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Full text of "The farmer's guide in hiring and stocking farms. Containing an examination of many subjects of great importance both to the common husbandman, in hiring a farm; and to a gentleman on taking the whole or part of his estate into his own hands. Also, plans of farm-yards, and sections of the necessary buildings"


THE LIBRARY 

OF 

THE UNIVERSITY 
OF CALIFORNIA 

LOS ANGELES 




THE 

FARMER'S GUIDE 



I N 



HIRING AND STOCKING FARMS. 

CONTAINING 

An Examination of many Subje&s of great Importance 
both to the common Hufbandman, in hiring a Farm ; 
and to a Gentleman on taking the Whole or Part of his 
Eftate into his own Hands. 

PARTICULARLY, 



The Signs whereby to judge of Land. 
The Points to be attended to in hiring 

a Farm. 
The Quantity of Land of every Sort 

proportioned to a given Sum of 

Money. 
The moft advantageous Method of 

difpofing of any Sum from 50 /. to 



20,000 /. in Hufbandry on culti- 
vated or uncultivated Soils. 

The Means of rendering Agriculture 
as profitable to Gentlemen, as to 
common Farmers ; and as benefi. 
cial a Profeflion as any other. 

Hints to thofe Gentlemen who farm 
for Pleasure alone. 



ALSO, 



Plans of Farm-yards, and Seftions of the neceffary Buildings. 



IN TWO VOLUMES. 



By the AUTHOR of The FARMER'S LETTERS. 
VOL. I. 



LONDON: 

Printed for W. STRAHAN ; W. NICOLL, N 51. in St, Paul's 
Church-yard; B. COLL'INS, at Salifbaryj and 
J. BALFOUR, at Edinburgh. 

M,DCC,LXX. 



CONTENTS 

O F T H E 

FIRST VOLUME. 

BOOK I. 

Of hiring and flocking farms in culti- 
vated countries, - - Page i 
CHAP. I. Of the foil, 2 

CHAP. II. Of the contiguity of the fields, 1.6 
CHAP. III. Of the probability of 

increafmg the quantity of land, - 20 
CHAP. IV. Of the comparifon between 
the covenants of the leafe and the 
nature of the farm, - 25 

CHAP. V. Of the nature and fiat e of the 

fences, - 39 

CHAP. VI. Of the buildings on a farm 

and their repairs, - - 4.8 

CHAP. VII. Of roads and paths through 

a farm, - - - 57 

CHAP. VIII. Of the fiat e of the public 

roads and diftancefrom the market, 6 1 
CHAP. IX. Of the ty the, 65 

CHAP. X. Of town charges. - 68 
CHAP. XL Of the price of labour, ' - 70 
CHAP. XII. Of fans other circumfianccs 
which a farmer JJjou/d attend to in 
hiring a farm, - - 72 



U CONTENTS. 

CHAP. XIII. Of the Method of reducing 
the fubj eels of the preceding chapters 
to a regular account, - P. 76 

CHAP. XIV. Remarks on the conduB of 
common farmers inproportioning their 
land to their money, ~ ~ 97 

CHAP. XV. Of the moji advantageous 
meth od of difp ofing of$ o 1 . in farming, no 

CHAP. XVI. Ofthemoft advantageous 
method of difpofing ofiool. in farming, 125 

CHAP. XVII. Of the mojl advantageous 
method of difpofing of any fum, from 
150!. to 200 1. in farming^ - 142 

CHAP. XVIII. Of the moft advanta- 
geous method on farms of 40 or 50 
acres, of difpojing of from 200 1. to 
300 1. in farming, - 173 

CHAP. XIX. Of the mojl advantageous 
method, on farms of 60 or 80 acres of 
land) of difpofmg of from 300 1. to 
400 1. in farming, 207 

CHAP. XX- Of the difference between 
gentlemen and common famers in 
hiring and flocking farms, 246 

CHAP. XXI. Of the mojl advantageous 
method of difpojing of from 500!. to 
6ool. in farming, - - 280 

CHAP. XXII. Of the mojl advantageous 
method of dijpofmg of any fum from 
700 1. to loool. in farming. - 392 

THE 



THE 

FARMER'S GUIDE. 

BOOK I. 

Of hiring and flocking Farms, in cultivated 
Countries. 

A VARIETY of materials, without 
fomethingof a regular arrangement, 
is liable to a confufion that would 
perplex every reader; and the defign of 
this work requires as much method as any, 
that thofe, who (hall think proper to confult 
it, may not be obliged to turn over more 
pages than neceflary. A point of no 
trifling importance to the common hufband- 
man. For the fake, therefore, of clearnefs, 
I divide the fubjecl into two principal 
parts. 

I. The hiring and flocking farms, in 
cultivated foils: 

II. The fame, in uncultivated ones. 
VOL. T. B Under 



Under thefe heads I fhall confider, 
all thofe circumftances which are in com- 
mon to both farmers aad gentlemen ; and, 
fecoiidly, fuch as are peculiar to the latter. 
The mention of thefe grand divifions is fuf- 
ficient here to give the reader a general idea 
of the defign; the fubdivifion will arife 
naturally out of the fubjecl:. 

CHAP. I. 
Of the Soil. 

T N the common courfe of bufmefs, it is 
* known fome time before a farm is va- 
cant ; and thofe who think of hiring it have 
more opportunities than one, of both view- 
ing and enquiring after it. The great point 
is the foil. Let us, firft, fuppofe it of a 
(tiff nature, clay or ftiff loam ... A judg- 
ment of this muft be formed according to 
feafons. 

Enquiries are commonly, and judicioufly, 
made into the crops the land has ufually 
yielded ; but let me remark, that this point, 
although not abfolutely to be flighted, yet is 
never to determine a man's deciiion. Crops 

are 



( 3 ) 

are found every where to depend on ma-. 
nagement, fcarce ever on foil. A good far- 
mer gains great crops wherever he goes ; 
a bad farmer always poor ones. But as the 
rent is proportioned commonly to the foil, 
and as good hufbandry may be exerted on 
good as well as bad ones ; it is requifite to 
form an exact judgment of what every kind 
of foil is worth in rent. 

And here let me remark, that, whenever 
I fpeak of rent, I mean the amount of rent 
(commonly fo called), lights, the poor, 
church, conftable, furveyor's rates, repairs of 
buildings, covenants for work, &c. in a word, 
every article of annual expence,, to which 
the farmer is liable from the occupation of 
his farm. If he confiders the landlord's 
rent alone, he will, in numberlefs inftances, 
be wretchedly deceived, and fubjecl for 
ever to the worft of miftakes. 

All ftiff foils are viewed to moft advan- 
tage in winter : the general fault of them 
is wetnefs, which is in the greateft excefs 
at that feafon of the year. If the fields are 
level, and the water ftands in the land, 
notwithftanding the furrows are well 
ploughed and open, it is a certain fign that 
B 2 the 



( 4 ) 

the clay is very ftiff, and of fo adhefive a 
nature as to contain the water like a difh : 
It is likewife probable, that draining of 
every kind will prove infufficient to cure 
the natural evil of ftich land. This kind of 
foil, likewife, mews itfelf in the breaking 
up of ftubbles for a fallow ; a very ftrong 
draught of cattle is then neceflary to work 
it. It breaks up in vaft pieces, almoft as 
hard as iron. When it is worked fine, it 
will run like mortar, with a heavy fpring or 
fummer fhower. Thefe foils will yield very 
great crops of beans, and wheat, &c. They 
muft, like others, be cultivated by fome 
body ; but I would advife every friend of 
mine to have nothing to do with them; 
never to be captivated with feeing large 
crops upon the land ; for he does not fee, 
at the fame time, the expences at which 
they are raifed. 

I do not, in mentioning this foil, any 
more than the reft, notice the weeds they 
produce : I have never found that fign 
worth a groat. For the different manage- 
ment of farmers, the purchafe of feed, the 
change of manures, &c. &c. all confound 

the 



( 5 ) 

the natural conne&ian between weeds and 
foil. 

The next kind of ftiff foil I (hall men- 
tion is the mouldering, crumbling clay ; 
which is, of all other foils, the beft. If 
you obferve a field of this land in winter, 
it will lie perfectly dry, if well ploughed 
an4 water-furrowed. You may walk 
over a winter fallow, or wheat field of it, 
foon after rain, without adhering to your 
fhoes, and may eafily pufh it about, like 
garden moulds, with the foot. It will 
bear ploughing much earlier in fpring, than 
any other ftiff foil. If you view a ftubble 
of it, you will find with a fpade, that it 
will break up loofe and mellow. Any 
drains take full effect on this foil, and will, 
if ever fo wet, lay it perfectly dry: At the 
fame time, it does not run to mortar with 
fudden rains. Whenever a farmer meets 
with fuch a foil as this, it is of no confe- 
quence to enquire what crops it has yielded, 
or any fuch circumftances : He may depend 
on its bearing plenty of corn, with good 
management. If it has been defective, it 
muft infallibly be owing to a wrong method 

of culture. A flat fituation is, to all ftifF 

B 3 foils. 



foils, unfavourable; a fall, or inclination 
fome way or other, adds much to the value. 
Such a foil may exift unknown, for want 
of hollow draining; but then any little 
rifmg place, that is dry, will, in all pro- 
bability, prove an index to the reft. 
Twenty {hillings an acre, for this land, when 
drained, is a much deeper rent than 5*^. 
for the other clay. 

The next foil I mall mention is that of 
the ftiff loam, which is neareft allied to 
brick earth ; this is in general an unkindly 
foil, without plenty of manure. It is known 
in winter, by being very adhefive upon 
walking over it ; is not fo retentive of water 
as the firft-mentioned clay, being very eafily 
drained ; but is long in drying, even when 
little or no water is feen upon it : For which 
reafon, it is generally late in the fpring be- 
fore it can be ploughed. When quite dry, it 
breaks up neither fo hard and cloddy as 
the firft clay, nor near fo crumbly and mel- 
low as the fecond. If it is in ftubble, it is 
apt to be covered with a minute green mofs. 
There are many varieties of this foil, but 
all agree in moft of thefe circumftances, and 
in being what the farmers call poor, cold, 

hungry 



( 7 ) 

hungry land. When hollow ditched, arid 
greatly manured, it yields any thing ; bat 
thofe who hire it fhould forget neither of 
thefe expences. It turns to the bcft profit 
laid down to grafs. 

The gravelly foils are numerous in their 
kind, and very different in their natures. 
Warm, dry, found gravelly loams, are 
eafily diftinguifhed in winter : They admit 
ploughing all winter through, except in 
very wet times ; always break up quite in 
a crumbly ftate of running moulds ; and if 
a Hubble, will dig, on trial by the fpade, 
in the fame manner. If under turnips, 
you may perceive, by walking through 
them, that it will bear their being fed off. 
This foil will pay well for manuring, but 
will anfwer very well in a good eourfe of 
management, without any. 

The wet, cold, fpringy gravel is a very 
bad foil ; it is known, in winter, by the 
wetnefs of it ; and in fpring, by its binding 
with hafty mowers : It never breaks up 
in a crumbly ftate, nor mews a meliowncis 
under the fpade. Hollow drains greatly 
correct its ill qualities, but it requires a 
B 4 prodigious 



( 8 ) 

prodigious quantity of manure to ferti- 
lize it. 

Some gravels are fo (harp and burning, 
that they produce nothing except in wet 
fummers ; but fuch are known at any feafon 
of the year. 

Sands are as various as gravels, and are 
all eafily difcoverable in their natures : The 
rich black fand is, I believe, as profitable a 
foil as any in the world : It has, at all fea- 
fons, a dry foundnefs, and at the fame time 
a moifture without wetnefs, which fecures 
crops even in dry fummers. The fpade is 
fufficient to try it, at any feafon of the 
year. 

The light fandy loam is, likewife, an 
admirable foil ; it will bear ploughing, like 
the preceding, all winter long, and appears 
quite found and mellow when tried with 
the fpade. If it lies under a winter fallow, 
the beft way to judge of its richnefs, is to 
remark the fize of the furrows, and the 
degree of adhefion in the foil. In clay foils, 
the great excellency is the refembling fand 
in many circumftances ; and in the fandy 
ones, the fimilarity of clay. Thus ftiff 
land, being dry and crumbly, is a great 

perfection 5 



( 9 ) 

perfection ; and light land, being ftiff and 
adhefive, is an equally good fign. 

When therefore the farmer views a light 
fandy loam, whofe found drynefs is acknow- 
ledged, he may prefume the foil is rich^ in 
proportion to its ftiffnefs : If it falls flat in 
powder, and has no adhefion, it is much 
to be fufpecT:ed that it is a mere fand, A 
dry found land, that is pretty ftiff, is al- 
ways good. . However, fuch land being 
feldom without a crop of turneps, the fize 
of them (if they are not manured, which 
is very eafily feen) will mew, in many 
cafes, the richnefs of the land. 

The mere fandy foil, that has fcarce any 
adhefion, is alfo eafily known : Upon this 
land it is of importance to view the crop, 
or crops. Drynefs being the great charac- 
teriftic of that foil, a wet feafon ever proves 
the beft of all manures ; fo if a poor crop 
is found upon fuch land, in a wet year, 
there is a ftrong prefumption that the foil 
is nought, at leaft, in its prefent (late: 
And if the tenant is to be at the expence of 
marling, chalking, clay, or any other ex- 
traordinary manuring, the expence muft 
be confidered in the rent. 

A general 



( 10 } 

A general rule with all Tandy foils is, 
that, if dry, the ftiffeft is the beft ; except 
the black moift fand, which exceeds them 
all. 

The white chalky foil is, in general, of 
a cold, wet, fpewy (as the farmers term it) 
nature ; will not bear ploughing in winter, 
unlefs the weather is very dry or frofry; 
runs exceflively to mortar with a heavy 
ihower, when in a pulverifed ftate. It is 
a cold hungry foil, of little profit, except 
with very peculiar management ; and an- 
fwers beil if tolerably dry laid down to fain- 
foine. 

The moory foils, in a ftate of cultivation, 
are too inconfiderable to mention parti- 
cularly, 

I am fenfible there are a multitude of 
other forts of land feemingly diftindl from 
thefe, which are here unnoticed; but it 
fhould be remembered that the feveral kinds 
of land, like the ihades of colours, blend 
into each other, till all diftindtion is loft. 
Thus many foils are found partaking of 
both clay and loam, in fo equal a manner, 
that it is difficult to aflign it to either. We 
fee the fame thing between gravel and 

loam* 



loam, chalk and clay, &c. &c.\ and befides 
thefe confufions of diftinclion, each fort of 
foil varies infinitely, and every quality in 
each foil the fame. An attempt to charac- 
terife each variation, as well as each foil, 
would be an endlefs, and an impracticable 
work : I have, therefore, purpofely pafled 
by feveral variations of which I have even 
had particular experience, and ftuck to the 
diftinguifhing marks alone. It muft un- 
doubtedly be left to the perfon who views 
a field, to determine which particular foil it is 
neareft allied to ; and what qualities, good 
or bad, are moft to be difcovered in it. 

In refpect to grafs lands, the marks for 
judgment are different. Thefe are beft 
examined by attending, firft, to the circum- 
ftances in which they are moft deficient; 
and then to fuch as are in their favour. 
The more feafons grafs fields are viewed 
in, the better ; though any one is fufficient 
for a tolerable judgment. 

One evil attending thefe lands is, that of 
being too wet ; the figns of which can never 
be miftaken, or overlooked, in any feafon 
of the year. In winter, it is at once per- 
ceived by walking on it; at all times of 

the 



the year, by the herbage which generally 
abounds on it, fuch as rufhes, flags, and a 
great quantity of mofs; and alfo by the 
colour of the grafs, which is moftly blue 
at the points; fometimes of a dirty yellow 
hue, and always coarfe. If the foil is the 
firft defcribed ftiff clay, and the furf ace level, 
the evil will be very difficult of cure; if of 
the other fort, of clay or (tiff loams, drain- 
ing will have great effects. To difcover 
the foil, the ditches fhould be examined ; 
and if tried here and there with a fpade, it 
will be the better. 

Another evil, to which grafs fields on 
thefe foils are liable, is that of being hide- 
bound and mofly, without an excefs of wet ; 
this is very perceptible in winter, and 
when fed. If a tenant is not allowed to 
plough fuch, they will require a great 
expence in manure. 

Grafs fields on gravelly foils are, if the 
gravel is fharp, very apt to burn (as the 
farmers call it), in dry fummers; it is a 
a fault, in fuch years, but they give great 
and fweet crops, in wet ones, provided it 
is a gravelly loam. An abfolute gravel 
fhould never be under grafs. A farmer 

fhould 



fiiould not, however, regret having a 
pafture or two of this fort in his farm, 
being of excellent ufe in winter, for feed- 
ing fheep and lambs on with turneps, &e. 

The low meadows, whatever the foil on 
the banks of rivers and brooks, are in ge- 
neral very good, but often fubjedl to the 
terrible misfortune of being overflown in 
fummer; which not only ruins crops of 
hay before they are cut, but carries them 
away perhaps when juft made. This is a 
mifchief which leflens the value of fuch 
lands greatly, and fhould always be en- 
quired into. Winter floods, if not too 
frequent, are beneficial. 

Some farms have the reputation of 
always rotting fheep, if they are fituated 
very low, and have much wet grafs land. 
The report may be very juft; but, I be- 
lieve, it will generally be found that this 
quality is but an attendant of others already 
noted ; and that the cure of common wet- 
nefs, by thorough draining, will at the 
fame time remedy this evil. 

Many grafs fields, on all foils, confift of 
fo bad an herbage as to be of little value. 
Made up of all forts of weed trumpery, and 

the 



the worft and coarfeft of grafTes, if a land-* 
lord will not allow fuch to be ploughed, the 
farmer fhould minute the rent accordingly. 
This fault is vifible at all feafons. 

As to a general poverty of foil, of what- 
ever fort, owing to bad management, fuch 
as perpetual mowing no manuring 
or a general inattention ; the degree of fuch 
a ftate will always be evident, whether 
viewed in winter, fpring, or fummer, un- 
der hay or fed ; but the favourablenefs, or 
unfavourablenefs of the feafon, fhould not 
be forgot in fuch a view. 

The 'vifible excellencies of grafs lands 
are recited in a few words. A good crop 
of grafs in a wet fummer is not to be relied 
on, but if it happens to be a dry one, the 
fign is by no means to be rejected. 

The goodnefs of the herbage is to be feen 
at all feafons, even in winter. 

Lying dry and found, holding a good 
verdure, and blotched with patches of yet 
deeper green ; thefe are, in winter, unde- 
ceiving proofs of excellent pafture. If 
fituated on a hill, or any fpot that gives 
fufpicion of burning, try it with a fpade. 
4 A river 



A river that does not overflow, miming 
through a farm, is a very favourable cir~ 
cumftance, as it indicates a great probability 
of all the grafs fields being well watered ; 
that is, for cattle. Failures, that have 
neither a river nor ponds in them, are of 
little worth ; the inconveniencies of truft- 
ing cattle in fuch, are too great to be fuf- 
fered. 

There are, in many farms, very refufe 
wafte paftures, never mown ; over-run with 
mole and ant hills, bufhes, brambles, &c* 
for which very little rent is demanded, 
Such are by no means to be ranked in the 
tenant's chapter of evils ; for no farm would 
be more profitable than one confifting 
wholly of fuch. The hills cut up, and 
mixed with a little lime dung, afhes, chalk, 
or marie, make an admirable compofr. The 
bufhes and brambles are eafily grubbed up, 
and will pay for the work. Then the fields 
fhould be examined. If a light gravelly or 
fandy foil, they will pay very well under 
the plough ; and if a clay or loam, manure 
them well, which will difcover what the 
herbage is. If good, leave them in grafs ; 
if bad, convert them into tillage for a few 

years, 



years, under an engagement (if required) 
to lay them well down again. Such old 
and forfaken grafs fields are to be reckoned 
among the moft profitable paftures. But 
the rent mould not be above i o s. an acre. 



CHAP. II. 

Of the Contiguity of the Fields. 

COMMON farmers too often overlook this 
circumftance. If they attended to it 
as much as their profit required, we mould 
fee landlords reforming their eftates, in this 
particular, more than at prefent is the cafe. 
There is not a more expenfive perplexing 
circumftance in any farm, than the fields 
being in a ftraggling, disjointed fituation. 
The difadvantages are numerous and ftrik- 
ing. 

I. The farmer's bufmefs is in no refpects 
under his eye. He muft take a walk, and 
perhaps a ride, through other meus grounds-, 
to difcover or view any circumftance of 
which he wants to be acquainted. If fields 
in fuch a fituation are no further diftant 
than many of his contiguous ones, yet will 

they 



( 17 ) 

they not be fo often viewed: A walk at 
home examines fomething, from the mo* 
jnent a man leaves his houfe ; but when hd 
has to crofs land indifferent to him, his dif- 
jointed fields will not have an equal fhare 
of his attention ; and every one knows the 
proverb of the Mqfter^s eye^ &c. 

II. All the operations of ploughing* 
harrowing, rolling, &c. &c. are performed 
with an encreafe of expence; the going 
and coming waftes time by degrees, and, 
in the period of a long leafe, amounts to a 
fum that would furprife one who never 
thought of the matter. Add to this, fuch 
fields cannot be manured but at an expence 
of double the reft of the farm, confequently 
they will never have any advantage of that 
fort. They could never have any amend- 
ment at all, unlefs they lay upon a bed of 
marie, chalk, or clay, which the farmer 
had fpirit enough to dig for, or folded with 
fheep. But then it is natural for a man 
to like to have fuch improvements, where 
he can enjoy the view without a walk or 
ride through other mens grounds: Befides, 
there are thoufands of fields of this fort 
where no fuch manure is to be had. 

VOL. I. G III. Aa~ 



III. Another confequence of disjointed 
fields, is the having an extraordinary quan- 
tity of fencing to keep in repair ; a cir- 
cumftance very troublefome and expen- 
five. 

IV. Such fields are, in general, much 
more expofed to depredations from neigh- 
bour's cattle, &c. &c. &c. than others that 
are contiguous to the home ones. In thofe, 
through which the mafter or fome of his 
people are conftantly paffing and repairing, 
accidents, it is true, may happen, but 
then they are prefently difcovered and re- 
medied. A gate left open, by carelefs- 
people, or broke in pieces by fox -hunters, 
very often does a farmer great mifchief at 
home; how much more pernicious muft it 
prove at a diflance, and where himfelf, or 
fervants come but feldom ? 

For thefe and many other reafons, I 
would never advife a man to hire a farm 
that was not contiguous at leaft. It is a 
circumftance very greatly in favour of a. 
farm that it is circular, or at leaft perfectly 
compact, with no other man's grounds- 
jetting into it. Numerous advantages at- 
tend fuch a difpofition of fields. One very 

important 



important is, the fencing fo many of yoiir 
fields yourfelf, and leaving the fhorter line 
of outward fence againft other farms. In 
a compact farm, a man never (except in the 1 
ring-fence) hedges and ditches only one 
field at a time ; he neceflarily does two at 
once. But thefe advantages are too ap- 
parent, at the firft mention, to need eluci- 
dating. 

If the fields of a farm are in this conti- 
guous and compact fituation, a man mould 
value it in the rent he eftimates the land 
at: The circumftance is as much worth an 
annual payment, as any acre in any fafiri. 
Six-pence, or nine-pence, an acre (in- rich 
countries), fuch advantages muft be cheap 
at. This I know, I would give a milling, or 
eigh teen-pence, an acre more for a compact 
farm, than for a disjointed one of the very 
fame nominal value ; and this without fup- 
pofmg the evil fo great as it is found hi 
many farms. Some lands are fo little corr-r 
tiguous as not to be worth) of any man's 
money, half a crown an acre ; which, 
compact, would be cheap at twelve mil- 
lings, 

C 2 CHAP. 



CHAP. III. 

Of the probability of increafmg the quantity 
of Land. 

THE great object of farmers, whether 
gentlemen or common hufbandmen, 
(if they make it their bufmefs and profef- 
fion) is to advance their fortunes. Mer- 
chants and manufacturers, when they 
increafe in riches, enlarge their trade ; and 
farmers, in the fame manner, are defirous 
of a more confiderable bufmefs, as foon as 
they poffefs a fum of money beyond the 
amount of what is requifite for their pre^- 
fent farms. 

The moft common fault a man mould 
guard againft, in this cafe, is the wrong 
application of his profit. Unlefs his farm 
is perfectly improved and cultivated, he 
may ever depend on it almoft as a maxim, 
that it is more profitable completely to 
cultivate one farm, before he attempts ano- 
ther. 

Fields, of which he has experience, has 
obferved, and felt their defects, in which 

he 



lie has perhaps tried the effect of draining 
or manures, are much more likely to 
repay him for an additional expence, than 
others of which he has had no experience ; 
not becaufe the foil of one is more improve- 
able than that of the other, but by reafon 
of the greater (kill with which he will 
infallibly work upon the firft. Add to 
this, that one hundred acres, well cultivated, 
will pay more clear profit than two hun- 
dred indifferently cultivated. 

For thefe reafons, I venture to advife 
all farmers, when they have a fum of 
money ready to expend, always to view 
their farms before they think of additions ; 
and confider what improvements, either in 
draining, manuring with marie, chalk, 
clay, lime, town-manures, &c. &c. &c. 
can be made on their lands; and, if any 
are to be found that require all or near all 
his money, to expend it in fuch improve- 
ments, before he thinks of adding to his 
farm. 

All fuch improvements, let me add, are 
a much better and more fure method of 
difpofing money at interefl^ than any others 
that can be found. 

C 3 Bui 



But if, contrary to this ftate of the cafe, 
his farm is all under a complete culture, 
and a fum of money yet in his hand fuffi- 
cient for making an addition to his bu- 
fmefs ; hiring a frefh parcel of land then 
becomes abfolutely requilite, or a removal 
to a larger farm. Now, of thefe circum- 
ftances, the addition in general is moft pro- 
fitable, ten to one. I fuppofe his old farm 
in perfect order; fuch an one cannot be 
left without great fofs; in fpite of all 
eftimates, by which a new tenant may pay 
the old one for improvements, the latter 
will infallibly be the lofer. Further, he 
will probably have his work to do over 
again in his new farm, and, it may be, not 
with fo good a profpec~t of profit as be- 
fore. Add to this, the lofs of moving, 
which, in fome cafes, may be confiderable ; 
and, upon the whole, it will be found 
much more beneficial to make an addition 
to an old farm, than to move into a new 
one. 

For thefe reafons, it is a point of much 
importance, when a man hires a farm, to 
know that there is a probability of having 
additions made to it, in cafe he grows rich 

enough 



( 23 ) 

enough to want them. This probability 
depends on many circumftances, which 
there is no neceflhy to overlook. 

A farm may be one among many con- 
tiguous belonging to one landlord ; in 
which cafe there is a better chance for an 
addition, than if it was the whole eftate of 
the landlord, or all he pofleffed in that 
neighbourhood. Since, if a neighbour's 
farm is vacant, no one can afford to give 
fo good a rent as a farmer contiguous to 
it j and, confequently, he has a better chance 
for iti than one whofe land is at a diftance. 

A farm may join up, or even be almoft 
enclofed, by one infinitely larger than itfelf, 
and too large for the occupier of the firft 
to think of hiring. In this cafe, the fmall 
farm is in a much greater probability to be 
thrown to the great one, than the great 
one to be annexed to the fmaller. Con- 
fequently this fituation is, in the refpecl: 
we are now confidering, a very unfavour- 
able one. 

For the fame reafon, it is very advan- 
tageous to hire a farm that joins upon 
many others not larger than itfelf, but 
rather fmaller. In this cafe there is an 
C 4 evident 



evident probability of acquiring an addition, 
and no danger of being converted into an 
addition one's felf. 

Sometimes farms are to be had of no 
determinate quantity of land ; but as much 
or as little as a man chufes to hire. Such 
are very favourable opportunities, and par- 
ticularly valuable. It then depends on the 
farmer alone to take juft the breadth of 
land which may be advantageoufly flocked, 
and conducted with the fum of money he 
is poflefTed of; by which means his for- 
tune is thrown into the moft advantageous 
road that is poffible : but then he ought to 
be efpecially upon his guard, not to take 
more than he can thoroughly command. A 
farmer fhould ever be ftronger than his farm. 
I mail, in thefe fheets, draw up fome cal- 
culations of the proportion between a given 
fum of money and quantity of land. 

All thefe circumftances, whether they exift 
in a greater or lefs degree, ought to be 
reduced to fome eftimate by the farmer, 
when he views the farm. If every point 
is not confidered, a juft idea cannot be 
gained of any. 

CHAP. 



, C H A P. IV. 

Of the comparifon between the covenants of 
the leafe, and the nature of the farm. 

MANY landlords are very tenacious of 
the covenants which they have 
ufually inferted in their leafes; fo that a 
man when he approves a farm, and agrees 
to the rent, may find the conditions of 
tenure propofed to him, fuch as are incom- 
patible with his intereft, his defigns, and 
even with good hufbandry. 

The merit or reafonablenefs of covenants 
muft be confidered always, on comparifon 
with the nature of the farm : It is for want 
of this confideration that unreafonable 
covenants are ever propofed. Many land- 
lords make it a rule to have all their leafes 
alike ; fo that the tenants, who farm fandy 
foils, are tied to the fame conditions as 
thofe who occupy clay ones ; than which 
nothing can be more abfurd. The beft 
way of treating this point will be to fpecify 
feveral common covenants, and remark the 

farms 



farms for which they are reafonable and 
proper. 

I. The tenant not to break up any grafs 
land. 

This covenant is reafonable when all the 
meadows and paftures of a farm are in per- 
fection, the herbage of the right fort, and 
free from noxious weeds, mofs, &c. &c. 
It would be abfurd to break up fuch grafs, 
except in one inftance ; the arable fields 
might, by a ftrange jumble of ill manage- 
ment, be all upon the clay part of a farm, 
and the grafs ones all upon the gravelly 
or fandy part; in which cafe, there can 
be no doubt but the whole ought to be 
reverfed. 

But the grafs fields, in many farms, fo 
far from being in a ftate of perfection, are 
in the very contrary ftate; over-run with 
mole and ant hills, bumes, brambles, and 
rubbifh of all kinds; infomuch that the 
nature of the herbage, whether grafs or 
weeds, is a perfect fecret. If the field is 
well managed, cleared, grubbed, levelled 
and manured, the furface may poffibly 
appear covered with rubbifh as noxious as 
before, though of a different fort ; but yet 

the 



( 27 ) 

the farmer muft not plough it ; fuch a 
covenant is abfurd and intolerable. 

Some fanners, and even landlords, lay 
down fields for continued paflures with a 
large portion of ray-grafs, among other 
forts : A new tenant will find fuch paftures 
facred from the plough ; that is, he will 
have fields under what is called grafs, that 
will, in a few years, be not worth a groat 
an acre ; ftill he is not to plough them 
up. Do fuch covenants require any com- 
ment ? 

Many foils yield exceeding fine crops of 
grafs, for feven, eight, or ten years, and 
then decline, notwithftanding the beft ma- 
nagement : fuch fliould be kept alternately 
under grafs and ploughing. In grafs for 
ten years, then arable for four or five, and 
laid down again. But none of this bene- 
ficial husbandry can be pradifed, when a 
landlord will not allow any grafs to be 
ploughed up. 

For thefe and many other reafons, a 
tenant fhould be upon his guard, when he 
hires a- farm under this covenant, that he 
does not prejudife himfelf in fo material a 
point. Ancl as a means of not being 

crampt 



crampt with fuch a covenant, if he fees 
land that either does or will want to be 
broke up, he ihould offer to engage to lay 
down an equal quantity of land, to his 
landlord's approbation, before any is ploughed 
up ; a covenant fo very fair, that no rea- 
fonable landlord can, or will refufe his 
aflent. 

II. The tenant not to fecond, third* or 
fourth crop the arable lands. 

A covenant to one of thefe purpofes is 
almoft univerfal in every county in Eng- 
land ; and yet I will venture to aflert, that 
were they ftrictly adhered to, it would ruin 
the beft hufbandry of half the kingdom. 
A few remarks will prove this. 

To fummer fallow light fandy loams, 
fands, gravels, or any foil light and dry 
enough for turnips, is an antiquated cu- 
ftom, and by no means founded on modern 
real improvements. The moft advan- 
tageous, of common courfes, for fuch 
foils is, 

j. Turnips. 

2. Barley. 

3. Clover. 

4. Wheat. 

Now 



Now if two fallows are fubftituted inftead 
of the turnips and the clover, the farmer 
will get no better crops of barley and wheat 
(probably not fo good) nor will the land be 
left in a better flate. This fad: holds true 
with all foils dry enough for turnips. 

I would by all means advife a farmer 
(if he defigns to obferve his leafe) never to 
leave any of thefe lands under fo abfurd and 
unprofitable a covenant. Let, me, however, 
remark, that this is only applicable to 
farmers who are enlightened enough to hoe 
their turnips thoroughly: As to the vil- 
lainous flovens who do not hoe, no matter 
what reftridtions they lie under. 

Upon dry, found, rich clays, as great 
crops of wheat are gained after beans in 
drills, well and completely hoed (the com- 
mon pradice in fome parts of Kent), as 
after a fallow : upon fuch foils, therefore, it 
is highly requifite that a farmer have the 
privilege of pradifmg fo excellent a mode 
of hufbandry : but, again, let it be un- 
der the provifo of thorough and complete 
hoeing ; three times, at leaft. 

Many landlords not only confider turnips 
(hoed) as a crop 'on all foils, but alfo clover: 

I have 



( 3 > 

I have feen many leafes of farms oh ftrong 
clay foils that forbid the tenants fowing 
clover, unlefs it was ploughed up by the 
firft, or middle of June. Such a covenant 
is a great prejudice to a tenant, fmce no 
courfe is more profitable for fuch land, 
than 

1. Beans* 

2. Barley* 
3* Clover. 
4. Wheat. 

Another covenant too common is to or- 
dain that clover lhall only be fed : Whereas 
I know by experiment, among many other 
farmers, that better wheat fucceeds clover 
twice mown for hay, than fed the whole 
year. 

Peafe, tares, buckwheat, and other crops 
have alfo the quality of preparing admirably 
for corn; but thefe crops are more apt to 
fail than beans, clover and turnips ; con- 
fequently it cannot properly be decided 
whether they Ihould be followed by corn 
or not, until it is feen whether they fail 
or not. So that this (hould be in the far- 
mer's breaft ; but if the. leafe allows him 

not 



not to confider fuch crops as -a fallow, he will 
fcarcely fow them to take the chance. 

And here it will not be impertinent to 
add a- word or two to landlords on this 
fubject If they would allow turnips, beans, 
clover, peafe, &c. &c. &c. to be fallows, 
and at the fame time abfolutely interdict 
wheat, rye, barley, or oats being fown on 
each other, without the intervention of 
one of the above fallow-crops, I am con- 
fident they would as fecurely prevent their 
tenants from damaging their farms* as 
they at prefent do by directing only two or 
three crops to a furnmer fallow. Fdr if 
the fallow is fuch an one as too common ; 
viz. two or three flovenly ploughings, and 
then two crops of corn, he land will fuffer 
infinitely more than if cropped oftener, in 
the manner I have mentioned; and the? 
chance of being damaged with bad tenants 
is as great, under the common covenants, 
as under fueh as I venture to propofe. 

In a word, a farmer, when he bargains 
for a trad: of land, fhould confider well 
the covenants of this fort he is expected to 
obferve; for, if his landlord will not allow 
turnips, clover, &c. civ. to be reckoned a 

fallow, 



( 3* ) 

fallow, he muft make large deductions from 
the rent he fixes in his own mind as the 
value of the land. If he thinks a farm 
worth 1 2 j . an acre, with a reafonable liberty 
of cropping, and he afterwards finds him- 
felf required to obferve the old farms, the 
value is funk 2 s. 6 d. and in many cafes 
3-r. 4-r. and even 5 s. an acre. He had 
better farm fome lands with a requifite 
liberty in cropping, at 15 s. an acre, than 
at 7 j. 6 d. without fuch liberty. The 
following covenants, refpedting this article, 
no farmer need to fear. Wheat, rye, bar- 
ley, and oats never to be fown after each 
other, or themfelves. Clover, fed or 
mown, a fallow on all foils, provided it is 
on clay foils, fown with fpring corn that 
fucceeded a fallow, or a crop of beans. 
Turnips, hoed twice, and if requifite three 
times, to be confidered on dry foils as a 
fallow. 

Beans, peafe, potatoes, &c. fown in 
drills, and fome thoroughly hoed three 
times ; a fallow : A great crop of peafe in 
the broad caft way ; the fame with per- 
miffion. 

Such 



{ S3 ) 

Such covenants are much more advan-^ 
tageous to landlords, as well as tenants^ 
than allowing barley or oats to fucceed 
wheat. 

III. Tenants not to dig up any grafs bor- 
ders .of folds ^ 

This is a very common covenant in 
many parts of England, and a more ridi- 
culous one cannot well find its way into a 
leafe* It is chiefly to be met with in rich 
countries, that is, precifely in thofe where it , 
is the m ft pernicious. In all wet foils* or 
fuch as are inclined to moifture, the borders 
of fields ihould be twelve inches at leaft 
lower than the fields themfelves, for the 
general purppfe of draining the furfaee, 
and likewife to fave the expence of ufelefs 
water furrows. Where borders are higher 
than t;he field, deep water furrows muft al- 
ways be kept open, parallel with them. 

So far from not digging them up, they 
ought to be -conftantly kept down by dig*- 
ging them frequently, for the turning of 
the ploughing inereafes the headland fo 
much> that a rifmg is found in a few years, 
which fhould always be dug up and carted 
on to the land ; and the whole border left 

VOL. I. D fo 



( 34- ) 

(b low, that the water may fun out of every 
furrow acrofs it into the ditch. In fome 
parts of EJJeX) particularly between Brain- 
tree and Thaxftead and Hockeril, they dig 
away their borders in this manner, and 
find great advantages in the practice : If 
you view a farm in that country that has 
been in the hands of a floven, you will be 
fhewn the high grafs borders, as an ad- 
vantage to the new tenant in the manur- 
ing way. 

I have mentioned this covenant not as 
one of capital importance, but to remind 
the farmer to requeft, that the old barbarous 
tenure may be left out of his leafe. 

Note, however, that when I condemn 
this covenant, I do not plead for the tenant 
having a liberty of ploughing into the hedge, 
fo as the landlord mall not be able to take 
a ride round his own fields : there is no- 
thing reafonable in that : only that he 
may dig them up, and carry the earth on to 
the land ; after which, he mould fow them 
with hay feeds, and by the time a good 
turf is come, it will be proper to repeat the 
ftme work : But whether in grafs or not, 
the fpace to be left clear from the plough. 

IV. 



( 35 ) 

IV. The hay made in each pafture to be 
fed in that pafture. 

This covenant I have known in more 
leafes than one ; and a more wretched one 
cannot be imagined. There is not a more 
pernicious cuftom than that of feeding the 
hay in the fields. The grafs is poached, 

there is no manure raifed, and the hay 

itfelf is half wafted. I would never fuffer 
a tenant to ftack a fmgle load in the field ; 
but infift on all being led home to the ftack- 
yard, I would not hire the beil grafs farm 
in England under fuch a covenant. 

V. Turnips not to be fed on the land. 

In countries that know any thing of the 
turnip culture, the very mention of this 
covenant is fufficient to raife a fmile of in- 
dignation : And yet I have reafon to infert 
it here, for it was actually put into my 
own leafe on a farm, part of it a dry gra- 
velly foil ; but I rejected it : It is, however, 
a common covenant in many leafes, and I 
fuppofe had its original among the Irifh, 
when they burnt their dunghills, and 
made their horfes draw by the tail. 

If a farm, however, is all a clay foil, and 

wet, this is no bad interdict ; but it would 

D 2 be 



( 3* ) 

be as well to prohibit turnips, in that cafe, 
altogether. 

VI. A prohibition from f owing particular 
crops-t fuch as oats, ftax, rape^ teafils^ &c. 
&c. 

Thefe are common covenants through- 
out many eftates fituated on rich foils. 
Landlords areapprehenfive, that the virtue 
of their land will be exhaufted by them ; 
yet this idea is at beft but weak. It is un- 
reafonable that a tenant fhould have land in 
his hands, and be prevented from applying 
it to the beft ufe, without an injury to the 
owner; and his own intereft will force 
him, whether he would or not, to be at- 
tentive to the good of the land, in being 
careful of his own advantage. Except 
oats and rape, none of thefe crops will an- 
fwer without plenty of manure, and un- 
common tillage, in preparing as well as 
hoeing, weeding, .&c.; infomuch that the 
moft exhaufting crop, in its nature, may 
eafily be turned into the moft ameliorating 
one. Lucerne, I thinfc, muft be of a 
very exhaufting nature ; for the roots are 
immenfe,. and the quantity of the produce 
prodigious; and yet it is well known by 

many 



( 37 ) 

many experiments, that, when tranfplanted 
or drilled, it is a very improving one; 
which is wholly owing to hoeing, and 

weeding. As to rape and oats, they 

are not more exhaufting than many other 
common crops, fuch particularly as wheat, 
which I know from experiment to do more 
mifchief to the land than oats, or any other 
grain; not as I apprehend from any pe- 
culiarity in its nature, but from being on 
the ground fo much longer; on which ac- 
count fo many more weeds have time to 
grow, and perfect their feeds. And with 
oats I have little doubt but the effect of a 
collateral caufe is taken for that of the 
grain itfelf. Oats are generally fown the 
laft crop of a courfe, whether long or fhort, 
confequently they leave the land in a worfe 
condition than any of the preceding ones ; 
and this has been falfely attributed to the 
nature of the grain. Had it been cu 
ftomary to fow them like wheat, or barley, 
on -a fallow; no fuch idea would ever have 
fpread itfelf. 

But why mould landlords, for very tri- 
vial reafons at beft, oppofe the culture of 
fuch vegetables as the good of the country 
D 3 require 



( 38 ) 

require to be fown ? It is high prices that 
fets the farmer upon cultivating uncom- 
mon crops. It is not beneficial for the 
manufactures of this kingdom that flax and 
teafils, for inftance, fhould be extrava- 
gantly dear ; but that farmers mould in- 
creafe the culture of them, as the beft me- 
thod of reducing their price. This cove- 
nant, therefore, is in diredT: oppofition to 
the kingdom's intereft; which, like all 
public matters, one would fuppofe to give 
place to private intereft ; but here it gives 
place to private caprice. 

There is no vegetable of fo exhaufting 
9. nature, but may be cultivated to the 
mutual benefit of the tenant and landlord; 
if it is not fo, it muft be owing alone to a 
want of proper management. 

This covenant may in many cafes (except 
oats) be of no confequence to a tenant ; but 
there are others in which his agreement to 
it muft fubmit to a valuation per acre of 
deducted rent. It all depends on the foil of 
the farm. 

Thefe covenants might be. multiplied 
greatly, but the above are fufficient to cau- 
tion 



( 39 ) 

tion the farmer of what he agrees to, 
without valuing all as fo much rent. 

CHAP. V. 

Mi 

Of the nature andjlate of the fences. 



article is a very important one ; 
JL infomuch that it is fufficient alone to 
render fome farms unprofitable bargains, 
which otherwife would be very beneficial 
ones. I divide fences into the following 
forts, viz. 

I. Alive hedges, 

II. Dead hedges. 

III. Alive hedges and ditches. 

IV. Dead hedges and ditches. 

V. Ditches, 

VI. Pales. 

VII. Walls. ' 

I mall firft mention hedges that are 
alive ; fuch are the only fences in many 
parts of England, and particularly in Hert- 
ford/Jjire. Be they ever fo good of their 
fort they form a very incomplete fence, as 
I have experienced to my coft. The only 
method of making them any at all is by 
D 4 plaihing; 



( 40 ) 

plaming ; but, in that way, a gap is very 
poorly remedied, fmce the only means of 
flopping them is the bending down large 
flicks acrofs the open fpot ; which, if they 
happen to He fallows, willows, hafel, or 
any thing but ftrong bufhes, have the ef- 
fect of a rail, but not of pales ; fo that you 
often fee gaps with rails, that grow acrofs 
them, fufficient to flop horfes, ' cows, &c. 
but which are no fence againft fheep and 
hogs ; and a gap made in fuch hedges, foon 
after they are plafhed, is almoll irremedi- 
able. 

A farm that is fenced in this manner 
may fatisfy the tenants that have not been 
ufed to any thing better ; but one who 
moves from a country in which ditches are- 
deep and wide, will never be fatisfied with 
fuch imperfect fences. The confequence of 
which is the great expence of digging 
ditches over the whole farm ; a matter 
reduced to exact calculation prefently; fa 
that a farmer may know his expence at 
once : but never let him hire fuch a farm 
without remembering this article. My 
prefent farm in Hertford/hire had not a 

fmgle 



( 41 ) 

fingle ditch over the whole, and I am not? 
t work in digging .them to every hedge. 

For thefe reafons, the fences of fuch 
countries, however good of their fort, yet 
require a great and immediate expence. 

But if even fuch fences are much out of 
repair, the new tenant will have an addi- 
tional expence in bringing them into good 
order. Perhaps he will find many of them 
to new-plant, a number of confiderable 
gaps in the reft to fupply with thorns, and 
others fo fhrubby, and ftinted in their 
growth, that many loads of bufhes will be 
wanted to form any hedge at all. All thefe 
points .muft be well attended to, and re- 
duced to calculation; which, by a man 
that is ufed to bufmefs, is done prefently, 
find with little trouble. 

II. Some farms I have feen that are 
fenced with dead hedges only, without 
any part of them living ; dead bumes in- 
terlaced among flakes drove into the 
ground: I would moft heartily advife 
every farmer, that has an opportunity of 
hiring a farm fo fenced, to avoid it as Jic 
would certain ruin. Though all other 
pircumftances were agreeable to him, this 

alone 



( 4* ) 

alone would be fufficient to render it a rnoft 
pernicious bargain. The only calculation 
the cafe admits, is to plan a complete new 
inclofure of the whole farm, with ditches 
and banks, well planted with thorns, and 
fecured at top by dead hedges to defend the 
young quick. He may prefently calculate 
what the expence will be, and confequently 
know what rent the farm under that cir- 
cumftance is worth : but he will find, it 
will fo reduce the fum demanded, that no 
hope of agreement will remain. Leave 
fuch farms to the llovenly tenants that have 
been ufed to them, and to the indolent 
landlords, who can bear to poflefs fuch 
wretched eftates. 

III. Farms that are fenced with live 
hedges and ditches are fortunately circum^ 
ftanced in being, in this refpect, in per- 
fection. The hedge and the ditch are a 
mutual defence to each other ; and, when 
good of a fort, are impenetrable to man or 
beaft. 

When a farmer views a farm of this 
kind, he fhould principally attend to the 
hedges ; to obferve that there is plenty of 
green wood in them, and not many gaps 

fupplied 



( 43 ) 

fupplied by that which is dead : for, if 
thefe circumftances are faulty, he will find 
his expences, in the courfe of a leafe, run 
very high, and his farm very ill fenced 
into the bargain. 

As to the ditches in a country where 
they are common, the worfe they are the 
better; for they are generally, in that cafe, 
filled up with the overflowings of the land, 
and the rotting of the hedge wood ; fo that 
the ditches are fo many dunghills, and will 
pay five times over the expence of cleaning 
and enlarging. 

The ftate of fences of this fort, upon the 
whole, are found under a great variety of 
circumftances : Calculations mould be made 
by the new tenant of thofe expences which 
are extraordinary, and beyond what may 
reafonably be expected in a farm, the leafe 
of which is run out. 

IV. Dead hedges with ditches are liable 
almoft to as many objections as dead 
hedges only : A man who hires a farm fo 
fenced, muft be fure not to forget the cx"- 
pence of planting all the banks with quick, 
find then new-making the hedges, or he, 

will 



Hfc.44 '), 

find himfelf involved in ruinous 
expences. 

V. There are many objections to fuch 
farms as are fenced with ditches alone. 
They muft be wet ones, or cattle will not 
be kept in by them ; and wet ditches are 
never found but in wet foils, which moft 
require draining; and confequently dry 
ditches, that is, fuch as the water runs 
freely out of. It is a moft pernicious thing 
in clays to be forced to keep the ditches 
half full of water, for the fake of making 
fences of them : For which reafon it is 
always advifeable, if the water can be car- 
ried off, to make banks to the ditches, and 
plant them, converting" the wet ditches 
into fuch fences as are ufed in countries 
fenced by hedges and ditches. This will 
be a great expence, but eafily reduced to 
exact calculation. 

VI. There are not many farms enclofed 
with pales, but fome I have feen. When 
fuch are to be hired, the farmer fhould be 
very attentive to their ftate; for, if he is to 
keep them in repair, the expence will be 
immenfe, unlefs he finds them in a per- 
fect condition j the pofts and rails all 

found 



( 45 ) 

found and ftrong, and the pales the famej 
for, if they are the leaft unfound, and he 
takes a long leafe, his expences will run up 
almoft beyond calculation. In . this cafe, 
too much caution cannot be ufed. The 
beft agreement would he. to .engage, as fail: 
as the pales decay, to pull them quite up, an<J 
make a new hedge a-rxl ditch well planted, 
and to convert the found parts of the old 
fence into mending fuch'as remain; and 
this would be for the landlord's intereft a$ 
well as the tenant's. 

VII. Wails are common fences in , nu- 
merous counties, where quarries are^fburKl 
under the furface, or many fepara.te large 
ftones upon it that will aclmit breaking. 
Well laid, either dry or in mortar, they 
are the bffl of all fences ; and a moft fa- 
vourable circumftance it is to a farm, to 
have it fo well inclofecl as to leave the farmer 
in an abfolute certainty pf : jmding his cattle 
where he turns them; colts as well as 
cows, and even bogs ei$ well as #>eeps 
Such excellent fences add greatly to the va~ 
lue of a farm, and ought to be calculated by 
a new tenant, as well as any difadvanr 
tageous circumftances I have mentioned. 

But 



( 46 ) 

But the great point to be attended to is 
the nature of the walls ; for many that I 
have feen would coft as much to keep them 
in repair as almoft the worft of hedges. 
Such as are built of lime-ftones, and fhiver 
out of the quarry in fmall pieces, are very 
bad, and will fall upon very trifling 
aflaults, and even by high winds. Thefe 
walls are a rent-charge to tenants. 

On the contrary, thofe that are cut into 
the form of bricks, only larger and laid 
even together in courfes, will ftand as long 
as a brick-wall, though raifed without 
mortar. 

Likewife large pieces of rough grit ftone, 
that will not burn into lime, make excel- 
lent walls, and have a great firmnefs from 
their roughnefs, which holds them to- 
gether. 

A diftindion mould always be made be- 
tween thefe kinds ; the two laft will ftand 
an hundred years, as well as many hours; 
but the former fort are very expenfive in 
repairs. Proper eftimates, in thefe cafes, 
fhould always be made, that a farmer may 
know with fome regularity his future 
expences. 

Another 



( 47 ) 

Another part of fences common to all 
thefe kinds is that of gates, gate-pofts, 
and ftiles. Thefe being expenfive to repair, 
fhould be viewed with attention, that the 
farmer may not be furprifed in a few years 
with expences of which he had no ex- 
pectation. 

Thefe are points of great confequence, 
let the fences be of what nature they may, 
and require exact eftimates, not only with 
an eye to a valuation of rent, but alfo to 
that calculation which a farmer ever makes 
of his ability to hire and ftock any farm 
that is offered him : For if expences -come 
in the courfe of his leafe which he did not 
expect or think of, they will probably come 
likewife without meeting a preparation to 
receive them ; which is, in every refpect, 
an unfortunate circumftance, and ought to 
be guarded againft with the utmoft fore- 
fight. 

&i^'V f . 



CHAP. VL 

Of the buildings on a farm-* and their 
repairs. 



INE E D not remark that this is fo importan$ 
an object to a man wfro hires a farm, . 
that it cannot be too much attended to. 

Firft, he mould view the dwelling-houfe, 
and examine whether it be fuch an one as 
the fize of the farm gives a man reafon to 
expedt; for no landlord can fuppofe that 
a farmer, who is able to hire 3 or 400 /. a 
year, will fubmit to live in a houfe pro- 
portioned to 30 or 40 /. a year. A fuffi- 
ciency of room for lodging conveniently a 
large family, and as many fervants as the 
farm requires, is abfolutely neceflary* 
However, as the dwelling is rather a matter 
of convenience and fatisfaction than pro- 
fit, it depends upon the difpofition of the 
man more than on any eftimates of profit 
and lofs. - Not fo, however, with the 
Offices. 

It is certainly of very bad confequence 
not to have all the proper conveniences 



( 49 ,) 

requifite for a farm; and yet multitudes 
are without half; but the occupiers are fure 
to fuffer proportionally. This point vail 
be beft confidered by making a lift of fuch 
buildings as are abfolutely neceffary, ac- 
cording to the common practice of bufmefs ; 
of a perfect one in this refpect, it will be 
confidered hereafter. 

I. Barns. 

II. Stables/ 

III. Cow-houfe* 

IV. Granary. 

V. Hog-fties. 

VI. Hen-houfe* 

VII. Cart-lodge, 

VIII. Farm -yard. 

Thefe, every one will allow, are indif* 
penfable. 

I. As to barns, the cuftom of different 
counties varies greatly : In feme fcarce any 
barns are ufed, only thrafhing-floors, with 
yards around them, for building the ftacks 
of corn in. Thefe farmers have not fo 
much in this point to attend to, as they 
cannot expect, how much foever they con- 
demn the cqftom, that landlords will raife 
barns contrary to the cuftom of a country. 
VOL. T. E But 



( 50 ) 

But where it is ufual to have barn-room 
fufficient for the crops, a man fhould at- 
tentively examine whethqr there is fuch 
room, and alfo take notice of what the 
barn-floors are laid : Many are even at this 
day made of clay ; fuch fhould be rejected, 
as a fine bright fample of corn cannot be 
had from off them. They ought to be of 
oak plank 2 or 3 inches thick. Another 
point he fhould not overlook, is the fize 
of the thrafhing-floors ; for if they are 
fmall, and he is at any time in a hurry to 
get his corn out, fo a's to fet feveral men in 
at a time, he will indubitably find them 
raife their price upon him for want of good 
room, and with great reafon. 

II. The article of {tables, or ox-houfes, 
is a very important one. If a farm has 
been cultivated by a fet of flovens, who 
have not given it above half the requifite 
tillage, nor ever thought of keeping a 
team for the carriage of manures, probably 
he will not find half the room requifite for 
the draught cattle he purpofes to keep : It 
is never to be taken, of courfe, that a farm 
has ftabling, &c. enough, becaufe the old 
tenant has not complained. He ihould 

therefore 

8 



therefore examine whether there is room 
enough for his teams, proper places for 
the hanging up the harnefs, alfo for the 

corn chefts. That there be a chaff- 

bing or houfe adjoining, fo that the chaff 
may not need to be carried, and confequently 
half loft and blown away ; the hay cham- 
ber or houfe adjoining. Thefe circum- 
fiances are not connected with any thing in 
a complete ftile : They are abfolutely re- 
quifite to all ftables for farms of 40 /. a 
year, as well as 400 /. 

III. A houfe for cows is actually necef- 
fary in all farms wherein that animal is 
kept ; and yet I have viewed many that 
have no convenience of this fort. The 
cow-houfe fhould contain yoaks, ties, hooks, 
or whatever other name they may be called 
by ; that is, places to faften each cow in 
for milking, fuckling, &c. one for every 
cow the farm will maintain. There mould 
alfo be in it bings, or fmall apartments for 
the calves, each large enough to hold three 
or four, or five, but not larger; adjoining, 
or over, fhould be a place for hay, and alfo 
another for ftraw* 

E 2 IV. Little 



IV. Little is neceflaTy to be added con- 
cerning the granary ; only to take care 
that there is one fufficient for the fize of 
the farm; and not only for part of one 
crop, but for all the wheat and barley of 
two crops at leaft; that, although a farmer 
may be obliged to thraih his corn on ac- 
count of feeding, his cattle with the ftraw, 
yet that he may not be forced to fell at a 
difadvantageous price, for want of room to 
flow his corn : This is a point of confe- 
quence. There are many other requifites 
for a good granary, but it is not to be ex- 
pected that landlords will alter and build 
more than is abfolutely reafonable. It is, 
however, much to be wifhed that the 
granary may be fo managed, as rats and 
mice may not be able to get in it. 

V. The conveniences for hogs are very 
deficient in many farms : a fufficiency for 
the fows that are kept, for each one ftie, 
and alfo another for the fatting hogs, arc 
abfolutely requifite. In a large farm, there 
ought to be cifterns for the wafh, butter 
milk, whey, malt-grains, &c. conveniently 
iituated, fo as to be emptied at once into the 
troughs, and a pipe or gutter from the 

dairy 



( 53 ) 

dairy to it. In a large, or even a middling 
farm, the hog is an animal of great confe- 
quence, and proper places for keeping him 
muft on no account be overlooked. 

VI. The article of poultry is not one of 
the moft confequence in a farm, but it is 
of too much to be quite overlooked, 

VII. That of a proper covering for all 
the implements in general, both of draught 
and tillage, is abfolutely requifite. There 
is not a more wafteful ruinous circumftance, 
than the fuffering waggons, carts, ploughs, 
harrows, &c. &c. to He expofed to the 
weather. The expence of wear and tear 
will, under fuch management, run up 30 
per cent, higher than with another man, 
who is always careful to keep them under 
cover, when not in ufe. For which reafon 
tjie farmer in viewing the' offices of a new 
farm, mould be fure to obferve whether 
there is plenty of room for all his imple- 
ments ; fmce the mifchief that will annu- 
ally enfue to him, if there is not, is fome-. 
what fufceptible of calculation, and he 
fhould eftimate it accordingly. 

VIII. But it is not fufRcient that thefe build- 
iftgs mould be found upon every farm j they 

E ihould 



( 54 ) 

&ould likewife be fo placed as to form the 
walls or inclofure of one or more farm-yards, 
according to the fize of the farm. The 
neglect of this point in fo many parts of 
the kingdom is amazing. We fee many 
farms that have no inclofed yards, and yet 
many buildings fcattered about ; and, what 
is amazing, the infatuation of landlords 
building new ones without placing them 
in the manner I mention. 

In winter the cattle fhould always be 
collected, and kept in the yard or yards, 
to eat up the ftraw, hay, and fuch of the 
turnips as the fheep leave. By this ma- 
nagement the fields are not poached, the 
young fpring grafs not eat up to the damage 
of the enfuing crop, and the cattle kept warm 
and dry all winter. Thefe are effects of 
having convenient yards, and are of great 
confequence. 

I mall, in another place, give my ideas 
of a complete fet of farm-yards ; therefore I 
dp not, here, {ketch what a man would 
erect upon his own eftate, but only fuch 
parts as tenants mould expect upon every 
farm, and without which they will be muc h 
crampt and troubled in the practice of their 
bufmefs. 

ft 



( 55 ) 

It is then necefiary always to have one 
yard at leaft, upon every farm, anc} upon, 
large farms two at leaft. They fhould he 
enclofed either by buildings, high w^lls, or 
clofe paling, that the cattle may be totally 
fecure from wind. The mouth of a pond 
fhould ever be in each yard, that the cattle 
may help themfelves to water, and not de- 
pend in any meafure upon the thought and 
care of fervants. 

Jt mould be well bottomed with ftone, 
gravel, or chalk, and not with a fall or 
defcent to the pond, but to the center ; an4 
from thence not be allowed, in wet feafons, 
to overflow the pond, but have a defcent 
another way. The barns and other build- 
ings fhould be fituated around the yards, 
for the conveniency of giving the ftraw tc> 
the cattle, and that the dung from the fta- 
bles, or ox-houfes, cow-houfe, and hog- 
fties may be turned into it, and thereby 
mixed together. If there are any hay 
houfes (which are not however neceflary) 
cr a hay-ftack yard, it mould join one of 
the farm-yards, that it may be ready for 
feeding thofe cattle that are kept on it. 



( 56 ) 

In proportion as tliefe circumftances are 
found among the offices of a farm, the 
more advantageous it will be. They are, 
upon the whole, of very great importance ; 
infomuch that a farm much wanting in 
them can fcarcely be a beneficial one, how- 
ever excellent all other circumftances are. I 
may certainly be miftaken in this matter, 
but I am clear that I would not hire the 
otherwife beft farm in England, if deftitute 
of thefe conveniencies, or very defective in 
them : A farm indeed may be advantageous, 
enough to induce the tenant to build, but 
that is a circumftance not to be taken into 
the prefent account. 

Having offered thefe hints upon the 
buildings neceflary, we muft next confider 
them with an eye to their repairs. In 
many countries this expence lies upon the 
tenant (with that of the dwelling-houfe 
alfo)j after they are put into repair by the 
landlord. It is in this cafe highly requifite 
that the new tenant views them with the 
utmoft attention ; that he may be able to 
form as exact an eftimate of the annual 
expence as- the nature of the thing will 
allow. 

AH 



( 57 ) 

All the timbers fhould be examined ; the 
boarding, brick work, tiling, thatch, 
plaftering, paving, &c. &c. &c. every 
article viewed attentively; their duration 
eftimated, and the expence of the probable 
reparations reduced to calculation. If fuch 
cautions are net taken, a man may find him- 
felf in a few years in the midft of unex- 
pected expences ; than which nothing can 
be more fatal, unlefs he is (as indeed all 
ought to be) much ftronger than his 
farm. 

It is very eafy to calculate the Amount of 
the repairs during any given number of 
years, then to divide it into an annual fum ; 
and, laflly, to proportion it to fo much. 
an acre rent. This is the practice that 
ought in numerous inftances to be fol- 
lowed. 



CHAP. VII. 

Of roads and paths through a farm. 

AT firft fight this may appear a circmn- 
ftance too trivial to be confidered ; 
but that notion is a great miftake. I have 

feen 



fcen many farms fo interfered with thefe 
nuifances, as to reduce the land abfolutely 
one half in value. The inconveniences 
prefent themfelves by thoufands. 

The fields acrofs which roads lead are 
carted up from fide to fide, though it be 
only a farm or two that has a right of paf- 
fing. The fellows, who drive their teams, 
have no confideration for your fields ; they 
feek nothing but the plainer!, fmootheft 
track, and confequently do your land, every 
time they go over it, frefh damage. If it 
is pafture-ground, and the road not con- 
fined to one track by fences, it can never 
be mown ; but, whether it is proper or 
not, muft always be fed. If it is arable 
land, the mifchief is yet greater ; for the 
corn is not only deftroyed as it grows, but 
the foil fo cut up and poached in winter, 
that it is a long time after they vary their 
track before it will yield any profitable pro- 
duce; confequently, a great breadth of land 
is always in deftrudtion. I appeal to all 
thofe who have the plague of unconfined 
roads through their farms, whether I have 
exaggerated any one particular. If fuch 
$n one runs a mile through a farm, it in- 
evitably 



( 59 ) 

evitably deftroys, or greatly damages, 
thirty acres of land. 

All paths are likewife attended with nu- 
merous evils; they often crofs corn and 
grafs fields, in which cafe the corn and hay 
are much trod- and fpoiled, on each fide 
the path, for a confiderable diftance. This 
mifchief never fails. 

A path that leads through a turnip 
field may be known by the peelings, fcat- 
tered ones, &c. half a mile before you 
comedo it. 

The idle, wandering, and other people 
that frequent thefe paths, are fure to flop 
at every field in ploughing, or any where 
that men are at work, to have a difh of dif- 
courfe with the fervants, or labourers ; to 
the no fmall detriment of the farmer, whofe 
teams ftand ftill as long as the converfation 
lafts. 

Hedges are broke down, ftiles damaged, 
and gates left perpetually open, from both 
roads and paths, wherever they are found. 

I know a farm of near 300 /. a year, in 
jLffeXj with a common path through the 
farm-yard. A more unfortunate circum- 
ftance could fcarcely happen j it was the 

rcfort 



refort of half the thieves and pilferers in 
the country, who made ufe of the oppor- 
tunity of pajjing on their oivn bufmefs to 
vifit the barns, wood yard, and poultry 
houfe, to the certain decreafe of the corn, 
wood, poultry and eggs. The liable-door 
was always the fpot for a goffiping party. 
A large farm, in a, rich country, can 
fcarcely be found without the inconvenience 
of one or two paths ; but if they happen 
to be numerous, or a road or roads uncon- 
fined through it, or a path through the 
farm-yard, I would, on no account, hire 
fuch an one, without a great and adequate, 
deduction of rent. When a farm is viewed, 
minutes fhould be made of all roads and 
paths through it, and {hewn to the tenant 
in a map of the farm ; and if they are nu- 
merous, and crofs feveral fields, let him, 
form an eftimate of the annual damage he 
expects to enfue, and calculate his rent ac- 
cordingly. If he, in hiring his farm, 
flights this matter as of little importance > 
he will affuredly repent it in a few years. 



"' - '.'-' r ; -vrvv -:;.' 

CHAP. VIII. 

Of thejlate of the public roads^ and dijlance 
from market. 

THIS is another objed: too often over- 
looked by farmers, and yet they are 
the perfons who, moft of all others, fuffer 
from bad roads and long carriage. It is 
no matter of wonder that farmers are not 
readily at the expence of mending roads 
when bad, but it is very aftonifhing that 
they will hire farms fituated in the midft of 
execrable ones, when they might, with as 
little trouble, fix themfelves in good ones. 

The ill confequences of bad roads are 
numerous, and of the worft kind; they 
inevitably occafion a great extraordinary 
annual expence, nay, a monthly one ; for 
every time the waggons go out with corn, 
wood, hay, ftraw, or to fetch manure of 
any kind, the horfes are proportionably 
weakened and jaded ; they mufl be fed ac- 
cordingly ; the waggon and harnefs are for 
ever coming in pieces, and constantly 
wearing out. Thefe expences are regular, 

and 



and without intermiflion : But there is an- 
other equally great, and that is, the lofs of 
carrying afmall load of every commodity, 
on account of bad roads, when a large one 
would be carried, were the roads good. 
This raifes the expences of every journey 
prodigioufly ; but very flight calculations 
will fhew this point in its true colours. 

The diftance from the market to which 
the corn is carried, is alfo a point of great 
confequence : Perhaps the average diftance 
over the whole kingdom does not exceed a 
day's journey, in going and returning. I 
believe the average diftance is not fo great ; 
as in many counties the neareft market- 
town is the place to carry to, as well as to 
fell at. A day's work may be reckoned ten 
miles, which is done with eafe. Now if a 
farm in this refped: is above the average of 
farms, the perfon who hires it mould con- 
ficler the evil in the rent he offers. 

In Suffolk and Effex, 25" miles are a com- 
mon diftance ; and the roads none of the 
beft. It is there two complete and hard 
days work, to carry I o quarters of wheat, 
or even barley, to market. The expence is 

enormous. 



t 63 ) 

enormous, as will appear from allight cal- 
culation. 

The ufe of 5 horfes, on 
fuch an occafion, is undoubt- 
edly to be reckoned at 2 /. 6 d. L s. d. 
a horfe per day - - 150 

The two men are allowed 
for their expences - - 050 

They carry with them a 
meal of bread and cheefe, 
and 2 or 3 quarts of ale; 
call it - - - 020 

Their time - - - 040 

Wear and tear of the wag- 
gon and harnefs ; this cannot 
be reckoned at lefs than - 030 

Sundry fmall expences - o I o 



200 

It is true, they fometimes gain back- 
carriage of coals, for which 18 s. is paid;, 
but then the wear and tear, and ufe of the 
horfes, are greater, and confequently the 
profit by them the lefs. But back-carriage 
is, however, a mere uncertainty, and 
therefore not to be taken into any account. 

Here 



( 64 ) 

Here we find the expence of carrying 
out the corn amounts alone to 2 s. a quar- 
ter, which js prodigious. Suppofe a far- 
mer raifes 500 quarters in a year, the ex- 
pence of the carriage runs up fo high as 
50 /. full 30 L of which ought to be 
reckoned as extraordinary, and charged to 
the land with rent. 

Some favings may be made, it is true, 
by ufmg broad-wheeled waggons j for 
which reafon, they fhould ever be ufed 
on farms large enough for 9 or 10 horfes; 
but then others not fo large will raife 
greater quantities of corn than I have cal- 
culated, and confequently cannot have thofe 
machines for want of the proper number 
of horfes. 

Thefe hints, I apprehend, are fufficient 
to prove that goodriels of roads, and a 
moderate diftance from market, are cir- 
cumftances highly ueceflary to be attended 
to in the hiring a farm; and that, if they 
arc wanting, the rent ought to be estimated 
accordingly. 



( 65 ) 

CHAP. I 
Of the tythe. 



THIS is fo considerable a point, that nd 
man, in hiring a farm, is forgetful, 
or inattentive of it, It is as much to be 
confidered as the rent itfelf, being in fad: 
a rent, and to be confidered as fuch. If a 
farm is tythe-free, the following remarks 
are confequently not applicable to it : fuch 
farms are in that refpecl: excellent, and 
cannot be too much valued. The land- 
lord's rent, indeed, is always proportioned ; 
but no matter, the certainty is the valuable 
circumftance ; uncertainties are perni- 
cious. 

A farmer, at the fame time that he hires 
his farm, fliould agree with the parfon for 
his tythe, if it is the cuftom to compound ; 
and by no means abfolutely agree with the 
landlord, until he knows, or can nearly 
guefs, what he is to expect from his eccle- 
fiaftical landlord. If the latter refufes pre- 
vioufly to agree with him, he mould then 
become acquainted with the general man- 

VOL. I. F near 



( 66 ) 

ner of agreeing, and the terras in that 
neighbourhood, and expect to be dealt 
with as hardly as the hardeft. If this is 
not his account, he is very imprudent in- 
deed. 

In many places, (indeed more perhaps 
than compounded) the tythes are gather- 
ed. All farmers know well enough 

the oppreffive exorbitancy of this tax fo 
collected, which is not fixed in proportioa. 
to any given value, rent, product, &c. 
but increafing regularly with his induftry 
and improvements. A few words difcufles 

this point. On no account hire a farm 

where gathering the tythes is cuftomary, 
or where there is any peculiar probability 
of their being fo. This is a matter beyond 
the power of calculation, which will in- 
creafe upon you as long as you are induL 
trious ; will lay violent* tho' legal hands 
on the tenth, not of your rent, not of 
your expences, but of the whole of your 
produce, that is, of rent, labour, and ex- 
pences of every kind. In a word, it is a 
tax of 10 per cent, upon every milling of 
your expences, of what kind and fort 

foever. 



fbever. Avoid fuch an oppreffion, as you 
would a peftilence. 

Some compofitions are almoft as bad as 
the taking in kind': fuch are an annual 
agreement for every field, made a littk be- 
fore harveft. The parfon rides through 
your farm, and holds forth to the follow- 
ing purport. 

" Farmer, this is an excellent crop ! 
A noble crop of wheat, 'indeed ! You 
muft pay me 10 s. an acre for it. That 
is not quite fo good ; I will accept 8 s. for 
that. This barley is indifferent ; 5 s. an 
acre will be about the mark. Ha ! a noble 
crop of oats, truly ! well worth 6 j. an 
acre. Thefe are bad ones ; I will be con- 
tented with 2 s. 6 d. But there feems to 
be a very fine field of beans ; aye, in- 
deed, a very fine crop ! 7 s. muft be your 
tythe for them *." Thus will your crops 
be fcanned, and either without appeal, or 
gathered. 

Thus much, I think, is fufEcient to 
prove how important an object tythe is, 
and how much it behoves a man to gain a 

* This is a common practice about Chelmsford in 
Effex. 

F 2 thorough 



( 68 ) 

thorough knowledge of what he is in this 
matter to expert, before he agrees with 
the landlord. 



CHAP. X. 

Of town charges. 

HES E comprehend rates of the poor, 
* church, conftable, and furveyor ; 
and the duty upon the highways. All 
thefe public expences vary prodigioufly in 
different parifhes ; and as they are to be 
confidered exactly in the fame light as rent, 
muft be known accurately before the agree- 
ment with the landlord is concluded. 

In fome places, particularly in towns, 
the poor-rates alone are fo high as 8 s. in 
the pound rent. Whatever they amount 
to, the fum for feveral years back mould be 
known, and the average of it expected in 
future ; unlefs fome peculiar circumftances 
give a reafon to look for variations. 

The fame attention is requifite to the 
other rates; and the ftate of the roads, 
refpe&ing the days of ftatute duty, exa- 
mined. 

*.. if 



If a farmer is neglectful in thefe matters, 
or takes them too much upon truft, lie 
may eafily be furprized with expences 
which he did not expect ; and I have often 
remarked, that, in many cafes, this is very 
pernicious. Nothing can be more fatal 
than the viewing thefe feveral charges in 
different and feparate lights, and not draw- 
ing them with the rent into one fum, that 
the total may be certainly known. There 
is no difficulty in procuring good intelli- 
gence of thefe points ; they are of fo pub- 
lick a nature, that a very little trouble will 
gain a complete knowledge of them. In 
many parts of the kingdom, they will, 
united, exceed the rent : how careful there- 
fore fhould a farmer be, to be well informed 
in each article ; that, when he has con- 
cluded the view of a farm, and the enquiries 
concerning it, he may fit down and calcu- 
late what will be the amount of his annual 
payments ? If he does not this, he will, 
at beft, be in the dark. 

It furely is needlefs to add, refpedting 
thefe charges, that he mould not forget the 
probability of being raifcd^ that is, of pay- 
ing more than the preceding tenant. It is 
F 3 no 



( 70 ) 

no more than prudent, in general, to expefc 
to pay the real value... 



CHAP. XI. 

Of the price of labour. 

I SUP POSE, throughout thefe fheets, that 
my farmer defigns to cultivate his land 
in a 'clean, neat, and fpirited manner, to 
make the moft of his ground : If fuch is 
his intention, he will find labour his 
greateft expence, and much exceeding the 
rent. It is therefore evidently of great 
confequence, whether the price of this ne- 
cefTary is dear or cheap ; that is, higher 
or lower than what is common, or, per- 
haps, than what he has been ufed to. The 
variations of the prices of labour, in 
different parts of the kingdom, are fo great, 
that a man may find his expences in one 
farm run 20 per cent, higher than in ano- 
ther, though the acres be the fame, and 
every other circamftance of foil and marr 
nagement. It is therefore of very great 
importance to him, to know well the price s 

of 



of the country in which he purpofes to 
fettle. 

But an account of this may very eafily 
be taken, in a deceiving manner: The 
pay per day, of the different feafons, muft 
not only be taken, but alfo the price of 
fuch work, as is ufually done by the piece. 
A country may be very dear in day-work, 
but moderate in that done by the piece; 
the average, or balance, muft in this cafe 
be taken, which, though not to be done 
with minute accuracy, yet an idea tolerably 
clear may be gained of the truth, which 
is infinitely better than leaving it in the 
dark, and to chance. 

Suppofe the average earnings of a 
labourer is found to be I s. 2 d. a-day, the 
year round, piece-work included, upon any 
given farm, which being left by a man 
who moves to another, he takes a frem 
account of labour, and finds the fame ave- 
rage I s. $ d. a-day. We will fuppofe 
him to employ ten labourers, the difference 
of this 3 d. a-day will then amount to 45 / 
a year, which is certainly no trifle; and 
fhews that a farmer fhould be very atten- 
tive to this point, that he may be enabled, 
F 4 where 



where labour is cheap, to overlook the 
more unprofitable circumftances, in a farm 
beneficial upon the whole ; and where it is 
dear, that he may not lofe fight of fo ma- 
terial an expence among others, and deter-? 
mine, therefore, to reject a bargain which 
may be fo additionally unprofitable. Too 
much cannot be faid on this point, for no 
object is more important : but the evident 
confequence of it will, it is apprehended, 
plead ftronger with thofe who are upon 
taking new farms, than any thing more 
I can add. Let me, however, remark that 
the price of labour may very eafily make 
it better worth a farmer's while to give 
15 s. an acre, in one place, for land, than 
12 s. in another, fuppofing the utmoft 
fimilarity. 



CHAP. XII. 

Cffome other circumjlances 'which a farmer 
foould attend to in hiring a farm. 

'TT'HERE are a few other points which 
Jl deferve mention, but which may be 

thought 



( 73 ) 

thought by fome too unimportant to be 
treated of in ^chapters by themfelves. 

I. The number of acres in a farm is a 
very material 1 point; I mean, whether the 
fpecified number be conjectured or aflured. 
In fome leafes, in the recital of the acres, 
it is common to add more or lefs ; in others, 
the number is aflured, and the rent ftated 
per acre. The latter is much the faireft, 
and moft fatisfactory way ; for, in a long 
courfe of years, with the variations of fur- 
veys, the changes of lands, and the alte- 
rations of fields, miflakes very often creep 
into furveys ; and, upon trial, it has been 
found there has been a much lefs quantity 
of land than mentioned in the leafe. For 
this reafon, it is but prudent in the farmer 
to view the fields attentively, and to mea- 
fure thofe which appear to the eye to be the 
imalleft meafure; that is if the landlord 
infifts upon the farm being let for fuch a 
number of acres, more or I fs. 

II. When a farm is fituated contiguous, 
or near to the manfion-houfe of the land- 
lord, it is not an uncuftomary covenant, for 
the tenant to engage to do a given quantity 
of carting for the landlord every year. 

There 



( 74 ) 

There is nothing to be impeached in fuch an 
agreement, but it ought to be carried, like 
all the reft, to account, and valued as fo 
much rent; and this remark is applicable 
to all other kinds of covenants, which con- 
tain an agreement to pay or perform any 
fum of money or fervice. 

III. Some landlords will not grant leafes 
at all ; others for only 3 or 7 years : This 
is a matter of fmall confequence to thofe 
tenants who purpofe conducting their farm 
In a flovenly negligent manner, never to 
expend any thing beyond abfolute necef- 
iities, and always to get from the land the 
utmoll. To Jitch, thefe maxims are very 
indifferent; for let them leave the farm 
when they will, they can lofe nothing by 
former expences, the land never owing 
them any thing ; but the cafe is furely 
different with a man who defigns to expend 
confiderable fums of money in bringing the 
land into perfect order ; a three, or a feven 
years leafe, is to him much the fame as 
none at all ; and he would be an egregious 
fool, to difpofe of his money upon any fuch 
uncertainties. If a man really means to be 
a good farmer, it can never anfwer to him 

to 



( 7S ) 

to enter a farm with a fhorter than twenty- 
one years leafe ; nor can it ever be for the 
advantage of the' landlord to let his farms 
on fhorter. I am now fpeaking of rich 
countries : As to poor ones, to be inclofed, 
or marled, or chalked, &c. <&c. it is at 
once apparent that no man will hire them 
without a long leafe. 

But it may be faid, that farms are often 
very well managed by men that have no 
leales. This I readily grant ; but then they 
have, probably, been bred up on their 
farms ; they, as well as their family, may 
know their landlord ; and feveral gene- 
rations pafs without a leafe, and yet no- 
thing unreafonable happen. But this is a 
peculiar cafe ; I am fuppofmg a landlord 
and tenant, that are ftrangers, coining 
together ; in which cafe, caution is at leaft 
requifite. Befides, we often fee whole fets 
of old tenants trimmed up at once in their 
rents, not unreafonably indeed ; but fuffi- 
ciently to (hew, that the fanner with a 
leafe in his pocket is in a much more fecure 
fituation than another who has none. 

IV. A farmer mould be attentive, when 
he hires his farm, that he engages to leave 

it 



it as he found it in every circumftance; 
that is, to go out without the new tenant's 
having more advantage of him, than he 
himfelf has of the tenant he fucceeds; this 
principally concerns the payment for tillage, 
carting, &c. &c. 

V. It is ufual, in all rich countries, for 
the farm to find the farmer in firing; if 
it does not, the deficiency mould be noted- 



CHAP. XIII. 

Of the method of reducing the fubjects of 
the preceding chapters to a regular ac~ 
count. 

HAVING thus gone through the prin- 
cipal objects of the farmer's atten- 
tion, in hiring a new farm; it is neceflary, 
in the next place, to ftate the method that 
mould be followed in forming eftimates of 
the amount of each article, in fuch a man- 
ner, that the obfervations made may be 
reduced to oneconcife and clear view, from 
which may, at once, be deduced the point, 
whether any farm be advantageous, or the 
contrary. 

In 



( 77 ) 

In doing this, the moft compendious,, 
and indeed the fureft rule (as it is founded 
on particular experience) is to fix upon a 
criterion, by which, analogically, to judge 
of firailar matters. For inftance, a farmer 
may fix upon his laft farm, or any other* 
of which he has a thorough knowledge, by 
way of a comparifon, to examine new ones. 
This will be exemplified in the following 
{ketches. It will be neceiTary here to 
afiume the language of a farmer, and fup- 
pofe myfelf in the jTituation of having 
viewed a farm, and^ deliberating upon the 
rent it is worth. 

gi * * i :fDiii *. 7 * * 
MEMORANDUM. 

I calculate the rent <>f my old farm at X. 
Y* as follows. /. s. d. 

Rent, ^iiillDv; 300 o o 

Tythe, r-'- -- ?-'-'iA 50 o o 
Poor rates, -^ i^^^ ti<Lii go $ ^ 
Church ditto, aiiipi bnx 2 :r. o - o 

Gonftable's ditto, -" - i 10 o 
Surveyors ditto, - - 7^ 10 o 

Value of my ftatute work, - 660 



Carry over, 397 6 o 



( 78 ) 

Brought over, .397 6 o 
Window tax, - 2100 

Repairs of the houfe and 

offices, - 4 ii o 

Three days carting for my 

landlord, - - - 200 
Four loads of ftraw for 

ditto, - - - 2 10 o 



Total rent, . 408 17 o 
As there were no other covenants or cir- 
cumftances of extraordinary expence at- 
tending the farm, this is the whole of the 
rent ; and as I had 400 acres of land, it i s 
not quite i /. 6 d. per acre, upon an aver- 
age, all round ; which rent I divide as 
follows, according to the foil : 
45 Acres of fine dry crumbly /. s. d. 

clay land, at 26 s. - 58 10 o 
30 Of a ftiff wet baking 

clay, at IQJV - 15 o o 

2O Of a reddifh brick earth 

loam, flat and rather 

wet, at 8 s. - - 8 o o 



Carryover, 81 10 o 



( 79 ) 

95 Brought over, . 81 10 o 

60 Acres of a light found 

gravelly loam, at 20 /, - 60 O o 
40 Of a cold wet fpringy 

gravel, ati2>r. - 24 O o 

35 Of a fine rich black 

fand, at 20 s. 35 o o 

20 Of a dry loofe fand at 

S*> " ~ " 500 

50 Of a light, dry found 

rich loam, a.t$os. - 75 o o 
50 Acresof meadow ground, 

fubjecT: to be overflowed 

in hay time, at 20 /. - 50. o o 
20 Ditto not fubjed to that 

evil, and the herbage re- 
markably fine, at 40 s. - 40 o o 
12 Acres of dry found rich 

uplandgrafs, at 30 1. -'Hi.,., r 18 o o 
6 Ditto of ditto, but richer 

and a better herbage, 

at4OJ. - ,*lJon*i? 12 o o 
1 2 Rough grafs, at 14^. t&>( 880 

400 * Total, 408 1 8 o 

* I am fenfibie I have here fketched many forts of land 
for cHffarm, but this was neceflary for the explanation of 
the idea. However, I have feen farms of 400 acres with 
as great variety, though pot of the fame kind as thefe. 



( 8o ) 

Thefe prices are points of comparifon, 
by which I am to judge of the farm now 
before me. It confifts of the following 
acres of different foils, which I value as 
under. 

N i. 

30 Acres of rich, found /. s. d. 
crumbly clay ; it has 
been hollow-drained, 
and, I think, is as good 
as that which I occu- 
pied in my laft farm ; 
rent, therefore, 26 s. - 39 o o 

N2. 

17 Acres of fuch clay as 
N^ i. but, for want of 
draining, the water ap- 
pears much, nor is there 
fo good a fall to carry 
it off. It is not fo good 
as the other by 6 s. an 
acre : fay, therefore, at 
20 J. - - - 17 o o 



47 Carry over, 56 o o 



( 8r ) 

47 Brought over, /. 56 o o 

N 3 . 

12 Acres of dry found red 
loam, has a good fall, 
and from it's not ad- 
hering to my feet in 
walking over it (it being 
winter), I judge it to 
be kindly land, and 
Wor,th as much as my 
60 acres of gravelly 
loam, in my laft farm^ 
or 20 s. - - 12 6 6 



i j* Acres of very flat wet 
fpewy clay, worfe I 
think can fcarce be met 
with, one acre of N 3 
Worth 4 of it ; the 
rent 5 s. - "*** 3 Y $ - 

J y -> 



74 Carry over, L 7 f 15 o 

Vot< I. G N 5. 



74 Brought over, /. 71 15 o 

NO 5. 

20 Acres of a flat, cold, 

loofe, woodcock, brick 

earth loam, very wet 

and poor. The 20 acres 

of reddifh brick earth 

in my laft farm better, 

I reckon, by i s. an 

acre ; therefore 7 s. - 700 
10 Acres of light gravel 

has not fo much of the 

loam in it as the 60 

acres in my laft farm: 

It will certainly burn 

in a dry fummer. It is 

worth, on comparifon 

with them, 15 s. - 7100 

N 7 . 

50 Acres of a cold, fpringy 
gravel, wetter I think 
than the 40 in the other 
farm; not worth fo 
much by 3 s. an acre ; 
: ' therefore at o s. - 22 10 o 



154 Carryover, /. 108 15 



154 Brought over, /. 108 15 o 

N 8. 

ao Acres of ditto, but wet 
only at places, to the 
amount of about 5 acres, 
the reft better land, but 
will burn : I value it at 
1 1 s* - 1 1 Q 

N 9, 

t o Acres of a dry blowing 
fand, not fo good as 
the 20 I had before ; 
fay, 4 s. + $> o 6 

N 10. 

2 $ Acres of a black fandy 
loam; I take it to be 
5 j. an acre better than 
the 35 in the other 
farm ; at 25 s. ***"' f x'- 3150 

Nir. 

20 Acres of a light, dry, 
found, rich loam ; much 



229 Carry over, /. 153 Q o 

G 2 fuch 



( 84 ) 

229 Brought over, /. 153 o o 

fuch land as the 50 in 
the firft farm, but one 
part rather gravelly; 
however, as another is 
hlacker and more crum- 
bly, but at the fame 
time moift, I reckon it, 
upon a par, 30 s. 3000 

N 12. 

70 Acres of meadow land, 
low, but not fubjec~t to 
be overflowed ; the her- 
bage exceedingly good : 
I think it better grafs 
than any I had before, 
and worth 45 s. - 157 10 o 



20 Acres of ditto, but fo 
very low that it will 
fcarce ever efcape being 
overflowed even in fum- 
mer; I value it at 18 s. 
the herbage is not good. - 1 8 



319. Carryover, 1-35$ 



319 Brought over, /. 358 10 

N 14. 

I o Acres of dry found up- 
land grafs, on loam. 
It is rather better than 
the 12 in the other 
farm; at 32 j. - 160 



150 Acres of very wild 
rough grafs, many parts 
of it on a burning gra- 
velly foil; others on a 
loofe wet loam, and ne- 
ver drained: The whole 
over-run with mole and 
ant-hills, bumes, briers, 
and fome whins ; if al- 
lowed to plough it, it 
is worth i o s. an acre. - 75 o o 

N Q 1 6. 

2 1 Acres of white chalky 
arable; very wet and 



500 Carryover, /. 449 10 o 

G 3 adhe- 



500 Brought over, /. 449 IQ o 

adhefive : I have no 
experience in this land, 
but judge, from the 
view of it and what I 
can learn from enqui- 
ries, that it is not worth 
above j's. an acre. - 7 7 o. 



500 /. 456 17 o 

So much for the farmer's private valua- 
tion of the land, which is drawn up on a 
,fuppofition that all other circumftances are 
upon an average with farms in general ; 
thefe are next to be viewed, to difcover 
whether they are above or below fuch 
average, that in either cafe the excefs may 
be charged. 

The fences are various, in general 
live hedges and ditches; and though I 
remark many gaps and fliards in them, yet 
fuch muft be expected in all farms newly 
hired: but the 150 acres of rough ground 
having been once a park, is inclofed only 
with an old pale, much of it in that degree 
pf repair which renders it tenantable, but 
will never fupport it through the leafe : I 

mall 



fhall confequently be engaged in a great ex- 
pence (as I am to keep them in repair) 
before the expiration of it. It is a matter 
of difficult calculation, but the neareft 
eftimate I can make, on an exact view and 
meafuremenfi is that thefe 150 acres will 
coft me, in 2 1 years, in repairs of paling, 
the fum of /. 70 o o 

If the fence was a hedge 
and ditch like the reft of the 
farm it would coft me, befides 
the amount of wood gained - 20 o o 

Excefs of the paling, '& 50 o o 
which, in 21 years, is per 
annum, - **np:> _ 2 ^ ^ 

The i o acres' of upland 
pafture, and feveral of the 
arable fields, which mufl be 
under clover fome years, and 
fed, have no water for cattle : 
I muft fink 3 ponds at leaft : 
the fluff that comes out 
may pay; but as I fufpecl: 
one field being all gravel, 
I think it cannot pay: I 



Carry over, /. 2 7 7 
G 4 therefore 



( sfr..'): 

Brought over, /. 2 7 7 
therefore reckon the expence 
of one pond, which will coft 
me I o /. at leaft, or per an- 
num, for 2 1 years, - 9 6 

There is a road through 
one field of 50 acres, which, 
being, unconfined, I muft 
either fubmit to great an T 
nual lofs or fence it in ; this 
will coft me 1 8 /. or per an- 
num, - - - o 17 i 

Five fpot paths run thro* 
the farm for a confiderable 
reay, I would have com- 
pounded for two, mail there- 
fore charge three : they will 
inevitably do me 30 /. da- 
mage in one way or other ; 
or per annum, - I 8 6 

The buildings are moft of 
them good, and pretty well 
contrived, but they form 
with pales only one farm- 



Carry over, /. 5 2 8 
yard, 



( 8? V 

Brought over, 7, 5 2, 8 
yard, whereas two are in-* 
difpenfably neceflary to fuch 
a farm ; I cannot make an- 
other out with fuch an high 
pale as is neceflary under 
15 /. or per annum, - - o 14 3 

lunderftand that the land- 
lord will make no additions ; 
but there muft be a new 
chaff-houfe built, which will 
coft me 1 2 /. or per annum, - 

The intereft of thefe fums 
muft be reckoned, as I mail 
expend them directly ; they 
amount to 105 /. fay 100 /. 
at 4 per cent. - - 400 

.10 84 

Next, I muft examine fuch circumftances, 
in favour of the farm, as are fufceptible of 
calculation. 

In the firft place, the 500 
acres are perfectly contigu- 
ous, even circularly fo; I 
know fcarce any farm of this 
fize, that lies fo well ; had 

I 500 



(.90 ) 

I 500 acres in the common, /. s. d. 
or average degree of con- 
tiguity, I would give 50 were 
they laid together as thefe 
are ; I fhall therefore charge 
it at 50 /. or per annum^ 277 

The roads , to market 
(which is diftant only 6 miles) 
are fo extremely good, being 
turnpike, that I can in any 
manner carry a fourth more 
corn at a time, than in com- 
mon roads; there are 400 
acres of arable, fuppofe 1 60 
of wheat and barley every 
year, and 4 quarters per acre 
on an average, I fhall then 
have 640 qrs. to carry to 
market; as I fhall have a 
broad -wheeled waggon, I 
muft calculate accordingly. 
In my laft farm I carried 
30 facks on an average 10 
miles, which coil me 9 d. 
a fack, or I s. 6 d. a quarter. 



Carry over, 277 
I can 



( 9' ) 

Brought over, /. 2 7 7 
I can here carry 40 facks, 
or 20 qrs. at I s. a quarter, 
there is to be charged there- 
fore in favour of this farm 
6d. a quarter on all corn 
carried to market, or - 1600 

Upon viewing the offices 
attentively, I think them 
much beyond the common 
ones, and will fave me much 
labour in carrying the food 
of cattle backwards and for- 
wards, and alfo enable me 
to make a much larger quan- 
tity of dung than in moft 
yards. I value thefe circum- 
ftances at per annum, - 800 



Total, - 2.6 7 7 
Ditto the unfavourable 
articles, - - - 1084 



In favour of the farm, - . 15 19 3 

The farmer having proceeded thus far 

in his calculations, comes next to rent of 

various kinds : on this head the landlord 

mufl 



( 92 ) 

muft be the laft perfon he treats abfolutely 
with. He goes firft to the parfon, and 
enquires his terms of agreement, in cafe 
he hires the farm : he is anfwered that no 
agreement of that fort will be made, nor 
until he has hired it. Alarmed at this 
anfwer, he next enquires into the proba- 
bility of the tythe being taken in kind; 
he finds nothing but compofitions around 
him, and no peculiar reafon for his being 
gathered any more than the reft: the 
average of the compofitions he difcovers to 
be 4-f. an acre all round. This fum he 
therefore writes down as his own tythe, 
or r - - - /. 100 o o 

Poor rates his predeceflbr 
paid to the amount of 60 7. 
a year, and as he finds no 
probability of his paying 
more, he writes that fum, - 60 o o 
Conftable's ditto, ti:r 3 

Church ditto, 400 

Surveyor's ditto, - jo o o 

Value of the ftatute work, - 700 
Window tax, - - - 300 



Carry over, . 1 87 o o 



( 93 ) 

Brought over, .187 o 6 
The repairs of the houfe 
and offices are calculated at - 900 

Deduct from thefe articles 196 o o 
the amount of the balance 
of the former account in fa- 
vour of the farm, - - 15 1 9 3 



Total rent hitherto brought 
to account, - - 1 80 
His valuation of the land - 



amounted to, 456 17 o 

Deduct the above fum, - 180 o 9 

.276 16 3 

PoflefTed of this remainder, he is ready 
(and not till then) for the landlord. As 
this is precifely the fum he can afford to 
pay in landlord's rent, he knows the ut- 
moft to offer ; and if he gets it cheaper, 
the value of his bargain and if dearer, 
the amount of the excefs ; fo that he is 
abfolutely prepared, in point of all pre- 
vious knowledge, to treat to advantage. 

If any covenants are demanded of an 
annual payment of ftraw, of carting, 

or 



( 94 ) 

or in any other form, they muft be added 
to the rent cafh, and the total confidered as 
rent. Let us, for the fake of the conclu- 
fions, fuppofe the landlord's total demand 
to come within the fum defigned to be 
agreed to ; and with that demand fome 
covenants in the leafe fpeeified that were 
not expected. For inftance, the tenant not 
to break up any grafs land, not even the 
150 acres of rough ground. Clover not 
to be confidered as a fallow, in the crop- 
ping the fields, &c. <&c. 

Thefe, or any other covenants of the 
kind, muft then be valued. The 150 acres 
to plough were valued at 10 s. but to re- 
main in grafs they are worth but 5 j. the 
deduction therefore, - - 3210 o 

There are 150 acres (fup- 
pofe) the farmer will find it 
moft profitable to cultivate 
with clover as a fallow : if 
it is ftruck out, he mull fub- 
mit to much higher expences 
of all forts that relate to 



Carry over, -32 10 o 
tillage, 



( 9S ) 

Brought over, . 32 10 o 
tillage, and at the fame time 
not get better, or perhaps fo 
good crops; this circum- 
flance leflens the value 3 s. 
an acre, -, t-^i, - 22 10 o 

55 o o 



Rent before agreed to, ,- 276 1 6 3 
Now to be deducted, - 55 o o 



.221 16 3 

The remainder is what he is now to 
offer the landlord, in cafe the obnoxious 
covenants are infifted on. 

I have, in this manner, gone through 
the method of reducing every article to an 
eftimate ; and I cannot but apprehend die 
certainty attending fuch a method muft re- 
commend it infinitely more than hiring a 
farm upon a fuperficial view, and without 
any other eftimates than mere fleeting ideas. 
A man mould not only act prudently, but 
know wherein he does it, and to what 
degree. 

Let me, however, warn the perfon who 
is about to form fuch a calculation as the 
preceding, to give the value of the land he 
views fair play, and not, through avarice, 

eftimate 



( 96 ) 

eftimate it below the real value: if he get* 
the farm below the amount he rates it at* 
fo much the better; he will then have the 
fatisfadion of knowing to what amount he 
has the better of the bargain : If he doesi 
not form fo exact an eftimate as to be deter- 
mined not to exceed it one milling, he 
leaves the treaty with his landlord to the 
common haggling way of making bargains, 
and will be loft in confufion, having no 
abfolute point to which he may advance, and 
no further. 

This regular method of arranging his 
ideas, of reducing every thing to calculation 
and certainty, will alfo give a man great 
advantages when a farm is to be hired at a 
mort warning, with fcarce any time for 
confideration. In that cafe, a man who 
takes no fuch guide rejects the bargain for 
want of time to reflect, to confult his 
friends, and to make an hundred trivial 
enquiries of r what fort of crops the laji 
tenant gained ? and other fuch trivial matters. 
But he who has made a regular eftimate of 
every article, can treat and conclude in five 1 
minutes as well as five months; and con- 
fequentiy will have, in every cafe, the 

greateft 



( 97 ) 

greateft probability of never lofmg a bene-* 
ficial bargain. 

CHAP. xiv. 

Remarks on the condufl of common farmer s+ 
in proportioning their land to their money* 

IT is neceflary to introduce the following 
calculations, by a few obfervations on 
the method generally followed by common 
farmers, of judging from their fortunes of 
the quantity of land they are enabled to 
hire. In the eftimates which I mall give, 
there will be found many Variations from 
the common conduct ; I mould, therefore, 
give my reafbns for fuch variations. 

It is univerfally known in every part of 
the kingdom, that farms are every day hired 
with much fmaller iums of money than the 
moft confiderate people would allot for 
the purpofe. It is not gentlemen and land- 
lords alone who think fuch fums too fmall ; 
even farmers themfelves will often own, 
that a larger fum of money is really neceflary, 
than often poflefled Upon the hiring of a 
farm ; and they will allow that it would be 

VOL. L H more 



more advantageous to cultivate 200 acres 
completely, than 300 indifferently, for want 
of plenty of money : And the practice of the 
moft enlightened ones prove the fame thing 
as the fentiments of the reft, however con- 
trary to their conduct; for we very often 
fee very large fums applied to the culture 
of farms, and fuch as render a fpirited 
practice neceflary to pay the intereft off. 

The caufe of fuch numerous deviations as 
we find from prudence, in this cafe, is the 
avarice of hiring a large quantity of land ; 
their great ambition is not to farm welly 
but much. Nine out of ten had rather 
cultivate 500 acres in a flovenly manner^ 
though conftantly cramped for money, than 
250 acres completely, though they would 
always have money in their pockets^ And 
numerous are the inftances in which they 
would be richer at the end of a leafe of 200 
acres, than of 400. But from whatever 
fource this error is derived, the fact, that it 
is an error, is indifputable. 

Farms are fometimes hired with fuch 
fmall fums, that many believe it to be 
almoft impollible to carry them on : and 
yet the farmers of fuch do manage to go 

on 



( 99 ) 

on after a manner to the end of the leafe. 
Some explanation of this condud is ne^ 
ceflary. 

Let us fuppofe a man to hire a farm of 
200 /. a year, containing as many acres, 40 
of them grafs, and 1 60 arable : For how 
fmall a fum of money may a farmer hire 
fuch an oae ? Answer , for 422 /. In 
this manner : 

Implements. 

Thefe are all bought in fecond hand at 

low prices; /. s. d. 

2 Waggons, - - - 15 o o 

2 Carts, - - 1100 

4 Ploughs, 250 

2 Pair of harrows, ^ - i I o o 

i Roller, - - o 10 o 
Screen, bufliel, forks, rakes, 

fhovels, &c. &c. - - 2 10 o 

20 Sacks, - - I 5* o 
Harnefs for S horfes, cart 

and plough, - - - 4100 

Dairy furniture, &$x ~ 2 10 o 

Houfehold ditto, - Q>/r 30 o o 

Carry over, .7 o o 
H 2 Live 



Brought over, JT. 71 o o 

Live Stock. 

8 Horfes, - - -4$ o o 
5* Cows, - - - 30 o o 
50 Sheep (old crones) 17 i o o 
Swine, --- - iioo 

-, 94 o o 

Seed. 

40 Acres of wheat, ".24 o o 
40 Of barley, - - 20 o o 
10 Of oats and clover, 7 o o 

* 51 o o 

Labour. 

Three fervants (wages 
half a year) which, with 
himfelf or afon, makes 
one to each plough, . i o o o 
A labourer in harveft, 200 

A maid's wages (if he 
has not a daughter 
grown up), - - - i 10 o 

13 10 o 

Sundry articles. 
I ftippofe him to en- 
ter the farm at Michael- 



Carry over, . 229 10 a 
mas. 



/. s. d. 

Brought over, 229 10 o 
mas. His cows he will 
not buy till the winter 
is over: his horfes he 
turns into a ftraw yard, 
(his own, if he has 
agreed with his prede- 
ceflbr for the ftraw of 
the laft crop) but where- 
ever it may be, at i s. 
a week per horfe, 5 
months, - - - .800 

Corn and hay in 
fpringfowing2 months, 
at 3 s. a week per horfe, 9120 

Houfe-keeping a year, 
(befides what the farm 
yields) that L>, fat hogs 
and wheat, - - 40 o o 

Half a year's rates, 
&c. at 3 s. 6 d. in the 
pound, -P T. - - 17100 

Cloaths and pocket- 
money, - - - - io o o 

85 2 o 



314 12 o 
H 3 Thus 



( 102 ) 

1fhns we find that 314 /. 12 s. is 
fary to carry him through the firft half 
year, and, in fome articles, the \vhcle 
year; confequently fo much mult at firft 
be in hand; the further furn neceffary will 
beft appear from ftating his expences in 
half-year accounts. 

Second half-year. 

To half * year's /. s. By producl of 5 /. s. 

wages, - 13 10 Cows, - 30 O 

Ditto rates, - 1710 Ditto of Sheep, 

Blackfmith and the money dou- 

vvheel-wright, a bled, - - - 35 o 

year, 12 o Balance - 81 O 

Half a year's rent, IOO o 

Window lights, 3 Q 

.146 o . 146 o 

By this account we find a deficiency of 
8 1 /. which muft likewife be fupplied by 
cafti for flock at firft. 

Third half-year. 

Wages, - - . 13 10 By 40 acres of 

Rates, - - - 17,10 whear, at4/. ^. 160 c 

Tythe, at 3 s. in By 40 of barley 

the pound, - 30 o r.t 3 /. - - I2O o 

Blackfmith and 20 Acres turnips 

wheel- vvright, 10 d fcld, - 35 
Rent, - - - 100 o 

Rights, -.30 

Carryover, /. 174 o Carryover, .315 o 



Brought over, . 174 o Brought over, . 315 o 

Seed wheat, 40 

acres, 24 o 

Ditto 40 of barley, 20 o 

Clover with it, 3 O 

Ditto 20 acres of 

beans, - 12 o 

20 Of oats, - 10 o 

80 Sheep, - - 28 o 

Sundry fmall ar- 
ticles, 10 o 

281 o 

Balance, 34 o 

-3 T 5 o . 315 o 

This half-year nothing is reckoned for 
houfe-keeping : A farmer, when once his 
land begins to produce, lives off his farm; 
I mean fuch an one as takes a farm as large 
as pomble ; the fwine furnifh him with 
meat; the fcreenings of his wheat with 
bread, and poultry and other fmall arti- 
cles with malt, and the few things he 
wants befides. 

Fourth half-year, 

Rent, - . 100 By cows, - < 30 o 

Wages and La- Sheep, - - - 56 O 

bour, - - - 15 o Balance of laft 
Rates, - 17 i'o half-year, - 34 o 

Wear and Tear, 14 o Balance, 26 10 

> 146 10 

In 




In this half-year we find another defi- 
ciency of 26 /. 10 s. which, Ife the former, 
muft be carried to the firft account of 
flock, 

Fifth half-year. 

Rent, . 100 o By 40 acres of 

Labour, - - 15 o wheat, - . 160 O 
Rates, - - - 17 jo 40 Of barley, - 120 o 
Wear and tear, - 15 o 20 Of beans, - 50 o 
Lights, - - - 3010 Of clover, hay 
Tythe, 30 o and feed, - 30 o 

Seed for 50 acres Balance, 129 10 

of wheat, 25 o 

30 Barley, --150 
20 Oats, - 10 Q 

.230 10 .230 10 



Sixth half -year. 

Rent, - - L- 10 % Cows - ; 30 Q 
Labour, - 20 o Sheep this year 

Rates, - - - 1710 for ftock to in- 
Wear and tear, - 20 o creafe, 

Balance, 2 o Balance of laft 

half year, - 129 10 

J 59 i J 59 10 

V/e are now come to the point, when it 

appears that our farmer may get up the 
frill with luck, but yet he continues in fuch 
a fituation, that any unforefeen accident, 
or failure of crop, will fit very heavy on 



him. His general yearly account will now 
ftand as under; 

Expences. Product. 



Rent, ~ 


200 


o 


Wheat, 


- 


- 


160 


Tythe, - - 


3 


o 


Barley, 


- 


- 


120 


Wages and la- 






Beans, 




- - 


50 


bour, 


4 


p 


10 Acres 


of 


clo- 




Rates, - - - 


35 


o 


ver, or 


turnips, 


2O 


Wear and tear, - 


35 





Sheep, - 


- 


- 


100 


Lights, 


3 





10 Cows 


* ' ' 


(in- 




Seed for 40 acres 






creafed 


to 


this 




of wheat, 


20 





number) - - 


60 


40 Barley, - - 


20 


o 










40 Oats and beans, 


20 













Sheep, - - '- 

Tlslanrp 


50 

r n 


o 

n 






\. 


('- ~ 



L- 5 10 o . 510 o 

The balance of 57 /. is, for all his private 
expences, his profit,the intereftof his money, 
and the chance of accidents, very inade- 
quate to thefe demands ; but, in a term of 
years, will increafe, from the expenditure 
of itfelf in part on the farm, and from the 
gradual increafe of ftock by breeding, as 
he has, befides the article of fheep charged, 
56 /. worth for breeding, either in kind or 
cafh. Now if we go over thefe accounts, 
the fums wherewith the farm was flocked 
will appear to be as follows : 



The 



( 106 } 

The firft cxpence, . 314 12 o 

The firft wrong balance, - 8100 
The fecond ditto, - - 26 i o o 



Total, . 422 2 o 
Which is little more than two rents. 
This {ketch, in which a minute accuracy 
was not neceffary, -will ferve to mew the 
management whereby- farmers fometimes, 
with very fmall fvims : ,of money, get into 
large farms ; and it proves, at the fame 
time, (notwithstanding the poffibility of 
fucceeding in fuch attempts), that the ma- 
naging^ in this manner is very hazardous 
to the- farmer, and pernicious to the farm. 
If a bad year comes, or. any accidents 
happen to his ftock, he is ruined : With 
good years he can afford to do nothing in 
the way of improvement ; and he is fa 
weak in cattle and labour, that, in a few 
years, his fields muft inevitably be out of 
order for want of requifite tillage ; and 
better horfes muft be bought, and more 
men employed, or all will go to ruin. 
His implements bought in with an eye to 
cheapnefs alone, will foon be done with, 

and 



107 

and frefh fupplies demanded. All expences 
will multiply. 

In fuch a ftate, how is it poffible lie 
mould turn his land to the beft advantage ? 
A vein of the fineft marie may be under 
his fields ; he can have nothing to fay to 
it. He may be within 3 or 4 miles of a 
town, where dung and afhes are to be had 
on very reafonable terms ; but how is he 

to afford the purchafe. Nothing can 

be clearer than the infinite difadvantages 
of fuch a confined fituation. 

It would be abfurd to take any trouble 
to point out how farms fhould be flocked 
that are hired on thefe principles ; fuch a 
defign would be even pernicious; the 
reader muft not, therefore, expeft in the 
ehfuing calculations that I aim the leaft at 
enabling him to play the floven. I {hall 
fuppofe him defirous of laying out his for- 
tune in agriculture to the beft advantage ; 
which certainly muft be upon the principles 
of good, not bad hufbandry. 

The inftance I have given above, is a 
remarkable one; it muft not be fuppofed 
that a great many farms of 200 /. a year, are 
{locked with little more than 400 /. but in- 

ftances 



H 

fiances of >very bad management in this 
refped: are abundant, though not To exe- 
crable as this. In general, moft far- 
mers will be found very faulty, and par- 
taking more or lefs of this fpirit of avarice. 

When a man is in fearch of a farm, he 
mould be defirous alone of employing his 
money to the beft advantage: What is it 
to him, whether on aco acres or 2000; 
that quantity of land which to his fum of 
money is moft profitable, is the quantity to 
be defired ? 

One point cannot be attended to too 
much, which is, that the farmer be clear in 
the fum hepofifeffes, and not, on any account, 
in doubt, or depending for any on accidents. 
It is common for farmers to be deiirous, 
when they change their farms, of moving 
into one in the neighbourhood ; that they 
may not be at the lofs of felling their old 
flock, and buying frelh ; but this is a moft 
pernicious circumftance, and leads numbers 
to their ruin. 

When a fanner acts on this plan, (I am 
here fuppofmg him not to be a rich man, 
but in moderate circumftances, and depend- 
ant every year, fomewhat on the laft), he, 
in common with others, aims at as large a 

farm 



farm as he can grafp; but the peculiar 
mifchief here is, he reckons his acres of 
corn upon the ground, and the general 
produce of his farm the laft year, as fo 
much money (by calculation) towards flock- 
ing the new one, which he moves into 
directly: Now, upon entering into any 
trade or bufmefs whatever, the great point 
is to know to a milling the amount of a 
man's fortune, to reckon at fo critical a 
moment nothing upon contingencies, but 
have the fatisfaction, as well as necefTary 
accuracy, in knowing exactly the amount 
of his dependences. 

If he moves directly out of one farm into 
another, this cannot be the cafe; for it 
muft be hired fome time before he leaves 
his old one ; or, in other words, while his 
laft year's crop is on the ground. Now I 
would earneftly advife all in fuch actuation, 
not even to look at a new farm, till the 
whole product of their old one is converted 
into money. He then knows exactly what 
he has to depend upon, and can form a 
much more accurate judgment of the quan- 
tity of land proper for him to hire, than 
6 while 



while he reckons his crops as money, be- 
fore they are reaped. 

Corn is fometimes very deceitful ; a 
man, in eftimating the product, may eafily 
be miftaken greatly : A very bad harveft, 
a blight, a mildew, an hundred things, 
may leflen the value greatly, and markets 
fink unexpectedly. He finds his product 
much lefs than he valued it ; but his new 
farm is hired, and he cannot withdraw the 
engagement, nor manage it with lefs 

money. Is not the ruin of fuch a 

fituation fufficiently evident ? 



CHAP. XV. 

Of the tnojl advantageous method of dif- 
of $ol. in farming. 



I Dedicate this chapter to the fervice of 
the fervant, labourer, and other poor 
men, who, faving or acquiring a fmall 
fum of money, are defirous to become 
farmers : But it is impoflible, in the title of 
this or any of the fucceeding chapters, to 
fpecify minutely the fum which will be 

proved 



( "I ) 

proved in the calculations ; when I fay 
50 /. I mean only a fum under or over that. 
It may vary from 35 /. to 65 /. nor is 
there any thing inaccurate or ufelefs in fuch 
want of previous limitations. It is more 
genuine to reject them, and mews that the 
eftimates are not warped to anfwer pre- 
ciiely a given point, but either extended or 
diminimed, according to the circumftances 
of the farm. 

I muft farther be allowed to premife, 
that I aim, in all things, at eftimations of 
good hufbandry; confequently, bad far- 
mers muft not quarrel with me for not 
fquaring my ideas to their practice. 

In all the preceding parts of this inquiry, 
gentlemen and common farmers have been 
upon the fame footing ; it would only have 
multiplied divifions for nothing, to have 
made any diftinctions between them : But, 
in the article of flocking, it is very dif- 
ferent ; a gentleman, as I mall {hew here- 
after, muft, in moft cafes, affign more 
money to any given parpofe, than a com- 
mon farmer : I (hall not, however, make 
any diftinction between them, while I 
fpeak only of lit tie farms, fmce gentlemen 
2 can 



can have nothing to do with fuch but 
through curiofity; never for profit: And 
as to farms of pleafure, "viz. Experi- 
mental ones, I fhall treat fingly of them 
hereafter. When I come to middling and 
large farms, I fhall make diftindions be- 
tween thefe clafles. 

Little farms muft be on rich foils, or at 
leaft fuch as require no improvement. 
There are variations in thefe, which muft 
have various calculations. 

N I. 

Divifion of 50 /. in the flock^ &c. of a 
farm half grafs and half arable , on a clay 
or loam foil. 

Rent, &c. 

Rent of 1 6 acres of 
land, - - - - - - . 16 16 o 

Tythe at 4 s. ia the 
pound, - - - - . - - - 3 7 2 

Rates of all forts, and 
ftatutework,4J.inditto, - - 3 7 2 



Carryover, .23 10 4 



Implements, &c. 

A cart with ladders, .8 o o /. s. d. 

A plough, - - - i 1 1 6 

A pair of harrows, I I o o 

A barley roller, - I 10 o 

Cart and plough har- 

nefs for 2 horfes, 2 20 

A fcreen, a bufhel, a fan, 
fieves, forks, rakes, 
a fhovel, fpade, pick- 
axe, fey the, &c. &c. I 10 o 

Tenfacks, - - - 150 

Dairy furniture, - o 1 o o 

17 18 6 

Livefock. 

Two Horfes, - . 16 o o 
Four cows, - - - 20 
A fow, - - - - 




Seed and tillage : 
Paid the preceding 
tenant for 3 acres of 
wheat, ploughed thrice, 
at4/. - - - - 1160 
Seed, - - - - j 16 o 



Carryover, .5$ 5 6 
VOL. I. I Sowing, 



( 4 ) 

Brought over, .58 56 
Sowing, - - - - o i 6 
Water furrowing, -030 
One ploughing for 

3 acres of oats, - o 12 o 
Seed, - - - - i 10 o 
Sowing, - - - 009 
Water furrowing and 

harrowing, - o I 6 

_ 289 

Sundry articles. 

Wear and tear, and 
fhoeing a year, - ' . 2 o o 

Houfe-keeping and 
cloaths a year, befides 
what the garden and 
farm yields, fuppofe a 
man, his wife, and 4 
children, and alfo be- 
fides what the wife and 
children earn, - - 500 

700 



- 6 7 H 3 

Thus the reader finds I have run up a 

calculation to above 67 /. and under the 

title of joT. but I know not, in hufbandry^ 

7 a lei's 



a lefs farm than this, to have part of it 
arable, that can poffibly be fupporcd to 
anfwer in the leaft to the farmer. Bat, 
before I proceed, I muft make a few obfer- 
vations on fome of the preceding articles. 

Implements. 

Some of thefe I allow fo little a farmer 
to buy fecond-hand, but not to hunt out 
at a fale for the cheapeft fort, which are 
fo often the deareft in the end. The cart 
new would have come to 12 /.; the barley 
roller to 2 /. or 3 /. 5 s. the harnefs to 3 /. or 
4 /. the mifcellaneous articles to 2 /. or 
2 /. 5 s. but I fuppofe him to be pofleiTed of 
a fpade, pick-axe and fcythe. The facks, 
plough and harrows I do not alloy/ him to 
buy fecond-hand at all. 

Livejlock* 

Such a farmer as this, in common, would 
get the two horfes perhaps for 5 /. or 6. /. 
but fuch ftocking is nothing but ruin ; dog 
horfes eat as much as good ones, but will 
by no means do their work. With fuch a 
pair of horfes as I allow him, he may, in 
cafe he has an opportunity, and it does not 
interfere with his own work, do fome 
I 2 ploughing 



ploughing for any neighbouring gentleman 
or farmer that will employ him ; if he 
and his team can earn 4 or 5 s. a day, now 
and then, it will be an advantage; but fuch 
as he could never gain with 50 s. horfes. 

Four cows to 8 acres of land (with 2 
horfes) is a large allowance, but he muft 
have a good ftock, or he can never live at 
all j befides, he may feed his horfes in a 
good meafure with an acre or two of clover, 
which he may eafily manage in a year or 
two. 

Seed and tillage. 

In this farm, and all the fucceeding ones, 
I fuppofe the farm entered at Ladyday^ 
and the preceding tenant paid for both the 
Michaelmas and fpring crops : and this me- 
thod I chufe preferably to any other be- 
caufe it will anfwer the entering both at 
Ladyday and Michaelmas. If it is the 
latter, the expences are, perhaps, the fame, 
only paid in horfe keeping, inftead of per 
acre to the farmer. 

This little farmer's yearly account will 
Hand thus : 



( "7 ) 

''" Expences. 
Rent, ^ i - ; 
Tythe, .;-' ' 
Town charges, 
Seed for 3 acres of wheat, 
Ditto for 3 of oats, " .- \ 
\Vear and tear, 
Houfe-keeping, &c. 



Produce. 

3 Acres of wheat, - 12 o o 

4 Cows, - - 20 o o 

32 o o 




Expences, ^ra' [^Cui 33 J ^ 4 

Product, - ' 3 2 

Deficiency, (I -;-T , f ; .,; - i 16 4 

Intereft of the flock, - - 4 u o 

Lofs, - - - - 674 



This will not run him in debt, nor per- 
haps diftrefs him, becaufe he may difcharge 
it, either by felling a hog now and then, 
breeding up a calf, or earning a little 
money with his horfes and cart, or plough ; 
I 3 and 



( "8 ) 

and thefe articles will probably amount to 
more than the deficiency, and leave him 
fomething that may be called profit. 

It muft be remarked, that 4 /, per acre 
of wheat, on an average, is a large produce, 
and beyond what is gained by moft little 
fanners ; and 5 /. a cow is not a low efti- 
mation. The reafon that I allow fuch fums, 
is the furplus of time upon the farmer's 
hands, befides what is requifite for the 
common tillage of his 8 acres ; which time 
I fuppofe him to beftow upon his land in 
fummer, in ploughing it much oftener than 
common, and in both fummer and winter 
in carting earth and ditch fluff unto it. He 
will have fufficient time to make good and 
deep ditches, throughout his farm, and alfo 
to cart away the earth that comes out of 
them. By thefe means I fuppofe him to 
get better crops than common with little 
farmers; and his grafs may be managed 
in the fame manner. 

His whole time will not, however, be 
taken up ; we may fuppofe him to go to 
day-labour a third part of the year, and 
earn 8 /. In that cafe the accqunt will be 
thus : 

Labour, 



( "9 > 

Labour, - - \.* .800 
Deficiency, -r. - - 674 

. i 12 8 

Whicfi will be all he has to anfwer the 
favings while he was a labourer, which 
muft be oppofed to the accidental produce 
of a pig, a calf, or work with his horfes. 

Now, fuppofing that the farm in one cafe 
maintains him, and the labour, in the other; 
fo far they are upon a par. But the labour 
is -liable to- no chances nor accidents; the 
farm to many. 

It is very evident, therefore, that a 
labourer, poflefled of 91 /. taking ftich a 
farm, is acting not only with imprudence, 
but even folly, and much .to his preju- 
dice. 
vr* ^nrvr* #i m :.(\ s%+ twv.' Jo CBifQjloq -tl 

N^a. 

Variation the firft. 

The arable part of the above farm to be laid 
doivn tp graft. 

Firft year. 
All expences the fame as 

before, ^.91 4 7 

I 4 Second 



Second year. 

Sundry articles of expence, /. s. d. 

except that of feed, - 30104 

Seed of 8 acres of oats, 400 

Grafs feeds for ditto, - 1200 



.46 10 4 
Produce. 

5 Acres of oats, - - 1500 
4 Cows, - - - 20 o o 



Expences, - - - 46 10 4 

Produce, - - - 35 o o 

Deficiency, - - - n 10 4 

Original fum, - - 9147 

Total, .102 14 ii 
Which total it is neceflary, at firft, to 
be poflefled of, when the plan is reducing 
the whole farm to grafs. When once the 
8 acres of oats are in the ground, he may 
fell fome of his ftock, and with the produce 
purchafe more cows. For inftance, 
Plough, - ' - . i u 6 
Harrows, - I 10 O 
Roller, - - i jo o 



Carry over, . 4 1 1 6 
Harnefs 



Brought over, .4116 /. s. d. 
Harnefs for 3 horfes, i i o o 
Sundries, - i 10 o 

Sacks, - - 150 

One horfe, * - 800 



. 16 16 6 

Which may be fold for 12 o o 

Which 12 /. will purchafe two cows and 

a young heifer. When the farm is in this 

iituation, the annual account will ftand 

thus: /. s. d. 

Rent, tythe, and town charges, 23 10 4 

Shoeing of horfe, and wear of 

the cart, - - - o 15* o 

Houfe-keeping, &c. - 500 



1-29 5 4 

Produce. 

6 Cows, **;' 30 o o 

Profit on breeding a heifer 
conftantly, - - 

Expences, 

Profit on the farm, - . i 14 8 

* The horfe muft earn fomething, in being let, or fome 
other way ; for it will not anfwer to keep him all the year 
for the farm alone. 

But, 




Brought over, . i 14 8 
But, as it is all grafs, and 
confequently very little labour 
required for it, he may do his 
ditches well, and carry the earth 
unto the land, and yet have 
full half the year to go to labour, 
and confequently we muft 
charge half a year; we will call it, 12 o 9 

*3 H ~8 

Deduct the intereft of the flock, 5 2 o 
Clear profit, - .8 12 8 

Upon this account, one remark of great 
confequeace is, the vaft fuperiority of the 
graf& farm, which ought to be a leflbn to 
people who want little farms, to concern 
themfelves with arable land ; for it deprives 
them of all profit, and at the fame time 
lays them open to great and numerous 

loffes. 

N 3 . 

Variation the fecond. 

Divifton of 50 /. &c. in a grafs farm^ the 
foil clay or loam. 



Rent of 12 acres of 

grafs land at 25 s. 15 o o 

Carry over, jT. 15 o o 
Tythe, 



( 1*3 ) 

Brought over, . 15 o o /. s. d. 
Tythe, at 4 /. - 300 
Rates, &c. at 4 /, - 3 o o 

-- ' 21 o o 

Implements. 

A cart, 800 

Forks, fcythes, rakes, 

&c. &c. - o 10 o 

Dairy furniture, - o 10 o 
JIarnefs, - - o 15 o 

-- 9 *S o 



. 

Livejlock. 

One horfe, - 800 

4 Cows, .j, ^y,, - 20 o o 
A fow, ^ ^*>, ji ^ , o 15 o 

-- 28 tf . A 

Sundry articles. 
Shoeing and wear of 

cart, - - o Ij' 6 ^^f 
Houfe-keeping, &c. 500 



-6* 5 o 

The annual account of this farm will be 
follows: 

Expences. 



Experices. /. s. d. 

Rent, &c. si o o 

Sundry articles, 5 1 S 

.26 15 o 

Produce. 

Four cows, - - - 20 o o 
Three quarters of a year's la- 
bour, 1800 

38 o o 

Expences, - - .. - ... 26 15 o 

Profit, - "Ti } o 

Intereft of the flock, - 3 5 o 

Clear profit, - - .800 

In thefe accounts 5 /. the wife and chil- 
drens earnings, and the farm (befides the 
ftated produce) in the articles of fwine, 
garden, milk, &c. are fuppofed to maintain 
the whole family, and I believe the calcu- 
lation is not at all ftretched. And, accord- 
ing to this account, he apparently is the 
better for his farm by 8 /. a year, and at 
the fame time liable to no lofles by bad 
crops : I fay apparently, becaufe it is not 
totally fo, as we may fuppofe him, before 
he took the farm, to fave fomething 
annually, which enabled him to hire it; 

confequently 



confequently that faving mould be deducted 
before the remainder is called the profit of 
the farm; but the amount of this faving 
will not admit of calculation. 

I fhall not extend thefe variations far- 
ther, as fuch very fmall farms will not 
admit near fo many as larger oaes. 

It is obvious, from thefe few, that a 
labourer is a poorer man after he hires a 
farm that requires a plough to move, than 
while he depends only on his labour ; but 
with a farm all grafs, the cafe is different j 
it anfwers to fuch an one to hire a farm 
partly arable, to lay it down to grafs ; but 
it appears to be much the moft profitable, 
notwithstanding the fuperiority of rent, to 
hire one that is all grafs, which may alfo 
be done for lefs money than an arable one. 

CHAP. XVI. 

Of the mojl advantageous method of difpojing 
ofiool. in farming. 

MANY obfervations ufed in the pre- 
ceding chapter are equally applicable 
to this : we are yet in the region of little 
farms. 



( 1*6 } 

N i. 

of ioo/. in flocking a farm all 
arable^ the foil clay or loafa. 

Rent, &c. 
Rent of 25 acres at /. j. d* 

i /. i s. - . 26 50 

Tythe, at 4 s. - 540 
Town charges at 4 j. 5 40 

36 13 o 

Implements. 

A cart, - - . 8 o o 
A plough, - i 1 1 6 

A pair of harrows, - i 10 o 
A barley roller, - i 10 o 
Cart and plough har- 

nefs for 2 horfes, 220 
Screen, bufhel, &c. &c. i 10 o 
Ten facks, - 15 

17 8 6 

Livejlock. 

2 Horfes, - .1600 
i Cow, - 500 

A Sow, - o 15 o 

, 21 15 o 

Carryover, . 75 16 6 
Paid 



( 127 ) 

Brought over, . 75 16 6 
Seed and tillage. 
Paid the preceding tenant, 
for ploughing 8 acres 
four times, at 4 J. . 6 8 9 
Wheat-feed, for ditto, 4 16 o 
Sowing, ^j*^ ""Ca^ 040 
Water-furrowing, -080 
Ploughing 5 acres twice, 2 o o 
Barley-feed for ditto, 2100 
Sowing, - 013 

Water-furrowing, -026 
Clover-feed, with ditto, I o o 
Sowing, - '- '"*"* o 13 
Ploughing 3 acres once, 0120 
Oat-feed for ditto, - i 10 o 
Sowing, - -009 
Water-furrowing, - o i 6 

- 19 15 3 

Sundry articles. 
Shoeing, and wear and 

tear, - . g 10 o 
Houfe-keeping,cloaths, 
&c. befides the aflift- 
ance of the farm, and 
the earnings of the 
wife and family, 5008 10 o 

104 i 9 

Under 



( "8 } 

Under the article feed and tillage > I ftate 
8 acres of wheat, 5 of barley, and 3 of 
oats; which, on loams and clays, will 
form no bad courfe of crops ; that is, one 
third wheatj one third fpring corn, and 
the other third fallow and clover. Inftead 
of barley, it will be an advantage fometimes 
to fubftitute beans. The annual account 
of this farm will ftand as follows. 

Expences. I. s. d. 

Rent, &c. 37 13 o 

Seed for 8 acres of wheat, - 4 16 o 
Ditto for 5 acres of barley, or 

beans, - - - 2 10 o 

Ditto for 3 acres of oats, - i 10 o 

Wear and tear, - ... - 3 10 o 
Houfe-keeping, &c. --500 

54 19 

Produce. 

8 Acres of wheat, - - 32 o o 

5 Of fpring corn, - - 15 o o 

One cow, - - - 500 

52 o o 
Expenoes, 



Expences, ;'.-^ .54 19 o 

Produce, -_'* ' .*. .53 o o 
.V\:,s\ _ _ 

Deficiency* '^V.i ,i*\*<A. >C* S *9 ^ 

This deficiency muft be fupplied ^by 
working for others with his team, or feme 
other method*; but not .by his own lar: 
bour, as this farm will not allow of fpare". 
time enough for that. 

Now as he maintained himfelf by his 
labour before, and faved fomething befides j 
and, as he does no more than maintain 
himfelf after he is a farmer, without ,fecu- 
rity from misfortunes of bad crops; ft is 
extremely evident, tHat he lofes the intereft 
of his money by turning farmer. 

But as all contingencies are hazardous, 
the lofs attending tnis farm is beft ftated 

- - f r, r , - - - . , , - 

thus: '-? V J #/ 

Deficiency, "3 id Lj O 2 

Intereft of flock, > ^, -." 5- 7 o 

-..- - 



Total-, lofs, .8'6 o 

* He may (if he can get them) take fom'e cattle in to 
joift on ftraw, as'-'he will 1 have enough for that purporfe.- 
But this, being(an uncertainty, muft not be carried to 
account. 

VOL. I. -K N 9 sj. 



( 130 ) 



N 9 2 



.. 11 Variation thefirjt. 

Thc'-f&mkfam hcdfarabk and half graft. ' 
Reiit,>&c. - - - . 37 13' o 
Implements, - - 17 8 6 

Lire ftock,;2.horfes^. 1,6. ,o o 
A fow, .-;-". - o 15 o 
5 Cows, - 25 ' o o 

Bid vcl 'tis* "~"~~^ : 4 1 , ^./'I 

j23l)lbil / -.Lfr j^. ^ 

, ,} ' . 

. Seed and Tillage, 
, - . . /. ' " 

Ploughing 4 acres of 
.:: JT j c?- f5 ., 

..wheajy - - - A,-j3 4 o 

vrt JXrlf , ~ . 
Seed, - - 2 S ,o 

1 ' -' 

^ffill|E . . . - . a 3 

%e M urr OWi ng, . , c? 4 o 

P^ougfiing i acre barley, o "8 o 



- J 
o 100 

o p.i , ;( . 
-006 



for pats, . - o 1 2 o . 

. ; ia chri.? wool 

o^|r^ -li-pr-tt - I Io . ( ^.. 

Sowing, - ^ o o 9r 

Water-furrowing, - o i 6 

^ -- _JLLL_ 

Carryover, ^ I0 5 J 7 
Wear 



Brought over, . 105 17 6 
Wear and tear, - 300 

Houfe- keeping, &e. - - - 500 



113 17 6 
Dairy furniture, o J o o 

IJ 4 7 6 

The a-nnual account of this farm will be 
as follows : 



c 

<\ '*,. 



Seed ifor 4 acres of wheat, -^ $ 



Ditto for 5 * of fpring corn, - ''' 'k P b* 

WearMteaf, ' ,?S L ; ? ;' ; 3 ^d !f! d 

TT r i ^l3C3i^,Ilin C JI' - 

Houle-keein ccc. .. -. -- * o 6 



TT r i 

Houle-keeping, 



. 
Produce. 

4 Acres of wheat, - 1600 

2, Ditto of barley or beans, *6" b i^ 

5 Co ^s, '; 25 ^<| 

The arable part of this 
farm will allow him 



Carry over, . 47 o o 

* After the land is in tolerable order, wholly fallowing 
3 \ acres will be fufficicnt. 

K si to 



( 133 ) 

Brought over, * 47 o O 

to abfent himfelf at la- 
bour about ~ of a year ; 
we may therefore add, 600 

53 o o 
Expences, 50 n o 

Profit, 390 

Intereft of the ftock, - 5140 

Profit, - -290 

Lofs,. ' - - -3.5 

The lofs remaining upon either of thefe 
, farms, is not probably the whole amount 
of their mifchievous effefts, as the farmer 
muft be fuppofed to have faved fomething 
annually, before he hired either. 

N 3 . 

Variation thefecond. 

The fame farm all grafs. 

Rent, at 25 /. - . 30 o o 

Tythe, at 4 s. 600 

Rates, at4^. 600 

'42 o o 
Implements. 

A c.irt^ - - ''. 8 oo 
Harnefs for i horfe, o_5 o 

Carry over, 8150 42 o o 

Sundry 



( 133 ) 

Brought over* /. 8 15 o 42 
Sundry fmall articles, o i o o 



1 1 1 1 *" 1 


- 9 5 


^ - ----- - T^*"- , 


-5i 5 o 


Ltyeflock. 




l Horfe, - - - & 


o 


i Sow, - * o 15 


o 


8 Cows, - - 40 o 













Shoeing, and wear of cart, 


o 17 o 


Dairy furniture, 


I IO O 


Houfe-keeping, <&c. 


500 


i 


,. 107 7 


The annual account 'will be : 


Expences. 


/. s. d. 


Rent, &c. "**f'f 


42 o o 


Shoeing and wear, ' * 


o 17 o 


Houfe-keeping, &c. ~-"J 4 


500 




47 17 o 


Produce. 


/. s. d. 


8 Cows, 


40 o o 


Swine fold, and profit on two 




heifers always breeding, 


2 O O 


Carry over, 


4~ o 


K 3 


Three 



( '34 ) 

Brought over, . 42 o 
Three fourths of the year's 

labour, 18 o 

60 o 
Expences, 47 J 7 



Profit, 12 30 

Intereft of the ftock, 5 7 o 

Clear profit, - .6160 

This profit is confiderable, and makes it 
anfwer to take the farm ; which will always 
be tlie cafe with grafs ones, let the quan- 
tity of land be what it may. The article of 
the two heifers and fwine charged here is 
this : I fuppofe that 8 Cows, to maintain 
hogs', more than fufiicient for the family; 
fome are fold ; and I likewife fuppofe" two 
heifers alv;ays to be kept of his own breed- 
ing, the profit upon which, and the fwine 
fold, to amount to 2 /. 

I think, (confidering the rent) I do not 
exaggerate in fuppofing 8 cows, 2 young 
cattle, and i horfe kept on 25 acres of 
grafs ; but, if the horfe is put out to rlraw 
jii the winter, he may certainly (and aught) 

more 



more than pay it, in being let out, at leifurc 
times. 

>.'* **f^*'* jl O 

,i <~? r; ..-' 'i fi5lrtnji?r 

N 4. 

Fariation the third. 

The fame all arable* -. QK a foil light enough 
for turnips. / r V,;~'' *' 
Rent, &c. as be%e, . ..57 13 r P 

Implements, .ditto, ^., r ' : ,^7 of } f v :, 6 

Liveftock, ditto, r ^ ', .^ ' 2,f '^, p 
Add .% o^ore cows,. ^ njf ,.^ T n ;[j^0^ p. . o 

O J T ^'7/ 

V<?J cz?zJ tillage. . 

, , r u 

,o_Acre3 ot wheat, 4 

eartnL .^.4160 

Seed, 3 12 o 

Sowing, _p 30 

6 Acres of fpring corn, 

2 earths, 280 

Seed, 300 

Sowing, - - o i 6 
Clover feed, with ditto, i 40 

15 4 6 

Shoeing, wear and tear, and 

houfe-keeping, as before, 8 10 o 

. no ii o 
K'4 The 



The courfe of crops moft beneficial for 
this farm, when it is large enough to 
maintain a flock of fheep, is I. turnips ; 
2. barley ; 3. clover ; 4. wheat. But as 
fuch a farm as this will not allow of fheep, 
fome other ameliorating crop muft be fub- 
flituted in their room, but not wholly, as 
an acre or two will be of ufe to the farmer, 
divide the employment of the year into 
different feafons, and throw him in the 
way of felling them (to be fed off the land) 
in a dear year, to advantage. We will 
therefore fuppofe him to raife 2 acres every 
year ; the other 4 acres may be dedicated 
to white boiling peafe, which will prepare 
the land for barley and oats ; and, if they 
are well hoed, will prove not fo uncertain 
a crop as when left to themfelves. We 
will therefore fuppofe the annual account 
of this farm as follows : 

Ex fences. L s. d. 

Rent, &c. 37 1 3 

Seed for 6 acres of wheat, - 3 I2 

Ditto for 6 ditto of barley 

and oats, - - 300 



Carry over, .44 5 o 
Seed 



( 137 ) 

Brought over, . 44 5 o 
Seed, for 6 acres clover, - 140 
Ditto 4 of peafe, 200 

Ditto 2 of turnips, *;*-"' O" l^b 

Shoeing, &c. and houfe- 

keeping. &c. " ; '-~ "> 8 10 o 
t-V-'J 

- 56 o o 

Produce. /. j. </. 

6 Acres of wheat, gi. - - - 24 o o 

3 Of barley, - 900 

4 Of peafe, - ,..;&; ^ . 10 o o 
2 Of turnips, - :L*n : 3 10 o 
3 Cows, ,<V ' - .].' 15 o o 

jT. 61 10 o 

Expences, : rW l ": 7: '* '- ;- 56 o o 

Profit, \ $ 5 10 o 

Intereft of the ftock, *^u^ 5 10 o 
This product is as large as I can allow. 
The peafe certainly ought not to be reckoned 
equal to barley ; and the turnips at 35 J. to 
be fed off, is a good price, upon an average ? 
in countries where the culture is common. 
Nor is it any ways below the mark to keep 
3 pows and 2 horfes principally on 6 acres 

of clover : Add to all this, that the 

farmer will not have an hour to fpare to 

work 



(.( 138 ) 

work for others ;. this farm will employ 
Jiim conftant'ly, and he muft work like an 
horfe to do it. After all, the lofs rem^ia- 
ing, amounts to the intereft of his money. 
Can any thing prove ftronger the unpro- 
jfitablenefs of fuch. a farm ? It is ufelefs to 
vary this quantity to 4- grafs and ^ arable ; 
and, to all grafs, the proportion will remain, 
.and it would at laft be found that all arable 
is the only mode in which it would pay; 
and the account varies not at all from the 
'Jaft*)f the clay and-loam. 
O If feeking fuch proportions of arable and 
grafs (and other points) as would pre- 
cifely keep the man and horfes in regular 
and profitable employment, could be an- 
fwered" in a farm to be flocked by 100 /. 
the variations fhould be extended; but there 
is no fuch thing. A much larger capital is 
requifue to keep even 2 horfes conftantiy 
at work, fo as they ihall not ftop' for want 
of the man, nor the man for the want of 
-the horfes. 

Recapitulation. 

' Demanding the moft advantageous me- 
thod of difpoiing ico /, in farming, the an- 
fwers are : 

An 



An arable clay or loam farm, L s. d. 

of 25 acres, is attended with 

the lofs of the intereft of, - 860 
Ditto, half arable, and half 

grafs, - 350 

Ditto, all grafs, profit, 6 16 o 

Ditto, all arable, foil light 

enough for turnips, neither 

profit nor lofs,- f 2$M JCL;.""* o'^ o o 

It is very evident, from this ftate of the 
cafe, that the lofs is almoft in proportion to 
the quantity of arable land : The variation 
in the turnip-land farm is an exception, 
but then it muft be remembered, the oc- 
cupier of that muft work like an horfe ; 
and keep all his land cropped ; confequently 
the greater breadth of land he depends on, 
the worfe his chance in refpect of accidents, 
while all is worked with one pair of 
hands. 

The perfon, therefore, who has an hun- 
dred pounds to difpofe of in hufbandry, 
mould firft feek 25 acres of land, or there- 
abouts, all grafs, that being the moil ad- 
vantageous farm for him of all others. 

Next, he mould chufe the fame quantity 

of a foil light enough for turnips all arable^ 

* Next 



Next, he mould aim at the fame fized 
farm, the foil clay or loam, half arable 
land and half grafs. 

And, laftly, he mould hire one all arable, 
the foil clay or loam. 

Nor fhould the reader be furprifed at 
three out of four of thefe farms proving 
unprofitable: I am confident more than 
that proportion, of fuch real farms, are a 
lofs to their occupiers. But the error, in 
the common notions of this cafe, refults 
from not bringing the value of the farmer's 
own labour, and the interefl of his money, 
to account. Suppofe a man earns 25 /. a 
year in day-labour, out of which he faves 
100 /. to hire a little farm : This 100 /. 
brings him in 5 /. a year : So that his con- 
dition, at the time of hiring his farm, is a 
maintenance, and a capability of laying up 
a fmall fum annually out of it, and 5 /. a 
year intereft. If no notice is taken 'of his 
favings, fure the farm ought more than to 
maintain him, and pay the intereft of his 
money ; if it does not, he is worfe oft than 
before, as his 5 /. was then a certainty, 
and now a contingency. And this account 
will always prove the pernicious effects of 

their 



their hiring little farms. But general ob- 
fervation will fhew, that this conclufion is 
true in every part of the kingdom; for 
where are more mife'rable beings to be met 
with, than the farmers of fuch little farms 
as I am now treating of? , 

The great mifchief is their hiring arable 
farms, or fuch as have even one acre to plough. 
Grafs ones are evidently profitable, and truly 
beneficial to them ; liable to few lofles and 
chances againft them ; eafe of labour, and, 
in a "word, a fure ftep, with tolerable in- 
duftry, to get into larger farms, and to rife 
by degrees to a good fortune. The profit 
of 6 /. ifrr. a year, on one of thefe, i s 
confiderable, and would prefently accu- 
mulate to a fum confiderable enough to 
hire a farm of 50 or 60 acres of land. 
Whence, therefore, comes the infatuation 
fo common among thefe people, to think 
themfelves no farmers till they get a 
plough ! the only implement that can in 

any cafe enfure their ruin. It is much 

to be regretted, that landlords will let fuch 
fmall arable farms ; the expence of laying 
them down to grafs would be trifling, and 

1 then 



( 142 ) 

then they would prove highly beneficial to 
the poor people, and to themfelves alfo. 



CHAP. XVII. 

Of. the vwft advantageous method of dif- 
po/ixj of any fum from 1507. to 2oo/. in 
fanning. 

J.T . is neceflary .to examine all , forts of 

- iiriall farms accurately, for a reafon 

':h doer, not .hold with larger ones. 

The little farmer muft be fuppofed to have 

no, .credit ; confequently, he muft be the 

more cautious not to hire an acre more than 

manage to advantage, as fuch an 

imprudence cannot be afterwards remedied 

pplying for a loan to any one.' But a 

larger farmer apy eafily be fuppofed to have 

'it; fo that, if he does rather over- 

ihuot,the mark, it may not be of fo bad 

coniequences. For this reafon, I dwell 

among little farms the longer, that the 

proportions between their money, and the 

land that is offered to them, may be known 

tvith the greater truth. 

N i. 



N ;^ 5 

Divifion of 150!. in flocking a farm.of t i 
acres of clay or leant, attar able'." 

Rent, <&c. J ' I. sr : d. 

Rent of 36 acres, at 

ill A 37 ^6 : <5 f ^ "-*?^ w 

Tythe, at 4^' - 6*60 
Rates, &c.riij-.- 660 *3 fii 



o ^a ; e^miiguolq o*A r T 
^j^//.. 

'^t YJilJA 

2 Carts, - ID o o 






V- -*VJ; 

Implements. 



A plough, ,- i ii 6 

A ri. ~ f ' 

A pair of harrows, - I 10. o 

... - c - t^IV70-ITff-'lDi rJ Y/ 

A roller, -- - i to a ' 

^ 11 i i io g&LrfStfolq onO 

Cart and plough haf- . 

f c , *5 5 t bnx;l jo iaesibB 
nefs for 2 horfes,, - 2 10 o 

Screen, bu&el, forks, ' 



10 backs, * T - i < o "-v> 

. H . -loibu 

Dairy 'furniture, - / o 15 



Liyejlock. 

Q Horfes, 20 o Q : ^fcJMfiA ' 

5 Cows, - - 25 o o 
A Sow, - i o o 

-- T 46 "o _ o 

Carry over, .123 i 6 

Seed 



( 144 ) 

Brought over, .123 i 6 
Seed and tillage. 
Paid the preceding te- 
nant, for 4 plough- 
ings of 9 acres of 
wheat land, - .7 40 
Seed, 580 

Sowing, - - 046 
Water-furrowing, . - o 90 
Two ploughings of 6 

acres of barley land, 2 80 
Seed, - 300 

Sowing, - - o i 6 
Water-furrowing, 030 

One ploughing of 3 

acres of oat land, o 12 o 
Seed, - - i 10 o 

Sowing, - 009 

Water-furrowing, - o i 6 
Seed for 9 acres of clover, i 1 6 o 
Sowing, - 023 

23 o 6 

Labour. 

Affiftance in harveft. Suppofc 
Reaping 5 acres of 

wheat, . i 50 

ico 



Carry over, 147 7 o 
A lad 



( 145 ) 

Brought over, . i 5 o 147 70 

A lad to affift in car- 
rying in the corn 10 
days, at i j. o 10 o 

' i 15 o 



149 2 o 

Sundry articled 

Shoeing, and wear 
and tear* - >- 4 o o 

Houfe-keeping, and 
cloaths, &c. befides the 
affiftance of the farm, 
and the wife and chil- 

drens earnings, 2* -il'- 5 o o 

900 

.T^"7~^ 

There are fome variations, in feveral of 
thefe particulars, which it is neceflary to 
minute. 

Implements* 

It may appear odd to fome, that I fhould 

affign a farm two carts that keeps but two 

horfes ; but with one the bufmefs, in har- 

veft and hay time, would go on too (lowly : 

. VOL. I. L the 



( 14* ) 

the method in which 2 carts are ufed, with 
only as many horfes, is this : In harveft, 
the fhocks, or ftooks of corn, are laid in 
clufters when reaped, inftead of the regular 1 
manner of difpofmg them in rows; and 
when they are carried, one cart is fixed in 
the midft of a clufter, and loaded by a lad, 
while the other is drove off with the horfes 
to the barn; the filler (thill-horfe) being 
changed of one cart into the other. It is 
moft convenient, in carting dung, &c. as 
there is then no want of moving or being 
on the cart to lay the load. This method I 
have often feen ufed in both cafes ; but it 
is only in cafe the field is either at a diftance 
from the barn, or a hill is to go up to it ; 
otherwife, each horfe draws his cart alone, 
without changing. 

More than two horfes I mall not, on any 
account, allow fuch a farm as I am now 
confidering ; if any profit attends it, I am 
certain it can only arife by keeping no more 
horfes than was before kept on 25 acres, 
and making them work hard the year round 
for their living. But I mould remark, 
that, in the common management of little 

farmers, 



( 147 ) 

farmers, four horfes are kept to 56 acre* 
of arable land; which is precifely the reafon 
why fuch farmers are as poor and miferable 
as the leaft of occupiers* 

Liveftock. 

The two horfes neceflary for this farm 
muft do more work than thofe affigned to 
the preceding ones ; it is but juft, there- 
fore, to allow a fomewhat greater price. 

Cows a little farmer mould always con- 
trive to keep, although his farm is all 
arable: thefe muft fubfift on clover and 
ftraw* 

Seed and tillage. 

tinder this head I ftate the coiirfd of 
crops, which it will be moft advantageous 
for fuch a farm to be thrown into; that is f 
one fourth fallow, a fourth wheat, a fourth 
fpring corn, and the remaining fourth 
clover ; by which means half his farm is 
what may be called fallow every year ; and, 
confequently, the whole kept in good order, 
no two crops of corn ever coming together. 
Befides which advantage, he will always 
L 2 have 



have a field of clover for his horfes and 
cows. 

Labour. 

The fum I have charged under this head 
does not include the affiftance he is likewife 
to hire at wheat fowing, which will 
amount to a few {hillings more : the whole 
will form a fum very fmall in the eyes of 
many; I mould, therefore, here explain 
how one man may cultivate 36 arable acres 
with fo little afliftance. Let us take every 
month in the year from the conclufion of 
harveft. 

Oclober. 9 Acres of wheat ploughed 
and fowed, (the feeds-man hired), 
and water-furrowed : This may be 
called days of work, - 15 

9 Acres of laft year's wheat 

ftubble to be ploughed up, 9 

_4 
November. Thrafhing * 13 qrs. of 

wheat, 26 

* Here I make the wheat yield 2-^qrs. per acre, and yet 
charge it only 4/./*racre; but fomething mufl be al- 
lowed for the fcreenings which the farmer ufes in his 
family (and which -are thraihed like the reft) and alfo on 
account of all his corn being fold at home, or at leafl to a 
neighbour; and alfo to the general attention of not 
cramping him in this Calendar, 'with charging lefs work 
than the reality. 

December. 



December. Thrafhing, 9^ qrs. of wheat, 20 
Ditto 10 qrs. of fpring corn, 5 



January. Ditto 26 qrs. of fpring corn, 1 3 
Ditching 12 perches, 12 

JL? 
February. Ditching 25 perches, rrx--. 25 

March. Ploughing and fowing 9 acres 

of barley and oats, and water-fur- 
rowing, <- - 13 
Manuring, - 13 

-;a*i/ ^ni^/I AS*- ~E> 
AfrlL The fecond ploughing of 9 acres "* 

of fallow, " i Hiifj In " > I itfi 9 

Sundry fmall articles of work, 1 7 

."26 

May. The third ploughing of fallow, ; " 9 
Ditching or manuring, &c. 1 7 

"^6 
June. Mowing, making, and carting 

2 acres of clover hay, - 10 

Thiftling or weeding the 1 8 acres 

of corn, - - - T7 

1/ 

27 

. The fourth ploughing, of 9 acres 
of fallow, - q 

Carry over, 9 
L 3 Mowing, 



Brought over, 9 
Mowing, and harvefting 5 averts 

of fpring corn, - 1 2 

Sundry {mall articles of work> 5 

^6 

Augitfl. Reaping 4 acres of wheat, i o 

Harvefting ditto, 3 
Mowing and harvefting 4 acres 

fpring corn, - - - 10 

Sundries, - 3 

.H! 

September. Mowing and making, &c. 

i acre of clover-hay, - - 6 
The fifth ploughing of g acres 
of fallow, throwing it up for the 
winter, - g 

Chopping, and carting 9 acres of 
wheat ftubble, _3 

"27 

From this Calendar of the year's work, 
it is extremely evident that one man, with 
the affiftance I have fuppofed, is fully able 
more than to cultivate, and completely too, 
3 6 acres of arable land. I have in no article 
pinched him for time; but in moft allowed 
hba more than a fufficiency for all forts of 
6 wprk, 



work, and many weeks for trifling jobs 
unfpecified. 

I come now to the annual account of this 
farm. 

Expences. I. s. d. 

Rent, &c. - 50 8 o 

Seed for 9 acres of wheat, "580 
Ditto for 9 of fpring corn, - 4100 
Ditto 9 of clover, - i 16 o 

Labour, - - - I 15 o 

Wear and tear, and houfe- 

keeping, &c. - - 9 o o 

7 2 17 Q 

Produce. 

9 Acres of wheat, 36 o o 

6 Acres of barley, - -1800 

5 Cows, - * - 25 o o 

79 o o 

Expences, ' -+ '^" f ' - 72 17 o 



Intereft of 156 /. - V*w M ^ 716 o 
Deduct, - - - 630 

Lofs, - - - . i 13 o 

L 4 N 2. 



* 



Variation thefrft. 

The fame ) half grafs and half arable. 
Rent, - . 50 8 o 

Implements the fame as 

before, except one cart, - 18136 

Livejlock. 

2 Horfes, ~.r 1 6 o o 
i Sow, * v o 15 o 

7 Cows, - 35 

-. - 51 15 o 

Seed and tillage. 
4 Earths of 44 acres 

of wheat land, - . 3 12 o 
Seed, 2 14 o 

Sowing, T ^-023 
Water- furrowing, ' 046 

3 Earths for 4^- acres 

of barley and beans ? i 1 6 o 
Seed, 250 

Sowing, - o i i^- 

Waters-furrowing, 023 

One earth for 3 acres 

of oats, ^ o 12 o 



Carryover, , n 9 IT I2 l6 ^ 

2. eartha 



( J53 1 ')' 

Brought over, . n 9 i-l iso 16 6 
2 earths of if acre 

of peafe or beans, 0120 
Seed for 47, 2 50 

Sowing, " " o I if 

Water-furrowing, 023 

14 9 6 

Shoeing, wear and tear, 

and houfe-keeping, w ^ .,,- 8 10 o 

- J 43 16 o 
And the annual account will be : 

Exfences. /. s. d 9 

Rent, &c. 50 8 o 

Seed for 4f acres of wheat, - 2 14 o 
6 Barley, &c. - 300 

3 Oats, - - - - i 10 o 
Shoeing, wear and tear, &c. - 8 i o o 

.66 2 o 



Produce. 

4f Acres of wheat, - 18 

6 Of barley, &c. fe^A r V 18 

7 Cows, * ^!*,3s^y, 35 



Carryover, .710 o 
T 



( '54 ) 

Brought over, .71 o o 
To this muft be added 
fome part of his time at la- 
bour, which his farm will 
fpare ; and herein we muft 
be guided by the fame all , 
arable, and not the farms 
of the preceding chapters, 
which being conducted on 
fomewhat different princi- 
ples, the analogy muft not 
be the rule ; the proportion 
of the laft farm will give to 
this about a third of the 
year, or - - - 800 

79 o "~o 
Expences, : '. . - - 66 ,2 o 

12 18 o 

Pedud intereft of the flock, 730 

Profit, * - - 5 15 o 

N 3 . 

Variation thefecond. 
The fame all.gr of s y applied to the dairy. 

Rent, &c. 
Rent of 36 acres, at 

2 5 ' - - 45 o 

Carry over, 45 o o 

Tythe 



( 155 ) 

Brought over, .45 ^ * & 

Tythe at 4 s. - 9 

Rates at 4 s. '- 9 

63 Q 

Implements. 

One cart, - -800 
Cart-harnefs, - o 15 o 
Rakes, forks, fcythes, 

&c. - - o 15 o 
Dairy furniture, - i 10 o 

II Q 

Live Stock. 

One horfe, - 10 o o 

12 Cows, - 60 o o 

2 Sows, - I 10 o 

71 10 o 

Sundry articles. 
Shoeing, and wear and 

tear, f lf ; , - I o o 
Houfe-rkeeping, &c. 500 

600 



. I5 1 I0 
The ANNUAL ACCOUNT, 

E x fences. 

Rent, &c. - <- jC 6 3 

Shoeing, wear and tear, 

}ioufe-keeping> &c. f ^ ^ 6 o Q 

^69 o o 
Pro- 



Produce. L s. d. 

iz Cows, 60 o o 

Profit on 5 heifers always 

breeding, -, - 10 o o 

Swine fold, - 506 

75 o o 
Add two thirds of the year's 

labour, - - 1600 

91 o o 

Expences, - ~ - 69 o o 

22 o o 
Deduct intereft of the ftock, 711 o 



Clear profit, . 14 9 o 

No one can imagine the product of this 
farm exaggerated, fince it is but a trifle 
more than 40 s. an acre, which, from land 
that rents at 25 s. an acre, is very trifling, 
and much more under the truth than 
over it. 

N 4 . 

Variation the third. 
The fame all grafs applied to fatting. 

Stock. 1. s. d. 

Rent, &c. - 63 4 o 

Dairy furniture, - o 10 o 

Carry over, . 63 14 o 

I Cow 



( '57 r 

Brought over, .6314 o 

Livejlock. 

i. Cow, . - .5 . P o 

40 Home-bred heifers 

bought in May, 120 "o o 
A fow, v - -, o 10 o 

: "- J> 125 10 o 

Houfe-keeping, &c. <3*i - 5 o o 
Horfe and cart hire for ditch 

earth, 3 o o 

w.tfrl ' J 97 4 o 
This farmer buys neither horfe nor cart r 
becaufe it will by no. means anfwer for 
the carting of manure~alone j the .hire is 
therefore charged. Home-bred heifers of 
about 3 /. each I take to be the moft pro- 
fitable branch of fummer-grazing ; but in 
cafe 40 pf them fhould not eafily be pro- 
cured, (which however, is not at all likely), 
then the number may be made up with 
fmall black cattle. The price I calculate 
them at, I apprehend, is about the average 
of feveral years. I "have known them from 
40 s. to 5 /. The cow and the fbw is 
bought more with an eye to the fanner's 
houfe-keeping than to the flpck of thq 

farm. 



( 158 ) 

farm. The annual account will ftand 
thus: 

Expences. /. s. d. 

Rent, &c. - 63 4 o 

40 Heifers, - 120 o o 

Houfe -keeping, &c. 500 

Horfe and cart hire, - 300 

. I9 1 4 o 



Produce. 
40 Fat heifers fold ia au- 

tumn, - 200 o o 

i Cow, - 5 o o 

205 o o 
Four fifths of the year's la- 

bour, - 19 4 _ o 

224 4 o 

Expences, - 191 4 _ o 

33 
Deduct interefl on flock, - 9 17 o 

Profit, - - . 23 3 o 

This account calls for fome very material 
obfervations. Firft, there is no common 
farmer poflefTed of 197 /. that would hire 
fo fmall a farm as 36 acres of land; and 

yet 



( '59 ) 

yet we find that fum is here applied to a 
very profitable ufe in flocking fo finall a 
farm ; and the benefit depending on very 
few contingencies, and liable to no misfor- 
tunes of bad crops, &c. &c. &;c. 

Secondly, we find fatting to be more 
profitable than dairying, which is a cir-? 
cumftance of confequence, and muft be fur- 
ther examined in future calculations. 

Thirdly, the profit here charged I can- 
not fuppofe will be by any one objected to; 
40 s. not being a confiderable difference 
between a lean heifer of 3 /. value, and a 
fat one: I think it can no where be 
reckoned at lefs when fatted upon land of 
25 s. an acre. And the affigning 40 of 
them and a cow to 36 fuch acres, is certainly 
rather under than over the truth ; as I 
know, in a multiplicity of inftances, that 
fuch land will very well fat two fuch heifers 
per acre ; but one and an half would by 
moft have been allowed. But I like to cal- 
culate each article in all thefe eftimates low, 
to obviate objections. 



N jr. 

Variation the fourth. 
The fame all arable, the foil light enough 

for turnips. 

Rent, &c. as in N i. - 50 8 o 
Implements, ditto, * - 26 13 6 
Live flock, ditto, - - 46 o o 

Seed and tillage. 
4 Earths on 9 acres 

wheat, .7 40 

Seed, 580 

Sowing, - 046 

2 Earths on 6 acres 

barley land, - 280 
Seed, - - 300 

Sowing, - - o i 6 
i Earth on 3 acres of 

oat land, - 0120 

Seed, - i 10 o 

Sowing, - -009 
Seed 9 acres of clover, i 1 6 o 

Sowing, - - 023 

22 7 e 

Labour. 
Afliftance in harveft as 

in N i. i 15 o 

Carry over, . i 15 o 145 8 6 

Hoeing 



( 161 ) 

Brought over, . i 15 o 145 8 6 
Hoeing sjf acres of 

turnips twice, - o 15 o 

2 10 o 

Sundry articles. 

As in N i. j_9_ 

156"! 8 6 

The difference of labour in this farm, and 
that upon the clay, is not fo great, but, 
with the above additional affiftance, may 
be very eafily executed by one man ; 
for, if the calendar of work I there inferted 
be examined, it will be found that the 
variation is a mere trifle. The other 
6^ acres I propofe fhould be fown with 
white peafe, and kept clean hoed. The 
annual account will ftand thus : 



Expences. 


/. s. d. 


Rent, &c. - f? f ;" 


50 8 o 


Seed for 9 acres wheat, ^-^ 


580 


Ditto for 9 barley and oats, 


4 10 o 


Ditto for 6^ peafe, 


350 


Ditto for 9 clover, - ,.,,* 


i 16 o 


Ditto for 21. turnips, ' - " 


o i 6 


Labour, - 


2 10 


Carry over, >T. 


67 18 6 


VOL. I. M 


Shoeings 



Brought over, .67 18 
Shoeing, wear and tear, and 

houfe-keeping, &c. j) _ 



-(> 
Produce. 

9 Acres of wheat, .36 o o 

6 Of barley, 1800 

61- Of peafe> 16 5 o 

2^ Of turnips, 476 

5 Cows, - 25 o o 

99 13 6 

Expences> 7 *& 6 

.22 14 o 

Dedud intereft of flock, - 7 16 o 
Profit, - .14 1 8 o 

This profit is very confiderable, and 
fhews that arable land is advantageous, as 
well as grafs, when no more horfes are 
kept than really neceffary. If two horfes 
more are fuppofed, and confequently more 
labour^ wjiere will this 14 /. be found ? 
And yet fuch a farm as this is fcarce ever 
met v/ith that keeps but' two: fo little 
knowing are farmers in the very bufmefs 
of their lives. 

But the fuperiority of this farm -to that 
of the clay toil is fo great, that it fuggefts 

the 






the hint of a new variation, which is art 
increafe of crops, by fubftituting beans in 
drills inftead of the fallow : This I venture 
to make, as that method in fowing beans 
is common in many parts of the kingdom ; 
I mean amongft common farmers- for as to 
fuch improvements as are not commonly 
pradifed, to admit them in thefe eftimates, 
would be to extend them to infinity, hd, 
at the fame time, render them ufelefs to 
the common hufbandman. 

N- 6. 

Variation theffth. 
The fame all arable ', the foil clay , and beans 

made thefalloivi 

The whole article of flock /. s. d. 

will be the fame as before, or' 156 1 8 6 

ANNUAL ACCOU"NT~ 

Rent, &c. . 50 8 o 

Seed, 9 acres wheat, 580 

9 Barley and oats, - 4 10 o 

9 Clover, . i 16 o 

9 Beans, at 2 buihels, 312 o 

Labour, - - ^> i 15 o 

Carryover, .67 9 o 
M 2 Wear 



Brought over, . 67 o 
Wear and , tear, and houfe- 

keeping, &c. _ 9. a o 

7 6 ~9~ 

Produce. 

9 Acres of wheat, - - 36 o o 
6 Of barley, - 1800 

9 Of beans, , - - -22100 
5 Cows, - - - 25 o o 

. 101 10 o 
Expences-, - . - - 76 9 o 

25 i 

Deduct the intereft of the flock, 716 o 
Profit, . 17 5 o 

If the reader turns over the calendar of 
labour on the farm N i. of this chapter^ 
he will find the 9 acres of land now fown, 
was, in that farm, fuppofed to be fallow, 
and ploughed five times; now it is certain 
that, let the beans be ever fo well cultivated, 
the labour will not be more ; or, at leaft r 
a trifle more than the fallow. There is 
the fowing, and ploughing between the 
rows four times, and the harveft. But,, 
left it is reckoned too large an addition of 
labour, let us Hate it again thus : 

Profit 



Profit before mentioned, - .17 
Sowing the beans, jf.o 4 6 
Reaping them, - 250 



Profit by this account, - .14 15 6 
And here we find that this alteration of 
cropping renders the heavy foil as profitable 
as the light one. One remark, however, 
I muft make; which is, that no one mould 
be too hafty in concluding, that this method 
of hufbandry, proving very beneficial upon 
land of a guinea an acre rent, and with 
four horfe-hoeings between the rows (be- 
fides one hand-hoeing at leaft), fhould in 
the fame manner be profitable upon a 
poorer foil, and without fiich culture. 
Reafoning by analogy in matters of huf- 
bandry, unlefs the circumflances are all 
minutely attended to, will, in numerous in- 
inftances, prove very delufive. 

In jthe difpofition, therefore, of any fum 
of money, from 150 /. to 200 /. thefe farms 
appear in the following rank of profit : 
i. Thirty-fix acres, all grafs, /. s. d. 
and applied to fatting, 
which yields, - 23 3 o 

v '.-. 

M 3 2. Ditto, 



( 166 ) 

2. Ditto,- all arable, the foil /. j-. d. 
"light enough for turnips, 14 18 o 

3. Ditto, all arable, the foil 
clay or loam, and beans, 

a fallow in the crops, - 14 15 6 

4. Ditto, all grafs, and ap- 
plied to dairying, - 14 9 o 

. Ditto, half grafs and half 

arable, the foil clay, &c. - 5 15 q 
6. Ditto, all arable, the foil 

clay, &c. and , the fourth 

of it a fallow, lofs, 130 

The firft is not only fuperior to the reft 
in profit, but alfo in all thofe .chancesj 
which cannot be reduced to calculation ; 
and, at the fame time, takes much lefs 
time, expence and trouble, than a dairy : 
confequently the man, pofleffed of the 
fum requifite for thefe farms, had much 
better apply it to that ufe than to any 
other ; and from the following {ketch of 
the fums neceflary to ftock thefe farms, 
it appears that the difference between fe- 
yeral of them is fmall. 

N i. 



No i. The ftock, 


I1:> - r - I 97 


4 -o 


2. - "- 


* 156 


18 6 


3 kg o 


*? I56 


18 6 


4- 


151 


10 o 


5- 


143 


6 o 


6. ^/; 


156 


17 o 


The following 


is the intereft, 


&c. per 


cent, paid by thefe 


farms. /. 


s. d. 


N i. 


16 


4 o 


2. 


;V 14 


12 


3- 


15 


18 o 


4- 


?: *T J 4 


II 


5-. - 


i*'#r<-4-*9 


I 


6. 


_ ' ^V~ . _ q 


18 o 



Thus we fee there is not lefs than about 
1 6 7. difference in the profit of two farms 
that require the fame fum of money to 
hire ; than which nothing can be a flronger 
proof how very attentive a farmer fhould 
be in fixing himfelf in a new farm, and 
not run headlong, and in the dark, into 
the firft that offers ; becaufe the taking it 
will fave expences of fome fort or other, 
or becaufe it has fome favourable circum- 
ilances belonging to it. 

I apprehend fuch a fketch as this will 

pe of ufe in afliiling him to form an idea of 

M '4 the 



( 168 ) 

the farm that will beft fuit him ; and when 
once he has gained a juft notion of that 
point, his bufmefs is only to find out that 
farm, among many, which approaches 
neareft to it. 

The grazing farm, in the above fketch, 
from the excefs of the amount of the ftock, 
feems to belong rather to another chapter ; 
but it is one of thofe in which proportion 
holds pretty exactly; fo that we may con- 
clude from it, that 1507. difpofed in the 
fame manner, will prove proportionably 
profitable. Such analogy will, however, 
do in no other cafe, not even the dairying 
farms : And the quantity of land being the 
fame, I am induced to place it here, as the 
moft proper place. 



Upon the three preceding chapters it 
ihould here be remarked, that there are 
innumerable variations among fuch farms^ 
of which no account is here taken. They 
might be multiplied ad mfinitum t but nei- 
ther for the curiofity of the reader, nor the 
real ufe of the farmer. Such very numer- 
ous 



( 169 ) 

ous calculations might, perhaps, ierve 
only to perplex. 

The differences of foil are very great; 
but, in general, a little farmer fhould covet 
that which is extraordinary good, and 
never grudge a proportionable rent for it ; 
he had better pay even beyond the propor- 
tion, than cultivate a foil which requires 
any extraordinary amendments. Indif- 
ferent land (I am not fpeaking of that 
which is very bad, but in rich countries 
of 10 s. 12 s. 15 s. an acre) is much more 
hazardous in the produce ; befides, let him 
never forget that it coils him as much to 
plough, to harrow, to fow, to reap, &c. 
&c. a poor acre that yields but 20 s. pro- 
duce, as a rich one that yields as many 
pounds. Rent, compared to this article, 
is but a trifle. 

There are many countries (indeed moft) 
in which a plough never ilirs without four 
horfes, perhaps five or fix; and this not at 
all from neceflity, but mere cuftom. We 
muft fuppofe the farmers of fuch places to 
be deeply grounded in their delufion, and 
iconfequently that little farmers were in the 
fame predicament ; now, the reader has 

nothing 



nothing to do but to add to any of the 
preceding accounts the expence of two or 
three more horfes, and confeqr. ?ntly of one 
man (for in fuch countries e\ 7 ery plough 
has a driver) acA let him then dill: 
where the profit of any of them is to be 
found; but let him reverfe the medal, 
and, I warrant, he will find lofs enough. 

It .has appeared very plainly that la- 
bourers hiring feveral of the preceding 
farms was an injury to them ; being much 
poorer afterwards than before ; but to what 
a degree of mifery would they plunge, if^ 
inftead of two, they were to keep four 
horfes. In fuch countries little farms muil 
confift totally of grafs, or there muft be 
none at all. But unhappily fuch are to 
be found, to the mifery of many a deluded 
man, who, ambitious of being a farmer, 
hurries into ruin. 

It is alfo the cuftom through thofe parts 
of the kingdom in which oxen are ufed in 
draught, never to yoke lefs than four to a 
plough, but much oftener 6 or 8, This is 
a moft unprofitable practice, and totally 
ufelefs ; for a yoke of good oxen will-plough 
an acre of land in a day, as well as a pair 

of 



of horfes. However, while 4 are necef- 
fary, it effectually precludes fuch fmall farms 
as I am now fpeaking of; as the farmer 
can no more afford to keep 4 oxen fb* 
draught, than he can 4 horfes. 

Thefe eftimates mud therefore undoubt- 
edly be underftood to concern only fuch 
countries as ufe a pair of horfes in a plough 
and no driver; and, in other countries, 
only fuch men as have the fenfe and fpirit 
to acl: contrary to fuch ridiculous cuftoms. 

I have in eftimating the ftock of thefe 
farms ftated the fums neceiTary to carry the 
farmer through one year, which in fmall 
farms will, in moft cafes, be fufficient ; nor do 
I think it can be effectually done for lefs. 

There are fome minute^ variations in 
thefe accounts, which are too numerous to 
explain each feparately, but I do not think 
any can be found, which an attention to 
all the circumftances of the farm will not 
at once throw into a proper light. All that 
arife from rent, tythe and rates may be 
altered according to circumftances in a few 
minutes: Such are too numerous to be 
yaried here. 



CHAP. XVIII. 

Of the moft advantageous method, on farms 
of 40 or 50 acres, of difpofing of from 
200 /. to 300 /. in farming. 

IMuft claim the fame latitude in this as 
in the preceding chapters; not to be 
tied abfolutely to the above fum: I fix on 
one as fomething of a mark to guide me 
by ; not that there is any more ufe in a 
calculation for that fum, than in any other 
which may arife, as a man is as likely to 
have 237 /. for inftance, to difpofe of, as 
250 /. 

N i. 

Divifion of 250 /. in flocking a farm of 50 
acres-> all arable, the foil clay or Ioam 9 
and beans reckoned a fallow. 

Rent, &c. 

Rent of 50 acres at i /. 50 o o 
Tythe at 4 s. - 10 o o 
Rates, &c. at 4 s. - 10 o o 

7 

Carry over, . 70 o o 
5 Imple- 



( 173 ) 

Brought over, .^70 O O 
Implements. 

2 Carts, - .1600 
Plough, - - i ii 6 
Harrows, - -200 
Roller, - - i 10 o 
Harnefs for 2 horfes, 2 IO o 
Screen, bufhel, forks, 

&c. &c. - 200 

Sacks, - - - i 10 o 
Dairy furniture, - i o o 

28 i 6 

Lmeftock. 

2 Horfes, - - .24 o o 

7 Cows, - - -35 o o 

i Sow, - - - - i o o 

Seed and tillage. 
Four earths on 124-' 

acres of wheat land, 10 o o 
Seed, - - r ~ - - 7 10 o 
Sowing, ----063 
Water furrowing, - 0126 
Two earths for 9 acres 

of barley land, 3 12 o 

Carryover, .22 09 158 i 6 

Seed, 



( 174 ) 

I 6 



Brought over, . 


22 


o 


9 


158 


Seed, - - - - 


4 


10 


o 




Sowing, - - 





2 


3 




Water-furrowing, - 


O 


4 


6 




One earth on 3! acres 










of oat land, 


o 


H 







Seed, 


I 


1 5 


o 




Sowing, 





o 


ici 




Water-furrowing, - 





i 


9 




Seed for 12^ acres of 










clover, 


2 


10 







Sowing, 





3 


IT 


n o 


Labour. 


3 2 


In harveft, * . 10 


6 


3 




At fowing times, - 


2 


J3 


i^ 




Pitching, 


2 


10 







At other times, 


7 


H 


o 





23 



- --- 23 3 4| 
Sundry articles. 
Shoeing, and wear and 

tear, 4 J Q __ 

Carryover, ^T. 4 10 c 213 7 i^- 

* I am fenfiblc the fum total of this labour is not want- 
ing the firft year, but I charge it as in fucceffive years for 
feveral reafons ; the variation is not confiderable, as the 
article Seed and tillage includes only two feed times. In 
Backing, every thing ihould be rated high. 

Hou-fe-- 



Brought over, .4 10 o 213 7 14- 
Houfe - keeping, and 
cloaths, befides the 
advantages of the 
farm in fmall articles, 
fuchas garden, dairy, 
fwine, &c. and be- 
fides the earnings of 
the family, if any, 800 
Hire of a horfe in har- 

veft for 14 days, - I o o 
Additions tohoufehold 

furniture, : ^&j 5 o o 

1 8 10 o 

There are variations in this account from 
that in the preceding chapter, which re- 
quire an explanation. 

Rent, &c. 

The rent, no more than the tythe and 
parifh charges, is an article of great con- 
fequence to be minutely accurate in ; as 
any may eafily vary it according to private 
circumftances. However, I am to keep as . 
near the probability of truth as poffible, and . 
reckon that the fame land, as treated of in 
the preceding chapters, to let for i s. an 
2 acre 



( '76 ) 

acre lefs when in farms of 50 acres, than in 
thofe of 36. It is an undoubted truth, 
that, in rich countries, the lefs a farm is, 
the better the land lets : This abatement of 
I s. may not beprecifely exact, but I believe 
it is near the proportion, as the difference 
between 50 and 36 acres is not great. 

Implements. 

Some of thefe articles I increafe in price 
fomething in proportion to the work they 
muft perform, and add principally to fuch 
as beft admits it from the lownefs of the 
preceding rates. The fame obfervation is 
applicable to the article Lvueflock^ and par- 
ticularly in the increafed price of the horfes. 

Seed and tillage. 

Under this head is fpecified the divifiort 
of the land into wheat, fpring-corn, and 
clover ; when a tenant takes a new farm, 
he muft not expect to find it thrown into fo 
beneficial a courfe as he will afterwards do 
himfclf : This year a fourth is fallow, but 
it will afterwards be a fallow crop, that is 
beans in drills. 

Labour, 



Labour. 

This farm requires much afliftance in this 
article,and confequentlywemuftbe fomewhat 
accurate in explaining why the above fums 
are charged, and this can only be done by 
forming a new calendar of the work of this 
farm, as before of the other. Without this 
afliftance, we mall be in the dark through- 
out the whole chapter. We begin, as be- 
fore, after the conclufion of harveft* 
Otfober. Ploughing 124. acres of wheat 

(fowing hired), * Jajrs t 13 
Ditto, 124. of laft year's ftubble, J3 

To hire. I /. d< 
Sowing the wheat, > 063 
Water-furrowing, - - o 12 6 

November. Thraming 13 quarters of 

wheat, - - 3&.fsi 26 
December. Ditto, * s>6 

January. Either in December, January, 
or February, the opportunity of 
a dry time or a moderate froft 
mnft be taken to re-plough the 
VOL. I. N fallow-, 



( '78 ) 

fallow; I may therefore charge 
it here, - wife'|f - days, 13 
Water-furrowing ditto, - 6 

Sundry imall articles of work, 7 

"a6 
February. Thrafhing 7 quarters of 

wheat,. - - 14 

Ditto 26 quarters of fpring-corn, 13 

"27 

To hire. 

Manuring, . - - . I 5 o 
50 Perch of ditching, at i s. 2 i o o 

-3 i5 o 

March. Ploughing 12'- acres of bean 

land (the fallow) - - 13 
Ditto 124 the laft year's bean land 
for barley arid oats, - 

Tolnre. 

Sowing 1 2y acres of beans, ^. o 12 6 
Water-furrowing, - 063 
Ditto, the other 12^-, o 6 3 

Thrafhing 13 qrs. fp. com, 012.0 







dpril. Ploughing f 24. adits : 6f barley 

and oat land, - - "-flays,, ij 
Thrafhing 12 qrs. offering torii, i% 
Small articles, 2 

5 

7b Azr^. 
Sowing, 124. acres of fpririg 

corn, - . o 3 i| 

Water-furrowing, - 063 

Thrafhing 25 qrs. beans, - I 5 o 

I 14 47 

M^y. Ploughing between the rows of 

the beans, ' - 7 

Manuring, - 8 

Hand-hoeing 24- acres beans, - 10 

"^5 
June. Ploughing between the rows of 

the beans, - 7 

Hand-hoeing 4 acres of beans, 15 
Carting 3 acres of clover-hay, - 5 

"Hz 

To hire. 
Hand-hoeing 6 acres of 

beans, - ; ,^V * Io O 
Mowing and making 3 acres 

of clover-hay, *-/ o 12 O- 

Carting ditto, 5 days, 063 

Carry over, .283 

N 2 Thiflling 



Brought over, . 2 8 
Thiftling or weeding 25 

acres of corn, - I c 



3 J3 3 

Ploughing between the rows of 

the beans, - days* ^ 

Carting, manure, and other jobbs, 20 

27 

Augujl. Carting 12^ acres of wheat, 4 
Ditto of barley and oats, - 9 

Ditto I2rfbeans, - - 9 
Sundry fmall articles, - - ^5 

27 



Reaping 1 2^- acres of wheat, .$ % 6 
Ditto of beans, - 3 15 o 

Mowing i zL acres of barley 

and oats, - - 0189 

Turning, and harvefting, 

and carting, - - 2 10 o 

< 10 6 3 

September. Mowing and making, and 

carting, 3 acres clover-hay, 10 
Ploughing the bean-land, and 
throwing it up for the winter, 13 

Carting 13^ acres ftubble, 4 

, > . . 

O *] 



To hire y 

Chopping and raking, 12 i /./.* 

acres of ftubble. - o 18 9 

The fum total of the labour hired is 23 /. 
3 / 4l d. 

Sundry articles. 

Under this head fome additions are made 
relative to the increafe of bufmefs, and the 
article of houfe-keeping is increafed to 
bear a more regular proportion to the fub- 
ftance of the farmer ; for the fame reafon 
is 'the addition to the houfehold furniture, 
which I fuppoie him to have been pofiefled of 
before. The hiring a horfe in harveft-time 
is in very few places a difficulty, as that 
is not a buiy time for horfes ; and the al- 
lowance I make of price will eafily procure 

i < fJitl^T 1 .. ft i 
one. 

The annual account of this farm will be 
as follows : 

Rent, &c. ' ; ^ ^ .^-jo ^T#^ 

Seed for 12^ acres of 

i r> 

wheat, ^^*' /. 7 id o 

TN- C 1 

Ditto 12^- acres of bar- 

, , ! fa^iUl 

ley and oats, * ^ 6 50 
; _ f 

Carry over, 13 15 o 

Carry over, . 83 15 o 
N 3 Seed 



Brought over, . 83 15 o 
Seed for 12^ acres, of 

clover, - 2 10 o 
Ditto, 124- of beans,. 5 

.. . . 7 10 o 

Labour, ^ * 2 3 3 4-r 

Sundries, - *3 IO 

. 127 18 4:- 



Acres of wheat, - 50 o o 

9 Of barley, - - 27. o . o 

134. Of beans, - 37 10 o 

7 Cows, - ' - S5 oo 

149 10 o 

Expences, - - - * 2 7 l8 4r 

21 II 74- 

Ded ucl. the Intereft of the flock, 11 n o 

Profit, ^. 10 07^ 



The refult of this account is remarkable : 
We. find in it that a man may, in foine 
inftanccs, increafe his flock, and propor- 
tionabl^ r enlarge his farm, and then find 
iimfelf poorer than he was before. The 
beans, in this account, are valued at more 
than in the lafl chapter, for reafons which 
need not be here fpecirjed ; and yet we fine} 
the profit, upon the whole, not more than 
half what it was with the lefs farm. This 
is owing to the labour; and fojnething ot 
3 this 



thft kind will always be obferved in the 
dependence upon hired labour, inftead of 
the work of the farmer's own 'hands. Be- 
fore, he depended on himfelf alone, (a 
trifle excepted), but now, nearly, as much 
on another man as on himfelf. Nor is this 
out of proportion ; for, although the other 
farm was 36 acres, and this 50, yet the 
labour is much out of this proportion, 
which is owing to feafons. If the work 
was equally divided through the whole year, 
it would be a different cafe j but it comes 
at feafons, when, if a man does it not 
himfelf, it muft be done by another, and 
cannot wait for his having time to perform 
it himfelf. 

N2. 

Variation thefrfl. 
The fame > half arable and half grafs^ foil 

clay or loam. 

Stock. 

Rent, &c. as before, - . 70 o o 
Implements, ditto, W>2P* 28 i 6 

Live-Jlock. 



2 Horfes, 
5 Cows, 


- . 20 oo 
25 o o 




Carryover, . 143 i 6 

N 4 i Sow, 



Brought over, . 143 j 6 
I Sow, - .100 

30 Home-bred heifers, 90 o o 

-- 91 o o 



and tillage, 
6 Acres of wheat land, 

4 earths, . 4 16 o 
Seed, ? 3 13 o 

Sowing, - -,030 
Water-furrowing, 060 

3 Acres of barley lane], 

2 earths, - 140 

Seed, - *? i 10 o 

Sowing, - -009 
Water-furrowing, o I 6 

3 Acres of oat-land, 

one earth, - 0120 
Seed, - r- i ip o 

Sowing, * * p o g 
Water-furrowing, o i 6 

Seed, 6 acres of clover., i 40 

T*- 15 J ^ 

Sundry articles^ 
Shoeing, and wear ancl 

tear, r -r - 4 o, q 

Carry over ? X- 253 3 o 
Houfer 



Brought over, -*5$ 3 o 
Houfe-keeping, -800 
Additions to furniture, 500 

-- 13 o o 



This farm I fuppofe him to manage 
without afliftance; but he can fpare no 
time to work for others. 

ANNUAL ACCOUNT. 
Rent, &c. W[$ -^/ '7 o o 
30 Heifers, :tV 2f/* ;''*** - go O O 
Seed, 6 acres of wheat, "&*% 3 12 o 
Ditto, 6 of barley and oats, - 300 
Ditto, 6 of beans, ? ' 280 

Ditto, of clover, '*** -;^f 140 
Shoeing, wear and tear, and 

houfe-keeping, \ * \-xJl ^ 



jf- 182 4 o 

Produce. 
30 Heifers, fat, .^/l .150 O 6 

5 Cows, >^ 5^nw 25 o o 

6 Acres of wheat, iv/prr., 24 o o 
3 Of barley, - *\i&& 9 o ' o 
^ Of beans, o ?c- : ? - 1800 

o o 
Pro- 



Eroduce, - - - . 226 o o 

Expences, - t 182 4 o 

43 l6 

Bed udt the intereft-of the flock, 13 60 



Profit, "- - , - .30 To o 
This profit is confiderable, and is a frefh 
proof" of the -great fuperiority of ; grafs to 
^ribft land: If cows are fubftituted for 
the 25 acres of grafs, inftead of fatting 
cattle, the profit will be -much lefs-; for, 
according to the preceding calculations, 
we can allot but 8 or 9 ; which, at 5 /. is 
only, 45 /. produce ; /whereas the heifers 
gay 60 /.. nor Jhould.any.pne. object to 60 /. 
as the produce of <z$ acres, at 20 s. an 
acre.. Indeed, it is under, much rather 
than over the truth. Thefe 25 acres -coft 
the farmer 35 /. a year ; furely they ought 
to produce 6a,/. to pay every thing, and 
intereft-for- the money employed. The 
calculation is undoubtedly low. 

N Q 3. 

Variation the fecond. 
Tfcefaitrte) all grtifs foil ', clay^ or loam. 

Stock. 

Rent, at 24 /. - . 60- o o, 
Ty the, at 4 s. - 12 o o 
Rates, at 4 s. -- i a o o 

Carryover, > --- 84 o o 

Imp/e- 



Brought over, .84 Q r o 
Implements, 
Dairy furniture.,, - ,,;- M< v'jTflb O. 

*! Uvtfiwk 
2.Cpws,. rn ..-^ . 10 o o f ; ..fefcflfc; 

1 SQW ' ,<i oiiw "snr :0 J 5 Qrobft 

6p Heifers, - 180, o Q;QIQX{:T 

190 15 o 

Houfe-keeping and furniture, 13 o o 

. 277 *5 o 

The ANNUAL ACCOUNT. 
Rent, &c/V ! '.^' n r fift ^^ ^. 84 . o O 

c rt -r 

60 Heifers, 'rT "" 180 o o 
Houfe-keeping, &c. --T . 800 
Hire of carts, &c. to carry 
the ditch earth unto the 

land ' biTn vA.Y n V 3 _o^Q 

. 275 o o 
Produce. 

60 Heifers, r <rs>fi v ,-<8T 300 o o 

2 Cows, >wt '-? f ^^Jjtm < IO o o 




i^lciofi ittiw .- 

Expences, . H a Ma<ff t 

Dedud the intereft of the flock, 14 8 o 
Profit, - w . 20 12 o 

Now 



( '88 ) 

Now, according to the preceding ac~ 
counts, I fhould here add the produce of 
almoft a whole year's labour, or 20 /. at 
leaft, which would double the above re- 
mainder; but one circumftance muft here 
be confidered. A farmer who has 300 /. 
worth of cattle on his land may probably 
m>rk hard upon his own farm, but not at 
all upon that of another man. This has 
nothing to do with calculation indeed ; but 
it has with human nature; and we mull 
not expert that every man will facrifice all 
his paflions to the grand object of profit. 
This farmer having nothing to do, may, 
however, keep himfelf lightly employed 
about his fences, in digging excellent 
ditches throughout his farm, in draining 
any wet fields he may have, and in other 
little improvements, to keep him out of 
idlenefs. But this ceflation of the farmer's 
\torking for others, when not fully em- 
ployed at home, makes a great variation in 
the profit of the farms taken at large, on 
comparing one with another. It is howe- 
ver remarkable, that this farmer, almoft in 
idknefs, makes double the profit of his 

brother, 

A T ~ -- - - 



brother, who occupies the fame quantity of* 
land, but all arable, notwith Handing he is 
conflantly employed. 

3? .#.* . ;-s? 

Variation the third. 

"Divifion of 250 1. in Jlocking a farm of 40 
acres all arable^ the foil clay or loam, to 
be laid doivn to grafs. 
Stock. 

Rent, at 20 s. - ".40 o o 
Tythe, at4-r. - 800 
Rates, &c. at 4 s. - 8 o o 

56 o o 

Implements. . 

Thefe the fame as before, - s8 i 6 

Live Jiock. 

2 Horfes, - . 20 o o 

5 Cows, - - 25 o o 

i Sow, -^; i> -I* (.' j oo 

46 o o 

Seed and Tillage. 
Four earths on 10 acres 

of wheat land, - 800 

Seed, - .- __6 o o 

Carry over, . 14 o~o 130 i 6 

Sowing, 



Brought over, . 14 o o 130 i 6 

Sowing, - - 050 

Water-furrowing, o 10 o 

Two earths on 7 acres 

of barley land, - 2 16 o 

Seed, . - 3 10 o 

Sowing, - 6 i 9 

"Wafer-furrowing, -036 

One earth on 3 acres of 

oat land, - o 12 o 

Seed, - - i 10 o 

Sowing, - 009 

Water-furrowing, - o i 6 

Seed for 10 acres of 

clover, - - 200 

Sowing, * - o a 6 

a* 13 o 

Labour. 

This article muft be calcu- 
lated with an eye to that 
of the 50 -acres all arable, 
but, not (as has been al- 
ready remarked) in exact 
proportion ; beeaufe the 
leaft quantity of land re- 
quires a kfs proportion of _ 

Carry over, . 155 14 6 
afliftance : 



Brought over, .155 14$ 
afliftanoe: 50 acres re- 
quired 23 /. 3 s. 4! d-. At;* C 
that rate 40 acres weuld 
have i$ /.- 10 J. but we ^"Wi; 
fhall fay, as there are no 
beans* : - - &L 10 o O 

Sundry articles. 
Shoeing, and wear and 

tear, - 400 

Houfe-keeping, - 800 
Furniture, - - 5 o o 

17 o 9 

. 182 14 6 

Having thus flocked his farm, and re- 
ceived it in the common ftate of crops, his 
next bufinefs will be to lay it down. The 
produce of the firft year will be as follows : 
I o Acres of wheat, ;.bi?^* 4O O O 
7 Of barley, ^| 2i o o 

5 Cows, - ^ 25- o o 

.36 o o 

The ftate of the farm, this firft year, is 
10 acres of wheat ; 10 of barley and oats ; 
i o of an old clover lay ; and I o fallow : 
fecond year the account will vary : 

Expenccs. 



v *9 2 ) 

Expences. 

Rent, &e. - *- - . 56 o o 
Seed for 20 acres 01* if^ring- 

corn, - - 10 o o 

Ditto, grafs-feeds, - - 20 o o 

Labour, - - - 10 o o 

Sundry articles, - - 12 o o 

108 o o 

Produce. 



17 Acres o 
5 Cows, 

Expences, 
Produce, 

Intereft of 
Lofs, - 


i barley, 

- . 108 
;6_ 

theftock, 10 


X-5 1 
25 o. o 
. 76 o o 


o 
o 

o 
4 




o 



o 


- -42 


4 


o 



This year the fields were 20 acres fpring 
corn with grafs-feeds, and 20 acres fallow. 
The next it will be, 

Expences. 

Rent, &c. - - . 56 o o 

Seed for 20 acres of fpring 

corn, - - 10 o o 



Carry over, . 66 c o 
Seed 



i 



( 193 ) 

Brought over, . 66 o o 
Seed for 20 acres of fpring 

grafs, - - - 20 o o 

Labour, - - 10 o o 

Sundry articles, * - 1200 

.108 o o 
Produce. 

17 Acres of barley, 5 1 o o 

4 Cows fold off, 20 o o 

1 8 Acres of new grafs, mown 
for hay, flacked on the 
farm, and fold, 20 loads, 
at 30 s. -. 30 o O 

i Cow, 



Expences, - 
Produce, y+'b 

Intereft, - 

Lofs, - 


106 o 





108 o 
106 o 






2 

ii 16 






-13 16 


o 



The next year's account will be as 
follows : 

Expences. 

Rent, &c. - 'ib-ffdl . 56 o o 
Labour now cannot be above, 300 



Carry over, . 59 o o 
VOL. I. O Houfe- 



, Brought over, -5$ o 
Houfe-keeping, - i^ij; Boo 
25 Heifers, - - 75* o o 

. 144 o o 
Produce. 

25 Heifers, fat, - - 125 o o 
i Cow, 500 

20 Loads of hay, at 30^. 30 o o 

Product of the implements 
and horfes re-fold ; they 
coft, 48 /. i s. 6 d* - 30 o o 
.190 o o 

Expences, J e '*~'. - 'i 1 142 o o 

48 o o 

Intereft, 13 8 o 

Profit, . 34 12 o 

Having thus laid down the whole*, we 
muft next ftate the ANNUAL ACCOUNT, 
which will be as follows-: 

Expences. 

Rent, &c, " #* : . 56 o o 

Houfe-J^eeping, 800 

50 Heifers, *\4^< - 150 o o 

Horfes and carts, for ditch- 
earth, - 300 
. 217 o* o 
Produce. 



: oJ ir.' Produce* L i. 

50 Heifers, fat, :* - 250 o 

i Cowy- : : ;* r ' ' -; -'* 5 

*55~ 

Etfpences, -/-*' "r^ i t#? > 3 17 



38 o o 

Intereft pf the ftock, /:,-*; 14 15 Q 
Profit, oMsv -cV-^ ]:>::;;? 23 5 __ o 

GENERAL 'ACCOUNT. 

Thefirftfto&k, --r .18214 6 
Produce of the ftfft year, be- 

low the ex'pences of the 

fecondby -^i-*-^ S2 o o 

Ditto of the fecorid, below 

thofe of the third, .';,-j:,. 33 o o 
Ditto of the third, below the 

fourth, ,s w?i ?; rfc^i 36 O O 
Ditto of the fourth, below the 

fifth* &c. t::3i: j. 27 o Q 

Which total is the fum ne* 

ceflary for, .the farm, - jT. 299 14 6 

The profit of this farm is fuperior to 
that from 50 acres of land, of th^iame 
fort, and fame foil ; which is owing to the 
difference of rent, and a few more incon^ 
fiderable circumftances. If the farmer's 
labour was now to be added, the profit 
O 2 upon 



Upon this farm would amount to a more 
confiderable fum ; but that is omitted, for 
the fame reafon as before mentioned. 

The method of calculation I have traced 
in this {ketch, is, I apprehend, that which 
will, in fimilar cafes, lead, in the fureft and 
xnoft accurate manner, to truth. Farmers, 
convinced of the fuperior value of grafs 
land in little farms, may be afraid of hir- 
ing an arable one, with a view to lay it 
down, left the expences fhould run up 
much beyond what they can afford : But, 
if they proceed in this manner in calcu- 
lating the expence, they cannot be deceived, 
and will difcover from it not only the fum 
of money requifite, but the times when it 
will be expended, and the amount of the 
annual benefit from it. But one thing they 
muft let me caution them well againft; 
which is, faving any thing (as they may 
call it) m the purchafe of grafs-feeds. Lefs 
than twenty fhillings worth will not lay 
an acre of land well: Nothing can be at- 
tended with more pernicious effects than 
any deductions from the fum I have 
allotted. 



( 197 ) 

Variation thzfourtb. 

50 Acres ) all arable^ the foil light enough 
for turnips. 

Stock. I. s. d. 

Rent, &c. as before, -.. 70 o o 

Implements, ditto, *- 38 i 6 

Livefack. 

$ Horfes, * . 24. o o 

3 Cows, - - 15 o o 

I Sow, - i o o 

25 Home-bred heifers, 
fleers, old cows, or 

black cattle, at 5 /. 125 o o 

165 o o 

- 

Seed and tillage. 
Four earths on 124. 

acres wheat land, . 10 o o 
Seed, - * : *'\' 7 10 o 
Sowing, ; 'jp*-^ 063 
Two earths on 9 acres 

of barley land, - 3120 
Seed, - 7 4 10 o 
Sowing, ^v: - 023 
Carry over, . 26 o ~ 



Brought over, .26 p < 263 i 6 
One earth on 3f 

acres of oat land, - o 14 o 

Seed, - "- i 15 o 

Sowing, j "" k .; - o o 10^- 
Seed for 13' acres 

of clover, - a 10 o 

Sowing, '* 3 X Y 
Seed for -12,4. ^cres 

of turnip land, -9 6 3 ,.,;} v 
- -- 3^ 9 I0 



ii 4 
Labour. ^TJ-QO 

At firft fight this ftould be 
lefs than in the clay farm ; 
for ^ths of that was always 
in corn, whereas or4y h^lf , 
of this is ; but then, pn the 
contrary, the turnip Ian4 
in this farrnrequires^morq 
ploughing than the bean 
land in the other ; but 
again, to oppofe this cir- 
cumftance, is the horfe- 
hoeing the beans: The 



Carryover, . 294 114 
hand 



( 199 ) 

Brought over, . 294. 1 1 4 
hand -hoeing to each is 
pretty equal, but allow- 
ance muft be made for 
6 or 7 acres of clover in 
this farm mown twice, 
and alfo for the attend- 
ance on the fatting cattle : 
I fhall fuppofe thefe cir- 
cumftances to th^w the 
two farms on a par, - 23 3 4f 
Sundry artickt. 

Shoeing, and wear and 

tear, . 4 jo o 

Houfe-keeping, * 8 o 

Jrlire of a horfe 7 days 
in harveft, - o 

Additions to furniture, 




I fuppofe this farm to be thrown into an 
excellent courfe; that is, I. turnips; 2. 
barley; 3. clover; 4. wheat. I fuppofe the 
turnips to be drawn, and the heifers, or 
fteers, ftall-fed on them, and likewife to 
have 6 acres of clover-hay to feed on at 
Q 4 the 



( 200 ) 

the fame time; that is, one cutting; the 
fecond is for feed. But, in many farm- 
yards, and efpecially- belonging to little 
farmers, it is twenty to one whether we 
find a houfe large enough tQ fat fuch a 
number of cattle; the fanner muft there- 
fore feed them in his farm-yard, for which 
purpofe he muft complete the inclofure of 
it (if it is not done already) with flacks of 
ftubble ; the expence of making which is 
but trifling; and they are perfectly effec- 
tual in keeping the yard warm : Next, he 
muft provide himfelf with long cribs, (that 
is, make them himfelf) or bings, of ftrips 
of pole, or rafts, nailed together in the form 
of a large manger, arid upon legs, for the 
cattle to eat the turnips out of. 1 2 Acres 
and t and 6 acres of clover-hay will un- 
doubtedly be fufficient to fat, one year with 
another, '25 beafts of /. value each. 
The annual expence of this farm will be as 
follows : 

Expenccs. L s. d. 

Rent, &c. - 70 o o 

ay Beafts, - 125 o o 

Seed for 13 7 acres of wheat, 10 o o 

Cany over, . 205 o 6 

127 Acres, 



Brought over, jT. 205 o o 

1 27 Acres of barley and oats, 650 

127 Ditto of clover, - 2 10 o 

127 Ditto of turnips, o 63 

Labour, - 23 3 4 f 

Sundry articles, - - 13 o o 





Produce. I. s. 

1 27 Acres of wheat, - 50 o o 

Barley 9 acres, - - 27 o o 
Clover feed 6 ditto, 4bufhels, 

at 15 s. - - - 1800 

25 Fatbeafts, 175 o o 

3 Cows, - - - 15 o o 



285 o o 
Expences, - - - 250 4 7^ 

34 15 47 
Deduct intereft of the flock, 16 15 o 

18 o 4t 

This profit, although not equal to that 
of grafs land, is fomething confiderable, 
and fuperior to that of the fame farm on 
a ftiff foil, by nearly double the amount. 

N 6. 



N6. 

Variation theffth. 
Thcfamc^ half graft mid half arable. 

The Stock. 

Rent, &c. - ' . , . ?0 o 
Implements, - *'. - yi - 28 i 6 

Live Jlock. 

2 Horfes, - .2000 
30 Heifers, - go o o 
i Cow, *flj*" * 500 
i Sow, - - o 15 o 
12 Beafts, - 60 o o 

175 15 o 

Seed and tillage. 
6 Acres of wheat, 4 

earths, '/V-.' v ' 4 16 o 
Seed, (T** - 3120 
Sowing, - ""-" o 30 
3 Acres of barley, 2 

earths, - -140 
Seed, [-s-jca. i 10 o 
Sowing, - - 009 

3 Acres of oats, i earth, 0120. 
Seed, - i jo o 
Sowing, - -009 

Carry over, .13 86 273 16 6 

6 Acres 



Brought over, .13 8 6 273 $6 6 
6 Acres of clover feed, i 40 
Sowing^ - o I 6 

6 Acres of turnips- 

feed, - 030 

-- H *7 

Sundry articles. 
Shoeing, and wear and 

tear, - . 4 o o 

Houfe-keeping, - 800 
Furniture, 5 

^ -- 17 oo 



I charge nothing to this farm for labour, 
35 he will be able to execute all the work of 
it with his own hands. The grafs land I 
ftocfc, as before, with home-bred heifers 
for fatting ; and the arable I throw in|o 
this'eotirfe : i. turnips ; 2. barley ; 3. clover; 
4, whsat; fatting beafts upon the turnips. 

The AtfjuTAi, ACCOUNT. 

Expences. 

Rent, &c. - ' M -- ' . 70 o o 

30 Heifers, - 7 -" c ; 90 o _ o 

Carry over,, . 1 60 o o 

12 Beafts, 



( 504 ) 








Brought over, 


.160 





o 


2 Beafts, - .;x*w...'. 


60 





p 


Seed for 6 acres of wheat, 


- 3 


12 





Ditto for 6 of fpring corn, 


- 3 





o 


Ditto for 6 of clover, 


w..i ; 


4 





Ditto for 6 of turnips, 


o 


3 


o 


Shoeing, and wear and tear, - 4 





o 


Houfe-keeping, 


8 










-*39 


19 





Produce* 








i Cow, - 


5 


o 


o 


6 Acres of wheat, 


- 24 


o 


o 


3 Acres of barley, 


9 





p 


30 Fat heifers, $*,&$?. - 


150 


o 





1 2 Fat beafts, 


84 





o 




272 





o 


Expences, ^ - j - v ? 


239 


J 9 







32 


i 


o 


Intereft of the ftock, 


a 


5 





Profit, - - 


16 


16 





RECAPITULATION. 


N J. Fifty acres all arable, 








the foil clay, yields an 








annual profit of, 


/ J o 


o 


74- 


Carry over, 


j* 





7t 




2. 


Fifty 



Brought over, . 10 o y 
N 2. Fifty acres half ara- 

ble and half grafs, - - 30 10 o 

3. Ditto all grafs, - - 20 12 o 

4. Ditto all arabte, the foil 

clay, and laid down to 

grafs, - - 23 5 o 

5. Ditto all arable, the foil 

light enough for tur- 

nips,. - ijifclb - 1 8 o 4 

6. Ditto half grafs and half 

arable, simy <* f- >(* ! 1 6 1 6 o 



It is from hence apparent, that the moft 
advantageous farm of thefe fix, each of 
50 acres, is the clay one, half grafs and 
half arable. 

The next is the clay farm, all arable 
and laid down to grafs. 

The next is the clay farm, all of grafs. 

The next is the light foil, all arable. 

The next is the light foil, half arable 
and half grafs. 

And the laft is the clay, all arable. 

And the fums required for flocking thefe 
farms are as follow. 



(( * 

N e i. - 231 17 i' 

2. - ;,{{ IT/ 266 3 O 

i- - sS.8 *5 o 

4. - - 599 14 6 

5- - 335 *4' 8 t 

6. *" ^ A - - 305 13 6 

The comparifon between thefe films and 
the profit, provds at once the importance df 
a man's considering well, before he engages 
in any fkrm. The difference between fome 
of them is prodigious ; nor can any thing 
better difplay the g*eat variations of profit 
from different ways of management : And 
the contrafts of thefe methods will yet fur- 
ther appear,- from thq following table of 
the proportion of the profit. 

Farms, ProduR. Profit per cent. 

N*i- -*i 'w ?t -9 5 o 

-. r 43 *4 l6 9 

5. 35 o o 12 2 o 
4- f- . 3 8 12 13 o 

5. ^ 341547 10 7,0 

6. - 32 i o 10 9^ o 

Here it appears that, one farm pays 

almoft double the intereft of another ; an 

immsnfe difference, and Claims, in the 

5 ilrongeft 



ftrongeft manner, the attention of all far- 
mers about to fix themfelves. 



CHAP. XIX. 

Of the moft advantageous method, on farms 
of 60 or 80 acres of /and, of difpojing of 
from 3007. to 400 /. in farming. 

I Enter upon the fubject of this chapter, 
well convinced, before I form any cal- 
culations, that two horfes are fully fuffi- 
cient to perform all the ploughing of any 
farm thefe Turns can ftock; but, left I 
fhould lay myfelf too much open to cavil- 
ling objections, I mall allow three horfes to 
feveral of the fucceeding ones, not for the 
tillage of them, but the carting. I pre- 
mife this firft, as when I come to farms ; 
that require more than one plough, an 
hundred little variations will at once arife, 
that require frelh combinations of every 
kind. 



"DVO 



Ni. 

Divifion of from 300 /. to 400 /. in flocking 60 
acres of arable land, the foil clay or loam *, 

Rent, &c. 

Rent, at 18 s. , 54 o o 
Tythe, at 4 s. - 10 16 o 
Town charges, &c. &c. 

4 /. - - 10160 

Implements. 

2 Carts, - .1800 
A plough, - i ii 6 

Harrows, - -200 
Roller, - - i 10 o 
Harnefs for 3 horfes, 400 
Screen, bufhel, fans, 

fieves, &c. &c. &c. 400 
Sacks, 
Dairy furniture, 



3 Horfes, 
8 Cows, 
i Sow, 




Carry over, . 186 18 



It is ufelefs to fay beans the fallow, as that method 
was found moft advantageous. 

Seed 



ferought over, . 186 18 

Seed and tillage. 
4 Earths on 15 acres 

of wheat land, .12 6 
Seed, - 900 

Sowing, - -076 
Water-furrowing, o 15 o 
2 Earths on 10^ acres 

of barley land, - 4 4 
Seed, - -' - 5 50 
Sowing, <- - 027! 
Water-furrowing, and 

harrowing, - o 5 3 
One earth on 4! acres 

of oat land, - o 18 o 
Seed, 256 

Sowing, - - o i if 
Water-furrowing, &c. 023 
Seed, 15 acres of 

beans, v*&\ v \' ^ 

Labour. 
Sundry times in the year, 

hired to the amount of 32 10 



Carry over, . 260 15 
VOL. I. P N. 



Brought over, .260 *5 
N. B. i /. 13^.9^. is in- 
cluded in the above ; but the 
difference is too fmall to 
divide. 

Sundry articles. 

Shoeing, .- - .1160 
Wear and tear, * - & 4 o o 
Houfe-keeping, &c. as 

before, - 10 o o 

Additions to furniture, I o o o 

25 16 o 

. 286 ii o 

There are feveral variations in this account 
from the preceding, which require the like 
explanations as I gave before. 

Rent. 

This I have lowered 2 s. per acre on ac- 
count of the quantity of land. * 

Seed and tillage. 

I fuppofe the farm thrown into four 
parts, one wheat, one barley and oats, one 
clover, and one beans in rows. 

Labour. 

This article I have ftated, as particularly 
as pofiible, in the fame manner I did be- 
fore. 



fore. It is of fo great confequence, that I 
{hall infert a calendar of the whole that is 
wantiiig in the farm; which method is ab- 
foliitely rieceflary to follow with every 
chapter, while we treat of fuch farms as 
depend on the farmer for the total labour 
of one man. If we fup'pofe him to hire 
the whole^ we mull deducl: 24 /. from the 
profit of all the preceding arable ones ; what 
then will the remainder be ? However, it 
is felf-evident that we muft, in fuch farms 
as thefe, adhere to that fuppofition. 
Offober. Ploughing 15 acres of wheat 

land, - - days-) 15 

Ditto of the laft year's Hubble, - 1 1 

~]6 

To hire. 
Sowing the wheat, - .076 

Water-furrowing, r o is o 

r a 

fW -iffj '* 2 6 

November, Ploughing 4 acres of laft 

year's ftubble, 4 

Thfafhing IIT qrs. of wheat, J?3 

p^r- 1*2 

December. Thrafhing, 13 qrs. of wheat, 26 
P 2 To 



To hire. I s. d. 
Thrafhing, 13 qrs. wheat, i 60 
January. Ploughing the laft year's 

ftubble a fecond time, days, 1 5 
Water-furrowing ditto, 7 

Sundry fmall articles of work, 5 

To hire. 

Thrafhing 40 qrs. of fpring /. s. d. 
corn, 2 o o 

February. Manuring, 20 

Thrafhing, 14 qrs. of fpring corn, 7 

27 

To hire. 
Thrafhirig, 6 qrs. fpring- 

corn, - .060 

50 Perches of ditching, 2100 

.TWo_ 

March. Ploughing the fallow of beans, 15 
Ditto, 1 1 of the laft year's bean- 
land, for barley and oats, i r 

"26 

To hire. 

Thrafhing 30 qrs. of beans, . i 10 o 

Sowing 15 acres of beans, o 15 o 

Carry over, .2 50 

Water- 
6 



Brought over, . 2 50 
Water-furrowing, ^t* ; > o 76 
30 Perches of ditching, - I 10 o 

~ 



April. Ploughing .15 acres of barley 

and oats, //^d fcf*.**^ 1 days> 15 
Water-furrowing ditto, 'j/* 7 

Sundry fmall articles, 5 

_27 

To hire. 
Sowing 15 acres of barley 

and oats, - - - . o 39 
Water-furrowing, ditto. o j 6 

jC-0 'i 3 
M^X. Ploughing between the rows of 

the beans, / '*k> < - 8 

Manuring^ ^** ,2/i.^dl- t < 18 

26 

To hire. 

'Hand-hoeing the beans, . 3 15* o 
June. Ploughing between the rows of 

the beans - 8 

Carting 4 acres of clover-hay, 6 

Mowing and making ditto, :-." 7 
Sundry fmall articles, - . -- _JT 






PS 



To hire. 

Affiftance in carting 6 days, . o 76 
Thiftling, or weeding 30 

acres of corn, - - i 10 o 

-l_I7J> 
jfufy* Ploughing between the rows of 

the beans, - - days, 8 
Carting manure, and other work, 18 

_26 

Augujl. Carting 15 acres of wheat, 5 

Ditto, 1 5 of barley and oats, 10 

Ditto, 1 5 of beans, 8 

Sundry fmall articles, - 3 

M 

To hire. I. s. d. 

Reaping 15 acres of wheat, 3150 
Ditto, of beans, - f'4 10 o 
Mowing 15 of barley and 

oats, i 26 

Turning, harvefting, and 

carting, 3 IQ o 

i* *7 6 

ber. Ploughing the bean-land, 
and throwing it up for the 
winter, ' * >> - 15 

Carry over, 15 
Carting 



,( "5 ) 

Brought over, 15 

Carting 1 5" acres of wheat-ftubble, - 5 
Cartingj clover-hay, - ' - 7 

To hire. 
Mowing, making, and carting, the 

clover-hay, - . o 15 o 

Carting the wheat-ftubble, 050 
Chopping ditto, - I 2 6 

Sundry articles. 

Thefe are all varied in the account, 
being increafed in proportion to the bufi- 
nefs and the fubftance of the farmer. 

ANNUAL ACCOUNT. 

Expences. L s. 

Rent, &c. - ^ .* 75 i q 

Seed for 1 5 acres of wheat, - 9 
Ditto for 15 of barley and oats, 
Ditto 15 of beans, 
Ditto for 9 of clover, - 

Labour, 

, 

Sundries, ' * ; % *< - 




( 216 ) 

Produce. I. s, d* 

15 Acres of wheat, 60 o o 

15 Of beans, * 45 o o- 

104. Of barley, 31 10 o 

8 COWS, - - - 40 O O 

. 176 10 o 
Expenees, -? - - 149 8 9 

27 i ~3 
Deduct the intereft of the flock, 14 60 

Profit, - ^ 'JJL-L1 _ 1 

This profit is but fmall,. confidering the 
fize of the farm, and the completenefs of 
the pulture ; but three horfes and fo much 
labour is the explanation. 

i ,.-, , -'-ILCi. . _,, 

N^2 f 

Variation the firft, 

The fame all arable, the foil light enough 
for turnips, 



Stock. 






Rent, &c. j -*"- -75 ia o 
Implements, ^4 .6 6 

^Vr^, - : ^ cd 

3 Horfes, , - - /,. 36 oo 

2 Cows, - - - 10 oo 

Carry over, . 46 o~o 109 i8'6 

^~ 

i Sow, 



Brought over, JT. 46 o o 109 18 6 
i Sow, - - - - i o o 
30 Home bred heifers, 
fleers or black cattle, 1 50 o o 

-- 197 O 



Seed and tillage, 
Four earths on 15 acres 

of wheat land, . 1 2 o o 
Seed, ^; i-.' ,- - 900 
Sowing, , - i; -v. ;-.--" o 76 
Two earths on io~ acres s,f j 

of barley land, 4 4 o 

Seed, ^d-r- lc3j5k't -..5 50 
Sowing, - - - o a 7^ 
One earth on 4! acres 

of oat land, - 0180 
Seed, iV*ff 25-0 

Sowing, ,{'./"' ^ o i 14- 
Seed for 15 acres of 

clover, - -300 
Sowing, - - 039 
eed 1 5 acres of turnips, o 7 6 



Carryover, . 344 13 o 
Labour. 



Brought over, . 344 13 



This article I charge here as 

in the laft chapter ; that 

is, the fame as in the clay 

farm, :^ - - 32 10 g 

Sundry articles. 
Thefe the fame as in the clay 

farm, :*-.- ~ * 25 16 o 

*'; -402 ijT~9 

The reader perceives here that I aflign 
the 15 acres of turnips to the fatting of 
beafts : That number, with 7 acres of 
clover-hay, will be fufficient for 30 of 
them. 

The ANNUAL ACCOUNT, 

Expences. L s. d. 

Rent, &c. 75 12 o 

30 Beafts, - 150 o o 
Seed for 15" acres of wheat, - 900 
Ditto, for 1 5 acres of fpring- 

corn> 77 

Ditto for 1 5 of clover, - 300 

Ditto for 15 of turnips, 076 

Carryover, . 245 6 6 
Labour, 



( 2I 9 ) 
Brought over, 245 6 6 

Labour, 3 2 IO 9 

Shoeing, wear and tear, and 

houfe-keeping, JLLJ^. 



Pn?^#. 

15 Acres of wheat, . 60 o o 

joi Of barley, 3* i 

7 Acres of clover feed ; 21 o o 

30 Fat beads, 210 o o 

2 Cows, io o Q 

332 10 o 

Expences, - - 2 _93__L3 3 

.38" 16 9 

Jntereft on the flock, 20 2 o 

Profit, - - - . 1 8 14 9 

This profit is much fuperior to that of 
the clay farm. Some may, perhaps, ob- 
ject to thefe eftimates of the turnip foil ; 
that root is a precarious crop, being often 
deftroyed by the fly, confequently that fo 
large a produce mould not annually be 
calculated ; But, in anfwer to this, I muft 
remark that wheat, barley, oats, &c. &c. 
and, in a word, all forts of crops, are pre- 
carious; they are fubjecl: to blights, fmut, 
being laid, the dolphin, &c. &c.j and tho* 
2 turnips 



( 220 ) 

turnips may be more infecure, yet, if I 
was to think of reducing the chance of 
failure to calculation in one cafe, I fhould 
likewiie do it in another, which would be 
an endlefs work, and but a jumble of con- 
fufion at laft. Another point to be conii- 
dered is the value of the crops I have Hated, 
which I do not think exceeds the average 
value of feveral years, all failures included : 
For I fuppofe good hufbandry to be prac- 
tifed on all, much tillage, good manuring 
with the earth out of ditches, &c. and the 
ameliorating crops, fuch as turnips and 
beans, well hoed and ploughed; all thefe 
particulars are fuperior to common manage- 
ment. 

N3- 

Variation thefecond. 

The fame> half arable and half graft, foil 
light enough for turnips. 

Stock. \ &VS. d. 

Rent, &c. as before, ^j.; 75 12 o 
Implements as before, 34 66 

LiveJlocL 
2 Horfes, - . 24 o o 

a Cows, v-v>t 10 o o 

Carry over, .34 o o 109 18 6 

i Sow 



) 

Brought over, -34 IO 9 l8 6 
i Sow, - - . x . * 
40 Heifers, - , - I3O ; :O .o 

12 Beafts, - 6 o o 

*^-- . 215 o o 

- 3*4: 'i3. 6 
Seed and tillage. 
Four earths, on 74 acres 

of wheat-land, .6 o o 
Seed, 4 IP o 

Sowing, s?9 - -3 9 
Two earths on 4^ acres 

of barley-land, - i 16 o 
Seed, <---> 2 5 ^ 

Sowing, y<fK>i i ?^J3 eOfict.- I Y 
One earth on 3 acres 

of oat-land, <<>&.! o 12 o 
Seed, ^-- ' * * I0 



Sowing,. 4^ %mi^i rburo 9 
Seed for 7^ acres of 

clover, Pf^j .#i 10 o 
Sowing, - : a.nosir,i 9 
Ditto of turnips, - A o? 39 ' 



Carryover, . 343 

i t->M^ 



( 222 j 

Brought over, .343 12 7 

Labour. 

I fuppofe the chief of the 
work of this fariii to be 
executed by the farmer 
himfelf, - - - j 13 g 

Sundry articles. 

Shoeing, : -v .146 
Wear and tear, - 300 
Houfe-keeping, - 10 o o 
Furniture, - 10 o o 

- 4Btr - 24 4Q 



373 9 4^ 

The article in this account which moft 
wants explanation is the labour. We now 
approach to that farm which can exadly 
be managed by one pair of hands, without 
the lofs of any time, and without hiring 
any affiftance : Such a farm is a point on 
which we mould fix our eye, as a guide to 
undifcovered countries. I muft here ex- 
plain in what manner a man can do moft 
of the bufmefs of 60 .acres of land, half 
grafs and half arable; and I mall do this 
by fo proportioning the work, that we may, 
at the fame time, fee how much more than 

30 



3O arable acres will come into the account.- 
Were I fcrupuloufly to adhere to the terms of 
my enquiry, I mould rejecl: all affiftance ; 
but thefe meets are drawn up for ufe, not 
curiofity. It might be an entertaining dif- 
quifition, to fearch for the minutely accu- 
rate proportions of one pair of hands, but 
it never would be profitable in practice 
to adhere to fuch accuracy : There are 
many times in the year, when it is much 
more beneficial, even for a very little far- 
mer, to hire affiftance than to do all his 
work himfelf. I mall therefore, in this 
inquiry, adhere, not to terms, but to a 
practical utility : I fuppofe the farmer him- 
felf to perform the bulk of his work, fuch 
as ploughing, thraming, hand -hoeing, 
feeding of cattle, &c. It belongs to 
a future chapter, to difcover the moft pro- 
fitable farm that can be hired by a 
man, who will always keep himfelf em- 
ployed on that work which moft requires 
him. 

The two kinds of arable farms hitherto 
chiefly confidered, are the clay, and the 
foil light enough for turnips. In the firft, 
the fallow is beans, in rows on 3 plough- 
ings, 



ings, and in the fecond turnips on 6, 
Now, to fave the repetition of inferting two 
calendars of work, we muft difcovcr the 
proportion of the labour between thefe fal- 
low crops. We will flate the account of 
one acre. 

Beans. 

Three ploughings, 3 days /. s. d. 

at i s. - - 030 

Sowing i day *, - - o i o 

Water-furrowing, 7 a day, -006 
Ploughing, between the 

rows, 3 times, 2 acres in 

"" a day, - - o i 6 

Once hand-hoeing, - -060 

Reaping, - - 060 
Harvefting, (2 men 2 acres 

a day) - - - 020 

Thrafhing 2 qrs. at I s. - - o g o 

1 2 o 

Barley, on this land, fown on the third 
ploughing. 

* It does not take up the whole, but by fo much the 
beft part, that the reft (as in ploughing) is of little value. 

Turnips 



{ 225 ) 

^urnifs. L s. d. 

6 Ploughings, - 060 

2 Harrowings, - - 002 

Sowing, - - - o o 3 

Two hoeings, - - 076 

Carting them from the field to 

the farm-yard. This article 

muft not be calculated for 

one acre ; the beft way of 

coming to the truth is, to 

fuppofe that a man, with 

2 horfes and a cart, will fully 

attend a given number of 

teafts ; that is, bring the 

turnips from the field, and 

throw them into the cribs 

or bings, and have an eye to 

the cattle every now and 

then, to fee that all goes 

well among them, and like- 

wife take care of the two 

horfes. I apprehend a man 

might eafily manage from 

30 to 40 beafls in this man- 
Carry over, . o 13 ii 

VOL. I. O ner j 



Brought over, . o 13 XI 
iler ; fuppofe^ or 1 7 * acres, 
ahd that they took the 
months of November, De- 
cember, January, and Fe- 
bruary, and half of March* 
to fat in, or 19 weeks; that 
is, 5 /. 14 s. or per acre, o 7 o 



Expence of fehe beafts* * j W 2 o 
of the turnips, - r o 1 1 

Excefs of the former, . o i i 

Now this difference fe fo trifling, that it 
is not worth- making a diftinclion between- 
thefe methods of fallowing. And it is, 
ait the fame time, a con-firm ation of the 
fuppofition I made in a preceding chapter, 
when I wrote the fame amount of labour to- 
the light land farm, as to the clay one. 

As it therefore appears, that no diftinc- 
tion, in this eftimate of one man's labour, 
is to be made between the light and heavy 
foils, I mail proceed to the particulars, fup- 
pofmg it a" clay farm. I fhall begin the 
work after harveft as before. Suppofe the 
quantity 30 acres. 

* The reader muft not forget that we are confidering 
fmall farms ; consequently, the field near the farm yard. 

Oftober. 



( 227 ) 

Oftober. Ploughing 77 acres of wheat 

land, - day*) yt 

Ditto, 10 of laft year's ftubble, 7t 
Sowing the wheat, 3 

Small articles of work, - 2 

Thrafhing, 3 qrs. of wheat, 7 

2 J_ 

November : Water-furrowing, - 1 1 
Thrafhing 8 qrs. of wheat, 16 

27 

December. 1 1 Perches of ditching, 1 1 
Thrafhing 77 qrs. of wheat, - 15 

"26 

'January. Manuring, - 10 

Ploughing the laft year's ftubble, a 

fecond time, - - 7 

Water-furrowing, 5 

Sundry fmall articles, r . r?' 4. 

76 

February. Thrafhing 45* qrs. of fpring 

corn, ::ii* - Sr;* ; - 22 
5 Perches of ditching, - 5 

H 

March. Third ploughing of the fal- 
low, __7 
Carry over, 7 
i Third 



( 228 ) 

Brought over, days^ 7 
Third ploughing the bean land for 

barley and oats, - 7 

Water-furrowing, - -& 5 
Sowing the beans, - 7 

Jr 

April. Ploughing the barley and oat- 

land* - 7 

Water-furrowing, 3 

Sowing, - - 2 

9 Perches of ditching, - 9 

Manuring, - ^ Wrl - 3 

_4 
May. Ploughing between the rows of 

the beans, - - - 4 
Hand-hoeing ditta, 74 acres, - 23 

j2 

j^. Ploughing between the rows of 

the beans, ;.*;- - - 4 
Carting 2 acres of clover -hay, 3 
Mowing and making ditto, - 4 

Thiftling 15 acres of corn, *>*> v . 15 



AiTiflance in carting the 

clover hay, - . o 46 

" 



. Ploughing between the rows of 

the beans, - - days, 4 

Sundry articles, manuring, &c. 22 

"76 

jt. Carting, 7 4- acres of wheat, 3 

Ditto, 77 of barley and oats, - 5 

Ditto 7t of beaus, 4 

Reaping 77 acres of wheat, - jj 



70 

Reaping 77 acres of beans, ".2 50 
Mowing 77 of beans and oats, 0113 
Harvefting, r vjtf v/l 2 50 



September. Ploughing the bean-land, 

throwing it up for the winter, 7 

Carting clover-hay, - - 3 

Ditto 74. acres of wheat ftubble, 3 

Mowing and making the clover, 5 

Chopping the ftubble, ^ ' 9 

~~27 

To hire. 
Affiftance in carting, . ,p 70 

From 



From hence it appears, that a man may 
with the afliftance of 5 /. 1 2 s. 9 d. laid out 
in labour, cultivate 30 acres of .arable land, 
the whole cropped either with beans, 
wheat, clover, and barley, or with turnips, 
barley, clover, and wheat, 

The annual expence of this farm* 

Expences. I. s. d. 

Rent, &c. - - 75 J2 o 

40 Heifers, - *%"** 120 o 

12 Beafts, -!V ;> - tf5aj 60 o 6 

Seed for 74- acres of wheat, - 4 10 o 

Ditto for 7^- of barley and oats, 3 15 d 

Ditto for 74. of clover, - i 10 o 

Ditto for 74 of turnips, * Q 3 9 

Labour, *. -,- \^ $ 12 9 

Sundry articles, V^,, r J 4 4 

~ 



Produce. 

74- Acres of wheat, <- . 30 o o 

44. Of barley, f,^,/] ^ > 13 jo o 

2 Of clover-feed, * -r 600 

2 Gows, - ^ - 10 o o 

40 Fat heifers, * J?oo o o 

12 Ditto beafts, ^ 84 o o 

10 o 



Produce, ' -'^TJV rM**\ . 343 10 o 

Expenses, .r * z 285 7 6 

58 2 6 

Deduft the iatereft of the ftock, 1813 o 

Profit, - ,~- . 39 9 6 

We find, upon coming to a tolerable 
proportion in the point of labour, that the 
profit is increafed confiderably ; and this 
will be further illuftrated in fucceeding 
Chapters. 

N 4 . 

Variation the third* 
fhefame* all grafs y the foil clay or loam. 

Stock. 



Rent of 60 acres, at 

I /. 3,5. ' ^'' .66 O O 

Tythe, at 4 s. ,]*'' 13 40 
Rates, &c. &c. 4 s. 13 40 

-' - - Q2 8 o 
/ r i?ijfn ?' 1 '>"?:-*! #t ; $iJ$ >ii^<ffig?>fi / >E 

Implements. 

Dairy furniture, , i 10 o 
Sundry fmall articles, i o o 

- : -- 2 10 O 

Carryover, -94 *$ 



Brought over, .94 18 o 
Llvejlock. 

1 Horfe, - 10 o o 

2 Cows, - Jo o o 
i Sow, - o 15 o 
75 Home-bred hei- 
fers, - 225 oo 

245 15 o 

^, Sundry articles. 
Shoeing, and wear and 

tear, - i o O 

Houfe-keeping, - 10 o o 
Additions to furniture, i o oo 

sV' " 21 O O 

36i 13 o 



When the ftock of only one farm is 
flated, it is very eafy to be confident ; but 
in drawing up that of a progreffive num- 
ber, it is extremely difficult to keep pro- 
portion conftantly in one*s eye. I have 
charged this farm with a horfe, although 
it is all grafs, and none of it to be mown ; 
but, in fuch farms, many of the farmers 
will undoubtedly keep a riding horfe; and 
though not 'abfolutely neceflary before, 
yet, as it is an addition which muft be 
made fbmewhere, it will come in here 

with 



with the greateft propriety ; as expenccs 
of that and other forts muft be fuppofed to 
hold a proportion to the fubftance of the 
man. And yet there is no doubt but he 
might walk to the fairs, as well as ride to 
them : and I profefs not to guide myfelf 
(among little farmers) by what is, but by 
what ought to be ; yet one cannot carry on 
a rigid adherence, even to one's own rules, 
without wounding the common practice too 
much. 

And here it may not be amifs further to 
remark that I eftimate the article of cloaths, 
houfe-keeping, pocket-money, &c. as low 
as the mere neceffity, for a very material 
reafon : fo much, is a part of the neceflary 
expences of the farm, like wear and tear* 
&c. &c. but if I was to calculate it in a 
varying manner, to hit off the real ex- 
pences of farmers, I mould have no rule 
by which to conduft myfelf, and my efti- 
mates would be at beft but ufelefs. I there- 
fore ftate the neceflary fum; and the reft 
muft come out of the profit, in the dirpo- 
fition of which I do not concern myfelf: It 
is either fpent in family expences, in pri- 
vate ones, in improvements of the farm, 

or 



( 534 ) 

or lent at intereft. I (hall, in a chapter 
by itfelf, confider the confequences of ex- 
pending it, or a part, at leaft, in improve- 
ments. ' The reader muft excufe my 
going fo often out of my way, to explain 
and anfwer objections : It is a difagreeable 
tafk, but often times a necefiary one. 

*-'-*\ \I"1-3 J3**3 'iiiO JO*^ ' 4 . .. 

The ANNUAL ACCOUNT. 

Vxpcnct*. L s. d. 

Rent, &c. - . - V." 92/8 o 

75 Home-bred heifers, - 225 o o 
Shoeing, wear and tear, and , 

houfe-keeping, -^.' - n o o 



Produce, 

\iujj uiAfc im+t. jig!! nn . .I iu . 

2 Cows, iA-^or dAW^I lab? IO 
75 Fat heifers, .uimft ^ j 375 



385 o o 



Expences, - ^.^328 8.0 

, I - -- 

56 12 O 

Dedud the intereft of the flock, 18 i o 
Profit, i -Wi - - . 38 1 1 o 



335 



ci Variation the fourth. 
Seventy acres all graft, foilcky w $oar& 

Stock. 
Rent, &c. 
Kent,' -of 70 acres, at /. * 



o 



Tythe, at**. - 15 8 

ates,c.&c.&c.4*.i5 8 

- 107 jo o 

Implements as before, ,. * -_ 2100 
Live Jlock. 

1 Horfe, .10 op 

2 Cows, - ,.jo o o 
I Sow, - , ^- ,,^8-^W- 
87 Home-bred hei- 

fers, ^^Vi 1 -^ 1 

' \ - . - , - 281 15 o 
Sundry articles as before, j 21 o o 

-4*3 i o 



ACCOUNT* 

o Expencrs. 

JSlent, &c. . 107 16 o 

187 Heifers, 261 o o 

Sundry articks, ^T n- ^ o 

379 l6 
Produce. 



Produce. L s. d. 

2 Cows, - - **<V 10 o o 
87 Fat heifers, - - 435 o o 

445 
Expences, - - 379 16 o 

65 4 o 
Interefi of the ftock, - - 20 13 o 

Profit, - y - . 44 u o 

This increafe of profit, on adding only 
10 acres of land, and beyond the propor- 
tion of the fum employed, fhews how im- 
portant it is to proportion thefe things with 
{kill. 



Variation theffth, 

Fifty acres, all arable, the foil clay or 
and laid down to graft. 

Stock. 
Rent, <&c. 
Rent of 50 acres, at 

i/.' - - . 50 o o 
Tythe, at4^. - 10 o o 
Rates, &c. &c. at 4 s. 10 o o 

-- 70 9 



Carry over, .70 o o 

:*v 



( 237 ) 

Brought over, jf .' 70 o o 
Implements. 

% Carts, - . 16 o o 
A plough, - i II 6 

Harrows, - - 2 o o 
Roller, - - i 10 o 
Harnefs for 2 horfes, 2 10 o 
Screen, bulhel, fans, 

&c. &c. - 200 
Sacks, - - i 10 o 
Dairy furniture, - - | o o 

28 i 6 

LiveJIock. 

2 Horfes, - . 24 o o 
2 Cows, - - 10 o o 
i Sow, - - o 15 o 

34 15 o 

Seed and Tillage. 
Four earths on 1 2 1 acres 

of wheat land, - 10 o o 
Seed, - - 7 10 o 

Sowing, - -060 
Water-furrowing, o 12 6 

Two earths on 9 acres 

of barley land, - 3 12 o 

Carry over, .22 06 132 16 6 

Seed, 



( 23* ) 

c Brought over, . 22 o 6 132 16 6 
Seed, - - - 4 10 o 
Sowing, - -023 
Water- furrowing, 046 
One earth on 3^ acres 

of oat land, : HE o 14 o 
Seed, -; - * i i o 
Seed for 5 acres of 

clover, and fowing, i I 3 . 
Sowing, - -' o o lol- 
Water-furrowing, -019 

30 10 Lj 

Labour. 
This article I calculate to be 

nearly the fame as in N i^ 

Chap, xviii. on the fame 

quantity of land : but as 

beans were there made 

the fallow, a deduction 

muft be allowed: 23 /. 

3 s. 44. d. was the fum ; 

I therefore write, - . 20 o o 

Sundry articles. 
Shoeing, and wear and 

tear, cr <i - 4 10 o 



Carryover, . 4 IQ o 183 6 74. 

Houfe- 



( 339 ) 

Brought over, -4 io o 183 

Houfe-keeping, 10 o o 

Furniture, - 10 o o 



. 207 16 



The firft year's crops are 12 4- acres of 
wheat j I2.J- of barley and oats, and 2 
fallow. The produce this year is 
I2T Acres of wheat, - .. 50 o o 
9 Of barley, - - 27 o o 

2 Cows, - - - io o o 



The fecond year the crops will be 25 
acres of fpring corn with grafles, 5 acres 
of clover, till harveft, when it will be fal- 
lowed with the reft, and 20 acres of fallow. 

The account will be as follows : 

f, 

Expences. 

Rent, &c. - -- - . 70 o o 
Seed for 25 acres of fpring- 

corn, - - 12' io o 

Ditto grafles, > - 25 o o 

Labour, - - - 20 o o 

Sundry articles, - - 14 io o 

. 142 o o 

Produce. 



(( -240 ) 

Produce. 

21! Acres of barley, - .64. 10 o 
2 Cows, - - ! * 10 o o 

74 io Q 

Expences, - -142 o o 

Produce, ^-^ 74 i o 

67 io o 

Interefl of the ftock, 13 2 d 

"~ 



The third year the crops are 25 acres of 
fpring corn with grafles, and 25 acres of 
grafs, new laid. The account, 

Expences. 

Rent, &c. - 70 o o 

Seed for 25 acres of fpring 

corn,. - - 12 io o 

Ditto graffes, - 25 o o 

Labour as before, . 20 O O 
Add for additional help 

in hay-time, - 3 *o 

- 23 io o 

Sundry articles, >* ; - I 4 io o 



io o 

Produce. 



( 241 ) 

Produce. L S* <?. 

2 if Acres of barley, - 64 10 o 

25 Loads of hay at the ftack, 37 10 o 
2 Cows, - io o o 

T. i j 2 o o 



Expences, - 145 19 o 

Produce, - 112 o o 

33 I0 
Intereft of flock, - - 16 13 o 

Lofs, - - .50 30 

The fourth year it will all be grafs, half 
mown for hay, and half fed with heifers 
The account as follows : 

Expences. /. s. d. 

Rent, &c. - - 70 o d 

Labour in hay time, * . - 3 io o 
Shoeing, and wear and tear, - 1150 
Houfe-keeping, - - io o o 

30 Heifers, - - 90 o d 



Produce. 

2j* Loads of hay, - . 37 io o 

2 Cows, - - id d d 

$d Fat heifers, - 150 d d 

Carry over, . 197 io d 

VOL. I. R Sale 



Brought over, . 197 10 O 
Sale of Implements and an 
horfe: They cofl, 38 /. 

i s. 6 d. - - 20 o o 

. 217 10 o 

Expences, 175 5 

42 5 o 

Intereft of flock, - 16 16 o 

Profit, - . 25 90 

The fifth year it will be fed ; and every 
fucceeding year the fame. 

Expences. I. s. d- 

Rent, &c. - 70 o o 

Shoeing, - - ^-iS o if? o 

Houfe-keeping, - - 10 o o 

Carts and horfes for ditch fluff, 500 
60 Heifers, - - :,->;.; 180 o o 

. 265 12 Q 
Produce. 

60 Fat heifers, - . 300 o o 

2 Cows, - - - 10 o o 

310 o o 
Expences, * "- ? ; 265 12 Q 



Interefl, 
Profit, 




( 243 ) 

General account ofjlocL 

Hrft ftock, . 207 16 7$ 

Produce of the firfl year, in- 
ferior to the expences of 
the fecond, - - 5^ o" 6 

Produce of the fecond year, 
inferior to the expences 
of the third, - 71 o d 

Produce of the third year in- 
ferior to the expences of 
the fourth, - 63 5 o 

Produce of the fourth year 
inferior to the expences 
of the fifth, && 48 2 o 

- 445 3 74- 

Which total is the fum requifite for this 
farm. 

RECAPITULATION* 
N i. Sixty acres all arable* 
the foil clay, or loam, 
yields an annual profit of . 12 15 3 

a. The fame, all arable, the 
foil light enough for tur- 
nips, ditto, - - ^ 1 8 14 9 

R * 3. The 



N3- The fame; half arable 
and half grafs, the foil 
light enough for turnips, 
ditto, .39 96 

4. The fame, all grafs, the 

foilcky or loam, ditto, -38 II o 

5. Seventy acres, all grafs : 

the foil clay, - - . 44 1 1 o 

6. Fifty acres all arable, the 
foil clay, and laid down to 

grafs, .22 30 

Next, we muft bring into one view the 
fums requifite to flock thefe farms. They 
are as follow : 

Ni. -^1">' - .286 ii o 

2. \-. 402 19 9 

3- - - 373 9-4r 

4 361 *3 

5- - "A 1 4 r 3 I 

& f; f- 1 445 3 74- 

To profit by thefe particulars we muft, 
in the next place, view the produce of 
thefe fums, and the rate per cent, of the 
profit. 

Farms* 



( 245 ) 



Farms. 


Produce. 


Per. cent. 


proft. 


N ( 


? i. 


*? 


i 


3 


.9 


9 


/"' 


2. 


- 38 


16 


9 


9 


12 




3- 


58 


2 


6 


15 


II 




4- 


56 


12 


o 


15 


5 O 




5- 


65 


4 


o 


15 


15 




6. 


- 44 


8 


o 


9 


19 o 



From thefe tables it appears, Jirft^ that 
the beft way of difpofmg of any fum of 
money from 373 /. to 413 /. is by hiring 
either a farm of 60 acres, half grafs and 
half arable, the foil light enough for tur- 
nips; or one of 60 acres, a ftiff foil and 
all grafs ; or, laftly, one of 70 acres, all 
grafs ; thefe three farms paying a better 
intereft than any of the reft. But there is 
this difference between them, that the two 
laft require fcarce any work, a man being 
at liberty, notwithftanding his farm, to apply 
to many other forts of bufmefs, and make 
advantage thereof. Of thefe, therefore, 
the grafs farms are the beft. 

Secondly, The other three farms, viz. 

60 acres, all arable, heavy foil 60 

acres all arable, light foil and 50 

acres, all arable, but laid to grafs, are 

nearly upon an equality in their profit. 

R 3 We 



We may, therefore, pronounce the laft of 
the three, or the grazing one, to be much 
the beft ; as that takes up fcarce any of the 
farmer's time, but leaves him for other 
profitable avocations; whereas the two 
arable ones demand not only all his time, 
but alfo continual hard labour. 



CHAP. XX. 

Of the difference between gentlemen and 
common farmers, in hiring and flocking 
farms. 

WE are now come to fuch a fum of 
money as requires an equal atten- 
tion to the gentleman and the farmer. In 
a former chapter, I hinted that a divifion 
of the fubjecT:, for this purpofe, would 
create fuch a multiplicity of fubdivifions, 
as to throw the whole in that confufion 
which often arifes from an excefs of me- 
thod. The plained way of treating this 
double fubjecT: will be to ftate, in each 
chapter, firft, the calculations for the 
common farmer, and then fuch variations 
as arife between him and the gentleman ; 

and 



( 247 ) 

and alfo fuch eftimates as are peculiar to 
the latter. 

In the execution of this defign, I fhall 
take no notice of farming for mere conve- 
nience, pleafure, or curiofity; however 
entertaining, or even ufeful fuch prac- 
tices may be, there are no permanent con- 
clufions to be drawn from eftimates and 
calculations of matters guided by fancy and 
caprice. I fhall hereafter confider the point 
of experimental farms. 

But the chief purport of this chapter is, 
to give my reafons for making any diftinc- 
tion at all between gentlemen and common 
farmers, in hufbandry, for profit. 

It is my aim, in thefe fheets, to ftate 
all circumftances as near to the truth as 
poflible. I have, in the preceding chapters, 
made a multitude of variations not only 
according to the foil and number of acres^ 
but to the wealth and fubftance of the far- 
mer; becaufe fuch caufes are attended in 
the general with correfponding effects ; and, 
to carry on a calculation upon the fame 
principles, for a poor as a rich man, would 
be evidently abfurd. I have, in every article, 
Sketched the profit which fuch a farmer as 
P 4 I de- 



I clefcribe in it may make, if he acts con- 
fiftently with his fituation, and as a good 
hufbandman. When I fuppofe him to work 
hard all the year, he may, it is true, be idle 
half his time, but fuch variations are rather 
thofe of reality from my calculations, than 
of my calculatiqns from reality, I ftate 
what he ought to do, and what he muft do, 
if he would grow rich ; his not doing it is 
his fault, not my error. It would be abfurd 
to form variations to particular, and thofe 
vicious, exceptions. 

Now if I was to calculate for the gentle- 
man and the farmer upon the fame prin- 
ciples, it would be acting contrary to all 
thefe ideas ; for, in fome inftances, I fhould 
ftate a profit impoffible for a gentleman to 
arrive at ; and, in others, fuch a balance as 
not one farmer in a thoufand would ever fee 
at the bottom of his accounts. 

Gentlemen and farmers have, in huf- 
bandry, peculiar advantages and difadvan- 
tages, which muft never be confounded, if 
we would preferve a clear and accurate 
idea of the whole fubject. 

Before I endeavour to ftate thefe diftinc- 
tions, it will be necefTary juft to explain 

my 



( 249 ) 

my expreffion, gentlemen farming for pro- 

ft. 

There are few in whom it is a real pro- 
feflion, bufmefs, and dependence: I wifh 
there were more ; as I am confident their 
talents would be applied to as ufeful a pur- 
pofe to mankind in general, and to their 
country in particular, as if exerted in com- 
merce, as if destroying the human fpecies 
in phyfic, tything it in divinity, or ruin- 
ing it in law. But there are many who 
live in the country upon fmall fortunes, 
that engage in hufbandry with a view to 
improving their incomes ; others, that have 
been educated to profeffions they difliked, 
rather than lead an idle life, fettle in the 
country, and apply to farming. In any 
cafe, however, there is no difference be- 
tween their taking a portion of their own 
eftates into their hands, or hiring part of 
their neighbours: In one, they bargain 
with another man ; in the other, they fettle 
accounts with themfelves : And here I muft 
fuppofe the latter as true to reality, and as fair 
an engagement, as the former ; and admit 
none of thofe defpicable deceptions, too 
.often met with, of rating the land at its 

laft 



laft rent, or any but fuch as it would ab- 
folutely bring between men of fenfe and 
underftanding. I have heard of many 
boafts of profit, when the rent allowed for 
the land is not above two thirds, perhaps, 
of what a neighbouring farmer would give 
for it. 

But, whatever the motive may be for a 
gentleman's farming, it is certain that a 
diftinction muft be made between their 
profit and that of common farmers ; and 
this for divers reafons. 

In fmall farms we find the profit de- 
cided by the labour of the farmer ; and no 
wonder, fmce 25 /. a year is the intereft of 
500 /. fo that a farmer may eafily beat a 
gentleman on a fmall farm ace and deuce, as 
the value of his labour may be more than 
the whole fum employed by the gentleman. 
And we mould remember, that there are 
few little farmers but what work more or 
lefs themfelves. In the preceding calcu- 
lations, if the reader turns to any of the 
arable farms, and deduds from the profit 
the value of a man's labour, he will find 
but a fcanty remainder ; in many of them, 
none at all. 

Now 



Now if a little farmer, with all poffible 
induftry, finds it a matter of vaft difficulty 
to make any thing by his bufinefs (inde- 
pendent I mean of his labour), how much 
more difficulty will a gentleman find it, if 
he farms with no fuperior advantages ? 

Here, I muft own, I feel a croud of 
ideas, all unfufceptible of calculation, and 
which will, on that account, puzzle me 
extremely in the enfuing chapters. 

A farmer's labour is in part reducible to 
eftimate, and in part not. He goes out to 
plough, in a little farm that keeps a pair 
of horfes, ftirs his acre of land, and comes 
home : this labour we may value pretty 
tolerably, becaufe the time is much the 
fame as that of a labourer. But he is mafter 
of four horfes and 2 ploughs ; confequently 
a man works with him : here, at once* 
the affair is changed ; and his labour is in 
part unfufceptible of eftimate. He not only 
ploughs his own acre, but fees that his man 
,does the fame; and if the horfes of the 
latter move quicker than his own, fo that 
his acre (we will fuppofe) is done the fooneft, 
the farmer fees and remedies it ; he finds, 
at once, that his man has fkimmed the fur- 
face, 



). 

face, inftead of ploughing it; he gently 
rebukes him at firft, but takes efpecial care, 

that the abufe is not repeated. He is 

ploughing in feed- time, or in any other 
bufy feafon ; the weather is precari- 
ous ; clover to be fown ; harrowing to 
be done only while the land is dry, and rain 
expe&ed; or, in a word, a thouiand 
circumflances of the fame fort. He thinks 
it a great benefit to plough an acre ; 
IT is DONE. Why mould the man, or 
labourer at plough with him, objed to it ? 
If they are not employed at that work, they 
will upon fome other, and perhaps a more 
laborious one ; they are not afraid of a want 
of time to take care of their horfes ; the far- 
mer does that work all himfelf. In a word, 
his only confideration is his horfes ; if he 
overworks them, he feeds them in propor- 
tion, and fo the matter ends. 

Now, pafs the hedge of this farm, and 
enter that of a gentleman, who thinks, 
like the farmer, that as the feafon is fine 
he mould make good ufe of it, and get his 
barley-feed into the ground as faft as pof- 
fible; he therefore allows his horfes each 
two pecks of corn more in a week, and 
2, better 



( 253 ) 

better chaff : Will his work be done ? 
Not it. He does not take care of his own 
horfes, but his man, labourer, horfe-keeper 
or what not, who will take, he may be af- 
fured, plenty of time to attend the horfes ; 
which is but a matter of idlenefs, and gof- 
fopping in the flable. He will be told, that 
the cuftom of the country is to plough but 
an acre a day : that that quantity is done ; 
that there would not be time fufficient to 
take care of the horfes, if more was done : 
that Bald wants a fhoe that the chaff 
muft be got home from the barn that the 
hay is done and, in fhort, a million of 
trivial excufes mere evafions, but which 
will be too powerful for him to conquer, 
manage as he pleafes. 

In harveft or hay-time, a farmer who 
drives his own horfes will clear twice the 
ground that a gentleman's fervant will do. 

In carting dung, clay, marie, &c. &c. 
let the gentleman and the farmer compare 
notes ; whofe tally will have the moft 
notches ? It is filled perhaps by the load ; 
the farmer drives away his : the gentle- 
man is purfuing a fox ; or reading by his 

fire- 



fire- fide ; whofe loads will contain the 
faireft meafure ? 

Bad weather comes, too wet to employ 
the horfes : let the gentleman remark what 
fort of a day's work he has on fuch occa- 
iions out of his horfe-keeper. 

Perhaps the farm is fituated within reach 
of town-dung ; the weather is too wet to 
plough; the farmer harneffes his horfes, 
and goes for a load of manure. What does 
the gentleman's horfes ? 

Some hay or ftraw is bought; the di- 
ftance will admit of going about twice a 
day, v with tolerable diligence: We well 
know what the farmer will do : Can you 
fay the fame of the gentleman ? 

After the horfes are taken care of, fome 
cattle require being looked to let to 
water &c. &c. &c. The farmer cer- 
tainly will not neglect fuch a bufmefs. 
The gentleman's man is abfent : where 
is he ? no body knows. He appears. 
" Well and where have you been?" 
" At the blackfmith's, Sir, with this 
" plough-ihare!" 

At the end of the year, the gentleman 
and the farmer review their accounts ; the 

firft 



firft finds a farrier's bill as long as his Lon- 
don taylor's. The other has been his 
own phyfician. The firft is furprifed at 
his neighbour's luck ; but, without being 
accufed of enchantment, he might conclude 
his anfwer, as the Roman farmer did, meas 
vigilias et fudores. But the fweat of the 
fervant was probably employed more in 
abufing than curing his mailer's horfes. 

It would be endlefs to multiply inftances ; 
in one word, the contrail holds through all 
the work of a farm. If we could reduce it 
exactly to calculation, what a vail difference 
$er cent, in profit would appear ! 

But although we cannot reduce the whole 
of thefe matters to calculation, let us attempt 
a few of them, upon probable fuppofitions : 
if the reader rejects the data upon which I 
build my eilimates, it is but his paffing 
over a page or two, and he will be never 
the worfe for it. 

Let us fuppofe a farm to employ 4 horfes, 
which are kept conftantly at work. This 
is no improbability, for I had fix horfes, 
which in three years never were abfolutely 
idle three days, except Sundays. 

Suppofe 



Suppofe the difference in ploughing be- 
tween the farmer's plough and the gentle- 
man's to be a quarter of an acre in a day ; 
this I am confident is not below the mark, 
if we take into the account extraordinary 
times, when the farmer does greatly more 
than the gentleman, and alfo the difference 
of the ploughing ; for the gentleman, moft 
certainly, will not have his land ploughed 
fo well as the farmer, if he has near the 
fame quantity done. Many gentlemen are 
much more folicitous for deep ploughing 
than farmers, but then they afluredly fufFer 
proportionably in quantity. Upon the 
whole, there can be no doubt but that a 
farmer who ploughs with his men will 
have one fourth more done, either in quan- 
tity or quality, than the gentleman. Now 
this, upon one article, is a difference 25 per 
cent. 

In carting dung, clay, marie, compofts> 
&c. there can be no doubt but the farmer? 
driving his own team, and paying his la- 
bourers by the fcore, that he may not wait 
for them, will carry 6 loads in 20 more than 
the gentleman; and if leaving work in 
flight rains, or for other unneceflary occa- 



( =57 ) 

fions, and alfo the difference of meafure, 
that is of feeing every cart fairly filled, I 
have no doubt but the whole difference 
amounts to 7 in 20. 

Again, in hay-time and harveft, the 
farmer driving his own team will forward 
all the carting-work fo much, that I think 
little difpute will be made of his clearing 
30 acres as foon as the gentleman does so. 

In all carting, where it is a point whether 
the waggon goes once or twice a-day, the 
difference between the farmer and the 
gentleman is juft 50 per cent. 

The numerous" fmall articles of work 
done at home, fuch as carting ftubble, 
wood, herdles, turnips, ftraw, hay, (in 
winter) &c. &c. will be all infinitely in fa- 
vour of the farmer; and, for a very plain 
reafon, he will croud, them together, and 
make out a complete day's work; whereas 
the gentleman's fervants will divide them 
yet more, to have -the more broken idle 
loitering days. I rate this article at 70 
per cent. 

Thus we find the difference between the 
gentleman's horfes and the farmer's, in thefe 
few articles of work, to be very great. In 

VOL. I. S ploughing, 



( =58 ) 

ploughing, 25 per cent.\ in carting ma- 
nure, 35 per cent.; in carting in hay-time 
and harveft, 66 per cent.\ in carting, whe- 
ther one or two journeys a^day, $vper cent.\ 
in fundry fmall articles, 70 per cent. 

The three firft of thefe articles include 
the principal work of the year ; but I will 
take the laft into the account, as it is not fo 
high as one of the reft. The average of 
thefe rates is 44. per cent. But then the 
proportion of the quantity of each work 
is not taken into the account. 

1 . Suppofe hay and harveil to employ 
the horfes , Ifo ~ ~ Weeks, 6 

2. Carting, (whether one or two jour- 
neys a-day) - - - - 2 

3. Such articles as the gentleman is 
in refpecT: of time on an equality 
with the farmer, fuch as carrying 
corn to a diftance, and a few others, 3 

4. Sundry fmall articles at home of 
carting, ^jfy , - . ^c: - 4 

.5. Carting manure, 5 

6. Ploughing, harrowing, rolling, &c. 
that are in the fame proportion as 
ploughing, - 32 

li 
N i. 



( W 

N Q I. is ^tlis. 

/?n ; -' ! '' ' v '"' ' 

2. is a soth. 

V -] T ,V.,CI 

3. is a lAth. 

' ' T, ' :ir ' 1 I::I 

-wjfelJJ V,*#fv,bflu aL^nooBriw VI- 

5. is a isthandyVa. r 
":. p Smoa/sE h8IflJl* fT'f^l 

6. is ^ths. 

M/i'iit *~^/it M r *** * "^ fri rrr**i Pi*'! *MtL i* * \* 

Now to bring thefe matters to a decifive 

.i'-f/Qi.fll ' ii'"" r ''l^U'i r ~'' Oil' I 

point, we muft calculate tlie expence 'of 4 
horfes, and the labour attending them. Two 
men muft, in nineteen inftances cut of 
twenty, be absolutely engaged; and in 
numerous ones, fuch as feed-time, manur- 
ing, | harveft, &c. three, four, five and even 
fix men. However, to avoid any 'impu- 
tation of partiality, I will fuppofe the 
labour of only three men to be guided in 
their work by the horfes *. As both the 
gentleman and farmer has the option of 
either fervants or labourers, we will fuppofe 
the former, and value j their wages, board, 
warning and lodging, at 20 /. a year each ; 
the total of this article, therefore, is 60 /. 
The expence of horfes is various, rifing 
from 5 /. a year to 1 5 /. but as there are 

* There are many inftances where only 2 men are kept 
to 4 horfes, but I fuppofe the horfes [no* as in common] 
to be affigned to a proper quantity of land. 

S 2 not 



( 20*0 ) 

not many farmers fo high as the latter fum, 
I will fuppofe it 10 I. which (confidering 
the great breadth of land afligned them in 
my calculations) is under rather than over 
the mark : Four, at this rate, come to 40 /. 
total loo /. This fum divided in the above 

proportions, will appear as follows. 
xn> r 

jrtff, "^ !?; 

*' " V ^'ri fi: 5 J * 
4- - - 7 13 I0 



, 
biovfi 1 ^ 



Profit, - . - . IPO o IT 

The ele\ r en- pence is a fraction, but the 
error too flight to be worthy of remark. 

The difference per cent, of the work, as 
before laid down, will be as follows. 
N i. - . 10 ii o 
66 $er cent, on it. 6 19 3 

17 10 3 

2. - .3 10 4 

50 per cent. - i 15" 2 



Equality, 
Carry over, ^9 




Brou 

70 per cent. 

* '-ff < 

' '.'" 
5S "fercent. 

I'.', 1 ". .;'".. /> t6 


ght over, 

7 !f3 

5 7 

9 I2 

3 7 


. 

8 

3 

3 


29 

13 

^ia 


18 7 

,'V-"* 

'1 'M0"i"> 

19 6 








6. ir.J -jfiBfl 
* j 


r.6i 


IO 


8 







'.lit 


, ^rrr'^ rr J 

25 per cent\ 


15 


B&jl 


8 


fbii 


ir>> f 


>jh 


llvtffff (^ OJ 'w^lb* 









7 6 


18 


4 









Total, and the average diffe- 
rence, 32 /. 17 J./>r cent.. 132 17 n 

That there is this difference between the 
work of four horfes in a farmer's hands, 
who drives them himfelf, and a gentle- 
man's, I am well convinced; but if we 
confider the vaft importance of catching 
feafons, particularly in feed-time, harveft, 
and hay-time, any one muft be fenfible that 
the difference of gain and lofs is prodigious, 
and beyond the power of calculation. 
Whole crops, in a manner, depend on it : 
How often do we fee no other (liftindion 
in thofe of fpring-corn, but the fields fown 
late or early; a point often fufficient to 
S 3 balance 



- gi Ot * "-ayo kJvov r 

balance every other *, and in which the 

farmer has all the chances on his fide. 
And thefe confiderations are fo very impor- 
tant, that they fhould influence us to in*, 
creafe the difference, were I not fearful of 
lanching too far into ideal eftimates. Nor 
have I taken into the account the difference 
the farrier makes .in it, nor fome other 
articles that would, if reduced to fo much 
per cent, run it up much higher, 

I fhould obferve, that the proportion be- 
tween the farmer a,nd the gentleman is the 
great thing in this calculation; for that 
holds equally good whether horfes coft /, 
a year or io/.; or whether the expence 
of a fervant be 2O /. or 30 /. In this refpecl: 
the above fuppofed 100 /. is a mere imagi-r 
nary fum; an algebraic fign, identically 
nothing hut the means of drawing forth, 
the proportion, In feveral parts of the 
kingdom with which I am acquainted, it 
;s pretty near the truth ; it was therefore 

* We do not, however, think with thex)Id proverb of 
the Roman farmers , <vetus eft agricolarum pro-~verbium na- 
ixram fationem Jape dtctpert fokre, feram. nunquam. $u:n 
mulajt, but the very contrary, 



as well to ufe it as one more imaginary 



Here then we find a fmgle branch .of 
bufmefs, in which the farmer, who drives- 
his own team, is fuperior to the gentleman 
above 32 per cent. Now if there were no 
other points in which- they varied, would 
it not alone be a juftification for my not 
confidering them in the fame light? But 
there are other points, not to be over- 
looked. 

The labour of a Farm is performed by 
either fervants or day-men ; in this cafe it 
matters not by which. I mould be glad to 
know, who is moil likely to have a good 
day's work done by his men, (befides the 
three employed directly with the team, and 
before calculated) the farmer or the gentle- 
man ? Or, in other words, which is among 
them moft, the farmer who drives his 
horfes in all their work, or the. gentle- 
man ? 

Much work is done by the piece; who 
will get it cheapeft ? 

It is a fad, and I believe every where 

indifputable, that labourers will work 

S 4 cheaper 



cheaper for common farmers than for gen- 
tlemen ; and much of this is obfervable in 
day-work, even where the prices are more 
fettled than they can be in piece-work. 

Suppofe, in day-work, either by work- 
ing harder or fairer hours, the farmer gets 
but one hour's labour in a day more than a 
gentleman : this, if you lay afide the break- 
faft and dinner, amounts to near 10 per 
cent, upon all the labour of a farm, exclu- 
five of three men with the team. 

I fuppofed the team to work 52 weeks; 
but a part of the year it {lands Hill ; this is 
no impeachment of my calculation, which 
was to difcover proportions, not quantity. 
If we fubftitute 26 weeks, inftead of 52, 
there will be no difference in the 3 2 per 
cent, nor in any of the conclufions. 

The other lofs therefore upon common 
labour, unconnected with the team, a- 
mounts to more than the refiduum^ after 
deducting three men; as thofe three will 
o/ten be commonly employed : And what 
comparifon can there be in the ufe of the 
farmer to himfelf, when the team is idle, 
and the gentleman's fervant to him ? 

The 



The ftrong idea I have of the truth of 
thefe reflexions, makes me confident that 
I am far under the mark. 

Again, if the farmer has fervants, they 
eat and drink with him, nor is it in their 
power to wafte any thing, while all is un- 
der his or his wife's eye ; nor can they 
carry out his victuals, to fell it to the la- 
bourers. How ftands this cafe with the 
gentleman ? He boards his men at full i oo 
per cent, dearer than the farmer. If his 
men are honeft, they will not cheat him in 
the fmall matters of the kitchen ; but 
does he not depend, for this, on their ho- 
nefty ? What is the fituation of him who 
depends on the honefty of others ? Not 
that of the farmer I have ftated. 

But thefe, cries a gentleman, are trifles 
not worth conlidering ; if farming is able 
to do any thing, it will furely overbalance 
fuch matters as thefe. Very true ; gen- 
tlemen do think them trifles ; but if they 
weigh their farming purfe at the end of the 
year, they will find even fuch trifles have a 
wonderful efficacy in lightening it. They 
may be trifles, compared to the whole a- 

mount 



( 266 ) 

mount of their income or expences ; but 
thefe have nothing to do with farming. 
Let them calculate the proportion betvveea 
fuch fums, and the intereft or profit of the 
capital they employ in hufbandry : they 
will, after fuch a comparifon, no longer call 
them trifles. 

It certainly may be faid, and with very 
great juftice by men of fortune, that they 
farm for amufement for the benefit of 
keeping horfes for advantages in houfe- 
keeping, &c. &c. &c. and that fuch an 
attention as the farmers give would be im- 
pofiible in them ; and, if poflible, at leaft 
intolerable : that they had rather be hanged 
than be at fuch trouble, for the fake of a 
paltry profit. I join with them entirely 
in all thefe fentiments ; but then let them 
forbear the boafting of their profit, and 
not, as many do, infift they make money 
by it. 

To return : If we take into the account 
all thefe complicated difadvantages, we 
fhall find that 12 per cent, upon labour is a 
very low calculation of the gentleman's dif- 
advantages. 



( *7 )' 

advantages. I cannot hefitate thinking 
that it amounts to above 20 *. 

In the felling the produce of the farm : 
but, hold! the gentleman employs a 
bailey : that indeed is a new matter, and 
muft not be pafled over. 

I apprehend it will be thought that the 
wages, board, &c. &c. of a bailey cannot 
be eftimated at lefs than 50 /. If he is one 
that does not work hard himfelf, and there 
are very few fuch, it may be fomewhat 
lower ; but a fervant that is entrufted more 
than the common ones, in the very nature 
of his office, defires much higher wages, 
and expences of all kinds, than inferior 
ones.' 20 /. a year is the loweft pay that I 
am acquainted with, even for a working 
bailey, that fells the corn, &c. and his 
board, wafhing, lodging, ufe of a horfe 
pretty often, &CT&C. cannot amount, in any 
gentleman's family even of fmall fortune, 
to lefs than 20 /. more. 

* In the fucceeding chapters, thefe calculations muft be 
ufed in various forms, fometimes as a total expence per 
team, and at others all thrown into labour ; in the latter 
I calculate the total of thefe differences 3 2 per cent, in one 
cafe, and 1 2 in the other at 27. Minute accuracy, as I have 
often obferved, is not only ufelcfs, but impoffible, if it were 
ever fo ufeful. 

Now, 



Now, if 40 /. or 50 f. a year be divided 
into fo much per cent, on the capital cm- 
ployed in hufbandry, the remedy, in any 
but a very large farm, will be found worfe 
than the difeafe. But is it a remedy? Will 
the employing a bailey bring all the preced- 
ing articles of difad vantage to a par with 
the farmer? Far from it; there is a great 
difference between a man acting for himfelf, 
and for another: befides, baileys do not 
drive the team ; and very few of them even 
plough, fo that there will be nearly the 
fame reafons for the workmen and horfes 
being flack in their work under the bailey, 
as under the mafter ; fuppofmg, I mean, 
lie is perfectly honeft, and confiders his 
matter's intereft as his own. 

But how are we to reduce the honefty of 
the bailey to calculation ? This furpafles all 
our art; but a few conjectures may not be 
unprofitable. I have fcarce ever been in 
any county without finding the knavery of 
baileys, hinds, agents, &c. &c. &c. a com- 
mon fubject of difcourfe among farmers; 
which, though no proof, is yet a ftrong 
preemption. Nor is it to be wondered at, 
for they are ufually people of very low 

birth 



( s6 9 ) 

birth and education, \vho have fcarce any 
ideas of honour and juftice, but controuled 
by fear alone ; and the nature of their, em- 
ployment laying them open to a multipli- 
city of temptations, it would be aftonifhing 
if they continued totally uncorrupt. Ho- 
nefty, in that rank of people, . is nothing 
' but fituation ; if they are concerned merely 
for themfelyes in buying and felling, and 
other bufinefs of the fame fort, they habi- 
tually become accuftomed to that common 
fort of honefty which keeps them in. 
decency; but move the fame man into 
another fphere, in which he touches much 
money of another perfon's, without moil 
regular accounts of it, he will as habitually 
become a rogue* God forbid I fhould 
hazard a general aflertipn, that all baileys 
are rogues; I am fpeaking rather of tHe 
nature of the bufinefs, than the characters 
of the men : If that has a regular tendency 
to corrupt its profeflbrs, the chances are 
undoubtedly againft them. 

The probability of the bailey's not being 
honeft, muft therefore be left to the rea- 
der's idea; I fhall only conjecture a few of 
the ill confequences. 

In 



In a farm where a bailey is kept, the 
buying and felling every thing pafies 
through his hands ; if not, what is he kept 
for ? We may fuppofe a gentleman would 
not be at the expence of one for nothing ; 
or to truft his own judgment, when he pays 
another for having a better. If we reflect 
on the fale of corn, cattle, hay, &c. &c. 
and the buying of feed-corn, hay, ftraw, 
horfes, lean cattle, &c. &c. &c. and much 
of both, unavoidably, tranfaded with people 
that can only make a mark, or at fairs, 
where even no mark is made ; in fuch a 
conduct of bufmefs opportunities to be dif- 
honeft, and with impunity, muft unavoid- 
ably be numerous. But, at all events, let 
the fuppofition be ftated as it will, all man- 
kind muft allow the farmer to have much 
the advantage, who tranfacts all fuch bufi- 
nefs himfelf, and in no inftance trufts to 
the honefty of others. 

But another circumftance, not to be 
forgot, is the judgment and knowledge of 
the bailey: ;The very employing him is 
a proof that the gentleman depends not on 
his own ; and the difficulty is, the difcern- 
ing whether the fervant's knowledge is 

fufficient 



( 27.1 ) 

fufficient to fupply the defeds of the 
mailer's. A man who finds the judgment 
of a bailey of ufe to him, moft certainly 
knows' too little of the practice of hufbandry, 
to difcover when he is well or when ill 
ferved : ^onfequently the whole of his bu- 
fmefs may fuffer, through the ignorance of 
the bailey, and the gentleman know little 
of the matter. 

I pretend not to reduce fuch complicated 
contingent matters to calculation; but my 
readers, I apprehend, will allow me that, 
in all thefe points, the common farmer has 
a vaft fuperiority to the gentleman one. 
Let us now be equally fair and impartial in 
ftating the other fide of the queflion, and 
confider the circumftances in which the 
gentleman has the advantage of the far- 
mer. 

Throughout thefe meets, I attempt to 
ftate the account of every farm, with an 
eye not only to the land itfelf, but alfo to 
fuch circumftances of the man who occu- 
pies it; fuch as his fubftance, houfe-keep- 
ing, furniture, &c. In the fame manner, 
variations muft be made between the prac- 
tice of gentlemen and that of common far- 
mers. 



mers. Their fuperiority in general know- 
ledge, in reading, and obfervation, may be 
of ufe to them in farming, and demand as 
much to be carried to their account as the 
fuperior induftry, common knowledge, and 
attention of thefarm ers entered to theirs. 

If there are any new difcoveries in huf- 
bandry or if beneficial practices, common 
in one part of the kingdom, are to be in- 
troduced to another, the benefit of fuch 
have nothing to do with the farmer ; be- 
caufe, we may be certain that he, from 
habit and confined views, will have nothing 
to fay to them. But the gentleman, with 
more enlarged ones, may be fuppofed to 
reap advantages in this field. 

Here it may be faid, that fuch advantages 
are very ideal fpeculative and uncer- 
tain ; and, in many cafes, much more 
unprofitable and pernicious than bene- 
ficial : But, in anfwer to this, I obferve, 
that fuppofing the objection true, yet it no 
ways impeaches the propriety of confider- 
ing it as a capability in favour of the gentle- 
man ; it is true, he may apply it to his pre- 
judice, but is that any argument againft 
it? The farmer may carry his frugality 

into 



into avarice, and deny his farm the necef- 
fary expences of tillage and manure ; 
but are we therefore to forbear calculating 
upon the general fuperiority of his fruga- 
lity? It is univerfally allowed, that we 
ought not to reject a practice in morals, 
politicks or trade, merely becaufe it is 
capable of being pernicious. In the fame 
manner, we are not to reject, from the 
gentleman's account, the advantages I have 
mentioned, becaufe he may apply them to 
his deftruction : that is not the fault of 
thofe fuppofed advantages, but in a want 
of judgment in the individual who makes 
the application. 

That there are numerous inftances of 
the kind in queftion, wherein the gentle- 
man may be fuppofed vaftly fuperior to the 
farmer, a very little attention will difcover. 
A few inftances. may be named in a mo- 
ment. 

Suppofe the gentleman to live in a 
country wherein turnips are commonly 
cultivated, but none hoed: He finds, in 
turning over his books, that hoeing is a 
common practice in many counties, and 
prodigiouQy advantageous j takes the 

VOL. I. T hint, 



( 274 ) 

hint, and hoes his own : Is it not extremely 
evident, that he will make much money by 
fuch a practice. 

In the fame manner, clover is unknown 
in a country, though pafture of all kinds is 
extremely fcarce Will a common farmer 
introduce it ? Moft affuredly not: but a 
gentleman, from his fuperiority of general 
knowledge, may be fuppofed to do it, and 
will indubitably reap the benefit. 

A country may contain fine tracts of 
fandy loam, highly proper for carrots, and 
yet not one to be found : may not the gen- 
tleman, from his reading, introduce this 
excellent root? And is it not as clear that 
he will find the culture greatly profitable ? 

A clay country may be fo uniform in 
heavy land, as not to be capable of produ- 
cing a fmgle turnip or carrot to advantage, 
to the great lofs of the farmer, who cannot 
keep good ftocks of cattle for want of 
plenty of winter food ; now, on fuch land, 
cabbages are cultivated to infinite profit, 
even fuperior to what is any where received 

from turnips : The gentleman is the 

perfon who can alone be fuppofed to intro- 
duce fuch a practice, not the farmer. 

6 Another 



( 275 ) 

Another trad of country may be totally 
deficient in pafturage, from the drynefs of 
the foil, or from other caufes : Sainfoine 
and lucerne are in iuch, and rtlimerous 
other cafes, to be ufed to prodigious be- 
nefit ; - but the common farmer will have 
nothing to fay to either of them, if not 
common among his brethren. Thefe 
inftances might be multiplied to infinity ; 
and certainly form a very eonfiderable 
weight in the gentleman's fcale* 

That judgment is neceflary in fuch in- 
troductions, 1 moft readily agree : a gentle^ 
man animated with reading books of huf- 
bandry may form vifionary ideas of digging 
in more fertile mines than thofe of Peru or 
Mexico, if he does but purfiie the directions 
of fome writers : he may then fow car- 
rots in a clay-foil, and plant cabbages on a 
fandy gravel : he may introduce fainfoine 
on weeping clays, and lucerne in bogs: 
there is no doubt thefe blunders may be 
made ; but thefe are not thofe \vhich are moft 
to be feared. 

In the fame page, perhaps, in which he 

finds carrots, lucerne, clover or turnips, 

fenfibly recommended, he may alfo find as 

T a warm 



( 276 ) 

warm a character of the drill-hufbandry\ ins 
general, for all forts of vegetables of 
trarifplanting turnips for a crop of buy- 
ing 300 fows at once to fat their pigs on 
clover of digging to the centre of the 
earth in fearch of fertility of manuring 
land with boiled lupines ; in a word, of 
an hundred rhodomontade inftructions, fuf- 
ficient to ruin a Nabob. Here judgment 
fhould come in play, to reject the impro- 
bable from that which is rational the chaff 
from the corn. Without this judgment, 
what I have ftated as an advantage cer- 
tainly may prove an evil. But then this 
is the .mere abufe of a circumftance not in- 
herent in it. 

I have no doubt but a gentleman with a 
tolerable fhare of underftanding, and fome 
practical knowledge of agriculture, may, 
by the means here recited among others, 
more than balance all the advantages of 
' the farmer, great as they undoubtedly 
are but, without making life of fuch, I 
think it is impoffible : he can never fight 
the farmer with his .own weapons. For 
this reafon, I fhall, in the enfuing calcu- 
lations, aim at difplaying the confequences 

both 



troth of neglecting this precaution and pro- 
fiting by it. 

Upon the whole, there can be no doubt 
but distinctions of confequence exift be- 
tween gentlemen and common farmers, in 
the whole practice of agriculture ; and if fo, 
it is certainly neceflary for me to make a 
diftinction between them in the point of 
flocking farms, as the fum requifite to hire 
one, in every inftance, depends on the 
practice to be followed. 

And my principal endeavour will be to 
{hew in what manner gentlemen, by farm- 
ing upon improved methods, may equal 
the natural advantages of the common far- 
mers ; which, with refpect to the former, 
will be attended with much more ufe than 
calculations, in which they are reckoned 
nearly on an equality with them,, 1 heir 
difadvantages, in that method, are fo pro- 
digioufly great, and fo unfufceptible of cal- 
culation, that if I was only to reckon 33 
per cent, on horfes, and 1 2 per cent', on other 
labour, I mould, take the whole bufmefs 
through, be full 2,0 per cent, above the 
truth : If all the numerous difadvantages of 
the gentleman, in common hufbandry, be 
T 3 coniidered, 



( 278 ) 

confidered, one cannot reckon his general 
profit fo great as that of the farmer by at 
leaft one third, or 33 per cent, and this for 
calculation. In facl, I am perfaaded it is, 
in one cafe, a reality, but in the other an 
imagination, or worfe, a lofs. 

Suppofmg it was a point capable of 
proof, I would bet any wager within the 
compafs of my fortune, that no gentleman 
in England, by common management, 
upon a farm fairly ftated as to rent, and 
all accounts clear and fatisfactory, made 
within 40 per cent, of the profit of a good 
neighbouring farmer. If I had faid 50 
or 60 per cent. I do not think I mould have 
exceeded the mark, grazing farms ex- 
cepted. 

Some farmers (in middling farms) do 
little more work themfelyes than gentle- 
men. Such partake of both the claffes I 
have ftated ; they have, however, the ad- 
vantage of the latter in attending more to 
their bufmefs ; and the gentlemen of them 
in that enlarged knowledge I before men- 
tioned. 

In the fucceeding chapters, as in the 
preceding, I fuppofe nothing but excellent 

hufbandry ; 



( 279 ) 

imfbandry ; and rational conduct, refpefting 
the number of horfes. 

There will be many variations in the 
future, which are not to be found in the 
preceding pages, and fome which I muft 
pafs without explanations. To explain 
every thing, would alone fill a volume; 
the reader muft either have fume depend- 
ance on me, that I fhall not run into ufe- 
lefs ones, or he would wade through per- 
petual explanatory paflages : I lhall, how- 
ever, omit none which are really neceffary. 

There will be fome places in which I 
ihalj. appear inconfiftent with the preceding 
chapters, but if the difference between the 
fubftance of the men is taken into the ac- 
count, many fuch places will not be at all 
puzzling. 

I proceed to the calculations, only beg- 
ging the reader, once more, not to judge 
too critically of each feparately ; my grand 
defign may be anfwered without fuch mi- 
nute accuracy ; and although a farmer may 
meet with many rates that vary from riis 
country, yet the alterations may be eafily 
and quickly made, and the accounts ufed 
T 4 by 



by any man for any farms, when all the 
principal heads which mould be in his 
memory, at fo critical a time, are ftated to 
his view : he need not, in fuch a fitua- 
tion, forget any, nor hire a farm in the 
dark, while every point he mould reduce 
to calculation lies before him : but the rates 
I have ufed, I believe, will not be found 
far from the medium of many counties. 



CHAP. XXI. 

Of the mo/t advantageous method of difpofing 
of from five to fix hundred pounds in 
farming. 



method to be perilled in this and 
-*- the fucceeding chapters will be to 
ftate, firft, the flocking by common far- 
mers ; and then that by gentlemen, which 
will be no more than a review of the for- 
mer, with deductions ia one cafe, and alte- 
rations in the other. 



N* i. 

Eighty acres, all arable, the foil clay or 
loam, and laid do-wn to grafs. 
Stock. 
Rent, &c. 
Rent, of 80 acres, at 

8 s - 7 2 

Tythe,'atV. J ^ 
Rates, &c.&c.at4-f- *4 

. 100 10 O 

Implements. 

2 Carts, -18 o o 

A plough, i " 6 

Harrows, - 2 o o 

Roller, * I0 

-Harnefs for 3 horfes, 4 o 

Screen, bufliel, fans, 

fieves, &c. &c- 5 
Sacks, 

Dairy furniture, - 200 

36 I 

Live flock. 

3 Horfes, - 40 o o 

7 Cows, 35 

i Sow, - i 







Carryover, .213 J 7 6 

5^^ 



( =82 ) 

Brought over, . 212 17 6 
Seed and tillage. 
4 Earths, on 20 acres 

of wheat land, . 16 o o 
Seed, - 12 o o 

Sowing, - - o 10 o 
Water-furrowing, i o o 

Two earths, on 15 acres 

of barley* land, 600 

Seed, 7 10 o 

Sowing, - - 3 9 
Water-furrowing, 076 

One earth on 5 acres of 

.oat-land, - I o o 

Seed, 2 10 o 

Sowing, - o i 3 

Water-furrowing, 026 

Seed clover, 20 acres, 

and fowing, - 450 

51 10 o 

Labour. 

The amount of this cannot 
be calculated exactly by 
preceding farms, as there 
is no analogy between 
this and any of them; the 

Carry over, . 264" 7 6 
beft 



Brought over, . 364. 7 6 
beft method of calculating 
it is to eftimate it in the 
lump at one man's labour 
the year round; as this 
is not an annual account, 
accuracy is not of fo much 
importance: Suppofe, jC* ^5 O O 

Wear and tear^ &c. 
Shoeing, - .300 
Wear and tear, - 500 
Houfe-keeping, - 10 o o 
furniture, 10 o o 

27 o o 

' 3 l6 7 6 
ProduQe thefrft year. 

20 Acres of wheat, - . 80 o o 

15 Of barley, - 45 o p 

7 Cows, - - - 21 o o 

. 146 o o 

The farmer got through his firft year ; 
we muft next inquire into the fecond. 

Expences. 

Rent, &c. - - - - 100 16 o 

(Seed for 20 acres of wheat, - 12 o o 

Carry over, . 1 12 16 o 

Seed 



Brought over, . 1 1 2 1 6 o 
Seed for 20 acres of fpring- 

corn, - 10 o o 

Ditto a oof graffes, 20 o o 

Labour, - 25 o o 
Shoeing, and wear and 

tear, &c. &c. - 1700 



. 184 16 o 

Produce. 

30 Acres of wheat, -80 o o 

1 6 Ditto of barley, 48 o o 

7 Cows, 35* o o 

163 o o. 

Expences, - - 184 16 o 

Produce, - - - 163 o o 

21 16 o 
Intereft of flock, - 17 14 o 

Lofs, - - . - . 39 10 o 

This fecond year the fields are, 20 acres 
of wheat, 20 of fpring-corn with graffes, 
2O of clover, and 20 fallow. The third 
year's account will be as follows : 

Expences. 



Expences. 
Sundries, as the laft year, 

except the whole feed be- /. s. d. 

ing fpring-corn, - 182 1 6 o 

20 Acres more graffes, - 20 o o 

. 202 I 6 O 

Produce. 

36 Acres of barley, - . 108 o o 

5 Cows fold off, - - 25 o o 

2 Ditto produce, - - 10 o o 
15 Acres of grafs mown for 

hay, 15* loads at 30 s. 

flacked on farm, 22 10 o 

. 165 10 o 

Expences, '- * - !;;-.,* 202 16 o 

Produce, - ;#. " J ^5 IO 



37 6 o 

Intereft of flock, .*; 19 1 3 o 

Lofs, - . 46 19 o 

The fields, this third year, are cropped 
with qo acres of fpring corn and grafs: 
20 of grafs, a new lay; and 20 fallow. 
The fourth year's account will be as fol- 
lows: 



( 286 ) 

Expences. 1. s. d* 

Rent, &c. - . IQO 16 b 

Seed for 20 acres of fpring- 

corn, - 10 o o 

Ditto of grafs -feeds* - 20 o c5 

Labour affiftance in mow- 
ing, and making, and 
flacking 40 acres of grafs 
in hay, will amount to - 10 o <5 

Sundry articles. 

Shoeing, n ".1100 

Wear and tear, - 2 10 o 

Houfe-keeping, 10 o o 

25 Heifers, - 75 o o 

. 229 16 o 

Produce. 

1 6 Acres of barley, - . 48 o o 

40 Loads of hay, - 60 o o 

2 Cows, - 10 o o 

25 Fat heifers, - - 125 o o 

243 o o 
Of implements there 
are now to be fold, 

Carry over* .243 
what 




Brought over, . 243 o 
what coft, - >34 -i 6 
And 2 horfes, - 26 o o 



Suppofe they bring 
Expences, 

Intereft of ftock, * 
Profit, 

The Annual Account will be : 

Expences. 

Rent, &c. - - loo 16 o 

Shoeing, - o 12 o 

Houfe-keeping, - 10 o o 

50 Perches of ditching, and 
hire of carts, &c. to carry 
the earth on to the land, - 515 o 
100 Home-bred heifers, - 300 o o 

-417 3~ 

Produce. 

ico Fat heifers, - 500 o o 

2 Cows, - 10 o o 



Pro- 



( 288 ) 

Produce, . 510 o o 

Expences, - 417 3 o 

92 17 o 

Intereft of ftock, 2 9 X 3 o 

Profit, - - 67~T~o 

General Account of thefe four years. 
The firft ftock, -316 7 6 

Product of the firft year, 

fhort of the expences of 

the fecond, - - 38 16 o 

Product of the fecond year, 

fhort of the expences of 

the third, - - 39 16 o 

Produd of the third year, 

ftiortof the expence of the 

fourth, - - 64 6 O 

Product of the fourth year, 

fhort of the expence of the 

fifth, &c. - 1 34 3 o 

Which total is the fum he- 

ceflary to ftock this farm, . 593 8 6 

With a gentleman this account will 
ftand thus : 

Stock. 

Rent, &c. as before, - .10016 o 

Implements, ditto, - 36 i 6 

Carryover, . 136 17 6 

Live 



( 289 ) 

Brought over, & 136 17 6 
Live flock, as before, - 76 o o 
Seed and tillage, ditto, - 51 10 o 
Labour : This article 

before was 25" /. or 

one man's; but as 



the gentleman does 






nothing himfelf, we 






muflrftate the account 






thus : - . 25 


o o 




Another man, 2 5 


o o 




~~ 


o o 




* 27 per cent, on.tfiis, 13. 


10 

, , An T <-\ 


O' 








Sundry articles. 






Shoeing, - - . 2 


O 




Wear and tear, - 5 







V'.r* ~~ 


7 o 


o 




334 i7 


6 



See the note, page 267 : As the expences of horfes 
are not in this eftimate thrown by themfelves, the difference 
in labour and horfes, between the gentleman and farmer, 
are thrown together, and charged under the article labour : 
hot as an abfolutely accurate fum, but one very moderately 
calculated, and to mew that fome allowance of this nature 
ihould in private eftimates be made. 

VOL. I. U Produce 



Produce the firft year. 
This the fame as before *, . _ 

Second year's account. 

Expences. 

Rent, &c. jC- IO l6 

Seed (the fame as the farmer) 42 o 
Labour, - - ^3 IO 

Sundries, - * - 



The fame, - - . 163 o o 

Expences, - - - 213 6 o 

Produce, - - 163 o o 

50 6 o 

Intereft of flock, - 20 i _ o 

Lofs, . 70 7 Q 

Account of the third year. 

Expences. L s. d. 

Rent, &c. . 10016 o 
Seed for 40 acres of fpring- 

corn, - 20 o o 

Carryover, . 120 16 o 

* The produft of cows comes into this article: Now 
this is very different between a gentleman and a farmer 
indeed infinitely fo ; but as the fanner reaped belides 
advantages from his dairy, and as I allow the gentleman 
none, nor charge his fwine tQ account, this will fomewhat 
balancs the account between them. 

4 Seed 



') 

Brought over, . 120 16 o 

Seed for grafies, -- ! 40 o o 

Labour, ^ * - 63 io .-9 

Sundries, - 7 

.231 6 o 

Produce. 

The fame, - . it>5 10 o 

Expences, - - - 231 6 o 

Produce, - > 165 10 o 

.65 16 o 

Intereft of flock, - Jl ** * 2390 

gt^ - - - ^."90" 5 o 
Account of the fourth year. 



Rent, &c. - - - . ico 16 o 
Seed for 20 acres of fpring- 

corn, - 10 o o 

Ditto of grafs feed, - , 20 o p 
Labour; farmer's . 10 o o 
Add, - - 10 o o 

. 20 o o 
27 percent, on it, 3 80 

-- 25 8 o 

Shoeing, and wear and tear, 400 
25 Heifers, 75 

235 4 o 
U 2 



Produce. I. 's. d. 

The fame, 283 o o 

Expences, - - 235: 4 o 




InterefVof ftoek, 
Profit, 

The ANNUAL ACCOUNT. 

Expjtces. 

Rent, &c. - . 100 16 o 

; Shoeing, - - o 12 o 

Ditching and carts, - - 515 

i oo Home-bred heifers, - 300 o o 

-47~ 3 o 

Produce. 

The fame, . -' '. 510 o o 

Expences, - 407 3 o 



102 17 o 
"Intereft of flock, 33 4 o 

Profit, - . 69 13 o 



GENERAL ACCOUNT. 
Firft flock, . 334 J 7 6 

Produce of the rirfl year, 
below the expences of the 
fecond, 67 6 o 

Carry over, . 402 3 6 
- Produce 



) 

Brought over, . 402^- '3- 6 

Produce of the fecond year, 

below the.expences of ttat '. . i -a* ' sd 
third, ;q:A I rcniS .6877 nE*Ji 

Produce of the third 'i.year^.i iljhy fx>fi3 

r^ftehrvv he,expences of thr^i .MI 
' fourth j:; ;3icjsrf afiust^dj "io 

Produce of the fourth, :be r A 0.1 r ib - 
4ow the expences of the; LnU sd 
fth^j&c^:::.'S4 i fa[uC*r^k s i34.":&--~:Q 

Which total ist neceffsry { fpjcr:ol;nos B ilj.i 
this.farm, ' . 6641 -&r 16 

t-l-'^cirlT .r: < ~ ^'"^"^ 

Thus we find, accordmg^to,this account, 

a gentleman fhould have above 70 /. more 
than a farmer, to ftock.So acres of "arable 
land to be laid- down to .grafs. But allow T 
ances in favour of the latter, in matters 
unfufccptible of calculation, mould be made 
in the .mind of the reader: Perhaps, 100 /. 
would be near the truth'j'kut this is a mere 
conjcaure. , 

1- have flippofed the one- tp tniy as cheap 
and fell as dear as the other : - a large 
ijippofitipn at Icaft. 

The iuperiority of the gen tl era an, in an-r 

nua] profit, ariies from the circu: 

^ 3^ 



( =94 ) 

of houfe-keeping : It was certainly proper 
to charge that tp the farmer ; but it would 
be as improper to charge it to the gentle- 
manV whofe farm I Aippofe totally, uncon- 
nected with hi$ hotife : but this is a no-W- 
ad vantage in favour of the farmer, for with 
fhe afliftance of the farm before uVand the 
fum of 10 /. with, what his family may 
earn, he and th^y are all maintained :* 
fuclvan feftimate would be wide-of the truth 
with a gentleman, but then the omiffion 
)f t&e 10 /. in his account, forms fo mikch 
a~greater balance to the farmer. This cafe 
is a difficulty, and an unavoidable one, in 
thefe eflimates. 

If we fuppbfe the gentleman's houfe- 
keeping to receive fbrne advantages from 
the farm; yet thofe of the fanner will be 
proportionally larger, beficics the 10 /. 

To pafs over the difference of this 10 /. 
would be to al!d\V a palpable error to run 
through feveral of the fucceedin accounts. 
The way in v^h 1 ! I think it may be bed 
remedied, wilt be to ihte both the farmer's 
and gentleman's account ; the one with 
Fuch an allowance, the other without it ; 
but, in the CQ:n^rlJbn^ to dedutfrthe fum al- 
lowed 



lowed to the farmer for houfe-keeping, 
from the amount of the gentleman's profit ; 
this will throw them fo far upon an 
equality. 

According to this account, the gentle- 
man's profit, on the farm before us, will 
be 59 /. 13 s. per annum. The largenefs of 
which is owing to the farm being all grafs, 
in which the gentleman has no peculiar 
difadvantages, any more than the farmer, 
as no labour is wanting. 

Variation the Jirjl. 

Sixty acres, all arable, the foil clay or ham, 
find laid doivn to grafs. 

Stock. 
Rent, &c. &c. as in N I. 

Ch. xix. - . 75 12 o 

Implements, ditto - 34 66 

. 109 18 6 





Live Stock. 


3 Hdrfes, 


- - . 36 o o 


2 COWS, 


- f - - 10 o o 


I Sow, - 


- - - o 15 o 



46 15 o 
Carryover, . 156 13 6 
U 4 Sctd 



Brought over, .156 13 6 
Seed and Tillage. 
Four earths on 15 acres 

of wheat land, - 12 o o 
Seed, - - 900 

Sowing, - -076 
Water-furrowing, o 15 Q 

Two earths on 10-iacres 

of barley land, -440 
Seed, - - 550 

Sowing, - - o 2 7,1 
\Vater-furrowing, &c. 053 
One earth on 4^- acres 

of oat land, - 0180 
Seed, - 250 

Sowing, - o i i-l 

Water-furrowing, -023 

35 5 9 

Labour. 

This quantity of land, all 
tillage, in N i. took in la- 
bour 32 /. iq .r. 9^. but 1 3/. 
3 j. of it was for the bean 
and clover crops, which 
I therefore deduct, - J 9 7 9 

{Sundry articles, as in N i. 25 16 o 

2 37 3 Q 

The 



( 297 ) 

The firft year, the crops are I $ acres of 
wheat and 15 of fpring corn; and the other 
30 fallow. The produce of which is, 
15 Acres of wheat, ^f Life $&i 1 
107 of barley, -gfafr a* c '3 1 , IO 
2 Cows, if^.r,. - JJi.fl 1 -- ' iQ-fi.; 

. 101 10 o 



The fecond'year, 30 acres are fallow, and 
30 of fpring corn with giraffes amongft ft. 
The account as follows. 

>>T . Ex fences. 

Rent, &c. -75 

Seed for 30 acres of fpring 

corn, - ... 
Ditto grafTes, .-&; -Uk*r^ 
labour, 
Sundry articles, 

Produce. 
25 L Acres of barley, - 7 1O 

5 Cows, I0 : J? 

h6 10 o 

Expences, - - - J 55 J 5 9 
.Produce, 86 10 o 

69 5 9 

Int^reft 




( =98 ) 

Brought over, . 69 5 9 
Intereft of the ftock, - . 14 i o 
Lofs, . 83^6 9 

The third year 30 acres will be in 
grafs, and 30 in fpring-corn with grafFes 
amongft it. The account as follows : 

Expences. /. /. d. 

Rent, &c. - - 75 12 o 

Seed for 30 acres of fpring 

corn, 

Ditto, ditto of grafles, 
Labour as before, .19 
Add for hay-making, 6 

H5 

Sundry articles 

Shoeing, -. i o o 

Wear and tear, - .1100 
Houfe- keeping, - 10 o o 

12 10 




J 58 9 9 

Produce. 

257 Acres of barley, - . 76 10 o 
2 Cows, - jo o o 

30 Acres of hay, i load per 

acre, at 30 s. in the flack, 45 o o 

- 

Expences, 



( 299 ) 

Expences, - . 158 9 o 

Produce, - *"-j- - 131 10 o 

r/3^ T - 

26 19 9 

Intereftofftock, 17 13 o 



The fourth year it is all grafs, half mown 
and half fed with heifers : The account as 
follows. 

Expences. L s. d. 

Rent, &c. - .-rt&v^ 75 12 o 
Mowing, making,-and flack- 

ing 30 acres, the-affift- 

ance, .rrU*'- rej^s 800 

Shoeing and houfe-keeping, 10 12 o 
37 Home-bred heifers, in op 

.505 4 "o 



30 Tons of hay as before, /". 45 o o 

2 Cows, - : -.:t ( 10 o o 

37 Fat heifers, - ^^ 185 o o 
Sale of implements and 2 

horfes; they coft56 /. 6 s. 6 d. 30 o o 

270 o o 

Expences, : /^M - - 205 4 o 

64 16 o 

Interefl of ftock, - 21 7 o 

Profit, - .'^3" 9 o 

The 



The fifth ahd fucceeding years it will be 
grafsr and all fed: the account thus : 

Expences* 

Refit>- &, ^T. 75 12 o 

.Shoeing and houfe-keeping, 10 12 o 
75 Heifers, - - 225 o o 

Hire of carting for ditch- 
earth, 500 

-3 l6 4 o 
Produce. 

2 Caws* - - 10 o c 

75 Fat heifers, - - 375 9 

385 o o 

_. X 

Expences, - - 310 4 o 

~68"l6~8 

Inter-e-iV 24 13 o 

Profit, - /T4^.~^o 

And the general account of flock is as 

follows : 

The original fum, >C* -3 7 3 

The nrft year's produce be- 
low the fecond year's ex- 
pences, by 54 5 9 

The fecond year's produce 
below the third year's ex- 
pence - 71 19 9 
Carry over, .- 363 8 6 
7 The 



Brought over, jC-3^3 8 6 
The third year's produce, 

below the fourth year's 

expence, ( \ - "r ; * 73 H 
The fourth -year's produce, 
. below the fifth year's ex- 

pence, - " - 4&, '4P '6 

Sum total requifite for this - -' '- 



* - - 483 & 6 
It is to be remarked, that although this 
fum is neceflary to have in command, yet 
it is no.t a}l wanting at firfl, confequently 
parts of it may remain at intereft ; that is, 
the farmer need not call in his money fafter 
than he wants it ; and this progreflion of 
intereft on the flock is calculated throughout 
this eftimate, as well as others, :< ^i 

The gentleman's account of this farm 
will be as follows : - 

Stock. 

Rent, &c. the fame, - . 75 12 6 

Implements, ditto, - 54 6 6 

Live flock, ditto, - 46 15 o 

Seed and tillage, ditto, - 35 $ 9 

Carryover, . 191 19 3 
Labour ; 



Brought over, . 191 19 3 

Labour ; before, - 19 79 

Add one man, - 25 o o 

-44~ 7 9 

2 7 /tf r J. i T oo 

55 7 9 

Shoeing, - i 16 o 

Wear and tear, - - 4. o o 

253 3 Q 
Produce of the firft year. 
The fame, - - . i.Qi 10 o 
Account of the fecond year. 

Expences. 

Rent, &c. ^. 75 12 o 

Seed, - - 45 o o 

Labour, - - 55 7 9 

Shoeing, &c. * 5. 16 o 

^C- ]81 15 9 

Produce. 

The fame, - , - ^. 86 10 o 

Expences, - - - 181 15 9 
Produce, - - 86 10 o 

~95 5 9 
Intereft of ftock, - ^ 16130 

Lofs, r . in 18 9 

Account 



Account of the third year. 

Expences. 

Rent, &c. - 75 ** 

Seed, - 45 o 

Labour: before, .25 79 

Add, - 25 o_Q 

- 5 7 9 

S7 percent. - 13- Io 

63 17 9 

Shoeing, and wear and tear, _ 2 IQ 9 

jf. 186 10 9 
*** - . . 

Prc?^/^. 

The fame, - ^'IiL 10 

Expences, ^^ 186 19 9 

Produce, ^ ^B 1 IQ Q 

~V 55 9 9 

Intereft of flock*. y^ix: gi ^3 



Account of the fourth year. 

Expences. L s* d. 

Rent, &c. 75 ! 2 o 

Labour: before, . 8 o o 
Add, - 800 



27 p^r cent. - 4100 

: : - 30 IO O 

Carry over, .96 2 o 
Shoeing, 



( 304 ) 

Brought over, . 96 
Shoeing, and wear and 



tear, - 
37 Heifers, 

Produce. 
The fame, 
Expences, 

Intereft of flock, 
Profit, 


210 
III 


. 209 12 o 

/.~ d. 

270 o o 

209 12 O 


60 8 o 
25 ii o 


34 17 o 


The ANNUAL ACCOUNT. 
Expences. 
Rent, &c. . 75 12 o 
Shoeing, and wear and tear, 210 o 
75 Heifers, - - 225 o o 
Labour for ditching, - 10 o o 
Hire of carts, - - 500 


Produce. 
The fame, 
Expences, 

Intereft of ftock, 
Profit, 


.318 2 


jC- 385 o o 

318 2 


.66 18 o 

2800 


/,. 38 18 o 



GENERAL 



GENERAL ACCOUNT. 

Firft expence in ftock, 2 53 3 

Firft year's produce below 
the fecond year's expences 
by - 80 5 9 

Second year's produce be- 
low the third year's ex- 
pences by - - 100 9 9 

Third year's produce below 

the fourth year's expence 78 2 o 

Fourth year's produce be- 
low the fifth year's ex- 
pence, - 48 2 O 

Total neceflary for this 

farm, ~ v* 560 2 6 

The profit upon thefe two farms, both to 
the farmer and gentleman, is confiderable ; 
and much greater, every thing confidered, 
even to the farmer, than the fame quantity 
of arable land would yield: but, to the 
gentleman, the difference is immenfe, as 
we mall prefently fee. 

If he keeps a bailey upon the laft farm, 
who cofts him 40 /. a year, the loweft he 
can be rated at, that fmgle expence more 
than fwallows up all the profit of the 

VOL. I. X farm. 



( 5P.6.. ), 

farm. If he does the .fame on the former 
farm, he will receive but 19 /. profit. 

N S . 

Variation thefecond. 

Om hundred acres, all arable, the foil clay 
or loam. 
Stock. 
Rent, <&c. 

TOO Acres, at 17 s. . 85* o o 
Tythe, at 4 s. - 17 o o 
Rates, &c. &c. at 4 s. 1 7 o o 

ug o a 

Implements. 

One waggon, ,25 o a 

2 Carts, - 20 o o 

S Ploughs, 3 3 o 

1 Pair of harrows> % 10 o 

2 Rollers, - 300 
Harnefs for 4 horfes, 600 
Screen, bufhels, forks, 

rakes, &c. &c. 8 o a 

20 Sacks, 3 oo 

Dairy furniture, - 300 

Carryover, .192 13 o 
5 Live 



( 307 ) 
Brought over, .. 192 13 o 

Live flock. 

4 Horfes, - jf . 60 o o 

10 Cows, - - 50 o o 

1 Sow, - - i o o 

I II O O 

Seed and tillage. 
4 Earths on 25 acres 

of wheat land, .20 o 
Seed, 15 oo 

Sowing, - -"0126 
Water-furrowing, 150 

2 Earths on 164- acres 

of barley land, - 6 12 O 
Seed, "-, 850 

Sowing, - - o 4 i-J- 
Water-furrowing, o 83 ]-** 
One earth on 8-1 acres 

of oat land, ><~i 14 Q 
Seed, - 4 -5 o 

Sowing, .*- - o" 2 IT 
Water-furrowing, 043 
Clover-feed, 25 acres, 500 
Sowing, -063 

Harrowing, i 5 o 

65 3 6 



Carry over, / 

X 2 Labour* 



Brought over, . 368 1 6 6 

Labour. 

I make a variation here 
from any of the pre- 
ceding farms : With 
this quantity of land 
it is neceflary to cal- 
culate the whole la- 
bour of the farm into 
one fum,from which, 
a deduction of one 
man's labour may be 
made for the farmer, 
if he works, and no 
deduction if he does 
not, viz. 

25 Acres of wheat, 
ploughed fix times, 
at I s. ps r acre, . 7 10 o 

One harrowing, at I d. o q i 

Sowing, - - o 12 6 

"Water-furrowing, I 50 

Weeding, - -150 

Reaping and harveft- 

ing, at 6 d. - 7100 

Carryover, . 18 47 -,68 16 6 

Thraihing 



( S9 ) 

Brought over, . 18 47 368 16 6 
Thrafhing the crop, 

3 quarters per acre, 

at 2 /. 7100 

Carryingitoutioquar- 

ters at a time, I day 

each time, of 2 men, 

call it, - o 16 o 

25 Acres of fpring 

corn, ploughed 3 

times, 3 : .I o 

Three harrowings, o 6 Q 

. ^ 

Sowing, - o 6 Q 

xTr r ? 

Water-furrowing, o 12 6 
Rolling, at 1 </. - o i" o{- 
Mowing andharvefting 



at . . 

Thraming the crop* 4 

quarters per acre, 

at,,. - 500 

Carrying out 167 acres 

of barley, 4 quarters ; , ibr<i1 

per acre, 1 2 quarters 3 ^ ^ 

at a time ; I day, of 

2 men, .-'- o 10 o 

Carry over, jT. 42 i J~ 368 16 6 
X 3 Sowing 



Btought over, . 42 i 7^ 368 16 6 
Sowing 25 acres of 

clover, 063 

25 Acres of beans, 

ploughed 3 times, 3150 
Sowing, - -150 
Water - furrowing 

twice, - 150 

Ploughing between- 
the rows three times; 



twice reckoned equal 
to one ploughing, i J 7 6 
Hand-hoeing once, 656 
Reaping and harveft- 

ing, at;,. - 8' 150 
Thrashing the crop, 3 

quarters pef'acie, at 

i s. - 3150 

Carrying out 9 quar- 
ters at a time, i 

day, 4 men, 0160 

Chopping and raking 

25 acres of wheat 

Hubble, at i s. 6d. i 17 6 



Carryover, .71 18 107368 16 6 

Carting 
. 



f 3" 


1 




Brought over> < ft^i 


fr^p^ift 


^ 


Carting ditto to farm- ' : 


L : '!f;')' 'Hi" r..* 




yard 4 days work, r 


hinr-rniBioiit 




2 men, - ~p 


So ifa^fe 




Mowing and making - 


. B -V ^ ,B^J> 




7 acres of clover 


^frs^niiiri ?^t 




into hay, - -x : .. 


8 .0 




Loading, carting ditto. 


^ ..'vb Jj; .^nt 




home, and ftacking, 


' - ,W- 




4 days work of 6 i 


D'ft 3*JS^'0^fD 


I 


men, at i s. 4 d. I 


I5Z ,:p- J 




Ditching 200 perches,- . 


ti s/lj lo f3;lr>m 




at i s. - vio 


l)Qi!9?b;:o[ ci 




The old ditch, if filled 






up, may be made 4 


J gfthdrn ><>!: 




feet wide at top, 3 


rftiao nriJ LTS 




feet deep, and 18 


:SW aiS/fj 130 




inches wide at bot- 


ittJj ^fi Wf>*3 




tom, for the above 


. f '>'j|lO "ipV'O 




price, but if it is of 


AM te ^fc^J 




any fize then 5 feet 






by 4. In either cafe 


?] 8d^ 5l:r!l 




there will come out 


jfKol t .i ^ j.u 




of it 3 loads of earth 






per perch, or 600 






loads, half of thefe 






Carry over, . 85 


6 io 368 16 


6 


X 4 




to 



( 3'* ) 



Brought over, . 85 6 


104. 368 16 6 


to be carted into 




the farm-yard ; 20 




load a day are 15 





days, 3 d. a load 




the fill ing and i s. 


' 


3 d. the man driv- 




ing, at 6s. 3 </. a 


i 


day, - - 4 13 


9 


I calculate the 14 




head of cattle will 




inaice or trie itraw 
12 loads of dung 


. 


each, or 1 68 loads; 




for mixing thefe 




and the earth un- 




der them well to- 





gether by turning 




over once, 468 




loads, at i d. I 19 


o 


Filling and fpreading 


. 


thefe 468 loads, 




at 3 j. a fcore, or 




day, and i s. 3 d 




per day the man 




Carryover, ,91 19 


7f 368 16 6 




driving 



( 313 ) 

Brought over, jC-9 1 I 9 7r 368 16 

driving away : 

call it 24 days, at 

4 s. 3 d. - 5 >,,,,,, ,, 
Cutting 40 bufhels 

of chaffer week 

for the horfes, 

fuppofe 2 months, 

as the reft of the 

J.4*i.W ) ..iSC*-- JKi. 

crop will do for 
the reft of the 
winter, 320 bu- 
fhels, att< o 13 4 

Carting home the 
faggots which a- 
rife in the ditch, 
fuppofe 2 days a 
men, : - ;^ 040 

20 Days employed 
in bringing ma- 
nure from the 
neareft town, i 
load a day; 2, 
men, - 200 

Sundry fmall arti- 
cles of labour, 



Carryover, .99 18 n^. 368 16 6 

fuch 



Wighrover, .:99 : i8 ii^'^S 16 6 
fuch as cleaning 
out hogs, bring- 
ing up the cbws$ ' " " 
goingof errands, 
frightning ver- 
min, &c. &c. rwnorf oilt i 1 
&c. thefe will - {0frr: 
be beft eftimat- 
ed by fuppofmg 
them to amount 
to the pay of a 
boyat6^.a-idayTj_ o <> 

^J^lPltil 

Suppofe the farmer 

earns, - 15 o - o 



Sundry 


V3 

articles. 


. 


% t 


Shoeing, ' ''-'' . 2 8 







r> 


Wear and tear, 


15" o 









Houfe-keeping, 


20 









Market expences, 


3 


o 






20 Loads manure, 






, 




at 5 s. 


5 


o 










A -* 


8 


o 


Cafh in hand to anfwer ) 


508 






3 


54- 


, incidental expences, $ 




- 


o 






^558 


3 


5i- 


There 



There are numerous- variatibns" in this 
account from the preceding ones, \tfhbh it 
would be endlefs to' !e-fcrjlain particularly, 
but fome deviations are tbo flrong to be 
paffedWerV^ 

RenW 

This article I have funk a little, as the 
'farm increafes in fize :-- not, however, that 
this is to be a maxim, for it will not hold 



Implement:- 

It was necefTary, as I allowed four horfes 
to the farm, to charge a waggon ; the pur- 
chafing- that implement mould always de- 
pend on the numbdr of horfes. The reft 
of the articles under this head are increafed 
in price fomewhat in proportion to the bu- 
fineis of the farm. 

Livejtock. 

Where four horfes are kept, it is abfo- 
lutely neceflary that they mould be good 
ones : more fo by far than when only 
two or three are the number, as a waggon 
fhould be employed at all leifure times in 
the purchafe of manures, which cannot be 
done to advantage unlefs the horfes are 
flrong ones. 

Sheep 



C 316 } 

Sheep wototd have been, in many refpeU, 
a much more advantageous flock for fueh a 
farm than cc>ws; but then the artiele of 
manure, required that the ftraw of a farm 
ffiould be confuraed on it, as much dung is 
thereby raifed; which, upon an arable 
farm,, can only be done by cows, for beafts 
will riot fat on clover. If the farm ie 
fhuated where cattle can be had at joift in 
the ftraw yard, that way of confuming the 
flraw will be more advantageous than by 
cows. 

Seed and tillage. 

I throw this farm, like the preceding ones 
of the fame kind, into four parts; one, is 
cropped every year with wheat ; another 
with beans in drills for fallow; the third 
with fpring-corn; and the fourth with 
clover. The fprmg corn I divide into bar- 
ley and oats > of the latter enough to feed 
four horfeSi and the quantity I calculate as 
follows. I fuppofe them to be fed. with 
corn through the months of October, No- 
vember, December, January, February, 
March, April, and May ; there is no fort 
of occafion (nor is it ever done as I at pre- 
fent know) to give a horfe oats while he is 

in 



( 317 ) 

in good clover. Through thofe months, 
that is 34 weeks, I allow the four 8 buftiels 
a week, or 272 buftiels;' which, at 4<jrs, 
per acre, are 87 acres. 

As to the crops which I have fuppofed, 
they are, I am -confident, fuch as cannot be 
objected to, being rather below than over 
the truth j for the manuring I fuppofe is - 
certainly confiderable ; 20 loads of good 
towQ-ames or dung, and all the ditch-earth 
fo well managed, if they do not produce 
fuch crops as I have fketched, will yield 
nothing. 

Labour. 

This article muft neceflarily vary greatly 
in different places, but the prices I have 
iuppofed cannot be very far from the truth: 
I think I have omitted no work of confe- 
quence upon fuch a farm, nor inferted any 
which is ufelefs. The care of the horfes I 
fuppofe to come into every account ; for 
inftanqe, ploughing I call a milling an acre, 
but then in that milling is included the af- 
ternoon employed about the horfes : I charge 
this work at I s. per acre, becaufe in fum- 
mer more than an acre may be done in a 

day : however, here is fcarce any 

fu miner 

I 



(f 318 ) 

flimmer ploughing* consequently that price 
cannot be objected to. 

The hay of 7 acces of clover Ifuppofe to 
be fufficient for the cows and horfes. With 
the amftance of the ftraw of the crop, one 
cannot eftimate the quantity at lefs than 20 
tons; and the 18 acres are Undoubtedly 
fufficient for their fummer food. 

There are feveral eftimates and calcula- 
tions in this article of labour, which it was 
neceflary to make in order for rendering it 
fufficiently comprehenfive : I can only fay 
they are fuch as my experience beft 
juitifies. 

I do not charge the total of a man's la- 
bour even to the farmer, at more than 
15 /. As- 1 fuppofe him to favour himfelf 
fomewhat, and never do any work but with 
his horfes, we muft drop the fuppofitions 
of hard labour in proportion as we advance 
in fubftance; but no alteration is thence 
to be made reflecting the fuperiority over 
the gentleman, becaufe this I5/. will tin- 
doubtedly be thrown into fuch works as 
will have moft efficacy in keeping the horfes 
weU- employed.; the farmer will take care 
and favour himfelf in fuch as are leaft pre- 
judicial- 



judicial. However, this is but a fuppofition,. 
and it remains in the farmer's breaft to give 
the whole of his time ; : .whereas it is byjjQ, 
means at the option of the gentleman to do 
the fame. ;/ j; ,,; j^ 

. r . .. r . i -., . , Sundry articles. 

Wear and tear I have proportioned to the 
farm as nearly as I am able ; and houfe- 
keeping is increafed, that the eftimate may 
be the nearer to truth. Market ex- 
pences are added for the firft time ; in like 
manner, others may hereafter arife ; for it 
is JTo in real bufinefs : we find expences, in 
one rank of farmers, unknown^ to others 
below them. 

It is neceflary upon the .whole of this farm 
to remark (and the obfervation is applicable 
to many of the preceding ones) that no good 
farmer would keep the whole of his farm in 
tillage, for fear of failure of the clover crop, 
which, though not common, yet does now 
and then happen ; he would, for this reafon, 
have 4 or 5 acres in grafs of his own lay- 
ing in cafe of fuch an accident, but fo fmall 
a variation is not of confequence enough to 
take into this account. And Iknow feve- 
ral farms that have not one acre, depending 

entirely 



entirely upon clover, nor did I ever hear of 
a difappointment. The cafe is, fuch depen- 
dance makes the farmer more than com- 
monly attentive to this crop ; he manures 
the field well, never fows it but with a firft 
crop, and on land in excellent order ; when 
fuch management is practifed, failures will 
very feldom be heard of. I have remarked 
this frequently, and I believe it is the fame 
with all crops. We next come to the an- 
nual account of this farm. 

Expences. /. /. d. 

Rent, &c. - - . 119 o o 
Seed for 25 acres of wheat, 15 o o 
Ditto 25 acres of fpring- 

corn, - - - 12 10 o 
Ditto 25 of clover, - -500 
Ditto 25 of beans, - 10 o o 

Labour, - - - 93 18 nt 

Sundries, - 45 8 o 

. 300 16 114. 

Produce. 
25 Acres of wheat, 3 qrs. 

per acre, 75 qrs. at 48 s. . 180 o o 



Carryover, /". 100 o o 
1 6 Acres 



( -3** ) 



Brought over, 


k 180 o o 


164. Acres of barley, -4 qrs. 




per acre, 66 qrs. at 16 s. 


;52 16 ^ 


25 Acres of beans, 3 qrs. 


t^tibaftt^inl 


fer acre, 75 qrs. at 32 r. 


iz^'^'b^'b* 


10 Cows, - " - ' &% 


50 o o 





. 402 r6"'o' 


Expences, 


300-16 ni. 





101 19 ot 


Dedud intereft of flock, - 


2.7 18 o 


Profit, - - *-" d 

f * O ^ ** 


C- 74 i t 



This profit is not inconfiderable, but it 
is not fo great- as thofe would expecl, who 
give into the common but vulgar notion, 
that a farmer makes a rent after all ex- 
pences are paid ; which I do not think is 
ever done in common, when land is let to 
its value. - The crops are very confiderable, 
and fueh as no flovenly or moderate farmers 
ever reap, let their land be as good as it 
may; but which, with the hufbandry I 
have fuppofed, is not rated too high. - - 
We will jiext enquire into the particulars 
of this farm in a gentleman's hands. 

Voi. I. Y Variation 



Variation the third. 



Stock. 
Rent, &c. as before, 
Implements, - 
Live flock, - 
Seed and tillage, 
Labour, .i8 18 ni 
27 per cent. 29 8 o 

Sundries. 
Wear and tear, .17 8 o 
Manure, - 5 
Market, - 300 


/. 

H9 
73 ] 
in 

*5 

25 
5 


j. 



:3 



3 
6 

8 




d. 

o 



6 
lit 





Cafh in hand to anfwer inci- 
dental expences, 




582 : 


[i 


5t 


ANNUAL ACCOUNT. 
Expences. I. s. 
Rent, - - 119 
Seed, - - 42 10 
Labour, - ' 138 6 
Sundries, - - - 25 8 


d. 



o 

nf 





S 4 nt 
Pro- 



( 3*3 ) 

Produce. I. s. d. 

The fame, - - 402 16 o 

Expences, - - 3^5 4 **T 

77 I* 4- 
Intereft of ftock, A*?* 2920 



.48 9 <4 

The reader cannot be too often reminded 
that there is fome degree of fallacy in the 
remainders of fuppofed profit, at the bot- 
tom of the gentleman's accounts : and this 
of fuch a kind as not to admit of remedy, 
from the impoffibility of reducing it to cal- 
culation. The farmer, as before explained, 
has fo many advantages in common huf- 
bandry over the gentleman, that it is very 
improbable he fhould be. equalled in pro- 
duce at fo fmall an additional expence as 
32 per cent, in one article only. However, 
the reader may eafily judge that the remain- 
ing 48 /. may very quickly difappear, if the 
management is not equal to the farmer's ; . 
if the gentleman is cheated or if he em- 
ploys a bailey, it will foon be fwallowed 
up. 

Y 2 COM- 



( 3*4 ) 

COMPARISON. /. s. d. 

Gentleman's ftock 582,11 5^ 

Farmer's ditto, * 5.38 3. 57 

Superiority of the latter, 44 8 o 

Profit of the farmer, f "94 I t 

Ditto of the gentleman, - 48 9 07 

Superiority of the former, 45* 1 2 o 



Farmer's profit per cent. 22 12 o 

Gentleman's ditto, - 13 4 o 

Superiority of the former, .9 8 o 

This ftate of the cafe fhews fufficiently, 
that a gentleman, if he would rival the far- 
mer upon fuch a farm as is here ftated, 
muft have recourfe to fome.thing beyond the 

- J 

common practice. 

I fhall not multiply cafes beyond neceflity, 
but if I was to forbear to throw each farm 
in o different views, I mould fail in one 
etTential part of my defign; thefc fheets 
would then be of ufe to the common farmer 
fcbne: It is my bufmefs to {hew the gen- 
tleman, as well as the farmer, how he may . 
f/Tdifpofe of his money. Here follows 

* Hoiifekeeping cL'du#ed, as before remarked. 
} Ditto added. 

--'-'-^ 3 acaU 



a calculation of another way of diipofmg 
of this fum of money, which, if he executes 
withTpirit as well as, prudence, will pay 
him much better than -the common one. 
But as this hufbandry which I am going to 
propofe ^requires a larger Hock propor- 
tioned fo the land than the preceding^ I 
fhall calculate for only 50 acres, which wilt 
amount to as large a i'um as the farmer's 
100. The fyftem 1 aim at is the culture 
of lucerne and cabbages ; the one to feed 
cattle with in fummer, and the other in 
winter. 

I fhould premife, left I "be fufpc&ed of 
digreffing into imaginary -hufbandry, that 
I fhall fuppofe nothing but what has really 
been executed ; I fhall more than once wifh 
to fubftitute a ftrong idea, iilftead of per- 
haps weaker facts> but 4t muft not be:-. I 
fhall, however, pay due reverence to the 
maxim What has been^ may be. ' \" J ^ 

- \ 

T T - 

. A - , 



Y 3 




( 3*6 ) 

Variation the fourth. 

50 Acres, all arable, the foil clay or loam\ 
upon improved principles. 

Stock. 

Rent, &c. I s. d. 

Rent at i /. . 59 

Ty the, at 4 s. - i o 
Rates, &c. 4 s. - 10 

Implements. 

2 Carts, - . 20 o o 
A Plough, - - i ii 6 
Harrows, - 200 

Roller, - - i 10 o 
Harnefs for 2 horfes, 300 
Screen, forks, rakes, 

lines, &c. - 4 
Sacks, 2 

Dairy furniture, 10 



2 Horfes, 
12 Cows, 




Carry over, jf . 90 00114 i 6 

12 Beafts, 



i 327 ) 

Brought over, . 90 00114 i (. 
12 Beafts, - 60 o o 
3 Sows, - -300 

153 o c 

Seed and tillage. 
Four earths, on ia4- 
acres of wheat- 
land, - . 10 o o 
Seed, - - 7 10 o 
Sowing, - ^063 
Water-furrowing, o 12 6 
Two earths for 12^- 

acresof fpringcorn, 4 6 o 
Seed, - - 650 
Sowing, - - o 3 i 
Water-furrowing, 063 
47 Acres of clover- 
feed, and fowing, o 19 IT 
8 Acres of cabbage 
feed, - 140 

31 i* 3 

Sundry articles. 
Shoeing, and wear 

and tear, .5 o o 

12 Loads of ftraw, 900 

14 o o 

Carryover, .312 13 9 
Y 4 Labour. 



-. Brought over, .312 13 g 

Labour. 
J?ive earths on 8 acres 

of cabbage land, '.2 o o 
Pigging the feed-bed 

and fowing, - 030 
Planting at 5 s. 2 o Q 

Jour horfe hoeings, at 

6 d. - 0160 
Two hand hoeings, at 

Ss. -* - 340 

Cutting the cabbages, 

and carting home at 

5*. 200 

five earths pn 1 2 acres 

fallow, 5- 300 

Weeding 127 acres of 

wheat, - - o 12 6 
Heaping and harvefting 

at 6 s. r- - 3 i. o 
fhrafhing the crop, 

27 qrs. per acre, at 

2 s. 320 

flowing and harv^ftr- 

Jng, 121. acres of 

firing-corn, at 4 ^ 2 10 o 

Carry overj .23 2 6 312 13 9 

Thrihing 



( 3*9 ) 

Brought over .23 26312139 
Thrafhing, 4 quarters 

per acre, at I s. 2 i6~o 

Chopping and raking- 

124- acres of wheat 

ftubble, at i j. 6 </; o 18 9 
Carting ditto to the 

farm-yard, - 076 
Mowing, and making, 

and carting 2 acres 

of clover, - 140 

Ditching 50 perches, at 

i s. - - 2 10 o 
Carting ditch earth on 

to land, 1 50 loads, 13 

loads a day of 3 men, 2 o 
Carting dung out of 

the farm-yard, i CO 

J * arr,*it<>wf fns rigtiiw 

loads, 12 a day of 3 

men, fcfij^i <*t 7*1 2' o,p 
Turning it over, o 12 6 

Carting home faggots, o I 6 
Hollow ditching 12 ^{J 

acres of fallow, 32 

inches deep, 4 inches 

Carryover, .35 9 3 12 J 3 9 

-% wide 



{ 330 ) 

Brought over, .35 69 312 13 9 
wide at bottom, and 
1 8 at top Digging, 
filling up, materials, 
carting, &c. at 9 d. 
a perch, 80 per a- 
cre, 960, - 36 o o 
Sundry fmall articles 

of work, - 300 

-74 69 
27 per cent* * 19-11 Q 

93 *7 9 
ii 6 



The defign of this farm is to have it re- 
gularly cropped with 12, acres of lucerne, 
8 of cabbages, 1 5 of clover, 1 2 '- of wheat, 
and I2T of fpring corn: The 12 acres 
which are this firft year under fallow are 
defigned for lucerne the next fpring ; but 
as that vegetable is by no means in perfec- 
tion the firft (or even the fecond) year, I 
have fuppofed under half the ftock of cattle 
now bought: The 12 cows it will main- 
tain the firft year very well ; 4 acres of 
cabbages will (with the afliftance of the 
ftraw) winter-feed that number. The iq 
4 beafts 



( 33' ) 

beafls charged are to be fatted upon the 
other 4 acres. 

As fo large a flock of cattle are kept, it 
is neceflary to purchafe fome flraw every 
year; I have fuppofed 12 loads, but the 
more is bought, the more dung will be 
raifed, and confequently the greater crops 
of all forts. The produce of this firfl year 
will be as follows : /. s. d. 

I2f Acres of wheat, - 5 o o 

9 Ditto of barley, ^ a-d'efT- 2 7 
12 Fat beafls, - - 84 o o 

. 161 o o 



The fecond year the land will be thus 
cropped in the proper order, and the ac- 
count fland thus : 

Exjpences. 
Rent, &c. 

i a Cows, - - - 
8 Beafls, 
3 Sows, - 

Seed, i2| acres of wheat feed, 
Ditto 124 fpring corn, 
Ditto 5 of clover, 
Ditto 12 of lucerne, 

Carryover, . 191 70 
Labour. 




( 33* ) 

Brought overj -191 7 *> 

Labour. 
One earth on ^ acres 

of clover land, ..056 
Three ditto 6n 74. 

flubble, *- 126 
Sowing, - o 6 3 

Water-furrowing, o 12 6 
Weeding, reaping, 
harvefting, and 
thrashing, as be-- 
fore, - 79*> 

Two earths on 12^- 

acres of fpring- 

corrt, - l^o 

Sowing^ * o 3 14. 

Water-furrowing,* 063 
Mowing, harveftV 

ing, and thraih- 

ing, - - '5 oO 
Chopping, raking, 

and carting ilub- 

ble, - i6 5 

Mowing,making and 

carting clover, 140 



Carryover, . 19 o 44. 191 7 6 

Ditching 



( 333 ) 

Brought over, . 19 o 4! 191 7 o 

Ditching and carting 
the earth, and 
mixing dung, 7,2 6 ,rti>iV lur* 

Carting faggots, o i -6 

Sundry fmall articles 

of work, &... 3 o o 

Labour as before on 
8 acres of cab- 
bages, 10 3 ; 

Two earths on 'ife ~ 
acres of lucerne 
land, % 140 '>^\ ^ c ^ 

Harrowing, " "~- cT 3 9 

Drilling : The 'ex- 
pence by hand- 
work would be fo 
great, that theonly 
way of -effecUng 
this, work, is by . 
buying a drill- 
plough, 8 o 

Re-fold after 

fowing, 400 

- 4 o o 



Carryover, -44 J 4 4>- 191 7 o 



f 334 ) 

Brought over, . 44 14 4^ 19! 7 o 
Labour, drilling at 

6 d. per acre, o 60 

Four hand-hoeings, 

at 6 s. - 1480 
Cutting three times, 

at i s. 6 d. - 2140 
Raking together, 

loading and cart- 
ing home, at i s. 

6d. - 2 14 o 

. 64 16 4^ 
2 7 /tfr cf A - 17 30 

8 1 19 4*. 

Sundry articles. 
Shoeing, wear and tear, and 

ftraw, - 14 o o 



Produce. 

i2j- Acres of wheat, at 5 /. 
9 Acres of barley, - 
12 Cows, - 

8 Fat beads, 




Expences, 



( 33* ) 



Expences, 
Produce, 




Intereftoffiock .-'i 

.108 844- 

O i, 1 , r 

This firft year or the lucerne- being thus 
carried through with good and fufficient 
culture, upon the moderate allowance of 
maintaining a cow per acre, will the next 
yield a fuffieient produce for 2 cows and 
fatting a hei&r befides, per acre. The 8 
acres of 1 tfabbages (which I fuppofe to im- 
prove for fome time) will alfo winter-feed 
(with fhe afMance of the ftraw) the cows, 
and fat befides a heifer or fleer, per acre, 
to the improvement of 40 s. The account 
of the third year will ftand thus : 

Expences. L s. d. 

$ent, &'c; **> -? - ft ". .70 o o 
^ Beafts, - r ^ r : . 40 o o 
f2 Heifers, - 36 o o" 

Seed for 1 2f acres of wheat ; 
1 2 A f fpring corn ; 5 of 
clover"; and 8 of cab- 
bages, 15 19 o* 

Carryover, . 161 190 

Labour 



( 336 ) 

Brought over, . 161 19 o 
Labour as before on 

every articje but lu- 

cerne, - . 39 7 4 t 
Three hand-hoeings, 10 16 o 
Four horfe-hoeings, I 40 
Cutting, raking, load- 

ing, and carting, at 

3 s. five times, - 9 o o 

. 6~77t 
$j per cent. - 16 a o 

- 76 9 4f 

Sundry articles, - - 14 o o 

. 25_2__8 jt 

'Produce. I. ,. d. 

127 Acres of wheat, 62 10 o 

9 Of barley, 27 o o 

24 Cows, - 1 20 o o 

8 Fat beafts, - 56 o o 

12 Ditto heifers, - 60 o o 

325 jo o 
Expences, - - 252 8 44. 



Intereft of flock, 
Pro-fit, 




la 



( 337 ) 

In the fourth and fucceflive years fome 
variations mould be made, for allowing for 
the improvement of the crops. Thd lu- 
cerne will be much better ; confidering that 
fo large an expence in hand-hoeing, befides 
horfe- hoeing is allowed; and remem- 
bering that the foil is a dry found rich clay, 
the putre folum, which this vegetable de- 
lights in, it would be a low eftimation to 
affign to each acre the feeding three cows 
through the fummer, and efpecially as 
many lucerne plantations, now in being 
throughout different parts of the kingdorm 
do actually yield a much greater produce; 
yet, to keep within bounds, and lay thefe 
calculations open to as few objections as 
poffible, I (hall fuppofe the regular produce ta 
be feeding two cows, and fatting two fmall 
heifers, which is not equal to the feeding 
three cows. 

The cabbages alfo, as the culture im- 
proves, and the manure increafes with the 
cattle, will become annually more bene- 
ficial ; the wonders that have been done in 
fome parts of England with this vegetable, 

VOL. I. Z are 



( 333 ) 

are too much beyond any thing in the com- 
mon hufbandry to allow me to fuppofe any 
imaginary gentleman fully to equal. Cab- 
bages have been cultivated over whole fields 
in Yorkfhire, &c. up to 30 L and even 
40 /. value. I have, in experiments not 
fo large, carried their value to 10 /. and 
12 I. per acre ; nor can I eftimate them 
here at lefs than I o /. per acre ; the rich- 
nefs of the foil, the great expence of drain- 
ing, notwithftanding any former drains^ 
and the thorough manuring the cabbage 
land gets every year. ,1 mail calculate the 
8 acres of cabbages to winter-feed, with the' 
aijiflance of the itraw, the 24 cows ; which 
is three cows per acre; but it is well known 
that an acre of cabbages will winter (with . 
plenty of ftraw) 6 or 8 cows, for lean cattle 
are t only to have ftated portions every day, 
inftead of hay : I mail further fuppofe each 
acre of cabbages to fat 2 beafts of 5 /. value 
to 2 /. improvement. The clover is partly 
provided for the young hogs to graze in, to 
bring them to a proper fize for felling 
advantageoufly at market. It is almoft 
furprifmg the number a. fmgle acre will fo 

feed 



( 339 ) 

feed. The following and every fucceffive 
year's account will ftand thus: 

Ex fences, 1, j, d. 

Rent, &c, - -/- jt" . 70 oo 

16 Beafts, 'V- '~"]*~ '."* 80 o o 

24 Heifers, - - 72 o o 
Seed for wheat, fpring-corn, 

clover, and cabbages, .^.rV J 5 *9 

Labour^ T - - 7^ 9 44- 

Sundry articles, ,r M * ! 4 

- - __i i - - 

jC- 3^8 8 44 



124. Acres of wheat, - ^. 62 10 o 

9 Of barley, v ^r - 27 o o 

24 Cows, "' - MV - 120 o o 

16 Fat beafts, - 11300 

24 Ditto heifers, ;^ - J20 o 



441 10 o 

Expences, v*''.' r $ ^. 328 8 4! 

U3 * 74- 

Intereft of ftock, j ; . 29 2 o 

Profit, - ^' 



General Account, 

Firft flock, '_* \ -4 6 * 6 

Carry over, . 406 i 6 
Z ^ Produce 



( 340 ) 

Brought over, . 406 i 6 

Produce of the iirft year, 
below the expence of 
the fecond, - - 126 6 47 

Produce of the fecond be- 
low the expence of the 
third, &c. 46 1 8 4^ 

Produce of the third year 
below the expence of the 
reft, - - 2 18 44. 

Total requifite to flock this 

farm, > . 582 4 74. 

Which fum pays 197. 8 s. per cent. 

COMPARISON. 

Gentleman's ftock in a com- 
mon farm of 100 acres, . 582 u 5^- 

A farmer's ditto, . 538 3 57 

Gentleman's on an improv- 
ed farm of 50 acres, - . 583 47^- 

Profit of the farmer from 

100 acres, - . 94 j 07 

Ditto of the gentleman, . 48 9 oj- 

Ditto of ditto from 50 acres, . 84 2 y-J- 

The farmer's profit per cent. 

on 1 00 acres- - . 22 12 o 

The 



( 341 ) 

The gentleman's ditto, JT. 13 4 o 

The ditto on 50 acres, J 9 80 

Upon this companion, it is in general to 
be remarked, that the {mail farm is, in the 
hands of the gentleman, almoft as advan- 
tageous as the larger one in thofe of the 
farmer, which is a great difference ; for if 
the gentleman, by means of thefe improve- 
ments, gains fo large a produce as to pay 
all the difadvantages he is charged with in 
comparifon with the farmer, and yet fecure 
a profit nearly equal to his, and at the 
fame time effects this upon half the num- 
ber of acres, whereby his attention is 
contracted, his trouble much leflened, and 
his whole bufmefs fimplified ; if he can 
do this, the method, undoubtedly, is much 
worthy attention. 

I have not here proved that this is pof- 
fible, becaufe I am not at prefent regiilering 
experiments; but I draw up thefe calcu- 
lations on the foundation of experiments 
which I have either made myfelf, or been 
acquainted with of others. All that is 
here luppofed has undoubtedly been ex- 
ceeded in real practice. 

Z 3 One 



( 34* ) 

Orie circumftance, at leaft, is in favour of 
thefe eftimates ; the reader no where meet& 
with marvellous relations of profit, by which 
a fortune is at once to be made from pof- 
fefling a few hundreds: I by no means 
profefs to teach any one how to make a 
great eftate in a few years : all fuch pre- 
tences are mere quackery. Whoever expects 
to make a fortune in farming from a fmall 
capital, is but in a dream. Fortunes may 
certainly be made in it ; and as large as in 
any bufmefs, but I much queftion whether 
the fiock necefTary is not as great as for a 
merchant to do it in commerce. But of 
this more hereafter. 

The moft that is made in thefe three 

farms is 22 per cent. now this muft be 

reckoned but moderate profit in a bufmefs 
wherein fo fmall a fum as perhaps 100 /. is 
the capital in trade. Branches of traffic, in 
which a fmall -capital maintains a family^ 
muft have large profits^ and 20 per cent, is 
certainly a confiderable profit, take every 
profeffion and bufmefs in one view ; but by 
no means fo, if only fuch as I have deicribed 
are taken into the account. In my pri- 
vate opinion, no lefs profit than 30 per cent. 
3 fhould 



( 343 ) 

fhbuld be thought, in agriculture, great, or 
even fufficient. There are no infurances 
in farming* 

It appears from the preceding comparifpn*' 
that if gentlemen think of equalling the 
profit of the farmer, it muft be by ex- 
pending as large a fum of money upon half 
the land, and exerting his attention upon 
fuch improved crops as yield a much greater 
profit than any common ones. 



Variation theffth. 

One hundred acres, half graft, and half 
arable, the foil clay or loam. 

Stock. 

r> "" x t i ro *rf"^ * 
Rent, or. /. s. d. 

loo Acres, atly/. . 85 o o 
Tythe^ at 4 J. ' ^ *fr- ; - 17 o o 
Ratesj at 4 s. 17 o o 

119 o o 
Implements. 

2 Carts* &|O- ^.20 o o 
A plough, i ii 6 

Harrows, - - i? 10 o 
Roller, V *p - 2 o o 
Harnefs for 3 horfes, 3 10 o 

Carry over, . 29 n 6 119 o o 
Z 4 Screen, 



( 344 ) 

Brought over, . 29 11 6 119 o o 
Screen, buihel, forks, 
rakes, lines, &c. &c. 
&c. - 3 10 o 

Sacks, - - 300 

Dairy furniture, - 300 

39 * 6 

Livejlock. 

3 Horfes, * . 45 oo 
5 Cows, ** 50 o o 
i Sow, * ' i o o 

5 Steers, - 35 o o 

55 Heifers, ^J 165 o o 

296 o o 

Seed and tillage. 
4 Earths, on 127 acres 

of wheat land, . IO 
Seed, ;;* o . ^ -""_' 7100 
Sowing, * ~ 063 
Water-furrowing, o 12 6 
Two earths, on 12 1 acres 

of fpring-corn land, 500 
Seed, - 650 

Sowing, - - o 3 it 
Water-furrowing, 063 

Carryover, . 30 3 if 454 i 6 

1 2~ Acres 




( 345 
Brought over, .30 

lat Acres of clover, 
and fowing, 

Harrowing, 

Two earths on ist 
acres of bean-land, 

Seed, 

Sowing, 

Water-furrowing, 



Labour. 

If the farmer works 
conftantly, as he may 
be fuppofed to do, 
upon only 50 arable 
acres, this will a- 
mount to the fame 
fum as N$ i. ch. xviii. 

or 23 / 3 * 4t <! 
but we will fuppofe 
his only 15 /. 33 3 4t 
Add for additional ma- 
nuring, - 4 To o 

37 13 4f 

Carryover, jC-535 1 3 
Sundry 



( 346 ) 

Brought over, . 535 13 o 
Sundry articles. 
Shoeing, and wear and 

tear, - . 4 10 o 
Houfe-keeping, 20 o 
Market expences, 200 

-- ~ . 26 io o 

5 6 2 3 o 

The ANNUAL ACCOUNT. 

Expences. 

Rent, &c. - . 119 o 

55 Heifers and 5 fleers, 200 o o 

Seed for 127 acres of wheat, 
127 of fpring-corn and 
clover; and 1 27 of treans, 21 50 
Labour, - 37 13 4 f 

Sundries, - - - 26 io o 
. / c( r 

'404 8 47 



Produce. 

127 Acres of wheat, - . 6$ io o 

9 Of barley, - - 27 o o 

127 Beans, - - . - 50 o o 

5 Cows, - . - 25 o o 

Carry over, . 



( 347 ) 

I r : ' Brought over, . 164 10 O 

5 Fat fleers, - :^i 55 o a 

55 Ditto heifers, ; *.: 275 o o 



.494 10 o 
Expences, - - - 404 8 4t 

9 * 7t 
Intereft of ftock, - 28 3 o 

Profit, - - - - 61 19 7t 

In the Hocking of this farm I have in 
part conducted myfelf with an eye to the 
50 acres once before inferted; but made 
fuch variations, as the different fubftance 
of the men, and the manure from more 
cattle made necefTary. The 5 fteers I fup- 
pofe kept through the winter with the cows 
upon ftraw, not only for increafmg the 
quantity of manure, but alfo for the advan- 
tage of having them ready for the fpring- 
grafs ; and if the farmer lies advantageoufly 
for buying a little hay or a few turnips for 
them, to get them into flefh, they will pay 
the better-} and it is needlefs to charge fuch 
expences, as they are quite. uncertain, and 
the return will be in proportion the larger. 

Ageri- 



( 348 ) 

A gentleman's profit, on fuch a farm as 
this, muft be ftated differently. His ac- 
count will fland thus : 



Stock. 


/. /. a. 


Rent, &c. 


119 o o 


Implements, 


39 * 6 


Live flock, 


206 o o 


Seed and tillage, 


43 18 it 


Labour ; before, 52 


13 4t 


27 per cent. - 14 







(\(\ T A \- 




uu 13 4^ 


Sundries, 


6 10 o 




57 1 3 o 


ANNUAL ACCOUNT. 


Expences. 





Rent, &c. i 


. 119 o o 


S$ Heifers, and 5 fleers, 


200 


Seed, ^-ictciJn: . 


- 21 5 o 


Labour, * "&* 


66 13 47- 


Sundries, 


6 10 o 




/ O r 


Produce* 




The fame, 


.-494 10 o 


Expences, 


- 413 8 4t 




81 i 7t 


Intereft of flock, 


20 13 


Profit, ; :; v' - 


>C- 60 8 7 t 




COM-* 



( 349 ;) 

COMPARISON. 

Gentleman's ftock, . 571 30 

Farmer's ditto, - -. 542 3 o 
Superiority of the latter, . 29 o o 

Produce of both equal. 
Profit per cent, of the farmer, ".19 n o 
Ditto of the gentleman, - 14 30 
Superiority of the latter, .5 80 

N 6. 

Variation thefixth. 

One hundred acres all grafs^ the foil clay qr 
loam* 
Stock. 
Rent, &c. 
Rent of 100 acres, at 

20 s. - . 100 o o 
Tythe, at 4 s. 20 o o 

Rates, &c. &c. at 4 s. 20 o o 

140 o o 

Implements. 

Onefmall three wheel- 
ed cart, - . '6 6 o 
Harnefs for one horfe, i i o o 
Dairy furniture, - i 10 o 
Spades, fhovels, &c. o 15 o 

10 i o 

Carry over, . 150 i o 
Live 



( 35 ) 

Brought over, . 150 i o 
Livejlock. 

1 Horfe, - . 12 o o 

2 Cows, - ,- 10 o o 
i Sow, - - o 15 o 
i25Homebredheifers,375 o o 
Jo Steers, - - 70 o o 

467 1$ o 

Labour. 

Ditching 200 perches, 
at 3 s. for digging, 
carting the earth on to 
land, and fpreading it, 30 o o 
Mowing, making, and 
carting 3 acres of hay, i 50 

o c , .i02 

.PS 3i 5 
The farmer earns f 10 o o 

2150 

Sundry articles. 
Shoeing, and wear and 

tear, - i o o 

Houfe-keeping, - 20 o o 
Market expenees, - i 10 o 

22 10 o 



.661 n o 
The 



( 35i } 

The ANNUAL ACCOUNT. 



Kent, &c. 140 o o 

125 Heifers and 10 fteers, 445. o 

Labour, 3<wL'.7<sn:ul n't 3*11. 21 5 o 

Sundries,-. - -~ . ;-# _22 10 o 



Produce. ^t. d. 

125 Fat heifers, ^^. % ... 625 o Q 
jo Ditto fleers, - - - 1 10 o o 

# C0-WS^ C -Jr.\ - - 10 O O 

oij L> 745 o o, 

116 3 o 

Interefl of flock, ^fa+tg* 33 J Q 
Profit, - - s ^C 83 20 

This profit is .confiderable ; but it does 
not ar.ife from any exaggeration of pro- 
duce ; for fo cgniiderable a. breadth and 
change of paflure as 100 acres allow, will 
enable it to carry a greater proportionable 
flock than a fmaller quantity of land. The 
chief bufinefs of the horfe is the carting the 
ditch earth on to the land : that work I 
fuppofe put out to th labourer to -dig the 
ditch, and cart andjpread the earth, having 
the ufe of the horfe at 3 /. a perch, the 

fame 



( 35* ) 

fame ditch as already defcnhed. This is a 
method I have followed with little three 
wheeled carts, and found it very beneficial 
employment for an odd horfe. The gentle- 
man 'saccountjin this farm, willbe as follows. 
Stock. L s. d. 

Rent, &c. - - 140 o o 

Implements, - 10 i o 

Live ftock, ' ~- 467 15 o 

Labour; before, . 31 50 
27 percent. - 870 

39 12 o 

Sundry articles, f -. f ^ \ - 2 10 o 

. 659 18 o 
The ANNUAL ACCOUNT. 

TZxpences. 

Rent, - . 140 o o 

125 Heifers, and lofteers, 445 o o 
Labour, npU#E - - 39 12 o 

Sundries, - 2 10 o 

.627 2~o 
Produce. 
The fame, 
Expences, 




Jntereft of (lock, - ot^-^^ ^^ 

Profit, aw^if. refUx- ^.4 19 o 

This 



( 353 ) 

This profit is beyond doubt an object 
with many gentlemen : To increafe an in- 
come 85 /. a year, from the employment of 
fuch a fum as 660 /. is no trifle to a gentle- 
man of fmall fortune: It is true, he is 
under fo many difadvantages in buying and 
felling ftock, that deductions may be made 
in the reader's mind, but cannot be by me 
eftimated ; however they are not one tenth 
of thofe that mould be made on all arable 
farms. The difference between them is 
very great: In cultivating 100 acres of 
grafs, the trouble and attention are fcarcely 
to be mentioned, and the profit confider- 
able; but, upon that quantity of arable 
land, both are endlefs ; the profit lefs, 
more hazardous, and open to more deduo 
tions. Surely this fhould caution gentle- 
men from having much to do with the 
plough in common hufbandry. 

Comparifon. L s. d. 

The gentleman's ftock, 659 18 o 

The farmer's, - - 641 no 

Superiority of the latter, . . 1 8 7 o 
Produce equal. 

VOL. I. A a The 



( 354 ) 

The farmer's profit, raw c-i 103 20 

The gentleman's, - ?- 84 ig o 

Superiority of the former, .18 3 o 



The farmer's profit per cent. 21 i o 
The gentleman's, - 17 15 o 

Superiority of the former, .360 

This difference is no confiderable matter; 
an equality in common hufbandry that can 
no where happen but in grafs farms; and 
1 7 per cent, is no trifle for any gentleman 
ever to make of farming. 

N^ 7. 

Variation thefeventh. 

Eighty acres, all arable, the foil light enough 
for turnips* 

Stock, 
Rent, &c. 

Of 80 acres at 18 s.. 72 o o 
Tythe, at 4 s. 1480 

Rates, &c. at 4 s. 14 80 

. 100 i 6 o 



Carryover, . 100 16 o 
Implements . 



( 355 ) 



Brought over, 

Implements. 
One waggon *, -25 
Two carts, 20 
Two ploughs, *- 3 
Pair of harrows, ~ 2 
Two rollers, ; - 3 
Harnefs for four horfes, 6 
Sundry fmall articles," 6 
qo Sacks, - 3 
Dairy furniture, 2 


. 100 16 o 




3 

I0"0 




o o 
o o 
7n 15 6 



Stock. 
4 Horfes, - - .60 o o 

2 COWS, - ^ - 10 |b^" 

I Sow, - - - -""' o 15 o 
loo Sheep, at 16 s. 80 o o 
30 Heifers or fteers, 150 o o 




Carry over, -472 40 



* I pafs many variations from Jeeming rules, without 
explaining the reafons ; it would be endlefs : 80 acres 
may be cultivated with 2 horfes and 2 carts: Here I fup- 
pofe '4, and a waggon befides ; but there is no contradiflion 
in this, if we make the a/additional horfes work well for 
their living ; andviewing the fame objefl .from difFeren c ' 
points, we mall the better difcover every light and {hade 

of k. 

A a 2 Seed 



( 356 ] 

Brought over, .472 40 
Seed and tillage. 

One earth on 20 acres 

of wheat land, . 4 o o 

Seed, --- - 13 o o 

Sowing, - - - - o 50 

Harrowing, i/-*^ I o o 

Water-furrowing, o 10 o 

Three earths on 20 a- 
cres of fpring-corn 
land, - 12 o o 

Seed, - - - - 10 o o 

Sowing, - - -- o 50 

Harrowing, - I o o 

Water-furrowing, 050 

20 Acres of clover- 
feed l ' J i" ' " - .' 4 o o 

Sowing, :-_' .* 050 

Two earths on 20 acres 

of turnjp land fallow, 800 

53 10 

Labour. 

One earth on 20 acres 

of wheat, 

Sowing, - - ; - 
Harrowing, 
Water- furrowing, 
Carry over, 

Weeding 




( 357 ) 

Brought over, .200 525 14 o 
Weeding, - I o o 

Reaping and harveft- 

ing, at 6 s. - 600 
Thrafhing, 3 qrs. per 

acre, at 2 s. -600 
Carrying out 10 qrs. at 

a time, I day of 2 

men, - - o 12 o 
Three earths on 20 

acres of fpring-corn, 300 
Sowing, - -050 
Harrowing, - 050 

Water-furrowing, 050 

Rolling, atJL< - o o 10 
Mowing and harvefling 

at4-r. - - 400 
Thrafhing the crop, 4 

qrs. per acre, at i s, 4 o o 
Carrying out 12 acres 

of barley, 4 qrs. per 

acre, 48 qrs. 1 2 at a 

time, i day of 2 men, 080 
Sowing 20 acres of 

clover, - - 050 

Carry over, . 28 o 10 525 14 o. 

A n 

A a 3 Four 



( 358 ) 

Brought over, .28 o 10 525 14 o 
Four earths more on 

20 acres of turnip- 
land, - - 400 
Four harrowings, o 68 
Sowing, c T; ;> - o 5 o 
Hoeing twice, 7 s. 7 o o 
Drawing the turnips 

and carting them, 

at 7 s. 6 d. - 710 o 
Chopping and raking 

20 acres of wheat 

ftubble, at i s. 6 d. i 10 o 
Carting ditto to farm- 
yard, 3 days work 

of 4 men, - 080 
Mowing and making . 

4 acres clover into 

hay twice, - I 12. Q 
Loading, carting, and 

flacking, 3 days 

work cf 6 men, at 

i j. 4 d. 140 

Ditching 100 perch, 

at i J. - 5 . o .o 



Carryover, 5*6 16 6 525 14 o 

Carting 



( 359 )> 
Brought over, '. 56 16 6 525 14. o 

Carting 3 loads of 
earth per perch into 
farm-yard, 15 days, 
at 6 j. 3 d, 4 J 3 9 

12 Loads of dung 
each on 36 head of 
cattle, or 43 2 loads; 
mixing thefe and the 
ditch earth under 
them together, 732 
loads, at i d. - 3 I o 
Pilling and fpreading, 

37 days, at4-r. 3 </. 7 7 
Carting home faggots 

from the ditch, - o a o 
Cutting 40 bufhels of 
chaff per week for 
2 months, 320 bu- 
fhels, at L d. - 0134 
80 Days employed in 
bringing manure 
from the neareft 
town, i load a day 
of 2 men, ^w:', 8 o o ^ 

Carryover, . 80 13 7 525 14 
A a 4 Sundry 



Brought over, . 80 13 7 525 14 o 
Sundry fmall articles of 
work: a boy at 6 d. a 
day, 9 o d 

89 13 7 

Suppofe the farmer 

earns, - 15 o o 

74 13 7 

Sundry articles. 

Shoeing, .2 80 

Wear and tear, - 15 o o 
Houfe-keeping, - 20 o o 
Market expences, - 300 
80 Loads of manure, 

at 5 s. - - 20 o o 
30 Loads of flraw, 20 o o 
Cafh in hand to anfwer 

incidental expences, 50 o o 

130 8 o 

73 i5~7 

This fum is in every refpect a fufficient 
one to flock the farm in queftion ; and is 
indeed fo large from having four horfes and 
their attendant expences, that the crops 
muft be very large to anfwer it: There 
never is, however, any danger in real prac- 
tice, 



tice, of the land not paying any expences 
(in reafon) of tillage and manure. This 
farm is excellently managed: In the firft 
place, it is thrown into the moft advantage- 
ous of all common courfes for light foils . 
viz. i. Turnips; 2. barley; 3. clover ; 
4. wheat. The turnip fallow is ploughed 
fix times ; and, after that crop, thrice more 
for the barley: Befides this tillage, the 
manuring is very confiderable. 732 loads 
of farm-yard compoft, well mixed toge- 
ther ; 432 of dung, and 300 of earth, that 
has laid all the winter under the litter, to 
catch and retain all the urine of the cattle : 
this compoft I fuppofe every year to be 
fpread on the turnip land, being juft 36 
loads per acre for it ; and a noble drefling 
it certainly is, and fufficient without affift- 
ance to keep the whole farm in great heart, 
as all of it receives this manuring once in 
four years. But, befides this, we have 80 
waggon loads of town dung every year; 
which muft be fuppofed mortar rubbifh, 
afhes, horfe, cow, and hog dung, and every 
load probably a compoft of moft of them ; 
or, in other words, admirable ftuff. Thefe 
80 loads I fuppofe fpread on the clover land 

for 



( 36s } 

for wheat, at the rate of 4 loads per acre, 
which for that crop (fo apt to lodge if the 
land is very rich) will in this courfe of ma- 
nagement be highly fufficient : and cer- 
tainly, upon the whole, we may venture to 
pronounce, that our farmer is as fare of a 
crop as any one can be. We now proceed 
to the j 

ANNUAL ACCOUNT. 

Expences. I. s. d. 

Rent, &c. - - 100 16 o 

100 Sheep, Jkie $ ; +^fc 86 o o 
30 Heifers or fleers, *$&# 150 o o 
Seed for 20 acres of wheat, 

20 of fp ring-corn, 20 of 

clover, and 20 of turnips, - 2610 o 
Labour, 74 1 3 7 

Sundry articles, - - 80 8 o 

"~ 



Produce. 

20 Acres of wheat, 4 qrs. /. s. d. 

per acre, 80 qrs. at 40 s. - 160 o o 

100 Sheep, 160 o o 

30 Fat heifers, 240 o o 

2 Cows, - 10 o o 



Carry over, . 570 o o 




Brought over, .570 o o 
14 Acres of barley, 5 qrs.^r 

acre, 70 qrs. at 16 s. - 56 o o 

.. 626 o o 

Expences, - 518 7 7 

." I0 7 I2 5 
Deduct intereft of flock, - 36 10 o 

Profit, - . 7i 25 

Thofe crops are all large, but let not the 
reader compare them with common ones? 
until he finds a farm as \yell cultivated 
until he finds a farmer worth .700 /. upon a 
farm of 80 acres of land. Let it not be 
from hence concluded, that this is the moft 
profitable method of difpofmg -of 700 /. ; 
that point is- not fo much the bufinefs of 
each feparate calculation, as the comparifon 
of all at the end of each chapter. To have 
given only one eflimate, would have been 
a mere ..ipfe. dixiti I ihfert many, for the 
reader to judge between them as well as 
myfelf. The gentleman's "account of this 
farm is as follows." 

-1-. / &&*//</ f -,, 
' ^ MI* ''''** p r r I r* ' '^ '*' ' 

9 'Stock. 



( 364 ) 

Stock. I. s. d. 

Rent, &c. - - loo 16 o 

Implements, - . - 70 13 o 

Live flock, - 300 15 o 

Seed and tillage, - - 53 10 o 

Labour, - . 89 13 7 

27 per cent. 24 6 o 

9 7 



Sundry articles, - iis 8 o 

75Q * 7 

ANNUAL ACCOUNT. 

Expences. /. s. d. 

Rent, &c. - ' '- 1 * 100 1 6 o 

loo Sheep and 30 beafts, - 230 o o 

Seed, - p-j^- - - 26 10 o 

Labour, - - ."*.*' 1 1 3 1 9 7 

Sundry articles, - 'PSf '' 60 8 o 

>C-53i i3 ~7 

Produce. 1. s. d. 

The fame, - - 626 o o 

Expences, - - 531 *3 7 

94 6 5 

Intereft, - - 37 10 o 

Profit, - - . 56 1 6 5 



No gentleman has reafon to find any 

fault with fuch a farm as this ; which pays 

4 5 



( 365 ) 

5 per cent, for his money, and leavea a 
profit of near 57 /. a year. But I fhould 
here repeat my old warning ; not to have 
him too confident in thefe common arable 
farms ; for his buying and felling to fb 
large an amount, as cheap and as dear as 
the common farmer, is very equivocal in 
reality. 

COMPARISON. /. s. d. 
Gentleman's flock, - . 750 i 7 
Farmers, - - 710 15 7 

Superiority of the latter, . 39 6 o 

Produce equal. 

Farmer's profit, - - 91 a 5 

Gentleman's^ "' - > - ,\ o 5616 

Superiority of the former, .34 6 o 
The farmer's money pays 

him profit per cent. j 7 j 7 o 

The gentleman's, - if? 10 o 

Superiority of the former, " . $ "7" o 

N Q 8. 

Variation the eighth. 
Eighty acres, fixty grafs and twenty arable, 
the Jirfi foil heavy, the latter light. 
This farm I purpofe fetching, upon 
the plan of appropriating the whole of it 

to 



to fatting cattle, to difcover if a greater pro- 
fit does not attend that kind of grazing, 
which is carried on through the winter as 
well as the rummer upon the fame cattle, 
than upon that which is done only in fun>-~ 
mer. 

\"^Htbck. 

Rent) fee. I. s. d. 

&entof 80 acres, at I /. i: "-^ 80 o o 
Tythe, at 4 s. -- 1600 

Rates, &c. at 4 s: - 1600 

.112 O O 

Livejlock. 

Two horfes, .24 o o 

30 Oxen at 10 /. 300 o o 

o o 



Implements. n a ? i 
One cart, - . 9 o o 
Harnefs, /- - 400 
i Plough, - i ii 6 

Pair of harrows, -pA 
Roller, i 

Sundry fmall articles, i 

IQ II 




Carry over, , 455 1 1 6 



Brought over, . 45-5 ijt[ 6 
Seed and Tillage. -uniUM" 

Two earths on 20 

acres, - .800 :0 -;\ r> a . ? 

Seed, for 20 acres tur- 
nips, - o i o o - 

8 10 o 



Labour. 
Four earth.s more on 20 

acres, - C1 ^- .-4 o 
Harrowing, > ' 050 
Sowing, - * 050 
Hoeing twice, *>^ 7 o o 
Drawing and carting 

home, - -7 10 o 

Attendance upon 30 

head of cattle, I o o 

Ditching 100 perches, 5'-'- o o 
Carting the earth, 300 

loads into yard ; 1 2 

a day, 25 days 4*. 3 d. 5 63 
Turning over 3 84 loads 

of dung, and 300 

loads, of earth, 684, 

at i d. ,\- 2170 

Carry over, . 33 33 464 i 6 

Filling 



Brought over, .33 3 3 464 I 6 
Filling and fpreading 
684 loads, i a a day, 
at 3 s. a fcore, 520 
57 days driv- 
ing, - - 3 ii 7 

8 13 7 

Carting home faggots, 020 

. 41 '8 io 

Farmer earns, - 15 o o 

36 18 io 

Sundry articles^ 

Shoeing, - -".1*40 
Wear and tear, - .2100 
Houfe-keeping, 20 o o 

Market expeHces, - 2 o o 
20 Loads of barley, or 



oat ftraw, 
40 Loads of ftubble, 
5 Ton of hay, 
6 Qrs. of oats, 
CaQi in hand. 


15 
16 

IO 

3 

40 

m~mmm 


Q 
O O 


120 

o o 
no 6 o 


. 601 6 4 




AN- 



ANNUAL ACCOUNT. 
Expences. I. s. d. 
Rent, &c. iif? o o 
30 Oxen, - 300 o o 
Turnip feed, ,- o 10 o 
Labour, "'- 26 18 10 


Sundry articles, 

Produce. 
30 Fat oxen, 
Expences, 

Intereft of ftock, 
Profit, 


70 o o 


509 T 4 I Q 

/. s. d. 
600 o o 
509 14 10 


90 5 2 

30 i o 


- 6 4 2 



The reader doubtlefs remarks, that in 
this account there are variations not found 
in any of the preceding ; this farm required 
fuch : for inftance, it would by no means 
anfwer to this farmer, to throw his fields 
into a various courfe for the fake of raifmg 
his own oats, which are no great quantity, 
as his horfes are not near employed; nor 
would it be worth the trouble and confufion 
to alter fo equal and correfponding an 
arrangement of the farm for raifing five 
tons of hay : That quantity is not for the 

VOL. I. B b horfca 



( 37* ) 

horfes alone, but to give the oxen a fmall 
bundle every day with their turnips. As 
to the management of the beafts, they may 
either be bought in the fpring, and fold 
from the turnips ; or at autumn, and fold 
from the grafs : this muft be according to 
the rife and fall of prices in the country 
where the farmer lives, but he mould be 
attentive to it, as felling his beafts when 
beef is f d. a pound dearer than common, 
will be to him a confiderable difference. 
The advance upon them of doubling the 
original price is certainly not extravagant: 
It is highly requifite that a man mould do 
that, when he keeps his oxen the year thro', 
and gives them turnips and hay befides 
their ftraw. The gentleman's account of 
this farm will be as follows : 

Stock. I. 



Rent, &c. 


112 


isfaag 


Implements, 


19 


ii 6 


Live ftock, 


- 3^4 


o o 


Seed and tillage, 


r - 8 


10 O 


Labour: before, 


41 18 10 




27 per cent. 


ii 6 o 


* 




'"* "? 


A IO 


Sundry articles, 


90 


6 o 


6 


- 607 


12 4 






AN- 



ANNUAL ACCOUNT. 

Expences* . 1. & 

Rent,- &e. - 112 o 

30 Oxen, - - v ;. * 300 
Turnip feed, ' 

Labour, W^ 53 

Sundry articles, 50 6 ' o 

" 



Produce. 




Expences, , 7) * r 

Intereftv r >f^*'^ si^UIj 

Profit, -. ''*rs . 53 12 




This profit coming fo near that of the 
farmer, is plainly owing to the fmall. quan- 
tity of arable land in the farm : but the 
difference will be beft feeri in the follow- 
ing 

COMPARISON. /. s. d, 
The gentleman's ftock, 607 12 4 

The farmer's, 581 6 4 

Superiority of the latter, .26 6 o 

Produce equal. 

B b 9 The 



( 37* ) 

/. t. 

The farmer's profit, 80 4 

The gentleman's, - 53 12 



The former fuperior, - . 26 1 2 o 

The farmer's money pays 

him per cent. - 18180 

The gentleman's, - 13 1 6 o 

The former fuperior, . 5 2 o 



Having thus endeavoured to fhew what 
profit both the farmer and gentleman have 
reafon to expect from fuch a tract of land 
on a light foil, all arable, and alfo from a 
part of it grafs and a part arable, I fhall 
here throw in a variation for the ufe of gen- 
tlemen alone, that the method may in this, 
cafe be known of one party making an interefl 
at leaft equal, if not fuperior to the other : 
that gentlemen may know according to the 
foil how to apply their money to fuch im- 
proved methods, as will give them a better 
profit than what the common farmer en- 
joys. 



( 373 ) 

N"9- 

Variation the ninth. 

Thirty-two acres of arable land? either all 

light loam ; or a fart light > and u fart 

heavy loam. 

This farm I propofe being cropped with 
lucerne and carrots, to be jointly applied to 
the fatting of cattle; neither of them are 
very particular in their foils ; lucerne will 
thrive on any that are dry, except mere 
fands, and carrots on all but clayey wet 
loams. I may fuppofe, from the vaft va- 
riety of land to be met with in moft farms, 
the lucerne to be raifed on a dry found ftiff 
loam j and the carrots on a lighter one. 

Stock. I t. d. 

Rent of 32 acres, at 

21 s. - .33 12 o 

Tythe, at 4 s. - 6120 
Rates, &c. &c. at 4 /. 6 1 2 p 

> ... 46 1 6 p 

Implements. 
2 Small three wheeled 

carts, * - 12 X 2 o 
Harnefs for 2 horfes, 400 
I Plough, - i u 6 



Carryover, . 18 3 6 46 1 6 Q 
B b 3 Harrows, 



( 374 ) 

/. s. d. L s. d. 
Brought over, 18 3 6 46 6 o 
Harrows, -200 

Sundry fmall articles, 2 o o 

22 3 6 

Livejlock. 

2 Horfes, -24 o Q 

Tillage. 

O 

One ploughing on 32 acres, " 6 8 o 

Labour. 
One earth on 32 acres 

three times in the 

fame furrow, half an 

acre a day, .3 40 

Three common ditto, 4160 
Ditching 50 perch, 2 10 Q 
Carting 3 loads per 

perch, or 150 loads, 

25 a day, at 2 d. a 

load filling, and I 

3 d. a day driving, 
Carting wood, 
Sundry fmall articles, 

27 percent. 

Parry over 
i S 




{ 375 ) 

Brought over, . n8 13 6 
Sundry articles. 

Shoeing, ^- T - . i 40 
Wear and tear, 2 o o 

Keeping 2 horfes a year, 

calculated at 20 o o 

23 4 o 



Account of the fecond year. 


Expenccs. 


/. X. d. 


Rent, &c. 


46 15 o 


23 Home-bred heifers, 


69 o o 


27 Heifers or fleers, 


.135" o 


Seed for 9 acres of carrots 




at6j. ' <y> G g -."?'. 


2 14 


Ditto for 23 of lucerne, ,~ 


;<u 6 l8 


Labour. 


q~o^^fli/ii^(: 


Two ploughings for 23 


3fiJ .g:ii:-.:::0 


acres of lucerne 


T>155V rp ". \ 


land, . 2 6 


O 


Three harrowings,. - 017 


3 


Drilling: Coft of a 




drill plough, 800- 




Refold for, 400 




4 o 





Carry over, .7 3 


3 260 7 o 


B b4 


Labour 



Brought over, .7 3 3 260 70 
Labour in ditto, at 

6d. . o II 6 

Four hand-hoeings, at 

6 j. - - 27120 
Cutting 3 times at I s. 

6d. 5 3 6 

Raiking together, load- 
ing and carting, at 

is.6d. - S 3 6 

One ploughing for 9 

acres of carrot land, 090 
Sowing, - - 069 
Harrowing, - 023 

Hoeing, at 3 /. - 27 o o 
Digging up, at 20 s. 9 o o 
Carting home, at 5 s. 2 50 
Ditching 50 perches, 2100 
Carting the earth to 

farm-yard, - I 12 6 
Mixing ditto with 400 

loads of dung, at I d. 2 6 q 
Carting and fpreading 

the whole on the 

land, - - 600 

Carry over, ".97 53 260 7 o 

Carting 



( 377 ) 

Brought over, .97 53 *6o 7 o 

Carting home faggots, o 2, o 

Sundry fmall articles of 
work, including at- 
tendance upon the 
cattle, ~ 7 

104 7 3 

27 per cent. ' 'r :< ' 3$ J 

_ ^- 132 8 3 

Sundry articles. 
Shoeing and wear and 

tear, - 3 4 

30 Loads of ftraw, 20 o o 
j?o Loads of ftubble, 800 
4 Tons of hay, 



00 

39 



43 1 



23 Heifers, 

27 Steers, 



Expences, - 43 1 J 9 3 

Produce, - 33^ o 



. 100 19 3 
Intereft, ~ - - g8 I 3 

jx>fs, - : >C- 129 12 3 

AN- 



( 378 ) 

ANNUAL ACCOUNT. 

/. 



55 Beafts, . 23 



46 1 6 o 






o o 



Seed for 9 acres of car- 

rots, - - 3 j^ 

Labour on ditto as be- 

fore, - 39 3 g 

Three hand-hoeings 

of the lucerne, at 

5 j. 17 5 o 

Four horfe-hoeings ; 

a reckoned as one 

ploughing, o 6 o 

Cutting 5 times, at 

i s. 6 d. 8 12 6 

Raiking together, load- 

ing, and carting 

home, at i s. 6 d. 8126 
Ditching, carting the 

earth, mixing and 

re-car ting as before, 12 10 6 
Sundry fmall articles, 7 ..o o 

95 9 6 

21 3 o 
-- 116 12 6 

- 39 4 o 

430 ^ 6 
Pro- 




( 379 ) 

Produce. ^ J**.- d. 

55 Beafts, ^ ?-!.. "jodi'-i $S1 rfa'G 
Expences, . - .iteja \-yfj :. 480 6 6 

.69 13 d 

Intereft, ?- u 4I fij k'jfc/j 36 3 Q 
Profit, TS >8^ i>3s! jC- 33 J Q 6 

. The reader may poflibly think the fup- 
pofition of 9 acres of carrots and 23 of lu- 
cerne, largely calculated to fat 55 beafts to 
the improvement of 5 /. 'each, which is 
yielding a produce of 275 /. or better than 
8 /. an acre : but if the vaft expence of the 
carrot crop is cofifidered, (which rifes to 
about 6 /. per acre) no one would think 10 l m 
per acre too large an allowance for that, 
and the lucerne is then reckoned at 8 /. 
both which prices are either very moderate, 
or thefe vegetables not worth the culture. 
The general account of this farm is as fol- 
lows. /. s. d. 
Firft ftock, \ r- **<: 141 17 6 
Second year's expences, it>i. 431 19 3 
Produce of ditto below the 

expences of the third, -r 149 6 6 

33 



Which fum pays 9 /. 13 s. per cent. 



From the fmallnefs of which profit, it is 
plain the crops fhould be rendered propor- 
tionally more productive ; or that it will 
not anfwer to employ fuch large fums of 
money upon fuch fmall tracts of land, fo 
well as upon larger. Some fituations 
may indeed render it highly beneficial ; for 
inftance, in the neighbourhood of great 
cities, for the keeping of cows ; for which 
purpofe both lucerne and carrots are admir- 
ably adapted. 

General Recapitulation of this Chapter. 
Stocks requifitefor the preceding farms* 
N J. Eighty acres all ara- 
ble, the foil clay or 
loam, and laid down 
to grafs, r - . 593 8 6 
Ditto a gentleman, v . 664 6 6 

2. Sixty acres all arable, 

the foil clay or loam, 
laid down to grafs, - . 483 6 6 
Ditto a gentleman, - . 560 2 6 

3. One hundred acres, the i 

foil clay or loam, all 
arable, .558 3 57 

Ditto a gentleman, - -582 n 5f 

4. Fifty 



4. Fifty acres, all arable ; the 
foil clay or loam : cul- 
tivated upon improved 
principles in cabbages 
and lucerne, -5%2 4 74- 

j. One hundred acres, the 
foil clay or loam ; half 
grafe and half arable, . 562 3 o 
Ditto a gentleman, - .571 & o 

6. One hundred acres all 

arable; the foil clay 
or loam, - - .661 I j, o 
Ditto a gentleman, ri:3 n rjl? jT, 659 180 

7. Eighty acres all arable, 

the foil light enough 
for turnips, . 730 15 7 

Ditto a gentleman, - . 750 i 7 

8. Eighty acres ; 60 grafs, 

and 20 arable ; the firft 
a heavy foil, the laft 
light, .601 6 4 

Ditto a gentleman, - . 607 12 4 

9. Thirty-two acres of ara- 

ble, the foil all light, 
or part of it light and 
part heavy land; the 
culture improved in 
carrots and lucerne, -723 33 
5 



Annual produce of theft farms, expenc&s 
paid. 

N9i. - - .9! 17 o 

Ditto a gentleman* .102 17 o 

2. . 68 16 o 

Ditto a gentleman, - .66180 

3. - - - . ioi 19 oi. 
Ditto a gentleman, - . 77 n 07 

4- - - * I1 3 ' T 74- 

5- - -90 i 74 
Ditto a gefcitleman, - jT. 81 i 74- 

6. . n<> 3 o 

Ditto a gentleman, - . 117 18 o 

7- 107 ia 5 

Ditto a gentleman, - . 94 6 5* 

8. . 90 5 2 

7' i Ditto a gentleman, - . 83 19 2 

9- 6 9 13 6 

Pr oft per cent, on thefe farms. 

N J. _ - "5 13 <* 

Ditto a gentkman, - . 15 10 o 

2. - . 14 5 o 

Ditto a gentleman, - .12 o o 

3- - - - 18 4 o 

Ditto a gentleman, - . 13 80 



( -3*3 ) 

' 4. - 19 8 o 

5- - " '-^ 16 oo 
Ditto a gentleman, - '. 14 30 

6. - - : . 17 ii o 
Ditto a gentleman 1 , :: *- ' - ; . 1 7 2 o 

7. . 14 12 o 
Ditto a gentleman, - - . 12 10 o 

8. >- .); . 14 19 o 
Ditto-a gentleman, - 4 ' i 'i.i3 16 o 

9- Zli:n iV r/:! ^ ^C ; 9 13 

Comparlfon between gentlemen andfarmers^ 
in their profit per cent, on the preceding 
farms. L s. d 9 

N^ i. The farmer, - 19 14 o 

The gentleman, - 15 10 o 

Superiority of the former, - -4 40 



2. The farmer, . - 19 o o 
The gentleman, .^j: 12 o o 

Former fuperior by ?>'? .7 o o 

3. The farmer, - 22 1 2 o 
The gentleman, - 13 8 o 

Former fuperior by - . 9 ^ o 



5. The farmer, - 19 u o 

The gentleman, - 14. 3 o 

Former fuperior by - .580 

"67 The 



6. The farmer, .21 o o 
The gentleman, 17 2 

Former fuperior by - 3 I 9 

7. The farmer, - 17170 
The gentleman, 12 10 o 

Former fuperior by - 5 70 

8. The farmer, 18 18 o 
The gentleman, - 13 16 o 

Former fuperior by . 5 20 

The progreffion of the farmer's farms, 
in order of profit, is as follows: 

N 3- 18 40 

6. . 17 ii o 
5. - - .1600 

i- - - I 5 X 3 

8. . 14 19 o 

7. - . 14 12 o 

2. - - . 14 5" O 

From this little table it is obfervable, that 
the farmer makes better intereft of his 
money from off 100 acres of the clay foil, 
all arable, than from any of the reft. 

The next beneficial farm is the 100 
acres all gcafs. 

The third, half grafs and half arable. 

Next comes the 80 acres of arable, laid 
down to grafs. 

The 



The fifth in profit is the grazing farm, 
80 acres, 60 grafs, and 20 arable. 

The fixth is the 80 acres all arable, the 
foil light enough for turnips. 

The laft is the 60 acres arable, laid down 
to grafs. 

A few circumftances fhould here be re- 
marked. The difference between the two 
firft, that is, between 100 acres all in grafs 
or all arable, is but 13 s. per cent, which 
may, in fuch a calculation, be called an 
equality ; but this equality is in thofe 
points only that are reducible to calculation. 
In all others the grafs farm has infinitely 
the advantage : The labour of the farmer 
is nothing; confequently he has leifure to 
apply to whatever other bufinefs he can 
turn to account; which, in many cafes, may 
be of confiderable importance. He is alfo 
liable to fewer chances and accidents of 
evil; his profit more fure, lefs dependant 
on the feafons; and his whole bufmefs- in 
every refpecl: vaftly more fimple and eafy. 
For thefe and many other reafons, the grafs 
farm claims the preference, notwithftanding 
the rank above afligned : One muft adhere. 
in calculations to figures ; deviations unre~ 

VOL. I. C c ducible 



( 386 ) 

ducible to eftimate, muft be confidered in 
another light. 

The 100 acres half grafs and half arable 
and the Bo arable acres laid down to grafs, 
are likewife on a par ; that is but 7 s. per 
cent, difference. For the preceding rea- 
fons, the latter is the moft beneficial. 

The three laft farms are alfo upon an 
equality ; one 80 acres, 60 grafs, and 
20 arable ; one all arable ; and the other 
60 arable, laid down to grafs. The laft 
certainly the beft. 

The variations, in the fum required to 
ftock thefe farms, are fome of them pretty 
confiderable ; thefe do not affect the profit 
per cent, but muft be regarded in the en- 
quiry, 'what fum is requifiteforfuch a farm ? 
To have fquared the calculations fo as each 
fum might have been the fame, might have 
been done ; but the eftimates would not have 
been fo genuine, nor would the proportions 
between the methods on a given number of 
acres, appear near fo dear as at prefent ; a 
point which is not a little ufeful. 

1 8 /. 4 s. per cent, which is the greateft 
profit made in any of thefe farms is not con- 
fiderable ; not fo much indeed as I think it 

ought 



( 387 ) 

ought to be ; but this fcale of farms I do 
not think fo profitable in themfelves as 
the fucceeding ones ; but herein I may be 
miftaken. 

The progreffion of the gentleman's 
farms, in the order of profit, is as fol- 
lows. 
N 4 . .';*!.; 19 80 

6.' - !*>rr r -17 2 

1. - . Ij 10 o 

5- - .' *' -14 3 

8. . 13 16 o 

3- ~ 13 8 

7. - v'~. . 12 10 O 

2. - : '&-" .12 00 

9. MV:;, . 9 13 O 

From this fcale it is very apparent that 
the 50 arable acres cultivated in cabbages 
and lucerne, are much the moft beneficial 
farm, even more advantageous than 100 
acres of grafs, which is fecond. 

Eighty acres all arable, but laid down to 
grafs, comes next ; and is a frefh proof of 
the great benefit of grafs farms to gen- 
tlemen. 

N 5, 8, and 3, are nearly alike that 
is, 100 acres, half and half 80 acres, 

C C 2, 60 



( 388 ) 

60 grafs and 20 arable and 100 acres 
of clay, all arable; but the very men- 
tion of the laft, in which the gentleman is 
neceffarily under fo many difadvantages not 
to be eftimated, is fufficient to tell us that 
mould be rejected: the 60 grafs and 20 
arable I mould prefer, having fo much lefs 
labour, and fewer chances againft it. 

N 7. and 2. that is, 80 acres all light 
arable, and 60 laid down to grafs, are likewife 
upon a par : there can therefore be no com- 
parifon between them ; the latter muft in 
every refpecT: be preferable. 

The 32 acres cultivated in carrots and 
lucerne, are the leaft beneficial of any, 
(under the circumftances recited in that 
eftimate) ; but this proceeds from fo large a 
fum of money being expended on fo fmall a 
tract of land ; thofe vegetables, in a due 
proportion to the flock, will hereafter be 
found as beneficial as moft, and to yield a 
profit much fuperior to that of the common 
farmer. I did not ftrike out the calculation, 
that gentlemen might fee that they are not 
to reafon too much by analogy in tillage 
farms, and to conclude that, becaufe 50 
acres are very profitably employed upon a 
2 large 



( 389 ) 

large fcale, that 50 may be equally To on a 
fmaller. 

It is evident that the joint application of 
cabbages and lucerne to the feeding of cat- 
tle, is a moft profitable farm to a gentle- 
man, and from the firnplicity of the bufi- 
nefs, being drawn as it were to one point 
of buying and felling, (an object of great 
importance to a gentleman) is open to a 
few objections, and chances of being cheated 
and deceived, as any tillage farm can be; 
for the deduction of 27 per cent, on the 
labour in thefe improved farms, anfwering 
at leaft a principal part of the objections 
relative to that quarter ; and the fimplicity 
of the bufmefs of them, in comparifon with 
a corn one, removing many others, leaves 
thefe farms very beneficial ones : Here is 
no feed to buy, and to trufl through fervants 
hands no critical feafons to be caught 
in fowing, reaping, harvefting, &c. where 
a fmall lofs in labour is attended with great 
confequences : and almoft all the labour 
that is required, is in a pretty regular path, 
and open to few impofitions. In the buy- 
ing and felling cattle, 'the gentleman cer- 
tainly is inferior to the common farmer; but 
C c 3 then 



( 39 ) 

then "he is equally fo in grafs farms, which 
every one who occupies, whether gentle- 
men or farmers, find fo greatly profitable : 
In one word, I cannot but recommend the 
cabbage and lucerne farm to a gentleman, 
preferably to any of the reft. 

The next profitable farm to a gentleman 
is that which is all grafs : m thefe he nearly 
equals the farmer in thofe ^oints not re- 
ducible to calculation, as well as in fuch as 
are to be eftimated. No gentleman, if he 
is in hefitation whether to farm or let it 
alone, need to fear a grafs one ; he cannot 
(I might almoft fay) lofe by it,* but he may 
make very confiderable profit. I know not 
by what means or in what fund he will be 
able to make 1 7 per cent, of his money ; 
and at the fame time, build only upon 
common foundations, following a profeffion 
which is .known to be profitable ; and de- 
pending upon no novelties ; I think he may 
be contented, and truft to agriculture as 
fecurely as fo many do to commerce, for 
much lefs but more hazardous profits. 

I here addrefs myfelf to fuch men as re- 
ject the idea of purfuing any thing out of 
the common road j who would much 

rathe? 



( 39 1 ) 

rather farm in the common ftile for is per 
cent, than upon new improvements for 20. 
Such people, it is true, have but little that 
is rational in them, but we muil addrefs 
even that little : To thofe who are fenfi- 
ble that the world is not yet arrived at its 
higheft perfection in hufbandry, and that 
practices may be profitable though ne c w^ 
we may venture to ufe a different language, 
and calculate lucerne and cabbages, for in- 
ftance, to yield a more confiderable profit 
than wheat or turnips. 

But the utility of thefe vegetables, as 
well as fome others of the fame kind, is by 
no means ideal ; though not common in 
every part of England, yet they have been 
cultivated, and in large too, with great fuc- 
cefs by many. 

In the next clafs I made, viz. N 5, 
8, and 3. the more grafs we find in a farm, 
the more profitable it is ; a new proof how 
important it is to gentlemen to prefer that 
to all common hufbandry : the fame obfer- 
vation is applicable to N 7, and 2. 

In the comparifon between the gentle- 
man and the farmer, the reader will find 
C c 4 frefh 



( 392 ) 

frem infiances of the fuperiority of grafs to 
arable, for gentleman's culture. 



CHAP. XXII. 

Of the moft advantageous method of difpofing 
of any fum from 700 /. to 1000 /. in farm- 
ing. 

I CAN NOT enter on any chapter, without 
previoufly remarking what numbers of 
variations I arn in each obliged to make, 
that are too inconfiderable for particular ex- 
planations : Now, one part of thefe papers 

ending where the other begins the laft 

chapter, for inftance, extends to 700 /. and 
even higher than that fum ; and the pre- 
fent one, begins, as it were, with 700 /. 
hence the reader may fay, ivhy is a varia^ 
tion made between a man who farms with 
700 /. and another with 750 /. This is 
very true ; and I feel the force of the ob- 
jection ; but when fhould variations be 
made ? Muft none come into the account 
but fuch marking ones as thofe of 1000 /. 
and joo /. ? Colours may be mixed fo as to 
J)e difficult to pronounce upon ; and fo as 

the 



( 393 ) 

the eye, though not defcription, can fepa- 
rate. It is the fame with fuch an afcend- 
ing feries as I am in at prefent. 

Ni. 
One hundred and feventy acres-) arable ; the 

foil clay or loam. 

I call this farm, arable^ but 176 acres of 
it are the arable part ; and I fuppofe 10 
acres of grafs about the houfe, for the utility 
of convenience : Such variations are too 
inconfiderable to notice. 

Stock. 

Rent, &c. I s. & 

1 70 Acres, at ijs. . 144 10 o 
Tythe, at 4 s. \ - " 28 18 o 

Rates, &c. 4 s. - 28 18 o 

202 6 o 

Livejlock. 

6 Horfes, - . 90 o o 
5>o Cows, " 100 o o 
3 Sows, :*r<^ - 3 10 o 

^ IQ3 TO O 

Carryover, -395 J 6 
Implements* 



( 394 ) 
Brought over, . 395 16 o 

Implements. 
One waggon, .25 o o 

2 Carts, - 24 o o 

3 Ploughs, - - 4 14 6 
A pair of harrows, 2 10 o 
Two rollers, 400 
Harnefs for 6 horfes, 8 o o 
20 Sacks, - 300 
Sundry fmall articles, 10 o o 
Dairy furniture, 20 o o 

101 4 6 

Seed and tillage. 

Four earths, on 40 
acres of wheat- 
land, - . 32 o o 

Seed, - - 20 o o 

Sowing, - -loo 

Water-furrowing, 2 o o 

Three earths on 40 
acres of fpring corn 
land, - 24 o o 

Seed, - - 20 o o 

Clover ditto, - 800 

Sowing, - - i oo 

Water-furrowing, I o o 

Carryover, .109 o o 497 o 6 

Two 



( 395 ) 

Brought over, . 109 o 6 497 o 6 
Two earths on 40 



acres of bean land, 10 
Seed, y* ' 1 6 
Sowing, - 2 
Water-furrowing, * I 
Harrowing 40 acres, 2 

! 

Labour. 
One earth on 40 acres 
of wheat land, . 2 
Harrowing, - o 
Sowing, o 
Water-furrowing, - 2 
Weeding, - 2 
Reaping and harveft- 
ing, at 6 s. - 12 
Thrafhing the crop, 
3 quarters per acre, 

J20 at 2 J. - 12 




o o 



o o 
o o 
146 o o 

O 

IO 
10 O 


o o 
o o 




Carry over, .31 


o o 6 13 o 6 



The preceding farmer's clover crop ftands a fecond 
year, which is effected by his fowing the wheat on the fal- 
low inftead of the clover, as he perhaps might not fow 
beans. It is to be remembered that farmers are defirous 
enough of fallows when they are paid for ploughing. 

Carrying 



( 396 :) 

Bror^M ov"- " J43 

Carrying ou, to q 

a time, 2 men ; ua\ i 40 
Three earths on 40 

acres of fpring corn 

land, - 600 

Harrowing, - o 10 o 

Sowing, - - o 10 o 
Water-furrowing, - - i iq o 
Mowing and harveil- 

ing, at 4 .r. - , 8 o ,o 
ThraJQiing, 4 qrs. per 

acre, 1 60 - quarters, 

at 15. o 

Carrying out 30 acres 

of barley, 4 qrs. per 

acre, 120 qrs. 12 qrs. 

at a time, 2 men 

i day, - i 

Three earths on 40 

acres of bean land, 600 
Sowing, - 200 

Water-furrowing, I o o 

Hand-hoeing once, at 

6 j. - 1200 



Carryover, . 78 40 643 o 6 

Horfe- 



( 397 ) 
Brought over, . 78 40 643 

Horfe-hoeing 3 times, 

at 6 d. 3 o o 

Reaping and harvefting 

at 7 s. 14 O o 

Thrafhing 3 qrs. per 
acre, 120 quarters, 
at i j. - -.600 

Carrying out 9 qrs. at 

a time, 2 men i day, i 8 o 

Chopping and raking 
40 acres of wheat .-,, ; 
ftubble, - 300 

Carting ditto home, 

8 days, 5 men, -200 

Ditching 200 perches, 

at i s, JO o o 

Carting the earth, 600 
loads into the farm- 
yard, 20 load a day, 
$d. a load filling, and 
I s. 3 d. a day driv- 
ing, i o day s, 6 s. 3 d. 326 

26 Head of cattle, at 
12 load, 312 loads 



Carry over, . 120 14 6 643 06 

mixing 



( 398 ) 

Brought over .120 14 6 643 o 6 
mixing with 600 of 
earth, 912, at i d. 3 16 o 
Carting 912 loads on to 
the land, 20 a day, 
45 days, 3 s. a fcore, 
or day, filling and 
fpreading, and I /. 
3 d. driving, 4. s. 3 d. 9 1 1 3 
Mowing and making 
10 acres of grafs 
into hay, at 5 s. 2 IO O 
Carting ditto home, 
and flacking 3 days 
of 7 men, at I s. ^d. i 80 
Cutting 5 bufhels of 
chaff per week, 2 
months, 400 bu- 
fhels, atiJ. - o 16 8 
Carting faggots, -050 
The preceding work I 
calculate to employ 
the team 245 days ; 
we may therefore 
fuppofe 40 days em- 



Carry over, .139 i 5 643 06 

ployed 



( 399 ) 

Brought over, . 139 * 5^43 
ployed in bring- 
ing manure from 
the neareft town, 

2 men a day, - 400 
N. B. This is work 

which does not re- 
quire fine weather, 

but may be done 

when tillage cannot 

go on. Otherwife 

385 days, out of 

313, would be too 

large an allowance, 

as a few trifling 

jobs are not taken 

into the account. 
Sundry fmall articles 

of work, to the a- 

mount of a boy at 

6 d. a day, - 9 o O 



Suppofe 
earns, 


153 

the farmer 

- 12 


i 5 
o o 


C]arry over, 


J 4 U L 5 


.783 * ii 

Sundry 



( 400 ) 
Brought over, .783 i 1 1 

Sundry articles. 

Shoeing, .3 12 o 

Wear and tear, - 20 o o 
Market expences, -300 
40 Loack of manure, 10 o o 
Cafh in hand to 
anfwer incidental 
expences, - 50 o o 

86 12 o 

.869 13 ii 
ANNUAL ACCOUNT. 

Expences. I. s. d. 

Rent, &c. - - 202 6 o 
Seed for 40 acres of wheat, 
40 of fpring-corn, 40 of 

clover, and 40 of beans, - 64 o o 

Labour, - 240 I r 

Sundry articles, - 36120 

7442 19 5 

Produce. I. s. d. 

1 20 Quarters of wheat, - 240 o o 
120 Quarters of barley, i6s. 96 o o 

Carryover, . 336 o o 
120 Qrs. 



Brought over, . 336 o o 

130 Qrs. of beans, at 32*. - 192 o o 

SO Cows, ico oo 

628 o~o 

Expences, - 44 2 *9 5 

185 o 7 

Intereft, 43 5 

Profit, - f-rt } .- .141 iT7 



The profit of this farm is 2 1 /. 7 j-./^r cent. 
which is certainly confiderable : The bufi- 
nefs, though large, is yet fimple, and con- 
ducted upon an advantageous plan. Thefe 
proportions of 40 acres of wheat, 40 of 
fpring corn, 40 of clover, and 40 of beans 
in drills, are very beneficial, with the aflift- 
ance of 10 acres of grafs. The wheat and 
beans yield plenty of ftraw for litter, and 
alfo of ftubble for fpreading in the farm 
yard to convert into dang, at the fame time 
that it keeps the cows dry, and warm 
lodged all winter : the barley and oats af- 
ford ftraw for feeding the cows in winter, 
and the grafs, hay both for them and the 
horfes. The clover and the after-feed of 
the grafs are an ample provifion for the 

VOL. I. D d cows 



( 403 ) 

cows and horfes in fummer : In a word, 
all parts of a farm of this fize afford to each 
other a mutual affiftance. I mould remark 
that I make cows the flock, and not fheep, 
upon account of having a winter-flock for 
the flraw : Allotting qo cows to be princi- 
pally fed upon clover, will alarm many 
farmers not ufed to fuch hufbandry ; all I 
can fay to them is, that I know many farms 
whereon dairies of cows are kept, that 
have not a fmgle acre of grafs; but the 
10 acres in the farm in queflion is a full 
anfwer to fuch objections as the farmers, 
in fuch countries as admit but a partial ufe 
of clover, allow it to be an excellent food 
for cows, if they are lodged every night in 
a natural grafs field. However the objec- 
tion j even if it had weight in general, would 
have none here, as the great point is the 
product of the clover, which will not yield 
lefs than I have flated, be it managed as it 
may : and, in breeding countries, there is no 
neceflity of applying it to the dairy *. 

* The reader doubtlefs remarks that I have left out 
houfe-keeping in this account : It is now time to drop 
that article, for reafons too numerous to infert : It is too 
various now to calculate. 

The 



( 403 ) 

The gentleman's account of this farm 
will be as follows : 

Stock. I. s. d. 

Rent, &c. 2C2 60 

Live ftock, as before, - 193 10 o 

Implements, ; -.## , >}tH-'.> - 101 4 6 

Seed and tillage, - 146 o o 
Labour, JT. 152 i 5 
27 per cent. 41 o o 

--- 193 i 5 

Sundry articles, 8612 o 



ANNUAL ACCOUNT. 

Expences. L s. d. 

Rent, &c. &2JMfl 202 6 o 

Seed, - 64 o o 

Labour, 193 15 

Sundry articles, 36 12 o 

Produce. 
The fame, 

Expences, - 




132 o 7 
Intereft, 45 18 o 

Profit, _^86"~77 

D d 2 The 



The gentleman receives 14 /. 7 s. per 
cent, for his money in this farm, which is 
as much as he has reafon to expect from any 
arable one, managed in the common form : 
but let it always be remembered that his 
difadvantages in thefe are numerous, be- 
fides that of labour deducted in his account. 
If all of them were reducible to eftimate, 
the remaining profit would be found of 
wondrous lightnefs : The fmgle articles of 
labour gives the farmer, in the account of 
this farm, 7 /. per cent, fuperiority, which 
is a vaft difference. 

NO 2. 

Variation, thefirft. 
One hundred and ten acres arable ; the foil 

light enough for turnips. 
The ten acres of this farm I fuppofe to 
be grafs. 

Stock. 



Rent of 100 acres, at 

1.8 '. -99 oo 

Tythe, at 4 s. - 19 60 
Rates, &c. at 4 .r. - 19 60 

Carryover, - 137 12 o 

JJtvt 



( 4*5 ) 
Brought over, .137 12 o 

Li'vejlock. 

Four horfes, - . 60 o o 
20 Cows, - 100 o o 
2 Sows, - ! & 2 o o 
50 Heifers or fleers, 250 o o 

412 o o 

Implements. 

A waggon, - .25 oo 
Two Carts, - 20 o o 
Two ploughs, - 330 
Harnefs, - -800 
Harrows and rollers, 400 
Sacks, - - 300 
Dairy furniture, - 12 o o 
- Sundry fmall articles, 10 o o 

85 3 o 

.Seed and Tillage. 
Four earths on 25 acres 

of wheat land, . 20 o o 

Seed, - - 12 10 o 

Sowing, - o 12 6. 

Water-furrowing, - o 12 6 
Two earths on 25 acres 

of fpring corn land, 10 o o 

Seed, - 12 10 o 



Carryover, . 5^6 5 o 634 15 o 
D d 3 Sowing 



( 406 ) 

Brought over, .56 5 o 634 15 o 

Sowing, - 063 

Seed clover, - 500 

Sowing, - -063 

Harrowing, - 150 

Rolling, - 050 

Water-furrowing, -063 

One earth on 25 acres 

of fallow, 5 o o 

Seed 25 acres of tur- 
nips, o 12 6 

69 6.3 

Labour. 
One earth on 25 acres 

of wheat land, . i 50 
Sowing, - 063 

Harrowing, 063 

Water-furrowing, -063 
Weeding, -150 

Reaping and harveft- 

ing, at 6 s. 7 10 o 

Thrafhmg the crop, 3 

qrs. per acre, 75 qrs. 

at 2 J. - 7 10 o 

Carry over, . 18 8 9 704 13 
9 Carrying 



( 407 ) 

Brought over, . 18 89 704 i 3 
Carrying out 10 qrs. 

at a time, call it 8 

journeys, - 0160 

Three earths on 25 a- 

cres of fpring-corn 

land - 3 15 o 

Sowing, - - 063 
Harrowing, - 063 

Water-furrowing, -063 
Rolling, - o i o 

Sowing clover, - 063 
Mowing and harveft- 

ing, at 4*. - 5 o o 

Thrafhing the crop, 4 

qrs. per acre, 100 

qrs. at i s. - 500 
Carrying out 18 acres 

of barley, 72 qrs. 12 

at a time, 6 jour- 
neys, o 12 o 
Five earths on 25 acres 

of turnip land, - 650 
Sowing, - 063 

Harrowing, - 063 
Hand-hoeing, at 7 s. 8 15 o 

Carry over, . 50 10 3 704 13 
D d 4 Drawing 



Brought over, .50 103 704 i 

Drawing the turnips 
and carting -them 
home, at 7 s. 6 d. - 9 76 

Mowing, making, cart- 
ing, and flacking 10 
acres of grafs, - 3 18 o 

Cutting 3 oo bufliels of 

chaff, - o 12 6 

Chopping, &c. &c. 25 

acres of ftubble, - 1176 

Carting home, - I 10 o 

Carting faggots, - 040 

Ditching, 130 perches, 6 10 o 

Carting the earth 390 
loads to farm-yard, 
20 a day, 3 d. a load 
and is. 3 d. driving, 
fay 20 days, 6 s. 
$d. 650 

68 Head of cattle at 
12 loads, 816 loads, 
1206 in all : mixing 
at i d. - 506 



Carry over, . 85 15 3 704. i 3 

Carting 



Brought over, . 85 15 3 704 13 
Carting 1206 loads, 

and fpreading, 3 s. a 

fcore,iJ.3^.driving, 

45. 3 d. 60 days, - 12 15 o 
Sundry fmall articles, 900 

jr. 107 10 3 

Farmer earns, - 12 o o 

- 95 io S 

Sundry articles.- 
Shoeing and wear and 

tear, - 15 

Market expences, - 3 o o 
30 Loads of ftraw, 20 o o 

Cam hi hand, - 5 

88 o o 

.887 n"6 

ANNUAL ACCOUNT. 

Expences. L s. d f 

Rent, &c. 137 12 o 

50 Heifers, - - 250 o o 

Seed, - - 30 12 6 

Labour before, . 95 10 3 
Add for thrafhing, 

and carrying out 6 

bufhels/^r acre more 

Carryover, . 95 10 3 418 46 

wheat, 



Brought over, .95 10 3 418 4 6 
wheat, and i quar- 
ter more barley, -390 

9 8 19 3 



Sundries, 


- 




38 


o 


o 










555 


3 


9 




Produce. 




7, 


s. 


/, 


25 Acres 


of wheat 94 qrs. 




169 


O 


o 


1 8 Acres 


of barley, 90 qrs. 


- 


72 








20 Cows, 


- 




I CO 


o 


o 


50 Fat beafts, 


350 


o 


o 









691 








Expences, 


- 




5*55 


3 


9 








135 


16 


3 


Intereft, 


- 




44 


7 





Profit, 


- i _'-?.\;v 





9i 


9 


3 



The capital pays 15 /. 6 s. per cent. 

Upon this account I fhould remark, that 
the reader fhould not be furprifed at this 
variation in the value of the crops, as the 
fuperior quantity of manure makes it ne- 
cefiary to raife the produces. Half this 
farm is every year manured at the rate of 
24 loads per acre. The gentleman's ac- 
count is as follows : 

Stock. 



( 4" ) 

Stock. I * d. 

Rent, &c. 137 12 o 

Live ftock, 412 

Implements, 85 3 

Seed and tillage, 6 9 6 3 
Labour, - . 107 10 3 
,27 percent. 28 17 o 

136 73 

Sundry articles, - 88 

9* 8 8 6 



ANNUAL ACCOUNT. 

Expences. / J. d. 

Rent, &c. 137 13 o 

50 Heifers, 250 o o 

Seed, 30 12 6 

Labour, . IIQ I 9 3 

2 7 per cent. - 29 19 

140 18 3 

Sundries, - - 3& 

- 597 2 9 

Produce. /. s. d. 

The fame, 691 o o 

Expences, 597 2 9 

93 i7 3 

Intereft, ^^\ 46 8 o 

Profit, .47 93 

The capital pays 10 /. 2 /. /w cent. 

Ns. 



( 412 ) 



Variation thefecond. 
One hundred and 20 acres y all graft. 

Stock. 

'Rent, &c. I. t. d. 

Rent of 1 20 acres, . 120 o o 
Tythe, at 4J. - 24 o o 
Rates, &c. at 4 s. - 24 o o 

168 o o 

Implements. 
One fmall three 

wheeled cart, - 
Sundries, including 

harnefs, * 




. 181 o o 

Livejlock. 

Onehorfe, - . 15 o o 
120 Steers, at 5/. 600 o o 

615 o o 

Labour. 

100 Perch of ditching, 
and carting it on to 
tfheland, at 3 s. .15 o o 

Carry over, .15 o o 796 o o 

. Sundry 



( 413 ) 

Brought over, . 15 o o 796 o o 
Sundry fmall articles, 400 

*9 
Suppofe the farmer 

earns as before, 1 2 o o 

-- 7 Q O 
Sundry articles. 
Shoeing, and wear and 

tear, i 5 

Market expenccs, - i o a 
Cafhmhand, - 30 o o 

--- 33 50 



AHNUAL ACCOUNT. 



Rent, &c. - . 168 o o 
^20 Steers, - 600 o o 
Labour,^ - 700 

Sundries, - -250 

--- 777 5 
Produce. 

ISO Fat fleers, at 8 /. 960 o q 

Expences, - _777 5 . 

. 182 15 'o 

Itereft> & 4 1 ^5 o 

profit, '^L 

The 



t 414 ) 

The capital pays 20 /. 14 s. per cent. 
which is a new proof of the great benefits 
refulting from grafs farms. The gentle- 
man's account of this is as follows : 

Stock. I. s. d. 

Rent, &c. - 1 68 o o 

Implements, - - 13 o o 

Live flock, - -61500 

Labour, - - 19 o o 
27 per cent. - 520 

-- 24 2 O 

Sundries, - 32 5 o 



ANNUAL ACCOUNT. 



Expences. 



Rent, &c. 
120 Steers, 
Labour, 
Sundries, 



The fame, 
Expences, 



Produce. 



/. s. d. 

168 o o 

600 o o 

24 2 O 

2 5 o 



I. s. d. 
960 o o 
794 7 o 
165 13 o 

Intereft, 



( 415 ) 



Intereft, - - 42 12 o 



Profit, . 123 10 

~The capital pays, 19 /. 9 s. per cent. 

N3- 

Variation the third. 

One hundred and ten acres arable, the foil 
clay or loam y and laid down to grafs. 
This, like the preceding farms, is called 
an arable one, but I mould remark that ten 
acres are fuppofed te be old grafs. I fup_ 
pofe all the arable unfown by the preceding 
tenant ; and, for the fake of variations in the 
calculation, fhall throw the whole expence 
into one view. 

Stock. 
Renf, &c. 

Of no acres at 17 s.. 93 10 o 
Tythe, at 4 s. 18 14 o 

Rates, &c. at 4 s. 18 14 o 

130 18 o 

Livejtock. 
4 Horfes, - . 60 o o 

Carry over, . 190 18 o 
Implements. 



, ( 4*6 X_ 

Brought over, . 190 18 g 

Implements. 

2 Carts, '24 o o 

2 Ploughs, - 330 

Harnefs, - 6 o O 

Harrows and Rollers, 3 10 o 
Sundry fmall articles, 500 

4! I 3 O 

Seed and tillage. 
Four earths on 25 a- 

cres of fpring-corn 

land, - . 20 O o 

Seed, --- -12100 
Sowing, ----063 
Water-furrowing, -150 
Harrowing, - 150 

Rolling, - "030 
Grafs feed for 25 acres, 25 o o 
Sowing, - 150 

61 14 3 

Labour. 
Six earths on 75 acres 

of fallow, - . 22 10 o 
Mowing-and harvefting 
25- acres of fpring 
corn, at4-f. - 500 ^^__ 
Carry over, . 27 10 o 294 5 3 

Thrafhing 



( 417 ) 

Brought over, .27 10 o 294 5 3 
Thrafhing the crop, 4 

qrs. per acre, 100 

qrs. at i /. - 500 
Carrying out 18 acres 

of barley, 7 2 qrs. 12 

at a time, 6 jour- 

neys, - o 12 O 

Mowing, making, cart- 

ing, and ftacking, 

5 acres of hay, - 3 O O 
Sundry fmall articles, 3 10 o 

38 12 o 
Farmer earns, -A ; l % 

-- 26 13 o 

Sundry articles. 
Shoeing, and wear and 

tear, - .3 K> O 

Cam in hand, - 30 o o 

-- " 33 * .q 



Firft year's expences, - . 354. 7 3 

Second year. L s. d, 

Rent, &c. - - 130 1 8 o 
Seed for 75 acres, . 37 10 o 
Grafs feeds ditto, - 75 o o 

--- 112 10 o 

Carry over, . 143 bo 

VOL. I. E e 5 Cows 



Brought over, .143 So 
5 Cows, and dairy furni- 

ture. - 28 o o 

Labour. 
Mowing* making, and 

flacking 25 acres of 
t new grafs, - . u o o 
Three earths on 75 

acres, - - - n J* o 
Sowing, - - o 1 8 g 
Harrowing, - 0189 

Rolling, - - 060 
Sowing grafs feeds, - 3 15 o 
Water-furrowing, - 3 15 o 
Mowing and harvdl- 

ing, at 4 *w - 1500 
Thrashing, 4 qrs. per 

acre, 300 qrs, at i s. 15 o o 
Carrying out 67 acres 

of barley, 268 qrs. 

12 at a time, 23. 

journeys, 2 60 

Sundry fmall articles, 3 10 o 

67 14 6 
farmer earns, - 12 o a 

-- - 55 *4 6 



Carryover, . 227 26 
Sundry 



( 419 ) 

Brought over, . 227 26 

Sundry articles, - ' "- 3 10 o 

Second year's expences, - jf. 230 12 6 

Third year. I. s. d* 

Rent, &c. TT"!^ " J 3 *8 o 

1 8 Home-bred heifers, - 72 o o 



Mowing, making, and 

flacking 75 acres of 

new grafs, - . 31 17 o 
Sundry fmall articles, 3100 



35 7 o 
Farmer earns, - 12 o o 

23 7 o 

Sundry articles, - - 3100 

Third year's expences, - -229 15 o 

Fourth year. 1. s. d. 

Rent, &c. - - 130 18 o 

no Steers, - 550 o o 

Labour. 
Mowing, making, and 

flacking, i acre hay, 070 

Carryover, . o 70 680 18 o 
E e 2 80 Perch 



Brought over, . o 70 680 1 8 o 
80 Perch of Ditching 

and carting earth on 

to land, at 3 s. - 12 o o 
Sundry fmall articles, 3 10 o 

15 17 o 

Farmer earns, - 12 o o 

3 17 o 

Sundry articles. 
Shoeing, and Wear, 

and Tear, * 150 
A fmall three wheeled 

cart, - - 700 
Sundries, - ~2 o o 

I0 5 o 

695 o o 

Produce. 
Firft year. 
72 Quarters of barley, at 16 s. . 57 12 o 

Second year. /. s. d. 

268 Quarters of barley, - 214 80 

5 Cows, - - - 25 o o 

25 Tons of hay, - - 50 o o 




Third 



Third year. /. s. d. 

5 Cows fold, - - 35 o o 

75- Tons of hay, - - 150 o o 

1 8 Fat heifers, - - 108 o o 
Sale of 3 horfes, implements 

of tillage, &c. they coft 

80 /. * 35 o o 



GENERAL ACCOUNT. 
Expence of firft year, . 354 7 3 

Intereft, - - 17 14 o 

Expence of fecond year, - 331 12 6 
Intereft, t ^,*- 34 5 o 

Expence of third year, - 229 15 o 
Intereft, - - - 45 14 o 

Expence of fourth year, - 697 o o 

.17 07 9 

Produce of the firft year, - 57 13 o 
-- of the fecond, - 289 8 o 
-- of the third, - 318 oo 

. 665 o o 

Total expence, - - 1710 79 
- Produce, - - 665 o o 

Total neceflary to flock? r 

this farm, \ ^S 79 

E e 3 AN- 



( 422 ) 

ANNUAL ACCOUNT. 

Expences. 
Thofe of the fourth year, 

except the cart, r 690 _ o Q 

Produce. 
no Ste_er,s, 
Expences, 

Intereft, . . - 

Profit, - . 137 




The capita) pays 18 /. i s.per cent, which 
is confiderable. The gentleman's account 
of this farm is as follows : 



Stock* ->& /. s. d. 


Rent, &c. 
Live flock, 


130 18 o 

60 o o 


Implements, 
Seed and tillage, 
Labour, 


- 4i 13 o 
61 14 3 
3B 12 o 


2 7 per cent. 
Sundries, 


10 10 O 

49 2 
33 10 o 



376 17 3 



Second 





Second year. . 
Rent, &c. 
Seed, 

5 Cows, &c. 
Labour, 
27 per cent. 

,O& 

Sundry articles, 

v2 

Third year. 
Rent, &. 
Heifers, 
Labour, 
27 /> 



Sundry articles, 

Fourth year. 
Rent, &c. 
Steers, 
Labour, 
27 /* 




Sundry articles, 



The produce the fame as before. 

E e 4 GE- 



( 424 ) 

GENERAL ACCOUNT. 

Expence of firft year, - . 376 173 

Intereft, - - - 18 17 o 

Expence of fecond year, - 362 46 

Intereft, - - - 36 19 o 

Expence of third year, - 251 40 

Intereft, - - - 49 10 o 

Expence of the fourth year, 711 60 

1806 17 9 

Total produce, - 665 o o 

Total neceflary to ftock, - . 1141 17 9 

ANNUAL ACCOUNT. 

Expences. I. s. d, 
Thofe of the fourth year, the 

cart excepted, - - 704 6 o 

Produce. L s. d. 

The fame, - - 880 o o 

Expences, - - - 704. 6 o 

175 H o 

Intereft, - - 57 2 o 

Profit, . 118 12 o 
The capital pays 15 /. 9 s. per cent. 



( 4*5 ) . 

N5- 

Variation the fourth. 

Fifty-three acres all arable ; the foil all 
light) or fart light and partjlijf. 

This farm I fuppofe to be either all a light 
foil, or part light and part heavy : the firft to 
be cropped with carrots, and the fecond 
with lucerne, for the joint fatting of cattle ; 
but I may remark that thefe are both vege- 
tables which will thrive on various foils, 
carrots on loams that are only more inclin- 
able to lightnefs than to heavinefs, and 
lucerne upon light loams as well as clays. 
But variations of foil are fo great upon 
fmall trads, even in fmgle farms, that it is 
no wild or improbable fuppofition to flate 
the lucerne part of the farm dry and found, 
but ftifF loam ; and the carrot part dry and 
light loam. 

Any dry foil, from abfolute fand to a 
ftiffim loam, will do for carrots : but no 
clays : I have cultivated them with great 
fuccefs on a good wheat loam. 



Stock, 



.* { 4*6 ) 

Stock. 

Rent, &c /, s. d+ 

Rent of 53 acres, at 

i / i J. -55 J 3 o 

Tythe, at 4 J. n o o 

Rates, &c. &c. at 4*. u o o 

77 13 o 

Livejlock. 

4 Horfes, - . 60 o o 
45 Steers, &c. at 5 /. 225 o o 

285- o o 

Implements. . 

One waggon, . 25 o o 
Two fmall three wheel- 
ed carts, 13 
One plough, 
Harrows, 
Harnefs, 
Sundry fmall articles, 

50 12 o 

Seed and Tillage. 
Four ploughings, 10 
acres of land for 
wheat, but not fown, 8 
Water-furrowing, - o 

Carryover, .8 50413 5 

2 Ploughs 





( 4*7 ) 

Brought over, . 8 5 o 413 50 
2 Ploughs on 5 acres 
oat land, but not 
fown, ; - . a Q o 

Carrot feed for 15 acres, 

at 6 j. - . T ^ 4100 

. 14 15 o 

Labour. 
Ploughing 38 acres 

fallow, fix times, . u 80 
Thrice harrowed, - o 96 
Ploughing 15 acres for 

carrots once with 4 

horfes, and 3 men ; j 

twice in a furrow, : -i 

7 acre per day, 30 

days, - - . 4 10 o 
Hoeing, at 3 1. per acre, 45 o o 
Digging up, at i/. 15 o o 
Carting home, at 5 s. 3150 
Ditching 50 perches, at 

i s. - 2 10 o 

Carting 3 loads of earth 

per perch, or 150 



Carry over, .82 12 6 428 o o 
3 loads ; 



Brought over, . 8-2136428 oo 

loads; 25 loads a 

day, 2 d. a load fil- 
ling, and i s. 3 ^. a a 

day driving, - I 12 6 
Mixing thefe 1 50 loads 

with 200 of dung in 

yard, 350 at I d. I 10 o 
Filling, fpreading* and 

driving away, - 400 
Carting home faggots, o I O 
150 Days employed in 

bringing manure, 

from the neareft 

market town, I load 

a day, 2 men, - 15 o o 

104 16 o 
27 per cent. - 27 10 o 

132 6 o 

Sundry articles. 

30 Loads of ftraw, .20 o o 
Shoeing, - 280 

Wear and tear, - 6 10 o 
150 Loads of manure, 37 10 o 

Carry over, . 66 8 o 560 6 o 

Cam 



( 429 ) 

Brought over, .66 80 560 6 o 
Cafh in hand to anfwer 

incidental expences, 30 oo 
Keeping 4 horfes a 

year, calculated at 40 o o 

f ^ 136 8 o 

Total, * . 696 14 o 

' , ' ' ** * ^ ** 

Produce thefirft year. 
45 Steers, at 8 s. 8 d. - . 37 8 



The account of the fecond year will be 
as follows. 



Rent, &c. 77 13 

75 Heifers or fleers, v n 375 

Seed for 3 8 acres of lucerne, - 1 1 8 o 

Ditto for 15 acres of carrots, - 4 10 Q 

. 468 1 1 o 

Labour. 

Two ploughings 38 
acres of fallow for 
lucerne, 3 J 6 o ' 

Three harrowings, -096 

Carry over, .4 5 6 468 1 1 o 

Drilling : 



( 430 ) 

Brought over, .4 5 6 468 1 1 
Drilling: Goftof 

a drill plough, 8 o o 
Refold for - 400 

4 o o 
Labour in ditto, at 

6 d* - o 19 o 

Four hand-hoeings, at 

^ s. - 4 12 O 

Cutting 3 times at I s. 

6d. 8 II o 

Raking together, load- 
ing and carting home 
at i s. 6 d. - 8 1 1 o 
Ploughing 15 acres for 
carrots, once with 
four horfes and three 
men, twice in the 
fame furrow, at the 
rate of half an acre 
a day, 30 days - 4 10 o 
Hoeing, at 3 1. per acre, 45* o o 
Digging up, i /. - 15 oo 
Carting home, at 5 _j. 3 15 o 
Ditching 50 perches, 2 10 o 



Carryover, . 142 13 6 468 no 

Carting 



( 43* ) 

Brought over, . 142 13 6 468 n O 
Carting 150 loads of 
the earth into farm 
yard, t r, . jfi I 12 6 

Mixing thefe 150 loads 
of earth with 500 
loads of dung, 650 

at i d. rjrtf/tocJ$i 

Filling, fpreading, and 

driving away, - 7 o o 
Carting home faggots, o a o 
Cutting 6 months chaff 

for the horfes, -^cfa'jG O 
150 Load manure, 

brought as before, 15 o o 
Sundry fmall articles of n . - 

work, including the 

attendance on the 

cattle, - 10 o o 

181 2 o 

37 percent, - 48 17 o 

229 19 p 

Sundry articles. 

As before, - . 66 8 o 
5 Tons of hay, - 10 o o 

76 8 o 

^774 18 o 



( 43* ) 

Produce ofthefecondyear. 
75 Heifers, &c. ' - . 900 o o 

I write this calculation for the ufe of the 
few who can form ideas of what the united 
powers of tillage and manuring can per- 
form ; but there is fo much more done for 
this fmall tract of land than ever yet was 
known, that I do not venture it to the rea- 
der in the fame manner as many other of 
thefe calculations : but let me remark that 
I am myfelf confident, from the refult of 
experiments on a fmaller fcale, that there is 
nothing here fuppofed but what might, 
and eafily too, be reduced to practice. 

GENERAL ACCOUNT. /. /. d. 
Expence of the firft year, - 696 1 4. o 
Intereft, - - -- 34 16 o 

Expence of the fecond, - 774 18 o 

. 1506 8 o 
Produce of the firft, 378 o o 



ANNUAL ACCOUNT. 

Expences. L s. d. 

Rent, &c. - - 77 13 o 

114 Heifers or fteers, - 456 o o 

Carry over, -53* T 3 Q 
30 Beaits, 



( 433 ) 

Brought over, . 533 13 o 
go Beafts, *- ' - 120 o o 

Seed for 15 acres of carrots, - 4 10 o 

Labour. 
Labour on 15 acres of 

carrots as before, . 68 50 
Horfe-hoeing 38 acres 

of lucerne four times, 

6 d. - ; r^, 3 16 o 
Two hand-hoeings, at 

10 s. - - 19 o o 
Cutting four times, at 

is. 6 d. - II 80 

Raking, loading, and 

carting, is. 6 d. - 1 1 80 
Ditching and carting, 

&c. as before, - 13 18 6 

Cutting chaff, r - ; g o 12 6 

150 Loads manure, 15 o o 

Sundry fmall articles as 

.before, - 10 o o 



27 per cent. ls **' i: 41 6 o 

-- ; - I94 14 o 

Carry over, . 852 17 o 
VOL. I. F f Sundry 






t 434 1 _ 
Brought over, .852 170 
Sundry articles. 

Straw, - - 20 o o 
Shoeing and wear and 

tear, -* 7 10 O 

Manure, Z $ ' - 37 10 o 

-- 65 o o 

" 17 o 



Produce. 

114 Fat heifers, - 79^ 

30 Beafts, - ; .*> - 24 



1038 o o 

Expences, - ' b - s ^^ 9*7 *7 

120 30 

Intereft, - ; -^c ^.D -fcrr 56 8 o 

Profit, i - - , c^' 6 3 J 5 o 

The capital pays 10 /. I2x. />^r cent: 
but that profit is by no means equal to the 
fpirited manner in which this little farm is 
cultivated; from whence We may venture 
to conclude, that the proportions here 
Sketched are not fo advantageous as the 
culture will admit : this will be clearly feen 
from further enquiries. 



( 435 ) 

o;;> J^P g t 

Variation the fifth, 
fine hundred and ten acres arable; t)j.e foil 

clay y cultivated on improved principles ; 

cabbages, ma courfe. 

The "ten acres I fuppofe to be grafs near 
the houfe. 

StocK 

c o - c^ .. 
Rent* &c. 

O of < ' 

Rent of no acres* at 

i$s. .99 o o 

Tythe, at4/. *" 19 16 o 
Rates, &c. at 4 J. 19 16 o 

138 t2 6 

"Liyejlock. 

4 Horfes, " - X ^ 
20 Cows, -\ fc ^ loo o o 



Q SOWS, - * 2 O O 

70 Beafts, ' - c 350 o o 

r O O 



Implements. 

A Waggon, - .95' 0/6 ; 
Two carts, - 20 o 6 

, 10 C3'JO*i t '- .: I" 

Two ploughs, - 33 
Harrows, and rollers, 3 10 o 

Carry over, .51 13 o 650 12 
F f a Haj:nefs< 



( 436 ) 

Brought over, .51 13 o 650 13 o 
Harnefs, 800 

Sacks, - - 300 

Sundries, - Q o o 



Dairy furniture, - 500 

72 13 o 

Seed and tillage. 
Four earths on 25 acres 

of wheat land, . so o o 
Seed, - - 12 10 o 
Sowing, - - o 12 6 
Water-furrowing, -150 
Two earths on. 25 acres 

of fpring-corn land, 10 o o 
Seed, - - 12 10 o 
Sowing, c - _.- o 63 
. Water-furrowing, - o i 2 6 
Seed clover, - 500 
Sowing, - o 63 

Harrowing, - 150 

One earth on 25 acres 

of fallow, - coo 

, 

Water-furrowing, - i 50 

Seed for ac acres of 

* 
cabbages, - 400 

74 12 6 

z .Carryover, .797 17 6 

Labour. 



( 437 ) 

Brought over, . 797 17 6 
Labour. 
One earth on 25 acres 

of wheat, - . i ' $ o > -s 
Sowing, - -3^-0 63 
Harrowing, ~ 050 

Water-furrowing, - 150 
Weeding, - - i 50 
Reaping and harveft- * c -* 

ing, - - 500 
Thrashing the crop 3 

qrs. per acre, 75 qrs. 

at 2 j. - - 7100 
Carrying out 8 jour- 
neys, -". -'- 0160 
Three earths on 25 acres 

of fpring corn, - 3 15 o 
Sowing, ^ -T- - o 63 
Harrowing, - 063 

Sowing clover, - 063 
Water-furrowing, - 150 
Mowing and harveft- 

ing, at4J. *** b o 

Thrafhing the crop, 4 

qrs. per acre, 100 

qrs. at i s. _- "$ o o _______ 

Carryover, .33 n o 797*17 6 
F f 3 Carrying 



( 433 ) 

Brought over, . 33 11 o 797 17 6 
Carrying out 16 acres 

of barley, 64 qrs. at 

a time, 5 journeys, o 10 o 
Four earths on 25 acres 

of cabbage land, - 5 o o 
Digging the feed bed 

and fowing, - 070 
Planting, at 5 /, - 6 50 
Four horfe-hoeings, at 

6s. - - 2 10 o 
Two hand - hoeings, 

at 8 s. - 10 o o 

Cutting and carting, 

at 5 s. - 650 

Mowing, making, cart- 
ing, and flacking 

10 acres of grafs, -.4 Q- O 
Chopping, raking, and 

carting 25 acres flub- 

We, - 3 15 o 

Ditching 150 perch, 7 10 
Carting 450 loads at 

3 * fillin S> and * * 
3 d. carting, 6 j. 3 d. 

a day for 23 days, 730 

\ V! Carry over, .86 J ^ 797 I 7 6 

94 Head 



( 439 ) 

Brought over, . 86 16 o 797 176 
94 Head of cattle,. 

1128 load mixing 

with 450, in all 

1578, at i d. f 6 ii 6 
Carting 1 5 78 loads, and 

fpreading, 78 days, 

at 4 J. 3 d. - 16116 
Carting faggots, - 040 
Cutting chaff, ir~; o 12 6 
Sundry fmall articles, 600 

116 15 6 
27 per cent. - 31 n o 

148 6 6 

Sundry articles, 
Shoeing, and wear and 

tear, ,15 o o 

40 Loads of draw, 30 o o 

Cafh in hand, 40 o o 

_ 85 o o 



ANNUAL ACCOUNT. 

Expences. I s. d. 

Rent, &c. ^te* - - 138 12 o 

70 Beafts, - - . j$5Q o o 

Carryover, ^7^88 12 o 

F f 4 Seed 



( 440 ) 

Brought over, . 488 12 o 
Seed for 25 acres of wheat, 
25 of fpring corn, 25 of 

clover, and 25 of cabbages, - 34 o o 

Labour, v<Vi~ _ - - 148 6 6 

Sundry articles, :bo $b*oi 45 o o 

.715 18 6 

Produce* t s;S 

2$ Acres of wheat, 8ytqrs. /. s. d. 

at 40 s. >.--d ^ - 175 O o 

16 Of barley, 72 at 16 j. - 57 12 o 

20 Cows, > - 100 o o 

70 Fatbeafls, at 7 /. 15^. - 542 10 o 



Expences, r %ou i"v/ 715 iB 6 

159 3 6 
Intereft, - o^ 5 Sw 51 no 

Profit, - - - . 107 12 6 

Capital pays 15 /. 8 s. per cent, which is 
a very confiderable profit to a gentleman 
in whofe account 2 7 per cent, is charged 
upon all labour, and proves ftrongly the 
great advantages of t;his culture. - The 
change from eftablifhed modes is not very 
great, being only in one crop out of four; 
i but 



_ ( 441 } 

but yet it is a change, and for that reafon 
we muft not fuppofe a common farmer to 
have any thing to do with it. This is the 
advantage of the gentleman ; he, from the 
enlargement of his views, may befuppofed to 
know very foon the fuccefs that any where; 
attends a new practice, and from the ac- 
count, may judge of the probability of its 
being beneficial upon his land : Whatevei: 
fuccefs attends him,the neighbouring farmers 
will copy himfo very flowly, that father, fon 
and grandfon, mufl fucceed on the fame land 
before their neighbours will come into the 
fcheme. It was fo with clover, turnips, 
and, I doubt not, was once fo with wheat, 
and will be fo with cabbages. They will 

however make their way in time. 

J 



o _ 



I N 7. 
Variation thejtxth. 

One hundred and ten acres arable ; the foil 
light, cultivated upon improved principles; 

carrots in a courfe. 

J iVrf 5 : a&- f l 
The ten acres I fuppofe, as in the laft 

farm, to be grafs near the houfe: The 
courfe I throw the arable into, is i. car- 
rots; 2. barley; 3. clover; 4. wheat; 

which 



( 442 ) 

which is beyond doubt for light lands an 
incomparable good one. 

Stock. /. s. d. 

Rent, &c. as in the laft 

farm, sfcf&n&w: - 138 12 o 

Jive ftock, ditto, - - 51200 
Implements, ditto, srsq -. 7- *3 

Seed and tillage, 
On 25 acres of wheat 

as before, - -34 7 6 
Ditto on 25 of fpring 

corn, w|pO;MiP' 30 o o 
Seed for 25 acres of 

carrots, ** * - 7 10 o 

71 17 6 

Labour. 
One earth on 25 acres 

of wheat, - _ i 5 
Sowing, -J A - 063 
Harrowing, - 050 

Water -furrowing, -150 
Weeding, - I 5 

Reaping and harveft- 

ing, - - 7 10 o 
Thrafhing, 3 <{. per 

acre, 75 qrs. at 2 s. 7 10 o 

Carryover, . 19 6 3 795 26 

Carrying 



( 443 ) 

Brought over, .19 6 3 795 2 6 
Carrying oat 8 joui-- 

neys, ~^ o 1 6 

Labour as before on 25 

acres of {jpring^orn, 16 89 
One earth on 25 acres 
: of cafrot land, trench 

ploughed with four 

horfes r 3 men half 

an acre a day,, , , ;T A. $ 10 o 
Sowing, - ~,,^..1 A .5 o 
Harrowing, - o 63 

Hand-hoeing, at 3 /. 75 o o 
Digging up, - 25 " o o 
Carting home, at5/.' J . $ '^ o 
Mowing, making, &c. 

10 acres of grafs, 4 o o 
Chbppiftg, &c. &c. 25 
- acres of ftubble, - 3 15 o 
Labour on ditching, 
... carting, and re-cart- 
ing^ -as before, - 37 1 6 o 
CartingTaggots, fc -,. : ,p c 4 o 
Cutting chaff, j o 12 6 



. c Car^ry over, ^ 198 4 9 795 26 

Sundry 



( 444 ) 

Brought over, .198 49 795 2 6 
Sundry fmall articles, 6 o o 

204 4 9 
27 per cent. - 55 i o 

259 5 9 

Sundry articles. 
The fame as in laft farm, - 85 o o 

jr. 1139 8~i 

ANNUAL ACCOUNT. 

Expences. L s. d* 

Rent, &c. - , - 138 12 o 

-D n 

70 rJeatts, - 25 

Seed for 2^ acres of 
y 

wheat, 25 of fpring 
corn, 25 of clover, 
and 25 of carrots, - 37 10 o 

Labour, 259 5 9 

Sundry articles as be- 
fore, - 45 o o 

830 7 9 

Produce. 

25 Acres of wheat, 877 /. s. d. 

qrs.at40J. - - 175 o o 

Carry over, . 1 75 o o 



( 445 ) 

Brought over, >T. 1 75 o o 
25 Acres of barley and oats, 

125 qrs. deduct 36 oats, 

89ati6*. ^i*kH - 71 4 o 

70 Beafts, - 3 - - 630 o o 
20 Cows, . -,, : ?, -\ . " 100 o o 

976 4 o 
Expences, <'*- - 830 7 9 

J 45 16 3 
Intereft, - - - 56 19 o 

Profit, -88 17 3 

The capital pays, 1 2 /. 1 1 *.; a profit not 
equal to the expence of the culture which 
is fo great as to deduct much from the be- 
nefit of the practice : I have elfewhere 
remarked, that carrots are cultivated to pro- 
digious profit in the neighbourhood of 
Woodbridge in Suffolk, where three hoeings 
are executed for 155. and the crop drawn for 
much lefs than I have fuppofed ; but I mean 
to extend thefe eftimates to all light foils, 
though not fands; and upon loams the 
hoeing and diggings muft be more expen- 
five than on a loofe fandy foil. I mall, in 
the next place, prefent a calculation of the 

carrot 



( 446 ) 

tafrot culture in a courfe, 'under the fup- 
poiition of the work being done much 
cheaper, though not quite fo low, as^where 
it has been fo long eftablimed. o" 

Variation the f event h. 

One hundred and ten acres^ the foil light ', cul* 
ti*vated r witb carrots^ in a coiirfe, at a 
lower expence. 

Stock. I. s. d. 

Rent, &c. as before, '_ 138 12 o 
Live ftock, ditto, - - 512 o o 
Implements, ditto, - 72 13 6 

Seed and tillage, ditto *ptt.' 71 17 6 
Labour on the corn, 

ditto, - 36 ii o 
Ditto labour on hay, 

ftubble, manure, &c 

&c. &c. 52 7 6 

Ploughing carrot land 

.as before, - 7 10 o 

Sowing, - - o 12 6 
Harrowing, - 063 

Hand-hoeing at 20 s. 25 o o 
.Digging at 10 s. - 12 10 o 

Carryover, . 134 17 3 795 2 6 

Carting 



) 

Brought over, *34 *7 3 795 * -6 

'Carting home, - 50 



141 * 3 

27 # 8 i o 



179 3 3 



Sundry articles, as before, -85 o o 

59 



yiO ^ ANNUAL ACCOUNT. 

Expences. L s. d. 

Rent, *>-*" - I3 8 I2 

70 Beafts, -3* i;:v,Hl^Lv3*f;: 350 oo 

Seed, - r^il : ;:..^ ---..' 37100 

Labour, . "r - ^OKJO 179 33 

Sundries, - - . )%:o 45 



lot Produce. 
The fame as before, 
Expences, - ,*^i "j 




Intereft, .^- - 
Profit, > .^ /-*"^ 

The capital pays 21 /. 6 j.^r r^w/. which 

great profit is a proof that carrots, not ap- 

pearing in the preceding calculation fo ad- 

t vantageous 

7 '* 



( 448 ) 

vantageous as cabbages, has not been owing 
to any deficiency in the value of the crop, 
but to the height of the expences at which 
I am obliged to eftimate the labour, and to 
thefe high prices I muft adhere, or my 
readers not accuftomed to the culture would 
often find their profit much lefs than I 
ffcould ftatc. 

GENERAL RECAPITULATION 

OF THIS CHAPTER. 

Stock requifttef&r the preceding farms. 
N I. One hundred and fe- " -gj 

venty acres arable ; the 

foil clay or loam, - . 865 13 1 1 
Ditto a gentleman, - .918 13 u 

2. One hundred and ten 

acres all arable, the 
foil light enough for 
turnips, - < . 887 1 1 6 

Ditto a gentleman, - . 928 8 6 

3. One hundred and twenty 

acres all grafs, ' - ". 835 5 o 
Ditto a gentleman, - . 852 7 o 

4. One hundred and ten 

acres, the foil clay or 
loam, laid down to 
grafs, . 1045 7 9 

Ditto 



( 449 ) 
Ditto a gentleman, - . 1141 17 9 

5. Fifty-three acres all ara- 

ble, .the foil all light, 
or part light and part 
ftiff, cultivated in car- 
rots and lucerne, .1128 80 

6. One hundred and ten 

acres arable, the foil 
clay, cultivated on im- 
proved principles, cab- 
bages in a courfe, - .1031 4 o 

7. One hundred and ten 

acres arable, the foil 
light, cultivated on 
improved principles, 
carrots in a courfe, . 1139 3 3 

8. One hundred and tea 

acres arable, the foil 
light, cultivated on im- 
proved principles : car- 
rots in a courfe at a lefs - ; 
expence than N 7. . 1059 5 9 

Annual produce of thefe farms, expences 

paid. 

N i. . 185 o 7 

Ditto a gentleman, . 132 07 

VOL. I. G g N* a* 

f- 



.135 16 3 

Ditto a gentleman, - . 93 17 3 

3- l8 2 15 
Ditto a gentleman, - . 165 13 o 

4. . 190 o o 

Ditto a gentleman, - . 175 14 o 

5- I2 3 

6 - - ; Su ' '59 3 6 

7- ' H5 l6 3 
8. . 225 18 9 

Profit per cent, on thefe farms* 

N I. .21 70 

Ditto a gentleman, - . 14 70 

2- -,.. - ; J 5 6 O 

Ditto a gentleman, - -1 2 O 

3. - . 20 14 o 

Ditto a gentleman, - J 9 90 

4- i 1 
Ditto a gentleman, - . 15 90 

f. . 10 12 o 

6. - ^ : - .15 80 

7- - r^-V >C- 12 ii o 

8, .21 60 



Comparijon 



Comparifon between the gentlemen and far- 
men, in the profit per cent, on tbeje 
farms.. I. s. d. 

N? i. The farmer, - si 7 o 

The gentleman, - 14 7 o 

Superiority of the former, - . 7 o o 

2. The farmer, - 1560 
The gentleman, 10 20 

Superiority of the former, - .5 40 

3. The farmer, 20 14 o 
The gentleman, - 19 9 o 

Superiority of the former, - . i 50 

4. The farmer, - 1 8 i o 
The gentleman, - 1590 

Superiority of the former, - . 2 12 o 

Progrejfion of the farmer's prof tin the above 
farms. 

3- X 20 14 o 

4. -' >C. 1 8 10 

2. - - . 15 6 o 



G g 2 



( 452 J 

Progreffion of the gentleman's profit in the 

above farms. 
N 8. - .21 6 o 

3- - - .19 90 

4- - - &* .15 90 

6. i^^nKi - J 5 80 
i. * .14 70 

7, . 12 II O 
5. * ^' . 10 12 O 

^ - ^^' 10 20 

Thefe general ftates of the account re- 
quire a few obfervations to render them 
of practical ufe to the reader. Firft, refpet- 
ing the common farmer, 

His greateft profit is from the clay ara- 
ble farm, which pays him fo confiderably as 
21 /. 7 s. per cent. Arable farms, with 
infinite attention and good conduct, are 
certainly very profitable, and the common 
farmer certainly gives the firft, and may 
eaftly be flippofed to poflefs the latter. 

The next profitable farm is the grafs one : 
fuch are vafrly beneficial to whoever cul- 
tivates them; and, as I have often obferVed* 
are liable to fewer lofles and evil chances 
than any. There are certain proportions 

which 



( 453 ) 

which render fome arable farms more a.d- 
vantageous than grafs ones, but in the ge- 
neral, the latter will prove mofh fo, and 
will in every account rank very high in the 
fcale of profit. 

The next in order is that laid down to 
grafs, which, like thofe already in grafs, are 
highly profitable, and pay better than many 
arable ones. 

The next and lafl is the arable farm on 
a foil light enough for turnips ; which, 
under fome circumftances and proportions* 
is more profitable on clay farms, but in 
others, lefs variations indifferent fized farms 
arife from varied proportions. If a man 
has a thoufand pounds to difpofe of, it may 
be moft profitable to expend it upon a clay 
foil ; if he has twice that fum, it may be 
better on a light one, and vice verfa. No^ 
thing is therefore fo deceitful, in fuch af- 
fairs as thefe, as reafoning by analogy: A 
clay farm of 103 acres is not fo beneficial 
as a light loamy one : why mould not the 
rule hold good with five times the land, 
conducted on the fame principles? This 
qucftion may doubtlefs be afked with fome 
. G g 3 appearance 



( 454 ) 

appearance of reafon ; and to reply only in 
generals cannot be anfwered ; but minute 
every particular, and variations will infen- 
fibly appear, which alter the proportions 
perhaps of every article. 

In the gentleman's fcale of farms, the firft 
is that conducted on improved principles ; 
carrots in a courfe, but cultivated at a lefs 
expence than the prices I generally minute, 
though not fo low as in countries where 
they are commonly cultivated. The profit 
is 21 I. 6 s. per cent, no twith (landing the 
whole labour is increafed as ufual 27 per 
cent. This fajm fhews the importance of 
gentlemen's procuring their work to be 
done at low prices, for in the other carrot 
farm, which is farmed in every refpec"t in 
the fame manner, and differs only in the 
price of labour, the profit per cent, is but 
12 I. us. A rife of thefe prices is attended 
with fo great confequences that too much 
attention cannot be given to it. The carrot 
culture in a courfe for light foils is evidentjy 
a moft beneficial one where the labour 
can be performed at moderate prices. This 
part of the calculation muft therefore be 

variable 



( 455 ) 

variable according to circumftances, like 
every other in thefe fheets : for no one can 
fuppofe every variation to be minuted here. 
I might give a complete eftimate of each 
farm varied to every price of every article 
of labour, and to every article of produce 
in varied quantity and price ; but fuch a 
work would be fo voluminous, that 30 
folios would be requifite for an index to 
it. Without fplitting fuch hair-breadths, 
we may be allowed to pronounce that the 
carrot is an excellent vegetable for the field 
culture, and the moft profitable to introduce 
in a courfe, of any, for light foils, 

Next to this carrot farm comes the grafs 
one : fuch will ever be particularly high in 
the gentleman's account. This farm is 
only 25 5. per cent, below the farmer's in 
profit : Grafs, with proper management* 
(pofleffing the requifite firm to flock) re- 
quires fcarce any labour, which is the gen- 
tleman's weak part, confequently he mould 
always take fpecial care to direct his at^ 
tempts in that field where he is ftrongeft. 
In arable farms, even when cultivated on 
improved principles, there are a thoufand 
narnelefs deductions to be made in points 
6 where 



( 456 ) 

where the gentleman cannot poflefs the 
farmer's advantages, .particularly the cuK 
ture of corn ; in every thing concerning 
which, he is fo open to be cheated, 
deceived, buying and felling to difad van- 
tage, &c. &c. &c. that all farms in which 
corn is an article of confequence, inuft, more 
or lefs, be on that account difadvantageous, 

In the above carrot farm a profit appears 
of above 20 per cent, but half that farm is 
every year under corn ; which circumftance 
at once fhould remind the reader of thofe 
difadvantages which I have fo often men- 
tioned, but which cannot be reduced to 
eftimate: Hence a grafs farm that leaves 
15 per cent, on the foot of its account may 
eafily be more advantageous to a gentleman^ 
than an arable one that appears to yield 20. 

The third farm ip this table is that laid 
dow r n to grafs : a frefh proof of the profit 
of thefc farms ; and {hews, that if a gentle- 
man does not chufe to occupy an arable one, 
it will anfwer greatly to him to hire one 
with a view of converting Jt into a grafs 
one. 

The fourth is that wherein cabbages are 
introduced in a courfe every fourth year : 

This 



( 457 ) 

This, although an arable one, and confe- 
quently liable to many objections, is an 
excellent culture for a gentleman, particu- 
1 rly in the crop of cabbages (the fourth of 
the farm) being in many cafes convertible 
into the fame produce as the clover, ftraw, 
hay, &c. &c. that is, into the fame cattle 
which, for numerous reafons, is a point of 
much importance to a gentleman. If cab- 
bages are not cultivated upon this farm, 
beans muft be fubftituted; which, befides 
the inferiority vifible in the above table, has 
all the difadvantages attending corn crops, 
in themfelves fo prejudicial to gentlemen. 
There is, for this reafon, a much greater 
difference between a farm in which cab- 
bages are one crop, and another in which 
beans are one, than apparent in thefe ac- 
counts. Nor is it poffible in fuch eftimates 
to reduce every thing to calculation : I 
rather ftrained a point in calculating the 
difference between a gentleman and farmer 
in labour at 27 per cent. I might have done 
the fame in that of being cheated in the 
minutiiZ of the bufmefs of paying arti- 
zans too much of buying and felling to 
difadvantage of having bad crops through 
c want 



want of judgment ; but fo many ideal efti- 
mates would, in the eyes of fome, have car- 
ried too fictitious an appearance : for this 
reafon I confined myfelf to that point the 
Jeaft fuppofititious ; and took care in that to 
keep within bounds. 

The fifth in the fcale is the clay a- 
rable. 

The fixth the light foil arable farm, cul- 
tivated upon improved principles, carrots in 
a courfe. 

The feventh, carrots and lucerne. 

The eighth, the light foil farm. 

The inferiority of carrots and lucerne, 
in this view, proves nothing againft thofe 
vegetables in other variations : There can 
be no doubt but a farm cultivated merely 
for railing food for cattle, muft, to a gentle- 
man, be more profitable than moft common 
ones ; but in this the winter vegetable is 
carrots, under the difadvantages of the ex- 
penfive culture I before mentioned, and 
probably the fcale of this farm will here- 
after be found too fmall for this manage- 
ment. . 

END of the FIRST VOLUME* 



Jttft fullijhtd, written ty tat Author of the foregoing Work, 

In Four Volumes, Oftavo, 
Price 1 1. fewed, or 1 1. 45. bound. 

Illuftrated with twenty-fix Copper- plates of fuch new-invented 
Implements of Hufbandry, as deferve to be generally 
known, and Views of fome Pilurefque Romantic Scenes, 
which occurred to the Author in the Courfeof his Journey; 

A S I X M O N'T H S TOUR 

THROUGHOUT THE 

NORTH OF ENGLAND 

CONTAINING 

An Account of the prefent State of AGRICULTURE, MANU- 
FACTURES and POPULATION in feveral Counties of this 
Kingdom. 

PARTICULARLY, 

I. The Nature, Value, and Rental , which might and ought to be 
of the Soil. cultivated. 

i VI. 



II. The Size of Farms, with 
Accounts of their Stock, Pro- 
dufts, Population, and various 
Methods of Culture. 

III. The Ufe, Expence, and Profit 
of feveral Sorts of Manure. 

IV. The Breed of Cattle, and the 
refpeclive Profits attending them . 

V. The State of the Walte Lands 



The Condition and Number of 
the Poor, with 'their Rates, 
Darnings, &c. 

VII. The Prices of Labour, Provi- 
fions, and the Proportion between 
them. 

VIII. The Regifter of many curiout 
and ufeful Experiments in Ajri- 
culture. 



INTERSPERSED 

With Defcriptionsof SEATS of the NOBILITY andGENTRY; 
and other remarkable Objects. 

Printed for W. Strahan ; W. Nicoll, No. 51. St. Paul'* 
Church-yard; B.Collins at Salisbury; and J. Balfour at Edin- 
burgh, and fold by all the Bookfellers inTown and Country. 

N. B. In the Minutes of this Tour are regiftered the Parti- 
culars pfaboveTn REE HUNDRED ORIGINAL EXPERIMENTS 
on various Points of Hufbandry; communicated by many of 
the Nobility and Gentry; particularly on Cabbages, Carrots, 
Potatoes, Lucerne, Sainfoine, Burnet, Graffes gathered by 
Hand, Madder, Grain, and Pulfe drilled and horfe-hoed, 
Manures, Draining, &c. &c. &c. 

Kf 3 " The Defign of this Tour is to fpread ufeful Know- 
ledge of all Sorts, to difplay to one Part of the Kingdom the 
Practices of the other, to remark wherein fuch Practice 13 
hurtful, and wherein it is commendable. To draw forth 
Spirited Examples of good Hufiandry from Obfcurity, and 
difplay them as the proper Objefts of Imitation. 

" The Farmers in one Place grow rich by Methods that 
would enrich their Brethren in another; but remain quite 
unknown. 

II. A 



IT. 
A SIX WEEKS TOUR 

THROUGH THE 

SOUTHERN COUNTIES of ENGLAND and WALES, 

D E S C R I B 1VfG PARTICULARtV, 



IV. The various Prices of Labour 
and Provifions. 

V. The State of the working Poor 
in thofe Counties, wherein the 
Riots were moft remarkable. 



I. The prefent State of Agriculture 
and Manufactures. 

II. The different Methods-of culti- 
vating the Soil. , 

JIT. The Succefs attending fome late 
ExperimentsonvariousGrafles, &c. 

DESCRIPTIONS W and COPPERPLATES 
Of fuch new invented IMPLEMENTS of HUSBANDRY, as 
deferve to be generally known : 

INTERSPERSED 

With Accounts of the SEATS of the NOBILITY and 

GENTRY, and other Objects worthy Notice. 
Handfomely printed in Octavo. Price 55. fewed, 6s. bound. 

The fecond Edition, corrected and enlarged. 
K^In this fecond Edition, the Author has inferted fome frefh 
Informations he received of new Improvements in Hufbandry 
in the neighbourhood of the Rout, with other confiderable 
Additions, which he hopes will render it more acceptable to 
the Public ; and be found to co-operate entirely with his ori- 
ginal Defign of extending theKnowledge of Britifh Agriculture. 
The following PaJJage, charafteriftic of this Work, is tranf- 

latedfrom a foreign Literary Journal. 
" The Title of this Work is. long, but we find the Work 
hfelf too fiiort. It is full of ufeful and interefting Obfervations 
upon divers Subjects mentioned in the Title. The Author, 
who is profoundly verfed in every Thing that concerns rural 
Oeconomy and Agriculture, is alfo a Man of Wit and Tafte: 
and the Defcriptions which he gives of many fine Seats in the 
Country, fhew that he has a great Knowledge of the fine 
Arts, and particularly of Architecture." 
Billiatb. des Scien. &c. Tom vingt-aeuvieme^rem.part.p. 21 , 

111. 

Handfomely printed in Octavo. Price 55. fewed, 6s. bound, 

The fecond Edition, corrected and enlarged, 

OF THE 

FARMER'S LETTERS 
PEOPLE OF E "N L G L A N D. 

Containing 

The Sentiments of a Pra6\ical Hufbandman on various Subjects of great 
Importance ; particularly, the Exportation of Corn. The Balance of Agri- 
culture and Manufactures. The prefent State of Hufbandry. The Cir- 
cumftances attending large and fmall Farms. The prefent State of the 
Poor. The Price of Provifions. The Proceedings of the Society for the 
Encouragement of Arts, &c. The Importance of Timber and Planting. 
Emigrations to the Colonies. The Means of promoting the Agriculture 
me! Population of Great Britain, &c. &c. To which is added, SY tv/E } 
cr, Occafional Trades on Hu&andry end Rural Oeconomics. 




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