
few degrees is sufficient to form dew ; 
hence most falls near rivers and 
streams 

DEW POINT. The temperature 
at which dew falls. It is a very im- 
portant fact in meteorology, and ea- 
sily ascertained. Place in a clean 
wine-glass, half full of water, a little 
ice, until a mist of dew is seen on the 
outside ; remove the ice without wet- 
ting the surface, plunge a thermome- 
ter into the water, and observe the 
temperature as the mist disappears : 
the degree marks the dew point. 
This is the simplest way, and as 
good as any. The difierence in de* 
grees between the air and dew point 
is called the drying j^er, and shows 
how much more moisture the air wiH 
take. When they a^e, the air is 
tilled or saturated with moisture. The 
amount of water in the atmosphere is 
connected with the probability of rain, 
the growth of plants, the occurrence 
of mildew, rust, dec., and should be 
measured by the farmer on important 
occasions as a means of ascertaining 
its relation to these points. 

DEWBERRY. The creeping 
blackberry, which see. 

DEWLAP. The fold of skin be- 
I low the neck of cattle. 

827 



? 



DIA 

DEXTRINE, fikdablo starch, re- 
BembHng gtim, but having the prop- 
erty of turning the plane of polariza- 
tion to the right ; hence its name. 
The descending sap and cambium 
contain much dextrine. It consists 
of C|j H|i On- 

DIACHYLON. A common and 
iisefal sticking plaster for wonnds, 
made of titharge and resin spread on 
linen. 

DIADELPHIA, DIADELPHOUS 
(from 6i{, tmeey and adeX^tif, a hrother- 
hood). A Linnaean class, in which the 
stamens are bouiyi together into two 
parcels. 

DIAGNOSIS (from dutyivaOKo, 
to dUeem). The determination, by 
symptoms, of one disease from an- 
other. 

DIAMETER. The measure across 
a circle or other regular figure. 

DIAMOND. A rare gem, of or- 
ganic origin, consisting of pure car- 
bon, and crystallized in octohedrons, 
dodecahedrons, and other derivative 
forms. The hardest body in nature. 

DIANDRIA, DIANDROUS (from 
Si^t tvnce, and avtjp, a man). Plants 
with two stamens. See Botany, 

DIAPHANOUS (from ita, and ^. 
ivot to thine). Translucent: not quite 
clear like glass. 

DIAPHORESIS (from dia ^opeu, 1 
carry through). Sweating, or perspi- 
ration ; hence diaphoreticst medicines 
which produce sweating. 

DIAPHRAGM (from tfia, and i^par^ 
tOf Idiffide). Any substance which 
divides a cavity. Thus, the muscle 
which lies between the chest and ab- 
domen is a diaphragm ; the matter 
dividing the cells of shells ; the disks 
which are inserted into microscopes 
are also called diaphragms. Se^m 
is synonymous. Diaphragmitit is an 



DIB 

inHammation of the dfaphragmfii an- 
imals. 

DIARRHOEA (from iiappea, I flow 
through). Looseness of the bowels. 
Chalk and binding medicines are rem- 
edies. See Horse, Ox, Sheep. 

DIASTASE (from 6ta, and itmjfn, I 
set). A condition in the decay of fibrin 
and other protein compounds, which, 
acting like a ferment, converts solu^ 
tion of starch into sugar. 1 part of 
changed protein converts 2000 of 
starch. It occurs in malting and ger- 
mination. The existence of diastase 
as a separate body is unknown, its ef- 
fects being the result of change, and 
not doe to the presence of any specif- 
ic agent. Its property is destroyed 
by a boilmg heat. 

DIATHERMAL (from dm, and 
^epfufy heat). Bodies which allow ra- 
diant heat to pass through them, as 
rock salt. 

DIATHESIS (from SiariBtiftv, I dis- 
pose). A predisposition to a partic- 
ular class of diseases. 

DIBBLE. An instrument to fnake 
holes in the soil for the insertion of 
transplanted vegetables, sowing large 
seeds, onions, d^c. It is commoiUy 
no more than a rod, with a spade han- 
dle, the lower part or point shod with 
iron, and sharp. A man, carrying 
one in each hand, walks backward, 
dibbling a hole right and left, at suit- 
able distances ; 9000 holes can be 
made thus in a day. The following 
is a simple and effective contrivance 
used for beans, potatoes, dtc. ; it is 
so arranged that the side rods, point- 
ed with iron (a, a), run a mark or drill, 
into which the dibble afterward nma. 
Several wheels may be fitted to one 
axis, and thus a great deal of labour 
done. It is adapted to light, melk>w 
soils ; and the saving of seeds and la- 




DIP 



DIG 



boor soon pttys for the maohina. A 
number of these wheels drawn by a 
horse has been recently introduced. 

DICHOTOMOUS (from d<f, twice, 
and refivot I cut). Bifurcate. It is 
used in natural history to indicate 
a division into two parts, especially 
when it is repeated several times, as 
in some stems. 

DICHROISM (from 6tc, and xpt^fta, 
eotoury Bodies which exhibit two col- 
oars, as they are examined by reflect- 
ed ot refiracted Ught. Dichromatic 
is a derivative. 

DICOTYLEDONS (from d«f, and 
KOTvXijiaVt a seed lobe). One of the 
^reat divisions of the vegetable king- 
dom, indudiftg most plants and trees 
of temperate climates. They bear 
seed with two lobes, like the bean, 
have leaves freely veined, and the 
trees grow with a conical trunk. The 
term is synonymous with exogene. 

DIDELPHYS(from<J«r, and dcA^vf, 
womb). A genus of animals resem- 
bling the opossum and kangaroo, 
which bring Ibnh minute young, and 
afterward nourish them in an exter- 
nal pooch. MarsvpiaU. 

DIDYNAMOUS (from Stc, and dv- 
vtifuf, power). Fk>wers with four sta- 
mens, two being longer than the rest. 
See Botanv. 

DI£T£TI(3$ (from dtatraew, to 
nmarisk). The study of varieties of 
food. See Fodder. 

DIFFERENTIAL THERMOME- 
TER. A thermometer with two 
bulbs, invented to measure differ- 
ences in temperature, but seldom 
need. 

DIFFRACTION. See Deflection. 

DIFFUSION OF GASES. Pene- 
tration of gases. The expression of 
a pbenonoeaon which occurs when 
one gaa is set free into another. 
They mutually expand or diffuse into 
one another, so as to produce, in time, 
an equal mixture. The rapidity of 
difftasion differs Mrith diflerent gases. 
By reason of this law, noxious va- 
pours rising from the earth are pres* 
ently dilated into the atmosphere. 
The composition of the air is the re- 
sult of this diflbsion or admixture of 
^ several gases it contains. This 

U 



I passage takes place through aH po- 
rous vessels, tissues, &c. In virtue 
of this property, gases are said to act 
as a vacuum towards each other. 

DIFFUSUS. Spreading: used in 
botany. 

DIGESTER. A strong iron or 
copper pot, the lid of which fits steam- 
tight, and either screws on or is press- 
ed by clamps, and is furnisiied with a 
safety-valve. It is used for boiling or 
digesting substances at a heat great- 
er than boiling water, and is especial- 
ly useful for extracting jelly and glue 
from bones, skins, horns, &c. 

DIGESTION. In physiology, the 
change through which food passes in 
the stomach for the production of 
chyme. Food received into the stom- 
ach is speedily attacked by a peculiar 
fluid therein, the gasiriCf which has 
the power of rendering soluble the in- 
soluble parts : this ii effects by pro- 
ducing a change nearly resembling 
fermentation. The gastric juice is a 
portion of the membrane of the stom- 
ach in a peculiar state of change, re- 
sembling diastase, and supposed to 
owe its power to a principle called 
pepsin y but being in reality active only 
because in a state of change. The 
food acted on by this agency is con- 
verted into a pasty mass called chyme ; 
this, passing into the bowels, is sep- 
arated into a fluid part, ekyle, which 
is absorbed by the veins and ai)sor- 
bents of the intestines, and reaches 
the blood to add to that fluid. There 
is reason to believe that starchy and 
saccharine bodies are converted into 
lactic acid, and in part into oils, by 
digestion. The remaining thickened 
chyme, receiving several excretions, 
becomes mere feculent matter. The 
process of digestion requires from one 
to four hours, according to the food. 
Raw substances are digested more 
rapidly than boiled, fresh than salt. 
It is best conducted when the body 
and mind are in a state of rest. 

DIGESTION IN CHEMISTRY. 
The exposure for a fong time of any 
substance to the action of water or 
alM>lvent at a gentle heat. 

DIGGING. See ^tade. 

DIGITALIS. The generio name 

SS9 



DIS 



ms 



of tbe ibx^oTO {D. pwTfwu:^ « poi- 
sonous sedative. 

DIGITATE. Id botany, any leaf 
divided into several segments origi- 
Dating in a common centre. 

DIGYNIA (from dtc* and ywfi, a 
woman). Flowers with two styles. 
See Botany. 

DILL. Anethum graveoUnt. An 
umbelliferous plant, the seeds of 
which are esteemed as a medicine. 
They contain dill oil, which, being 
distilled, is used in solution in water 
for the gripes of infants. It is an an- 
nual, requiring a dry, rich soil. Sow 
in drills in March or April, keep clear 
of weeds, thin out to ten indies ; they 
fruit in September. Fresh seed most 
be used for planting. The leaves are 
sometimes used like parsley. 

DILUENTS. Any fluid, as water, 
which dilutes. 

DILUVIUM, DILUVION. Accu- 
mulations of gravel found upon the 
ordinary rocks in many places. 

DINGLE. A small valley. 

DICECIA, DIOICA (from d<c, hcice, 
and oiKiGy house). Flowers, the sta- 
mens and pistils of which are on dis- 
tinct plants, as the hop, hemp, d&o. 

DIOPTRICS (from <S(a, and oirro- 
iMi, I see). That part of optics which 
investigates the passage of hght 
through glasses, <Scc. 

DIOSCOREA. The generic name 
of the yam. See Sweet Potato. 

DIPLOE (Greek). The cellular 
layer between the outer and inner 
layers or the scull bones. 

DIPPLE'S ANIMAL OIL. A fe- 
tid oil obtained by tbe distillation of 
bones, used as an antispasmodic. 

DIPSACUS. The generic name 
of the teasel. 

DIPTERA, DIPTERANS (from 
dtf, twicCf and lerepov, a wing). Flies 
or insects with two wings only. They 
are furnished with a sucker. 

DISCUTIENT(frora diseutio, I de- 
stroy). Any application which has the 
property of resolving or htndering the 
formation of tumours or boils. - 

DISEASES. . See tkem, or Oz, HarH, 
/Sheep. . . • . • 

DISK. Any flat, round body: 
hence dt$coid, in botany, any space 



existing between the inaeitioii of the 

stamens and the ovary. 

DISPERSION OF LIGHT. Its 
separation into the colours by a prism. 

DISSEPIMENTS. The dividing 
membranes formed in ovaria by the 
union of the sides of two carpels. 

DISTEMPER. Frequently ueed in 
tbe same sense as disease, but is par- 
ticularly applied to cattle. In racing 
stables it is the distinguishing name 
for epidemic catarrh or iniiuenaa ta 
horses. Bleeding in the early stage 
is recommended, and it is important 
that the bowels should be evacuated 
and sedative medicines given. (See 
Horse). • In dog^s, distemper ia one of 
the most fatal diseases ; a little emet- 
ic powder (three grains of tartar emet- 
ic and one grain of opium) is recom- 
mended to be given. — {Ciater's Far.^ 
p. 892). 

DISTICHOUS (from dic, and (rr<«or, 
a row). Two rows of seeds, leaves, 
dLC., arranged side by side. A term 
of frequent use in descriptive botany. 

DISTILLATION. Achemioalpio- 
cess, whereby the more volatile parts 
of a mixture are separated by heat. 
It is conducted in a still of metal, 
usually copper, except where a great 
heat is necessary, as in destructive 
distillation, when iron is used. Earth- 
en-ware and glass are used for many 
chemical distillations. Vessels of this 
kind are called retorts or alembics. A 
retort is of the figure of a large in- 
verted comma ; if there be dn aper* 
ture over the bulb fitted by a stopper* 
or to receive a tube, it is termed a 
tubulated retort. (See Retort.) Aa 
alembic consists of two parts, an up- 
per cap, which carries the tube, or 
beak, along which the distilled fluid 
passes, and a lower vessel to coataia 
the matter for distillajton. Tbe cap 
is well luted or fastened before use. 

The heat employed is regulated to 
the purposes of the operator. If the 
object be to separate alcohol Arom wa- 
ter, the heat must not rise above the 
boiling of alcohol (176^). As the va* 
pour rises, it is at first oooled along 
the iube, or beak, of the retort, and 
flows down it into tbe reesioeti but 
the tube becoming heated, steps mnal 



be taken to produce the eondema- 
tion. Thia is managed in the labora- 
toiy by keeping, pieces of wet rag on 
the tube, or by passing it throagb an- 
other larger tube of metal which is 
cooled by a stream of water. . In lar- 
ger operations, the still beak enters 
another long tube, which winds sev- 
eral times in a bucket of water, and 
is thus kept cool, the water being oc- 
casionally renewed. 

Distillation is employed to separate 
alcohol, ether, tinegar, and other 
products from miztures ; to obtain 
the essential oil of plants ;. and when 
moch heat is used, to separate gas 
from coal ; tar and viaegar from green 
wood ; hartshorn from bones, whale- 
bone shavings, &c. When a distilled 
product is re-distilled, it is said to be 
reciified. 

DITCH. A trench cut in the 
ground, usually round the fences of a 
field. Trenches of this kind are form- 
ed difiiBTently in Tarious localiUes, but 
they ahonld always be made so as to 
keep the water in them as pnie as 



DIURESIS (from dta, and oupett, to 
tnake tmUer). Extesuive urination: 
hence Diuretics, medicines causing 
urination, as nitre, juniper berries, 
torpentine, eubebs, dec. See Bail. 

DIVARICATE- To spiead out 
vridelv 

DIVERGENT. Branchea separa* 
ted by an angle. 

DIVISIBILITY. In chemistry, the 
extent to which pieces of matter may 
be divided is extraordinaty ; thus, in 
gilding, the thickness of gold on a 
surface is often as Mttle as 110,000th 
part of an inch. Bat matter is not 
infinitely divisible. 

DOCK. Tronblesome, long-root* 
ed, perennial plants, of the genera 
JRumex, TSusilago, 6m. See Weeds. 

DODDER. A weed consisting of 
thread-like stems, which bind togeth- 
er the plants among which it grows. 
It is occasionally destructive to small 
crops, sQch as fiflK. 

DODECAHEDRON (from du^^ica, 
htehe, and. iSpOj a seat). A soHd 
of twelve- sides. In crystallography 
there are two varieties : the rhombie 



DOO 

and angular dodecabadton, aoeoidifig 

to the figure of the sides. 

DODECANDRIA (from dodexa, 
hoelve^ and avifp^ male). The class of 
plants containing twelve stamens. 
See Botany. 

DOE. The female of the faUow 
deer. 

DOG. A genus of animals (Conif), 
including innumerable varieties. The 
farmer requires a good rat and ver- 
min dog, of which the varieties of 
terrier are the best ; a house-dog, as 
the Newfoundland, bull-dog, or mas- 
tiff; and herd-dogs, as the sheep- 
dog, the Scotch sheep-dog, or the 
Spanish shepherd's dog. The last is 
said to be the most manageable and 
trusty, as it is the strongest, being 
near^ as large as a Newfoundland ; 
but the instinct of the Scotch animal 
cannot be readily surpassed. Hunting 
and coursing dogs are merely useful 
for pleasure, bat of these the pointer 
is an animal of rare instinct, and can 
be taught to equal the best sheep* 
dogs in caring for fiocki^. 

Fig. I is the Scotch shepherd's dog, 
or colly. Characters: ears partly 




erect, head rather pointed, shaggy 
coat, and thick tail. To this animal 
large flocks are safely intrusted with- 
out any shepherd. He is also capable 
of managing cattle with great nicety. 
Fiff. 2, the English sheep-dog, is 
larger. His eolour is usually white 




and black, with half-pricked ears. He 
is ail excellent cattle and farm dog. 

Dogs should be kept clean and fed 
with wholesome food, under which 
circumstances they are very healthy. 
Worming is an absurd and nsWess 
custom. The ftutnffs in dogs is the 

281 



DOO 



DRA 



Tttiiilt nf fuideaiilinesSi and resem- 
bles itcN It should be treated with 
tar ointKient mixed with sulphur. 

Madfu «t.— Symptoms : at first the 
dog loseii spirits, neglects hi^ food, 
retires from his master, does not 
bark, but murmurs, is irritable, his 
ears and tail droop, he seems drow- 
sy, in two or three days his tongue 
lolls out, he froths at the month, the 
eyes are heavy, he runs along pant- 
ing, and in two or three more days 
dies. Any animal bitten should in- 
stantly have the part cut eut, the 
wound being allowed to bleed for a 
short time. 

Distemper is Tery contagious, usu- 
ally commences with a cold, is fol- 
lowed by fits or diarrhcea, great loss 
of strength, and frequently death. 
Treatment: first give emetics, and 
then a large spoonful of salt dissolved 
in water ; if liMseness comes on, give 
chalk in powder mixed with water. 
A blister on the head is used when 
the animal is very stupid and liable 
to fits. The food should be good. 

Other diseases are treated like 
those incident to sheep. 

DOG'S-TAIL GRASS. Cynotu- 
nu cristeXus. See Grastee. 

DOG'S-TOOTH GRASS. Doub 
grass. See Bermuda Grass. 

DOGWOOD. Corrms Florida. A 
small tree, remarkable for its flower- 
like involucrum. It is found from 
Massachusetts to Florida, usually on 
the borders of woods. The bark is 
medicinal and used as a febrifuge. 
The heart wood, of a deep brown 
colour, is hardy heavy, and compact. 
Its chief use is for the cogs of wheels, 
points of harrows, and similar purpo- 
ses : the size is not sufiiciently large 
for other objects. 

DOL£RIT£. A trap rock, con- 
sisting of augite and feldspar. 

DOLOMITE. Magnesian marble, 
or granular limestone containing 
magnesia. 

DOLPHIN. BLACK. The Aphis 
of beans, eabbages, dec. See Black 
Dolpkin. 

DOOB, or DOUB GRASS. Cyno- 
don dofityUm. A perennial, creeping 
gnsB of great value, acclimated in 

389 



the Southern States, and of celebrity 
among the Hindoos. It flowers in 
August, but does not always perfect 
seed. It is propagated from roots. 
This is also called Bermuda or Brah- 
ma grass. See Bermuda Grass. 

DORSAL. Belonging to the back. 

DOVE. See Pigeon. 

DOVE-COTE. See Pigeon-house. 

DOWNS. Elevated, open mead- 
ows. 

DRAGON FLY. The comnaou 
name for Libellulas, Agrions^ and oth< 
er neuropterous insects. They are 
devourers of insects, and therefore 
friends of the fanner. 

DRAGON'S BLOOD. A blood-red 
resin imported from India, uid uaed 
to colour varnishes. 

DRAINAGE. " As a certain quan- 
tity of moisture is essential to vege- 
tation, so an excess of it is highly 
detrimental. In the removal of this 
excess consists the art of draining. 

«( Water may render land unproduc- 
tive by covering it entirely or partial- 
ly, forming Ukes or bogs ; or there 
may be an excess of moisture dif- 
fused through the soil and stagnating 
in it, by which the fibres of the roote 
of all plants which are not aquatio 
are injured, if not destroyed. 

" From these different causes of in- 
fertility arise three different branches 
of the art of draining, which require 
to be separately noticed. 

«< 1. To drain land which is flooded, 
or rendered marshy by water coming 
over it from a higher level, and hav- 
ing no adequate outlet below.* 

*<3. To drain land where springs 
rise to the surface, and where there 
are no natural channels for the water 
to run off. 

" 3. To drain land which is wet from 
ita impervious nature, and where the 
evaporation is not sufficient to carry 
off all the water supplied by snow and 
rain. 

**The first branch includes aU those 
extensive operations where large 
tracts of land are reclaimed by means 
of embankments, canals, sluices, and 
mills to raise the water ; or where 
deep cute or tunnels are made through 
hills which formed a natural dam or 



DRAINAGE. 



barrier to the water. Saeh works 
are generally undertaken by associa- 
tions, few individuals being possess- 
ed of sofEcient capital, or having the 
power to oblige all whose interests 
are aflfected by the draining of the 
Land to give their consent and afford 
assistance. 

*'AI1 these operations require the 
aeienee and experience of civil engi- 
neers, and cannot be undertaken 
without great means. The greater 
part of the lowlands in the Nether- 
lands, especially in the province of 
Holland, have been reclaimed from 
the sea, or the rivers which flowed 
over tbem, by embanking and drain- 
ing, and are only kept from floods by 
a constant attention to the works 
origjnaiiy erected. 

" Where the land is below the level 
of the sea at high water, and without 
the smallest eminence, it requires a 
constant removal of the water which 
percolates through the banks or ac* 
cumulates by rains; and this can 
only be effected by sluices and mills. 
The water is collected in numerous 
ditches and canals, and led to the 
points where it can most convenient- 
ly be discharged over the banks. The 
mills commonly erected for this pur- 
pose are small wind-mills, which turn 
a kind of perpetual screw made of 
wood several feet in diameter, on a 
solid axle. This screw fits a semi- 
circular trough, which lies inclined at 
an angle of about 90<> with the ho- 
rizon. The lower part dips into the 
water below, and by its revolution 
discbarges the water into a reservoir 
above. All the friction of pumps, and 
the consequent wearing out of the 
machinery, is thus avoided. If the 
mills are properly constructed they re^ 
quire little attendance, and work night 
and day whenever the wind blows. 

'*In billy countries it sometimes 
happens that water, which runs down 
the slopes of the hills, collects in the 
bottoms where there is no outlet, and 
where the soil is impervious. In that 
ease it may sometimes be laid dry by 
eutting a sufficient channel all round, 
to intercept the waters as they flow 
iSown, and to carry them over or 



through the lowest part of the sor- 
rounding barrier. If there are no 
very abundant springs in the bottom, 
a few ditches and ponds will suffice 
to dry the soil by evaporation from 
their surface. We shall see that this 
principle may be applied with great 
advantage in many cases where the 
water x^ould not be drained out of 
considerable hollows if it were allow- 
ed to run into them. 

" When there are different levels at 
which the water is pent up, the drain- 
ing should always be begun at the 
highest, because it may happen that 
when this is laid dry the lower may 
not have a great excess of water. 
At all events, if the water is to be 
raised by mechanical power, there is 
a saving in raising it from the highest 
level, instead of letting it run down 
to the lower, from which it has to be 
raised so much higher. 

** In draining a great extent of land, 
it is often necessary to widen and 
deepen rivers, and alter their course ; 
and not unfreqoently the water can- 
not be let off without being carried, 
by means of tunnels, under the bed 
of some river, the level of which is 
above that of the land. In more con- 
fined operations, cast-iron pipes are 
often a cheap and easy means of ef- 
fecting this. They may be bent in a 
curve, so as not to impede the course of 
the river or the navigation of a canal. 

** The draining of land tohich is ren- 
dered wet by springs arising from under 
the soil is a branch of more general 
application. The principles on which 
the operations are carried on apply 
as well to a small field as to the great- 
est extent of land. The object is to 
find the readiest channels by which 
the superfluous water may be car- 
ried off; and for this purpose an accu- 
rate knowledge of the strata through 
which the springs rise is indispen- 
sable. It would be useless labour 
merely to let the water run into drains 
after it had sprung through the soil 
and appears at the surface, as igno- 
rant men frequently attempt to do, 
and thus carry it off after it has al- 
ready soaked the soil. But the origin 
of the springs must, if possible, be 

238 



DRAINAGE. 



detected; and one single drain or 
ditcfai judiciously disposed, may lay 
a great extent of land dry if it cuts 
off the springs before they run into 
the soil Abundant springs which 
flow continually generally proceed 
from the outbreaking of some porous 
stratum in which the waters were 
confined) or through natural crevices 
in rocks or impervious earth. A 
knowledge of the geology of the coun- 
try will greatly assist in tracing this, 
and the springs may be cut off with 
greater certainty. But it is not these | 



main springs which give the greateei 
trouble to an experienced drainer ; it 
is the various land-springs, which are 
sometimes branches of the fonner, 
and often original and independent 
springs arising from sudden varia- 
tions in the nature of the sot! and sob- 
soil. The annexed diagram, repre- 
senting a section of an uneven sar- 
face of land, win explain the natnre 
of the strata which produce springs. 
" Suppose. A A a porous gravel 
through which the water fiHratee 
readily ; B B a stratum of loam or 



*Vtf4i. 




clay impervious to water. The wa- 
ter which comes through A A will 
run along the sorfaoe of B B towards 
S S, where it will spring to the sur- 
face and form a lake or bog between 
S and S. Suppose another gravelly 
or pervious stratom under the last, 
as G, G, G, bending as here represent- 
ed, and filled with water running into 
it trom a higher level ; it is evident 
that this stratum will be saturated 
with water up to the dotted line £, F, 

F, which is the level of the point in 
the lower rock, or impervious stratum, 
J), D, where the water can run over 
if. If the stratum B B has any crev- 
ices in it below the dotted line, the 
water will rise through these to the 
surface, and form springs rising from 
the bottom of the lake or bog ; and 
if B B were bored through and a pipe 
inserted rising up to the dotted line, 
as c, o, the water would rise and stand 
at 0. If there were no springs at 
S S, the space below the dotted line 
might still be filled with water rising 
from stratum G, G, G. But if the bo- 
ring took place at G, the water would 
not rise, but, on the contrary, if there 
were any on the surface, it would be 
carried down to the porous stratom 

G, G, G, and run off. Thus in one sit- 
uation boring will bring water, and 
in another it will take it off. This 
principle being well onderetood will 
greatly facilitate all drainings of 

384 



springs. Wherever water springs, 
there must be a pervious and an ioA- 
pervious stratum to cause it, and the 
water either runs over the impervi- 
ous surface or rises throuEh the crev- 
ices in it. When the line of the 
springs is found, as at S S, the obvi. 
ous remedy is to cut a channel wi^ 
a sufficient declivity to take off the 
water in a direction across this line, 
and sunk through the porous soil at 
the surface into the lower impervious 
earth. The place for this channel is 
where the porous soil is the shallow- 
est above the breaking out, so as to 
require the least depth of drain, but 
the solid stratum must be reached, 
or the draining will be imperfect 
It is by attending to all these circum- 
stances that Elkington acquired his 
celebrity in draining, and that he has 
been considered as the father of the 
system. It is, however, of much 
earlier invention, and is too obvious 
not to have struck any one who seri- 
ously considered the subject. In the 
practical application of the principle, 
great ingenuity and skill may be dis- 
played, and the desired effect may be 
produced more or less completely, 
and at a greater or less expense. 
The advice of a scientific and prac- 
tical drainer is always weU worth the 
cost at which it may be obtained. 

*' When there is a great variation in 
the sou, and it is difficult to find any 






main hue otapTmga, it is best to pro 
ceed experimental]]' by making pita : 
few feel ilfiep. or by boriDg in »arioui 
pons where water appears, obaerring 
the level at which the water atanda 
IB these pits nr bores, as well as Iha 
luiare or the soil taken out. Thus 
it will generally be easy to ascertain 
whence the water artaes, and how it 
may be tel oft. When there is a 
mound of light soil otct a more im- 
perrioDs atraium. the springs will 
break out alt raund the edgie of the 
mound ; a drain laid round the base 
will take offatl the water which arises 
Tram this cause, and the lower part 
of the land will be effectually laid dry. 
So, likewise, whpre there is a hollow 
or depression of which the bottom is 
clay, with sand in the upper part, a 
dmin laid along the edge of the hol- 
low, and carried round it, wilt prevent 
the water running down into it and 
forming a marsh at the bottom. 

""WhenlhedrainBcannotbeoarried 
to a sQfficient depth to take the water 
out of the porous stratum saturated 
with it, it is alien uaefiil to bore nu 
merous boles wjib a proper auger n 



(he bottom of the drain throngh the 
stiller soil, and, according to the prin- 
ciple eiplained in the diagratn, the 
water will either.riae through those 
bores into the drains and be carried 
off, and the natural springs will be 
dried up, or it will sink down through 
them as at G, in the section, if it lies 
above. This method is often advan- 
tageous in the draining of peat bogs, 
which generally lie on clay or stiff 
loam, with a layer of gravel between 
the loam and the peat, the whole ly- 
ing in a basin or hollow, and ollen on 
a declivity. The peat, though il ro- 



Whe 






four or live feel deep 
much deeper, hulea are bored down 
to the clay below, and the water is 
pressed op through these boles, by 
the weight of the whole body of peat, 
into the drains, by which it is carried 
off. The cuts, Figi. 3 and 3, repre- 
sent a common case oflhis kind' k h 
<3) a e the s des of a h 11 he swampy 
lot be ow IS filled w th sp ngs «h ch 
are however d a ned by nmn ng a 




diteh (i, b) acrosa it and sinking holes 

into the subsoil. One of these botes 
is shown in Fig. S (a, j). and the man- 
ner in which ii conveys the surface 
water away. The bottom of the 
vvaina is sometimes choked with 
Io.he sand, which flows up with the 
tra.t-r, and Ihey require to be cleared 
repeatedly ; but this soon ceaaesafter 
the first rush is past, and the water 



rises slowly and regularly. The sur- 
face of the peat being dried, dressed 
with time, and nonsolidated with 
earth and gravel, soon becomes pro- 
ductive. If the soil, whatever be its 
be drained to a certain 



Icplh; i 



:s of ni 






may be lodged below it. It ia 
only when It risea so as to stagnats 
about the roots of plants that it ia 



DRAINAQE. 



hurtful. Land may be drained so 
nauch as to be deteriorated, as expe- 
rience has shown. 

"When a single large and deep 
drain will produce the desired effect, 
it is much better than when there are 
several smaller, as large drains are 
more easily kept open, and last long- 
er than smaller ; but this is only the 
ease in tapping main springs^ for if 
the water is diffused through the sur- 
rounding soil, numerous small drains 
are more effective: but as soon as 
there is a sufficient body of water 
collected, the smaller drains should 
run into larger, and these into main 
drains, which should all, as far as is 
practicable, unite into one principal 
outlet, by which means there will be 
less chance of their being choked up. 
When the water springs into a drain 
from below, it is best to fill up that 
part of the drain which lies above 
the stones or other materials which 
form the channel, with solid earth 
well pressed in, and made impervious 
to within a few inches of the bottom 
of the furrows in ploughed land, or 
the sod in pastures ; because the 
water running along the surface is 
apt to carry loose earth with it, and 
choke the drains. When the water 
comes in by the sides of the drains, 
loose stones or gravel, or any porous 
material, should be laid in them to the 
line where the water comes in, and a 
little above it, over which the earth 
may be rammed in tight, so as to al- 
low the horses to walk over the drain 
without sinking in. 

"It sometimes happens that the 
water collected from springs, which 
caused marshes and bogs below, by 
being carried in new channels, may 
be usefully employed in irrigating the 
land which it rendered barren before ; 
not only removing the cause of bar- 
renness, but adding positive fertility. 
In this case the lower ground must 
have numerous drains in it, in order 
that the water let on to irrigate it 
may not stagnate upon it, but run off 
after it has answered its purpose. 

" The third branch in the art of drain- 
ing is the removal of water from imper- 
vious soil* which lie flat, or in hollows, 
286 



where the water from rain, bdow, or 
dews, which cannot sink into the soil 
on account of its impervious nature, 
and which cannot bis carried off by 
evaporation, runs along the surface 
and stagnates in every depression. 
This is by far the most expensive 
operation, in consequence of the num- 
ber of drains required to lay the sur- 
face dry. It requires much sktU and 
practice to lay out the drains so as 
to produce the greatest effect at the 
least expense. There is often a layer 
of light earth immediately over a sub- 
stratum of clay, and after continued 
rains this soil becomes filled with 
water, like a sponge, and no healthy 
vegetation can take place. In this 
case numerous drains must be made 
in the subsoil, and over the draining 
tiles or bushes, which may be laid at 
the bottom of the drains, loose gravel 
or broken stones must be laid to with- 
in a foot of the surface, so that the 
plough shall not reach them. The 
water will gradually sink into these 
drains and be carried off, and the 
loose wet soil will become firm and 
diy. In no case is the advantage of 
draining more immediately apparent 
The average depth is 30 inches. 

** It is very seldom that a field is ab- 
solutely level ; the first thing, there- 
fore, to be ascertained is the greatest 
inclination and its direction. For this 
purpose, there is an instrument essen- 
tial to a drainer, with which an accu- 
rately horizontal line can be ascer- 
tained, by means of a plummet, a 
bricklayer's level, or a spirit level. 
A sufiicient fall may thus be found or 
artificially made in the drains to car- 
ry off the water. The next object 
is to arrange drains so that each 
shall collect as much of the water in 
the soil as possible. Large drains, 
except as main drains, are inadmis- 
sible. The depth should be such 
only that the plough may not reach it, 
if the land is arable, or the feet of 
cattle tread it in, if it be in pastnre. 
AH the drains which are to collect 
the water should lie as nearly at 
right angles to the inclination of the 
surface as is consistent with a suffi- 
cient fall in the drains to make them 



DRAINAGE. 



ran. One foot is sufficient fall for a 
drain 300 feet in length, provided the 
drains be not more than twenty feet 
apart. The main drains, by being 
laid obliquely across the fall of the 
ground, will help to take off a part of 
the BoHace water. It is evident that 
the drains can seldom be in a straight 
line unless the ground be perfectly 
even. They should, however, never 
have sudden turns, but be bent grad- 
ually where the direction is changed. 
The flatter the surface and the stifTer 
the soil, the greater number of drains 
ViU be required. It is a common 
practice with drainers to run a main 
drain directly down the slope, how- 
ever rapid, and to carry smaller 
drains into this alternately on the 
right and left, which they call her- 
ring-bone fashion. But this can only 
he approved of where the ground is 
nearly level, and where there is very 
little fall for the main drain. A con- 
siderable fall is to be avoided as much 
as possible *, and every drain should 
lie obliquely to the natural run of the 
water. It generally happens that, 
besides surface water, there are also 
some land-springs arising from a va- 
riation in the soil ; these should be 
carefully ascertained, and the drains 
should be so laid as to cut them off. 
" In draining clay land, where there 
is only a layer of a few inches of 
looser soil over a solid clay, which 
the plough never stirs, the drains 
need not be deeper than two feet in 
the solid day, nor wider than they 
can be made without the sides falling 
in. The common draining tile, which 
is a flat tile bent in the form of half 
a cylinder, and which can be made at 
a very cheap rate, is the best for ex- 
tensire surface draining. In solid 
clay it requires no flat tile under it ; 
it is merely an arch to carry the loose 
stones or earth with which the drain 
is filled Up. Loose round stones or 
pebbles are the best where they can 
be procured ; and in default of them, 
bashes, heathy or straw may be laid. 
In grass land the sod may be laid 
over the drain, after it has been filled 
up, so as to form a slight ridge over 
it. This win soon sink to a level 



with the surface. To save the ex* 
pense of stone or tiles, drains are 
frequently made six inches wide at 
the bottom ; a narrow channel is cut 
in the solid clay, two or three inches 
wide and six deep (a), leaving a shoul- 
der on each side to support a sod, 
which is cut so as to fit the drain, and 
rest on the shoulders (6) ; this sod 
keeps the earth from filling the chan- 
nel (see Fig. 4). It is filled up as de- 




scribed before : such drains are made 
at a small expense, and will last for 
many years. 

" Where the clay is not sufficiently 
tenacious, the bottom of the drain is 
sometimes cot with a sliarp angle, 
and a twisted rope of straw is thrust 
into it. This keeps the earth from 
falling in, and the running of the wa- 
ter keeps the channel open ; the straw, 
not being exposed to the air, remains 
a long time without decaying. It is 
a common mistake to suppose that 
in these drains water enters from 
above ; it rises from below. 

*' The best materials for large main 
drains, where they can be procured, 
are flat stones which readily split, and 
of which a square or triangular chan- 
nel is formed in the bottom of the 
drain. If the drain is made merely 
as a trunk to carry off the water, it 
is best to fill it up with earth, well 
pressed in, over the channel made by 
the stones. A very useful draining 
tile is used in Berkshire and other 
places, which requires no flat tile un- 
der it, even in loose soils, because it 
has a flat foot to rest on, formed of 
the two thick edges of the tile, which, 
nearly meeting when the t^le is bent 
round, form the foot. The section of 
the tile is like a horseshoe. It is 

237 



DRAINAGE. 



well adapted for drains where the wa- 
ter springs noward^ and it is less apt 
to slip out ofits place than the com- 
mon tile. 

"la draining fields it is usual to 
make the outlets of the drains in the 
ditch which bounds them. The few- 
er outlets there are, the less chance 
there is of their being choked : they 
should fall into the ditch at two feet 
from the bottom, and a wooden trunk, 
or one of stone, should be laid so that 
the water may be discharged without 
carrying the soil from the side of the 
ditch. If there is water in the ditch, 
it should be kept below the mouth of 
the drain. The outlets of all drains 
should be repeatedly examined, to 
keep them clear ; for wherever wa- 
ter remains in a drain it will soon 
derange or choke it. The drains 
should be so arranged or turned that 



the outlet shall meet the ditch at an 
obtuse angle towards the lower patt 
where the water runs to. A drain 
brought at right angles into a ditch 
must necessarily soon be choked by 
the deposition of sand and earth at 
its mouth. The channel or water- 
way of drains is liable to the inroads 
of rats, moles, and other yermin ; 
they may be kept out by inserting' 
occasionally a piece of perforated tin 
plate, or wire grates. 

" As the draining of wet clay soils 
is the only means by which they can 
be rendered profitable as arable land, 
and the expense is great, various in- 
struments and ploughs have been 
contrived to dimmish manual labour 
and expedite the work. Of these one 
of the .simplest is the common mole 
plough {Fig. 5), which, in very stiff 
clay, msikes a small hollow drain, from 







LambettV BCde Pkntgfa. 



one foot to 18 inches below the sur- 
face, by forcing a pointed iron cylin- 
der horizontally through the ground. 
It makes a cut through the clay, and 
leaves a cylindrical channel, through 
which the water which enters by the 
slit is carried oflT. It requires great 
power to draw it, and can only be used 
when the clay is moist. In meadows 
it is extremely useful, and there it 
need not go more than a foot under 
the sod. Five to ten acres of grass 
land may easily be drained by it in a 
day. It is very apt, however, to be 
filled in dry weather by the soil fall- 
ing in ; and moles often do much 
damage to it by using it in their sub- 
terraneous workings. 

** But draining ploughs have been 
invented which greatly accelerate the 

233 



operation of forming drains, by cut- 
ting them out in a regular manner, 
when they are immediately finished 
with the usual tools and filled up. 
See Draining Plough. It has done 
wonders in some of the wet, stiffsoils 
in Sussex, and is much to be recom- 
mended in all wet and heavy clays. 
In stony land it cannot well be used. 
The subsoil plough, introduced to 
public notice by Mr. Smith, ol Deans- 
ton, may be considered, in some 
measure, as a draining plough, for it 
loosens the subsoil, so that a few 
main drains are sufficient to carry 
oflTall the superfluous moisture ; and 
it has, besides, the eflfect of not carry- 
ing offmore than what is superfluous. 
By means of judicious drains and the 
use of the subbuil plough the stifiest 



'IJP- 



DRA 

and wettest land may in lime become 
the moat fertile. 

"The tools use4 in draining are 
few and simple. Spades, with taper- 
ing blades of different sizes, are re- 
qmred to dig the drains of the proper 
width and £he sides at a proper an- 
gle. When the drain begins to be 
▼eiy narrow near the bottom, scoops 
• are used of different sizes, which are 
fixed to handles at yarious angles, 
more conveniently to clear the bot- 
tom and lay it smooth to the exact 
width of the tiles, if these are used ; 
for the more firmly the tiles are kept 
in their places by the solid sides of 
the drain, the less likely they are to 
be moTed. 

^gs. 6, r, 8, represent three of the 
most common tools. A heavy plough 
is first run in the line of the drain and 
back, unless it be desirable to retain 
the sod, which mast be cut ofiT with 
a spade. In the farrow so made a 
liand enters with the spade a, which 
is six inches wide at the top, four be- 
low, and fourteen inches deep ; the 
•pits of earth are thrown to the right, 
the turf being on the left side. An- 
other workman follows with i, which 
is foor inches above and two or three 
below, according to the intended size 
of the channel of the drain. Lastly, 
the scoop, c, is used to take out the 
last portions of earth, and clear away 
any rnbbish. 



DRA 



Fig.S. 



r 



^.6. 



JV^-IT. 






DRAINING PLOUGH. Several 
massive ploughs have been construct- 
ed for the purpose of opening the 
greater part of the ditch at one stroke : 
they are double mould-board ploughs. 
Figs. 1 and S represent two views 
of Gray's draining plough. In 1 the 





Bide is figured, and 2 is taken from I front wheel, regulate the depth of the 
•Dove. a«arewheel8which. withthe | furrow. A stout coulter, 6, is fixed 

389 



DR£ 



BRI 



before the share to cut the way. 
Perpendicularly on each side two 
coulters, c, are fixed, which cut in an 
inclined direction to form the sides 
of the drain : they can be set for any 
required inclination. The earth thus 
cut is divided by the share* half being 
forced up each side of the mould- 
board as the plough advances. It 
requires six to eight strong horses to 
draw it. 

DRASTIC (from cJpaortKOf, active). 
Medicines which act violently. 

DRENCH. In farriery, a large 
drink or draught of any liquid reme- 
dy given to an animal, usually by 
means of a horn properly cat for the 
purpose. 

A drink is not so portable as a ball ; 
it is more troublesome to give, and a 
portion of it is usually wasted. Mr. 
Stewart strenuously urges the follow- 
ing propositions: 1. That draughts, 
particularly when pungent or disa- 
greeable, are dangerous. 3. That by 
no oare can the danger be altogether 
avoided.^ 3. That no draught should 
be given 'unless the horse be in dan- 
ger of dying without it. 4. That the 
safest way of administering draughts 



is to give them when the horse is ly- 
ing. 5. That a draught is seldom ur 
never absolutely necessary but in dis- 
eases that make the horse lie. 6. 
That a bottle is a better drenching 
instrument than a horn. 

DRESSING. In farriery, the ap- 
plication of plasters, &c., to wounds. 
The application of manure. 

DRILL. A long« straight line, in 
which seeds or plants are set. DriU 
husbandry is the cultivation of crops 
in drills mstead of broad^cast. 

DRILL MACHINES. Contrivan- 
ces for the purpose of running a drill 
furrow, depositing seed therein, and 
covering it with earth. They are 
simple — making one furrow only, for 
beans, pease, &c.-— or compound, ma- 
king many drills, for wheat, turnips, 
&c. The principal difficulty in the 
action of drills is the inequality of the 
soil. Sometimes a contrivance for 
the deposite of manures is added to 
the machine, which becomes a seed 
and manure drill. Adjustments for 
the width of furrows are also intro- 
duced in the more complex imple- 
ments 

Fig, 1 represents the simplest drill 




barrow, a is the hopper containing 
seed ; the bottom is closed by a cyl- 
inder, in which there are holes at 
proper distances for one or more 
seeds ; this is made to revolve by 
a string or strap of leather passing 



from the axis of the wheel to the 
axis of the cylinder ; e is a coulter 
which scrapes the furrow, and behind 
it the seeds are deposited as the cyl- 
inder turns round. Such a machine 
has to be used upon land already pre- 



Fig.t. 



940 




KULL UACHIHEa. 



fuai, sqd ts ran aiMig tfae tninnA 
of the furrowfl. 

Fig. 2 is a much more importaat 
■idgle Urill for beaiw, &c. It w fur- 
nished with a circular couller. e; a 
■mall doable-mould -board plough ; a 
vheel, a, to regulate the depth of 
furrow I and an arrangement of le- 
vers, b, by which the Heed-cylindar is 
thrown oat of gearing in a moment 
by the woriunan, a« the barrow is 
moTing over the butts, &e. The re- 
Tolving ojliuder, in thu case, is mo- 
ved by an liis furnished with a cog- 
wheel, set in motiou by the wheel 
itself. It is a veiy excellent ma- 



ehiae, aad can be used to prepan 

the sail, or on level ground, with«« 
previous idoughiug, 

FigM. 3 and 4 represent views of 
a turnip drill barrow, with a contri- 
vance for fluid manure, water. 6ui,, 
to be deposited at the time of sow- 
ing. The seeds are contained in  
cylindrical tin can, furnished with 
bolea at proper distances, i; this i» 
set in motion by the band ruaoing 
from the wheel, and depoaitea tha 
seed in a funnel, the front part of 
which scrapes the drill ; a ts the rea- 
of fluid, which discharges ita 
'~ along the tube, it, immedi- 




MULL MACilinES. 



" It haa a nnniiT* hoijper, ■, and a 
Med hopper, i, the same aa the otb- 
bt; but tbe manure, in place of being 
dropped along vitfa the oeed. i» de- 
poaileil in a deep gutter made bj s 
coulter, c, which foea berore ; this 
mannre is eoTered by a pronged coal- 
ter, d, which fotlona tbe other ; neit 
cornea the coaller which fbnna the 
gutter for the aeed, c. The aeed is 
Una deposiMd about one inch above 
the mannre. One roller or the con- 
cave kind goea berore the machine, 
and another light one of the common 
kind foUowa after it; or, withoat at- 



I taebed rollers, tiie drill may baaflzod 
I tri one Bide of the common roller, be- 
hiod, which roller may prepare om 
drill and cover the aeed aown on «ii> 
other each course." 

The depoaite of seed in thia and 
the best drill* la managed Igr a re- 
volving alia, turned by a <x«-wbe^ 
which fits into a wheel on the axis 



furrows, is shown in Fif. 7. TtM 
following IS Loudon'a account of this 

"It ia decided]; ths sknpleat and 



beat of grain drilla. In this tDachioe 
three hoppeta are included in one 
box. the seed escaping out of all the 
three by the revolutioa of three aeed 
cylinders upon one axle ; ind dnlla 
of different breadth* are produced 
simply by the shifting of a nut, that 
fizea a bct«w moving in a groove in 
the under-fnuce, by which the dis- 
tance between the two outside con- 
ductors and the central one (which 
is fixed) can be varied from nme to 
ten or eleven inches ; and that (he 
two small wheels may alwaya bo at 
the same distances respectively aa 
the conductors, there are two vrsMh- 
ers (hollow cylinders), an inch in 
breadth, on tbe axlB-arms of each, 
which may be transferred either to 
the outaide or inside of tbe wheels, 
ao as to make their distancea fnun 
(he outside conduclora nine, ten, or 
deven inches respectively also. The 
small wheela may be raised or de- 
preased. ao aa to alter the depth at 
which the seed shall be dcpoajled, by 
the action of a wedge, which retains 



the npright part of the axle in any 

one of a number of notches, which 
are made similarly in both, and wbioh 
are caught by an iron plate on the 
upper side of the arms which cari7 
the axles. This machine ma; be sliU 
farther improved bjr increasing the 
number of conductors to five instead 
of three, the latter number giving too 
light work to the horses." — {BigUand 
Soc. TriiM,, vol. vii.) 

Cooke's grtin drill ia seen in Fig. 

6. It ha* Men long employed wiitti 

Fig.t. 



mtlLL MACHINBl 



mooBta in the light aoQs of Norfolk 
anil Sufib1k« England. On the beam, 
«, the coulters to prepare drilla are 
arranaed, the whole being capaMe of 
lateral motion, so as to compensate 
for irregnlartties in the motion of the 
horse. The arrangement by which 
the grain is conyeyed from the hop- 
per, by small cupe fixed on stems, 
into the funnels, is also seen in the 
eection. The ends of the funnels 
which deliver seed are free to move 
a few inches, so as to overcome ine- 
qualities in the ground. This imple- 
ment is abo arranged as a common 
horse hoe, or scariiier, by taking off 
the apparatus (or sowing. 

The most inqwrtant machine of 
this class is the lever driUt which is 
calculated to sow at a uniform depth 
in nneiren soils ; it is, however, ex- 
pensive. 

In the annexed figure (9) the box 
for sowing manure is not added, as it 
IB in the Northumberland drill. The 
drill is supported on a frame and two 
wheels. The box A, which holds the 
seed, lets it down j^ndoally into a 
lower part, in which the cylinder, 
which has the small caps fixed to its 
circumference, is turned by the wheel 
D. By means of the lever O this 
may be raised so that its teeth are 
freed from those of the wheel £, and 
the motion of the cylinder is stopped. 
The coulters which make the drtils 
are each fixed to a leyer, at one end 
of which, B, a weight is fixed to press 
the coulter into the ground. Eadi 
coulter has a separate lerer, so that 
it adapts itself to all the inequalities 
of the soil A chain proceeds from 
the end of each« and may be wound 
round a cylinder, G, by turning the 
handles fi^ to it at H, where thero 
is also a racket-wheel to preyent its 
unwinding. The intent of this is to 
raise all the coulters out of the ground 
when the drill is not intended to act, 
or is moved from place to place. 
When the drill is used, the box A is 
fOled with seed, and the slide in it so 
adjusted as to supply it reaularly; 
the lever 6, which was fixed down, 
a raised, and the wheel D connected 
with the wheel E. As the horses 



proceed the cylinder toma, the cops 
take up the seed, and throw it into 
the funnels, K K, which conduct it to 
the driQ behind the coulter. A light 
harrow or a buah-harrow follows, 
which covers the seed. In very loose 
soils the roller completes the opera- 
tion. 

Other forms and modifications of 
this class of machines exist; thus, a 
patent was taken out by Mr. Horosby 
for a drill to sow at intervals instead 
of along the whole line. In the Uni- 
ted States, drills haye not been much 
used ; Bement*§ is similar to the one 
in Fig. 1, and is somewhat employ- 
ed for beans. Messrs. Pennoca, of 
Pennsylvania, have a patent for a 
grain drill of considerable merit and 
success. 

From the negfect with which such 
contrivances have been treated, some 
may suppose that they are not of 
much yalue ; this is by no means the 
case, as the following summaxy by 
Mr. Binns shows : 

I. The seed is deliyered with reg- 
ularity. 

3. It is deposited at proper depths. 

3. The weeds, during the growth 
of plants, are destroyed with great 
facility. 

4. The plants onltiyated receive 
the undiyided benefit of the soil and 
manure, and have not to maintain a 
constant struggle with weeds. 

6. The land, by the process of hoe- 
ing, is undergoing preparationa for 
another crop. 

6. The necessity of summer fallow- 
ing is ayoided. 

7. By admission of the sun and air 
between the rows, a stronger and 
healthier plant is produced, and of 
course a heayier crop. 

6. By stirring the soil it is more 
susceptible of benefit from the atmo- 
sphere, imbibing bore oxy^n, and 
being both warmed and enriched by 
the sun. 

9. The roots shoot freely in pul- 
yehzed soiL 

10. By drilling, the farmer is en- 
abled to haye heayier crops of beans 
and wheat on light land. 

II. Cloyer and grass seeds anawor 



WILL iuoniia& 



-DRY 

tneomparably better in the polYerin- 
tion produced by hoeing, independent 
of the clearness from weeds. 

13. The drills give facility for de- 
positing smaller portions or manure 
with greater eiSect. 

A saving of half the seed is also 
eflfected. But, on the other hand, the 
expense of hoeing wheat, dco., very 
much increases the price of cultiva- 
tion ; although it is, according to the 
evidence of practical men, repaid by 
the large increase of crop. 

The soils most benefited by this 
operation are light, sandy, and calca- 
reons ; on clays, the treading causes 
too much stiffening. 

Such crops as beans, pease, cot- 
ton, turnips, carrots, and beets are 
now most usually sown in drills with 
the greatest advantage. Such rough 
seeds as carrots require to be first 
well rubbed with sand to remove the 
spines. 

DRILL ROLLER. A roUer fur- 
nished with a number of sharp rings 
projecting from the surface, which 
cut the earth and leave driUs to sow 
seeds in : it is only suitable on light 
soils. 

DROPSY. See Horse, &c. 

DROSOM£T£R (from dpoaof, dew, 
Bxid fierpcv, a meamre). An^ arrange- 
ment for measuring or weighing the 
quantity of dew falling at any given 
time. Dr. Wells^s contrivance is the 
simplest ; he exposed a known weight 
of dry wool, and afterward weighing 
it when saturated with dew, obtained 
a measure of the increase of moist- 
ure. 

DRUPE. In botany, a one-celled, 
one or two seeded, fleshy fruit ; as the 
cherry, plum, peach. 

DRY DISTILLATION. The same 
as Destructive Distillation. 

DRYING OIL. This usually 
means Unseed oil which has been 
boiled with white-lead. It forms the 
basis of mauv paints. 

DRY ROT. A rotting or decay of 
wood, whereby it falls gradually into 
powder. It is produced by the action 
of numerous parasitical fungi, prob- 
ably of the genus S^otrichum. It is 
moat usually aeen m the new wood, 
X% 



DUC 

and in damp situations, and may be 
perfectly prevented by saturating the 
timber with several metallic sokitions, 
of which blue nitriol (sulphate of cop- 
per), acetate of iron {j^yroUgnate), and 
oorroeive sublimate are most certain. 
Allowing wood to be immersed in a 
cream of lime, in tar, &c., for some 
weeks, or perfectly drying and slight- 
ly charring the timber, is an easy ore* 
ventlve. The roethods of preser* 
vation by using metallic solutions are 
termed Kyantztng, and are now ac- 
complished with extensive machines, 
for the purpose of expediting the pen* 
etration of the fluid. In these cases 
the albumen of the wood, which is 
most liable to change, is disorgan- 
ized and rendered nearly incorrupti- 
ble. See Preseroation of Timber. 

DRY STOVE. A hot-house, in 
which the air is kept very dry for trop- 
ical-plants derived from arid dimates, 
as cactuses. 

DUCK. Many species of the genus 
Anas. The common duck is econom- 
ical ; one drake serves eight females. 
The house should be dean and pro- 
vided with nests. They are very fond 
of insects, and slugs, toads, du3. The 
female lays from fifty to sixty eggs 
during March to May; she sets a 
month, and should be sparingly sup- 
plied with moist food and kept away 
firora disturbance. The you ag should 
not be allowed to go to the water at 
first, but supplied with a little in a 
hole : the duck must be kept cooped. 
The ducklings are first to be fed on 
bread crumbs soaked in milk, and 
subsequently used to meal and herbs. 
The feathers are valuable, and should 
be phicked as soon as the animal is 
desd: September and October are the 
best times. It is usual to hatch ducks' 
eggs under hens, which are better 
nurses. The Muscovy being larger, 
is preferred to the common duck by 
many, but is not as tender. 

DUCTILITY. The property of be- 
ing drawn or beaten into a fine film. 
Gold, platinum, and silver are the 
most ductile of metals. 

DUCTS. The tubes or tubular 
vessels found in the wood, roots, 
leaves, dbc., of plants, which do not 

MS 



DWA 

contain a abre capable of nnroUiaf . 
Tbey are marked with dots, bars, dtc., 
and are probably the channels in 
whicVi 8pme part of the aacending aap 

flOVB. , , 

DUMOSE (from dumu9, a bush). 

Bushy. 

DUNES. HiUocka of drift sand 
fonnd on the seaooast of New-Eng- 
land and elsewhere. They are very 
destmctiye to agriculture, and are to 
be arrested only by growing long-root- 
ed reed grasses, trees, dec., on them. 
Species of AruiuU> and Elymus have 
thus been made to arrest their ad- 
▼anoement towards cultivated lands. 

DUNG. See Farm-yard Manure, 
Nigh^scU. 

DUODENUM. The intestine im- 
mediately next to the stomach. 

DURA MATER. The fibrous cov- 
ering of the brain. 

DURAMEN. The heart wood. 

DURHAM C.\TTLE. See Cattle. 

DWARF TREES. The art of cul- 
tivating fruit-trees of moderate or 
dwarf size in the place of large, nat- 
ural standards is an important poiat 
in horticulture. Dwarfs are procured 
by grafting on slow-growing, small 
varieties, as the apple or pear on the 
luince stock ; by raising seedlings in 
pots, and transplanting into poor, bar- 
ren soils, or by causing a branch to 
take root and allowing it to fruit as 
early as possible. lapping off the 
upright branches is the more common 
method of hindering trees from grow- 
ing too lofty. Fancy gardeners often 
procure ornamental dwarfs of the or- 
ange by grafting a cutting with dow- 
er buds on a root and allowing it to 
fruit. The Chinese are very curi- 
ous in the cultivation of ornamental 
dwarfs ; the following is the method 
employed by them : 

** The extremity of a branch, two 
or three feet in length, in a fruit or 
flower bearing state— for example, 
the points of the branches of a fir- 
tree bearing cones, or of an elm bear- 
ing blossom buds — being iixed on, a 
ring of bark is taken off at the point 
where it is desired that the roots 
should be produced. The space thus 
laid bare is covered with a ball of 



DYN . V 

moist day, which is kept moist by 
being covered with moss, which is 
occasionally watered. In the course 
of two or three months in some trees, 
and of a year or two in others, roots 
are protruded into the ball of clay. 
The branch may then be cut off be- 
low the part from whence the roots, 
have been protruded, and the branch 
being planted in a pot of poor soil, 
and kept sparingly supplied with war- 
ter, it will remain nearly in its pres- 
ent state for many years, producing 
leaves, and, perhaps, flowers, annual- 
ly, but never shoots longer than a few 
lines." 

DYEING. See Cotton Dyeing, and 
the different colours. 

DYERS BROOM. See Wood 
Waxen. 

DYER'S WEED. Weld. 

DYKE. A low earthen wall; an 
embankment. In geology, a mass of 
condensed mineral matter, such as 
granite, porphyry, basalt, trap, &c., 
found intersecting strata, and evi- 
dently produced by injection, in a 
molten condition, through the strata. 
They have been formp I during vio- 
lent earthquakes, an<' are very im- 
portant as fi»rming an impervious 
barrier to the drainage of land, and 
giving rise to springs on hillsides. 

DYNAMICS (from 6vvatiic, power). 
The science which examines the laws 
and conditions of motion, in contra- 
distinction to mechanics, which in- 
vestigates the conditions of rest and 
action of forces not producing mo- 
tion. 

DYNAMOMETER (from dwamc, 
and fierpovt a measure). An instrument 
for the purpose of measuring the 
amount of strength or force exerted 
in any draught, &c. In ascertaining 
the draught for ploughs and other 
agricultural implements, dynamome- 
ters are now regularly introduced. 
The commonest is Regnier's, consist- 
ing of two semi-elliptical bars of steel 
welded together at the ends, one of 
which is affixed to the clevis of the 
plough and the other to the hook of 
the swinging trees. As draught is 
made the springs are pulled closer 
together^ and set an index in motioa 



DYNAMOMETER. 



over a clock face marked into poands 
and bandreds. Leroy's joDplement 
!■  stroag tpriog enclosed ia a 
box or ea«t iiuo, aod in trerj re- 
spect Biniilar to Salter's spriag bal- 

The objection urged agsinst Uiese 
drnaiaoineteTe ia, that (be inequali- 
ties of the soil produces so much vi- 
btBtion in the iodex tbat do satiarao- 
toTy measuies can be made. Tbe 
following coQtriTance to obviate this 
is the beel proposed : 

" The unprovement consists in the 
attachment of a sniall brass pump 
filled with oil, the piston of which 
baa one or two Bmall apertures. . 



There being do outlet from Uie pon^ 

it is evideot that when aoj shock oo- 
CUTS, caused bjr a stone, root, &0h 
the oil ha*iDg to pass from one side 
of the piscoo to the other, the sud- 
denness is greatly diminished bj ibe 
resistance, producing a correspoDd- 
ing effect upon ttie pointer, which, as 
tbesa shocks are rapid, tibraies near- 
er the actual draught uf the Dtacbius, 
which is the object in tiew, and not 
the msasnreneal of any impediment, 
but a mean result of tbe whole." 

Fig. 1 represents an extempor«n»- 
ouB dyoamomewr reeommeaded by 
Mr. Cone, in the American Agricut 




h f* tbe beam of the |4oa|h ; c, 
common swinging trees ; h is an 
ordinary steelyard hitched on to the 
olevts and trees : the end of the yard 
is fastened to a line which passes 
fmrn the hook of a common spring 
balance, d, the other end of which is 
alsoattacbedtoanothcrlinetiedlothe 
iefl handle of the plough. When the 
horses pull, the steelyard lies in the 
line of liraogbt, and therefore draws 
upon the balance, the sliding rod of 
which is pulled out tu en extent pro- 
portionate to the draught. 

For the purpose of making unifonn 
implemcntB, Mr. Cone proposes that 
the steelyard be construcled so that 
1 lb. shsll equipoise 3S lbs. near the 
point of suspension, as in Fig. S. 
Adopting this, the measure of draught 
ia readily made ; for if the spring is 
drawn ont to ID lbs., we molti^y ij 



3S 

the draught 330 lbs. ; the number of 
lbs. indicated by the spring is always 
added to the sum, for that weight 
would be necessary at the beani end 
to balance it. and must not be omit- 
ted. Any Bloelyard answers; and W8 
may fasten the line at any convenient 
mark, taking care afterward to mul- 
tiply the weight on the yard by tbat 
on the spring, and ■dding as many 
S47 



EAR 

lbs. as would be necessary to balance 
the steelyard. Thre is, however, only 
a coarse measare for the convenience 
of the farmer, to enable him to ascer* 
tain the draught of two diflbrent 
ploughs, &JC. 

DYSENTERY (from iJvc, difficulty, 
and evrepOj bowels). A looseness of 
the bowels, attended with great pain 
and loss of strength, and endemic. 
See Horse, Ox. 

DYSPEPSIA (from cbf, difficulty, 
and TreTT'ra, I digest). Disordered di- 
gestion, loss of appetite, unnatural 
appetite, 6lc. It is to be repaired by 
simple diet, temperance, and exer- 
cise 

DYSPNCEA (from M, difficulty, 
and irveu, / hreathe). Difficulty of 
breathing : a symptom of disease of 
the chest or heart. 

E. 

EAR. In a horse, the ears should 
be small, narrow, straight, and the 
substance of them thin and delicate. 
They should be placed on the very 
top of the head ; and their points, 
when pricked up, should l>c nearer 
together than their roots. When a 
horse carries his cars pointed for- 
ward, he is said to have a bold or 
brisk ear. In travelling, it is cqpsid- 
ered an advantage when the horse 
keeps them firm. 

EARS OF GRAIN. The spike 
of wheat, corn, barley. 

EARTH. In chemistry, those me- 
tallic oxides which are colourless, 
nearly or quite insoluble in water, 
the metallic basis of which is obtain- 
ed only with difficulty, and rapidly 
oxidizes, are termed earths. The 
entire list includes but ten species : 
lime, magnesia, baryta, strontia, alu- 
mina, glucina, thorina, zirconia, yt- 
tria, and silica ; but of these lime, 
alumina, and silica form the bulk of 
the soils and rocks of the globe. 
Magnesia is also rather abundant, 
but most of the remainder are very 
rare bodies. With the exception of 
silica, which is an acid, they are ba- 
ses. See the earths separately. 

EARTHS, PHYSICAL PROPER- 
TIES OF. The power of absorbing 
248 



EAR 

moisture and beat, of transmitting 
fluids, and drying into dust or a hard 
mass, are term^ the physical quali- 
ties of soils, and contribute, in a great 
measare, to their fertility. This sub- 
ject has been well investigated hf 
Mr. Schnbler. 

Capacity for holding Water. — If 
soils of ditferent kinds be wetted un- 
til the fluid drops, it will be found 
that 

100 of dry sand retain 25 of water. 
100 of calcareous sanil 29 * * 
100 of loamy soil . . 40 ** 
100 of clay loam . . 50 '< 
100 of strong day . 79 *' 
100 of peat 100 and more 

Good soils hold from forty to fifty 

per cent, of water. 
Absorbing Power. — Soils not only 

bold water, but absorb it from the air 

unequally. Thus, a quantity spread 

out to the same extent, 

Iba. 
of sand, absorbed . of water, 
of calcareous sand . 3 ** 
sandy loam ... 21 
strong clay ... 90 
garden mould ... 35 

In the same way, they retain moist- 
ure very unequally, sand losing it 
four times more rapidly than mould. 

Absorption of Gases. — A well-tilled 
soil is continually absorbing from the 
air gaseous matter, and its fertility 
is, in a considerable degree, connect- 
ed with this property. According to 
Mr. Schubler, mould absorbs eleven 
times, and clay nine times as fast as 
sand. 

Absorption of Heat. -^Bl^ck, well- 
tilled, and drained soils become more 
rapidly heated, and to a greater de- 
gree than such as are wet, of a light 
colour, or baked. In the same way, 
those that heat rapidly, cool rapidly, 
and are more subject to frosts. By 
experiments, mould cools in one third 
the time, and clay in two thirds the 
time of sand; so that, if tliey be 
equally healed, the sand will be warm 
for hours after the mould is cold. 
Hence the latter absorbs dew and con- 
tracts frost much more quickly than 
sandy soils. 



(• 



u 

tt 









It 



Adhesiveness, or the ton^neas of 
tends, is of moment in working. Mr. 
Pusey meaj^ured the force necessary 
to draw the same plough through dif- 
ferent soils, and found it for a 

peat soil .... 280 pounds, 

sandy loam . . . 260 

loamy sand . . . 230 

clay loam . . . 400 

strong elay . . . 661 
When this is considerable in point 
of expense, it appears that it requires 
nearly three times as much money to 
turn a clay as H does a sandy soil. 

The physical qualities, when im- 
perfect, can be modified. Sand, ve- 
getable matter, charcoal, and lime, 
are used to lighten soils ; day and 
marls to stiffen those already too po- 
rous. The character of any field de- 
pends, in a great measure, upon the 
subsoil ; for upon a very porous sub- 
soil a stiff clay is good to retain a 
large quantity of water, whereas very 
light lands are greatly improved by 
an impervious subsoil. 

EARTH EATING. Horses and 
oxen frequently eat a small amount 
of earth. This, if persevered la, in- 
dicates disordered digestjon. It is 
supposed by Youatt that the earth 
may serve as a gentle purge. 

EARTH NUTS. Numerous bulbs 
are edible, and hence are called earth 
nuts. The principal is the Pindar^ 
which see. 

. EARTH-WORM. Ijufiihicus ter- 
restris. Earth-worms are, on the 
whole, serviceable to soils, by loosen- 
ing and perforating them, and are said 
to injure plants and seeds but little. 
They indicate rich soil Salt, applied 
at the rate often bushels the acre, or 
a heavy Uming, destroys thorn effeet- 
ualiy for a season. 

EARTHY MANURES. Marl. 
Ihne, clay, and sand are so called. 
They should rather be termed amend- 
ments, since they serve to give the 
soil new mechanical qualities. 

EARWIG. Fwfiada auricuUtris, 
A troublesome insect in Europe, but 
rare in the United States. 

EBULLITION. BoiUng. The 
boiling point of different fluids is oft- 
en of great importance. Water boils 



Eue 

at 318^ alcohol at l76o, sulphnrio 
acid at 600°, Mercury at 662'^, lin- 
seed oil at 640°, oil of turpentine at 
316°, nitric acid at 248°, and ether 
at 100°. 

EDULCORATION. A chemioal 
term, meaning the repeated washing 
by pure water of precipitates or pow- 
ders until they are freed from soluble 
impurities. 

EFFERVESCENCE. The dia- 
turbance made in a fluid by the es- 
cape of gas. 

EFFLORESCENCE. Some salts, 
like carbonate of soda or soda asb, 
by exposure to air lose their trans- 
parency, and become white, crum- 
bling into powder. This is termed 
efflorescence. The same expression 
also designates the appearance of 
crystals upon earthy, rocky, or other 
mineral surfaces. 

EGGS. The white is a solution ot 
albumen with soda, and contains 85 
per cent, of water ; tbe yellow con- 
sists of 28-75 fat, 17-6 albumen, 55 
salts, and the rest water. They are 
eminently nutritive. Eggs are pre- 
served by being packed, with the 
small end downward, in salt; they 
are also dipped into a cream of lime. 
The box in which they are packed 
should be turned upside down every 
two or three weeks, to hinder the 
yolks from settling. The duty on 
eggs in England of two cents a dozen 
may render their exportation profita- 
ble; immense numbers are now sent 
there from France. Eggs are read- 
ily hatched by artificial heat, and a 
machine called the " Eccaleobion" 
has been exhibited for this purpose, 
in which steam is used. 

EGG PLANT. SoUmum fnOonge- 
na, Tbe purple kind is used for culin- 
ary purposes, and is mueh esteem- 
ed by many persons : the white, bear- 
ing a fruit very similar to a hen*s 
egg, is ornamentaL The seed must 
be sown in a hot-bed in March, and 
the plants taken with a ball of earth, 
and set out in warm weatl^er (April 
or May), about two feet apart ; they 
require a rich, warm s<m1, and bear, 
in August and September, fruit often 
I as large as a large muskmelon. The 

848 



ELA 



ELI> 



Irnit of the white 16 used ill France 
as food. As they contain an acrid 
principle, care is taken in the cooking 
t6 remove it ; this is done by warm- 
ing thin slices' in water, or allowing 
it to steep in salt and water over 
night, draining off the fluid, washing 
well in fresh water, and then firing 
in batter, &c. An ounce of good 
seed yields 4000 plants. The ut- 
most care is necessary to preserre 
the young plants from being chilled 
to death in the Northern States : it is 
altogether a tender yegetable. 

7%e <S. iN#am«m, or downy egg 
plant, is occasionally eultiyated in the 
United States. 

EGYPTIAN CORN. Sorghum. 
An annual resembling broom com, 
but. producing a large, exposed ear, 
with small, brown grains, condensed 
together. It is to be planted and 
managed like corn, but may be set 
rather closer. The yield of grain is 
from 75 to 100 bushels ; it is recom- 
mended for poultry. The fodder ap- 
pears to be inferior to that of Indian 
com, and, excepting the yield, there 
does not seem to be anything to in- 
duce the cultivation. 

ELAIN (from IAomv, oil). The 
fluid oil existing in fats, dec., which 
may be separated by pressure, by cold, 
or by digesting in seven or eight times 
its weight of boiling alcohol, which 
acts upon the fat or tallow in such a 
way that the elain floats above the 
alcoholic solution, and the solid, or 
stearin, sinks below when cold. See 
PtUs. 

ELASTICITY. The power cer- 
tain bodies possess of returning back 
to their original bulk or position when 
bent or compressed. Gases are the 
most elastic bodies known, fluids the 
least, and metals differ exceedingly 
in this respect. 

Heating metals to a certain point 
and suddenly cooling by immersion 
in water imparts elasticity in some 
cases ; steaming timbers also in- 
creases the quality, for the time, in a 
great measure. 

*' The principal phenomena of elas- 
tic bodies are the following : I. Thtti 
an elastic body (the elasticity being 
350 



supposed perfect) exerts the same 
force in endeavouring to restore it- 
self as that with which it was com- 
pressed or bent. 2. The force of 
elastic bodies is exerted equally in 
all directions, but the effect chiefly 
takes place on the side on which the 
resistance is the least. 3. When an 
elastic solid body is made to vibrate 
by a sudden stroke, Uie vibrations 
are performed in equal times, to 
whatever part of the body the stroke 
may be communicated. Thus, sono- 
rous bodies always emit sounds of 
the same pitch; and the difference 
of the piush depends on the greater or 
less frequency of the vibrations of 
the sonorous body. • 4. A body per- 
fectly incompressible cannot be elas- 
tic, therefore bodies perfectly solid 
can have no elasticity ; and hence, 
also, the small degree of elasticity 
belonging to the liquids, which are em- 
inently incompressible." — {Brande.) 

ELATER (from eXartip, a Uaper). 
A genus of spring beetles ; they are 
vegetable feeders, the larve doing 
occasionally much mischief to garden 
plants by gnawing the roots. The 
Elater nocHlueuM is our conunon fire- 
fly, the E. lineatut the wire-worm in- 
sect. 

ELATERIUM. MomoriicA deU- 
rium. Squirting cucumber. An in- 
digenous annual vine, bearing a small 
fruit like the cucumber, the juice of 
which is a drastic purge. 

ELBOW. The shoulder-joint of 
cattle. A bend in carpentry. 

ELDER. Two varieties are in- 
digenous to the United States : Sam- 
bucus Canadensuj the common pest 
of hedge-rows and margins of ponds, 
and S. pube^censt bearing a red berry, 
common in the mountains of Penn- 
sylvania. The black elder is of con* 
siderable economical value ; the juice 
of the berries, fermented with sugar, 
forms an agreeable wine ; a decoction 
of the fresh leaves is very obnoxious 
to insects, and may be extensively 
used in the garden ; it is also offen- 
sive to moles. Sheep are said to se- 
lect the leaves as a natural remedy 
in rot. The plants, which grow from 
eight to fifteen feet high, are recom- 



mended as a dieap bed^e. On the 

other hand, it is a great nuisance on 
wet lands, from the rapidity of its 
growth, bat may be destroyed by cut- 
ting down two or thrc^ times during 
the sammer» and grubbing in the fall. 

ELDER, BOX. A common name 
for the ash-leaved maple. 

ELECAMPANE. Inula Helenivm, 
A naturalized composite perennial, 
yielding roots with a bitter, aromatic 
taste. It is of little importance. 

ELECTIVE AFFINITY. A chem- 
ical term, meaning the preference ex- 
erted by a body to combine with an- 
other in place of one already in anion. 
Thus, potash will unite with sulphu- 
ric acid, although it be already com- 
bined with iron ; the iron is separa- 
ted, and gives place to the potash, 
which is preferred or elected. It is 
governed by electrical forces, like aJl 
other cases of chemical union. 

ELECTRICITY. A peculiar in- 
Aaence or force, which is made evi- 
dent by attracting light bodies, pro- 
ducing a spark, or jarring the body of 
animals. Some consider it material, 
although its weight cannot be meas- 
tired ; hence the term imponderable, 
applied to electricity, light, and heat. 

"This truly extraordinary power of 
matter, independent of the interest 
that atways belonged to it, has of 
late years acquired much importance, 
from its influence over chemical phe- 
iKMnena and its connexion with those 
of magnetism. When a clean glass 
tube is nibbed with the dry hand, or 
with a piece of silk, it attracts and re- 
pels any light substances — such as 
feathers, bran, or little pieces of pa- 
per — which are brought near it; a 
stick of sealing-wax rubbed upon dry 
dannel exhibits the same appearan- 
ces, and, to a superficial observer, 
seems to be exactly in the same state 
as the glass ; and they are said to be 
electri<^ly excited. But, on more 
close examination, it is found that 
when the light bodies are altracUd by 
excited glass, they are repelledbj exci- 
ted sealing-wax, and vice versa, so that 
the glass and wax are said to be in 
cppotiu electric states ; and hence the 
terms vitreous and resinous f or positive 



£LE 

and negative electricity. But these 
two states are always coexistent ; 
thus, when the glass is rubbed by silk 
the glass becomes positive, but the 
silk becomes negative; and in the 
case of sealing-wax rubbed by flan- 
nel, the wax is negative, but the flan- 
nel is positiva 

" A similar excitation of electrici- 
ty is seen in an infinity of other ca- 
ses ; as when we rub a cat*s back 
with the hand, or a piece of silk rib- 
and is drawn briskly between the fin- 
gers, or a sheet of paper rubbed with 
India rubber, or a metal rod with a 
silk handkerchief These, and other 
extraordinary phenon^pna connected 
with them, are hypothetically refer- 
red to the presence of a peculiar form 
of matter, called the electric fiuid ; it 
is supposed to appertain to all mat- 
ter, but to become evident only when 
in redundance or deficiency. When 
glass is rubbed with silk, the equilib- 
rium of the electric fluid is disturbed, 
the silk imparts it to the glass ; and 
hence the former, losing electricity, 
becomes minus or negative, and the 
latter, acquiring electricity, becomes 
plus ox positive. This is commonly 
called * Franklin's theory,' having 
been proposed and defended by that 
celebrated electrician. Others have 
assumed the existence of tico fluids 
as essential to the explanation of 
electrical phenomena; both equally 
subtile, elastic, and universally diflfu- 
sed, and each highly repulsive as to 
its own particles, and attractive of 
those of the opposite kind. Electri- 
cal quiescence is referred to the com- 
bination of these fluids and their con- 
sequent mutual neutralization ; and 
electrical excitation is the conse- 
quence of either being free or in ex- 
cess. It is supposed that they are 
separated by friction, and by all those 
other causes which give rise to the 
appearance of free electricity. Either 
of these hypotheses may be adopted 
as facilitating the explanation of elec- 
trical phenomena, and as conferring 
meaning on terms which would oth- 
erwise be unintelligible : of the two. 
the simplest, or that which refers the 
phenomena to one fluid, is perhaps 

251 



ELEOTRICmr. 



the most generally aptiHcaUe. Both 
are, apparently, equally consistent 
with facta ; but the existence of any 
fluid, or fonn of matter, as the cauae 
of electrical phenomena, is at best 
extremely problematical. 

** There are two series of distinct 
I^enomena represented by electrified 
bodies : the one seems to resolt from 
the accumalation of electricity upon 
the surface of bodies ; they are com- 
monly included under the term eUeiri- 
eiiy of tension^ and are well exhibited 
by the common electrical machine 
and its prime conductor. It affects, 
all neighbouring bodies ; and they are 
thrown by it itto a polar electrical 
state, by what is termed iTtduetion : 
it has a tendency to pass off in sparks 
through the air, or gradually tu escape 
from points. The thunder-storm fur- 
nishes a magnificent specimen of this 
state of electricity. The other state 
of sensible electricity is that exhibit- 
ed by electricity in motion; as when 
a current of electricity is passing 
through a wire or other conducting 
medium : in this case a vast quantity 
of electricity may be concern^ in the 
phenomena without any apparent m- 
Untity ; but while the current is con- 
tinuous it produces magnetic phe- 
nomena of a most extraordinary char- 
acter ; and when the perfect conduct- 
or is broken by the intervention of 
certain other media, they suffer, in 
some cases, chemical decomposition, 
and in others become heated, and 
even ignited. The phenomena of 
electricity in motion are best exhib- 
ited by the Voltaic apparatus. 

"In all electrical experiments, re- 
markable differences are observed in 
respect to the transfer of the electric 
fluid through different bodies : some, 
such as the metals, allow its free and 
nearly unimpeded passage through 
their substance ; while others receive 
and retain it more superficially, such 
as glass, resin, and other substances 
which exhibit attractive and repul- 
sive powers when rubbed. Hence 
the division of bodies into conductors 
and non-conductors. 

" Many most important electrical 
phenomena depend, apparently, upon 
253 



5 



indneUm, a enbjeet wbteli km taes 

ably studied by Faraday. We shall 
here enter into euch details only as 
are required to render aome of the 
principal terms employed in diecaaa- 
ing electrical phenomena intelligible. 
** If P + represent a metallic sphere 
in a highly positive w c * 
electric state, and N ® if' 
P a metallic conduct' 
or in its vicinity tii- 
sulatcd upon a glass 
stem, it will be found that the ex- 
tremity N of N P ia negative, while 
the other extremity, P, is paniive^ 
and that these opposite electricities 
are greatest at the extremities of the 
conductor, and gradually diminish to- 
wards the centre line, C, which is 
neutral. This extraordinary state of 
excitation in N P is entirely depend* 
ant upon the proximity of P -^ ; for 
if P -f be withdrawn, N P loses all 
appearance of electricity ; and the 
degree of excitement in it is directly 
proportional to the extent to whicti 
F -|- ia excited, and (within oertaiA 
limits) to its nearness to N ; so that 
fluctuations in the electricity of N P 
will be observed in proportion as P -f- 
is brought towards or removed frooa 
N, provided they are not brought into 
coniMif and that no spark passes. 
These phenomena have been theoret- 
ically explained upon the suppositioa 
that the free electricity in P -f' ^^ 
turbs the equilibrium of the natural 
electricity of N P, and, by repelling H 
from N to P, leaves the former mimtM 
and the latter plus. Or, if we assume 
the existence of two electric fluids, 
then the free positive electricity of 
P -f- repels the positive fluid of N P, 
and attracts its negative fluid, throw- 
ing it into an electro-polar state. If 
N P, instead of being insulated, be 
connected by its extremity, P, with 
the ground, the accumulation at P 
is prevented, while N retains its de- 
ficient or negative state ; or, upon the 
other theory, the positive fluid at P is 
neutralized by a supply of negative 
fluid from the earth; and if, after 
having effected this by momentarily 
touching N P with the finger, we sud- 
denly remove P -f-t ^he insulated oon- 



ELECnUCITT. 



doeter, N P, iriH b« left vtlh an ex- 1 
cess ofnegatrvB eleelripily. 

" It wiJI bo ubTjuuH, (torn the above 
etatemeni, Itial when light bodlei, ei- 
peoially if they be conductor, are a^ 
tracted by electrified BurfacBB in their 
Ticinily. Ihey are thrown by irdoc- 
tton ipto oi^Knite electrical states ; 
and when the hand is brought near 
the eicited conduct wrof the eleotrica] 
machine, it becomes negaliTe, and 
reiDuns so until the equilibiiam Is 
restored by the passage of a spark ; 
which phenomenon ia supposed to be 
the result of the combination of the 
two electric fluide. 

"Many important phenomena of 

I electrical accumulation are 
explained by reference to the 
principles of induction, and 
among thpni the action of the 
Ltydem jar, or rial. A Ihin 
glasa jar,orholtle, A, is coat- 
ed inside and out, to within 
three or four inches of its mouth, with 
»ome coodncting substance 1 tinfoil, 
being especially convenient for the 
purpose, is generally used ; and a 
metallic rod, projecting a few inches 
fnim the aperture, and surmounted 
byabrassball, fl, eooimunicaleswith 
the interior coating. 

"When the hall is applied to the 
prime conductor of the electrical ma- 
chine, and the outer coating commu- 
nicates with the ground, the interior 
Boqoircs a positive and the exterior 
a negative charge -, and on making a 



ductor between the inner and outer 
coatings, the electricities are annihi- 
lated with the prodaclkin of  bright 
■park and expioHion, and by a most 
disagreeable aensatinn, called the 
eUaHc ahock, i[ the body be made 
part of the eiraiit. When aeveral 
jars are so arranged that their inte- 
rior aad exterior coalings are all sep- 
arately connected, the assemblage 
conslilntes the elettrical battery. 

"Id the common dictrieal maehintt, 
electricity is excited by the fritiim of 
tbeplaleorcylinderof glass apon the 
ousbionB or rubbers ; and the glass 
beoomea positive, and commnnicatea 
tbe same atate to the opposed con- 



daeUir, geneiallir termed the jmrn* 

rnnriiif(or ciCthp machine ; the rubber 

connected with a secund conductor. 
annexed ligure 




is by the mill- 



glass cylinder, 
which is made 
to revolve upon its a' 
tipiying wheels, F C, the'i 
friction for the electric excitation be- 
ing produced by the cushion and silk 
Hap. D. .\ A are the positive and 
negative conductors : thelalter.bear- 
ing the cushion, is adjusted as to its 
requisite pressure upon the cylinder 
by the screw at E. The conductors 
are respectively supported and insu- 
lated by the glass pillars O G, which 
should be coated with lac varnish; 
and the axis of the cylinder rests upon 
the pillars H H, which are also of 
glass. The second figure represents 
the plau machine, usually termed 
Cuthbertson's machine, in which A 
is the prime con- 
due tor, borne by 
a stout glass stem 
which is attached 
to the Crameof the 
machine. B B are 
the upper and low- 
er pairs of cush- 
ions, by which, to- 
gether with the 
silk flaps, CC, the 
necessary friction 

is obtained. E is the disk of plate 
glass, which is made to revolve upon 
its axis by the winch P. In this ma- 
chine, as the cushions or rubbers are 
not insulated, the negative electrici- 
ty cannot be separately accumulated 
or exhibited, aa in the cylinder ma- 

" There are many other aiidhighl7 
Important causes of eiectrio excit»- 
tion than thoM above adverted to; 



£LE 



yj.Tg 



Boeh as oontaot of ditftrent metals.'* 

See Galvanism. — {BrawWs Diet.) 

ELECTRICITY APPLIED TO 
AGRICULTURE. Much interest has 
been taken of late in the application 
of this agent to forwarding garden 
vegetables, and indeed field crops. 
Two plans are pursued. Wires are 

Wire. 



supported upon a trelKs nnmlag north 

and south, at a height of four or six 
feet ; at the ends of each trellis they 
are bent down to the ground and 
about three inches below it, and are 
oonveyed at this depth through the 
soil, from one to the other end, so that 
the wire forms a parallelogram, thus : 




Wire. 

A number of these, at diatauces of 
two to four feet, are arranged through 
the field, and the grain or plants sown 
on the soil or in drills. It is stated 
on good authority that rye, <iats, 
wheat, d&c., so treated are singularly 
developed and advanced in maturity : 
it may be worthy of trial In this 
case the atmospheric electricity is 
supposed to act. 

The second plan is a galvanic ar- 
rangement, but may be best intro- 
duced here. I^rge plates of sheet 
copper and zinc are used, the size 
depending upon the distance at which 
they are placed : 18 inches deep and 
three feet long may be used at a dis- 
tance of 50 feet ; these are sunk into 
the soil vertically, excepting three 



Sorfaott of tbo Mjth« 



inches of the top, which is left ex- 
posed ; from one to the other pass- 
es a stout copper wire, which is 
well soldered to both and sustained 
by a few sticks or a trellis. Such an 
arrangement may be made to enclose 
four or five drills of potatoes, carrots, 
parsnips, 6lc. The fluid of the earth» 
acting on the zinc, produces a corro- 
sion, which gives rise to the galvanic 
or electric current that traverses the 
soil, and is said to cause plants to 
grow very rapidly. This experiment, 
tried with potatoes by Mr. Ross on 
Long Island, was very successful, in 
his opinion ; it is so manageable and 
cheap as to be worthy of considera* 
tion to market gardeners. The whole 
will appear thus : 



Wire tupportod hj vtieltB ftboT» th« aoil. 



•«• •«fl%MB«^i»« ••••••* •—#■•■•» a********^ 




Sarfme« of the toiL 



Zino plate. 

ELECTRODE (from iyA«ifTpov, and 
660C1 o vay). The surfaces by which 
electricity passes into and out of oth- 
er media have been called by Mr. 
Faraday electrode*. The term has 
also sometimes been derived from 
tf^^KTpov^ amber^ and etSoc, like^ and 
applied to substances which, like am- 
ber, become electric by friction. 

ELECTRO-DYNAMICS (from 
ifXexTpoVt and ^wofUCt pavfer). The 
phenomena of electxicity in motion. 



Copper plate. 



ELECTROLYTE (from vXtKrpov^ 
and Xv6i, I set free). Substances sus- 
ceptible of direct decomposition by 
the action of the electric current: 
hence, also, the verb eUctrolyze, t. c., 
to. resolve compounds into their ele- 
ments by the agency of electricity. 
Faraday has shown that in many 
supposed cases of electrolysis tho 
evolution of elements is the conse- 
quence of a secondary action ; the 
sulphur, for instance, which is thuQ 



BLB 



ELE 



etoTred ' at the negathre pole firom 
solphnric acid, is the result of the er- 
olntion of hydrogen at that pole. In 
ail cases of true electrolytic action, 
sulphur appears at the anode. 

ELECTRO-MAGNETISM. When 
a current of electricity is traTersing 
any subetance, or when electricity is 
m motion, magnetism is at the same 
thne developed. This fact was first 
obserred by Professor Oersted of Co- 
penhagen, and has become the source 
of an important series of disooyeries 
included under the above term. The 
excitation of magnetism depends 
upon quantity of electricity, and is 
best observed in the wire which clo- 
sea the voltaic circle, especially of 
one or more pairs of large plates. If 
a magnetic needle be brought near a 
wire through which an electric cur- 
rent is passing, it will immediately 
deviate from its usual position, and 
assume a new one, dependant npon 
the relative position of the needle and 
the wire. On placing the electric 
wire ahoee and paraHel to the mag- 
net, the pole next the negative end 
of the battery'always moves to the 
^est ; and when the wire ia placed 
under the needle, the same pole turns 
to the east. When the electric wire 
is on the same horizontal plane with 
the needle, no declination takes place ; 
hot the magnet shows a disposition 
to move in a vertical direction, the 
pole next the negative side of the 
battery being depressed when the wire 
is to the west of it, and elevated when 
it is to the east. 

The magnetic phenomena of a wire 
transmitting electricity are snoh as 
appear to depend upon the circular 
tion of magnetism at right angles to 

the electric cor- 
-r=r| p rent, so that if N 

P represent the 
wire transmitting a cnrrent of elec- 
tricity in the direction of the hori- 
sontal darts, a current of magnetism 
will be established in the direction 
of the vertical dart, appearing to 
aove round the axis of the electric 
oQrrent ; hence the term vertigimm» 
or rotary magnetism, applied to these 
phenomena; and hence the motioa 



n 



of the pole of the magnet nmnd tlw 
electric wire, or of the electric wire 
round the pole of the magnet, when 
they respectively are so arranged as 
to be able to move fteely in any di- 
rection. If a steel needle be placed 
in contact with the electric wire, and 
parallel to it, it acquires opposito 
magnetisms upon its two sides ; bnt 
if it be i^aced at right angles to the 
connecting wire, it becomes polar, 
and permanently magnetic. If the 

electric wire be .1. 

twisted into a a fbfVnt^ ^^ 
spiral, and the ^'^^^t^^ ^ B& l^ 
steel needle pla* i^yps^^??^-^ 

ced within it (as in the cut), it is 
retained there, and becomes a more 
powerful magnet in consequence of 
the repetitions and direction of the 
electric and magnetic currents, as 
will be evident from the annexed fig- 
ure, where a represents a glass tube 
with the wire n p conveying the elec- 
tric current twisted nnmd it, the darts 
at the ends of which show tbe ingress 
and egress of the electricity, and the 
transverse darts the direction of the 
magnetic current. If the cprlinder 
round which the wire conveying the 
eleetric cnrrent is twisted be of steel, 
it becomes a permanent magnet; if of 
pore soft iron, it biicomes a temporary 
magnet, so long as the electric current 
is in motion, and 9 and n are 
powerfully opposed poles. If 
the bar be bent, as in the an- 
nexed cut, a powerful horse- 
shoe magnet is obtained 
when the ends,^ n, of the 
copper wire twisted round 
it are connected with the voltaic cir** 
de ; and a single pair of i^tes is suf- 
ficient for the puipose. 

ELECTROMETER (from nXen' 
rpovf and fterpov, s fneawre). An in- 
strument for ascertaining the prea- 




A 







enoe and intensity of electric excita- 
tion. The simplest form of electrom- 

36& 



ELB 



ElM 




eter consists of two rery small pith 
bsUs suspended from a small con- 
ductor by very fine wire or thread ; 
upon the principle that bodies simi- 
larly electrified repel each other, these 
diverge upon the reception of very 
minute quantities of dectricity. Two 
thin sU|)s of gold leaf are also simi- 
larly applied ; and, to prevent the in- 
fluence of the agitation of the air upon 
them, they are suspended in any con- 
Tcnient way under a glass shade. 
The other forms of electrometers 
generally act upon the same princi- 
ple, being respectively adjusted to 
the varying degrees of quantity and 
intensity. 

ELECTROPHORUS (from n^^- 
rpov, and frpu, I carry). This instra- 
ment consists of a flat, smooth cake 
of resin. A, which is rendered nega- 
tively electrical by friction ; a plate 
of brass with a glass handle is then 
placed upon it, and be- 
comes electropolar by in- 
duction. The brass plate, 
having been touched by 
the finger while lying 
upon the resin, is afterward lifted on 
by its glass handle, and gives a spark 
of positive electricity. The same 
operation may be indefinitely repeat* 
ed. This instrument is sometimes a 
convenient substitute for the electri- 
cal machine, and is elegantly applied 
to inflame a jet of hydrogen gas in 
VoUa*s inflanmuhU air lamp. 

ELECTROPOLAR. A tenn ap- 
plied to conductors, one end or sur- 
face of which is positive, and the oth- 
er negative : a state which they com- 
monly exhibit when under the influ- 
ence of induction. 

ELECTROSCOPE (from i;A««rpov, 
and ffKoxeUf J tee). An instrument 
for rendering electrical excitation ap- 
parent by its efl'ects. The gold leaf 
electrometer and other similar ar- 
rangements are eUetrotcopes. 

ELECTUARY. Any medicine of 
a thick or solid consistence, made up 
with sugar. 

ELEMENTS. In chemistry, bod- 
ies which have never been decompo- 
sed or resolved into Uieir components 
by means we possess. Hydrogen, 



oxygen, snlphur, nitrogen, phospHo- 
rus, chlorine, and the metals are the 
commonest elements. There are 64 
already known. 

ELEVATION. In architecture, 
the representation of the vertical view 
of any bnilding, dec. 

ELLAGIC ACID. The insoluble 
gray powder which subsides from an 
infusion of galls ; it is isomeric with 
gallic acid. Or Ha Os-^Piiattxe.) 

ELM. Ulmut. The principal spe- 
cies are, the AmericanOf white ; and 
fidoa, slippery ; the Thomas, U.raeo' 
flnoM ; river, ntmoralia, and Whahoo, 
alata, are also indigenous. Mr. Nutt- 
al mentions a species resembling 
the snb-evergreen Chinenti$, found on 
the Red River. The Chinese is aa 
ornamental tree, to be had at the nur- 
series. 

The t^kiie eUn is found from Nova 
Scotia to (jleorgia, delighting in rich, 
wet lands ; in perfection, it reaches 
100 feet, with a stem of 4i feet diam- 
eter. The bark is gray and deeply 
furrowed. The tree is of great beau- 
ty and stateliness, the heart wood 
dark brown, and ornamental, but so 
brittle as to be of inferior value. It 
is used improperly for naves, and oc« 
casionally in Maine for keels. The 
bark, soaJced in water and pounded, 
furnishes bass for the bottoms of 
chairs. 

The sUppavt red, or moose elm is 
commonly ditthsed, prefers a rich but 
dry soil ; it may attain 60 feet, by 18 
or 20 inches in diameter. The wood 
is of a dull red, and consists in a 
great measure of heart : it is coarse, 
and splits, but is highly esteemed for 
blocks, railings, and building purpo- 
ses, as it stands moisture tolerably 
well. The bark is brown, and, boiled 
in water, yields a mucilaginous solu- 
tion used in medicine and as a drink. 
It resembles the European Dutch elm, 
but neither this nor the preceding pos- 
sess the admirable qualities of the V. 
campeairis of Europe. 

The Whahoo is smaller, and a 
Southern tree ; the wood is deep 
chocolate, fine, hard, and durable : it 
is esteemed for naves. It is remark- 
able, as well as the Thomas elm, for 



£MB 



EMB 



a eorky exemcence on the bark. 
Many of Una genua are highly oma- 
me&tal, aa the white, campesiritj men- 
Utna, maer^pkyUa^ graeiUSf egusu, and 

EXUTRIATION. The separation 
of sabstancea by waahing them in 
laige qoantities of water, so that the 
beamier fmrtteleB fall to the bottom, 
and tbo lighter ones, remaining some 
thae 8i»p^ed, are gradually depoa- 
ited in a finely-divided stale. 

ELYMUS. The genos of lyme 
grasses. They are perennial, large 
aad eoaiae, mostly water or seashore 
plants. The «S. «7«fiarttt# is of ser- 
Tioe in binding together- loose sea- 
ahore sands» and resisting the en- 
croaehraeots of the sea. The aalt- 
maiah grasses are frequentiy of this 
geaniis. 

ELYTRUM (tiom eXorpoPt a 
skeath). The outer hard wings of 
beetles. 

EMACIATION. The act of be- 
coming lean. It is a symptom of 
diseased intestines or stomach, and 
should be attended to at once when 
set in ; but a sudden change of food 
from that which is oily to starchy is 
attended with considerable falling off. 

EMAROINATE. In botany, notch- 
ed, having a sharp indentation on the 
leaf, dec. 

EMASCULATE. To castrate. 

EMBANKMENT. '< It ia often 
neeeasary to raise mounds or dikes 
along the course of riven, to keep 
them within their channels, and pre- 
vent their flooding the lands which 



lie near them, when the waters nae 
abore their usual level. Those allu- 
vial lands which lie near the months 
of rivers, and are below the line of 
high water, cannot be cultivated to 
advantage unless they are secured 
from inundation by proper embank- 
ments ; and as these alio vial depos- 
itee are generally vety fertile, it am* 
ply repays the expense of construct- 
ing dikes and keepmg them in repair 
The whole of the provinces of Hoi 
land and Zealand, and several other 
districts in the Low Countries, could 
not be inhabited if the sea were not 
kept out by strong embankments; 
and the destmotion of a dike fre- 
quently desolates great tracts of coon- 
try. The art of constructing dikes, 
and of keeping them in repair, is 
therefore one of the greatest impor- 
tance to the proprietors of low lands 
situated as above described. 

" The first thing to be attended to in 
fonning embanlunenta is to eniEible 
them to resist the pressure of the 
highest floods which are likely to oc- 
cur, and to prevent the eflbct of the 
waves and currents in washing them 
away. When it is the simple press- 
ure of a column of water which is to 
be withstood, a simple earthen bank 
made of the soil immediately at band, 
provided it be not of a porous natttre, 
is suflicient. Its form shoold be a 
very broad base, with sloping sides 
and with a flat top, which may serve 
as a path, or even a carriage-road, if 
the bank be of considerable dimen- 
sions. The side towards the water 




should slope more gradually than to- 
wards the land, where it may form 
an angle of 45^ with the horizon. A 
ditch is usually dug along the inside 
of the bank, and sometimes on both 
sides, when the dike is at some dis- 
tance from the usual channel of the 
water, and is only a precaution against 
unusual floods. The inner ditch col- 
lects the water which is produced by 

Y« 



rains or may find its way by filtration 
through the bank or the soil. 

*' To raise these simple dikes, no- 
thing is requisite but to carry the 
earth fVom below, and consolidate it 
by treading or ramming it in a moist 
state, that no interstices be left. But 
where a considerable river winds 
through an ewnsive plain, and is 
apt to change its bed by the wearing 

267 



EMBANKMENT. 



away of the banks in some places 
and the deposition of mud in others, 
more skill and more expensiye works 
are required to keep it within its 
banks and to prevent the effects of a 
rapid current in destroying them. In 
this esse strong piles are driven deep 
into the ground, and, instead of earth- 
en dikes, stone walls are opposed to 
the force of the water. 

" The embanking of a considerable 
river oAen requires the course of the 
stream to be changed, and instead of 
the winding course which rivers nat- 
urally take through plains, straight 
channels are artificially made for 
them. At first sight it would seem 
that a straight channel is the natural 
course of a stream ; but this is far 
from being the case : a straig;ht course 
can never be maintained witbont ar- 
tificial means ; water never flows in 
straight lines, but always in curves. 
The slightest inequality in the bottom 
or sides partially obstrncts its course, 
and produces a circular motion in the 
water ; and this, acting on soft banks, 
soon hollows them out, which, in- 
creasing the eddies, accelerates the 
change in the current. When a river 
is turned into a new channel, the 
banks must be strengthened with 
piles of masonry, and the foundations 
of the works must be laid below the 
gravel or stones which may have ac- 
cumulated, that they may not be un- 
dermined by the percolation of the 
water. 

" When the dikes are only intended 
to check the waters at the time when 
they flow over their natural banks, it 
is best to raise them at some distance 
from the river on each side, and par- 
allel to its course ; because, in sud- 
den floods, the water, having a great- 
er space to flow through, will not rise 
so high, and will sooner recede. The 
natural banks must be carefully at- 
tended to in this case, that they may 
remain nearly the same, without be- 
ing subjected to that continual change 
which we have noticed before. Those 
who have long attended to these 
changes and their immediate causes 
will find no difliculty i^hecking them 
in the outset by very easy and simple 
2&A 



I means. Whenever a bank begins to 
be undermined, a few piles driven ia 
judiciously, and some stones thrown 
into the river above the place where 
its banks begin to wear away, will 
cause a change in the current, and 
throw it over to the opposite side. 
Indeed, if this is done injudiciously^ 
the banks opposite will begin to wear 
away ; but by continued attentioa, 
and prevention rather than oonrec- 
tion, any river having a moderate cur- 
rent may be kept within its proper 
bed. 

" It sometimes happens that rivers» 
near their mouths, form shallow es- 
tuaries, and oocopy much ground 
which might be usefully employed. 
In this case an entirely new ouUec 
may sometimes be made, tbrougli 
which the river may at once dis- 
charge itself into the sea ; and th6 
whole course will probably be soon 
filled up by the deposition of soil and 
mud brought in by the tides ; for it is 
the current which clears the channel* 
and when this is taken away the chan- 
nel soon fills up. In the course of a 
short time the old mouth of the river 
will be so filled up as scarcely to ad- 
mit the tide; and an embankment 
across it may lay a large fiertile tract 
of land quite dry. 

"Where embankments are made 
against the sea, greater skill is re- 
quired to resist the force of the waves. 
If there are materials at hand to lay 
a bank of stones imbedded in clay» 
with a broad base, and the sides slo- 
ping very gradually upward, a very 
safe barrier may be opposed to the 
waters. It is not the direct impulse 
which is the most destructive : waves 
striking against a sloping surface lose 
their force and rise over it ; but it ia 
in returning that they draw the ma- 
terials with them, and scoop out the 
foundations. If the stones are well 
joined together, the retiring wave will 
have no eflect in loosening them ; but 
if any one of them can be singly re- 
moved from its place, they will soon 
disappear one after another, till a 
breach is made ; after which a single 
storm may destroy the whole embank- 
ment. In various places the ingena- 



EMBANKMEP«T. 



ity of scientific men has been ezer- 
emed to iDTeni variout modes or re- 
•inini the furae of the sea. In some 
ezposod poiiitB piara of M>lid oak hBTe 
been nault. wbieh oppoae a aukooth 
aarfase obliqneJjr to the foics of the 
iraTes ; In otben, rows of pilea have 
been driven in, ronBing tinea at right 
or oblique angloa to the line of the 
ahore, inorderto interoept the wavM 
and break theii force before they 
reach the bank. In a idaoe where 
the roonded atooea called ibiaglea 
were nsDally tbrown op t^ ibe warea, 
and the bcHtom was a strong clay, 
their retreat has been intercepted b; 
Towi of atrong pilea driren in a line 
akng and panllet to the shore, and 
covered wiih boards nailed to ttieni 
on the land side. By this idbsds the 
sea has been made t« provide the 
mtteriala of the embankment, and to 
lay them down. In one night the 
ehtngles have been thrown over tiie 
pilea. and, being retained by the board' 
ing, have rormed a perfect wall. A 
secoad row of pilea between the first 
and the eea, and a third if required. 
forma a «ea-waU which might delV 
anyatoram. We mention tbia as an 
ezvBple of the advantage which may 
be t^en sf particular oircmnati 
by which a great expense may 
time* be saved. In ultier sif 
where the shingle is not tbi 
and the wall is not so imntediately 
exposed tu tbe actioa of (he waves, 
an excellent facing of Lbe wall is made 
by several rows of pilea from five to 
^teeo feet long, driven along tbe aide 
of the earthen bank in the form of 
•t«p»naingaboM each other. These 



piles are driven very close toother, 
and the distance between the rows is 
about two feet. This interval is mied 
with stones, and bushes are pinned 
down over them by meaaa of wooden 
pins dri Ten horisoD tally through holes 
made in tbe pilea. This conirivanoe 
effectually preven ta the washing away 
of the bank. 

" Where the land lies very Sat for a 
oeosideiable distsnce from tbe ehoret 
it is of advantage to have two com- 
plete banka, one within the other, eo 
that if tbe outer bonk is broken 
throng, the second will keep baek 
tbe watera, until the first can be re- 
paired. The ground between the two 
lines of baoka is usaatly lelt in pas- 
ture. In this case the damage dona 
by ao inundation of sa1^watBr will 
not be so great as if the land were 
arable ; and unlesa it remain flooded 
for a considerable time, the herbago 
suffers little, ifanylhiag. froni it. 

" The water which accumalates 
within the banks and isooltecied in the 
internal ditch and these which divide 
the marshes must be let off occasion- 
ally by means of channels and sluicea 
at tbe time when tbe tide is out, and 
the water outside the bank is lower 
than that which ia within it. In small 
embankments a wooden trunk or pips 
may be laid through the bank, with 
a valve opening outward, by which 
mesas the snperflnous water may flow 
out, and none flow hack. It is us»- 
ful to carry this trunk a coosiderabla 
way outside the bank, if it empties 
itself immediately into the ses. in ot< 
der that it may not he oboked up with 
nandnrshingtw Caat-imo pipes am 



EMB 

conveniently used for this purpose, 
and they may be carried out so far 
as to empty themselves below low- 
water mark. . But when the embank- 
ment is very extensive, and there are 
streams flowing through the part 
which is embanked, larger flood-gates 
and more extensive works are neces- 
sary. These being opened and shut 
as occasion may require, serve to 
keep the channel clear, by producing 
occasionally a Considerable rush of 
water to carry away mud and sand, 
which would otherwise have accu- 
mulated at the month of it. When 
the level of the land which is embank- 
ed is below the usual level of the wa* 
ters which are without, the water is 
raised by means of engines over the 
banks, as is the case in the fens. 

*' In the forming of the banks, where 
the soil may not be quite impervious 
to water, it is useful to begin by dig- 
ging a ditch in the line of the intend- 
ed bank, of such a depth as to reach 
an impervious subsoil. This ditch is 
to be filled up with clay or tempered 
earth, and as the bank is raised, the 
middle of the bank should be com- 
posed of the same materials, which 
will thus form a vertical wall, A B, up 
to the top ; and the more porous earth 
being heaped up against the sides of 
this wall will form the slopes of the 
bank ; thus the whole will be perfect- 
ly impenetrable to the water. The 
clay should be well trod in with the 




feet in a moist state, and no pieces 
of wood, or even straw, should be in 
it, for a straw may be the cause of 
the water finding a passage through 
a bank, and this passage gradually 
widening will soon produce a hole, 
which may in the end cause the de- 
struction of the bank. Moles and 
worms are great enemies to dikes. 



EMU 

In Holland the storks are held in 
great veneration, and are never mo- 
lested, because they are supposed to 
destroy a species of worm which oft- 
en does great mischief to the dikes by 
perforating them."— < W, L. jRAom.) 

EMBROCATION (from tfiSpexa, I 
moisten). A spirituous, saponaceous, 
or oily application rubbed on the skin 
to relieve pain or nimibness. 

EMBRYO (from efxSpvw, I hid 
forth). The growing point, eye, or 
chit of a seed. The young of ani- 
mals in the act of development, or 
foetus. 

£ M B R Y O T OM Y (from £/t^pMir, 
and refivuf I cut). The cutting of 
the embryo or fostus out of the womb 
in such cases as endanger the life of 
the parent. 

EMERY. A sand of oonudam of 
extreme hardness, capable of wear- 
ing down all minerals and metals ex- 
cept the diamond. 

EMESIS (from e/teo, I vomii). The 
act of vomiting. 

EMETIC. A drug producing vom- 
iting. Ipecacuanha, tartar emetio, 
salt, and green vitriol are the com- 
monest emetics. 

EMETIC, TARTAR, Tartrate of 
potash and antimony, a white, strio- 
ble salt, emetio in doses of one to 
two grains, and purgative and sudo- 
rific in doses of half a grain. It re- 
duces the activity of the circulation, 
and is therefore an admirable febri- 
fuge. 

EMETINE. The active principle 
of ipecacuanha. 

EMOLLIENTS. Medicines which 
soothe and soften any part of the 
body, as warm water, &c. 

EMPHYEMA (from ev, and irvov, 
pu9). A collection of purulent mat- 
ter in the chest, produced chiefly by 
inflammation. 

EMPHYSEMA (from tfupwraot, 1 
infiaU). A collection of air in the oel- 
Ittlar tissue ; hence emphygematout. 

EMPYREUMA (fVom efinvpew, 2 
kindU). A n odour of burned matter $ 
hence empyreumoHe. 

EMULSIN. A roodificatton of al- 
bumen found in almonds and other 
seeds, and' capaUe of acting in a pe- 



END 

culiar Quumer on amygddin to pro- 
duce volaiile oil of bitter almoiida. 

EMULSION. A mUky liqiiid in 
which an oil is suspended, as in milk. 

EMUNCTORIES. The vessels of 
the skin which exhale perspiration 
are so called. 

ENAMEL. The hard ivory por- 
tion of teeth. Glass and oxide of tin 
fused together. 

XNCKINITES. roasH erinoideaiu 
resembling a lily. 

ENCYSTED (from ev, in, and Kva- 
Tif, a bag). Fluid or other tumours en- 
closed in a sack of membrane. It is 
necessary, in removing them, to cut 
out or destroy the sack also. 

ENDEMIC (from ev, and Sjiftoct a 
people), A disease or peculiarity be- 
longing to a particular people or race. 

ENDIVE. Ckichonum endiva. 
The varieties are the green and 
white eorled, yellow, and broad 
leaved. The green curled is earliest : 
BOW in April and May, and for gen- 
eral crops, in June or July, at inter- 
nals, to suit the table or market. 
When the seedlings are three inches 
high, transplant to a good soil, and 
set a foot apart each way ; tie up to 
blanch when full-sized. They must 
be attended to and treated like lettuce. 
One ounce of jseed furnishes four to 
^VQ thousand plants. It is a bitter 
aaladt used raw, and also in stews : 
with, care it may be preserved like 
cabbages through the winter. 

ENDOCARP (from cvdw, vnthin, 
and KOfixocj a fruHy The middle 
part of a fruit : it forms the flesh of 
the apple, peach, cheny, dec. 

£ N D O G E N S (from w6w, and 
yeivofuu, I grow). Plants or trees 
which do not enlarge their trunks by 
aiiy addition of wood exterior to that 
existing the year before. One of the 
great divisions of the vegetable king- 
dom, including palms, grasses, and 
nnmerous bulbous plants. The leaves 
are furnished with straight veins, the 
flowers usually divided into three 
parts or some multiple of that number. 
. ENDOPLEURA (/rora wdov, and 
irAfvpo, the Mtde). In botany, the in- 
ternal intefament of a seed. 

£NDORUIZ^(from ^irc^oy^and 



EGO 

/^t^it a root). A term inTented by 
Richard fur the embryo of monocoty 
ledons, in which the radicle has to 
rupture the integument at the base 
of a seed prior to entering into the 
earth, appearing as if it came from 
within the mother root. 

ENDOSMOSE (from evdov, and 
uofioct impuUion). A term invented 
by Dutrochet to designate the pas- 
sage of fluids through membranes. 
Penetration is an analogous term. 
Whenever two fluids are separated 
by a membrane or tissue without 
sensible poreis, both of which moisten 
it, there is a passage of each fluid, 
one into the other ; but this is often 
with different rapidities, the fluid af- 
fecting the tissue most passing with 
the greatest rapidity. The more- 
ment continues until the mixture on 
each side is similar. This also oc» 
curs with gases. It is controlled by 
electricity, as Dr. Draper has shown. 

ENDOSPERMIUM (from ev^ov, 
and airepfio, seed). A term invented 
by Richard to denote the albumen of 
seeds. 

ENDOSTOME (from evdoy, and 
airofiat the motUh). The passage 
through the inner integument of a 
seed immediately below the part call* 
ed the foramen. 

ENDOTHECIUM. The fibrous 
celialar tissue lining an anther. 

ENEMA. A glyster, an injection 
thrown up the bowels to produce 
purging, allay pain, Slc. 

ENNEANDRIA, ENNEAN- 
DROITS. Having nine stamens. 
See Botany. 

ENSIFORM. Sword-Bhaped. A 
term used in descriptive botany, &o. 

ENTERITIS (from tvrepa, the in^ 
teMtines), Inflammation of the intes' 
tines. See Horse, Ox, &c. 

ENTOMOLOGY (from evro/io, tfi- 
»ect9, and Aoyof, aiiacourse). The sci- 
ence treating of insects. See Injects. 

ENTOZOA (from evroq, and fwov, 
an iuamal), A tribe of worms, many 
of which are parasitic to the intes- 
tines and other parts of animals. 

EOCENE (from j^wf, the dawn, and 
Kotvoi, receni). The lowest portion 
of the tertiary epoch of geologists, in 

261 



£liS 



ESC 



wbich a few reeent remains only are 
foand. 

EPIDEMIC (from eirt, upon, and 
Sffftoc, the people). A disease which 
spreads through a community, a sta- 
ble &>C- 

EPIDERMIS (from eirc, and AepfUh 
Che skm), A light covering over the 
skin of animals. The outer mem- 
brane of plants. 

EPIDOTE. A common fibrous, 
green, or dark mineral, belonging to 
primary rocks, containing silica, 37 ; 
alumina, 21 ; limei 16 ; iron, 34 per 
cent. 

EPIGGEOUS (from em^ and ytf, the 
earth). Growing near the earth, or 
on the earth. 

EPIGASTRIC (from em, and yaa- 
TTjpy the ttomach). Orer the stomach. 

EPIGLOTTIS (from eiri, and yhjr- 
ra, the tongn4:). A small cartilage at 
the root of the tongue, which protects 
the windpipe. 

EPIGYNOUS (from ein, and ytn^, 
a female). Any part of a flower grow- 
ing upon the top of the ovarium or 
fruit. 

EPILEPSY (from trnXofitavo, J 
seize upon). Falling sickness, attend- 
ed with sadden fits, stupor : it soon 
becomes periodical, and finally ter- 
minates life. Bleeding, reduction of 
food, and care are necessary in full 
habits, but it frequently arises from 
injuries on the head. It is a nervous 
disease, little under control. 

EPIPHYLLUS (from r:ri, and ^X- 
^ov, a leaf). Growing on a leaf. 

EPISPASTIC (from emairao, 1 
draw upon). A blistering drng. 

EPISPERM (from trn^ and etrepfiaj 
a 9eed). The testa, or outer coating 
of seeds. 

EQUISETUM. The scouring rush; 
hence equisetacea. 

EQUIVALENTS. See Atom. 

EREMACAUSIS (from vptfia, slow, 
and icavoic, combustion). A term in- 
vented by Liebig, to express the 
smouldering, or dry rot, of organic 
matter freely exposed to the oxygen 
of the aii- and merely moistened with 
water. 1 1 is altogether diflferent from 
fermentation, which requires little 
air. By eremacauais, acids, as the 



acetic, nitric, &c., are produced. 
When much nitrogen exists in the 
decaying matter, it is called nitrifica- 
tion, especially if lime or potash be 
present. The process of eremacausis 
is much to be preferred to fermenta- 
tion in the preparation of putrescent 
manures, for less gaseous matter is 
formed, and there is less loss ; it is, 
moreover, the natural decay occur- 
ring in the soil. See Nitre- Beds. 

ERGOT. A disease of the grain 
of rye, and sometimes other grains, 
in which it turns black, and acquires 
an acrid, fungous taste. It is con- 
sidered due to an insect or parasitic 
fungus. The diseased grain is very 
poisonous, producing a dry gangrene, 
attended with sloughing of the hoofs, 
horns, ears, Ac. of cattle. It is of 
great service in medicine as a ute- 
rine stimulus. 

ERICA. The genus of heaths. 
Erieaeea, a fhmily of shrubby plants, 
as the heaths, rhododendrons, aza- 
lias, &c. 

ERINACEUS. A genus ot inseo- 
ti vorous animals, including the hedge- 
hog. 

ERIOPHORUM. The genus of 
cotton grasses. 

ERODED. Gnawed, a descriptive 
term in botany and zoology, mean- 
ing any jagged edge. 

ERRATIC ROCKS. Boulders. 

ERRHINES (from ev, tn, and piv^ 
the nose). Bodies which excite snee- 
zing. 

ERUCA. A larva, or worm. 

ERVUM. The generic name of 
the tare and lentil plants. 

ERYSIPELAS (from epvu, I draw, 
and TreXacy adjoining). An inflamma- 
tion of the skin, attended with blis^ 
ters and a burning heat ; it indicates 
a bad, feeble constitution. 

ERYTHRIC ACID (from sffv 
9poc, red). The red body produced 
by acting on uric acid by nitric acid ; 
it has also been called rosacic acid, 
Murexide. 

ESCHAR. A scab, cicatrix. 

ESCHAROTIC (from eoxaptu^t 1 
scab over). Caustic. 

ESCULENT. Edible plants, 
roots, dtc. 



EUP 

ESPALIERS. " In horticnltare, 
trees trained by lattice-work or other 
supports on the borders of beds* or 
as hedges to enclose plots of ground. 
They may serve to defend, in a great 
measure, many tender plants from the 
inclemencies of wind and weather. 
The trees chiefly planted for espa- 
liers are apples, |iears, and plums. 
The principal objects aimed at, how- 
ever, in espaliers are to expose the 
foliage and fruit of the plants or 
trees more perfectly to the light and 
san, to prevent the branches fhmi be- 
ing blown aboot by the winds, and to 
economize space by confining them 
within definite limits." — Lmtdon. 

ESPARSETTE. SaiHfoin. 

ESSENTIAL OUjS. ODs which 
impart flavour and odour to plants, 
and ar^ readily volatilized by heat. 
Many, as peppermint, rose, lemon, 
dec., are easily distilled by placing the 
fresh herbs, 6lc., in water and apply- 
ingheat. 

ETERIO. A compound fruit, the 
ovaries of which are distinct and in- 
dehiscent, upon a dry or fleshy re- 
ceptacle, as the strawberry, rasp- 
berry, dec. 

ETHER. Consmonly this name is 
applied to a highly volatile, inflam- 
mable, and aromatic fluid, obtained 
by distilling equal parts of alcohol and 
aulphuric acid. But it also repre- 
sents a class of organic compounds 
having properties similar to ether and 
alcohol, and containing a common 
base or radical. Ethyl or Blhule (C4 
Hft) ; of this common sulphuric ether 
is an oxide. 

ETIOLATION. Blanching of ve- 
getables. This is done by excluding 
light either by earthing, as in the 
case of celery, or tying up the leaves, 
as with lettuce, endive, dec. 

EUDIOMETER (from evSta, calm 
atr, and furpop, a measure). An in- 
strument for the analysis of air and 
gases, especially for the determina- 
tion of the amount of oxygen. Dr. 
Ure*s is the most esteemed. Dr. Hare, 
of Philadelphia, is the author of a 
very convenient eudiometer. 

EUPHORBIA. A genus of plants 
tf^omtmonly ytekling a milky acrid 



EVE 

juice ; many resemble the caetaceas. 
Eupkorbiaeeee^ the natural family, in- 
eluding the euphorbia, crotons, cas- 
tor-otl. India-rubber tree, &c. 

EUPION. An inflaimnable, grea- 
sy liquid, obtained from tar. 

EUSTACHIAN TUBE. A tube 
passing iirom the interior of the ear 
to the cavity of the month ; the stop- 
page, by disease, is one cause of deaf- 
ness. 

EVAPORATION. The passage 
into vapour of fluids or solids. For 
its production, heat most be absorb- 
ed ; hence the rapidity of evaporation 
is proportionate to the heat applied. 
Water and other fluids evaporating 
from the earth, or any surface, al- 
ways produce cold by carrying away 
a part of the heat of the solid ; kertee 
moist soil* are cold. The activity of 
evaporation is also influenced by 
winds, which will dooUe the amount 
of water vaporized in a given time ; 
hence winds dry rapidly and produce 
great cold. It is also necessary for 
free evaporation that the air be not 
already fbll of vapour. See Dew Point, 
When any atmosphere is surcharged 
with the vapour of a particular fluid, 
no more can evaporate ; but the va- 
pours of other fluids rise freely. 

Plants are much affected by evap- 
oration ; their leaves are always 
throwing out large volumes of vapour 
of water, derived from the ascending 
sap ; in this way their juices are 
thickened and fitted for nourishment. 
When the air is too dry, they lan- 
guish under exeessive evaporation ; 
when it is moist and hot for some 
days, they become diseased, and smut, 
rust, and similar fungi attack them 
very destructively. 

The moisture collected in the air 
by the evaporation of water from the 
earth, being cooled by northeriy 
winds, becomes condensed into rain 
or snpw, and falls back to the earth 
again. See Clouds. 

EVERGREEN. Plants which put 
out a succession of fresh leaves in- 
stead of observing periods of rest. 
They are best set out in the fall or 

verr early in spring. 

jfiVERLASTINO PEA. Laikynu 



EXO 

Uiifidiui, A perenatal plant of the 
vetch kind* which grows naturaJly in 
Bome places ; is easily cultivated, and 
annually yields a great burden of ex- 
cellent provender, and might be cul- 
tivated to advantage as a green food 
for cattle on any of the more strong 
sorts of soil. 

EXACERBATION. An increase 
of violence in the symptoms of fe- 
vers. 

EXCORIATION. Abroiseor 
abrasion of the skin : protection from 
air by a linen rag, and mild oil lina- 
ments are most serviceable. 

EXCRESCENCE. Any unnatu- 
ral growth or tumour. 

EXCRETION. In physiology, the 
separation of useless or injurious por- 
tions of matter from the systemi, as 
urine, expired air, feces, perspiration. 
The excretions of plants have called 
forth much discussion. Be CandoUe 
imagined that the inability of plants 
to grow for a long time on the same 
spot was due to the deposite of ex- 
cretions. Mr. Gyde has examined 
this matter thoroughly, and shown 
that the excretions are not injurious ; 
the amount is very small, and iden- 
tical in composition with the sap; 
he also found that a plant might be 
watered with a solution of its excre- 
ment with great benefit. 

EXFOLIATION. The separaUon 
of diseased bone from that which is 
sound in the progress of a disease. 

EXHALATION. Evaporation at 
ordinary temperatures, more espe- 
cially from a living pr solid surface. 

EXHAUSTION. In physics, the 
removal of air or gases from the in- 
terior of bodies. 

EXOGENOUS (from «^, auUide, and 
Y9i»ofiiu, J grow). A term applied to 
those plants a transverse slice of 
whose stem exhibits a central cellular 
substance or pith, an external cellular 
and fibrous ring or bark, and an inter- 
mediate woody mass, and certain fine 
lines radiating from the pith to the 
bark through the wood, and called 
meduUaiy rays. They are called ex- 
ogens, because they add to their 
wood by successive external addi- 
tiODB, and am the same as what are 



EXT 

otherwise called diootyledou. Th^ 

constitute one of the primary classes 
into which the vegetable world is di- 
vided, characterized by their leaves 
being reticulated ; their stems having 
a distinct deposition of bark, wood, 
and pith ; their embryo with two co- 
tyledons ; and by their flowers usu- 
ally formiad on a quinary type. Our 
forest-trees and most garden vegeta- 
bles are of this kind. 

EXORRHIZ^ (from ef, and ^<^ 
a root). Exogenous or dicotyledon- 
ous plants, the roots of which extend 
directly from tbe embryo. 

EXOSMOSE (from ef, and wa/tof, 
impulnon). The passage outward of 
fluids, dtc, the reverse of jSndoMiMe, 
which see. 

EXOSTOSIS (from ei, and o(rrcov, 
a bone). A tumour on a bone. la bota- 
ny, any knot or tumour on a trunk or 
Urge root : the wood is often finely 
curled. 

EXOTICS. Foreign plants. 

EXPANSION. The increase in 
dimensions produced by heat. In 
the arts, it is a serious drawback on 
perfect workmanship, for bcams^ me- 
tallic tireSf dec., by tbe constant expan- 
sions from heat, and contraction by 
cold, are always acting upon masses 
of masonry injuriously. Gases ex- 
pand most rapidly and extensively, 
fluids next, and metals least. 

EXPECTORANTS. Medicines 
which assist in throwing ofi* the 
phlegm of the throat, as ipecacuan 
ha, tartar emetic, horehound, squills 
They are useful in dry coughs. 

EXPRESSED OILS. Such as are 
obtained by pressure, as olive, lin- 
seed, rape, castor, almond, as distin- 
guished from volatile or essential oils. 

EXTRACT. The solid remain ing 
after boiling down an infusion or de- 
coction to dryness. The heat used 
should be from steam. The term 
exlraetiv9 is applied to that portion 
which is of a brown colour, soluble 
in water, and forms a colouring mat- 
ter with alum solution. 

EXTRAVASATION. Insui^ry, 
whenever blood or other fluids axe 
thrown out from the veins into the 
skin, brain* or other parts, it is teroi* 



i 



FAL 



FAR 



cd an extravasation. It frequently . 
arises from a blow. 

EXTRORSAL. Bent or turned 
from the direct position : a descrip- 
tive term in botany. 

EXUVIifi, Tlie skins cast by 
snakes, lobsteiB, insects, dtc, in the 
ohani^s they pass through. 

EYE, IN PLANTS. The bud, 
emhrvo, or growing point. 

EYE OF THE HORSE. «*The 
eye of the horse appears to be natn- 
rally more disposed to disease than 
that of any other animal. The dis- 
eases of the eye, although few in 
number, are frequent in their appear- 
ance, obstinate, and generally baffle 
all the skill of the Teterinarian. The 
following are the principal : common 
inflammation, specific ophthalmia or 
moon blindness, cataract, and gvtta 
Mtrena or anaurona. For the last 
there is no cure. Moon blindness, 
as it is termed, is brought on in a 
great measure by close confinement 
in dark, heated, and unwholesome 
stables. No specific remedies can 
be given for these diseases.** — {You- 
ait). See Blindne*s^ Cataract. 

EYES IN CHEESE. Putrescent 
boles or places caused by imperfectly 
preparing the curd. 

F. 

FAGOT. A bundle of small wood. 

FAGUS. The generic name of 
the heeck. 

FALCATE (from falx, a scythe). 
Shaped like a scythe : a descriptive 
term used in botany and zoology. 

FALCO. The genua of hawks. 

FALLOPIAN TUBE. A tube com- 
municating between tbe womb and 
ovarium of the mammalia. 

FALLOW. Originally, this term 
meant the exposure of the naked 
soil to rest^ after ploughing several 
tiroes, to destroy weeds and repair 
its fertility. Ttiis practice is now 
considered almost useless, as requi- 
ring much time and expenditure oth- 
erwise better employed. A crop of 
€»ats, clover, rye, buckwheat, lacern, 
lupins, turnips, or other cheap vege- 
table in flower is now ploughed in, 
and called a srreen fallow. In this 



way land is rapidly Improved, espe- 
cially if a liming is given. To torn 
in heavy herbage the ox-chain is 
fastened to the clevis and land-side 
handle of the plough, and this press- 
ing down the plants, allows them to 
be buried. 

Green fallowing is the roost rapid 
and cheap method of bringing up poor 
lands ; it incorporates into the soil 
the nitrogen bodies wanted for high 
cultivation, enables the improver to 
proceed withoot the expense of cat- 
tle for raising manure, and saves the 
time necessary to wait for the ma- 
nure. The herbage so turned in 
3rields more vegetable mould than it 
would otherwise form if applied in 
any other way. Fallows can be made 
at any time, in summer for a faU 
crop, or in autumn for spring. 

FAN, WHEAT. The Wmnmmt^ 
Machine, which see. 

FARCY. See Horse. 

FARDING BAG. The paunch or 
abomasus of the ox. 

FARINA. The flour or meal of 
grain. Farinaecotts is a derivative. 

FARM. "The first thing to be 
considered in taking a farm is the 
capital which the tenant is possessed 
of, or of which he can procure the 
use at a reasonable rate. If a man 
takes a farm without the means of 
stocking it properly, and is restrained 
in his first outlay, he will never be 
able to cultivate it with benefit to 
himself: he will be obliged to sell his 
produce at a loss, to over-work his 
cattle, and to keep a smaller quanti- 
ty of stock, and, consequently, make 
less manure than is required to keep 
the farm in a productive state. 

*' When it is ascertained what ex- 
tent of farm may be safely underta- 
ken with a ^iven capital, the most 
important object to be attended to is 
the condition and fertility of fhe soil, 
not only with respect to the natural 
quality of the land, but the actual 
state it is left in by the preceding 
system of cultivation. A moderate- 
ly fertile soil, in good condition, will 
give a greater profit for several years 
than a better soil which is partially 
exhausted and rendered foul by inja^ 

866 



FAIUI. 



dtdOQs management and orer-crop- 
ping. For this purpose, it is neces- 
sary to ascertain what has been the 
atate of the crops for several years 
before, how the land has been plough- 
ed, and whether the crops have been 
heavy with or without manure. In 
the mean time, the nature of the 
weeds which abound on the land will 
give some clew to its state ; and an 
eicperienced person will collect from 
Yarious minute appearances in the 
soil whether it has been fairly man- 
aged or exhausted. It is in general 
more advantageous to take a farm 
in a district with which you are well 
acquainted. It will be a great ad- 
vantage if you have had an opportu- 
nity of seeing the land at all times, 
observing it in difierent seasons and 
states of the weather, and especially 
of seeing the crops thrashed out, and 
ascertaining the quantity of corn 
which is usually yielded from a cer- 
tain quantity of straw, for lands very 
eimilar in outward appearance will 
produce a very different return when 
the crops are thrashed out. A want 
of attention to these circumstances 
is the cause that a man who comes 
from a distant part of the country 
and takes a farm on his own judg- 
ment seldom succeeds so well as 
might be expected, even with a su- 
perior knowledge of agriculture. He 
naturally compares the soil with some 
similar soil which he has been ac- 
quainted with. If he comes from a 
district where the soil is sandy, and 
where clay is in request, he will give 
the preference to very stiff loams ; 
if he comes from a cold wet clay, he 
will prefer the sandy ; and the chan- 
ces are, that he is mistaken in his 
judgment, and finds it out when he 
has already embarked his capital in 
a losing concern. Next to the na- 
ture of 4he soil is to be considered 
the convenient situation of the farm, 
the disposition of the fields, and the 
adaptation of the fann-buildings to 
the most profitable occupation of the 
land. The roads, especially tlio^e 
which lead to neighbouring towns, 
whence manure may be obtained, are 
a most important object ; and if there 
S66 



is water-carriage, it greatly enbanees 
the value of the farm. The roads to 
the fields, and the distance of these 
from the fann-yard ; the coavenience 
of having good pasture, or land easi 
ly laid down to grass, near the home 
stead, and especially the situation 
of the farm-buildings with respect to 
the land, and the abundance of good 
water, are all circumstances which 
must be well considered, and which 
will greatly influence the probable 
profits, and, consequently, the rent 
which may be fairly offered. A cen* 
tral situation is no doubt the moat 
advantageous for the farm buildtnga, 
as greatly diminishing the labour in 
harvest and in carrying out manore. 
But there may be circumstances 
which render some spot nearer the 
extremity of the land more eligible, 
and it is only when entirely new 
buildings are to be erected that there 
is a choice. The old farm buildings 
are generally in low and sheltered 
situations, but it is a great inconve- 
nience to have to carry the manure, 
which is the heaviest thing carted on 
a farm, up a steep hill. The best 
situation is on a moderate slope, 
neither in the lowest nor highest 
ground. 

** The yard or yards in a large farm 
should be sheltered on the north side 
by the bams, which need not be so 
extensive as used formerly to be 
thought necessary. If there is a 
thrashing machine, a single floor to 
thrash the seeds upon, and to employ 
the men occasionally in winter, is 
quite suflicient. Every farm which 
is so extensive as to require more 
than one floor to thrash the com on 
ought always to have a thrashing- 
mill attached to it. See Banu 

*'A small yard, distinct from the 
other, with sheds for the cattle to 
shelter themselves under in wet and 
stormy weather, is a great advantage, 
and may be added at a trifling ex- 
pense to any set of farm buildings. 
The cart-shed should be in the stack- 
yaid, whioh properly occupies a space 
north of the bam. There should be 
a sufficient number of stands with 
proper pillars and frames to build 



FARM. 



•tacks on. Each stack sfioidd be of 
8Qch a size as to be conveniently ta- 
ken into the barn to be thrashed out. 
Tlie round form, and the square, 
which becomes nearly round when 
built op, are most convenient. Nine 
stono or cast-iron pillars, with caps 
over them, are placed on brick found- 
ations, and support a strong frame 
on which the stack is buiH. In the 
centre of the stack there is usually a 
pyramidical open frame, to allow the 
air to circulate through the stack and 
prevent the beating of the grain. On 
each side of the yard should be placed 
the stables, cow-houses, and feeding- 
stalls, with a pomp of good water 
near the last, and convenient places 
to put hay, straw, and turnips in, with 
a machine to cut them. A great deal 
of time and labour is saved by a 
proper arrangement of the different 
parts of the farm buildings. An un- 
der-ground cistern near the cow- 
kiouse and stables, into which the 
urine and washings of the cow-house 
may run by means of a sink or drain, 
is a most useful appendage, which is 



too little thoogfat of in England, 
whereas it is one of the most indis- 
pensable parts of a Flemish farm. It 
supplies a kind of manure which can 
be applied to the land at all times, 
which invigorates sickly crops, and 
may often produce an abundant re- 
turn, where otherwise there would 
be a complete failure. There are 
many plans of farm buildings given 
in works on agriculture, which com- 
bine all that is useful on a large scale. 
Most of these plans have been exe- 
cuted at a great expense for the farm- 
ing establishments of men of large 
fortunes. But the proprietor who de- 
sires to erect buildings most proper 
for the occupation of his land must 
study economy, and lay out no more 
in buildings than is necessary. They 
should be so substantial as not to re- 
quire frequent repairs, without un- 
necessarily increasing the original ex- 
pense of materials and labour. Light 
thatched roofs are sufficient for the 
sheds and smaller buildings, and even 
for the cow-houses and staibles. 
'* We here give a plan of plain farm 



Building* for a Farm of 900 acres. 




:l 



r 



s 



m 



M 








itor 



m 



buildings for Uie occupation o{ ZOO 
ar 300 acree of land, of which two 
thirds are arable, fit for com, barle; , 
clover, and wheat. There slioiild be 
two distinct farm-yards with proper 
sheds, and in each there should be a 
ciatem For the urine from the stables 
and the drainings from the dung. 
1 ciamples of '' ~ 
>e sufficient to „ 
jf what majf bo proper 
farms of •□ inCennediate sise. A 
principal thing lo be attended to is to 
haTe plenty of roora for cattie ; and 
where old barns remain rnach larger 
than is required, according to the 
' prwent mad« orstackiDg com in the 



lnllil!| 
i m 



it 



I 



I 






."ji 



B 



=n=rn 

mill} 

yard, Ihcy can be very adianlageous- 
ly coavertcd into eow-stalls or ox-ata- 
bles. 

" Where many sheep are Kept, ft is 
of great advantage to have a sheep, 
yard, with low sheds a)J round, al tb« 
time when the ewea lamb, especially 
when the season la wet and chilly, 
which hurts them moie than a dry 
froet. The second yard, B, is weU 
adapted for that purpose, and an ad- 
ditional temportffy shed against tba~ 
partition which divides it into two 
win convert either division ioto aa 
excellent sheep-yard. 

" In Taloing a farai, the habitation 
is seldom taken into the aooauntitot 




tUe baOdutge iramediatel; eonnacted 
with (be cnlliTation necessarily sdd 
to or diministi tbe price. 

" Fdm AtcaunU, — In proportion as 
tbe manag«ment of a &rm reqairea 
more bJuU, and the Tarioiu opera- 
tiODB become more eomplicated, bo 
Uie neoeuitj of great aocniacy in 
the accoitntB becomea iiidtq BTident. 
The masDeT in which rami accounts 
•bould be kef)! deeerves, theieforo, 
particular aUeotion, 

"Many fanners, who are not devoid 
of intelligence, and who are anitous 
to ascertain iheii gain or their loss 
in Gottivatiiig Uw Und which Um; 



have hired, have no other roeana of 
ascertaining this than the balance of 
their account of receipts and eipen- 
ditare. If they have aeparateil tbe 
accoants of their private eatabliah- 
ment trom that of their farm, they 
think that they have done all that ia 
reqaired, and at the end of the year 
they can tell accarately how mnch 
they have gained or lost by their 
■arm ; but ^ them to acoonnt for 
this gain or lata, and tiiey can give 
no answer. Ifa tradesman, who has 
a capital in husineaa equal to ibat of 



FARM. 



this manner, and become a bankrupt, 
no one would hesitate in saying that 
he failed because he kept no regular 
accounts. He bad no greater stake 
than tbe farmer, and his transactions 
were perhaps less varied : if he kept 
DO clerk, he should have attended 
better to the accounts himself. The 
same may be said of the farmer ; and 
if a man who has a floating capital 
of $10,000 does not think it worth 
his while to employ a clerk to keep 
his accounts, not having time to do 
80 himself, it is no great wonder if 
he is involved in difficulties. But 
it may be said that agricultural ac- 
counts are very simple, and that any 
one can keep them. So are mer- 
chants* accounts at first sight. No- 
thing is simpler than to put down 
what is bought and sold, what is the 
profit on each transaction, and the 
sum is the profit of the whole ; but 
merchants know that to keep this 
very simple account many books, 
many entries, many checks, and con- 
sequently many clerks are required. 
In a lesser degree this is true in a 
farm. It is easy to know what is 
bought and sold, what is expended 
or produced, but it requires very mi- 
nute accounts to ascertain what part 
of the farm gives a profitable return, 
and what is the cause of loss. There 
may be a profit on the crops and a 
loss on the stock, or vice versa. The 
money expended on improvements or 
adventitious manure may have pro- 
duced an increase which is propor- 
tionate to the outlay, and which af- 
fords a good interest; but it may 
also be a decided loss. How is this 
to be ascertained, except it be by ac- 
curate accounts 1 In whatever man- 
ner the accounts are kept, whether 
by the farmer himself or by a clerk, 
method is of great importance ; and 
whatever may be said against it by 
those who do not know its value, 
there is no system of accounts which 
can be compared with the well-known 
method of double entry. The prin- 
ciple of this method is so simple that 
the slowest arithmetician cannot be 
ooafused by it, and it is so perfect 
that no error can escape its scrutiny. 
970 



As applied to agricultural accoants, 
which are simple in their nature, it 
becomes so clear that, if once adopt- 
ed, it is impossible that it should ever 
be abandoned. The satisfaction of 
a perfect proof of the correctness of 
the accounts is so great that no one 
who has ever experienced it will be 
satisfied with any other method. 

" In the accounts of a farm there are 
many separate items to be taken into 
consideration. There may be a sep- 
arate account kept for every field ; 
there should always be one for every 
crop of which the rotation consists. 
There is an account of the labour of 
men and horses ; of the produce of 
the dairy ; of the stock purchased to 
be fattened, or sold again in an impro- 
ved state. The more subjects there 
are to furnish items for an account, 
the more difficult it is to strike a 
balance, but with a little attention 
and perseverance it may be done; 
and he who keeps very correct ac- 
counts will always be the fint to dis- 
cover any impending evil, and to take 
measures to provide against it.' 

"The basis of all the accounts is a 
daily journal of every transaction, 
which must be collected from all the 
labourers and agents ^ployed. M. 
de Dombasle, at his celebrated farm 
of Roville, in France, has all his prin- 
cipal men and apprentices assembled 
every evening after the day's work 
is over. Each man gives an accoont 
of the work done by him or under 
his superintendence, which is written 
down by the clerk. The orders for 
the next day are then given, and ev- 
ery one returns to his lodging or his 
home. In the course of the next day 
the clerk enters all that is in the 
journal into a book, where every per- 
son employed has an account : every 
field has one ; every servant and do- 
mestic aninud has one; and every 
item which can be separated from 
the rest is entered, both as adding to 
the account or taking from it. For 
example, the milk of the cows is en* 
tered daily ; the quantity of butter, 
butter-milk, and skimmed milk which 
it produces is also entered ; and 
these two aocounta cheek one an* 



FAR 



PAR 



other. Any error is immediatdy de- 
tected, and the knowledge of this 
preveats mlBtakes. An entiy sliould 
be made of every particular operation 
in each field, that the farmer may 
know which ia his roost profitable 
land. The number of ploughings, the 
ifuantity of manure, the state of the 
weather, and all other circumstances 
which may influence the return should 
be carefully noted, in order that it 
may be clearly seen whether any ex- 
periment or deviation from the usual 
routine is advantageous or otherwise. 
Thus all real improvements may be 
encourai?ed, and uncertain theories 
detected by the result. 

*• The most important circumstance 
which influences tlic profits of a farm- 
er is the cost of his team and the 
wages of his men. These vary in 
different situations so much that they 
greatly influence the price which he 
can afford to give for the land. In 
some parts of the country the horses 
are pampered and kept so fat that 
they can scarcely do a day's work as 
they ought ; in others they are over- 
worked and badly fed. Either ex- 
treme must be a loss to the farmer. 
In the first case, the horses cannot 
do their work, and they consume an 
unnecessary quantity of provender; 
in the other, they are soon worn out, 
aad the loss in horses that become 
useless or die ia greater than the sa- 
ving in their food or the extra work 
done by them. A horse properly fed 
will work eight or ten hours every 
day in the week, resting only on 
Sundays ; by a judicious division of 
the labour of the horses, they are 
never over-worked, and an average 
value of a day*s work is easily ascer- 
tained. This, in a well regulated 
farm, will be found much less than 
the common valuations give it. There 
have been printed forms invented, in 
order to render the accounts more 
simple, as well as more comprehen- 
sive. Forms may be of use to enter 
roinute details ; and each superin- 
tendent may have a form of entry for 
the work which he performs or su- 

Eerintends *. but the ledger should be 
ept exactly as that of a mercantile 



man, and be frequently balanced to 
ensure correctness. This is a thin^ 
which cannot be too strongly recom- 
mended to young farmers." 

FARM- YARD MANURE. The 
excrements of cattle mixed with ve- 
getable litter accumulated in the farm- 
yard. Straw, peat, sea-weed, the 
haulms of crops, leaves, and any or- 
ganic matter may be added to swell 
the bulk. It is usual to make the 
yard somewhat inclined, so that the 
fluid portions may run into a tank at 
the bottom. The reservoir should 
be tight, either of cement or temper- 
ed clay ; it may be furnished with 
pumps, to return the fluid over the 
solid matters several times during its 
preparation. The dung should be 
piled in ridges of five feet high and 
as many wide, and kept trodden to- 
gether ; it should not be permitted to 
heat too much or be kept too wet. It 
is very much improved by an addi- 
tion of charcoal, gypsum, and lime, 
applied occasionally to the layers as 
they are brought out from the houses. 
In well-tilled soils twenty to thirty 
cart-loads the acre are applied for a 
rotation of three or four years. Com, 
wheat, potatoes, or tobacco usually 
receive the manure. Sandy soils re- 
quire less manure, but more frequent- 
ly repeated. 

Farm-yard manure wastes rapidly 
by exposure and the action of rain, 
its soluble salts being removed, and 
the volatile ammoniacal portions ri- 
sing into the air. Great benefit would 
be found fVom the erection of slab or 
thatched sheds for the protection of 
the heaps. 

It is of service to all crops, be- 
cause, being made up of the offal of 
vegetables and food, it contains aU 
the necessary salts and organic mat- 
ters ; but, in the usual way of prep- 
aration, it is also the depository of 
the seeds of weeds and insects, and 
tends to render the husbandry foul. 
By preparing with lime, and man- 
aging it in the dry way, eremacausis 
is produced, which destroys the seeds 
and eggs, at the same time that it di- 
minishes the waste by volatilization. 

The value of the manure ia depend* 

S71 



FARM- YARD MANURE. 



aat upon the fof>d used, and the pro- 
portion of dung to straw, the litter 
absorbing the fluid parts and running 
into decay, but reducing the value of 
any given weight of the manure. 
Where animal garbage or fish can 
be obtained, the value is much in< 
creased. (See Manures.) But in the 
common yard dung the fluid parts 
are altogether the richest portions. 

Yard manure should be taken out 
and ploughed as early in the spring 
as possible, before it is much re- 
duced by rotting, nor should it be in 
the soil very long before the seeds, 
for it wastes away rapidly. Well-rot- 
ted dung is necessary for particular 
plants, but is by no means economi- 
cal. In many cases an application 
to the hill is best, as in potatoes, tur- 
iups« corn, and tobacco. 

Soiling is a certain means of in- 
creasing the quantity of manure at 
the same time that expenses arc less- 
ened ; it is to be considered an i^s- 
sential in good arable husbandry. It 
is common to keep the horse, cow, 
and pig dung separate ; but there is 
little benefit in this. 

Composition of Farm-yard Manure. 
—"The elementary composition of 
farm dung is a point which is not 
undeserviog of consideration," says 
Boussingault. " The animals which 
had produced the dung were thirty 
horses, thirty oxen, and from ten to 
twenty hogs. The absolute quantity 
of moisture was ascertained by first 
drying in the air a considerable weight 
of dung, and, afler pounding, continu- 
ing and completing the drying, in vac- 
uo, at 230° Fahrenheit. 

" The dung prepared in the winter 
of the year 

1837-S cuDtained . . 
1838-0 *' . . 

In. summer of 1 830 . • 

Medium • . • 
Watar . . • 

'* Analysis yielded the following 
results : 

Times •rprrnanitioB. Curb. Byd. Oxrr. Asoto. Aihn. 
of 1837-8 33-4 3-8 25-8 



S0*4 ) per cent, of 
3JM I dry matter. 
10-6 

703 



Winter 



4* 



Spring of 1838 

" 1839 
u u 



32-5 
88-7 
364 
400 
349 



41 
4-5 
40 
4-3 
48 



26 
28-7 
191 
27-6 
27-6 



1-7 
1*7 
1-7 
2-4 
2-4 
2-0 



303 
357 
20*4 
381 
25 7 
31-5 



273 



" On the average, farm dung, dned 

at 238®, contains : 

Carlton 358 

Hydro^n 4*2 

Oxygen 26.6 

Axote ...... 2*0 

Salts and eaitba . . . 32-2 

1000 

**When moist, its composition ia 
represented by 

Carbm 7*41 

Hydrogen 0*87 

Oxygen S-94 

Aaute 0*41 

Salta nod eaitba . . 607 
Water 7030 

200-0 

" The constitution of dung heaps 
must of necessity vary ; those, how> 
ever, which have a common origin 
do not seem to present very great 
differences in the proportion of their 
elements. 

*' Excretions of the Horse. — The 
horse was fed upon hay and oats. 
The urine and the excrements togeth- 
er contained 76-2 per cent, of moist- 
ure. In twenty-fuur hours the excre- 
tions weighed, moist, 34-3 pounds; 
dry, 81 pounds. 

'^ Their composition was found to 
be: 

la 111* in •tnta. Mowt ^ttn. 

Carbon 98*6 0-10 

Hydrt^n .... 50 120 

Oxygen 30*4 8-66 

Azote ; 2-7 413 

Salts and earth . . 17-3 4' IS 

Water .... .17*8 7frl7 

100-0 100-0 

**- Excretions of ike Coir. — ^Tbe cow 

was fed upon hay aad raw potatoes. 

Tlie urine and the excrements t<K 

gether contained 86-4 of moisture. 

The weight of the excretions, in 

twenty-four hours, was» moist, 80*6 

pounds ; dry, 10*9 pounds. 
"Their composition, by analysis, 

was: 

_ . Dry. Wet. 

Carbon 39*8 5*39 

Hydrogen .... 4-7 0"64 

Oxygen 35*5 4*81 

Azoic 2-0 30 

Salu and earth . . 17-4 2-36 

Water .... . 17-4 WiA 

1000 loolio 

" Excretions of the Pig. — The pigs 
upon which the observations were 
made were. from six to eight months 
old. They wore fed upon steamed 



FARM-YAKD MANURE. 



pMatoee. The oriDe and the ezcie- 
nieats lost, by drying, 82 per cent, of 
moistare. The average of the ex- 
cretions yielded by one pig in twenty- 
fottT hours was, moist, 9-1 pounds ; 
dry, I 6 poonds. 
'* Composition : 

Dry. Hoi*!. 

Carbaa 387 6 97 

Hydrogen .... 48 086 

Oxygen 99-5 5*85 

Axote S'4 61 

Salu and earth . . 90-6 87*01 

Wnter .... . 20-6 8200 

1000 10000 

" The litter that is generally em- 
ployed is wheat straw. This straw, 
in the condition in which it is used, 
contains 26 per cent, of moisture. 

*' Its composition is : 

Drii>d. UmirM. 

Cuban 48-4 U-8 

Hydngm . . . . &'3 39 



Oxygvn 88*0 

AvAt 0-4 

Salts and earth . . 7*0 
"Water .... . 70 

1000 



S6-8 

00-8 

6-2 

260 

100-0 



'*At Bechelbronn each horse re- 
ceives daily, as litter, 4-4 pounds; 
each cow, 6 6 pounds ; each pig, 4*1 
pounds of straw. 

"To the stables and the cow-houses 
together are given, every twenty-four 
hours, 132-0 pounds of straw for thir- 
ty horses; 198-0 pounds for thirty 
horned cattle ; 660 pounds for six- 
teen pigs; making 896-0 pounds of 
straw, estimated, when dry, at 292-6 
pounds. 

*' The composition of the materials 
which constitute the dung produced 
in one day are set forth in the fol- 
lowing table : 



B a c w tkw jkAMi 

in 34 bottn by 



Thirty honet . . . 
Ttiirtj homed cattle 
Sixteen pigs ... 
Straw need in litter 



Weicbt 
wImo dry. 



Weight 

in tlM wet 

■Utfc 



Ibe. 
245 06 
336-36 

26-40 
292^60 



1088-28 

2416-48 

146-74 

896-00 



Elements or tiie diy matter. 



Caitk 



Hydr^ 



Ibe. 
94-60 
130 24 
10-121 
41-68 



12-32 

15-40 

1-32 

15-62 



Oxygen 



Iba. 

89-10 

11616 

8-58 

113-74 



Auie. 



Hxi. 
6-60 
8-58 
0-88 
MO 



Salts* 
eartbu. 



tba. 
42-46 
5698 

5-50 
20-46 



Wai*»r 

constitu- 
ting tbe 
wet matter. 



ibe. 

783-20 

9080-12 

120-34 

103-40 



" The average or mean composition of this mixture may be taken as fol- 
lows: 



In tfae dry state. 



I 



In the wet state. 



Carbon. 



42-3 



35-8 



Hydrog. 



50 



4*2 



Oxyfsrn. 



36.7 
25-8 



Aaotc. i Salts.! Carbon. I Hydrog.]Uxygen. 
T9~|T4T|~9^ I 1-2 l~8T" 

That of Am reanhing Dnqg. 
2-0 |32-2| 7-4 I 0-0 | 5-3 



AxotP. 
0*4 



Salts. 



32 



6-7 



Water. 



776 



79-3 



<• On comparing the composition of 
the dung>heap with that of the differ- 
ent kinds of litter collected in a day, 
little difibrence is observed ; the lar- 
ger quantity of saline and earthy mat- 
ters discovered in the fermented ma- 
nure is readily explained from the ad- 
ditions of ashes inoorporated with it, 
and also by the accidental admixture 
of earthy matters proceeding from 
the sweepings of the court, the earth 
adhering to the roots consumed as 
food, &e. — ^refuse of every kind, the 
residue after cleansing the various 
kinds of fodder for the stable and 
stall, dto., all go to the dung-heap. 
Lastly, and with reference to the ele- 
ments that are liable to be dissipated 
in the state of gas, or which may be 
changed into water, the azote is pr&> 



cipitatedin larger quantity in the pre- 
pared manure than in the unferment- 
ed litter and excretions. This is at 
once seen on comparing the compo- 
sition of these two products after the 
saline and earthy matters have been 
deducted. 

Cart. Hydro|^ Oxyg. Asote. 
The oonpoetlicm of 

fresh litter is . . . 49-S 5-8 42-7 S 
That of dung .... 52*8 6*1 83-1 3.0 

"Dung is, therefore, somewhat 
richer in carbon than litter, and it 
contains less oxygen. 

** Fermented dung contains less 
oxygen than that which comes from 
the stable ; it ought also to contain 
less hydrogen ; but this analysis does 
not proclaim. 

"Axote is, in fact, the element 
which it is of highest importance to 

tT8 



FAR 

augment and to preserve in dang. 
The organic substances which are 
the most advantageous in producing 
manures are precisely those which 
give origin, by their decomposition, 
to the largest proportion of azotized 
matters, soluble or volatile. I say 
by their decomposition, because the 
mere presence of azote in matters 
of organic origin does not suffice to 
constitute them manure. While we 
admit the high importance, indeed 
the absolute necessity of azotic prin- 
ciples in manures, then, we must not 
therefore conclude that these princi- 
ples are the only ones which contrib- 
ute to fertilize the earth. 

** It is unquestionable that the al- 
kaline and earthy salts are farther 
indispensable to the accomplishment 
of the phenomena of vegetation ; and 
it is fur from being sufficiently shown 
that the organic principles void of 
azote play a merely passive part 
when added to the soil. But with 
few exceptions, the fixed salts, wa- 
ter or its elements, and carbon, sn- 
perabound in manure. The chemical 
nature of the salts is the same as that 
of the fodders used. The element 
which exista there in smallest pro- 
portion is azote, which is the one, 
also, that is most apt to be dissipa- 
ted during the alteration of the bodies 
that contain it. For these reasons, 
azote is really the element whose 
presence it is of highest moment to 
ascertain ; its proportion is that, in 
fact, which fixes the comparative 
value of difierent manures. 

** Since it is by undergoing modifi- 
cation in ttie course of their decom- 
position by putrefaction that those 
azotized substances which are fa- 
vourable to vegetation are developed 
in quaternary compounds, it will be 
readily understood that, all things 
else being equal, a manure which is 
completely resolved into soluble or 
gaseous products in the course of a 
single season will exert, in virtue of 
this alone, the whole of its useful in- 
fluence upon the first crop. It is en- 
tirely different if the manure decom- 
poses more slowly ; its action upon 
the first crop wiU be less obvious, but 
974 



FAR 

its influence will eontinne longer. 
There are manures which act, it may 
be said, at the momeiit they are put 
into the ground ; there are others* 
the action of which continnea diirio|[^ 
several years. Nevertheless, two 
manures, although acting within pe- 
riods so different in point of exteol* 
will produce the same final reaoit i 
they severally contain the same dose 
of azotic elements, if they are of the 
same intrinsic value. 

*' The durability of manures, the 
length of time during which they will 
continue to exert their influence, is 
a matter of great importance. It oft- 
en depends on their state of eohe- 
sion, or on their insolubility, though 
climate and the nature of the soil 
have also a marked influence on their 
decomposition and consequent ef- 
fects It is not easy, in the present 
state of knowledge, to predict with 
certainty how long the beneficial e^ 
fects of a given manure will continue 
to be felt ; but we know well enough 
what will hasten the decomposition 
of manure and what will retard this 
result, and so apportion, as it were, 
the fertilizing principles among the 
different crops in the rotation.'* 

In Switzerland it is common to ap- 
ply a small quantity of the solution 
of green vitriol or copperas (sulphate 
of iron) to the yard manure. One 
pound of copperas in solution will an- 
swer for about three hundred weight 
of the manure. This converts the 
carbonate into sulphate of ammo- 
nia, and removes any bad odour. It 
also improves the quality of the ma^ 
nure very considerably. 

FARRIER. One who shoes hor- 
ses, or treats their diseases ; the lat- 
ter department is now oomiog into 
the hands of educated men, called 
veterinary surgeons. 

FARROW. A litter of pigs. 

FASCID. In anatomy, a tendinous 
expansion lying between muscles. 

FASCICULUS, or FASCICLE. 
Tn botany, an inflorescence in which 
the flower-stalks of various lengths 
form a summit somewhat level, and 
the uppermost buds expand first, aa 
in the sweet William. 



FAT 

FAT. A solid oO, which eombines 
with soda and Ibrms doap. In the 
hody it is stored in cells, in mera- 
brsines existing under the skin, over 
the intestines and kidneys. The va- 
rieties in consistence of ditTerent 
lots depends upon the proportion of 
the stearin and eiain they contain ; 
the former being the solid part, the 
latter the flaid at oily. They are in- 
soluble in water, partly soluble in al- 
cohol, and partly in ether. 

Pats answer, in animals, several 
Important functions. They serve to 
maintain the warmth, by excluding 
atmospheric cold ; lubricate joints 
and the spaces between muscles, and 
afibrd the means of sustaining ani- 
mal beat by their consumption in the 
body during severe weather. In well- 
ihttened animals it is deposited even 
between the fibres of the muscles. 

Chemically, they are hydro-car- 
bons, and consist of oily acids com- 
bined with glycerine. Stearin con- 
sists of carbon, 79; hydrogen, 11-7; 
and oxygen, 9-3 per cent., and gives 
OS a fair representation of the com- 
position of the rest. The fats of ve- 
getables are identical with those of 
animals, ezeeptiog where a peculiar 
odorous body is added, as in goat fat, 
whale oil, dec For the various in- 
gredients of fats, see JS/ain, Stearin, 
MaprartTUy OUiny Butter^ dec. 

The purification of fats for the man- 
ufacture of soaps and candles is ef- 
fected by first mincing it in fine pie- 
ces, melting in warm water, and 
straining through a sieve. It may 
be farther purified by remelting in 
water acidulated with 2 per cent, of 
sulphuric acid, stirring it constantly, 
allowing it to cool, and skimming ofiT 
the tallow, which should be after- 
ward remelted with an abundance of 
fVesh water. In this way it becomes 
very white and hard. 

The rancidity of fats and oils is due 
to the absorption of oxygen from the 
air and the produtrtion of new pun- 
gent bodies, termed hircic, capric, 
dtc., acids. This is also the reason 
why butter spoils unless well worked 
before storage to remove all the air 
eontained in it. 



FAT 

I FATTENING ANIMALS. The 
accumulation of fat is unquestionably 
dependant upon the food in part, but 
it also depends upon the disposition 
and management of the animal. A 
docile breed, as the Durham ox or 
China hog, is more easily fattened 
than one that is restless. A dispo- 
sition to rest and sleep is very neces- 
sary, and is encouraged by jilacing 
the animals in darkened stalls, allow- 
ing them to be seldom troubled, and 
supplying rich food often during the 
day. As the fat accumulates, the 
skin feels very silky and the animal 
becomes lethargic; in this state it 
should be slaughtered, for otherwise 
they become liable to sudden death. 
Great attention is necessary to the 
cleanliness of the animal, the skin of 
which should be curried and washed 
to prevent d isease. The food is grad- 
ually increased in nutritiousness and 
amount of oil it contains, until the 
fattening is perfect. It i^ seldom 
that the accumulation of weight ex- 
ceeds two to two and a half pounds 
the day, notwithstanding the ration 
is doubled, or three and a half to four 
per cent, of the weight of the animal 
given in hay, or its equivalent. Small 
beasts are fattened more economi- 
cally than large ones, and unless the 
skin handles well, or is soft and elas- 
tic to the touch, the prospects for 
rapid fattening are not good. The 
length of time necessary to finish the 
fattening is four or five months in 
oxen, but is less during warm than 
cold weather. 

FATTENING FOOD. The expe- 
rience of farmers has always been in 
favour of the doctrine that oily prov- 
ender is required to produce fat ; 
beech -nuts, linseed -oil cakes, and 
corn enjoy the highest reputation, 
and are most charged with oil. Lie- 
big has, however^ advanced the doc- 
trine that farinaceous vegetables, as 
the potato, carrot, <Scc., are fattening 
from the starch they contain ; but al- 
though this may be true physiologi- 
cally, yot in ordinary farm manage- 
ment it is found cheaper and more 
expeditious to use fodders already 
coaUining the fat, rather than to 

S75 



PAU 

ynai for tha dower traittlbniiatUm 
out of starch. 

Fattening food should be well pre- 
pared by grinding, and steaming for 
bogs. A mush that had become 
slightly sour was found to fatten more 
expeditiously by Arthur Young than 
the fresh food. The following table 
giTes the oomparative values of prov- 
enders for fattening, by showing the 
amount of oil they contain : 



Indian corn 


. to 


10 


per cent, of oil. 


Oats .... 


. 4 to 


5 


1* 


t* 


Wheat . 


. S4to 


H 


(1 


II 


Bran • • • 


. 4 to 


5 


t< 


M 


Oil cake . . 


. 9 to 


10 


« 


M 


OIoTer hay 


. 4 




M 


II 


Meadow hay . 
Paaasandbeaaa 


. Hto 

. Si to 


4 
3 


U 


II 
II 


Beech mast 


. 13 to 


17 


« 


11 


Sunflower teod 


. 15 




M 


M 


Linaeed . . 


. U to 


S2 


It 


•1 


Heinp aeed 


. 18 to 


35 


u 


If 


Straw . . . 


. 1 to 


li 


II 


M 



These numbers are not constant, 
for the amount of oil depends upon 
the season, increasing with the brill< 
iancy and dryness of the weather. 
Potatoes, beets, carrots, turnips, man- 
gel wurzel, contain less than one 
quarter per cent., and are therefore 
not adapted for fattening alone. 

The same values are true for but- 
ter and milk, except that oil cake im- 
parts a bad flavour. Poultry and 
pigs are now sometimes fattened in 
part on animal fat, as cracklings, 
greaves, &c. One of the most suc- 
cessful bodies in the list is ground lin- 
seed meal, but, considering its other 
qualities, corn is the most esteemed. 
If the cake or oily seeds are used, it 
will be necessary to mix meal, oats, 
or pease with them, to preserve the 
health of the animal ; five pounds of 
cake are a sufficient supply for the day. 

FATHOM. A measure of six feet. 

FAUCES. The part of the throat 
at the root of the tongue. 

FAULT. In geology, an interrup- 
tion in the continuation of a stratum, 
the bed having been broken by an 
earthquake and separated. The crev- 
ice between the parts is oAen filled 
with clay, which forms an impervious 
barrier to drainage. 

FAUNA. The animals of a coun- 
try. 

276 



FSB 

FAUX. The ofsmtig or threat of 

monopetalous flowers, like the snap- 
dragon, sage, dec. 

FAVOSUS (from fatus, a hone^^ 
comb). Marked like a honey-comb. 

FEATHER-BOARDING. Weath- 
er-boarding, the edges of the boards 
overlapping. 

FEATHER-GRASS. SHjta pc»^ 
nala. A very inferior grass. 

FEATHERS. The covering of 
birds, answering the purpose and be- 
ing of the same composition as the 
hair and fur of animals. Goose* 
feathers for beds are, in Europe, 
plucked in the spring, midsummer, 
aiKi September, each parcel being 
dried in an oven. If they become 
foul, it may be remedied by boiling 
them, enclosed in hags, in an abun- 
dance of water for a few minutes. 
The quiU is prepared by dipping in 
a quantity of sand heated to 1^^ 
Falirenheit, and afterward nibbing it 
strongly with flannel until it becomes 
clear. 

Waste feathers, as a manure, are 
precisely of the same value as woolUn 
rag9^ which see. 

FEBRIFUGE. Any medicine 
which allays the heat and violence of 
fevers, as lemonade, Seidlitz pow- 
ders, tartar emetic, dec. 

FECES. Excrements, dregs. 

FECULA. Starchy matter. 

FECUNDATION. In horticulture, 
the act of sprinkling the yellow pow- 
der (poilen) of the stamens of one 
flower upon the stigma or female or- 
gan of another, to produce new vari- 
eties of seed, is called artificial fecun- 
dation or impregnation. The late 
Mr. Andrew Knight obtained in this 
way many choice fruits. Varieties 
of plants, especially melons, are fre- 
quently injured and lost by planting 
them near each other, from fecunda- 
tion arising from the pollen of one 
kind being carried to another by in- 
sects or Uie wind. Hence annuals 
of the same species set out for seed 
should be placed far apart. 

FEED. The quantity of proven- 
der or ration allowed a htirsc, cow, 
dec. Growing animals require three 
per cent. ; working horses, two ; 



FEL 



FEN 



mfl^ cowB» tfaiee ; and ftttenin; an* 

imals three and a half to four per 
cent, of tlieir weight in liay or its 
eqaivalent. See Fodder, 

FEELERS. The antenns of in- 
sects, or, according to entomologists, 
organs fixed to the mouth, uaed for 
prehension. 

FEUNE ANIMALS. Beasts of 
the tiger, lion, and cat race. They 
are carniTorous, furnished with sharp 
incisor teeth, and retractile daws. 

FELL, The hide of an animal. 

FELLING TIMBER. Much dis- 
cussion has arisen as to the time of 
felling timber, some contending for 
winter, others for summer. l3uba- 
rael, who examined the matter thor- 
oughly, came to the conclusion that 
the time of cutting was of little or no 
importance on the durability of the 
tiinber. The rule now established is, 
that soli woods, as the elm, poplar, 
maple, willows, are best cut in win- 
ter, the harder trees in summer, and 
old trees may be cut at any time. 

FELLINIC ACID. One of the 
acids found in bite by Berzelius. 

FELLMONGER'S POAKE, or 
CLIPPINGS. The clippings of skins 
wad the scrapings of leather. It con- 
tains hair, skin, and lime, and is best 
introduced into composts to increase 
the amount of nitrogen. A direct ap- 
plication is wasteful, for it decays 
rapidly. 

FELLOES. The curved pieces of 
wood which form the circumference 
of wheels : ash is preferred for this 
purpose. 

FEIX)N, or FETLOW. In farri- 
ery, a term for a sort of inflammation 
in animals similar to that of whitlow 
in the human subject. ' 

FELDSPAR. A common mineral 
abounding in granite and transition 
rocks ; it is crystaUtne, of a pearly lus- 
tre, and of vanous colours, usually 
of a yellowish or reddish aspect. It 
is a silieate of potash and alumina, 
containing from eleven to fourteen 
per cent, of real potash, and furnish- 
ing, by slow decay in the soil, that 
important alkali to plants. Albite is 
a variety containing soda. An abun- 
daJBce of decaying vegetable matter 

A 4 



in the soil, or the addition of hesiy 
dressings of lime, assists the disen- 
gagement of the potash, and thus ad- 
vances fertility. No soil which con- 
tains much feldspathic sand can be 
deficient in potash. 

FEMUR. The thigh bone ; hence 
FtmcrtU. 

FEN. A boggy or marshy i^ace. 
See Bog, 

FENCES. Erections to protect 
land from the trespass of cattle. They 
are called live fences, or hedges, when 
made of shrubs. See Hedge*. 

Wood, being so common, is usual- 
ly employed in the United States; 
but walla of blasted rock or looso 
stones are frequently seen. Stumps 
form an admirable fencing material. 
Banks of earth, dug from a ditch and 
covered with sods, or a ditch only, 
are also used ; in the prairies they 
would, perhaps, be cheaper than raU 
fencing. These structures are, how 
ever, very expensive, and should be 
diminished by the introduction of the 
system of soiling. 

Wooden fences are commonly 
erected in the zigzag direction ; the 
cross fence, consisting of one piece 
set slanting upon two others stuck 
into the ground, and made to cross 
near the top, is much less permanent. 
The post and rail is very superior, 
but more expensive, but, by using pre* 
served timber, might be made imper- 
ishable. See Pretervation of Tim' 
her,. Railings are readily rived from 
straight pine, but look much neater 
when sawn. In Virginia the law re* 
quires a fence of ten rails, with ri- 
ders, which is unnecessarily high ; 
five rails, with riders, being used in 
Jersey. The rails are cu 1 1 wel ?e feet 
long. A rod costs from 50 to 70 cents. 

Hurdles, or light moveable fences, 
consisting of panels, about four feet 
long and tour feet and a half high, are 
much used in Europe to confine 
sheep, each panel being furnished 
with two end pieces long enough to be 
stuck fast into the earth. They are 
tied together, when set up, with 
withes. Sometimes they are made 
of osier, but usually of any small 
wood. By means of them, turnips 

877 



FENCES. 



spring rye, &c., can be depastured. 
A light post and rail fence may be 
made moveable by furnishing the 
posts with feet. Light iron and wire 
hurdles are now introduced in Eng- 
land, and also iron rods passed 
through wooden posts for permanent 
fences. 

Walls are put up at fifty cents to 
one dollar the rod. The following 
is from Law : 

«* The stone wall may either be form- 
ed of stones built without cement, or 
it may be built with mortar like com- 
mon masonry ; but the last of these 
methods is rarely practised with the 
common fences of a farm. The ce- 
menting of the stones with mortar 
adds, indeed, to the durability of the 
wall, but then the expense is too 
great in common cases. The wall, 
therefore, for the ordinary purposes 
of the farm, may generally be built 
of stones alone, though sometimes 
with a little mortar, merely for ce- 
menting the coping, and occasional- 
ly for pinning or closing the inter- 
stices of the outside. When stones 
cannot be obtained, brick may be sub- 
stituted. 

" The materials for building the dry 
stone wall, as this kind of wall is 
termed, may be sandstone, whin- 
stone, or any other stones of suffi- 
cient durability. Loose stones taken 
from the surface, termed land stones, 
answer sufficiently well, if they be 
of proper size, and not too much 
rounded ; but in the latter case they 
present too smooth a surface, and 
cannot be kept in their places with- 
out mortar. 

"The implements to be used in 
building the dry stone wall are a ma- 
son's hammer, a spade or shovel for 
clearing the ground for a foundation, a 
pick or mattock, and a frame of two 
upright posts fixed together, so as to 
correspond with a vertical section of 
a portion of the wall. 

•♦ The line of the intended fence be- 
ing fixed upon and marked on the 
ground, the stones for building should 
be brought forward, and laid down on 
both sides, if possible, of the line of 
fence, but if not, on one side. 
278 



** Pins being fixed In the centre of 
the space to be occupied by the wall, 
the workman proceeds Uius : he car- 
ries his wooden frame to smne dis- 
tance along the line to be built upon ; 
he sets it perpendicular, which he i* 
enabled to do by means of a plumb- 
line attached to it. He then fixes 
another similar frame at the place 
where the wall is to oommence ; he 
stretches two cords between these 
two frames on the outside, and as 
these cords correspond with the out- 
side of the wall at a given height, he 
has a guide for building it of the 
required dimensions. After haying 
built one portion, he uses only one 
frame, the wall itself serving after- 
ward the part of a frame ; for the 
cords being fixed to both side^of the 
wall, and then attached to the frame 
which is placed in advance, the work- 
man has, as before, a guide by which 
he proceeds in building. 

" The foundation of the wall should 
be laid on firm ground, and when 
there is not green sward to build 
upon, the loose earth shouhl be taken 
out by the spade, until a solid found- 
ation is arrived at. In building, the 
largest and flattest stones should be 
used for the foundation ; and it is 
very desirable, if the materials used 
will allow, to place stones at inter- 
vals of sufilcient size to lie across 
the breadth of the wall, so as to bind 
the wall together, and render it more 
secure. 

** Different kinds of coping may be 
placed upon the wall to defend it. 
One of these consists merely of turf, 
two sods being laid upon the wall, 
with the earthy sides placed towards 
each other. Another species of cop- 
ing consists of large stones, which, 
being closely built and wedged togeth- 
er, are cemented by mortar. This is 
a complete and durable species of 
coping ; but when it is used, a row 
of fiat stones should be laid on t^ie 
top of the wall immediately beneath 
the coping, and made to projee^ a lit- 
tle on each side of it. 

*• A wall, sufficient for tixe put poses 
of the farm, may be 32 inches wide 
at bottom, 16 inches wide at top, and, 



FEN 



FER 



inelnding the eoiiiog, 4i feet high. 
Two good cart-loads of stones will 
suffice for building a yard. 

** When a fence is required within 
sight of a dwelling, and it is desira- 
ble for it to be concealed, a deep 
ditcb is sometiuies dug, and a fence 
placed in the bottom of it at such a 
depth as not to appear above the lev- 
el of the ground. This is called a 
sunk fence. Sometimes a wall is 
built against a perpendicular side of 
a ditch, and some very light fence is 
placed obliquely outward near the 
top of it and level with the ground. 
This is called a ha-ha fence, a name 
given to it from the surprise excited 
in a person unacquainted with it, 
when he suddenly finds himself on 
the top of a wail with a deep ditch 
before him. When it is desired to 
keep ofiT sheep or cattle from a lawn 
or pleasure-ground without obstruct- 
ing the view of the park or- the fields, 
the ha* ha fence is very oseAil." 

Some persons recommend division 
fences for every ten acres, but this is 
ridiculously small, for it is not to be 
forgotten that the fence requires some 
room, hinders close ploughing, and 
this probably reduces the enclosure by 
one third to one half an acre, which, 
in a farm of two hundred acres, would 
amount to ten acres. Thirty or for- 
ty acre lots, except on small farms, 
are small enough. 

FENESTRATE. In entomology^ 
the appearance produced by the trans- 
parent spots on the wings of some in- 
sects. In botany, the absence of tis- 
8oe between the veins of a leaf 

FENNEL, COMMON. Meum fa- 
nictdum. This is a well-known bienni- 
al plant, cultivated in kitchen gardens 
as a garnish, and used as a domestic 
medicine. The taste and aromatic 
qualities of the garden fennel are well 
known. The sweet and warm seeds 
are a common carminative for infants. 

FENNEL, SWEET. FiBmadum 
dulee. This species of fennel is an an- 
nual plant, a native of Italy and Por- 
tugal, where it is cultivated as a pot- 
herb, as well as for the seeds and the 
oil which these afford. It is a small- 
er plant than the common fennel. The 



stem is somewhat eoropressed at (hi 
base. . The fruit is much longer than 
that of the common fennel, being near- 
ly five lines long, less compressed, 
somewhat curved, and paler, with a 
greenish tinge. 

FENUGREEK. Trigonellafanum* 
grtecum. Fenugreek is a species of 
trefoil, sometimes cultivated in fields 
for its seed ; but it yields a very un- 
certain crop. The stem is a foot 
high, erect, with round, branched 
stalks, trifoliate leaves, toothed ; the 
flowers small and white ; the fruit a 
sessile, straight, erect, acuminate, 
flat pod, containing a number of yel- 
lowish seeds having a strong, disa- 
greeable smell, and an unctuous, far- 
inaceous, and somewhat bitter taste. 
These seeds are useful in cataplasms 
and fomentations. 

FENUGREEK, RUSSIAN. Trig- 
onella ntthenica. A hardy perennial, 
native of Siberia, with yellow papil- 
ionaceous blossoms in July and Au- 
gust. It loves a strong loamy soil 
and an open situation. It is propa 
gated either by parting the roots in 
spring or from seed. 

FERMENT. A substance in the 
state of decay which is capable of 
communicating fermentation and sim- 
ilar changes to other bodies. Fer- 
ments contain nitrogen, and are pri- 
marily derived from albumen, fibrin, 
or casein, which, when moist, decay 
spontaneously. The product of the 
ferment depends upon temperature, 
amount of water, access of air, and 
other conditions. These actions can 
only originate in organic matter, but 
ferments act upon inoi^nic substan- 
ces, as mixtures of gases, &c. Fer- 
ments become exhausted in acting 
upon other bodies, from their own 
decay. For common ferment, see 
Yeast. 

FERMENTATION. Whenafer- 
ment, as yeast, is brought in contact 
with grape sugar, and several other 
principles, mixed with water, and at 
a temperature of 70° or upward, the 
sugar is changed, and gives off car- 
bonic acid, alcohol being produced; 
this change is attended with consid- 
erable movement in the mixture, and 

279 



FfiR 



F£R 



is eaOed fennecitatioii. Tb« produet 

of fermentation is various : when alco- 
hol is formed it is called vittotu ; when 
staroh is c(jnTerlcd into sugar, as in 
bi ead-making,«acc Aann£. Lactic acid 
fermentation is when that substance 
is produced from sugar ; puirefaciive 
fermentation, which occurs in dung- 
hills, takes place when nitrogen is an 
ingredient in the decaying matter. 

Fermentation is a chemical change, 
whereby complex organic bodies are 
converted into more simple forms ; 
thus, sugar is changed into carbonic 
acid and alcohoL It differs from 
tremacausis, in the circumstance that 
oxygen is only absorbed in the begin- 
ning, and tiiat the changes take place 
in an abundance of water. The prin- 
cipal products of fermentation are 
water, carbonic acid, alcohol, and car- 
buret of hydrogen. When nitrogen 
is present, ammonia, with fetid gass- 
es, containing sulphur and phospho- 
rus, are also exhaled. The heat is 
a result of these changes. The de- 
cay is hastened by warmth and an 
abundance of yeast ; it is retarded by 
excessive moisture, and so high a 
temperature as to coagulate the fer- 
ments. Those bodies which absorb 
oxygen rapidly, as green vitriol, hin- 
der fermentation by intercepting tiie 
first change: these are called arui- 
seplicM. Mineral acids also destroy 
the activity of ferments. 

Sugar, starch, woody fibre, &^., 
cannot ferment spontaneously, for 
they contain no nitrogen ; they are, 
however, csLWedfermcniabt^. The jui- 
ces of fruits, trees, canes, dec, rapidly 
ferment, because, besides sugar, they 
contain albumen, casein, or fibrin, 
which, decaying easily, conveys the 
change to the fermentable matter 
present ; but their fermentation may 
be hindered by adding a little lime, 
boiling down to a sirup, or otherwise 
coagulating or solidifying the de- 
structive nitrogen principles. 

In consequence of the continuance 
of fermentation, irrespective of ac- 
cess of air, fluids in this state must 
not be barrelled up tightly, or the car- 
bonic acid gas may burst the vessel ; 
but by lowering the temperature to 

280 



45° Fahrenheit (1^ placieg m a cel- 
lar), separating all the yeast, or fu'* 
migating the cask with vapour of sul- 
phur, it may be considerably or alto- 
gether arrested. The vinous fer- 
mentation runs into the acetous if 
the substances are freely exposed to 
air, as cider or beer in an open cask. 
See Beert Cider. 

FERNS, FILICES. Flowerless 
plants, with beautifully -developed 
leaves, bearing their seed-vessels on 
the lower side. They are crypto- 
gamia in the system of Liansus, and 
acotyledonous in that of Jussieu. 
They have little economical value, 
grow in wet or rocky situations, and 
serve well enough for packing, in the 
place of straw, or to increase the 
amount of yard manure. 

FERROCYANATE OF POT- 
ASH. A yellow, crystalline salt, also 
called Prussiate of potash, the solu- 
tion of which is used as a test for pe- 
roxide of iron in solution, with which 
it strikes a beautiful blue, being, in- 
deed, Prussian blue. It is also used 
in the laboratttry as a test for copper 
and other metals, and to form various 
compounds of cyanogen from. 

FERRUGINOUS (from/<rr«m, 
iron). Containing iron, or of the col- 
our of rust. Ferruginous waters are 
also called chalybeates, and much es- 
teemed as tonics. Ferruginous Stiils, 
when friable, are fre<}ueatly vers fer 
tile and improveable. 

FERRUGO. Also Rubig