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Full text of "The Farmer's journal"

North Carolina State Library 





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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2011 with funding from 
State Library of North Carolina 



http://www.archive.org/details/farmersjournal1853tomp 



THE 



FARMER'S JOURNAL, 



BY 



JOHN F. TOMPKINS, M. D. 



Vol. n. 



RALEIGH, NORTH CAROLINA. 
1853. 



^ (,^Q.S' 



INDEX. 



Address of the Hon. Robt. Strange page- 
before the Cumberland Co. Ag- 
ricultural Society, 
Ashes, . - - 

Attention, Subscribers, 
Agricultural Quackery, 
Agricultural Products of the U. S. 
/^ction of Lime, 
An Agricultural School at Bath, 

North Carolina, - - (^ 

A Fact woithy of attention, 50 

A few of the benefits of Agricultral 

Societies, - - 60 

Analysis of the Soils, - . - 78 
Agricultural Address, - ' 80 
Ashes as a Manure, - - 83 

Ag'al Schools — Experiments, &c., 85 
A word to progressing Farming, 90 
A Hint to Farmers, - 93 

A new use of leaves of the Pine, 126 
A Potato twenty years old, 139 

Agricultural Axioms, - - 140 

Advantages of the Farmer of this 

Age, - - - 148 

Analysis of the various crops, 1*76 

Address of Dr. R. C. Pritchard, 199 
Adaptation of crops to Market, 207 
Agricultural Education, - 217 

Address of Hon. A. W. Venable, 235 
Attention called to Card, - 244 

Addres of Hon. A. W. Venable 
continued, - - 245 



Advertisements, - - 266 

Address of Hon. A. W. Venable, 267 

Agricultural Statistics, - 264 

A proposed experiment, - 271 

A correction of the Premium list, 275 

Advertisements, - - 287 

40 ^Atmosphere, - - . 29ft 

47 Amateur Farmers, - 299 

Agents, ... 330 

Advertisements, - - 351 

Agricultural Societies, - 354 

Action of Drought on Plants, 365 

Advertisements, - - 383 



Beaufort Co. Agricultural Society, 58 
Barn- Yard Manures, - 89 

Breeding Horses, - - 198 

Baltimore Manufactured Agricultu- 
ral Implements, - 286 
Biojm Corn, - - - ; 367 

Communication, - - 1 
Communication, by "Panola," Jr., 2 
Communication, by " Beaufort," 4 
Clearing, - - 14 
Chemical Apparatus for the analy- 
sis of Soils, - - 19 
Communication, by "Moyock," 33 
Communication, by " J. W. Y." 34 
Cure for Cholic in Horses, 63 
Communication, by "Old North 
State," - - - 76 



rr 



INDEX. 



Carbon, - • - 80 
Cure for founder of tho horse, - 81 
Chemistry in relation to Agricul- 
ture, - - - 104 
Constitution of the Agricultural 
Asiocia'ion of the Slaveholding 
StatfS, - - - 134 
Corn flat vs. Hill Culture, - 136 
Cure for Chapped Hands, 140 
Cotton Gins in old Edgecombe, 

(Editorial,) - - - 146 

Cheese mailing for a small dairy, 149 
Constitution and By-Laws for 

County Agiicultiiial Socielies, 18( 
Chemistry as applied to Agricul- 
ture, - - - 219 
Comfort and health of Country 

Families, - - - 221 
Communications, - - 2*77, 27^- 
Cotton in the United States, 301 
Committees of the Slate Agricul- 
tural Society, - - - 336 
Cultivation of Cotton in Algeria, 301 
Correspondents increasing, 339 
Compost for fruit trees, 28* 
Charcoal and Salt for Sheep, - 383 

Diseases of Horses and Cows. A 

valuable receipt, - - 46 

Deep Tillage, - - - 125 

Dr. Pritchard's Address, - 209 

Df6cri])lion of the duil-bearing 

r(x-l> of iKep River, - 311 



Editor's Table, 

Ecouou)y of Fattening Hogs, 
EdgecDMihe as she is — and Evlge- 

combe as she was 5 yi ars ap-o, 

by Alplia, 
Editi'iiMl Hiid extract of a letter, 
Examine in Agiiculture, 
Eti"!s ill awarding Prem'un s at 

the Fair, (Editorial,), 



21 
31 



73 
243 
267 

275 



East India Cotton, - - 302 
Extracts and Comments, (Editorial,) 276 
Editorial Remarks, ~ - - 305 
Editor's Table, - - - 339 
Experiments in Farming, - - 369 
Economy of Manure, 382 

Farming, - - - - 15 
Farmers and Mechanics get ready 
for the Fair on the 18th of Oc- 
tober next, 20 
Farmers of North^Carolina, where 

is your State pride ? - - 50 
Farmers do not turn your stock 

upon your fields, - - 82 
Farmers, raise your own horses and 

mules, - - - - 83 
Farmers' Gardens, - - - 86 
Feeding IJees, - - - 63 
Facts about digestion, - - 94 
Fanners, write for your paper, (Ed- 
itorial,) - - . - 145 
Food for Crops, - - 150 
Farmers, bring up your soils, 209 
Faimers, collect manure, - 244 
Fisli, its value as a manure, 279 
Fatftiiiing Hogs, - - - 306 
" " - - - 342 
Fattening, .... 362 

Good rules for Farmers, - 42 

Grape Vines. - - - 128 

Galls from Harness, &c., - 140 

Georgia State Agricultural Fair, 143 

Geol igical Survey, - - 151 

Guano, .... iVs 
Good management, no mystejy — 

the secret of it, - - 214 

Gardening for Farmers, - - 260 

Geology of the Coal District, 311 

Golden Advice, - - - 267 
Granville Agricultural Society and 

County Fair, ... 278 



INDEX. 



Gtfauo, - - - . 321 
Granville County wido awake, 338 
Grape culture at the West, - 360 

How to use Guano, - - 38 
Honor and profit of Industry, - 91 
Halifax county ahead, (Editorial,) 147 
House-keeping is an essentia! part 

of Female Education, 
Hints on breeding horses. 
How to get rid of Musquitoes, 
How to raise fruit every year, 
How to cure warts on horses. 
Home, - - - . 
Hogs, &c., - - - 
How many acres to the hand, 
Horse vs. Mule, 
How shall we preserve eggs, 

Impiovements of roads, 
Industry essential. 
Important truths, 
Indian Meal Waffles, 
Indian Corn, - - - 



Johnny Cakes, 

Kicking Horses, 
Kitchen Garden, 



244 
265 
271 
271 
283 
327 
333 
349 
356 
381 

43 

96 

223 

367 

377 

381 



303, 350 
337 



Laws of the Stale of North Caroli- 
na, p ssed by the General As- 
sembly, al tilt) session of 1852, 5 
Letter from Mr. Street, of Craven co. 20 
" " J. F. F., of Rjwan Co., 34 
-" " S. U., of llockville. Ro- 
wan Caunty, - - - 34 
Letter from J. J. Phillips, - 50 
" " J. D. Jones, - - 67 
Liquid Mannres, - - - 89 
Leaks to be stopped, • - 92 
Longevity of Farmers, - - 95 



Letters from Prof. Emmons, 156 
" Richard H. Smith, - 211 
" " P. M. Edmondston, 212 
" '' J. P. Bridgers, - 213 
" W. D. Riddick, - 213 
List of Premiums awarded, &c., - 225 
Le^ the blame rest where it be- 
longs - - - . 244 
Letter from our Female Correspon- 
dent " Mary," - - 307 
Letter from one of our Patrons, 308 
" •' Jno. S. Dancy, of Tar. 
boro', - - - 308 
Letter from S. Weller, - 309 
Limits of the Coal Field, - 313 
Letter from J. S. Skinner, - 318 
" Hon. T. L. Clingman, 320 
" J. F. F., - 329 
" S. W. Covington, 340 
" " a Farmer, - 344 
" " C. Willis, . 345 
" " L.C.Desmond, 345 
" " A.Latham, - 345 
" B.D. Mann, - 345 
" R. H. Walker, 346 
" D.H.Holland, 371 
" N. W. W^oodfi.n, 372 
" " Soc'us, - - 373 
" Neil! McDiigald, 375 
" L. W. H, - 376 
" " Win. Car-taphen 376 
" " Owen Fennel!, 376 
" T. T.SlaJ<', - 377 

Mr. Ruffin's Address before the S. 

C. Institute, in Charleston, 18 

Male and Female Corn, - • 27 

Manure, ... 35 
Meeiinj^ of the State Agricultural 

Sji'iety, . . - . 4g 

Milking Butter, - - 128 
M ixiin for Farmers ; Ringbcn) 

in Horses, - • 137 



Meatiuring Corn, - 142 

Motion ofFeivd by Dv. Pritcliard, 244 
Mr. Dancy's Letter, - 304 

Management of barn-yard manure, 331 
New process of making Butter, 142 
Necessary Mechanical condition of 

the Soil, ... 158 

Neglected Department of Agri- 
culture in Edgecombe, - 181 
Neglected department of Agricul- 
ture in Edgecombe, - 210 
Our Introduction, - - 16 
On Liquid Manure in Farm Yards, 44 
Our Fiist Volume Complete, - 48 
Our Traveling Agent, - - 48 
Our Thanks, - . . sO 
Origin of Mulesin the United States, 139 
Our Removal, (Editorial,) - 144 
Original Gommunioation, - 147 
Our Correspondent, Alpha, - 178 
On the relations of science to prac- 
tice in agriculture, - - 193 
Our Correspondence, (Ed torial,) 275 
Oiir Female Correspondent, - 305 
Our Local Agenis, - - 339 
Poultry Manure, - - 46 
Proceedings uf the State Agricul- 
tural Society, - - • 113 
Poultry and Eggs, - - 139 
Phmts, - - - - 161 
Preparations for the Fair, - 177 
Plaster for Corn— Preserving Corn- 
stalks, - - - - 191 
Proceedings of the North Carolina 

State Agricultural Society, 225 

Pretty Good fjr one Man, - 266 
Potash, - - - . 282 

Pet(^r G. Evans' Coal Mine and 

"Wil ox Anthracite, - - 314 

Premiums for the Granville Fair, 341 

Palmer E^ate, - - - 315 

Piemiimi Essay on the Treatment 

and Cultivation of Corn, - 346 



Potato Culture, 356 

Rules for making an Applelree, 35 
Right and Proper, - - 88 

Recipe for Starch ; Carrots for Cof- 
fee, - - - - 140 
Recipe for making Bread, - 271 
Report of the Coal Lands, by C, T. 
Jackson, M. D,, Geologist and 
Chemist, - - 310^318 
Roses from Cuttings, - - 282 
Swine, - - - . 39 
Soap Suds, - - ■ . . 127 
Special Manure for Grasses, - 128 
Sea Island Cotton — Statistics, &c. 129 
Salt your Corn, ... 133 
Spinning Cotton Yarns for Export, 142 
Something not to be forgotton, 176 
Specimen No. 5, Sandy Soil, 179 
Smoke House, - - - 193 
State Fair, .... 2O8 
Salt as a Manure, . - 224 
Southern Fruit, - - - 267 
State and County Fairs, (Editorial,) 274 
Setting Meadow, &c. - - 285 
Sheep Husbandry, - - 305 
Saving Gaiden Seeds, - - 335 
Save the dead leaves, - - 335 
Swamp Lands, - - . 335 
Study the insects that damage the 

Farmer, - - - . 353 
Striking instance of the benefit of 
the thorough improvement of 
Land, - - - - 357 
To the County Agricultural Socie- 
ties of the State, - - 17 
The fertilizing properties of the re- 
mains of old chimnies, - 20 
To extirpate sorrell, - - 29 
To destroy the Appletree Borer, 31 
The Silver Cup, - - - - 48 
The sweep stakes for the best corn 

crop, .... 50 

The management of negroes, - 62 



INDEX. 



The Report of Prof. Emmons, 65 

To those who send us money by 

letter, - - . . 80 

To the friends of agricultural im- 
provement in N. C. - - 81 
The present number of our paper, 81 
The cultivation of fruit trees in 

North Carolina, - - 84 

The Sorrowful Tree, - - 84 

The Farmer's Library, - - 85 

The Report of Prof. Emmons, (con- 
clusion,) - - - - 9*7 
The cultivation of wheat, - 108 
Thorough farming — or, much labor 

on little land, - - - 111 
The State Agricultural Society - 112 
To our Readers, - - - 113 
Tanning Leather, ... 141 
The China Tree : Hard to Beat, - 143 
To the Farmers' Wives and Daugh- 
ters.— (Ed.) - - - - 145 
The State Fair.~(Ed.) - - 146 
To Those who wish to take oui- pa- 
per.— (Ed.) - - - - 146 
The Prejudices of Farmers, - 153 
To Make a Perpetual Almanac, - 159 
The State Agricultural Fair, - 176 
The Model Farm of the West, - 111 
To the Farmers of the State, - 111 
To the Members of the State Agri- 
cultural Society, - - - 179 
That Large Hog, - 
To those who Compete for Premi- 
ums at the State Fair, - 179 
The Earthy and Mineral Substances 

in Plants, - - - - 189 
To the Members of the State Agri- 
cultural Society, - - - 208 
The Analysis of Soils, - - 209 
To Farmers who Come to the Fair, 209 
Theory, - - - - 239 



The North Carolina State Agricul- 

ral Fair, .... 240 

To our Readers, - . . 241 
The Guano Trade, ... 242 
The Rescue Grass, - - - 268 
The Effects of Draining, - - 269 
To Cleanse Jars, - - - 270 
The State Agricultural Soc— (Ed,) 272 
The Improvement of Stock in North 

Carolina. — (Ed.) - - - 273 
The Organic and Inorganic Materi- 
als of the Globe, - - 281 
To keep Tiera Tight on Wheels, - 287 
To Destroy Bedbugs, - - 287 
Transactions of the New York Far- 
mers Club, - - . - 289 
The Indigo Plant, - - - 303 
The Anson County Fair, - - 304 
The Pea Crop : Fattening Hogs, &c. 306 
The Way to Work it, - - 334 
Three Years in Advance, - - 338 
The Farmer, - - - - 342 
To Drive away Rats, - - - 360 
The End of our Second Volume, 308 

Upon a strong platform at last, 245 

Value of Soil Analysis, - 262 

Value of deep tillage, - 325 

Visits by the Editor, - 369 

Wind Galls, ... 32 

Wood Ashes as a manure, 87 

Worth knowing; to make Blacking, 137 
Who will take them, (Editorial,) 146 
West India Cotton, - - 303 

What is the true value of manure, 328 
What the Farmer most needs, 350 

Young Men, be not ashamed to 
work, - - - 51 



I 



THE FARMER'S JOUENAL. 



VOL. 2. 



BATH, K C, APEIL, 1853. 



NO. 1. 



JOH^ F. TOMPKINS, M. D., Editor and Proprietor. 



For the Farmer's Journal. 

Edgecombe Co., N. C. \ 
n» March 15th, 1853. f 

'Dr. Tompkins: — Allow me to con- 
gi'atulate you upon the success of your 
enterprise, the publication of the Far- 
mers Journal, the first volume of which 
h-as just been completed ; and I am re- 
joiced to see that the "work" will con- 
tinue to pay a monthly visit to the far- 
mers of North Carolina. We have for 
sometime needed some such publication 
as yours, and this is I think the third at- 
tempt to establish an agricultural paper 
in our State upon a permanent basis. — 
The many readers of your paper in this 
county are much pleased with.it, and all 
■with whom I have conversed upon the 
subject say "G-od speed" you in the suc- 
cessful prosecution of your task. The 
beginning, which is you know the most 
difficult part of every enterprise, is now 
accomplished, and I can see no reason 
why you should not make "the Jour- 
nal" a source of much profit to yourself, 
and great benefit to the advancement of 
farming in the Old North State. Wher- 
ever I go, I hear a great deal said of sci- 
entific farming in Edgecombe county, 
but I am sure that the very great success 



which has attended the farmers of this 
county is owing in a great measure to 
their industry. They are working men ; 
they lose but little time from the first of 
January until the 25th December ; 
while in other counties the farmers af- 
ter gathering their crops, do but little 
in the way of improving their lands, we 
in this county are gathering materials 
for the compost heap, draining our lands, 
and paying attention to the general de- 
tails of the fanws. I do not Avish to be 
understood as denying the application of 
science to farming, for such is not my 
belief. We have in our county some few 
scientific farmers, gentlemen who have 
had the advantages of education, and 
see, therefore, the great importance of 
connecting science with their operations 
upon the farm. 

Agricultural papers have done much 
to advance fanning with us. Many of 
our farmers have been taking them for 
three or four years past, and they have 
now found them as indispensable as the 
plow or hoe. 

I recollect well that when our enter- 
prising fellow citizen, Eobert Norfleet, 
Esq., was using every effort to get sub- 
scribers to them, he was charged by 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



laany of being prompted by sinister mo- 
tives. This gentleman though did not 
regard the "croakings" of such as express- 
ed this opinion, and I here state it as a 
fact without fear of contradietionthathe 
first gave impetus to the great thirst 
which is now evinced among our far- 
mers for reading agricultural papers. — 
"There are, 1 regret to say, many of our 
farmers who stand aloof and refuse to 
lay hold of the various improvements in 
farming. These though are mostly old 
men who hav^ been pursuing their pe- 
culiar "svay so long that it is quite diffi- 
cult for them to turn from it. There 
are many counties which are situated 
near the sea coast that have, many ad- 
vantages over us; the means for making 
Tjmnure are greater than we have. — 
Many farmers still believe that unless 
they have marl they cannot improve 
their lands to any extent.; but this is a 
sad mistake ; for in this section of our 
country there is but little marl, and the 
fact is notorious that upon Town Creek 
are to be seen the best and most high- 
ly improved farms in this county. 

A? r said in. the beginiiing, we are 
working fiirmers, we endeavor to have 
ournegroes under the best kind of dis- 
cipline, and tlif y seem to be much better 
satisfied than those in other counties 
where they are suffered to have so many 
privileges. I hope that your list in this 
county will- be much .larger than it was 
for the last year ; indeed it must be, for 
since T have thought a moment, you are 
a native sou of old Edgecombe, and our 
farmers must, stir themselves in your 
behalf. 



Succpss in agriiMiIiure depends not 
go much on the number of acre?, bu' 
on the manner which il is cultivated. 



For the Farmer's Journal, 
Tarboro', Edgecombe Uc, j 
March 4th, 1853. j 

Dr. «Fno. F. Tompkins: — I comply 
>vith your request, but fear I shall not 
furnisb you with; anything new or inter- 
esting. So much has been said about 
'he agricultural improvement in Edge- 
combe that an exaggerated impression 
has gone abroad, which will be difficult 
to correct. The idea prevails we believe, 
that there is no poor land in the county, 
that all has been made rich, whereas, 
the fact is, that not more than one acre 
in fifty (at a guess) has been improved. 
Some ten years ago our attention was 
directed to farming matters, at first as a 
looker-on, then as an amateur, and lat- 
terly as a professional enthusiast At 
that time you rarely heard the subject of 
planting introduced as matter of conver- 
sation. Farming seemed to be regarded 
as a dull clodhopping business, and the 
phrase that "any body could be a far- 
mer" was proverbial. We can very safe- 
ly assert that there was not as much ma- 
nure applied throu,ghovt the county Ih^n, 
as there is no v on several farms that we 
are personally acquainted with. What 
has brought about this change v/e have 
had asked us often, and it has been a 
source of amusement to us to Iiave heard 
at least half a dozen lay claim to the pa- 
ternity. It is just now as difficult a 
problem to solve as it was a few years 
ago to ascertain "who struck Billy Pat- 
terson." 

Without entering into an argument 
with any of the resident claimants for this 
high honor, we will give you our opin- 
ion and let it pass for what it is worth. 
Fifteen or twenty years ago there were 
in this county a few vs'ell educated gen- 
tlemett of the old school, subscribers to 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



'Edmund Ruffin's Farmer's Register. — 
The essay on calcareous manures, pub- 
lished in '32 was then attracting great 
attention in the tide water region of 
Virginia, and great results were flowing 
from the use of marl. The success at- 
tending the experiments in Virginia in- 
•duced the readers of the Register to try 
the marl, which was to be found in 
great abundance at various points in 
Edjrecombe. Success followed the ex- 
periments, and the carting out of marl 
(whicli so far as we can hear was never 
abandoned when once begun,) led to the 
carting out of otlier miterials, until the 
matter of hauling has become the heav- 
iest item of labor iu our larming opera- 
tions. Latterly composting every thing 
in the shape of animal and vegetable 
matter, receives as much attention as the 
making of the crop. On one plantation 
we wot of a force detailed for manure- 
making the year round. 

So then Mr. Editor, you have our 
opinion as to the origin of this move- 
ment. To E Imuad Rutna is dua the 
credit of effecting an agricultural revolu- 
tion in Eastern Virginia, and partially in 
Eastern Carolina. Like other reforms, 
it is gradually diffusing itself through 
every tieigliborhood. Men who a few 
years ago believed that deep ploughing 
would kill the soil, and thatdraining 
land wouldn't pay, now adopt both.— 
There are many farms that have douh/ed, 
some trebled and a few quadrupled their 
product in the last six or eight years. 
The most marked improvement is to be 
seen on the River (Tar) from Rocky 
Mount to the Pitt Co., line, from the 
source of Town Creok to its junction 
with the river, on Tosnot, Contentnea, 
Cokey, Swift Creek, Fishing Creek ami 



Deep Creek. The improvement in the 
large and fertile section of the county 
known as Conotoe consists mainly in 
r. claiming swamp lands. This region 
raises principally corn and pork. Drain- 
ing has been confined mostly to the 
cotton farms. A few of the Conotoe 
Farmers however have turned their at- 
tention to cotton successfully. 

Our public roads are constructed at 
some distance from the streams on liiirh 
dry land, and a stranger passing thro' 
the county would wonder where the 
mucli-talked-of improvement iu Edge- 
combe was to hi seen. For instance, 
the road from Rocky Mount to Tarboro 
varies iu distance from a quarter to one 
and a half miles, of the river running 
parallel with a line farming country ex- 
cluded from view. So with many other 
roads. 

The year '52 was remarkable for 
good crops throughout the United 
States. Such a crop of corn and cotton 
was never grown in Edgecombe wilhia 
our recollection. The cotton crop on 
all iinpruved land averaged 1000 lbs 
of seed cotton to tlie acre. A planter 
near Sparta made 1900 to the acre on a 
goo] portion of his crop, and anotlier on 
Cokey swamp a 500 pound hale to the 
acre exclusive of rope and bagging. I 
have these facts and figures tVuni the 
gentlemen themselves. They are men 
of truth. Their statements will pass 
wherever they are known as currently as 
gold and silver. Tlie land whioh pro- 
duced this 503 pound bale to the acre 
was regarded as valuales?- five years ago. 
The owner told us he did not consider if; 
worth 25 cents the acre. It is sandy 
land with a stiff subsoil. 

Allow me to say, Mr. Editor, in ccrclu- 
sion, that what I have jotted down is no 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



fancy sketch. I prefer underrating to 
overrating. If any one doubts or disbe- 
lieves, let them visit us ; our time and at- 
tention shall be at their command to 
give them ocular demonstration. 

Panola, Jr. 



For the Fanner's Journal. 

Dr. Tompkins : — I have been much 
interested and instructed in reading the 
address of Edmund Ruffin, Esq., to the 
Virginia State Agricultural Society pub- 
lished in the January & February num- 
bers of the "Favmer'sJournal," and while 
I accord much credit to Mr. Ruffin for 
the ability with which he has handled 
his subject, and the good he has done 
the farming interest of our country, I 
differ in opinion with him, though with 
much diffidence, upon some material 
points of his address. He says that land 
may be m-de productive and continued 
in a state of fertility by the use of lime 
and green crops, particularly peas,which 
is his favorite manuring crop. 

liow the grain and :'traw of most 
crops, particularly the cereal, contain 
some fourteen ingredients. Does lime 
possess all the inorganic elements of these 
crops ? If not, and I say it does not, 
from whence are they obtained? The 
ashes of Avood consumed in burning the 
lime will supply some potash, soda and 
phosj^hate, and if shell lime be used the 
heart of the shell will also supply some 
phosphate of lime, but not in sufficient 
quantities to depend upon this source of 
supply for a succession of crops, and as 
the atmosphere cannot supply them, un- 
less they previously exist in the soil in 
sufficient quantities for the demand of 
crops, must eventually become exhaust- 
ed of them under this system of manur- 
ing. 



As for the turning under peas or any 
other green crop, they return to the soil 
just such mineral, elements as they take 
from it and no more, and so far as my 
experience goes, the turning under gi-een 
crops of any kind, only benefits land that 
is deficient of vegetable matter, and 
where lime is used freely its quick de- 
composition of such matter renders it 
necessary that frequent supplies should 
be returned to keep the land in proper 
mechanical condition as well as to sup- 
ply the organic elements of which green 
crops are composed. 

Lime is doubtless of great value in 
preparing food for plants by its chemi- 
cal action, as all substances must be de- 
couiposed and dissolved in water before 
they can be available, as water is the 
agent through Avhieh the roots derive 
food from the soil and appropriate it to 
the use of plants, but in the way of food 
it commonly supplies such elements as 
it is composed of. 

Again, Mr. Ruffin says, peas sowed 
with corn do not injure the corn crop. — 
My opinion is the reverse. I have ob- 
served generally that corn Avith which 
peas have been sown will mature 10 or 
12 days earlier than corn without peas, 
and the nroduct has fallen short 10 to 15 
per cent. 

I make these remarks to elicit discus- 
sion and hope that some abler pen will 
take up the subj ect. Beaufort. 

Coin meal should never he ground 
very fine — it injures the richness of it. 

Turnips of jmall size have double 
the nutritious matter that large ones 
have. 



It is said that a bad workman quar- 
rels with his tools. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



Laws 

Of the State of .North Carolina, passed 
by the General Assembly, ai the Ses- 
sion of 1852. 

CHAPTER, r. 

AN ACT to Incorporate the North 
Carolina State Agricultural Society. 
Sec. 1. Be it enacted by the General 
Assembly of the State of North Caroli- 
na, and it ts hereby enacted by the an- 
ihority of the same, Thaltlie Siate Ag- 
licultuial Society of North Carnlioa 
be and ihe same is hereby incorporated 
inloa bodv politic and corporate, iind 
ia that name may sue and be sued, 
have and exercise any and all ihe povv 
ers and rights of other c jrpurutions in 
this State, may pass all such by-laws, 
rules and legulalions as they may re- 
gard as necessary for the purposes of 
this incorporation, m ly lake and hold 
real and personal estate not exceed infj 
fifty thousand dollars worth of real 
estate, may a-quire the same by d( ed^ 
devise, or m any other mode, and may 
use the same only for the purposes here- 
inafter specified. 

Sec. 2 Be it further enacted, That 
the said society shall annually elect a 
president, four vice presidents, treasur- 
er, recording eecretary, correspondino- 
secretary, and such other officers as the 
society may from time to tii^ie find nec- 
essary; all of whom shall hnld their 
officts until successors are appoint? d. 

Sec. 3 Be it further enacted, That 
the North Carolina Agricultural Socie- 
ty, aa organized by a voluntary associa' 
tion on the 8lh of October, 1852, at 
Raleigh, be and the same is hereby in- 
corporated, and the rules and by-laws 
adopted by said association, and the 
election of officers made by them, shall 



aie altered or superseded by the cor- 
poration hereby created ; and that the 
North Carolina State Agricultural So- 
ciety hsrein incorporated shall succeed 
to all the rights and privileges of said 
society. 

[Read three times and ratified in 
Genera! Asseaibly, this 27 ih day of 
December, A. D., 1852.] 



chapter II. 
An Act to Encourage Agriculture, Do- 

inesticManufactures and the Mechanic 

Arts. 

Silc. 1. Be it enacted by the General 
Assembly of the State of No'th Caroli- 
na, and it is hereby enacted by ihe au- 
thorit^i of the same, That it shall be 
lawful for any number of persons, 'not 
less than ten, in any county in ^his 
State, to associate together and form a 
county society to encourage and pro- 
mote agriculture, domesiie manufac- 
tures, and the mechanic arts therein, 
and any such society, when organized 
according to the provisions of this act, 
shall have all the powers of a corpora- 
tion or body politic, and may sue and 
be sued, implead and be impleaded, 
prosecute and defend to final judgment 
and execution, va any court of law or 
equity, or other tribunal having juris- 
diction of the sum in dispute, and may 
purchase and hold all the real and per- 
sonal estate, which shall be necessary 
to best promote the objects of said asso*' 
ciation,and which estate shall be exclu- 
sively deFoted to such object. 

Sec. 2. Be it further enacted^ That 
such society shall be formed by written 
articles of association subscribed by the 
mennbers thereof, specifying the objects 



— , - _ if ^aid society, and the condition on 

be and continue in force until the same [which the subscribers shall become 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



members il.eiof. and ihe fii>t in e in:^ 
shall be notifi d asul belcl in t'lc man- 
ner p:e-c ibed ill tbe articles of asso- 
ciation They may adopt a co'poiaie 
name either in the original ariicle of 
association, or by vo'e ai ihe first meet- 
ing thereof, in which sui-h s c eiy shiill 
b'' orgiiniz.'d, and may at any m'etmji 
adojit a corporate seal, and »»iler ibe 
fiame at pleasure. 

Sec. 3. Be it further enocied, Thni 
su-ch socKties, not ( seceding one in 
«^ch Cduniy, s'lull be orgaiized bv ap 
pointinir a prt sidriit, two vic-e pre.^i 
dents, secretary and 'reajur- r, au'l tuch 
©tlw)' oificers as th' y iruiy dc in proj er. 
to be ehoaen annwally, and to hdd 
their I liCf'S until others arc api ointc i. 

Sec 4. Be it farther aiacled. That 
when any .-u3h soi-ie'ies are organized 
asfiiresnd. they i^hall liave pnwer lo 
adopt all such hy laws, rnhs.ai.d rcgu- 
latious as ihey sUi-.li judj^-e ^ec•'^6ar^• 
and expedient tn prmnoii-i ilie ebjects 
iheri of, not inconfi-tent with the la>\s 
of tills rti e 0'' (if the Unit d Siates, 

Si-.c. 5. Be. it furl her euaclcd. Ttii.t 
ii sha 1 I ft ihe duty if ilif se reiary or 
clerk nf fcuch S! en ty, to kt-. p f.iii r« 
eoids nf ilie piucee line's n| the &:,nie in 
a b 'ok pri\i it'll for thai pu'posf, iind 
iTicli hn(jl{5! may be leal in evi enct' iii 
any su t in whicli the said curjiuraiion is 
<Son • r i. 

iSec G Be it further enacled, That, 
#li° n it sli.'U he male to aj pear to ihe 
Siiiisfiinti'cii < f ihe ire.isurer d i[iis S ac, 
bv the certificiit- nnd' r .veal, of tlie 
clerk of the c un of |deas and qu irt' r ' 
$e-'si() is tiiat anv snch soi'i. ly is duly 
organized in any county accmdio^' to 
t'lr piiiv sinns o; this aci, it .-hail be the 
»M<v or Ml" t'e. SUP' r af ref-aid to jay 
iiuauuiiy tj the IreuSurei of cvtry such 



Society so orgardzed as a oresaid. or to 
lii.< Older, on aj piicaiion made therefor, 
the sum of fifty dollirs: Piovided, rev 
^rthtbss, that no such Sc ciety shall 
draw out of the ireaaury of the Slate 
as aforesjiid, in any yeiir, unt;! it shall 
be made futiher to appear, to the satis- 
faction of the trcasurtr thereof, that 
lb' re shall have heen sahseiibed and 
paid in'io the treasury of such socie y, 
for the S(lri use and benefit theieof for 
ihe year in question, the like sum of 
fi.'ty dollars. 

Siic 7. Be ii further enacted, That 
all monfys si> suLs ribed, as uell as 
that r ceived from the State Sieasurv 
a? her. in pioviied, shall, after fiaying 
ihe necessa y incidental expenfes of so- 
cit ty, rt s, eciiV' ly, be annually paid out 
for pr. maims a\\ar(^ed by such socie- 
ties, in such sums and in such way and 
manner as th< y severidly. under their 
hylans, ml s and ngul-uions, shall 
direct, on such Ii\e anm .Is, a tide? of 
produciion, and asiiculiural iraple- 
iiieiit.< and toots, (hjmej-iie manufactures, 
mechanical impliment* and lools, and 
|)iodu<j ions, as ase of the giowdi and 
inanufac lire o( the ■?! urry, and also on 
such I si'criiiuntj, uiicoveiir>-, or aiiain- 
ment::i in Si i' ntific or piaclieal agri- 
culture, a.s are ir.a le u iduri the county 
whe e f-u b societies are re.specSivtIy 
organized. 

Sec. 8. Be it farther enacted, That 
t ac!i agrculuraj soci. ty. entitled to 
ro!'i ive mom y from ihe State trensurVj 
shad, ihioiigli iij ireisu er, t'ansmit to 
die Treasu er ef the Stale, in the month 
of December or bi fore, a ^taIement of 
;hc moi.ey so received I. em fene niein- 
hi r.-> I'f i!ie s 'riety fT the preceding 
y ar, a s'at' iiieni of tlie exienditmcs 
of uli bu.hiuajs, and the numhtr of iLo 



THE FARMER^S JOURNAL. 



members of saiJ society. 

Sec. 9, Be it farther enacted. That 
eai'h agr cultural society, receiving mo 
ney from the State as afoiesaiii, shall. 
m each year, publish at tht^ir own ex- 
pense a full stijtement of tiieir experi- 
uienls and iaiprovements and reports 
of their committees, in at least one 
newspaper published in this State ; 
and as evidence that the requiienients 
of this act hfive been omplud with, 
shall be furnished to ihe State trea- 
fiurtir, before he shall pay over tosu'h 
society the sjid sum of fifty dollars lor 
the benefit of such society for the ;ie.xt 
year. 

[Ileaci three times and ratified in 
General Assembly this 27th day of De- 
cember, A. D., 1S5-2.] 



now (li,ec;ed. 

Sec. 2. Be it ''urthcr enacted^ TKat 
all laws coming in eonfltct v\ith the 
provisiaus of ihrs act be repealed, and 
thai this act be in lorce from and after 
its rat.ficatiwH. 

[Read three limes and ratified io 
General Assembly, this 21st day of 
December, A. D., 1852] 



CHAPTER. LXXU. 

AN ACT to amend the Ut Section nf 
IkeQith Chapter pf ihe Revised Slat 
■ales. 

Sec. 1. Be it enacted by the General 
A'^semhly of the Slate of North Caroli 
na, and' it is hereby c/iac/ed by the au- 
thority of the name, That the first sec 
tion oi the sixty-fourth chapter of the 
.Jvevi.»eil SfatutPS, entitled " Legacin.' 
Filial pot lions and distribuiive shares,'' 
be so iimendi d, that hereafter, when 
any person dirs intestate possessed of 
personal • stitf', 1 avmsr a widow, bni 
leaving. na child or children, nor any is- 
sue ol ibe same, one half of said esia'e 
shall be allotti d to sai 1 wi low, and 
the resic'ue of said estate shall be dis 

tribnted as now provided by law: 

Provided, That if the hus^band makei? 
a will and the widow dissents from \\h 
same, she shall only be entitled to one- 
third of the personal estat*', and the 
residue thereof shall be distributed a.- : 



The Address ofHon. Robert Strange, 
Before the Cumberland County Ag- 
caltucal Society. 

We place before our readers an ex- 
tract from, this able production, and we 
should be pleased ,to give the add'ress 
entire, but it is rather long. That por- 
tion which we have selected, treats es- 
pecially upon the renovation of sandy 
.soils, and will, we think, be read, with 
much interest. Tkfe gentlemiin is weU 
known in our State as an able statesmaa-; 
and if we are fdl'ow.ed to judge from: thiis 
address, we must conclude that amidst 
the many studies which have engrossed 
his time, he has not, failed to devote 
himself to the study of agriculture as a. 
science :: 

" Men are so prone to prejudge a ques- 
tion— to. suppose themselves too wise to 
learn— that it is difficult to get them 
ever to. consider any new piopositioTu 
Strike, but hear me, said the great Athe- 
nian to his impetuous colleague who, 
with cane uplifted to smite him, refused 
to listen to his coun-i^eL Call me enthu- 
siast if you will, but hear what I have 
to say, — give yojir own understanding a 
fpir chance, and then mark the results of 
your own experience. Why have the 
piney lands of this county been pro^ 
nounced poor ? Upon two very specious 
ground.o^ as I freely admit. First, be- 
cause t efr general appearance and pro- 
ducts are such as usually mark poor 
land ; secondly, because the ex}>erimentB 
heretofore made would seem to confirm 
the most unfavorable impresaiou. Ig 



8 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



reply, I have to say, tliat even in our 
county, there is a gieat variety of ap- 
pearances among our pine hxnds, and 
even without experiment it would be 
sound philosophy Lo suppose, that these 
dissimilarities in appearance mark like 
dissimilarities in productiveness, or at 
least that they demand fair experiments 
And with regard to the experiments 
heretofore made, they have neither been 
lair in themselve*, nor have just infer- 
ences been drawn from them. It is 
rather a wonder that, Avith the mode of 
culture pursued, they have produced ai^y 
thing; and the fact that they have con- 
tinued to produce for so long a time un- 
der it, rather shows that they are supe- 
rior than inferior lands. The experi- 
ments have been about as wise and as 
fair as it would be to test the excellence 
of a horse by trying whether he could 
live without eating. 

We have already had occasion to al- 
lude to nian's primitive condition of un- 
alloyed happiness amid pursuits merely 
agiicultural. Then he had nothing to 
do but to dress the gaiden of Eden and 
keep iti In this there was no toil. No 
adverse principles were at woi-k to defeat 
his success. No weed interfered with 
the growth of the wholesome plants 
springing spontaneously from the earth. 
No blight or mildew assailed the ri2:>en- 
ing gi'ain — and no anxious fears of com- 
ing evil or cares for guarding against it, 
distuibed. tlie repose of God's happy 
children. But a new law was imposed 
upon him after his disastrous fall: "In 
the sweat of thy bi'ow shalt thou eat 
bread." No country Inis ever existed 
out of those favored limits where agri 
culture has succeeded without toil. If 
the soil be poor, it must be made rich ; 
if rich, the wild gronth putting up in 
luxuriance must be kept down, or it will 
choke the harvest, to say nothing of the 
tillage necessary to make soils produc- 
tive, whether they be rich or poor. But 
there is a great proneness in all ages and 
in all places to foi-get this law, or to en- 
deavor to fvade it; and to expect good 
harvests without any expenditure of la- 
bor in their production. Man shrinks 



from the cold of winter and the heat of 
summer, regardless of the warnings of 
inspiration or of profane writers. 
"'Tis the voice of the sluggard, I heard him 

coiijplain ; 
You Lave waked me too soon, I must slumber 

again. 
I passed by his garden, I saw llie wild 

brie'-, — 
The. thorn and the thistle grew higher and 

higlier ; 
Tlie clothes that hang on him ai'e turning to 

I'ag^ 
And matters grow worse, till lie starves or 

he bigs " 
Now, in our region of country, a large 
portion of the curse is turned away from 
the sluggard; and while most of our 
agricultural men live in indolence, none 
are driven to starvation, and \ery few to 
beggary. 

But let us suppose that we are able, 
willing and ready to woik, how and 
Avhat shall we do ? There is a beautiful 
analogy between vegetable and animal 
life, and the mode by which they are 
respectively sustained, a knowledge of 
which lies at the foundation of all scien- 
tific agricultui'e. And that Ave may have 
some faint ideas upon this subject, per- 
mit me to read the following from 
Thompson's School Chemistry, page 155: 
"Organic chemistry treats of the com- 
position and properties of those bodies 
which are produced in the organs of 
living beings, while inorganic substances 
are formed without any connexion Avith 
S1 11 ■ia'}sira8t|0 pnuiui? pui? 8|qi;jaS8A 
-o '8DU3I0S 9q^ u\ ])Q'i'\mi\>'G ^icunsn uoisia 
-ipqns 13 SI 9.i9q^ 'sjuvid .lo '.i^Mod siq^jo 
e^ni^sap 9.it5 qoiq.w asoq') puij '■sjv'iinuv .lo 
'uoi+usuas JO ; jqiidr^o qxs qotqA\ 8soq; o^ui 
':)iAv 0^ 'sassrqo '^t'aiS 0Ai:j cjui eiqisiAip .oui 
-aq Inyo's 'sSuieq 8soqi\i •s.ouisq p8Ziui;.c.io 
true that as Ave descend in the animal 
Avorld, a point is attained Avhere no 
nerves (the organs of sensation) can be 
detected; but such beings, it is highly 
probable, hold an intermediate station in 
the animal and vegetable world. Ani- 
mals and vegetables have, in their incip- 
ient condition, precisely the same appear- 
ance. When examined by a microscope, 
a slice of a plant is founil to consist of a 
series of cells or apartments, united to 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



9 



getter so as to form a kind of honey- 
comb ; and so it is with animals. But 
chemistry, at the earhest period of or- 
ganic life, detects a diiiereuce between 
vegetable and animal cells; for if we 
boil the matter of which they are com- 
posed in caustic soda, the animal cells 
jneld ammoaia ; proving the presence 
of nilrdgun, in addition to carbon, hy- 
drogen, and oxygen^ while the vegetable 
cell contains no nitrogen, bit is wholly 
constituted of the last three bodies. AYe 
must consider a bean then as composed 
of a cluster of cells, and that when placed 
in water or in a moist soil, a series of 
new cells are united to the old ones in 
two directions; the root passing down- 
wards, and 'the stem rising upwards. — 
The root and stem are therefore long 
clusters of new cells added to the extre- 
mities of the roots. As they increase in 
number,' the root lengthens and the stem 
ascends to the air, where the baric ex- 
pands into leaves, corresponding in num- 
ber to the divisions of the seed. Be- 
tween the divisions of the seed and the 
stem there appears to be no direct com- 
munication. Hence it is inferred that 
the inorganic food is carried from the 
earth by the roots to the divisions of the 
seed, there undergoes some change, and 
is transmitted to the radicle to be ele- 
vated by the stem. Besides inorganic 
salts, such as the alkaline phosphates, 
chloride of sodim and potassium, phos-- 
phaie of hme and magnesia, which must 
be all in a state of solution before they 
are taken up by the roots, it is inferred 
that ammo'/iia and water are also ex- 
tracted from the soil by the plants, and 
carried up in the sap by the spiral ves- 
sels of the sapwood. The leaves by 
their under surface absorb carbonic acid 
gas from the atmosphere, separate the 
oxygen it contains, and retain the carbon 
of this gas. The leaves also receiv^ethe 
sap which is carried by spiral vessels be- 
tween the pith and the bark to the high- 
est point of the jjlant. The leaves sepa- 
rate water from the sap, and throw it 
out on their surfece. Hence they are 
said to act the part of the stomach and 
lungs of the animal system. After the 



sap has been purified by the leaves, it 
descends by the bark, of which the 
leaves are merely an expansion, to the 
lower part of the plant, and during its 
course in many species, excretes on the 
surftice substances known under the 
names of gums and rosins. It is from 
this purified descending juice or sap that 
plants derive the matter that causes 
them to increase in bulk." And Liebig 
remarks in his Agricultural Chemistry, 
that a plant gains another mouth and 
stomach with every new fibre of root and 
every new leaf. 

Seeing, then, a vegetable, like an ani- 
mal, ihust be fed ere it can live and 
thrive, and that the appropriate food of 
])lants is found partly in the soil and 
partly iu the atmosphere, the next ques- 
tion, is wliat we can do for supplying 
food to our crops. As plants extract a 
certain amount of salts from the soil for 
their support which are entirely remov- 
ed at harvest, it is obvious that the soil 
will become gradually impoverished, or 
in other words, possessed of less food for 
plants, uidess steps are taken to replace 
the matter which is thus carried away. 
Tlie process of supplying this waste is 
called manuring; and it is inferred that 
the analyses of the ashes of plants will 
shew us wdiat are the proper ingredi- 
ents to constitute manures. As yet, we 
have no means of acting directly upon 
the atmosphere, but we have abundant 
means of acting upon soils. In some 
soils the food of most plants is found 
while those soils are in a state of nature, 
and such are called rich lands. Thus 
there are rich swamps and alluvial lands 
in our coimtry which only require clear- 
ing and (perhaps) ditching and ordinary 
cultivation fully to answer the hopes of 
the husbandman; and about such lands 
nothing special need be said. But it is 
not the majority of oiu- farmers who own 
such, or if they do, that have the force 
to bring them into cultivation. The 
larger portion of our country within the 
immediate reach of cultivation, consists 
of what fire called our sandy lands. — 
Many suppose that these cannot be made 
to repay the expenses of improvement. 



K) 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



But what has been done, may be done 
«gain; and so many successful expeii- 
ments have been made in the improve- 
ment of sandy lands, that it is becoming 
not uncommon among our thinking men 
'to eoijsider them among the mo^t im- 
■proveable lands in our country. If airj' 
of you have visited Saratoga, in the 
State of New York, }au have passed 
over some of the loosest sand you have 
ever seen; and that, too, of that red col- 
or which I v\'ili shov/ you presently is 
co'isidered the most barren of all the 
■sands. You have noticed, too, that there 
tlie stunted pines do not rise iiigher than 
you can reach v/ith a common whip. — 
And yet into that apparently hopeless 
barren, Judge Buel, a scientific i'armer, 
■"Ontei-ed and lai<i out a farm, and by a 
system of judicious manuring, eni'iched 
-the land and himself at'the same .time. 

Another instance of which I have-'been 
recently informed, is that of a gentleman 
in the State of New Jersey, who kept a 
'tavern in one of its vilJages. Ihis vil- 
lage was situated in one of the most san- 
dy portions of that very sandy State; and 
near the town, on /an adjacent hill, was 
a tract of about one hundred acres of 
land, of loose and apparently barren sand. 
Finding that this tract could be purchas- 
ed for some sm dl sum, this gentleman 
\fixed:hi6 eye upon it, and beciune its 
owner, lie then rented out his tavern, 
reserving to himseJf the use of the annu- 
al accumnlation of manure from the tav- 
ern stables. With this mine for the 
su^)ply of manure, and a free use of lime, 
he laid all the land out in grass, and in 
a, short time, from a loose drifting -sand, 
it became covered with a strong sod, ea- 
pabl _' of bearing a '^loaded wagon and 
■teaui. At the expiration <Qf about ten 
years, he was oli'ei'ed and refused $300 
per acre for the whole i'lrm. 

And I beg voiir attention to what is 
said in an agiiicaltural work of some rep- 
utation. "The sandy soil is that in 
which sand predoitni nates; but which at 
lire same time contains a sufficiency of 
oth-^r earthy : matter to make it more or 
loss retentive of moisture, and thus be- 
come endued with various degrees o£fer- 



tility. A pure sand is wholly barren; 
being nothing more than a collection of 
very minute pebbles, which are usually 
of the stone we call flint, though some- 
times they are of calcareous stone, 

'■Where .a sandy soil is underlaid -vvitli 
a hai'd pan, as it is usually called, at no 
great depth, it adds greatly to the reten- 
tiveness of the soil, and consequently to 
its fertility. 

"San<ly soils are usually of a yellow- 
ish or reddish cast. Sometimes they are 
grey, and tVequently of a dark color. — 
The latter are usually the most tertilo. 
Generally they are very productive; the 
yellowish ;arid reddish are commonly the 
least so; and the greyish usually holds a 
middle station between the two ex- 
tremes. 

''Saiidy so-]s are generally the most- 
profitable in the cultivation of roots of 
almost every desciiption, particularly if 
the soil is well manured wlien it is not 
natui-ally rich. 

"Wheat is not very natural to this 
soil; but when in good condition, it wilJ 
pi'oduce toler.'ibly good cj'ops of thi* 
grain; particularly when sowed on a 
sward of clover turned under. Rye is 
natural to this soil. 

^'The lighter kinds of it are too little 
retentive of moisture during tlie heats 
of summer for good crops of Indian 
Corn, though those which are dark col- 
ored are generally very good for thi» 
o'op. 

"Some particular kinds of grass grow 
very well in this soil, even where it i» 
very light and dry. 

"Sandy soils have this particular ad- 
vantage: they are easily tilled; so thafe 
if what is saved in tillage he expended 
in additional manurings, it is doubtful 
whether this soil, when skillfully man- 
aged, will not be found as profitable to 
the farmer as most other lands of mid- 
dling quality. 

"Sandy soils are also much pleasanter 
to till than most other soils; so that if 
pleasure be an object with the farmer, 
he will bring that into the account when 
foi-ming a proper estimate of the value 
of his soil. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



U 



"A great portion of the vast :ind pop- pure silica exisiin?, it is naoslv fou d 
ulcus empire of China, is said to be more in comtaniiiion. f riiiinaf a s I cate of 
or less of saiidy soil. ■ a/umina, lime, iron, pataSrh, so:lcb mag- 

"Tlie county of Norfolk, in Great Brit- y?^5ia or mnnganese. and usually in a 
aiu, which is said to be now among- the c ludition lo igms; ibe solv- nt | o^ers 
most productive traets in that country, | of strodi": acids. Oar sandy lai.ds iira 
wa.5 for the most part originally a poor suf'posed to I e inosily a silic >te ol | ot- 



liglit sand. 

''■hi this country, sandy lands have 
generally been too little valued. They 
liave been mostly occupied by poor far- 
mers, wiio liave taken no pain^, in the 
first instance, to give them more stami- 
na, and thus iit, uiemfor profitable cour- 
ses of ci'ops; but on tiie coucrary, what lit- 
tle fertility they possessed iias baen usu- 
ally exhausted lu the production of poor 
crops, and thus the soil has at length be- 
come entirely barren." 

It will be seen that our sandy soil con- 
sists chietiy of the two desci'iptions which 
are most approved — tlie black and the 
grey — and tnat ue have comj)arative]y 
but little of the yellow or the red. The 
truth is, any earthy mineral in a gi-anu- 
lated foi'm m the soil, is called sand. — 
Grains of sand can be produced by the 
breaking up of almost any kinds of rock 
b}"^ frost and other mechanical forces, 
and grinding and rolling them over eacli 
other in moving water. And all the 
land on which we now stand was once 
evidently beneath the waters, and was 
at first a sandy waste. It i's still sili- 
cious. Tiiatis, silici is its main consLit- 
uent. Silica is a simple mineral witii 
acid properties, and is formed by the I ' 
chemical union of tw^o atoms of oxyigcn 
gax with one atom of sil'xa. It is of- 
ten denominated silicic acid, and con- 
stitutes from 15 to 80 per cent, of all the 
rocks, on an average, of which this earth 
is composed. Bat in so doing, it is gen- 
erally in combination with some alkaline 
base, with which it forms a permanent 



ash, contain in;^ aUo pHrliaps si icates 
ol so la, lime and tnagn' sui, as well as 
(itlit r ingieid&iits. 1 Uty art- thu^h re 
quiie ricli in two a^the mosi iin;o tant 
ariie;es o: fool f -r | ] nt-, si/rx ai.d pot- 
ask VVIide >iliea't' of potash letjiins 
iis ifnegfity. ii i^insolubir, an 1 plants 
raniiot apj.roj.ria e lo tunr ush eituer 
\\ie silex >'f the pvlasli But uidiuufe 
Ijeing much < i a ciiein>t, I l-aiii ttiafe 
colonic acid lias tiie f >culiy of a t.ick- 
V';g ill s c Qi lOtJiid, ai.d ?o far resoiv- 
iiiii it in o Its »!• m ns as to allow 
I lants io aval ihems Iv. s, ( f diem <i!L 
Anil I leani f rth r, ihnt tli s com- 
pmnii di pend^ upon si/ixa<\)\d potash 
ineeiii^r in ce t.iin p'p rtion.-, and 
that by bringing in com iCt wiUi it nd- 
ilni'iitl quail iiics of polish, new cliem- 
1. al . Ifiiii ics (lie cail d into actio<i. and 
ihe polris/i ani Urn .-il x are b.th irn- 
den d accu-s bie to jila'iis- Ai;nin: it 
will be obsi ive 1 diat in inns( i.t our 
sandv la^ids iliere i- ;i q.'ia-ntiiv oi iron, 
as i> sliouii by the ii I'mution of tha 
:aiid-rvrck ami the Irecpit nt i ccnrieica 
of chdvbeiti- springs 'Jdiis iron, or 
Mincti I'l it at le St, IS feh*^ .-tate if iron 
pyrites, as it is ralbd, or a coiripnm.d of 
ion aid sulpliei. I biim tiu.t oj ygfU 
acts ii[on rt.is sub tine- and forms snl- 
i hur c aci'l, whi h.iiti<ici»s the sdic itt-s 
o(, potasii, Iitne aiul soda, hii^I libei;iits« 
ill i' basts, and in this way hruig.> both 
the silex and tin' a.lka'iin- b.ise witt.iQi 
1 he leach of plants. Now jiinin.-t; > ve- 
ly one kiiows-tliat oxvi:Gn i» a ounsiit- 
neiil of the air we b eadie and ol the 



diemical compound, and is then called i ^^*«'' ^'^ ^""'^■' '" ''^'^ ''''^^ ''^^"^ ^''^^^ 
a silicate of lime, soda, potash, Magnesia, ^"" '"'^ cumbmaMon uith.GHnain fixed. 



&'•. Pure sand, or silex, is very insolu 



prnp irtions uf 7iiirogeit g^is and fum- 



ble; and about 67 percent, of the ashes I '"^' ^■'""^''"^^"*' ""'' ^" ' ''^ "'^ ^^'^^"^ 
of the stems of wheat, rye, barley, oats, i ''^^'^ ^"^^^'f "'^' ^'O'"'^ l»'^tion witb 

cornand sugar-cane is pure sand, silex ''''"^'"/'f ^ P'^^^^ ^'°"' ""^ hydrogeri. 
^r flint- Iffascinii lornih.g water Itien- are* 



or flint. 



While, then, there is such, a thing as i ma-ny chtrruQai prQCi:;ase^,^ bo.ta,naiiu=^ii 



12 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



and ariificial, by which the oxvgen'is 
separated from the nitrogen, in common 
air, and from the hydroffe?i, in water, 
and b'-comes in what ihe chemi ts call 
a nascent slate; chat is, not in combina- 
tion nitb any thing, but ready to unite 
with some other substance for which 
it has an aftititiy. On such occasions, 
earth constituted like that of which we 
are spcai<in<r, is sonieiimes seized upon 
and dissolved by it. li is also kn'uvn 
thai the common air when exhaled by 
animals, or after having been ertgaijed 
in the process of bnrn;ny or in the dis- 
solution of animal subsiances, f>irms 
carbonic acid. So that from these, sev- 
eral sources there is a bountiful supply 
of thi& solvent to act upon the soil. — 
And it is further known, that both in 
burning and the spontaneous decay of 
wood, leavt s, \\eeds, &c. iheie is a 
quantity of po^as/i set free to foim soil 
and to act upon vegetation. 13y all 
these means a sanJy soil, such as 1 have 
described, would naturally improve if 
it was merely let alone; while at the 
same lime, by the washing of rains, 
evaporation, and other causes, much 
soil thus fo med would also be lost. — 
It is plain that much can be done by 
man to assist in these processes of form- 
ing soil, and also in p' eventing its bring 
destroyed after it is formed. Many 
have attributed the sandy character of 
our soil to the pine growth upon it, 
and supposed that the mere removal of 
the pine would serve to enrich it. 'Ihis 
is mistakinc: cause for effect, and doing 
great injustice to a most beautiful ar- 
rangetnent of Providence, by which 
our hills, originally in truth barren 
wastes and entirely unfit for the growth 
of any thing el.*e, have been covered 
with pines: affording us first in the 
pines themselves a source of wealih; 
while these very pine& are in their 
fjrowth prepaiiugihe earth for the sus- 
tenance of oilier plants, when thev 
shall have ceased to occupy it, better 
suited to the suppoit of a dense popu- 
lation. 

Allow me to read }ou on this sub 
ject a very instruciive article from the 



last volume of the Patent Office Agri- 
cultural Report, (page 68:) 

"The pines that grow spontaneously 
on the impoverished fields of the South- 
ern Atlantic States, present a very in- 
structive lesson to all who seek to un- 
derstand nature's process for restoring 
fertility to the surface of the earth. — 
Natiiie hauls no lime, nor marl, nor 
manure of any kind. She never 
ploughs, nor hoes, nor stirs the soil at 
all; yet she forms a bla^k mould where 
man bad robbed «.he ground of this nec- 
essary aid to the support of the liiirber 
order of piants and animals. To study 
closely her 0|;eratinns in the process of 
enriching soils, is the highest wisdom 
of the practical husbandman. The 
seeds of pine trees have a structure pe- 
culiaily fitted to be carried a gi eat dis- 
tance by bi.ds and winds, and scattered 
far and wide over the whole surface of 
the eaith Under favorable circum- 
stances, these seed germinate ruid crvow 
into ioresis. We havestudiei only the 
sprouting and orowth cf ibe seed of 
the lonf;--iear d pine on the poor sandy 
lands of Georgia. By the time the 
two fiist leaves have attained a length 
ofthiee inches, its tap root has de- 
scendi d six inches into the ground, 
and continues to penetrate, when un- 
obsirujied, any distance from three to 
nine feet, anrb how much fmher we 
knovA' not. Pines are endowed wiih a 
large quantity of foliage, and iheir 
leaves annually fall, to d<cay and form 
new mould. In 1000 parts of these 
leaves, when thoroughly dried, we 
found 40 of inco.nbustible earthy mat- 
ter; while the same amount of pine 
wood gave only 2 1-2 parts of ashes. — 
If the trunks of pine trees contained as 
much of earthy minerals as their leaves 
do, these trees would always be very 
sma 1, and could grow only on land 
rich in potash, and the other elements 
found in wood ash* s. But while the 
exceedingly deep roots of this nee find 
the mineral con^l'iuents of vefjetation 
far below the pasture ofcommon plains, 
and the reach of the farmer's subsoil 
plough, these minerals, instead of be- 



THJ: FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



13 



ing deposited in ihi. substnnce of length- 
ened roots, in tlie trunk and branches of 
ihe tre^>, are nearly all contained in its 
innumerable and pi.-culiaily long leaves, 
and \vi:h them, in the ecimoiny of In- 
finite Wisdom, go to enii'h the sur 
face soil, that it may again beconne 
fruitful ill bread-bearing plants. No 
soil DHtarallv poor in potash can grow 
a dense forest of oak, hickory, walnut, 
maple, beech and elm trees, for all 
these store up potash in their trunks, 
limbs, ard loots, to a large degree. — 
But 100 parts of iheir leaves, which 
annually fall to the earih, contain from 
7 to 15 liaies more of incotnbustiol' 
matter than a like weight of their wood. 
The bark of tliese i'urtsi trees, so far 
a? is known, j'ields much more ashes 
than wood. In the tree called hem- 
lock this fact is stiikingly illustrate I, 
ibr while its wood yields very litile 
ashes, its bark al;ounds in incumbusti- 
ble matter. This bark, like that on 
one variety of hickory, is c ist ofT and 
falls to the earth annually." 

You will thus see how the pine, by 
sending its routs deep into the earth, 
brings up vast quantities of potash, 
which are carried by a set of natural 
elevators into the burs and leaves in 
the proportion of 4 per cent, of their 
whole Substance, which are annually 
cast upon the earth to fertilize it — 
And that not only by imparting so 
much additional po;ash to the earth, 
but also, by its chemical action, setting 
free for useful activity other feriilizing 
principles that had been locked up. — 
Any one must see that this process, 
kept up for a series of years, must pro- 
duce an entire change in the face of 
things. What shall be said then of 
the niurdero^is system of burning off 
annually from the surface of the earth 
all this supply for giadual improve- 
ment? Every one has seen how keep- 
ing ofi" the fire from the piney woods 
for a number ol years imp'oves the soil, 
and gathers upon it a thick under- 
growth, the infant beginning of anoth- 
er forest altogether different in its kind 
And yet with all this observation, the 



system of burning the woods has been 
followed from generation to generation, 
to the impoverishment of the country, 
that a few miserable inferior cattle may 
find two or three weeks' pasture. 

Having thus, shewn, I hope, that our 
sandy lands are not only improveable, 
but that they are singularly apt for im- 
provement, I proceed next, with very 
great diffidence, to offer some hints on 
the subject of its accomplishment. It 
Is not to be expected, that with a sub- 
ject so vast before me I should be able 
to do much with it in tha time allotted 
to a discourse like this, even if I had 
in my own mind the proper stores of 
information. But the truth is, old as 
is th\i world, and long as agriculture 
has been a subject of so much interest 
to man, the science is yet in its infancy. 
Men are juit learning its rudiments, 
and even of these I have not had the 
oppoituniiy to possess myself. My 
only hope is, to set you to thinking and 
making experiments for yourselves, — 
for to the test of experiment all theo- 
ries should at last be brought. In fact, 
the main benefits of societies such as 
yours, IS, thai the individual experi- 
ments of each man through them be- 
come public property, and that an ag- 
gregate amount of cxperimc;its may be 
brought together sufficient to emich all 
with agiieultural knowledge. In ihese 
experiments the assistance of experts 
may be obtained. Chemists can ana- 
lyze into their constituent elements 
the different soils — ascertain the con- 
sii.tuents of those known by experiment 
to be fertile and of those in like man- 
ner known to be sterile. They can 
compare these with any other soil — 
discover what any given soil may con- 
tain that experience has shewn to be 
favorable or unfavorab.'e for production,, 
and suggest the sv.itable agents for ren- 
dering the favorable qualities more ac- 
tive or for neutralizing those that are 
noxious. The same author from \vhence 
I quoted on a former occasion, (Far- 
mers' Assistant, 92,) says : '• There is 
no way of making improvements in 
farming but by experiments, if the 



14 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



farmer i? itifDrmed of oi has concfived 
a dilFfietil an I bnt-r m( tliotl o( cul- 
ture or raarmgernenl in any branch of 
Lis farming, he is to test ihe goodness 
cf tijat 111' thol by exp riments ; iirid 
if these p;ove s-uccessful, he may con- 
gratulate himself on having peifornuHl 
dn !!ct whicli i^. service;) ble 'o bis coun- 
try and honorable to himself." 



Clearing. — The fir-t step in bring- 
ing loresi laud into niliivation is to e- 
moVf from ii tlie natural growth, eiiher 
altOL'e her or io part. It wovild Le an 
exr'elleiii pian. u) ere one 'ati afford to 
wait, to rut aW down., aod Uave tiiat 
which is not valuabU^ for ^oiue other 
use t ' rot upon ihe? ground Tins 
would ensure a reisonal i- ft ek of fer- 
til.iy ti beoii) with. Ettt v/hether this 
hr done or n t, I wo 'Id suggest that 
the 1 1 i .■-^s'eic of yrubbing be abolish- 
ed. Fust, biCridSe ii is in i;s( 1: an ex- 
pensive opiTiiiioti. and uidess ili cid- dly 
xi-e ul. a W' dle.«s casui g iiwny of to 
much money. Bm .seco d!y, I venniye 
to s.iy, that < Vt ti if it could bo done' 
for noih ng, it uere better Let alor.e -- 
Ii If. tiue thit the first and even the 
siMond criiji ( n a pi ee of unoiuibid 
land will poi be no good as if it had 
"b' en (;rubl>e I. Bui. if land is s\.'Ct>s- 
si\/t ly culiivae I f ^r five vars. the ag- 
gr- gate viel i of th;^ nni.'r')btied l.ind 
will exc< ed thai >d il;e ijriibh' d. And 
in the one '••ase the land wi 1 p'rbably 
T>e a.s good if not b-tt^r t: an at fir>t. 
an I in the- other it will probably be 
entirely exhauste I. And lor this lea- 
soi),(l am suppys ii'j thai they aie both 
cultivated in ihf ordinary way. ot^ g'-t- 
ting all out of thtm 'hat you can and 
giving no hing b lek,} in the grubbed 
lai;d yo:i ha^e no h ng to rely npiiC bu 
the natural nfomiation of "^oii as it is 
e.xhansii d ; while in the nngrubbed, 
llie decay of stuinpsand roo's supiiliev 
a manure of a valuable kind Like 
iaio?i otiier manures, they not onlv de 
popile the ingre 'ients tlicv contain, but 
by cheuiical acuon aid m the ditiiite 
gration ol elementa of fertilny alrtady 
m the soil. 



Ashes. 

Ashes, according to the most aecu- 
ra'e analysis, contain a valuable pro- 
portion of sulphates, sil cates, phos- 
phates and rarbonate.s of lime, with 
phosphates of potash, soda, lime and 
magnesia, together \vi:h other substau- 
c s in smaller yet impnilant quantities. 
An accurate and critical examination 
of them aUo reveals the presence of a 
considerable quantity of impeif.ctly 
consti'uted ca'bonaCf ons matter, (ohar- 
roiil ) In ashes, therefore, the ."cieu- 
tific leader will at once discover that 
we have all, or nearly all the materials 
of which some plants, and especially 
wheat, are composed. '• it will seem,'' 
lemarlfs a dirtmguithed wiiter on Ag- 
r culture, "that a.shes, mised with the 
^oil, will sUj ply the quarter part of the 
substance of wheat " We are afqnain- 
ted wiih seV' ral intelligent agricnltu- 
dS'S who Ti fuse to di.<po?e nf their house 
ashes on any lenns. Formerly they 
were m the habit of selling ihem at a 
inertly nominal price — about one shil- 
ling per bushel, and were glad to get 
rid of them at that rate, but now they 
are willing to pur base at twice that 
price. As a stimulant for Indian corn, 
we consider ashes, of good quality, 
worth fifty cents per bushel. As an 
ii grediei/t in "he compost heap ihey 
■ire of iiicsiimable value, «nd also as a 
dressing for turnips, rabbages, beans, 
&c. Even leached ashes are now 
b'lUght up by farmers, and appli d as 
a lop-dressing to lands in grain and 
sjra-s. They are also used with suc- 
cess a* an ingredient in compojt, and 
for giving increased energy to fruit 
trees. There is s -arC' ly a sinijle modi- 
fication of vegi table I fe wliich is not 
e*sen'.ially and lowe^fully benefited by 
iheir application,— iVt'rii;^?/ Advertiser, 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



15 



Faruiing. 

If one half ihe zeal, energy, and rx- 
ijiense that bluts so many gazettes with 
low and coarse abuse, settingthe vrh^le 
community by the ears, fur the vain 
and paltry purpose of a few dema- 
gi'ffiies and office seekers, were bestow 
ed on the advartceinent of agricuhuie ; 
if the people weie hulf so ambitious lo 
improve and beautify their fields, as 
they are to settle the affcxirs of the iia- 
ti'tn ; and ha f so angry with thistles. 
tho ns, and poor f -nces, as the-y aro 
■With their political opponents, who pro- 
bably wish as well to the co-untry as 
thfy, -ve should have more {>roducii-ve 
fit^ld^, less complaints of poveity, more 
ability to be charivable and munificent, 
and abundantly more gaod fceliig — 
From Pi tsburg to New Orleans, the 
son ploughs as his father did b fo e 
hiui, and the great m;iss of farmeis are 
as stationary in the iry as thev are in 
practice. Nine in ti^i btdit^ve ai this 
xnonient that book farmii/g is the tncie. 
useless, visionary dreaming of men thai 
know nothing about practical agrieul- 
lure. 

"We would tell them thai England 
is the garden of Europe, simply be 
cause almost every acre erf the giound 
is cultivathd scientifically, and on piin- 
ciples wliich have been brought to the 
test of the most rigid and exact expe 
rimerit. We i^oirld lei! them that N. 
England, of whose soil and climate 
they are accustomed to think as coii- 
igigi:ed by Providence, to sterility and 
|inclemen-y, is the garden ot the U. 
|3tat8s, only because the industiiuus 
land calculating people do not ihrow 
,!away their efT^rts in the extrtion ci 
jmere bru'e stien^th — but bring mind, 
ipains, system and experience, to bear 



upon iheir naturally hard tind thankless 
soil. 

On every side, the passing trav* Her 
sees verdure, grass, and orchards in the 
small and liequtnt enclosures of imper- 
ishable rpik, and remmks fertility won 
f om the opposition of the tlernents 
and naiure. Afier an ab^encxj ot ten 
year*, on our letum to f>ur country, 
we Were struck with the [iroud and 
iiuble triumph, conspicuous over the 
whole region. 

a'he real benefactiirs of mankind, as 
St. Piei'e sob autifully ;aid, a'C those 
who cause two b aiies of whtat lo ma- 
ture wheie one did before. The fidds 
I'Ugii'. to be the morning and evening 
iheme cf Ame:icins that love their 
c luntry. To fertilizt; andimpiove his 
am should be the pi ime 'temporal ob- 
j ct o£ the owner of the substantial 
soil. All natonal aggrandizement, 
power lud wi alth, may be ir;iced to 
agriculiure, as its ultimate source. — 
Commeiee and nianufacturvs arc only 
suboiidiiiale results of thi^ main spring. 

VVe consider agiiculture as veiy con- 
ducive, not only to iibm.dance. indus- 
try, comfort and health, but to good 
morals, and uliima'ely, even lo religion. 
We shall always say and sing, "Sjccd 
th-e Plough " We shall always rigaid 
the American Farmer, stripped to his 
emi'loyment, and tilling his giounds, 
as belonging to the first oider of noble 
men among ns. We shall always wish 
him Louniiful harvi sis, good beer, ;ind 
moderate use of cider; and if he will 
ri ar it himself, of the grape ; but none 
of the pert'icious gladness of v\4ii*kfy ; 
and we shail only invoke upon his la- 
burs the blessings if God, and say o- 
him — ''Place be within his wall>." 

itEV. T. Fl!N.T. 



16 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



FARMER'S JOURNAL. 

BATH, IJ. C, APSIL, 1853 

Attention, Subcribers! 

We shall send the first number of the 
Farmer's Journal to all of our last year's 
subscribers who have riot renewed their 
subscription. "We do this to remind 
them of their duty, and if they fail to 
send us at once the dollar, we shall con- 
clude at once that it is a hint not to 
make any farther intrusion, and shall 
stop the paper immediately. 



Our Introduction. 
We again appear before the fermers 
of North Carolina and our readers gen- 
erally, to advocate still farther the agri- 
cultural interest of our country, in which 
service we have been engaged for one 
year's time. So far we have not left a 
stone unturned which has come under 
our eyes, the removal of which would 
conduce to the promotion and advance- 
ment of the farmer. In our communi- 
cation with the readers of the Farmer's 
Journal, we have endeavored to bring 
before them only such facts as would be 
of importance to them in the practical 
operations upon the farm, at the same 
time studiously avoiding all vague the- 
ories and hypotheses. In our seclection 
from other agricultural papers we have 
chosen such articles for our's as we deem- 
ed applicable to the climate, soil and 
crops of North Carolina. Many of our 
readers, we are aware, have not had the 
advantages of superior education; and 
we have therefore endeavored to simpli- 
fy so far as possible everything Avliich 
they would find it important to know, 
even if in doing this we have failed to 
show ourself as learned as some of our co- 
temporaries, who seem to think that sci- 



ence consists in a knowledge of deceiv- 
ing the public mind by the use of big 
words. In publishing the Farmer's 
Journal we have filled a vacuum which 
existed before that time, and had a.great 
effect to retard the agricultural progress 
of our people ; and we may here add that 
the very face of our country clearly indi- 
cates that the energies of our people 
must to a great extent be directed to ag- 
riculture. We hope that our readers 
will wait with us patiently until we shall 
have completed our agricultural tour 
over the entire State, which we shall do 
in the next six months. Then we shall 
sit quietly down to our studies, devoting 
our time exclusively to such subjects as 
will enable us to be a sure and safe guide 
to the enquiring farmer who is travelling 
on the road to agricultural advancement. 
That our labors have already done much 
good none can deny, and "\^^e are in fine 
spirits as regards the future positioli of 
our native State, which it shall be our 
constant aim to elevate to that degree of 
perfection which she has a right to claim. 
Indeed, we say again, that the materials 
are close at hand for making North Car- 
olina the first agricultural State in the 
whole South, and to make a practical 
demonstration of this fact it only re- 
quires active and enterprising men. — 
If our young men who leave their na- 
tive State would only use that degree of 
energy at home Avhich they do abroad, 
their success would be fully as great. — 
We again urge upon our readers the 
great importance of taking c^reofthe 
various kind of manures upon the farm 
and the necessity of keeping close at 
hand an abundant supply of the right 
kind of materials preparatory to making 
them. We have not seen near as many 
manure sheds throughout the country 



THE far:mer's jouri^al. 



17 



as we had hoped would be formed after 
our letting the farmers g-enerally know 
that tliey were losing at least seventy- 
five per cent of their manures by sufler- 
ing them to remain exposed to the ef- 
fects of the sun and rain, from year to 
year. If a farmer does not feel himself 
able to have a shed for his manure, let 
him by all means keep his manures well 
composted with muck, or woods mould, 
and after the heap is complete, cover it 
over with turfs and let it thus remain un- 
til the time for using it. The liquid ma- 
nure about the barn-yard should be sav- 
ed by all means, and that also from oth- 
er places. These contain veiy many of 
the soluble salts which are so necessary 
to the healthy growth of plants, and are 
in this condition ready for absorption by 
them. All of the old bones which are 
thrown away as a general thing, should 
be saved, for these consist of such food 
as our crops require, and are very impor- 
tant when in a proper condition for the 
compost heap. The manner of prepar- 
ing them may be seen in our first volume 
of the Farmer's Journal. The many re- 
fuse parts of vegetable and animal mat- 
ter which are thrown from the kitchen 
should be deposited upon a compost heap 
which should be formed near that 
place. The manure which arises from 
the A'^arious fowls about the farm should 
be taken care of, let it be put in barrels 
and spread over with plaster until ready 
for use, and then it should be composted 
with other manures. Many farmers are 
trying large quantities of guano, when 
they neglect to save the excrements of 
their fowls, whieh is but little inferior to 
this valuable fertilizer. All of the ashes 
should be taken care of, for they con- 
tain such elements as our worn out lands 
generally require. We have now we 



think given pretty nearly all of the gen- 
eral dii-ections which are so very impor- 
tant to be known by our readers at the 
beginning of a new volume. Though 
in addition to these, we Avould advise' 
them to look well to the proper drainage 
and plowing of their lands, for it was by 
strict attention to these details that we 
made last year on four acres of land 
without manure, sixty barrels of corn. 
Many farms now looked upon as value- 
less might be restored to their original 
fertility by a proper attention to these 
means of improving lands. 

We have been more lengthy in our 
introductory thnn we designed, though 
we could not have said less, yet, we 
might have lengthened it to ten pages» 
and it might not perhaps have been 
read by one half our readers. Short ar- 
ticles we have found to be always best, 
at least they are most apt to be read. — 
We shall conclude this by wishing our 
farmers fine crops, fit herds, and happy 
homes, and for ourself a tremendous list 
to the Farmer's Journal, which our read- 
ers may soon know if it happens by the 
high spirit which we shall be sure to 
evince in our writing. Farmers of the 
Old North State, come to our aid again, 
and let us build up the homes of our 
people ! 



To the County Agricultural Socie- 
ties of the State 

We are of the opinion that upon the 
success of our paper greatly depends 
that of the various County Agricultural 
Societies throughout the State, and it is 
nothing more than what we feel warran- 
ted in doing, to submit this proposition 
to these bodies for their consideration. 
The idea is not original with us, but we 
obtained it from a correspondent, who 



•18 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



•writes iu the December number of the 
''Journal." The propositioii is that each 
*C)unty Society ptiss a law or rule, that 
id least tivo of its members shall be ap- 
pointed at each meeting of the Society 
to contribute an article to the "Farmer's 
Journal," and tliat said article be read 
before the Society, and any suggestions 
njide by any member, an 1 approveil of 
by the writer, may be inserted. We 
think that a hint upon this subject is 
■entirely sufficient, for all must see sit 
once the good eifects resulting from it. 
It would add much to the value of t/ie 
"Journal," and would have a g:eat ten- 
dency to get U]) a spiiit of honorable ri- 
valry among the societies --.vhich would 
add much to them and insure their suc- 
cess. We make this appeal v.-ith conti- 
dence, and we really hope that we 
shall have in a short time a large mim- 
ber of such articles upon our tabic. The 
vapi'i advancement of Agriculture in 
North Carolin^^ greatly depends upon 
the success of tlie State and County Ag- 
ricultural Societies. Any facts obtained 
in this way would be sooner put into 
practice by the fiirraers generally. Our 
people differ in farming much from eve- 
ry thing else. What they see in an 
Agricultural paper, which is written by 
a neighbor, they are much more ready 
to credit than if it were written by a 
man in another State. But if that 
same man goes to a store to buy a piece 
of goods, he likes to hear from the mer- 
chant that it came from the "North." — 
Distance, iu this case, lends enchantment 
to the view. 



Mr. 



the 



" What are vou wat ng such a bij 
hand for, P;it ?" '■ Why. yon see. my 
j,'randmotiiei's ila'"e, and I'm writin<'- a 

o 

Joud It tter lo her '" 



Rufftn's Address 1)ef.>re 

Suuili Caroliaa Litstitute 

in Charleston. 

We published in our paper the able 
and instructive address of Mr. Ruffin 
for the reason that it contained much 
that was interesting, and would prove 
highly useful to onr readers. But wheti 
we published this address we did not 
have time to urge our objections to some 
portions of it, though we are now de- 
prived of the task by Dr. Daniel Lee, 
and our correspondent (Beaufort) in this 
number of "the Journal." They have 
expressed our views precisely in rela- 
tion to this production, which pre- 
cludes the necessity of our saying muvh 
at this time. !dr. Ruffin like most ag- 
ricultural v.'riters, has fallen into the 
common error of recommending the 
same kind of treatment for all kinds of 
land. lie recommends the turning un- 
der of green crops, say peas for instance, 
without going on to say that to such 
land as has already a sufficient amount 
of vegetable matter this need not be 
practiced. For as our correspondent justly 
remarks, in turning under these green 
crops we do not add a single mineral el- 
ement, save what is extracted from the 
soil in the growth of this very crop. — 
Lime is recommended to be applied to 
land regardless of what quantity may be 
already in the soil, and in this way many 
blunders are made, and men are induced 
from one failure to abandon experiments. 
That Mr. Ruffin has done much for the 
fai'ming interest of our country none can 
deny, and as for ourself we have long 
since chosen him as our model. Lideed 
when we occuj'y the same position in 
North Carolina which he now holds in 
Virginia we shall have accomplished our 
object. But although our admiration 
of the man is great, yet we feel it our 
duty to strike a difference upon this 
subject. 



THE FARMER'S JOURTS^AL. 



IS^ 



Chemical Apparatus for the Analy- 
sis oi* i^oils. 

The question was asked us by a cor- 
respondent, what would be the cost of 
such chemieal apparatus as would be suf- 
ficient to make the most refined analysis 
of soils ? Thinking it to be a matter of 
general interest, we have concluded to 
give our answer to the question through 
our columns, so that the minds of our 
readers generally may bo satisfied upon 
the subject. There are many with v/hom 
we meet, who think tltat the cost of 
chemical apparatus sufficient for this 
purpose, would be at least five hundred 
dollars. They seem to be quite aston- 
ished when we tell them that for one- 
fifth part of that money, a very exten- 
sive and handsome apparatus can be 
purchased. In order to prove wliat we 
here assert, we will refer to the list of 
prices of such articles as are required to 
make up the apparatus, which v/e tak& 
from a catalogue of prices, furnished us 
by Mr. Kent, a very practical chemist in 
New York. We will begin with the 
rose lamp, cost $6 ; thermometer, $5 ; 
scales and weights, $15 ; two glass fun- 
nels, $1 ; graduated and test glasses, 75 
cents, evaporating dishes of various sizes, 
1 2 in number, |3 ; nitrogen apparatus, 
$3 ; glass tubes for stirring soil while 
heating, 25 cents ; specific gravity bottle, 
$1,50, ; mortar and pestle, 75 cents; an- 
alytical forceps, $1,50 ; test chest and 
contents $35 ; 6 common glass tumblers, 
50 cts. ; two glass bottles, 10 cents — the 
whole costing $73 25. But in addition 
to these, other parts or articles may be 
added, though not indispensably neces- 
sary. And why should an apparatus for 
this purpose cost so much, v.'hen we re- 
collect that Sir Humphrey Davie made 
extensive researches in chemistry, and 



those who know, state, that upon enter- 
ing liis laboratory, one would suppose 
that his whole apparatus consisted of 
only a few glass bottles and broken wine 
glasses. For farther information wa 
would refer our correspondent to the 
chapter on the analysis of soils in Prof. 
Johnstone's Agricultural Chemistry, 
where he can see that from what he 
tliere directs to be used, the cost cannot 
be a great deal. In making^tha analysis 
of soils the cost of the apparatus is but 
a small item ; tlie main thing is the 
knov/Iedge of the results when really ob- 
tained, and it re(pires the almost con- 
stant use of the ;ipparatus to enable one 
to become familiar Avlth the various 
manifestations. We do not pretend to 
say that none but really scientific men 
can do these things, but we do contend 
that by close application, any man who 
who has the rn.li mental education can 
become a chemist. Indeed it is a science 
where the various experiments setting 
forth the various ftiets are required to be 
seen in order to be thoroughly under- 
stood. Let no man be deterred from 
studying chemistry, believing that ha 
cannot comprehend It, for we have for a 
long time believed that a fourteen year 
old boy could snore easily comprehend 
elementary cliemistry with the experi- 
ments before lira, than he could English 
grammar. The whole science of chem- 
istry is connected together as a chain,, 
link by link. Our fanners at this time 
stand r.iuch in need of the services of at 
least ten young chemists to make analy- 
ses of their soils. 



Iron scyihe 'nath?, made in ihe tubiji- 
lar form, have b ''n patenud, and pro- 
mise gi"e!it advnntag-'S Ofi the score of 
du'abiiity, ctrei!gtlj and lightness. 



20 



THE FARMER'S JOURNxVL. 



Farmers and Mechanics, Get Ready 
for the Fair on the ISth of October 

We hope tliat tlie farmers and me- 
clianics tlirougliout the State are making 
preparation for a fine exhibition at our 
first Agricultural Fair next fall. It is 
liigh time that the farmer who has a 
fine young heifer or bull, which he may 
wish to exhibit, to begin to pay more 
than usual attention to it. What can 
the enterprising mechanics be about 
that they are not preparing specimens 
of their ingenuity for the Fair. Indeed, 
we should be highljr pleased to see what 
can be done in the Old North State in 
the manufacturing of riding vehicles, 
and also specimens of cabinet-making. 
Most certainly our young friend, F. L. 
Bond, of Tarboro', will come in for the 
prize to be awarded for the best made 
centre table. We hope to see several 
specimens of fine stock exhibited at that 
time by onr friend Thomas Jones, Esq., 
of Martin; he surely will come in. And 
we hope that there will be a large num- 
ber to compete for the sweepstakes for 
the largest corn crop. 



The Fertilizing Properties of the 
Remains of Old Chimnies. 

The question has been asked us by a 
correspondent, v.-hy it is the case that 
land is improved by the application of 
the remains of old chimnies. That land 
is improved by this application most far- 
mers are aware ; but the cause of this 
improvement they have failed to investi- 
gate. By the process of burning, the 
chemical relations of the clay from which 
the bricks are made, are not changed in 
the least, but the physical condition is 
very different from what it was origi- 
nally. That which was close and heavy, 
has now become porous and light; the 



brick will absorb about four times its\ 
own weight of water, and it is on ac- 
count of its absorbent powers exclusive- 
ly that it is a fertilizer. The organic 
elements of plants Avhich are contained 
in the gasses of the atmosphere are ab- 
sorbed by the parts of brick in quite an 
abundant manner — hence the great im- 
provement derived from their applica- 
tion. 

£^ We lay before our readers a let- 
ter from Mr. Street of Craven county, 
which, though not written with a view 
to its publication, we hope to be pardon- 
ed for this privilege which we have ta- 
ken with it. As oui- readers will see, 
there is a great deal of good common 
sense here comprised in a small space. 
What Mr. Street has v/ritten in this let- 
ter is precisely our opinion in regard to 
such subjects as he alludes to. He tru- 
ly says that the united people of our 
State haye but to "will" it and we can 
have a market tliat Avill compete with 
the best in the Union : — 

Cravkn Co., Feb'y 20th, 1853. 

Gentlemen : — Your letter of the 18th 
instant, inviting me to address the 
Agricultural Society of Beaufort Co. on 
its annual meeting in March next, 
has been received in due season. In 
reply, I beg }'ou to believe I feel much 
flattered by your notice, and did I feel 
competent to the task would with pleas- 
ure comply. But continued bad health, 
pressing engagements, and a sense of 
my inability will compel me to decline. 

It is conceded by all that agriculture 
in North Carolina, particularly in the 
eastern section, is in a languishing con- 
dition — our soil, implements of husban- 
dry and farm building too much neglec- 
ted. Our people may find some excuse 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



for this neglect, in the supposed superi- j 
or resources of our forests of pine, , 
cypress and oak, but as these means are ) 
nearly exhausted we will be compelled I 
to place more reliance upon our farms 
for sustenance and profit. The capacity 
of our soil, generally, is im questioned. 
With a reasonable degree of attention 
to its improvement by manuring and 
draining, I am confident that this por- 
tion of our State can be j^laced second to 
none in Agricultural productions. In 
aid of these improvements, nothing can 
be more efficient than the formation of 
County Societies. They will bring the 
subject to every man's door, spread a- 
bi'oad information, and excite emulation 
among all classes of our farmers. 

Next in importance to agricultural 
improvements, is the creation of a Mar- 
led in which the farmer can obtain re- 
munerating prices. Of what avail to 
the producer would be his increased 
products without a market. It is true 
we liave Elizabeth City, Edenton, Ply- 
mouth, Washington, New-Berne and 
AVilmington, but it :s apparent that these 
inland sea-ports with their obstructed 
navigation and dependence upon North- 
ern cities for commercial facilities, will 
never aid in the degree they should, the 
spirit that is now moving our farmers. 
Markets that can be glutted with a few 
cart or canoe loads of fruit or vegetables, 
or in which the more important staples 
are subjected to great depreciation will 
never extend much assistance to Agri- 
cultural Societies. 

We have in our midst a sea-port 
(Beaufort,) of surpassing capacity, in 
which ships from every quarter of the 
globe can congregate for freight, situa- 
ted in the middle of our coast and with- 
in a few hours run of the towns above 



mentioned. This port, by means of our 
rivers and rail-roads can be connected 
with every part of the State. I can see 
no good reason why the eftbrt of the 
people of our State, East, AVest, North 
and South should not be directed to 
that point. We are all, much if not 
equally interested in the creation of a 
large Commercial Mart, near at hand 
and of easy access in whicli our produce 
can be disposed of at the highest prices, 
and return supplies can be obtained at 
the lowest. Beaufort can be made such 
a place. Our united people have but to 
will and the thing is done. 

Wishing your Society a long course 
of usefulness, I remain yours 

Very respectfully, 
NATH. H. STREET. 
Messrs. H. Dimock, 
J. F. Clark, 

J. F. TOMPKIXS. 

Editor's Table. 

The American Farmer still continues 
to visit us monthly, fided with the most 
useful reading for the farmer. 

The Southern Planter, published at 
Richmond, Va., is a most excellent work 
of the kind, and should be liberally pat- 
ronized by the farmers of that State. 

The Farmer and Artizan, we regard 
as one of the best papers upon our ex- 
chauo-e list. It contains a laro-e amount 
of most useful reading in each number 
It is published at Portland, Me. 

The Southern Cultivator, publish- 
ed at Augusta, Georgia, is very ably ed- 
ited, and is well adapted to Southern 
culture. 

The Southern W^eekly Post, pub- 
lished at Raleigh, N. C, is a very excel- 
lent family paper, and should be liber- 
ally patronized by North Carolinians. — 
[f you live in the Old North State, and 
can take but one family paper, by all 
means take the "Post." 



92 



THS FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



Agricultural <^uiickei'y. 

" In otteiing a few lemai'ks on the sub- 
ject named above, I beg leave to dis- 
claim all personal reflection. I shall 
iini only to expose things, not persons. 

And lii'st, permit me to exphiin what 
I mean by the term science. The gene- 
ral term means truth, with all its attri- 
butes and ndjiincts arranged systemati- 
cally. In its restricted or special sense, 
the term means t'uU kno>v ledge of an 
art or business in all its parts reduced to 
rule. For example, the science of agri- 
culture is a com[)iete theoretical and 
m-actical knowledge of all the arts and 
means, practical and theoretical, required 
in conducting a farm in the best [unnner. 
The science of agriculture or scientilic 
agriculture, does not mean a few skim- 
mings of skum from the well of know- 
ledge, a few imperfect analyses of a few 
tandsfal of soil from a few fields ; nor 
are the requirements of science fultiiled 
by an occasional dip in the spiing of 
kno»> ledge. The most scientidc farmer 
I ever saw, couM nut analyze a handful 
of soil, accordiiig to what we call science. 
He had acquired by long experience and 
observation a knowledge of soils, their 
effects, and the remedies, that enabled 
him to judge with precision the quality 
of any soil without the aid of the alem- 
bic or crucdt'e. Now, if he had been 
enabled to resort to the art of chemis- 
try, it would have saved him much time 
and labor in acquiring his knowledge; 
but still he was a man of true science. 
It does not follow, because the black- 
smith cannot explain the science of his 
use of air in his forge, or why he blows 
air among his coals, or why the doing 
so increases the heat of his forge, that 
he is not a scientific blacksmith — lie may 
be and very often is a perfect master of 
his branch of science, so fiir as the prac- 
tice of his own business is concerned. 
And he can teach others the art and 
practice, though lie cannot teach the 
mere theory. Again, a man may ac- 
quire a perfect knowledge of agricultuie 
from other teachers, tlian professors of 
chemistry and geology. To. an observ- 
ing eye, a soil will itself give indications 



of its qualities. 1 knew a man — I know\ 
him now, who, if he were about pur- 
chasing a piece of land, would look at 
the growth of the trees, bushes, and 
even weeds that were on the land, and 
could by them tell wliat the land was. 
I am aware that I shall be considered a* 
an empiric rather than a scientific teach- 
er if I go on in this strain ; and there- 
fore, I shall ]iroceed to my object, after 
one more remark, -which if some folks 
consider it a parlhian sliot, I hope it will 
hurt nobody. I *vould give more for 
one ounce of good sound science, derived 
from practical experience, than for ten 
pounds of that tierived from ordinary 
modern "scientific analyses and essays." 

I have long since come to the conclu- 
sion, that as respects the science of med- 
icine, there is more quackery in the pro- 
fession than out of it, abundant as is the 
supply of the latter; so also in agricul- 
tural science, there is ten times ns much 
quackery in the science as tauglit, as 
thfre is in the ordinary practice of agri- 
culture. Pray, sir, what is a science? 
I have endeavored to define the term 
above; but let ine try again. True 
science is a IcnowleJge of a viaiis n'>an 
bitsi//e<!s, is it not? If a man knows 
how to make the most profit with the 
least amount of labor and capital, I im- 
agine, whether you call him scientific or 
not, he possesses the best sort of knowl- 
edge of his business ; and if this be not 
at present called science, it ought to be. 
But here, just here, this successful farm- 
er is C'llled from his plow to listen to the 
liaraunge of some one who talks to hhn 
about the absence of the calcareous, or 
some other principle in his soil, and tha 
necessity of his applying lime, potash, 
and ammonia, &c., (fee. Well, the firm- 
er will say, this is all very well, but I 
raise good crops, notwithstanding the 
absence of lime, &c., and what more 
will your addition enable me to <lo? — ■ 
But says the lecturer, let me analy.-^e 
your soil, and that will enable you to 
raise larger crops. He goes to work, 
analyzes the soil, and furnishes the far- 
mer with a prescription as follows; 

Phosphate' of Lime, 100 lbs. 



■THE FAEMER^S JOURNAL. 



2S 



Sulphate of Ammonia, 10 lbs. 

Carbonate of Lime, 500 lbs., &C., &c. 

Mix thorouirbly, and spread broadcast 
over one acre. Now this is all very well, 
but where is the farmer to get the vari- 
ous ingredients .^ The result is, the lec- 
turer pockets his fee, and tlie farmer the 
loss; for it is impossible, <?ven though 
the articcles were ever so necessary to the 
soil, that they could be obtained by all, 
or even by any body scarcely, consider- 
ing the number of farmers. A lew per- 
sons may, by extra exertions, obcain 
some of them, but comparatively lew 
persons in the great multitude of farm- 
ers, can obtain any;of them. I need not 
enlarge upon this subject. This quack- 
ery is at this day eveiy where prevalent, 
in forms as various as the pliysiognomies 
of the propagators. 

Now let all farmers take heed to 
Ithemselves iu this, and learn that the 
science of agriculture is that true knowl- 
edge of one's own farm and its soil, that 
enables him to make the most of it, 
without impoverishing, but rather con- 
tinually improving it, at the least ex- 
pense, in labor and' money. If lime be 
accessible to you, try a small quantity 
on a sinall piece of land of a fair'aver- 
age of your farm ; if it improves your 
crop to the amount of the exj>ense of its 
application or more, then you have a 
scientiiic warrant for extending the ap- 
plication ; if it does not, then you will 
have lost but little, either in money or 
labor. So witli all other experiments; 
try them on a very small scale, and en- 
large them upon success. Devoted as I 
am, and always have been to srie/ice, I 
would not give one practical experiment 
for all the "scientiiic" theories of Liebig 
and other chemists put together, f(jr 
practical farmers' use. The true science 
of agriculture is to be drawn alone from 
intelligent practical experience ; and in 
the absence of such, the most perfect 
theories will be of no avail, in agiicul- 
tureor any otuer business. I would by 
no meatis be understood as opposing 
the progress of agricultural chemistry — 
quite the contrary. A knowledge of it 
is a great and powerful assistant to the 



farmer. It will enable him very often 
to hit upoa an improv-efiient in his soil, 
that years of practice might not accom- 
plish. But it is not the main or princi- 
pal agent that he is to look to. A 
kno!!?ledge of the principal of action of 
all things iii which we are engaged, is 
essential to a perfect understanding of 
the means to arrive at the end ; and we 
should therefoi'e study the scie/ice of an 
art, let that art be what it may. But 
this siurly of the scit-'nce is one thing, 
and submission to the liunibuggery of 
ibrazen-faced pretension another. Let 
every farmer study well and thoroughly 
the iheiiry, as he pursues the practice of 
\ agriculture, and thus improve and cor- 
I rect the latter by the suggestion of the 
I former, as he progresses, and then ho 
I will soon become a scientific farmer. 
I On the contrai y, we must all take care 
j that we do not carry our opposition to 
I spurinus science into tlie tcrriiorv of live 
I science. J^ecause practice does not al- 
ways or often result in the support of 
theory, we must not therefore tyke it for 
granted that all theory, or even the ]iar- 
ticular theory involved, is unscinid. We 
must continually bear in mind that aii 
the operations in nature, the growth of 
plants, tho formation of nutrition, e ery 
thing, are governed by fixed laws ; and 
that theory is the mere arrangement of 
these laws into a system for practical 
purposes. According to these laws, all 
the operations of the faim must be car- 
ried on to obtain the best results, and 
all our necessary failures ^^•ill h-c, and 
must be, in proportion to our confoimity 
to, f)r deviation from those laws. 

If for example, any practice fails to 
produce the result indicated by the the- 
ory, one or two things will be self-evi- 
dent ; either the theory is predicated 
upon false principles, or the operator has 
filled to carry the theory into full efiect. 
This failure should not he ccnsidei'ed as 
evidence that there is no such thing a» 
sound theory. I believe that nine-tenths 
of the so called scientific theories of the 
dav, are the veriest scientific nonsense ; 
and yet who shall say which is the tenth, 
or truthful one 2 



24 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



And now to tlie main object of our 
paper — the remedy for quackery, in all 
its forms and phases, where is it to be 
found and how obtained ? The answer 
is plain — in the liberal education of our 
people. I cannot conclude this paper in 
a more appropriate . way, than by ad- 
dressing a few words to all our agricul- 
tural friends on this sub'eet. Few men 
have mixed more in the society of far- 
mers than I have, and I am compelled 
to say that there is no one expenditure 
made by them so grudgingly, as that 
for the schooling of their sons. Among 
ordinary ftinriers, they " cannot spare 
them to go to school, except one quarter 
in the dead of winter ;" and even then 
the cheapest school, if there be a choice, 
is sought for. Now, to obviate the evils 
of false, and to secure the advantages of 
true science, a liberal education is essen- 
tial — the education of all the youth in 
the State — nothing more, notliing less. 
Until this is accomplished our agricultii- 
riil community will continue to b-e the 
prey of quackery in all its forms. 

N. r>. According to my idea of things, 
the criticism in the 4th number, January 
27th, page 59, on the "Professional Edu- 
cation of Farmers," does me injustice by 
over measure, a fault not often complain- 
ed of, in saying that I have 'deft notliing 
to say on ttiis subject." This is a great 
mistake. I have left volumes to be said, 
both by the critic and the public; and 
arranging myself among the latter, I ex- 
pect, (health permitting,) even myself to 
saj. a gi'eat deal more. Certainly, while 
I can use the pen, I shall not cease to 
urge the professional education of far- 
mers upon the public, until every farmer 
in this broad Union shall consider him- 
self, and be considered, an educated gen- 
tleman — one who shall not find it neces- 
sary to employ a travelling chemist, to 
tell him wdiat kind of manures he must 
use to increase his crop of corn or wheat. 
And when you, Mr. Critic, shall seethat 
time, I predict that you shall also see the 
farmer and the gardener, recognized at 
the " store" door, and the " hotel" door, 
and everywhere else, as gentlemen — 
"OTutlemeu who can dine with us," as 



an aristocratic friend of ours once said, 
in speaking of the qualifications he de- 
sired in the candidates for membership 
in a Pigeon Shooting Club. 

Yours, ti. B. Smith." 



We lay before our readers the above 
extract, which we find in " The Country 
Gentleiuan," an agricultural paper pub- 
lished in the State of New York. We 
do not publish this, though, as we do 
most extracts from other papers, believ- 
ing that it contains any thing calculated 
to instruct, but for the purpose of calling 
the attention of our readers to the many 
attempts still made to arrest the progress 
of agricultural science, by demagogues 
endeavoring to pursuade farmers that 
but little knowledge is necessary in or- 
der for them to become skilled in their 
profession. The article in question, if 
read in a careless and tliouglitless man- 
ner, is calculated to do injury; bat by 
giving it that reflection which is impor- 
tant to obtain a correct view of a sub- 
ject, the reader cannot fail to see at once 
the flimsjT- veil under which the author 
attempts to hide his own ignorance, and 
arrest, if-possible, the progress of agri- 
cultural science. In the beginning oi 
the extract he gives a definition of gene- 
ral science, and of agricultural science 
especially, to which we do not object in 
the least, notwithstanding the , superflu- 
ous language used. He says that "the 
science of agriculture is a complete theo- 
retical and practical knowledge of all the 
arts and means, practical and theoreti- 
cal, required in conducting a farm in the 
best manner." This we regard as em- 
bracing every thing which a scientific 
farmer should know; but just listen to 
what he says in the next breath : " The 
most scientific farmer I ever saw could 
not analyze a handful of soil according 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



25 



to what we call science. He had ac- 
quired by long experience and observa- 
tion, a knowledge of soils, their defects, 
and the remedies, that enabled him to 
judge with precision the quality of any 
soil, without the aid of the alembic or 
crucible." Such doctrine as this would 
have done well enough to have "preach- 
ed" ten years ago, but the scales are now 
falling from tlie eyes of the farmers, and 
they are beginning to find out that they 
have already listened too long to the 
croakings of such demagogues as the 
author of this paper. He does not seem 
to be aware of the rapid progress that is 
being made in agricultural science ; h.e 
is indeed far behind the times. He 
surely has not heard of the great yield 
of w heat on the farm of Hon. Reveidy 
Johnson, in Maryland, uhicli was the 
result of an analysis made of the soil 
by Prof. Stewart, of Baltimore. This 
land when purchased produced seven 
bushels of wheat per acre. After the 
analysis and a single element only being 
required, which was supplied at an ex- 
pense of ten dollars per acre, it produced 
an average of twenty -nine bushels. This 
is only one of mauy such experiments 
which we could name, as being the re- 
sults of analysis of soils. What, we ask 
would have been done in this case with- 
out the "alembic or crucible ?" In what 
other way could the fact have been as- 
certained that this soil was wanting only 
in the phosphate of lime, and this ele- 
ment was to be found most abundant in 
bone earth ? Still we are told that men 
may become scientific farmers ^^ ithout a 
kno A ledge of chemistry. We have never 
contended that scientific farmers should 
be practical analytical chemists, but we 
do say that they should understand agri- 
cultural chemistry, to enable them when 



an analysis of soil is made, to be able to 
know what substances in nature contain 
the wanting elements . in the greatest 
abundance, and to supply them with the 
least expense. The difference between 
making an analysis for a scientific far- 
mer, and one who is not, is tlris : that 
the man of science only needs to have a 
simple analysis, and he can readily see 
from A^'here the substances are to be ob- 
tained ; but in the other case, the work 
at this stage is only half completed, for 
the chemist then has to wi'ite out the 
analysis and give general directions for 
manuring the land. But, in speaking of 
this man of experience and observation, 
he seems to be rather of the opinion 
that he yet might learn something, or 
that he might much sooner have learned 
what he did know, for he says : "Now 
if he had been enabled to resort to chem- 
istiy, it would have saved him much 
time and labor in acquiring his knowl- 
edge, but still he Avas a man of true 
science." Here we think that he has 
said more tluin he iniended — or, in 
other worcb, he has contradicted him- 
self. But lie soon gets into the same 
old strain again, urging the position, 
that a man nuiy have a scientific knowl- 
edge of his profession, without knowing 
any thing of the theory upon which it 
is based. He says that "it does not fol- 
low because a blacksmith cannot explain 
the science of his use of air in his forge, 
or why he blows air among his coals, 
or why the doing so increases the heat 
of his forge, that he is not a scientific 
blacksmith — ^lie may be and very often 
is a perfect master of his branch of sci- 
ence, so far as the practice of his own 
business is concerned." The blacksmith 
in this case understood perhaps the me- 
chanical part of his profession, which he 



THE FAKMEirS JOURNAL, 



liad learned tVorn seeing the san:te thing 
done time after time. He could no 
doubt after many failures coml>iae two 
metals ; but had he known chemistry, 
he could have done the fir8t time what 
it may have cost him many trials to ac- 
complish. The aLitlior of this paper 
would perliaps call a man a practical 
sailor who knew how to steer a vessel, 
Iiavino- the land on either side as a guide, 
bat .vhat would become of a sailor when 
blown off the coast, (whteh is often the 
case,) without a knowledge of the sci- 
ence of navigation, even though he had 
Lis compass and quadrant with him. 
lie says, too, that " a man may acquire 
a perfect knowledge of agriculture from 
other teachers than professors of chem- 
istry and geology." He does not, in 
this instance, mean teachers of geogra- 
phy, grammar, and arithmetic, for if 
riuch is the flict, he might just as well 
admit that a youth who wishes to study 
the science of medicine, should place 
himself under the tuition of a lawyer. 
Hear him again. "To an observing eye 
a soil will itself give indications of its 
qualities. I knew a man — I know him 
novr', who, if he were about purcliasing. 
a piece of land, would look at the growth 
of tlie trees, bushes, and even weeds that 
were on the land, and could by tliem tell 
what the land was." This seems to him 
to be really wonderful in the extreme — 
that a man could look at land and judge 
of its qualities from the natural growth 
upon it. We venture to make the as- 
sertion, feeling confident of the concur- 
rence of our readers, that there is not a 
man in our State, of common sense and 
ordinary education, but is able to judge 
of the capacity of land in its primitive 
state from the native growth upon • it 
What man is tliers who could not tell that 



land which by nature produces the stur- 
dy gum, poplar, oak and ash, would, if 
cultivated, yield good crops of corn, oats 
and wheat? — and who, if he saw a fields 
gro.vn up in pine saplings, would not 
say tiiat it was exhausted land?. I3y 
this we see that his man. knows nothing 
more than what most men know, and in 
not such a "paragon"" as he would have 
his readers believe. The services of the 
chemist are not required to tell so much 
about land in its native state, but when 
he is most needed is when the land has 
been exhausted by continued cultivation, 
without manuring or resting. lie says, 
too, that the man who makes the most 
produce according to the labor and capi- 
tal invested, deserves the name of far- 
mer. Many who do this we term real 
land murderers, for they many times 
make their heavy crop at the expense of 
their land, careing nothing, for the future 
benefit which they may derive from 
them. At this point he has shown him- 
self a deraagogue,.outright; it seems that 
he cannot keep it back any longer. Ho 
fancies that he has so completely "fea- 
thered" the eyes of liis readers, that be 
can force down them any thing ho 
chooses. After this he springs upon ag- 
licultural lecturers, and thinks to demol- 
ish them at once. He says that they, 
pre^scribe remedies for the worn-out lands 
of farmers \\'hich they cannot obtain;. if 
any, but few. Let us look into this a 
little. Chemistry teaches that there are 
in a perfect soil sixteen elements, a part 
organic or vegetable, and a part inorgan- 
ic or mineral. These we might name^. 
but we feel certain that our; readers have 
become acquainted with them by read- 
ing: the able address of Dr. J. J. Phillips, 
which we published in the first. volume 
of the "Faimer'a jQurnal." These ele- 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



3? 



ruents are to be found in tlie aslies from 
the various trees, the muck in swamps, 
tlie shell and stone lime, the old bones 
about the farm, the guano and the stable 
manure. Still, in the face of this, far- 
mers are told by such demagogues as 
the author of this paper, that they can- 
not find the means to renovate their ex- 
hausted lands. It really seems to us 
like abusing the beneficence of the Crea- 
tor, who has not failed from the begin- 
ning to see our every want, and to sup- 
ply it bountifully. He goes on to advise 
lime to be used by the littles, in a hap- 
hazzard way, which miglit be obviated 
if the farmer knew the requiiements of 
his soil. There can, we think, be onl} 
one conclusion arrived at in relation to 
this paper : that it is an eftbrt to arrest 
the progress of agricultural chemistry — 
though, he says, '"I u'ould by no means 
be ihiderstood as oi)posiug the pro^^ress 
of a^TicuItural chemistry — quite the con- 
trary. A knowledge of it is a great and 
powerful assistant to the farmer." Thi.- 
can be proved to be false by his own lan- 
guaf>'e, when he boasts of two men be- 
ing scientific men wlio did not have any 
knowledge of chemistry or other branch 
of science in connection with agriculture. 
We miglit go on still farther with our re- 
view of this paper, but we shall conclude 
by saying, that we rejoice very much to 
think, that the day is not far distant 
when such croakers as the author of 
this production will not be able to hold 
up their heads, and continue to practice 
their gross deceptions ujion the farming 
community. They will have to come 
down from their higli positions, or in- 
form themselves more than what they 
liave done. They fin<.l it easier to de- 
lude the enquiring farmer who has not 
had the advantages of education, than 



to make themselves acquainted with 
such branches of science as will enable 
them to correct teachers. We are aware 
that we do not know as much of aori- 
cultut-al science as we should. We can 
see many deficiences in our communica- 
tion with our readers. But we have 
never lead them into error knowingly 
for the purpose of deceiving them ; and 
we shall cling to the position with 
which we started out, — "to put error to 
fiight," come whence it may. This is 
our reason for attacking this paper at 
this time. We regard it as doing great 
injustice to the cause which we are ad- 
vocating, and consequently we feel prj- 
vileged to make war upon it, and lend 
our aid in driving such "drones" from 
the field of agricultural science. Against 
all such ue warn our readei's — they are 
"wolves in sheep's clothing," and should 
be treated as such. 



From tlie Workino: Farmer. 
Male and Female Com, 

M'Ssis. EuiTDi;*:— A( (he lite inecf- 
iiig of our Siitt-^ Ag ii'ultuial S' cit tv 
•it Mrrt'i.itii, tlie renin. k wus innd.' at 
.\u eveniuir si ssioa, hy a friniitimt 
/luui ;er, that tlnre uert- male nnd fe- 
iirilf eais ol corn. It seeiii' d tltanrre 
to me, thill any peis in i.f «.b.-er atinn 
and ^ci• nco should hiive tiiailp such a 
r mark, and Strang r s ill, ili.t w i^n 
it h'td bieii made, it should imvp teen 
defendel hy such reason ii»ir as ^vas 
then ihi'ie iidvanceJ ; and as tli.- iit- 
'eutioiitf iniiny of your nadeis has 
lins ben cilb d lo this tnbjrct. [ hope 
tiiat i' may in t bi; uidiileieslK g lo 
ill' in, if th O'igh your j'aper I .-Isould 
invi:i' ihein to tin- exaiiin a ion of this 
trnly '• due of ih' mn<t mieresting 
idauts in tlie vegetable kmijauiu" 



28 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



Maize, or ladiau Corn, belongs tu 
the class of monoecious plants, hnving 
two distinct fljwers upon the same 
plant, the male and female, the male 
flower containing the stainans, bearing 
the pollen or fecuoiiating powder, and 
'dpon the corn stalk is what is called 
the tassel or spindle, the female flower 
containing the pisuls, or wha.t is com 
nionly called the siiif. This is the 
most wonderful and curious part of 
the plant, worthy of the most minute 
examination, and the closest inspection 
of all who love to study and examine 
the wondtrful works of God I Upon 
examination we find that there is a 
pistil or thread of silk attached to each 
ovule or seed-vessel — i. e. lo each sin- 
gle keinel of corn upon the cob ; and 
if vve place one of these pistils or tliieads 
of silk under a magnifying glass we 
sball find that it is a tube, and the end 
of this tube, which protrudes from the 
husk, to be enlarged and covered wi'h 
a fine do.vn or hair, esuiing also a 
glutinous fluid. This end is called the 
stigma, and upon this stigma or end of 
the tube, falls the pollen or fecundating 
powder of the tassel or male flower, — 
This powder is caught in the down or 
hair of the stigma, and is caused to ad- 
here by the fluid : when soon, this little 
egg- of pollen, bursts the pellicle or 
skin that surrounds it^ and the fecun- 
dating matter contained within is suck- 
ed into the tube, and thus conveyed to 
the ovule, or germ of the kernel — thus 
the ovul^ is fructified, and the grain 
produced ! 

If one of thesfj threads of silk be- 
comes injured in any wav before the 
ovulo to which it is attached is fructi- 
fied, the consequence is, a kernel of corn 
will be missing from that place upon 



the cob ; as is often found to be the case 
when husking corn : and if we should 
cut off the entire silk when it first 
makes its" appearance, we should find 
no corn upon the cob in harvest ! And 
who cannot but admire the wisdom of 
Him who has admirably contrived and 
adjusted all these things! See here, 
the poken is upon the spindle, and it 
must fall upon the silk, it must break, 
and the matter it contains must be suck- 
ed in, or there can be no corn ! And 
here again is wisdom, in that there is so 
great an abundance of the pollen pro- 
duced by the spindle; so that in the 
time of the florescence of com, the 
whole ground seems to be covered 
by It ! 

From these facts, it is easy to prove 
the absurdity of the remarks made at 
Meredith, in reference to male and fe- 
male ears; for m the first place we sea 
that the ears weie not fructified as a 
whole, but each single keri-el by itself 
through its own peculiar pistil or silk ; 
therefoie, if there be any truth in that 
remarl;, we are to fcujipose, that the 
whole two or three hundred or more 
kernels upon the same car. each fructi- 
fied separately and individually, were 
of the same sex, either male or female 
while all those upon another ear upon 
the same- stalk, are of a different sex! — 
the very idea of which is absurd in it- 
self. Again, if it were trui^, should we 
take a male or female ear, and plant it 
by itself, out of the reach of the pollen 
from other corn, it would produce no 
corn, which facts both from observation 
and actual experiment, do not prove. 
Thi5 shows us how careiul we should 
be, in giving currency to vulgar and 
e romous iJeas, lest we mislead those 
who may not have the time or means 



THE. FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



29 



)f investigaiing the truth or falsity of 
hem. E. CI. Little. 

Remarks of the Editor. -The above 
irticle is per'.inent lo its purpose, and 
ve m?y add, in addition to the Tacts 
ihere set forth, that the farina fecundi 
)f plant;' is carried to great distances, 
ind lodged upon others for their fructi- 
ication. This pollen is composed of 
small spheroids filled with hydrogen 
jas, and so sweighed by their coating 
IS to float in the aimosrhere at the ele- 
mtion at which they are disengaged 
:rom the oiiginai plant, and it is for this 
reason that these little balloons travel 
Jirectly to the place where they are 
required. On arriving at their desii 
nation ihey are attached by their unc- 
bious surface, and from the heat of the 
3un and,GGBseq^Jent expansion of the 
gas contained within them, they burst 
and aie reversed like the skin of half 
an orange turned inside out, and in this 
Bap form covering the pistils to which 
they are attached. A single hill of red 
or any other corn, will cause ke.uels of 
1 similar kind to appear on almost eve- 
ry hill in the same field. Indeed to 
this process of hybiidation we are in- 
debted for all the new varieties daily 
being produced. Thus the StowelPs 
Evergreen corn is a hybrid between 
the manomenee soft corn and the north- 
ern sugar corn, having the sweetness of 
the one, and retaining fur a long time 
the peculiar softness of the other. Ey 
this hybridation it is as hard and as full 
of leaf as the manomenee corn, with an 
enlarged sized ear, having all the prop- 
erties and qualities of the best sugar 
corn. 



Judge not of men or things at first 
sight. 



To Extirpate Sorrel. 

An exchange paper gives the follow- 
ing directions : 

The presence of scrrel indicates an 
acid soil. It is a sour plant, and thrives 
only on such lands as are destitute o{ 
calcareous matters ; consequomtly the 
application of the latier in sufficient 
quantities to correct the acidity sug- 
ge.-ts itself as the most effectual me- 
thod of retting rid of it, and rendering 
the soil fit for profitable cultivation in 
other or more desirable crops. Yet 
the quality of soil on which this plant 
is naturally produced precludes the 
hope that it will ever be entirely 
eradicated, and it hence becomes a 
part of fanning to know in what man- 
ner it can be most successfully econo- 
mized, and rendered valuable as au 
article of animal sustenance or food. 

There are, indeed, but few vegeta- " 
bles, however mean and valueless ttey 
may be considered, which do not pos- 
sess some quality of redeeming them 
from the hasty yet common charge of 
utter worthlessness, and of this order 
we regard ,«oirel. As food for horses and 
sheep, it not only possesses considerable 
value, but if chafFdd and mixed with 
mi {,vl it will fatten them as readily, 
perhaps, as English hay, prepared iu 
the same manner. Fed to these ani- 
mals in its natural stale, and without 
any accompaniment, it is found tore- 
tain them in health and heart, and the 
seed ground and made into 'mush' is 
said by those who have had experience 
in feeding it to be equal to Indian corn. 
Yet no farmer will ever cultivate sor- 
rel as a farm product. It is exhausting 
in the extreme, and it is only when it 
obtrudes itselt on him spontaneously 
that he should endeavor to render ifc of 



«0 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



any account. 

The only effectual mode of extiipa 
ting it is to sweeten llie soil by liming, 
or t(i irierense ilie staple to a d^giee 
that it will proino'H tiie de^' lopmeiit 
»if a inoie valij;ib!e bfil age, amJ cIeans^■ 
llie 6oil ihori ughly by a fucctssion of 
manured crops, such as corn, poiaioes, 
or som^' otht-i' vc^rtiable which is culii 
vated exilusively with a hoe. Tlie 
tseo I of the so;r I is not abundant, but 
il IS invesM'tt iu an iottgumint, oi 
horov involucri'. which potse>si;s the 
power of pte'trving the vital [owei 
nriiinpaireJ f )r year.*, when phieeil by 
< ircllrn^tances so dti< p in the soil as to 
be b< V iJ'i ' G iiitlufnca of those 
Aitalizing principles up )ii which ger 
mn'liim i* found niiinly to di pend 

Tiris peculiarity ol th'-sieJ ex{)lains 
why s irrt 1 s-o i<(u u nr pears after a long 
r!astiir,'A<;c, ;ind the d suppi arance (.f ihe 
pl^nt f oin the surface (,f the soil where 
it has previously groa-n. — uiiiisan. 



Swine. 

l^or brceili'g piu-j oscs. c'loose the 
larg^si, ami those having the longest 
budv; dud none .-honlJ bo selected un- 
der one year ol a^^e. Ti.cy should 
Lave a i asinre or laig-^ yJirJ lo range ir_ 
and be ;[:iven. occasiontillv, green food. 
Thev slioulJ b'' liejt !is much as possi- 
ble to ill niselvesai tlie time of lister- 
in;^. For tiiree or f ur clays after lit- 
teriiifj. liic S'pvy slioul i le fcl on boil"d 
bran or other Ii;;hifi.O(i, and protf^cted 
from annoyani-e. If iho ItUr is lir^o, 
the SOW wdl need inuc!) yreen or liquid 
food, yet cue thouKl be ihken thai the 
ccours. or di irrl oe i, is not produce I. — 
Sonn tines sow.-^ devour ih-ir |;i"s; 
this Ciui h'- prevent' d by givm<j ihein 
fresh lULUt iora day or two. 



Treatment of Poultry. 

The following rules are authorita- 
tively Irtid down for the treatment of 
Poultry: 

1. All young chickens, ducks and 
turkrys, should be k( pt under cover> 
out of the weaiher, during lainv sea- 
sons. 

2. 7Vo or three times a week, pep- 
per, shallots, shives or garlic should be 
tnixf d up with their food. 

3 A snnill lump of asafosdita should 
be pi iced in the pan in which water i& 
given them to drink. 

4. Whenever they manifest disease, 
by the droopir-g of the wings or any 
oiher ouiwaid .'i^n of ill health, a littie 
asa^ce ita, broken into small lumps, 
should be mised with their food. 

5. Chickens which are k<'pt fiora the 
dung-tjill while yi/uiig, seldom have the 
gapes; iher.fore, it should be the ob- 
jrct of those who have the charge of 
them, so to confine the hens as to pre- 
vent their young from the range of the 
barn or st;tble yards. 

6 Should any of the chickens have 
the gap^s, mix up small portions of as- 
sfce.iia, rhubarb, and popper, in fresh 
buiter, and give each chicken as much 
of the mixture as will lie upon half the 
b'iwi of a small teaspoon. 

7. For the p p, the following treat- 
ment is judicious: take off the indura- 
ted covering on the point of the tongue, 
and give twice a day, for two or three 
days, a pn en of garlic as big as a pea. 
If gallic cam «t be obiaineJ, onion, 
shallot or shives will answer ; and if 
neither of them be convenient, two 
grains of black pepper, given in fresh 
bu:tfC, will answer, 

8 For the sa.. files, the same remedy 
as for the gapes will be found highl^j 



TSE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



5t 



curative, hat in addit'on to tlipse, it 
will be necessary to melt a little asa- 
fceJita in Irrsh butter, and rub the 
chicken about the nos-tnls, taking care 
to clean them out. 

9. Grown up duck* are sometimps 
taken off rapidly by convulsions. In 
such cases, four grains of rhubarb 
and four grains of cayenne i)efiper, 
mixed in fresh butter, should be ad- 
ministered. — Scmihfic American. 



Economy of Fattening Ho^s. 

The following expi-riraenl m fatten- 
ing hogs, yj\\]\ ground or ungrou?id 
corn, would seem — as far as a solitary 
experiment can — to settle the question 
of economy as to the b*^sl nriode oi feed- 
in» hogs It is an extract from a com 
muniration in the Patent 0-ffice Report 
for i850-'51, by Mr. J. E. Dodge, of 
Poiosi, Grant Cciunty, Wisconsin. He 
says : "In' October last, I S' lected from 
my stock two pigs, of the same size and 
apparently alike ihiifly ; one, however, 
weighed 250 lbs., the other 247 lbs. 
Immediately aftfr being weighed, they 
were put into apartments of ihe same 
house, kept dry and warm, and fed widi 
great care for forty days ; then they 
were again weighed, and slau;^hiered. 
The heaviest was fed with com meal, 
mixed stiff with cold wa^er ; iho other 
with shelled cum, with plenty of pore 
water to diink. The one fed witli meal 
consumed 425 lbs. and gained 63 lbs 
live weight ; the p'lrk weight after 
dressing, was 297 lbs. The other ate 
308 lbs. of corn, and was found to have 
gained 33 lbs. live weight, his poik 
weight being 231 lbs. By subtracting 
the pork weight from the live wtighi. 
ihe amount of offal is aseei tainted, 
wbicK in this experiment, proired a 



fraciion less than one-fiflh of the live 
weight. It one-filth be dedijcted fiom 
the amount each jig gained, we hcvve 
the l'ueg,.in, in poikweiglit, produced,, 
which was 5 3-4 lbs for every 56 lbs. 
of raejil, and 5 lbs for every 56 lbs. of 
corn." 

'■The pigs were a cross betwren the 
Byefieid and Berkshire, the best and 
most [ r. fi!ab!e breeds — the corn, y,.l- 
low-dnjt or Cleviland, a vaiie'y held 
in great estetm " 

Ga.n of the hog fed on corn- 

^^^< 63 lbs. 

" " « corn.ZZ lbs. 

Gain in favor of feeding on 

meal^ 30 lbs. 

To Destroy the Apple Tree Borer. 

First, kill all ihe giul s in the trunk 
of the tree, by pushing a u ire U[> the 
hobs as far as possible. Tlieii lake a 
pail — fill it half full of thin soft fcoap, 
and stir in enough i..bacco water to 
iiiake it two thirds full. Having fjr«t 
scraped off any loose b;irk, next apply 
this tobacco iihd soap [aiut with a eiiff" 
brush 10 every part of the trunk, and 
larger part of the limbs — pnttinif it on 
espfcifilly thick at the "crotches," and 
ihe base of the trunk — the places where 
the b( rer likt s b< st t ■ d' posite i's egijs. 
If this is done » arly in May, I can im- 
swr r from experience for its efficacy. 
N;) borer will deposiie her ej-gs in bark 
cotted over in this way. All the mer- 
it of the prescription belongs to you 
the Editor, and not to your humble 
Servant, A. R. C. 

Rhode hland, April, 1852. 

We may add to the forei^oing, that 
the snap and tob iceo mixturej painted 
uverlhe trunks of oiher tree, as the 



32 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



ash, peacli, &c., infected wiih Boi'trs, 
is eqa illy effectual. The main point 
is to get it 0!1 before the insect comes 
out in its winged state — and south of 
Baltimore that is usually before thi.> 
time. North of that poin'., the eaily 
part of May will answer. — Horticul- 
turist. 

There is now a daily mail between 
New-Berne, N. C , and Plymouth. 



ri^HE subscriber will give ;nu' special ad- 
X vice to Fanners, Ijy their addressing- him 
and giving a descriptiuii of their farms. His 
charge will be moderate. He will make 
aBalysis of soils and marls, atid v;rite out the 
analysis for application of manures. 
For analysis of soils, - - - ^5 Oo 
Writing out analysis, - - • .5 OO 

JOHxV F. TOMPKINS, M. D. 

LET every True North Carolinian throv? 
his might into the hands of our own 
Mechanics, and by this means, with our Ag- 
ricultural advancement, we are bound to 
become an independent people. So let tlie 
citi.;ens of Edffecombe, and the neighbouring 
counties, call and e.xamine the magnificent 
stock of 

FURNITURE, 

which is offered for sale at F. Li. Boii<Ts 

Furniture Store, in Tarboro', consisting ofthe 
following articles, viz : 

Ladies' Marble and Mahogany Top Dres- 
sing Bureaus ; Ladies Marble Top Wash' 
Stands ; Sideboards and Plain Bureaus; Ward 
Robes and Book Cases ; Sofas and Mahogany 
E>ocking Chairs; Mahogany and Walnut 
Tables ; Pete-a-tetes and Divans; Mahogany, 
French," and Cottage Bedsteads ; Stationary 
and Portable Writing Desks ; Wood an 1 
Cane Seat Rjcking Chairs ; Ofiice, Windsor, 
Cane and Ptush Bottom Chairs ; a large as- 
sortment of cheap Bed Steads ; Wash Stands 
and Candle Stand.*; China Presses, various 
patterns; also, a few Nymplis and Nuptials- 
Old Furnituricand Sofas repaired and made 
to look as a'ood as new. Old Bachelors ren- 
ovated in such a style as will malce them 
accessible to the smiles of voung ladies and 

old M s at least. Furniture kept on hand 

to suit any age or sext. 

Now one word to tiie public What is life 
to any one, if they do not avail themselve of 
the comforts and conveniences that are offered 
for sale at F. L. BOND'S Ware Room .' An 
examination by the public is earnestly 
solicited. F. L. B. 

Tarboro', N. C, 



VViND-GALLS. — Wind-gaili!, are gen- 
erally found on the hind-legs, in the 
neighborhood of the fetlock, and are 
generally occisioiied by violent action 
and straining of the tendons. They 
not only injure the appearance of the 
horse, Luil oiten produce lameness. A 
very smuU wind-gall may not injure a 
horse for a great length of time, and 
may be removed by placing a tight 
bandage upon it ; but if the sac is 
large, bathe it uitli warm vinegar and 
spirits of wine, putting a,tight bandage 
round it. If this should fail of a cure, 

lay on blistering ointment until it is 
removtd. 



Concord, N. H., has voted to become 
a city ; yeas 825, nays 559. It was 
organized as a township in 1722. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS.' 

Page. 

Communication, 1 

Consmuuicatiun, Ijy "Panola, Jr.," 2 

Conmiunication, by "Beaufort,'' 4 
Laws of the State of N. C, passed by the 

Gen'l Ajj'bly, at the Sessiun of 1852, 5 
Address of Hon. Ro : Strange before the 

Cumberland CO. Agricultural'Society, 7 

Ashes, 14 

Cltaiing, 14 

Farming, "^ 15 

Attention, SubscriLers, 16 

Uui- Introduction, 16 
To tlie County Agricultural Societies of 

the i^tate, lY 
Mr. ituftin'i Address before the S.C- In- 
stitute in Charleston, 18 
Chemical Ajiparatus for the AnaJvsisof 

Soils, " 19 
Farmers and Mechanics, Get Ready for 

the Fair on the ISth of October next, 20 
The Fertilizing Properties of the remains 

of Old Chininies, 20 

Letter from Mr. Street, of Craven co., 20 

Editor's Table, 21 

Agricultural Quackery, 22 

Male and Female Corn, 27 

To Exiii'pate Sorrel, 29 

Swine, 30 

Treatment of Poultry, 30 

Economy of Fattening Hogs, 31 

To Destroy the Apple-tree Borer, 31 

^Yiud-Gall3, ' 32 



THE FARIEE'S JOUMAL. 



VOL 2. 



BATH, N. C, MAY, 1853. 



m. % 



JOHN F. TOMPKINS, M. D., Editor and Proprietor. 



For the Farmer's Journal. 

GcTRRiTUCK County, ) 
March 24th, 1853. j 

Does land improve in fertility by lay- 
ing uncultivated for one year or more ? 

In order that this question may be 
answered with satisfaction to those who 
have made frequent inquiries, it is nec- 
essary to consider all of the requisites of 
a productive soil. 

1. It should be well drained. 

2. It should contain 5 per cent, of 
vegetable matter or an average in a state 
of decay. 

3. It should contain the following in- 
organic elements, viz : potash, soda, lime, 
magnesia, silica, and iron with phospho- 
ric acid, sulphuric acid, chlorine, carbon, 
hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen. All these 
elements must be in a condition availa- 
ble so that the growing crop can easily 
get them. 

If the above be the requisites for a 
fertile soil and the field iinder favorable 
circumstances does not produce abund- 
antly can all of the above conditions be 
fulfilled by resting the land ? 

„Is the quantity of potash, soda, or any 
one of the above fertilizers increased in 
the soil 2 If there is only two per cent of 



lime in the soil is that quantity increased 
bj resting the land ? It is not. 

By constant cropping the soil becomes 
exhausted of the above fertilizers that 
the crops require for one two or more 
feet or as deep as the roots penetrate; 
then the land is worn out. The whole 
field to the depth of one foot or more is 
dead useless earth. K it is rested it re- 
cruits slowly from its fatigue. It produ- 
ces a few stick woods and but little grass. 
After it has rested for one or more years 
its strength is again tested but the tiller 
gains a scanty reward for his toil. The 
small quantity of those fertilizing ele- 
ments that are in the soil has been greed- 
ily consumed by the woods and they are 
not yet decomposed, thereby yielding 
all of the strength to the crops. The 
land is rested again and again but it is 
yet weak and is abandoned. 

But some lands are improved by lay- 
ing uncultivated for a year or more, and 
in my next communication I will consid- 
er the means of improving old lands. 

Mo YD CK. 



J^"The frequent use of asparagus is 
strongly recommended in afiections of 
the chest and lungs. 



34 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



For the Farmer's Journal. 

Sneads Ferry P .0., Onslow Co., ) 
January 14th, 1853. f 

Dr. John F. Tompkins : — Dear sir. 
Being a subscriber for your valuable pa- 
per, the Farmer's Journal, from the first 
number, and from the information I find 
contained therein I can say in truth that 
I feel my dollar as well spent for the 
Farmer's Journal as any paper I have 
evel- taken, yea by double. Although I 
liave no person to labor except myself, 
and being somewhat in years and also 
considerably afflicted so that I cannot la- 
bor much, yet as I said, I believe my 
money well spent, for if I cannot do 
much I will do what I can, and those 
who have a plenty of force can do no 
more. If I cannot manure two acres of 
land or my hundreds I will try and ma- 
nure one acre. Dear sir, I doubt wheth- 
er there is any other section beside the 
one I reside in that farming is more neg- 
lected and at a lower ebb; I have obtain- 
ed by using diligence two subscribers for 
wliich I enclose two dollars. You will 
please commence their subscription with 
the number of this inst. This may arrive 
too late for the issuing of the January 
numbar; if so, and you have no surplus 
numbers commence with next; enclose 
these two with my own directed to the 
same office, J- ^ * • ^^ * 

RocKViLLE, Rowan Co., N. C 
March 7 th, 1853. 
Editor Farmer's Journal — Dear 
Sir : — A few days ago, I incidentally 
came across No. 1 Vol. 1 of the Far- 
mer'si Journal. I looked through it with 
care and interest. Judging from this 
No. as a specimen, your journal is cal- 
culated to greatly benefit that portion of 
our citizens to whose interests it is espe- 
cially devot d, and who form tlie bone ^ 



and sinew of every State. Farming has 
been too little studied as a science, but 
the interest which is being manifested 
on the subject, and the improvements 
which are making in this department, 
together with our system of internal im- 
provements and educational facilities, 
augur well, (in the judgement of the 
correct thinking) for the future prosperi- 
ty of our State. I hope your Journal is 
still in existence and prospering. State 
pride should induce every citizen to en- 
courage State enterprise. 

Very respectfully, 
S. K. 



Rowan County, N, C, 
March 20th 



, 1S53. f 



Dr. Jno, F. Tompkins — Dear sir: — 
At a meeting I was appointed on a com- 
mittee to invite gentlemen to address tho- 
Scotch Ireland Agricultural Society on 
the second Thursday of October next. 

Will you do us the favor of attending 
on that day and deliver an address. We 
write now in order to give you time to- 
make your arrangements'. If you were- 
to travel through this part of the State 
many societies will be formed and a 
large number added to your list (i.e.) the 
Farmer's Journal. 

We will renew oar subscriptions at 
our next meeting, which will be in a 
few weeks. Some one of us will collect 
the money and names, and forward them 
to you immediately. Your paper has 
done good inour neighborhood; but still 
there are hundreds of farmers in this 
part of our State that take no agricuF- 
tural paper. So if you will spend some 
time with us next fall, we will do what 
we can for you. If you could come pre- 
pared to analyse lands, some of us would 
like it. If you come up ea quire the way 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



35 



to my house and I will take a pleasure 
ia introducing you to our people. 

Yours respectfully, 

J. F. F. 



For the Farmers Journal. 
Rule for Making an Axletree. 

Dr. ToMPKiKS : — Accompanying the 
subscription money for the Journal, you 
will find a plain simple rule for making 
an axletree to a cart, which if you think 
will be of interest, or benefit the agricul- 
tural community, you can publish in 
your journal. I have often been surprised 
in witnessing the great neglect of many 
■of our farmers, not only in the timely ap- 
plication of anti-frictions made of black 
lead, flour, tallow and oil; but the all 
important construction of a well made 
axletree. Whenever I meet with a cart 
<)f this kind, the squeaking of which can 
be heard for miles, and the under part 
running some twelve or fourteen inches 
wider than the upper, thereby causing 
more labor to the team, I at once in- 
quire of the owner if he has or knows the 
rule for making an axletree, and to my 
astonishment I have not met with two 
out of eight that know there is any cor- 
rect rule; they all say they know how 
to make the thing but have no particu- 
lar rule. 

I do not profess to be a carpenter or 
know but little about the use of tools, 
yet I have long experienced the advan- 
tages of an easy running cart, and the 
rule adopted by me was taken from the 
Farmer's Register (by RuflSn) some fif- 
teen years since. 

The direction is this: get a stick of 
hard durable wood, for an ox cart four 
by four inches is a good size and the 
length desired to suit the body and 
wheels, strike a centre line from end to 



end; after getting the width of the body, 
ascertain the length of the hub and the 
size of the boxes. For the large boxes 
you will lay off one half on each side of 
the centre line which gives the size for 
the large box, and for the small boxes 
first ascertain the difference there is be- 
tween the large and small boxes, and 
half of the difference there is between 
them, lay oft" on the back or bevelled side 
and the remainder on the front side of 
the line and you have the size of the 
small box. For instance should the large 
boxes be six inches and the small ones 
four, half the difference is one "inch. Be 
careful to measure at the place where the 
small box is to run on the axle, and al- 
low enough at the small end to put the 
pin. After laying off in this manner, re- 
duce to a square then to an eighth and a 
round and you will have a good fit, 
and the wheels will neither bind the 
shoulder nor run off on the pin. 

Belmont, March 1853. J. B. M. 



Manure. 

BV n. S. JOHNSON, CANTON, jST. Y. 



The subject of manure is one of un- 
limited importance to every farmer.— 
There was a time when the fancied elixir 
of life drew the arrested attention of the 
nations. Its supposed value was all-en- 
grossing. Happily for the world, the 
dark shades of that night of igno^anee 
have retired. But still subjects that are 
perceived to be of high importance en- 
gross the minds and become the chosen 
hobbies of men. Not unfrequently the 
elite and the savans enter the arena and 
contend for the prize. The efforts t@ dis- 
cover hidden truths or bring to light oc- 
cult science not unfrequently exert an in- 
fluence which conducts unthinking and 
bewildered men so far astray, that the 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



either neglect tlieir own interest, or else 
pursue it with such inappropriate means 
as are sure to defeat their most assidu- 
ous efforts. 

But what bearing have these remarks 
on the humble subject of manure for the 
farm? Reflect, and you will perceive 
that they are not altogether inappropri- 
ate. By at least common consent, the 
subject of manure is admitted to be the 
foundation of agricultural prosperity. — 
This is the true state of the case in both 
Europe and America. The admitted im- 
portance of manure to successful farming 
is so great, that the most laborious inves- 
tigations of science are directed to it. — 
Men deservedly in the highest ranks of 
talent and literature are bestowing upon 
it their untiring labors. On this subject, 
several of the most learned men that 
ever enlightened and adorned any age 
or country are gathering their most un- 
fading laurels. In our OAvn land, many 
of the first scholars of the age are a- 
wakened and electrified by the com- 
manding importance of this rustic sub- 
ject. So far, all is well. Noble minds, 
men of undying fame, are, in this par- 
ticular, giving their labors to a subject 
every way worthy of their regard. To 
increase the comforts and multiply the 
food for the world is no trifling concern. 
This class of scientific men are exert- 
ing a wide influence — an influence that 
aftects every agricultural society and 
every agricultural paper. Though their 
labors have developed many important 
truths and disclosed much valuable infor- 
mation, yet they have but just entered 
the wide field which opens before them, 
and much that they have commimicated 
is theory, and not fact. Experiments, 
testing the true value of difl"erent kinds 
of manure, have, as yet, been very im- 



perfect and unsatisfactory. iVfter all that 
has been obtained, our knowledge on 
this subject is still in its infancy. There 
is some reason to apprehend that agri- 
culturists may be so infatuated by the 
many theories, as idly to seek after some 
substance for manure, as men formerly 
sought the philosopher's stone, or else, 
amid perplexity, to conclude that all is 
fancy, and leave their fields to barrenness 
and decay. 

The farmer should be very cautious 
in regard to what some have been pleased 
to denominate special manure, and oth- 
ers, concentrated manure. This consists, 
in burning the materials and using the 
ashes to enrich the land. No doubt 
such ashes, or any ashes judiciously em- 
ployed, are a good fertilizer. But is 
there not a loss in the process of burn- 
ing ? Every man, who has been at all 
conversant with clearing new land, knows 
that, in a very drj^ time, there is danger 
of burning such land too much. When 
all the vegetable matter is consumed by 
the fire in clearing, there may be one 
fair crop after it, but the land will be 
rendered barren and subject to moss for 
a long term of years. Tha prairies of 
the West are rendered productive by 
partially burning the vegetable surface. 
But burn deep, consume all the accumu- 
lation of vegetables, and barrenness will 
succeed. Men of experience in clearing 
land are cautious about burning deep 
even green timbered lands. If the far- 
mer wishes to increase the efficiency of 
his manure, let him haul marl, -clay, and 
leached ashes on his sandy land, but let 
hira by no means burn Ids manure^ 
heap, nor suffer it to become -dryby fer- 
menting. ■ - ■ 

To the farmer it is important that the 
investigations of agricultural chemistry 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



St 



should proceed. Tlie farmer sliould wait 
patiently for the result of those labors, 
and as fast as feets are established, he 
should profit by them. In the mean 
time, he should be diligent in using the 
means which all experience, since the 
earth began to be cultivated, proves will 
enrich his fields and increase the reward 
of his toil. Notwithstanding all that has 
been written on agricultural chemistry by 
Sir Humphrey Davie, Lampadius, Goep- 
pert, Sprengel, Liebig, Fresenjius, Bous- 
singault, and numerous other worthies 
in both Europe and America, still it is 
clear that one of the best substances to 
enrich the land and increase the crop — 
one upon which every farmer may rely 
with unwavering safety, is barn-yard 
manure. As a farmer, here lies his pearl 
of great price — here his mine of gold. 
Nor does he need another Solomon to in- 
struct him how to use it. All that is 
needed is care and effort to accumulate 
it, discretion in j^reserving it, a liberal 
hand and common sense to spread it on 
his fields. 

Twenty-five head of cattle will, in this 
climate, with proper care, make one hun- 
dred cords of manure during the fodder- 
ing season. This, spread on eight acres, 
■will cause each acre to yield fifty bushels 
of corn — that is, on land which, without 
manure, would not produce more than 
twenty or twenty-five bushels to the 
acre. Thus there would be a clear gain 
of two hundred bushels of corn the first 
year, with no additional expense, only 
that of putting the manure on the land. 
The second year, the same manure would 
equally benefit a wheat crop or some 
other grain. Nor would the manure 
then be exhausted. The land would be 
in a good condition for grass or clover. 
Where corn is worth 50 cents the bush- 



el, the farmer may, with safety, estimate 
,each cord of his barn-yard manure worth 
to him at least two dollars in cash, be- 
sides keeping his farm in a productive 
state. The farmer who saves his ma- 
nure with care and and applies it with 
common sense, will steer his course with 
safety, and not be lost on a barren waste. 
But neglect manure, and no part of the 
world can coutinue fertile under the ex- 
hausting process of agriculture. If, with- 
out manui'e, the father obtains good 
crops, he will surely leave desolation and 
poverty to his sons. Here is a case 
■where the iniquity of the fathers is ■vdsit- 
ed upon the children. 

It then becomes a matter of no small 
interest to inquire what are some of the 
means well adapted to accumulate and 
preserve manure. The farmer should 
stable all his cattle during the foddeiing 
season. His stables should all be pre- 
pared with tanks or vats under them, 
to receive all the liquid secretions from 
his cattle. Into these vats should be 
thrown, is the fall, a quantity of some 
suitable substance to absorb and' retain 
the liquids. This putting into the vats 
some absorbent should be repeated- two 
or more times during the winter. He 
should also have a good yard connected 
with his stables, in which liis cattle may 
run in the day-time, when out of the 
stables. His yard should be covered to 
the depth of six inches or more, in the 
fall with swamp-muck, with leaves from 
the forest, with any turf from the high- 
way or from his headlands. By lying in 
his yard during the winter, and being 
mixed with the droppings of his cattle, 
any of these substances will be as good 
in the spring as common barn-yard ma- 
nure. All the coarse remains of the fod- 
der, which the stock refuse to eat, should 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



be thrown into the tanks under the sta- 
bles ; the manure from the stables should 
be thrown into heaps, and sheltered from 
tie rains and snows, to preserve it from 
leaching ; all the weeds on the farm, of 
every kind, should be collected while 
green, and piled in the yard for 
manure. The farmer's hogs should be 
kept at work making manure. Their 
pen should be so constructed that there 
will be a hog-laboratory in one part of 
it. In this apartment should often be 
placed swamp-muck, turf, or straw, all 
of which the hogs will manufacture into 
first-rate manure during the season. — 
They will work diligently if occasionally 
encouraged with a little corn and other 
grain sprinkled over their task, and pro- 
vided they have a clean, dry place to 
which they can retire for rest after hard 
fatigue. Each hog will produce at least 
one cord of manure in the course of the 
summer. The privy, also, should be 
constructed with a bin or portable box 
under the seat, with handles, so that two 
men can remove it, as occasion may re- 
quire, and empty it on the manure heap. 
This box should be supplied with some 
absorbent material, and often be the re- 
cipient of a liberal supply of gypsum- 
Every animal that pertains to to the far- 
mer should assist in accumulating ma- 
nure — the family, cattle, hogs and all. 
A well-regulated method of doing this 
will essentially contribute to the comfort 
and health of all, as well as to secure 
the thrift of the farmer. 

In the spring, every place that contains 
manure should be cleared of its contents 
for the benefit of the field. Farmers, 
who cautiously secure all the manure 
they can, use it discreetly, and exercise 
becoming economy, with the ordinary 
^lessinga of Him who rewards the dili- 



gent hand, will soon be able to live in 
palaces, become money-lenders, and en- 
joy the appellation of the nobility of 
America — not made noblemen by the 
ever-wavering breath of monarchy, but 
constituted ike nobility by their skill 
with the plough and their success in pro- 
ducing bread for the hungry. 



How to Use Guano. 

Guano comes in bags, ?.nd usually 
contains many lumps which require to 
be crushed into a powder, before the 
manure is applied to the soil. The 
lumps are commonly separated from 
the mass by a riddle or seive, as lumps 
and pebbles are separated Irom sand 
in making mortar ; or as grain is some- 
times sifted by hand. The ammoniacal 
dust that flies off in this operation is 
pretty severe on the lungs and eyes of 
the operator, and is avoided by mois- 
tening the guano ten or twelve hotirs 
or a day before the sifting begins. — 
The dampness should be barely suffi- 
cient to keep the dust from being dif- 
fused through the atmosphere. The 
lumps sifted or riddled out, may be 
moistened a Utile more, and crushed as 
in making mortar, with the back of a 
hoe, or shovel, on a plank floor, or 
smooth hard ground. 

For corn, it will probably pay better 
to put the manure m the hill or drill, 
than to scatter it broadcast over the 
ground. After the field is ready for 
planting, let hands take guano in buck- 
ets on their arms, aid with the two fore 
or first fingers and thumb of each, take 
out a good pinch of the snuff and drop 
it where the corn is to be dropped, 
spreading the guano, and covering it 
with a little earth by using the foot for 
that purpose. The track of the ma- 
nure-dropper tells the corn-dropper 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



3^ 



where the seed should be placed ; while 
the earth between the guano and corn 
prevents the causticity of the former 
doing injury lo the germ of the latter, 
which, when it begins to grow, U ten- 
der, and easily killed. 

The above hints apply to the use of 
guano in cotton culture, not less than 
to the planting of corn. But as coUon 
seed are usually scattered liberally in 
drills or rows, one way only, we should 
not hesitate to scatter in the same fur- 
row, or marking, guano equal to 200 
or 300 pounds per acre, and cover both 
seed and manure at one operation. A 
few seeds might be damaged or killed 
by the manure, but enough and more 
than enough, would grow. No injury 
bas ever resulted from sowing guano 
and wheat together, and the covering 
both with a harrow or plow. 

It is only the soluble salts in guano 
that can injure any seed; and before 
the germ starts out, the salts, being at 
once dissolved by the damp earth, be- 
come soj diffused and diluted, that no 
injury can be done to the young plant. 
If the soil IS dry where the guano is 
placed, the result might be diiferent. — 
In dry summers, this hot, caustic fer- 
tilizer does more hurt than good. In 
the Patent Office Report for 1851, the 
reader will find a great deal of informa- 
tion on this and many other important 
subject?, showing the best practices in 
farm economy. On page 252, Mr 
Zook, of Pennsylvania, gives an ac- 
count of sowing broadcast 2000 lbs of 
gunno and 1000 of gypsum on a poor 
field, badly worn by 70 years cropping, 
containing 15 acres. The manure was 
sown immediately after the corn was 
planted, and the ground harrowed 
when the corn was two or three inches 
high. The cultivator was afterwards 



run between the rows. The yield was 
Jifly bushels per acre. This crop was 
made in 1848. In 1849 the field was 
sown to oats, and turned out over 4u 
bushels per acre. Mr. Zook estimates 
the gain from the guano and plaster at 
300 per cent. : cost per acre, $4 50. — 
Mr. Mumma, of the same State, speaks 
highly of plaster used on corn, and com- 
mends the free use of lime. Of the 
latter he says : "So powerful is its ef- 
fect on poor soil, if properly applied, 
that on many farms in this county 
where it has been used, the value pf the 
land has been increased 200 per cent, 
with less than one hundred bushels per 
acre." Mr. Houston, of Delaware, ap- 
plied 300 lbs. of guano per acre, to 70 
acres of wheat, in 1851. He prefers 
plowing it in six inches deep. He says 
that lime pays better than guano, ta- 
king ten years together. Hut he gets 
lime cheap, and guano is expensive 
everywhere. 

His large experience induces him to 
say that 100 lbs, of this manure will 
give ten bushels of corn on poor land. 
iVlr. Wright, a very successful farmer 
of Delaware, says that guano is too high 
for profit to the cultivator. Mr. Walsh 
says : "Guano is also used on our corn 
crop, but not to the same extent as to 
wheat. It is applied, generally, to the 
land previous to its being flushed.— 
Sometimes after planting the land, it 
is sown upon the furrow, and then har- 
rowed in, either way. It adds materi- 
ally to the gain of the crop ; increasing 
it I should think, when 300 pounds are 
used, at least two-fold." 

Mr. Charles Yancey, of Buckingham 
county, Va., says : "In the fall of 1850 
I purchased ten tons of guano, plowed 
it under, as belore stated, (ihree inches 
deep,) using about 200 pounds jer acre. 



40 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



and seeded wheat, leaving occasional 
beds not guanoed. Veiil}', ihe eye said 
the guanoed wheat would yield dou- 
ble." 

We thmk favorably of the following 
practice of Mr. Young, although Irom 
the drouth last year, it ii was neatly a 
failure; "The ground when prepared, 
was checked in squares three feet, four 
inches ; a table-spoonful of guano was 
scattered upon the check ; the hilling 
closed up to prevent the escape of the 
ammonia ; the hills were cut off four 
inches above and planted in May. The 
drought prevented the plants taking 
root, or bringing the guano into solu- 
tion. There was no growth whatever 
until the 27th July, when we had rain ; 
ihe growth was then in a week won- 
derful ; the plants attained a fine size 
A second drought occurred in Septem- 
ber and October, which protracted the 
ripening, and the plants faded and as- 
sumed a yellow hue." Mr, Yancey re- 
gards guano as a powerful stimulant, 
but too espensive for general use. Our 
notion is that one may use guano to 
make a crop of corn at a profit, if he 
will make the corn pay a fair price in 
meat, and yield as much good manure 
for producing a second crop of corn aiid 
meat, as the equivalent of the guano. 
In other words, this costly commercial 
manure cannot be profitably purchased 
to grow corn for commercial purposes ; 
but for home consumption, where all 
the elements of the seeds, cobs, blades 
and stalks may be saved as manure — 
the equivalent of the guano, and more 
too — this dung of sea-birds may be 
brought to increase one's corn, cotton 
seed and lint. D. Lee. 



If you wish health, take exercise. 



Agricultural Products of the United 

States. 

The official report of the Superinten- 
dent of the Census is a most valuable 
document. Its facts and suggi^stions 
embody an immense mass of inf )rma- 
tion concerning the present condition 
of our Republic. From it we gather 
that the number of acres of improved 
land in the U. States is 118,457.622; 
and of unimproved lands iu farms 
184,621,348. The cash value of tha 
whole improved and unimproved, is 
$3,270,713,093. The average value of 
land per acre in Massachusetts, Rhode 
Island, Connecticut, and New York, is 
about $30. In most of the Southern 
States, the average value is estimated 
to be below $5 per acre. In Texas 
the valuation is $1,00. 

The supply of domestic animals con- 
tinues rapidly and steadily to increase. 
The increase of horses, mules and asses, 
from 1840 to 1850, was 559,053. New 
York has one horse to seven persons ; 
Ohio one to four, and Kentucky one to 
three free inhabitants. The aggregate 
number of neat cattle in 1850, was 
18,355,287 — being an increase of about 
20 per cent, in ten years. The aver- 
age product, of butter is 49 lbs. to each 
milch cow; of cheese, 17 lbs. We ex- 
port annually about a miliion and a 
quarter dollars worth of dairy products. 
Of sheep there was an increase be, 
tween 1840 and 1850, of 2,309,108; 
although the number has increased 45 
per cent, in New England, and 22 12 
per cent, in the Atlantic Middle States, 
In 1840 the average annual yield of 
wool was about two lbs. per sheep, and 
in 1850 it had increased to 2 1-2 lbs. 
This improvement, with an increase 
of 12 per cent, in the number of sheep, 
gives an increase of 46 per cent, in the 



THE FAR!JER'S JOURNAL. 



41 



quantity of wool. Yet, notwithstand- 
ing the amount of home productions, a 
large quantity of wool is annually im- 
ported into our country. The amount 
imported in 1850 eLjualled lS,669,7y4 
lbs. — valued at 81,631,691. 

Of wheat, there was a gain during 
the ten years ot 15,675,348 bushels. — 
The c«op of ISTew England, however, 
has considerably declined — indicating 
that farmers are withdrawing thuir at- 
tention from the culture of wheal. I'he 
greatest increase has been in the Slates 
of Indiana, Ilhnois, Michigan and Wis- 
consin. 

Of Indian cam, the increase of pro. 
duciion trom 1340 to 1850 was more 
than two hundred millions bushels — 
equal to 56 per cent. Ohio ranks first 
in the Union as a corn producing 
State. 

The rice crop of the United States 
in 1840 amounted" to 80.841,422 lbs.; 
in 1S5U it was 2 lf,3 15,720 lbs.— show- 
ing a remarkable increase. 

The amount of tobacco raised in 
1840 was 219,163,319 lbs.; in 1850 it 
was 199,752.646 — a diminution of a- 
bout ten per cent. 

Of cotton, the producfion continues 
largely to increase. The product in 
1850-1 amounted to 937,449,600 lbs. 
The earliest record of exporting cotton 
to Europe is in the table of exports 
from Charleston in 1749, when seven 
bags were shipped. In 1850 the amount 
<?.xported was 927,237,089 lbs. There 
ha? been a rapid falling off in the cul- 
ture of cotton in Virginia, North Caro- 
lina and Louisiana. Alabama occupies 
the first place as a cotton growing State 

and has almost doubled its production 
since 1840. 

The barley raised in the U. States 
in 1850 amounted to more than five 



million bushels ; of this, nearly four 
millions were consumed in the manu- 
facture of malt and spirituous liquor?. 

Of potatoes, the amount produced in 
1850 was 104,055,989 bushels, being a 
falling off of about four million bush- 
els since 1840. This decrease is pro- 
bably occasioned by the effiicts and 
fears of the potato rot ; but this disease 
seems now to be passing away, and 
the culture of the root is consequently 
reviving. * 

The quantity of ale and spirituous li- 
quois produced in the United States in 
1850 e.\"cceded the enormous amount of 
86,000.000 gallons, and as our imports 
and exports just about balance each 
other, this would give a consumption 
equal to six gallons a bead for every 
person old enough to drink them. The 
hop culture, which is mostly confined 
to the State of N. ^ork, has increased 
nearly to two hundred per Gent. The 
breweries of New York produced in 
1850, 645,000 barrels of ale, being more 
than a third of the quantity returned 
from the Union. 

Of flax and hemp, the production 
has not materially varied since 1840. 

The culture of silk is rapidly passing 
away from our country. In 1831 no 
less than 396, 790 pounds of cocoons 
were tiroduced ; in 1840, only 61,252 
lbs. ; and in 1850 but 14,763 lbs. 

Our sugar culture is extending. — 
Our pioductio:i, maple and cane to- 
gether, in 1840 was 155,100,809 lb?.; in 
1850 it was 28 1,830,886 lbs ; showing 
an increase (mainly in Louisiana and 
Texas) of 126 730.077 lbs. The sugar 
culture has now obtained command of 
the most admirable and efficient ma- 
ch.inery, and is steadily working fur- 
ther and further northward, through 
the gradual acclimation of the cane, 
and can never more be broken down. 



42 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



From the Southern Cultirator. 
Good Rules for Fanners. 

We lake the following rules from a 
valuable exchange, and most heartily 
do we recommend them to cur readers. 
They should be printed on neal cards, 
and hung above the mantel piece of 
farmers, where they would continually 
admonish and interest. System, and 
more strict the better, is the secret of 
success in all business. These rules 
furnish a brief but complete system ; 
let them be pursued, and the result 
will not fail to justify the claim we 
urge for them. 

1. Good implements of husbandry, 
and plenty of them, which should al- 
ways be kept m perfect order. 

2. Deep plowing and thorough pul- 
verization of the soil by the fiee use of 
the harrow, drag, or roller. 

3. An application of liiiie, marl^ or 
ashes^ where calcareous matter or pot- 
ash :«ay not be present m the soil. 

4. A systematic husbanding of every 
substance on a farm capable of being 
converted into manure; a systematic 
protection of such subs'ances from loss, 
evaporation, or waste of any kind, and 
a careful application of the same to the 
lands in culture. 

5. The draining of all wet lands, so 
as to relieve the roots of the plants 
from the ill effects of the superabun- 
dance of water — a condition equally 
pernicious as drouth to their healthful 
growth and profitable fructification. 

6. The free use of the plow, cultiva- 
tor and hoe, wiih all row-cultured crops, 
so as to keep down, at all limes, the 
growth of grass and weeds — those pests 
which prove so destructive to crops. 

7. Seeding at the proper time with 
good seed, and an equal attention as to 
time with regard to the period of work- 



ing crops, 

8. A'tcntion to the construction and 
repair of fences, so thai what is rcade 
through the toils and anxious cares of 
the husbandman, may not be lost 
through his neglect to protect his crops 
from the depredations of stock. 

9. Daily personal superintendence 
on the part of the master, over all the 
operations of the farm — no matter how 
good a manager he may have, or how- 
ever faithful his hands may be — as the 
presence of the head of a farm, and the 
use of his eyes, are worth several pans 
of hands. 

10. Labor-saving machinery, so that 
one may render himself as independent 
as needful of neighboihood labor, as a 
sense of the comparative independence 
of the employer upon such labor begets 
a disposition of obedience and faittful- 
ness on the part of the employed. 

11. Comfortable stabling and sheds^ 
for the horses and stock ; ail necessary 
outbuildings, for the accommodation of 
the hands and protection of the tools 
and implements, as well as for the care 
of the poultry. 

12. Clover, and other grasses, to 
form a part of the rotation of crops, 
and these to be at the proper periods 
plowed ir, to form pabalum for succeed- 
ing crops. 

13. The clover field to be either plas- 
tered or ashed each succeeding spring, 
one bushel of the former and six of the 
latter per acre. 

14. To keep no more stock than can 
be well kept ; but to be sure to kcp as 
many as the farm can keep in good con- 
dition, as it is wise policy to feed as 
much hs jjossible of the crops grown on 
the farm, and thus return to it thai 
which has been abstracted from it. 

15. To provide a good 0J'c/jor<£ and 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



43 



garden— the one to be filled with 
choice fruits of all kinds, the other with 
vegetables of different sorts, early and 
late — 30 that the table may at all times 
be well and seasonably supplied, and 
the surplus contribute to increase the 
wealth of the proprietor. 



Improvement of Roads. 

Nothing adds more to the beauty of 
a landscape or rural scenery, and noth- 
ing is a surer indication of the enter- 
prize and prosperity of its inhabitants, 
than to see handsome, straight, and well 
constructed loads, well fenced with 
boards, hedge, or wire, and skirted with 
ornamental or useful trees. 

Many persons pursue a very slovenly 
practice of t'uowing along the road- 
side stones, old slumps (ir orchard brush, 
which they take from their fields, thus 
obstructing the way so that two teams 
can barely pass, and the pedestrian who 
is compelled by necessity to use the 
only means of locomotion which nature 
lias provided, or the individu^il who 
chooses to avail himself of the health 
ful and invigorating exercise of walk- 
ing a few miles, is obliged in many in- 
stances to plod through the mud up to 
his ankles or betake himself to the 
neighboring fields. 

Another great source of annoyance 
is the practice of letting their long- 
snouted quadrupeds run at large, with, 
out rings in their noses, who root up the 
ground along the fences, leaving them 
rough and unsightly, and causing Ca- 
nada thistles and other noxious weeds 
to spring up in place of the beautiful 
grass-sward which has been upturned 
by these voracious grunters. 

1 would here remark, that I have en- 
tirely eradicated several patches of Ca- 
nada thistles along the road-sidej bv cut- 



ting off every plant even with the sur- 
face of the ground as often as they made 
their appearance, as I passed to and 
from my daily avocation. 

An error is committed in many of 
our path masters in working the roads 
loo wide, which necessarily renders 
them fiat, thus causing the water to 
stand on the surface, when the tread o^ 
animals and the wheels of carriages 
soon make ihem very muddy. They 
plow clo'je up to the fences on each 
side, leaving no chance for a foot pas- 
senger to get along. A good side-walk 
should be left on each side, at least six 
feet wide. The width of the road from 
the deepest part of the ditches may be 
32 feet, and the two side-walks six feet 
each ; making in all 44 feet clear of the 
fences, or about two and a half rods, 
which is enough for any road except 
some great thoroughfare. Trees may 
be planted along the roadside; especial- 
ly on the south side of an east and west 
road, as their shadows will be cast into 
the road, and will do little or no injury 
to the growing crops. The trees may 
be cut away as soon as they attain a 
size sufficiently large for fence posts, 
and their places supplied by setting out 
new ones in the intermediate spaces? 
or by letting a shoot grow up from the 
old stump to form a new tree. New 
trees may be set in the spaces some 
years before cutting the old ones, In 
this way the farmer can furnish him- 
self with considerable timber and fuel 
with little expense, beside adding 
beauty to his farm and surrounding 
scenery. If all the road work were 
faithfully and judiciously laid out, we 
should soon see a decided improvement 
in our roads ; and especially as the 
practice of building plank roads bas be- 
come so coraraonj which throws more 



44 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



labor on the cross roads, 

I would agaia cull the altention of 

your readers to the law which requiies 

the path master in each road di^trictj 

the superintendents of canals, and the 

corporations of railroads, turnpikes, and 

plank roads, to cause Canada thistle^ 

and other noxious weeds lo be cut at 

least twice a year — once between the 

15th of /une and the 1st of July, and 

once between the 15th of August and 

the first of September in each year. 

Jason Smith. 
Tyre, K Y. 



From the London Farmer's Herald; 
On Liquid Manure in Farm Yards, 

Economy in superintendence of every 
profession and trade is absolutely es- 
sential to secure success and a compen- 
sation for labor and t'dl. We have 
frequentlv invited altention to this im- 
portant branch of agricultural progres- 
sion ; but we believe it is still necessary 
that we should occi'.sionaily allude to 
the subject, for we regret to acknowl- 
edge that in the neighborhood of large 
populated districts and towns there 
is a great waste of valuable feitilizing 
matter, by permitting liquid manure lo 
escape from the farm-steads, and pour 
its offensive ami contagious streams into 
the brooks and rivers in iis adjacent vi- 
cinities ; which, if collected in tank's 
and applied to the lands, suogested in 
the following extrai.'fc, might be the 
menns of producing large crops, and 
amply compensating the cultivaiion for 
the extru outlay. 

■ '-There is a distillery in the west of 
Scotland, where it has been found con- 
venient to establish a dairy upon a large 
scale, for the purpose of consuming the 
refuse of the grain. Seven hundred 
cows are kept there; and a profitable 



market is found for their milk in the 
city of Glasgow. That the refuse of 
the cow-houses might be applied to a 
profitable purpose, a large farm was 
added to the concern, though of such 
land as an amateur agriculturist would 
have never selected fur his cxpevimen'.s. 
Thus there was a complete system of 
economy at this distillery ; a dairy to 
convert their draff mto milk, and a 
farm to insure that the soil from the 
cows might be used upon the spot. — 
But, as is so generally seen in thi» 
country, the liquid pai t of the refuse 
from the cow-houses was ncglecied. It 
was allowed to run into a neighboring 
canal; and the proprietors would 
bavebeen contented to see it so dis- 
disposed of forever, if that could have 
been permitted. It was found, how- 
ever, to be a nuisance, the very fishes 
being pouoned by it. The prnprietors 
of the can;.! threatened an action for 
the protection of their property, and 
and ihe conductors of the dairy were 
forced lo bethink iheu) of some plan by 
which they should be enabled to dis- 
pose of the ficsious matter without in- 
jury to their iieighbo:s. 'J'hey could 
at first hit upon no other than that of 
carting away the liquid to the field?, 
and there spreading it out as manure. 
No doubt they expected some benefit 
from ihe procedure; and, had they ex* 
pected much, they might have never 
given the canal company any trouble. 
But the fact is, they expected so little 
benefit, that they would never have 
willingly taken the trouble of employ- 
ing their carts for any such purpose. — 
To their surprise, the benefit w^s such 
as to make their Icc.n land superior iri 
productiveness to any in the countryj 
They were speedily encourged to make 
arrangements at some expense for al 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



45 



owing the manure in a diluted form 
to flow by a regular system of irriga- 
tion over the fields. The original pro- 
duction has thus been increased four- 
fold. The company, finding no other 
manure necessary, now disposed of the 
solid kind arising from the dairy, a- 
mong the neighboring farmers, who 
stili follow the old arrangements in the 
management of cows. The sum of 
£600 is thus yearly gained by the com- 
pany, being not much less than the 
rent of the farm. If to this we add 
the value of the extra produce arising 
from the land, we shall have some idea 
of the advantage derived by this cora- 
pany from having been put under a lit- 
tle compuliioii " 

It gave us pleasure when we were 
informed that at least some of our 
readers had adopted the plan of econo- 
mizing their licjuid manure by husband- 
ing it in pits and tanks, and that its 
beneficial effects had been visible on 
•their farms in the luxuriant appearance 
-of iheir fields; however, there still re- 
miin several farmers who cling to old 
habits and practices, and allow it to 
waste and become a nuisanco, and in 
some instances, the cause of contagious 
diseases. While agriculturists are ex- 
pending large sums of money in ob- 
taining artificial and. other manures, 
and not using up the refuse which may 
be collected on their own farms, we are 
not surprised, when they exclaim "that 
f^irming will not pay"-^neither would 
any other branch of industry prosper 
if conducted on the same principles. 

We gave the following directions t'or 
:inaking a liquid-manure tank: Com- 
mence at a point of the yard 'where 
the draining can be m.ade to run most 
eonveniently, and dig a circular pit 12 



feet in diameter, and 10 feet deep. If 
the earth is of a firm, compact charac- 
ter, it will need no brick, but may be 
plastered directly upon the sides of tho 
excavation, with hydraulic cement 
mortar. Where the earth is not suffi- 
ciently compact for that purpose, lay a 
bottom and sides of brick-work eight 
inches thick, with common morter, and 
plaster the cement upon that. It should 
be plastered with two or three coats. — 
Lay a flat stone upon one side of the 
bottom, in the second coat of plaster, 
for a foundation for a pump. Make the 
covering of solid timber, or thick plank. 
In strong clay ground a pit may be 
used many years without walling or 
plastering, by removing the loose earth 
around the top, and placing covering 
below the action of frost. 

Very good tanks have also been made 
by puddling. This is the process; — 
Spread over the bottom of the escava^ 
tion a coat of clay mortar a foot thick ; 
then place a curb, strorgly braced, in- 
side, with the lower end resting m the 
mortaf at the bottom, and the other 
even with the surface of the ground. 
This curb should be about 18 inches 
less in diameter than the pit. Now fill 
the space outside the curb with well- 
worked, stiff, clay mortar, in which 
coarse sand, equal to one-half the bulk 
of clay is mixed. As you fill in, see 
that it is compactly rammed down. — 
You may let it dry, and remove the 
curb, or use it at once with the curb 
standing. 

Every stable should have a tank, in- 
to which the urine may be conducted. 
This could be either used in the liquid 
state, or absorbed by coal dust, peat 
earth, or dry loam and plaster. Never 
put ashes or lime in the tank. 



46 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



Diseases of Cows and Horses — A 
Valuable Receipt. 

Permit nie to tender my grateful ac- 
knowledgements to Mr. Lewis Sanders, 
for the information communicated ,by 
liim in your llth. number, in compliance 
with my request to the public on the 
1 2th November. I do with pleasure say 
to Mr. Sanders I am well pleased with 
the remedy he recommended; and on 
reading it I determined to try it; but on 
examining the cow, I found her nearly 
well. And as the cure is one of such a 
character that I think the public ought 
to know it, I conclude to make it known, 
and that it may be understood, I .vill de- 
scribe it. I purchased the cow at Capt. 
Sutton's sale. She had been foundered 
and walked badly, and seemed to be 
short-Avinded. It was thought to pro- 
ceed from the tenderness of her feet; but 
on a close examination I found a lump 
of hard flesh growing under the wind 
pipe, mid way between the jaw and the 
breast, about the size of a hulled walnut, 
tliatit could be moved about one inch up 
or down. This lump grew so as to clear- 
ly interrupt her easy breathing-. I con- 
sulted physicians about it, who called it 
a wen and thought it might be cut out 
with safety. It gi-ew to be larger than 
a man's fist. In June I found the glands 
of her neck had enlarged. They contin- 
ued to grow, as did the wen. Having 
used a mixture, in many cases of tumors 
on horses, I determined to trj^ its virtues 
on the cow, and commenced the use of it 
in October; and at the time I wrote, say 
the '12th of November, I feared it would 
fail to effect a cure, but to day I find the 
wen soft and under half the size it was 
when I commenced using the mixture, 
and the glands soft and greatly reduced, 
and her breathing is much improved. — 



I will now state my treatment and the 
ingredients of the mixture. 

Spirits of Turpentine, - 2 parts. 

Oil of Spike, - - - 1 part. 

Barbadoes Tar, - - 1 part. 
Mixed in bottle — shake at every using. 
Y/et the parts and nib it in well. I 
have had the cow rubbed with it three 
times a week, since about the first of No- 
vember, and kept her housed at night, 
and not permitted to be in the rain at 
any time. She was from home in Octo- 
ber, and was rubbed but twice a week 
while absent. And novi^ I say to the 
public that this is a valuable mixture. I 
have cured the big-head in the horse 
ring-bone, fistula, swinny, and many 
hard tumors, such as naval galls. For 
all these diseases, I rub it a great deal 
and heat it with a hot iron. — FrayJdin 
Farmer. 



Poultry Manure. 

This is the most valuable of the farm 
manures, and is entitled to great care in 
its collection and use. Beyond the a- 
mount of water it contains, it is as valu- 
able as guano, and therefore should never 
be sold by practical farmers to moroccc» 
dressers, at 25 cents per bushel. The- 
poultry-house should be underlaid with 
charcoal dust, when it can be procured- 
so as to receive the hen manure as fast 
as made. The surface of this charcoal- 
dust should occasionally be raked or re- 
moved off to one corner, with a portion 
of the dung. This may be continued 
until the manure is required for ust-. 
when it should be thoroughly mixed 
with ten times its bulk of soil before be- 
ing applied to ci-ops. Where charcoal- 
dust cannot be procured, well decom- 
posed swamp-muck, plaster of paris, or 
even aluminous clay, may be frequently 



\ 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL 



4t 



•■iusted. over the floor of the poultry- 
liouse to be mixed with this manure. — 
The object of all this is to receive and 
retain the ammonia, so as to prevent its 
liberation from injuring the health of 
the inmates of the poultry-house. All 
animals, man included, suffer from brea- 
thing the effluvia arising from their ex- 
€retia, and this is particularly true of the 
leathered tribes. Their natural habits 
in the wild state cause them to pass 
through the upper strata of the atmos- 
phere, and with such velocity as to rea- 
dily rid themselves of the noxious gases 
given off the surface of their bodies, and 
to be entirely beyond any deleterious in- 
fluence from the fumes of their excretia. 
We should, therefore, in the poultry- 
houses, make such arrangements as to 
prevent the poultry from inhaling these 
deleterious gases. 



form a part of the vegetable structure 
of most plants, and hence the inference 
is, that it is indispensable to their 
healthful existence. Lime, too, is said 
to possess the power of electricity ; if 
such be the case, it must act as a stim- 
ulus, and like other stimulants, if not 
used to excess, may exert a highly 
friendly influence upon the constitutions 
of plants. These are but a few of the 
properties assigned to lime, and experi- 
ence teaches all sensible agriculturists, 
that whenever judiciously applied to 
lands needing it, it has produced the 
most meliorating effects; that lands, 
chiefly through its means, aided by 
grass and clover culture, which were 
worn out, have been brought to a state 
of fertility ; — seeing these things, it is 
no longer a matter of surprise that li- 
ming and marling, which is virtually 
the same thing, has become the fashion., 
and as fashion gives tone to public and 
As to the question, of how lirae acts? I P'"''^^^ sentiment, no one can longer 
there is some diversity of opinion,— but : '^°"^'' '^''*' ^" ^ ^^^ y^*''^ ™°'"6' ^^^^ 
there seems to be a concurrence of sen-; °^ ^^^ «^'^ ^^^^^^ ^''^^'^ "°'^ ^° S^^^^ 
dment among scientific men, as to eer- : "P"" ^^^ feelings of the patriot, will be 
tam offices which it performs, and these «o^'ered with luxuriant crops. But we 



Action of Lime. 



are borne out by the observation of 
practical farmers. Among the offices 
aaid to be performed by iime and marl, 
are these : When applied in full quan- 
tity upon stiff clays, it serves to disin- 
tegrate the particles of clay and light- 
ens the texture of the soils, while on 
sands, it tends to give tenacity to them, 
it dissolves hard, inert fibrous substan- 
ces in the soil, and prepares thrm to be- 
come the food of plants. It neutral- 
izes the acids of the soil, unites with 
them, and ultimately deals them out as 
the food of plants, thus rendering nox- 
ious bodies iribuiary to their healthful 
gf owth. Lime is found, by analysis, lo 



wish our agricultural readers to bear 
these truths in mind, that without one- 
fourth or one-fifth of the arable land be 
kept in clover and grass, no progressive 
or permanent improvement can be ef- 
fected, — that though exhausted lands 
require lime, yet :hey require animal 
and vegetable manures also. — that no 
system of culture can be either intelli- 
gent or profitable, that does not com- 
bine the culture of clover and the grass- 
es in it? elements, — that it is useless to 
lime or marl wet lands before they are 
drained, and that, when drained, deep 
and exact ploughing, and thorough, 
pulverization, aie indispensable to full 
and perfect success; 



48 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



FARMER'S JOURNAL. 

BATH. IS. C, MAY, 1853. 



Oup First Volume Complete. 

In order to supply the increasing de- 
mand for the first volume of the " Jour- 
nal," we shall be under the necessity of 
re-printing the April number, 1852, 
which -will be ready for delivery by the 
first of June. 



Meeting of tlie State Agricultural 
Society. 

Tliere will be a called meeting of the 
State Agricultural Society on the 25th 
May, in Raleigh. All county agricultu- 
ral societies ai-e earnestly requested to 
send at least ten delegates, as there will 
be business of importance before the So- 
ciety at that time. Dr. J. F. Tompkins 
will deliver an address before the Soci- 
ety on the same evening, in relation to 
the importance of the holding of an An- 
nual Fair on the ] 8th of October next. 

By order of the President. 

JAMES F. TAYLOR, 

Secretary. 



' We lay before our readers the 
proceedings -of the annual meeting of the 
Beaufort County Agricultural Society. — 
It will be seen that steps are being taken 
to have an exhibition of the products of 
the county this fall ; and they will suc- 
ceed, for the farmers of that county are 
beginning to learn the real value of theii' 
lands, and to seethe importance of inter- 
changing ideas and opinions in relation 
to' those subjects which require their con- 
sideration. We hope every county so- 
ciety in the State will have an exhibition 
this fall, and after the ball is once start- 
ed there will be no stoj)|)ing it. 



The Silver Cup. 

It will be recollected by our reader* 
that we offered in our last niunber of 
Vol. 1st, a silver cup, worth $30, to 
any person Avho would procure the larg- 
est number of subscribers to Vol. 2d of 
the "Journal" by the 5th of April. The 
cup will be awarded to J. T. Laurence, 
of Halifax, Co., who sent us 56 subscri- 
bers, and the "needful" with them. We 
must also mention here that we had ap- 
phcation from J. W. Speed, Esq,, of 
Halifax Co. for 20 copies of our paper, 
all of which were to be directed to his 
address. This, we think, is a bright ex- 
ample set before other wealthy men of 
the State, which we hope to see generally 
followed. We find that the only difii- 
culty in increasing our list is getting men 
to begin, — after this they find that our 
paper is indispensible, and they are sure 
to renew their subscription. 



Our Travelling- Agent. 

Samuel V/. Lucas is our only travel- 
lino- ao^ent at this time. He will in the 
next three months visit the counties of 
Edgecombe, Nash, Halifex, Northamp- 
ton, Hertford, Chowan, Gates, Perqui- 
mans, Pasquotank, Camden and Curri- 
tuck. The friends of the "Journal" will 
confer a favor uj^on us by extending to 
Mr. Lucas any aid possible in the prose- 
cution of the difiicult task he has under- 
taken. 



^^We have published in this num- 
ber of our paper two letters entire, one 
from Dr. J. J. Phillips, of Edgecombej 
and one from J. D. Jones of New Hano- 
ver, both of which we take the privilege 
of making public without the consent of 
the authors, but we shall make out, we 
think, a very fair case for ourself, in jus- 
tification of our course. The letter writ- 



THE FARMER'S JOU 






ten by Dr. Phillips, it is true, was only in 
answer to a request on tlie part of a 
county society to deliver an address, and 
of course he did not give to it that 
thought which he would have done had 
he been sure it would have ever appear- 
ed in print. So far as it goes it is able 
indeed, and the society before whom it 
was read requested its publication. For 
ourself we should be pleased to hear or 
see the subject upon which he touches in 
this letter extensively treated upon by 
the Doctor, — indeed it is due to our pa- 
per from him. The other letter, besides 
some extracts which we publish trom 
others, show in what liglit our humble 
efforts in behalf of agriculture are appre- 
ciated by those wlio are competent judges. 
But we take this opportunitj' to say, that 
in six mouths more we shall have a fair 
chance, and then v/e are determined to 
put the Journal in the front rank. 



An Agricultural School at Bath, 
N. C. 

"VYe have had in contemplation for 
some time past, the establishment of an 
agricultural school at Bath, near which 
place we reside. "We have given this 
matter careful consideration and have 
submitted it to such men as we knew to 
be very competent to judge, and their 
opinions have coincided with ours, that 
such schools are very much needed in 
various parts of our State. The idea 
that it is not requisite for the farmer to 
be an educated man, is being fast aban- 
doned, and the opinion, too, is becoming 
quite current that it is neceesary that 
the education of a youth who designs to 
makeferraiug his business, should be in- 
structed in the various branches of agri- 
culture, such as chemistry, geology, min- 
eralogy and botany. We design to have 



employed in this school one or more 
teachers, thoroughly competent tO' pre- 
pare students for any of our colleges; 
and in addition to these studies a youth 
can study the various branches of agri- 
cultural science, for which, of course, 
there will be an extra charge. We have 
a farm just without the limits of Bath, 
with a clearing of about thirty acres of 
land, which we are preparing for a pure- 
ly experimental farm, in connection with 
the school. We do not design to require 
any student to labor upon this farm, but 
only to watch the various experiments- 
while being made. We design, if no- 
thing should prevent, attending a course 
of lectures during this summer upon 
chemistry, w^hich will, we think, with 
what we already know in relation to this 
science, prepare us to enter upon our 
new duty with the full assurance that we 
can dc) much towardslaying the ground- 
work of successful farming in our State, 
as a general thing. With regtvrd to our 
location, we are sure that there canle- 
no possible objection ; it is beautifully 
situated, as it is immediately upon a 
creek of salt water a half a mile wide, 
and in full view of the Pamptico rive: » 
which at this point is five miles wide. — 
There is not a more healthy place in 
Eastern Carolina, and better water I 
never wish to drink than can be had in 
Bath. When we shall have got mat- 
ters nearer arranged, we shall give in 
our paper a full notice of the school — ■ 
though, any farmer who has a son whom 
he would like to give a year's schooling, 
would find it to his interest to apply at 
once, as our number the first year will be 
limited. We will give any information 
privately in relation to this matter when 
desired, and we shall give further notice 
soon through the Journal ; and here le^ 



50 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



K 



C 



US entreat all who may either see or hear 
of this project, not to exclaim, "It's no 
use, it can't succeed." We have in this 
instance, as we did in the beginning of 
•)ur paper, made up our inind that it 
^kall succeed. Farmers, send in the 
names of your sous as applicants for ad_ 
mission, and at the end of the first year 
we will ask you, as we shall every body 
<^>lse, to come and see what we have done 
I'or the farming interest of the old North 
State. You will instead of hearing your 
sons say thus and so is so, see them able to 
give the why and wherefore ; and this is 
the only way that a man can make a real 
practical farmer, for he must know why 
a thing is so, and what end he designs 
to accomplish by a certain course. Tliis 
school will begin on the first of next Oc- 
tober, and will continue for ten months, 
or two sessions, without any vacation, 
which we think best, in order to allow 
those students who reside in a higher 
section of the State the advantage of 
spending the months of August and Sep- 
tember at home. 



A Fact MToi'thy of Attention. 

We were informed a few days since 
by a highly i-espectable gentleman in 
Pitt County, that he made an application 
of marl alone to a field last year, which 
before that time produced twenty barrels 
of corn and two stacks of fodder ; the 
last year's crop was ninety barrels of 
<Torn and eight stacks of fodder. Still, 
in the face of such results as the above, 
we constantly hear many old fellows 
swearing that if a man were to apply 
Tuarl to their land they would thrash 
bira, or use him badly in some other 
way. But these "old chaps" are fast de- 
parting from among us ; every spring, 
if the weather be changeable, is sure to 
<.-arry off a goodly number. 



The Sweepstakes for the Best Corn 
Crop. 

We have just sent up to the Treasurer 
the sum required to entitle us to enter as 
a competitor for this prize offered by the 
State Agricultural Society. We do not 
feel very confident that we shall gain the 
prize, for the reason that Ave have not 
pursued such a course as we intended in 
the preparation of the acre designed for 
the experiment. But we must stop this, 
or some might say that we were begin- 
ning soon to make excuse for failing ; at 
any rate, if we fail this year, we shall 
not be discouraged, but will try again, 
and continue to do so until we come up. 
We have need too to fear as to the re- 
sult, for w^e have learned that Messrs. 
Dancey & Norfleet, of Edgecombe, are 
doing their "clean best;" their land is in 
fine order and well manured. This is 
our only hope, that if we, the editor of 
the only purely Agricultural paper in 
our State, should fail, that the first Presi- 
dent of our State Agi'icultural Society, 
may succeed in obtaining this honorable 
prize. 

Farmers of North Carolina, Where 
is youp State Pride T 

"Agricultural Society of Virginia. 
— This society, which has now 862 mem- 
bers, has appointed a committee to con- 
fer with the authorities of Richmond, in 
order to procure the necessary ground 
for its annual exhibition. A large num- 
ber of the members have pledged them 
selves to pay on behalf of their respee 
tive counties ^10§ each towards the ex 
penses of the exhibition, thus increasing 
the society's funds from |1,228, to ^3,- 
400." 

We lay before our readers in this Xo 
of our paper, the startling fact that at 
this time the State Agricultural Society 
of Virginia actually consists of SG2 
members, with a fund amounting 



1 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



51 



Si, 228, with a fair prospect of its in- 
creasing to $3,400 in a sliort time. — 
Wjiat will the farmers of North Carolina 
say to this ? Is it possible that they 
will hold back any longer ? Will they 
hesitate for a moment about becoming 
members of our State Agricultui-al So- 
ciety. If there is to accrue no benefit 
from such institutions, why do we see 
them springing up and prospering over 
the whole Union? But it is the al- 
mighty dollar which keeps our State So- 
ciety in its present condition. Why, we 
say, is it that when the Convention met 
in Raleigh last fall to form the Society, 
many of the members of the Legislature 
who were delegates to said Convention, 
when the Constitution was read and the 
sum of $5 named, many, we say, came 
to us and said that they did not under- 
stand it; they did not intend to be caught 
in any such a trap? But we soon un- 
leceived them by telling them that they 
were not members of the State Agricul- 
tural Society until they subscribed their 
names to the Constitution. We did this 
the more cheerfully, for the plain reason 
that we knew that they would he of no 
service to the Society if they did go in, 
but only serve to keep us back in the 
yvent race of agricultural advancement. 
We see, also, that the people of Rich- 
mond, Va., are expected to present the 
society of that State with suitable 
grounds for holding their annual Fairs- 
We should like to know whether or not 
;he good people of the city of Raleigh 
,vill treat our State Society in like man- 
lei-. We feel warranted in making the 
issertion that they would not lose any- 
hing by it, but rather make a handsome 
profit by the investment. We have been 
credibly informed that the last annual 
h\v in Maryland brought into the city 



of Baliimore the sum of $300,000 in one 
week's time. If the people of Raleigh 
will raise a fund of 2 or $3000, and 
make it a present to the State Agricultu- 
ral Society, they will next fall make u 
clear profit of 50 per cent, on the capi- 
tal invested. We really hope that a part 
of this, if not the whoh, will be raised 
at the called meeting of the Society this- 
month. We ask you, can it he wondered 
at that our young men leave their na- 
tive State, when they constantly behoL.l 
so much old " fogyism" as exists among 
us. We again entreat our readers to 
send in their names and the sum of $5 
to our worthy Treasurer, Wilson B. 
AVhitaker, Esq., at Raleigh. Let us re- 
solve upon a long pull, a strong pull, and 
a pull altogether, and we shall have in ;t 
short time 8G2 members belonging tc' 
our State Agricultural Society, with a 
fund of $3,400, and then Ave may safely 
say that our good old State has thrown 
oft" her shackles, and stands free to com- 
pete with other States of our happy Re- 
public. 



Young Men,be not Ashamed to Work. 

We were credibly informed a few 
weeks since, that one of the presiding 
Judges of the Superior courts of law in 
this State, may be frequently seen dri- 
ving his own wagon and horses out of 
town to his farm, with his plows and 
other utensils aboard. What can these ' 
silk glove gentry think of this ? Indeed, 
if they were to see the sight they would 
faint. We have for several years been 
in the habit of driving the wagon and 
plow at times, and thought it nothing 
amiss ; but when we see the most able 
men of our country look upon labor in 
this light, we shall even love it more 
than ever before. We have often re- 



^2 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



igretted that we did not have at least one 
year's schooling at the plow handles, for 
we often feel at a loss, when attempting 
to do good plowing, for the reason that 
"we did not have jM-actice in it. We re- 
collect about two years since to have vi- 
sited the farm of a wealthy planter in 
Washington comity, in this State, and 
found his three sons at work in the field, 
^nd his two daughters at work in tlie 
house. We were surprised at this sight, 
but he soon told us that he had while 
young learned to work from necessity, 
■and he never regretted it, for it enabled 
him to be a judge of a day's work, and 
lie was pursuing the same course with 
his children ; they went to school during 
the first five days of the week, and work- 
ed until 12 o'clock on Saturday. We 
would ask, is there any farmer, let his 
wealth be what it may, who can object 
to this plan ? There is no man who en- 
joys his breakfast, dinner and supper so 
much as he who earns them by the 
sweat of his brow. Young men should 
he raised to woik, and to view it in its 
proper light, even though they may not 
be compelled tohibor. There is no harm 
in learning how, for the fortunes of men 
are very variable. In one generation v*'e 
see wealth abiding with some families 
more than others, and in the next gene- 
ration tlie scale of fortune takes quite a 
,tu.rii, and the poor boy becomes possess- 
ed of the property of the rich man's son. 



The Management of Negroes. 

We have, since we began our work, 
called on several gentlemen to give us 
their views upon this subject, which they 
have, for reasons best known to them- 
selves, declined. The management of 
the farm hands is something that re- 
quires much consideration from the far- 



mer ; and a proper discipline among ne- 
groes relieves him who has the care of 
them of a great deal of unnecessary 
trouble. Many so-called farmers view 
this subject as they do every other in 
connection with their business. They 
say that they will manage their negroes 
to suit themselves, regardless of any sug- 
gestions from others. To such as these 
we do not address ourself at this time, 
for it would be like "singing psalms to a 
dead horse," to attempt to instruct such 
persons. Our experience in the manage- 
ment of servants has not been very great, 
but we have in our travels through the 
countrj^, heard the views of those who 
have had experience; and what we shall 
set forth at this time will in a measure be 
an embodiment of their views. In the 
management of negroes the farmer should 
have in view the duty of the master to- 
wards the servant, as well as that of the 
servant towards the master, and as a 
general thing, good masters make good 
servants — though to this there are excep- 
tions of course. In the first place, for 
what ]")urpose does the master hold the 
servant? Is it not that by his labor he, 
the master, may accumulate wealth ? — 
And this being the case, would not rea- 
son teach one the great propriety of a 
master's paying attention to the com- 
forts of his servant, to see that he were 
well clothed and fed, and when sick, 
that he had proper attention paid him ? 
These are things which require the mas- 
ter's attention for his own pecuniary 
benefit, for men, like animals, cannot 
work unless there is furnished them the 
necessaiy comforts which by nature they 
require. Any man who knows any thing 
about negroes can tell at first view 
whether that negro is well fed; he need 
not ask the question bat only look upon 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



53 



h\s sMn ; if it is dry and " husky," you 
may be sure that many times when he 
■sits down to his meals he is only allowed 
to go through the motion. If he pre- 
sents a sleek and greasy appearance, you 
may be assured that he holds frequent 
communion with mess pork. Besides 
the pecuniaiy benefit to be derived from 
the good feeding of negroes, there is 
another consideration which it seems to 
us should induce the master to discharge 
his duty in this respect. The responsi- 
bility of a master is, we think, great — 
his accountability in the world to come 
in relation to this matter, is immense. — 
The slave who discharges his duty to his 
master in such a manner as would be ac- 
ceptable to any reasonable man, has the 
right to require at his hands the comforts 
and necessaries of life. There are many 
who greatly mistake kindness to their 
servants ; they think that it consists in 
sixtfering them to idle away their time, 
and as a matter of course, half clothe 
and feed them, and have them running 
over the neighborhood, causing dissatis- 
faction and discontent among other ne- 
groes. This is not kindness to them, by 
an J' means, and they do not regard it as 
such. For example, we will state that, 
several yeai's ago (at least six,) we over- 
heard a conversation between two ne- 
groes upon this subject: — "They say. To- 
ne}", that the Doctor is a hard man to 
live with — he wants a great deal done." 
"Yes," says Toney, "but then he gives a 
plenty of good fat pork, which helps out 
mightily. I notice Sam, where there 
is little work, there is little to eat." — 
What can a man ia his imagination 
conceive to be . of more satisfaction to a 
laboring man, than enough to eat when 
he sits down to his meals, There are 
many farmers who feed their negToes 



sparingly, believing that it is economy 
that they save by it, but such is not the 
fact. In the first place the negro will 
have it, and he is sure to steal it gene- 
rally from his master believing that he 
has a right to do so ; and pray, who is 
there to dispute his right ? We have 
been credibly informed that S. B. Carra- 
way, in Lenoir county, gives his negroes 
cotfee to drink every morning before they 
begin the labors of the day. This prac- 
tice he begun several years past, when 
the cholera was in that section of coun- 
try, lie did it then, believing that 
it vrould prevent their being attacked 
with this disease. He was was so struck 
with the advantages that arose from its 
use, that he has continued it ever since. 
Mr. Carraway does this no doubt as a 
matter of economy. lie is one of the 
very best farmers of the State, and is a 
most excellent manager of negroes. The 
master, after feeding and clothing the 
negro in a way which he should do, it 
is then clearly his duty to see that he 
works well. "\Ve have adopted this 
plan even in our farming operations, to ' 
feed well, clothe well, and work well, 
and chastise well when it is needed, not 
for the sake of gratifying any pas- 
sion of anger, but from a sense of duty 
It lias ever been a rule with us to give 
the hands upon the farm one half of 
every Saturday, in order that they may 
have some time to keej) their clothes 
clean and do such Avork for themselves, 
as to get means to buy their tobacco? 
&c. We have found them better satis- 
fied vfith this short time every week than 
if such things were furnished them. — 
This half a day seems to serve as a 
stimulus to them to hurry their work to 
make time fly, as it always does Avhen 
one is actively employed. We do not 



6-t 



THE FARMEPi'S JOURNAL. 



think that negroes should be allowed to 
hire their own time ; for by this there is 
great dissatisfaction created among those 
who are not allowed this privilege. Every 
farmer should have a certain number of 
hours to work d iring each day. In the 
■winter he may begin soon and work 
steadily, and during the night his hands 
will have ample time to rest. But in 
the summer he should let his hands rest 
at least two hours at noon, say from 12 
o'clock tc 2 o'clock ; by doing this, each 
hand can become free from excessive 
heat, and after eating, if he chooses, can 
take some sleej?, which greatly refreshes 
him for the remainder of the day. — 
As a general thing, it is best to allowance 
each hand. Our plan has been to give 
men, in winter, 5 lbs. of pork, clear of 
bone, and a peck of meal ; and women 
4 lbs. of pork and a peck of meal ; and 
in the summer we reduce the allowance 
of each one pound of meat, and give a 
quart of molasses in its place. This is 
quite enough, and in some cases it may 
be more. We have seen negroes who 
.would eat one pound of fat meat each 
day — though this we call gluttony — and 
any man would be morally wrong to al- 
low it. When the servant, by strict at- 
tention to his duty deserves it, he should 
always receive kind words from his mas- 
ter, and some rewards as a testimony of 
his approbation. There are masters who 
never give their servants a kind word on 
any account, and these have to watch 
them closely to get them to work. We 
do now, as we have ever done, contend 
til at when the relations of master and 
servant are carried out fully, that the ne- 
gro is in every respect better off than 
were he free to manage for himself. The 
only evidence of the truth of this is, 
when one has looked upon the condition 



of the negro in the Northern States, and 
compared it with the general condition 
of the slave negro in the South. Before 
. we conclude, there is one thing to which 
we wish to call the attention of our 
readers. It is becoming to be a common 
custom with those who hire negroes at 
sale, to first question the negro as to his 
willingness to live with him. This is a 
ruinous plan, and should be put down at 
once wherever it exists. This was first 
began by a few who did it under errone- 
ous impressions, believing that it was tf) 
their interest to pursue such a course. 
There are many men who are really a- 
fraid to hire a negro at a public sale for 
fear he will be persuaded away by these 
rascally fellows before the time of ser- 
vice expires, and he does not feel able to 
lose the money. The formers can, if 
they will, put a stop to this ruinous prac- 
tice, and should do it by all means. 



For the Farmer's Journal. 

Mr. Editor : — I wish to state a fac^ 
and institute an in(piiry. A practical 
answer from you or some of your able 
contributors will be of great service to 
many of the fanners of Greene County. 
Much of our land which will bring from 
three to five barrels of corn per acre, will 
not produce peas, although oi'iginally 
good pea land. The land is light and 
sandy, with sand sub-soil. The pea 
grows well till about the last of July or 
first of August, when they turn yellow 
and soon die. They have what we call 
the big root, the roots grow large, resem- 
bling the artichoke. Au answer soon 
will oblige A FARMER. 

We received a fevv days since from an 
enterprising farmer in Greene county 
the article above, and we most cheerfully 
give him the information sought for ; 
and we shall at all times be pleased to 
answer any question through the Jour- 
nal which may be of general interest 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



53 



and benefit. But when -we are consulted 
in relation to a particular farm and the 
jiroper management for it we must be 
paid for our labor. And why should we 
not receive compensation for farm ad- 
vice, when the doctor and lawyer are 
paid for their opinions. We make the 
subject of scientific agriculture our study, 
and when we are not already able to an- 
swer any inquiry, we go to work and find 
out, in order to give such instruction as 
may be relied upon. The writer of this 
article states that there are lands in the 
county of Greene which will produce 
from three to five barrels of corn, which 
fail to produce the pea, though they 
were originally good pea lands. In the 
analysis of corn by DeSaussure, there is 
in the stalk and grain about five per cent, 
of carbonate of lime, and in the analy- 
sis of the pea by Sprengel, there is in 
the straw or vine and grain of the pea 
about thirty per cent, of the carbonate of 
lime. Now, if Ave were to stop here 
even, without entering more particularly 
into the details, we feel quite sure that 
this farmer who stated the fact and made 
the inquiry, would see the main reason 
why his peas in the month of July turn 
yellow and die, and also vfhy they have 
what he calls the big root. This soil, it 
must be recollected, is based upon sand, 
and lime is very much disposed to sink 
lower down all the while ; and besides, 
we are quite certain that these lands 
have been badly treated, by pasturing 
them after the crop has been taken from 
them in the fall. By pursuing this plan 
there has been a constant draw upon the 
soil of the carbonate of lime, without 
►n^en leaving the vines or strawy upon the 
field for decomposition to enable the 
land to produce good crops of the pea 
successively. This land should be limed 



either with stone lime, shell lime, or 
marl, and the owner should be careful 
that he does not make too large an ap- 
plication until he furnishes the vegetable 
matter for its action ; but a small quan- 
tity of lime should be applied, about 30 
bushels to the acre. Land which has a 
sandy sub-soil should be limed in this 
way, and indeed we would advise this 
plan in liming any kind of land. In- 
stead of placing the lime on the land and 
plowing it in, the land should be plowed 
first and the lime then put upon it and 
harrowed in to the depth of three or four 
inches. We would recommend as a 
suitable application to this land, the salt 
and lime mixture, which may be found 
in No. 1, Vol. 1st of our paper. The 
organic elements of crops will in the 
course of time, where the mineral ele- 
ments are present in the soil, be derived 
fi'om the atmosphere. But if lime or 
other mineral elements of crops are not 
in the soil by nature, they must be sup- 
plied by art, or they will continue to be 
wanting. If these lands spoken of are 
properly limed we will vouch for a good 
crop of peas upon them hereafter, if they 
are not pastured to death so as to soon 
require a repetition of the liming. We 
say here, as we have often said before, 
that the farmer should be content with 
getting the crop from his land, and the 
stalk and vine should be returned to the 
soil, in order that it may be able to pro- 
duce another crop. 



The Circlevlile Watchman (Ohio) says 
that John Brotherlin, Esq., of thatplace^ 
has constructed a tea kettle made of cop- 
per, all complete and entire, and which 
weighs less than the twelfth part of a 
cent. This is a triumph of neat-handc <^ 
workmanship. 



56 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



Dr. Tompkins: — I enclose you one 
dollar for your valuable Agricultural 
"Journal." We are much pleased with 
the spirit and matter of your truly valu- 
able "Journal." It is ettecting great 
good in our farming community. 

Yours res])ectfully, 
J. T. LEACH. 
March 21st, '53. 

The above note we received from the 
office without the name of the office to 
which the paper is to be sent. We hope 
that the auth.or will please to send us 
the name of the office. 



Edgecombe Co., N. C, 
February 11th, 1853 

Gentlemen: — Your letter of the 26th 
of January did not come to hand until 
last evening. The delay or cause of its 
not arrivino- sooner is owinof to its hav- 
ing been mis-sent for_I discover that it 
has the New York stamp on it. 

As a committee of the Beaufort agri- 
cultural society, appointed for the pur- 
pose of selecting some person to deliver 
an address betbre that worthy body of 
farmers at theiil next meeting, you very 
politely tender this flattering duty to 
me and hope I will not decline it. If I 
thought I could do justice to an agricul- 
tural subject in an address, or say any- 
thing that would either enteitain or in- 
struct the society, or the farmers of 
Beaufort, hovv^ever unused to such sta- 
tion, I would freely lay aside all person- 
al considerations and enter upon this du- 
ty. But I do not feel myself competent; 
withal owing to a weak voice I should 
be incapable of making myself heard. — 
I am even frona this cause a bad reader. 
You will therefore allow me the privilege 
with the kindest feelings toAvards your- 
selves and your society, to decHne it. 

I am indeed an enthusiast upon the 



subject of improved farming, scientific 
farming if you please, by which we 
should endeavor to understand the why 
and wherefore of everything that we do, 
as much as our present knowledge of the 
laws of matter will admit of. Farmers 
deal in matter; matter has its laws; many 
of the hiAvs and the phenomena growing 
out of a combination of matter are to be 
understood only tlirough chemistry. — 
Some enlightened men, yea chemists, do 
not believe in agricultural chemistry* 
tliough it may be the professed duty of 
some of them to teach chemistry as a 
science. I have ever tli ought tliat this 
originated from their inability to discon- 
nect chemistry from vegetable physiolo- 
gy which involves a vital action. Chem- 
istry teaches us Avhat inorganic matters 
exist in a plant such as lime, potash, so- 
da, iron, magnesia, &c., and their com^ 
pounds; now if they exist in the plant the 
laws of nature require them for vegeta- 
ble growth whenever found in such, and 
if the soil does not contain them in suf- 
ficient quantity, wdierejs the vegetable to 
obtain it? If a soil fails to produce as 
well as formerly, as that of New York 
and some of the western States, is it not 
plain that it is owing to its mineral in- 
gredients within reach of the plant or 
roots of the vegetable having been car- 
ried off to market, in the shape of grain, 
grass, meat and bones. IIow ai'e Ave to 
assign a pi'oper cause for the failure oth- 
erwise than this, and how can Ave tell 
but by chemical analysis of the soil to 
Avhat degree this exhaustion has been 
carried? DaA'y Liebig and others have 
put England upon the right track for she 
has doubled the productiveness of her 
soil by shipping tliese mineral ingredients 
home as manure; the Avliitened bones 
from the battlefields of Waterloo have 



THE FARMER'S JOURl^TAL. 



57 



contributed their part, and even her ves- 
sels have been laden in om- ports witli 
bones to be ground or dissolved to en 
rich her soil; therefore in this way she 
has shipped oft' some portion of the con- 
centrated fertility of our soils in phos- 
phate of lime and such other fertilisers as 
were contained in these bones. Is it 
not time that farmers shall begin to study 
more thoroughly the original and funda- 
mental causes of success in some parts; 
•while if not a thorough, at least a partial 
disappointment attends agriculture in 
others. If the soil is furnished with the 
necessaiy mineral ingredients, farmers 
may rest assured that it will have some 
recuperative powers within itself, and 
obtain from the atmosphere in process of 
time the constituents of the organic ele- 
ments, oxygen, carbon, hydrogen and 
nitrogen even if not aj)plied by man to it. 
Some men are disposed to deny the a- 
gency of chemistry to agriculture, be- 
cause it cannot explain everything in 
connection ■with vegetable growth, be- 
cause they cannot discover by it how ox- 
ygen, carbon, nitrogen and hydrogen are 
so put together as to constitute, an acid 
in one vegetable, a gum in another, 
starch in another, sugar &e. in others- 
they are disposed to repudiate the con- 
nection. This is the greatest of follies, I 
will not say from what cause, if it be 
not from an inability to draw a line be- 
tween a vital or physiological principle, 
and a chemical action. Animals can 
tell their wants of hunger and thirst and 
exercise locomotion to gratify them, but 
how may animals know anything of the 
process of digestion, or the increase of 
growth or flesh; here is a physiological 
process. Vegetables as well as animals 
have their digestive process though in a 
more simple form. 



But I discover that I am extending 
this letter to an unnecessary length. I 
had gotten into a train of thought and 
continued to write; this was owing to 
your kind notice of the address delivered 
before the Edgecombe agricultural socie- 
ty by me. Now I beheve it is generally 
conceded to parents the privilege of be- 
ing fond of their own oftspring, however 
wanting it may be in proper form and 
symmetry; indeed though this deformity 
may be quite perceptible to them, yet 
they are pleased to discover that others 
are disposed to over-look them, or give 
to them a charitable consideration. 
With much respect yours, 

J. J. Phillips. 
To Hejtry Dimock, 

Jas. F. Clark, 

John F. Tompkins. 



Topsail Sound, New Hanover ) 
Co., March 19th, 1853. j 
Dear Sir : — Occasional absences from 
home the last year, has prevented me 
from taking that interesting and profit- 
ing from your very useful pubhcation 
that I would otherwise have done. Hav- 
ing been conversant with the most ap- 
proved agricultural publications in the 
United States for several years past, it is 
a source of pleasure and pride for me to 
say, that there is now an agricultural 
journal in our State that will compare 
favorably wi Ji the best of them. We 
certainly in times past have been the 
most inert and torpid race of people that 
breathe this vital air, and I congratulate 
you on the new era in farming now about 
to dawn upon us principally through 
your exertions and instrumentality. I 
enclose you one dollar advance, subscrip- 
tion for your second volume. 
Very respectfully 
Your ob't serv't. 
J. D. Jones. 



58 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



Seau€ort County Agricultural 
Society. 

The annual meeting of this associa- 
tion assembled in ihe Court house at 
Washington on Tuesday, the 22d of 
March, at 7 o'clock, P. M. 

The President, Col. Wm. H. Tripp, 
called the meeting to order, and H. G. 
Hilioa was appointed Secretary, pro 
tem. 

The proceedings of the last meeting 
were read by the Secretary, afier which 
the committee of three reported through 
Dr. Tompkins that they had failed to 
procure any gentleman to deliver an 
address upon this occasion. 

The committee of nine, appointed as 
executive committee, also reported that 
they had not been able to secure the 
aum entitling the Society to the amount 
provided by our last Legislature, where 
upon J. B. Lucas moved that the mem- 
bers proceed to make up the sum re- 
quired, which was done, and that too 
in a spirit of enthusiasm selJom wit- 
r^essed. The committee of arrange- 
ments then proceeded to make the fol- 
lowing report, which was received and 
adopted : 

Beaufort Co. Agricultural Society, ) 
March 22, 1853. ' ^ 

The executive committee to whom 
was referred at the last meeting of the 
Society, the awarding of premiums, beg 
leave to make the following report: — 

Resolved, That in order to encourage 
and stimulate the farmers and mechan- 
ics of this county to a laudable compe- 
tition, we would recommend to the so- 
ciety that the following premiums or 
rewards be offered to those who shall, 
according to the terms herein stated, be 
entitled to them : 

Resolved, That there shall be held 
in or near Washington, on the 8th of 
Ooiober next, an annual Fair^ for the i 



purpose of making an exhibition of the 
largest products, best stocks, best pieces 
of mechanism, and best specimens of 
home industry made or produced in 
this county. 

The following are the premiums to 
be awarded : 

For the larg't c'p of corn ra'd on one acre, $!8 
For the largest crop of wheat, do. do. S 
For the largest crop of oatg, do. do. 3 
for the largest crop of cotton, do. do. 3 
For the largest crop sweet pot.itoes, do. 2 
For the best stallion raised in the county 2 
For the best two year colt, do. 2 
For the best one year old colt, do. 2 
For the best five month's colt, do. 1 
For the best brood mare, do. Q 
For the besl harness horse, do. 2 
For the best saddle do. do- 2 
For the best Jack, ^o. 3 
For the best mule, <3o. 3 
For the finest bull, do. 2 
For the best milch cow, do. 2 
For the best heifer, do. 2 
For the best yearling calf, <Jo. 1 
For the best yoke work oxen, do. 3 
For the best buggy made in the oountv, 3 
For the best cart for manuring, do. 2 
For the best specimen of cabinet making 3 
I'or the best do. blacksmithing work 3 
For the best piece of woolen cloth, do. 1 
For the best pair of stockings, do. 50c 
For the best do. of boots, do. 2 
For the best snit of clothes, do. 3 
For the best essay upon an agricultu- 
ral subject. do. 5 

Resolved, That those persons who 
wish to compete for the premiums a- 
bove named, shall make known their 
intention by letter to the Secretary of 
the Society on or before the 1st August 
next. 

Resolved, That those persons con- 
tending for the premiums awarded for 
the various crops, shall produce on the 
day of the Fair, a certificate signed by 
three respectable per sons in the coun- 
ty, testifying as to the amount of the 
land cultivated, and of the crop pro- 
duced. 

Resolved, l^hat the competitors in 
crops shall also produce on the day of 
the Fair a written statemeat of their 
manner of manuring, their mode of cul- 
ture, and any thing else worth noticing 
in the production of said crops 

Resolved. That the competitors £o» 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



59 



the preiniutns for the best of the vari- 
ous kinds of slock, and the best speci- 
mens in the various mechanic arts, and 
of home industry, shall certify ibai they 
were raised and manufactured in this 
county. 

Resolved, That the President of the 
Society shall be considered as the 
chairman of the executive cammiitee, 
and if at anv time he should be absent, 
the acting Vice President shall perform 
his duty in this respect also. 

Resolved, That the President appoint 
a marshal and two assistant marshals, 
whose duty it sha'l be to attend on the 
day of the annual Fair, and see that 
strict order is preserved, while the exhi- 
bition is being ir ade. 

Resolved. That the President shall 
appoint a committee of seven, to be 
styled the committee of arrangements, 
whose duty it shall be to solicit sub- 
scriptions, for the purpose of purchasing 
a suitable locaiion and for the erection 
of suitable buildings for the holding of 
the exhibition, and also to superintend 
all preparations necessary for the sa^jie. 
Resolved, That a committee of three 
shall be appointed by the President to 
procure some person to deliver an ad- 
dress before the society at some "place 
in Washington on the evening of the 
8lh October next. 

Resolved, That all members of the 
Beaufort Agricultural Society, and their 
families shall be allowed to enter the 
Fair ground- free of charge, and that 
all other persons shall, upon etitermg, 
pay the sum of 25 ots , which shall be 
regarded as belonging to the Society. 
M. G. Hilton, "] 
Gr. W. Guilford, | 
J. M. Patrick, j d 
Sam'l C. Eborn, I g 
J. B. Lucas, Y 3 

H. A. Ellison, | ^ 
Henry Hodges, j p 
Jas. F. Clark, j 
3no. p. Tompkins. J 
Dr. Tompkins then delivered a 
speech in his usually interesting style, 
and was followed by F. B Salterihwaile, 



Esq. Mr. S. showed the difference in 
the rank of agriculture now, and when 
he was a youth, and fully proved by au 
account of his own experiments in ma- 
nure making, that all it requires to 
make it the most profiiable as well as 
the most honorable avocation, is the ap- 
plication of science, and he longed to 
see the day when he could retire from 
the Bar and confine his attention ex- 
clusively to farming. He closed by 
exhoriing the Society to renewed ef- 
forts in the cause, assuring them that a 
brighter day is not far distant. 

'I'he Society then prooteded to the 
election of officers for another year, as 
follows : 

Samuel C. Eborn, President : James 
F. Clark and N. W. Guilford, Vice 
Presidents ; H. G. Hilton, Recording 
Secreta.'-y; John F. Tompkins, Corres- 
ponding Secretary ; Jesse Lucas, Trea- 
surer. 

Dr. Tompkins, James F. Clark and 
Henry Dimock were appointed a Com- 
mittee to wait on Mr. Br:dgers, of 
Edgecombe, and solicit him to deliver 
an address before the Society. 

The following gentlemen were ap- 
pointed a Commit'te or Arrangements, 
and specially directed to get a suitable 
location in or near Washington for the 
exhibition in October next, and to 
make such other provisions as the na- 
ture of the ease may demand, (viz :) — 

H. A. Ellison, H. Dimock, W. W. 
Norman, Dr. Tompkins, Saral. Clark, 
Saml. T. Carrow, and B. F. Tripp. 

It was moved and carried that the 
thanks of the Society be tendered to the 
officers for the past year. 

It was moved ar.d carried that our 
next meeting be held in Washington 
on Tuesday eyenmg of May Court. 



GO 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



members of the Society, (viz:) Samuel 
Clarlf, Lewis Clark, J. B Marsh, Sam- 
uel T. Carrow, B. F. Tripp, Charles 
Tripp, J. Ft. Stubbs, VVinfidd Muse, 
Henry A. Ellison, W. W. Norman, 
and Jarvis B. Harding. 

It was then ordered that the proceed- 
ings ot this meeting be published in 
the Farmer's Journal and North Staie 

Whig. 

The meeting then adjourned. 
W. H. TRIPP, President. 
H. Gr. Hilton, Secretary. 



From tho Bddgeport Fanner. 
A Few of the Benefits of Agricultu- 
ral Societies. 

The question is often asked, are Agri- 
cultural Societies any benefit to tlie peo- 
ple in general? I reply, they are. Ihey 
hold annual Fairs, at which are exhibi- 
ted every thing new (or ought to be) 
under the sun. It is the Farmer's and 
Mechanic's holiday ; they assemble to- 
gether to see the works of their neigh- 
bors, to hear their experience, and to 
pass two or three days profitably and 
pleasantly. 

Profitably, did I say ? This put me in 
mind of a conversation which took place 
between one of my neighbors and my- 
self after returning from the Fair. I 
asked him why he did not attend. 

Neighbor. O, I never went nor cared 
nothin' about goin', and I alers thought 
'twas time thrown away. 

Reply. Perhaps you have not thor- 
oughly investigated the matter : you on- 
ly think of the days of the Fair, and not 
of the future benefits. 

JV. I don't see what future benefits 
can come from spending two or three 
days and as many dollars in what you 
call an Agricultural Fair; mj father 



alers got along well 'nut, and he never 
went to one on 'urn. 

R. Let me explain to you a little. We 
will take the article of butter. We of- 
fer a premium of five dollars for the best 
butter; a man who takes an Agricultu- 
ral paper long enough tO' see what is for 
his own interest brings in a sample of 
fine butter; he tells his breed of cows, 
the time the butter was made, the kind 
of feed the cows had, the number of 
times they were milked in a day, wheth- 
er the butter was set in cold water or hot,, 
the time the milk stood before skimming 
the time the cream stood before churn- 
ing, the number of times the butter was 
worked, the quantity of salt used, the 
manner of preserving the butter, &c. — 
He gets the premium. Is not that a 
benefit ? 

N. yes, it lielps him five dollars; 
but -what help is that to any one else ? 

It. He brings in his statement; these 
are published in the jSTewspaper, which 
is read by five hundred people who 
make butter, they follow his example, 
and are thereby enabled to get two cents 
a pound more for it than if they had 
gone on in the old way. Now suppose 
each man made but 500 poimds a year, 
and gets two cents a pound extra; it gives 
him ^10; this multiplied by 500, the 
number of dairymen Avho read and fol- 
low this statement, we have $5,000; now 
to know that you ai-e doing so much 
good by taking your butter to the Fair, 
will it not compensate a man for his 
trouble ? 

N. Wal, you know that's one of the ' 
principle products of the farm, 'laint so 
with everything. 

R. We will take fruit, and see if that 
is not also a benefit. A few years since, 



Mr. 



brought some Baldwin apple^, 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



61 



to our Fair and received the first premi- 
ii)n; and wliat was the consequence ? 
AVhy, the following spring I went for 
some grafts, and he afterwards told me 
that he gave away all that were small 
enough for grafts, and he believed they 
would have taken the body of the tree 
if they could have used it. Those which 
I have obtained have commenced bear- 
ing, and if others have given away grafts 
as I have done, you can see how widely 
they are spread at the present time. If 
a large apple which is 'beautiful to the 
eye and delicious to the taste, is any bet- 
ter than a small, mean, sour one, which 
to bite is enough to make a pig squeal, 
(I am sorry to say that so many pigs will 
eat them,) are not Agriculturiil Societies 
a benefit? I calculate the profits of ta- 
king this variety of fruit to the Fair, is 
more than we can express : for who 
would have known that such fruit exist- 
ed, if they had not seen it there ? I have 
only spoken of one kind of fruit for exhi- 
bition, and are there no other kinds of 
fruit of equal importance ? 

N. I guess that '11 do on that pint. 

R. If you are tired of fruit, we will 
feed on grain awhile. In the year 1849, 
I bought a few bushels of Wheat (wish- 
ing to change my seed,) and finding it 
full of trash, I was obliged to spend two 
days in cleaning, before it was fit to sow 
in any respectable man's farm. The 
next year I had the finest piece of wheat 
that I ever saw; so I took some to the 
Fair and it was just the way to adver- 
tise it. It was looked at and admired 
by all, and wanted by many, so I sold 
all I had to spare for seed. It was so 
much better than common wheat that 
I obtained 25 cents more a bushel than 
my neighbors. So carrying my wheat 
to the fair was putting money in my 



pocket; adding notoriety to my ciiarac- 
ter, and more than all, it was the means 
of people's raising ten bushels of wlieat 
T/here they formerly raised eight of trash.. 
What do you think of our Agricultural 
Fairs? 

N. O it'ul do for you book farmers, 
but v.'hat good does it do to take so many 
horses and cattle to the show ? 

R. What good does it do ? Why, 
five years ago our society offered a pre- 
mium of $5 for the best horse, and there 
were several exhibited, but none of them 
considered worthy of a premium. The 
next year the society off'ered a premium 
of $25 for the best horse, and the result 
was an ambitious enterprising man went 
and purchased the finest one he could 
find in the country. And why did he 
do it ? Because he knew he could get 
the premium. There are now probably 
500 descendants from this horse, each 
worth 25 dollars more than the same 
number were before this horse was 
brought into this part of the country. — 
Here we have twelve thousand dollars. 
Will not that pay for spending tAvo or 
three days at a Fair ? 

iV. I don't know but 'twill do. — 
But you have a plough match, where 
they most kill their oxen to see who can 
plow the fcistest; what good does that do? 

R. Yes, you would most kill your ox- 
en and yourself to have done what we 
did at oiu- plowing match, with one of 
your old straight wooden mould plows, 
such as I have seen used among farmers 
who never saw a plowing match, or read 
an agricultural paper. Let us compare 
two farmers for one year, one with the 
old fashioned plow, the other with the 
improved steed plow. The old fashioned 
man, with plow to match, has five acres 
of corn to plant. He goes in the field 



<)2 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



with his plow and tries to turn over the 
,q;reen sod; at every other step the fur- 
rows want a kick; and by Avorkinghard 
witli hands and feet, he is enabled to 
root up a small patch in the course of the 
day. It takes him six days to stub over 
liis five acres. 

It then takes him two days with his 
harrow to roll over the clods and trj^ to 
snellow it up. A great part of the sods 
Avhich were disturbed by the plow, are 
now showinof their careen faces to the sun. 
I^ext he tries to plant it, but his plow 
only skimmed the surface and the har- 
row has no loose mould — and conse- 
<|uently it takes seven days to plant it. — 
At the first hoeing the corn looks as if 
it had the yellow fever — but he drags 
his old plow through, shoving the clods 
over the corn; he spends seven days at 
^jach hoeing — but few at gathering. 

We "will now look at the other farmer, 
who has that quantity of land, the same 
kind of soil, and like it in every respect. 
He goes into his field, with his long 
improved plow, and lays out his work. 
If the question is asked, are long plows 
any better than short ones, I reply they 
.'ire. If you wish to raise a hogshead of 
sugar two feet in height, does it not take 
jnuch less force to raise the same, by rol- 
ling it only fourfeet ? So with the plow, 
— you raise the furrow much easier by 
having your plow three feet in length 
than j^ou would if it was only one and 
a half. All the plowman is required to 
do, is to follow the plow standing 
straight in the furrow. His plow cuts a 
furrow of equal width and about three 
inches more in depth than the common 
plow — instead of having one half roll 
back it leaves it nicely inverted. By 
having his plow run so much easier, and 
'.-.utting such a nice straight furrow, he 



is enabled to save one days work in the 
first ploughing. As good plowing 
makes easy harrowing, he here saves an- 
other days work with his team and still 
has his ground in good order for the re- 
ception of the seed. 

When a field is thus commenced, the 
crop is easily taken care of through the 
season, and all will agree with me in 
saying, that it will save at least two days 
Hork in planting and at each of the oth- 
er three hoeing, or eight days in all; 
equal to eight dollars. Here we see he 
saves twelve dollars in work, and makes 
eighteen dollars in his crop; equal to 
thirty dollars on the single field of corn 
— would not a good plow be of equal 
benefit to other crops ? 

The man with his improved plow is 
of course a member of the Agricultural 
Society. They hold a plowing match 
at some given time, and two thousand 
men assemble to see the work perform- 
ed. He comes with his improved plow, 
enters the contest, comes off victorious, 
and receives the first prize. One-fourth 
of these men present wishing to pur- 
chase a new plow, procure one like the 
one which received the prise, they use 
them on their farms the next season, 
and are benefitted as the man mention- 
ed above, to the amount of twelve dol- 
lars. This multiplied by one hundred 
the number which buy new plows, we 
have 1200 dollars. Don't you think 
that the Agricultural Societies do some 
good? 

N. Wal I don't know but they du — 
but I guess my wife's got dinner ready, 
so good morning. 

The Atlantic is nearly four miles deep 
off" Cape Hatteras; so say the U. S. Coast 
Surveyors. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



6'c 



Cure of Cholic in Horses. 

Messrs. Editors : — Having read 30 
naany incongruous publications thig 
spring, irj sundry prints, purporting to 
be remedies for the cure of cholic in 
horses, induces me 10 offer your readers 
the correct treatment, on purely pro- 
fessional principles, that the lives of 
many animals, decidedly the most im- 
portant of all others to the farmer, may 
be thereby spared, which are too often 
sacrificed through ignorance and mal- 
treatment. 

Cholic in horses is divided into two 
varieties, viz: spasmodic and flatulent; 
the treatment of the two is decidedly 
different ; the symptoms I need not de- 
tail at length, as most farmers are ac- 
quainted with them ; suffice it to say, 
the spasmodic variety is attended with 
intense pain, recurring at stated inter- 
vals, sudden in its attack. The flatu- 
lent variety is not so painful in its com- 
mencement, Dut increases, together with 
great abdominal tympanites ; the swel- 
hno' continues to increase with the du- 
ration of the attack ; the causes I need 
not mention, for the treatment is the 
magnum desideratum with farmers. 

Spasmodic variety — if the attack be 
severe, first thing bleed pro re nala, 
then take six drachms aloe?, dissolve in 
one quart warm water, add to the solu 
tion two or three ounces laudanum, 
with the same quantity spirits turpen- 
tine, and administer it. Should this in 
due time fail to give relief, administer 
half the above dose ; the belly and 
loins should be well rubbed, and fre- 
quently bathed in clothes dipped in hot 
water ; injections are also serviceable 
as a denier resort, a suppository of to- 
bacco, say two or three drachms. 
Flatulent Cholic — this having been 



too often mistaken for the above vari- 
ety, has caused the death of many ani- 
mals that might have been easily re- 
lieved ; the swelling in the abdomen is 
so great that no one can possibly mis- 
take it, who bears in mind the two vari- 
eties Treatment: two or three ounces 
of laudanum, the same quantitv spiriis 
ot turpentine, in a pint of the spirits of 
pimento, given at once ; to be followed 
quickly by one pint of solution of the 
chloiiJe of lime or soda in a quart of 
water, the latter to be repeated if relief 
is not soon obtained ; rationale. The 
tympanites is produced mostly by a coU 
lection of sulphurated hydrogen gas ; 
the chlorine disengages itself from the 
lime or soda, and uniting with the hy- 
drogen, forms hydro-chloric or muriatic 
a^id, Vvhich unites with any fluid pre- 
sent containing water, and relieves the 
tympanites as if by a charm. A der 
nier resort in cases where no chlorine 
is at hand, is to introduce a trocer in 
the centre of the right flar.k, which 
will penetrate the colon or caecum ] 
withdraw the slilet and let the canula 
remain, until the gas is discharged, 
then withdraw it, which should be done 
as soon as possible. 

Flatulent cholic not unfrequently oc- 
curs in cattle and other animals of the 
lower order, which may be similarly 
treated with the trocer and chlorine. — 
The following remedies every farmer 
should always keep on hand, for the 
loss of one animal will more than de- 
fray the expense : laudanum, spirits of 
turpentine, spirits pimento, Barbadoe's 
aloes, sol. chloride lime or soda. 

VVm. N. Raines, M. B. 
Horn Lake, Miss , June, 1852. 

Labor is honorable. 



64 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



It is said that au attempt is being made 
to form a company at New Orleans for 
tlie purpose of entering into tbe rosewood 
trade. The projector owns a hirge tract 
of hind near Guatulco, in the State of 
Oajaca, on the Pacific, about 240 miles 
from Acapulco, which is covered with 
splendid rose trees from three to four feet 
in diameter. It can be delivered for 
shipment at a cost of $6 per ton, and is 
worth between 50 and 1^60 per ton of 
cubic feet. 



THE subscriber will give any special ad- 
vice to Farmers, by their addressing him 
and giving a description of their farms. His 
charge will be moderate. He will make 
analysis of soils and marls, and v/rite out the 
analysis for application of manures. 
For analysis of soils, - - - §5 OO 
Writing out analysis, - - - ' 5 00 
JOHN F. TOMPKINS, M. D. 

LET every True North Carolinian throw 
his might into the hands of our own 
Mechanics, and by this means, with our Ag- 
ricultural advancement, we are bound to 
become an independent people. So let the 
citizens of Edgecombe, and the neighbouring 
counties, call and examine the magnificent 
stock of 

FURNITURE, 

which is offered for sale at F. L. Bond's 

Furniture Store, inTarboro', consisting of the 
following articles, viz : 

Ladies' Marble and Mahogany Top Dres- 
sing Bureaus ; Ladies Marble Top Wash 
Stands ; Sideboards and Plain Bureaus ; Ward 
Robes and Book Cases ; Sofas and Mahogany 
Ptocking Chairs; Mahogany and Walnut 
Tables ; Tete-a-tetes and Divans ; Mahogany, 
French, and Cottage Bedsteads ; Stationary 
and Portable Writing Desks ; Wood and 
Cane Seat Rocking Chairs ; Office, Windsor, 
^ane and Rush Bottom Chairs ; a large as- 
sortment of cheap Bed Steads ; Wash Stands 
and Candle Stands ; China Presses, various 
patterns ; also, a few Nymphs and Nuptials- 
Old Furniture and Sofas repaired and made 
to look as good as new. Old Bachelors ren- 
ovated in such a style as will make them 
accessible to the smiles of young ladies and 

old M s at least. Furniture kept on hand 

to suit any age or sext. 

Now one word to the public What is life 
to any one, if they do not avail themselve of 
the com.forts and conveniences that are offiered 
for sale at F. L. BOND'S Ware Room ? An 
examination by the public is earnestly 
solicited. F. L. B. 

Tarbor-o', N» C, 



We are indebted to Captain Henry 
B. Harman, of this county, says the 
Jeffeisonville (Tazewell county) Demo- 
crat, for the following effectual cure for 
the Staggers: Take one quart of bran- 
dy or whiskey, and dissolve one ounce 
of camphor in it and give for a dose 
one gill. In about two hours after 
taking this preparation, they will get 
up. Care should be t;iken to prevent 
iheni from drinking water for twenty 
four hours, in which time complete cure 
will be efTected. He warrants his re- 
ceipt to accomplish a perfect cure nine 
times out of ten, having several years 
tried it successfully. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 






Page. 


Communication, by "Moyock," 


S3 


Communication, by "J. W. Y." 


S-i 


Letter from S. R., of Eockville, 




Rowan Co., 


34 


Letter from J. F. F., of Rowan Co. 


S4 


Rules for making an Axletree, 


35 


Manure, 


35 


HoAV to use Guano, 


38 


Agricultural Products of the U. S. 


40 


Good Rules for Farmers, 


42 


Improvements of Roads, 


43 


On Liquid Manure in Farm Yards, 


44 


Diseases of Horses and Cows^A Val- 




uable Receipt, 


46 


Poultry Manure, 


46 


Action of Lime, 


47 


Our First Volume Complete, 


48 


Meeting of the State Agricultural 




Society, 


48 


The Silver Cup, 


48 


Oui- Travelling Agent, 


48 


An Agricultural School at Bath, F. 




Carolina, 


49 


A Fact Avorthy of Attention, 


50 


The Sweep-stakts for the Best 




Corn Crop, 


50 


Farmer's of Korth Carolina, where is 




your State Pride ? 


60 


Young Men, be not ashamed to work, 


51 


The management of Negroes, 


62 


Inquiry Answered, 


54 


Letter from J. J. Phillips, 


56 


Letter from J. D. Jones, 


57 


Beaufort Co Agricultural Society, 


68 


A few of the Benefits of Agricultural 




Societies, 


60 


Cure for Cholic in Horses. 


63 



t 



THE FARIEE'S JOUMAL. 



VOL. 2. 



BATH, N. C, JUNE, 1853. 



NO. 3. 



JOHN F. TOMPKINS, M. D., Editor and Proprietor. 



The Report of Professor Emmons. 

We have at last been able to procure 
tills interesting document, wbicb we have 
read with much care and pleasure. It 
presents to our people positive proof that 
its author is a truly scientific man, and 
well calculated to discharge the duties 
which have been assigned to him. This 
document contains much that will inter- 
est our readers, and we have therefore 
laid before them in this number of our 
paper an extract from it upon the "Mean- 
ing of the Word Improvement, — Com- 
position of Shell Marl, &c." According 
to the analyses of Prof. Emmons, the 
marls of the eastern part of the State 
are rich in carbonate of lime and other 
elements which our crops require as 
food. He has given some general direc- 
tions in the extract which we make, 
that must serve as quite a guide to those 
farmers who have marl and do not have 
it analyzed before making an application 
of it to their lands. We hope that this 
survey will continue from year to year, 
until a thorough knowledge of the re- 
sources of our State is obtained. — Ed.] 
Meaning of the Word, Improvement. 

Composition of Shell Marl, &c. 

§11. The soils of the eastern counties ] 
it has beea seen, furnish several distinct '' 



varieties, some of which lie at the ex- 
tremes. The original constitution which 
is sandy, aided by long cultivation with^ 
out due attention to the application of 
manures, has brought them to a condi- 
tion, in many instances, of extreme pov- 
erty; and hence it has become a ques] 
tion of great importance, how they shall.' 
be restored in a measure to their original 
fertility. This is not the only question 
however, respecting the soils of the lower 
counties — how they shall be restored. — r 
Another comes up of equal if not greater 
importance, viz : How are the soils, 
which are nov/- in a good condition, to 
be prevented from becoming poor and 
exhausted, and yet be subject to cultiva- 
tion ? Although we have presented two 
questions, yet if either is answered, the 
other is also in the main ; for the same 
principles are applicable to the two cases. 
The questions are not, how shall the 
crops be incressed, for methods are at 
hand for effecing this without a perma- 
nent improvement of the soil. The 
crops of a plantation may be greatly in- 
creased by deep ploughing, and yet th© 
soil is not virtually and essentially im- 
proved. Many are making a mistake 
in this respect. So the system of clo- 
vering, or the use of green crops, might 
be followed out on a system combined 
with an alternation of crops. This too, 
has been regarded as an improvement of 
the soil ; yet, it is not so, unless indeed, 
it is accompanied with such additions of 
inorganic matter, which the soil requijFe 



m 



THE FARMERS JOURNAL. 



and wliicli are removed in the crops. — 
The crops inaj be greatly increased 
■without an improvement of the soil, and 
pUinters cannot learn this fact too soon. 
I do not object to the plan of increasing 
the cro]>sfor the&eason, by deep plough- 
ing, sub-soiling and the use of green 
crops ; but each and all, by themselves 
•cannot be regarded as an improvement 
of t'le soil. There is something mare, 
and it consists in the application along 
■v,dth deep ploughing, sub-soiling, and 
green, crops, of all the elements which 
fertilize and are necessary to supply the 
losses- it sustains in the removed ele- 
ments ; and it is only by pursuing this 
inethod that the spirit of the word Im- 
provement will be realized. 

In one sense, it is true, that any sys- 
tem whicli adds a stock of essential ele- 
ments to the soil, is an improvement ; 
thus, by the use of green crops, or clo- 
ver, or peas, we obtain from the atmos- 
phere, organic matter in the plants, which 
is ploughed in, and added to the soil. If 
ttie cultivation however, goes on, this 
new accession of organic matter shortens 
the time dining which the inorganic 
matter will last; for more of the latter 
is «sed in the increased crops There 
must be preserved a balance between 
the two kinds of matter; if, for example, 
there is too much organic matter in the 
straw of wheat, as there frequently is 
when cultivated on new grounds, it is 
weak and falls down ; or else there is 
an excessive development of the herba- 
ceous part and but little grain or seed. 

But I shall leave this question to take 
care of itself far the present ; it is time 
to speak of the real sources of improve- 
ment in the soils^ as found in the lower 
counties : 

The first substance requiring attention, 
is marl, a term which was originally ap- 
plied to substa»ces v/hleh consisted in 
part of carbonate of lime ; l>at as often- 
er used, it includes calcareous clays, with 
or without shells, and argillaceous mat- 
ters containing silica, iron and potash, 
and probably phosphate of lime, but 
destitute of carbonate of lime. The for- 
xaer are the marly clays, and shell marl I 



— the calcareous matter is in the form of 
a carbonate ; the latter is the green sand.,., 
and contains potash as its principal fer- 
tilizer, though it is now rendered highly 
probable that phosphate of lime is al- 
ways present and active in producing; 
the results which follow from its use. In 
the green sand, however, there is no car- 
bonate of lime or but a trace, and hence, 
it may be better never to apply the term 
marl to the green sand, as it is so differ- 
ent in cora]:>osition from the true marls, 
and so different in its geological position 
and age. But both are found in the 
part of the State of which I am speak- 
ing, one or the other being found in beds- 
from Currituck to Brunswick, and from 
Wake to Carteret. The beds are not 
continued over very large areas : the 
green sands however, are less isolated 
and more continuaus than the shell marl 
beds. 

12. The materials which are employ- 
ed on the Atlantic slope, in Virginia, 
N^orth and South Cai-olina, and other 
States still farther South, belong to two 
great sections or systems of rooks. The 
superior is the tertiary ; the inferior sys- 
tem the cretaceous, occupying, in the 
latter, the lov/est position in the system. 
It is that part known as the green sand, 
trom the circumstance that the beds are- 
green or greenish, from the presence of 
numerous grains of silicate of iron and 
potash. 

I propose to describe the first or terti- 
ary beds. These, so far as my oliserva- 
tion extends are always isolated, or con- 
fined comparatively within narrow limits. 
They are not spread out so as to form a 
continuous bed ; but limited usually to a 
few acres, perhaps many acres, and com- 
pletely disconnected or separated from 
other beds. This view of them is im- 
portant, inasmuch as it does not follow, 
that because a bed appears ia a branck 
on one side of the plantation, that it. will 
be found on the other side of it thougk 
very desirable that it should. So;nd 
beefs are confined to an area of an acre. 
Some are but a few rods square, a»4 
others are still smaller, and appear lik» 
nssts of shells in the midst of wiuds-— 



THE FAKMER^S JOURNAL. 



m 



The beds of oysters and clams are, in- 
deed, good representatives of marl beds, 
as to extent: some larger, others smaller, 
if we examine ■ the bed or floor of the 
ocean by soundings, we shall find it 
•composed of materials, especially along 
the coast, very much the same ; but its 
surface is not evenly spread out. In 
some places it is smooth and level ; in 
others, it rises in ridges and hills, with 
their vallies. This disposition of the 
materials forming the ocean's bottom, 
provides, if it may be so called, a variety 
■of climates — some adapted to the wants 
of living beings ; others incompatible 
with life. Some are sheltered, and oth- 
ers are exposed to the lashing of the 
waves. It is in these sheltered places 
that we find life in its various conditions 
and stages of development. While upon 
shores and in soundings, where the waves 
and the elements are at strife, life is ab- 
sent from its exposures. So, when the 
beings whose remains constitute and 
form these marl beds peopled the wa- 
ters, there were sheltered places, quiet 
and still bays, which favored the devel- 
opment of life, and it is upon such areas 
that these deposits were made, while 
other areas exposed to sudden changes, 
separated those, teeming with life from 
t^ach other. We have reason to infer, 
from observations upon the ocean's bot- 
tom, that the areas of the marl beds 
would not be found spread out continu- 
ously ; though marl beds possessing cha- 
racters in common, furnishing the same 
kinds of shells, will occur at wide and 
ilistant points. Not only, too, are the 
beds characterized by similarity of forms 
and kinds, but the accompanying sedi- 
ments, sediments of the same mineral 
-charactes, would be found with them. — 
This would be necessary : it is one of 
the provisions of life — the medium which 
conveys their food and the habits and 
habitants must and should agree. 

18. We r ason then from life to things, 
and from things to life. Wherever the 
conditions for the Hfe of the clam and 
oyster were favorable, or to be more 
general, where the conditions of life 
\7ere favorable to a larger number of 



Molusca, there tbey would be congre- 
gated, because their food, the climate and 
all, would conspire to favor development 
and growth. Similarity of organic 
forms then, become indicative of the 
value of marl deposits, over wide and 
extended areas. Marls which contain 
similar shells will be found ta possess 
nearly the same agricultural value. 

14. The marls are distinguished by 
difi'erent names in the vicinity where 
they occur. The red, blue, and shell 
marl are names applied to beds occupy- 
ing the same geological positions. — >• 
Sometimes there are some diflerences in 
their properties and value. The red 
marl owes its color to a change in the 
oxide of iron commingled vv^ith'the shells. 
It has changed from a state of protoxide 
to the peroxide. It is due to exposure 
to the atmosphere, and is usually the su- 
j)erior part of the bed which has under- 
gone this change. The blue marl still 
holds the iron in a state of protoxide,- 
which imparts a bluish green color to 
the mass. The term blue marl, how- 
ever, is frequently given to tlie green 
sand, an inferior and older formation, 
and wliich owes its fertihzing properties 
to potash, as I have already had occa- 
sion to say. We might make a distinc- 
tion between the sandy marls and the 
argillaceous. In the first, sand predomi- 
nates ; in the other, a bluish clay. Both 
effervesce with acids ; — the latter is the 
most valuable. The proportion of car- 
bonate of lime is variable ; or, what 
would amount to the same thing, the 
amount of sand is variable in the same 
bed, and in the distant beds which occu- 
py the same position ; though U) the 
lime is due the existence of the animal 
which inhabited the shells. 

§15. the marls of Cape Fear river fur- 
nish all the varieties which have been 
noticed in the foregoing paragraphs. — 
The first beds which appear upon the 
river, are about ten miles above Eliza- 
beth, in Bladen Countv. 

Mr. Lassaine's, which is the higliest 
point visited from Elizabeth, is Sandy ; 
Mr. Gillespie's is argillaceous ; and Mr. 
Cromartie's is more calcareous, and parts 



68 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



of it are cemented together. It is a 
mass of shells, and has been found, by 
experieace, a valuable fertilizer. It is 
seven feet thick, and underlies many 
acres. 

Mr. Cromartie's marl yields 

Silex, 52.50 

Alumina, phosphate of lime 

and iron, V.lo 

Carbonate of lime, 40.50 

Magnesia, 75 

Potash and soda, trace 



100.90 
§ 16. The quantity of marl contain- 
ing the per centage of lime given 
above, requires for soils not remarka- 
bly sandy, about two hundred bushels. 
The experience of planters is, that very 
poor soils are injured for a year or more 
by the application of marl, except in 
small quantities. One hundred bushels 
is regarded as sufficient for sandy ex- 
hausted lands. When two or three 
hundred has been used per acre, the 
land is said to be burnt, or the vegeta- 
tion is in part destroyed ; and the prac- 
tice is to begin with the lowest quantity, 
and proceed in marling by subsequent 
additions ; being governed by the quan- 
tity of organic matter restored to the 
«oil. Many planters have observed that 
heavy marling is injurious to poor lands, 
who do not attempt to give a reason for 
the statement. If the common opinion 
respecting the danger of applying too 
much marl to poor soils is founded on 
correct principles ; or, if there are lands 
upon which it would be lia.?ardous to 
apply it in large quantities at first, we 
may be assured that it will be safe, 
always provided it is mixed with much 
organic matter. The prior mixture and 
incorporation of the materials with leaves, 
bark, decayed wood, rich loam, peat, &e. 
obviates the objection raised. The prac- 
tice in New Jersey is regarded as the 
best : — namely, the prior mixing of marl 
and vegetables. It is true that the Jersey 
luarl is destitute of lime. Probably the 
great d nger of bringing the use of marl 
into disrepute, by representing its inju- 
xious effects upon poor soils, has more 



frequently arisen from too high expecta- 
tion of receiving great effects the first 
season that it is applied : — whereas, the 
better and safer course is to bring the 
land back gradually to a good standard 
of fertility ; pursuing that course which 
is calculated to increase the vegetable 
matter in the soil for several successive 
seasons. A plan like the following is 
deserving of trial : Spread upon an acre 
seventy-five bushels of the fifty per cent, 
marl, and put it down in peas. When 
in blossom, plough in the crop, and sow 
rye or millet for the succeeding crop. — 
The land will have gained a sufiicient 
amount of organic or vegetable matter 
to admit of the use of one hundred and 
fifty or two hundred bushels at the next 
marling time. Some land will require 
the loss of two crops, perhaps, before they 
can be treated with a fresh dose of marl. 
The doctrine to be inculcated is to exer- 
cise patience with light and worn out; 
soils, and not expect too much at first, 
vyhen the first step towards their fertili- 
zation is taken. When the work has 
been properly conducted, the planter 
may regard such lands as so much add- 
ed to his possessions, of durable and pro- 
ductivt fields. 

Abundance of the shelly marl lies in 
the bank about one half a mile, probably 
less, belovsr Elizabeth. It forms a stra- 
tum from two to three feet thick, in the 
bank upon the south side of the river. 
Coprolites and teeth of fish are common. 
The latter are mixed in the bed with 
the shells, more or less. Both teeth and 
coprolites lie at the bottom of the stra- 
tum, intermixed with some bones, and 
rounded pebbles of quartz. This layer 
at the bottom, intermixed with pebbles 
and rolled coprolites, is an interesting 
feature of the bed. I have been in hopes 
that in this position, in some favored 
place, coprolites, in sufiicient quantitj, 
might be discovered, to pay the expense 
of extracting them separately. They 
possess a composition superior to bones, 
and may be -used for the same purposes 
as bones. 

The following results of an analysis 
represent) in the main, their composi- 



THE FARMERS JOURNAL. 



€9 



tion-: — 




Silica, 


9.68 


Phosphate of lime, 


;71.59 


Carbonate of lime, 


11.28 


Magnesia, 


50 


. Potash, 


a trace 


Organic matter and water. 


4.40 



97.45 
The coprolites of this bed are all 
black, or dark brown. They are quite 
Jiard, and may e*sily be mistaken for 
the dark pebbles of quartz, with which 
they are associated. They are generally 
broken, and are rounded; but some re- 
tain their original spiral form. They 
are two and a half to three inches long, 
■and three-fourths of an inch in diameter. 
§ 17. Below Elizabeth in Bladen Co., 
the marls continue to be exposed at inter- 
vals. One of these exposures is Walk- 
er's bluff, nine miles below Elizabeth. 
It is the highest upon the river. It pre- 
sents a steep escarpment, which consists 
of different colored sands, with a thick 
layer of shelly marl. The marl is also 
more or less sandy. Eighteen miles be- 
low Elizabnth, the bluSs appear upon 
the river, with their strata of sands and 
marls. The strata are also well exposed 
at Mr. Robinson's plantation, one mile 
above Mr. Brown's landing. The fol- 
lowing strata appear in the banks at 
Robinson's, beginning at the the top : 1, 
'20 feet of different colored sands, some 
yellow, brown and white; 2, twenty 
feet of blue marl, more or less sandy, 
and calcai'eous at the bottom ; 3, a sin- 
gle layer of blue compact clay, 8 inches; 
4, sand ; 5, yellow and brown sands ; 6, 
blue marl, containing a single species of 
ostrea. Most of this stratum is below 
water, and hence its thickness is not de- 
terminable by inspection. The marl bed 
is very thick, but contains considerable 
sand in its superior part ; yet it is found 
a valuable fertilizer. 

The marl stratum at Brown's land- 
ing is three feet thick, and contains 
many shells and much green sand, in 
grains, and seems to have derived its ma- 
:terials from the green sand of the creta- 
€60113 formation below. At Mr. McDow- 



ell's, the green or blue marl appears in 
a low bank, one mile from the river. — 
Also, on the plantation of Miss An- 
drews. These beds are peculiar in their 
geological relations, and merit a careful 
examination. 

Ten miles below Mr. Brown"'s landing, 
at Black Rock, the shell marl appears 
in the bank, but is quite sandy, and ap- 
pears as if this stratum is discontinued, 
and ceases at or near this place. It is 
scarcely more than ®ne foot in thickness. 
Immediately below it, the green sand is 
well developed, and it is well character- 
ized by its fossils. 

On the road from Brown's landing, to 
Black Eock, beds of marl appear, which 
are evidentlj'' isolated. The facts all go 
to show that the strata of shell marl 
never form very extensive beds ; <^ven 
that so conspicuous at Walker's bluff, 
disappears suddenly, and its place is ta- 
ken by the different colored sands. 

§ 18. The strata of marl, which I 
have thus far spoken .of, are composed 
of many kinds of materials, intermixed 
irregularly with each other. They pos- 
sess many fossils, in common, but often 
rare kinds are found in one or mai-e of 
the beds, which is uot generally distri- 
buted. But again, iliere are many places 
where the oyster-sh-eU is the principal 
one, and which, instead of crumbling in 
the hand, and by its own weight, are 
firm and nearly as sound as those now 
living upon their beds. The value of 
oyster-shells in this condition, is far less for 
immediate use, than those which are de- 
composed : indeed, for -spreading upon 
the soil, the principal -effect must be me- 
chanical. If, however, five hundred bu- 
shels were used per acre, good effects 
might be expected ; for there is a slow 
disintegration, and there is a slow solvent 
action, also, by which lime will be given 
to the soil. Of this character, are those 
shell banks immediately upon the coast 
These, though they have been exposed 
to atmospheric agencies for a much less 
time than those in the interior, are, nev- 
ertheless, farther advanced in the process 
of decay. The best method of employ- 
ing the undecomposed shells, will be to 



10 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



burn them ; use the quick lime, or after 
it has passed into a sub-caustic state. 

§ 19. The Neuse valley is deeper and 
lovver than the Cape Fear, and hence it 
furnishes a larger supply of marl beds. 
The Chapony Hills have been known 
for a quarter of a century, to be rich in 
marls of different kinds. The vicinity of 
Goldsboro', however, possesses most dis- 
tinctly the characters of those upon (Jape 
Fear. The beds which are best known 
are upon the plantation of Messrs. Scott, 
Ham and Peacock. The beds are iden- 
tical in age and position, and belong to 
the middle tertiary; they are from twelve 
to fifteen feet thick. These shells are 
imbedded in a green marly clay, which 
effervesces with acids. Mr. Ham's marl 
is filled with small shells, which Lave so 
fur decayed that it is difficult to find one 
entire. The covering to the different 
beds is quite varied. Mr. Ham's has 
three feet of peat, which is probably the 
best substance, considered economically, 
which could have been placed there ; ii 
is not determined what strata lie below 
these beds, occupying as they do, grounds 
which are low and depressed. The marl 
of Mr. Ham's may be regarded as com- 
posed of — 

Sand or Silex, 45.60 

Phosphate of lime, peroxide 

of iron and alumina, 8.25 

Carbonate of lime, 44.15 

Water and organic matter, 1.60 



99.G0 
The marls, previous to analysis, had 
become dry by exposure to the air. — 
Some moisture and organic matter re- 
mained, varying from one to three and 
foi'r per cent. The sand is always great- 
er than appears from simple inspection, 
and it usually consists of fine grains of 
pure quartz. There is also, one-half of 
one per cent, of soluble silica, which is 
usually omitted. 

§ 20. It will be observed, that in ma- 
king up a statement of the analysis, I 
place the ammoniacal precipitate, the 
otido of iron and alumina, under the 
head of phosphate of lime, instead of 
placing it ia analysis under the head of 



alumina and peroxide of iron. I have- 
done this, because this precipitate con- 
sists mainly of phosphates, though the 
exact amount of phosphoric acid has not 
been fixed with accurcy ; yet, one-fourtJi 
of a grain of it gives a strong reaction 
of phosphoric acid with moly date of am- 
monia. 

On the banks of the Sarpony hills, on 
Mr. Griswold's plantation, marl of an 
excellent quality and in great abundance 
exists. The beds, however, are indura- 
ted, or have passed into that couditioft 
which is known as stone marl. 

The following is a correct descriptioE 
of a section of a slope or bank wher« 
excavations have been made for piocur- 
ing limestone, beginning at the water* 
edge : 

1. Stratum of marl extending beneatis 

the water of the Neuse in' a soft 
condition. 

2. Consolidated marl. 

3. Sandy marl. 

4. Granular and partially indurated 

marl. 

5. Stone marl fifteen feet thick, sihI 

which has been used for lime. 

6. Sand. 

The whole bank has a thickness of 
thirty or thirty-five feet. It is one of the 
best locations on the river for the manu- 
facture of lime for agricultural purpost*. 
and it is not a little remarkable, that 
property which might have been very 
valuable, and at the same time useful, to 
a whole community, has been lying use- 
less and unproductive. 

§ 21. At the Sarpony Bluff, the for- 
mation presents an interesting section to 
the Geologist. It would be expected 
that the marl would appear here, as at. 
Walker's Bluff' on the Cape Fear, inas- 
much as the height and formations do 
not materially differ. The Sarpony 
Bluff is between seventy -five and eighty 
feet high, and consists of the following' 
strata : 

1. Sand extending beneath the water, 

four feet. 

2. Band of pebbles and sand, cement- 

ed by iron, with casts of obscure 
regetable stems, five feet. 



THE FA^KMER'S JOUR>^AL. 



^1 



3. Gray sand, thirty feet. 

4. Ferruginous baud, eight feet, 

5. Light colored ferruginous hiyer. 

^. Copperas beds, consisting of py- 
rites, clay aud vegetable matter, 
nearly black. It is properly a bed 
of lignite, charged with pyrites. 

*!. Sand, twenty-five feet. 

«. Earth, sand, &c., compacted to- 
gether. 

These beds, it will be observed, are 
-^mostly ferruginous, or those which are 
Jiighly charged with the oxide of iron ; 
and it should be observed, that vs^here 
iron is thus in excess, the beds do not 
furnish animal remains, or marl beds — 
Fossils are rarely distributed in them ; — 
sulphuret of iron is usually the source of 
the oxide, in beds of this description, 
and, in decomposing, forms an astrin- 
.gent of salt of protosulphate of iron or 
copperas. The marl of Mr. Griswold's 
plantation thins out before it reaches this 
high bluff; a change which occurs also 
on the Cape Fear, where the marl sud- 
denly disappears, it being replaced by 
sand. 

§ 22. The vicinity of Newbern has 
long been known as abounding in marl. 
New beds are frequently brought to 
Sight by accident, and sometimes by 
careful exploration of favorable places. 
Judge Donnell, during the past year, 
has discovered shell marl upon an old 
plantation ; — proving that most planta- 
tions, which are elevated considerably 
above the river, are not destitute of this 
fertilizer. 

§ 23. The Tau river, in its banks and 
branches, is rich in marls of the age of 
the middle tertiary, adopting the views 
of the Geologists who have examined, 
with some care, the fossils peculiar to 
-these beds. 

§ 24. Beginning in Nash County, five 
or six miles above Rocky Mount, we find 
the shell marls at intervals as far down 
as Washington. 

The first I shall notice is from Mr. 

. McDaniel's, five or six miles above Rocky 

Mount. This marl, like many other 

'.kinds whose quality is equal to the aver- 

dige, is more or less consolidated, and 



breaks up into masses. Thin lamina of 
coal, or lignite, are mixed with the shells 
— a fact which indicates that the source 
of the earthy material was in the coal 
formation, in part. This marl is regard- 
ed as consis-ting of the two kinds : — the 
brown or red, aud the blue. Practically, 
I think it well to keep up this distinc- 
tion ; for the red, tha^ far, has given 
better results in analysis than the bine. 
I do not know what opinions are -enter- 
tained by planters of their comparativa 
value, who use both kinds. 

The analysis of two specimens of this 
marl gives very good results for the red 
variety : 

Silex or sand, 16.2^5 

Phosphate of lime and per ox- 
ide of iron, lO.OQ 
Carbonate of lira e, 71.75 
Organic matter and water, 2.15 



100.15 
The magnesia and potash were not 
sought for. 

The appearance of this marl is cnite 
unpromising, as it is quite lumpy and 
hard, passing into an indurated marl. — 
Still analysis shows it to be an excel- 
lent kind, and which, I am confident, 
would yield seven or eight per cent, of 
phosphates, over and above the alumina. 
The blue marl which is found below, 
gives a good analysis, but contains lesa 
lime : 
Sand or silex, 21.23 

Phosphate of lime, and per ox- 
ide of iron and alumina, 10.00 
Carbonate of lime, 64.65 
Organic matter and water, 2.10 



98.00 
These marls, when tested, have always 
furnished a small quantity of a^iagnesia^ 
and a trace, and sometimes a weighable 
quantity of potash. The two sanaples 
furnish the same amount of the phos- 
phates, and oxide of iron. The color cf 
the ammoniacal precipitate is darker in 
the red, than in the green variety, indi- 
cating a larger quantity of the oxide cf 
iron. 
This bed, which furnished the forego- 



v^ 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



ing samples of marl for analysis, is the 
tighest known to me on Tau river. — 
This fact, however, does not prove its 
. tion-existence still farther ; and I predict 
that careful examination will reward the 
planters in that county, with many ad- 
ditional beds. Every bed must be re- 
garded as a prize if it is limited to fifty 
loads. 

§ 25. The reputation of marl as a fer- 
'tilizer, in Edgecombe county, has led 
most of the planters to search for it on 
their premises. Probably there is no 
better proof of the value of this sub- 
stance than is furnished by the estima- 
tion in which it is held by its citizens. 
Regarded in years which are past, as a 
wunty somewhat behind the times in 
literature and science, she has neverthe- 
less, outstripped all other counties in the 
application of good sense and common 
sense to her farming interests. Facts are 
•ometimes misunderstood as well as mis- 
represented abroad, when applied to the 
internal policy of a State. So, I sup- 
pose, Edgecombe has been misunder- 
stood ; — for agiicultural improvements 
are incompatible with ignorance and 
darkness. If we find a people alive to 
their internal interests, so vital as agri- 
culture, we may be sure that mind has 
been at work. But, however this may 
he, Edgecombe has the reputation of 
being the first county in its agricultural 
improvements and agricultural pvosper- 
ity. Her success has been secured chiefly 
by her marl beds ; it would have been 
secured in the end, if marl had not ex- 
isted ; but more time and capital would 
have been required to have placed her 
in her present enviable position. 

Although the foregoing remarks may 
be regarded as out of place and uncalled 
for, yet I deem it right to give credit 
where it was so justly due; without at 
all questioning the ability of ber neigh- 
bors to compete successfully with her for 
the next five years. 

There is another fact worth recording : 
Edgecombe has many men who have 
been educated at her excellent Univer- 
sity, who regard agriculture a befitting 
pi'ofession for an educated man — an ex- 



ample which the friends of agriculture 
will be pleased to see imitated in othe? 
parts of this Republic. 

§ 26. The marl beds at Rocky Mount 
belong to the same age as the preceding. 
They are the blue shelly beds frequently 
furnishing that large scollop or fossil, 
which is regarded as characteristic of the 
middle tertiary. The appearance of gra- 
nite and sienite at Rocky Mount, has 
produced a series of foils in the Tau- 
river ; and sometimes the marl is found 
resting immediately npou those pyro- 
crystalline rocks. The beds are associ- 
ated with the following strata: 

1. Above the marl is a stratum of 
■ sand and rounded peebles, which is 

ten feet thick. 

2. Marl somewhat sandy, but imper- 
vious to water, and hence, the sur- 
face water percolates through the 
upper mass and is thrown out by 
the marl. The upper is made up» 
of fine or small shells, like that of 
Mr. Ham's of Goldsboro'. Th« 
lower is intermixed with the large 
scollops and clams — ( Venus diffor- 
mis.) 

The marl, like that of other beds, is 
rich in lime, and often consolidated or 
cemented in different parts of the struc- 
ture. The whole thickness of the shelly- 
stratum is seven feet. The marl is some- 
times charged with rounded pebbles of 
different sizes. The position of the marl 
is upon the banks of the Tau ; several 
beds appearing in the banks near th« 
falls, or at one-half, and also about on« 
mile below the railroad bridge. There 
are points where excavations have been 
made, but it is probably continuous for 
nearly a mile. Wherever there is an un- 
dulation by which the strata are elevated 
even a few feet, there the marl appears 
in the banks. Rounded stone and peb- 
bles are strewed over the surface in great 
abundance, but this fact is no indication 
that currents have swept over the coun- 
try in a certain direction. Some of the 
soil at Rocky Mount is light and requires 
the application of marl to give it more 
retentiveness, as well as to furnish a fer- 
tilizer to supply the waste to which tb* 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



TS 



lands have been subjected. 

[Concluded in our nest.] 

For the Farmer's Journal. 
Eiagecombe as she is— and Edge- 
combe as she was Five Years Ago. 

The rapid improvement in the agricul- 
ture of Edgecombe during the last five 
years is justly attracting a large share 
Cff public attention and presents a grat- 
ifying instance of a people, by a well-di- 
rected impulse, working a quick and hap- 
py change in their destiny. From all 
quarters the voice of generous congratu- 
lations greet us on the brilliant results of 
<3ur efforts — filling our hearts with hon- 
■est pride and gratifying emotions. Altho' 
we know that the Agriculture of the no- 
ble "Banner County" is yet fiir below 
the standard we would assign it — that 
many of its dejiartments are still very 
much neglected — many worn out farms 
in her borders, and her piney lauds pre- 
sent miles of uninhabited wilderness; 
yet there is a striking contrast between 
Edgecombe now, and Edgecombe five 
years ago. Five years ago, her agricul- 
ture was either under the old regime or 
trying to escape from its shackles. But 
imder every past system, however im- 
perfect, she always took high rank in 
the agriculture of the State. Her natu- 
rally fertile soil, though much abused, 
jj'et enjoying uncommon security from 
vicissitudes of droughts, storms, &c., a 
oliraate highly favorable for varied pro- 
duction, and a people devoted to agricul- 
ture, naturally gave her this position. 

But the same destructive industry 
which early reduced to barrenness so 
large a surface of the Atlantic States, 
also worked destruction here. Clearing 
the forests, exhausting the soil, and re- 
peating this disastrous operation, formed 
a prominent feature in our agriculture of 



the past, down to within the last twenty 
years ; emigration was the natural re- 
sult, and a wilderness of worn out plan- 
tations, of which there are still many bv 
Edgecombe. Who has not derived a 
melancholy pleasure from visiting these^ 
miniature Palmyras? at once the chief 
antiquities ana humiliating evidences of 
our civilization here. They are often but 
a few miles from some busy mart or 
farm, glowing in the luxury of produo- 
tion and comfort. A short rif'eth'ough 
wild woods, soon makes you feel thie.' 
striking contrast. The old fields open 
on your view, bright, (vve will suppose- 
with the sunshine of May,) and stretch- 
ing like a prairie in the distance. The 
fields are worn out, but still covered with 
verdure of some sort. The broom-straw 
waving in the wind, the white brier, 
the wild rose, the crab apple, and a 
thousand humble shrubs and floweis. 
have thrown the mantle of cliarity over 
their nakedness; and grapes of different 
varieties are grasping everything which 
promises support. Animal life is not wan* 
ting in the feature — sheep and cows are 
grazing there, but their presence doea 
nj3t relieve the loneliness of the scene. 
Here was the old homestead; the trees, 
of the little grove have been deaded with, 
the axe, and their skeleton arms are 
stretched out toward heaven, as if de- 
ploring the recklessness of man. The roof 
tree is gone, but there is the hearth-stone- 
— there stands the blackened chimney^ 
a solitary and gloomy monument of the 
past; and on its top the mocking bird 
carols his lay as merrily asifthechiidreii 
of the homestead still applauded his beau- 
tiful mimicry, while in mournful contrast 
the wild winds murmur a dirge of many 
voices with the song of the bird and the 
dance of the flower. And the people who 



74 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



lived and labored here, where are they ? 
Ah! they have long since tbund a grave or 
a fortune in some newer and fresher land. 
What causes these frequent pictures of 
desolation, not only here, but in other 
States ? It is ignorance of nature's laws of 
production, and our consequent violation 
of them; from this cause our past industry 
was necessarily destructive. The harder 
we worked the poorer we got, and des- 
olation followed our foot steps as natu 
rally as it did the locusts of Egypt. 

During, the last twenty-live years, our 
agriculture sank till it found thebottom; 
it then began to rebound under the efforts 
of some of our most entei'prizing men 
who for fifteen- years or more have used 
marl more or less when they had it, and 
other manures to considerable extent. — 
This we may safely ascribe to that great 
benefactor of hh race,. Edmund Rtiffin. 
But whatever tlieoretic knowledge had 
been acquired, seemed either crude or 
dormant, and the task of putting it into 
practice, too herculean, except for a few 
of our most energetic men, and it is only 
within the last five years that the fer- 
Iners of Edgecombe have formed any just 
conceptions of the laws of production 
or of the true principles of fertility. Then 
an efibrt was made among us to give 
greater activity to such knowledge as 
we possessed and to acquire more. This 
resulted in the establisment of an agri 
cultural society, Avhich began by distrib- 
uting agricultural docnments,which with 
the co-operation of some spirited individ- 
uals soon gave unanimity to a move- 
ment whose happy results command the 
applause of the world. 

Although Edgecombe has but just 
waked up, and the first rays of true sci- 
ence just lighted her path — what a 
change do we behold ? See that field 



loaded with a thousand pounds of seed 
cotton to the acre, that was a ^\orn-out 
pine thicket five years ago; and here is 
another, white as a snow bank; it de- 
livers to its skillful owner a four hundred 
pciird bale fcr each acre, that was 
thought hardly worth fencing five year« 
ago. Here and there are vai'ious lots, 
ranging from two to three thousand 
pounds seed cotton per acre. As to corn, 
some think it almost a past-time to make 
it.. We now have cotton fields and corn 
patches, and yet ship thousands of bar- 
rels. We are no great growers of wheat, 
yet it is fair to presume that land which; 
vv'ill bring a bale of cotton to the acre 
ought to yield 20 or 25 bushels of wheat 
to the acre; and in tobacco, we have rea- 
son to believe we could reach the high- 
est point of production elsewhere. While 
such cases of production are not uufre- 
quent, and within the capacity of most 
of our farmers who choose to use the 
skill they possess, the oidinary produc- 
tion of the county is of course much 
more moderate, but still bountiful be- 
yond our notions of five years ago. — . 
There are, no doubt, a greater number of 
master spirits in Edgecombe whoreacli 
this maximum, than in most other coun- 
ties,^ and a larger portion of her faimers- 
are fast treading on their heels, ready to 
pass them in the race on the first favor^ 
able occasion. For this honorable rivalry 
is not confined either to members of our 
agricultural society, or to our reading- 
men; our society numbers less than a 
hundred, and theie are as able farmers 
out of it as in it, who are not behind the 
times either in action or intelligence. 
And the hard working practical man 
who has but little tijiie to read, or may 
be cannot, he too drinks at the fountain 
ofknowledffe which flows in a thousand 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



76 



rills among us. Ila does now wliat he 
would hardly attempt five years ago. 
Agriculture seems shoru of half its drudg- 
my, although more is accomplished. In- 
stead of an arena for the exertion of mere 
brute strength, it has become a new and 
inviting field, full of interest and excite- 
ment from the mental exertion necessary 
to comprehend and obey its laws. 

Our farmers seem determined to seek 
their own happiness, in restoring the 
beautiful plains of Edgecombe to more 
than their pristine fertility — instead of 
!»ucking up her life blood, and then aban- 
doning her for fresher realms. 

We have but just entered on this new 
path, acid already it is strewn with fruits 
as well as flowers. From little more 
than three thousand bales of cotton, and 
other crops proportionate, we soon rose 
to six thousand, then eight thousand, 
and now ten thousand will hardly tell 
oar number. Not less than a half rail- 
lion of dollars will, we think, be required 
to pay for our aggregate exports this 
year, while many times as much must 
remain a fixture in the soil to generate 
future wealth in rapid progression. So 
stands Edgecombe in 1853. How will 
she stand five years hence? The answer 
depends on themselves. ALPHA. 



For the Fai'mer's Journal. 
Doctor Tompkins : — You request 
jour subscribers to write for the " Jour- 
nal." I am an old man without literary 
pretensions, but thought I would write 
out in my crude way, my past as \yell as 
jny present practice of farming. Many 
people, old as well as young, will learn 
better under the frowns than the smiles 
-of fortune. Blunders serve as beacons 
which we afterwards avoid ; while "touch 
aad go" too often makes us feel smart, 



and we continue in the same old track 
until shipwreck overtakes us. Thus it is 
that many farmers who, with great la- 
bour of the body and none of the mind, 
manage to keep soul and body together 
and are content. They think they know 
enough, and will not read themselves 
nor be advised by those who do; and I 
have observed generally in such case* 
that the deficiency of means to supply 
the general wants, is made up from the 
school fund of the family. The children, 
poor things ] are not taught enough to 
understand the blessings of the Gospel 
of God, or the institutions of the gor- 
ernment under which they live ; to say 
nothing of scientific farming. This is 
all wrong, for it is as much the duty of 
parents to school their children as it is 
to feed and clothe them. 

I began farming in 1819, or 34 years 
gone by, which is I believe one year 
more than is allotted to a generation of 
mankind. I had good swamp land, but 
no lights of science ; yet there were many 
old farmers, of good repute, in the neigh- 
borhood, after whom I copied. 

The growth of heavy timber had been 
cut down on a part of my ditched land 
many years before, which T burned, leav- 
ing large quantities of ashes on a deep 
mellow soil. I planted one acre iu po- 
tatoes, which yielded 350 bushels. I 
attributed this lai-ge product to the natu 
ral fertility of the soil, and to mi/ own 
skill in the cultivation, not supposing 
that the ashes had any effect "whatever- 
Nor did I know any better until I had 
reduced this land to the small product o 
50 bushels potatoes per acre, even with 
the use occa.sionally of barn-yard ma- 
nure. But a few years ago I heard some 
noise about book farming, and thought 
I would lake an agricultural paper, to 



76 



THE FARMER^S JOURl^xlL. 



see if it was all it was cracked up to be ; 
and among other things I saw the analy- 
sis of the sweet potato — that it was com- 
posed laig'ely of potash, I took the 
the hint, and instead of wasting so much 
barn-yard manure about my potato crop 
I applied some ashes, and increased the 
product of this land to 150 bushels per 
acre. Well, I do not think I have lost 
much by you Editors of farming papers 
after all, for I gained o«t of you 400 
bushels potatoes on 4 acres land the last 
year, which will pay my subscription for 
yours and many other papers the bal- 
ance of my life, to say nothing of the 
gains "too tedious to mention." 

But I will return to my early opera- 
tions. In the year 1827 (I think) I ex- 
perimented with ray cora crop, to deter- 
mine the distance that should be given 
between the plants to yield the most. — 
The land was fresh and of excellent qual- 
ity — no manure was used — I laid off the 
rDWs 5 feet apart and planted in drill 
one acre 12', one 18, and the balance of 
the field 30 inches part. The fii'St pro- 
duced 12, the second 14, and the last 10 
barrels per acre. The next year, how- 
ever, the two acres that were planted so 
thickly did not yield more than two- 
thirds the crop of the land on either side, 
and for many years afterwards there was 
an appreciable difference. From that 
day to this I have been shy of tliick 
'corn. But I had a large quantity of 
stalks. What do you suppose I did 
with them ? Why, I burnt them, to be 
sure, as my neighbors did. Yes, for 20 
years I continued this practice of mur- 
dering my land ; and if I now had all 
the corn-stalks that were thus wasted, I 
could make every acre of it rich. But 
at last, by bad usage, I reduced the pro- 
duct of my land to about three barrels 



of corn per acre, when I discovered spots- 
of corn about my field that growed lux- 
uriantly. I examined the cause, and 
found these spots were made rich by a 
few bundles of rotten fodder, the remains 
of old fodder stacks. I concluded if" 
rotten fodder could raake corn grow, 
the stalks must be equally good, and 
from that day to this, I have buried all 
my corn-stalks in the field that I didnot- 
use about my stables and barn-yard. I 
place them in the middle furrow between 
the rows, and throw a furrow from eacli 
side upon them. If I plant the same 
land in corn the succeeding year, whicli 
I seldom do, I plant upon the stalks,, 
and put the manure on the side and plow- 
one vray. 

If I had had the light of science 30 
years ago, I could readily have known 
why a rotten corn-stalk will supjily food 
for a living one. 

As long as my land was I'ich and mel- 
low, it gave good crops ; but by constant 
tillage in hoed crops, it became close and 
compact, and the crops in the middle of 
the squares were greatly reduced and 
inferior to those near the ditches, I 
then cut a new ditch between each of 
the old ones on a part of my field, to see 
what difterence that would make. The 
effect was magical. The corn growetl 
off quickly and matured two weeks ear- 
lier than the part not thus ditched, which 
saved one plowing and gave a considera- 
ble increase of product. 

Well, as you Editors know everything 
about "cause and effect," I thought I 
would have an eye to that matter, and see 
if any of you would explain the cause of 
this change. In a short time I saw it 
stated in some of the papers, that well 
ditched land would pass the rain water 
, through the soil into the springs of tlw 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



77 



sub-soil and from thence to the ditches, 
by which, process the soil would absorb 
and retain the gases of the rain water, 
and thus become improved — that if the 
water could not pass down, it must go 
up by evaporation, carrying with it much 
heat from the soil, and that in hea\'y 
rains, under such circumstances, much 
water would run over the suiface, carry- 
ing with it the richest part of the soil 
into bogs, branches, &c., thereby making 
ihQ land both poor and cold. It was 
■recommended to plow deep as well as to 
ditch close, to facilitate the percolation 
of the water through, the soil, which I 
tried greatly to my advantage. 

With regard to the tilla^^e of crops, I 
do not think that any one 2:>lan will suit 
every soil ; but for many years I copied 
after my neighbors, which was to plant 
in hills ill the bottom of the fuiTOws or 
checks, to cross plow alternately, and to 
work the corn until it was in " roasting- 
ear." They argued that corn had no tap 
toot and should be planted deep to give 
the side roots a chance to run through a 
fair depth of soil. It is true that corn 
.had no tap root ; but it has numerous 
roots running in every direction, and 
Professor Mapes has traced them to the 
depth of five and a half feet; and in 
every experiment I have made, corn 
gi-ows quicker and produces more when 
planted upon than under the list. The 
cross plowing I found could be done 
without injury when the corn was not 
above 12 inches high, but to continue to 
cut the roots on every side, during the 
.whole process of its growth was in ef- 
fect to cut off the supply of food from 
the soil; to obtain which they were de- 
signated by the Creator. On comparing 
different experiments, ray injury in some 
Cases, by cross plowing, was as much as 



20 per cent. 

To determine how late corn should be 
worked, I made many experiments, and 
found in every case late working to be 
injurious. The best corn I ever made 
was "laid by" when about four feet high. 

It was my practice, as it is now with 
many of my neighbors, lo plow tliQ soil 
from the corn the first working. This 
may do in mild seasons ; and if I had 
the eccentric Lorenzo Do -v to juuphesy 
for me, that I might know when a cold 
June was coming, I may liave continued 
the practice. But in Jane, 1843, m part 
of my corn was caught with its bieeches 
down — the soil plowed fjom it in a cold 
spell of weather, and it was tliereby 
nearly ruined. Lorenzo luul many years 
before predicted that in 1843 there 
would be no King of England, no Pi'csi- 
dent of the United States, but snow in 
June, which was literally lulfilled, for it 
was the coldest June I excr knew, anct 
Queen Victoria and Capt. Tyler presided 
over the two great natitais. From that 
day to this I have not plowed the soil 
from my corn, and Lorenzo has net since 
prophesied to my injury. 

Large hills around codi are injni'ious, 
as the soil to form them ]iiust be taken 
from the side, where it is vieeded for the 
lateral roots, which run in endless iT.mi- 
fications; and in heavy blows or gusts of 
wind the stalks are apt to break, which 
they will not so readily do if the soil is 
but slightly elevated around them. 

The distance that should be given be- 
tween the plants depends upon the qual- 
ity of the land ; though in every case I 
have attained the best results from plant- 
ing in the drill. I lay off the dri'ls on every 
quahty of land five feet apart, and give 
a distance between the i^lants varying 
^rom 24 to 36 inches. J;y expei'iments 



^8 



THE FARMER^S JOURN'AL. 



however have been confined to swamp 
and ridge land. 

To sum up the whole, I have learned 
more in the last four years b_^ reading-, 
than in thirty years previous experience. 
I had not the aid of science in iny early 
operations, and I am now too old to pro. 
fit much by it. But in these four years 
by deep ploughing and thorough drain- 
ing — by using all my corn-stalks and 
turning under green crops occasionally — 
by the use of lime, ashes and salt — by 
protecting the manure made upon my 
farm from the weather, and sprinkling 
over if- as it accumulated, plaster, char- 
coal, or salt, to prevent the escape of 
gases — by saving all the bones I could 
get r.nd using the whole in compost as 
directed by the papers, I have brought 
my land up from three to an average of 
six barrels of com per acre. And if I 
can be spared a few years longer, I hope 
to retrieve my past errors and to bring it 
up to its original condition. 

Before I conclude, allow me. Doctor, 
to urge yoii on in your noble enterprise. 
The diffusion of light upon farming sub- 
jects, is what our people greatly need ; 
for our apathy and ignorance have be- 
come a by-word and reproach. 

But a brighter day is dawning. If 
North Carolina is poor in wealth and in- 
telligence, she is rich in patriotism and 
integi'ity; and you and others of her 
sons -will have the privilege and the ho- 
nor of wiping from her escutcheon every 
stain and blemish — of unfolding to her 
• people, by your energies, guided by the 
light of science, her vast resources and 
and treasures, and of making her one of 
the highest stars of the constellation that 
forms this glorious Uuion. 

Old North State. 



Analysis of the Soils. 

That (he inorganic constituent oJ 
our cultivated crops, as developed ira 
their ash must be derived from the- 
soil, and that where it is defective in 
these, a defective crop is the necessary 
resuh, are facts which, though not new, 
are only beginning to be fully appreci- 
ated by the generality of our farmers. 
As ressonahle is it to expect a mechan- 
ic to mauufftcture his wares without 
giving hitn the materioJs of whii-h they 
are composed, as to expect a crop of 
wheat, Indian corn or potatoes, where 
the soil is destitute of phosphoric acid, 
potash, magnesia, and other elementary 
constituents which analysis has proved 
to enter largely in'o their composition. 
Agricultural chemistry has shown us 
what most of our cultivated crops are 
composed of. and all ihat is wanting to 
an enlightened system of cultivation is, 
for the practical farmer to make him- 
sslf acquaiuied with the composition 
of the soil so as to adapt the one to 
the other, and thus be able to apply 
such food for plants in the shape of 
manures, and such only as are want- 
mg, or may result from chemical com- 
binations therein. 

One invariable rotation of crop?, the 
uniform application of the same ma- 
nures, prevails in this district of coun- 
try, and in most others through Penn- 
sylvania. Barn yard manure applied 
to the wheat crop in the fall of the 
year, after being exposed for nine or 
ten months to the weather, and an oc- 
casional dressing of lime and planter 
are the three great specifics for all kinds 
of crops and all soils. That thia sys- 
tem often results in large products of 
corn, oats, wheat, potatoes, &c., is an 
evideace of the natural fertility and 



THE FARilErvS JOURNAL. 



7^ 



absorbent power of the soil, #Dd of 
these mateiials, but it does not prove 
that their indiscriminate application, in 
the way they are used, is, in all cases, 
the most profitable one. Nothing is 
more common than to hear practical 
arniers differ in opinion as to the use 
of lime and plaster. 

One has told us that afier using the 
latter far several vesrs, he had entirely 
abandoned it, never having observed 
the least benefit. Anoiher, ■within a 
short distance, has unusually applied a 
small q'?ar.tny to each hill of corn, 
■and has observed (he bet efit, not only 
in that crop, but each successive one of 
oats, and wheat, grass has indicated by 
its deep green and luxuriant growth, 
"where each hill of corn had been. The 
first concludes plaster is no use, and so 
informs his friends and neighbors that 
be has tried it faiily, and it is money 
thrcwn away. All within his influence 
are thus dis^eouraged from using plas- 
ter. His neighbor tells a difierent tale, 
shows its good effects, and plaster be- 
comes a panacea for improving land. — 
One of our best fanners, who has been 
in the habit for many years, of apply- 
ing considerable quaniiiies of both lime 
and plaster, tells us that on one occa- 
sion, where the piaster fell short of go- 
ing over the entire field, leaving a 
whole land across it untouched, this 
part could be observed at a disjance by 
its increased luxuriance over the rest, 
indicating there was an excess of sul- 
phate of lime, already in the soil, and 
that more produced a positive injury. 
The same discrepancy is found to exist 
with respect to lime and barn-yard ma- 
nure, little or no advantage often re- 
sulting from their application to regu- 
i&t crops. The different results in 



these cases, is owing- to the variable 
composition of the soil, and we refer 
to them as an illustration of the impor- 
tance of analysis — aa indicating what 
is deficient, and enabling us to supply 
it. Becaute a certain manure has fai^ 
ed or succeeded unseen certain circum- 
stances, is no more proof that it will 
do the same in every ether soil and 
situation, than that because the La,p- 
lander can digest whale oil and tallow 
candles, the same articles are food for 
residents of a tropiral climate. The 
organic food cf plants, constituting 
60 per cent., is derived chiefly from 
the atmosphere ; the remainder, or in- 
organic constituents, solely from the 
soil, and these, although in such small 
proportions, are equally necessary with 
the others. 

The theory of rotation is founded ou 
the fact that every kind of plant re- 
quires its specific food, the amount of 
which is of course diminished by the 
production of every supsequent crop of 
the same kind. Although analysis may 
sometimes fail of giving the exact pro- 
poitions, it may be relied on safely for 
indicating the general character, what 
it has and what it want.«. so as to form 
the basis of improvement. We consid- 
er it thus far as certain as mathemat- 
ics, and its great importance, to the 
skilful farmer, cannot be too highly es- 
timated. Plants, like animals, seem to 
have their instincts for certain kinds of 
food, and differ in their powers of se- 
lection and assimilation ; the ash of dif- 
ferent varieties, never exhibiting, on 
analysis, the same composition. No 
substitutes will answer. Hay, for in- 
stance, exhausts the soil of silica, lime, 
potash. No application of soda, mag- 
nesia, or chlorine, which it contains in 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



very small quantities, will supply this 
deficiency. 

It does not sc m to us necessary that 
farmers should qualify ihemselvts to 
" analyze their own soils The practi- 
cal part of fiirming is amply sufficipni 
to occupy their whole lime, without at 
tention to the laboratory. An analysis 
will not often be required more than 
once, but we hold ii to be indispf-nsable 
to correct and profitable management, 
that they should, m all cases, know the 
consritiieiiis of th^ir sod, before they 
can \whye what fertilizers are wanting, 
or in wt)at quantities they should btj 
applied. 

In Maryland, a State Chemist is em- 
ployed on a fix.'d salary, to analyze 
soils without expense to the farmer. — 
There has been no liberality of this 
'kind, as vet, in Pennsylvania, but we 
hope there soon will be. We have 
he.-ird there is an agricultural chemist 
in Philadelphia, of some experience in 
this wny. but we do not at present know 
who he is or where to be found If 
anv of our readers have this informa- 
tion, we shall be obliged by hearing 
from them, a& our farmers are making 
inquiries of us on this subject. — Penii- 
sylvania Farm Journal. 



Carbon. — Carbonaceous matter in 
som^> form, is necessary in all soils. In 
some,it arises from the decay of green 
crops; for the result is carbon, (char- 
coal) cis thoroughly as if burned in a 
vessel. Pan of the results of decay- 
•inn- manures exist in soils as carbon. — 
Old charcoal hearths, charcoal dust 
friim locurnotives. and all other sources 
are valuable to supply this desideratum 
to the soil Soils are retentive of ma- 
nures, only fn m the presetice cf carbon 
■~or p.luiiiina — Worki7i^ Farmer. 



FARMER'S JOURNAL 
BAra7N7c7?uMiri853? 

Agricultural Address. 

We shall by invitation deliver an 
Address before the Agricultural Socie- 
ty in Scotland Neck. Hulilfix County, 
on the third Saturday m June We 
shall at this time present the Silver 
Cup to T. '1' Laurence, Esq . which we 
awarded to him for the largest number 
of subscribers sent to the "Ji)urnHl." 



To those who send us Money by Letter, 

We have receive J at limes '« tters in- 
closing money, with no post office 
named in the letter, and on the back it 
is marked "Way." A few ''ays since 
we received a letter maiked '-Way." con- 
taining $5. and not a woid wri'teu, nor 
name signed, and we came to the con- 
clusion that some one seeing our stiug- 
glo to f*o something for the old North 
State, had concluded to help us in this 
modest way. Those who send us mo- 
ney, should by all means name the post 
office to which the paper is to be senu 



Onr Thanks. 

We tender our thanks to Thomas C. 
Smith, Esq., of Bladen county, and T. 
W. Whitley, of Johnston county, both 
of whom have sent us a large number 
of subscribers, and say that they will 
still exert themselves in our behalf. If 
thirty other gentlemen in our State would 
only aid us in like manner, we should 
soon be able to hold up our head, and 
manfully advocate the mother interest of 
the "Old North State." Young men of 
North Carolina, Avhere is your State 
pride, that you do not interest yourselves 
in behalf of a publication that must con- 
fer a benefit upon" all, if properly sus- 
tained ? 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



81 



To the Friends of Agricultural Im- 
proTeiuent in North Carolina. 

This is the third number of the second 
TOkime of the Farmer's Journal, and we 
must confess that we have been sadly 
disappointed in not receiving a larger 
list than we have at this time. We 
really have much cause to be discour- 
aged as to our effecting much in the im- 
provement of our native State. We 
have gone into several parts of the State 
within the last twelve months, and have 
labored hard in the cause which we es- 
poused, but much of what we did last 
year has, like a building made of a slen- 
der frame, fallen to pieces. This we are 
sure cannot be attributed to us, but to 
the bad timber upon which we have had 
to display our maiden efforts. If those 
persons who have influence in the vari- 
ous counties, will only exert themselves 
in behalf of the Journal, we can soon be 
able to hold up our head again. If we 
»ee that our eftbrts are bound to result 
in a failure, we shall pack up and follow 
the example set by others — leave the 
land which gave us birth, in connection 
with which are associated reminiscences 
which afford us pleasure to reflect upon. 
What say you, farmers of North Caro 
lina ? Shall the third and perhaps the 
last attempt to permanently establish an 
agricultural 'paper in the State result in 
a failure ? If such should be the case, 
it will be your fault and not ours, for we 
have labored as hard as man ever did, to 
infuse a spirit of enterprise among our 
people. We call upon our friends to go 
forth and aid us in this our last struggle. 
Let every subscriber send us five more 
and we are safe again. 



The present Number of our Paper. 

We regard this as being decidedly the 
best number of the "Journal" which we 
have ever published, and we do not hesi- 
tate to say, is richly worth the subscrip- 
tion price for the year. We have here 
laid before our readers an analysis of the 
different crops which are cultivated by 
farmei-s in difterent parts of our Stat^ 
which will be of infinite service to such 
as are making an eflbrt to connect science 
with their farming operations. In this 
article it may be seen vvhat substance* 
make up or compose the various crops ; 
and by having some knowledge of chem- 
istry, a correct application of manures, 
may be made. We also lay before our 
readers, what we regard as the most able 
production we ever saw, a treatise writ- 
ten by Baron Liebeg, the renowned Ger- 
man chemist. It is a review of the pro- 
gress of agricultural science from the be- 
ginning to the present time. There is 
also a communication from an old far- 
mer of our acquaintance, signed " Old 
North State," which will be read with 
interest by every one — and we here taki» 
occasion to remarL, that this communi- 
cation is just in charactrr with what our 
farmers need — nothing more than a plain, 
sound sense sort of article, which is wor- 
thy of being read by every farmer in our 
State. We caution our rSadere to take 
good care of this number of the " Jour- 
nal," for it will serve to refer to for years 
to come. 



^^ Volume First of "Farmer's Jour- 
nal" will be furnished complete for $1. 



Cure FOR Foundeh of the Horse — 
Immediately on discovering ihal your 
horse is foundered, mix about a pint of 
unground sunflower sei^d in his proven- 
der and it will effect a certain curp. It 
ji^ a simple remedy, and one of the best 
evei used, 



82 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



Parmers, da not Turn your Stock 
upon your FieMs. 

Ifc has been a very coramon practice 
among the fauiers of tliis State, after 
gathering the crops from their fields, to 
turn their stock upon them and let them 
eat the stalks and vines. There has in 
our opinion been nothing that has so 
much conduced to the general exhaustion 
■of our lands, as this practice, although 
we have been very often told by farmers 
that they regarded it as farm economy. 
All writers upon Agricultural Chemistry 
readily admit that the stalks acd vines 
of plants mast be left upon the field, in 
order that by their decomposition they 
may return to the soil the elements for 
the reproduction of succeeding crops. — 
The various plants we cultivate are com- 
posed of elements, a part of which are 
mineral and a pai-t vegetable, and tlie 
mineral elements must necessarily be af- 
forded to the plant by the soil. Now, 
is it not very plain to be seen, that if 
year after year these mineral elements 
Are taken away from the soil, without 
leaving any means for a re-supply, that 
in a few years the soil in which they once 
existed will be deficient in them ? A 
very large quantity, it is true, are carried 
away in the crop; but if in addition to 
this, the stalk and vine are consumed by 
atock, from what source can the soil ob- 
tain them again, unless they be supplied 
in the form of manure? Our readers 
will recollect that in the last number of 
■our paper we answered a question sub- 
mitted by a farmer from Greene county) 
3u which we ventured to account for the 
failure of the pea crop upon land that 
formerly was well adapted to the culti- 
vation of the pea. This exhaustion had 
iio doubt been caused by this very prac 
Uce of turning stock upon the fields in 



the fall, as farmers say, " to eat the pea«y 
and thereby save them from wasting." 
In the vine or stalk of the pea is con- 
tained 27 per cent, of the carbonate ot 
lime ; and these being consumed year 
after year by cattle, horses and hogs, it 
is but reasonable tO' suppose that the 
land would fail to produce the pea luxu* 
riantly. The exhaustion of land by this 
practice cannot be perceived very readi'y 
in the beginning, and hence the continu- 
ation of it ; but every farmer may rest 
assured that he is sustaining a very great 
damage by continuing the practice. Let 
us now look into the saving that is so 
generally believed to be caused by turn- 
ing stock upon fields. Practical demon- 
stration h;is proved the fact, that by giv- 
ing proper attention to any kind of stock 
in the way of furnishing materials for 
making and saving mj^nure, that the 
food consumed will be paid for in the re- 
turn made by the manure to the land. 
If this be true, and we do not doubt it in 
the least, the practice of suffering stock 
to run at large upon fields must be a bad 
one indeed. It is true that hogs turned 
upon a field in the fall upon which peas 
have been sown, will soon become fat; 
but the manu^ from them may be said 
to be almost entirely lost, for it is depo- 
sited in every direction and upon the sur- 
face of the land, and its volatile proper- 
ties, by far tlie most important, are scat- 
tered "to the four winds." As we said 
before, the hog improves at the expense 
of the land, which is greatly injured, 
and without the application of manure, 
will fail to produce. If the hog were 
kept up in a close pen, and the proper 
attention paid to the collecting of mate- 
rials for making manure, the land might 
be mucli improved by the application oi 
this manure, and not as in the otbe; 



THE FARMER'S JOURISTAL. 



ease, at the expense of the hog. The 
farmer would find it much to his interest 
t^ keep every kind of stock from his 
fields, and thereby leave upon them the 
materials for the reproduction of other 
crops. 



Farmers, Raise your own Horses and 
Mules. 

Tt seems to us very strange, that while 
the farmers of every other State in the 
Union are turning their attention to the 
raising of their own horses and mules, 
those in North Carolina still contine to 
he dependent upon other States for their 
supply of this kind of stock. ^We have 
frequently called the attention of indivi- 
duals to this matter, and they say, as a 
general thing, that it will not pa}" ; but 
when we ask them if they have ever 
tried it, they answer in the negative. — 
We contend that by proper management 
it will pay ; there is nothing either in' 
the climate or products of our State to 
prevent it. The amount of money an- 
7iually carried out of this State for horses 
«nd mules, would, if summed up, be al- 
most incredible. This is not a good po- 
licy to buy abroad what could be raised 
at home; and in this case our farmers 
have been guilty of improper conduct 
long enough. Like every other kind of 
business, it must have a beginning, and 
every thing should be in readiness be- 
iore an attempt is made. A farmer who 
made this his business might every year 
manure richly a large farm from his 
horses and mules alone. In other States 
a large number of farmers make stock 
raising their chief business, and in most 
cases tliey accumulate large fortunes 
and a great deal of their money they 
carry from North Carolina. . In order to 
iring this matter more plainly before ou 



readers, and to show the thing as it h, 
we would ask them to notice for one year 
the number' of droves of horses and 
nmles which pass through the county 
town of the county in Avhieh they live. 
We hope that the fanners of our State 
will look into this matter, and that manv 
of them will turn their attention to the 
raisinir of mules and horses. 



Ashes as a Manure 

There is not a farmer in the State of 
North Carolina Avho cannot avail him- 
self of the great advantages to be de- 
rived from tlie application of ashes as a 
fertilizer tohir? worn-out lands. And we 
say here, as we have often said else- 
where, that there is no one substance m 
nature that so abundantly contains the 
mineral elements of the various crop* 
which Ave cnltivate. Farmers are often 
heard to complain, for the reason that 
they have not got a bed of marl, or are 
not able to get shell or stone lime, for 
the reason that they live so far from a 
navigable stream. All such as make 
this complaint have great advantages for 
burning ashes; and wehadmnchi rather 
have a bushel of ashes than tlie same 
quantity of lime, for the reason mention- 
ed above — that we have in the bushel of 
ashes so many of the various element* 
which are required to produce good 
crops. The impression among farmers 
generally, is that the burning of ashes 
will not pay ; b"jt such is a great mis- 
take. But at the same time, there is a 
proper way to go to Avork to make the 
burning of ashes a good business : The 
heaps of wood should be made small, 
for if they are large the draught created 
carries oft" a great many of the ashes 
and a larger quantity are burned up. — - 
x\fter the ashes are burned, if not use4 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



immediately they should be protected 
from the weather, for the same reason 
that the soluble parts contained in them 
will be dissolved if left exposed to the 
rain. The best manner of applying 
ashes is in compost with muck or woods- 
mould, at the rate of about fifty or sixty 
bushels to the acre of land. In the pro- 
duction of tobacco and potatoes, the ap- 
plication of ashes will be of matei'ial ad- 
vantage, for the reason these plants con- 
tain a great deal of potash, which may 
be found more abundant in ashes, than 
in any other substance that will justify 
its use. Every farmer should save all of 
the ashes from the houses upon his farm, 
and for their preservation, it would be 
• well to have an ash house made of brick? 
into v/liich the ashes could be put when 
taken up, without any danger from the 
fire which might be I'eraaiiiing in them. 

The Cultivation of Fruit Trees in 
Worth Carolina. 

We have been very much astonished, 
"while travelling over this State, at seeing 
so fc'vV orchards stocked with the most 
choice of the various kinds of fruit. — 
According to horticultural writers, there 
is no part of the United States better 
adapted to the growth of the peach tree, 
than some portions of iSlorth Carolina. 
Both the climate and soil bear a great 
similarity to that of which the peach is 
SL native ; and there is no country where 
its cultivation is more sadly neglected. 
There is no fruit within our knowledge 
more pleasant to the taste and less apt 
to injure those who eat it than the 
peach. The peacii tree is subject to two 
diseases which have had a great tenden- 
cy to cause those who have been en- 
gaged in its culture to abandon it. The 
diseases to which we allude are the yel- 



lows, and the effects resulting from the ra- 
vages of a worm called the peach borer. 
The horticulturist in the northern States 
are complaining very much of the injury 
which they have sustained from planting 
seed borne upon trees afflicted with these 
diseases. An application of lime to the 
roots of the tree in the months of May 
and June will greatly tend to remedy 
trees thus affected. The salt and lime 
mixture mentioned in No. 1, Volume 1 of 
our paper is a most excellent manure for 
all kinds of fruit ti'ees and vines, and 
the soda wash may be used with much 
benefit. The cultivation of the apple 
tree is also much neglected by our peo- 
j)le. There are yearly thousands of bar- 
rels of this fruit brought here from north- 
ern States, when, with due care on our 
part, we could produce even finer apples 
than we get from the northern market. 
But before this is done, the idea which is 
so very prevalent, that fruit trees do not 
require manui'e, nmst be abandoned. — 
They, like all other plants, have a pecu- 
liar kind of food which is best suited to 
their taste, and without this be furnished, 
they will not do well, but pine away and 
die. In our opinion there is no branch 
of agriculture that would pay better in 
a sliort time than a well conducted or^ 
chanl stocked with choice fruit, inNortb 
Carolina. 



The Sorrowful Tree. — At Goa, 
neai' Bonibiy. there is a singuLtr vege- 
lable — the' sorrowful tree — so called be- 
caus*^ It flourishes in the night. At 
sunset no fjow>'rs are to be seen ; and 
y^'t, half at) hour after, it is quite full 
of them Thf>y yielfl a sweet smell, 
btit thf^ sun n'> sooner begins to shine 
on them than some of ihcm fall off, 
ari'i others clost' up. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



The Farmer's Library. 

We have been often asked what boohs 
farmers had best buy, and the idea has 
occurred to us to name them here, so 
that our readers generally, can avail 
tJiemseives of what we say upon the 
subject. Every fiirmer who wishes to 
improve himself shouid have a copy of 
Liebeg's Organic Chemistry, Johnston's 
Agricultural Chemistry, the Farmer and 
Planter's Encyclopedia, Sterin's Book of 
the Farm, and Youraan's Chemistry and 
and Chart, wliich will make every thing 
in Chemistry plain to the reader. These 
works may be found at the Agricultural 
Book store of C. M. Saxion, in New 
York. 



Agricultural Schools--- Experi- 

uieals, «fc.c. 

To the Editor of the American Farmer. 

I tender my thanks to your printer for 
the patience it must have cost him to 
decypher the very bad manuscript, wliich 
in iuy haste I sent for your last number, 
and ask the privilege of making a few 
corrections. 

Read iu proper places — not acti;g as 
politicians — prove their consciousness o! 
a truth — forbids me not to say — and the 
essence at which we aim. 

To you I am indebted for an extract 
from Col. Carey's able address, which in- 
directly furnishes the best sort of evidence 
that my first objection to State Agricul- 
tural schools is not without foundation. 
It is not necessary to my present pur- 
pose to go behind his opinions and ex- 
amine how far they may be soundly ap- 
plicable to the present condition of 
things in this country, where both indi- 
,vidual and associated intelligence have 
already worked such wonders, without 
pecuniary aid from government, and in 



spite of legislative mismanagement, and 
oppression; it is enough for me to know 
that at the time his address was deliver- 
ed, he either was or had just been a 
prominent member of the State Senate, 
and that he either did not attempt, for 
reasons worthy of his high intelligence, 
to obtain action in favor of such a pi'oject, 
or that he failed in the attempt, in or- 
der to find fiiir proof that such action 
could not then be procured. 

I need scarce refer to the existing truth 
that, notwithstanding all that has been 
written and said, we are still to all ap- 
pearance as tar as ever from tli at consum- 
mation, which by so many is professed 
so devoutly to be wished. I have alrea- 
dy heard, without surprise, that some 
have interpreted me as being opposed to 
agricultural education, but all who read 
with even half an eye, will have perceived 
that I only object to that which, un- 
checked by sober practice, would soon 
degenerate into mere shadowy form, and 
that I seek a something capable of be- 
ing everywhere taught as substantial 
truth. But grant for a moment that we 
can and shall have State agricultural 
schools, and they prove to be all that 
gentlemen's fancies paint them, would it 
not be well, iu order to keepihe rest of 
mankind wi'hin hailing distance of those 
who might find room to be educated iu 
them, to encourage a system of experi- 
ments upon subjects immediately con- 
nected with real farming, and capable of 
being carried out under an ordinary state 
of things ? 

The general plan of operations I would 
suggest is, that the State Society should 
offer premiums for the best experiment 
conducted within the State, and the coun- 
ty societies, for the best within their res- 
pective counties; and that they should 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



©iideavor, ia co-operation, to obtain from 
the Smithsonian Institute, endowed for 
the ilitfnsion of knowledge amono; men, 
*>fters for the best within the United 
States. 

Due efforts should be made to agree 
'in the selection of subjects for experi- 
ments, still leaving, however, the right to 
evach association to choose for itself. The 
luass of information which could thus be 
collected, might be so sifted down as to 
derive general truths, where important 
facts, comiag from various sources 
would be found to coincide, — and spe- 
cial truths applicable to particular re- 
■gions. The general truths would stand 
jn the same relation to agriculture that 
astronomy does to navigation; and the 
apecial truths, "would, in their application 
to neigliborhoods, be like well known 
soundings, safe in practice. 

Time would be required so to collect 
and arrange truths thus to be derived, as 
to ha-ve tliem in a state to be tauglit in 
our common schools; but, as it is better 
not to teach anything which is not cer- 
tainly true, than to fill the youthful 
tnind, untrained to reason, Avith a mix- 
ture in which fable may predominate 
over fact. It is impossible to be too cau- 
tious in the adoption of dogmas to be 
taught. The application of chemistry to 
agriculture would form the great geuer- 
Sil suliject for experiments; and in my 
yiew, in order to be made generally ad- 
vantageous, it must be tested under eve- 
ry variety of circumstance, when trials 
can be induced. 

To believe that it can thus be made 
practically more perfect as a science, by 
l>eing more thoroughly made known in 
*ll its bearings to those who have already 
adopted it as a profession, and can thus 
hi placed in a condition to be much 
more speedily and effectually taught to 
those who may hereafter wish to adopt it, 
I deem perfectly in accordance with that 
.soundest of philosophy — common sense. 



Fanners' Gardens. 

Asa general thing, farmers do not 
provide themselves with good gardens; 
at least, so f^r as the writer has trav- 
eled, he has seldom seen what he would 
call a good garden on farms. The ex- 
cuse for the neglect is generally the same 
Kilh all of them, — they 'have no time 
to attend to such small niatters." And 
yet it m;iy safely be asserted that an 
acre of ground appropriated to a good 
garden, will be more profitable to the 
faimer than any other ten acres of the 
tarm. The inte'-esis of the farmer, 
the cotnforts of his family, the good 
condition and health of his household, 
require such a gnrden on every farm 
in the country. And it should be a 
garden^ not a mere excuse for one, — • 
a mere weedy patch. It should be 
one so raanafffd and arranged, that 
every vfgetable of wholesome quality 
for human food should be raised on it 
in perfection, and ntthe earliest sea?OB. 
After a winter's diet on solid and gen- 
erally ?alt animal food, the human 
constitutton requires the deterging op- 
craiion of free vegetable and fruit di<*t ; 
and, as a general rule, no one can dis- 
pense with it safely. Besides this, the 
natural appetite calls for it, and there 
are few pleasures that may be ?o safelj 
and even beneficially indulged in. In 
the latter part of winter and eaily in 
spring, meaures should be taken to se- 
cure early vegetables of all kind."? ca- 
pable of very early cultivation. De- 
tails will not be expected here; there 
are other books and papers appropriated 
to such information. But I cannot 
help sayinij^, that when I am at a farm 
house, at a season when early peas, 
beans, cabbages, cucumbers, potatoes, 



Tiios. R. HoLiDAV. 1 green corn, lettuce, &c., are properly 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



8^ 



in sea&OQ, and find aone of these luxu- 
ries on ihe table, — rioth-.ng but the 
blue beef, salt pork and beans or pota- 
toes, of winter, — I am fiee to say, I do 
not envy that farmer's life, nor hie fam- 
ily their enjoyments. These very peo 
pie are fond enough of such things 
when they go to the city, and it is there- 
fore not want of taste. It is simply the 
fault of negligenet^ Why may o 
every farmer in the State have every 
kind of early vegetables on his table 
as early as any gardeners near the cit- 
ies can TAise them ? 'J'here is not a 
single reason why he should not, while 
their are a great many why he should. 
The gardeners have to incur a viry 
considerable expense in procuring hot 
manure for their hot-beds, while the 
farmer has it in his barn-yari. The 
gardener has every ihing to pui chase, 
and draw a considerable distance, wiiile 
the farmer has nothing to buy. The 
small quartiiy of lumber required is 
probably rotten on his premi.'^f'S. It 
would only be a source of ainusemcnt 
duiing winter, for him to construct the 
frame of a hot-bed, and prepare the 
manure and bed fur use. Having 
done this, and got his plants in a thrifty 
state, he can, in a short time, when the 
season arrives, get his garden ground 
ill order and make his plantations — 
And then he will have ail these vegeta- 
ble lu.xuries as early as any of his 
town fiiends can purchase them. It 
only requires a little industry and at- 
tention to accomplish this, and as we 
said before, his enjoyment, his health, 
and even his interest, as well as the 
comforts of his family, will be benefit- 
ted by it — Country Gentleman. 

Ey industry we thrive. 



VV'oud Aslieti as a Manure. 

Wood ashes may be class* d under 
the head of stimulating amtlioratoris 
rather than as actual manures, as they 
perforin both these offices when applied 
to the soil. As an ameliorator, like 
lime, ihey modify the texture of the 
soil. They also seem to stimula'e tL*^ 
plant to greater activity than it would 
otherwise possess, and aid in preparing 
for its use and assimilaion the lertili:*- 
ihg materials already supplied, as well 
as attracting ihem from the atmos- 
phere. They are found most useful oi* 
lands which contain inert organic mat- 
ter, if ihese lands are tufficitnlly dry 
for their action. 

Prof. Bentz remarlis that there is a- 
great analogy in the action of ashts 
and lime. Like lime, ih<'y are best on 
.soils that are not calcareous, and upon 
those on which carbonate of lime le 
most effective. They loosen ar.d in- 
crease the fertility of compact soils, il 
applied in sufficient quaniiiy. and inti^ 
matcly mixed therewith. Almost all 
crops are benefitted by their applica^- 
lion, but on old, worn out lands, they 
generally give the greatest evidence of 
their value ; though pew soils, if defi- 
cient in some marked constiFuent of 
ashes, show equal eflTeots. Further ex- 
periments are needed to show the ac- 
tion of ashes as a manure. Professor 
Johnston remarks that they are largely 
employed in many districts in England, 
mixed with bone-dust as a fertilizer for 
turnips, and often with great success. 
Fifteen bushels of each are applied t» 
an acre and drilled in. Alkalies are 
abundant'in turnips, potatoes, and seve- 
ral other roots, which are almost inva- 
riably benefitted by the application of 
his stimulant. The immediate .-fi'tCk 



86 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



of as;i^,-, adds ihe same authority, is 
mosi jjer.-eptible upon leuutniaous 
plants .Mi i'li as clover, pi'as, beans, &e. 
As -A Oj) Jessing to grass land ifc ri.ots 
out mo-se-i and wild !4!«ss,aMd prouaoi'8 
thegi'iwMi of white cl'ivi-r. Upm ri- 
dovM its .'ffricis arir! pro;n )ted bv mix- 
ture with oypsuin. Ill small duses it 
ahou'd De applie.d to ihia, pour soils, but 
mor-" tiian six oi eight buslvls p^r a^r 
woul ! bi^ I ^0 exhaust!!'.^, unles- th ■ s lil 
is rich in vh^ -table uiatti-r or rece!>7'S 
freqiJC'it applications ol itnim i! and ve- 
getable manure's 

Of th-' use of ash 'S hs a 'op divssina 
for corn, almost e^-ery farmer ha-^ Sdiiie 
experience, and we have hea'd but ou!' 
opinion tixwrjssed o( their valur- — an i 
ihai in lavorof iheir ush in ^mall quan- 
tities Thiy "eera to stimiil i- ibe 
<H)ni plant, enabling it to !n:ikH usf "f 
the mai.ures furnished in other orjns. 
and in ty also prevent 'h^ rava.O' s of 
various w^nns and insect*, We have 
heard i-r knovn but very little "f tj,e 
a^ppiicntion of ashes to the whe^tt cop, 
though it has been recoinmendi-d as t> 
corrective of acidiiy ia the soil — which 
is phowti by th^ gr>>w!h of sonel - as 
destructive to ihe wire worm, and use- 
ful in all cases in which lime would 
prove of berjefit. 

Some agricultural wiiters think that 
leached 'sio^a firove of morebeo-^fit as 
a peitnaneht ameliorator of 'he soil 
than unleached, and that th-' longer 
they hav'.-^ been exposed to the air and 
weather the more valuable they will 
prove in this respect. We have known 
▼ery marked results to follnw their ap 
plication to bofh grain and grass lands, 
and would recommend the use of le ich- 
ed ashes in all cases where they may 
be I asily obtained. 



We are ot the opinion that thf^ na- 
ture of the soil, rather than the -har-- 
.icter of the c-op to be produced, should 
be considered in deciding ou iht' appli- 
cation! of ashes, Lind deficieui in the 
tlem n's they supply— the caib-hales 
sulp lati s. silicates and phorphates — 
•vili rf-pay th ir application, if they aro 
not ai.so leficient in veg- table matter, 
aiii too wet to r«'ceive benefit fVom any 
ipi'iic tiion i)f amen;imei;is or manures. 
In ijli exp' riments and r^-uiarks which 
>vr. have U'ted, until Vf ry recmtly, wot 
soil- ai 1 ,-eiOiis were tnought lo have 
a mt ked < ffi-ct on their value, and wa 
hav- yi-t to see uny proof to the con- 
iia;y 

Thus mncii on wond ash' s as an ap- 
I licaii 'U ro th - soil, we have -jaiht-red 
l:om reliabh' sources, but Ui.re appeara 
great u. ed f car»-(ul experiments to 
^■teMiiiue t.iO worth of the different 
iheori s proposed. Autuciin is a yood 
tun ■ for com a e Doing such a coursCj 
anil we ho;)e those situated fav.nably 
for -0 lioing, will try ashes, both I ach- 
< <! and unleached, on the wheat crop, 
with a view to test their value, and also 
of comfiaring it with lime and marl 
where tne la ter may be obtained. — 
Rural New Yorker. 



Right and PROPiiti. — A grnth man 
in New Hainpsliire has lately given to 
he AvMculiiiral Socety of that State 
ihe sum of twenty-five dolltrs io bp 
ofiven to the lady who will show the 
e^t specimen of patching at the next 
Fair He ihinks the ladies have given 
loo much time to needle work and em- 
broidery, while their husbands were 
trmting around with holes in their 
breeches and socks. He wants them 
to show iheir hands at patching and 
darning. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



JxortK (^aTdina 



^r^ 



Vn 



From the Farmer and Artizan. 
Liquid Manures. 

Mr. Seavey ; — It cannot be for the 
flirmer's interest to expend very large 
»ams of money for mineral and otlier 
manures, until he learns to save those 
liquid portions of his barn-yard manures 
■which are too often left to escape unno- 
ticed. All the fertilizers that may be 
found on the premises should be col- 
lected and appropriated to use before we 
think of buying guano, patent manures, 
09* any of the highly recommended mine- 
ral substances to be found in almost 
every market. I would by no means un- 
dervalue the above named manures, for 
they are doubtless possessed of many 
highly fertilizing properties, which should 
gain for them the good will of every 
farmer; but as I intimated above, no 
farmer can well afford to purchase them 
while he neglects to save the urine of 
his stock. It is no worse for the farmer 
to lose money from his pocket, than to 
lose any portion of the manure which 
he makes on his farm. Wherever we 
apply liberal quantities of manure to 
our lands, we find ourselves amply com- 
pensated by abundant harvests for a suc- 
cession of years. When we come to ga- 
ther our grass crop, we like to have, as 
old farmer Damon used to say, "a plaguey 
lot ©'pitching to do'' — in fact we want 
to cut two tons of hay per acre, and as 
much more as our land will produce. — 
Biit how long will it take to bring our 
farms to a fit condition to produce these 
excellent crops, if we continue so regard- 
less of our best interests, as to permit all 
our liquid manures to be wasted ? It is, 
perhaps, evident to all, that the richer 
any substance is in ammonia, the sooner 
it will begin to change its quality by pu- 
trefaction. Urine will, in the summer, 



if placed in a favorable situation, be hx 
a high state of fermentation in thirty- 
six hours. This fact alone, proves it to 
be a very valuable fertilizer. It has beeai 
said by good authority, that while fbui- 
teen head of cattle would make six' 
loads of solid manure, the liquid would 
saturate seven loads of loam, rendering 
it equal in value. This fact should 
stimulate every farmer to save all th« 
liquid manures that his stock makes. 
A Farmer. 



?• 



Barn-yard Manure, 

In a prize eesay, written by Wm. 
D. Grresham, to which the Maryland 
State Agricultural Society awarded a 
premium, »he writer closes thus: 

Barn-yard, and Stable Manures.-^ 
This is the most valuable and prolific 
source from which the farmer is, bj 
his own efforts and economy, to im- 
proye his land. This manure, though 
not so permanent in its efi'ects, yet ap- 
plied after lime and marl, is lasting and 
beneficial. It is the great resorvoir 
from which the farmer is, by his own 
industry and management, to draw 
his supplies for the improvement of his 
land, as well as in a measure to derive 
his wealth; and he should husband his 
resources in such a manner as to have 
a constant eye to the accumulation of, 
not only all the offal from his stock, but 
all decaying vegetable matter from his 
farm. The greatest negligence prC' 
vails among many farmers in relation 
to the carelessness with which they at- 
tend to their barn-yard and stable ma- 
nures; the voidings from cattle, the 
evaporation of the nutritive portion of 
manures, would, if saved and attended 
to, improve more land than what little 
they carry out upon them. There if 



•^o 



THE FARilER'S JOUR^^x\L. 



Nothing w^ach a farmer can more judi- 
eionslv U3« than plaster, in the absorp- 
tion of the voidiugs, as well as the ct- 
■fectof fixing the valuable properii-es of 
ai'iniires, which are coost;nitly esctip- 
jnor in the form of gases; I vvoulJ then 
advise the liberal use of plaster in all 
the vegetable manures raised upon the 
farm. It is esfjential ii) a'i well rejra- 
lated and ventilated stables and cow 
aheds, in preserving the health as well 
as the eyes of the animals, from the 
aoxious exhalation of the pungent, if 
not poisonous gases, which are con- 
stantly escaping from the manures. — 
Plaster fully repays the farmer who 
uses it tenfold. 

In conclusion, whether you have the 
-ali'ff clays or sandy loams to contend 
with on your farms, and you desire to 
Testore them to fertility, they must 
liave the advantage of lime, clover, and 
plaster, and a regular rotation of crops. 

You must lend all your energies to 
the accumulation ©f manures, both an- 
imal, vegetable, and mineral — you cau- 
liot expect your lands to yield you re- 
munerating crops unless you contrive 
to keep up its fertility by applications 
of manure. Should your barn-yard 
and stable fail io affard you a sufficient 
supply, you should go to your marshes^ 
woods and ditch banks, and there find 
the elements for manure. We know 
the chief flement of all manure being 
vegetable matter, and its production 
being necessarily slow and laborious 
on exhausted soils, we should take ad- 
vantage ofevery assistant in increasing 
and applying it to the soil. — The West 
Jer. Pioneer. 

The above is an excellent article, 

and free from that objectionable fea- 

•-sSure so prevalent with most writers on 



the subject of manures, namely, the 
recommendicg of bani-yard manure 
alone. Farmers who Vifould pursue 
their business profitably, rtquire mora 
manure than cin be made by their cat- 
tle, and, therefore, they are compelled 
to import fertilizing materials upon 
their land. As far as barn-yard ma- 
nures occur, they should be availed of; 
but where their quantity is insufficient 
to get maximum effects, they should 
be increased, and this cannot be done 
by the use of cheap organic amend- 
ments only. 

Every farmer should have an analy- 
sis of his soil; the books already give 
him an analysis of his stable manure, 
and a comparison of these two will 
show him what constituents are miss- 
ing, anJ what he should buy from else- 
where. For the management of sta- 
ble manures, we would refer to our ar- 
ticle in this number on Manure Heaps, 
Loss of Ammonia, etc. — Woiiihig Far- 
mer. 



A "Word for Progressive Farming, 

iMESSRS. Editors: — Enclosed you 
will hnd one dollar for the CuUivalor 
for 1853. I have tried to get up a 
club, but cou'dn't come it. Our far- 
mers trust too much to their rich, fresh 
lands, to feel the need of agricultural 
papers. Corn one year and wheat the 
next, with a little oats occasionallv — 
is the almost universal practice of our 
farmers. Manure is never thought of, 
except by a very hw. Their stock 
roams at large in the woods, summer 
and winter — the eows sleep in the laD« 
and the hogs make their own living by 
rooting — except an ear of corn occa- 
sionally, to let them know where bomd 
is. In short, they are farmera of tUe 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



91 



old school. The idea never entered 
their heads that iheir's is an exhausting 
and not an improving system, or at 
any rate they never think of any reme- 
dy. Already the broomsedge begins 
lo wave over some of these beautiful 
lands, where but a few years ago loam 
ed the wild savage and his game. 

The farmer, in these days of steam 
and eleclriciiy, must not stand still. — 
The notion thai mind has nothing 
lo do with his pursuits, musi be aban- 
doned. He must not depend too much 
upon his own knowledge of farming. — 
must quit laughing at book farming — 
must find out that books are nol made 
exclusively for luwyers, doctors and 
pieachers; but that there are buoLs be- 
longing to his C7'aft, which he must 
make the acquaintatiCe of, if he would 
make a respectable member of his pio- 
fession. The farmer's profession is cer- 
tainly a leauied one — taxing all bis 
powers of mind if he would comprehend 
It — a noble employment, and a delight- 
ful one when thus followed as an intel- 
lectual pursuit. A scituce unexplored 
— vast truths locked up in the aicana 
if nature, which lime and mind alone 
of the highest order can render availa- 
ble to the com.aion horde. And tho 
gullied hill-sides and acres of broom- 
sedge and piney fields iu Georgia, are 
proof enough that these secrets ought 
10 be in the possession of the common 
horde. Old mother earth has been 
sacrificed, skinned and bled long 
enough by ignorance, and the farmer 
in these days of energy and enterprise, 
who remains ignorant and makes no 
effort to avail himself of such means of 
information as a good agricultural 
newspaper affords, is decidedly an old 
Jogy — not a conservative one either 



but a destructive one — neither tiue t© 
himself, his children or his country. 

Some of your agricultural talkers 
ought to come up into this couniry and 
preach a crusade against antiquaied no- 
tions. As for my Individ unl self, I Ao 
not carry out all the good notions I get 
oui of papers and books; neitiier doe* 
any man do half as well as be knows. 
None of us d'scharge our duty, but an 
approximate knowledge of our duty en- 
ables us to approximate towards it* 
performance. The laimer thai runs 
hulfhisland in corn and coitoii, and 
the other huifin wheat and oal^, with- 
out either buying manure or making it, 
ought to know better. It is his dutj 
to know belter. It is his interest /od^ 
l<etier. But Messrs Editors, I beg 
pardon. I took my seat merely to ask 
you, for and in consideration of the 
above mentioned dollar, lo foiwaid tb* 
Cullivatoi- for 1853, to your humbi* 
servant. H. B. 0. 

Lafayette, Walker Cq , Geo , 1853. 



Honor and Profit of Industry. 

The honorable position of the labor- 
ing occupations of man is a strikini^ 
feature of our age. Perhnps at n© 
former period was ihis so eminently the 
the rase. And it is an encouraging 
fe.-iture of the pge, — one full of hope. 

The world has been too long gov- 
erned by a false notion cf aristocracy" 
in reference to labor, idleness, efTemi- 
nacy, and luxury, have ra<?t -vith twe 
silly devotees. Now they are laughed 
at and despised. One can suiFer ni» 
greater reproach than to have it said 
ot him ihal he does nothing. He ai 
once takes rank with "fashionable gam- 
blers," sometimes termed "gentiemea 
of leisure." 



tH^ PARMER'S JOURNAL, 



These effeminaie gentlemen, who 
are sometimes wont lo boust of their 
ancestry, forget — possibly they never 
knew — that the greatest of men have 
fceen trained up to "work with their 
hands." God ordained that man should 
live by labor. It is a law of our being, 
mental as well as phyica), that there 
is no development without labor. Ac- 
tivity, health, strength, and intelli- 
gence, can live only in a being of an 
active life. 

Our greatest men, in all ages, have 
been active, working men. Burns was 
a plow boy ; Ben Johnson was a brick- 
iayer ; Franklin a printer ; Roger Sher- 
man was a shoemaker ; and Washing- 
ton was a farmer. We might multi- 
ply a bright host of names illustrative 
of this fact. 

Our age is an age of action^ and 
none can claim exemption from some 
active pursuit. And we are rejoiced 
that it is so. It will, in the end, ban- 
ish all false distinctions in society ; 
and nothing will give greater strength 
to our national character than this 
healthy public sentiment in reference 
to the honor and profit of industry. — 
Ohio Farmer. 



way of illustration : A farmer having 
purchased a cov» from a county abouiid* 
ing in the richest pasturaoe, upon ta- 
king her to hia own inferior pistures, 
found that she fell short o( the yield 
which he was informed she had been 
accustomed lo give. He oomplaiiied 
to the gentleman of whom he had pur- 
chased, that the cow was not the one 
he bargained for, or in other words that 
she was ''ctacked up to be." " Why,'* 
said the seller. "I sold jou my cow. but 
did not sell you my pasture, too." 

The above, which we cut from an 
exchange, reminds us of the reply which 
a shrewd old farmer, whom we knew 
many years ago, made, to one of his 
neighbors. The latter haa obtained 
some pigs of a man residing some miles 
off, and who, because intelligent, was 
always very successful in his farming 
operations, particularly surpajsmg his 
neighbors in raising pork. Shortly af- 
ter, meeting the old gentleman referred 
to, he says: "Well, Mr. Sweetsir, I'm 
going to bef.t you in raising bogs this 

year. I have got some of J M — '3 

breed." "A-a-ah," drawled out the old 
man, "you'd be-etter get the breed of 
his bo-og-trough. 



A Hint to the Farmer. 

We may send to England for Dur- 
ham cows, and to Spain or Saxony for 
the choicest sheep ; we may .«;earch the 
world over for cattle that please the 
eye ; but unless they receive the best 
care and liberal feeding they will most 
assuredly deteriorate and eventually be- 
<some as worthless and unworthy of pro- 
pagation as any of the skeleton breeds 
ihat now haunt our rich but neglected 
pasture-lands. We remember an an- 
ecdote in point, and will relate it by 



Leaks to be Stopped. 

Messrs. Editors: — No doubt during 
your perambulations through the coun- 
try, you have noticed (especially if 
these travels took place in the spring 
of the year,) many leaks to the "farm- 
ers' gold mine," the barn-yard and 
manure heap. You will see, go in 
what direction you please, yards so sit- 
uated that the heavy rams in March, or 
the first part of April, together with 
the rapid melting away of the snow, 
causes the better part of the mauura 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



m 



to run off ill golden, odorous sli earns 
into the highvvKy, and along said high- 
Way to Sdine rivuie'., thence to some 
pond, or spread over lands where it is 
least required. 

I have spen farmers (our big farmers, 
too. if acres will merit the appellatii;n,) 
permit their stock to go one fourth of a 
mile or more to got their daily supply 
of waier, and ihis too, in the highway, 
thereby loosing much manure which 
should be left in the yaid. And, an- 
other difficulty , cattle will become 
Tery thirsty, many times, before they 
will go for vi'aler, on account of the se- 
verity of the weather, and when they 
do go, they will drink until they are 
chilled and uncorafortable. A remedy 
for this has been heretofore suggested 
in the Rural, and many have provided 
themselves with it, and mavy have not; 
perhaps never will. If self-interest and 
the attribute of mercy, (for "a merciful 
man is merciful to his beast,") and line 
upon line, and precept upon precept 
will not do it, what will ? 

The folly of all this waste is appa- 
rent to any provident farmer. For 
from this mine flows all his wealth : 
and if properly worked, many are the 
blessings consequent thereon ; if neg- 
lected and permitted to run to waste 
he vvill soon find his ship in a perilous 
condition, and his hide-bound pocket- 
book crying with the empty belly-ache. 
What would be thought of the comman- 
der of a ship, who. having discovered 
a leak, should neglect to stop itwhen a 
little effort would do so, and thus save 
both crew and cargo ? To all this 
improvidence, I say, stop thai leak. Im- 
itate the example of brave Perry, on 
Lake Erie, who discovered a leak, and 
as the song has it, 

"He off with his coat, and plugged up the boat, 
And away through sulphur and fire did steer." 



If you cannot stop it by mason work 
and absorbents, such as straw, leaves 
from the forest. muck,&c, change the 
site of your yard. By all means, st'Op 
that leak. S. Eaton. 

Rural JSeio Yorker.'] 

Feeding Bees. 

Mk. Editor: — Within the last few- 
years, an increasing interest in the pub- 
lic mind has been manifested on tbe 
subject of keeping and managing bees. 
Nor is it a matter of surprise, in view of 
the pleasure and profit derived from this 
branch of labor. To examine with care, 
the nature and habits of this industrious 
little insect, and to afford them tliose lit- 
tle attentions they require for their pro- 
duction and comfort, is a very agreeabfe 
pastime. 

When judiciously mananaged, there 
is no hazard in saying that there is no 
branch of business that will give an 
equal income, in proportion to the capi- 
tal invested. Bees maj'- be managed so 
as to give very large profit. 

But they must be managed, and not 
left to take care for themselves. No bu- 
siness can be profitable, if neglected. 

Feeding has been resorted to, to some 
extent, within a few years. W^hen done 
understandingly, there is no doubt of its 
utility. 

But it has been cracked up too highly 
and in some instances, carried too far. 

Unsuitable food has been given. And 
sometimes feeding has been commenced 
without suitable regard to the season, or 
the condition of the colony. The result 
has been, the colonies have been untimelj 
injured, and the owners have suffered 
loss. A colony short of food in the win- 
ter or spring, should be fed suflScientlj 
to give them an ample supply in the ia- 



M 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



terior of tlie hive, but not enough to en- 
tirely fill the comb. 

Many persons experienced in the man- 
agement of bees, are of the opinion that 
if over fed they will entirely fill the 
Mve, not exceeding the brood comb, and 
thereby prevent the increase of the col- 
ony. And if they do not multiply they 
will soon run out. Therefore compara- 
tively little feeding should be done, un- 
til the swarming season is pretty well 
over. 

The season for gathering honey from 
flowers to any considerable extent, is very 
short; and during that short season, the 
practice of feeding exclusively, is ques- 
tionable. 

But from swarming time until cold 
weather, feeding may be carried on with 
energy. And, indeed, during cold wea- 
ther it may be done with some success, 
by carrying them into a warm room. — 
Yet there are doubts whether much can 
!>« done profitably, beyond filling their 
empty comb. 

It is not mere theory, but a settled 
fact, that feeding is of utility. It may 
be made profitable. A young swarm 
by the use of feeding, .may be filled once, 
and become a strong colony, but the pre- 
«wution should be made when full, to re- 
move the feeder, and give them a chance 
to increase, and to lay in a supply of 
bread. Swarms that would perish in win- 
ter for want of honey, with a few shil- 
lings worth of feed may be preserved, 
and become strong and valuable colo- 
nies. 

With the use of the feeder, at a com- 
paratively small expense, the apiarian 
ms y fill all his hives with a cheap and 
■wholesome food, late in the fall, and as 
a consequence the bees will commence 
lining the boxes with the precious honey 



much earlier the following seasi^n ; anci 
while they would be filling the empty 
comb in the interior of the hive, they 
will be at work in the boxes. 

By selecting the strong well establish- 
ed colonies and applying the feeder 
large quantities of excellent honey foi* 
domestic use may be obtained. In view 
of the above facts, we say again, "Feed- 
ing bees is of utility. It may be made 
profitable." 

Yet we would not have any one ex- 
pect to make a large fortune at once in 
this business. Men in their business 
transactions, and schemes of labor, look 
for a remunerating profit. We claim 
for this business a large remunerating 
profit, for the amount of labor and capi- 
t il invested. — Granite Farmer. 



Facts about Digestion. 

Many popular notions about different 
articles of food (and there a,re few sub- 
jects upon which people indulge more 
noiions.) are totally disproved by scien- 
tific fdcis. We proprse to write down 
a few well established truths respecting 
the relative quantity of iiutii[nent in 
(iifi'erent kinds of food and lise relative 
time occupied in their digesiion. 

In the first place, however, we would 
remind our readers, that it is by no 
means the ariicle containing the great- 
est proportion of nutritious substance, 
which takes soonest the form of blood 
and other necessary elements of animal 
life. Neither is the most physical 
strength supplied by the ariicle contain 
ing the most nutriment. Nuts aie al 
most entirely coBspo^ed of nutrit oui- 
material, oil ; potatoes contain eighty- 
eight parts of wasted matter to twelve 
of nutriment. Yet the latter impart 
far mere strength to the body than the 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



95 



forme''. BiRad is more nutritious than 
meal ; but meat is stimulating as well as 
nutritive, and is supposed lo s'-rengthnr- 
slie bodily functions more tbaa bread. 

Another important fact to remember 
in this cjnneclion is, that all stomachs 
tre not alike, and thiU the circulation* 
viven below are applicable to a healthy 
itomach. What proportion of healthy 
stomachs there are in the world, we do 
not know; but the probability is, that 
n the mijonty of cases, food is not di- 
gested as rapialy as here staled. In 
some stomach"', food of particular kind 
ferments, which interferes with com- 
plete digestion. This happens most 
'requenily with regard lo vegetables — 
law dust doctors to the contrary not- 
withstanding. 

In general, however, the mos<. nutri- 
ious and the most easily digested, are 
the best for health and strength. 

Wheat is the most nutritious of all 
substances except oil ; containmg nine- 
ty-five parts of nutriment to five nt 
waste matter. Dry peas, nuts and bar- 
ley, are nearly as nutritious as wheat. 
Garden vegetables stand lowest on the 
hst, in OS much as they contain, whea 
fresh, a large portion of water. The 
quantity of waste matter is more than 
eight-tenihs of the whole. Only one 
fortieth of a cucumber is capable of be- 
ing converted into nutriment. The 
nutritious part of the different meats 
varies from one-fifth to one-eighth of 
the whole., Veal is the most nutritious ; 
mutton next ; then chicken ; then beef; 
last poik. Fruits vary between two 
and three-tenths of nutritious matter, 
and their order is as foiIows,the most 
nutritious being placed first: plumbs, 
^^rapes, apricots, cherries, peaches, 

ooseberries, apples, strawberries, meN 



ons. Milk contains less than one-tenth 
of nutritious matter, as it is maiulj 
composed of wattr. 

Of all the articles of food, boiled rice 
is digested in the shortest time — an 
hour. As it also contains eight-tenths 
of nutritious maiter, it is a valuable 
substance for diet, 'i'ripe and pig'* 
feet (strange to tell) are digested almosi 
as rapidly. Apples, if sweet and ripe, 
ara ne.xt in order. Venison is digest- 
ed almost as soon as apples. Roasted 
potatoes are digested in half the time 
required for the fame vegetables boil 
ed, which occupy three hours and a 
half — more than beef or mutton ! — 
Bread occupies three hours and a quar- 
ter. S.ewed oysters and boiled e;j;g8 
are di^^ested in three hours and a half 
— an hour more than is required by the 
same articles raw. Turkey and goo e 
are convened in two hours and a half — 
an hour and a half sooner than chicken. 

Koasted veal, pork and salted beef 
occupy five hours and a half — the long- 
est of articles of food. — Hartford Re- 
view. 

Longevity or Farmers. — It appears 
from the Massachusetts registry of 
births and deaths for 1852, that the du- 
ration of the lives of agriculturists was 
13 years above the general average, 
nearly 19 above that of common labor- 
ers, and 19 per cent, above the averag© 
age, at death, of mechanics. 

A sentimental cbapin Rhode Island 
intends to petition Congress, at its next 
session, for an appropriation to improvit 
the channels of affection, so that hence- 
forth the "course of true love may rua 
smooth," 



^ 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



Industry Essential. — If you are not 
possessed of brilliant talents, you can at 
least be industrious ; and tbis, witb stea- 
dy perseverance, will compensate for 
many intellectual fiifts. Tbe bistory of 
almost every really eminent man, no mat- 
ter in wbat pursuit be lias signalized 
himself and served mankind, abounds 
Tvitb proofs that to industry, fully as mucb 
m to genius, bave all really great human 
achievements been attributable. Great 
scholars, for instance, have always been 
not merely laborious, but they have also 
studied both methodically and regularly; 
tJiey have had for every portion of the 
■day its proper and allotted study, and in 
nowise would they allow any one portion 
of time to be encroached upon by the 
study to which another portion was es- 
pecially appropriated, in their fixed plan 
of action. 



HOME MAlVUFACTUiaii. 

LET every ^True North Carolinian throw 
his might into the hands of our own 
Mechanics, and by tliis means, with our Ag- 
ricultural advancement, we are bound to 
become an independent people. So let the 
citizens of Edgecombe, and the neighbouring 
counties, call and examine the magnificent 
stock of 

F U R N I T IJ R E , 

^hich is offered for sale at F. L>. Bond's 

Furniture Stors, in Tarboro', consisting ofthe 
following articles, viz : 

Ladies' Marble and Mahogany Top Dres- 
sing Bureaus ; Ladies Marble Top Wash 
Stands ; Sideboardsand Plain Bureaus; Ward 
Robes and Book Cases ; Sofas and Mahogany 
Rocking Chairs; Mahogany and Walnut 
Tables ; Tete-a-tetes and Divans ; Mahogany, 
French, and Cotta<je Bedsteads ; Stationary 
and Portable Writing Desks ; Wood and 
Cane Seat Rocking Chairs ; Office, Windsor, 
^ane and Rush Bottom Chairs ; a large as- 
sortment of cheap Bed Steads ; Wash Stands 
and Candle Stands ; China Presses, various 
patterns ; also, a few Nymphs and Nuptials* 

Old Furniture and Sofas repaired and made 
to look as good as new. Old Bachelors ren- 
ovated in such a style as will make them 
accessible to the smiles of young ladies and 

old M s at least. Furniture kept on hand 

to suit any age or sext. 

Now one word to the public What is life 
to any one, if they do not avail themselve of 
the comforts and conveniences that are offered 
for sale at F. L. BOND'S Ware Room ? An 
•xamination by the public is earnestly 
flolicited F. L. B. 

Tarboro', N. C. 



THE subscriber will give any special ad'- 
vice to Farmers, by their addressing hinj 
and giviBg a description of their farms. Hi« 
charge will be moderate. He will mak* 
analysis of soils and marls, and write out tbe 
analysis for application of manures. 
For analysis of soils, - - - |5 OO 
Writing out analysis, - - . 6 OW 

JOHN F. TOMPKINS, M. D. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL 
Is published monthly, at $1 per annum, in 
advance ; six copies for §5 ; twelve copies for 
S.10 ; thirty copies for 1 20, 

Advertisements. — A limited number of 
advertisements will be inserted at the follow- 
ing rates : For one square of twelve lines, for 
each insertion, $1 ; one square, per annum, 
$10 ; half column, do., $30 ; one column, do., 
§50; larger advertisements in proportion. 
JOHN F. TOMPKINS, 
Editor and Proprietor, Bath, N. C. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 


' -av, < 




Page. 


The Report of Prof Emmons, 


65 


Edgecombe as she is— and Edgecombe 




as she was five years ago, by "Alpha," 
Communication by "Old North State,"' 


73 


T» 


Analysis of the Soils, 


78 


Carbon, 


80 


Agricultural Address, 


80 


To those who send us Money hy Lett«r, 


80 


Our*thanks, 


80 


To the Friends of Agricultural LnproTe- 




ment in North Carolina, 


81 


The present Number of our Paper, 


81 


Cure for Founder of the Horse, 


81 


Faimers, do not turn your Stock upon 




your Fields, 


82 


Farmers, raise your own Horses and 




Mules, 


83 


Ashes as a Manure, 


83 


The Cultivation of Fruit Trees in North 




Carolina, 


84 


The Sorovful Tree, 


84 


The Farmei-'s Libraiy, 


85 


AgriculUiral Schools— Experfaiente, &.C., 


85 


Farmer's Gardens, 


86 


Wood Ashes as a Manure, 


87 


Right and Proper, 


88 


Liquid Manures, 


89 


Bam- Yard Manures, 


89 


A word to Progressing Farming, 


90 


lienor and Profit of industry. 


91 


A Hint to Fanners, 


93 


Leaks to be Stopped, 


92 


Feeding Bees, 


^„ 


Facts about Digestion, 


M 


Longevity of Farmers, 


9.5 


Industry Essential, 


96 



THE FARIEE'S JOUENAL. 



VOL. 2. 



BATH, N. C, JULY, 1853. 



m. 4, 



JOHN F. TOMPKINS, M. D., Editor and Proprietor. 



The Report of Professor Emmons. 

UEANINO of the word IMPEOVKMENT. — CCMPO- 
3ITI0iV OF SHELL MARL, &C. 

(Conclusion) 

The marl strata reappear atTauboro', 
at many points ; sometimes on the river 
'banks, and sometimes in the banks of 
creeks. One of the important beds is 
near the village, and belongs to Mr. Bul- 
lock. 

The section which contains the marl, is 
made up of — 

1. Sand which extends below the wa- 

ter of the creek. 

2. Olay with lignite, three or four feet. 

3. Marl, seven or eight feet. 

4. Sand and clay with fossil, or only a 

few casts. 

5. Sand, gravel and soil. 

The marl is intermixed with coprolites, 
a few bones, and water-worn pebbles — 
Jnostly at the bottom of the bed. There 
is the same tendency to consolidation as 
at Rocky Mount, and at other places on 
the NeUse and Cape Fear rivers: The 
same shells, consisting of large pectens, 
{Pecfen Madisonius^) Venus difformis, 
and two or three species of Pectunculus. 
Masses of sulphuret of iron are not un- 
common. 

The 'ffiarl of this bed is composed of — 
Sand or silex, 56.25 

Phosphate of lime and oxide of 

iron and alumina, 7.50 

Carbonate of iron, 34.15 

Organic matter and water, 2.10 



Magnesia, 



100.£6 



Mr. Bridgend Marl, 
It win be observed, that rather more 
than one-half must be set down as useltss 
matter. The analysis was made of that 
portion containing the small bivalve 
shells, and as many of the shells are re- 
jected as convenient; there will, there- 
fore, be more lime than is given iu the 
analysis by three or four per cent. It is, 
perhaps, unnecessary to remark, that the 
finer the material the better; that the mail 
with small bibalves is better than the 
marl with large ones. The latter when 
abundant is belter for quick lime: 

Mr. Knight's marl bed is three milts 
from the village, and has been extensive- 
ly employed in marling ; it is upcu the 
banks of the Tau. 

I obtained the following section of its 
beds: 

1. Sand and gravel at the river's edge. 

2. Sandy marl. 

3. Marl with shell, six feet. 

4. Greenish or blue clay, six feet, cop.- 

taining casts of shells only. 
4. Sand. 

The whole thickness is about 30 feet 
This bed has furnished many large 
bones, both of Saurians and land quad- 
rupeds, principally of the Mastodon. — 
This bed has been regarded as equal to 
the best of the varieties of shell mail — 
Sand seems to be a constant associate of 



98 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



the marls. It occurs both above and be- 
low the stratum of shells. In this re- 
spect there is a general uniformity in the 
marl deposits in the different vallies — 
the Caps Fear, the Neuse, and the ' Tau. 
The intermixture of sand is the material 
"^hich diminishes its value. The coarse 
shells, as the large scollops and clama, to- 
gether with certain species of oyster, con- 
stitute a poor kind of marl, as they resist 
for a long time the action of the weath- 
Where these have abounded, I have 



heard unfavorable reports of the effects 
upon the soil; or at least the advantages 
expected were not realized. This all 
goes to show the importance of a com- 
minution of the material ; it favors sdu- 
bility. Those agents, as water and car- 
bonic acid, act with more energy, and 
the power of absorption is increased in 
the substances themselves. 

§ 27. Where the coarser marls are ne- 
cessarily employed, the advantages of a 
crasher are obvious. Plaster is operative 
immediately, because it is ground fine ; 
if it were more in the condition of coarse 
shot, its effects would not be apparent on 
most of soils. The subject of comminu- 
tion is one of considerable interest in hus- 
bandry. It is not expected, hov.-ever, 
that soils can be ground or comminuted, 
except through and by the action of the 
weather. The marls whicli are coarse, 
however, when made into compost, will 
be improved materially, especially when 
this compost is composed of organic mat- 
ter, which liberates carbonic acid. Fre- 
quent stirring is . also important.. Ano- 
ther mode is by the appheation of jnarl. 
Exfoliation of the large shells begins at 
once; the loss of organic matter is re- 
placed by water, aud the whole becomes 
porous. . One fact worthy of notice is, 
that mixtures are always more valuable 
than simple bodies ; even phosj:)h.ate of 
lime is more active and beneficial wdien 
intermixed with materials constituting a 
compost, or intermingled with a compost. 
The constitution of man; and animals re- 
quires mixture. We have seen that the 
soil is eminently a compund mas s ; and 
when food is taken ino the stomach 
there are agents which assist its recep- 



tion in large quantities into the systeirs. 
So long as we have regard to the neces- 
sities of plants, Ave can hardly form a 
m.ass of compost too complex in its con- 
stitution, or which shall consist of too 
ruixny elements, and I think it highly 
probable that many failures have arisen 
from neglecting the aid to be derived 
from intermixture, 

§ 28. The marl of Mr. Bullock's, near 
Tauboro', and upon his home pkntation, 
has been fairly tested, and proves valua- 
ble. 

The section of the slope in which it 
occurs, is represented by the following 
beds, beginning with the lowest : 



Sand. 

2. Marl, with shells, scollops, &c., 3 1-2 

feet. 

3. Blue compact clay, which contain* 

decomposing pyrites. 

4. Sand and clay, in alternating lay- 

ers, mostly destitute of fossils, 5 
feet. 

5. S'aad. 

The blue or greenish marl of Mr. Bul- 
lock'% plantation has the following com- 
position : 

Sand, 34.40 

Phospliate of lime and oxide of 

iron, 3.20 

Carbonate of lime, 64.52 

Magnesia, 1.50 

Potash, trace- 

Soda, trace. 

Organic matter^ 4.88 

Water, 1^38 

99.88 
Mr. Bullock's plantation consists of 
rather more than one thousand acres. It 
lies in a great bend of the Tau river. — 
From the river to the higher ground, 
there are four distinct but low terraces. 
The average crop of seed cotton Is about 
twelve hundred pounds. The mail is, 
in part, composted ; it is however, allo-w-- 
ed to be exposed to the weather, and un- 
dergoes certain i^iechanical as well as 
chemical changes prior to us \ Proba- 
bly, it is always important to give the 
marl air, as it may be termed, before it 
is spread upon the soil, evea if V-o m<i. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



90 



chanical change is effected by it. 

Marl which is a year old, is bettel" than 
xvhen first taken from the pit and spread 
immediately upon the soil, especially if 
it is turned over three or four times dur- 
ing the year. 

§ 29. The improvements of the Pano- 
la plantation, under the direct supervi- 
sion of its intelligent proprietors, Messrs. 
Xorflcet & Dancy, exhibit something of 
the spirit which pervades Edgecombe. 

The plantation was old, and was pui"- 
ehased for 1 15 per acre, and consists of 
1^08 acres, 550 of which is now under 
cultivation;^. Its former proprietor had 
pursued the system of rest so common 
in the South, without a thought of pro- 
viding for the future, when the most va- 
luable parts of the soil had been converted 
into corn, cotton and bacon, and sold in 
ii-distant market. Its new proprietors, 
on making this purchase, were aware that 
the old system could not be pursued, and 
they were satisfied that the only system 
which could renovate the soil, though 
<>riginal]y good, was to supply an ab;m- 
dance of fertilizers or manures. . The 
plantation rises in three or four toTaces 
from the river, the lowest of which is ot- 
iten overflown with the high water pf the 
liver. Log's, flood wood and trash cover 
the lower terrace, and occupy the low 
ravines. By a judicious application of 
the for(;e of only twelve laborers, three 
thousand bushels of ashes were made iu 
two weeks from this refuse wood. In ad- 
dition to this important fei-tilizer, twenty 
thousand loads of compost were made, 
consisting of cotton seed, stable maniu'c 
and river se<liment, and the muck of 
■ditches. Ample means were taken for 
draining, by a free opening and deepen- 
ing of the old ditches. The main body 
of the land is rolling, the higlier parts 
are sandy, and the lower formed of a 
clay loam. 

The points worthy of notice, are the 
preparations for a ])roductive farming, 
and the expenditure of capital for this 
jpurpose ; and although it would seem 
that the plantation itself had furnished 
a large amount of material, at a trifling 
■DOtjt, still, bones and g<K)no were also 



purchased at a cost of $52 per ton, and 
bone dust at 50 cents per bushel in New 
Yorlc. 

§ 30. The first and important lesson 
which the agiiculturist should learn is, 
that he must supply his land with ma- 
nure, and if any planter will calculate 
the cost of a full supply of manure, and 
then the cost of new clearings required by 
tlie old system of husbandry, he will find 
it cheaper, and hence more economical 
to make and buy maniu-es than to clear 
up his plantation for the purpose of 
cultivating new lands and those which 
have been partially restored by rest. — 
The improvements of the Panola planta- 
tion do. not terminate in furnishing an 
pie supply of manures. The removal 
of the cabins to an airy, healthy and 
central position, is one of the most ini- 
portnnt improvements. The arrange- 
ments too, of the out-houses, and water- 
sinks so as to save nitrogenous matter 
with their phosphates, is another step in 
improvement worthy of imitation 1 v 
otliers. So also, it is made the special 
business of some one or two labcrei-s to 
collect all n^atters which may be used as 
a fertilizer. But I need not dwell upon 
other nuinutiaj of the improvements de- 
signed to secure in the end, a profitabie 
investment of capital. Considered in the 
light of a speculation only, it does not 
require a prophet's vision to predict tlie 
result. 

In the forgoing remarks I have liad 
in view the fact, that information of vvhftt 
others is doing, is one of the best stin>" 
hints to improvement by others. U e 
most important results will be brougiit 
about by the successful projects of enter- 
prising men, v^hen they are made known. 
It is a principle which apphes to all pro- 
fessions. 

Now the season having passed and the 
crops been gathered and weighed, it turns 
out that tire cotton fields have yielded 
one bale of cotton of four hundred lbs. 
to the. acre, which the year before did 
not amount to one half of that, and the 
corn lands, which before the iraprov.j- 
ment would not and did not yield throe 
banels to the acre, have yielded, tik 



100 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



year, eight : a well Marked and decided 
improvement. Tlie season it is true, lias 
been favorable and it ■skould be noticed 
in making" up the results. 

§ 31. I have one more remark to 
make in this connexion : it relates to the 
effect en the product when high culti-, 
vation is ^resorted to. This effect is of 
the highest consequence, and it does not 
end with a simple increase of product, 
but^lso ia a product of a better qual- 
ity. We probafely, however, understafiid 
the mode of increasing a production htt- 
ter than giving it -a superior quality. The 
liiit of cotton is better if produced by 
high cultivation than by an indiffer- 
ent cultivation. Indian corn is better 
-when the land is supplied sufficiently 
with its proper food. 'It is light if it 
lacks food in the soil, "Wheat is heavier 
by three or four pcKinds to the bushel if 
grovm on a rich soil. Barley is sold by 
weight, for different soils produce a grain 
lighter and more chaffy than others. — 
Oats vary much in their weight, by being 
grown on soils differing in tiieir lertility. 

•New kinds are productive, and at the 
same time give a superior quality of 
grain. On old lands there is a diminu- 
tion of weight and a loss in the quality 
of the product ; there is more offal. At- 
tantioji should be given then to the qual- 
ity of the cotton as well as to the quan- 
tity. The planter may control in a man- 
ner both results, or in other words, he 
may mollfy results by cultivation. It 
is well known that cotton requires a stift'- 
er soil than corn. The principles in- 
volved in a cultivation of these two sta- 
ples of the South are not the same. The 
object in the "culd vation of cotton is the 
development of cellular tissue. I do not 
yet know the precise modes by which we 
can apply principles successfully to prac- 
tice. Yet the cellular tissue requires for 
iis development, more carbonate of lime 
than phosphate of lime.. Analysis of 
the ditfcrent tissues proves this. If this 
is true it is an indication that the marls 
are adapted especially to the growth' of 
cotton ; that while it contains some phos- 
phate of lime, as this is necessary to all 
tissues, yet the lime in the cellular tissue 



is furiiisked originally from the carbo- 
nate. 

Experiments might be devised for test- 
ing the truth of these views; — the object 
being to increase the lint and improve it* 
quality. Has any attention been given 
to the selection of seed?— selecting from 
the field the seed which has first ripen- 
ed, and which has given the longest^ 
finest, and most silky staple? 

The marl beds of the Tau river are 
exposed at points below Tauboro,' from 
Greenville to Washington. 

§ 32. At Greenville they have been 
successfully used ; they belong to the 
middle tertiary. Just below Sparta the 
left bank is thirty feet high, and there is 
exposed a remarkable stratum of marl. — 
Above Sparta the bank is too low k> ex- 
pose it. 

In the vicinity of Greenville the marl 
beds are numerous. Mr. Brown's bed 
exhibits the following strata : — 

1. Sand exposed at the bottom. 

2. Two feet of sandy clay. 

3. Three inches of ;yellow sand. 

4. Eight feet of shell marl with green- 

ish grains. 

5. Sand with sandy clay of a green 

color. 
Mr. Britton's marl exhibits a section 
quite similar to the above : — 

1. Green indurated sand. 

2. Marl six to seven feet thick. 

3. Sandy marl one foot. 

4. Brick clay four or five feet thick. 

5. Sand. 

This marl is reddish and operates fa- 
vorably and quickly. The stratum of day 
occupying this position is not uncom- 
mon. In fact it is almost continuous 
over the whole country, though it is not 
always present as a covering to the 
marl. 

A bed on the plantation of Mr. Boyd 
in the same neighborhood is about fifteen ! 
feet thick ; it is overlaid by a band of ' 
yellow clay upon which there is sand -five 
feet thick. ,! 

§ 3S. Six miles below Greenville is | 
Dr. ©ixon's marl bed, which had just | 
been opened at the time of my visit. It j 
-is blue shelly marl; aiost of the shells • ; 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



lUl 



are small aad the mass is much disinte- 
grated. 

The strata lie in the following order : 

1. Marl fifteen feet thick — its bottom 

not certainly exposed. 

2. Blue clay three inches. 

3. White loose sand, differing Uit lit- 

tle from drifting sand. 
This marl is composed of the follow- 
ing proportions in filty grains : 

Sand, 15.70 

Carbonate of lime, 27.30 

Phosphate of lime and oxide of 

iron, 1.60 

Water, 1.69 

Magnesia, 11 

Potash, trace. 

Organic matter, "2.94 



49,34 

In the banks of the Tau at Greenville, 
numerous flattened masses are washed 
out of the bank. The color is a drab or 
light yellowish brown. They are fre- 
quently perforated by a round hole ; — 
they have a close resemblance to the or- 
dinary clay stones. Coprolites are asso- 
ciated with them, and I was inclined to 
regard them all as coprolites, but it 
proved that many of the flattened bodies 
are not coprolites. Analysis of one of 
them gave the following results: — 
Insoluble matter, .13 

Phosphate of lime, 1 4.50 

Carbonate of lime, 10.60 

Magnesia, trace. 



25.13 
The coprolites have always given pot- 
ash when tests are applied. These sub- 
stances in the Greenville beds are soft, and 
unlike coprolites which occur o;n the 
Cape Fear river. They are unlike them 
in color and form, Mo5t of them are in 
thin, flattened cakes, not much unlike a 
cracker inform; though in this . respect 
tjiere 19 mueh diversity. 

The country around Washington is to© 
low to give good exposures of sh^li marl. 
It is however, common in the lowc baflks, 
but liable to be overflowed. 

§ 34. Mr. Myers' marl bed giy>e3 the 
following sectioni 



1. Blue marl. 

2. Shelly marl, three feet. 

3. Red marl, eight inches. 

4. Brifk clay. 
& Sanl. 

Another bed upon the plantatioB of 
the sheritt' of the county, was too muck 
concealed by water at the time of my 
visit. A specimen of the marl furnished 
for analysis gave the following propor- 
tions: 

Water. 1-40 

Organic matter, 2.70 

Sand, 28.30 

Phosphate of lime and oxide of 

iron, 5.13 

Lime, 10.81 

Magnesia, ,1 % 



48.45 
The analysis contains less lime than 
was expected. The shelly portions were 
rejected in part ; which, had they been 
included, would have given a larger per 
centage of lime. The efi"ects as they 
have appeared upon trial, were remarka- 
bly good and satisfactoiy. The absence 
of high banks increases the labor and ex- 
pence of raising the ma;-!. 

I took occasion to visit Jones county 
on my return from the examination of 
the State lands in Carteret. The Hon, 
Mr. Donnell of Newborn, accompanied 
me, and laid me under many obligations 
for the iuformatioa received of the coun- 
try. ^ 

This county has an undulating surface; 
the soil has more clay than Edgecombe 
or Pitt, The foundation for the highest 
improvement in agriculture exists in its 
soil. Less cotton is cultivated than in 
Edgecombe 5 but when cultivated, it is 
not difficult to raise the produce to six- 
teen hundred pounds of^eed cotton pes 
acre. Marl of a peculiar kind exists in 
the waters of Rainbow ereek and on the 
banks of Milter's cseek.. The maii i« 
formed of the dcMs of exceedingly large 
oyster-shells, some of which are fourteen 
inches long and one and a half inches 
Ihipk. They sometimes weigh sax and 
^even pounds. The surface diell*are de- 
composing ; those deep in tka hediB are 



102 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



quite sound. The maii however, of thesa 
beds is less valuajblo tlian when com- 
posed of small shells. The testimony of 
those who have been acquainted with ils 
use is of a negative kind ; but still I 
could not learn all the circumstances at- 
tending^ its application. At Polloksviile 
oa the Trent, this marl appears in ita 
banks and presents tlie following section : 
■ 1. Sand. 
' 2. Oyster bed. 

3. Sand. 

4. Oyster bed. 
6. Sand. 

It is about twenty feet to the second 
bad of oysters. Beneath these beds is 
the lime rock of the country, consisting 
of consolidated marl, having the same 
chS,]-acters as that upon the Trent near 
x^ev/bern. In many places its purity is 
such that it makes a good lime ; in others 
it is sandy and makes a v/eak lime. 

§ 35. The marl of Little Contentnea 
<a-eek possesses the same characteristics 
a.s that of the Tau and Neuse. 

For tlio opportunity of making the ex- 
amination of Little Contentnea, Tossnot, 
aiid a part of Nash county, I am indebt- 
ed to the kindness of Mr. Myei-s, of Wash- 
ington, President of the Greeuviiie and 
Raleigh Plank Road. 

The marl upon the plantation of BIr. 
Streeter v/a;5 too much conceaieu by war 
ter to admit only a slight examination. 
The fossils however, proved the deposits 
to be of the middle tertiary. The large 
Pectunculus and Venus difformis, com- 
mon at other places, were observed among 
otlier common fossils of th-e foj'mation. 

Tho beds upon the plantation of Mr. 
May were al^so covered v»ith water.' — 
These in part were sandy, and a 
specimen gave only a SKiall [ler centage 
ot lime in the analysis. 

As for .example:^ 

Sand mvl siiica, 8li!0 

Phosphate of lime and oxide of 
iron, ' 8.00 

Magmsia, ts-ace. 

Carbonate of HinC^ 5=60 

V^Tator-, 1.20 

O'rganic mattea*, 9.60 

<r,i* i" > . . . • ' 



Potash, 



traee.. 



98.m 
This marl, as poor as it is, containing.' 
less than twenty per cent, of availab^i 
matter, has increased the crops, according 
to. the statement of Mr. May, fourfold. — ^ 
It is probable however, that this satopks 
is not an average of the marl stratuteJ 
The soil of Mr. May is sandy, at least -cfi! 
parts of the plantation. ' J 

§ 36. The marl of Col. Barnes upoa" 
the Tossnot, is similar to that upon thm 
plantation of Mr. Ham, near Goldsboro'* 
It is the blue marl intermixed with innur^ 
merable small bivalve shells, which hai* 
become very thoroughly decomposed. — 
The bed is eleven feet thick covered vrkh 
a stratum of sand five feet thick. ' 

§ 37. The deposits of marl upon th:« 
Roanoke are no less important than upoia 
the Tau, Neuse and Cape Fear. My ex- 
aminations were confined chiefly to Hali- 
fax county. The beds considered aa Qii« 
foi-mation, consist of the following rassa- 
bers : 

1. Layers of decomposed rock? — ^3 

coarse mica slate. 

2. Marl loaded with fossils, five feet 

3. Marl of a green color, vi^ith only a 

few sherif., eiglit to ten feet. 

4. Blue clay, from ten to fifteen feet 

thick. 

5. Reddish clay, two feet. ' 

6. Gravel, fine and coarse, twenty fo^. 

7. Gmy sands and loam. 

The marl lies deep and is exposed onlf 
in ravines. It is attended with much ex- 
pense in raising it. Mr. Pope of Ilali^ 
tax haa used it upon his plantation, and 
has made preparations for its extenslv« 
consumption, and the results have bees 
favorable. The soils of Halifax havii^ 
been under cultivation a century and a 
hali^ or more than a century, have becojaa 
exhausted. 

The soil on one of the oldest plsate- 
tions gave the following results on analy- 
sis : — 

Silex OT sand, &Sj3!5 

Alumina and oside of iron, 1.44 

Lim^ „ , .1 i 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



103 



Organic matter aud water, 2.45 

Totash, .01 

99.39 
It is perfectlj similar to "tlie saadj sails 
of Cape Fear. Tkese examples »f sandy 
soils are beyond the reacli of t'ke over- 
flowings of tlie Roanoke, wkick always 
leave a ricli sediment behind, and which 
is employed as a fertilizer to a limited 
'extent. 

The marl is also too much charged 
with sand in parts of the beds. The bkie 
•varieties gave the following Gomi^osi- 
tion : — 

' Sand, 05. GO 

Phosphate of lime and oxide of 

iron, 9.00 

Carbonate of km Q, 21.20 

Magnesia, trace. 

AVater and organic matter, 2.60 



99.00 
Reg-ardinjj the available matter in this 
■iiiarl as thirty per cent., it should not bo 
ranked with the inferior varieties, though 
the sand amounts to sixty-five per cent. 
§ 38. The marl of Fishing creok should 
not be passed over unnoticed. It con- 
sists of the three varieties — the red, the 
blue, and consolidated marl. Tha blue 
has the following composition-: — 

Slles, 72.50 

Phosphate of lime and oxide of 

iron, (5.25 

Carbonate of lime, 20.00 

Organic matter and water, 1.25 



100.00 
This blue variety underlies, or is be- 
neath the red or brown variety. The 
latter is composed of 

Sand, €2.50 

Phosphate of lime and oxide of 

iron, 10.00 

Carbonate of lime, 25.00 

l*>Iagnesi2, .1 1 

Organic matter and water^ 1.30 

'^ 

99.51 

Roth varieties ar&4nore or less^consoli- 

;Hlated, indicating a favorable composition 

for agricultural purposes. The parts se- 



lected for analysis contained fewer sheila 
than the general mass. They are small 
bivalves, so common in Wayne, at Golds- 
boro', and on the Tossnot, which is rcaky 
of a better kind than the varieties con- 
taining larger and less decomposable fos- 
sils. 

The shelly portion contains more lime 
-which is derived frojn the shells them- 
selves.; but less precipitate which con- 
tains phosphate of lime. This variety 
giv33 the following composition : — 
Sand, 15.00 

Phosphate of lime and oxide of 

iron, 3.75 

Carbonate of lim3, 80.0Q 

Organic matt<3r, 1.25 



100,00 
The average qu.antity of lime is above 
fifty, taking the whole ma&s together. . 
Intervening betvv'een the two varieties, 
the blue and red, there is a more consoli- 
dated portion, a variety v;kich answers to 
the appellation of stone marl, though it 
differs in itr, fossils from that of the Trent 
at Nevrbeni as well as from that at Wil- 
mington. It gave me the following analy- 
sis : — 

Sand, 17.50 

Phosphate of lime and oxide of 

iren and alumina, 7.50 

Magnesia, .12 

Carbonate of lime, 72.12 

Organic matter and water, .50 



97.74 
This variety exceeds the blue ajid red 
in the quantity of lime; and it appears 
that as the sand diminish&s and tlie lime 
is increased, there is an approach to 
the-formation of a solid substance. The 
solidity and toughness however, often de- 
pends upon a quantity of soluble silica 
which, when present forms an exceeding 
tough deposit, possessing many of the 
characteristics of a burr-stone. In tliis 
condition the stone is unfit for agricultu- 
ral purposes; but makes a durable s.toiie 
for walls and fences. It is also an exeek- 
tent fire-stone, and may bo used for the 
backs of fire-places, though it h diargedi 
largely with lime,. 



104 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



From the Working Farmer. 
Chemistry in relation to Agriculture. 

The following is from one of Liebig's 
familiar Letters on Chemistry, and is a 
synopsis of all the knowledge of the 
present day in relation to Agricultural 
Chemistry, so much of which had its 
origin in the original writings of the 
great chemist. 

He stands forth now the reviewer of 
himselt^ and gives us in the most laconic 
manner, almost in adage-like form, the 
very rudiments of our knowledge, and 
this, too, posted up with all the improve- 
ments and observations of the day. 

Let those writers who have waddled 
to and from his precepts, review their 
apostacy and be chastened for their want 
of consistency, by reading the follow- 
ing. 

We present it to our readers as the 
best paper on Scientific Agriculture we 
have ever seen. We recommend that it 
may -be studied hy rote, and that its 
truths form the basis of their after-in- 
vestigation. We feel proud of belonging 
to a profession, the merits of which 
should call forth from bo great a 
mind so great an effort. We hail it as a 
declaration of independence for Scientific 
Agriculture. With modesty we would 
endorse it, and with a full acknowledg- 
ment of our inability to equal the great 
original, still we fearlessly throw the 
gauntlet to those who would wish to at- 
tack the doctrines contained in the fol- 
lowing paper. 

Let the caluraniatore of Liebig find in 
this, his maturest effort, aught that will 
not cause them to blush when they at- 
tempt to vilify their greatest benefactor. 
We heg of our readers to study it line by 
line, and when they comprehend it all, 
with such clearness as wo hope they may 
at a single careful reading, they will find 
that they have a grammar for their art, 
a foundation on which every observant 
agriculturist may build a rationale which 
will accord with practical truth; and de- 
spite the soj)histry of those who would 
rob the great original of his due credit, 
this letter will live so long as language 
)i2& a property to recommend it. — ^[Ed. 



In the immense yet unlimited expanse 
of the ocean, the animal and vegetable 
kingdoms are mutually dependent upon, 
and successive to each other. The ani- 
inals obtain their constituent element* 
from the plants, and restore them to the 
water in their original form, when they 
again serve as nourishment to a new gen- 
eration of plants. The oxygen which 
marine animals withdraw in their respir- 
ation from the air, dissolved in sea-water, 
is returned to the water by the vital pro- 
cesses of sea-plants : that air is richer in 
oxygen than atmospheric air, containing 
32 to 33 per cent.; while the latter con- 
tains only 21 per cent. Oxygen, also, 
combines with the products of the putre- 
faction of dead animal bodies, changes 
their carbon into carbonic acid, their hy- 
drogen into water, and their nitrogen as- 
sumes again the form of ammonia. Thus 
we observe in the ocean a circulation 
takes place without the addition or sub- 
traction of any element, unlimited in du- 
ration, although limited in extent, inas- 
much as in a confined space the nourish- 
ment of plants exists in a limited quan- 
tity. We well know that marine plants 
cannot derive a supply of humus for their 
nourishment through their roots. Look 
at the great sea-tang, fucus gigantius : 
this plant, according to Cook, reaches a 
height of 360 feet, and a single speci- 
men, with its immense ramifications, 
nourishes thousands of marine animals, 
yet its root is a small body, no larger 
than the fist. What nourishment can 
this draw from a naked rock, upon the 
surface of which there is no perceptible 
change. It is quite obvious that these 
plants require only a hold, — a fastening 
to prevent a change of place, — as a coun- 
terpoise to their specific gravity, which is 
less than that of the medium in which 
they float. That medium provides the 
necessary nourishment, and presents it to 
the surface of every part of the plant. — 
Sea-water contains not only carbonic acid 
and ammonia, but the alkaline and ear- 
thy phosphates and carbonates required 
by these plants for their growth, and 
which we always find as constant consti- 
tuents of their ^es. All experience de- 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



105 



monstrates that the conditions of the ex- 
iatence of ruaiine plants are the same 
■which are essential to terrestrial plants, 
but the latter do not live, like sea-plants, 
in a medium which contains all their 
■elements, and surrounds with appropriate 
nourishment every part of their organs; 
on the contrary, they require two media, 
of which one, namely, the soil, contains 
those essential elements which are ab- 
sent from the medium surrounding 
them, that is, the atmosphere. Is it pos- 
sible that we could ever be in doubt 
respecting the office which the soil and 
its component parts subserve in the ex- 
istence and growth of vegetables ? — that 
there should have been a time when the 
mineral elements of plants were not re- 
garded as absolutely essential to their vi- 
tality ? Has not the same circulation been 
observed on the surface of the earth 
which we have just contemplated in the 
ocean, the same incessant change, dis- 
turbance, and restitution of equilibrium? 
Experience in agriculture shows that the 
production of vegetables on a given sur- 
face increases with the supply of certain 
matters, originally parts of the soil, which 
had been tjiken up from it by plants — 
the excrements of man and animals. — 
These are nothing more than matters de- 
rived from vegetable food, which, in the 
vital processes of animals, or after their 
death, assume again the form under 
which they originally existed as parts of 
the soil. Now, we know that the atmos- 
phere contains none of these substances, 
and therefore can replace none; and 
we know that their removal from a soil 
destroys its fertilitj^, which may be re- 
stored and increased by a new supply. 
Is it possible, after so many decisive in- 
veitigations into the origin of the ele- 
ments of animals and vegetables, the use 
of alkalies, of lime, and the phosphates, 
any doubt can exist as to the principles 
upon which a rational agriculture de- 
pends? Can the art of agriculture be 
based upon anything but the restitution 
of a disturbed equilibrium ? Can it be 
imagined that any country, however rich 
^nd fertile, with a flourishing commerce, 
which for centuries exports its produce 



in the shape of grain and cattle, will 
maintain its fertility, if the same com- 
merce does not restore in some form of 
rnanure, those elements which have been 
removed from the soil, and which cannot 
be replaced by the atmosphere ? Must 
not the same fate await every country 
which has actually befallen the once pro- 
lific soil of Virginia, now in many parts 
no longer able to grow its former staple 
productions — wheat and tobacco? In 
the large towns of England, the produce 
both of English and foreign agriculture 
is largely consumed; elements of the soil 
indispensable to plants do not return to 
the fields; contrivances resulting from 
the manners and customs of the English 
people, and peculiar to them, render it 
difficult perhaps impossible, to collect the 
enormous quantity of the phosphate* 
which are daily, as solid and liquid ex- 
crements, carried into the rivers. These 
phosphates, although present in the soil 
in tlie smallest quantity, are its most im- 
portant mineral constituents. It was ob- 
served that many English fields, exhaust- 
ed in that manner, immediately doubled 
their products, as if by a miracle, whea 
dressed with bone earth imported from 
the continent. But if the export of 
bones from Germany is continued to the 
extent it has hitherto reached, our soil 
must be gradually exhausted, and the 
extent of our loss may be estimated by 
considering that one pound of bones 
contains as much phos])horic acid as a. 
hundred weight of grain. The imper- 
fect knowledge of nature, and the pro- 
perties and rehitions of matter, possessed 
by the alchemists, gave rise, in their time 
to an opinion that metals as well as 
plants could be produced from a seed. — 
The regular forms and ramifications seeB 
in crystals, they imagined to be the- 
leaves and branches of metal plants;; 
and as they saw the seed of plants grow,, 
producing root, stem, and leayes, and 
again blossoms, fi'\iit and seed, apparent- 
ly without recovering any supply of ap- 
propriate material, tliey deemed it wor- 
thy of zealous inquiry to discover the 
seed of gold, and the earth necessary fol* 
its development. If the metal seeds 



10& 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



were once obtained, might they not en- 
tertain hopes of their growth? Such 
ic'ea.5 could not be entertained when no- 
thitt^" was known of the atmosphere, and 
its participation with the earth in ad- 
ministering to the vital processes of 
plants and animals. Modern Chemistry 
indeed produces the elements ot water, 
and, combining them, forms water anew, 
but it docs not create those elements, — 
it derives them from water; the new- 
formed artificial water has been water be- 
forj. Many of our farmers are like the 
alchemists of old ; they are searching 
for the miraculous seed, — the means 
•which» without any further supply of 
nourishment to a soil scarcely rich 
enough to be sprinkled with indigenous 
plants, shall produce crops of grain a 
li;tndred fold. The experience of cen- 
turies, nay, of thousands of years, is in- 
sufficient to guard men against the falla- 
cies; our only security from these and 
similar absurdities must be derived from 
a correct knowledge of scientific princi- 
ples. In the first period of natural phi- 
losophy organic life was supposed to be 
derived from Avater only ; afterwards it 
was admitted that certain elements de- 
5-ived from the air must be superadded 
to the water; but we now know that 
other plants must be supplied by the 
earth, if plants are to thrive and multi- 
■-ply. The amount of materials contained 
in the atmospliere suited to the nourish- 
ment of plants is limited; but it must 
ha abundantly sufficient to cover the 
whole surface of the earth with a rich 
vegetation. Under the tropics, and in 
those parts of our globe wl.ere the most 
genial conditions of fertility exist — a 
suitabia soil a moist atmosphere, and a 
high temperature — vegetation is scarcely 
limited by space; and wdiere the soil is 
wanting, it is gradually supplied by the 
decaying leaves, bark, and branches of 
plants. It is obvious that there is no 
deficiency of atmospheric nourishment 
for plants in those regions, nor are th.ese 
wanting in our cultivated fields ; all 
which plants requii'e for their develop- 
jnt^nt is conveyed to them by the inces- 
sant motions of the atmosphere. The 



air between the tropics contains no more 
than that of the arctic zones ; and yefe 
how different is the amount of produce 
■of an equal surface of land in the two> 
situations 1 This is easily explicable, — ' 
All tlie plants of tropical chmates, the 
oil and wax palms, the siTgar cane, etc., 
contain only a small quanthy of the ele- 
ments of the blood necessary to the nxv- 
trition of animals, as compared with oup 
cultivated plants. The tubers of the po- 
tato in Chili, its native country, where 
the plant resembles a shrub, if collected 
from an acre of land, would scarcely 
suffice to maintain an Irish family for a- 
single da}^ The result of cultivation ia- 
those plants which serve as food, is to 
produce in them those constituents of 
the blood. In the absence of the ele- 
ments essential to these in the soil, starch, 
sugar, and woody fibre, are perhaps 
formed ; but no vegetable fibrine, albvi- 
men or caseine. If we intend to pro- 
duce, on a given surface of soil, more of 
these latter matters than the plant eai> 
obtain from the atmosphere, or receiva 
from the soil of the same surface in its 
uncultivated and normal state, we must 
crmfe an artificial atmosphere, ?ind add- 
the needed elements to the soil. Tli© 
nourishment which must be supplied in 
a given time to difterent plants, in order 
to admit a free and lanimpeded growttt 
is very unequal. On pure sand, on cal- 
careous soil, on naked rocks, only a few- 
genera of plants prosper, and these are. 
for the most part, parennial plants. — 
They require, for their slow growth, 
only such minute quantities of mineral 
substances as the soil can furnish, which 
may be totally barren for other species. 
Annual, and especially summer plants, 
grow and obtain their perfection inacoir.- 
paratively short time; they therefore do 
not pros])er on a s")il which is ])oor in 
tliose mineral substances necessary to 
their development. To obtain a maxi- 
um in height, in the short period of 
their existence, the nom-ishment contain- 
ed in the atmosphere is not sufficient. 
If the end of cultivation is to be obtain-r 
ed, we must create in the soil an arti?,- 
cial atmosphere of carbonic acid and aiu- 



THE FAEMER'S JOURJ^AL- 



10 r 



inonia; and this surplus of nourishment 
wliicli the leaves cannot appropriate 
from the air, must bo taken up by the 
corresponding organs, that is, the roots, 
from the soil. But the ammonia, together 
Tvith the carbonic acid, are alone insuffi- 
cient to become part of a plant destined 
to the nourishment of animals. In the 
absence of tlie alkalies, the phosphate 
irad other earthy salts, no vegetable fib- 
rine, no vegetable caseine, can be formed. 
The pliosphoric acid of tlie phosphate of 
lime indispensable to the ceralia and 
■«^ier vegetables in the formation of their 
feeds, is separated as an excrement, in 
great quantities, by the rind and bark of 
jigneous plants. How different are the 
wergreen plants, the oleaginous plants, 
the mosses, the ferns, and the pines, from 
0\\v annual grasses, the ceralia and legu- 
ininous vegetables! The former, at eve- 
ry time of the day, during Avinter and 
summer, obtain carbon through their 
leaves by absorbing carbonic acid, which 
is not furnished by the barren soil on 
nrhich they grow; water is also absorbed 
fmd retained by thier coriaceous or fleshy 
leaves with great force. They lose very 
Httle by evaporation, compared with other 
.plants. On the other liand, how very 
small is t];e quantity of mineral sub- 
stances which they withdraw from the 
soil during their almost constant growth 
ill one year, in comparison with the 
«|Tiatitity which one crop of wheat of 
<f<|ual weight receives in three months! 
Jt is by means of moisture that plants 
j-eceive the necessary alkalies and salts 
from the soil. In dry summers a phe- 
nomenon is observed, which, when the 
■importance of mineral elements to the 
bfe of a plant was unknown, could not 
be explained. The leaves of plants first 
de,veloped, and perfected, and therefore 
nearer the surface of the soil, shrivel up 
aod become yellow, lose their vitality, 
and fall off while the plant is in an ac- 
tive state of growth, without any visible 
«ccurse. This phenomenon is not seen in 
moist years, nor in evergreen plants, and 
but rarely in plants which have long and 
fleep roots, nor is it seen in the perren- 
iiisjs in autumn and winter. The cause 



of this premature decay is now obvious. 
The perfectly developed leaves absorb 
continually carbonic acid and ammonia. 
f)-om tiie atmosphere, v.'hich are con- 
verted into elements of new leaves, buds, 
and shoots; but this metamorphosis can- 
not be efl'ected without the aid of the 
alkalies and other mineral substances.- — 
If the soil is moist, the latter are contia--. 
uaily supplied to an adequate amount,- 
and the plant retains its lively green co- 
lor ; but if this supply ceases from a 
want of moisture to dissolve the mineral 
elements, a separation takes place in the 
plant itself. The inineral constituents of 
the juice are withdrawn fi'om the leaves 
already formed, and are used for the for- 
mation of the young shoots; and as 
soon as the .seeds are developed, the vi- 
tality of the leaves completely ceases. — ■ 
These v.-ithered leaves contain only mi- 
nute traces of soluble salts, while the buds 
and slioots are very rich in them. On 
the other hand, it has been observed, 
that where a soil is too highly impreg- 
nated v.'ith soluble saline materials, these 
;u-e separated upon the surface of the 
leaves. This happens to culinary vege- 
table especially, Vrhose I\aves become co- 
vered with a white crust. In conse- 
quence of these exudations, the plant 
sickens, its organic activity decreases, its 
growth is disturbed ; and if this state 
continues long, the plant dies. This is 
most frequently seen in foliaceous plants, 
the large surtiices of which evaporate 
considerable quantities of water. Car- 
rots, pumpkins, peas, etc., are frequently 
thus diseased, when, after dry Aveathcr, 
the plant being near its full growth, the 
soil is moistened by short showers, fol- 
lowed again by dry weather. The rapid 
evaporation carries ofl" the water absorb- 
ed by the root, and thus leaves the saltB 
in the plant in a far greater quantity 
than it can assimilate. These salts eli'er- 
vesce upon the surface of the leaves, and 
if they are herbaceous and juicy, pro- 
duce an effect upon them as if they had 
been watered with a solution coi:{aining 
a greater quantity of salts than iLeir or- 
ganism can bear. Of two plants of ttiQ 
same species, this disease befalls that 



108 



TJE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



which is nearest its perfection ; if one I 
should have been planted, later, or be' 
more backward in its development, the 
same external cause whichf destvoj's the 
one will contribute to the growth of the 
other. 



The CuUiration of Wheat. 

We can remember the time when the 
excitement of obtaining new varieties of 
Avheatwas-asgreat as the railway mania, 
the South-sea bubble, or the still more ri- 
diculous rage for Dutch tulip-roots. New 
varieties were advertised dasy after day at 
prices of the most unreasonable kind, v/hile 
the puffing proprietors^ trusting to the 
mania, and the acknowledged gulhability 
of John Bull, attributed to tlieir waies 
qualities the most inconsistent both with 
themselves and with truth. We remem- 
her asthe achme, a friend who bad caught 
the mania sent for a ten shilling parcel 
of a new variety of great promise, and 
he obtained twenty-five grains of a most 
coarsegrained, unpromising kind, costing 
nearly sixpence ]:>er grain — a price per 
bushel and per acre which we will not 
take the pains to calcidate, as it would 
■only gratify cui'iosity ; hut at harvest 
time, the sample from which so much 
was promised turned out a miserable 
sp?Gimen; no extraordinary production, 
but a sort of coarse Sardinian; variety, 
doubtless imported, and much injured in 
quality by being resov/n in this countiy. 
And yet we believe all this did good. 
Not that any amount of absolute good 
was effected by the introduction of new 
varieties, but the fact was ascertained 
that the mere change of seed did good. 
Those who had never changed a seed^ — 
never removed it from a high to a low, 
a stroHg to a light, a Avet to a dry vicin- 
ity, and vice versa, got new varieties from 
Sussex, from Kent, fi-om Norfolk, from 
Gloucestershire, and from Scotland, for 
all new kinds were rapidly sought up, 
even if they had to be found at the anti- 
podes, and were there either approved or 
jiot. Most failed. Eut next year, either 
from this break of the habit, or from ne- 
cessity in selling off the kind newly im- 
ported, a change of seed became no lon- 



ger of choice. And a good deal was dis- 
covered, too, of elasticity and adaptation 
in the various kinds of newly-introduced 
wheat to peculiarities of soil and climate. 
The wheat in general is unsuited to a 
light, porous soil. It canaot l)ear oxy- 
gen in any large quantity to its roots. 
It requires, as a rule, a tenacious soil ; 
and to get wheat to grow at all success- 
fully on a light soil, it had to W "daub- 
ed in," or there was but little cliance of 
successful cultivation. 

The Spalding wheat can bear the oxy- 
gen in a much larger degi'ee than the 
older cultivated varieties ; and hence take 
a light soil, and sow Spaldiiag and creep- 
ing in the same field, and you will find 
six to eight bushels |>er acre on such 
soils more on the one than the other. — 
Again, where spring-sowing of wheat is 
an object, it is often eitheE too late a 
season in the month of May, or the frost 
sets in too early in Octot>er to admit of 
its being fairly matured. Here the April 
wheat will answer the purpose.. It rf- 
quircito be sown in that montli to an- 
swer at all. 

These, however, are special cases, and' 
are by no means in favor of any great 
inducement to try any variety not usual- 
ly grown m a district. When an old va ■• 
I'iciy is moderately successful, it is far 
best to be satisfied with the same kind^ 
only changing the locality, and, if pos- 
sible, the kind of soil. 

Mr. Pawlet, of Beeston, has made 
some experiments on several kinds of 
wheat, with a view, to test their produc- 
tiveness, and' some' other experiments 
also on other points connected with their 
cultivation. The latter are of more con- 
sequence, we think, than the former. As 
indicating care and expeiimental skill, 
they deserve recording. The trial was 
made on a poor gravelly loam after clo- 
ver ley. 

The three u'hites gave the following 
result: 

Imperi.'il -white, 87 bushels per acre. 
C<iusens' unrivallec], 34 bushels 2 pecks 1 
gallon per acre. 

Kent hfdwn ch:iff, 21 bushels S pecks 1 
gallon per acre. 



THE FABMER-S JOURNA^^ ^^ ^ J.^^ibfE^ ^. 



As showing the first kind to be the 
most remunerative, it sold for 46s. per 
quarter, and the second 44s,; and it pro- 
duced more money per acre than either 
of the other by upwards of a guinea. 

His red wheat trials, made the same 
day, the whole being sown on the 20th 
of October, at the rate of 7 pec-ks per 
acre, gave the following results : — 
Defiance, 48 bushels 1 gallon a per acre. 

Golden drop, 41 bushels, 1 gal. do. 

Golden goody, 42 bu8h., 2 pecks, 1 gallon 
per acre. 

Ii^palding, 41 bueh., 1 peck peracre. 

Here, again, is a marked difference in 
Iha product per acre. A small area in 
an experimental piece is of very little 
value — it absolutely indicates nothing, 
for the same field, as Sir Vernon Har- 
court shows, will vary in a very conside- 
rable degree. 

The price obtained for the whole was 
the same, and the maximum difference 
33s. per acre. 

In another tibial between Browick and 
Sandon's, two. red wheats, the one gave 
47 bushels and 1 gallon per acre, the 
other 44 bushels and 3 pecks ; and both 
kinds sold for t)ie same price, showing a 
difference of some lis. per acre. 

Now these trials would have been 
more satisfactory if we had known that 
any of these kinds had been tried against 
the kinds ordinarily cultivated in the dis- 
trict, for it is not surprising that a differ- 
ence as great and even greater would 
take place between kinds all new to the 
locality. We quite imagine that if it 
had been a light gravel instead of a loam, 
the difference would have been just re- 
versed, and the Spalding turned out far 
more than any other variety, but have 
been likely to sell for a less sum per bu- 
shel. 

We do not think much can be made 
out by any extensi\-e adoption of new 
varieties, nor would we venture to go to 
any length in drawing a conclusion from 
the experience of one year, or on one 
soil. The peculiar season of 1851-2 is 
not by any means to be taken as a test 
of the general qualities of the different 
kinds of wheats ; and if it were, any ex- 
periments at Biggleswade would go no 



further, with any degree of safetjr, tlian 
to speak in favor of the kind to the lo- 
cality, even if it were substantiated by 
next year's trial. 

Though the wheat plant has been cul- 
tivated for nearly six times two. centuries, 
the whole of the phases of its cultivation 
are by no means fully understood. Is 
patriarchal times w© asfe infOTmcd of one 
who sowed wheat and obtained in the 
same year "an hundred fold."' One half 
that quantity, nay, one quarter, may now 
be said to be a large return. If two 
bushels of seed be sown and fifty bushels 
reaped, the one is by no moaas a plenti- 
ful seeding nor the other an inferior 
crop ; indeed we may say it is far more 
seldom arrived at than exceeded. 

The discussioas on-tliioji and tliio seed- 
ing have now pretty* fully disappeared. — 
Thin seeding for the Noi& of England 
and for Scotland has beoBi thoroughly 
exploded ; but the questions relating to 
the different kinds of sowing, the modes 
and circumstances of it, are by no means 
settled. 

So long ago as 1850, Mr. Pawlett,. of 
Beeston, near Biggleswade, made some' 
experiments on the hoeing of wheat. He 
had a portion of land Fown Avith Ilessing- 
land wheat on white clovei' ley, prttly 
free from wee s, hand-hoed thoroughly, 
and the remainder left alone. The re- 
sult, which was carefully maikcd at har- 
vest time, was as follows : — 

Bushels. Pedes. 
Y lieat hoed produced SO 2 per acre 

Wheat imlioed " 28 1 " 

In 1851, for the present year, he re- 
peated the experiment. He sowed a 
piece of land after red clover. The re- 
sult was very much in the same direction 
as in the preceding year; but we are 
sorry he has not given the full advantage 
of his experiment by stating precisely 
the kind of soil as to calibre and tenacity. 
It was as follows : — 

Bushels. Pecks. 
Wheat well hoed with hand 42 per acre. 
Wheat unhoed 44 3 " 

Making a difference in the one case of 
nine pecks per acre, and this year of two 
bushels and three pecks. Now, how 






^?f ^.«.\* 



110 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



could this be accounted for 2 It seems 
to set at naught all our previous notions 
ot' things. It ignores Jethro Tull and 
Garrett's hor.?e-hoe — it shows hoeing 
wheat, in fact, to be absolutely injurious. 
But let it be well understood : the land 
"vvas free from weeds; there was no ad- 
vantage in this respect in the first in- 
stance, and this it may be said is a strong 
reason why it did no good to the land ; 
but how it came to be injurious is another 
question not so easily solved. 

It does not seem to be due to season; 
for though there was a difterence in de- 
gree, it was certainly injurioiis in both 
cases, and no two seasons are so tho- 
loughly similaras to completely overturn 
twice over the ordinary and real nature 
of the operation. 

We are obliged to conjecture as to the 
reason, and we must conjecture only from 
the fact before mentioned, viz : that we 
are unacquainted with the nature of the 
soil — that it must have been some very 
open and light soil, and that the stirring 
of it where it did no good only tended to 
open the land, and so to render the oxy- 
gen more easy, of which, as we ha\e 
said, the root of the wheat plant has a 
dhect impatience. 

Vv^'e have no means of getting at the 
nature of his soil. In a previous expe- 
riment he calls it a "gravelly soil," in an- 
other a "gravelly loam ;" but neither of 
these quite come up to our notion of that 
kind of soil which might be supposed to 
be injured by opening to the freer access 
of the air. 

We have enough evidence, however, 
to perceive that it was not much benefit- 
ed by great consolidation, a state of 
things which ww think must have been 
the case had the soil been of a very open 
character. The same experimenter had 
two plots selected, Avhich he drilled with 
white Lammas wheat on a clover ley, 
one pa)t. lightly rolled, and the other 
rolled three times over with a very heavy 
roller. The result at harvest was as fol- 
lows : 

"Wheat heavily rolled, 38 bushels 2 peeks 
per ficr. 

Wheat lightly rolled, 38 bushels 1 peck 



per acre. 

The expense of this operation was 
very considerable, and the result not at 
all more than a mere variation of the pro- 
ductive quality of one part of a field 
over another side by side of it would oc- 
casion. 

But these facts open out no little of 
the question how necessary it is to go to 
first principles, and to begin all our pre- 
conceived notions with experiments dc 
novo as to the modes and piinciples of 
wheat sowing-. While on the subject of 
experiments in wheat sowing, on hoeing, 
and collateral subjects, we cannot help re- 
cording Mr. Pawlett's experiments in 
1850 as illustrating difference between 
drilling and hand-cast sowing. It turn- 
ed out, indeed, in favor of drilling, but 
not to any great degree, taken with the 
fact of natural differences which will 
take place in any field between one part 
and another. The drilled corn gave n. 
return of 34 bushels and 3 peeks per 
acre, and the broadcast gave 33 bushels 
and 3 pecks. 

We think, notwithstanding the many 
points of diffic'ulty wliich invariably pre- 
sent themselves in wheat cultivation, that 
a drill depositing the seed deeply, and 
care being taken, if possible, to sow in 
damp season, and to secure mccliamcal 
consolidation, is the most advantageous- 
system for the bulk of soils. And this 
not so much for any other reason as for 
the irregularity of seeding, which often 
attends hand sowing, how well so- 
ever it may be executed — as for the uni- 
formity of depth and the mechanical com- 
pression of the soil when sowing takes 
place in a damp state of the soil. — Far- 
mer''s Magazine. 



,^5r" If ariy of our readers are troub- 
led with loss of appetite, or a diseased 
liver, let them take brush and curry- 
comb, (don't swallow them,) clean oiF 
three or foi'r horses before breakfast eve- 
ry morning for a month. If that fails,- 
carry in your own wood and saw it. — 
Ilaine Farmer. 



^^" Renovate your worn-out lands. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



Ill 



Thorough Farming — or, Mucli Labor 
on Little Laud. 

Tiie great secret of European success 
in Agiiculture has been described as 
*' much labor on comparatively little 
iand." But the whole tenor of Ameri- 
can husbandry from the first settlement 
of the country, has been directly the con- 
trary, or, "little labor on mu-ch land." — 
And this is the cause of the deteriora- 
tion of our farm and crops, — of the ex- 
haustion of the elements of fertility in 
tJie one, necessary to the production of 
tlie other. It requires no great amount 
of labor or store of knowledge, to grow 
a crop at a cost equal or exceeding its 
value, and leaving the land j^oorer than 
before ; but it does require both vrork 
and wisdom to pToduce one which shall 
bring profit to the farmer and prepare the 
land for greater productiveness in future. 
Any one who can follow the plow and 
scatter the seed can do the former, but 
capital, experience and energy are re- 
quired to accomplish the latter. 

Thoroujrh farmino- bestows much labor 
— wisely directed and skilfully managed 
labor — upon every acre it cidtivates. It 
drains the land, if it needs it, so that it 
may be worked in the proper season, and 
no stagnant water ever stands to chill and 
bhght all healthy vegetation. It deep- 
ens and thoroughly pulverizes the soil, 
so that every crop may freely send down 
its roots for moisture and sustenance ; 
and it adds every needed manurial ele- 
ment, that their growth may be vigorous 
and rapid. It sufl'ers no weeds to rob 
the soil of its riches and the plant of its 
proper and rightful nutriment; and gives 
tlie crop the needful care and attention 
through all the stages of its gi-owth, from 
tlie deposit of the seed to the garnering 
of the product. 

"To cultivate his land well," says a 
contemporary, " and to increase its pro- 
ductive powers, is a prime object with a 
good farmer. To do this, it is absolutely 
essential that he employ the requisite 
amount of labor. This seems to be a 
self-evident proposition, and yet it is 
more generally disregarded in American 
husbandry, than any other principle of 



sound economy. Because we frequently 
hear it said that labor runs away from 
the profits of farming, our farmers lay it 
down as a maxim to get along with as 
little labor as possible. The consequence 
is, they attempt to do with less than they 
ought. They are thus out of pocket by 
loss of time, loss of season, and deterio- 
ation of land and crop, and in other 
ways of which they hardly dream. — 
There is many a farm, of broad and fer- 
tile acres, furnished with suitable build- 
ings and fences, well stocked and pro- 
vided with all needful appliances t-o 
make it productive, the owner of which 
undertakes to carry it on with half the 
force adequate to its cultivation. Is it to 
be wondered at that farming under such 
circumstances is decried as unprofitable? 
— that the interest on the investment' 
the taxes, the repair of buildings and 
tools, and other incidental expenses eat 
up the profits, when these profits are not 
half what they might, by tl;e employ- 
ment of more labor, easily be made to 
beP 

" Labor is the root and spring of all 
profit." But well-directed, earnest, thc- 
rough work is required to produce large 
results and full remuneration for such 
outlay of toil oml care. The farmer who 
gives the cultivation which is needed on 
five acres, to fifteen or twenty, does no 
part of his work well, and must fail of 
gettiiig a profitable crop,. Five acres of 
corn, producing four himdred bushels an- 
nually, is far better for the farmer and 
the coimtrj^, even if the same expense 
be incurred in its production, than six- 
teen acres skimmed over to yield the 
same amount. Half a dozen choice, 
thrifty and productive firuit trees are 
worth more than one hundred poor ones, 
and, while the latter seem only a curse 
to the owner, the former will prove a 
source of continual and increasing profit. 
The best stock — cattle, horses, sheep and 
swine — are tlie cheapest in the end, and 
bring far richer returns than the low- 
priced and little-worth varieties. 



The terror of being thought poor has 
been the ruin of thousands. 



112 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



FARMER'S JOJJKJAJL 

BATH. N. C, JTTLY, 1853. 



The State Agricultural Society. 

There was a called meeting of ihis 
body in Raleigh on the 25th of May, 
which was well attended, and quite a 
number of names were added to the list 
of members. At the beginning of the 
meeting there were belonging to the So- 
ciety only nineteen members who. had 
paid their initiation fee ; but when the 
meeting adjourned there were, we think, 
seventy-two members Avho had paid up — 
making at this time a fund of $360 in 
cur treasury. That there will be a State 
Fair held next fall does not longer admit 
cf a doubt, Avhich may be seen by refer- 
ence to the proceedings of the meeting 
of the Society, published in this number 
of the Journal. Among the members 
of the State Agricultural Society may 
be seen the names of many of the very 
first men in our State, such as Ex-Chief 
Justice Ruffin, Judge Strange, Ex-Gov. 
Manly, Gov. Reid,B. F. Moore, and others. 
Seeing that such men as these feel the 
importance of such an institution in our 
State, it should, we think, be a sufficient 
guarantee to any person that the object 
of the Society is the benefit of the State; 
and it should remove all objections, if 
any exist, to becoming a member. We 
Ijope that every enterprising farmer and 
mechanic in tlie State will feel it his duty 
to become a member of this honorable 
body, and will at once send to our trea- 
surer a $5 bill. The Society was ad- 
dressed by Henry Elliott, Esq., of Cum- 
berland, in a very able and stirring ap- 
peal, urging the few who compose our 
body to continue to persevere in their ef- 
orts ; he pointed them to the rewards in 



store for them, which the rising genera- 
tion would abundantly heap upon them. 
He is a man after our own heart — he 
feels the deepest interest in his profes- 
sion, and regards it in its proper light. 
He was appointed by the President* 
chairman of the Executive committee, a 
position in such institutions that is re- 
garded as highly honorable. There 
were remarks made by several other 
gentlemen, in relation to the getting up 
of the Fair in October next. Our Presi- 
dent presided Avith marked ability, and 
elicited admiration from all present ; he 
was very affable and courteous to the 
members, which could not fail to com- 
mand from them marked respect. On 
Thursday, the 26th, we had the pleasure 
of spending the day in company with 
the President and other gentlemen of 
the Society, at the house of Henry Mor- 
decai, Esq., who resides near the city of 
Raleigh, and owns that splendid farm in 
Old Edgecombe, formerly occupied by 
the late Hon. Richard Hines. The '^crea- 
ture comforts" of life were spread before 
us in the greatest profusion, and their 
splendid preparation spoke trumpet ton- 
gued in favor of the acquirements of our 
Hostess in housewifery. Mr. Mordecai 
is proud of his profession, and devotes 
himself assiduously to its duties^and s«ch 
a man is bound to reap the pleasure* as 
well as the profits of agriculture. The So- 
ciety adjourned on Thursday evening, the 
26th, and the countenances of ail present 
wore a gratified look, indicative of their 
being pleased at the results of their deli- 
berations. Each member returned to his 
home, no doubt with pleasing anticipa- 
tions in regard to the Fair in October, 
which Avill, we think, be a splendid ex- 
hibition of the product of our good Old 
State. We conclude by urging our far- 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



lis 



mers and mechanics in every part of the 
State to prepare specimens of their en- 
terprise for the Fair ; and to the ladies 
we would say, bring up, also, specimens 
of accomplishment in the household arts. 



To Our Readers. 

We hope to be excused for failing to 
furnish editorial matter for this number 
of our paper ; the reason which we as- 
sign is, that we have been closely en- 
gaged in attending to the duties assigned 
us as Corresponding Secretary of the 
State Agricultural Society. This is the 
first, and we hope will be the last time 
that we shall be under the necessity of 
asking such a favor from our readers. 



Proceedings of the State ilgricultu 
ral Society. 

Raleigh, N. C, 
Wednesday, May 25th, 1853 

At a call meeting of the North Caro- 
lina Agricultural Society, held in the city 
of Raleigh, this day (Wednesday, May 
25th,) in the Court house, the President, 
Mr. l)ancy, of Edgecombe county, took 
the Chair, and called the Society to or- 
der ; after which the Secretary read the 
Constitution and By-Laws. 

The names of the officers and mem 
bers of the Society were ordered to be 
published. They are as follows, to wit : 
Officers of N. C. Agricultural Society. 

1. President, J. Sessums Dancy of 
Edgecombe. 

2. Vice-Presidents, W. R. Poole, of 
Wake. 

3. " N. W. W^oodfin of Bun- 
combe, 

4. " Dan'l Macdairmid, Cum- 
berland. 

5. « Ralph Gorrell, Guilford. 

6. Rec. Secretary, Jas. F. Taylor, of 
Wake. 

7. Cor. Secretary, Jno. F.Tompkins, of 
Beaufort. 

8. Treasurer, W. W^ Whitaker, of 
Wake, 



Members of AT. C. Agricaltural Society, 

9. Jno. A. Averett, Jr., Onslow, 

10. S. W. Humphrey, Onslow, 

11. W.H.Tripp, Beaufort, 

12. W. F. Cowati, New-Hanover, 

13. B. F. Williams. 

14. J. Buxton Williams, AVarren, 

15. J.S.Spruill, Bertie, 

16. Lewis Thompson, " 

17. Will. T. Smith, Halifax, 

18. R. H. Smith, 

19. H. H. Waters, Brnnswick, 

20. Neil. McDugald, Cumberland, 

21. Alplieus Jones, "Wake, 

22. Sidney Weller, Halifax, 

23. W. S. Battle, Edgecombe, 

24. Rob't Norfleet, " 

25. Henry Mordecai, Wake, * 

26. David W. Sanders, Onslow, 

27. J. Nixon, Wake, 

28. David Hinton, " 

29. Charles Manly, " 

30. W. H. Scott, " 

31. Henry Elliot, Cumberland, 

32. Robert Strange, " 

33. Edward Lee Winsiow, " 

34. Charles L. Hinton, Wake, 

35. Thomas J. Leinay, " 

36. W. A. Eaton, " Granville, 

37. B. F. Moore, Wake, 

38. P. F. Pescud, 

39. W. H. Jones, 

40. James M. i owles, " 

41. Thomas H. Wright, New- Hanover, 

42. Wm. Boylan, Wake, 

43. W. L. Pomeroy, " 

44. W. Crudup, Granville, 

45. Thos. G. Hogg, Wake, 

46. R. W. Hyman, AVarren, 

47. Charles B. Root, Wake, 

48. Edward A. Crudup, Franklin, 

49. Thomas R. Fentress, Wake, 

50. AVm. W. Holden, 

51. Perrin Busbee, " 

52. Eldridge Smith, " 

53. A. M. Gorman, " 

54. J. E. Williamson, Caswell, 

55. W. R. Scott, Wake, 

56. E. P. Guion, 

57. Robert W. Haywood, '• 

58. Henry K.Burgwin, Northampton, 

59. John Hutchins, Wake, 

60. Jacob Mordecai, " 



114 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



il. Spencer Maclenahan, Chatham, 
1 2. David S. Keid, Rockingham, 

63. John C. MacRae, New Hanover, 
<34. Alex. MacRae, " 

65. Thomas P. Burgwin, Northampton, 

66. Robert R. Foreman, Pitt, 

67. H. J. B. Clark, Warren. 

68. Joseph Bonner, Beaufort, 

69. Benj. Trollinger, Orange, 
10. George T. Cooke, Wake. 

Mr. Smith, of Hahtas, moved the fol- 
lowing resolution : 

Resolved, That a Committee of five 
be appointed by the President, and re- 
port at next meeting, to confer with the 
Council of the City of Raleigh, as to 
the conditions upon which they will au- 
thorize an appropriation to aid the N. C. 
Agricultural Society in holding its an- 
nual Fair of all industrial operations in 
the City of Raleigh, 

Which, after some discussion, was 
adopted, and the following gentlemen 
were appointed by the President, to wit: 
Messrs. 'l'oinpkins,Poo]e, Lemay, H. Mor- 
decai, and VV. W. Whitaker. 

The President called attention to tlie 
.3rd article of the By-Laws, to wit : — 
"That it shall be the duty of the Presi- 
dent to appoint a committee of three to 
procure a speaker to deliver an annual 
address," etc., at the next Fair : when, 
the following gentlemen were appoint- 
ed*. Dr. Tompkins, of Beaufort, Mr. 
fimith, of Halifax, Mr, D. Hiiiton, of 
Wake. 

x\fter further remarks made by va- 
rious members on the subject of holding 
the October fair, on motion of Mr. Nix- 
on, adjourned to meet at 4 o'clock,in the 
Senate Chamber. 



Afternoon Session, — Senate Chamher. 
The agricultural Society met according 
to adjournment in the Senate Chamber, 
at 4 P. M., when the committees being- 
called on by the President, for their re- 
ports, Dr. Tompkins, chairman of the 
committee of conference with the City 
Council, &c., had not come to any pro- 
per arrangement, and requested further 
time, which was Ldlov.'ed. The other com 
mittee likewise desired more time to act, 



which was also granted. 

There being nothing before the Soci- 
ety for action, Mr. Elliott, of Cumberland, 
was called on for a speech, and responded 
in stirring appeals to the farmers of tho 
State upon the importance of joining the 
Society, and thereby encouraging, more 
than any other way, the agricultural re- 
sources of North Carolina ; and of pro- 
moting a better system throughout the 
whole State — a better and a more cer 
tain system for improvement of lands, 
tfec. 

Dr. Tompkins, of Beaufort, addressed 
the Society, upon the importance of hold- 
ing State Fairs, and on the importance 
of holding a State Agricultural Fair, in 
October next, and the manner of raising 
funds for defraying expenses of the same, 
etc. 

Mr. Moore, of Wake, spoke of the 
very maiked improvement he had al- 
ready witnessed, as resulting from the 
county societies that had been estabhsh- 
cd, and alluded in terms of high com- 
mendation to the county of Edgecombe. 
And in various other counties he had 
seen large and extensive heaps of com- 
post, etc., where a few years ago, such a 
sight had not been found in the Statc^ — 
of the great facility of making highly 
stimulating manure for sundry crops, &;c. 

Judge Strange, of Cumberland, was 
next called on, but had left the Cham- 
ber, when Governor Reid was called out, 
and addressed the Society in appropri- 
ate remarks upon the great advantage^* 
other States had realized in the mainte- 
nance of Agi'icultuial Associations and 
Mechanical Societies, for encouraging- 
tlie arts, and the mutual assistance af- 
forded each class of the commimity by 
supplying what was wanted, and was es- 
sential to the very existence of the other, 
&c. 

Mr. W^inslow, of Cumberland, was 
called up, and stated that his county So- 
ciety President, Mr. Elliott, had expressed 
his own sentiments and those of his 
county, and that he had nothing further 
at present to add. 

Mr. WHiitaker, of Wake, made a few 
remarks on the suitableness of holding 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



115 



the October Fair in Raleigli, aud tlie 
luauner of raising the necessary funds to 
defray expenses, — the eti'ect that each 



whenever a like amount shall be paid by 
the persons or Societies subscribing the 
biilance. The property to be vested ia 



itiember might have by proper exertion j the Commissioners of the City of Raleigh 



in inducing farmers to join tLe Society, 
&c. 

On motion of Mr. Lemay, the Society 
adjourned to meet at 9 o'clock to-morrow 
morning. 



TnuusDAV, May 20, 1S.j3. 
The Society met according to adjourn- 
ment at nine o'clock, Thursday morning, 



in Trust for the use of the State Agricul- 
tural Society, to be subject to the control 
and regulations of the said society, upon 
satisfactory assui-ance being given to th« 
Commissioners that the annual Fair shall 
be located permanently at the City of 
Raleigh. 

Eemlved, That the expenditure of this 
fund be entrusted (the State and W?ke 



The jou)'nal \Yas read aud the following \ County societies concurring) to a com- 



tiames of delegates were handed in by 
Mr. Smith, of lTalitax,fi'om the Scotland- 
Neck Agricultural Society to wit : 

Messrs. W. J. Hill, Jacob Iliggs, R. 
11. Smith, J. N. Smith, Burwcirbunn, 
8. J. Baker, AV. R. Smith, P. E, Smith, 
S. Pittman, W. II. Shields, J. Bryant, 



mlttee of two on the part of each of 
the societies, and three on thepartof this 
Board ; a majority of which committee 
shall be necessary to act. 

A true coijy tiom Records of Citv. 
J. J. CHRISTOPHERS, Clerk. 

i\Ir. Moore moved that the T'esoluiions 



Mr. Elliott, of Cumberland, handed in of the City Board be entered on the 



the names of delegates that were ap- 
j)ointed to attend from the County Agri- 
cultural Society of Cumberland, to wit : 
Messrs. Henry Elliott, Robt. Strange, 
Edward Lee AVinslov/, A. S. ^JacNei], 
Joel WilHams, Ed. J. Hale. 

The committees being called on for 
reports by the President, Dr. Tompkins 
stated that the committee had waited on 
the Board of Commissioners of the City 
of Raleigh, and would submit the follow- 
ing resolution, as their action in the pre- 
^nises, for the consideration of the Socie- 
ty, to wit : 

Raleigk, May 25, 1853. 
At a regular meeting of the Board of 
Commissioners of the city of Raleigh, 
the following resolution was adopted : — 
Resolved, That the Board of Com- 
missioners will subscribe and pay one half 
the amount which may be necessary to 
make the proper arrangements for hold- 
ing the annual Fair of the State Agri- 
cultural Society, provided thatthe entire 
cost of the land and buildings shall not 
exceed the sum of Five Thousand Dol- 
lars, and upon condition that an equal 
amount be raised by private subscription: 
That the Commissioners will pay the 



journal, which was adopted ; and hn 
then introduced the following preamble 
and resolutions, which, after a discussion 
between Messrs. Moore, Tompkins aud 
others, Avas passed, namely : 

Vv'hekeas, The City Council of Ral- 
eigh has proposed to subscribe the su)a 
of twenty-iive hundred dollars, (-12,500) 
towards the erection of the necessary 
buildings, and preparing the grounds to 
hold the annual Fairs of the North Caro- 
lina Agricultural Society, on the condi- 
tions specified in theibregoing resolution ; 
and whereas, strong assurances are given 
by the members of the Wake county 
Agricultural Society, that a considerable 
portion of the sum necessary thus to be 
subscribed Avill be raised by the AVake 
County Agricultural Society : 

It is therefore resolved, That the reso- 
liitions of the City Council be acceded 
to, and that a committee of three be ap- 
pointed by the President as an assistant 
committee, to select some suitable loca- 
tion, \vithin the City of Raleigh, or with- 
in one mile thereof, to be the perma- 
nent location ; and submit the same to 
the next meeting of the Society ; and 
that in the meantime "the Committee 



amount subscribed on the part of the j of Arrangements," appointed imder the: 
Oity in instalments from time to time, , fifth article of By-Laws shall make all 



lie 



THE FARMER'S JOURI^AL. 



tike necessary arrangements, for the pur- 
poses therein mentioned. 

The following three gentlemen con- 
stitute the assistant committee appointed 
under the above i-esolution, namely : — 
Messrs. B. F. Moore, A. ^I. Gorman, and 
T. J. Lemay. 

J'lr. Lemay introduced the following 
resolution, which was adopted : 

Mesolved, That a conanotittee of four 
be appointed by the President to wait 
OR- the farmers and mechanics of Wake 
and solicit them to join the N. C. Ag- 
ricultural Society, and pi'epare stock, &c. 
for the exhibition. 

Messi's* Jjemay, Root, Fentress and 
Scott were placed upon the committee. 

Mr. Elliott,, of Cumberland, moved 
that the Secretary of each county Society 
he requested to solicit farmers and me- 
chanics of their respective counties to be- 
come members of the State Agricultu- 
i-'al Society, and to receive the fees, and 
i'ej)ort to the Seci'etary and Treasurer of 
the N. C. Agricultural Society; which, 
after discussion, by Mr. Elliott and others 
was passed. 

Mr. Tompkins, from Beaufort, intro- 
duced the following resolution, which, 
■was agreed to^ to- wit : 

Resolved^ That the Corresponding Se- 
cretary address a circular to stock raisers 
and mechanics of other States, inviting 
theih to exhibit specimens of their skill 
and entej'prise at the annual Fair to be 
held on the 18th of October next, at the 
City of Raleigh. 

Mr. Tompkins likewise introduced 
and discussed the annexed resolution, 
which, as amended, was passed, to wit :. 

Resolved^ That the Corresponding Se- 
cretary be ordered to open a correspond- 
ence with the Presidents and Directors of 
the various railways, plank-roads, etc, in 
this State, asking permission to allow all 
specimens of stock and mechanism to 
pass and repass free of any ciiarge to and 
from the State Fair. 

Mr, Tompkins then moved that a 
committee of two membei's of the Com- 
mittee of Arrangements be appointed b}^ 
Mr. Elliott, chairman of said commit- 
tee, to visit Baltimore and examine the 



grounds and buildings- used for holding 
the State AgTicultural Fairs of Maryland, 
and report to the Committee of Arrange- 
ments the result of their observations, 
including the cost of construction and 
arranging the same ; which resolution 
was adopted, two members of the com- ■ 
mittee offering their services to go at 
their own expense. 

Mr. Taylor, of Wake, introduced an 
amendment to a resolution introduced by 
Dr. Tompkins, which was accepted, and 
adopted, to wit : " That the Treasurer 
be authorized to purchase Fifty Dol- 
lars worth of the Farmer's Journal con- 
taining the proceedings and journal of 
the N. C. Agricultural Society, and dis- 
tribute them generally among all the 
members of the Society." 

Mr. Smith, of Halifax, moved the fol- 
lowing iresolution, which was unani- 
mously adopted, namely : 

Renohed, That the " Farmer''s Jour- 
naV edited by Dr. John F. Tompkins, 
be considered as the organ of this Socie- 
ty, through which its publications be 
made, and that it be recommended to the 
Farmers of the State, as an agricultural 
Journal deserving their patronage and 
support. 

Mr. Taylor introduced the following 
resolutions, which were adopted : 

Resolved, That all members of the 
County Agricultural Societies of this 
State be constituted honorary members 
of the N. C. Agricultural Society, enti- 
tling them to all privileges except voting, 
and be considered full members, only 
upon complying with the requisitions of 
the Constitution and By-Laws like all 
other persons. 

Resolved, That each county agricul- 
tural Society in this State, be written to 
by the corresponding Secretary, and re- 
quested to aid in establishing a fund for 
Premiums; to be granted at the Fair in 
October next, held in the city of Raleigh. 

Resolved, That the names and coun- 
ties of Residence of all members of this 
Society be published and circulated un- 
der the same order, with the Pamphlet of 
Constitution and By-Laws and the Jour*- 
nal. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



11 r 



Oh motion, I 

Resoloed, That the necessary expenses 
of holding this meeting of the Society, be 
paid by the Treasurer of the same. 

The President made the following: ap- 
pointments : 

L. W. Humphrey, of Onslow, Chief 
Marshal, William H. Tiipp, Beaufort, 
Henry Mordecai, W;.ke, W. S. Battle, 
Edgecombe, William H. Seott, Raleigh, 
Thos. D. Hogg, Raleigh, Assistants. 

COMMITTEE OF AliRANGEMENTS. 

Any three of whom may act. 
J, Nixon, of Raleigh, Chairman. 
W..R: Poole, Wake,"Thomas .J.Lcmay, 
Raleigh, W. W. Whitaker, Wake, W. 
W. liolden, Raleigh, S. W. Wliiting, Ral- 
eigh, J. F. Tompkins, Beaufort, Robert 
jSTorfleet, Edgecombe, R. W. Hyman, 
Warren, Alpheus Jones, Wake. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE. 

Any three of whom may act. 

Henry Elliott, of Cumbei'land, Chair- 
man. Lewis Thompson, Bertie, R. M. 
Smith, Halifiix. N. \V. Woodfin, Bun- 
combe, H. H. Wateis, Brunswick, J. B. 
Williams, Wan en, Chas. Manly, Wake, 
Robert Strange, Cumbeiland, W. A. Ea- 
ton, Granville, H. R. Burgwin, North- 
ampton, W.,H. Jones, Wake, E.P. Gui- 
on, Wjike, E. A. Crudup, Franklin, 
Thos. H. Wright, New Hanover, John 
Hutchins. Wake. 

The Society took a recess until eight 
o'clock P. M. 

8 o'clock, p. M. 

The Society met, and after some dis- 
cussion, adjourned to meet in Raleigh 
on the 18th of October next, the time 
fixed for the annual meetings Mhen the 
Fair will also be held, and an. Agricultu- 
ral oration delivered. 

JCBN S. DANCY, President 

James F. Taylor, Secretary^ 



SCHEDULE OF PREMIUMS 
To he Awarded at the First Annual 
Fair of the North Carolina State 
Agricultural Society. 

PARTICULAR SUBJECTS AND PREMIUMS. 

Branch 1. — Exiieriments. — For each 
of the eight best experiments, or series 



of experiments, on any of the following 
subjects, a premium as follows : 

1st. effects (in profit or loss) of the 
usual mode of saving corn fodder, by 
stri])ping the green blades and cutting 
oflf the tops, $20 

2d Cost and cff'ects of sab soil 
ploughing, under diflerent cii'eum- 
stances of soil and sub-soil, 20 

Sd. Action or non-action of lime 
as manure, above the falls of the 
tide-water rivers of North Carolina, 
on difierent soil, 30 

4th, Action c non-action of gyp- 
sum, below the falls of the tide-water 
rivers, and on soils- respectively oii- 
ginallyrieh and originally poor, and 
on the latter, after as well as before 
their being made calcareoiJSj 20 

5th. Cost and ofi'ects of bone-deist, 
(or phosphate of lime,) as a manure, 20 
. Gth. How late, in reference to the 
growth, the last tillage (by plough or 
cultivator), should be given to corn 
for its best product; and whether the 
said last tillage should be shallow or 
deep, " 20 

7th. Best series of comparative 
experiments in the cultivation of com, 20 

8th. Benefits and products of gua- 
no, compared to costs ; to be tested 
by not less than three different expe- 
riments, made under circumstances 
move or less different, 20 

9th.. Benefits or profit of pi-eserv- 
ing or applying human excrements 
as maniu'e, whether prepared for sale 
and distant transpoi-tation, or other- 
wise, but the whole operation to be 
in North Carolina, 20 

10th. Tide marsh mud, or swamp 
i^uck, or peaty soil (eithei' kind to be 
accurately described, and character- 
ized) as manure, iii compost Avith 
lime or other materials, oi' otherwise, 20 

11th. Value of charcoal as. an aid 
to fertility, 20 

12th, Value of sulphate of bary- 
tes as a manure, especially for clo- 
ver, 20 

1 3th. Tobacco. — Culture, cost and 
profit of cultivation, and compara- 
tive effects on production, from dif- 



118 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



f'^rent distances of phuiling-, modes of 
prhning, topping, &.c., comprising at 
"least three ditierent experiments, 30 

1-ltU. Cultivation and compara- 
tive feeding value of r\e, 10 

Branch IL — Esmys or written Com- 
mx.ni cat ions. — For each of tiie best five 
oji any of the following subjects, a pre- 
mium as folio\ys: 

1st. On improving and enriching 
poor land — whether naturally poor 
or naturally rich, or good, and subse- 
■•queatly exhausted by severe crop 

pi'igi 

2il. On draining, 

3d. Oa rotation of crops, 

4th. On the accumulation, prepar- 
ation and application of stock yard 
s'nd stable manure, 

5th. On the " green sand" or gyp- 
S'">ou3 earth of lower North Cai'olina 
A.S nianura — and the facts and causes 
oi etFect or non-clfect, 

6th. Oa the properties and value 
of tlie Southern pea (or "cornncid 
p'ja" of any variety,) and the culture 
-thereof, whether Ibr saving tho peas 
ripened, or ploughing under the 
•■rowth, green or dry, for manure, 
8/ad as a prepaj'ation for v/heat, or 
other grain crops, 

7th. On the comparative profits 
m plimtiag and farming, and of the 
two combined — improvement of land 
being considered, 20 

BiiANCJi III. — Best Farming/ in N. 
Carolina — Having reference as much as 
may be to all the territory of the State. 
Honorary testimonials for the twelve 
best farms, which have been managed 
tj) greatest benefit and profit in reference 
to the follovv'ing great objects of cultiva- 
improvement of soil — fertility of 



$30 
20 
10 



20 



20 



20 



tion 

production — increase of farming capital 
— sufficient annual profits ; and general 
arrangement and procedure tending to 
best secure profitable and enduring re- 
sults. Greater superiority in one or more 
of these requisites may compensate for 
deficiency in others. 

Branch IV. — For the best product 
averaged to the acre, of each of the fol- 
io wing crops raised in 1853 on a ho7ia 



fide farm, and for an entire shift of tlie 
farm according to its usual or designed 
rotaiion — a premium of S2u 

1st. Be-st average product of Indian 
corn. 

2d. " " wheat, 

3d. " " clover. : 

4 th. " " tobacco. 

A pronium for the best average pro- 
duct of each of tho following crops, 
of $10 

5th. Oats. 

6th. Peas (Southern or comfiuld,) ei- 
ther among corn or separate, in grain or 
in green manure. 

7th. Sweet potatoes. 

Sth. Irish potatoes. 

Oth. Turnips. 

10th. Carrots. 

11th. Parsnips. 

12th. Pumpkins. 

For the largest yield on one acre 
of the following cro})S, each a }'>re- 
raium of ' $10 

13th. Tobocco. 

14th. Cora (not less than 100 bushels 
per acre) 

15th. Wheat, (not less than 30 bushels 
per acre.) 

16th. Hay (clover or grass, not less 
than 2 tons per acre.) 

Fi.^r the best varieties of the follow- 
ing crops, to be raised and samples 
exlnbited by the. individual raising 
them, a premium of t'5 

l7th. Corn. 

ISth. Wheat. 

19th. Tobacco. 

20 th. Oats. 

21st. Clover and grass seeds. 

22d. Turnips. 

23d. Parsnips. 

24th. Carrots. 

25th. Pumpkins. 

2 Oth. Peas. 

Brancu V, — Live Steele Exhibited. 

HORSES. 

Ist. For the best thorough bred 
stalion, $30 

2d. For the second best thorough 
bred stallion, 15 

3d. For the best thorough bred 
mare, 15 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



J10 



4th. For 2d " " " 8 

QUICK DRAUGHT AND SADDLE HORSES. 

5th. For the best Stallion for quick 
«lrauglit, $30 

6th. For 2d best stallion for quick 
tlraught, 15 

7th. For the best brood mare for 
quick draught. 15 

8th. For 2d best brood mare for 
quick draught, 10 

9th. For best stallion for saddle, 30 

10th. For 2d best " " 15 

11th. For best brood mare for the 
saddle, 15 

12th. For 2d best brood raare for 
the saddle, 10 

13th. For the best pair matched 
horses, 15 

14th. For 2d best pair matched 
horses, 1 

16th. For best saddle horse, mare 
or gelding, 15 

16th. For best pair of draught 
horses, 15 

17th. For best team of draught 
horses, not less than 4, 20 

18th. For the best 3 year old colt 
or filly, 15 

19th. For the best 2 year old colt 
or filly, 10 

20th. For the best 1 year old colt 
or filly, 8 

HEAVY DRAUGHT HORSES. 

21st. For best stallion for heavy 
draught, 30 

22d. For 2d best stallion for heavy 
draught, 15 

23d. For the best mare for heavy 
draught, 1 5 

24tli. For 2d best mare for heavy 
draught, 1 

MULES AND JACKS. 

25th. For the best jack, 30 

26th. For the 2d best jack, 10 

27th. For the best janet, 20 

28th. For the 2d best janet, 10 

29th. For the best pair of mules, 20 
30th. For the best team of mules, 

not less than five, 30 

CATTLE. 

Short Horns or Durkams and Here- 
fords, three gears eld and upward. 



2d. For the 2d best bull, 15 

3d. For the 3d best bull, 8 

4th. For the best cow, 30 

5th. For the 2d best cow, li> 

6th. for the 3d best cow, S 

Short Horns or Durhams and Here- 
fords under thre-. years old. 

7th. For the best bull between two 
and three years old, ^15 

8th. For the 2d best bull between 
two and three years old, & 

9th. For the 3d best bull between 
two and three years old, 5 

10th. For the best bull between 
one and two years old, 15 

11th. For the 2d best bull between 
one and two j'ears old, 8 

12th. For the best heifer between 
two and three years old, 15 

13th. For the 2d best heifer be- 
tween two and three years old, 8 

14th. For the best heifer between 
one and two years old, 15 

15th. For the 2d best heifer be- 
tween one and two years old, 8 
Hevons and Alderneys, over three years 
old. 

16th. For the best Devon bull 



1st. For the best bull. 



30 



three years old and upwards, 



$30 



17th. For the 2d Lest Devon bull 
three years old and upwards, 15 

18th. For the 3d best Devon bull 
three years old and upwards, 8 

19th. For the best Devon cow 
three years old and upwards, 30 

20th. For the 2d best Devon cow- 
three years old and upwards, 15 

21st. For the 3d best Devon cow 
three years old and upward?, S 

Aklerneys same premiums as Devons. 
Devons and Aklerneys, under three years 
old. 

2 2d. For the best Devon bull be- 
tvv^een two and three years old, $15 

23d. For the 2d best Devon bull 
between two and three years old, 8 

24th. For the 3d best Devon bull 
between two and three yearsoid, & 

25th. For the best Devon bull be- 
tween one and two years old, 15 

26th. For the 2d best Devon bull 
between one and two years old, ^ 

27th. For the best Devon heifer 



120 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



between two and three years old, 15 

28th. Forthe 2d best Devon heifer 
l)etween two and three years old, 8 

29th, For the best Devon heifer 
between one and two years old, 15 

30th. For the 2d best Devon heifer 
between one and two years old, 8 

Alderneys same premiums as Devons. 
Ayrshires and Holsteins over three years 
old. 

31st. For the best Ayrshire bull 
three years old and upwards, |30 

32d. Forthe 2d best Ayrshire bull 
three years old and upwards, 15 

33d. For the 3d best Ayrshire bull 
three years old and upwards, 8 

34th. For the best Ayrshire cow 
three years old and upwards, 30 

35th. For 2d best Ayrshire cow 
three years old and upwards, 15 

36th. For 3l1 best Ayrshire cow 
three years old and upwards, 8 

Holsteins same premiums as Ayr- 
shires. 

Ayrshires and Holsteins^ under 3 years 
old. 

37th. For the Best Ayrshire bull 
between two and three years old, $15 

38th. For the 2d best Ayrshire bull 
between two and three years old, 8 

3 9th. For the 3d best Ayrshire bull 
between two and three years old, 5 

40lh. For theljest Ayrshire heifer 
between two and three years old, 15 

41st-. For 2nd best Ayrshire heifer 
between two and three years old, 8 

42d. For the best Ayrshire bull 
between one and two years old, 15 

43d. For the 2d best Ayrshire bull 
between one and two years old, 8 

44 th. Forthe best Ayrshire heifer 
between one and two years old, 15 

45th. For 2d best Ayrshire heifer 
between one and two years old, 8 

Holsteins same premiums as Ayr- 
shires. 

Natives or Grades. 

46th. For best bull three yea "s old 
and upwards, $30 

47 th. For 2d best bull three ye ir 
and upwards, 15 

48 th. For 3d best bull three years 
©Id and upwards, 8 



49th. For best bull between two and 
three old, 15 

50th. For 2d best bull between 
two and three years old, 8 

51st. For 3d best bull between 
two and three years old, 5 

52d. For best bull between one 
and two years old, 15 

53d. For 2d best bull between one 
and two )''ears old, 8 

54th. For best cow three years old 
and upwards, 30 

55th. For 2d best cow three years 
old and upwards, 15 

56th. For 3d best cow three years 
old and upwards, 8 

SYth. For best heifer between two 
and three years old, 15 

58th. For 2d best heifer between 
two and three years old. 8 

59th. For 3d best heifer between 
two and three years old, 5 

GOtli. For best heifer between one 
and two years old, 15 

61st. For 2d best heifer between 
one and two years old, 8 

Working Oxen. 

62d. For best yoke of oxen over 
four years old, $30 

63d. For 2d best yoke of oxen 
over four years old, 15 

64th. For best yoke of oxen under 
four years old, 30 

65th. For 2d best yoke of oxen 

under four years old, 15 

Fat Cattle. 

66th. For best pair fat steers, $30 

67th. For best fat cow, 15 

68th. For best tat heiler, 8 

SHEEP. 

Fine Wools and Middle Wools. 
1st. For best buck— fine wool, $20 
2d. For 2d " " 10 

3d. For 3d « " 5 

4th. For best pen of ewes, not less 

than three — line wool, 20 

5th. For 2d best pen of ewes, not 

less than three — fine wool, 10 

6th. For 3d be&t pen of ewes, not 

less than three — fine wool, 5 

7th. For best pen of eAve lambs, 

not less than four — fine wool, 3 

8 th. For best pen of buck lambs, 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



121 



not less than four — fine wool, 5 

9th. For best buck — middle wool, 20 
10th. For 2d " " " 10 

11th. For 3d « " " 5 

12th. For best pen of ewe lambs, 

not less than four — middle wool, 5 

13th. For best pen of buck lambs, 

not less than four — middle wool, 5 

Long Wools and Natives. 
14th. For best buck — long wool, 20 
15th. For 2d " " 10 

16th. For 3d " " 5 

iVth. For best pen of ewes, not 

less than four — long wool, 20 

18. For 2d best pen of ewes, not 
less than four — long wool, 10 

19. For 3d best pen of ewes, not 
less than four — long wool, 5 

20th. For best pen of ewe lambs, 
not less than four — ^long wool, 5 

21st. For best pen of bui-k lambs, 

not less 'than four — long wool, 5 

Natives or Mixed Blood. 

2 2d. For best buck, 20 

23d. For 2d best buck, 10 

24th. For 3d best buck, 5 

25th. For best pen of ewes, not 
less than four, 20 

26th. For 2d best pen of ewes, not 
less than four, 10 

27th. For 3d best pen of ewes, not 
less than four, 5 

28th. For best pen of ewe lambs, 
not less than four, 5 

29 th. For best pen of buck lambs, 

not less than four, 5 

Imported Sheep. 

30th. For best imported buck of 
any description, 20 

31st. For best imported ewe of 
any description, 20 

32d. For 2d best imported buCk of 
any description, 10 

33d. For 2d best imported ewe of 
any description, 10 

34th. For 3d best imported buck of 
any description, 5 

35th. For 3d best imported ewe of 

■any description, 5 

Swine — Large Breed. 

1st. For best boar over two years 
old, 20 

2d. For 2d best boar over two 



years old, 10 

3d. For best boar one year old, 1 5 

4th. For 2d " " " 8 

5th. For best boar six months and 
under one year old, 15 

6th. For 2d best boar six months 
and under one year, 8 

7th. For best breeding sow over 
two years old, 20 

8th. For 2d best breeding sow 
over two years old, 10 

9th. For best sow, not less than 6 
months and under 18 mouths old, 15 

10th. For 2d best sow, not less 
than 6 months and under 18 months 
old, _ 8 

11th. For best lot of pigs, not less 
than two and under five months old, 20 

12th. For 2d best lot of pigs, not 
less than two and under five months, 10 

The large breed includes the Chester, 
Berkshire, Russia, Bedford, Woburn, 
Grazier, Duchess county and their grade. 
S trial I Breed, 

13th. For best boar over 2 years 
old, 115 

14th. For 2d best boar over two 
years old, 8 

15th. For best boar over 1 year 
old, 15 

16th. For 2d best boar over 1 year 
old, 8 

17th. For the best boar over six 
months old, 16 

18th. For 2d best boar over six 
months old, 8 

19th. For best breeding sow over 
two years old, 1 5 

20tb. For 2d best breeding sow, 
over two years old, 8 

21st. For best sow not less than 
six, nor more than 1 8 months old, 15 

22d. For 2d best sow not less than 
6, nor more than 1 8 months old, 8 

23d. For best lot of pigs not less 
than two and under five months old, 15 

24th. For 2d best lot of pigs, not 
less than two and under five months 
old, 8 

The small breed includes Neapolitan, 
Suffolk, Chinese and their grades. 

PREMIUM ANIMALS. 

1st. For best bull of any breed on 



122 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



exhibition, $40 

2d. For best cow of any breed ou 
•<sxliibitioi{, 40 

3d. F(ir best stallion of auy breed 
oil exliibition, 40 

4tli. For best brood mare of any 
breed ou exliibition, 40 

5tli. For best buck of any breed. 
-on exhibition, 20 

Gth. For best ewe of any br^cd on 
■exhibition, 20 

7th. For best boar of any breed 
on exhibition, 20 

8th. For best breeding sow of any 
breed on exhibition, 20 

9 til. For best pen of tat hogs, not 
less than twenty, 30 

10th. P'or best pen of fat hogs, not 
less than ten, 20 

11 til. For best pen of fat hogs, not 
less than five, 10 

POULTRY CIIiCKKXS. 

1st. For best pair of white Shang- 
haes, 2 

2d, For best pair Cochin China, 2 

;3d. For best ])air red Shanghaee, 2 

4th. For best pair yellow '• 2 

5th. For best pair Imperial China, 2 

0th. For best pair white Dorkings, 2 

7 th. For "l^est pair red Chittag'ong, 2 

8th. For best pair gray " 2 

^th. For best pair black Poland, 2 

10th. For best pair white " 2 

11th. For best pair Silver Pheasant, 2 

12 th. For best pair Golden " 2 

13 th. For best pair Spangled Ham- 
burg, 2 

14th. For best pair white or red 
Oame, 2 

15th. For best pair Br am a Pootra, 2 
16th. For best pair N. C. Game, 2 
l7th. For best pair black Spanish, 2 
18th. For best pair Indian Moun- 
tain, 2 

1 9th. For best pair Wild Indian 
X]>ame, 2 

30th. For best pair Sumatra Game, 2 
21bt. For best pair Ostrich, 2 

2 2d. For best pair Bolton Greys, 2 
23d. For best pair SeaBright Ban- 
Inrns, 2 

24th, For best pair Java Bantams, :2 
:25tli. For best pair Gre^t Malay, 2 



26th. For best pair Jersey Blues, 2 
27th. For best pair comuiou Dor- 
kings, 2 
28Lh. For best pair any other breed, 2 

TURKEYS, GEESE, DUCKS, &0 

29th. For best pair coinmou geese, 2 
80th. For best pair wild geese, 2 

31st. For best pair China geese, 2 
32d. For best pair white Poland 
ducks, 2 

33d. For best pair Muscovy ducks, 2 
34th. For best pair common ducks, 2 
35th. For best pair common tur- 
keys, 2 
36th. For best pair wild turkeys, 2 
37th. For the greatest variety of 
poultry, 10 
Branch VL 
agricultuual implements. 
Class No. 1. 
Ploughs, Caliivators and Rollers. 
1st. For best single horse plough, $8 
2d. For best shovel plough, 6 
3d. For best cultivator, 6 
4th. For best harrow, -8 
5th, For best subsoil plough, 5 
Gth. For best gang plough, 5 
7th. For best liillside plough, 5 
8th. For best corn planter, 5 
9th. For best roller, 10 
Class No. 2. 
Drills and Broad-casting Machines, 
Wheat or Grass Rakes by Horse 
Power^ Cradles, Carts, Vfagons, Wa- 
gon Gear, Curt Gear, Ox Yokes, clbc^ 
1st. For the best broadcasting and 
drilling machine for grass or grass 
seed, $30 

2d. Forbest broadcasting machine 
for sowing guano, 30 

3d. For best broadcasting macliinc 
for sowing lime, 30 

4th. For best corn planter or drill 
for depositing seed at regular dis- 
tances, 10 
5th. For best wheat drill, 30 

6 th. For best hoi-se rake, 5 

7 th. For best set of wagon harness, 5 
8th. For best ox yoke, 4 
9th. For best grain cradle, 4 
10th. For best wagon for farm nso, 10 
11th. For best frame or body for 

hauling wheat in the shea^ hay or 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



223 



straAV, 10 

12tli. For best ox cart with body 
for hauling corn in the shucks, 8 

13th. For best ox cart with body 
for liauUng wheat in sheaf, hay or 
straw, 
^ 14th. For best horse cart, 

15th. For best set of cart gear, 

Class No. 3. 
l?t. For best sweep horse power, 
3d. For 2d best sweep horse-power, 1 
3d. For best railway horse-power, 30 
4th. For best threshing machine 
without separating and cleaning ap- 
'paratus, 

5th. For best machine for thresh- 
ing, separating and cleaning grain at 
<MXQ operation, 

6th. For best separator or straw 
♦arrier, 

Class No. 4. 
1st. For best hay and straw cutter 
for horse-power, 

2d. For best hay and straw cutter 
for hand power, 

3d. For best corn sheller for horse- 
power, 

4th. For best grist mill for horse- 
power, 

5th. For best grist taill for hand- 
power, 

0th. P'or best saw mill for farm 
use for hoi-se power, 

7t^i. For best corn and cob crusher, 

Glass No 5. 
1st. For best fanning mill, C'lo 
2d. For best churn, 5 

3d. For best hay fork, 2 

4th. For best hay or straw knife 
for cutting down stacks, 2 

5th. For best dung fork and hoe, 2 50 
tJth. For best brier blade, 2 50 

7th. For best stump machine, 10 00 
8th. For best water ram in ope- 
■mtion, 10 00 

9th. For best draining tile, 5 GO 

10th. For best scoop or scraper, 5 00 
11th. For best hay press, 30 00 

AGRICULTUKAL STEAM ENaiJTE. 

1st For the best steam (porta- 
ble) applicable to agricultm-aJ pur- 
|:><:*Gs generalJyj as a feubstitute for 
iiorse-jxjffej; _ ^'100 



6 
4 

30 



15 



20 



10 



10 



10 



10 



50 



2d. For the most extensive and 
valuable collection of Useful machines 
and implements exhibited and made 
at any one factory, whether iRcliuling 
subjects for other premiums or not, a 
premium of 25 

PLOrrOHINO MATCH. 

1st. For the best two horse plow, 
as shown by work actually performed 
and the test of the dynamometer, 20 

2d. For the best 3 or 4 horse 
plough, as shown by work actuallr 
performed and the test of the dyna- 
mometer, 20 

3d. For the best plougainan with 
horses, i 

4th. For 2d best ploughman with 
horse,?, 5 

5th. For the best ploughman with 
steers, 1 

6th. For 2d best ploughm^an with 
steers, 6 

TfHEAT REAPER. AND MOWER. 

For the best wheat reaper and 
mower, to be tested in such manner 
and at such place as the Executive 
committee shall designate, a premium 
of iO 

HARNESS. 

For the best wagon harness '2 
" " cart " 2 

"■ " Plough '' 2 

RIDING VEHICLES, (fec. 

For the best 2 horse carriage, 2© 

For 2d " " 15 

For the best rockaway, i 5 

For 2d " " 10 

5th. Fx)r the best top buggy, i 

6th. For 2d " " 5 

7th. For the best open buggy, 30 
8th. For 2d " 

9th. For the best sulkey, 5 
10th. For best set carriage harness, 5 

11th. For best set buggy " 5 
12th. For best gent's saddle, bridle 

and martingals, 7 

13th. For best ladies' saddle, bri- 
dle and martingals, 6 
14th. For the best centre table, 10 
iSth, For the best rocking chair, 3 
16th. For best suit gent's clothes, 10 
l7th, For the best pair boots, ■ 5 



10 


1st, 
2d. 


10 


3d. 


8 






1st 


00 


2d. 


00 


Sd. 


50 


4th. 



124 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



Branch VII. 

FRUITS AND FRUIT TREES. 

1st. For the best and largest variety 
of apples suitable for Southern raising, 
«ach labelled, 10 

2nd. For the best and largest va- 
riety of pears, 8 

3rd. For the greatest number of 
choice varieties of ditierent kinds of 
fruit, 10 

4th. For best and largest collec- 
tion of apple trees, suitable for South- 
Tern raising. 10 
5th. For best pear trees, 10 
6th. For best peach trees, 10 
7th. -For best grape vines, 5 
8th, For best strawberry vines, 3 
9th. For best raspberry plants, 3 

VEGETABLES. 

1st. -For the largest and best as- 
sortment of table vegetables, 10 

2nd. For best dozen long blood 

beets, 3 

3rd. For " head of cab- 
bage, 3 
ith. For " carrots. 3 
5th. For " egg plants, 3 
6 th. For best peck of onions, 3 
Vth. For best dozen parsnips, 3 
8th. For best bushel Irish pota- 
toes, 3 

9th. For best bushel sweet pota- 
toes, 3 
10th, For three finest pumpkins, 3 
1 1 th. For best sample of beans, 3 
1 2th. For best sample garden peas, 3 
Branch VIII. 

DAIRY AND HONEY. 

1st. For the best specimen of 
fresh butter, not less than 5 lbs. 5 

2nd. IFor the 2nd best specimen 
of fresh butter, not less than 5 lbs. 3 

3rd. For best firkin or tub of salted 
butter, not less than six months old, () 

4th. For 2nd best fii'kin or tub of 
saltei butter, mot less than six 
months old, 3 

5th. For best cheese, not less than 
25 lbs. 6 

6 th. For best ten pounds of honey, 5 
The honey to be taken without de- 
stroying the beep, and the 'kind of 
iiive used, and management of same to 



be stated by competitors. Also, the 
methods of making and preserving 
the cheese and butter to be stated. 

BACON HAMS. 

1st. For the best ham cured by 
exhibitor $10 

2nd. For 2nd best bam, cured by 
exhibitor 5 

Manner of curing to be described 
by the competitors, and the hams 
exhibited to be cooked. 

FLOWERS. 

1st. For the largest and choicest 
variety of flowers 10 

2nd. For the 2nd largest and 
choicest variety of flowers S 

8rd. For the best and greatest va- 
riety of dahlias 5 

4th. For the best and greatest va- 
riety of roses 5 

5th. For the best floral ornament 5 

6 th. For the best and largest vari- 
ety of greenhouse plants. 5 

HOUSEHOLD MANUFACTURES. 

1st. For the best quilt 5 

2nd. For the 2nd best quilt 4 

3rd. For the best counterpane 6 

4th. For the 2nd best counterpane 4 
5th For the best specimen of em 

broidery 3 

6 th. For the best specimen of 

worsted work 3 

7th. For the best hearth rug 6 

8th. For the best pair of home 

made blankets 5 

9th. For best home made carpet 6 
10th. For best piece, not less than 

7 yards, of home made negro shirting 6 
11th. For best piece, not less than 

1 yards, winter clothing for negroes, 

to be woven by hand 5 

1 2th. For best piece heavy woolen 

jeans, to be woven by hand & 

13th. For second best piece heavy 

woolen jeans, to be woven by hand -3 
14th. For piece best linsey, not 

kss than 7 yards, to be woven by 

hand 5 

15th. For piece 2nd best linsey, 

not less than 7 yards, wovt n by hand 3 

16 th. Forbest fine long yarn hose 3 

1 7 th. For best home made bread 5 
18th. Forbest home made pound 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



12B 



cake 

19tb. For bestliome made sponge 
cake 

20th. For best varieties home 
made pickles 

21st. For best varieties home 
jnade preserves 

22nd. For best varieties home 
made fruit jelly 

23rd. For best sample of home 
made soap, the process of making to 
be described by the exhibitor. 



Deep Tillage. 

One of the most important subjects 
that should command the attention of 
the farmer is the improvement of the soil; 
this is done by various means, some are 
more effectual than others, but there is 
one that is too much neglected, one that 
will amply repay for performing, one 
that requires no outlay beyond the labor 
required in the operation, and one that 
is not uncertain in its results, as too many 
of the theoretical schemes are, that are 
•offered to the farmer's consideration. — 
That which we allude to is sure in its re- 
sults, and has never been found to fail 
when thoroughly and properly perform- 
ed. But to drop parleying and to come 
at the point, ^ve mean deep tillage ; this 
is one of the subjects which should not 
be slightly overlooked by the farmer. — 
There are but few if any soils that can be 
plowed too deep,if thoroughly worked in 
other respects. Deep plowing gives 
greater space for the roots to ramify in ; 
and as a matter of course a larger sur- 
face for them to collect their food from. 
It also gives a greater depth of soil for 
the air to penetrate, and as the space is 
larger, it will contain more air, and as a 
natural consequence the soil will be more 
warm and congenial to vegetation. The 
air being generally warmer than the soil 
the greater depth that the latter is bro- 
ken up and made loose and free to the 
accessof the air, the larger will fee the 
bulk of the former which will penetrate 
into it, giving out its benign influeace to 
warm and sweeten it for the use of the 
plants. Thus thea deep tillage gives a 
larger amount of soil for the air to. act 



upon, and the deeper the air penetrates 
the larger will be its fertilizing effect up- 
on it. 

Then again, soil tbat is deeply stirred 
and pulverized, retains moist«re longer 
than that which is only move^l a small 
■depth, and the crops on such land never 
suffer so mucb in seasons of drought; 
there being a greateT depth of fine pul- 
verized soil it holds a larger amount of 
moisture during dry weather, than that 
which is only slightly stirred, and the roots 
having greater depth to penetrate they 
are not so soon effected by drought, the 
result of which is a larger crop. 

■It has been generally admitted, that 
for root crops it is beneficial to plow 
deep to give space for the roots to pene- 
trate, but for grain crops it has been sup- 
posed to be unnecessary. This is a falsi- 
ty, for almost every crop is benefited by 
deep tillage. To prove this, it is only 
necessary to look into a garden which 
is tilled with the spade to a good depth, 
and then look into the field that is plow- 
ed only a small depth, each being planted 
with the same kind of crop. You at once 
see the difference — the one on the deep 
tilled soil is far superior to the one on 
the shallow plowed ; a perceptible differ- 
ence is seen in all its stages of growth. 
This sbows plainly Avhich is most advan- 
tageous, and needs no comment. Deep 
tillage gives depth to the soil, as stated 
above, giving free access to the air which 
acts upon it, changing as it were, its na- 
ture, giving to it more stability. Let 
these points be duly considered by the 
farmer, and he will see that it is to h's 
interest to plow deep. But as regards 
grain crops, let the farmer look at the 
roots of his grain ; and by the way he 
should examine the texture of the roots 
of all bis crops for there is much -to be 
learned from them. But to the rootsof 
the grain crop : take_up a plant carefully, 
and examine 'the roots, wbatare they? — 
for the most part composed of small fi- 
bres, of fine thread-like texture. These 
fine roots in shallow plowed soils are 
soon dried up with a short drought, and 
the plants suffer materially through it ; 
but ill deep ploughed land they peue^ 



126 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



trate deeply and therefore are not affect- 
ed by slight droughts. 

Another point to be considered in fa- 
vor of deep plowing, is the gi'eater space 
of tine pulverized soil given for the re- 
recej.tion of the fertilizing rain which 
falls upon it. In shallow tilled land there 
is but a small quantity of fine soil to 
take up the rain — the consequence is, that 
a very small qnantity of water falling 
upon it, soon fids it full, and then if the 
rain continues it runs off on the surface, 
doing no benefit to the soil, not coming 
in contact wilh it, tor it to extract its fer- 
tilizing particles; thus much of that 
which nature has provided for the en- 
riching of the land is lost on shallow 
plowed land. This is no new theory, 
but a well authenticated fact, for it is v/ell 
knov»n that rain-water contsiins a quanti- 
ty of ammonia in solution ; this the soil 
extracts and retains for the use of the 
plants, but if the water runs off on the 
surface much of this valuable roatter is 
lost to the land. Let the farmer then 
well weigh these facts, and let him not 
pass them over slightly; for if he Avishes, 
which no doubt he does, to get all he 
•<ian from the soil, we say let him provide 
for the reception of what nature gives 
freely, — "without cost." In conclusion 
'we say, plow deep, and thoroughly work 
nhe land thus plowed. A greater yield,and 
a much finer quality will be the result. 



From Ihe Southern Cultivator. 
A New Use of Leaves of tlie Pine. 

(riNUS SILVESTRUS.) 

Near Breslan, in a domain called the 
IVairie of Humboldt, the)-e exists two 
.«stablishraents as astonishing for their 
■produce as for their union. One is a 
manufactory which converts pine leaves 
into a sort, of cotton or wool ; the other 
•otYere to invalids, as curative baths, the 
waters used in the manufacture of that 
vegetnble wool. Both have been erected 
i>y M. de Pannev/itz, invent<:)rof acherai- 
<eal process by nieans of which it is pos- 
sible to extract from the long and slen- 
<ier leaves of the ynne a very filac^eons 
substance which he has namo<l woody 
_ s^ool ; it can be curled, felted and woven. 



All the aucular leaves of the pine fir, , 
and of the coniferte in general, aie com-; 
posed of a fibillre extremely tine andj 
tough, surrounded and held together by ■ 
a resinous substance under the form of a: 
thin pellicle. When by decoction and 
the use of certain chemical ajjents the' 
resinous substance is dissolved, it is easy 
to separate the fibres, to wash them and' 
free them from all foreign substances. — ' 
According to the mode of preparation.! 
employed, the woolly substance acquires] 
a quality more or less fine, or remains in; 
its coarse state ; and in the first instance- 
it is used as wadding, in the second tO' 
stuff mattresses. If the pine has been' 
preferretl to oilier kinds of pitch trees, it- 
is on account of its needle-shaped leaves.; 
It is thought that a similar result might; 
be obtained from other trees of the samcJi 
species. ■ 

The tree can be stripped of its leaves! 
when quit^e yoimg without any injury.; 
The operation takes place wdien they ard 
stiil ojreen. A man can gather two hun-l 
drcd pounds of leaves a day. 

It was first advantageously snbstitntedi 
for cotton and wool in the raanufactuKj 
of blankets. The hospital of Vienna 
bought five Inmdred, and after a trial of 
several vears, has adopted them entirely. 
It has been remarked, among other 
advantages, that no kind of insects K'ou1(J 
lodge in the beds, and its aromatic odo^ 
was found agreeable and beneficial. — ■ 
These blankets have since been adopte^l 
by the penitentiary of Vienna, the charity 
hospital, and the barracks of Breslan. ' 
Its cost is tb.ree times less than that of 
horse-hair, and the most experienced up- 
holsterer, when the wool is employed in 
furniture, could not tell the one from the 
other. 

This article can be spun and woTeii 
resembling the thread of hemp tor i; 
strength; it can be made into rugs an*; 
horse blankets. 

In the preparation of this wool n; 
etliere^l oil of pleasant odor is produc«(: 
This oil is at fii-st green; exposed t 
the ravs of the sun, it assumes an o- 
ange-yellow tint ; replaced in the shade 
it re3ume3 its foraaef green color 5 recti 



tHE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



127 



fioJ, it becomes colarless. It differs from 
the essence of turpentine extracted from 
tJie same tree. It lias been found effi- 
aient in rheumatism aud gout ; also as 
an anthelmintic Hi cutaneous diseases. — 
Distilled, it is used in the preparation of 
lac of the finest kind. It burns in himps 
like o'ive oil, and dissolves caoutchouc 
completely in a short time. Perfumers in 
Paris use it in large quantities. 

It is the liquid left by the decoction of 
the pine leaves which has been so bene- 
ficial in the form of batli. The bath es- 
tablishment is a flourishing one. 

The membranous substance 35 obtain- 
ed by filtration at the time of the wash- 
ing of the fibres is pressed in bricks and 
dried ; it is used as a c-ombustible, and 
produces, from the rosin it contains, a 
quantity of gass suficient for the lighting 
of the factory. The production of a 
thousand quintids of wool leaves a Quan- 
tity of combustible matter equal in value 
to sixty cubic metres of pine wood. — 
Phw, Loo7n and Anvil. 

Wiio, in this countiy, where long and 
short teaved pines abound, will put a few 
thousand ponnds of the leavers, now yearly 
wasted, to the eeonomicaJ uses of our Si- 
iesian fziend l 



Soap Snds. 

The vahie of this liquid as a stimulant 
of vegetation does not appear to be gen- 
erally appreciated by our Agi'icultural- 
ists, many of whom make no use of it, 
although, from their well known habits 
of enterprise and economy in other mat- 
ters, we should have been led to expect 
better things. In a state of incipient pu- 
tridity, soap suds is replete with the ele- 
ment of vegetables, in a state of actual 
and complete solution ; tlie only condi- 
tion, indeed, in wliich it is susceptible of 
absorption and assimilation by the roots 
of plants. Besides its value as a power- 
ful stimulant, it possesses, also, very po- 
tent anthelmintic properties, and when 
used in the irrigation of garden and field 
crops — the best way, perhaps, in which 
it can be applied to vegetables. — ^oper- 
ates as a speedy and effectual renaedy 
-against the ravagea of bugs wornas, and 



most of the aligerous or winged depre- 
dators, by which vegetables are so oftem 
infested and destroyed. It is, also, a 
most valuable adjurant in the tbrmation 
of compost. For this purpose, a large- 
tanJc or vat, capable of holding from 
three to four cart-loads, should bd con- 
structed in some place easv of access,, 
and to which, ^\-ithout difficulty, the wash 
from the sink and laudry can be regu- 
larly conveyed. In this resorvoir all the 
wash matter produced on the farm and 
about the mansion, should be thrown — 
bones, refuse, ashes, muck, turf, rich soil,. 
and chip-manure from the wood-shed ;. 
in short, every substance capable of ab- 
sorbing the rich, fertilizing liquid, aud 
retaining it for the benefit of the soil and 
plants to which it is to be applied. By 
a little systematic attention to matters of 
this nature, the annual produce of onr 
agriculture might be immeasurably in- 
creased, and the pi-oductive capacity of 
many ferms, now regarded as almost 
worthless, placed on a footing equal, in- 
deed, if not superior to that of the most 
fertile. Nature has everywhere supplied 
in munificent abundance, the means 
of fertility, and we have only to appro- 
priate and apply them judiciously, to se- 
cure the best and most tlattering results. 
Some agricultural writers have estimated 
the value of a hog-shead of suds, in a 
state of incipient putridity, to be very 
nearly equal to that of a cord of prepar- 
ed manure. This is probably an over 
estimate : yet, no one who has applie<l 
suds to vegeUitiou, and carefully observ- 
ed the results, can be otherwise than 
convinced of its very great efficacy and 
•value. Where it is used in composting 
operations, it may be applied in its crude 
state, before fermentation has taken 
place. It will ferment in the heap, and 
thus induce a powerful chemical action 
in the ingredients, which will be in pro- 
portion as to power, to their number and 
chai-acter, and the manner, or rather 
thoroughness with which they are inter- 
mixed. With a sufficiency of soap-suds 
and urine, a valuable compost may be- 
made of any soil— even sand..— i^arweir- 
and Mechmiic^ 



128 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



Batter Making. 

Miss Emily says, in the Ohio Cultiva- 
tor, "I have for several years had the 
(entire care of the milk depxrtment in my 
fathei's family. I therefore read with 
great interest, whatever related to making 
butter and cheese, and I found much that 
was different from what I had been in the 
;habit of practising. One case of this 
•kind was directions tor making butter in 
winter, according to what is called the 
Russian method, by which it was said 
butter could be made in winter as in 
(summer, and with as little churning. So 
1 set about trying the experiment, and 
the result exceeded my expectations. — 
My new practice is as follows: 

Before I go to milk I put a kettle, say 
one-third full of water, and large enough 
to let the milk pan into it, on the stove, 
where it will get boiling hot by the time 
I come in with the milk. I then strain 
the milk into another vessel, and wash 
the pail (which should always be of tin,) 
then pour the milk back into the pail, 
and set it into the kettle of boiling wa- 
ter, till the milk becomes scalding hot, 
take care not to let it boil, then pour it 
into crocks or pans, and set it away in 
the cellar for the cream to rise in the 
Hsual way. Cream procured in this way 
will seldom require twenty minutes to 
churn, while by the common practice the 
poor dairy maid may often churn for 
hours, and then perhaps have to throw 
all away, as I did on two occasions, be- 
fore I happened to gain this valuable in- 
formation. So much, Mr. Editor, for 
one instance of the advantage that a 
young lady may derive from reading an 
Agricultural paper." 

The process given above will answer 
in summer as well as winter. 



Special Manure for Grapes. — The | 
wine committee at the exhibition of ihe i 
Cincinnati Horticultural Society, reportr ; 
ed that of two specimens of wine, one ; 
from Grapes to which a special manur- , 
ing of potash had been given, the "wine ! 
from the manured grapes was bright, \ 
clear, and mellow, like an old wine." — I 
The other was declared to be less ma- : 
turned in all its qualities, nor was it i 
clear. The grnpes themselves, from the 
two portions of ground, were also presen- 
ted to the committee. "Both were de- 
licious and well ripened, but it was con- 
sidered that those from the manured 
land were sweeter and that the pulp was | 
softer." — Ohio Farmer. i 

I 

THE subscriber will give any special ad-' 
vice to Farmers, by their addressing him , 
and giving a description of their farms. Hi* j 
charge will be moderate. He will make i 
analysis of soils and marls, and write out the ' 
analysis for application of manures. " 

For analysis of soils, - - - $5 00! 
Writing out analysis, - - • 5 09 j 

JOHN F. TOMPKINS, M. D. , 

THE FARMER'S JOURNAL ! 

Is published monthly, at $1 per anuom, in| 
advance ; six copies for $6 ; twelve copies for i 
$10 ; thirty copies for $20, , 

Advertisements. — A limited number of; 
advertisements will be inserted at the follow- i 
ino- rates : For one square of twelve lines, for j 
each insertion, %\ ; one square, per annum. ' 
$10; half column, do., $30 ; one column, do., ; 
$50; larger advertisements in proportion. j 
JOHN F. TOMPKINS, i 
Editor and Proprietor. Bath, N. 0. ! 



Grape Vines. — A hint to he remem- 
bered. — The grape is a great feeder. — 
Many people wonder Avhy their vines do 
not bear. It is simbly because they are 
not fed. Give them an immense top- 
dressing of stable manure, spreading all 
the ground where the roots run, remem- 
bering that tney run a great distance. 
Then in the spring prune closely. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



PageJ 



The Report of Professor Emmons, (con- 
clusion,) 

Chemiitry in relation to Agriculture, 

The cultivation of Wheat, 

Thorough Farming — or, much Labor on 
little land, 

The State Agricultural Society, 

To Our Readers, 

Proceedings of the State Agricultural 
Society, 

Deep Tillage, 

A new use of Leaves of the Pine, 

Soap Suds, 

Making Butter, 
j Grape Vines, 
1 Special Manure for Grapes. 



104' 
108 

iiii 

114; 

113 

nm 

125' 
126 

127l 
128 
12^ 
12^ 



THE FARMER'S JOUMAL 



VOL. 2. RALEIGH, N. C, AUGUST, 1853. M. 5. 

JOHN F. TOMPKIl^S, M. D., Editor and Proprietor. 



Sea Island Cotton"StatisticS"Report 
of Prof. Charles U. Shepard, «fec. 

In a late number of the Charleston 
Courier; we find a " Heport on Soils, 
Marsh Mud, and the Cotton Plant^'' 
prepared by Prof. Shepard, for the use 
of Mr. E. W. Seabrook, of Edisto Island. 
We publish it below, in the hope that it 
will prove interesting and useful to our 
readers on the seaboard of the Carolinas, 
Georgia and Florida ; and prefix some 
valuable statistics upon the growth and 
price of the Sea Island Cotton during 
twenty years prior to 1841. These st^tis- 
tick were compiled by the Charleston 
Standard, which we quote as follows : 

We will add a few Statistics, showing 
the value and importance of the Sea 
Island Cotton crop. Extending our ex- 
amination over a period of the twenty 
years preceding 1841, we find its pro- 
duction and price as follows : 

Year. Quantity. Average price in Liverpool. 

11,3J4,066 21i^d. 

11.250,635 19d. 

12,136,688 17Xd. 

9,525,722 iSVd. 

9,655,278 28i^d. 

5,972,852 20d. 

15.140,798 14 Vd. 

11,288,419 16d. 

12,833,307 I5d. 

8,147,165 16d. 

8,311,762 13Vd. 

8,743,373 13«id. 

11,143,987 16 Vd. 

8,085,935 19%d. 

7,752,736 24i^d. 

8,554,419 25d. 

5,286,340 26d. 

7,286,340 

1,107,404 

8,770,669 

6,400,000—20,000 bales at S201bs. each. 
Vol. II — 5 



1821 
1822 
1823 
1824 
1825 
1826 
1827 
1888 
1829 
1830 
1831 
1832 
1833 
1834 
1835 
1836 
1837 
1838 
1839 
1840 
1841 



Since 1841, we have before us no re- 
liable statistics, except with reference to 
the years 1850, and '51 and '52. With 
respect to the crop delivered up to the 
first o^" September in each of these years, 
it will appear that in 1850 it amounted 
in the ports of Savannah and Charles- 
ton alone to 26,634 bales, or 8,522,880 
pounds; in 1851 to 28,362 bales, or 
9,075,840 pounds; in 1852 to 30,878 
bales, or 9,878,900 pounds. And up 
to this date of the present year we have 
30,031, against 28,552 of the same time 
last year, giving us the reasonable assu- 
rance of a larger crop by some 2,000 
bales, than we have had for many years 
previous. 

Nor is this the only improvement. 
The price has very gmeatly advanced, at 
least within the last year. The price 
at present ranges fo,r Santees and Maines 
from 50 to 55 cts. per pound ; for Flor- 
idas from 42 to 48 ; and for Sea Islands 
from 50 to 70 ; and though this may be 
slightly above the ruling prices for the 
season', the average of every species of 
long staple cotton for the entire season 
would not vary far from 48 cents, leav- 
ing an immense profit to the planter 
over that afforded by any other staple. 
To pay as well as the short staple cot- 
ton, the long staple must sell for twice 
as much per pound. At present it sells 
for more than four times as much ; and 
its cultivation must be, therefore, by so 
much the more profitable, and give bj 
so much the greater inducement to its 
continuasice and extension. 



130 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



Report of Charles U. Shepard on Soils, 

Marsh Mud and the Cotton Plant. 

1. Soils. — Of these, there were three 
varieties, marked A, B, and C, each va- 
riety being illustrated by two samples, 
one supposed to have been taken from 
the surface, and the other from a depth 
of ten or twelve inches. 

Soils A and B are supposed to illus- 
trate the average Cotton Soils of the 
Sea Island plantations, of which it may, 
in the general, be remarked, that they 
are of the very lightest description. 
The basis, and indeed, almost the sole 
mineral constituent, is a fine siliceous 
sand, precisely identical with that which 
forms the sand beaches of our sea-coast. 
They are enabled to support vegetation 
by the presence of a trifling proportion 
of alummous earth, of oxide of iron and 
vegetable matter, to which are added 
small quantities of the carbonates of 
lime and magnesia, and traces of phos- 
phates and sulphates of the same basis, 
and of alkaline carbonates, all of which 
taken together, fall considerably below 
1 per cent. The alumina, the oxide of 
iron, and the organic matter, perform an 
important service in the soil, by render- 
ing it binding, and retentive of its mois- 
ture and gaseous matter, which are es- 
sential to the nutrition of plants ; 
while the salts enumerated, either whol- 
ly or in part, enter also into the gener- 
al circulation of the vegetable growth, 
and are more or less there detained, as 
indispensable constituents of particular 
parts of the same. But it i^ also clear 
that a soil thus constituted would be 
unfit for supporting vegetation, except 
for the fact that it is situated directly 
contiguous to the sea, and in a temper- 
ature nearly tropical, thus giving rise to 
an atmosphere perpetually loaded with 
moisture. 

Compared with inland and river al- 
luvion soils, the character of the Sea 
Island soil is very remarkable. The 
former rarely have more than 66 per 
cent, of silica ; while their alumina and 
oxide of iron together, often mount up 
to 10 or 12 per cent, and the proportion 



of organic matter, and hygrometric 
moisture, to 12 to 15 per cent. 

This contrast will indicate the direc- 
tion in which the efforts of the planter 
should be mac'e for the improvement of 
the Sea Island soils. Every addition he 
can afford to make of alumina, oxide of 
iron and organic matter, will raise the 
character of his soils. The following 
researches will also afford hints respect- 
ing other ameliorations of the processes 
which lie within his reach. 

It will be borne in mind that the anal- 
yses commence with the soil, after the 
withdrawal of the feeble trace of solu- 
ble matter it contains, and after it has 
been rendered perfectly dry in the beat 
of the sun. The soluble matter con- 
sists of the chlorides of potassium, so- 
dium and calcium, and of the sulphates 
and carbonates of potash and the sul- 
phate of lime — in all, probably not 
equalling one part in a thousand tif the 
soil. 

There was but a slight difference be- 
tween the two varieties of soil, A. and B. 
One exhibited a light, cinnamon-grey 
-color, the other was cinnamon-brown. — 
The latter had a little more organic mat- 
ter, and had more of its oxide of iron in 
the condition of a carbonate than the 
former. 

On heating either of these soils near- 
ly to redness, in a porcelain capsule, it 
quickly turns black for a moment, emits 
a slight odor, resembling that from burn- 
ing peat, but unattended by smoke. 
This black color, which proceeds from 
the charring of the organic matter, soon 
disappears, and the soil assumes a yel- 
lowish brown color. In this process we 
only obtain faint traces of ammonia, 
compared with what is exhibited by lich 
inland soils. 

-One hundred grains of the sun dried 

soil (A) gave 

Silica, in the form of fine sand, 92.85 

Water, hygrometric moisture, 2 50 

Organic matter, mostly vegetable, 2.75 

Alumma and peroxide of iron, the latter 

containing traces of phosphoric acid, 1 40 
Carbonate of lime and magnesia, . 0.50 

100.00 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



131 



SOIL B. 1 

Silica, 91.73 

Water, 2.50 

Organic matter, 2.75 

Alumina and peroxide of iron with traces' 

of phosphoric acid, 2.30 

Carbonate of lime and magnesia, 0.72 

109 00 
SOIL C. 
This soil differs strikingly from the 
foregoing, containing as it does an ex- 
cess of organic matter, and in conse- 
quence possessing a ranch higher reten- 
tive power for moisture. It is noticea- 
ble also that the silica, or sand-grains, 
are move easily cleared of the adhering 
oxide of iron by the action of acids. In- 
deed they can be washed clean with 
warm water only, while the same effect 
is with difficulty produced with dilute 
acids even ; an actual adhesion seem- 
ing to exi.st between the impalpable ox- 
ide of iron and alumina, and the sand- 
grains, thus admirably adapting such 
soils to the purposes of vegetation, the 
more they are worked, and the more 
they are enriched with marsh mud, 
which it will be seen abounds with ox- 
ide of iron ; 

Silica, 87.53 

Water, 3.50 

Organic matter, 7.50 

Peroxide of iron which in the soil must 

have existed as carbonate of iron, 0.60 

Alumina, 0.12 

Carbonate of lime, 0.30 

Carbonate of magnesia, 0.45 



100.00 
I should suppose that this soil is not 
at present adapted to the Cotton Plant. 
The organic matter is in excess, and in 
quality it is too nearly allied to that 
found in peaty land. Thorough drain- 
age, successive cropping with corn, with 
the additions of the marsb mud and ar- 
tificial manures, might prepare it for 
cotton. This opinion, however, is ad- 
vanced with reserve, being wholly sug- 
gested by chemical theory, and may, 
therefore, require considerable modifica- 
tion in practice. 

I noticed that the carbonate of mag- 
nesia is more abundant in this soil than 
in A and B. This suggests the idea, 
that magnesia may be an important in- 

Al 



gredient in the Cotton Plant, even when 
compared with its sister element, lime ; 
for soils which have been under long 
cultivation in cotton, although they still 
contain magnesia, nevertheless, contain 
less of it than this newer and more un- 
exhausted soil presents. It occurs to 
me also, that one peculiarity of the Sea 
Island Cotton may be owing to the 
larger proportion of magnesia in sea 
shore soil.s — this element being ever 
plentifully derived from the waters of 
the ocean, in which, in one form or an- 
other, it is ever found dissolved. 

2 MARSH-MUD AND MARSH-TURF. 

The specimens analyzed were first 
thoroughly sun-dried. No sensible dif- 
ference subssisted between them, except 
in the proportions of organic matter, 
adhering, or hygrometic moisture in the 
100 parts. 



Marsh-Mud. 
Water, 19.56 

Organic matter, 

(mostly vegetable,) 3.50 
Silica (very fine 

sand) 67.50 

Carbonate of iron, 4.75 
Alumina, , 1.50 

Carbonate of lime 

and magnesia, 1.64 

Phosphate of lime 

and magnesia, traces. 
Chloride of sodium, 

(common salt,) 0.45 

Chloride of potassium, 0.01 
Chloride of magnesi- 
um, 0.05 j 
Sulphate of lime and 

nxagnesia, 0.05 



Marsh-Turf. 
25.50 

10.00 



Loss, 



99.01 
0.99 



Soluble substances 
either in water or 
water containing 
carbonic acid. 



100.00 J 



The marsh-mud, before drying, con- 
tained 70 pr. ct. water. In the process 
of sun-drying, therefore, it loses half its 
weight of water. 

The marsh-turf, before drying, was 
found to contain 58 pr. ct. of water. In 
the process of sun-drying, therefore, it 
loses 33 pr. ct., or one-third its weight 
of water. 

This consideration suggests that, un- 
der some circumstances, a saving of la- 
bor might be made in the transports- 



132 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



tion of these articles in a dry state, 
■which might be effected, perhaps, by 
throwing them up into heaps, near the 
marshes were obtained, and there allow- 
ing them to wither and dry, under a 
roof of boards, to exclude the rain. 
There can be no doubt also, that if the 
marsh-mud and turf could be, to a de- 
gree, pulverized and composted with 
other materials, and in this condition 
uniformly spread over the cotton lands, 
a decided advantage would be gained 
in planting. 

We are now prepared to comprehend 
the uses of marsh-mud and turf. In 
the first place, the carbonate of iron, 
when blended with the soil, (in consid- 
erable quantity,) slowly turns into per- 
oxide of iron, with the extrication of 
nearly one-third its weight of carbonic 
acid, (which, it will be kept in mind, is 
the chief aliment of vegetation,) the 
peroxide of iron acting together with 
the alumina as a cement, or binder to 
the loose grains of sand, and as an at- 
tracter of moisture and a retainer of nu- 
tritious gases. In the next place, the 
soluble substances present in the marsh 
manures, are of essential consequence 
to vegetable life ; not to omit the or- 
ganic matter, which is very considera- 
ble ; and in the ease of the marsh-turf, 
is very abundant ; thus giving, as might 
be supposed, a preference to this over 
the marsh-mud, unless the difficulty of 
reducing it to a powder, and of incor- 
porating it with the soil, presents an ob- 
stacle which overbalances the advantage 
arising from this superabundance of or- 
ganic matter. Finally, it may be added 
that the silica, or sand, in the marsh- 
manures, is in a more comminuted con- 
dition than that in the soil, and there- 
fore serves an important purpose in ren- 
dering the land to which it is added, 
closer and more retentive of moisture. 

The question may now arise, can the 
planter, with advantage, substitute any 
artificial manure or mixture, for that 
of the marsh soils ? The quantity of 
saline matter in it is cert^nly small ; 
only about six pounds common salt to 



the ton; about one pound chloride of 
magnesium, and one of the sulphates 
of lime and magnesia; of insoluble 
constituents, twenty-three of carbonates 
of lime and magnesia, to the same 
weiglit, and not far from 250 lbs. of 
good white clay. Of these ingredients, 
ail but the clay could be cheaper ob- 
tained ; nor would this be very expen- 
sive, as it exists in great quantity near 
Augusta, contiguous to the Savannah 
river ; but I apprehend the great diffi- 
culty would still remain, and which 
would be nearly fatal to the use of ih© 
mixture. This would consist in its uni- 
form application to the soil. In some 
places it would be in excess, and in 
others in a corresponding deficiency. 
Whereas, applied as at present, in a 
copious vehicle of fine sand, its good 
eft'ects are eveiy where visible. It may 
be concluded, therefore, that the Sea Is- 
land planter is in no danger of using 
the marsh manure to excess, nor have 
we any intelligent grounds for thinking 
that any substitute will ever be discov- 
ered, which shall render their employ- 
ment superflueus. 

3 ANALYSIS OF THE COTTON PLANT. 

Two varieties of the plant were sub- 
mitted for analysis ; but no perceptible 
difference could be detected in their 
chemical composition. 

A perfectly sun-dried plant, in which 
all the parts were present, excepting 
only the cotton-wool and seeds, was 
made the subject of analysis. Parts in 
due proportion from the root, the stem, 
the leaves and the pod were selected 
for incineration. 

Ih drying at a temperature of 320 
deg. these parts of the cotton plant lost 
15 per cent, of water, and gave a white 
ash, which weiged 2.75 on the 100 
grs. of the dried plant. But of this 
2.85 grs., 0.30 was separated in the con- 
dition of fine sand, which must have 
been adhering mechanically to the 
plants, thus leaving 2.45 per cent, of 
ashes ; of this 1.0 (or about two-fifths) 
was soluble in water. 

The result of the analysis when the 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



133 



carbonic acid was deducted, which it is 
plain did not exist in the living or the 
dead plant previously to its corabusti jn, 
may be stated as follows — leaving odt 
also the water of absorption, and pre- 
senting the acids and bases in their un- 
combined state : 

Lima and Magnesia, (mostly the former,) 44.50 

Potash aad Soda, 27.50 

Phosphoric acid, 16.50 

Sulphuric acid, 6.50 

Silicia, 1.80 

Chlorine, 1.50 

Potassium and Sodium, 1.70 
Oxide of iron in traces. 



99.90 
4 COTTON' FABRIC. 

Two varieties were analyzed ; but 
without detecting any chemical diifer- 
-ence between them. Water, or hygro- 
inetric moisture, 7.5 per cent. 

White ash 1.2 per cent. One third 
of this was soluble in water; but of the 
insoluble portion, from 12 to 15 per 
cent, was fine sand, which was obvious- 
ly a mechanical impurity, thus leaving 
40 parts soluble, to 60 insoluble in the 
ash. Deduction being made for the 
adhering sand, therefore, we may set it 
down at a very close approximation, that 
every 100 lbs. of cotton contains one 
pound of the following substanees, each 
in the proportions of the figures set 
down against their names respectively : 



Lime and Magnesia, (mostly the former,) 


39.66 


Potash and Soda, " " " 


28.50 


Phosphoric acid. 


18.80 


Sulphuric acid, 


3.80 


Silica, 


2.00 


Chlorine, 


1.75 


Potassium and sodium, 


2.00 


With oxide of iron in traces. 





98.51 
5 — COTTON SEED. 

Two varieties were examined, but 
without essential differences. By dry- 
ing 100 grs. lost 5.3 per cent, moisture, 
and the tlioroughly charred residiura, the 
heating being effected in a nearly tight 
crucible, after the flame from the burn- 
ing of the oil went out, weighed 23 grs. 
The coaly residuum when burned into 
a white ash, weighed 4.2 gps. in one 
variety and 4.3 in the other. In the 
former 3.1 grs. were insoluble, and in 



the latter 3.4 grs. were insoluble. 

ash in both cases ofave : 



The 



Lime and Magnesia, 


(mostly lime,) 


26.50 


Potash and Soda, 




17.50 


Phosphoric acid. 




47.75 


Silica, 




traces. 


Sulphuric acid. 




4.73 


Chlorine, 




1.25 


Potassium and Soda, 




1.75 


Oxide of iron in traces, 





99.50 
I satisfied myself that the cotton seed 
contained no sensible quantity of nitro- 
gen — a point of some importance, as it 
had been suspected that its use as a fer- 
tilizer was analogous to that of some of 
the oleaginous seeds. The cotton seed, 
therefore, unlike to rape and flaxseed, 
is extremely deficient in albumen. As 
a manure, it is obvious that its use con- 
sists in its richness in the phosphates of 
lime and magnesia, and of potash and 
soda. 

The following is a comparative table 
of the results obtained in these analyses. 





Plant. 


Fibre. 


Seed. 


Lime and magnesia, 


44.50 


39 66 


26.50 


Potash and soda. 


27.50 


28.50 


17.50 


Phosphoric acid. 


16.40 


18.80 


47.75 


Sulphuric acid, 


6.50 


5.80 


4.75 


Silica. 


1.80 


2.00 


traces. 


Chlorine, 


1.50 


1.75 


1.25 


Potassium and sodium 


, 1.70 


2.00 


1.75 



99.90 98.51 98.50 
We are fully authorized in regarding 
each of these ingredients, however small 
their proportions, as essential to the cot- 
ton plant. Some of them are abundant 
in the soil, and scarcely require to have 
the supply increased, such for example 
are silica, lime, magnesia, and chlorine ; 
while on the other hand, there is de- 
ficiency of phosphoric acid and potash, 
possibly also of sulphuric acid. These 
deficient elements, moreover, are in the 
rapid course of exhaustion, especially 
where the cotton seed is not returned 
to the sail, but employed on other lands 
devoted to the food crops. 

1 should therefore strongly recom- 
mend to the cotton planter, the follow- 
ing artificial manures : 

First of all, the super-phosphate of 
lime mixture of Prof. Mape». It is 
composed of — 



134 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



100 lbs. bone dust, 
56 " sulphuric acid, 
30 " Peruvian bark, 
20 " sulphate of ammonia. 

Secondly, wood ashes; and the more 
these are intermixed with charcoal (if 
in a somewhat pulverized condition, in 
■which state it is a valuable condenser ot 
moisture and nutritive gases) the better. 

Thirdly, compost, formed as far as 
possible of the following materials : sta- 
ble manure, forest leaves, straw, small 
quantities, perhaps, of rice chaff, saw- 
dust, sweepings of houses and cabins, 
rubbish of old clay and plaster walls, 
lime, refuse of gas works from Charles- 
ton, soot, drainings from stables and 
gutters, soap suds, and refuse saline 
liquids of all kinds. 

It does not appear to me that the 
cotton lands require either quick lime, 
common salt, or gypsum. They cer- 
tainly will not need the last mentioned 
fertilizer, if the improved method of 
Prof. Mapes is employed. 

The more perfectly the compost is 
worked up together, and reduced by de- 
composition, to the character of a pow- 
der, the better will be the effect it is 
capable of producing. If it could be 
treasured up for years, partly under the 
protection of a roof, and guarded from 
the action of the sun, its value would 
still be more highly enhanced. 

Charles Upham Shepard. 

Charleston, April 8, 1853. 



Constitution of the Agricultural Asso- 
ciation of the Slave-holding States. 

The following Constitution was adopt- 
ed by the " Agricultural Association of 
the Slave-holding States," recently as- 
sembled in Montgomery, Ala. : 

Article 1st. The chief objects of such 
an Association, would be to the exclu- 
sion of all subjects purely political. 

To improve our own agriculture, yield- 
kg peculiar productions through the 
agency of a normal labor, requiring a 
distinct economy, and dependent on a 
climate of its own. 



To develop the resources and unite 
and combine the energies of the Slave- 
holding States, so as to increase their 
wealth, power and dignity, as members 
of this confederacy. 

To enhst and foster those scientific 
pursuits, which reveal to us the elements 
and character of our soils, instruct us in 
the presence of those magazines of fer- 
tilizers which Nature has with so boun- 
tiful and considerate a hand provided 
for the uses of the industrious and the 
enterprising ; and search out the histo- 
ries and habits of the insect tribes which 
destroy (it is beheved) annually a fifth 
of our crops, and supply us with a 
knowledge of them, which may enable 
us to guard against their future ravages. 

To promote the mechanic arts, di- 
rectly and indirectly auxiliary to agri- 
culture, and by a generous confidence 
and hberal patronage raise those engag- 
ed in them to a social position always 
the just reward of intelligence, industry 
and good conduct. 

To exert an influence in establishing 
a system of instruction which will make 
Christians as well as scholars of our 
children ; which, in arming the rising 
generation with the instruments of 
knowledge, will instruct them also in 
their proper uses ; impressing upon them, 
from first to last, that (especially under 
our form of government) private worth 
constitutes the aggregate of public good, 
and that no one can disregard his du- 
ties to those around him without posi- 
tive injury to himself. 

Art. 2d. This Association shall be 
composed of such citizens as taking an 
interest in its objects shall desire to be- 
come members, and shall signify such 
intention in writing to the Secretary. 

Art. 3d. There shall be annuall)' elect- 
ed a President to preside over the meet- 
ing of this Association. The President 
to be first elected under this Constitu- 
tion shall be succeeded by a new elec- 
tion to be made at the annual meeting, 
1854. 

Art. 4th. The delegates and members 
from each State present at any annual 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



135 



meeting may non?inate to the Associa- 
tion a Vice President. The oldest Vice 
President present shall preside in the 
absence of the President. 

A RT. 5th. A Secretary and Treasurer 
shall be elected, who shall serve during 
the pleasure of the Association. It 
shall be his duty to keep a fair record 
of the proceedings of this Association 
and of the Executive Council, and to 
register the name and address of each 
member, and to superintend all publi- 
cations under the direction of this As- 
sociation, and, in its recess, of the Exe- 
cutive Council. He shall receive and 
preserve all essays and addresses, and 
all such communications as may be ad- 
dressed to him for the use of this As- 
sociation. As Treasurer, he shall col- 
lect subscriptions and contributions, 
and receive all donations and legacies 
made to this Association, and disburse 
the funds under its direction when in 
session, and, at other times, under that 
of the Executive Council. He shall 
make a report of the state of his ac- 
counts at each meeting of this Associa- 
tion. 

Art. 6. An Executive Council shall 
consist of nine persons, not more than 
three of which shall be selected from 
a'ny one State, three of whom shall 
constitute a quorum. The President 
and Secretary and Treasurer shall be 
ex-officio members of the Executive 
Council. Five members of the Execu- 
tive Council shall be appointed by the 
President, at this session of the Con- 
vention, one of whom shall vacate his 
office at the expiration of two years 
from his term, and one thereafter an- 
nually, whose place shall be filled by 
appointments of the President as the 
vacancy occurs. 

The Executive Council shall have 
charge and sole management of the in- 
come of this Association, and th^ entire 
control and direction of all publications, 
and the superintendence of all the af- 
fairs and concerns of this Association, 
when not in session, and shall fix from 
time to time the salary of the Secretary 
and Treasurer. 



Art. Yth. The annual meetings of 
this Association shall be held in suc- 
cession in each of the Slaveholding 
States, the time and place to corres- 
pond, as nearly as practicable, with the 
annup.1 agricultural meeting of the 
State to be selected. 

Art. 8th. Semi annual meetings of 
this Association ma} be called by 
the Executive Council, to be held suc- 
cessively, in the Slaveholding States, to 
correspond, in time and place, as nearly 
as practicable, with the horticultural 
meetings of the State to be selected. 

Art. 9th. Each member shall pay, 
on his admission into this Association, 
to the Treasurer, the sum of five dol- 
lars, and at each subsequent annual 
meetins, one dollar, which may be 
compounded for on payment of twenty- 
five dollars, which shall constitute him 
a life member, and entitle him to a copy 
of each publication of this Association. 

Art. 10th. Honorary members shall 
be admitted by a vote of this Associa- 
tion, and be exempt from payment of 
fees and contributions. 

[A. I This Association, impressed with 
the importance of annual agricultural 
fairs to the communities in which they 
are held, and satisfied of the great ben- 
efit that may be rendered to this Asso- 
ciation, when held in conjunction with 
such State biennial fairs: 

Resolved, That we recommend to the 
people of the several States interested 
in the objects of this Association, to' or- 
ganize State and county agricultural 
societies connected with biennial fairs. 

[B.] Resolved, That each delegation 
be requested to furnish to the Chairman 
of this committee the names of such 
gentlemen as may be prepared to ad- 
dress this Association, together with the 
subject of the address, and that the 
chairman of this committee be requested 
to furnish to the President the names 
of persons, together with the subjects of 
their address, for each day of the session. 

MEMBERS OF THE ASSOCIATION. 

Dr. W. C. Daniels, John H. Newton, 
Gov. George R. Gilmer, David W. Lew- 



136 



THE FAEMER'S JOURNAL. 



is, J. S. B. Turner, Chas. A. Peabody, 
Asbury Hull, Robert Toombs, G. Bryan, 
W. B. S. Gilmer, and Col. James M. 
Chambers, of Georgia. 

Dr. R. W. Withers, David Lordon, 
B. S. Bibb, James Dent, Samuel Jeter, 
Judge A. Martin, Dr. B. Johnson, Jas. 
H. Smith, P. R. Gilmer, R. C. Shorter, 
Sr., T. B. Scottt, B. F. Ashley, Dr. A. 
Saltmarsh, Dr. N. B. Powell, Dr. Chas. 
S. Lucas, Dr. N. B. Cloud, Col. McGen- 
ny, Dr. J. H. HpII, Col. E. Harrison, 
W. L. Yancey, Thomas R. Beck, O. S. 
Jewett, J. D. Hopper, E. A. Holt, M. A. 
Baldwin, L. James, Thomas M. Cowles, 
W. L. Marks, W. B. Mathews, W. C. 
Bibb, Col. J. Darrington, A. V. Scott, 
James P. L'win, W. W. Mason, J 
Goldthwaite, S. W. Harris, Chas. Crom- 
mehn. Dr. C. Belllenger, Chas. T. Pol- 
lard, and Gov. H. W. Collier, of Ala- 
bama. 

Dr. J. A. Wheetstone, of Louisiana. 

Col. John Gilmer, H. W. tick. Col. 
J. B. Cobb, H. G. Vick, and G. H. 
Young, of Mississippi. 

Coni.—Flat vs. Hill Culture. 

In your last number, under the head 
of "Spring Work," you express a desire 
to be informed as to the " relative ad- 
vantages of hilling up corn, or letting it 
remain as planted, merely keeping it 
clean by horse and hand hoeing." After 
experimenting both ways for some time 
past, I have not the slightest doubt as to 
■which mode is preferable. The planting- 
being in rows at right angles, 1 simply 
use the Corn Cultivator crossiwise, and 
thus leave the field mellow and level. 
This may be done as often as necessary ; 
but, as it is easily done, I do it three 
times, and at each time let a man follow 
up with a hoe to repair injuries, which 
is done in a short time, and also to de- 
stroy the suckers at the last time. A ten 
acre lot can thus be easily and thorough- 
ly dressed very soon, compared with 
the tedious hoeing and hilling system. 
It is obvious that this method decidedly 
economises both ti7ne and labor, as the 
horse and driver do nine-tenths of it on 



a walk. But this is not all. The stalk, 
having but one set of roots (which are 
long and strong) shoots up vigorously 
and well supported, and consequently is 
not much atfected by strong winds; the 
growth being steady and strong, the 
yield is more productive ; there being no 
furrows, ridges, or hills, but all on even 
surface, it is quite natural that this is 
the true way to resist a drought. This 
was abundantly demonstrated the last 
season, so unusually dry, with my yield. 

If it be desirable to seed the field with 
clover and timothy, or either, it can 
successfully be done at the last cultivat- 
ing in July, for pasture or meadow the 
next seasQ,n. If this be done, the stalks 
should be cut oft close to the ground in 
the fall. It is surprising to see the 
happy effect of this way and time of 
seeding. I can show afield treated thus 
the last season, having grass six inches 
high and looking as rich as an old mead- 
ow of two or three years husbandry. 

Persuaded that the cultivator ought 
to be adopted, instead of the old fashion 
hoeing and hilling system, I am prepar- 
ed to believe that it will not be long be- 
fore farmers will have but one opinion 
on the subject. To become fully satis- 
fied, I think they need but one trial in 
a fair field. The result will readily es- 
tablish this way of managing corn, for 
vigorous growth and yield, for security 
againsl the gale, for resisting a drouth, 
for facility of seeding fo grass, and above 
all, for economy of time and labor. 

Fort Plain, JV. T. 



Nails Growing into the Flesh. — 
A writer in the Ohio Cultivator gives 
the following remedy : Cut a notch in 
the middle of the nail every time the 
nail is paired. The disposition to close 
the notch draws the nail up from tha 
sides. 

To Cure Warts. — It is said that 
warts on the hand may be cured by 
washing them several times a day in 
strong soda water, and allowing them 
to drj wiihout wiping. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



137 



Maxims for Farmers. 

Do not sow your grain or cultivate 
your crop in any particular manner be- 
cause your father did so. He may have 
foHovved in the footsteps of your grand- 
father, and agriculture was not as well 
understand then as now. " Prove all 
things and hold fast to that which is 
good." If not, reject it and try another 
plan. Nothing of importance was ever 
y@!t gained without some risk. Experi- 
ment is the mother of science. 

One acre well cultivated will produce 
more than two only scratched at, and 
with far less trouble. What is worth 
doing at all, is worth doing well. 

Do not have a superabundance of 
farming implements ; but let what you 
have be of the best kind, and keep them 
well sharpened. A sharp tool will cut 
twice as much as a dull one, and do it 
so much better. 

Never plow in wet weather, if you 
can avoid it, Beside doing injury to 
the crop, it impoverishes the soil. It 
will not rain always. — West Jersey 
Pioneer. 



Ringbone in Horses. — This disease, 
so termed because it constituted bony 
growth round the pastern-bone, is of 
two kinds, which are distinguished by 
horsemen as true and false ringbones. 
The former occurs at the pastern joint, 
and generally arises from strain of these 
ligaments ; but the latter consists in 
ossification of the cartilages of the sides 
of the foot, which become enlarged, as 
well as converted into bone. The best 
treatment for ringbones of either kind 
is, after the inflammation has been in a 
great measure removed by cooling ap- 
plications, to fire the part, or otherwise 
rub in the iodine cf mercury ointment, 
washing off the effects on the following- 
day, and thus repeating it again and a- 
gain. We have by such means succeed- 
ed in removing the lameness, diminish- 
ing the enlargement, and restoring the 
animal, in many cases, to a state of use- 
ful ness- — Spooner. 



To make Blacking. 

Take 11-2 oz. gum arable, half an 
oz. copperas, 2 oz, muriatic acid (spirits 
of salt,) and 4 oz. ivory black moisten- 
ed with half oz. oil of vitriol, diluted 
with, three or four times its weight of 
water. Mix them well together, and 
then add 4 oz. of sugar candy, 1 1-2 of 
sweet oil, and three pints of vinegar, 
which being shaken, then spread light- 
ly over the boots, and rub with a stiff 
brush until dry, when it will give a bril- 
liant jet black. The following is anoth- 
er method for rendering leather imper- 
vious to water. 

Dissolve 1 oz. of ivory black in 2 
pints of water, and add 4 oz. of ivory 
black and 2 or 3 oz. of sugar ; mix this 
with a solution of gum elastic (India 
rubber,) and rosin, prepared with spirits 
of turpentine and linseed oil. Having 
first moistened the leather with a de- 
coction of oak bark, apply this composi- 
tion, which, when dry, will render the 
leather water-proof In the above pre- 
paration, lamp-black will answer when 
ivory black cannot be obtained. 



Worth Knowing. — Some of the 
papers, of late, have had a paragraph 
recommending the use of wheat flour in 
the case of scalds or burns, A gentle- 
man at Dayton, Ohio, saw it, and the 
other day, as he writes the Empire, test- 
ed it to his satisfaction. Ha says : 

" While at the supper table, a little 
child, which was seated in its mother's 
lap, suddenly grasped hold of a cup full 
of hot tea, severely scalding its left hand 
and arm. I immediately brought a pan 
of flour and plunged the arm in it, cov- 
ering entirely the parts scalded, with the 
flour. The effect was truly remarkable 
— the pain was gone instantly. I then 
bandaged the arm loosely, applying 
plenty of flour next to the skin, and on 
the following morning there was not 
the least sign that the arm had been 
scalded — neither did the child suffer the" 
least pain after the application of the 
flour." 



138 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



Milch Cows. 

Mr. Editor : I propose to say a little 
something about milch cows. It has ap- 
peared to me for a long time that peo- 
ple labor under a great mistake in re- 
gard to the management of cows. I 
have been in pursuit of cows for a few 
days past, and I find them invariaby 
poor, while the oxen in the same yard, 
are, most of them, in good condition. 
IMow, what do we keep cows for ; for a 
profit most assuredly. If there is any 
profit in keeping them at all, there is a 
greater one in keeping them well. There 
are many men that will keep six cows 
through the winter on a scanty allow- 
ance of hay, because they can pasture 
them Ib summer. Hence the cows 
come out in the spring very poor, and it 
takes them more than half the summer 
to gain flesh and strength sufficient to 
produce a fair c|uantity of milk, while 
if such would keep only four, and give 
them the same feed and attention that 
they would six, they would be worth 
more money if they should wish to dis- 
pose of them. Or if they are retained 
on the farm and receive the greater 
amount of pasturing they will return to 
the owner twenty-five per cent more 
than the six kept poor. 

Perhaps some may think this a wild 
statement. Well, then, let us make a 
little calculation. First, take the four 
C'jws that are well kept; their calves 
will be larger when they come, and when 
fatted they will sell for four or five dol- 
lars apiece, besides the cow will give at 
least a quart of milk a day more than 
the calf will take. And at a low esti- 
mate the calves and the milk, when the 
calves are thirty days old, will be worth 
twenty dollars ; then the covv's will give 
eight or nine quarts of milk apiece a 
day. Now take the poor cows ; their 
calves will be small and poor when they 
come. The cows as a general thing 
■will not give milk enough to fat them, 
and at the age of thirty days they will 
be small and poor, and will not be worth 
Kore than three dollars apiece at the 



mostj making eighteen dollars. After 
the calf is taken oft', the cows will not 
give more than five or six quarts of milk 
a day, making a difierence of about one 
third in the quantity of milk. Hence, 
I think the difierence of twenty-five per 
cent, is not a very wild statement. 

Some people when their cows come 
out poor in the spring, are in the habii 
of giving them a little meal and better 
bay about a week or ten days before 
calving. This I think a bad practice, 
because it is laxative, and tends to weak- 
en the cow at the time of calving, and 
she becomes more liable to take cold, 
the udder is more likely to swell, and 
she will not give so much milk the first 
week as she would without the better 
feed. I do not contend that it is not 
best to give them better feed, but I do 
contend that they should have it at least 
six weeks before calving instead of two, 
so that the result may be beneficial in- 
stead of detrimental. — Granite Farmer. 



Salt your Cokn. — Put six hushels 
of common salt upon an acre of land 
prepared for corn, and you will just 
pickle the wire-worms to death, and add 
fertility to the soil. Salt, after having 
laid a few days in the ground, ceases to 
be salt, but undergoes a chemical change 
highly favorable to vegetation. There 
is no danger in planting after the salt has 
undergone this change. Not only will 
salt applied to land kill the eggs and 
larvse of insects, but will kill many sorts 
of weeds that would otherwise spring 
forth and choke the crop. — Carolina 
Watchman, 



The Garden. — Pass through the 
garden once a day, at least ; give it an 
hour in the morning, and another in the 
evening, if possible ; no part of the farm 
will pay you better than the garden 
crops. Coop some of the hens near, 
and allow the chickens to go at will over 
the garden ; and they will be able to 
obtain what meat they require with 
their vegetable diet. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



139 



Origin of Mules iu the United States. 

Mr. George* Wasliington P. Custis, 
in his last paper uader the title of Re- 
collections and Private Memoirs of the 
life and character of Washington, gives 
the following account of the introduction 
of mules into this country, which will 
be found very interesting: 

Upon Washington's first retirement 
in 1783 he became convinced of the 
defective nature of the working animals 
employed in the agriculture of the 
Southern States, and set about remedy- 
ing the evil by the introduction of mules 
instead of horses, the mule being found 
to live longer, be less liable to disease, 
requires less food, in every respect to be 
more serviceable and economical than 
the horse, in the agricultural labor of 
the Southern States. Up to the year 
1783 scarcely any mules were to be 
found in the American Confederation ; 
a few had been imported from the West 
Indies, but they were of diminutive 
size and of little value. So soon as the 
views on the subject, of the illustrious 
farmer of Mount Vernon, were thrown 
abroad, he received a present from the 
King of Spain of a jack and jennies, se- 
lected from the royal stud at Madrid. 
The jack, called the Roj'al Gift, was six- 
teen hands high, of a gra}'^ color, heavy 
made and of a sluggish disposition. 

At the same time, the Marquis de 
Layfiiyette, sent out a jack and jennies 
from the fsland of Malta ; this jack, 
called the Knight of Malta was a superb 
animal, black color, with the form of a 
stag and the ferocity of a tiger. Washing- 
ton availed himself of the best qualities 
of the two j-.cks by crossing the breeds, 
and hence obtained a favorite jack, 
called Compound, which animal united 
the size and strength of the Gift with 
the high courage and activity of the 
Knight. The Jacks arrived at Mount 
Vernon, if we mistake not, early in 1788. 
The General bred some very superior 
mules from his coach mare, sending 
them from Philadelphia for the purpose. 
In a few years the estate of Mount Ver- 
non became stocked with mules of a. 



superior order, rising to the height of 
sixteen hands, and of great power and 
usefulness, one wagon team of four mules 
selling, at the sale of the General's ef- 
fects, for eight hundred dollars. 

In no portion of Washington's vari- 
ous labors and improvements in agri- 
culture, was he so particularly entitled 
to be hailed as a public benefactor, as 
in the introduction of mules in farminr' 
labor, those animals being at this time 
almost exclusively used for farming 
purposes in the Southern States. 

Poultry and Eggs. — I do a small 
business in raising and putting up gar- 
den-seeds, and last fall a year ago, as I 
was clearing out some red-pepper seeds, 
in ray back yard, I threw the shucks, 
and chaff promiscuously about. I soon 
observed the hens picking them up and 
swallowing them with great avidity. 
They soon commenced laying eggs, 
though they had laid none for a month 
before. I feed them regularly, two or 
three times a week, since then, with 
red-pepper, and they have never stop- 
ped laying, summer or winter, spring 
or fall, except while they were hatching 
their chickens ; and I am confident 
from more than a year's experience, that 
by this method hens may be made to 
lay the year round. — Dollar Newspaper, 



A Potato twenty years Old. — A 
much valued friend, who resides in this 
county, yesterday related to us a singu- 
lar but interesting fact, relative to the 
discovery of a potato which had been 
buried upwards of twenty years. It 
was found in the bottom of a well in 
New Scotland, surrounded by cinders, 
such as can be usually gathered from a 
blacksmith's forge. This well was fill- 
ed up with earth some twenty years 
ago, and remained closed to within a 
short time, when the property changed 
hands and the well was dug out. The po- 
tato found was planted some week sinea. 
It has sprouted up and is now growing. 
— Albany Journal. 



140 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



Agricultural Axioms. — In no de- 
partment is Bacon's celebrated maxim, 
"Knowledge is power," worth more 
tban in agriculture. Hence, no farmer 
can be accounted skillful in bis profes- 
sion, who does not avail himself of the 
information to be derived from the ex- 
perience of others, and who does not im- 
prove his knowledge of husbandry by 
the perusal of the ablest works which 
have been written on that subject. It 
is absurd to imagine that the commu- 
nication of knowledge, which has pro- 
Bioted the advancement of every other 
art, should be of no use in agriculture. 
Endeavor to raise good grain, for it will 
always sell, even in years of plenty; 
whereas, it is only in dear and scarce 
seasons that there is demand for grain 
of an inferior quality. Let your stock 
of cattle, horses, &c., be of the best 
bloods, and more remarkable for real 
utility than for beauty or fashion. No 
farmer ought to undertake to cultivate 
more land than hti can manage to ad- 
vantage. It is better to till twenty acres 
well, than one hundred in a slovenly 
manner. A man's owning a large farm 
is no excuse for imperfect tillage. What 
he cannot improve, he need not under- 
take to cultivate. A large farm, with- 
out skill, capital, and industry, is a 
plague to its owner. It is like what 
somebody said of self-righteousness — 
the more you have of it, the worse you 
are off. 



Carrots for Coffee. — T^ash them 
and scrape the outside off; then cut 
them into pieces about the size of half 
an inch square, then dry on a stove. — 
Parch and grind like coffee, or mix equal 
portions of carrot and coffee, and grind 
and make your coffee as usual. If you 
know it to be mixed, you may say it 
tastes a little sweeter than coffee gener- 
ally. We got our information from our 
neighbors, who came from Germany a 
few years ago, and who say that iri their 
country there are large factories where 
it is packed in pound papers and sold. — 
Prairie Farmer. 



We have often h«ard ladies express 
a desire to know by what process the 
fine gloss observable on new linen, shirt 
bosoms, etc., is produced and in order 
to gratify them, we subjoin the follow- 
ing recipe for making Gum Arabic 
starch : Take two ounces of fine white 
Gum Aj'abic powder, put it into a pitch- 
er, and pour on it a pint or more boilino' 
water, (according to the degree of stiff- 
ness you desire,) and then having cover- 
ed it, let it set all night. In the morn- 
ing pour it carefully from the dregs into 
a clean bottle ; cork it for use. A table 
spoonful of gum wataj-, stirred into a 
pint of starch that has been made in 
the usual manner, will give to lawns 
(either white or printed) a look of new- 
ness, when nothing else can restore 
them after washing. It is also good 
(much diluted) for white muslin and 
bobinet. 



Galls from the Harness or Sad- 
dle. — Major Long, in his written and 
valuable account of his expedition to 
the Rocky Mountains, says that his 
party found white lead moistened with 
milk, to succeed better than anj^ thing 
else in preventing the bad effects of 
galls on their horses' backs, in their 
fatiguing march over the plains that 
border the mountains. Its effect in 
soothing the irritated and inflajned sur- 
face was admirable. — American Farmer, 



Cure for Chapped Hands. — Most 
of the our juveniles, during the winter 
and spring are troubled with chapped 
hands ; for the benefit of the mothers 
who are obliged to listen to their end- 
less complaints, we publish the follow- 
ing recipe for " chapped hands :" — 
" Take three drachms of gum camphor, 
three do. white beeswax, three do. sper- 
maceti and two ounces of olive oil — put 
them together in a cup upon the stove, 
where they will melt slowly and form a 
white ointment in a few minutes. If the 
hands be affected, anoint them on going 
to bed, and put on a pair of gloves. A 
day or two will suffice to cure them." 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



141 



From the Commercial. 
Tanning Leather. 

Mr. Editor : — The manufacturing of 
Leather, more than aay other mechan- 
ical branch of business, is a chemical 
process, almost wholly upon the skill 
and judgment with which the princi- 
ples of tanning are conducted. To at- 
tain the requisite skill in the laboratory 
of the Chemist is evidently impossible, 
it can only b« acquired in the tanning 
ilself, by careful and close observation. 

The question has been frequently 
asked — how long does it take to tan 
sole leather? By the old method of 
tanning with bark, it takes from nine 
to twelve months. By Dr. Kennedy's 
improved system of tanning it takes 
from two t9 three months, according to 
the thickness of the sides and the 
strength of the liquor and the number 
of sides in the vats ; the quicker tanwed 
the better. Well tanned leather is a ho- 
mogenious substance, entirely free from 
unchanged gelatine or fibrine, which 
makes the substance in the durability 
of leather ; but if the tanning prepara- 
tion has been deficient in tanning in- 
gredients, or otherwise wanting in quali- 
ty, if the process has been imperfectly or 
carelessly performed it will undoubted- 
ly make an inferior quality of leather. 
Several considerations must be noticed 
in order to meet the questions under- 
standingly. The weight in the leather 
is made by keeping it in strong liquor, 
and close attention; if the hides are 
fresh they are capable of being proper- 
ly softened, and if so, the process of 
tanning can be completed much sooner 
than in the case of old and hard hides 
that cannot be softened with the same 
facility. If the sides have sufficient 
room in the vats so as not to lay crow- 
ded, they will tan much faster as the 
tanning advances. The liquor should 
be renewed seasonably, and its strength 
increased in ratio proportional to each 
stage of tanning. 

Under the old method of tanning 
with bark, two men will tan and finish 
4,000 sides in one year, at |30 per 



month is $720 ; the sides in the raw 
and dry state will weigh on an average 
13 lbs. pr. side,which will make 52,000 
pounds at 16 cent* per pound will cost 
$8,320 ; the above amount of hides 
will consume 270 cords of oak bark, at 
$Y per cord will cost $1,890, the tan 
yard will rent for $150 per year, the in- 
crease on the hides will be $499 20, 
interest on the bark will be $113 40. 
The whole cost and expense of tanning 
the above amount of hides in one year, 
by the old method, is $11,692 60 ; the 
4,000 sides of leather will weigh on an 
average 16 pounds per sid@, which will 
make 64,000 pounds at 22 cents per 
pound is $14,080 00. The neat pro- 
duct will be for one year's tanning $2,- 
387 40. 

Under D. Kennedy's patented im- 
proved system of tanning without bark, 
one man will tan and finish 4,000 sides 
in one year, at $30 per month, making 
$360. The sides will weigh on an 
average in the raw and dry state 13 
pounds per side, which will make 62,- 
000 pounds at 46 cents per pound will 
cost $8,820 ; the above amount of hides 
will consume chemicals to the amount 
of $1,200 ; the tan yard will rent for 
$150, the interest on the hides for four 
months will only be $166 50, the re- 
turns from hides to sales of leather can 
be made every four months, as it does 
not take more than three months to tan 
the heaviest kind of a hide ; the inter- 
est on the chemicals will be $72. The 
whole cost and expense under this sys- 
tem of tanning, 4000 sides is only $10,- 
268 40 ; the 4000 sides will average 
17 pounds per side, which will make 
68,000 pounds of leather at 22 cents 
per pound, making $15,160. Subtract 
the expenses from the sales and the 
product will be $4,891 60, which makes 
a gain over the old method of tanning 
4,000 sides, in one year, the handsome 
sum of $2,504 20. This will be a 
handsome profit to every tanner, over 
the old method of tanning with bark. 
Tanners look to your own interest, and 
investigate this matter. The above is 



142 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



a clear and accurate calculation of the 
different profits of the two methods of 
tanning, with bark and without bark. 



Spinning Cotton Yarns for Export. 

England exports to the continent of 
Europe, about fifty million dollars worth 
of Cotton Yarns a year — importing 
both the raw cotton, and food consu- 
med by her operatives, mainly from 
the United States. Has not the time 
arrived when the States that produce 
cotton may wisely undertake to card 
and spin so much of their great staple 
as will supply one half of the demand 
of the continent for cotton yarns and 
thread ? This extremely simple branch 
of manufactures, if extensively prose- 
cuted, would tend to diversify the pro- 
ductive industry of the South, increase 
its independence and wealth, and check 
the impoverishment of its soil. By 
carding and spinning a bale of cotton 
before it is sent to any continental city 
for a market, it will be nearly doubled 
in value. Enterprising planters might, 
one would suppose, easily unite in the 
purchase of the machinery necessary 
for making thread, and run it mainly 
by their own operatives. By keeping 
fewer mules, planting, plowing, hoeing 
and picking less cotton, they might 
still realize more money by the greatly 
enhanced value of the product of their 
labor and capital. Undoubtedly there 
is some risk attending this new branch 
of home industry, but probably less 
than in cultivating land to raise cotton 
for export; for one must take all the 
hazards of insects, dro th and floods, 
rust and an over-stocking of the market, 
in addition to the damage done to the 
soil. Having made up their minds to 
advance in arts and knowledge with an 
advancing world, the producers of cot- 
ton should encourage its manufacture at 
home, so far as practicable, that they 
may not be dependent on one kind of 
employment for prosperity, and a few 
foreign cotton brokers and manufactu- 
rers to dictate the price of their one 
staple. A great people need a much 



broader basis for their agriculture and 
commerce than cotton culture ; and 
among other remunerating pursuits that 
of competing with England in spinning 
cotton for European consumption, to 
the amount of twenty or thirty millions 
a year, appears to us entirely practica- 
ble. — Southern Cultivator. 



New Process of Making Butter. 
Mr. James Stubbs, of Cuttyliunk Island, 
informs us of a new and simple process 
of making butter from the cream, which 
promises to supersede the labor of the 
churn, at least during the warm season. 
At his dairy, recently, a quantity of 
cream that had obstinately refused to 
become butter under any reasonable a- 
mount of ' agitation ' in the usual mode, 
was at length emptied into a clean 
" salt bag " of coarse linen, and deposit- 
ed in the ground at a depth of about 
twelve inches below the surface, to cool. 
On the following morning it was found 
that the buttermilk had entirely separ- 
ated and disappeared, and the butter 
remained in the sack perfectly nice and 
sweet. He has since frequently manu- 
factured butter by this method, with in- 
variable success, in from 6 to 12 hours. 
As an effectual preventive of any earth- 
ly taste becoming imparted to the but- 
ter, Mr. Stubbs suggests that the bag 
containing the cieara be placed in an- 
other bag, or cloth, of the same material. 
The value of the discovery may be 
easily tested. — New Bedford Mercury. 



Pleasuring Corn — Another Suggestion. 

Messrs. Editors- -I noticed in your 
last number an article on measuring 
cribs of corn. I have noticed other ar- 
ticles on this subject, but have as yet 
seen none satisfactory to my mind. 
True, we can divide the number of cu- 
bic inches in a crib by 2150.2-5 — the 
number of cubic inches in a Winches- 
ter bushel. But how are we to estab- 
lish any conventional rule as to the de- 
duction to be made for the shucks, 
cobs, &c. If the corn be closely slip- 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



14 ] 



shucked some rule might be estabHsh- 
ed — but how are we to determine this 
in many instances 2 It seems to me 
there are insuperable difficulties in es- 
tablishing an absolute rule on the subject. 

As the object of your journal is to ex- 
tend the area of useful knowledge, I beg 
leave to suggest (if it has not been 
done before) the following : 

Divide the number of inches in your 
crib by the number of cubic inches in a 
box, say 2 by 8 feet, and measure the 
box ; after having shelled it out, multi- 
ply the quantity h contains by the quo- 
tient arising from the above division. 

Marshall, Texas, May , 1853. 



And here we have another sugges- 
tion from one of our Mississippi corres- 
i:)ondents : 

Find the solid contents in feet, by 
measuring the length, breadth and 
heighth of the crib, thus — 10 feet long, 
10 feet wide, and 10 feet high ; then 
multiply the whole by 8, and cut off 
the right hand figures — thiswi 11 give 
you the barrels and decimals of a bar- 
rel of shelled corn in a crib. 

Example : 10 
10 

100 
10 

1000 



80.00 Answer— 80 bushels shelled corn. 
Southern Cultivator. 



Georgia State Agricultural Fair. 
— This Fair is to be held in Augusta on 
the 17th, 18th, 19ih and 20th of Octo- 
ber. The society have offered premi- 
ums to the amount of five thousand 
dollars, embracing nearly everything 
valuable in Agricultural and Mechani- 
cal Industry, Art and Science, and Taste. 
We have been kindly furnished, by the 
publisher, with the illustrated premium 
list, which we will take pleasure in 
loaning to any friends of Agricultural 
and Mechanical improvement, who may 
desire to look over it. — Maleigh Star. 



The China TREE.-The Mobile Trib- 
une says : " We are indebted to one of 
our citizens for an interesting reininis- 
cence of the China tree. He informs 
us that it was introduced into this 
country before the Revolutionary war 
by a Merchantle firm of Philadelphia, 
and Edenton, North Carolina, which 
traded with China. The first tree was 
planted in the former city, but, under 
an apprehension that it would not live 
in so northern a climate, it was remov- 
ed to Edenton, where it grew apace and 
was greatly admired. After it com- 
menced blooming, the people came as 
many as twenty and thirty miles to see 
it. 

From this single tree, it was propa- 
gated through the country, and now, 
in most of our cities, it is one of the 
commonest of our shade trees. The 
first tree was vigorous twenty years 
ago. — Raleigh Register. 



The North Carolina Whig, of Eden- 
ton, is responsible for the two following 
items: i 

" Hard to Beat. — We saw a few 
days ago, twenty-four Irish Potatoes 
that weighed twenty- eight pounds, and 
filled a half-bushel measure. They were 
raised by Mr. John M. Jones in his gar- 
den at this place. If any one can beat 
that, we would like to have them extend 
to us the same kindness which we ex- 
perienced at Mr. Jones' hands, viz : the 
presentation of a fine mess of the praties. 

" We were shown last week a boll of 
Cotton nearly full grown, taken from 
the farm of Mr. H. W. Collins, whichi 
measured four and a quarter inches in 
circumference. The bloom appeared 
about the 25th of last month." 



There is no occasion to trample up- 
on the meanest reptile, nor to sneak to 
the greatest prince. Insolence and base- 
ness are equally unmanly, 



144 



THE FARMERS' JOURNAL. 



FAEMER'S JOURNAL. 

RALEIGH, N. C, AUGUST, 1853. 



Our Removal. 

As our readers will see, we have 
changed our locution from Bath to Ra- 
leigh, which we have done, not because 
we are anxious to get among the " swell- 
ed heads or upper tens" as they are call- 
ed, but for the reason that we believe, 
a change of this kind will confer a mu- 
tual benefit upon ourself and those 
whose interest we advocate. Before 
coming to this conclusion, we advised 
with many of our friends, and we have 
the pleasure to say, that not the first 
one failed to concur with us in the opin- 
ion that this change would be advan- 
tageous to all parties interested. There 
were many objections to our former lo- 
cation, which WQ have seen and felt from 
the beginning of our enterprise, but we 
could not think of making this move 
until we saw some prospect of a con- 
tinuation of our paper. We do not, 
however, wish to be understood to say, 
that now we are paying even the ex- 
penses of publishing it, for such is not 
the case. But at the late called meet- 
ing of the State Agricultural Society, 
we flattered ourself that we saw a new 
impetus given to agricultural improve- 
ment, in the establishment of an annual 
Agricultural Fair near Raleigh, and we 
will here state that to this action we 
are indebted for a continuation of our 
enterprise longer than the present vol- 
ume ; for it would be impossible to 
keep up interest enough in a publica- 
tion of this kind, to cause farmers to 
renew their subscriptions, unless it is 
done at these annual faifs. In a short 



time, we shall have traveled over the 
entire State, and when this is done, wq 
shall give our undivided attention to 
the " Journal," the analysis of soils, and 
our Agricultural School, which we shall 
open in Raleigh in Januaiy next. Hav- 
ing a central position, we hope now to 
be able to give satisfaction to all who 
are interested in our enterprise, and we 
hope that our friends and the friends of 
agricultural improvement, will use their 
exertions to circulate the '' Journal" ex- 
tensively in every county in the State. 
We shall now look for a great addition 
to our list immediately, and we hope 
that we shall not be disappointed, as 
we often have been before. 



Farmers, Write For Your Paper. 

We have tried often-time, invited, and 
we may say, even begged farmers to 
contribute to the only paper devoted 
exclusively to their interest in the State. 
We meet with many in our travels 
around, whom we ask to write for "The 
Journal," and they promise to do so ; 
but this is the last we ever hear from 
them. If they will only reflect as to 
the object of our enterprise, it seems to 
us that they will no longer hold back. 
We have opened to them a channel, 
through which they may intei'change 
ideas and opinions with each other, and 
still they refuse to enter into this ex- 
cellent way of adding to their knowl- 
edge, as well as enjoyment. As our 
position is now central, we hope to en- 
list a large number of contributors 
as well as subscribers to our paper. Is 
there not at least one enterprising man 
in each county in our State, to lay hold 
and help us out ; if there is let's hear 
from him at once. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



145 



To the Farmers' Wives and Daagh - 
ters of North Carolina. 

We have, for some time past, been 
tbinking to make an appeal to tbe la- 
dies of oar good old State, entreating 
them to lend us their powerful influence, 
in getting up a proper state of feeling 
in regard to agriculture among our far- 
mers. This we should have done long 
since, and indeed, may not it be in a 
great measure the cause of so much 
apathy still existing. That sex, mod- 
est by nature, cannot of course, be ex- 
pected to lay hold of anything of the 
kind, unless invited to do so, and hav- 
ing the assurance at the same time, that 
they are not transcending the bounds 
of female action. We here take the 
responsibility of saying, that there are 
ibut few ways in which the ladies of our 
State could exert their influence more 
jbeneficially, than in behalf of agricul- 
tural improvement. They, by right, 
ave a particular branch of this noble 
irofession, which strictly comes under 
heir immediate control ; and really, it 
leems to us, that the fact cannot be de- 
fied that horticulture, as well as agri- 
lulture, in this State, is at present in a 
rery languishing condition, and it, of 
;ourse, is reserved for the farmers' wives 
md daughters to elevate it from its 
present degraded position to that stand- 
ard which is recognized in other States. 
[it is true, we have seen some well cul- 
tivated gardens as well as some well 
cultivated fields, but they are few and 
] far between. From whence does the 
1 farmer's family derive more luxury, in 
the summer, than from a well cultivated 
I garden, which contains such a variety 
/ as all gardens should contain. In the 
summer, animal food is not as healthy, 



by any means, as vegetables, and this 
alone, should stimulate the prudent 
housewife to have a fine garden, to say 
nothing of the saving gained by it. 
But the little interest which is manifest- 
ed in agriculture by the ladies of our 
State, is mainly to be attributed to the 
improper system of education in the 
female schools. Heretofore, it has been 
the custom to induce young ladies, while 
at school, to believe, that a proficiency 
iu music, French and drawing were 
quite sufficient to entitle them to be 
called accomplished. But, is this, we 
ask, really true ; can a young lady be 
said to be properly prepared to take 
charge of a family, who knows nothing 
of the household arts? Indeed there are 
many who have been made to blush 
with shame and mortification when they 
first took charge of the bachelor hall of 
their husband. We have, in more than 
one instance, heard such confessions as 
this ; that when company came, we 
have been told by ladies, they would 
be troubled to know what to proA'ide 
for dinner, and they would have either 
to send far the mamma, or the aunt, to 
give them such information as they 
ought to have been in possession of. 
We contend that it is high time that 
a system of reform was being made in 
this branch of female education ; that it 
had given to it that consideration to 
which it is fairly entitled. We hope 
at the State Agricultural Fair, on 
the 18th of October next, to witness a 
proper interest in behalf of agriculture, 
in its various branches, by the farmers' 
wives and daughters. Let them pre- 
sent specimens of work as well as fruits, 
vegetables and flowers, and this should 
receive the attention of the ladies at 



146 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



once, for unless it does, this branch of 
the exhibition will not present such an 
appearance as we should like to see, and 
we shall be under the necessity of at- 
taching the blame to those whom we 
least de^iire to censure — the farmers' 
wives and daughters. 

In conclusion, we say that the far- 
mers' wives and daughters, and the la- 
dies at large, are especially invited to 
be present at the State Fair ; for if our 
good old State cannot fairly compete 
with her sisters in showing fine stock, 
we are sure that she can take the first 
premium upon "The Fair." 



The State Fair. 

We are pleasp-d to see the Press of 
our State giving some attention to this 
subject. They begin, we think, to be- 
lieve that there will be a State Fair, and 
such an ©ne, too, as our State may justly 
feel proud of. We wonder what those 
"old fogies" will say, when they look 
upon this exhibition, and call to mind 
how.strenuously they opposed the move, 
in the beginning, at the very time it 
most needed the smiles, instead of the 
frowns of our people. We know of 
several farmers in the State who have 
such stock as will do them credit at that 
exhibition. We hope to see specimens 
of stock from the farms of Thomas Jones, 
of Martin ; Messrs. Dancy and Norfleet, 

of Edgecombe; David McDaniei, of 

Ni , rpi ^ ri o u-u 1 rpu ™ as we there saw had but a few days 
ash ; Ihomas (J. Smith and ihomas-- . •' 



McDowell, of Bladen County. We have 
heard of fine stocks in other Counties, 
which we hope soon to see, but these 
we have mentioned, we know to be 
■worthy of being exhibited. There are, 
■we fear, many who have stock good 
enough to send to the Fair, who will 



keep it back, for the reason that they 
want to visit the first show and see 
what kind will do. If this principle be 
carried out, there will, of course, be bui 
a small exhibition. 



Who will take Them ? 

We oiFer the following three valuable 
prizes, for the three largest numbers of 
subscribers obtained to the Farmer's 
Journal, by the 18th of October next, 
the beginning of the State Agricultural 
Fair. For the largest number, we will 
award a handsome copy of the Farmers' 
and Planters' Encyclopedia, cost $10 ; 
for the second largest number, Steven's 
Book of the Farm, cost $8 ; for third 
largest number, a copy of Colman's 
Works, cost $6, which is a highly val- 
uable work. These we regard as being 
more appropriate prizes than any others, 
and we hope to see the young Farmers 
of our State contending for them. The 
subscribers may be gotten to vol. 1st, 
2d, or 3d, as v^e can supply the back 
numbers. 

Cotton Gins in Old Edgecombe. 

We saw, a short time since, at a De- 
pot on the Raleigh and Wilmingtot 
Rail Road, in Edgecombe County, ihi 
large number of twenty-one Cotton Gins 
which had been sent from Georgia to 
the planters of that County. We wer( 
informed by the gentleman who super- 
intended the ware-house, that as many 



since been sent out into the County, 
Such testimony as this cannot be doubt- 
ed ; it speaks volumes in favor of agri- 
cultural improvement in that County. 

To thoso who wish to take our Paper. 

All letters upon business, in connection 
with the " Farmer's Journal," after this 



THE FARMERS' JOURNAL. 



147 



time, will be directed to us at Raleigh, 
■which will be promptly attended to by 
our publishers, until the month of Oct., 
after which time we shall permanently 
locate there, and will give our personal 
attention to such matters. — Ed. 

N. B. Back numbers of vol. 1st and 
2nd, up to this time, suppHed at the 
shortest notice. 

Halifax County Ahead. 

In this county there are a larger 
number of members to the State Agii- 
\ cultural Society than any ether, even 
\ Wake not excepted, so far as our knowl- 
edge extends. And there are also a 
larger number of subscribers to the 
Farmer's Journal at the post office, 
Scotland Neck, in that county, than at 
ny other in the State. This, though, 
urely will not be the case much longer, 
s we have now moved our location to 
aleigh, where we certainly ought to 
ave, by far, the largest list in the State. 



For the Farmer's Journal. 

Dear Tompkins : In perusing the 

June No. of your Journal, we found an 

article addressed to "The friends of Ag- 

licultural improvement in North Caro- 

1 na," which seems to have been written 

h a feeling of disparagement. Now 

ir'e think this means all it expresses, for 

the reason that you are never willing to 

' give up the ship" until all hopes have 

lied ; and therefore, considering ourself 

ne among the number composing the 

lass to whom this article is addressed, 

e shall not only endeavor to carry out 

the plan you suggest, but shall claim a 

place in the Journal to submit a few 

considerations to the farmers of North 

Carolina. 

We know, gentlemen, that the time 
has been when "book farming" was a 
subject of ridicule among us, but that 
shameful era in our State's history has 



passed. Ever since the Legislature of 
1848 convened, and Common Schools 
were instituted, there has been a gradual 
improvement going on, mostly, however, 
in the upper part of our State. 

Rail roade, plank roads, &c., have 
been constructad, and have proved, with- 
out an exception we believe, greatly to 
the advantage of individuals, and of 
much value to the State. 

Our means of transportation have 
greatly increased, but the resources that 
have been operated upon chiefly — name- 
ly : Naval Stores — are becoming very 
limited and used up, while those of 
agriculture and horticulture, the ones 
mostly to be relied on, have not yet 
been developed. 

There remains, therefore, much to be 
done. Our old lands must be improved, 
and the new parts more generally ren- 
dered susceptible of culture. The bright 
example of other States of our Union 
calls us to competition. The proud 
recollections of our State's early history, 
bid us to press on, and no longer re- 
main the poorest in all that depends upon 
exertion and enterprise. Our agricul- 
tural resources are various and abun- 
dant; our climate is mild and soil gen- 
erally productive; and the time has 
arrived when farming, in the eastern 
part of the State, is the only dependence. 

But before we can efiect much, our 
system will have to be improved. In 
order to do this, we must have some 
medium through which to convey our 
ideas and experiments ; that medium 
we now have in the " Farmer's Journal." 
Its worthy editor has been, and is now 
doing all that he can for the farming 
interests of the " Old North State," and 
all he desires is a liberal patronage. 
Can we not give it to him ? Can it be 
possible that Old North Carolina will 
not support, at this age of progress and 
improvement, one agricultural paper ? 
Can we not find within her borders, 
5,000 men who are willing to assist in 
developing her resources ? Farmers of 
North Carolina, let us awake to our 
duty ; we have slumbered long enough. 



148 



THE FARMER'S JOURNxlL. 



" Men at some times are masters of their fates, 
The iauh, dear Brutus, is not in our stars, 
But in ourselves: that we are underlings." 

Let us bestir ourselves, ere it be too late, 
and never rest until the Journal has at 
least 5,000 subscribers ; until we shall 
have shaken off that apathy which has 
so long since been a by-word and a re- 
proach, and by developing our resources, 
leave to our children an example worthy 
of imitation. 

Having said thus much, dear Tomp- 
kins, to my brother farmers, let me bid 
you God speed in your noble enterprise ; 
it is bound to succeed, and when your 
untiring zeal, industry, and abilities are 
more generally infused, you will be re- 
membered with praise and gratitude. 
Truly yours, Pungo. 

Beaufort Co., June 29th, 1853. 



Advantages of the Farmer of this Age. 

Within the course of a century, what 
vast discoveries have been made in re- 
lation to the fctructuve of plants and to 
the vegetable economy, in the functions, 
especially of absorption and persp'ration. 
Science has shown the mode in which 
plants take up their aliment, the partic- 
ular kind of aliment required for them, 
and the circulation of the food in the 
juices of the plant, its changes by respira- 
tion and its evacuations by perspiration. 
These accessions to our knowledge of 
the vegetable kidgdom have been made 
by degrees, the result of long studies 
and exact experiments, by many differ- 
ent persons. In relation to perspiration. 
Dr. Hales found that a sunflower lost 1 
lb. 14 oz. weight in twelve hours of a 
hot day. In a dry night it lost about 
3 oz. In a moist niofht little alteration 

o 

was perceptible. 

Haymakers know the rapidity with 
which grass is dried, which is owing to 
this perspiration, the juices not being 
again supplied by absorption as when 
the grass was living. It would be in- 
te'-esting to trace the history of these 
discoveries in vegetable physiology, but 
would require more time and space than 
we can now devote to the subject. 



A century ago, nothing, it may be 
said, was known of the vegetable anat- 
omy. Now the structure of the plant 
has become nearly as well known as the 
anatomy of the human body, though 
the knowledge of the former is confined 
to a fewer number of persons than the 
latter. 

It is only a little more than fifty years 
since the true suggestion of what the 
true sap vessels of plants were, was 
given by Dr. Darwin, and their opera- 
tion and functions ascertained, by ex- 
periments of himself and others, follow- 
ed to more certain results by Mr. Knight. 
It was discovered from those experi- 
ments that the sap ascends the spiral 
vessels of the plant, forming in its ascent 
th ! alburnum, and descending in the 
outer bark. This knowledge is valuable 
to the farmer, who by this knows that 
if he would destroy his tree by girdling, 
he must cut through the alburnum to 
the hard wood, while if he merely gir- 
dles the outer bark of his vine with a 
narrow ring after mid-summer, when 
the sap is descending, he may increase 
bis crop of grapes by preventing the 
descent of the sap, and retaining it for 
the nourishment of the fruit, without 
injury to the vine, if the ring is not 
made too wide to unite, — The two gen- 
tlemen named, with a few others, Mir- 
bel Malpighi, Grew, Wildenow, Hales, 
Priestly, and others, by a series of in- 
teresting experiments, have made us 
acquainted with the structure and func- 
tions of the vegetable world. 

To Dr. Priestly we owe the knowl- 
edge of the respiratory action of the 
leaves of plants. And his opinion was, 
that the inspiration was by the upper, 
and the expiration by the under surface 
of the leaf. This fact is corroborated 
by the use of the cabbage leaf in medi- 
cal treatment ; the upper and smooth 
side is always applied to the skin, which 
"draws," as it is termed ; while the un- 
der side, if applied in the same manner, 
will have no such effect. 

It is true a great deal remains for 
the research of science to accomplish. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



149 



" When we attempt," says Dr. Smith, 
" to consider how the parUcular secre- 
tions of different species and tribes of 
plants are'%rraed ; how the same soil, 
the same atmosphere, should in the leaf 
of the vine or sorrel, produce a whole- 
some acid, and in that of a spurge or 
machineel a most virulent poison ; how 
sweet and nuti'itious herbage should 
grow among the acrid crowfoot and 
aconite, we found ourselves totally una- 
ble to coraprehend the existence of such 
wonderful powers in so small and seem- 
ingly simple an organ as the leaf of a 
plant." — N. E. Farmer. 



Cheese Making for a Small Diary. 

"We have received requests from sev- 
eral of our lady correspondents, to write 
a short article on cheese-making, espe- 
cially in reference to that large class of 
farmers who keep but few cows. It al- 
ways gives us pleasure to comply with 
the requests of the ladies, especially of 
those who are good housekeepers — 
know how to milk a cow, make good 
butter and cheese, and cultivate a small 
flower-garden. 

First rate* cheese can be made from a 
few cows, but it is attended with more 
labor in proportion to the amount made, 
than in a large dairy, inasmuch as the 
curd has to be made every morning and 
placed aside till you have sufficient to 
make a good sized cheese. The milk is 
placed in a tub, and warmed to a prop- 
er temperature, (65 deg.Fahr., or about 
as warm as when taken from the cow) 
by adding a portion of heated milk. 
The rennet is then added, the milk well 
stif-red, and afterwards let alone till the 
cul-d is well come. The time this oc- 
cuipies varies from fifteen minutes to 
two hours, according to the amount of 
rennet, the temperature, &c. — the hot- 
ter it is put together, and the more ren- 
net there is added, the quicker will the 
cheese come. As a general thing, the 
longer it is in coming, the tenderer and 
si^eeter will be the curd. If it comes 
too quickly, it is owing to an excess of 



lactic acid beino- formed from the sugar 
of milk ; so that the curd has that hard, 
tough, white appearance, that is the case 
when the curd is precipitated with vin- 
egar or anj other acid ; but, if there is 
a very slow formation of lactic acid, the 
curd is gradually precipitated in flocks, 
is less dense, and very sweet ana tender. 
It is then broken up quite fine, either 
by hand or a curd-breaker, made for the 
purpose, which cuts it into very small 
pieces. After this it, is allowed to stand 
and settle. The whey is then drawn 
off and passed through a sieve, to re- 
move any curd there may be in it. The 
curd is then placed in a strong cloth, 
and well pressed, to remove the whey. 
It is then placed in a cold place, and the 
operation repeated daily, or every other 
day, if the milk will keep sweet, as it 
will in the fall"-till there is curd enough 
to make cheese of the desired size. 
When the right quantity is obtained, 
the curd is all broken up very fine, salt- 
ed and w^ll mixed. . In putting the 
curd in the vat to be pressed, a cloth 
sufficiently large to cover the whole 
cheese is placed in the vnt, and into this 
cloth the curd is put. When the curd 
has filled the vat, a "fillet" (usually 
made of sheet tin, and from thi'ee to 
six inches wide, and sufficiently long to 
lap over four or five inches when plac- 
ed around the cheese) is placed inside 
the vat for an inch or so, and the cloth 
drawn up straight, so that when being 
pressed the fillet will not cut it. The 
VI hole of the curd is then put in, a 
smooth board placed ovea- this and then 
it is ready to press. After it has been 
pressed for sometime, it is taken from 
under, and punctured all over with a 
skevfer, either of wood or iron. Place 
it in the- press again, until it has become 
sufficiently consolidated to take out of 
the vat without falling to pieces. It 
must then be turned, or inverted in the 
vat, and a clean cloth put around it. 
Place it again under the press, occasion- 
ally turning it and putting round it 
fresh cloths, till the cheese when press- 
ed does not wet thera. It is then all 



150 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL, 



right, and should be kept in the dairy, 
or a cool, damp place, for a few days, 
placing a little salt around it, when it 
may be taken to an upper room, where 
it will require turning very frequently, 
or the side next the floor will mould. 
Let th» room bo dark and well ventil- 
ated. — Weatern Agriculturist. 



Food for Crops. 

Tins is a '■'•grand question'''' among 
farmers at the present day. In new 
countries, where the land has not been 
cultivated much, little is thought about 
giving the crop any food, in order to 
make it into food for ourselves, but af- 
ter the fresh soil has become exhausted 
by constant cropping — after the 'new;'' 
is oft", or rather out — the farmer fiixls 
that to make food for himself, he must 
give food to the plants he wishes to 
raise. 

Well, what must it be? To answer 
it with perfect accuracy, you should first 
know what the soil is made of, and then 
what the plant is made of—or, in other 
words, both should be analyzed, and 
the ingredients ascertained, both as to 
their quality and quantity. But this 
requires a greater knowledge of prac- 
tical chemistry than the majority of the 
people as yet possess, and also more ex- 
pense than most farmers are able to 
meet. 

What is the next best thing to be 
done? Fortunately the remains of or- 
ganic bodies, (by which we mean those 
bodies both of animal and vegetable 
origin, that have had life and a set of 
organs forming their bodies,) possess 
most of the ingredients requited for this 
purpose. Although some of the ingre- 
dients which make up the mass of or- 
ganic matter may not be needed in this 
crop, they will not be lost, and will 
come in play for some futore one. 

We are aware that there is much said 
about specific manure, and this article 
and that article is loudly recommended 
as the very thing and the only thing 
needed. We do not undervalue them, 



and at the same time we caution our 
readers not to overvalue them. Watch 
all experiments — use everything of the 
specific kind, such as plaster, super-phos- 
phate of lime, sulphate of ammonia, 
guano, tfcc, &c., as you know will be 
beneficial, but at the same time don't 
give up your manure heap. 

As a general rule, the remains, or 
manure made from the remains of or- 
ganic bodies the nearest related, that is 
the nearest in kind and quality to those 
which you wish to raise, will make the 
best manure for them. Return to the 
soil again as much of the crop as you 
can, in order to make another one. 

Nature gives you this advice. How 
is it that yonder forest has kept up for 
so many years such a heavy crop of 
wood ? How is it that for as long as 
you can remember, there has not only 
been a heavy burthen of wood on that 
soil, but it has been constantly increas- 
ing in growth? It is manured eveiy 
fall, as sure as the fall comes, by a thick 
deposit of leaves and twigs, and small 
branches, which the frosts and the winds 
and snow break ofii" and spread around 
the roots. Thcsd leaves and twigs are 
made up of material, in part drawn 
from the air, and of the- same kind as 
the rest of the wood, and so they de- 
cay and supply food for the standing, 
cfrowing wood. 

The vine growers in some parts of 
France, find the chippings and prunings 
of their vines to be a valuable dressing 
for their vineyards. The cotton grow- 
ers of the SouUi begin to find that the 
cotton seeds and refuse col ton is a val- 
uable dressing for cotton plants. 

Man)'' of our farmers begin to find 
that the stalks and husks of Indian 
corn, plowed under, make a valuable 
manure for the corn crop, and that the 
prunings of the orchard, chipped up 
and applied to the trees from which 
they were taken, make a valuable dress- 
inor for the orchard. — Maine Far. 



Intelligence by the last steamers is, on 
the whole, favorable to our great staples. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



151 



Geoli>git al Suivey. 

Charlotte, May 26, 1853, 
To his Excellency^ David S. jReid : 

Sir: I have been in this place one 
"week, and have visited the most impor- 
tant points of the County ; I have di- 
vided my time between the mining and 
agricukural interests. 

Smce I came here I have made ar- 
rangements with Dr. E. H. Andrews to 
engage in the survey for three months, 
to receive per month the same compen- 
sation as Dr. McClennnhan. Dr. An- 
drews has devoted much time to the 
minerals of Western Nortli Cai'ohna, is 
better acquainted with localities than 
any other individual, probably, in the 
State, and is a man of excellent charac- 
ter and worth. 

E. Emmons, Jr. has wished for some 
time to be released from the survey. I 
have, however, pi'oposed to hitn to give 
his services with barely a nominal com- 
pensation. To this he has not only 
consented, but is anxious to promote 
certain objects of the work. I wish him 
to visit the mountainous part of the 
State with me, in order to furnish illus- 
trations of the scenery of the country. 
Besides this, it is quite necessary that I 
should retain him for the purpose of 
executing the drawings of fossils of the 
tertiary and coal formations. Wherever 
he travels in the State, he is to contrib- 
ute all the facts relating to geology for 
the benefit of the survej'. 

I can see no objection to the arrange- 
ments, as the compensation both of Dr. 
Andrews and my son cannot exceed that 
which my son alone has been entitled 
to. It is proper also to state that my 
son has continued mostly in the State 
work up to this time. He is now mak- 
ing examinations in the neighborhood 
of the Hoovier and Sawyer mines. He 
wished to continue for a time in this 
connection, that he might make up for. 
lost time, by which no one should have 
reason to complain that the last quarter 
■was incomplete. Dr. Andrews' term 
will not begin, for which he is to receive 



compensation, until the rtiiddle of Au- 
gust ; but in the mean time he is to 
avail himself of all opportunities for 
furthering the interests of the work. As 
lo myself, it is proper that I should say 
tliat I expect to spend much time in the 
work of the survey after the present pe- 
cuniary provisions are exhausted, and 
for which I have no expectation nor 
wish to be compensated. The making 
up of the final report, and collecung the 
odds and ends of the work, will consume 
at least six months, after which the 
work will be regarded as finished. This 
is not a new view, but one which I took 
of the subject vvhen I first engaged in 
the work. I hope now to say that by 
the time your administration or term of 
office has expired the survey will be es- 
sentially finished, so far as out-door 
work is concerned. 

It has been my desire to promote the 
interests of the State in some way or 
other. And it has appeared to me that 
a course and plan which would bring to 
the State capital, was the plan by which 
its interests and the interests of citizens 
would be best promoted. It is, howev- 
er, unnecessary that I should dwell up- 
on this subject. I will only add, that I 
believe that nearly a million of dollars 
will be added to the working capital in 
the mining districts, and that this capi- 
tal will, by no means, be sunk and lost; 
and I also fully beheve that this inter- 
est will be placed on a ^sis from which 
the citizens will derive a continually in- 
creasing profit for years to come. 
I am sir, your most ob't serv't, 

E. EMMONS. 

Salisbury, May 21, 1853. 

To his Excellency, David S. Reid : 

Sir : I am often surprised at the 
amount of excellent land which I meet 
with every day. The cotton lands are 
not confined to Edgecombe, Wayne, or 
exclusively to the eastern part of the 
State; the valleys of the Yadkin and 
Catawba are equally good for cotton — 
equally fertile and productive in all the 



152 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



great staples of this latitude. From the 
Jersey Settlement to Salisbury, from 
Salisbury to Charlotte, and then South 
to the State line, excellent and produc- 
tive lands are never out o^ sight for any 
length of time. With attention and 
cultivation, but little beyond the ordi- 
nary routine, large tracts may be made 
to produce continuously 2,000 lbs. of 
seed cotton to the acre. This is the 
product of the plantation of Mr. D. B. 
Peebles, of Providence District, in Meck- 
lenburg county. The expense of cultv 
vation to produce this result is by no 
means great ; in this yield of seed cotton 
there is 600 pounds of lint. This result 
appears still more remarkable when it 
is known that there are no natural fer- 
tilizers ; no marks of lime ; and also that 
these lands belong to the oldest cultiva- 
ted lands of the State. Indeed, one is 
almost inclined to fall into the common 
opinion that they will never wear out. 
This idea, however, is delusive. When 
we find such results may be obtained 
with ordinary skill in cultivation, or 
with ordinary tillage, we are led to sur- 
mise what might not be effected by ad- 
ditional attention and skill, combined 
with a free use of such fertilizers as the 
successive crops require. These lands 
are distinguished from others by their 
dark brown color — they are called mu- 
latto lands. I have spoken of their 
adaptation to cotton. Now, it would 
not be i-ight to fegard them as adapted 
only to this crop, for if there are soils 
which are universal in their adaptation, 
these dark red soils of Cabarrus, Meck- 
lenburg and Rowan are of this descrip- 
tion. It is true that there are degrees 
of excellency with those which bear the 
color I have spoken of. The Providence 
soils are looser than those of some other 
tracts, for the latter are stifter and more 
liable to bake under the sun than the 
former. It is not, however, to be con- 
cealed that these red soils are impatient 
imder droughts. The crops are liable 
to fail when the rains fail — in this re- 
spect they rank below the sandy soils 
of Uuion. The latter are based upon 



and derived from the slates ; while tli® 
former are based upon and derived from 
certain varieties of granite. This gran- 
ite contaiss a large amount of iron in 
the state of a protoxide, which on ex- 
posure to the air becomes a peroxide, 
which has the red color of the soil. The 
iron, however, may be in combination 
with sulphur, which in decomposing 
passes into a state of peroxidation. This 
latter condition of the iron appears from 
the color of the soil, where the roots of 
the oak are found, and especially, when 
they are wounded. In this case, the 
gallic acid exuding from the wounded 
roots, finds in the soil sulphate of iron. 
Ink will, therefore, be formed by this 
combination, »nd the purple black 
streaks which appear in the railroad cuts 
are due to formation of ink. Ink soils 
require for correction, lime, inasmuch as 
any considerable quantity of this as- 
tringent salt of iron, is poiJ^onous to veg- 
etation ; yet this salt (sulphate of iron) 
is useful in small quantities in the soil. 
It seems to act upon vegetables as it 
acts rapon animals, viz : as a tonic. 
These astringent soils are very common 
throughout the State. They are in this 
condition from the great abundance of 
the proto-sulphuret of iron, which is dis- 
seminated through the rocks from which 
the soils are derived. 

Wake County is remarkable for as- 
tringent soils. In the dry parts of the 
season the effiorescence of this salt is a 
common occurrence ; and any one may 
satisfy himself of the fact by tasting the 
soil ; I have already said that the cor- 
rective for such soils is lime. This sub- 
stance, howevei-, is noi only a corrective, 
but it becomes, under these circumstan- 
ces, an active fertilizer. Gypsum is the 
product formed by this application. In 
this connection, I may be allowed to say 
that the most important results of the 
internal improvement system, will reach 
the Planter. It must give him the fer- 
tilizers — it will also open the door to 
the market which has, up to the present 
hour, been closed upon him. The time 
is not far distant when North Carolina 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



153 



will become one of the producing States, 
and the taunt which has often been 
tlirown into her teeth, " alas, for poor 
North Carolijia, she has nothing to sell," 
■will pass away. It is a remarkable fact 
that the mining lands of this State are 
usually as productive and valuable for 
plantations as the lands of other States. 
She has, therefore, a double source of 
wealth, extending over large tracts of 
country. In other countries, raining 
lands are mostly poor and unproductive 
under the best system of tillage. I have 
collected many samples of the soils pe- 
culiar to this part of the State, and I be- 
lieve that the agriculture is equally in- 
teresting with that ot the eastern part 
of the Commonwealth. 

I remain, most respectfidly, 
Your Excellency's 
Obedient Servant, 
E. EMMONS. 



*' The Prejudices of Farmers." 

The following extract from the ad- 
dress of Wm. S. King, Esq., noticed in 
another column, touches the question of 
agricultural improvement just where it 
labors. It shows, that good practice, 
is true science, in agriculture. May all 
our farmers understand the why, as well 
as the what ; the causes as well as the 
results, of their practice. — Western 
Plow-Boy. 

Scientific Agriculture is the cultiva- 
tion of the earth by rule, and not by 
guess work. Indeed, when and where 
guessing ends and system begins, then 
and there is the birth, and the birth- 
place of science. 

How many farms, gentlemen, within 
the reach of your observation, are, by 
this definition, scientifically cultivated? 
On how many is the^iepth of the plow- 
ing guaged by depth of the soil, the 
character of the sub-soil, and a wise in- 
tention to render the fertile loam deep- 
er year after year, inch by inch ? How 
many farmers of your acquaintance, 
who enter o«n a farm with a soil three 
inches deep, undertake, as they well and 
es^Jy pi'ght, to render it in ten years, 



twelve inches deep ? I would tell you 
here, that the experiments of thousands 
of farmers have proved, that by thrust- 
ing the point of your plow one inch, or 
three-quarters of an inch deeper at 
each plowing and bringing to the sur- 
face so much of the inert sub-soil, to be 
operated on by the atmosphere and to 
be benefited by the manure year after 
year, you will to this extent increase 
your active fertile soil, and gradually 
create another farm, as it were under 
your old one. But this would be sci- 
entific farming ; and, consequently, in 
the (.pinion of too many farmers, mere 
nonsense — notwithstanding that facts, 
plenty as blackberries, confront them 
with evidence. 

On how many farms in this state, or 
in any state, is the manure applied with 
suflicient knowledge of the component 
parts, and consequently of the wants of 
the soil ? On how many is the manure 
itself prepared and preserved, so that it 
retains all of its valuable constituents ? 
Why, gentlemen, if one were to say 
that plants, to thrive, require food in 
certain proportions; and that if ®ue of 
the necessary substances is not present 
in the soil, and is not supplied in the 
manure, the plant cannot thrive; and 
that in proportion as you have or ap- 
ply the precise quantity of each ingre- 
dient necessary, so nearly do you c&rrk 
to getting the maximum crop,you would 
set it down at once, in scorn, as scien- 
tific farming ! And yet how else do 
you account for the fact, that one man 
grows a hundred bushels of corn to an 
acre and another but twenty ? Why, 
clearly, because the land whereon grew 
the hundred bushels was naturally, or 
by scientific treatment, in a proper con- 
dition for corn bearing — had in its womb 
all the necessary kinds, and enough of 
each kind of food, that the young and 
the growing plant requiredjfpr its leaves, 
its stalk, its tassel and its ear. And 
how do you accourri; for the fact, that 
you do not get an equal crop on the 
same gi-ound the next year '\ Why, 
j because the first crop kas eaten up a 



154 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



good share in the ground-pantry ; and 
the third season, (if any man is silly 
enough to try corn again on the same 
ground without having supplied food 
by manure,) the third crop would find 
the shelves pretty well cleaned ; and 
the progeny of the year would be pig- 
mies. 

On how many farms in New Hamp- 
shire is an accurate calculation made of 
the cost of growing dift"«rent crops, so 
as to decide which is the most profita- 
ble to raise ? On how many farms is 
an account kept of outlay and income 
from each field and each animal, that 
the prudent husbandman may know 
where is the mouse-hole in his meal 
bin ? This is not done, because it would 
be scientific farming. To be sure, a 
merchant who pretended to carry on an 
extensive business withoutkeeping books 
and without taking now and then " an 
account of stock;" or who continued 
to deal in certain styles of goods, with- 
out knowing whether he was making 
or losing money by the operation, would 
be held insane. But surely that is no 
reason why a man, who prides himself 
on beinga plain practical farmer, should 
farm by arithmetic. 

Do farmers hereabout, or farmers gen- 
erally anywhere, attempt gradually to 
improve their seed by early and judi- 
cious selection, and by always planting 
the best, instead of reserving the worst 
for that purpose ; or do they sell all that 
is fit to be sold, and keep the poorest 
for home use and for seed? This grad- 
ual improvement of seed, such as Mr. 
Brown, on an island in Lake Winne- 
pesauke has made in corn — known as 
Blown corn — and as many others have 
made in many plants, and fruits, and 
flowers, by the simple selection of seed, 
with judicious cultivation — this smacks 
rather too much of science, for a prac- 
tical farmer. 

Scientific Agricultu'e recognizes the 
fact, that manures are not economically 
applied, to exert their influences upon 
soils where water too much abounds ; 
and recommends drainage. " And so," 



say you, " does every practical farmer, 
who knows beans." Well, perhaps every 
practical farmer does not " know beans," 
or he would recognize them in a good 
share of the ready burned coffee^ that he 
buys ! At any rate, how different the 
operations of the systematic and of the 
guess-work drainer. The first discovers 
the secret springs, that supply the su- 
perfluity of water ; and so locates his 
drains, and so cuts off" the vein before it 
opens on the surface. While nine-tenths 
of your practical men dig ditches in the 
lowest part of the meadow, where the 
water stands — forgetful that an ounce 
of prevention is worth a pound of cure. 
This subject of drainage opens too vast 
a field for me to venture upon it at this 
time. 

This same rule of prevention causes 
your scientific farmer to do all things 
in season. He stirs up the earth between 
the drill of his crops, with the hoe or 
cultivator, to kill the weeds, before they 
attain to great size and strength, and 
appetite. There is no such gluttons as 
your weed. Like a sharper among 
honest folks, it defrauds the legitimate 
owner of what rightfully belongs to him. 
With coolest impudence it steals from 
the young and tender plant three inch- 
es to its one; Mr. Weedy over-tops ifc; 
he bullies it, as it were, after reducing 
its strength by starvation. By and by, 
he claims the ground as his own, and 
flourishes in undisturbed possession. 
He becomes seedy at length ; establish- 
es a large family, in good quarters, to 
rob succeeding crops of potatoes and 
carrots ; and is only uprooted and pun- 
ished when he has about run the length 
of his evil course. 

Agriculture is understood to express, 
not merely the cultivation of the land, 
but also the operations incidental to it, 
or consequential upon it. Accordingly, 
we find Science in the Stock-yard. The 
same enlightened system, that prevails 
in the field, is introduced here. Acting 
upon the well-established rule that " like 
begets like," she selects fit moulds, and 
builds up breeds of cattle for the sham- 



niE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



155 



bles, square and ponderous, like tlie 
lordly Durhan:is ; and again for the yoke 
she prepares the beautitiil and agile 
Devon ; for the milk-pail she reserves 
families of each of these breeds, in which 
big udders and profuse secretions of 
milk are hereditary. For the churn she 
shows the gentle Jersey cow, seven 
quarts of whose milk will yield a pound 
of butter. 

Among Swine, this same wise Sys- 
tem, — a synonym for Science — has pro- 
duced the Suttblk, the Middlesex, and 
other breeds, that run to fat, as natu- 
rally as a turtle-fed alderman ; — they 
eat, they grunt, they sleep their lives 
away, until they have attained to a very 
Lambertism of obesity ; and then, with 
a gurling in the throat, they change 
into pork and are laid down in the bar- 
rel. 

These noble horses, too, whose ardent 
neigh comes even now to our ears, were 
fashioned by Science ! Ask the breed- 
er if the fine points of his prancing steed 
are come by chance? and he will indig- 
nantly tell you. No. He was bred sys- 
tematically, or, as we choose to call it, 
for short, " scientifically.'''' He has re- 
gard to the best ^joiw^s of sire and dam, 
and with careful consideration has pro- 
duced the animal we admire. 

Science is at home in the manger and 
in the manure cellar. She tells us what 
feed goes to the making of bone and 
muscle for the young and growing calf, 
and what makes fat on the stalled ox. 
She tells us what gives speed, — because 
it supplies the wear and tear of tendon 
and bone, — to the racer ; and what will 
lap the lazy pig "n Elysium, until he 
wakes to the sight of the gleaming knife, 
struggles, groans and dies. 

So with the manure heap, she is a 
safe and learned counsellor. She tells 
you that, when exposed, its strength is 
wasted away by the rains ; and darken- 
ing the current of yon bubbling brook, 
is carried away from you, forever. She 
bawls in youf deaf ears, " house it ; pre- 
pare a cellar beneath your barn, or at 
least, a roof to protect it from the thiev- 



ish element." She points out to your 
wilfully blind eyes the escaping gases, 
disengaged by the sun, and hying oif 
upon the wind wing. Doing nothing 
by halves, she holds out to your closed 
and retracted hand, absorbents and di- 
visors — such as charcoal dust, peat, and 
muck. She tells 3'ou of the value of 
Guano and other fertilizers, and instructs 
you in the mode of applying them. 

In the Garden, and the Orchard, and 
the Greenhouse, Scienct; has been made 
welcome, and we see her doings there. 
The mean Crab has become the bloom- 
jng Baldwin ; the bitter Sloe, or the 
Wild-Bullace, has been changed into 
the precious Plum ; the Bea7n-tree h-ecs, 
no longer its small and acrid berries, 
but bears bouncing Bartletts. The wild 
Cole-ivort, that grew small and thriftless 
on the sea-shore elifll's, has been improv- 
ed into the big-headed Bergen Cabbage. 
Pitiful weeds of insignificant field-flow- 
ers are made blooming ornaments of the 
garden and the green-house. Here, in 
Horticulture, may be seen some of the 
rarest triumphs of Agricultural Science. 

In view of what has been said of Sci- 
entific Agriculture, many of our hearers 
will say, — " Why if this is you scientif- 
ic farming, we have been scientific farm- 
ers all our lives without knowing it. 
We plow, we manure, we drain, we breed 
cattle and swine and borses, we house 
our manure, we prune and scrape our 
trees, and everything — ^just as you say 
Scientific Agriculture commands, — up- 
on "A system that practice has proved to 
be correct. 

Gentlemen, fellow-farmers, I am fully 
aware of the fact, that many of the stur- 
diest opposers of Science -Ave^i particular- 
ly, Scientific farmers, denouncing Sci- 
ence as a name without examination or 
inqtiiry. 



The easiest and best way to expand 
the chest, is to have a good large heart 
in it." It saves the cost of gymnastics. 



See more of the Geological Survey on 
the next page. 



4 



166 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



Letters from Prof. Emmons. 

Davidson Countv, May 28, 1853, 

To his Excellency^ David S. Reui : 

Sir: In my last communication, my 
remarks were confined mostly to the 
character of the better lands and soils 
of Mecklenburg and Rowan. These 
lands are probably the best in the State 
of their capacities as a whole, or it their 
producing powers in the aggregate are 
considered. This view I intended to 
express, notwithstanding the fact that 
in dry seasons they suffer more than 
others which are much less fertile. But 
these lands have not been fully tested, 
though they have been cultivated for 
more than half a century, perhaps more 
than a century. They must have been 
highly productive when first tilled. 
But it appears to me that great produc- 
tiveness does not belong to first series 
of years after tillage begins. It is true 
■when new lands are cleared of the for- 
est that the first crops require no fertil- 
izers. The growth is almost spontaneous. 
The planter sows and his harvest is sure. 
But when exuberance of fertihzing mat- 
ter is nearly exhausted and the soil be- 
gins to flag, it should by no means be 
regarded as used up, that it must be 
abandoned, and that new fields must be 
cleared. Instead of regarding the soil 
as having passed its best and most pro- 
ductive period, it should be considered 
as only subdued and ready for the true 
system of cultivation. The soils of 
England, which have been cultivated 
eighteen hundred years, produce more 
by the present system of husbandry 
than they could have produced during 
their first years of tillage. Parte of 
New England and New York yield a 
greater profit than they did at their first 
settlement; I mean that they will yield 
a greater number of bushels of wheat 
and corn than when they were in their 
virgin state. Hence, the idea that old 
lands are comparatively worthless should 
be exploded, and the sooner this is done 
the better. 

Now, to apply the doctrine to the 



Providence tract, the western Cabarrus, 
those lying between Concord and Char- 
lotte ; and to these may be added the 
rich red lands of Uwarre and Caraway; 
I say to apply this doctrine to these 
lands, I believe that they are only sub- 
dued, and that thny are only just now 
ready to yield their maximum harvest. 
No one, however, should misunderstand 
my views, for 1 do not mean that by 
pursuing the old plan of cultivation, by 
treading in the old track, that these 
lands are capable of producing more 
than they do now; but it is by tillage, 
by the use of those appliances which 
are truly modern that these results can 
be expected. I have no doubt that 
many plantations, whose yield of cotton 
is ordinarily 1,600 lbs., may be made 
to produce 3,000 lbs., and those which 
yield 800 lbs., 1,200 lbs. My opinion 
is based on present modes and means, 
or present labor and present husbandry. 
If by a slight addition to modes and 
means, 2,000 lbs. of cotton are produc- 
ed to the acre, why is it not rational to 
suppose that by bringing all the pres- 
ent appliaiaces of husbandry to bear up' 
on tillage that such a result may be re- 
alised ? There is no doctrine which is 
so importaat to be inculcated as the 
foregoing, for so long as planters look 
upon old soils and old lands as worth- 
less, so long their efforts will be defer- 
red. But when once they are so satis- 
fied of the truth, that old lands are sus- 
ceptible of improvement, and especially, 
if they can be made to beheve that by' 
culture, they are capable of producing 
more bushels and more weight of corn 
and cotton per acre, than when the 
plough first broke up the surface, they 
will be ready for trying better systems 
and better modes of husbandry. Well, 
history sustains this view. All history re- 
lating to agriculture sustains it. It is but 
the experience of the experienced — of 
those who have tested the doctrine. It is 
true you will not see it stated in the words 
in which I have presented it now, for 
with me it is a deduction from history. 
I see it in the results of English hus 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



157 



bandiy, and I see it in the results of the 
best husbandly, both of the south and 
north of tbis country. 

I am sir, most respectfully, 

Your servant, 
E. EMMONS. 

May 29, 1853. 

To his Excellency, David iS. Reid : 

Sir : The subject of improvement of 
old lands takes a broad field. It might 
be expected, and perhap demanded, 
that I should sustain and carry out the 
doctrine of the last communication by 
a statement of details, how old lands 
should be treated in order to bring up 
their productiveness to a standard high- 
er than they possessed in the first pe- 
riods of cultivation. I shall not attempt, 
however, to do this v?ith any degree of 
fullness, and before I touch at all upon 
this subject, I wish to make a remark 
or two which have a general bearing 
upon the wbole subject. In the first 
place, agricultural writers when they 
propose improvements are very apt to 
make them too sweeping. They, for 
instance, propose deep draining, deep 
ploughing, lime as a fertilizer, etc., or 
some special mode of procedure in or- 
der to obtain a given end. Now, gene- 
ral doctrines are excellent when tlicy are 
general ; but it frequently happens that 
there are important exceptions. It is 
not every field which requires draining, 
some may be injured by it ; it is not 
every field which requires lime, and 
even when it is required the condition? 
are not the same. If the soil is desti- 
tute of organic matter or quite deficient 
in it, lime, though it may be wanting in 
the soil, still, without giving also a sup- 
ply of organic matter, it will be useless ; 
it will fail, and the planter will be dis- 
appointed. He will say to his neignbors 
that he had tried lirae and it did no 
good ; he has lost his money anel his 
labor. Now, no sensible man need be 
told that sHch a result is doubly bad. 
The same may be said of pkosphate of 
lime and of guano. If the farmer or 



planter is unacquainted with the com- 
position of his soil ; if he is ignorant of 
the conditions which are necessary to 
insure good results, there are many 
chances to one that he will fail in the 
use of a recommended mode, or in the 
use of a good fertilizer. My doctrine, 
therefore, is that all general doctrines, 
as set forth by writers, should be reduc- 
ed to specialties as far as possible ; that 
is, while the doctrine is set forth in gen- 
eral terms, the conditions which are re- 
quired for their successful working should 
be laid down also. But all this would 
require investigation ; it would demand 
very close observation ; and, perhaps, 
more still, the chemical examination of 
the soil. Now, I believe that because 
investigation is required, pjany failures 
happen to the very best modes ; that, 
though there is a looseness in stating 
doctrines and facts by writers, yet there 
is only one source of disappointment ; 
there is remaining a want of expendi- 
ture of thought upon the subject by the 
farmer himself. There are some men 
whom I believe are more lavish in the 
expenditure of money than they are in 
the expenditure of thought; though the 
rule generally is, not to expend either, 
especially in husbandry. There is still 
another class, quite unlike the two for- 
mer ; that class who take in all the doc- 
trines and digest none — whose minds 
are like a stuffed sausage, full of meat, 
which is not of the least use to the 
membrane which contains it. Again, 
some suppose that planting and farming 
may be successfully prosecuted, on the 
same plan that a cook makes up her 
fries and cakes ; that is, by recipes 
which tell them how a good crop of 
corn, tobacco, or wheat may be raised. 
There is much of this kind of husband- 
ry every where, for if there is no written 
form of a recipe, there is about the 
same thing in the brain ; there is a rou- 
tine without thought, which is carried 
out mechanically. There is no expen- 
diture of thought about the conditions 
of the soils, or the climate, or peculiari- 
ties of the seasons. There is no era- 



i 



158 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



ployment upon which thought might be 
so profitably expended, as agriculture, 
deep thought, too ; but it cannot be 
given without elementary knowledge. It 
is true we may think about the result 
of an experiment, but of its success or 
failure, we can form no judgment with- 
out instruction in the elements of Agri- 
culture. 

I am, Sir, most respectfully. 

Your obedient servant. 
E. EMMONS. 



From Working Farmer. 
The Necessary Mechanical Condition 
of the Soil. 

Prof. Maples. — As to the necessary 
mechanical condition of the soil, we are 
all aware that the fall of rains, and per- 
haps from some other causes, the soil 
becomes compact. We know, also, that 
when, the ultimate particles are not 
spherical in form, it takes much longer 
to compact them. Some soils contain 
clay, and in such cases a single rain will 
compact the surfaces. Thus, in Colum- 
bia county, they keep their plums free 
from the curculio because the clay 
washes between the pores of the surface, 
and gives a glass-like covering; there- 
fore, the curculio cannot enter. 

It seems to be necessary to plow the 
soil for the purpose of breaking up this 
compacting, and the advantages arising 
from the plowing are many and well 
understood. It it well known that a 
soil will change its character by being 
exposed to the asmosphere ; that car- 
bonic acid and ammonia are more read- 
ily received, and that it becomes a store- 
house to these substances for the use of 
plants. Plants, during their decay, de- 
posit carbon in the soil. Atmospheric 
influences are necessary for the oxyda- 
tion of materials in the soil. 

There are certain substances in the 
soil that have the power of absorbing 
ammonia, and many other materials 
that may be brought in solution ; thus 
clay (alumina) has the power of receiv- 
ing and retaining ammonia ; so, tooj 
has carbon, which is restored to the soil 



by the decomposition of plants, and is re- 
ceived from the atmosphere in the form 
of carbonic acid gas. 

V\^hen a soil is well disintegrated, so 
that air can circulate freely among its 
particles, a larger amount of moisture 
will become resident, for the reason that 
a larger amount of surface is exposed to 
the action of the air. A cold pitcher 
subjected to the influence of the sun, 
will soon become covered with drops of 
water, which is the moisture of tlie at- 
mosphere condensed upon its surface. — 
In case the soil be plowed deep enough 
to cause thorough disintegration, the 
air, in passing through it, will cause 
moisture, to be deposited through the 
mass, because it is at a lower tempera- 
ture than the supernatent atmosphere, 
thus preventing crops from suffering 
from drought. There has yet been no 
instance of sub-soiled lands suffering for 
want of moisture. If the crop sown be 
corn, and that the sub-soil plow passes 
to a proper depth, traveling under the 
surface soil as a mole might pass along, 
without turning it over, this crop will 
not suffer injury from dry weather, nor 
will any other crop. [ saw the field of 
Mr. James Campbeli of Weston ; every 
other land of corn in the field was sub- 
soiled, and the parts so treated were 
perfectly free from harm, while the oth- 
er portions showed very much the want 
of cultivation. There are many other 
instances of the advantages of sub-soil 
plowing, but too numerous to be cited. 

During the dryest days of summer, 
land trea*ed as I have already mention- 
ed, permits much air to enter, and as 
moisture condenses, it supplies ammonia 
to the growing plant, causing its roots 
to be thrown to greater distances. 

The power of alumina and carbon 
in the taking up of ammonia, is admit- 
ted. If three barrels of sea sand, one 
containing a few per cent, of alumina, 
and the other of carbon, and the third 
sea sand alone, have the fluid drainage 
of the compost heap poured on the top 
of them, in passing through the barrel 
containing the sand, it will carry with 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



159 



it all substances held in solution, while 
in passing through the other two, it 
will be robbed of many of these mate- 
rials. 

It has often been stated, and with 
truth, that very deep plowing brings up 
too much sub soil, and it doubtless has 
a tendency to injure for the time being ; 
but land may be plowed with safety 
one inch deeper each successive plow- 
ing, until the proper depth be arrived at. 
Land should be under-drained before 
sub-soilingf, or the rains of a sinffle sea- 
son will recompact it. The placing of 
the sub-soil on the surface, thus ex- 
posing it to the atmosphere, changes 
its character, and causes it to become 
surface soil. In digging the holes for 
many of the trees upon my farm, I 
had the surface-soil placed at the roots 
of the trees, and the sub-soil placed on 
top the surrounding soil, bringing it in 
more immediate contact with the at- 
mosphere ; these parts are now of even 
quality with the rest of the surffice 
soil ; and where the land was under- 
drained, and I went pretty fully into 
this subject, this change took place in 
a much shorter space of time. This 
land never suffers from drought, and it 
is not possible that this arises from the 
amount of water in the drains. Wher- 
ever stagnant water passes away freely, 
air, in passing through, ensures a de- 
posit of moisture. The amount of air, 
passing through these drains at times, 
would be sufficient to extinguish a light- 
ed candle, if placed at the upper end 
of one of them. 

As to the sub-soil plows, many far- 
mers have been deterred from using 
them on account of their b'td configura- 
tion. Most of them have wings at 
their sides, requiring the earth to be 
elevated eight inches. You will per- 
ceive that in its onward motion, it 
elevates 100 pounds of soil in every 
foot of its forward travel. 

This plow has been very much im- 
proved by^he carrrying down of the 
side wing. Messrs. Myers, Prouty and 
others, have carried it down, making 



it but 112 inch above the base of the 
plow, thus causing it to be more easily 
forced through the soil, the point hav- 
ing the advantage that a sharp chisel 
has over a dull one. But at the sug- 
gestion of some one, (I cannot now re- 
member whom,) I conceived of a plow 
of superior construction, and proposed 
it to Rnggles, Nourse, Mason & Co. 
They have adopted the plan, and have 
recently sent me two of the plows. The 
construction is exceedingly simplej-and 
will do away with the necessity for 
employing heavy teams for sub-soil 
plowing. 



To Make a Perpetual Almanac. 

Many years since, whep quite a lad, 
we discharged the functions of clerk in 
a grocery store. At that day, all stores 
that retailed other goods, sold spirituous 
liquors by the glass. A very intelligent 
and well educated man, who bad be- 
come a mere wreck of humanity by 
frequent tippling, was a regular custo- 
mer. Noticing a revolving almanac 
sticking up over the desk, he said to 
me, " what will you give me to teach 
you to make a perpetual almanac ?" It 
was finally agreed between him and the 
owner of the store that whenever I 
was able to calculate readily the day of 
the week for a century past and a cen- 
tury ahead, he should have two drinks. 
The work was immediately commenced 
and before he left the store one of the 
drinks was claimed and delivered. Think- 
ing that it maybe useful to some one of 
our readers, we conclude to publish it. 

It should first be observed, however, 
that there are seven letters used as do- 
minical letters, which are, A, B, C, D, 
E, F, G. One of these letters is used 
to govern each year, and two are used 
for leap years, one for the first and se- 
cond month, and another for the re- 
maining months of the year. These 
letters for each successive year are ta- 
ken from the alphabet backwards, be- 
ginning at G and ending at A. In 
order that these letters may be remem- 
bered in the order in which they are to 



160 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



be reckoned, to find the day of the 

week, they are made the initials of the 

following couplet : 

At Dover Dwells Geirge Brown , Esquire. 
Good Charley French and David Frier. 

These initial letters always represent 
the several months as they come in ro- 
tation, thus ; A represents the first 
month, D the second, and third G the 
the fourth B the fifth, &c. 

If any person wished to know on 
what day of the week he was born, if 
it was in the 18th century, divide the 
year by 4 and add tne product to the 
year. Then divide that product by 7 
and take the last remainder from tbe 
last divisor and the product will indi- 
CPte the dominical letter for the year. 

Example. — What day of the week, was the 
24th day of May, 1787. 

4U787 
446-3 



7)2233 
319 



We find that the seventh letter which 
is G, is the dominical letter for that 
year. Count the months from January 
to May, v,'hich is five. Then count to 
the fifth initial in the rhyme, which I 
find to be thus : — At Dover dwelt 
Georofe Brown. Tlien count from the 
dominical letter to B, which is three, 
commence at Sunday and count as many 
days as there is from G to B, which 
■will be Tuesday. Consequently Tues- 
day is the first, eighth, fifteenth, twen- 
ty-second days of May, Wednesday 
23d and Thursday 24th. 

If the day to be found be in the 19th 
century, proceed as above until you get 
the second remainder, from which one 
is to be deducted. 

Example. — What day of the ^^eek was the 
fifth day of February, 1808.- 
4)1808 
452 



7)2260 



5 322-6 

I 

2 1 

I 

5 

The second letter or B, is dominical 
letter for that year, but as it is leap 
year, the next letter, G, governs the first 



and second months. Then count Jan., 
Feb. two. The second initial in the 
rhyme, is D. Count from the domini- 
cal letter C, to D, which is one. This 
will show that Sunday was the first day 
of February, 1808, making Thursday 
the fifth day of that month. — F. <fe Ar. 



THE Subscriber will give any special advice 
to Farmers, by their addressing him and 
giving a descriplion oi their farms. His charge 
will bo moderate. He will make analysis ot 
soils and marls, and write out the analysis for 
application of manures. 

For analysis of soils, $5 00 

Writing out analysis, 5 00 

JOHN F. TOMPKINS, M. D. 

THE FARMER'S JOURNAL 

IS Published monthly, at $1 per annnum, in 
advance ; six copies for $5 ; twelve copies 
for $10 ; thirty copies for $20. 

Advertisements. — A limited number of ad- 
vertisements will be inserted at the following 
rates: For one square of twelve lines, for each 
insertion, $1 ; one square per annum, ^10 ; half 
column, do., $30 ; one column, do., $50; larger 
advertisements in proportion. 

JOHN F. TOMPKINS, 
Editor and Proprietor, Raleigh, N. C. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Page. 

Sea Island Cotton — Statistics — &c., 129 
Constitution of the Agricultural Association 

of the slaveholding States, 134 

Corn-Flat vs. Hill culture, . 136 

Maxims for Farmers ; Ringbone in Horses, 137 

Worth Knowing ; To make Blacking. 137 

Salt your Corn, 138 

Origin of Mules in the United States, 139 

Poultry and Eggs, 139 

A Potato twenty years Old, 139 

Agricultural Axioms, 140 

Recipe for Starch ; Carrots for Coffee. 140 

Galls from Harness, &c., 140 

Cure for chapped Hands, 140 

Tanning Leather, 141 

Spinning Cotton Yarns for Export, 143 

New Process of making Butter, 142 

Measuring Corn, 142 

Georgia State Agricultural Fair, 143 

The China Tree ; Hard to Beat. 143 

Our Removal, (Editorial.) 144 

Farmers write for your Paper, (Editorial,) 144 
To the Farmers' Wives and Daughters, (Ed.) 145 

The State Fair, (Editorial,) 146 

Who will take Them, (Editorial) 146 

Cotton Gins in Old Edgecombe, (Editorial) 146 
To those who wish to take our Paper, (Ed.) 146 

Halifax Couity Ahead, (Editorial) 147 

Original Communication, 147 

Advantages of the Farmer of this Age, 148 

Cheese making for a small ] )airy, 149 

Food for Crops, 150 

Geological Survey, t*- ■ 151 

The Prejudices of Farmers, 153 

Letters from Professor Emmons, 156 

Necessary Mechanical condition of the Soil, 158 

To make a perpetual Almanac, 1^9 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



VOL. 2. RALEIGH, IS. C, SEPTEMBER, 1853. XO. 6. 

JOHN F. TOMPKINS, M. D., Editor and Proprietor. 



Plants, &c., «&;c. 

How does the food enter into the circulation of 
plants — Sti'ucture of the several parts of 
plants — Functions of the root — Course of the 
sap — Cause of its ascent — Functions of the 
stem — of the leaves, and of the bark — Circum- 
siances by which the exercise of these func- 
tions is modified. 

1. GENERAL STRUCTURE OF TLAXTSj 

AND OF THEIR SEVERAL PARTS. 

Plants consist essentially of three 
parts — the roots, the stem, and the 
leaves. The foriuer spread themselves 
in various directions through the soil, 
HS the latter do through the air, and the 
stem is dependent for its food and in- 
crease on the rapidity with which the 
roots shoot out and extend, and on the 
number and luxuriance of the leaves. 

We shall obtain a clearer idea of the 
relative structure of these severrl parts 
by first directing our attention to that 
of the stem. 

The stem consists apparently of four 
parts — the pith, the wood, the bark and 
the medullary rays. The pith and the 
medullary rays, however, are sim.ilarly 
constituted, and are only prolongations 
of one and the same substance. The 
pith forms a solid cylinder of soft and 
spongy matter, which ascends through 
the central ^art of the stem, and varies 
in thickness with the species and with 
the age of the trunk or branch. The 
wood surrounds the pith in the form of 
a hollow cyhnder, and is itself covered 
by another hollow cylinder of bark. — 
In trees or branches of considerable age 
the wood consists of two parts, the old- 

VoL, 11— 6. 



est or heart loood, often of a brownish 
color, and the newer external wood or 
alburnum, which is generally softer and 
less dense than the heart wood. The 
bark also is easily separated into two 
portions, the inner bark or libe?; and the 
epidermis or outer covering of the tree. 
The pith and the bark are connected 
together by thin vertical columns or 
partitions which intersect the wood and 
divide it into triangular segments. A 
cross section of the trunk or branch of 
a tree exhibits these thin columns ex- 
tending in the form of rays, or like the 
spokes of a wheel, from the centre to 
the circumference. Though they form 
in reality thin and continuous vertical 
plates, yet from the appearance they 
present in the cross section of a piece of 
wood, they are distinguished by the 
name of medullary rays. 

These several parts of the stem are 
composed of bundles of small tubes or 
hollow cylindrical vessels of various 
sizes, and of different kinds, the struc- 
ture of which it is unnecessary for us 
to study. They are all intended to 
contain liquid and gaseous substances 
and to convey them in a vertical, and 
sometimes in a horizontal direction. — 
The tubes which compose the wood and. 
bark are arranged vertically, as mAV. 
readily be seen on examining a piece of 
wood even with the naked eye, and are 
intended to convey the sap upwards to 
the leaves, and downwards to the roots. 
Thoss of which the pith and medullary 
plates consist are arranged horizontall 



i 



JI62 



THE FABMER'S JOURNAL. 



ftod appear to be intended to maintain a 
lateral nitercourse between the pith and 
the bark — perhaps even to place the 
heart of tlie tree within the influence of 
the external air. 

The root, though prior in its origin 
to the stem, may nevertheless, for the 
purpose of illustration be considered as 
ils downward and lateral prolongation 
' jjato the earth — as the branches are its 
upward prolongation into the air. — 
When they leave the lower part of the 
trunk of the tree, they differ little in 
their internal structure from the stem 
itself. As they taper off, however, first 
the heart wood, then the pith, gradual- 
ly disappear, till, towards their extremi- 
ties, they consist only of a soft central 
woody part and its coverincf of soft 
bark. These are connected with, or are 
respectively prolongations of, the new 
wood and bark of the trunk and bran- 
ches. At the extreme points of the 
joots the bark becomes white, soft, 
spongy, and full of pores and vessels. 
It is by these spongy extremities only, 
or chiefly, that liquid and gaseous sub- 
-stances are capable either of entering 
into, or of making their escape from, 
the interior of the root. 

The branches and twigs are exten- 
sions of the trunk ; and of the former 
rthe leaves may be considered as a still 
furthea* extension. The fibres of the 
leaf are minute ramifications of the 
woody matter of the twigs, are connect- 
ed through them with the wood of the 
branches and stems, and from this wood 
T'ceive the sap which they contain. — 
The green part of the leaf may be con- 
sidered as a special expansion of the 
^bark, by which it is fitted to act upon 
the air, in the same way as the spongy 
iinass into whicli the bark is clianged at 
the extremity of the root, is fitted to 
,jict upon the water and other substan- 
ces it meets with in the soil. For as 
fibres of (he leaf are connected with 
the wood of the stem, so the green part 
of the leaf is connected with its bark, 
and from t'his green part the sap first 
begins to descetixi towards the root. 



2. — THE FUNCTIONS OF TIIK ROOT. 

The position in which the roots of 
plants in their natural state are general- 
ly placed, has hitherto prevented their 
functions from being so accurately in- 
vestig ted as those of the leaves and of 
the stem. While, therefore, the main 
purposes they are intended to serve art' 
universally known and understood, tii« 
precise way in which these ends are ac- 
complished by the roots, and the pow- 
ers with which they are invested, arw 
still to a considerable degree matters of 
dispute. 

I. It appears certain that they are 
possessed of the power of absorbing; 
water in large quantity from the soil 
and of transmitting it upwards to the 
stem. The amount of water thus ab- 
sorbed depends greatly upon the nature 
of the soil and of th • climate in which 
a plant grows, but much also upon the 
s ecific structureof its leaves and the 
extent of its foliage. 

II. The .nnalogy of the leaves and 
young twigs would iead us to suppose 
that, when in a proper state of moisture, 
the roots should also be capable of ab- 
sorbing gaseous substances from the air 
which pervades the soil. Experiment, 
however, has not yet shown this to b« 
the case. 

We know, however, that they are ca- 
pable of absorbing gases through the 
JTiediuni of water. For if the roots of 
a plant are placed in water containing 
carbonic acid in the state of solution, 
this gas is found gradually to disappear. 
It is extracted froni the water by the 
roots. And if the water in which the 
roots are immersed be contained in a 
bottle only partially filled with the li- 
quid, while the remainder is occupied 
by atmospheric air, the ox^^en in this 
air will also slowly diminish. It will be 
absorbed by the roots through the m*^- 
dium of the water. 

Again, if in the place of the atmo.s- 
pheric air in this bottle, carbonic acid bt^ 
substituted, the plant will droop and in 
a few days will die. The same will take 
place, if instead of common air or car 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



163 



bonic acid, nitrogen or liydrog-en gases 
be introduced into the bottle. The 
plant will not live when its lOots are ex- 
posed to the sole aciion of any of the 
tiiree. 

It is obvious, therefore, that the roots 
vi' plants absorb gaseous substances 
from the air which surrounds their roots, 
at least indirectly and through the me- 
dium of water. It appears also that 
from this air they have the power of se- 
Lx'inf a certain portion of oxygen when 
this gas is present in it. Thirdly, that 
though they can absorb carbonic acid 
U> a limited amount without injury to 
the plant, yet that a copious supply of 
this gas, unmixed with oxygen, is fatal 
to veo-etaole hie. This deduction iscon- 
iirnied by the fact that, in localities 
where carbonic acid ascends through 
ptissures in the subjacent rocks and satu- 
rates the soil, the growth of grass is 
found to be very much retarded. And 
Listlv, since nitrogen is believed not to 
be in itself noxiou-; to vegetable life, the 
death of the plant in water surrounded 
by this gas, is supposed to imply that 
the presence of oxygen is necessary 
about the roots of a growing and heal- 
thy plant, and that one of the special 
functions of the roots is constantly to 
absoi'b this oxygen. 

This supposition is in accordance with 
tlie fact that, in the dark, the leaves of 
plants absorb oxygen from the atmos- 
phere ; for we have already seen reason 
to expect that, from their analogous 
siructure, the roots and leaves in sinii- 
j<ir circumstances sliould perform also 
analot'ous functions. At the same time, 
if the roots do require the access and 
presence of oxygen in the soil, it would 
further appear that those of some plants 
require it more than those of others ; 
inasmuch as some genera, like the grass- 
es, love an open and friable soil, into 
which the air is more completely admit- 
ted.— [Sprcngel, Chemie, IL, p. 337.] 

III. We have in a former lecture (IV. 
p, 64) concluded from the facts there 
stated, that solid substances, which are 
Holuble in water, accompany this liquid 

32 



when it, enters into the circulation of the 
plant. This appears to be true both of 
organic and inorganic substances. Pot- 
ash, soda, lime, and magnesia thus find 
their way into the interior of plants, as 
well as those substances of animal and 
vegetable origin lo which the observa- 
ti<.)ns made in the fourth lecture were 
intended more especially to apply. — 
Even silica, considered to be almost inso- 
luble in water, enters by the roots, and 
is found in some cases in cf»nsiderable 
quantities in the stem. Some persona 
have hence been led to conclude that 
solid substances, undissolved, if in a mi- 
nute state of division, may be drawn 
into the pores of the root and may then 
be carried by the sap upwards to the 
stem. 

Considered as a mere question of ve- 
getable mechanics, argued as such 
among physiologists, it is (^f little mo- 
ment whether wo adopt or reject this 
opinion. One physiologist may statn 
that the pores by which the food enters 
into the roots are so minute as to baffle 
the powers of the best constructed mi- 
croscope, and, therefore, that to no par- 
ticles of solid matter can they by possi- 
bility give admission — while another 
may believe solid matter to be capabitv- 
of a mechanical division so minute t.* 
to pass through the pores of the finest 
membrane. As to the mere fact it- 
self, it matters not which is right, or 
which of the two we follow. The adop- 
tion of the latter opinion implies in it- 
self merely that foreign substances, un- 
necessary, perhaps injurious to vegeta- 
ble life, may be carried forward by the 
flowing juices until in some still part of 
the curient, or in some narrower vessel, 
they are arrested and there permanent- 
ly lodged in the solid substance of the 
plant. 

By inference, however, the adoption' 
of this opinion implies also, that the in- 
organic substances found in plants — 
those which remain in tlie form of ash 
when the plant is burned — are a-ciden-- 
tal only, not essenticd to its constitution. 
For since tbey may have been introdu- 



164 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



ced in a mere state of minute mechani- 
cal division suspended in the sap, they 
ought to consist of such substances 
chiefly as the soil contains in the great- 
est abundance, and tbey ought to vary 
in kind and relative quntity with every 
variation in the soil. In a clay land 
the ash should consist chiefly cf alnrai- 
iia, in a sandy soil chiefly of silica. But 
if, as chemical inquiry appears to indi- 
cate, the nature of the ash is not acci- 
dental, but \sseniial, and in some de- 
gree constant, even in very diflierent 
.soils, this latter inference is inadmissi- 
ble ; and in reasoning backwards from 
this fact, we find ourselves constrained 
lo reject the opinion that substances 
are capable of entering into the roots of 
plants in a solid state — and this with- 
out reference at all to the mechanical 
question, as to the relative size of the 
pores of the ;8pongy roots or of the par- 
ticles into which solid matter may be 
divided. 

IV. We are thus brought to the con- 
sideration of the alleged selecting pow- 
er of the roots, which, if rightly attri- 
buted to them, must be considered as 
one of the most important functions of 
which they are possessed. It is a func- 
tion, however, the existence of which is 
disputed by many eminent physiolo- 
gists. But as the adoption or rejection 
of It will materially influence our reason- 
ings, as well as our theoretical views, in 
regard to some of the most vital pro- 
cesses of vegetation — it will be proper 
to weigh carefully the evidence on 
which this power is assigned to the roots 
of plants. 

1". The leaves, as v^e shall hereafter 
see, possess in a high degree the power 
of selecting from the atmosphere one 
or more gaseous substances, leaving the 
nitrogen, chiefly, unchanged in bulk. — 
The absorption of carbonic acid and 
the diminution of the oxygen in the 
•experiments above described, appear to 
be analogous efiects, and would seem to 
imply in the roots the existence of a 
similar power, 

2°. Dr. Duubeny found that pelargo- 



niums, barley {hordeum vulgare,) and 
the winged pea {lotus tetragonolobus,) 
though made to grow in a soil contain- 
ing much strontia, appeared to absorb 
none of this earth, for none was found in 
the ash left by the stem and roots of 
the plant when burned. In like man- 
ner De Saussure observed that polygo- 
num persicaria refused to absorb acetate 
of lime from the soil, though it freely 
took up common salt. — [Lindley's The- 
ory of Horticulture, p. 19. 

3°. Plants of different species, grow- 
ingin the same soil leave, Avhen burned, 
an ash -which in every case contains 
either different substances, or the same 
substances in, unlike proportions. Thus 
if a bean and a grain of wheat be grown 
side by side, the stem of the plant from 
the latter seed will be found to contain 
silica, from the former none. 

4*^. But the same plant grown in soils 
unlike in character and composition, 
contains always — if they are present in 
the soil at all — very nearly the same 
kind of earthy matters in nearly the same 
proportion. Thus the stalks of corn 
plants, of the grasses, of the bamboo, 
and of'many others, always contain sili- 
ca, in whatever soil they grow, or at 
least are capable of growing with any 
degree of luxuriance. 

With the view of testing tliis point, 
Lampadius prepared five square patches 
of ground, manured them with equal 
quantities of a mixture of horse and cow 
dung, sowed them with equal measures 
of the same wheat, and on four of thes<j 
patches strewed respectively five pounds 
of finely powdered quartz (siliceous 
sands), of chalk, of alumina, and of osi- 
bonate of magnesia, and left one un- 
dressed. The produce of seed from 
each, in the above order, weighed 24], 
28i 26], 21 J, and 20 ounces respective- 
ly. The grain, chafi", and straw, from 
each of the patches left nearly tl e same 
quantity of ash — the weights varying 
only from 3,Y to 4.08 per cent,, and the 
roots and chaff being richest in inorga- 
nic matter. The relative proportions of 
silica, alumina, lime and magnesia were 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



IC; 



the same in all. — [Meyen Jahresbericht^ 
1839, p. 1.] Provided, therefore, the 
substances which plants prefer be pre- 
sent in the soil, the kind of inorganic 
matter they take up, or of ash they 
leave, is not materially atlected by the 
presence of other substances, even in 
somewhat larger quantity. 

These facts all point to the same con- 
clusion, that the roots have the power 
of selecting from the soil in which they 
grow, those substances which arc best 
litted to promote the gro«th or to 
maintain the healthy condition of the 
plants they are destined to feed. 

5°. It has been stated above, that the 
roots of certain plants refuse to absorb 
nitrate of strontia and acetate of lime, 
though presented to them in a slate ot 
solution — the same is true of certain co- 
lored solutions which have been found 
incapable of finding their way into the 
circulation of plants wdiose roots have 
been immersed in them. On the other 
hand, it is a matter of frequent obser- 
vation that the roots absorb solutions 
containing substances which speedily 
cause the death of the plant. Arsenic, 
opium, salts of iron, of lead, and of 
copper, and many other substances, are 
capable of being absorbed in quantities 
which prove injurious to the living ve- 
getable — and ou this ground chiefly 
many physiologists refuse to acknow- 
ledge that the roots of plants are by 
nature endowed with any definite and 
constant power of selection at all. But 
this argument is of equal force against 
the possession of such a power by ani- 
mals or even by man himself; since, 
with our more perfect discriminating 
powers, aided by our reason too, we 
evejy day swallow with our food what 
js more or less injurious, and occasion- 
ally, even fatal to human life. 

On the whole, therefore, it appears 
most reasonable to conclude that the 
roots are so constituted as (]") to be 
able generally to select from the soil, 
in preference, those substances which 
are most suitable to the nature of the 
plant— (2*) where these are not to be 



met with, to admit certain others in their 
stead — (3") to refuse admission also to 
certain substances likely to injure the 
plant, though unable to discriminate 
and reject everything hurtful or unbene- 
ficial which may be presented to them 
in a state of solution. 

The object of nature, indeed, seems 
to be to guard the plant against the 
more common and usual dangers only 
— not against such as rarely present 
themselves in the situation in which it 
is destined to grow, or against substan- 
ces which are unhkely even to demand 
admission into its roots. How useless 
a waste of skill, if I may so, speak, 
would it have been to endow th-.- roots 
of each plant with the power of distin- 
guishing and rejecting opium and arsen- 
ic, and the thousand other poisonous 
substances which the physiologist can 
present to them, but which in a state of 
nature — on its natural soil and in its 
natural climate — the living vegetable is 
never destined to encounter ! 

V. Another function of the roots of 
plants, in regard to w'hich physiologists 
are divided in opinion at the present 
day, is what is called their excretory 
power. 

1°. When barley or other grain is 
caused to germinate in pure chalk, ace- 
tate of lime is uniformly found to be 
mixed with it after the germination is 
somewhat advanced. [Becquerel and 
Ma'eucci, Ann. de Chem. et de Phys., 
Iv., p. 310.] In this case the acetic acid 
must have been given off (excreted) by 
the young roots during the germination 
of the seed. 

This fact may be considered as the 
foundation of the excretory theory, as it 
is called. This theory, supported by 
the high authority of Decandolle, and 
illustmted by the apparently convincing 
experiments of Macaire, \Ann. d« Chim. 
et de Phys., lii., p. 225,] has more re- 
cently been met by counter-experiments 
of Braconnot, [Ixxii. p. 27,] and is novsr 
in a great measure, rejected by many 
eminent vegetable physiologists. ' It 
may, indeed, be considered as quite cer- 



r' 



166 



THK FAllMEirS JOURNAL. 



tain that the application of this theory, 
bj Decandoile and others, to the exphi- 
uation of the benefits arising from a ro- 
tation of crops, is not confirmed, or pro- 
ved to be correct, by any experiments 
on the subject that have hitherto buen 
published. 

According to Decandoile, plants, like 
sinimals, have the power of selecting 
from their food, as it passes throngh 
dieir vascular system, such portions as 
are likely to nourish them, and of reject- 
ing, by their roots, when the sap des- 
cends, such as are unfit to contribute to 
ihelr support, or would be hurtful to 
them if not rejected from their system. 
He further supposes that, after a time, 
the soil in which a certain kind of plant 
grows, becomes so loaded with this re- 
jected matter, that the same plant refu- 
ses any longer to flourish in it. And, 
thirdly, that though injurious to the 
plant from which it has been deriveil, 
ibis rejected matter may be wholesome 
food to plants of a different order, and 
hence the advantage to be derived from 
a jotation of crops. 

There seems no good reason to doubt 
fchat the roots of plants do at times — it 
may be constantly — reject organic sub- 
stances from their roots. The acetic acid 
given off during germination, and the 
same ajid found by Braconnot, in re- 
markable quantity in the soil in which 
the poppy {jtapaver somnifer'am) has 
grown — may be regarded as sufficient 
,6vidence of the fact — but the quantity 
of such organic matter hitherto detect- 
ed among what may be safely viewed 
as the real excretions of plants, seems 
by far too small to account for the re- 
-Moarkable natural results attendant upon 
a rotati-n of croj)s. 

The consideration of these results, as 
well as of the general theory of such a 
fotation, will form a distinct topic of 
consideration in a subsequent part of 
•ihese lectures. I shall, therefore, only 
taention one or two facts which seem to 
me capable of explanation only on the 
supposition that the roots of plants are 
fiudowcd with the power of rejecting, 



and that they do constantly reject, when ' 
the sap returns from the leaf, some of 
the substances which they had previ- 
ously taken up from the soil. 

1°. De Saussure made numerous ex- 
periments on the quantity of ash per 
cent, left by the same phmt at different 
periods of its growth. Among other 
results obtained by him, it appeared — 
A. That the quantity of incombusti- 
ble or inorganic matter in the different 
parts of the plant was different at differ- 
ent periods of the year. Thus the dry 
leaves of the horse chestnut, gathered in 
May, left 7-2 per cent., towards the end 
of July 8-4 per cent., and in the end of 
September 8-6 percent, of ash ; the dry 
leaves of the hazel in June left. 6'2, and 
in September 7 per cent.; and those of 
Lhe,pO{>lar [jjojndus nigra) m May 6-0, 
and in September 9.3 per cent, of ash. 
These results are easily explained on the 
supposition that the roots continued to 
absorb and send up to the leaves durin;>- 
the whole summer the saline and earthy 
substances of which the ash consistetl. 
But— 

B. He observed also that the quanti- 
ty of the inorganic substances \u — or 
the ash left by — the entire plant, di- 
minished as it approached to maturity. 
Thus the dry plants of the vetch, of the 
golden rod {solidarjo vulgaris^) of the 
turnsol [heUanth'us antmus,) and of 
wheat, left respectively of ash, at three 
different periods of theirgrowth, [Davy's 
Agriculbiral Chemistry^ Lecture JII,] 

Before flowering. In flower. Seeds ripe. 

per cent. per cent, per cent. 
Vetch, 15 1-2.2 6.6 

Golden rod, 9.2 5.7 5.7 

Turnso], 14.7 13.7 9 

Wheat, 7.9 5.4 3 8 

This diminution in the pioportion of 
ash, might arise either from an increase 
in the absolute quantity of vegetable 
matter in the plants accompanying their 
increase in size — or from a portion of 
the saline and earthy matters thev con- 
tained being again rejected by the'roots. 
But if the former be the true explana- 
tion, the relative pi'oportions of the sev- 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



16V 



era! substances of which the ash itself 
consisted, in the several cases, should 
have been the same at the several peri- 
ods when the experiments were made. 
But this was b}' no means the case. 
Thus, to refer only to the quantity of 
silica contained in the ash left by each 
of the above plants at the several stages 
of their growth, the ashes of the 

Before flowering. In flower. Seeds ripe. 
per cent, per cent, per cent. 
Vetch contained lo To 1'75 

Golden rod, 1-5 1-5 3-5 

Turnsol, IS 15 3-75 

Wheat., 12-5 2G 51-0 

If, then, the proportion of silica in the 
ash increased in some cases four-fold, 
while tho whole quantity of ash left by 
the plant decreased, it appears evident 
that some part of that which existed in 
the plant during the earlier periods of 
its growth must have been excreted or 
rejected by the roots, as it advanced 
towards maturity. 

2". This conclusion is confirmed and 
carried farther by another consideration. 
The quantity of ash left by the ripe 
wheat plant, in the above experiments 
of De Saussure, amounted to 3'3 per 
cent.; — of which ash, 51 per cent., or 
rather more than one-half, was silica. 
This silica, it is believed, could only have 
entered into the circulation of the plant 
in a state of solution in water, and could 
only be dissolved by the agency of pot- 
ash or soda. But, according to Spren- 
gel, the potash, soda, and silica, are to 
each other in the grain and straw of 
wheat, in the proportions of — 





Potash. 


Soda. 


Silica 


Grain, 


0-225 


0-24 


0-4 


Straw, 


0-20 


0-29 


2-87 



Or, supposing the grain to equal one- 
half the weight of the straw — their rel- 
ative proportions in the whole plant will 
be nearly as 21 potash, 27 soda, 205 
silica, or the weight of the silica is up- 
wards of four times the weights of the 
potash and soda taken together. 
' Now silica requires nearly half its 
■weight of potash to render it soluble in 



water, or three-fifths of its weight of a 
mixture of nearly equal parts of potash 
and soda. The quantity of these aZ/ta- 
Zi«<? substances /ow?ic? in the plant, there- 
fore, is by no means sufficient to hav« 
dissolved and brought into its circula- 
tion the vvhole of the silica it contains. 
One of two things, therefore, must have 
taken place. Either a portion of the 
potash and soda present in the plant 
in the earlier stages of its growth must 
have escaped fiom its roots at a later 
stage, leaving the silica behind it — or 
the same quantity of alkali must have 
circulated through the plant several 
times — bringing in its burden of silica, 
depositing it in the vascular system of 
the plant, and again returning to the 
soil for a fresh supply. In either case 
the roots must have allowed it egress as 
well as ingress. But the fact, that the 
proportion of silica in the plant goes on 
increasing as it continues to grow, is in 
favour of the latter views — and renders 
it very probable that the sarne quantity 
of alkali returns again and again into 
the circulation, bringing with it sup- 
plies of silica and probably of othe? 
substances which the plant requires 
from the soil. And while this view ap- 
pears to be the more probable, it also 
presents an interesting illustration ot 
what may probablj/ be the kind of func- 
tion discharged by the potash and other 
inorganic substances found in the sub- 
stance of plants — a question we shall 
hereafter have occasion to consider at 
some length. 

The above considerations, therefore, 
to which I might add others of a simi- 
lar kind, satisfy me that the roots of 
plants do possess the power of excret- 
ing various substances which are held 
in solution by the sap on its return from 
the stem — and which having performed 
their functions in the interior of th,e 
plant are no longer fitted, in their exist- 
ing condition, to minister to its susten- 
ance or growth. Nor is it likely that 
this excretory power is restricted solely 
to the emission of inorganic substance"*. 
Other soluble matters of organic origin 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



are, no doubt, permitted to escape into 
the soil — though whether of such a 
kind as must necessarily be injurious to 
the plant from which they have been 
extruded, or to such a degree as alone 
to render a rotation of crops necessary, 
neither reasoning nor experiment has 
hitherto satisfactorily shown. 

VI. The roots have the power of ab- 
sorbing, and iu some measure of select- 
ing, food from the soil — can they also 
raodify or alter it as it passes through 
them ? A colourless sap is observed to 
ascend through the roots. From the 
v.ery extremity up to the foot of the 
stem a cross section exhibits little trace 
of colouring matter, even when the soil 
contains animal and vegetable substan- 
ces which are soluble, and which give 
dark coloured solutions, [such as the 
liquid manure of the fold-yard.] Does 
such matter never enter the root ? If it 
does, it must be speedily changed or 
transformed into new compounds. 

We have as yet too few experiments 
upon this subject to enable us to decide 
v,ith any degree of certainty in regard 
to. this function of the root. 

It is probable, however, that as tlie 
sap passes through the plant, it is con- 
stantly, though gradually, undergoing 
a series of changes, from the time when 
ic first enters the root till it again reach- 
es it on its return from the leaf. 

Can viQ conceive the existence of any 
powers in the root, or in the whole plant, 
of a still more refined kind ? The ger- 
ifiinating seed gives oif acetic acid into 
the soil, — does this acetic acid dissolve 
lime from the soil and return with it 
jigain, as some suppose (Liebig,) into 
the circulation of the plant ? Is acetic 
acid produced and excreted by the seed 
for this very refined purpose ? We have 
concluded that in the wheat plant the 
f'otash and soda probably go and come 
sereral times during its growth, and the 
ripening of its seed. Is this a contriv- 
ance of nature to make up for the scar- 
city of alkaline substances in the soil — 
cr would the same mode of operation 
\iQ em.plpyed if potash and soda were 



present in greater abundance? Or where,' 
the alkalies are present in greater abun-l 
dance, might not more work be done' 
by them in the same time, — might not) 
the plant be built up the faster and the^ 
larger, when there were more hands, soi 
to speak, to do the work? Is the ac-i 
tion of inorganic substances upon veg-i 
etation to be explained by the existence,; 
of a power resident in the roots or olh-^ 
er parts of plants, by which such oper-i 
ations as this are directed or superin-; 
tended ? There are many mysteries] 
connected with the nature and phenom-: 
ena of vegetable life, wliich we haveJ 
been uuiible as yet to induce nature toi 
reveal to us. But the morning light isj 
already kindling on the tops of the.' 
mountains, and we may hope that the^ 
deepest vallies will not forever remaia- 
obscure. i 

3 — THE COURSE OV THE- SAP. ) 

If the trunk of a tree be cut off above' 
the roots, and the lower extremity be^ 
immediately plunged into a solution of] 
madder or other colouring substances,! 
the coloured liquid will ascend and wiUj 
gradually tinge the wood. This ascent^ 
will continue till the colour can also be; 
observed in the nerves of the leaf. If^ 
at this stage in the experimejst thei 
trunk be cut across at various heights,! 
the wood alone will appear coloured,! 
the bark remaining entirely untinged.* 
But if the process be allowed still toj 
continue when the coloured matter hasj 
reached the leaf, and after some further, 
time the stem be cut across, the bark ': 
also will appear dyed, and the tinge will] 
be perceptible further and further from | 
the leaf the longer the experiment is ; 
carried on, till at length both bark and \ 
wood will be coloured to the very hot- \ 
torn of the stem. ). 

Or if the root of a living plant, as in \ 
the experiment of Macaire detailed in ' 
a preceding note, be immersed in a me-^ 
tallic solution — such as a solution of i 
acetate of lead, — which it is capable of ' 
absorbing without immediate injury, j 
and dift'erent portions of the plant ex- i 

j 
i 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



169 



amiiied after the lapse of different pe- 
siods of time, — first the stem, aftei'wards 
the leaves, , then the bark of the upper 
part of the stern, and lastly that of the 
lower part of the stem, will exhibit tra- 
ces of lead. 

These experiments show that the sap 
v.hich enters by the roots ascends 
tlirough the vessels of the wood, dif- 
fuses itself over the surface of leaves, 
and then descends by the bark to the 
■extremities ot the root. 

But what becomes of the sap when 
?t reaches the root ? Is it delivered in- 
to the soil, or does it recommence the 
same course, and again, repeatedly per- 
Imps, circulate through th6 stem, leaves 
and bark ? This question has been 
|)-artly answered by what has been stat- 
•ed in the preceding section. When the 
sap reaches the extremity of the root, 
it ap{>ears to give off to the soil both 
^olid and Ikud substiinces of a kind and 
to nn amouut which probably differ 
with every species of plant. The re- 
maiRder of the sap and of the substan- 
ces it hoMs in solution must be diffused 
through the celhilar spongy terminations 
of the roots, and, with the new supply 
of liquid imbibed fiom the soil, retui'ned 
again to the stem with the ascending 
current. 

But what causes the sap thus to as- 
cend and descend ? By what power is 
it first sucked up through the roots, and 
afterwards forced down again from the 
l;-aves ? Several answers have been 
pven to this question. 

1." When the end of a wide tube, ei- 
ther of raetaS or of glass, is plunged in- 
to water, the liquid will rise within the 
tube sensibly to the same level as that 
at which it stands In the vesseL But 
if a capillary tube be employed instead 
of one with a wide bore, the liquid will 
rise, and wili permanently remain at a 
considerably higher level within than 
without the tube. The cause of this 
rise has been ascribed to an attraction 
which the sides of the tube have for the 
liquid, and which is sufficiently strong 
to raise it and to keep it up above the 



proper level of the water. The force 
itself is generally distinguished by the 
name of ccqnllary attraction. 

Now, the wood of a tree, as we have 
seen, is composed of a mass of fine tubes, 
and through these the sap has been said 
to rise by ca-pillary attraction. But if 
the top of a vine be cut off when it is 
juicy and full of sap, the liquid will ex- 
ude from the newly formed surface, and 
if the air be excluded, will flow for a 
length of time, and may be collected 
in a considerable quantity [Lindley's 
Theory of Horticulture, p. 47, note.] 
Such a flow of the sap is not to be ac- 
counted for by mere capillary attractioE 
— the sides of tubes cannot draw up a 
fluid beyond their own extremities. 

1? To supply the defect of this hy- 
pothesis, Be Saussure supposed that the 
fluid at first introduced by capillary at- 
traction into the extremities of the rooi, 
was afterwards propelled upwards by 
the alternate contraction and expansion 
of the tubes of which the wood of the 
root and stem is composed. This alter- 
nate contraction and expansion he also 
supposed to be caused by a peculiar ir- 
ritating property of the sap itself, whic]i 
caused each successive part of the tube 
into which it found admission to cori- 
tract for the purpose of expelling it. 
Mr. Knight also ascribed the ascent of 
the sap to a similar contraction of cer- 
tain other parts of the stem. Being 
once raised, he supposed it to return 
again or descend by its own weight — 
but in drooping branches it is obvious 
that the sap must be actually driven or 
drawsi upwards from the leaves on its 
retui-n to the root. These explanations, 
thei'efore, are still unsatisfactorj'. 

S.*' If one end of .'lu open glass tube 
be covered with a piece of moistened 
bladder or other fine animal membrane, 
tied tightly over it, and a strong solu- 
tion of sugar in water be then poured 
into the open end of the tube, so as to 
cover the merabi'ane to the depth , of 
several inches, and if the closed end l)e 
then introduced to the depth of an inch 
be'ow the surface of a vessel of pure 



i 



170 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



water, the water will after a short lime 1 as low as that of the liquid entering the 
pass through the bladder innanis, and ■ roots from the soil. But in a growing 
the column of liquid in the tube will I tree, clothed with foliage, this will never 
increase in height. This a-cent will | happen. The leaves are continually ex- 
continue, till in favorable circumstances I haling aqueous vapour, as one of their 
the fluid v.'ill reach the height of sever- coristant functions, and sometimes in 



al feet, and will flow out or run over at 
the open end of the tube. At the same 
time the water in the vessel will become 
sweet, indicating that while so much 
liquid has passed through the membrane 
inwards, a quantity has also passed out- 
wards, carrying sugar along with it. To 
these opposite effects Dutrochet, who 
first drew attention to the fact, gave the 
names of Endosniose, denoting the in- 
ward progress, and jExos?7iose, the out- 
ward progress of the fluid, lie suppos- 
ed them to be due to the action of two 
apposite currents of electricity, and he 
Eikens the phenomena observed during 
the circulation of the sap in j>lants, to 
the appearances preaenied during the 
above experiment. 

Without discussing the degree of 
probability which exists as to the influ- 
ence of electricity in producing the phe- 
nomena of endosmose and exosmose, it 
must be admitted that the appearances 
fchemselves bear a strong resemblance 
fco those presented in the al)9orption and 
excretion of fluids by the roots of ].>lants 
— and point very distinctly to at least a 
kindred cause. 

Thus, if the spongy t'SlMuination of 
the root )-epresent the thin porous mem- 
brane in the above experiment — the sap 
with v.'liich the tubes of the wood are 
filled, the artificial soljition introduced 
into the experimental tube — and the 
water in the soil, the water or aqueous 
solution into which the closed extremi- 
fey of the tube is introduced, — we have 
a series of conditions precisely similar j 
to those in the experiment. Fluids | 
ought consequently to enter finSm the 
soil into the roots, and theiice to ascend 
into the stem, as in liature they appear 
feo do. 

This ascent, we have said, will con- 
iiuue till the fluid in the tubes of the 
wood (the SAp) is reduced to a density 



very large quantity. The sap, there- 
fore, when it reaches the leaves, is con- 
centrated or thickened, and rendered 
more dense by the separation of the wa- 
ter, so that when it decends to the root, 
and again begins its upward course, it 
will admit of large dilution before its 
density can be so far diminished as tu 
approach tlv«tof the comparatively pur« 
water which is absorbed from the soih 
And this illustration of the ascent of 
the sap appears the more correct from 
the obvious purpose it points out — (in 
addition to others long recognised) — as 
served by the evaporation which is con- 
stantly taking place frosn the surface of 
the leaf. 

Still the cause of the ascent of the 
sap is not the more clear that, we can 
imitate it in some measure bv au arti- 
ficial experiment. But it will be con- 
ceded by the strictest reasoaers on phys- 
ical phenomena, that to have obtained 
the cemmand, or evej' a partial control, 
over a natural power, is a considerable 
step towards a clear conce])tion of the 
nature of that power itseb. If the phe- 
nomena of endosmose can hereafter be 
clearly and indubitably traced tt> th© 
agency of eleetrieity, v/e shall liave ad- 
vanced still another step, and shall be- 
enabled to devise other means by which 
a more perfect imitation of nature may 
be efl'ected, or a more complete control 
asserted over the phenomena of veget- 
able circulation. 

4 FUNCTIONS OF THE STEM. 

The functions of tlie stem are prob- 
ably as various as those of the root, 
though the circumstances under wdiich 
they are performed necessarily involvo 
these functions in considerable obscu- 
rity. 

The pith which forms the central part 
of the stem consists^ as I have already 



THE FARMEirs JOURNAL, 



Hi 



stated, of tubes disposed horizontally. 
When a coloured fluid is permitted to 
enter the lower part of the stem in the 
experiments above described, tlie pith 
remains untinctured in the centre of the 
coloured wood. It does not, therefore, 
serve for the conveyance of the sap. 
-Nor does it seem to be vitally necessary 
ti> the health and growth of the ph^nt, 
since Mr. Knight has shown that, from 
the interior of many trees, it may be 
removed without apparent injury, and 
hi natui-e, as trees advance in age, it 
gradually diminishes in bulk, and in 
some species becomes apparently oblit 
e rated. 

The vessels. of the wood, which sur- 
8-ounds the pith, perform probably both 
a m-achanical and a Lhemical function. 
They serve to convey upwards to the 
leaf the various substances which enter 
by the roots. This is their mechanical 
function. But during its progress up- 
wards, the sap appears to undi^irgo a se- 
ries of changes. When it reaches the 
leaves it i.s no ionger in th« state in 
which it a-^cended from the root into 
the stem. Th-e difficulty of extracting 
the sap from the wood, at diflerent 
heights, has prevented very rigorous ex- 
perinfients from being made on its na- 
?,nre and conteiits at the several stages 
<sf its ascent. These it is obvious must 
vary with the species and age of the 
|vlant, and with the season of the j-ear 
at which the experiment is made. But 
the g'eneval result to be drawn from 
•such observations as have hitherto been 
snade, is, that those substances which 
<Miter directly into the root, when min- 
gled with such as have already passed 
through the circulation of the plant, 
iindergo, during their ascent, a gradual 
preparation for that state in which they 
become fit to minister to the growth of 
the plant. This preparation is complet- 
•ed in a great measure in the leaf, though 
further changes still go on as the sap 
descends through the bark. This de- 
duction is strengthened by the fact that 
gaseous substances of various kmds and 
in varying quantities exist in the inte- 



rior of the wood of the growing plant. 
These gaseous substances, according to 
Boucherie, »re in some cjises equal in 
bulk to one-twentieth p?rtof the entim 
trunk of the tree in which they exist. 
They probably move upwards along 
with the sap, and are more or less com- 
pletely discharged into the atmosphere 
through the pores of the leaves. That 
these gaseous substances not only differ 
in quantity, but in kind also, with the 
age and species of the tree, and with 
the season of the year, may, I think, be 
considered as almost amounting to a 
proof that they have not been inhaled 
directly by the roots, but are the result 
of chemical decompositions which have 
taken place on the stem itself, as tho 
sap mounted upwards towards the leavcR. 
We have seen that the roots exercise 
a kiu'l of discriminating power in ad- 
mitting to the circulation of the plant 
the various substances which are pres- 
ent in the soil. The vessels of the stem 
exhibit an analogous power of admit- 
ting or rejecting the solutions of differ- 
otit substances into which they may be 
in"imersed. Thus Boucherie states that, 
when the trunks of several trees of the 
same species are cut otF above the roots, 
and the lower extremities immediately 
plunged into solutions of ditterent sub- 
stances, some of these sohitions will 
quickly ascend -into and penetrate the 
entire substance of the tree immerseifl 
in them, while others will not be admit- 
ted at all, or with extreme slowness on- 
ly, by the vessels of the stem to which 
they are respectively presented. On the 
other hand, that which is rejected by 
one species will be readily admitted by 
another. Whether this partial stoppage 
of, or total refusal to admit, certain sub- 
stances, be 4i mere contractile eftbrt on 
the pa^t-of the vessels, or be the result 
of a chemical change by which their es" 
elusion is effected or resisted, does not 
as yet clearly appear. That it does not 
depend upon the lightness and porosity 
of the wood, as might be supposed, w 
shown by the observation that the pop- 
lar is less easily penetvated m this waj 



172 



THE FARMERS' JOURNAL. 



than the beech, and the willow tliau the 
pear tree, the maple, or the ])lane. 

These various functions of the woody 
part of the stem are performed chiefly 
hy the newer wood or alburnum, or, as 
it is often called, the sap wood of th.^ 
tree. As the heart wood becomes older, 
the tubes of which it consists are either 
gradually stopped up by the deposition 
of solid substances which have entered 
by the roots, or by the formation of 
chemical compounds, which, like con- 
cretions in the bodies of animals, slow- 
ly increase in size till the vessels become 
entirely closed— or they are by degrees 
compressed laterally by the growth of 
wood around them, so as to become in- 
capable of transmitting the s^scendin^. 
fiuids. Perhaps the result is in m-^st 
cases due in part to both these causes. 
This more or less perfect stoppage of 



to tlie sun and to the air, and in the 
form of vapour escapes in considerable 
proportion through the pores of the 
leaves and diffuses itself through the 
atmosphere. 

The quantity of water ^vliich thus 
escapes from the surface of the leaves 
varies with the moisture of the soil, 
with tlie species of plant, with the tem- 
perature and moisture of the air, anil 
with the season of the year. Accord- 
ing to the experiments of Hales, it is 
also dependent on the presence of the 
sun, and is scarcely perceptible during 
the night. lie found that a snn-flowor, 
three and a half feet hi:h, lost fron) \{% 
leaves during 12 hours of one day 30, 
and of another day 20 onnces of water, 
while duriijg a warm night, withou.t 
dew, it lost only three ounces, and in a 
dewy night underwent no diminutioB 



the oldest vessels is one reason why the ■ in weight. 

coui-se of the sap is chiefly directed] This loss of watery vapour by th 

throuirh the newer tubes. 



The functions of the baric, which 
forms the exterior portion of the stem, 



leaf is ascribed to two different kinds of 
action. First, to a datura] perspiratioii 
from the pores of the leaf, similar to 



will be more advantageously de cribed, the inse!:sible perspiration wliieh is con 
sifter we shall have considered the pur- tinualiy proceeding from the skins of 



poses served' by the leaves. 

5 rUNCTIONS OF THE 1.EATES. 



healthy animals ; and seC' sjd, to a me- 
chanical evaporation like that wliieh 
graduallv takes place from the surface- 



The vessels of which the sap wood is ! of moist bodies when exposed to hot 
composed extend upwards into the fibres j or dr}' air. The relative asjiount of loss 
of the leaf. Through these vessels the jdue to each of these two modes of ae- 
sap ascends, and from their extremities I tion respectively, must dilTer \qyj jniu-h 
diffuses itself over the surface of the in different *peeies of plants, being de- 



leaf. Here it undergoes important chem- 
ical changes, the extent, if JK>t the ex- 
act nature of which, will appear from a 



pendent in a great measure on the spe- 
cial struciure of the leaf. In all cases, 
however, the natural perspiration is be- 



short description of the functions which lieved v^ry greatly to exceed the mere 
the leaves are knowa or are believed to I mechanical evape-ration — though \}\q ro- 
discharge. | suits of Hales, and of other expenmen- 

1.'^ When the roots of a living plant ; ters, sliow that both processes proceed 
are immersed in water, it is a matter of] with the greatest rapidity onder the in - 
familiar observation thftit the water grad- ! fluence of a warm dry atmosphere, aid- 
ually diminishes in bulk, and will at j ed by the direct rays of the ssm. 



length entirely disappear, even when 
evaporation into the air is entirely pre- 
vented. The water which thus disap- 
pears is taken up by the roots of the 
plant, is carried up to the leaves, is there 
spread out over a large surface exposed 



Among the several purposes served 
by this escape of watery vapour from 
the surface of the leaf, it is of impor- 
tance for us to notice the direct chemi- 
cal influence it exercises over the growth 
of tbu plan*. As the water disappears 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



173 



from the leaf, the roots must absorb 
from the soil at least an equal supply. 
This water brings with it the soluble 
substances, organic and inorganic, which 
the soil contains, and thus in propor- 
tion to the activity with which the leaves 
lose their watery vapour, will be the 
quantity of those substances which en- 
t'T from the soil into the general circu- 
lation of the plant. This enables us to 
understand how substances, very spar- 
ingly soluble in water, should yet be 
found in the interior of plants, and in 
very con.^iderable quantity, ai aUnost 
every stage of their growth. 

2.° Besides watery vapour, however, 
the leaves of nearly all plants exhale at 
the same time other volatile compounds 
in greater or less abundance. In the 
petals of flowers, we are familiar with 
such exhalations — often of an agreea- 
ble and odoriferous character. In the 
case of plants and trees also which emit 
a sensible odour, we readily recognise 
the fact of volatile substances being giv- 
en off by the leaves. But even when 
the sense of smell gives us no indication 
of their emission from a single leaf or a 
single plant, the introduction of a num- 
ber of such inodorous plants into the 
Confined atmosphere of a small room 
after a time satisfies us that even they 
part with some volatile matter from their 
leaves, which makes itself perceptible 
to our imperfect organs only when in 
a concentrated state. The probability 
therefore is, that the letives of all plants 
emit, along with the watery vapour 
vs'hich they evolve, certain other volatile 
substances also, though often in quanti- 
ties so minute as to escape detection by 
our unaided senses. By the emission 
of these substances the plant probably 
relieves itself of what would prove in- 
jurious if retained, though of the chem- 
ical nature and composition of these ex- 
halations Httle or nothing has yet been 
ascertained. 

3." If the branch of a living plant be 
so bent that some of its leaves can be 
introduced beneath the edge of an in- 
verted tumbler full of water, and if the 



leaves be then exposed to the rays of 
the sun, bubbles of gas will be seen to 
form on the leaf, and gradually to rise 
through the water and collect in the 
bottom of the tumbler. If this gas be 
examined it will be found to be pure 
oxygen. 

F the water contain carbonic acid 
gas, or'if during the experiment a little 
carbonic acid be introduced, this gas 
will be found gradually to disappear, 
while the oxygen will continue to ac- 
cumulate. 

Or if the experiment be made by in- 
troducing a living plant into a large 
bell-glass full of common atmospheric 
air, allowing it to grow there for twelve 
hours in the sunshine, and then examin- 
ing or analysing the air contained in 
the glass, the result will be of a precise- 
ly similar kind. The per centage of 
oxygen in the air will have increased. 
And if the experiment be varied by the 
introduction of a small quantity of car- 
bonic acid gas into the jar, this gas will 
be found as before to diminish in quan- 
tity, while the oxygen increases. The 
conclusion drawn from these experiments 
therefore, is, that the leaves of plants, 
when exposed to the rays of the sun, ab- 
sorb carbonic acid from the air and give 
off pure oxygen gas. 

It has been already stated that the 
proportion of carbonic acid present iu 
the atmosphere is exceedingly small, 
[about l-2500th of this bulk — see Lec- 
ture II., p. 30 ;] but if for the purpose 
of experiment we increase this propor- 
tion in a gallon of air to five or ten per 
cent., introduce a living plant into it, 
and expose it to the sunshine, the car- 
bonic acid will gradually disappear as 
before, while the oxygen will increase. 
And if we analyse the air and estimate 
the exact bulk of each of these gases 
present in it at the close of our expei'i- 
ment, we shall find that the oxygen has 
increased generally by as much as the 
carbonic acid has diminished. That is 
to say, if five cubic inches of the latter 
have aisappeared, five cubic inches will 
have been added to the bulk of the ox.- 



174 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



ygen. The above general conclnsion, 
therefore, is rendered more precise by 
this experiment, which appears to show 
that under the infiuence of the svn''s 
rays the leaves of plants absorb carbon- 
ic acid from the air, and at the same 
time give off an equal bulk of oxygen 
gas. 

And as carbonic acid (CC) contains 
its own bnlk of oxygen gas combined 
with a certain known weight of carbon, 
it is further inferred that the oxygen 
given off by the leaves is the same which 
has been previously absorbed in the 
form of carbonic acid, and therefore it 
is usually stated as a function of the 
leaves — that in the sunshiie they absorb 
carbonic acid from the air, decompose 
it in the interior of the leaf retain its 
carbon, and again reject or emit the ox 
ygen it contained. 

This conclusion presents a very sim- 
ple view of the relations of oxygen and 
carbonic acid respectively to the living- 
leaf in the presence of the sun, and it 
appears to be fairly deduced from the 
facts above, stated. It has occasionally 
been observed, however, that the bulk 
ef oxygen given off by the leaf hae. not 
been precisely equal to that of the car- 
bonic acid absorbed, [see Persoz, Chi ■ 
mie Moleculaire, p. 54,] and hence it Js 
also fairly concluded that a portion of 
the oxygen of the carbonic acid which 
enters the leaf is retained, and made 
available in the production of the vari- 
ous substances which are formed in the 
vascular system of different plants. On 
the other hand it is stated by Sprengel, 
that if compounds containing mucb ox- 
ygen be presented to the roots of plants, 
and thus in'roduced into the circulation, 
they are also decdmposed, and the oxy- 
gen they contain in part or in wiiole 
given off by the leaves, so that, under 
certain circumstances, the bulk of the 
oxygen which escapes is actually gi-eat- 
er than that of the carbonic acid which 
is absorbed by the leaves. Such is the 
case, fur example, when the roots are 
moistened with water containing carbon- 
ic, suiplmric, or nitric acids, — [Sprengel 
Chemie, II., p. 344.] 



It is of importance to note these de- 
viations from apparent simplicity in the 
relative bulks of the two gases which 
are respectively given off and absorbed 
by all living vegetables. There are nu- 
merous cases of the formation of sub- 
stances in the interior of plants which 
iheory would fail to account for with 
any degree of ease, were these apparent 
anomalies to be neglected. This will 
more distinctly appear when in a subse- 
quent lecture we shall inquire how or 
by what chenjical changes the substan- 
ces which plants contain, or of which 
they consist, are produced from the food 
which they draw from the air and from 
the soil. 

The most general and probable ex- 
pression, therefore, for the function of 
the leaf, now under consideration, ap- 
pears to be that in the sunshine the 
leaves absorb from the air carbonic acid, 
and at the same time evolve oxygen gas, 
the bulk of the latter gas given oil' be- 
ing nearly equal to that of the former 
which is taken in — the relative bulks of 
the two gases varying more or less with 
the species of plant, as well as with the 
circumstances under which it is caused 
or is fitted to grow. 

4°. Such is the relation of the leaf to 
the oxygen and carbonic acid of the at- 
mosphere in the presence of the sun. 
During the night their acti. n is rever.'-- 
ed, they emit carbonic acid and absorb 
oxygen. This is proved by esperimonis 
similar to those above described. For 
if the plant whii-h has remained under 
the bell glass for 12 hours in the sun- 
shine — during which time the oxygen 
has sensilily increased, and the carbon- 
ic acid diminished in bulk — be allowed 
to remain in the same air tlirongh the 
following night, the oxygen will be 
found to have decreased, while the car- 
bonic acid will be present in larger 
quantity than in the evening of tlio 
previous day. 

The carbonic acid thus given off du- 
ring the night is supposed to be partly 
derived from the soil through the roots, 
and partly from the substance of the 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



175 



plant itself. The oxygen absorbed either 
combines with the carbon of the pUint 
to form a portion of the carbonic acid 
which is at the same time given oft' or 
b employed in proi'uciiig some of the 
other oxydized [containing oxygen in 
considerable quantity] coaipouuds that 
exist in the sap. 

As a general rule, the quantity of 
carbonic acid given oft* during the night 
is far from being equal to that which is 
absorbed during the day. Still it is ob- 
vious that a plant loses carbon pi'ecisely 
in proportion to the amount of this gas 
given oft; Hence, wlien the days are 
longest, tlie plant will lose the least, and 
where the sun is brightest it will gain 
the fastest; since otlier things being 
equal, the decomposition of carbonic 
acid proceeds most rapidly where the 
sky is ihe clearest, and the rays of the 
sun most powerful. Hence we see why 
in Northern regions, where spring, sum- 
mer and autumn are all comprise ' in 
one long day — vegetation should pro- 
ceed with such rapidity. The decom- 
position of the carbonic acid goes on 
without intermission, the leaves have no 
night of rest, but nature has kindly 
provided that, wdiere the season of 
warmth is so fleeting, there should be 
no cessation to the necessary growth of 
food fur man and beast. 

This comparison of the functions per- 
formed by the leaf, during the day and 
night respectively, explains the chemi- 
cal natui'e of the hlanchincj of vegeta- 
bles practised by the gardener, as well 
as the cause of tiie pale colour of plants 
that grow naturalSv in the absence of 
light: 

When exposed to the sun, the leaves 
of these sickly vegetables evolve oxy- 
gen, and gradually become green and 
healthy. Woody matter is formed, and 
the stems become strong and fibrous. 

The light of th« sun, in the existing 
economy of nature, is indeed equally 
necessary to the health of plants and of 
animals. The former become pale and 
sickly, and refuse to perform their most 
^important cheniical functions when ex- 



cluded from the light. The bloom dis- 
appears from the human cheek, the 
body wastes away, and the spirit sinks, 
when the unhappy prisoner is debarred 
from the sight of the blessed sun. la 
his system, too, th« presence of light is 
necessary to the performance of those 
chemical functions on which the heal- 
thy condition of the vital fluids de- 
pends. 

Tiie processes by which oxygen and 
carbonic acid are respectively evolved 
in plants have been likened by physiol- 
ogists to the respiration and digestion 
of animals. It is supposed that when 
plants respire they give oft' carbonic acid 
as animals do, and that when they di- 
gest they evolve oxygen. Respiration 
also, it is said, proceeds at all times, di- 
gestion only in the light of the sun. 
Though these views are confessedly con- 
jectural, they are founded upon strik- 
ing analogies, and may reasonably bs 
entertained as matters of opinion. 

6°. Other species of decomposition 
also, besides that of de-oxydization^ go 
on in the leaf, or are there made mani- 
fest. Thus when plants grow in a soil 
containing much common salt (chloride 
of sodium) or other chlorides, they have 
been observed by Sprengel and Meyen 
to evolve cldoride gas from their leaves. 
This takes place, however, more during 
the night than during the day. Some 
plants also give off" ammonia, (Lecture 
IV., p. YO,) while others (cruci ferae,) ac- 
cording to Dr. Daubeny, [in \\\?> Three 
Lectures on Agriculture, p. 59,] emit 
from their leaves pure nitrogen gas. 

The evolution of chlorine implies the 
previous decomposition of the chlorides, 
which have been absorbed from the soil ; 
while that of nitrogen may be due to 
the decomposition of ammonia, of nitric 
acid, or of some other compound con- 
taining nitrogen, which has entered intb 
the circulation by the roots. The exact 
mode and nature of the decomposition 
of these substances, and the purposes 
served by them in the vegetable econ- 
omy, will come under our consideration 
in a subsequent lecture. 

{^Continued on page 183.) 



I'ze 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



RALEIGH, N. C, SEPT., 1853. ^ 



Something not to be Forgotten. 

That all letters addressed to us upon 
business, in connection with the Farm 
er'5 Journal, will be attended to if ad- 
dressed to Dr. J. F. Tompkins, to care 
of Wm. D. Cooke, Esq., Raleigh, N. C. 



An Excuse to our Readers. 

We hope that inasmuch as we have, 
in the last two months, been sick, our 
readers will excuse the delay in the re- 
ception of the August number of the 
Journal. But we have endeavored to 
make up for that delay in the variety of 
editorial matter, and the highly inter- 
esting selected matter which we lay be- 
fore them in this number. All, we are 
sure, will agree with us, that this is the 
best number of the Journal ever yet 
published, and if we did not have such 
languid support from the farmers of the 
country, we could advocate their inter 
est with a much more cheerful spirit ; 
but it will not always be so. 



The State Agricultural Fair. 

This is the last time that we shall 
have it in our power to lay this subject 
before our readers, before the time will 
have arrived for showing what can be 
done in the way of a State Agricultural 
Fair, in North Carolina. We hope by 
this time that our Farmers generally 
feel the proper interest in this matter, 
and see the many advantages which 
must result to the improvement of the 
Agriculture of the State. We are sure 
that the proper materials for a good ex- 
hibition are in the State, if %\^Yy farmer 
who has fine stock of any kind, will on- 



ly present them ; and if they fail to do 
so, what a source of mdVtification it must 
be to those present, to see the fii'st at- 
tempt at a thing of the kind a failure. 
This will be a fine opportunity, too, for 
the mechanics of the State to make a 
show of their excellence, in their respec- 
tive branches of thi mechanic arts. Let 
everybody who can, come to the State 
Agricultural Fair. 



Analyses of the various Crops. 

We lay before our readers at this 
time, an analysis of the various crops 
made by that eminent chemist Spren- 
GEL, which will be examined with in- 
terest by enterprising farmers. The 
farmer who has an analysis of his soil, 
can, by reference to this table, tell at 
once what elements in his soil he is ex- 
hausting most by the cultivation of cer- 
tain crops. He can also tell what 
field is best adapted to the cultivation 
of the different crops ; and to sum up 
the whole, he can go to work upon cor- 
rect and fixed principles. 



AVe lay before our readers a lecture 
from Johnston's Agricultural Chemis- 
try, upon the structure of the varioiis 
parts of plants, and their different func- 
tions. This lecture, we hope, will be 
read carefully by our readers, for it con- 
tains a great deal of such information 
as farmers should have ; and the read- 
ing of this will create an anxiety te 
know more of such subjects : and the 
farmer will find himself investiirating 
the subject of Agricultural Chemistrv, 
almost before he is aware of what he 
is about, and he will soon find that he 
will understand what he reads, and will 
be much profited besides. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



it: 



The Model Farm ot the West. 

We had the pleasure a few weeks 
since of visiting the farm of Dr. Wm. 
,T. Holt, in Davidson county. Both the 
owner and the farm have been known 
to us for some time by reputation, but 
different from most descriptions of per- 
sons and things they really excelled our 
most sanguine expectations. This farm 
is situated in that part of the county 
called the Jersey Settlement, which is- 
celebrated for being by nature the most 
productive soil in the State. This, like 
most of the farms near it, has been in 
cultivation for a long time, and was, 
when Dr. Holt purchased, very much 
exhausted, many parts of it scarcely 
producing enough to pay the expenses 
of cultivation. But it presents a very 
different appearance at this time, for 
every field is in a high state of cultiva- 
tion, which has been effected by thor- 
ough drainage, deep plowing, and a 
correct application of such manures as 
each crop required for its nourishment. 

But the appearance of the farm did 
not contribute so much to our enjov- 
ment, as the fine stock of various 
kinds, which we saw. The impression 
generally is, that we have no fine stock in 
North Carolina — that they are all of the 
"raw bone" breed — but this is a great 
mistake, which may easily be corrected 
by traveling over the State. There are 
upon Dr. Holt's farm, more than one 
hundred head of thorough bred Devon 
c-attle, and as many or more of an im- 
proved stock of sheep, all of which look 
finely, as they have fine pastures to 
graze upon in the summer, and the best 
of hay to feed upon in the winter, 
though as regards sheltering, they have 
fared like our native stock, which goes 



clearly to prove that the Devon, are th® 
kind of stock which will best suit our 
climate, and general treatment of stock. 
We saw a Devon Bull in the herd, 
j which, for symmetry of form and tho- 
j rough blood, cannot be excelled in the 
I whole Union. He is a descendant of 
i the celebrated Milken, in the herd of 
I Mr. Bloonifield,in England. We think 
that we may promise the farmers quite 
a treat in the exhibition of some speci- 
mens of stock, from the farm of Dr. 
Holt, at the State Fair in October, and 
a greater treat still in conversing with 
the Doctor himself. He is what we call 
a really scientific, practical fanner, well 
infurmed upon eve:y subject in connec- 
tion with agricultural improvement. 



To the Farmers of the State. 

Those farmers who have soils or marls, 
v.hich ihey may vvis]i correct analysis 
made of, would do well to bring up 
specimens to the State Fair, on the 18th 
of October, and I will make th.' analy- 
sis according to the usual to ms — for sin- 
gle specimen of soil and directions fur 
manuring $10, for single specimen of 
marl $5. I would be pleased that far- 
mers generally, who may cope to the 
Fair, would bring any spfciraen of marl 
or other minerals, which they may find 
upon their farms. Specimens of soils 
for analysis should be taken fiom four 
to six inches below the surface, about 
a double handful will be enough to pro- 
cure, which should be well wrapped in 
paper, or put in a bottle, and closely con- 
fined. J. F, TOMPKINS, M. D. 



Preparations for the Fair. 

The committee ot arrangements are 
making every necessary preparation for 
a fine show on the 18th of October next- 



^. 



1 



178 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



The grounds for exliibilion are vvitliin 
one mile of the Capitol, east of the city, 
which are as convonieiit as could 
iiHve been selected. We hope that now 
the fanners, mechanics and manufac- 
turers of the Siale, see that the people 
of Raleigh and Wake county have 
made the prej-arations, and expended a 
large fund, tliey will bring speci- 
mens to the Fair. Every person is re- 
quested to furnish what tliey can to- 
wards making out the show, there is no 
tax laid on any thing that may be 
sliown, and all ^t-^eks are, entertained 
by the Saciety, while the exhibition is go- 
ing on. We have seen in various parts 
of the State as fine cattle, horses, hogs, 
and sheep, as can be found any where, 
and there s nothing that would more 
generally improve the general agricul- 
ture of the State than this State Fair. 
We say let every body w]jo can, come 
to Raleigh on the 18th of October next, 
.'ind our woi-d for ii,, every one will re- 
turn home much better satisfied with 
liis situation, and will fed proud that 
lie can claim to be a North Carolini- 
an. 



Our Correspondent Alpha. 

We take great pleasure in laving be- 
fore our readers in this number, another 
article from tlse pen of our highly es- 
teemed correspondent Alpha, of Edge- 
combe County. We liope often to hear 
from liim, as it will be seen, he is one 
of the few men in our State who have 
l)aid attention to agriculture as a science, 
and he can be of much service to the 
farming eummunity by such contribu- 
tions as this. The subject is one of in- 
finite importance to the future progress 
of the agriculture of the whole State. 



Guano. 

This highly valuable manure is excit- 
ing much interest amonc; the farmers of 
our country. Thousands of pounds are 
still sent into our State. Those who 
have used it seem to be much flattered 
at the result of the application, and con- 
tinue to enlarge the amount upon their 
farms. Some contend that it may be 
applied to hoed or cultivated crops, 
.vhile others sav that It should rather 
serve as a basis of imp'rovement, by en- 
riching the land so as to cause it to pro- 
duce such green crops ;ss may be turn- 
ed in and mfiile fertilizers. We ara 
much inclined to agree with the latter 
class, for as it is so highly volatile, when 
applied to crops wliich require the fre- 
quent stirring of the soil, these volatile 
principles must, to a great extent, pass 
otF, before atTording much nourishment 
to the crops. But the benefit which 
guano has conferred upon the agricul- 
tural interest of the country has not 
been direct alone ; it is not confined to 
the increased product arising from its 
application, but many farmers have been 
greatly benefited by guano, who have 
perhaps, never applied more than one 
hundred pounds. The great improve- 
ment which ihcy ha.ve seen to arise 
from the application of so small a quan- 
tity ot a substance to their crops, has 
had the ofi'ect to cause th:m to look 
about and see the many means which 
they have around them for enriching 
their lar.ds, and of which they have nev- 
er availed themselves before. There 
are many rich fields in mau}^ parts of 
the country, which but for guano would 
have still been barren, failing to pro- 
duce enough to pay the owner for their 
cultivation. 



THE FARMER'S JOURN'AL 



iTy 



Specimen No. 5, Sandy Soil. 

Amount for analysis 400 Grains 

Water of absorption, 29 " 

Loose stones and gravel 43 " 
Vegetable fibre (undecomposed,) 12 " 

Fine siliceous sand, 214 " 

Minutely divided matter, 81 " 



Containing carbonate of lime. 
Carbonate of magnesia. 
Matter destructabie by heat — 

principally vegetable. 
Silica, 
Alu'iiina, 
Oxide of iron. 
Soluble humus, 
Sulphate of lime 



15 
2 

14 

M 
15 



2 

81 



379 

21 



as we learned, after inaking the analysis, 
the result of a lieavy marling; and 
such was the case to some extent in re- 
lation to the l:irge amount of vegetable 
matter which has been supplied for the 
action of the marl to prevent its per- 
nicious influence upon the groxsing 
crops. This is deficient ofthevari.ni* 
* to a considerable extent, by the 



addition of which it might be regarded 
as a highly productive soil. 
* A word is here omitted in the MS. — Pce. 



400 Grs. 



Loss by analysis, 

Whole amount, 

We have been frequently ca led on 
to give analyses of soils made by us, 
which we should have done long since, 
but there seemed to be oO little eonti 
dence placed in the advantages result- 



To the Members of the State Agricu'- 
tural Society. 

Yon are requested to be present in 

Raleigh on the morning of the 17th of 

October next, the day preceding the 

Slide Fair, This request is especially 

enjoined on the members of the socie- 

ing from them, that we were resolved \ ty, for the reason, that on that day, the 

to wait and see wliether our farmers j various committees will be formed and 

would not, after reading more, become ! the premiums awarded 

convinced of theadvantnixes derived from 



a. knowledge of the soil which they cul- 
tivate. 

REMARKS UPON THE NATURE OF THE 
ABOVE SOIL. 

From the large quantity of various 
kinds of sand reported in the analysis, 
this soil may safely be classed as a san- 
dy soil. The absorbant poweis of this 
soil are fine, much better than those of 
soils generally are. The quantit}' of 
vegetable matter is considerable, but 
there is but a small portion in a state of 
soliitiou at present, yet the amount of 
carbonate of lime is such as to decora- 
pose it rapidly, thereby keeping a con- 
stant supply ready for the nourishment 
of plants. 

The quantity of carbonateof lime in 
this soil is about four per cent., which 
i 6 an unusually large quantity, and was, 



That Large I£og. 

We saw a few wteks since in Salis- 
bury, a li r.g, aged eighteen months, and 
quite poor, weighing 600 lbs, by cor- 
rect weight. This hog belongs to iJr. 
11. James of that town, an enterprising 
gentleman, who has a fine stock ot hogs, 
and we hope to see several of them at 
the Fair, and especially the big one 
which with care will weigh much more 
than he does at present. 



To those who compete for Premiums 
. at the State Fair. 

It is desired that those who present 
specimens for exhibition at the Fair have 
them in Raleigh on or before the 16th 
of October. This is more particularly 
required of those who bring stock, in 
order that they may be restored from fa- 
tio'ue and look well on Monday. 



180 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



Coiistitjitioii asid By-laws for County 
Agricultural Societies. 

We lia\e frpqueiitl3', within the last- 
year, been called on to furnish a writ- 
ten constitution aiuJ by-laws for county 
ai^ricultural societies, which we have 
always done with pleasure. It has al- 
so been often suggested to us to lay 
before our readers such a copy of them 
as will answer for county societies gen- 
erally, which we would have done long 
since, had we not kiiown that we should 
have been charged with a wish to dic- 
tate by many. We have of late seen 
tiie constitutirms and bj -laws of various 
county agricultural societies, which, we 
are clearly of opinion, are ranch too long 
and go much farther than there is any 
need for. We were handed a short 
time since a copy of the constitution 
and by-laws of the Guilford county so- 
ciety, in which this fault of which we 
have spoken is very prominent indeed : 
in this there are even regulations made j 
for the holding of a cattle show or fair, 
and we were informed, while in the 
county, that there had been but one 
meeting of the society since its forma- 
tion, though two years have nearly 
passed away. The copy which we 
have furnished comprises all that is re- 
quired, in the beginning, in any society 
of the kind, and as we are often told 
by persons in various counties, that they 
would establish societies if they had a 
consitution and by laws, we hope to 
hear nothing of this kind as an excuse 
again. 

CONSTITUTION. 

Whereas, we, the undersigned, a 
portion of the farmers of coun- 
ty, looking with pleasure upon the rap- 
id advancement wh'ch is being made in 
cur profession by the formation of ao-ri- 



cultural societies as a mainspring of im-l 
provement, have this day associated! 
ourselves into a body of this kind for] 
our mutual instruction and enjoyment.; 

Thcrrfori.', Repaired, That tliis body! 

be called the county agricultural; 

society. \ 

Resolved, That for the good govern- , 
ment of said society, there shall be^ 
elected annually the following officers, ; 
viz: a President, two Vice Presidents, j 
a Coi'responding Secretary, a Record-j 
ing Secretary, and a Treasurer. ; 

Resolred, That it shall be the duty'; 
of the President of the society to pre-; 
side over its meetings, call meetings afcl 
any time that it may be necessary, and' 
when there is a tie in the members vot-; 
ing, he shall give the casting vote. ] 

Resolved, That it shall be the duty; 
of the Vice Presidents, or the senior one; 
present, to preside over the meetings; 
during the absence of the President. .; 

Rewlvcd, That it shall be the dutyj 
of the Corresponding Secretary to talte' 
in charge and answer all letters in con-j 
nection with any business of the Society,j 
and to make all enquiries possible in re-' 
lation to such subjects as will be of in-i 
terest to the Society. ■ 

Resolved, That it shall be the dutyj 
of the Recording Secretary to keep a< 
correct account of the proceedings ofj 
the Society in a blank book furnished! 
for that purpose, and to i-ead the pro-| 
ceedings of a preceding meeting, correct;; 
the Journal and call the names of mem-i 
bers at the opening of the meetings, and; 
mark absentees. | 

Resolved, That it shall be the dutjl 
of the Treasurer of the society to tahB: 
charge of all funds, pay all claims upon- 
the society when properly authenticate 
ed ; and when retiring from office, to; 
take a receipt from his successor in of-s 
fi e for the amount of money paid over^ 
to him. •' 

BY-LAWS. ; 

Resolved, That this society shall- 

meet once every two months, at ,, 

during the year. 

Resolved. That a subject shall b^j 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



181 



ixo 2.] 
jlec(etl derarimBiits of Agriculture 
in Edareconibe. 



'iHE GRASSES, 

iSo branch of our agriculture is >o 
much iu'Of!<-'CtCMl ;-ts the grasses; in tliis 



chosen for debate atone meeting, to be i large circulation when we recollect the 
(iiocussed at the next ; and that four ; very many scientific men living in various 
members shall be chosen by the Presi- | p;irts onr country, who must claim our 
dent to debate the subject; and when University as the fountain of their 
they have concluded, the debate siiall knowledire. 

tiicn be declared to be general, and any ' 

member is at liberty to express his opi- ; 
nion. : N'e 

JRcsolved, Tliat members shall be al- 
lowed to give their views in their seits 
if they see proper, instead of rising to 
tiieir feet. 

Resolved^ Tiiat an address shall be ; de|nirtineut our destitution is almost 
delivered by some member of the socio- : complete. Tliere is somewhere an old 
ty at each meeting, who shall be voted '', maxim to the effect that, " An extermi- 
for, and elected by the members, they ' noting war on the grasses, is death to 
voting by ballot. jlhe soil.'' Nearly the wiioUj South, 

Resolved, That each member upon \ from the Potomac to the Gulf, seems to 
joining the rociety shall pay the sum of have declared this war, except Kentucky 
, to the Treasurer. ' and parts of the mountain region. Corn, 

Resolved, That members shall ; Cotton, Tobacco, (fee, have all in turn 

be considered a quorum to transact bu- 1 demanded the extermination of grass, 
suie'^s of any kind before the society, j Our herds of horses, cattle, sheep, hogs. 

Resolved, That if a member wishes to • (fee, no longer thrive in the land, nor 
alter or amend the constitution or by-, crowd the roads to market as in former 
laws, he shall at one meeting make ! times ; for our wild-mast ranges ara 
known the fact that at the next meet- I exhausted, and extensive new-grounds 



ing he will make such a motion. 



The Editor's Table. 

The Revolutionary History of Xout i 
Carolina. — This highly valuable work is 
before us at this time, which is neatly jjot- 
ten up upon the part of the Compiler, and 
reflects much credit upon him, and really 
deserves the patronnge of our people gen- 
erally. The matter of the work needs no 



rarely offer iheir heavy winter foraging 
to our stock as formerly. The tide has 
turned back upon us ; mules, horses, 
hogs, beef, pork, cfec, from the west and 
north, bear witness to our deficiencv, 
while the lands themselves present equal 
evidence that a destructive and unnatu- 
ral system has robbed them of their 
powers of production. These are some 
of the consequences of a system which 
makes us look upon all grass as a pest ; 
and i'^stead of giving it a proper place 



comment; the names of Hawks, Swain 

and Graham, the authors, are a sufficient! among our crops, and with skill' and 
guar:int(?e of its value. This work may j judgment directing the efforts of nature 
be had of the Compiler and publisher, Wm. I to cover and protect our soils with grass, 
D. Cooke, Esq., of Raleigh, at the sum of I ^^e spend an immensity of labor in coun- 



$1, and will, we presume, if not now, soon 
be for sale in the various Bookstores. 

The University Magazine. — We have 
been presented with the September num- 
ber of this work by the publisher, which 
is really interesting, and may truly be said 



teracting them, although we know that 
nature's own process for improvement of 
the soil is by the growth and decay of 
vegetable matter upon it, and that no- 
thing can better perform this office than 
the grasses. We know that no agri- 
culture can be complete without a good 



to rank high with other works of the same rotation of crops ; no rotation can be 
kiad. This pediodical is entitled to a very ! complete without the grasses ; and no 



182 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



(•oiintry can be vvnil find cheaply sup- 
plied with stock animals witliont ivrasses 
for soilino- and grazing. An oid French 
song expresses nearly the same ideas : 

"Cultivate little— but cultivate well 
Your crops alternate — if good produce you'd sell. 
Your soil manure often : the return it will yield, 
Will tenfold repay what you spend on the field. 
Sow gra.=s too, at times, ii you wish to make sure 
Of havinu a plent ful stock ol manure : 
Without ,q;rass you 've no cattle, without cattle 

'tis plain, 
You'll have no manure ; and without that no 

grain. 

Tints the grasses, whether as a part of a 
judicious rotation or as asonrce of forage, 
are indispensable to every kind of agri- 
culture — civilized or savage. We have 
among us no system of rotation, good 
or bad ; but as a substitute, we some- 
times rest our lands as Ave call it; that 
is, let it lie one year in weeds ; and 
every one knows tlieir grointh and decay 
on, t}>.e land produce a happv effect. Now 
very few nMiect that these weeds are 
juHt as much a crop as an}' oilier, and a 
•■estiferons crop at 1 hat ; and if taken off, 
w'jiild be as exhaustin/;, or more so, th.an 
many crops we value much higher. 
Why not then substitute for the ivsed 
crop, one of peas, chiver, grasses, &c., 
and so institute a just and true rotation 
of cleansing crops, iiistead of pestiferous 
w<^eds and biamliles ? We would thus 
realize the maxim that, " The b?st rest 
for the sail, is a. judicious rotation of 
crop^.''^ 

The plow is a mighty inslrunient — 
so is the sword -and an indiscrisninate 
use of either must make sad, liavoc. — 
From a general view of ditl'erent latitudes 
and tlieir productions, we are induced 
to think that the plow, like the sword, 
is much oftener applied to iinpro[)er 
uses than we of this age are apt tosup- 
])ose. From the equator to more than 
half the temperate zones, pi'oduction 
and decay are very rapid, lieat intense, 
rains heavy, summers long, and evapo- 
ration great. It is natural to suppose 
that all these phenomena must make all 
summei' .culture far moie destructive to 
the soils of southern, than to those of 
higher northern latitudes, where they 
do not exert the same power, where 



evaporation is slow, winters long — and 
summers short. This again would in- 
duce us to suppose that permanent 
crops — as orchards — small giain, and 
grasses, <kc., requiring but little sum- 
mer culture, are especially adapted to 
southern soils, while the reverse would 
seem more appropriate to northern lati- 
tudes. We have no doubt, these infer- 
ences are just : That for all soils per- 
manent crops are best, because more in 
accoi'dance. with nature, that northern 
soils withstand summer culiure best, and 
that the further south we go (towards the 
equator) the less summer culture the 
soil should have. Yet, it is notorious, 
that present usage is just the reverse — the 
small grain grass and stock regions, are 
mostly to the north of us, requiring but 
little summer culture, while all our 
crops at the south, demand the constant 
harr.assing operation of the p)low and 
hoe, exposing the soil to the scorching- 
suns of summer, and heavy rains of 
winter. The whole process is un- 
natural, and no doubt impoverishes the 
soil as mnch as the crops which are re- 
moved from it. Look at our broad 
plantations in A])ril and May — wheie 
is the carpet of green, which the eve 
expects to find on the fields in these 
balmy months of spring. In vain it 
roves over countless acres — except an 
oat or wheat patch here and there — the 
fields present the barrenness of winter, 
the sod is flushed up with the plow, 
and reflects back the sunshine like the 
sand of a desert. It is generally June or 
July, bef(;re the growing crop can c(n^er 
the soil with green, even in appearance ; 
and we feel how unnatural it is to see 
the fields so naked in spring. 

But our valuable productions, cotton, 
corn, tobacco, &c., all require summer 
culture, and these summer crops and 
summer culture can never be abandon- 
ed. Neither ought they to be; but 
they could be placed in a more natural 
system, with a rotation embracing a 
proper series of permanent crops, which 
aid in giving such fertility to the soil, 
that one acre would yield what four or 



THE 'FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



183 



five produce now ; leaving tlie general 
suiface of the country under the recn- 
j'crating intluence of a ujore njilural 
.■system. Then, two or tliree thousand 
})iiunds of cotton, ten to tiftet n bane!;- 
(.f corn, many tons of hay or wheat, 
iSzc, in proportion per acre, might be- 
come the common i.>roduction, and the 
ciiuntry a gard'enin fertility and beaut} 
as God first made it. Then the thou- 
sands -which we spend for horses, mules, 
liogs, &c., would lemain with us, to 
lead us into those proper divisions of 
labor in agriculture, manufactures and 
commerce, without which no country 
can, in this age, well fulfil its destiny. 
This would establish the first great 
principle for a healthy progiess, viz: 
multiply and increase your valuable 
jiroductions first, no iiiatter what they 
be — granite, ciyal, copper, gram, or 
manufactures — and they will break down 
the barriers which sliut them from the 
markets of the world — which ivill have 
them — commerce and wealth will very 
soon bring navigation and railroads to 
smoothe the way for their transit, and 
fixed wealth will be fostered on the soil 
of our own Carolina — instead of leaving 
her to settle on the barren hills of the 
North or to eniich the more fertile re- 
ofions of the west. ALPHA. 



Sheep. — There have been landed 
from the steamship Humboldt, one 
hundred and eleven sheep, of the im- 
]iroved merino stock — remarkable for 
their very large size and weight of 
fleece. They were imported by Solo- 
mon W. Jewett, of j\:liddlebury, Ver- 
mont, who purchased them in the inte- 
rior of France. Most of them were 
<ib'ained of Mr. Victor Gilbert, of Vid- 
deville, department of Seine cV Oe'se, who 
has improved them of the original 
stock. Their average cost per head is 
$40 — expense of transportation from 20 
to $30. Here they rea?lily bring from 
100 to $200, and for several valuable 
rams, Mr. Jewett has refused loOO and 
upwards. His importations during the 
last three years amounts to $55,000. 
— Journal of Commerce. 



{Covtinved from page 175.) 

The leaf has been dc'-cribtd (p. 76) 
MS an expansion of the bark. It con- 
sists intern;dly of two layers of veins nr 
vascular fibres laid one uver the otlier, 
the upper comncied with the ^\ood — 
the louer with the inner baik. It is 
covered on I'oth sides by a thin mem- 
brane (epidermis), the expansion of the 
outer bark. This thin membrane is 
studded with numerous small pores or 
months (^tomata.) which vary in size 
and in number with the nature of the 
plant, anil with the circuiristances in 
which it is intendeil to grow. It is from 
the poles in the upper part of the lent 
that subsLiinces are supposed to be cx- 
haled,^ while everything that is inhaled 
enters by those which are observed in 
the under side of the leaf. This opin- 
ion, however, is not universally received, 
it being admitted by some that the pow- 
er buth of absorbing and of emitting 
may be ])os.-essed by the under surface 
of the leaf 

7". We have seen that the chief sup- 
ply of the fluids which constitute the 
sap of plants, is derived from the soil. 
The under side of the leaves of plants 
is also supposed bv some to be capable 
of absorbing moisture from the air, eith- 
er in the foim uf watery vapor, or when 
it falls upon the leaves in the state of 
dew. Like the roots also they may ab- 
sorb with the dew any substances the 
latter happens to hold m solution. And 
thus plants may, in sonn; degree, be 
noU'ished by the volatile oiganic sub- 
stances which ascend from tiieearili du- 
ring the heat of llie day, and wdiich are 
agaui in a great measure precipitated 
\yith the evening dew. 

\\ hether the leaves ever absorb ni- 
trogen gas from the air has not as yet 
been determined with sufficient accura- 
cy. If they do, it must in general be 
iu very small quantity only, since it has 
hitherto escaped detection. In like 
manner it is doubtful how far they reg- 
ularly absorb any other substances 
which the air is supposed to contain. — 
Thus it is known tliat iiitric acid exists 
in the air in very minute quantity. — 



^<, 



184 



THE FARMER^S JOURNAL. 



Some chemists also believe that ammo- 
nia is extensively diffused through the 
atmosphere in an exceedingly diluted 
state. Do the leaves of plants absorb 
these substances? Is the absoi'ption of 
then, one of the constant anil necessary 
functions of the leaves 1 The reply to | 
these questions must be very uncertain, ' 
and any principle which professes to be , 
based upon such a reply niust be regard- I 
ed only as a matter of opinion. •■ 

8°. The petals of flower leaves perform j 
a somewhat different function from those 
of the ordinary leaves of a plant. They 
absorb oxygen at all tinies — though 
more by night than by day — and they 
eonstanily emit carbonic acid. The 
bulk of the latter gas evolved, however, 
is less than that of the oxygen taken in. 
The absorption of oxygen gas, and the 
constant production of caibonic acid, is, 
])) some flowers, so great as to cause a 
perceptible increase uf temperature— 
and to this slow combustion, so to speak, 
the proper heat observed in the flov.-ers 
of many jilants has been attiibnted. 

According to some authois, the flow- 
erdeaves also emit pure nitrogvn gas. 
[Sprengel, Chemic, II., p. 3-47.] This 
tact has not 5'et been deternined by a 
suflicient number of accurate experi- 
ments; it is in accordance, however, 
with the results of Boussingault, that, 
when a plant flowers and aj)proaches to 
maturity, the nitrogen it contains be- 
comes less. If coulirmed, this evolution 
of nitrogen woi'.ld throw an interesting 
light on the most advantageous em- 
ployment (f g!".'en crops, both for the 
porjioses of manure and for the feeding 
of cattle. 

9°. When the leaves of plants begin 
to decay, either naturally as in autumn, 
or from artificial or accidental causes, 
they no longer absorb and decompose 
carbonic acid, even under the influence 
of the sun's rays. On the conrary, 
they absorb oxygen, like the petals of 
t'le flc-wer, :ew (orr^pc und% are formed 
within their substance — their green col- 
or disappeai-s — they become yellow — 
they wither, die, and drop from the 



tree — their final function, as the organs 
of a living being, is discharged. They 
then undergo new changes, are subject- 
ed to a new series of influences, and are 
made to serve new purposes in the 
economy of nature. These we shall 
hereafter find to be no less interesting 
and important in reference to a further 
end, than are the functions ofthe living 
leaf to the growth and nourishment of 
the plant.- — [See subsequent lecture, 
" On the law of the decay of organic sxib- 
.sta/ices."] 

G. FUNCTIONS OF THE EARK. 

The inner bark being connected with 
the under layer of vessels in the leaf, re- 
ceives from them the sap after it has been 
changed by the action of the air and 
light, and transmits it downwards to the 
root. 

The outer bark, especially in young 
twigs and in the stalks of the grasses, 
so closely resembles the leaves in its ap- 
pearance, that we can have no ditficuUy 
in admitting that it must, not unfre- 
quently, perform similar functions. In 
the Cactus, the Stapeiia, and other plants 
which produce no true leaves, this^outer 
bark seems to perform all the functions 
which in other vegetable tribes are spe- 
cially assigned to the abundant foliage. 
During its descent through the inner 
bark, therefore, the sap must in very 
many cases undergo chemical changes, 
moie or less analogous to those which 
usually take place in the leaf. 

It is by means of the inner bark that 
the stems of trees, such as our forest 
and fi'uit trees, are enlarged by the d'*- 
position of annual lajj^ers of new wood. 
Tlie woody fibre is formed or prepar- 
ed in the leaf, as the sap descends it is 
deposited beneath the inner surface of 
the inner bark. It thus happens that^ 
as the sap descends, it is gradually de- 
prived of the substances it held in sohi- 
tion when it left the leaf, and in conse- 
quence it becomes difficult to say ho"»«' 
much of the change, which the sap is 
found to have undergone when it reach- 
es the root, is due to chemical transfer- 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



Illations produced during its dt-scent, 
and liow iiiucli to the deposition of the 
woody fibre Mnd other matters it lias 
parted with by the way. 

Among other evidence of such chang- 
es really taking place during the des- 
cent of the sap, I may mention an ob- 
servation of Meyen [/(///.re'i^em-//^, 1S39, 
p. 27,] made in the course of iiis expe- 
•riraents on the reproduction of the bark 
of trees. In these experiments he en- 
closed the naked wood in strong glass 
lubes, in three cases out of eight the 
tubes were burs;t and shattered in pieces. 
This could only have arisen from the 
disengagement of gaseous substances, 
the result of decomposition. While, 
therefore, such gases as enter by the 
roots or are evolved in the vessels of the 
wood during the ascent of the sap, es- 
cape by the leaf along with those wliicli 
fire disengaged in tlie leaf itself, it is 
probable that those which are ])roducrd 
as the result of changes in tlie bark, 
descend with the downward sap, and 
arc discharged by the root. 

In the bark of the root it is probable 
that still further changes take [dace — 
ai-d of a kind which c;m only be cft'ect- 
cd during the absence of iio-ht. This 
is rendered probable by the fact that 
the bark of the root frequently contains 
substances which are not to be met with 
in any other part of the plant. Thus 
from the bark of the fresh root of the 
apple tree a substance named pldurkl- 
zlne^ possessed of considerable moiii^tinal 
virtues, may be readily extracted, though 
\i does not exist in the bark either of 
tlie stem or of the branches. 

In fine, as the foexl wdiich is introduc- 
ed into the stomachs of animals, under- 
goes continual and successive chemical 
changes during its progress through the 
entire alimentary canal — so, numerous 
phenomena indicate that the sap of plants 
is also subjected to unceasing transfor- 
mations, — in the root and in the ^era 
as well iu the leaves, — at one time in 
the dark, at another under the influence 
of- the sun's rays, — exposed when in 
tho leaf to the full action of the air, — 



land when in the root almost wdiolly se- 
I eluded from its presence; — the new 
j compounds produced in every instance 
being suited either to the nature of tlie 
j plant or the wants and functions of ihat 
[ part of it iu wdiicli each transformation 
; takes ph\ce. 

To some of these transformatioiis it 
will be necessary to advert rnoi-e paitic- 
ularly, when wo come to consider the 
I special changes by which those snb- 
; stances of which plants chietly consi-t. 
I are formed out of these compounds on 
[ which they chieilv live. 
I 
1 7. — CnicuMSTANCKS nv wincit tuk 

j FfXCTIOKS OF THK VARIOUS PAllTS 
i OF PLANTS AKE MODIFtED. 

I Plants grow more or less kixurianllv, 
j and their several parts are more or less 
j largely devel"»ped, in obedionce to nu- 
i merous and varied circumstances. 
j I. In regard to the special functions 
i of the root, we have already seen that 
: the access of atmospheric air is in some 
I cases indispeiisable, while in others, by 
' shooting vertically downwards, the roots 
appear to shun the approach of either 
air or light. It is obvious also that a 
certain degree of moisture in the soil, 
and a certain temperature, are necessarv 
to the most healthy discharge of the 
functions of the root. In liot weatln r 
j the plant droops, because the roots do 
' not absorb water from the soil with suf- 
ficient rapidity. And thoi.gh it is prob- 
able that, at every temperature above 
that of absolute freezing, the food con- 
tained in the soil is absorbed and trans- 
mitted more or less slowlv to the stem, 
yet it is well known that a genial warmth 
in the soil stimulates the roots to in- 
creased activity. The practice of gar- 
deners in applying bottom heat in the 
artificial climate of the green-house and 
conservatory is founded on this well- 
known principle. 

But the nature of tho soil in which 
plants grow has also much influence on 
the way in wdiich the functions of the 
root are discharged. As a general fact 
this also is well known, though the 



186 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



special qvuilities ot' the soil on which the 
greater or h^ss activity of vegetation de- 
pcruls, are far from bin'ng- generall}' un- 
derstood. If the soil contain a sensible 
quantity of any substance which is nox- 
ious to plants, it is plain that tlieir roots 
will be to a certain degn.'e enfeebled, 
and their functions in consequence only 
imperfectly discharged. Or if the soil 
be deficient either in organic food, or in 
one or other of thuse inorganic suljstan- 
ces which tl;e plants necessarily require 
for the pro<lucLinn of their si;veial parts, 
the muts cannot perform their office 
with any degree of efficiency. Where 
th(.' necessary materials are wanting the 
builder must cease to worl:. 80 in a 
soil which contains no silica, the grain 
of wheat may germinate, Imt the stalk 
ctnnot f)e produced in a natural oi' 
healthy st;?t,e, since silica is indispi-nsa- 
l)le to its healthy construction. 

II. The ascent of the sap is modified 
chietly bv the season of the year, I)y the 
heat of the day, and by the genus and 
age of the plant or tree. 

There seems reason to b'.'lieve that 
the plant never sleeps, that even during 
the winter the circnlntion slowly pro- 
ceeds, though the first genial sunshine 
of the early spring stimulates it to in- 
creased aciivity. The general increased 
temperature of the air d-.>es not produce 
this acceleration in so remarliabie a man- 
ner as the direct rays of the sun. The 
sap will flow and circulate on the side 
of a tree on which the sunshine falls, 
wiiile it remains sensibly stagnant on 
the other. This is shown by the cut- 
ting down similar trees at more and 
more advanced periods of the spring, 
and iujuiersing their lower extremities 
in coloured solutions. The wood and 
birlc on one sitle of the tree will be col- 
ored, while, on the other, both will re- 
main unstained. If a similar difference 
in the comparative rapidity of the circu- 
lation on opposite sides of a trunk or 
branch be supposed to prevail more or 
less throughout the year, we can readi- 
ly account for the annual layers of wood 
being often thicker on the one half of 



the ciicumference of the stem than on 
the other. 

The sap is g nerally supposed to* tfow 
most rapidly during the spring, but if 
trees be cut down at different seasons, 
and immersed as above described, the 
colored solution, according to Boucheri*-, 
reaches the leaves most rapidly in the 
autumn. 

The heat of the day, other circum- 
stances being the same, material Iv af- 
fects, for the time, the rapidity of the 
circulation. Tlie more rapidly watery 
and other vapors are exhaled from the 
leaves, the more quickly must the sap 
flow upwards to supptly the waste. If 
jon two successive days the loss by the 
I leaves be, as in the experiment of llale«:, 
I above described, (p. 90.) as 2 to 3, the 
i accent of the sap must be accelerated or 
i retarded in a similar [irojiortion. Ilenc?', 
I every sensible variation in the tempera- 
I ture and moisture of the air, must also, 
j to a certain extent, modify the flow of 
I the sap ; must cause a greater or less 
I transport of that food which the earth 
: supplies, to be carried to every part of 
I the plant, and must thus sensibly afiert 
i the luxuriance and growth of the wliole. 
I But the persistence of the leaves is a 
I generic character, which has considera- 
! ble influence upon the circulation in the 
\ evergreens. In the pine and the Isolly, 
1 from which the leaves do not fall in the 
I autumn, the sap ascends and descends 
! during all tlie colder months, — at a 
I slower rate, it is true, than in the hoj 
j days of summer, yet much more sensi- 
j biy than in the oak and ash, which 
I spread their naked arms through tli« 
W'intery air. This is illustrated b}' the 
experiments of Boucherie, who has ob- 
served that in December and January 
the entire wood of resinous trees mav 
be readily and thoroughly penetrated 
by the spontaneous ascent of saline and 
other solutions, into which their stents 
mfw be immersed. 

III. From what has just been staled, 
it will appear that the mechanical func- 
tions of the stem are subject to precise- 
ly the same influences as the ascent of 



THE FARMER'S JCURXAL. 



187 



t;ie sap. As the tree advances in ;+ge, | gerness witli whicli tiicy a])[)ear to lou;^ 
the vesst'lt- of tlie interiur will become j tor it. lluw iiUiiUsylv (in-.'s tlnr; snu- 



re or less ob'iteratotl, aiui the gener- 1 fl iwer \yat(;h llie 



nii'se of the 



:tl course of the sap will be gradually ! sun,— how do Liie cMinticss lilossonis 
transferred to annual layers, njore and j nightly urojp when ii*i rctiies, — and 
more removed from tl.e centre. Itislihe blanched phiut sivive to rt-ach an 
this transference of the vital circulation | open chink ihiough winch his light may 
to newer and more \nivfvct vessels thati reach it • 

enables the tree to grow Jind blossom | 'J'liat the «v7r/,>;,/A of the sun iias com- 
and bear fruit through so long a life. | paratively little to do with this spccilio 
In animals the vessels are gradually ] action of his rays on the chemical fuar- 
worn out by incessaiit action. None of' tioas of the leaf, is iilustratt-d bv sunu^ 
them, tiirough old age, are permitted to ' intei-esting experiments of .Mr. Hunt, on 
retire from the service of the body — and ! the effect of rays of light of diiferent 



the whole system must stop when one 
of them is incapacitated for the further 
jierformatice of its appointed duties. 



colours on the growing plant. Jle sowed 
cress seed, and expo-ed different por- 
tions of the soil in which the seeds were 



In repaid to the chemical functions germinating, to the action of the red, 
of the stem, it is obvious that they are I yellow, green, and blue rays, which weie 
not assicnied to the mere woody matter ! transmitted by equal thicknesses of so- 
(if the vessels and celU. They take j luti(.>ns of these several colours. "After 
I'lace in these vess<ds, but the nature | ten days, there was undei- the blue fluid, 
jindextentof the chemical changes them- j a crop of cress of ;is bright a green as 



selves must be de[)endent upon the 
(juantity anil kinds of matter which 
ascend or descend in the sap. The en- 
tire chemical fimctions <jf the plant, 
therefore, must be dependent upon and 
must be modilied by the nature of the 
substances which the soil and the air 
respectively present Lo the rooc^ and to 
the leaves. 

IV. In describing the funclions of 
the leaf, I have already had occasion to 
advert to the greater number of the cir- 
cumstances by which the di^cliarge of 
those functions is most materially affec- 
ted. We have seen that the purposes 
served by the leaf are entirely different 
accordiiig as the sun is above or below 
tise horizon ; that the temperature and 
moisture of the air may indeed mate- 
rially influeifce the rapidity with which 
its functions are discharged — but that 
tiie light of the sun actually determines 
their nature. Thus the leaf becomes 
green and oxygen is given off in the 
])re3ence of the sun, while in his absence 
carbonic acid is disengaged, and the 
whole plant is blanched. 

llow necessary light is to the health 
of plants may be inferred from the ea- 



any whii-ii grew m full ligl.'t and far 
more abundant. The crop was scanty 
under the gican fluid, and of a pale, 
yelh>w, unliealthy color. Under the 
yellow solution, only two or tlnee plants 
appeared, but, less p.nle than tiiose un- 
der the gi-een. — vvlii'e beneath the red, 
a few more plants came u]* than under 
the yellow, though tliev also were of an 
unhealthy colour. The red and blue 
bottles being now mutually transferred, 
the ci'op foinierly benea'h the blue in a 
i'vw days appeai'ed blighted, while on 
the patch previously ex[)osefl to the red, 
some additional plants s|irmie' up." 

Besides (the rays of heat and of light, 
the sun-beam contains wfat have been 
called chemical rays, not distinguisha- 
ble by our senses, but capable of being 
recognized by the chemical effects they 
produce. These ravs ajjpear to differ in 
kind, as the rays of different coloured 
light do. It IS to the action of these 
chemical rays on the leaf, and especially 
to those which are associated with the 
blue light in the solar beam, that the 
chemical influence of the sun on the 
functions of the leaf is principally to be 
ascribed. 



s\ 



188 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



[t cannot be doubted that the warnith ' by the practical farmer are only so ma- 
and rnoisturoof a tropical climate act ; ny modes by which he hopes to influ- 
Hs powerful stimulants — assistants it ! ence and promote the growth of the 
)nfiy be — to the leaf, in the absorption I whole plant, and the dischara;e of the 
t)f carbonic acid from the air, and in i functions of aU its parts, 
that rapid appropriation (assimilation) Though manures in the soil act inv- 
of its carbon by which the growth of I mediately through the roots, they stim- 
tlie plant is hastened and promoted, i ulate the growth of the entire plant; 
But the bright sun, and especially tlie I and though the application of a top- 
chemical influence of iiis beams, must ! dressing may be supposed first to af- 
be regarded as the main agent in the : tect the leaf, yet the beneficial result 
wonderful development of a tropical ! of the experiment depends upon the 
vegetation. Under this influence the i influence which the dressing mav exer- 
growth by the leaves at the expense of | cise on every part of the vegetable tis- 
the air must be materially increased, | sue. 

and tlie plant be rendered less depend- j In connection with this p^rt of the 
ent upon the root and the soi! fur the ■ subject, theiefore, I shall only further 
food on which it Ii\e.-. advert to a very remarkable fact men- 

V. The rapidity with which a plant ; tioned by Spreagel, which seems, if 
grows h:'.s an important influence u]>on icorrfC', to be susceptible of important 
the share which the bark is ])ermitted practical applications. lie states that 
to take in the general nr>uri>hment of it has very frequently been observed in 
the whole. The green shout })eiforms ; llolstein, that if, on an extent of level 
in soiiie degree the fun^-tions (jf the leaf. | ground sown with corn, some fields \ye 
In vascular plants, therefore, wliich in a ; marled, and others left unmarlc-d, the 
congenial clim.nte may almost be seen ; corn on the later portions will grow 
to grow, tha entiie rind of a tall tree l^ss bi.ruriantli/ and will yield a poorer 
}nay more or les-^ cflectually absorb car- '] crop than if the whole had been unmarl- 
bonic acid from the atmosphere, during ec^. Hence he adds, if the occupier (, f 
the jirescnce of the sun. The broad i the unrnarled field would not have a 
leaves of the palm tree, when fully de- ! surcession of poor crops, he must marl 
veloped, render the plant in a great de- \his land also. 

gree independent of the soil for organ- { Can 't really be that nature tlius re- 
ic food — and the large amount of ;ib- | wards the diligent and the improver? 
sorbing surface in the long green tender | Do tne plants which grow on a soil in 
stalks of the gras-;es, and of their trop- ' higher condition take from the air more 
ical analogues, must mat<'riall3' contrib- 1 than their due share of the carbonic 
ute to the same end. Hence the pro- j acid or other vegetable food it may 
])'>rtion of organic matter derived from j contain, and leave to tlie tenants of the 
the air, iu any crop we reap, must al- j poorer soil a less proportion than they 
ways be the greater the more raj)id its | might otherwise draw from it? How 
■gi^neral vegetation has been. ! many interesting reflections does such a 

It is a fact familiarly known to all of j fact as this suggest ! What new views 
you, that, besides those circumstances j does it disclose of the fostering care of 
by which we can perceive the special t the great Contriver — of his kind en- 
functions of any one organ to be modi- ; couragement of every species of virtu- 



fied, there are many by which the en- 
tire economy of the plant is materially 
and simultaneously affected. On this 
fact the practice of Agriculture is found- 
ed, and the rarious processes adopted 



ous labour ! Can it fail to read to us 
a new and special lesson on the bene- 
fits to be derived from the application 
of skill and knowledge to the cultiva- 
tion of the soil ? 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



183 



■2. 41) 


0-^9 


- 90 


2 40 


0.90 


0.3-1 


on 0.2f> 


0.>0 


- 4.00 


28.70 


50 


0.37 


- 0.40 


1.70 


0.10 


0.30 



The Earthy and Mineral Substances 
ill Plants. 

1. In Wheat.— 2. lu Barley.— 3. In Oats.— 4. In Rye. 
6. In Beans, Peas and Vetches.— ti. In Turnips, 
Carrots, Parsnips, and Potatoes. — 7. (ira.sscs and 
Clover. 

I. — OF THE ASH OF WHE.VT. 

According to the analysis of Spren- 
gel, 1000 Ib.s. of vvhejit U^ave 11.77 lbs., 
and of wheat straw 25.18 lbs. of ash, 

c<jnsisting of — 

Grain of Straw of 
Wlieat. Wheiit. 

Potash ... - 2.25 lbs. 0.20 lbs. 

Soda - 

Lime - • 

Magnesia 

Alumina.wiih a trace of Iron 0.20 

Silica - - 

Sulphif^ic Acid 

Phosphoric Acid 

Chlorine 

11.77 lbs. 3o.l8 lb.s. 
If the produce of a field be at the 
'■rate per acre of 25 bushels of wheal, 
e.^ich 60 lbs., and if the straw be equal 
to twice the wei_Li'ht of grain, tiie quan- 
tity of each reaped per acre will be 

Straw 3000 I '"'^ "" I« oduce of 25 bushels ; 

so that the c^uantity of the different in- 
organic compounds carried oti'fyo7n the 
do'd of each acre wil be, in the grain ^ 
more than is represented in tlie second 
column, and in the straw 3 times as 
much as is presented in the third col- 
umn. 

II. — OF THE ASH OF BARLKY. 

A thousand pounds of the grain of 
barley (two-rowed, horchum distichon,) 
leave 2o2 lbs., and of the ripe dry 



straw 52.42 lbs. ot 


ash. This 


ash con- 


sists of — 








Grain. 


Straw. 


Potash 


2.78 lbs. 


1.80 lbs. 


Soda 


- 2.80 


0.48 


Lime - - - 


1.06 


5.5t 


Magnesia 


. 1.70 


0.76 


Alumina 


25 


1.46 


Oxide of Iron - 


- a trace. 


14 


Oxide of Manganese 


— 


0.50 


Silica ... 


- 11.82 


38..56 


Sulphuric Acid - 


0.59 


1.18 


Phosphoric Acid 


- 2.10 


1.60 


Chlorine 


0.19 


0.70 



per acre, and the straw e.xcoed the grai" 

in weiglit one-si.xth, the weight of eacu 

reaped per acre will be about 
I 

i 2000 lbs. of grain, } from a produce of 38 bueh- 
j 2300 lbs. of straw, S els ; 

I and the inoraanic matter-; carried off 
I from the soil by each will be obtained 
! by mu!tii)lying those cuntained in the 
I second coluiuu (above) by 2, and in the 
i third by 2^. 
i 

i III. OF THE ASH OF OATS. 

{ 111 1000 lbs. nf the grain of the oat 
I are contained about 2t) lbs., and of the 
i dry straw abuut 57 1-2 lbs. uf inorgan- 
I ic matter, ct.'UsisLing of — 



i Pota>h, 

i Soda, 

; Lime, 

I Mjigiiesia, 

j Aluniiim, 

I Oxide of Iron, 

I Oxide of Ma^ncoia, 

j Silica, 

i Sulphuric Acid, 

Phosphoric Acid, 

Chlorine, 



25.80 lbs. 57.40 lbs. 

If an acre of land yield 50 bushels, 
each 54 lbs., of oats, and two-thirds 
more in weight of straw, there will b<i 
reaped per aire. 

Of grain 2250 lbs. ) from a produce of 50 bush- 
Of straw 3750 lbs. )" els. 

and the weigh tf the inorganic matters 
cairied oti' will be equal ro 22 limes the 
qunhtities contained in the second col- 
umn, and 84 times those contained in the 
third column. 

IV. t)F THE ASH OF RYE, 

The weight of ash contained in 1000 
lbs. of the grain of rye is IO2 lbs., and 
of the straw 28 lb.s. The ash consists of 



23.49 lbs 52.42 lbs. 

If the produce of a crop of barh'v 

amount to 38 bushels of 63 lbs. each 



Giain. 


Straw. 


1.50 lbs. 


8.70 ibt 


1 .:J2 


02 


0.05 


15i 


0.07 


0.22 


0.14 


0.06 


0.40 


0.02 


0.((l 


03 


19.70 


45.88 


Oo5 


79 


7o 


0.12 


0.10 


0.05 



Potash, ) 

Soda, f 

Lime, 

Magnesia, 

Alumina, 

Oxide of Iron, 

Oxide of Manganese, 

Silica, 

Sulphuric Acid, 

Phosphoric Acid, 

Chlorine, 



5.32 lbs. 

1.22 

178 

0.24 ) 

0.42 ) 

0.35 

1.64 

0.23 

0.46 

0.09 



Straw, 

(0.32 lbs. 
] 0.11 

1.78 

0.12 

0.25 



22.97 
1.70 
0.51 
0.17 



10.40 lbs. 27.93 Ibt 



i 



103 



XnS FzlRMER'S JOURN"AL, 



Rve is remarkaMii for the quaritifv of 
siraw it yields, wliich is ofien from 3 to 
4 limes t>lio wei.';-lit of the grain. The 
reiuni in grMin readies about the sami' 
uverage as that of wheat. From an 
ticre of hind vieLliiig a crop of 25 hush- 
-OiS, each 54 lbs., there would be reaped 
Of grain 1353 lbs, ; of straw 4000 lbs, ; 

the whole weight of iiiorgarHC matters 
contained in which is equal to ^ more 
ihan is represented in the second col- 
\i:nn, added to 4 times the weights con- 
tained in the t'lii'd cohmjti. 

OF THE ASH OF BEANS, PEAS, AND 
VErOHEB. 

The ash of the seed and straw of the 
tiiild bean, the liekl pea, and the com- 
mon vetch {^uicia satira,) dried in the 
air, contains in 1000 lbs. t!ie several in- 
organic c:.impounds in the foliowing pro- 
jioriions : 



Field Buan. Fi.ld Pea. Com. Vetch. 
SceJ. Str.Tw, Seed, Hr^xv, Seeti. Slraw,' 

Potash 4 13 16,56 8.10 2 33 8,97 18.10 

Si,.da 8 16 0.50 7,39 6,22 0.52 

Linid 1 65 6 2t 0,53 27.30 1.60 19 55 

Mas^ne.sia 1,53 2,09 1.36 3.42 ]. 42 3.24 

Alumina 0,34 0.10 0,2.0 0.60 0,22 0,15 

Oxide of Iron — 0,07 0,10 0,20 0.09 0.09 

Da of Manganese — 0.05 — 07 0,03 OS 

^ihca " 1.26 2.20 4.10 9.96 2 00 4.42 

Sulphuric Acid U.89 0,34 53 3 37 0,60 1.22 

rhosphoric Acid 2.92 2.26 1 90 2.40 1,40 2.80 

C-hlorir.e 0,41 0,80 0,33 0,04 0.43 0,74 

2).3cj 3r2i 24. C4 49.71 22 90 ol.Ot 

On corapai-ing the iuirab'.;rs in these 
columns, we ciniior fail lo iv>uiai'k,— ^ 

1°. How much potash there i.s iu the 
eiraw of the bean and the vetch. 

2°. Thau while theit; is only a trace 
o\' soda in any of the three straws, 
there is a considerable quantity in all the 
seeds. 

3°. How large a proportion of lime 
i-usts in the i:iraw of the pea and of 
the vetch — compared with that of the 
bean — and how much larger the pro- 
j.'ortion is in all the straws than in any 
* of the grains — and 

4°. That the quantily of silic;i in pea 
itraw is double of what is contained in 
the straw of the vetch, and tour times 
that of the bean straw. 



The produce of straw from these three 
varieties of pulse is very bulky, but va- 
ries in weight from I to 1 3-4 tons — or 
jis on an average about 2300 lbs per 
' acre. The produce of grain is still more 
variable. 

The bean gives from 16 to 40 bush 
el.s, of about 63 lbs. 

The pea gives from 12 to 84 bushels 
of about 64 lbs. 

The vetch gives from 16 to 40 bush- 
els, of about 60 lbs. 

'Ihe mean return from beans is esti- 
mated ])y Schwertz [Anhilanr^ Zum 
Praktischen Ac/cerbau, IL, p. 346] at 
25 bushels (1600 lbs.,) from peas at 15 
bushels (1000 lbs.,) and from vetches 
at r7 bushels (1100 lbs.) per acre. 

The qu ntity of the several inorgan- 
ic matters, therefore, carried oft" from an 
acre in the straw of these- crops, will 
be about 2 1-3 times the weights o-iveu 
in the table— and in the grains, where 
the crop is near the above average, 1 2-3 
times the weights in the tables lor'beans 
and for peas, and for vetches very near- 
ly the actual weights above o-iven. 

OF THP; ASH, OF THE TURNIP, CARROT 
PARSNIP, AND PO.TATO. 

These four roots, as they are carrie<i 
fVou) the field, contain rJ,spectively in 
ten thousand pounds — • 

TUEOTP. CIREOT. PARS-XIP. POTATO, 
Jioots. Leaves. D . ~ '■ 

Potnsh, 23,86 32,3 35 33 20 79 40 28 8?9 
boda, 10,48 22,2 9,22 7 02 '^'3 31 ng 

Lime, 7,52 62,0 6,57 4., IS 3'3l 1297 



Magnesia, 2,51 
Alumina, 0,19 
Oxide olr'n 0.32 

Do. Manga. — 

Silica, 3 88 12 8 

Sul. Acid. 8,01 25.2 
Phos Acid, 3 67 
Cliiorine, 2.39 



5.9 3 84 2 70 
0,3 0,3J 24 
1.7 



3.24 
0,50 



0,33 0.05 0,35 

0.60 — _ 

1.62 0.84 

1.92 5,40 

1.00 4.01 

8.7 0.70 1,78 160 



1.37 

2.70 

9,8 5.14 



17,0 
04 
02 

49,4 

4.2 

19.7 

5.0 

C3.03 180.9 66.19 4I8O 82^ SOSji 
These roots contain \ery much water 
so tliat,_iu a dry state, tho 2Vopor (ion of' 
inorganic matter present in them is verf 
much greater than is represented by 
the above numbers. I have, however 
given the quantities contained in the 
crop as it is carried from the field, as 
alone likely to be of practical utility. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



101 



The ciops of tliese several roots vary 
very much in dift'erent localities, beitig 
in some places twice and evQXi thrice as 
much as in others — every nine tons, 
liovvever, which are carried oft' the 
ground, contain about twice the weight 
of saline and earthy matters indicated 
by the numbers in the table. 

OF THE ASn OF THE GRASSES AND CLO- 
VERS. 

I The following table might have been 
much enlarged. 1 have tiiought ii ne- 
cessary, however, to introduce in this 
place only those species of grass and 
clover which are in most extensive, use. 
I have also calculated the weights given 
below, fur these ])lants, in the state of 
hay only, as the succulency of the grass- 
es, — that is, the (juautity <jf water con 
tained in the green crop, — varies so 
much, that no correct estimate could be 
made of the quantity uf inorganic mat- 
ter present in ha}' or grass, from a 
knowledge of its weight in the green 
state only. 



the growth of each may be promoted, — 
in so far as this growth depends upon 
the supply of inorganic food to the 
growing plant. 

3d. To the feeding properties of each, 
and to the kind of stock they are sever- 
ally most lilted to nourish. 





Ivf Grii 


Red 


V.'hilc 








' liny. 


Cluur. 


Clover. L 


ucerne. Sainfoin. 


Potash, 


8.81 


19.9.-) 


31,05 


13.40 


20,57 


Soda, 


2 94 


5.-29 


5,79 


6.15 


4.37 


Lime, 


7.34 


•27,80 


23 48 


48.31 


21.93 


Maornesia, 


0.90 


3.33 


3.05 


648 


2 88 


Alumina, 


0.31 


0.11 


1.90 


0.30 


— 


Oxide of Iron, — 


— 


0.63 


0.30 


— 


Do. Manganese,— 


— 


— 


— 


— 


Silicia, 


'27.7-2 


361 


14.73 


3.30 


5.00 


Sulph. Acid 


3,5:^ 


4.47 


3,53 


4.04 


341 


Phos. Acid, 


0.'23 


6.57 


5.83 


13.07 


9.16 


Chlorine, 


0.06 


3.6-2 


2.11 


3.18 


1.57 




5-2.86 


71.78 


9132 


95.53 


69.57 



The above quantities are contained 
in a tiiousand pounds of the dry hay of 
each plant. 

On comparing the numbers opposite 
to potash, lime, magnesia, alumina, si- 
lica, and phosphoric acid, we see very 
striking difterences in the quantities ol 
those substances contained in equal 
weights of the above different kinds of 
hay. These differences lead to very im- 
portant practical inferences in refer- 
ence — 

1st. To the kind of soil in which 
each will grow most luxuriantly. 

2d. To the artificial means by which 



From the Faj-mer and Artizan. 
Plaster for Corn — Preserving Corn 
Stalks. 

Mr. Skavev. — With your permission, 
I should like to occupy a small pcrtitm 
of your publication, with a statement of 
my experience in usinof plaster. 

In the spring of 1851, I planted 
about two and a Jialf acres of corn. As 
plaster was not mueh used in this s« c- 
tion, I th(;ught 1 would try it U]ion one 
had' acre, by wa}' of e.xpeiiment, putting 
in a small spoon full to the hill, after 
dropping the corn. 1 manured the 
whole two and a half acres in tie hill, 
rile plastered corn cam*^ up green, and 
held so, and at the second hoeino-it was 
I a quarter larger than the other that 
j was not [ilastered, which c;<me up 3'.'i- 
i low, and as the spring was rather cold, 
j it continued to look so, while the other 
was a dark green and grew very fast. — 
As far as you could see the corn, you 
could tell, to a row, how far it was plas- 
tered. 

Last \-ear T planted the same piece, 
and plastered the whole, using a coni- 
moK table spoon full to the hill. As 
the weather came on dry, and windy, 
after planting, some of my neighbors, 
who did not use plaster, were obliged 
to plant their corn over again, in conse- 
quence of the drought, while every liil! 
of mine came up in time. As their 
land was as fiivorably situated as mine, 
and as well manured, I attribute mv 
success to the use of plaster. Plaster 
costs about $3 25 a cask, of 500 lbs, 
but I think it amph' pays to use it. 

It does equally as well for potatoes. 
I planted a piece of about three-fourths 
of an acre, manured in the hill, all alike 
and plastered two rows through the 
centre of the piece. The two rows that 



1D2 



TUE FARMERS' JOURNAL. 



were plaslerfd came up quicker, and \ Salt as a Preservative. — We^did 
ore w faster, and were a much darker | not understand our correspondent "S. 
■rreen, than the others. At digging | W." to say tliat salt would not pre- 
liaie^ those two rows yielded five busli- | vent corn stalks from moulding under 
els, dug together, (the rows were short,) i any circumstances, but that those ho 
those not plastered, three bushels, and I was speaking about, were in so bad cou- 



inuch interior in size, nnd many mor 
small ones in proportion. 

Salt on Cokn Stalk . — In the last 
number of the Farmer and Artizan, " L. 
^V." says that putting salt with corn 
stalks, when they are put into the barn, 
■will not prevent their mouhling. Salt 
hay will not mould, although it be quite 
o-reen when it is put into the stack. 
And clover, the most succulent upland 
liay tliat we raise, may be stowed into 
the mow, without risk of moulding, if it 
be but partially cured, by salting it. If 
salt will have such an effect upon hay, 
why will it not act in a similar way in 
preserving corn fodder. Fkvk, J is. 

Andover, Me. 



ition, that even salt would not preserve 
them. If this is not correct we shall be 
glad to hear from him or " Fiye Jr." 
again on the subject, or on any other sab- 
ject on which they may please to favor 
us with a communication. — [Ed. 

THE Subscriber will give any special advice 
to Farmers, b}' their addressincr him and 
giving a description of their farms. H;s charge 
will be moderate. He will make analysis of 
soils and marls, and write out the analysis for 
application ot manures, 
for analysis of soils, $5 00 

Writing out analysis, b 00 

JOHN F. TOMPKINS, M. D. 

TI-IE FARMER'S JOURN.IJL 

IS Published monthly, at -f 1 per annnum, in 
advance; six copies for $5; twelve copies 
lor iplO ; thirty copies for $20'. 
Advekiisements. — A limited number of ad- 



T>. ,,.„,.o r>i.,.i^,. ;- „-.^f,.i .-.■,,! „<-^,-. ! vertisements will be inserted at the following 
Remarks.— 1 .astei i=, usefu, aad even ^^^^g. y^^. ^^^^ g^,,^^^^ ot twelve lines, for each 

essential to the succe-ssfui culture 



some kinds of crops, antl on soils where 
it does not e.xist as our coi-respondent 
shows, it has a powerful and beneficial 
ettect. In many parts of our country 
and in England ii exists in the soil in 
various proportions ; and .some crops re- 
quire a much larger quanlity than oth- 
ers do, to bring them to their highest 
state of perfection. On soils where it 
alreadv exists, and on crops into which 
it does not extensively enter, no percep- 
tible benefits will be derived from its 
spplicatioii. Tliis is what has produced 
such a diversity of opinions as to the 
advantages of using it, and shows the 
benefit a man derives for an analysis of 
his soil. There are some cases bo\yev- 
er, in which it may be used without 
any risk of mistake. Asa top dressing 
f(>r worn out grass land, its benefits are 
universally admitted; and after succes- 
sive crops of .peas, turnips or wheat 
have been taken from a field, whatever 
may have been the original character of 
the soil plaster will produce a good ef- 
fect, provided the succeeding crop is to 
be one that requires it. 



square ot twelve Unes, tor each 
insertion, $1 ; one square per annum, $10 ; half 
column, do., $30 ; one column, do., $50; larger 
advertisements in proportion. 

.70I1N F. TOMPKINS, 
Editor and Proprietor, Raleigh, N. C. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Page- 
161 
176 
176 
176 
177 
177 
177 
17a 
178 
179 



Plants, etc., etc., 

Something not to be forgotten, 

The State Agricultural Fair, 

Anajyses of the various crops. 

The Model Farm of the West. 

To the Farmers of the State, 

Preparations for the Fair, 

Our Coirespondent Alpha, 

Guano, 

Specimen, No. 5, Sandy Soil, 

To the Members of the Stale Agrieultnral 
Society, 

That Large Hog, 

To those who compete for Premiums at the 
State Fair 

Constitution and By-laws for County Agri- 
cultural Societies, 

Editors Table, 

Neglected departments of Agriculture ia 
Edegcombe. 

The Earthy and Mineral Substances in 
Plants, 189 

Plaster for Corn — Preserving Cornstalks, 191 



179 
179 



179 



]80 
181 



181 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



VOL. 2. RALEIGH, K C, OCTOBER, 1853. NO. 7. 

JOHN F. TOMPKINS, M. D., Editor and Proprietor. 

Oa the Relations of Science to Prac- 
tice in Agricultme. 



The following is an extract from a lec- 
ture delivered by Dr. Anderson, Chem- 
ist to the Highland and Agricultural 
Society of Scotland. We publish this 
extract because we are desirous that our 
readers should become intimate with 
Dr. Anderson. He is now engaged 
making an interesting series of analysis, 
■which we shall from time to time lay 
before them, and we therefore bespeak 
a kindly reception in advance. — [Ed. 

The application of science to agricul- 
ture is a subject on which so much has 
been said and written during the last 
few years, and which has occupied so 
much of the attention of the' agricul- 
tural public, that it may seem almost 
superfluous to add what has already 
bsen penned. It has always appeared 
to me, however, that there are still ma- 
ny points of great importance for the 
practical man to consider, which have 
either never been sufficiently prominent- 
ly presented to his view, or which, from 
their being less striking, or perhaps less 
enticing, have been allowed to fall into 
the background, and have hence led to 
a certaia amount of misapprehension in 
regard to the exact position of science 
and its relations to practice. Such mis- 
apprehensions it would be desirable un- 
der any circumstances to dispel ; but 
now that the Highland and Agricultu- 
ral Society has actively taken up the 
prosecution of agricultural chemistry, 
it is of primary importance that the 
Vol. 11—1. 



farmer and the chemists should come 
to a distinct understanding with regard 
to the mutual bearings of scientific and 
practical agriculture — the manner m 
which they can be made to assist one 
another — and, what is of all others the 
most important point, how they can be 
made to co-operate, so as to establish 
on a firm basis the general principles of 
agricultural science, which must neces- 
sarily be the first step towards the de- 
velopment of a scientific practice. Un- 
der these circumstances I have thought 
that I might advantageously refer very 
shortly to some of these matters, and 
point out what we are in future to exi- 
pect from the application of chemistry 
to agriculture, the more especially as it 
is not very difBcult to perceive that tha> 
interest which attached to it has some- 
what abated with the general public, 
though I believe it to be undiminished 
with our most active and intelligent, 
practical men. 

This very diminution in the interest 
attaching to chemical agriculture, I be- 
lieve to be mainly founded on one of, 
the most serious misapprehensions — se- 
rious .alike to agriculture and to chesa- 
istry — with which we have now td con- 
tend ; and that is, the erroneo'os and al- 
together extravagant expectations which 
some persons entertained, regarding the 
extent and rapidity of the influence' 
which chemistry is likely to exert upon : 
agriculture. To hear them talk of it, 
one might almost im^ine that, chemis- 
try, as by tlxe wand of a magician, is at.. 



J94 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL 



once to spread fertility over our barren 
moors, and raise abundant crops where 
nothing ever grew before ; and that the 
chemist can, by a few simple experi- 
ments, determine with absolute precis- 
ion the circumstance's under which the 
farmei must go to work, so as to pro- 
duce an abundant crop. It needs not 
to be mentioned that such views are 
the exception, not tie rule ; hut, be- 
tween this extreme case and those like- 
ly to be fullilled, there are manj' expec- 
tations which, with less apparent ex- 
travagance, are equally beycnd the pow- 
ers of chemistry in its present imperfect 
state, and involve questions which, if 
they ever can be answer'. d, must •dwait 
the advance of pure science to a point 
much beyond that to which ii has yet 
attained. Nor is it, perhaps, matter of 
much surprise that such expectations 
should have been entertained, as it must 
be admitted that the general public is 
not in a position to estimate correctly 
the extent cf the benefits which it is 
'likely to derive from the application of 



had existed almost from time immemo- 
rial to one at least of comparative per- 
fection. Such facts may lead us at first 
sight to expect tliat the application of 
chemistry to agriculture should be fol- 
lowed by equally rapid results ; but a 
little further consideration seems to ])oint 
out a very uiaterial difference between 
such arts and the cultivation of the soil. 
In such a case as the manufacture of 
soda, lor instance, and indeed in all 
these in which the application of science 
has produced the most marked results, 
the cliemist has presented to him for 
solution a defiiiite and circumscribed 
problem, involving the mutual relations 
of some three or four different substan- 
ces ; and he is able to ti'ace the changes 
which the coal, common salt, and linie 
employed, undergo, from tlse commence- 
ment of the process through each suc- 
cessive step, until the soda is obtained 
in the perfect state; but in the art of 
agriculture eacli question frcqutn'ly in- 
volves, not one, but many probums, 
connected with the highest and most 



ecience to any art ; and, unfortunately, abstruse doctrines cf the science, in 
■in the present instance, it has been mis- which not merely chemical forces, but 
^led by the far too laudatory terms in the far more lecondite phenomena of 



which the application of chemistry to 
agriculture were talked of some yeais 
ago. iJopcs were then excited which, 
.to those intimately acquainted with 
.-(chemistry, it was very evident could not 
•be-sustained, but which the enthusiastic 
embraced at once; only, however, when 
they were disappointed, to abandon as 
worthless the whole science itself along 
with the unobtrusive modicum of real 
progress, which was altogether lost sight 
of amidst the .ruins of their lofty ex- 
j>€Ctations. Even those who take a 
jnore cantious and sober viow of the pro- 
g-ress of agricultural chemistry are apt 
to be led into expectations greater than 
.facts justify, by the extraordinary pro 
gress which the application of chemistry 
: has effected in some other arts, such, 
Jor instance, as the art of bleaching and 
the manufacture of sodj», which chemie- 
-iiy, by one great stride, raised from the 
fetaje of primitive rudeness; in wWch tbej' 



life come into play, and in v.hieh the 
investigations cf the chemist are carried 
on, and in his conclusions tested under 
the influence of weather, climate, and 
many other perluibing causes. 

The extreme complexity of the pro- 
blems with which agricultural chemis- 
try has to deal maj' be con.eeived fr<'m 
the fact, that m.ost plants contain from 
twelve to fifteen different substances, all 
essential to their existence, the relations 
of which must be investigated before 
definite views can be obtained regarding 
the changes which go on in the organ- 
ism of the plant. These relations, 
moreover, are far more complicated than 
even the number of the elements alone 
would lead us to suppose : the single! 
element of sulphur, for instance, which 
does not constitute more than two or 
three parts in the thousand of most 
plants, exists therein not less than threw 
different forms of combination, in each 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



19S 



of which it is as essential to the plant 
as thjie which form the :reat propor- 
tion of its bulk. Now, it mast be suf- 
ficiently manifest, that quesLioiis involv- 
ing elements of such complexity are not 
to be solved as rapidly or easily as the 
far simpler problems of mineral chemis- 
try ; an^l that not merely on account of 
their superior complexity alone, but be- 
cause, in the one case, theoretical che- 
mistrv sets as far on our way towards 
the solution, while in the otb.T there is 
still a o-reat gap to beiilled up, a who 



chemistry in its present state, is mani" 
festly unreasonable. The progress must 
necessarily be slow, in some instances 
almose imperceptible ; and much must 
be done which at first sight the practi- 
cal agriculturist may be inclined to con- 
sider altogether foreign to his object. 
Extended resear lies will frequently be 
requisite which do not directly lead to 
practical results — that is lo say, wliich 
are not immediately convertible into an 
equivalent of current coin, but which 
are the foundation of such results, and 



mine of scieiuirtc ficts to hi worked out form the starting point of perhaps a very 
b'ifore we are in the con.lition to ap dilferent series of experiments, having 
proach sufficiently near the comprehen- ;mi immediate bearing upon practice. It 
■■ ■ ' is of great importance that this should 

be distinctly understood and borne in 
mind, for it is by no means uncomraon 



snns of these more complicated pheno- 
mena. In fact, the latter are n-'t ques- 
tions of [)ure chemistry, but are inti- 
mately interv/oven with vegetable phy- 
siology — so much so, indeed, that in 
many instances it is scarcely possible 
to decide to which of these two sciences 
they ought strictly to belong. And it 
is ju-it herein that their great difficulty 
consists, for there is nothing more cer- 
tain than that those questions which 
lie, so to speak, on the confines of two 
sciences, require for their successful in- 
vestigation a high degree of develop- 
ment of both the sciences on which they 
depend. Now, chemistry is still far 
from having attained all that develop- 
ment of which it is capable, as the time 
during which it has been cultivated has 
not been sufficiently long to admit of 
much progress, except in si)ecial depart 
ments. Few of those, who are not them- 
selves chemists, are aware that the facts 
and doctrines of modern chemistry have 
been determined during little more than 
the last sixty years ; and that, with few 
exceptions, all the laborious investiga- 



tions of the older chemists, and, with 
out excHption, all their general doctrines 
were then swept away, to be replaced 
by the science as it now exists; while 
organic chemistry, with which agricul- 
ture is more intimately connected, has 
been successfully prosecuted for not 
more than lialf that period. 

To expect any rapid advances in the 1 practical bearings 
practical applications of agriculture^ of 



to suppose that nothing more is neces- 
sary than at once to convert sciei^tifio 
facts to practical purposes ; while, so far 
from this being the case, the agriculture 
af ch'MTiist has a two-fold duty toper- 
form — he mu<t both cletermine thesci- 
entific facts of agriculture, anil eliminata- 
from them the practical conclusions to. 
which they lead. It may, perhaps, be^ 
said that the establishment of these facta, 
fdls within the province of the pure 
chemist, and that their practical appli- 
cation only ought to be the province of 
the agricultural chemist. But if this 
principle were to be acted-, upon, tho- 
progress of chemical agriculture would; 
be slow indeed; for the investigations^ 
of the pure chemist lead him now, and 
are likely for a very long period to lead 
him, in directions very remote from, 
those most likely to afford the materials,., 
which the agricultural chemist requirea 
to work upon. The hitter would, there-- 
lore, require to- sit idly waiting till the- 
former supplied him with facts, which& 
his own exertions would have enabled' 
him to ascertain. Nay, the agricultural 
chemist may even do a better service to. 
agi-iculture^ by pursuing the investiga- 
tion of those apparently theoretical sub- 
jects, than by directing himself to those 
which seera. to hav-A the most imraediata 



196 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



There is another point on whicli there 
has been a good deal of misunderstand- 
ing between the chemist and the agri- 
culturist, which is intimately connected 
with the erroneous estimate of the ex- 
tent and perfection of chemistry. It is 
not uncommonly supposed that the 
chemist is in the condition at once to 
solve, by the investigations of the labo- 
ratory, all such questions in practical 
agriculture as may happen to be sub- 
mitted to him — that he can determine, 
when nothing else can, why certain 
methods of cultivation are successful, 
others unsuccessful. It is just possible 
that he may in some instances be able 
to do this, but far more frequently his 
researches enable him not to slate posi- 
tively what is or what is not the case, 
but rather to draw a probable conclu- 
sion — to form, in fact, a hypothesis, 
which is not in itself a truth, but which 
must be further tested by experiment in 
the field, whereby it may be either con- 
firmed or entirely refuted. Now, very 
unfortunately, this hypothesis is often 
taken for a positive statement; and 
when it turns out to be erroneous, it is 
immediately held up as an instance of 
the fallacy of science by those who, not 
being themselves acquainted with the 
method of investigation by experiment, 
are unaware that all scientific facts are 
ileveloped in such a manner. No one 
ever thinks of going fortuitously to 
work, when he proposes to determine 
a scientific fact. He first weighs all 
facts of a similar character, or having a 
bearing on the subject which he desires 
to elucidate, and then founds upon 
these a hypothesis, the truth or fallacy 
of which is to be tested by experiment. 
Now, without any explanation, it has 
frequently happened that such hypoth- 
esis have been handed over to the prac- 
tical maiA, whose field experiments hav- 
ing r^'fute^ them, he has forthwith a- 
bandoned the science which seemed to 
him to :give erroneous results, not 
knowing that these results were only 
in progress of being arrived at by those 
very experinaeats which he was engag- 



ed in performing. The very same pro- 
cess has been employed in the applica- 
tions of science to every other art ; but 
the difl'erence between them and agri- 
culture is, that, with the former, the 
hypothesis is formed and the experi- 
ments executed by the same person, in 
agriculture the hypothesis must in ma- 
ny instances be handed over for experi- 
mental elucidation to the practical man. 
The many failures which are made in 
other arts remain unknown to all but 
those by whom they have been made, 
while in agriculture they become known 
k) all and sundry ; and by them it is 
not understood that, though these re- 
sults are negative, they still serve to 
bring us all nearer to the truth. 

And this leads me to observe, thatj 
the true manner in which chemical ag- 
riculture is to be advanced, is not mere- 
ly by the exertions of the chemist, or 
the labors of the laboratory alone. It 
must be by the simultaneous efforts of 
science and .of practice, each endeavor- 
ing to develop, with care, steadiness and 
accuracy, the facts which fell within its 
province. Nor must each pursue its 
own course irrespective of the other. — 
They must go hand in hand, and, tak- 
ing advantage of each other's experi- 
ence, and avoiding all sort of antago- 
nism, they mu~t endeavor to co-operate 
for the elucidation of truth. The chem- 
ist and the practical man are, in fact, in 
the position to give each other most 
importai't assistance. The one may 
point out the conclusions to which his 
science, so far as it is gone, enables him 
to come ; while the other may test 
these conclusions by experiment, or may 
be able, from his experience, at once to 
refute or confirm them. But it will not 
do to imagine that there is here either 
a triumph or a defeat. Such a spirit 
cannot be anything but injurious. It is 
rather to be looked upon as a fortunate 
state of matters, which, admitting of 
the examination of our conclusions from 
two different points of view, directs us 
with the greater certainty in the path 
of truth. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



197 



For the development of agricultural 
chemistry in this manner, the Highland 
Agricultural Society appears to possess 
peculiar advantages. It has within its 
own body a large number of members, 
who are both able and willing to assist 
in furthering its views in this direction 
by experiments in the field ; and I am 
glad to say that some are actually al- 
ready commenced, the results of which 
I hope, at no very distant period, to 
communicate to the Society. 

As it may be interesting to the mem- 
bers of the Society to learn the nature 
of these investigations, I shall state very 
shortly the method^in which we propose 
to pursue the work of the laborator}'. 
Our plan is, as fur as possible, independ- 
ently of the ordinary analyses of ma- 
nures and the like, to carry on two dif- 
ferent classes of researches. 1st, Ex 
tended investigations on subjects of in- 
terest and importance, and the comple- 
tion of which must necessarily occupy 
a considerable period ; 2d, shorter in- 
vestigations of subjects of a more cir- 
cumscribed character, which do not oc- 
cupy so long a period ; and 3d, subjects 
which from their consisting of isolated 
portions, may be taken up in the inter- 
vals which occur in the investigation of 
other matters. 

In the former of those classes of in- 
vestigations we are now engaged with 
a series of experiments for the purpose 
of determining, as far as chemistry can, 
the relative feeding values of different 
grains, and other ordinary sorts of cat- 
tle food — our object being so to deter- 
mine their values that the farmer may 
know what quantity of any given sort 
of food he ought to substitute for that 
he has ordinarily employed, when the 
price of the former falls so low as to 
make it advantageous to use it. In this 
way the farmer will be enabled to em- 
ploy the produce of his own farm, in 
place of disposing of it at low rates, 
and purchasing foreign cake or other 
foods. The subject is one of consider- 
able difficulty, but when completed it 
will, I hope, serve to throw some light 



upon the principles of successful feeding; 
and it is our intention to extend it to 
our root crops, and to the different sorts 
of grass employed or hay, as opportu- 
nity may offer. Another question, now 
under investigation, is the alleged infe- 
riority of the butter of cows fed with 
turnips grown with guano to that of 
those fed with turnips grown with ordi- 
nary manure. I do not expect, howev- 
er, that we shall be able to complete this 
till the close of the present sesson, as it 
was begun at too late a period to admit 
of our obtaining the turnips of the last 
crop in their best condition. Turnips, 
however, are now being grown both 
with and without guano, by means of 
which we shall be able to investigate 
this matter more full}'' than we have 
been yet able to do. In connexion with 
the turnip crop, we have also made ar- 
rangements for determining the cause of 
the different feeding value of turnips 
grown in high and low districts, and the 
chemical department of which will be 
entered upon so soon as the turnips now 
being grown expressly for this purpose 
are ready. 

The subjects belonging to the second 
and third classes are of too special a 
character to render it necessary for me 
here to go into any details regarding 
them. I shall only mention that one is 
a careful series of analyses of standard 
soils from different parts of Scotland — 
a thing which is much wanted ; for, not- 
withstanding all that has been done in 
agricultural chemistry, we are still very 
far from having a correct knowledge of 
the constitution of the soils best adapt- 
ed to different crops. 

It will be seen, from what I have now 
mentioned, that we are occupied with a 
large amount of work, the satisfactory 
completion of which will require a con* 
siderable time, but from which, I Lrust, 
we shall obtain results alike creditable 
to the Society and advantageous to agri- 
culture. Of this I entertain little doubt ; 
but I may be permitted to observe, that 
my chief fear for agricultural chemistry 
is, that the constant craving after im- 



198 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



jinecliaie rcfiulis on the paiL of the aori- 
©ultuial [>iil>lic, may lead to the jiuldi- 
cniion of hurriedly and iiiijieift-etiy per- 
ft>iuitd investigaLion.s. Tlie cheiiiisl 
knows weil how desirable it is to weigli 
and ivpejitedly to examine all his re- 
sulis, and lo )>roceed cautiously and 
slowly ; while tjie agriculturist, though 
in his own operations he is content to 
cast his seed upon the ground and waii 
patiently for the harvest, is too apt to 
iiDagine that the tree of science bears 
fruit at all seasons, though, in point of 
fact, the patient wailing for resuhs is a 
most necessary tdenient of scientific pi'o- 
gress. If this error is avoided, I am 
convinced that good results will be ob 
tained, and that all men will in time be 
convinced, that the slow and careful de- 
termination of scieniiMc facts, is likely 
to become one of the most impoi'tant 
assisUmts in the improvement of prac- 
tical agriculture. 

Smoke House. 

Many persons ( omnut gieat errors in 
building- smoke hou.-es. To be nice, 
and be a handsome and respectable ap- 
guitenance to a farm, it must foisooth 
be built of brick or sione, with close 
fitting doors, and a single aperture for 
the egr(?ss of the smoke. Tiie conse- 
quence is, the meat is black and bitter, 
and might as well have been put in a 
pickle of pyroligneous acid ; having 
lost ail its fine liavor, smelling of soot 
like a chimney sweep. The walls are 
so close and cold that the smoke con- 
denses and settles on the hams or ba- 
con, and instead of drying it becomes 
ftabby and ill colored. 

A smoke house can hardly be too 
open. It takvs longer, to be sure, to 
perfect the jirocess, but when complet- 
ed, the meat is dry, of a fine, chesnut 
color, and a delicate flavor of smoke 
penetrating the whole mass. 

The best bouses we have seen, are 
built with a stone wall, three feet high, 
flagged bottom, and a wooden structure 
4)uilt on top of the wall. Conmion 
siding i'^ tight enough, or boards end- 
jfi^a like boarding a barn is sufficient, 



with a tight boai'd or shingle roof.— 
The bottom is used for an ash- house 
and the smoke fire is built on the ashes. 
It is safe for botli pur])oses, and will 
produce a much finer article for those 
who have a sweet tooth for that deli- 
cious treat — a nice flavored ham. — 
Guernsey Tivies. 



Breeding Horses. 

The report of the committee on liors- 
es, for the Chittenden County (Vt.) 
Agricultural Society, coniains some 
good remarks. In addition tothehered- 
iiary transn)ission of qualities, it ob- 
serves: — "The progeny will iidierit tlie 
united qusdities of their parents. The 
g od as widl as the bad qualilits will 
descend from generation to generation. 
Hence you will see the importance of 
a knowledge of the parentage, not only 
as to ihj sire but also as to the dam. 
Peculiarity of structure ;ind c. nsiituiion 
will also be inherited. This is an im- 
[(ortant considt-ration, though too much 
negleeted, for h wever perfect *he sire 
may be, every good quality may be 
neutralized, if not overcome by the de- 
fective structure of the dam. Let the 
esS(!ntial points be good in both pa- 
rents, but if there must be some minor 
defects in the one, let them be met and 
overconie by excellencies in those pe- 
culiar points, in the other parent. We 
would also advise you, lo let your breed- 
ing mares be in the full vigor of life. 
Do not put them to the h(M-se too 
yonng, and especially do not let your 
mares be incapacitated for work by rea- 
son of old age. If so, you may expect 
that the foal will have a correspomiing 
weakness, and scarcely will a single or- 
gan possess its natural strengto. Our 
farmers are usually too negligent in the 
selection of their mares. They are 
tempted to p.-.rt with tlieir best mares 
and breed from ihose which are inferior." 

The committee speak of a young 
horse of the Mt)rgan stoi-k, bred by 
Judge Bennett, as having "great coni- 
[>actness of structure and action of the 
best kind." 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



199 



Address of Dr. R. C. Pritihard, 

Delivered before the Agricultural Soci- 
ety of Warren^ August 6th, 1853. 

Ma. President : — If I was not fully 
impressed with the truth of the distich, 
which, so far us harnan actions are con- 
cerned, has become n proverb, that 

" Greatest streams from little fountains flow. 
And tallest oaks from smallest acorns grow,'^ 

should fei'l myseh^ guilty of inexcusa- 
ble presu'iiption in rising to adciress an 
audience of intelligent, and, to a great 
extent, (as things go,) successful farm- 
ers, upon subjects immediately connect- 
ed with their own familiar pursuits. 

But, sir, of "my own i'ree will [ be- 
came a member of this Association, and 
by your will, not mine, I occupy the j 
position to whicli I very much fear I | 
shall not do justice to-day. My sense i 
of duty, however, impels me to make 
an effort, however feeble it may be, to j 
obey your commands ; and if, in the j 
course of the remarks I shall submit to 
your consideration, one single proiitable 
sugo-estion shall be impressed ujion the 
mind of any brother farmer, 1 shall be 
amply compensated for my labor; and, 
at all events, I shall have the consola- 
tion which ever arises from a conscien- 
tious desire to peiform our duty. 

Our association ha'l its origin in a 
desire (general, I hope,) to improve the 
condition of the agricultural communi- 
ty — to render the cultivation of the 
t'arth more profitable, and thus to ad- 
vaiice the great social and moral inter- 
ests of our feilov»'-men ; and he who 
shall do his best to promote these im- 
portant objects, should at least be ex- 
empt from the censures of the wise, the 
iiueevs of the cynical, or the ridicule of 
the silly. The experience of other 
.eountries — not originally more fertile 
ihan our own — proves beyond all rea- 
sonable doubt, that the application of 
•science to Agriculture greatly enhances 
th« productiveness of the soil, improves 
the health of the country, adds much 
to its beauty, and, by reducing the a- 
raount 6f labor necessary to the com- 



fortable support of a given population, 
tends to elevate and refine its charac- 
ter ; and blest as we are with the best 
social and political institutions ever 
framed by the wisdom of man, a fruit- 
ful soil and a genial climate, we need 
but make the effort, and our favored 
land will blossom as the rose, and our 
people attain to the very highest stand- 
ard of intellectual and physical excel- 
lence. Having used the v.ord science, 
allow me here to say what I conceive 
to be its true meaning, as applied to 
Agriculture and all other human pur- 
suits. Unfortunately it has become a 
bugbear with the many, who ever asso- 
ciate it with the jargon of the schools 
and the mysticism of the charlatan. — 
But, bir, alihough this has been the ne- 
cessary consequence of the obscurity 
and concealment which the teachers of 
mankind have fo^ many ages sought to 
throw around their peculiar pursuits 
and studies, it is nevertheless an error. 
Science, as it should be understood, and 
will be understood in this progressive 
age, means nothing more than the ap- 
plication of human experience in the 
past to human pi-actice in the future. — 
It i» simply but the realization and 
practical application of the Inductive or 
Baconian system of Philosophy; with- 
out which, the human mind must ever 
remain stationary and all improvement 
be rendered impossible. By its ener- 
getic and judicious application to Ag- 
riculture ONLY can the farmer expect to 
keep pace with his brethren in all oth- 
er pursuits and professions. Every- 
Avhere, amongst all classes, is the spirit 
of improvement abroad. Within the 
lifetime of many who now hear me, the 
broad Atlantic has become scarcely 
more than an inland sea, and the dis- 
tance (estimated by time) which once 
separated us from the other nations of 
the world has been reduced three- 
fourths. A visit to the farthest dwel- 
lings of our countrymen in the wilder- 
ness of the great West, is but a trip of 
pleasure, to be made and terminated 
1 ere our pregence is missed in our imine* 



200 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



diate neighborhood ; and communica- 
tions from fiieiid to friend are made 
from one extremity of this vast confed- 
eracy to another, "in the twinkling of 
an eye." Even while I speak, another 
wonderful invention, the Ericsson Calor 
Engine, is attracting the attention and 
receiving the approval ot the soundest 
intellects of the age. Combining as it 
promises to do, speed, economy and 
safety, it is probable that ere another 
geiieration shall have passed away, the 
Steam Engine, the boast of the present, 
will be numbered with the things that 
were. (Uninitiated in the nnsteries of 
Clairvoyance or Spirit-rappmg, I will 
not undertake to say whether or not 
they will supercede the wonderful anni- 
hilator of time and space, the Electric 
Telegraph, whose lightning-bearing 
wires, like an enormous spider-web, en- 
velope the whole land in their meshes.) 
Onward, upward, is still the word, 
which rinoiuff in our ears from the voi- 
ces of our fellowmen, engaged in all the 
occupations of life, calls upon us to 
keep pace with the improving spirit of 
the age. And shall agriculture — the 
nursing mother of all the arts and sci- 
encies — the handmaiden of health knd 
virtue — the bounteous patroness of all 
industrial effort — the liberal ministrant 
to the wants of man and beast — be the 
onhj laggard? Why, sir, should it be 
sp ? are the Farmers of our country in- 
ferior in intellect — in learning — in in- 
dustry — in patriotism — to any other 
class? No sir — as a class, they are at 
least the equals of any other in all 
th^se qualities ; but unfortunately for 
the best interests of humanity, they 
lack that which in other pursuits too 
often proves a curse rather than a bles- 
sing — ambition! Let the farmer's son 
turn po'it'cian, and with what eager- 
ness he pursues the j-oad to popular fa 
vor. How he toih to obtain votes to 
e'evate him to a place — amj place — in 
public life ! How fieely he spends the 
.fruits of his father's years of toil to 
make himself the people's favorite for a 
day. And when he has succeeded, 



what is the result ? Is it profitable to 
himself or his fellow men ? Does he — ■ 
can he, by preeminent service, win 
that reputation which will ennoble hisi 
home and surround his very grave with 
a halo of glory, as a benefactor of his 
race ? or will he, must he, take his 
hunible place with the long list of in- 
significant names who in all ages have 
aspired to offices, which, by their unfit- 
ness they have dishonored? How rare- 
ly the first supposition is realized we 
all know — how often the latter 1 need 
not say. Let him become a'merchant's 
clerk, and on a salary no larger than 
he could earn by the proper cultivation 
of one acre cf land, he ofteli becomes, as 
he thinks, the type of fashion and the 
cynosure of ladies' eyes. If he has re- 
ceived a classical education, he too of- 
ten feels that the humble, quiet life of 
honest toil which his fathers led would 
be degrading, and consequently wastes 
his means in fast horses and fine bug- 
gies, and expends the talents with " 
which he is endowed in learning t'icks 
at cards and the cultivation of his whis- 
kers, whence, sir, arises this distaste to 
agricultural pursuits ? This is a most 
important enquiry, and he who shall 
satisfactorily answer it, and do most to 
correct the evil, will merit the warmest 
approbation of the wise and good. 

Our youth are taught to believe that 
the least possible amount of intellect and 
application is all-sufficient to make a 
successful farmer, and that so humble 
and simple a pursuit is beneath the aims 
of genius and learning: hence they are 
satisfied to follow in the footsteps of 
their predecessors, trusting the manage- 
ment of their patrimonial acres to an 
overseer or a driver to be tilled as their 
fathers tilled them ; and when forest af- 
ter forest has disappeared beneath the 
axe, and field after field has become ex- 
hausted through ignorance and mis- 
management, they quit " this poor and 
worn out country," with greatly dimin- 
ished means to seek a subsistence in the 
unbroken wilds of the vest, or the 
auriferous " diggings " of California. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



201 



Could the young farmer be inspired with 
a proper appreciation of the dignity of 
his calling, could he be induced to be- 
lieve that the successful cultivation of 
the soil will afford him a suitable field 
for the display of all his acquirements; 
that to become a successful farmer, he 

. must use Ins head as well as his hands, 
his mind as well as his body, and that 
every step he advanced in the way of 
improvement would constitute him so 

; far a benefactor of his country, we might 
hope to generate an "Esprit Du Corps," 
a spirit of generous emulation through- 
out the entire agricultural community, 
which would redound to the lasting 
interest, honor and happiness of our 
people. 

If we desire that our sons and daugh- 
ters shall be the happy possessors of a 
land teeming with the richest produc- 
tions of human indust>'y and skill ; if we 
would inspire them with a prop'^- at- 
tachment for the homes of their child- 
hood and veneration for our memories ; 
if we hope to make them worthy and 
contented citizens of a prosperous coun- 
try, we must put our own shoulders to 
the wheel. We must go to work in 
earnest, we must devote our time, our 
talents, our means to develop the abun- 
dant resources with which a kind prov- 
idence has surrounded us. We must 
establish schools and educate our sons 

for farmers^ and not as at present, direct 
the talents of every one to whom we 
can afford to give an education to some 
other, and as he is taught and must 
think, more respectable profession ; or 
else turn him loose, a mere fashionable 
idler, a drone in the social hive. 

Here sir, is presented an ample field 
for the exercise of a truly noble ambi- 
tion, and I would fain hope that some 
member of this society will yet vi'in a 
just claim to the gratitude of this and 
coming generations, by arousing a spirit 
of enquiry amongst our people, the in- 
fluence of which will give tone and di- 
rection to the energies of our young 
men, and open up to them a field of far 
more laudable emulation and pride than 



ever was presented in the foul and miry 
paths of party politics, or the giddy cir- 
cles of fashionable life. Who will be 
foremost in this goodly work ? There 
are amongst us, gentlemen of education, 
leisure and fortune, proprietors and cul- 
tivators of the soil who might increase 
infinitely their own enjoyments and im- 
prove their estates by the veiy means 
which would most surely promote the 
great interesis of the community. It is, 
I believe, a well established fact that no 
soil can be rendered permanently pro- 
ductive without the aid of lime in some 
one of its various combinations. My 
own opinion is that in this the basis of 
all lasting improvement, our upland 
soils, {or subsoils,) are not greatly de- 
ficient, but generally present, the char- 
acter when not greatly exhausted, of 
neutral soils; that is soils in which nei- 
ther the acid or calcarious principles 
predominate to any great extent ; and 
hence, if ray supposition be correct, but 
a small amount of lime will be necessa- 
r}' to render it susceptible of the higliest 
degree of fertility. Now sir, if some in- 
telligent member of our association 
would devote two hours a day for six 
months to the study of experimental 
agricultural chemistry he would easily 
qualify himself to test the presence and 
proportion of this universal fertilizer, to 
point out which of its various salts, or ' 
other combinations were present in a 
given soil, and thus enable himself, as 
well as his ne'ghbor, to spend his mon- 
ey judiciously in the purchase of calcar- 
ious or other manures. 

By the same small expenditure of 
time and money, he might, nay, often 
he certainly would inspire his sons or 
daughters with a taste for similar intel- 
lectual pursuits, so well calculated to 
refine and elevate their characters a^d 
to fit them for eminent usefulness in life, 
and thus gratify the holiest aspirations 
of a parent's heart, whilst conferring a 
blessing upon his less favored neighbors. 

Should any gentleman be induced by 
the suggestion here thrown out, to un- 
dertake this delightful task, I am very 



?02 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



certain I shall loceive his thanks for the 
hint, tor of all the intellectual pursuits 
of man, chemistry as a practical science 
is the most fascinating. 

If this, however, shoulu be asking too 
much of individual effort^ let us as a 
society employ some well qualified gen- 
tieman to analyze our soils and deliver 
a full series of lectures upon agricultural 
chemistry, and thus by united effort 
accomplisti this important object. Here 
sir, allow rae to say that I do not intend 
to advocate the,;expensive humbug of a 
general «nd minute analysis of soils sis 
recommended by Professor Mapes and 
others of his class, whose wonderful la- 
bors only show us that our lands may 
he rendered productive at an expense of 
about ten thousand dollars an acre, but 
wsimply to express a desire that the gen- 
eral character of our soils, virgin, alluvi- 
al or old field be sulBciently examined 
to ascertain their relative proportions of 
©ilcarious matter and otiier important 
ingredients of a fertile soil ; in order 
that we may economically and wisely 
adapt our manures to the wants of our 
respective farms. Of one thing sir, we 
may all be sure, that v.'here there is 
great deficiency of lime v*e cannot prof- 
iiably improve our lands without ils 
application^ and here it is abundant 
the proce^-sof isnprovementtoaii indefi- 
nite extent is as simplj as any other re- 
trntt which only requires the proper ap- 
plication of patieutjndustry and com- 
r«on sense. 

Tiie expenditure of a few himdreds ov 
eveu a thousand dollars for an object 
lilie this would result in permanent and 
endm-ing good to all clashes of (he com- 
munity and I have no doubt there are 
many besides the members of this so- 
ciety vvho would liberally assist in its 
accomplishment. Let it be our part to 
point the way and set the example. 

Or.e other suggestion, and it ia mere- 
If a suggestion, and 1 shall have done 
w;;h tins part of my subject. Could 
we Hut ('stai>!ish a school based upon 
isiie manual labor princijile for the edu- 
«it!on of our cinldi'cn ? A school which 



would soon become a self supporting 
institution ; wherein our youth might 
obtain a thorough english and mathe- 
matical education, and at the same time 
acquire habits of industry and morality 
with a thorough knowledge of both the 
practical and theoritical branches of 
agricultural sciences. 

In a county like ours, noted for its 
intelligence and wealth, such an institu- 
tion Q)ight be established on a perman- 
ent basis at an expense which would 
scarcely be felt by our people, and I feel 
confident that in a very few years it 
would not only sustain itself, but repay 
the original outlay with interest. In 
such an institution the most promising 
and meritorious pupils of our common 
schools the sons of poor parents, or un- 
provided orphans might be educated 
free of cost, and all others at a much 
cheaper rate than is now paid to enable 
them to read in the original the "Odes 
of Horace" the " Satires of Juvenal " 
and the disgusting obscenities of Ovid. 
But sir, I will not on this occasion en- 
large upon this most intercslitjg theme, 
I have merely tlirown out this hint in. 
the earnest hojie that some more com- 
petent memlicr may take up and eluc'- 
date the subject, and I promise him my 
feeble but z-.alous aid in any eifortsthat 
may be made to reduce the suggestion 
to practical operation. Surely whilst all 
other forms and various schemes of im- 
provement find their ready advocates 
and v/iliing sup|K>rters, amongst our 
'.veallhy and enlightened citizens, this 
which aims at the iinprovement of the 
moral and the intellectual character of 
the rising generation, the hif/h';s', the 
holiest, most useful of them all, will not 
be left unaided by the purse of the 
wealthy, tiie pen of the ready writer, the 
heart moving eloquence of t!ie gifted 
speaker. 

Our earth is a generous ;in<l prolific 
mother, but she cannot and will not for 
long endure filial ingiatitnde. All her 
preordained and iraternal duties she is 
ready and willing to perform, but she 
requires, auil justly too, at the hands of 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



203 



the children whom slie nouiishts scjiue- 
thiiig besides the selri-h eiijoynieut of 
the food she supplies' the . It' the\ 
inake her no relurn (or the long con- 
tinued kimliiess and support, she will ai 
last refuse her wonted supphes and leave 
her xiiigTalel'ul offspring to sutt'er the 
conse(}uences of their neglect. 

'J'iie experience of our ancestors and 
ourselves prove beyond all munnej- of 
doubt that no system of cropping which 
takes annually away all the products of 
the soil and relies upon the small amount 
of fertilising materials which inav be 
a'^.'cu Ululated by pasturing a few half- 
starved cattle ur)on the old field com- 



aliowed but $1,00, [much too Utile) t^ 
pay for seed, hoe work and wear of plow* , 
and harness, <fec. The result of many 
inquiries which [have made of the most 
experienced faimers has satisfied me 
that one barrel and a half of corn to the 
acre would be a most liberal estimateof 
fhe average product of Warren county. 
Now 1 1-2 bushels of corn at 50 cts. 
per bushel would yield but 6i3,'75, and 
allowing that the fodder, &c. will repay 
the exhaustion of the soil and cost of 
fencing, ditching, gathering, &c., and 
the farmer sustains a certain loss of 26 
cents per a!f;re on all land so cwiuvated ; 
to which add SO cts as interest upon 



mou, during the day and driving them U>5,0tJ the original cost of the land, and 
up at night to sleep in an unhtt red pen i you will at once see a sufficient cause 



c.in pOssibly result in improvenient. - 
The farmer who pursues such a course, 
if he does not in his own day receive 
the kindly attentions of the sheriff, wdi 
most certainly leave his children the 
heirs, of penury, if not of disgrace. The 
careless and indolent habits of the parent 
will enevitably entail poverty, and per- 
haps worse habits npon his offspring, 
and he vvho endeavours to evade the 
prinial curse "in the sweat of thy brow 
shalt thou eat bread " by skulking from 
the peiformance of his duty, will cer- 
tainly reap a rich harvest of heavier cur- 
s(!s for himself or his household. 

A fmidanienfal error in our farndng 
operations is the practice aim >st univer- 
sal of cultivating too much unimproved 
land. What can it profit a man to cul- 
tivate larire fields if the cost of his labor 
is not compensated by the value of the 
croj>. 

Let us take our staple bread crop 
corn by wav of illustration and estimate 
the cost of cultivation under our present 
systen^ at -|4,00 per acre, which will be 



tor the dissatisfaction which so many 
feel with the homes of their childhood, 
the land of their birth, and cotniirehend 
the inrtuences which are operating to 
i)opulate ttie west at the expense of the 
old Atlantic States. 

But sir, guided by the lights of science 
and experience we may soon reverse 
this order of things, and by a proper ex- 
ercise of our mental and physical ener- 
gies and the expenditure of a little mon- 
ey, we may double our crops with haJf 
the labor they now require, and thus 
have more leisure and means to devote 
to the farther improvement of the soil. 
By limiting the amount of land in cul- 
tivation, dividing it into suitable fields 
or lots for a rotation of four or five years 
by accumulating and carefully preserv- 
ing at all seasons the immense ainouut 
of feitilizing matter by which we are 
everywhere surrounded ; in brief by con- , 
stant untiring industry and rigid econo- 
my (a lilieral and enliiilitened economy 
[ mean) and an unyielding resolve nev- 
er to cultivate an acre of ground whicij 



found upon examination rather below 1 does not promise a fair renumeration for 
than above the mark. The four plough- our labor. I feel convinced that in tea 
ings which are deemed essential to pre- years the face of the country will be 
pare the land, keep it in good condition changed, rich crops of corn and wiieat 
and lay by the crop in good order, will wii! meet the wayfarer''seye, \Nhere now 
at a fair allcnvance for the labour of the 1 broom straw and hen nest grass are the 
hand and horse cust at least §3,00, and ! only product; our grjmeries will be 
as will be seen by the estimate, I have j stored with abundance, our children, our 



204 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



servants and our cattle be better cared 
for, and hundreds wbo have sought 
homes in the prohfic wilds of the great 
uest be glad to return and dwell in the 
land of their fathers. 

The amount of fertilizing matter which 
may be gathered upon one of our small- 
est farms in the course of a year would 
be matter of wonder and astonishment 
to one who has never mad ■ the experi- 
ment for himself. The leaves which 
fall around him before the blasts of win- 
ter, the weeds which spring up beneath 
the sunshine and rains of spring and 
summer (too often allowed to generate 
disease and death !) the vegetable mat- 
ter accumulating about his fences ; the 
scrapings of his ditch banks, the niud 
from creeks and branches, all the excre- 
ments of man and beast ; bones, hair 
and horns ; soapsuds and potliquor ; 
the sweepings of his dwelling and out- 
houses, and all other materials of what- 
ever discription which ever enjoyed an- 
imal or possessed vegetable life, may be 
converted into rich nutriment for future 
crops, add to these materials the waste, 
salt and brine, and the large amount of 
woodashes (containing the most impor- 
tant inorganic elements of plants,) which 
we might obtain by burning at leisure 
times, the waste timber in our forest 
lands, and we should accumulate almost 
without expense, an amount of manure 
vChich would ensure at least a double 
crop the ensueing year ; besides, under 
judicious management, adding much to 
the permanent productiveness of the 
land. 

But sir, in addition to all this, should 
the supplies thus obtained be insufficient 
to renovate our lands, we have at our 
command at a moderate price, when we 
consider their vast fertilizing poweis, 
lime, plaster, bone dust and guano, the 
last embodying in itself in the most con- 
ctiutrated and convenient, for all that is 
necessary to render productive, the most 
barren soil. 

How wonderful, Mr. President are 
the wajs of an All wise Providence. — 
How beneficent its dealings with 
thoughtless, erring man ! ' 



"Whilst he for ages has been laying 
waste the forest and scattering the sour- 
ces of earth's fertility- in reckless pro- 
fusion to the winds of Heaven, or, in 
utter carelessness has permitted the 
rains and tides to wash them out into 
the ocean's profoundest depths, an in- 
significant sea bird of the Pacific, in 
obedience to a higher law than that of 
human reason, has been gathering up 
the wasted treasures and depositing 
them in immense, immeasurable quanti- 
ties on the coast of Peru and the unin- 
habited Islands of the sea, in order that 
we may be enabled to resuscitate our 
exhausted fields, and restore the impov- 
erished soil to more than pristine fer- 
tility. Sancho Panza heaped blessing* 
on the man who invented sleep, with all 
our hearts we should bless the man who 
first introduced guano to the notice of 
our agriculturisls. To it we can resort, 
when all other means fail or prove in- 
sufficient, with an absolute assurance of 
satisfaction and profit. And he who in 
view of its now well known profitable 
application to the most barren soils, is 
too incredulous or too parsimonious to 
avail himself of the advantages which 
never f;^il to result from its judicious 
use, will be left so far behind in the race 
of improvement, that he had as well re- 
concile himself at once to a "Rip Van 
Winkle snoose." Perhaps when igno- 
rance and barbarism shall again enwrap 
the world in their gloomy mantle he 
may be awakened to find himself sur- 
rounded with suitable companions and 
congenial minds. 

In order to ensure the highest pro- 
ductiveness of the soil, we must not on- 
ly manure it highly and cultivate it well, 
but we must allow it, also its periodi- 
cal holiday, its day of rest for the re- 
coperation of its exhausted energies. 
"All work and no play makes Jack a 
dull boy." And the soil as well as ev- 
erything else subjected by a kind Prov- 
idence to man's control and use, must 
have rest. Rest not to lie in sluggish 
repose and apathy, but to recreate itself 
as fair ladies sometimes do, in putting 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



205 



on its holiday robe of many colors, be- 
decking itself in a rich mantle of its 
own creation, which when worn for a 
brief peri^id is cast aside to increase its 
more valuable productions for the next 
rotation of crops. Or what is still bet- 
ter we may suppl}^ it with the seeds of 
clover or peas at proper intervals which 
being allowed to remain uncropped un- 
til near their iwaturity may be returned 
by the sturdy ploughman to their gen- 
erous mother's bosom, rendering richer 
and more abundant her future contribu- 
tions to oui" wants. 

Next in importance to the farmer is 
thorough tillage, without which all his 
labors in heaping domestic manures and 
his expense in procuring those which he 
cannot prepare at home will result 'n but 
limited improvement. He should there- 
fore always be supplied with the very 
best agricultural implements and keep 
his working animals in the best possi- 
ble condition to render good service. 
AVithout giving his personal attention 
to these things at all times, he will nev- 
er attain the highest degree of success 
in his noble calling. His servants should 
at all Limes be treated with kindness, 
their wants always liberallj^ supplied, 
their clothing comfortable and adapted 
to the season, and no means left untried 
to win their love and i-espect, but cool 
undeviatingfirmnessin requiring ofthem 
the full performance of all their duties 
must at no time be omitted. Indulging 
in no violent outbreaks of temper him- 
self, he must not permit others in his 
employ to do so, but ever hold in mem- 
ory the principle embodied in John 
Randolph's first article in his directions 
to his overseer, " never strike a negro 
tmtil 24 hours after the commission of 
his offence." By a rigid adherence to 
this principle he will perhaps never in- 
flict any punishment unjustly, and will 
impress upon the minds of all subject 
to his rule an idea of his firmness and 
justice, which cannot fail to have a good 
effect. There is no contagion so active 
and so virulent as that of human pas- 
sion, and he who allows it to overcome 



his reason and judgment in his dealing* 
with his slaves will never fail to make 
them disobedient, unruly and mutinous, 
or (under the intiuence of fear alone) 
mere eye servants, in whom no trust 
can be safely placed. 

He should never overcrop his force, 
but make in laying out each annual crop, 
a liberal allowance for sickness and bad 
weather. Should all things prove fav- 
orable during the year he will be no 
loser by his liberalit^^ Whatever force, 
human or brute, he may have at his 
command, beyond the requirements of 
his crop can be most profitably devoted 
to the accumulation of materials for 
his compost heaps, and will thus perhaps 
yield him more profit than it would do 
employed in any other way. 

The amount of extra labor thus al- 
lowed to be called into the crop in cases 
of emergency, should be at least equal 
to one hand and horse, or yoke of ox- 
en in every seven. By pursuing this 
course he will be at all times able to 
drive his work; not to be driven by it, 
to do everything well end in due season, 
and thus ensure as far as depends on 
his efforts, full and remunerating crops. 
The farmer who is always in a hurry 
and behind hand with his Avork cannot 
succeed. His fields are never well pre- 
pared ; his fences always dilapidated ; 
his horses and cattle lean ; his laborers 
overtasked ; his growing crops smoth- 
ered with grass and weeds, and his build- 
ings out of repair. Like the careless 
and slovenly housewife, with him every 
thing goes wrong, and quietness, neat- 
ness and order, are banished from his 
premises. 

Mr. President, without any disposition 
to trespass longer on the time and pa- 
tience of the society, I will take the lib- 
erty of making a few suggestions with 
reference to the subject, matter propos- 
ed for the consideration of the present 
meeting, viz : the best means of resus- 
citating our worn out lands. 

And here various methods, all good, 
present themsevles for our considera- 
tion. On the present occasion I shall 



206 



TilK F^VRMER'S JOURNAL. 



confine myself to one. Assmning then 
that cair old field lands are deficient in 
lime, at least to the depth of previous 
cultivation, which is ])roven by the 
growth of broomstraw, sheepsorrel, and 
the sapling pine, 1 wouid fuggest that 
such lands be broken up with two horse 
plows at any time between the middle 
of September and the last of October, 
then well dressed with either lime or 
ashes — at the rate of ten to fifteen 
bushels of the former or fii'teen to twen- 
ty of the latter to tlie acre, sown broad- 
cast and allowed to lie until the middle 
of March, at which tiiii.^ it should be 
agjiiii filougl'cd with one horse plows, 
laid oft' in 11 feet beds, thoroughly har- 
rowed and a single furrow run at 5 1-2 
feet distance for corn. I would then 
put in drill our ordinary farm pen or 
compost manure to the rate of 250 or 
300 bushels, or 150 lbs Guano and 1-2 
bushel of plaster to the acre, then list 
uywn the manure in the usual way, and 
leave until the middle of April when 
the list should be opened and corn, pre- 
riouslv soaki d 12 hours in soap suds 
and rolled in plaster, dropped- two feet 
and a half a part. At the second 
plowing of the corn, I wnu'd drill the 
common Black or Cow pea between the 
rows at the rate of 1-2 bushel to the 
acre, and when they are 6 to 8 inches 
high sprinkle them well with ground 
phister, 3 pecks or a bushel to the acre: 
and run a cultivator twice in a row, 
which will be sufficient work for the 
peas previous to laying by the corn crop, 
as soon as the corn crop can be gather- 
ed in, the stalks should be choppi d 
clown and the beds reversed on the pea 
stubble, with a two liorse plDUgh. Ti en 
f,ow Guano and Plaster, (100 lbs of the 
former and 1 ])eek of the latter, to the 
acre,) harrow until fine, and sow the 
winder oat, one bushel and a lialf to the 
acre, and harrow or drag tliem in. If 
the winter oat cannot be obtained, pur^ 
sue the same course of preparation for 
th/' spririg oat as eavly in Fdiruary as 
the '^easmis vill permit. If 6 bushels 
slacked ashes and 1 bushel of salt were 



now sown broadcast upon the oats, it 
would add much to the crop, and ma- 
terially contribute to the durable fertili- 
ty of the soil. The oat field should not 
be grazed but turned over in the fall, so 
that it may get the full benefit of the 
large vegetable coat, which will accu- 
mulate after the crop is taken off. The 
next year, this field should be sown 
down in peas, at the rate of 1 bushel to 
the acre and sjirinkled wita one bushel 
ground plaster to tlie acre, when the 
peas are G or 8 inches high. Whtn the 
peas have ri|)ened sufiiciently, put in 
your hands and gather what you want 
fur seed, then turn in your liogs, and I 
assure you they will be much obliged 
to you for the treat, and peimit ihom 
to remain ontjl the vines are [iretty wol! 
trampled and cut to pieces, when they 
should be turned in with a two horse 
plow, preparatory to another corn crop 
the next or fourth year, when the same 
course as recommended for the first year 
should be again pursued. Under this 
three shift system, which is ^^e}| adapt- 
ed to our course of farming, your lands 
will constantly improve in value and 
fertility, and you will be able to reduce, 
at least one half, the quantity of land 
which it now requires for vcur corn 
crops; when you can either adapt the 
the four shii't system or devote more 
time andJabor to yourtobacco and wheat 
crcps. For your tobacco and wheat 
cro[i.=i I would strongly recommf nd the 
rotation of 5 years from the beginning. 
This rotation should be in the follow- 
ing order. This year in tobacco, qfcou}:s6 
Will manured. If your lots are n<it. 
very rich ajiply 200 ll^s. Guai o icv 
your w heat crop in the fail, and m liether 
rich or poor be sure to give (hem at 
least ten bushels of ashes or shakened 
lime with one bushel of salt to the acre. 
Sow clover in the spring, which .<-hou!d 
Mot be grazed but turned under in Si'p- 
temberofthetliirdyear,wl)eai again sov, n 
with the same api)lication ofgnanoand 
ashes, or lime and salt as recommended 
for the first year. The fourlh year, af 
ter the harvest you \.i!l have a luxuri ' 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



20t 



ant cn»p of clover which may be grazed 
until frost. When yon'" preparations for 
another tobacco crop, tlie beginning of 
a Second rotation sliould commence. 
]>y rigidly following th's course you will 
have notiiing to fear in future. Your 
lands will be quadrupled in value in a 
very few years, and each successive crop 
v.'ill doubly pay you for the money and 
labor expended, ia ils improvement : 
abundance and fatness will distinguish 
your homestead: the elegances and 
corafo!t3 of life will accumulate around 
you : your neighbors will profit by your 
example, and your children "rise up 
Hiid call you blessed.'" 

I thank you Mr. I'resident and gen- 
tlemen for the attention you have be- 
stowed on iny feeble effort to perform 
the duty which your partiality imposed^ 
on me, and I have only to express the 
hope that oLliers better qualified to give 
instru -tion may be as willing to aiford us 
the beiielit of their experience and re- 
tk'ction. 



Adaptation of Crops to Blarket, 

The firmer who is wide awake to his 
business should watch, as well as fol- 
] )w, the markets. lie should know 
what crop-; w:li sell well. So far as he 
can form a pi'obable or approximate 
opinioii Oil t'iis point, he should con- 
form his cultivation to it. In some 
places he can produce milk to advant- 
age ; in other;?, butter or cheese. A- 
gam, he may be so situated that neither 
of these articles will p,ay liim so good a 
j)rofit as soiu'^ others. Here his main 
crop will be hay, there fi'uit ; here pot- 
atoes, there squashes, and other veget- 
ables. 

A firmer in Beverly, last year, raised 
on two and a li-df acres of land 18,000 
cabbages per acre, the net receipt of 
which averaged him $450. Another 
farmer, in Dan vers, cultivated an acre 
of land with sage, find., realized thy 
handsome profit of 1^400. The cultiva- 
tion of tlie onion in the latter 'own 
gives employment to many hands and 
is the source of large profits. 



Other examples might be cited to 
illustrate the importance of adapting 
crops to the markets, such as the pro- 
duction of the smaller fruits in the 
neighborhood of cities. It is not the 
crop on which the farmer himself sets 
the highest value that farmer himself 
sots the highest value that should be 
raised by him, but the crops he can 
produce at the least expense, and sell 
to the greatest profit. 

Some farmers are fearful of loss, if 
they diverge from the beaten track. 
They go on, therefore, cultivating the 
same products, and often on the same 
field, as did their fathers. Other farm- 
ers seem to entertain the opinion that 
unless they raise the heavier products- 
corn, ])otatots, grain, and bay — they 
are no longer farmers, but a sort of 
vnarket gardeners. 

- But away with idle fears and foolish 
notions ! Let cur farmers study their 
true interests. Let them not stand still 
while others are gone ahead. Let them 
be up and doing something to supply 
the wants of the towns and cities in their 
vicinity ; and not the necessaries only, 
but the tastes also. Let them raise 
llower.Sj even, if it will pay a profit 1 
Why n(,'t ? The taste for flowers is an 
innocent and rational one; why should 
it not be gratifit^d ? 

. Tliere are many articles not yet culti- 
vated to any extent among us, that may 
doubtless be raised to advantage. For 
example, some vegetable product, such 
as the castor oil bean, might be intro- 
duced and raised, to afford an oil for a 
domestic light, or for mechanical pur- 
poses. Wbale oil cannot be produced 
fast enough to supply the demand. 
Some substitute, down from another 
earth, will doubtless be soon introduc- 
ed. Sun-flower seed might perhaps, be 
fiund to answer. — Lewiston Farmer 
and Mechanic. 

Good house\\ives and the best of 
bread are sync ymous — they aie both 
home-made. 



208 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



FIEMER'S JOURNAL. 

EALEIGH, H. C, OCT., 1853. 

To the Members of the State Agricul- 
tural Society. 

Since we began the publication of the 
"Farmer's Journal " we have made fre- 
quent appeals to those whose interest 
we have been advocating, to aid us in 
getting such a patronage as to qualify 
lis in giving our undivided attention to 
the conducting of it. While we fre- 
quently see in political papers in our 
State, testimony of their increasing pros- 
perity, we are still compelled to carry 
on the only purely agricultural paper 
in the State, with not even a patronage 
sufficient to pay the expenses of its pub- 
lication, much less making a protit from 
it. We have in the last year and a-half 
gone into many counties of the State 
and delivered lectures upon the subject 
of Agricultural improvement, and paid 
our own expenses, and established coun- 
ty Agricultural Societies, and still the 
farmers foil to use any exertions to cir- 
culate our paper. We have now con- 
cluded to make our last appeal to you, 
the members of the State Agricultural 
Society, to aid us in procuring such a 
patronage as will justify us in giving 
our attention to the enterprise which 
we have begun. In relation to the 
character of the " Journal " we refer you 
to a unanimous vote in the two previous 
meetings of your body, in the first of 
which it was recommended to the farm- 
ers of the State as being worthy of their 
patronage ; and in the second, it was 
adopted as the organ of your body. 
These testimonials were highly llatter- 
ing to us, and should, it seems, have 



had more weight than what they have. 
In a few days the State Fair will come 
off, and we make this last appeal to you 
while at this exhibition, not to fail to 
use your influence with your friends, to 
become subscribers to the " Farmer's 
Journal." This you can do with much 
more success than ourself, for it is un- 
fortunately the case that many farmers 
are so prejudiced that they believe that 
every thing originated for their benefit 
is a " Yankee humbug," and thus they 
repulse us, thinking our intention is 
rather to injure than benefit them. 



The State Fair. 

This is the last opportunity that we 
shall have of communicating with our 
readers upon this subject before the first 
exhibition comes off. We deem it our 
duty here to say, that we have not left 
undone any thing that would in our 
judgment, contribute to the getting up 
of such a Fair as our people would be 
proud of, as the first exhibition of the 
kind in the Old North State. We have 
visited farmers whom we thought had 
such stock as would show well, and we 
solicited them to be sure to present theni, 
impressing upon them the great impor- 
tance of our making the first exhibition 
such as to instruct and interest visitors. 
We have seen some and wrote to other 
mechanics in the State, requesting them 
to bring specimens of their mechanism. 
We have written to proprietors of Ag- 
ricultural Implement Warehouses ask- 
ing thenj also to be present wiih speci- 
mens. We have, in addition to this, 
never failed to encourage farmers to come 
to the Fair, and bring their families 
with them, and we had not the least 
doubt but that the good people of Ral- 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



209 



eigli would make ample provision for 
their comfort while there. All that we 
can now say, is that we again express 
our confidence in the credit that the ex- 
hibition will reflect upon our people, 
and we hope to see thousands of the 
farmers of the Old North State there 
with their wives and daug-hters, ready 
to join in the sentiment of the lamented 
Gaston ; that, 

'' Though the scorner may sneer at, and 

wliittlings defame her, 
Our hearts swell with gladness, whenever 

we name her." 



The Analysis of Soils. 

We would call the attention of our 
readers to the letter in this num- 
ber of the "Journal" from Mr. Bridg- 
es, the present Sheriff of Hertford 
county, in relation to an analysis which 
we made of soils for him last fall. That 
there is humbuggery in the analysis of 
soils, as well as every other business, we 
do not pretend to deny, but the true 
test is such evidence as this letter con- 
tains. There are many who claim too 
much for analysis, and from this, far- 
mers are induced to place too much reli- 
ance upon it. But one thing cannot be 
denied, that plants require different 
kinds of food, and this they must, to a 
great extent, derive from the soil, and, 
if not theie by nature, it must be sup- 
plied B(?fore the crop can be grown with 
any certainty of success. By analysis 
the deficiencies of the soil can be de- 
tected and supplied. Farmers who 
come to the " Kaii'," would find it much 
to their advantage to bring us speci- 
mens of their soils for analysis, or they 
can be sent to us at any time. 



Dr. Pritchard's Address. 

We lay before our readers this ad- 
dress, which is worthy of their attention, 
though they may not approve of every 
plan there suggested for the renovation 
of lands. But it breathes a North Car- 
olina spirit, and it is high time that the 
talent and enterprise of North Carolin- 
ians had received some attention at 
home. 



To Farmers Avho come to the Fair. 

We shall have neatly bound copies of 
the first volume of the Farmer's Jour- 
nal, and back numbers of volume sec- 
ond on the grounds each day during 
the holding of the Fair. 



Farmers bring up your Soil*. 

Those Farmers who wish analysis of 
their soils, would find it much to their 
advantage to either bring or send them 
to us at thf' State Fair. We refer those 
who are disposed to doubt the practica- 
bility of analysis o^" soils to the letter 
of Mr. J. P. Bridgers, which may be 
found in this number of the Journal. 



Editor's Table. 

The AMERICA^' Farmer. — This number 
for September contains matter highly val- 
uable to the farmer, and may be read with 
interest and advantage. 

The Southern Cultivator. — The Sep- 
tember number of tliis work is very good, 
and in fact, we have scarcely ever seen 
any thing in the Cultivator that was not 
useful and instructive. 

The Southern Planter is worthy of an 
extensive patronagu ; the Eciitor, like our- 
self, has had a heavy job in arousing the 
old Fogies of his State to a just sense of 
his condition. 

The Southern Weekly Post, publish- 
ed in this city, has of late been much im- 



210 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL, 



proved, by a wiUidniwal of all advertising 
inattiT from its columns, and fmnishiiig 
by this means a larger amount of reading 
matter than any other paper of a like char- 
acter in the country. 

The Southern AdvepwTisf.k now i.^ is- 
sued to the subscribers of the Post fiee of 
nny extra charge, and-is highly useful as 
it contains a notice of all that is goin^' on 
in a bu.iii)e:;s way. 

Nejlected Dspartmeiits ol Asjriculiure 

in Eigecombe. 
[no. 3.] 
Perhaps no country prodaces a great- 
er variety of everything valuable for the 
support and cbinfort of man than the 
Stale of North Carolina. This variety 
does not consist merely of productions 
for local uses, like the fruits of the trop- 
ics, but of commodities of general use 
and acknowledged value all over the 
civilized world. Every department of 
indusitry can pour out its ship loads an- 
nually — the waters and the forests, the 
animal, the mineral, the vegetable king- 
doms are all rich aiid waiting to reward 
the hand of industry and capital — while 
her climate, not inferior to Italy, and 
her soil a para'lise, as (lod made it, 
make her agriculture am;>ng the most 
varied under the fiun. It is this we 
wish to deal with: ller position seems 
to be a choice medium between a north- 
ern and a southern climate — where tliv 
productions of both may flourish to 
adva))t:!g«. Tims the grains, grasses 
and fiuils of the North may be grown 
to perfection; and the cotton, rice, in- 
digo, to'oar'.co and fruits of the South, 
many of them of tropical origin, may 
be cultivated with equal advantage — 
while ah?ep and othe;- st )ck, common 
to both, can be raised with greatest fa- 
ciii*y. This caoacity for varied pi'o- 
duciioa is embraced by tlie same de- 
grees ui' latitude, covering portions of 
several oth ;r States, and lias never b^en 
made fully available by the inh'diitants, 
but lias rather proved a disadvantage 
by fostering a careless and destructive 



husbandry frora'the facility with which 
all things are produced. 

The county of iCdgecorabe possesses 
the power of various production as much 
as any part of the State. She buries 
most of her talents, and confines herself 
to very f3w leading staples, as cotton, 
corn and peas ; aijd if others are grown 
at all, it is subordinate to these few. 
ller cotton crops being comparatively 
free from disease, she nearly rivals Mis- 
sissippi and Alabama in annual average 
per acre, and probably equals them in 
net profit — her certainty of realizing 
fair crops of every variety is truly re- 
markab!e--for, with the exception of 
Irish potatoes, fruit, and sometimes oats 
and wlieat, which are merely incidental 
crops, we scarcely look for less than an 
average return, and these last may be 
rendered almost certain by proper cul- 
tivation and by making them staple 
crops. This great certainty is tlie re- 
sult of her geographical position ; her 
geological features are, much sand, some 
clay ant! no rock, level plains, slight 
hills and broad alluvial swamps and 
bocto'.ns — for'uing generally a light 
warm soil sutHeienily alluminous fo" 
consistency and strength, embr;icing, 
however, every variety of soil, for a.!- 
ino-t every production, 

A range of low hil-s runs acioss the 
State nearly parallel with the coast, 
and their line is well marked on the 
lifferent rivers l)y the presence of gran- 
ite, as at Weldon on the Roanoke and 
at R'>cky Mount on the Tar River, &c. 
The whole country between this hill 
range and the ocean, is one v;\st ])]ain, 
heavily timbered with valuable growth, 
and varied by rivers, creeks and exten- 
sive swamps, with intervening ridges 
of slight e'evation. 

Edgecombe belongs to a tier of coun- 
ties—lying at tlie head of this vast- 
plain of c'.mntry, immediately under 
this range of hills which are on the 
west — these protect her fnMii storms of 
the east and north-east — wliile she is 
some eighty or more miles from the 
coast to the eastward — whose vstorms 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



211 



strikiniv the timbered regions below 
pa?s almost harmlessly above her — 
consequently we raivly experience ihi 
great <levast;uion of storms, kn<r«vn to 
other reu.'ion'^. The level and alluvia: 
character of her soil makes ratlier a 
dry suanner desirable for heavy cro[)S ; 
hence, we have a maxim, " ft dry June 
for a good crop year;" and altiiongh a 
wet year may shorten the crops of her 
lov*' lands, her ridge lands generally 
meet the emergenc}' with abundance, 
and a severe drought is met by those 
of tlie sv/amps and low lands. Being 
thus v»'ell protected, her climate is niiM 
and soft, and portions of her pine 1-ind 
are as healthy as the mountains. These 
are some of the causes which give 
Edgecombe uncommon certainty of pro- 
duction. Y(;t her great field stHj)les are 
as few as if nature had given them a 
law of humiliation, or tis if she had ab- 
dicated her power over other products, 
and condemned herself to pay an annu- 
al tribute to other States for commodi- 
ties, she can raise as well or better her- 
self. For mules and horses alone this 
trbute is immense ; but what is still 
worse, we frequently import northern 
hay to feed tliem. Butter, cheese, pork, 
bacon, iiour, are laigely imported even 
in Edoecombe, while beef, apjiles, cider, 
Irish p )tatoes and otlier notions figure 
in no small way on th.e list.^ 

As to the mechanical department of 
agricullure, we have noi^e but the rud- 
est, and that is kept prostrate by im- 
portations of trashy productions of nor- 
thern workshops. It is true our cotton 
screws are built of wood, and gins re- 
paired, but we know of no establish- 
ment ill t!ie State for making gins; 
they ;ire all imported here {Vom other 
Btates — i-v.Tv thino- is imported — from 
grain, fans, plows ;\ii(l wftii-ons, di'.wn to 
axe-helves and IvirreMinirigs ; — now all 
these are as much our natural staples 
as corn and l»*\as, and more so tli;in cot- 
ton. \M)y, then, abandon tlie right of 
prodnciiig them? when they cost so 
much, and prevent any rational system 
of rotaiiou of crops, which is necessary 



io give character and efiiciericy (o agri- 
culture, improvement to the soil, and 
permanent wealth to our country. It is 
to these neglected dcpartuienis we 
would invite special atteiuion : they 
a)-e — 

1st. Grasses and meadows. 

2d. Small grain. 

3(1. Garden stutTs. 

4th. Orchards and fruits. 

5th. Stock-animals. 

6th. Agricultural mechanics. 

Alpha. 



Scotland Neck, June 25, 1853. 

Br. J. F. Tompkins. — Dear Sir : In 
vour favor of the 8th inst., you request 
me to comn)unieate for the "Farmer's 
Journal" what I stated to you verbally 
in Raleigh, as to the mode of conduct- 
ing the proceedings of the Scotland 
Neck Agricultural Society — with this 
request I cannot refuse to comjily. 

The constitution and by-laws of our 
society are short — difl'ering but little 
from those of other societies whose con- 
stitutions I have read. They provide 
for the annual election of the different 
officers and require a small ft-e to be 
paid by each member yearly. The meet- 
ings of the society are held monthly, 
and at every meeting a question for con- 
versation is selected fur the subsequent 
meeting. Four members are a]ipointed 
by the President to eonveise upon this 
subject; and after it is exhausted by 
them, any other uiember has the right 
to be heard, and to ask any question per- 
tinent to tlie subject. You will pereeivo 
that instead of being a ihhativa society, 
it is a conversational one. Nd member 
is required to rise from his sf^at in ad- 
dressing the President ; but all oilier 
rules of (.rdi.r are enforced. The flTcct 
of tliis rule i.-, tli.'it mcuibei's commu- 
nicatee freely v, bet they have to say. 
No display in sj.ieecli ir^aking is attempt- 
ed, and by tar the mo:-t inleresfing and 
instructive remarks are made by per- 
sons, wh(1, if required to place them- 
selves in a speakiny attitude would not 
say one word. 



212 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



The great defect, in my opinion, in 
most societies of this kind, is, that the 
speech making is confined to a few, and 
often to those who are least able to com- 
municate what is practical and of real 
value to others; whilst our mode draws 
information from all and that of the 
most practical kind. Notes of these 
conversations are taken by the Secreta- 
ry, and at the next meeting when the 
journal is read, the chief points in the 
argument are again brought before the 
society, and every one has an opportu- 
nity of correcting it, if he is misrepre- 
sented in his argument. The meetings 
are usually well attended, and a marked 
effect has been produced among our 
farmers in improving upon the old ways. 

As an example of the mode in which 
our journal is kept, I copy from it, as I 
am authorised by a resolution of the so- 
ciety, so much of the proceedings of the 
meeting of the 5th of June 1852, as re- 
lates to the subject of discussion. 
Respectfully yours, cfec, 
RICRARD H. SMITH. 



Extract from the jjrocccdhiffs of the 

Scotland Nech Agricultural SorAety 

of the 5 th of June 1852. 

"The question for discussion being- 
next in order, the Secretary read the 
same, as follows : The cultivation of 
corn, embracing the method of prepar- 
ing the land, and whether it is best to 
plant in single, double, treble, or quad- 
ruple beds, &c. 

Mr. Devereux opened the discussion 

by stating that he ploughs as much 

land in winter as he can, and believes it 

of great benefit to the land and crop — 

ploughs in beds greater than single 

beds ; but prefers treble or 15 feet beds. 

These beds should never be reversed, 

but kept peimanently the same. In 

this manner he has permanent water 

furrows which are ev,er being deepened, 

and the body of the bed raised higher. 

This is less laborious to the^team than 

by throwing the land into single beds. 

He is willing to admit that when single 

beds are used, the land in the first woik- 



ing of the corn can be more easily an 
better cleaned, but does not think thi^ 
compensates for the other greater ad" 
vant ges of treble beds : is in favor o' 
bedding on all kinds of land, and has 
found single beds to suffer most in time 
of drought. He stated that be was 
opposed to weed fallows and would al- 
ways, as far as he could, rest the laud 
in a crop of peas, clover or the like. 

Capt. M. Smith was of the opinion 
that light sandy land ought not to be 
broken up in winter : he would prefer 
to break it up one day and plant it the 
next, if lie could. 

Ml'. W. B. Smith stated, that he had 
this year tried land thrown into beds 
from one to six rows on the bed. His 
land was swamp land, and he reversed 
the beds first before planting — next year 
he will not reverse these beds. He 
thought beds of 20 or 30 feet would 
keep as dry as single beds — in all sinks 
he runs water furrows to drain the land 
more thoroughly, and has them kept 
constantly o])en. 

Mr. Brinkley prepared the land to be 
thrown into single beds: he could not 
see the use of throwing the land into 
large beds, and as in the first or second 
working dividing it oft" as if planted in 
sino-Ie beds. In his first workino- of 
the corn he commences in the middle 
of the rows and throws the whole bed 
down, leaving the land almost level. — 
He thought that single beds in wet 
weather kept dryer, whilst in dry or 
windy weather the large beds baked 
worse. He had observed in large beds 
that the upper rows, or those nearest the 
middle of the bed, were always the best 
looking, and thought this an evidence 
in favor of single beds. He keeps the 
same water furrows, and does not think 
that the land bakes more in single than 
in double beds. 

Mr. Bryan cultivated his corn in dou- 
ble beds, and prepared them to double 
beds. 

Mr, James Smith thought that single 
b:ds suffered more in drougiit than dou- 
ble beds. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



213 



Mr. W. K Smith, tlioiight that the 
reason that the middle or ujjper rows 
on large beds being the best, was be- 
cause they were pLinted higher, and did 
not think this an argument in favor of 
single beds. He thought that although 
they might look and grow up better, 
those rows iieai-est the water farrows, 
would make the most corn. 

The President, R. H. Smith, thought 
that large beds required fewer water 
furroVs to keep open. He had found 
single beds to sap more easily than dou- 
ble beds in wet weather — laige beds af- 
ford a warmer surface for the growth of 
corn. On his upland he does not throw 
his land into beds, but plants upon a 
level surface. He stated that he listed 
his land with single or double ploughs 
as was most convenient, and covered 
his corn with the cultivator, the fore- 
most hoe being first removed ; in iifs 
second or after ploughings, he used the 
cultivator or g<ing plough twice in the 
row, according to the condition of the 
land, season, &c., and fonnd them to 
answer an excellent purpose. He did' 
not find them too heavy on the team — 
they will not do good work on gi'assv 
or hard land — he would as soon at- 
tempt to grub a new ground with weid- 
ing hoes : but when the land was tole- 
rably clean and in order, they did good 
work. On sandy land, such as that 
cultivated by Capt. Smith, he thought 
that one horse might cultivate 50 acres. 
He thought corn improved every time 
it was worked, even to the fifth plough- 
ing, if judiciously done. 

Mr. Devereux liked covering with the 
block very much — it was something 
hke the cotton block. 

Mr. Pittraan preferred planting his 
corn in drills. He thought that the la- 
bor of cultivation by this method was 
less both to the team and to the 
hand. 

Mr. Higgs did not like too late 
ploughing of corn ; he thought it did 
injury to the crop." 

P. M. EDMONDSTON, 

Secretary. 



For the Farmer's Journal. 
Hertford County, N. C. ) 
Sept 10, 1853. j" 

Dr. Tompkins : — When you were in 
this county last fall I got you to make 
an analysis of my soil and marl, and to 
give directions for the application of 
manures according to the analysis. — 
Upon land which last year produced one 
barrel of corn, I, this year by going by 
the directions given by you, shall make 
from four to five barrels, and upon land 
which last year produced three barrels, 
I shall this year get from six to seven. 
Upon soine parts of this field I applied 
my manures without any regard to the 
analysis, as I had been accustomed to 
do before, and the crop is not near so 
good as where I manured according to 
the analysis. I also found great benefit 
from the analysis of marl in making an 
application of it, for before I had always 
put too large a quantity which injured 
my crop. 

All of my neighbours who have seen 
my crop are perfectly satisfied that 
much can be gained by having the soil 
and '^marls analyzed. 1 am satisfied 
that I have derived at least fifty percent 
from the investment made in labour and 
manures, and I expect to derive advant- 
age from the manures in the next year's 
crop. I feel it my du:y to state these 
facts to yon in order that others may 
have the advantage which cannot fail 
to result from an analyhis of the soil. 
The season too was very unfevorable for 
my crop, and I am satisfied thut it was 
injured by the heavy rains in July at 
least one fourth. 

Yours Respectfully. 

J. P. BRIDGERS. 

For the Farmer's Journal. 

Newby's Bridge, 

July 26, '53. 

Dear Sir: — Enclosed you will please 

find four dollars to pay for four copies 

of your Journal, three of which you 

will send to Newby's Bridge, P. O., 

Peiquimans county, one to the addre.NS 

of James JM. Stallings, one to John 0' 



14 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



Bogue, and one to Wra. C. Simpson ; 
also ouo to the Rev. West Leary, Eden- 
ton, N. C, 

The tnerit of your worthy eilorts to 
build lip an agiiculuual paper in oui- 
own Suite, toy'etiier with the de.sire I 



seems to get the start of the finning 
community aronnd him ; nd " to bear 
the iiahii alone ?" And why is it that 
in eveiy neighborhood in the Slate some 
one individual takes up a position ia 
advance of his brethren and keeps it, 



have t> see the great agricultural inter- and stands confessed by all tlie best 



est thereof prosper, have induced me U 
use some little exertion in procuring 
you the few subscribers whose naaies are 
annexed. I own I have done very lit- 
tle yet; if all who know and feel the 
great importance of sustaining an en- 
terprise like yours would but act—use 
some little efiort in your behalf, how soon 
should we see the good Old North State 
rise and take an elevated stand among 
her sister States in agricultural enter- 
prise and prosperity. Possibly we shall 
yet awake to our interest. 

With every wish for your succes, per- 
mit me to subscribe myself, 
Yours, &c., 

W. D. RiDDICK. 



From the Southern Planter. 
Good Maita^'cmgjjt, K"o Mystery — tlie 
Secret of it. 

Ma. EnrroR: — A few weeks ago, I 
had the pleasure, in company with some 
others, of riding over the farm of a 
gentleman who stands high on the list 
of successful ])lanters, as well as on that 
of ihe best fai'mers in Virginia — and 
when I speak of good farming in Vir- 
ginia, I admit no superiorty to any State 
or nation that the sun shines upon — all 
the cii-cu instances material to make up 
the issue being taken into consideration. 
I do riot intend to give a detailed state- 
ment of wdiat we saw there, or to enter 
into :i minute description of the man- 
ag'Oii(0;t of this farm, (this I ho[)e 
you v.'.'l eni'ieh your pages with, from 
th.' n;.'!i of the proprietor himself) — 
My pui]:io-;e at present is diti'erent; I 
wii'i til give expression, if I can, to those 
reflections which arose unbidden to the 
minds of mv companions and myself at 
til!' eouvirli Ml of seeing a superiority s 



manager amongst them ? It is easy 
enough to answer these questions, as I 
will show; but it is ?v,oi so easy lo an- 
swer another which grows out of them, 
viz. Why we, who see their good man- 
agement, do not profit by it, and "go 
and do likewise.'" ''Hie labor — Hoc 
iipus est." ]>ut let us return to our 
fir.^t inquiry : -Why is it that one far- 
mer takes the lead of liiy fellows in the 
same ]>ursuit and keej.'S it, unapproach- 
ed and apparently una]ipr(.»aciiable ? 
He may be our own familiar fiiend. 
We may consider him inferior to our- 
selves in natural endowments, and far 
behind us in ac(pnred knowledge; and 
yet he outstrips us in the race o! life. He 
takes the position of the " America," 
and " tlie rest of us are nowhere." 
^Why is this? I said it wa- very easy 
to answer the quoslion, and I will pro- 
ceed to do so; and_you will find that it 
involves many practical questions, which 
your readers wiil do well to jionder. It 
iskno\\nto yourself, sir, and to your 
readers, that the l-.ist and tlie j. resent 
years have been the most unsea-oiia.ble 
and unpropitious for the farmer wdiich 
have occurred for a long time, through- 
out the planting region of Virginiiu 
Not only have our corn and ti)baceo 
crops suffered a material diminution, 
both in quantity and quality, but in ad- 
dition, the ravages of the joint-worm 
ib.reaten to erctcfmiriate the wheat Ci'op, 
As in times of trial the statesman pj'ovcs 
himself, so in ditlicuit seasnii.s the good 
firmer staad.s consjiienous. Whilst 
most of us yield without a sfrnggle to 
a. diminished income^, because the sea- 
sons are perverse and untractable, I 
have not been able to delect any sensi- 
ble dindnution in the products of the 
aood farmers of my aoquaintanc^ ; and, 



marked in oufcommon pursuit. Why 

is it tliat, as in this i-nstance, one man , sii-, I have a good opportunity ol judg- 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL, 



215 



ing, for my own farm a<ij-oins and over- 
looks one of the best managed estates 
iu Viginia, and I liave the daily and 
hourly opportunity of ■vvitnest^ing, the 
operations which lead to this success ; 
and yet 1 continue complacently to fol- 
low my own imperfect and defective de- 
vices, as if they had never before result- 
ed in comparative disappointment and 
failure. 

The gc^ntleman, whose management 
I alluded loin the beginning of this ar- 
ticle, as well as my next neighbor, both 
i-aised full crops of tobacco last year; 
whereas most of us were C' ntent v,'ith 
from one-half to one tiiird of a crop. 
To one acquainted as I am with their 
management, there is no mystery about 
this. In the lirst place, they have their 
plants ready to embrace the early sea- 
sons, and in the second, their land is 
properly prepared and ready to receivt 
the plants. The way to have good 
plants in time is as plain as the way to 
raariiet, and yet four-lifrlis of the plan- 
ters of Virginia neglect this, the first 
and most imj)ortani step towards mak- 
ing a croj) of tobiicco. These gentle- 
men, after selecting suitalilc laiid, ample 
in quantity, (allowing one iuuidred 
^square yard:^ fir evnry seven or eight 
thousand liiiis,) i-urn it thoroughly du- 
ring a i\yy s]>q\\ in the winter, pro{)are it 
ire/l, and manure it he:ivily with the best 
manure tln-v can j)riicui-e, /Vce of grass 
seed, at the time of jireparing it, sow 
the seed, tread, and cover thickly. Af- 
ter the plants are up they are plastered, 
and occasionally before a shower, as 
inuch fine manure as they will be;,r is 
L'arefuliy sown over them. These far- 
mers always follow this plan, and their 
[jlants are always ready for the seasons 
und the hills tor the plants. Their crop 
's growing and iuxuriating in a July 
^uu whicli parches asid vvithers mine, 
because, being just idanted, it has not 
jret rooted itself. The good manager 
excels just as much in the after nian- 
sgemcnt oi the crop. It is kept well 
tilled and clear of worms and suckers, 
iind sufl'i-rcd to get ripe — then cured in 



the best manner, taken down in the 
right order, and never suffered to mould 
and funk in the bulk; is then properly 
asiorted, neatly tied and packed away, 
and of course commands the highest 
market price. Now, sir, we console our- 
selves for short crops and low prices 
year after year in some such way as 
this: "That we had a dry and cold 
spring, an unusual glut of worms, or a 
storm that blew and turned our crop, a 
warm, wet spell in s])ring caused our 
tobacco to mould in the bulk, or it hap- 
pened to get to market in rather soft or 
j hard order," &c. Now one would think 
that in the course of the firteen, twenty, 
thirty, or forty years that some of us 
have been farming, we n^iight have 
sometimes escaped these disasters; but 
the letters of our commission merchants 
siiov/ that wo have had no such good 
fortune. If the spring has been so for- 
warf.l as to pusli the plants u|'.on us and 
force us to set them out in good time, 
the crop has been neglected or misman- 
aged at some other stage, and we have 
the same beggarly account to give. 
There is no mystery — there is no secret 
in tlieir management of this crop; and 
yet four-fifths of ue- '.wo. as defeeiivo in 
our practice as, if we were trving sume 
new and untried experinn^nt anil had 
never I'efove sfen or heai'd of the suc- 
cessful experience of our ne'ghbor. 
Why is it li.'at we do not fallow a prac- 
tice which we knov.- is attended with 
uniform siiccoss ? Why do n^t we "go 
and do likewise?" This is a hard ques- 
tion to aiisvi'er. Docs the same jxlitive 
superioriiy shovi' itself in the oiher 
products of the well managi'd estate? 
i\.s regards the crop of corn, they know 
no such word Vi'^ fail. An nnseas jnablo 
year they gather a crop vdiich we would 
be satisfied within a seasonable one. My 
neighbor actually rardvcs an average 
crop of ten or twelve barrels to the acre, 
vidiile I make six on land which 1 should 
be unwilling to acknowledge as inferior 
to his. How is this? As in the case 
of the tobacco crop it is easy encngh. to 
thcni. The field for coin is dee])ly 



216 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



ploug-hed in winter, thoroughly pulver- 
ized and manured where it requires fer- 
tility. The corn is rolled in plaster and 
planted at the right time; taking care 
to use an abundance of seed, no replant- 
ing is required ; and there are few miss- 
ing stalks in the crop — the thinning is 
done as soon us the corn toill bear it — 
the working is begun with coulters as 
soon as the crop is well up — then with 
the winged coulter next to the corn, fol- 
followed by cultivators — and lastly 
with the mould-board plough ; the 
whole operation being accompanied in 
the interim by such hoe work as the 
crop seems to require. Other imple- 
ments are substituted by good farmers 
for those I have mentioned, but they 
answer the same purpose, viz. to keep 
the ground mellow, fine and moist, 
while the plant is small. The fodder 
being gathered and carefully stacked, 
and the corn housed in cool dry weath- 
er, we never hear any complaints from 
them of rotten or unsound corn. Now 
all this seems very plain sailing ! — easy 
to do; "no mystery or secret" about it, 
and yet most of us go blundering on 
from bad to worse through all the ope- 
rations, from planting to housing. We 
begin with a bad preparation, late plant- 
ing, late working, and late thinning, and 
often end the matter by putting the crop 
away in a green and uncured state, and 
for the next twelve months have to eat 
-dark and musty bread, with the addition- 
satisfaction of knowing that our horses 
and hogs are worse otf than we are, as 
we have first choice. What is the rea- 
son that we neglect to follow a practice 
always before our eyes, and which in- 
variably results in an abundant crop? 
But let us examine the good farmer's 
mrmagement still farther, and see if the 
other products of the farm correspond 
with the corn and tobacco. They do ! 
The wheat crop, not so much under the 
control of the farmer as the other crops 
mentioned, for obvious reason, is yet, 
under the good farmer's management, 
comparatiuchj certain. The past and 
present years they have reaped average 



crops, while the most fortunate of us 
have only reaped half a crop, and not a 
few have had to be content with a re- 
turn of their seed. It would seem that 
Providence favors the good husbandman. 
There is no more "mystery and secret" 
in their cultivation and success in rais- 
ing wheat than in the other crops al- 
ready mentioned. They prepare their 
land perfectly and in time. They sow 
good seed on good land, naturally fertile, 
or made so by manure or guano. The 
seed is well covered and the land rolled 
if at all cloddy, and all these operations 
are performed in the best manner. Their 
fields are green ^ while in ours, a few 
spires only can be detected here and 
there, struggling through the clods. 
Therefore, it should be no matter of 
surprise if after harvest shocks stand 
upon their fields as dozens do upon ours, 
and that they should count by thou- 
sands, and we by hundreds of bushels. 
Don't you agree with me that it is diffi- 
cult to account for this state of things ? 
Year after year we witness their good 
management and success, and yet we 
either sow defective seed, or too much 
or too little of it, or our preparation is 
slovenly, or the covering is imperfect or 
we get our crop'spri^uted in the field, or 
iniured in the stack, or heated in bulk. 
So that one good crop in our agricultu- 
ral experience is regarded as an event 
which a combination of fortuitous cir- 
cumstances brought about; but the 
chances are against their recurrence, and 
we have no assurance of a continuance 
of our good fortune. The farmer who 
trusts important interests to the acci- 
dents of chance, is dealing with a whim- 
sical and capricious jade and does not 
deserve to succeed. 

I have taken the three most impor- 
tant crops, corn, wheat and tobacco, and 
have drawn a hasty comparison of their 
management by the good farmer and 
the indifferent one, and if I am not mis- 
taken the wayfaring man, though blind, 
can not only see the difference, but also 
satisfy himself in what it consists. I 
shall briefly allude to some other points 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



2ir 



in their nianageinent, and the contrast 
will be found no less striking. The 
good farmer's houses are of the best 
construction and kept in repair, also his 
tences and roads ; he has no vehicles 
overtui-ned or broken down, no bulks 
of tobacco or wheat leaked upon, no 
crop destroj'ed by stock. His horses 
and oxen are kept in condition to do 
their work — as the horses grow old their 
jjlaces are supplied by younger ones ; 
(ours are suffered to get poor and die) 
his cows and oxen, as they grow old, 
are converted into beef, (whilst ours die 
of the holiow-horn, or another disease 
quite as fatal, which may be shortly de- 
scribed as — an emptiness.) He sells 
mutton, lamb, veal or pork — our lambs 
perish by neglect, or are destroyed by 
hogs ; oi'.r calves die of starvation — our 
pigs come at the wrong time and are 
overlaid, or our stock hogs being mangy, 
are worthless. Now, sir, if we " look on 
this picture and then on that," does it 
not afford matter for serious reflection ? 
Is it exaggerated ? I think not. You, 
Mr. Editor, will remember that at the 
meeting of the State Agricultural So- 
ciety, held in Richmond in February 
last, when your delegation were request- 
ed to enumerate the good farmers of 
Albemarle, (the old banner county of 
the State in Agricultural improvement,) 
twenty-five was the largest number 
which could be counted, and there were 
some of these few whose claim to the 
distinction was doubtful. The remain- 
ing four hundred and seventy-five farms 
in the county must be more or less mis- 
managed. Why is this? There is cer- 
tainly as great an amount of informa- 
tion and general intelligence among the 
four hundred and seventy-five bad as 
among the twenty-five good farmers of 
the county. The bad have the example 
of the good continually before them, 
and every conceivable inducement to 
follow their example, because they have 
the evidences of their own senses, tha 
by doing so, they can secure to them 
selves comfort and independence ; but 
t'ley don't do it, and if we may judge 



the future by the past, they never will. 
The questi^'U still remains unanswer- 
ed — I give it up in despair. If it is 
capable of solution, will you or your 
correspondents answer it iuUlligihly and 
oblige 

Your friend, 

A Virginia Farmer. 



Agricultural Education. 

ET AGKICOLA. 

The subject which is now atti'acting 
much attention, net only in this State, 
but in many of the States of our Union, 
is the education of farmers' sons for 
their profession, that of Agriculture. 
The prejudice which has too long exist- 
ed among farmers, and which, it must 
be admitted, has arisen from a wrong 
idea of the education proposed, is fast 
giving away to ihe light which experi- 
ence is bringing to bear upon this all 
important matter. No one thinks of 
preparing his son to be a physician, at- 
torney or divine, without providing the 
means for his acquiring a particular 
knowledge of the studies best calculated 
to prepare him for the pursuit he is to 
follow. When we urge the same con- 
siderations upon the farmer in regard to 
the education of his son, for the pursuit 
of agriculture, it is not unfrequently 
said — " What more is necessary thnn to 
learn the lad in the field the routine of 
farm labor — the practices which I have 
pursued as to the manner of preparing 
my land — the time of sowing and plant- 
ing?" This is all important, and we 
advocate no system of education that 
will dispense with it. Suppose we should, 
in the case o'^ the physician, adopt the 
same rule. The young man,ins^tead of 
pursuing a course of study by which he 
is faiT)iliarly and thoroughly instructed 
in the complicated machinery of the hu- 
man body, the laws whicli regulate and 
govern diseases, the pecuJiar nature and 
habits of diseases, begins at once to vis- 
it patients with the physician, pays no 
attention to the teachings of science and 



18 



THE FARMEIi'S JOURNAL. 



the researches o\' others; he might, eveii- 
taallv, acquire information that would 
he useful, but how much le^s likely to 
he successful, than one who, in addition 
to this praciica! education with his in- 
structor at the bedside, had enjoyed the 
heuetils of a thorougli education previ- 
ous to entering upon the active duties 
of his profession. May it not safely be 
;tffii-mcd that every man in the commu- 
nitv would prefer the one who had com- 
bined with practice the thorouf/h pre- 
paraiioa of himaelf by ail the aids which 
science and the experience of others had 
jilforded liim ? 



even iu the most minute portions of la- 
bor. To accom])lish this, a farm of lib- 
eral extent must be connected with the 
institution, where experiments could in 
the first place be carefully made on 
some small portion of it, and when sat- 
isfactorily tested, be carried into j.iractice 
in the general culture of the farm. An 
opportunity must also be furnished of 
testing the qualities of difi'erent breeds 
of cattle, he rees, sheep and swine. How 
little is now really known by the great 
body of our fiirmers in relation t<.) these 
matters. Who is there, from actual 
trial and experiment, prepared to say 



of light and knowledge to att;empt to 
sshovv that there is much for every farm- 
<r to learn from science to aid hita in 
Ids work : the nature of soils, their con 
fitituent elenients, their adaptation to 
particular crops, the quality of manures 
as (leterniincd by analysis, tlse elfect of 
heat and cold upon vegetation, and 
many other things which can he only 
certainly known through the agency of 
i-cience. What, may it not bo asked, is 
to prevent every farmer who shall be 
thoroughly ii)structed from availing 
liimself for |ractical purposes of these 
advanUVges ? The researches which 
h«ve been made by scietttiiic isien have 
di'velopcd many interesting and impor- 
tant facts — ami the time is not far dis- 
tant when many more will be brought 
to light, which will greatly lessen the 
labors of the farmer, arid enable him, 
with economv, to adopt a system of 
farming that will remunerate him lib- 
erally. 

Perhaps it may be asked what sys- 
tem, if adopted here, would thus aid the 
farmer? Without at this time giving 
what I suppose would be a system in 
every respect well calculated to accom- 
plish such a result, it may be suSlcient 
to say — that a school to prepare young 
)nen for tlie duties that are to devolve 
upon them should be so arrangr)d as to 



It can be hardly necessary in this day i which, of adl the breeds of cattle, is best 

adapted to the State, for the dairy or 
for the shambles ? lias a trial and 
coinparison been made between the dif- 
fei'ont breeds called improved and th^^ 
native stock, so that it can be said, this 
is the best for llie farmers of New York? 
I answer : No. And I would ask, is it. 
not important that these questions, so 
important to the farming interest, should 
be determined ? And would not an in- 
stitution, discreetly managed by a judi- 
cious, intelligent, and thoroughly quali- 
fied practical man, in time work out for 
us a solution of these questions? So, 
too, with regard to horses, sheep, and 
swine, the above remarks are equally 
applicable. 

There are now in this State a large 
variety of grains in use — each has its 
advocates — and yet it is not true that 
it was decided there are some varieties 
superior to others, and better adapted, 
probably, to our climate and soils. And 
where shall these <{Ucstions be settled 
more satisfactorily and certainly than 
at an institution with a liberal farm, of 
ditierent varieties of soils, where a series 
of experiments could be carried oh with 
all the varied grains, for a term sufficient 
to test their qualities in every respect? 
There are other matters all important 
to be ascertained, and which at present 
are but little attended to, at least so far 



give them a thorough course of educa- 1 as the great body of the farmers are 
tjon, combined with its practical adapt- concerned. I allude to a rotation of 
ation to the entire work of the farm, crops, ai-d application of manures, best 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



219 



calculaUd to i2,ive [iroiilable reuirus to 
ti'.e tkrtiier, while it seciKes to him the 
coiistant R-riiiity of liis soii. Whei'v 
could tiiis be bi.-'tte!' ascertained than at 
an inslitutiuii where a series of expen- 
luents wiih ditierent crops, in different 
retatii'Ms, and with varied manui'es, 
carefully analyzed, cordd be carried out '^ 
In each of Uie.ve cnses, time is neces>ary 
to obtain satisfactory results — and the 
State, at an insiilutiiui of this kind, could 
secure .-rich results as would, in the end, 
greatly add to the prosperity and suc- 
cess of the fanner, in the management 
of his farm. 

Permit me to caution my reai;]ers not 
to expect too much at once from an in- 
stitution in every rc^.pect rightly adaj)i- 
ed to tlie wants of the farnjer. Tune 
will be re([uired for it to develop i;s ad- 
va:Uage3. The work of in.ipr</\'enn nt 
is not the woik of a day or of a V'-a!'. 
Experiments, to be u>e!'ul, must be haig 
continued, often repeated, before the}- 
can be relied upon ; atid althougli a 
young man, trameti in an instiiutinii 
ihorouglily, will himself be prej)ared to 
do great good, yet the great practical 
benefits to tlie farmer as to the general 
course of iiis operations, both as to his 
crops, niimures and animals, must l)e a 
work of time, and cannot be hastily 
decided vviUi safety. Time for experi- 
inent to bo thoroughly tested, time for 
the investigations to be in every resjiect 
carefidly made, must be allowed. Let 
this bi" borne in mind, and I doubt not 
an instiiution, under the charge of prop- 
erly qualified instructors, men of mind, 
men of practii,-ai adaptation to the want;- 
of the age— not mere theorists or fancy 
men — wuuld eventually secure tiie f!)!- 
probatioii of ail, and wouhl be crowded 
with th<i young men of our State ; arid 
would annually send forth many in al! 
respects well cjuabfied todi-charge their 
duties as farniers, and also ].)iepared, 
wiien called into public life, to discharge 
their higher duties as representatives of 
their profession, the great piodijcing 
class of our country. 

Should ! have leisure, and should you 



not have more imporlant matter for 
\our paper, I design to pursue this sub- 
ject, and give in detail the cour.-e to be 
pursued at an institution w hich, in my 
judgment, v.oidd be well desiuned to 
accomplish the great work now need- 
e'i — TiJifc; THOROUGH education of tiik 
SONS OF FAKMEiiS. — IT7<sA. RqmbUc. 



Cbemisiry as apySied to Agricullute. 

Within the la^t few months a new 
;-et of objectors to Chennsliy, as ap- 
jdied to Agriculture, seem to liave aris- 
en. Among the-^e we lind a few Edi- 
tors of Agricultuial papers, ;:nd fortu- 
i'.ately fur truth, they ha[i|ien to ije in- 
dividuals who make no pretence to the 
slightest knowletlge of Chemistry. The 
>tyie of the objections is truly original, 
for they fir>t admit that chenustiy nsay 
t)e ns(.'ful to agriculture when better un- 
derstood, but that analysis caniiot be 
depended Upon as a guide ^^jy the 
amendment of the soils; that farmers 
had better trust to experience tha.n to 
science, <fec., &c. Idle real intention of 
these writers we cannot but suspect is 
an indescribable jealous feeling toward 
those who believe in the lull capabdities 
of cheniistry to be rendered iniinediate- 
iy available for farmers, and who pro- 
fess to understand the subj('ct sufiicient- 
ly well to furnish the necessa/y advice. 
Others insist upon having full confidence ' 
ill the efficiency of chemistrv, and in 
ihe same breath to repudiate all at- 
tempts at its practical adaptation to ag- 
riculture. Some cjuots special instances 
of farmers who tried certain chemical 
ingredients without any particular bene- 
iiit having arisen from their use, but 
wifdiout saying what ingiedients were 
-elected, or on what kind of soil the\^ 
were applied. 

Who have notpieard their x'lunts and 
Grandmothers rejjudiate all docior''s 
stuff, and still, wdien truly sick, do not 
stand ready to swallow the necessary 
remedies ? Are all doctors quacks be- 
cause some are ? Is chemistry to be 
taxed with all the errors of ignorant 
operators, or shall cliemistry, when ap- 



220 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



plied to agriculture, be construed to 
mean its judicious application, and not 
the dosing of the soil with every sub- 
stance bearing an unusual name? 

Some state on hearsay evidence, and 
not from any knowledge of their own, 
that chemists find great difficulty in as- 
certaining the precise constituents of 
the soil : so far as those constituents are 
concerned which are pertinent to its 
uses as the vehicle for vegetable growth, 
this is not true. No difficulty exists in 
ascertaining the relative proportions of 
each ingredient, sufficient!}' for all prac- 
tical purposes ; and even if such diffi- 
culty did exist to the extent claimed b}' 
these objectors, it would have no more 
force than would the argument that 
man has yet ascertained what propor- 
tion of vegetable lood he can consume 
with the greatest amount of benefit, as 
compared with the animal portions of 
his food, and therefore that he should 
stop eating altogether, and starve. 

If a farmer be told that his soil re- 
quires potash and carbonic acid, and he 
should pass by green sand marl and 
feldspar, which he could obtain for no- 
thing, while on his way to the apothe- 
cary's shop to purchase carbonate of po- 
tash, and he should then apply this 
dearly bought material instead of green 
sarnl marl, pulverulent feldspar, or un- 
leached wood ashes, these objectors 
would probably blame chemistry for the 
fact, that the farmer had spent more 
money than the value of his crops in ad- 
ding the few pounds of potash necessa- 
sary to produce tiiem. What chemist 
is unable to decide when a soil is short 
of the necessary amount of potash ? — 
and what experience has shown that 
potash, added to such soil, lias not pro- 
ved beneficial ? What sandy soil has 
failed to be rendered retentive of ma- 
nures by the application of carbon and 
alumina ? What boggy or sour land 
has refused to be rendered arable by 
the use of lime and the proper protec- 
tion from excess of water? What soils 
overcharged with putresent materials or 
excess of vegetable matter, have refused 



to furnish the necessary amount of silica 
to give strength to straw, where oats 
before lodged for the want of necessary 
addition of alkalies to form the soluble 
silicates of which the outer coatings of 
straw are formed ? What soil, other- 
wise properly conditioned, has refused 
to produce a wheat crop after the ad- 
dition of soluble phosphates ? What 
crop has suffered by the addition of pro- 
per quantities of any of the missing in- 
gredients of the soil ? What farm has 
refused to give improved results by ren- 
dering the soil more susceptible of retain- 
ing ammonia by the well known chemi- 
cal means recommended to produce such 
result ? What farmer who has had an 
analysis made of his soil, and who has 
added the missing constituents with a 
just view to economy, has ever found it 
less profitable than to plod on without 
such assistance ? If any such cases ex- 
ist, why not make them known and lay 
the facts before the public, and not at- 
tempt to do away with the usefulness of 
chemistry, as applied to agriculture, by 
the very means that is sometimes urged 
against its use, namely, theorizing upon 
recommendations, and finding fault with- 
out their having a chemical knowledge 
to base these opinions upon. 

We claim that no instance can be 
found where the well ascertained chem- 
ical knowledge of the day has been in 
fault, when appealed to for increasing 
the profits of the farmer ; and until such 
instances are found, and the analysis of 
the soil with the amendment be placed 
before the public with an account of the 
failure of the crop, we shall continue to 
say that we believe no such instances 
has existed. 

Now for the other side of the picture. 
We know hundreds of instances where 
farmers have applied, in proper quanti- 
ties, and at less expense than the usual 
style of application, the missing ingre- 
dients to their soil ascertained by anal- 
ysis, and in every case with increased 
profit in results. 

Nothing is more easy than to laugh 
at that which we do not comprehend. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



221 



Nothing is more subtle than satire, and 
nothing more ungentlemanly than the 
reiteration of erroi', after that error has 
been clearly and unequivocally disprov- 
ed. 

h'oils are well known to contain cer- 
tain necessary ingredients. It is also 
well known that chemists can ascertain 
which of these ingredients are present 
in any soil, and also the relative pro- 
portions in which they exist with suf- 
ficient accuracy for all practical pur- 
poses. It is also well known what or- 
ganic additions must be added to the 
soil to enable plants to make use of 
these constituents resident in the soil, 
which go to ensure their proper config- 
uration, and to furnish those ingredients 
to be found in their ashes when burned. 
It is equally well known that if any of 
those ingredients are missing, such 
crops, as in a perfect state should con- 
tain them, cannot be raised upon the 
Boil without their addition. 

We assert also that a fair knowledge 
of Chemisty and Natural Philosophy, 
such as may be obtained by means en- 
tirely practicable, and withiri the reach 
of every intelligent farmer, will enable 
him, with an analysis of his soil before 
him, to knovv not only what it requires 
lo render it fertile, but also the means 
by which these requirements may be 
most economically furnished to the soil ; 
and we assert without the fear of honest 
refutation, that after an expirement of 
some years, and a practice on many 
hundred farms, we know of no excep- 
tion to this fact. 

We see that the organic portions of 
the ordinary farm manures will 1 e 
doubly serviceable when applied to soils 
where inorganic parts are all present, 
and if any be missing, it is a more 
economical practice to add them, than 
to trust to their additions by the atten 
uated quantities to be found in the ex- 
uretia of animals. 

It is too late in the day for an argu- 
ment to be maintained, that facts are to 
be arrived at by guessing, more readily 
than by scientific research ; and these 



writers Avho blow hot and cold in the 
same breath, who are at once the friends 
and enemies of chemistry as applied to 
agriculture, will soon be called on by 
common sense men, to give over their 
vulgar practice of calling everything 
scientific and chemical, which is at va"^ 
riance with their opinions, and still may 
be erroneous. 

The application of salt where salt is 
not wanted, or of sulphuric acid where 
it is not required, is not to be consider- 
ed as an application of chemistry to ag- 
riculture. Science means knowledge re- 
duced to a system^ so as to he easily 
tauyht and readily understood ; and the 
application of chemistry means the as- 
certaining of truths by analysis, and the 
securing of profitable results by synthe- 
sis. 

Let those who would war with us on 
this subject biing forward their facts in- 
stead of their satire, and we are ready 
to rneet them. Thousands of farmers 
are now practicing on the principles wo 
have advocated, and those who would 
dispute them can find no difficulty, if 
the principles are wrong, of bringing 
forward their pi'oofs. Let them read 
the extracts from the address of Mr. 
King in our present number, and it may 
pro\e a wholesome lesson for them. 
"Truth is mighty and must prevail." — 
Working Farmer. 



Comfort and Health of Country 
Families. 

The remaik has often been made, and 
with too much truth, that farmers are 
more reckless of their health than any 
other class of people. Possessing, as 
they do, all the advantages for a constant 
supply of the most wholesome and best 
ripened vegetables and fruits, they often 
neglect these altogether; having plenty 
of pure fresh air close at hand, they 
live during at least five months of the 
year in closely heated, unventilated a- 
partments ; and becoming thoroughly 
dusted every day at their work in the 
midst of peispiration, they sometimes, it 
is feared, almost forget that daily ablu- 



222 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



(ions are especialh' needful in their case. 
Wliat but this is the reason that the 
i)eads of families among thein often ap- 
pear ten years older than they really 
are ; or th.'.t girls grow up mo!-e sickly 
and slender tlian even those iu confined 
cities ? 

A late writer remarks, " We know no 
other class of ])eo[)!e who rr^e so litile 
fruit and vegetables as regular articles 
of d^et, as farmers. Bread, meat and 
cofl'ee, are the American farmer's diet ; 
and by way of variation, lie takes cotiee 
and meat and bread ; then meat, and 
bread and coliee, from one year's end to 
the other. When we reflect that it is 
mostly inconvenient to get a supply of 
fresh meat, and that therefore salt — and 
hog meat at that — is in constant use, it 
is no wonder they are injured in bodily 
health. yes, there is another impor 
tant article i>f the farmer's diet, — cucum- 
ber pit'kles, at all times, and preserve^ 
when there are strangers. * * ''' Miik 
is fed to the hogs, and by them convert 
ed into human food; apples, corn and 
pi,>tatO'.^s, share the same fate. 

" We remember, when we commenc- 
ed farnting, how ])roud we were the first 
summer, at our abundant supply of ear 
]y vegetables, and v;ith what care we 
began prep^iriug our harvest dinners, 
and wi h what chagrin we found our 
dishes of beets, peas, potatoes, beans, 
baked apples, &c., left almost untouched, 
while any kind of bread and meat would 
be devoured by the dishful, or as much 
pastry as we could muster, vanish like 
snow in June. We were quite taken 



tuted. We believe the large ouantities 
of both of these drinks, whieh are so 
abundantly and habitually taken, are a 
fruitful source of headaches and poor 
health geuer;\lly. YVe would not, how- 
ever, deny them to those on wh<im the 
habit, has become so finid} ^a>ienid that 
they "cannot live" without them; but 
we always regret to see young people 
becoming fettered to their use. We 
have known many cases of ))ersons for- 
ty or fii'iy years of age, who have re- 
nounced them to tlie great improvement 
of their iieahh ; and we have known a 
still greater number habitually sutturing 
from that distressing disease, 'sirk head-, 
ache," Avlio were iuvaiial^ly cured by 
^«/iO^/?/ giving up tea ar.d coft'ee, (not 
however, substituting otlx-r stimulants 
in their place,) although for the tirstfew 
davs thay sonutimes suffi^red severely 
I'rom the last assault of these enemies. 
Wliolesome and refreshing vegeta- 
bles, fiesh from the garden or skilfnliy 
cooked fur the table — delicious and 
melting I'ruits, including strawberries, 
currants, ra-pberries, aiuicots, p<aches, 
j)ears, &c.,are infinitely superior in at- 
tractive qualities to any decoction of 
siimuiatiug or sedative drit^d plants, or 
to masses of fried pork, I'endercd hai'd 
and nearly insoluble by solid .-alt,— it 
use iiad only rendered them etjually fa- 
miliar. 

Fresh air, (of wliich there is plenty 
at hanil) in connection with active ex- 
ercise, is absohitely ess.;ntial to tht 
health of farmers' daughters, and ])ro- 
cious little some of them get of either, 



by surprise to find a pitcher of nice cool They are afraid the sun will color theii 
milk standing upon the table wdthout a i skins one tint higher; and so to avoid 
customer amo!:g a dozen h;ird working this teirible disaster, as they regard it 
men, and four gallons of hot cotfee swal- incur a still greater penalty, that of s 



lowed in a jiffy, when the thermometer 
stood a ninety in the shade." 

To this we may add, that some farm- 
evs enlarge the |)receding list, by using 
warm bread and hot cakes well greased 
with buiter, instead of more wholesomi' 
cold bread ; and when the weather is so 
hot that drinkin r coffee seems like pour- 
ing oil on i\r.i, tea, still hotter, is substi- 



skin tinted and furiowed w\i\\ prcrnaiun 
disease f Let every country y< 'Ung ladj 
(and we are willing to accc>ril this title 
if she will only take our advice) cove 
her head with a bioad sun bonnet, an( 
encase her feet in a pair of good rubbers 
rise with the sun in summer, and tak( 
at least three hours exercise by walking:; 
or working in the garden at interval 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



223 



liiiring tlie da\% and she will have the 
real, substantial, iirice'ess blc-s.-ing as 
well as the hioom of health. City girls 
5iiti'er iVom a eonlined and polluted at- 
mosphere ; and yet from the faciiilics 
IS well as the r.eccssities i\r walking, 
:,hey are usually mere healthy than coun- 
:ry girls, and can outwalk them three 
to one. And now, in this eonnecliun. 
R'C wish to ;isk cur wise connirymcn, 
[vhy they do not make it a part of the 
road-lavs, that a r;Ocd, smoolh, d;-y 
bot-path is provided ;.t tiie side of eve- 
•y publie higliway, cu.sting, as it would, 
^even if a level, 1 road, single plank.) 
lot the tenth part of ti;e rest of tiie road. 
Wculd ii K'.t ] .-^-y enormous dividends 
a the furm of health to the wives and 
iaug; teis of our people? 'J hose who 
Vamed our present laws, seem to have 
mtirely forn-otton tliat there arc any 
neh persons in the country; or else, 
ike the coachman .who was compelled 
,0 haifiess Iris horses lo go for a pitcher 
>f wiiter, lin.y expected them always to 
■ide when venturing live i\.<\>. iVoi;) 
lome, in muddy tiuies. 

In winter, oul-door exercise is mere 
lifiicult but by no means' impossible ; 
jut whether' so or not, it is vital y es- 
itMitial that the in d„or territory be oc- 
iupied by a pure atmosphere. A close 
•oom kept hot by an air tight stove, with 
I current of air entering arid e^-aping 
.hrough the chimney, nut greater than 
vould freely pass through agoose-qu'll. 
vith ilve to ton persons in the loom, 
lacli in his turn taking into h.is lungs 
nd throwing out again, every successive 
wart of air the room contains, cannot 
ail to become an unwholesome jilace to 
pend the winter. A great deal has 
•een said against stoves, but they are as 
worable to healtii as any other mode 
f heating, not even excepting a hot-air 
irnace, (which is nothing but a stove 
1 a concealed apartment) provided al- 
ways that ventilation is attended to. — 
his is easily accomplished in any case 
y a register placed above for the egress 
f tte upper stratum of impure air, and 

aecessary one for the admission of 



fresh air, alihongh in most cases this 
gets in ftsL enough at the numerous 
crevices. 

Farmers are apt to presume Uo 
much on their natmrd advantages. Air 
and exercises give th^m health — daily 
ablutioi:s would give them moie — and 
regular and wholescme food would 
sometimes prevent violent diseases. "O, 
I am St! org ai;d hearty; I can eat any- 
thing I" So has said many a one on 
devouring a pint of green cucumbers at 
supper, or on eating a jiound or two of 
highly seasoned food, deluged with six 
cups of strong, hot coffee : but too ofic u 
the system Ijas yielded suddenly after a 
long seiies of heavy dr^dts hke these 
upon its resoujces. ;>nd irreparable loss 
of health or premature old age has 
been the consequence. 

Wo throv,' out these hints for the 
considenitioD of such »s may jirefer to 
make country lify one of health, coin- 
fi>rt, attractiveness, ai'd usefulness, in- 
stead of one of sensuality, disease, and 
repid-ivenesS, to young people about to 
select a course for life. — f'ountry Gen- 
llemun. 



ImpoEtant Truthr, 

No farmer can realize the full bene- 
fits .if his profession without adopting- a 
thorough system of culture. His suc- 
cess, commensurate with his wishes, al- 
ways depends upon the manner in which 
he prepares his ground, plants his seed 
and rears his stuck. Neither of the'-e 
departmaiis, whieh may bo considered 
as cardinal ones of Ids profession, will 
take care of themselves. 'J he soil may 
be lich, but it needs culture. His seed 
may be sown, but it should be in due 
time, and always on soil well prepared, 
and of a suitable quality for the produc- 
tion of the stock desired. His stock 
must be constantly cared for — it derives 
its thrift from the soil and Bends back 
again to that soil the subfctance it re- 
quire<; tut this* is not in a loosj hap- 
hazard way. I'he farmer's care is re- 
quired, arid all his better judgment must 
be constantly exercised in keeping up 



224 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL, 



this system of reciprocal benefits that 
inav be realized by every intelligent and 
industrious fanner. — E. M. Cultivator. 



Salt as a Manure. 

Salt as a manure for grass lands, 
meadows, <fec., has been used in all parts 
of England with varying success. It is 
said to sweeten the herbage, and when 
sprinkled about and over a portion of 
pastures, catlle, sheep, and horses will im- 
mediately repair to this salted portion in 
preference to any other part of the field. 
It evidently therefore,renders grass more 
palatable to live stock, and upon consult- 
ing the old agricultui-al writers, it was 
found that the notices of salt as a «na- 
nure were many and important and 
that it has been used for agricultural 
purposes from a very early period. — 
Salt renders the earth capable of absorb- 
ing the moisture of the atmosphere, " a 
property of the first importance, since 
those soils which absoib the greatest 
proportion of the moisture from the at- 
mosphere, are always the mnst valuable 
to the cultivator. 

Its fertilizing properties, when applied 
to land, may be described as five in 
number : 

1st. In small proportions it promotes 
the decomposition of animal and vege- 
table substances. 

2d. It destroys vermin and kills 
weeds which are thus converted into 
manure. 

3d. It is a direct constituent, or food 
of some plants; and it has been clearly 
ascertained that if salt is to be applied 
to a soil the vegetables afterwards 
grown on it, are found to contain it in 
increased proportions. 

4tli. Salt acts upon vegetable sub- 
stances as a stimulant. 

5th. Salt preserves vegetables from 
injury by sudden transitions in the tem- 
perature of the atmosphere. That soils 
do not freeze as readily as usual when 
salt is applied to them is well known ; 
and that- salt preserves crops of turnips, 
cabbages, &c., from injury by the frost, 
is equally well established. — Johnson. 



Remember, when the team is in the 
field and your hands upon the plow, 
that light furrows empty the pocket 
also. Put the plow deep down, and see 
do>vn, and see what golden fruit will 
result. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAIi 

IS Published monthly, at $1 per annnum, in 
advance ; six copies for $5 ; twelve copies 
lor iKlO ; thirty copies for $20. 

Adveriisemekts. — A limited number of ad- 
vertisements will be inserted at the following 
rates: For one square ot twelve lines, for each 
insertion, §1 ; one square per annum, SIO ; half 
column, do., $30 ; one column, do., i$50; larger 
advertisements in proportion. 

JOHN F. TOMPKINS, 
Editor and Proprietor, Raleigh, N. C. 



THE Subscriber will give any special advice 
to Farmers, by their addressing him and 
giving a description of their farms. H;s charge 
will be moderate. He will make analysis ol 
soils and marls, and write out the analysis for 
application ol manures. 
For analysis of soils, • ^5 00 

Writing out analysis, 5 00 

JOHN F. TOMPKINS, M. D. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Page. 

On the relations of science to practice in 

agriculture, 193 

Smoke House, 193 

Breeding Horses, 198 

Address of Dr. R. C. Pritehard, 199 

Adaptation of crops to marker, 207 
To the members of the State Agricultural 

Society, 203 

State Fair, 208 

The analysis of soils, 209 

Dr. Pritchard's Address, 209 

To Fanners who come to the Fair, 209 

Farmers bring up your soils, 209 
Neglected department of agriculture in 

Edgecombe, 210 

Letter from Richard H. Smith, 211 

" P. M. Edmondston 212 

" " J. P. Bridgers, 213 

" W. D. Riddick, 213 
Good management, no mysterj' — the secret 

ofit, 214 

Agricultural Education, 217 

Chemistry as applied to agricolture, 219 

Comfort and health of country families, 221 

Important truths, 223 

Salt as a manure, 224 



THE FARMER'S JOURM 



YOL 2. RALEIGH, N. C, NOVEMBER, 1853. NO. 8. 

JOHN F. TOMPKINS, M. D., Editor and Proprietor. 



.^ iS^-cList of Premiums 
Awarded at the First Annual Fair of the North 
r Varolina State Agricultural Society, October 

list, 1853. 
2*76. Devon Bull "Nash," 2 years old, David Mc- 

Dauiel, NmsIi, first premium, |5,00. 
27*7. Devon Bull, "Rocky Mount," 1 year old, D. 
McDanit-'l, Nash, first premium, diploma. 

278. Devon Cow, ''Dust Foot," 4 years old, D. 

McDaniel, Nash, 1st premium, |10,00. 

280. Devon Cow "P. sey," 4 years old, D. McDan- 
iel, Nash, 3d premium, diploma. 

239. Devon Cow, '"Milly," 8 years old, B. 'Johnson, 
Wake, 2d preuiiura, 15,00. 

582. Devon Bull, "Biily," 2 years old, Wra. Rus- 
sell, Caswell, 2d premium, diploma. 

592. Devon Bull, "Trim," 2 years old, Dr. Wm. 

R. Holt, Davidson, 3d premium, diploma. 

593. Devon Heifer, "Bettie," 2 years old, Dr. AVm. 

R. Holt, Davidson, 1st premium, |10,00. 

594. Devon Ueifar, "Red Nose," 2 years old Dr. 

Wm. R. Holt, Davidson, 2d premium, |5,00 
Devon Heifer, "Cherry," 1 year old. Dr. Wm. 
R. Holt, Davidson, 1st premium, diploma. 
Devon Heifer, "Star," 1 year old, Dr. Wm. 
R. Holt, Davidson, 2d premium, diploma.. 
Large Red Cow, Mrs. Taylor, Raleigh, |10. 
White and Black Cow, 3 years old, J. Kil- 
patrick, Raleigh, $5. 
283. Durham Bull, "Henry Clay," 6 years old, A. 
J. Leach, Johnston, $10. 
3. 1 White Bull, Seth Jones, Wake, diploma. 
597. Cow and Calf, 
168. Cow, (native,) J. J.Dawson, Halifax, " 

599. Heifei', Seth Jones, Wake, " 

600. " " " 

279. Ayrshire Cow "Jenny Lind," 3 yp.ara old, D. 

McDaniel, Nash, 1st premium, $10, 

Vol. n.— 8. 



595. 

596. 

361. 
42. 



Proceediags. 

Of the First Annual Meet-, 
ing of the State Agricml-- 
tural Sociftg of Nertk 
Carolina, held in Raicigh^ 
October, 1853. 

The State Agrieultural 
Society of North Carolina 
met at Raleigh, in the Com-- 
mons Hall, oii Ivlondav, Oct. 
17, 1853, the President, J. 
S. Dancy, 6f Edgecombe, in 
the Chair, when the roll was 
called and absentees noted. 

On motion of Dr. E. A. 
Crudup, of Franklin, the 
names of gentlemen upon 
the various committees for 
awarding premiums were 
read,, and upon motion of 
Dr. J. F. Tompkins, of 
Wake, the chairman of the 
Executive Committee was 
empowered to fill the vacan- 
cies in said committees. 

A communication was hq- 
ceived from the President: 
and other , officers of the- 
State Temperance Conven- 
tion, at that time in session 
in Raleigh, which was read, 
and after some debate was, 
on motion, laid upon the 
table. 

On motion of Dr. J. p. 
Tompkins, a committee of 
five was appointed by the 
President to confer with tha. 



220 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



601. Ilolsteii) Cow, 3 years u!d, P. C. Canieion, 

Oraiigf, 1st j>iernium, $10. 

602. Holsteiu Bull, 2 years old, P. C. Cameron, 

Orangt*, 1st premium, diploma. 

113. Durham l^ull, R. D. Hearit, Nash, 2d pre- 

mium,, $5. 

603. Durham Cow, Wm. Russel, Caswell, 1st pre- 

mium, SlO. 
492. Durham IJeifrr, 2 years old, Wra. Russel, 
Caswell, 1st premium, diploma. 

604. Durham Bull, 1 year old, Wm. Russel, Cas- 

well, 1st premium, dijilorna. 

605. 1 Yoke Workiriir (Jxeu, 7 years old, A.Jones, 

Wake, 1st premium, $10. 

606. 1 Yoke Working Oxen, 6 year."! old, A. Jones, 

Wake, 2d premium, diploma. 
127. 1 pair Fat Sieers, J. H. Cooly, Franklin, Isl 
premium, llO. 
89. Thorough hred Stallion, 12 years old, Gsn. 
M. T. Hawkins, Warren, 1st premium, ^10. 
3.9. 1 Siallion, R-v. Josiah Crudup, Granville, 2d 
premium, diploma. 
ilOi. 1 Morgan Stallion, W. S. Piattle, Edgecombe, 
{'or quic-k draught, Ist premium, $10. 

114. 1 cream colored Stallion, 11 years old, David 

Gill, Wj*ke, for quick draught, 2_d premium, 

diplonm. 
123. 1 Brood Mare, T. C. Smith, Bladen, for quick 

draught, l«t premium, diploma. 
344. 1 Brood Mare, P. C. Cameron, Orang«, for 

quick draught, 2d premium, diploma. 
33. 1 Brood Mare, W A. Eatc n, Granville, for 

saddle, 1st premium, f iO. 
2. 1 Bay Brood Mare, Seth Jones, Wake, for 

saddle, 2d premium, diploma. 
t2<). Pair of Match Horses, Tlios. Howerton, Or- 
ange, 1st premium, diphjnia. 
•86. i Pan- of Match H-rses, Dr. J. F. Foard, 

Rowan, 2d premium, diploma. 
.677. S&Mle Horse, 'Blue Di.k," Wm. H. High, Ral- 
eigh, 3st premium, $5,00. 
l278. 1 Saddle Jiorse, three years old, A. F. Page. 

Wake, Sd premium, diploma. 
.605. 1 Sta'lion, S years old, J. B. Leathers, foi 

■ heavy draiViglK, 1st premium. $5. 
.68^. 1 Stallion, Giibeit Cone, Franklin, 2nd pre- 

.miuiu. diploma. 
333. 1 Filly (Blackbird,) D. McDaniel, Nash, for 

trotting, 1st premiuiTgi, ^^M). 
61. 3 year old ViH\\ J.K. MarrMt, Wake, 1st 

premium. $5 -and diploma. 
.513- 2 year ol^ Fillv, J. B. J^aifeefs^ <3range, di- 

pl'jioa. 



City Council of Raleigh and 
obtain from them a deed 
and the ])roj)er title to the 
Fair grounds, and all appur- 
tenances thereto belongiig; 
said committee to report at 
the meeting of the society 
on Thnrsd; y evening, 20lh 
instJint. 

The following gentlemen 
were a})pointed on this Com- 
mittee : Dr. J. F. Tompkiim, 
Dr. E. A. Crudup, John 
Winslow, Charles Manly 
and Thomas D. McDowell. 

On moti(.>n of Mi-. Wins- 
low, of CumVjerland, the 
•.bllowing Resolution was a- 
dopted, viz : 

"That from and after the 
pre-ent mee in^f of the Stnte 
Agricultural Society, Aruele 
I Miall l.-e so amended :\s to 
requ'ie the iniiiation fee to be 
three, msteiid of live doluirs." 

On motion of Dr. J. F. 
Tompkins, it was ordered 
that the names of the mem- 
bers be arranged in alpha- 
betical order. 

On motion of R. H. Smith, 
of Halifax, the names of the 
Judges to award premiums 
was read, and the. Executive 
Committee were instructed 
to etdarge the committees 
and supply vacancies. 

On motion the Sncietj 
adjourned to meet on Tues- 
day evening at 7 o'clock. 



Tuesday Evening, ) 
Oct. ISih, 1853. \ 

The Society met in th« 
Commons Hall pursuant to 
adjournment, the I'resident, 
J. S. Daucy, in the Chair, 
The roll was called and the 
Society proceeded to busi- 
ness. 

Mr. J. F.Taylor, of Wake, 
moved that a special premi- 
uni of $10 b«i allv^wed for 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



2ii 



90, 
94. 
95. 

585. 

215. 

282. 

526. 

587. 
679. 
102. 

26. 

25. 

606. 
457. 

417. 

24. 

607. 
147. 

6. 
193. 

195. 

J19. 

271- 

570. 
187. 

192. 

,58. 

r68. 

:72. 

24. 



1 yf-aruld Filly, Gen. M.J. Hawkins, Warren, 
diploma. 

1 Jai'k, 2 years old, Gen. M. T. Hawkins, 
Warren, 1st premium, $10,00. 

1 Jennet, 8 years old, Gen. M. T. Hawkins, 
Warren, 1st premium, |5,00. 

1 Jennet, 8 years old, D. Gill, Wake, 2d pre- 
mium, diploma. 

1 Pair Mules, 2 1-2 years old, T. D. M'Dowell, 
Bladen, $10. 

1 Jack, 6 years old, D. McDaniel, Nash, 2d 
premiui.i, $5.00. 

1 Mule, W. K. Lane, Wayne, |5. 

1 Jennet, 1 year old, D. Gill, Wake, diploma. 

Jack, 1 year old, J. S. Jones, Warren, " 

1 Chester Boar, W. S. Battle, Edgecombe, 
1st premium, 5,00. 

1 Chester Boar, S. S. Caraway, Lenoir, 2d 
premium, diploma. 

1 Chester Boar, 7 months old, S. S. Caraway, 
Lenoir, dii>Ioma. 

1 Chester Boar, S. S. Caraway, Lenoir, diplo. 

1 Sow, Lish Grazier, Rev. B. T. Blake, Ral- 
eigh, 1st premium, dipl )ma. 

1 Sow, Irish Grazier, N. Ruse, Northampton, 
2d premium, diploma. 

1 Cl-.ester Sow, 7 months old, S. S. Caraway, 
Lenoir, diploma. 

1 Chester Sow, S. S. Caraway, Lenoir, diplo. 

1 Pair Chester pigs, 3 months old, J. Durtch, 
Nash, dij)loma. 

China Fowls, A. Alden, Cumberland, diplo'a. 

Pair of Muscovy Drakes, B.F. Moore, Raleigh, 
diploma. 

Slianghfii Fowls, 3 months old, W. Whitaker, 
jr., Raleigh, diploma. 

Pair of Cumberland Chickens, J. A. Wil- 
liams, Cumberland, diploma. 
-'72. Lot of Native fowls, W. H. Jones, Ral- 
eigh, diploma. 

Native Ducks, W. H. Jones, Raleigh, diplo'a. 

Muscovy Ducks, \Jrs. Dr. W. E. Hiil, Raleigh, 
diploma. 

Lot of Game Fowls, N. W. Ari-iugton, Nash, 
diploma 

Muscovy Ducks, Mrs. J. 0. Rourke, Raleigh 
diploma. 

1 pair Ducks, Mrs. E. Hall, Raleigh, diplo. 

2 pairs Sh.^nghai Fowls, Geo. T. ^ooke, Ral- 
eigh, diploma. 

1 Mo'n<rrel Fowl, R. T.' Barksdale, Cumberland, 
diploma. 



the best single mule on ex- 
hibition at the Fair, which 
was adopted. 

Mr. Clark, of Warren 
county, introduced the fol- 
lowing preamble and reso- 
lutions, which, after some 
discussion by Messrs. Little- 
john, Winslow and Tomp- 
kins, were adopted : 

Whereas, the interests of 
the farmer have been imposed 
upon by all classes of specu- 
laiors, the l.ist ihoiigh i.ot 
lenst of which is the impe- 
rious act of the nccredited 
airents of the Peruvian Gov- 
ernment, in the distribuiion 
nnd sale of guano, all (if which 
they have to the present time 
bi-rne with patience, until 
longer forbeariince would 
ceM^e to be a vir'.ue ; and, 
whereas, we see wiili pleas- 
ure thiit other State and dis- 
trict Societies, wiih indepen- 
dent zeal are taking such 
steps as will remedy this evil, 
and sect. re to themselves tliat 
protection and slaiiou in so- 
ciety to which they are en- 
titled : 

Be it Resolved, That th& 
President of this S"ci<!ty ap- 
point a committee of seven 
members to wai upon the 
executive depar.menl of llie 
general government, to act in 
unison wiih similar commit- 
tees, appoin'ed by otherSiate 
Agricultural Societies, toach- 
intf the snme great cause, \o 
t.ike such steps as ihey may 
deem expedient, and report 
tlieir aciion to the next regu- 
l;ir meeiiug of the Society. 

Be it further Resohed,, 
That the Correspon iiiiyf Sec- 
retary of this Socie'y inform; 
the officers of the Agi {cultural 
Societies of Maryl.ind, Vir- 
ginia, DehiwKre, the District. 
of Columbi;!, and such others 
as he may think advisable, of 
the action of this Society, and 
solicit uni.son of aciion. 

The committee appointed 



i2S 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



591. Sbflnghai Chi'ekene, J. C. Partridge, Raleigh, 
,, ^ diploma. 

608. Lot of Japan Chickens, S. Smith, Raleigh, 
diploma. 

145. Lot of Fruit, Thos. Lindley, Chatham, for 
' ' best variety, 1st premium, ^'5. 

4(35. Lot ot Fruit, John Stafford, Alamance, for 2d 
■ best variety, diploma. 

421. Winter Pears, Dr. Chapman, Craven, diploma. 

221. " " Mrs. G. Meredith, Wake, " 

1-91. Lot of Apples, W. Thumi>son, " " 

341-'2. Lot of apples, W.R. Pool, " 

253. Lot of Grapes, Dr. S. Weller, Halifax, " 

298. Pomegranites, Mrs. L. M. Tucker, Raleigh, 
diploma. 

501, Lima Beans, Rev. Richard Mason, D. D., Ra- 
leigh, diploma. 

442-'3. Peach Preserves, Mrs. GrifBce, Raleigh, 
diploma. 

561. Preserved Glass Melons, Mrs, J. Evans, Cum- 
berland, diploma. 

196 to 208. Variety of Butter, Jellies, &c.. Mrs. 
Louisa A. Holt, I>avidson, $5 and diploma. 

46*7. Jar of Pickled Peaches, Mrs. H. B. Bobbitt, 
Raleigh, diploma. 

'15. Jar of Oil Mangoes, Mrs.C. M. Winslow, Fay- 
etteville, diploma. 

.678. Malaga Grapes, from the seed, Mrs. James 
Redmond, Tarborough, diploma. 

^^27. Blood Beets, Geo. M. Whiting, Raleigh, di- 
ploma. 
43. Siigar Beets, J. Kilpatrick, Raleigh, diploma. 

21S, 226. Oregun Peas and lot of Turnips, W^. 
Whitaker, W'ake, diploma. 

246 to 252. Variety of Vegetables, &c.. Dr. S. 
Weller, diploma. 
31. Lot of Squashes, W. H. Morning, Johnston, 
Diploma. 

568. Mercer Irish Potatoes, P. C. Cameron, Orange, 
Diploma. 
80 Fruit Trees, Thomas Lindley, Chatham, 

1st premium, $10,00. 
1 Large Beet, J. H. Kincey, .Jones Co. Di- 
ploma. 

SIO. Jointed Cultivator, E. Whitman & Co. Balti- 
more, Md., 1st premium, diploma. 

'Slh Geddes Harrow, S. March, Norfolk, Va., 1st 
premium, diploma. 

612. Hill &\de Plow, J. M. Towles, Raleigh, 1st 

premium, ^diploma. 

613. Wheat iDrill, E. Whitman & Co., Bait., Md., 

1st pi-eraiuHi^ diploma. 



a5i. 



-412. 



to carry out the above pre- 
amble and resolutions, are: 
Dr. Wm. R. Holt, R. H. 
Smith, P. C. Camen n. Hon. 
A. W.Venabii^H.R. Burg- 
win, E. A. Crudup and H. 
J. H. Clark. 

The lion. Charles Manly 
introduced the following res- 
olution, which was ado])ted ; 

Sesolred, That the Presi- 
dent of this Society appoint 
a Committee of three pt rsons 
to take chr^rge of the Fair 
wroiirids, fixtures ind other 
property of the Society during 
the recess, ;ind until the next 
Annual Meeting. And that 
Si^id committee be instrreted 
to have ihe grounds plowed 
:ind leveled, manured and 
sown in grass, and the product 
be preserved for the use of 
the Society. 

The fidlowing gentlemen 
were appointed to carry out 
the object of the resolution : 
Jere. IS^ixon, Wm. R. Too], 
of Wake county, and John 
Hutchings. 

On motion the Society ad- 
journed to meet in the Com- 
mons Hall on Wednesday 
evening at 1 o'clock. 



Wednesday Evening, ) 
Oct. 19th. 1853. [ 

The Society met accord 
ing to adjournment, th™ 
President, J. S. Dancy, in 
the chair, and the roll was 
called. 

,W. Whitaker of Wake, 
tendered his resignation as 
Treasurer of the Society : 
and asked for the appoint- 
ment of a Committee to ex- 
amine his accounts and re- 
port thereon at the nexfc 
meeting of the Society. 

The resignation was ac- 
cepted, and Messrs. W. H 
Jones, R. E. McNair and R. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



229 



614. Horse Rake, Boram & Co., Norfolk, Va., 1st 

premium, diploma. 

615. Sweep and Railway Horse Powers, E. Whit- 

man & Co., Bait., Md., 1st premium, diplo. 
234. Hay and Straw Cutter, John Stafford, Ala- 
mance, 1st premium, |5. 

618. Grist Mill, horse power, E. Whitman & Co., 

Bait., 1st premium, diploma. 
13. One-horse Plow, W. B. Williams, Warrenton, 
1st premium, $5. 
617. Subsoil Plow, Borum & Co, Norfolk, Virginia, 
1st premium, diploma. 

619. Ox Yoke, Borum & Co.. Norfolk. Virginia, 

1st premium, diploma. 
502. Saw Mill for Horse Power, Tappey & Luras- 
den, Petersburg, Va., diploma. 

620. Faaning Mill,E. Whitman (k Co., Bait., Md., 

1st premium, diploma. 

621. Rabbin's Patent Churn, E. Whitman & Co., 

Bait., Md., diploma. 

622. Partridge Fork and Hoe, E. Whitman & Co. 

Bait., Md., diploma. 

623. Grist Mill for hand-power, Borum & Co., 

Norfolk, diploma. 

128. Cotton Press, Alpheus Jonas, Wake, diploma. 

460. Sitfut Machine, J. A. McMannen, Orange, di- 
ploma. 

624. Scoop, S. March, Norfolk, diploma. 

625. Hay Press, E. Whitman & Co., Bait., 1st 

premium, diploma. 

479. Cotton Plow, Richardson's patent, J. Sim- 
mons, Halifax, $5. 

026. Corn Sheller, (band-power,) S. March, Nor- 
folk, diploma. 

627. Wheat Thrashing Machine and Straw Car- 
rier, E. Whitman <fe Co., Bait,, premium, 
diploma. 

629. Collection of Greenhouse Plants, C. Lutter- 
loh, Fayettoville, diploma. 

245. 1 Citron Lemon Tree, Mrs. T. P. Devereux, 
Raleigh, diploma. 

516. 4 Cases Embalmed Flowers, R. B. Smith, 
Cumberland, diploma. 

629. 2 Vases Floral Ornaments, Misses Sarah and 
Rebecca Rogers, diploma. 
29. 1 Net Counterpane, Mrs. Beckwith, Johnston, 

1st premium, |5, and diploma. 
48. Wax Flowers, Miss V.'Gary, Raleigh, diploma.* 
50. " " Miss E. Co! burn, " 

52. Fancy Work Stand, Embroidery and Orna 
mental Work, Mrs. J. C, Partridge, Ra 
leigh, |5 and diploma. 



Henry Webb, appointed -as 
the Commrttee. 

James F. Taylor of Wake, 
tendered his resignation as 
Recording Secretary of tlie 
Society, which was accepted. 
On motion the Society 
proceeded to tha election of 
Officers f )r the ^nsuinu year, 
which resulted as follows, •.■ 
viz ; 

Richard H. Smith, of Hali- 
fax, President. '<'■ 
John S. Dancv, of Edge- 
combe, 1st Vice Pres't. • 
Henry Elliott, of Cumber- 
land, 2d Vice Pres't. 
Dr. Wm. R.Holt, of David- 
son, 3.1 Vice Pres't. 
H. J. B. Clark, of Warren, 

4th Vice Pres't. 
Dr. J. / F. Tompkins, of 

Wake, Recording Sec'y 
T. J. Lemay, of Wake, Cor- 
responding Sec'y. 
T. F. Hutchins, of Wake, 
Treasurer. 

On motion ofMr.L. O'B. 
Branch, of V/ake, the fol- 
lowing resolution was un- 
animously adoDted, viz: 

Hesohed, That the thanka 
of the Soi-iety are due, and 
are hereby tendered tu J. S. 
Dfincy, Esq., of Edofecoinbe,; 
for the able and efficient man- 
ner in which he has presided 
over this body during his terns 
of office. 

On motion it was 
Resolved, That the Record- 
ing Secretary and Treasurer 
be paid .an annual salary of 
$100 e:ich, for services ren- 
dered the Society in the dis- 
charge of the duties of their 
respective offices. 

Ml. Nixon moved that the 
sum of $30 be paid W. W. 
Whitaker, of Wake, it being 
the amount of his expenses 
while on a visit to Baltimore 
to examine the plan of the- 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



54. Sun flower Quilt, Miss J. Rutb, Raleigh, dip. 
&5. 59. 2 Quilts, Mrs. S. Miller, " 

g6. 1 " Mrs. Murden, " " 

g7-'8. 2 " Mrs. Barbour, " " 

a84. 1 " Miss Olivia Duplin, " 

84-'5-'6. 2 Counterpanes, and 1 Quilt, Mrs. M. 

A. Wttlker, Warren, diploma, 
g7-'8. 2 Oouiiterpaiies,Mi-s. M. E. Paschal!, War- 
ren, diploma. 
104-'5-'e. Rug and 2 pieces of Carpet, Mrs. J. 

Staten, Edgecombe, diploma. 
Sfi8. 1 Bolt l>omesiics, Hayettevilie Mill, Cumber- 
land, diploma. 
125-G. Home-made Siik, and Silk and W^orsted 
Cloth, A. E. Fuller, Granville, diploma, 
83. Striped Domestics A. M, Holt, Alamance, di- 
pU ma. 
134. 2 Pair Bed Blankets, M. Pullen, Wake, dip. 
146. '' " Mrs. S. Vincent, Chat- 

ham, dijiloma. 
144. Bed Quilt, Mrs. Langlay, Granville, diploma. 
148. Centre-table Cover. Mrs. F. Lloyd. Bladen dip. 
27-'8. Suavv and Palm Hals, Mrs. W. H. Morn- 
ing. Johnstcai, 1st pnniium, |3, and diplo. 
30. B..X Tallow Candles, W. H. Morning, John- 
ston, diploma. 
32. 1 Bundle of News Printing Paper, David 
Murphy, Cumberland, Ist premmm, $5 and 
diploma. 
497. 1 Bundle of Book Printing Ptijer, James F. 
Jordan & Co., Raleigh, 1st premium, $5, 
and diploma. 
22. Specimen of Leather. W. F. Hilliard, Frank- 
lint( n, $5 and diploma. 

108. Home-made Soap, Mrs. Paul, Halifax, 1st 

pnniium, 85, and c'iploma. 

109. Merino Wool, J. W. Cotton, Halifax, diploma. 
140 Case <if Minerals and Oies, J. P. Mabry 

Lexington, $6 and diitloma. 

141. Patent Camphene Lamp and Filler, G. R. 

GriflBth, Pittsboro, diploma. 

142. American Cr*am Soap, G. R. Giiffith, Pitts- 

boro, diploma. 

143. LotofSlone Ware, S. Lov, Chatham, diploma. 
107 & 166. Lamp Mats, Mrs. M. F. King, Tarbo- 

rough, diploma. 
©8. 1 Do« T Lock, Joseph Weltering, Raleigh, $5 

and diploma. 
3E12. Specimen of Type for printing for the Blind, 

W. D. Cooke, Raleigh, diploma. 
f^9-'40. Chisels and Strew Plate, ma.le by G. W. 

Pickard, Webb & Douglass, Orange, pre- 

|i3ium, $5 and diploma. 



Fair Grounds of the Mary- 
land State Agiicultuial So- 
ciety. Mr. Smith, of Cum- 
berland, moved to amend by 
inserting 150 instead of $30, 
which was accepted and the 
resolution adojited. 

Mr. Dancy, of Edgecombe, 
introduced the following re- 
solution, which was adotn- 
cd : 

Resolved.. That in coivsider- 
ation of the services of Dr. 
Jrio. F. Tompkins, in bel alf 
of tiie cause of Agriculture, 
that the State Ajiriculiural 
Society do f^ubscribe for five 
hundred copies of the Farm 
er"s Jourral, beuinninir wiih 
the November No., and that 
sidd copies of tlie Jonrmd be 
distributed throughont the 
Slate under the direc.ioii of 
the coirespoiding iSeerctary 
of the Society. 

Mr. Rayner introduced the 
following resolution, which 
was adopted : 

Resohed. Tliat if the sever- 
al commitlees should be of 
(ipinioii that any article on 
exhibition, not mentioned in 
ihe schedule of premiums, be 
entitled to merit on account 
of its peculiar excellence, the 
si.id cdniiniitee be directed to 
awaid for said article a diplo- 
ma. 

On motion of J. S. Dancy, 
it was 

Resolved, That the Execu- 
tive Committee be lequested 
tot(nder the thai.ks of this 
Society to tho!-e ladies of Ral- 
eigh, who hi.ve assisted in de- 
corating and attending Floral 
Hall, during the Fair. 

On motion of Dr. Crudup, 
it was 

Resolved, That all the offi- 
cers of this society shidl here- 
after be elected on Wednes- 
day night of each annual meet- 
ing; but not to enter upon 
their duties until the clo'-e of 
that annual meeting of the 
society. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



231 



;69. 

39. 

81- 

!43. 
:38. 

172. 

73. 

75. 

76 

62. 

30. 

86. 
61. 
88. 
11- 
28- 
11. 
32. 

33. 

38. 

36. 
37. 
SO. 
45- 



Staivh, Mrs. Dr. Fie!J, Wnrreti, diplcuiM. 
iiail Road Passenger Cohl-H, Jiio. R. Ilarri 

son, RaK'iLfli, 1st premium $30 and dip'a. 
Silk Shawl, silk raised by maker, Mi-s. F. A. 

Graves, Caswell, $5 and dipl'ima. 
Corn St ilk Cabin, G. Deming, (12 years old,) 

Curub 'rland, diploma. 
iSegar Case, Miss E. McCullers, Johnston, 

diploma. 
Cotton Yarns, Makepeace <fe Christian, Mont- 
gomery, diploma. 
-'2. Cotton Yarns, A. M. TTolt, Alamance, dip. 
" Gen. B. Trollinger " 
" " Webb <fe Douglass, Orange; 

diploma. 
1 Raised Map for the Blind, W. D Cooke, 

Raleigh, Lst premium $5 and diploma. 
Specimens of Card Printing, W. D. Cooke, 

Rateigli, 1st ])remin:n, diplmna. 
Sjjeeimens of Printing in Colors, W. D. Cooke 

Raleigh, 1st premium, diploma. 
S})ecimens of printing in Gold, W. D.Cooke, 

R:deigh, 1st premium, dip! >ma. 
S|»eeimen of B-)(;k Printing, W. W. H>)Iden, 

Raleigh, 1st premium, $5 and diploma. 
For Best specimens of Priming of all kinds, 

W. D. Cooke, Raleigh, 1st premium $5 and 

diploma. 
Basket of .Artificial Flowers,Mrs. Louise Bauer, 

Raleigh, 1st preiuium, $3 and diploma. 
Specimen Book-binding VV. L. Pomeror, Ral- 
eigh, diploma. 
3 Lamp Mats, Graves & Wilcox, Warrenton, 

diploma. 
-'2. llair VVreath and Pins, Miss M. L. Mein- 

ung, Salem, $5 and diploma. 
•'20-'3O. Paper Cuttings, Miss C. M. Hunter, 

Warren, diploma. 
Fire Sereen, worked with Straw, Mrs. Dr. 

Field, Warren, premium $3, and diploma. 
Einbroidered H indkerchief, Miss Stanmire, 

Goldsboro', 1st premium $5, and diploma. 
1 Quilt, Miss Usher, Duplin, diploma. 
Phiid Linsey, Mrs. S. S. Royster, Granville, |5 

and diploma. 
1 Q dlt, Mrs, Dr. Hendei-son, WilliamsboTO', 

diphmia. 
Yarn Cmiterpane, Mrs. Cox, Hendersar>, |5 

and diploma. 
Cradle Quilt, Miss Tompkins, aged 5 year.s, 

Bath, diploma. 
-'6-'7. 3 Counterpanes, Mrs. J. Adams, Wake, 

diploma. 



M I-. D. I n cy m . ) V e J tf 1 at 1 b« 
Trea-^urer be authorized tjo 
pay Drury King |10, for 
services rendered in liirbiing 
up the Commons H.hII, ring-, 
ing bell, &c., during meeting 
of Society, which was adop- 
ted. 

Mr. Gui >n moved that the 
sumofSlOO, bepaid W. W. 
Whitaker, fir services ren- 
dered in making prepara- 
tions for the Fair, which was 
carried. 

On motion, the S )ciety 
adjourned to meet on Thurs- 
day evening at 7 o'clock. 



Thursd y EvENrNG, ) 
Oct. 20. \ 

The Society met according 
to adjournment, the Presi- 
dent, R. H. Smith, in the 
chair. The call of the roll 
was dispensed with, anil thj© 
Society proceeded to busi- 
ness. 

Hon. Charles Manly, ol 
Wake, asked permissian to 
read a com'uunicition from 
Hon. George E. Ba Iger, and 
that the same be spread u.p- 
on the minutes of the So- 
ciety, which was granted. 

Raleigh, Oct. 19, 1853. 
My Dear Sik : I have noth- 
ing to cQiniribute to the exhi* 
bition af the North Cirdiiia 
Fair, but T would fain e.vpr;'S8 
in some appropriate manner, 
the interest whicii everv .wh 
of the old North State sh'ivjW 
feel in iier success in agricul- 
ture and the uieehi.nitral ariBj 
I therefore send some b;iy9 
of the last paient office re- 
ports, both aifrieultural nni 
meehimie d, which I beg yoa 
to have dislrihused as far as 
they will <fi) amoii<f the mem- 
bers of the society and other 
fiietids now in tiie city. Wish- 
ing Ii-Quld do I'.oPif, but h'.;p- 
ing that this offering may not 



232 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



450. 1 pr. Blanket W. C. Stedinan, Wake, diplo. 
4:11. 1 Counlerpaue, Miss L. M. Stephenson, 

Wake, diploma. 
^05-'6-'7. 3 Quilts, W. W. Guess, Orange, diplo. 
ai5. 1 Colored Blanket, Mrs.Thos. Carrol, Warren, 

1st preuiiuni $3 and diploma. 
&23. Wlietstone grit, P.S. Benbow, Alamance, dip. 
528-9. 2 Blankets, Mrs. A. H. Davis, Franklin, 

diploma. 
&58. Satin Bed Quilt, Miss M. A. Willhite, Raleigh, 

diploma. 
573. 2 Quilts, Mis. J. E. Kyle, Cumberland, diplo. 
§,74. Sample of Rye, J. Belts, Raleigh, diploma. 

575. 1 Spirit Barrel, 11. Wright, Cumberland, dip. 

576. Sj>ecimens of DenUistry, made in the State, 

Dr.W. C. Benbow, Fayetteville, 1st premium 
^3, and diploma. 
9-27 to 231. Specimens of Caps, Mrs. McGowan, 
Raleigh, diploma. 

589. 0. F. Regalia, J. M. Miles, Portsmouth, Va., 

dipli>ma. 

590. Candle Shade, Miss Madeline Saunders, Ra- 

leigh, diploma. 

478. Home-made Soap, J. J. Brarae, Henderson, 
diploma. 

g05. Negro Shirting, Mrs. S. Tripp, Beaufort, pre- 
mium lo and diploma. 

806. 1 Domestic Carpet, Mrs. Guilford, Beaufort, 
diploma. 

307. 1 Work-stand, Mrs. J. F. Jordan, Raleigh, 
diploma. 

308-'9-'10. Embroidery, Wax Flowers, Coral Pitch- 
ers and Work Stand, Miss S. A. Partridge, 
Raleigh, $5 and dii>loma. 

314. Silk patched bed Quilt, Miss M. Grimes, Ral- 
eigh, diploma. 

328. Embroidered Chair, Miss S. A. Hines, Raleigh, 
diploma. 

335_'6_-7, EndMoidered Table-covers, &c., Mrs. An- 
nice Cowper, Murfreesborough, diploma. 

dS3. 1 Dozen Brooms, manufactured at the Insti- 
tution for the Deaf and Dumb and the 
Blind, W. D. Cooke, Raleigh, diploma. 

401-'2-'3. Carpet Warp, Sheeting, and Stocking 
Yarn, J. Newland & Son, Alamance, dip. 

408-'9. Sh<^eting and Drilling, A. S. Horney, 
, , Fraiiklinsville, diploma. 

413. Hearth Rug, Mrs. M. Clack, Granville, 1st 
premium $5 and diploma. 

4l4-'15. Mantilla atid Apron, Mi-s. W. J. Clarke, 
Raleigh, diphma. 

425-6. Counterpane and Cape, Mre. Gregory, 
Granville, diploma. 



be entirely inappropriate, I 
am, my dear ^ir, as ever, 
Your friend anti servant, 
GEO. E. BADGER. 
To Hon. Chas. Manly. 

On motion of Paul C. 
Cameron, of Orange, it was 

Resolved, That tlie Treas- 
urereleci,9ndall future Treas- 
urers be required to execute 
their boiids, with securities 
to be approved by the Presi- 
dent, in a Hum double the a- 
mount in the Treasury, which 
sum shall be asceriained by 
the President. 

The President appointed 
the following officers for the 
next year : 

The Executive Committee. 
Dr. E. A. Crudup, Franklin, 
John S. Dancy, Edgecombe, 
Charles Matily, Raleigh, 
l^r. Wm. R. Holt, David- 
son, 
J. S. Carroway, Lenoir, 
W. W. Whitaker, Wake, 
David McDaniel, Nash, 
John C. McRae, New Han- 
over, 
W^m. A. Eaton, Granville,^ 
Wm. H. Jones, Wake, 
Wm. R. Pool, 
Wm. T.Smith, Cumberland, 
Wm. Long, Caswell, 
James F. Taylor, Wake, 
John Elkott, Cumberland. 
The CoMMinEE of Ae- 

RANGEMHKrS. 

Jere. Nixon, W'ake, 
H. J. B. Clark, Warren, 
William D. Cuuke, Wake, 
Robert Norfleet, Edgecorab 
H. Mordecai, Wake, 
E. P. Guion, 
Jno. Hutcbins, " 
J. F. Tomi)kins, " 
Dr. W. R. Scott." 
A. J. Leach, Johnston. 
The Committee to Selec 

A Speaker. 

.John S. Dancy, Elgecomb 

H. K. Burgwin, Northamj 

ton, 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



238 



423. 2 Counterpanes, C. Alfred, Wake, diploma. 
530 to 534. Worsted Embroidery, Miss Mary A. 

Turrit r, Warrenloii, $5 and diploma. 
154. 1 Pin« Apple Quilt, Miss V. Cooke, Franklin, 

premium, ^2 and diploma. 
156-'7-'8. Black and Brown Jeans and Negro 

Clotli, F. & H. Freeze, Salem, diploma. 
159. Home-made Jeans, Mrs. R. A. Shultz, Salem, 

premium |5 and diploma. 
161. 2 pieces Domestic carpet, Mrs. A. W. Ven- 

able, diploma. 
164. Rye straw Carpet, I. J. Sides, Salem, $2,50 and 

dii)loma. 

213. Rice Straw Carpet, Mrs. R. A. Shultz, $2,50 

and diploma. 
177. 1 pair Stockings, Miss M. S. Graves, Caswell, 

diploma. 
184. Wax Flosvers, Messrs. Graves and Wilcox, 

Warrenton, diploma. 

209. 1 Quilt, Mrs. B. F. Moore, Raleigh, diploma. 

210. 1 Quilt, Mrs. R. A. Shultz, Salem, diploma. 
316 to 321. Stockings, Gloves, &c., of silk, Mrs. 

Mary Whitaker, 75 years old, Wake, $5 
and diploma. 
322. Handkerchief and Silk Stockings, Miss Sallie 
Rodgers, Raleigh, diploma. 

214. Lot of colored Sheep Skins, Mrs. R. A. Shultz, 
"" Salem, for the variety of articles exhibited, 

a special diploma. 

220. Cotton Net Coverlet, Mrs. S. L. Smith, Cum- 
berland, |3 and diploma. 

225. Lot of Sheetings, Drillings and Yarns, D. 
Kivett, Randolph, diploma. 

232. Home-made Carpet, Mrs. Mary Whitaker, 
Wake, diploma. 

244, 253. Window Curtains, Mrs. A. W. Mordecai, 
Wake, diploma. 

262. 1 Quilt, Mrs. H. J. Brown, Raleigh, diploma. 

266. 1 Mantelette, Mrs. Hall, Fayetteville, " 

267. 1 Pair Children's Socks, Miss Hill, Raleigh, 

diploma. 

274. 1 Siik Quilt, Mrs. Evans, Raleigh, |2 and diplo. 

275. 1 Quilt, Mrs. D. Royster, jr., Raleigh, diploma. 
284-'5. I Bed Curtain and Counterpane, Mrs. J. 

Strickland, Wake, diploma. 
297. 2 Tidy Curtains, Mrs. L. M.Tucker, Raleigh, 

diploma. 
304. Calico Coverlet, Mrs. L. J. Sparrow, Beaufort, 

diploma. 
202. 1 Jar North Devon Butter, Mrs. Dr. Wm. R. 

Holt, Lexington, 1st premium, diploma. 
440. 1 Jar North Devon Butter, Mrs. McDaniel, 

Nash, 2d premium, diploma. 



T. J. Lemay, Wafce. 

Marshall <fe Assist anib. 
Col. L. W. Humphrey, Ob- 
slow. Chief Marshall. 

C. B. Sanders, Johnston, 
W. S. Baitle, Edgecombe, 
David Hinton, Wake, 
•W. H. Tripp, Beaufort, 
Joseph B. Fianner, N. Haih- 

over. 

Mr. Rayner then intro- 
duced the following reso- 
lution, which was adopted: 

Resohed, That ihe thanks 
of tiie Stiite Agiicultuial So- 
ciety are due, and are hereby 
tendered, to the Commitiee 
of Arrangements, and tiie Ex- 
ecutive Committee, for their 
un iriiig attention and assidu- 
ous labors in the discharge oT 
ttieir rPKpeciivtt duties inmak- 
inir prepii rations for, and in 
holding the vState Fair. 

On motion of Dr. E. A, 
Crudup, the Executive Con*- 
mittee were directed to hand 
over the reports of the sev- 
eral committees on the award 
of premiums, after being 
publicly read, to Mr. Wm. 

D. Cooke, of Wake, to cor- 
rect and conform to law^ 
preparatory to publication. 

Dr. Tompkins moved that 
the sum of $100 be paid tot 
Jere. Nixon, Esq., for ser- 
vices rendered in making 
preparation for the hdlding 
uf the State Fair, which was 
adopted. 

Mr. Giiion moved ihat the 
Treasurer's bond be deposi- 
ted ill the Cape Fear Bank, 
in the care of W. H. Jones, 
which was carried. 

Mr. Rayner moved that» 
delegation of five ra: rnt>eHS 
of this Society be appointed 
to attend the next anniiJ 
meetings of the Maryland 
and Virginia State Agricul- 
tural Societies. % 



9S4 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



eS. 1 I'ox of Hams, Mrs. H. Elliott, Cum bei land, 

1st pieriiiiiin, $5 and dij-lonia. 
111. 1 Hmiti, R. a. Davis, Waiitii. diploma. 
160. 1 Box White Honey, R. A. Shultz, Salem, 

diploma. 
%03. 1 Box Hams, Dr. Wm. R. Holt, Lexington, 
diploma. 
18. 1 Jar of Butter, Mrs. W. B. Williams, War- 
ron, diploma. 
&S4. 4 Spicimeiis of Wine from Scnppernong 
Grape, Rev. Sidney \^'ell^^r, Halil';tx, diplo. 
&80. 1 Jar Butter, Mrs. A.-ktw, W^arren, diploma. 
€30. 5 Bottles wine, David Le\vi>,Frai.klin, " 
190. 1 Bedstead. W^m. Tliomp>on, Raleigli, " 
62. 0)1 Painting, "Deuili of Jolin WeslV-y," (). R 
Copeland, NorthamiitoiJ, 1st premium, $10 
and diploma. 
64. Oil Painting, '-Hope," P. Copeland, North- 
amplon, diploma. 
5&3. Oil P;iintintJ^, "Mooidight Landscape," Miss 
Annie 'i urner, WarifUtoii, diploma. 
44. 2 Paintings, I'ov find (Jirl, M!^s S. A. Part- 
ridge, Raleigh, diploma. 

73. 1 Painting, '-1^ ailing L< at," Mrs. L. H. \\alk- 

er, (irt'ensloro', diploma. 

74. 1 Pa niiiig, "Seene on the Hn 'son," Mis. L. 

H. Walker, Greensboio', diploma. 
15. 1 Painting, "Alpine Scenery," Mrs. L. H. 

Walker, Grwn.>l)oro\ diploma. 
^76. 1 I'aiiiting, "Siins«:'t on Lake George," Mrs. 

L. H. Walker, (irecn^boro', diplonja. 
S8o. ] I 'aiming, in pastel, *' Fiuil Peace,'' Miss 

M: ly A. Pari^h, 15 years old, of Warreii- 

ton Female Institute, diploma. 
186. 1 Painting, in cra_\on, "Coiinne," Mi.-s Vic- 
toria L. Clarke, 15 years old, of Waireiiion 

Fcirale Institute, d.pl( ma. 
IBT. 1 Oil I'ainlirg, 'O.d Topers," Mrs. S. A. Wil- 

fi X, Warreiiton Female Inslitilte, diploma. 

631. 13 Daguerreotypes, T. J. Havens, Raleigh, 

di|iioma. 

632. Aiciiiiectural Dengns, IL Harbougli, Fay- 

ettevi 1.', (o and diploma. 

633. Draw iig ( f IJiltoii Bridge. \Vilmington,N. P. 

Midler, Wiimingion, dipli-ma. 

634. Dagnerii oi\ pe of tiie tir.st Dail\ Rakigli Re- 

gister, S. (;.•.!«'>, Jt.ibigli. dipl' ma. 
49. 1 I'aiiitiiig "Winter Scene," M^-^s Ellen Col- 

bum, liab'gli, dipli'iiia. 
f37. 1 Dravviiio-, (ireeiaii Cottage, J. W. Wolter- 

ing, Kaleigli, diploma. 
2S8»5 set> Wagon and Carriage Couplings J. N. | 

Seely, Forsytlie co., Geo., $3 and di{)loma. 



Committee to atiem> 'iiiK 

B.^LTIMORE Fa IK. 

\V. W. Whitaker, Wake, 
Hei)r\ Elliot!, Cumberland, 
J. F.Taylor, Wake, 
H. R. Buigwin, Northamp- 
ton, 
H. Mordecai, Wake. 

COMMITTKE TO ATTEND TH] 

VinGiNiA Faii;. 
Dr. Wm. R. Holt, David- 
son, 
P. C. Cameron, Orange, 
R. H. Smith, Halifaxr 
Wu). A. Eaton, Granville, 
Hon. A. W. Venable, " 
H. Mordecai, Wake, 
Hon. Thos. Ruffin, Wayne,*' 
Dr. E. A. Crudup, Franklin, 
Dr. J. F. Foaid, Rowan. 

On motion of Mr. L. O'B, 
Braiich it was 

E(S)olred, That the proper 
aulhentieation of any eliiim 
upin the Society, pres-emed 
tor payment, sIi.mIi be liie t\ ar- 
rant of tie Cii.-.irnii n of the 
Execudve ( on.nitue. 

Oil motiou of W. W. 
W'hitaker it was ordered 
that, the 50 cojiies of thej 
Patent Office r(])uits be dis-' 
iributeil an ong tho^e who 
olttainul diplomas. 

The soi-ieiy adjourned to 
m' et on Friday evening ai 7 
o'clock. 



FkIDAY EVENING, ) 

Oct. 21,M, 18^3. \ 
The S. ciety met. the | 
President, R. U. Smith, in 
the chair. 'Iheie being but 
little busiiK.ss belore the So- 
ciety, afti-r the thank.'- of the 
bo(iy wi re tendered to the i 
<;flicers the Soeiely adjourn- 
ed to meet again on the 
llnid Tuesday o No\embir, 
185-1, in the city of Ra:eii;h, 
when the p»esence of all the 
members is n que.-trd. 

II. H. SiMl'IH, Frcs't. 
J. F. Tompkins, JR. Sec. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



23ft 



263. 

296. 

295. 

435. 

456. 

469. 

470. 

67- 

165. 

302. 

358. 

498. 
563 



23. 

119. 

162. 
173. 

431. 

176. 

182. 

178 

291. 

815. 

552, 

16 



Drawing of R. R. Car, and Plank Roai' 
Wugoii, J. N. Seely, Forsythe, Geo., diplo 

1 Cotton Gin, E. P. Taylor <fe Co., Columbus 
Geo., premium of $3 ami diploma. 

Straw Gutter, E P. Taylor & Co., Columbus, 
Geo., diploma. 

1 Velvet Mosaic Rug, John Cocke & Co., 
Portsmouth, Va.. diploma. 

Model of Bhike's Water Wheel, L. W. Blake, 
Pepperell, Mass., $3 and diploma. 

Specimens of Artifical Teeth, <fec , Dr. White- 
head, Petersburg, Va., $3 ;ind diploma. 

Case of Fancy Goods, Simmons & Whitmore, 
Petersburg, Va., diploma. 

8. Moleskin and Russia Hats, D. Gee, Cumber- 
land, premium $5 anil diploma. 

Suit of fine clothes, J. J. Biggs <fe Co., Raleigh, 
diploma. 

Wheat straw Hat, Dr. J. "W. Tucker, Raleigh, 
di])loma. 

Child's Hat, Miss S.J. Wiggins, Raleigh, di- 
ploma. 

Wool Hats, Wm. Andrews, Chatham, diplo. 
'4. Pair Quilted and Plain Boots, U. Porter, 
Raleigh, d'ploma. 

One 2 horse Carriage, Bobbitt & Minatree, 
Warrenton, 1st premium, ^20 and diploma. 

1 Open Buggy, Bobbitt & Minatree, War- 
renton, 1st premium, $5 and diploma. 

1 Phaeton, H. J. Clawson, Franklinton, Ist 
nremium, $10 and diploma. 

Open l>uggy. White & Co., Warrenton, 2d 
premium and diploma. 

1 horse Wagon, J. P. Nissen, Salem, diploma. 

1 Dumping Wagon, J. M. Wagner, Raleigh, 
diploma. 

1 Set Buggy Harness, J. J. Conolly, Wil- 
mino-ton, 1st premium, $5 and di[)loma. 

1 Set 'l'>ugoy Harness, T. W. Rowlett, War- 
renton, diploma. 

1 S,n D )iil.Ie Harness, C. W. D. Hutchings, 
Raleigh, 1st premium, $5 and diploma. 

to 181. 'Best lot of Saddles, C. W. D. Hutch- 
ings, Raleigh, diploma. 

1 Open Bugj^y, A. Alden, Fayetteville, 2nd 
premium, diploma. 

1 light Buggy, G. ULley,Orange, 3d premium, 
diploma. 

One 2 horse Wagon, J. N. Seely, Johnston, 
di])loma. 

Lau]]) Mat, Mrs. G. Deming, Cumberland, 
diploma. 



ADDRESS 

OF THE 
HON. A. W. VESABU&t 

Delioered before the. First 
Annual State JFkir "^f 
North Carolina, Octoi^ 
I8th, 18.33. 

It was with much hesita- 
tion that 1 consented to de- 
liver the address at the 
opening of this, the fii^ 
.•>tateFairin North CanJina. 
The short time for prepara- 
tion, and the pressure of oth- 
er engagements, seemed t« 
present insurmountable dif- 
ticulties, especially, when I 
was informed, that two dia- 
tinguished gentlemen, wh« 
were much more likely th va 
myself to be equal to th« 
occasion, had been conapel- 
led to decline the duty. 

The Committee, howevei^ 
deeming that such an ia- 
auguration could notbedis- 
per)sed with : and desiroas 
that nothing should be omit- 
led that could advance tllb 
agricultural interests of our 
State, or arouse her citizens 
to the fuhilment of the higb 
(le-tiny which awaits them, 
urged upon me to conseai 
to be the Speaker, to day.. 
Deferring to thairjudgraent, 
I determineil not to cousiti- 
er personal incimvenienco, 
but cheerfidly to employ 
whatever influence I niiglst 
pos.sess in aid of the gvesi 
cause, a subject, of all otli- 
ers, most likely to furuisJj 
compensation for the bri^S" 
s])ace allotted to preparatiou 
in the richness of the tliem§, 
the variety of ils iuteresfej, 
and, above all, the vastno«?g 
(jf its importance. Borrow- 
ing notliiiig from novelty, 
the interest which it com- 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL, 



■ 17. Cap, Apron and Collar, Miss Doming, Cum- 

herland, diploioa. 
153. S;'nip'e of Co'tton, S. S. Caraway, Lenoir, dip. 
SOd-'l-'S. Allen's Patent Saussage Cutter, W. H, & 

R. S. Tucker, Ralcigli, diploma. 
- 334. N. edle Work, Miss Maria Hay wood, Raleigh, 

diploma. 
aS5-'6. Needle Work and Child's Sack, Mrs. W. 

J. Clarke, Raleigh, diploma. 
-- 3Y8-'9. Fine Crochet Work and Lamp Mat, Miss M. 

E. Cooke, Raleigh, diploma. 
3^80. Embroidered Sack, Mrs. L. A. Cooke, Raleigh, 

diploma. 
S81-'5. Bead Purse and Paper Lamp Map, Mrs. J. 

A. Waddell, Raleigh, diploma. 
382; 1 Silk Crotchet Bag made on rings, Mrs.L. A. 

Cooke, Raleigh, diploma. 
'384. 1 Needle B^ok, Miss M.StC. Cooke, Raleigh, 

diploma. 
■ 373. 1 Card Printing Press, W. D. Cooke, Ra- 
leigh, diploma. 
. 298-'9. 2 Lamp Mats, Miss Mary Dickson, Orange, 

diploma. 
. 410. S|teciinens of Copppr Ore, A. S. Homey, 

Franklinsville. diploma. 
, 416. Specimens of Gray Copper Ore, Gitter's mine, 

Granville, diploma. 
427. Model of a Box, J. J, Yarboro, Caswell, dip. 
434. Double setts of Teeth, Dr. Kennedy, Wil- 
mington, diploma. 
463. Sp'^cimen of Worsted work. Miss C. Harris, 

Raleigh, diploma. 
' 470. Crane's^ Patent Soap Mixture, J. J. Ryals, 

Raleigh, diploma. 
,477. Model for Bee Hive, P. S. Rogers, Wake, 

diplojTia. 
514. Pencil Drawings, G. E. Ketcham, Raleigh, 

diploma. 
S27. Coal, J. H. & L. J. Haughton, Chatham, dip. 
535. Basket, by blind man, a Sailor, Newbern, " 
546 to 40. Woolen Cloth, J. A. Guion, $5 and " 
560. Bhickberry Wine, Mrs. H. Elliott, Cumber- 
land, di|iloir a. 
567. Patent Steam Snfety Valve, H. G. Bruce, 

Rfileigh. diplomft. 

569. Needle' Work. Mrs. N. Gully, Raleigh, diplo. 

570. Btir Basket, Mrs. C. Atkinson, Johnston, " 
20. S;)eciMien of Chinese Rye, J. Paschal, Frank- 
lin, 1st premium, diploma. 

91. Specimen of Poland Wheat, Jos.. Kearny, 
Franklin, ]<t premium, dijiloma. 
490. Sppoimen of White Marl, fMiles Costin, Wil- 
mington, diploma. 



mands is referable alono to 
its intrinsic merit. We as- 
semble, to-day, to do honor 
to this, one of the noblest, 
and most useful of human 
occupations,that which came 
first to the supply of the 
wants of man, when " Sin 
threw a blight" over the 
bloom of Paradise, and the 
curse curtailed the bounties 
of nature by restraining the 
spontaneous fruitfulness of 
the earth. Man was "sent 
forth from the garden of 
Edeii to till the ground from 
whence he was taken," with 
the assurance, that " in the 
sweat of thy face, shalt thou 
eat bread." This is the pa- 
tent from which Agriculture 
dates its institution, and it 
comes to us venerable as 
well for its high antiquity 
as for its divine origin. And 
he who said to the first ot 
our erring race, " cursed be 
the ground for thy sake,"Iaid 
not on that curse so hoavilj', 
but that human skill, and 
arduous industry, might so 
far mollify its effects as 
abundantly to supply the 
wants, incident to our na- 
ture. 

It was kindness, as well 
as justice, which imposed 
the necessity of labor upon 
a race which had lost its 
innocence. All experience 
teaches that the necessities 
of life are indispensable to 
the perfection of human 
character. Stern and inflex- 
ible teachers they are, hut 
as faithful as they are stern, 
and as important as they are 
inflexible, types and shad- 
ows of the thorns and this 
ties, which our great ances- 
tor for the first time saw 
springing from the ground, 
a consequence of his trans- 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL 



237 



635. Scuppernong Wine, Wm. Evans, Cumber- jgression, when he, who had 

land, diploma. gathered the fruits of Para- 

393. Egg Plants, R.T.Webb, Orange, diploma. Mise for his refreshment, was 

636. Raw Haras, U. Elliott, Cumberland, diploma. | told, that he should " hence 
To R. H. Wainright & Co., Granville, for the best I forth eat of the herb of the 

Plows manufactured in the State, $5 and field." Then began the 
diploma. work which has since con- 

To Henry Mordecai, Wake, a premium of $5 is tinned to mark the genera- 
awarded bv the Committee on the Trotting tions of our race, a mark so 
Match, on Thursday. 
To Mes^^rs. Whitman & Co., Baltimore, Md., for 
the largt'st an 1 mo.^t valuable collection of 
useful implements and machinery from one 
manufactory, 1st pro ium, SlO. 
To Messrs. Staff.>rd, Clark & Dixon, of Alamance 
county, N. C, for the largest colh^ction of 
useful implements ^nd machinery from one 
manufactory in the State, 1st premium of $10. 
To Y. & E. P. Jones, Yanvy vide, for best specimen 
of Manufactured Chewing Tobacco, ^5 and 
diploma. 
To Satterfield and Lun'^ford, Roxborough for 2d 
best specimen of Manufiictured Tobacco, di- 
ploma. 
To W. & J. D. Long, Caswell, for fine specimen of 



Tol>;icco. diploma. 
To Dr. Wm. R. Holt, Davidson, for specimens of 

Wheat, diploma. 
To Dr. Wm. R. Holt, Davidson, for best specimens 

of Flour, $5 and diploma. 
Persons entitled to premiums according to the 
above list, can receive the amounts due them, upon 
apjil. cation by letter or otherwise to Mr. J. F. 
Hutcliins, Treasurer of the Society, R ileigh. 

The Diploma's will bf ready for delivery as soon 
as they can be filled, and will be subject to the 
order of those entitled to them, which should be 
sent to the Recording Secretary, Dr. Jno. F.Tomp- 
kins, Raleigh. E. A. CRUDUP, 

Chairman of Ex. Com. 



Theory. 

Theory is distinguished from hypothesis, thus : 
a theory is founded upon inferences drawn from 
principles >«-hich have been established on inde- 
pendtMit evidence ; a hi/poth'^sis is a proposition as- 
sumed to account fi)r cettain phenomena, and has 
no other evidence of its truth than that itaff"ordsa 

satisfactory explanation of those phenomena. — I the earth, we perceive that 
Olmsteo. the feelings of the heart 

May we ask those who are continually raisap- have coursed through the 
plying the word Theory, to study the above. jsarae channels which led in 



distinctive, a proof so con- 
clusive, of the identity of 
that race, that we may well 
smile at the credulity of 
those enquirers who have 
failed to find in revelation ■ 
enough to remove their 
doubts. 

Man alone tills the ground 
for his bread. Sustained by 
the recurrence of seed time 
and harvest, he sows in'hope 
and cultivates in joyous ex- 
pectation. In all conditions 
of man, from the deepest 
barbarism to the highest civ- 
ilization, the existence of re- 
ligious feeling, connected 
with the cultivation of the 
earth, has been discovered. 
The very occupation, de- 
pending for its success upon 
changes of season beyond 
human control, points to an 
overruling Providence ; as 
the source of prospepi<ty. 
And the history of every 
people perpetuates the mem- 
ory of seasons of sadness as 
well as of rejoicing, as the 
earth withheld or bestowed 
in bountifid profusion her 
fruits. From the green corn 
dance of our own India,n3- 
to the Festival in honor of 
Ceres, our own joyous har- 
vest times, and the rejoic- 
ings of the world over the 
ingatherings of the fruits^of 



238 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



the earliest limes to the oft'eriiig the 
first fruits of flocks and fields to the 
Attthor and Dispenser of all good. 

The progress of its improvement and 
the extent of its advancement are most 
certainly indicated bj' the manner in 
which the €arth is tilled, from the vil- 
lages of Indian Wigwams, and the small 
patches of grain cnliivated b}' their wo- 
men, throngh all the gradations of social 
organization, until we reach the highest 
refinements of civilized life. Nations 
gradually emerge from the turbulent, 
semi-baibarcus and aggressive stale of 
war and ciiiquest, into the permanent 
quiet of an agricultural age. Men seek 
Buch a coJidition for the security of per 
sons and property, the cultivation of so- 
cial aft'ections, and that expansive be- 
Devolence which looks to the human 
family as one and the same superior 
race. In the fall prosperity of agricul- 
ture, national prosperity is complete It 
ealls into existence and sustains a'l oth- 
er professions, which enlarge and in- 
crease its own success. Like an unfail- 
ing fuuntaiii, it refreshes each with con- 
tinuous streams of vitality. As long as 
Agriculture flourishes and maintains its 
precedence, or, at least, its equality in 
human employments, a nation would 
be unconscious of the wasting influence 
of decline, or the presence of decay. It 
is when thost- who till tne ground, t 
whotii the wildness of barhirism and 
|;he fierceness of a warlike spirit, yielded 
in the constitution of a well-organized 
iCroveriiment. resign their leadership and 
fall behind those who have grown up 
lunder the shadow of, and lived upon 
their labor, that the imbecility of age 
and dfcline is seen and felt. Nations, 
like mtn, grow old and feeble, but for 
very difl'crent reasons. Neither the 
highest virtue, nor the mo*t unvaiying 
prudence, can evade the doom. "The 
dust shall return to the dust as it was." 
But wisdom to devise and patriotism to 
execute good, just and wholesome laws, 
would fohtinue the existence of a na- 
tion through the genera'ti' ns of man. 
There would bo a current of happiness 



and prosperity, of progiessive increase, 
of devotion to such a Government, that 
wtiuld give strength with age and in- 
spire a vigor, which would resist the in- 
vasion of decay. Liberty, which con- 
sists in the equality of right, opening a 
field for enterprize, would give ceaseless 
employment to those energies wliich are 
always salutary, when not unwisely re- 
strained. Success would be the result 
of well liirected efibrt, and the acquisi- 
tion of independence and wealth, the 
end of a virtuous and judicious indus- 
try. Idleness and inprovidenee would 
find no favor by autlmrity of law. But, 
whilst agriculture is producing only, 
and leaving the management of nfiairs 
to those impelled by other interests, 
another state of things ari-^es, the ten- 
dency of which is sure and steady to the 
overthrow of free institutions. When 
wealth accumulates, and d'.fficulties are 
thrown around its alienation and conse- 
qut-nt return to the common stock, thus 
aiding capital in its war against labor, 
a contest, in which the right arm of the 
pe(-ple IS often crippled or paralyzed, in 
which the c<implete success of capital 
produces the most abject condition of 
those who look to labor as a source of 
sup]jo!t: this is a decisive synq:)lom of 
national senility — the substitution of the 
will of the creature for that of the Cre- 
ator — that irregular diffusion ot vital 
energy, that inequality in the distribu- 
tion of those weights that should bal- 
ance each other which disorgam'ze and 
destroy — the rich kept very rich and 
I he po(jr very poor, by the force of leg- 
islation — a state of things whieh finds 
its leimination in revolution, or the law 
of force, or in our more civilized age, in 
tiie emigration of poor an<l oppre sed 
labor, until capital is compelled lo yield, 
for the want of subjects nj)on which to 
o|)e.raie. It is the old age of Europe, 
the o])pression of labor by cajiital, " the 
iiiitzzhiig the ox that treadeth out the 
corn," and forget fulness of the truth, 
that " the laborer is worthy of his hire," 
thai Iiasponrid upon our shores that 
stream of emigration whicli for many 



THK FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



239 



years lias presented one of llie raost re- 
mark-^Lle phen jineiia of the age. Tliey 
cotne to til! the ground, where all is new 
and fresh and fr^^e, and, above all, wliert' 
labor commands capi al, because labor 
can always comiuand bread — where in- 
dustry never fails to secure comfort and 
independence — where the cry of want 
or the ravages of hunger never liistress 
or invade. We are this day engaged 
in doing honor to the great business of 
tilling the ground, and those who till 
it, and to the occupations which grow 
out of it and depend upon it — where 
labor sits the presiding genius to control 
and give direction to capital, using it as 
a stimulant to give force and eft">:'Ct to 
the enterp izes conceived and executed 
by itself. 

It is not my purpose to confine mv 
remarks exclnsively to practical agricul- 
ture. Such a di>course belongs more 
properly to another occasion, and would 
be better suited to the meeting of an 
Agricultural S ,' iety, devoted to the ex 
ecution of the details of this great pro- 
fession. We meet not only as farmers, 
but to recognize al the results of that 
profession in the kindred productions. 
mechanics and the arts— to claim fel- 
lowship with those industrial pursuits 
which, dt^rivin r support from the far 
nier's toil, in return diminish the seve- 
rity of his labor by im]iroved agricul- 
tural implements, and wliich add to the 
comforts, luxuries and elegancies of his 
house, those manufactures which taste 
designs and skill perfects — to demon- 
str.ite that agriculture is the great cen- 
tre from wh ch all industrial pursuits 
radiate, nnt'l they fo m the circle of 
perfect social organization, the great ba- 
lance wheel that should govern and con- 
trol the motion of all its intrinsic me- 
chanism, securing regularity ami preci 
sion in every movement. When anv 
disturbance in the conduct of a free go- 
veriinif^nt is observed and f< It, it will be 
found in the undue ii.fluence of some 
other |)rofessions and interests which, 
for the titiie, have eondiined for the op- 
pression of agricultural industry. Such 



grievances are usually patiently endured 
for a long season, and sometimes left to 
the curative influence of time. Agri- 
culture, like fabled Atlas, which upheld 
the Universe, has great strength and 
great powers of endurance. Its recu- 
perative energy is inconceivable. Like 
the centre of a great army when the 
light troops and skirmishers .^re driven 
in, it forms a nucleus upon which order 
may be restored and losses retrieved; 
in every crisis and calamity of a people, 
the Agricultural interest sustains and 
enables tliem to endure. Commerce 
may flag, the industrial arts may cease 
to be remunerative, but the tide must 
turn in time, and prosperity return with 
it. But when the earth withholds its 
increase and the flocks and herds perish 
in the fields, when the toil of the hus- 
bandmen is vain, and gaunt famine 
stalks forth in the land, Hope departs, 
Despair comes, and stern Ruin begins 
its reign. Large portions of our earth, 
once populous and rich, radiant with all 
the splendor of art and genius, fusi<'red 
by wealth and power, are now, either 
from natural causes or tlie op|ires>ioris 
of government, lonely ar d without in- 
habitants, and in the silence of their 
desertion, speak to the heart that the 
lal>ors of the husbandmen were vain, 
that the genius of Agriculture, having 
lingered until all liope was passed, de- 
|)arted to some happier an J more auspi- 
cious country, and with its flight, wealth, 
power and population have perished 
from the land. Indeed, thestmigth 
and power o( any peopK- must be found 
in their Agricultural c.tpabilities. No 
nation can long exist wlio import all 
iheir supijlies t)f fo )d — neither can any 
|)eople prosper permanently, where 
Agriciiltural interests are either oppres- 
sed or iieglectiid by Legislative power 
and authority. 

Legislative neglect is as fatal as ac- 
tual oppression, ami it is demonsiialde 
that much of the depression of ihi* 
great interest in North Carolina is refer- 
able to such neglect. It is not only 
[Coutiniied on j>af/e 245.) 



240 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



FAR£EirS JOURNAL. 

RALEIGH. N. C, NOV., 1853. 



The North Carolina State Agricultu- 
ral Fair. 

TBis exliibition, the coming of which 
we have been looking for with the most 
intense interest, has taken phice, and for 
the first in our State, we feel safe in 
stating, that it has never been excelled. 
It is true, that the show of some kinds 
of stock was not such as we could have 
wished, and not fair specimens of the 
\ kind, in the State, yet the effect will be 

to stimuhite the farmers to greater ex- 
ertion the next time. The cattle were 
very fine ; those from the herds of 
Messrs. Holt, McDaniel, Jones and Rus- 
sel, could not be beaten easily. In or- 
der to show the determination of our 
farmers to improve their stock, we will 
state that Dr. Holt sold twenty-two 
head of young bulls and heifers, at an 
average of $50 each ; they were bought, 
chiefly, by gentlemen from the eastern 
pavt'ofour State. The building called 
*' Floral Hall " was crowded with arti- 
cles contributed by the fair daughters 
of the Old North State; this was the 
only-department that atall astonished us. 
But though it seemed to us it would 
be very difficult to make any improve- 
< meut here, we have heard several la 
dies avow their intention to do better 
•next time. The specimens of goods 
manufactur d in the State were very 
fine ;, indeed, there is no branch of in 
dusfcry which is progressing more rapid- 
ly in our State than that of manufac- 
turing, and the time, we hope, is not far 
distant, when our merchants will be able 
to get a large number of their good, in 



our own State. There were in the 
Floral Hall, several s^peciraens of paint- 
ings executed by North Carolinians, 
some from the vaiious female schools 
of our State, which reflected much 
credit upon those ladies who executed 
them. But the paintings of Mr. Cope- 
land, a young North Carolina Artist, 
were much admired, and justly so, and 
lie surely ought to receive a liberal pat- 
ronage from our people. The display 
of agricultural implements made by 
Messrs. E. Whitman & Co., of Balti- 
more, Messrs. Boriim & Fisher of Nor- 
folk, and Messrs. Tappy & Lumsden of 
Petersburg, were highly creditable to 
those gentleman, and we were happy 
to learn from them that they were well 
pleased with their visit, and at our next 
annual " Fair " they would greatly en- 
large their specimens. Various speci- 
mens of mechanism from our own 
State were upon exhibition, which we 
heard spoken of as valuable inventions, 
but our time was so much absorbed in 
doing every thing possible to make 
things go off well, that we did not have 
the opportunity to pay that attention 
to different specimens which they de- 
served. The specimens in the manu- 
facture of carriages was confined to 
North Carolina, and though the num- 
ber was small, yet the skill of the work- 
men was shown to be fine. There 
were sever.-d kinds of seed wheat, corn 
and other grains upon the grounds, and 
were distributed among the farmers 
generally. We saw a fine specimen of 
manufactured tobacco, pu» up in splen- 
did boxes, from the factory of the Messrs, 
Jones, of Yancey ville, in Caswell coun- 
ty. They are young men, and deserve 
much credit for the p-reat skill which 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



241 



they have shown in getting up this 
specimen of the " weed." There were 
upon exhibition several specimens of 
grapes and wines, from the vineyard of 
Dr. Sidney Weller of Brinkleyville, N. 
C, which were of the finest kind. This 
gentleman has been devoting Ins time 
for several years, chiefly to the cultiva- 
tion of the Scuppernong and other na- 
tive grapes, and also to the preparation 
of wines, which are regarded as being- 
very superior, and we are astonished 
that those who use wine at their tables 
continue to buy wliat is called cham 
pagne wine, when a far superior article 
can be had from Dr. Weller for half 
the price. This gentleman deserves the 
patronage of those of our people who 
use wine, and nothing will give more 
celebrity to his vineyard than this dis- 
play which he has made. The 18th of 
October, 1853, was a proud day for 
every North Cai'olinian ; even those w ho 
denounced and ridiculed the State Agri- 
cultural Society in its infancy, surely 
must, when looking upon the display 
on those grounds, felt that they must 
give up that it was not worth their 
while any longer to dose Old Rip with 
their soporifics, for he had fairly opened 
his eyes, and that there were a goodly 
number of his children who were de- 
termined to keep him awake. We 
heard several statesmen of high stand- 
ing say, tha' on the 18th of October 
they saw what they did not believe 
could have been originated so soon in 
North Ca%jiina ; indeed, one gentleman 
of known political fame, through the 
whole nation, confessed to us that when 
we first suggested the idea of getting 
jup a series of Fairs, that he like many 
others, thought it a mere speculation 



without anv basis upon which to form 
any hope of its success. But all except 
ourself have been deceived in tliis mat- 
ter ; many of our friend^ tolds us that 
every thing had come out just as we 
bad described It before hand. We do 
not ascribe to oui'self any thing more 
than ordinary judgment, but we have 
done what no other ])erson has done, 
gone over a large pnrtion of the State, 
and knew that this thing could be ao- 
compli.^hed with a due degree of ener- 
gy. We can. we think, now with more 
confidence than ever before, call upon 
the farmers of North Carolina to sus- 
tain that paper, the Farmer's Journal, 
which has been acknowledged to be the 
great lever in getting up that spirit of 
enterprise which is now spreading over 
our State. Surely every farmer who 
looked upon this first Fair will send us 
a goodly number of subscribers, and 
aid us in shedding the light over the 
land. The only way in which a proper 
degree of interest can be kept up in 
county Societies, is to get f;irmers to 
read agricultural works, and we are re- 
solved that the Farmer's Journal shall 
not be surpassed by any, in point of 
adaptation to the wants of the farmers 
of our State. 



To our Readers. 

The principal part of this number of 
the Journal is taken up in publishing 
the able address of Hon. A. W. Vena- 
ble, and the proceedings of the first an- 
nual meeting of the State Agricultural 
Society of North Carolina, and the pre- 
miums and awards given at the State 
Fair. 

There are none of our readers who 
will fail to read with interest, this num- 



242 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



ber of" our pajuT, coistaiuing a:* it dues, 
an «c •oiiiit uf :m era in our Stale's liis- 
torv, which thev did rot look forsosuoii, 
and which caiinnt fail to (!xe)t » hap|n 
intJiieiice ovei' every interest ip our euuu- 
try. And lieie \vc hope that we shall 
not be con.>idered as transcending' tiu* 
bi)Uiids cf modesty, when we say tlial 
for ihe success of the great cause of ag- 
riculture, we have bibored for two years 
will) al! our energy, atid surely we shall 
not apjxal in vain, hereafter, to farmers 
to usl^ their efforts to circulate the Far- 
mer's Journal throughout the entire 
State. Send up to us the names, direct- 
ed to Rdtigh, and the papers shall !>e 
sent. 



The Guano Trade. 

There is sonietiiing" rotten in Den- 
maik" in regard to the i)urchase of gu- 
anu by the farn)ers of our State, and 
othi-rs, where ii is extensively used. We 
have had several ootnjilaints made tons 
in relation to the fraud which either the 
agents for the ]'eru\ian Governmen', 
or the commis>i()n merchants of Dalti- 
inoi-ts Nnifiijk and Petersburg, or both 
of them, have been practising upon the 
fanning interest. Several have express- 
ed their determination not to patronize 
for the future, any merchant in those 
cities who buys this valuable fertilizer 
in order to sell it to thi-m at a large 
profit. Tliis is just the course to take. 
We say, farm rs ; you hav(- the power, 
and it only requires to be asserted in 
order to be li>tt-ned to. Onr Slate Ag- 
ricultural Society, it will be seen, has 
a]>point,i^d a coinmiltee to act in concert 
with committees from other State So- 
cieties, to adopt sucli mea-ures as will, 
in their opinion, li.ive a tendency to put 
*Jown this gross fraud. 



Upon a strong Platform at Last. 

We have been a long litne struggling 
against the current of public oj.inion, 
and the prejudices of the farmers of our 
State against what they have ca-led 
"book farming," but we fancy, that we 
have at last planted ourself upon a firm 
basis. In the beginning of our labors, 
in behalf of the advancement of agri- 
cidtur- in North Carolina, we had to 
labor uiion our "own hook," having, as 
they said, the good wishes of all, but 
the active aid of but few. We f .ught 
n)anfully, nevertheless, and have, we 
feel, achieved a victory at last. We can 
now call upon a goodly number of the 
farmers of our State who feel <leep 
interest in the prosperity of ourstdf and 
the cause we advocate. The Stale Ag- 
licidtural Society has, in a year, grown 
f om nineteen to about four hundred 
members. The meetings instead of be- 
ing thinly attended, as at first, seen) to 
interest all. The S ate Society subscrib- 
ed at the last meeting for five hundred 
copies of the Farmer's Journal, which 
will be distributed under the diriciion 
of the corresponding Secretary, in vari- 
ous parts of the Slate. Thi.-^ testimony 
of the due a]tnrecialion of our labors 
was highly gratifying to us. But it was 
nothing more than what we knew would 
be done, for the reason that we were 
sure that none could deny our deserving 
some such evidence of approl>ation 
from those whose interest we have risk- 
ed everything in sustaining. We feel 
sati.-fied that we shall, after this, havt» 
several original articles to pres^eiit to 
our readers, from farmers in our own 
State ; several }iromisfd as much, and 
we hope that they will not forget it. 



THE FARMER'S JOURJ^TAL. 



243 



We give below an extract from a let- 
ter wliich we have received from a friend 
since the " Fair," and though he only 
accords to our humble efforts, what we 
believe all do not hesitate to acknowl- 
edge, yet we do not lay it before our 
readers for the purpose of attracting at- 
tention to oursfclf, but as evidence of the 
feeling which now pervadt^s our whole 
State, in relation to the great necessity 
of a general system of improvement in 
Agriculture. The writer, though not a 
farmer, feels a deep interest in the suc- 
cess of the mother interest of our coun- 
try ; he lias already witnessed iho good 
results of the labors of one man, and 
very reasonably concludes that when 
all who have the ability interest them 
se'.ves in this great cause, that the North 
State will no longer lag behind, but show 
herself as the " brightest star in the 
constellation " : 

WiNTON, Hertford County, N. C, ) 
October 24th. 1853. ] 

Dr. Tompkins — Dear Sir : Allow a 
casual acquai itiince of- your agricultural 
tonrs to. s-nd sojourns in this *oun;y, and 
an ever hearfy God-spei^der to your peri- 
griiiatiuiis ai>d efforts in the cau;-e of huild- 
iiig lip suffering agriculture, to address 
you at ihis time. 

I coiigr itulate you, my dear sir, on the 
success of ihc rei-ent first Agrionlmral 
F.iir in this State. It isacredir;ible affair, 
of which tht^ State need not be aslianied, 
but UKiy be proud. 

I in i-.onimon with many, had fearfully 
anticipated a f il ire, but our friends from 
this county. Dr. S. and niy brutlier D., as- 
sure me, wiili rapture of pnisefrom their 
lips, th;it it w:is sustained to a degree of 
cn-di' far beyond the reasonable hopes of 
its friends. 

The first Fair of agriculturists of this 
our beloved f ithfrland, it is yraleful to 
think, will be heralded and recorded as 
cri'dituble, undi-r the ciivum-tauces, to m 
greai Siate, .nnd to the noble conceptions 
of* ih'isc wiio iriiiated Mid iiliinm-d i.,. 
Iti-iiot les^s iru hlul than a^reealile to 
give the tribute of praise to the editor of 



the Fnnner's Journal, as the prime mover 
and great liend and front of this first State 
Fiiir. But for you this proud advent in 
the agriculuiral annals of the Old North 
Stale would yet be deferred, to lairhehind, 
and never dawn :it ;d], vvi houL i-uch a pil- 
grim .-IS issued from Bath, a self constitu- 
ted mis-ion:iry, visiting ■becounties,arous- 
inir the farmers l)y lectures, sliowinjif in a 
phiin, priii-ticid \v;iy how to rennvate their 
worn out lands, and by an.ilyzinir soils .-ind- 
seniii' g brnadcasi every wiiere ihe invalu- 
aljle Farmer's Journal. Looking back to 
your stariini: point, behold the lan.rel of 
success. Tile whole Sta'e is under a debt 
of irratitude to j'ou. 1 oubtless ynu ."p- 
preciate itasaei izcn doing the State some 
service, and that j^ou will hear your honors 
(as I trust yon v\ill) gra'-efully. My dear 
sir, liike no offence at my frankness in ex- 
pression, iind at my freedom vvith you. In 
common with you, I wish well for my na- 
tive l.;nd. If I can acquire no [naise m}-- 
self, I c.'innot withold it from where it is 
due. We have too long neglecti^d to pro- 
perly appreciate and encouMge natives and 
nitive efforts. Hert- i^ the first grind 
State F.dr — such it is. Without you it 
would not h ive been. 

Pe>mit me to enlarge more. Yours is 
already an iionorahle public position. The 
wliole State is attracted to you, as the 
chief pioneer in renovating ajiriculrure. 
Enfeebled and powerless tnyself. consign- 
ed in humility to ime spot, I cnn but look 
on !ind praise where I uiay. and as here I 
ought. I bid yt'U persevere in the noblest, 
u^etulest c;illitig — ^0 on, well guarded and 
fortified in the rijrht way for success, and 
great, suceess will reward you and your 
fellow citizens. Bv your efforts, blessings 
will a' tend ihem ; nd you. 

Ynu :;re ni«w the acknowledged organ 
of the .•'grieiiltural interests of the Sia*e, 
sendinir Ibrth your teachings from the 
Cnpital. I see, too. you have tnken a de- 
partment in a Sihntil in R.liiuh, f^r the 
purpose of teachinir such of the science of 
agriculture as may be tauyhi in a scl ool 
of the kind, to which, L'cni'emen wisiiing 
to make farmers of tlieir so'jP, can send 
them. You then nre to be 'he fjirmer's 
boys' Gamaliel, at vvho^e feet tliey are to» 
take lessons, while ih'-ir daddys read your 
Journal at home. So yon feed h" faitner 
with the tuilk and mi at of ai/ricultuia! 
knowledge which they in turn aie io re- 
produce, by the fruclifyiiig and bringing 
forth of the soil. 



244 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



Farmers, Collect Manure. 

This is the time wlicn every farmer 
should be stirring everything up that 
will in any way enlarge his next year's 
crop. The making of manure is like 
everything else; practice will make per- 
fect in it, and every farmer will find that 
he can, with tlie same force, make a 
larger amount of manure every year. 
The filling of the barn-yard and stable 
with siraw and corn stalks is well enough 
to serve as a bed for the animal, but in 
order that the volatile principles of the 
manure may be retained, it is important 
that something like woods mould sliould 
be put in the stable, which is a material 
sufficiently close to liold or retain the 
ammonia, which would otherwise escape. 
Muek, it is true, is better than mould, 
but this can only be had, to any great 
extent, in the lower part of the State. 
Farmers, at this time, should be devot- 
ing their time, too, to the burying of 
ashes, especially, in that part of the 
country where lime nor mail cannot be 
had at such piice as to justify their ap- 
plication. All manures made about the 
farm should be sheltered, or at any rate 
they should be put in pens and tuifed 
over, whicli will pi'event their destruc- 
tion to a considerable extent. The far- 
met should avail himself of every means 
possible to make manure. Many, we 
see, pay but litile attention to it, and 
still continue to work poor land, which 
course vvill, in a short time, render tliera 
entirely incompetent to compete with 
their improving neighbor, who does not 
Vuffer any means, for making manure, 
to be neglected. 



We take pleasure in calling the at- 
tention of our readers to the card of Mr. 



Gourdin, of Charleston, S. C, who is 
Agent for the sale of" Genuine Peruvian 
Guano " for the States mentioned in the 
card. He assures us that for the cash, 
or satisfactory feferences, he will supply 
the farmers of our State with a good 
article of Guano at fair prices. 



Let the Blame Rest Avhere it Belong:s> 

Since we have been editing the Far- 
mer's Journal we have, at different times, 
been told by subscribers that tliey did 
not get their papers regularly, and in 
five instances we have gone with them 
to the Post Office, and there found their 
papers for them of four months back. 
Poor editors have the sins of careless 
and ignorant post-masters lo bear as 
as their own. 



The following motion, offered by Dr. 
Pritchard of Warren, should have ap- 
peared in Wednesday's proceedings, of 
the State Agricultural Society. 

That the thanks of the Society be 
tendered to the Hon. A. W. Venable for 
the able address- delivered by him on 
Wednesday, during the Fair, and that 
it be published in pamphlet form by 
the Society, which was unanimotisly 
carried. 



HoCSEKEEPING IS AN ESSENTIAL 

PART OF Female Education. — For a 
young woman in any situation of life to 
be ignorant of the various business that 
belongs to good housekeeping, is as great 
a deficiency as it would be in a merchant 
not to understand accounts, or the mas- 
ter of a vessel not to be acquainted with 
navigation. If a woman does not know 
how the various work of a house should 
be done, slie ndght as well knnw noth- 
ing, for that is her expiess vocation ; and 
it matters not how much learning, or 
how many accomplishments she may 
have, if she is wanting in that which is 
to fit her for lier peculiar calling. 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



U5 



Continued from 'page 239. 
natural and proper, but necessary to the 
pernuinence of any such government as 
our own, tliat the cuhivators of the soil, 
those vvho direct the details of the work, 
should gDvern and control its opera- 
tions, and take care of its own interests. 
In any other hands exclusively it is un- 
safe, because not guarded by personal 
interest. A necessary consequence of 
the neglect of our farmers to assert and 
exercise the right to control and govern 
the country, is the degradation of the 
profession in perfect cultivation and di- 
minished profits. Whilst agriculture 
asks no bounties from governments, no 
inequalities of Ic.o'inlation to advance its 
interests, it should d^-mand the removal 
of obstructions, and resist the iuiposi 
tion of burthens. To secure this, there 
must be a strong representation of this 
interest in the legislatures of the coun- 
try, a representation at once enlighten- 
ed and learned in all the details of this 
im|)ortant subject, which sees in the 
agricultural prosperity of our State and 
country, something higher and nobler 
than the enterprises oi cla.-p trap politi 
cians, and iheir paltry -icheraes. In 
order to do this, there must be a change 
in the svstem of education, which has 
prev^ailed amongst us. Agriculturists, 
farmers, in the practical sense of the 
terms, have not been numerous amongst 
those who administer our government, 
either in this State, or in the confedera- 
tion of States, which f^rm our Repub- 
lic. The result has been manifested in 
the burdens which agriculture has sus- 
tained, in the pampering which other 
individual pursuits have enjoyed, in the 
wealth which such hot-house culture 
has placed in certain localities, and the 
occasional di'pressions which have cur- 
tailed the profits of producers. In this 
state of things, it is true, we have a de- 
monstration of the indestructibility of 
agricultural energy and productiveness, 
of its capacity to endure and prosper 
under circumstances which would ensure 
ruin to any other employment. Mur 
raurs hav« sometimes been heard, and 



impatience made so apparent that the 
fears of capitalists, awakened to an ap- 
prehension of the loss of all, have indu- 
ced the relaxation of a grip which would 
never have yielded to genero-ity or 'a 
sense of justice. Astuteness and cun- 
ning, unrestrained by any particular 
sci'uples as to justice, gave an ascen- 
dancy to interests which had selected 
such representatives, whilst unsuspect- 
ing farmers were diligently engaged in 
their occupation, leaving the govern- 
ment in the bands of those who cliose 
to manage it. In fact, educated farmers 
wi^re brought up for that purpose, 
though all the branches of the highest 
literature and the most enlarged science 
are not sufficiently numerous amongst 
us. The cultivation of the earth and 
the representation of those who culti- 
vate it, is not often confided to such a 
one, principally because sdcIi an one is 
not always to be found. The farmers 
themselves have notre^'arded their pro- 
fession 9S one in which such enlarged 
education is necessary. They have not 
considered the discoveries of science or 
the treasures of art as a powerful part 
of the resources which bring the soil to 
iis highest state of productiveness, and 
cover the face of the country with rural 
beauty. They seemed to have adopted 
the conclusion, that as to other pursuits, 

" A man must serve his time to every trade. 
Save Fanners— Farmeis are already made." 

Under such auspices, no wonder that 
the disappearing forests are replaced 
by worn out and abraded surfaces, and 
that the productive power of our lands 
has suffered continued diminuiion. Ag- 
riculture has been considered as an art 
dependent for its success upon mere 
lal)or, however unskilfully ajipiied, and 
improvements have advanced slowly, 
because neither understood nor adopt- 
ed. Even in the ;ipplication of ma- 
nures, the same fital error has prevent- 
e 1 success. An ign<irMnce of awrieul- 
cnltural chi-inistry, whii-h piecludes any 
certain knowledge (,f the constitution 
of the soils to which manures are ap- 



246 



THE FAIIMER'S JOURNAL 



piled, Ii;is li-ft it. j)retty much to acci- 
denl wiit'iiiei- they succeed or fUii. Like 
the un-kiH'ul ])rac'titioniT of meilichie, 
ihe sjime dose is ailininistered fur every 
disease, ainl in the same quantities, and 
it slioidd not surprise us if the effects 
are a^ often as miscliievous as saUitary. 
Farming seems to have been regard- 
ed as a business whirli may be taken 
up when ail others fail, and abandoned 
as soon as any other shall be offered 
that ])rnmises profit, because benefited 
by the progress of iirtprovements which 
have been recognised and adopted. — 
Such lias been the iudiff'erence to agri- 
cultural education, that by f^r the 
gre.a er portion of wiiat has been writ- 
ten f )r the advancement of knowledge 
upon t s subjeer, has been but litrJ'- 
rrad and usually been denominated 
hook f(/r?ninr/, and treated with neglect, 
if not cmlempt. Any new suggestion, 
however valuable, must pass die ordeal 
of a eompariso'i with tiie sayings fvnd 
doin;j:s of some individuals, who, hav- 
ing, in some measure, succeeded, give 
law and o'>ininn to the circle in which 
they are known. The disapprobation 
or distrust of such persons would be 
conclusive against any improvement, 
unless its utility is so (;bvious as imme- 
diaiely to silence all opposition. Our 
farmeis have not generally been edu- 
cated f»r the business. The opinion 
lias generally prevailed that the high- 
est mental culture was not necessary 
for succi-ss in this emjiloyment. They 
linve been taught the use of the plough, 
the hoe, and the spade. They can feed 
and raise domestic animals with some 
success. Pint they have not been en- 
lightened by the concentrated experi- 
ence and learning of those who are 
euccessful as v.ell as practical, and have 
given their learning to the world. — 
Tlu'y have not leai'ned to make the 
.best, the most easy and jirofitahle ap- 
plication of their practical knowledge — 
how to increase fertility with incavased 
productiveness — how to demonstrate 
that exhanstiiin is not the Ic'Tjitimate 
conse<iueiice of production ; and that, 



under wise management, the contrary 
is true. Our farmers have acquired 
much from experience we admit, but 
individual experience, although a cer- 
tain, is a most slow and expensive teach- 
er. The loss of time ami the failures 
which it records leave it far behind oth- 
er ill tructors, when we consider the 
value or amount of the information ob- 
taine.l. Men should learn from expe- 
rience, it is true, but, it is cheaper and 
better to learn from the experience of 
olhers than our own. Facts discovered 
are common property and a proper ag- 
ricultural education W(juld store the 
mind of the young farmer at once with 
the facts which centuries of agricultural 
experience has devi loped and preserved. 
The most learned lawyers, jdivsicians 
and scholars ,aie those who devote a 
long life to their, profession, as well in 
study and investigation, as to the actu- 
al pract'ce, and he would be regarded 
as simply presumptuous, who would 
claim distinction in any of those pur- 
suits without similar preparation. — 
Ilow, then, can a business, which calls 
for all that is known in science and 
]ihilosopliy, as well as the improve- 
ments in mechanics and the arts, pros- 
per, when those who control its opera- 
lions do not seek information upon 
these subjects ? 

We are often surprised at the contra- 
dictory experience of farmers upon the 
application of some concentrated ma- 
nure. With one, the success is aston- 
ishing and complete ; with the other a 
failure, and so on in every grade between 
the two extremes. Usually, such expe- 
rience ends in the adoption of the im- 
prover by those who have succeeded, 
and its abandonment by those who have 
failed, without enquiry as to the cause. 
A moderate proficiency in agricultural 
chemistry would reveal all the mysteiT. 
Perhaps a spurious article was used 
when there was a failure; possibly, the 
soil abounded even to the proiluction of 
baireiiness in the very element which 
was introduceil to produce fertility. 
Practical ai>-ricultural education would 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



247 



remove a!l sul-Ii etnbarras<imerii ai d pre 
Vffit all such failures. The first and 
great step to be taken is to educate our 
}'ouui>' men to agricultural and kindred 
pursuits, — look tor our own engineers. 
geologists, ineclianics and architects, and 
instructors of youth amongst our own 
sons. Thus dignity will be given to the 
most ancient as well as honorable occu- 
palions of life. They will fill our Leg- 
islative halls and occupy the high ))lac- 
es in our government. Tiieir counsels 
will always be conservative, fir their in- 
terests are not based uj)on spfecuhition, 
but the steady accumulalion of hsbor. 

Peace is tiieir 'policy, because peace 
is their interest. Their estates very vis- 
ible and fixed arj most liable to the in- 
riujoce of change fr^i national disas- 
ter and always the subject upon which 
taxauon falls. And more than all, tin- 
country will smiie under the haml of en- 
lightened culture, whilst population and 
happiness will increase with incalculable 
rapidity. Our [leople will be satisfied 
with homes which yearly a.'lbrd new at- 
tractions and ihe exhausting drain of 
emigration which has so fearfully <le- 
pieted Us will be stayed. I would arouse 
the ploiigliing people of the State to an 
apitreciation of their importance and 
their resp yusibilily. L^'t them remem- 
ber that thev are the bone and sinew of 
the Republic, the pio|>er possessors of 
its power and infiueuce, and if that 
power is not (eltand that infliu^ice not 
employed, in a salutary iiianner, the 
blame rests with them. Elucation, 
knowledge, and learning <levelope inind, 
and mind governs the woil 1. Intellect 
and virtue, knowleilge and imlustry, are 
the aristocracy of this our haj)py land, 
a«i' a patent for this nobility is within 
the reach of all who may devote them- 
selves to the pursuit. One generation 
of farmers, and lliose of kindred |)ur 
sui s, eilucatedfoi- their [jrofession, wouM 
do more foi- North Carolina than all the 
politicians have bet^i able to eticct in 
the half centurv which has passed. Li- 
stead of beiiiLT their lo<^ls, m:ike tluin 
ui fact your ssrvaats. Assume the di- 



frcciion, yourselves, and none will g:,i» 
>ay or dispute your right. Tiiere is a 
great work before the fanners of North 
(J;irolina. 

I have glanced at one of the causes 
of the jirusent state of deprc'ssion and 
neglect which our agriculture discloses ; 
but hit us not do injustice to those who 
have gone before us. It is true that 
much of our native forest has fallen by 
the axe and been Wastefully destroyed; 
large surfaces i f exhausted land pitin 
the eye and sicken the heart; melan- 
choly rnusiiigs spring up within us, when 
we meet crowds of emigrants to other 
S'.aies, Composed of those to whom we 
shonhl have looked to uphol 1 our own. 
We tind ourselves censuring the wastci- 
ful agriculture of our ancestors, and eon- 
cludmg that the policy must iiave been 
unuise and ruinous which dictated such 
a Course. Lisuch a conclusion, w^e take 
counsel of our f/elings. rather tiiiin of 
sound and discreet judgment. We are 
deciding a question and d termming a 
system too far removed from the cir- 
cumstances which controlled the first 
setih-rs of this country. 

'Jliey had agrent mission to j'erform, 
and well and truly did they do their 
work. The history of colonization af- 
f )rds no jiara lei to that which stands 
f )rth on the North American continent, 
occujtied by the Ang'o Sixou race. We 
shall look in vain for anything which 
approaches it, either in the r;ipidiiy of 
its progress, the magnitude of the re 
suits, or the brillimit succos which 
crowned the whole enterprise. Ltuiding 
on a foreign shore, far removed from 
cultivation, they encountered the haz- 
ards of climate and |.)erils of a savage 
population. Thev found a wilderness 
wh-ch they resolved to subdue, and 
having t;imed its wildness, to have it 
f >r a home and a it^gaiy to their chil- 
dren. The resolve 'itself was sublime, 
but tl'.ere was m higher sid)lin)ity in its 
execution, peifected amidst the in;ide- 
tpiJife resources which they could com- 
mand. None but men un;;Ci|Mainted 
with despair would have omi arked in 



248 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



^he enterpii.^e : none but. tbuse, wIk 
were cverv mau a liero, would liav(^ su'- 
cet'ded. To clear and subdue the foresi, 
rich in virgin soil, was their work. Thi 
su])])'}' of immediate wants couhi not be 
deferred ; emii^Tation pressed so power- 
fully up'U! them, thai ihere was no tin)e 
left for ;uiy other employment. The 
simple leg cabin was their shelter, and 
the praine.-c productions' of the earth 
their fooil. Surface for cultivation was 
demanded, and t!ie severe labor neces- 
"sary to ])rocure it, taxed. their energy to 
the utmost. They had no time, no right 
to rest their lields, in ordei' to recuper- 
ate their powers of production. Human 
wants pressing upon them, forbade it, 
and a liiglier duty compelled them to 
continue for a season, a system of ex- 
hausting cultivation. They were laying 
the foundation of a great Republic, and 
their thst duty was to provide for the 
nurture and support of the people, wdio 
were to give it foundation ahd endu- 
rance. Circumscribed by forests, which, 
for all praclic d purposes of production, 
were as complete a barrier as the sands 
of the desert, they prostrated them by 
their indomitable industrj', and a great 
and powerful people occupied the coun 
try wdiich they had redeemed from the 
wildness of barbarism. Agriculture was, 
of necessity, in a primitive state. He 
who removed the trees and gave space 
for the production of bread, was a great 
benefiictor, and the necessity of imp'-ov- 
ing soils never occurred to those before 
whom a boundless and fertile country 
spread its inducements to advance stili 
farther. They fidfilled their mis^ion, 
and gave us insiituions, in which we, 
in common with the friends of civil lili- 
erty throughout the civilized world, re- 
joice. The sin of exhausting the coun- 
try and brinjring it to its present state, 
rests not upon them, but upon the gen- 
erations who succeed them — upon those 
who ado|)ted ih-'s systen), after the ne- 
cessity which produced it had ceas( d I 
It cannot be justified by pleading the 
example of those to whose wi.'^dom and 
experience we looked for guidance and 



lirection. Their tnission was fulfilled. 
Tlie reason ceased, and the practice 
ought to have ceased with it. Tiieir's 
was the natural state of agriculture in 
every new country. It is only necessa- 
ry to visit one of tlie frontier Slates and 
look over the immense fields, wdiere 
cr<)ps grow amidst deadened trunks, 
standing almost as thick as th.e original 
forests — where the exuberant fertility 
of the soil makes up for imperfect culti- 
vation, and you have a picture of many 
portions of North Carolina a century 
ago. This state of thitios with all its 
dii~{jdvantages, has this blessing connect- 
ed with it : No want of the necessaries 
of life is ever found in such a state of 
agriculture. It, is only where ihe den- 
sity of population'gives rise to constant 
ap[)rehension of famine, that the earth 
is taxed to its utmost capacity of pro- 
duction, under the influence of the usu- 
al a];)plication of stimulating manures. 
Heaven has vouehsafed this security to 
tlie adventurer into the forest and the 
tiller of the rough soil of our country. 

A system, at first necessary and un- 
avoidable, was improvidently continued, 
and the consequences, in exhausted sur- 
faces and the continued depletion by 
emigration, have been fully experienced. 
It is encouraging, however, to be assur- 
ed, that a change is commencing, and 
that we are beginriing to realize the im- 
portance of restoring that fertility wdiich 
has been lost. Nature has done much 
in recuperating by her own unassisted 
power the waste of imperfect agricul- 
ture, and all present indications amongst 
the farmers of the State, justify the an- 
ticipation of a blighter and better day, 
a time when the restored lauds of our 
State, those which were originally best 
and for that reason selected and cleared 
by our forefathers, shall be again the 
most productive, and when our farmers 
shall not aniiuallv calculate upon a far- 
ther invasi(;ii of the forests, to make out 
their crop. As a general remark, it is 
conclusive against the skill of a farmer, 
who has much open surface upon a farm 
occupied by him for a series of years, 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



249 



that he has to clear laud, in order to 
obtain productive surface for cultivation. 
It is cheaper to rk-^tore land once good, 
than to clear and cultivate that which 
is inferior, with all the advantage of its 
freshness; and when the value of tim- 
ber, every dyj enhanced by its destruc- 
tion, is considered, it becomes a .subject 
of grave importance. 

An error, which has been productive 
of great evil in the progress of agricul- 
tural improvement, consists in the opin- 
ion, that farming can be successfully 
prosecuted without the occasional aid of 
active capital; that the earth, stimulat- 
ed by labor, can furnish wealth coniin- 
ually, without suitable returns to sustain 
its productive powers; that money 
made by cultivation, must find some 
other investment, and that it is bad 
management, to expend any of it upon 
the land again. Some even avow that 
the true pohcy is to wear out and ex- 
haust one tract of land, to afford the 
means of purchasing another. Such :i 
policy lias only to be named to be re- 
pudiated. Carried fully out it would 
reduce the country to a bare desert, des- 
troy all the charms of home with its 
sacred associations and its domestic vir- 
tues.* But others, who would disavow 
such a bold and unpatriotic system, 
practice upon one which must ultimate- 
ly lead to results of a similar nature. — 
There are those who make money from 
cultivation and expend large sums for 
buildings and other improvements, who 
would hesitate or refuse to make a small 
outlay for manures, which would at 
once repay the money advanced in a 
superior crop, and leave the land im- 
proved to an amount fully equal to that 
outlay. Let it not be supposed, that 
objection is made to improvements in 
our rural architecture. No money is 
more prudently spent than that which 
adds to the beauty of the houses, and 
the per onal comfovts of those who res- 
ide upon and till the land. No indica- 
tion of general prosperity is more con- 
clusive than a Complete state of repair, 
even to neatness and elegance, of the 



curtilage of the residences of the farm- 
ers of a country, where gardens, (orch- 
ards, enclosures, urnamental trees -ind 
shrubs, all indicating the hand of indus- 
try, directed by taste, speak a language, 
not to be misundorstoi d, tiiat the ()\v)i- 
ers .are satisfied with their homes. — 
Whenever the eye of the traveler is re- 
freshed by such i^cenes a;^ these, he may 
rest assured lh;it there agriculture pi'os- 
pers, that the love of their homes has 
inspired tht- hope in their owners, that 
their children will oceupy them, when 
they are gone, and protect th(-ir graves 
from desecration : tJiat they are resi- 
dents, inhabitants of the countrv, not 
mere sojourners for a season, ready to 
abandon all forspeculativeemigrati^in — 
are men who feel that patriotism as 
well as every other vii'tue, grows most 
kindly and matures most perfectlv un- 
der liie influence of local attachments, 
the sacred circle which includes their 
homes'; who perceive great evils in ihe 
frequent uprooting of those plants of 
tender growth, who feel that it is a bit- 
ter trial to sever and destroy those ties 
which bind men together in neighbor- 
hood association. It is not to such ex- 
pemlitures as these that I object. These 
ought ail to be made, and jirosperous 
agriculture would in this way adorn 
and beautify our whole country. T3ut 
I refer to that indiscreet financiering 
which would add thousands to the care 
of an estate, in buildings and like im- 
provements, but withholds moderate 
annual returns of its own increase to 
sustain its fertility,- and recuperate its 
powers of production, impaired by pre- 
vious bad cultivation. 

Many large fanners would pi-omptly 
refuse to invest $500 in Guano, Lime, 
Plaster or other concentrated manures, 
who would not hesitate to invest thrice 
that sum in some unimportant enter- 
prise, the profits of which, in three years, 
would not equal the increased produc- 
tion of a single crop, from the judicious 
application of the manures which that 
sum would purchase. If all the income 
from agriculture is to be vested in stocks 



250 



THE FAUMER'S JOURNAL. 



fuu! loans — U' ils most vjiluable ami ex- 
hMiistini; jin.d'.iclioris aro to be Mrinuaily 
t'xportt'il, without any suitab!<^ return to 
the soil, uh'niate exl)anstion must be. 
the result. The inercliaut invest-s capi- 
tal in goods, calculating; on a profit in 
bis sales, and isu-reascs theextent of bis 
l)U>iness by tlie lelurn of those profits 
to I he purposes of trade. Tliis seems 
to be the course of all other oecupatioii.^;, 
with the exception of agricultural pur- 
suits. That is expected to supply all 
other demands from every other direc- 
tion and still sustain itself, unassisted 
and alone. And yet nothing more c^r 
iainly makes a remunerating return for 
money expend<il, than land ]>r</pi'rly 
manure<l, carefully preserved, and skill- 
fuliy cultivated. IS^o investment of capi- 
tal is more secure, certain or satisfac- 
toiy. 

'J'he history o European ag-icu'ture 
ar;d es] <cia ly that of Kngl'Uid, Reaches 
a most in'-tructive lessfiu. In no coun- 
try has capital lioen mor« extensively 
employed in Farming — in none has the 
land been more jiermanently or rapidly 
im]>roved, and no where lias increa ed 
production made a more certain and 
satisfactory return. One hrndred and 
fifty years ago, the production of Wheat 
in England did not exceed an average 
of ten bushels an acre, and the grain 
itself was much lighter ancl poorer. 13y 
regular impiovcments, arising from the 
liberal exjienditiire ofcajiital in manures, 
bv sn{)erior cultivation, and increased 
fertility, the production has quadrupled, 
witli an enormous increase of po]>ulation, 
and the correspondent a<'cumnlation of 
agricultural wealth. In no country is 
there as much capital and science devot- 
<e(\ to agriculture and its kindred occu- 
pations, and in no government is the 
will of the faimirig interest uttered in 
t^uch language of command in tl^e ba'ls 
of L''gislation. The exp-erience of many 
of the old St.ntes of our Unif)n confirms 
wliat has been said. Farmers have 
learne<l that not only the vegetable pro- 
ductions of the earth may be returned 
to enrich it, after the most vahiable ele- 



ments have been em]>loyed to support 
animal bfe, and to niitiister to human 
comfort, but that the ocean and the 
lakes, the foresis and the rivers, togeth- 
er with the exhauslless resources of 
mineral feriilizers. treasureii up in the 
earth, all create agricultural capital and 
skill to successful progress — to emplo}' 
' profitably that which wouUl be other- 
jwise us. less or annoying. To invest 
I money in stocks, w hich must return pro- 
; fits or all other occupations, must ceaso. 
I It is true of agiMcultural as of other etn- 
I ployments, that liberal and judicious ex- 
i penditnre is wise economy, and here we 
jfiid the illustration of that seeming 
paradox, " there is that scattereth, and 
yet incroaseth, and there is that with- 
holdeth more than is meet, but it ton- 
ileth to jioverty." 

The first step in the right diiection 
towards the renovation of ourexh.nusted 
lands, and the increase of agricultural 
p'^ofits, is a determination to cease to 
! cultivate land too i>oor to make a rea- 
jsonable relur:: for the labor emph-ved.' 
I Labor is tb Farmer's mo??py, and when 
thus employed it makes a bad debt — 
one utterly inconvertible to any valuable 
use. The merchant whoshouM sell his 
wares on credit to those who are hope- 
lesj-ly insolvetit, must end in becondng 
so himself. It is e(|uai!y true, that ho 
who devotes himself to the cultivation 
<»f lands, which do not, by their produc- 
tion, pay for the operation, must ba 
ruined in tlie prosecution of the busi- 
ness. 

If it is asked, what are those to do 
who have no rich land, the reply is: 
make all rich that you cultivate, reduce 
the s\irface and increase its fertility, and 
if you have surplus labor, employ it a& 
you would other capital, to the acctj« 
mulalion of the elements of fertility. — ■ 
The origina.l settlers of this countrj 
found that resource in the rich and 
endle.-is forests which tiiey cleared, and 
from the productions of which they be- 
came rich. Clear land prudently but 
not wastefully, and by judicious n)an* 
agement retain and incFease the furtili- 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



251 



ty. It would astuiiisli any one, who is 
not farniliMi- wiih such calculations, to 
learn, that at least ont-tliird of the 
whole agricultural labor of the counliy 
is wasted on exhausted lands, or ap- 
plied without skill, — thus making- u 
dead loss to ifie country and the world. 
The proceeds do not pay tLe expenses 
of the operation. How great must be 
the protiis of judicious labor on ricii 
land to su>taiii an occupation .vith such 
an item of luss in Us account I An 
acre of land which, in its exhausted 
state, would not yield live bushels, may 
be made lo produce forty, with oiie- 
ei-^litli of the labor and expense that 
would be required to in;d<e from eight 
acres of such land, an equal amount of 
corn. This llu-^trates the value of the 
application of capital lo farming. Af- 
ter having collected and applied all the 
manures which are in reach and availa- 
ble on the farm, the surface to be culti- 
vated may be iiicieasel and enriched by 
the purchase and use of fertilizers, wiiii 
which our markets abound. I speak 
irom experience 's well as observation, 
that in the application of Guano, al- 
though apparently a high priceil fertil- 
izer, the increased crop has paid for 
thrice the cost of the manure, and left 
an improvement on the soil fully equal 
to the sum invested. This is certainly 
true in reference to wheat and tobacco. 
I learn that it acts must powerfully on 
cotton. I know that the production of 
corn is greatly increased, but its price 
being less, the immediate return in 
money value is not so great. Men are 
covetous of securities, which yield with 
certainty six per cent. Here is one that, 
in five years experience, has never yield- 
ed one less than one hundred. Guano 
is used as aii illustrater, witiiout intend- 
ing to disparage lime, plaster and other 
fertilizers with which agriculturists are 
familiar. 

In reply to the suggestion, Uiat the 
system of clearing and exhausting land 
ought to be abandoned, we are often 
told that this is necessary, because of 



the farm. If this were h neC' ssaiy 
consequence of such increase, it wo.ild 
be a great calamity, for it looks dii<cily 
to the utter impoverishment of the 
country. Laborers every where grow 
up and increase. Such ought not lo 
be the I'esult. Labor, it is true, may 
be so directed as to produce desinictioii, 
instead of profit, but it is only the uu- 
skiiful who make '■uch use of thi- great 
source of prosperity. A farm has its 
iiuiit, for the proHta'ul') aj)phcation of 
labor, as well as to it.i suriace, and to 
surcharge it with labor, is ceitainly un- 
wise. Let a farmer, thus emliairas>ed 
with physical force, hire out some of 
those laborers, and invest the money 
derived from the hire in eoncentraied 
manures; let him faithlully and skilful 
ly ajiply them to his lands, and he will 
find in the increased crops, as well a» 
the additional value given to his estate 
in i)erinaneiit fertility, a more satisfacto- 
ry application of suiplus labor. 

Another error, mo^t fruitlul in mis- 
chief, and which seems to liave strong 
hold upon the minds of the agrieultiiral 
commuTiity, is the notion entertained of 
resting land, by a rotation of crops, with 
occasional interspensions in cukivaiion. 
Let it be remembered, that the rotation 
is only necessary because the land is 
charged with the production of crops 
not natural to the soil, and all of whieh 
are removed after they ai'e produced. 
Land never grows poorer by the pro- 
('uclion of its native growth, however 
abundant the crop, if it is not rent-wed. 
Our rich forest lands have produced 
their immense burdens of timber, and 
with the small return of the foliage, re- 
tain their fertility. Nature does not- 
look to destruciion, but to production. 
The spring makes haste to atone foi the 
barrenness of winter, by restoring the 
beauty and perfection which its biting 
frost had destroyed. Indeed, the rich- 
est tints in the landscape, colored by the 
benevolence of heaven, are seen in the 
tendency <^i' nature to ronovate its beau- 
ties, and reproduce its fruits. It is only 



4he growth Aiid increase of labor on i when an artificial process is introduced, 



252 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



that artificial aids become necessary. 
The introiluction of cereal grains and 
other crops, not natural to the soil, has 
rendered rotation necessary to the con- 
tinuance of fertiiity, unless there is a 
continual sujiply of suitable jnanures for 
the support of the same crop, often re- 
peated. If that were d< lie, cultivation 
might be unremitted. It is a stioiig 
figure of s])eech to say. that 1' nd be 
comes tired and needs rest. Laud be- 
coiues poor by a constant drain of the 
elements of fertility, but it immediately 
recuperates when they are restored. Art 
does this piomptly and at once, and ua- 
tiire slowly and by degrees, and hence 
the notion, that the land acquires fertil- 
ity by rest. So ftir from absolute rest, 
when left without cultivation, it pro- 
duces vegetation to the extent of its 
capacity. If annually manured, culti- 
vation each year would incri'ase its pow 
ers of production. Who thinks of rest- 
inff a garden ? Old gaiden spots are 
the best, because, although cultivated 
every vear in the same and those ex 
hausting crops, they are every year ma- 
nured. But I am speaking of the sys- 
tem of shifts, as it is called, as a means 
of improvements. Many farmers seem 
to suppose, that, with these shifts, the 
system is complete ; that the process of 
cultivatic)!! luay continue in(lei)endently, 
without deterioration of the soil. This 
is a great and fatal error. Land, it is 
grauled, will not grow poorer under 
this system, as rapidly as it would un- 
der the mere alternat.ion of crops froiri 
y,eai' to year, but the difterence of ulti- 
mate bxhaustion is only a question of 
time. This is the more certainly true, 
ftince the usual practice, in the year of 
rest, is to covs-r the field with stock, 
which graze it close and clean and leave 
it pressed by the hoofs and scorch d liy 
tiie sun. It reminds me of the peace 
which f)llo\vs the foot-'^teps of a ruthless 
conqueror: 

"Mark where his carnage and his eonqviests 

ceas6, 
IJe makes a solitude and calls that peace." 

Land taxed with two successive years 



of production is delivered over to the 
teeth and hoofs of an overstocked farm, 
and that is called rest ! No system of 
rotation, wdiich includes less than five 
shifts, can secure increasing fertility and 
sustain a full stocking of domestic ani- 
mals. And even this must be aided by 
tlift introduction of artificial grasses, and 
ihe application of all the manures 
which can be collected to cover the land 
and supply it with the elements of pro- 
duction. Grasses adapted to every va- 
riety of soil can be readily found and 
experiment will decide which are the 
best. These, with deep and elfectual 
ploughing, and relieving the fields from 
the grazing of stock, until well covered 
with turf, would produce results in im- 
provement which would astonish^ tiiose 
who have not tried the experiment. 

Without the diligent and persevering 
cultivation of grasses, fariniiig cannot 
prosper. Those belonging to one cli- 
mate appear late in the spring and are 
destroyed by the first cold weather of 
the winter. A number, such as clover, 
herdsgrass and others, remedy this evil 
and afford abundant means for increas- 
ed profits in raising and fattening cat- 
tle. In the absenc<' of such a provision, 
we are thrown entirely upon the crops 
of corn and oats, both of great value, 
and, indeed, indispensable, but both, in 
our present system, great exhausters. — 
It is impossible to pa.ss through the 
country in the spring, without being 
pained to observe the cattle wdiich have 
just ashieved the enlerprize of emluring 
the winter. 

Those which have survived, give un- 
mistakeable indications that their [terila 
have been great, and the danger of star- 
vation imminent. No braftch of our 
farming operations would be more prof- 
itable than this, if prudently conducted. 
If the farmer, on one iuV.. .!, would avoid 
an overstock, and, on the other, provide 
ample means of feedirg, by devoting' 
low and wet lands, which are unsafe for 
cultivation, to meadows for hav, he 
would at once perceive, the value of the 
system, in increased domestic comfort* 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



55S 



and the profits from sal.3s made from his 
farm. There must be badTnanagemeiit 
where the sea-board towns of North 
Carolina purchase hay and garden veg- 
etables from the New England States. 
The remedy of this evil is not to be 
found alone iu improved breeds of cat- 
tle, hogs or sheep ; neither Durharas, 
Devons, Teesvvaters or Ayreshire, a- 
mongst cattle — Cotswolds, Southdowiis 
or Merinos, amongst sheep — nor Berk- 
shires or Irish graziers, amongst hogs, 
will alter the state of things, produce 
prosperity and success, without first se- 
curing ample means for their rearing 
and the fattening. Our old variety, 
brought up under privation and hard- 
ships of our present matiagement, are 
better, unless this is first attended to. 
They can live and endure even the tri- 
als to which they are subjected ; the 
others would degenerate and die. 

Sheep farming is a neglected source 
of great profit amidst remarkable facili- 
ties for the business. The little State 
of Vermont produces four times as much 
wool as the State of North Carolina, 
although the cold season continues eight 
months of the year, in that high North- 
ern latitude, and demands continued 
feeding to the stock; whilst our free, 
mountain range, and unequalled grass 
country in the Piedmont region, remains 
unemployed for this valuable purpose; 
and this too in the face of the high price 
of wool, and the heavy importations from 
foreign countries to supply our home 
consumption. 

Where, it may be asked, is a remedy 
to be found for the state of things we 
have described ? It is to be found, first, 
in diffusing information amongst the 
farming masses, by rendering them con- 
scious of the profits wdiich they lose, 
and the losses which tlie^ incur by the 
wautof information, or their own cen 
surable neglect, — by the formation of 
Agricultural associations in every coun- 
ty, and every neighborhood, and induc- 
ing the intercourse and collision of minds 
amongst those engaged in a common 
pursuit, — by the circulation of agricul- 



tural periodicals, especially those in our 
own section and climate; and permit 
me here to express my own sense of oU- ; 
ligation to the Editor of the Farmer's 
Journal, for the zeal as well as ability 
with which he has commenced, and is 
prosecuting his valuable enterprise. The 
Romans presented a civic crown to the 
man who saved the life of a citizen ; 
how much more worthy of such a dis- 
tinction are those gentlemen who are.- 
devoting their lives to the renovation of 
a country greatly exhausted by imper- 
fect afjriculture, and awakening the im- 
pulses of that pure patriotism, which 
nevBY rests, until our country sliall smile 
in beauty and abundance, one wide ex- 
tended scene of verdure and fertility. 
The name and services of Edmund Ruf- 
fin, the author of the essay on calcare- 
ous manures, will be reuK^nbeied, and 
appreciated, when politicians who filled a 
large space in public notoriety and who 
won' high prizes by their deep sagacity. 
shall be utterly forgotten ; t.ie one has 
written his name upon the imperishable 
annals of the improved agriculture of 
his State and country, whilst the de- ds 
of the other will slumber in the grave 
which terminated his career, however 
successful it might have been ; the one 
is the benefactor of his race, the other 
the promoter of his own personal in- 
terest. I would add the promotion of 
agricultural libraries, cheap and easily 
obtained by every association, and fre- 
quent meetings, free discussions, and 
comparisons of experience. . 

Nothing is more fatal to improve- 
ment, or individual happiness, than 
constant association with tho-e. who 
take our opinions without investigation, 
or from whom our own stock of knowl- 
edge is not enlarged. 

It is a great calamity for men to be 
deprived of the privilege of intercourse 
with their equals, ami superiors in intel- 
ligence. The human mind developer 
in proportion to the frequent opportuni- 
ties of putting forth all of its powe's, 
and the human' heart is improved and 
cultivated, by the communion of feeling. 



254 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



which siifh high exercises create. He 
who is coiiteiiled to be ihe oracle o\ his 
neiujliborliood, will becjuie a bigot, and 
be surrounded by sycophants and llst- 
ttrt-rs. lirrors musi be perjietuated in 
such a society, and iin|)''oveinent cease. 
i\s he grows older he will become more 
unteachable, and when lie dies, his man- 
tle will most piobably fall ijo a worse 
subjt'cl than himself, because imitation 
i> tlu; most sincere species of thitterj', — 
lie will have acquired j>o?ilion by such 
H process. Frequent a.->semblies of the 
Farmers in agricultural clubs, and soci- 
ctit'S ; the taking and reading of jour- 
nals devi)te>l to those and kindled pur- 
suits, will dethrone such a petty tyrant 
if he exists, and prevent his rise if r.ol 
already in {)ower. 

Men will try and see ; will observe in 
the trials of their neighbors, the success 
(ir failure of each new suggestion ; and 
their own practical good sense will ap- 
prupriaU' all that is valuable, and reject 
what is worthless. 

On no subject is enquiry more anx- 
ious, and knowledge sought with great- 
er avidity, when once the mind is awak 



zealous pditor to improve the State which 
gave him birth. 

Tiie present occasion presents anoth- 
er source of high gratification to evevy 
North-Carolinian. The display of me- 
chanical progress indicates that much is 
doing ill that w^iy for agricuUural im- 
provement. The benefit to farmers in 
imprdved agiicultural implements has 
created to our mechanics a celebiity 
which we are proud to acknowledge. — 
When we look to day upon the ploughs, 
the reap rs and threshing machines, 
which tm-chanical skill has given to agii- 
cultural industry, and remember the 
inferior furnishings, in these respects, of 
thirty years, we congratulate ourselves, 
and the country, upon such unparalleled 
success. Nor does our high gratifica- 
tion cease here. lu the higher and 
more expansive brandies of mechanic 
arts, there is equal progress, and like 
improvement. We are at this moment 
almost in hearing of the sound of the 
hammers which forge out and complete 
the Locomotives for our railroads with 
all tlu-ir complicated machinery, whilst 
cars and coaches equal to any for ele- 



ened to the imparlance which belongs | gance of finish, or provision for the per- 



to it. I am told that in liie cou. ty of 
Edgecombe alone here an; more than 
eight hundred copies of agr cultural 
journals taken and read by the farmers 
of the county ; and the resuscitation of 
Edgecombe in her agricultural interests 
demonstrates the power of knowledge, 
the magic effect of iuforination dit^u^ed 
among the masses. The tame is true 
uf otln*r portions of tiie Stale and the 
progress would be much more satisfac- 
torv, if there was a more genernl circu- 
lation of those messages of light to the 
farmer, tho.se papers which, unsoile by 
the dirty drivel of party politicians, and 
rising above the themes which they 
su2,"gest, come home to the hearts and 
iiuerest-s of the jteople, and direct them 
to the higlie.'>t and noblest of employ- 
ments. Let each member of this State 
Socit-'ty determine to-day, to extend the 
circulation of our ywn- Agricultural pa 
per, and thus cherish the effort of its 



sonai comfort of passengers, are made 
by mechanics of onr own good city.- — 

When to these we add that the ladies 
of North Caaolina, our farmers' wives 
and daughters, have increased the at- 
tractions as well as the usefulness of 
this fiivt Fair, this Gala day in our 
State, we cannot but believe that a new 
light has beamed upon us. I love to 
look upon a garden — that concentration 

f the loveliest productions of nature, 
those ornamental recreations to the eye, 
refreshing the senses and improving the 
heart. 

When God made man innocent he 
placed him in a garden. When he for- 
feited his favor by transgression, lie ex- 
pelled him from that garden, and laid 
on him the necessity of making one in 
imitation of that which he had lost, if 
he would cherish a recollection of its 
cliarms. There is an indescribable in- 
terest which belongs to a garden : its 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



255 



roses, its byaciutlis, and tlieir lovi Ij 
comp-iiiions. Every jarmershouiil ti-ac-li 
liis children to lave a flower garden. U 
gives a charm to hoin(% it teaches the 
love <A' the beautiful. In every tint and 
shade of its flowers, radiates thai benev- 
olence of Heaven, which is in itself all 
beautiful. Who in passing through 
the fields has not paused to admire the 
wild flower, tsiniied upon only by llie 
sunbeam, and kissed only by the dew- 
drops ; and as he looked felt grat ful 
that there was one more evidence of the 
kindness of his Maker, in such a refined 
source of enjoyment in the beauty uf his 
works. 

Ttie prosperity of agrieuliural pur- 
suits, it has been remarked, brings gen- 
eral prnsjierity to any country. The 
present is a season jieculiariy favorul>le 
to a gnat eflbit on the pari of those 
thus euiploved for i-rogress and im- 
provement. All of the producti(jns of 
the earth are saleable at most remuner- 
ating' price^s. Breadstufl> and provisions 
will probably approach c<ttion in value, 
as an export, more nearly th^ui for many 
previous years. The prices a;-e high, 
and a golden stream flows into the 
purses of producers. Much ou^ht to Yie 
done, and much can be done .in this j 
great interest, if the season i,s seii^ed, and 
the tide now setting in oM-r favor is not, 
allowed to pass away. ]S^ow is the time 
to I'onse up thi-5 great interest to the 
duties which they must perform or sink 
into an oVwcurity, the very supposition 
of whicli implies criminal neglect. Now 
is ihe time to shake off old prejudices 
and to airest 'the progress of error, to 
eilence croakers and prophets of evil. 
Crorikery has been most snccessfullv 
culti\ated as an :u;«omplishment in the 
Oood Old North State. Tlie Raven 
oroaks as soon as he is released from the 
egg shfli which covered him. and many 
of our citizens seem to have taken les- 
-sons from that bird of evil omen. The 
complete success of this first Fair, the 
vast assembly present, and the interest 
felt and expressed, indicate the most 
cheering revival of interest whore inter- 



est mu>t be felt or all is lost. To de- 
velojie knowledge by freedom of ei.Kpiiry, 
and tliorougli mvesiigalioii, to expose 
pojiuiar and niiscliie\ou> errors, and to 
find out and make known (he reasons 
which produce results, ilie principles 
wiiicli areactixe in bringing them aboul. 
is the intent of all such in-uinLions, and 
ought to be considered a primai v duty 
on tiie [;art of eveiy menioer. I select 
a single instance. It is a geiieraliv re- 
ceived o})inion tiiat Guaiio, al houy;li a 
stimulant which produces an iuimediate 
crop, leaves the land in an exhausttHl 
state, and finally unproductive. This 
may or may not be true, according to 
the skdl with which itisapplitd. Gu- 
ano being a highly concentrated man- 
ure, composed c: iefiy of ainnu:)nia and 
phosphate of lime, acts as the leaven on 
the other elements of the soil and secures 
production. 

[To be concluded in next Numbsr ] 



WM. H. TAPPEY. ! WM. C. LU.MSDE.V. 

TAPPEY & LUMSBEN, 

Iron and Urass FoundeLs a id Mtichiii- 

ist-, 

Opposite Jarratt's Tavern and Southern Rail- 
road Depot, 
PETERSBURG, VA. 
{Cash paid for old Copper and Brass.) 

I RAILROAD CARS, Axles. Wheels Self- 
V dnifj Boxes, &.c. ; Tobacco Presses, 
Mills, Cotton Ploiifrtis, and Knives: Cast and 
Wrought Railing ; Stenm Engines, Vertical and 
Circular Saw ft'fiils. Grist Mill bons of rverj 
description. Shafting and all kinds of Macliine- 
ry. Wagon Pox<^s. Bells, &c., (fcc. 

November. IS.'jS, 8— 



SAMUEL OLIVER & SOST, 
New B.ert)e, N. C, 

WILL keep constantly on htmd a supply 
ol Ploughs, embracing 25 diflerent styles, 
Straw Cutlers Corn Shelleis, Cultivators, Har- 
rows, Grain Fans, Crad et-. Corn Mills, Veget- 
able Cutters, Grain Planters, Corn Stalk Cut- 
ters, Castings, &c., &c. 

Agents for the sale of Taylor & Co.'s Geor- 
gia Cotton Gins, Paiker's Patent Corn Shelter, 
Smith's Straw Cutter, Horse, Pow.er and Grain 
Fans, Watt's Patent CufF Bi ace Ploughs. Chap- 
pell's Fertilizer, Super Phosphate of Lime : al- 
so, Peruvian Guano, Bone Uust, Kentish Pre- 
pared Guano, Gro»nd Piaster, Poudrettc, &c , 
&c. ; Ury Goods, Groceriep, Boi,t8, Shoes, Hata 
and Caps, &.c 

November, 1853. 8— 2t. 



256 



THE FARMER'S JOUi.Iw^L. 



J. M. LOVEJOY'S ACADEMY, 
EALEIGH. 

Olassical Department, J. M. Lovejot, Precep- 
tor, 
Mathematical Depaitment, Geo C. Lewis, 
Department of Elementary, Agricultural and 
Experimental Chemistry, Dr. J. I''. Tompkins 

THE YEAR IS DIVIDED INTO TWO SESSIONS. 

The Ticeniy- Sixth Session c( rnmences on the 
1th of Jaiiuaiy, \tibi,—the Twenty-Seventh 
on the 1th of July. 

TERMS OF TUITION PER SESSION IN ADVANCE. 

Tuition and B'lard, (including everything 
except washing,) $80 00 

Ffench, Book-keeping and Surveying, 

each extra, 10 00 

No deduction made for absence, except in 

cases of protracted sickness. 

IT is ihe design of the Preceptor, that this 
Institutirn hh;dl not be surpasstd in ihe ad- 
vrmtages afforded for acquiring an English, 
Class'ical, Mathematical and Practical Educa- 
tion. His employment, during the last twenty 
years, has been that o"' prepanng boys tor the 
University of ISorth Carolina, and for Clleges 
ot other iatates ; so that, if there is any truth in 
the assertion that '' practice makes perlect," he 
thinks he i.s capable of doing well ihe business 
of his profession. He thereiore assures i-arents 
and guardians who may piace pupils in hi.'- 
Aciid my,ihnc they shall be thoroughly pre- 
pared for college, or educated for practical bu- 
siness men. Book-keeping, Surveying, and all 
practical branches, receive pt.tticular attention. 

The Morals of the Students will be carelully 
guarded ; and lor the pujpose ot doing this, pu- 
pils, (unless they have relations in the City ) 
will be required to boaid with the Principal, or 
with Dr. '1 ompkins— who has been engaged to 
give instruction in AgricuUvral, Elemerdary 
and Experimental Chemistry, accompanied 
with Lectures- in order that pupils who de- 
sign to become farmers may receive an educa- 
tion in those branches of science, so necessary 
(o success in their profession. 

ll is not necessnry to speak of the qualifica- 
tions of Dr. Tompkins, since, as Editor of the 
Former's Journal, he has shown himself fully 
competent to discharge the duties of his depart- 
ment His laboratory is well supplied witn 
such apparatus as mny be necessary to givu a 
minute and perlect idea of the science which he 
professes to teach. . 

Students who prefer to give their whole at- 
tention to Agricultuial Chemistry, and to ihe 
instruction oT the Laboratory, can have the 
privilege of doing so. 

TERMS PER SESSION IN DR. TOMFKIN's DEPART- 
MENT. 

Foi Experimental Chemistry, $10 

Agricultural Chemistry, 25 

Laboratory Students, 50 

J. M. LOVEJ Y. 

Raleigh, October 17ih, 1853. 8— 



WM. ALLSTON GOUEBIN, 
Factor and Commission Merchant, 

NO. 73 EAST-BAY, 

CHARLESTON, S. C, 

IS prepared to make lioeral advances on Con- 
signments of Rice, Cotton, Corn, S gar, 
Elour, Grain, Hay, &,c. 

Agent for " Genuine Peruvian Guano" for 
the States of South Carolina, North Carolina, 
Georgia, Alabama and Tennessee. Als^o, A- 
gent for Baltimore and Southern Packet Co.'e 
Steam-ships. 
November, 1853. 8— 



A CARD. 

JAMES M. TOWLES, General Agent for 
the sale of Agricultural Implements, and 
Farming Utensils, &c. 

N . B. A large number of articles brought to 
the late Fair are lelt with me on sale, on all of 
which the Railroad freight will be saved to the 
purchaser, a very important item on heavy 
goods. 
November, 1853. ' 8— 



THE FAKMER'S JOURNAL 

IS Published monthly, at $1 per annnum, in 
advance ; six copies i()r ^5 ; twelve copies 
lor irlO ; thirty copies for $20. 

Advertisements — A limited number of ad- 
vertisements will be inserted at the following 
rates: For one square' ot twelve lines, for each 
insertion. $1 ; one square per annum, $10 ; half 
column, do., $30 ; one column, do., $50; larger 
advertisements in proportion. 

JOHN F. TOMPKINS, 
Editor and Proprietor, Raleigh, N. C. 



''F^HE Subscriber will give any special advice 

JL to Fa;rmers, by their addressing him and 

giving a description ol their farms, xlis charge 

will bo moderate. He will make analysis ol 

soils and marls, and write out the analysis for 

application ol manures. 

For analysis of soils, $5 00 

Writing out analysis, 5 00 

JOHN F. TOMPKINS, M. D. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Page. 
List of Premiums Awarded, &c., 225 

Preceedings of the North Carolina State 

Agricultural Society, 225 

Address of Hon. A. W. Venable, 235 

Theory, 239 

The North CaroUna State Agricultural Fair 240 
To our Readers, 241 

The Guano Trade, 242 

Upon a Strong Platform at last, 242 

Editorial and extract of a letter, 243 

Farmers collect Manure, 244 

Attention called to Card, 244 

Let the blame rest where it belongs, 244 

iVIotion offered by Dr. Piitchard, 244 

Housekeeping is an essential part of Fe- 
male Education, 244 
Mr. Venable's Address, (Continued,) 245 
Advertisements, 255 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



VOL. 2. RALEIGH, K C, DECEMBER, 1853. NO. 9. 

JOHN F. TOMPKINS, M. D., Editor and Proprietor. 



ADDEESS 

OF THE 

HON. A. W. VENABLE. 

( Concluded from last Number.) 

The elements of fertility were many 
of them already there, just as the ele- 
ments of bread are in flour; but the 
leaven is necessary to the production of 
the article in high excellence. Leaven, 
of itself, will not make bread — so, if this 
stimulus, without any other supply of 
manure, be frequently applied, barren- 
ness must ensue, because there will be 
viothing for the leaven to act upon. 
But if a rotation of crops is adopted and 
grasses sown, there is no improvement 
more permanent or more efficient, and, 
I may add, more cheap. I say cheap, 
because of the ease and cheapness of its 
application. Let the Farmers reason 
upon these subjects and they will come 
to the proper conclusions. Let them 
read and they will improve. Let them 
assemble at our Fairs, and they will 
find developmei ts and improvements, 
which awaken hope, give vigor to action 
and ensure success. Wa shall be in- 
uced to cherish native genius and our 
own mechanics, and, by offering induce- 
ments, get the highest attainments in 
every branch of industry. 

I have already remarked, that no 
people can prosper permanently, where 
agricultural interests are either oppress- 
ed or neglected by legislative authority ; 
that legislative neglect is as injurious 



as legislative oppression, and that it is 
demonstrable that much of the depres- 
pression of this great interest in North 
Carolina is referable to this neglect. 

No State of the Old Thirteen pos- 
sesses more undeveloped resources — 
none, those of greater value. This is 
not a recent discovery. We have long 
been conscious of the fact, and have long 
looked upon the development of the 
wealth and power in the States, vvhicl 
surround us and lie upon our borde.. 
we have seen the immense practical, 
advantages — the incalculable benefits,, 
which they have derived, whilst wo^ 
have just commenced a movement mi 
that direction. Virginia and Sosth 
Carolina have been our exporting State.'*. 
and have obtained credit in their eoni-- 
mercial statistics for the produclfons^ of 
North Carolina. With all that we fur- 
nish to Commerce, from the forest and 
the soil, we still, in our own name, stanrj 
amongst the smallest of the old States 
of this Union. We have been con teut. 
to leave the counties lying near ou!- 
northern and southern borders to lo k 
to Virginia and South Carolina for iho- 
means of transportation as well as. ;!■ 
market for our products. And thcK' 
counties have prospered in proporti<>!(i 
to their proximity to such advantages, 
while the centre of the State is lamK 
locked and neglected. 

A contest in the Legislature, between 
the eastern and western interests, con- 
tinued for a long' sucaession of years. 



258 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



The jealousy and distrust, wiiich have pays |600 in freight upon the pn^duct 



grown <nit of that strugo;le have para 
lyzed our energies and left the iniprove- 
nient of the State to abide tiie conse- 
quences of victory, which, if gained by 
eitiier, is \vorthh.'ss and unin)purtant. 
Great interests have been sacrificed lo 
the ])ersonal ambition of thuse, who have 
sought promotion by skilful niangenient 
of these elements of discord, and the 
whole State has suffered in tlie result. 
It does not seem to have occurred to 
those to whom our interests have been 
committed, that if every portion of c/ur 
State enjoyed the benefit of the n)eans 
of transportation — that if a way was 
opened to our own deep water, or our 
own ocean-shore — that if from Salisbury 
to the Tennessee line, and from Golds 
boro' to Beaufort, one band of iron 
should hind those remote parts togeth- 
er — THERE WOULD BE NO EaST AND NO 

West ? The obstacles presented by 
time and space would be so far over- 
come, as to make us feel that we are 
one and the same people. With such 
^eon'inualio . of our great Central Road, 
■jnf)d the feeders and branches which the 
intGjv-<ts of our peojde would indicate, 
X)ur iiejtil • lands and exliaustless mines, 
jjiow }ii A great measure valueless and 
5unpr<vd«i'tive, would at once swell the 
,sv'ealth afid importance of the State he- 
..yond cdcnjaijon. We should success- 
;fn|tv .conipetxj with other lines from 
#^!,'y!aiid, Virg?nJu, South Carolina and 
i<G.6orgin, which aie driving the produc- 
■ timis of tite ¥alley .of the Mississippi to 
thedepots.of .trade on t)ie Alantic coast. 
Tiiese enterprises inyst ha begun, carried 
on and pJisbed forward chjetly by the 
Farmers — the agricultUsi-al jnter<'sts of 
the country. The greatest benefit must 
redound to the jQultivator, who is the 
producer, an<l he. would find, in di.min 
.islied expeni=es,:and the rise jn value of 
his land, .and jocreased production, m 
■ unfailing source of wealth and indepen- 
dence. Whatqv«i" ^yrn a farmer ai,i- 
nually pays for the tra.usjwrijitio^n of his 
cro]) to inxirket .represents sihe inte.r.est 
.^f a nioitgage upon his .estate.. He vvilio 



of his farm is under such a niorlgaye to 
ihi^ amount of $10,000 upon bis lauds, 
taking precedence of all other incnrr;- 
brances. If lie sells it, the purchaser 
knows that ex[)enses must be paid be- 
fore the profits can he counted and 
ahatf'S just as much the price which h e 
is willing to give. Now, if thrtt aniuunt, 
by reason of railroads, or other improve- 
ments, is reduced to $100, lie is at once 
relieved of 88,000 of lien, which, of 
course, is aoded to the value of his 
property. The |500 annually saved is 
perhaps more than (he same farnier 
would pay in taxes fur a nurahi-r of 
years. It is belter to pay a small tax 
to the State than a largi-r one to the 
carrier — belter for all parties concerned. 
A prudent, general sy.sten) of internal 
Imjtrovcments is not only wist- and prop- 
er, but indispensable to the })rosperity 
of the State — a system which keeps pace 
with, but does not run before, the wnnts 
of the prciducer — one regulated by 
sound discretion and not subj-cied to 
political intrigue or private speculation 
— a system which mu.-t oiiginate with 
(he farmers of our State and he ^-ustain- 
ed by ihetn, in which they fee! a per- 
sonal and pecuniary interest. For, v, hilst 
it is proper that the State sho»ild po-.sess 
an interest in all these great improve- 
ments, that interest should neither he 
so large as to control nor so small as to 
be without influence. 

Our farmers must become laroviv in- 
terested in opening every |H)rtion of the 
State to the advantages of eh< ap tians- 
pi)riation. Look at those coiuuie.s now 
enj()\ing the advantages vehich tin j)res- 
ent improvements afford. The i.^ere; so 
of production «(_)nsequent upon the ik- 
cility and cheapness of transportation 
together with the reinunerati\ e prices 
of cotton, toliacco, wheat, and the pn> 
ducts of our pine forests, have given 
.■^ueh an upward tendency to property 
that men grow ricii liy the nure appre- 
.ciation in value. We, who have expe- 
rieneexi the liberality of the State in tiie 
Roaooke and Caj)e Fear Rivers, tiio 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



259" 



Wilmington anJ Raleigh and Gaston 
Railroads, and are enjoying daily the 
rich fruits of that liberality, would be 
both unjust and ungenerous to refuse to 
aid those remote portions of the State, 
■whose taxes were paid to place us near 
a market. But I will not doubt tliat 
work will be done, — for our resources 
are abundant. Money in the hands of 
the capitalist, who has handled it, is al- 
ways timid until that capitalist becomes 
-sati.-.fied of a safe investment. Let the 
farmers of the country take this gener- 
al interest into their own hands and en- 
ter upon it in good faith, uninfluenced 
bv sectional jealofisies, but with a zeal 
for the glory and prosperity of all of 
North Carolina! Let haitnony prevail 
in our counsels, and a reliance upon our 
own resources be inculcated by all who 
desi''e to see a new era in our midst. 
Then, with fair and liberal charters and 
a prudent interest of the State in those 
wurks, cajjitalists will invest their wealth 
with certain assurance of security and 
prdfit. 

The people of North Carolina are 
eqml to every necessary effort. They 
can accomplish all that is requisite. If 
anything is ever done, she must hel'p 
herself, or all former experience has 
been useless in its teachings. MilBons 
have been expended by the Federal Go- 
vernment to create barbors in the lakes 
and improve the security of navigation 
on almost every other portion of the 
coast of tlie United States, whilst our 
own has been almost entirely neglected. 
I do not approve of looking to the ex- 
ercise of a doubtful power to make im- 
provements — but we bad a right to de- 
mand the removal of obstructions to 
navigation in Wilmington harbor crea- 
ted by a Fort built by the Government 
itself. And under all disadvantages, 
the energy and enterprize of the mer- 
chants of Wilrwington have diffused 
wealth and prosperity over a great por- 
tion of the State. A market and an 
outlet has been furnished to producers 
— and may Heaven seed the good town 
prosperity. 



The people of North Carolina, fur- 
nished with railroads, plank roads, turn- 
pikes and canals, can do anything tht\% 
enterprise may devise and industry ef- 
fect. Place the means of fertilization 
within the reach of farmers, enlighten- 
ed as (o their value — reduce the expenses 
of transportation — give her sons the 
avenue for competition — and she will 
stand forth amongst the first of her sis- 
ter states. Look at the specimens of 
her manufactures here to-day. IIi? 
cotton, from the coarsest thread, for tho 
commonest purposes, to that which ri- 
vals the gossamer's w^eb, all grow^n fronit. 
your own soil, and spun by your owns 
machinery. Flour from your own wh^.3.t, 
equal to any in the world. Tobae-co, 
manufactured with such skill, and cur- 
ed with such perfection, as places those 
who make and manufacture those arti- 
cles in the front rank of their- profes- 
sion. Her coal, her iron, her cop}>fr» 
her gold ; and shall we hesitate to open 
her land-locked treasures to the i-oiur 
merce of the world ? Come near to th'!' 
sections enjoying at this time the bei\c- 
fits of railroads, and j)lankroads, mA 
improved rivers, and see the coitnti-y 
smile under the hand of skilful cnUurt''i 
hear practical men speak of the rairao!'.- 
lous effects of guano, with all that ■ ^ 
said about the cost and you will so' ;,-^, 
faint glimpse of a glorious futuv....^. 
There stands before me a single iaraua-; 
from Granville, who, from, the proci:tii.\i 
of his estate, realized $430 to tlie Wsi; 
and he will tell you^ thattoguan(>n\,..ie 
than half is diie. Place all these appli^ 
ances within the reach of the fktiur 
princes of our state ; let them so^'.; in 
hope, looking for success, and a bi;;ii;\;t 
day will dawn upon us. For inya IF, I 
will cease not to call them te&e work 
— to urge them to its a'^eojatrpIishnjeMij, 
until it shall be perfect and compUj-e j 
until the genius of North Carolinji, i'rom. 
the highest peak of the Pilot m.ountaia^ 
shall shout in tones which shall echa 
from mountain top to mountain tiop^ 
that the glorious old State is awakx? nnd 
alive ; until the neighing of th« hoM. 



260 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



horse shall be heard in every monntain 
gorge and cove, bearing on the wings 
of the wind, cars teeming with passen- 
gers and freighted with the products of 
the earth ; until those mountains shall 
yield her mineral treasures, and their 
fertile sides, clothed with exuberant 
crops, or alive and smiling with flocks 
and herds, shall pour a continual stream 
of wealth to our own sea-coast; until, 
from east to west, north to south, all 
shall unite, and that State, which was 
first in the Declaration of Independence 
is acknowledged the queen of the south. 
This the fanner princes of our State 
can effect. The nobles of other lands 
derive their patents from kings, conque- 
rors and plunderers — -they get the ar- 
morial bearing from the King of Hea- 
ven. When our Legislature shall ac- 
complish this, thev shall have won a 
title to the gratitude of posterity. — 
When our railroads and other improve- 
ments shall pass in review, posterity 
will be constrained to say, in the lan- 
guage of the most eloquent orator of 
his day, they " were testators to a pos- 
terity which they embraced as their 
own." These works were great sepul- 
chres, built by ambition, but by the am- 
bition of an insatiable benevolence, 
which, not contented with reaping in 
ijie dispensation of happiness, during 
the contracted sphere of human life, 
kas stretched, with all the reachings and 
graspings of a vivacious mind, to ex- 
tend the dominion of their bounty be- 
yond the limits of nature, and perpetu- 
ate themselves, through generations o 
.generatissns, the guardians, protectors 
and benefactors of mankind." This is 
glory enough for one generation, and 
to fail to fulfil this great destiny, would 
ibe the reproach of our age. 



Gardening for Farmers. 

• 'Oufi re;Kl(-ri* may ask in what garden- 
ing Jbr farmers dsitVrs from ganJening 
f r other people, as tlie title to tijis ar- 
ticle seems to imply. Tlie answer, the 
quesiiun of how to grow, is of course to 
be answered the same to all. liut the 



merchant retiring for a few hours, from 
the wear and tear of city excitement ; 
or the man of wealth, who retires to 
enjoy the otlum cum dignitate.oi' coun- 
try life, liave other objects in view than 
those which our farmers and their wives 
can properly direct their attention to, in 
their gardening pursuits. We propose 
to puint out to our farming friends, the 
advantages, and the true enjoyment 
which a garden adapted to their wants, 
and so arranged as to supply them, is 
calculated to afford. And we promise 
tliem both pleasure and protit if they 
adopt our advice. 

Why should not the farmers partici- 
pate in those pure enjoyments, which 
other classes of the community are rea- 
dy to admit result from gardening:? — 
And why, moreover, do any of lair far- 
mers profess to see so little pleasure in 
the practice of it? The reply is easy. 
The business associations of the city 
man are unconnected witli the green 
iields and the social pleasures of conn- 
try life. The latter, of which thi- <rar- 
dt-n forms so prominent a j)art, tliere- 
tbre present the greater contriust to his 
mind ; and thence arises the induce- 
ment to their pursuit. In his- garden, 
the zest of novt-hv stimulates his exer- 
tions, and his zeal supplying — to some 
extent— his lack of knowleo'ge, the cit- 
izen is deliifhted with the residt of his 
first attempts at growing cahbages and 
dahlias; and success soixi convt^rts the 
new pur!*uit into a passion. The nov.ce 
l»econies by practice, a |>roficient. ISot 
so with the farmer. Ardent jierhaps in 
the pursuit of his toilsome duties, he 
looks more for the quiet of rest, as tl e 
relief of his labor, than for the success 
of his roses or liis tomatoes ; which al- 
though enclosed within the trim hedg- 
es of a garden are too nearly asscciatcd 
in his mind with the .'Cene of his daily 
cares to afftird him amusement, or to in- 
terest his leisure hour;--. 

But this sate of things is n^t inevi- 
table. And we feel convinced that, with 
a little aid from your wife and da'iiih- 
ters, v,-e can tell farmers how to enjoy 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



26t 



and profit by a garden, and then Iiow Uj 
increase the bloom of the rose in their 
fair fheekf, whiLst they tend thegrowili 
of it in tlieir flower borde s. To the 
hidies then we appeal. And we prom- 
ise them happiness and pleasure from 
pursuing our instructions. 

Let us look around before we bi-gin 
our gardening, and see whether we have 
a fair ground to start u|>om. 

What have we aroutid the farm house ? 
Have we the poultry house, the pig- 
pens, the wood-shed, and the other do- 
mestic out-oftices well placed at the 
back or ends of the house, so that by 
the planting of a few common shrubs, 
such as lilacs, syringas, &c., we can con- 
ceal them from view ? If so, well and 
good. If not, have you not influence 
enough to get them removed, or fenced 
off by a close board fence, which you 
can afterwards hide by creepers of some 
kind ? Then, again, in front and around 
the house, can 3'ou not sketch nut a lit- 
tle plan for a grass lawn, to be kept 
mown close, and separated from the ad- 
jacent land by a light fence, or ditch 
and green bank, so as to show the world 
that within that magic boundary the 
roughness of farming husbandry ceases, 
and that within it the elegancies of life 
are to prevail ? This being done, let ns 
fix up<in a spot of ground behind or at 
the side of the house for the garden. 
If we can, we will seh-ct one sloping, 
towards the south, rather than other- 
wise, and where the soil is as good as 
the neighborliood will produce. S)nie 
shrub>< planted on each side of the house 
with a bed jf si,\ or ten fe-jt wide in 
front t>f them for flowers, will at once 
give an air of loveliness and comfort to 
our dwtdling. 

Tlie pi<'ce of ground for the gard n 
being 'leterinined upon, it must of course 
bi' surrounded tiy a good fence; and of 
ail fences, the best is a low thick hedge, 
which may be nia<le either of several 
shrubs varying according to the kicali- 
tv and to the taste of the proprietor, — 
Buckthorn, Hawthorn, Osage Orange, 
Privet, Arbor Vitae, and various other 



shrubs planted young and cut back con- 
siderably every year, in order to make 
it keep thick ai the bottom, will ii four 
or five years, form the best fence in the 
world, and will last for a life time and 
more. But whilst this is growing up, 
some temporary rustic wooden fence 
must be constructed, outside the live 
fence, which may be made of a few 
rough posts and the loppings of trees, 
which very little ingenuity is sufficient 
to nail together, so as to [jroduce a neat 
rural fence which will aftbrd the young 
hedge ample jirolection. 

The mo<le of laying out the garden 
must depend in some degree, upon its 
shape, and that will be in some cases in- 
fluenced by its position. If it is a 
square, or approaches that sliape, it is 
well to set oflf ail round it ne.xt to the 
hedge, a border from six to ten feet 
wide ; next to that, a broad walk of five 
or six feet all round ; and then divide 
the centre ground into four quarters, by 
walks three feet wide, and subdivide 
these quarters again i to beds four or 
five feet wide, for the convenience of 
cropping, with narrow paths of only fif- 
teen inches between them just to form 
a division. 

Now then to crop the garden. W.e 
must remember our purpose is to com- 
bine profitable utility with amusement 
and healthful recreation for our fair 
frien !s. 

With this object we must appropri- 
ate the external borderround thegarden 
to fruit and early vegetables ; but nest 
the walk, round the whole centre quar- 
ters of the garden, we reserve about 
three feet for a flovver border, and at 
thai distance (three feet) from this walk, 
we advise either dwarf pear trees, or 
currants and gooseberries to be planied, 
which will form a background to the 
flower border and separate it from t]i<^ 
entire, centre ground ; which as will 
presently be seen, we inten<l to devote 
lo the more important article, v.'g- 
etnbles. 

The wide border next to the he<lge 
round the garden, shall on the south 



*, 



262 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



and east, \>e devoted to early lettuce, 
rHcldifthesaiid otheivsalriditig, wiili straw- 
berries ; and Jiy placiiii>; the strawberries 
u«xt to the walk, and tlie other things 
behind them, some approach is made to 
the oritamental characte.' of the flower 
Border on the other side of the walk. 

The plan of the ganlen being formed, 
and it:> general arrangements pointed 
out, let us now contemplate itscapabil- 
fty to carry out our purpose of combin- 
itig the useful with the ornamental. 

The bare character of a garden de- 
voted *'0 vegetaliles only, however val- 
uable, is not well calculated to please 
the eye of the general observer, or to 
ifit'^rest the fair hands that should, par 
tially at, least, superintend and dii-ecl the 
gardening opi^ralions; we propose, there- 
ton\ to deck its borders w ith some of 
Flora's beauties, whilst we are waiting 
fer the utilitarian awards which we 
hope to receive from Pomona. The 
walk round the garden will frequently 
be found fo yield a pleasant recreation 
from indoor duties, or will change for a 
ffew minutes, the monotony of the need- 
ful o[>erations in tending the vegetable 
quartera. We take but a minute [lor- 
don of the ground for the fliiwers, but 
we place these in such a situation that 
at whatever part of the garden we are, 
they are ever present with us, delight- 
ing us by their gay colors and sweet 
odors, and prompting l)y their cheeiinir 
Jtiftuerice our exertions to renewed ef- 

R)|-t.s. 

From such a garden, fair readers, you 
mny durin ■ all the summer and ^-ntnmn 
Sfeeure to yourselves and friends a scene 
€f never failing enjoyment. 

HaiHiij introduced yon, ladies, to 
jfour garden, we shall in our next pa- 
lmer commence a ser es of instructions 
fur its culture ; and as the season of tlie 
jear is approaching when you slmul 
be pfepariuir for next year's operatii>ns, 
we vt'ould have vou .\t once commence, 
andj4>" prepa,'"ed. month by month, to 
work.j^i.ing xviih ns, and become busy 
Bfor'kers In '"Th" |i';irm"r's Garden." — 
The J'(Mi-Mai (jf AaricnUnrc 



Value of Soil Analysis. 

Mersus. Edit</ks :^ Absence from 
home during the month of August pre- 
vented me h'om availing myself of your 
permission to continue my article on the 
analysis of soils, in the September num- 
ber of your journal. I regret this the 
less, however, as 1 have since been able 
to obtain Prof. Booth's ariicle on the 
same subject, alluded to in an editorial 
in your paper for August, which I had 
not seen at the time. 

It has become quite the rage just 
now to ridicule the idea tha a soil anal- 
ysis can be of any use to the practical 
farmer; and we can hardly open an 
agricultural paper that we do not find 
a communication, g(T)etally in a very 
ill natured tone, intended to prove the 
utter uselessness of any and all soil 
analysis. Mostof these communcati(ms 
sufficiently answer themselves, or are 
unworthy of notice from the temi)er in 
which they are' written. There is ano- 
ther class of articles, however, bavino- 
the same object in view, of a diffl-i-ent 
character, written by men who evident- 
ly understand themselves and their sub- 
ject, and therefore entitled to respect 
and notice, even if we differ from their 
conclusions. Such we consider an edi- 
torial in the National Intelligencer for 
August 20tli, on the analysis of soils. 
The editor ci)mmences by observing, 
that "The agricultural journals gi\e 
notices of chetnists who analyze soils 
for farmei's, antl give advice, f(»unded on 
the analysis, for the application of man- 
ures. On the other haml, we have pub- 
lished the opinions of the men of sci- 
ence, to the effect that such analysis, in 
vhe present state of chemistry, does not 
lead to useful nsults." 

Professor Johnston, Boussington and 
Liebig are among the cheuiists who 
analyze soils, and speak highlv of the 
importance to practical farmers, of iuiv- 
ing their soils analyzed. Surely tlie 
editors of the Iniellii'encer will not un- 
rlertake to say that these chemists are 
not men of science. 

When we find such contradictory 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



opiiiiiins held \>y men ot" JU-kiiDwU-di^etl 
a[)i!ily, if we apj/lv reusuti lo aid us in 
dt-C'.'liiig ihe qiU'^tioii hi di>|)Ute, we 
sliHil bv likely to tiiid much Iriuh mi beth 
side-i, or at any rale, be more likely to 
arrive ai the truth, than if we biiudly 
eld St on ones:d>" or the other, and shel- 
ter ourselves bv iriuni|>hautly referring 
tn " men of science." To this end I pro- 
pose t<> examme tlie article in tiie Na- 
ti'iiai Intelligencer, with care, and en- 
deavor to rejily tosonse of ihe olji-clions 
ur:iei.l against ihe analysis of soils, as 
iik«" V to be of no lunetir to the firmer. 
Atier tiie remarks already quoted. 
Professor Hallowed, of Alexandria, is 
ciled. Heexpreses he ooinion that the 
analysis of the soil is " wholly us I. ss 
for practical pvu poses," and then g>ies 
on to say that "the [iresent staie ot 
ciieniicHl science is such as to eiiai)le 
the chemist to determine, with the af- 
most prt'ctsion, the constituents <if a 
body snbjt-cted to his examination ; but 
a difficulty lies in g''tting a fair speci- 
men of the soil to operate upon. The 
qnantitv usual y tnken to anal\ ze is from 
tif y lo one hundred grains, say half a 
teaspoon fu 1, an<l how is so small a 
onaniity t<> be obtained that shall bean 
exact sam[ile of the fif!d ? li it shoiid 
not i^^ an exact s nnple, •mu\ it appear- 
a tit >st impossdile it e\er shoii d be 
thfti till' nsult wdl necessurilv mi-lcad, 
and is wholly useless for practical pur 

pO«l — ." 

We are quite wiling to ;«diiiit that 
if tlie I'll f.'Psor inki's l)Ut !;alf a t<a- 
s]>o II full, of ihc soil to operate on. 
«»v( II yraiiting that it was an "exact 
Sampl'' of the field," that no reliable o' 
gatist.ictorv rt'suit could be obtauie<l. — 
The readers of our art c^e on this sub 
ject in the August numlier of yoU' 
iuuriifil, may remember thfit vye stated. 
ilsfit, in order to obtain accurate re-u'tr 
in rcg'ird to the substai Ci-s sc^lnble ii 
WMtec. (which we consider by far tin 
m St imporiaiit point to ascertain) '" not 
1« ss than from one to two poni;ds" 
should be employed. 

Prof. Ilallowell goes on again as fol 
](»ws; "On this account I place ctJiii- 



parativel} litll'' reliance upon aiiy bene" 
tits likely to arise trom a g<iier;d an; ly" 
sis of soils [the naier must rememlen 
however, that he goes in the p invipie, 
that but "" half a teaspoon full ' is nsedl 
tlu'Ugh such an anaiy.--is may soneiinies 
l)e very beneHcial in determitdng the 
presence of some liiirtful ingiedieiit that 
may be diti'used ihrougli the soil, and 
which may be neuiiali/A-d b\ soinesut*- 
staiH-e i» ad ly determined and applied." 

I'his is an admission of M>me m)]>or- 
taiice, cominy from the source it does. 

Next an extract from Bous.s'nigauWs 
Rurat Evonomt/ is presseil mto the ser- 
\ C'.-, as r-uipporiing the view already ex- 
piessed by Prof IJaih.vvell; the editor 
apparently iorgitting that many pages 
"f that valual<ie work of Bous-ingau:t 
are devoted to the recommend tii'n of 
-oil analysis, and much pains taken to 
describe the necessary process. We give 
the extract entire, as it goes to show 
die " iiriportance of pu!ve"izitig," tivftt- 
ed ot in a previous number. 

"The quH ities which we esteem in a 
woikabh) soil de|)enc( a.'most exclusively 
on the mi chaiiical mixture of its ele- 
ments. \\ e are niuch less intt rested ii4 
its chemical composidi-n than in ihis.^ 
-o that simple washing, wh ih shows 
ihe relations between the sand and clav\, 
lell-.. of itself, much nioie that is im- 
portant to tis than ou tlie elaborate 
cliemtcal analysis " 

The article in tl e Tntelliiieiici r closes 
by giving entire Prof Poolh's Aihiress, 
read before the J'fiiladelj.hia S' c'e \ for 
tl'e [)romoiion of Agrieij ture, 'On the 
practical \alue of the AhUss cif 

Soils." 

Professor Booth beijins by saving 
tiiat he "has fol'owed ihe path ]inr-ued 
■y many chemists in EuHt})e ami Amir- 
ca iti analylizid soils, wnli a vie\\ to 
heir bearing on the impiin< nient of 
agrictdture ;" but that notwitiisfandn.g 
■iiemistry has adxanced veiy r^piiU in 
■ iiaiytical accuracy, he is in.»reand moie 
con\iiiCid that no immediate pificiicat 
/able can be derived from the anrdysisj, 
ol' soils. 



264 



rHE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



The first difficulty to encounter is 
that of obtaininir a fair average of -a 
soil in any sino-le locality, and he thinks 
it would be impossible for the " plain 
farmer," or even the "enlightened a<>- 
riciilturist," to do what would require 
eonsiderable care and skill on the part 
of the chemist to perform. Professor 
Booth should know that in New Eng- 
land, at least, the enlightened agric.d- 
turist is to be found in the plain farmer ; 
and this distinction, which he takes oc- 
casion to repeat several times, is in poor 
taste to say the least. 

The next objection is the cost of anal- 
ysis. A poor analysis, though it cost 
little, he very justly thinks a worthless 
afiair, and a good one wou'd require 
much care and skill, and consequently 
would be expensive, which "alone is an 
impassable bar at present to the wide- 
spread application of the analysis of 
soils." 

As we read this part of the address, 
we thought that the professor had at 
least acknowledged, that if we were re 
gardless of expense, analysis could be 
obtained that we might depend upon; 
but no — the very next objection is, that 
"the difficulty and uncertainty atten- 
dant upon the analysis of soils that has 
any pretensions to accuracy, are such as 
to render it valueless. So after all I do 
not see that the great expense should 
be considered an objection, as according 
to Professor B. the cheap analysis will 
answer as well as the other, both being 
equally valueless. 

Of the ingenious mode of estimating 
the organic matter in soils proposed by 
Mr. Dana, and highly recommended by 
President Hitchcock, he speaks as a 
mere conjecture which we may summa- 
rily dismiss. 

As a confirmatory argument against 
the practical value of soil analysis, Prof. 
Booth gives what we consider a very 
poor one, by Major J. F. Lee, of Wash- 
ington, as follows : " We know that, on 
all poor land of proper texture, the ap- 
plication of 200 lbs. of guano to the 
acre will produce fair crops of grain and 



roots. And this is the difference be- 
tween a barren, and tolerable fertile 
soil." [We don't know any such thino-, 
and what is more we don't believe it.] 
"Now, this guano ai:»plies only 6 lbs. 
potash, 24 lbs. phosphoric acid, and 34 
lbs. of ammonia. But the acie con- 
tains 3,920,000 lbs. soil, to the depth 
of a foot." He then goes on with his 
calculation, that it would be impossible 
to ascertain one part of potas i in 600,- 
000 parts of foreign matter, and so on 
for the other ingredients. We can only 
say he could make his confirmatory ar- 
gument ten times as strong by assum- 
ing ten feetinsead of one, as the depth 
of his acre, with equal propiety. 

Our space and your patience will not 
admit us follow and to expose all the 
inconsistencies and contradictions in 
Prof. B's address, but I will only call 
attention to the last paragraph, in which 
he urges farmers (not "enlighlensd ag- 
riculturists,") to lend theiraid by having 
analysis of soils most accurately per- 
formed, not one or two, but numerous 
analyses of the same soil under various 
conditions, and in this way deliver hus- 
bandry from the thraldom of empiric- 
cisni, and place it under the dominion 
of a rational system. 

Why in the name of common sense 
this advice is given, after having inform- 
ed us but a short time be ore that the 
difficulty and uncertainly attendant 
upon the analysis of soils with any pre- 
tensions to accuracy, are sucii as to ren- 
der it valueless, is more than I can 
make out. -Journal of Agriculture. 



From the Working Farmer. 
Agricultural Statistics. 

In no country is the subject of agri- 
cultural statistics so much neglected 
as in our ftwored land. Even those 
given in the last census are disputed in 
almost every state. The importance of 
this subject catmot be too much dwelt 
upon, and our larger growers of grain 
are compelled to become merchants, so 
far as relates to keeping themselves 
properly posted up in the current a- 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



26« 



mount of crops, for want of poith^ de- 
peiuiabU' guide. For the use of those 
who are intercstc^d in the agricultural 
staMNtics of Great Britain, we give tlie 
following from the Belfast Mercantile 
Jonrnal : 

In theearh' part of last year we c'rew 
tlie attention of our readers to the im- 
portance of having an annual covern- 
ment survey of the produce of the soil 
of these kingdoms ; and as the ques- 
tion seems now to have attracted more 
of the attention of the public, we pur- 
pose again to recapitulate our argu- 
ments on the suhject, as there are few 
qu*'stions of more importance to the 
prop<'r regulation of commerce. 

When it is considered that the value 
of au average harvest has been estima- 
ted hy M'Cnlloch at upwards £120,000,- 
000 sterling, so far back as in the year 
1846. sonie idea may be formed o1 its 
magnitude. 

This £120,000,000 sterling was then 
apportioned as follows ; — 

In Wheat.... 18,225,000 qrs val'dati;34,59 1,784 
Outs and rye. 20,869 ,049 " " " 20,869.049 

Barley 7.940,476" " " 10.5 2,49>J 

Beans &, peas 1.7; 5,7 15 " " « 2,430,000 

48,i70,-.i40 
Ireland, 1,400,0' lO acres 

potatoes at £s jeil,200,000 

England and Scotland, 
4,400,000 acres, with 
potatoes, turnips and 

clover 30,000,000 

41,200,000 

Other crops and gardens 10,310,000 



£120,633,332 

Taking the above estimate as our ba- 
sis, although H considerable increase 
has taken place since then in all ex- 
cept potatoes, is it not a matter of vital 
moment to know whether the crops 
have yielded an average, or eighth, 
foutth,or third sliori of an average? — 
If the deiiciency is even but an eighth, 
we find that the country has to sustain 
a loss of upwards of £15,000,000 ster- 
ling ! But if it amounts to a third as it 
has frequently done, the enormous loss 
of £40,000,000 has to be sustained ; nor 
does the loss even stop here, for large 



sums of money are required, amounting 
probably to 50 or £60,000,000, to pay 
for additional supplies of foreign grain, 
diminishing the money circulation in 
the country by so much, draining the 
Baid\ of England of her gold ; and, as 
a consequence, disorganizing our mon- 
etary system 

At the present moment, what relia- 
ble data liave we for estimating the 
produce of the last harvest in these 
kingdoms ? We have certainly seen 
estimates of the produce, but these have 
oenerally been drawn up by parties 
more or less connected with the corn 
trade, from reports furnished to them 
1)V persons also closely interested in 
the question, and they cannot therefore 
be relied u])on with that confidence 
which should pertain to a question of 
such vital moment. 

Let us supiiose a case in which the 
estimates forme<l of a crop turned out 
to be too favorable, ai.d that we found 
ours<'lves deficient in the supply of 
food, what resources have we to de- 
pend upon? Certainly the world is 
now open to us, and supplies can be 
procured for the mere expenses of trans- 
it; but still we should have somethii^g 
inorecertan, something more tangible 
within ourselves to fall back upon in 
case of need, for it will be readily ad- 
mitted that if foreign countries saw we 
were really in want, they would make 
us pay very dearly for our supplies. 



Breeding Horses. — 
produce like." The 



Hints on 
1. — "Like wi 

progeny will inherit the qualities or the 
mingled qualities of the parents. 

2. — There is scarcely a disease by 
which either of the parents is affected 
that the foal will not inherit, or atle«ist 
the predisposition in it. The temper is 
generally taken from the mare. 

3. — Peculiarities of form and consti- 
tution of botii parents will also be in- 
herited. However good may be the 
sire, every good point will be neutraliz- 
ed or lost by the defective form or want 
of blood of the mare. 



2S6 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



4. — The excellence, liealth and ngi; 
©f ihfc mare are poinls of quite as iiiiic!i 
iirjiportatice a-^ that of ilie horse. Out 
©f a poor mare, let the hor.^e be pi-rfect 
as lie ma}', a good horse will rarely be 
produced. 

5. — The mare's carcass should bi^ 
long and well-rounded, to give room 
fbr the gron'th ot llie foetus, niid yi.-t 
with this, there slionld be cntrijiactiK'Ss 
of form and shortness of h-g. Tho 
shorter the It-g from the knee to tht- 
hoof, the fast r and more valuable the 
aaiimjd will be. 

6 — A. ni^re should always be com- 
jparatively larger than the horse. The 
v:\ er.->e Mill produce lon<id<ggf<l, nar- 
row-chested animals. This is a rule in 
the good bret'diiig of all surts df stock. 
An ovt-rgrowu male is always objection- 
8l)le. 

7. — The chief point to be considered 
in the horse is compactness as much 
goodness and strength as possible, con- 
densed in a little space. Next to this, 
the inclination of the shoulders should 
h^' regarded. A high horse with up- 
right sh'mldei-s never got really valua- 
hti stock, except for heavy draught. 

8 — Kor a month or two before foal 
.ing, the mare should be allowed some- 
what better food, and, if worked at all, 
moderately and slowly. 

B. — As soon as she has foaled, she 
should be turned into a well s' eltered 
pasture and taken in during storms. — 
& the grass is s'^anty she should have 
imo feeds of good bran or grain daily. 
Nothing is gained by starving and 
stinting the foal at this time. 

10. — Let the foal eat grain with its 
naother as soon as it will do so. 

11. — In five or six montlis, the fonl 
must be weaned, and [lUt into a bai'n 
wheie it c : n get shelter or into a l-'osc 
stable. Its food ought to he incr; asicl 
in goodness, and a U'i'il daily of l.iran, 
vtiixed with oats, made into a :i;asli 
with warnj (not liot) wat^r, i\-'- fti-i 
Wi-ek or two will pmiiic- a gMn,i dfrrt. 
An ounce of salt s'l'.uid he iiii.\cd wiih 
each H.'asii. 



11. — There is no princii)le of grti'ter 
importance than the lil)eral feeding of 
the foal di:ring the whole oi its grovvtii, 
and at this time in particular, liiui-ed 
oats, corn and bran, in about equal pro- 
portions, ahoul foiin a con,-ideratde 
part of its diaily food. Clover hay is 
better for it than timothy hay, and bet- 
ter still if it is cut and ndxtd wiihgrniii. 
The colt should have loom to move 
about, but be always sheltered in cold 
and stormy weather. If possible give 
it roots oicasionally during the win- 
ter. 

13. — The {irocess o^' breaking in 
should commenC':' fr<im ihe very [lerii/d 
of wea! ing. The foal should be daily 
handle d, pariially dre>S(d, aocust<ime(.l 
to the halier, led about and even tied up, 
the tractabil.ty, goi-d tiuiper, and value 
of the horse depei:d> more upon ihis 
than most fanners aie aware of. — jFar- 
viers Com. 

Pretty good for one man. — A 
gt nth-man of the highest respectability 
sends us the following account of the 
farming of a young man. The rei-ult 
of the effort^ of this young man, ^h(iUid 
arouse the dormant energies of hund- 
reds of young men who are now only 
consumers : — 

Meriwether Co., Ga., A]). 21, "53. 
To the Editors of the Federal Union : 

Gentlemen — having seen theextraoi-- 
dinary success of some planters in this 
State, in growing cotton, corn, (fee, go- 
ing the rounds of the newsj)ap( rs, in- 
duced me to ascertain the [tncise a- 
mount produced l)y a young man, Mr. 
-M xander Tliomas, a citizen of this co., 
in 1852. and he- too having to do h';s 
own cooking, (fee. viz : 

1 1 ba'es of cotton, average weight 450 lbs. 

45 bnrreis ■ 1 corn, 

25 liufhelP iif pdatoes, 
5,00'i bundles ot oEit^:. 
Some vi'hcat, ibdder raid vegclables. 

AH of \\1m.--Ii v,i )" galbcreil ii, due 
(ime.-!!)d V, ( I-- rai-cl bv .Mr. A. Tie in. is, 
without anv assi-,taiice whatever. Iti?, 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



261 



I suppose the second year he ever ai- 
tempit'd to farm alone. If lliis is noi 
KU inducement to _vouni>- ladies, I do 
noi know whatvvouid affiird one. — l*^ed. 
Union. 

Southern Fruit. — We saw in the 
market, vesterdH}^ a full cart load ot 
excellent apjiles, raised in the vicinity of 
this city. The whole lot was taken by 
a iVuit dealer on Government street at 
$2 ])er bushel. These apples were of 
good size, handsome shape and excel 
lent quality. Ail the information we 
could obtain in regard to tliem was that 
tliey had b'-en raisfd and gathered with- 
out any particular care, and that they 
are coniinoidy called the June apple. 
We refer to the subjwtin order to show 
our readers how easily and cheaply they 
might produce all the choice fruits in 
tlii- region. 

It has been demonstrated to the sat- 
isfaction of all intelligent culturists that 
as fine ])eaches are now grown in our 
immediate vicinity as can be produced 
in ;iny section of the Union; and du- 
ring the present season we have had 
such specimens of apples, pears, necta- 
rines and grape~, as to leave no doubt 
u|ion our iniiids that the counties of 
Mo'uile and Baldwin are admiraidy 
adapted to tl'.e production of the finest 
qualities uf all tiiese fi'uits. These, 
with the fiii', j)omegra!iale, orange, (fee. 
h-ave us nothing to want in delicious 
and vilioiesome fruits. Hut v,c iiave no 
idea that our pomologi-ts wiilstop here, 
and in the course of a few years wo ex- 
]!■ et to see the pUini and ajiiicot yield- 
ii!g liouniiful crops in spite of the cnr- 
cuiio. — Alahamn Plante?-. 



floi.Diox Advice. — Mr. Il.-vrvey, the 
W;i-^!!'ngton corres[;oii;!eiit ■/ t!ie Piiil 
adeiphirXorih Aniericau, tells the fol- 
low lale : — 

About three years ago a you;ig man 
preseiiie.l himself lo Mr. Corwin for a 
clerkshiji. Thrice was he r-fu-ed, aiid 
still he made a fourth effort. Ilis ])erse- 
veraiice and spirit of determination 



awakened a friendly interest in Mr. 
C. who advised him in the strongest 
j)ossible terms to abandon his purpose, 
and go to the West, if he could do 
no better outside the Departments. 

" My young friend." said he, "go to 
the Northwest, buy 160 acres of govern- 
ment land — or, if you have not the mo- 
ney to purchase, squat on it, get you 
an axe or a mattock, put up a log cabin 
for your habitation and raise a little 
corn and potatoes ; keep your consci- 
ence clear and like a freeman, your own 
master, with no one to give you orders, 
and without dependence on anybody- 
Do that and you will be honored, res- 
pected, intlaential and rich. But ae- 
ce[)t a clerkship here and you sink, at 
once, all independence : y' ur energies 
become relaxed, and you are unfitted in 
a few years for any other or more inde- 
pendent position. I may give you a 
place to day and I kick you out to-mor- 
row, and there's another man over 
there at the White House who can kick 
me out, and the people by and by can 
kick him out, and so we go. But if you 
own an acre of land it is your kiagdoaa, 
and your cabin is your castle — you are 
n soveieigu, andyou will feel it in every 
throbbing of your pulse, and every day 
of your life will as-ure me of y<jur 
thanks for iiaviug thus aiivise<j you." 

If the tlieiusands who ardeu'.ly strive 
foi' a place under government would 
j)onder well these words, and exercise u 
sound di-ci'etion in ilieir 'ipj.ncan.vaj 
many a young and gallant spsr.t would 
be sav' d from inanition, to be useful to 
the wo Id and a joy rather than a grief 
to its [tossessoi'. 



iiiXample in Agricolltire. 
There lias been no j.eriod in the his- 
t'D'V of A.iiiT-ultiire \\i!.liont its oxain- 
ples of jiroductive, ai;d li"-ne- ;;rv;tit:ible 
fuelling, but no eia h.-is occm re.J, wheu, 
on the broad acres tilled by Ar.ierican 
in'lu.-trv, so many bright sp.its have 
shone out lo gladden tlie iiearts and en- 
courage t!ie hands of the friends of im- 
provement. The time has been when 



268 



THE FARMER'S JOURNAL. 



nearly every farm which had been in 
cultivation for fifteen or twenty years, 
seemed rapidly deteriorfsting in fertility 
and value, but at present many old 
farms are more productive than ever 
before. This has been accomplished by 
the introduction of radical improve- 
ments at various points, and tli« inllu- 
ence of their example. 

When a thorough, practical agricul- 
tunist goes into a neighborhood of well- 
worn farms, and engages in the work of 
reclaiming and impioving his new pur- 
chase, his success is sure to awaken a 
spirit of inquiry, and his example can 
but exert a beneficial influence upon all 
who witness or hear it. He does not 
grow crop afier crop of wheat or corn 
upon the same field, but he grows good 
crops of these grains, upon different 
fields in a series of years. He intro- 
duces new and improved varieties of 
grains and seeds — the prodiicis of which 
are seen at a glance to be better than 
those commonly grown — at least they 
command a better price in market. The 
same is true of his cattle, sheep and 
horses. With improved plows and oth- 
er implements of tillage, i e accomplish- 
es a deeper and more thorou^'h cultiva- 
tion of the soil, resulting in good crops 
and insuring them against the excess of 
drouth or moisture. He is particularly 
careful in saving and making manu.e. 
and seaks in every way to enrich his 
farm; and its products show with wiiaL 
good result. Peri'aps he affords them 
an example of the effects of underdrain- 
ing in tlie radical improvement of the 
soil, or introduces the wheat-drill and 
mowing or reaping machines. 

Tliese improvements, as we remarked 
before, exert an influence upon the far- 
mers who witness or hear of them. — 
They may cavil for awhile, but the un- 
mista-kable signs of prosperity — of the 
profit of such a course — will generally 
influence the most incredulous into some 
sort of an imitation, which is nearly al- 
ways followed by better returns, and 
thus the work goes on until the whi)le 
aeii>hborhood shows the influence of thu 



examjde. In this way, and by -the con- 
stantly r(!curring less ns which experi- 
ence teaches, a better system of cultiva- 
tion has been in part introduced, and 
thus also dirt'used and extended. 

Those who learn by hearsay are also 
influenced. These form the larger por- 
tion of the community, and here th« ag- 
ricultural newspaper shows its power 
for good. It brings home the practice 
of the best farmers to tlionsands of in- 
terested listeners and they can but gain 
hints of much value from the perusal. 
The improvements of one part of the 
country are diffused over the whole, and 
benefit the whole. But it was not our 
intention to write of newspaper exam- 
ple ; our only thought was to hint at 
the influence which one thorough far- 
mer exerts over those near him. — Ru- 
ral JY. Yorker. 



From the Souihern Weekly Post. 
The Itescue Grass. 

CoLUMiJUs, Geo., Nov. 20, 1853. 
Deau Sir : — I have received your 
friendly letter of the 1 2th inst., and in 
answer, have to say, that I have entt^r- 
( d your name in my book for one peck 
of the seed of my truly valuable spe- 
cies of grass. I have no seed to dis 
pose of ibis ye;'.r, but will be able to 
supply the demand the next year, say, 
in June, July and August. The de 
mand is very great, and only such as 
send me their names will be certain of 
seed. Mj' price is $5 for a peck, which 
is plenty for a j>erson to begin with. 
You will sow them as early afte,r re- 
ceiring them as you can, as it makes 
them come up early in September; and 
as it grows rapidly, by the middle of 
November, you-